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ON the publication of this book, it is a pleasant duty for me to 
express my sincere thanks, in the first place to the Philological 
Society for having considered it worthy of inclusion among its 
issues, and in the second place to the authorities of the Clarendon 
Press for the excellent manner in which it has been printed. 

But most of all I feel indebted to Dr. W. A. Craigie, President 
of the Philological Society, whose advice and assistance have made 
the publication of this work possible. He has revised the English 
of my manuscript, and has translated into English such Frisian 
words as are explained in the Phonology and Grammar. And 
lastly he has kindly lent a helping hand in the correction of the 

May his example be followed by many in showing an interest 
in the study of my native language, which has been overlooked 
and neglected for too long a time. 


April, 1913. 





Table of Frisian Speech-sounds 8 

Vowels : 

General Remarks .9 

Vowels in detail 9 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs : 

General Remarks . . .11 

Diphthongs in detail 11 

Triphthongs in detail . . . . . . . . .13 

Consonants : 

General Remarks 14 

Consonants in detail 15 

Semi-vowels 17 

Inverse Sounds .18 

Stress 19 

Stress Changes in Diphthongs. (Breaking) 21 


Complete assimilation .... .... 22 

Voicing 25 

Unvoicing 25 

Change of Articulation 26 

Modification of Articulation 27 

Nasalization 28 

Reduction : 

Reduction of Vowels . . . . . - . . . . 29 

Reduction of Diphthongs . .31 

Reduction of Consonants 32 

Reduction in half-stressed and unstressed syllables . . .33 
Reduction to Syllabic Consonants 35 

Frisian Dialects . . 37 



Notation of Speech Sounds : PAGE 

Vowels .... 43 

Diphthongs ... 45 

Triphthongs 46 

Consonants 46 

Values of Written Letters . 49 



I. The Declinable Parts of Speech : 

1. Noun . . . 55 

A. Strong Genitive (in -s, -es) of Class Nouns . . .58 

B. Strong Genitive (in -s, -es) of Proper Nouns . . .59 

2. Article 60 

3. Adjective 

Inflexion of Adjectives 60 

Comparison of Adjectives . 62 

4. Numerals 63 

5. Pronouns . 65 

6. Verbs 68 

II. The Indeclinable Parts of Speech : 

1. Adverbs . . . . 75 

2. Prepositions .... . ...... - . -77 

3. Conjunctions . . . . . . . . . .77 

III. Composition and Derivation . . . . . .78 


1. The Word-group .82 

2. The Sentence . . 82 

3. The Sentence-group 86 

Means of expressing the Different Relations . . . .88 

Concord 89 

Modality 89 

Order of Words 90 




V. TEXTS (West Frisian with Phonetic Transcription) 


1. De liepe skieppedief 94 

2. De koal 96 

3. C. Wielsma. Waersiik . . . . . . .100 

4. H. S. Sytstra. Baes Piktried 102 

5. J. H. Halbertsma. Utfenhus by de boer .... 104 

6. 0. H. Sytstra. De sliep . ... 106 

7. J. J. Hof. Wmtersinneopgong 108 

8. /. J. Hof. It Moaije .... . . 110 

9. Matth. 7, 1-5 112 

10. Matth. 22, 34-40 .... . . 112 

11. Matth. 25, 31-40 112 

12. W. Dykstra. Simmermoarn 114 

13. E. Halbertsma. Skipperssankje 116 

14. L. C. Murray Bakker. Winternocht 118 

15. W. Faber. De Berne wrald 120 

16. H. S. Sytstra. Swelleaang .120 

17. P. J. Troelstra. Maerteblommen 126 

18. J. L. van der Burg. It Heitelan 128 

19. J. B. Schepers. Simmerjounsbyld 130 

20. P. Sipma. Tsjuster 130 



THE study of Frisian, it may safely be said, does not occupy the 
place it deserves. It is true there are hopeful indications, and 
as well in its own country as abroad the interest for it is growing ; 
it must be acknowledged, too, that more and more is being 
written about Frisian, but much has still to be done. 

Frisian is of great interest, from a general point of view, for 
the study of language, certainly not less so than many other 
languages, as it admits of being traced over a period of many 
centuries, during which it has experienced remarkable fortunes, 
and especially as it presents a certain number of phenomena fully 
worthy of the student's attention. 

Modern Frisian is capable of throwing much light upon Old 
Frisian. It appears, for instance, from the present West Frisian 
sound-combination sk, which very regularly occurs at the begin- 
ning and in the middle of words, that the Old West Frisian 
orthography sc, sell, which holds its ground until well into the 
nineteenth century, also has to be taken as sk. 

Old Frisian exhibits a remarkable interchange of the prefixes ur 
and for. The present-day language has preserved some traces of 
this : forlibje and oerlibje ; forkomme and oerkomme ; forginne beside 
oerginst ; forgrime, forbolgen beside oergrime, oerbolgen (the last two 
used by Gysbert Japix in the seventeenth century). The inter- 
change of the prefix ont with omt ( 112. 4) seems to present 
a similar case. 

That Germanic u before the consonant-combination nd in West 
Frisian is only partly lengthened, is indicated by the modern 
interchange of u with o, ou, and oa ( 155-7). 

The change of ft to cht is, as appears from the modern language, 
oubtedly Frisian ( 113) ; it occurs late, however. 

But still more noteworthy is the fact that Frisian is of special 
importance as a sister-language of English. 

From time immemorial English and Frisian have had in 
common a certain number of peculiarities in their system of 

1466-2 B 


vowels and consonants : these must have been proper to the 
original Anglo-Frisian language. 

Besides, both languages have in many respects followed a 
similar development for a long time after they had become 

It may be taken for granted that the tribes which in the fifth 
century left the Continent to settle in the land of the Britons, 
and the neighbouring Frisians (who were equally divided into 
several tribes), spoke a group of dialects which bore a very close 
relationship to each other, and which, by certain peculiarities, 
formed a distinct branch in the Germanic family of languages. 

Even a comparison of modern English and Frisian vocables is 
sufficient to show the close relationship. 

To ancient connexion go back, for instance : 


1. sack, dell, mesh sek, del, mesk 

2. sleep, seed, deed, steel, sheep, ear, sliepe, sied, died, stiel, skiep, ier, 

year, mead jier, miede 

3. street strjitte 

4. moon moanne 

5. five, goose, other, dust fiif, goes, oar, dust 

6. brought, thought Irocht, tocht 

7. cheese, chaff, church tsiis, tsjef, tsjerke 

8. yield, yester, yarn, 'ye, you, jilde, jister, jern, jy, jo, jinder 


9. day, way, rain, nail dei, wei, rein, neil 

English and Frisian also show a number of remarkable analogies 
in their vocabularies ; for instance : l 


tooth, tusk, tine [toth 2 ], tosk, tine 

key kaei 

frizzle frissel 

wet wiet 

among mank 

[AS. meox], dung mjuks, dong 

1 I do not, of course, mean to suggest that all these words occur in English 
and Frisian only. 

2 Now obsolete in West Frisian. 


lane, loan 
[AS. wraxlian] 

leane, loane 




Finally, many parallels could be cited with regard to shortening, 
lengthening, breaking, diphthongization, &c. 

[odern West Frisian (exclusively treated here) is spoken in the 
Netherland province of Friesland, and on the islands Schiermon- 
nikoog and Terschelling, with the exception, however, of that part 
of the province lying south of the Kuinder or Tjonger, of a 
triangle to the south of the Lauwerszee, and of Het Bildt. 
Moreover, in the larger towns (Leeuwarden, Dokkum, Franeker, 
Harlingen, Bolsward, Sneek, Heerenveen) Frisian is not spoken as 
a rule, even though they count hundreds of inhabitants who can 
speak it, and hundreds more who understand it. 

Outside the province too, in several towns of the Netherlands, 
there live many Frisians, who partly have formed national 
societies. Among these there is generally a strong feeling for 
Frisian, even though the second generation is usually lost for the 

The number of those who speak Frisian has undoubtedly been 
on the increase in the last century, and may now be safely esti- 
mated at 250,000. 

If the dialects of the southern part of Friesland and those of the 
islands are excepted, modern West Frisian shows relatively few 
dialectical differences ( 149-76). Nor has the language, as 
appears from the writings of the last century and a half, changed 
very much, except perhaps in some phonetic points which are 
not at all, or imperfectly, rendered by orthography ; it is a well- 
known fact that such changes may be noticed even within a 

Among the characteristic features of Frisian are the adoption 
of new words even for very ordinary ideas, 1 the very strong 

1 For instance, ' smell *, l to smell ', Mod. W. Fr. rook, ruke, is Old W. Fr. 
hrene, hrena ; 'right', 'left', Mod. W. Fr. rjuchter, lofter, linker, is Old W. Fr. 



influence of analogy, the very easy manner of forming compounds 
and derivatives, the recasting of foreign words in accordance with 
the native sound-system, the tendency to diphthongize, and the 
great loss of flexion-endings. 

One circumstance which tells greatly against Frisian is the 
custom, on the part of many educated people, of not using the 
language. Their language, and that of the School, the Church, 
and the Government, is Dutch. The consequence of this is that 
the vocabulary is mainly restricted to the daily language of the 
country people, or at any rate does not keep abreast of the 
progress in science and the arts. The strong influence of Dutch, 
to which in former times it has already lost ground, is becoming 
no less dangerous : the means of communication steadily increase, 
and the settling of non-Frisians in the province becomes more 
and more frequent. This influence makes itself felt daily, both 
on the vocabulary and on the syntax. 

To enable Frisian to hold its ground as much as possible 
against these influences, strong efforts have been made in the last 
decades to extend the use of the language. Especially the 
' Selskip for Fryske tael en skriftenkennisse ' (founded in 1844) has 
done much in this respect by means of books, meetings, lectures, 
fixing of the orthography, grammars, and even, of late, by means 
of teaching. These efforts have not been unsuccessful. 

West Frisian literature goes back as far as the fourteenth 
century, and continues practically without interruption up to the 
present day. The oldest writings consist almost exclusively of 
laws, charters, and deeds. In the sixteenth century the first 
efforts to produce real literary work appear. Especially after the 
French domination, however, when the feeling of nationality 
clearly manifests itself and the social conditions become more 
favourable, Frisian literature begins to flourish. In the last 
century after 1844 especially under the direction of the * Selskip 
for Fryske tael en skriftenkennisse ' the number of books and 
periodicals published in Frisian has been very large. It must be 
admitted that true literary art is rarely met with in these 
writings, but the popular type of literature is all the more 
extensive, And this is what was needed in the first place. 

ferre, fore, winster. Note also Mod. W. Fr. tosk tooth, mule mouth, heit father, 
mem mother, &c. 


In this survey of the language the principal rules of its 
grammatical inventory have been gathered. It is in the first 
place intended for England, where the cognate dialects are 
spoken, the study of which is now being pursued with so much 
assiduity, but it is also designed for all those who take an interest 
in the study of languages and especially of Frisian. At the same 
time I have tried, as far as possible, to satisfy the requirements 
of the Frisians themselves. 

For these reasons it contains a concise general treatment of 
modern West Frisian, more particularly of the main dialect (my 
own, slightly normalized). It lays claim only to describe this 
with sufficient exactness and completeness. The elaborate work 
of Th. Siebs (in Paul's Grundriss), crammed with historica land 
local details, rendered, for this very reason, such a treatment 
not superfluous. 

In order to enhance its usefulness as much as possible, a rather 
detailed phonetic description and phonetic texts were necessary ; 
the more so because the Frisian sound-system is extremely compli- 
cated and the spelling often illogical. 

On behalf of those who do not wish to have an intimate know- 
ledge of Frisian phonetics, I have tried to give in the following 
survey, approximately and with the omission of many details, 
the hints which are absolutely necessary. If these are mastered, 
the reader who prefers it may, to begin with at any rate, skip 
Chapters I and II (on phonetics and spelling) partly or entirely. 


1. The written letters &, d, f, g (when initial), h, Jc, I, m, n, ng, 
p, s, t, v, z have the same, or almost the same, values as in 

2. g (when not initial) and ch are voiced and voiceless fricatives 
as in Dutch and German. 

3. ; = Eng. y. 

4. w is bilabial after d, t, s, Jc ; labiodental in other positions. 

5. r is usually fully rolled. 

6. r before dental consonants, I in the combinations did, alt, 
and h (as a rule) before j and w, are mute. 

7. n before s, z, and some other consonants is nasalized. 



8. a before n, t, s, I in closed syllables o in Eng. hot. 

9. a before other consonants in closed syllables = Eng. a in ask 
(but short), or as the first element of the diphthong in Eng. fly. 

10. a in open syllables = Eng. a in ask. So also ae. 

11. a = Eng. a in fall, or Eng. o in lord. Similarly 6. 

12. e in closed syllables almost as in Eng. man, but less open. 

13. e in open syllables as ai in Eng. day, but a little less 
diphthongized. So also ee, e. 

14. e as Eng. e in there, without (or at least with slighter) 

15. eu as 6 in German lose. 

16. i in closed syllables a little more open than Eng. i in fit ; 
almost as Scottish i in dim, din. 

17. i in open syllables as Eng. ee in meet (not diphthongized), 
short or long. So also y (short) and ii (long). 

18. o in closed syllables as Eng. o in hot or as Eng. o in rope 
(but short and without diphthongization). 

19. o in open syllables as Eng. o in rope. So also 00. 

20. w in closed syllables is much more close than Eng. u in 
but ; rather almost like Eng. e in unstressed syllables as in the, 

21. u in open syllables = German u in Hutte, grim, short or long. 
Similarly u. 

22. w = Eng. u in #w, or = 00 in food, short or long. So often 
also oe. (But see 26 and 29.) 

23. In unstressed syllables e, i, u have the value of the in- 
distinct vowel in Eng. the. 


24. ai, aei, ei, ij, oai, oei, ui have i as last element as Eng. y 

25. au, eau, ieu, iuw have u at the end as in Eng. how. 

26. ea, eu, oa, oe, u, ue end in the indistinct vowel e as in Eng. 

27. ai (and el), ie, oe (and u) are pronounced almost as the 
diphthongs in Eng. fly, here, poor ; the first element of ui is Eng. 
u in but. 


28. The first element of the diphthongs ij, oai, oei, ieu, ea, oa, ue 
is respectively the sound described in 12, 19, 22, 17, 16, 19, 21. 

29. The rising diphthongs l ea (also written je), ie (also written 
ji), and the triphthongs eau, iuw have as first element a weak i 
or y ; the rising diphthong oe, u and the triphthong oei begin with 
an unstressed u or w ; the rising diphthong oa and the triph- 
thong oai with an unstressed o. The stressed elements of these 
sounds are as in 12, 16, 19 (short), 22, 19 (short), 19 (short), 19 

1 The rising diphthongs of Frisian usually occur before two or more 











P b 

t d 

k 9 






J 1 









f V U 

s z 


x s 



Front Mixed Back 


TT "\T* 

u u: 

i i: 
y y: u u: 



o o: 


e: 0: 
i 600: 



o o: 

e: oe o o: 


a d: 


I u 6 



ai ei cei ui a*i o*i u*i 
cm ou ou o-u ru 
i-e ye u-a i-e 6-a o-a 
ii io ie io io 6a 6a: iio 


iou iou iuw 6ai 6a-i iioi 

1 The phonetic symbols of the International Phonetic Association are employed. 
Cf. Paul Passy, Petite Phonetique comparee des principales langues europeennes. Leipsic 
et Berlin, 2nd ed. 1912. The Principles of the International Phonetic Association, 
obtainable from the editors : Paul Passy and Daniel Jones. 


General Remarks 

1. In Frisian the articulation of the lips is relatively small, the 
mouth-opening relatively great. 

2. Closed vowels are generally more tense than open ones, long 
vowels generally more than short ones, front vowels more than 
back ones, stressed vowels more than half-stressed and unstressed. 

3. There is a perceptible difference in vowel-length, as, for 
instance, between the corresponding vowels a and a:, o and o:, i 
and i:, 1 and so on. 

4. Long vowels often show a tendency to become slightly diph- 
thongized, thus e: 1 , 0: j , i: 1 , o: u , u: Q , O:% o:% e: 9 . We may say 
that e:, o:, and 0: are regularly a little diphthongized when final. 

5. There is frequent interchange between long (or half-long) 
and short vowels in different forms of the same word. Many 
instances of shortening and reduction are met with in Frisian 
(see 120-2). For the Frisian semi-vowels see 74-82. 

Vowels in detail 

6. i closed front tense unrounded. 

Examples dik (dyk) 2 dike, ita (ite) to eat. 
i: a lengthened i. 
Examples ti:d (tiid) time, ri:za (rise) to rise. 

7. y closed front tense rounded. 

Examples nyt (nut) nut, slyta (slute) to close. 
y: a lengthened y. 
Examples dryiv (druf) grape, sy:var (suver) pure. 

8. e: half-closed front tense unrounded. This vowel is long; 
the corresponding short vowel does not occur in Frisian (i is 
more open than short e 3 ). e: tends to become slightly diph- 
thongized, especially when final, thus ei*. The diphthongization, 
however, should not be exaggerated. For the practical purposes 
of this book the phonetic symbol e: is employed in all cases. 

Examples re:k (reek) smoke, deile (dele) to share, se: (se) sea. 

1 Letters in thick type are phonetic symbols. 

2 The phonetic transcription is in thick type, followed by the ordinary 
spelling in italics. 

3 e: followed by r is a lowered variety of e:, and has exactly the quality of 
lengthened i (see 10). 


9. 0: half-closed front tense rounded ; long only, with a 
tendency to become slightly diphthongized, especially when 
final, thus 0: 1 . (Cf. the preceding section.) 

Example d0:n (deun) close. 

10. i half-closed front tense unrounded. This vowel is gener- 
ally a lowered variety of e, very short, and rather half -tense than 

Examples ik (iJc) I, site (sitte) to sit 

11. e half-open front lax unrounded. 
Examples fet (fet) fat, vessel, seta (sette) to set. 

e: a lengthened e. 

Examples be:d (bed) bed, leiza (leze) to read. 

12. a open mixed lax unrounded. 

Examples pak {pak) pack, stapa (stappe) to step. 
a: a lengthened a. Except in length there is no perceptible 
difference between a and a: 

Examples fa:k(/ae&) often, raiza (raze) to rage. 
Note. Many speakers retract a and a: to the open back position. 

13. oe only occurs as the first element of the diphthong cei ; 
see 29. 

14. e a very indistinct vowel, most often half-open mixed lax 
unrounded. Besides occurring independently in unstressed sylla- 
bles, this vowel forms the second (unstressed) element of diph- 
thongs (see 24, 42, 43): 

Examples da (de) the, an (in) a, an, at (it) it, rina (rinne) 
to run. 

15. 6 half-closed mixed lax slightly rounded. Practically this 
vowel may be treated as a stressed a with slight lip-rounding. 

Examples not (nut) usefulness, hod (hird) hard. 

16. o half-open back lax rounded. 
Examples top (top) top, kot (kat) cat. 

o: a lengthened o. 

Examples ro:t (rot) rat, so:n (sdn) sand. 

17. o half-closed back lax rounded, very short. 
Examples op (op) up, tosk (tosk) tooth. 

o: a lengthened o with a tendency to become slightly diph- 
thongized, especially when final, thus o: u . The diphthongization, 
however, should not be exaggerated ; for this reason the phonetic 
symbol o: is used in this book in preference to o*u (cf. 8, 9). 
Examples ro:k (rook) scent, smell, doiga (doge) to do well. 



In some words a half-lengthened variety of o, thus o, is heard. 
In such words there is no tendency to pronounce a diphthong. 

Examples to-be (tobbe) tub, do-ba (dobbe) pit, pool (Scottish 

18. u closed back lax rounded. 

Examples hup (hoep) hoop, buk (buk) belly, run (roun) round, 
u: a lengthened u. 

Examples sku:g (sJcoech) shoe, huid (hud) hide, cju:la (gule) 
to cry. 

General Remarks 

19. There are a large number of falling and rising diphthongs 
in Frisian, i. e. diphthongs in which the stress falls on the first or 
on the second element respectively. 

20. The unstressed element of Frisian diphthongs is generally 
a semi-vowel i, 1 ti, 6, or in other cases a. 

21. In some cases there is hesitation as to stressing the first or 
the second element. This principally happens in the sound ii, 
which, however, is ordinarily pronounced i*a or Ii. 

22. The stressed element of diphthongs may be short or half- 
long. There are only a few cases in which it is very long. It is 
not necessary to distinguish long and half -long in this book. 

23. In different forms of the same word we often find inter- 
change of falling and rising diphthongs (see 96-8). 

24. The sound a (see 14) varies slightly as the second ele- 
ment of different diphthongs ; a difference is, for instance, clearly 
audible between i-a and u-a, or between ya and o-a. 

25. The same remark may be made with regard to i as the first 
element of different diphthongs, e. g. ii and le, or io and io. 

Diphthongs in detail 

26. Falling diphthongs in which the first element is short, and 
the second element is the semi- vowel i, are the following : 

ai, ei, cei, ui. 

27. ai. The first element is not exactly the same vowel as 
described in 12, but a sound intermediate between a and e, 
inclining to the side of a. 

Examples laitsja (laitsje) to laugh, halt (heit) father. 

1 This semi-vowel is lax (cf. 6). 


28. ei. The first element is the sound described in 11. 
Examples frei (frij) free, sneia (snije) to cut. 

29. cei. The sound ce is half-open mixed lax unrounded. It 
occurs only in this diphthong. 

Examples jcei ( jui) riot, revelry, drceia (druije) to dry. 

30. ui. In this diphthong u. is the same vowel as that in 18. 
Example bluisal (bloeisel) blossom, bloom. 

31. Falling diphthongs ending in I with half-long first element 
are the following : 

a-i, oi, U'i. 

32. a-i. The first element is a half-lengthened a. This vowel 
is strictly a sound intermediate between a and e, but nearly a. 

Examples kai (kaei) key, uaia (waeije) to blow, ra*i (raei) 

33. O'i. The sound o* is a half-lengthened o (see 17). 
Examples moi (moai) pretty, lo*itsja (loaitsje) to look. 

34. ui. The first sound is a half-long u as in 18. 
Examples pluia (ploeije) to plough, liria (loeije) to pile up. 

35. Short falling diphthongs ending in the semi-vowel u are : 

an, ou, ou. 

36. au occurs only in the interjection au ! The first element 
is exactly a (see 12). 

37. ou consists of o (see 16) and ii. 
Examples cjoud (goud) gold, hout (hout) wood. 

38. ou. The first element is the sound described in 17. It 
is very short. 

Examples kou (kou) cow, nou (nou) now, dou (dou) thou. 

39. Diphthongs in ii which have a half-long vowel as first 

element are : 

O'U, ru. 

40. o*u is a slightly lengthened variety of ou. This diphthong 
is generally heard when followed by 9. 

Examples ro*ua (rouwe) mournings, do-ua (dauwe) dew. 

41. i'U. The first element is a half -lengthened i (see 6). 
Examples i-u (ieu) age, century. 

42. Falling diphthongs ending in the indistinct half-open mixed 
unrounded vowel a (see 24) are the following : 

i-a, ya, u-e, i-a, 6-a, era. 

43. The first element may be a closed vowel i, y, u (see 6, 7, 



18), or a half-closed one i, 6, o (see 10, 15, 17), but only with 
half-long quantity. 

The sound a should not be exaggerated. 

i*a bi-an (Uen) bone, li-ana (Hem) to lend. 
ya flyaz (flues) fleece, slyara (sluere) to slide. 
u-a cju-ad (goed) good, fuat (foet) foot. 
pa rpad (read) red, ni*at (neat) naught. 
6-a sno-an (snjeon) Saturday, glo-an (gleon) glowing, 

cjo*ar (geur) scent. 
oa bo*at (boat) boat, no-az (noas) nose, o*ar (oar) other. 

44. Eising diphthongs having as their first element the semi- 
vowel i (see 25) are : 

ii, io, ie, io, io. 

45. The second (stressed) elements i, 6, e, o and o are the sounds 
described in 10, 15, 11, 16, and 17. 


ii fiild (fjild) field, gim (gjin) no. 

16 midks (mjuks) dung, liork (Ijurk) lark. 

ie hiest (hjerst) harvest, friemd (frjemd) strange. 

io lio x t (Ijocht) light. 

io siorja (sjonge) to sing ; stiorjka (stjonfce) to stink. 

46. A rising diphthong (6a) consisting of the semi-vowel 6 as 
first, and the sound a (see 12) as second element, is often heard in 

Examples t6ar (toar) dry, sk6ala (sJcoalle) school, mdana 
(moanne) moon. 

A lengthened variety, thus 6a:, is heard in the plural form 
hddizn (hoaszeri) hose. 

47. Finally, Frisian has a diphthong uo, consisting of the semi- 
vowel ii and the same sound as that described in 17. 

Examples spuon (spoen) spoon, miiora (murre) wall. 

Triphthongs in detail 

48. The following triphthongs are met with in Frisian : 

iou, iou, iuw 1 ; 6ai, 6a-i; iioi. 

49. The first and the last elements of these triphthongs are 

1 For practical purposes the phonetic symbol iuw is chosen instead of iuu 
or iuu. 


semi-vowels. The middle (stressed) elements o, o, u, a are the 
sounds described in 16, 17, 18, and 12. 

lou f iouar (fjouwer) four. 

lou lloua (leauwe) to believe, skrioua (skreauwe) to cry, 
riou. (reau) apparatus. 

iuw lluw (liuw) lion, bliuwa (bliuwe) to remain. 

6ai b6ai (boi) boy, 16aikja (loaifcje) to idle. 

dO'i k6a-i (Jcoai) nest-egg, b6a*iam (boaijem) bottom. 

uoi miioika (moeiJce) auntie, miioia (moeije) to vex. 

General Remarks 

50. Perceptible differences in the length of consonants scarcely 
occur in Frisian. 

Through emphasis, however, consonants often become 
lengthened ; e. g. : 

so 'sm:6arg oz at (t)sr is ! (Sa smoarch as it der is !) 

at iz arj 'gr:i:z ! (It is in griis !) 

me sunn 'glio-an uoda ! l (Men scoenen gleon ivirde !) 

r n:et urar ! 'ol: rrar ! (Net wier! Al wierf) 

j:a! n:e| (Ja! Ne!) 

s: ! (is often used to express astonishment). 

51. The friction and explosion are relatively small. 

52. Voiced consonants are pronounced with weaker friction or 
explosion than the corresponding breathed consonants. 

53. Devocalized consonants regularly augment the force of 
friction or explosion ; vocalized consonants diminish it. 

54. The pronunciation of the uvular R and the nasal twang are 
very rare in Frisian, and are regarded as defects of speech. 

55. Syllabic liquids m, n, rj, 1, r frequently occur in ordinary 
speaking (see 142-8). 

Complete and partial assimilation is often met with in Frisian 
(see 99-119). 

1 In cases like these one also hears such forms as samoarg, geriiz, gelo-an, 
with insertion of the indistinct vowel 9 between two consonants, when the 
second of them is a liquid. 

Consonants in detail 


56. p breathed (or voiceless) bilabial explosive. 
Examples pi:p (piip) pipe, hpa (lippe) lip. 

b the corresponding voiced bilabial explosive. 
Examples bak (bak) tub, krob (krol>) beetle. 

57. t breathed dental (or rather linguodental) explosive, formed 
by the tip of the tongue against the upper gums. 

Examples tin (tin) thin, treia (trije) three, nyt (nut) nut, tsjef 
(tsjef) chaff. 

d the corresponding voiced consonant, with exactly the same 
articulation as t. 

Examples dai (dei) day, du (do) then, striida (stride) to fight. 

58. k breathed velar explosive. 

Examples kd:m (kaem) comb, tsjuk (tsjuk) thick. 
cj the corresponding voiced velar explosive. This consonant 
only occurs initially. 

Examples cjou (gau) quick, cjri-an (grien) green. 

59. P glottal explosive. Uttered before a stressed vowel or 
diphthong beginning the word, when used separately. In careful 
speaking this sound is also heard between an unstressed and a 
strongly stressed vowel (or diphthong). 

Examples Pran (ien) one, da Pi-ana (de iene) the one, da 
Po-ara (de oare) the other. 

60. m voiced bilabial nasal. Sometimes syllabic, especially in 
careless speaking, when the ending an is preceded by a bilabial 
(see 143. 2). 

Examples mon (man) man, toma (tomme) thumb. 

61. n voiced dental nasal. Often syllabic (see 143. 1), or 
nasalized (see 116-19). 

Examples ne: (ne) nay, lo:n (Ian) land, rina (rinne) to run. 

62. ji voiced palatal nasal, always occurring medially between 

Examples uejia (wenje) to dwell, broijia (branje) firewood. 

63. i) voiced velar nasal, only occurring medially or finally. 
Sometimes syllabic in careless speaking (see 143. 3). 

Examples sarj (sang) song, tirjka (tinke) to think. 

64. 1 voiced dental lateral with u-articulation. Often syllabic 
(see 144). 

Examples lag (lang) long, stral (stiel) steel, uola (wolle) to be 


65. r voiced dental fully rolled. Often syllabic (see 145), 
assimilated (see 100, 101), or reduced (see 126, 127). 

Examples rik (ry~k) rich, mar (mar) lake, skiiora (sMrre) 

66. w voiced bilabial, slightly fricative. This consonant only 
occurs preceded by d, k, s, t. 

Examples dwa-n (dwaen) to do, kwail (Jcwael) pain, swon 
(swan) swan, two: (two) two. 

67. f breathed labiodental fricative. 

Examples fet (fet) fat, fi-ar (fier) far, stof (stof) stuff. 
v voiced labiodental fricative. The corresponding voiced form 
of f, with exactly the same articulation. This consonant only 
occurs when intervocalic, or preceded by r, or followed by j. 

Examples iivar (iver) zeal, erva (erve) to inherit, fervja 
(fervje) to paint. 

u voiced labiodental, slightly fricative. This consonant only 
occurs initially followed by a vowel (or diphthong) or by r. 
Examples uin (wyri) wind, urak (wralfc) wreck. 

68. The difference between w, u, and v is this : w is a bilabial 
pronounced with slight lip-rounding, and has much similarity to a 
vowel (u, see 18), especially to a semi-vowel (ti, see 76) ; u and 
v are labiodentals pronounced without lip-rounding. The friction 
of w and u is very small ; v is more fricative than w and i?. 
Thus u is a consonant intermediate between w and v. 

69. s breathed dental fricative, formed by the tip of the tongue 
against the upper gums. 

Examples sma (sinne) sun, ris (rys) rice, misa (misse) to miss. 
z voiced dental fricative, with the articulation of s. This conso- 
nant does not occur at the beginning of words. 

Examples leiza (leze) to read, bi/azam (biezem) besom, liza 
(lizze) to lie. 

70. j voiced palatal fricative. The friction, however, is very 
small ; the likeness to i and especially to I is great. 

Examples' jorj (jong) young, ju-ad (hjoed) to-day, jiska (yeske) 

71. x breathed velar fricative, formed by the back of the 
tongue against the soft palate. This consonant does not occur at 
the beginning of words. 

Examples lioxt (Ijocht) light, axt (acht) eight, slax (slack) 


g voiced velar fricative ; the corresponding voiced form of x- 
This consonant does not occur at the beginning of words. 

Examples loiga (loge) flame, pluiga (ploege) plough, drd:ga 
(drage) to draw. 

72. h breathed glottal fricative, occurring only initially. 
Examples ho:n (Mri) hand, hu:z (hus) house, hral (heal) half. 

73. In some words a very slight h, or rather a simple aspiration, 
is sometimes heard before r, 1, u, j (see 131). 

Examples h rrak (reafy rick, h nr) (ring) ring, h liepa (Ijeppe) 
to spring by means of a pole, h laitsja (laitsje) to laugh, h ixi: (hwa) 
who, h ja (hja) she, they. 


74. In many diphthongs and in all triphthongs the unaccented 
elements are semi-vowels. The following are met with in Frisian : 

i, ft, 6. 1 

75. 1 occurs as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs 
(in this book simply indicated by the phonetic symbol i 2 ), and as the 
first element of some rising diphthongs and triphthongs (phonetic 
symbol i), mostly, but not always, interchanging with other 
sounds (see 98. 1, 2, 5). 

76. u occurs as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs 
(phonetic symbol u 2 ), and as the first element of tio, iioi (indicated 
by ii), interchanging with tra, ui (see 98. 4, 7). 

77. 6 appears only as the first element of 6a, 6a:, 6ai, tfcri 
(phonetic symbol always 6), generally interchanging with the 
diphthongs era, o-i (see 98. 3, 6). 

78. i as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs is 
always a semi-vowel (see 25). As the first element of diph- 
thongs and triphthongs it may practically be treated as j, the 
friction of this consonant being always very small. But one 
hears a difference between these two sounds, e. g. in such words as : 

lloxt (Ijocht) light jos (jas) jacket, 
cjim (gjw) no jita (jiette) to pour, 
biist (bjist) beestings jild (jild) money. 
rioxt (rjucht) right j or) (Jong) young. 

79. In many words, however, 1 has really become j, e. g. in the 
following : 

1 They are veiy lax. 

2 But in the texts and glossary, for the sake of clearness, i, u are employed. 


jirad l (hjoed) to-day, jouar 1 (hjouwer) oats, jelt 1 (hjelt) hilt, jeln 
(jelne) ell, jenn (earnen) copper, jerm, sometimes heard instead of 
rarm (earm) arm, jeta (earte) peas, jet (eart) offal, jun (joun) evening, 
djip 2 (djip) deep, dju-ar 2 (djur) dear, djuia 2 (djoetje) to play, 
dje-ra (djerre) yolk, sjeid (sead) sod, fju-ar QJwr) fire, rjo (rju) rife, 
sjo (sjucli !} see ! njo (nju) pleasure. 

80. ii and 6 are real semi-vowels in all cases. They must be 
carefully distinguished from the bilabial fricative consonant w 
(although its friction is very small), and of course also from the 
consonant v, which is labiodental. Thus the difference is clearly 
audible between such words as : 

ruot (roet) soot uol (wol) well. 

uuolja (woelje) to wind i?ola (wolle) to be willing. 

t6ar (toar) dry two: (two) two. 

k6at (koart) short kw:al (Jcwael) torment. 

mdaist (moaist) prettiest uai (wei) way. 

kdcri (Jcoai) nest-egg ua*ia (waeije) to blow. 

81. In some words, however, the semi-vowel has become w or 
even u. The principal are : 

rot 8 (hwet) what, i?d: 3 (hwa) who, uont 3 (hwent) for, uo'nrar 3 
(hwennear) beside hu'nrar (honear) when, uer 3 (hwer) where, 
uerra 3 (hwerre) where, dwa'n, dwan (dwaen) do. 

In the pronunciation of children this change is often heard in 
other words as well. 

82. Semi-vowels disappear in some cases (see Reduction of diph- 
thongs, 123, 124). 

Inverse sounds 

83. It is a matter of course that in Frisian sounds are regularly 
produced by expiration. In some cases, however, sounds are 
made by inhalation. This often happens with the words j*a* and 
n*e* (with expiration mostly pronounced ja:, ne:). Besides these, 
we find in Frisian (among others) the following inverse sounds : 

m* (short) used to express alarm, 
m* (long) to express amazement or pleasure. 
f * in case of a sudden pain. 

t* t* t* to express pleasure ; also, with or without lip-rounding, 
to silence or to allure dogs. 

1 In these words the initial h has dropped, or is reduced to a slight 
aspiration (see 73, 131). 

2 In these words the initial d often drops (see 129). 
8 In these words the initial h has dropped. 


t* 1* with a and u-resonance, to draw the attention of little 
t* r* to incite horses. 


84. In Frisian, stress is generally subject to the same rules as 
in other Germanic dialects. For this reason a complete treat- 
ment seems superfluous here. The following short indications are 
sufficient for the purposes of this book. 

85. Syllables have the stress on the vocalic part. For syllabic 
consonants see 142-8. Diphthongs may be stressed on the first 
or on the second element (falling and rising diphthongs, see 
19-47). There are only a few cases of level-stressed diphthongs, 
especially ii, which, however, is mostly spoken i*a or ii. In 
triphthongs the 'stress regularly falls on the middle part (see 48> 
49), but in loii (mostly spoken ioii) the first two parts sometimes 
show level stress. For interchange between falling and rising 
diphthongs see 96-8. 

86. In word-stress it is easy to distinguish various degrees. 
Three of these, however, are sufficient : the different syllables of a 
word may be stressed, half-stressed, or unstressed. 

87. Simple words, i.e. words which are not compound or 
derivative, have the stress on the first syllable. This does not 
always apply to words of foreign origin. 

88. In derivative nouns with the prefixes ant-, oar-, on-, and in 
verbs derived from such words, the prefix is stressed, the second 
syllable is half -stressed. The prefix ge- is unstressed. 

Examples 'ontuod (antwird) answer, 'ontuodzja (antwirdsje) 
to answer, 'o*ade:l (oardeel) judgement, 'o-adeila (oardele) to judge, 
'6ua:r (onwaer) storm, 'ouairja (onwaerje) to be stormy, cp'lok 
(geloJc) luck. 

Note. Adjectives with the prefix on- have the stress on the 
same syllable as the radical. 

Examples 6'slioxt (onsljucht) unsmooth, o'reistag (onrestich) 
unrestful, om/bruksam (oribruksum) unusable, ofa'stondag (onfor- 
standich) unintelligent, orjcja'maklak (ongemaldik) uncomfortable. 

89. In verbs formed with the prefixes U-, ge-, for-, ont-, to-, and 
in nouns or adjectives derived from such words, the stress falls on 
the second syllable, i. e. on the first syllable of the simple word. 

Examples ba'krara (bikeare), ba'krarlirj (biJcearling), cja'uoda 



lita (gewirde litte), ga'bit (gebyt), fa'krapja (forkeapje)^ fa'krap 
(forkeap), ont' hoida (onthdlde), ont'ho:d (onthdld), ta'skuora (to- 
skurre), ta'skiiod (toskurd). 

90. The suffixes -inne, -aezje, -es, -ier, -ij, (-rij, -erij, -nij), -eare 
(-earje) are full-stressed ; the suffixes -dom, -heit, -skip, -achtich, -loas 
(leas), -lei are half-stressed ; the other suffixes and all declension 
and conjugation endings are unstressed. 

Examples bu-a'rma (boerinne), kle-'da:zja (kledaezje), pri'ses 
(primes), cja'ni-ar (genier), baka'rei (bakkerij), cjrita'nei (gritenij), 
ava'srara (aveseare), la'vierja (lavearje); 'freidom (frijdom), 
'gro-athaid (greatheid), 'betarskip^e^ers^^/benaxteg (bernachtich), 
'axtalo-az (achteloas), ^reidarlai (tredderlei). 

91. The suffixes -ich, -liJc, -sum have the peculiarity of being able 
to retract the stress a syllable backwards, when this syllable is 
half -stressed * in forms without the suffix, e.g. : 

'iermu-ad (earmoed) ler'mtradag (earmoedich) 
'fo-ade:l (foardeel) fa'deilag (foardelich) 
'i-afoid (ienfdld) i-a'foidag (ienfdldich) 
'fro-askip (frjeonsMp) fro-a'skiplak (frjeonsTciplilc) 
'arbaidzja (arbeidzje) ar'baitsam (arbeidsum). 

92. For compound words it is not possible to give distinct and 
simple rules. Some have the stress on the first, others on the 
second element. Cf. r se:mon (seman) with se^dik (sedyk). 

93. Level stress of ten. occurs in compound words in the follow- 
ing cases : 

1. When the word contains a comparison. 
Examples 'pik'swat (pikswart), 'dra'stil (deastil). 

2. When the first part serves to express a high degree. 
Examples 'sti:f feist (stii/est), 'stoik'blin (stolcUyn), .1'swi-at 

(ynswiet), 'tro'wi-at (trochwiet), 'u-er'bliid (ocrMid). 

3. When the first part serves to modify the signification of the 
second part. 

Example 'lioxt'blou (Ijochtblau). 

94. Some words have, besides their main form, another, when 
they are strongly stressed, either in the sentence or isolated. The 

principal are : 

dit (dit)6ite (ditte) this, 
der (der) deira (derre) there, 
rer (hwer) ue:ra (hwerre) where. 

1 In the word grou'ueileg (grouwelich) it is even an unstressed syllable 
which has thus acquired full stress. 


Mir (hjir) hiira (hjirre) here, 
uot (hwet) rota (hwette) what. 

95. In half-stressed and unstressed syllables sounds may be 
reduced (see 133-41). 

Stress-changes in diphthongs. (Breaking) 

96. Stress-changes in diphthongs (and triphthongs) are fre- 
quently met with in Frisian between words which are simple or 
undeclined and their lengthened, i. e. declined, compound or deri- 
vative, forms. In such forms the stress falls on the second 
element instead of on the first. 

97. In consequence of the analogy of these lengthened forms 
the stress sometimes varies in the unlengthened ones ; the opposite 
also occurs in some cases. Hence two pronunciations may be 
heard of some words, as : 

ru-at rtiot (roet) soot. 
spu-an spiion (spoen) spoon, 
fi-ala fiila (fiele) to feel. 
spi-ala spiile (spiele) to wash, 
hi- era (heare) hiera (hear re) to hear, 
mi-ala (meale) miela (mealle) to grind, 
cjo-ata (goate) cjdata (goatte) gutter. 
do-ara (doare) d6ara (doarre) to dare. 
gu-ad (goed)-<$aod (gud). 1 

98. In this matter the following varieties may be distin- 
guished : 

1. Interchange of i'a and 11, e.g. : 

sti-an (stien) stone stiinan (stienneri), stiintsja (stientsje) 
ui'at (wiet) wet ulita (wiette), riitsja (wietsje) 
si-ad (sied) seed siidzja (siedzje), slidirj (sledding) 
sni-a (snie) snow 'sniiflok (snieftok). 

Note. Level stress sometimes occurs, as in hei cjiit (hy giet) 
he goes, hei stiit (hy stiet) he stands. 

2. Interchange of i*a and le, e. g. : 

bi-am (beam) tree bieman (beammen), biemka (beamke) 

li^an (lean) reward liejia (leanje) 

fi-ar (fear) feather fierja (fearje), fieran (fearren). 

1 In this case the two forms have acquired different senses : gu-ad means 
'real or personal property', guod means 'things', or 'texture', or 


3. Interchange of era and 6a, e.g. : 

skrcrar (skroar) tailor skr6aran (slfcroarren), skrdarja 

mo'an (moarri) morn / m6antid (moarntiid). 

4. Interchange of U'9 and iio, e. g. : 
fu-at (foet) foot fiiotan (foetteri) 
cju-ad (goed) good cjiiodlak (goedlik). 

5. Interchange of ya and id, e.g. : 

fju-ar, fyar (fjur) fire fiorka (fjurke), fiorja (fjurje) 
slyara (sluere) to slide sliorkja (sljurkje). 

6. Interchange of o-i and 6ai, e.g. : 

mo'i (moai) pretty m6aiar (moaijer), m6aiaz (moaijens) 
lo-i (loai) lazy Idaikja (loaikje). 

7. Interchange of ui and iioi, e. g. : 
ruia (roeije) to row ruoikja (roeikje) 


99. There are a great many kinds of assimilation in Frisian. 
The principal are : 

Complete assimilation 

100. Assimilation of r before dental consonants (t, d, n, 1, s, 
z, z). 1 

Examples swat (swart) black, hundat (liundert) hundred, 
bod (bird) beard, be:n (berri) child, kel (kerl) grain, dwos (dwars) 
cross, cje:z (gers) grass, feizan (ferzen) frozen. 

Note. This assimilation occurs even in conjugated verbal 
forms, e. g. : hei li-at (% leart) he learns, hei hat li-ad (hy hat 
leard) he has learned ; but not in unstressed syllables of such 
forms as at torjart (it tongert) it thunders. 

101. r is often assimilated, at least in ordinary speaking : 

1. In the words /oar-, wer-, oer-, wjer-, used as the first part of 
compounds, when followed by a consonant, even by j, but especially 
before dental sounds. 

2. In the prefixes oar-, for-, under the same circumstances. 

3. In the adverbs and prepositions for, foar, oer, wer, hjir, der, 
hwer, when followed by a word beginning with a consonant and 
belonging to the same breath-group. 

1 This belongs partly to the historical grammar. 


4. In the adverb and conjunction mar, under the same cir- 

Note. Not in very careful speaking, and never before a vowel 
sound or h. 

Examples 'fdado-ar (foardoar), 'uejam (werjaen), 'u-adwa-n 
(oerdwaen), 'uielioxt (ivjerljoclit) ; 'o-alox (oarlock), fa'ja:n (forjaen) ; 
dot is f6a jou ! (Dat is for jo !), f6a skdaltid (foar sJcoaltiid), ira 
fiivan (oer fiven), ue koma (wer Jcomme), hii bliuwa (hjir Uiuwe), 
ue mast hma ? (hwer moast Jiinne ?), de ma 'delseta ! (der mar 
delsette !). 

102. 1 is assimilated before t and d, when preceded by the 
sound o:. 1 

Examples so:t (salt) salt, hoida (hdlde) to hold. 

103. t is assimilated : 

1. Before st in the superlative degree. 

Examples cjrost (greatst) greatest, list (lytst) smallest, k6ast 
(koartst) shortest. 

2. Between s and j in verbs and in diminutive forms. 
Examples hdasja 2 (hoastje) to cough, kisja (Jcistje) small 


3. After s followed by an unaccented syllable. 

Examples leisn (lesten) lately, flisn (fiersten) by far, hiesmas 
(Jijerstmes) in autumn, neslja (nestelje) to nestle. 

Note. Not in the combination of verbal forms and the enclitic 
pers. pron. 2nd sing., as e. g. doxsta (dochste) dost, uosta (wolste) 
wilt, masta (moaste) must. 

104. d is assimilated, but not always, in the following cases : 

1. After r in the words uorg (wirch) worthy, uora (wirde) to 
become, airag (aerdich) nice, also spoken rodag (wirdich), uoda, 
aidag (see 100). 

2. Before n in the verbal forms hi-ann (hienen) had, su-ann 
(scoenen) should, uirann (woenen) would, ku*ann (Jcoenen) could, 
di-ann (dienen) did, lainn (leinen) laid, sainn (seinen) said, sti-ann 
(stienen) stood. 3 

1 The above belongs properly to the historical grammar. There are, how- 
ever, Frisian dialects which still pronounce the 1 in this case, e. g. the dialect 
of Hynlippen (Hindeloopen). 

2 Also in all the forms of such verbs. 

3 These forms are the weak imperfect plurals (for hieden, scoeden, woeden, 
Jcoeden, dieden, leiden, seiden, stiederi) of the verbs hawwe, settle, wolle, kinne (and 
Jcenne), dwaen, lizze, sizze, stean. 


3. After n in the following present participles used as adjectives : 
meian (mijen) shy, hu-adn (hoeden) careful, diman (dimmen) quiet, 
stiorjkan (stjonken) stinking, liban (libben) living, eftar'hoidn 
(efterMlden) reserved. 

4. In the word honlja (handelje) to trade, also pronounced 

5. Before 1 in the words rilak (ridlik) honest, dailak (daedlik, 
dalik) at once, nola (nidle) needle, cjola (girdle) girdle. 

6. In the word ar (er) there, an unstressed form of the adverb 
der. 1 

105. The article da (de) is assimilated to a (e) : 

1. After prepositions ending in a consonant. 

Examples in a uin (yn de wyn, also written yn 'e wyn) in the 
wind, fon a mo-an (fen 'e moarn) this morning. 

2. Sometimes even after the prepositions mai (mei\ nai (nei). 
Note. In some cases two forms are used, e. g. : 

f5a da (foar de) and f6ar a (foar 'e) 
ira da (oer de) and u-ar a (oer 'e) 
tro da (troch de) and trog a (troch 'e). 

106. The final consonant of the adverb nox, nog (noch) yet, is 
often assimilated in the combination with net, nt (net) not, thus : 
nog net and no net, nognt and nont (noch net). 

107. The final consonant of the adverbs and prepositions trog 
(troch) and o:v (of) is* usually assimilated before a consonant 
(except h) in compound words and before the article da (de). 


tro ua:r e uin (troch waer en ivyri) 

'troreid (trochreed), 'trodriuwa (trochdriuwe) 

'o-ari'ada (ofriede), 'o-agi-an (ofgean) 

tro da slrat (troch de sleat), o-a da sktfala (of de skoalle). 

Note. The preposition and adverb o:v is by a great many 
speakers in all cases pronounced o*a or ou. 

108. The final consonant of some much-used verbal forms is 
often assimilated (especially in careless speaking), when a personal 
pronoun is enclitically appended to them. Such forms are : 

uo k (wol ik), si k (soil ik), do k (doch ik), ma k (moat ik) 

vo m (wolle wy), si ui ( settle wy), do o?i (dogge wy\ ma ui (moatte ivy) 

1 Others unstressed forms are der, dp (der). 


t>o ja (wolUjy), si ja (settle jy), do ja (doggejy), ma ja (moattejy) 
uosta (wolste), sista (scilste), [doxsta (doc/ase)], masta (woasfe). 
Not with the enclitic personal pronoun ar, r (er). 


109. Voicing, i.e. change from breath to voice, occurs in the 
following cases among others : 

1. From k to g before a voiced consonant. 
Examples icj bin (ik bin) I am, icj dox (ik doch) I do. 

2. From p to b in the same case. 

Examples obdwa-n (o^vaen) to open, ob ba'zita (op Usite) 
on a visit. 

3. From s to z in the words is (is), and os (as) before a word 
beginning with a vowel or a voiced consonant and belonging to 
the same breath-group. 


iz ar der? (Is er der?) 
oz ik kom (As ik Jcom) 
iz dr ran ? (Is der ien ?) 
lik oz ni:z (Lyk as niis). 

4. From s to z in the enclitic personal pronoun sa after a word 
ending in a vowel or a voiced consonant. 


di-a za dot ? (Die se dat ?) 
mm za mai ! (Nim se mei !) 

5. From t to d sometimes before a voiced consonant. 
Example 'ydbuid (ufboeid) bandy-legged. 

110. Unvoicing, i. e. change from voice to breath, is met with in 
various cases in Frisian, such as the following : 

1. From v, z, g, to f, s, x before t in verbal forms as hei bu:xt, 
ue:ft, leist (% Mgt, weeft, lest), from the verbs buiga (huge) to 
bend, ueiva (weve) to weave, ls:za (teze) to read. 

2. From d to t in the article da (de), the personal pronoun del, 
di (dy\ the demonstrative pronouns dot, di (dat, dy\ and the 
adverbs der, deira (der, derre), when the preceding word ends in a 
breathed consonant and belongs to the same breath-group. 



mai ik tot ? (M ei ik dat ?) 

stek ti net ! (Stek dy net !) 

rot doxt (t)i mon ? (Hwet docht dy man ?) 

stek ta pi:p o-an ! (Stek depiip oan !) 

mat (t)a frou ek uot ha ? (Moat de frou eJc liwet lia ?) 

sioxst (t)ot (t)e:ra P (Sjuchst dat derre ?) 

111. There is also unvoicing : 

1. From b, d, v, z, g, to b, d, v, z, g at the end of a word after 
long vowels, falling diphthongs, and triphthongs ; also after the 
liquids m, n, n, 1, r. 1 

Examples kraib (Jcraeb), said (saed), dry.v (druf), erv (erf], 
tsi:z (tsiis), i-eg (each), berg (berch), tiemz (tjems), sti-z (stins), 
'alliijz (einlings), li-az (lears). 

2. From vd (written fd) to vd and from gd to gd at the end of 
words in the same cases as above. 

Examples ueivd (weefd), dra:vd (draefd), ervd (erfd), bu:gd 
(bugd\ d0:gd (deugd). 

3. From x s to gz sometimes in the word dogz, also spoken 
doxs (docks). 

4. From d to d and from g to g at the end of words when the 
final syllable is unstressed. 

Examples rinand (rinnend), uolmi-enand (wolmienend), jrreg 
(jierrich), lineg (Imich). 

Change of articulation 

112. The principal varieties of this form of assimilation are : 

1. The change from n to m before the bilabials b, p, m. 
Examples om'biidag (onbidich), 'impaka (ynpakke), 'o-am- 

prala (oanpiele), o-am mei (oan my), ^^maxt (onmacht). 

2. The change from n to rj before the velar consonants g and k. 2 
Examples on'cjeiv (ongeef), i-arj ki-ar (ien hear). 

3. The unaccented ending an becomes in careless speaking : 
(a) m after the bilabials b, p, m. 

Examples to*bm (toliben), rapm (iepen\ imm (immen). 

1 r before ^ and z is then assimilated (see 100, 101), n before z nasalized 
(see 116). 

2 The word farjka (farike) shows the change from m to rj. This form is as 
frequent as farnka (famke), but has another signification. Both forms are 
diminutives from fa:m (/am) 


(&) r) after the velar sounds k, g, x> rj. 

Examples brakrj (beaken), siigrj (sigen), sang (sangen). 
Note, The changes mentioned under 3 do not occur in very 
careful speaking. 

4. A curious change occurs in the prefix ont, which is mostly 
pronounced omt. 

Examples omt'hoida (onthdlde), omt'jam (ontjaen). 

113. The combination ft sometimes or regularly becomes xt in 
the following words : 

kre:ft kraxt (Jcreft, kracht), kraft kraxt (kraft,kracht), loft 
loxt (loft), skoft sko x t (skoft), kloft k!6 x t (JducJit), kloftag 
kloxtag (Muftich), stiftsja stixtsja (stiftsje), swifta swixta 
(sivichte), lofts k>x(t)s (lofts), eftar, aftar axtar (efter, achter), at 
huft at huxt 1 (it hoeft, it hoecht), gar oft cjaroxt (geroft), nift 

nixt (nift, nicht). 

Note. The existence of two such forms beside each other has 
brought about the opposite transition in some cases, as e.g. toxt 
toft (tocht, past part, of tinJce), noxt noft (nocht, noft), noxtarn 

noftarn (nochteren, nofteren). 

114. See also the chapter on nasalization ( 116-19) and syllabic 
consonants ( 142-8). 

Modification of articulation 

115. This kind of assimilation occurs in Frisian in the following 

1. g sometimes becomes g between vowel sounds. 
Examples bacjima bagiina (bigjinne), 'naicjran 'naigran 

(neigean), tacju-ada tagu/ada (to goede), tagie:ra tagierra 

2. g often becomes x after t, k, p, s. 

at giit at xlit (it giet) it goes. 
ig gran ik xi'9n (ik gean) I go. 
'obcjran 'opxi'an (opgeari) to open. 
busxot (busgat) placket. 

1 This form is the source of the new infinitive huge (hoege), which is not 
unfrequently heard instead of hu:va (hoeve). It has a complete conjugation ; 
the past participle is hu&d (hoegd). 

The transition vd gd, however, also appears in the word badruivd 
(bidroefcf) t also pronounced badru:gd. 


3. d often becomes r in the words : 

ho:da ho:ra (hdlde) to hold. 

no-adag no-arag (noadich) needful. 

si-ada si-ara (siede) to boil. 

sta:dag stairag (stadich) steadily. 

hlida hiira (hjidde) hards (of flax). 

i?ioda uiora (wjudde) to weed. 
Note. The opposite transition appears in the words : 

ri-ara ri-ada (riere) to stir. 

ru-ara ru:ada (roere) to move, touch. 


116. In Frisian nasalization is a kind of assimilation. Vowels 
followed by ji or by n with s, z, z, f, u, j, 1, r x are more or less 
nasalized. So are diphthongs in the same cases, but principally 
in their final element. The n disappears. 

117. Although the nasalization is comparatively small, a Frisian 
hears immediately the difference in such words as the following : 

tsiin (tsjm) and tsiijia (tsjinje) 
uena (wenne) and ueist (wenst) 
bina (line) and biistr (bynster) 
jintr (jinter) and jiisn (jinsen). 

118. The nasalization of short vowels is the most perceptible ; 
before ns they are also lengthened. That is obvious, if we com- 
pare such words as : 

hindr (Jiynder) and hiist (hynst) 

ik kin (ik Mn) and dou kiist (dou kinst) 

mon (man) and moisk (mansk). 

119. In the following list the principal nasalized sounds occur- 
ring in Frisian are enumerated : 

i e. g. ^liza (yrilizze), dijia (dynje) 
i: ui:sk (wynsk), Mist (hynst) 

1 That is to say, a lateral, a rolled, or a fricative consonant, with the 
exception of w, v, x, and g, which do not follow n. The nasalization also 
appears before nh, but only when this combination is followed by a rising 
diphthong. Cf. 

'inhi'ora (ynhiere) and 'ihiekja (ynheakje} 
'crenhoide (oanhdlde) and 'o'eliiere (oanhearre). 



y e. g. klyjia (Jcltinje), hylak (Mrili] 

y: dyisk (dunsty, hyista 

g: l@:g (Uns), meiska 

&: ge:st (ginst), keist 

i tsjijia (tsjinje) 

i: ji:sn (jinseri) 

e ,, uejia (wenje) 

e: beisk (bernsfy, ueist (wenst) 

& frSjia (franje) 

a: ha:z (Hams), ^aizdi (TFoaws^ee) 

a ,, lilkaz (lillcens), be:skaz (bernskens) 

o: gloiz (gldns), moisk 

o: ., 'toizdi (Tongersdei) 

u: jiiiz (jowws), guizja 

i-a i-az (iens), i-alak . 

6 -a fro-alak (frjeorilik), sno-az (snjeotis) 

ai snaiz (snems) 

6a ,, moa'z (moarns) 

u-a gu*az (^oes) goose ; also cju-az unnasalized. 


120. In Frisian there are frequent examples of reduction. 
For practical reasons various kinds are here mentioned together, 
although they may have different causes. 

Reduction of vowels 

121. Long vowels may be reduced in words which are lengthened 
by a syllable in consequence of declension, composition, or deriva- 
tion. This reduction ordinarily affects the quantity of vowels in 
such a manner that long vowels become shortened. But some 
vowels also undergo changes in quality. 1 

122. The principal cases which may be distinguished are the 
following : 

1 It sometimes happens that the reduced and unreduced forms of a word 
have influenced each other. Hence two pronunciations, as sik si:k (siik), 
sikjo siikja (siikje), riide rida (ride), gliide glide (glide), buk bu:k (toft), 
duk du:k (dock), bruk bruik (broek). 

The most usual forms are those given first. 


1. Reduction (or shortening) from i: to i, 

ui:v (wiif) uifka (ivyfke) 

ti:d (ttid) tidlak (tydlik) 

bliid (Wid) blitskip (Uydskip) 

si:k (siik) sikta (syUe\ sikaz (sikens) 

ni:d (niid) nidag (nidich). 

2. From y: to y. 

Example sky.v (skuf) skyfka (sMfke). 

3. From e: to i. 

he:g (heech) hi x te (hichte) 
re:k (reek) nkja (rikje). 

4. From e: to e. 

cjleiz (gles) cjleska (gleske) 
steid (stedt stetsk (stedsk) 
bleid (bled} 'bletsida (bkdside) 
le:st (lest) lestag (lestich). 

5. From a: to a. 

fa:m (faem) fa man (fammeri), famka (famke) 
la:m (laem) Ionian (lammeri), lamka (lamke) 
la:pa (lape) lapan (lappen), lapja (lapje) 
hoist (haest) ha stag (hastich). 

6. From o: to o. 

loin (Ian) lonan (lannen) 
hom (hdn) honan (hannen), hondag (handich) 
so:n (saun) sontjan (sauntjin), sontag (sauntich) 
stoik (stole) stokan (stokken), stokja (stokje). 

7. From o: (or cr) to o. 

kno:p (knoop) knopka (knoopke) 
to'ba (tobbe) tobka (tobke) 
sto-ba (stobbe) stoban (stobben). 


From u: to u. 

Examples mu:z (mus) muzan (muzen), muska l (musJce). 
9. From u: to y. 

hu:z (Ms)' hyzan (liuzen), hyska (huske) 
mu:z (mus) myska * (muske). 

Note. In some of the above cases the short vowel is the 
original one, so that they are only apparent examples of reduction. 

Reduction of diphthongs 

123. This is also met with in some cases. It usually consists 
in shortening the stressed element, or in dropping the semi- vowel 
which composes the unstressed element in such diphthongs as have 
the stress on the second part, 2 or in some cases on the first. 

124. The following cases may be distinguished : 

1. a*i is reduced to ai, e. g. : 

a*i (aei) aika (aike) 
kai (kaei) kaika (kaiJce) 
ma-ia (Maeije) 'maitid (maitiid) 
a-ia (aeije) aikja (aikje). 

2. U'i is reduced to ui, e. g. : 

blu'ia (bloeije) bluisal (Uoeisel), 'bluitid (bloeitiid) 
cpiria (groeije) gruisam (groeisum). 

Note. In consequence of this change a great many speakers 
also pronounce bluia (Uoeije), cjruia (groei/je), with ui instead of iri. 

3. le is reduced to e in : 

belt (helt), hekalja (lieakkelje), swel (sweal), sweltsja (swealtsje), 
kel (kel, kjeT) ; 

and sometimes in frsmd, hekan, hekal, hekja, ketirj, ketlirj, 
rema, which are also pronounced friemd (frjemd), hiekan (heaJcJcen), 
hlekal (heakM), hlekja (heakje), kletir) (Jceatting), kietlii) (Jceatling), 
riema (reamme). 

4. ii is reduced to i in : 

twira (twjirre), twilirj (twjilling), r twibak (twiebak), swidar 
(sivierder), swist (swierst). 

1 These two reduced forms differ in signification : musko (muske) means 
' little mouse ', myske (muske) has the transferred meaning rogue ', ( urchin '. 

2 This especially occurs after the consonants h, u, r, m. 


5. 6a is reduced to a in : 

mate (moatte), / mandi (Moandei), 'uaizdi 1 (Woansdei). 

6. 6'd is reduced to 6 in : 
cjrotar (greater), grost (greatst). 

7. rd is reduced to i in : 
irj, also spoken rarj (eang). 

8. u-a is often reduced to u in : 

ik ku, uu, su, but also ik ku-a, uu/a, su-a 2 ($ &oe, woe, scoe). 

Reduction of consonants 3 

125. This reduction ordinarily consists in a weakening of the 
articulation, followed in some words by complete dropping of the 
consonant. The most common cases are the following : 

126. r, a full-rolled consonant sound in other positions, is often 
reduced to a half-rolled devocalized r at the end of words, when 
the preceding sound is a diphthong ending in the weak indistinct 
vowel sound a. 

Examples hi/ar (hier), mrar (wear), smo*ar (smoar). 

127. In this position r has dropped in the singular of the 
imperfect tense of the verb ue:za (weze) to be : ik, hei ui-a (ik, liy 
wier) I, he was. 

128. d, which becomes d (with slight explosion) at the end of 
words after long vowels and diphthongs (see 111. 1), often drops 
when preceded by a diphthong ending in a. 


ri-ad, ri-a (ried, rie) counsel 

di-ad, di-a (died, die) deed 

si-ad, si-a (sied, sie) seed 

rrad, rra (read, red) red 

di-ad, di-a (dead, dea) death 

kwra (Jcwea) evil 

bn-a (brea] bread 

Ira (lea) limbs 

cju'ad, cju/a (sometimes) (goed, goe) good 

1 With nasalization ; see 116. 

2 The imperfect tenses of the verbs kinne can, wolle will, settle shall. 

3 For devocalization, which is of course also a form of reduction, see 
110, 111. 



ik hi-a, dra l (ik Me, die) 

ik uu*a, ku-a, sira, bra, sra 2 (ik woe, koe, scoe, bea, sea). 
129. d as initial consonant is reduced and often drops in dju-ar, 
ar (djur), djip, jip (djip), djuia, juia (djoeije). 
ISO. k often drops in the suffix -sk. 

Examples mo:sk, mo:s (mdnsk), folsk, fols (falslc), m:ska, 
mS:s (minske, mins), frisk, fris (frysk). 

131. h is always a little reduced before rising diphthongs. 
Examples hlir (hjir), hiit (hjit), h6ata (hoarte), h6ana (hoanne), 

huotsja (hoedtsje), hiest (hjerst), hiera (hearre). 

h is reduced to a slight aspiration or has completely dropped : 

1. In some words beginning with r or 1 (see 73). 

n-ak (redk), rirj (ring), ropa (roppe) 
liepa (Ijeppe), laitsja (laitsje). 

2. In some words beginning with j or v> (see 79, 81). 

rot (hwet), uont (hwent), uer (hwer) 
ju-a^. (hjoed), jouar (hjouwer). 

132. j often drops as initial consonant in the word : 

ji-ar (jier), also spoken i-ar. 

Reduction in half-stressed and unstressed syllables 

133. Generally it may be said that sounds in half-stressed or 
unstressed syllables have not the same value as in full-stressed 
ones. It is indifferent whether the unstressed or half-stressed 
syllable precedes the stressed one or follows it. 

134. When a half-stressed syllable immediately precedes or 
follows 3 a stressed one, long vowels and diphthongs may be 
reduced ; e.g. : 

1. o: is reduced to o. 

Example ho:v (hof) 'tsjerkhof (tsjerkhof). 

2. e: is reduced to s. 

Example steid (sted) stedz'huiz (stedsMs). 

1 The imperfect tenses of the verbs hawwe, dwaen. 

2 The imperfect tenses of the verbs wolle, kinne (and kenne), settle, bidde (and 
biede), siede. 

3 When an unstressed syllable comes between, the reduction does not 

1466-2 D 


3. i: is reduced to i. 

Example ti:d (tiid) 'oltid (altyd). 

4. u: is reduced to y. 

Example hu:z (hus) 'tixthys (tichtMs). 

5. ai is reduced to i. 

dai (del) 'midi (middei), 'mandi (Moandei), 'tiizdi (Tiisdei) 
uai (wei) 'hielui (liealwei). 

6. ei is reduced to i. 

Example nei (nij) nis'kiirag (nijsgierrich). 

7. ii (with stress-change from i*a) becomes ia, ja. 

stran (stien) 'skdaslan (skoarstien) 
tsi-an (tsien) r tretjan (trettjin). 

135. In ordinary talk it is common in the above cases for the 
reduced sound to become a ; e. g. : 

fek (fek) 'hiefak (heafek) 

fet (fet) 'diefat (deafet) 

fol (fol) 'hoifal (Mnfol) 

kos (Teas) 'kli-arjkas (Jdeankas) 

uai (wei) 'hielua (healwei) 

hi-ak (heafy 'potak (putheaJc) 

kou (Jcou) kaz'itn (Jcousiten) 

moan .(moarri) man'i-ar (moarnier) 

116 (ljue) 'froilia (frouljue). 

136. In a great many words of foreign origin the same reduc- 
tion appears in the unstressed syllable as described in the preced- 
ing section. 

Examples fa'brik (fdbryk), ma'sina (masine), da'zin (dozyn), 
ka'slain (Jcastlein), pa'tei (partij), br'ta:! (bretael), ma'ki-ara 

137. In such cases a has often dropped ; e. g. : 

kronta (Jcrante), kro'an (kroari), krekt (Urekt}, kraft, kra\t 
(kraft), klots (Mots), klo-ar (Jdeur), klin (Myn\ blain (Uein), knin, 
ka'nin (Jcenyn). 

138. Curious forms are : 

pa'pi'ar, pam r pi'ar, pom'pi'ar (papier, pompier) 
ka'fo-ar, ka'fo-ar, ko'fo-ar (komfoar) 
ha'lo-azja (haloazje), a'fisja (afysje), ba'zita (bisite) 
kama'net (kammenet), istr'mint (ystermint), kla^ots (klabats). 


139. The prefix mis- is pronounced mis and mas, when the 
stress falls on the following syllable. 


mis'koma, mas'koma 
mis'siza, mas'siza (missive) 
miz'dwcrn, maz'dwcrn 

140. The following suffixes have two pronunciations : 

-heid is spoken haid and hit 
skip skip skap 
UJc lik lak 1 
-nis nis nas 
-ing irj arj 
-ling lirj larj. 

141. In enclitic or proclitic words, as for example the personal 
pronouns, and in words occupying lightly-stressed places in the 
sentence, vowels and diphthongs also may be reduced. 


ik k i?u*a lievar ! (Uc woe Ijeaver !) 
at uol t net ? (Wol it net ?) 
rei ha ui net mi-ar ? (Ha wy net mear ?) 
del ik kin di net helpa (Ik Mn dy net helpe) 
mei jou mi dot ! (Jow my dat !) 
sei cjiit sa mai ? (G-iet se mei ?) 
jou sjo ja uol ? (Sjuch jy ivol ?) 

Note. It is of course also possible for the original sound to 
remain in certain cases. 

Reduction to syllabic consonants 

142. In Frisian the unstressed syllable which ends in one of the 
sounds^n, 1, r is often reduced to a syllabic consonant, i. e. to m, 
n, rj, 1, orr 2 . 

1 The sound Q in this suffix has dropped in the word lilk (7t7fc), and some- 
times drops in moilk, moigtek (mooglik\ skrelk, ski'Qlsk (skielik^ da:lk, 
dailek (dalik\ rilk, nlek (n'dWfc), kwi-alk, kwi-elek (kwealik}. 

In the suffix ox, e (-ich~) the indistinct vowel also drops in some words, as 
u6r|; (wircti), smoarg (smoarcti), tsim(tyu 6rg (tsjlnwirdicti). 

2 The opposite of reduction appears in words ending in rm or 1m preceded 
by a long vowel or a diphthong. In such words m often becomes syllabic ; 
e.g. uairin (waerm), I'srm (earm), sks:rm (sfcmw), viirm (wjirwi), stoarm 
(stoarm), foarm (Joarm), go:lm (gdlni), and with insertion of a even uairem, 
i'9ram, and so on. 



143. The ending ~en, in careful pronunciation spoken an, is 
reduced 1 : 

1. To n when the preceding sound is one of the labiodental or 
linguodental consonants f, v, t, d, n, 1, r, s, z. 

Examples efn (effen\ tiidn (tiden\ sinn (sinen), jeln (jelne). 

2. To m after the bilabial consonants p, b, m. 
Examples i-apm (ieperi), libm (libben), imm (immen). 

3. To rj after the velar consonants k, rj, g. 

Examples rekrj (reMen), dirjr) (dingeri), twiigrj (twigeri). 

144. The ending -el, in careful speaking el, is reduced to 1 after 

Examples lepl (l&ppel) cjdivl (gavel), kriigl (krigel), irjl (ingel). 

145. The ending -er, in careful speaking ar, is reduced to r 
after consonants. 

Examples e:kr (eker), a:mr (amer), torjr (longer). 

146. The suffix -ens (English -ness) is pronounced : 

1. nz after t, d, n, 1. 

Examples ritnz (witens), gu-adnz (goedens), blinnz (Uinens), 
fralnz (fealens). 

2. mz or ez after p, b, m. 


tsjepmz or tsjepaz (tsjeppens) 
dommz domez (dommens). 

3. rjz or az after k,.g, rj. 

lilkrjz or lilkaz (lilkens) 
slugrjz slugez (slugens) 
irjrjz irjaz (eangens). 

4. ez after the consonants s, z, and after vowels or semi- vowels. 
Examples litsaz (tytsens), krrezaz (kreazens), reiaz (rijens). 

147. The word-combinations ho'n ien, sa?n ien, gjin ien are 
generally reduced to hunn, sann, glinn. 

148. The negative abverb net (net) is reduced to nt when enclitic 
or proclitic. 


ik 'uit nt (He wit net) 

ntui-ar? 2 (Netwier?) 

1 For practical reasons these and the following rules are mentioned here 
all together, although they partly belong to the chapter on assimilation. 

2 From this form comes the pronunciation ent ui'er? which is not un- 
frequently heard in ordinary speaking. 



149. In this work no proper treatment of the various West 
Frisian dialects can be attempted. This would not only be 
undesirable for the present purpose, but also impossible, as the 
researches made into this matter are still very incomplete. 

150. What is dealt with here is only the most common dialect. 
This is understood tolerably well over the whole Frisian territory, 
not only in the districts where another dialect is spoken, but even 
for the most part in the towns, where as a rule the natives do not 
speak Frisian. 

151. Some of the principal differences which exist in this dialect 
are given below. 1 No account, however, is here taken of other 
dialects, such as those of the South and South-west, of which that 
of Hynlippen (Dutch form : Hindeloopen) is very interesting, or 
those of Skilinge (Dutch: Terschelling) and Skiermuntseach 
(Dutch : Schiermonnikoog). 2 

152. e a. Some words which normally have e are locally 
pronounced with a. For instance : 

net, beta (herte), smet, smeta (smerte), ken (kern), hena (herne), 
dwes (dwers), fesk (fersk), pesa (perse), knesa (knerse), mesa (merse), 
hesaz (hersens), berm (berm), 'herberga (herberge), merka (merke), 
perk (perk), ferva (ferve), sker (sker), lef (lef), eftar (efter), extar 
(echter), gre:ft (greft), kreift (kreft), klem (Mem), menag (mennich), 
rejia (wenje), are also pronounced hat, smat, kan, hana, dwas, 
fask, pasa, knasa, masa, hasaz, barm, 'harbarga, marka, 
park, farva, skar, laf, aftar, axtar, graft, kraxt, klam, manag, 

153. e i. Words variously pronounced with e or with i are, 
for instance : kena (kenne), bakend (bikend), en (en), vena (wenne), 
ek (ek), skel(a) (skel, skelle), skrepa (skreppe), grepal (greppel). 

Also pronounced kina, bakind, in, uina, ik, skila, skripa, 

154. ei il. Words spelt with ij are generally pronounced with 
ei, but the pronunciation ii is also current in some parts. 

1 The following sections are not entirely based on the personal researches 
of the author, a few examples being taken from the Friesch Woordenboek (Lexicon 
Jrisicum'), bewerkt door Waling Dykstra, etc. Leeuwarden, 1900-1911. 

2 An exact demarcation of Frisian dialects must also be postponed to 
another occasion. 


Examples frei (frij), nei (nij), lei (lij), rei (rij), leia 
meia (mije), ueia (wje), sneia (sw)'e), treia (trije). 

Also pronounced fnl, nil, lii, ni, lila, mria, uiia, sniia, 

155. u o. A dialectal difference is found in such words as : 
undar (under), uundar (wunder), sundar (sunder), sunt (sunt), 

bunt (bunt\ hundat (hundert), puntsjar (puntsjer), tuna (tunne), 
un (un), tuna (tunge), rum (rum), dum (dum), krum (krum), plum 
(^Zww), prum (prum). skum (sMw), tuma (tume), tumalja 
(tumelje), juk (jw&), jukja (jukje), tuka (w&e), tsjuk (tsjuh), 
tsjuksal (tsjuksel), which are also pronounced ondar (onder), 
uondar (wonder), sondar (sonder), sont (sont), bont (bont), hondat 
(hondert), pontsjar (pontsjer), tona (tonne), on (on), torja (tonge), rom 
(row), dom (dom), krom (Arom), plom (_ptom), prom (prom), skom 
(s&ow), toma (tomme), tomalja (tommelje), jok (joA;), jokja (joJcje), 
toka (fe^e), tsjok (tsjoty, tsjoksal (tsjolcsel). 

Note. The prefixes on-, ont- (omt, see 112. 4) also occur in 
the forms un-, unt-. 

156. u ou. The following words are pronounced with u or 
with ou : 

bun (boun), spun (spoun), run (roun), run (woun), imn (woun), 
fun (foun), 1 nun (houn), jun (joun), grun (groun), sun (soiw), run 
(roun), un (om), pun ( poun), jun ( joww 2 ). 

Also pronounced boun, spoun, roun, uoun, uoun, foun, 1 
houn, joun, groun, soun, roun, oun, poun, joun 2 . 

Note. The word cjuma is also pronounced gouna (goune). 

157. u, ou 6a. Instead of run, roun and run, uoun the pro- 
nunciation r6an (roan), u6an (woan) s is also heard in some 

158. 6 i. This difference exists in such words as : 

spol (spil), 161k (Ulk), mol (mil), brol (bril), 'broloft (brilloft), 
nola 4 (nidle), dot (dit), strota 5 (strjitte), sostar (sister), jostar 
(jister), mont (mint), jofar (jiffer), which are also pronounced 
spil, lilk, mil, bril, 'briloft, nila, dit, strita 5 , sistar, jistar, 
mint, jifar. 

1 The imperfect tenses and past participles of the verbs bine, spinne, rinne, 
wine, winne, fine. 

2 The past participle of the verb jaen. 

3 The imperfect tenses and past participles of the verbs rinne, winne. 

4 Also pronounced nodal, n6dl. 5 Usually pronounced striite. 


But in some of these words the pronunciation with 6, in others 
that with i, has fallen into disuse. 

159. iuw lou. The words bliuwa (Uimve), driuwa (driwwe), 
rluwa (riuwe), trluwa (triuwe), prluwa (priuwe), pluwa (piuwe), 
skriuwa (skriuwe), uriuwa (wriuwe), lluw (liuw), kiuw (kiuw), 
mluw (miuw), are also pronounced blioua, drioua, rloua, trloua, 
prioua, pioua, skrioua, urloua, llou, kiou, miou. 

Note. This pronunciation is even the most common. 

160. ra e:. Words pronounced with ra or with e: are (among 
others) the following : 

urak (weak), rrak (reak), kn*akja (kreakje), hrak (heak), 
brakan (bedken\ ni-akan (neaJcen), rag (each), rragja (reagje), 
vi*agja (weagje), pli-agja (pleagje), bi-aga (hedge), fli-ag (fleach 1 ), 
si-eg (seach 1 ). 

Also occurring with the pronunciation re:k, re:k, kreikja, he:k, 
bsikan, ne:ken, e:g, reigja, ue:gja, pleigja, beiga, fleig \ se:g J . 

161. ra e:. There are a few words pronounced with i-a or 
with e: ; e. g. : 

rag (each), ki-ap (heap), ki-apja (Jceapje). 
Also pronounced e:g, ke:p, ke:pja. 

162. e: ei. This difference occurs in the words : 

beital (betel), ue:garja (wegerje), terkan (teken), te:kanja 
(tekenje), ste:gar (steger), cjamemta (gemeente), which have also the 
pronunciation beital (beitel), reigarja (weigerje), teikan (teilcen), 
teikanja (teikenje), steigar (steiger), gameinta (gemeinte). 

163. e: i-a. In the following words the sounds e: or i-a are 
employed : ; 

he:l (heel), kfeil (keel), ge:l (geel), de:l (deel), de:la (dele). 
In other districts : hi-al (Mel), ki-al (Met), gi-al (giel), di-al 
(diel), di'ala (diele). 

164. i-a i:. This dialectal difference occurs especially in some 
imperfect tenses ; for instance : 

brrak (briek), di-ak (dieJc), riak (riek), spri'ak (sprieTc), strak 
(stiek), stri-ak (strtek), tri-ak (trieJc)* bri-av (brief), di-av (dief). 

Also pronounced bri:k, di:k, ri:k, spri:k, sti:k, striik, tri:k, 2 
bri:v, di:v. 

1 The imperfect tenses of the verbs Jleane, sjen. 

2 The imperfect tenses of the verbs brekke, dekke, rekke, sprekke, stekke, strike, 


165. pa 6'a. There are some words pronounced with pa which 
in other places have 6*a. Such are : 

cjrrat (great), bralag (bealich), bralagja (lealigje), krakalja 
(JceaMje), drala (deale), dralaz (deales), fadrald (fordeald), koma- 
'drara (kommedeare), which also occur with the pronunciation 
gro-at, bo-alag, bo-alagja, ko-akalja, do-ala, do-alaz, fado-ald, 

166. 6-a iou loti. These three pronunciations are met with 
in the following words : 

blo*an (bleaim), dro-an (dreaun), skro-an (skreauri), uro'an 
(wreaun), pro-an (preaiw), roan (reauri), tro-an (treaun), 1 klo-ana 
(kleaune) ; also blioun, drloun, skrloun, urioun, prioun, rioun, 
trioun, 1 kliouna ; and blioiin, drioun, skrioun, unoun, prioun, 
noun, trioun, 1 klioiina (with level stress, see 85). 

167. u uo. A dialectal difference u iio exists in the following 
words : 

mula (mule), butar (Mter), mutsa (mutse), pul (pul), busa 
(Mse), which are also pronounced muola, biiotar, miiotsa, puol, 

168. o: o*a. Words pronounced with o: or with o*a are, for 
example : 

no:t (not), Qro:t (grot), po:t (pot), ro:t (rot), proila (prolle), 
foila (fole). 

Also pronounced no-at (noat), gro-at (groat), po'at (poat), ro-at 
(roat), pro^ala, prbala (proale, proalle), fo-ala, f6ala (foale, foalk). 

169. a cr. In some words a short a is heard in some districts 
and a half-lengthened a* in others, thus : fara (farre), tara (tarre), 
bora (larre), smara (smarre), jin uara (yen warre) ; but also fcrra, 
ta*ra, bcrra, sma*ra, jin ua^ra. 

170. 6a uo. Some words are pronounced with 6a or with iio. 
Thus: f6at (foart), mtfata 2 (moatte), andar (inoar), pdana (poanne), 
rbatal (woartel). 

Also pronounced fuot, miiota, aniior, piiona, uiiotal. 

171. 16 io. Two pronunciations, namely with io or with io, 
are heard in such words as : 

ulok (wjuk), pick (pjuk), mioks (mjuks), mioksja (mjuJcsje), 
beside uiok, plok, mioks, mioksja. 

1 The past participles of the verbs bliuwe, driuwe, skriuwe, wriuwe, priuwe, 
riuwe, triuwe. 

2 This pronunciation may be said to be antiquated ; it is now mate (see 
124. 5). 


Similarly, but differently distributed : 

slioxt (sljucht), rioxt (rjucJit), sioxt (sjucM), spioxt (spjucht), 
spioxtag (spjuchtich), slog (sjuch), 6'siog (onsjuch), fioxtsja (fjuch- 
tsje), niorjkan (njunJcen), beside slioxt, rioxt, sioxt, spioxt, 
spidxtag, siog, 6'siog, fioxtsja, niorjkan. 

172. ai, a*i ei. Words spelt with ei have various pronuncia- 
tions. The most common is ai. or in some cases, especially when 
followed by a, a half -lengthened variety of this diphthong, namely 
a*i. Another pronunciation, however, is si, also heard in a great 
part of the Frisian territory. Besides the retracted and lowered 
variety ai, a-i is not unfrequently heard in some districts, whilst 
in others the sound is raised so that it becomes nearly e-i. Such 
words are, for example : 

faint (feint), rain (rein), halt (heit), saiz (seis), flaiz (fleis), 
kla*ia (Meije), ta-ia (teije), fa'ia (feije), and so on. 

Also pronounced feint, rein, heit, seiz, fleiz, kleia, teia, feia. 

173. re a:. This difference occurs, for example, in the words : 
si-aga (seage), sragja (seagje), i?raga (weage), fli-ana (fleane), 

which are also pronounced saiga (sage) saigja (saegje), uaiga (wage), 
flaina (flane). 

174. o-a ra. The suffix lo-az (-loas) also occurs in the form 
Iraz (-leas). The first pronunciation is by far the most common. 

175. ja, ia i. In some places the verbal ending ja (or ia) is 
pronounced i ; e. g. : 

uidzja (widzje), heilja (heelje), helja (helje), and so on. 
Also pronounced uidzi, herli, hsli. 

176. The same difference is met with in the diminutive ending 
(t)sja or (t)sia, which is also pronounced (t)si ; e. g. : 

stiioltsja (stoeltsje), hiiotsja (hoedtsje), stiintsja (stientsje), 
netsja (netsje), and so on. 

Also heard with the pronunciation stuoltsi, huotsi, stiintsi, 



177. For a long time there was no unity in the spelling of the 
Frisian language. The systems devised by Dr. J. H. Halbertsma 
(1834) and by H. S. Sytstra (1856) were generally followed, but 
with great freedom. In the year 1876 the ' Selskip for Fryske 
tael en skriftenkennisse ' endeavoured to settle the matter once 
and for all. A board of spelling appointed by this society finished 
its work in 1878. In the next year this was published (De Fryske 
Boekstavering, Hearrenfean, 1879). The system of spelling con- 
tained in this little book was somewhat extended by Mr. Ph. van 
Blom in his Beknopte Friesche SpraaMunst (Joure, 1889). 

178. This system is the one still in use. It is based partly on 
phonetic, partly on etymological and historical principles. 1 Its 
originators have also tried as far as possible to bring the different 
Frisian dialects together under the same spelling. Hence the 
Frisian orthography is in itself very inconsistent, and moreover is 
often applied with equal inconsistency. 

179. There are a great many anomalies in the system. It 
often happens that the same sounds are represented in different 
ways, or that the same letters are used to represent different 
sounds. Simple sounds are often expressed by two letters and 
complex sounds sometimes by single letters. In various cases 
the written letters are not pronounced. The spelling of the 
diphthongs and triphthongs especially is not all that can be 
desired. The spelling of the sounds u, u:, ira, iio, for example, 
is a muddle. The consonant spelling is much better. 

180. For a simple survey, and for the practical purposes of this 
work, the following compendium may serve. 

1 It also exhibits the influence of Dutch spelling. 





Vowels (see 6-18) 



3 & 


Rules ! 





in closed syllables 

ryk, wyt, ryp, syl 
ite, bine, gripe 




in closed syllables 

Hid, wiis, wiif 
rise, iver, sige 



in closed syllables 

nut, tun, us 
slute, hune 



in closed syllables 

druf, suzje 
druven, suver, tuge 



in closed syllables 
when final 

reek, heech, leech 
frede, spegel 
se, ne,fe 




deun, leu, smeule 



in closed syllables and before ch 
archaic in the words 

ik, libje, kinne, richel 
yen, yeske, yester, yet, yette, 




fet, les, brekke 



only in the word 

sted, rech, seft, leze, brege 



in closed syllables and before ch 
also in the open monosyllables 
only in the words 

par, acht, sang,pakke, kachel 
ta, sa, ha, hja 
moatte, Moandei ( 124. 5) 



in closed syllables 
also in the words 

slaen, haed, jaen 
twa, drage, pake 
barne, warle ( 100) 





in a great many unstressed 
syllables, as 

in unstressed prefixes and suf- 
in the unstressed prefixes 
in the unstressed suffix -sum 
sometimes in the words 

-e, -je, -zje, -elje, -erje, -ke, 
-tsje, -er, -el, -em, -en, 
-ens, ge- 
bi-, -ich, -lik, -is, ~nis, -igje 

for-, to- 
bruksum, hansum 
jy, wy ( Ul) 

1 In some cases it is not possible or not necessary to give rules. 







in closed syllables and before ch 

nut, guds, hutte, kuche 

also in the open monosyllables 

ju, hju, rju, sju, nju 


in the past participles 

britsen, ditsen, litsen, ritsen, 

spritsen, stritsen, tritsen, 


also in the words 

nidle, mil, silver, hilde, 

ginne, wirk, swirk, wirch, 

jister, sister, dit ; wird, 

hird, bird, mird, stirt, 

swird, skirte, wirde, girdle 

in closed syllables, not repre- 

lot, kop, God, lof 

senting older a 


from older a before n, I, s, t 

man, al, jas, kat 


only in the words 

saunljin, sauntich ( 122. 6) 



det (conj.), hwet , hwent,fen, 




when not representing older a 

hof, stok, rolje, boge 


from older a before n, I, (l)d, (C]t 

hdn,wdl; did, salt ( 102) 


only in the words 

saun, naule 


past participle 






dom, tosk, wolle,folk 



tobbe, dobbe, stobbe, klobbe 



in closed syllables 

rook, doop, hoopje 

open - 

doge, romer, smoke 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

droech, hoep, Jioek 

o, oe 


when the Dutch equivalent has 

buk, bruke, mule 

u, ui, eu 


from older u before n(d) 

houn, groun, poun ( 156) 


only in the past participle 


only in the words 

do, ho 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

skoech, boek, doek 

o, oe 


when the Dutch equivalent has 

buge, tuzen, bugel 

u, ui, eu 


only in the word 




Diphthongs (see 26-47) 







laitsje, aike 


in words which are also pro- 

wein, meitsje, rein, ein 

nounced with ei 



in words which are also pro- 

frij, nij, snije, trije 


nounced with ii 


only in the words (also pro- 

hy, wy, my, dy, by 

nounced with i) 




stuitsje, struije, druije 




bloei, groei, bloeije 



kaei, daei, waeije, klaeije 


in words also pronounced with 

kleije,feije, meije 





moai, roaije, ploaitsje 




ploeije, loeije 



only in the interjection 

au ! 



goud, hout, ton, moude 


gau, nau, blau 




dou.j kou, nou, skouwe 



rouwe, mouwe 










ten, skiep, wiet, Mere 




flues, natuer 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

hoed, bloed, goes, koer 

o, oe 


when the Dutch equivalent has 

sur, ure 

u, ui 





hea, beam, read, weak, heal 



before r 

geur, kleur, steure 


in past participles as 

dreaun, skreaun, bleaun ( 



in the words 

frjeon, snjeon, gleon 




roas, moal, doar, oar 



interchanging with ra 

miette, siedzje, triedden 


in other cases 

fjild, bjinne, hjir, gjin, njirre 




wjuk, bjuster, ljurk 


only in the word 










interchanging with ra 

beammen, weakje 

J e 

in other cases 

Ijeppe, stjerre,frjemd 







only in 

sjonge, stjonke 



sljucht, rjucht, fjuchtsje, 





doarren, hoanne, doarp 



only in the word 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

hoedden, koerke, boerkje, 

o, oe, eu 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

murre, skurre, durje 

u, ui 


Triphthongs (see 48, 49) 



in the word 




in words also pronounced with 
loft ( 85) 

raw, kauwe, skreauwe 




in words also pronounced with 
iuw ( 159) 

bliuwe, skriuwe, driuwe 



especially in verbs as 

wriuwe, priuwe ( 159) 



always interchanging with o-i 
only in the word 

moaijer, moaist 



in the words 

koai, boaijem 




moeike, moeije, roeikje 


Consonants (see 56-73) 



peal, piip, pong, top 


medially after short vowels and 

lippe, groppe, Ijeppe 

rising diphthongs 


when assimilated before a 

tobke, klibke, sobkje 

breathed consonant 



baen, bliid, flibe, skob 


medially after short and half- 

ebbe, skobben, tobbe, krebbe 

long vowels, rising diph- 

thongs, and after s: 


when assimilated 

opdien, opgean 



finally after long vowels, diph- 

kraeb, slaeb 


thongs, and triphthongs 









tinke, ite,foet 


medially (see above) 

sitte, hjitte, stjitte 

also in imperfect tenses as 



in third persons as 

riedt, redt 

and in past participles 

redt, bkdt 


when assimilated 

redsum, litdat! 



dicaen, wedzje, lid 



Ijedd&r, redde, krodde 


when assimilated 

utbringe, utdoar 



after long vowels, diphthongs, 

laed, tried, reid, himd 

triphthongs, and voiced con- 




kdld, wike, skoalle, fisk 



stekke, rikke 


always initially 

goed, grien, gnob, gled 


when assimilated 

ik bin, ik die 


not indicated in ordinary spell- 





man, seame, fiem, laem 



simmer, reamme 


when assimilated ( 112. 1) 

oaribiede, ynpakke 



see 143.2; 146.2 

libben, immen 


see 142, note 

waerm, earm, wjirm 



namme, bine, lean 



kinne, moanne 



see 143. 1 ; 146. 1 

linnen, buten 



only medially (cf. 116) 

brdnje, tsjinje, tsjernje 



medially or finally 

sjonge, lang, dong 


before k and g 

inket, klank, yngean 



$ee 143. 3 ; 146. 3 




Idn, slaen, dive, role 



telle, wolk, settle 



rane, narje, mar, leare 



karre, skjirre, skurre, stjerre 



after d, k, s, t 

dwaen, kwael, suriet, twa 



fier, lofter, wif 



treffe, straffe 



only medially 

gnuve, iver,fervje 


before -de in imperfect tenses 

gmifde. draefde 










finally after long vowels and 
voiced consonants 
also before d in past participles 

skeaf, toalf, erf 
erfd, biskaefd 



medially in the verb 

waer, wyn, wjirje, wrine 



in the verb settle and its forms 

soan, skjin, buse, bosk 
passe, misse 
scil, scoe, scitten 




mostly medially 
finally in 
medially after short vowels and 
rising diphthongs 
before -de in imperfect tenses 

ease, gnize, eidzje, reizgje 
ik siz, liz, sis ! 
lizze, sizze, hazze, goezzen, 
uriisde, raesde 




finally after long vowels and 
voiced consonants 
also before d in past participles 
finally in the imperatives 

Us, goes, stins, tjems, gers 

misd, raesd 
wez, lez 



initially and in some combina- 
tions and endings 
only in the words 

jong, jister, tsjerke, helje 
yen, yet, yeske, yester, yettik 




medially after short vowels, 
finally, and before t 
also in irregular verbal forms 
before t 
in regular verbal forms before t 

kachel, slack, sluch, nocht 
mocht, brocht, tocht, docht 
hy bugt, draegt 




medially after short vowels 

mage, togje,furge 
dogge, flagge, bigge 




finally after long vowels and 
voiced consonants 
finally in regular verbal forms 
only initially (cf. 73, 131) 

each, flick, berch 

ik bug, draeg 
houn, hiem, hus 



Values of written letters 



H T: 


Rules i 




in closed syllables before n, t, s, I 

kanne, latte, passe, bal 

in closed syllables, when not 

jak, nacht, garje, sang 

followed by n, t, s, I 


in the open monosyllables 

ta, sa, ha, hja 


in open syllables 

tale, pake, twa 


before rn, rl (r is assimilated) 

barne, warle 




waer, paed, tael, maet 




aei, raei, faei, haeije 



laitsje, aikje 



only in the interjection 




gau, flau, nau, blau 


when followed by we 

dauwe, snauwe 


only in the words 

sauntjin, sauntich 


?> > 

saun, naule 



only in the past participle 




always ; only occurring before 

sdn,stdl, wrdld, salt ( 102) 

n, I, Zd, Z< 



in various positions 

bien, bruke, kliber, gib 


finally after long vowels and 

kraeb, slaeb 



by assimilation before breathed 

tobke, slabke, klibke 





ribbe, libben 



medially, before t, finally after 

rache, tichelje, nacht, sluch 

short vowels 


finally after long vowels, diph- 

weach, kraech, wirch, 

thongs, triphthongs, and 


voiced consonants 



in various positions 

del, eide, droech, lid 


finally after long vowels, diph- 

steed, sted, tsjoed, frjemd 

thongs, triphthongs, and 

voiced consonants 


by assimilation ( 110. 2) 

dat derre 


always in 

ridlik, nidle, girdle ( 104. 


sometimes in 

wirdich, wirde, aerdich ( 

104. 1) 

sometimes in the article 

de ( 105) 




midden, widdou, hjidde, 




in verbal forms as 

redt, ledt, bledt, riedt 



In some cases it is not possible or not necessary to give a rule. 










in open syllables 

redens, dele, eker 


only in the words 

yen, yet, yeske, yester, yettik 


in closed syllables 

gek, let, sjen, tsjen, wet 


only in the word 


only in the words 

del (conj.), hwet, Invent, fen r 



in unstressed words and syl- 

de, witte, spegel 




generally in open syllables or 
followed by a single consonant 

kream, kwea, sleat, read, 


generally when followed by two 
or more consonants 

reamme, beamke, fearje 



especially in past participles as 

bleaun, dreaun ( 166) 


in other cases 

reau, greau, leauwe 




reed, bleek, reek, heel ' 



generally when -je follows (cf. 

feije, leije, teije 



in other cases (cf. 173) 

neil, feint, Jleis,mei, heine 



in the words 

frjeon, snjeon, gleon 



before r 

fleur, kleur, steure 


in other cases 

bleu, beuke, deugd, deun 




se, swe,fe, ste 




gles, bled, rech, mes 



in various positions 

fjouwer, feint, loft, dof 


before the- ending -de 

skaefde, erfde, draefde 


finally after long vowels, diph- 

hof, skeaf, erf, skelf 

thongs, triphthongs, and r, I 


generally in the word 




finally, e.g. in past participles 


weefd, draefd, erfd 





skaffe, trejffe, ploffe 




gdns, gnoarje, glei, grien 


medially after vowels and voiced 

beage, bergje, priizgje, walgje 


also before the ending -de 

doogde, siigde 


in regular verbal forms before t 

hy sugt, bugt, draegt 

after t, k, p ( 115. 2) 

utgean, opgean 




doogd, siigd, jeugd 




rogge, wy dogge, sjugge 



only initially 

helje, hjir, honear 


before .;' and w in the words 

hjoed, hjelt, hjouwer, hwa r 

hwent, hwet, hwer, hwen- 


also in the words 

the, thus 











in closed syllables and before ch 

winne, sitte, richel 


in open syllables, usually before 

bite, wike, trime, wine, gripe, 

t, k, m, n, p, I 



in open syllables, usually before 

bibel, glide, tige, fiver, rize 

b, d, g, v, z 


in various unstressed syllables 

bi-, -ich, -lik, -is, -nis, -igje 

in the articles 

it, in 


before rd, ri (r is assimilated) in 

wird, bird, hird, girdle, 

mird, swird, wirde, skirte 

before ts in the past participles 

britsen, ditsen, litsen, ritsen, 

spritsen, stitsen, stritsen, 


in some other words as 

ginne, kinde, ivirk, swirk, 

mirken, wirch, mil, silver, 

hilde, jister, sister 



generally in open syllables or 

rie, fiele, miene, grien 

followed by a single consonant 


generally when followed by two 

miette, gierrich, siedeje 

or more consonants 








wiid, griis, piip 



always (cf. 154) 

nij, lij, mije, krije 



always (cf. 159) 

wriuwe, skriuwe, bliuwe 



in various positions 

jaen, tsjerke, meitsje, bitelje 


in the words 

frjeon, snjeon, Ijeaf, njuet, 


also when inserted after diph- 

jeije, struije, bloeije, waeije, 

thongs and triphthongs end- 

goaije, loeije 

ing in I 



always in stressed syllables 

frjemd, kjeld, Ijeppe 



always (but cf. 79) 

fjild, djip, Ijirre, strjitte 



in the word 



in the words 

sjonge, stjonke 



in the words 

wjuk, pjuk, sjud, wjudde, 

mjuks, ljurk, sljurkje, 



in the words 

rjucht, sljucht, fjuchtsje, 

sjuch, njuggen, spjucht, 




in the word 




in various positions 

klean, tiksel, flaeks, skjin 


before voiced consonants 





hikke, wjukkelje 



in various positions 

longe, Ijisk, stiel, kjeld 


in the combinations did, alt 

kdld, fdld, hdlde, sdlte 




tilky tjilling, skoalle 










in various positions 

meane, rame, daem 


finally after long vowels or 

waerm, earm, shewn, gdlm 

diphthongs + r or I 




komme, klimme, tomme 



in various positions l 

nest, line, lean 


before b, p, m 

yribine, oanprange, oanmei- 



before k, g 

winke, blank, anker 




wringe, bringe, hingje 




linnen, spanne 

in closed syllables, but not 

kop, lof, lot, God, socht, hok 


in closed syllables, always be- 

skob, dogge, dom, tonne, jong, 

fore b, g, m, n, ng, ks 


and sometimes before other con- 

focht, dof, kop, hok, folk 



generally before bb 

tobbe, klobbe, stobbe 


in open syllables 

doge, dope, stove 


only in the words 

do, ho 


in the adverb and preposition to 

for-, to- 

and the prefixes 



generally in open syllables or 

kroade, doare, smoar, moal 

followed by a single conso- 



generally when followed by two 

hoanne, boarre, stoarm 

or more consonants 


only in the plural form 



in the words 

moatte, Moandei 


only in the word 





moai, koaitsje, koaije 


interchanging with O'i 

moaijer, moaist, moaijens 


only in the words 

koai, boaijem 



droech, hoep, poes 


skoech, hoef, kloek 


hoed, moed, poel, koer 


generally before two or more 

skoerre, koelje, floerje 





bloeije, groeije, skroeije 


when g has dropped 

ploeije, loeije 


interchanging with ui 

tnoeite, moeike, moeije 



only in the word 





rook, roof, loom 

Nasalization is not mentioned here (see 116-19). 












tou, grouj bou, /row, smout 


usually when -we follows 

mouwe, rouwe 


especially in the words 

dou, kou, nou, jou, strou, 

hou ! stouwe, skouwe 


only in the word 



before n, when d has dropped 

sown, houn, roun 

( 156) 


only in the word 




in the past participle of the 

jown ( 156) 

verb jaen 


in other forms of this verb 

ik jow 




noch, rok, strot, bbgejble 



in various positions 

peal, piip, gripe 


before voiced consonants 

opdyk, opbod, opgong 




skoppe, sjippe 



in various positions (cf. 126) 

rij, skriuwe, ier 


before dental consonants ( 100) 

wird, wart, jern, hjerst 

in other assimilations ( 101) 

wjerljocht, f oar jaen 

in the verbal form ( 127) 

ik (hy) wier 




sfjerre, jarre, murre 



in various positions 

rest, sterk, hise, okse 


sometimes in the words 

is, as, se ( 109. 3, 4) 


also before the ending -de 

uriisde, easde 


finally after long vowels, diph- 

wiis, heas, lears, stins 

thongs, and voiced conso- 




only in the verb 

settle, scoe, scillen 




raesd, kniesd 




plasse, misse 



in various positions 

terp, twinge, tsjen, bite, lyts 


before voiced consonants ( 109. 

foartbanne, utgean 



when assimilated ( 103) 

mestelbank, nestelje 




jiette,forjitte, sette 



in closed syllables 

guds, nut, tsjuster 


in open syllables, generally be- 

hune, slute, kruse, tule, rude 

fore n, t, s,l,d 


in open syllables, generally be- 

snuve, tuge, suze 

fore v, g, z 


in unstressed syllables 

hdnsum, langsum 




kuer, flues, sluere 




bui, stuit, bruije, skuile 











in closed syllables, generally 

brim, nut, grus, hul 

before n, t, s, I, d 


in closed syllables, generally 

druf, skuf, tuck 

before v, g (/, cti) 



ruch, sluch, buk, ful, rup 


such, hud, krud, mus 


before r 

stur,fjur, ure 


generally before two or more 

munts, durje, burman 





weve, stiivje, erve 



after d t k, s, t 

dtoylje, kwea, swe, twer 



uwjf, wan, weach, wetter 


when inserted after diphthongs 

klauwe, skouwe, houwe, 

and triphthongs ending in u 

mouwe, fjouwer, leauwe, 




only in the word 




in closed syllables 

un/t, ryk, bryk, skyn 


only in the words (also pro- 

hy, wy, my, dy, by 

nounced with i) 


sometimes in 





frieze, eaze, siz! 


finally after long vowels 

wez! lez! 




dizse, sizze, lizze, hazze 




1. NOUN 

186. In Frisian there are three genders: masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. Nouns of the neuter gender are recognizable by the 
article it ; both masculine and feminine nouns take the article de, 
but the former are indicated by the personal pronoun % (he), the 
latter by the personal pronoun hja or sy (she) in the singular. 

187. Neuter nouns are : 

1. The geographical proper names, as Frysldn, Ingeldn. 

2. The names of metals, as goud, silver, izer. 

3. The substantival infinitives, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, 
and phrases, as it fortrouwen (confidence), it kwea (evil), it ho en 
htvet (how and what), it wolkom (welcome). 

4. The diminutives (see 265. 7). 

5. The nouns ending in the suffix -sel, derived from verbs, as 
bdksel (what is baked), wynsel (bandage). 

6. The collective nouns with the suffix -fe, derived from sub- 
stantives, as beamte (trees). 

7. The verbal stems with the prefixes bi-, for-, ge-, ont-, as 
bidriuw (act), forrin (course), geMei (complaint), ontMld (memory). 

188. Nouns of the feminine gender are : 

1. The names of female persons, as boerinne (farmer's wife). 
Except wiif (wife), frouminske, frommis, minske (woman), famke, 
farike (girl), which are of the neuter gender. 

2. A large number of material nouns, as molhe (milk), yettik 
(vinegar), reamme (cream). Except the names of metals and some 
others, as hout (wood), sdn (sand), wetter (water), bier (beer), moal 
(meal), smoar (grease), salt (salt), fet (fat), which are of the neuter 


3. The abstract nouns denoting quality, property, or state r 
especially those which end in the suffixes -heid, -ens, -de, -te, -nis, 
-skip, as wierheid (truth), goedens (goodness), Ijeafde (love), tviette 
(wetness), minis (knowledge), blydsMp (joy). 

189. For the remainder it is not possible to give clear and 
simple rules. It is apparent from those above mentioned that the 
masculine gender has acquired great extension in Frisian. Even 
the names of female animals are masculine, as Jcou (cow), hat (cat), 
teef(biich), dou (dove). Besides, the gender of the nouns mentioned 
in 188. 2 and 3 is not quite clear, because they are often indicated 
by the demonstrative pronoun dy (having in this case the significa- 
tion or the function of a personal pronoun of the third person), the 
indication by the personal pronoun hja or sy falling more and more 
into disuse. 

Compound substantives usually have the gender of the last 
part. Except de bank m. (bench), it finsterbarik n. (window-seat) ; 
it boat n. (boat), de stoomboat m. (steamboat). 

190. A few nouns have a different gender when the significa- 
tion is different. The principal are : 

de board m. (collar) ; it board n. (board, brim, seam). 

de, it bosk m. or n. (wood) ; it bosk n. (bundle). 

de bout m. (bolt, pin) ; it bout n. (leg of sheep or calf, 

drumstick of fowl). 

de, it ein m. or n. (end, extremity) ; it ein n. (part, piece, distance). 

defal m. (fall) ; itfal n. (hatch). 

de minske m. (man, human it minske n. (wife), 
being) ; 

de moed m. (courage) ; it moed n. (mind). 

de sin m. (signification, phrase) ; it sin n. (humour, temper, long- 

de Skrift m. (Holy Writ) ; it storift n. (writing, writing- 


de soal m. (sole) ; it soal n. (navigable lane in ice). 

de stoff. (matter, texture) ; it stofn. (dust). 

191. There are two numbers in Frisian, the singular and the 
plural. The modes of forming the plural are the following : 

A. First mode, by adding the termination -en to the singular 

1. When that is a monosyllabic word, as boek (book), boeken. 


2. When the word ends in an accented or half-accented suffix, 
as -ij, -dom, -skip, -ing, -an. 

Note 1. The suffix -Jieid is changed into -Jieden in the plural, as 
nierlieid (truth), wierheden. 

Note 2. Only -n is added when the singular form ends in the 
indistinct vowel -e, as greide (grass-land), greiden. 

B. Second mode, by adding -s to the singular. This is the case 
when the singular ends in an unaccented suffix as -el, -em, -en, -er, 
-ert, -mer, -ter, -ster, -je, -tie, -sje, tsjc. 

192. A few words exhibit particular forms of the plural, which 
may be called irregular : 

1. The singular remains unchanged in ~beane (bean), earte (pea), 
bern (child), sJciep (sheep). 

2. The nouns Jcou (cow), goes (goose), skoech (shoe), foet (foot), 
beest (beast), have the plurals Jcij,gies, skoen, fiet, bisten, but gies, fiet 
have become antiquated and are usually replaced by goezzen, foetten. 

3. Dei (day) and wei (way) are changed into dagen, wegen ; the 
plural of deihier (day's wage) is dagenhier. 

4. The plurals of reed (skate), lears (boot) are redens, learzens. 

5. Alder (parent) has the plural dlden. 

6. Man (man) and frou (woman) form the plurals manljue f 
frouljue, which are more common than mannen, frouwen. 

7. Compound nouns ending in -man, as Mrman (neighbour), 
timmerman (carpenter), fisherman, also change man into ljue, thus 
burljue, timmerljue, fiskerljue. 

193. The plural of nouns denoting a quantity, number, measure, 
weight, or price is often the same as the singular. Such nouns 
are hop (head), seJc (sack), snies (score), pear (pair), foet (foot), jelne 
(ell), poun (pound), ons (ounce), goune (florin). 

194. Material nouns as izer (iron), goud (gold), liout (wood), 
wetter (water), weet (wheat), and abstract nouns having the 
character of material nouns, as Uydskip (joy), Ijeafde (love), are only 
used in the singular. When they acquire the character of ordinary 
class nouns, the plural is formed in the common way. Peculiar 
plural forms of this kind are lijouwers, weten, flaeksen, i. e. fields of 
oats, wheat, flax. 

195. Some words are only used in the plural. The commonest 
are affaers, faksen, grypsjes, grysjes, gritsen, harsens, ynhalden, 
ynliouten, Mean, Jcosten, lea, ljue, oanslaggen, raenjen, skriften, spitsen, 


196. As a general rule nouns no longer have different cases in 
Frisian, with the exception of the genitive. This case is formed 
by adding -s or -e to the undeclined form. In some expressions we 
still find the full termination -es. Some nouns ending in the 
indistinct vowel -e are not changed in the genitive. 

197. Of the s-genitive we may distinguish the following cases : * 

A. Strong genitive (in -s, -es) of class nouns. 

1. A partitive genitive is formed from adjectives used substan- 
tively, e. g. hwet goeds, folle goeds, hwet moaijes, hwet nijes (something, 
or much, good, beautiful, new). 

2. A possessive genitive from nouns (singular or plural, masc., 
fern., or neuter) denoting personal names, e. g. burmans leed 
(neighbour's sorrow), masters Ms, fervers (the dyer's) Sjoukje, 
rikeljues gebruk (rich folk's ways), syn wiifs mem (mother), myn 
dochters man. 

Note the indeclinable form of the possessive pronoun in the last examples. 

3. An elliptic genitive from personal names, when the substan- 
tive hus (house) or a noun denoting possession is understood, 
but not expressed, e. g. by masters (at the schoolmaster's), &/ domenys 
(at the pastor's), by de bakJcers, ~by de fervers, dat is heites (father's), 
memmes (mother's). 

Note that the definite article in such cases is indeclinable. 

4. A possessive genitive of personal names is sometimes com- 
bined with the prepositional genitive, for instance : de tun (garden) 
fen masters, it hof (garden) fen domenys, de jonge (lad) fen de bakJcers. 

5. In expressions as der is gjin Uteljens ein oan, der is gjin 
riedens ein oan, the infinitive used substantively stands in the 

6. In less common speaking, and in writing, such genitives are 
met with as Maitiids myldens (mildness), Idns ivolfeart (prosperity). 

7. Adverbial genitives are very common in Frisian, e. g. moarns, 
jouns, dels, nachts, wyks, jiers, maitiids, simmers, hoJckerdeis, de iene 
tvyks, de oare wyJcs, dy dels, meastentiids, goedmoeds, underweijes, 

1 In the written language other genitives than those given in the following 
rules may occur. As a rule such forms are completely antiquated or taken 
from the Dutch. 


B. Strong genitive (in -s, -es) of proper nouns. 

1. From personal names to denote the possessor, the maker, and 
so on, e. g. Sytema's reed (road), Waling DyJcstra's skriften (writings). 

Note. This genitive is not formed from monosyllabic proper nouns. 

2. From personal names to denote the father or the mother, e. g. 
Anne Piers, Jan Arikjes. 

3. In elliptic use (cf. A. 3), e.g. % Sytses, l)y Sipma's, dat is 
Sytses, Euerdes, or in combination with the prepositional genitive 
(cf. A. 4), e. g. de feint (servant) fen Euerdes, fen Wytsma's. 

4. From geographical proper nouns, e. g. Fryslans marren 

198. A weak genitive in -e, or without termination when the 
substantive ends in the indistinct vowel, is met with in the 
following cases : 

1. From the class nouns heit (father), mem (mother), pake (grand- 
father), beppe (grandmother), omke (uncle), moeike (aunt), all denoting 
a family relation, e.g. heite Mean (clothes), memme soargen (sorrows), 
pake hoed (hat). 

2. From monosyllabic personal names ending in a consonant, 
and from those which end in -e, to denote the husband, as JRuerde 
Tryn, Anne Grytsje. 

199. There are two kinds of periphrastic genitives in Frisian : 

1. With the aid of the preposition fen (prepositional genitive), 
as it hus fen us burman (our neighbour). 

2. With the aid of the possessive pronoun syn, hjar, as heit syn 
Mean, Jan syn mem, us famke (girl) hjar boeken, dy ljue (people) 
hjar drokte (activity). 

200. The genitive may also be expressed with the aid of the 
suffixes -er, -ter, -ster, -mer placed after geographical names, e. g. de 
Snitser wetterpoarte (the water-gate of Sneek), Frjentsjerter merke, 
(Franeker market), de Eypster toer (tower), de Hegemer mar (mere). 

201. Kemains of the old dative form (in -e) are found in the 
adverbial expressions to goede (to good), to Idnne (to land), to neate 
(to nothing), to rjuchte (to rights). 

202. A vocative is met with in the apostrophe-form heite and in 
the exclamation Heare, both used in familiar speaking, e. g. kom hjir 
ris, heite ! (just come here, lad !), Heare, hivet die er it mal ! (Lord, 
how madly he did it !). 



203. Frisian has the following articles : 

1. The definite article de, used before masc. and fern, nouns in 
the singular and before nouns of all genders in the plural. 1 

2. The definite article it, used before neuter nouns in the 

3. The indefinite article in, only used before singular nouns of 
all genders. 

4. The negative article gjin, used before nouns of all genders 
and numbers. 

Note. In the written language we still find the negative article nin used in 
the same sense as gjin. This article, however, has fallen into disuse in 

204. Some isolated forms excepted, all these articles are inde- 

Of the definite article there still exist the following forms : 

1. An old accusative masc. sing, in op 'en ~baen (Jcomme, weze, 
bringe), op 'en dur, troch 'en tiid, ta 'n ein. 

2. An old dative fern. sing, in by der em, by der hdn, fen der 
Mn, in der iivicliheid net. 

3. An old dative neuter sing, in yn 'e Ms, ut 'e Ms. 

4. An emphatic case answering to the old ace. masc. sing, in for 
den divel, for den donder. 

205. The article also remains undeclined in such cases as de 
boers hof, de frous mem, it Idns regear, by de boers, nei de Jcupers, 
de deis, de oare deis, de snein-to-jouns (see 197, A. 3, 4, 7). 


Inflexion of adjectives 

206. In Frisian, adjectives have still the following inflexional 
forms : 

The stem-form without termination. 
The stem-form with the termination -e. 
The stem-form with the termination -en. 
The stem-form with the termination -er. 

1 For the assimilation of this article see 105. 



207. The undeclined form is met with in : 

1. All the adjectives used predicatively, as de wet is lang (the 
way is long), it waer is moai (the weather is fine). 

2. The adjective used attributively : 

a. When it stands before neuter nouns in the singular and 
no other determining word precedes, as salt wetter (salt water). 

b. In the same case, when the preceding word is the indefi- 
nite article in, as in cljip wetter (a deep water) ; the negative article 
gjin, as gjin farsk brea (no new bread) ; the numerals ien, elk, ider, 
mannich, as ien brun hynder (one brown horse) ; a possessive or 
interrogative pronoun, as myn nij boek (my new book), hokker Jieech 
Ms (which high house ?). 

c. When it ends in two unaccented syllables, as in izeren 
stek (an iron railing), dy izeren brege (that iron bridge). 

d. When it is derived from a proper noun by means of -er, 
as de Ljomverter skipper (the Leeuwarden captain). 

e. When it is one of the words rjuchter, lofter, linker, as de 
rjuchter hdn, de lofter side, de linker kant. 

f. When it stands in the comparative degree, provided that 
it is not preceded by a definite article or a demonstrative pronoun, 
as greater hus, heger toer, moaijer listen, oan leger ival (but de 
mindere man, beside de heger ein). 

g. Sometimes when it is used before names of male persons, 
especially before man, and before nouns denoting a trade or pro- 
fession, but only when the indefinite article precedes, as in goed 
(frjemd, nuver) man, in great dichter. 

h. When it is one of the words did, jong, lyts, great, used 
before one of the personal names man, frou, feint, faem, boer, baes, 
master, and some others, or before names of animals and things, so 
that a single idea is expressed, as de did boer, de did frou, it jong 
hynder (horse), dot aid Ms, dy aid skurre (barn). 
208. The stem-form + e stands : 

1. Before masc. and fern, nouns when no other word precedes, 
as goede man, Ijeave mem. 

2. Before masc. and fem. nouns when preceded by. a definite 
or indefinite article and by other determining words (but see 
207. 2 c-h), as de hege toer, in goede heit. 

3. Before neuter nouns when preceded by the definite article or 
by a demonstrative pronoun (but see 207. 2 c-e), as it (dit, dat) 
djure Ms. 


4. Before plural nouns with or without other preceding words, 
as djippe wetters, hege beammen. 

209. The stem + en is found : 

1. As an emphatic form in such cases as it is in dreg en baes (he 
is a stout fellow). 

Note. Instead of this the stem + e may also be used. 

2. Before ien used substantively, as dat is in greaten ien, in raren 
ien, in moaijen ien, and also when the word ien is omitted, it is in 
raren, in nuveren, in aide jas (coat) en in nijen, in swarten ien en in 

210. The stem + er is used : 

1. In some isolated expressions which are remains of old geni- 
tives and datives, as alkrhande, allerlei, goederjowsk, ut goeder best. 

2. In combination with noch, as langernoch, moaijernoch, likernoch. 

Note. Properly speaking it is not the termination -er which appears in 
such expressions. Originally the adjective was undeclined, and the following 
word was enoch. The r is thus merely a later insertion. 

Comparison of adjectives 

211. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by adding 
the termination -er to the positive, e. g. lieecli heger, great greater. 

When the positive ends in I, n, or r, a d is inserted before the 
comparative ending, as mdl (foolish) malder, tin (thin) tinder, toar 
(dry, lean) toarder. 

This insertion, however, does not always occur when the 
adjective ends in an unaccented syllable, as el, en, er, e. g. himmel 
(neat) himmeler, but also himmelder, tofreden (content) tofredener, 
Jielder (clear) helderer, but oftener helderder. 

212. The superlative degree is formed by the addition of -st to 
the positive, as lieecli Jieechst, skjin (clean) slcjinst. 

When the adjective ends in d, t, ts, these consonants are assimi- 
lated to the s of the superlative termination, e. g. red (quick) redder 
redst, fet (fat) fetter fetst, lyts (little) lytserlytst, let (late) 
letter lest. 

Adjectives in st are not changed in the superlative, e. g. fest (fast, 
firm) fester (it) fest. 

213. The following adjectives and adverbs are irregular in the 
comparative and the superlative : 


goed (good) better lest, 
folle (much) mear meast. 
ier (early) carder earst. 
graech (willing) Ijeaver Ijeafst. 

"But goed = good-natured, and graech = desired (as in gragewaer), 
have regular degrees : 

goed goeder goedst. 
graech grager graechst. 

214. The superlative may be strengthened by prefixing aller-, 
alder-, e. g. allerheechst, alderljeafst, alderbest. 

215. The following comparative forms have the signification of 
positives : rjuchter (right), lofter, linker (left), skoander (excellent). 

216. The superlative may be preceded by the article it when 
used predicatively, e. g. liy is greatst or hy is de greatste, or liy is it 

217. As a general rule the comparative is not declinable in 
Frisian (see 207. 2/). 

The attributive superlative is declined like the positive ; the 
predicative superlative has the forms mentioned in the preceding- 
section . 


218. The Frisian cardinal numerals are : 

1. ten (1), twa (2),'trye (3), fjouwer (4), /*/(5), seis (6), saun (7), 
acht (8), njuggen (9), tsien (10), dive, alf (11), toalve, toalf(l2); 

trettjin (13), fjirtjin (14), fyftfin (15), sechstjin (16), sauntjin (17), 
achttjin (18), njuggentjin (19) ; 

tweintich (20), tritich (30), fjirtich (40), fyfticli (50), sechstich (60), 
sauntich (70), tachtich (80), njuggentich (90) j 1 

ien-en-tweintich (21), twa-en-tweintich (22), . . . njuggen-en-tweintich 

Mndert (100), twa-Mndert (200), . . . njuggen-hundert (900) ; 

tuzen (1,000), twa-tuzen (2,000) ; . . . 

alf-hundert (1,100), toalf-lmndert (1,200), . . . njuggentjin-Jmndert 
(1,900); . . . 

miljoen (1,000,000), tiva-miljoen (2,000,000) . . . 

2. alle (all), leide (both), elk (each), ider (each), folle (many), 
forskate (various), ienich, ienichst (only), inkele (single), ytlike (some), 

1 Alftich (110) and tool/tick (120) = Old Frisian *alftich, tolftich, are no longer 
in use. 


mannicli (many, some), understate (various), sommige, somlike (some) ; 
gam (whole), genocli (enough), liioet (somewhat), rju (abundant, rife), 
gjin (no). 

219. The ordinal numerals are formed from the cardinal 
numerals by adding -ste, -te, or -de (except earste, foarste, oarde). 

earste or foarste (first), twadde or oarde (second), tredde, fjirde, 
fyfte, sechste, saunde, achtste, njuggende, tsiende ; 
alfte, toalfte ; trettjinde . . . njuggentjinde ; 
tweinticJiste, hundertste, tuzenste, miljoenste. 

220. Fractions : in heal (%),in tredde (part) (J), in fjirde (%), trije 
fjirden (f ), and so on from the ordinal numerals ; oardeJieal or 
oardel (1|), treddelieal or treddel (2), fjirdeheal orfjirdel (3|), fi/fte- 
heal orfifel (4^), sechsteheal or sechel (5J), saundeheal (6|), achteheal 
(7^), and so on. 

221. Collective numerals to denote being or belonging together : 
twaresom, trijeresom, fjouweresom, fivesom, seizesom, and so on. 

Multiplicative numerals : diibel (double), trijediibel (threefold), 
fjouwerdubel, and so on. 

222. Numeral adverbs : 

1. To denote order : earst orfoarst, tivad or oard, tred, fjird, fyft, 
sechst, saund. 

2. To denote l once ', ' twice ', ' three times ', and so on : ienkear 
(ienmel, ienris), twahear (twaris), trijeJcear (trijeris), and so on. 

223. Numeral adjectives to denote ' of two, three sorts ', and so 
on : 

twadderhande, tredderhande, . . . allerhande ; ienderlei, twadderlei, 
tredderlei, . . . allerlei. 

224. Numerals may take the ending -en, when used substan- 
tively : 

1. To denote time : foar ienen (before one o'clock), oer twaen 
(after two), twisken trijen en fjouweren, Icertier (a quarter) oer fiven, 
liealwei seizen (half-past five). 

2. To denote being together : mei ienen, ly twaen, hja luieren mei 
lijar trijen (= there were three of them), ivy binne mei us achten 
(= we are eight). 

3. To denote a division into groups or parts : yn twaen, trijen. 

4. To denote a great number : ~by tsienen, l>y hunderten, by 

5. To denote one of a number : ien fen tivaen, ien fen beiden, fen 



225. The numerals elk and ider have the genitives elks, iders, 
e. g. elks oardeel, iders miening ; elkmes is a dative form, e. g. jow 
hjar elkmes hwet (give each of them something). 

Alle shows the form al when separated from the noun by the 
definite article or a pronoun, e. g. al it folk. 

Folle, inkele, sommige take the ending -n, when used for persons. 

228. In Frisian there are the following pronouns : 







1. ik, 2. dou, jo (jy), 3. hy, er ; 

hja, sy ; it 

1. wy, 2. jimme, 3. hja, sy 
dizze, dy, dit, dat 
soks, dy-, dat-, itjinge 
de-, it-, dy-, datselde 
sels, oar 

dy('t), dat, der('t), hwet 
hwa, hwet 
men, it, immen, nimmen, eat, 

neat, alles 

hwet, hwa, guds, gudden 
elk, ider, gjin ('n), ien 
elk-en-ien, ider-en-ien, mannich- 


ien en oar, it ien en 't oar 
1. minen, mines, 2. dinen, -es, 

jouwes, 3. sinen, -es ; hjarres 
1. uzes, 2. jimmes, 3. hjarres 
1. my, 2. dy, jo, 3. him ; hjar 
1. us, 2. jimme, 3. hjar 
mekoar, malkoar, elkoar, inoar 


dizze, dy, dit, dat 

hok, hokker, hwet, ho'n 

1. nyn, 2. dyn, jou, jins, 

3. syn ; hjar 
1. us, 2. jimme, 3. hjar 

227. The Personal Pronouns have the following forms : 

f Nominative case : 1. ik 2. dou, jo 3. hy ; hja, sy ; it 
\ Objective case : my dy, jo Mm ; hjar, se ; it 

_.. (Nominative case: 1. wy 2. jimme 2. hja, sy 
Jr luraH /-V! ... .. 7 7 

( Objective case : us jimme hjar, hjarren, se 

Genitives as in 197, A. 3 : by jimmes (at your house), ~by uzes. 

Enclitic forms are : 2.-st(e), accented -stou, 3. er. They are used 
after verbs and after conjunctions and relative or interrogative 
pronouns, as as, det, dat, der, dy, do, htver, hwet, nou, nei ; e. g. Hiest 
dat wol tocht ? (Would you have thought it ?). As er mei (as he may). 
Hy kin dwaen, hwet er wol (he can do what he likes). 



Unaccented forms are : 

Nominative : 1. 'k 2. je 3. se, 't ; 1. wi, we 2. jim 3. se 

Objective : mi, me je se, 't ; jim se 

These forms are not always used in writing. 

A vocative form of the second person singular is ju, only used 
in familiar speaking, e. g. Hark ris, ju ! (I say, you !). 

Some pronouns may be lengthened by adding the plural noun 
ljue (folk), e. g. wyljue, usljue, jimmeljue. 

To denote a person with his family such forms as Jan-en-hjar, 
Jieit-en-hjar, us burman-en-hjar are very common. 

228. In ordinary speaking the objective form jo has replaced 
the nominative jy, which has fallen into disuse. Jy, however, is 
often employed in the written language. 

Dou (in other dialect du) is the familiar form, jo the polite form 
of the second person singular ; a pronoun lying between these, i. e. 
neither too familiar nor too polite, is men ; children are often 
spoken to with the pronouns of the third person Jiy, sy, even in 
the imperative, e. g. Kom hy hjir mar ! (just come here !). To denote 
obedience or a higher degree of politeness jo, je is often replaced by 
nouns which may be used as vocatives, e. g. Sell ik Belt hwet helpe ? 
Wol mynhear effen sitten gean ? 

Hja belongs to another dialect than sy. 

229. The Demonstrative Pronouns dizze and dy are used in the 
masc. and fern, singular and in the plural ; dit and dat are the 
forms for the neuter gender in the singular. 

The demonstratives are for the most part indeclinable. Dizze, 
deselde, dyselde, dyjinge, and sokke take -n in the plural when they 
refer to persons. 

Sok(ke) is in the singular only used before material nouns (sok in 
the neuter gender) ; before class nouns the expression scCn is used 
in the sense of sok ; the adjective plural form is sokke, e. g. sok 
Her (such hair), sokke reamme (such cream), sa'n Ms (such a house), 
solcke wemen (such wains). 

Sels is a demonstrative denoting that every other noun or 
pronoun except that which is mentioned is excluded, e. g. Der giet 
neat foar de man sels. Ik sels. Hy wol it sels dwaen. 

The family is denoted by such expressions as lieit-en-dy, Sjoerd- 
en-dy, which may be used in the genitive, e. g. heit-en-dy'sfe, ly heit- 
en-dy's (Ms 'house ' is understood). 


Dy shows a periphrastic genitive, as dy syn Ms, dat is dy sinen 
(sines), dy hjarres. 

230. The Relative Pronoun dy('t) refers in the singular to 
masc. and fern, antecedents, in the plural to nouns of all genders ; 
dat may have only a neuter singular antecedent. 

Hwet is used only when the antecedent is one of the words al, 
alles, neat ; der('t) as relative has fallen into disuse, except in some 
expressions, as Raltkert, derste biste ! (Wretch that you are !). 

The relatives were once demonstratives, as the present-day usage 
still shows. In Frisian we may say Ik ha in man sjoen, dy hie in 
yak op 'e skouders and dy't in juJc op 'e sJcouders hie. The 't is the 
relic of the conjunction det which once followed the demonstrative 
with a relative function. 

231. The Interrogative Pronoun hwa refers to persons, hwet to 
things. Hwa has the genitive hwa's, hwaens, e. g. Hwa's (hwaens) 
skild is dat ? A periphastic genitive is hwa syn, hwa hjar, when a 
noun follows, as Hwa syn loek is dat ?, and hwa sinen, hwa sines, hwa 
hjarres, when that is not the case. 

Hwet is indeclinable. It is not only substantive, but also 
adjective, and in this case it is used before all genders and 
numbers. Hwet docht (does) dy man? Hwet ljue Unne dat? 
(What folks are these?). 

The adjective pronoun hofc is used before neuter nouns. When 
followed by for or for in it may be also used before the masc. and 
fern. The plural form is hoJcke. 

232. The Indefinite Pronouns are for the most part indeclinable, 
but immen, nimmen, elk, ider have genitives in -s. The pronoun 
men is only used in the nominative ; it has a genitive form yens, 
and an objective form yen, both from the numeral ien (formerly 
written yen), used in an indefinite sense. 

Examples Tens wird moat men hdlde (one must keep one's 
word). Soksjowt yen netfolle (such a thing does not give one much). 

233. The Possessive Pronouns are no longer declined in Frisian. 
The substantive pronouns of the singular show two forms, in -en 
or -es, except jouwes which is properly plural. 

For the use of dyn and jou, dmen (dines] and jouwes the same rules 
may be given as for the pers. pron. of the 2nd person (cf. 228). 

The pronoun jms, ordinarily belonging to the indefinite pron. 
men, is only used in the case mentioned in 228, and in the 
written language. Then it seems more polite than jou. 


234. The Reflexive Pronouns are indeclinable. Naturally they 
only occur in the objective form, as Ik skamje my. Hy wasket him. 

The reflexive belonging to the indef. pron. men is yen (cf. 232), 
as Men moat yen redde (one must save oneself). 

235. The Reciprocal Pronouns do not occur in the nominative. 
They have genitive forms in -s. 

Examples De bern pleagje elkoar. Men moat hwet for inoar 
oer ha. Mekoars lesten drage. 

Sometimes a form in -en is met with, as Men moat mekoarren 
hwet tajaen. Wy ha elkoarren yn long net sjoen. 


236. The Infinitive of Frisian verbs has two forms. When it 
belongs to the predicate, as when it is accompanied by an auxiliary 
verb, the infinitive ends in -e (as fiele, drmke), with the exception 
of the following monosyllabic verbs : dwaen, jaen, slaen, sjen, tsjen, 
gean, stean. But when the infinitive is preceded by a preposition 
(to, om to), or when it is used as a verbal noun, or- when it stands 
with an accusative (the ace. with inf.), it ends in -en (the mono- 
syllables are not changed), e.g. It bern bigjint to rinnen. Rinnen 
is m soun wirk. Ik seach him rinnen. 

237. The Present Participle of all verbs is formed by adding 
-ende to the stem, or -de to the infinitive when this ends in -n, e. g. 
miene mienende, dwaen dwaende. 

238. The Past Participle of weak verbs is formed by adding -d, 
-t, or -e to the stem. The ending -e appears when the infinitive 
ends in -je(libje libbe) ; the past participles of other weak verbs have 
t when the stem ends in a voiceless consonant (skreppe skrept), and 
d when the stem ends in a voiced consonant, a vowel, diphthong, 
or triphthong (knieze kniesd, waeije waeid, moeije moeid). 

The past participle of strong verbs ordinarily ends in -en, or in -n 
when it is contracted or when the infinitive is monosyllabic 
(komme kommen, bliuwe bleaun, stean stien). 

239. There are two finite moods in Frisian, the indicative and 
the imperative ; subjunctive forms are no longer used. 

The Indicative has two simple tenses, the present and the 

The Present Tense of weak and strong verbs has the following 
personal endings : 



Infinitive in -e 
(miene, to think) 

Infinitive in -je 
(easkje, to ask) 


1. ik mien 

1. -je 

ik easkje 

Singular -I 

2 ( -st dou mienst 1 
' \-e jy miene 


dou easkest 
jy easkje l 


3. -t hy mient 

3. -et 

hy easket 


1. -e wy miene 

1. -* 

wy easkje 


2. -e jimme miene 

2. -> 

jimme easkje 


3. -e sy (hja) miene 

3. -je 

sy (hja) easkje 

240. The Imperfect Tense of weak verbs is formed by adding 
the following endings to the stem : 

Infinitive in -e 

Infinitive in -je 


1. -de 

ik miende 

1. -e 

ik easke 

Singular J 

2 \ -ste dou mienste 
| -den jy mienden 

2 j -este dou easkeste 
{ -en jy easken 


3. -de 

hy miende 

3. -e 

hy easke 


1. -dew 

wy mienden 

1. en 

wy easken 

Plural J 

2. -dew 

jimme mienden 

2. -en 

jimme easken 

3. -den 

sy (hja) mienden 

3. -en 

sy (hja) easken 

241. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb nimme 
(to take) in the imperfect, serving to show the endings which are 
common to all strong verbs in this tense : 

ik naem 



2 "-ew 

1. -en 

2. -en 
3 -en 

dou naemst 
jy namen 
hy naem 

wy namen 
jimme namen 
sy (hja) namen 

242. As a general rule the imperative of all verbs has one tense 
(the present) and one form : 

Sing, and Plural 

Infinitive in -e 
2. - mien 

Infinitive in -je 
2. .je easkje 

Note 1. The verbs hawwe and weee have an imperfect tense of 
the imperative in such phrases as : Hie dot earder sem. Wier der 
den hiwie gien. 

Note 2. In some cases, as for example in speaking to children, 
a third person singular of the imperative is met with which is 
similar to the second : Wez hy mar stil. Kom sy hjir mar. 

1 See 228. 



243. The Perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliaries hawwe 
and weze. As a rule verbs denoting an action, or the fact of 
being in some state, are conjugated with hawwe ; verbs denoting 
a coming into some state take weze. 

The Future and Conditional tenses are formed with the auxiliary 

244. There are two voices in Frisian, the active and the 
passive. The latter is formed by prefixing the auxiliary verbs 
wirde or weze to the past participle of the verb. Wirde is used in 
the present and the imperfect, weze in the other tenses. 

245. In accordance with what is said in 238-41, there are two 
classes of weak verbs in Frisian, those which end in -e and those 
which have the ending -je (-gje, igje, -Ttje, ~sje, -zje, -elje, -erje) in the 
infinitive. 1 Verbs in -sje, -zje drop s and z of the ending in the 
2nd and 3rd person singular of the present, in the imperfect and 
in the past participle, e. g. : 

Infinitive Present 

wytsje ik wytsje,^dou witest, hy witet, 

(to whiten) wy wytsje ( 239) 

ik wite ( 240) 

Past p. 

ik eidzje, dou eidest, hy eidet, 
(to harrow) wy eidzje ( 239) 

ik eide ( 240) eide 

246. The following weak verbs show vowel or consonant 
mutations in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular of the present, in 
the imperfect and in the past participle : 


liede (to lead) : 
sMede (to part) 
spriede (to spread) 
stjitte (to push) 
deije (to kill) 

bliede (to bleed) 
briede (to roast) 
liede (to ring) 
riede (to guess) 
sliepe (to sleep) 
fortriette (to vex) 
moete, mette (to mee 
lije (to suffer) 

feije (to sweep) 
jeije (to chase) 

1 The infinitive of strong verbs ordinarily ends in -e. For exceptions see 

* These forms are often or even commonly replaced by the analogical 
regluar forms (liedst, liedt, and so on). Some of the forms are restricted to the 
written language. 



Past p. 

lied 2. laest* 3. 

laet* pi. liede 





skaet* skiede 





spraet* ,, spriede 










































. sliepe 








met* moete* 





lit* lije 





faget feije 





jaget jeije 








Past p. 

kleije (to complain) 1. klei 2. klagest 3. klaget pi. 




krije (to get) 







swije (to be silent) 



swiget* ,, 




loeije, loegje 



loeget ,, 




(to pile up) 

plocije, ploegje 



ploege t ,, 




(to plough) 

koaije, kogje 







(to chew) 

toaije, togje (to tug) 







laitsje (to laugh) 







meitsje (to make) 



makket ,, 




smeitsje (to taste) 


smakkest smakket 




reitsje (to reach) 







weitsje (to watch) 



wekket ,, 




koaitsje, kokje 



koket ,, 




(to boil) 

loaitsje, lokje 







(to look) 

ploaitsje, plokje 


* plokest 



* ploke 


(to pluck) 

247. The following is a survey of the classes and sub-classes 
into which the Frisian strong verbs may be divided, and of the 
vowel-gradation in these verbs. As appears from this list, the 
influence of analogy has been very great, and it often happens that 
a verb has passed from one class into another. There is no longer 
any difference between the root-vowels of the imperfect singular 
and plural. 

Class I 

a. Infin. i: ; imperf. i/a i/a ; past p. i: : l 
glide (to glide) ; glied, glieden ; gliden. 
Similarly : ride (to ride), stride (to strive). 

b. i ; i*a i*a ; i : 

ite (to eat) ; iet, ieten ; iten. 

So also : bite, Jcrite, slite, smite, splite, wite. 

c. luw ; Ion Ion ; 6*a : 

bliuwe (to remain) ; bleau*, 2 bleauwen* ; bleaun. 

Similarly: driuwe, Uiuwe, priuwe, riuwe, skriuwe, triuwe, wriuwe. 

d. si ; ai ai ; ai (ra) : 

snije (to cut) ; snei*, sneijen*, snein (snien). 

spije (to spit) ; spei, speijen ; spein. 

swije (to be silent) ; swei*, sweijen* ; swein* (see 246). 

1 The vowel- gradation is given in phonetic symbols. 

2 Weak forms are very common instead of these and the following marked 
with *. 


Class II 
a. Infin. i-a (i:) ; imperf. ra ra ; past p. re (e:, e) : 

Uede (to bid) ; bea, beae'n ; bean. 

siede (to seethe) ; sea, seaen ; sean. 

frieze (to freeze) ; frear, ; ferzen. 

Meze (to choose) ; keas, keazen ; keazen. 

forlieze (to lose) ; forlear, forlearen ; forlern. 

lige (to tell lies) ; leag*, leagen* ; leagen*. 
1). ii(i, y); re re; e (i) : 

jiette (to pour) ; geat, geaten ; getten. 

forjitte (to forget) ; forgeat, forgeaten ; forgetten. 

sjitte (to shoot) ; skeat, skeaten ; sketten. 

miette (to measure) ; meat, meaten ; metten. 

bidde (to pray) ; bea, beaen ; bidden. 

slute (to shut) ; sleat, sleaten ; sletten. 
c. re (Ie) ; re re ; ai (u-a) : 

fleane 1 (to fly) ; fleag, fleagen ; flein. 

tsjen 2 (to draw) ; teag, teagen ; tein. 

sjen 3 (to see) ; seag, seagen ; sjoen. 

Class III 

a. Infin. i (i) ; imperf. ou on ; past p. ou (see 156, 157). 
Mne (to bind) ; boun, bounen ; boun. 

Similarly : fine, fordwine, wine ; Ugjinne, rinne, spinne, ^vinne. 

b. e ; 66 ; 6 : 

bergje (to secure) ; birg, birgen ; birgen. 
Similarly : kerv e, merke, swerve, werpe. 

c. ie ; era o-a ; o-a : 

Udjerre (to spoil) ; bidoar, bidoaren ; bidoarn. 
So also : fordjerre, stjerre. 

d. e (i, io) ; o o ; o : 

treffe (to hit) ; trof, troifen ; troffen. 

Similarly : melke, helpe; glimme, Mimme, swimme, Jcrimpe, Jcringe, 
lifinge, minge, springe, twinge, wringe, hingje, hinkje, UinJce, drinJce, 
Jdinke, sinJce, skinlce, slinke, wirike, jilde 4 ; sjonge, stjonke, rfuchte. 

e. 6 ; a: a: ; 6 : 

wirde (to become) ; waerd, waerden ; wirden. 

1 Present tense : ik fljuch, dou tijuchst, hy fljucht, wy fleane. 
M j> tsjuch, ,, isjuchst, tsjucht, tsjugge. 

,, sjuch, ,, sjuchst, ,, sjucht, ,, sjugge. 

jilde (to yield) ; gou, gouwen ; gouwen. 


Class IV 

a. Infin. e (i) ; imperf. i-a i-a ; past p. 6 (see 164) : 
~brekke (to break) ; briek, brieken ; britsen. 

So also : dekke, rekke, spreMe, stekke, strekJce, trekJce ; strike. 

b. 1(0); a: (o:) a: (o:) ; o: 

nimme (to take) ; naem (nom), namen (nomen) ; nommen. 
Tcomme (to come) ; kaem (kom), kamen (komen) ; kommen. 

Class V 

a. Infin. e: (i, e) ; imperf. i-a re ; past p. e: (i, e) : 
leze (to read) ; lies, liezen ; lezen. 

stelle (to steal) ; stiel, stielen ; stellen. 
sitte (to sit) ; siet, sieten ; sitten. 
frette (to eat) ; friet, frieten ; fretten. 

b. i ; a*i a-i ; ai : 

lizze l (to lie) ; laei, laeijen ; lein. 

Class VI 

a. Infin. a: (ra) ; imperf. u: u: ; past p. a: (u:, ai) : 

drage (to draw) ; droeg, droegen ; dragen (droegen). 

grave (to dig) ; groef, groeven ; graven (groeven). 

weage (to weigh) ; woeg, woegen ; woegen. 

slaen (to strike) ; sloeg, sloegen ; slein. 
1). a ; ire U'8 ; i-a : 

farre (to go) ; foer, foeren ; fearn. 

c. a: ; u u ; u : 

waekse (to grow) ; woeks, woeksen ; woeksen. 

d. e ; u: u: ; e: : 

skeppe (to scoop) ; skoep, skoepen ; skepen. 

e. o: ; u-a u-a ; o: : 

falk (to fall) ; foel, foelen ; fallen. 

Class VII 

a. Infin. Ii (i) ; imperf. i-a i*a ; past p. ii (i) : 
hjitte (to be called) ; hiet, hieten ; hjitten. 
litte (to let) ; liet, lieten ; litten. 

1 Present tense : ik liz, dou Jeist, by leit, wy lizze. 


6. a (o, o) ; o (o:) o (01) ; o : 

fange (to catch) ; fong, fongen ; fongen (antiquated, finzen). 

waskje (to wash) ; wosk, wosken ; wosken. 

rqppe (to shout) ; rop, ropen ; roppen. 
c. o: ; ou ou ; o: : 

Mlde (to hold) ; houd, houden ; halden. 

248. The following verbs have a mixed conjugation; though 
the imperfect shows strong (as well as weak) forms, the past 
participle is weak : 

Uike (to appear) ; bliek*, blieken* ; blykt. 

So also : gripe, knipe. 

duke (to duck) ; doek*, doeken* ; dukt. 

So also : glupe, krupe, ruke, slupe, strupe, supe. 1 

stappe (to step) ; stoep*, stoepen* ; stapt. 

skouwe (to shove) ; skau*, skauwen* ; skoud. 

stouwe (to raise dust) ; stau*, stauwen* ; stoud. 

249. The irregular verbs include in the first place the following 
preterite presents : 

Infin. Present Imperfect Past p. 

kinne 1. kin 2. kinst 3. kin pi. kinne koe, koenen kinnen 

(to be able) 

kenne 2 ken kenst ken kenne koe, koenen kennen 

(to know) 

settle (shall) scil scilst scil scille scoe, scoenen scillen 

meije mei meist mei ,, meije mocht, mochten meijen 

(may) (mocht) 

doare doar doarst doar doare doarst, doarsten doaren 

(to dare) (doarst) 

witte 9 wit wist wit witte wist, wisten witten 

(to know) 

moaite moat moast moat ,, moatte moast, moasten moatten 

(to be obliged) 

doge dooch doochst dooch(t) pi. doge doogde, doogden doogd 

(to be of use) 

250. Other anomalies are met with in : 

Infin. Present Imperfect Part p. 

bringe 1. bring 2. bringst 3. bringt pi. bringe brocht, brochten brocht 

(to bring) 
tinke tink tinkst tinkt tinke tocht, tochten tocht 

(to think) 
keapje keapje keapest keapet ,, keapje kocht, 4 kochten 4 kocht 4 

(to buy) 

1 But luke (to draw) ; loek*, loeken* ; litsen. 

2 Although the written forms of this verb differ from those of kinne, the 
pronunciation is the same. 

3 Also : wite ; wyt, wyst, wyt, wite ; wist, wisten ; witen. 

4 Sometimes yet : koft, koften, koft. 






Past p. 


1. siikje 2. 


3. siket 

pi. siikje 

socht, sochten 


(to seek) 






plichte, plichten 

(to practice) 

wolle (to be 





woe, woenen 

wolle n 







hie, hienen 


(to have) 






wier, wieren 


(to be) 





,, dogge 

die, dienen 


(to do) 






joech, joegen 


(to give) 
gean 2 





gyng 3 , gyngen 3 

gien 3 

(to go) 

stean 4 




,, steane 

stie 5 , stienen 5 


(to stand) 

lizze 6 




,, lizze 

lei, leinen 


(to lay) 

sisse 9 




,, sizze 

sei, seinen 


(to say) 


251. According to their meaning we may distinguish : 

1. Adverbs of time, as hjoed, moarn, jister, do, den, noch, yet, 
hwennear, honear. 

2. Adverbs of place, as hjir(re), der(re), hwer(re), jinsen, earne, 

3. Adverbs of arrangement, as earst, oard, twad, tred. 

4. Adverbs of occurrence, as ienris, twaris. 

5. Adverbs of manner, as sa, ho. 

6. Adverbs of degree, as tige, hast, folle, meast, to. 

7. Adverbs of cause and consequence, as dertroch, derom, sa- 

8. Adverbs of affirmation and negation, as ja, al, wol, fest, silver, 
ne, net, nea. 

252. According to their formation we may distinguish : 

1. Simple adverbs which are not recognizable as being com- 
pound or derived, as nou, do, sa, ho, to, ek, hjir, den. 

1 Imperative : wz. 2 Imperative : gean. 

3 Also : gong, gongen ; gongen. 4 Imperative : stean e 

5 In the written language also : stoe, stoenen. 

6 Imperative : liz, siz (sei). 


2. Compound and derived adverbs. These are partly oblique 
cases of nouns, e. g. adverbial genitives, as moarns, deis, wiles, niis, 
hokkerdeis, underweijes, underhdns', adverbial datives, as torjuchte, 
toldnne, faken ; partly combinations of nouns and preceding adjec- 
tives, as hieltyd, altyd ; of nouns and prepositions, as bitiid, nei- 
tiid, foartiid, biside, tobek, tMs ; of adverbs and prepositions, as 
tonei, foarut, foardel of verbs with any other word, as miskien, 
sabeare ; partly derivatives by means of the suffixes 1 : 

-lik(s), as ynlik, uterlik, skielik, einliks. 

-lings, as kruslings, tydlings, roedlings. 

-kes, -(t)sjes, as seftkes, swietsjes, suntsjes. 

As a rule adjectives may also be used as adverbs without any 

253. According to their syntactical function there are also 
pronominal adverbs which fill the place of a pronoun preceded by a 
preposition, e. g. derta (to it), dernei (after that), hjirfen (from this), 
hjirmei (with it), Jiwerut (from what), hweryn (wherein), liwertroch 
(whereby). These adverbs consist of two other adverbs, of which 
the first is one of the words der, hjir, Jiwer. The two parts are 

Examples Hwerta moat dat brukt wirde ? also : Hwer moat 
dat ta 'brukt wirde ? (For what must that be used ?). 

254. Some adverbs admit of degrees of comparison. The 
suffixes are -er and -est. m 


gau, gauwer, gaust. 
faek, faker, faeJcst. 
fier, fierder, fierst. 

The superlative may be expressed by means of the definite 
article and the possessive pronoun, with or without preposition. 

Examples Hy rint Mrdst ; ~hy rint it Mrdst ; hy roun syn best ; 
~hy skriuwt op syn moaist. 

Note the following irregular forms : 

goed (wol) better best, 
folle (tige) mear meast. 
graech (jerne) Ijeaver Ijeafst. 
ier (bitiid) earder earst. 

1 The adverbial suffix -e still appears in some adverbs of degree preceding 
adverbs or adjectives (usually without nouns), as matte skoan, wondere moat, 
aeklikefier, heislike raer, nuvere frjemd, in hele lang& rek. 



255. The principal Frisian prepositions are the following : 
achter, after, Toy, Uhalven, Unne(n), ~boppe, Mte(n), echter, efter, fen, 
foar, for, yn, jin, mank, mei, neffens, nei, neist, nest, njunken, oan, 
oant, oer, of, om, op, sint, sont, sonder, ta, to, troch, tsjin, tusJcen, 
twisken, under, ut. 

Most of the above words are adverbs as well as prepositions. 

256. The prepositions indicate in the first place relations of 
place, time, and causality. Ordinarily the same preposition may 
be used in more than one of these relations. Besides, they often 
occur in metaphorical relations after verbs, adjectives, and expres- 
sions denoting mostly a thought or feeling, e. g. tirike oer, great 
mei, Jioopje op, langst hawwe nei. 

Prepositions no longer govern cases in Frisian, the noun before 
which they are placed being always undeclined (see, however, 
197, A. 3, 4 ; B. 3). 


257. Co-ordinative conjunctions are : 

1. Copulative : en (and), sawol ... as (both . . . and), net 
allmne . . . mar ek (not only . . . but also). 

2. Alternative : of, ef (or), of ... of (either . . . or), noch 
(nor), noch . . . noch (neither . . . nor). 

3. Adversative : mar (but). 

4. Conclusive : dus, dos (so, thus). 

5. Causal : hwent (for). 

258. Subordinative : 

1. Simple : dat, det (that), oft, eft (if). 

2. Temporal : do't (when), nei't (after that), ear't (before that), 
mei't (immediately after that), nou't (now that). 

3. Causal : omdet, om't (because), trochdet (because). 

4. Conclusive : det (so), sadet (so that). 

5. Conditional : mits (provided that). 

6. Hypothetical : oft, eft (if), as (if). 

7. Concessive : howol (though), alhowol (although). 

8. Comparative : as (as, than), dan, den (than). 

259. Conjunctions may be formed from prepositions and adverbs 
by suffixing the simple subordinatives dat, det, and oft, eft, e. g. 
foardet, meidet, sonderdet, sont det ; ho eft, hwennear eft, wiles eft. 


Pronouns, adverbs, and even word-groups also become connective 
words or expressions when the conjunctions det, eft, and as are 
suffixed, e. g. hwet eft, liwa eft, lyk as, sa as, for sa fier as, yn ho fier 
as, sa gau as, ~by hivennear eft (det). 

The enclitical words det and eft are often reduced to simple 't, 
which in some cases may also be completely omitted, e. g. do't, 
deft, dy't, ho't, wylst ; sont, mits. 


260. In respect of the different relations in which the parts of 
compound words stand to each other, we may distinguish the 
following kinds of composition in Frisian : 

1. Co-ordinating composition, when the parts are co-ordinated, 
asfyftjin, doofstom, hiisfroufaem, prikstok, sudwest, ruilebutsje. In 
compound words of this kind the co-ordinative conjunction en 
(and) sometimes appears, as ien-en-tweintich, hynder-en-wein, molke- 
en-wetter, ier-en-bitiid, slop-en-taei, smeule-en-dtvaen, wech-ende-wear, 

2. Subordinating composition, when 

a. The first part modifies the meaning of the second, as 
leeclilCin, stedshus, wrdboek. 

b. The second part modifies the meaning of the first, as 
Setsljeaf, krupyn, Mnfol; deimennich. 

The former of these classes is the most common kind of composition in 
Frisian. See the following sections. 

3. Doubling composition, which consists in the repetition of 
the same syllable, without or with vowel-difference, as sa-sa, wier- 
wier, rykrak, liymphamp, tvilewalje. 

Note. In this case the composition is alliterative. The rhyming form of 
composition may also be mentioned here, as grodzemods (dregs), rikketik. 

4. Coupling composition, when the relation is different from 
those above mentioned, as togearre, utfenhus, foartiid, miskien, 

261. The principal compound words belonging to the subordi- 
nating form of composition, in which the first part modifies or 
limits the meaning of the second, are : 

1. Compound nouns. In this case the second part is naturally 
a noun ; the first is : 


a. A noun, as skoalbern, kleankas, nutebeam, Idnsman. 
~b. An adjective, as lytsfeint, hegeskoalle, langskorik \ 

c. A numeral, as fjouwersprong, twastriid, trijekleur l . 

d. A verb of which the second part may be the subject, as 
spylman, draeihikke, or the object, as bakmoal, or an adverbial 
adjunct, as lesboek, terskflier, waskwetter. 

e. An adverb, asfoardoar. 

2. Compound adjectives. The second part is an adjective ; 
the first part is : 

a. A noun, as sniewyt, spikerfest, striemin. 
6. An adverb, as troclnviet, ynswiet, Ijochtgrien. 

3. Compound verbs. The second part is a verb ; the first is : 
a. A noun which may be the object of the second part, as 

hushdlde, or an adverbial adjunct, as hynsteride. 

~b. An adjective which qualifies the subject of the second 
part when that is an intransitive verb, as deagean, frijtotsje, or the 
object of the verb when it is transitive, as losmeitsje, frijlitte. 

c. An adverb, as trochsette, omgean, oerjaen, weromkomme, 

262. When in the compound words mentioned in the preceding 
section the first part is a noun, it appears lindeclined, as skoalboek, 
stedman, or it shows a connecting letter, which is mostly a geni- 
tive or plural ending, as bernsbern, nutsdop, nutebeam, boekekas. 

When the first part is an adjective, it is undeclined, as dldfaem, 
or it ends in the termination -e, as hegeskoalle. 

263. In compound verbs as treated in 261 the component 
parts are always inseparable, as hushalde, toudounsje, or they may 
be separated from each other. This is the case only in the present 
and imperfect tenses of principal sentences, as Ik hdld lyk, ik Iwud 
lyk, but Ik leau, del ik lykhald (lykhoud), infinitive lykhdlde, past 
participle lykhdlden. 

264. Derivative nouns are formed by means of the prefixes : 
ant- : as in antwrd, antlit. 

oar- : oardeel, oarloch. 

on- : onwaer. onrest. 

ge- : gemoed, genamt, gegei, geskrep. 

265. The principal noun suffixes are the following : 
1. To denote male persons : 

-er, -der: bakker, skriuwer, rinder, spylder. 
1 Note these so-called possessive compounds and cf. readhud, swartrok. 


ert : leffert, slugert, lompert. 
-ner: widner. 

2. To denote female persons : 

-ster : sjongster, ts'joenster, arbeidster. 
-inne : boerinne, baJckerinne. 
-ske : masterske, Jceapmanske. 

3. To denote origin (both male and female persons) : 
-er : Snitser, Dokkumer. 

-ster : Crrouster, Hypster. 
-mer : Hegemer, Sleattemer. 

4. To denote instruments : 
sel: Mnsel. 

-er : feger, bjinder. 

-el : skoattel, betel, heakkel. 

5. To form material or collective nouns : 
-sel: styfsel, baksel. 

-te, -t : beamte, fugelt. 

6. To form abstract nouns : 
-dom : frijdom. 

-held: wierheid. 

skip : dellissMp, frjeonskip. 

-ens: goedens, smoargens. 

-nis : groetenis. 

-de : Jcinde, Ijeafde. 

-te : djipte, waermte. ' 

-me : brukme, eangstme. 

-ing : sJcieding, achting. 

-ij, -(d)erij : batikerij, foermanderij, boarterij. 

-aesje, -aezje : ergewaesje, lekkaezje. 

7. To form diminutives : 
-je : boekje, eachje. 

-ke : blomke, Jcmske, dobke, dripke, brief Jce, sturke. 
-tsje : fugeltsje, hantsje, hoedtsje. 

266. Adjectives are formed by means of the prefixes : 
ge- : as in gelyh, gemien. 

on- : as in onsljucht, ongeef, onbidich. 

267. The principal adjective suffixes are : 
-achtich, (-aftich) : bernacliticli. 

-ich, -ericli : nidich, bloedderich. 

-er, -ster, -mer : Snitser, Harns(d)er, Grouster, Hegemer. 


-sk, -s : greatsk, steds(k), Frys(k), boers(k). 

-en : gouden, stiennen. 

-s : lekkens, duffels. 

-ber : earber, brukber. 

-loas, (-leas) : achteloas, sinloas. 

-lik : hearlik, noedlik, forjitlik. 

sum : iensum, bruksum. 

-el : himmel, mutel, brukel. 

-en : dimmen, skruten. 

-er : wekker, dipper, kwikker, diger. 

268. Derivative verbs may have the following prefixes : 
bi- : biriede, bispylje. 

for- : forsiikje, foroarje. 

ge- : gewirde, gebiede. 

ant- : ontlialde, ontnimme, 

to- : tobrekke, toskoerre, tobite, toknieze. 

wjer- : wjerhalde, wjerstean, wjerkogje. 

269. Verbs may be formed from nouns, adjectives, adverbs, 
and other verbs, by means of the suffixes : 

-je : eagje, iepenje, himmelje. 
-gje, -igje : priizgje, tiergje, biskildigje. 
-sje, -zje : wytsje, jachtsje, eidzje. 
-kje : boerkje, driuwkje, gnyskje. 
-elje : nestelje, kantelje, driuwkelje. 
-erje : wynderje, snjitterje, uterje. 
-earje, -eare : wirdearje, redeneare. 



270. The relations between words brought into connexion with 
each other are of two kinds : co-ordinative and subordinative. 

271. The co-ordinative relation is : 

1. Copulative, as in % en ik, it foar en tsjin, wiet noch droech, 
saend noch maend, it ien sawol as it oar. 

2. Alternative, as in hy ofik, lipe of pipe. 

3. Adversative, as in lyts mar Jcrigel. 

272. The subordinative relation is : 

1. Attributive, existing between a substantive word and a 
determining word or word-group (attributive adjunct), as in moai 
Ms, de krante fen jister, de man sels, waer as side (see 287). 

2. Adverbial, existing between a word or word-group which is 
not substantive (in the main a verb, an adjective, or an adverb) 
and another (adverbial adjunct), as rjuchts hdlde, tige min, op bed 
gean, tsiere as hingers (see 288). 

3. Objective, i. e. between a verb and a direct or indirect object, 
as in brief skriuwe, in. oar sines jaen. 

4. Predicative, existing between a verb and a substantive word 
denoting in the main the doer of the action, the person or thing in 
(or coming into) the state expressed by the verb. The predicative 
relation is : 

a. Direct, when the verb is in a finite form, as De sinne skynt. 

b. Indirect, when the verb is in the infinitive (accusative and 
infinitive), as Ik seach Mm rinnen. 


273. When a finite verb is related to a substantive word as 
described in the preceding section, the grammatical whole built up 
in this manner is called a sentence, the two parts of which are the 
subject and the predicate. Each of these may be (1) a single word, 
or (2) a word-group, as has been said in 271. Besides these, 
(3) adjuncts or objects ( 272) may be added. 

In the two latter cases the sentence is called enlarged. 


274. The subject of a sentence is : 

1. A noun, as De fugels sjonge. 

2. A substantive pronoun or numeral, as Dat mei net. Alles is 
op en wei. 

3. Any other substantive word or expression, as Myn ja is like 
goed as syn ne. 

4. An infinitive ( 236), as Sizzen is neat, mar dwaen is in ding. 

5. A (substantive) clause, as Hivet tvier is, mei sein wirde. 

275. There are sentences without a subject. The principal are 
the imperative sentences in which as a general rule the subject is 
unexpressed. Example : G-ean dyn gong mar. But the subject 
may also be expressed, as Gean dou dyn gong mar. SJcriem sy mar 
net mearl Doch Heit dot effen. In this case it is a personal 
pronoun of the 2nd or 3rd person ( 242), or a noun ( 228). 

When the verb stands in the passive voice, the subject is often 
omitted, as Der wirdt sJcetten. 

A subject is impossible in sentences containing an impersonal 
passive voice (i. e. when an intransitive verb, on the analogy of 
transitive ones, is put in the passive voice), as Der wirdt op 'e doar 

276. The indefinite pronoun it is subject when the verb or the 
predicate denotes : 

1. A natural phenomenon, as It r reint. It friest. It is moai 

2. A corporal or spiritual sensation or state, as It steJct my yn 'e 
side. It brekt Mm op. It sJcimert my foar de eagen. It rint him 

3. In such expressions as It sit hjir goed. It wennet der moai. 
It rint Jijir swier. 

277. The predicate consists of any finite verb, either single 
(simple predicate, as De Mole slacht) or, when it is a verb of incom- 
plete predication, accompanied by other words (complex predicate, 
as Hy hat fallen. De loft is lilau. Ik die de doar iepen). 

In the latter case the predicate has a complement, which may 
be subjective or objective. 

278. A subjective complement stands : 

1. With the auxiliaries of time hawwe, weze, scille ( 243), and 
those of voice, wirde, weze ( 244). In this case the complement is 
naturally a past participle or an infinitive. 

2. With the copulas weze, wirde, Uiuwe, lykje, hjitte (see 279). 


3. With other verbs of incomplete predication, as Urine, meije, 
settle, moatte, wolle, doare, lykje, skine, blike, sitte, rinne, stean, gean, 
komme, reitsje, bigjinne, bliuwe, siikje, pliigje (see 280, 281). 

279. In the case named under 2 in the preceding section the 
complement is : 

1. A noun, as Tiid is jild. 

2. A substantive pronoun, as Ik bin it. Dat is uses. 

3. An adjective or numeral, as Hy waerd siik. Dat is to folle. 

4. A participle, as Wy binne mei us wirk dwaende. It wirk is 

5. An infinitive, as It is bigjinnen en qphdlden. Also with the 
preposition to, as Dat wirk is net to dwaen. Heit-en-dy binne to 

6. An adverb, as It sell is del. De baes is foart. 

7. A prepositional expression (noun or infinitive with preposi- 
tion) as Dit Ms is to Jceap. Hy is oan 't wirk. De bern binne oan 't 

8. A clause, as Hy bliuwt, hwet er is. 

280. When the predicate is one of the verbs Jcinne, meije, settle, 
moatte, wolle, doare, the complement is an infinitive without 
preposition and ending in -e, as Hy kin tige leare. Hy mei Jcomme. 
Hy doar it weagje. 

This infinitive is often omitted, when the sense is clear enough 
without it, as Ik scil nei sted. Hy doar alles. It moat en it 
Mn net. 

281. The other verbs mentioned in 278. 3 may take as 
complement an infinitive preceded by the preposition to, as Hy 
liket wol net goed to wezen. Hy sit to skriuwen. Hy rint to suteljen. 
Hy rekke to fallen. Hy bliuwt by us to iten. Hy plichte hjir folle to 

282. An objective complement occurs with transitive or re- 
ciprocal verbs denoting a bringing into some state or a taking for 
something, as Hy liet de houn los. Hy sJcept it fet fol. Hy wasket 
him slcjin. Ik hold Mm for dom. Dat neam iJcfalsJc. 

It is possible for intransitive verbs to be similarly used in a 
transitive or reciprocal sense, as Hy rint syn skoen bryk. Hy fait 
him sear. Also for transitive verbs to change their signification in 
such a manner that they take another object from their usual one, 
as Hy sJcriuwt syn fingers krom. Hy yt him sed. 

283. The objective complement may be : 


1. A noun, as Hja neame hjar stiemmoer moelke. 

2. A noun preceded by a preposition or conjunction, as Ik hold 
Mm for de ivirkmaster fen it stik. Men Mneamde him ta tsjerkfoud. 
Wy haiuwe him as lytsfeint woun. 

3. An adjective, as Hy skept de ~bak leech. Dat achtsje ik forkeard. 
Also preceded by a preposition, as I/c hold Mm for earlik. Hy 
fortelde it us for ivier. 

4. A participle, as Ik haw it wirk dien. 

5. An infinitive, as Dat neam ik hottefyljen. 

6. An adverb, as Dat relcJcenje wy nou mar foarby. 

284. An indirect predicate, i. e. an infinitive dependent on an 
accusative, occurs with the verbs sjen, hearre, harkje, fiele, hazvwe, 
wiite, litte. Examples : Ik sjuch Mm gean. Hark it ris ivaeijen. 
Hy fielt de koarts Jcommen. Hy hat hjir Ian lizzen. Ik wit him net 
to ivenjen (with the prep. to). Sy litte de ~bern mar rinne (infinitive 
in -e). 1 

285. The direct object is : 

1. A noun or substantive pronoun, as It hynsder lukt de wein. 
Hy wit it net rjmht mear. 

2. Any other word or expression used substantively, as Hy 
naem in ivolkom-thus for my mei. 

3. An infinitive, as Hy leartfytsen. Ik hearde tikjen op 'e doar. 

4. A clause, as Hy seit, det er it net wer dtvaen scil. Nimmen ivit, 
hwet er dochL 

286. The indirect object is : 

1. A noun or substantive pronoun, as Ik joiv it mynfrjeon. Ik 
jow him dat. Sjuch my dat ris oan ! 

2. The same preceded by one of the prepositions oan, for, tsjin, 
jin, as Ikjoech it oan him. Hy keapet it for my. Hy seit it tsjin elk 
dy't it hearre wol. 

3. A clause, as Dy't freget, jowe wy hwet. 

287. The attributive adjunct is : 

1. Any adjective word (article, adjective, numeral, pronoun), as 
De wyn draeit. Moai ivaer. Hy isjong stoarn. Trije kear is skippers 
rjucht. De njuggende dei. Dy ljue. De man sels. 
. 2. A noun without case-ending or preposition (apposition), as 
Gale skroar, ~baes kuper, us burman Jan, dou rakkert ! m gles wetter, 
in poun tsiis, in snies aeijen, it seis-ure-folk, in tredde-klas-wein. 

1 The passive voice is also in use : De bern wirde mar rinne Utten. The verb 
litte tends to become an auxiliary. 


3. A noun in the genitive case, as Memme sMrte, htvet 

4. A noun or substantive pronoun in the periphrastic genitive, 
as de pleats fen us pake, de boer syn feint. 

5. A noun or substantive pronoun preceded by a preposition, as 
in hoed mei fearren. Hy liat der for feint ivenne. 

6. A noun preceded by the conjunction as, e. g. Ik kom as frjeon. 
Hwet wierst as jonge in huntJieijer. In Jcearel as in beam. 

7. A present or past participle, as rinnend wetter, sjongende 
fugels, getten izer, in bidoarn bern. 

8. An infinitive with the prep, to, om to, as in net to sizzen 
blydskip, gud om yn to jaen. 

9. An adverb, as dy toer derre ; also with a preposition, as de 
krantefen hjoed. 

10. A clause, as it Ms, dat ik sette litten ha. 

288. As adverbial adjuncts serve : 

1. Adverbs, as Hy komt moarn. Hjir stiet it. 

2. Nouns or subst. pronouns, either without preposition, as Hy 
bliuwt in del, It jildt in goune ; or preceded by a preposition, as 
Hy wennet yn 'e sted. Hy wirdt Ijeafstfen my tsjinne. Itfamke komt 
of de skoalle. Sometimes an adverb follows, as Hy giet it paed Ions. 
Hy roun by de dyJc del. 

3. Nouns in the genitive case, as Sneins wirdt der net arbeide. 

4. Infinitives preceded by a preposition, as Hja hdldtfen pronkjen. 
Hy giet om dokter to heljen. Hy docht it om hwet to fortsjinjen. Hy 
sei it sonder der by to iinken. 

5. Present participles, as kritende djur, opheappende fol, oerrin- 
nende fol, onwitende fier, springende lilk, fleanendc drtik. 

6. (Adverbial) clauses, as As it reint, bliuwe wy thus. Do't er it 
sein hie, spiet it him. Hy hat gelyJc, tinkt my. 

289. Words standing outside of the sentence are : 

1. Interjections, as Hin, hwet is dat ? 

2. Nouns in the vocative case, as Heit, mei ik dat ? 

3. The vocative form of the pers. pronoun of the 2nd person, 
>ju (see 227). 


290. Sentences may be related to one another. The relation is 
either co-ordinative, when it exists between two or more indepen- 
dent sentences, or subordinative, when the group contains a 
principal sentence with one or more dependent clauses. 


291. The co-ordinative relation is : 

1. Copulative, as It lock is wei en it bliuwt wei. 

2. Alternative, as Hy wit it net, ofhy wol it net sizze. 

3. Adversative or restrictive, as De doar stie iepen, mar der wier 
gjin ien thus. 

4. Conclusive, as Hy wier der net by, dos hy Jcin it net dien ha. 

5. Causal, as Wy bliuwe thus, hwent it waer stiet us net oan. Hy 
is siik, derom kin er net Jcomme. 

292. Dependent or subordinate clauses are of three kinds : sub- 
stantive, adjective, and adverbial. 

Substantive clauses do duty as : 

1. Subject, as Dy't it wit, moat it sizze. Hwet er seit, is wier. It 
is jammer, det it forkeard ofroun is. Ho't dat kin, is net utmakke. 

2. Direct object, as Doch, hwet dy hjitten wirdt. Nimmen wit, 
hwer't er hinne gien is. Elk freget, oft it wier is. Hy sei: ' Ik scil 
it dwaen.' Hy sei, det er it dwaen scoe. Hy sei, hy scoe it dwaen. 
Ik wit, hy hat it dien. 

3. Indirect object, as Hy jowt it (oan) hwa't der rjucht op hat. 
Dy sinen it is, scil ik it weromjaen. 

4. Attributive adjunct (apposition), as Hy joech my de rie : doch 
dat net wer. Wy hienen de forhoping, det it better wirde scoe. Do 
kaem de fraech, ho't it oanlein wirde moast. 

5. Adverbial adjunct, as Ik leau net oan hwet er seit. Der is folk 
wierheid yn hwet er sei. Hy wirdt skoudere om hwet er foartiid 
dien hat. 

293. Adjective clauses serve as attributive adjunct, as It boek dat 
ik lezen ha. It hus der't wy yn wenje. It plak der't er wei is. De 
tiid det wy lyts wieren. Dat is krekt sa'n boek as ik ha. It binne 
deselde ljue as dy't by uzes wieren. 

294. Adverbial clauses serve as adverbial adjunct, as Ik doch it, 
omdet it net oars kin. Hy kaem, do't alles ofroun wier. Sa't it is, 
scil it bliuwe. Hy rop, det elk-en-ien it hearre koe. Oft it wier is, scil 
it der raer by stean. It is net sa slim, as wy tochten. Prate as hy 
docht, kin ik net. Hy wier der net by, det hy km it ek net meidien ha. 
Al fortsjinnet erfolle, hy kin alles op. Hwet er ek seit, it komt altyd 
oars ut. Hy laket der om, hwet ik siz. Bist it der sed, kom den hjir 
mar. Elk moat him sels redde, tinkt my. 

295. It often happens that sentences are incomplete. In this 
case they are : 

1. Contracted, as Hy giet hjoed foart en komt moarn werom. Hy 
leart for dokter en syn brocr for domeny. 


2. Elliptical, as Neat to redden. lerikear en net wer. It Jms Jdear 
en de man dea. 

In comparison the word or word -group preceded by the com- 
parative conjunction as may be regarded as an incomplete sentence, 
because they also occur in the complete form. Examples Hy is 
greater as ik. It is nou better slagge as lesten. 

296. The co-ordinative and subordinative relations may be 
repeated in a sentence-group. Two or more dependent clauses 
may be co-ordinative to each other. In a dependent clause we 
may also have other subordinate clauses. Examples As 't net kin 
sa 't moat, den moat it mar sa 't kin. Hwet scil in oar sizze, as it 
bikend wirdt, hwet lijir foarfallen is ? As ivy it sa fier hienen, del dit 
klear wier, lieten wy den ris sjen, liwet wy farder koenen. 

A particular form of sentence appears in the following examples, 
sometimes used in ordinary speaking, in which the same 
part belongs to two sentences : Wy hienen do in famke ut 'e sted 
wier J)y us utfenhus. It wier sa'n aerdich lyts huske stie der foartiid. 
It is sa'n moaije, heldere glans leit der oer. 

In such sentences as Dat Unne dingen dy't ik wit det lard Unne, 
the demonstrative pronoun %, though belonging to the second 
dependent clause, stands in the first and with the remains of the 
conjunction det acquires the function of a relative. 


297. The relations described in the preceding sections are 
expressed in the first place by means of the signification and the 
accent. It is apparent from the examples given above that the 
simple placing next each other suffices in many cases. 

Besides this there are also the following means : 

1. Prepositions ( 279. 5, 7 ; 281 ; 283. 2, 3 ; 284 ; 286. 2 ; 
287. 4, 5, 8, 9 ; 288. 2, 4 ; 292. 3, 5). 

2. Conjunctions ( 271 ; 283. 2; 287. 6; 291; 292. 1, 2, 4; 
293 ; 294 ; 295). 

3. Adverbs. The adverbs sa, net sa, like, even, mear, minder help 
to express the degrees of comparison. Derom, dertroch are used as 
connective words in the co-ordinative relation ( 291. 5) ; al may 
introduce an adverbial clause ( 294). Conjunctions are often 
formed from adverbs by suffixing det, eft ( 259 ; 292. 1, 2, 4). 

4. Relative and interrogative pronouns ( 292. 1-5 ; 293 ; 294). 


5. The inflexion of substantive and adjective words (see the 
sections relating to this in Chapter III). 

6. The concord of the verb (see 298). 

7. Expletive parts of a sentence. The demonstrative pronoun 
is expletive in phrases as Heit dy wol it net lije. Hwa't it sein hat, 
dy moat it wier meitsje. The personal pronoun it may be provisional 
subject or object, e. g. It is goed, det it waer omslein is. Hy wit it, 
soJcs mei net wer barre. Adverbs show the same use, e. g. Moarn 
den soil ik wer oarikomme. As ik kin, den soil ik dy helpe. Hy praet 
der fen, det erforfarre wol. 


298. The principal kind of concord which still exists in Frisian 
is that of the verb, which as a general rule must have the same 
person and number as its subject. The following remarks must 
be made : 

1. When the subject is a plural denoting a whole of some kind, 
the verb is singular, as Fyfticli goune is in bulte jild. Twa Jcear twa 

2. The indefinite pronoun men sometimes takes the verb in the 
plural, as Men scoenen sizze. 

3. In sentences as It bmne us alden, Dat wieren goede dagen, 
Dit wirde us burljue, the verb agrees with the complement instead 
of with the subject. 1 

4. In sentences as It reinde appels fen de beam, It reinde 
lokivinsken op myn jierdei, the original impersonal verb agrees with 
the indefinite pronoun and not with the plural noun which is 
properly the subject. 

5. When two subjects in the singular are joined by the conjunc- 
tion en, the verb is in the plural ; when one of the conjunctions 
of, nocJi, satvol as, mar ek is placed between them, the verb is in the 

6. But when the subjects joined by the conjunction en are 
treated as a whole, the verb is in the singular, as Lyts en great 
moat der by tveze. 


299. Modality (i.e. the particular kind of predicative relation 
according to the idea of the speaker) is expressed in different ways. 

1 Also : Dit bin ik. Dat Ustou. Cf. Ik Un it. 


To denote certainty, probability, possibility, affirmation, negation, 
desirability, a question, a wish, an order, and other shades of 
meaning, the following may be used : 

1. Intonation, as Settle wy mar gean? (rising intonation in the 
interrogative sentence). De stoarm hat gans skea dien (falling 
intonation in the communicative sentence). 

2. Word-order, as De rekken is bitelle. Is de rekken bitelle ? In 
oar gelyk jaen docht er net. Moarn kom ik wer. (See 300-4.) 

3. Adverbs, as Kom mar yn. Hy komt net, al, grif, fest, wol 
Hast it soms, faeks, forgetten ? 

4. Verbs, as Ik lean, det it wier is. It liket wier to wezen. Hy 
scil wol to let kommen weze. 

5. Tenses and voices of the verb, as Dock dynplicht en lit de ljue 
rabje. Hie ik dat witten ! Scoe it wier weze? As wy sa fier wieren, 
lieten wy den ris wer sjen. Deist ek net wiser wierste. Hie dat 
Ijeaver sa dien. Der wieren wy al ! 

6. Adverbial clauses, as t inkt my, tink ik, leau 'k, woe 'k ha, bin 'k 
bang, ha 'k soarch, sa 't liket, nei't se sisze. Examples Dat koe wol 
oars, tinkt my. Der is neat oan to dwaen, sa 't liket. 

7. Interjections, as Ei, doch dat effen ! To, siz it my ! 


300. In the following paragraphs a survey is given of the 
principal rules of word-order in Frisian. 

1. In communicative sentences the subject stands before the 
verb, as Hy komt moarn by uzes. 

2. When, however, another part of the sentence by emphasis is 
placed first, the order of subject and predicate is inverted, as Wier 
is it. Dat scoe ik net for kar nimme. Moarn komt er by uses. In 
oar seit er alles en my neat. Jong is dat bern al bidoarn. Hinne kin 
men tsjinwirdich net mear. Do't er dat sein hie, gyng er by us wei. 
Bisletten is it, dat wit ik klear. 1 

3. To emphasize the verb standing in a simple tense, the 
auxiliary dwaen is necessary. Cf. Hy skriuwt us hast net mear and 
Skriuwe docht er us hast net mear. 

4. Questions open (1) with the predicate, or (2) with an inter- 

1 Observe the word-order in such sentences as Praten hold ik net fen. De 
aide ljue wirdt net nei harke. In nij stik klean kin men net oan ta komme. In such 
sentences the emphatic word opening the sentence is separated from its 


rogative pronoun or adverb. In the latter case the subject is also 
put after the verb. Examples Kom jy ek ris wer ? Honear scoe 
er Jcomme ? Hwa wit der it rjuchte fen ? Op hokker plak scille wy 

5. When the verb is in the imperative, it opens the sentence ; 
the subject, if present, is put after it. Example SteJc (jy) dat 
jild yn 'e buse. 

6. When the sentence contains an unrealizable wish, and when 
the exclamatory words ho and hwet open the sentence, the subject 
follows the predicate, as Wieren wy mar thusUeaun. Hie ik dat 
earder witten ! Ho koest der ek sa raer by komme ! Hwet hat er syn 
best dien. 

7. This is also the case when the principal sentence is paren- 
thetic or post-positive, especially when the verb is one of the words 
sizze, rqppe, tinke, leauwe, miene, or their synonyms, as Men moat, 
seit de Skrift, yens evenminske Ijeaf hawwe. 1 

301. As a rule the subject stands immediately before or after 
the predicate. Exceptions : 

a. In cases of inversion adverbial adjuncts sometimes separate 
the subject and the predicate, as Der komt hjir sneins net folk folk 
yn tsjerke. By uses wirde alle dagen de blommen bigetten. 

b. Also in interrogative sentences other parts may be put 
between predicate and subject, as Hat hjir jister ien oan 'e doar 

c. In dependent clauses, see 304. 

302. Subjective and objective complements, objects, and adver- 
bial adjuncts, are as a rule put after the verb, when it is in a 
simple tense, and after the auxiliary, when the verb is in a com- 
pound tense. 2 They mostly precede the infinite verb. Examples 
De sinne giet jouns yn it westen under. Wy binne mei inoar op rcis 
gien. Ik soil him moarn syn jild weromjaen. Ik seach him de hdn 
yn 'e buse stekken. 

The indirect object stands before the direct object, except (1) 
when the latter is a personal pronoun, and (2) when the indirect 

1 In this case the sentence has the tendency to become an adverbial clause, 
because the original dependent clause contains the principal idea ( 299. 6). 

2 For exceptions see 300, 301. The direct object and the indirect object 
with the preposition also, though less frequently, follow the whole compound 

tense, as Hy hat my sjen litten de priis dy't er woun hie. Earst hie er ofbitelle de helt. 
Ik hie it Ijeaverjown oan ien fen myn 


object is preceded by a preposition. Examples Wy jowe elk hwet 
Ontkrij Mm dat. Ik joech us lieit dat boek. Ik joech it Mm. Ik joech 
dat boek oan us heit. 

303. Attributive adjuncts are placed partly before, partly after, 
the substantive word to which they belong (see 287). 

Some, however, are often put elsewhere in the sentence, as sets, 
allinne, beide, togearre, allegearre. Examples Hy sels hat it measte 
wirk dien. Hy hat it measte wirk sels dien. 

As a rule articles and adjective pronouns precede all other 
adjective words, but they stand after the numeral al, and the 
indefinite article follows the interrogative pronoun Invet and the 
adverbs sa, ho, as al it jild, al us hern, hwet in wille, sa 'n wirk, ho 'n 

The adjective clause may be separated from the antecedent, e. g. 
Ik ha him it boek iverbrocht, dat er my liend hie. 

304. In dependent clauses beginning with a connective word 
the subject and the predicate are separated by the other parts, 
e. g. Ik woe wol, det ik dit wirk mar bitsjen litte koe. 

But they have the word-order of the principal sentence ( 300) : 

1. In quotations, as Hy sei : 'Ik sell it noch mar ris weagje.' 
' Kom gau ris werom ! ' waerd my taroppen. 

2. When in the principal sentence the predicate denotes an 
observation, a thought or sentiment, as Ik seach, Tiy koe him allinne 
net redde. Hy sei, liy scoe it net werdwaen. Ik soargje, it sell ^vol wer 
mis iveze. But with the conjunction : Ik seach, det er him allinne 
net redde koe. Hy sei, det er it net tverdtvaen scoe. Ik soargje, det it 
wol iver mis wese sell. 

3. When an adverbial clause relates to condition, as Der moat 
hwet oan dien tvirde, sell it better tvirde. But Der moat hwet oan 
dien wirde, oft (as) it better wirde soil. 

4. When a conclusive adverbial clause begins with the conjunc- 
tion det, as Ik ha him yn lang net sjoen, det hy scil wol net goed weze. 

5. When the adverb al opens the adverbial clause, as Al is us 
hus hwet lyts, it is tige geryflik. 1 

6. When the conjunction of, e/(not to be confused with oft, eft) 
opens a dependent clause, as Hy komt hjir net Idns, ofhy sjucht effen 
by us yn. Ik ivit net better, ofhy hat itjister tsjin us sein. 

1 No inversion in the principal sentence. 




1. De liepe skieppedief. 
(In aid folksteltsje) 

Der wier ris in feint dy't jierren lang mei stellen oan 'e kost 
kommen wier. Hy wier sa liep, det nimmen hie him yet pakke 
kinnen. Mar op 't lest bigoun er it dievelibben sed to wirden, it 
stellen en taken wearzge him en hy woe wer in earlik man wirde. 

Do gyng er fier foart en hy kaem op 't lest by in boer der't er 
him as feint bistelde. Mar al stiel er net langer, hy koe it dochs 
net litte om tsjin syn boer oer syn liepens en oer de fiten dy't er 
lithelle hie to praten. Dy woe der lykwols neat fen leauwe : de 
feint wier sa earlik en bidaerd en hy die syn wirk sa goed, det it 
woe de boer net oan det der sokke flinken yn sieten. Hy sei, hy 
scoe den sa 'n liepe set wol ris fen him sjen wolle. En dat gyng 
njunkelytsen oan. 

Op in dei kaem der in slachter dy't in fet skiep fen de boer koft. 
Do't er der mei nei hus ta teach, sei de feint tsjin de boer, hy koe 
de man dat skiep wol ontstelle sonder det dy der hwet fen fornaem. 
De boer joech him der frij ta. Do naem er gau in pear skoen en 
roun de slachter, dy't troch in bosk hinne moast, efternei en in 
sydpaed lans foarut. Midden op 'e wei smiet er do de iene skoech 
del en in ein fierder, in bocht om, de oare. 

Do't de slachter mei syn skiep by de earste skoech kaem, krige 
er dy op en sei er yn him sels : Hwet in griis det de wjergeade 
der net by is, den scoe ik in pear goede skoen ha, mar mei ien kin 
ik neat bigjinne. En do smiet er de skoech wer foart. Mar do't er 
in hundert tred ef hwet fierder de oare foun, spiet it him det er de 
earste lizze litten hie. Hy boun it skiep oan in beam en do 
werom om dy to heljen. Dat wier it krekt hwet de feint tocht 
hie : hy it skiep los en dermei foart. En do't de slachter werom 
kaem, wier der gjin skiep mear to bikennen en moast er wol wer 
nei de boer ta om in oaren ien to keapjen. Dy die krekt eft er 
nuver opharke en forkoft it selde skiep wer. 


1. da li-apa 'skiipadrav. 
(an o:d 'folksteltsja.) 

dar ura raz 9n faint dit jiran laij mat stsilan o-an a kost 
koman ui-a. hsi ura sa li-ap, dot niman hra m jit paka 
kinan. mar op t ls:st ba'gun ar at 'dravaliban ss:d ta uodan, at 
stsilan sn taikan urazga him sn hsi uu*a usr an ralak mon uoda. 

du gig ar frar fuot sn hsi ka:m op t ls:st bsi am birar dst ar 
him os faint ba'stslda. mar ol stral ar nst larjar, hsi ku-a t dogz 
net lita om tsji sim bu*ar u*a si Irapaz sn u*a da fitan dit ar 
'ythsla hi'a ta praitan. di uu*a dar / likuolz nrat fo lioiia: da 
faint ura sa i*alak sm ba'daid sn hsi di-a si uork so guad, dot at 
uu'a da birar nst o-an dot ar soka fligkan i sratan. hsi sai, hsi 
sira don sa li^apa sst uol ras fon am sis uola. sn dot girj 
niorika'litsan o-an. 

op an dai ka:m dar a slaxtar dit a fst ski-ap fon a birar koft. 
dut ar dsr mai nai hus ta trag, sai da faint tsjin a btrar, hsi ku*a 
da mon dot skrap uol ont 7 sts:la sondar dot (d)i dar uot fo fa'naim. 
da bu-ar jug am dsr frsi ta. du norm ar gou am prar skuon s 
run da slaxtar, dit trog am bosk hina moast, sftar'nai sn a 
'sidpa:d lo:z far'yt. midan op a uai smi-at ar du da rana sku:g 
dsl sn an ai fiidar, am bo\t om, da o*ara. 

dut (d)a slaxtar mai si ski'ap bei da rasta skuix ka:m, krig 
ar di op s sai in am sslz : uot ar) griiz dot (d)a / uisrgi t ada 
ds nst bsi iz, do su*a k am pi-ar gu-ada skuon ha, mar mai i-an kin 
ak nrat ba'giina. sn du smi-at ar da sku:g usr fuot. mar dut ar 
an hundat trsid ov uot fiidar da o-ara fun, spi-at at him dot ar da 
rasta liza litan hi*a. hsi bun at ski-ap o*an am bram sn du 
usr'om om di ta hsljan. dot ui-a t krskt uot (d)a faint toxt 
hi-a : hsi at skrap los sn 'dsrmai fuot. sn dut (d)a slaxtar usr r om 
ka:m, ura dar gii skrap mrar ta bakinan sm moast ar uol usr 
nai da bu*ar ta om an o*aran ran ta krapjan. di di*a krskt ot ar 
nyivar r opharka s fa'koft at sslda ski*ap usr. 

1 Note that the sound a in diphthongs is very slight ( 43), and that al, dm, 
m, &r are often reduced to syllabic consonants ( 142-8). 


Nou, sei de feint, naem er oan oni it de slachter for de tvvadde 
kear kwyt to meitsjen en de boer, dy't net bigripe koe, ho't de feint 
sa liep en de slachter sa sleau weze koe, sei : eft er dat klear spile, 
den mocht er it beste fette skiep for him sels lit 'e keppel siikje. 
Do roun de feint sa hird as er koe it bosk wer yn en tichte by it 
ste der't it skiep weiwirden wier roun er under de beammen troch 
en rop : be, be, al mar oan. Der harke de slachter forheard fen op, 
mar hy wier dochs ek bliid, hwent hy tochte nou it skiep dat er 
kwyt wier wer to krijen. Dat er oan it tou hie waerd wer en 
nou goed tocht him oan in beam boun en do hy it lud efternei 
dat er hearde. Mei in omwei roun de feint do nei it plak der't it 
skiep festboun wier, dat sa gau as 't koe los en do wer nei hus ta. 

In tocht letter kaem de slachter der ek wer oan, lilk det er sa 
forrifele wier, hwent hy tocht nou net oars ef hy wier foar 't 
soaltsje halden. De boer lake tige, mar makke it do wer goed mei 
de man en de feint hie mei syn liepens in best fet skiep fortsjinne. 

2. De koal. 

(Yet in teltsje) 

Der wieren ris in boer en in arbeider, dy wennen tichte by 
inoar. De boer hie fjirtich kij op stal en al it oare wier der 
neffens en de arbeider hie oars neat as in geit en in pear bije- 
koerren, dy't under in aid f orfallen ofdakje stienen. Hy hie ek in 
lyts lapke groun, in pear koarte smelle ekerkes en dy laeijen 
njunken in stik bou fen de boer dat greater wier as in moargen. 
Der wier mar in smelle furge twiskenbeiden. 

Hwet woe nou it gefal ? Der stie in grouwe wite koal op de 
arbeider syn gerjuchtichheid en dy hong sa fier oer 'e furge hinne 
det er mear as heal boppe de boer syn Ian wier. En do krigen my 
dy twa de greatste ruzje, hwa syn koal dat nou einliks wier. De 
boer sei : Dou hast my al sa faek bistellen, det dou krigest dit 
kear nou ris gjin gelyk. En de arbeider sei : It is mar sa, it fet 
wol altyd boppe driuwe en wyljue moatte altyd de minste weze. 
Mar der slacht de deale troch, ik jow nou ris net ta. Gjin ien woe 
syn ein slupe litte, it roun op 't lest sa hoi, det se waerden fjur- 
slachs deilis en se wieren mekoar hast oanflein. 

Do sei de boer : Wiste hwet, wy scille it sender kreauwen en 


nou, sai da faint, na:m er o-en om et (d)e slaxtor foa do twade 
ki'or kwit t9 maitsjon sn da bu w 9r, dit net bg'gripg ku*e, hut (d)e faint 
so li'op sn do slaxter sa sliou us:z9 ku'9, sai : ot er dot klrer spil9, 
dom moxt er 9t bsiste fste ski'9p foar em sslz yt 9 kspel si:kJ9. 
du run d9 faint sa hod oz 9r ku-e 9t bosk usr in sn tixte bsi 9t 
ste: dst 9t ski-ep 'uaiuoden ui-e run 9r under 9 bismen trox 
e ro:p : bs:, bs:, ol mar o*9n. dsr harke d9 slaxt9r fer'hred fon op, 
mar hsi ui*e dogz sk bliid, uont hsi toxt9 nou 9t ski*ep dot 9r 
kwit ui'9 usr t9 krsi9n. dot 9r o-9n 9t tou hi-9 uair usr en 
noii gu-9d toxt 9m o-9n 9m bi'9m bun sn du hsi 9t lu:d sftgr'nai 
dot 9r hisdg. mai 9n 'omuai run d9 faint du nai t plak dst 9t 
ski'9p 'fsistbun ui'9, dot sa gou os t ku*9 los sn du usr nai hus ta. 

9n toxt Ister ka:m d9 slaxt9r dsr sk usr o*9n, lilk dot 9r sa 
fe'rif9l9 ui-9, uont hsi toxt nou nst o-9z of hsi ui-9 foa t 
so*9ltsJ9 hoidgn. d9 bu*gr laikg tig9, mar makg 9t (d)u usr gu*9d mai 
d9 mon sn d9 faint hi'9 mai si li-gpaz 9m bsist fst ski*9p 

2. da ko-al. 

(jit 9n tsltsjg) 

dgr ui'en rgz 0m bu-9r sn 9n 'arbaidgr, di usngn tixt9 bsi 
enuor. d9 bu T 9r hi*9 fiitgg ksi op stoil sn ol 9t o*9r9 ui*9 ds 
nsfez sn d9 r arbaid9r hi* 9 o*9z ni*9t oz erj gait sn 9m prer / bsi9- 
kuorgn, dit under en o:d fe'foilen r o-edakJ9 sti-en. hsi hi*e sk e 
lits lapke grun, 0m prer koate smsle X e:k9rk9z sn di laien 
niorjken a stik bou fon e bu*er dot grotgr: u-9 oz 9n moargen. 
der ui'9 mar 9 smsl9 fuorg9 twiskgn^aidgn. 

uot uu*9 nou t gg'fol? der sti*e eg grou9 uite ko'gl op e 
'arbaider sir) ge'rioxt9xhaid sn di horj sa fi-er u-er 9 fuorg9 hm9 
dot 9r rni'9r oz hi-9l bop9 d9 bu-9r si loin ui'9. sn du krig9n mi 
di twa: d9 grost9 ruizje, ua: sir) ko-el dot nou 'ailgks ui'9. d9 
bu-er sai : dou hast mi ol sa fa:k be'sts:l9n, dot (d)oii krigest dit 
ki-9r nou rgz giir) gg'lik. sn d9 'arbaider sai : et iz mar sa, et fst 
uol 'oltid bope driuwe s 'usilio mate oltid de miiste usrze. 
mar dsr slaxt (d)e do-ele trox, ik jou noii rsz net ta. gim i*9n uu-9 
sin ain slupe lite, et run op t Isist sa hoi, dot se ua:ren x fio- 
dailez e se ui-9n mg'ko^r hast ^-eflain. 

du sai d9 bu*er : uiste uot, ui sile t sender kriouen s 

1466 2 H 


sender slaen utmeitsje. Wy settle der om lige en dy't it best lige 
kin, dy scil de koal ha. Dat wier de arbeider goed ; hy sei, de 
boer scoe den mar earst. 

Dy bigoun : Dou moast witte, us pake, aide Gjalt Sweitses, wier 
boer lyk as ik. Mar hy hie gans hwet greater bislach as mines. 
Syn rigele kij der wier de ein fen wei. Saun jier op *e kop of hie 
er wirk om se to tellen en hwet it frjemdste wier, hy koe se 
allegearre by de namme. Aide Ale is eris as lytsfeint bigoun mei 
de groppe op to striken en do't er amperoan dien hie, moast er der 
by wei, hwent do wier it lottersdei en hy moast hird rinne om op it 
gritenijhus to kommen, hwent hy hie do de jierren ek det er lotsje 
moast. En us pake wier in man, dy triek him alles sa oan. Op 
in dei stoar de underste kou en do wier er suver fen 'e wize. 

Nou, sei de arbeider derop, dat kin heel sa wol weze. Mar us 
pake dy hie in bijestal, dat wier sa 'n greaten ien as der sont net 
wer west hat. Der stienen safolle bijekoerren yn, det hy hie saun 
jier wirk om se to tellen. En dochs koe er alle bijen by de namme. 
En as der hwet miskearre, den triek er him dat sa oan, det den 
wier er alheel fen *e wize. It mei my tinke, det der ris ien fen 
syn bijen wei wier. Pake mirk it al ridlik gau, hwent hy wier 
mear by syn lyts fe as yn 'e hus. Do waerd ik der op ut stjurd 
om it forlerne skiep wer to siikjen. Nou, dat wier in hei-krewei. 
Ik gyng by alle hynste- en skieppeblommen lans, mar ik foun him 
net. Hele fjilden koalsied en reade klaver socht ik of, it joech neat. 
En sadwaende dwaelde ik mar oan en mar wei, der gyngen wiken 
mei hinne en ik rekke altyd mar fierder fen hus of. Do kaem ik 
om Alderheljen hinne by in greate boerepleats, ik koe net sizze det 
ik der earder west hie. Om to sizzen sa't it wier, ik wier it paed 
bjuster. De buthiisdoar stie iepen en ik seach in rigele kij, sa 
lang, sa lang, ja wol hundert kear sa lang as Berltsum. De feint 
wier dwaende en striek de groppe op. Hy hie in gol en blier 
wezen, ik tochte : kom, ik gean der effen yn, licht kin dy my to- 
rjuchte wize. En sjuch je wol, de underste stal wier leech, mar ik 
seach dochs dalik, det der us bijke staid wier. It hie in nijach- 
tich hoarntou om. Ik houd my lyk eft ik fen neat wiste en sei 
tsjin de feint: Goede goant, hwet is dat, det jimme der sa'n 
frjemd beest op stal ha. Ei ju, sei er, der ha 'k sa'n fortriet fen ; 
dou moast witte, dat hat myn boer, dy aide nepert fen in Gjalt 
Sweitses, yn 't hof oantroifen en do hat er it mar nadere en op 'e 
ienichste lege stal set dy't der noch wier. Hy koe fest oars neat 


sondar slam 'ytmaitsjo. ui silo dor om li:go en dit ot be:st li:go 
kin, di sil do ko-ol ha. dot ui-o do 'arbaidor gu*od ; hei sai, do 
bu'or su'O dom mar rost. 

di bo'gun : dou mast uito, ys pa:ko, o:do *giolt *swaitsoz, uro 
bu-or lik oz ik. mdr hei hi-o go:z uot grotor bo'slax oz minoz. 
si rigolo ksi der ui-o d ai fo uai. so: ji-or op o kop 0*0 hi-o 
or uork om zo to tslon e uot ot frismsto ui-o, hsi ku-o zo 
'ologisro bsi do namo. o:do *a:lo iz oroz oz 'litsfaint bo'gun mai 
do gropo op to strikon sn dut or 'ainporo-on di-on hi-a, moast or dor 
bsi uai, uont du ui-o t x lotozdai sn hsi moast hod nno om op ot 
grito'nsihys to komon, uont hsi hi-o du do jiron sk dot or lotsjo 
moast. sn ys paiko ui*o n mon, di trrok om olos sa O'on. op 
on dai sto-or do undosto koii sn du m*o or syivor fon o uiizo. 

nou, sai do Arbaidor dsr r op, dot km he:l sa uol usizo. mar ys 
paiko di hi-o om 'bsiosto:!, dot m-o sarj groton i-on az dor sont nst 
usr usst hat. dsr sti-on 'safolo ^siakuoron in, dot hsi hi-o so: 
ji-or uork om zo to tslon. sn do\s ku-o r olo bsion bsi do namo. 
sn oz dor uot mis'kisro, don tri*ok or om dot sa o-on, dot do 
ui'O r oPhe:! fon o ui:zo. ot mai mi tirjko, dot or oz i w on fo 
sim bsion uai ui-o. pa:ko mork ot ol nlok x^> u > uont hsi ui*o 
mi'or bsi si lits fe: oz in o hu:z. du ua:r ik tor op yt stju*od 
om ot fo x lsno ski-op usr to si:kjon. nou, dot ui-o n x hai-krouai. 
ik xit) bsi olo hi:sto- s 'skiipoblomon lo:z, mar ik fun om 
nst. he:lo fiildon 'koalsi-od s ri-odo kla:vor so\t ok o*a, ot jug m-at. 
s sa'dwamdo dwa:ldo k mar O'on sm mar uai, dsr girjon uikon 
mai hmo sn ik rsko 'oltid mar fiidor fon hu:z O'a. du ka:m ok 
om oldor'hsljon hmo bsi or) groto bu-oro'pli-ots, ik ku-o nst size dot 
ak dsr isdor usst hi-o. om to sizon sat ot ui-o, ik ui-o t paid 
biostor. do butyz'do-or sti-o i-opon sn ik si-eg 9 rigolo ksi, sa 
larj, sa larj, ja uol hundot ki-or sa larj oz bslsom. do faint 
ui-o dwamdo s stri-ok do gropo op. hsi hi-o arj gol sm bli-ei 
us:zon, ik toxto: kom, ik XI-QU dor sfon in, li\t km di mi ta- 
x rioxta ui:zo. s sio jo uol, do undosta sto:l ui-o le:g, mar ik 
srag dogz da:lak, dot (d)sr yz bsiko sto:ld ui-a. ot hi-o on x nsiax- 
tog 'hoantou om. ik houd mi lik ot ok fon ni-ot uista s sai 
tsjm o faint : gu-odo goant, uot iz dot, dot jimo dsr sa 
frismd be:st op sto:l ha. a-i jo, sai ar, dsr ha k sa fo'tri-ot fon ; 
dou mast uito, dot hat mini bu-or, di o:do neipat fon or) *giolt 
*swaitsoz, in t ho:v / o-antrofon sn du hat ar at mar na:daro en op a 
imoxsta le:go sto:l sst dit ar nog ui-o. hei ku-o fe:st o-az ni-at 



mear fine, hwent dit hele skoandere bislach f6, der't hast gjin 
trochkommens ein oan is, hat er by inoar stellen. . . . 

Dat lygste, sei de boer, dy't him al lang bidimme moatten hie, 
mar it nou dochs net langer uthalde koe. 

Den haw ik it woun, sei de arbeider, de koal is mines. 

3. Waersiik. 

Jilke siet yn 'e hus mei de han oan 'e nolle en in gesicht as in 
Turk. Ja, dat siz ik nou al, mar ik ha by myn witten noait in 
Turk sjoen, libben noch dea. De miening is det er swart seach, 
sa swart as in toerre ; dat ding kin men yen foarstelle. Nimmen 
koe him hwet nei 't sin dwaen, it wiif net, de faem net, nimmen 
net. En for goede wirden krigen de husgenoaten sims in hounsk 
biskie werom. De frou socht him to troaijen en del to bedzjen ; 
hja wier tige goedlik, hja wist syn skeel wol en rekkene det der 
ridlik gau betterskip komme scoe, as ... 

Mar de faem briek hjar de holle net mei 't gefal. Dy sei yn 
hjar sels : Ik tsjuch it my net oan, hear ! As de boer lilk weze 
wol, lit him den mar lilk weze. En wol er wer goed wirde, den 
moat er mar wer goed wirde ; oars bliuwt er mar lilk. Ik ha de 
man neat gjin omkromte bylein. En hja helle ris fiks fleurich op. 

De boer wier onreedlik en dat kaem foart lit syn kwael : it gyng 
him as Sije, hy wier waersiik. Dy kwael iepenbiere him net yn 't 
knis ef de teannen, it waer doogde net for syn holle, it wier him 
lang net nei 't sin, al yn dagen net. Mei boerkerij hie dat lykwols 
neat lit to stean. De faem neamde him wol boer, mar dat gyng 
sa lit alder wenst. Jilke wier boer-rintenier, hy hie de skiepkes 
op it droege. Hy hie lang en kras boerke en de foardielige tiid 
tige mei hawn ; sadwaende siet er der nou fiks waerm by. Hy 
biwenne in kreas hus, dat er sels sette litten hie, in eintsje buten 
de burren. De frou houd in faem, dat mocht hjar wol barre en it 
kaem hjar ek wol ta : it minske hie net fen fierren stien yn 'e 
dagen do't der for 't frouljuesfolk by de boer mear to dwaen foel 
as tsjinwirdich. Dy ljuwe hiene dos eigentlik de wrald op in 
boerdtsje. De man stie ek net bikend for sa dwers en koart- 
kearich ; elk koe 't ornaris skoan mei him birinne, mar nou net. 
Nou hie er hast in heale wike op kop en earen yn 'e hus sitte 
moatten, hwent it wier dei oan dei sa bidroefde onlijich, det 
it kaem oan in kuijerke net ta. Der waerd er swiersettich under. 


mrar fina, uont dit heila sko'endero ba'slax fe:, dst hast giin 
'trokomSz am o-on iz, hat 9r bsi 9nuor stsilgn . . . 

dot lixste, sal do bu-ar, dit 9m ol larj b9'dini9 mat9n hra, 
mar at nou dogz net Iarj9r 'ythoida ku-a. 

don hav ik 9t uun, sai d9 'arbaidar, d9 ko ? al iz mines. 

3. 'ua:rsi:k. 

*jilka srat in 9 hu:z mai da horn O'9n 9 hol9 sn arj g9'sixt oz 9n 
to"rk. ja:, dot siz 9k nou ol, mar ik ha bsi mi uitgn no-it 9n 
tork sju*9n, libgn nog di'9. da mrangrj iz dot 9r swat si*9g, 
sa swat oz 9n tiior9 : dot dirj kim me ji 'foastste. nimgn 
ku-9 m uot nai t sin dwain, 9t ui:v net, d9 fa:m net, nim9n 
nst. s foa gu'9d9 vodgn kriggn d9 'hyzggno^tgn S9mz 9n hii:sk 
bg'ski-g usr'om. d9 frou soxt 9m t9 tro-ign sn del ta bs:dzJ9n ; 
hia ui'9 ti:g9 guodl9k, hia uist si ske:l uol s rsk9n9 dot 
9r nlgk xou 'bstgrskip koma su*9, oz . . . 

mar d9 farm bri-9k har d9 hol9 nst mai t ggfol. di sai in 
har sslz : ik tsjog 9t mi nst o*9n, jsr ! oz d9 bu-9r lilk us:z9 
uol, lit 9m dom mar lilk us:z9. s uol 9r usr gu-9d uod9, don 
mat 9r mar usr gu'9d uod9 ; o*9z bliuwt 9r mar lilk. ik ha da 
mon ni ? 9t giin 'omkromtg / bsilain. s hia hsl9 rgs fiks fl0'9r9g op. 

d9 bu*9r ui'9 o x re:dl9k sn dot ka:m fuot yt sir) kwail : 9t \ir) 
9m os *ssi9, hsi ui-9 'uairsiik. di kwail i-gpm'brgra him nst in t 
krys ov d9 tisn9n, 9t ua:r do:gd9 nst foa sin hol9, 9t ui^a am 
larj nst nai t sin, ol in da:g9n nst. mai buork9 / rsi hi-9 dot 'likuolz 
nr9t yt t9 sti*9n. d9 farm ni*9md9 m uol bu*9r, mar dot \u) 
sa yt o:d9r us:st. *jilk9 ui*9 bu'9r-rmt9 / ni-9r, hsi hi*9 d9 skiipk9z 
op 9t drug9. hsi hi*9 larj srj kros biiork9 sn dg f9'di'9l9g9 ti:d 
ti:g9 mai horn ; sa'dwamda si' at 9r d9r noii fiks ua:rm bsi. hsi 
b9 x usn9 9rj kri-9z huiz, dot 9r ssls sst9 Iit9n hi-9, 9n aintsj*9 but9n 
d9 buor9n. da froii hoiid 9 fa:m, dot moxt har uol bara sn at 
ka:m har sk uol ta : at miiska hra nst fo fiiran sti-an in a 
da:gan dut ar foa t 'fro:ljasfolk bsi da bu-ar mrar ta dwa fu-al 
os tsji x uorg. di lioua hi-an dos 'aigantlak da uroid op am 
buotsja. da mo stra sk nst ba'kind foa sa dwss sq koat- 
'ki^arag ; slk ku*a t o'nairas sko*9n mai 9m b9'rm9, mar nou nst. 
nou hi-9 9r hast 9n hi-9l9 uik9 op kop sn i-9r9n in 9 hu:s sita 
ma tan, uont at ui-a dai o'an dai so ba'druivda o'lsiag, dot 
9t ka:m o w 9n 9rj kcei9rk9 nst ta. dsr ua:d 91* swi'9r r sst9g und9r. 


Hy wier mei de tiid forlegen, hy roun de frouljue om 'e barmen 
en him sels yn 'e wei. It wier slim. 

Mar dat giet dochs ek hwet fier, tinke jimme, sa forkeard en 
onpesjintich to wezen, allinne omdet it waer yen net noasket. Ik 
mien it ek. Dy't him net leart to skikken nei 't waer, dy hellet him 
sels al in aeklik lot op 'e hals, hwent it waer skikt him grif net nei 
lis. Jilke scoe forstandich dien hawwe, as er hwet bitocht hie om 
binnendoar oanslach to finen op tiden det er buten net bankje koe. 
Mar binne der dochs net in boel minsken, dy't in aerdtsje fen de 
man syn kwael beet hawwe ? C. WIELSMA. 

4. Baes Piktried. 

Jimme hawwe wol ris heard fen in kearel as Karst, en det 
Karst in kearel as in stikelbosk wier ? Nou, sa'n kearel as Karst 
wier baes Piktried ek, to sizzen : 'stick in fikse ju de earm ut, den 
koe hy der sahwet likernoch sonder kantroeren under troch rinne : 
hy wier derby sa meager as in range, hy hie in kleur as in skyl- 
fisk en in lud as in pikelhjerring. Sa'n mantsje wier baes Pik- 
tried ; in spjirring wier 't, mar hy hie gans smoar nei det it in beest 
wier, en gjin amerij hie baes Piktried rest. Syn pokdobbige 
troanje, der't de noas mei in optik ta litstiek, en syn griis hier, 
sweefden altyd hinne en wer ; syn lytse eagen flikkeren oan ien 
wei rjuchts en lofts. Der ontkaem him gjin ding, hy hie rounom 
hwet op to lekskoaijen, en hy wist it altyd best. As er oer 'e 
burren gong, den slingere en sloech er mei syn earmen, krekt eft er 
mei beide hannen roun to siedzjen, en ienkear pompte er in faem 
dy wetter toge sa tsjin de iene amer oan, det hy der sels fen 
bipoezze rekke. ' Ezelskyn ! ' rop er, wylst er him ofskodde as in 
wetterhoun, ' koest den net sjen, det ik dy fen efteren ynkaem ? ' 
Op in oar tiid rekke er der net better of : do sloech er yn syn iver 
krekt yn in tine fen in eide, dy't op in ierdkarre laei, det it bloed 
der nei roun. ' Men scoe nou den ek by mooglikheid sizze, ho 
kinne se sa 'n ding sa mids yn 't paed stean litte,' sei er, ' men kin 
ommers de burren langer net ongeskansearre lans komme ! ' 

Hy wier in skoenmakker fen syn hantwirk, en as er arbeide, 
den helle er de tried sa fuleindich lit, det er elk dy't net fierder- 
noch fen him ofbleau, de fust jin 5 t liif oan sloech. Gjin feint 
bleau langer as in moanne by him, hwent hy hie op it beste wirk 
altyd yet hwet to sizzen. Den wieren de stekken net egael, den 


hei ui-9 mai da ti:d fa'leigan, hei run da fro:lJ9 om 9 honan 
en 9m selz in 9 uai. at ui-a slim. 

mar dot \iit dogz ek uot frar, tirjka jima, sa fa'krad en 
ompa'sjint8x ta ue:zan, o'lma om'dot 9t ua:r jin net noaskat. ik 
mran at ek. dit 9m net Irat t9 skikan nai t ua:r, di hel9t 9m 
selz ol 9n aiklgk lot op 9 holz, uont 9t uair skikt 9m grif net nai 
ys. jilk9 su*9 f9'stond9g di'9n hav9, oz 9r uot b9'toxt hi-9 om 
bin9n'do'9r 'o-dslax ta fhi9n op ti:d9n dot 9r but9n net barjkJ9 ku-9. 
mar bin9 dgr dogz net 9m bu*9l mi:sk9n, dit 9n aitsjg fon da 
mo sir) kwail be:t hav9 ? se: 'uralsma. 

4. ba:s * / piktri-8d. 

jim9 hav9 uol r9z hied fon 9rj ki'9r9l os *kast, en dot 
*kast 9r) ki'9r9l oz 9n 'stikglbosk ui'9 ? nou, sag ki*9r9l os *kast 
ui'9 ba:s * / piktri-9d ek, t9 sizgn : sti-9k 9 fiks9 jo d9 i'9rm yt, dor) 
ku-9 hei d9r 'sauot likgr'noig sond9r kontru-9r9n und9r trog rina ; 
hei ui-9 der'bei sa mi-9g9r oz e rarj9, hei hi'9 9rj k!0'9r oz 9 'skil- 
fisk en 9 lu:d oz 9n / pik9lhier9rj. sam montsjg ui*9 ba:s * / pik- 
trr9d ; 9 spiirgrj ui-9 t, mar hei hi*9 go:s smo'9r nai dot 9t am be:st 
ui-9, erj giin ani9 / rei hi-9 ba:s * / piktri*9d reist. sim 'pokdobega 
troajia, det (d)9 no-9z mai 9n 'optik ta 'ytsti-ak, e sirj griiz hi*9r, 
swe:vd9n 'oltid hm9 e uer ; si litsg i'9g9n flikgrgn o^9n i-9 
uai rioxs e lofts, dgr ont'kaim 9m giin dirj, hei hi'9 / runom 
uot op t9 'leksko'ign, en hei uist 9t 'oltid beist. oz 9r u*9r 9 
buor9n gorj, do slirj9r9 e sluig 9r mai si iermgn, krekt ot 9r 
mai baid9 honan run ta siidzjgn, en 'i'grjkrgr pompt9 r 9 farm 
diuetgr to:g9 sa tsjin da i-ana a-mar o-an, dot hei dar sels fon 
ba'puozg rek9. </ e:z9lskin ! ' ro:p 9r, uilst 9r 9m 'O'gskodg oz 9 
7 uet9rhun, *ku*9st (d)on net sien, dot ak ti fon eftar9n ^rjkaim ?' 
op 9n O'9r ti:d rek9 r d9r net betar 0'9 : du slu:g 9r i sin iivar 
krekt in an tina fon an aida, dit op 9 'iitkara lai, dot 9t blu ? 9d 
dgr nai run. 'ni9 su*9 nou don ek bei 'moigtokhaid siz9, hu 
km9 Z9 son dirj sa midz in t pa:d sti*9 Iit9,' sai 9r, ^mgrj km 
oni9z d9 buorgn larjgr net orjggsko'zierg lo:z kom9 ! ' 

hei ui-9 9 'skuo^makar fo sin x hontuork, en oz ar 'arbaida, 
don hela r da tri-ad sa ful'aindag yt, dot ar elk dit net 'fiid9r 
no:x fon 9m '0'9bliou, d9 fust jin t li:v o*9n slu:g. gii faint 
bliou Iarj9r oz 9n moang bei him, uont hei hi'9 op 9t be:st9 uork 
x oltid jit uot t9 siz9n. do ui'9n d9 stekgn net e-'gail, dp 


wier de iene skoech langer as de oare, den wieren de hakken 
ongelike heech, den wier it lear net genoch kloppe, altyd wier der 
hwet. En as se hjar fordigenje woene, den rop er : i Sa't ik siz, 
sa is 't, en tsjinpraten wol 'k net ha : hwet net goed is, kin 'k ek 
net goed neame, en 'k scoe my skamje, as ik it yn 'e sliep wei net 
better meitsje koe ! ' H. S. SYTSTRA. 

5. Utfenhus by de boer. 

De moarntiid. 

It Ijocht brekt troch de griene gerdyntsjes. De klok slacht 
healwei fiven. De wylde fugels tsjirmje oer 't fjild. De hoanne 
kraeit en de Ijipkes liepe yn 'e finne. De protters kwele en 
tsjotterje op it uleboerd en de skoarstien. De earrebarre klap- 
halzet. De ljurken sjonge oer 'e skurre. De aide niem heart de 
klok : Bouk ! seit se, dou moast der of komme, fanke ! en roppe 
Hidde en de feint, den kin de aid boer yet hwet lizzen bliuwe. 
Goed, seit Bouk, en wriuwt eris yn 'e eagen en strykt oer de reade 
roune wangen. Se skout oer 'e bedsplanke, klaeit hjar oan en 
ropt Hidde en de feint. 

Dermei is alles yn 't spier. De feint jowt de kij earst in lyts 
jeft hea en Hidde bigjint to mjuksjen. Bijke, dy't de hele nacht 
op de aid boer syn broek lein hat, rekt him lit en de buthusdoar 
utgeande, snuffelt er op it hiem om en siket de onganzen op. 
Bouk set nou fjur oan en hinget it tsjernwetter oer : mar wy 
moatte ek hwet Ijocht ha, seit se, en skout it ramt op en smyt de 
finsters iepen, det se tsjin 'e murre stuitsje. Nou stekt se hjar 
tsjeppe troanje yn 'e loft en sjucht mei in pear frjeonlike eagen 
oeral yn 'e blide dage om. It Ijochte grien fen "e simmer- 
krite skimert troch de tsjuke dauwe. It jonggud haffelt yn 
'e lizen om. De ropeintsjes wraggelje nei hjar ta en lang- 
halzje om in hanfol beane. De aide mem lit it molken yn 'e tine 
rinne. Se is in minske fen sechstich jier en dochs tilt se de tine 
mei op, det hjar de lidden knieze en set him op 'e tsjerne en lit it 
molken der ut rinne, det it brust. Dermei wirdt de spatskutel der 
op lein, it tsjernlid festkile, de pols oanslein. De aide loaije bunte 
wirdt fen 'e stal helle en bigjint to tsjernjen, det it hus dreunt en 
de bynten kreakje. 

Nou it oar folk sit to melken bigjint de aid boer him ek to rissen. 
Hy stiet op en klaeit him oan en snijt for it folk elkmes in tsjuk 


ui'a da rana sku:g larjar oz da O'era, do uran do hakon 
'orjgalika he:g, do ui*9 t Irar net ga'noix klopa, 'oltid ui*a dar 
uot. sn os so har fa'di:g9nJ9 uu'9n, do ro:p 9r : ; sat ik siz, 
sa is t, sn 'tsjimprcutgn uo k net ha : uot nst x u ' 9 $ Iz > kit) k sk 
net \\i-Qd nr9ni9, sq k su mi skamja, o k 9t in 9 sli-ap uai nst 
bst9r maitsja ku-a ! ' ha: ss 'sitstra. 

5. ytfan'huiz bei da birar. 

da 'mdantid. 

9t lioxt brskt tro da gri-ana ga'dintsjaz. d9 klok 
'hislui fi:v9n. d9 uilda fugalz tsjirmJ9 u-a t fiild. d9 hoan9 
kra*it sn da Iiipk9z Ii*9p9 in 9 fin9. d9 protgs kwe:l9 sn 
tsjotgrjo op 9t 'ulgbu-ed sn d9 skoasjan. d9 X isr9bar9 'klap- 
holz9t. d9 l!6rk9n sior)9 u-9r 9 skuorg. d9 o:d9 msm hist (d)a 
klok. *bouk! salt sa, dou mast ar o-a koma, farjka, s ropa 
*hida sn da faint, dor) kin da o:d bu-ar jit uot hzon bliuwa. 
gu'ad, salt *bouk, s uriuwt araz in a ragan s strikt u-a da rrada 
runa raqan. sa skoiit u-ar a bsts'plarjka, kla*it har o*an s 
ropt *hida sn da faint. 

x dsrmai iz olaz in t spi-ar. da faint jout (d)a ks! i-ast e lits 
jsft hi-9 sn *hid9 bg'gimt t9 mioksjgn. *bsik9, dit (d)9 he:l9 naxt 
op 9 o:d birar sim bruik lam hat, rskt am yt sn da butyz'do-ar 
yt r xi'9nda, snofalt ar op at hram om s sikat da r or)go:zan op. 
*bouk sst iiou fju*ar o*an sn hirjat at 'tsjsustar u-ar; mar usi 
mata sk uot lioxt ha, sait sa, s skout at ramt op s smit (d)a 
fi:staz i'9p9n, dot S9 tsjin 9 muor9 stoeitsJ9. noii stskt S9 har 
tsjspg troaji9 in 9 loft s sioxt mai am pi-ar fr0-elak9 i'9g9n 
'u-9rol in 9 bli:d9 da:g9 om. 9t Iioxt9 gri-9n fon 9 'sini9r- 
krit9 skimgrt tro d9 tsjukg do-u9. 9t 'jorjguod hafglt in 
9 Ii:z9n om. d9 'ropaintsjgz urag9lJ9 nai har ta s ^ar)- 
holzJ9 om 9n hoifol bi-gna. da o:da msm lit at molkan in a tsjsna 
ring. S9 iz en mi:sk9 fo sskst9g ji*9r 9n dogz tilt S9 d9 tin9 
mai op, dot har d9 Iid9n kni*9Z9 s sst 9m op 9 tsjsn9 s lit 9t 
molkgn dar yt rina, dot at bruist. 'dsrmai uot (d)a 'spotskutal dar 
op lain, at tsjs'lid 'fsistkilg, d9 polz 'o-eslain. d9 o:d9 Io-i9 bunt9 
uot fon 9 sto:l hsl9 sm bggiint t9 tsjsji9n, dot 9t hu:z dr0:nt sn 
d9 bintgn kri'gkjg. 

nou at o*ar folk sit ta mslkan ba'gimtfdja o:d bu-ar him sk ta nsan. 
hsi stilt op srj kla*it am o*an s snsit foar at folk slkmaz an tsjuk 


stik brea. As dat dien is, faget er it mes of en stekt it yn 'e skie. 
Hy nimt de bril lit it finsterbank en bigjint to lezen yn de reis 
nei it himelske Jeruzalem. 

It melken is dien. It folk komt by de bird. De aide man nimt 
syn roun-breed-skade hoedtsje of en bidt. De feint gobbet efter 
de hoed wei en giizjende tsjin Bouk trapet er hjar underwiles op 
'e teannen, det se it laitsjen ek net ynhalde kin. Elk nimt syn stik 
brea, leit it op 'e knibbel en yt der fen. De aide mem is bang det 
it waer foroarje scil, sa hat it hjar jisterjoun yn 't krus stitsen. 
De aid boer klaget ek, oer jicht en de slimme tiid. Hy biskrobbet 
it jongfolk, det se sa oerdwealsk net weze moatte, hwent det hjar 
de earen yet wol bikoge wirde kinne. Dermei, as de kopkes en 
pantsjes opbirgen binne, biredde de frouljue de tsjerne en bjinne de 
tinen en aden ut. De manljue geane oan 't seadriden ef leikje de 
simmerdykjes op. De aid man bliuwt yn 'e hirdshoeke om de 
fuken to lapjen en bisjucht de kobbe mei de bril op 'e noas . . . 


6. De sliep. 

't Is joun. Stil is 't rounom. De nacht komt en lukt syn 
tsjustere gerdinen gear om 'e ierde, en alles makket him klear om 
syn soan, de ingel fen de sliep, wolkom to hjitten. Dy sweeft 
nou de ierde oer, en alles hwer't er syn wjukken oer utslacht, 
forjit de droktme fen"'e dei yn swiete slomme. 

Mar net alles, net allegearre meije hjar forbliidzje yn in bisiik 
fen dy woldwaende ingel. 't Is wier, mannich earme bodder, 
dy't de deis yn it swit fen syn antlit it brea for syn wiif en 
berntsjes fortsjinne, hat er bileanne mei in swiete rest, mannich 
brave libbet de lokkichste uren fen syn wolbisteld libben yetris 
troch yn nochlike dreamen, mar. . . . Der binne filantropen, dy't 
it hjar plicht achtsje yn it lijen en de earmoed fen hjar mei- 
minsken to foarsjen, mar ho follen en ho follen dy't hjar help 
faek it nedichst wieren wirde troch hjar foarbygien. Sa'n filan- 
troop scoe men de sliep ek hast neame kinne, hwent in bulte 
jowt er rest, mar ek in bulte dy't forgees langhalzje nei syn 
komste. 't Is as wol er net roppen wirde. As er in hert hat, dy 
ingel fen 'e sliep, den is it hird as in stien ; hwent ho mannich 
earme stumper, dy't op syn siikbed kreunt fen pine, lit er onge- 
treast yn syn smert, en ho follen, dy't de wrald en it needlot 


stik brra. oz dot di-an iz, faigat ar at me:s 0*8 e stekt at in a ski- a. 
hei nimt (d)a bril yt at 'fiistarbarjk em ba'gimt ta le:zan in da raiz 
nai at 'himals(k)a ja'ryzalem. 

at melkan iz dran. at folk komt bsi da hod. da o:da mon nimt 
si run-bre:t-ska:da huotsja o*a em bit. da faint gobat sftar 
da hirad uai eg giizjanda tsjim *boiik tra:pat ar har undar'uilaz op 
a tienan, dot sa t laitsjan ek net 'inhoida kin. elk nimt si stik 
bri-a, lait at op a knibal en it ar fon. da o:da mem iz bar) dot 
at ua:r far'o-arja sil, sa hat at har jostar'jun in t krys stotsan. 
da o:d bu-ar klaigat ek, u-ar jixt en da slima ti:d. hei ba'skrobat 
at 'jorjfolk, dot sa sa u-a'dwrals(k) net ueiza mata, uont dot har 
da raran jit uol ba'koiga uoda kina. x dermai, oz da kopkaz em 
pomtsjaz 'o(b)borgan bina, ba'reida da froilja da tsjena em bnna da 
tinan en a:dan yt. da mo:lja gi-ana o-an t 'sjeidri-.dan ov laikja da 
'simardikjaz op. da o:d mon bliuwt in a hodz'huka om da 
fukan ta lapjan em ba'sioxt (d)a ko-ba mat da bril op a no*az. 

je: ha: x holbatsma. 

6. da slrap. 

t iz jun. stil is t runom. da naxt komt e lukt sin 
tsjostara ga'dinan gi-ar om a i-ada, en olaz makat am klrar om 
si so*an, da irjal fon da slrap, 'uolkom ta hiitan. di sweift 
noii da i'ada u*ar, en olaz uet ar si mokan irar 'ytslaxt, 
fa'jit (d)a droktma fon a da! i swi'ata sloma. 

mar net olez, net ola'giera mala har fe'bliidzja in am ba'siik 
fon di x uoldwa:nda irjal. t iz ui-ar, manag i-arma bodar, 
dit (d)a daiz in at swit fo sin 'ontlit at bna foa si 'ui:v em 
bentsjas fa'tsiina, hat ar ba'liena ma! 9 swi-ata reist, manag 
braiva libat (d)a lokaxsta u-aran fo si 'uolbasteld liban jitras 
trog in noflaka dri*aman, mar . . . dar bina filon'troipan, dit 
at har plixt axtsja in at leian en da 'iermu-ad fon har 'mai- 
miiskan ta fallen, mar hu folan en hu folan dit har help 
fa:k at neidaxst ui-an uoda trog har fa'beigi-an. sa filon- 
'troip su-8 man da sli-ap ek hast nrama kma, uont am bolta 
jout ar re:st, mar ek am bolta dit fa'geiz 'larjholzja nai sirj 
komsta. t iz oz uol ar net ropan uoda. oz ar an het hat, di 
irjal fon 9 sli*ap, don iz et hod oz a stran ; uont hu manag 
rerma stompar, dit op si x sikbe:d kr0:nt fom pina, lit er 'orjga- 
tri'est i si smet, en hu folan, dit (d)a uroid en at 


jimmer dwers wieren, lit er mei iepene eagen yn 'e tsjustere 
nacht sjen, sender se him ienkear to sluten en yn Ijochte dream- 
bylden him dat tsjuster forjitte to litten. En wirdt er fen sokken 
net meast oanroppen ? O. H. SYTSTBA. 

7. Wintersinneopgong. 

In froastige winterdei daget oer 'e Suderse en de iggen dy't er 

De lege bank, dy't yn 't easten mei syn swartens skieding 
makket twisken it skiere skimerjen fen 'e loft en it grounich- 
grien opjaen fen it dynjende wiet, kriget in Ijochte ranne. Al 
breder en breder, al bloedriger en bloedriger wirdt er. Den brekt 
yn-ieneii de wintergreate sinne heal boppe dat bloedgerdyn lit en 
stjurt syn kjelderich reade wjerskyn nei 't westen, mei de weagen 
dy't fen 'e froastkening syn siken tsjin 'e stiennen bear fen it 
Krabbersgat oanjage wirde. De ienlikens fen dat wide wetter- 
fjild dijt aloan en forliest geandewei syn grinzen. 

dy pracht fen it sinne-opkommen, simmers great en great by 
't winter ! O dy liifdracht fen 'e dage, simmers goud en winters 
poarper, simmers read en winters reader! O dat wiken fen it 
nachtskaed, simmers swart en winters swarter, foar de sinne' 
goudne pylken ! 

Loaits! de romte tynt, nou't it easten Ijocht jiet yn syn 
donkere djipten, sa't se tynt as me ut in delte it dun bikliuwt en, 
kliuwende, omsjucht! 

Loaits ! de wrald wirdt great en greater, nou't syn breid hjar 
poarte ontskoattelt, butedoar komt yn hjar breidspronk, en hjar 
earmen for him iepent ! Hastich, red en redder, riist er ut nachts 
fierten hjar tomiette, oer it tapyt fen sinnestrielen dat hja foar 
syn net utrollet ! Langst nei Ijeafde is yn syn haestjen, langst 
nei resten oan hjar herte ! 

Loaits ! de se, de onwiten wylde ; loaits ! it breinroer, brinz- 
gjend munster, dat de skippen brekt en brizelt, dun en dyk tomealt 
oan brokken ; loaits ! de se, de woeste, oerstjure, hwa't nin teame 
haldt, noch helter, draegt de wjerskyn fen 'e dage, draegt hjar 
poarper op syn weagen, draegt de moarnsbreid op syn skouders ; 
jowt him op, sa seft, sa mijen, sa't in heit him seftkes opjowt 
under 't Ijeaflik bern dat hoarsriidt op syn rech, en it mijen 
foartdraegt ! J. J. HOF. 


jimar dwss vran, lit 9r mai rapana ragan in 9 tsjostara 
naxt sisn, sender Z8 him i'-arjkrar t9 slytan sn i lioxta 'drram- 
bildan him dot tsjostar fa'jita ta Iit9n. s uot 9r fo sokan 
net mrast 'o-eropan? o: ha: 'sitstra. 

7. umtar'smaopxorj. 

e fro-astaga 'umtardai da:g9t u-ar 9 *sydar'se: sn d9 ig9n dit 9r 

d9 Ie:g9 barjk, dit in t rastan mai si swatnz skradarj 
makat twrskan 9t skrara skim9rj*9n fon 9 loft sn at gruna 
gri*an 'opjam fon 9t dijigndg ui*9t, kriggt 9 Iioxt9 rom9. ol 
breidgr sm bre:d9r, ol bliiodr9g9r em bliiodrgggr uot er. dom brskt 
in i-onon de 'umtargroto sino hi-01 bopa dot 'blu'edgedin yt s 
stju-et sir) kisldraj ri-ede 'uisskin nai t usstan, mai do ui-9g8n 
dit fon Q 'fro'8stk0:norj si siken tsjin 8 stiinen bi*ar fon at 
*krabaz'got O'ejarge rode, do 'i'elekez fon dot uiide 'ustar- 
ftild dsit olo-0n e fe'li-est 'gi'andeuai sirj grirzen. 

oil di praxt fon et 'sine-opkomen, simez gro-at srj gro-et bsi 
t umter! ou di 'liivdraxt fon 9 daigo, simoz goiid s uintos 
poarper, simez ri-ed s uintaz ri'eder! ou dot uiken fon at 
'naxtskaid, simes swat s uintas swater, foa da sina 
goudna pilkan ! 

lo-its ! da romta tint, nout at i-astan lioxt jit i sin 
dorjkara djiptan, sat sa tint oz m(a) yt an delta at dyn ba'kliuwt sn, 
kliuwanda, 'omsioxt ! 

lo-its! da uroid uot gro-at srj grotar, nout sim braid har 
poata ont'skoatelt, buta'do'er komt in har 'braidzprorjk, en har 
isrman foar him i-apant ! hastag, rs:d s rsidar, ri:st ar yt naxts 
fiitan har ta'miita, u*ar at ta'pit fo 'sinastri'alan dot hia foa 
si fi*at 'ytroilat ! larjst nai li-avda iz i sin haisjan, larjst 
nai rsistan o-an har hsta ! 

lo-its ! da se:, da o'uitan uilda ; lo-its ! at 'bramrar, briiz- 
gjand m0:star, dot (d)a skipan brskt sm briizalt, dyn sn dik ta x mislt 
o*am brokan ; lo'its ! da se:, da uu*asta, u*a'stju'ara, ua:t nin ti*ama 
ho:t, nox hsltar, dra:xt (d)a 'uisskin fon a da:ga, dra:xt har 
poarpar op si ui-agan, dra:xt (d)a moa:zbraid op si skoudaz ; 
jout 9m op, so ss:ft, sa mstan, sat an hait am ss:ftkaz 'opjout 
undar t Iravlak bs:n dot ''hoasri^ op si rs:, sn at msian 
'fuo(t)dra:xt ! je: je: hof. 


8. It Moaije. 

Hin ! it Moaije is allyk it not dat me mei it tsjef yn it sou 
skept. De arbeider skoddet it sou en it tsjef forstout foar de 
wyn, mar it goe-not follet de sekken. 

Yetteris is it Moaije allyk in ruge diamant, dy't fen 'e dolders 
yn ierdryks yngewant foun wirdt. En de dolders sjugge net, 
noch witte net, hwent de diamant is ruch en in koarste modder 
sit der omhinne. Mar de wasker wasket en de sliper slipet ; den 
wirdt de diamant as de jounstjer dy't oan ? e loft blikert en de 
minsken bigeije syn pracht en sizze: der is in skat foun yn it 
ierdryk en de nacht hat it Ijocht berne dat yn syn skerte wier ! 

Alweroan is it Moaije allyk siekerlen dy't fen it fugelt falle 
litten wirde yn in forgetten herntsje. Hwent de maitiid komt en 
de sinne pattet dat herntsje, det de siekerlen waerm wirde en ta 
waeksdom komme. En de mylde simmerwyntsjes streakje it 
libben dat de ierde ontgiet, det der langst nei memmewille 
ontstiet yn 'e kliene stallen en frucht tynt yn hjar bugende ieren. 
Den scil dy neisimmers goud weagje op dat forgetten herntsje, 
en it ripe not scil roppe om de man dy't de risping biredt. 

En einlings en to'n lesten is it Moaije allyk it goe-woan hea, 
dat me simmerdei yn 'e skurre riidt. It bisakket yn 'e gollen, 
mar wirdt net wei ; it broeit, mar it barnt net, noch forliest syn 
helm, hwent de broei is licht, om't it hea woan is, do't de ljurk 
heech kleau en de sinne onbihindere syn strielen oer it med geat. 
En as de dagen komme, det it greate each fen 'e ierde of sjucht 
en de sinne hjar bern skoudert ; as de skaden lang bliuwe en de 
stoppel net wer litrint ; as de beamtuke hinget, mar net fen 
frucht ; it med wyt is, mar net fen dauwe, den scil it syn nut 
dwaen. Den scil de husman de seine priizgje dy't fen 'e mier 
yn 'e swinge hongen is, en de haeijer greatsk weze op it yl yn 
syn hannen, as er de riuwe twisken 'e tekspierren lizzen sjucht. 
Hwent in hiel bislach bisten tart op 'e frucht fen hjar flitigens en 
wirdt sed. 

Wez den op dyn iepenst, det nin swym dyn each ontkomt, 
noch nin klank dyn ear foarbygiet. Swylje gear al hwet foar dyn 
net leit en biwarje it yn 'e skurren fen dyn onthald, det dyn 
moed net toar wirdt en dyn herte to ninter tiid om tinzen 
forlegen weze mei, noch dyn mule om wirden. Hwent de dagen 
komme det de siedder net rispje scil, det de mier net meant, noch 


8. at mo'ia. 

hin ! at mo* 19 iz o(l)'lik at no:t dot ma mai at tsjsf in at sou 
skspt. da 'arbaidar skodat at sou sn at tsjsf fa'stout foa da 
uin, mar at gu-a'noit folat (d)a sskan. 

jitraz iz at mo-ia o(l)'lik a ruga dia'mont, dit fon a doldaz 
in 'i-adriks 'iqgauont fu: uot. sn da doldas sioga net, 
nog uita net, uont (d)a dia'mont iz rux sn ar) koasta modar 
sit ar om'hma. mar da uoskar uoskat sn da slipar slipat ; do 
uot (d)a dia'mont oz da 'juistisr dit (ran a loft blikart sn da 
mirskan ba'gaia sim praxt s siza : dar iz 3 skot fun in at 
'i-adrik sn da naxt hat at lioxt bsna dot i si sksta ura ! 

ol'usro-an iz at mo-ia o(l)'lik 'si-aksln dit fon at fugalt fo:la 
litan uoda in 9 fa'gstan hsntsja. uont (d)a 'maitid komt sn 
da sina patat (d)ot hsntsja, dot (d)a 'sraksln ua:rm uoda sn to 
'uaiksdom koma. sn da milda 'simaruintsjas stri*akja at 
liban dot (d)a rada ont'xiit, dot ar larjst nai 'msmauila 
ont'stiit in a kli-ana stoilan s froxt tint in har buiganda raran. 
do sil di ^aisimaz goud ui*agja op tot fa'gstan hsntsja, 
sn at ripa no:t sil ropa om da mon dit (d)a nsparj ba'rsit. 

sn ''ailarjz sn ta Isistan iz at mo*ia o(l) x lik at 'gu'auoan hi*a, 
dot ma simar'dal in a skuora ri:t. at ba'sakat in a golan, 
mar uot nst uai ; at bruit, mar at bamt nst, nox fa'li-ast sin 
hslm, uont (d)a brul iz hxt, omt at hra uoon iz, dut (d)a liork 
he:x kliou sn da sina omba'hindara si strralan u*ar at ms:d gi'at. 
sn oz da da:gan koma, dot at grota i*ag fon a rada o*a sioxt 
sn da sina har bsm skoudart ; oz da skaidan lar) bliuwa sn da 
stopal nst usr r ytnnt ; oz da 'bismtuka hirjat, mar nst fo 
froxt ; at ins:d uit iz, mar nst fon do*ua, do sil at sin not 
dwa:n. do sil da 'hyzmon da sama pri:zgja dit fon a mi-ar 
in a swirja horjan iz, sn da ha-iar grotsk us:za op at il i 
sin honan, oz ar da rmwa twiskan a 'tskspiiran lizan sioxt. 
uont an hi-al ba'slag bis(t)an tat op a froxt fon har 'flitagez s 
uot ss:d. 

us:z don op tin rapast, dot ni swim din rag ont'komt, 
nog nirj klaijk din i-ar fa'bsigiit. swilja grar ol uot foa di 
fi*at lait sm ba'uarja t in a skuoran fon din ont'ho^, dot (d)im 
mil' ad nst toar uot sn din hsta ta nintar ti:d om ti:zan 
fa'leigan usiza mai, nog dim mula om uo'dan. uont (d)a daigan 
koma dot (d)a siidar nst rispja sil, dot (d)a mi-ar nst mrant, nog 


de haeijer net haeit, en it ierdryk syn skerte ta haldt. Den scitte 
dyn each seinje om't it opmirk en dyn ear om't it harke. 

J. J. HOF. 

9. Matth. 7, 1-5. 

1. Oardeel net, det jimme net oardeeld wirde. 

2. Hwent mei it oardeel der't jimme mei oardele, scille jimme 
wer oardeeld wirde, en mei de selde miette der't jimme mei 
utmiette, scil jimme wer tametten wirde. 

3. Hwet dochs sjuchstou de splinter dy't yn dyn broers each sit, 
en merkste de balke net yn dyn eigen ? 

4. Ef ho kinste oan dyn broer sizze : Lit my de splinter lit dyn 
each helje, en hin, der is in balke yn dyn eigen ? 

5. Dou skynhillige, luk earst de balke lit dyn eigen each, en 
sjuch den hoste de splinter lit dyn broers each helje scilste. 

10. Matth. 22, 34-40. 

34. De Farisieuwen nou hearrende, det er de Saddusieuwen de 
mule snoerre hie, kamen by inoar : 

35. En ien fen hjarren, in wetgelearde, frege, him tantsjende en 
sizzende : 

36. Master, hwet is it greatste gebod yn 'e wet ? 

37. Jezus nou sei -tsjin him : Dou scilste God Ijeaf hawwe 
mei heel dyn hert, en mei heel dyn siele, en mei heel dyn 

38. Dat is it earste en it greate gebod. 

39. En it twadde, deroan gelyk, is : Dou scilste dyn evenminske 
Ijeaf hawwe as dy sels. 

40. Oan dy twa geboaden hinget de hele wet en de profeten. 

11. Matth. 25, 31-40. 

31. As de soan fen de minske kommen is yn syn hearlikheid 
en al de hillige ingels mei him, den scil er sitte op 'e troan fen 
syn hearlikheid. 

32. En alle naesjes fen 'e ierde scille foar him by inoar komme, 
en hy scil hjar fen inoar skiede lyk as de harder de skiep skiedt 
fen de bokken. 


ha-iar net ha- it, sn at 'i-adrik si sksta ta ho:t. do sit 9 
lin rex saijia omt at 'opmork en din rar omt 9t havk9. 

je: je: hof. 

9. *ma'te*9z so:n, fes i-an o-ant fi:v. 

1. 'o-ade:l net, dot jima net 'o*ade:ld uoda. 

2. uont mai 9t 'o-adeil dst jima ma! 'o-ade-la, silg jim9 
usr 'o-ade:ld uoda, sn mai d9 sslda miita dst jim9 mai 
'ytmiita, sil jima uer 'tamstgn uodg. 

3. uot dogz 'sioxstou d9 splinter dit in din bru-9z i*9x sit, 
sn msrkst9 da bolkg nst in din aig9n ? 

4. of hu ki'st9 o*9n din brirgr size : lit mi da splintar yt din 
i9 hs!J9 sn bin, d9r iz 9n bolkg in din aigan ? 

5. dou skin / hil9g9, luk rest de bolka yt din aig9n i'9g, s 
don hust9 da splmtgr yt din briraz i-ag hslje sista. 

10. *ma / te-az 22, 34-40. 

34. da fari'si'9u9n nou r hisr9nd9 dot ar da 'sadysreuan da 
mula snuora hi* a, bsi anuor : 

35. sn i-e fon haran, an x ustgalrada, fre:ga, him 'tontsjanda e 
'sizanda : 

36. mastar, uot iz at grosta ga'bod in a ust ? 

37. jeizaz noii sai tsjm him : dou sista god li-av hava 
mai he:l din hst, sn mai he:l di si-ala, sn mai he:l di 

38. dot iz at rasta en ot grota ga'bod. 

39. sn at twada, x dsro'an g8 / lik, iz : dou sista din 'eivanmiiska 
Irav haua oz di sslz. 

40. o-an di two ga'bo'adan hirjat da heila ust sn da pro'fe-tan. 

11. ^a'te-ez 25, 31-40. 

31. oz da so-an fon da mi-ska koman iz i sin 'hi'arlakhaid 
sn ol do hilag9 irjalz mai him, do sil ar sita op a tro-an f5 
sin 'hrarlakhaid. 

32. sn ola naisjaz fon a i-ada sila foar him bsi anuor koma, 
sn hsi sil har fon anuor ski-ada lik oz an hadar da ski-ap ski-at 
fon da bokan. 


33. En de skiep sell er skikke oan syn rjuchterhan, mar de 
bokken oan syn lofter. 

34. Den sell de kening dy't oan syn rjuchterhan steane sizze : 
Kom harren, seinen fen myn heit, ervje it keninkryk dat jimme 
fen 'e grounlizzing fen 'e wrald tatocht is. 

35. Hwent ik hie honger, en jimme hawwe my iten jown ; ik 
hie toarst, en jimme hawwe my drinke litten ; ik wier frjemd, en 
jimme hawwe my opnommen. 

36. Neaken wier 'k, en jimme hawwe my klaeid ; ik wier siik, 
en jimme hawwe op my tasjoen ; ik siet finzen, en jimme hawwe 
my forsocht. 

37. Den scille de rjuchtfirdigen him anderje, sizzende : Honear 
seagen wy jo hongerjen en joegen jo iten, ef toarstich en lieten jo 
drinke ? 

38. Honear dochs seagen wy jo as frjemdling, en namen jo op ? 
Ef neaken, en klaeijden jo ? 

39. Honear dochs seagen wy jo siik ef yn 'e finzenisse en 
hawwe jo forsocht ? 

40. En de kening scil anderje en tsjin hjar sizze : Sikersonk siz 
ik jimme, sa hwet jimme dien hawwe oan ien fen dizze myn lytste 
broerren, dat hawwe jimme my dien. 

12. Simmermoarn. 

Hwet bistou Ijeaflik 
Kizende Simmermoarn! 
J t Opgeande sintsje 
Laket my oan. 
't Hoantsje kraeit : kukelu ! 
't Douke ropt : rukuku ! 
Ik wol ek sjonge 
Fleurich fen toan. 

Alles hwet libbet 
Docht der nou sines by : 
Foltsjes en kealtsjes, 
Hynsders en kij ; 
Goeskes dy snetterje, 
Skiepkes dy bletterje, 
Lamkes dy springe 
Nuvere blij. 


33. en da ski-op sil ar skika (re si 'rioxtarhom, mar da 
bokan o-a si loftar. 

34. do sil da k0:nar) dit o-a si 'rioxtarhom strana size : 
kom haran, sainan fon min halt, srvja at 'k0:nai)krik dot jima 
fon 9 'grulizaij fon 8 uro:d 'tatoxt iz. 

35. uont ik hi*a horjar, e jima haua mi itan jun; ik 
hi-8 to-est, e jime haue mi drirjka liten ; ik ui-8 frismd, e 
jime haua mi 'opnomsn. 

36. nrsken ui-o k, e jima haua mi kla-id ; ik ui*8 si:k, 
e jima haua op mi x tasju-an ; ik si-at fiizan, e jima haua 
mi fa'soxt. 

37. do sila da rioxt'fodagan him ondarja, sizanda : hu'nrar 
si-agan ui joii hoqarjan s jugan jou itan, of to-astag e li-atan jou 

38. hu'm-ar dop si-agan ui jou os 'frismdlirj, sn naiman jou op ? 
ov nrakan, erj kla'idan jou ? 

39. hu'nrar dogz si'agan ui jou si:k ov in a 'fiizamsa sn 
haua joii fa'soxt ? 

40. sn da k0:nai) sil ondarja sn tsjin har siza : sikar r sor)k siz 
ik jima, sa uot jima di'an haua o*an i-an fon diza mi lista 
bruoran, dot haua jima msl di*an. 

12. 'simermo'an. 

'uot bistou 'li-avlak 
'riizanda 'simarmo-an ! 
t 'opxranda 'sintaja 
'laikat mi 'oan. 
t 'hodntsja kra-it : 'kukalu: ! 
t 'douka ropt : 'rukuku: ! 
'ik uol sk 'siorja 
'fl0-arag fon 'to- an. 

'olaz uot 'libat 
'doxt ar nou 'sinaz bsl : 
'foiltsjaz sr) 'kisltsjaz, 
'hindaz sg 'kei; 
'guoskaz di 'snstarja, 
'skiipkaz di 'blstarja, 
'lamkaz di 'spriija 
'nyivara 'blsi. 


't Ljurkje yn 'e wolken, 
? t Eintsje yn J t lizich wiet, 
't Moskje en 't swealtsje, 
Elk sjongt syn liet. 
Eabarren klapperje, 
Ljipkea wjukwapperje, 
Skries, op 'e hikke, 
Ropt : grito-griet ! 
'k Woe for gjin goune 
Det 'k yet to sliepen laei : 
't Is my sa noflik 
ler op 'e del. 
Protters dy tsjotterje, 
Eksters dy skotterje, 
Alles is fleurich 
Ik bin it mei. 


13. Skipperssankje. 

Forjit my net, as bolle wyntsjes waeije 

En ik oan 't roer myn sankje sjong ; 
As kroeze weagen 't gledde skip omaeije ; 

Forjit, forjit my net! 
Forjit my n'et, as millioenen stjerren 

En 't frjeonlik moantsje my biskynt, 
En dou swietdream hast yn 'e sefte fearren; 

Forjit, forjit my net! 
Forjit my net, as wylde touwerfleagen 

My slingerje der't God it wol ; 
As ik ompolskje mei de dea foar eagen ; 

Forjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as wreed de stoarmen bylje, 

En 't libben hinget oan in tried ; 
As wy forslein oan 't needtou ride en fylje ; 

Forjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as swarte tommelweagen 

Oertruzelje it warleas skip, 
En alle eleminten tsjin us teagen ; 
Forjit, forjit my net! 


t 'l!orkj(9) in 9 'uolkan, 
t 'amtsj9 in t 'Ii:z9g ui-9t, 
t 'moskje en t 'sweltsjo, 
'elk siorjt si 'li-9t. 
'iebar9n 'klap9rJ9, 
'llipkez ulok'uap9rj9, 
'skri-9z op 9 'hik9 
'ropt : gritou-'gri'9t ! 
k 'uu'9 foar giiij 'guma 
'do k jit t9 'sli*9p9n lal : 
t 'iz mi sa 
'i^r op 9 x dai. 
'prot9z di 
'skstoz di x skot9rJ9 

'Ol9Z IS / fl0'9r9g 

'ig bin 9t 'mat. 

ue: Mikstra. 


for' jit mi 'net, oz 'bolg x uintsJ9z X ua*i9 

sn 'ik o*9n t 'ru'9r mi 'sarjkja 'sior/ ; 
os ' / ui'9g9n t 'gleido 'skip om'a'19 ; 

fgr'jit, f9r'jit mi 'nst ! 
fer'jit mi 'net, oz mili'u^ngn 'stisrgn 

sn t 'fro-etek 'moantsJ9 'mei bg'skint, 
en 'doii swi'8(t)'dri'em hast in 9 'ssifte 'fisr9n; 

fer'jit, fgr'jit mi r nst ! 
for'jit mi 'net, oz 'uild9 'tougr'fli-gggn 

met 'sliggrjg det 'god 9t 'uol ; 
oz ik 'ompolskjo mal d9 'di*9 foar 'i-9g9n; 

f9r'jit, f9r'jit mi net ! 
f9r'jit mi 'net, oz 'ureid d9 'stoarm9ii ^iljg, 

en t 'Iib9n 'hir)9t o-9n 9n 'tri'9d ; 
oz uel fo'slain o-9n t 'ne:(d)tou 'ri:d(9) e 'filJ9 ; 

fgr'jit, f9r'jit mi 'net ! 
for'jit mi 'net, os 'swat9 'tom9l'ui-9g9n 

u'9r'try:z9lJ9 9t 'uarli-es 'skip, 
en 'ola e'le'mmtgn 'tsjm ys 'ti-9g9n; 
f9r'jit, fgr'jit mi 'net! 


Forjit my net, as we einlings yet forsinke, 

En teare yn 'e djippe se : 
Wol den mei triennen oan my tinke ; 
Forjit, forjit my net ! 


14. Winternocht. 

Oer hus, oer klus, oer finne 

Leit leeljeblank en wyt 

Wer winters snietapyt, 
Hweroer Gods goudne sinne 

Mei bliere strielen glydt ; 
Mei speeglich iis bifloerre 

Is mar en poel en wiel ; 
Oan tuken, toer en skurre 

Blinkt eptich iisjuwiel. 
Hwer't oars de weagen geane, 

Swiet wiggelje op en del, 

By riten rou en fel 
Nei 't swirk opstouwe en fleane, 

Der rinkelt slide en bel. 
Der riidt nou kreaze Sytske, 

In faem as molke en bloed, 
Op 't- holts je in tillich kypske, 

Sa swierich mei hjar Sjoerd. 
Hwa tinkt om tersk, om tsjerne? 

It iis dat is sa moai ! 

Hwa sit nou klomsk en loai 
To stinnen yn hirdsherne? 

Elkien giet oan 'e goai. 
't Is nocht yn greidhoek, walden, 

Yn boukant, wetterlan, 
Gjinien is thus to hfdden, 

De skeaf boarst lit 'e ban. 

Aldgroun ! wez jamk biferzen, 
Swaei, ruge Jukelbird, 
Al d' ieuwen roun jou swird, 

Tsjoen blommen op us glezen, 
Tsjoen blommen oan us hird ; 


mi 'net, oz u(e) 'ailirjz jit fe'sirjka 
en 'tr9r9 in 9 'djip9 'se: : 
uol 'don mai 'triman o-en mi 'tirjke ; 

fgr'jit, fgr'jit mi 'net! 

e: 'holbetsma. 


u*ar 'hu:z, u'ar 'kluiz 1 , u-ar 

lait 'Ie:lj9'blarjk e 'uit 

uer 'umtas 'sni-ata'pit, 
uer'u*ar godz 'goudna 'sin9 

mai 'blrara 'strralan 'glit; 
mai 'speiglag 'i:z b9'fluora 

iz 'mar em 'pirel e 'ui'ol ; 
o*9n 'tukgn, 'tu9r e 'skuora 

blinkt 'ept9g 'i:zJ9ui*9l. 
uet 'o9z d9 'ui*9g9n 'gi'9n9, 

swi-9t 'uig9lj(9) 'op en 'del, 

bei 'ritan 'rou e 'fel 
nai t 'swork op'stou(a) e 

der 'rirjkalt 'slid(a) em 'bel. 
der 'ri:t nou 'kri'9Z9 *'sitsk9, 

a 'fa:m oz 'molk(9) em 'blu-9d, 
op t 'holtsj(9) 9n 'tilax 'kipska, 

sa 'swi*ara mai har *'sju-9d. 
ua: 'tiijkt om 'tesk, om 'tsjen9? 

9t 'i:z dot is sa 'mo*i! 

i?a: sit nou 'klomsk e 'lo'i 
t9 'stin9n in hodz'hen9 ? 

'elkran giit o-an 9 'go*i. 
t iz 'noxt ir) 'graidhuk, 'uoidon, 

im 'boukont, 'uetgrlom, 
n is 'tys ta 'hoidan, 

d9 'ski'9v bast yt 9 'bom. 
o:d'grun! ue:z 'jdmk ba'fe:z9n, 

swa-i, 'rug9 'jukalbod, 

'ol d i'uan 'run jou 'swod, 
tsju*an 'bloman op yz 'glerzan, 

tsju-an 'bloman o-an ys 'hod ; 


Hear Fryske boikes praten 

Oer frouljue, waer en wyn, 
En tapje frjeon en maten 

Jou 'boerekofje' yn ! 


15. De Bernewr&ld. 
De bernewraid, sa tear, sa fyn, 
Der leit de hele takomst yn. 
De lytse berntsjes, gol en blier, 
It binne bledtsjes wyfc pompier ; 
Der skriuwt men op, al hwet men wol, 
It hele wite bledtsje fol ; 
En ho't men letter triuwt en wriuwt, 
It wol net ut : it measte bliuwt. 
Us jonges, manljue yn 'e dop, 
Us famkes, frouljue yn 'e knop, 
Wirdt gau hjar lytse wrald to nau, 
Den slagge hja de wynsels ou! 
Den draegt it soantsje heite pak, 
Sit memme pop op memme plak, 
En wirde wy al stram en aid 
Sa halde wy in nije wrald. 
0, Ijeave berntsjes fen us Lan ! 
Hald jimme us aide eare yn stan. 
Biskamje nea us hope net : 
Bliuw Frysk fen holle en Frysk fen hert! 


16. Swellesang. 
Wjuk, wjuk, troch de loft, 
Meitsje neat gjin geroft, 
Doch in swaei en in swier 
As in flitse sa flink, 
Fljuch nou ritsdy en swink, 
Nim sa red wer in gier, 
Snap in michje yn 'e flecht, 
Den in swier en in swaei, 
Mei in gier en in draei 
Op 'e goate wer del 
En sjong der den de sang fen de swel : 


hisr 'fris(k)e 'boaikes 'pra:ten 

u-er 'froilje, 'uair s 'uin, 
sn 'tapje 'fro- en sm 'ma:ten 

jou bu'ere'kofje in ! 

si se: more: baker. 

15. da 'bnauro:d. 


de 'bsne'uro:d, sa 'trer, sa 'fin, 

ds(r) lait (d)e 'he:le 'takomst in. 

de 'litsa 'bsntsjez, 'gol sn 'blrer, 

et 'bine blstsjez 'uit pom'prer ; 

ds(r) 'skrmwt men op, 'ol uot ma 'uol, 

et 'he:le 'uite 'blstsje 'fol; 

sn 'hut ms 'Ister 'triuwt s 'uriuwt, 

et uol 'nst yt : et 'mi-este 'bliuwt. 

yz 'jonez, 'mo:lje in e 'dop, 

ys 'famkez, 'fro:lje in e 'knop, 

uot 'xou har 'litse 'uroit te 'nou, 

do 'slage hia de 'ui:selz 'ou! 

don 'dra:xt et 'soantsje 'haite 'pak, 

sit 'msme 'pop op 'msme 'plak, 

en 'uode 'us! ol 'stram sn 'o:d 

'sa ho:de usi en 'nsie 'uro:d. 

ou, 'li-eue 'bsntsjes fon yz 'lorn! 

ho:d 'jim(e) yz 'oide 'i-er(e) i 'stom. 

be'skamje 'nre ys 'ho:pe 'nst : 

bliuw 'fris(k) fon 'hol(e) s 'fris(k) fon 'hst ! 

ue: fa:ber. 

16. 'swelasarj. 
uiok, 'uiok, tro de 'loft, 
maitsje 'ni-et ginj ge'roft, 
dog s 'swa-i sn s 'swi'er 
oz a 'flitse sa 'fliijk, 
fliog nou 'ritsti s 'swirjk, 
mm sa 'rs:d usr ei) 'gi-er, 
snap en 'mixj(e) in e 'flsxt, 
don a 'swi-er sn a s'wa-i, 
mai erj 'gi-er sn en 'dra-i 
op e 'go*ete usr 'dsl 
s slorj 'dsr don de 'sag fon e 'swsl : 


'Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is J t allegearre tiere Here Here Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch.' 1 

As it gaeike us tsjilpet : It nestke moat klear, 
Den tsjugge w' er flitich mienskiplik oer gear, 
Wy wietsje en wy knetsje hwet Hem en hwet klaei, 
En foegje J t en loegje 't mei 'n strieke ef in raei, 
En strike 't en plakke 't, nei foechsum bistek, 
Goe sljuchte torjuchte mei poatsjes en bek. 
As 't mitseljen dien is, biklaeije w' op 't lest 
Mei moas en mei plomkes de boaijem fen 't nest. 
Sa sitt' wy by nachttiid, by onwaer ef wyn, 
Den koeskes en smoutsjes mei 't wyfke deryn, 
En hawwe, as us seis-, sauntal berntsjes yet komt, 
Wy for utfenhuzers noch gasten gjin romt'. 
Jin 'e tsjerke oan der wenje wy bst nei us sin, 
Det ek in goe wird us birikke yet kin. 
Boppe al, stiet in freedlik from man it us ta, 
Wolle w' under syn hiistek us wente graech ha. 
Doch oars, as it hjirsa noch dersa net wol, 
Jaen w' ek under tillen en breggen us dol. 
Hast', burman, "in klutsje? jow dat mar oan my, 
Ik ha hjir hwet ruchte, dat 's gading for dy : 
As ien sa hwet oer hat, in oar hwet to koart, 
Wy helpe mankoaren burskiplik mei foart ; 
Sa reitsje wy handich mei 't nestke op stel, 
En sjonge ris froalik de sang fen de swel : 

* Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere Here Here Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch.' 

Komt in mosk op us ta, 
Om it nest, dat wy ha, 
Us skelmsk as in kaper t' ontsetten, 

1 Sa, seit it sizke, sjonge de swellen. 


f9'lin9 'ji*9r, 
dut 'ik hiir 'ui-9(r), 
ui-9 'dit fsk 'fol, 
sn 'dot fsk 'fol, 
sn 'nou is t 'otegisrg ti-grg Irera Irgre Irera 'leig. 1 

oz at 'ga-ikg ys 'tsjilp9t: 9t 'nssk9 mat 'klrer, 

don 'tsjog9 u er 'flit9 mi'e'skiptok 11*9 'gi T 9r, 

ui 'uiitsj(9) s ui 'knstsje uot 'li/em e uot 'kla'i, 

e 'fu:gja t e r lu:gJ9 t mai a r stri'9k(8) ov e 'ra-i, 

s X strik9 t sm pldk9 t ; nai / fu:xs9m bg'stsk, 

gu-9 / slioxt9 t9 / rioxt9 mai 'po-9tsJ9z sm 'bsk. 

os t / mits9lJ9n r di^9n iz, bg'kla'ig u op t 'Isist 

mai x mo'9z sm mai X plomk9z d9 / boa*i9m fon t 'nsist. 

sa x sit ui bsi 'naxfQtiid, bsi r oua:r ov / uin, 

dor) <kusk9z s / smoutsJ9z mai t X uifk9 dsr x in, 

sn ^017(9), oz ys 'sais-, ^omtol x bsntsJ9z jit 'komt, 

usi foar ytf9n x hu:z9z nog gost9n 'gii 'romt. 

jin 9 7 tsjsrk(9) o*9n dsr 'USJ19 usi r b:st nai ys 'sin, 

dot x sk 9i) gu-9 r uod yz b9'nk9 jit 'km. 

bop(9) x ol, stilt 9 X fre:dl9k from x mon 9t ys 'ta, 

uo u 'und9r sin 'hystsk yz 7 usnt9 graig x ha. 

dog x o'9z, oz 9t 'hiisa nog 'dssa nst 'uol, 

ja: u x sk undgr 'tilgn sm r brs:g9n yz 'dol. 

hast, 'buormon, 9rj 'klytsja? jou 'dot mar o*9m 'mei, 

'ik hd hiir uot 'ruxt9, do z 'ga:d9rj foa 'dsi : 

oz 'i*9 sa uot 'u'9r hat, 9n 'o*9r uot t9 'koat, 

usi 'hslp9 morj'ko'9r9n bu'9'skiplek mai 'foat ; 

sa 'raitsJ9 ui 'hond9g mai t 'nssk9 op 'stsl, 

s 'siorj9 r9s 'fro-9l9k d9 'sarj fon 9 'swsl : 

f9'lin9 'ji*9r, 
dut 'ik hiir 'ui'9(r), 
ui-9 'dit fsk 'fol, 
sn 'dot fsk 'fol, 
sn 'nou is t 'ol9gisr9 ti'9r9 H'9r9 H'9r9 li'9rg 'le:. 

komt 9n 'mosk op ys 'ta, 
om 9t 'nsist, dot ui 'ha, 
ys 'skslmsk oz 9rj 'ka:p9r t ont'sstgn, 

1 sa, sait at siske, sioga da swslen. 


Elk fen us docht mei, 
Wy fit'rje him wei, 
En witte 't him wol to biletten. 

As in wikel ef earn 
Ef in hauk it bistean', 
Op it oare frij fugelt to loeren, 
Den kitelt us bloed, 
Wy flink en fol moed, 
Us krije se net yn hjar kloeren. 

Ha w' in seinrop earst jown 
Oan de fugels yn 't roun, 
En glupe de hinnen biside, 
Den wy der op yn 
Sa red as de wyn, 
Wy doare de skobbert bistride. 

Jow him hommels in pjuk, 
En den gau wer wjuk-wjuk, 
Dy ropsek kin lang lis net krije; 
En ha wy oerwoun, 
Strykt er 6f foar us boun, 
Den kin it in sankje wer lije : 

1 Forline jier, 
Do'tik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere Here liere Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch. 

Hat it wyfke us nestje fol aikes lein, 

Den briede wy trou om bar, 
En habbe wy pykjes, o den wirdt der flein, 

Den stelle w' us wakker to war; 
Den giet der by beide nin tiid forlern, 
Hwent hongrige bouterkes binne de bern. 

Sa wekket de swel for goed en bloed, 

En wykt for syn plichten net wei, 
En teant er jamk, hwet flinkens en moed, 
As me 't mei inoar haldt, formei. 
Doch sonder geroft 
Pilet hy troch de loft, 



'elk fon yz doxt 'mai, 
uei fitrJ9 him 'uai, 
e 'uit9 t him 'uol t-9 

oz 'uikal ov 'ran 
ov on 'hoiik et bo'strgn, 
op at 'O'9r9 frei 'fug9lt to 'hroren, 
dorj 'kitalt yz 'blirod, 
usi 'flirjk s fol 'mu4d, 
ys 'krsie za 'n'st in hdr 'klireren. 

ha u a 'sairop i'9St x jun 
o9n do r fug9lz in t 'run, 
si) X glup9 d9 X hm9n b9 / sid9, 
do 'us! d9r op x in 
so 'rs-.d oz d9 'uin, 
^usi do9r9 d9 'skobgt b9 / strid9. 

jou 9m 'homolz 9m 'piSk, 
en dorj 'gou usr uiok-'uiok, 
di 'ropsek ki 'larj yz net 'krei9; 
sn x ha ui u9r x uun, 
strikt 9r x o*9 foor yz x bun, 
'dor) km 9t e 'sarjkjg usr X li9 : 

dut x ik hiir 'ui'gfr), 
ui-9 'dit fsk 'fol, 
sn 'dot fsk 'fol, 
en 'noii is t 'olggiera ti*9r9 li-org Ii-9r9 li-9ra ' 

hat 9t 'uifk9 yz 'nssjg fol 'aik9z 'lain, 
don 'bri9d9 ui 'trou om 'bar, 

en 'habg ui 'pikjgz, oil 'do uot 9r 'flain, 
do 'stel9 u yz 'uak9r t9 uar; 

dorj 'giit 9r be! 'baid9 nin 'ti:d fg'len, 

uont 'horjr9g9 'boiitgrkgz 'bm9 d9 'ben. 

so 'uekot (d)9 'swel foar 'gu-9d em 'blu'9d, 

e 'uikt foa sim 'plixt9n net 'uai, 
en 'ti*9nt 9r 'jamk, uot 'flirjkez em 'mu-9d, 
oz ni9 t 'mai 9niior 'ho:t, f9'mai. 
dox 'sondor gg'roft 
'pil9t hei tro d9 'loft, 


En saeit mei in swier 
As in blits hinne en wer, 

Snapt hjir en der 
In michje yn sa'n gier ; 

Den docht er in swaei 
Mei in linige draei 

Op 'e goate wer del, 
En kweelt by syn gaei 
D' ienfaldige sang fen de swel : 

'Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 

En nou is 't allegearre tiere Here liere Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch.' 


17. Maerteblommen. 

Dit is in hanfol Maerteblommen, 
De foarjiersberntsjes fen myn hert, 
Dy't earst in lange, lange set 
Yn 't kalde winterwaer forklommen ; 
Mar dy't op d' earste foarjiersdei, 
Do't mylde bolle wyntsjes ruzden, 
Troch 't hirde wynsel hinne bruzden 
En kipen ut hjar herntsjes wei. 

De Maerteblom is fyn en tear, 
En doar him hast net buten weagje ; 
As der de kalde stoarmen reagje, 
Den fait er of en is net mear. 
Mar as der mylde siichjes waeije, 
Dy't him it pruze kopke aeije, 
Den driuwt er widzjend op 'e wyn 
En Hedt de simmer laitsjend yn. 

De Maerteblom is wyt en kein, 
De deakleur leit him op 'e wangen ; 
Hy stjert foar d' earste fugelsangen, 
Hy bloeit mar koart yn snie en rein. 


s 'sa-lt mai a 'swi-0r 
oz 0m 'blits hm(0) e 'usr, 

snapt 'hiir sn 'dsr 
0m 'mixj(0) i sag 'gi"0r ; 

don 'doxt or a 'swa-i 
mai a 'linage 'dra-i 

op 8 'go-eta usr 'del, 
sr) 'kwe:lt bsi sir) r ga'i 
d i-a'foidege x sar) fon 'swel: 

fe'lina 'ji'er, 
dut 'ik hiir 'ui'0(r), 
ui-9 'dit fsk 'fol, 
sn 'dot fsk 'fol, 
sn r nou is t / o!0gisr0 ti*0re Ii-0r0 Ii-0r0 Ii-0r0 'le:. 

ha: ss 'sitstra. 

17. 'maitabloman. 

'dit iz 0n 'hoifol / ma:t0 / blom0n, 
d0 'foarji^z'bsntsjoz fom min 'hst, 
dit 'i-est a 'lane, 'lane 'set 
in t 'koida 'umter'uair f0 / klom0n ; 
mar dit op d 'reste 'fdaijrdzdat, 
dut 'mild0 'bo!0 X uintsj0z 'rmzden, 
trox t 'hod0 'uTrsel / hin0 'bruizdon 
sn X kip0n yt bar 'hsntsj0z uai. 

d0 'ma:t0blom is x fin sn 'ti-er, 
sn 'do*0r 0m 'hast nst 'buten 'uregje; 
oz 'dsr d0 'koide 'stoarm0n 'n-egje, 
do 'folt 0r '0-0 sn 'iz nst 'mi-er. 
mar oz d0r 'mild0 'si:xJ0z 'ua-10, 
dit him 0t 'pru:z0 'kopk0 'a f ie, 
don driuwt 0r 'uidzjend op 'uin 
sn 'Ir0t (d)0 'simer 'Iaitsj0nd 'in. 

d0 'ma:t0blom iz 'uit sr) 'kain, 
d0 'disk!0'0r 'lait 0m op 'uarj0n; 
hsi stist foa d 'i ( este 'fugelsdrjen, 
hsi 'bluit mar 'koat i 'sni'0 s 'ram. 


Dochs lit er blier syn klokjes klinke 
En sjongt syn simmer-profecy, 
En makket mannich herte blij, 
Al kin er 't sels net witte ef tinke. 
Wol, Maerteblommen fen myn hert, 
Den ek for oare herten bloeije, 
Lit der wer foarjiersglanzen gloeije, 
Lit wike d'alde wintersmert. 
Wol der wer nije hope bringe 
En den forwylje en stjer den wei ; 
De Pinksterblommen scill' tonei 
Blier laitsjend lit 'e knoppen springe. 


18. It Heitelan. 

Der't de dyk it Ian omklammet, 
Lyk in memme-earm hjar bern, 
Der't de wylde se jamk flammet 
Op in hap lit Friso's hern', 
Der't de Stiennen-man syn eagen 
Stoarje lit oer fjild en stran, 
Der't men eanget fen gjin weagen, 
Der is 't Ijeave Heitelan ! 
Der 't Reaklif sa swietkes lonket 
Yn de jountiids-sinneskyn, 
Der't it bokweitblomke pronket 
Twisken heide en beamgud yn, 
Der't de Aldehou syn brommen 
Uren fier sims dreunt yn 't roun, 
Der't it tilt fen fe en blommen, 
Der is 't oeral Fryske groun! 
Der't hjar froed de geaen spriede 
Twisken Lauwers, Linde en Flie, 
Kestich drogjend, oft 't op ierde 
Rounom noft en frede wie' ; 
Der't de groun de soargen leannet 
Fen der minsken warbre han, 
Der't men frij en feilich wennet, 
Der is 't ynljeai Heitelan ! 


'dogz lit 9r 'bli-9r sirj 'klokjos 

s 'siorjt si 'simgr-profe'ssi, 

sn 'makgt 'man9g 'hst9 'blsi, 

ol 'km 9r t 'sslz nst 'uit(g) of 'tirjko. 

uol, 'ma:t9'blom9n fom min 'hst, 

don 'sk foar 'o-9r9 'hstgn 'bluie, 

lit '(d)sr usr 'foarji'9zglo:z9n 

lit 'uik9 d 'o:d9 'uintgrsmst. 

uol 'dsr usr 'nsi9 'ho:p9 

sn 'don f9'ui!J9 s 'stisr do 'uai; 

d9 'pirjkst9rblom9n sil t9'nai 

bli-9r 'lartsjgnd yt 9 'knopgn 'spring. 

pe: je: 'tru'elstra. 

18. at 'haltalom. 

dst (d)9 'dik 9t 'lorn om'klamet, 
'lik 9n 'msm9-'isrm bar 'bsn, 
dst (d)9 'uild9 'se: jamk 'flamgt 
op 9n 'hap yt 'frizo:z 'hsn, 
dst (d)9 stiin9n-'mon sin 'i*9g9n 
'stoarJ9 lit u-9r 'fiild s 'stroin, 
dst mon 'i9rj9t forj gii 'ui-9g9n, 
r dsr is t 'li-9V9 'haitglom. 
dsr t ri'9'klif sa 'swi-9tk9z 'lorjkgt 
in d9 'juntiidz 'singskin, 
dst 9t 'bokuit'blomk9 'prorjkgt 
twiskgn 'haid(9) sn bismguod in, 
dst (d)9 'oidghou sin 'bromgn 
'u*9r9n 'fi-9r S9mz 'dr0:nt in t 'run, 
dst 9t 'tilt fo 'fe: sn 'blom9n, 
dsr is t 'u-9rol 'fris(k)9 'grun. 
dst bar 'fru*9d d9 'gi'9-9n 'spri*9d9 
twisk9n Io*u9z, 'lmd(9) s fli-9, 
'rs:stg 'droigjond, of(t) t op 'i9d9 
'runom 'noft s 'fre:d9 'ui'9, 
dst (d)9 'grun d9 'soarggn 'lisnet 
fon d9r miiskgn 'uarbrg 'ho:n, 
dst me 'frsi s 'fail9 'usngt, 
'der is t 'ili'9v 'hait9lo:n ! 


Lit us tinke oan aide tiden : 
leu wen fol fen lest en noed, 
Kriich tsjin frjemdfolk, fjuchtsjen, striden, 
Wrakseljen mei wetterfloed. 
Der't Dy 't aide folk biwarre, 
Dreech tsjin stoarm en twingerij, 
Der sciir wy, as Friezen, swarre: 
1 Aldfaers erf, wy weitsje oer Dy ! ' 


19. Simmerjounsbyld. 

Nij hea rukt oer it wide gledde wetter, 
Abeeljebeammen ruze oan jinse kant 
Op 't boerehiem, hwer't d'eintsjes slugje, hwent 
Hja binne wirch fen 't duken en gesnetter. 

It westerrea forblikt; it wirdt al letter 

En 'i blau tapyt mei gouden stjerren spant 

Oer alles hinne : fugel, fe en plant 

't Sliept alles; eltse klank en sang forstjert der. 

In greate tsjalk komt swart fen seil oandriuwen, 

In twjirke dounset oan en brekt it byld 

Fen boerepleats en beamte yn 't glanzich wiet. 

It byld trill't lang, om einlings dochs to bliuwen, 
De weachjes glide oan d' ich en fol en myld 
Sjongt op de tsjalk de frou in widzeliet. 


20. Tsjuster. 

Swart, aeklik swart is noii de nacht : gjin bran 

Fen sinnefjur, noch 't sefte moantsje jiet 

In wite striel oer 't stille gea ; men wit 

Fen bou noch greide of mar, fen se noch stran. 

It bern is bang by tsjuster, 't knypt de han 
Fen heit, dy mei him 't stille fjild trochgiet ; 
It skrilPt for J t beamke dat der ienlik stiet 
By 't wetter, oan 'e kant fen 't flakke Ian. 


lit ys 'tir)k(9) o-gn 'o:dg 'ti:dgn : 

'i-gugn 'fol fo 'leist en 'nu-gd, 

'kriig tsjm 'friemdfolk, 'fioxtsjen, 'stri:dgn, 

'vrdksgljgn mat 'uetgrflu-gd. 

dst (d)si t 'o:dg 'folk bg'uarg, 

'dre:g tsji 'stoarai en twirp'rei, 

dsr si 'uei, os 'frrgzgn, 'swarg : 

'o:dfa:z 'erf, vil 'uaitsjg u-g 'dsi ! 

je: el fon dor bOrg. 

19. 'simerjiuz'bild. 

net 'hi'9 rukt u-9r 9t 'uiidg 'gleidg 7 uet9r, 
a'beiljgbiemon 'ru:z(9) 0*9 'jiisa r kont 
op t bu-9r9'hr9m, ret d(9) x amtsJ9s 'slugjg, 'uont 
hla 'bmg 'uorx fon t X duk9n erj 

9t 'uest^rjn'e f9 r bhkt ; gt uot ol 

en t 'blou t9'pit ma! 'goiidgn 'stiergn 'spont 

u'8r 'ol9z r hin9 : 'fuggl, x fe: em 'plont 

t 'sliipt 'oloz; 'eltsg 'klarjk e 'sag fe'stlet 9r. 

erj 'grota 'tsjolk komt 'swat fo 'sail 'o'gndriuwen, 

9n 'twirkg 'duisgt 'o^9n em 'brekt gt 'bild 

fon bu-gra'plrgts en 'biemtjg) in t 'glo:z9 'ui*9t. 

et 'bild tnlt 'Ian, om 'allir)z dogz tg 'blmwgn, 
dg 'ui-gxjgz 'gliidg o*gn 9 'ix en 'fol en 'mild 
siont op dg 'tsjolk dg 'froii gn 'uidzgli'gt. 

je: be: ske:pgz. 

20. tsjostar. 

swat, 'aiklgk 'swat iz noii dg 'naxt ; giim 'brom 

fo 'singfju^gr, nox t 'se:ftg 'moantsjg 'jit 

gn 'uitg 'stri-gl irg t 'stilg 'grg; me 'uit 

fon 'boii nox 'graid(g) ov 'mar, fo 'se: nox 'strom. 

gt 'bem iz 'bag bet 'tsjostgr, t 'knipt (d)g 'ho:n 
fon 'hait, di 'mai him t 'stilg 'f iild tro(x) 
gt 'sknlt foa t 'biemkg dot (d)er Telgk 'stilt 
be! t 'uetgr, ogn 9 'kont fon t 'flakg 'lo:n. 


Sa is 't yn 't sombre, kalde deafet nacht, 

Hweryn de dragers ienkear sakje litte, 

Dy't skriljend wike moast foar Dea syn kracht. 

Den sell, hwaens siele skaette, net mear witte 
Pen nacht en tsjuster, moanne of sinnepracht, 
En fljucht de geest it iiw'ge Ijocht tomiette. 

P. SlPMA. 



'so is t in t 'sombre, 'koide 'diefst 

usr'in da 'drd:gaz 'reqkrer 'sdkje 'lite 

dit 'skriljend 'uike 'moast foa 'dre sir) x kra\t. 

M5 sil, ua:z 'si-ele 'skaite, 'net mi-er 

fon x naxt sn 'tsjoster, 'moane ov 'sinepraxt 

e flioxt (d)e 'geist ot 'iivga 'lioxt 

pe: 'sipma. 


The order is strictly alphabetical (a = a ; 6, = e ; 6 = 0; li, ii = 

Phonetic transcription in [ ]. 
Abbreviations : 

fn. = female name. 

gn. = geographical name. 

iv. = irregular verb ( 249, 

mn.= male name. 

pn. = proper name. 

s. = substantive. 

sn. = neuter substantive. 

sv. = strong verb ( 247). 

swv. = strong weak verb (248). 

abeeljebeam fa'bedjebi'em] s. 

abele-tree, white poplar. 
acht [axt] num. eight. - 
] s. 


The others need no explanation. 

Masculine and feminine are not indicated (see 188, 189). 

The ordinary numerals after a word refer to the paragraphs in the 

The Roman numbers after sv. indicate the classes of the strong 
verbs in the Grammar ( 247). 

aerdich [aidegl adj. nice, pretty. 

affaers ['osfoizfa. 195. ancestors. 

afysje [a'fisjej sn - 138 - place, 
post, berth. 

after [after] adv. prep. 113. be- 
hind, after. 

aikje [aikje] wv. to stroke. 

al [ol] adv. already. 

al, alle [ol, ole] num. all. 

aid [oid] adj. old. 

Aldehou [/oidehou] pn. a tower 
at Ljouwert (Leeuwarden). 

alder [order] s. parent. 

aldfaem [oid'faim] s. old maid. 

aldfaers I 'oidfaiz] s. ancestors. 

Ale [aile] mn. 

alf, alve [olv, olve] num. eleven. 

alfte [olfte] num. eleventh. 

alheel [ol x he:l] adv. wholly, quite. 

alhowol [olhu'uol] conj. although. 

allegearre [ole'gisre] num. alto- 

allerhande [^olerhonde] adj. 

adj. care- 
prep. 113. 

acht [oxt 

achter [dxter] adv. 

behind, after. 
achting [axterj] s. esteem, regard, 


achtjin [axtjen] num. eighteen. 
achtsje [Qxtsje] wv. to esteem ; 

to think. 
achtslaen ['axtslam] sv. VI, a. 

to pay attention. 
achtste [axste] num. eighth. 
aed [aid] sn. milk-basin. 
aei [a-i] sn. egg. 
aeije [a*ie] wv. to stroke. 
aeklik [aiklek] adj. dismal, 

aerd [aid] sn. nature, kind. 



allerlei ['olerlai] adj. sundry. 

alles [olez] ind. pr. all, every- 

allyk [o'lik] adj. alike. 

allinne, allinnich [o'line, 
o'lmeg] adv. alone, lonely, by 

aloan [ol'o'en] adv. continually. 

altyd ['oltid] adv. always. 

alweroan [ol'usro'en] adv. again. 

amer [aimer] s. pail. 

amerij [a*me'rei] sn. moment. 

amperoan ['ampero'en] adv. 

anderje ['onderje] wo. to answer. 

anker [anker] sn. anchor. 

Ankje [arjkje] fn. 

Anne [o*ne] mn. 

antlit ['ontlit] sn. face. 

antwird ['ontuo'd] sn. answer. 

antwirdzje ['ontuo'dzje] wv. to 

appel [apel] s. apple. 

arbeid ['arbaid] s. labour, work. 

arbeider ['arbaider] s. labourer, 

arbeidster ['arbaister] s. char- 

arbeidsum [ar'baitsem] adj. 

arbeidzje ['arbaidzje] wv. to 

as [oz] conj. as, when. 

au ! [au] int. oh ! 

aveseare [ave'srere] wv. to ad- 
vance, to hurry up. 

baen [bam] s. way, road. 

baes [ba:s] s. master, boss. 

bak [bak] s. bowl, basin. 

bakker [baker] s. baker. 

bakkerinne [bake'rme] s. 
baker's wife. 

bakkerij [bake'rsi] s. bake- 

bakmoal ['bakmo*el] sn. baking- 

baksel [baksel] sn. batch. 
bal [bol] s. ball, 
balke [bolke] s. beam, joist. 
ban [bO:n] s. band, tie. 
bang [ban] adj. afraid; timid; 


bank [bank] s. bench, 
bankje [bankje] wv. to hold out. 
bar [bar] s. turn, 
barm [barm] s. 152. berm. 
barne [bane, ba'ne] wv. to burn, 

to be on fire. 
barre [bare, ba -re] wv. to happen ; 

to receive. 
beage [brege] s. 160. name (of 

a draught-horse). 
beaken [broken] sn. IGO.beacon. 
bealich [breleg, bo-eleg] s. 165. 

bealigje [brelegje, bo-elegje] 

wv. 165. to toil. 
beam [brem] s. tree, 
beamgud pbiemguod] sn. trees. 
beamte [bismte] sn. trees, clump 

of trees. 
beamtiike ['bismtuke] s. bough, 


beane [brene] s. 192. bean. 
bear [bi-er] s. bear ; boar ; dam. 
b6d [beid] sn. bed. 
bddsplanke [bsts'planke] s. 


beest [beist] sn. 192. beast; cow. 
beet hawwe [be:t have] iv. 250. 

to get hold. 

beide [baide] num. both, 
beitel [baitel] s. 162. chisel, 
bek [bek] s. bill, beak, mouth. 
bel [bsl] s. bell. 
beppe [bspe] s. grandmother, 
berch [berg] s. mount, mountain, 
bergje [bsrgje] wv. to pack up. 
Berltsum [bslsem] gn. village 

in Friesland. 
berm [berm, bsirm] s. 142n. 




bern [ben, bsm] sn. child. 
bernachtich ['bsnaxteg] adj. 


berne [bsne] past. part. born. 
bernewrald ['beneuroid] s. the 


bernsbern ['beizben] m. grand- 

bernsk [be:sk] adj. doting. 
bernskens ['beiskez] s. second 

childhood, dotage, 
best [beist] adj. best. 
betel [beitell s. 162. chisel, 
better [bsterj adj. better. 
betterskip ['beterskip] s. ame- 

beu [b0:] adj. tired, disgusted. 
beuke [b0:ke] wv. to beat. 
by [bei] adv. prep, at, near, 


bibel [bi:bel, bibel] s. bible. 
bidaerd [be'daid] adj. calm, 


bidde [bide] sv. II, b. to pray, 
bidimme [be'dime] wv. to calm, 

to smooth down, 
bidjerre [be'disre] sv. Ill, c. to 

corrupt, to deprave. 
bidriuw [be'driuw] sn. action, 

deed ; trade ; act. 
bidroefd [be'druivd, be'druigd] 

adj. 113. sad, pitiful. 
biede [brede] sv. II, a. to offer, 

to bid. 

bien [bran] sn. bone. 
bier [brer] sn. beer. 
biezem [brezem] s. broom, 

bifinge [be'frrje] sv. Ill, d. to be 

taken with cold, 
bifloerje [be'fluorje] wv. to floor, 

to pave, 
bifrieze [be'frreze] sv. II, a. to 


bigeije [be'qaie] wv. to cry. 
bigge [bige] s. pig. 
bigjinne [be'gime] sv. Ill, a. to 


bigripe [be'gripe] sv. I, b (p.p. 

bigrepen) to understand, to 

bihalven [be'holven] prep, ex- 

cept, besides. 
bikeare [be'krere] wv. to con- 

vert, to reclaim. 
bikearling [be'krerhrj] s. con- 

bikend [be'kmd] adj. known, 

bikenne [be'kine] iv. 249. to 


. to clothe. 
bikliuwe [be'kliuwe] sv. I, c. to 

ascend, to climb. 
bik6gje [be'koigje] wv. 246. to 

chew. De earen wirde him 

bikdge : he learns by hard 

bij [bsi] s. bee. 

bijekoer pbsfeku-or] s. bee-hive. 
bijestal ['bsiosto:!] s. bee-shed. 
Bijke [bsike] pn. dog's name. 
byld [bild] sn. image. 
bileanje [b8 / lisji9] wv. to re- 


bilette [be'lste] wv. to prevent. 
bylje [bilje] wv. to roar ; to 

bine [bine] sv. Ill, a. to bind, 

to tie. 
bineame [bo'nreme] wv. to 

appoint, to nominate. 
binne(n) [bine, binen] adv. prep. 

in, within, inside. 
binnendoar [binenMo-er] adv. 

in the house. 

bynster [blister] sf. binder, tier. 
bynt [bint] sn. joist. 
bipoezje [be'puozje] wv. to spill 

upon, to splash. 
bird [bod] sn. beard. 
birdde [be'rside] wv. to arrange, 

to manage. 
biriede [be'rrede] wv. 246. to 

consult, to confer. 
birikke [be'rike] wv. to reach. 



birinne [be'rine] sv. Ill, a. to 

overtake. It is wol mei him 

to birinnen : he is not a dis- 
agreeable person. 
bisakje [be'sakje] wv. to sink 


biside [be'sido] adv. beside ; hid. 
bisiik f be'shkj sn. visit, call. 
bisite (WziteJ*. 138. visit, call. 
bisjen [be'slsn] sv. II, c. to look 

biskaefd [be'skaivd] adj. polite, 

biskie [be'skre] sn. answer; 

biskildigje [be'skoldegjo] wv. 

to accuse. 
biskine [be'skine] wv. to shine 

biskrobje [be'skrobje] wv. to 

bislach [be'slax] sn. the live 

stock (of cattle). 
bislute [be'slyte] sv. II, b. to 


bispiele [be'sprale] wv. to wash. 
bispylje fbe'spiljol wv. to playon. 
bistean pto'strenj iv. 250. to 


bistek [be'stek] sn. plan. 
bistelle [be'stde] wv. to order, 

to appoint. 
bistelle [be'steile] sv. V, a. to 

bistride [be'striide, be'stride] 

sv. I, a. to fight, to combat. 
bite [bite] sv. I, b. to bite. 
bitiid [be'tud] adv. adj. early, 

bitsjen litte [be'tsjsn lite] sv. 

II, c. VII. to stop, to omit. 
biwarje [be'uarje] wv. to keep ; 

to preserve, to protect. 
biwenje [be'usjiel wv. to inhabit. 
bjinder [blinder] s. scrubbing- 

bjinne [bime] wv. to scrub. 
bjist [biist] s. beest, beestings. 

bjuster [bioster] adj. at sea, con- 

blank [blank] adj. bright. 
blau [blo-ii, blou] adj. blue, 
bled [blsid] sn. leaf. 
bledside ['blstside] s. page. 
bleek [bleikl s. bleach-field. 
bleek [ble:k] adj. pale, 
blein [blain] sn. 137. baleen, 
bletterje [bleterje] wv. to bleat. 
bleu [bl0:l adj. timid. 
blydskip [^blitskip] s. gladness. 
bliede [blrede] wv. 246. to 


blier [blrar] adj. merry, 
bliid [bli:d] adj. glad. 
blij [blsil adj. glad. 
blykber [blikber] adj. apparent, 
blike [blike] nwv. 248. to appear. 
blikerje [ sparkle, 
blyn [blin] adj. blind, 
blinens [blinnz] s. blindness. 
blinke [blink'e] sv. Ill, d. to 

shine, to glitter, 
blits [blits] s. lightning. 
bliuwe [bliuwe] sv. I, c. to 


bloed [blired] sn. blood. 
bloedderich. [bluodreg] adj. 


bloei [blui] s. blossom, flower. 
bloeije [blufo] wv. to bloom ; to 


bloeisel [bluisel] sn. blossom. 
bloeitiid ['blultiid] s. time of 


blom [blom] s. flower. 
boaijem [bocriem] s. bottom. 
board [bo*9d] s. collar. 
board [bo-ed] sn. board, brim, 


boarre [boare] s. tom-cat, 
boarste [baste, boaste] wv. to 


boarterij [boate'rsi] s. play, 
boartsje [boatsje] wv. to play, 
boat [bo'et] sn. boat. 
boat [bo'et] sm. steamboat. 



bocht [boxt] s. bend, 
bodder [boderl s. toiler. 
bodzje [bodzja] wo. to toil, 
boek [bu:k, buk] sn. book. 
boekekas ['bukekos] s. book- 
boel [bu*01] s. crowd, a great 


boer [birer] s. farmer. 
boerd [bired] sn. board. Hy 

hat de wrald op in boerdtsje : 

he is in clover, 
boerehiem [bu-ere'lirem] sn. 

boerekofje [birero'kofje] s. hot 

beer with brandy, nutmeg, and 

boerepleats [bu-ere'plrets] s. 

farmer's house ; farm, 
boerinne [bu'e'rme] s. farmer's 


boerkje [buorkje] wv. to farm, 
boers(k) [bu-9z, bu*9sk] adj. 


b6ge [boige] s. bow ; arch, 
boi [boat] s. boy. 
bok [bokj s. he-goat. 
bokweit ['bokuit] s. buck-wheat. 
bol [bol] adj. soft, chubby. 
bont [bont] adj. 155. motley. 
boppe [bope] prep. adv. above ; 

on high, upstairs. 
bosk [bosk] s. 190. wood, 
bosk [bosk] sn. bundle. 
bou [bou] s. plough-land. 
Bouk [bouk]^i. 
boukant ['boukont] s. farming- 
boun [bun] sn. 156. league, 


bout [bout] s. bolt, pin. 
bout [bout] sn. leg of a sheep or 

a calf, drumstick of fowl, 
bouterke ['bouterke] sn. baby, 

little darling. 
braef [bra:v] adj. honest, 
bran [bro:n] s. tire. 
branje [broijie] s. fuel. 

brea [brro] sn. bread. 

breed [breid] adj. broad, large, 


brege [brs:go] s. bridge. 
breid [braid] s. bride, 
breidspronk ['braidzpronk] s. 


breinroer ['bramrer] adj. furi- 
brekke [brsko] sv. IV, a. to 

bretael [br'ta:!] adj. 136. pert, 

briede[brrede]wy. 246. to roast, 

to fry. 

brief [brrev] sn. letter. 
bryk [brik] adj. wry, slanting. 
bril [bril, brol] s. spectacles. 
briUoft ['broloft] s. wedding. 
bringe [brine] iv. 250. to 


brinzgje [brr.zgjo] wv. to roar. 
brizelje ['briizelje] wv. to crush, 

to split. 

broei [brui] s. heating (as hay). 
broeije [bruie] wv. to get warm 

or hot. 

broek [bru:k, bruk] s. trousers. 
broer [bnrer] s. brother. 
brok [brok] sn. piece, 
bromme [brome] wv. to growl, 
bruije [brceie] wv. to drub. 
brukber [brukbar] adj. useful, 
bruke [bruk0] wv. to use. 
brukel [brukel] adj. annoyed, 

brukme [brukm0] sn. use, usage, 


bruksum [bruksem] adj. tract- 

brun [bryn] adj. brown, 
bruzejbruize] wv. to foam, to fizz, 
buge [buige] wv. to bend, to bow. 
bugel [buigel] s. metal ring. 
bui [boei, buoij s. shower. 
buk [buk] s. belly, 
bult(e) [bolt, bolte] s. a great 




bunt [bunt] adj. 155. motley. 

burnaan ['buorrnon] s. neigh- 

barren [buoren] s. village. 

burskiplik [bu-a'skrplek] adj. 
obliging as good neighbours. [buse] s. pocket. 

busgat ['busxot] sn. pocket- 

bute(n) [bute, buten] adv. 
prep, outside, without, besides, 

butendoar [buton'do-er] adv. 
out of doors. 

butentiids [buten'tiidz] adv. at 
an unusual time. 

buthiis ['buthys, 'butyz] sn. 

daei [da*l] sn. dough. 
daegje [daigjo] wv. to dawn, 
dage [daige] s. dawn, 
dalik [dculok] adv. immediately. 
dan [don] adv. then. 
dangelje['dar)9lJ9]ww. to dangle. 
dat [dot] dem. and rel. pr. that, 


datjinge [dot'jirp] dem. pr. that 
dauwe [do*uo] s. dew. 
de [do] art. the. 
dea(d) [di-9, di-0d] s. 128. 

dea(d) [di-9, di-9d] adj. 128. 


deafet ['diefet] sn. coffin. 
deagean ['dregren] iv. 250. to 

deakleur ['dreklo-er, 'diskl6'9r] 

s. colour of death. 
deale [drele, do-eb] s. 1 65. devil. 
deales [drebz, do-elez] int. 165. 

zounds ! the deuce ! 
deastil [di-9stil] adj. still as 


deel [de:l] sn. 163. part. 
del [dai] *. day. 

deihier [dai'hi-or] s. 192. day's 


deije [dsia] wv. to kill. 
deilis [dailez] adv. disagreeing, 

at odds. 
deilisskip ['dailaskip] s. discord, 

deimennich ['daimeneg] s. some 

deizen [daizan] s. plur. bacon- 
laths before the chimney. 

dekke [dske] sv. IV, a. to cover. 

delbedzje ['dslbsidzjo] wv. to 

dele [de:la] wv. 163. to divide. 

deljaen ['dsljam] iv. 250. yen 
deljaen : to lay oneself down. 

delsette [Mslsste] wv. to set 

delte [delta] s. low place, dell. 

den [don] adv. then. 

der [dor, dr] adv. there. 

der [dsr] rel. pr. 230. who, that. 

der(re) [dsr, dsire] adv. 94. there. 

dermei ['de(r)mal] adv. 253. 
with it ; then. 

dernei ['ds^nal] adv. 253. after 

deroan ['dsro-an] adv. 253. by 

drom [Msrom] adv. 253. there- 

drop [ x dsrop] adv. 253. upon 
that, after that. 

dersa ['ds(r)sa] adv. there. 

der't [det] adv. 259. where. 

derta ['de(r)ta] adv. 253. to it, 
for it. 

dertroch [ 7 d(r)trox] adv. 253. 
by that means, hence. 

det [dot] conj. that. 

deugd [d0:gd] s. virtue, good 
quality ; service. 

deun [d0:n] adj. economic, chary. 

diamant [dia'mont] s. diamond. 

dy [di] dem. pr. that, those. 

dichter [dixter] s. poet. 

die(d) [di-0, di-ed] s. 128. deed. 



dief [di'8v] s. thief. 

diel [drelj sn. 163. part. 

diele [drale] wv. 163. to divide. 

diger [diiger] adj. sparing. 

dyk [dik] s. dike. 

dije [dele] wv. to prosper; to 


dyjmge [di'jirp] he, she. 
dimmen [dimen] adj. modest. 
dyn [din] poss. pr. thy, your. 
ding [dirj] an. thing. 
dynje [dijie] wv. to swell. 
dipper [diper] adj. industrious. 
dit(te) [dit, dot, dit9, dote] dem. 

pr. 94. this. 

dy't [dit] rel. pr. that, who. 
divel [di:v01] s. devil. 
dizze [diza] dem. pr. this, these. 
djerre [disre] s. yolk. 
djip [djip] adj. 129. deep. 
djipte [diiptol s. 129. depth. 
djoeije [djuie] wv. 129. to frisk, 

to run up and down. 
djur [dju-9r] adj. 129. dear, 

do [du 

doar [i 

adv. then. 
o*9r] s. door. 
do-9re] iv. 249. to dare, 
doarp] sn. village, 
"do-be] s. water-hole, pool 

of water. 
doch [dox] <*do* 
dochs [doxs, dogz] adv. yet, 

though, notwithstanding. 
dochter [doxter] s. daughter. 
doek [du:k, duk] s. linen. 
dof [dof] adj. dull, dead, faint. 
doge [do:g9] iv. 249. to be good, 

to be worth. 

dogge [doga] s. bulldog. 
dokich [do'k9g] adj. hazy. 
Dokkum [dokem] gn. town in 


dokter [dokter] s. doctor. 
dol [dol] adv. down. 
dolder [dolder] s. digger. 
dolls [dola] wv. to dig. 
dom [dom] adj. stupid. 

domeny [Moimgni] s. minister. 
dommens [domez] s. stupidity. 
dong [dorj] s. dung. 
donker [dorjkgr] adj. adv. dark, 

obscure, dusky, gloomy, cloudy. 
doofstom [do:f'stom] adv. deaf- 

doop [do:p] s. baptism. 
dop [dop] s. shell. 
dope [do:pg] wv. to baptize, 
dos [dos] adv. thus. 
do't Tdut] conj. when. 
dou [dou] s. dove, 
dou [dou] pres. pr. 228. thou, 


dounsje [du:sJ9] wv. to dance. 
dozyn [d9'zin] sn. dozen. 
draei [dra'i] s. turn. 
draeihikke ['dra-ihikg] s. turn 


draeije [dra-ig] wv. to turn, 
drage [draige] sv. VI, a. to bear, 

to wear. 

drager [draiger] s. bearer. 
drave [draive] wv. to trot. 
dream [drrem] s. dream. 
dreambyld [Mri-embild] s. 


dreech [dre:g] adj. strong, solid, 
dreune [dr0:ne] wv. to rumble, 

to resound. 
drinke [drirjke] sv. Ill, d. to 


drip [drip] s. drop. 
driuwe [driuwe] sv. I, c. to 

drive ; to float. 
driuwkelje ['drmwkelje] wv. to 

float softly. 
driuwkje [driuwkje] wv. to float 


droech [drux] adj. dry. 
drdgje [droigjo] wv. to dream. 
drok [drok] adj. busy. 
drokte [drokte] s. business ; stir, 


droktme [droktme] s. stir, noise. 
driif [dry:v] s. grape. 
druije [droeio] wv. to dry. 



dftbel [dubal] adj. adv. double, 


duffels [dofalz] adj. duffel. 
duke [duke] swv. 248. to dive. 
dun [dyn] sn. dune, hillock. 
diinsk [dy:sk] adj. ruttish (cow). 
diir [du'or] s. duration; op en 

dur : in the long run. 
durje [duorja] wv. to last, 
dus [dos] adv. thus. 
dust [dyst] s. dust. 
dwaen [dwain, dwan] iv. 250. 

to do. 
dwale [d wails] wv. to err, to 

dwars [dwas] adj. adv. 152. 

cross; wrong-headed; across, 
dwers [dwes] adj. adv. 15 2. cross; 

wrong-headed ; across. 
dwylje [dwilja] wv. to rave. 


'e [a] art. 105. the. 
eabarre ['iebara] s. stork. 
each [rag] sn. 160. 161. eye. 
eagje [regja] wv. 160. 161. to 


eang [ran] adj. anxious. 
eangens [ranez] s. anxiety, 
eangje [I'QQJe] wv. to fear, 
eangstme [rarjstma] s. anxiety. 
ear [rar] sn. ear. 
ear(e) [rar, rara] s. honour, 
earber [rarbar] adj. respectable. 
earder [iedar] adv. sooner, rather, 
earlik [ralak] adj. honest, fair, 
earm [perm, ierm] s. 143. arm. 
earm [rarm] adj. 143. poor. 
earmoed ['iermu-ad] s. poverty. 
earmoedich [ier'miradag] adj. 

poor, needy. 
earn [ran] s. eagle. 
earne [rana] adv. anywhere, 
earnen [ienn,iern] adj. of copper. 
earrebarre ['ierabara] s. stork. 
earst [past] num. adv. first. 
ear't [iet] conj. before. 

eart [iet] sn. offal. 
earte [ieta] s. 1 92. pea. 
easkje [raskja] wv. to require, 
east [rest] adj. adv. east, 
easten [rastan] sn. east. 
eat [ret] ind. pr. anything, 
eaze [raza] wv. to scoop, 
ebbe [eba] s. ebb. 
echter [e\tar] adv. prep. 113. 

behind, after. 
ef [of, ov] conj. or. 
effen [sfan] adj. adv. smooth ; 


eft [ot] conj. if, when. 
efter [sftar] adv. prep. 113. 

behind, after. 
efterhalden [sftar'hoidan] adj. 

reserved, close. 
efternei [eftar'nai] adv. after, 


egael [e'ga:l] adj. equal. 
ei ! [ai] int. ah ! 
eide [aida] s. harrow. 
eidzje [aidzja] wv. to harrow, 
eigen [aigan] adj. own. 
eigentlik ['aigantlak] adj. adv. 

ein [ain] s. duck, 
ein [ainj s. end, extremity, 
ein [ain] sn. part, stick, distance, 
einliks [allaks] adv. properly, 
einlings ['allinz] adv. at last, 
ek [sk, ik] adv. also, too, as well, 
eker [eikar] s. field. 
ekster [skstar] s. magpie, 
elemint [ela'mmt] sn. element, 
elk [elk] ind. pr. every, each, 
elk-en-ien [elkan'ran] ind. pr* 

every one. 
elkoar [elk'o-ar, elk'oar] rec. 

pr. each other. 
en [en, in] conj. and. 
eptich [epta] adj. neat. 
er [ar] pers. pr. 227. he. 
er [ar] adv. there. 
erf [erv] sn. inheritance, 
ergewaesjeferga'uaisja] s. vexa- 
tion, annoyance. 



eris [erez] adv. one day. 

erve, ervje [srve, ervje] wv. to 

even [e:ven] adj. adv. even, 
equal, just. 

evenminske ['e:ve(n)mi:ske] s. 
fellow creature. 

ezel [eizel] s. donkey; block- 

ezelskyn ['eizelskin] s. block- 

fabryk [fe'brik] sn. manufac- 

faei [fa*i] adj. fey, in danger; 

faek [fa:k] adv. often. 

faeks [fa:ks] adv. perhaps. 

faem [farm] s. maid, girl. 

faken [faiken] adv. often. 

faksen [faksen] s. 195. caprices. 

fal [foil s. fall. 

fal [fol] sn. hatch. 

fald [fo:d] s. fold. 

falle [fo:le] w. VI, e. to fall. 

falsk [folsk, fols] adj. false. 

famke [famke] sn. girl. 

fange [fan 9] sv. VII, b. to 

fanke [fanke] sn. girl. 

Farisieu [fari'si'u] pn. Pharisee. 

farre [fare, fa-re] sv. VI, b. to 

farsk [fask] adj. 152. fresh. 

fS [fe: J sn. cattle. 

feal [frel] adj. fallow. 

fealens [frelnz] s. fallowness. 

fear [frer] s. feather. 

fearje [fierje] wv. to be elastic. 

fearren [fisren] adj. feather. 

feger [feiger] s. sweeper. 

feije [fate] wv. 246. to sweep, to 

feilich [faileg] adj. safe. 

feint [faint] s. manservant. 

fek [fsk] sn. box, section. 

fel [fel] sn. skin, fell. 

fen [fon] prep, of, by. 

fersk [fssk] adj. 152. fresh. 

ferve [fsrve] s. 152. paint, dye. 

ferver [fsrver] s. painter. 

fervje [fsrvje] wv. to paint, to 

fdst [feist] adj. adv. fast, regular, 
fixed, steady, surely. 

festbine Pfeistbina] sv. Ill, a. 
to bind (tie) fast. 

fet [fst] sn. vat, vessel. 

fet [fst] sn. fat. 

flele [fi'9l9] wv. to feel. 

flem [fi'em] s. fathom. 

fier [fi'9r] adj. adv. far. 

fierte [fiit9] s. distance. 

fifel [fifel] num. four and a half. 

fyffc [f ift] num. adv. fifth. 

fyfteheal [fiftg'hi-gl] num. four 
and a half. 

fyftich [fift9] num. fifty. 

fyftjin [fiftjen] num. fifteen. 

filch [f i:g] s. fig. 

fiif [fiiv] num. five. 

fiks [fiks] adj. adv. clever(ly). 

filantroop [filon'troip] s. philan- 

fylje [filjs] WV- to file ; to swing 

fyn [fin] adj. fine. 

fine [fine] sv. Ill, a. to find. 

finger [finer] s. finger. 

finne [fine] s. pasturage, grazing- 

finster [faster] sn. window. 

finsterbank ['fnsterbarjk] sn. 

finzen [fiizen] past. part. VII, b. 

finzenisse ['fiizemse] s. prison. 

fisk [fisk] s. fish. 

fiskerman ['fiskermon] s. fisher- 

fyt [fit] s. trick. 

fiterje [fiterje] wv. to drive on. 

fyts [fits] s. bicycle. 

fytse [fitse] wv. to bicycle. 

fiver ffi:ver] s. pond. 

fjild [fiild] m. field. 



fjird [f lid] num. adv. fourth. 
fjirdeheal [fiide'hrel] num. 

three and a half. 
fjirdel [fiidgl] num. three and a 


fjirtich [fiitag] num. forty. 
fjirtjin [fiitjanj num. fourteen, 
fjouwer [f iou9r] num. four. 
fjouwersprong ['fiou9rsprorj] s. 

fjuchte, fjuchtsje [fioxta, 

fioxtsje] sv. Ill, d. to fight. 
fjur [fju'9r] sn. fire. 
fjurje [fjorJQ] wv. to fire. 
fjurslachs ['fjoslaxs] adv. vehe- 

mently, sharply. 
flaeks [flaiks] sn. flax. 
flagge [flage, fla-ga] s. flag. 
flak [flak] adj. flat. 
flamje [flamjg] wv. to flame ; to 

yearn for. 

flau [flou] adj. faint. 
fleane [fli'one] sv. II, c. to fly. 
flecht [f lext] s. flock ; flight. 
fleis [f laiz] sn. flesh, meat, 
fleurich [f l6-9r9g] adj. blooming, 


flibe [f libel s. spittle. 
File [fli*9j gn. strait between 

Vlieland and Terschelling. 
flier [fli-gr] s. floor. 
flikkerje [flikerja] flicker, 

to glitter. 

flink [flink] adj. clever. 
flinken [flink9n]s.^i*r. caprices. 
flinkens [flinkez] s. cleverness. 
flyt [flit] s. diligence. 
flitich [flitag] adj. diligent. 
flitigens [flitagez] s. diligence. 
flitse [f litse] s. arrow. 
floerje [fluorje] wv. to floor, 
flues [fiyez] sn. fleece, film. 
foar [foar] adv. prep, before. 
foarby [fa'bsi] adv. past, 

foardeel, foardiel [ r fo T ade:l, 

'fo'odi'el] sn. profit. 
foardel [foa'del] adv. 1 down. 


foardelich, foardielich [fe'de:- 
l9g, fa'di'alog] adj. profitable. 

foardet ['foadot] conj. before. 

foardoar ['foado-er] s. front- 

foarfalle ['fo-erfole] sv. VI, e. 
to happen. 

foarjaen ['fo'erjam, r f6aja:n] iv. 
250. to give an advantage. 

foarm [foarm] s. form. 

foarsjen [fe'sien] sv. II, c. to 

foarst [fo*8st] num. adv. first. 

foarstelle ['fo'ostslo] wv. to pro- 
pose ; to imagine. 

foart [fuot, foot] adv. forth ; 

foartbanne ['fuotbone] wv. to 
drive away. 

foartdrage ['fuo^draige] sv. 
VI, a. to carry away (further). 

foarthelpe [/fuothslpa] sv. Ill, d. 
to help forward. 

foartiid ['foatr.d] adv. formerly. 

foartkomme ['fuotkome] sv. 
IV, b. to get on ; to come forth. 

foariit [fer'yt] adv. beforehand. 

foechsum [fuixsem] adj. suit- 

foegje [fu:gje] wv. to join; to 

foerman ['fuormon] s. coach- 
man; carrier. 

foermanderij [fuormonde'rsi] 
s. coachman's trade. 

foet [firgt] s. foot. 

fol [fol] adj. full. 

fdle [fo:l9] s. foal. 

folje [folja] wv. to fill. 

folk [folk] sn. folk ; relatives. 

folksteltsje ffolkstsltsj^] sn. 

folle [fol 9] num. much, many. 

for [foar] prep. for. 

forbliidzje [fg'bliidzjg] wv. to 

forblikke [fg'blike] wv. to grow 



forbolgen [fa'bolgen] adj. in- 

fordeald [fe'di-eld, fa'do'eld] 
adj. int. 165. devilish; the 
devil ! 

fordigenje [fa'diigenja] wv. to 

fordjerre [fe'disro] sv. Ill, c. to 
corrupt, to spoil. 

fordwine [fa'dwine] sv. Ill, a. 
to disappear. 

forfallen [fe'fo'len] adj. crazy. 

forfarre [fe'fare, fa'fcrre] sv. 
VI, b. to remove. 

forgees [fe'geiz] adv. in vain. 

forginne [fe'gone] wv. to envy, 
to grudge. 

forgrime [fe'grime] adj. wrath- 

forheardper'hred] adj. amazed. 

forhoping [fer'hoipen] s. hope, 

forjaen [fe'jam, fer'jam] iv. 
250. to forgive ; to poison. 

forjitlik [fa'jitlek] adj. forget- 

forjitte [fe'jita, far'jita] sv. II, 
b. to forget. 

forkeap [fe'krep] s. sale. 

forkeapje [fe'krepje]" iv. 250. 
to sell. 

forkeard [fefkred] adj. wrong, 

forklomje [fe'klomje] wv. to be 
benumbed with cold. 

forkomme [fe'kome] sv. IV, b. 
to come to nothing. 

forlegen [fe'leigen] adj. em- 
barrassed, perplexed. 

forlern [fe'lsn] adj. lost. 

forlibje [fe'libje] wv. to over- 

forliden [fe'lidenl adj. last. 

forlieze [fe'lrazej sv. II, a. to 

forlyn [fe'lin] adj. past ; last. 

formeije [fe'maie] iv. 249. to 
be able. 

fornimme [fe'nime] sv. IV, b. to 

perceive ; to learn ; to inquire. 
foroarje [fer'o-erja] wv. to alter, 
forrifelje [fe'rifalja] wv. to 


forrin [fVrin] s. expiration. 
forsiikje [fe'sr.kje] iv. 250. to 

visit; to request. 
forsinke [fe'sirjka] sv. Ill, d. 

to sink down. 

forskate [f9'ska:t0]mwi. several. 
forslein [fo'slain] adj. dismayed, 
forstan [fe'stoin] an. intellect. 
forstandich [fe'stondeg] adj. 

forstjerre [fo'stisre] sv. Ill, c. to 

forstouwe [fe'stouo] swv. 248. 

to fly away. 

fortelle [fa'te-le] wv. to tell, 
fortriet [fe'trret] sn. sorrow. 
fortrietlik [fe'triitlek] adj. 

fortriette [fe'triite] wv. 246. to 


fortrouwen [fe'trouen] sn. trust. 
fortsjinje [fe'tsiijie] wv. to gain ; 

to deserve. 

forwylje [fe'uilje] wv. to wither, 
fraech [fra:] s. question, 
frage [fra:g9] s. question. 
franje [frajie] s. fringe. 
frede [freide] s. peace. 
freedlik [freidlek] adj. peaceful, 
freegje [freigje] wv. to ask. 
frette [fretej sv. V, a. to eat 

(animals) ; to gorge (persons). 
Pries [frrez] pn. Frisian, 
frieze [frreze] sv. II, a. to freeze, 
frij [frei] adj. free. 
frijdom pfreidom] s. freedom. 
frijlitte ['frsilite] sv. VII, a. to 


Frys(k) [frisk, fris] adj. Frisian. 
Fryslan ['frislomj gn. Fries- 
Priso ['frizoti] jw. the pretended 

ancestor of the Frisians. 



frissel [frisal] s. braid. 

frjemd [frismd] adj. strange ; 

frjemdfolk ['frismtfolk] m. 

frjemdling ['frismdlin] s. 

Frjentsjer [frisntsjar] gn. 
Franeker, a town in Friesland. 

frjeon [frozen] s. friend. 

frjeonlik [fro-alak] adj. adv. 

frjeonskip ['fro-eskip] s. friend- 

frj eonskiplik [fro-e'skiplek] adj. 

froalik [fro'olek] adj. merry. 

froast [fro*9st] s. frost. 

froastich [fro-ostog] adj. freez- 

froed [frirad] adj. modest. 

from [from] adj. pious. 

frommis [fromez] sn. woman. 

frou [frou] s. mistress. 

frouLjue ['froilio] s. plur. women. 

frouminske ['fromeska] sn. 

frucht [froxt] s. fruit. 

fugel [fugal] s. bird. 

fugelt [fugalt] sn. fowl. 

fuke [fuke] s. bow-net. 

ful [ful] adj. violent ; stingy. 

fuleindich [ful'aindeg] adj. adv. 

furge [fuorge] s. furrow. 

fust [fust] s. fist. 

Gabe [ga:ba] inn. 

gading [gcndon] s. choice. 

gaei [ga'i] s. mate. 

gaeike [ga'ika] sn. mate. 

galm [golm] s. sound. 

gans [qoiz] adv. very. 

garje [garje] wo. to collect, to 


gast [gost] s. guest. 
gat [got] sn. hole, opening. 

gau [gou] adv. quickly. 

gavel [ga:v9l] s. fork. 

gea [91*9] sn. region. 

gean [gr9n] iv. 250. to go. 

geandewei ['gr9nd9uai] adv. by 
little and little. 

gear [gi'9r] adv. der oer gear 
wSze : to be about. 

gebiede [g9 / bi*9d9] sv. II, a. to 

gebyt [gs'bit] sn. set of teeth. 

gebod ['qg'bod] sn. order. 

gebriik [gg'bruk] sn. use. 

geel [qe:lj adj. 163. yellow. 

geest [ge:st] s. spirit. 

gefal [g9 r fol] sn. case, event. 

gegei [ga'gai] sn. weeping. 

geit [gait] s. goat. 

geklei [g9'klai] sn. lamenting. 

gelyk [c^'lik] adj. alike, right, 
equal, similar. 

gelok [g9 / lok] sn. luck, happiness, 

gemieii [gg'mi^n] adj. common ; 
low, vulgar. 

gemeente [g9'me:nt9] s. muni- 

gemoed [ga'mirgd] sn. mind. 

genamt [go'namtj s. namesake. 

genier [Je^ni'erj s. market- 

gendch [ge'noig] num. enough. 

gerdyn [ga'din] sn. blind, cur- 


geryflik [g9 r riflak] adj. com- 

gerjuchtichheid [g9'rioxt9X- 
haid] s. ground, domain. 

gerocht [gg^oxtj sn. 113. 

geroft [g9 r roft] sn. 113. rumour. 

geTs [ge:z] sn. grass. 

gesicht [gg'sixt] sn. sight ; view. 

geskrep [ge'skrsp] sn. stir, 

gesnetter [ga'snstor] sn. chatter- 



geur [go*er] s. scent, odour. 
gewirde litte [ge'uode lite] sv. 

VII, a. Lit him gewirde : 

let him have his way. 
gib [gib] s. wild-pigeon. 
giel Tcji'ol] adj. 163. yellow. 
gier [grerj s. turn, swing. 
giizje [giizje] wv. to sneer, to 

laugh jeeringly. 
ginne [go'ne] wv. not to grudge, 

to allow. 

ginst [q0:st] s. favour, 
girdle [go'lej s. girdle. 
Gjalt [giolt] mn. 
gjin [giin] pron. num. none, no. 
gjirrich [giire^] adj. avaricious, 
glans [glo:z] s. lustre, glance, 


gl&nzich [glo:zeg] adj. glitter- 

gled [gleid] adj. slippery. 
glei fglaij adj. swollen. 
gleon [glb'on] adj. glowing, red- 

gles [gls:z] sn. glass ; pane. 
glide [gliide, glide] sv. I, a. to 

glide, to slide. 
glimme [glime] sv. Ill, d. to 

glimmer, to glow. - 
gloeije [gluie] wv. to glow. 
glupe [glupe] swv. 248. to sneak, 
gnauwe [qno'ue] wv. to gnaw, 
gnyskje [gniskje] wv. to grin 


gnize [gniize] wv. to grin. 
gnoarje [gnoarje] wv. to growl, 

to grumble. 
gnob [gnob] sn. trifles, small 


grmve [gnyive] wv. to peer, spy. 
goai [go*!] s. can 3 e goai: in 


goaije [go- 19] wv. to throw. 
goant ! [goant] int. Laws 1 
goate, goatte [go-eta, goate] s. 


gobje [gobje] wv. to jest, to joke. 
God [god] s. God. 

goe(d) [gu'ed, gu-e] adj. good, 
well ; net goed : ill. 

goe(d) [gu-ed, gu*e] sn. good(s). 

goedens [gu*ednz] s. goodness, 
good-nature, clemency. 

goederjowsk [gu-eder'jousk] 
adj. liberal. 

goedlik [guodlek] adj. good- 

goedmeitsje [/g 
246. to retrieve. 

goedmoeds [gu-ed'mu'edz] adv. 
not in a passion. 

goes [gu*ez] s. goose. 

gol [gol] adj. frank, open-hearted. 

golle [gole] s. hay-mow. 

gong [gon] s. gait ; course ; pas- 
sage ; corridor. 

goud [goud] sn. gold. 

gouden [gouden] adj. gold, 

goune [gu:ne] s. guilder. 

graech [graig] adv. adj. will- 
ingly ; eager, hungry. 

grave [graive] sv. VI, a. to dig. 

great [gro-et, gr0:t] adj. 165. 

greatheid ['gro-ethaid] s. great- 

greatsk [grotsk] adj. proud. 

greau [griou] s. greaves, refuse fat. 

greft [qre:ft, grsft] s. 152. moat. 

greide [graide] s. grass-land. 

greidhoek ['graidhukj s. pasture 

greppel, grippel [grepel, gripel] 
s. trench. 

grien [gri*en] adj. green. 

grif [gi'if] adv. positively. 

griis [qriiz] adj. grey. 

grins [gri:z] s. frontier. 

gripe [gripe] swv. 248. to 

gripe [gripe] s. fork. 

grypsjes[gripsjez]s. 195. foolish 

grysjes [grisjez] s. 195. foolish 



gritenij [grite'nsi] s. munici- 

gritenijhus [grite'neihys] sn. 
municipal house. 

gritsen [gritsen] s. 195. whims. 

Grytsje [gritsje] fn. Maggie. 

groat [gro*et] sn. 168. groats. 

grodzemods ['grodzemodz] sn. 

groei [grui] s. growth. 

groeije [gruie] wv. to grow. 

groeisum [gruisem] adj. helping 
growth (of weather). 

groetenis ['gnret(e)nez] s. salu- 
tation, regards. 

groppe [grope] s. stable-trench. 

gr6t [gro:t] sn. 168. groats. 

grou [grou] adj. big ; coarse. 

Grou [grou] gn. village in Fries- 

groun [grun] s. ground. 

grounich [gruneg] adj. adv. 

grounlizzing ['grulizen]s. foun- 

grouwelieh [grou'ue:leg] adj. 

griis [grys] sn. grit. 

gud [guod] sn. things ; texture. 

gudden [guod en] ind. pr. 

guds fgodz] s. horse. 

guds [guodz] ind. pr. some. 

gule [guile] wo. to cry. 

gunzje [guizje] wv. to hum. 

ha, habbe, haw we [ha, habe, 

have] iv. 250. to have, 
haed [ha:d] sn. head, 
haeije [ha-ie] wv. to make hay. 
haeijer [ha*ier] s. haymaker, 
haest [hoist] s. haste, hurry. 
haestje [haisje] wv. to hurry, 
haffelje ['hafelje] wv. to nibble. 
hakke [hake] s. heel. 
halde [horde] sv. VII, c. to hold. 

haloazje [ha'lo'ezje] sn. watch. 
hals [holz] s. neck. 
han [hoinl s. hand. 
handelje ['hondelje] wv. to act ; 

to behave ; to trade. 
handich [hondeg] adj. adv. 

handy ; quickly. 
hanfol ['hoifolj sn. handful, 
hansel [hoisel] sn. handle. 
hansum [hoisem] adj. fit, easy, 


hantwirk ['hontuork] sn. trade. 
hap [hap] s. bite, bit. 
harder [hader] s. shepherd. 
harkje [harkje] wv. to listen. 
Harns [ha:z] gn. Harlingen, a 

town in Friesland. 
harren ! [haren] int. hither. 
harsens[hasaz]s. 195. 152. brain, 
hart(e) [hat, hate] sn. 152. 

hast [hast] adv. almost, nearly, 


hastich [hasteg] adj. hasty. 
hauk [houk] s. hawk. 
hazze [haze] s. hare, 
hea [hre] sn, hay. 
heafek ['hlefek] sn. hay-mow. 
heak [hi-ek] s. 160. hook. 
heakkel [hiskel, hskel] s. 124. 

rake to clean ditches. 
heakkelje [hiskelje, hskelje] 

wv. 124. to rake out ditches. 
heal [hrel] adj. half, 
healwei ['hielvi] adj. half-way, 
hear(e) [hi'er, hrere] s. lord, 
heare [hi-ere] wv. 97. to hear, 
hearlik [hrerlek] adj. brilliant ; 

hearlikheid ['hrerlekhaid] s. 


hearre [hisre] wv. 97. to hear, 
heas [hrez] adj. hoarse, 
heech [he:g] adj. high. 
Heech [he:g] gn. village in 


heel [heil] adj. 163. whole, 
heelje [heilje] wv. to heal. 

'I I IM 


hei-krewoi | ; )< > i > - | 9 i.oii 

homo | II.-IIM . " - ' 

htlftlik | Imluluk | <"// -/, 

li'.n ihl- ( I,', 1 1 
hoif, | half, j (..!. 
heiteian |'haif/.,b:M | ff, 


h< J'i ' li I'l " 
holondul | ho-l.m'd'.il | 


holjO | ||r|j:i | //'. to IHr.h. 

halm fhslni | *. M wir/lh, force. 

I, |p | ,.-. l.< l|. 

li: Ij. ) I :< I I I, 'I. l.. 


li II, I, II 

holier heli.ur mi., lioli 

IK 1 1" i !'.- 'hi rfir^|A. 16^ 
htrn(f) | hen, hem>| A, ir2. 

' HI 

hnon (hftN^I /r. 132. 106, 

hrt(e)l}iftt, liliolm. 152. !>' M i 

hy I htt fjMffi 7/r. lie, 

hifhln ,l.r X H /. l-.f/hl, 

Middo | hid., | ', 

I... I I,, ,11 -// M, ; v.4,.,1. 

liiom i lii".tn| Kit,. pn-iiiincH, farm- 

hier I hior I *n. hair* 

hler [hi'or | *. hiro, rent. 

hlero | hi'}ri| wv. to hiro, to let, 
to rot it- . 


V. holy. 


hilhrh | 

hiind | hini'l /<//. f.hirl. 
iiiinoi I him. i | H. hniivoti. 
IIII.M I .1. him., I 
himmol him .1 | ml;/, clean, 
l.nnmclin | I, I l...,lj'., | //'/'. 



UK dloy. 
Inn | Inn | l. i. 


Inn ' |,/,, r,,./ . . ' 

.KIJ.I I >.'/-. II I, -I i., h 

hirikjn hi kJ0] w. HI, 'I tO 

hinno |h/n . "</<. a way. 

hinnegean (M./n ,'jr.,n I //>. 250. 

I " io J>ft. 

h.yiifirlr-.r ; hiicl n, l.i./'l .1 : //. 
li'.i . 

hynt [hl^t]/*, Mtnll: . 
hyntoblom ['hV: --.I..,I,|.,MI | H. 

(huil lion. 
hynuterido | ^hiMtori'di) | /w. I, u. 

to ride a horse. 
hlrd | hod | n. 
hird h/wl | >!, 

hirdhern [ho^^hcnoj . fire- 



hie I hii | v 
hja | nta, j< 

li.i i. 
. j>r. H|K- , i IM y. 

hjar | li'jr | /XIHH. '/>T. IM | 

hjtlt |jH|/. l.n.N'11'-. I. ill. 



hjiddo |li1tdi>| . II.- 

l,.j.r(ro;|l,ir, hiir.. | 

hjirfon I'liiir-.m I '"/" 
fhif, btftofi 

hjirinm, 'ln.M.M.i | <lr 

. IMTI-. 


',. wil.l. 

ll.jirHIl I'hhM 
hjlM.o) l,ill. 

'"/" IM .. . 
/<7'. VII, n. o 

I.. . ;.ll . I-. -...I. .. 

hjoed| jii'.xl | '"/''. i" 'luy. 
hjouwor |jortir| n. oftti, 

IM, | I, ii | ,/,. how. 
hdiifiiio | lioiin.i| H. cock. 
hrMirii | IM.-.III | . horn. 

hourntou ['hdantotl] w. 

iMMirnndn | 'h..,iMri-<|., | /,/ 
to | horno. 




I ho<|l,.i | /"/>. lo joll. 

boas h-.,/. i..,. : 

ho<:<! hll M| j . III!,!. 

ln.< < l<-n I | in/./ I'll, .; 


hoef I lm:v | H. IM.-.I 

IK. '' hnj'.. I '"". I I .'!. !i 

1,0 IHT<|. 

hotk'o) | huk, hul... | . ".i K'-I . 

honkuhak | 'liuk.h<jk | inf. (\\ <<\ 

in lilt in" ,i In l-l ) 

hoop I huj) | H. li-.,,|, 

horvn | hu:v.i J " / I I .'{. l.o wunl, 

lo IM'f'l. 

hof | h;):v | /.-// ."....-I- M I, 

hok i h'.)k | //. I-.. inn -I. 

hok holt l'. 5 r 1 hoi. hok.irl int. 

t IK oUmr day, J.t,'ly. 
hoi i h;l | //.///. f/.//*. 

vil nlly. 

hollo | liol.i | . ln-iifl. 
homrnolM | honi-d/. | ' 

\ .'>. 

ii //// /./. wlmf. 

lniii'h< -I. 

honour [ lni' | //.///>. wln-.n, nl, 

whut. l.irne. 

hong0T fliolj.d | <r. li'iiifMi. 

>tt | '"'/ '"'" 

'/ I., 

hongorjoj 'ho 

hoopjo ; horpj 

hopo | \\t,\\,.t \K. h,|.i-. 

hatttiyyol'h'.ii-'iilj-t ;" ' 
hou I | hofi] int. \nt I utop 1 way ! 
houn f hiinj H, 
hounnk I hu: 

hou I. | h:iit, | //.. 
llOUWO I h'.iu.i I //n;. lo fi'-vv. 

hr>wol Im'i-'.l ' ro//y. Uiouf 
hud hu:l I . iiil:. 

I. ul , l, v l | h, II 

liilliflorMl. | Illllnl .1 .1 [ //"//' I, mi 

hflndort. |hiin<lttl| num. I.M'i. 

liiin.h. 'I 

hlllin hyn , | /i./.. I.,, I 
hllfllik hy:l il; | >"// .1 i .... I in" 

hftnlhoi.jor | liunl | H. noiiy 



I .'Li..,. | 

Kinon.l. | liy ./ .H'. ..I. | //. in- 


haldn |'liy....l.;iM|,,| /./>. Vll.r. 

, (,,,, hou ,, 
hiiHrrmn | 'hy/.iir.Hi | n. 

hi'iHtok | 'hynisk | m. roof, 

hul.l.n | hot i | /i. c,n,hin. 
hwa | I'M: | mi i" who. 

r | '"/'' win n. 
hwnnl, j i'. nil | 

hwtr(ra) | vtr, 

Wll M III 


Ji.houl, wlifil,. 

hwertrooh [ve'troft | </'/;. 263, 

fy whuf,. 
hworul. , i. r'yl \<uhW,\. wl. 


. n-iul int, 


jff. what. 

ioh |/xj * e< ^ '""."'" 
idor | id'.M | ///'/ /" 

jUior-0n-lon [ / 13oron / i'onJ tVta, 

/./ -wrylioily. 

ion | i-.,n ///////. i>r OIK , f:rnrii-. 

| jin | ///. K. 234. one- II 
ion-en- tweintioh [/jinonlv 

wirnplirit y. 


;, liurn 



ien(n)ichst [i-anaxst, 

adj. only. 
ienkear ['ragkrar] adv. once. 
ienlik [ralek, jilyk] adj. alone. 
ienmel [i'omel] adv. once, 
ienris [raraz] adv. once, 
iens [rez] adv. once; of one 


iensum [i-esam] adj. solitary. 
iepen [i-apon] adj. open. 
iepenbier [repem'brar] adj. 

iepenbierje [ropem'brarje] wv. 

to publish ; to disclose. 
iepenje f'rapanja] wv. to open. 
ier [i*ar s. ear. 
ier fi*9r s. vein, 
ier [i'8r adj. adv. early. 
ierde [i-edo] s. earth, 
ierdkarre ['jitkara] s. cart. 
ierdryk ['radrik] sn. the earth. 
yeske [jiske] s. ashes, 
yet(te) [jit, jitg] adv. yet. 
yet(te)ris [jitrez] adv. once more, 
yettik [jitak] s. vinegar. 
ieu [i'u] s. century, 
iis [i:z] sn. ice. 
ik fik] pers. pr. I. 
yl [il] sn. callosity. 
immen [imen] somebody. 
in [en] art. a. 
yn [in] adv. prep. in. 
yngean ['ingren] iv. 250. to 

enter, to walk in. 
ingel [inol] s. angel. 
Ingelan ['inglom] gn. England. 
yngewant ['ingeuont] sn. en- 
ynh&lde ['inhoide] sv. VII, c. to 

contain ; to restrain. 
ynhalden ['inhoiden] s. 195. 

frame, constitution. 
ynheakje ['ihiskjo] wv. to hook 

in, to hitch. 
ynhiere ['inhrgre] wv. to hire 

ynhouten pinhouten] s. 195. 


yn-ienen [in'i'Qnan] adv. im- 

ynjaen [ x ija:n] iv. 250. to ad- 
minister ; to suggest. 

inkel [irjkel] adj. num. single. 

inket [inkatj s. ink. 

ynkomme f'irjkomo] sv. IV, b. 
to enter. 

ynljeaf [/ilr0v] adj. dear, beloved. 

ynlik [ilok] adj. inner; cordial. 

ynlizze [/ilize] iv. 250. to lay in ; 
to preserve. 

inoar [e'nuor] rec. pr.each other. 

ynpakke ['impake] wv. to pack 

ynswart ['iswat] adj. very 

ynswiet ['iswi'et] adj. very 

ystermintfistr'mmtjm. instru- 

it [ot] art. the. 
it .[etj pers. 

and ind. pr. it. 
ite [ite] sv. I, b. to eat. 
iten [iten] sn. meal ; food. 
itjinge [ot'jine] dem. pr. what. 
ytlike ['itleke] num. several. 
iver [iiuar] s. diligence. 
iwich [i:uog] adj. eternal. 
iwichheid piueghaid] s. eter- 

izer [iizer, iizder] sn. iron. 
izeren [iizaren] adj. iron. 

wv. to run up 

ja [ja, ja: 

and down. 
jaen [ja:n] iv. 250. to give. 
jak [jak] sn. jacket. 
jamk [jamk] adv. often. 
jammer [ jamer] s. It is jammer : 

it is a pity. 
Jan [jon] mn. John. 
jarre [jare] s. dung- water. 
jas [jos] s. coat. 
jeft(e) [jeft, jsfta] s. gift. 



jeije [jaia] wv. 246. to hunt. 

jelne [jelna, jsln] s. ell. 

jern [Jen] sn. yarn. 

jerne [jsng] adv. willingly. 

Jeruzalem [J9'ryz9lem] gn. 

jewiel [J9'ui*9l] sn. jewel. 

Jezus [je:z9z] pn. Jesus. 

Jy [J9, jou]pers.^r. 228. you (ye). 

jicht [jixt] s. gout. 

jier [ji T 9r] sn. year. 

jierdei ['jidi] .. birthday. 

jierrich [jir9g] adj. aged. 

jiers [ji'9z] adv. yearly. 

jiette [jite] sv. II, b. to pour. 

jifier [jifar, jofgr] s. 158. miss. 

jild [jild] sn. money. 

jilde [jilda] sv. Ill, d. to cost ; to 

Jilke [jilk9] mn. 

jimme [jim9] pers. pr. you. 

jimme [jima] poss. pr. your. 

jimmer [jini9r] adv. ever. 

jin [jin] adv. prep, against, to. 

jinder [jmdar] adv. yonder. 

jins [ji:z] poss. pr. 233. your. 

jinse [ji:s9] adj. yon. 

jinsen [ji:s9n] adv. yonder. 

j inter Rjnterj adv. yonder. 

jister Most9r] adv. yesterday. 

jo [joti]pers. pr. 228. you. 

jok [jok] sn. 155. yoke. 

jokje [jokJ9] wv. 155. to itch. 

jong [jorjl adj. young. 

jongfolk [/jorjfolk] sn. youth. 

jonggud ['jonguod] sn. young 

jou [jou] poss. pr. your. 

joun [jun] s. evening. 

jouns [juiz] adv. in the evening. 

jounstjer pjmstisr] s. evening- 

jountiid ['juntid] s. evening- 
hour, evenfall. 

ju [jo] pers. pr. 227. 

ju [jo] s. in 

i [joBl] 

fikse ju : a stalwart 
s. debauch. 

juk [juk] sn. 155. yoke. 
jukel [jukel] s. icicle. 
Jukelbird [ r juk9lbod] pn. the 

jukje [jukja] wv. 155. to itch. 

kachel [ka\9l] s. stove. 

kaei [ka-i] s. key. 

kaem [ka:m] s. comb. 

kald [ko:d] adj. cold. 

kammenet [kamg'nst] sn. cabi- 

kanne [kon9] s. jug. 

kant [kont] s. border, side. 

kantelje [ X kont9lj9] wv. to topple 

kaper [ka:p9r] s. privateer. 

kar [kar] s. choice. 

karre [kar9] s. cart. 

Karst [kastj mn. 

kas [kos] s. cupboard ; wardrobe. 

kastlein [kas'lam] s. innkeeper. 

kat [kot] s. cat. 

keal [ki'9l] sn. calf. 

keal [kf el] adj. bald, callow. 

keakelje [ki-9k9lJ9] wv. 165. to 

keap [krap] s. 160. 161. pur- 

keapje [krgpjg] iv. 160. 161. 
250. to buy, to purchase. 

keapman [/kiepmon] s. mer- 

keapmanske ['kispmoskg] m. 
merchant- woman . 

kear [ki'9r] s. turn, time. 

kearel [kraral] s. fellow. 

keatling ['kletlin, 'ketlin] sn. 
124. chain. 

keel [ke:l] s. 163. throat. 

kein [kam] adj. proper, nice. 

kel [ksl] adj. 124. kel wirde : 
to be startled. 

kelyn [ke'lin] sn. cornelian. 

kenin [ka'nin, knin] s. rabbit. 

kening [k0:nan] s. king. 



e ae. 
[k0:st] s. art. 

[kipja] wv. to look. 

kis s. woman's hat. 

keninkryk [ X k0:n9nkrik] sn. 


kenne [king] iv. 249. to know. 
keppel [kspyl] s. herd, flock. 
kerl [kel] s. grain. 
kern [ken] s. 152. notch. 
kertier [k9'ti-9r] sn. quarter. 
kerve [ksrve] sv. Ill, b. to notch, 

to carve. 
kesiten [ka'zitan] sn. so much 

hay as a cow eats in a winter. 
kiel [ki-el] s. 163. throat. 
kies [ki'9zj s. grinder. 
kieze [kroza] sv. II, a. to choose. 
kile [kito] s. wedge. 
kylj [kiljg] wv. to wedge. 
kinde [kendo] s. knowledge. 
kinne [kme] iv. 249. can, may, 

to be able. 
kypje [kip 
kyps [kips] 
kiste [kista] s. chest. 
kitelje ['kitelje] wv. to tickle. 
kiuw [kluw] s. gill. 
kjel [kiel, ksl] adj. 124. See kel. 
kjeld [kield] s. cold. 
kjelderichT'kield9r9] adj. adv. 


klabats [kle'bots]*. riding- whip. 
klaei [kla'i] s. clay. 
klam [klamj s. 15 2. catch ; stress. 
klank [klarjk] s. sound. 
klaphalzje ['klapholzja] wv. to 

clack the bill. 
klapperje ['klaparja] wv. to 

clap, to rattle. 
klas [klos] s. class. 
klaver [kla:v0r] s. clover. 
klauwe [klo*u0] wv. to scratch, 

to scrawl. 

klean [klren] s. 195. clothes. 
- kleankas ['klrenkos] s. ward- 

klear [klrer] adj. adv. clear(ly), 

pure(ly), evident(ly), ready. 
kleaune [klo-ene] s. clew. 
kledaezje [kle'da:zJ9] s. dress. 

kleije [kla-ie] wv. 246. to com- 

kleur [klo'or] s. colour. 

klibbe [klibo] s. a large block or 
pile (e.g. of hay or peat). 

kliber [kliiber] s. heap, crowd, 

klien [kli*9n] adj. slender, slim. 

klimme [klime] sv. Ill, d. to 

klinke [klirjke] sv. Ill, d. to 

kliuwe [klmwa] sv. I, c. to climb. 

kloek [kluik, kluk] adj. sparing, 

kloer [klirar] s. claw. 

klok [klok] s. clock. 

klomsk [klomsk] adj. chilly. 

klopje [klopje] wv. to knock. 

klots [klots] s. cap, barret. 

klucht [kloxt] s. 11 3. farce, fun. 

kluchtich [kloxteg] adj. 113. 

kluft [kloft] s. 113. farce, fun. 

kluftich [kloft9g] adj. 113. 

kliinje [klyjie] wv. to walk on 
skates off the ice. 

klus [kluiz] s. hermitage; cot- 
tage ; cell. 

klute pdyte] s. clod. 

knarse [knasa] wv. 152. to 

knerse [knss9] wv. 152. to 

knetsje [kntsJ9] wv. to knead. 

knibbel[knib9l] s. knee. 

knieze [kni-9Z9] wv. to bruise. 

knipe [knipa] swv. 248. to pinch. 

knoop [kno:p] s. lie ; button. 

knop [knop] s. knob, knop, bud. 

koai [koa'i] s. nest-egg. 

koaije [ko-ia] wv. 246. to chew. 

koaitsje [ko'itsje] wv. 246. to 
cook, to boil. 

koal [ko*9l] s. cabbage. 

koalsied ['koalsi^d] sn. cole- 



koarste [koasta] s. crust. 
koart [koat]adj. short. 
koartkearich [koat'ki-ereg] 

adj. surly. 

koarts [ko*ats] s. fever, 
kobbe [ko-be] s. fishing-net. 
koel [ku-el] adj. cool, fresh. 
koelje [kuolja] wv. to cool. 
koer [ku*9r] s. basket, 
koes(kes) [kus, kuskez] adv. 

quietly, sheltered. 
k6gje [koigja] wv. 246. to chew. 
komfoar [ko'fo-er] s. 138. chaf- 

komme [koine] s. IV, b. to come. 
kommedeare [komo'drere] wv. 

165. to command, 
komst(e) [komst, komste] s. 

kop [kop] s. pate; op J e kop 

6f: exactly. 
kop [kop] s. litre, 
kost [kost] s. meat, food ; board. 
kosten [koston] s. 195. costs. 
kou [kou] s. cow. 
kracht [kraxt] s. 113. strength, 


kracht [kraxt] s. 113. water- 

kraeb [kra:b] s. crab, 
kraech [kraig] s. collar, cape. 
kraeije [kra-iaj wv. to crow. 
kraft [kraft] s.113. water-bottle, 


krante [kronto] s. newspaper, 
kras [kros] adj. adv. hale, clever ; 

kreakje [krirekje] wv. 160. to 

crack, to creak. 
kream [krrem] s. stall, stand ; 

kreas [krrez] adj. adv. neat(ly), 


kreauwe [krioue] wv. to quarrel, 
kreazens [krrezez] s. neatness. 
krebbe [kreibe] s. crib, 
kreft [kreift] s. 113. strength, 


kreftich [kreftag] adj. strong. 

krekt [krekt] adj. adv. exact (ly). 

kreune [kr0:n9] wv. to croon, to 

krigel [kriigal] adj. cross. 

kriich [kriig] s. fight, competi- 

krije [kreia] wv. 246. to obtain, 
to acquire. 

krimpe [krimpo] sv. Ill, d. to 
crimp, to shrink. 

kringe [knng] sv. Ill, d. to 
throng, to crowd. 

krite [krite] sv. I, b. to cry, to 

krite [krite] s. region, district. 

kroade [kro'eda] s. wheel-bar- 

kroan [kro-9n]s. crown; chande- 

krob [krob] s. beetle. 

kr6dde [kro-de] s. field- mustard. 

kroes [kruizladj. curly, wrinkled. 

krom [kromj adj. 155. curved. 

krud [kruid] sn. herb ; gun- 

krum [krum] adj. 155. curved. 

krupe [krupe] swv. 248. to creep, 
to crawl. 

kriipyn [krup'in] sn. cot. 

kriis [krys] an. cross ; small of 
the back. 

krtise [kryso] wv. to cross; to 
cruise ; to crucify. 

kriislings ['kryslinz] adj. cross- 

kuche [ko'xa] wv. to cough. 

kuer [kyar] s. whim, caprice. 

kuijer [koeler] s. stroll. 

kuper [kuper] s. cooper. 

kwael [kwail] s. complaint, 

kwea [kwre] adj. bad. 

kwealik [kwi'alek] adj. adv. 
wrong(ly), scarcely. 

kwele [kweilel wv. to warble. 

kwikker [kwiker] adj. neat. 

kwyt [kwit] adj. lost. 



laed [laid] sn. drawer. 

laern [la:m] sn. lamb. 

laitsje [laitsje] wv. 246. to laugh. 

Ian [loin] sn. laud, field. 

lang [Ian] adj. long. 

langhalzje ['lanholzje] wv. to 

langskonk ['laijskonk] s. gnat. 

langst [lanstj s. longing. 

langsum [larjsem] adj. slow. 

lans [loizj adv. along. 

lansman ['lo:zmon] s. native. 

lape [laipe] s. patch. 

lapje [lapje] wv. to patch. 

latte [tote] s. lath. 

Lauwers [kruez] gn. a small 
river in Friesland. 

lavearje [le'visrje] wv. to tack. 

lea [Ire] s. 195. body. 

lean [Iran] sn. wages. 

leane [Irene] s. lane. 

leanje [lisjie] wv. to reward. 

lear [Irer] s. doctrine. 

lear [Irer] sn. leather. 

leare [Irere] wv. to teach; to 

lears [Irez] s. boot. 

leauwe [lioue] wv. to believe. 

leech [le:g] adj. low. 

leech [le:g] adj. empty. 

leechlan 'le:glo:n] sn. low- 

leed [le:d] sn. grief. 

leelje [leilje] s. lily. 

leep [le:p] s. peewit. 

lef [Isf] adj. cowardly. 

leflert [lefet] s. coward. 

leije [la'ie] s. small and shallow 

leikje [laikje] ivv. to dredge. 

lekkage [Is'ka-.zje] s. leakage. 

lekkens [Iskez] adj. cloth. 

lekskoaije ['Isksko-ie] wv. to 
find fault. 

leppel [Ispel] s. spoon. 

les [IssJ s. lesson. 

lesboek ['leizbuk] sn. reading- 

lst [leist] s, load, burden. 

lesten [le:sn] adv. lately. 

lestich [lest'ag] adj. troublesome. 

let [1st] adj. late. 

leze [leize] sv. V, a. to read. 

libben [liban] sn. life. 

libben [liben] adj. alive, lively. 

libje [libje] wv. to live. 

licht [hxtj adj. adv. light(ly), 
easy, easily. 

lid [lid] sn. limb; member; joint. 

lid [lid] sn. cover, lid. 

liede [Irede] wv. 246. to lead. 

liede [Irecte] wv. 246. to ring. 

liem [li w em] sn. loam. 

liep [li*ep] adj. cunning, sly. 

liepe [li'8pe] wv. to cry. 

liepens [Irepez] s. slyness. 

liet [li*8t] sn. song. 

lige [liige] sv. II, a. to lie, tell 

liif [liiv] sn. body, belly. 

liifdracht pliivdraxt] s. wearing 

liis [li:z] s. flag, water-flag. 

lij [lei] adj. lee, sheltered. 

lije [Isle] wv. 246. to endure; to 

lijen [lelen] sn. suffering. 

lyk [lik] adj. equal. 

like [like] adv. like, equally. 

likerndch [^likernoig] adv. al- 

lykhalde [' likhoide] sv. VII, c. 
neither win nor lose. 

lykje [likje] wv. to resemble. 

lykwols ['likuolz] adv. however. 

lilk [lilk] adj. ugly ; angry. 

lilkens [lilkez] s. ugliness; 

Linde [linde] gn. a river in 

line [line] s. line, string. 

linich [lineg] adj. supple. 

linker [linker] adj. left. 

linnen [linen] sn. linen. 



lins [liiz] adj. empty. 

lipe [lips] wv. to cry. 

lippe [lipe] s. lip. 

lyts [litsj adj. little, small. 

lytsens [litsaz] s. littleness, 

lytsfeint [/litsfaint] s. second 



lite] sv. VII, a. to let. 
lizel sv. VI, a. to lie. 
lizej iv. 250. to lay. 
liuw] s. lion. 
[liizeg] adj. grown with 

Ijeaf [Irev] adj. dear. 
Ijeafde flravde] s. love. 
Ijeaflik [Irevlek] adj. lovely. 
Ijedder [lisder] s. ladder. 
Ijeppe [lisps] wv. to spring with 

a pole. 

Ijip [liip] s. peewit, 
Ijirre [liire] s. smoked beef. 
Ijisk [liiskj s. groin. 
Ijocht [lioxt] sw. light. 
Ijochtblau [lioxtblou] a$. light 

Ijochtgrien [lioxtgri-an] adj. 

light green. 
Ljouwert [liout] gn. town in 

Friesland(ZteA: Leeuwarden). 
ljue [lio] s. 195. people, folk. 
ljurk [liork] s. lark. 
ljuwe [liuwa, lloue] s. people, 


loai [lo*i] adj. lazy, 
loai^je [loaikje] wv. to be lazy, 

to idle. 
loaitsje [lo-itsje] wv. 246. to 


loane [lo'ene] s. loan. 
locht [loxt] s. sky. 
lochts [loxts, loxs] adv. to the 

loegje, loeije [lu:gJ9, lu-ie] wv. 

246. to pile up. 
loere [hrere] wv. to watch, to 


lof [lof] sw. leaves. 

loft [loft] s. sky. 

lofter [lofter] adj. left. 

lofts [lofts] adv. to the left. 

16ge [Io:g8] s. flame, blaze. 

lok [lok] sn. luck, happiness. 

lokkich [lokeg] adj. happy. 

lokwinsk ['lokuiisk] s. con- 

lompert [lompet] s. rude fellow. 

longe [lone] s. lung. 

lonkje [lonkja] wv. to ogle. 

loom [lo:m] adj. heavy, slow. 

los [los, losj adj. loose. 

losmeitsje ['losmaitsja] wv. 246. 
to loose. 

lot [lot] m. fate, lot ; ticket. 

lotsje [lotsjaj wv. to draw lots ; 
to draw for the conscription. 

lottersdei ['lotezdai] s. day of 
drawing for the conscription. 

lud [lu:d] sn. sound. 

lud [luidj adj. loud. 

luke [luke] swv. 248. to draw. 


Maeije [ma-ie] s. May; the 12th 

of May. 

Maert [ma:t] s. March. 
maerteblom ['mcntoblom] s. 


maet [ma:t] s. comrade, mate, 
mage [maiga] s. stomach, 
maitiid ['maitid] s. may-time. 
mal [mod] adj. foolish, mad. 
malkoar [mePko-er, mel'koar] 

rec. pr. each other. 
man [mon] s. man ; husband. 
mank [marjk] jyrep. among. 
manljue [moilie] s. plur. men- 
mannich [maneg] num. many, 

mannich-ien ['manegi-en] ind. 

pr. many a man. 
mansk [moisk] adj. strong, 

mar [mar] s. mere, lake. 



mar [mar] adv. conj. but, only. 
marse [mase] s. pedlar's pack. 
masiue [me'sine] s. engine, 

master [master] s. master, 

master(s)ke [masterko, mas- 

teske] s. mistress. 
me [ma] ind. pr. one, man, 


meager [mreger] adj. meagre, 
meale, mealle [mrele, misle] 

wv. to grind. 

meane [mrene] wv. to mow. 
mear [mi' or] adv. more, 
meast [mrest] adv. most. 
meastentiids ['mrestentiidz] 

adv. generally. 

med [me:d] sn. mowing-land. 
mei [mai] adv. prep. with. 
meidet ['maidot] conj. with that. 
meidwaen [ x maidwa*n] iv. 250. 

to join, to hedp in doing. 
meije [mate] iv. 249. may, to be 

allowed ; to fancy. 
meiminske ['maimiiske] s. fel- 
low man. 

mei't [malt] conj. with that. 
meitsje [maitsje] wv. 246. to 


mekeare [me'krere] wv. to fail. 
mekoar [me'ko-er] rec. pr. each 

melke [mslke] sv. Ill, d. to 


mem [msm] s. mother. 
memmewille ['insmeuile] s. 
maternal joy. 
men [men] ind. pr. one, man, 

mennich [msneg] num. many, 

merke [merke] sv. Ill, b. to 

mark ; to observe. 
merke [msrke] s. fair. 
mes [meis] sn. knife. 
mesk [mssk] s. mesh, 
meat [meist] s. mast. 


mestelbank ['msselbank] 


mette [mete] wv. 246. to meet. 
mien [mix] s. gnat, midge. 
middei Pmidi] s. midday, noon. 
midden [miden] sn. middle. 
mids [midz] adv. amidst. 
miede [mi'ede] s. meadow. 
miene [mi* one] wv. to mean, to 

miening [mi-ener)] s. meaning, 

mienskiplik [mi-3'skiplek] adj. 


mier [mrer] s. mower. 
miette [miite] sv. II, b. to 


miette [miite] s. measure. 
mije [msie] wv. to avoid. 
mijen [msien] adj. timid. 
mil [mol] s. waist. 
myld [mild] adj. lenient, soft. 
myldens [mildez, mildnz] s. 


milj oen [mel'j u- en] num. million. 
min [mm] adj. little, mean. 
myn [min] poss. pr. my. 
minder [minder] adv. less, in- 

minge [mine] sv. Ill, d. to mix, 

to mingle. 

mynhear [men'hrer] s. Sir. 
minske [miiske] s. man, human 


minske [mr.ske] sn. woman. 
minst [miist] adv. least. 
mint [mint, mont] s. mint. 
mird [mod] s. polecat. 
mis [mis] adj. adv. miss, wrong. 
misdwaen [miz'dwam] iv. 250. 

to do wrong. 
miskearje [mis'kisrje] wv. to 


miskien [me'skin] adv. perhaps. 
miskomme [mis / kome] sv. IV, 

b. to inconvenience. 
misse [mise] wv. to miss, to 




missizze [mis'siza] iv. 250. to 

give cause for offence. 
mits [mits] conj. provided that. 
mitselje [mitselje] wv. to set 


miuw [miuw] s. sea-gull. 
mjuks [mioks] s. dung. 
mjuksje [mioksje] wv. to dung. 
moai [mo*!] adj. beautiful, nice. 
moaijens [moaiez] s. beauty. 
moal [mo'el] sn. meal. 
moandei ['niandi] s. Monday, 
moanne [moane] s. moon, 
moanne [moane] s. month, 
moargen [moargen] sn. land 


moarn [mo'en] s. morning. 
moarn [mo'en] adv. to-morrow, 
moarnier [me'nrer] adv. early 

to-morrow morning. 
moarns [moaiz] adv. in the 

morning, every morning. 
moarntiid ['moantid] s. early 


moas [mo*ez] sn. moss. 
moatte [mate] iv. 249. must, to 

be obliged. 

modder [moder] s. mud. 
moed [mired] sn. mind, 
moed |_rmredj s. courage. 
moeije [muoie] wv. to be sorry, 

to pity, to trouble. 
moeike [muoike] s. aunt. 
moeite [muoite] s. trouble. 
moete [mirote] wv. 246. to meet. 
mogelikheid ['moiglekhald] s. 


molke [molke] s. milk. 
molken [molken] sn. milk to be 


mooglik [moiglek] adj. possible, 
mosk [mosk] s. sparrow. 
moude [moude] s. mould. 
mouwe [rno-ue] s. sleeve. 
mule [mule] s. mouth, 
munster [m0:ster] sn. monster, 
munts [miionts] s. monk, 
murre [miiore] s. wall. 

mus [mu:z] s. mouse. 
miiske [myske] sn. rogue, urchin, 
mutel [mutel] adj. chubby, 
mutse [ mutse] s. cap. 


nacht [naxt] s. night, 
nachtskaed ['naxtskaid] sn. 

shade of night. 

naderje [naiderje] wv. to seize, 
naesje [naisjal s. nation. 
namme [name] s. name, 
narje [narje] wv. to tease, to vex. 
natuer [na'tyer] s. nature. 
nau [nou] adj. narrow, 
naule [noile] s. navel. 
n6 [nei] int. nay, no. 
nea [nre] adv. never, 
neaken [ni'oken] adj. naked, 
neame [nrema] wv. to name, to 


nearne [ni-ene] adv. nowhere, 
neat [nret] ind. pr. nothing. 
nedich [ne:deg] adj. necessary. 
need [ne:d] s. need. 
needlot ['neidlot] sn. fate, 
neffens [nefaz] prep, according 

nei [nai] adv. prep, near, after, 


neidet [nai'dot] conj. after that. 
neigean ['naigren] iv. 250. to 

trace, to follow. 
neisimmer ['nalsimer] s. a mild 


neist [naist] prep, next, nearest. 
nei't [nait] conj. after that. 
neitiid Pnaitid] adv. afterwards. 
nepert [neipat] s. niggard, 
nest [nsist] sn. nest, 
ndst [n:st] prep, before, ago. 
nestelje [nssalje] wv. to nestle. 
net [net] sn. net* 
net [net] adv. not. 
nicht [ni\t] s. cousin. 
nidich [nideg] adj. angry. 
nidle [nile, nole] s. needle. 



nift [niffc] s. cousin. 

nij [nei] adj. new. 

nijachtich ['nsiaxteg] adj. a 

little new. 
nijsgierrich [neis'kiirog] adj. 


niid [ni:d] s. envy. 
nils [ni:zl adv. just now. 
nimme [nime] sv. IV, b. to 


nimmen [nimen] nobody. 
nin [nin, nan] art. 203. no. 
ninter [ninter] adj. to ninter 

tiid: never. 

njirre [mire] s. adder, viper. 
nju [mo] s. joy. 
njuet [ny-et] adj. tame. 
njuggen [niogen] num. nine. 
njuggende ['mogende] num. 

njuggentich ['niogenteg] num. 

njuggentjin ['niogentjen] num. 

njunken [monken] adv. prep. 

next, beside. 

uoadich [mredeg] adj. necessary. 
noait [no'it] adv. never. 
noas [no'9z] s. nose. 
noaskje [noaskje] wv. "to please. 

no*9t] sn. grain. 

nox] adv. yet, still, besides. 

nox] conj. neither, nor. 

noigl adv. enough. 
[no:g] adj. done, cooked. 






nochlik [noxlsk] adj. agreeable. 

nocht [noxt] s. joy. 

nochteren ['noxteren] adj. 

empty, sober. 
noed [nu0d] s. care. 
noedlik [nuodlak] adj. pre- 


noflik [nofitak] adj. agreeable. 
nofteren [nofteren] adj. empty, 


n6t [no:t] sn. grain. 
nou[.nouj adv. now. 
nou't [nout] conj. now that. 

nut [not] sn. use, profit. 

niit [nyt] s. nut. 

nutebeam ['nytabi-em] s. wal- 

nutsdop [ v nytsdop] s. nutshell. 

nuver [ny:var] adj. singular, 

can [o w 9n] adv. prep, on, to, at, 

oanbiede ['O'embi-ede] sv. II, a. 

to offer. 
oandriuwe ['o'endriuwe] sv. I, c. 

to drive on. 
oanfleane [Venflrene] sv. II, c. 

to fly at. 
oangean ['o'9i)gi*9n] iv. 250. to 

oanhalde ['o-enhoide] sv. VII, c. 

to continue, 
oanheare ['o'enhi-era] wv. to 

hear, to listen to. 
oanhearre ['o-ahisre] wv. to 

hear, to listen to. 
oankomme ['o-erjkome] sv. IV, 

b. to arrive, 
oanlaitsje ['o-elaitsje] wv. 246. 

to smile at. 
oanlizze ['o-elize] iv. 250. to 

stop ; to manage, 
oanmeitsje ['o'emmaitsje] wv. 

246. to make haste. 
oannimme po'onnime]^. IV, b. 

to accept, to admit, 
oanpiele ['o'emprele] wv. to be 

careful of. 
oanprange ['o'emprarp] wv. to 

oanroppe ['o-erope] sv. VII, b. 

to call, to invoke. 
oanslach ['o-eslax] s. attempt; 

oanslaen ['o-eslain] sv. VI, a. to 

oanslaggen po-eslagen] s. 195. 




oanstean ['o'estren] iv. 250. to 

oanstekke ['o-esteka] sv. IV, a. 
to put in ; to fire. 

oant [o'ent] prep, to, till. 

oantrekke ['o-antrske] sv. IV, a. 
to take to heart. 

oantsjen ['0'9ntsjsn] sv. II, c. 
to draw, to put on. 

oar [o*9r] adj. other. 

oard [o*0d] num. second. 

oardeel ['o-edeil] sn. judgement, 

oardeheal, oardel ['o'edohrel, 
O'9del] num. one and a 

oardele po-adeilo] wv. to judge. 

oarloch f'o'8k>x] s. war. 

oars [o*9z] adv. otherwise, differ- 
ent, else. 

oer [o*er] prep. adv. over. 

oeral ['u-erol, u'er'ol] adv. 

oerbliid [irar'bliid] adj. very 

oerbolgen [u-ar'bolgen] adj. in- 

oerdwaen ['u'efcJdwaTi] iv. 
250. to do over. 

oerdwealsk [u*9'dwrelsk, u*8- 
'dwrolz] adj. rash, headlong. 

oerginst ['ir9rg0:st] s. envy. 

oergrime [u'9r'grim9] adj. angry, 

oerhawwe [/U'9rhav9] iv. 250. 
to have to spare. 

oerjaen ['irarjam] iv. 250. to 

oerkomme l/trerkome] sv. IV, 
b. to overcome ; to arrive. 

oerlibje [ir9r'libJ9] wv. to over- 

oerrinne ['u-grrmg] sv. Ill, a. 
to run over. 

oerstjur [u-9'stjir9r] adj. dis- 

oertruzelje [u'9'try:z9lJ9] wv. 
to flood. 

oerwinne ['u-grumg] sv. Ill, a. 

to save money, 
oerwinne [irar'uma] sv. Ill, a. 

to conquer. 
of [of] conj. or. 
6f [o:f, O'a] prep. adv. off. 
dfbitelje ['o-ebatslja] wv. to pay 


dfdak ['o w 8dak] sn. shed. 
dffalle ['o-afo-le] sv. VI, e. to 

fall down ; to go off. 
6ffeije ['o-efaiaj wv. 246. to 

wipe, to dust. 
6fgean [/o-egron] iv. 250. to go 

dfriede po-eri'ede] wv. 246. to 

dfrinne ['o-erine] sv. Ill, a. to 

run away ; to expire. 
dfskodzje [/O'eskodzje] wv. to 

shake off. 
6fstrike ['o-estrike] sv. IV, a. to 

strike off ; to flee. 
oft [ot] conj. if. 
okse [okse] s. ox. 
om [om] prep, round, for, at. 
omaeije [om'a'ie] wv. to stroke. 
omdet [om'dot] conj. because. 
omgean [/omgran] iv. 250. to 

go round ; to frequent. 
omke [omke] s. uncle. 
omklamje [om'klamje] wv. to 


omkromte ['omkromte] s. trou- 
ble, omkromte bylizze, to 

put to inconvenience. 
ommers [omez] adv. indeed, for. 
ompolskje ['ompokkjej wv. to 

drive round. 
omsjen [ / omsisn] sv. II, c. to 

look round (back). 
omslaen ['omslam] sv. VI, a. to 

beat down ; to turn over. 
om't [onit] conj. because. t 
omwei ['omuai] s. circuitous 


onbidich [om'biideg] adj. ex- 



onbihindere [ombo'hincbra] 

adj. unhindered. 
onbruksum [om'bruksam] adj. 

onforstandich [ofe'stondeg] adj. 


ongans Porjgoiz] sn. garbage. 
ongeef [on'geiv] adj. unsound, 

ongelyk [orjge'lik] adj. unlike, 

ongemaklik [onge'maklek] adj. 

uncomfortable, uneasy ; morose. 
ongeskansearre [ongasko'zisre] 

adj. whole, 
ongetreast [onga'tri-est] adj. 

onlijich [o'lsiog] adj. rainy and 


onmacht ['ommaxt] s. impo- 
onpesjintich [ompe'simteg] adj. 


onreedlik [o'reidtak] adj. un- 

onrst ['oreist] s. unrest. 
onrSstich [5'rs:st9g] adj. restless. 
ons [o:z] sn. ounce. 
onsjuch [o'siox] a dj> unsightly, 


onsljucht [o'slioxt] adj. uneven, 
ontank ['ontcink] s. ingratitude. 
ontankber [on/tankber] adj. 

ontgean [ont'xi'Qn] in 250. to 


onthald [ont'ho:d] sn. memory. 
onthalde [ont'] sv. VII, c. 

to remember. 
ontjaen [ont'jam] iv. 250. to 

open, to expand, 
ontkomme [ont'kome] sv. IV, b. 

to escape. 
ontkrije [ont'krsfe] wv. 246. to 

take away. 
ontnimme [ont'mme] sv. IV, b. 

to take away, to deprive, 
ontsette [ont'seta] wv. to relieve. 

ontskoattelje [ont'skoatelje] 

wv. to unbolt. 
ontstean [ont'sti-en] iv. 250. to 

arise ; to stay away. 
ontstelle [ont'sts'le] sv. V, a. to 


onwaer [/oucr.r] sn. thunder- 

onwaerje [^uairje] wv. to thun- 

onwiten [o'uitan] adj. gigantic. 
op [op] adv. prep, on, upon, up. 
opbod Pobbod] sn. auction. 
opdyk ['obdikj s. byway. 
opdwaen [ r obdwa*n] iv. 250. to 

open ; to obtain, 
opgean ['opxron, / obgi9n] iv. 

250. to go up, to rise. 
opgong [^opxorj, 'obgor)] s. rise. 
ophalde ['ophoide] sv. VII, c. to 

hold up ; to stop. 
opharkje ['opharkje] wv. to be 

opheapje [ / ophispjo] wv. to heap 

ophelje [^phslje] wv. to draw 

up ; to sing. 
opjaen ['opjam] iv. 250. to give 

up, to raise. 

opjaen ['opjain] sn. raising. 
opkomme [/opkomo] sv. IV, b. 

to come up, to rise. 
opkrije ['opkrsie] wv. 246. to 

pick up. 
opmerke [/opmsrke] sv. Ill, b. 

to observe. 
opnimme [/opnime] sv. IV, b. 

to take up. 
opskouwe ['opskoua] swv. 248. 

to push up. 
opstean [/opstron] iv. 250. to 

stand up, to rise. 
opstrike ['opstrike] sv. IV, a. to 

stroke up. 

optik ['optik] s. tip, 
ornaris [o'nairaz] adv. ordinarily. 
ou [ou] prep. adv. off, down. 
oun [oun, u:n] s. oven. 



paed [paid] sn. path. 
pak [pak] sn. pack, suit. 
pake [pa:ko] s. grandfather. 
pantsje [pomtsje] sn. saucer. 
par [par] s. pear. 
parse [pose] s. press. 
partij fpg'tsi] s. party. 
passe [pbs9] wv. to suit. 
patsje [patsje] wv. to kiss. 
peal [pi'ol] s. pole, pile. 
pear Tprerl sn. pair, 
perk [psrkl sn. park, 
perse [pesaj s. press. 
Pier [pi'9rj mn. 
piip fpiip] s. pipe. 
pyk [pik] s. chicken, 
pikelhearring [ / pik9lhlsr9n] s. 

pickled herring. 
pikswart [pikswat] adj. black 

as pitch. 

piktried ['piktri-ed] sn. wax-end. 
Pylje [pilja] wv - to dart. 
pylk [pilk] s. arrow, flash. 
pine [pine] s. pain. 
pinksterblom fpinksterblom] 

s. cardamine. 
pipe [pip9] wo. to pipe. 
piuwe [piuwe] wv. to mock. 
pjuk [piok] s. pike ; stab. 
plak [pick] sn. place, stain. 
plakke [plake] wv. to paste, to 


planke [planke] s. plank, platter. 
plant [plont] s. plant. 
pleagje [pli*9gJ9] wv. to tease. 
pleats [pli-9ts] s. farm(-house). 
plicht [plixt] s. duty. 
pliigje [pliigje] iv. 250. to be 

ploaitsje [plo-itsJ9] wv. 246. to 


ploege [pluige] s. plough. 
ploegje [plu:gJ9] wv. 246. to 

ploeije [plu'ie] wv. 246. to 


ploffe [plofe] wv. to bounce. 
pldkje [ploikje] wv. 246. to 


plom [plom] s. plume. 
plum j plum] s. plume. 
poanne [poane] s. cap with 


po'arper [poarper] sn. purple. 
poarte [poate] s. gate. 



s. pot. 
s. pool, 
pus] s. puss. 
pokdobbich [ / pokdob9g] adj. 

pols [polzl s. pulse. 
pols [polz] s. pole for springing. 
pompe [pompg] wv. to pump ; to 


pompier [p9m/pi-9r] sn. paper, 
pong [pon] s. purse. 
pop [pop] s. doll. 
p6t [poit] s. pot. 
poun [pun] s. pound, 
pracht [praxt] s. magnificence. 
prate [] wv. to talk, 
priis [priiz] s. price. 
priizgje [pri:zgJ9] wv. to praise. 
prikstok ['prikstok] s. dry 


prinses [prr'sss] s. princess. 
priuwe [priuwg] sv. I, c. to 


profecy [profe'ssi] s. prophecy. 
profeet [pro'feit] s. prophet. 
prdlle [pro:l9] s. kidney. 
prom [prom] s. plum. 
pronk [prorjk] s. show ; Sunday 

pronkje [pronkjg] wv. to make 

a great show, to parade. 
protter [prot9r] s. starling. 
prum [prum] s. plum, 
prus [pru:z] adj. charming. 
pul [pul, puol] s. pod. 
putheak ['pothrgk, p6t9k] s. 

pole of a well. 
putte [pote] wv. to draw water. 



rabje [rabje] wv. to backbite. 
rache [raxe] ww. to scold. 
raei [ra*i] s. grass-stalk. 
raenjen [rarpen] s. 195. freaks, 
raer [ra:r] adj. strange, queer. 
rakkert [raket] s. urchin. 
rame [raime] wv. to thrust, to 


ramt [ramt] sn. window, 
rane [rame] wv. to melt. 
range [rarje] s. branch, twig. 
ranne [roine] s. brim, edge, 


raze [raize] wv. to rage, to rave, 
rea(d) [rred, rre] adj. red. 
readhud ['rredhuid] s. red skin. 
reagje [rregje] wv. to sweep 

away cobwebs, to sweep the 


reak [rrek] s. hayrick. 
Beaklif [rre'klrf] gn. cliff near 


reamme [rieme] s. cream, 
reau [riou] sn. tools ; horse and 


rch [re:] s. back, ridge. 
rdd [re:d] sn. wheel. 
red [reidj adj. nimble, swift. 
rdde [re:de]tm?. (p.p. rSdden) 

to save. 
redeneare [ride'ni'ere] wv. to 

rddsum [rsitsem) adj. handy, 

reed [re:d] s. 192. skate (for 


reed [re:d] s. ride, 
reek [re:k] s. smoke. 
regear [re'grer, re'grer] sn. 

reign, government. 
>id [n 

reid [raid] sn. reed. 
rein [rain] s. rain, 
reine [rain9] wv. to rain. 
reis [raiz] s. journey, voyage. 
reitsje [raitsJ9] wv. 246. to 
touch ; to get. 

reizgje fraizgjg] wv. to travel. 
rek [rsk] s. a long time, 
rekke [rsk9] sv. IV, a. to extend, 

to lengthen. 

rekken [rsk9n] s. bill, reckoning. 
rekkenje [rskgnjg] wv. to count, 

to reckon. 
rdst [reist] s. rest, 
reste [reiste] wv. to rest. 
restich [rs:st9g] adj. quiet. 
ribbe [nb9] s. rib. 
richel [rix9l] s. border, edge. 
ride [ri:d9, rid9] sv. I, a. to ride 5 

to skate, 
ridlik [rilgk] adj. adv. tolerable, 


rie(d) [ri-9d, ri'9] s. advice. 
riere [ri'ere] wv. to stir, 
rigele [rigale] s. row. 
rij [rsi J adj. prodigal. 
rijens [reiez] s. prodigality. 
ryk [rik] adj. rich, 
rikeljue [ / rik9lio] s. wealthy 


rikje [rikjg] wv. to smoke. 
rikke [nk9j wv. to reach, 
rykrak ['rikrak] sn. something 

old and worn. 

rinder [nnd9r] s. runner, huck- 

ring [rin] s. ring, 
rinkelje [nnk9lJ9] wv. to rattle. 
rinne [ring] sv. Ill, a. to run. 
rintenier [rmtg'nrgr] s. retired 

ryp [rip] adj. ripe. 
Byp (De) [de'rip] gn. village in 


ris [res, rez] adv. once. 
rys [ris] s. rice. 

risping ['rispan] s. harvest, crop, 
rispje [nspje] wv. to harvest, to 

gather the crops, 
risse [rise] wv. to equip, 
rite [rite] s. while. 
ritsdi [ x ntsdi] int. 
riuwe [riuwe] sv. I, c. to tag, to 




riuwe [riuwe] s. rake. 

rize [riiza] wv. to rise. 

rju [rio] adj. rife. 

rjucht frioxt] adj. right. 

rjucht [rioxt] sn. right. 

rjuchter [rioxter] s. judge. 

rjuchterhan [rioxter'hom] s. 
right hand. 

rjuchtfirdich [rioxt'fodeg] adj. 
just, righteous. 

rjuchts [rioxts, rioxs] adv. to 
the right. 

roaije [ro'io] wv. to aim. 

roas [ro'9z] s. rose. 

roedlings ['nredlenz] adv. close 

roeije [rule] wv. to row. 

roeikje [ruikja, ruoikje] wv. to 

roer [nrer] sn. rudder. 

roer [nrerj s. stir. 

roet [in* at, ruot] sn. soot. 

rogge [roga] s. rye. 

r6k [roik] s. underskirt, petti- 
coat, kirtle. 

rdle [roila] s. roll. 

rdlje [roilja] wv. to roll. 


rom |^rom] adj. wide, large, 

romer [rormar] s. rummer. 

romte [romta] s. room, abun- 

rook [ro:k] s. scent, smell 

ropein ['ropam] s. kind of duck. 

roppe [rope] sv. VII, b. to call, 
to cry. 

ropsek Propssk] s. glutton. 

r6t [ro:t] s. rat. 

rou [rou] adj. raw, uncooked. 

roun [run] adj. round. 

rounoin ['runom] adv. on all 
sides, everywhere. 

rouwe [ro-ua] wv. to mourn, to 

riich [rux] adj. shaggy, hairy; 

ruchte [rux^Q] s. shagginess. 

rude [rydo] s. scabies. 

Buerd [ryed] mn. 
ruilebutsje [''roeilebutsje] wv. 

to exchange. 

ruilje [rceilje] wv. to exchange. 
ruke [rukel swv. 248. to smell. 
rum [rum] adj. wide, large, 


rup [rup] s. caterpillar. 
ruze [ruiza] wv. to rustle. 
ruzje [ru:zja] wv. quarrel. 


sa [sa] adv. so, 

sa-sa [sa'sa] adv. nearly, just; 
so-so, passable. 

sabeare [sa'brara] adv. quasi. 

Saddusieu [sady'si-u] s. Saddu- 

sadwaende [sa'dwainda] adv. 
thus, in that manner. 

saed [sa:d] s. well. 

sakje [sakja] wv. to sink. 

salt [sort] sn. salt. 

salte [so:ta] wv. to salt, to pickle. 

sa'n [son] adv. such. 

san [soml sn. sand. 

sang [sarjj s. song. 

sa't [sat] conj. as. 

saun [som] num. seven. 

saunde [somda] num. seventh. 

sauntal ['somtol] sn. (number of) 

sauntich [sontag] num. seventy. 

sauntjin [sontjan] num. seven- 

sawol . . as [sa'uol . . oz] conj. as 
well as. 

scille [sila] iv. 249. (pr. soil, 
scilst, scil, scille ; imp. scoe, 
scoenen ; p. p. scillen) shall, 

se [sa] pers. pr. she, they. 

s [se:] s. sea. 

sead [sisid] s. sod. 

seage [sraga] s. saw. 

seagje [sragjal wv. to saw. 

seame [sramaj s. seam, bottom. 




sear [si*9r] adj. sore, painful. 

I] num. five and a 



sechste [sskste] num. sixth. 
sechsteheal [ssksta'hi'el] num. 

five and a half. 

sechstich [ssksteg] num. sixty. 
sechstjin [sskstJ9n] num. six- 

sSd [seid] adj. satiated. 
s6dyk [sei'dik] s. sea-dike, 
seft [ssift] adj. soft. 
seftkes [seiftkez] adv. softly. 
sell [sail] sn. sail. 
seine [saine] 5. scythe. 
seinje [saijie] wv. to bless. 
seinrop Psairop] s. signal, 
seis [salzj num. six. 
seistal ['saistol] sn. (number of) 


sek [ssk] s. sack, bag. 
selde [selde] adj. same. 
sels [sslz] dern. pr. self. 
s6man Pse:mon] s. seaman. 
set [set] s. trick, 
sette [sete]-tw. to set, to place; 

to build. 

sy [sei] pers. pr. she, they. 
side [side] 5. side, 
side [sidaj s. silk. 
sydpaed psidpaid] sn. side-path, 
sie(d) [sr8d,si'8j sn. seed, 
siedder [slider] s. sower, 
siedding [siidin] s. sowed land, 
siede [si-edo] sv. II, a. to seethe. 
siedzje [siidzjg] wv. to sow. 
siekerl ['srekel] s. grain of seed, 
siel(e) [si-9l9, si-el] s. soul, 
sige [si:g9] wv. to filter. It siigt 

hjir : there is a draught here, 
sigen [siigan] s. draught. 
siichje [si:xjo] sn. soft wind, 
siik [sirk, sik] adj. sick, ill. 
siikbed ['sikbsid] sn. sick-bed, 
siikje [si:kJ9, sikje] iv. 250. to 


Sije [ssi9] mn. 
sike [sik9] s. breath. 

siker [sik9r] adv. positively. 
sikersonk [sikarsonk] adv. in- 

sykte [sikte] s. illness, malady. 
syl [sit] s. lock, sluice. 
sile [sila] wv. to sail, 
silver [solv9r] sn. silver, 
simmer [sim9r] s. summer. 
simmerdyk ^simgrdik] s. low 

weir, serviceable in summer. 
simmerjoun ['simerjun] s. 

summer evening. 
simmerkrite [/sim9rkrit9] 5. 

hay-meadow liable to flooding 

in winter, 
simmer moarn [/sim9rmo'9n] s. 

summer morning. 
simmers [simez] adv.iu summer. 
sims [s9mz] adv. sometimes. 
sin [sin] sn. humour, temper, 


sin [sin] s. signification, phrase, 
syn [sin] poss. pr. his, its. 
sinke [sinkg] sv. Ill, d. to sink, 
sinloas [ x silo'9z] adj. out of one's 

sinne [sing] s. sun. 

sinneskyn ['sin9skm] s. sun- 

sinnestriel ['sm9stri*9l] s. sun- 

sint [sint] adv. since. 

sister [sost9r] s. sister. 

Sytse [sitee] mn. 

Sytske [sitsk0]y%. 

sitte [sit9] sv. V, a. to sit. 

sizze [siz9] iv. 250. to say. 

sjen [sisn] sv. II, c. to see. 

sjippe [siip9] s. soap. 

sjitte [s!it9] sv. II, b. to shoot. 

Sjoerd [sju*9d] mn. 

sjonge [siong] sv. Ill, d. to sing. 

sjongster [sionster] s. songstress. 

Sjoukje [sjoukJ9] fn. 

sjuch [siox] adj. nice. 

sjud [siod] s. flax-brakings. 

skaed [ska:d] sn. shade. 

skaffe [skaf9j wv. to procure. 



skamje (yen) [ji skamje] wo. to 

be ashamed, 
skansearje [sko'zisrje] wv. to 

skar, sker [skar, sksr] sn. share 

in a common grazing-ground. 
skat [skot] s. treasure. 
skatterje [skoterjo] wv. to laugh 


skea [ski- 9] s. damage. 
skeaf [ski'ov] s. sheaf. 
skeel fskeil] sn. complaint, 
skelf [skelvj adj. oblique, 
skelle, skille [sksle, skilel s. 

skelms(k) [skslmsk, skslmz] 

adj. roguish. 
skeppe [skspo] sv. VI, d. to 


skerm [skeirm] sn. screen. 
skerte [skete] s. lap. 
skie [ski- o] s. sheath, 
skiede [skrede] wv. 246. to 


skieding [ski-eden] s. separa- 
skielik [skrelek] adv. in a short 


skiep [ski'9p] sn. sheep. 
skieppeblom ['skiipeblom] s. 

Dutch clover, 
skier [skrer] adj. grey. 
skikke [skike] wv. to arrange ; 

to send. 

skild [skold] s. guilt, debt. 
skylfisk Pskilfisk] s. haddock, 
skimer [skimer] s. twilight, 

skimerje [skimerje] wv. to 

glimmer ; to get dark or light. 
skyn [skin] s. shine ; appearance. 
skine [skine] wv. to shine; to 

skynhillich [skin'hilog] adj. 

skinke [skirjke] sv. Ill, d. to 

present; to retail, to pour 


skip [skip] sn. ship. 

skipper [skipar] s. ship-captain, 

skirte [skote] s. lap. 

skjin [skiin] adj. clean, pure. 

skjirre [skiire] s. scissors. 

skoalbern pskoalbsn] sn. school- 

skoalboek [ X sk6albuk] sn. 

skoal] e [skoale] s. school. 

skoaltiid pskoaltid] s. school- 

skoan [sko-an] adj. adv. ex- 
cellent, very good. 

skoander [skcrender] adj. ex- 

skoarstien [sk6asjen]s. chimney 

skoattel [skdatelj s. bolt. 

skob [skob] s. scale. 

skobbert [skobat] s. scamp. 

skocht [skoxt] sn. while, part of 
a day. 

skoech [sku:] s. shoe. 

skoenmakker [skuo(m)maker] 
s. shoemaker. 

skoerre [skuore] wv. to tear. 

skoft [skoft] sn. while, part of a 

skom [skom] sn. scum. 

skonk [skorjk] s. leg. 

skoppe [skope] wv. to kick. 

skouder [skouder] sn. shoulder. 

skouderje [skouderje] wv. to 
give the cold shoulder. 

skouwe [skoue] swv. 248. to 

skreauwe [skrioue] wv. to cry, 
to clamour. 

skreppe [skrspe] wv. to make 

skrieme [skrreme] wv. to weep, 
to cry. 

skries [skri-ez] s. black-tailed 

Skrift [skrift] s. Holy Writ. 

skrift [skrift] sn. writing, 



skriften [skriften] s. 195. works. 

skrilje [skrilje] wv. to be 

skrippe [skripe] wv. to make 

skriuwe [skriuwe] sv. I, c. to 

skriuwer [skrmwer] s. writer. 

skroar [skro-er] s. tailor, needle- 

skroarje [skroarje] wv. to make 
clothes, to do sewing-work. 

skroeije [skruie] wv. to scorch. 

skuile [skoeile] wv. to slide; to 
play at ducks and drakes. 

skrute [skryto] wv. to be 

skruten [skryten] adj. easily 

skiif [skyiv] s. move ; slide. 

skurre [skuore] s. barn. 

skiitel [skutol] s. plate, dish. 

slach [slax] s - blow, loss ; clap ; 
battle; kind. 

slachter [slaxter] s. butcher. 

slaeb [sla:b] s. baby's feeder, 

slaen [sla:n] iv. 250. to beat. 

slagje [slagje] wv. to succeed. 

sleat [slret] s. ditch. 

Sleat [slret] gn. town in Fries- 

sleau [sliou] adj. indolent, slug- 

slide [slide] s. sledge. 

sliep [slrep] s. sleep ; temple. 

sliepe [sli-epe] wv. 246. to sleep. 

slim, [slim] adj. bad, evil. 

slingerje [slirprje] wv. to sling, 
to swing. 

slinke [slirjke] sv. Ill, d. to 

sliper [sliper] s. grinder, 

slypje [slipjo] wv. to sharpen, to 

slits [slite] yo. I, b. to wear 
away; to retail. 

sljucht [slioxt] adj. smooth; 

sljuchtsje [slioxtsje] wv. to 
smoothe, to level. 

sljurkje [sliorkje] wv. to slide. 

slomje [slomje] wv. to slumber. 

slomme [slomej s. slumber. 

slop [slop] adj. slack, limp. 

sluch [slux] adj. sleepy; sluggish. 

sluere [sly 'ere] wv. to slide. 

slugens [slugazl s. sleepiness. 

slugert [sluget J s. sleepy-head. 

slugje [slugja] wv. to slumber. 

slupe [slupa] swv. 248. to steal 
along or away. 

slute [slyto] sv. II, b. to close, to 

smarre [smare, smcrro] wv. to 

smeitsje [smaitsje] wv. 246. to 
taste, to savour. 

smel [smsl] adj. narrow. 

smert(e) [smetd, smet] s. sorrow, 

smeule [sm0:l8] wv. to scorn. 

smite [smite] sv. I, b. to throw. 

smoar [smo*8r] sn. grease. 

smoarch [smoarg] adj. dirty. 

smoargens [smoargez] s. dirti- 

smoke [smoike] wv. to smoke. 

smout [smoiit] adj. sheltered. 

smoutsjes [smoutsJ9z]acfo. under 
the lee. 

snappe [snape] wv. to catch. 

snauwe [snoue, sno'ue] wv. to 

Snein [snam] s. Sunday. 

snetterje [sneterje] wv. to chat- 

snie [sni-0] s. snow. 

snieflok ['sniiflok] s. flake of 

snies [snrez] sn. score (twenty). 

sniewyt [sni'euit] adj. snow- 

snije [snsie] sv. I, d. to cut. 

snije [snsiej wv. to snow. 



Snits [snits] gn. town in Fries- 
land (in Dutch, Sneek). 

Snjeon [sno'on] s. Saturday. 

snjitte [smite] wv. to sprinkle. 

snjitterje [smiterje] wv. to 

snoerje [snuorje] wv. to shut up 
(a person). 

snufFelje [snofelje] wv. to sniff. 

snuve [] wv. to sniff. 

soal [scroll s. sole. 

soal [so'el] sn. navigable lane in 

soaltsje [so*eltsje] sn. In the 
phrase for 't soaltsje haide, 
to make fun of (a person). 

scan [so- en] s. son. 

search [soarg] s. care, trouble. 

soargje [soargje] wv. to take 
care; to be afraid. 

sobkje [sobkje] wv. to suck. 

sok [sot] dem. pr. such. 

soks [soks] dem. pr. such a thing. 

somber [somber] adj. dark, 

somlike [somleke] num. some. 

sommige [somege] num. some. 

soms [somz] adv. sometimes. 

sender [sonder] prep, without. 

sonder det [sender dot] conj. 

sont [sont] adv. prep, since. 

sont det [sont dot] conj. since. 

sou [sou] sn. sieve. 

soun [sun] adj. sound, hearty; 

spanne [spone] wv. to stretch, 
to put to. 

spatte [spote] wv. to spurt, 

speeglich [speigleg] adj. reflect- 

spegel [spe:gel] s. looking-glass. 

spiele [spi-ele] wv. to rinse, to 
wash up. 

spier [sprer] s. rafter. 

spier [sprerj sn. In the phrase 
yn 't spier, at work. 

spierring [spiiren] s. smelt. 
spije [spsie] sv. I, d. to spit. 
spiker [spiker] s. nail. 
spikerfest ['spikerfsist] adj. 

clinched and riveted. 
spil [spol] sn. game, play ; 


spylder [spilder] s. player, 
spylje [spilje] wv. to play, 
spylman ['spilmon] s. fiddler, 

spinne [spine] sv. Ill, a. to spin ; 

to purr. 

spitsen [spitsen] s. 195. com- 

spjucht [spioxt] s. woodpecker. 
spjuchtich [spioxteg] adj. lanky. 
splinter [splinter] s. splinter, 
split e [splite] sv. I, b. to cleave, 

to split. 

spoen [spuon] s. chip, 
sprekke [sprske] sv. IV, a. to 

speak ; to boast. 
spriede [sprrede] wv. 246. to 

springe [sprine] s. Ill, d. to 

stadich [stdideg] adj. slow. 

stftl [stoil] s. stable. 

stalle [stoile] wv. to stable, to 

stalle [sto:le] s. stem, stalk, 

stan [sto:n] s. position ; yn stan 
halde, to keep up. 

stappe [stape] swv. 248. to step. 

stean [sti-en] iv. 250. to stand. 

ste", steed [ste:, steid] sn. place. 

stdd [stsidl s. town. 

stedman ['stsdmon] s. inhabi- 
tant of a town. 

stedshus [stsdz'huzz] sn. town- 

steds(k) [ststsk, ststs] adj. 
municipal, townish. 

steger [steiger] s. scaffolding. 

stek [stsk] sn. railing. 

stek [stsk] s. stitch. 



stekke [steke] sv. IV, a. to prick, 
stel [stel] sn. In phr. op stel, in 

order ; lit stel, indisposed, 
stelle [stezle] sv. V, a. to steal. 
sterk [stsrk J adj. strong. 
steure [stcrere] wv. to disturb, 

to care about, 
stichtsje [strxtsje] wv. to found ; 

to edify. 

stiel [sti-el] sn. steel. 
stiemmoer ['stii(m)mu'8r] s. 

stien [stren] s. stone, 
stiennen [stimen] adj. (of ) stone. 
Stiennen-man [stiinen'mon] 

pn. statue near Harlingen. 
styfsel [stisel] s. starch. 
stiftsje [strftsje] wv. to found; 

to edify. 

stiif [stiiv] adj. stiff, 
stiiffest [stiiffeist] adj. adv. 

steady, without exception, 
stiivje [stiivje] wv. to starch, 
stik [stik] sn. piece, part, 
stikel [stikel] s. prickle ; thistle. 
stikelbosk ['stikelbosk] sn. 


stil [stil] adj. still, quiet, 
stinne [stme] wv. to groan. 
stins [sti:z] s. castle, 
stirt [stot] s. tail, 
stjer [stisr] s. star. 
stjerre [stiere] sv. Ill, c. to 


stjitte [stiite] wv. 246. to thrust. 
stjonke [stiorjko] sv. Ill, d. to 


stjonken [stiorjken] adj. stink- 
stjure [stju-ere] wv. to steer; to 


stoarje [stoarjo] wv. to look. 
stoarm I stoarmj s. storm. 
stobbe [sto'be] s. stump, 
stoel [stirel] s. chair, 
stof [stof] s. matter, texture, 
stof [stof] sn. dust, 
stdk [sto:k] s. stick, cane. 

st6kblyn [stoikblin] adj. stone- 

stoomboat ['stombo'ot] s, steam- 

stoppel [stopal] s. stubble. 

stove [stoive] s. stove, foot- 

stouwe [stoua] swv. 248. to be 

straffe [strafo] wv. to punish. 

stram [stram] adj. stiff. 

stran [strom] sn. beach, strand. 

streakje [stri'ekje] wv. to stroke. 

stride [striide, strido] sv. I, a. 
to fight. 

strie [stri'o] sn. straw. 

striel [strrel] s. ray, beam. 

striemin [stri'emin] adj. very 
bad (ill). 

strike [strike] sv. IV, a. to 
strike ; to iron ; to stroke. 

strjitte [striite] s. street. 

strdt [stroit] s. throat. 

stroii [strou] s. pancake. 

struije [stroafe] wv. to strew. 

strupe [strupej swv. 248. to strip, 
to skin. [stosit] s. rebound. 

stuit [stositj sn. moment. 

stuitsje [stoeitsje] wv. to re- 

stumper [stompar] s.poor fellow. 

stur [stirer] s. penny. 

such [su:g] s. sow. 

slid [syd] adj. south. 

SudersS [syder'se:] gn. Zuider- 

siige [su:ge] wv. to suck. 

sunder [sunder] prep, without. 

sunt [sunt] adv. prep, since. 

siintsjes [syntsjez] adv. softly, 

supe [supo] swv. 248. to tope. 

sur [su*or] adj. sour. 

sutelje [sytelja] wv. to retail, to 

suver [syivor] adj. pure. 

suze [syize] wv. to buzz. 



siizje [sy:zjol wv. to buzz, 
swaei [swa'ij s. swing, turn, 
swaeije [swa*ie] wv. to swing. 
swan [swon] s. swan. 
swarre [swore] wv. to swear, 
swart [swat] adj. black. 
swartens [swatnz] s. blackness. 
swartr6k ['swatrok] s. black- 

sw6 [swe:] sn. swath, 
sweal [swrel] s. swallow, 
swealtsje [swsltsje] sn. swallow. 
swel [swel] s. swallow. 
swerve [swerve] sv. Ill, b. to 

sweve [sweive] wv. to float in 

the air. 
swichte [swixte] wv. to yield, to 

give in. 

swier [swi*er] s. swing. 
swier [swrer] adj. heavy. 
swierich [swi-ereg] adj. elegant, 
swiersettich [swi-er'sstog] adj. 


swiet [swret] adj. sweet. 
swietkes [swretkez] adv. softly. 
swietsjes [swretsjezj adv. softly. 
swifte [swifte] wv. to yield, to 

give in. 
swije [swsie] swv. I, d. 248. to 

be silent. 

swylje [swilje] wv. to rake (hay). 
swym [swim] s. semblance ; nin 

swyxn, nothing. 
swimme [swime] sv. Ill, d. to 


swinge [swine] s. cross-beam. 
swinke [swrnke] wv. to turn. 
swird [swod] sn. sword, 
swirk [swork] sn. welkin, 
swit [swit] sn. sweat. 


ta [ta] adv. to, towards ; shut, 
tachtich [taxte] num. eighty. 
taei [ta'i] adj. tough. 
tael [ta:l] s. speech, language. 

tahalde ['tahoide] sv. VII, c. to 

keep shut. 

tajaen ['tajam] iv. 250. to grant. 
take [taike] wv. to steal. 
takomme ['takome] sv. IV, b. 

to have a right to ; to obtain. 
takomst Ptakomst] s. future, 
tamiette ['tamiitej sv. II, b. to 


tantsje [tontsja] wv. to sound. 
tapje [tapje] wv. to tap. 
taroppe ['tarope] sv. VII, b. to 

cry to. 
tarre [tare, ta^re] wv. to spend, 

to consume, 
tasjen ['tasisn] sv. II, c. to look 

on, to watch. 
tastean ['tastrsn] iv. 250. to 

tatinke ^tatirjke] iv. 250. to 

team(e) [trema, ti-em] s. bridle; 


tean [tren] s. toe. 
teane [trene] wv. to show. 
tear [trer] s. fold, 
tear [trerj adj. tender, 
teare [trere] wv. to fold; to 

turn turtle. 

teije [tale] wv. to thaw. 
teiken [taiken] m. token, sign. 
teikenje [taikenje] wv. to sign, 

to draw. 

tek [tsk] sn. covering, thatch. 
teken [teiken] sn. token, sign. 
tekenje [te:kenje] wv. to sign, 

to draw. 

tekspier Ptsksprer] s. rafter. 
telle [tele] wv. to count, 
teltsje [tsltsje] sn. tale. 
tepyt [te r pit] sn. carpet, 
terp [terp] s. mound, terp. 
tersk [test] s. thrashing. 
terskflier ^tsskni^er] s. thrash- 

terskje [tsskje] wv. to thrash, 
the" [te:] s. tea. 
thus [tys] adv. at home. 



tichelje [trxelje] wv. to make 

ticht [tixt] adj. close, dense. 

ticht(e) [tixte, tixt] adv. near. 

tichthiis ['trxthysj sn. prison. 

tydlik [tidlek] adj. temporal, 

tydlings ['tidlenz] adv. at times. 

tiergje [tiirgje] wv. to tear, to 

tige [tiige, tigo] adv. very. 

tiid [tiid] s. time. 

Tiisdei ['tiizdi] s. Tuesday. 

tikje [tikje] wv. to tick. 

tiksel [tiksel] s. shaft. 

tille [tile] wv. to lift. 

tille [tile] s. small fixed bridge. 

tillich [til9] adj. erect. 

timmerman j/timermon] s. car- 

tin [tin] adj. thin. 

tine [tine 
tine [tine" 
tine [tine 
tinke [tin" 

s. milk-basin. 

s. tine. 

wv. to swell. 

iv. 250. to think. 
tins [ti:z] s. thought, 
tjems [tismz] s. hair-sieve. 
tjilling [tiilerj] s. teal. 
to [te] adv. too. 
to [tejprep. to, at. 
toaije [to-ie] wv. 246. to carry 

(heavy burdens). 
toalf, toalve [tolv, tolve] num. 


toalfte [tolfte] num. twelfth. 
toan [to-en] s. tone. 
toar [toar] adj. dry, barren. 
toarst [to*est] s. thirst, 
t oars tic h [to*esteg] adj. thirsty. 
tobbe [to-be] s. tub. 
tobek [te'bsk] adv. backward. 
tobite [te'bite] sv. I, b. to 

tobrekke [te'breke] sv. IV, a. to 


tocht [toxtl sn. while, 
toer [tu-er] s. tower, steeple. 
toerre [tuore] s. beetle. 

tofreden [te'freiden] adj. con- 

togearre [te'gisre] adv. both, 
between them. 

togoede [te'gu^de] adv. to the 

t6gje [toigjo] wv. 246. to carry 
(heavy burdens). 

tokke [toke] s. branch. 

toknieze [te'knreze] wv. to 

tokoart [te'koart] sn. shortage. 

tomealle rte'mlele] wv. to grind. 

tomiette [te'mlitej adv. In phr. 
tomiette komme, to come to 

tomme [tome] s. thumb. 

tommelje [tomelje] wv. to 

touei [te'nai] adv. afterwards. 

tonge Intone] s. tongue. 

tonger [toner] s. thunder. 

tongerje [torprje] wv. to thun- 

Tongersdei ['toizdi] s. Thurs- 

tonne [tone] s. tun, ton. 

torjuchte [te'rloxte] adv. In 
phr. torjuchte wize, to in- 

tosk [tosk] s. tooth, tusk. 

toskoerre [te'skuore] wv. to 
tear to pieces. 

tou [tou] sn. string, end, rope, 

toudounsje ['touduisje] wv. to 

touwerfleach ['touerflreg] s. 
gust of wind. 

traepje [trcr.pje] wv. to tread. 

tred [trsidl s. tread. 

tred [trsidj num. third. 

treddeheal [trside'hi-el] num. 
two and a half. 

treddel [trsidel] num. two and 
a half. 

trddderlei [trsider'lai] adj. of 
three sorts. 



treffe [trefa] sv. Ill, d. to hit. 

trekke [treke] sv. IV, a, to pull, 
to draw. 

trettjin [trstjon] num. thirteen. 

trettjinde [trstjende] num. thir- 

trie(d) [trred, tri-e] s. thread. 

trien [tri*9nj s. tear. 

trije [trsfo] num. three. 

trijekleur ['trsfeklo-er] s, tri- 

trilje [triljo] wv. to tremble. 

trime [trime] s. rung. 

Tryn, Tryntsje [trin, trintsje] 

tritich [triteg] num. thirty. 

triuwe [triuwe] sv. I, c. to 

troaije [tro'ie] wv. to lead softly; 
to caress. 

troan [tro*9n] s. throne. 

troanje [troajie] s. face. 

troch [trox] adv. jyrep. through. 

trochdet [tro'dot] conj. because. 

troch de wei det [tro da uai dot] 
conj. because. 

trochdriuwe [ / tro(g)drmw8] sv. 
I, c. to drive through. 

trochkomme [ / tro(x)kom0] sv. 
IV, b. to get through. 

trochreed ['tro(x)re:d] s. pas- 

trochsette [ / tro(x)sst8] wv. to 
push on. 

trochwiet [tro(g)ui-9t] adj. wet 

tromme [tronw] s. drum. 

trou [trou] adj. true, trusty. 

trouwe [trO'ue] wv. to marry. 

trouwers [tro'U9z] s. 195. -wed- 
ding pair. 

tsien [tsi*8n] num. ten. 

tsiende [tsrende] num. tenth. 

tsiere [tsrere] wv. to quarrel. 

tsiis [tsiiz] s. cheese. 

tsjalk [tsjolk] s. tjalk (kind of 

tsjef [tsjef] sn. chaff. 

tsjen [tsien] sv. II, c. to march, 
to go. 

tsjep [tsjep] adj. comely. 

tsjeppens [tsjspez] s. grace. 

tsjerke [tsjsrke] s. church. 

tsjerkfoud ['tsjsrkfoud] s. 

tsjerkh6f [/tsjsrkhof] sn. church- 

tsjerne [tsjsno] s. churn. 

tsjernje [tsjejie] wv. to churn. 

tsjilpje [tsjilpje] wv. to chirp. 

tsjin [tsiin] adv. prep, against. 

tsjinje [tsiijie] wv. to serve. 

tsjinprate ['tslimprcnte] wv. to 

tsjinst [tsiist] s. service. 

tsjinwirdich [tsii'uodeg, tsii- 
'uorg] adv. at present. 

tsjirmje [tsiirmje] wv. to cry, to 

tsjoed [tsju-ad] adj. bad, ill. 

tsjoene [tsju-ene] wv. to over- 
look, to bewitch. 

tsjoenster [tsju*est9r] s. witch. 

tsjok [tsjok] adj. thick. 

tsjoksel [tsjoksel] s. kind of 

tsjotterje [tsjoterjo] wv. to 

tsjuk [tsjuk] adj. thick. 

tsjuster [tsjoster] adj. dark. 

tiich. [ty:g] sn. rigging, harness. 

tuch [tyx] sn - trash, dust, weed. 

tuge [] wv. to rig; to 

tuke [tuke] s. branch. 

tule [tyto] s. gauze. 

tume [tume] s. thumb. 

tumelje [tumolje] wv. to tumble. 

tun [tynj s. garden. 

tune [tune] s. tun, ton. 

Turk [torkjjw. Turk. 

tusken [tosken] adv. prep, be- 

tuzen [tuizen] num. thousand. 

twa [two:] num. two. 

twadde [twade] num. second. 



twastriid ['twastri-.d] s. inde- 

tweintich [twainte^] num. 

num. twentieth. 

twer [twsr] adj. loath, loathing. 

twiebak ['tw^Jibak] s. biscuit. 

twiich [twiig] s. twig. 

twinge [twina] sv. Ill, cl. to 

twingerij [twine'rsi] s. tyranny. 

twjilling [tw(i)il9n] s. twin. 

twjirre [tw(i)ir9] s. whirlwind. 

twisken [twisken] adv. prep. 

twiskenbeiden [twisken'bai- 
den] adv. now and then ; pass- 

file [ule] s. owl. 

uleboerd ['ulebu-od] sn. tri- 
angular end-board on the ridge 
of a barn. 

under [under] adv. prep, under, 
down, among. 

underhans [under'hoiz] adv. by 
private contract. 

underskate [under 'skaite] adj. 
different, various. 

underst [undest] adj. In phr. de 
underste kou, the first from 
the outer door. 

underwiles [under'uilez] adv. 

unt- [untl See ont-. 

ure [u-9r9j s. hour. 

us [yzl poss. pr. our. 

lit [ytj adv. prep, out, from. 

litboeid ['ydbuid] adj. bandy- 

litbringe ['ydbrirp] iv. 250. to 
bring out. 

lit-doar [ / y(d)do-9r] s. outer 

uterje [yterje] wo. to utter. 

uterlik [yterlek] adv. outward, 

to all appearance. 
litfenhus [ytfen'huiz] adv. 

(=from home), as a guest or 

litfenhuzer [ytfen'hu-.zer] s. 

litfenhuzje [ytfan'huizje] wv. to 

stay as a guest. 
litgean ['y^ren] iv. 250. to go 

lithalde ['ythoide] sv. VII, c. 

to suffer, to hold out ; to main- 

lithelje ['ythelje] wv. to play 

utkomme ['ytkome] sv. IV, b. to 

come out. 
utmeitsje ['ytmaitsje] wv. 246. 

to make out ; to finish ; to 

utmiette [/ytmiite] sv. II, b. to 

mete out. 
utrekke ['ytreke] sv. IV, a. to 

stretch out. 

utrolje ['ytro:lJ9l wv. to unroll. 
litslaen p 

beat out. 


m] sv. VI, a. to 

utstean ['ytstren] iv. 250. to 
endure ; to have to do with. 


waeije [ua-ie] wv. to blow, 
waeksdom ['uaiksdom] s. 

waekse [uaikse] sv. VI, c. to 


waer [uair] sn. weather. 
waerm [uairm] adj. warm. Hy 

sit der waerm by, he is a 

well-to-do man. 
waermte [ua-rmto, uarmte] . 

waersiik j/uairsiik] adj. out of 

sorts through the state of the 

wakker [uaker] adv. very. 



wal [uo:l] s. water-side. 

wald [uo:d] sn. wood, forest. 

Walden [uoiden] gn. wooded 
districts in the east of Fries- 

walgje [uolgJ9] wv. to disgust, 
to loathe. 

wan [uon] adj. wrong. 

wang [uan] sn. cheek. 

war [uar] s. In phr. yen to war 
stelle, to offer resistance. 

warber [uarber] adj. diligent. 

warleas ['uarlrgz] adj. helpless. 

warre (yen) [ji uarej wv. to do 
one's best. 

wart [uat] s. wart. 

wasker [uDsksr] s. washer. 

waskje [uoskje] sv. VII, b. to 

weach [w-9g] s. wall, back-wall 
of the bed. 

weach [ui-9] s. wave. 

weage [ui'Qgo] sv. VI, a. to 

weagje [ui'9gJ9l wv. to wave. 

weagje [w.8gJ9J wv. to venture, 
to risk. 

weak [wok] adj. soft. 

weakje [ulskje] wv. to soak. 

wearzgje [ui*9zgJ9] wv. to dis- 
gust, to loathe. 

wedzje [usdzje] wv. to lay a 

weet [ue:t] s. wheat. 

wegerje [ueigarje] wv. to refuse. 

wei [uai] s. way. 

wei [ual] adv. away, lost. 

weifiterje ['uaifitarje] wv. to 
drive off. 

wein [uain] s. wain, waggon. 

weitsje [uaitsje] wv. 248. to 

weiwirde ['uaiuodg] sv. Ill, e. 
to get away. 

wekker [uskar] adj. awake. 

wenje [uejia] wv. to live, to re- 

wenne [usne] wv. to accustom. 

wenst [ueist] s. custom. 

went(e) [usnta, vent] .9. house. 

wer [uer] adv. again, back. 

werbringe [/ue(r)brir)8] iv. 250. 
to bring back. 

werdwaen pu^^dwa-n] iv. 250. 
to do once more. 

werjaen ['us(r)ja:n] iv. 250. to 
return, to restore. 

weromjaen [usr'omjam] iv. 250. 
to give back. 

werom [usr'om] adv. back. 

weromkomme [usr'omkome] sv. 
IV, b. to return. 

werpe [usrpe] sv. Ill, b. to cast, 
to throw. 

westen [ussten] sn. west. 

westerrea(d) j/usstern^d)] sn. 
evening sky. 

wet [uet] s. law. 

wetgelearde j/vetgelreda] s. 

wetter [ustor] sn. water. 

wetterfloed ['usternu-ed] s. in- 

Wetterlan ['ueterlom] gn. 
watery districts in Friesland. 

weve [ueivo] wv. to weave. 

weze [Dsizg] iv. 250. to be. 

wezen [us:z9n] sn. existence. 

wy [uei, ui] pers. pr. we. 

widdou puidou] s. widow. 

widner [uidner J s. widower. 

widze [uidze] s. cradle. 

widzeliet puidzgli-gt] sn. cradle- 

widzje [uidzJ9J wv. to cradle. 

wiel Puroil s. pool. 

wier Lui'9r] adj. true. 

wierheid Pulirhaid] s. truth. 

wiet [ui'9t] adj. wet. 

wiette [uiit9] s. wetness. 

wif [uif] adj. unstable, uncer- 

wyfke [uifke] sn. female. 

wiggelje [yigalja] wv. to rock. 

wild [ui:dj adj. wide. 

wiif [ui:v] sn. woman, wife. 



wiis fuiiz] adj. wise, 
wije [ui9] wv. to devote, 
wike [uiko] s. week. 
wike [uikg] wv. to retire, to re- 

wikel [uikol] s. kestrel, 
wyks fuiks] adv. weekly. 
wyld fuildTociy. wild, 
wiles [uilez] adv. meanwhile, 
wilewalje [/uil9ualJ9] wv. to 

wille [uile] s. pleasure, 
wylst [uilst] conj. whilst. 
wyn [uin] s. wine. 
wyn [uinj s. wind, 
wynderje ['uinderja] wv. to 

make wind, 
wine [uing] sv. Ill, a. to wind, 

to turn, 
winke [wnka] sv. Ill, d. to 

winne [uine] sv. Ill, a. to 


wynsel [uiisel] sn. bandage, 
wynsk fuiisk] adj. wry. 
winter [uintar] s. winter, 
winterdei ['umterdai] s. winter 

winterdei [umter'dai] adv. in 

wirch [uorg] adj. worth ; tired, 


wird [u6d] sn. word, 
wirdboek ['uodbuk] sn. diction- 
wirde [uoda, uore] sv. Ill, e. to 

wirdearje [ue'dierje] wv. to 


wirdich [uod9] adj. worth, 
wirk [uo'rk] sn. work, 
wirkje [uorkje] wv. to work, 
wirkmaster ['uorkmaster] s. 

agent, doer, 
wyt [yit] adj. white. 
witeTuite] iv. 249. to know, 
wite [uitej sv. I, b. to blame, 
witnis [uitnaz] s. knowledge. 

wytsje [uitsJ9] wv. to white- 

witte [uite] iv. 249. to know. 
wize [uiize] s. tune ; fen 'e wize 

weze, to be flurried, 
wize [wase] wv. to show. 
wjergeade ['uisrgi-eda] s. equal. 
wjerhalde [uier'hoide] sv. VII, 

c. to refrain, 
wjerkoaije ['uisrko-ie] wv. 246. 

to ruminate. 

wjerljocht |/uielioxt] s. light- 

wjerskyn ['uie(r)skin] s. re- 
wjerstean [uis(r)'str9n] iv. 250. 

to resist. 
wjirje [uiirJ9] wv. to (expose to 

the) air. 

wjirm [uiirm] s. worm, 
wjudde [u!6d9] wv. to weed, 
wjuk [uio'k] s. wing, 
wjuk [uiok] int. 
wjukkelje [uiok9lJ9] wv. to 

wjukwapperje [ / uiokuap9rJ9] 

wv. to flap the wings. 
Woansdei [uQizdi] s. Wednes- 

woartel [uoatgl] s. root ; carrot, 
woast [uo*9st] adj. desolate, 

woelje [uiiolJ9] wv. to wind 


wol [uoll s. wool, 
wol [uol] adv. well. 
wolbisteld ['uolbgstsld] adj. 


wolf [uolf, uolv] s. wolf. 
wolfeart f'uolfret] s. welfare, 
wolk(en) [uolk9n, uolk] s. cloud, 
wolkom ['uolkom] adj. wel- 

woUe [uola] iv. 250. to be will- 
wolmienend [uol'mi- 9n9nd ] adj. 

wonder [uondgr] sn. wonder. 


wv. to 


)lje [uragelje] 


wrak [urak] sn. wreck, 
wrak [urak] adj. shaky. 
wrakselje [urakselje] wv. to 

wrald [uroid] s. world. 

wreed [ureid] adj. cruel; rough. 
wrine [urine] . coverlet. 
wringe [urirje] sv. Ill, d. to 

wriuwe [uriuwe] sv. I, c. to 

minder [uunder] sn. wonder. 


I : i 


Sipma, Fieter 

Phonology grammar of 
modern West Frisian