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-^ ' ^ 

' r 











Author of the "prize essay'* upon the ** round towers" of Ireland. 

Muita renascentar que jam cecidere, cadentque 
Qus nunc sant in usu ! — Hot, 













A great portion of this work, as well in print as manu* 
script, having been destroyed at the late conflagration of 
Mr. Hardy's printing office in Dublin, where it was being 
published, the translator was obliged to commence his 
labors anew, else the volome should long since have been 
giv^i to the public. 




&e. &c. &e, 

Mt lord mabquis, 

Had I not had the honor of bearing the 
same name^ and of deriving consanguinity and con« 
nection from that ancient stocky of which your Lord- 
ship is, at once, the deserving head and the disttn" 
guished representative^ yet — ^when about to launch 
mto Ught a work, which purports to unfold the origin 
of Ireland s early colonization, and seeking for a pa- 
tron whose discriminating taste and personal ac- 
quirementSy would add a charm to the advantages of 
station and of birth — my eye should instinctively 
direct itself toward j/ou ; — ^for, where, in the un- 
broken catalogue of Iran's proud-born sons, could 
I find another name so intimately interwoven with 


her halcyon splendors^ as that of the benign 
patriarch of the house of Thomond ? 

But it is not alone^ my Lord, as occupjring a princely 
post, in monarcluCal slifcc^^Sitfn, among the Scythian* 
or later Irish — ^immortalised by the glories of Cean- 
chora and Clontarf — ^that this homage should be 
your due"; but as the dBrect descendant of the very 
prmeipal wnod ieader of diat earlKr and nMef), ^n^ 
in every way more estimable and ittustrums dynasty, 
the Tuatha Danaans, or true, Iranian^ Milesian 
Irish — the incorporation of whcnn ^tk tbe Scytlkians 
— Hilter iim 4att^> ^ (ie/rtqufesl, b^ wrested from 
ikuim, the Mil — ^ve ^% ih (li^ cUMn^eimd ^ Seetih 
JMUeisiems ; i^hieh no «iie has iieretofere %een «Ue 
t« ^ehlcidarte^ 

These Tuatha JiWEiecam^ my Inor^ ^^^n your 
£nre&thei^ 6rie% cendueted into imr ^ sacred idland>'' 
were the expelled Sufinstg c^ P^sia -neikbeir Phds- 
niciaas nor Celts-^whom the i^itotorattoe «f the 
Brahmins and the perseouticm tf the Ri^ luid 
thrown upon the oceiai> ^ver whoi^ iboi^^Maa widfted 

1, - ^ 

^ Who came not from Siiaud^navia but tlie place wliich is 
iMi'W ciHed Ti6ifi9airy. 



to our genial shores^ they did not only import with 
them all the culture of the east, with its aecom« 
panying refinement and polished ciriliaation — 
evidenced by those memorials of lunettes, anklelSi 
fibulae, gold crowns, paterae, &c., with which our 
green valleys still abound-^but raised the country 
to that pinnacle of literary and reUgUms beatitude^ 
which made it appear, to the fancies of distant and 
enraptured '^ bards,'' more the day dream of romaoee^ 
tiban the sober outline of M actual locality. This> 
my Lord, will account, for the scepticism of Dio^ 
dorus as to the '^ Hyperbwean Isle ;* and, at the 
same time, for the vivid portraiture and enchanting 
ddineation, in which the divine Or^^eus simg o^ 
its happy inhabitants. 

After the establishment of this colony in our in- 
vigorating region, b. c. 1200, no one can know better 
than tfour Lordship's self, ^^^ *^* — ^ memory of 
theirybrm^r residence— *4hey gave it the name of Iran 

* The word Banb^ emancipated liroai tiw myti^otttum of 
etyUKdogiGal empyrki, b bat a modiflca^oii of Boreades> 
tlie aanra of our andeat Iriih poetic ^Uriaes-^wbo, agi^, weM 
so deaomiBtttedy not Iom in leferenoe to tkeir geograpiftCiii 
position &UI didr eleoMBtary woMhip: 


-^-erroneously called Eriti — which — signifying, as it 
does, the land of the faithful, or the sacred isle — 
shews the existence of this epithet before the reve^ 
lotion of Christianity* This original '^ Iran^ the 
early Greeks — who were Pelasgi, and allies of our 
Tuatha Danaans— commuted into Tern6—SL mere 
translation of the word, from, ieros, sacred ; and, neos, 
an island — ^which, again, the Latins, without, at all> 
knowing the meaning of the term,* transformed into 
Hibernia ; f but which, however, with soul-stirring 
triumph, means exactly the same thing, namely, 
" sacred island" — the initial H, being only the aspi- 
rate of the Greek, ieros, sacred ; neos, island re- 

* And yet the primeval sanctity of our iisle was admitted 
by their writer Avi^nus, when he says of it, ** sacram sic insu- 
1am dixere priici'* De Oris Maritimis. 

t This name, therefore, which has so much puzzled etymo- 
logists to analyse, has uothii!ig on earth to do with A'or, the 
west ; or, Iberin, extremes ; or Heber, or, Heremon ; or any other 
such outlandish nonsense. What, then, becomes of the reveries 
of Mr. Ritson ? " This country" (Ireland) says he, " it appears 
was already inhabited by the Hibemi, xx Hiberiones, of whose 
origin, any more than that of the Scota, nothing is known, but 
by conjecture, that the former were a colony from Britain*" — 
Iniroductum to " Annalsofthe Caledonians, Picts, andScots^"-^ 
Never was such ignorance betrayed since the beginning of the 


maining unaltered, and the letter, 6, only interposed 
for sound sake. So that, whether we consider it 
as, Iran, lemi or Hibemia; or under the mul- 
tiplied variations, which diverge, almost inter- 
minably, from those three originals^ in the several 
languages which they respectively represent — they 
will be found, each and all, to resolve themselves 
into this one, greats incontrovertible^ position of 
—the '' Sacred Island." 

But it was not alone, my Lord, under this vague 
designation of sanctity y that your venerable fore- 
fathers identified themselves with our island ; but — 
lest there should be any misconception as to the 
species of worship whence that ^' sanctitjr" had ema- 
nated — ^they gave this scene of its exercise two other 

world. The word Hiberni, vulgarised Biberiones, in English^ 
Hibernians, is not the name of any particular people, but a des- 
criptive epithet, meaning '* inhabitants of the sacred' island" — 
our own Iran. — And the people whose character had obtained 
it this designation, had no connection whatever with Britain I 
Equally in the dark was he as to the origin and era of the 
Scots, as, indeed, was every other writer up to this date, May 
15th, 1833, on the Ancient History of Scotland. But if Mr. 
Ritson was right in asserting that " nothing was known" on 
those matters, he should have confined the dogma to his own 
resources — other resources now shew the reverse. 


names^ vi*., Phud Inis, and lnis-na-Phmdha~ 
which, at once, associate the "worship" with the 
ptofession of the worshippers^ — for, Phud Inis, is 
Bttdh Inii^-^-Ph^ or, F, being only the aspirate of, 
B, and commutable with it— that is, Budh Island : 
and Inis-na^Pkvx^dhUy is Inis-na Buodha, that is, 
the island of Budha. 

Your Lordship must also know, how that, to cele- 
brate the mysteries of their religious creed, they 
erected those temples, which still embellish our land- 
scape ; and which*-*mystifted in their character, like 
their prototypes in the east, under the vague desig- 
nations of "Pillars" and '* Round Towers"— have 
pii£2led the antiquaries of all countries to developed 
until I had die good fortune to pierce the cloud. 

And, yet, my Lord, will you not commisserate 
with me the degeneracy ? and say *' how are the 
mighty fallen ? " when informed that the individual 
who has revived so many truthsf immersed beneath 
the rubbish of three thousand years accumulation-— 
and that when his researches did not apply alone to 
Ireland/^ but took in the scope <^the whole ancient 

«<n«i»<«i titii«>«i»«>iti«n ^—>d^<j^—^^«j^B>^^ajMfc—^fci^—^^<^**'*— «.**—*— *****'>**'*i 

* The 6drmftl3oii t» w^l M^e d«le of this, the present name 
of our isl^d, I acoount lor in a forthcomiiig iio4e% 


world — ^has been defrauded of that prize for which 
his zeal had been enlisted, and his young energies 
evoked ? while — from that system of '* jobbing*' with 
which our country has been long accursed — ^he has 
seen the badge of his victory transferred to another, 
merely because that other was a member of the 
council of the deciding tribunal^ who disregarded 
the crying fact, that the whole texture of their 
friend's essay must, inevitably , be untenable ! * 

However, my Lord, in the consciousness of your 
countenance I find my consolation ; and, soon as my 
" Towers" appear, I doubt not, this wise (1) ** tribu- 
nal** will reap the fiiiits, together, of their own 
discomfiture and of my revenge. 

In the mean time, my Lord, I have the honor to 
subscribe myself. 

With every feeling of respect, 

and affectionate consideration, 

your Lordship's most obliged, most faithful 

and most devoted, humble servant, 


* Of this I give, by anticipation^ the most startling and 
cvervohehning proof, even in a note appended towards the end of 
the 33rd chapter of the present work. 



I deem it right to publish the foUowing correspondence for 
two reasons — ^firstly, as an apology to my countrymen for any . 
harshness of expression which may appear in the ensuing 
'' Preface ;" and, secondly, as an act of justice to myself, to 
assert my right against the oppression of a ** Societjr'' who 
would not only fain extinguish the dispeller of ^ir darkness, 
but bury in the mire of oblivion and disregard those miracles of 
history which his industry has unfolded. 

To be explicit. The Royal Irish Academy, in their avcwed 
desire to arriTe at some elucidation of the origin of the ** Round 
Towers," proposed, in December, 1830, a premium of a ** Gold 
Medal and Fifty Pounds," to the author of an approved Essay, 
in which all particulars respecting them were expected to be 
explained. This manifesto I never saw; — the prescribed period 
passed over, and the several candidates sent in their works. 
After a perusal of two or three months, die Academy came to 
a second resolution, which exhibited itself in the foUovring 
form : — 


'* Ddblin, February 21, 1832. 

'' It having appeared to the Royal Irish Academy that none 
pf die Essays given in on the subject of the ' Round Towers,' 

as advertised in December, 1830, have satisfied the conditions 
of the question, they have come to the following Resolutions : — 

" 1st — ^That the question be advertised again as follows : — 

" * The Royal Irish Academy hereby give Notice, that 
they will give a Premium of Fifty Pounds and the Gold Medal, 
to the Author of an approved Essay on the Round Towers of 
Ireland, in which i| i^ ^^p^eled |l^t lho oUaracteristic archi- 
tectural peculiarities belonging to all those ancient buildings 
now existing shall be noUc^d^ and the uncertainty in which 
their origin and uses are involved, be satisfactorily removed/ 

" 9»d.-^TIi»t tiie timiQ be extended to tJie l%t of June next. 
Car receiviof qlhev il^aAya 09 said yul^eot, and for allowMig the 
Authors of the Em^fa alipeady giv«B i» to enlarge and inptove 
them I for ^hW^ fwrpose they wUl he relimi^, en applieation 
%X ike Aeademy Beuse. 

'^ All !6fkfiaya» m uaval, to he a^ pottAfree to the Rev». J. 
£[« Sfi|f€^Bi|» D. IK, Seeietary, at the Academy House, 114, 
Grafton Street, Dublin ; eaeh Essay being isseribed with leme 
nottoiL and eoeowpanied wkh a sealed billet, sAipernpribed with 
^9iVS^ qiotlpi^ in whieh ahaU he writteB the aatfier^s name wad 

I mil i i iiK — ■ f tn ■> L 

Now, I pi9l it,^pankly, (e any dispassionate observer, whether 
it ceii|d, tor a moment, be supposed, t^at the propounders of 
thia decwnenl had senomfy eentemplated even the possibiHtf 
•f ^ veceir^g ether Essays on said subject/' What ! a subject, 
whioh had batted the researches and laughed tp scorn the im- 
potence of all writers, of all countries, from almost the earliest 
era — that this should be embarked in by a new adventurer, at 
three months' notice ? And that vrhen our Academy itself— 
after many fruitless attempts to obtain information on the pointy 
before — had allowed the candidates, in thejirst instance, more 
than a twelve month for their composition ; so that^ durioff the 
three additionqi months now extended, they had on}y ^'^9 


enterj;^ and improve them \" The thing is absurd! It is mon- 
strously inconsistent ! And offen^ye alike to common sense, 
as to honesty ! 

Yes ! I hay^ the most startling epufencet— the most astound- 
ing /od^— the most direct positiye and substantial q0trmatum$— 
to shew, that the Royal Irish Academy, at the very moment in 
which they published this second invitation, had actually de- 
tcrmmed to award the Gold Medal and Premium to <me oftkdr 
awn Catmeil! — in irAoie/avor, alone, the three additional monU^ 
were allowed, for the compleiUm of his work -rand, cmsequentfy, 
that the insertion of the clause by which new Essays were 
challenged, was but to give the color of liberality to a dis- 
honourable manoeuvre ! 

Disregarding, however, what their generalship had cahulatfid, 
and looking solely to the terms and the warding of their pr<^ 
clamation, — by which I found that I was entitled to enter the 
li$ts,— I grappled with the question with all the ardour of my 
nature, and, heaven and earlh^ night and clay, in diffimlticf 
and in yarrow, I labored, until I finished my " Essay " against 
the appointed hour, whem —a irainMow to their expeeiatianu-- 
I sent it in —full satisfied, from the consciousness of its imper- 
turbable axioms, that all the powers of error and wickedness 
combined could not withhold from it the suffrage of the adver- 
tised medal. 

Four days, however, had scarcely passed over when the 
machinations of the *^ Council*' break forth in another* and still 
more glaring outrage. Having perceived that a new candidate 
had taken the field, and with something like that intrepidity 
which rectitude ever stimulates, they — at the re^n^t rf ih^ 
identical party before favored — sent forth a third advertise- 
ment, ordering nil the Essays to be taken baek (ffain^ and 
extending the period of improvement to one month more ! 

But the moat bar^aced and profiigate part of the preced- 
ing was, that they had the effrontery to d$'ess up this advertise- 


ment as the secoud, on the former occasion — the ** receiving ^^^ 
forsooth, of *' other Essays P'— to lull the public by the plau- 
sibility of their motives ! 

At this re-violation of all that was honest and rational— of 
all that was conformable with justice, and in harmony with inner 
light, I confess, my self-possession, for a moment, forsook me. 
Having received the intimation from another, and catching his 
spirit as he delivered it, I proceeded, in a headlong and rather 
too determined career, to arrest the progress of a villanous im- 
posture, which I knew was somewhere at work, — though I was 
yet ignorant of the proper quarter, — and for which, 1 have 
since, been, made most retributively to suffer. However, 1 got 
a clue to the main spring of the ** affair ;*' and, though this was, 
in itself, an undeniable good, yet did it little compensate for 
the injury which accompanied it; for, by the earnestness of 
my manner having identified myself with the author of the new 
composition, I did not only take from it all that charm of in- 
cognito, under which its merits must otherwise — against all 
conspiracies — have triumphed, but I embittered the umpires 
against me personally, by the tone and bearing of my declared 

What, however, was the upshot? Why, truly, that, after 
poring over my work for six long months, from no good motive, 
it is evident when they had determined on all the others within 
the short compass of three — they pronounced, in spite of them, 
that t# was the victor ! 

But how did they give utterance to this forced conviction ? 
Just in the same strain of deceptive evasiveness which character- 
ised their earlier measures — namely, by voting it a special and 
merely nominal premium ! leaving the original one undis- 
turbed, according to previous compact, to their own dearly 
beloved brother, and familiar fellow council-man ! 

It is worth while to quote the outline in which they advertised 
this. It was as follows ;— * 

■ * 




" On Monday, December 17, a Meeting of the Council of 
the Royal Irish Academy was held for the purpose of deciding 
on the merits of Essays received, pursuant to advertisement. 
On the Origin and Use of the Round Towers of Ireland^ when 
the following Premiums were adjudged; viz, — 

*' £50. and the Gold Medal to George Petrie. 

" £20. to Henry O'Brien, Esq." 

Now, if this advertisement were really the herald of truth and 
honesty : and not intended as the cover of a systematic cheat, 
it should have been thus couched : — ** The Royal Irish Aca^ 
demy have awarded their Gold Medal and Premium to Mr. 
Petrie, for his successful developement of the subject proposed ; 
but, in consequence of certain redeeming features in Mr. 
O'Brien's Essay (which may or may not be mentioned) they 
could not dismiss it without some mark of their approval ; they 
have, accordingly deviated from their established rule, and 
voted it a separate premium." Whereas, the above advertise- 
ment would innnuate that there were two premiums all along 
intended ; and that the first of these was given to the best com- 
position, and the second to that which approached it in quality I 

But this would not square with ulterior objects in view, 
which now multiplied in intensity as they approached the de- 
nouement. The great point to be secured was the Gold Medal^ 
not alone because of the accompanying £50; but because that 
Lord Cloncurry had declared that he would follow the 
Academy's verdict, or even empowered them to award his 
premium of £100. additional, on the same topic, to the suc- 
cessful Essayist to whom they should vote this insigni. Such 
a boon, therefore; must not be lost to iheitfriendf at any peril 
or any sacrifice, while they hoped that they should lull the 
public vigilance, by the affected ingenuousness in which they 
issued forth the announcement 



As diis delusion, lioireTer, mu^, atflome time, have an end, 
and inevitably evaporate, soon as tbe rival Essays aire pub- 
lii/hed, it is determined on, forthermme, to keep mine in tbe 
W^-gronud, m order to give tbe other a^* market-day;" and, 
tben, ivben tbe public are insulted with a farrago of antu:hr4mi$m 
and higtoricalfali^oods, they are to be treated to the '' truth" 
in the shape of the second ** Prize Essay ;*' by the force of 
which all mysteries being unravelled, the reader will naturally 
exclaim, " this alone is right.'* To which the Academy have 
thb ready answer : ^' Oh I Yes; and have we not admitted the 
fact, by voting it a special premium V* Their poor, pakry, 
wretched, contemptible T^?^nty Pounds ! And yet this was 
the subterfuge, on which l^y reckoned for impunity ! ! ! 

On hearing of the '< deciffl<<m," I wtc^ crff to ibe secretary, 
tendering, in indignant irony, my thanks for their adjudication — 
taking care, however, to tell them that I bad expected an issue 
more flattering to my hopes. At this time I had no idea what 
may have been the theory of the other essayist. — I did not know 
but that it may have been my own, supported more talentedly, 
and, substantially, more elucidated ; fttncy therefore my «sto- 
tn^metft'M learning ttiat tiiey were the very nnii^oitor of -each 
dther, itiid ^ wide as the poles assunder !" 

The biAble must, therefore, soon burst, I thought ; and I was 
not longih suspense as to the accuracy of this inference. From 
^^le ^M)iiimencenient *<^ the publicsftion 'cf the Dublin Penny 
ieurmd—- of whidh the principal conductors, or at 4ea«t, ^ootftn- 
bators, are members df ^ acadeiffy, and Mr. PeHie,himmy, 
its mcHquarian %A;>i*ae«^*^^peiKlitigibe •scheme bf the "Teweis," 
and bcCove its fomal iwlification, wbenetw Teferenc^ was 
made to l^ieir ^origin and daile, its cdnmns, imqu o i Medl y, 
asaerted that they were Christian and modem. Now^ 4h>w- 
ever, wben their totavknion was revoluliottisedbytbe praofs'of 
W|r «ire«lise, it was neoetsary, ^ course, lis Mrtmcetbeirtflepa ; 
and, as an open acknowledgment ftfi!fr9rwoidd be too a^- 



abasing for acadewiieiamSf they thought they must put forth a 
feeler, as if implying doubt on the matter ; which would have 
the two-fold effect of screening the ^'councilV verdict — as the 
result of doubt or ambiguity — and of preparing the public 
mind for the altered and novel oonclusion to which all roust, 
ere long, as well as themselves^ have arrived. 

My eye> however, was on their plans, though separated by a 
''roaring sea.'*— I knew that where there were so many 
windings to mature the plot, there must be as many to pre- 
vent its detection ; and, accordingly, the very first move they 
made, on their new chess hoard of tactics^ 1 check^mated it, at 
once, by the following letter : — 

(No. 1.) 

London, March IQth, 1833* 

Dear Dr.8iiigbr, 

The Dublin Penny Journal of Feb. 23rd, on 
the article ** Devenish Island,** contains this sentence, viz. 
'* whether the towers are the accompaniment to the churches, 
or the churches to the towers, is a question not yet decided." 

Now, this — coupled with the circumstance of the committee 
having awarded two premiums, to two, as I understand, con- 
fltcting ascriptions; and that when only one was originally 
proposed — induces me, with all deference, to offer this me- 
morial^ through you, to the Academy. 

As the developement oi truth in the elucidation of history, is 
the object of the antiquarian — and as *' the labourer is worthy 
of his hire," I take the liberty respectfully to ask, whether, if 
I make uty ascription of the Round Towers a mathematical 
demonstration^ with every other incident relating to their 
founders, comprehending aU the antiquities of Ireland, as con- 
nected therewith-*-and this by all the varieties and modes of 
proof— whether, I say, in that event, wiU the academy award 




me the gold medal and premium ? or, if that cannot be recalled, 
an equivalent gold medal and premium ? 

My intercalary work, subgtantiatify all the above, is now 
finished, and can be forwarded to the committee by return of 
the same post which will favor me With your answer. 

] have the honor to be. Dear Sir, 

, Your obedient, &c. 
Rev. Dr. J. H. Singer, 
Secretary to the Academy. 

By the above proposal I must not be understood ^A^for a 
moment, admitting that my original Essay ''was not all sufficient, 
4iU conclusive, all illustrative, and all conviiudng," but as I had 
more arguments still in reserve, I wanted to elicit from the 
Academy the admission that it was truth they sought after, 
in order to overwhelm them with the influx of its inex- 
haustible light Afier waiting, however, more than three 
weeks, and getting no reply, I forwarded those other proofs 
accompanied by a letter, of which the following was the con- 
clusion, viz. — 

(No. 2.) 

These are but items in the great body of discoveries which 
this intercalary work will exhibit. In truth, I may, without 
vanity assert, that the whole ancient history of Ireland and of 
the world, is therein rectified and elucidated-^ what it never was 


Am I, therefore, presumptuous in appealing to the Royal 
Irish Academy — the heads of Irish literature and the avowed 
patrons of its developement — for the reward of my labors? 
I shall, with confidence, rely upon their justice. 

1 have thcvhonor'to be, with sincere regard, &c. 

To the Rev. Dr. J. H. Singer, 

Secretary to the Academy. 


(No. 3.) 
Eayal Irish Academy House, April I6th, 1833. 



Your improved Essay and letter were yesterday 
laid before council ; and» as Dr. Singer is at present confined 
with the gouty it devolves on me to communicate to you the fol- 
lowing extract from the minutes. 

'* Resolved, that the Secretary be directed to reply to Mr. 
O'Brien, and to state that any alteration or revocation of their 
award cannot be made, whatever may be the merits of any 
additional matter supplied to them after the day appointed by 
advertisement; but, if Mr. O'Brien be willing that the new 
matter be printed along with the original Essay, the council will 
have the same perused in order to ascertain the expediency of 
so enlarging their publication." 

By order, 


CUrh to the Academy », 
To H. O'Brien, Esq. 

(No. 4.) 

Xofidoft, April la^A, 1833. 

Had I a notion that the Academy's reply 
would be such as your letter has this day imparted, I would 
never have sat down to indite diose hng additions, much 
less have forwarded them for their perusal. For why 
did I write to the Sectetary lAree weehs ago, but to ascertain, 
whether or not, in the event of niy doing so and so, would the 
Academy act so and so ? and thus repair that injury which they 
had before inflicted 7 What could be more easy than to give 
me a catagorical answer, one way or the other ? Instead of 


wbich^ however, they left me to my own conclusions, which — 
as usual, in such circumstances— leading me to construe silence 
into acquiescence— I transmitted my documents on the tacit 
faith, that though the Academy would not pledge themselves 
by a written promise, they would, notwithstanding, if my re- 
searches proved adequate, reward my industry by a suitable 

Now, however, when my papers have been received, and 
my developements communicated, I am told that, be their merits 
whmt they may, the award ts irrevocable ; and I have no alter- 
native, in the writhings of my mortificatton, bnt the consolation 
of being ia^ured and duped at ^be same time. 

You will say, perhaps, that my new evidences have not yet 
been read ; and that, therefore, my property, is secure and sa- 
cred. But has not ^e accompanying letter been rectd ? And 
what was that but a programme of their contents ? 

I had thought that the Royal high Academy were not only a 
learned, but Ajutt and a patriotic society. 7 had thought that 
having marshalled themselves into an institution, with the 
avowed object of resuscitating from death the almost despaired- 
of evidences of our national history, they would not alone ^«^er 
every advance toward that desirable consummation, but, shower 
honors, and acclamations, and triumphs upon him, who has not 
only infused a vital soul into those moribund remains, but made 
the history of Ireland, at this moment, the clearest, the most 
hrefragihle, and withal, the most interestingly comprehensive 
chain of demonstrational proofs in the whote circle of universal 

But it is not atone the being deprived of my reward that I 
complain of, and the transferrhig of that reward to another, every 
sentiment in whose production must inevitably be wrcng^ but it 

l^is 1 predicate of my work upon the ^< Round Towers.'' 


13 the iti|»|aremoft «f my lubovA, i^i¥l the IceepiBg Umm back 
from the public eye, in deference to my apponmfi wofk, kst 
that the di$cemment of the publieshonld bestow vpea me Uiose 
kmar$ which the 4iicreHm of the Academy has thought proper 
to aliemUe, that affects me as most severe. 

Indeed, it has been i^ted from more quarters than one, that 
the withholding of the medal from me, in the first instance, and 
the substituting thereinstiMul a uomMnal premium of twenty 
pounds, originated from a personal pi^ue against me indiri- 
dually. Such a report I would fain disbelieye, and yet it is 
hard not to give it some credence, seeing that the irremtibk 
cogency of my truths, and the inkdnbitabie vahte of my literary 
discoveries, are not only not rewarded, but kept back from 
publication, unHl wme one eke more fortunate, or rather, more 
Javored, shall run away with the credit of my cherished displo- 
snres. I wish — 1 decdre — I most intensely covet, that the Aca- 
demy would convince me that thu is not an act of the most 
aggrawUed infustiee. 

Yon will please lay this before the Council, and tell them 
from me, respectfully, that I do not want them either to '* alter** 
or *' revoke'^ their award ; but, simpiy to vote me '' an equi^ 
9alent gold medal and premium** for my combined essay, or, if 
they prefer, the new portion of it. Should this be refused, / 
will put my cause into the hands of the great Ood who has en- 
iightened me, and make Htm the umpire between me and the 

I have the honor to be, Ac &c. 


To the Rev. Rich. Roe, 

Clerh to the Academy. 


No answer having arrived to this communication, 1 delayed 
the publication of the present work, though printed, to see what 


the above would effect. — In the interim, Mr. Godfrey Higgitfs, 
the learned and ingenious author of the '* Celtic Druids," and 
who has been partly in possession of my developement of the 
** Towers" for some time back, favored me with a visit — during 
which we conversed principally on historical qaestions. The 
next day I addressed him a note, a copy of which, with its 
atuwer, I take leave to subjoin, for the sake of the temdnating 
clause of the latter, being the iuicidal acknowledgment of the 
" Academy's" dmngenuouineis. 

(No. 6.; 

May 2nd, 1833. 

Dear Sir, 

1 hope you will not feel displeased at th« 
frankness of this question which I am about to propose to you, 
viz. Have you any objection to shew me in manuscript, be- 
fore you send to print, the terms in which you speak of me 
in reference to those points of information which I entrusted 
to your confidence — such as the ancient names of Ireland 
and their derivation, the Towers and founders, dates, <&c. 

Should you think proper to consent to this feeling of anxiety 
on my part, I shall be most willing to share with you those 
other " points" which I exclusively retain. 

To the full extent you shall have them. The only condition 
I require is, the credit of originality — which I have laboriously 
earned . Please to drop me a line in reply to this, and allow 
me to subscribe myself, with great respect, 

Dear Sir, 

Your obedient, 


Godfrey Higgini, Esq, 


(No. 6.) 

May Zrd, 18dd. 

My Dear O'Bribn, 

You may be perfectly assured I shall 
print nothing which I have learnt from you without acknow- 
ledging it. But I have really forgotten what you told me, 
because I conudered that I should see it in print tn a few day$. 
Any thing I shall write on the subject, will not be printed for 
years after your books have been before the public You did 
not tell me the name of Buddha, but I told it you, that it was 
Saca, or Saca-sa,* which I have already printed a hundred 
times, and can shew you in my great quarto, when you take 
your tea with me, as I hope you will to-morrow. Sir W. 
Betham told me of the Fire Towers being Phallus's, last night, 
at the Antiquarian Society. 

Yours, truly, 

G. HI661NS. 

* It is true Mr. Higgins has told me this, and I listened, 
with polite silence, to what I had read "in print" a thousand 
times before. But our chronicles call the name, Macha, and 
I abide by them. The true history, however, of Budha and 
Budhism, which I alone possess, neither Ae— and I say it with 
submission to his diyersified acquirements and indefatigable ap* 
plication — nor any other writer of the present or many hundred 
preceeding ages, have, or have had, even approached in thought. 
Having in a note, towards the conclusion of this present volume, 
— ^which had passed through the press long before 1 had re- 
solved on prefixing thisexpos^ — mentioned Mr. Higgins's name 
as amongst the supporters of the fire fatuity — that true ignis 
fatuus — I here gladly avail myself of the opportunity of quoting 
that he only " thought it expedient to continue the name by 
which these towers are generally known," . • . *< They are cer- 


Who, now, can pretend to think that the neutralising award 
of the '' Council," was the eflfect of sceptiscism or legitimate 
doubt ? Here Sir William Betham, — the Ulster King at Arms ! 
the Goliah oi Antiquaries I as he b, undoubtedly, of Pedigrees! 
— being himself a 9item5«r of the ^ deciding tribunal," proclaims, 
in the midst of a venerable literary assembly, that fitg solution 
of the Round Tower enigma is accurate;* and yet, in the teeth 
of this confession, and of the conviction which extorted it, 
trampling under foot the shackles of conscience, honesty, and 
truth, he rotes away my medal to a comipilation of error and 
Jabehoodi and thinks to evade exposure by a dexterous subterfuge. 
But it will not do— I will take the r^brm of the Academy 
into my own hands; and furthermore claim Lord Chncurry^s 

(No. 7.) 

London, May the 2nd, 1833. 

Dear Dr. Singer, 

I exceedingly grieve to hear of your ill 
health. — Its announcement, I assure you, made me look within 
mysdf, and for a moment, lose sight of my own hardships. I 

tainly not belfreys ; and the fire-tower scheme being gone, I 
have aot heaid any thing suggested having the slightest degree 
of probabilily."— liien>dMc«to» to The Celik Druids, p. 48. 

"* I an here obliged to let out more of the secret of the 
'< Towers,'^ than I had intended. Then be it known, that I 
have not only />rcw6(2 them to have been Budhist Temples^ but 
Budhist Temples themsdves to have beea Phalli, which ae 
couBtts for their peculiar form. And if, now» the reader shoukl 
imagine that he has got all the amana of my discovery^ I ean 
tell htm be mistakes very Bwoh. 



hope, howeyer, that you are now so iar recorered as to send me 
a favourable answer to this my latt appeal. 

Taking it for certain that the Academy's having not replied 
to the tenor of my late intimation, arose from the circumstance 
of there having been no '' Council Day" since; and as I 
anticipate that on Monday next my q^testion will be JinaUy 
disposed of, I am anxious for the good of aU partiei, and for 
the triumph of truth, to shew you in one view how I hare am- 
putated the last iupports of error, and covered its advocates 
with ignominy and shame. 

Thus every leaf unfolds evidences to the realization of my 
victory. I took my stand at the outset on the pedestal of truth; 
and 1 challenge scrutiny to insinuate, that, in the multipUed 
developemeiUs which I have since revealed, I have deviated from 
my grand position one single iota. 

Let me not be supposed, in the observation with which I am 
now about to conclude, that I mean any thing disrespectful 
to the Council of the Academy. Many years have not passed 
since I knew several of them in a different relation ; and, how- 
ever little effect, College Associations may produce on atket 
minds, / find not their influence so fleeting or transient. It is 
with extreme reluctance, therefore, that I would split with a 
body who have lectured me as tutors. But time hat advanced: 
lam now rights and they are wrong^ and the eauee which tkey 
patronise will not do them much credit. 

I do not> however, yet give up my hop^ but that the 
Academy will wisely retrace their steps : revocation of the 
former medal I do not require, — much less the exercise of a 
single grain oi partiality. — My demand merely is, as my former 
letters have indicated, the substitution ot justice. 

Please receive Ae assurance of my consideration, and in 


confident reliance that you will use your influence in this matter, 
and favor me with the upshot instantly after Monday's Board, 

I remain, ever sincerely, yours, 


P.S. My translation of " Ibernia Phcenicia" has been printed 
for some days back ; but I have suppressed its publication in 
suspense about this affair. I shall not wait after the due period 
for hearing of Monday's decision. — H. O'B. 

No answer having arrived te this or its precursor, I had no 
choice but to act as follows: — 

(No. 8.) 

London^ May 9th, 1833. 
Dear Dr. Singer, 

My appeak are over— and, I regret 
to say, that they have not been attended to. The virtuotis and 
enlightened part of the Academy, therefore, cannot blame me, 
if in the assertion of my honest right, I try the effect of a public 

In the interim, I transmit to you by this night's post, some 
additional leaves, which— in the anxiety of dispatch, as v^ell, 
indeed, as from fear that they would not be inserted, because 
they overwhelm for ever the antiquarian pretensions of the Dublin 
Penny Journal — I have omitted to copy. However, I will now 
forward them and claim, as an act of justice, that they be 
printed along with those already sent, in the original Essay. 

And now I shall have done by telling you that had I not 


written a single word on the advertised subject but the follow- 
ing, I should be entitled to the adoertited premium. 

I shall now bring out my printed work^ and prefix to it part 
of this correspondence. It is a painful duty, but it is a dmty^ 
of necessity indispensible. 

I remain, Dear Sir, 

Your obedient, &c. &c. 


To the Rey. Dr. J. H. Singer, 
Secretary to the Academy* 

I shall now close with the following letter, which will be 
seen for the^r«^ dffie through this medium, reserving my proofs 
therein alluded to, until particularly required. In the interim, 
if any gentleman, in the exercise of a free judgment, should 
think proper to dissent from me, whether as editor or translator 
of the present work, and to express that dissent in correspond- 
ing language, I shall feel obliged — as having no facilities Jor 
watching periodicals, newspapers, magaatines, or rmetot— by 
his favoring me with a copy of the publication in which his 
remarks appear, directed to the care of Messrs. Longman and 
Co. Paternoster-row, London. — And I entreat the same favor 
of those who may approve of my views, if, peradventure there 
be any such :— 

(No. 9.) 

London, May 10th, 1833. 
Dear Dr. Sinobr, 

I have exhausted all the forms of bland- 
ness and conciliation, in the vain hope of inducing the Academy 


to redeem themseiva from du^ace^ by doing me common jus- 
tice. I have strove in the mildest terms of conscious rectitude, 
invigorated by a phalanx of overwhelming proofs, to make 
them re>consider their course, and spare me the unpleasant 
task of exposing a deed which I am loth to characterise by 
its proper designation. But ** the hedrt of Pharoah" was 
hardened — the ** voice of the charmer" not listened to — and 
to my soft importunites nothin.g was returned, but the coldness 
of obduracy and disregard. 

The fiobtcon, therefore, is crossed — my patience feels in- 
sulted — and the only consideration I value, in the resolve to 
which I have at last been driven, is, that you had nothing to 
do with the ''job" of the Round Towers. 

Little did the Academy know what arguments I could 
adduce in elucidation of certain mysteries. — As little do they 
now dream what proofs I can summon — though you cannot 
have forgotten one of them, while I promise I shall make 
Dr. Mc. Donnell recollect another — that the gold medal and 
premium were pre-determined to Mr. Petrie, before ever I 
became a candidate ; and that, consequently ^ the advertisement 
under which I was invited to contend, but from which the 
Council never expected an intruder, was but a specious de- 

In this determination, I violate no act of private regard, nor 
set light by the claims of individual acquaintance. You know 
yourself how^ earnestly I struggled before the consummation of 
this nefarious proceeding, to stem the agency of that despicable 
under-current which I had just detected. I knew that fraud, of 
some kind, was at work ; and thoof h unable, at the moment, to fix 
upon the personage in whose favor it was set a-going — nay, 
though ntentattyfMUmn^ tike blame thereof upon another, whose 
name, however, I never let sUp, and to whom, I v^oioe to 
say, I hare since made more than lecompense, for this ideal 
mjuiy— yet eouM I not be persuaded hni itiiat soMetibti^ 




dmisttt was des^^oed : and to finistiate that influence of promi* 
mmit detek, you know how yeheneiit was ny address. I im- 
^ped you, I besought you, aad all but upon my knees, and 
with ieoTf I uiToked jou, by your regard to justice, and yo4ir 
fear of a Creator, to check tkU irickery^^ and allow merits 
olsfie ttbd mMmMfmouM, to decide the issue, 

I BOW, in the same spirit of solemn self-composure, adjure 
the '' Councir^ through you — for their own sake as well as mine 
— in the name of that God before whom they and I shall one 
day appear, and who now suggests this threat and propels its ut- 
terance, Ihaft diey wiM have my cause redressed, and make me 
reparation, not only for the substantial trespass, but for the 
mental disquietude and agony which this *' business" has occa- 
sioned. If they do not, rest satisfied that, my path is already 
chalked. All the eooltUions of the Council, as dbplayed upon 
the '' Towers," and with which I am but too familiar, shall be 
immortalized in letter-press : and I do not yet despair of the 
hereditary fairness of my country, but that it shall register 
its dissent from the decision of that tribunal, which could 
have had, at once, the obtuseness of intellect and the per* 
Terseness of conduct, to stultify their own verdict by a contra- 
dictory award, and — siierinveiglif^gfneinto a competition which 
they never nteant to remunerate — dqnive me of the fruits of my 
indubitable triumph, in the pursuit of which I had almost lost 
my life, and cut short my existence in the very spring of my man- 

I mean no oflfence, individually or collectively to the Aca- 
demy, or its members; but as they have been deaf to the 
justice of my ** private appeals," I^shall try the effect of a '^ public 

* It is due to Dr. Singer to state that he did all he could to 
repress it — but he cannot deny how it escaped him, perhaps in- 
advertently, that he feared it was a forlorn hope. 


remonstrance" ; and as to uUerior consequences, I greatly err, 
else the upshot will shew that, the motto* adopted as my 
fictitious signature in the " Essay /^ was not the random as- 
sumption of inconsiderateness or accident, but the true index 
to the author's resources. 

My proposal is this — my unshaken position from which I will 
not swerve or retract — a gold medal and premium equivakni 
to those originally advertised, 

I am, Dear Sir, 

Your's sincerely, 

To Rev- Dr. J. H. Singer, 
Secretary to the Academy. 


* ^(ovri €v rri epe/uoi. 

/ '»* 


Should it be asked by any of my '' old associates/ 
who, from college recollections, may be disposed 
/ O to overvalue whatever capabilities I possess, why, 

wishing to court popularity as a writer, I would not 
rather originate some theme of my own than make 
my labor subservient to the fame of another — to this 
I shall reply, that I am not so actuated by the desire 
of appearing an original, as to forego what I conceive 
to be a favourable opportunity of doing a practical 
good, by presenting to the great bulk of my country- 
men — andcountrjrwomen also — who, in amiable devo- 
tion to the land of their forefathers, ever allied and 
connected with the purest virtues of the heart, yield 
not to the daughters of the once-celebrated Sparta, 
whilst in all those finer sensibilities* which constitute 
the charm of social life, and sublime the human 

- % 

* '' The ladies of Ireland," says Carr, an intelligent and 
highly respectable English writer,'' possess a peculiarly pleasing 
frankness of manners, and a vivacity in conversation, which 
render highly interesting all they do and all they say. In this 


li translator's preface. 

species to a nearer relation to divinity, they stand 
proudly and pre-eminently beyond them — a faithful 
and, I trust, an acceptable transcript of the re- 
searches of an individual, who — in the genuine flow 
of an ennobling gratitude for the ordinary hos- 
pitality* which Ireland offers to every stranger — sat 
down in the vigor of a green old age — an old age as 
full of honor as it has been distinguished by useful- 
ness — when the crude notions of enthusiasm are 
naturally extinct, and the mind fixed upon the 
awful certainty of its near transit to another sphere, 
rejects the intrusions of vanity and self-conceit, not 
less of worldly parade than literary hypothesisf — to 

open sweetness of deportment, the libertine finds no encourage- 
ment, for their modesty must be the subject of remark and 
eulogy with every stranger.'*— -jSf^ran^er in Ireland, p. 148. 

*' The ladies of Ireland are generally elegantly, and fre- 
quently highly-educated ; and it is no unusual circumstance to 
hear a young lady enter with a critical knowledge into the 
merits of the most celebrated authors, with a diffidence which 
shows that she is moved by a thirst for knowledge, and not by 
vanity. A greater musical treat can scarcely be enjoyed, than 
to hear some of them perform their own Irish airs, which are 
singularly sweet, simple, and affecting. Those who have been 
present at a ball in Ireland, can best attest the spirit, good- 
humour, and elegance which prevail in it.'* — Stranger in Ire- 
Und, p, 149. 

* Sunt sane homines hospitalissimi, neque illis uUi in re 
magis gratificari potes, quam yel sponte ac voluntate eorum 
domos frequentare, vel illis invitatum condicere. Stan, de reb. 
in Hib. gest. lib. 1, p. 33. 

t Opinionum commenta delet dies; naturee judicia con- 
firmat. — Cicero. 

translator's preface. iii 

remove the rubbish which overhung our antiquities, 
and exhibit before the eyes of an admiring world, 
the source of that magnificence which commanded 
the homage of this world before ; — anxious only to 
elicit truth, and in the laudable pursuit of this para- 
mount destination, deeming no industry too great — 
no pains unrequited. Such being the spirit that influ- 
enced our author, in the origin and prosecution of 
this his design, I should be ashamed of myself if I 
could allow any narrow feelings, of false delicacy or 
overweening self-importance, to interfere with my 
respect for such exemplary worth ; but chiefly, and 
more especially, when the fruits of such an impulse 
have been brought to bear upon a country which, 
whether its civil condition, or its literary character, 
be the topic of debate, never fails to enlist my 
keenest emotions, and to vibrate with interest to my 
inmost soul. — Hibernicus sum, Hibernici nihil a me 
alienum puto.* 

'^ Nature,** says Gibbon, "has implanted in our 
breasts a lively impulse to extend the narrow span 
of our existence, by the knowledge of the events that 
have happened on the soil which we inhabit, of the 

* Breathes there the man with soul so dead, 
Who never to himself hath said, 
Tkh is my oum, my native land? 


" Nescio qu^ natale solum dulcedine cunctos 
Tangit, et immemores non sinit esse sui." 

B 2 



iy translator's preface. 

characters and actions of those men from whom our 
descent, as individuals or as a people, is probably 
derived. The same laudable emulation will prompt 
us to review and to enrich our common treasure of 
national glory ; and those who are best entitled to the 
esteem of posterity are the most inclined to celebrate 
the merits of their ancestors." 

But as utility, not celebrity, is my object, I shall 
forbear descanting upon my own merits in the under- 
taking, lest those who are ignorant of my motives, 
and of the frankness in which I habitually indulge, 
should suppose that any further explanation, in 
which self must be so prominent, would imply a 
certain tenacity inconsistent with this avowal.* To 
the critics, therefore, and to an enlightened public I 
consign the task, while I confine myself to a consi- 
deration of the original composition. 

The purport then of the author is to prove — ^by the 
analysis of names imposed in the days of Paganism 
and retained amongst us till the present, and by 

* Nor» indeed, were the subject a less grateful one, would 
I consider the province of a translator so inconsiderable by any 
means, knowing well that it depends greatly upon the indivi- 
dual so to invigorate, at least, if not to mould, the materials as 
. to make them appear his own ; and should my example in this 
instance encourage those endued with brighter qualifications, to 
undertake the translation of those Irish MSS. which lie moul- 
dering upon the shelves of our University, I shall rest satisfied 
with having done some good ''in my day," were it only that 
of pioneering to those who may reflect a lustre o'er the land- 

translator's preface* 

the similarity of worship cultivated in Ireland, before 
the introduction of Christianity, to that practised 
in Phoenicia at the same era of time — ^that a colony 
from the latter place must at one period, and that a 
very distant one, have visited our shores, and spread 
their dominion over the whole extent of the island.* 
It is true I may be here met by an objection, as 
to " what possible advantage such inquiry could now 
promote, either as regards the issue of the discussion 
itself — the remoteness of the period, and the absence 
of intervening records opposing so many obstacles — 
or its effects, if successful, upon the literature, the 
commerce, or the politics of this country.** With 
the lukewarm and apathetic, I doubt not, this ob- 
jection may carry much weight, as they want but 
little argument to countenance the heartlessness of 
their recreant degeneracy . " What is it to us," they 
say, *' who trod those ' green acres * in ancient time 
— whoever they were, they have long since passed 

* Who fill the pages of history? Political and military 
leaders, who have lived for one end, to subdue and govern their 
fellow-beings. These occupy the fore-ground ; and the people 
— the human race — dwindle into insignificance, and are almost 
lost behind their masters. The principal and noblest object of 
history is, to record the vicissitudes of society, its spirit in dif- 
ferent ages, the causes which have determined its progress and 
decline, and especially the manifestation and growth of its 
highest attributes and interests of intellig-ence ; of the religious 
principle, of moral sentiment, of the elegant and useful arts, of 
the triumph of man over nature and himself. — Dr, Channing on 
Power and Greatness, 

vi translator's preface. 

away, and we are only interested as to the present 
occupancy. The analysis of names — suggested by 
caprice, or at best an allusion to some passing acci- 
dent, no longer valuable — may afford entertainment, 
perhaps, to etymologists, but none to us. To us it is 
suflScient that we can disport our exterior, and main- 
tain a seemly attitude during our transitory sojourn, 
among the butterflies* of the hour, while the book- 
worm and recluse may enjoy all the pleasures they 
can possibly extract by poring over the pages of 
time-worn manuscripts." 

** When we have made our love, and gamed our gaming, 
Drest, voted, shone, and may-be something more ; 

With dandies dined ; heard senators declaiming ; 
Seen beauties brought to market by the score. 

Sad rakes to sadder husband's chastely taming; 
There's litUe left but to be bored or bore ; 

Witness those * ci-devant jeunes homines* who stem 

The stream, nor leave the world which leaveth them.'^f 

* Were a home tour considered as necessary to a finished 
education as a foreign one, our high-born youth might visit 
other countries possessed of the necessary accomplishment of 
being able to describe their own, in which too many of them 
are lamentably defective. The admirer of rural beauty in all 
its varied forms may be here fully gratified ; while the ' man 
who delights in antiquarian lore will, in Ireland, find numerous 
monuments connected with the annals of a nation whose his- 
tory, from the most remote period, has been so marked by 
vicissitudes, as to render them at this day, perhaps, the most 
singularly circumstanced people in Europe, — Fiizgerald. 

t Byron. 

translator's preface. vii 

If^ in the sentiments here attributed to a certain 
class of my countrjrmen, I should be supposed to 
include only the ''giddy'* and the ''gay," I take leave 
at once to correct the misconception, and — ^though 
reluctant to censure — ^to enlarge the dimensions of 
my portrait. It is a melancholy reflection, that, while 
all nations on the globe feel a manifest elevation in 
tracing the particulars of their origin to the very 
minuteness of detail^ the Irish alone should lie dor- 
mant in the cause, and — though once distinguished 
for the more than religious zeal with which they 
registered their histories, and preserved their genea- 
logies ; — a practice, which — originating in the same 
love of order and motives to regularity, that influ- 
enced the Israelites in the preservation of theirs, viz. 
to regulate the succession to the throne and other 
dignified posts, as well military as magisterial — no 
less elucidates our assertion, of the early civilization 
of the Scoto-Milesians, as the true Irish are empha- 
tically and properly designated, than it does their 
intercourse at one period* with that ancient people of 
God, from whom they adopted the practice, and whom 
they greatly surpassed in some improvements — yet. 

* The CuthiteSy Scuthae, or Irish, were seated on the coast 
of the Red Sea when Moses passed through it. It is probable 
th^t after the loss of Pentapolis they united, under the name of 
Phcenicians, on the Red Sea, and these were they who gave 
protection to Moses after he had been refused a passage by the 
King of £dom. — Vallancey, 

vui translator's preface. 

alas! do they now — seem to have lost, perhaps, 
with the sense of their national independence, all 
sense, at the same time, of their hereditary honor, 
and ancestral nobleness !* Look to China, and see 
how she delineates the progress of her empire 
through ages and ages of uninterrupted continua- 

* To our want of Dational feeling, and our tasteless and 
ignorant prejudices, may be attributed the danger from which 
we lately escaped of losing — what, perhaps, we have most 
reason, and deserved most to have lost — our unrivalled national 
music. Divided, as we have been, by the bigotry and unge- 
nerous policy of our rulers, aided by our own ancient super- 
stitious—deserted by our noblest-driven by our poverty, our 
misfortunes, and our wrongs, to the moping inanity of despair 
^-our melodies would soon have shared the fate of our min- 
strels, if the genius and industry of two individuals had not 
averted such a catastrophe for ever. Moore, by uniting them 
to poetry *' worthy of their tenderness, their energy, and their 
spirit," has raised the airs of his native country to a widely 
extended popularity ; and the natives of the old and the new 
world now respect the feelings, and pity the misfortunes, of the 
islanders, whose strange and artless stories can excite, by a 
power like magic, the strongest emotions of sadness or of joy. 
— Dublin Examiner. 

dear harp of my country. 

Dear Harp of my country ! in darkness I found thee. 

The cold chain of silence had hung o'er thee long, 
When proudly, my own Island Harp ! I unbound thee. 

And gave all thy chords to light, freedom, and song ! 
The warm lay of love and the light note of gladness 

Have wakened thy fondest, thy liveliest thrill; 
But so oft hast thou echoed the deep sigh of sadness. 

That even in thy mirth it will steal from thee still. 

translator's preface. ix 

tion. Turn to Egypt, to Chaldea, and to Arcadia,, 
and do they not do the same?* The houses of 
Austria and Ascot, single families, and much nearer 
home, trace up their origin to Noah himself. Yet 
all these pretensions, however exaggerated and in- 
consistent, and at variance with the cosmogeny 
given in. Holy Writ, are, notwithstanding, listened 
to with something like attention, in deference, per- 
haps, to that '' Amor Patriae," that ever pardonable 
vanity, which they irresistibly obtrude upon us.f 

Other nations, also, that may have controlled their 
fancies within more moderate bounds^ and confined 
their ascensions to more tangible seras, have yet 

Dear Barp of my country ! farewell to thy numbers. 

This sweet wreath of song is the last we shall twine ; 
Go, sleep with the sunshine of Fame on thy slumbers. 

Till touched by some hand less unworthy than mine. 
If the pulse of the patriot, soldier, or lover, 

Have throbbed at our lay, 'tis thy glory alone ; 
I was ^ as the wind, passing heedlessly oyer. 
And all the wild sweetness I waked was thy own. 

Mooters Irish Melodies. 
* The comparison of these names with that of Ireland will 
not appear so very preposterous, nor their juxta-position so very 
casual, when my ** Essay upon the Round Towers " shall have 
been read. 

f To trace nations to their origin is among the most curious 
and delightful of intellectual pursuits : it establishes important 
facts ; illustrates sacred records ; and, while it confirms all the 
great truths of political science, it tends to gratify a patriotic 
vanity ; for nations, like individuals, are proud of being de- 
scended from illustrious ancestors. — Whiiiy, 

X translator's preface. 

been allowed some slight tincture of romance, and 
have improved the indulgence to the very '' poetry " 
of aspiration. In no instance that I am aware of 
have those claims been disputed, if we but except 
the nations above adduced, nor can that properly be 
called an exception, as the facts and assertions are 
virtually ceded, when the effort is made to explain 
them by an accommodated system of chronology. 
But if Ireland — distracted, impoverished Ireland — 
should raise her puny voice, and breathe an allusion 
to her primitive consequence, the sound would be so 
dissonant from authorised reports* — set forth by in- 
terested or mercenary scribes, confirmed by repeti- 
tion and ingenious circulation, while all attempts at 
disproval were studiously suppressed — that the 
world would look amazed at her impudence in the 
assumption, and reject at once, and without a hear- 
ing, her prejudged claims ! Shame, however, upon 
that policy which could war with the literature of a 
country ! and double shame upon that country which 
could allow itself, under any circumstances, to be so 

* Peter Lombard, who was titular Archbishop of Armagh 
in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, states, in his Analecta, that 
the ** English governors endeavoured to destroy or carry away 
every monument of antiquity belonging to the Irish of which 
they could obtain possession ; and that a great number were 
shut up in the Tower of London, and consigned to forge tful- 
ness, which, if translated, would throw new and interesting 
light on religion and letters." 

translator's preface. 3d 

debased^ as to have its records swept away, its lights 
stifled^ and its monuments obliterated, except such 
as accident may have saved, or laborious industry 
decyphered, from the scanty materials of inscriptions 
and names, without a single clue to guide the histo- 
rian in his path, or a single star but the polar one of 
truth, to steer his course by, in the midnight of his 
despairing ! *' On turning," says Whitty, " from the 
page of antiquity to the accounts of native annalists, 
we find the gloom which environs our inquiry pene- 
trated but by few gleams of brightness. The 
bigoted fury of her invaders, and the gothic policy 
of her rulers, have been, busy with the historical 
documents of Ireland. The Dane and the Briton 
were alike hostile to the proofs of a former glory ; 
and what the Pagan spared the Christian sought to 
demolish.* Their relentless antipathy being so suc- 
cessful, perhaps the interest of truth would have 
suffered little had their baneful industry been 
greater. The records which survive are few, and of 
questionable authority. The information which is 
to be derived from them is confused and contra- 

* Booth, Analecta. p. 557^ et seq^ Lynch Cambr. Evers. 
pp. 41-157. The Magnates Hiberniae, in their remonstrance to 
Pope John XXII. charge the English government, of the 13th 
century, with the destruction of their laws. (Hearne, Scoti- 
chron. vol. iii. p. 908.) This spirit prevailed even in the time 
of Cromwell. His soldiers had a particular antipathy to the 
harp. Lynch Cambr. Evers. p. 37. 

xii translator's preface. 

dictory. They establish no one fact of early Irish 
history in a satisfactory manner^ and are much 
better calculated to perplex than to elucidate." 

From my soul I am puzzled to find a pallia- 
tive for such a system* — a system which, ere long,f 
must recoU with dismay before the triumphant 
blaze of innocence aggrieved — or if I must elicit 
some benefit from its heart-rending sorrows, it will 
be, in its affording some excuse for the culpable, and 
otherwise inexplicable, supinenessj that pervades all 

* Opus opinum casibus, atrox seditionibuSy etlam in pace 
sevum.— Ztvy, 

t What is a Crisis? Our great Lexicographer has well 
defined it, as ** the point in which the disease kills, or changes 
to the better : the decisive moment when sentence is passed. '^ 
Precisely to this point has Ireland arrived; her disease — 
sometimes slowly and imperceptibly, but always steadily, pro- 
gressive — has of late advanced With overpowering rapidity ; 
and the fiat must speedily go forth wliich can issue but in one 
alternative — healthful renovation, or final dissolution. — Char- 
lotte Elizabeth. 

No one affects to deny the awful importance of this junc^ 
lure : two |>arties, for ages and centuries divided by an impas- 
sable barrier, now start up in simultaneous opposition to each 
other ; and both to a government which would unite them on 
a basis as repugnant to the darling prejudices of the one, as it is 
subversive of the vital principle that animates the other. — Chav 
lotte Elizabeth. 

X The idle indifference which we evince for the knowledge 
and preservation of our antiquities, is surely, to say the least of 
it, but little creditable to our nationality or our taste. In 
no part of Great Britain, we may safely venture to ussert. 

translator's preface. xiii 

classes of the Irish^ as to the consideration of what 
they once were — a supineness which, I repeat, cannot 
else be accounted for, than by the successful opera- 
tion of that iniquitous policy,* by which they would 
at last seem habituated and reconciled to their de- 
gradation ! 

** In all, save form alone, how changed ! And who 
That marks the fire still sparkling in each eye — 
Who but would deem their bosoms burned anew 
With thy unquenched beam, lost Liberty I"t 

Let it not be supposed, however, that the sting of 
this impeachment is at all levelled against the present 
government, or even against those who have preceded 
them in the admmistration. No ; I can myself bear 
honourable testimony to the ready willingness with 
which they, and their august master, our gracious 
and most beloved sovereign. King William the 

would a similar feeling be found among the enlightened classes 
of society. — Dublin Examiner, 1816. 

It is extraordinary^ how little interest the gentlemen of this 
county, and indeed of every other in Ireland, take in any pub- 
lication intended to promote the improvement of their country. 
JBely Dutton, Statist. Surv. Co, Clare. 

* We cannot, with Doctor Lynch and others, but lament 
the fatal policy of the English, who, until the reign of James 
the First, took all possible meant to destroy our old writings, 
as they did those of Scotland, in the reign of Edward the First. 
They thought that the frequent perusal of such works kindled 
the natives to rebellion, from reminding them of the power and 
independence of their ancestors. — O'Cfmnor Diaert. p. 139-. 

t Byron. 

xiv translator's preface. 

Fourth, encourage every pursuit that could supply 
the deficiency, or elucidate the purport, of our muti- 
lated annals. Nay more, I can affirm, that the taste 
— I had almost said the avidity, or rather the rage, 
as that is the more prevailing term — for Irish docu- 
ments, at this moment, in the British metropolis and 
in England altogether, exceeds any thing of the 
kind ever before witnessed; and to such a pitch is it 
carried, that on every occasion upon which such docu- 
ments are advertised for sale in Ireland, the London 
booksellers send over agents to attend such sales ; and 
firom the poverty of our community, and its decayed 
interest, at the same time, for all such research, I 
need not say, that, in almost every instance, the 
English are the purchasers. By the kind exertions 
of a literary friend,* who exhibits in his conduct an 
honorable contrast to the apathy of which I here 
complain, I have been furnished with an alphabetical 
catalogue of works that have lately produced, at the 
hands of Englishmen, in the city of Dublin, and 
at second hand, the respective sums affixed to each ; 
all considerably higher than the prices of publication. 

* Sir Charles Coote, Bart. This gentleman has, duriog the 
course of a long life, paid particular attention to the literature 
of his own country. No work has ever been published upon 
the history, the antiquities, or the statistics thereof, of which he 
has not made it a point to procure a copy. The consequence 
is, that he now possesses the most authentic and best assorted 
Irish library of any in the kingdom. 

translator's preface. XV 

and incomparably more so than what a mere regard 
to value could have elicited. 

My charge, therefore, cannot apply to the present 
government, or to the present race of Englishmen 
at all ; but to governments and races of an anterior 
date, who, in the fell work of spoliation, yielded 
not to the Ostmen or Danes,* — our ruthless foes, and 
the foes of all moral culture — whilst they surpassed 
them far, in the dexterous ingenuity, and masked 
insincerity, with which they effected their ravages.f 
These are the persons whom I would impugn ; and 
grievously concerned am I to add, that on the fair 
face of the land itself, stistained by its bounty , and 
invigorated by its atmosphere,X are to be found in- 

* The invaders of Ireland in the ninth century consisted of a 
mixed crew of Danes, Frisians, Norwegians, Swedes, and 
Livonians. The ancient Irish distinguished them into two 
septs from the colour of their hair ; one being called Fion-gail, 
or Fin-galy the White Strangers, and the other Dubh-gail, the 
Black Strangers* Fiugal is supposed to have been settled by 
the former, and Donegal by the latter. — McGregor, 

f Walsh thus pathetically laments the ruin of his country by 
the Danes and Ostmen:—'* There was no monarch now, (the 
ninth century,) but the saddest interregnum ever any Christian 
or heathen enemies could wish ; no more king over his people, 
but that barbarous heathen Turgesius ; no more now the * Island 
of Saints.' " 

I The climate of Ireland, and the fertility of its soil, have 
been praised by all writers, as well friends as foes, who have at 
all alluded to the topic. Orosius says, " Ireland, though les» 
extensive than Britain, is, from the temperature of its climate. 

xvi translator's preface. 

dividuals^ and they too not few, who, calling them- 
selves Irishmen, and affecting all the pride insepa- 
rable from the name, do yet — from some obliquity 

better supplied with useful resources." — L. 1, c. 2. Isidore 
states, *'it is smaller than Britain, but more fertile from its 
situation/'—Orig. L. 14, c. 6. The yenerable Bede observes, 
that ** Ireland greatly surpasses Britain in the healthfulness 
and serenity of its air." — Hist. Ec. L. 1 , c. 1. And Camden, 
** Nature surely must have looked upon this zephyric kingdom 
with its most benignant eye."— Brit. p. 7'i7. Whilst the vera- 
cious and impartial (7) Cambrensis himself adds, that^ ** Of all 
climates Ireland is the most temperate ; neither Cancer's violent 
heat ever drives them to the shade, nor Capricorn's cold invites 
them to the hearth ; but from the softness and peculiar tem- 
perature of the atmosphere, all seasons are there genial and 
tepid." Again — ** Neither infectious fogs, nor pestilential 
winds, nor noxious airs, are ever felt there ; so that the aid of 
doctors is seldom looked for, and sickness rarely appears ex- 
cept among the dying." — Top. Hib. Diet. 1. 25, 27. Would 
that this last named writer had but done as much justice to its 
inhabitants ! 

** The climate is so salubrious,'' says Carr, '' that we find 
by hbtory those plagues which so much devastated England had 
rarely reached Ireland. The leaves seldom fall till Novem- 
ber ; from the almost constant motion of its atmosphere, and 
the balmy softness of it, Ireland has been for ages past called 
the ' Land of Zephyrs ;' it was also called, on account of the 
beauty of its verdure, ' the Emerald Isle,' and the * Green 
Island in the West.' " — Stranger in Ireland, p. 129. 

To the great and peculiar extent of calcareous or limestone 
strata of which our island is composed, we may chiefly attri- 
bute the fertility of our soil, and the salubrity of our climate ; 
and if we dared venture to fathom the intentions of an Almighty 
and beneficent providence, we would point to this geological 


of intellect or perverseness of intention — ^think they 
amplify their importance by vilifying* their native 
soil ; — and — to bring their dastardly desertion to a 
still greater climax — only recognize respectability as 
imported from abroad !f 

peculiarity, as a nngle instance of his wisdom and goodness, as, 
exposed as we are to the exhalations of the Atlantic, and the 
infiuence of westerly winds, our soil would otherwise be unpro- 
ductive and our climate unhealthy. To the same canse is to be 
attributed much of the peculiarly romantic beauty of which we 
may justly boast; our waterfalls without number, our subter- 
ranean rivers, our natural bridges, our perpendicular sea cliffs, 
and, above all, our fairy caverns; all these are in almost 
every instance the result of this extensive calcareous formation, 
and are consequently found in no other country of the same 
extent, ia equal variety, beauty, and abundaocTe. Most strange 
it is, that a land so blessed and ornamented by the hand of pro- 
vidence should be so little appreciated and too often aban- 
doned by those to whom its fertility gives wealth, and to whom 
its beauty should give delight and happiness. — Dubiim Petmy 

* Why will the Protestants of Ireland permit this unfounded 
obloquy to rest on their beautiful country, ay, and too ojtenjoin 
in the aspenive cry^ when even a glance at their own homes 
might convince them, that the moral blight exhales not from the 
innocent bogs of poor Ireland. — Charlotte Elizabeth. 

t Revelling in all the pleasures and delights of rich and 
royal Italy, smiling with the beauties of that sunny soil — whilst 
many of his poor tenantry were weeping from want, and shiver- 
ing from cold and hunger — the lord of the manor was patron- 
izing the fine arts^ and collecting, at great expense, costly 
ornaments and other objects to adorn his mansion in £n gland, 
when he should return satiated with the fascinations and volup« 
tuous attractions of the continent. — VUcowU Glentworth, 

xviH translator's preface. 

** Poor, p4kry slaret 1 yet bom nudst nobiest scenes -^ 

Why, Nature, waste thy wonders on such men 1 

« • « ♦ • 

Not such were the Others your annab can boast. 
Who conqoered and died for the freedom you lost I 
Not such was your land in her earlier hour — 
The day-star of nations in wisdom and power !"* 

To their own reflections^ however, and to the con- 
tempt and condemnation of an enlightened, an in- 
dignant public, I consign such renegades, whilst I 
return to the subject whence I have been thus 
forced to digress. 

How to accoimt, then, for this new spirit amongst 
the English public, to cultivate an acquaintance 
with the antiquities of Ireland, which they had so long 
neglected and so long affected to despise — a spirit 
too, so insatiable, that it will not now confine itself 
to works of acknowledged merit and reputed vera- 
aty,but extends effen to those which should have been 
exploded as fictions or absurd exaggerations — I con- 
fess myself wholly unprepared. One thing, however, 
is evident, that they are at last become sensible of 
the injustice with which we have so long been 
treated, and, feeling their own judgment at the same 
time not fairly dealt with in the misrepresentations 
imposed upon them, they have — with the character- 
istic honesty ht which ^' John Bull" is remarkable, if 
his prejudices and errors be but fisdrly removed, and 

* Byron* 

translator's PAErACE. xfac 

the sfttrit, at the same time, with whidi he resents 
every such insult offered to his understanding — ^re* 
sohred, as mudi as possible, to atone for the past, by 
enaUing themselves to judge as to the question at 
issue for the future. 

But while lending myself as the translator of Dr. 
Villanueya's book, from my wish to extend all dis^ 
quisitions bearing upon my countrjr's renown, I must 
observe that I am not at all insensible to certain, as I 
conceive, aberrations, in his literary views, besides 
those which I have taken the liberty altogether to 
erase. That the Phoenicians had been in Ireland 
he is quite right to maintain. But as to the share 
they had in the early splendor of the country — 
the nature of their sojourn — ^and who had preceded 
them— as it would not become me here to discuss, I 
abaHl, unshackled by the apprehension of being con- 
sidered selfish, refer the reader, who wishes to have 
the true history of ancient Ireland ybr once laid be- 
fore his mind's eye, to my Essay upon the ^' Round 
Towers "♦ of that country, in which I promise him 

^ Dr. YillaaueTa's error as to the origin and destination of 
those mysterious structures is one in which he may well con^ 
sole himself by the number of feUow.sufferers who have befera 
foundered upon the same sandbank. When Cambrensis, Val- 
iancy, Montmorenci, Dalton, Beaufort, Milner^ in short all 
the writers, as well natives as foreigners, who have alluded 
to the topic for the last aevea hundred-*! may sayi fifteeo 
hundred — years, have been at fault on this theme, it is not to 
be wondered at thai this eminent philologist, should add another 


l >* ^ * i ■■ *■■■ • — II I . '■ - " ^jMiii r"-*- 

XX translator's preface. 

he will find this long mystified question at length, and 
to a demonstration, irresistibly elucidated* 

If, however, I may be allowed a passing observa- 
tion, without anticipating the subject here, it would 
be to say that the Phoenicians were only the carriers 
of that very ancient and sacred tribe, designated em- 
phatically '' Tuatha Dedanan/' that is, the " Deda- 
nite diviners," who planting themselves in Ireland, 
after their expulsion from the east,* raised the isl< 

unit to the number of the shipwrecked. But he can well spare 
this and a few other almost inevitable defalcations, which, like 
spots upon the sun*s disc, only serve to make the general talent 
which pervades his treatise the more brilliantly prominent. 

As the reader may, perhaps, wish to see a specimen of this 
venerable old gentleman's epistolary style, I subjoin the copy 
of a note which he addressed to me on my expressing a wirii 
to see him after a separation of six or seven weeks, during 
which I had secluded myself^ to adjust my thoughts upon the 
*« Towers,'' — viz : — 

'^ •/• L. Vilianueca Henrico O^Brien salutem dicem, 

^' O care amice I Et quare tu, qui junior es, non dignaris ad 
me venire ? Vix i domo exeo, nam non bene valeo. Nihil- 
hominus, te adire curabo, si vires suppetant. Benevale, et ut 
soles, ama tuum amicum. 

" 6 Junii, 1834. J. L. Villanueva." 

* The rare and interesting tract on twelve religions, entitled 
<<The Dabistan," and composed by a Mahomedan traveller, a 
native of Cashmere, named Mohsam, but distinguished by the 
assumed surname of Fani, or Perishable, begins with a wonder- 
fully curious chapter on the religion of Hushang, which was 
long anterior to that of Zeratusht, but had continued to be se- 
cretly professed by many learned Persians, even to the author's 
time : &nd several of the most eminent of them dissenting, in 

translator's preface. xw 

wliich'they also denominated from their former place 
of abode — to that pmnacle of literary and religious 
reputation which made it ^ focus of intellect in the 
old pagan world. 

Of this distinguished caste of people — who, by 
the way, built the " Round Towers,** those standing 
records oi our primitive scientific culture, — the Phoer 
nicians were only the transporters ; yet had they the 
dexterity — by reason of their indispensible agency as 
navigators, and the power with which they com- 
manded the dominion of the seas — to monopolize the 
whole credit of civilizing the human race, which 
was only trueinas/ar as they joined hy their ship- 
ping the different quarters of the globe. 

Here, then, is the source of those egregious blun- 
ders, which all our historians have committed in 
reference to the Phoenicians, ai once cut away; and 
another mistake emanating from this, and in the 

many points, from the Gabrs, and persecuted by the ruling 
powers of their country, had retired to India ; where they com* 
fuled a nnmber of books, now extremely scarce, which Mohsani 
had perused, and with the writers of which, or with many of 
them, he had contracted an intimate friendship : from them he 
learned that a powerful monarchy had been established for 
ages in Iran, before the accession of Caynmers; that it was 
called the Mahabadean dinasty, for a reason which will soon 
be mentioned ; and that many princes, of whom seven or eight 
only are named in the Dabistan, and among them Mohbul, or 
Maha Beli, had raised that empire to the zenith of human 
glory. If we can rely on this evidence, which to me appears 
vnexc^tionablet the Iranian monarchy must have been the 
oldest in the world. — Sir W. Jones, 

tm T&AN8LAT(»t^8 FBBFAC£« 

case of ^frelafid^ more seductire in its OT^rtnred^ is 
iiow> in consequence, easily olmated. 

It was too fashionaUe with the gentlemen who 
have preceded me in the drudgery of Irish antiqua- 
rian research, to flatter Ihe seIf4ove of the present 
Milesian natives— of whom I am proud to boast my* 
self one— by ascribing to thrfr colony those high- 
flown scenes of primeval grandeur of which Ireland 
was undoubtedly at one time the theatre ; and of which 
too, without being able adequately to grapple with the 
point, or to adduce any tMng like substantial insight 
into either its date, nature, m promoters, those 
writers, had, notwidistanding, some superfivial, in-- 
definite and vague, conceptions. No position m 
history was ever more false. So &r ilrom the Mile- 
sians, who were a mixed Scythian colony, implitnt 
followers of Zaoasler and not Spaniards,*(as <fce Dr* 
has himself admitted) bemg — ^as a nation — lovers -of 
literature, they cultivated, on the contrary, a pro- 
fession—that of arms — which afifected to scorn it as an 
eflfeminate hucury . Nor vms it until by an admixture 


^ They merely touched at Spain on Hieir way to Irelaitd 
frotn Scylhia, keeping up, however, a friendly intercoorse with 
the Spaniards after their arrival in Ireland , for the hospitaUe 
accommodation which they had experienced on their coasts* 
They retained their name, Scythi, Scoti, or Scythians^ nntll the 
eleventh century, when they resigned it to the Scots, a colony 
of their own from Ireland, and resumed, instead, one of Ae 
more ancient names of the conntry, viz. Ire, with the afBx, hmdf 
making the compound ** Ireland.^^ 


witih their leaned predecesson in (iie occfapation of 
the floil, and witnessing the dumns of tkeir r^ned 
pmrndts-^-in iiHbich they were allowed still to indulge, 
thoi^ unacoompanied widi those religious peculiari- 
ties for the celebration of whidi diey had erected the 
^' Round Tow^s^'^ttid wfaidi the Milesiaas, upon their 
eooqw^t, Imd cancelled and obIit^rated*-Hlt was not 
imtU thm» I say, that the latter, £red by Ihe moral 
£ther whidi the lessons of Ihar new slmfd had in- 
spired, gqt infected with the imblimity of their en- 
nobling acquirements, and set themselves down, 
aocor^Ungly, to emulate their instructOTS. 

Having mentioned the snlgect of the ^BMmd 
Towers'' of Irdbnd, as a rock upon which the anti** 
quaries of all countries have so miserably flpUt-^-^iot 
lessee to their ^^<fef/mafum and ftfe^,'' than the era of 
their erection — I may be excused if in the honest 
ferwr of patriotic triumph, tmdamped by the chilli 
nefis ^ iU^eqmted succeee, I should proclaim that 
those several diffieidtiee have at last ieen^olved, and 
the history ctf those structures made as (dndous to 
ev^ery capacity as if t|^ whcde catah^^ of their de- 
tails had been graven upon their walls with the im- 
{«e8siT«iQcm<«ofsteeitip<maiiamant. Loot and 
contemptible have been the purposes which i^dlow 
iqpeonlatovs, or int^ested calumniators, have at- 
tempted to associate with those noble edifices ; but 
— the mist ouce dispelledr^-those Round Towers will 
stand f(MrwADd as the {Mroof^^-not only of that enried 

xxiv translator's preface. 

antiquity which our hards have so chaunted — hut of 
the literary and religious taste which gave rise to 
those huildings^ and of the grand and philosophic 
principle which guided the architect in giving them 
their peculiar form. 

But to return^ another objection remains yet to be 
disposed of before I relieve the reader's patience, per- 
haps already too much exhausted, and that is, the un- 
fitness of ^foreigner for the performance of a task, in- 
volving, it would seem, a personal knowledge of the 
topography of the Island, the prejudices and habits, 
the character and genius of the various sects and 
denominations by whom the place is inhabited, with 
some interest in their fortune, or identity of feeling 
in theu- welfare- The compass of their views must 
be very limited indeed who think that to be master 
of those various requisites it could be necessary to 
pass a life on the theatre of debate. Without stop- 
ping, therefore, any farther to expose the lameness 
of this argument — who, let me ask, was the author 
of that composition, which, professing to be a history 
of Ireland, and its conquest (?)*by Henry the Second, 
was, in reality, nothing more than a tissue of 
falsehood and abuse, concocted in the spirit of indi- 

* They were never conquered by any people until betrayed 
to Henry II, in 1172, who bestowed the sovereignty upon his 
son John : but yet the kings of England were never called only 
lords of Ireland till the title of *^ king" was bestowed on Henry 
YIII. by the Irish states themselves in parliament. — Hales. 


vidual ♦ and national hatred, additionally inflamed 
by an engrossing vanity, f and a profligate disre- 
regard even to ordinary decency in its indulgence J — 

* This was against Aubin 0*Molloy, a mouk of the order of 
Citeaux, aad abbot of Baltinglass, by whom he was defeated 
in a quarrel. 

t Uis aoticipatioiis of repute and literary immortality from 
the performaAce, he thus pompously put forth in his preface : 
^' Ore legar populi perque omna secula fam4, 
Si quid habent veri vatum presagia vivam." 

But hear what ^' Gratianus Lucius," the assumed name of 
John Lynch, Archdeacon of Tuam, 1662, says of him — ** Li- 
bros suos plebeculse spurcitiis inquinavit^ et vulgi naeyis toti 
genti ab ipso adscriptis farcire constituit, sicut aranea virus e 
thymo, mel apis exsugit ; sic e pessimis quibus que quorumris 
Hibernorum moribus fasciculum ille fecit, missa faciens quae 
apud Hibernos pr^eclariora repererat* Sordes tamen istas ille 
pro gemmis habere vbus est, quas eligens et excipiens tanquam 
elegaotiora praesenti volumine digessit, instar suis pui magis 
Tolupe est sterquilinii volutabro quam inter suavissimos quos- 
que odores se versare." cap. 5. p. 41. Hear, also, what Ware, in 
his ''Antiquities," says of his imitators, ** Atqui nonpossum non 
mirari viros aliquos hujus saeculi, alioqui graves et doctos, fig- 
menta ea Geraldi mundo fterum pro veris obtrusisse." What 
would he say, had he lived to see more modern scribblers, 
such as Dempster, Abercromby, Mackenzie, *'et hoc genus 
omne,** unredeemed by any of the above qualifications, (graves 
et doctos,) but with ignoranrce corresponding to their dishonest 
audacity, appropriating our history to their own private use ; 
and to that end, not only denying us those advantages which 
even our enemies before allowed us, but like the asp that 
borrows its venom from the viper, adopting hatred against Ire- 
land, as a legitimate inheritance, and calculating on impunity 
from its prostration and decay. 

t Having spent five years in composing this /ine work, the 
five books of his pretended history of Ireland came forth. In 

xxvi tramlator's prkface. 

under the ganction^ I admit, and anapicies of a wily 
monardi, who wanted sudi an instrument to rerify 
the misstatements of ^^ barbarism and impiety'' widi 
which he had himself previously loaded the Irish, and 
by virtue of whidi he had extorted that bull from the 
pope * conferring on hun a right (how generous t) 

raptures with this new production of bis genius^ and unable to 
conceal his yanitj^ he repairs to Oxford^ where» in presence of 
learned docters and die assembled people, he read, after the 
ezanqile of the Greeks, his '' Topographjr*' daring three succes* 
sire days, giving to each book an entire day. To render the 
comedy more solemn, he treated tlie whole town splendidly for 
three days : the first was appropriated to the populace — the 
second to the doctors, professors, and principal scholars of the 
UfirrersHy — and lastly, on tbe third day he regalled the other 
students, with the soldiers and ckizens of the town* '^ A noble 
and brilliant action,'' says the autlhor himself, ^'whereby the 
ancient custom of the poets has been renewed in England ! { 1 '' 
VMer, Sfyttog, td. far. ep. 49 ^ p. 84, 86. 

** Than yanity there's nothing harder hearted; 
For thoughtless of all sufferings unseen. 
Of all save those which touch upon the round 
Of the day's palpable doings, the vain man. 
And oftner still the volatile woman ?ain. 
Is busiest at heart witb restless cares. 
Poor pains and paltry joys, that make within, 
Petty yet turbulent vicissitudes." 

* Adrian was h wa sri fan finglishnuin, aad ooMequently 4he 
less indisposed to listen to this afiplicatioa. His Bull is given 
at full length by Cambrenns and by Bishop Burgess j-^-^ee abo 
Leland's History of Ireland, voL i. 8. It granted the sof^e* 
reignty of Ireland to Henry, who was interested in it8mib)ec* 
tion on aceiauotof ike aoaoyanoe it afferded hifl^aad the aid it 
at nt his enemies, 4^peB the eondition ^ Urn payment j>f ^ Peter'e 

taanslator's prepacb* xtm 

to tke ifivasioQ c^ our comAry, and, thG^eby^/or the 

jSr«/ tUne, * a» d. 11^6i, mbjectang us at once to tbre 

authority of a fomiga Crown^ and the spiritual sur * 

veiU^ice of the Romaa See and Pootiff ?f — Who^ I 

peace'' in Ireland, which iiad never before been paid there ; 
alledging the absurd claim, ** Hiberniam et omnes insnlas qui- 
bm sol jufttitie iHuxtt^ ^t ^» ^ocumeiita fidel Chnitianee acoe- 
penint ad jus B« P«Ul« wmi esi^ubiiMa, pe^tHMre." It tliaB 
hypocriticaUj exhorts him to inculcate merality and to plant 
Chrbtianitj, as if we had it not in its splendour and purity 
already, in Ireland ! ** Stade genten illam bonis moribus in» 
formwre et mgas, tam per te qaam per alioi quM «d boe fide, 
verbo ac vit& ideaeos esse pecspexeri% ut dacoretur ihi Ecdesiat 
plantetur et crescat fidei Christianae religio." Alexander III. 
his successor^ confirmed this Bull in 1173, and added insult to 
iniquity in representing the Irish as ** barbarous," and '* Chris«* 
tians only in name/* The Iiish, it is true, spiritedly and nobly 
resented these intrusions to Vivian, Alexander's legate, at the 
synod of Waterford, held by Henry, 1177 ; but there it ended I 

^ The Irish, who in the eighth century were known by the 
name of Scots, were the only divines who refuted to dishonour 
their reason by submitting it impKcitfy to the dictates of autho^ 
rtty. Naturally subtle and sagacious, they applied their phi* 
losophy to the illustration of the truths and doctrines of religion^ 
a metbod which was almost generally abhorred and exploded 
in all other nations. This subtlety and sagacity enabled tbem to 
comprehend with facility the dialectic art, and their profound 
knowledge of the Greek language contributed materially to the 
same end. This made them view with contempt the pitiful 
compendiums of theology extracted from the fathers, and 
which the unlearned ecclesiastics of other countries accepted as 

t This ominous title — attached for more than a thousand 
years to the regal and imperial dignity from Numa, b. c 789, 
to Gnitian, a* d. 376^ who renounced its pagan office and name. 

xxviii translator's preface. 

repeat, was the author of that imposture, every word 
of which its vile asserter, from compunction of con- 
science for the injustice rendered to an innocent and 
heroic nation, was obliged subsequently to retract — 
though too late, alas ! to neutralize the poison which 
the baneful tenor of his combined subserviency to 
courtly favour and individual spite, — so opposite to 
the character of the true historian, — ^had but too 
successfully and extensively propagated? Why, 
truly, it was a foreigner and a stranger — Gerald 
Barry — or Cambrensis, as he is generally^called — 
from Cambria, the Latin for Wales,* his native 

as interfering with those of the high-priest of our profession, 
Jesus Christ — but ill accords in its assumption of spiritual and 
temporal dominion, with the meek spirit of Christianity as^ori- 
ginally founded. ** My kingdom/' says our Saviour, ** is not 
of this worid" — And when there arose a dispute among the 
apostles which should be accounted the greatest, he said. The 
kings of the Gentiles exercise lordship over them, and they that 
exercise authority over them are called benefactors,"— eu«r|fe(e»9 
benefactor, was a favourite title of the Macedo-Grecian kings of 
Syria and Egypt, as we sometimes denominate our sovereigns the 
** fountain of mercy and honour," — ** but it shall not be so with 
you.'' John xviii. 36 ; Luke xxii. 95. It is not known which of 
the popes first assumed the title, but Boniface III. — who, A. n, 
636, first arrogated to himself the unchristian one of << Uni- 
versal Bishop," which Gregory the Great, A. D. 690, had 
rejected with horroiP, calling himself in opposition thereto by 
the lowly designation of " servant of the servants of God," 
seems the most likely.— -JETa/^. 

* Ina, king of the West Saxons, married a second time, 
** Gaula," daughter of Cadwalladar, the last king of the Britons* 
and in her right inherited Cambria, thenceforward called by 

translator's preface. xxix 

country — ^and yet his unfitness on that score was 
never questioned at the time^ though possessing no 
other knowledge of the country than what could he 
gleaned from the sojourn of a few short months, 
during which he was domesticated at the castle as 
tutor to the king's son, where his sources of informa- 
tion were necessarily circumscrihed — ^his ignorance 
of the native language heing one great har, aug- 
mented hy the narrow limits of the English power 
within the island, amounting to no more than ahout 
one-third of its territorial extent — ^whilst even the 
scanty materials which such opportunities afforded 
were polluted and vitiated hy the medium through 
which they passed, and the sinister influence which 
guided their expression ! 

But why dwell upon this instance of failure in 
a foreigner undertaking a province which he was 
not competent to discharge, when I should rather 
adduce those cases of splendid success in which 
foreigners have ventured as historians of other coun- 
tries, and won laurels in the attempt, as creditable 
to their labours, as they have been honourable to their 
subjects? Merely to expose the illiberality, and 

her name '* Wales," with Cornwall and the British crown. He 
was the first who was crowned king of the Anglo-Saxons and 
British conjointly, A. D. 1712 ; and the first measure of this 
wise prince, ** by the advice and consent of all the bishops and 
chiefs, and the wise men and people of the vhole kingdom," 
was, to unite the two nations by intermarriages as speedily as 


make the adion of their machinery, recdil upon 
those knaves themselves, who would uphold a princi- 
ple whilst it furthers their own objects — 1^ no longer 
interested in the extension of the rule — scomfuUj 
reject it as an abortive bantling, though divested, 
p^haps, of the imbedlit j whidi disfigured their pr^ 
cedent, nay, strengthened and adorned by the oppo- 
site graces. That I may not, however, altogether 
omit some instances of the descriptk)n above adverted 
to, will it not suffice to mentkm the names of Do 
Lome and Mills ; the former of whom, with a very 
superficial knowledge of the localities of England, 
has given a dissertation on its constitution that has 
earned for him — ^firom its natives not more than from 
the whole civilized world — as much honour as the sub- 
ject itself had excited admiration in the bosom of the 
author; whilst the other, without ever having so 
much as set a foot in India» ar within many thousand 
miles of its coast, has, notwithstmiding, written a 
history of that country, the most comprehennve and 
satisfactory that has yet come from any pen* 

Coolly, therefore, and dispassionately to argue the 
point, I see no reason why a foreigner may not be as 
competent to enter the Ksts of literary adventure in 
the capacity of civil or local historian as any native — 
nay even more competent, if an unlaassed judgment, 
arising from a total disconnection with local preju- 
dices and parties, be considered a requisite ingredient 
for the exercise of such a trust Or is literature with 




tkanslator'8 prafacb* xxn 

118 alone, I would ask, sudi a corporate affiur that 
none but the homebom can intrude upon the mono- 
poly ? What will the sticklers for exclusion say, how- 
ever, when informed, that Dr.Villanueva in addition to 
the most vuriedand profound acquir^ooents, embradng 
an iDftimacy with literature at large — ^has brought to 
the execution oithis favourite subject an acquaintance 
with our island, obtained not more from the writings of 
the ancients to whom its existence was &miliar, than 
by a long sojourn and personal residence amongst us, 
during which he has been occupied in digesting ma- 
terials for this work, and enrichmg his stores from 
our various libraries. But his principal and leading 
qualification, and what constitutes his peculiar fitness, 
in my mind, is his thorough mastership of the Hebrew 
language, of which the Phoenician was a dialect, and 
the aflBnity, of which with the Ibemo-Celtic, or rather 
Iberno-Sanscrit, or ancient Irish, I may endeavour 
to elucidate in some future pages. This, then» is the 
lever with which, single-handed and unpreceded, he 
has encountered the difficulties of the Herculean 
combat ; and myself the venerable recesses of un- 
explored dates the basis of his plan, and the frag- 
ments of names and sacred inscriptions the fulcrum 
of his operations, he has removed that mountam of 
uncertainty and doubt which had so long obscured 
the horizon of our history, and — identified in spirit 
with the dignity of the cause — ^the cause as it is, of 
truth, of justice, and of letters— has triumphed in the 

xxxii transhlator's preface. 

enjoyment of Uterary renown acquired in the investi- 
gation of our long disputed ancestry. * 

* ** Cujus modi antiquitatis ne ipse quidem populus Romanus 
nominis sui testem proferre poterat autorem." — Uuher, — The 
value of this remark, emanating from so distinguished an autho- 
rity» I may be disposed hereafter to consider in a more appro- 
priate place. Meanwhile I feel that I cannot more happily 
conclude this discourse, than by extracting a sentiment from a 
yery spirited publication, which has lately shot up in Dublin, 
and which — had it no other claims on public patronage than the 
chivalry it has evinced in embarking upon an ocean, where so 
many miscarriages have, in that department, occurred, and in 
thereby inviting into existence two similar periodicals which 
have since followed its example — should, I conceive, on this 
iingle icore alame, receive countenance and encouragement from 
all enlightened Irishmen. The sentence I so admire, as in 
unison with my own feelings, is in a note, as follows : — 
' The object of the writer of this article has been, to attack 
modern ecclesiastical corruptions under ancient names and 
forms; he has therefore selected the historical materials or 
systems that suited his subject best, without the slightest in- 
tention of making an insidious or sectarian attack upon any 
description of believers, detesting as he does, from his soul, all 
sorts of polemical controversy, and convinced as he is, that ittf 
melancholy effects are at this day perceptible iu the slavery 
of his country, which religious, or rather irreligious differences, 
have, caused, by dividing Irishmen against each other, who, if 
united, would be invincible ! Iritth Monthly Magazine. — May, 




Impressed wifh a sense of deep obligation te 
;your country, celebrated for hospitality as it most justly is — 
not less so on this score, than because of the more imme^ 
diate^ and to me delightful, privilege of free access to the 
fiourishing and magnificent libraries of your capital — a pri- 
Tilege, I may add, which I valine the more as deprived by 
adversity of my own little collection of manuscripts and 
T>ooks — I here respectfully tender to you, whose zeal for 
the elucidation of the ** antiquities of Ireland" has been ever 
Aobly conspicuous, tUs midnight effort of my pen, under- 
taken with a view to assist you in that task, and discharge^ 
»on my part, the offices^ at once^ of gratitude and of com- 

I might, indeed, g^ve scope to my feelings in another 
form, and find materials, too, for the purpose, by drawing 
cipon the fruits of a long literary life, no one moment of 
which, even when most disengaged, could be well called 
idle ; but, to your name, your reputaticm, and your assembly, 
Ibremost as they all stand in literary fame, 1 could conceive 
no offering either more appropriate (ht more apposite, than 
ihis enterprising excursion into the early periods of Irish 



history, to grope out, if happily to yoar satisfaction, from 
beneath the darkness of that beclouded age, the Dations and 
the colonies whence yon derive your origin. 

Ify however, in the attempt, my success shall be foun4 
not adequate to my expectations, yet shall I console my- 
self with the hope that this little tract — on so interesting a 
topic as that of antiquity, which, as Quintilion well observed, 
whether local or universal, can never be too much studied^ 
in regard to the incidents it may record, the characters it 
may develope, or the dates it may assign — may be found 
neither unwelcome nor unprofitable to the lovers of such 
pursuits ; and did I need any additional incitement to the 
luxury of this hope, I^would find it in that praUe, which 
you. Gentlemen, who must have often felt the influence of 
praise yourselves, have, after a diligent perusal of this my 
work, been pleased to bestow upon my humble labors. 

I have now only to beg that you will accept the first firuits 
of that which you have before sanctioned with the high 
stamp of jour approbation ; and, while taking leave of your 
body, with every feeling of regard, may I be pOTmitted to 
enforce my prayer, that you will — in accordance with the 
spirit of your previous career— -proeeed laudably and cheer- 
foUy» by your diligence and your research — as well in push- 
ing your own enquiries, as in patronising those of others— to 
exalt the standard of yonr academic institution, and encir- 
cle new wreaths on the renascent genius of lern^.* 

JoACHiMus Laurentius Villanueva. 

* For the satisfaction of the clasiitat scholar I gire the oiri* 
l^nal of this and next chapter in the appendix • — H. O^B. 



Scope qf the Work — Origin of first InJiabitanU of Irelcmd 
uncertain — Way to trace it out — Difficulty of diving into 
early dates — Instajice of this — Number and credibility of 
Irish historians — Foreign denominatums of the old clans and 
docoHties of Irelpnd — Where to look for their etymology — 
The Author sucknowledgments as well to the more modem as 
the taident writers upon Irish topics^" Not always safe tq 
follow them. 

The otigBi of the e^ly inhaHtants of Irdand id 
not mHy ancient btit unoertain, and not easily ream- 
i^eable to ihe «xact itiles of [»'oof. But tfaougb we 
must not stHogetker rejeet yUMLtiracfitian records of 
ikem, still it strikes me that in our pursmit after 
trutli^ tlie more likely road i&t its attainment would 
be to trace out the origin of the names of the several 
septs andiribes which from time tothne have visited 
those shores ; a course which, as in other instances, 
will be found, if I mistake not, in this too, most con- 
vincingly demonstrative of their lineage, their pro- 

geny, and the country whence they emigrated. I 



do not, however, mean to say that the conviction 
produced by such a search is in its nature so com- 
plete as that it may not even be superseded by 
other evidences ; but this I assert, that it is not 
contemptuously to be trifled with by ignorance 
or guess-work, and that until something more 
authentic in the shape of argument be adduced 
it is entitled, at least, to a respectful hearing. If we 
consider how diflScult a thing it is, as Pliny* well 
observed, to clothe antiquity in a modem costume, 
to give fashion to novelty, splendor to decay, light 
to obscurity, beauty to deformity, and belief to 
doubt, the mere endeavor after the object, however 
short it may fall of success, must, from the nobleness 
of the intention, command respect iox its author ; so 
shall it be my humble boast that having been blessed 
with the advantages of literary ease, I thought I 
could not employ it better than by embarking in 
some such design, conscious that whatever be my 
fortune, my motives at least will be appreciated, as 
purely wishing, amidst the crowd of contributors 
that press forward at the present day, to offer my 
mite also towards the general stock of the republic of 

But as the remarks which I mean to submit respect- 

* Res ardua Tetustis novitatem dare, novis auotoritatem, ob- 
soletis nitorem, obscuris lucem, fastiditis gratiam, dubiis (idem ; 
eatim non assecutis voluisse, abunde pulcbrum atque magnifi- 
jcum est. — Hitt, Nat, Praf. 


ing the geographical names of this island^ are neither 
few in number, nor inconsiderable in importance, 
involvmg, as they do, besides, an intimate acquaint- 
ance with the languages of the east and north, let it 
suffice for the present if, as a specimen, we but hint 
at the ancient names of our Irish clans, and the idol- 
atrous worship they indulged in, disregarding some 
sources of my own private conjectures, which, how- 
ever, I pledge myself shall be cheerfully supplied to 
any gentleman who may hereafter feel disposed to 
devote his patriotic pen to record the virtues 
and the heroism of this second Sparta. * In the 
mean time I flatter myself that I shall not be alto- 
gether without reward in rendering those notes, of 
what value soever they be, interesting in their de- 
tails, as well to the admirers of what is amusing and 
light as to the more grave and austere student. 

It is greatly to be regretted that tho' no nation 
on the globe has been ever known to be more ob- 
servant of its antiquities,f nor more studiously care- 

* Dr. Yillanueva having consigned to me those papers al- 
luded to in this sentence, the best use> I conceive, I can make 
of them is to bestow them upon the public in the shape of an 
appendix to the present volume. 

f This extraordinary regard which the Scoto-Milesians, like 
the Jews, paid to their history and the genealogy of their fami- 
lies, bespeaks a nation equally polished and educated. By a 
fundamental regulation of the state it was necessary to prove 
connection with the royal house of Milesius before you could 
either ascend the throne, assume the sovereignty of any of the 
provinces, or be appointed to any capacity, military or magis- 


fill c^ ereary thing that could' appertain to their 
dtronology^ the deeds of their ancestors, the houn** 
daries of their jurisdictions, and their laws, than this 
has heen> tiiere should still appear such a mist of 
darki^iss s^nread hefore our path when we would in-* 
ves(%ale the origin of its prinutiye settlers. Thk 
ohscuritjr is the more to be deplored from the cIuk 
racter given bj Camden of the Irish records, y^ 
that ^* compared to them the antiquity of all other 
natioQff appeared as novelty, and, as it were, the 
condition of incipient childhood/'^ Deplore it, 
hoWcTer, as we may, it has been ocan^ned,- in not 
smaU degree, by the odd and oudandish designations 
given ta the different tribes, as well as to many of 
the towns, dties, mountmns, lakes, and riv^s, i/\^chr 
seem to have no affinity with the idiom of thef 
native;^, nay, to be utterly at variance with it ; sor 

teriaU The office of the amtiquarians, ioflliluted by OMamb 
Fodla, as part of the triennial council of the celebrated Tara; 
and whose duty it was to watch over those genealogies and per- 
petuate the memory of their houses, was under the strictest 
control of scrutinizing commissioners appointed for that pur- 
pose, and the heaviest penalties were wont to be enforced 
against such as were found to prevaricate in the slightest par- 
ticular. He enacted y besides, that copies of all registries which 
upon such examination were found pure, should be inserted in 
the great registry called the ''Psalter of Tara;'' aud this practice 
and institution was continued and flourudied up to the times of 
Christianity and long after. 

* Adeo et, proe illis, omuis omnium gentium antiquitas sit 
novitas et quod-ammodo infantia. — Camd, BrU.ed. Lond. p.l28^ 


ttiuch so, that Strabo's declaration* req[>^ting the 
iUiterateIy4)arbarous and geograplucal terms of 
Spam's first inhabitants, and the places to vrbidk 
they alluded — ^which, by the way, proceeded from 
ignorance on his part of the languages they were 
derived from — ^has been repeated of the Irish, with 
literal precision, by OTlaherty,f a writer in other 
respects well-informed, and who has thrown no 
small light, too, upon the antiquities of his country. 
For instance, the names of our early progenitors, as 
enumerated by Ptolemy, he, forsooth, describes as 
no less outlandish in their sound than the names of 
the savages ia some of the American foresis.X He 

I > ' > 'I II I ! I I I I I I I III ■> II' - 

* Plura aii|te«i HUpaeiae popdorum Domina apponere piget 
fugieDtem tsediuqd iojucundae soriptionia : nisi forte aiicui Tolupa 
eat ai^dire Plet9iitr<»^ Bcmduetat^ et AUotrigiU el i^a Wa 
deteriora obacitrioraqua iioaiiiia.->**€?c)0$rr. lib. iii« Tbepe ar» 
$trabo's words ; but is it not strange that a writer -whicy ac«' 
knowledges the settlemeat of Pbomieian colonists io Betica 
and CeUiberia, should aot hare recogniaed in Hiesa denomina^ 
tioQs the Syriac sources wljieace Uiey sprang? For the aane^ 
PleUmrif is (^Qanpottnded <^ the Phesaiciaa words, pteteh auTf 
meaning a host of inhabitanla ia the enjoyment of freedom; or 
ofpleta Wt a host of inhatHtaats liTiog m a valley. The namep 
B^dnuks, is also PhoBftktan^ from bardothef residing ia a wood 
or a grassy country* The AUoitigm weie two Phoenician tribes 
established amongst the Celtfteri, whence tfieir name atkrikri- 
i^a, a divided people inhabiting an elevated coualry. Bat 
these and similac aavues of the ancient Spanish dans, ema- 
natiag fiiom Phcsaima and Celtic sources, were any thing hut 
agreeable to Oreciaa ears, 
. t Ogyg» sen. Rer. Iber. Chron. p. 1, pag. IS. 

I In this rhodomaatade of OTkherty he was much more 


even adds^ '* We axe no less ignorant, for tte nrosf 
part, of the import of the names Ausona,* or Ausoba^ 

accurate than he intended, or« as the English say of our coun-^ 
try men, ** he blundered himself into the right." Little did he 
know how near a connexion there existed between the two peo- 
ple whom he affected thus ridiculously to associate; and any 
one who attends to the position which I subjoin, independently 
of many others which could be brought in support of it, will 
a(fmit the happiness of this unintentional coincidence. The 
Algankinese are the most infiuenttail and commandrng people 
in the whole of North America. Their name in Iri^h indicates 
as much, viz. algan-kine, or kine-algan, a noble eommunity^ 
corresponding to the Phoenician words al-gand-gens, which 
means the same thing. The language of this people is the 
master language of the whole country, and what is truly re- 
markable, understood as Baron de Humboldt asserts, by all the 
Indian nations except two. What then are we to infer from this 
obvious affinity ? Why, undoubtedly, that a colony of that same 
people who first inhabited Ireland, and assigned to its several lo- 
calities those characteristic names, which so disconcerted the har- 
mony of Mr. O'Flaherty's acoustic organs, hatl fixed themselves 
at an early date in what has been miscalled the ** new world." 

* Ausoba, or Ausona, is the ancient name of a river in the 
western regimiof Connaught nearNagnata or Gallina, mentioned 
by Ptolemy. Some think it to be the river Galvia [or rather 
the Suck] in Galway ; others Lough Corbes, [or rath'er Gor- 
rib]. The name b, however, almost universally supposed to 
mean "a frith," from the old Britannic words. Anise aba, an 
*' eruption of water," or the old Irish words, Ause obba, of the 
same import, (Collect, de reb. Heb. iii. p. 284). To my mind 
both names appear Phoenician. Ausoba, from auz ob, means 
a narrow bay. Ausona, from aus-on, a resounding river, rich 
in water. In that part of Spain called Farsaconeses, the Hes- 
ania Citerior of the Romans, in the canton of the Ilergetes, 
between Manresa and Gerunda, beside the river Sambroca/ 
there stood an ancient city called Ausona, or Ausa^ which 


Daurona,* Iernus,f Isammum^| Laberus^§ Macoli- 
cuin,|| Ovoca/'^ &c. ; and to crown all, "Even the few 

gave name to the people called Ausetaai. Being destroyed by 
the Arabians, after their invasion of that country, and restored to 
its original levels it was called Vicus Ausonoe, and by the natives, 
Yich de Osona, now merely Vich. There is, also, in the canton 
of the Asturas, a chain of mountains called Ausona ; in Canta- 
bria we find Mount Ausa ; in Boetica the city of Osuna ; in the 
country of the Vacedi are the towns Ausejo and Ausines; in Cel- 
tiberia the valley of Auso ; and other names of thi» kind, of Phoe- 
nician birth, which borrow their names from the adjacent rivers. 

* Daurona is derived from the Phoenician words duron, a 
wealthy people. Spain had an old city in the canton of the 
Celtiberians called Duron, and the ruins of which are to be 
seen to this day. But the name of the river Duro in Spain, as 
well as of the river Dour in the county Cork (or rather county 
Kerry, called now, the Mang,) in Ireland, comes from the 
Celtic word deir, a river. 

t lernus, (now Kenmare river,) either from the Ph«nicia» 
lerain, pious, religious, or from the Greek leme, corrupted, as 
we shall shew in a subsequent chapter, from the Phoenician 
Jherin, and intimating Ireland. 

];Isamnium, (now St. John's Foreland,) from lianim, ancient, 
or Izanim, armed people. 

§ Laberiis, an ancient city in Ireland, recorded by Ptolemy, 
and called the capital of the Vol until by Richard of Ciren- 
cester, (now Kildare,) was celebrated for the idolatrous super- 
stition of the Druids there pre-eminently cultivated. It is 
derived from the Phoenician words lahab era, a flame in a cave^ 
Of the perpetual fire preserved by the sacrificing priests in the 
temples of their idols, or in caves, and here alluded to, we shall 
have occasion to speak more at large in the sequel. 

II Macolicum^ (now Killmallock,) from macolim, the staffs or 
walking sticks of travellers ; as in Gen. xxxii. 10, " For with 
my staff I passed over this Jordan." Metaphorically applied 
to a nation on a journey. 

V Ovoca, the ancient name of a river and bay in the eastern 


names/ he nays, *^ which may perhaps be understood 
are m their meanjbg as yiti£U;ed and as corruptly 
penrerted as the places themselves are decayed by 
time,*^ Surely so distinguished a writer would not 
ha^ve so expressed himself had he but taken the 
trouble to cc»npare such nam^ with the source and 
origin whence they emanated. 

It may happen, indeed, in spite of us, and to our 
great detriment,^ I allow, that we ^may sometimes 
meet with obscure, nay, inexplicable, terms amongst 
the names given of old to some of our states, our 
cities, our rivers, or our mountains ; but this will be 
found, for the most part, to have occurred through 
the fault of historians and antiquarians mystifying 
words otherwise clear, and arbitrarily affixing to 
them whatever meanmg may have been first sug- 
gested by either their caprice or .their ignorance. 
How much more temperately, and at the same time 
more correctly, does that celebrated Irish historic, 
O'Connor, in his Rer. Iber. sa^ipt. vet. 1, p. ^i. 
seq. express himself on this head. " If we but com- 
pare," says he^ ^' the Irish names handed down by 
Ptolemy, severally, wilb the British, and ajfterwards 
with the Spanish names which he has also preserved^ 

section of Irelaod^ aamed by Ptolemy, and by fonse supposed 
%», be the river Arkk^w, by othef s the DubKn 9By, is derived 
firoBi thaPhflBnician woe, he empHed, he evacuated ; whence the 
Arabic o6ec, or obict a watev-conduk^ a pipe wherd>y water is 
conveyed into a bath. 


t^e must needs acknowledge tliat by &r the greater 
part (rf them are Spanish^, bearing reference to times 
€Kf the most distant date^ and as such accord with 
those accounts which we have heard respecting the 
very ewly landing of the Phoenicians in this ' Iioly 
island/ ""* This erudite writer accordingly steered 
elear of the opinicHa of those who, pinning their faith 
up<m some woidd*be antiquarians, affirm that almost 
all the names of our ancient tribes and colonists cor- 
respond with the genius of the native idiom, and 
must therefore be derived therefrom. Other critics, 
with more chastened taste, and no small d^ee of 
m^rit, derive them m part from the Celtic, in part 
from tibe Cambrian, in part, too, from the Cambrian 
and the old Teutonic ; but neither with these do I 
agree in all particulars, seeing that they would hbi 
grub out from other sources, and no matter at what 
paioA or cost, what I am convinced in my soul are 
derived from the spirit of the Phoenician language,: 
and from that only. 

Bttlletu$ I conceive cme of those who have heen 
thus led a3tray, being, as has been already observed 
by a gaatlemanf pr<tfouiidly conversant in the anti- 
quities of this country, evidently at much pains in. 
Ins commentaries upon the "Celtic Tongue" to 

* For the origin of this^name see]| Preface, or chap, xxxiy. 
sub. fin. 

t The English translator "of IX. Maltet^s work, *• De Sep- 
tcntrionalibirs Antiquitatibus," preface, page 14. 


wrest, if possible, from that source, the names of. 
most of our cities, towns, rivers, &c. Nor wa» 
Lhuyd more successful in his collation of the Irish 
with the Cantabrian language, bearing, as they do, 
infinitely less analogy, one to the other, than the 
Irish and the Phoenician.* I pass over, without 
notice, the names of other writers, who have displayed 
a good deal of industry, and to very little profit, 
upon the geographical names of this island. 

The truth is these gentlemen, with all their learn- 
ing, have not suflSciently sifted the rubbish of the 
Phoenician language, preserved and perpetuated 
in those names by the peasantry themselves, though 
knowing nothing, as we may suppose, of the authors 
of the contrivance ; and this observation I have had 
occasion to make before upon the geographical 
names of Spain, which, in my treatise upon the geo- 
graphy of that country, I have attempted to prove as 
emanating from the same source. And as it must 
be . admitted on ail hands that the marksman who 
aims at the object itself, however distant or elevated, 
is less likely to miss the line of direction, than he 
who would be content with grazing the circular 
superficies, therefore have I ventured to launch my 
vessel at once into the depths of the Phoenician 
fountains, there to explore, and mayhap with success. 

* See Essay on the Antiquity of the Irish Language, being 
a collation of the Irish with the Punic. Dub. 1772. 


the genuine and true solution of those complicated 

The neglect of this on the part of a writer* who 
has otherwise shewn consummate information on 
Irish a£&irsy leads him to suspect that the Phoenicians 
did only occasionally touch upon the Irish coasts for 
the purposes of commerce, both export and import ; 
and that in the course of time, Britain, by reason of 
its wealthy tinf mines, holding out to them more 
commercial inducements, became, consequently, a 
more favorite rendezvous. Here he thinks it pro- 
bable that they built themselves temporary huts, in 
the capacity of purveyors for merchant's cargoes : 
and these abodes, he conceives, not to have lasted 
beyond the period of the third Punic war, when Car- 
thage J was destroyed, and Spain laid claim to by the 

* Vailancey, Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iii. page 405, 406. 

t The abundance of this metal it was that gave rise to the 
name of Britain, being compounded of Bruit, ** tin," and Tan, 
"country;" corresponding to " Cassiterides," the mercantile 
name giTen by the Phoenicians to both Ireland and England. 

X The Carthagenians were a colony of the Phoenicians, who, 
•on account of domestic dissensions, had quit their native home, 
and built themselves a new city, which they called Carthada, 
^r Carthage, which means as much, in contradistinction to 
Tyre, their former residence. The precise time of its founda- 
tion is unknown ; yet writers seem to agree that it was about 
869 years before the Christian era, or according to others, 72 
JOT 03 years before the foundation of Rome. The wars which 
ibis people maintained against the Romans — and which origin. 


In the mean time I would have it distinctly un- 
derstood that I do not deny but that some of those 
Dftmes Hiay have been of Irish (that is of Iberao- 
Celtic) origin. Nay^ I readily adnut the fact. 
This only I maiotam, that most of those whidi are 
supposed to be cd&ifKmnded of the languages of the 

ated altogether in the jealousy and ambition of the latter — have 
been celebrated all over tiie world for the unexampled instances 
they tlisplay of heroic valoar, on the oae hand, of cold fielfish- 
ness and calculating design, on the other; and the awful lesson 
field out on both sides of the inconstancy of human affairs, and 
the transient tenure of human magnificence. For upwards of 
two hundred and forty years, those two nations had beheld with 
^fiecret distruiA each otber^s power, till at length a pretext 
occurred for removing the mask, and the declaration of hos- 
tilities was the inevitable consequence of their inbred hatred. 
The two^rst Punic wars had passed awc^, and the combatants 
on both sides — kept in check by the vigilance of their mutual 
operations^ — had covered themselves with glory and military 
immortality; but in the third, the levelling maxim of Catp, 
who saw that the peace of Italy could never be secured so long 
as the capital of Africa had a bemg, gave atlreadful impetus to 
the Roman- perfidy and dishonour. During seventeen days 
'Carthage was in flames, and the soldiers were permitted to 
redeem from the €re whatever possessions they could lay bold 
.of. But wfailfit others battened in the wasteful riot of the scene, 
the philosophise Scipio, struck vnth melancholy ttt the sight, 
was hoard to repeat two Terses from Homer, which contained 
a prophecy concerning the f&ill of Troy. Being adced by the 
historian Polybins to what he then applied his prediction, ** To 
my ctnmtry,** replied Scipio, **for her too I dread the victm- 
tude of human affairs, lest in her turn $he may exhibit another 
gaming Carthage.** This event happened about the year ^f 
JRone 606. 


Oeits iaiid Ancient Britons, are to be traced to a 
much faigber quarter, namely, the language of the 
PkesnidanSy who in the v^ earliest days, that is 
much about the time of the entrance of the Isradites 
into the land of Canaan, penetrated as ht, in the 
first instance, as the coasts of Africa and Spain, and 
thence — their ambition increasing with the success of 
their enterprises — they extended their researches even 
to the Irish shores. This, then, is my grand posi^ 
tion, to establish which I shall enlist all the energies 
of my mind and zeal — this the prize* to which I 
diall emulously press forward, to point out the 
riches of these Phoenician springs, imd support that 
descent they so irresistibly suggest to us ; that it 
may become manifest to the world that they who 
neglect this scrutiny into the earliest days of the 
Phoenicians, are not qualified as historians to dis- 
cover the true origin of the first inhabitants of Ire- 
land ; still less so to vindicate their opinions on those 
heads, or to refute and overturn those of their adver- 

From what has been here said the reader may, per- 
haps, imagine that the Phoenicians were, in my view, 
the primogenial inhabitants of this country — that^ 
in fact, "Phoenicians*' and "natives" w«e, as re* 

* "PfthMariom^— Sy this wovi the author woukl seem 4a 
allude to the Oreeih phoimi:^ a pahn-tree ; whence some people 
^leriye Phcenioia, asaboundiDg therein. 


garded Ireland^ perfectly synonymous and con* 
vertible terms.* To this point, however, my present 
disquisition I shall not direct. I am well aware of 
all that has been written by some ancient authors 
about the aborigines, or giants, and their sanguinary 
wars with the Partholani.f I know, also, what has 
been said, in more recent times, of the last arrival 
of theGadelians, or Milesians, from the coast of Iberia, 
or Spain. Without either subscribing to, or reject- 
ing, all that the most diligent searchers into Irish 
antiquities affirm, as to this country having been 
first colonized from the countries more adjacent to 
it, and that it was not until after a long lapse of 
years the Phoenicians, the Gadelians, and the Tar- 

* It is more than probable that Ireland remained desert and 
uninhabited from the creation to the deluge. No history, not 
even that of Moses> offers any thing which can lead us to sup- 
pose, that before the universal deluge, men had discovered the 
secret of passing from one country to another that was sepa* 
rated by water. The ark, which was constructed by order of 
God himself, and which served to preserve man on the watery 
element, is the first vessel of which we have any knowledge. — 

t There are some old collections of charters, with many 
other monuments in writing, of the church of Cluan-Mac^ 
Noisk, in Latin *• Cluanensis,^' cited by 0*Flaherty in the 
dedicatory epistle of his Ogygia, which fix the arrival of the 
first colonies in Ireland, under Partholan, in the year of the 
world 1969, three hundred and twelve years after the deluge ; 
this colony was followed by the Nemedians, the Fomorians^ 
the Firbolgs, and the Tuatha de DmivMS.-^McGeoyhegan* 

MHrtW>>Miit«aHW^— T^ 


tesiens had come hither. I have upon these and other 
such topics read over all the authorities^ as well 
modern as ancient^ that lay within my grasp ; and 
whilst in justice and candor I am bound to acknow-p 
ledge myself indebted to their labors on many and 
important particulars that passed in review before 
me, still did I reserve to myself the privilege, as 
jsacred as it is undeniable, gf fpnning my cpnglu^ipn^ 
unbiassed by any authority. 

The chief advantage which humble diligence 
and diffident sagacity can derive froni thp labors 
of able antecedent writer3 is this, that from their 
priority in point of time they may be considered 
as our torch-bearers through the thick and dis* 
couraging darkness of ages in the distance ; yet 
should we not so fix our eyes upon them, as they 
thus precede us in the way, as to omit all attention 
on our part to the safety of our own footsteps. 
Some of them often chalk out to themselves a road 
through which it would be any thing but safe to 
follow them, and I have accordingly, guarding 
against such a risk, thought proper in many in* 
stances to take an unbeaten track and a new line of 
journey. But inasmuch as no one hath before m§ 
ever attempted this career, I may be allowed, I 
trust, to hope that — if I shall inadvertently havQ 
omitted* any thing in those commentaries which may 

* "Where apcient coins?" We acknowledge WP h'4Y§ ' 


seem within the province of an etymologist's duty — 
and in so vast a medley of names it is impossible but 
tibat some such oversight will occur — ^it will be in- 

none. But you yourself tell us, that it was perhaps a thousand 
years before our era, that the Phoenicians traded to Britain and 
Ireland, (agreeing pretty nearly with the calculations of our 
native writers,) and you elsewhere say, that the Phoenicians 
did not coin money till six hundred years later. Do you ex- 
pect our Phoenician ancestors should have had coins 600 years 
before they had learned how to make them 1 You also say 
elsewhere, that *' had the Phoenicians settled in any part of 
Britain or Ireland, their usual splendour would have attended 
them ; a few Phoenician coins," you add, " may perhaps be 
found in Britain and Ireland, a circumstance naturally to be 
expected from their trading there, but had there been any settle- 
ments, there would have been ruins and numerous coins struck 
at the settlement, as at all those in Spain." To all this, it is 
only necessary to reply, that there are no remains of Phoenician 
cities now to be found in Spain, and that the Punic coins and 
inscriptions found there are clearly of Carthaginian origin, and 
consequently cannot claim a very remote antiquity. Had the 
Irish asserted a descent from the Carthaginians, the want of 
such inscriptions and coins would be conclusive against theip ; 
but as the learned Lord Ross (then Sic^L. Parsons,) observes, 
no writer of note has ever said so, and we refer the reader to 
that distinguished nobleman's '* Defence of the Ancient His- 
tory of Ireland," for conclusive arguments on that point. Mr. 
Pinkerton finally shouts, *' ^here is the least trace of ancient 
art or science in your whole island ?" We respond, they are 
exhibited abundantly in the numerous antiquities of gold, silver, 
and bronze, dug up every day in all parts of Ireland, and 
similar to the most ancient remains of the Greeks, Egyptians, 
and Phoenicians. Our gold crowns, collars, bracelets, anklets 
-—our brazen swords, spears, and domestic vessels — our cinerary 
ums^ — our cairns with sepulchral chambers, which are not to 


dulgently overlooked by the learned amongst my 
/ readers — and by them it is more likely to be so over- 
looked knowing by experience, as they do, the diffi- 
culties and the accidents to which such pursuits are 
liable — than by those who, receiving their information 
by hearsay from others, cannot appreciate the trouble 
which its acquisition may have cost, but think it as 
obvious to every one as it proved in their own in- 
stance. The variety and obsoleteness of those 
names have obliged many a searcher itito their origin, 
after a wearisome and fruitless pursuit, to give it 
over in disgust : they have then contented them- 
selves, as they fain would their readers, with vague 
guesses, or obscure intimations of more obscure con- 
jectures. Often have they assigned to them a mean- 
ing not only different from the true one, but even 
opposite thereto, and such as must at once so appear 
fi^m the actual condition and circumstances of the 
inhabitants, the locality of cities, and several other 
divisional and characteristic denominations. Not that 
I would detract in the least from the merit of those 
worthy men who have bestowed their pains — and 
laudably so bestowed them — in illustrating the geo- 
graphy of this my adopted country : — no — I com- 

be paralelled in the British isles — and lastly, in those Cyclopean 
works, agreeing identically with those in the islands, and on 
the shores of the Mediterranean, universally attributed to the 
Phoenicians. These are the evidences of the early coloniza* 
tion of Ireland. — JDuhlin Penny JaumaL 


mend their efforts— they have pioneered for me a 
path. If I shall appear to have surpassed them in 
any things for this I am indebted to that greater 
degree of care which the opportunities of my leisure 
have enabled me to bestow upon the valuable labors 
of the great men of antiquity. These I peruse with 
incessant delight — these I court with undiminishing 
assiduity, to see if from the overflow of their genius 
I may be able to imbibe a single drop to irrigate, 
with the vapour of their fructifying stream, the ste- 
rile plants of my shallow capacity. For I am not one 
of those who leave no engine untried, no stone un- 
turned, to detect little blemishes in every writer 
amongst the ancients, and who vilify and distort the 
very noblest discoveries — the very grandest pro- 
ductions of human ingenuity, — singly and solely, and 
without any other assignable cause, than because 
that their own petty souls cannot relish nor com- 
prehend the innate moral beauty of any thing that 
is laudable. 




Arrival of the Phcenicians together with the Iberians in Ire* 
land — Memorials of them in Fermoy — Leaba-Chaillde, its 
etymology — Origin of the words Peine and Fenians — the 

But to return to our subject. — To me it appears 
indisputable, as it is also the opinion of O'Connor, 
that those Phcenicians who had invaded Boetica^ — 'and 
who in pursuance of, what seems to have been their 
original destination, the discovery of Mines,* had in 
conjunction with the Iberians or Celtiberians f pro- 

* Strabo telb us that they drew such quantities of gold and 
^ther commodities from this country as to make them pass a 
law declaring it death to discover its situation to strangers. 
The same was their motive for designating the British islands, 
Ireland and England, by the general name of Cassiterides, ex- 
pressive of their tin mines, withholding, however, their geo- 
graphical position for fear of intrusion upon their commerce. 

t The composition of this name, Celtse and Iberus, might 
have been designed to distinguish the Celtes on that, from those 
on this, side the Pyrenees — iher in the old Celtic, signifying 
over^ as Gaul was divided into Cis and Trans Alpine, and 
Spain into Citerior and Ulterior, Lucan, however, would 
seem to imply that they were so denominated as a mixed gene- 


ceeded thence onwards to Ireland, to work the iron 
and tin mines for which it was celebrated — were the 
earliest or amongst the earliest inhabitants of this 
island — at least *the southern and western parts of it. 
I am convinced also, that the plain of Fermoy — called 
in the '' Annals of Innisfallen '' the '' Plain of the 
Phoenicians" — was not so denominated without a just 
and good cause, seeing that in this district we meet 
with stone pillars erected after the Phoenician fashion, 
in plains and upon little hillocks, in great numbers, 
and of almost monstrous proportions. In this opinion, 
therefore, I unhesitatingly acquiesce, in preference to 
that of a writer already alluded to, who has asserted 
that there are no vestiges of either citadels or old 
temples to be £Dund in Ireland at this day that could 
properly be attributed to the Phoenician era. Why, 
nn exceedingly antique and truly wonderful monu- 
ment of this description, * though in ruins, is to be 

ration of Celtse and Iberi — '' profugique a gente yetusta Gal- 
lorum CeltaB misceotes nomen Iberis/' — Lih. 4. They were a 
brave and powerful people, and made strong head against the 
Homans and Carthaginians in their respective invasions — their 
country is now called Arragon. 

* I should be disposed to include amongst this class the 
small vaulted stone chambers called in Irish '' Teach Draoi/^ 
Druids house, some of which are to be seen on the coast of 
Keny, at Cashil, at Dundrum, &c. evidently pertaining to a 
distant dat6, coeval, almost with the ''round towers/^ but uf a 
less noble — though still religious applicatioa. M or should I 
omit to mention the sacraficial altars called ^* Cromleach/' that 


seen in the village of Glan worth, * barony of Fermoy, 
county of Cork, and province of Munster, consisting 
of two stone pillars, placed at right angles, in an 
oblong square. This laborious and stupendous piece 
of workmanship is deservedly ascribed to the Phoe- 
nicians, after their expulsion by Joshua, and was in- 
tended> no doubt, either fox the worship of some 
idol, or to pepetuate the memory of some hero there 
interred. The Irish call this structure Leaba-chaillde, 
meaning thereby Callid's couch, for *' leaba " in Irish 
signifies a couch or bed ; but who this Callid was, no 
one that I can discover, even soothsayer or prophet, 
hath ever asserted or dared to guess ; much less can it 
be ascertained from the interpretation of the populace 
who understand by the term the *' old hag's bed." In 
support however of this explanation, it is alledged that 

r ■ ■ " 

is, the yiag of the Deity, being an immeiise flat stone, supported 
by pedestals, and sometimes, where the ground was sufficiently 
high, or where the weight of the incumbent stone rendered it too 
difficult to remove it, without any pedestals ; nor the hypogae 
or antra Mithrae, being subterraneous vaults, of which the most 
astonishing yet discovered is that at ** New Grange," corrupted 
from Grein>Uagh, i. e. cave of the sun or Mithras, in the county 
of Meath. This name is still preserved in Innis Mithra or 
Murra, otherwise *^ isle of sun,'' nine miles from Sligo, where 
is to be seen one of those clock greine^ or clock nmtdkr, i. e. 
sun stones, being a conical pillar of stone placed on a pedestal 
surrounded by a wall to preserve it from profanation, and cor- 
responding to the Makodee stone of the Gentoos, which is a 
corruption of the Irish words mah De, i. e. good God. 
* So called from the goodness of its soil. 


&11 monuments similarly constructed are called the by 
trish^ Leapa na Peine, by tvhich they conceive are 
meant the dormitaries or sleeping places of the Fe- 
nians, their celebrated militia of warriors- 

With all respect, however, to the distinguished in- 
dividuals who think thus, and otherwise, I am inclined 
to imagine that Leaba-Chaillde is a Phoenician expres^- 
sion, slightly vitiated, and composed of the words 
lehab shallaid, a burned corpse, indicating the grave 
of some illustrious hero deceased and buried therein.* 
Por lehab, in the t^hoenician language, is a flame^ 
whence zalehab, to burn, and shallaid is a corpse, or 
trunk of a dead body. Leopana too would seem to 
be derived from the Phoenician lepin or leponin, that 
is, swathings or liguments, or from leopin, linen or 
towels ; as much as to say, that, underneath was in- 
terred some Phoenician hero, and, according to the 
eastern custom, wrapt up in bandages. 

But what if it should appear that Peine was a name 
given not to any individual Phoenician, but in general 
to any chieftain or leader ? For in the Phoenician 
dialect fen or feineh> which means the gable or out- 
ward angle of a building, is applied metaphorically 
to the leader of a camp, the chiefs or captains, who 
are the strength of the people> as the corner stone or 

* lu the Syriac version of the Gospel accordiug to St. MnU 
theWy {xiv. 12.) it is said of John the Baptist, who was put to 
death by Hetod, *' his diifoiples took away his body^ ihailldah, 
and buried it<" 


gable is of a house.* Should this exposition be ad-^ 
Knitted^ — and I see no reason why it should not, — we 
need not then have recourse to Fenius the ancestor ^ 
according to an old Irish poemf of Breoganus who 
built Brigantia, now Braganza in Spain, and whose 
posterity are believed to have sailed thence into Ire- 
land^ under the conduct and auspices of Heber and 
Heremon. I more incline to the opinion of those who 
would have the troops of the ancient Irish denomi- 
nated Fenians, not as though they were Phoenicians 
or descended from them, but because that they ex- 
hibited in their conduct the prowess and fortitude of 
the IberO'-Phoenicians, who had formerly settled in the 
Country, and whose memory wai^ preserved amongst 
the inhabitants by long and repeated traditions. For 
their soldiers, the Phcenii, who were equally called 
clanna^ Baoisgene, or the sons of the Basgneans, that 
is the Vasconians, were never accounted of Phoeni- 
cian extraction, nor to have obtained that name from 
any leader called Baoisgenes, but from the Vasconse 
of Cantabria^ whence we are informed that Milesius 
had emigrated to Ireland, of antient date^ and with 

* i^o in Judges, zx. 2. '' and all the angles, (feirioth,) of 
the people met." And 1 Kibgs, xiv. 28. *' apply bither all 
the angles, gimoth of the people. 

t Ooemaniis in carmine : Canam bunadhus nan GoadhiL 
(Cano oHginem Gadeliorum ) 

X Clanna is an Irish word, signifying sons or decendants« 
Bo is baoisge also, and means a flash of light, and metaphori' 
Gaily a vain glorious^ or boastful fellow .^-^iSSee G'Coimot* 


an immense army.* Nor, indeed, should we omit 
noticing that those Fenii, that is, the celebrated old 
Irish militia, otherwise called feinne, might have 
been so denominated from the ilrish word feine, sig- 
nifying a rustic or serf, as it is more than probable 
that this military corps were originally embodied 
from out of the class of the peasantry. To this point 
however, we shall again revert when speaking ex- 
pressly, and in detail, of the word Fene as one of the 
old clans of this country .f 

• See O* Connor. 

f The history of mankind would be one of the most pleasing 
studies in the universe, were it not often attended with the 
most humiliating, the most melancholy considerations. By 
studying human nature. We are led to consider in what manner 
we were formed by our all-wise Creator ; what we have made 
ourselves, in consequence of our disobedience to the divine law ; 
what we may be through Divine grace; and then what we 
shall be in glory. Principles of this nature, should strike 
deep into our minds, when we consider the state of the heathen 
world, and, at the same time, reflect on the many blessings we 
enjoy. In vain do we pride ourselves in any of our endow- 
ments, in vain do we pretend to superior attainments ; for if 
our affections are as much attached to earthly objects as those 
of the heathens, then we are much more inexcusable than 
they. We have all the truths of the gospel laid open to us, 
while they remain in a state of ignorance, worshipping the 
works of their own hands. Nay, worshipping even reptiles 
and insects, offering human sacrifices, shutting up their bowels 
of compassion, and trampling upon every moral obligation. 
This will naturally apply to what we are now going to relate, 
for the dignity of our holy religion never shines so bright, as 
when contrasted with heathen superstition, pagan idolatry, and 
every thing else that can dishonour our nature. — Burd. 



Ireland catted hy different names by the Phcenicians — tnu 
nabjiodha — Fiod Inis — Criocafrind — Ere — Fodhla,from the 
root of which latter term the Phcenicians. called all Africa by 
the name of Phut— Banba — Fail—Elga* 

But my present design being to illustrate the 
names of the several localities of this country, as- 
serted already and maintained to have been of Phoeni- 
cian birth, I shall begin from its very first settlers, 
whose tribes it will be shewn have borrowed their 
names from that language ; and in this retrospective 
view the island itself claims our first regard, as 
known both to foreigners and to natives under va- 
rious appellatives. By the natives it was called Inis 
nab fiodha, by which they would intimate the " island 
of woods ;** in which sense it was also called Inis 
fiod, the "island of timber " or trees, fi'om fiod, timber, 
and inis> an island ; and again, crioca frindh, the 
final wood ; fi'om croch, a boundary, and fridh, a 
wood.* It may have happened, indeed, that subsequent 

^ • ■— ^ —- • II '■ II !■ I I I I II I I ■-[ 111 -- I - I ■ ■ I II I 

* I never saw one hundred contigaous acres in Ireland in 
which there were not evident signs that they were once wood^ 
or, at least) very well wooded. Trees and the roots of treesi of 


settlers, from ignorance of their true meaning, endea- 
voured to accommodate to the spiritof their own lan- 
guage these names and terms which they found ready 
to their hand, and sanctioned by the usage of 
their predecessors ; but as to their being originally 
Phoenician, that is indisputable and beyond the pos^ 
sihility of doubt. Inis nab fiodha is compounded, 
as before observed, of the words, Inis, an island ; 
nab, of; and fiod, a wood : Inis, again, is composed 
of the Phoenician words, In-is, meaning idolatrous 
inhabitants, of intrepidity and spirit — in or un being 
idolatry, and is, an inhabitant of manly spirit ; 
whilst the two latter words, nab-fiodah, are properly 
derived from the Phoenician naboa, an origin, and 
phiobd, those who dwelt in a vanquished land. So 
that Inis-nab-fiodah conveyed to the Phoenicians the 
following idea, viz. who dwelt originally in a van- 
quished land, or the posterity of those who sojourn- 
ed in a country which they took by conquest. 

the largest size, are dug up in all the bogs ; and in the culti- 
vated countries, the stumps of trees destroyed show that the 
destruction has not been of any ancient date : a vast number of 
Irish names for hills, mountains, valleys^ and plains, have 
forests, woods, groves, or trees, for their signification. The 
greatest part of the kingdom now exhibits a naked, bleak, 
dreary view, for want of wood, which has been destroyed for 
a century past, with thoughtless prodigality, and still continues 
to be cut and wasted, as if it were not worth the preservation* 


Fiod Inis, from the Phoenician words, fiot inis, 
that is, idolatrous inhabitants who deprecate, for fiot 
means deprecation. 

Crioca frindh, from cri-ocal, cities, towns, or vil- 
lages abounding in victuals, provisions, or food ; and 
firin, the earth's produce — all which enunciate the 
productiveness of this country. 

I pass over to the vulgar, yet most ancient names 
given to Ireland, such as Ere Fodhla, and Banba, 
borrowed, as some historians aver, from three royal 
sisters, the last queens of the Tuatha Dedan, to 
which Fiech* the Scholiast adds two others, Fail and 
Elga. But it is not safe trusting to fabulous records 
MTapt up in darkness and unsubstantiated by proof ; 
more especially when we may otherwise account for 
the origin of these words by tracing them to the spi- 
rit of the Phoenician language — for Ere comes from 
araa or eree, a country, a climate, the inhabitants of 
one region. Fodhla from the words phut lah, or 
phot lah, a green land, which was formerly the 
proper appellation of Ireland, whence the Greeks 
used to call it smaragdon, the emerald,f from the 

* Thb was the celebrated convert and disciple of St. Patrick, 
afterwards promoted to the bishopric of Sletty, in the Queen's 
county, who flourished at the end of the fifth and beginning of 
the sixth century — distinguished by many literary productions, 
but best known by his poetical hymn, or panegyric upon his 
beloved instructor, the apostle of our forefathers. 

t "The Emerald" stone, in its purest state, is of a bright 



greenness and luxuriant freshness of its soil^ as ap- 
pears from the quotation " grandes viridi cum luce 
smaragdi." Unless you would rather suppose it to 
have been so denominated by the Phoenicians from 
its likeness to the country inhabited by Phut, the 
third son of Ham. Nor need we wonder if some of 
these should have so named this island, as they had 
formerly all Africa,* whose western parts, namely, 

and naturally polished surface, and of a pure and charming 
green, without any mixture of any other color : 

Fair as the glittering waters 

Thy emerald banks that lave^ 
To me thy graceful daughters, 

Thy generous sons as brave. 
Oh I there are*hearts within thee 

Which know not shame or guile. 
And such proud homage win thee — 

My own green isle ! — Barton. 

* In ancient times, this country was considered as a third 
part of the terrestrial globe, and it may be properly called a 
peninsular ; for were it not for that small tract of land running 
between the Red Sea and the Mediterranean, it would actually 
be an island. It is remarkable, that in ancient times there 
were many christians here, who had fair and flourishing 
churches, and here some of the most eminent christian fathers 
resided ; among these were Cyprian, bishop of Carthage ; 
Austin, bishop of Hippo ; and Tertullian, the famous apolo- 
gist. These African churches continued to flourish till about 
the middle of the seventh century, when the Arabians, under 
their caliphs, established Mahometanisro in many parts, such as 
Egypt, Morocco, Algiers, &c. but at present, the greater 
number of the inhabitants are idolators. But here we find it 
impossible for us to inform the reader, from whence these 


Mauritania Tingitana,* wherein lies Lybia, are to 
this day known by this name ; and the river that en- 
compasses those parts is still called Phuti^ and the 
country all about Phutensis.f 

Banba would seem derived from the Phoenician 
words bana baha, cities built in an extensive region, 
or a country abounding in towns or cities. 

Fail from the Phoenician faila, or a husbandman, a 
serf, which comes from filah to plough, to harrow up 
the soil, whence also failhin, agriculture, tillage. 

Elga from the Phoenician helca, usage, privilege, 
designating probably the customs and ordinances of 
the primitive sages, which were the rule of conduct 
and the model of imitation to the Irish from the very 

modem idolators derive their worship ; for it bears no manner 
of affinity to that of either the Greeks, Romans, or Egyptians ; 
and there is so little of the ancient religion of the Ethiopians, 
Nigritians, &c. preserred in it, that it would prove a very dif- 
ficult task to trace from those remains the idolatry of their 
descendants. — Hurd, 

* So called from Tingis, now Tangier the capital, to distin- 
guish it from Numidia, which was called Mauritania Caesari- 
ensis after Claudius, who had reduced both kingdoms to the 
condition of Roman provinces. Mauritania is derived from 
Maur, i. e. a western, it being to the west of Carthage and 
Phoenicia. It is now the empire of Fez and Morocco. 

t Valent. Schindi. Oderan. lex pent col. 1427. 




Ogygia an ancient name for Ireland — Various opinions as to its 
etymology — Ogyges king of Thebes — Egypt called pgygia — 
would seem a Phoenician name, relating to geography, or else 
indicating the bloody sacrifices of the Druids — Oia a valley 
of Jerusalem — Perpetual fire in Tophet — 4« also in the temple 
of Hercules at Oades, and in other idol temples — Origin cf 
this rite — Sons burnt by their parents in honor of Moloch — 
Meaning of dragging children through fire — Customary with 
the ancients to offer human vi^tim^ to idol^, 

Plutarch and the old poets have given to Ireland 
the name of Ogygia, to intimate thereby, as Camden 
and others after him have supposed, their thorough 
conviction of its extreme antiquity. This opinion they 
have formed, not more from the distant recesses of 
time which the Irish explore in their historical inves- 
tigations, than from the well known practice of the 
poets, giving — from Ogyges the most ancient king of 
Thebes — the name of Ogygia to any thing that is 
ancient. * Some would have Egypt on this account 

* More especiaUy if such antiquity be involved in darkness 
and in doubt, as every thing relating to the origin of this king, 
the age in which he lived, and the duration of his reign, con- 
fessedly is. O^ygium id appellant posetsip, tanquam pervetus 


called Ogygia, because that its inhabitants are re- 
corded to be the most ancient in the world, and 
the inventors, at the same time, of all or most of the 
sciences and arts which were subsequently borrowed 
and improved, to much advantage, by the several 
Asiatic and Grecian states.* 

For my part, though I would not altogether ex- 
plode the purport of this explanation, yet I should 
rather imagine Ogygia to be a Phoenician term, 
compounded of the words hog-igia, that is, " the sea 
girt isle," or hog-igiah, an inhabitant surrounded by 
the ocean. For the Phoenicians who had begun to 
frequent in distant voyages the uttermost part of 
either ocean, and who, as Strabo mentions, having 
proceeded even beyond the ''pillarsf of Hercules," had 
circumnavigated the greater part of the habitable 
globe, finding the earth on every side encompassed 
by that watery expanse o'er whose bosom they were 
wafted to their enterprising destinations, very signi- 
ficantly gave the name of " hag" to that " watery ex- 

dixeris ab Og^yge vetustissimo. — Rhodogonvs^ lib. 15, cap, 38. 
See Pint. Hb. de facia in orbe lunm*, Slatyrius, an English 
poet, calls this island, Ogygia, in his " Pale Aibione/' 

• Camb. Brit. tit. Bibernia. 

•f Two lofty mountains named Caipe and Abyla, situate, 
one on the most southern extremity of Spain, the other on 
the opposite part of Africa, which Hercules is said to have 
erected, with the inscription of ne plus ultra, as if they had 
been the extreme points of the world. 



panse,** intimating thereby the ^' sea circumference/* 
not unlike what the Arabians designate it, ** the 
circumambient sea." From hence arose the Greek 
word Ogen, the ancient name for the ocean amongst 
that people ; whence it is very probable, as many 
think, that Ireland was called Ogygia by Plutarch. 
It is worthy of note too, that hag, which is common 
as well to the Hebrews as the Phoenicians, occurs in 
scripture as a cosmographical term, used by Isaiah 
(xi. 22.) to express emphatically the circle of the 
earth, and by Solomon* to indicate the circle above 
the face of the abyss.f 

But the foregoing interpretation must not make 
us treat with contempt, nor fancy it a dream on the 
part of those who imagine that by the name of 
'^ Ogygia" allusion is made to the bloody victims which 
the Druids and other sacrificing priests, introduced 
by the Phoenicians into this country, used offer to their 
idols according to the Syriac custom in Ireland, no 
less than in Spain, and Gaul, and other nations of 
those denominated Gentiles. For in the Phoenician 
language, og-igiah means grief or sorrow for one 
burned, being compounded of og, he burned, and 
igiah, he made sorrowfiil. Whence the valley 
near Jerusalem wherein Tophet was situated, and in 
which fire was perpetually preserved for burning the 

* Proverbs viii. 27. 
t Bochart Geog. i. 36. 


o£&ls and bones of the dead bodies therein sacrificed, 
— sons, by the way, whom their very parents used to 
immolate to the idol Moloch, dragging them with 
their own hands through two funeral pyles until death 
interfered in mercy to their excruciations— was called 
gia or gianon, from that horrifying abomination. 
By this too is confirmed the belief of the Phoenicians 
having made, it a custom to preserve fir^e *' inexHn-' 
guukable** in the temples of their gods, as Silius asr 
serts of the temple of Gades or Cades, which they 
had tikere erected and devoted to Hercules. * 

The '^ evil spirit," no doubt, the great enemy of the 
human species, and consequently the rival of Jehovah, 
in this the weakest quarter of the universal createicl 
sdieme, had his priests also to preserve his fire in 
the temples of his idols, so as to appear not inferior 
to the people of Israel whom God had enjoined to 
feed the fire continually upon the altar. Hence the 
Greeks at Delphi and at Athens, used to preserve it 
both night and day ; and if ever, by any aecident, it 
got extinguished, they used to light it again by the rays 
of the sun. The Pyrea of the Persians are also well 
known, in which they used not only to preserve the fir^ 
in an everlasting blaze, but even worship it as a divi- 

* Under this appellation was typified the sun, the twelve 
labors of the •* hero," being Qotbingmore than a figurative repre. 
sentation of the annual course of that luminary through the 
tweWe signs of the zodiac— /S»ee Porp. Sch, Be$» 

F 2 



nity.* Strabo describes this pyratheia (xv) or fire- 
worship, as existing also in Capadocia.f The vestal 
virgins, never allowed the sacred fire to be ex- 
tinguished, it being a point of fearful and intense 
anxiety to the Romans, as they never failed to 
look upon its extinction as a sure presage of the 
overthrow of their city. This custom penetrated 
even to India, to the Brahmins themselves, who, we 
have the authority of Arumianus for saying, *' used 
to guard the fire on hearths ever burning/' But 
the superstition had its origin with the sacrificing 
priests of the Syrians, who were wont in honour of 
Moloch to drag their own children through heaps 
of fire. J 

This dragging amounted in some instances to an 
actual burning of children; sometimes only to a 
scorching, produced by their being either conducted 

* Brison de regno Persarum. 

t This country — once so immersed io profligacy and vice as 
to share in the dishonor of the proverbial alliteration of the 
Greek, *' tria kappa kakuta," the Cretans and the Cilicians being 
the other two of the trio, was notwithstanding, ennobled by 
being the birth place of Strabo, and of many martyrs and 
heroes, such as Gregory Nazoenzen, Gregory Nysson, and St. 
Basil, not forgetting the celebrated St. George, who had been 
a tribune of soldiers (colonel) under the emperor Dioclesian, 
and afterwards appointed patron of the order of the garter by 
Edward III, all of whom shed a lustre over the histtiry of the 
place, and redeem its character though almost irreparable. 

t Levit. xviii. 21. xx. 3, 4, 6. 


or carried through a space betwixt two immense 
fires, by their comari or priests, or, according to their 
direction, by the parents themselves. Comar, or 
cumar, as also mar, meant, with the Chaldeans and 
Sjrrians, a gentile priest, a Camillas, or minister of 
idols ; whence the Sjnriac word cumaruth, priesthood, 
and the rabinical cumari, a monk. But they were 
so denominated firom the burning of victims, for with 
the people of the east camar means to burn. There 
are those, however, who think that the verb '* to drag 
across," when used in this acceptation, is equivalent 
in import with the verb to '* burn." Vossius is of 
opinion that when the scriptures make mention of 
this dragging, " burning" is not thereby implied, but 
merely ''conducting" between two fires. Never- 
theless, he acknowledges that independently of this 
scorching, which prevailed in all families, no matter 
how affluent, or strangers to want, there was also a 
live-burning of their dearest pledges, and from the 
very flower of the people too, whereby, in the mad- 
ness of their superstition, they had cajoled themselves 
into a belief that their deities could be propitiated 
on occasions of great calamites. 

That this was the opinion of the Phoenicians is 
evident from Porphyry.* We learn from Scripture, 

* The original name of this writer and philosopher, and 
greatest enemy, in both capacities, that Christianity ever ex- 
perienced, was Melek, which in the Syriac language signifies 


ttbo, that this worship had obtained throughout the 
land of Canaan* and Mediterranean Syria, which 
comprehended Phoenicia within its extensive boun* 
daries« f'or we read of the Israelites, in Psalm cv. 
being mixed with the Gentiles, and learning all their 
practices, sacrificing, (izbechu) after their example, 
their gons and daughters to demons — that is to the 
graven images of Canaan. And respecting the 
Assyriansf who were brought over to Samaria, the 
history of IT. Kings, xvii. 81, records that those who 
were of Sepharvaim were wont to burn their sons in 
honor of Adrammelech and Anammelech, the gods of 
Sepharvaim. J Quintus Curtiu8§ treats of the human 

" King/' changed afterwards by Longmus, his preceptor, to 
Por|)hyriiit, from pw^wa, the Greek for purple, which kings 
usually wore. He was a native of Tyre, and died, I believe, ia 
Sicily, A.D. 304. 

* The first city founded in this celebrated country, known 
by the several names of PhoNiicia, Palesune, Canaan, Israel, 
and Judea, and one literally flowing with aulk and iKmey, was 

t This, the first great monarchy established on th^ earth, 
took its naaoe from Ashnr, the second son of Shem, who 
founded it about the year 341 after the flood. It is at prosent 
called Cnrdislon, u e, the country of the Curdes, from the 
Curdo mountains. 

I Supposed, by Sir Isaac Newton, to have been the Sephara 

of Ptolemy, and both to correspond with Pantibibla, where 

Zesuthrus deposited the records which he wrote before the 

flood. Pantibibla firon pan, all, and biblon^ a book, is the 

Oreek translation of Sephara, which comes from Spkar, a book 

or record. 
^ The era of this historian, the romantic biographer of Alex- 


victims offered by the Sjrrians. Diodorus Siculus,* 
(xx) and Tertullian^f (Adyers. Gnost. c. vii.) record 
the same of their Carthaginian colonies, as does Por- 
phyry of the people of Rhodes ; J and says Paulus 
Fagius> in the Chaldee paraphrase of Leviticus^ 
^^ They used to dance in the interim whilst the boy 
was being burned in the blazing fire^ striking their 
timbrels the while^ to drown thereby the shrieks of 

ander the Great, is not sufficteDlIy determined — some making 
him cotemporaty with Claudius ; others with Vespasian ; and 
others, ftg&in» with Augustus. 

* This was the writer of whom Vincent used to say, that 
" Every word of his was a sentence, and every sentence 
& triumph over error/' He was called Siculus, as being 
born at Argyra, in Sicily ; and flourished about 44 years B.C. 

t This eloquent writer was originally a Pagan, aiid after his 
conversion became Bishop of Carthage, his native place, A. D. 
196. He afterwards separated from the Catholic Church, and 
plunged into the errors of the Montonists. 

I This celebrated island, in the Carpathian sea, was so named 
from (Gesurat) Rhod, which in the Phoeniciaii language meaus 
" snake," (island) corresponding to '' Ophiusa," another name 
thereof, and which, in the Greek, signifies the very same thing 
— from ophis, a snake. Others derive it from rodon, a rose, 
for which, as well as snakes, the island was remarkable, and 
adduce, in confirmation, several Rhodian coins, exhibiting the 
sun, to which the island was sacred, on one side, and a rose on 
the other. But this was a mistake of the moderns not knowing 
the Phoenician origin of the word Rhod, and wresting it to the 
resemblance of their own rodon, corroborated somewhat by the 
accident of finding of a rose-bud of brass in laying the founda- 
tion of the ancient city of Lindus. The same objection, how* 
ever, equally applies to this, being only a little more antece- 
dent in point of time. 



the unfortunate sufferer." He therefore, methinks 
cannot be suspected of a wild-goose pursuit who, 
depending upon these authorities, conceives that, in 
the name of Ogygia, allusion is made either to the 
Syriac settlers in this country who came from that 
quarter of the land of Canaan, or to the Phoenician 
worshippers of Moloch, who, as we shall hereafter 
prove, introduced this custom of human sacrifices, 
along with other bloody ceremonies and practices, 
into their several colonies** 

* Tbe inhabitants of all nations in the universe believe in the 
necessity of an atonement for sin, before men can be justified 
by the Supreme Being, and although very unworthy notions 
have been formed concerning the existence of such an essential 
point in religion, yet it does not follow that the principle itself 
is false. Nay it rather proves the contrary, for there is some- 
thing in every man*s conscience which points out to him that he 
has offended God, and that some attonement must be made, 
either by himself or by another. Now these heathens in India 
believe, that an attonement has been made for their sins, and 
they are to have tht choice of enjoying the benefits of it, on two 
conditions : either they are to visit several holy cities at a vast 
distance from each other, or secondly, they are declared to be 
absolved, in consequence of their repeating the names of their 
gods, twenty-tour times every day. Such as visit the holy 
places, offer up a sacrifice ; and on the tail of the victim is 
written the name of the penitent, with the nature of bis offence. 
This practice seems to have been universal in ancient times ; it 
was so among the Greeks, the Romans, the Carthagenians and 
the Jews; and the prophet Isaiah alludes to it, when he says 
of. Christ, ** surely he hath born our griefs, and carried our 
sorrows." Isaiah liii. 4. — Hurd. 



The name Hihemia given to this island variously written by 
the Greeks and the Latins — Of Phoenician origin — Other 
names, Eri, Eire, Iris, Lug — The Irish called Erin, Erion, 
and ErigincB — Ire Erion — Coiiri— Miluir — ChndhoTiod —All 
Phoenician names. 

But the most ancient name we meet with ever 
given to this island is Hibernia, the name by which 
Cssar^ Pliny, Tacitus, Solinus, and others have 
designated it. Eustathius calls it Overnia and Ber- 
nia; St. Patrick,* Hiberia and Hiberio. With the 
Greek writers^it is louetnia, loueme, and leme, all 
derived from the Phoenician Iberin, meaning extre- 
mities, limits, or boundaries. From whence comes 
Ibeme, the remotest habitation ; because, as Bo- 
chart, Geog. sacr. i. 39, well explains it, '' The an- 

* The family name of this Tenerable saint and celebrated 
apostle of the Irish was Succat, which, in Irish, signifies, 
•* prosperous in battle." He was afterwards named Magonius, 
when ordained deacon, and, finally, Patricius, when conse- 
crated a bishop. He was by birth a North Briton, born A.D. 
872, near the village of Nempthur, or Banavan, in Tabernia, 
now Dumbarton, and brought a captive, at an early age, into 
Ireland, in one of those predatory excursions which our an- 


cients knew nothing beyond Ireland towards the ocean 
except the vast sea.** Whence he infers that the Phoe- 
nicians^ distinguished €is they were for pushing their 
voyages to the remotest extremities of the globe, 
must have been thoroughly acquainted with the 
locality of this country. 

For I cannot at all bring myself to coincide in 
opinion with those, who imagine that this name had 

cestors indulged in after the withdrawal of the Romans from 
Kitaiii« Fiech thus alludes to theae circumstances : — 
** Patrick was born at Nempthur, 

As related in stories ; 

A youth of sixteen years. 

When carried into captivity — 

Succat was his name among his own tribes ; 

Who his father was be it known — 

He was son of Calphurnias and Otide, 

Grandson of the Deacon Odesse/' 
This Odesse is, by St. Patrick himself* called Potitus, as was 
Otide, otherwise called Concbessa, being sister to St. Martin* 
Bishop of Tours. — ^The clergy at this period had not been en- 
joined celibacy. He died on the 17th of March, A. D, 493, 
at the great age of 120 years* and was buried at Down* in the 
same tomb with St. Bridget and St. C<^ulnba* according to the 
Latin distich — 

** In bnrgo Dnno tumulo tumulantnr in uno 

Brigida* Patricius, et Columba pius." 

Thus translated : 
'* In Down three saints one tomb do fill, 

Bridget* Patrick, and Columb Rill.'* 
His long disuse of the Latin language during a continued re- 
sidence of sixty years in this island, combined with the igno* 
ranee of copybts, will account for the inaccuracy of the names 
«' Hiberia" and << Hiberio/' 


originated from the Spanish Iberi, who had once 
sent hither a colony. No ; I should rather trace it 
even to the Irish word, lar, t. e. west, from its 
western position in reference to England ; a view in 
which I am sanctioned by Camden's approbation, on 
the ground that Spain had been called Hesperia 
from its western locality, and a certain promontory 
in Africa the Hesperian Cape, from its locality in 
like manner.* Vallancey thinks that the Persiani, 
who had at a very early period established them- 
selves in this island, gave it this name in allusion to 
the district of Iran in their native country .'f Cam- 
den's view of the matter is still further supported by 
the inference drawn from the Greek idiom by Cor* 
mac McCuillinan, Bishop of Cashel, and King of 
Munster, in the beginning of the tenth century, J viz. 
that Hibernia may be considered a Greek compound, 
consisting of the two words, Hiberae and Nyos, the 
former of which signifies the tvest, and the latter an 
island; whilst Bochart's explanation gains credence 
by the fact of the Phoenicians being really Iberin, or 
Oberin, that is, passers over the sea, in which ac- 

* From their proximity to the north in like manner, which 
in the Phoenician language is called garhdoy the foUowrng 
Spanisk towns have been denominated : — Garbi, Garbin, Gar- 
belosy Garbayuela ; as also Algarbi, a distiict now in the pos- 
session of Portugal. 

f Observation on the pcinutive inhabitants of Great Britain. 

t Yarteus de Script. Ibemia, p. 6. 


captation we meet with the expression in Psalm viii. 8, 
where it is said, ^' Who traverse (ober) the paths of 

the sea/' 

The natives have indifferently called it Eri, or 
Eire, and not so correctly by the name of Erin ; 
whence perhaps the term Iris, which we find in 
Diodorus Siculus. To Eri and Eire we may also 
apply our previous conjectures on the etjrmology of 
Ere. This I prefer to the assertion of certain per- 
sons who would have this island called lema and 
leme, from the Greek Hieron, signifying *' sacred/'* 
I must not omit to add that from Eri, or Eire, the 
Irish have been called ErigenaB,f or sons of Erin, a 
name by which John, the illustrious Irish historian J 
of the ninth century, is universally and emphatically 
denominated. Varceus de Scrip. Iber. i. 5. 

Another ancient name of Ireland, lu Erioo, the 
learned generally take to imply, " the isle of the 
earth-born, or oflfepring of the very earth •/* for iu, 
au,§ and eu, meant " water," or *' island ;" and these 


f From Era, earth , and Ginomai, to be born. 

t And Chaplain to Alfred the Great, who, io the preface 
to his traaslatioQ of St. Gregory's Pastoral into the Saxon lan- 
guage, was not ashamed to acknowledge his gratitude to Ire- 
land, that had given him his education, and additionally im^ 
proved it by the superintending assistance of this distinguished 

§ Aa and ea, i. e. £au, i. e. Aqua, signify water, and it may 
be here added, that the termination of names of places in a. 

■ 77 

were sometimes written more fully, axxg, or ag, like 
the Teutonic oege and odghe, from the Greek auge, 
splendor, an obvious property of water. Whence, 
also, another name, liUg, from luge, light. Era,* 
too, was used emphatically, to signify the land of 
ancient Greece, as Er was that of Britain. Where- 
fore the Irish at this day call themselves Erin, or 
Erion ; and from this Scotus obtained the name of 
Erigina, or of Eriniauch, compounded, as they state, 
of er, the earth, and geni, or eni, to be boin of. In 
confirmation of this etymology, they tell us that that 
nation, before the arrival of the Brigantes or Phry- 
gians, had possession of Gaul, Spain, and Britain ; 
for to this day the Vascones and Cantabrians in a 
great degree make use of the ancient language of 
the Erii.f But the first men got the name, in the 
Greek and Latin languages respectively, of Autok- 
thones and Terrigenae, that is, ^^ sons of the earth," 
and " earth-born," from the circumstance of their 
dwelling underground in caves, like rabbits ; J which 

aa, or ey, in the old Ttatonic, signify places surrounded with 
water ; nor ought the word sea, itself, in this case to be forgotten. 

^ It was in particular the name of a mountain in Messenia, 
the rendezvous of Aristomenes and his devoted band, where, 
after many marvellous feats of almost incredible heroism, — ^in 
which the women no less than the men had share, — he was at 
last betrayed and obliged to vacate his post. 

t Edward Lhuid's Archiologia. 

t Strabo says that the Scythians used to seek refuge from 
the cold in caverns. Hence the name Troglodytes, from trth- 
glos, a cave. 



gave occasion to Gildas to say, ''From their little 
caverns crept forth the Irish like so many swarthy, 
sooty little worms."* This has led some to suppose 
that the Couri, Miluir, and Guidhonod, as they are 
called^ who are generally ascribed to a more ancient 
date, and who passed their lives in caves and forests, 
were no other than those self-same original Erii ; 
and wishing to derive these names from the Irish 
language, they say that Cour, in the singular num- 
ber, means a giant, abbreviated from Cau ur, " a 
cave man," such as Cacus and the Cyclopsf are 

* Prorepsere ecavernulissuisfusciverinicali Iberni. — Guild. 

Dr. Smollet, in his ironical manner, calls the inhabitants of 
Lapland the is^ end of the human creation, which illiberal and 
invidious expression seems to arise from not considering; that 
these people have the same rational faculties as others, and 
only want the means to improve themselves. Now under such 
cnrcumstances let us seriously ask, whether these people are 
the objects of lat^hter and ridicule? Are they not rather 
objects of pity, especially when we consider that our ancestors 
were once at ignorant as they, and probably more barbarous. 
Nay, barbarity is not so much as imputed to the Laplanders, 
even by ihpae who take a savage ple^aure in ridiculing them 
for what is not in their power to prevent. That they are slaves 
to superstition is not denied, but that superstition nevejr leads ' 
to any iMng of a cruel or barbarous nature. Secure in their 
■impie huts, they live without giving offence to each other ; 
and if they have but little knowledge, they have but few sins 
to account for. — Hurd. 

f The Cyclops are represented to have had but one eye in 
the middle of their forehead, the origin of their name, from 
Kukloa, a circle, and Ops, an eye ; but in reality were so called 
from their custom of wearing small steel bucklers over their 


reported to have been ; Coures, meaning a giantess. 
Milur is a wild man, or a silvestrian, and there- 
fore a hunter, just as Milgi, is a hound. For with 
the Britons, Mil, meant a wild beast, as with the 
Greeks did Melon, cattle ; and to this they think 
that the Clanna Miledh of the Irish, from clann, or 
clain, an ofl&pring, and miledh, a soldier or war- 
rior, bears reference. Guidhonod they conceive to 
arise from guidhon, a witch. 

But since the Phcenician language exhibits the 
origin of these names, I should, for my part, as- 
cribe them to that source in preference. For in- 
stance, lu Erion would appear derived from the 
Phoenician I-Erain, an inhabitable island, or one 
abounding in inhabitants. Lug, from log, which 
with the Arabians is logag, the deep, as much as to 
say, the island in the deep, or surrounded therewith. 
Erigena, which they would have a-kin to the Irish 
word Ereimane, or rather Erionnach, meaning Ire- 
land and Irishmen, I would venture to derive from 
the Phoenician word Erigain, foreigners ; and Erion- 
nach itself from Era-onag, that is, a land or country 
abounding in delicacies, for onag, in the Syriac 

faceSj having but a single aperture in the middle, which corre- 
sponded exactly with the form of an eye. This practice they 
had recourse to in their capacity of miners, or in their profession 
of archery, as we find a Scythian nation, too, who excelled in 
the same art, call themselves Arimaspi, from Arima, one, and 
spia, an eye, in allusion to the habit of closing one eye to take 
the better aim, by collecting the visual rays to one focus. 


dialect, implies a delicacy or luxurious repast. The 
Couri were so from the Phoenician word curin, 
fishes, a metaphorical designation for expert and 
dexterous mariners ; or from cura, a fire-hearth, as 
if worshippers of fire. Miluyr, from the Phoenician 
Mila-ur, an assembly of fire-worshippers, or a mul- 
titude of inhabitants living in a valley, for ur signi- 
fies indifferently either one or the other, a fire or a 
valley. Guidhonod, from the words gui-donoth, a 
nation or people with leaders, gui,* meaning a na- 
tion, and don, he governed. Unless you would 
rather derive dhonad from donoth, that is, the chil- 
dren of Dan, that city of Phoenicia, at the foot of 
Mount Libanus, where its inhabitants had erected 
a graven image, and Jeroboam had raised the golden 
calf, as colonies, particularly from distant countries, 
generally retain the name of their parent or mother 

Again, the name of Iris, by which this county is 
distinguished in Diodorus Siculus,f and from which 

* From Phoenician gui sprung the old Irish word ui, or hy, 
signifying a tribe or clan. Ut is also the genitive case of the 
word wa, a son, offspring, posterity, the plural of which is i. 
From hyt a tract, or district, many Irish localities have ob- 
tained their names : such as EJy-Anlan, Hy-Ara, Hy-Talgia, 
otherwise called Hi-Faillia, and primitively Hy-Bhealgia, 
meaning a barony of worshippers of Baal, and several others 
almost beyond reckoning. — See Collect, de Reb, Idem, vol iii. 
p, 362. 

t Diodor. Sicul. lib. v. 


its inhabitants have been called Irenses, or Iri, 
although I admit it may be derived from the old 
Irish word Iris, which signifies brass or copper, as 
it does, also, invention or investigation, as well as 
friend and friendly fellowship, and, finally, religion, 
law, era, and chronicle, yet it is more likely that 
Orpheus of Crotone, Aristotle, and other Greek 
writers who have used Iris as a name for Ire- 
land, have done so not from the language of the 
natives, which to them was unknown, but firom the 
Hebrew word Iris, he possessed or obtained by in- 
heritance ; or from Irisa, possession by inheritance, 
which words, changing the s into t, the Phoenicians 
used to pronounce as Irith, and Iritha. From this 
name, variously inflected into Ire, Eri, and Eire, 
with the addition of the English word land, was 
formed the modem and now generally adopted 
name, Ireland. But I]:landia and Irlandi, as Latin 
for Ireland* and Irishmen, is evidently a barbarism. 

* The interest which I take in every thing that concerns 
Ireland, makes me often sigh for the additional misfortune 
which the general ignorance of its history produces, and has 
long since inspired me with a desire of remedying that evil. — * 
Mac Geoghegan. 

While many who have left thee, 

Seem to forget thy name. 
Distance hath not bereft me 

Of its endearing claim : 
Afar from thee sojourning. 

Whether f sigh or smile, 
I call thee still, ** Ma vourneen" 

My own green isle ! — Barton* 



Ancient inhabitants of Ireland — The Partholani — Various 
opinions as to the etimology of this word — The aborigines or 
giants y why so tailed — Their bloody wars with the Partho- 
lani the first tribe of Phcenicians who landed on the coast of 
Ireland — Origin of their ancient name Formorogh — The Ne- 
methce, when they seized upon I eland — Where they settled — 
Etymology of their name — Why called MomcB or Nomce. 

Having put the reader in possession of the several 
names given to Ireland, I come in the next place to 
its ancient inhabitants, whose names I at once recog- 
nise as Phoenician, or, at least, deducible from that 
fountain. The first that present themselves are the 
Partholani, undoubtedly the very earliest people in 
this island, of whose colonies — ^which are supposed to 
have preceded the arrival of the Belgians — we can- 
not at this day discover a single vestige any more 
than we can of the Nemethae. Some suppose that 
they were some of the aboriginal Britons, and that 
they arrived in Ireland much about the same time 
as the Nemethae, that is, as they say, in the sixth 
century before the birth of Christ. Others derive 
their name from the Irish words bhoeruys-lan-ui, as 


much as to say, the shepherds or herdsmen beyond 
the great ocean, and therefore suppose tikat they 
must have been the first persons who introduced 
cattle into this island.* 

Others there are who think them so cdled from 
Partholanus, the son of Sera, of the race of Ja- 
phet, whom they assert to have first arrived in 
Ireland, having set out from Scy(hia, or as others 
say, from Ora^o-Scythia, or M ygdonia, ^ mari- 
time (Mstrict of Macedonia, about three hundred 
or more years after the deluge, with his sons San- 
giii]», Saban, and Ruturugus, their armies and colo^ 
nies ; and they tell us fiirthennore that he pfii in 
at Inversgene in Kerry, and took up his residence in 
yister at Inis Samer in the xiver Erne, an island 
called from his castle, from wh^ce d^o the liver 
was called Sfimarius. f jScme writes add that those 
€ol(mists foimd before them on iheir arrival other 
iidiabitants whose origin was not known, foid who 
were 4dier0fore ibnominated by the Lati^ as aborir 
gmes^ by the Greeks as Giants ; intimating £<^Uy 
iJie natives oi the soil, or the true bom children 
of the country. With thest gigantic aborigines 
they tell us that the Partholani waged an in- 
cessant and bloody course of warfare, and with 
^such acrimony on both sidies, that both were £^most 

* See Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iii. p. 404. 
t See OTIaberty, cap. ii. p. 3. 



extinguished under one general massacre. These, and 
other such things equally involved in fable, are told 
of the Partholani amidst the darkness of an unknown 
age. As I take it, the Partholani are the most an- 
cient, or, if you prefer, the primitive tribes of the 
Phoenicians who landed on the Irish coasts, and 
from them was given the name of Partulin to all 
such as had transported themselves from their native 
country. The Sjrriac word para, signifies to sprout 
or shoot — tulin, number or plurality, from tul, 
translation. But para means also he grew or en- 
creased, so that partulin would then mean a body of 
emigrants who encreased and multiplied. 

This race the ancient Irish poets and historians 
call Fomhoraigh, Formhoraice, and Formoragh ; by 
which word, they think, is meant pirates, or transma- 
rine robbers, infesting those coasts in prejudice to, 
and defiance of, the ancient colonies ; and they assert 
that they were decended from Ham or Midacritus * 
from Africa, with the exception of the first Formorii, 
to whom they assign neither other sect nor origin, f 

* Pliny (vii. v. 6.) telll us that Midacritus was the first who 
had imported lead from the island of Cassiterides. But later 
critics assure us that this was no other than Melicartus, or the 
Phcenician Hercules, mentioned in Sanchoniathon, to whom 
the Phcenicians ascribed so many voyages to the west. Mi- 
dacritus isin itself a Greek name, and we know that the Greeks 
were in total ignorance of the locality of the Cassiterides. — See 

t OTlaherty, i. p. 9. 


Some suppose them to have been Celts; others^ 
more correctly, Phoenicians, which the name itsielf 
would seem to indicate.* For, in their language, 
&mori, means the lord of an extreme land, that is 
of an island, which they had supposed to be the 
utmost habitation of the globe, as we have observed 
conformably to the opinion of Bochart. The Ne- 
methae or Nemetii, were, as some say, the posterity 
of Nemethus,f who, they maintain, planted a second 
colony in Ireland thirty years after the death of 
Partholanus, when it had now become almost a desert 
and been overrun with forests. In his time were 
built the fortifications of Rath Kmnech in Hy-Ni- 
ellan, in Lagenia, and Rath Kimbaith in Hy-Gem- 
nia, a district of Dalaradia, where the plains, being 
cleared firom bnudiwood and trees, admitted the 
genial influence of the sun's irradiation ; Some 
writers add, that on the arrival of the Boelgas on the 

* It is said, that Neivy or Nemedius, great grand nephew 
of Partholan^ haviog learned by some means the disasters and 
tragical end of his relations in Ireland, and wishing, as heir of 
Partholan, to succeed him in the possession of that island, em- 
barked thirty-four transport vessels, carrying each thirty per- 
sons, without counting Macha, his wife, and his four sons, Starn, 
Jaobaneal, Annin and Feargus, who followed his fortune in 
the expedition. Macha died after twelve years, and was in 
terred in the place since called from her name, Ardmach. — 
Mac Geoffhegan. 

t See Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iii. p. 352. 

I O'Flaherty, p. iii. cap. 6. 


ddast of Heremonia, which is now the province of 
LeuBter, several of the NemethcB retired backwards 
into the northern districts of the island. 

Th^e are smne Ifho assign to the Nemethae a 
diflferent origin, and would call them Momae or 
NomsB, deriving the ssme from the Celtic words 
Mou or Nou, land or country, a«^ Mam or Mae,^ 
tnatertial, so that Nemethse would inem the original 
{teople, ♦ or kborigmal inhabitants of Ireland. 

But expun^ng altogether the fables of the old 
|k»ets, to me it appeals incontrovertible that the 
imroe of Neraethae was given by the Phcenicians to 
their tribes, as equivaletrt with pfciawiit> cheeiftil, or 
agreeable. For in tteir language nemoth signifies all 
th^,fr0m theroot,neem,delightflil,ainiabl©,tespect- 
able. This tribe was fiarHiermore called Mom® by 
the Phcemiciate, as having cementdd their ti?tety by m 
oath,t (noma) which furthermore proves the veracity 

* Collect, de Rdb<jlbem« vol. Mi* p. 400. 

+ The Ostiac takes his oath upon a bear^ skib, spread tpda 
the ground, whereon are laid a hatchet^ a knite, and a |Viede of 
bread, which is tendeted to him. fiefore be eats it» he declares 
all he knows relating to the niatter in ^Ue^tioi^, and ccmftrms 
the truth of his evidishce by this s6lemn ittiptel^a^on ; " May 
Itiis bear tear me to piebes> this bit of bread clipak iiie, thi» 
knife be my death, and this hatcliet sever my head ftOM my 
body, if I do not speak the truth.*' In dubious ca»es th^ |ire. 
sent themselves before an idol, and pronounce ^e same oath 
with this additional circumstance, that he who takes the oath, 
cats off a piece of the idol's nose with his knife^ saying, '* If I 


and the fidelity of the people, nom signifying true, 
derived from naum, a discourse or language. 

forswear myself, may this knife cut off my own nose in the 
same manner, &c/' All those nations, who inhabited the land 
afterwards called Palestine, were descended from Canaan the 
son of Ham ; for although we find many subdivisions among 
them, under as many different names, yet the general one was 
t)u^t of Caufumites : atid here it is Becep^f^ry ^at we should ajd- 
siwer a dei«tical objection made by Lord Bolingtir9.1^e, ^d 
sooe otlieiB^f^giuogt a f assage in the sacred scriftur^ ; and ibis 
w^ the mor^ rctadily comply wiA^ because many weak, th^nigh 
oth^rwiff^ w^UrOieaaiog peiaoi^s, have been l^d in^ %n ercor ^y 
thpse desigi^iuf oBoen. 

In Genesis iz. we. vead of Noab ha?iag g9t dnuik vcitb the 
fruit of the vine, and that while he was in a state of intoxication 
1(1 his tent. Ham, hb youngfest son, caqae ii^ and beheld his na- 
kedness ; but Sbeip and Japhet went backwards and covered 
him. When Noah awoke, and found how different the beha- 
viour of his sons had been, he said (verse 86) ** Cursed be 
Canaan ; a seirant of senrants shall he be unto his brethren.^ 
Now Canaan is no where mentioned as tl^e aggressor; l^ut 
there cannot repusun the least doubt, but he was, at that time, 
along with his father, and like Ham, mocked at the aged pa- 
triarch ; a crime attended with many aggravated circumstances. 

Bu^ the deistieal pt^ec^ion is thb, " It was incopsistent, say 
they, with the goodness of God, to inflict a curse on a nation 
in latter ages for the guilt of an ancestor. Now let every unpre- 
judiced reader attend to the passage, and then he will find ^at 
yie^whole was a predietion, and not an imprecation^ Noah, 
by the spirit of prophecy, fpreseeing that the descendafits pf his 
son Ham, would commit the grossest idolatries^ only for,etold 
what would happen to them in latter times. — Hurd. 




The name of the Momonii supposed of Celtic origin — Various 
opinions on this head^^Mumham a southern district of Ire-' 
land-^The meaning of Mammoii — Different names of the 
idol Ops — The Momonii tribes of the Phcenicians — Their 
name Phoenician — Origin of the word Mammanagh — 
Mammuna the sacrificing priest in the temples of the Phcs- 
nicians — The Mammacocha of the Peruvians, 

I come now to the Momonii, the ancient inha- 
bitants of the province of Munster, divided, we may 
observe, according to their several settlements, into 
Desmond or southern M omonia, Thomond or north- 
em Momonia, and Orraond eastern Momonia.* The 
name of Momonians is agreed on all hands, as we 
have already said, to have been composed of the 
CJeltic or Irish words mou-man or pou-man, a mother 
or maternal country. Mou, and pou were the 
same as magus and pagus, mais and pais ; f so that 
momon or mouman would signify the mother coun- 
try of the aborigines: this part of Ireland being 
chiefly inhabited by the Nemethae, who betook them- 

* Th. Burgo Ibern. Dominii append. Monastic 732. 
t Baxter, p. 100. 


selves from the district of Bolgae into their own resi-* 
dence in Leinster, about five hundred and fifty years, 
as they say, before the christian era. They add, that 
from the first annals of Ireland it was discovered that 
its southern regions were called Mumha, which they 
interpret, the settlement or habitation of the abori- 
gines, from whence its inhabitants were called M um- 
hanii or Momonii, that is inhabitants of the country 
of the aborigines.* 

Others think Momonia is a corruption or con- 
tracted Celtic word Mammon, the ancient name of 
the province of Munster, signifying the country of the 
great mother ; as they derive Mama or Moma, the 
name of a cave or cavern between Elphin and Ab- 
bey-Boyle, frpm Mammoii, which, in the Celtic lan- 
guage, means the place of the shrine of the great 
mother. For tradition tells us that there existed 


there at one time a celebrated grot, consecrated to 
Ops, the great mother of antiquity, whither the Bel- 
gian chiefs used, upon occasions, resort to consult the 
shades of their departed heroes. This object of re- 
ligious resort was also known by the name of Sib- 
bol Ama, Anum, Anagh, Aonagh, and Mamman, 
whence the Bolgse, who had settled in the sotithern 
parts of Ireland, and who principally worshipped the 
idol Mammon, called themselves Mammanagh,(Mam- 
monii) to distinguish themselves from the Crombrii, 

* Collect vol. iii. 396. 


Crumbfii^ or Crimbrii^ on the western coast, who' 
worshipped Pate; and from the Be%oe who wor- 
slnpped BaU or Beai, or Baal, that is the sun or the 
dement of foe * 

To me it s^^iears suffici^tly probable that the 
Momomi ware one oS the Phoenician tribes who be- 
came possessed of this district to which they gare 
l^e name of Mamon, which in their language signi- 
fies riches or wealth, and by a very natural associ- 
ation called th^nselves Mamomi, that 13 the wealthy, 
the possessors of riches anfi abundance, intimating 
the superiority of their habitation above the other 
districts of this caimtoy, as well in artificial respuraes 
as in the luxuriancy of the soil. 

But if we furthermore compare the words Mamo- 
nia and Momomi. or Mammanagh with the superati^ 
tion oi that nation, I doubt not but that we shall 
find them strictly copfoxmable with Phoamcian ex- 
traction; &ir ammun, in that language, means the 
image or likeness of a mother^ ammana, a j^ift or of- 
tmng^ presented to a mother. Mammam^ghf I oon- 
ceive not .^rived from Mammon, but from JVIam- 
mun^, the name usually given by the Phoepicians to 
the ^uperiatending or sacrificing priest belongi»g tp 
any of their chapels. Audit is very lifcely that that 
whole tribe .took their name from t^m# as the hoad^f 
or presidents of their places of worship. I would 

* Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iii. p. 3018* 


hint hf the way, that ^ ancient Peruvians wor- 
ishipped the sea as a <teity, under the name of Mam- 
macocba^ and {mid similar hcmmge and adoration to 
rivers and'fomitdns as contributory to the great ele- 
ment.* But this name^ though evidently bearing 
some analogy with Mamman and Mammanach, yet 
is of a diff^eot origin, though Phoenician all the 
while, if I mistake not. For maim macha in that 
language means, encompassing waters, and metapho- 
rically, people api^auding or eloping their hands. 

t Jas. Acosta Historia de las Indies, lib. v. c. 2. 4, from 
iHiich and other authorities it is manifest that the ancient pagans 
lirorshipped the sea and all large collections of water. The 
book of wisdom, xiii. 2, is clear on the point. Beyer (Selden 
de Diis Syrii) states that the inhabitants of Mexico, Yir-* 
ginia, and Bengal offered adoration to certain rivers and foun- 
tains; for the ancients imagined, according to Lipsius, that 
rivers and fountains were lesser divinities or genii The Nile 
was worshiped with the most scrupulous veneration by the 
Egyptians. (See Plutarch and Athanasius.) For says Julius 
Firmicus, from the universal benefits of water they conceived it 
must be a god* Wherefore we find (he poets calling rivers 
sacred, (Hor. lib. i. od. 1. Juven. sat. iiii.^ as they did also 
fountains because of the presiding nymphs. Amongst the an- 
cient idolotrous Spaniards, it is plain from an inscription of 
Vasconius, published by Gurter, that fountains were considered 
divine. ** We,'* (the Spaniards) said Seneca, (epist. 41) " ve- 
nerate the sources of great rivers, * * ^ the springs of warm 
waters are worshipped, and certain pools, &c." The Persians 
also, with the Scythians, Saxons, and other nations, as well 
east as west, conceived water to be sacred, as appears . from 
HerodotuSi (iv*) Strabo^ (xvii«) Tacitus, and others. 


in which sense we find macha occurs in the psalm 
xcvii. 9, the rivers will applaud. M achoc^ in the 
original, meaning, waters that hrush or sweep away, 
as we often see waves do bodies upon the shore.* 

* The Peruvians, before their being governed by their Incas, 
worshipped a numberless multitude of Gods, or rather genii* 
There was no nation, family, city, street, or even house, but 
had its peculiar gods; and that because they thought none but 
the god to whom they should immediately devote themselves, 
was able to assist them in time of need. They worshipped 
herbs, plants, flowers, trees, mountains, caves ; and in the pro- 
vince of Puerto Yiego, emeralds, tygers, lyons, adders, ; and, 
not to tire the reader with an enumeration of the several objects 
they thought worthy of religious worship, every thing that ap- 
peared wonderful in their eyes, was thought worthy of adora- 




The Crombrii Fate worshippers — Origin of the word Crom — 
Not indicating worship, but a nation that worships — Traces 
of it in Ireland — As also m several geographical names of 
Ireland — The Phcenician derivation of these words. 

But since we have made mention of the Irish 
Crombrii, we had best see to which nation they be- 
longed. Crom, or crum, or crim, amongst the an- 
cient Irish signified Providence or the Godhead, which 
would lead one to suppose these words were Irish, 
crom signifying God in that language. But if it 
savours of the place wherein this deity was worship- 
ped, which is not at all unlikely, then it takes its 
origin from the Phoenician, crom in that language 
signifying a shrubbery of trees. So that crombrii, 
crumbrii, or cimbrii would seem to mean crambri, 
foreigners, that is the Phoenicians, who paid worship 
to Providence or Fate* in this island. That under 

* Men, ever since the creation, have endeavoured to pry 
into the secrets of futurity : this desire is inherent in us, and 
has been by many philosophers adduced as one of the strongest 
proofs of the immortality of the soul, that, indignant at its con- 
finement, is ever attempting to release itself, and soar beyond 


the name of foreigners the Phoenicians are meant, 
will appear from this circumstance, viz. that, in their 

present time and circumstances. Finding, however, all their 
efforts to discover them by the force of reason vain, they have 
mutually resorted to the aid of that blind god, chance ; and 
hence, omens from the flight of birds, from the entrails of sacri- 
fices, have arisen : of this last I propose now to write to you. 
When a choice between two equal things was to be made, the 
referring it to chance by the casting of lots would obviously 
present itself as a fkir mode of deciding, vdiere the judgment 
was unequal to do so ; and we find, therefore, this among the 
most ancient usages recorded in the bible : thus Aaron cast 
lots for l^e scape-goat. The direction of these lots would, of 
CMirse, be soon imputed to the divine pleasure of the Almglity 
observer and guider of all tinngi, and it would liien occur ip 
the inquisitive that this mode might be adopted for looking into 
futurity. Accordingly we see that this superstitious practice 
was very quickly applied to such purposes, an instanoe of w4iiefa 
is given in Esther, chap. iii. verse 1, where, when Haman de*- 
sired to find out the jjiost proper time to slay all the Jews, he 
ordered the pur to be cast, that is the lot^ from day to day, 
and from month to month, and discovered that the thirteenth 
of the twellth month was ^ost favourable for his designs \ 
but he was deceived, and the ev«nt proved the vanity of lelying 
upon such divination* This nu>de, however, was too, simple for 
the generality of men, and the custom next adopted was the 
nixing together of a number of lett«r$m aa urn, throwiqg them 
out, and examining the arr^gement in which they migbt fajl; 
but as frequently no sense could be discovered from these, in 
lieu of letters whole words were adopted, and even here the 
answer was very often not to be uuderstood. Tp obviate this, 
Cicero tells us that a variety of predictions were inscribed on 
pieces of wood> which were kept in a box, shaken, and one 
drawn out by ja child ; he informs us how these were fir^t 4i3- 
covered, but observes, " T<da res est inventio fidiacis, aut ad 

language, bri or bari sign^es a hreigaer. And the 
practice of consecrating groves to tiie worship of 
idols, is eirtablished by innmnarable testimonies from 
th^ ancient heathen writers. Virgil in his ninth 
:£neid, introduces Cybele thus speaking of herself. 
'^ On a lofty mount I have a grove, a piny wood, by 
me beloved for many a year "* And Prudentius in 
the '' Roman martyr," says, '^ shall I go to the piny 
grove of Cybele." 

quiBSiumt ant ad supersHtiomem," " The whole mailer is^ how* 
ever, fallacioiis every way." And io another place, in speaking 
of it» be says, ** Quibus in r^m§ temeritas et canu^ noit ruti0 et 
contilium valent**' " Chancey n«^ reason , pieaides over these 
things." This mode of divination is oontioually spoken of by 
the writers of that age ; thus, Lucretius, 

*' Nequicquam Dtvum nnmen, sortesqnefatigant." 

'' In vwn they implore the Grods, and sei^ch the io#»." 
And Ovid, 

** Auxilium per sacras qcerere sortes.*' 

*' To seek for aid in the sacred ioi$" 
And again, 

*' Mota Dea est, sortemque dedit." 

^' The goddess was moved, and granted a lot.'* 
Numberless other instances might be given of the frequency of 
the practice ; but, as the urn and heaven-descended mystical 
pieces of wood were not always at hand, another mode was in- 
vented throughout Greece and Italy which superseded their use. 
This was to take the words of some celebrated poet, as Homer, 
£uripides, or Virgil ; to open this book at hazard, and to re- 
ceive as an oracle the first passage that met the eye; these were 
termed ** Shrtes Homerica," or ** VigiimMe,** Among ihe He- 
brews too, there was a divination cidled Beik Cole, — £m,Mag, 
* Pineasylva nihi multos dilecta per mmos 

Lucus in arce fuit summa. — Virgil, 


But it may be asked^ whence arose this cus- 
tom to the heathens of erecting altars to their de- 
ities in woods and groves. In imitation,* no doubt, 
of Abraham, who, as we are told in Genesis, xxi. 33, 
planted a grove in Beersheba, and there invoked the 
name of the Lord.* These groves consisted of oak 
plantations ; for it is said of Abraham,f Genesis xii. 

* Abraham planted a grove. In the first ages of the world, 
the worship of God was exceedingly simple ; there were no 
templeSy an altar composed sometimes of a single stone, or 
sometimes of turf, was all that was necessary : on this fire 
was lighted, and the sacrifice offered. Any place was equally 
proper, as they knew that the object of their worship filled 
the heavens and the earth. In process of time, when fa- 
milies increased, and many sacrifices were to be offered, groves 
or shady places were chosen, where the worshippers might en- 
joy the protection of the shade, as a considerable time must be 
empoyed in offering maf^ sacrifices. These groves became af- 
terwards abused to imptare and idolatrous purposes, and were 
therefore strictly forbidden. See Ezod. zxxiv. 12 ; Deut. xii. 
3; xvi. 21. — Dr. A. Clarke. 

t Abraham, the father of the faithful, was called away from 
his native country, somewhat less than three hundred years 
after the deluge, which naturally leads us to inquire into the 
origin of idolatry. Abraham, as a wanderer and sojourner in a 
strange country, had not been above ten years absent from Ur, 
of the Chaldeans, when a famine obliged him to go into Egypt, 
at that time a very flourishing monarchy. That Egypt should 
have had a regal government within three hundred years after 
the deluge, has been objected to by many of our deistical 
writers ; but when attentively considered, we cannot find any 
thing in it of an extraordinary nature. People in those early 
ages lived in the most frugal manner, and few of them died be- 


6, 7, that he passed over the land to the place Sichem, 
all along to the oak, (alon) Moreh, where the Lord 
appeared unto him, and that he there erected an 
altar in consequence. Moses afterwards designates 
this place in the plural number, saying, (Deut. xi. 30,) 
** Beside (aloni) the oaks, Moreh,** With which also 
two other passages accord, one in Genesis, xxxv. 4. 
the other in Judges ix. 6. We also find in Genesis 
xiii. 18, that Abraham dwelt in the oaks (aloni) of 
Mamre, in Hebron, and there built an altar to the 
Lord. Afterwards also in Genesis, xiy. 13, he says, 
" he dwelt beside the oaks of Mamre." All which 
passages the septuagint renders, peri ten drun, that 
is, about the oak. From hence the idolatrous Ca^ 
naanites b^an to consecrate oaks to their own 
divinities, and to worship in groves of that wood. 
The Phoenicians subsequently introduced the customi 
into Asia, Egypt, Africa, and the continent of Eu- 
rope, with the British isles. Ovid, speaking of the 
oak, calls it ** sacred to Jove." Virgil says ** it was 
accounted an oracle by the Grecians." And Homer 
says the same in Od. xix.* 

fore they had atlaioed to years of maturity ; so that there is no 
reason for us to be surprised, when we find the children of 
Mizraim founding a monarchy, in the fertile plains of Egypt, 
as soon as a sufficient number of the hnmaa species had been 
collected together. — Burd. 

* See W. Cook's enquiry into ^ patriarchal religion, &c. 



The vestiges of the word, crom, can be still traced 
in Ireland in many of the old names given to its 
several localities; for instance, we find the actual 
word occurs as the name of an old village which 
belongs at this day partly to the county of Kildare, 
and partly to that of Dublin, in the province of 
Leinster. In Crom-artin, a little village near Ardee, 
in the same province ; in Crom-castle, a town in the 
county Limerick, province of Munster; in Mount 
Crom-mal, or Crom-la, between Loughs Swylly and 
Foile, in the county Donegal, province of Ulster, 
where the river Lubar, called by the natives Bredagh, 
and the river Lavath — beside which, in the declivity 
of a mountain, is a very remarkable cave called 
Cluna — take their rise ; in Mount Crom-la-sliabh, 
now called the Hill of Allen ; in Cromroge, a little 
town in the barony of Maryborough, Queen's 
County, and province of Leinster ; in the old town 
of Crom-chin, which was otherwise called Atha and 
Rathcrayhan, and Drum Druid, but now more gene- 
rally known by the name of Croghan, being situated 
in the barony of Boyle, county Roscommon, pro- 
vince of Connaught, and formerly the principal 
city in that province. The name of Croghan is 
supposed to have been given to it from the likeness 
of the adjacent mountain to a pitcher, which that 
word in Irish signifies ; and Crom-chin from a cave 
in that mountain which the Druids had dedicated to 
Fate. And, finally, we may trace its vestiges in 


Crom-lin, or Crum-lin, a little town in the county 
Dublin, as well as a little village in the barony of 
Massareene, in the county of Antrim ; which name 
the Irish interpret as the chapel or shrine of Crom, 
where the idolators used to sacrifice to this deity. 
To this origin they also refer Crumlin Water, the 
name of a river in the same barony of Massareene, 
and same county of Antrim. 

But it being my opinion that the word Crom has 
reference not to worship,* but to a nation that 

* In giving an account of the religions of ancient nations, we 
must be directed by two guides; namely, sacred and profane 
history. The former gives us a general view of their abomina- 
tions ; the latter lays open all that now can be known concern- 
ing their public and private rites and ceremonies. Pboenice, 
Tyre, and Carthage, were all peopled by the sons of Ham ; 
they had the same form of religion, spoke the same language, 
encouraged the same arts and sciences, used the same instru- 
ments in war, and inflicted the same punishments upon crimi- 
nals. Thus their civil and religious history is so blended 
together, that we cannot illustrate the latter, without taking 
some notice of the former. The Phcenicians were a remnant 
of the ancient Canaanites. who were suffered by the Divine 
Being, to remain unextirpated, that they should be a scourge 
upou the children of Israel, as often as they relapsed into idol- 
atry. In scripture they are often mentioned, as a warlike 
people, under the name of Philistines, for the word Phoenice 
is Greek. They inhabited that part of Asia adjoining to the 
Mediterranean sea, and worshipped an idol named Dagon, 
much in the same form as a mermaid is represented by the fa- 
bulous writers ; a human body from the navel upwards, and the 
lower part that of a fish. The figure itself was very expressive ; 
for it pointed out, not only their situation near the sea, but 

H 2 


worships^ I shall now detail my sentiments respecting 
the derivation of the geographical names just 
alluded to. 

Crom-artin, then, I would derive from the Phoe- 
nician words Crom-arithin, a shrubbery dedicated to 
Fate,* and surrounded with pools or rivers. 

likewise that they were connected, both with sea and land. 
Invaded in their continental territories by the neighbouring na- 
tions, they settled in an island near adjoining, which they called 
Tyre ; and there remained in possession of it till the time of 
Alexander the Great. As a trading people, they sent colonies 
into Africa : but most of these were comprehended under the 
name of Carthageaians ; and such regard had Tyre and Car- 
thage for each other, that when Cambyses resolved to make 
war upon the latter, the Phcenicians refused to accompany 
him ; alledging in excuse, that they could not fight against 
their brethren, which obliged that prince to lay aside his 
design. Nay, the Carthageaians sent an annual tribute 
to the Tyrians, part of which was for the support of the civil 
governseal, and part for the maintainance of the priests and 

The religion of the Carthagenians, r/hich was the same as 
that of the Tyrians, Phoenicians, Philistines, and Canaanites, 
was most horrid and barbarous ; and so regular were they in 
practising what will ever dishonour human nature, that Chris- 
tians, in attending to their duty, may take an example from 
them. Nothing of any moment was undertaken without con- 
sulting the gods, which they did by a variety of ridiculous rites 
and ceremonies. Hercules was the god in whom they placed 
most confidence, at least he was the same to them as Mars 
was to the Romans, so that he was invoked before they went 
upon any expedition ; and when they obtained a victory, sacri- 
fices and thanksgivings were offered to him. 

* According to the notions of the Indian heathens, the 

i*^* *'9m^^KmBm.\ ^±. 

^ JI«. i« • 

I iiT^^ -^-^-"^T TTT^j t — ■ '-'"^-'^™— '^-^'--*^»»^^'-^-^ 


Crom-mal^ from Cram-mala, a congregation of 
people in a grove or shrubbery of the deity Fate. 
Crom-la, from Cram-lah, anxious worshippers of 
Fate in a grove. The word sliabh, at the end of the 
word Crom-Ia-sliabh, bears allusion to a fountain of 
this mountain, or forest, contiguous to the shrine ; 
for sliaba in the Phoenician, is the pipe of a fountain 
through which the water flows« 

Crom-oge, from Crom-og^ which means, people 
burning victims in the shrubbery of Fate. 

Crom-chin, from Crom-schin, people applauding 
in the grove of Fate. 

Crom-lin, from Cram-lun, people entertained or 
sojourning in the grove* of Fate ; or hospitality 
beside the shrine of this idol. 

god Bruma writes upon the forehead of every new-born child 
an account of all that shall happen to him in this world, and 
that it is not Jn the power of God or man to prevent these 
things from taking place. Thus we find that the doctrine of 
fatality has takes place in the most early ages^ and even in 
the most barbaroas nations. 

This system being entirely that which was embraced by the 
followers of Epicoms amongst the heathens, and the Sadducees 
among the Jews, we shall not say any thing cooeernMig it, be- 
cause it is but a bold attempt to set aside the utility of public 
and priTate worship ; for if God does not take notice of the 
actions of men in this life, then the whole bounds of religion 
are removed ; there is no motive to duty ; there is nothing to 
restrain us as mortals from comsutting the most horrid, the 
most mraatimd crimes* 

* As it was the universal practice tfae ancient heatbea 



Ops not the Apis of the Egyptians, but one of the names of 
Cybele— She was the Roman Vesta— Etymology of the 
word-^ Variously called from the mountains where she wa» 
worshipped-^ Origin of the word Sibhol — Thence Cybele — 
Why called Ama, Maminon, Anagh, Aonagh, or Aona — 

But> before we proceed any further, I would 
entreat the readers' indulgence for the few inci- 
dental observations, which I purpose to make, upon 
that celebrated idol of antiquity. Ops, which, an- 
cient writers assure us, the Momonians worshipped 

nations to worship their idols in groves, before temples were 
erected, it may be proper here to inquire, what gave rise to 
that notion ? It is a principle acquired by experience without 
reading, that in every act of devotion the mind should be fixed 
on the grand object of worship. Every one who has walked 
in a grove will acknowledge, that there was more than a com- 
mon reverential awe upon his mind, which must be owing to 
the small number of objects that presented themselves. We 
may justly call them the haunts of meditation ; but still it 
cannot be denied, that many abominable crimes were com^ 
mittcd in them : some parts near their altars were set apart for 
secret lewdness, and even for such unnatural practices as 
ought not to be related.— fiterc/. 



in a celebrated grotto ;— as well as upon the other 
names by which this deity was distinguished.* A 
learned gentleman^ and a shrewd searcher into the 
Phoenician idolatry, suspected once that Ops was to 
the Phoenicians the same as Apis, not that which 
Tibullusf calls the Memphian Bull,J and which the 
Memphians consecrated to the moon, but that 
which the Heliopolites had consecrated to the sun.§ 

* See chap. vii. 

t Tibul. lib. iii. eleg. 7. 

X The most magnificent temples were erected for him ; he 
was adored by all ranks -of people while living, and when he 
died (for he was a living Bull) all Egypt went into mourning 
for him. We are told by Pliny, that, duiriug the reign of 
Ptolemy Lagus, the Bull Apb died of extreme old age, and 
such was the pompous manner in which he was interred, that 
the funeral expences amounted to a sum equal to that of twelve 
thousand pounds sterling. The next thing to be done, was to 
provide a successor for this god, and all Bgypt was ransacked 
on purpose. He was to be distinguished by certain marks 
from all other animals of his own species ; particularly he was 
to have on his forehead a white mark, resembling a crescent ; 
on his back the figure of an eagle ; and on his tongue that of 
a beetle. As soon as an ox answering that description was 
found, mourning gave place to joy ; and nothing was to be 
heard of in Egypt but festivals and rejoicings. The new 
discovered god, or rather beast, was brought to Memphis, to 
take possession of his dignity, and there placed upon a throne, 
with a great number of ceremonies. Indeed, the Egyptians 
seem to have given such encouragement to superstition, that 
not content with worshipping the vilest of all reptiles, they 
actually paid divine honors to vegetables. 

§ Voss. de orig. et progress, idolat. !• 29. 



For the Phoemcians al30 worshipped the sun under 
the name of Baal^ or BeU by which, as the Assyrians 
and Babylonians) they understood, physically, the 
whole system of nature, as well terrestrial as celes- 
tial, and above all, the solar nature, as Setvius tells 
us, Th^y, accordingly, very appropriately gave to 
the sun the name of Belu3, as the Moabites did 
that of Moloch. For as this latter appellation sig^ 
nifies King, so does Baal, or Bel, signify Lord, as 
though the arbiter of all the blessings of nature. 
Wherefore, also, did they call him Bolatis, or Bolati. 
from the words Bol-^ati, which means Baal,* or the 
Lord, who bestows.f But this Baal being distin- 
guished by various names, it hence happened that, 
in Scripture, the Israelites are blamed for serving 
Baals, in the plural number. This seems to have 
occurred in other countries also, for the Bolgae, a 
colony of the Phoenicians in Irdand, worshipped, as 

* But of all the gods of the Syrians and Canaaoites, nooe 
were honored so much as Baal, who was bo olher than the 
Belus of the Chaldeans, and the Jupiter of the Greeks, It is 
probable the sun was worshipped under this name ; for Josiah^ 
willing to make some atonement for the sins of his father 
Manassdi, in worshipping Baal and all the host of heaven, put 
to death the idolatrous priests that burnt incense unto Baal, to 
the sun, and to the moon, and to the planets, and to all the 
host of heaven. He likewise took away the horses that the 
kings of Judah had given to the sun, and burnt the chariots of 
the sun with fire. — HiinL 

i See Damascus in the life of Isidorus Photiu». 

ijHsmm^m^mmm^mmrv=p£s=^'^>^~^-^ ■— ' i . 


we shall hereafter shew^ the sun, or the principle of 
fire^ as a deity^ under yarious names. The name of 
Bolgce is compounded of the Phcenician words Bol- 
goi^ meaning the nation that worships Bol, or Baal ; 
as BelgsB^ is compounded of the words Bel-goi^ 
amounting to the same. From whence the Bolgie 
and the B^gsB were at first called by the Latins 
Bolgii and Belgii ; afterwards the Belgian and the 
Bel^an nations ; and finally, as we now call them, 
the Bolgffi and the Belgae. From this cause it was 
that the writer, abore alluded to, ccmceived Ops the 
same as Apis, which the Hieropolitans had conse- 
crated to the sun. 

Indeed I would think this conjecture probable 
enough, were it not evident, firom another source, 
that Ops was one of the names of Cybele, reputed 
by idolaters as the daughter of Heaven and Elarth, 
and designated as the Mother of the Gods, the 
Good Mother, and the Earth itself.* Wherefore 

* PiiDj (11, 66.) affirms that the Geotiles worshipped the 
earfeii under the name of Mother, and not only Mother hut preat 
Mother, because of its bouotifulness. For this it was that they 
called her the eternal creator of men and gods, (Stat. Chebaid^ 
viti. ▼• 304,) chief parent, and other such epithets ; for having 
fallen away into idolatry from the religion of the patriarchs, 
who offered sacrifices to the true God through faith in the pro- 
mised Messiah, and having thus contaminated Uie original 
purity of the ksowledge of the Godhead, they worshipped the 
elements, from which they conceived all things to have been 
realized, either as actual divinities or symbols of divinities, and 


the Romans worshipped her under the name of 
Vesta, as being clothed in the beauty of her own 
manifold productions,* according as some ima^ne ;f 
though others would account for it otherwise. J Un- 
der this latter name she had two temples at Rome,§ 
one built by Romulus, the other by Numa Pom- 
pilius, in the mid space between the Capitoline and 
Palatine hills, both hills being surrounded by one 
wall. Her temples were always round, in allusion 
of course to the eartVs form. 

Others would derive the name of Ops from the 
Egyptian word hop, a serpent; others from the 
Hebrew apoe, a viper ; whence the Greek ophis, a 
snake, the root of which is poe, or phoe, to hiss. 
But this has nothing common, or in connection with 
the fables which mythology tells us of this divinity. 
They come more near the truth who say that Ops is 
a mountain of Phrygia, where this idol was wor- 
shipped, the name Ops, or Opes, implying a boun- 

amoDgst these, iu a special manner, the earth, whence themselves 
originated, and into which all things again return in a state of 
decomposition. (Plato. — Proclus.) Cybele was afterwards 
designated by various other names, many of which may still 
be traced upon ancient altars, and recorded by Plutarch, 
PausaniaSy Gruler, Smelius, &c. Camden mentions to have 
seen one of her altars in Biitain. 

* Quippe quae rebus omnibus vestitur. 

t See Lud. Despre. on the Odes of Hor. lib. i. od. 2. 

X Cicero de Nat. Deo. i. n. 67. 

§ Dionys. Hal. earn. lib. ii. 


dary, as though it were the limit of some particular 
country ; as also they think that she was called 
Rhea^ the name by which she was worshipped at 
Hierapolisj from a mountain called Rea, meaning he 
saw, or he observed, from its lofty position command- 
ing a sight of distant objects. She was called Din- 
dymena, from the mountain Dindemain, which 
means, olive groves m an eastern quarter ; and Bere- 
cynthia^ from breschin, or bereschin, a fir or pine 

But our decision on the word Sibbol, a name by 
which the Irish, as well as almost all other nations, 
designated and worshipped Ops, or Cybele, must be 
guided altogether by another principle For here I 
at once recognize the Syriac character as derived 
from sibola, an ear of corn, under which guise the 
Phoenicians used to worship the earth as the mother 
of all harvests, fruits, and vegetables. All nations, 
therefore, by one common consent, represented 
Cybele holding in her right hand some ears of corn.* 

* Yossius states that there was at Rome, in the house which 
belonged to Cardinal Caesius, a marble altar, on which stood a 
statue of Cybele, with a tower upon her head, and holding millet 
and ears of com in her right hand. The inscription was, *' To 
the Great Idean, Mother of the Gods." Many imagine that, in 
allusion to the same principle, she was called Rhea ; not from 
the mountain of that name, in Persia, but from the Phoenician 
reah, he yielded fodder ; whence m, pasture : the metaphori- 
cal signification of reah is, he obtained dominion. She was 
called Idean from id or ida, power. 


Whence the Greeks gave her the name of Cubele^ 
and the Latins that of Cybele. 

She was called Ama from the Phoenician word^ 
am^ a mother^ and Manunon^ from mammon^ riches, 
or wealth, as the bestower of all blessings. 

The name of Anagh, by which she was also dis^ 
tinguished) may refer, if you please, to the groves 
wherein she was worshipped ; for Anagh means de- 
light, or to be delighted, of course, with such worship. 
But I would prefer deriving it from nahag, he ruled, 
or governed; for, as the daughter of Earth and 
Heaven, and the mother, besides, of the gods. Ops 
may be well supposed invested with no ordinary 
share of authcnrity^ in directing the i^B&irs of the 
world. The Isle of Annagh, which lies between the 
island of Achil and the coast of the county Mayo, in 
the province of Connaught, takes its name from this ; 
as does also a little town of the same name near 
Charleville, in the county Cork ; and Annagh-uan 
an island adjacent to the county Galway, intimating, 
as it were, a people who worshipped Anagh ; for the 
Phoenicians used, synechdocally, to call the inhabit- 
ants of any particular district by the generic name 
of ^^ ben.'' 

Nor can I see any objection to the derivation of 
the names of these places from the giant Anac, the 
son of Arbas,* from whom the Phoenicians were 

* Joshua zv. 13, 14. Ben-Anae n«aiis Hteraliy the §mu 


called Anakin^ or B^i-Anac^ the sons or descendants 
of Anac, their principal or leading tribe, agreeably 
and corresponding to the Irish appellatives, Mac- 
Carthy, MacMahon,* O'Brien, O'Connel, the '' Mac" 

of giamU or heroes, of the stock of which Anac was the first 
parent. Whence to this day, in the old Irish ballads, Feineagh 
means a champion, or heroic warrior. 

* At such time as Robert Vere, Earl of Oxford, was in the 
Barons warres against King Richard the Second, through the 
mallice of the Peeres, banished the realme and proscribed, he 
with his kinsman, Fitz-Ursula, fled into Ireland, where being 
prosecuted, and afterwards in England put to death, his kins- 
man there remaining behiode hi Irdaod rebdted, and, con- 
spiring with the Irish, did quite cast off both their English name 
and alleagiance, since which time they have so remained still, 
and have since beene counted meere Irish. The very like is 
also reported of the Mac-swines, Mae-oMihones, and Mac- 
shehies of Mounster, how they likewise were aunctently Eng- 
lish, and old followers to the Earle of DesHiond, uatill the 
raigne of Ring Edward the Fourth ; at which time the Earle 
of Desmond that then was, called Thomas, being through false 
subornation (as they say) of the Queene for some offence by 
her against him conceived, brought to bis death at Tredagh 
most unjustly, notwithstanding that he was a very good and 
sound subject to the King. Thereupon all his kinsemen of the 
Geraldines, which then was a mighty family in Mounster, in 
revenge of that huge wrong, rose into armes against the King, 
and utterly renounced and forsooke all obedience to the Crowne 
of England, to whom the said Mac-swines, Mac-shehies, and 
Mac-mahones, being then servants and followers, did the like, 
and have ever sithence so continned. And with them (they 
say) all the people of Mounster went out, and many other of 
them, which were meere English, thenceforth joyned with the 
Irish against the King, and termed themselves very Irish, 
taking on them Irish habits and custMnes, which could never 


and the *' O " prefixed to the latter, importing the 
same as the Ben in the former instance, viz. ^' the 
sons of/ or " descended from." 

Aonagh» another name of Ops, was pronounced 
Aona by the ancient Irish, and by others called 
Shabana. And as during the celebration of her 
solemnities they always held a fair or markets beside 
her temple, it requires no great effort of imagination, 
as I should think, to derive this name from aon, 
wealth, or a place of public resort. Shabana evi- 
dently comes from shaban, abundance, which again 
is derived from shabaa, he abounded ; all obviously 
in keeping with mercantile views and attendance on 
the market-place. This is still more clearly proved 
by the name given to the first of November in their 
calendar, viz. Oidche Shambna, the day, or rather 
the night (Oidche signifies night) on which idola- 
trous ceremonies were usually celebrated.* The 
festival itself was called Tlachgo, which some refer 
to the rotundity of the earth, but I should prefer 
deriving it from the Phoenician tla agod, a gathering 
of yearling lambs, such being the usual victims on 
the occasion.f From Phoenicia therefore it was 

since be cleane wyped away, but the contagion hath remained 
still among their posterityes. Of which sort (they say) be most 
of the surnames which end in an, as Hernan, Shinan, Mungan, 
&c. the which now account themselves natural Irish. — Spenser. 

* See Collect, de Reb. Ibern. p. 420. 

t Neah had taught his children the knowledge of the true 


that the worship of Ops, under her various designa- 
tions as particularized above, was introduced into 
Ireland, to procure for her votaries that successful 
career as well in agriculture as in commerce, of 
which she was supposed the bountiAil superintendant. 
We may this day observe a vestige of her name in 
that of an old town in Lower Ormond, the capital, 
at one time, of the district anciently called Eog- 
anacht Aine Cliach, called Aonoch. It is now 

Gk>d; and that they were to trust in his mercy through the 
mediation of a Redeemer, who was to be revealed to them at 
a future period of time ; for the necessity of a mediator between 
God and man was a general notion from the beginning. But 
as no clear revelation was then made of this Divine person, 
the people began to choose mediators for themselves, from 
among the heavenly bodies, such as the sun, moon, and stars, 
whom they considered as in a middle state between God and 
men. This was the origin of all the idolatry in the heathen 
world ; and at first they worshipped those orbs themselves, but 
as they found that they were as often under the horizon as 
above it, they were at a loss how to address them in their 
absence. To remedy this, they had recourse to making images, 
which after their consecration they believed endowed with 
Divine power, and this was the origin of image worship. This 
religion first began among the Chaldeans, and it was to avoid 
being guilty of idolatry that Abraham left that country. In 
Persia, the first idolators were called Sabians, who adored the 
rising sun with the profoundest veneration. To that planet they 
consecrated a most magnificent chariot, to be drawn by horses 
of the greatest beauty and magnitude, on every solemn festi- 
val. The same ceremony was practised by many other 
heathens, who undoubtedly learned i); from the Persians, and 
other eastern nations,— ITiird. 


called Nainflgh^ or Nenagh^ and is situated in the 
county Tij^rary. I should ohseire that Aonoch, 
in Irish^ signifies also a mountain or a leader. But 
Nenagfa I would ^ive from the Irish words naoi- 
nach, an assemblage of people^ rather than^ as would 
others, from neonach, a player or bufiPoon. 


The Iben, a people of Ireland — Spain not cognizant of the 
Iberi of Mount Caucasus — Iberia, a Phoenician word — 
Calpe, the extremity of the earth in the estimation of the 
Phoenicians — A promontory and city in Spain, actually the 
extremity of the earth* s extension — This occupied by the an- 
cient Iberi — The sun setting in the river Iber — The Irish 
Iberi, a tribe of the Spanish Iberi — Where they settled — 
The district of Ibrickin, a vestige of them — Derivation of 
this word, as also of Ibercon — The idols, Sicuth and Kion. 

The Iberi, a people of Ireland, of whom Ptolemy 
makes maition, inhabited the coasts of the county 
of Kerry, in the province of Munster. Irish writers 
make mention of another people of this name, who 
had settled in the county of Derry, in Ulster, be- 
tween Lough Foyle and the river Ban.* But who 

* Richard Cirenester, in his ** De Situ Britanniae/' chap. 


those Iberi were we must now betake ourselves to 
consider briefly. 

To suppose, then, that the Caucasian Iberi had 
gone into Spain, and given to that country the name 
of Iberia, I hesitate not to pronounce as nonsense 
the most absurd, though supported by the authority 
of Varro,* and sanctioned by the adoption of Apianf 
and Diodorus Siculus. J No ; the origin of Iberia 
must be sought from another source.§ Eber, in the 
Hebrew, a^nd Ebra or Ibra, in the Chaldee, signify 
a passing over, or any thing remote or far away ; 
their plurals, Ibrin or Ebrin, signify boundaries or 
limits : the Spaniards, therefore, were very naturally 
called Iberi, being, as the Phoenicians imagined, the 
very remotest inhabitants of the earth, and their 
city, Calpe, the furthermost spot in their opinion 
of the habitable globe. || Conformable to this is the 
character given by Possidonius to the temple of 
Hercules, in Gades or Cadiz, calling it '' the bound- 
ary of the earth and sea."^ From the same reason 
the Jews would have Gaul and Spain to be the 
boundaries of their own land. The Zarphat and 

iii. says, from an old Soman geographer, '* The ancients put 
it past doubt, that the Iberi took up their settlements in 

* Varro ap Pliny, iii. 3. 

t Apian in Ibericis, p. 226. 

t Diod. Sic. V. 215. 

§ Bochart. Geog. Sacr. iii. 7. 

II Strabo^ lib. iii. 

^ See Erasmus on '< Pill. Her." iii. chap. 20. 



Sarphad mentioned by Obadiah^ ver. 20. the Jews 
would have to be Gaul and Spain ; because the 
^'psalter" extends the empire of Christ even unto the 
boundaries of the earth, which Aben-ezra * says, are 
situated in the remote west. Finally, the Spaniards, 
themselves, have long since given the name of Finis 
TerraB,f or land's end, to the Nerian or Celtic 
promontory in Artabria. A city and district of the 
same country, in the district of Compostella, still 
preserves its name of land's end — Finis terre. 

Others suppose that the Spaniards were called 
Iberi, from the river Iber; just as Egypt got its 
name from the river Nile, which Homer designates 
— Egyptus. Iber, the name of the river, signifies 
in the Phoenician, rapidly flowing. J 

* Psalms Ixxi. B. 

t Some Spaniards derive this name from the CelticJin-eS'tere^ 
that is, a fair and fertile mountain. As they do, also, the 
names of the towns, Fioestras, in the Celtiberi, and Finestrat, 
in the Edetani, from the Celtic fin-es-tra, a village on a hill 
beside a river. 

t The river Iber rises in the district of the Cantabrians, 
hard by Juliobriga, and flows by the ancient Vetones and 
Vascones, dividing the Ilergates from the Editani. Avienus 
(in Oris Maritimis) mentions another Iberus, near the ocean, 
to the west of the former, being no more than a stream mid- 
way between Boetis and Anas, now called Rio Tin to, or de 
Aceche ; these are his words : — 

** Iberus inde manat amnis, et locos 
Foeciindat unda. Plurimi ex ipso ferunt 
Dictos Iberos, non abillo flumine. 
Quod inquietos Vascones perlabttur. 
Nam quid-quid amni gentis hugus adjacet, 
Oceidiuim ad axem, Iberiam cognominant/' 


The more ancient Iberi had not possession of the 
whole of Spain, but only of that part of it confront- 
ing the Mediterranean^ and extending from the 
Pyrenees to Cdpe, and the jnUars of Hercules. 
But though the Iberi were, properly speaking, the 
more remote,* yet ihe ancient gec^aphical writers 
accounted the Spaaiardg, ind&stcriminately, as ibe 
most distant people ; which gave rise to the fiction, 
on the part of the poets, of the sun's setting not 
only in the oc^m, but more particolariy in the river 
Iber, thereby^ to mark out the e xtremity of the 
earth's extent.f 

The Iberia, therefore, of the ancient Irish took its 
name from the tribes of iiie Iberi of Spain, and 
cx>nsisted of that tract of country in the enyiroufr of 
Beerhaven, in the county (^ Cork ; the families of 
which people would seem to hare been the original 
inhabitants of the county Kerry, and a part of the 
county Clare, in the same province, J where we 
still find the barony of Ibrickin, a proof of the 

* Hence we mflty infer, that the Bcelic Iberi, of wbont 
ATieBU9 speaks, were more properly so called Iberi, for they 
were the sMist extreme is respect to Spain in general. 

f Bochwt i. d/&. Spain retains the traces of this name in 
the Iberio Bf onntains, which pass through the middle of the 
kiBg^kMn of Arragon, in Ibera, the name of an ancient city of 
the Ikreaones, which Livy designates as '* moH opulent,'' and 
in Iberura, a town of Cantabria. 

I The Poets tell us, that this district of Ireland, was ap 
propmted to Heber, son of Milesius. See Seward. 



presence of the Iberi, who gave it that name. 
It is probable^ too^ that the descendants of the 
Spanish Iberi, who all originated from a Phoenician 
stocky were accounted kin, as the sons of Obab or 
Jethro, the father-in-law of Moses,* and from him 
called Kini. This would account for the appear- 
ance of this word, as the last syllable of Iberi-kin ; 
and who is it that does not know the avidity of the 
Phcenicians to perpetuate their nobility, and the 
fondness of delight with which they dwelt upon 
every memorial of the glory of their ancestors ? 

Or, Kin might be equivalent with Kini, that is 
the Cinnaei, a people in the land of Canaan, who 
were also called the Cinncean race.f And this would 
seem supported by the names of certain localities 
still preserved in this country ; for instance, that of 
Cinneich, the residence of Dermott Mac Carthy, J Esq. 

* Judges i. 16. 

t Judges iv. 11, 17. 

I A pathetic incident connected with the Mac Cartys has 
such claims on the feelings that 1 will not conclude this narra- 
tive of their fortunes without the mention of it. A considerable 
part of the forfeited estates of that family, in the county Cork, 

was held by Mr. S , about the middle of the last century. 

Walking one evening in his demesne, he observed a figure, 
apparently asleep, at the foot of an aged tree, and, on approach- 
ing the spot, found an old man extended on the ground, whose 

audible sobs proclaimed the severest affliction. Mr. S 

inquired the cause, and was answered — '* Forgive me, sir; my 
grief is idle, but to mourn is a relief to the desolate heart and 


near Bandon^ in the county Cork ; that of Cineal 
Fearmaic, a district in old Thomond, in the county 
Clare; and that of Cineal-Eoghean^ an ancient and 
extensive tract of the province of Ulster, comprising 
the present counties of Tyrone, Armagh, Donegal, 
and part of the county Derry. This latter inter- 
pretation may be applied, also, to several names of 
the old Irish towns beginning with Kin. To a 
Phoenician source must we also refer the origin of 
the word Ibercon, the name of a place in the 
county Kilkenny,* between the baronies of Ida and 
Igrim, being composed of the words Iberi-con, that 
is, the staunch, the firm Iberi. Nor is it unlikely 
that they consisted of those, who borrowed from the 
Phoenicians the worship of the idol Kiun or Eaon, 
which we are told by the prophet Amos, v. 26., the 

humbled spirit. I am a Mac Carty» once the possessor of that 
castle, now in ruins, and of this ground ; — this tree was planted 
by my own hands, and 1 have returned to water its roots with 
my tears. To* morrow I sail for Spain, where I have lon^ 
been an exile and an outlaw since the Revolution. I am an 
old man, and to-night, probably for the last time, bid farewell 
to the iplace of my birth and the home of my forefathers.'* 
— Crofton Croker. 

* Canice, son of Laidec, a celebrated poet, was the founder 
and first abbot of the abbey of Aghayoe, where he died the fifth 
of the ides of October, in the year 599 or 600. The episcopal 
see was at length removed from Aghavoe to Kilkenny, or the 
cathedral (Kil) of Cannice (Kenny), called after this saint, to- 
wards the end of the twelfth century, by Felix O'Dulany, then 
bishop. — Mac Geogkegan. 


Syrians worshipped in ccgmiction with their idd 
SieutL The septuagint tianslation of the bible calls 
this idol^ ^* Astron/' a star ; the vuIgate renders it, 
^ the image of your idols, the star of your God."* 
The Hebrews <iiink it to be Saturn, who was (»lled 
Keuan by the Persians and Arabians ; and it is well 
known that the Phcenidans worshipped this deity 
under a rariety of names and symbols. 

* V. 26. Tte Phoenicians were acciMtoraed to carry abo4it 
with thcin fu}m» n(mX\ inrd^es, rtefNre^itii^g eeriaio gods, in 
caryed chariots; the tabernacle pf Moloch, above mentioned^ 
seems to have been a machine of this kind. The first images 
or statues were made in honour of great men, who had per^ 
formed extraordinary ei^oits ; and these b^ng set up in par- 
ticular places » great veneration was paid to them, which, in the 
end, turned to religious adoration. It appears, from Pliny, 
that those statues were at first made of brick, such as that 
used in building the famous tower of Babel. As to the text 
itself, above alluded to, it should run thus: — « But ye have 
borne the tabernacle of your god, (Moloch) ; and ye have aha 
borne Chium, your likeness ; the star (Remphan) of your god, 
(the same Molocli.) The common translation insinuates, that 
Moloch and Remphan, or Chium, were different deities, 
whereas, according to that proposed, they were the same, 
since it makes Chium and Remphan the names of that star 
which the Arabians and Egyptians appropriated to the false 
deity » called by the Ammonites, 4&c. by way of eminence-^ 
Moloch, or King. 




The Irish Brigante8,not the Breogani of a later date — neither 
Armenians f nor Phrygians. — Vurious names of Brigantia, 
in Spain — Pharos therein, by whom built — An oracle of 
Menistheus, in an observatory therein — The Irish Brigantes^ 
a tribe of the Spanish Phcsnidans — The Heneti — Why so 
called — Why the Briganters so called — Brigantium the re* 
sidence of the Irish — Vestiges of this name, as well in Ireland 
as in Spain. 

More celebrated than the Iberi far^ in ancient 
Ireland^ was another people, called the Brigantes, 
who were either actually Phoenicians, or descended 
from the Phoenicians of Spain. O'Connor makes 
mention of Caeman's poem,^ wherein it is said that 
Brioganus, the son of Brathus, in a right line from 
Fenius, one of their wise men, was the founder of 
Brigantia in Spdn. And that his posterity had 
sailed from thence into Ireland^ under the conduct 

^ Beginning thus, '' Canam bunhadus mon Oaodkil ;** that 
iBy " I sing of the origin of the Oadalians.'* 


of the two brothers, Heber* and Heremon.f The 
Spanish harbour, which the Greeks call Brugantia^ 
by Ptolemy called Phlaouion Brigantion, and by the 
Romans, Flavia Brigantum, is supposed to have been 
so called after his name. Its modern name is Co- 
runa, and it is only ft)rty-eight hours' voyage, straight 
a-head, with a fair south west wind, from any port 
on the coast of Ireland. (EticusJ still further tells 
us, that in the abovementioned town of Brigantia 
there is a watch-tower of prodigious height, called 
Pharos, and intended chiefly as a light-house for 
the direction of vessels lying out at sea.§ And 
Orosiu8,|| says that this had been built by the Tyrian 
Hercules, who, we know from Diodorus Siculus, had 
subdued Iberia, and all the countries thence to the 
going down of the sun, before he had crossed the 
Alps. Keating,^ nevertheless, asserts, that this tower 
was built by Breoganus the founder of the city, and 
that the first discovery he made therefrom, by the 
aid of a telescope, was the existence of this our 
island, to which he instantly transferred a colony of 

* Giraldos Cambrensis (Topog. Diet. iii. cap. vii.) in the 
following century, and Nennius in the ninth, have asserted the 

t Apud. Casaub. in Strab. 1. 1. p. 206. note 3. 

X This was called the town of Augustus, in the time of 

§ Adversus Gentes I. 17. Alias I. 2. 


f Psalter of Cormac. 


his subjects^ that is the Brigantes^ the same who in 
the Irish annals are called Sliocht Briogan^ that is, 
the stock or the progeny of this leader. 

Strabo,* alluding to the origin of this observa- 
tory, says, — '' In this place is the oracle of Menes- 
theus, and the tower of Capio, built upon a rock, 
surrounded by the sea, a prodigy of art, like the Pha- 
v;^ ros ; and it is so contrived, that the rays of light falling 

\^ thereon are refracted and reflected in every direction, 

as if issuing out of so many chinks, exhibiting all the 
beauty and the ruddiness of the sun or moon, when 
either rising or setting, and seen through the me- 
dium of a transparent and a dry cloud." The 
harbour of Menestheus is mentioned by him in the 
same passage, as it is also by Ptolemy ; Menestheus, 
himself, having been the leader of the Athenians at 
the time of the Trojan war, aild the person who, as we 
read in the commentaries of the Grecians, on his 
return from Illium to Athens, had been expelled 
thence by the descendants of Theseus, and betaken 
himself forthwith to Spain.f 

* Hisce in locis, Oraculum Menesthei est, et Capionis tur- 
ns saxo imposita, quod mari cingitur, opus mirabile, Phari 
instar, quibus infractos radios visus, veluti in fistulas quasdam 
diffundi, et majorem verk quantitatem fingere, quemad modern 
cAm solem lunamve orientem aut occidentem per aridam, te- 
nuemqne nubem intuemur^ mbere putamus/' i. 3. 

t See Casaub. in Strab. O'Connor. 


Baxter,^ however, is of opinion, that the Brigantes 
were a people of ancient Phrygia and Armenia^f 
who passed over into Thrace, and made themselves 
masters, in the very earliest days, and by natural 
occupation, of almost the entire of Europe ; they 
were also, he conceives, called Heneti, from hen, 
which, in the two countries abovementioned, is equi- 
valent with ancient, or antique. But the Brigantes 
being evidently Phoenicians, or, at least, a stock of 
the Phoenician Iberi, I should think it more pro- 
bable, that they got the name of Heneti, in after 
times, from the depravity of their moral conduct, 
the word eneth, in the Phoenician language, signi- 
fying scandalous or depraved. And from thence, 
perhaps, comes the Spanish word, bergante, which 
signifies ihe same. It may, it is true, admit of 
another derivation, and infinitely more to their credit, 
namely, that of being expert at the management of 
the spear, for heneth, in the Syriac and Hebrew, 

* Gloss. Antiq. Brit. p. 48. 

t Armeaia is a yery extensive country, and generally divided 
into the greater and lesser, but taking both together, they are 
bounded in the following manner. It has Georgia on the north; 
o^ the south mount Taurus, which divides it from Mesopotamia, 
on the west the river Euphrates, and on the east the Cas- 
pian mountains. Georgia has the Caspian sea on the east, the 
JSuxine sea on the west^ on the north Circassia, and, on the 
south, part of Armenia* The river Cur» or Cyrus, so called 
from the emperor of that name^ runs through it, dividing it into 
two equal parts. 


signifies a spear. Another exposition may also be 
adduced^ from the custom of embdming the bodies 
of their dead^ which the Jews, as well as Syrians, 
had borrowed from the people of Egypt.* In support 
of this latter expontion we shall state, that henet or 
hanat, in the Syro<*Chald^ language, ngmfies to 
embalm, the ingrecUents in which process we may, 
en passant, observe to have been myrrh^ aloes, cedar 
oil, salt, wax, pitch, and rosin, invented with a view 
to the preservation of their dead, in a state of sweet- 
ness and indecomposition, in their {^propriate recep- 
tacles. With this ceremony was the body of our 
blessed Saviour interred, with aromatic spices, which, 
Josephus tells us, corresponded with the form of the 
Jewish sepulture. It is not at all improbable, there- 
fore, that these Phoenician tribes were called Eneti, 

^y^— ^Fiy^p^^— ^■^^^.— — i"^w»^i^^— *Ti^^w ■ ^rmtrm^wma^'w^^w^^^mi^r^^^^^F^ 

* When any of the EgyptuJis died, the whole family quiltofd 
the place of Uieir abode; and during sixty or seventy days, 
according to the rank or quality of the deceased, abalunMi 
from all the comforts of life* excepting such as were necessary 
to support nature. They embalmed the bodies, and many 
persons were employed in performing this ceremony. The 
brains were drawn through tiie nostrils by an instrument, and 
the intestines were emptied by cutting a hole in the abdomen, 
or belly, with a sharp stone ; after which, the cavities were 
filled up vrith perfumes, and the finest odoriforous spices ; but 
the person who made the incision in the body for this purpose, 
and who was commonly a slave, was obliged to ran away im- 
mediately after, or the people present would stone him to 
death « 


that is the embalmers^^ from having introduced this 
custom into Ireland^ as they did, also, into Spain. 

* A question may here naturally be asked, Why do the 
heathens in the East Indies, in conformity with the practice of 
the Romans, bum the bodies of the dead ? There have been 
seyeral conjectures concerning the origin of this barbarous 
practice, as first, many of the eastern nations adored the fire, 
and therefore they considered it as an acceptable piece of de- 
YOtion, to offer up the dead bodies of their relations to it. 
Secondly, their pride might induce the most celebrated heroes, 
and the most beautiful women, to desire to conceal from the 
world, what poor helpless creatures they were while alive. 
Thirdly, they beheld many indignities offered to the dead, and 
they were willing, nay desirous that nothing of that nature 
should happen to their relations. Lastly, they might do it in 
order to prevent a contagious distemper, which often takes 
place from the noxious smell of dead bodies. Whether any, 
or all of these conjectures may be founded in truth, we leave 
the reader to judge, but, certain it is, the practice itself, is 
contrary to natural religion, as well as to l)ivine revelation . 
Natural religion points out, that as man was formed out of the 
earth, so at death his body should be consigned to it. ** Dust 
thou art, and unto dust thou shalt return.^' Divine revelation 
teaches us, that as Christ laid down his head in the grave, so 
the bodies of those who are his faithful followers, should be 
deposited in the earth ; to rest till that awful period, when he 
shall come to judge the world in righteousness. Let us pity 
heathens, who have none of those consolations, which our 
holy religion holds out to us ; let us daily pray for their con- 
version ; let us not be afraid to lay down our heads in the 
silent graye ; let us not reflect much on the indignities that 
may be offered to our bodies after death ; for our Divine Re* 
deemer has gone before us, he has made the grave sweet unto 
us, and by his almighty power, he will raise us up at the last 
day.— JETwrrf. 


Baxter^ however, thinks that the Brigantes or 
Heneti, as they may indifferently be called^ having, 
as we have said, passed over into Thrace, got the 
name of Bruges, Briges, or Friges, from the cold- 
ness of that climate, and these names got afterwards 
inflected, according to the several Teutonic and 
Britannic dialects, into Brigantes, Frixi, Frigones, 
Frisii, Friscones, Brisones, Britones, and Britanni. 
Whence he infers, and gives himself credit for the 
discovery, that the Brigantes of Ireland were the 
Gauls and the foreigners, who in the older times were 
denominated the Erii * or Scots ;f and that this was 
a name common to the Britons, nay, to all the Gauls, 
before the arrival of the Belgae from Germany. 
This distinguished writer adds, that the original 
Brigantes on bemg expelled their own territories. 

* Baxter's Grloss. Antiq. Brit. p. 119. 

t Two kindes of Scots were indeed (as you may gather out 
of Bucbauan) the one Irin, or Irish Scots, the other Albin- 
Scots ; for those Scots are Scythians, arrived (as I said) in the 
north parts of Ireland, where some of them after passed into 
the next coast 6i Albine, now called Scotland, which (after 
much trouble) they possessed, and of Ihemselves named Scot- 
land ; but in process of time (as it is commonly scene) the 
dominion of the part prevaileth in the whole, for the Irish 
Scots putting away the name of Scots, were called only Irish, 
and the Albine Scots, leavinfic the name of Albine, were called 
only Scots. Therefore it commeth thence that of some writers, 
Ireland is called Scotia- major, and that which now is called 
Scotland, Scotia-minor. — Spenser, 


came in quest of a new settlement to this island^ 
and that the Ceangi^ a people ci tJie Dumnonian 
Belga?^ called by the Irish Scoto-Brigantes^ F(»> 
Bolg, or Belgian-men^ followed them in the pursuit 
of simibr adventures. 

But it being admitted on all hands, as we have 
said, that the Brigantes were a people of the Phteni- 
dans, who landed in Ireland, from the coast of 
Gallacia, or France ; they could not possibly have 
been so named from the cold of that dimate, which 
we all know to be very temperate^ not to say warm. 
Neither were they so called from Briganus, the son 
of Brethus^ who belongs more to the day-dreams of 
story-tellers^ than to the rigid accuracy of historical 
truth. No ; Bregan or Breogan, I consider a Phoeni- 
cian term, from brekin,* which signifies, bringing 
t^erings to an idol or performing the ceremony of 
genuflection before it, which agcun comes from, brie. 

• The coDversion of the letter A or c into g is ea^ afld fre- 
quent. Bracca, a city of Lusftaniay is {m>nounced Brafca, by 
the Spaniards; Malaca, the emporium of Bcetica, Malaga; 
Lucus, a city of Galtaecra, Lugo ; A stories, Astorga ; the 
river Sicoris, Segre, and so on. From the Latin secare, they 
say segar ; from pacare, pagar ; from decollare, degoHar ; trem 
▼acare, vagar; from jocari, jugar; from joco, juego; from 
esco, ciego; from cato, gato; from lacus, lago, &c. A 
similar permutation of the same letter occurs in rarious words 
in all languages : so that it is not at all to be wondered at, 
that by the change of c or A into g, these people got from 
Breckin, the name of Braga, Breage, or Brigangea. 


that is, he bent the ^nee, the attitude at once of 
adoration, prayer, and thanksgiving. It also means 
to oflfer presents to an idol, by which we are to 
understand the phrase of blessing (brie) an idol, as 
it occurs in scripture. From brekin, therefore, they 
being the most superstitious of all the Phoenicians, 
they were at first called Breghan^ then Bregan or 
Breogan, whence, afterwards, the Greeks called them 
Brigantoiy and the Latins, Brigantes, according to 
the genius of their respective tongues. Nor are 
there wanting persons who would maintain, iliat the 
Spanish Brigantes were called Brigantoi by the 
Greeks, from the words purgos anthos, a florid 
tower, the name by which the Farus, in Brigantia, in 
Spain, was formerly designated. But the Spanish 
Brigantes, they should recollect, were not Greeks, 
but Phoenicians. 

Ptolemy places the Irish Brigantes in the south- 
western quarters of this island, as a kin to those 
who were distinguished mider that name in Britain, 
living about the sacred promontory^ leron, just 
opposite Wales : adjacent to them, on the west, lay 
the Vodii, and behind those, the Ittemi, or Ivernii ; 
in the west, still behind the promontory of Notium, 
lay the Vallabori, to whom Drosius joins the Luceni. 
From these the Nagnatae, Erdini, and Venicnii, 
stretched towards the north i but in the extreme 
northern point of the island lay the Robogdii, by 
the promontory of this name. On the west, the 


Voluntii, the Eblani or Blanii, near the city Eblana^ 
DOW Dublin, the Cauci and the Manapii^ between 
whom, and the Brigantes. lay the Coriondi. These 
several people Ptolomy has handed down, as existing 
in this country ; but we find not the Scots included 
amongst them, and this has led Cellarius * to suspect, 
that they were subsequent to those people, at least' 
under this name, in point of occupancy. The opinion 
of modem f geographers is, that they inhabited the 
eastern districts, now called Catherlaghensis, Miden- 
sis, and Waterford ; and that from them a part of 
the district of Media is called, as well in the Irish 
annals as in some old writings respecting Saint 
Patrick, Magh-breg, or the plain of the Brigantes, a 
name it holds to the present day. 

This our Brigantia then, the modern Waterford, 
was situated opposite to Brigantia in Spain. In it 
not only does the river Brigas, now the Barrow, but 
also the barony of Bargy in the south-west of Ire- 
land, seem to savour strongly of the Brigantine 
name. Bruighan-da-darg, a district in the county 
Meath ; Brigown, Brigowne or Brighghobban, 
formerly a city but now a little village in the barony 
of Condons, county Cork, all savour of the same, 
though some would suppose the last mentioned had 

* Geog. Antiq. ii. 4. 
t See O'Connor. 


been called after St. Abban^* the reputed founder 
thereof. To these we may add Briggo^ a village in 
the barony of Ardes^ county Down ; Bright, a town 
in the barony of Licale ; Briggs^ a series of rocks 
and cli£& projecting into the sea at Carrickfergus ; 
Breoghain^ an old district in the county Waterford ; 

* Though we have seeu in the first part* that there were 
Christians in Ireland in the first century, and long before the 
mission of St. Patrick ; that, independent of Cormac-Ulfada, 
monarch of this island in the thirll century, whom his piety 
and religion had rendered odious to the Pagans, several had 
left their native country on hearing of the Christian' name, and 
that having become perfect in the knowledge of the evangelical 
doctrine, and the discipline of the Church, some had preached 
the gospel in the different Pagan countries in Europe ; others, 
filled witli zeal for the salvation of their fellow-citizens, had 
successfully expounded to them the word of God; still the 
nation was not yet considered as converted ; this grace was 
reserved for the reign of Laogare, and the pontificate of Saint 
Celestine I. This great pope, seeing the pious inclinations of 
those people, and the success of private missiouaries amongst 
them, thought of sending them an apostle invested with full 
authority, to complete a work so happily begun. The number 
of histories, which have been composed on the life of St. 
Patrick, has, in a great measure, tended to darken the know- 
ledge we should have of the truth of what concerns him. 
According to Usher, and ancient monuments in the libraries 
of Oxford and Cambridge, there were sixty-three or sixty-six. 
However, we must confine ourselves to the most genuine, and 
those which appear the most authentic, and least liable to 
contradiction ; which are, the confession of St. Patrick, his 
letter to Corotic, and his life, written by some of his disciples. 
— Mac Oeoghegan, 



the river Braghan, ancl the town df Brkk-rirer. 
But chiefly, and above all, we may recognise the 
Brigantine lineage in the names of those illustrious 
leaders who swayed the destinies of this kingdom in 
the days of its former glory, namely the Hy-Brca- 
ghan or the O'Breaglmn^ subsequently altered into 
O'Brien and O' Brian, as Seeward,* no mean au- 
thority, has before observed.f 

In Spain, too, we find memorials of the existence of 
those ancient people in the name, for instance, of 
the town and country of Brigantinos, near the port 
of Flavia Brigantium, the modem Corunna ; in that 
of Brigantes, a river of the Edetani ; in that of Ber- 
gatiano, a town of the Vetones ; in that of Berganzo, 
a city of Cantabria ; and that of innumerable other 
towns, such as Berga, Bergo, Bergara, Bergezo, 
Bergedo, &c. But as to whether or not the Bergilani, 
a very ancient people on the east of the Lacetani, by 
the river Iber, could lay claim to this origin, is 
what I could not positively take upon myself to de- 

Amongst the Pannonians there was also a place 
called Brigantium, which Aurelius calls Victor Ber- 
gentium. To this we should also refer the lake called 
Brigantium Lacus, now Lago di Costanza ; so that 
upon the whole, we see the nation of the Brigantes 

* See Topog. Article Breoghain. 

t Hy, signifies ** of/' tantamount to ** O. 


we^e the most numerous of any since the creation 
of man, laying claim to all Europe as their proper 
country * 

* See Baxter, p. 50. Strange, that from one extremity of 
the world to the other, even the most un en lighted nations 
shouM' believe the doctrine of the immortafity of the sou I, and 
yet many of those who have been brought up under the joyful 
dound of the gospef should deny it. This wifl rise in con- 
demnafion against them, and they will be convicted at the 
tribunal of the great Judge of all the earth, for trampling upon 
kno%Tledge. We arc surprised stiH more, that there should be 
aone but teamed men in the world so abandoned, but learning 
without grace, and the fear of God becomes a real curse instead 
of an useful blessing. — Hurd, 


' 1 



The Scots were ScythianSy a people of northern Asia-^Their 
condition and morality — Blended with the Phomidanf — 
Their various incursums — Passed over into Spain — Become 
friends of the Romans — Their remarkable victories — Land* 
ing- in Ireland from Spain^^Where they settled — When 
called Scots — Whether this name can import Woodland folks 
— Whether the Scythians were so called from their adroitness 
in flinging the javelin — Scytha and Saca, both Phoenician 

As Cellarius ♦ is of opinion that it was not until 
after the days of Ptolemy that the Scots f had 
effected a landing in Ireland^ or that^ at leasts they 
were not recognised there under this distinctive 
name^ we cannot^ I imagine^ consistently with the 
plan we have proposed to ourselves, let this oppor- 

* Loco laudato. 

f Whether they at their first comming into the lamd, or 
afterwards by trading with other nations which had letters, 
learned them of them, or devised them amongst themselves, is 
very doubtful ; but that they had letters aunciently, is nothing 
doubtfully for the Saxons of England are said to have their 
letters, and learning, and learned men from the Irish, and 
that also appeareth by the likenesse of the character, for the 
Saxon character is the same with the Irish. — Spenser, 



tunity P&68, without some disquisition respecting the 
origin of this people^ and their arrival in this 
country. Nennius, in his little treatise called Capi- 
tula,* or little notes^ has proved to demonstration, 
that they were originally Scythians, who, as the old 
Irish annalsf still farther inform us, had started from 
Eg3rpt in the tenth year of Darius, King of the 
Persians. Here, however, there was an obvious 
mistake as to the place of their birth, for the Scy- 
thians were not Egyptians, but Asiatics, the most 
celebrated, and widely extended people too, in the 
northern regions of that country, described by 
Horace,J the immortal poet of the Augustan age, 
** as wanderers and fond of living in the open plains/* 
They built no houses, they had no fixed abode, 
spreading themselves abroad over the bosom of the 
surface, and taking up a temporary residence for 
themselves and their families, whom they carried 
with them in carts, wherever and long as ever their 
convenience and inclination afforded. Hence they 
were called Amaxohioi and Amaxoforetoi, that is, 
as Sallust renders it, '' whose waggons were their 

The Scythians, says Trogus Justinus,§ have no 

* Cap. ix. et x. 

t Contin. AnDal. Tigeroach. ex eod. Dub., written in the 
fifteenth century, folio iv. vol. 1. 

t Carminum I. ode xxxv. and Carminum III. ode xxir. 
§ Lib. ii. 


boundariee ftOdODgst th^nsdres^ neith^ do they tiH 
the grouQ4# nor build tibemselves house or habita-' 
tion^ being alone ocoqned in feeding their flocks 
and h^ds^ and in wandering incessmitly through 
the uncultivated deaarts. Their mres and children 
they carry with them in carts^ covered over with 
a canopy as a shelter from the weather^ and thus 
answering all the purposes of a house. They cul-* 
tivate Justice more by inclination and by habits 
than by the obligations of law. Gold or silver 
they do not covet. They live on milk and honey. 
The use of wool and of clothes is to them unknown^ 
bding dressed only in the skins of wild beasts. This 
course of abstinence and habitual restraint, extended 
its influence even unto the heart itself, elevating the 
tone of their moral character, and eradicating every 
extraneous and artificial desire.^* Hence in Homerf 

* I will begin then to count their customes in the same 
order that I counted their nations, and first with the Scythian 
or Scottish manners. Of the which there is one use^ amongst 
them, to keepe their caUle, and to live themselves the mosi 
part iif the yeare in booHes, pasturing upon the mountaine, 
and waste wilde places ; and removing still to fresh land, as 
they have depastured the former. The which appeareth plaine 
to be the mapner of (he Scythians, as you may read in Glaus 
Magnus, and lo. Bohemus, and yet is used amongst all the 
Tartarians and the people about the Caspian Sea, which are 
naturally Scythians, to live in heards as they call them, being 
the very same, that the Irish boolies are, driving their cattle 
continually with them, and feeding onely on their milke and 
white meats. -i-fi^>eii#er. 

t Iliad T. 

■J "Ji^" I 


we find them called, Dikaiotatoi Aiithrojpoi, ''the 
most just of meo." Strabo,* Herodotus^f Virgil,J 
and others, have made mentioa of their name, aikl 
equally honourable. Three things worthy of record 
are noticed by Justin § respecting them — ^tl^k an- 
tiquity — their military Yalour|| — ^and their having 

* vu. 

t ir. 

I Georg. iii. 

^ Lib. xxi. 

[| The Scoti or MSiesian Irbh, like their kinsfolk the Scy- 
thians, when rushing to battle, made use of the war cry, 
Farragh, Farragh. " Here is another proof that they bee 
Scythes or Scots^ for in all their incounters they use one very 
common word, crying Ferragh, Ferragh, which is a Scottish 
word, to wit, the name of one of the first Kings of Scotland, 
called Feragus, or Fergus, which fought against the Pictes, 
as you may reade in Buchanan, de rebus Scoticis : but as 
others write, it was long before that, the name of their chiefe 
Captaine^ under whom they lought aguinst the Africans, the 
which was then so fortutiate unto them, that ever sitheoee they 
have used to call upon his name in their battailes. Some, 
who (I remember) haye upon the same word Ferragh, made a 
very blunt conjecture, as namely, Mr. Stanihurst, who though 
he be the same countrey man borne, that should search more 
oeerly into the secret of th^se thinp ; yet hath strayed from the 
truth all the heavens wyde, (as they say,) for he thereupon 
groundeth a very grosse imagination, that the Irish should de- 
scend from the Egyptians which casie into that Island, £rst 
under the leaiiUng of one Scota, the daughter of Pharaoh, 
whereupon they use (saith he) in all their battailes to call upon 
the name of Pharaoh, crying Ferragh, Ferragh.'* — Spenser. 
It will soon be made manifest, that Mr. Spenser, himself, 
** hath strayed from the truth all the heavens wyde" as to the 
origin of this war-cry. 


founded the kingdom of the Parthifms. To these 
we may add, the fame of the Amazons, a tribe of 
female warriors, who spnmg up from their race,, 
whose ^ploits have been blazoned in every age and 
in every climate, and accompanied besides with such 
characteristics of romance, as to make some imagine 
the whole had been a fiction. In short, they were 
a nation indefatigable from the pursuits of labor and 
of war, possessed of incalculable strength of body, 
desiring to procure nothing which they might fear 
to lose, and seeking nothing, when victors, but pure 

That the Scythians were incorporated with the 
Phoenicians, and had both together overran the 
whole of Palestine, is jMroved by the circumstance of 
their occupation of the city of Bethsan, which they 
called Scythopolis, after themselves — it is further 
proved by the name of Bambyx or Hierapolis, the 
modern Aleppo as some suppose, which they gave 
the city of Magog,f so called from the son of 
JaphetjJ of that name, from whom the Sc]rthians 
were descended, or in memory of its founder, who 
was supposed to have been the son of Magog, and 
to have come from the land of Ma^og into Syria. § 
' — ^^ ... 

* See more on this head in Boohart 0<eog. Sac. iii« 19. 
t Pliny V. 28. 
t Bochari iii. 13. 

§ Bocbart attempts to prove that Magog was the same as 
Prometheus. And we know that Deucalion, the son of Pro- 

JU^t^^^J^U'^JJBM^J^ii^M'liilJH^ ^53— ———I 


Strabo* says, that they had extended the lunits of 
their empire from thence all along to Armenia and 
Cappadoqia, calling Saca, a district in Armenia, 
Sacasene, after their own name. We read, also, of 
a settlement of the Scythians in Trogus, along side 
of the Thermodon. But what Thermodon means, 
we must still doubt, as it occurs in Plutarch as e^ 
river in Sc)rthia ; in Philostratus, as the boundary of 
the Scythian empire. From thence they advanced 
into Cimmeria, driving out the natives wherever 

metbeusy a Scythian, is said to ha?e been, according to Lucian» 
the founder of the city of Magog, in Syria, and the erector 
therein of a temple to the *' Syrian Goddess,'^ The name-* 
** Magog," says Valiancy, signifies pine tree, agreeably to the 
Asiatic custom. We have a beautiful allegory of this kind in 
the annals of Innisfallen, A. D. 1314, composed extempore 
by Turlough O'Brien, on the death of his favorite chief Donogh 
O'Dea : 

Truagh an teidhm, taining thier, rug has borb 
Taoisseach teann dainedh dhamh, 
Donncha Don ; Tome is cial, cru mo chuirp 
Craobh dom cheill an teidhm uacb. 

Dire is the loss, alas ! of late 

Upon the western shore ! 
By ruthless death, and murth'ring fate, 

A valiant chief's no more? 
Ah ! woe is me : my soundest sense 

And kindred friend so true ! 
My wood has lost a imputing branch, 

My Donoh, dear, in you! 

Tran$lated by 0' Flaherty, 
* De fluviis. 


they went, thence to Caucasus and the Palus Maeotis, 
to the Tanais on the northern ocean, as appears 
from the testimony of Herod* and Diodorus Sicu- 
lus.f From thence they sailed over into Spain, as 
Varro, and from him Pliny, bear testimony, which 
accounts for the mention made in Silius Italicus,J 
of the Scythae or Sacae in Spain.§ Horace, || speak- 
ing of the Cantabrians, who had been subdued by 
Agrippa, says, '^ The Cantabrians, that ancient 
enemy on the Spanish coast, subdued at last by a 
long disputed victory, are subservient : the Scythians 
now meditate to quit their plains with their bows 
slackened.** And they did actually quit them, first 
laying down their arms in submission to the Roman 
authorities. Such, says Seutonius,^ was the reputa- 
tion for virtue and moderation established by Au- 
gustus, all over the world, that the Indians and 
Scjrthians, who were not known of otherwise than 
by rumor or hearsay, were induced, of their own 
accord, to court his alliance, and that of the Roman 
people, by an authorised deputation to Rome, for 
the purpose which occasions Horace** in his saccular 

• De vita Apollon. vii. 11. 


X HI. 3. 

§ iii. 360. 

II Carmiii. lib. iii. Ode 8. 

If In Octavios, cap. xxii. 

*• Carm. Scee. v. 66. 


poem^ to observe : *' Now the Scythians, lately so 
proud^ court our answer." Yes, they voluntarily 
sought after the friendship, the injunctions, and the 
laws of the Romans, which, as Justin ♦ observes, was 
the 0M>re wonderful, inasmudh, " they only heard of, 
not felt, their power/'f Nay, when the empire of 
Asia was thrice direat^oied by invasion, the Scythians 
stood untoudied, or unconquered in their native 
independence, compelling Darius, King of the Per- 
sians to retire with disgrace, making Cyrus and his 
whole army the victims of their revenge, and cutting 
to pieces the forces of Zonvrion. and himself, too. at 

* Ibidem, cap. 3. 

t All Spaine was tirst conquered by the Romans, and 
filled wUb colonies from them, which were still increased, and 
the native Spaniard still cut off. Afterwards the Carthaginians 
ill all the long Punick Warres (having spoiled all Spaine, and 
in the end subdued it wholly unto themselves) did, as it is 
likely, root out all that were affected to the Romans. And 
lastly the Romans having againe recovered that coufitrey, and 
beate out Uaunihal* did doubtlesse cut off all that favourer! 
the Carthaginians, so that betwixt them both, to and fro, there 
was scarce a native Spaniard left, but all inhabited of Romans. 
All which tempests of troubles being over-blowne, there long 
after arose a new storme, more dreadful then all the former, 
which over-ran all Spaine, and made an infinite confusion of 
all things ; that was, the comming downe of the Gothes, the 
Hunnes, and the Vandals: and, lastly, all the nations of 
Scythia, which, like a mountaine flood, did over-flow all 
Spaine, and quite drowned and washt away whatsoever reliques 
there was left of the land-bred people, yea, and of all the 
Romans too. — Spenser. 


their head, though supported by all the spirit which 
the consciousness of being general to Alexander the 
Great, must necessarily have inspired. 

That the Scythians, having now concluded a 
treaty with the Romans, proceeded from Spain to 
Ireland, is the received opinion of the historians of 
this island. Accordingly we find in an old hymn,* in 
honour of St. Columba, this expression, ^* that the 
Celtiberian Sc)rthian had nothing equal to Columba.'' 
They first put in at the south, and took up their 
residence, finally, towards the north. Baxter f de- 
clares, that their posterity are, at this day, the 
occupiers of Valentia, and we have the authority 
of Ammianus Marcellinus and Zosimus for stating, 
that, whilst only an Irish colony, they were the 
confederates of the ancient Saxons, and successful 
ones they proved, in checking the encroachments of 
the Roman power. 

OTlaherty, conceiving he had discovered the time 
of the arrival of the Scots from Spain, in an old 
Irish poem J of the ninth century, ascribes that event 
to the 3698th year of the Julian period, which ac- 
cording to Scaliger, would be the fifth of the reign 

* ServaturiuBobiens. 1200, ap. — O^Connor. 

t p. 211. 

X The poem of Eucbad O'Floin, beginning with these words: 
^* List ye learned." — It may be seen in the Dublin Library. 
O'Connor has published a fragment of it, which designated, 
under an allegorical veil, the year of the Scots or Scythians' 
arrival in Ireland. 


of Solomon.* Others, tracing the matter still farther 

backjf assert, that when the Egyptians were drowned 

in the Red Sea, the survivors expelled from their 

body a Scythian of high birth who had lived 

amongst them, lest the £su;ilities of his situation 

should foster his ambition to usurp dominion over 

them, whereupon he betook, instantly, himself, with 

his whole family, to Spain, where he lived for many 

years ; and his progeny, after him, being multiplied 

beyonU the accommodation which the place could 

afford, proceeded from thence unto Ireland. But 

all the memorials of the Scots, says Tigemachus, up 

to the period of Alexander the Great, are vague 

and uncertain. Be it so ; yet still I cannot admit — 

Baxter's J assertion to the contrary notwithstanding — 

that, before the eighth century, there was no such 

place known in Britain as Scotia, the name by 

which Ireland is designated by the venerable Bede, 

as well as by the monk Ravennas. ** Ireland," says 

Bede, "is the proper country of the Scots, who, 

quitting it, added themselves as the third nation to 

the Picts and Britons in Britannia. Jas. Usher,§ 

also, a very distinguished writer, has furthermore 

proved, that the Romans called this island, Scotia. 

Gibbon, too, assents to this fact in his preface to his 

• 0*Flaherty Ogyg. Prol. p. 34. 
f Walsingham's Hypodig. 

t p. 211. 
\ Primordia. 


history of tl^ Roman empire. But it was not in 
Ireland that the SG3rthians were first distinguished hy 
the name of Scots ; for Saint Jerom^ introduces For- 
"phjrj, saying, that ^neither did Britain, that fertile 
province in tyrants, nor the Scotic nations, and alt 
the barbarous provinces round about, know any 
thing of Moses and the prophets ;" which makes 
O'Connor to conclude, that the Scotic ns^ons then hty 
beyond the pale of the British isle. Nay, Baxter him* 
self affirms, that Scotia was so called by the Romans 
from the Scoti. Orosius,f a presbyter of Tarracoha, 
who flourished in the beginning of the fifth century, 
says, thiU;, in his own time^ Ireland was inhabited by 
the nations of the Scoti ;% and St. Isidorus tells us, 
that ** Ireland cmd Scotia are the same, being called 
Scotia, as inhabited by the Scots." '^ Hence, in 
aftertimes," says Ludovicus Molina, ^' arose the 


* Epist. ad Elesipfaontem. 

f Histor. lib.ii. 

I The most celebrated geograpbM^ agree, thai anet^tt 
Europe was possessed by four grand classes of men, viz. the 
€^9fles, who extended themselves from the Bosphonis Cimmo- 
rinos on the Euzkie, to the Chnbrk Gfa^rsonese of Denmark 
and the Rhine,, dispersing themseives over Wfslem Europe 
and her isles ; the Scythians, who came from Persia, and 
spread from thence to the Euxine, and almost over all Europe, 
speaking the Gothic, and its kindred dialects, the Teutonic, 
the Trisic, Belgic, &c. ; the Iberi or Mauri, who came from 
Africa, and peopled Spain and Aquitain, and their language 
survives in the Cantabric or Basque s and the Sarmatae, whose 
language was the Sclavonic, and whose appearance in Europe 
was later than the others. — Mac Gregor. 

■■* r'lp ■ iumt LI II I I Li i^F^^^P^^^^^— ^1^1— ^iw^^w^^i^^PM^^i^i^^pi— ■^■^JW— H 


drigin of the Iberi in Ireland, who retained, as their 
characteristic, the very ancient name of Scythians or 
Scots, from whom the Spanish promontory, now 
called Finisterr^, or landWnd, was formerly desig- 
nated Scythicum or Celticum. These people removed 
themselres to Ireland from Spain, as Orosius in&rms 

Now, Baxter, inquiring into tke etymology of the 
word Scots,^ says, that the Britons, called ihem, 
Isgwydhwyr, which, in the old scriptural style, is 
equivalent to Scoituir, or woodland meiv The 
modern name, Guydhal, is the same as Brigantine, 
or woodland Gaul. For the Irish are, undoubtedly, 
a mingled race, consisting, as he says, on the one 
hand, of the Erii or barbarous native ; on the other 
hand, of the Scots and Brigantes ; and, thirdly, of 
the Guydhali or woodland Gauls : and from this 
he accounts for the drcumstance of their being so 
often designated by the Briti^ writers under the 
compound name o( Scoto-Brigantes* 

Others, again, would look still higher for the 
origin (tf the ScylMan name, and thi^ it derived 
from their dexterity in darting the javelin, scutten, 
in the German language, signifying persons esqpert 

* Eginhard, secretary to Charlemagne, or, according to 
some, his son-in-law, in his annals on the year 812, informs 
08 that the naval forces of the Norniaos landed in Ireland, the 
island of the Scots, and having given them battle, in which 
they were defeated, ^at those barbarians who escaped, shame- 
fully took flight, and retarned to their country^ -^MacOeoghegan. 


in Hiis art ; just as a portion of the Scythians were 
called Arimaspi,* that is, who close one eye, or use 
but one,f which, we all know, is the practice of 
those who aspire to any eminence in the science of 

It strikes me as more likely, not to say indubitable, 
that the Scythians were so called by the Phoenicians 
from the moment of their first incorporation with 
them, occupying, as they did, a great part of Syria ; 
and that they did so call them, from the fact of 
having noticed their roving propensity driving them 
on as adventurers, through hill, through dale, 
through desert, and through forest. The word 
Scythian, then, I would derive from shitin, which, 
ill the Phoenician language, signifies traversers, 
wanderers, or rofvers, and is itself derived from shit, 
to go, surround, run about, or digress ; or, from 
shitah, to expand or dilate, either in allusion to their 
straggling, or the successful ardor with which they 
extended their sway, striking terror into their foes 
by the very name of their princes, and laying low at 
their feet the most numerous armies. Saca or Sa- 
casene too, a district of Armenia, called after them, 
would seem referable to the same source ; sacac, in 
in that language, signifying to run about or walk, as 
sacah, does a roof or covering. Perhaps, if we would 
regard the justice of the nation, we may suppose 
them so designated from zaca, praiseworthy or just, or 

* Derived from Arima, one, and Spia, an eye. 

t The better to collect the visual rays toward one focus. 


zaki, blameless, irreproachable ; all which attributes 
we find briefly enumerated by Chaerilus, in his work 
called the'^Diabasis of Xerxes/' saying/' The pastoral 
Sacae, a Scythian race, Asiatics who tilled the land, 
colonists belonging to the roving nation of the No- 
madesy a people who practised justice/' The word 
zaca, also, means to overcome or conquer, which 
agrees well with the warlike character of the 

* Their short bowes, aod little quivers with short bearded 
arrowes, are very Scythian as you may reade in the same 
Olaus. And the same sort both of bowes, quivers, and 
arrowes, are at this day to bee seene commonly amongst the 
Northerne Irish-Scots, whose Scottish bowes are not past three 
quarters of a yard long, with a string of wreathed hempe 
slackely bent, and whose arrowes are not much above halfe 
an ell long, tipped with Steele heads, made like common broad 
arrow heades, but much more sharpe and slender, that they 
enter into a man or home most cruelly, notwithstanding that 
they are shot forth weakely. — Spenser, 

I have heard some great warriours say, that, in all the 
services which they had seene abroad in forraigne countreyes, 
they never saw a more comely man then the Irish man, nor 
that Cometh on more bravely in his charge; neither is his 
manner of- mounting unseemely, though hee lacke stirruppes, 
but more ready then with stirruppes ; for, in his getting up, 
his horse is still going, whereby hee gayneth way. And there- 
fore it was called so in scorne, as it were a stay to get up, 
being derived of the old English word sty, which is, to get up, 
or mounte.— Spenser, In fact, they were a tribe of that people 
whom Virgil (from the Punic records) designates as ** Numdae 



The Irish Siluri a tribe of the Phcenicians— Whether so called 
because wearing breeches — Origin of the Spanish word 
Saraguelles — Not all the Phcenicians of Ireland called 
Silures — This word implying the condition of their race, or 
their superstition — From them the island Silura so called — 
Whether there be only one such or several — Derivation of 
the word Cassiteris — Islands of that name in the Spanish 
sea — Why called Cica by the ancients. 

To the Phoenician Iberi belong also the people 
of the Silures, who had fixed their residence in the 
British isles, and of whom Tacitus thus speaks : — 
'* Their faces are colored, their hair for the most 
part twisted, and seem to encourage the belief that 
the ancient Iberi, who lay opposite to Spain, had 
crossed over and seized themselves of these settle- 
ments."* The Iberi alluded to are of course, says 

* IThis he speaketh touching the Silures which inhabited that 
part of South Wales, which now we call Herefordshire, Rad- 
norshire, Brecknockshire, Monmouthshire, and Cvlamorgan- 
shire. And although the like reason may be given for that 
part of Ireland which lyeth next unto Spaine, yet in Tacitus 
we find no such inference. Buchanan, indeed, upon the con- 


Bochart, those of Tartasus, who were a colony of 
the Phoenicians, for these alone possessed either the 
spirit or the skill requisite for navigation, and the 
transplanting of colonies into distant countries. 
And as there will be an eflPort, no doubt, to scoop 
the origin of the word Silures from the vowels of the 
Phoenician language, the learned, says he, well 
know that the inhabitants of the British isles, as well 
as the Gauls, were accustomed to wear breeches. 

jecture of Tacitus, hath these words* '^ Verisimile autem non 
est Hispanos relict^ k tergo Hibenii4, terra propiore, & coeli 
Sc soli mitiiMris, in Albium primiim desceadisse, sed primiim in 
Hibemiam appulisse» atque inde in Britannia colonos missos." 
Which was observed unto me by the most learned Bishop of 
Meth, Dr. Anth. Martin, upon conference with his lordship 
about this point. One patssage in Tacitus touching Ireland 
(in the same booke) I may not heere omit, although it be extra 
oleas. "Quinto expeditionum anno (saith he) nave prim^ 
transgressus, ignotas ad tempus gentes, crebris simul ac pros- 
peris praeiiis domuit^ eamque partem Britannia quae Hiberniam 
aspicit, copiis institixit, in spem magis quam ob formidinem* 
Siquidem Hibernia medio inter Britanniam aque Hispaniam, 
sita, & Oallico quoque roari opportuna valeutissimam imperij 
partem magais inviceiii usibus miscuerit. Spatium ejus si 
Britannia comparetur, angustius, nostri maris insulas superat. 
Solum ccelumque & ingenia, cultusq ; hominum haut multi^m 
k Bntannia differunt, meliiis aditus portusq ; per commercia & 
negotiatores cogniti. Agricola expulsum seditione domestic^ 
unum ex regulis geatis exceperat, ac specie amiciiae in occa- 
sionem retinebat. Ssep^ ex eo audivi Legione un^ & modicis 
auxilijs debellari, obtinerique Hiberniam posse. Idque ad- 
versi!ls Britanniam profuturum, si Romana ubique arma, <& 
velut h conspectu libertas tolleretur." — Sir James Ware, 



For this he quotes Martial* — '* As an old pair of 
breeches belonging to a poor Briton." Then he 
takes shelter in the language of the Arabians, in 
which sirwal, and sarawuel, from which again comes 
the Spanish word saraguelles, signify all one and the 
same thing, namely, a pair of breeches. Sirwalin, 
therefore, in the Arabic, signified persons who wore 
this article of dress. From this the Romans, says 
he, by transposition, gave the name of Silures to 
those Phoenicians who had settled in Ireland, as a 
mark of distinction between them and the rest of 
their race, just as a part of Gaul, where the use of 
this article prevails, is called Braccata from that 
very circumstance — such is Bochart's opinion. 

To me, however, it appears more likely that not 
all the Phoenicians who had come over to those 
islands, but only a few of their tribes, the lowest 
and the poorest, got the denomination of Silures 
from the rest of their fraternity, and that not from 
an Arabian term relating to dress, but a Phoenician 
one, purporting obscurity and meanness of origin. 
For zeluth, in the Phoenician, means vileness or con- 
temptibility, as generally applied to the rabble ; and 
zaluth, impurities, filthiness. Thus much respecting 
their condition as a caste. But if you would prefer 
referring it to the superstition of the whole nation, 
it is evident that in this point of view we may derive 

* 11 Epigr.22. 

-^: — ^j" . ""- — ~ ^ ■ ; — "= — "' — "'■■■■^ ■ '"■ \ ■' " ' ifl J '•• V^^^^cT^^^ 


Silures from the words zil 'ur, that is worshippers of 
the sun or fire ; for or, as well as ur, both in the 
Hebrew and Syriac languages, signify the sun, to 
blaze, or any luminous body. In this sense we find 
it in Job,* where he says, *^If I have seen the sun 
(or) when he shone ;*' and in Nehemiahf — " From 
the morning (or) even unto the mid-day," that is 

* Men have, in all ages, been convinced of the necessity of 
an intercourse between God and themselves, and the adoration 
of God supposes him to be attentive to men's desires, and, 
consistent with his perfections, capable of complying with 
them. But the distance of the sun and moon is an obstacle to 
this intercourse. Therefore foolish and inconsiderate men 
endeavoured to remedy this inconvenience, by laying their 
hands on their mouths, and then lifting them up to their false 
gods, in order to testify that they would be glad to unite them- 
selves to them, notwithstanding their being so far separated. 
We have a striking instance of this in the book of Job, which, 
properly attended to, will throw a considerable light on ancient 
Pagan idolatry. Job was a native of the confines of Assyria, 
and being one of those who believed in the true God, says, in 
his own vindication, '' If I beheld the sun while it shined, or 
the moon walking in brightness; and my heart hath been 
secretly enticed, or my mouth hath kissed my hand," &c. 
Job xxxi. 26, 27. 

This was a solemn oath, and the ceremony performed in the 
following manner : 

The person who stood before his accusers or before the 
judge's tribunal, where he was tried, bowed his head and 
kissed his hand three tiroes, and looking up to the sun, invoked 
him as an Almighty Being, to take the highest vengeance updn 
him if he uttered a falsehood. — Hurd* 

t viii. 3. 


irom suntise till noon ; and from this it was that 
Apollo was called Orus by the heathens. It also^ as 
I have intimated^ signifies fire^ lit and blazing^ and 
by synechdoche^ the hearth wherein it blazes, in 
which acceptation it occurs in Isaiah — " In the blaze 
(or) of your fire.*^ As to zila, it means to pray to^ 
or worship, as ziluth does prayer, adoration. The 
introduction into this country of the Phoenician 
usage of worshipping the sun and fire, is a point 
beyond dispute^ as we shall make by and bye more 

From the Silures is named the island of Silura, 
separated, by a turbid strait, from the coast, which 
is inhabited, as Solymus informs us, by a British 
race, the Dumnonii. There are those who would 
name as the islands of the Silures, or the Silenee, 
what we at this day call the Scilly Isles, and the 
Belgians the Sorlings ; and which Camden enumer- 
ates to the amount of about one hundred and forty- 
five, more or less, being circularly arranged, and 
about eight leagues distant from the extreme cape 
of Cornwall : these have been otherwise called by 
the ancients Cassiterides, from the tin in which they 
abounded ; Hesperides, from their western locality ; 
and Ostrymnidae, from the promontory of Ostrjrm- 
nus, in Artabria, to which they are opposite. Now 
there is no one so unacquainted with history as not 
to know that the Phoenicians exported an immense 


quantity of tin from those islands. They alone,* aa 
Strabo informs us, had repaired thither, from Gades^ 
on those commercial speculations, studiously, the 
while, concealing their schemes from all others; 
which Bochart confirms by several collateral testi- 
monies. This tin they used to ship oflF to Syria 
and Arabia. And we find in Numbers xxxi. 22, how 
much it was sought after by the Midianites ; and in 
Job xix. 24, by the Arabians. Of which see at 
large in W. Cooke, p. 23 ; Pliny Nat. Hist. vii. 56. 
Take care, however, that we do not confound 
these islands with the Cassiteridesf in the Spanish 
sea, right opposite to Baiona of Tudium, which are 
supposed, by some, to have been so denominated 
from the immense rocks with which they are sur- 
rounded, called by the Greek inhabitants of Spain 

* From some pcissages io Piutarcb, O'Halloraa offers a 
conjecture, that H^e sacra et delecta eokora of tlie Carthaginiaps, 
mealioned by Diodortis and others, was a select body of Irish 
troops in the pay of that people. From the time of the Scipios 
until the reign of Augustus, a space of more tbaa two hundred 
years, Spain struggled with the Romans for independence ; and 
we may naturally suppose, that as Irelaad was but a few days' 
sail from Spuin, they had auxili^ies from thence, and liiat the 
Carthaginians had them also. Hannibal's army was mostly 
made up of foreign troops, a great part of which he brought 
from Spain after the talking of Saguntum* — Mae Greyor. 

t This name is derived from Kassitera, the Greek for tin ; 
being the translation of Bara anac, which, in Phoenician, sig- 
nifies the land of tin ; and from this again the word Britannia 
would seem to be immediately formed. 


Cica, from cicos, which in their language signifies 
strength, a stronghold, or fortress; whilst others, 
with more probability, think it a Phcenician name 
given to those islands before ever the Grecians set a 
foot in Spain, and from the same circumstance as 
the other islands of the same name were denomi- 
nated^ namely, their tin mines, cicar or kicar, in the 
Syriae, signifying metal of any kind. 


The VodUe, in what section of Ireland they had settled-^ 
Whether they were of the race of the Erigence, or a tribe of 
the Phoenicians — Conjecture upon the Etymology of the 
name — Vodie the country called Dergteachneagh — Origin of 
this wotd — The Lucaniy or Luceniy a people of Ireland— 
This name supposed originally Irish — Where they settled — 
Whether different from the Lugadii — Whence the name 
Slioght — Lucus and Lucena cities of Spain — Conjecture on 
the Phcenician origin of the Luceni — Fire worshipped amongst 
the Phcenicians — The promontory of Notium, 

The Vodifife, or Vodii, were, according to Ptoleiny, 
an ancient people of Ireland, contiguous, on the west, 
to the Brigantes in the county Cork, being the same 
as the Mediterranean Momonienses; what you 


II luj '^mm'mgmm^^x^^^^i^^^^^mm^H^'^emm^^^f^g^t^^mgmmmmm^m^B^im 


would call in English, says Baxter,* the woodland 
folk, and consequently of the primitive stock of the 
Erigenae, or real natives. Vydhieu, or Guydhieu, 
means woods at this very day amongst the Britons. 
Others would interpret Vydhieu as people living in 
woody places by the water side ; for in Ptolemy we 
also read of a place called Vodie, which the Irish 
writers call Dergtenii, or Dergteachneagh, — and give 
us to understand it means a woody habitation beside 
a lake, — comprising the southern coast of the county 
Cork, namely, the old baronies of Corcaduibhne, 
Corcabhaisin, and Corcahuigne.f 

It may be worth the attention of the learned men 
of this country to see whether the Vodiae were not 
one of the Phoenician tribes who had settled here ; 
for Bohodi in the Phoenician language meant a con- 
gregated clan ; as you would say, stop with me, live 
with me ; from whence, in the Arabic, bahad, he 
stopped, or sojourned, and badi, the origin of a 
race, the introduction of a family, a congregation. 
This conjecture is supported by the name of the 
country called Dergteachneagh, being, as I imagine, 
an abbreviation from Derc-teachin-agch, which sig- 
nifies travellers, or strangers, in a wilderness ; for 
derc nieans he walked, teachin, living or lurking in a 
lonely place, and agah, he passed the night. Derg- 

* p. 263. 

t See Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iii. p. 333. 


tenii sounds like that langnage too, derc-tenar mean- 
ing in it a rocky road, and derc-tenin a road on 
which men, or beasts of burden, carry provisions or 
other merchandise. 

The Lucanii, or Luceni, are to be found also in 
Ptolemy as an ancient people in this island, of whom 
Orosius also makes mention. Richard Cirencester 
says, that their settlement lay in the county Kerry, 
near the bay of Dingle.* The name is supposed to 
be compounded of the two Irish words lugh-aneigh, 
meaning the inhabitants of a district adjoining a 
lake, or sea, what you would call, says Baxter, mari- 
gene, or sea-bom. This gentleman imagines that 
these were originally a colony of the Dumnonian 
Belgae, and that they gave their name to the pro- 
vince of Lugenia, or Leinster, which certainly does 
sound very like the land of the Lugeni, and in after 
times had advanced farther into the interior, int9 
Momonia, or the province of Munster. Seward,f 
and others more modern, J suppose that they were 
the Lugadii, who, according to the old Irish writers, 
inhabited the south-western coasts, extending from 

* This remote town in the province of Muns>ter was once of 
considerable importance. The Spaniards held a direct inter- 
course with the place, and built many private residences there^ 
besides the parish church, &c. Queen Elizabeth granted to it 
a charter in 1585. 

t Seward, Topogr. Ibern. A pp. II. p. 8. 

X Vid. Collect, de Reb. Ibern. loc. laud. p. 381. 


Waterford harbour along to the mouth of the river 
Shannon. The name of Lugadii to the natives was 
equivalent with sliocht lugach macithy^ that is, a 
maritime race of dwellers by the water. Yet, sliocht, 
tnay perhaps be of Phc^ician root, coming from 
shlic, a neighbour ; in this sense, too, we shall find 
ourselves at home, for slioght, in Irish,* signifies 
alliance or kindred. 

But Baxter, descanting upon the origin of the 
word Lacanii, or Luceni, says, aug, by the old 
Britons, was understood for the liquor of water, and 
thus for the sea, whilst geni, or eni, meant descent. 

* It is well known that in Munster and Connaught, in the 
western parts of Ulster^ and the south of Leinster, this ancient 
dialect is spoken most extensively; and although many of the 
native Irish are sufiiciently acquainted with the English 
tongue to use it for the purpose of daily traffic, and mere busi- 
ness, yet it is in their beloved Celtic that they think, through 
that they feel, and by that they communicate to each other the 
deep purposes of present revenge, and future triumph. It is 
no random assertion, but an authenticated fact, that among 
the most abject poor, who cut turf on the bogs, or break stones 
for the roads of those districts, the proudest legends of their 
country's former glory, and the prowess of her native chiefs, 
couched in language the most exciting that can be conceived, 
are frequently repeated; together with the wild prophetic 
rhymes of gifted bards, handed down orally from father to 
child, predicting the re-appearance of that sun which they con- 
ceive to have set beneath th| dark night of English usurpation. 
Those who have studied the Irish language concur in pronoun- 
cing it to be most richly and powerfully expressive, highly 
figurative.— C%ar2o^<6 Elizabeth. 


or to be descended. Hence he infers that the 
Saxon pirates were called by the Britons Lhoegyr^ 
corruptly for Luguir, or seamen, and from this, he 
says, comes the modern name of Anglia or England ; 
Ihuch, in Britain, signifying at this day a lake, as 
loch does in Ireland. 

If one may indulge conjecture in a matter not 
very clear, I should think myself near the true ex- 
traction of this name by deriving it from lucus, a 
grove, which we know those were in the habit of 
resorting to, nay, of worshipping. In this case we 
may seek for the origin of slioght in the Phoenician 
slocah, or sliocah, which signifies divinity. But this 
I do not like, for the people called Luceni, or Lu- 
canii, existed before the time of the Romans, which 
would make it incongruous to take as a parallel in- 
stance the name of the Spanish city, Lucus, now 
Lugo, in the country of the Gallaici, which must be 
acknowledged to be designated from those religious 
haunts. Therefore, as well as Lucene, the name of 
a Phoenician town in Bcetia, I should suppose it 
comes from lushen, or leshen, a word of very various 
significations, all of which, however, spontaneously 
apply to this people. First it is a people or nation ; 
secondly a difference of language or dialect, which 
we know to prevail amongst the several tribes of 
Syria. The Ephrataei, for instance, could not arti- 
culate the double letter, sh, instead of which they 
would pronounce it in its single form, s, which may 

-.':^ J*llxL" .. ■^^^^■■■^^■^i*^^ I i- "^■■•MHPmi 


have proceeded either from the air or local influence. 
Thus we find that when, in Judges xii. they were 
obliged to say shibboleth, a river, they could only 
call it sibboleth. The Boetians of my country, also, 
pronounce z instead of s, calling it zabana instead of 
sabana. The Gallacians, too, diflfer from the other 
provinces of Spain, not in pronunciation alone, but 
in many other peculiarities of language. The same 
may be observed by every one in the idiom of his 
native country. But to return. It means, in the 
third place, a flame of fire, which would seem at 
once to point us to the practice of their worshipping 
this element in their sacred groves, a practice, I may 
add, which the Chaldaeans, the Persians, the Medes, 
and other nations of Asia, shared in common with 
the Phoenicians, who offered sacrifice to fire after the 
custom of the Persians,* at first only worshipping it 

* When the Persians drew near to their consecrated fires in 
their dirine service, they always approached them from the 
west side, because by that means their faces being turned to 
those as well as the rising sun, they could direct their worship 
towards both at the same time. * * The priests are 
obliged to watch day and night to maintain and repair the con- 
secrated fire. But it is absolutely necessary that it be re- 
kindled after the purest manner that can possibly be devised ; 
for which purpose they frequently make use of a steel and flint, 
or two hard sticks, which, by continual friction, will in time 
take fire. Sometimes, likewise, they kindle it by the light- 
ning which darts down from heaven on any combustible 
matter ; aud sometimes again by those ignei fatui which fre- 
quently arise in marshy grounds; or else by common fire, in 


as a type or symbol of the Deity, but so, however, 
that gradually, and at last, this commemoration, and, 
as such, innocent adoration, degenerated and sunk 
into actual and downright worship of the element 
itself.* This superstition they imported into Ireland, 
as they did into Spain, and their other colonies. 

But as this people had established their settle- 
ment in the country by the promontory of Notium, 
I should not think it at all unlikely that they derived 
their name from that very fiict, for lushen, or leshen, 
in the Syriac, is a cape, or oblong and mountainous 
tongue of land jutting out into the sea. 

The name of the Lugadii would seem to be equi- 
valent with that of allies, for luahin, in the Phoeni- 
cian, implies association or union. Or they might 
have got this name from luch, or lach, meaning 
sturdy youths, valiant warriors, in conformity with 
lucadin, the stormers of towns ; whence evidently is 
derived laochd, the Irish designation for an armed 
soldiery, as well as lugh, active, and luch, a captive 
in battle. We find, besides, that laga, which signi- 
fies renown, or pre-eminent distinction, was an usual 
adjunct to the names of many of the leading families 

case it is pure and undefiled, or with such as the Baniaos make 
use of to kindle the funeral piles. But they have one other 
method still, as noble as it is pure ; and that is, by collecting 
the rays of the sun into the focus of a burning--glass. — Hurd, 

* Theodoret. Hist Eccl. V. 38. S. Isidor. flispal. Orig. 
XIV. 3. Cons. Voss. De Orig. et Progr. Idolol. II. 64. 



of this island^ as Lughaidh-laigha^ Mac mogha 
nuadhat. Richardson makes mention of a cele- 
brated tribe of the Arabians^ called Legah, or Lukah^ 
that never acknowledged the dominion of a tyrant, 
or bent with abject and humiliating prostration to 
the inhuman attitude of slavery. Nor would the 
conjecture be altogether without ground if, after 
all our peregrination and excursive research for 
the origin of the name of this people, we would at 
last turn home, and look for it in the Irish word 
lughadh, meaning the interposition of an oath,* and 
which would indicate their compactness as a social 
body ; or in lughad, scantiness, as if they were but 
few ; or, finally, in luchd, a tribe or assemblage. 

* According to the annals of Ulster, cited by Ware, the 
usual oath of Laogare II., King of Ireland, in the time of 
St. Patrick, was. by the sun and wind. The Scythians swore 
by the wind, and sometimes by a scymeter or cutlas, in use 
among the Persians, upon which was engraven the image of 
Mars. — Mac Geogkeyan* 



The Voluntii^In what part of Ireland settled — Various 
opinions as to the etymology of this name — As also of the 
names Ull, Ullah^ and Thuath — Conjecture with respect to 
their origin being Phcenician — Country of the Blanii — Hb- 
lana the ancient name for Dublin — Derivation of this name 
— Ebelinum, an ancient city of Spain — The town of Blane 
— Origin of both names. 

The Voluntii or Bol until mentioned by Ptolemy, 
were an ancient people in Ireland^ situated on the 
east of the Luceni, who took up their quarters in a 
tract of the county Down, which Baxter thinks is 
so called at the present day, by corruption, for the 
land of the Voluntii ; as^ also, that the Britons had 
called them Boluntii, as if from Bol or Vol-unte, 
that is the farther head-land or Vennicnium. 

Others think it a degenerated term, from Ull-an- 
teigh, which they explain by the inhabitants of the 
county of Ull. But teigh, in Irish, means a house 
or shelter. Ull is, indeed, a district in this island, 
mentioned by Ptolemy, and called by the Irish 

^1- .IJilM Ilia J ■ 


writers who have touched upon this point, UUagh, 
and also UUad. This word some would derive from 
Thuat-all-adh, a northern section of the county of 
UU, which formerly was the modern province of 
Ulster, but was afterwards circumscribed to the 
single county of Down. Our old poems and chro- 
nicles call the inhabitants of this tract, Tuath de 
Donans,and understand thereby the northern people,* 
of intrepid bravery ; for tuath, in Irish, means not 
only a people, but the north: and dan, brave, 

To my mind Boluntii is a name of Phcenician ex- 
traction, derived very probably from the quality of 
the ground ; in that language, bolun means a glebe 
or gleby land, as it does, also, firuit and the shoots 
of palm trees: or, with still more appearance of 
probability, we may derive it from the superstitious 
worship of that nation, bolinthis or belinthis meaning 
the immolation of he-goats to the idols of Baal, and 
bolintir, his augurs or soothsayers. Akin to this is 
liie gentile Spanish name of Bolontii or Bolonii, in- 
habitants of the old city of Bolona, built by the 
Phoenicians in the straits of Gibraltar, by the pillars 
of Hercules. 

But UU, too, savors very strongly of the Phoenician 
tongue, in which it literally signifies fortitude, 
whence el, brave, powerful, and also an idol in 

* Vkl. Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. iiu p. 424, 425. 


Isaiah. * With this acceptation agrees the name of 
UUagh, for olagh in the Syriac means an idol as 
olaha does a goddess, by which name the Phoenici- 
ans chose to designate Diana of the Ephesians, as 
appears from the Syriac version of the Acts of the 
Apostles.f I would not, indeed, deny but that the 
origin of tuath, may be essentially Irish ; but it is 
worthy of remark, that the word thohath, conveyed 
to the Phoenician mind the idea of a low ground, or 
skirt of a country, which is in perfect keeping with 
the situation of the province of Ulster; where the 
Vduntii settled, being encompassed almost on all 
sides by the sea. J 

On the borders of the Boluntii, in the eastern 
section of Ireland, the Blanii or Eblanii — whose name 
is supposed to be composed of the Irish words, ebb 
or aobb, a region or tract, and lean, a harbour, 
bearing evident allusion to their propinquity to the 
sea§ — ^had formed their establishment. The universal 
opinion of the learned goes to prove that from them 
the city of Dublin, the metropolis of this once 
flourishing and imperial kingdom, hath obtained in 
Ptolemy the name of Eblanum, which gave rbe to 

* Isai. xliv. 10. ^' Quis formavit Deuni, et sculptile for- 
may it ad nihil utile ?" 
f Act. Apostol. xix. 37. 
X Vid. Seward. Topogr. Ibern. V. Ulster. 
§ Collect, de Reb. Ibern. ibid, p. 342. 


that of Eblinii or Ebhleaneigh^ generally rendered 
inhabitants by the water-side.* Of these we find 
mention made by the ancient chronologers of Ire- 
land, amongst the population of the coimty Dublin ; 
though others would place them in the county 
Limerick, and derive the name from ebhluin, a 
mediterranean region, or one widely separated from 
the sea.f 

He will not be far astray, who thinks that both 
Blanii and Eblani are Celtic terms, seeing that in 
that language we meet with the word ebelin, in the 
sense of a people or habitation alongside a river. I 
incline, however, to the belief, that they are of 
Pheenician birth, derived from eblin, uncultivated 
wilds, or hebetin, idols, from which in a former 
treatise I have taken upon myself to deduce Ebeli- 
num, the name of an ancient city in Celtiberia, in 
Spain, on the ruins of which it is supposed that the 
town of Ayerbe is now erected. From the same 
source would I derive the name of Blanes, another 
Spanish town amoi^;srt the Ilergetes on the coast of 
the Mediterranean, cidled by Nubiensis in his geo- 
graphical work, Ebianessa, although some would fain 
have it of Grecian root, from balanos, an oak; or 
plants, a wanderer ; J whilst others, again, would 

* V. ^rg. Ibem. Dominic, p. 185, 187. 
t Collect, de Reb. Ibem. ibid. 

I When tlie daring adventurer, or one of the children of 
want, seeks, in a foreign land, that fortune which is denied him 



ascribe it to the Celtic words— blaen-ess, meaning 
a promontory in the water. 


The Urdinii^ Where settled — Whether the same cis the Emai 
^Etymology of the word — Vestiges of them in some of the 
Irish towns — Similar geographical names in Spain — The 
Venicnii conterminous with the ErdinU — The promontory of 
Venicnium called after them, not they from the promontory — 
Conjecture upon the origin of this word as Phcenidan^^why 
the Spanish promontories Juno^s and Gora, called Celtic, 
and Scythic. 

The Erdinii^ an ancient people of Ireland^ situated 
according to Ptolemy, on the north of the promon- 
tory of Robogdium, in the southern section of the 
counties of Donegal and Fermanagh, are called 
Hardinii, in the writings of Richard Cirencester. 

at home, and braves perik by land and by sea, for a bit of 
bread, he is cheered by the hope that he may be enabled, one 
day, to return to home and country with the fruit of his hard and 
hazardous toil, to spin out the remnant of life's thread in the 
land of his natirity, and to pillow his head in the lap of his 
native earth. — Viscouni Glentworth. — ArUss^s Mag. Sep. 1832. 


Their name some would deduce from the Irish ex*- 
pressions^ eir dunedh^ that is^ a mountainous people^ 
or inhabitants of mountains^ in the west ; and think 
them the same as the nation which the Irish anti- 
quarians call Ernai^ that is a western people^ or 
rather the primitive aboriginal natives of the soil^ 
for Erin used for Erie^ is Ireland^ as Erionnach is 
an Irishman. 

I should prefer, however, to consider them a 
hai^hty, arrogant and overbearing tribe of the 
Phoenicians, who obtained this name from erdin or 
eradin, which signifies, Hectors, from rod, he domi- 
neered or bore haughty sway. This nation appears 
formerly to have inhabited several districts of Spain, 
which to this day retain their vestiges ; for instance, 
Ardines and Ardon, amongst the Astures ; Ardanue, 
Ardanui, and Ardanae, in Celtiberiae ; Ardanaz, in 
Cantabria, and Ardon and Ardona, in Gallacia. 
From thence,, too, it is very probable, that the town 
of Ardinan, at the mouth of the river Ban, in the 
province of Ulster, whither they had first introduced 
their colonies, hath derived its name, as well as 
Ardicnice, a village of the same : Ardoyne, a little 
town in the county Wicklow, and Erinach, another 
town in Ulster, celebrated from its spring well, de- 
dicated to St. Fionan; beside which was erected in 
the beginning of the twelfth century, a monastery, 
called by the old name of Carrig, from the immense 
cliff adjacent ; for carraic, in Irish, is a rock, from 


the Phc»ician carric, fortified. Perhaps to the 
same origin belongs Artane, the name of a very 
delightful village in L^nster, although it might 
have been derived from Araa-tanar, stony or flinty 
ground, corresponding with the Irish arteine or ar^ 
tine^ of the same signification. 

Conterminous with the Erdinii were the Venicfiii 
or Benicnii, ancient residents of Ireland^ noticed 
also by Ptolemy, situated by the promontory of < 
Venicnium, on the western coast of the a)unty 
Donegal, the Ergal of the ancients. Some imagine 
that they were so called from this same promontory 
alluded to in the last chapter, which Camden thinks 
equivalent with the English words, ram's head; 
Venictium being, by the authority of Baxter, dege- 
nerated fi-om Vendne^niu, ^ich, in the old dialect 
of the Brigantes, indicates the head of a young 
ram ; cniu, to a British ear, convejring the idea of 
the young of almost every animal, in the plural 

It strikes me, however, as more like the truth, 
that they did not take their name firom the promon- 
tory, but that the promontory, on the contrary, was 
denominated from them ; as that which we now call 
Cape Finisterre, on the Cantabrian coast, was called 
Scjrthic and Celtic, from those respective nations ; 
and that which the Arabians in after times called 
Taraf-aUgarr, signifymg a perilous extremity or 
point, the modern Trafalgar, lying on the maritime 


coast of Boetica^ between Caipe and the straits of 
Gibraltar, was called by the Greeks the promontory 
of Jono, thedr favorite deity ; and as the modem 
Cabo de Gata was called by the Phcenician settlers 
upon the Mediterranean coast of Spain, the Cape 
of Gora ; for gor, in the Syriac, intimates a stranger 
or foreigner taking up his abode in another place 
than where he was bom, a sojourner ; whence the 
Greek georos, a neighbour, a tiller. 

As to the people themselves, whether Venicnii or 
or Benicnii, they appear to me to have been a tribe 
of the Phoenicians, and to have got this name from 
Kini, which imports, of a CinnsBan stock, or from the 
land of Canaan : benikini consequently impljring a 
tribe from such a stock. Nor is it at all unlikely but 
that there might have been an additional motive for 
this name, suggested by the frankness of those 
people's demeanor and the purity of their moral 
character,* for, in this language, beni-enin means 

* Such appear to be the general principles and outlines of 
the popular faith^ not only among the Greeks, but among all 
other primitive nations, not favored by the lights of Revela- 
tion : for though the superiority and subsequent universality of 
the Greek language, and the more exalted genius and refined 
taste of the early Greek poets, have preserved the knowledge 
of their sacred mythology more entire ; we find traces of the 
same simple principles and fanciful superstructures from the 
shores of the Baltic to the banks of the Ganges : and there can 
be little doubt that the voluminous poetical cosmogonies still 
extant among the Hindoos, and the fragments preserved of 


tipright and righteous dwellers^ whether of town or 
country, from kian or kina, just and true, in i?hich 
sense we meet it in the Syriac version of the gospel 
according to St. Matthew : — and Joseph, her hus- 
band, was (kina) a just man. As to beni, it is a term 
applied not only to sons, but to the residents of any 
particular place, which by a very natural association 
may be considered as their mother, being there born 
or educated. Thus in Ezekiel, xvi. 28, the people 
of Assyria are called beni, or the sons, of Assur ; 
and m Jeremiah, ii. 1 0, the Memphians are called 
Veni, or the sons, of Noph. The word is, also, 
referred to the condition or morals of the persons 
alluded to, as in the third chapter of the Acts, and 
25th verse, the Israelites with whom God had con- 
cluded a covenant by the form of circumcision, are 
styled the sons of the prophets and of the testament, 
and in other passages throughout the sacred volume 
and elsewhere, the wicked are designated as the sons 

those of the Scandinavians^ may afford us very competent ideas 
of the style and subjects of those ponderous compilations in 
verse, which constituted the mystic lore of the ancient priests 
of Persia, Germany, Spain, Gaul, and Britain ; and which in 
the two latter countries were so extensive, that the education of 
a druid sometimes required twenty years. From the specimens 
above mentioned, we may, nevertheless, easily console our- 
selves for the loss of all uf them as poetical compositions, 
whatever might have been their value in other respects.-^ 


of wickedness ;* the unjust, as the sons of injustice ; 
and warriors, by the expressive circumlocution of 
sons of strength, or hearts of oak. 

* All we shall here add is, that those who have been the 
most irreligious in this world , formed their notions upon the 
inequality of rewards and punishments. Were all the wicked 
to suffer just punishments in this life, and all the viituous to be 
rewarded, what occasion would there be for a future judgment ? 
In many cases God has shewn himself to be at the head of 
divine providence, but not in all ; to convince men, that how- 
ever hardened they may be in wickedness while in this world, 
yet there may be a time, or a period, when the mask of 
hypocrisy will be laid aside ; nay, it will be stripped off, and 
the daring sinner will stand as a culprit at the bar of infinite 
justice. On the other hand, the oppressed virtuous man 
should rest satisfied in this, that God will be his friend at the 
last day, notwithstanding all the sufierings he may have been 
subjected to in this world ; for it is an established maxim both 
in natural and revealed religion, that the upright judge of the 
universe, will not deceive his creatures. — HurcL 



The Caucii — Various opinions as to their exact settlement—^ 
Others of the same name amongst the Germans — Whether 
they derived this name from their stature — Ancient i7iscription 
of the Cumbri — Interpretation thereof — Their name Phceni- 
dan or Celtic — Cauca an ancient city of Spain — The ancient 
Menapiiy where settled — Menappia the modem Waterford — 
Various opinions on the origin of their name — Whether they 
were Phcenidans — Customs of idolators to call themselves 
and their people after their deities and the worship of them — 
Aphrodisia, Portus Veneris, and Artemisia, ancient cities 
of Spain — The Isles of Mom(B — Evolenum — Coulan. 

Ptolemy makes mention of another ancient people 
of this island, the Caucii, whose residence he defines 
as on the east of the Cape Robogdium. Cirencester 
places them in the county Dublin, between the sand- 
banks of the river Liffey and the northern sections 
of the coimty Wicklow. Others assert that they had 
settled in the mountainous districts situated between 
the rivers Barrow and Nore, called in the old Irish 
dialect Hy Breoghain Gabhran, which they translate 
an elevated country between forks.* 

There were also, amongst the ancient Germans, 
two distinct people of this name, distinguished as 

* Collect, de Reb. Ibern. loc. laud. p. 305. 


the greater and the lesser, of whom the former, we 
are told by Ptolemy, inhabited that part of the 
country between the Elb and the Wesser ; the latter 
from the Wesser all along to the Emse. We find, 
too, that the ancient Sp^ards could boast of their 
Caucii, in the district of the Vaccei, whose princi- 
pal city was Cauca, placed by Antoninus as sixteen 
days' journey, or on the sixteenth station on the 
road from Emerita to Ciesar Augusta. 

Some suppose that they had obtained this name 
from their extraordinary stature; for cauc in the 
old British, and coc in the Brigantine, and hauch, or 
hoch, in the German, all imply one and the same 
thing, namely, lofty, or high. Hence, Baxter con- 
jectures, had been borrowed the inscription found 
amongst the ancient Cumbri, the Ceangi of the 
Brigantes, *' To the god Cocis," which is supposed 
to have been executed in fulfilment of a vow to the 
genius of the river, at this day called Coque in the 
country of the Otonidae. 

But is it not possible that those Caucii may have 
been Celts,* cau,in their language, signifying a river ? 
This, however, I do not like, as I think it more 
likely that they were one of the tribes of the Phoe- 
nicians who had landed in Ireland from Spam; 
i^ose name, like that of the Spanish city Cauca, I 
conceive borrowed from the temperature of the 

* The name of geilt, ceilt, or keilt, \vhich signifies terror^ a 
wild man or woman , a sylvestrous person ; and hence I think 
the name, Celt. — Vallancey. 


climate in which they had fixed themselves. This 
opinion I fonn firom observing in the Phoenician 
language that cauzz^ or coz, signifies the summer 
season^ from which cauzzi^ a summer residence; 
and with this corresponds cauc, or coc, old age, 
infirmity, or a country adapted firom the mildness 
of its air to renovate the energies, at least allay the 
irritation, of the aged and enfeebled.* 

The Manapii, or M enapii, were also an ancient 
people of Ireland, on its eastern coast, being a por- 
tion of the Brigantes Coriondi, in the city of Mana- 
pia, or Waterford, as Camden thinks, in which he 
is supported by the authority of Baxter. Others 
would have it that they were the inhabitants of the 
county Wicklow, the chief town of which bearing 
the same name, the Euobenum of Probus, they 
maintain to have been the ancient Manapia. They 
fiirther state that they had taken up their settlement 
between the mountains and the sea, in that part of 
the country now called Coulan, Cuolan, or Crioch 
Cuolan, which means, says Seward, a close and con- 
fined tract, or as others prefer a corn country. 

Many persons derive the name of those people 
firom the old British words, Mene-ui-pou, a narrow 
region, with which Coulan above mentioned almost 
corresponds. Others think that they took their name 
firom the city of Manapia, which they say is com- 
pounded of the British words, Mant-ab, signifying 
the mouth of the water. 

* Regio senibus apta. 


But to my ear their name sounds the certainty of 
their Phoenician descent. I had formerly supposed 
that it had been derived from Mana-pip, a double 
portion or part of some tribe or nation ; but as the 
Syrians had a custom of denominating themselves 
and their people from their idols, and their super- 
stitious worship of them, I am more disposed now 
to think they were so called from Mani-apiin, which 
means, adorning mth branches or flowers a multi- 
tude of idols, or singly, that of Mercury, which 
Mani also signifies, and whom the Phoenicians wor- 
shipped as the god of calculation. That this custom 
prevailed also amongst the ancient Greeks and Ro- 
mans, we have numerous proofs in the geographi- 
cal names of Spain. Thus, from Afrodite, the 
Greek name for Venus, and Afrodisios, which means 
belonging to Venus, Timceus and Silenus have given 
the jiame of Afrodisia to the ancient city of Gades 
in 6<Btica, which was contiguous to the site of the 
present city of Cadiz. From her also the Romans 
gave the name of Portus Veneris, or the harbour of 
Venus,* to that maritime city of the Ilergetes, which 

* Who would not sigh at at tan Cutkereian ! 
That hatk a memory, or that htud a heart ? 
Alas ! her star must fade like that of Dian ; 

Ray fades on ray, as years on years depart. 
Anacreon only had the soul to tie an 

Unwithering myrtle round the blunted dart 
Of Eros : but though thou hast played us many tricks. 
Still we respect thee, ** Alma Venus Genetrix !" 



is at this day corruptly called Porvendres. From 
Artemis, Diana, the Greeks gave the name of Arte- 
misian^ or the temple of Diana, to that city of the 
Contestani which the Romans afterwards^ and from 
the same cause^ adapted to their own language as 
Dianium; and which now, from that decay to which 
names as well as things must submit, is called 

The Monapia of Pliny, called Menavia by Orosius, 
seems to me to have been inhabited by the people 
called Manapii : I mean that island in the Irish sea 
almost midway between England and Ireland^ oi an 
oblong form, extending from north to south — ^it • is 
called by Ptolemy, Monaeoida. This and another 
island lying more to the south, and wider in its 
dimensions, situated in the bay of the Ordovices, from 
whom it is separated only by a narrow strait, are 
both designated by the common appellation of Monce. 
The more southern one abounded in a hardy popu- 
lation, which it hesitated not to strengthen by open- 
ing an asylum to all deserters, without regard to the 
cause. After its capture by the Angli, it got from 
them the name of Anglesey, that is, the isle of the 
Angli, or English. Mona is a term of Phoenician 
superstition, from mon, an idol or image. Moneoida 
would seem compounded of mon, and of oid, a 
festival, intimating a festival held in honor of an 
idol ; and Monoceda of mon, and ehedad, which 
signifies bent or stooping, the attitude of reverence 
in the presence of their idols. Evolenum, which is 


supposed to have been the city oi Menapia, I would 
derive from hebelin, idols ; and Coulan from coulin^ 
sounds^ thunders ; elsewhere called Beth-col,* that is. 

* A diviuation called the Batk-col, which was the taking as 
a prediction the first words they heard any body pronounce ; 
and as superstitions have ever been contagious, we find some- 
thing similar to this in the Grecian records ; for when Socrates 
was in prison, a person there happened to quote from Homer 
the following line : — 

** In three days, I, Phthiae, shall visit thy shores.'' 

Socrates immediately said to JBschtnus — '* From this I learn I 
shall die in three days !" [He formed this opinion from the 
double sense of the word ** PkihuB," it being in Greek not only 
the name of a place, but also signifies death.'] Conformably to 
this prediction, Socrates was put to death three days after." 

All these various modes have descended to our times. The 
first Christians, in adopting them, rejected searching into pro- 
fane writers, and looked for these, as they termed them, divine 
ordinances, in the Scripture. They termed them the ** s&rtes 
8anciarum,'*wad even attempted to justify the practice from the 
authority of Proverbs, chap. xli. verse 33 — *' The lot is cast 
into tbe lap, but the disposing thereof is of the Lord ;" and 
again, of this text — " Search, and ye shall find ;" but at the 
same time, they omitted to pay due attention to such verses as 
these — ** Thou shall not tempt the Lord thy God ;" and (Deut. 
chap, xxiii. verse 10,^ " There shall not be found among you 
any that useth divination, &c., for all that do these things are 
an abomination unto the Lord ;'' and their sentence (according 
to Leviticus, chap. xx. verse 27,) was to be stoned to death. 

When Heradius in his war against Cosroes, wished to learn 
in what place he should take up his winter quarters, he purified 
his army for three days, opened the Gospels, and found 
^' Albania ?" A thousand other instances might be given to 
prove its prevalency ; and many learned divines have seriously 
argued in its favour, in many grave and ponderous folio 


the daughter of voice, intunatmg not a real or solid 
voice, but the echo thereof, more particularly the 

yolomes ! ! Nor is it less amusing, in our days, to remember 
the Council of Agda, at which were assembled all the chief 
dignitaries of the Church ; and all the learned men of that age 
thought it worth their while to take tlie matter into their 
serious consideration, and after discussing, with due solemnity 
all the proi and com of the question, they, in the year g06, 
condemned the practice as MupersHtioiu^ heretical^ and abomi-- 
nabie, and denounced the severest ecclesiastical vengeance on 
all who should resort to it ! ! ! The VirgUian Lots^ in the 
mean time, did not languish, though the **holy'^ ones so 
much flourished ; there were still found many admirers of the 
Classics, who preferred consulting Virgil to Scripture, not 
the less so, perhaps, from the then generally received opinion, 
of Virgil's having been a great conjurer. In the reign of 
Charles the First, when implicit credence was placed in 
lotSy anagramSf &c., we meet with several accounts of this 
divination having been had recourse to. Howell, in his 
entertaining Letters, frequently mentions it ; and Cowley, 
writing of the Scotch Treaty, makes use of the following 
curious words : — ** The Scotch will moderate something of the 
rigour of their demands ; the mutual necessity of an accord is 
▼issible ; the King is persuaded of it, and to tell you the truth, 
(which I take to be an argument above all the rest,) Virgil 
has told the mme thing to that purpose" Charles the First 
himself and Lord Falkland being in the Bodleian Library, 
were shewn a magnificently bound Virgil^ and the latter, to 
amuse the King, proposed that they should try to discover in 
the " Virgilian Lots " their future fortunes. They did so, and 
met with passages equally ominous to each* 

Nor has this superstition been confined to Europe, or the 
borders of the Mediterranean ; it is equally to be met with in 
Arabia and Persia, for Credula mens honUnis, et erectcefabulis 
ojures^" " The mind of man is every where equally credulous, 
and the ears equally open in all parts of the world to receive 
fables." Superstitious practices are therefore never lost, but. 


representation of the reverberated voice in the 

where the slightest intercourse exists, the first thing bartered for 
are these. We need not then be surprised to find that a pre- 
cisely similar custom prevails in the east, where this sortelege 
is termed " tufal." Hafiz is the chief poet whom they consult; 
so great is the veneration the Persians entertain for him, that 
they have given him the title of *' divine ;" and on every re- 
markable occasion, his Book of Odes is opened for oracular 
information. When Hafiz himself died, several of the Ulemas 
violently objected to granting him the usual rites of sepulture, 
on account of the licentiousness of his poetry ; but at length, 
after much dispute, it was agreed that the matter should be 
decided by the words of Hafiz himself. For this purpose, his 
diruan (or collection of poems) was brought, and being opened 
at random, the first that presented itself was read ; it proved to 
be the following : ^ 

Turn not thy steps from Hafiz mournful grave, 
Him plunged in sin shall heavenly mercy save ! 

Of course every funereal honour was immediately ordered to be 
paid him ; he was buried at the favourite mosella, and a mag- 
nificent tomb was raised over his almost adored remains, 
shadowed, as Captain Franklin tells us, by the poet^s beloved 
cypresses; in this a remarkable fine copy of his Odes was 
continually placed. When the great Nadir Shah and his 
officers were passing by this tomb, near Shiraz, they were 
shewn the copy of the poet's works, and one of the company 
opening it, the first passage that met their eyes was the follow- 
ing, which they, of course, immediately applied to the con- 
queror : — ** It is but just that thou shouldst receive a tribute 
from all fair youths, since thou art the sovereign of all the 
beauties in the universe ; thy two piercing eyes have thrown 
Khater (Scythia) and Khaten (Tartary) into confusion ; India 
and China pay homage to thy curled locks; thy graceful 
mouth gave the streams of life to Kheyr ; thy sugared lip ren- 
ders the sweet reeds of Mirr (Egypt) contemptible." 




The Auteri a people of Ireland — Various opinions respecting 
their proper country — Muriagh, whence so called — Various 
opinions likewise as to the derivation of the name Auteri — 
Whether they were Phcsnicians — Coroncuin epithet of Tyre — 
The Autetani a people of Spain — The Dannanm a people of 
Ireland — Where settled — Whether from the Danes —River 
Dee — Conjecture on the origin of the name Danname — Dan 
a city of the Phoenicians — Ardes — Ardea, 

The Auteri, emphatically designated as the real 
native ancient Irishy were situated at the mouth of 
the river Erin, in the farthest extremity of the pro- 
vince of Munster. Ptolemy, in alluding to them, 
calls them at one time, Auteiroi, at another, Auteroi, 
and places them in certain parts of the country then 
known by the name of Naquatia or Connatia. Others 
think they inhabited those districts which correspond 
with the present counties of Galway, Mayo, and 
Roscommon in the province of Connaught, being 
that old and extensive tract often called M uriah or 
Hy-Moruisge, which they interpret by the region of 
sea water, and which is still preserved without much 


alteration in Marisk, the name of a barony as well 
a sa little town in the county Mayo,* and in Murrach 
a village of the harony of Carbery in the county of 
Cork. But Muriah would seem naturally to be de- 
duced from the Phoenician Moriaga, which means, 
habitations or houses systematically arranged, from 
whence it is probable that the Irbh Murighin, that is, 
families took its rise, and the Spanish Amoraga, a 
gentile appellative* 

Baxterf is of opinion that the Auteri were so called 
by the Brygantes after they and the Belgae had 
taken possession of the greater part of Ireland to 
their colonies,' — ^that they were the ErigenaB or real 
ofi&pring of the Irish soil — and that they were driven 
at first by the Brigantes from Britain, who after- 
wards, in this country, followed up their pursuit till 
they made them take shelter in its remotest extre- 
mity. Wishing then to account for the origin of 
their name, the same author adds, '^ Er in British is 
land, from the Greek era ; from this the native Irish 
were named Erion or Erii by the Brigantes, and the 
island itself Iris, that is, the isle o£ Erii, by tl^ 
Greeks. And seeing that ot, or aut, means to the 
Britons a coast or ^ore, what should hinder our 
considering, aut erion being so called^ as the coast of 
the Eriiy or the ancient autokthonos, or land of the 

* Collect, de Reb. Ibern. vol. IILp. 285. 
t Baxter, loc. laud. p. 30, 31. 

N 2 


natives/' He finally observes that the Cantabri, the 
Vascones, and the Irish used in a great measure the 
dialect of the Irish aborigines, interspersed with 
many terms from the Phoenician, Celtic, and Bry- 
gantine languages ; and this interspersion may be 
accounted for by the fact, which some maintain, of 
the Frigones and Brigantes having had possession of 
either Spain, long before the days of the Punic wars. 
OTlaherty* differs from this opinion, and asserts 
that the name of Auteri was forcibly twisted out of 
the term ath-en-ria or ath-na-rig, that is, the king's 
ford. But Ptolemy having declared his belief that 
Autera, an ancient city in Ireland, was the capital of 
the Auteri residing therein, many have been thereby 
induced to interpret the word as meaning a village 
or state by the waters of the west, compounded, as 
it were, of the Celtic aubh or aith, water, and eireigh, 
a western people. For the Auteri had inhabited 
near the sea coast. 

I, however, would venture to guess that the Aur 
teri, or ancient Irish, were the primitive Phoenicians 
who had discovered this island, and that they had 
obtained or assumed this name from that spirit of 
enterprising research which, in this as in other in- 
stances, had been so signally rewarded. I would, 
therefore, agreeably to this view, derive the name 
from, thar, he explored ; or from aatarin, adven- 

♦ O'Flahert. Ogygia. p. 16, 17. 

KS^^ ^ — I ■ I— j m M I M- ja. J 

■^^■■U fJ n 


turers, deserters, or people departing — ^as they did 
from Spain to fix themselves here. It may also have 
borne reference to a number of families of this colony ; 
for aatharin, in the Sjrriac, denotes, a great muster of 
nations, whilst it does also the wealthy, and who can 
say but that by this name they would indicate the 
treasures they had acquired from the mines of this 
country, or the exportation of its commodities and 
the produce of its soil, to the most distant quarters 
of the then known world. Or what if they chose 
this name from autereh, or aature, a crown ? This, 
we know, was an epithet given of old to Tyre, the 
capital of Phoenicia, as in Isaiah xxiii. 8, it is said^ 
'^ Tyre formerly crowned/' as it may well be called 
from the splendor of its buildings, the strength of 
its citadels and fortifications, and abundance of its 
riches, *' whose merchants were princes, and whose 
factors were the renowned of the earth." With the 
Hebrews and Syrians also, autereh, or crown, was 
equivalent with honor or delight. We meet fre- 
quently in the scriptures " the crown of old men" 
for their children's children ; '^ the crown of glory in 
the hand of the Lord," &c, which perhaps gave rise 
to the custom amongst some ancient states to wear 
a crown on either their head, their neck, or their 
right hand. That the christians of the primitive 
church wore crowns on their hand is evident from 
TertuUian's book '^ on the soldier's crown." 
These Auteri may have been a tribe of the Ante- 


f ani or Autetani of Spain> of whom Ptolemy makes 
mention, and whom w^ now call the Ausetani. But 
it is to me beyond question that the Spanish Autri** 
gones, who had settled on the confines of the Can- 
tabri and the Barduli, were a part and parcel of the 
self same Phoenician colony ; for the name Antri- 
gones is obviously perverted from Auterigones, in- 
cluding in its formation the two Phoenician terms 
Autereh-goin, crowned nations, or atharin-goin, ex-^ 
ploring nations — goin, in the Syriac, as goim in the 
Hebrew, meaning tribes, nations, or femilies. 

The Dananns, or Dananni were also an ancient 
colony in Ireland, who, as some writers declare, had 
fixed their residence in the northern quarters of the 
island. Tradition tells us that they had originally 
inhabited the cities of Falia, Goria, Finnia, and Muria 
in North Germany, and spoke the language too of 
that country ; but an immense number of Irish an- 
tiquariansy as OTlaherty observes, have irrefragably 
proved, at least put upon record, that they were in- 
habitants of the northern parts of Britain, more 
especially of those places that went then by the 
names of Debar and Indobar.* In this section of the 

* The ascription which would make those people either Ger^ 
man or British, notwithstanding the vagaries of would-be anii" 
quarians, even though backed by OTlaherty, is egregiously 
erroneous, as I shall show elsewhere. ''The colony of the 
Tuatha de Danains, [thus called from three of their chiefs, named 
BrieUy luchor, and Jucorba,~who were High Magi, ot diviners, 


sister isle, Camden tells us, lies the river Dee, which 
makes O'Flaherty suspect that the name of Tuath- 
Dee — intimating a pec^le residing by that river — 
was thereby occasioned. He does not dare, however, 
to trace any affinity between the name Danann and 
that of the Danes, it being notorious that it was not 
until after the introduction of Christianity and the 
salutary doctrines which its professors had enforced, 
this scourge of the human species, and of the latin 
nations in particular, had burst forth from the ob- 
scurity of their previous existence, bringing death 
and dismay in their desolating career, ravaging the 
abodes of sanctity and religion, and obliterating every 
vestige of previous civilizalion.* 

as the word Tuatha signiiiesy — brothers, and children of Danan, 
daughter of Dealboith, of the race of Nemedius,] was in posses- 
sion of Ireland, according to the Psalter of Cashel, for the space 
of one hundred and ninety seiren years, governed by seven kings 
successively, namely, Nuagha Airgiodlamh, Breas, Lugha- 
Lamh-Fada, in Latin, ** Longimanus,'* Dagha, Delvioth, 
Fiagha, and the three sons of Kearmada, namely, Eathur, 
Teahur and Keahur ; who reigned alternately, a year each^ 
for thirty years. Those three brothers were married to three, 
sisters ; they took surnames from the different idols which they 
worshipped. £athur, who had married Banba, was called 
Maccuill, from a certain kind of wood which he adored 
Teahur espoused Fodhia, and worshipped the plough ; he was 
called Mac-Keaght. Keahur, husband of Eire, displayed 
better taste than his brothers, as he took the sun for his divi- 
nity, and was thence named Mac-Greine, that is to say, the 
son of the sun. — Mac Geoghegan. 

* Danann autem non audet Vancrum nomini afBne dicere ; 


I, too, would not be positive, in furtherance of my 
own theory, in claiming those people as of Phoeni- 
cian birth, though my pretensions to the claim may 
not seem altogether groundless when I recollect that in 
that language are to be found the words danihain, sig- 
nifying illustrious, generous, noble, or rather Danin for 
Danani or Danita,the inhabitants of the city of Dan,* 
at the foot of Mount Lebanus, the boundary, towards 
the north, of the ten Israelish tribes, and still more 
celebrated as the spot where the Phoenicians wor- 
shipped the graven image given them by Micha, and 
where Jeroboam had erected the golden calf. I wave 
these pretensions, however, on the probability that the 
Aradians, or natives of the island of Arad, friends 
and allies of the Phoenicians, had given their names 
as the very sound implies, to those towns in Ireland 
called Ard, Ardes, Arde, &c. on the probability also 
that the Aramaeans, or natives of Aramoea gave rise 
to the name of the Irish Aremorice, as will appear 
more fully in the sequel. 

cdm non nisi saeculis ChristiaDis Danorum oomen cum eorum 
irruptionibus Latinis geotibus lonotuerit. 

* Afterwards called by the Greeks, paneas, caesarea panese, 
and Caesarea Fhilippi ; but by the barbarians Belina. 



The Damnii, ancient inhabitants of the county of Down — 
whether so called from the river Davon — Or from Dunum — 
conjectures upon the origin of the name as Phcenician^-Dam- 
iana a city of Spain — The Daninonii whence so called — where 
they settled — The Curiondi celebrated seamen — Inhabitants 
of Wexford — Various opinions as to the etymology of the name 
— CuruccBy ships made of bark — Used by the Spaniards — 
Whether the Curiondi were Phoenicians — Whether descended 
from Caurium or Cauria, cities of Spain, 

The Damnii^ an ancient people of Ireland, to be 
found in Ptolemy, had fixed their settlement in the 
present county Down, in the province of Ulster, 
Some people suppose they had derived this name 
from the Brigantine term Davon, or Daun, a bay or 
river. Daunii, Dunin, &c. coming from which, sig- 
nify the country of lakes or rivers. In this sense it 
corresponds to the Irish denomination of a tract or 
portions of a country, Magh Gennuisg. Seeing, how- 
ever, that in some copies of Ptolemy, they are styled 
Damnonioi, there be some who suspect that the 
Damnii, of whom he makes mention, were so called 
from Dunum, now Downpatrick. In the Celtic Ian- 


gnage, dun is precisely the same thing as berga, the 
common name for a place of abode, and the Teutonic 
berg, meaning a fortress upon a hill, or a hill sur- 
rounded by a fortress. These have been borrowed 
from the Arabic and old Phoenician in which we 
meet with the word barg, a tower, and barga, a 
villa. Hence was derived Barca, the name of a 
town amongst the Vetones in Spain ; Barceo, another 
amongst the Vaccei ; Barch, amongst the Edetani ; 
Bargos, amongst the Carpetani ; Bargo, Bargota , 
Barjas, Bergua, Berga, Berge, Begos, Borge, Bur- 
gas, and other names of this kind to be met with 
in almost every canton of that Peninsula. In this 
list I should not have omitted Bergio, an ancient 
fortified town of the Lacetani, designated by Livy 
by the denomination of " the long town," which it 
afterwards changed for that of Celsona ; its modern 
name is Solsona. 

I should myself suppose that the Irish Damnii 
were a tribe of Spanish Phoenicians, descended from • 
the Damnii, or Damniani, who built the ancient city ^ 
of the Edetani, called Damiana, the name by which 
Ptolemy also notices it. And, though some Spanish 
writers would derive the term from the Celtic words 
da-min, a habitation beside a mountain or river, it 
strikes me as more probable that it originated from 
its Phoenician inhabitants, and in allusion to the 
worship which they paid their idols, damain, or 
damon, signifying in their language, idols or images. 


Or, perhaps^ the name belongs to geography^ and 
comes from dnmain^ the descendants of Dumah^ a 
city of Syria, or Dimona which was one of the lot 
of Judah, or from a city of Arabia of the same name, 
and called after Dumah, the son of Ismael, of which 
latter it is said in Isaiah, '* the burden of Dumah^'' 
rendered by the septuagint Idumea ; and the Phoe- 
nicians, we may observe, never forgot the Arabian 
cities from whence they had emigrated into Syria. 

To the same source would I refer the name of 
the Damnonii, or Damhnonii, who according to the 
ancient* writers upon Irish topics, originally occupied 
the lands of Cornwall and Devonshire, laying to- 
wards the extreme west of England, just opposite 
our shores ; they subsequently took possession of 
the ancient Hy-Moruisge, or Morisk, an extensive 
district in the west of Ireland, being the present 
county of Mayo, in the province of Connaught. 
Others, on the contrary, think this name derived from 
the Celtic, or Cambrico-Britannic word, Dyvneint 
or Duvnon, meaning depth of water, Duvnonii, 

* For their dear sakes I love thee, 
Ma vourneen, though unseea ; 

Bright be the. sky above thee. 
Thy shamrock ever green ; 

May evil ne'er distress thee, 
Nor darken nor defile. 

But heaven for ever bless thee — 

My ov^n green isle ! 



Dabhnouii^ or Damhnonii, therefore, would express to 
them a people settled beside the deep water or the sea. 
OTlaherty asserts that they were called Fir-Dom- 
nan, equivalent to, the men or the dan of Domnan ; 
and that several places in Ireland have been named 
from them, for instance, Inver-Domnan, where they 
first put in on their landing from Britain, afterwards 
called Invermor,* and at present Arklow, being a 
river and seaport town in the county of Wicklow, 
and the capital of a barony of the same name. 

The Coriondi or Curiondi, a tribe of the Irish 
Brigantes, were celebrated sailors and lived almost 
continually and professionally upon the water. 
Ptolemy, in his writings, has made mention of them, 
and it is generally admitted that their settlements 
lay in the present county of Wexford, in the province 
of Leinster. There is a tradition very prevalent 
amongst the inhabitants of the county, that their 

* Ayonmore, which name signifying the ^reat winding stream, 
corresponds most happily with its character, the banks conti- 
nually forming the finest waving lines, either covered with close 
coppice woods or with scattered oak and ash of considerable 
growth — the ground in some places smooth meadow and pas- 
ture, in others rising in romantic cliffs and craggy precipices. 
At Avondale, the Avonmore meeting ^ith the Avon beg, or 
little Avon, the united streams assume the name of Ovoca, and 
passing by Shelton, it empties itself, through a bridge of mne. 
teen arches, into the sea at Arklow, whence it keeps its stream 
distinctly marked from the sea for near half a mile from the 
shore. — Fraser. 


chiefe were the Mac-Mooroghs, or O'Moroghs, who 
in the old records of Ireland are called the Leinster 
kings. Certain families, of their party, we find had 
separated from the general corps, and established 
themselves in the adjoining county of Car low, in a 
place then called Hy-Cabha-nagh, being a district of 
the barony of Idrone. 

' The opinion most received is, that the name of 
Coriondi consists of the Irish words corcach, vessels, 
and ondiu, a wave. In this light it may fairly be 
rendered as equivalent with, navigators. The ancient 
Irish used besides to call them Corthagh, that is '' the 
rowers," and their habitation or locality Hy-Moragh, 
that is, the maritime country. Some, however, on 
the authority of Camden, would take another road, 
though aiming at the same sense, and maintain that 
they were inhabitants of Corcagia or Cork, and the 
founders of that city, in Irish Corcugh, being the 
capital of all Munster, and next to Dublin the most 
considerable city in the kingdom, for extent, for 
commerce, and its concomitant wealth. Seeing then 
that the barky vessels or canoes of the ancient Bri- 
tons were called curucae,* they think it very probable 
that the town of Cork was so called, as you would 
say *' the dockyard," or naval store, and its inhabi- 
tants, coriondi, that is, navigators, from those curucae 
or bark boats. Others would derive their name 

* Curuca sen Currach erat navis coriacea pen^ rotunda, 


from corion-diu^ which^ for ought I know to the 
contrary, may signify a sea hide. Certainly the 

miile namgwrn^ at ait Pliniug (IV. 16.) corto circummkun. 
Pelasgos item et Etruscos, BritanDorum et Scotorum more, nayi- 
busex corioet vimine usos fuisse, auctor est Dempterus (Etru- 
ri« Regal. III. 80.) '^ Res, inquit Festus Avienus {Orce Mariti- 
mce lib. I.) ad miraculum — Navigio junctis semper aptant pelli- 
bus — Corisque vastum siep^ percurrent salum." Lydii, ait Isi- 
dorus Hispan. (Orig. XIX. 1.) primam navem fabricaverunty 
pelagique incerta petentes, pervium mare usibus humauis fece- 
rant.'' (V. Praes. Carol. Yallancey in n. XII. Collect, de Reb, 
Ibem, p. CXYIII.) Talibus Silures navigasse ad Camimdcm 
insulam, scribit Piinius : quin et Caotabros et reliquos boreales 
Hispanos diphthermoU plaiois fuisse usos usque ad Brutum, ex 
Strabone(III.) constat : im6 et Babylonios ipsos ex Herodoto 
(V. Baxter, loc. laud.) lode hodie Carraca vocatur Hispanis 
quaedam species onerariee navis : et situs ^onstruendis navibus 
aptus juxta Gaditanum emporium. Hanc navem carabum etiam 
appellatam, testis est Isidorus in etymologicis. Quae vox ducta 
▼idetur a Phoen. carab, adiit, advenit, quod de iter facientibus 
dicitur ; vel a carab aravit : nam iter navis in mari similia est 
sulcis, qui fiunt arando. Carraca autem, seu curruca k Pfacen. 
carrac, circumdedit, ligavit, velavit, involvit; quod apprhn^ 
navibus congruit corio circumsutis. It is not unworthy of no- 
tice that this description of boat was quite common round the en<- 
tire coast of Ireland not long since, the very look of them would 
be sufficient to appal the bravest seaman from embarking his pre- 
cious person in so small and frail a vessel, where in calm weather 
you can, in (en fathom water, see every particle through her bot- 
tom on that of the sea, as distinctly as you can discern an object 
through a window ; instances have been known where acci- 
dentally putting a foot between two ribs which it had gone 
through, the person was obliged to keep the leg protruded in 
that position until the land was made. 
Where in leathern hairy boat, 
O'er threatening waves bold mortals float." 



Britons^ to this very day, call hides by the name of 
cruyn, from the Greek, krous, to which the Latia 
corimn, also, has reference. 

But we have the clearest evidence, in the very con- 
struction of the name itself, that this was a Phoeni* 
cian nation, and the accounts given of them by the 
Irish historians, if but diligently perused, would be 
sufficient to confirm us in this conviction. For, 
from the skill they evinced in the building of vessels, 
and the vast numbfer and variety of them that they 
contrived to employ, from the adventuring trader 
and the daring man of war, down to the cumbrous 
lugger and the volatile skiflP, plying them constantly 
on the water, in one form or the other, they were 
very appropriately, though metaphorically, charac- 
terised as curin or fishes,* which we find still applied, 
and for the same causes, to the Britons of this day. 

* The Inland Fisheries of Ireland have uever been made 
available to their practical extent, although they contribute 
alike to the luxuries of the rich and the comforts of the poor. 
It is not a merely local or a partial improvement that we re- 
commend; the benefit is not confined to a spot or district here 
and there ; the advantages we suggest are as extensive as the 
rivers are many which beautify, refresh, and fertilize every 
county in Ireland. — And shall man, impious man, to whom the 
all. providing word of GoD gave power, when he said " Let 
the waters bring forth abundantly the moving creatures that 
hath life, and let man have dominion over them ;" — shall man, 
by a devastating waste, counteract the beneficent design of his 
Crbator, and even destroy, in its very source, that gracious 
abundance intended to feed millions ! 


Nor must it be put down as a dream^ and that of 
a sick man too, if I express my belief that they were 
Phoenicians who had proceeded from Caurium, an 
ancient city in Spain on the borders of Lusitania, now 
called coria, or from a city of Boetica, called Cauria 
Siarum, now Coria del Rio ; for the Phoenicians in- 
habited them both, and both are derived from cauria 
or coria, which in their language signifies a city, a 
villa, or a camp. Hence arose the name of many 
of the cities in the department of the tribe of Judah ; 
Cariathiarim, meaning the city of woods ; Cariath- 
sepher, the city of letters; Cariath Arbe, that of 
the Patriarch Enoch, as well as of several towns in 
different parts of Spain, such as Corias, Coristancas, 
Lacoriana, &c. &c. Thus Coriondi, or Curiondi, 
quasi Corin, would express the descendants of the 
above mentioned cities of Cauria, or Caurium ; or 
quasi Caurionin, the robust and substantial people 
of those places ; on, importing strength, for titude, and 
worldly opulence. 





The Fomhoraice, or sea robbers ravaged Ireland — They were 
Phoenicians — Analogy of this Irish name with the Phoenician 
—-Vestiges thereof in certain Spanish towns — Superstitious 
name of the Forcrabii inhabitants of Ireland ^ why so called — 
The Vellabori a people of Ireland — Conjecture on the origin 
of this name — Cape of Notium^ The Uterni — Their prin- 
cipal city Uverni or Rufina — Whether these names be of 
Phoenician descent. 

The Fomhoraice, or Formaragh,* of whom the old 
poems of our island make mention, were a people 
who plundered its southern coast, long as the Neme- 

* Plutarch, in his life of Sertorius, tells us that this cele- 
brated commander determined to make the Atlantic Isle (that 
is Ireland) a place of retreat and residence from the persecu- 
tion of his enemies. In another work, entitled *' De facie in 
orbe Lunae," he describes this ** Atlantic isle" to be opposite the 
Geltae, and but four days sail from Britain. The Irish legions 
10 Gaul, were called Fine Gall, those in Albany, Fine Albau* 
•* We may very well suppose,*' says O'Halloran, '* that the 
Fine Fomharaigh, or African legiuns, so often met with in the 
old Irish manuscripts, meant no other than the Irish cohorts 
ia that service.'* 



thffi held possession of it. They are supposed to have 
been a body of Phoenician traders, who visited the 
British isles, about four hundred years before the 
Christian era, and obtained this name from the occu- 
pation of prowling sea robbers ; fomhor and fomhorac 
in Irish, signify a pirate, as they do a giant also. 
These words, however, have originally their root in 
the Phoenician, where we find fom-horac meaning fu- 
gitives and disturbers of the earth, which well accords 
with the description given by ancient historians of 
those rapacious intruders into the British islands. 
Perhaps they were some of the first Phoenicians who 
flying before the face of the people of Israel, trans- 
ported themselves from Syria, whose footsteps are 
still preserved in the names of those towns in Spain, 
situated amongst the Gallaici Lucani, Formarigo, 
and Formaran : in that of Famorca, amongst the 
Edetani, and that of Formanes amongst the Astnres. 
The Forcrabii, or Fir-na-crabii, were ancient set^ 
tiers in that part of the country called Hy-Magh- 
neigh, embracing in its dimensions the present county 
of Monaghan, with a part of what was anciently 
called Oirgail, and under the command of the Ma- 
honies, or Mac-Mahons. The name of this tribe 
would appear suggested from some superstitious con- 
sideration, as it is evidently composed of the Irish 
wordsy?re crabhath, true religion ; or if you prefer 
the Phoenician words, frin, fruit ; or farin, bullocks ; 
and crabin, oblations or sacrifices, which latter word 



is itself derived from corban> importing any thing 
oflfered to God or to idols. The name of Oirgael 
too, or Orgiel, which some call Oircael, and interpret 
by the eastern cael — ^^being an extensive district, 
consisting of the present counties of Louth, Mo- 
naghan, and Armagh, and formerly ruled over by its 
own petty sovereigns — savors very strongly of Phoe- 
nician superstition. For, ar, in that language, is 
fire ; and gael, or gail, delight, exultation, from the 
root ghil, which expresses that gladness of the mind 
that betrays itself by the gestures of the body ; and 
their combined unport would appear to refer to the 
joy of that nation in the days sacred to the worship 
of fire, 

The Vellabori, an ancient Irish tribe, to be met 
with also in Ptolemy, were stationed in Munster, h&- 
side the promontory of Notium. There are who 
think this name derived from the British words vel- 
aber, or bel*aber, the source of a frith.* What would 
the learned suppose of its being of Phoenician de- 
scent, and compounded of the words bali'^bira, an aticl^ 
ent temple ? which, yet, I confess I do not incline to s6 

* Baxtero (loc. laud. p. 236.) vitiosa sunt nomina oueliboroi. 
et Ouelleborai, quas in quibusdam Ptolemsei exemplaribus le- 
gutttur. Si vttd hiBC g^nuina Kcriptura est> mispicarer fuisse 
Ibero PhoBuices, Oriundos ex oampo Abel seu Obel, quae erat 
magna Syriae planities ( Judic. xi. 83.) vineis consita^ ubi Jephte 
devicit Ammonitas : quiqui) e^ de causa Obel-Iberi Appellati 

o 2 


strongly as to the idea of its bearing reference to the 
victims offered in sacrifice to Baal — whether as actu- 
ally burned or only dragged through — in which view 
of the matter I would suppose its ingredients to be bel- 
aborin — which means, dragging across before Baal — 
from abar, the verb, which expresses this ceremony, 
the nature of which was to conduct or drag the vic- 
tim—and that too a human being, and generally a 
boy — between two pyres, or series of fires, until he 
was burned to death. In reference to this monstrous 
and unrighteous practice it is that we are to under- 
stand the passage in II. Kings, xvi. 3, where talking 
of Achaz it is said, '^ he hath devoted his son, bearing 
him over admidst the fire." But we have descanted 
upon this more diffiisely in the early part of this 
work, and will dwell upon it still more when we come 
to treat of the idolatry of the Phoenicians in Ireland. 
The promontory of Notium seems to have got its 
name from the woods and forests in which it 
abounded ; for Notiin, in the Phoenician, from which 
it is manifestly derived, signifies plants, or planta- 

The Vellabori would seem to have left traces of 
their name in that of Ballibur, a town in the county 
Kilkenny, province of Leinster ; in that of Bally- 
burris, a village in the county of Carlow, same pro- 
vince. In Spain too, from whence this people may 
perhaps have originated, the mind instinctively asso- 
ciates their name with that of Ballobar, a town in 


Celtiberia, and that of Belabarce, a river in the 
district of the Cantabrians. 

The Uterni, a people mentioned by Ptolemy* as 
living on the borders of the Irish Brigantes, above 
the Vodiae, were stationed in the southern quarter of 
the county Kerry, and the western quarter of the 
county Cork which adjoins it, in the province of 
Munster. Their chief city, as mentioned also by this 
distinguished geographer, was Uvemi, situated on 
the sea-coast, and called, Insovenach, by the natives, 
though Cirencester would call it Rufina, a name, it 
is supposed, vitiated in its formation from ruadh 
eanagh, which is generally translated, the habitation 
of the progeny of the waters. The exact site of this 

* This great Alexandrian geographer, who lived in the reign 
of Antoninus Pius, about the year of Christ 130, enumerates 
several illustrioui cities existing in his time in Irelaud ; and it 
is manifest they must have existed a long time before, else he 
would not have heard of them, for he never himself visited 
those shores — viz. — 

1. Nagnata, an illustrious maritime city {polU epi$emos) on 
the western coast. 

2. Manapia, a maritime city on the eastern side. 

3. Eblana, a maritime city, on the eastern side. 

4. Rhigia, an inland city • • • 13 60 ^ 

5. Baiba, an inland city ..12 59} | 

6. Laberos, an inland city 13 59 | 

7. Makolikon, an inland city. ••••.. 11 } 58 ^ 

8. Another Rhigia, an inland city.. .11 59 } 

9. Dounon, an inland city. . • 12} 58| i 

10. luernis, an inland city • . • • 11 58 ^ 



city is now unknown^ though some think it likely to 
have been either the present town of Bantry or that 
of Kenmare. Many identify the Utemi with the 
Ibernii of Cirencester ; others deduce their namea 
from the Irish words Ubh-ernii, that is, a more 
western people. But, perhaps, it is the Phoenician 
utrin, or atrin, explorers, called also thirin, that best 
accords with the elevated ground on which they had 
settled. It also signifies, leaders ; or persons dis- 
charging convoy. Whence, too, they would seem to 
have been called Ibernii, from the Spanish Iberi, who 
were their conductors, unless you prefer that they 
had got their name from their phydcal power and 
strength, for Iberin, in the Phoenician, signifies brave, 
or valiant. This would seem to gain countenance 
by the name of their principal city, Rufina, coming 
from rufiin, giants; as also by that of Insovenach, 
composed, as it is, of the Phoenician words izzab- 
anac, or the post where the giants stood together, 
namely, the race of Anac, the son of Arba, frc»n whcmi 
the flower of the Phoenicians, as well in birth as 
prowess, boasted of having derived their origin. As 
to Uverni, by which in common with the two names 
just elucidated, this same city was indiscriminately 
called, it would seem to be, merely a geographical 
term, referring to locality, for uberiu, in the Phcmii- 
cian, expresses boundaries, extremities, ot sides. 




The NagnatiB inhabitants of Connaught — The islands of Arran 

— Sligo, why so called — Whether the Nagnata were 
Phcenicians — The valley of Aran amongst the Ilergeti in 
Spain — Arafuiy Aranaz, villages and tracts of land in Spain 
— Promontory of Robogd — Its etymology — The Heremonii, 
what tract of Ireland they inhabited — Origin of their name 

— Whether they were the Aramcei — Footsteps of this nation 
in Ireland and in Spain — Etymology of the tribes into 
which they were divided. 

The Nagnatae,* mentioned by Ptolemy as an 
ancient people of Ireland, are called by him, in 
some of his writings, by the name of Naguatae. 
Baxter agrees with Camden in thinking, that their 
residence lay in Connaught, that is, in the western 
section of the island. This was a large and spacious 
line of country, lying on the north of the Luceni, 

* Nagnata, a remarkable city on the sea coast, of which no 
traces now remain, lay, it is supposed, northward of the Ausoba. 
It must have been once a flourishing place, as we find that with 
the prefix '* Cuon/' signifying in Irish, a port, or harbour, it 
gave name to the whole pro? ince of Con-naught. 


in the extreme south of the island of Robogdium, 
by the promontory of this name. The name of 
Connaught is supposed to have been abbreviated from 
Cuan-na-guactic, that is, the port of the little 
islands, namely, those which from the natives, Erion 
or Erii are called, at this day, Arran, for le- 
rion. Cuan, Baxter tells us, signifies a harbour in 
the Irish, as in the language of the modern Gauls, 
or the French, — coin, means a corner ; and congl, 
in the British, means the same. Vict, also, or vact, 
or guact, as it is otherwise expressed, is a little 
island; na, being nothing more than the mark of 
the genitive case in the old language of the Brigan- 
tes, as well as that of the Irish, 

Others account for the composition of Nagnatae, 
by the Irish words, Na-gae-taegh, meaning an abode 
near the sea, and aflBrm that our ancient historians 
had called them, Slioght gae, that is, a race or pro- 
geny settled beside the sea ; from which latter words 
combined, comes the modern name of Sligo 

I should rather think, however, that the name of 
this people was Phoenician, and borrowed from that 
of the chief or leader of their body ; for in that 
language I perceive, that nagud, means a prince or 
chieftain, to whom the people look up, and to whose 
decision they appeal in all matters of dispute or 
litigation ; this word in the plural, makes nagudin. 
Nor would it be straining our fancy at all too far, 
if we would suppose them to have been so designated 


from the quality of our lovely isle, which threw 
open to the delighted vision of those bold ad- 
venturers — at the moment, perhaps, when long 
estrangement from home and country was whisper- 
ing despair — thegenial richness of its prolificbosom.* 
In support of this conjecture I would observe, that 
nagad, means a spacious country, a generous soil; 
nagab-natah, means the same, with the additional 
consideration of aridity or dryness ; which comports 
well with the nature of the western districts, in 
which those people had taken up their residence. 
Nacha-natah, means the inhabitants of a country 
such as we have just described. 

Nor do I agree with Baxter in his etymology of 
the islands of Arran or Aran, as they appear to me 
to have been so named by the Phoenicians, as a great 
many of the Irish mountains have been, from their 
abounding in trees, which they call Aran,f and to 

* Nec absonum est sic appellatos 4 regionis alienae qualitate, 
quae eis novas sedes obtulit. 

+ It has also, in a peculiar degree, the property of preserv- 
ing bodies committed to the grave. Of this property, Giraldus 
Cambreosis took notice five hundred years ago — the following 
are his words as translated by Stanihurst — '* There is in the 
west of Connaught, an island placed in the sea, called Aren, 
to which St. Brendon had often recourse. The dead bodies 
neede not be graveled, for the ay re is so pure that the contagion 
of any carrion may not infect it, there n^ay the son see bis 
father, his grandfather, and his great-grandfather, &c. &c. This 
island is enemy to mice, for none is brought thither, for either 
it leapeth into the sea, or else being stayed it dyeth presently." 


which sonobar^ in the Arabic, meaning a pine tree 
or pinaster, exactly answers. Unless you would 
choose to adhere to the exposition of the Spaniards — 
known, as we must admit they are, for accuracy in 
such points — who think that the name of the valley 
of Aran, which lies in the county of Urgellum, and 
imder the jurisdiction formerly of the Ilergetes, 
being watered with rivers and numberless fountains, 
had been given it by the Phoenicians from its simi- 
litude to Mesopotamia, which they called Haran. 
The valley of Arana, which belongs to the Canta- 
brians, is submitted to the same test of the reader's 
decision, as are also various other tracts in the 
Spanish peninsula of like name, such as Aranaz, 
Aranache, Aranda, Aranga. 

The promontory of Robogh is supposed to have 
given its name to the Robogdi, who were an ancient 
people in this island, inhabiting parts of the several 
counties of Antrim, Londonderry, and Tyrone, in 
the province of Ulster. Ptolemy represents them as 
facing the Voluntioi. Camden thinks Robogd to be 
synonymous with Fair-fore-land, being a shewy and 
imposing cape ; ♦ for in the old dialects of the Bri- 
gantes, re, ri, and ro, are indifferently used for rae, 
or ragh, before ; and vog-diu means a wave, so that 

* On the water it forms ooe of those ever varying and pecu- 
liar novelties of view, which in this northern region give sin- 
gular pleasure. 


Robogd, in his estimation, would express this local 
position, before the waves of the sea. But, as I 
take it, the promontory was named after the people 
living beside it, not the people after the promontory ; 
from the Phoenician words rabh-gad, a multiplicity 
of associates : or rob-gad, tumultuous allies, plun- 
derers, invaders. 

The Heremonii or Hermonii, who were classified 
according to their respective tribes of the Falgii, 
the Elii, the. Caelenii, and the Morii, were inha- 
bitants of the eastern and central division, comprising 
the whole of the present province of Leinster. The 
fabulous story is, that they were the descendants of 
Heremon, who was the son of Milesius, from Spain. 
There is also another vulgar belief, that they were 
so denonainated from residing in the west, the very 
name, it is supposed, signifying a western tract. 
But if it be at all of Irish extraction, it were better 
to derive it from armuinn, exiles ; but even this, I 
do not approve of. I shall, therefore, deduce the 
appellation from the Phoenician ermin, naked, un- 
clothed ; or ermon, a chesnut-tree, in which the hills 
of that district abounded. 

But what if I should assert that they were Phoeni- 
cians, from the vicinity of mount Hermon, which 
projects over Pameas ? For this celebrated mountain 
of Syria was so high, and so cold, that it was capped 
with snow in the midst of sununer ; which made the 
natives take flight from its cheerless horrors, and 


repair to the more attractive and congenial air of 
Tyre. Or from Hermonin, a small mountain be- 
tween Tabor and Hermoip, at the other side of the 
Jordan? whose inhabitants, also, are called by 
geographers, Hermonii, or Hermonitae. 

But if we may indulge conjecture, I would add, 
that the Irish Heremonii may have been so called 
as being essentially a tribe of the Phoenicians. For 
the Syrians were called Aramaei or Aremin, from 
Aram, a region of Asia Minor, whose maritime in- 
habitants, were Phoenicians, and their principal cities. 
Tyre and Sidon. Now this region obtained its 
name, not from Aram, the son of Camuel, of the 
family of Nachor, (mentioned in Genesis, xxii. 21, 
23.) ; but from Aram, the fifth son of Sem, with 
whom the inhabitants of that coast ever plumed 
themselves as being connected. Accordingly, we 
know that Shur — that is — minus a syllable — Ashur, 
or Assyria, and Syria itself, which was confounded 
therewith — was called by them by the name of 
Aram. Hence, too, the Syrians living on the con- 
tinent of the land of Canaan, and the Phoenicians 
bordering on the sea coast, would fain affect the 
distinctive designation of Arameans. The Greeks 
used to call them Syrians, but they used to call 
themselves Aramaeans, as affirmed by Josephus and 
Strabo. The custom of the Old Testament, too, is 
to put Aram for Syria, and Arami, for Syrian — 
Arami and Armai, also, signified to the ancients, 


idolators, because that the first worshippers of 
idols, recorded by the scriptures, were Syrians, as 
Thare, the father of Abraham ; as Laban, and Na- 
haman, were of that country. Add that the gods of 
Syria, (as in Judges, x. 6,) were called Elhei Aram, 
meaning emphatically, the goddess of Syria — by 
which name Juno was worshipped in the east, and 
had a temple dedicated to her in Hierapolis, a city 
of that country. Nay, the Syriac language itself, was 
called Arimith, from this very source, as in Esdras, 
iv. 7, and in IL Kings, xviii. 26, where it is said, 
** We pray thee that thou speak to us, thy servants, 
(arimith,) in the Syriac tongue, and not speak to us, 
(ihudaith,) in the Jewish." 

Ireland seems still to retain some vestiges of this 
people in the name of Armoy, a small town in the 
county Antrim ; in that of Arman or Ardman, a 
village in the barony of Ballaghkeen, in the county 
Wexford. As does Spain, also, in the name of 
Armian, a town of the Astures ; and in that of 
Armona, a mountain between the Pyrenees, in the 
district of the Aragonians. 

That the Heremonii were Aremin or Syrians, you 
will be more apt to admit, if you but observe that 
the names of the tribes into which they were dis- 
tributed are Phoenician. Falgii, the first, from falg 
or flag, signifies a division ; Elii, the second, fi-om 
elin, strangers, also eminent, surpassing; or firom 
aeli, a sacrificing priest, derived from ela, a holo- 


caust, or whole burnt offerings: elil, also in the 
Syriac and Chaldaic^ signifies idols^ as it does also 
illustrious ; Caelenii, the third, the ancient inhabitants 
of the tract called Caelan, in the county of Wicklow, 
conveyed to the Phoenicians the idea of cloked, from 
calaen, a cloak or outer garment.* Nor is it at 
all improbable but that these were a tribe of the 
Babylonians, consisting of those who> after the cap- 
tivity were mixed with the Syrians, for Caleneh 

* Doe you thinke that the maotle commeth from the Scy- 
thians ? I would surely think otherwise, for by that which I 
have read, it appeareth that most nations of the world aunciently 
used the mantle. For the lewes used it, as you may read of 
Elyas mantle. Sec. The Chaldees also used it, as yee may 
read in Diodorus. The Egyptians likewise used it, as yee 
may read in Herodotus, and may be gathered by the description 
of Berenice, in the Grecke Commentary upon Callimachus. 
The Greekes also used it aunciently, as appeareth by Venus 
mantle lyned with starrs, though afterwards they changed the 
form thereof into their cloakes, caUed Pallia, as some of the 
Irish also use. And the auncient Latines and Romans used it, 
as you may read in Virgil, who was a very great antiquary : That 
Evander, when JEneas came to him at his feast, did entertaine 
and feast him, sitting on the ground, and lying on mantles. 
Insomuch as he useth the very word mantile for a mantle. 

" Humi mantilia sternunt.*' 

So that it seemeth that the mantle ivas a generall habite to 
roost nations, and not proper to the Scythians onely. —^en^er. 

[** Humi mantilia sternunt."] Evander's enter- 
tainment of ^neas, is set out in the 8 booke of Virgil's iElneis, 
but there we have no such word as mantile. In his entertain- 
ment by Dido we have it, but in another sence. ^neid lib. 1. 


was a name given to the city of Babylon. The 
Morii, in fine, were so called from being professionally 
masters and instructors of others, this being the 
literal and exact meaning of Mori, or its plural 


The Fomorii subdtted Ireland — They were Punic or Iberi 
merchants — Why so called •— Whether the same as the Fom- 
horaice — The Firholg or Bolgce — Various opinions on the 
etymology of this name-^ Whether it savors of superstition — 
Some roots of Irish names — The Gallionii, a nation of the 
Bolgm — Their name Phcmician, 

The Fomorii, or Fomoriani, whom some consider 
the Aborigines of Ireland, who were celebrated for 
their predatory attacks upon all its colonies, are 

*' lam pater ^neas, & jam Troiana iu?entiis 
CoDveniuDt, stratoque super discumbitur ostro, 
Dant famuli manibus lymphas, Cereremque cauistris 
Expediunt, toosisq, ferunt mantilia villis," 

Sir James Ware. 
* A family in Ireland still retains this name. 


agreed on all hands to have reduced it to submis- 
sion, with the confederated assistance of the Dannani. 
Authors disagree as to the period of their arrival. 
Some suppose that they had been established amongst 
us before the time of the second importation of the 
Belgae, and that they consisted of Punic or Iberic 
merchants, who had frequently and from immemorial 
time visited the coasts : they would, therefore, in 
accordance with this view, interpret the word as 
seafarers, or mariners, from its similitude to the 
Irish fomhor, or fomhorac, a pirate. But to my 
mind it is differently composed, and comes from the 
Phoenician expressions, fom-or, implying a foot 
shaking the earth before fire,* as much as to say. 

* These consecrated fires are at present much in vogue 
amongst the G aures, and preserved with, sp much care and 
precaution, that they are called idolaters, and the worshippers 
of fire, though without the least grounds to support the un- 
generous accusation. For they pay no adoration to the material 
fire, although they make use of that element in the celebration 
of their divine service. It is the deity alone whom they adore 
in the presence of the fire, as the true symbol of the Piviue 
Majesty. Though fire, according to the Gaures, is the purest 
of all the elements, yet they look upon it only as one of God's 
most perfect creatures and it is, as they imagine, his favourite 
habitation. When they pray, they neither make their addresses 
to Mithra, nor the sun, nor the fire, but God alone ; many in- 
stances whereof are produced by the learned Dr. Hide from 
whence we may very readily infer, that the imputations 
of idolatry are as rash and groundless in Asia as they are in 


dancers in honor^ and revellers in honor, of this 
element ; for we have it on historical faith, that the 
sacrificial feasts of the Phoenicians, and of all nations 
also, terminated generally in drunkenness, with las- 
civious dances and plays. But if the Fomorii be the 
same as the Fomhoraice, or Formoragh, of whom 
our old ballads make mention, and who are also 
supposed to have been pirates or sea-robbers, it 
being indisputably manifest that the latter were a 
colony of the Poeni, or Phoenicians, I should con- 
ceive the name originated from frima-arac, a scissure 
of fugitives- This is the origin of Formariz, the 
name of a town in Spain, amongst the Zamorenses ; 
and of Formiche, the name of two small towns 
amongst the Celtiberians. Perhaps, too, we may 
recognize a vestige of those people in the name of 
Fermoy, a very handsome town in the county Cork, 
which some think to be an abbreviation for Fear- 
magh, or Fear-magh-feine, a man living in a sacred 

The Firbolg or Bolgae,* had established themselves 

^ The Firbolgs or Belgians, to the number of five thousand 
men^ commanded by five chiefs, either by the defeat or deser- 
tion of the Fomorians, took possession of the island. Those 
five leaders were Slaingey, Rughruighe or Rory, Gann, 
Gannao, and Sengan, all brothers, and children of Dela, of 
the race of the Nemedians. They divided the island into five 
parts or provinces, which gave birth to the pentarchy, which 
lasted with little interruption till the twelfth century. Slaingey, 



in the neighbourhood of the harboursf of Wexford 
and A^rklow^ in the east of Ireland. Frequent 
mention of them occurs in our ancient poems and 
annals ; and the received opinion is^ that they came 
from Britain. They are called also Siol m Bolgae^ 
and Slioght m Bealidh. They were distinguished 
into three nations, Firbolgae, Firdonman, and Fir- 
galion, which are generally interpreted, clan Bolus, 
clan Domnan, and clan Gallon : of the two last we 
diall speak under the head of the Donmanii and 

On the origin of the name Bolgas the learned are 
£tr from agreeing in their opinions. Some think 
that by clan Bolus are meant the Belgas of Britain, 
who havmg passed over from Belgium, or the lower 
Germany, spread themselves over the counties of 
S<Mnerset, Wilton, and the interior of Haverford ; 
and that the British language which they made use 
of in Ireland, was eloquently and expressively desig- 
nated Belgaid, intimating it to be a Belgic idiom. 

governor of Lei lister, was the chief of the pentarchy, and 
monarch of the whole island. These people were known by three 
different nanties, viz., Gallenians, Damnonians, and Belgians; 
but the last was the general name of the whole colony ; their 
dominion lasted about eighty years under nine kings, who were, 
Slaingey, Rory, Gann, Geanan, Sengan, Fiacha, Rionall, 
Fiobgin, and Eogha, who married Tailta, daughter of a 
Spanish prince, who gave name to the place of lier burial, still 
called Tailton, in Meath. — Mac Geogkegan, 


Others would have tiiern called Bolgse^ from bolg, a 
quiver, as excelling in archery ; others from the Irish 
word bol, a poet or sage, as eminent in those 
several characters. 

They come nearer to the truth who think the 
name to be connected with superstition, and derived 
from the worship which they pmd their gods. For 
Bel, in the language of the Celts, the Germans, and 
^1 the northern nations, stood for Sol or Apollo, the 
sun ;* and was indiscriminately called Bal, Beal, and 
Sol, intimating his dominion as lord of the world. 
Thi^they received from the Phoenicians, the authors 
of such superstiticm, who in the infancy of their 
false zeal, scrupled < not to offer human sacrifices to 

* '< Let us adore/' says the Gayatri, or holiest text of the 
Vedfts, as translated by Sir William Jones, ** the supremacy 
of that divine Sun, the godhead, who illuminates all, who 
recreates all, from whom all proceed, to whom all must return, 
whom we invoke to direct our understanding aright in our 
progress towards his holy seat. What the sun and light are to 
this visible world, that are the supreme good and truth to the 
intellectual and invisible universe, and as our coporeal eyes 
have a distinct perception of objects enlightened by the sun, 
thus our souls acquire certain knowledge by meditating on the 
light of truth which emanates from the Being of beings ; that 
is the light by which alone our minds can be directed in the 
path to beatitude* Without hand or foot he runs rapidly and 
grasps firmly ; without eyes he sees, without ears he hears all ; 
he knows whatever can be known ; but there is none who knows 
him. Him the wise call, the great supreme pervading Spirit." 


their Baal^ though he afterwards condescended to 
acquiesce in the substitution of brute immolation.* 
Hence, the fiyst of May is called in Irish, La Beal 
teine, that is, the day of the fire of Beal. Several 
of the Irish mountains, too, retain the name of Cnoc 
greine, that is the mountain of the sun; and in 
many of them are to be seen the frame-work of the 
altars, and the delapidated ruins of the temples of 
those Gentile idolaters. The old Irish name for 
year, was Beal-aine, now Bliadhain, meaning, liter- 
ally, the circle of Beal, that is the period of the 
sun's annual revolution ; all which terms they bor- 
rowed from the rites and religious ordinances of the 
Phcenicians. From their bal, too, which signifies 
power or wisdom, is derived our bale, of the same 
import, and balg, a man of letters. 

Moreover, we may refer to the worship paid by 
those tribes to Sol or Beal, the above mentioned 
names of Siol m Bolga, and Slioght m Bealidh ; for 
in the Phoenician tongue, slil means a cymbal or 
timbrel, and shiol^ fire. The Gallionii or GaUsenii, or 
clan Gallion, a tribe of the Fir-Belg» or Bolgae^ 
who settled in Ireland, are supposed to have taken 

** Humanis saorificiis pri^ cultus, pMea belluinis. — The 
Spaniards would seem to have reversed the case in their 
worship of Mars, for Strabo tells us, that '' Omnes, qui in 
montibus degunt. • .••••• Marti caprum immolant, praetereaqne 
captiyos et equos." 

I r . ■ ''A 


their name from Gallena^ a city of the Attrebatii, , 
who bordered upon the Belgae in Britain. ' From 
them Lagenia,* which was formerly considered the 
fifth province of Ireland, was called Coiged Galian. 
It is to me, too, as clear as conviction can make it, 
that they themselves were so designated, from the 
Phoenician name gallein, which means, departing or 
transported to another country, more properly 
applied to voluntary emigrants. Unless, perhaps, the 
name may have been derived from their idolatrous 
ritual ; for the Phoenicians used to give the name of 
gaelin, to heaps of stones huddled up together, on 
which they sacrificed their victims. From hence 
numberless Spanish towns, such as Galinda, Galin- 
do, Galinday, Galindush, Galinsoga, Gallinar, Gral- 
liner, Gallinera, &c. &c. would appear to have been 

We would appear, also, to have amongst us some 
"vestiges of the clan Gallion or Gallionii, in Gallian, 
the name of that tract of country encompassing the 
^eatest part of Kildare, Carlow, and the Queen's 
counties ; in Gallen, the name of a barony in the 

. * In LageniA statuit Regis et RegitUB comitatus Thomas 
Ratcliffe, Sussexiae comes, Ibernias prorex, anno 1556, reg- 
nantibus Philippo et Marii, Indeque capitate Regis comitatus 
oppidum PhilHppi Burgus; Regince Yerb comitatus Maria 
Burgus vocantur. Wiekicw in LageniA, patrum memoridi co- 
mitatus jus induit. (Y. O'Flahert loc. laud. p. 27. Burg 
Ibem. Dominic.) 


county Mayo : in Gallen Hills, the name of a town 
HI the county Tyrone ; in Gallion Point, the southern 
point of the harbor of Castle-haven, in the county 


The People called Miledhy supposed to have been Milesians — 
The Milesians, fable of the Spanish prince — Miledh and 
Milesians why so called — Miletum a colony of the Phceni- 
dans — Cities built by the Milesians — Vestiges of the Miled 
still in this Country. 

The people called Miledh^ and so frequently 
alluded to in the ancient poetry of Ireland^ are sup- 
posed by the more modem antiquarians to have be-* 
longed to the Milesians. These latter again, it is 
believed, were the posterity of the Carthagenians, 
who sailed from Spain, under the conduct, say they, 
of Heber* and Heremon, the two sons of Milesius, the 

* Heber, after this first adyantage, having refreshed his 
troopS) advanced into the country to make further discoveries, 
in hopes of meeting some of the colony, that were scattered by 
the storm some time before, and after a long and feitiguing 
march, arrived at Invear^Colpa, where he found Heremon 


king of Spain^ and settled in Ireland with a host of 
followers. In the poetical histories of the Druids, 
we have it upon record that this island was inhabited 
by the Miledh Slioght Fene,and the Miledh Espaine j 
which first names have been interpreted to us by later 
times, as equivalent to Milesius the Phoenician. The 
learned of our day, however, think that Miledh is a 
perverted abbreviation from M Bealedh, meaning 
the worshippers of Beal, and figuratively, the noble 
Druids, Fene, too, they say, means wise, so that 
Miledh Fene, to them, would represent the wise and 

his division, by whom he was ioformed of the disasters that had 
befallen his brothers Aireagh and Colpa, who had perished on 
that coast. The brothers now uniting their forces, formed their 
plans of operation for a campaign. They determined to go in 
quest of the enemy, who, according to the reports of their 
scouts^ was not far off, They began their march, and after a 
few days came up with the three princes of the Tuatha de 
Danains, in the plains of Tailton, with a formidable army ready 
to meet them. The action began, and this battle, which was 
to decide the fate of both parties was for a long time doubtful, 
the troops on both sides making extraordinary efforts ; the latter 
to defend their patrimony against the invaders, who wished to 
wrest it from them ; the former, less to revenge the death of their 
countryman, than to obtain I he possession of an island which 
had been destmed for them, according to the prophecy of the 
druids. At length the three princes of the Tuatha de Danains, 
together with their principal officers, having fallen, the army 
was put into disorder, and the rout became so general, that 
more were killed in the pursuit than on the field of battle. 
That day, so fatal to the Tuatha de Danains, decided the em- 
pire of the island in favour of the Milesians. — Mac Geoghegan* 


noble Druids, and Miledh Slioght Fene, a wise and a 
generous o&pring. In like manner would some 
writers make Miledh Easpainne^ the son of Golam, un-* 
der whose guidance and auspices the Iberi established 
themselves in the south of Ireland, to be equal in 
import with Milesius the Spaniard ; though others 
asserting that easpainne, espidne, or hespin, stood in 
the old Celtic for a bare, arid, and barren coun- 
try, understood by the words, miledh espainne mac 
golam, noble,, from the barren mountany country of 

But it being an acknowledged fact that the Miledh, 
or Milesians, whichever you choose to call them, were 
a Phoenician race, who put into this country from 
the coast of Spain, I, for one, would derive their 
name, not from Milesius king of Spain — ^who ha» no 
existence in the records of that kingdom other than 
what the fictions of the poets invest him^with — but 
from some one of the Phoenicians who had sailed over 
into Spain from Miletum, which was one of their 
very earliest colonies.* The Phoenicians, we know. 

* Greek history informs us that Miletum in Ionia was first 
colonised by Phoenicians from Crete — that this colony was at- 
tacked by the Persians and transplanted into Persia — that the 
Phoenicians and Milesians joined with the Persians against the 
lonians, at the battle of Mycale, and that they were made 
slaves by the Persians, but kindly treated by Alexander --and 
in the time of Psamiticus a colony of Milesians settled in 
Greece. The Sacae joined the Persians at the battle of 


after their taking possession of Miletum, disseminated 
themselves in tribes in every direction. These are 
the Milesians who pursued the Thessalonians from 
Caria, and who took up their residence, in the first 
instance, on the coast of Anatolia. To them is at- 
tributed the origin of the cities of Trebezon,* Hera- 
clea, or Penderaclea,f Sinope, J &c After the ship- 
wreck of Pylades and Orestes, near the^ temple of 
Diana at Taurus, the Milesians visited the Crimsea, 
and laid the foundations of the cities of Theodosia or 
Ka&,§ Chersonesus, and Oliera on the Dnieper. They 
also, besides other cities, built that of Odessus, or 
Bama, on the western shore of the black sea. But 
their principal one seems to have been AppoUonia, or 
Sizeapolis,|| which was exceedingly fortified, and con- 

Maratbon, and broke the centre of the Athenians. The Liber 
Lucanes, an ancient Irish MS., informs us that one colony of 
the Milesians arrived in Ireland in the last year of Camboath 
(Cambyses) son of Ciras (Cyrus). — It then describes the divi- 
sions of Alexander's empire among his generals, and says, 
another colony arrived in Ireland in that year wherein Alex- 
ander defeated Daire, t • e. Darius. — VaUancey. 

* Trebezon k thrap eihan, fumus ex igne procedens ante 
idolum. Heraclea, Herculi dicata. 

t Penderaclea, kpenehf facies. Est facies seu simulachrum 

t Sinope k zinip, thiara, vitta, insigne capitis ornamentum. 

§ Kafa, k Kafaz, saltavit, saliit; vel k Cafa, incurvavit, 
inclinavit« flexit corpus, genua, quod prostementes se fiaciunt : 
utrumque denotat cultum idololatricum. 

II SizeapoHi k Phccn. ziz, frons arboris, arbor :Jplur. zizm: 


structed partly in the peninsula and partly in the 
little island of Pontus, where the celebrated statue 
of Apollo — ^which Lucullus afterwards brought to 
Rome — ^was worshipped with all solemnity. Pieces of 
money, stamped at Appollonia by the Milesians, bore 
the impression of Apollo's head, with this motto, 
*' Doriopos,'** that is, the bountiful. 

Miledh, therefore, is not the name of a particular 
race, but of the city of Miletum ; nor is Milesian 
a proper or individual name, but a gentile or na- 
tional one. For the Milesii were the inhabitants 
of Miletum, and any thing appertaining or belon^ng 
Ihereto was called Milesian. Thus we read of 
Thales the Milesian ; Anaximander, Anaximenes, 
Hecateus, the Milesians ; so also we find Milesi- 
ourgos to signify any thing done by Milesian art — as 
Milesian tapestry — Milesian wool, which was cele- 
brated all over the world. 

But the name of the city of Miletum itself would 
appear to have been given it by the Phcenicians, 
from milet to escape or be liberated, which accords 
with the history of the first tribes of the Caananites, 
who had fled before the face of Joshua and the Isra- 

quasi disceres, urbs in arboreto vel nemore : vel k ziz, flos : 
urbs florida. Odems k Odesa, fructus. Bama k barin, advena^ 

* John Edward Alexander's Travels to the seat of War in the 
East, through Russia and the Crimea, T. I. p. 293. 


elites. We should observe, also, that Miletum was 
otherwise called Anactoria, from Anach, a descen- 
dant of Anak, of whom many x)f the Phcenicians used 
to boast as the founder of their family. 

Ireland would seem to retain still some traces of 
the name Miledh in that of Malahide, a town in the 
barony of Coolock, in the county DubUn, just beside 
a fort called the court of Malahide, and in that of 
Malahidert, a village in the same county, &c. 

Let us now pass over to other names connected 
with this. Espaine, Hespin, or Spania, is a word 
not of Celtic but of Hebraic Bnd Syriac extraction, 
being derived from Span, or Sapan, a rabbit. Hence 
the name of Spania as abounding in them ; and this 
is the epithet by which Catullus distinguished that 
part of Spain at present called Celtiberia,* But the 
Phoenicians very deservedly extended the name to 
the country at large, seeing the multitude of those 

* "We haye the greatest authority from the ancient ohronicles 
of Ireland to believe that there was a strict friendship and cor- 
respondence by navigation and traffic between the Spaniards 
and Irish, from the time that Eochard the son of Eire, the last 
king of the Firbolgs in Ireland, was married to Tailte, the 
daughter of Maghmore, king of Spain, so that the people of the 
two nations were well acquainted with one another long before 
Brah, the son of Breagar, was born. And this account is suf- 
ficient to destroy the credit of that idle fancy that Ith and the 
family of Briogan first discovered the country of Ireland, with 
an optical instrument, from the top of the tower of Brigantia. ^ 


animals so overwhelmingly immense that tKey seemed 
to venture even to dispute its possession with man 
himself; nor did trees, roots, plants, and vegeta- 
bles alone give way, before their dense and desolating 
myriads, but the castellated dome was not safe from 
their attack, and whole towns have been overturned 
by their undermining. Most ancient writers, there- 
fore, impressed with this fact, treat of the rabbit as 
if it were an animal peculiar to Spain. Hence we 
may see how little weight is to be attached to the 
reveries of those who maintain that, as Lusitania was 
so named from lusus, play, so was Spam from Pan 
the Arcadian, one of Bacchus's associates. For His- 
pania, the Latin for Spain, some of the ancients 
wrote Espaine, and now frequently Spania, which 
Vqssius and Bochart confirm by the testimony of 
Paul the apostle, Theophilus, Eusebius, Epiphanius, 
and others. Nay more, Eulogius, has in more places 
than one, written Ecclesia Spanioe, (that is the church 
of Spain) which Ambrosius Moms erroneously and 
unjustifiably transcribed into Ecclesia Hispanias. 
Hence the color black is called spanus by Nonus, 
and Spanicum argentum, for Hispanicum, (that is 
Spanish silver) occurs in Athanasius Bibliotheca, in 
his life of the Pontiffs. Sliog, as we have said, is a 
Phoenician name, indicating a certain^ species of 

It remains that we say something about Fene, or 
Feine, Fane, Fine, or Fion, an ancient Irish clan. 


of whom frequent mention occurs in the ancient 
chronicles and ballads of this island^ Some would 
look for the etymology of these names in the Irish 
fine, which signifies a tribe or nation ; others in feine, 
the celebrated ancient militia of our country ; others 
lastly, would expect to find it in feine, a steward or 
husbandman. There are those too to whom those 
words denote a standard, or ensign, or whatever is 
erected in an elevated and conspicuous position ; and, 
when connected with sacred matters, the officiating 
high priest or sacrificer ; a learned man ; a Druidical 
temple ; as the Romans gave the name of fana to 
the shrines wherein they worshipped their idols. 

They, however, come nearer to the truth who con- 
ceive that by these words is indicated some one of 
the ancient colonies of the Phoenicians, who settled 
in Ireland. For it is an admitted and established 
opinion, that the Phoenician name was invented by 
the Greek in imitation of the Hebrew form of ex- 
pression, phene-anak, that is, the sons of Anak, or 
Anaceans. Anak, as we have said, was a giant, and 
the ison of Arba, whence comes Anakim, in the plu- 
ral, giants ; and being the founder of that race , the 
Greeks thought that the inhabitants of all Syria had 
derived their origin from him. Indeed, it were more 
correct to say Bene-anak, but the Greek always 
soften the Hebrew letter B (beth) in this manner, as 
we find Josephus writing sopho instead of soba, a 
region of Syria. It is no wonder, therefore, that 


Bene^nak^ Phcenices, and Pamci, or Poeni, should 
all stand for the same thing, the Phoenicians. In 
former times Beanak, or Phianak, was used as an 
ahbreviation for Ben anak, and from the name thus 
abbreviated^ the African Phoenicians* were called 
Poeni, and those of Iberia, Fene, retaining in either 
case only the first member of the name, Fene-anafc. 
But that the Phoenicians a£fected the name of 
Bene-Anak, or sons of the Anaceans, and would have 
them themselves so designated, you may infer from 
the feet of their calling the city of Carthage, built 
by them, Chadre Anak, that is the seat of the Ana- 
cseansy as you may see in the Pa&nulus of Plautus ; 

* It appears, that like some of the rest of the Pagan Afri- 
cans, they worship a heing, who, according to their imagina- 
tions, can neither do them any good nor any eyil. And which 
is still more remarkable, they worship another being inferior to 
this, whom they beUeye can do them much injury, unless his 
anger is appeased. This being they imagine frequently appears 
to them under the most tremendous form, somewhat resembling 
the ancient satyrs of the Greeks; and "when they are asked how 
they can believe in such absurdities, so inconsistent with the 
divine attributes ; their answer is to the following import : 
" We follow the traditions of our ancestors, whose first p$irents 
having sinned against the grand captain, they fell into such a 
neglect of his worship, that they knew nothing of him, nor how 
to make their addresses to him." This may serve to shew, that 
however ignorant jthey n^ ay be in other respects, yet in this dark 
tradition they have some faint notion of the fall of man, which 
indeed is acknowledged by all the world, except some letter 
leartied men among ourselves. 


nnd, as we have observed in a preceding part of this 
chapter, their calling Miletum, a colony of theirs, 
Anactoria, from Anacte, that is, a descendant of the 
great Anak. For, although, but few of the Phoeni- 
cians had really owed their origin to the family of 
the Anaceans — as Bochart has before observed — yet 
the celebrity of the race had charms for many to make 
them wish and lay claim to it as their parent stock. 
Besides, in all nations, it is handed down as a pre- 
sumptive usage, that they select their name from the 
elite of their nobility ; and amongst the Canaanites 
no family could compete with this either, in personal 
valor or the collateral influence of a splendid name. 
They were superhuman in strength, and so gigantic 
in stature that, compared to them, the Israelites ap- 
peared like so many locusts,* 

* Pepin the Short, perceiving himself the object of contempt 
amongst a particular set of his courtiers, who on account of his 
figure, which was both thick and low, entertained but a 
mean idea of his personal abilities, invited them, by way 
of amusement, to see a fair battle between a bull and a lion. 
As soon as he observed that the latter had got the mastery over 
the former, and was ready to devour him, '^ Now, gentlemen," 
says he, ^' who amongst you all has courage enough to inter- 
pose between these bloody combatants 7 Who of you all dare 
rescue the bull, and kill the lion ?" Not one of the numerous 
spectators would venture to undertake so dangerous an enter- 
prise ; whereupon the king instantly leaped into the area, drew 
his sabre, and at one blow severed the lion's head from his 
shoulders. Returning without the least emotion or concern to 



The Clan Cuilean, a people of Ireland, where settled — Called 
also Hy-namor — Etymology of these names — The Deasii in 
what part of Ireland they settled ^ Their leader — Whence 
named — The Dareniy inJiabitants of Voluntia — City of 
Derry, why so called — Whether the Dareani derive their 
name from the Greeks or the Phoenicians — The Gadeliani, 
whether from Gadela — Whether it be a Phcenician name. 

To the list of the ancient inhabitants of this coun- 
try we are to add the name also of the people called 
Clan Cuilean, who resided in a part of the county 
Clare^ on the banks of the river Shannon^ comprising 
all that tract formerly known by the name of Tho- 
mond. Clain, in Irish,* signifying sprung from or 

his seat, he gaye those who had entertained but a mean opinion 
of him, to understand, in a jocular way, that though Dayid was 
low in stature, yet he demolished the great Goliah ; and that 
though Alexander was but a little man, he performed more 
heroic actions than all his tallest officers and commanders put 

* What Erin calls in her sublime 

Old Erse or Irish, or it may be Punic ; — 
(The Antiquarians who can settle time. 
Which settles all things, Roman, Greek or Runic, 


genitive, the name of this people is generally ren- 
dered the growth or harvest of wheat near the water. 
They were also called Hy na mor, which sounds to 
the natives as the maritime region. But, in my 
opinion, clan cuilean, is a name compounded of the 
Phcenician words, clain culain, that is, the summoned 
together from different or mixed nations, intimating 
their composition to be diversified and motley. Or, 
maybe, of Clanu Culain, that is, the summoned Ba- 
bylonians, for the Chaldeans, who had accompanied 
the Isaraelites on their return into Syria from their 
captivity, attached themselves afterwards to the 
PhcEnicians in their maritime expeditions, as well as 
in transplanting their colonies ; and, in the Chaldee 
language, Clanu and Calnah meant Babylon. Hy 
na mor, also, is a Phoenician name from, inamor, a 
variegated or party-coloured people in a sea-girt 

The Deassii, the Decies, formerly Deassies, an an- 
cient people of Ireland inhabited the southern sec- 
tion of the county Meath, and the northern bank of 
the rivers Liffey and Rye, which whole line of coun- 
try was very appropriately designated by the name 

•Swear that Pat's language sprung from ike same clime 

With Hannibal, and wears the 1'yrian tunic 
Of Dido's alphabet ; and thb is rational 
As any other notion, and not national :) — 




of Ean^ or M agh Ean^ that is, the region of waters. 
Their leader is supposed to have been named Mag- 
ean, or Ean-gus, afterwards abridged to QEngus, 
which is usually interpreted prince of the region of 
Ean. A tribe of this nation was afterwards trans- 
ported to the county Waterford. This region is at 
present divided into two baronies, namely, Decies 
within Drum, bounded on the east and south by the 
Atlantic ocean, and on the west by the black water ; 
whilst, Decies without Drum, bounds it on the 
north, and is itself the other part of this tract. 

The name of Deassies, or Deassii, is supposed to 
be derived from the Irish word deas, southern, and 
to indicate a southern people. This is not impro- 
bable. I would venture to guess, however, that they 
wtere a Phoenician tribe, so called from deassin, or 
deassain, or rather deazzin, that is, exulting ; from 
duaz, which means, he exulted with joy, to which 
daizz, joy, corresponds ; and ther^ is no one who 
is not aware of the dancing and rioting of idol- 
aters during their sacrificial feasts.* The barony of 

* Although it is difficult to discoyer any relation between 
dancing and religion, yet among the Pagans it constantly made 
a part of their worship of the gods. It was usual to dance 
round the altars and statues; and there was at Rome, an order 
of priestSy called the 8alU: they were dedicated to the service 
of Mars, and they danced on particular days, through the 
streets, in honour of their god, and had their name from that 
yery ceremony. .Indeed, religious dancing was so much the 




Deece, in the county Meath, which Seward tells us 
was formerly called Decies, or Desies, as well as 
another barony of the same name, Decies, or Desies, 
in the county Waterford, are vestiges in this country 
of the once existence there of the Deessii. In Spain 
too, the Phoenicians would seem to have had a tribe 
of this name, I mean the inhabitants of the old Can- 
tabrian city of Decium, which is surrounded by the 
river Aturia. 

Baxter is of opinion that the Dareni, or Damii, 

taste of the Pagans, that the poets made the gods dance along 
with the graces, the muses, and virtues. When the Jews kept 
the feast of the golden calf, they sat down to eat and to drink, 
and rose up to play, which means to dance, and undoubtedly, 
they learned this in Bgygt. Amobius, an ancient Christian 
writer, asked the Pagans, if their Gods were pleased with the 
tinkling of brass, and rattling of cymbals, or with the sound of 
drums and musical instruments. The idolaters in other parts 
of th« world, even to this day, haye the same esteem for this 
custom, and the greatest part of the worship they pay to tbetr 
deities consists in dancing* On the whole it appears, that 
dapcing was first practised by the heathens in their temples, as 
a part of their religious worship, to point out their gratitude to 
their gods, either for general, or particular favors ; nor have 
the Christians been ^together free firom this custom. The 
Christians of St Thomas, dance in honor of that saint, before 
which they cross themselves, and sing a hymn. The men dance 
in one apartment, and the women in another^ but both observe 
the greatest decency. At present, however, there are but few 
Roman Catholics who pay much regard to this ceremony, and 
in all probability it will soon fall into disrespect and cease to 
be practised. — Hurd. 



the ancient inhabitants of Voluntia^ mentioned by 
Ptolemy, gave its name to the dty of Deny ; as also 
to Durmach, which is interpreted the oaken city, 
^called also Annach, that isj the lofty city, now Ar- 
magh. He furthermore thinks that they themselves 
were so designated, as if descendants of the oak, 
seeing that Ptolemy names them Darinoi, or Damti, 
for dar, in the British, is an oak ; and eni, or geni, to 
be born. But I submit it to the learned to deter- 
mine whether it be not from the Phoenician darin, 
meaning foreigners, soujoumers ; or darin, villas, 
habitations. From the Dareni, or Darnii, I should 
imagine that the island of Darinis, in the Black- 
water, in the mouth of the bay of Youghal, in the 
county Cork, took its name. After the introduc- 
tion of Christianity, this was called Molana, from 
St. MolanOd, who founded a convent therein, in the 
sixth century. You will pronounce the same judg- 
ment on another island of the same name, near the 
city of Wexford, where St. Nemham erected a mo- 
nastery, in the middle of the seventh century. 

Spain has an old town called Dapnius, on the 
banks of the river Muga, in the coimtry of the 
Ilergetes, whose inhabitants, like the Irish, are named 
Darnii, in the ancient chronicles of the kingdom. 

The Gadeliani, an old Irish tribe, are commonly 
supposed to have derived their name from Gadelas, 
an ancient progenitor of the Milesians. Whether 
this Gadelas be a character of the real history of this 


country, or only like MUesius^ the reputed prince of 
Spain, an imaginary fiction for the songs of the poets, 
I leave to the decision of more competent judges. 
I cannot, however, but express my perfect disregard 
to what Geraldus tells us of the Irish being called 
Graidheli from some grandson of Phenius, who was 
distinguished as a linguist. My dissent from his 
opinion I choose to couch in this strong phrase, not- 
withstanding his being backed therein by Nennius, 
Malmura, Eochodius, and other writers of the ninth 
century, and countenanced by the approbation of 
the more modem O'Connor. 

But what if Gadelas, or Gadhelus was some con- 


spicuous and honorable individual, belonging to 
some tribe of the Phoenicians,f whose' descendants 
were after him called Gadeliani ? For gadel, in their 
language means, great, illustrious ; and gadelin, emi- 
nent, superior men. Hence, also, the inhabitants of 
two ancient cities, but now only petty towns, of the 

* In fine, there are no naines or dogmata of the Phceni- 
cians recorded by either Greek or Latin authors that are not to 
be found or explained in the ancient Irish, a strong coUatera^ 
proof that the Phoenicians of the old Greeks were not Cana- 
anites or Tyrians, but that mixed body of Persians, that is, 
Scythians, Medes, &c. whom Sallust informs you, from the 
best authority, the Punic annals, composed the Gaetulians and 
Numidians of Africa,, the first setUement of the Phoenicians in 
that country ; and the same people that Varro, Pliny, and Jus- 
tin bring from thence to Spain, conformable to the ancient his- 
tory of 'Ireland. — Vallancey. 


name of Gadiella, in the dktnct of the Astores and 
Edetani, in Spain> were called Gadelin^ or Godeli- 
ani ; for I am satisfied that those cities had obtain^ 
this name as expressive oi their magnitude and their 


The DegadeSy settlers tn Ireland — In what part — Whether a 
body of fishermen — The Tuat de Doinan arrive in this 
country — Whence come — Whether a tribe of the Caledo- 
mans-^Why called UUeigh — Origin of their name --The 
Caledonians of Brigantme origin ^^The Irish Cmngani, 
why so called. 

The Degades, an ancient people of Ireland, are 
supposed by some to have been a colony of the Lein- 
st^* Scotii, who settled in the western quarter of 
the county Kerry, some years before the advent of 
Christ. The name is supposed to have been made 
up of the Irish words, de ga deas, implying a situa- 

* Leighan, an axe or spear, it being with such weapons the 
Leinster people fought. — The country was thence called Lein- 
stefy from teighan, as above, and ter, a territory. 


tion at the south of the sea. To me,^however, it 
seems to express a colony of Phoenician fishermen ; 
for degah, in that language, is fish, collectively ; deg^ 
to fish ; dughioth^ fishing cots or wherries made of 
rushes ; deg, a fisherman, and adesa, profit, emolu- 
ment ; so that Degades would appear a name abbre- 
viated for deg-adesa, or expressive of fishermen who 
acquired their support from the profits of that pur- 
The Tuatha de Danaan,* or Danans, usually ren- 

t In my work upon the '^ Rouad Towers," it is proved to a 
demoostratioDy that these (who by the way had nothing to do 
with Britain) were the real authors of Ireland^ i ancient ce- 
lebrity. They arrived here about 1200 years before Christ, 
under the conduct of three brothers, Brien, Juchorba, and Ju- 
chor, and immediately gave batde to the Firbolgs, commanded 
by Eogha their king, at Moyturey near lake Masg, in the ter- 
ritory of Partrigia otherwise Partry, in the county of Mayo. 
He latter lost in one day the battle and possession of the island, 
and were so reduced as to seek an asylum in the islands of the 
north. Nuagha, the Tuatha Danaan general, haying lost a 
hand in the action, had one made of silver, whence he attained 
Ae name of Airgiodlamh, which signifies silver hand. This 
narrative had been long supposed a day dream of fiction, which 
legendary chroniclers had of old trumped up. The hour, how- 
ever, has arrived for the restoraiion of truth ; and I rejoice that 
I am the first person to announce to my countrymen that this 
reUc, or silver hand, is still extant. It was exhibited to the 
'^Society of Antiquaries,^' a short time ago, who, of course, knew 
nothing about it. The moment I saw it I exulted in the con^ 
firmation of our ancient history ; and did not hesitate, at once» 
intimating to the Gentleman who had the kindness to gain me 


dered the northern race, were an ancient colony in 
this country, situated behind the Fir-Bolgoe ; they are 
supposed to have originated from Britain^ and to 
have been a tribe of the Caledonians, who emigrated 
over from Mull-Galloway, or Cantire, foil an hundred 
years before the Christian aera* The old Irish poets 
seem to know nothing of the chieftains of the first 
colony of the Caledonians, or Sanani as they call 
them ; but they are dijSuse on the subject of their ar- 
rival, which happened only a few years before the 
birth of Christ. These were accustomed to style 
themselves Ulleigh, which some would interpret as 
worshippers of the sun, for in the Celtic dialect, iiU 
is the same as sol, or beal, which is the sun. Ac- 
cordingly, their country was called UUadh or Ullin, 
and these names still represent to the native, the pro- 
vince of Ulster. All that tract of country also, im- 
mediately encompassing the present county of Down 
was called UUa in former times. Other relics of this 
name may be traced in Ullard, a village in the barony 
of Gowran county of Kilkenny ; and in UUoe, a 
little town in the barony of Coonagh, in the county 

access to tkeir museum,, that it was the hug migdng arm of 
Nuagha Airgiodlamh. I now give the inscription, which is in 
old Irish characters, for which I am indebted to the gentle- 
man above alluded to, whose name — T. Crofton Croker — 
perhaps, I may be pardoned if I publish. 













y % 














But as some will have UUeigh and UUadh to be 
Celtic names borrowed from their custom of worship- 
ping the sun, so, perhaps, the name Tuath de Doinan 
may have originated from the form of that worship, 
which we know the Phoenicians oflFered to their idols, 
prostrate and silent before their banquets. For tuath 
donian, in that language, means those who meditate 


in silence and fasting. Nor yet would I reject the 
conjecture, nor deny the £ict, of tuath being an 
Irish geographical term signifying the due north. 

The Caledonians were so named from Caledonia, 
at this day called Scotland, after the Scoto Brigan- 
tine Irish, and formerly Valentia by the Romans, 
after the name of their emperor Valentinian. They 
were of Brigantine extraction, and their constant 
allies, or rather vassals, in then- several wars. The 
name of Caledonian is supposed to have been de- 
rived from the woods which they inhabited, being 
called in the British, Kelydhon, or Colydhon, and the 
woods themselves, coit kelydhon. Nor, indeed, were 
the foreign Brigantines called Keloi on any other ac- 
count than that of their living in the woods, as the 
ancients generally did; nor were the Caletes, a peo- 
ple of the Attrebates, so denominated for any other 

In the^'Scoto-brigantine dialect of the present day, 
coil, means a wood. In the Greek too, kalon, means 
the same, as did, cala, in the ancient Roman ; whence 

- t 


are derived caliga, a wooden shoe; and calones, 
hewers of timber. 

I suspect, however, that the Caledonians were 
PhcBnicians, who were expert in^ astrology ; or, per- 
haps, Chaldeans, associates of the Phoenicians ; for 
Qialedain, or Chaldein signifies both, and that, there- 
fore, Caledonia was named after them, and not vice 

The Gngaanii, or Ganganii, an' ancient people of 
Ireland, mentioned by Ptolemy, were settled in the 
western section of the county Clare, in what is^ at 
present called the barony of Burrin, on the south of 
the bay of Galway. Baxter takes them to be de- 
scendants of the Ceangi, or shepherds of the Dam- 
nii, who dwelt in a district called, from the summer 
exposure, and the habitual recumbency^of shepherds, 
ScHuerseeten, or, eestival sitters. Tacitus'xjalls them 
Cangi. But as from the>ingular, cang, is formed the 
Latin ceangus, so from" the plural ceangon, do they 
also form, canganus. Many persons believe that every 
individual state hadJts^own],Ceangi, who^were a co- 
lony of minors, or of youthful shepherds, passing 
their lives in mountains, in villages, in marshes, or in 
fens, as suited the interests^of their Jpastoral occupa- 
tion. Of these, Trogus Justinus says, '^ they transfer 
their flocks now to summer, now to winter lawns. 
As formerly, the ancient Romans had amongst the 
Calabrians and Lucanians, so now have the Spaniards 


filso amongst tl^ Cc»^tabrians and other stateSf dis* 
tinct pastures for their flocks^ as well in summer as 
in winter/* The advocates of this opinion derive 
the word ceangus from the British ceang^ or cang, a 
branchy in the same manner^ and with the same figu- 
r^ve licence, as '^youths" in Greek are styled 
*^ branches of Mars.** Others think it compounded 
of cean gan, and interpret it, the external promon- 
tory. Whence Canganii, to them, will ^spress a peo- 
ple residing beside such promontory ; as Burrin, or 
Bhurrin, the ancient seat of those Canganii, means 
an external region. There are those who flatter 
themselves that they have discovered the etymology 
rf this name in the Hebrew chanoc, or chanic, ver- 
nal; and, finally, others who think them called 
Ceangi, from the god Ceangus, the tutelary genius 
of the Cumbri. In a matter so perplexed, and as 
yet so undecided, I would venture to guess that the 
Canganii, or Cangani, were a people of the Canta- 
brians in Hespania Tarraconensis, who were a colony 
of the Massagetae, or else a tribe of Phoenician agri- 
culturists,* and that their name is composed of the 
word^ can-gannin, a society of gardeners, from gan, 
a garden, applicable as well to trees as to herbs ; 

'* »■ 

* Omnium rerum ex quibus aliquid acquintur, nihil est agri- 
ealtui4 melius, nihil uberius, nihil dulcius^ nihil homioe libero 
dignius.— Ctcero-e^e-O^Ci, 1, g^ 42. 


or from gan-ganin, the Ganganii^ who excelled in 
that department.* 

* But they say, that the modem critics have despised and 
rejected those chimeras of antiquity to which the Scoto-Mile- 
siaos aspire, as well as the authorities they produce to support 
them. It is evident that those critics should not be believed 
in respect to the monuments of that people : they were unac- 
quainted with the language in which they were written ; it was 
altogether impossMe for them to know it. There are but few 
even among the nativei capable of decyphering their ancient 
vnritiugs : it is by a particular study only, of the abreviations, 
punctuations, and of the ancient characters of that language, and 
the Oghum, that they can attain to it; The old Scotic lan- 
guage, which was spoken two (or rather three) thousand years 
ago, and which id made use of in their monuments, was entirely 
different from what is now, and has been spoken, within the 
last few centuries; and has become a jargon by the adoption of 
many Latin, Englbb, and French words. Are these not dif- 
ficulties, which are impossible for a stranger to surmount, who 
attempts to write the history of that country ? If the primi- 
tive Irish language be scarcely known by the bulk of the na- 
tion itself, what knowledge can an Englishman have of it? — 

Mac Geoghegan. 
Yet for the antiquities of the written chronicles of Ireland, 
give me leave to say something,, not to justifie them, but to 
shew that some of them might say truth. For where you s&y 
the Irish have alwayes bin without letters, you are therein 
much deceived ; for it is certaine, that Ireland hath had the 
use of letters very anciently, and long before England. — 




The Aremorici, what nation they were — Whether the Alo^ 
brites — Where they settled--^ Whether Aramotans or PhcB^ 
nicians — The Alohrites and Morini, why so called — The 
Aradii, inhabitants of the island of Arad — Skilled in naval 
matters — Allies of the Phoenicians — Colonies of them in 
Spain and Ireland — The Armeri called Cardanum by the 
Phoenicians — Vestiges of their residence in Ireland as well 
as Spain, 

The Aremorici, in Irish, Armhorac, or Armho- 
raice, are supposed to have been transmarine 
Britons, namely, the ancient Belgae, that is the Alo- 
hrites, or remains of Belgic Britannia, who were 
driven out by the Franks, or Sicambri, into CeUic 
Gaul. They are generally considered as refugees of 
the Belgae^ who settled in the British islands, having 
come thither at the season of the Saxon war. The 
Aremorican tract, or line of country they inhabited, 
is by some writers accounted the Saxon shore of the 
Gauls, otherwise called Celtic Gaul, Neustria, and 
Britannia in the Marshes; Caesar, however, and 
Pliny call it, Aquitania of the Vascons. 


Baxter thinks that they were called Aremorici, 
from armor, or arvor, a shore ; as the Morini, who 
were the Vallonic Flandri, were called, he says, from 
the Celtic words, mor-eni, as if, marigenae, or sea- 
bom. With all respect, however, to so high an 
authority, I would venture to guess that this was 
one of the Phoenician tribes who arrived in this 
island, and passed over from it afterwards into Bel- 
gium and Gaul, From them it is probable that the 
ancient city of Ardmore, in the barony of Decies, 
county Waterford, hath derived its name ; as also 
the promontory of Ardmore on the east of the 
Youghal harbor ; and Armoy, a town of the barony 
of Carey, in the county Antrim : just as the Phoe- 
nicians who inhabited the district of Aram in 
Asia Major were indiscriminately called Aramaeans, 
Syrians, and Phoenicians, and, by a junction of the 
two last, Syro-Phoenicians. Whence in the Syriac 
version of the Bible, the Syro-Phoenician woman, 
mentioned in the seventh chapter, and twenty-sixth 
verse of St. Mark, is said to have been *^ from Phce- 
nicia of Syria/' And Josephus declares that the 
Aramaeans were called Syrians by the Greeks. 
Strabo also asserts that some take the Syrians for the 
Arimi, whom they now call Arami. 

The Irish name Armorhac, therefore, would 
appear to consist of the Phoenician words Arami- 
arac, that is, a people, or nation, from the district of 
Aram, namely, from Shur, that is Syria, or Phoenicia. 


For^ arac, means a state, or nation, and Arami an 
Aramoean, or Syrian, a native of Phoenicia; it like- 
wise signifies an idolator ; for the first worshippers 
of idols recorded in the sacred Scriptures were, as 
we have above observed, Syrians. 

Alobrith seems an Irish name, signifying a p<Mr-» 
tion of an ancient stock or tribe ; for, all, in Irish, 
means extraction, or lineage ; allod, antiquity ; and 
brith, a part or fraction of any thing. This I con- 
ceive more rational, than to say that they had been 
called Alobrites as equivalent to Galo-Britones, 
which is Baxter's opinion. Nor is it more unlikely 
if we would suppose it a Phcenician name denoting 
a tribe who had concluded a treaty by the obligation 
of an oath ; for, alah, in that language, is an oath 
and, brith, a league or compact, any thing about 
which many deliberate and ultimately agree. 

What if we should consider this Alobrith to be an 
abridgement firom Baalbrith,* or berith, that is, the 

* Baal-Beritby or lord of the covenant, was an idol wor- 
shipped by the Seehemite, and many of the idolatrous Israel- 
ites erected altars to him. To him human sacrifices were 
offered ; and it was common to appeal to him as a witness and 
judge in all matters of controversy ; and, especially, when pro- 
misesy covenants, engagements, or treaties of peace were 
entered into. In the most early ages of the world, the Pagans 
made their altars of earth or turf, and they were, for the most 
part, in groves or on hills, and besides <^ering up sacrifices to 
the gods, they were used for several o&er purposes. All 
alliances with foreign princes were ratified on the altars, that 


Lord of the Compact ; namely, the idol with whom 
the children of Israel had concluded a treaty^ after 
the manner of the Phoenicians^ and in whose honor 
the Phoenicians had erected a temple in Gebal, a 
mountain and city at the foot of Mount Libanus, 
whence the circumjacent country hath obtained the 
name of Gebalene, This temple was restored in the 
time of Alexander the Great, and consecrated, by 
some despicable enthusiasts of the Pagan priesthood, 
*' To Oljrmpian Jove, the patron of hospitality." For 
few things are better known than that the Alobrites, 
as well as the other nations of Gaul, of Belgse, and 
of Britannia, had embraced the idolatry and the rites 
of the Phoenicians. 

It is very probable, also, that the Morini were 
those whom the ancient Irish called Morintinneach, 
high-spirited ; or the Phoenicians, Marin, l<wrds, or 
Morin, teachers. Unless, perhaps, they may have 
been inhabitants of the land of Jerusalem, and so 
denominated from Mount Moriah, which is situated 

the gods might be witness of the faithful performance of them ; 
of this we have many instances both in ancient history and 
poetry. Thus, Hamilcar made his son Hannibal lay his hand 
on the altar, and swear he would never make peace with the 
Romans ; and thus a poet says : — 

*' I touch the sacred altars, touch the flames, 
And all those pow'rs attest, and all their names : 
Whatever chance befal on either side, 
No term of time this union shall divide.'' 


by the side of Mount Sion. We have abeady 
liinted, above, that the Phoemcians, like the other 
nations of antiquity, made it an established rule, that 
whenever they emigrated into foreign countries they 
should, through national affection, and a wish to 
perpetuate the remembrance of the present stock, 
transfer to their tribes and families the names of the 
cities or provinces, mountains or rivers, that were 
associated with their childhood; a fact which we 
could prove by innumerable examples in the con- 
duct, as well of the Phoenicians themselves, as of the 
Celts, the Greeks, nay, of the Romans and the 
Arabians in Spain, and recently in the conduct of 
the Spaniards themselves, in North and South 

But it may suffice to adduce the instance of the 
Aradii, ancient inhabitants of Ireland, who made 
several voyages and maritime excursions, in com- 
pany with the Phoenicians. These were originally 
inhabitants of the island of Arad, on the coast of 
Phenice, at the mouth of the river Eleutherus, and 
with part of the adjoining continent, such as Antar- 
adus, Marathus, Laodicea, the principal city of the 
island, and which bore the same name, Strabo says 
had been built by some Sydonian exiles, and that 
the Aradians contributed much to the advancement 
of naval science. We must not wonder, therefore, 
when, on allusion to this, we read in Ezekiel's pro- 
phecy, that rowers from Arad and Sidon had held 



possessioti of Tyre ; nor when, in a subsequent 
verse of the same chapter, wie find that, in the vigor 
of their bravery, they with all. their forces had 
mounted upon its walls, and nobly fought in its 
defence. And not only Tyre but Tripolis, the most 
illustrious city of Phenice, consisted, as Pliny tells 
us, partly of Aradians, and partly of Tyrians and 

That from this island the Aradians, in conjunction' 
with the Phoenicians, had sailed over into Spain, and 
there built the town of Arades amongst the Astures, 
Aradilli amongst the Vaecei, and Aradueniga 
amongst the Carpetani, all called after their own 
name, is to me certain as demonstration can make it. 
Ardisa also, formerly a city, now a small town oi 
Celtiberia ; Ardisalsdo and Ardiskna, villages in the 
country of the Astures ; Ardaiz, amongst the Canta- 
brians, and others of that kind in various quartern of 
Spain, s^em to me indisputably as colonies of the 
Aradians. It is the opinion of a certain very learned 
person, that the river of Araduey also, amongst the 
Palentines, was called alker them ; although others 
think the name derived from the Greek, ardeuo, to 

Again, that from Spain, still in company with the 
Phoenicians, the Aradians had shifted acro^ to our 
coast, and there established a permanent coI(my, we 
may be assured, I think, from the names of the old 
-districts of Ard and Arad CUach, which comprise a 


great part of tke countjr Tippeisary ; as well as of 
the tract oi Ardes in tbe county Dawn ; and the 
citadel of Ai^d^i^ in the comdy Kerry.* I pass over 
tibe names of other towns^ beginnings liS^e the 
Spanish, from the word Ard, and still used popularly 
and v^nacukrly as thdr xmrrent designations in the 
Irish geography. 

That jA tribe of the Armenians, also, along with 
tibe Phoenicians, iiad ^riredip thus coiiuitry, may .!» 
inferred from ihe names of .C»iy Heek, a town on 
the sea coast of the baiony of Bakuddery, in Ae 
coanty Duhiin ; of Knordoe, a ioma in ihe ^county 
Galway; of Cahirdcmel, a village in the c(»inty 
Kerry, wheare are to be seenihe ruins dP an old df^ 
eidar fortress, almost irapregnaUyfbrtified^ and conr$ 

* lo the name of ,^is coynty we discover 4Jie commercial 
nation by whom it was first inhabited ; for Cearagh, its Irish 
name, is derived from cear, a mi»«faant; whence comes, ciara-^ 
ban, a company of merchants, equivalent to the eastern, cara- 
van, of the same signification. 

" O, natiye, (Kerry!) O, my mother isle! 
How shouldst thou prove anght else but dear and holy 
To me, who from thy lakes and mountain-hills. 
Thy clouds, thy qui^t dales, thy rocks and seas. 
Have drunk in all my intellectual life. 
All sweet sensations, all ennobling thoughts. 
All adoration of the God in nature. 
All lovely and all honourable things. 
Whatever makes this mortal spirit feel 
The joy and greatness of its future being." 



structed of stones truly wonderful in size ; of Cahir- 
dowgan and Cahirdriny^ which were camps or forts, 
in the- county Cork ; and of Cardangan, a small 
town in the county Tipperary. For Armenia was 
called hy the Phcenicians Cardu ; and an Armenian, 
Cardanun; whence Ptolemy calls the lofty mountains 
of this country Gordoi ; and Quintus Curtius, Cordei. 
That this Cardanian or Armenian people had 
seized themselves of Spain also, in conjunction with 
tiie Phoenicians, we have proof clearer than the 
moonlight, in numherless names of places in that 
country; for instance, Cardena* the name of a river 
of the Vaccei ; Cardenu, or Cardenus, a river of the 
Ilergetes, flowing into the Ruhricatum, now the 
Llohregat; Cardenas, a town of Cantahria ; Carden- 
chosa, a little village of Boetica ; Cardona, a very 
ancient city of the Ilergetes; with the towns of 
Cardenosa, Cardenete, Cardena, Cardenueta, &c. in 
di£ferent parts of the kingdom. 



The Attacoti, inhabitants of Ireland — Whether they were the 
Silures — Whether an ancient or modem people — Whether 
descended from Cuthah, a dty of the Persians — Vestiges of 
the Cutheans in Ireland, and in Spain, 

The Attacoti,* mentioned by St. Jerom as ancient 
inhabitants of Ireland^ gaye their name to the 
country, or rather province, of Attacottia, which the 

* Gibbon has giren a very strange perversion to a sentence 
in St. Jerom respecting the Attaootti, which runs thus : '* £t 
quum per sylvas porcorum greges et armcntorum pecudumque 
reperiunt^ pastorum nates et ferminarum papillas solere abscin- 
4«re, et has solas ciborum delicias arbitrari," — which the 
historian thus translates, ** I'hey curiously selected the most 
delicate and brawny parts of both males and females, which 
they prepared for their horrid repasts.'' But he was misled by 
the word pastorum, which is not the genitive plural of pastor, 
a shepherd, but of pastus, meaning well-fed ; and thus the 
sentence should be : *' When the Attacotti, wandering through 
the woods, meet with flocks and herds of black cattle, sheep, 
and pigs, they are in the habit of catting off the rumps of the 
fat or weiUfed he beasts, and the udders of the she ones ; and 
consider these as the only delicate parts of the animals." That 


Emperor Constantine^ from his own name, after- 
wards called Flavia Csesariensis. But as this people 
are not to be met with in Ptolemy's commentaries, 
Baxter has been induced to believe that the Silures, 
together with their dependants, the Demeti and 
Cornavii, and the Cangani, who were their vassals, 
again, had obtained this designation at a later period 
of the Roman empire. For what does Attacotti mean, 
he says, but, dwelling in the woods ? For At-a-coit, 
written loosdy,' means, in the woods. This he con- 
firms by Mtue verse from Coadeha, cAfled Prydydh 
Maus, or the great j^oe*; wheiicfe he Conjectures 
that the Irish Attacotti were named from tibe syno- 
nymous term Ai^goet, ivA Aigoetnys, meaning men 
bedde woods ; or, as the old Leoteatchus would take 
itiGuyrArgdet. The condition of the country, whidi 

this castom, barbarous and savage as it is, was frequent anoengst 
tlie ancieots is evident, from that text of scripture, which says : 
■^Neither shaUye eat any fieth that ii tarn of beasts m the afield. 
Mr. Bruce, the traveller, threw light upon this command^ by 
stating that this practice exists in Abyssinia, where pieces of 
flesh are cut out of the animab idive and eaten ; the creature 
being kept alive for further use. Tbb statement was long con* 
sidered as a traveller's exaggeration, but it has subsequently 
been found to be true. The prohibition might have a two-fold 
object, first, to prevent the imitation of the cruel practices of 
the heathen ; and, secondly, to prevent the light treatment of 
blood, when the blood which was the life of the beast was shed 
im the sacrifices, being emblematical of the blood of the 
covenant. — See Dr* J^ Clarhe* The Attacotti, however, were 
not Irish at all, but a canton of England. 


every one must be aware from the poem of Higdenus, 
to have been woody and micultivated^ even so late 
as the Norman times, agrees weU with this conjee: 
ture^ to which we must add Ammianus Marcellinus's 
testimony to the eflfect, that the Attacoti^ assisted by 
the Saxons, the Scots, and the Picts, had ravaged 
and laid waste the Roman province. 

I imagine, however, that ib^ix nation was more 
ancient ; and would be disposed to refer their arrival 
in this country to the times of the Phoenicians, whom 
It is more than probable the Chubei h^d accompanied 
in their maritime excursions* The Chutaei or Chuti 
were native? of Ifee cou»try of Persis, cftlled Guth, 
who after Oie dispewon of the ten tribes w^ere 
carried o^frpn^ Chuthah mA ^e otfaei: cities of that 
epapire, into Phrenic?, by (S^lftmanw, King of As- 
Syria; a»d theyapd their posterity were, for tiie most 
part, so called, because the greater immb^ (^ them 
ijirere from the city Chjjthajpi. R^ing intermixed with 
lie Phcpniciisuojs, th^y ptrodusf d ipto th^eir citief ilm 
worship of th^ i^ol J^ergel, wlddx many suppose to 
l^ve been^ t^wpgol^ J^h^t jysf, ^ dunghill Qock, wJucb 
they hiad perched, jjpop a ^l^ m jthe m^ «s the. 
herald of j;Jtie da,ynu The »^ord Attaeotti, thei^Qee, 
conveys to my ear the same idea as Atha-Chuthi 
did to the Phoenicians, and that is, the ^rival of the 
CutheaRs ; or tas Athar-CutM, a place or cmmtry 
where the Chutaeans reside ; or as Chutaei scouts. 


in keeping with the character of the people^ which 
Zosimus designates as a warlike nation. 

From the Attacotti would seem to have been de- 
rived Annacotty^ the name of a town in the county 
Limerick ; for Anna, in the Phoenician, hanna, means 
delightful, acceptable. This name, if we suppose it 
composed of the words Hanna-Chuttai, will mean, 
a place acceptable to the Phoenician Chutheans ; or 
if we suppose its component parts to have been 
Anakia-Chuti, it will then mean the ofl&pring of the 
PhcBuician Chutheans. Or, perhaps, it bears refer- 
ence to the idol Ana-Meloch, which the Phoenicians 
borrowed from the Chuthaeans and other Assyrians^ 
in which case you may render it by, the oracle of 
Moloch; — aonah or onah, being, an answer. On 
these points, however, let every one judge as he 
thinks fit. I volunteer my guesses, principally to 
elicit those of others. 

Before any such appear, perhaps the curious in 
antiquarian lore may recognise other vestiges of the 
Cuthaeans in the name. Cot's Rock, now Castlemary, 
in the county Cork, where is to be seen an immense 
stone altar, supported by three others. Inis Cathay, 
too, now Inis Scattery,* an island at the mouth of the 

' I ■ ■■ I I ——^—^—1— I ■! I ■ ! I II II H I I ■■!! ■■ I ■ ■ ■ » 

* Soattery island b about three miles from the shore, and 
contains about one hundred and eighty acres of choice land r 
a phory was founded here, by St. S6nnan, in the sixth century. 
It is recorded in St. Sennan^s life, that during his residence in 


river Shannon^ where there is still standings in toler^ 
able preservation^ one of the Round Towers in which 
this country abounds^ may seem a vestige of Cuthaean 
occupancy ; so may Cath^ also the name of a rock 
on the coast of the county Cork ; as well as Cotton^ 
an extensive district in the county Down ; and Cot* 
land^ a small town in the county Kildare. 

That the Phoenicians too, who had originally 
landed in Spain, had been Cliuthaeans, appears to be 
indicated by the name of Cotinussa, by which, as 
Festus Avienus and Pliny inform us, the island of 
Gades was once known ; by the names of the towns 
of Cuthar in Boetica; Cutanda and Cotanda in Cel- 

this island, which was then called lois Cathay, a ship arrived 
there, bringing iSfty monks, Romans by birth, who were drawn 
into Ireland by the denre of a more holy life and a Jmowledge 
of the scriptures. This island, called also Inisgatha or Inisga, 
the island in the sea, situated in the mouth of the Shannon, one 
of the most convenient harbors for the Danish and Norwegian 
invaders, who generally came north about round Scotland, was 
for a long time a bone of contention between them and the 
Irish ; uid from the multitude of those round forts, said to be 
thrown up by the Danes — though in reality they were erected 
long before their inroads — in the adjoining parishes in the west 
of Clare — it is likely that the Danes was strong in this quarter* 
From the Annals of Munster, Act 55, p. 542, we learn that in 
the year 975, Brien the ** Great," King of Munster, at the head 
of twelve hundred Dalgais troops, assisted by Doinnhall, King 
of Toanhuein, recovered the island of Iniscattery firom the 
Danes, by defeating Tomhar, the Norman, and his two sons, 
Ambliub and Duibheann. Eight hundred of the Danes, who 
fled thither for safety some time before, were slain in this battle. 


tiberia; Cotar and Cotillo in Cantabria; Cutian^ (two 
of samename) uiGallacia; and Cutialla^ an unmense 
rock of the Pyrenees. To these you may add the 
namefi of yariouist villas and villages in diff<^ent 
quarters of that country, such as Goto, Cueto, 
Cotanes, Cotarones, Cotovad, Cotolino, CotoriUoj 
&c. &c. 


The Druids^ Magicums and Soothsay ere-r' Whence named — 
The introducers of human immolation and human divination 
amongst the people of the Westf 

It is a^bmtted on all hands that the soothsayers 
and magicians, and as sudb— conformably to ancient 
custom^ — the magistrates of the ancient Britons 
and Gauls, had been called Druids in the British 
language.* We have the authority of Pliny for 

* Of all ^e ancieot heathen systems Qf religiQa, ithe Djrnid'* 
ical comes nearest to that of the C^Jrlhagenians ; h^ ib&a U 
wiU be naturally asked, how, or in whttt manner did the^MlcieoA 
Pritons beoome acquainted wMh die religion <^a ffee^file^ who. 


sUting, thai these had transmitted the sc^ce of 
the M agi^ or the art of Magic, to the Clmldeatis saxd 
Persians. Undoubtedly Orphaeua,* who waa one of 
their number^ taught music and theology to the 
Greeks.f The Gauls and the inhabitants of the 
British isles, had, as Caesar and Tacitus mform us, 
their own Druids. With both nations did the custraa 
of 8£tcrifici]ig human victims to their idols pverailf 
which Cicero and others record of the Gauls, m 
Pliny do^ of the Britons ; and perhaps it would not 

in poioi of locality I Were situated at arast disUMe Apom tkeat 
To a thioking person, this would afford much instrueuoo^ |>e<' 
cause it will serve to oonyince him, that the account of the 
dispersion of Noah's children, as related in 6^enesis x. is 
geiiuine ; and that all idolatry originated from the mistaken 
notions whidi men embrackl, after their dispersion oo the facso 
of the earth, when they yainly attempted to build the Tower 
of Babel. Lastly, the Carthagenians, or Phoeuicians, carried 
on a very extensive cdmmefc^ with the natives of Britain ; a 
dronitntAnce Which could not easily have tidcen place in those 
harbkrouii ages, unless their religions, manners, «id oustoms 
had nearly resembled each other* That they did so, we have 
many evidences remaining in Britain, particularly in Devon- 
shire and Comwiill ; and to support ^is assertion, we haye tli# 
testimony of die best €^reekand Romtn hiBtonaos* 

* We should observe that the ancient name for a harp» in 
Irish, is Orpheam, an evident derivation from this great musi- 
ckn^s oame. 

t Whilit thdr first taug^ cr^^ the mystkt tv philosophioal 
leligion of an earlier ige, «ame to them dinactly from India 
itself* And of this, Herodotus himself is the authority we 
choose to quote, who admits that the Grecian divinitied were 
partly Egyptian and partly Petogic^ 


be straining ^commentary too far if we would take 
the observation of Horace, where he calls the 
*^ Britons savage to strangers^ as allusive to the 
same ; for some persons suppose that they were in 
the habit of immolating strangers* which it is well 
known the inhabitants of the county of Taurus 
had practised without reserve. The Concani too, 
who were a part of the Cantabrians, as we have 
said above, residing in Hispania Tarraconensis, and 
a colony of the Massagetse, had soma things in 
common with the Sarmatians, Thracians, and Scy- 
thians, as £Eur as regards cruelty and beastly pro- 

The word Druid some would derive from the 
Celtico-Germanic, deruidhon, which means exceeding 
wise ; for, der^ or^ dre, in Celtic^ is the same as, deur 
or, door, in the German Celto-Scythic ; as are their 
compounds Druides and Deurwitten. Others choose 
to derive it from druis, which, both in the Celtic and 
German, is equivalent to trowis or truvis, that is, a 
teacher of truth and fitith. Others from the British 
and German, dru, faith ; by some called tru ; whence 
too, God was called by the antient Germans, Drutin 
or Trudin, as you may see in the gospel of Othfridus; 
Drudin, therefore, may signify either, divine or faith- 
ful; dther term being applicable to the priesthood. 
Others from the old British word, drus, a daemon or 
magician ; or the Saxon dry, an enchanter, whilst 
others, in fine, would derive it from the Greeks dxus. 


an oak, and that solely because of Pliny's remark, 
that ^^ they make choice of oak groves, neither do 
they celebrate any sacred rites without that tree, so 
much so that they may seem to have been thence 
denominated by a Greek derivation."* What Lucan 
says of them would seem to bear upon this, viz. 
*^ deep groves, in remote uncultivated forests." 
Whence the Greeks, by an old taunt, used to call 
them, Saronides, from the worship of old oaks, 
which that word originally and properly signified; 

They who hold out for the Celtic etymology say, 
tibat this explanation would be satisfactory enough, 
if the Gauls had received the Druids from the 
Massilienses, and they from the Phocenses. But 
tile Druids were unknown to the Greeks, so that we 
must look altogether for their origin in the Celtic, 
especially as it is supposed, on the authority of Csesar 
and Tacitus, that the Gauls had borrowed them from 
the British isles. 

Every one will doubtless judge for himself. To 
my ear the word soimds of a Syro-Chaldaic, or 
Phoenician descent, yet could I not dare to specify 

* In the Irish annals^ Magh, a Magian priest/ is sometimes 
put for Draoi, a Druid. The Druidicai religion was at first ex- 
tremely simple ; but such is the corruption of human nature, 
tfiat it was soon debased by abominable rites and ceremonies, 
in the same manner as was |n«ctised by the Canaanitesi the 
Carthagenians, and by all the heathens in the otheir parts of the 


its pjrecise jfigrilficatien* la the OPhoMMcian lang«ag©, 
dor4da mesms a progeny of wise men oir benefactiurs^ 
ot of sudi as hfltve the xAiavge ti the people ; dor4d> 
a powerfiil gei^ratioii ; dra4d, pow^fdi lords ; dfu* 
sin^ teadiers and instruet^s^ from the Angular drus 
w dras ; eadi and ail ist i^Hoh :wouM admirably ^-^ 
cof d with the established and well known Utarature of 
the Irish Druids^^as weUi» their power and kfluonce 
amongst barbar^iM nations, stmk invke and damted 
to the worsMp of idols. Dmr ^r dveur^ also^ w 
that language, means eKemptioR £rom work ttf ser- 
vitude ; freedom from debt «v dtffiaad., Sst. Aundme 
kBovr that Csesar has dedared vi titee Dniids, ^rthat 
they do »ot pay tribute in common ^with oAets, 
haying exoD^ML feom war, as wcfl us immanijCy 
from every other demand*'* I am not^o vain, hamf- 
evar, as to Ihiid: that I have akogeli^r tin ddus 
partiodar li& upon die truili« Msotkind axeliadde 

* The Scoto-BlUesiaiis, ifree an4 incle|)eaden(y Uv^d wiitu^ 
tbemselveSy and were separated by their insular situa^qn, froiii 
the rest of the i;w>rM; whilst ihe Britons^ere staves, irftmftled 
upon by a foreign power^ and often harass^ by the Picts and 
Scots. The Scoto-Milesians held a superiority over them in 
CT-efy thMig: 4hey made w«r.updatliiem-. fin ifdiciri own. country ; 
Uroy earned -away prito«ero; laiid in <fiiM mej» a lelilenBd 
people^ wMdi caanot be said of the Bfitoo& Shall tt be^dlMHi 
preteod«d^ that, ^leoauae diere were the lime of Gildaib 
aay hbtoodcal UKuraments ft«M»tf the ifedtons, the MJ^bouriag 
•atioBs Joust have beea also wkbotit aoyP The iajfiaraieefe 
cannot appear to be a just one. — Mac Geoghegan. 

^-^^ 1 


to err in these matters, but I am greatly deceived, 
if I am not far less distant from the truth than they 
who, in the fondness of their zeal, would boast of 
their success in extracting this and other names from 
the Celtic language, or that of the old Britons and 

That from the Druids, as Well as from the other 
sacrificial forms of the Phoenicians and other nat^ns, 
was introduced into Spain and Gaul, and the 
British isl«ids, the barbarous custom of human 
immolation, called anthropothysia, togeth^ with 

* Tartars, who, in Isbraod's account of them, are caUed 
Daores, and who are a branch of the Orientals, assemble 
Ibenselves together «t midiiigbt, botii m^n and women, in 
some oomm«dioas place, where one of them fialls prostrate «« 
the groinndy«ndr€»maiBB stretched out at his Ml length, whilst, 
the whole cabal make '& hideous outcry to the ^leful somid of 
a dmni, made on purpote fw the c^bration of that pSiPtieirfac 
e&retamji Attiie expiration of two bouts, or thereabouts, Ibe 
person thus extended, rises w it were in an oestasy, and ee«i- 
mnBioales kem Ywkms io the ^oie atfBembty. He is petfeo^ 
apprized during his trance, ^^iHiat mfisibrtenes will befall ikU 
mki, and what undertakings tkmt man will engage in with 
mecess. Each wcwd he utters is listened to with the utmost 
a^oftioB, and is deemed as saered as that ofan- oraole. AH 
their religious worship, however, does «ot afasolotely consist 
in this; for they have their particular sacrifioes ae well as 
o&ers. There is a small mountain on ^e frontiers of China, 
whldi is looked upon as holy iground, and tlie eaMern Tairtars 
iakagine l^ir j^burm^ will prove unsuccessful, if, as they pass 
by, Ihey neglect to consecrate some part of their apparel to this 
sftored mountain. 


that of human divmation, called anthropomanteia, 
is a question that no one can contravene. Diodorus 
Siculus speaking of them says, *^ Whenever they 
deliberate upon matters of importance, they observe 
a wonderfiil and almost incredible custom : for they 
sacrifice a man, and from some old established ob- 
servation upon matters, afiPect to know the future by 
the circumstances of his fall, whether it be from some 
accident, or the laceration of his limbs, or the flow 
of his blood." Tacitus, too, says, ^' the Druids held 
it lawful to ofiPer upon the altars the blood of their 
captives, and dive into futurity by the fibres of 
human victims."* This custom the Spaniards observed, 

* Wbeo the lights, after being just taken out, were found 
still panting, it was looked upon to be so happy an omen, that 
all other presages were considered as indifferent or of no con- 
sequence ; because, said they, this alone sufficed to make them 
propitious, how unhappy soever they might be. After they had 
taken out the harslet, they blew up the blackier with their 
breath, then tied it up at the end, or squeezed it close with 
their hands, observing at the same time how the passages, 
through which the air enters into the lungs, and the small veins 
which are generaly found there, were swelled; because the 
more they were inflated, the more the omen was propitious. 
They also observed several other particulars, which it would be 
a difficult matter for us to relate. 

They looked upon it as an ill omen, if while they were rip- 
ping up the beast's side, it rose up and escaped out of the 
hands of those who held it down, and they also looked upon 
it as ill boding, if the bladder, which generally joins to the 
harslet, happened to break, and had thereby prevented the 
taking it out entire ; or if the lights were torn, or the heart 
putrified, and so on. 


having borrowed it, no doubt, from them or some 
others of the Phoenician priesthood. '' The Lusitani," 
says Strabo, '^ study immolation, and inspect the en- 
trails of their victims before they have been cut out : 
they also examine the veins of the sides, and pretend 
to divination by touching. Nay, they prophesy also 
from the entrails of their captives, first covering 
them over with thick cloths ; when thus, from be- 
neath, a pulsation can be distinguished, the soothsayer 
instantly predicts from the body of the slain. They 
cut off the right hands of the prisoners of war, and 
consecrate them to the gods." 

The same Diodorus Siculus says, that the Druids 
had a custom '^of offering no sacrifice without a 
philosopher to ofiiciate : for they thought that sacred 
rites should be performed only by men conscious of 
the divine nature, and as such in a near relation 
to the gods."* They attended also at the sacrijices 

** Some of their priests were extremely ingenious, and made 
amulets, or rings of glass, variegated in the most curious 
manner, of which many are still to be seen. They were worn 
as we do rings on the finger ; and having been consecrated by 
one of the Druids, they were considered as charms, or pre- 
servatives against witchpraft, or all the machinations of evil 
spirits. From what remains of these amulets, or rings, they 
seem to have been extremely beautiful, composed of blue, red, 
and green, intermixed with white spots ; all of which contained 
something emblematical, either of the life of the persons who 
wore them, or of the state to which they were supposed tQ 


of the Gauls, at which, Tertullian tells jus, they were 
in the habit of oflFering human victims to Mercury. 
And Menutius Felii says, ** the Gauls slay human, 
or rather, inhuman, victims.** Strabo, speaking of 
their sacrifices, which had been invented, or at least 
patronized, by the Druids, says, *' they used in their 
sacred offices to pierce some individuals to death by 
arrows, or else crucify them ; or having reared up a 
pillar of hay and stuck a wooden pole therein, they 
used to bum cattle and animals of every description, 
nay, men themselves, whole and unmutilated." And 
Diodorus Siculus, ^'criminals kept for five years, 
they nail to the stakes, and sacrifice to the gods, and 
with other first fruits, immolate over immense funeral 
piles."* Which practices, as well as the others apper- 
taining to idolatrous ritual, were common to the 
Spaniards and Britons, and its various Celtic tribes. 
But as the first Druids were, in my opinion, the 
sacrificing priests of the Phoenicians, it is very likely 
that they borrowed this bloody and atrocious super- 
stition from the Phoenicians, of whom Porphyry says, 

* And barbarous indeed was the manner in which it was 
done : the victini, stripped naked, and his head adorned with 
flowers, was chained with his back to an oak, opposite the 
place where the Arch-Druid stood ; and while music of all 
sorts, then in use, was playing, the Druid, having invoked the 
gods to accept of the sacrifice, walked forward with a knife in i 

his hand, and stabbed the victim in the bowels. The music pre- 
vented his cries from being heard by the people ; it was some- 
times four or five hours before he expired. 


*' the Phoenicians used to sacrifice on occasions of 
great calamity — whether of war, of draught, or of 
pestilence — some certain one of their dearest friends, 
appointed for this purpose by common suffrage/* 
And Eusebius : " The Phoenicians used yearly to 
sacrifice their most beloved friends, nay, their only 
sons." What wonder is it then that the greater part 
of the religions of the barbarians should have at 
length accorded with the Phoenicians in this human 
immolation, finding it an easy transition, from so- 
crifice to malefice, from piety to enormity , from the 
blood of victims to the murder of man? a thing not 
only savage and revolting in the act, but monstrous 
and horrible even in idea ! The Thessalians we find 
used annually to sacrifice a man to Peleus and 
Chiron ; so used the Scythians foreigners to Diana. 
As the Syrians used to slay a virgin annually in 
honor of Pallas, so used the Arabians a boy. The 
Ciuretes, like the Phoenicians, used to sacrifice some 
of their children to Saturn ; the Lacedemonians, a 
man to Saturn ; the Chians, another to Bacchus ; 
the Salaminians, another to Diomed ; and the Rho- 
dians, another to Saturn ;* whilst the Phrigians, in 

* Saturn was the deity whom the Carthagenians principally 
worshipped ; and he was the same with what is called Moloch 
in Scripture. This idol was the deity to whom they offered up 
human sacrifices, and to this we owe the fable of Saturn's 
having devoured his own children. Princes and great men, 
under particular calamities, used to offer up their most beloved 

s 2 


the heat of their superstitious zeal, used miserably 
to burn and sacrifice themselves to the great mother, 
Cibele. The Greeks, before setting out upon any 
military expedition, used to sacrifice a life, thereby 
making their devotion towards the gods to wreak its 
vengeance upon themselves. The Athenians, oppress- 
ed by a frightful famine on account of the assassination 
of Androgeos, consulted the oracle ; when they got fcwr 
their reply, that they must send fourteen souls every 
year to Crete for sacrifice. The Italians themselves 
used to sacrifice every tenth man, or the tithe of 
their population, to Apollo and Juno. But I grow 
sick of the recital, and shall leave this unnatural and 
impious superstition to the merited lamentations of 
Lactantius and Tertullian.* 

children to this idol. Private persons imitated the conduct of 
their princes ; and thus, in time, the practice became general ; 
nay, to such a height did they carry their infatuation , that those 
who had no children of their own, purchased those of the poor« 
that they might not be deprived of the benefits of such a sacri- 
fice, which was to procure them the completion of theii^ wishes. 
This horrid custom prevailed long among the Phcenicians, the 
Tyrians, and the Carthagenians, and from them the Israelites 
borrowed it, although expressly contrary to the order of God. 

* The ancient idolaters of Peru offered not only the fruits of 
the earth and animals to these gods, but also their captives, like 
the rest of the Americans. We are assured, that they used to 
sacrifice their own children, whenever there was a scarcity of 
victims. These sacrifices were performed by cntting open the 
victims alive, and afterwards tearing out their hearts ; they then 
smeared the idol, to whom they were sacrificing, with the blood 

.— ■ -,— p-r— p_^j,.p.p-^-jn.f p y — : ■ -| 


It was chiefly on account of these human sacrifices 
that Augustus Caesar interdicted to his subjects the 
introduction of the Diruidical religion. Tiberius re- 
moved it from the city ; and Claudius abolished it 
in the Gauls themselves. Yet have we the lament- 
able truth to record, that this cruel rite was again 
revived and perpetuated, at a subsequent period, in 
Gaul and elsewhere, as Lampridius, Vopiscus, and 
Eusebius, but too mournfiilly testify.* 

Some Spaniards suppose that vestiges of the 
Druids of that Peninsula are still preserved, in the 
depraved names of Drada and Dradas, which are 
small towns belonging to the ancient Lusitania, 
which became afterwards the jurisdiction of the 

yet reeking, as was the custom of Mexico. The priest burnt 
the yietim's heart, after having viewed it in order to see whether 
the sacrifice would be agreeable to the idol. Some other idol- 
ators offered their own blood to their deities, which they drew 
from their arms and thighs, according as the sacrifice was mcnre 
or less solemn ; and they even ased. on extraordinary occasions, 
to let themselves blood at the tips of their nostrils, or between 
the eye-brows. We are however to observe, that these kinds 
of bleeding were not always an act of religious worship, but 
were often employed purely to prevent diseases. — Hurd. 

* No idolatrous worship ever attained such an ascendant over 
mankind as that of the ancient Gauls and Britons ; and the 
Romans, after their conquest, finding it impossible to reconcile 
those nations to the laws and institutions of their masters, were 
at last obliged to abolish the Druidical' system by penal statutes 
a violence which had never, in any other instance, been prac- 
tised by those tolerating conquerors." — Burners EngL L 5. 


Suevi^ as it is now of the Lucani, in the district of 
Gallacia. They also suppose that Adrada and 
Adrades, the names of two towns belonging to tlie 
Vaccaei, allude to the same ; as also Adrados, the 
name of two villages in the country of the Astures, 
&c. &c * 

* Some traces of the Druidical religion remained in Gaul 
and Germany, till the time of the Emperor Constantine Uie 
Great ; but in that part of Britain, now called England, it was 
totally suppressed, in consequence of the following incident In 
or about the year 62, the Romans having cruelly oppressed the 
Britons, who were at that time subject tb them by conquest, 
tlie latter took up arms, and massacred many of their invadjcrs. 
News of this having been sent to Rome, Seutonius, a gallant 
commander, was sent over to Britain, in order to subdue the 
insurgents, and the whole body of the Druids, <;alling in the aid of 
superstition, retired to the island of Mona, since called Angle- 
sey, in North Wales. To that island the Roman general pur- 
sued them ; and such were the hopes that the Druids had of 
success, that when the Romans made tiieir appearance, they 
lighted up fires in their groves, in order to consume them^ The 
Romaod, however, put most of the Britons to the sword ; and 
having taken the Druids priisonens, burnt diem aliVe on their 
altars, and cut down their consecrated groves. From that time 
we have but few accounts of tiie Druids in the southern parts of 
Britain, although there is the strongest reason to believe, that 
both in the western parts, and likewise in Ireland, ttieir religion 
eontinued much longer. — HurcL 

• f i. 



The Phosnicians initiated the Samothracians in the discipline of 
idols — They also introduced it into Ireland-^ Astaroth^ a 
Phcenician idol — Vestiges of its worship in Ireland and in 

Thus far have we seen all that is worthy of being 
known respecting the ancient manners of the early 
inhabitants of Ireland. Now lest imy one should 
itnagine that I have been induced^ fronv the mere 
circumstance of the derivation of these' names^ to 
infer the possession of this island^ as^ well in length 
as in breadth^ from coast to coast> at one time by 
the I^oenicians^ I shall endeavoiur ta construct my 
theory still more secure, by the idol worship which 
anciently prevailed amongst us, and which was the 
same as originally obtained amongst the Phoenicians> 
from whom, doubtless, we have adopted it* In sup* 
port of this I shall adduce, first, the authority of 
Artemidorus, who says that " there is an island near 
Britain,in which sacrifices used to be offered toCeres* 

* Prima Ceres ferro mortales vertere terram, instituit.— Virg. 
Oeor, i. 7. 


and to Proserpine, in the same manner as in Samo- 
thrace." " Nor is there any reason/' adds Bochart, 
" that any one should think its inhabitants had the 
Greeks as their instructors at the time of Artemido- 
rus, who wrote in the reign of Ptolemy Latyrus : 
the learned know well that no Greek ever landed in 
Britain : it remains, therefore, that those same 
PhoEJnicians, from whom the Samothracians had 
learned the worship of the Cabiri, had initiated 
those also in the same discipline.'* In like manner, 
are we furnished with proofs — as well from other 
memorials as from certain terms used by the Irish 
people, which savor strongly of the idolatrous ritual 
— that they had instructed in the principles of their 
superstition not only the Irish, but the Spaniards too, 
and every other people amongst whom they could get 
footing as a colony^ 

To begin with Astarte or Astaroth, the deity of 
the Phoenicians, and the groves dedicated to her, 
we may observe the evidence of her having been 
worshipped in Ireland, in the name of that town 
in the county Donegal, by the river Erne, called 
Astroth, or, otherwise, Ashro ; in Ardsrath or Ard- 
stra, the name of a town by the river Deirg, in the 
county Antrim, now called Bathlure ; in Aterit, the 
name of an ancient district and borough in the 
county Galway, now called Athenry or Atenree. 

For Ashro is the Phoenician word, Ashra, a grove 
or shrubbery that is worshipped ; or a tree planted 


in honor of some idol beside his shrine or altar ; for 
the Phoenicians, like the other idolators of the east, 
were wont to plant a tree by the temples or altars of 
their divinities, as a meeting-place for the congre- 
gation ; a custom which, perhaps, had its rise from 
the similar one universally observed by the easterns, 
of planting trees over the graves of their illustrious 
men or heroes.* A specimen of this custom we still see 
in the linden or elm trees planted over ancient ceme- 
tries^. Spain, too, has to this day, in the district of 
Cantabria, a celebrated tree of this sort, which they 
call, de Garnica ; imder the branches of which, from 
the earliest date, the people have been accustomed 
to celebrate their general elections. 

That the idolators used to worship a tree situated 
in the centre of a garden may be inferred from the 
sixty-seventh chapter, and seventeenth verse of Isaiah. 
Holy writ speaks in more places than one, of woods 
or groves consecrated to Baal, a superstition which 
the Lord prohibited to Israel. The people, however, 
forgetting the Lord their God, are said afterwards to 
have worshipped Baalim and Ashroth or Asheroth, 
that is his groves. Which observance the Greeks and 
Romans in after times adopted. The Galli Narbonen- 

* Super tumulum Iddo^ propfaetae, qui sepaltus est in urbe 
Phcenicum Dan juxta fontem fluminis lor-Dan (fluvius Dan) 
abor magna botam (terebintbus) coUocata est. Ibidem tuinula- 
tus est SaJmel, Moysis ex Geison nepos ; et super eo arbor 
magna Sagadian. Y. Schindl. loc, laud, col. 378. 


ses^ who were called Massilii, that is^ the mhabitants of 
Marseilles, used to adore their gods in woods; or in 
other words^ used to consider as gods the trunks of 
their trees ; an usage from which the Scythians, the 
Persians, and the Lybians did not differ nmch, who 
at a time when they had neither likenesses nor 
images, began afterwards to worship idols in woods. 
Unquestionably Jupiter was called Endendros by the 
Rhodians, as was Bacchus by the Boetians, from 
then- being worshipped m groves, as this epithet 
signifies. Diana, too, was called Nemorensis, or 
presiding over groves, as she was also Arduenra, and 
the Albunean goddess, from a grove and forest of 
those respective names. Conformable to this is what 
we read of King Manasses, namely, that he laid 
down in tiie temple of the Lord, pesel hasherah, or 
ashrah, the idol of the grove. 

The first king who is recorded to have consecrated 
a grove under that name is Achab. What follows is in 
keeping mth this, viz. *' And they made themselves 
statues and groves in every high hill, and under every 
shady forest.'* But why under every leafy oak they 
burned fragrant incense to all their idols may be in- 
ferred from Hosea, iv. 13, wherQ it is said they did 
so " because its shade h good.'* It will be enough for 
our purpose merely to hint that the oak to which the 
worship was offered, is understood by Salomon Jarchi 
as the word Asherah, which signifies an oak grove ; 
and that from it seems to be taken the sense of that 


passage in Isaiah, Ivii. 5, " Ye comfort yourselves 
with your gods under every green tree ;" the Hebrew 
text has elim, which the Septuagint and English 
versions render by idols. They, therefore, who 
understand by those scripture texts, not the real 
trees, but the idols consecrated by that name, bring 
forward m proof of this acceptation the lofty oaJc, 
which Maxhnus Tyrius assures us, had been a statue 
of tihe Celtic Jove. 

And, indeed, that Asharah means not a place 
planted with trees, as Flavins Josephus supposes, 
but actually a deity, or rather a false god, may be 
concluded from the fact of King Manasses having 
placed an idol of that name, and that too of wood, 
in the temple of Jerusalem. Whence, perhaps, by 
the terms oak and grove, is intended a reproach 
upon their fictitious, fragile, and perishable divinities ; 
as we find it to have been burned by King Josias, 
and ground to dust and then flung over the groves 
of the populace. In other places, also, the word 
Asherath or grove, is taken for the wooden image of 
Belus, which was consecrated above his altar. Wa 
likewise frequently m6et with images dedicated to 
Astarte or Astaroth, called Asherim and Asheroth, or 
groves ; that, both, an attention may be enlisted by 
the allusion of the name, and a material so inade- 
quate to divinity find that merited reproach which 
the very sound must convey. All our conjectures 
about Ashros I wish to be understood as equally 


applicable to Easroe and Easruadh^ being but inflec- 
tions of this word, and names of two towns m this 

With this accord the depraved names of Astrath, 
and of the village Ardsrath, that is the idol which 
was worshipped there, called Astaroth or Astareth, 
or Astrath, being an image of the Sidoniansy respect- 
ing which the scripture says, "that the people of 
Israel had forsaken the Lord and worshipped Baal 
and Astaroth ;" for these were the supreme, not to 
say the only deities of the Sidonians, by the former 
of wluch they understood the sun, by the other the 
moon or the earth.* Whence some herietics, by 
reason of its being common to all men to receive 
their vital heat from the sun and heaven, and their 
grosser matter from the terraqueous globe, over 
which, and more particularly over its watery compo- 
nent, the moon exercises dominion, have specially 
attributed this to Melchisedec^f whose father they 


This idolatry was founded on a mistaken notion of grati- 
tude, which instead of ascending up to the Supreme Being, stopt 
short at the veil, which both covered and discovered him: — 
*' Ah !• how basely men their honours use, 
And the rich gifts of bounteous heaven abuse : 
How better far to want immoderate store 
Of worldly wealth, and live serenely poor ; 
To spend in peace and solitude our days, 
Than be seduc'd from sacred virtue's ways." 

MitchelVs Jonah. 
t He appears to have been a real personage. He had pre- 
served in his family and among his subjects the worship of the 


state to be Heracles^ or the sun^ and his mother 
Astharte, that is the moon or Tellus. Nor would 
they have done so, but that his parents were not 

We see, then, that the idol Astrath or Astharoth, 
was also called Astharte, of which Lucian of Samo- 
sata thus speaks : " Now there is another temple in 
Phoenicia which the Sidonians have, and by name 
Astharte as they themselves call it ; but I consider 
Astharte to be the moon." Whence Eusebius hands 
down from Philo, that Astharte had the head of a 
bull placed upon her own as the ensign of royalty ; that 
by his curved front he may imitate fire, and exhibit 
at the same time the appearance of the moon. Nor 
can we conceive any more appropriate symbol of the 
moon than an ox's head, representing as it does by 
its horns the moon's curvature ; as the Egyptian Isis; 
— by which likewise was meant the moon — was in- 
vested by that people with a pair of horns. All which 
characteristics clearly accord with the Diana of the 
Greeks and Latins, whom Horace designates as 

true God, and the primitive patriarchal institutiona ; by these 
the father of every family was both king and priest. By Salem 
most judicious ioterpreters allow that Jerusalem is meant. From 
the use made of this part of the sacred history by David, (Psa. 
ex. 4,) and by St. Paul, (Heb. vii. 1—10,) we learn that there 
was something very mysterious, and at the same time typical, 
in the person, name, office, residence, and government of this 
Canaanitish prince. 


*' mistress of the woods." Whence it is evident that 
Astharte is the moon or Diana ; groves having been 
consecrated to her, as Vossius and others have de- 
monstrated. From Astharte the septuagint has 
given the name of, Astarteion, to the temple of As- 
tharoth or Beth Astaroth; where the Palestines* 
deposited or consecrated the arms of Saul, whom 
they slew. You also meet Astartion in f'lavius 

There are those who maintain that Astaroth or 
Astharte was so called, from its images having been 
made in the form of a sheep, and considering Aster- 
oth to mean, flocks. Others suspect it was so named 
from the multitude of its victims. Others considered 
Astharte to be Venus, whom Procopius, of Gaza, 
asserts to have been worshipped by the Sidonians, 
* and to have had groves planted in honor of her. 

* The appellation of Palestine, by which the whole land of 
Canaan appears to have been called in the days of Moses, is 
derived from the Philistines^ a people who migrated from 
Egypt, and, haying expelled the aboriginal inhabitants, settled 
on the borders of the Mediterranean ; where they became so 
considerable as to give their name to the whole country, 
though they in fact, possessed only a small part of it. The 
Philistines were for a long time the most formidable enemies 
of the children of Israel, but about the year of the world 3841, 
that is, before Christ 159, the illustrious Judas Maccabeus 
subdued their country ; and about sixty-five years afterwards 
Jannasus burnt their city Gaza, and incorporated the remnant 
of the Philistines with such Jews as he placed in their country. 

Hartwell Home, 




And here I may be allowed^ in passing, to remark 
that Herodian has inconsiderately and ill-advisedly 
asserted^ that«the Phoenicians had no images of thmr 
deities ; what he and Strabo have also said of the 
ambient Persians^ as Lucian has of the Egyptians. 
This has led some to, conclude that the GanH too, 
and the Britons made no use of idols in their Druid- 
ical ceremonies; and hence that it was not to be 
wondered at that none were ever found in the ruins 
of their old temples throughout this island. But it 
is manifest from Holy writ, that the Phoenicians had 
Baal, and Astharoth, and JMoloch, and other like- 
nesses of their deities, for idols. ^That the ancient 
Irish worshipped idols will appear equally evident 
from what Diodorus Siculus tells ns of the *' Hyper- 
borean" island, '^ Where/' he says, " peculiar worship 
is paid to Apollo, whom they worship every day with 
incessant singing of praises,* and in honor of whom 

* One would suppose that the most ancieot sort of poetry 
consisted in praising the Deity ; for, if we conceive a being, 
created with all his faculties and senses, endued with speech 
and reason, to open his eyes in a most delightful plain, to view 
for the first time the serenity of the sky, the splendor of the 
sun, the verdure of the fields and woods^ the glowing colours 
of the fldwers, we can hardly believe it possible that he should 
refrain from bursting in an ecstacy oi joy^ and pouring his 
praises to the creator of those wonders, and the author of his 
happiness. This kind of poetry is used in all nations ; but, as 
it is the sublimest of all, when it is applied to i(s true object, so 
it has often been perverted to impious purposes by pagans and 


there is there a magnificent grove and a splendid 
temple, of circular form.*** And a comparison of ihe 
original, in its several descriptive points, will prove 
beyond the possibility of doubt, that by this island 
was meant our own green Ireland,f as Dalton has 
before affirmed. But, more than abundant on this 

idolaters : every one knows that the dramatic poetry of the 
Europeans took its rise from the same spring, and was no mone 
at first than a song tn praise of Baccktis; so that the only 
species of poetical composition, (if we except the epic,) which 
can in any sense be called imitative, was deduced from a 
natural emotion of the mind, 4a which imitation could not be at 
all concerned. — Sir W.Jones, 

* These are the " Round Towers,'' or, to speak correctly, 
our Budhist Temples, as I have proved in my '* Essay :" 

: Divine 

And beauteous island ! thou hast been my sole 
And most magnificent temple, in the which 
I walk with awe, and sing my stately songs, 
Loving the God that made me ! 

f " Although,'* says Sir John Carr, " the Welsh have been 
for ages celebrated for the boldness and sweetness of their 
Music, yet it appears that they were much indebted to the 
superior musical talents of their neighbours, the Irish. The 
learned Selden asserts, that the Welsh music, for the most 
part, came out of Ireland with Gruffydh ap Conan, Prince of 
North Wales, who was cotemporary with King Stephen. " I 
am delighted,'* adds the elegant author of Julia de Roubigni, 
'< with those ancient national songs, because there is a simpli- 
city and an expression in them, which I can understand. 
Adepts in music are pleased with more intricate compositions, 
and they talk mdre of the pleasure, than they feel ; and others 
talk after them, without feeling at all. 


head will be the testimony of St. Patrick,* whom we 
find continually and keenly reproving the adorers of 
the sun^ whom he fomid before him in this country, — 
grieving from his soul that the Irish could, to that 
day, continue in the worship of ridiculous idols. 

As, therefore, the Iberes in Spain worshipped after 
the PhcEnician fashion, the sun and moon, under the 
guise of Baal and Astharoth, so did the Irish embrace 
the same superstitions from the Ibero^Phoenicians, as 
well as the worship of those images that prevailed 
amongst them. Nor is it to be wondered at, if, in the 
old walls of those temples — which Ireland still pre- 
serves, despite the ravages of time — there are no such 
hnages as those to be met with, as I am perfectly as- 
sured that St. Patrick and the other preachers of the 
gospel, took particular care to overthrow, — to extir- 
pate, and,like Josias, to burn, — every vestige of an idol 
that came in their way or could possibly be met with. 
This I can more immediately testify with respect to 
Spain, where no appearance of the like is to be found, 
by digging beneath the rubbish of old castles or towns ; 

* S. EleraDus sapiens in Viia S. Patricu n. LIII. narrat 
beatum hunc episcopum, in loco ubi est hodi^ Ecclesia S. Pa- 
triciiyquse Scotic^ Domnach Padruic vocaturyinvenisse idolum 
SUcht (vel in campo Slecht) auro et argento ornatum ; et 12 si- 
mulachra asrea hinc et inde erga idolum posita. *' Rex autem, 
addit et omnis populus hoc idolum adorabant, in quo d«mon 
pessimus latitabat." — Colgan. 


though it is a well known fact that idolatry flourished 
there, in allits varieties, of Phoenician, Celtic^ Grecian, 
and Roman forms. I will instance the town of 
Gades, in which Philostratus bears record there were 
deities worshipped that were scarc^ely elsewhere 
known or heard of. (Elian tells us that it had one 
altar sacred to the year, and another to the month, in 
honor of time, of those respective durations. There, 
too, poverty had an altar, as wdil as art and old 
age ; and death also, which, as Philostratus tells us, 
they used to celebrate with songs of joy ; unless, 
perhaps, by death we are to understand, Pluto; whom 
it is well known, from Sandioniathon, that the Phoe- 
nicians used to call Muth, which means death. But 
to return from this digression. 

Nor ought we to wonder that the Phoen^ans 
shcmld have nsoned those towns in Ireland after 
their idol Astharoth, or Astharte, and the groires 
consecrated thereto; for there was a city also of 
the nsune in Phoenicia, the royal resid^ice of (^ 
king of Basan, in which the iBodem Jews will have 
it, that the house of Job was situated. We have, 
however already proved, and without the possi- 
bility of doubt, from the ancient geography of 
Spain, that several of its towns and villages, as well 
as also its distinguished cities, have been named 
from tte groves, or mountains, or caves wherein 
ihey used to o£fer their devotions ; as well as from Hie 
idols themselves to whom they used to offer them. 


To these I add the example of the name Astarte,* 
or Astharoth, at present mider discussion ; for it is 
to me unquestionable^ that^ from the worship of this 
idol^ arose the names of the Spanish villages of As- 
trar, amongst the ancient Suevi^ in the department 
of Compostella ; Asteire, in the Lucanian territory ; 
Astariz, in the Ariensian tract; with the town of 
Astrain^ and the deserted and almost ruinated little 
village of Astrea amongst the Cantabrians. Nor 
should I think those to be far :^tray, who — merely 
e^pwglpg the initial letter, ^ is usuM in other geo- 
graphioal names of Spainr-eoneeive that, from the 
idol Asthartes, originated the name of Tartessus^f the 
most ancient city which the Phoenicians bui}t ^f^eax 
Calpe and the pillars of Hercules. This I beg leave 
to say with aU deference to the authority of the 
ppets of Sp^in^ wl^o, with Ovid at their head, insist 
tl^ 7arte$£iH8 k the ^:^treme sacticm <rf the west, and 
who l^mk it ao called from the river Tartessus, whose 
90iHrce is i^ the silver mountain of Oros^pedda, which 
oboiH^ in nuQes of th^t m^;al ; or whose sidei^ sBf 
^Jf beiQg overlaid with tin, exhibit the appearance 
«f S9 mitich i^lver. 

\ f • - I ' 

^ A$loref thai word of bland eftdearmeot and familiar con- 
I^e W<Wg^ ^ n^tiiKe lm\t, ii^f^yipg, «^ r^g^t ddighi, 
is an evident ema,natiQn from tl^is^ Astart^ o,r J^upar Gq^d^. 

t Sic k Emeritd, expunct^ priore syllabi, dicimus Mejrida : 
k €}ce9araugu8t&f Zaragoza: k Vico Ausenae, Vic. Inuumera 

T 2 



Vestiges both in Ireland and Sp<Min of tke worship of Molochy 
the idol of the Phoenicians-^-' Various names thereof — Des^ 
cripHon of it — The name of God attributed to the deities of 
the Gentiles — The Syrians used to sacrifce their sons and 
daughters to Moloch — What meant by bearing over across 
the fire — The horrible practice, of burning alive , spread from 
Syria into other nations. 

Of Moloch too, the Phoenician deity, as there 
would seem to be some traces of his worship still 
remsuning amongst the Spaniards, evidenced in the 
name of Malaca, a maritime town in the province of 
Boetica ; and Malagon, or Malgon, a town of the 
Artabri, so here would the name of Ard-Mulchan, a 
town in the barony of Duleek, county Meath, seem 
to prove itsexistence amongst the ancient Irish ; as 
would also another town of the same name in the ba- 
rony of Skreen ; Macroon, a town in the barony 
of Bantry, coimty Cork ; Meeliok, a town in the ba- 
rony of Bunratty^ county Clare ; Melick, a small town 
in the barony of Gallen, county Mayo ; Melches- 
town, a village in the barony of Moygeesh, county 



Westmeath; Melcombe^ a town in the barony of 
Canagh^ county Mayo ; Malco^ a lake in the county 
Mayo ; and Melogh^ a river, in the county Down, with 
numberless others ; all of which, until undeceived by 
some other more convincing authority, I shall con- 
tinue to derive from various inflexions of Ihe word 
Moloch, whibh the Phoenicians themselves used some- 
times to pronounce, Molech ; and, with the initial 
letter repeated at the end, Milcom, and in the Sy- 
rian vulgate, Malcum. But the place wherein this 
idol's sacrifices used to be performed, was called 
Malken, or Malaken. 

Molock, or Milcom was eiqpressly the deity of the 
Ammonites, amongst whom he had a temple in the 
city of Gebal, and in it an image of stone, overlaid 
with gold, and seated upon a throne ; on either side 
of him were two female images, also seated, and in 
front an altar, whereon the sacrifices and incense 
used to be offered up. But the Assyrians, who had 
been carried away into Samaria, had other idols of 
Moloch, which they called Adra-Melech and Ana- 
Melech, that is, the brave and magnificent Moloch ; 
for adir, which is one of the attributes of the deity, 
signifies great, powerfu], excellent, or magnificent. 
And no wonder, for as the Chaldee paraphrast, com- 
monly known under the disgm^se of Jonathan, ob- 
serves, ^^ the Gentiles called their idols after the name 
of theLord Jdiovah." Which is the opinicm of several 
of the Hebrews ^' conceiving,** as St. Jerome says. 


*' that their idols were made itt the tiame dF the 
Lordj and after lus likeness. Let the learned judg^^ 
whethet or not, the town of Ai?d Miilchan in this 
island, had not been so called frota the name of the 
idol Adra Malcum. 

Moloch was ^represented with the fece cf a calf, 
having his hands stretdied out ready to f eceive any- 
thing offered by the bystanders •, it was a Concave 
image, with seven dbtinct comj)arteiettts ; one they 
used to open ftw oflfelrittg floitt-, a^her f<x turtles, 
the thhrd for a sheep, the tcMSrtii f^ a rani) the fifth 
for a calf, the sixth for an ox, Imt whoever afifetted 
to be so exceedin^y regions as to sacrifice a son for 
him, as a mark oi speckl apj^robatfctm, Ihey would 
open the sev^th.* Under the symbol of this idol the 

* '• ' ■- " ' ' ' * ' "• • - — ■■ ' 

^ The Rabbins say it was made of brads, the body resembling 
that x^ a mtiii, and the head that 'Of a ealf, wi& a toylildkifAeit^, 
and the arms extended. They add, thai wfaeti ohHdreo were 
to be offered to him, they heated the statue, and put the mise- 
rable victim between his arms, where it was soon consumed by 
the violence of the fiame. From the wholte of ttiis W^ teay 
learn, that humati saorifiees were the most actee^Ue tit tlie 
altars of Moloch ; which, undoubtedly, made our great poet 
Milton rank him among the infernal deities, as one of the jfallen 
-angels ; and as i>ne who wai^ ^o be a cnnse to the idolatrous 

First Moloch, horrid king, bmoneared with blocd 

Of human sacrifices, and parents' tears ; 

Though, for ttie nofoe of dfuttis andtintibrelstoud,! 

Their cMdren^'S ^ries unheard, that passed thro' Are 





I%CBnicians used to worship the sun and Saturn^ 
namely, that large star in the firmament which thejr 
used to call Melec^ king of all the rest. 

They who think Saturn to have been the Moloch 
of the Phoenicians^ seem to gain countencmce in the 
idea from the practice of sacrificing children to Mo- 
loch ; which they, in common with the Carthaginians 
observed ; whilst we know from the Greek and Latin 
writers that victims used also to be sacrificed to 

But the scriptures inform us> in divers places, that 
the Syrians had unnaturally burned their own seed, 
their own sons and daughters, in honor of this deity. 
This abominable sacrifice of the idol, then, consist^ 
in dragging children through the fire, and by the 
hands of their parents in honor of him. 

That this was a Phoenician custom is evident from 
Philastrius, and Porj^yry, and Eusebius too, as I 
have already shewn when treating on the subject of 
the Druids. It obtained particularly in the land of 
Canaan and the Mediterranean Syria, in which Vhrn" 
nicia was compreh^snded ; and the author (tf the hook 
of wisdom, as well as Jeremy and Ezekiel» seem 
severally to .allude to the prevalence of the practice 
in Syria of immolating their cbiJdren. Whence the 
valley <^ Gia, or of the sons of Hinnon, in the out>- 
lets of the city of Jerusalem, obtained its name from 

the wailings or Ij^ment^^tioiwf pf hoys whilst hwwng 

before dbe idols. 


It appears too^ from the testimony of the andents^ 
that these impious rites hiid travelled from Syria inta 
Africa and Spain ; Pliny informs us, that the Her- 
cules of the Carthaginians^ like Moloch, was usually 
appeased by human sacrifices ; whence to me it is clear 
as demonstration that human victims had been im- 
molated to Hercules in the celebrated temple of Ga- 
des, built by the Phoenicians; and where, as Diodorus 
Siculus mentions, splendid sacrifices were wont to be 
solemnised after the Phcenicianform ; for the Phoe- 
nicians, who — we are assured by St. Athanasius,C]nril, 
Eusebius^ Minutius Felix, and others, were wont to 
sacrifice their sons and daughters to their deities — 
made it an invariable rule to carry with them their 
peculiar rites with the worship of their idols to their 
several colonies. Of the Carthaginians, who were a 
colony of the Syrians, Ennius says, they practised 
'^ that custom of sacrificing their little children to 
the Gods." Fescenius Festus relates that the Car- 
tha^nians were wont to immolate human victims to 
Saturn.* They who had no children, used to buy them 
from the poor to offer them in sacrifice, as Plutarch 
informs us. 

* Diodorus relates ao instance of this more than savage bar- 
barity, which is sufficient to fill any mind with horror. He 
tells us, that when Agathocles was going to besiege Carthage, 
the people, seeing the extremity to which they were reduced, 
imputed all their misfortunes to the anger of their god Saturn, 
because that, instead of offering up to him children nobly born. 


I should wish — in my zeal for the fair character of 
Ireland^ — I could have access to proofs, whereby to 
shew that its early inhabitants, — on accepting from 
the Phoenicians, like the Spaniards, the worship of 
Moloch, Astarte, and Baal, as also of Hercules, — ^had 
nobly rejected, — at least one, the most unhallowed, 
the most unnatural feature in their superstition, — 
human immolation. In the absence of such proofs, 
and bound by the responsibility of a faithfrd histo- 
rian, I am painfully obliged to refer my readers to 
the authority of Ledwich, who, in the footsteps of 
Keating, Baxter, Jurieu, and Vallancey, asserts that 
on the festivals of Ops, or Astarte, and Baal, when the 
heads of the people were assembled together on the 
eve of the first day of November,* whatever criminals 
had been convicted by the Druids on Mount Usneach, 
on the first day of May preceding, and sentenced to 

he had been fraudently put off with the children of slaves and 
foreigners. That a sufficient atonement should be made for this 
crime, — as the infatuated people considered it^ — two hundred 
children of the best families in Carthage were sacrificed ; and 
no less than three hundred of the citizens voluntarily sacrificed 
themselves^ that is, they went into the fire without compulsion. 
* A prince, on Saman's day, (1st of November,) should 
light his lamps and welcome his guests with clapping of hands; 
procure comfortable seats ; the cup-bearers should be respect- 
able, and active in distribution of meat and drink; let there be 
moderation of music ; short stories ; a welcoming countenance ; 
failie for the learned ; pleasant conversations, &c. These are 
the duties of the prince, and the arrangement of the banquetting 
house."— (%r»iac. 


deaths they were now sacrificed by way of expiation 
to Baal^ and burned for that purpose between two 
fires. To these I should add Seward's* remarks in 
his Irish Topography^ under the article Usneach. 
Walk^ too^ after declaring that the Hebrews^ in 
common with the Turks^ and the Druids of the British 
isles^ made use of cymbals to drown the shrieks of the 
human victims offered at tibeir sacrifices, adds — ^in a 
tone of that inevitable horror which the very thought 
must suggest, — ^* I shudder and feel my pen tremble 
witli a religious dread» in the execution of its tosk, 
when necessitated to record, that this rite was ob* 
served by the Irish Druids, and iat the very same 
purpose/'f — or words to this effect. 

* His words are as follow. — ^* Umeackf a mowitaiiiy . . « on 
which fires were kindled by the I>niids on 1st May» in honor 
of Beal, or the Sun. This was the grand Bealtinne of the 
northern parts of Leinster, where the states assembled and held 
judgnent on all criminals worthy of deaths and such as were 
found guiHy were burnt between two fives of Beal : children 
and cattle also weve purified on this day by passing them 
between two fires/' 

t l%e best way to point ovA fahe religioo, is to dispii^ it in 
its Balm colours ; and men, by seeing iwaocoaBtable ahsurdi* 
ties presented to them as objects worthy of their noiioe^ rei^ard, 
will become in love with the trulh. Truth cardes conviction 
along with it, and happy must that matt be, who seeks wisdom. 
He who sinoerely enqnipes after ''ftruth," haa greiat reason <le 
hope, that Ood will diveot him io it, and •oonTinee him of its 
exceliency above every other thiiig in Uib world. The Tuatha 
Danaans, or Iranian <o»kHiy» the real aiiihoBB of Ii^lMid'« an- 
cient grandeur, and the erectors of the ** Round SEWent,^ nev^r 



Tffrian Ho'euks worshipped in Irelcmd-^TrGmf erred fr<M the 
Phoenicians to their colonies — The celebrated temple of 
Hercules at Hades — Sis sacred rites performed in the 
Phoenidaii fsL^um-^Tke ukars of HetttikS'-The Aips^^ 
Vestiges qf this sup^nstitUm m the geography of JSpain — 
Whether the worship of Iphis had obtained amongst the Irish 
— Vossius^s opinion about Iphis, 

Tl]^t the Tynan Hercules; too^ who was worship- 
ped m die odidbrated temple of Gades^ which had 
been built by the PhcKiicians^ \l2sa had sacrifices and 
oblat^»is^ widi all corresponding ceremDnies> offered 
to him in the British ktejE^ may be mferred from a 
very andeiA dtar^ found a few yeiurs i^ncd> by Dr« 
Todd, in a dkurdbi<-yard in the town of Corbridge, 
in Northumberland, b^uring an ]nscri|]ftion dee^y 
euit in ihe old Giwek diaracters> aind purporting to 
be in honorof him. Doctors Hunter aod Todd ha^ 

■i— AA— Mb*iM*M**J— ^J4M«i***ifc*— fc^^.^^ I I iti I t^ai^utmti^^^l^ 

pr a otis o d 4he»e homdi rites. They were i n dnlg ed in tmiy i>y the 
Fir Bolgs, who were Celts, and who contrived the eromleachs 
fot liie occasion. Ilie Sdythian Druids would fain re-establish 
the nistage, until repressed liy the humanising precepts of the 
etiligfatened Danaaus; So they inunolated only criminals. 


both given a very accurate description of it. Cooke^ 
who has sketched a drawing of it^ thinks it still more 
ancient than Todd, and that it was erected — ^not by 
the Phoenicians, who unquestionably, he says, would 
have inscribed those characters in their own language, 
and not the Greek —but by the Ionians,natives of Asia, 
sons of Javan, otherwise called. Ion, and the founders 
of the great city of Phocea — furthermore distinguish- 
ed by their expertness as seamen, and by being the 
first amongst the Greeks, as Herodotus testifies, who 
undertook expeditions over the vasty deep. 

I incline more, however, to the opinion of Todd, 
who endeavours to prove firom this altar, that the 
Phoenicians made use of the letters of the Greek 
alphabet after their arrival in Greece, as the Cartha- 
ginians did those of the Latin language, which they 
had borrowed from the Romans. This latter cir- 
cumstance Aurelius Victor appears to allude to, 
when, speaking of Septimius Severus, he says, '^ he 
was varsed in all the literature of the Latins, and 
spoke the Punic language with ease ; the more so, no 
doubt, as being born in Leptis, in the province of 
Africa/' Which custom we may conclude had 
flourished amcmgst the Carthaginians in the time of 
Plautus,* from a Carthaginian fragment inserted in 

* Yallancyy a name never to be mentioned with disrespect, 
encountered much ridicule, in consequence of his having traced 
Irbh in the Carthaginian's speech, in a play of Plautus, He 


lus PsBnulus^ and written in Roman characters. Seve- 
ral inscriptions found in Africa^ relating to the epoch 
of the Carthaginians, and all written in Roman cha- 
racters, give strength to this conjecture. 

Dr. Todd has rendered the abovementioned in- 
scription thus in Latin : *^ Herculi Tyrio Divina Dona 
Archi-sacerdotalia,** — that is. Divine offerings to be 
presented to the Tyrian Hercules, by the hands of 
the high priest. On either side were engraved the 
heads of bulls, crowned with garlands, with the sacri- 
ficing instruments,* as represented in the opposite 

This learned gentleman still fiurther conjectures, 
that Erkelens in Gonderland, means the camp of Her- 
cules ; and Hartland Pointf in Cornwall, the promon- 

was quite correct in doing so ; and so was Bochart, when he 
discovered Hebrew , in the same speech. The reason is obvious; 
the Irish, Carthaginian » and the Hebrew, can all be traced to 
the Assyrian. This fact also offers a true solution of the dis- 
pute about the Basque, or language of Biscay ; one contends 
that it is Celtic, another that it is an African tongue ; and both 
are right ^it is the language of the Iberi, and Mauri, who 
peopled Spain, and which is also derived from the Syriac« 
The resemblance, therefore, between the Irish and the Basque, 
offers no support to the imaginary colonization of Milesius. — 


* An Essay on the Antiquity of the Irish Language, being 
a collation of the Irish with the Punic Language. Dublin, 
1772. Preface, p. V. seq. 

f Hartland Point, on the coast of Cornwall, in Britain, 
called in Camden's time, Harty Point, is evidently a cor- 


toiy of Hercules^ and that from the words, Herculis 
castra^ which is the Latin for, the camp of Hercules, 
was made the name, Hercul^easter, of the Saxons, 
which became afterwards abridged to Colchester^ 

And Cook is convinced that the name of the town of 


Hartlepole on the Durham coast, is a manifest de^ 
pravation of the word Heracleopolis. 

To me, too, it appears ^exceedingly probable that 
the great western promontory ^ Airehil, with tha 
islands of the same name, were the promontory of 
Hercules, as denominated by the Pheeniciaiis ; and 
whether the town of, Enigall, in each of the two 
counties of Monaghan and Londopderry, may tot 
also be some vestige of Hercules' name, I leave to 
the decision of more ccmipetent judges. 

The worship of this deity, it is certain that the Iri^h, 
as well as the Spaniards, had borrowed from the 
Phoemcians ; for they aloue had erected temple^ and 
altars to the Tyriaa Hercules as their national hero; 
it being under his conduct, — whom some describe 
as contemporary with Moses, — that the PhceniQlan 
tribes had sailed to Gades* Whejg^e, a£t^r his deaths 
they built a temple at this place in honor of him, 
winch was deemed illustrious for its religion, its 
^tiipity, and its wealth ; and if at a loss to know 

ruption from its original name, Herculis proi^onlorium, wU«1i 
it dbtakied from the celebrated navigator, 4iM Tynan Hercules, 
known in our annals by the destgnatioo of 


why it was particularly sacred^ Pomponius Mela ex- 
plains : *' because that it contained Hercules's bones/' 
There were no statues in this temple, according to 
Philostratus, but only two brazen altars without an 
image. We have a verse of Silius Italicus to lie 
some eflfect, which may be thus translated : — 

'' la it were seen no sacred effigies. 
Nor well-known likeness of their deities;" 

ocmformably, as would appear, to the worship in 
whkh Hercules had instructed them. Bochart, how- 
ever, thinks that it was from the Jews the Phoenicians 
had adopted the pBctice €^ not worshipping images 
in this temple ; or^ perhaps, from the patriarchal re- 
ligion, which did not recognise images. For Cornelius 
Tacitus declares, tliat tiie Hebren^ tlunight it mi- 
pious in any one to represent the deity by any statue 
or likeness, and consequently ridiculed the Assyrians, 
as Macrobius asserts, for their haUtual worship oi 
the sun and moon. Plutarch tells us, that Lycurgus's 
doctrine corresponded in this particular with the 
Hebrews ; and though the Scythians, the Persians, 
and the Lybians, not only diflPered, but were directly 
opposed to one another in their respective creeds, 
in one point, however, they harmonised completdy, 
and that was — the invisdbilky of Hie godhead. The 
Romans, likewise, some time subsequent, and more 
especially in the reign of Numa Pompilius, adhering 
to the authority of Moses, Pythagoras, Socrates, and 


LycurguSj continued to adore their gods without 
statues for a period of upwards of one hundred and 
seventy years. The ancient Germans did the same, 
as appears from the testimony of Cornelius Tacitus. 
But Hercules might have learned this system of 
religion in Arabia, whence some antiquarians suppose 
that he was descended. For the Arabian* idols con- 
sisted, in a great measure, of huge rough stones, 
which the posterity of Ismael had taught them to 
worship, and upon which they used to pour oil and 
wine, in imitation of Jacob, who poured oil upon the 
stone which served him as a pillow at the time of his 
vision.f Afterwards, however, they practised their 

* The Arabians were the descendants of Ishmael, the son of 
Abraham, by his concubine Hagar ; and they are, in some re- 
spects, even to this day, the most remarkable people in the 
world. The angel told Hagar that her son should be a wild 
man, and the Arabians remain uncivilized even to this hour. 
His hand was to be against every man, and every man's hand 
against him ; and so it is even now, for the Arabians live by 
plundering, not only such as travel from this part of the world, 
but even the Turks themselves, who pretend to be their masters. 
He was to live in the midst of his brethren ; and it is very re- 
markable* that the Arabians were never yet conquered. In vain 
did the great monarchs.of the east attempt to subdue them, 
they still remain what they were three thousand years ago. 

t Eastern traveUers, in modern times, have been known to 
do the same; the night air is not generally injurious in the East 
as it is with us. We are not to suppose that Jacob laid his 
bare heiid on the bare stone; a cap or turban probably guarded 
the one, and a portion of his long garments or perhaps a wallet, 
formed a covering for the other. 


adorations upon those very stones, which it is very 
probable that the Phoenicians did also originally; 
although^ in process of time, before the people of 
Israel entered into the land of Canaan, they betook 
themselves to the worship of graven images. Where- 
fore the Lord had commanded his people, before ever 
they arrived at the promised land, to overturn their 
altars, demolish their statues, and cut down their 

Strabo relates in what spot of the island of Gades, 
and on what occasion, the Phoenicians had erected 
that temple, as advised by the oracle. Appian and 
Arrian, both, assert that Hercules was worshipped 
therein, after the Phoenician manner, as we have 
said, with religious solemnities and magnificent 
sacrifices ; whilst we have loads of monuments as 
well in Asia as in Europe, to prove that the custom 
was thence transferred, and by the same people, to 
their different colonies, where they erected altars 
and shrines for its celebration. Of this number, 
it may suffice to remind the reader, only, of the 
altars erected on the Alps, of which Petronius says, 
'' On the aerial Alps, — ^where lofty cliffi ascend under 
a Grecian name, and suffer themselves to be sur- 
mounted, — lies a spot consecrated to the Herculean 

From Hercules, its founder, did the ancients give 
the name of Heraclea to the Phoenician city Seta- 
bim, in the province of the Edetani, in Spain; as 
also to another Phoenician city in Boetica, at the 



foot of mount Calpe. For as in Greekj Heradeia — 
with an acute acceiit over its pdiiultimate — meanl^^ in 
the general, anything belonging to HerculeSj so the 
same word, with a circiimflex — thus, Heracleta-^over 
the same syllable, means, sacred rites or sacrifices de^ 
dicated to Hercules ; and in either sense are to be 
foutid several cities of this name, in various parts of 
the East. From Hercules, too> it is probable that 
the Phcenician settlers in Spain, gave the name of 
£riguela> as it is now called with some slight varia- 
tion from the original, to d village of the Artabri ; 
as, also, td Arcdlis and Argolell^ Villages of the IleJ:- 
getes ; Arcal and Argstlo, towns of the Suevi, hear 
Gompostella ; Arquillo, amongst the Numantines ; 
ArguU, Arcallana, and Arguiello, amongst the As- 
tures. Wherefore, I should hope it will not se^n 
over-absurd if I should trace, in this couhtry ilso> 
fiomi^ tfestiges of the hame Hercules — in that of 
ArkloWj a town in the county Wicklow, hear the 
Vtite of Ovoca, T^here are to be seen, at this day, the 
remains of an ancient camp ; and in Brrigol-Keeroge, 
a little town in the barony of Cloghferi cduilty Tyrone : 
for as Keeroge would feeem derived from the Phebni- 
ci^n, Keragi a census or cess ; or Kerae, a citadel or 
ftMrtrei5is> we riiay (easily understand by the natne of 
this town, either ^* the fortress of Hercules," or tri^ 
butkry tb tlW3 worship of Herbules.* 

* Ih ^Vei-y ^&ge of kobiety niliii ridtuMlly \6H th^ itiarv^lloUd ; 
btit in the early iltages^ a certain portibil of it is necessary tq 


I should Wish to give a wh6t to the investigating 
talent of the learned sons of Ireland, to ascertain 
whetiier IflPa and Offii, the name of a barony in the 
county Tipperwy, povince of Munster, miiy not be 
a vestige of the worship of Iphis, that tve may be 
able thence to infer whether or not the Phoefnicians 
bad inlported it among us. For some Spaniards are 
very positive^ that from Iphis, Was given the name of 
Iphae, to a I'ock of a conical foifm, and miraculous 
eletation, without* the slightest support on either 
iside, lying on the Mediterranean coast, between 
Aloua ahd Dianium. Although others derive it from 
the Phoenician word Ipha, handsome ; and otherSi 
a^ain,frdm the Celtic If-adh, meaning standing alone, 
or uilsupJ)orledi As to Iphis itfeelf, some Sy^ittO 

make any narration sufficiently interesting to attract aUention, 
br dbtaiii dh dUdie^nbe : Wtlend^ the actions of gotk are idtet"- 
mtxed with those of men in the Earliest traditions or bistod^l 
of all nations ; and poetical fable occupied the place of his^ 
torical truth in their accounts of the transactions of war and 
policy^ as Veil a& in ibos6 df the revolutions of nature and 
offigiii of thtn^^. Bdch hsld p^odue^d sbdle ^feU6\4rn^d Wd^Hoi's^ 
whose mighty lichlevetnentd had been assisted by the favor, or 
obstructed by the anger, of the gods ; and each had some 
popular tales concerning the means, by which those gods had 
(loristructed the utiltei*se, and the princi|)]e§, upoh which they 
ctititiutied to govern it: Whence the Greeks and Romans found 
a Hercules in every country which they visited, as well as iu 
their dWn ; and the advetitures of some such hero supply the 
first materials for history, as a cosmogony br theogotiy e&hibits 
the first system df philosophy, in ev^^ nation, 

u 2 • 


antiquarians suppose it to be a corrupted name from 
Jepthis^ that is^ the daughter of Jephtha^ and so 
called after him ; from the union of which name with, 
anassa, which, in the Greek, means, queen, was made 
up the name of Iphianassa ; as from its union with 
genia, which signifies descended from, arose Iphige- 
nia. Wherefore, also, the daughter of Jephtha had 
a place amongst the deities of the Phoenicians, having 
divine honors paid to her by the inhabitants of Sa- 
maria, who celebrated an annual festival in her 
honour — as we learn from Epiphanius — the origin of 
which we will see accounted for in the book of 

From the story of Jephthah, who devoted his only 
daughter in fulfilment of his vow to Grod, Homer 
took occasion in his fable of Agamemnon to make 
him sacrifice his daughter Iphigenia, with all suit- 
able solemnities. M emnon, too, who had been slain 
by Achilles, after he had come an auxiliary to Priam 
in the Trojan war, is a farther instance, having been 
wept* for, after his death, and worshipped by the As- 
syrians as a distinguished scion of Aurora — as Oppi- 
an relates — with a temple, also, built in Egypt, to 

* Sunt lachrymse rerum et men tern mortalia a tangunt. — This 
reminds me of the philosophic tears of Xerxes, at the contem- 
plated mortality of his innumerable army ; and as I happen to 
light upon an unpublished poem — written by a young officer of 
the artillery corps, merely as a school exercise during his pre- 
paratory education — I feel happy at the opportunity of inserting 

*.;_^i ■ H ■ II ■ iT^aww^s^v^rra J ^ I Li|, iiJ^ a^ v^^^B^^B^^^ 


his honour by the inhabitants of Thebes. And here 
I cannot avoid reflecting with Vossius on the great 

an extract from it Acre, as B.foret<iste of talents which I have 
reason to appreciate, and which I doubt not will shine out, 
some day, an honour to their possessor, and a benefit to his 

'' Unnumbered plumes are waving o'er the plain, 

The gentle zephyrs wave them back again : 

So golden corn that ripens in the sun, 

Stoops, gently stoops, the zephyrs' force to shun : 

Wave after wave in soft succession roll. 

Cheer the glad eye, and sooth the musing soul. 

The monarch saw, and high in fortune's gale 

Pride, hope, ambition, in their turn prevail : 

And as he saw his countless hosts below 

With her bright garland victory crowns his brow 

He looks a^ain, but other feelings rise. 

Rush on his heart, and sorrow dims his eyes ; 

He thinks, he feels— and with averted head 

Soils the proud purple with the tears he shed. 

Why weeps the king ?— Tis nature at this hour 

Claims her full force, and proves her rightful power : 

By her subdued as by some magic spell. 

In fancv's ear he hears the funeral knell. 

Knell of those myriads whose bright banners stream. 

While martial music aids the living dream. 

Whose plumes around them cast a moving shade. 

Their souls all fire, their limbs of iron made. 

That fire shall die : those plumes shall cease to wave : 

Those swords and spears shall rust within the grave ; 

Where music floats around, shall silence reign. 

And prostrate banners strew the desert plain. 

Ere one short century shall near be run. 

To tell the dreadful tale shall live not one ; : 


irimalarity existing bd;\^6a the P^g^cif^) m^ ihf^ 
Egyptian sacrificial forms; ^pd on %hid §^tj:e}fQ§ 
probability^ that the fleet which first landed in that 
Cjplpqy jin 3p?iin^ cojjs.i§ted not oply of Phcenicians 
but of Egyptians also ; ^o that both countries ^j^y 
severally lay claim to the honour of the enterprise* 
I may be allowed just to hint, that it was, probably, 
from this very cause, that Hercules was indi&rently 
called the " Tyrian " or the " Egyptian/' 

Expunged each nam^ — the mighty and the mean. 
From beiQg's page^ as though they ne'er had been : 
Thus fadjB the flowers in T^nipe's lovely vale ; 
Thus vanish clpucjs before the driving gale : 
Thus Tiipe, omnipotent, sweeps all away — 
Grandeur's proud blasfe, and pleasures of the gay. 

' Stanley Hqm^yi 

f'ui'U nnrrvrtnf??^^ 



The Cabiri, divinities of the Phoenicians — Their worship in 
Ireland-^Etymology of the name — The Coryhantes sacri" 
Jicing priests of the Cahiri — Whence so called --Vestiges of 
them in the Geography as well of Ireland as of Spain. 

From the Cabiri, Seward thinks is derived, Cab- 
ragfa^ or Cabaragh, the name of a very ancient Irish 
town situated formerly neap Dublin Castle, but now 
so in corporated with this Metropolis of the kingdom, 
that its very limits cannot be pointed out. The name 
Cabiri itself, he conceives consonant with the Irish 
word Cabhar, a prop or buttress ; or rather, I take it, 
with Cabhaire, on^ who props, a supporter. These 
deities, he says, the Corybantes invoked, who were 
the sacrificing priests of Irieland as they were of the 
Greeks too, on sudden an4 unexpected emergencies. 
Whence he supposes it likely, that the above men- 
tioned term of Cabaragh was so called as containing 
viithin it, or as being itself a seminary of, the Cory- 
hantes. — From the same source would he derive the 
name of the district of Cabragh, or Cabra, near 


Kathfriland^ in the county Down ; to which we may 
add Cabra-castle, near Kills, in the county Meath; 
The Spanish towns of Cabeiro and Cabeiros amongst 
the Suevi, in the canton of Toledo, savor strongly of 
the same superstition ; which would rather seem de- 
rived from Cabirffi, or Cabiria, the sacred rites of the 
Cabiri ; just as the district of Asia Minor, where 
they were worshipped, was called after them Cabira. 
Pausanias, too, assures us that a district of Perga- 
mus was called by the name of Cabiris. 

Some of the ancients have supposed that the 
name of the Cabiri was borrowed from that of a 
mountain in Phrygia, called Cabirus, where they 
were worshipped with religious solemnities. But 
the reverse is more likely to have been the fact, and 
that the mountain was so called after them. They 
were themselves ancient divinities, belonging to the 
Phoenicians, which they designated as, Cabirin, that 
is, great or potent, from the singular, Cabir, which, 
by the addition of, a, and the expunction of, c — which 
to them is only an adverb of simiUtude-becomes 
abir, that is, strong, or preeminent in fortitude. This 
word — originally, truly applied to God — the Syrians 
transferred to Ceres, Pluto, and Proserpine — by some 
called Axier OS, Axicersus, and Axicersa — ^whose father 
too they state to have been Vulcan. Therefore it was, 
perhaps, that in some coins, these deities were re- 
presented under the appearance of a man holding in 
his right hand a mallet, and in his left an anvil- 


Some would have them to be Jupiter, Bacchus, and 
Ceres ; others, Osuris, Orus, and Isis.* Julius Fir- 
micus, in his " Errors of profane religions" says,, that 
the Cabiri were three brothers, the eldest of whom 
having been slain by the two others, was enrolled 
amongst the Gods, and worshipped by the Thessa- 
lonians. But this I look upon as foreign from the 
truth, and merely a fiction of the poets. For the 
worship of the Cabiri had its origin in Phoenicia, 
whence it passed over to the islands of the Mgean 
sea, and more especially to Samothrace and the 
Imbri, where their religion was flourishingly esta- 
blished, until, at length, it made way to Athens and 

* These were the general gods of Egypt, and such as were 
worshipped by the king, and his courtiers ; for almost every 
district had its particular deity ; Some worshipped dogs ; others 
oxen ; some hawks ; some owls ; some crocodiles ; some cats ; 
and others ibis, a sort of an Egyptian stork. The worship of 
these animals was confined to certain places ; and it often 
happened, that those who adored the crocodile, were ridiculed 
by such as paid divine honours to the cat. To support the 
honor of their different idob, bloody wars often took place ; 
and whole provinces were depopulated to decide the question 
— whether a crocodile or a cat was a god ? 

It does not, however, appear that these people were idolators, 
in the strict sense of the word, although it is more than pro- 
bable, that, in many instances, they deviated from the worship, 
of the true god, according to its original purity. Pharaoh, the 
king of Egypt, calls the God of Abraham, Jehovah and 
Elohim, both of which are the highest titles that can be as. 
cribed to the Divine Being, because they include all his incon- 
ceivable attributes. 


the other cities of Greece^ with Spain and all the 
other colonies which th^ Phomicians had planted. 
There ^re those, too^ who add a third to their num- 
ber^ namely, Kadmus^ or Kasmilus^ or Kadmilus, 
whom many suppose to have been the same as^ Her- 
mes, or Mercury ; fer by Varro's testimony^ in the 
Samothracian mysteries^ pi^asmilus is the name given 
to a certain ofi^cer or attendant upon the sacred 
rites o£bred to tfa^s great gods^ that is^ the Cabiri. 
The natives of the island of Lesbos, also, worshipped 
him under the name of Radqius, or Kadmilus» whi^h, 
by the way, they borrowed from the Phoenicians, in 
whose Jangu^e cadmi, means a harbinger : and 
cadmilac, a forerunner of some news or message. 
Therefore, also, it was that Mercury was called Her- 
njes, from the Gfreek wprd signifying an interpristprf 
or messenger — ^which was his provii^ce amcmgst 
the heavenly inhabitants ; and they who conceive 
his real name to be orjginajly Cpltic, derive it fropa 
thp words, mere, tragic, apd ur, » man ; which emi- 
nently accords with the Phoenician word Gnani, or 
Canani, which signifies not qnly a Canaanite, or na- 
tive of the land qf C^n,a^p, )but also a n^erch^nt or 
tT9&imt, the inhabitants of that country having 
been ever intent upon trade, in the ftirtherance of 
which, vfith a view to the improveitxent of their for- 
tupes, th^Y speftt their whole life and energies. 

These four Cabiri were worshipped in some shrines 
as the gods of the deceased ; Ceres, who was also 



called Cabiria^ as the earth that sustain^ them ; Pluto 
and Proserpine as a symbol of hell, wherein they re- 
side ; and Mercury, as their leader and conductor. 

A great portion of the leading men of that agp 
used to visit the celebrated temple of the Cabiri, in 
Samothrace, to be initiated in their n^ysteries. This 
journey was undertaken by the heroes of the Trojan* 

* Sir Isaac Newton brings the sera of the destruction of 
Troy about three hundred years lower down than any other 
chronologist had done before, fixing it to the 78th year after 
die death of Solomon, the year before our vulgar sera 004 ; — and 
the year of Dido's building Carthage, to the year 883, i, e. 21 
years after, when JBneas might very welt be alive. Those who 
will take the trouble to examine his book, will find it no easy 
matter to withstand the weighty reasons he offers in support of 
his singular opinion. To shorten the reader's labour, I shall 
briefly mention a few of them. 

1. He observes that Virgil agrees with the Arundel marbles. 
As Tirgil relates, probably from the archives of Tyre or Cy- 
prus, that Teucer came from the war of Troy to Cyprus in the 
days of queen Dido (see iEn. I. 623.) and with bis fother 
seized Cyprus; so the Arundel Marbles say that Teucer came 
to Cyprus seven years after the destruction of Troy, and built 

2. In the temple built at Cadiz to Hercules, under the name 
of Melcartus, was Teucer's golden belt, beside Pygmalion's 
golden bow, by which it appears, that the temple was built in 
their days, and that they were contemporary. 

3. Dionysius Halicarnasseus reckons sixteen kings from La- 
tinus, who reigned in Italy in the time of the Trojan war, to 
Romulus ; and from him to the consuls were six kings more : 
which twenty two reigns, at a medium of eighteen years to a 
reign (taking the lowest reckoning, because many of them died 
violent deaths), amount to 396 years. These, counted back- 


war, by Philip of M acedon, and others — not solely 
because of the protection and support which they had 
promised themselves from those deities against dan- 
gers and accidents, and more especially storms, but be- 
cause of the respect which ever attached to any indivi- 
duals who happened to have the honor of initiation 
in those solemnities. Heathen writers have omitted 
all allusion to those mysteries, f either from 

ward from the consuls Brutus and Publicoia, place the Trojan 
war about seventy-eight years after the death of Solomon, 
according to Sir Isaac's first computation. 

4. Herodotus, who says Homer and Hesiod, were but 400 
years before him, wrote in the time of Nehemiah,i. e. 444 years 
before Christ. And Hesiod said he was but an age after the 
destruction of Troy. Now 400, 444, and 60 years more for 
the time between Hesiod and the war of Troy, bring it to the 
year before Christ 904, as Sir Isaac reckons. 

5. Lastly, in the year 1689, the cardinal points had gone 
back one full sign, six degrees, twenty-nine minutes, from the 
oardinal points of Chiron (in the time of the Argonautic expe- 
dition) as nearly, he says, as can be determined from the coarse 
observations of the ancients. Consequently, at the rate of 
seventy-two years to a degree, 2627 years had then passed since 
Chiron, which brings us back to the forty- three years after the 
death of Solomon, for the time of the Argonautic expedition ; 
and the destruction of Troy was about thirty or thirty-five years 
later. So that all these collateral proofs agree in one point, 
and fix the sera of the ruiu of Troy about one and the same 
year, viz. 904 years before our vulgar sera. 

* There never was any one religion whatsoever, that had 
not a particular set of mysteries, which none but a few select 
devotees could ever attain to. In order to arrive at that pitch 
of perfection, there have always been such extravagaut cere- 


some groundless veneration which they thou^t 
silence would encourage ; or, what appears more cer- 
tain, from the obscenities of conduct with which they 
were but too grossly defiled, and to which even 
the high priests themselves would be ashamed to 
give utterance. Therefore it was, probably, that 
during their celebration they made use of a peculiar 
dialect, unintelligible to the vulgar; which Cam- 
byses very humorously upbraids them with, at the 
doors of those deities, as Herodotus informs us. 
Some people confound the Curetes, or Corybantes, 
with those Cabiri, whilst others think it more pro- 
bable that they were their sacrificing priests, and 
more especially of Ceres, Cibele, or Rhea, whose 
agonising spirit and disconsolate heart for the dis- 
astrous loss of her darling Atys, those ministers af- 
fected to represent in their devotions, rending the 
air with the most hideous yells, adding thereto the 
confused conceit of timbrels and brazen cymbals, 
running about all the while, and shaking their heads 
from one side to the other; in short, exhibiting 
every symptom and gesticulation that madness could 

Strabo conceives the Corybantes were so called 
fro m, coruptontes bainein, that is, from their walking 
as if they danced; whence lunatics and frantic 

monies to be observed, as were suiBcient to surprise, blind, 
sbock, and even confound the inferior class of religionists. 


people haye been dalled corybantes. Others think 
the name derired froih corns, a helmet ; others from> 
cofnttoi to butt with the horn, or toss the head \ 
others from, cruhoi or erUbazo, to conceali as thejr 
assisted Rhea iti dbing with respeet to her offspring } 
others frbm, crauo, to beat, or make a noise^ at whidh 
they excelled — cldi^ing instrument against instru- 
ment. And. metal against metal, bearing t^e brunt df 
all upon their sonoi'ous shieldsi and s€lasoning th^ 
whole with their •' mdst sweet" Tbices.* 

But in as much as these all, tomihg froift a Grecian 
source, are disa{)proved df by sOitie people — ^as too flir 
fetched^ injudicious^ and at variance with one dnotherj 
— they look Upon it aS more td the purpose^ what 
Diddorus Siculus asserts^ namdy^ that the Corybantes 
i^rere so trailed from Goi^ybas^ the soii of Cybele, by 
Jfision i or frcmi another df the isame neane, who con- 
veyed into Phrygia thfe sacred rites of the mdther of 
the gods, and nanled th^ dir^ctbrs of her i-eligious 
ceremonies after himsdf. But Cotybas> the son of 
Cybele> belongs to mythology i and as it appearfe 
from other sourceS) that the names of Gybele and the 
Cabiri took theirs from Phoenicia, I consider the 
game may be said of the Corybantes^ who Were the 
officiating ministers of the Cabiri ; for in the Pbce- 

* Such is the origin of drums, and although they make at 
present a distinguishing figure in our armies, yet they wei-e no 
more, originally, than implements of idolatry and superstitioif. 


iliciari knguagCi Cathih, 6t Gbribari; ihetos a gift 
dr xJffbriil^ ptesehle^d eithet tb Grddj tb idols, or to 
men ; as it ddeS alsd, the ti^fe&sury, or the coflfet, in 
Whifch such presents i/reife deposited ; and idoktors 
took occasion subsequently to trahsfer the name to 
their shriiifes ot dhstpek ; and, as the superintendants 
of such shriries hstd thie (charge tad custody of all 
donationis cdh^igned ttt thdnij they thenbei, hdturdlly, 
^ete dietiomifaated Corybantes. Oi' they rh^y hdvfe 
a^suitied Id themselves the tlktrie ftbtti, Coribin, tiiean- 
ihg kiiisfolks, kindred, of f elatiteS, With a vieW tb 
cdndiliatfe the affections of the popiil^cB frotti the fa- 
tiiiliarity. df its totie. 

The geography of Spain appears still to retain 
some vestiges of the names of Corybas and Cory- 
bantes in that of Corbate, a town situated in the 
province of the Vaccei ; Caravainos, Caravion, and 
Caravanzo, amongst the Astures ; Corbite, Curbian, 
and Curantes, in the district of the Suevi. The 
learned men of this country also may, perhaps, please 
to consider whether the proper names of, Corballys 
and Corbally, with that of Carbery and Lake Corib, 
as also that of, Corribinny, which is a promontory 
situated near the harbour of Cork, and on the sum- 
mit of which is still preserved an ancient sepulchre, 
may not be vestiges of the same name. The analogy 
too, which we may observe between Camilus, or 
Kadmilus, a name of Mercury, and the names of cer- 
tain Irish towns, such as that of Camlin, in the 


county Antrim ; Camolin^ in the county Wexford ; 
not forgetting that beautiful and delightful mansion 
belonging to Lord Mount Norris, near Gorey^ in the 
same county, called Camolin*park^ deserve especial 
and particular notice. 

To me^ at least, it is extremely probable, that, the 
ancient city of Camala amongst the Astures in Spain, 
was so named from the Phoenician worship of Ca- 
milus, or Kadmilus ; though others consider it a 
Grecian name, from, Kemelaia^ a little olive tree — to 
which I must add the names of^ Cameles and Cama- 
leno, towns of the Astures ; Camellera^ a village of 
the Ilergites^ and Comillas^ a maritime town of Can- 

I ■ I I I ■ ■ ■ ^^ u i 1 1 r I I II w iiip !■ ■ ■ - I'M! n r^ 



Fire worship in Ireland — By whom introduced — Ur a city of 
the Chaldeans y why so called — Called also Camerinay and 
why — Vestiges of these names in the geography of Spain — 
The religion of fire transferred from the Phcenicians to 
other nations — The Estia of the Greeks y and Vesta of the 

That the ancient Irish were worshippers of fire is 
a point upon which the antiquarians of the country 
are all unanimous. — But whether they derived the 
superstition from the authority of the Celts or Phoe- 
nicians^ is what has not yet been determined^ though 
closely contested by the partisans of either side. I 
thinks however, the controversy admits of a very 
easy solution, if we but attend to the rise and pro- 
gress of the worship itself, as well as the names of 
certain localities in this island, which are considered 
to bear a direct reference to it. 

The first, then, who, according to Vossius, ordered 
fire to be worshipped as a deity, was Nimrod,* whom 

* Or, rather, in whom they considered the Belus, or Sun, to 
be personified. He resided for some time at Babylon, but 



the Gentfles called, Belus, that is, master or lord. 
From this circumstance, Ur, a city of the Chaldeans, 
in which sacrifices used to have been performed 
to fire, obtained its name, as it did also those of 
Urge, Urie, and Camarina ; for, wr, or, or, means a 
flame or blaze of fire, or the hearth wherein it 
blazes ; camar, as before observed, to burn ; cuma- 
rin, idol priests, and cumarith, the o&ce of priest- 
hood. But as from. Urge and Ur, I conceive were 
named those very ancient Phoenician cities of Spain, 
called Urci and Urgellum ; as well as that extensive 
and flourishing district in Ireland, which formerly 
constituted a djmasty in itself, and comprehends 
within its compass the modern counties pf Louth, 
Armagh, and Moneghan, I mean Orgeal. — ^And as 
from Camarina, I imagine, were denominated Cama- 
rena and Camarenilla, towns of the Carpenti ; with an 
Camoriaa — ^bothtown and river — of the Suevi, near 

Nineveh was the grand seat of his empire. This city was 
l>itilt on the eastern banks of the river Tigris, and was one of 
the largest ever known in Ike worid. It was about sixty mUes 
in circumference ; ^he walls were one hundred feet high^ and so 
broad, that chariots could pass each other upon them. They, 
were furthermore, adorned with fifteen hundred towers, and 
each of these two hundred feet high ; which, may, in some 
Bienpure, account for what we read in the book of Jonah, that 
Nineveh was an exceeding great city, of three days journey. 

fler lofty lowers ahone like meridian beams, 
And asa world within herself she seems. 


Compostella ; in all of which fire worship was insti- 
tuted by their several founders. — So from the plural, 
Urin, signifying, hearths, or fires lighted, do I l^ink 
it ^cccedingly probable that the river Urrin in Ire- 
land, in the county of Wexford, and barony of 
Scarewalsh, had been denominated. Again the town 
of Uregare, in the barony of Coshma, and county 
Limerick, is obviously compounded of, ur-^ar, meaur 
ingy a shrine dedicated to fire ; or else, of, ur-egur, 
an altar consecrated to the same. Urglin, too, the 
name of a village in the barony of Catherlough, 
county Carlow, is made up of the words ur-glin, a 
manifestation, or revelation of fire ; or, ur-galglin, 
fire in a round heap of stones ; for, glin, in the Syriac, 
means heaps of stones, as well as it did, a manifest- 
ation ; and galglin, rotundities, or roundnesses. It is 
not improbable but that there might have been 
erected there some one of those round towers so 
frequent in this kingdom, 

St. Jerome makes mention of this fire worship 
amongst the Chaldeans, whose whole country, 
from the same circumstance, was called, Orkoe 
The P^sians too, had their, ur ; and it is wel\ 
known that they held fire in great veneration, 
having first only worshipped it as a symbol of 
the deity^ but this figurative worship gradually 
passed into actual and downright homage, until, in 
the progress of time, as Lucian observes, they were 
content with no less than offering sacrifices to it. 



The same is asserted by the ancients of the Medes. 
from whom this superstition was transferred to the 
Syrians, and from them again to other nations inha- 
biting Asia ; nay, to the Cauromatians, Macedonians, 
and Cappadocians, whose Magi were called '* Purai- 
thoi,*' that is, fire kindlers, and their temples " Pu- 
raitheia, that is, places wherein fire is kindled, which 
latter, we may add, consisted of *' inmiense inclosures 
in the centre of which was erected an altar, where the 
magi used to preserve a heap of ashes, besides the ever 
burning fire/* resembling, as D'Alton aflSrms,* our 

* Yes, bat Mr.D'Alion, and Mr. Higgins, (Celtic Druids,) 
and all the other ^re votaries, should know that those tire tem- 
ples of the Gfaebres, were nothing more than, what Dr. Hurd, 
an ocular witness, has appropriately styled them, viz. " sorry 
huts,** ^the ancient ones, being, according to Sir John Malcolm, 
arched vaults about fifteen feet high ; and the modern ones, ac- 
cording to Captain Keppel, without any covering at all ! Han- 
way, who appears to have misled all our fire speculators, fell 
into a similar mistake, himself, with respect to the '* ij^ound 
Towers,'* or Budhist Temples, which he met with in the east — 
calling them, ** fire temples."— Yet, by and by, when he has 
occasion to describe an actual fire temple, he represents it as a 
vault, not exceeding, in height, ten or fifteen feet, of which, by 
the way, we have several still in Ireland, before hinted at in 
an early note in this volume, and distinct altogether from the 
<* Round Towers," which are specimens of the finest architecture 
extant in any country. In 1820, Henry deLoundre», archbishop 
of Dublin, put out this fire, called ** unextinguishable," — which 
had been preserved, though a remnant of the pagan idolatry 
of Baal — from the earliest times, by the nuns of St. Brigid, 
at Kildare. It was re-lighted, and continued to bum until the 


Irish *' Round Towers/'* as well as the *' Atush kudu," 
or fire chapels, which Zoroaster had ordered to be 

total suppression of monasteries; the ruins of the fire-house 
and nunnery still remain, and bear no relation to the '< Round 
Towers." Here was Dr. Villauueya's greatest mistake. 

* As the benefit of light is best known when contrasted with 
darkness, so truth is the more admired for being compared with 
falsehood. On this principle it was that the early missionaries 
of the Christian church have proceeded in Ireland. Finding, 
on their arrival, a hallowed regard attached to those localities, 
whereon stood the memorials of previous Pagan adoration, the 
best use, they conceived they could make of this ''regard," was, 
to erect, on the same " localities," Christian houses of worship; 
to, at once, conciliate the prejudices of those whom they would 
fain persuade, aud divert their adoration from the creature to 
the Creator. 

We observe, accordingly, mouldering in decay, beside each 
of the three species of ancient Irish worship, the Celtic, the 
Budhist, and the Druidical— the ^rst and last of which be- 
came ultimately identified, and of which the Cromleachs and 
Mithratic caves are the memoriab ; while the " Round Towers" 
represent the purer^ the bloodless^ and the inoffensive Budhist 
faith — Christian ruins of more modem structures, yet venerable 
in antiquity, and composed by architects who could not vie in 
skill, of either design or cement, with their pagan predecessors. 

And yet upon this single circumstance of contiguity to Ec- 
clesiastical dilapidations > coupled with the bas-relief of a cru- 
cifix which presents itself over the door of the Budhist temple 
at Donoghmore in Ireland, and that at Brechin in Scotland — 
have the deniers of the antiquity of those venerable edifices, 
raised that superstructure of historical imposture, which, I pro- 
mise them, will soon crumble around their ears, before the 
indignant effulgence of regenerated veracity. It might be suf- 
ficient for this purpose to tell them that they might as well, 
from this vicinity, infer that the Cromleachs were also erected 


erected. These ancient temples of Cybele or Vesta, 
wherein urns preserved the perpetual fire^ were 

by the eariy missionaries, as they would fain nake out, hy 
precisely ike same mode of inference that the Budhist temples, 
or Round Towers, had been ! But this would not suit. They 
could find no ascription associated with Christianity, to which 
to assign the Cromleachs ; — and thus have the poor missiona- 
ries escaped the cumbrous imputation of having those colossal 
pagan slabs affiUated upon them. 

Not so fortunate the towers. After ransacking the whole 
catalogue of available applications, appertsdniugto the order of 
monastic institutions, with which to siamiie those temples, the 
Koyal Irish Academy have at last hit upon the noble and dig- 
nified department of a — dungetm keep ! or, lock up ! — as the »oIe 
use and purpose of their costly erection ! 

Now, if the monks possessed the secret of fabricating those 
Round Towers, or even ike materials whereof they are con- 
structed — being, in some instances, an artificial substance 
resembling a reddish brick, squared, and corresponding to the 
composition of the Round Towers of Mazi^deran; or else, 
when natural, a reddish grit, or pudding stone. — Why were not 
the monasteries, the more irapoitant edifices, according to our 
would-be-antiquaries, composed of the same elementef and is 
it not strange, that all elegance and extravagance should have 
been lavished upon the appendages, while uncouthne^, inele^ 
gance,want of durability, or other arckitectural recommendation, 
are the characteristics of, wJiat they tell us were, the principals t 
Tet, neither in tke Monasteries, nor in any other Christian struc^ 
ture, do we meet with those materials above described, either 
generally or partially ; except where the ruins of a neighbouring 
'' Round Tower^^ have made them available — ^which, in itself, 
is sufficient to overthrow, for ever, the anachronisms of those 
who would deny the existence of the Round* Towers anterior to 
the Christian aera. 


called by the Irish^ Tlachgo^ which some would de- 
rive from the Irish word, tlacht, the earth, the world, 

But the sign of the crticifixion remains yet unanswered? 
and, DO doubt, my opponents fancy that it will remain so ; and, 
may more, unanswerable, unless attempted to be evaded by the 
pretext of interpolation^ No such thing. — Haud tali auxiUo, nee 
defensoribus istis tempus. eget. The genuineness of this emblem 
and of the other signs which accompany it, is at once the 
triumph of .my truth and ray diseorery. Do I mean to say 
that the crucifixion of Jesus Christ can bear any relation to the 
doctrine of Budhism? That is the question which ignorance 
will ask. Biit our Saviour was not the only one who was cru- 
cified for his faith. In my work upon the ** Round Towers/' 
1 have shewn that Budha» in whose honor those temples were 
constructed — ^was crucified also, in sustainment of a religion ^e 
very counterpart of Christianity, differing from it only in pri- 
ority of date. — And I have given, at the same time, an effigy 
of this idol, represeuting his godship in this attitude of cruci- 
fixion ; which, with two other effigies, all representatives of 
Budha — in different bearings of his incarnation — have been dug 
up in the bogs of Ireland, and reserved for me to develope and 

Struck with this extraordinary similitude between the 
Christian and the Budfaistical religions, the Jesuits •• who 
went to convert the Beduins on the coast of Guinea, Mada- 
gascar, Socotora, and the countries thereabout — and unable, 
furthermore, to account for the veneration which those heathent 
universally paid to the crot»-— all of them, without exception, 
wearing it about their necks — while they celebrated^their divine 
service in Chaldee, a dialect of crar ancient Irish— concluded. 
most absurdly, that Budhism must have heem a modification of 
Christianity before promulgated, — whereas Budhism was pro* 
pagated many thousand years before Christianity, or Brah- 
minism dther ; and this cross was the symbol of Budha erueified. 


But it more properly comes from the Phoenician, 
thlal, he exalted^ in conformity with the elevation 
of those edifices. Nay, the word, clogha itself, the 
Ibemo Celtic denomination thereof, appears to me of 
Phoenician origin, from clach^ he shut up, in reference 
to the fire ; for the Phoenicians called these fires, 
cammia, from, camas, hidden ; because that in them 
was preserved the fire concealed. See Collect, de 
Reb. Ibem. p. 308. From the Greeks, the prac- 
tice of worshipping fire passed to the Romans, who 
worshipped it under the name of Vesta ; for it is 
past dispute that by Vesta, or the Grecian Estia, was 
meant not only Cybele, but also a public hearth, or 
fire place. But as all sacred names have been de- 
rived from the east, so were Estia and Vesta, from. 

It will readily be believed, therefore, that my indignation 
and my disgust were, in no small degree, excited, on reading an 
article in the ^< Dublin Penny Journal," written by Mr. Petrie^ 
representative of the antiquarian literature ? of the Royal Irish 
Academy — in which, having never once dreamt of BwJika or 
his crucifixion — he ignorantly attempts — but with a confidence 
which, in my ear;<, sounded as blasphemy — to identify the above 
image with that of our saviour Christ ! As I would fain hope, 
however, that this error was encouraged from any other cause 
rather than what has been broadiy affirmed^^^k pryudice to me 
personally 9 I forbear — for the present — saying more upon the 
point, as — having appealed iirom the tenor of the late decision — 
I have adopted a course to remove every pretext for incertitude 
and scepticism; after which^ if my just reward be withheld, 
or tficiomsly neutralized, I shall make no secret of the pro- 

1 f IIP^ IP m' 


es, fire^ and iah, one of the denominations of the 
deity ; tantamount to the '*God of fire/' or the '* fire of 
God." Means were taken also to preserve ever burn- 
ing the hearth of Vesta^ as the Romans appointed 
virgins to the superintendance thereof^ while the 
Greeks elected widows^ well stricken in years^ as best 
adapted to the office. Upon'whichTullius says, ''ves- 
tal virgins guard in the city the eternal fire of the 
public hearth." 

Besides the name of Urrin, Uregare, and Urglin, 
there occur others in the topography of Ireland 
which evidently borrowed their origin firom this wor- 
ship of fire ; Delgany for instance, or, Delgueny, as 
it is otherwise called, being the name of a village in 
the county Wicklow, Baxter conceives denominated 
from delgue, or delga, an old British word, signify- 
ing an idol or image ; whence the Delgovicia of An- 
toninus, the modern Wighton, he looks upon as equi- 
valent to ''the sacred image f — for there was a cele- 
brated temple belonging to some idol in a certain 
village thence called Godmundam, that is, the divine 
mouth. But to my mind, Delgany is a Phoenician 
name derived from, delkin, which means a burning 
fire, the root of which is, deleche, blazed or burned. 
From this worship also, would seem to be derived 
the name of the ancient district of Duleek, which at 
present forms both a barony and borough town in 
the county Meath ; for, in the S3rriac language, du- 
leek, signifies an immense fire. Thus in the Syriac 

version of the gospel according to St. John^ verse 
35, it is said, ''he was (dulek) a burning light/* 
From the same root was named the I^cenician town 
of Delica, amongst the Cantabrians in Spain. 

Aire-CaldacMaroc, the name of a district in the 
county Tyrone, seems to me to be compounded ci 
the Phoenician words, hair, he kindled a blazing 
fire; Caildai, a Chaldean ; and, chiric, an enclosed 
place, or chirac, a citadel ; intimating altogether, a 
fortified place, where the Chaldteans— the name by 
which the Phoenicians designated idl magicians and 
soothsayers — used to worship the sacred fire. Ac- 
cording to the testimony of Strabo, as we have just 
before observed, the fire temples consisted of immense 
enclosures, in the centre of which, upon an altar, was 
preserved the perennial hearth. From the word, hair, 
too, which indicates the worship of fire, it is pro- 
bable that the Phoenicians had designated the town 
of Airoa, in the county of the province of the Bri- 
gantes in Spain; as also that of Aireje, Aireja, Airesa^ 
and Aireche amongst the Lucanians, who were also 
a colony of the I%oenicians. 



The worship of Bctal in Ireland — Various names of Baal--* 
The Baby Ionic Bel — The Edessenian^^The Phtenician — 
Jupiter Thalasius — Bel with the Celts meant Sol — Whence 
the Irish designated the first day of May — Origin of the 
word Grian — Grange Mountain — Greenfield — Green Island 
— Green Mount, 8^c. — The Cities, Countries and Nations 
that derive their name from Baal'-^Origin of the names 
Mems, Foggart, Feighe, and Feigh-^Meanmg of BaalL 

There are innumerable luunes in the Irish topo- 
graphy, which point out to the eye the extensive 
prevalence, at one period, from one part of the king^ 
dom to the other, of the Phoenician worship of Baal^ 
who was tbe prindpal deity of that peo^b. Some of 
tlM>se places b^in with the singular Bal or Bel, and 
Bally or Baily : others by the plural Balin and Ballin^ 
or Bailim, There are» I know, those ndio derive all 
these from the Lridh^ ball or bail, a place, coast, or 
mai^n; or from, balla, a wall or fortification. This 
may be true of some of th^tn, but by fivr tl^ greater 
part of them, if not evidently, at least, very probably. 



savor of the worship of this idol. But though my 
intention is to shew this more fully in my forth- 
coming work on the Phoenician Geography of Ire- 
land, I flatter myself that my learned readers will 
not think I trespass upon them too much, if, in the 
interim, I give them a few as a specimen. 

Baillie Boroug, a town in the county Cavan, pro- 
vince of Ulster, beside a fort of the same name. 
Very probably, this may come from the Irish words, 
baill, grateful, delightful, pleasant; and borg, a dis- 
strict or village, corresponding to the Teutonic 
borough; or from the Phoenician words, ballei, 
ancient; or ballia, the same in the feminine; and 
barg, a tower ; or barga, a villa, a hut, which were 
in use amongst the ancient Persians and Chaldaeans ; 
but now they are not read of but amongst the 
Arabian writers. 

Yet I look upon it as more likely, that, Boroug, is 
a corruption of the Phoenician word, borac, implying 
genuflexion, from barac, he bent upon his knees ; and 
that Baillie, too, emanates from Baal, under whose 
veil the Phoenicians worshipped several idols, of which 
we will discuss a little more diflfiisely when oppor- 
tunity shall o£Fer, because that very many of our Irish 
towns and little villages have been denominated after 
them. The Sidonian Belus, the Phegorian Belus, and 
the Babylonian Belus, were almost the same in reality 
as the Jupiter Oljrmpius, Jupiter Latiaris, Jupiter 


Cretensis ; or the Apollo Clarius, Apollo Delphicus^ 
Apollo Selinnutius, &c. &c.* 

The word Bel, omitting the letter, a, after the 
manner of the Chaldeans, was peculiar to them and 
the Babylonians. Thence the Greeks and the Latins 
indiscriminately call the Phoenician Baal, Bel — utterly 
regardless of Eastern dialects. Perhaps the temple 
of Belus, the ' Babylonian, was the '^ great house,** 
which Periegetes mentions, that Semiramis erected 
to Belus in the Babylonian citadel. Bel was wor- 
shipped from the earliest times at Edessa, a city of 
the Phoenicians; as was also Mercury, whom they 
name Monimus; and Mars, whom they name Azizius, 

* The primitiye religion of the Greeks, like that of all other 
nations not enlightened by Revelation, appears to have been 
elementary, and to haye consisted in an indistinct worship of the 
sun, the moon, the stars, the earth, and the waters, or rather of 
the spirits supposed to preside over those bodies, and to direct 
their motions and regulate their modes of existence. £very 
river, spring, or mountain, had its local genius or peculiar deity ; 
and as men naturally endeavour to obtain the favor of their 
gods by such means, as they feel best adapted to win their own, 
the first worship consisted in offering to them certain portions 
of whatever they held to be most valuable. At the same time 
that the regular motions of the heavenly bodies, the stated re- 
turns of summer and winter, of day and night, with all the 
admirable order of the universe, taught them to believe in the 
existence and agency of such superior powers ; the irregular 
and destructive efforts of nature, such as lightning and tempests, 
inundations and earthquakes, persuaded them that these mighty 
beings had passions and affections similar to their own, and only 
differed in possessing greater strength, power, and intelligence. 


as yon may see in a hymn to the sxxn, composed hy 
Julian the Apostate^ who acknowledges that the 
sentiment and the information he^e alluded to^ was de- 
rived from Jamhlicus the Syrian^ who had been once 
his preceptor. As hearing reference to this Phoenician 
Belus^ it is that we are to understand what is said 
in the II. Kings^ xvi. 31, 32^ where King Achah in 
c(Hnpliment to his father-in4aw> Ithohoal^ King of 
^tkko Sidonians, is recorded as haying consecrated a 
temple to Baal in Samaria, called Beth Baal, that is 
the shrine or dbapel of Baal. But the Syrians have 
handed down from age to age> that this Belus, who 
was called the Jupit^ Thalasius, or Marine Jupiter 
xd the Sidoiuans> and who, Hesychius mentions, had 
been worshipped in Sidon :— the Syrians, I say, have 
a tradition that he had descended frtrni this latter 
place, which was a maritime and flourishing com- 
mercial city of Phoenicia. The Europeans called 
Belus by the names of Zeus* and Jupiter, as applied 
to whom we are to receive that sentence in the first 

* As the maiotenance of order nod »iibordiiiatio« »noiig men 
required the authority of a supreme magistrate, the oontiouatioD 
and general {NredomiaaQce of order and regularttj ia tba wiiverae 
tFould naturaUy suggest the idea of a supreme God^ to whose 
soveriga control all the rest were suliyect; and this ineffable 
personage the primitive Greeks appear to have called by a name 
expressiTe of the sentiment, which the contemplatbn of his 
great characteristic attribute naturaUy iniq[>ired, Deu$, signify^ 
ingi according to the most probable etymology, reverential fear 
or awe. Their poets, however, soon debased hia dignity^ and 


Mneid, where it is «w4f that ** he filled with wine a 
goblet, which Belu& and all descended from Belus^ 
were accustomed to fill ;" for the CartJiaginians had 
sprung from Phoenicia, and the poet is here speaking 
of the libation of Dido, their queen. Stephanus also 
relates, that there was a temple in honour of the 
Carthaginian Belus or Baal, in Balis, a city of Lybia. 
Bel, in its diminution from Belin, meant, with the 
Celts, Sol or Apollo; which they borrowed firom the 
Phcenicians^ the authors of this superstition, and to 
whom Baal, Beal or Bel expressed the sun, which 
they originally worshipped with human sacrifices, as 
we have mentioned, afterwards substituting the brute 
creation. Hence the first day of May, in Irish, was 
called La Baal teinne, that is, the day of the fire of 
Baal ; and several of our Irish mountains still retain 
the name of Cnocgreine, that is, mountain of the 
sun ; in mmibers of which you may yet see the ruins 
of heathenish altars and chapels; for the sun is sup- 
posed to have be^i called Grian, Gren^r, or Gren-or^ 
in Irish, from the cu-cumstance of the worship paid 
thereto ; which accords with the Grynean Apollo of 
Homer, and Grynaeus, a town of Asia Minor, where, 
as Strabo asserts, is a temple, and an oracle, and a 
grove sacred to Apollo, and celebrated for their an- 

made him the subject of as many wild and extravagant fables 
as any of his subject progeny ; which fables became a part of 
their religion, though never seriously believed by any but the 
lowest of the vulgar. 


tiquity, together with their other attributes. To 
these we may add the river Granicus^ as called also 
from the sun, since its source lay in mount Ida, 
which was sacred to Apollo, and where the Idean 
stone was preserved, upon which Homer asserts that 
Hector was in the habit of sacrificing. From the 
43ame worship of the sun was named Grange, a con- 
secrated mountain near Drogheda, formerly Tredagh, 
which is a town in the county Louth, where O'Conor 
testifies is to be found a circle of immense stones,^ 

* This extraordinary monument or pyramid, or rather sub- 
terraneous temple, which is now but a ruin of what it originally 
was, covers two acres of ground, and has an elevation of about 
seventy feet; but its original height was not less than one 
hundred. It is formed of small stones, covered over with earth ; 
and at its base was encircled by a line of stones, of enormous 
magnitude, placed in erect positions, and varying in height, 
firom four to eleven feet above the ground, and supposed to 
weigh from ten to twelve tons each. Of these stones, ten only 
remained about fifty years back ; and one has since been re- 
moved. About a century ago, there was also a large pillar 
stone, or stele, on the summit of the mount, now also destroyed. 
These stones, as well as those of which the grand interior 
chamber is built, are not found in the neighbourhood of the 
pyramid, but have been brought hither from the mouth of th 
river Boyne — a distance of seven or eight miles. The stones of 
which the entire structure consists, 'are of great size: those 
which form the lintels or roof of the gallery, are but six in 
number; and, of these, the first is twelve feet four inches long, 
the third eighteen feet, and the fifth about twelve feet; the 
breadth of these stones is not less than six feet. The tallest of 
the upright ones forming the entrance to the recess, is seven 
feet six inches in height, and its companion seven feet. The 


and other vestiges of idolatry, of wonderful magni^ 
tude, as appears^ also, in the descriptions of Llhuydh 
and Pownall. These and other such vestiges of the 
sacrificing priests, are even at this day called Leab 
thacha na bh Peine, or the monuments of the Phoe^ 

From the sun's worship, too, it would seem that 
Greenfield, which is situated by the banks of the 
Blackwater, in the county Cork, had obtained its 
name ; as well as Green-Island, which lies in Dona** 
ghadee harbour, in the county Down ; Green-Mount, 
a town in the county Louth ; Green-Hills, which 
are the summits of certain mountains in the county 
Kildare. But we should observe, that hill, i^hich 
with us means a mountain, meant with the Phceni-^ 
cians, an idol, and was spelled with one, 2. The Irish 
word Grian or Green, too, — ^the sun, — is derived fi-om 
the Phoenician Krew, the sun's ray or splendour. 

Hence the Irish call the zodiac or sun's revolution, 
by the name of Grean bheach ; and a sun dial, by 

vase or urn within this chamber^, is three feet eight inches in 
diameter ; that in the opposite chamber is displaced from its 
supporter : these urns are of granite. On the first examination 
of the interior, a pyramidial or obeliscal stone, six or seven feet 
in height, is said to have stood in the centre, near which the 
skeletons of two human bodies were found ; and about the same 
period, two gold Roman coins were discovered on the top of 
the Mounts the one of the elder Valentinian, and the other of 


the naipe of Grian clog, that is^ a solar dock ; to 
this I refer the names of Cooc Greine and Tuam 
Greine, that is, hills of the sun ; very many of which, 
as the Irish writers attest, were remarkable for idol- 
atrous altars ; Aois^reine, called Cnoc-Greine, from 
the hill of the sun, lying in the county Limerick, up 
to the ^burbs of the very city. And although Aois 
may well be derived, as O'Ccmor imagines, from the 
Irish word Aos, whidi signifies a religious sect or 
society, because there formerly a certain leading sect 
of the Druids waa worshipped, or paid wor^^p them- 
selves ; yet the Irish word, aos» itsdi^ most^ derived 
either from the Phoenician, aoK,he assembled; or, aos, 
he yi[as assembled. Likewise the name of that Druid- 
ical altar, called Granny's* Bed, near F^eraioy, in the 
county Cork, is supposed to have been corrupted from 
Grean Beac^t, whidi is usually interpreted, the sun's 
circle. I prefer, however, the word, bed, which is, 
the Phoesidan, beth* meaning a hcmse, a shrine, a 

The Phoenicians named some of the cities of their 
country from the name of Baal ; for instance, Baal 

* Caile, or 6raimy,» that is, ^'old hag," the name of a 
giantesfty who devoured all the children of the neighbourhood, 
corres^nding with the destructine goddess, Calee^ of the 
Brahmins, whose neck is ornamented with a chain of human 
skulls, desci^ptiye of the hinnan sacnfices which wese ammaUj 
offered to her in Hindostan. 


Mepn^ mentimiad in Numbei^ xxkU. 38 ; Baal Htt* 
mon, in Canticles viii, 1 1 ; Baal Zephoo, in Exodus 
xiy. 8 : for tbe $tor jr of Aben flrzra is, tbat thia idol 
was constic^cb^ hf Pharjoah'<$ Magi> la ii^itation of 
tlfte posjjtioa of |;he Wv^y badies^ a^d pli^ced beaide 
the AraJbie Gulpfa^ with a view ito x^erve and reta]:^ 
the Isi*aeUte6,-^laeing yested with the po^er lOif hi' 
vdiglJBg th^n o» thehr fxmph, and .diyei\tii^ i^mt^ 
oourse jQcom tibyedr b€fty^n^^«rddJP»ed eoteiprise. The 
HMeBidiajafi^ aJso^^y^e the name of^ Baal Gad, to a part 
€f Mount Lehaaus, hegimxing m^lm the proehiets »qI 
their jowu jui^a^liotioii, under Tfr^, jafiie^wards calkd 
iSibel ; and fb» iplain .of JmdiK)> they qaljed Baisd 
Thaoaar, as you w^otuld s^ jihe p^i^^oye ^f Baal : 
for, Jeoioho, ^i^ W^^ .cji^kKi Thamar, qr )the flity <rf 
palms, from the numerous plantations of this Mnd 
mth which it was jewr<>B^d aud arnani^uted. Of 
this i^hcBiiici^n m^t^^ of cpu&ieciriiti^g tp iBaal ithe 
names ^ qitifis m^ ^i peppk ^Spai^ ^Ul retains evi- 
dent pcoc^, m the names of Balin and Balina, towns 
hetong^ Jt9 the AJSture? jmd .the Qallicians; as it 
dees, also, in BaHmana, ^ village <of JCeltibeiHa. 
Madrid had formerly a gate, opposite to the river 
Manzanares, named Balnadu, comp^isip^ in its for-^ 
mation, the Phoenician, Baalin duh, )that is, the riyer 
dedicated to Baal; or be^de the temple of Baal; 
which J. shall .also prove, in ,its proper plfice, to be the 
etjwQlogyjd JDi$biin. Slo ^^iso ]^lie 3woug would 



seem to have been a town or temple of Baal ; or 
SLs, bending the knee before Baal.* * 

But it is not only to the names of places and 
cities^ but^ abo^ to those of men^ that we can ad- 
duce the most copious instances to show^ that the 
name of Baal was added as an honorary adjunct. 
Certainly, we may trace it in the final syllable of 
those ancient and distinguished Carthaginian appel- 
latives — Annibal, Ardrubal, and Adhubal. The 
Easterns, too, have very often modelled their names 
after the same plan, as we may see in the first sylla- 
ble of Beladane; the last of Ethobale; and several 
others of the same kind. And Daniel, the prophet, 
was called Beltzazar, that is, ^' according to the name 
of my God,'* as that tyrant, Nebuchadnezar, ex- 
presses it. 

That the Phoenicians had introduced into Ireland, 
as they did into Spain and other colonies, the worship, 
sacrifices, dances,f and other religious rites, instituted 

* The Burates celebrate a kind of sacrifice, twice or thrice 
a year, which consists in driving stakes through their he-goats 
and sheep, whilst they are alive, and planting them before 
their tents. They keep constantly bowing their heads to these 
victims, till they expire. 

f We are awakened from our first sleep by the sounds of 
tinkling instruments, accompanied by a chorus of female voices. 
I looked out of the window, and saw a band of thirty damseb, 
at least, come tripping towards us, with measured paces, and 
animated gestures. The moon shone very bright, and we had 


in honor of Baal/ is as clear as the noon*day, front 
numberless names of the topography of the country. 
The memory of this superstition is preserved to the 
present day, in the islands of Ebudae, Eboniae, or 
Evonas, situated in the Deucaledoni^n sea^ and 
whose number is not known, but called, by the Scoto- 
Brigantine Irish by the modern name, Inseu Gal, or 
the Brigantine Islands. For as Martin, who is by 
fiir the most accurate and most diligent describer of 
them, has shewn, it is usual amongst them to apply 
to persons, who happen to stand on the brink of any 
difficulties, the expressive proverb of their '* standing 
between the two fires of Belus ;" — ^alluding, of course, 
to the bloody sacrifices of youths and infants, who, 
in honor of this idol, as w6 have often before men- 
tioned, were cruelly burned between two funeral 
piles. Nay, more, the very word ^^ funeral pile " was, 
by the Anglo-Saxons, called Bael-fir ; and a priest, ^y 
the Aremorici, was designated Belec, as you would 

a full view of them, from their entering the gate of our street, 
until they reached our house. Here they stopped, and spread- 
ing themselves in a circle before the door, renewed the dance 
and sung with infinite spirit, and recalled to our minds the 
picture which is so fully given of these dancing females in holy 
writ. It seems that they took our house in the way to he 
river, where they went down to bathe at that late hour, and to • 
sing die praises of the benevolent power who yearly distributes 
his waters to supply the necessities of the natives. 

Irwin^s Voyage up tJie Red Sea. 


«ayi the minister of Bel or Baal. Whence, tooy may 
I ask, comes the Vulcan of the Romans, miless firofd 
the Syriae, Bel-canna^ which is the Celtic, Belcan, 
that is, the burning hot Bel or Baal ? 

Furthermore the Irish, Samhain, or sacred seasmi> 
appears to me to have origiilated from^ Shamain^ 
which was another name for Baal amongst the Pho^ 
niciahsi in whose language, Shamsaini litterally ex-» 
presses, thd heavens ; and, by Synecbdoche, the god of 
heaven, or tvho dwells therein^ An/ likewise, ih 
Irish, signifies a planet 5 and, samh, the sun ; whencd 
after the manner of the PhoBnician»i who looked upon 
the sun as the only gbd in heaveni as Phylo Bybli* 
ensis, the i]iterj[>reter of Sanch(Hiirfthon mentiMs^ they 
wcHTshipp^ this planet under the nltme of Baal^ 
Respecting whidi, Augmtine, oh Judge* xvi, saysy 
'' Th6 Carthagimans seem to call Baal, the Loidv 
Whence th^y are understood to say> Ba^l-^slmeli, »sl 
if, the lord of hedven-^the heatens with them bem^ 
called, samen ; '* where instead of, samain, we per- 
ceive that he uses, samen ; in conformity, perhaps, 
with the Phoenie^n dialect of that age. But tilis 
very ddty, Whi6h the Phdfetiiciatife i^led feeAl- 
samen, or lord of heaven, was no other, as Philo re- 
marks, than the Olympian Jove, or the Jupiter 
of the Gre^^ians, Ahd 6h^etf6 ttow the ofigift of thei 
Irish words, saihi, (the sun) and samhain, (sacred 
season,) for the sun's circuit round the earth, or 
indre {nroper ly, of the earth round the sun, is a mea- 


sure of time, and this measure, which they ascribed 
to their deity, they naturally looked upon as sacred. 
To this too, I refer the etymology of Merns, the 
name of one of the Scotch counties — one of its most 
fertile, I may observe, both for tillage and pasture. 
For what else is it, with a slight alteration, than 
Mamas, the idol of Gaza, a city of Palestine, by 
which name the Gazeans affected to worship Baal ; 
for Mar or Maran, in Syriac, if you look to the ages 
after the captivity, is interpreted the same as Baal ; 
hence in the Phoenician, mamas, or mamasa, means 
the divinity, or lord of mankind.* When the island of 
Crete adopted the worship of this idol, he was called 
by its inhabitants, Jupiter Cretensis ; so that you see 
the Cretans borrowed their Jupiter from the Phoe- 
nicians, not the latter from the former. And they 
transferred their idol Mamas, with their own an- 
cient name into the British isles. The same con- 
jecture gams countenance in Foggart, a town in the 
county Louth, province of Leinster ; for under this 
name there seems to lie concealed the idol Fegor, or 
Baal Fegor, which the Moabites worshipped, and 

* We read in I. Kings, xiz. that when Elijah the prophet was 
called upon, by the " still small voice,*' in the wilderness, he 
answered, that he only was left in Israel to worship the true 
Ood. But let us remember the reply ; ** I have seven thousand 
in Israel, who have not bowed the knees unto Baal, and mouths 
that have not kissed him." 


which St. Jerotne^ commenting on a verse in Hosea^ 
affirms "we may pronounce to have been" Pri- 
apus. Although others think the name derived from 
Fegor, a mountain in the country of Moab, opposite 
the desert of Jesimmon, in which Baal, or as 
Suidas calls him, Beal, had a temple and religious 
honors paid him, which may have been the origin, 
perhaps, of the Irishf words, feighr, a hill, and feigh> 
bloody, in aUusion to the human victims immolated 
to this idol. Finally, Bel, or Baal, is a name impi- 
ously given to other images also, whether of stars> 
or of heroes, the memory of which they would far 
rather cherish, and was to them more dear. 

But the Baali, here indicated, does not only mean 
Baal, but, my Baal, or my Lord, which name was 
originally given to the true God. The Israelites, 
with propriety and devotion, called God their Baal, 
before that God himself, from the frequent applica- 
tion of that name to profane divinites, forbad its 
farther use. That the Phoenicians had often used 
Baali for Baal, is evidenced by the very localities and 
local names of this country, for instance, Ballibofy, 
Ballyboughan, Ballibrack, Ballibur, Ballicary, Bal- 
tinglas, or Beal-tine-glas, a mountain in the county 

t Vet the chastity of the women, and the bravery of the 
men, are traits of the national character on which these people, 
not without justice, pique themselves. — Phihs. Surv, of the 
South of Ireland. 


Wicklow. Thiis was the great Beal-tiniie of the 
southern division^ in which were lighted fires by the 
idolatrous natives^ on the first day of May and Au-' 
gust respectively^ in honor of the sun. In its vici- 
nity are to be seen» to this day^ several altars and 
monuments of ancient superstition. The word is 
usually translated in Irish^ Beal-tinne-glass^ that is^ 
the custody of Baal's fire^ or the fire of the mysteries 
of Baal^ because of the fires then lighted by the 

From this worship of Baal^ or the Sun, and of 
Saturn — as also fi-om the veneration paid to Astarte, 
and to fire, for which the Phoenician colonists of 
Ireland, and their Druids, or sacrificing priests were 
Conspicuous beyond all the nations of the west — Ire- 
land was designated the *' sacred Island,"* by them- 

* The land of beauty and of grandeur, lady. 
Where looks the cottage out on a domain 
the palace cannot boast of. Seas of lakes. 
And hills of forests ! crystal waves that rise 
'Midst mountains all of snow, and mock the s«f», 
tietuming him his flaming beams more thick 
And radiant than he sent them. Torrents there 
Are bounding floods ! and there the tempest roams 
At large, in all the terrors of its glory ! 
And then our valleys ! ah, they are the hornet 
for hearts! our cottages, our vineyards, orchards — 
Our pastures studded with the herd and fold ! 
Our native strains that melt us as we sing them ! 
A free — a gentle — simple— A(mes# people. 



selTes^and by the Bards^* and by other states; and 
the first head-land which Resented itself to the Phoe- 
nicians oo their sail firom Cornwall to lem^^ was 
characterised by the epithet of the ^* sacred promon- 
tory .''f In Irish, the word ^ sacred/* or otherwise^ 
fid;al ^ island,^ is Inis*fail ; which originated from the 

* Of the ancient bards or poets, Lucan makes this mention 
in the first booke of his Pharsalia. 

** Vos quoque fortes anima, belloqne peremptas 
** Landibus in Ionium vates dimittis aev^um, 
** Plurima securi fudistis carmina Bardi." 

The wx>rd signified among the Gaules a singer, as it is noted 
by Mr* Camden, and Mr. Selden, out of Festus Pompeins, and 
it had the same signification among the British. Sir lohn Price 
in the description of Wales, expounds it to bee one that had 
knowledge of things to come, and so (saith he) it signifieth at 
this day, taking his ground (amisse) out of Locan's verses> 
Doctor Powell, in his notes upon Caradoc of Lhancanran, saitL 
that in Wales they preserved gentlemens armes and pedigrees. 
At this time in Ireland the bard, by common acceptation, is 
counted a rayling rimer, and distinguished from the poet. — 

Sir Jama Ware. 

The true origin of the word " Bard,^' howeyer,was as muchwn' 
known to Sir James himself as to any of the above authorities. It 
being but a modification of Boreades, the name of the ancient 
Irish priests, as I prove in my work upon the ** Round Towers.'' 

t Opposite to ** Hartland point, or Herculis promontorium, 
on the Irish coast, is *^ Carnsore point," which in Irish is equi- 
valent to " promontorium sacrum ;" for ** carne,'* from the ori- 
ental keron, " a horn,'' is usually applied to those sacred mounts 
or high places on which Pagan temples or altars were wont to 
be erected; and *'soire," corresponding to, surya, of the same 
import, in Sanscrit, signifies in Irish, *^ the rising sun," or the 


ptdphetie stode^ called liack-lail,* or fetone of destitty^ 
used by the aticient Irish Mngs during the ^seremdny 
of their coronation, a practice whidh continued up to 
the period of Murtogh Mac Earc, in the wxth cen- 
titty, who sent It to Scotland for the mote solemn 
iuaugursttion of his brother Fergus, the first founder 
of the Irish monarchy in Scotland. The epith^ 
sacredi was more aptly afterwards applied to this 
isle^ when — after extirpating thereftt>m all idolatrous 
usage9^ by th« eidiilirating announcement of the 
gospel of Christ,f It became in St. Bernard's words 
— -... f... . .. - . -.. 

eM«« Iti aiMkigy with tMift flame we find en tii« Atlamic^ tiot 
fat frdtft GibrAlMf^ that df Gape Sf . ViUdelit, Which Waft fbr^* 
matly defiottiktaladi *' Promotttdriutti saoriliii.'* 

* Ware, speaks of the fatal stofitf 6alkd Liafitll, <^ <' saxiitt 
ftHttle/' whidi tile Tuaiha Datidtfs hrmigbt with dt^m to 
IfekMidy attd wMch gvoaned when the kingtt w^nr seated 
on it at thMf €OfOfia)tio&# Thk stoae^ be netttioiii) was tent 
into Albania to be used at the coronation of Vctftia; diat 
Keneth had it placed in a wooden chair, in which the kings of 
Scotland sat at the time of their coronation in the abbey of 
Scone, whence it was transferred by Edward I., king of Eng- 
land, and placed in Westminster abbey. 

f We cannot but admire the omnipotence of God, and power 
of his grace, in the rapid conversion of this idolatrous nation. 
So sudden a change can only be attributed to him who has the 
power of softening the most callous hearts ; for it can be said 
with truth, that no other nation, in the christian world, received 
with so much joy the knowledge of the kingdom of God, and 
the faith in Jesus Christ. Nothing can be found to equal the 
zeal with which the new converts lent their aid to St. Patrick, 
in breaking down their idols, demolishing their temples, and 
building churches. — Mac Geoghegan. 


truly blessed and prolific in saints, yielding fruit 
many fold in the vineyard* of the Almighty, whose 
inhabitants, in virtue prospering-7~as with the impetus 
of an mundating tide — diffused the sweet odor of 
that celestial sanative, which they had themselves ex- 
perienced, into the remotest quarters of the habi- 
tijble world.f 

* Oh ! let the Christian philanthropist promote its general 
Mffntwn there; and, should no visible harvest crown his 
toil, yet his work will be with the Lord, and his reward 
with his God. But a harvest there will assuredly be ; for the 
fields are already white unto it : and glorious will be the ''day 
when he thatsoweth and he that reapeth shall rejoice together^ 


t Ver^ sanehu, fcBcmndumue tanctarwmp copiosudmk frucU-- 
ficani Deo: cujus incolae virtute florentes, quasi iimndaiume 
factd, Christi bonum odorem in exteras etiam naiianeg effkde-' 
nmi. — Bernard. 





Innumeris ab hospitsdibus Ibernis affectus beneficiis, et quod 
mihi, libris et M SS. codicibus spoliato, apprim^ cordi est, ad 
principes et ditiores Dublini bibliothecas admissus; en tibi, 
illustris Academta, quae patriis antiquitatibus elucidandis mag- 
noper^ studes, banc lueubratiuneulam, Ibernieae laudis ergo ^ 
me arreptamy in grati animi officium reverenter exhibeo. Pau- 
cula quidem alterius generis k penu meo depromere possem, 
cui ne otium unquam otiosum est ; sed nomini, instituto, et eru- 
ditissimo coetui tuo nihil mihi visum est quod propridis et con- 
venientiiis offerrem, qukm ardua haec excursio in remotissima 
Ibemiae tempora, si fort^ repererim inter spissas illius aetatis tene- 
bras, quae fuerunt gentes quae earn primitdis incoluerunt. Quod 
si non plen^ assecutus sum, (necenim in eyolyend4antiquitate» ut 
uebat Quintilianus, oec in notiti^ Tel rerom, yel hominum, vel 
temporum, satis operae insumitur) non injucundam tamen, nee 
inutilem banc commentatiunculam hujusmodi eruditionb culto- 
ribus futuram, vel ipsa laus, quam vos, laudati viri, pro huma- 
nitate et beniguitate vestrd, post censoriam opens animadyersi« 


onem, labor! meo contulistisy propemodam indicat. Nunc oro, 
ut quod k Tobis probatum est, comiter ezcipiatis. Valete qua- 
propter, Socii eruditissimiy et Academiae vestrae, atqae etiam 
Ibemiae gloriam laboribus ac studiis yestris amplificare, at jam 
laadabiiiter coepistis, alacriter pergite. 

DahmDubUni Idib.Jumi, ann. 1831. 

t^wmam^ --«*.. - _I ri-.j 



&C. &C. 


Scopus operis — Incerta Ibemus incolarum origo — Via earn tn- 
quirendi — Ardaa res est in prisca tempora penetrare — Hujus 
canatus specimen --Ibemue historiarum copia et fides — Iher^ 
nicB priorum gentium et locorum peregrina nomina — Unde 
petendum esteorum etymon — Gratus animus erga recentiores 
et veteres rerum Ibemicarum scriptores^ Non semper tutum 
est eos sequi, 

Priorum Iberniae incolarum, qukm vetus^ tarn incerta origo 
est, nee ratione satis concipienda. Qaamvis autem quae de iis 
fama celebrat, ea non prorsiis abneganda sunt ; ad veritatem 
tamen propiiis accedendi tutius iter est nominum originem ve- 
terum hujus insulae populorum et tribuum investigare; quae 
cerih, magni saltern ex parte, sicut in aliis orbis regionibus ac- 
cidit, eoTum genus, et stirpem, et patriam unde emigrarunt, ve- 
luti digito monstrant, Non dicam inconvulsa, sed aliquantula 
tamen huic expiscationi manet fides, cujus pretium non inani'^ 



bus Tilipendendum conjecturis, nisi potiora et magis autbentica 
accedant argumenta. Ciim enim res ardua sit, ut ajebat Pli- 
nms, vetustis novitatem dare, novis auctoritatem, obsoletis nito- 
rem, obscuris lucem, fastiditis gratiam, dubiis fidem ; etiam non 
assecutis voluisse, abund^ pulchrum atque magnificum es(. Id 
quod ego cordi habeas, aliquali reipublicae litterariae bono, fa- 
cile in id consilium veni, ut aliquid simile tentare, ne dicam 
perficere statuerim ; banc mod6 provinciam veluti otii litterarii 
causs4 suscipere non dubitans. 

Ciim ver5 ilia, quas super geographicis Ibemiae nominibus 
discutere in animo est, nee pauca, nee exigua sint, ac sedulo 
egeant examine, linguarumque orientalium et septentrionalium 
studio ; eorum specimen in priscis Ibernarum gentium nominibus 
et idololatrico earum cuitu interim innuisse sufficiat; rejectis 
quibusdam mearum conjectationum fontibus, qui praest6 esse 
possunt iis quibus banc Spartam deinceps omare libeat. AH- 
quantulam tamen gratia^i inire confido, si hujusmodi scrinia, 
muuuscuU instar, lam iis pr9&beaiu« qui ludicris levibusque <ure- 
pundiis assueti sunt, qukm iis, quibus cordi est gravis ac 
seyerus litterarum atque honestarum disciplinarum cultos. 

Dolendum san^ est, tot nebulis interfusum veterum Iberniae 
incolarum originis investigandi iter ; ciim aliks nusquam gen- 
tium alia natio antiquitatum ab omni aevo observantior, exac- 
tii!ks chronographian^, majorum facta, ditionum t?rminos» jurc^ 
et pmnem demum y^tust^(;is supellectilem qustodierit. Ut non 
immerit6 dixerit Camdenus ^* prm iliis Ibernicis historiis,, om- 
Vifim omnium gentium antiquitatem esse novitatem, et quod- 
amQio46 infant^iam." Huic obscuritati ansam praebuit raritas 
ipsa nomiftumj t^xn Iberniae gentium^ qu^ plyrium oppidorum^ 
Vrbiuo^ montium, lacuum, amnium, quae nihil habere videntur 
Qpmmune cum indigenarum idiomate. Adpo ut quod de ro- 
dibus et barbariis Hispaniae veterum incolarum et geographicis 


nomiiiibus gcripserat Strabo, liBguarum ignarus unde dMumpta 
' fuerant; id ipsum de Ibernicis repetit Rodericus OTIahertyus, 
vir ceteroqai docdssimus, et de Ibernieii antiquitatibus bene* 
meritus. Nam veterum hujas Insulse populorum nomina, quos 
Ptolemseus reeeDset, non minus sono peregrina yocat, qudm 
A mericani iraetus gentium. PUrumque etiam, addit, locarmn 
nomina Ausona^ vel Ausoba, Daurona, lernus, IsamDiuniy 
Laberusy Macolicum, Ovoca, &c. non mimu nolns incognUa 
mni. £t taDdem: Pauca locorum nomina nobis nota, non 
minus corrupia ac depravaia sunt, qudm ipsa loca vetustate 
exesa» Haec fort^ non diceret vir clarissimus, si hujusmodi 
nomina cam scaturigine contuliaset, unde emananint. 

Noatro enim vitio sit, qu6d obscura qusedam, et, at itadioam, 
arcana, in yeteribus Iberni« populorum, urbium, montium, 
amnium nominibus deprehendamus : plerumque Ter6 historio*- 
graphorum et antiquariorum culp4, qui sep^ clarissimb alioqui 
yocibus tenebras offundentes, etyma pro arbitratu deprayarunt 
60 scnstt quem ipsis placuit effingere. 

Rectiiii cL C. O'Connor (Rer. Ibemio. Script. Vet t. 1. p. 
slyi. seq.): ** Si singula nomina Ibernica, inquit, ^ Ptolemseo 
aenrata, cum Britannicis ab eodem seryatis conferamus, et pos* 
lea cum Hispanicis; long^ plura Hispanica esse fitteamur 
necesse est» atque ad tempora antiquissima referenda ; ideoque 
cum iis cooyenire, quae de yetustbsimis Phcenicum in Insuiam 
sacrum ezpeditionibiui superius relata sunt." Cayit ergo eru* 
ditus yir io eorum sententiam ire, qui quorundara antiquariorum 
fide freti, pen^ onmia prisearum Iberniae gentium et tribuum 
nomina Iberao idiomati consentanea utpote ab eo ducta, au- 
tumant. Alios laudo subactt judidi oriticos, qui partim ^ 
OeltiooduouBty'partim ^ Cambrico, partim etiam ^ Britanpico 
et y^teri Teu^KMiico. Sed nee in omnibus eorum sententiam 
probo; cilim mibi exploratnm sit multa, que eyidenter i 



Phcenicdi lingu^ ducta sunt, conari eos ex aliis fontibus 

Ita huUucinatus videturcl. Bulletug , qui insuis commenta- 
riis super Lingua Celiica, sinistra interpretatione cooatur ex e^ 
educere plura Ibernie urbiuBi» oppidonim, fluminum, &c. no- 
mina ; ut obscrvavit vir antiqultatum Ibemicarum peritissimus. 
Nee propii^s ad veritatem accessit, cl. Lkydtu in collatione 
lioguse Ibernics cum Cantabrin4: inter quas long^ minor affi- 
Ditas esty qu^m inter Ibernicam et Punicam. Omitto alios 
scriptores, qui perper^ geographica hujus insulsB nomina in- 

Nemp^ viri ali^ docti, non satis scrutati sunt linguae Phoe- 
niceae rudera, quae in his nominibus servaverunt vel ruriccelae 
ipsi, quibus yaftric^ hujus auctores ignoti erant: quod et in 
Hispaniae veteribus coloniis et nominibus geographiois nuper 
observavi, quae ut plurimum ex eodem fonte manasse, in meo 
geographiae Hispanicae opere demonstrare proposui. Nam 
qui ad punctum collimare contendit, is cert^ ^ scopo minus 
abenabity qu^m qui superficiem cireuiarem assequi contentus 
est. Ideo ad fontes usque Phoeniceos attingere ausim, si fort^ 
in illis veram et genuinam horum nominum rationem invenerim. 

Haec quoniam non praestitit vir ceteroqu) rerum Ibemicarum 
peritissifflus, suspicatur Phoenices tantum pro re nat^ ad Iberniae 
oram ut negotiatores appulisse, mercimonia peregrina advehen- 
di, vel importandi caussi; donee Britannia, ob ditissimas, 
quibus gaudet, stanni fodiuas, locus fuit eorum copiis ad con- 
yeniendum praescriptus. Ubi probabile existimat habitacula 
stabiliisse eorum obkctamenio, vel quasi mercatorum procura- 
tores. Sed haec tantikm durasse usque ad finem Belli Punici, 
quando Carthago deleta est, et Hispania k Romanis conquisita. 

Interea illud velim animadverti, noo improbare nos aliquot 
horum nominum Ibernicam originem^ im6 eam fateri ingenu^. 


Id tantiim ostendere nitimur^ plura ex lis, qu^ Celticis vel 
Britannicis vocibus confecta creduntur, altidis esse repetenda, 
ex Phoeoicum nempe lingu^, qui primis temporibus, id est, non 
long^ ab in^essu Israelitarum io terram Chanaan* ad Africa 
et Hispanise primdiniy ei exinde ad Ibeniiae litora peryenerunt* 
Ad hoc nobis adnitendum est : hoc opus nostrum est palmari- 
um, Phoeniceas scilicet has scaturigines indigitare, et ex iis 
spontaneum ortum fulcire : ut pal^m omnibus fiat, eos qui re- 
motissima Phienicum saecula penetrare negligunt, non satis esse 
aptos ad inreniendam reram antiquorum Ibernis incolarum 
originem : mindis autem ad placita sua codfirmanda, et ad 
contraria refutanda vel eluenda. 

Fortass^ inde quis colligat, meo judicio fuisse Phoenices 
priscos Ibernise populos. Atqui non mod^ instituenda est 
mihi super hoc disputatio. Novi quae de Aboriginibus seu 
Gigantibus scripsere quidam yeteres, et de eorum cum Partho^ 
lanis bellis cruentissimis ; et tandem de postremo Gadelianorum 
seu MUegianorum adventu ex IberuB oris. !Nec amplector, nee 
respuo quod scribunt Ibernarum antiquitatum solertissimi in- 
dagatores, primos nemp^ Iberniae incolas h yicinioribus com- 
migrasse ; et longo post intervallo temporis suas in e'^ colonias 
statuisse Phoenices, Gaditanos utique et Tartesios. Super his 
et aliis Iberniae antiquitatibus percurri quas ad manum habere 
potui veterum ac recentiorum lucubrationes. Sunt quaedam, et 
non pauca inter eas magni pretii^ quibus fateor me valde ad- 
jutum. Hie enim est fructus, quern ex excellentium virorum 
laboribus percipit modesta sollertia ; qui ideo nobis praeiverunty 

ut in spissis remotissimse setatis tenebris faoem succedentibus 
praeferrent, Non tamen in superioribus ita oculi defigendi, ut 
propriis etiam gressibus non attendamus. Per illas enim qui- 
dam incedunt aliquando semitas^ in quibus non tutum sit eos 
sequi : id quod et ego hie eavi, saepe vias pariim tritas seeutus. 


Sicut autem Inec tentavit ante me neno ; sic indiillaraB iriiM 
doctos spew, si quid in hisce commeotariolts prK ter miserini, 
quae ad etysiologi officiom pertinent In taat^ eftim neadnuai 
farragine facile est aliqnatn negligentiam irrepere^ quam liben* 
tids ignoscent docti Tiri, qui qu^ proclive sit hvjnsinodi is 
studiis defieere experimeoto didicerunt, qniuu ceteri, qoi sib- 
gnla in propatulo putant, et ut ipsi casu ab aKquo avdieniat^ 
ita eadem etiam nnicuique in numerato esse Tellent. Nam itt 
sunt varia et obsoleta hasc nominay indagstores eorum ortginia 
ssepe effugionty qui eikm in earn penetrare neqairent, ^firinaBdo 
et tentaado prop^, quaotom fas est, accedere, vel k long^ saltern 
indigitare curanint. Affizenint eis s»pe*numerd aemmm, son 
modb diversmn^ sed etiam adyersumi quemque ipsa incolarnm^ 
conditio, et regfonnm ant urbium sitos k Teritate aliennm de* 
monstrat. Non qudd ego quidquam detractum eis r^Aka, qoi 
ante me Ibeniicae Geographias ilhistrandft operam coniukenint 
Laudo conatas illornm; illi miy viam apwaenrnt. Siqoain 
ye ^ me sapeiati sunt, acceptnm id refero magvis ex ai^uitate 
▼iris, qnos majori cum cur4, raajore oert^ otio assido^ tero, ut 
eorum scatnr^;ine ingenioli mei hortulos inrigem. Nee ex lis 
esse fateor, qui nullo labori parcunt, dam aa^uorum vitia et 
iHeTos perrestigant, quique pulcberrima saepe inveota Texaat^ 
ideo tantikm, qnik quod laude dtgnum est, i genio eonim 


Iberniam metallorum yenis esse diyifem, ait CI. Jac. Waraeus 
XIHsquis, de tb^rmiei Antig. ejus cap. xxy.) quotidiana ex- 
perientia docet, speeiatitaii sunt ibidem altquae ptumbi fodinae^ 


qiiie iDixtein babent Ivcrosam sUgenii qiiuititotem^ Hadriftnu» 
Jt»n»^ ia Iberniae laudetti^ fedinas faasce pwri mtfmH vena* 
poiltici appellate 

Et puri argenti venaa, quas terra refosm 
VUceribus manes imos vuura redudii. 

Inde tot nummi aurei et afgentei in Ibernia percussi : inde scyphi, 
monilia, et alia id geuer'is pignora, de quibus in Teteribus hujus 
Insulse Annalibus frequens mentio occurrit, et quorum spe- 
cimen eichibuit Idem tVaneus toco laud. 


Ab idolorum sacrificulis parentes persuasos fuisse, unius 
morte, reliquos liberos hoc sacrificio ereptum iri, seque toti 
viti futuros prosperrimoSy affirmat judsus hispanus R. Levi 
Bareelonius. '* Falsi flamines, inquit, patri prolis spondeliant, 
beneficio oblati ilii reliquam ejus stirpem prosper^ habiturum, 
quocum qae se yettoret, adeoque domi satt locum habituram 
benedietioneiii et proaperitatem, Utque dolus facilius suc- 
cederety nuUam initio fizerunt legem, Bisi illi, eui praeter filium 
datum, alios stiper^sset, ne obsequiom detrectarmt, siye com- 
bitrendos plane ftierit filiua, sive tanttim tradttcoidas juxta 
quosdam intetpretes, perflammatii. Et ut certos eos redderent 
benedictionis et prospeHtatis in reliquis, sicqu^ his blanditiia 
commodius simpllces pellicerent ; acclamabant sacerdot^ patri 
Baerificanti.* IMeerUmt: duhveondimetttuti^erUiiHf^to.'' 


Ideo Vallis Bmntm joxta Hierosolymaniy ubi iiiim<dato» 
pueros coDstat, appellata est thaphet, ob tympanorum asum, 
quibus lamentabilem puerorum vocem, quae wduum (ragiens) 
erat, supprimerent, ne audireUir k parentibiis. Nam hebraeis 
thoph erat tympanum, d sono sic vocatum ut existimat Pas. in 
Navi Teiiam. Lexico, de rege Josia legitur Reg. IV . cap. xxiii. 
10. '* containinayit quoque Thapheth quod est in convalle Jiiii 
Ennom ; ui nemo consecraret filium suum aut filiam per ignem, 

Appellatus est etiam locus ille malcken^ qnod significat 
fwnum ad comfidendoB laiere$, sed ibi ad comburendam te* 
nellam setatem. 


Tellurem Mairit nomine k gentibus cultam, testis est Piinius 
( JI. 65.) : neque MatrU solium, sed magnm quoque ob idmiam, 
quam praestat uHlUatem. Nisi forte in hoc, siout in aliis bene- 
multisy sacr4 scripture abusi sunt, quae terram matrem omnium 
appellat (Eccli. zl. 1.) immemores deum esse gui magna fecit 
in omni terrd (Eccli. 1. 24.) Unde hofninumque deumque ceter- 
nam creatricem earn appellabant (Stat* thebaid. viii. vers. 304^) : 
almam parentem : tummam parentem, &c» Priscae enim gentes, 
post quam k Patriarcharum religione, yero Deo ex fide in pro- 
missum messiam sacrificantium, ad Idolomaniam, cum caec4 
sacrificiorum, defecissent^ et primaevam connatae de Deo Hub 
T^ro notitiae puritatem infecissent; ekmenta, ex quibus omnia 


eoalaidse arbitrabantur, yel pro NuminibuSy Tel pro Numinum 
symbolis coluerunt. £t inter haec maxim^ Terram, ^ qua origa 
ipsis^ et in quam soluta reyerterentur omnia, ut apud Platonem 
(Tim. Lib. IV.) ajebat Proclus. 

Qu6d autem Cibele, quae Mater Magna vel Mater Deum 
primiim fuerit, compluribus postea nominibus indigitata fuerit ; 
inde Deorum Matrem nomina in yeteribus aris reperta sunt, 
quarum mentionem invenire est in Plutarchi Marcello, et in 
Pausaniae Attids. Plurimas ex insculptis hisce aris in £urop4 
repertas prodidere Gruterus et Smetius. Sed et ejusmodi aram 
k se visamin Brigantibus meminit Camdenus, etiam ad majorum 
animalium sacrificia peragenda aptam. Hanc in Lancastria : 
alteram quoque habet in agro Dunelmensi : tertiae descripti-^ 
onem ad se missam, sibi ostendisse, asserit Seldenus. De Diis 
Syrm Syniagm. II. cap. 2.) 


Doctorum virorum sententia est, Scotos, seu Ibernos, Scy- 
tharum 'more, ante praelium, tum ad robur excitandum, turn ad 
hostes perterrendos, clamore Martio usos esse, Faragh, Faragh 
acerrim^ ssepe iterantes. (Warseus De Ibemia et Antiquit. ejus 
Cap. 11.^ Has autem voces h Phcenicibus mutuasse, mihi in- 
dubium est. Nam eorum lingua /araA significat lacerare, fran- 
gere, rumpere ; quod legioni in hostes irruenti apte dicitur, ut 
eos dissolvat, et abrumpat, faraa autem est liberari i jugo ser- 
yitutis, et ab injuriis hostium : tum et vindicari, ulcbci. Sic 


Hispani olitn ad prtsliUttl ^oAtr^ Saracenos (^ttBti3i» aeekolare 
solebant Santiago y & eUo$, quaii die^^Ht : In hottes irmanniB^ 
Jacob! Apostoli munimetle fulti. D^ rooibos aote pugBam 
Graecis et Romanis usitatis^ coasuU poBstmt 8u(<Ia% et AmauA-t 
nus Marcellinus Hb. iLtldi 

Nisi inalis Sacat a Perdm Skgikai app^Uales ob i^atadani 
in eos a Gyro primltus tep<Htatatii : quam Sucarum cladem 
Photius in Miriobib. Codt 78. librte Miectdaneis meaunit, lade 
dpinanlui' quidam origin^m htUiuissa fottuib Skeck^k Cjvo bad 
de causdft insdtutum, et sa^aiutn^ Anaiiidi, DiaDie a^iape 
Pergioae, quod num^ii eral (mtiittm^ IpMia aatem TictomL 
diem, nndfe festi initiam/ ^IMa^ ^liitrtoia 4 Gjrro^ ait J&mtaMmm 
(ad Periegetea), et AmdHdl dicMitt*. Addit Strabo (Xi;> 
abictimque hujus Numinis fanum enset, ibi «t aaatli^se mk 
sacra celebrarentur, velut bacchanalia interdidi noctaqua ad 
morem Scythicuro ordinata, compotantibus Tins feminisque et 
lascivientibus. Hsec sacra fiehant quinque diebus continuis, in 
quibus morem esse, ait Berosus Chaldaeus (ap. Athenaeum Dip- 
nosoph. 14.), dominos parere imperio servoruih : praesse autem 
familiae eorum unum, vestem regiae similem indutum, quern zo* 
ganen nuncupabant: nomen, cert^, quod Chaldiucam petit 
originem, nam in ea dialecto Sagan erat proetectus, proepositus. 
Cdns. Selden. De Diis Syris, Syntagm. II. cap. xiii. 


Figmenta sant etiam k viris doctis ^plosa, quae de Iberniei& 
lingue origine narrant quidam, cujus auctoi'em fuisse etiistimant 
Gaidhelum hunc, seu Gaoihelum, k qUo GaoHc, sen OeoHc appel-* 


ata est, qua si ex casteris linguis desumpta; turn et Ibenios ipsos 
GwydhiU nomioatos ; quamquam haec Hmnfredi Lhuidi Cftm« 
bro-BritaDoi senteiitia est in Fragmento Britaniae deicriptionis. 
(Cons. Jac. Waraei Ditfui», De Jbp^id, tt Aniiq. ejus, cap. I.) 
Sunt qui existiment nomen cualemalec quo olim appellatam 
putant linguam Ibernicam, ductum k nomine culamuam, quo 
antiquitus vocatam fuisse Iberniam, asserunt. Sed si yenim 
6st linguam Ibernicam sic olim dictam, quod in suis coUedaneis 
hUtoricU docuit Thadaeus Dowlingi Phoeniceae esse originis hoc 
nomen probabile duxeris. Nam Syrophoeniciis calam vox est, 
sermo, oratio : hake, viator ; adeo sponte fluit viatorum seu 
exterorum linguam, esse euatemdlee. 


Ante divisionem imperii in Assyrios et Syras, ab Aram, Semi 
filio, dictos esse Syros Aramseos, testantur FL Josephus et 
Strabo. (lib. xvi.) Hoc nomen apud Syros desiisse deinoeps 
ex hac causs^ quidam conjiciunt, quod nomen Aranuei pro 
gentili idolotri usurpatum fuit, ut in Gemara Talmud Babylo- 
nici) de idololatrio, ubi Samaritanus sive Cuthiens, medius 
ponitur inter Judaum et Aranueum, vel idololatram gentilemu 
Apud Onkelos Levit. Ixv. 4f . AranuBUs ponitur pro ldohlatr6. 
£t in versione Novi Testamenti Syriaca (Galat. ii. 14. et iii, 2.) 
pro gentibus et grtscis, legimus aramtBOS. Eruditam super hoc 
edidit Dissertationem M. Andraeas Beyerus in AdditamaUis 
ad Seldeni Syntagm. He DHs Syris, pag. 2. seq. 




Oe Romanis ait T. Livius (I. 22.) In bello Punico secundo, 
exfatalibus libris sacrificia aliquot extraordinariafedsse, inter 
quae Galium et Gallam, GnBCum et Gracam in foro hoario 
vivos sub terram demissos, ' 

Hodie, ait Minutius Felix^ a Romanis LoHaris Jupiter ho^ 
middio coUtur ; et quod Satumiftlio dignum est, mali et noxii 
hominis sanguine saginatur, 

Immanius est quod de infantis, materno utero exsecti et 
mactati sacrificio, legitur apud Lucanum (VI.) 

'^ Vulnere si ventris, non qui natura Tocabat, 
'' Extrahitur pcurtus, calidts ponendus in aris." 

Pratereo bustua^oias victimas in certaminibus funebribus, qui- 
bus litatum est mortuis ; et in Spectaculis mutu6 caesos, de qui- 
bus Tertullianus (lib. De Spectaculis, cap. xii.) Ludovicus de 
La Cerda (in IV. ^oeid. pag. 386.) aliique. Jure Romani, 
inquit Justus Lipsius (Lib. I.. Satumal. cap. viii.), quia gladi- 
atorum sanguine placari manes credebant, eaque prima ludicri 
caussa, hoc spectaculum dedicarunt crudo et sanguineo deo. 
Vid. Grotium de Verit, ReHgionis Christ, et Beyenim loc* laud, 
pag. 263. seq. 



Lucm dicius est, h. lucd etrusc^ voce, senem significante juxta 
Franciscum Sanctium (Minervae pag. 437.) Nam juxta Lucanum 
PharsaM, Lib. III. Lucus erat Umgo nunquam violattis ah 
(svo, &c. Claudianus etiam De laude StUicon. Lib. I. 

• • • • Lucosque vetusta 

Religioue triwes, et robora numinis instar 

Barbarici no9tr<B feriant impune secures. 

Truces dixit, propter victimas humanas. Robora Ter6 numi- 
nis instar barbarici, yocat Deos arbores, de quibus Seldenus, et 
alii ; si?e quercus superstitioni dicatos, de quibus Plinius, Lib. 
XVI. cap. ult. et dos in praesenti capite. 

Alii Lucos dictos credunt per antiphrasin, quasi miDim^ lu- 
ceant. Alii h conyerso, quia maxim^ luccaut, religionis causs^. 
(Vid. Scalig. Poet. lib. III. c. 90. et Vbss. Etymolog. p. 296.) 
Erant haec omnia nequitise et spurcitiae latibula, diaboli con- 
sistoria, in quibus libtdini sub specie religionis yacabant. De 
quo legi merentur Dilher. (t. 1. disp. 127.) ubi agit de Meretri-^ 
cibussacris; et Selden. (loc. laud. Syntagm. II. cap. 27, p. 237.) 
ubi de Yenere Babylonica, quae k Cbaldaeis Regina ccehrum 

De yeteribus Ibernis narrat auctor De Statibus Imperiorum, 
pag. 44. genua flexisse ante Lunam noyam, ei dicentes : Ita 
nos salvos degere sinas^ sicuti nos invenisti. Vana idolatrarum 
superstitio juxta diei praesidem, noctis quoque Lunam, utpote 
inter planetos tena& proximam, et influxu suo uotabilem coluit 


(Y. Hevelius in Selenographicu, pag. 202.) Tempore ejus 
defectus, quantud fuerit eorum timor^ quantaque trepidatio, vel 
ex Tacito (1. Annalium) constat. £t quando deficiebat, ejus 
lumen aeris sono et tabarum, cornuumque concentu revocari 
posse stult^ sibi persuadebant. Hane veterum consuetudinem 
produnt Jacobus Andraeas Crusius (De node et noctumis offidis. 
Cap. IV. pag. 106, 107.) et alii. Etiam num k pluribus fer^ 
omnium teme partium colitur Luna ut divinum numen : ab 
Indorum benemultis sub nofloune Sehendra : sub aliis nominibns 
a barbaris Africanis et Nigritis maritimis^ a Conganis, Anzi- 
charis, turn k sCieciae populis subpolaribus, Catainis, Tartaris, et 
Samojedisy Hujus SelenolatruB vestigia reperta sunt etiam in 
insulis Java Majore, Moluccis et Philippinis. Lectu digna 
sunt quae da hoc argumento litteris mandarunt Rircherus ((Edip. 
.3Sgt/pU torn. 1. lib. V. cap. iv. p. 416. seqO Barlaeus (De 
rebus j^esiisnUfMaur^ pag. 62.^ Gottfredus (Historia Antipodar, 
P. I. pag. 30.) 

Ibernorum morem servabant etiam Roman! qui solemn! ritu 
JuQonem invocabant Carthiginiensem, Lunam alloquenties. 
Calantes, nimirum, pontifioes nonas mensium, quod fieri soli- 
tum kalendis in eap!tolio, in Cur!^ €alabr4»claniabant : ^' Dies 
te quinque Kalo Juno noyella^ aut Septem d!es te Kalo Juno 
novella :" ut! auctor est Varro (De LinguA lat, lib. y.) Nisi 
pro Junone Janam substituas, ut suspicatur Seldenus. Nam 
Yarron! (De re rusHcd I. 37.) Jana, Luna, dicitur : et in ve- 
tustioribus excusiae (De re rusticd) non noveUa, sed coveUa 
legitur. CoveUa autem, Urania, sen caelestis interpretatur. 
Nam yeteres covum caelum yocabant, ut auctor est Sextus 
Fompeius. £t Uraniam, sen Lunam, quam k Poenls accepe- 
rat, yeneiatus esse yidetur Massanissa^ Numidarum rex, dum 
Juno nis fanum magno honore prosequutus est in Melit^ insult ; 
quod ex Cicerone constat (in Yerrem Act lY.) Unde coelestem 


luuio Venerem, sive jAmam vocabant Assyrii MylUaon^ ab 
Arabibus diffidentes^ qui earn venerabantur sab uomine Alilatf 
et a Persis, qui earn vocabant Mitram. Mylita autem vox esc 
duota ab Arabic^e Mylidath, genitrix : Alilat arabibus etiam 
Imm est na$c€m et noctiltica, Cui affine est nomen Lilithf quo 
Z«»am vocabant Judsi; a lilah, nox. (V. Seldeo. De DiU 
%n« Syntagm, II, cap. 2« et M. Andreae Beyeri Additam. 
in hunc loc) ; 

£x hoc Lmps cprnicnlantis cultu^ qui apud veteres Saracenos 
sen agarenos iqv^luit, Mahumedanorum fort^ superstitiosus 
ritus ortus est^ qui summis Meschitarum et turrium fastigiis 
lunulas imponunt. In hon6reni quippe suae Cabar, id est, 
magna deas, quo nomine Lunam seu Fenerem venerabantur, ut 
mox dicemus, insignia ilia antiquitus collocata et sacrata, doc- 
torum virorum sententia est. Quamquam alii volunt colocatus 
k Mahumedanis has Lunulas in memoriam Hegirce, id est, fugae 
Mahumedis ex Mech^, quae accidit biduo post verum Lurue 
coitum, in initio videlicet, mensis Muharam, et anni arabici 
lunaris, corniculante jam Lund, (V. Scaliger De emendate 
tempar. Can. II. III. et Selden. loc, laud, Syntagm, 11. cap. 
iv.} 3ed HegirA yetustiorem Lunularum apud Saracenos 
honorem fuisse, vel ex eo colligi potesi, quod Lunul<B priscis, 
Ismaelitarum regibus, eorumque camelis, uti singularia erant 
ornamenta, et vel uti gentis symbola. Unde de Gedeone post 
quam occidit ?eges Zebee et Salmana, legitur (Judic. viiL 21.) 
Et tulU (Schahoronim) am^menta ac builas, quibug cotti rega^ 
Hum camehrum decorari aok»t Haec autam omammta erant 
Lunae similia : bulla in modunti Lunae rotundaa : quas postea 
(v. 26.) voc^t torques aur^oit emnel<^rum» Unde arabes appel- 
lant, iSpAvor, Lunam, oiirculum : — -turn et mensem, lunationenu 
N^c inverisimile est ab iis tulisse nobiles Romanos morem ha- 
beiidi in calceis notam Lwm^, unde Lu$ufio8 se esse glonabantur. 


Indh fortass^ Asartai pluraliter dicebantur, quemadmodum 
reperire est apud LXX. Seniores (Judic. ii. 13.) Niim, ut 
plures Junones, ait Seldenus (loc. laud. Syot. II. cap. 2.) Plu* 
res Veneres, Deas Syriae plures ob simulachronim mulUtadinem 
erant ; ita et Astartes plures. Id ipsum pen^ dixerat D. Au- 
gustinus (ad Judic ii. quasi, x?i.) " Juno, inquit, sine dubi- 
tatiooe, ab iliis (k Poeois) Asiarte vocatur. Et quoniam istae 
linguse (Phoenicia et Punica) non multum inter se differunt, 
inerit6 creditor de filiis Israel hoc dicere Scriptura, quod Baali 
servierunt et Astartibus : quia Jovi et Jun^miims, Nee movere 
debet quod non dixit Astarti, id est, Junoniy sed tamquam muU 
tae sint Junones^ pluraliter hoc nomen posuit. Ad simulacro- 
rum enim multitudinem referri yoluit intellectum ; quoniam 
unum quodque Junonis simulacrum Juno yocabatur : ac per 
hoc tot Junones, quot sunt simulacra inteliigi yoluit." 

Jocelinus, monachus Cisterciensis coenobii Furnessensis apud 
Lancasterienses in Vita S. Patritii, cap. 96. tradit Loegarium, 
filium Nelli, regis Iberniae adorasse idolum quoddam appella- 
tum CaencroUhi, id est, caput omnium deorum, '* e6 quod, 
inquit responsa dare putabatur k populo stulto." Sunt qui du- 
bitent an eo nomine Apolhnem Iberni intellexerint sed forte 
cean fuerit Satumus, quern Hebraeis dun, etceuan, lingu^ Isma- 
elitic^ appellatum Persis et Arabibus, ex Aben Ezrae testimonio 
constat : unde facile hoc nomen Phoenices, Saturni cultores, 
trahere potuerunt. Sub hoc nomine coluisse prayaricatores Is- 
raelitas Satumum nnk cum Moloch, testatur Amos Propheta : 
qui ctim dixisset : Portastis tabemaculum Moloch vestri (Amos 
y. 26.) addit: et dun, imaginem vestram: cujus loco habet 
yulgatus interpres : Et imaginem Idohrum vestrorum. Sed 
Aquila et Symmachus retinuerunt yocem Ciun, pro Rempham, 
in yersione allocut)onis B. Stephani Protomartyris (Actor, yii. 
43.,) qui hunc locum Amos laudayit ad redarguendam senionim 



judaic! populi et scribarum duritiem. Sunt qui in Domine Cmn 
reperire opinentur nominis Chon vestigium quo Hercules, ^gyp- 
tiorum lingu^ appeilatus est. Sed hoc nee Seldeno placet, nee 
satis, ut ostendit, hue quadrat, Satumum ?er6 cofirmant versio 
Novi Testamenti Coptica, turn consensus commentariorum cop-* 
ticorum in Caput. VII. Actuum, et Lexici Arabici coptici, 
quod Rephan, vel Rejnpham vocant Saturnum, Lunam esse 
opinatur Vossius (loc. laud. II. 23.) Victorinus Strigelius 
(pag. 369.) Hypamnem. Alii Syrii stellam, veluti numen cul- 
tam apud ^gyptios pro felici agrorum inundatione : quia circa 
Syrii ortum incipit Nilus ebuUire, ut dun sit quasi caniH : quod 
tamen vix Phoenicum theologia permittet. (Vid. Selden. loc. 
laud. Syntagm. II. cap. 14. et Addit. Beyer) in hoc caput : tuni 
et. Hotting. Smegm. Orient, p. 89. 

Croithi verb duxerim, vel k voce Phcenicea cret. vel creity 
thesaurus ; ut fuerit cean croithi thesaurus, vel ditissimum 
fianum Saturni: vel k gente Palaestin% bellicosissim^ crethi, 
yel cerethi, ex qua habuit David Satellites, sen corporis sui 
custodes (II. Reg, xv. 18.) et quorum pars cum caeteris 
Phceniciis k facie Jopiae fugerat. 

De alio Idolo, quod CloohorcB h lapide aureo responsa dare 
solebat, testatur Waraeus (ioc. laud. cap. v.) fieri mentionemia 
Regesto ClohorenHc, ClocJiora (mod6 Clogher prov. Ulster) 
existimant Ibernorum Antiquarii nomen duxisse a lapide aureo, 
plim dicto JAu fail, SMt. Lee fail, de quo sermo nobis est ad 
calceip capitis xxxiv. Clochora congruitcum vocibus Phoeniciis 
clo'Cor, imago in sere, auro, ^rgento, vel saxo sculpta* 

Plinii (II. 7.) testimonio constat Romanos morbis, et muUis 
etiatn pestilms, dum placandas esse trepido metu cupierunt, Araa 
erexisse: turn et publice Febrifawum in Palatio dicasse. Nee 
Paupertas h6c apud eos honore caruit, ob id Diva dicta, Ar- 
temque dignati sunt ut cam effugerent, teste iBliano (ap En? 

A ^. 


9iatliium io comment, ad Dionys.) Apud Romanes etiam et 
alias gentes babuerunt Aras Mars^ Tartarus, Senectus, iMctus, 
fames, Funus, Pavor, Dolor, Sopor, inoumera alia. (Cons. M. 
Andr. Beyer, ad Cap. III. Seldeni Proleg. Cap. V.) 


Cuidam cordati interpretes VaUem Hitmon (Jos. zviii. d.). 
Sive Ge-ben-Hinnon, vailisfilii Hinnon, vel Oe Hinnon (Jerem* 

▼ii. 31.) yallis Hinnon, dictum malunt potius, quara ex nomine 
proprio, nescio cujus Hinnon, Vallis ista erat locus infamis, 
ob foedam istam idololatraim, infantum Molocbo tostorum ulu- 
latus^ elaots sordes, et perpetuum ignem ; at que ad inferorum 
^orrorem reptmsent ardvm aptUdmus. (V. Dilherr. Eelog^ 
Soar, p. 129.) Quare et judaei Orcum, sive locum damnatorum 
usitatissim^ Gehinnon vocant. Est enim Infernus, uti yallis 
boc Hierosolymae erat, communis totius Orbis sendna, quo 
itidem confluzit omnis generis, atque omnimoda spurcities, qua 
•epeUendi improbi numquam morituri, perpetu6 flammis ustu- 
landi,, sicuti commune sepuicretum Urbb yallis ilia credita 
nonuUy est. Norn ixx. Seniores Jeremiad xix. 2. et 6. per 
h^mm ubi mulia iepulcra sunt, reddiderunt. Nee in hiferwum 
signi6cata salvator et scriptura ab bac voce abborret, nempe* 
§^t^ewaa ignu-'-gehiSKna (gnU inextingvildHi. (Marcix.44— 46.) 
Gofti. Ligbtioot Bor. Talmud, ad Matb. ▼. 2. 

A PbnenicibuB derivatam esse in Africam ad Pcenos, baffc- 
immokndorum bominuni oi^uscumquaB aetatis maxim^ impabe^ 
runii superstitionem, Dewrum pads expoicendof caundt constat? 


^x Curtto, Lib. IV. cap. 3. et Jastino, Lib. XVIII. cap. 6. 
Silius Italicus, Lib. IV. v. 767. 

Mosfuit in populis quos candidit advena Dido, 
Poscere ccede Deos veniam acjlagrantibus aris. 
iTifandum dictu, parvos imponere natos. 

Germani, si quando aliquo metu adducti, Deos placandoi 
esse arbitrabantur, humanis hostiis eorum aras et templa funes- 
tabaoty ut ne religumem quidem colere potuerint (ait Tullius 
Orat. pro M. Front) nisi earn priiis scelere violarint. 


Hercule Romano loquitur Solinus (cap. I.) ATrachiniis cul« 
tus est Herculeg^ Koruopion site locustas abigens : nam eorum 
lingua Parnopa (corrupt^ k Kornopa) locusta erat. Erytbneiii 
Ipoktonos appellatus, quasi diceres, vermiculorum yitibus ia* 
festorum occisor. Europaeis fferculem generatim Baalzebub 
nomine cultum opinatur Seldenus (loc. laud. Synt. II. cap. 6.) 
Baalzebub autem, Deu$ fMuae, seu Deus musca interpretatur* 
k Muscarum multitudine, quas Victimarum carnes in gentilium 
fanis pl^umque sectabantur, dictus, ut nonnulli coistimant. 
Quamquam Scaligeri judicio, ^' id quod dicebatur Baal'Zebahvi^ 
(sic ille). Deus victimarum, immolationum, sacrificiorum, jocu- 
tari Yocabulo scriptura yocavit Deum Muscm qu6d in templo 
Hierolymitano muscae carnes yictimarum oon liguriebant, 
quum tamen gentium fana k muscis iofiestaiieniur propter nido^ 
rem yictimarum.'' 



Frobabilius tamen est Accaronitis ipsis, hujus idoli cultoribus^ 
illud Baalzebuh dictum. Ciijus rei testimonium est, quod cum 
Ochorias rex Israel, per cancellos ccenaculi mi praeceps deci- 
disset, de salute consuluit Baalzehub deum Accaron (IV. Reg* 
1. 2.) Ecquis, inquit Seldeiuis (ibid.) numen, quod coleret, 
(ic de salutis instiiuratiohe cont'ulandum duceret, in honesto et 
joculari vocabulo compellaret ? Accedit quod etiam Europaei 
lioc nomeo in Herculis cultu retinuerunt, quasi dominum musca 
eum appellantes ; in quo Accaronitarum Phoeaices aerouli yi- 
dentur extitisse* Cujus rei indicium est superstitiosus cultus 
idoli Achor, quem in Africam Phoenices, in ejusoram appulsi^ 

invcnerunt Nam de C^enatct«ait Plinius (X. 17.) Ackorem 
deum invocare, muscarum multitudine pestilentiam afferente ; 
addens protinus interire muscas cilim illi nunilni litatum est^ 
In Achore enim vestigia Apparent Accaftmis, et quae de muscis 
dich, ea Beelzebub apertissim^ indicant. Quo nomine, eadem 
de csLUS'k et simili allusione, Herculem Phoenices invocasse, ad- 
roodum est verisimile. Non enim Accaronitae in cultu 6ui idoli 
quam Phoenices in cultu HerculU pii magis censendi sunt, aut 
religiosiores. Quod de Graecis etiam et Romanis intelligito, qui 
Herculis sacra k Pbcenicibus acceperunt. Et satis sit innuisse 
Muscarum annua solemnia in ApoUinis Actii delubro fieri so- 
lita, de quibus in Annalium lib. XI. loquitur ^liauus. An 
autem Herculi accident quod Accaronitarum idolo accidit, mu- 
tatio nempe nominis Beelzebub in Beelzebul, asserere non ausim, 
Oerte Accaronitarum idolum Beelzebul, id est, dominum ster^ 
eoreum iegimus apud Atbanasium, Origenem, Cyriilum, et alios 
Patres Grascos. Quae mutatio apud Hispanos etiam obtinuit, 
quorum Celebris poeta Prudentius {Peri Siephanon Hymn V.) 
de Marty re Vincentio Levita canit. 

Sed Belzebulis caUida 

Commenta Christus destruiU 


Super hoc argumento multa scitu digna collegit complutensiii 
theologus Leo de Castro in suo Apologetico. (Lib. VI. pag, 
658.) Beelzebul autem pro Beelzebub legi in benemoltis grsecis 
Evangeliorum exemplaribus, turn et \vk vetustissim^ versione 
Arabic^ h. Thoma Erpenio Edita, Seldenus auctor est Nisi 
velis inyentum vocabulum Beelzebul^ in contumeliam idoli 
Accaronitarum, quae est senteiitia J. Drusii. Nam Judaeorum 
sapientes hujusmodi appellationum variationes in fictorum na- 
minum ignominiam 6eri praecepisse, res est notissinia. Sic 
impostorem Barchocebam (/ilium stellae), sub Trajano principe 
Messiae nomen venditantem, Barchochibam (filium mendacii) 
appellarunt. Mons etiam olivarum, qui hebraic^ dicebatur 
Har hamischah (Mons oHvarum seu unctionis): mutato ele- 
mentoi et Jod addito, appellatus est Har hamaschith (mons 
corruptionis seu offensionis) post quam eum Salomon inquinavit 
cultu Astaroth^ Chamos et Melchom (IV. Reg. xxiii. 13.^ 
Quo nomine locus indicatur^ sed non sine opprobrio. Ad ido- 
lorum etiam ignominiam K. Abraham Ben-kattun verba £xodi. 
^xx. 3.) Nan habebis decs alienos coram me, sic exposuit : iVbft 
sines apud te habitare qui oolunt decs peregrinos, vel stercoreos. 
Sicut enim, spiritus sancti stylo, ab adjunct^ vanitate et turpi- 
tndine omnia idola hebraic^, elilim, per paranomasiam vocantur 
^alilim, (nihilum, stercora) ita long^ apud judasos praxi obtinuit, 
ut ab idololatris nomina suis idoiis tributa perverterent probroso 
aliquo nomine (V. Lightfoot. Hor, Talmad in Math, pag. 168.) 
Isaiam imitantes qui dxit (xxx. 22.) : Disperges ea (sculptilia) 
sicut immunditiam menstruat€e. Sic quod yocabant idolatrae 
Faciem Dei (Strab, xvi.) yocabant judaei Faciem canis : quae 
idololatris erat Fans calicis^ haebreis appellata est fans tmdii, 
vel tribularum : Fortume vocabulum gentilicum mutarunt in 
Fatarem: idque levi litteratum mutatione, vel transpositione^ 
oppidum, quod aliquando dicum est Bethel (Domus Dei) 



diclum est postea Betkaven (Domus vanitatis). Quod auiem 
hauc praxim hodierni judaei nequitios^ et saepius occalt^ imiten- 
tur, ostendit BuxtorfBus Lexic. Talmud, (ad rad. cara.) 


Bardos poetas fuisse, testis est Strabo (IV.}^ quos camtionum 
f adores yocat Diod(»ni8 Siculus (V.)* I^e iis ait Lucanua (I.) 
tit hngum (Bvum dimittere laudilnu fortes animoi, beUoque jic- 
remptos, Nomen gallicum existimat Pompejus Festus, quod 
non quemcum(}ue cantorem significat, sed qui carit virorum 
fortium laudes. Sed cum indubia res sit veteres Iberaos Poetas 
Bardos appellatos, conjectare ausim k Phoeniciis hoc nomen 
traxisse, in quoram lin^a bar significat polire, dilucidare, de- 
darare ; duz autem, exultayit, gayisus fuit : Ut fuerit Bar^-duz 
qui laetanter declarat seu dilucidat heroum et fortium yiromm 
res gestas. Quod apprim^ Bardis seu Vatibus Ibernicis congruit 
qui heroica sua carmina, lingu^ cantui aptissimi scripta, uti ad 
oculum demonstravtt CI. Valiancey, dulcissim^ moduladone 
canebanty quae non aures pulsabat, sed cor. (V. Encyclop. Bri* 
tann. Art. Music, et Jos. C. Walkeri Historical Memoirs of the 
Irish Bards, Vol. I. pag. 88. seq.) Idem de Musicis eorum 
instrumentb adstruit Giraldus Cambrensis {Topograph. Iben^i^. 
dist. III. cap. 11.) '' ia quibus, inquit, velox et prsecept, 
suavis tamen et jucunda sonoritas. Mirum qu6d in tanti tarn 
prsecipiti digitorum rapacitate, musica servaiur proportion et 
• • . tarn suavi velocitatey • • • consona redditur •! complMttr 


melodia •••Semper ab moUi iDcipiunt, et in idem redeant^ at 
ouncta sub jucundae sonoritatis dulcedine compleantur/' &c. 
Fuisse Bardos inter veteres Ibernos Idololatras res est notissi- 
ma : e quorum numero fuit Dubtachus, de quo ait Jocelinua 
(in Vita S» Patridi, Cap. XLV.) carmina in lattdemfalsorum 
deorum studio fiorenteperegisse ; conyersum autem ad fidem, i» 
laudem omnipotentis Dei, et sanctorum clarwra Pcemata earn" 
posuisse. Medii aeyi seriptores appellare solebant Bardos in- 
ferioris notae Poetas, vulgo dictos Rythmicos ; qui carmina> seu 
Rythmos canebanti non semper ad aedi6cationem et pacem 
populorum, sed ad morum plerumque corruptelam, yel ad sedi- 
tionis incitamentum. Qui abusus, ut observat Waraeus, ansam 
tandem praebuit statutis sancitis ab Anglicanis et Ibernicts 
commitiis contra eos, eorumque receptores (Waraeus /oc. laud, 
cap. V.) Bardos etiam a quibusdam medii sevi scriptoribus 
vocatos reperies Stolidos quosque et impolitos. Lectu d^nuni 
est Ducang^i Ghssar, Media et Jufinue Latinit. V. Bardus. 

Hoc Saxum ait Warseus k Thuathededanis in Ibemiam por- 
tatqm, atque inde, regnaate Moriertacho^ Ercse filio ('Mortoghi 
Mac Earc) ad Fergusium fratrem in Argatheliam missum, sed' 
k Kenethorege ligne^ catbedra postea inclusnm, Regibus Scoto- 
uim consecranidis, in Monasterio Scoecnsi collocatum^ ac tan- 
dem k rege Edvardo primo Angliae, Westmonasterium transla*- 
turn. Additque iamam tenere, Ethnicismi temporibus ante 
Christum natum, eum dumtaxat Ibernt^B monarcham^ approba^ 
tum^ sub quo Saxum illud coUocatum ingemtscebat^ yel (ut 
liber Houtbensis penes lliomam Staffoidium equhem^ bi^t) 
loquebatur (Warseus loc. laud. cap. V.) 

Saxi^ ut deorum simulaehm^ eoluisse Veteres^ r^ est notis- 
mmnk Exemplo sit Akyahaluf (quem deprayate HeUogc^ahtm 
(fuidiUn effevebaAt), Solf iienipe, Pyfomidis specie k I^ceaiciis 
oulthis. Veneremf piltt, seu quadrati sasn foimd colc^atit 


Arabes. Testatur Pausanias septem colamnas erectas ritu 
prisco apud Laconas, errantium stellarum sign a. Vetustissimus 
fuit Grsecorum mos, Saxa, sive quadrata, sive rudia, saltern 
aliam, qu^m Saxi speciem pras se non fereotia, pro simulachris 
ponere, neque aliter, qu^m simulachris divioum honorem exbi- 
bere. Quod ex ejusdem Pausaniae (in Achaicis) testimonio 
constat. V. Selden. loc. laud, Prolegom. cap. III. 

Hujus lapidis portio usque hodi^ servari dicitur in throno 
Anglorum regio. 

Cave confundas hoc Saxum cum lapidibu» seu columnis cir- 
cumlitis et vacillantibus, quas in Tyri urhe erexerunt Phoe- 
Dices ; und^ probable existimat W. Cooke (loc* laud.) ab ipsis 
esse in Britannicis insulis collocatas, ubi vocabantur Ainbrey et 
Main Ambre, id est, LapU Ambrosiua, ait Camdenus. Horum 
lapidum quosdam inventos esse in Ibernii, auctor est cl. Tolan-* 
dus in Druidarum Histarid. Robertus Sibaldns alterius me- 
minit in Scotia : alterius juxta Balvaird in Fife, Dr. Stukely 
assent se aliud ex C^gonian, seu saxis vacillantibus vidisse in 
Derbyshire. Quod yer6 conspiciebatur juxta Pensans in Com^ 
wall, dirutum est in bello civili ab uno ex Cromwelli guberna- 
toribus. Depictum est hoc saxum in Norden^s History of Com- 
waUf p. 48. Num horum lapidum vestigium sit nomen Amr 
brose Toum, oppidi baron. Bargie in comit. Wexford, aliis dis- 
quirendum relinquo. Mihi vald^ probabile est ab his Ambrosiis 
Saatis, qusB Phcenices in Hispanii coUocaveruut, nomen sortitam 
urbem Lusitaniae vetustissimam Ambraciui, non longe ab Erne-' 
ritd ; tum et oppida Ambros, Ambrox, Ambroz, Ambres, Atnbro^ 
sero, &c. 

Habes hie, prasclara Ibernias sapientum virorum concio, quae 
in meis schedulis adnotayeram de Phoeniceo ejus colonum ef 
idololatrias origine. Rudera sunt arcis vetustissimae, pulvere* 
pblita, qiiae do^tiores c^lii limpida fprsan aliquaodo et a sordibuji 



libera in hujus insulae gloriam posteris offerent. Fastidient, 
fateor, exilia haec nostra, si conferantur cum erudiiorum lucu- 
brationibus, qui banc Spartam peragrarunt. Verilim prudeus 
lector, non ex operum sapientis cujusquam viri praestanti^ haec 
nostra metiatur ; quin potiiis ex bono ea duntaxat animo diju- 
dicet. Qukm vellem, ut ego gratam et obsequentem erga 
Ibernos Toluntatem prodere nunc studui; sic illi meam banc 
observantiam aequi bonique consulurent! Sed quid ab iusit^ 
Jbemorum, plan^que singulari erga me humanitate nunc mihi 
polliceri dubitem ? Quas quidem etsi stimulis non egeat, nee 
precibus locum relinquat ; passuros tamen spero, ut de e^ jugiter 
mihi conservand^, tamquam de re mihi tum charissim^, tum 
spectatissimi, cujus instar eorum, qui pretiosas res possident, 
sollicitum esse me decet, eos majorem in modum exorandos 
nunc censeam. Age interim et tu, quisquis es, qui haec legeris, 
accipe libenter has nostrii ingenioli conjecturas ; et si quid ill is 
rectius novisti, candidus imperii : n non, hi$ utere mecum. 




Instead of " Tuatba Dedanan," p. 20, pref. read Taatha Danaan; and instead 

of, " Dedanite diviners," read Danaanite diviners. 
Instead of ** Milesian" — and " Milesians/' ps. 22 and 23, pref. read— Scythian 

— and Scythians. Scoto-Milesian, however, is the correct designation of the 

present Irish, as implying the iotermixture explained in my *' Dedication.'* 
Instead of " Myself the venerable," p. 31, pref. read, making the venerable. 
Instead of " eatim," p. 36, note, read etiam. 
Instead of *' Iherin" p. 41, note, read Iberin. And here let me observe that of 

the notes in said page, only the words within parenthesis are mine. 
Instead of " Numds," p. 145, note, read Numidae. 
Instead of " acqnintnr," p. 235, note, read acquiritnr. 
Instead of "landed in that colony" p. 294, i«ad, landed that colony*