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B M Dflb TTM 


















On the publication of this book, it is a pleasant duty for me to 
express my sincere thanks, in the first place to the Philological 
Society for having considered it worthy of inclusion among its 
issues, and in the second place to the authorities of the Clarendon 
Press for the excellent manner in which it has been printed. 

But most of all I feel indebted to Dr. W. A. Craigie, President 
of the Philological Society, whose advice and assistance have made 
the publication of this work possible. He has revised the English 
of my manuscript, and has translated into English such Frisian 
words as are explained in the Phonology and Grammar. And 
lastly he has kindly lent a helping hand in the correction of the 

May his example be followed by many in showing an interest 
in the study of my native language, which has been overlooked 
and neglected for too long a time. 


Sneek, Friesland, 
April, 1913. 







Table of Frisian Speech-sounds . 
Vowels : 

General Remarks . 

Vowels in detail . 
Diphthongs and Triphthongs : 

General Remarks . 

Diphthongs in detail . 

Triphthongs in detail . 
Consonants : 

General Remarks . 

Consonants in detail . 
Inverse Sounds 


Stress Changes in Diphthongs. (Breaking) 

Complete assimilation . 

Voicing .... 

Unvoicing .... 

Change of Articulation 

Modification of Articulation 

Nasalization .... 
Reduction : 

Reduction of Vowels . 

Reduction of Diphthongs 

Reduction of Consonants 

Reduction in half-stressed and unstressed syllables 

Reduction to Syllabic Consonants 
Frisian Dialects 











II, Spelling 

Notation of Speech Sounds : 

Vowels .... 

Diphthongs . 

Triphthongs . 

Consonants . 
Values of Written Letters . 


III. Etymology 

I. The Declinable Parts of Speech 

1. Noun .... 

A. Strong Genitive (in -s, 

B. Strong Genitive (in -s 

2. Article .... 

3. Adjective 

Inflexion of Adjectives . 
Comparison of Adjectives 

4. Numerals 

5. Pronouns .... 

6. Verbs .... 

II. The Indeclinable Parts of Speech 

1. Adverbs .... 

2. Prepositions 

3. Conjunctions . 

III. Composition and Derivation 

-es) of Class Nouns 
-es) of Proper Nouns 

IV. Syntax 

1. The Word-group 

2. The Sentence 

3. The Sentence-group .... 
Means of expressing the Different Relations 

Concord . . , 

Modality . . . . 

Order of Words 



V. Texts (West Frisian with Phonetic Transcription) 


1. De liepe skieppedief 94 

2. De koal 96 

3. C. Wielsma. Waersiik 100 

4. H. S. Sytstra. Baes Piktried 102 

5. J. H. Halbertsma. Utfenhus by de boer . . . . 104 

6. 0. H. Sytstra. De sliep 106 

7. J. J. Hof. Wintersinneopgong 108 

8. J. J. Hof. It Moaije yO 

9. Matth. 7, 1-5 112 

10. Matth. 22, 34-40 112 

11. Matth. 25, 31-40 112 

12. W. Dykstra. Simmermoarn 114 

13. E. Halbertsma. Skipperssankje 116 

14. L. C. Murray Bakker. Winteraocht 118 

15. W. Faber. De Bernewraid 120 

16. H. S. Sytstra. Swellesang 120 

17. P. J. Troelstra. Maerteblommen 126 

18. J. L. van der Burg. It Heitelan 128 

19. J. B. Schepers. Simmerjounsbyld 180 

20. P. Sipma. Tsjuster 130 

VI. Glossary 134 


The study of Frisian, it may safely be said, does not occupy the 
place it deserves. It is true there are hopeful indications, and 
as well in its own country as abroad the interest for it is growing ; 
it must be acknowledged, too, that more and more is being 
written about Frisian, but much has still to be done. 

Frisian is of great interest, from a general point of view, for 
the study of language, certainly not less so than many other 
languages, as it admits of being traced over a period of many 
centuries, during which it has experienced remarkable fortunes, 
and especially as it presents a certain number of phenomena fully 
worthy of the student's attention. 

Modern Frisian is capable of throwing much light upon Old 
Frisian. It appears, for instance, from the present West Frisian 
sound-combination sJc, which very regularly occurs at the begin- 
ning and in the middle of words, that the Old West Frisian 
orthography sc, sch, which holds its ground until well into the 
nineteenth century, also has to be taken as sJc. 

Old Frisian exhibits a remarkable interchange of the prefixes ur 
and for. The present-day language has preserved some traces of 
this : forlibje and oerlibje ; forkomme and oerkomme ; forginne beside 
oerginst ; forgrimc, forholgen beside oergrime, oerbolgen (the last two 
used by Gysbert Japix in the seventeenth century). The inter- 
change of the prefix ont with omt (§ 112. 4) seems to present 
a similar case. 

That Germanic ii before the consonant-combination nd in West 
Frisian is only partly lengthened, is indicated by the modern 
interchange of u with o, ou, and oa (§§ 155-7). 

The change oift to eht is, as appears from the modern language, 
undoubtedly Frisian (§ 113) ; it occurs late, however. 
I But still more noteworthy is the fact that Frisian is of special 
_ importance as a sister-language of English. 

From time immemorial English and Frisian have had in 
common a certain number of peculiarities in their system of 


vowels and consonants : these must have been proper to the 
original Anglo-Frisian language. 

Besides, both languages have in many respects followed a 
similar development for a long time after they had become 

It may be taken for granted that the tribes which in the fifth 
century left the Continent to settle in the land of the Britons, 
and the neighbouring Frisians (who were equally divided into 
several tribes), spoke a group of dialects which bore a very close 
relationship to each other, and which, by certain peculiarities, 
formed a distinct branch in the Germanic family of languages. 

Even a comparison of modern English and Frisian vocables is 
sufficient to show the close relationship. 

To ancient connexion go back, for instance : 

English Frisian 

1. sack, dell, mesh sek, del, mesh 

2. sleep, seed, deed,steel,sheep,ear, slicpe, sied, died, stiel, sJcie^, ier, 

year, mead jier, miede 

3. street strjitte 

4. moon moanne 

5. five, goose, other, dust fiif, goes, oar, dust 

6. brought, thought brocht, tocht 

7. cheese, chaff, church tsiis, tsjef, tsjerJce 

8. yield, yester, yarn, ye, you, jilde, jister, jern, jy, jo, jinder 


9. day, way, rain, nail dei, wei, rein, neil 

English and Frisian also show a number of remarkable analogies 
in their vocabularies ; for instance : ^ 



tooth, tusk, tine 

[toth^'\, tosk, tine 









[AS. m£ox], dung 

mjuks, dong 

1 I do not, of course, mean to suggest that all these words occur in English 
and Frisian only. 

* Now obsolete in West Frisian. 


English Frisian 

lane, han learn, loane 

dangle dangelje 

gnaw gnauwe 

cleanse Minz{g)je 

left lofter 

hoy hoi 

[AS. wraxlian] wraJcselje 

Finally, many parallels could be cited with regard to shortening, 
lengthening, breaking, diphthongization, &c. 

Modern West Frisian (exclusively treated here) is spoken in the 
Netherland province of Friesland, and on the islands Schiermon- 
nikoog and Terschelling, with the exception, however, of that part 
of the province lying south of the Kuinder or Tjonger, of a 
triangle to the south of the Lauwerszee, and of Het Bildt, 
Moreover, in the larger towns (Leeu warden, Dokkum, Franeker, 
Harhngen, Bolsward, Sneek, Heerenveen) Frisian is not spoken as 
a rule, even though they count hundreds of inhabitants who can 
speak it, and hundreds more who understand it. 

Outside the province too, in several towns of the Netherlands, 
there live many Frisians, who partly have formed national 
societies. Among these there is generally a strong feeling for 
Frisian, even though the second generation is usually lost for the 

The number of those who speak Frisian has undoubtedly been 
on the increase in the last century, and may now be safely esti- 
mated at 250,000. 

If the dialects of the southern part of Friesland and those of the 
islands are excepted, modern West Frisian shows relatively few 
dialectical differences (§§ 149-76). Nor has the language, as 
appears from the writings of the last century and a half, changed 
very much, except perhaps in some phonetic points which are 
not at all, or imperfectly, rendered by orthography ; it is a well- 
known fact that such changes may be noticed even within a 

Among the characteristic features of Frisian are the adoption 
of new words even for very ordinary ideas,^ the very strong 

^ For instance, ' smell ', ' to smell ', Mod. W. Fr. rook, ruke, is Old W. Fr. 
hrene, hrena ; ' right ', ' left ', Mod. W. Fr. rjuchter,— lofter, linker, is Old W. Fr. 



influence of analogy, the very easy manner of forming compounds 
and derivatives, the recasting of foreign words in accordance with 
the native sound-system, the tendency to diphthongize, and the 
great loss of flexion-endings. 

One circumstance which tells greatly against Frisian is the 
custom, on the part of many educated people, of not using the 
language. Their language, and that of the School, the Church, 
and the Government, is Dutch. The consequence of this is that 
the vocabulary is mainly restricted to the daily language of the 
country people, or at any rate does not keep abreast of the 
progress in science and the arts. The strong influence of Dutch, 
to which in former times it has already lost ground, is becoming 
no less dangerous : the means of communication steadily increase, 
and the settling of non-Frisians in the province becomes more 
and more frequent. This influence makes itself felt daily, both 
on the vocabulary and on the syntax. 

To enable Frisian to hold its ground as much as possible 
against these influences, strong efforts have been made in the last 
decades to extend the use of the language. Especially the 
' Selskip for Fryske tael en skriftenkennisse ' (founded in 1844) has 
done much in this respect by means of books, meetings, lectures, 
fixing of the orthography, grammars, and even, of late, by means 
of teaching. These efforts have not been unsuccessful. 

West Frisian literature goes back as far as the fourteenth 
century, and continues practically without interruption up to the 
present day. The oldest writings consist almost exclusively of 
laws, charters, and deeds. In the sixteenth century the first 
efforts to produce real literary work appear. Especially after the 
French domination, however, when the feeling of nationality 
clearly manifests itself and the social conditions become more 
favourable, Frisian literature begins to flourish. In the last 
century — after 1844 especially under the direction of the ' Selskip 
for Fryske tael en skriftenkennisse ' — the number of books and 
periodicals published in Frisian has been very large. It must be 
admitted that true literary art is rarely met with in these 
writings, but the popular type of literature is all the more 
extensive. And this is what was needed in the first place. 

ferre,fore, — winsler. Note also Mod. W. Fr. tosk tooth, mule mouth, heif father, 
mem mother, &c. 


In this survey of the language the principal rules of its 
grammatical inventory have been gathered. It is in the first 
place intended for England, where the cognate dialects are 
spoken, the study of which is now being pursued with so much 
assiduity, but it is also designed for all those who take an interest 
in the study of languages and especially of Frisian, At the same 
time I have tried, as far as possible, to satisfy the requirements 
of the Frisians themselves. 

For these reasons it contains a concise general treatment of 
modern West Frisian, more particularly of the main dialect (my 
own, slightly normalized). It lays claim only to describe this 
with sufficient exactness and completeness. The elaborate work 
of Th. Siebs (in Paul's Grundriss), crammed with historica land 
local details, rendered, for this very reason, such a treatment 
not superfluous. 

In order to enhance its usefulness as much as possible, a rather 
detailed phonetic description and phonetic texts were necessary ; 
the more so because the Frisian sound-system is extremely compli- 
cated and the spelling often illogical. 

On behalf of those who do not wish to have an intimate know- 
ledge of Frisian phonetics, I have tried to give in the following 
survey, approximately and with the omission of many details, 
the hints which are absolutely necessary. If these are mastered, 
the reader who prefers it may, to begin with at any rate, skip 
Chapters I and II (on phonetics and spelling) partly or entirely. 


1. The written letters h, d, f, g (when initial), h, k, I, m, n, ng, 
p, s, t, V, z have the same, or almost the same, values as in 

2. jr4when not initial) and^7i are voiced and voiceless fricatives 
as in Dutch and German. 

3. j — Eng. y. 

4. w is bilabial after d, t, s, Jc; labiodental in other positions. 

5. r is usually fully rolled. 

6. r before dental consonants, I in the combinations aid, alt, 
and h (as a rule) before j and w, are mute. 

7. n before s, z, and some other consonants is nasalized. 



8. a before n, t, s, I in closed syllables = o in Eng. hot. 

9. a before other consonants in closed syllables = Eng. a in ask 
(but short), or as the first element of the diphthong in Eng. Jli/. 

10. a in open syllables = Eng. a in asJc. So also ae. 

11. a =■ Eng. a in fall, or Eng. o in lord. Similarly 0. 

12. e in closed syllables almost as in Eng. man, but less open. 

13. e in open syllables as ai in Eng. da^, but a little less 
diphthongized. So also ee, e. 

14. e as Eng. e in tJiere, without (or at least with slighter) 

15. eu as 6 in German hose. 

16. i in closed syllables a little more open than Eng. i in fit ; 
almost as Scottish i in dim, din. 

17. iin open syllables as Eng. ee in meet (not diphthongized), 
short or long. So also y (short) and ii (long). 

18. in closed syllables as Eng. o in hot or as Eng. o in rope 
(but short and without diphthongization). 

19. in open syllables as Eng. o in rope. So also oo. 

20. u in closed syllables is much more close than Eng. u in 
hut ; rather almost like Eng. e in unstressed syllables as in tJte, 

21. M in open syllables = German u in Hiitte, grim, short or long. 
Similarly u. 

22. u = Eng. u in put, or = oo in food, short or long. So often 
also oe. (But see 26 and 29.) 

23. In unstressed syllables c, i, u have the value of the in- 
distinct vowel in Eng. the. 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs 

24. ai, aei, ei, ij, oai, oei, ui have i as last element as Eng. y 
in fly. 

25. au, eau, ieu, iuw have u at the end as in Eng. how. 

26. ea, eu, oa, oe, u, ue end in the indistinct vowel e as in Eng. 

27. ai (and ei), ie, oe (and u) are pronounced almost as the 
diphthongs in Eng. fly, here, poor ; the first element of ui is Eng. 
u in hut. 


28. The first element of the diphthongs ij, oai, oei, ieu, ea, oa, ue 
is respectively the sound described in 12, 19, 22, 17, 16, 19, 21. 

29. The rising diphthongs ^ ea (also written je), ie (also written 
ji), and the triphthongs eau, iuw have as first element a weak i 
or t/ ; the rising diphthong oe, u and the triphthong oei begin with 
an unstressed u or w; the rising diphthong oa and the triph- 
thong oai with an unstressed o. The stressed elements of these 
sounds are as in 12, 16, 19 (short), 22, 19 (short), 19 (short), 19 

* The rising diphthongs of Frisian usually occur before two or more 












P to 

t d 

^ 9 
















f V U 

s z 


X g 



Front Mixed Back 


y y: 

u u: 

i i: 

y y: u u; 



o o; 

e: 0: 
I 6 0: 



e e: C8 o: 


a 0: 


i u 6 



ai ei osi ui a'i o'i U'i 

au ou ou o'u i'U 

i-a ya u-a re o-a o-a 

ii id Is io io 6a 6a: uo 


iou iou luw 6a i 6a -i Hoi 

^ The phonetic symbols of the International Phonetic Association are employed. 
Cf. Paul Passy, Petite Phonetique comparee des principales langues europeennes. Leipsic 
et Berlin, 2nd ed. 1912. The Principles of the International Phonetic Association, 
obtainable from the editors : Paul Passy and Daniel Jones. 


General Remarks 

1. In Frisian the articulation of the lips is relatively small, the 
mouth-opening relatively great. 

2. Closed vowels are generally more tense than open ones, long 
vowels generally more than short ones, front vowels more than 
back ones, stressed vowels more than half-stressed and unstressed. 

3. There is a perceptible difference in vowel-length, as, for 
instance, between the corresponding vowels a and a:, o and o:, i 
and i:,^ and so on. 

4. Long vowels often show a tendency to become slightly diph- 
thongized, thus e:', 0:*, i:', o:", u;", a;% 0:% e:'. We may say 
that e:, o:, and 0: are regularly a little diphthongized when final. 

6. There is frequent interchange between long (or half-long) 
and short vowels in different forms of the same word. Many 
instances of shortening and reduction are met with in Frisian 
(see §§ 120-2). For the Frisian semi- vowels see §§ 74-82. 

Vowels in detail 

6. i closed front tense unrounded. 

Examples — dik [dyh] "^ dike, ita {ite) to eat. 
i: a lengthened i. 
Examples — ti:d {tiid) time, ri:za {rise) to rise. 

7. y closed front tense rounded. 

Examples — nyt (nut) nut, slyta (slute) to close. 
y: a lengthened y. 
Examples — dry.v {druf) grape, sy:var [suver) pure. 

8. e: half-closed front tense unrounded. This vowel is long; 
the corresponding short vowel does not occur in Frisian (i is 
more open than short e^). e: tends to become slightly diph- 
thongized, especially when final, thus e:^. The diphthongization, 
however, should not be exaggerated. For the practical purposes 
of this book the phonetic symbol e: is employed in all cases. 

Examples — re:k {reeli) smoke, de:l9 {dele) to share, se: {se) sea. 

^ Letters in thick type are phonetic symbols. 

* The phonetic transcription is in thick type, followed by the ordinary 
spelling in italics. 

8 e: followed by r is a lowered variety of e:, and has exactly the quality of 
lengthened i (see § 10). 


9. 0: half-closed front tense rounded ; long only, with a 
tendency to become slightly diphthongized, especially when 
final, thus ^:\ (Cf. the preceding section.) 

Example — d0:n [deun) close. 

10. I half-closed front tense unrounded. This vowel is gener- 
ally a lowered variety of e, very short, and rather half-tense than 

Examples — ik (iJc) I, sita (sitte) to sit. 

11. e half -open front lax unrounded. 
Examples — fet (fet) fat, vessel, seta {sette) to set. 

e: a lengthened e. 

Examples— be;d {bed) bed, le:za (leze) to read. 

12. a open mixed lax unrounded. 

Examples — pak (joaJc) pack, stapa (stappe) to step. 
a: a lengthened a. Except in length there is no perceptible 
difference between a and a: 

Examples — fa:k (faeJc) often, ra:z8 (raze) to rage. 
Note. Many speakers retract a and a: to the open back position. 

13. 08 only occurs as the first element of the diphthong oei ; 
see § 29. 

14. a a very indistinct vowel, most often half-open mixed lax 
unrounded. Besides occurring independently in unstressed sylla- 
bles, this vowel forms the second (unstressed) element of diph- 
thongs (see §§ 24, 42, 43). 

Examples — da (de) the, an (in) a, an, at [it) it, rina {rinne) 
to run. 

15. 6 half-closed mixed lax slightly rounded. Practically this 
vowel may be treated as a stressed a with slight lip-rounding. 

Examples — not {nut) usefulness, hod {hird) hard. 

16. o half-open back lax rounded. 
Examples — top {top) top^ kot {kat) cat. 

o: a lengthened o. 

Examples — ro:t {rot) rat, so:n {sdvi) sand. 

17. o half-closed back lax rounded, very short. 
Examples — op {op) up, tosk {tosJi) tooth. 

o: a lengthened o with a tendency to become slightly diph- 
thongized, especially when final, thus o:". The diphthongization, 
however, should not be exaggerated ; for this reason the phonetic 
symbol o: is used in this book in preference to O'U (cf. §§ 8, 9). 
Examples — ro:k {rook) scent, smell, do:ga {doge) to do well. 


In some words a half-lengthened variety of o, thus ©•, is heard. 
In such words there is no tendency to pronounce a diphthong. 

Examples — tcba {tobhe) tub, do'ba (clohbe) pit, pool (Scottish 

18. u closed back lax rounded. 

Examples — hup {Jioep) hoop, buk {hiik) belly, run (roun) round, 
u: a lengthened u. 

Examples — sku:g (sJcoech) shoe, hu:d (hud) hide, ^u:la {giile) 
to cry. 

Diphthongs and Triphthongs 
General JRemarks 

19. There are a large number of falling and rising diphthongs 
in Frisian, i. e. diphthongs in which the stress falls on the first or 
on the second element respectively. 

20. The unstressed element of Frisian diphthongs is generally 
a semi-vowel i,^ u, 6, or in other cases a. 

21. In some cases there is hesitation as to stressing the first or 
the second element. This principally happens in the sound ii, 
which, however, is ordinarily pronounced i-a or ii. 

22. The stressed element of diphthongs may be short or half- 
long. There are only a few cases in which it is very long. It is 
not necessary to distinguish long and half -long in this book. 

23. In different forms of the same word we often find inter- 
change of falling and rising diphthongs (see §§ 96-8). 

24. The sound a (see § 14) varies slightly as the second ele- 
ment of different diphthongs ; a difi'erence is, for instance, clearly 
audible between i-a and u-a, or between ya and o-a. 

25. The same remark may be made with regard to 1 as the first 
element of different diphthongs, e. g. ii and ie, or io and lo. 

I}ipJitho}igs in detail 

26. Falling diphthongs in which the first element is short, and 
the second element is the semi-vowel I, are the following : 

ai, ei, 08i, ui. 

27. ai. The first element is not exactly the same vowel as 
described in § 12, but a sound intermediate between a and e, 
inclining to the side of a. 

Examples — laitsja {laitsje) to laugh, halt (heit) father. 

' This semi-vowel is lax (cf. § 6). 


28. ei. The first element is the sound described in § 11. 
Examples — frei (frij) free, sneia {snije) to cut. 

29. oei. The sound ob is half-open mixed lax unrounded. It 
occurs only in this diphthong. 

Examples — joei {jui} riot, revelry, droeia (druije) to dry. 

30. ui. In this diphthong u is the same vowel as that in § 18. 
Example — bluisal (bloeisel) blossom, bloom. 

31. Falling diphthongs ending in i with half-long first element 
are the following : 

a-i, O'i, U'i. 

32. a'i. The first element is a half-lengthened a. This vowel 
is strictly a sound intermediate between a and e, but nearly a. 

Examples — ka'i (Jcaei) key, ra-ia {waeije) to blow, ra'i {raei) 

33. O'i. The sound o* is a half-lengthened o (see § 17). 
Examples — mci {moai) pretty, Icitsja (loaitsje) to look. 

34. U'i. The first sound is a half-long u as in § 18. 
Examples — plu'ia (ploeije) to plough, lu'ia (loeije) to pile up. 

35. Short falling diphthongs ending in the semi-vowel ii are : 

avL, ou, ou. 

36. au occurs only in the interjection au ! The first element 
is exactly a (see § 12). 

37. ou consists of o (see § 16) and ii. 
Examples — goud (goud) gold, hout (hout) wood. 

38. ou. The first element is the sound described in § 17. It 
is very short. 

Examples — kou (kou) cow, nou (nou) now, dou (dou) thou. 

39. Diphthongs in u which have a half-long vowel as first 

element are : 

O'U, i'U. 

40. O'U is a slightly lengthened variety of ou. This diphthong 
is generally heard when followed by a. 

Examples — ^ro'ua (rouwe) mournings, do'ua (damve) dew. 

41. i'U. The first element is a half-lengthened i (see § 6). 
Examples — i'U (ieu) age, century. 

42. Falling diphthongs ending in the indistinct half-open mixed 
unrounded vowel a (see § 24) are the following : 

i-a, -yOy U'G, ra, 6'3, ca. 

43. The first element may be a closed vowel i, y, u (see §§6, 7, 


18), or a half-closed one i, 6, o (see §§ 10, 15, 17), but only with 
half-long quantity. 

The sound a should not be exaggerated. 
Examples — 
i-a bi-an (bien) bone, li-ana (liene) to lend. 
ya flyaz [flues) fleece, slyara {sluere) to slide. 
U'a gu-ad igoed) good, fu-at [foet) foot. 
i-a ri-ad {read) red, ni-at {neat) naught. 
6'B sno-an (snjeon) Saturday, gld-an (gleon) glowing, 

cjo'ar (geur) scent. 
O'a bo'at (boat) boat, ncaz (noas) nose, car (oar) other. 

44. Eising diphthongs having as their first element the semi- 
vowel i (see § 25) are : 

ii, id, le, io, lo. 

45. The second (stressed) elements i, 6, e, o and o are the sounds 
described in §§ 10, 15, 11, 16, and 17. 

Examples — 

ii flild ifjild) field, glin (gjin) no. 

id mioks (mjuJcs) dung, llork {Ijurk) lark. 

ie hiest (hjerst) harvest, friemd (frjemd) strange. 

lo Uoxt {Ijocht) light. 

Io siorja (sjonge) to sing ; stlorjka [stjonke) to stink. 

46. A rising diphthong (6a) consisting of the semi-vowel 6 as 
first, and the sound a (see § 12) as second element, is often heard in 

Examples — t6ar {tear) dry, skdala [sTcoalle) school, mdana 
{moanne) moon. 

A lengthened variety, thus 6a:, is heard in the plural form 
h6a:zn {hoazzen) hose. 

47. Finally, Frisian has a diphthong iio, consisting of the semi- 
vowel u and the same sound as that described in § 17. 

Examples — spiion {spoen) spoon, miiora [murre) wall. 

Triphthongs in detail 

48. The following triphthongs are met with in Frisian : 

lou, iou, iuw'; 6ai, da-i; iioi. 

49. The first and the last elements of these triphthongs are 

1 For practical purposes the phonetic symbol iuw is chosen instead of iuu 
or iuu. 


semi-vowels. The middle (stressed) elements o, o, u, a are the 
sounds described in §§ 16, 17, 18, and 12. 
Examples — 

iou f louar (fjouwer) four. 

iou lloua (leauwe) to believe, skrloua {skreauwe) to cry, 
riou {reau) apparatus. 

luw liuw {liuiv) lion, bliuwa {bliuwe) to remain. 

6ai bdai (hoi) boy, Idaikja (loaiJcje) to idle. 

6a 'i kda'i (koai) nest-egg, bda-iam (boaijem) bottom. 

iioi miioika (moeiJce) auntie, miioia (moeije) to vex. 

General Remarks 

50. Perceptible differences in the length of consonants scarcely 
occur in Frisian. 

Through emphasis, however, consonants often become 
lengthened ; e. g. : 

sa ^sm:6arg oz at (t)er is ! [Sa smoarch as it der is f) 

at iz ai) ^gr:i:z ! {It is in griis .') 

ma sunn 'gl:6'aa uoda ! ^ {Men scoenen gleon wirde !) 

'n;et ri-ar! 'ol: ri-ar! {Netwier! Alwierf) 

j:a! n:e! {Ja! Ne!) 

s: ! (is often used to express astonishment). 

51. The friction and explosion are relatively small. 

52. Voiced consonants are pronounced with weaker friction or 
explosion than the corresponding breathed consonants. 

53. Devocalized consonants regularly augment the force of 
friction or explosion ; vocalized consonants diminish it. 

54. The pronunciation of the uvular r and the nasal twang are 
very rare in Frisian, and are regarded as defects of speech. 

55. Syllabic liquids m, n, r), 1, r frequently occur in ordinary 
speaking (see §§ 142-8). 

Complete and partial assimilation is often met with in Frisian 
(see §§ 99-119). 

1 In cases like these one also hears such forms as samoorg, gerirz, galo'an, 
with insertion of the indistinct vowel a between two consonants, when the 
second of them is a liquid. 


Consonants in detail 

66. p breathed (or voiceless) bilabial explosive. 

Examples — pi:p (piip) pipe, lipa (lippe) lip. 
b the corresponding voiced bilabial explosive. 

Examples — bak (haJc) tub, krob (Jcroh) beetle. 

57. t breathed dental (or rather linguodental) explosive, formed 
by the tip of the tongue against the upper gums. 

Examples — tin (tin) thin, treia (trije) three, nyt (mit) nut, tsjef 
(tsjef) chaff. 

d the corresponding voiced consonant, with exactly the same 
articulation as t. 

Examples — dai (dei) day, du (do) then, stri:da (stride) to fight. 

58. k breathed velar explosive. 

Examples — ^ka:m (Jcaem) comb, tsjuk (tsjuk) thick, 
g the corresponding voiced velar explosive. This consonant 
only occurs initially. 

Examples — gou (gau) quick, gri-an (grien) green. 

59. P glottal explosive. Uttered before a stressed vowel or 
diphthong beginning the word, when used separately. In careful 
speaking this sound is also heard between an unstressed and a 
strongly stressed vowel (or diphthong). 

Examples — Pi-an (ien) one, da Pi-ana (de iene) the one, da 
Po-ara (de oare) the other. 

60. m voiced bilabial nasal. Sometimes syllabic, especially in 
careless speaking, when the ending an is preceded by a bilabial 
(see § 143. 2). 

Examples — man (man) man, toma (tomme) thumb. 

61. n voiced dental nasal. Often syllabic (see § 143. 1), or 
nasalized (see §§ 116-19). 

Examples — ne: [nej nay, lo:n (Idn) land, rina (rinne) to run. 

62. ji voiced palatal nasal, always occurring medially between 

Examples — rejia (tvenje) to dwell, broijia (branje) firewood. 

63. r) voiced velar nasal, only occurring medially or finally. 
Sometimes syllabic in careless speaking (see § 143. 3). 

Examples — sar) [sang] song, tir)ka (tinJce) to think. 

64. 1 voiced dental lateral with u- articulation. Often syllabic 
(see § 144). 

Examples— lar) (lang) long, sti-al (stiel) steel, rola (wolle) to be 


65. r voiced dental fully rolled. Often syllabic (see § 145), 
assimilated (see §§ 100, 101), or reduced (see §§ 126, 127). 

Examples — rik {ryk) rich, mar {mar) lake, skuora [slmrre) 

66. w voiced bilabial, slightly fricative. This consonant only 
occurs preceded by d, k, s, t. 

Examples — dwa-n {dwaen) to do, kwa:l (kwael) pain, swon 
(swan) swan, twa: (ttva) two. 

67. f breathed labiodental fricative. 

Examples— fet (fet) fat, fl-ar (fier) far, stof (stof) stuff. 

V voiced labiodental fricative. The corresponding voiced form 
of f, with exactly the same articulation. This consonant only 
occurs when intervocalic, or preceded by r, or followed by j. 

Examples — i:var (iver) zeal, erva (erve) to inherit, fervja 
ifervje) to paint. 

V voiced labiodental, slightly fricative. This consonant only 
occurs initially followed by a vowel (or diphthong) or by r. 

Examples — rin {wyn) wind, rrak (wrah) wreck. 

68. The difference between w, v, and v is this : w is a bilabial 
pronounced with slight lip-rounding, and has much similarity to a 
vowel (u, see § 18), especially to a semi-vowel (ii, see § 76) ; v and 
V are labiodentals pronounced without lip-rounding. The friction 
of w and v is very small ; v is more fricative than w and v. 
Thus u is a consonant intermediate between w and v. 

69. s breathed dental fricative, formed by the tip of the tongue 
against the upper gums. 

Examples — sina {sinne) sun, ris {rys) rice, misa {misse) to miss. 
z voiced dental fricative, with the articulation of s. This conso- 
nant does not occur at the beginning of words. 

Examples — le:za (lese) to read, bi-azam (biezem) besom, liza 
{Iw^e) to lie. 

70. j voiced palatal fricative. The friction, however, is very 
small ; the likeness to i and especially to i is great. 

Examples — jor| (jong) young, ju'ad (hjoed) to-day, jiska [yeske) 

71. X breathed velar fricative, formed by the back of the 
tongue against the soft palate. This consonant does not occur at 
the beginning of words. 

Examples — lioxt {IjocM) light, axt (acht) eight, slax (slack) 


g voiced velar fricative ; the corresponding voiced form of x- 
This consonant does not occur at the beginning of words. 

Examples — lo:ga (loge) flame, plu:ga {ploege) plough, dra:ga 
(drage) to draw. 

72. h. breathed glottal fricative, occurring only initially. 
Examples — ^ho:n (hdn) hand, hu:z [Ms) house, hi'al {heal) half. 

73. In some words a very slight h, or rather a simple aspiration, 
is sometimes heard before r, 1, v, j (see § 131). 

Examples — t^ri'ak [reak] rick, l^rirj (ring) ring, '^llepa {Ijeppe) 
to spring by means of a pole, ^laitsja {laitsje) to laugh, ^va: (hiva) 
who, ^ja (hja) she, they. 


74. In many diphthongs and in all triphthongs the unaccented 
elements are semi-vowels. The following are met with in Frisian : 

1, Ti, 6.^ 

75. i occurs as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs 
(in this book simply indicated by the phonetic symbol i ^), and as the 
first element of some rising diphthongs and triphthongs (phonetic 
symbol i), mostly, but not always, interchanging with other 
sounds (see § 98. 1, 2, 5). 

76. ii occurs as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs 
(phonetic symbol u'), and as the first element of iio, lioi (indicated 
by xl), interchanging with u-a, ui (see § 98. 4, 7). 

77. 6 appears only as the first element of 6a, da:, 6ai, 6a'i 
(phonetic symbol always 6), generally interchanging with the 
diphthongs ca, o*i (see § 98. 3, 6). 

78. 1 as the last element of diphthongs and triphthongs is 
always a semi-vowel (see § 25). As the first element of diph- 
thongs and triphthongs it may practically be treated as j, the 
friction of this consonant being always very small. But one 
heai'S a difference between these two sounds, e. g. in such words as : 

lioxt (Ijocht) light — jos (jas) jacket, 
cjlm igjin) no — jita (jiette) to pour, 
biist (bjist) beestings — jild (jild) mone3\ 
rioxt {rjv£lit) right — ^joi) {jong) young. 

79. In many words, however, 1 has really become j, e. g. in the 
following : 

' They are very lax. 

^ But in the texts and glossary, for the sake of clearness, i, \x are employed. 

1466'2 Q 


ju-ad * {hjoed} to-day, jouar ^ (hjouwer) oats, jelt ^ (hjelt) hilt, jeln 
ijelne) el], jenn (earnen) copper, jerm, sometimes heard instead of 
i-arm (earm) arm, jeta (earte) peas, jet (eart) ofPal, jun (joun) evening, 
djip '^ (djip) deep, dju-ar ^ (djur) dear, djuia ^ (djoeije) to play, 
dje-ra (djerre) yolk, sje:d (sea(i) sod, fju-ar (^wr) fire, rj6 (rjw) rife, 
sjo {sjuch !) see ! njo {nju) pleasure. 

80. u and 6 are real semi-vowels in all cases. They must be 
carefully distinguished from the bilabial fricative consonant w 
(although its friction is very small), and of course also from the 
consonant v, which is labiodental. Thus the difference is clearly 
audible between such words as : 

riiot {roet) soot — uol [ivol) well. 

ruolja iwoelje) to wind — rola {wolle) to be willing. 

t6ar {toar) dry — two: [two) two. 

kdat (Jcoart) short — kwial (Jcwael) torment. 

mdaist {moaist) prettiest — uai (tvei) way. 

kbO'i (Jcoai) nest-egg — ra-ia [waeije] to blow. 

81. In some words, however, the semi-vowel has become w or 
even r. The principal are : 

vot^ {hwet) what, vq-J (hiva) who, ront^ (hwent) for, ro'ni'ar =* 
(hivennear) beside hu'ni'ar (honear) when, rer ^ (Jiwer) where, 
reira^ (hwerre) where, dwa-n, dwan (dwaen) do. 

In the pronunciation of children this change is often heard in 
other words as well. 

82. Semi-vowels disappear in some cases (see Reduction of diph- 
thongs, §§ 123, 124), 

Inverse sounds 

83. It is a matter of course that in Frisian sounds are regularly 
produced by expiration. In some cases, however, sounds are 
made by inhalation. This often happens with the words j*a* and 
n*e* (with expiration mostly pronounced ja:, ne:). Besides these, 
we find in Frisian (among others) the following inverse sounds : 

m* (short) used to express alarm, 
m* (long) to express amazement or pleasure, 
f in case of a sudden pain. 

t* t* t* to express pleasure ; also, with or without lip-rounding, 
to silence or to allure dogs. 

1 In these words the initial h has dropped, or is reduced to a slight 
aspiration (see §§ 73, 131). 

2 In these words the initial d often drops (see § 129). 
^ In these words the initial h has dropped. 


t* 1* with a and u-resonance, to draw the attention of little 

t* r* to incite horses. 


84. In Frisian, stress is generally subject to the same rules as 
in other Germanic dialects. For this reason a complete treat- 
ment seems superfluous here. The following short indications are 
sufficient for the purposes of this book. 

85. Syllables have the stress on the vocalic part. For syllabic 
consonants see §§ 142-8. Diphthongs may be stressed on the first 
or on the second element (falling and rising diphthongs, see 
§§ 19-47). There are only a few cases of level-stressed diphthongs, 
especially ii, which, however, is mostly spoken i-a or Ii. In 
triphthongs the stress regularly falls on the middle part (see §§ 48> 
49), but in loii (mostly spoken loii) the first two parts sometimes 
show level stress. For interchange between falling and rising 
diphthongs see §§ 96-8. 

86. In word-stress it is easy to distinguish various degrees. 
Three of these, however, are sufficient : the different syllables of a 
word may be stressed, half-stressed, or unstressed. 

87. Simple words, i.e. words which are not compound or 
derivative, have the stress on the first syllable. This does not 
always apply to words of foreign origin. 

88. In derivative nouns with the prefixes ant-, oar-, on-, and in 
verbs derived from such words, the prefix is stressed, the second 
syllable is half -stressed. The prefix ge- is unstressed. 

Examples — -'ontuod [antioird) answer, 'onti56d?ja {anttvirdzje) 
to answer, 'cadeil (oardeel) judgement, 'cadeila [oardele] to judge, 
'ox)Q\x (onwaer) storm, 'ouairja [onwaerje] to be stormy, ^alok 
{geloik) luck. 

Note. Adjectives with the prefix on- have the stress on the 
same syllable as the radical. 

Examples — o'slioxt (onsljucM) unsmooth, 6're:8tag {onrestich) 
unrestful, om'bruksam {onbruJcsum) unusable, ofa'stondag {on/or- 
standich) unintelligent, orjga'maklak {ongemaklik) uncomfortable. 

89. In verbs formed with the prefixes hi-, ge-, for-, ont-, to-, and 
in nouns or adjectives derived from such words, the stress falls on 
the second syllable, i. e. on the first syllable of the simple word. 

Examples — ba'ki'ara {bikeare), ba'ki'arlir) [hiJcearling), ga'uoda 



lita {gewirde litte), ga'bit (gehyt), fa'ki-apja {/orJceapje), fa'ki-ap 
iforJceap), ont'hoida (ontMlde), ont'hoid {onthdld), ta'skuora (to- 
sMrre), ta'skiiod {toskurd). 

90. The suffixes -inne, -aezje, -es, -ier, -ij, {-rij, -erij, -nij), -eare 
{-earje) are full-stressed ; the suffixes -dom, -heit, -ship, -achtich, -loas 
{•leas), -lei are half-stressed ; the other suffixes and all declension 
and conjugation endings are unstressed. 

Examples — bu-a-'rina (hoerinne), kle''da:zja (Jcledaezje), pri'ses 
(prinses), ga'ni-ar {genier), baka'rei {baMerij), grita'nei (gritenij), 
ava'si-ara (aveseare), la'vierja (lavearje); 'freidom (frijdom), 
'axtalcaz {acJiteloas), 'tre:darlai {tredderlei). 

91. The sufi&xes -ich, -lik, -sum have the peculiarity of being able 
to retract the stress a syllable backwards, when this syllable is 
half-stressed ^ in forms without the suffix, e.g. : 

'iermu'ad (earmoed) — ^Isr'mu-adag (earmoedich) 
^fo-adeil {foardeel) — fa'de:lag (foardelich) 
'i'afoid {ienfdld) — i-a'foidag {ienfdldich) 
^fro'askip (frjeonsJcip) — fro-a^skiplak (frjeonsJciplik) 
^arbaidzja (arbeidzje) — ar'baitsam (arheidsitm). 

92. For compound words it is not possible to give distinct and 
simple rules. Some have the stress on the first, others on the 
second element. Cf. ''seimon (seman) with se/dik {sedyh). 

93. Level stress often occurs in compound words in the follow- 
ing cases : 

1. When the word contains a comparison. 
Examples — 'pik'swat (piJcswart), ^di-a'stil (deastil). 

2. When the first part serves to express a high degree. 
Examples — 'stiif'feist {stiiffest), 'sto:k'blin {stoJcblyn), 'Tswi-at 

{ynsiviet), 'tro'wi-at (trocJiwiet), 'U'ar'bli:d {ocrUiid). 

3. When the first part sei"ves to modify the signification of the 
second part. 

Example — 'lloxt'blou {Ijochthlau). 

94. Some words have, besides their main form, another, when 
they are strongly stressed, either in the sentence or isolated. The 
principal are : 

dit (dit) — dita (ditte) this. 
der (der) — de:ra {derre) there, 
uer (Jiwer) — re:ra (hwerre) where. 

^ In the word grou'ueileg (grouwelich) it is even an unstressed syllable 
which has thus acquired full stress. 


hlir (hjir) — hiira (hjirre) here, 
uot (hwet) — rota {hwette) what. 

95. In half-stressed and unstressed syllables sounds may be 
reduced (see §§ 133-41). 

Stress-changes in diphthongs. (BreaJcing) 

96. Stress-changes in diphthongs (and triphthongs) are fre- 
quently met with in Frisian between words which are simple or 
undeclined and their lengthened, i. e. declined, compound or deri- 
vative, forms. In such forms the stress falls on the second 
element instead of on the first. 

97. In consequence of the analogy of these lengthened forms 
the stress sometimes varies in the unlengthened ones ; the opposite 
also occurs in some cases. Hence two pronunciations may be 
heard of some words, as : 

ru-at — riiot (roet) soot, 
spu'an — spiion (spoen) spoon, 
fi-ala— fiila (fiele) to feel, 
spi'ala — spiila [spiele] to wash, 
hi'ara (heare) — hlera (hearre) to hear, 
mi'ala (meale) — mlela (tneaUe) to grind, 
go-ata (goate) — gdata {goatte) gutter, 
do-ara {doare) — ddara {doarre) to dare, 
gu-ad {goed) — giiod [gud)} 

98. In this matter the following varieties may be distin- 
guished : 

1. Interchange of i-a and li, e.g. : 

sti-an {stien) stone — stiinan (sliennen), stiintsja (stientsje) 
vvdt (met) wet — uiita {iviette), riitsja (tvietsje) 
si'ad (sied) seed — siidzja {siedzje), siidii) (sledding) 
sni'a (snie) snow — 'snliflok (snieflok). 
Note. Level stress sometimes occurs, as in hei giit (% giet) 
he goes, hei stiit (% stiet) he stands. 

2. Interchange of i-a and le, e. g. : 

bi-am [heam] tree — bieman {beammen), biemka [beamke) 

Ii'an {lean) reward— liejia (leanje) 

fi-ar (fear) feather — flsrja (fearje), fieran (fearren). 

1 In this case the two forms have acquired different senses : gu-ed means 
* real or personal property ', giiod means ' things ', or ' texture ', or 
' medicines '. 


3. Interchange of ca and 6a, e.g. : 

skro-ar [skroar) tailor — skrdaran [skroarren], skrdarja 

mean [moarn) morn — 'm6antid [moarntiid). 

4. Interchange of u-a and -do, e.g. : " 
fa-at {fod) foot — fiiotan [foetten) 

gu'ad {goed) good — guodlak (goedliJc). 

5. Interchange of ya and 16, e.g. : 

flu'ar, fyar {fjiir) fire — fi6rka (fjurke), fiorja {fjurje) 
slyara (sluere) to slide — sll6rkja (sljurlcje). 

6. Interchange of O'i and 6ai, e.g. : 

mo'i {moai) pretty — m6aiar (moaijer), m6di§z (moaijens) 
lo'i (loai) lazy — 16aikja (loaiJcje). 

7. Interchange of ui and uoi, e.g. : 
mia (roeije) to row — ruoikja {roeikje) 


99. There are a great many kinds of assimilation in Frisian. 
The principal are : 

Complete assimilation 

100. Assimilation of r before dental consonants (t, d, n, 1, s, 

Examples — swat {swart) black, hundat {Mndert) hundred, 
b6d {bird) beard, be:n {bern) child, kel {kerl) grain, dwas {dwars) 
cross, ge:z {gers) grass, fe:zan {ferzen) frozen. 

Note. This assimilation occurs even in conjugated verbal 
forms, e. g. : hei li-at {hy leurt) he learns, hei hat li'ad {hy hat 
leard) he has learned ; but not in unstressed syllables of such 
forms as at torjart {it tongert) it thunders. 

101. r is often assimilated, at least in ordinary speaking : 

1. In the words /oar-, wer-, oer-, ivjer-, used as the first part of 
compounds, when followed by a consonant, even by j, but especially 
before dental sounds. 

2. In the prefixes oar-, for-, under the same circumstances. 

3. In the adverbs and prepositions for, foar, oer, wer, hjir, der, 
hwer, when followed by a word beginning with a consonant and 
belonging to the same breath-group. 

^ This belongs partly to the historical grammar. 


4. In the adverb and conjunction mar, under the same cir- 

Note. Not in very careful speaking, and never before a vowel 
sound or h. 

Examples — 'fdadcar {foardoar), 'uejam (tverjaen), ''u-adwa'n 
{oerdwaen), 'uielioxt {wjerljocJit) ; 'o-alox [oarloch], fa'jain (forjaen) ; 
dot IS f6a jou ! {Dat is for jo /), f6a sk6altid {foar skoaltiid), W9 
fi:van {oer fiven), re koma {wer Jcomme), hii bliuwa {hjir hliuwe), 
ve mast hina ? {hwer moast Mnne ?), de ma 'dslseta ! {der mar 
delsette !). 

102. 1 is assimilated before t and d, when preceded by the 
sound o:.^ 

Examples — sort (salt) salt, hoida (Mlde) to hold. 

103. t is assimilated : 

1. Before st in the superlative degree. 

Examples — grost (greatst) greatest, list (lytst) smallest, kdast 
(koartst) shortest. 

2. Between s and j in verbs and in diminutive forms. 
Examples — h6asja'^ (hoastje) to cough, kisja (kistje) small 


3. After s followed by an unaccented syllable. 

Examples — leisn {lesten) lately, fiisn (fiersten) by far, hiesmas 
(hjerstmes) in autumn, neslja (nestelje) to nestle. 

Note. Not in the combination of verbal forms and the enclitic 
pers. pron. 2nd sing., as e. g. doxsta {dochste) dost, rosta (tvolste) 
wilt, masta [moaste] must. 

104. d is assimilated, but not always, in the following cases : 

1. After r in the words v6r§ {wirch) worthy, uora (mrde) to 
become, airag (aerdich) nice, also spoken X56dag (wirdich), roda, 
a:dag (see § 100). 

2. Before n in the verbal forms hi-ann (Menen) had, su-ann 
{scoenen) should, uu-ann (woenen) would, ku-ann (koenen) could, 
di'ann {dienen) did, lainn (leinen) laid, sainn {seinen) said, sti'ann 
{stienen) stood.* 

1 The above belongs properly to the historical grammar. There are, how- 
ever, Frisian dialects which still pronounce the 1 in this case, e. g. the dialect 
of Hynlippen (Hindeloopen). 

^ Also in all the forms of such verbs. 

^ These forms are the weak imperfect plurals (for hieden, scoeden, woeden, 
koeden, dieden, leiden, seiden, stieden) of the verbs hawwe, scille, u-olle, Mnne (and 
kenne), dioaen, lizze, sisse, siean. 


3. After n in the following present participles used as adjectives : 
meian {mijen) shy, hu-adn (hoeden) careful, dinidn (dimmm) quiet, 
stiorjkan (stjonken) stinking, liban (libhen) living, eftar'hoidn 
(efterMlden) reserved. 

4. In the word honlja (handelje) to trade, also pronounced 

5. Before 1 in the words rilak (ridliJc) honest, da:lak {daedlik, 
dalik) at once, nola [nidle) needle, gola {girdle) girdle. 

6. In the word ar {er) there, an unstressed form of the adverb 

105. The article da [de) is assimilated to a ('e) : 

1. After prepositions ending in a consonant. 

Examples — in a uin {yn de wyn, also written yn 'e wyvi) in the 
wind, fon a mean {fen 'e moarn) this morning. 

2. Sometimes even after the prepositions mai {mei), nai {net). 
Note. In some cases two forms are used, e. g. : 

fSa da {foar de) and fdar a {foar 'e) 
U'a da {oer de) and u-ar a {oer 'e) 
tro da {trocJi de) and trog a {troch 'e). 

106. The final consonant of the adverb nox, nog {noch) yet, is 
often assimilated in the combination with net, nt {net) not, thus : 
nog net and no net, nognt and nont {noch net). 

107. The final consonant of the adverbs and prepositions trog 
{troch) and o:v {of) is usually assimilated before a consonant 
(except h) in compound words and before the article da {de). 

Examples — 

tro ua:r e rin {troch waer en wyn) 

'trore:d {trochreed), ^trodriuwa {trochdriuwe) 

'O'ori'ada {ofriede), 'o-agi-an {ofgean) 

tro da sli'at {troch de sleat), O'd da skdala {of de skoalle). 

Note. The preposition and adverb o:v is by a great many 
speakers in all cases pronounced O'O or ou. 

108. The final consonant of some much-used verbal forms is 
often assimilated (especially in careless speaking), when a personal 
pronoun is enclitically appended to them. Such forms are : 

vo k {wol iJc), SI k {scil ik), do k {doch ik), ma k {moat ik) 

vo vi {wolle wy), si ri ( scille wy), do vi {dogge tvy), ma vi {moatte ivy) 

^ Others unstressed forms are der, df (def). 


i?o ja (wollejy), si ja [sdllejy), do ja (doggejy), ma ja {moattejy) 
Tjosta (wolste), sista (scilste), [doxsta (tfoc^sie)], masta (moas<e). 
g ^o^e. Not with the enclitic personal pronoun ar, r (er). 



109. Voicing, i.e. change from breath to voice, occurs in the 
following cases among others : 

1. From k to g before a voiced consonant. 
Examples — ig bin {iJc Un) I am, ig dox {He clock) I do. 

2. From p to b in the same case. 

Examples— obdwa-n {opdtvaen) to open, ob ba'zita (op bisiie) 
on a visit. 

3. From s to z in the words is (is), and os (as) before a word 
beginning with a vowel or a voiced consonant and belonging to 
the same breath-group. 

Examples — 

iz ar der ? (7s er der?) 
Dz ik kom (As iJc Jcom) 
iz dr i'an P {Is der ien ?) 
lik oz ni:z {Lyk as niis). 

4. From s to z in the enclitic personal pronoun sa after a word 
ending in a vowel or a voiced consonant. 

Examples — 

di-a za dot P {Die se dat ?) 
mm za mai ! {Nim se met !) 

5. From t to d sometimes before a voiced consonant. 
Example — 'ydbuid {utboeid) bandy-legged. 


110. Unvoicing, i. e. change from voice to breath, is met with in 
various cases in Frisian, such as the following : 

1. From V, z, g, to f, s, x before t in verbal forms as hei bu:xt, 
veitt, le:st (% bugt, weeft, lest), from the verbs bu:ga {huge) to 
bend, re:va {weve) to weave, le:za {leze) to read. 

2. From d to t in the article da {de), the personal pronoun del, 
di {dy), the demonstrative pronouns dot, di {dat, dy), and the 
adverbs der, de:ra {der, dcrre), when the preceding word ends in a 
breathed consonant and belongs to the same breath-group. 


Examples — 

mai ik tot? {Mei ik dat?) 

stek ti net ! {Stek cly net l) 

rot doxt (t)i mon ? (Hwet docM dy man ?) 

stek ta pi:p o-an ! {SteJc de piip oan !) 

mat (t)8 frou ek rot ha ? {3Ioat de frou eJc hwet ha ?) 

sioxst (t)ot (t)e:ra P {Sjuchst dat derre ?) 

111. There is also unvoicing : 

1. From b, d, v, z, g, to b, d, v, z, g at the end of a word after 
long vowels, falling diphthongs, and triphthongs ; also after the 
liquids m, n, r), 1, r.^ 

Examples — kra:b {Jcraeh), said [saed], dry:v {druf), erv (erf), 
tsi:z (tsiis), i-ag (each), berg {perch), tiemz [tjems], sti'z (stins), 
'alligz {einlings), li-az (lears). 

2. From vd (written fd) to vd and from gd to gd at the end of 
words in the same cases as above. 

Examples — re:vd {weefd), dra:vd. {draefd}, ervd {erfd}, bu:gd 
(bugd), d0:gd [deugd). 

3. From xs to gz sometimes in the word dogz, also spoken 
doxs (dochs). 

4. From d to d and from g to g at the end of words when the 
final syllable is unstressed. 

Examples — rinand (rinnend), rolmi-anand (wolmienend), jirag 
(jierrich), liuag (Imich). 

Change of articulation 

112. The principal varieties of this form of assimilation are : 

1. The change from n to m before the bilabials b, p, m. 
Examples — om'biidag {onbidich), 'impaka (ynpalcJce), ^o-am- 

pi'dla (oanpiele), cam mei {oan my), 'o(m)maxt (onmachf). 

2. The change from n to r) before the velar consonants g and k.~ 
Examples — or)'ge:v (ongeef), i-ar) ki-ar [ien hear). 

3. The unaccented ending an becomes in careless speaking : 
(a) m after the bilabials b, p, m. 

Examples — to'bm {tobhen), i-apm [iepen), imm {immen). 

1 r before ^ and z is then assimilated (see §§ 100, 101), n before z nasalized 
(see § 116). 

2 The word fqrjkd (/anke) shows the change from m to q. This form is as 
frequent as fam.k8 {famke), but has another signification. Both forms are 
diminutives from farm {faem) 


(b) g after the velar sounds k, g, Xs q. 

Examples — bi-akg (beaJcen), siigr) (sigen), saqg (sangen). 
Note. The changes mentioned under 3 do not occur in very 
careful speaking. 

4. A curious change occurs in the prefix ont, which is mostly- 
pronounced omt. 

Examples — omt'hoida (ontMlde), omt'jain (onfjaen). 

113. The combination ft sometimes or regularly becomes x* in 
the following words : 

kre:ft — kraxt {Jcreff, kracht), kraft — kraxt {kraft,Jcracht), loft — 
loxt (loft), skoft— skoxt (slcoft), kloft— kloxt (MucJit), kloftag— 
kloxtag {kluftich), stiftsja — stixtsja (stiftsje), swifta — swixta 
(stvichte), lofts — lox{t)s (lofts), eftar, oftar— axtar {e/ter, achter), at 
huft — at huxt^ {it Jweft, it hoecht), garoft — garoxt {geroft), nift 
— nixt [nift, nicht). 

Note. The existence of two such forms beside each other has 
brought about the opposite transition in some cases, as e.g. toxt 
— toft {tocht, past part, of tinke), noxt — noft {nocht, noft), noxtarn 
^noftarn {nochteren, nofteren). 

114. See also the chapter on nasalization (§§ 116-19) and syllabic 
consonants (§§ 142-8). 

Modification of articulation 

115. This kind of assimilation occurs in Frisian in the following 

i 1. g sometimes becomes g between vowel sounds. 
f Examples — bagiina — bagiina (bigjinne), ^naigi-an — 'naigi-an 
{neigean), tagu-ada — tagu-ada {to goede), tagieira — tagie:ra 

2. g often becomes x after t, k, p, s. 
Examples — 

at gilt — at x^it {it giet) it goes. 

ig gi'an — ik xi'^n {ik gean) I go. 

'obgi-an — 'opxi'an {qpgean) to open. 

'buzgot— busxot {busgat) placket. 

^ This form is the source of the new infinitive hugs (hoege), which is not 
unfrequently heard instead of hu:v9 (hseve). It has a complete conjugation ; 
the past participle is hug^ Qioegd). 

The transition v^ — g^, however, also appears in the word badruiv^ 
(bidroefd) , also pronounced b9dTu:g^. 


3. d often becomes r in the words : 

hoida — ho:ra {Mlde) to hold. 

ncadag — ncarag {noadieh) needful. 

si-ada — si-ara (siede) to boil. 

sta:dag — sta:rag (stadich) steadily. 

hiida — hiira (hjidde) hards (of flax). 

ui6da — riora {wjudde) to weed. 
Note. The opposite transition appears in the words : 

ri-ara — ri'ada {Here) to stir. 

ru'ara — ru:ada (roere) to move, touch. 


116. In Frisian nasalization is a kind of assimilation. Vowels 
followed by ji or by n with s, z, z, f, u, j, 1, r^ are more or less 
nasalized. So are diphthongs in the same cases, but principally 
in their final element. The n disappears. * 

117. Although the nasalization is comparatively small, a Frisian 
hears immediately the difference in such words as the following : 

tsiin [tsjm) and tsiijia {tsjinje) 
vend [wenne] and reist {wenst) 
bina (Une) and bi:str (bynster) 
jintr {jinter) and ji:sn {jinsen). 

118. The nasalization of short vowels is the most perceptible : 
before ns they are also lengthened. That is obvious, if we com- 
pare such words as : 

hindr {hinder) and hi:st {Jiynst) 

ik km [ik Mn) and dou kiist {dou Mnst) 

mon (man) and m5:sk {mdnsJc). 

119. In the following list the principal nasalized sounds occur- 
ring in Frisian are enumerated : 

1 e. g. 'iliza {ynlizze), dijia (dynje) 
i: ,, vi:sk {wynsk), Mist {hynst) 

^ That is to say, a lateral, a rolled, or a fricative consonant, with th< 
exception of w, v, x, and g, which do not follow n. The nasalization alsc 
appears before nh, but only when this combination is followed by a rising 
diphthong. Cf. 

'inhi'ara (tjnkiere) and 'ihiskja {tjnheakje) 
'o'9nho:d© {panhdlde) and 'o'Shiera {panhearre) , 



e. g. 

klyjia (Munje), hylak [hunlik) 



dy:sk {dunsk), hy:sta {Imnste) 



lg:z [lins], mg:ska (minsJce) 



g©:st (ginst), k©:st (ArmsO 



tsjijia {tsjinje) 



ji:sn [jinsen] 



uejia {wenje) 



be:sk (&erwsA;), ve:st (wemO 



frajia {franje) 



hfiiz {Hams), 'uarzdi (TFbawsc?ei) 



lilkaz {lilJcens), beiskaz (bermkens) 



glo:z (gldns), mo:sk (waws^) 



^toizdi {Tongersdei) 



ju:z {jouns), guizja {gunzje) 



i*az (eews), i-alak (zewZiA;) 



fro-alak (frjeonlik), sno-az {snjeons) 



snaiz (sneins) 



mda'z (woarws) 



gu-az (^oes) goose ; also gu'aS unnasalized. 


120. In Frisian there are frequent examples of reduction. 
For practical reasons various kinds are here mentioned together, 
although they may have different causes. 

Reduction of vowels 

121. Long vowels may be reduced in words which are lengthened 
by a syllable in consequence of declension, composition, or deriva- 
tion. This reduction ordinarily affects the quantity of vowels in 
such a manner that long vowels become shortened. But some 
vowels also undergo changes in quality.' 

122. The principal cases which may be distinguished are the 
following : 

' It sometimes happens that the reduced and unreduced forms of a word 
have influenced each other. Hence two pronunciations, as sik — si:k (siiA), 
sikje — 8i:kj9 (siikje), ri:d9 — rida (ride), gli:da — glide (glide), buk — buzk (boek), 
duk — du:k (doek), bruk — bru:k (broek). 

The most usual forms are those given first. 


1. Keduction (or shortening) from i: to i. 
Examples — 

vi:y {wiif )—vifk.9 {tvyfJce) 

ti:d. {tiid)—tidlQk [tydliTc) 

bli:d {bliid) — blitskip {blydskip) 

si:k {silk) — sikta (syJcte), sikaz (siJcens) 

ni:d (niid) — nidag {nidicTi). 

2. From y: to y. 

Example — sky:v (sMf) — skyfka {sMfJce). 

3. From e: to i. 
he:! (heech) — hixte {hicMe) 
re:k (reeJc) — rikja (rikje). 

4. From e: to e. 
Examples — 

gle:z (gles) — gleska (glesJce) 
ste:d {sted) — stetsk {stedsJc) 
bleid {bled) — 'bletsida {hledside) 
le:st (lest) — lestag (lesticJi). 

5. From Q: to a. 
Examples — 

fa:m {faem) — faman {fammen), famka {famke) 
la:m (laem) — la man {lammen), lamka {lamJce) 
laipa (lape) — lapan (lappen), lapja {lapje) 
ha:st {haest) — ha stag [hastich). 

6. From o: to o. 
Examples — 

lo:n (Idn) — ^lonan (lannen) 
ho:n (Mw) — honan (hannen), hondag (handich) 
so:n (saun) — sontjan (sauntjin), sontag (saunticJi) 
sto:k (stoJc) — stokan {stokken), stokja (stokje). 

7. From o: (or o*) to o. 
Examples — 

kno:p (knoop) — knopka (knoopke) 
to'ba [tdbbe) — tobka {tdbke) 
sto'ba {stobhe) — stoban (stohben). 


S. From u: to u. 

Examples — mu:z {miis) — muzan {muzen), muska ^ {muske). 
9. From u: to y. 
Examples — 

hu:z (Ms) — hyzan [huzen), hyska (husJce) 
mu;z {mils) — my ska ^ {musJce). 
Note. In some of the above cases the short vowel is the 
original one, so that they are only apparent examples of reduction. 

Eeduction of diphthongs 

123. This is also met with in some cases. It usually consists 
in shortening the stressed element, or in dropping the semi- vowel 
which composes the unstressed element in such diphthongs as have 
the stress on the second part,'' or in some cases on the first. 

124. The following cases may be distinguished : 

1. a'i is reduced to ai, e. g. : 

a-i (aei) — aika (aiJce) 
k-ai (Jcaei) — kaika (Jcaike) 
ma'ia {Maeije) — 'maitid (maitiid) 
a-ia (aelje) — aikja {aiJcje). 

2. U'i is reduced to ui, e. g. : 

blu'ia (bloeije) — bluisal (bloeisel), 'bluitid {lloeitiid) 
gru'ia (groeije) — gruisam (groeistm). 
Note. In consequence of this change a great many speakers 
also pronounce bluia {bloeije), gruia (groeije), with ui instead of U'i. 

3. ie is reduced to e in : 

helt (helt), hskalja (heaJckelje), swel (stoeal), sweltsja (swealtsje), 
kel {kel, Jcjel) ; 

and sometimes in fremd, hekan, hekal, hekja, ketir), ketlii), 
rema, which are also pronounced friemd (frjemd), Mekan (heaJcken), 
hiekal {heaJcM), hiekja (heaJcje), kietir) (Jceatting), kletlirj (Jceatling), 
riema (remnme). 

4. Ii is reduced to i in : 

twira (twjirre), twilir) {twjilling), ''twibak (twiebaJc), swidar 
(sivierder), swist (swierst). 

^ These two reduced foi'ms differ in signification : muske (miiske) means 
' little mouse ', myska (jnuske) has the transferred meaning ' rogue ', 'urchin '. 
^ This especially occurs after the consonants h, u, r, m. 


5. 6a is reduced to a in : 

mata (moatte), 'mandi (Moandei), 'uSizdi ^ (Woansdei). 

6. o-a is reduced to 6 in : 
grotar (greater), grost (greatst). 

7. i'9 is reduced to i in : 
ir), also spoken i-ag [eang], 

8. U'a is often reduced to u in : 

ik ku, ru, su, but also ik ku'a, ru-a, su-a ^ («S A»e, woe, scoe). 

Beduction of consonants ' 

125. This reduction ordinarily consists in a weakening of the 
articulation, followed in some words by complete dropping of the 
consonant. The most common cases are the following : 

126. r, a full -rolled consonant sound in other positions, is ofter 
reduced to a half-rolled devocalized r at the end of words, when 
the preceding sound is a diphthong ending in the weak indistinct 
vowel sound a. 

Examples — hi-ar {hier), mi-ar (mear), smear (smoar). 

127. In this position r has dropped in the singular of tht 
imperfect tense of the verb ve:za (weze) to be : ik, hei ui-a [ik, hy 
wier) 1, he was. 

128. d, which becomes d (with slight explosion) at the end oj 
words after long vowels and diphthongs (see § 111. 1), often drops 
when preceded by a diphthong ending in a. 

Examples — 

ri'ad, ri'a (ried, rie) counsel 

di-ad, di'a [died, die) deed 

si- ad, si' a [sied, sie) seed 

ri'ad, ri-a {read, rea) red 

di-ad, di-a (dead, dea) death 

kwi'a (Jcwea) evil 

bri-a (Irea) bread 

li'a {lea) limbs 

gu'ad, gu'a (sometimes) {goed, goe) good 

' With nasalization ; see § 116. 

* The imperfect tenses of the verbs kinm can, wolle will, scille shall. 
3 For devocalization, which is of course also a form of reduction, sec 
§§ 110, 111. 


ik hi'9, di'a * {ik Me, die) 

ik uu'a, ku'a, su-a, bi-a, si'a'* (iJc woe, Jcoe, scoe, hea, sea). 

129. d as initial consonant is reduced and often drops in dju-ar, 
ju-ar (djur), djip, jip (djip), djuia, juia (djoeije). 

130. k often drops in the suffix -sk. 

Examples — mo:sk, mo:s (mansJc), folsk, fols {falsh), m5:ska, 
mS:s {minsJce, mins), frisk, fris (frysk). 

131. h is always a little reduced before rising diphthongs. 
Examples — hiir [lijir), hlit {hjit), bdata {hoarte), hdana {hoanne), 

huotsja (hoedtsje), hlest (hjerst), Mera {hear re). 

h is reduced to a slight aspiration or has completely dropped : 

1. In some words beginning with r or 1 (see § 73). 
Examples — 

ri-ak (realc), rig [ring), ropa {roppe) 
llepa {Ijeppe), laitsja {laitsje). 

2. In some words beginning with j or u (see §§ 79, 81). 
Examples — 

uot (hwet), uont {hwent), uer {hwer) 
ju'a^ (Jijoed), jouar {Jijouiver). 

132. j often drops as initial consonant in the word : 

ji-ar {jier)j also spoken i-ar. 

Beduction in half-stressed and unstressed syllables 

133. Generally it may be said that sounds in half-stressed or 
unstressed syllables have not the same value as in full-stressed 
ones. It is indifferent whether the unstressed or half-stressed 
syllable precedes the stressed one or follows it. 

134. When a half-stressed syllable immediately precedes or 
follows^ a stressed one, long vowels and diphthongs may be 
reduced ; e.g. : 

1. o: is reduced to o. 

Example — ho:v {Mf) — 'tsjerkhof (tsjerMiof). 

2. e: is reduced to e. 

Example — ste:d (sted) — stedz'hu:z (stedshus). 

' The imperfect tenses of the verbs hawwe, dwaen. 

^ The imperfect tenses of the verbs wolle, kinne (and kenne), scille, bidde (and 
biede), siede. 

3 When an unstressed syllable comes between, the reduction does not 

1466-2 D 


3. i: is reduced to i. 

Example — ti:dL (tiid) — 'oltid {altyd). 

4. u: is reduced to y. 

Example — hu:z (Ms) — 'tixthys (tichthus). 

5. ai is reduced to i. 
Examples — 

dai {dei) — 'midi (middei), 'mandi {Moandei), 'tiizdi (Tiisdei) 
vai (wei) — 'Melui (Jvealwei). 

6. ei is reduced to 1. 

Example — net {nij) — nis'kiirag (nijsgierrich). 

7. Ii (with stress-change from i-e) becomes la, ja. 
Examples — 

sti-an (stien) — 'skdasian [skoarstien) 
tsi'an {tsien) — ''tretjan (trettjin), 

135. In ordinary talk it is common in the above cases for th( 
reduced sound to become a ; e. g. : 

fek (/e^)— 'hiefak (Jieafeh) 

fet {fet}—'diefdt {deafet) 

fol (/oZ)— 'hoifal {Mnfol) 

kos {kas) — 'kli'ar)kas {MeanJcas) 

uai (wei) — ■'Melua Qiealwei) 

hi'ak {hedk) — ^potak (putheaJc) 

kou (Jcou) — kaz'itn {kousiten) 

mean (moarn) — man'i'ar {moarnier) 

lio {Ijue) — 'froilia [frouljm). 

136. In a great many words of foreign origin the same reduc 
tion appears in the unstressed syllable as described in the preced 
ing section. 

Examples — fa'brik (fabryJc), ma'sina {masine), da'zin {dosyn) 
ka'slain {kastlein\ pa'tei (partij), br'ta:l (bretael), ma'ki-are 

137. In such cases a has often dropped ; e.g. : 

kronta (Jcrante), kro'an [Jcroan], krekt (JcreM), kraft, kraxi 
(Jcraft), klots {Mots), klo-ar {Meur), klin (Jcelyn), blain (Uein),, knin, 
ka'nin (Tcenyn). 

138. Curious forms are : 

pa'pi-ar, pam^pi-ar, pom'pi'ar (papier, pompier) 
ka'fo-ar, ka'fo-ar, ko'fo'ar (Jcomfoar) 
ha^lo'azja (haloazje), a'fisja [afysje), ba'zita (hisite) 
kama'uEt (Jcammenet), istr'mint [ystermint), kla'bots (Mahats). 


X39. The prefix mis- is pronounced mis and mas, when the 
stress falls on the following syllable. 
Examples — 

mis'koma, mas'koma {miskomme) 
mis'siza, mas'siza (missiisge) 
miz'dwa'n, maz'dwo'n {misdwaen). 
140. The following suffixes have two pronunciations : 
-heid is spoken haid and hit 




„ skap 
„ lak^ 




„ nas 




,y 1913. 

141. In enclitic or proclitic words, as for example the personal 
pronouns, and in words occupying lightly-stressed places in the 
sentence, vowels and diphthongs also may be reduced. 

Examples — 

ik — k ru'a lievar ! (Ih woe Ijeaver .') 
at— rol t net ? {Wol it net?) . 

uei — ha 151 net mi'ar P {Ha wy net mear ?) 
del — ik km di net helpa {Ik km dy net helpe) 
mei — jou mi dot ! {Jow my dat !) 
sei — gilt sa mai ? {Giet se mei ?) 
jou — sjo ja T3ol ? {Sjtich jy tool ?) 
Note. It is of course also possible for the original sound to 
remain in certain cases. 

Eedtiction to syllabic consonants 

142. In Frisian the unstressed syllable which ends in one of the 
sounds' n, 1, r is often reduced to a syllabic consonant, i. e. to m, 
^, g, 1, or 1*2. 

' The sound 9 in this suffix has dropped in the word lilk (lilk), and some- 
times drops in modk, mozglek (mooglik), ski'dlk, ski'alek {skielik), dazlk^ 
da:l8k (ddlik), rilk, rilek (ridlik), kwi-alk, kwi'9lek (kwealik). 

In the suffix ex, sk {-ich) the indistinct vowel also drops in some words, as 
vorg {wirdi), smoarg (smoarcK), tsiin(t)'u6rg (tsjinwirdich). 

2 The opposite of reduction appears in words ending in rm or Im preceded 
by a long vowel or a diphthong. In such words m often becomes syllabic ; 
e.g. rairip. (waerm), rerm (earm)y skeirm {skerm), riirm (wjirm), stSanri 
(stoarm)f foarni (/oaim), goilip {gdlm), and with insertion of 9 even ua:rem, 
i*9r9m, and so on. 



143. The ending -en, in careful pronunciation spoken an, is 
reduced ^ : 

1. To n when the preceding sound is one of the labiodental or 
linguodental consonants f, v, t, d, n, 1, r, s, z. 

Examples — efn (effen), tiidn {tiden), sinn (sinen), jeln (jelne). 

2. To m after the bilabial consonants p, b, m. 
Examples — i-aprn [iepen], libm (libben), imm {immen). 

3. To r) after the velar consonants k, r), g. 

Examples — rekg (reJcken), digr) (dingen), twiigg (twigen). 

144. The ending -el, in careful speaking al, is reduced to 1 after 

Examples — lepl (leppel) ga:vl (gavel), kri:gl {Jcrigel), irjl (ingel). 

145. The ending -er, in careful speaking ar, is reduced to r 
after consonants. 

Examples — e;kr (eJcer), a:mr (amer), togr (tonger). 

146. The suffix -em (English -ness) is pronounced : 

1. nz after t, d, n, 1. 

Examples — uitnz {witens), gu-adnz (goedens), blinnz (Uinens), 
fi'alnz (fealens). 

2. mz or az after p, b, m. 
Examples — 

tsjspmz or tsjepaz (tsjeppens) 
domniz ,, domaz (dommens). 

3. rjz or az after k, g, g. 

lilkrjz or lilkaz {lilkens) 
slugrjz ,, slugaz (slugens) 
ir)r|z „ iqaz (eangens). 

4. az after the consonants s, z, and after vowels or semi- vowels. 
Examples — litsaz (lytsens), kri-azaz (kreazens), reiaz (rijens). 

147. The word-combinations Jio'n ien, sa'n ien, gjin ten are 
generally reduced to hunn, sann, glinn. 

148. The negative abverb net (net) is reduced to nt when enclitic 
or proclitic. 

Examples — 

ik 'uit nt {Ik wit net) 
nt ui'ar P "^ {Net wier ?) 

^ For practical reasons these and the following rules are mentioned here 
all together, although they partly belong to the chapter on assimilation. 

* From this form comes the pronunciation ent ui*9r? which is not un- 
frequently heard in ordinary speaking. 


Frisian Dialects 

149. In this work no proper treatment of the various West 
Frisian dialects can be attempted. This would not only be 
undesirable for the present purpose, but also impossible, as the 
researches made into this matter are still very incomplete. 

150. What is dealt with here is only the most common dialect. 
This is understood tolerably well over the whole Frisian territory, 
not only in the districts where another dialect is spoken, but even 
for the most part in the towns, where as a rule the natives do not 
speak Frisian. 

151. Some of the principal differences which exist in this dialect 
are given below.^ No account, however, is here taken of other 
dialects, such as those of the South and South-west, of which that 
of Hynlippen (Dutch form : Hindeloopen) is very interesting, or 
those of Skilinge (Dutch: Terschelling) and Skiermuntseach 
(Dutch : Schiermonnikoog).'^ 

152. e — a. Some words which normally have e are locally 
pronounced with a. For instance : 

het, beta (herte), smet, smeta (smerte), ken (Jcern), hena {hernq), 
dwes {clwers), fesk {fersk), pesa {perse), knesa [Merse), mesa {merse), 
hesaz (hersens), berm {berm), 'herberga {herberge), merka {merke), 
perk (jper/t), ferva (ferve), sker {sJcer), let {lef), eftar {efter), extar 
(ecMer), gre:ft (greft), kre:ft {kreft), klem (klem), menag {mennich), 
uejia (tvenje), are also pronounced hat, smat, kan, hana, dwas, 
fask, pasa, knasa, masa, hasaz, barm, 'harbarga, marka, 
park, farva, skar, laf, aftar, axtar, graft, kraxt, klam, manag, 

153. e — I. Words variously pronounced with e or with i are, 
for instance : kena (kenne), bakend (Ukend), en {en), rena {tvenne), 
ek {ek), skel(a) {skel, skelle), skrepa {skreppe), grepal {grejypel). 

Also pronounced kina, bakind, in, nna, ik, skila, skripa, 

154. ei — li. Words spelt with ij are generally pronounced with 
ei, but the pronunciation ri is also current in some parts. 

1 The following sections are not entirely based on the personal researches 
of the author, a few examples being taken from the Friesch Woordenboek {Lexicon 
Jrisicum), beuerkt door Waling Byhstra, etc. Leeuwarden, 1900-1911. 

2 An exact demarcation of Frisian dialects must also be postponed to 
another occasion. 


Examples— frei (frij), nei (nij), lei (lij), rei (rij), leia {lije), 
meia {mije), ueia (wije), sneia (sm}'e), treia (trije). 

Also pronounced fril, ml, lii, rii, liia, mila, uiia, snila, 

155. u — o. A dialectal difference is found in such words as : 
undar (under), rundar (wunder), sundar {sunder), sunt {sunt), 

bunt {bunt), hundat (hundert), puntsjar {puntsjer), tuna {tunne), 
un {un), tuqa {tunge), rum {rum), dum {dum), krum {krum), plum 
{pliim), prum {prum), skum {sMm), tuma {tume), tumalja 
{tumelje), juk (juJc), jukja {juJcje), tuka {tuTce), tsjuk {tsjuk), 
tsjuksal {tsjuksel), which are also pronounced ondar {onder), 
rondar {wonder), sondar {sonder), sont (sont), bont (bont), hondat 
{hondert), pontsjar {pontsjer), tona {tonne), on {on), toga {tonge), rom 
(rom), dom {dom), krom (A;rom), plom (ptom), prom {prom), skom 
(s^om), toma {tomme), tomalja {tommelje), jok (jo^), jokja {joJcje), 
toka (toMe), t8jok(fs/oA;), tsjoksal {tsjoJcsel). 

Note. The prefixes on-, ont- (omt, see § 112. 4) also occur in 
the forms un-, unt-. 

156. u — ou. The following words are pronounced with u or 
with ou : 

bun {boun), spun {spoun), run {roun), vun {woun), uun {woun), 
fun (/ow»)/ hun {houn), jun {joum), grun {groun), sun (somm), run 
(roMw), un (oww), pun (poww), jun (jfoww ^). 

Also pronounced boun, spoun, roun, voun, roun, foun,^ 
houn, joun, groun, soun, roun, oun, poun, joun '^. 

Note. The word gu:na is also pronounced gouna {goune). 

157. u, ou — 6a. Instead of run, roun and uun, roun the pro- 
nunciation r6an (roan), r6an {looan)^ is also heard in some 

158. 6 — I, This difference exists in such words as : 

spol {spil), 161k {lilk), m61 {mil), brol {bril), ''br61oft {brilloft), 
nola* {nidle), d6t {dit), str6ta'^ {strjitte), s6star {sister), jostar 
{jister), m6nt {mint), jofar {jiffer), which are also pronounced 
spil, lilk, mil, bril, 'briloft, hila, dit, strita^ sistar, jistar, 
mint, jifar. 

1 The imperfect tenses and past participles of the verbs feme, spinne, rinne, 
wine, winne, fine. 

* The past participle of the verb jam. 

^ The imperfect tenses and past participles of the verbs rinne, winne. 

* Also pronounced n5del, nOdl. *• Usually pronounced striits. 


But in some of these words the pronunciation with 6, in others 
that with I, has fallen into disuse. 

159. iuw — iou. The words bliuwa (Uiuwe), driuwa {driuwe), 
riuwa (riuwe), triuwe (triuwe), prluwa (priuwe), piuwa (piuwe), 
skriuwa {skriuive), uriuwa (ivrimce), liuw {limv), kiuw (Jciuw), 
mluw (miuw), are also pronounced blioua, drioua, rloua, trioua, 
prioua, ploua, skrloua, urioua, liou, klou, miou. 

Note. This pronunciation is even the most common. 

160. I'a — e:. Words pronounced with i-a or with e: are (among 
others) the following : 

ui'ak (weaJc), ri-ak (reak), kri-akja {JcreaJcje), hi-ak {MaTc)y 
bi'akan (beaJcen), ni-akan (neaJcen), i-ag {each), ri-agja {reagje), 
ui-agja {weagje), pli-agja (pleagje), bi-aga {beage), fli-ag {fleacJi^), 
si'ag {seach ^). 

Also occurring with the pronunciation re:k, re:k, kre:kja, he:k, 
be:kan, ne:kan, e:g, re:gja, re:gja, pleigja, beiga, fle:g\ se:g^ 

161. I'a — e:. There are a few words pronounced with I'a or 
with e: ; e.g.: 

I'ag {each), ki-ap {keap), ki-apja {Jceapje). 
Also pronounced e:g, ke:p, ke:pja. 

162. e: — ei. This difference occurs in the words : 

beital {betel), ue:garja {wegerje), te:kan {telcen), te:kanja 
{teJcenje), stergar {steger), game:nta {gemeente), which have also the 
pronunciation beital {beitel), ueigarja {weigerje), teikan {teiJcen), 
teikanja {teiJcenje), steigar {steiger), gameinta {gemeinte). 

163. e: — i-a. In the following words the sounds e: or 1*3 are 
employed : 

he:I {heel), ke:l {keel), ge:l {geel), de:l {deel), de:la {dele). 
In other districts : hi-al {Mel), ki-al {Mel), gi'al {giel), di'al 
{diel), di'ala {diele). 

164. i'a — i:. This dialectal difference occurs especially in some 
imperfect tenses ; for instance : 

bri'ak (briek), di'ak {diek), ri'ak {riek), spri'ak {spriek), sti'ak 
{stick), stri'ak {striek), tri-ak {triek),^ bri'av {brief), di'av {die/). 

Also pronounced bri:k, di:k, ri:k, spri:k, sti:k, stri:k, triik,'^ 
bri:v, di:v. 

^ The imperfect tenses of the verbs fleane, sjen. 

2 The imperfect tenses of the verbs brekke, dekke, rekke, sprekke, sUkke, strike, 



165. I'a — 6'a. There are some words pronounced with re which 
in other places have 6'a. Such are : 

gri'et (great), bi-alag (bealich), bi-alagja [healigje], ki-akalja 
(JceaTcelje), di-ala (deale), di-alaz [dedles), fadi-ald (fordedld), koma- 
'di'ara (Jcommedeare), which also occur with the pronunciation 
gro'at, bo'alag, bo'alagja, ko'akalja, do'ala, do-alaz, fado'ald, 

166. 6'a — iou — loii. These three pronunciations are met with 
in the following words : 

bl6'an (Ueaun), dr6'an (dreaun), skr6'an (skreaun), t5r6'an 
(wreaun), pr6'an {prcaun), ro-an (reaun), tro'an (treaun),^ kl6'ana 
{klea%me) ; also blioun, drloun, skrioun, urioun, prioun, rioun, 
trioun,^ kllouna ; and blioiin, drioun, skrioun, rrioiin, prioiin, 
rioiin, trioun,^ klioiina (with level stress, see § 85). 

167. u — uo. A dialectal diiference u — lio exists in the following 
words : 

mula {mule), butar {huter), mutsa (mutse), pul (pul), busa 
(buse), which are also pronounced muola, biiotar, miiotsa, pucl, 

168. o: — O'a. Words pronounced with o: or with ca are, for 
example : 

no:t (not), gro:t (grot), po:t (pot), ro:t (rot), pro:la (prdlle), 
fo:la ifole). 

Also pronounced neat (noat), great {groat), peat (poat), reat 
(roat), prcala, prdala {proale, proalle), fcala, fdala {foale, foalle). 

169. a — a*. In some words a short a is heard in some districts 
and a half-lengthened O' in others, thus : fara {farre), tara (tarre), 
bara {harre), smara (smarre), jm vara {yen warre) ; but also fa-ra, 
toTa, bo'ra, smaTa, jin ua-ra. 

170. 6a — iio. Some words are pronounced with 6a or with uo. 
Thus: f6at {foart), mdata^ {moatte), an6ar(moar), p6ana {poarme), 
v6atal {woarteT). 

Also pronounced Mot, mtiota, aniior, piiona, riiotal. 

171. 16 — io. Two pronunciations, namely with 16 or with lo, 
are heard in such words as : 

\jl6k {wjuh), pI6k {pjuJc), ml6ks {mjuks), mi6ksja (mjuksje), 
beside vlok, pick, mloks, mloksja. 

* The past participles of the verbs bliuwe, driuwe, skriuwe, wriuwe, priuwe, 
riuwe, triuwe. 

2 This pronunciation may be said to be antiquated ; it is now mate (see 
§ 124. 5). 


Similarly, but differently distributed : 

slioxt {sljucht), rlox^ (rjucht), sioxt {sjucJit), spioxt (spjucM), 
spioxtag (spjucJitich), slog (sjuch), o'siog (onsjuch), fioxtsja (fjucJi- 
tsje), niorjkan [njimken), beside slioxt, ridxt, sioxt, spioxt, 
spioxtag, siog, o'siog, fioxtsja, nidrjkdn. 

172. ai, E'i — ei. Words spelt with ei have various pronuncia- 
tions. The most common is ai. or in some cases, especially when 
followed by a, a half-lengthened variety of this diphthong, namely 
a'i. Another pronunciation, however, is si, also heard in a great 
part of the Frisian territory. Besides the retracted and lowered 
variety ai, O'i is not unfrequently heard in some districts, whilst 
in others the sound is raised so that it becomes nearly e*i. Such 
words are, for example : 

faint {feint), rain {rein), hait {Jieit), saiz {seis), flaiz {fleis), 
kla'ia {Meije), ta-ia {teije), fa-ia {feije), and so on. 

Also pronounced feint, rein, heit, seiz, fleiz, kleia, teia, feia. 

173. I'a — a:. This difference occurs, for example, in the words : 
si'aga {seage), si-agja {seagje), ri-aga {weage), fli-ana {fleane), 

which are also pronounced sa:ga {sage) soigja {saegje), ua:ga {wage), 
fla:na {flanc). 

174. o'a— I'a. The suffix lo-az {-loas) also occurs in the form 
li'az {-leas). The first pronimciation is by far the most common. 

175. ja, ia — i. In some places the verbal ending ja (or ia) is 
pronounced 1 ; e. g. : 

rid^ja {ividzje), heilja {Jieelje), helja {helje), and so on. 
Also pronounced ridzi, he:li, hsli. 

176. The same difference is met with in the diminutive ending 
(t)sja or (t)sia, which is also pronounced (t)si ; e.g.: 

stiioltsja {sfoeltsje), hiiotsja {hoedtsje), stiintsja {stientsje), 
netsja {netsje), and so on. 

Also heard with the pronunciation stuoltsi, hiiotsi, stiintsi, 



177. For a long time there was no unity in the spelling of the 
Frisian language. The systems devised by Dr. J. H. Halbertsma 
(1834) and by H. S. Sytstra (1856) were generally followed, but 
with great freedom. In the year 1876 the ' Selskip for Fryske 
tael en skriftenkennisse ' endeavoured to settle the matter once 
and for all. A board of spelling appointed by this society finished 
its work in 1878. In the next year this was published {De Fryske 
Boekstavering, Hearrenfean, 1879). The system of spelling con- 
tained in this little book was somewhat extended by Mr. Ph. van 
Blom in his Beknopte Friesche SpraaMimst (Joure, 1889). 

178. This system is the one still in use. It is based partly on 
phonetic, partly on etymological and historical principles.^ Its 
originators have also tried as far as possible to bring the different 
Frisian dialects together under the same spelling. Hence the 
Frisian orthography is in itself very inconsistent, and moreover is 
often applied with equal inconsistency. 

179. There are a great many anomalies in the system. It 
often happens that the same sounds are represented in differeni 
ways, or that the same letters are used to represent differeni 
sounds. Simple sounds are often expressed by two letters and 
complex sounds sometimes by single letters. In various cases 
the written letters are not pronounced. The spelling of the 
diphthongs and triphthongs especially is not all that can be 
desired. The spelling of the sounds u, u:, U'a, uo, for example, 
is a muddle. The consonant spelling is much better. 

180. For a simple survey, and for the practical purposes of this 
work, the following compendium may serve. 

^ It also exhibits the influence of Dutch spelling. 





Vowels (see §§ 6-18) 


i3 S 

m O 

2 3 

^ a> 
^ ft 

Rules 1 




in closed syllables 
„ open „ 

ryk, wyt, ryp, syl 
ite, bine, gripe 



in closed syllables 
„ open „ 

Hid, vnis, wiif 
rize, iver, sige 



in closed syllables 
„ open „ 

nut, tun, us 
slute, hune 



in closed syllables 
„ open „ 

druf, suzje 
druven, suver, tuge 



in closed syllables 
,, open „ 
when final 

reek, heech, leech 
frede, spegel 




deun, beu, smeule 



in closed syllables and before ch 
archaic in the words 

ik, libje, kinne, richel 
yen, yeske, yester, yet, yetie, 




fet, lea, brekke 




only in the word 

sted, rech, seft, leze, brege 



in closed syllables and before ch 
also in the open monosyllables 
only in the words 

par, acht, sang,pakke, kachel 

ta, sa, ha, hja 

moatte, Moandei (§ 124. 5) 



in closed syllables 
„ open „ 
also in the words 

slaen, haed, jaen 
twa, drage, pake 
barne, warle (§ 100) 





in a great many unstressed 
syllables, as 

in unstressed prefixes and suf- 
in the unstressed prefixes 
in the unstressed suffix -sum 
sometimes in the words 

-e, -je, -sje, -elje, -erje, -he, 
-tsje, -er, -el, -em, -en, 
-ens, ge- 

bi; -ich, -lik, -is, -nis, -igje 

for-, to- 

bruksum, hansum 
jy, wy (§ 141) 

In some 

cases it is not possible or not necessary to give rules. 



•2 » 




ji >» 

^ &■ 

Oh "» 

o ■" 



in closed syllables and before ch 

nui, guds, hutte, kuche 

also in the open monosyllables 

ju, hju, rju, sju, nju 


in the past participles 

britsen, ditsen, Utsen, ritsen, 
spriisen, stritsen, tritsen, 

also in the words 

nidle, mil, silver, hUde, 
ginne, wirk, swirk, wirch, 
jister, sister, dit ; wird, 
hird, bird, mird, stirt, 
swird, skirte, wirde, girdle 

in closed syllables, not repre- 
senting older a 

lot, hop, God, lof 


from older a before n, I, s, t 

man, al,jas, kat 


only in the words 

. saun^jin, sauniich (§ 122. 6) 


)) >) » 3> 1 

det {conj.), hwet, hwent,fen, 



when not representing older a 

Itof, stok, rolje, boge 


from older a before n, I, (l)d, (l)t 

hdn,iodl; did, salt (^ 102) 


only in the words 

saun, naule 


,, ,, ,, past participle 



„ „ „ word 




dom, tosk, wolle,folk 



(obbe, dobbe, stobbe, klobbe 



in closed syllables 

rook, doop, hoopje 

„ open ,, 

doge, romer, smoke 



when the Dutch equivalent has 


droech, hoep, hoek 


when the Dutch equivalent has 

u, ui, eu 

buk, bruke, mule 


from older u before w(d) 

houn, groun, poun (§ 156) 


only in the past participle 


only in the words 

do, ho 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

skoech, boek, doek 


when the Dutch equivalent has 

u, ui, eu 

huge, tiizen, bugel 


only in the word 





Diphthongs (see §§ 26-47) 

.S <" 

^ a 
a s 

o " 





laitsje, aike 


in words which are also pro- 
nounced with ei 

wein, meitsje, rein, ein 



in words which are also pro- 
nounced with li 

frij, nij, snije, trije 


only in the words (also pro- 
nounced with i) 

hy, wy, my, dy, by 




stuitsje, struije, druije 




bloei, groei, bloeije 



kaei, dad, waeije, klaeije 


in words also pronounced with 

kleije,feije, meije 




moai, roaije, ploaitsje 




ploeije, loeije 



only in the interjection 




goud, hout, tou, mou 
gau, nau, blau 





dou, kou, nou, skouwe 



rouwe, mouwe 










ten, skiep, wiet, Mere 




flues, natuer 



when the Dutch equivalent has 

0, 06 

hoed, bloed, goes, koer 


when the Dutch equivalent has 
u, ui 

sur, ure 




hea, beam, read, weak, heal 



before r 

geur, kleur, steure 


in past participles as 

dreaun, skreaun, bleaun (§ 


in the words 

frjeon, snjeon, gleon 




roas, modi, doar, oar 



interchanging with i-e 

miette, siedzje, triedden 


in other cases 

fjild, hjinne, hjir, gjin, njirre . 




wjuk, bjuster, Ijurk 


only in the word 









interchanging with re 
in other cases 


beammen, weakje 
Ijeppe, stjerre,frjemd 




only in 

sjonge, stjonke 
sljucht, rjucfit, fjuchtsje, 




doarren, hoanne, doq,rp 



only in the word 




when the Dutch equivalent has 

0, oe, eu 
when the Dutch equivalent has 

u, ui 

hoedden, koerke, boerkje, 

murre, skurre, durje 


Triphthongs (see §§ 48, 




in the word 




in words also pronounced with 
loii (§ 85) 

reau, leauwe, skreauwe 




in words also pronounced with 
iuw (§ 159) 

bliuwe, skriuwe, driuwe 



especially in verbs as 

vjriuwe, priuwe (§ 159) 



always interchanging with O'i 

moaijer, moaist 


only in the word 




in the words 

koai, boaijem 




moeike, moeije, roeikje 


Consonants (see §§ 56-73) 



peal, piip, pong, top 


medially after short vowels and 
rising diphthongs 

lippe, groppe, Ijeppe 


when assimilated before a 
breathed consonant 

tobke, klibke, sobkje 



baen, bUid,flibe, skob 


medially after short and half- 
long vowels, rising diph- 
thongs, and after s: 

ebbe, skobben, tobbe, krebbe 


when assimilated 

opdien, opgean 



finally after long vowels, diph- 

kraeb, slaeb 

thongs, and triphthongs 






























medially (see above) 
also in imperfect tenses as 
in third persons as 
and in past participles 
when assimilated 


when assimilated 

after long vowels, diphthongs, 
triphthongs, and voiced con- 


always initially 
when assimilated 

not indicated in ordinary spell- 


when assimilated (§ 112. 1) 

see §§ 143. 2 ; 146. 2 
see § 142, note 


see §§ 143. 1 ; 146. 1 

only medially (of. § 116) 

medially or finally 
before k and g 

seQ §§ 143. 3 ; 146. 3 


after d, k, s, t 


only medially 

before -de in imperfect tenses 

tinke, ite,foet 
sitte, hjitte, stjitte 
riedi, redt 
redt, bledt 
redsum, lit dat ! 

dwaen, wedsje, lid 
Ijedder, redde, krodde 
utbringe, utdoar 

laedf tried, reid, himd 

kdld, wike, skoaHe, fisk 
stekke, rikke 

goed, grien, gnob, gled 
ik bin, ik die 

(§ 59) 

man, seame, fiem, laem 
simmer, reamme 
oanbiede, ynpakke 

libben, immen 
waerm, earm, wjirm 

namme, bine, lean 
kinne, moanne 

linnen, bitten 

brdnje, tsjinje, t^emje 

sjonge, lang, dong 
inket, klank, yngean 


Idn, slaen, dive, role 
telle, wolU, scille 

rane, narje, mar, leare 
karre, skjirre, skurre, stjerre 

dwaen, kwael, svHet, ttoa 

fier, lofter, wif 
treffe, strafe 

gnuve, iver,fervje 
gnufde. drae/de 



2 05 


en m 





finally after long vowels and 

voiced consonants 
also before d in past participles 

skeaf, toalf, erf 
erfd, Uskaefd 



medially in the verb 

waer, wyn, wjirje, urine 




in the verb scille and its forms 

soan, skjin, buse, bosk 
passe, misse 
soil, scoe, scillen 



mostly medially 

finally in 

medially after short vowels and 

rising diphthongs 
before -de in imperfect tenses 

eaze, gnize, eidsje, reizgje 

ik siz, liz, siz ! 

Uzze, sizze, hazze, goezzen, 

wiisde, raesde 




finally after long vowels and 

voiced consonants 
also before d in past participles 
finally in the imperatives 

Us, goes, stins, tjems, gers 

wiisd, raesd 
■wez, lez 



initially and in some combina- 
tions and endings 
only in the words 

jong, jister, tsjerke, helje 
yen, yet, yeske, yester, yettik 



medially after short vowels, 

finally, and before t 
also in irregular verbal forms 

before t 
in regular verbal forms before t 

kachel, slack, eluch, nocht 
mocht, brocht, tocht, docM 
hy bugt, draegt 




medially after short vowels 

mage, t6gje,furge 
dogge,flagge, bigge 




finally after long vowels and 

voiced consonants 
finally in regular verbal forms 
only initially (cf. §§ 73, 131) 

each, fitch, berch 

ik bug, draeg 
houn, Mem, hus 




Values of ivritten letters 




Rules 1 




in closed syllables before n, i, s, I 

kanne, latte, passe, bal 


in closed syllables, when not 
followed by n, t, s, I 

jak, nacht, garje, sang 


in the open monosyllables 

ta, sa, ha, hja 


in open syllables 

tale, pake, fwa 


before rn, rl (r is assimilated) 

bame, warle 




waer,paed, tael, matt 




aei, raei, faei, haeije 




laitsje, aikje 



only in the interjection 




gau,flau, nau, blau 


when followed by we 

dauwe, snauwe 


only in the words 

sauntjin, sauntich 


ij n » >> 

saun, naule 



only in the past participle 




always ; only occurring before 
n, I, Id, It 

sdn,stdl, wrdld, sdit (§ 102) 



in various positions 

bien, brake, kliber, gib 


finally after long vowels and 

kraeb, slaeb 



by assimilation before breathed 

tobke, slabke, klibke 




ribbe, libben 



medially, before i, finally after 
short vowels 

rache, tichdje, nacht, sluch 


finally after long vowels, diph- 

weach, kraech, wirch, 

thongs, triphthongs, and 


voiced consonants 



in various positions 

dei, eide, droech, lid 


finally after long vowels, diph- 
thongs, triphthongs, and 
voiced consonants 

steed, sted, tsjoed, frjemd 


by assimilation (§ 110. 2) 

dat derre 


always in 

ridlik, nidle, girdle (§ 104. 


sometimes in 

wirdich, wirde, aerdich (§ 
104. 1) 

sometimes in the article 

de (§ 105) 




midden, widdou, hjidde, 



in verbal forms as 

redt, ledt, bledt, riedi 


In some 

cases it is not possible or not nee 

assary to giVe a role. 





2 Pi 
PM 5 



























in open syllables 
only in the words 
in closed syllables 
only in the word 
only in the words 

in unstressed words and syl- 

generally in open syllables or 
followed by a single consonant 

generally when followed by two 
or more consonants 

especially in past participles as 

in other cases 


generally when -je follows (of. 

in other cases (of. § 173) 

in the words 

before r 

in other cases 



in various positions 

before the ending -de 

finally after long vowels, diph- 
thongs, triphthongs, and r, I 

generally in the word 

finally, e.g. in past participles 



medially after vowels and voiced 

also before the ending -de 
in regular verbal forms before t 
after t, k, p (§ 115. 2) 

only initially 

before^" and w in the words 

also in the words 


redens, deJe, eker 

yen, yet, yeske, yester, yettik 

gek, let, sjen, tsjen, wet 


t7e<(conj.), hwet, hwent,/enf 

de, witte, spegel 

kream, kicea, sleat, read^ 

reamme, beamke, fearje 

bleaun, dreaun (§ 166) 
reau, greau, leauwe 
reed, bleek, reek, heel 
feije, leije, ieije 

neil, feint, Jleis, mei, heine 
frjeon, snjeon, gleon 
fleur, kleur, steure 
bleu, beuke, deugd, deun 
se, swe, fe, ste 
gles, bled, rech, mes 

fjouwer, feint, loft, dof 
skaefde, erfde, draefde 
hof, skeaf, erf, skelf 

6/(§ 107) 

weefd, draefd, erfd 

skaffe, treffe, ploffe 

gdns, gnoarje, glei, grien 
beage, bergje, priizgje, walgji 

doogde, siigde 
hy sugt, bugt, draegt 
utgean, opgean 
doogd, siigd, jeugd 
rogge, wy dogge, sjugge 

helje, hjir, honear 

hjoed, hjelt, hjouwer, hwa, 

hwent, hwet, hwer, hwen- 

the, thus 



S S 

" o 





















in closed syllables and before ch 
in open syllables, usually before 

t, k, m, n, p, I 
in open syllables, usually before 

b, d, g, V, 3 
in various unstressed syllables 
in the articles 
before rd, rt (r is assimilated) in 

before ts in the past participles 

in some other words as 

generally in open syllables or 
followed by a single consonant 

generally when followed by two 
or more consonants 



always (cf, § 154) 

always (cf. § 159) 

in various positions 
in the words 

also when inserted after diph- 
thongs and triphthongs end- 
ing in i 

always in stressed syllables 

always (but cf. § 79) 

in the word 

in the words 

in the words 

in the words 

in the word 

in various positions 
before voiced consonants 

in various positions 

in the combinations did, alt 




vnnne, sitte, richel 
bite, wike, irime, loine, gripe, 

bibel, glide, tige, fiver, rize 

bi-, -ich, -lik, -is, -nis, 'igje 

it, in 

wird, bird, hird, girdle, 

mird, swird, wirde, skirte 
briisen, ditsen, litsen, ritsen, 

spritsen, stitsen, stritsen, 

ginne, kinde, tcirk, swirk, 

mirken, wirch, mil, silver, 

hilde, jister, sister 
rie, fieU, miene, grien 

miette, gierrich, siedtje 


wiid, griis, piip 

rdj, lij, mije, krije 

wriuwe, skriuwe, bliuioe 

jaen, tsjerke, meitstje, bitelje 
frjeon, snjeon, Ijeaf, njuet, 

jeije, struije, bloeije, waeije, 


frjemd, kjeld, Ijeppe 

fjild, djip, Ijirre, strjitte 


sjonge, stjonke 

wjuk, pjuk, sjud, wjudde^ 

mjuks, Ijurk, sljurkjCf 

rjucht, sljucht, fjuchtsje, 

sjuch, njuggen, spjuchtf 


klean, tiksely flaeks, shyin 


hikke, wjukkelje 

longe, Ijisk, stiel, kjeld 
kdldffdld, hdlde, sdlte 
tiUe, tjilling, skoaUe 








in various positions 

meane, rame, daem 


finally after long vowels or 
diphthongs + r or I 

waerm, earm, skerm, gdlm 




komme, klimme, tomme 



in various positions ^ 

nSst, line, lean 


before b, p, m 

ynbine, oanprange, oanmei- 


before k, g 

winke, blank, anker 




wringe, bringe, hingje 




linnen, spanne 

in closed syllables, but not 

kop, lof, lot, Ood, socht, hok 


in closed syllables, always be- 

skob, dogge, dom, tonne, jong, 

fore 6, g, m, n, ng, ks 


and sometimes before other con- 

focht, dof, kop, hok, folk 



generally before bb 

tobbe, klobbe, stobbe 


in open syllables 

doge, dope, stove 


only in the words 

do, ho 


in the adverb and preposition to 
and the prefixes 

for-, to- 



generally in open syllables or 
followed by a single conso- 

kroade, doare, smoar, moal 


generally when followed by two 
or more consonants 

hoanne, boarre, stoarm 



only in the plural form 



in the words 

moatte, Moandei 


only in the word 





moai, koaitsje, koaije 


interchanging with o-i 

moaijer, moaist, moaijens 


only in the words 

koai, boaijem 



droech, hoep, poes 


skoech, hoef, kloek 


hoed, moed, poel, koer 


generally before two or more 

skoerre, koelje, floerje 




bloeije, groeije, skroeije 


when g has dropped 

ploeije, loeije 


interchanging with ui 

moeite, moeike, moeije 



only in the word 





rook, roof, loom 

* Nasalization is not mentioned here (see §§ 116-19). 





. ® 







tou, grou, hou, frou, smout 


usually when -we followg 

mouwe, rouwe 


especially in the words 

dou, hou, nou, jou, strou, 
?iou ! stouwe, skouwe 


only in the word 



before n, when d has dropped 
(§ 166) 

sown, houn, roun 


only in the word 




in the past participle of the 
verb jaen 

jovon (§ 156) 


in other forms of this verb 

ik jow 




noch, rok, strot, b6ge,f6le 



in various positions 

peal, piip, gripe 


before voiced consonants 

opdyk, opbod, opgong 




skoppe, sjippe 



in various positions (cf. § 126) 

rij, skriuwe, ier 


before dental consonants (§ 100) 

wird, wart, jern, hjerst 

in other assimilations (§ 101) 

wjerljocht, foarjcuen 

in the verbal form (§ 127) 

ik (hy) witr 




sijerre, jarre, murre 



in various positions 

rest, sierk, hise, okse 


sometimes in the words 

is, as, se (§ 109. 3, 4) 

also before the ending -de 

wiisde, easde 


finally after long vowels, diph- 
thongs, and voiced conso- 

•wiis, heas, lears, stins 



only in the verb 

sciUe, scoe, scillen 




raesd, kniesd 




plasse, misse 



in various positions 

teip, twinge, tsjen, bite, lyts 


before voiced consonants (§ 109. 


foartbanne, xitgean 


when assimilated (§ 103) 

mestelbank, nestelje 




jiette, forjitte, sette 



in closed syllables 

guds, nut, tsjuster 


in open syllables, generally be- 
fore n,t,s,l,d 

hune, slute, kruse, tule, rude 


in open syllables, generally be- 
fore V, g, 3 

snuve, iuge, suze 


in unstressed syllables 

hdnsum, langsum 




kuer, flues, sluere 




bui, stuit,bruije, skuile 









in closed syllables, generally 
before n,t, s,l,d 

irim, nut, grus, Ml 


in closed syllables, generally 
before v, g (/, eft) 

druf, skuf, tuch 



ruch, sluch, buk, ful, rap 


such, hud, krud, mus 


before r 

stur,fjur, ure 


generally before two or more 

munts, durje, burman 




weve, stiivje, erve 



after d^ k, s, t 

dioylje, kwea, swe, twer 



wolf, wan, weach, wetter 


when inserted after diphthongs 
and triphthongs ending in u 

klauwe, skouwe, houwe 
mouwe, fjouweVf leauwe 



only in the word 




in closed syllables 

wyt, ryk, bryk, skyn 


only in the words (also pro- 
nounced with i) 

hy, wy, my, dy, by 


sometimes in 





frieze, eaze, siz! 


finally after long vowels 

wis! les! 




dizze, sizze, lizze, hazze 




1. Noun 

186. In Frisian there are three genders: masculine, feminine, 
and neuter. Nouns of the neuter gender are recognizable by the 
article it ; both masculine and feminine nouns take the article de, 
but the former are indicated by the personal pronoun hy (he), the 
latter by the personal pronoun hja or sy (she) in the singular. 

187. Neuter nouns are : 

1. The geographical proper names, as Frysldn, Ingeldn. 

2. The names of metals, as goud, silver, izer. 

3. The substantival infinitives, adjectives, pronouns, adverbs, 
and phrases, as it fortrouwen (confidence), it Jctvea (evil), it ho en 
hwet (how and what), it wolkom (welcome). 

4. The diminutives (see § 265. 7). 

5. The nouns ending in the suffix -sel, derived from verbs, as 
haksel (what is baked), wynsel (bandage). 

6. The collective nouns with the suffix -te, derived from sub- 
stantives, as heamte (trees). 

7. The verbal stems with the prefixes hi-, for-, ge-, ont-, as 
bidriuw (act), forrin (course), geJdei (complaint), onthdld (memory). 

188. Nouns of the feminine gender are : 

1. The names of female persons, as boerinne (farmer's wife). 
Except iviif (wife), frouminsJce, frommis, minslce (woman), famke, 
fanke (girl), which are of the neuter gender. 

2. A large number of material nouns, as molke (milk), yettik 
(vinegar), reamme (cream). Except the names of metals and some 
others, as hout (wood), sdn (sand), wetter (water), bier (beer), moal 
(meal), smoar (grease), salt (salt), fet (fat), which are of the neuter 


3. The abstract nouns denoting quality, property, or state, 
especially those which end in the suffixes -held, -ens, -de, -te, -nis, 
-skip, as wierheid (truth), goedens (goodness), Ijeafde (love), wiette 
(wetness), minis (knowledge), UydsJcip (joy). 

189. For the remainder it is not possible to give clear and 
simple rules. It is apparent from those above mentioned that the 
masculine gender has acquired great extension in Frisian. Even 
the names of female animals are masculine, as kou (cow), kat (cat), 
^ee/(bitch), dou (dove). Besides, the gender of the nouns mentioned 
in § 188. 2 and 3 is not quite clear, because they are oft«n indicated 
by the demonstrative pronoun dr/ (having in this case the significa- 
tion or the function of a personal pronoun of the third person), the 
indication by the personal pronoun hja or sy falling more and more 
into disuse. 

Compound substantives usually have the gender of the last 
part. Except de hank m. (bench), it finsterhank n. (window-seat) ; 
it boat n. (boat), de stoomboat m. (steamboat). 

190. A few nouns have a different gender when the significa- 
tion is different. The principal are : 

de hoard m. (collar) ; it hoard n. (board, brim, seam). 

de, it hosk m. or n. (wood) ; it hosk n. (bundle). 

de hout m. (bolt, pin) ; it hout n. (leg of sheep or calf, 

drumstick of fowl). 

de, it ein m. or n. (end, extremity) ; it ein n. (part, piece, distance). 

defal m. (fall) ; itfal n. (hatch). 

de minske m. (man, human it minske n. (wife), 
being) ; 

de moed m. (courage) ; it moed n. (mind). 

de sin m. (signification, phrase) ; it sin n. (humour, temper, long- 

de Skrift ra. (Holy Writ) ; it skrift n. (writing, writing- 


de soal m. (sole) ; it soal n. (navigable lane in ice). 

de stofi. (matter, texture); it stofn. (dust). 

191. There are two numbers in Frisian, the singular and the 
plural. The modes of forming the plural are the following : 

A. First mode, by adding the termination -en to the singular 

1. When that is a monosyllabic word, as boek (book), boeken. 


2. When the word ends in an accented or half-accented suffix, 
as -ij, -dom, -skip, -ing, -cm. 

Note 1. The suffix -held is changed into -heden in the plural, as 
ivierheid (truth), icierheden. 

Note 2. Only -n is added when the singular form ends in the 
indistinct vowel -e, as greide (grass-land), greiden. 

B. Second mode, by adding -s to the singular. This is the case 
when the singular ends in an unaccented suffix as -el, -em, -en, -er, 
-erf, -mer, -ter, -ster, -je, -Tee, -sje, tsje. 

192. A few words exhibit particular forms of the plural, which 
may be called irregular : 

1. The singular remains unchanged in beane (bean), earte (pea), 
hern (child), shiep (sheep). 

2. The nouns Jcou (cow), goes (goose), skoecli (shoe), foet (foot), 
heest (beast), have the plurals Jcij, gies, sJcoen, fiet, listen, but gies, fiet 
have become antiquated and are usually replaced hy goezzen, foetten. 

8. Dei (day) and icei (way) are changed into dagen, wegen ; the 
plural of deihier (day's wage) is dagenhier. 

4. The plurals of reed (skate), tears (boot) are redens, learzens. 

5. Atder (parent) has the plural olden. 

6. Man (man) and frou (woman) form the plurals manljue, 
frouljue, which are more common than mannen, frouwen. 

7. Compound nouns ending in -man, as hurman (neighbom*), 
timmerman (carpenter), fisherman, also change man into Ijue, thus 
Mrljue, timmerljue, fisJcerljue. 

193. The plural of nouns denoting a quantity, number, measure, 
weight, or price is often the same as the singular. Such nouns 
are Jcop (head), seJc (sack), snies (score), pear (pair), foet (foot), jelne 
(ell), poun (pound), ons (ounce), goune (florin). 

194. Material nouns as izer (iron), goud (gold), houf (wood), 
wetter (water), weet (wheat), and abstract nouns having the 
character of material nouns, as hlydsMp (joy), Ijeafde (love), are only 
used in the singular. When they acquire the character of ordinary 
class nouns, the plural is formed in the common way. Peculiar 
plural forms of this kind are hjouwers, weten, flaeksen, i. e. fields of 
oats, wheat, flax. 

195. Some words are only used in the plural. The commonest 
are affaers, faksen, grypsjes, grysjes, gritsen, Jiarsens, ynhalden, 
ynhouten. Mean, kosten, lea, Ijue, oanslaggen, raenjen, skriften, spitsen, 


106. As a general rule nouns no longer have different cases i 
Frisian, with the exception of the genitive. This case is forme 
by adding -s or -e to the undeclined form. In some expressions w 
still find the full termination -es. Some nouns ending in tl 
indistinct vowel -e are not changed in the genitive. 

197. Of the s-genitive we may distinguish the following cases 

A. Strong genitive (in -s, -es) of class nouns. 

1. A partitive genitive is formed from adjectives used substai 
tively, e.g. htvetgoeds, foUegoeds, Jiwet moaijes, hioet nijes (somethinj 
or much, good, beautiful, new). 

2. A possessive genitive from nouns (singular or plural, masc 
fern., or neuter) denoting personal names, e. g. hurmans let 
(neighbour's sorrow), masters Ms, fervers (the dyer's) SjouJcj 
riheljues gehruJc (rich folk's ways), spn wiifs mem (mother), my 
docMers man. 

Note the indeclinable form of the possessive pronoun in the last example 

3. An elliptic genitive from personal names, when the substai 
tive Ms (house) or a noun denoting possession is understoo< 
but not expressed, e. g. by masters (at the schoolmaster's), by domem 
(at the pastor's), by de baJcJcers, by de fervers, dat is Jieites (father's 
memmes (mother's). 

Note that the definite article in such cases is indeclinable. 

4. A possessive genitive of personal names is sometimes con 
bined with the prepositional genitive, for instance : de tun (gardei 
fen masters, it Iwf (garden) fen domenys, de jonge (lad) fen de baHker 

5. In expressions as der is gjin biteljens ein oan, der is gji 
riedens ein oan, the infinitive used substantively stands in tb 

6. In less common speaking, and in writing, such genitives ai 
met with as Maitiids myldens (mildness), lans ivolfeart (prosperity 

7. Adverbial genitives are very common in Frisian, e. g. moam 
jouns, deis, nacMs, wyJcs, jiers, maitiids, simmers, Jiokkerdeis, de iet 
ivyTiS, de oare wyJcs, dy deis, meastentiids, goedmoeds, itndenveije 

' In the written language other genitives than those given in the followir 
rules may occur. As a rule such forms are completely antiquated or take 
from the Dutch. 


B. Strong genitive (in -s, -es) of proper nouns. 

1. From personal names to denote the possessor, the maker, and 
so on, e. g. Sytema's reed (road), Waling DyTcstra's skriften (writings). 

Note. This genitive is not formed from monosyllabic proper nouns. 

2. From personal names to denote the father or the mother, e. g. 
Anne Piers, Jan AnJcjes. 

3. In elliptic use (cf. A. 3), e.g. hy Sytses, by Sipma's, dat is 
Sytses, Ruerdes, or in combination with the prepositional genitive 
(cf. A. 4), e. g. de feint (servant) /ew Ruerdes, fen Wytsma's. 

4. From geographical proper nouns, e. g. Frysldns marren 

198. A weak genitive in -e, or without termination when the 
substantive ends in the indistinct vowel, is met with in the 
following cases : 

1. From the class nouns heit (father), mem (mother), pake (grand- 
father), heppe (grandmother), owike (uncle), moeike (aunt), all denoting 
a family relation, e.g. heite Mean (clothes), memme soargen (sorrows), 
paJce hoed (hat). 

2. From monosyllabic personal names ending in a consonant, 
and from those which end in -e, to denote the husband, as Ruerde 
Tryn, Anne Grytsje. 

199. There are two kinds of periphrastic genitives in Frisian : 

1. With the aid of the preposition fen (prepositional genitive), 
as it hus fen us turman (our neighbour). 

2. With the aid of the possessive pronoun syn, hjar, as heit syn 
Mean, Jan syn mem, us famke (girl) hjar hoeken, dy Ijue (people) 
hjar droMe (activity). 

200. The genitive may also be expressed with the aid of the 
suffixes -er, -ter, -ster, -mer placed after geographical names, e. g. de 
Snitser ivetterpoarte (the water-gate of Sneek), Frjentsjerter merke, 
(Franeker market), de Rypster toer (tower), de Hegemer mar (mere). 

201. Kemains of the old dative form (in -e) are found in the 
adverbial expressions to goede (to good), to Idnne (to land), to neate 
(to nothing), to rjuchte (to rights). 

202. A vocative is met with in the apostrophe-form heite and in 
the exclamation Heare, both used in familiar speaking, e. g. kom hfir 
ris, heite ! (just come here, lad !), Heare, Meet die er it mM ! (Lord, 
how madly he did it !). 


2. Article 

203. Frisian has the following articles : 

1. The definite article de, used before masc. and fern, nouns h 
the singular and before nouns of all genders in the plural.' 

2. The definite article it, used before neuter nouns in th( 

3. The indefinite article in, only used before singular nouns o 
all genders. 

4. The negative article gjin, used before nouns of all gender 

and numbers. 

Note. In the written language we still find the negative article nin used ii 
the same sense as gjin. This article, however, has fallen into disuse ii 

204. Some isolated forms excepted, all these articles are inde 

Of the definite article there still exist the following forms : 

1. An old accusative masc. sing, in op 'en haen {Jcomme, wese 
bringe), op 'en dur, troch 'en tiid, ta 'n ein. 

2. An old dative fern. sing, in &?/ ^^^ ^^> ^^ ^^ ^^^> /^^ ^^ 
hdn, in der iwicliheid net. 

3. An old dative neuter sing, in yn 'e hus, ut 'e Jim. 

4. An emphatic case answering to the old ace. masc. sing, in/o 
den divel, for den donder. 

205. The article also remains undeclined in such cases as d 
boers hof, de frous mem, it Idns regear, by de boers, nei de Mpers 
de deis, de care deis, de snevn-to-jouns (see § 197, A. 3, 4, 7). 

8. Adjective 

Inflexion of adjectives 

206. In Frisian, adjectives have still the following inflexiona 

forms : 

The stem-form without termination. 
The stem-form with the termination -e. 
The stem-form with the termination -en. 
The stem-form with the termination -er. 

^ For the assimilation of this article see § 105. 


207. The undeelined form is met with in : 

1. All the adjectives used predicatively, as de wet is lang (the 
way is long), it waer is moai (the weather is fine). 

2. The adjective used attributively : 
a. When it stands before neuter nouns in the singular and 

no other determining word precedes, as salt wetter (salt water). 

6. In the same case, when the preceding word is the indefi- 
nite article in, as in djip wetter (a deep water) ; the negative article 
gjin, as gjin farsJc hrea (no new bread) ; the numerals ien, elk, ider, 
mannich, as ien hrun hynder (one brown horse) ; a possessive or 
interrogative pronoun, as myn nij hoek (my new book), hoMcer heech 
hus (which high house ?). 

c. When it ends in two unaccented syllables, as in izeren 
<stek (an iron railing), dy izeren brege (that iron bridge). 

d. When it is derived from a proper noun by means of -er, 
as de Jjjouwerter skipper (the Leeuwarden captain). 

e. When it is one of the words rjuchter, lofter, linker, as de 
rjitchter hdn, de lofter side, de linker kant. 

I /. When it stands in the comparative degree, provided that 

t is not preceded by a definite article or a demonstrative pronoun, 
s greater hus, heger toer, moaijer histen, oan leger todl (but de 
indere man, beside de heger ein). 

g. Sometimes when it is used before names of male persons, 
especially before ma/n, and before nouns denoting a trade or pro- 
ession, but only when the indefinite article precedes, as in goed 
frjemd, nuver) man, in great dichter. 

h. When it is one of the words aid, jong, lyts, great, used 

efore one of the personal names man, frou, feint, faem, toer, haes, 

inaster, and some others, or before names of animals and things, so 

that a single idea is expressed, as de did hoer, de did frou, it jong 

hynder (horse), dat did hus, dy did skurre (barn). 

208. The stem-form + e stands : 

1. Before masc. and fem. nouns when no other word precedes, 
as goede man, Ijeave mem. 

2. Before masc. and fem. nouns when preceded by a definite 
or indefinite article and by other determining words (but see 
§ 207. 2 c-h), as de hege toer, in goede heit. 

3. Before neuter nouns when preceded by the definite article or 
by a demonstrative pronoun (but see § 207. 2 c-e), as it {dit, dat) 
djure hus. 


4. Before plural nouns with or without other preceding words 
as djippe tvetters, Jiege heammen. 

209. The stem + m is found : 

1. As an emphatic form in such cases as it is in dregen haes (h( 
is a stout fellow). 

Note. Instead of this the stem + e may also be used. 

2. Before ien used substantively, as dat is in greaten ien, in rarei 
ien, in moaijen ien, and also when the word ien is omitted, it is h 
raren, in nuveren, in elide jas (coat) en in nijen, in swarten ien en h 

210. The stem + er is used : 

1. In some isolated expressions which are remains of old geni 
tives and datives, as allerhande, allerlei, goederjowsJc, ut goeder best. 

2. In combination with noch, as langernoch, moaijernocJi, likernocl 

Note. Properly speaking it is not the termination -er which appears i 
such expressions. Originally the adjective was undeclined, and the followir 
word was enoch. The r is thus merely a later insertion. 

Comparison of adjectives 

211. The comparative degree of adjectives is formed by addin 
the termination -er to the positive, e. g. heech — heger, great — greate\ 

When the positive ends in I, n, or r, a d is inserted before th 
comparative ending, as mal (foolish) — mdlder, tin (thin) — tinder, toe 
(dry, lean) — toarder. 

This insertion, however, does not always occur when tl 
adjective ends in an unaccented syllable, as el, en, er, e. g. Mmm 
(neat) — himmeler, but also Mmmelder, tofreden (content) — tofredene 
lielder (clear) —helderer, but oftener lielderder. 

212. The superlative degree is formed by the addition of -st \ 
the positive, as heech — heechst, shjin (clean) — sJcjinst. 

When the adjective ends in d, t, ts, these consonants are assini 
lated to the s of the superlative termination, e. g. red (quick) — redd 
— redst, fet (fat) — fetter — fetst, lyts (little) — lytser — lytst, let (late)- 
letter — lest. 

Adjectives in st are not changed in the superlative, e. g. fest (fas 
firm)— fester — {it) fest. 

213. The following adjectives and adverbs are irregular in t] 
comparative and the superlative : 


goed (good) — tetter — lest, 
folle (much) — mear — meast. 
ier (early) — earcler — earst. 
graech (willing) — Ijeaver — Ijeafst. 

But goed = good-natured, and graech = desired (as in gragewaer), 
lave regular degrees : 

goed — goeder — goedst. 
graech — grager — graechst. 

214. The superlative may be strengthened by prefixing alter-, 
ilder-, e. g. allerheechst, alderljeafst, alderbest. 

215. The following comparative forms have the signification of 
)ositives : rjuchter (right), lofter, linker (left), slcoander (excellent). 

[ 216. The superlative may be preceded by the article it when 
Jised predicatively, e. g. hy is greatst or hy is de greatste, or hy is it 

217. As a general rule the comparative is not declinable in 
Frisian (see § 207. 2/). 

The attributive superlative is declined like the positive ; the 
predicative superlative has the forms mentioned in the preceding 

4. Numerals 

218. The Frisian cardinal numerals are : 

1. ien (1), twa (2), trije (3), fjouwei- (4), fiif{h), seis (6), saun (7), 
%cht (8), njuggen (9), tsien (10), dive, dlf (11), toalve, toalf (12); 

trettjin (IS), fjirtjin (14), fyftjin (15), sechstjin (16), sauntjin (17), 
ichttjin (18), njuggentjin (19) ; 

tweintich (20), tritieh (30), fjirtich (40), fyftich (50), sechstich (60), 
sauntich (70), tachtich (80), njuggentich (90) ; ' 

ien-en-tweintich (21), twa-en-tweintich (22), . . . njuggen-en-tweintich 

hundert (100), tiva-hundert (200), . . . njuggen-hundert (900) ; 

tmen (1,000), twa-tiizen (2,000) ; . . . 

dlf-hiindert (1,100), toalf-hundert (1,200), . . . njuggentjin-hundert 
[1,900); . . . 

miljoen (1,000,000), twa-miljoen (2,000,000) . . . 

2. alle (all), heide (both), elk (each), ider (each), folle (many), 
forskate (various), ienich, ienichst (only), inkele (single), ytlike (some), 

^ Alftich (110) and ioalftich (120) = Old Frisia.n *alftich, iolfticli, are no longer 
in use. 


mannicJi (many, some), undersJcate (various), sommige, somlike (some) ; 
gans (whole), genoch (enough), hivet (somewhat), rjM (abundant, rife), 
gjin (no). 

219. The ordinal numerals are formed from the cardinal 
numerals by adding -ste, -te, or -de (except earste, foarste, oarde). 

earste or foarste (first), twadde or oarde (second), tredde, fjirde, 
fyfle, sechste, saunde, achtste, njuggende, tsiende ; 
alfte, toalfte ; trettjinde . . . njuggentjinde ; 
tweintichste, hundertste, tuzenste, miljoenste. 

220. Fractions : in heal (i), in tredde (part) (|), infjirde {^), trije 
fjirden (|), and so on from the ordinal numerals ; oardeheal or 
oardel (1^), treddeheal or treddel (2f), fjirdeheal or fjirdel (3|), fyfte- 
heal ox fifel (4^), sechsteheal or sechel (5^), saundeheal (6^), acMeheal 
(7^), and so on. 

221. Collective numerals to denote being or belonging together : 
twaresom, trijeresom, fjouweresom, fivesom, seizesom, and so on. 

Multiplicative numerals : dubel (double), trijeduhel (threefold), 
fjouwerdubel, and so on. 

222. Numeral adverbs : 

1. To denote order : earst or foarst, twad or oard, tred, fjird, fyft 
sechst, saund. 

2. To denote ' once ', ' twice ', ' three times ', and so on : ienkeat 
{ienmel, ienris), ttvaJcear (tivaris), trijeJcear {trijeris), and so on. 

223. Numeral adjectives to denote ' of two, three sorts ', and sc 
on : 

twadderhande, tredderJiande, . . . allerhande ; ienderlei, twadderlei, 
tredderlei, . . . allerlei. 

224. Numerals may take the ending -en, when used substan 
tively : 

1. To denote time : foar ienen (before one o'clock), oer twaer, 
(after two), twisken trijen en fjouweren, kertier (a quarter) oer fiven. 
Jiealwei seizen (half-past five). 

2. To denote being together : mei ienen, hy twaen, hja ivieren me 
hjar trijen {= there were three of them), wy hi/nne mei us achten 
(= we are eight). 

3. To denote a division into groups or parts : yn tioaen, trijen. 

4. To denote a great number : hy tsienen, by hunderten, bi 

5. To denote one of a number : ien fen twaen, ten fen beiden, fer 



225. The numerals elk and ider have the genitives elks, iders, 
}. g. elks oardeel, iders miening ; elkmes is a dative form, e. g. jow 
'ijar elkmes Tiwet (give each of them something). 

Alle shows the form at when separated from the noun by the 
definite article or a pronoun, e. g. al it folk. 

Folle, inkele, sommige take the ending -n, when used for persons. 

5. Pronouns 
228. In Frisian there are the following pronouns 








1. ik, 2. dou, jo (jy), 3. hy, er ; 

hja, sy; it 
1. wy, 2. jimme, 3. hja, sy 
dizze, dy, dit, dat 
soks, dy-, dat-, itjinge 
de-, it-, dy-, datselde 
sels, oar 

dy('t), dat, der('t), hwet 
hwa, hwet 
men, it, immen, nimmen, eat, 

neat, alles 
liwet, hwa, guds, gudden 
elk, ider, gjin ('n), ien 
elk-en-ien, ider-en-ien, mannich- 

ien en oar, it ien en 't oar 
1. minen, mines, 2. dinen, -es, 

jouwes, 3. sinen, -es ; hjarres 
1. uzes, 2. jimmes, 3. hjarres 
1. my, 2. dy, jo, 3. him ; hjar 
1. us, 2. jimme, 3. hjar 
mekoar, malkoar, elkoar, inoar 

dizze, dy, dit, dat 

hok, hokker, hwet, ho'n 

1. inyn, 2. dyn, jou, jins, 

3. syn ; hjar 
1. us, 2. jimme, 3. hjar 

227. The Personal Pronouns have the following forms : 

f Nominative case : 1. ik 2. dou, jo S. hy ; hja, sy ; it 
° \ Objective case : my dy, jo him ; hjar, se ; it 

f Nominative case : 1. wy 2. jimme 2. hja, sy 
\ Objective case : us jimme hjar, hjarren, se 

Genitives as in § 197, A. 3 : by jimmes (at your house), by uzes. 
Enclitic forms are : 2. -s^(e), accented -stou, 3. er. They are used 
fter verbs and after conjunctions and relative or interrogative 
•ronouns, as as, det, dat, der, dy, do, hicer, hioet, nou, nei ; e. g. Hiest 
'at wol tocht ? (Would you have thought it ?). As er msi (as he may). 
Ty kin dwaen, hwet er wol (he can do what he likes). 


Unaccented forms are : 

Nominative : 1. 'fc 2. je 3. se, 't ; 1. wi, we 2. jim 3. se 

Objective : mi, me je se, 't ; jim se 

These forms are not always used in writing. i 

A vocative form of the second person singular is ju, only used 

in familiar speaking, e. g. HarJc ris, ju ! (I say, you !). 

Some pronouns may be lengthened by adding the plural noun 

Ijue (folk), e. g. wyljue, usljue, jimmeljue. 

To denote a person with his family such forms as Jan-en-hjar, 

heit-en-Jijar, us burman-en-Jijar are very common. 

228. In ordinary speaking the objective form jo has replaced 
the nominative Jj/, which has fallen into disuse. Jy, however, is 
often employed in the written language. 

Dou (in other dialect du) is the familiar form, jo the polite form 
of the second person singular ; a pronoun lying between these, i. e, 
neither too familiar nor too polite, is men ; children are ofter 
spoken to with the pronouns of the third person hp, sy, even ir 
the imperative, e, g. Kom Jiy hjir mar! (just come here !). To denote 
obedience or a higher degree of politeness jo, je is often replaced bj 
nouns which may be used as vocatives, e. g. Soil ik Heit hwet helpe ! 
Wol mynhear effen siften gean ? 

Hja belongs to another dialect than sy. 

229. The Demonstrative Pronouns dizze and dy are used in th< 
masc. and fem. singular and in the plural ; dit and dat are th( 
forms for the neuter gender in the singular. 

The demonstratives are for the most part indeclinable. Dizze 
deselde, dyselde, dyjinge, and soJcJce take -n in the plural when the] 
refer to persons. 

SoJc{Jce) is in the singular only used before material nouns {sok ir 
the neuter gender) ; before class nouns the expression sa'n is use( 
in the sense of soJc ; the adjective plural form is soMe, e. g. sol 
hier (such hair), soTcke reamme (such cream), sa'w hus (such a house] 
sdkke weinen (such wains). 

Sels is a demonstrative denoting that every other noun o: 
pronoun except that which is mentioned is excluded, e. g. Der gie 
neat foar de man sels. Ik sels. Hy wol it sels dwaen. 

The family is denoted by such expressions as heit-en-dy, Sjoerd 
en-dy, which may be used in the genitive, e. g. heit-en-dy'sfe, ty heit 
en-dy's {hus ' house ' is understood). 


Dy shows a periphrastic genitive, as dy syn hus, dat is dy sinen 
(sines), dy hjarres. 

230. The Eelative Pronoun dy{'t) refers in the singular to 
masc. and fern, antecedents, in the plural to nouns of all genders ; 
dat may have only a neuter singular antecedent. 

Hwet is used only when the antecedent is one of the words al, 
dlles, neat ; der{'t) as relative has fallen into disuse, except in some 
expressions, as RaJcJcert, derste biste ! (Wretch that you are !). 

The relatives were once demonstratives, as the present-day usage 
still shows. In Frisian we may say Ik ha in man sjoen, dy hie in 
juk op 'e sJcouders and dy't in juJc op 'e sJcouders hie. The 't is the 
relic of the conjunction det which once followed the demonstrative 
with a relative function. 

231. The Interrogative Pronoun hwa refers to persons, hwet to 
things. Hwa has the genitive hwa's, hwaens, e. g. Hwa's {hwaens) 
skild is dat ? A periphastic genitive is hwa syn, hwa hjar, when a 
noun follows, as Hwa syn hoeJc is dat ?, and hwa sinen, hwa sines, hwa 
hjarres, when that is not the case. 

Hwet is indeclinable. It is not only substantive, but also 
adjective, and in this case it is used before all genders and 
numbers. Hwet docht (does) dy man ? Hwet Ijue binne dat ? 
(What folks are these ?). 

The adjective pronoun hoJc is used before neuter nouns. When 
followed hy for or for in it may be also used before the masc. and 
fem. The plural form is hohke. 

232. The Indefinite Pronouns are for the most part indeclinable, 
but immen, nimmen, elk, ider have genitives in -s. The pronoun 
men is only used in the nominative ; it has a genitive form yens, 
and an objective form yen, both from the numeral ien (formerly 
written yen), used in an indefinite sense. 

Examples — Yens wird moat msn halde (one must keep one's 
word). Soksjowt yen netfolle (such a thing does not give one much). 

233. The Possessive Pronouns are no longer declined in Frisian. 
The substantive pronouns of the singular show two forms, in -en 
or -es, except jouwes which is properly plural. 

For the use of dyn and jow, dinen (dines) and jouwes the same rules 
may be given as for the pers. pron. of the 2nd person (cf. § 228). 

The pronoun jins, ordinarily belonging to the indefinite pron. 
me», is only used in the case mentioned in § 228, and in the 
written language. Then it seems more polite than jou. 



234. The Reflexive Pronouns are indeclinable. Naturally they 
only occur in the objective form, as Ik skamje my, Hy wasket him. 

The reflexive belonging to the indef. pron. mew is yen (cf. § 232), 
as Men m^at yen redde (one must save oneself). 

235. The Reciprocal Pronouns do not occur in the nominative. 
They have genitive forms in -s. 

Examples — Be hern pleagje elkoar. Men moat hwet for inoar 
oer ha. MeJcoars lesten drage. 

Sometimes a form in -en is met with, as Men moat mehoarren 
hwet tajaen. Wy ha elJcoarren yn lang net sjoen. 

6. Verbs 

236. The Infinitive of Frisian verbs has two forms. When it 
belongs to the predicate, as when it is accompanied by an auxiliary 
verb, the infinitive ends in -e (as Jiele, drinke), with the exception 
of the following monosyllabic verbs : dwaen, jaen, slaen, sjen, tsjen, 
gean, stean. But when the infinitive is preceded by a preposition 
{to, om to), or when it is used as a verbal noun, or when it stands 
with an accusative (the ace. with inf.), it ends in -en (the mono- 
syllables are not changed), e.g. It hern higjint to rinnen. Rinnen 
is in soun wirk. Ik seach him rinnen. 

237. The Present Participle of all verbs is formed by adding 
'Cnde to the stem, or -de to the infinitive when this ends in -n, e. g. 
miene — mienende, dwaen — dwaende. 

238. The Past Participle of weak verbs is formed by adding -d, 
-t, or -e to the stem. The ending -e appears when the infinitive 
ends in -jeijihje — lihhe) ; the past participles of other weak verbs have 
•t when the stem ends in a voiceless consonant [skreppe — skrept), and 
•d when the stem ends in a voiced consonant, a vowel, diphthong, 
or triphthong {knieze — kniesd, waeije — waeid, moeije — m^eid). 

The past participle of strong verbs ordinarily ends in -en, or in -n 
when it is contracted or when the infinitive is monosyllabic 
{komm£ — kommen, hliuwe — hleaun, stean — stien). 

239. There are two finite moods in Frisian, the indicative and 
the imperative ; subjunctive forms are no longer used. 

The Indicative has two simple tenses, the present and the 

The Present Tense of weak and strong verbs has the following 
personal endings : 



Infinitive in -e 
{mime, to think) 

Infinitive in -je 
{easkje, to ask) 

Singular ■ 

3. -t 

1. -e 

2. -e 

3. -e 

ik mien 
dou mienst^ 
jy miene 
hy mient 

wy miene 
jimme miene 
sy (hja) miene 







ik easkje 
dou easkest 
jy easkje ^ 
hy easket 

wy easkje 
jimme easkje 
sy (hja) easkje 

240. The Imperfect Tense of weak verbs is formed by adding 
the following endings to the stem : 

Singular J 

Infinitive in -e 




3. -den 

ik miende 
dou mienste 
jy mienden 
hy miende 

wy mienden 
jimme mienden 
sy (hja) mienden 

Infinitive in -je 


ik easke 
dou easkeste 
jy easkeu 
hy easke 

wy easken 
jimme easken 
sy (hja) easken 

241. The following is the conjugation of the strong verb nimme 
(to take) in the imperfect, serving to show the endings which are 
common to all strong verbs in this tense : 





ik naem 


{ -St 

dou naemst 


jy namen 



hy naem 



wy namen 



Jimme namen 



sy (hja) namen 

242. As a general rule the imperative of all verbs has one tense 
(the present) and one form : 

Sing, and Plural 

Infinitive in -e 
2. — mien 

Infinitive in -je 
2. 'je easkje 

Note 1. The verbs hawwe and weee have an imperfect tense of 
the imperative in such phrases as : Hie dot earder sem. Wier der 
den hinne gien. 

Note 2. In some cases, as for example in speaking to children, 
a third person singular of the imperative is met with which is 
similar to the second : Weis hy mar stil. Kom sy hjir mar. 

» See§ 



243. The Perfect tenses are formed with the auxiliaries Jiatowe 
and we^e. As a rule verbs denoting an action, or the fact of 
heing in some state, are conjugated with hawwe ; verbs denoting 
a coming into some state take weze. 

The Future and Conditional tenses are formed with the auxiliary 

244. There are two voices in Frisian, the active and the 
passive. The latter is formed by prefixing the auxiliary verbs 
wirde or weze to the past participle of the verb. Wirde is used in 
the present and the imperfect, wejze in the other tenses. 

245. In accordance with what is said in §§ 238-41, there are two 
classes of weak verbs in Frisian, those which end in -e and those 
which have the ending -je {-gje, igje, -Tcje, -sje, -zje, -elje, -erje) in the 
infinitive.^ Verbs in -sje, -zje drop s and z of the ending in the 
2nd and 3rd person singular of the present, in the imperfect and 
in the past participle, e. g. : 




Past p. 


(to whiten) 

(to harrow) 

ik wytsje,jdou witest, 
wy wytsje (§ 239) 

ik eidzje, dou eidest, 
wy eidzje (§ 239) 

hy witet, 
hy eidet, 

jk wite (§ 240) 
ik eide (§ 240) 


246. The following weak verbs show vowel or consonant 
mutations in the 2nd and 3rd persons singular of the present, in 
the imperfect and in the past participle : 




Past p. 

liede (to lead) 1. 


2. laest* 3. 






skiede (to part) 







^riede (to spread) 







stjitte (to push) 







deije (to kill) 







bliede (to bleed) 







briede (to roast) 







liede (to ring) 







riede (to guess) 







sliepe (to sleep) 







fortriette (to vex) 





fortrette fortret 

moete, mette (to meet^ 

) moet* 






iije (to suffer) 







feije (to sweep) 







jeije (to chase) 







' The infinitive of strong 

; verbs ordinarily ends 

in -e. For exceptions see 


* These forms are often or even commonly replaced by the analogical 
regluar forms {liedst, liedt, and so on). Some of the forms are restricted to the 
written language. 






Past p. 

kleije (to complain) ] 

L. klei 2 

klagest 3 


pi. kleije 



krije (to get) 








swije (to be silent) 








loeije, loegje 








(to pile up) 

plocije, ploegje 








(to plough) 

koaije, kogje 








(to chew) 

toaije, togje (to tug) 








laiisje (to laugh) 








meitsje (to make) 








smeitsje (to taste) 


smakkest smakke' 



smakke smakke 

reiisje (to reach) 








weitsje (to watch) 








koaitsje, kokje 








(to boil) 

loaitsje, lokje 








(to look) 

ploaitsje, plokje 


* plokest 




* ploke 


(to pluck) 

247. The following is a survey of the classes and sub-classes 
into which the Frisian strong verbs may be divided, and of the 
vowel-gradation in these verbs. As appears from this list, the 
influence of analogy has been very great, and it often happens that 
a verb has passed from one class into another. There is no longer 
any difference between the root- vowels of the imperfect singular 
and plural. 

Class I 

a. Infin. i: ; imperf. i-a — i-a ; past p. i: : * 
glide (to glide) ; glied, glieden ; gliden. 
Similarly : ride (to ride), stride (to strive). 

b. i ; i'9 — i'a ; i : 

ite (to eat) ; iet, ieten ; iten. 

So a,lso : hite, krite, slite, smite, splite, mte. 

c. luw ; iou — iou ; o-a : 

Uiuwe (to remain) ; bleau*,^ bleauwen* ; bleaun. 

Similarly: driuwe, Miuwe, priuwe, riuwe, skriuwe, triuue, wriuwe. 

d. si ; ai — ai ; ai (i'a) : 

snije (to cut) ; snei*, sneijen*, snein (snien). 

^je (to spit) ; spei, speijen ; spein. 

swije (to be silent) ; swei*, sweijen* ; swein* (see § 246). 

* The vowel-gradation is given in phonetic symbols. 

* Weak forms are very common instead of these and the following marked 
with *. 


Class II 
a. Infin. vq (i:) ; imperf. I'a — I'a ; past p. I'a (e:, e) : 

hiede (to bid) ; bea, beaen ; bean. 

siede (to seethe) ; sea, sea6n ; sean. 

frieze (to freeze) ; frear, — ; ferzen. 

Tiieze (to choose) ; keas, keazen ; keazen. 

forlieze (to lose) ; forlear, forlearen ; forlern. 

lige (to tell lies) ; leag*, leagen* ; leagen*. 
&. Ii(i, y); ra— ra; e (i) : 

jiette (to pour) ; geat, geaten ; getten. 

forjitte (to forget) ; forgeat, forgeaten ; forgetten. 

sjitte (to shoot) ; skeat, skeaten ; sketten. 

miette (to measure) ; meat, meaten ; metten. 

hidde (to pray) ; bea, beaen ; bidden. 

slute (to shut) ; sleat, sleaten ; sletten. 
c. I'O (le) ; I'a — i-a ; ai (u's) : 

fleane ^ (to fly) ; fleag, fleagen ; flein. 

tsjen ^ (to draw) ; teag, teagen ; tein. 

sjen^ (to see) ; seag, seagen ; sjoen. 

Class III 
a. Infin. i (i) ; imperf. ou — ou ; past p. ou (see §§ 156, 157). 

hine (to bind) ; boun, bounen ; boun. 

Similarly : fine, fordwine, wine ; higjinne, rinne, spinne, winne. 
h. e ; 6 — 6 ; 6 : 

liergje (to secure) ; birg, birgen ; birgen. 

Similarly : herve, merke, swerve, tverpe. 

c. ie ; o-a — oa ; ca : 

bidjerre (to spoil) ; bidoar, bidoaren ; bidoarn. 
So also : fordjerre, stjerre. 

d. e (i, lo) ; o— o ; o : 

treffe (to hit) ; trof, troffen ; trofifen. 

Similarly : mclke, lielpe; glimme, Mimme, swimme, Icrimpe, Tcringe, 
h'ifinge, minge, springe, twinge, wringe, Mngje, MnJcje, ilinke, drinJce, 
Tdinke, sinJce, skinJce, sUnke, winke, jilde*; sjonge, stjonke, J^ucMe. 

e. 6 ; a: — a: ; 6 : 

wirde (to become) ; waerd, waerden ; wirden. 

^ Present tense : ik fljuch, dou iljuchst, hy fljucht, wy fleane. 

2 „ ,, ,, tsjuch, ,, tsjuchst, ,, tsjucht, „ tsjugge. 

3 „ ,, „ sjuch, ,, sjuchst, ,, sjucht, „ sjugge. 
^ jilde (to yield) ; gou, gouwen ; gouwen. 


Class IV 

fa. Infin. e (i) ; imperf. vq — i-a ; past p. 6 (see § 164) : 

brekJce (to break) ; briek, brieken ; britsen. 

So also : deJcJce, reJcke, spreJcJce, stekJce, strekke, treJcJce ; strike. 
Ih. i(o); a: (o:)- a: (o:) ; o: 

nimme (to take) ; naem (noni), namen (nomen) ; nommen. 

komme (to come) ; kaem (kom), kamen (komen) ; kommen. 

Class V 

a. Infin. e: (i, e) ; imperf. i-a — i-a ; past p. e: (i, e) : 
leze (to read) ; lies, liezen ; lezen. 

stelle (to steal) ; stiel, stielen ; stellen. 
sitte (to sit) ; siet, sieten ; sitten. 
frette (to eat) ; friet, frieten ; fretten. 

b. I ; a'i — a-i ; ai : 

luze ^ (to lie) ; laei, laeijen ; lein. 

Class VI 

a. Infin. a: (i-a) ; imperf. u: — u: ; past p. O: (u:, ai) : 

drage (to draw) ; droeg, droegen ; dragen (droegen). 

grave (to dig) ; groef, groeven ; graven (groeven). 

iveage (to weigh) ; woeg, woegen ; woegen. 

slaen (to strike) ; sloeg, sloegen ; slein. 
h. a ; U'a — u-a ; i-a : 

farre (to go) ; foer, foeren ; fearn. 
e. a: ; u — u ; u : 

waekse (to grow) ; woeks, woeksen ; woeksen. 

d. e ; u: — u: ; e: : 

sTc&ppe (to scoop) ; skoep, skoepen ; skepen. 

e. o: ; u-a — U'a ; o: : 

falle (to fall) ; foel, foelen ; fallen. 

Class VII 

a. Infin. ii (i) ; imperf. i-a — i-a ; past p. ii (i) : 
hjitte (to be called) ; hiet, hieten ; hjitten. 
litte (to let) ; liet, lieten ; litten. 

1 Present tense : ik liz, dou leist, hy leit, wy lizze. 



6. a (o, o) ; o (o:)— o (o:) ; o : 

fange (to catch) ; fong, fongen ; fongen [antiquated, finzen). 

wasJcje (to wash) ; wosk, wosken ; wosken. 

rqppe (to shout) ; rop, ropen ; roppen. • 

c. o: ; ou — ou ; o: : ' 

Mlde (to hold) ; houd, houden ; halden. 

248. The following verbs have a mixed conjugation; thougl 
the imperfect shows strong (as well as weak) forms, the pasi 
participle is weak : | 

Uihe (to appear) ; bliek*, blieken* ; blykt. ■ 

So also : gripe, knipe. 

duke (to duck) ; doek*, doeken* ; dukt. 

So also : glupe, krupe, ruke, slupe, strupe, supe} 

stappe (to step) ; stoep*, steepen* ; stapt. 

skouwe (to shove) ; skau*, skauwen* ; skoud. I 

stouwe (to raise dust) ; stau*, stauwen* ; stoud. 

249. The irregular verbs include in the first place the foUowinj 
preterite presents : 


(to be able) 

Present Imperfect 

1. kin 2. kinst 3. kin pi. kinne koe, koenen 


(to know) 
scille (shall) 


(to dare) 
witte 8 

(to know) 

(to be obliged) 

ken kenst ken „ kenne koe, koenen 



doar doarst 
wit wist 
moat moast 





„ scille 
,, meije 

„ doare 

,, witte 

scoe, scoenen 
mocht, mochten 

doarst, doarsten 

wist, wisten 

moatte moast, moasten 

dooch doochst dooch(t) pi. doge doogde, doogden 

(to be of use) 

250. Other anomalies are met with in 

Past p. 










bringe 1. bring 2. bringst 3. bringt pi. bringe brocht, brochten 

(to bring) 
tinke tink tinkst tinkt „ tinke tocht, tochten 

(to think) 
keapje keapje keapest keapet „ keapje kocht,^ kochten * kocht 

(to buy) 

^ But liike (to draw) ; loek*, loeken* ; litsen. 

* Although the written forms of this verb diifer from those of kinne, th 
pronunciation is the same. , 

^ Also : wite ; wyt, wyst, wyt, wite ; wist, wisten ; witen. | 

* Sometimes yet : koft, koften, koft. | 




kje 1. siikje 2, 

to seek) 

isje pliigje 

to practice) 

)Jte (to be wol 

to have) 

to be) 


to do) 


to give) 

to go) 


to stand) 


to lay) 


to say) 








Present Imperfect Past p. 

sikest 3. siket pi. siikje socht, sochten socht 

pligest pliget „ pliigje plichte, plichten — 

wolst v?ol „ woUe woe, woenen woUen 

hast hat ,, ha(wwe) hie, hienen hawn 

bist is „ binne wier, wieren west 

dochst docht ,, dogge die, dienen dien 

jowst jowt „ jowe joech, joegen jown 

giest giet ,, geane gyng », gyngen » gien^ 

stiest stiet „ steane stie", stienen' stien 

leist leit ,, lizze lei, leinen lein 

seist seit ,, sizze sei, seinen sein 

1. Adverbs 

251. According to their meaning we may distinguish : 

1. Adverbs of time, as hjoed, moam, jister, do, den, noch, yet, 
wennear, honear. 

2. Adverbs of place, as hjir{re), der(re), hwer{re), jinsen, earne, 

8. Adverbs of arrangement, as earst, oard, twad, tred. 

4. Adverbs of occurrence, as ienris, twaris. 

5. Adverbs of manner, as sa, ho. 

6. Adverbs of degree, as tige, hast, folle, meast, to. 

7. Adverbs of cause and consequence, as dertroch, derom, so- 

8. Adverbs of affirmation and negation, as ja, al, wol, /est, sikcr, 
le, net, nea. 

252. According to their formation we may distinguish : 

1. Simple adverbs which are not recognizable as being com- 
>ound or derived, as nou, do, sa, ho, to, eJc, hjir, den. 

1 Imperative : w6z. ^ Imperative : gean. 

' Also : gong, gongen ; gongen. * Imperative : stean. 

' In the written language also : stoe, stoenen. 
' Imperative : liz, siz (sei). 


2. Compound and derived adverbs. These are partly obliqi 
cases of nouns, e. g. adverbial genitives, as moarns, deis, wiles, nii 
hoJckerdeis, underweijes, underhdns; adverbial datives, as torjuchi 
toldnne, faken ; partly combinations of nouns and preceding adje 
tives, as Meltyd, altyd; of nouns and prepositions, as bitiid, m 
tiid, foartiid, hiside, tobek, thus ; of adverbs and prepositions, \ 
tonei, foarut, foardel ; of verbs with any other word, as misMe 
sabeare ; partly derivatives by means of the suffixes ^ : 
-lik(s), as ynliJc, uterlik, shielik, einliks. 
-lings, as Jcruslings, tydUngs, roedlings. 
-kes, -(t)sjes, as seftJces, swietsjes, suntsjes. 
As a rule adjectives may also be used as adverbs without ai 

253. According to their syntactical function there are al 
pronominal adverbs which fill the place of a pronoun preceded by 
preposition, e. g. derta (to it), dernei (after that), hjirfen (from thi 
hjirmei (with it), hwerut (from what), hweryn (wherein), hwertrc 
(whereby). These adverbs consist of two other adverbs, of whi 
the first is one of the words der, hjir, hwer. The two parts a 

Examples — Hwerta moat dat brukt wirde ? also : Hwer two 
dat ta brukt wirde ? (For what must that be used ?). 

254. Some adverbs admit of degrees of comparison. T 

suffixes are -er and -est. 

Examples — 

gau, gauwer, gaust. 

fuek, faker, faekst. 
fier, fierder, fierst. 
The superlative may be expressed by means of the defin: 
article and the possessive pronoun, with or without preposition. 
Examples — Hy rint hirdst ; hy rint it hirdst ; hy rotm syn &ft 
hy skriuwt op syn moaisf. 

Note the following irregular forms : 

goed (wol) — better — best, 
folle (tige) — mear — meast. 
graech {jerne) — Ijeaver — Ijeafst. 
ier (bitiid) — earder — earst. 

^ The adverbial suffix -e still appears in some adverbs of degree preced: 
adverbs or adjectives (usually without nouns), as mdlle skoan, wondere tm 
aeklikefier, heislike raer, nuvere frjetnd, in hde lange rek. 


2. Pbepositions 

255. The principal Frisian prepositions are the following : 
hter, after, by, bihalven, bimie{n), boppe, bute{n), eehter, efter, fen, 
ir, for, yn, jin, manJc, met, neffens, nei, neist, nest, njunken, oan. 
Yd, oer, of, om, op, sint, sont, sonder, ta, to, troch, tsjin, tusken, 
isJcen, under, ut. 

Most of the above words are adverbs as well as prepositions. 

256. The prepositions indicate in the first place relations of 
ice, time, and causality. Ordinarily the same preposition may 

used in more than one of these relations. Besides, they often 
ur in metaphorical relations after verbs, adjectives, and expres- 

•ns denoting mostly a thought or feeling, e. g. tinJce oer, great 

i, lioopje op, langst hawwe nei. 

Prepositions no longer govern cases in Frisian, the noun before 

lich they are placed being always undeclined (see, however, 

L97, A. 3, 4 ; B. 3). 

3. Conjunctions 

257. Co-ordinative conjunctions are : 

1. Copulative : en (and), sawol . . . as (both . . . and), net 
mne . . . mar eJc (not only . . . but also). 

2. Alternative : of, ef (or), of ... of (either . . . or), noch 
ir), noch . . . noch (neither . . . nor). 

3. Adversative : mar (but). 

4. Conclusive : dus, dos (so, thus). 

5. Causal : hwent (for). 

258. Subordinative : 

1. Simple : dat, det (that), oft, eft (if). 

2. Temporal : do't (when), nei't (after that), earH (before that), 
i't (immediately after that), nou't (now that). 

3. Causal : omdet, om't (because), trochdet (because). 

4. Conclusive : det (so), sadet (so that). 

5. Conditional : mits (provided that). 

6. Hypothetical : oft, eft (if), as (if). 

7. Concessive : howol (though), alhowol (although). 

8. Comparative : as (as, than), dan, den (than). 

259. Conjunctions may be formed from prepositions and adverbs 
suffixing the simple subordinatives dat, det, and oft, eft, e. g. 

irdet, meidet, sonderdet, sont det ; ho eft, hwennear eft, tviles eft. 



Pronouns, adverbs, and even word-groups also become connect! 
words or expressions when the conjunctions det, eft, and as a 
suffixed, e. g. hwet eft, hwa eft, lyJc as, sa as, for sa fier as, yn ho f 
as, sa gau as, hy Jiwennear eft (det). 

The enclitical words det and eft are often reduced to simple 
which in some cases may also be completely omitted, e. g. dc 
der't, dy't, ho't, wylst ; sont, mits. 


260. In respect of the different relations in which the parts 
compound words stand to each other, we may distinguish t 
following kinds of composition in Frisian : 

1. Co-ordinating composition, when the parts are co-ordinat< 

SLsfyftjin, doofstom, Msfroufaem, priJcstoJc, sudwest, milebutsje. 
compound words of this kind the co-ordinative conjunction 
(and) sometimes appears, as ien-en-tweintich, hynder-en-wein, mol 
en-wetter, ier-en-hitiid, slop-en-taei, smeule-en-dwaen, wecJi-ende-we 

2. Subordinating composition, when 

a. The first part modifies the meaning of the second, 
leechldn, stedshus, wirdboeJc. 

h. The second part modifies the meaning of the first, 

Setsljeaf, krupyn, Iwmfol, deimennich. 

The former of these classes is the most common kind of composition 
Frisian. See the following sections. 

3. Doubling composition, which consists in the repetition 
the same syllable, without or with vowel-difference, as sa-sa, wi 
wier, rykrak, hymphamp, wilewalje. 

Note. In this case the composition is alliterative. The rhyming form 
composition may also be mentioned here, as grodzemods (dregs), rikketik. 

4. Coupling composition, when the relation is different frt 
those above mentioned, as togearre, utfenhus, foartiid, miski 

261. The principal compound words belonging to the subor 
nating form of composition, in which the first part modifies 
limits the meaning of the second, are : 

1. Compound nouns. In this case the second part is natural 
a noun : the first is : 


a. A noun, as shoalbern, JcleanJcas, nuteheam, Idnsman. 
h. An adjective, as lytsfeint, hegeskoalle, langskonk \ 

c. A numeral, as fjouwer sprang, twastriid, trijeJcleur \ 

d. A verb of which the second part may be the subject, as 
mfVman, draeihiJcJce, or the object^ as baJcmoal, or an adverbial 
djunct, as Usboek, terskfiier, waskwetter. 

e. An adverb, asfoardoar. 

2. Compound adjectives. The second part is an adjective ; 
he first part is : 

a. A noun, as sniewyt, spikerfest, striemin. 
h. An adverb, as trocJmiet, ynswiet, Ijochtgrien. 

3. Compound verbs. The second part is a verb ; the first is : 
a. A noun w^hich may be the object of the second part, as 

mhcilde, or an adverbial adjunct, as hynsteride. 

h. An adjective which qualifies the subject of the second 
art when that is an intransitive verb, as deagean, frijlotsje, or the 
bject of the verb when it is transitive, as losmeitsje, frijliite. 

c. An adverb, as trocJisette, omgean, oerjaen, weromkomme, 

262. When in the compound words mentioned in the preceding 
Bction the first part is a noun, it appears undeclined, as skoalhoeh, 
tedman, or it shows a connecting letter, which is mostly a geni- 
ive or plural ending, as hernsbern, nutsdop, nuteheam, boekekas. 

When the first part is an adjective, it is undeclined, as dldfaemf 
r it ends in the termination -e, as hegeskoalle. 

263. In compound verbs as treated in § 261 the component 
arts are always inseparable, as hiishalde, toudounsje, or they may 
e separated from each other. This is the case only in the present 
nd imperfect tenses of principal sentences, as Ik Mid lyk, ik Jioud 
</k, but Ik lean, det ik lykhdld {lykhoud), infinitive lykhdlde, past 
articiple lykhdlden. 

264. Derivative nouns are formed by means of the prefixes : 
ant- : as in antidrd, antlit. 

oar- : oardeel, oarlock. 

on- : onwaer, onrest. 

ge- : gemoed, genamt, gegei, geskrep. 

265. The principal noun suffixes are the following : 
1. To denote male persons : 

-er, -der: bakker, skriuwer, rinder, spylder. 
^ Note these so-called possessive compounds and cf. readhud, swartrok. 


•ert : leffert, slugert, lompert. 
•ner: widner, 

2. To denote female persons : 

•ster : sjongster, tsjoenster, arbeidster. 
■inne : hoerinne, haJckerinne. 
•sJce : mastersJce, Jceapmanshe. 

3. To denote origin (both male and female persons) : 
•er : Snitser, DoJcJcumer. 

•ster : Grouster, Bypster. 
-mer : Hegemer, Sleattemer. 

4. To denote instruments : 
•sel: hansel. 

•er: feger, hjinder. 

-el : sTcoattel, betel, heaJcJcel. 

5. To form material or collective nouns : 
•sel: styfsel, haksel. 

•te, -t : heamte, fugelt. 

6. To form abstract nouns : 
■dom : frijdom. 

•held: wierheid. 

•skip : deilissJcip, frjeonskip. 

-ens: goedens, smoargens. 

•nis: groetenis. 

•de : Jcinde, Ijeafde. 

•te : djipte, waermte. 

•me: hruJcme, eangstme. 

-ing : sMeding, achting. 

•ij, -{d)erij : bakkerij, foermanderij, boarterij. 

•aesje, •aezje : ergewaesje, lekkaezje. 

7. To form diminutives : 
-je : boekje, eachje. 

•ke : blomke, hruske, dobke, drlpke, brief ke, sturke. 
-tsje : fugeltsje, hantsje, hoedtsje. 

266. Adjectives are formed by means of the prefixes : 
ge- : as in gelyk, gemien. 

on- : as in onsljucM, ongeef, onbidich. 

267. The principal adjective suffixes are : 
-achtich, {-aftich) : bernachtich. 

-ich, -erich : nidich, bloedderich. 

•er, -ster, -mer : Snitser, Harns[d)er, Grouster, Hegemer. 


•sk, -s : greatsh, steds{k), Frys{k), hoersih). 

-en : gouden, stiennen. 

-s : leJckens, duffels. 

•her : earber, hruJcber. 

-has, {-leas) : achteloas, sinloas. 

-Ilk : hearlik, noedlik, forjitlih. 

-sum : iensum, bruJcsum. 

■el : liimmel, mutel, hruJcel. 

-en : dimmen, skruten. 

-er : wekker, dipper, kwikker, diger. 

268. Derivative verbs may have the following prefixes : 
hi- : hiriede, hispylje. 

for- : forsiikje, foroarje. 

ge- : gewirde, gehiede. 

ont- : ontJidlde, ontnimme. 

to- : tohrekke, toskoerre, tohite, toknveze. 

wjer- : tcjerhdlde, wjerstean, wjerkogje. 

269. Verbs may be formed from nouns, adjectives, adverbs, 
nd other verbs, by means of the suffixes : 

-je : eagje, iepenje, himmelje. 
-gje, -igje : priizgje, iiergje, hiskildigje. 
-sje, -zje : wytsje, jachtsje, eidzje. 
-kje : hoerkje, driuwkje, gnyskje. 
-elje : nestelje, kantelje, driuwkelje. 
-erje : wynderje, snjitterje, uterje. 
■earje, -eare : wirdearje, redeneare. 


1. The Wokd-gkoup 

270. The relations between words brought into connexion wil 
each other are of two kinds : co-ordinativo and subordinative. 

271. The co-ordinative relation is : 

1. Copulative, as in Jiy en ik, it foar en tsjin, wiet noch droec 
saend noch maend, it ien sawol as it oar. 

2. Alternative, as in hy ofik, lipe of pipe. 

3. Adversative, as in lyts mar Jcrigel. 

272. The subordinative relation is : 

1. Attributive, existing between a substantive word and 
determining word or word-group (attributive adjunct), as in mo 
hiis, de Jcrante fen jister, de man sels, waer as side (see § 287). 

2. Adverbial, existing between a word or word-group which 
not substantive (in the main a verb, an adjective, or an adver 
and another (adverbial adjunct), as rjuchts Mlde, tige min, op h 
gean, tsiere as hingers (see § 288). 

3. Objective, i. e. between a verb and a direct or indirect obje( 
as in brief sJcriuwe, in oar sines jaen. 

4. Predicative, existing between a verb and a substantive wo 
denoting in the main the doer of the action, the person or thing 
(or coming into) the state expressed by the verb. The predicati 
relation is : 

a. Direct, when the verb is in a finite form, as De sinne skyt 

b. Indirect, when the verb is in the infinitive (accusative ai 
infinitive), as IJc seach Mm rinnen. 

2. The Sentence 

273. When a finite verb is related to a substantive word 
described in the preceding section, the grammatical whole built i 
in this manner is called a sentence, the two parts of which are i. 
subject and the predicate. Each of these may be (1) a single woi 
or (2) a word-group, as has been said in § 271. Besides thes 
(3) adjuncts or objects (§ 272) may be added. 

In the two latter cases the sentence is called enlarged. 


274. The subject of a sentence is : 

1. A noun, as Defugels sjonge. 

2. A substantive pronoun or numeral, as Dat mei net. Alles is 
op en wei. 

3. Any other substantive word or expression, as Mt/n ja is like 
goecl as syn ne. 

4. An infinitive (§ 236), as Sizzen is neat, mar dwaen is in ding. 

5. A (substantive) clause, as Hwet wier is, mei sein wirde. 

275. There are sentences without a subject. The principal are 
bhe imperative sentences in which as a general rule the subject is 
unexpressed. Example : Gean dyn gong mar. But the subject 
may also be expressed, as Gean dou dyn gong mar. SJcriem sy mar 
net mear! DocJi Heit dot effen. In this case it is a personal 
pronoun of the 2nd or 3rd person (§ 242), or a noun (§ 228). 

When the verb stands in the passive voice, the subject is often 
Dmitted, as JDer wirdt sketten. 

A subject is impossible in sentences containing an impersonal 
passive voice (i. e. when an intransitive verb, on the analogy of 
transitive ones, is put in the passive voice), as Der wirdt op 'e doar 

276. The indefinite pronoun it is subject when the verb or the 
predicate denotes : 

1. A natural phenomenon, as It Weint. It friest. It is moat 

2. A corporal or spiritual sensation or state, as It stekt my yn 'e 
side. It hrekt him op. It sTdmert my foar de eagen. It rint Mm 

3. In such expressions as It sit hjir goed. It wennet der moai. 
It rint hjir swier. 

277. The predicate consists of any finite verb, either single 
(simple predicate, as De Tdok slacht) or, when it is a verb of incom- 
plete predication, accompanied by other words (complex predicate, 
as Hy hat fallen. De loft is hlau. Ik die de doar iepen). 

In the latter case the predicate has a complement, which may 
be subjective or objective. 

278. A subjective complement stands : 

1. With the auxiliaries of time hawwe, iceze, scille (§ 243), and 
those of voice, tvirde, weze (§ 244). In this case the complement is 
naturally a past participle or an infinitive. 

2. With the copulas tveze, ivirde, hliuwe, lykje, hjitte (see § 279). 



3. With other verbs of incomplete predication, as Mnne, meije, 
scille, moatte, wolle, doare, lyJcje, shine, hliJce, sitte, rinne, stean, gean, 
Jcomme, reitsje, higjinne, blitme, siiJcje, pliigje {see §§ 280, 281). 

279. In the case named under 2 in the preceding section the 
complement is : 

1. A noun, as Tiid isjild. 

2. A substantive pronoun, as Ik bin it. Dat is uzes. 

3. An adjective or numeral, as Hi/ waerd siik. Bat is tofolle. 

4. A participle, as Wy hinne mei ils wirh dwaende. It wirh i& 

5. An infinitive, as It is higjinnen en qpMlden. Also with th( 
preposition to, as Dat wirh is net to dwaen. Heit-en-dy hinne tc 

6. An adverb, as It sell is del. Be baes is foart. 

7. A prepositional expression (noun or infinitive with preposi 
tion) as Bit Ms is to heap. Hy is can 't wirk. Be bem Unne can 'i 

8. A clause, as Hy bliuwt, hwet er is. 

280. When the predicate is one of the verbs hinne, meije, scille, 
moatte, wolle, doare, the complement is an infinitive withoui 
preposition and ending in -e, as Hy hin tige leare. Hy mei homme. 
Hy doar it weagje. 

This infinitive is often omitted, when the sense is clear enougl 
without it, as Ih soil nei sted. Hy doar alles. It moat en i 
hin net. 

281. The other verbs mentioned in § 278. 3 may take aj 
complement an infinitive preceded by the preposition to, as Hi 
lihet wol net goed to wezen. Hy sit to shriuwen. Hy rint to suteljen 
Hy rehke to fallen. Hy bliuwt by us to iten. Hy plicJite hjirfolle U 

282. An objective complement occurs with transitive or re 
ciprocal verbs denoting a bringing into some state or a taking foi 
something, as Hy liet de Jioun los. Hy shept it fet fol. Hy washei 
Mm shjin. Ih hdld Mm for dom. Bat neam ihfalsh. 

It is possible for intransitive verbs to be similarly used in i 
transitive or reciprocal sense, as Hy rint syn shoen bryh. Hy fal 
Mm sear. Also for transitive verbs to change their signification ii 
such a manner that they take another object from their usual one 
as Hy shriuwt syn fingers hrom. Hy yt Mm sed. 

283. The objective complement may be : 


1. A noun, as Hja neame hjar stiemmoer moeike. 

2. A noun preceded by a preposition or conjunction, as IJc hdlcl 
im for de ivirJcmaster fen it stiJc. Men bineamde him ta tsjerJcfoud. 
Wy liatowe him as lytsfeint woun. 

3- An adjective, as Hy skept de baJc leech. Bat achtsje ik forkeard. 
Llso preceded by a preposition, as Tli hold him for earlik. Hy 
brtelde it tis for wier. 

4. A participle, as Ik haw it wirk dien. 

5. An infinitive, as Bat neam ik hottefyljen. 

6. An adverb, as Bat rekkenje wy nou mar foarby. 

284. An indirect predicate, i. e. an infinitive dependent on an 
ccusative, occurs with the verbs sjen, hearre, harkje, fiele, hatowe, 
nite, litte. Examples : Ik sjuch Mm gean. Hark it ris waeijen. 
ly felt de koarts kommen. Hy hat hjir Idn Uzzen. Ik wit him net 
) ivenjen (with the prep. to). Sy litte de bem mar rinne (infinitive 
a -ey 

285. The direct object is : 

1. A noun or substantive pronoun, as It hynsder lukt de toein. 
ty wit it net rjucht mear. 

2. Any other word or expression used substantively, as Hy 
>,aem in wolkom-thiis for my mei. 

3. An infinitive, as Hy leart fytsen. Ik hearde tikjen op 'e doar. 

4. A clause, as Hy seit, det er it net wer dwaen scil. Nimmen wit, 
wet er docht. 

286. The indirect object is : 

1. A noun or substantive pronoun, as Ik jaw it mynfrjeon. Ik 
yw him dat. Sjuch my dat ris oan ! 

2. The same preceded by one of the prepositions oan, for, tsjin, 
in, as Ikjoech it oan him. Hy keapet it for my. Hy seit it tsjin elk 
'y't it hearre wol. 

3. A clause, as By't freget, jowe wy hwet. 

287. The attributive adjunct is : 

1. Any adjective word (article, adjective, numeral, pronoun), as 
De wyn draeit. Moai tvaer. Hy isjong stoam. Trije kear is skippers 
jucJit. Be njuggende dei. By Ijue. Be man sels. 

2. A noun without case-ending or preposition (apposition), as 
xabe skroar, baes kuper, us hurmanJam,, dou rakkert! in gles wetter, 
n poun tsiis, in snies aeijen, it seie-ure-folk, in tredde-klas-wein. 

^ The passive voice is also in use : De hern wirde mar rinne Hiten. The verb 
Itte tends to become an auxiliary. 


3. A noun in the genitive case, as Memme sMrte, hioet nijes. 

4. A noun or substantive pronoun in the periphrastic genitive, 
as de pleats fen us pake, de boer syn feint 

5. A noun or substantive pronoun preceded by a preposition, as 
in hoed mei fearren. Hy Jiat der for feint ivenne. 

6. A noun preceded by the conjunction as, e. g. IkJcom asfrjeon. 
Hwet wierst as jonge in Jiuntlieijer. In Jcearel as in beam. 

7. A present or past participle, as rinnend wetter, sjongende 
fugels, getten izer, in bidoarn bern. 

8. An infinitive with the prep, to, am to, as in net to sizzen 
blydsMp, gud am yn to jaen. 

9. An adverb, as dy toer derre ; also with a preposition, as de 
krante fen hjoed. 

10. A clause, as it Ms, dat ik sette litten ha. 

288. As adverbial adjuncts serve : 

1. Adverbs, as Hy komt moarn. Hjir stiet it. 

2. Nouns or subst, pronouns, either without preposition, as Hy 
bVmwt in dei, It jildt in goune ; or preceded by a preposition, as 
Hy wennet yn 'e sted. Hy wirdt Ijeafstfen my tsjinne. Itfamke kom\ 
of de skoalle. Sometimes an adverb follows, as Hy giet it paed lans 
Hy roun by de dyk del. 

3. Nouns in the genitive case, as Sneins wirdt der net arbeide. 

4. Infinitives preceded by a preposition, as Hja haldtfen pronkjen 
Hy giet om dokier to heljen. Hy docht it om hwet to fortsjinjen. Hi 
sei it sonder der by to tinken, 

5. Present participles, as kritende djur, opheappende fol, oerrin 
nende fol, onwitende fier, springende lilk, fleanendc drok. 

6. (Adverbial) clauses, as As it reint, bliuwe wy thus. BoH er i 
sein hie, spiet it him. Hy hat gelyk, tinkt my. 

289. Words standing outside of the sentence are : 

1. Interjections, as Hin, hwet is dat ? 

2. Nouns in the vocative case, as Heit, mei ik dat ? 

3. The vocative form of the pers. pronoun of the 2nd person 
ju (see § 227). 

The Sentence-gkoup 

290. Sentences may be related to one another. The relation i 
either co-ordinative, when it exists between two or more indeper 
dent sentences, or subordinative, when the group contains 
principal sentence with one or more dependent clauses. 


291. The co-ordinative relation is : 

1. Copulative, as It hoek is wei en it Niuwt wei. 

2. Alternative, as Hy wit it net, ofhy wol it net sizze. 

0. Adversative or restrictive, as JDe doar stie iepen, mar der wier 
in len thus. 

4. Conclusive, as Hy wier der net hy, dos hy kin it net dien ha. 

5. Causal, as Wy hliuwe thus, hwent it waer stiet us net oan. Hy 
siiTi, derom Jcin er net komme. 

292. Dependent or subordinate clauses are of three kinds : sub- 
tantive, adjective, and adverbial. 

Substantive clauses do duty as : 

1. Subject, as Dy't it wit, moat it sizze. Hwet er sett, is wier. It 
jammer, det it forkeard ofroun is. Ho't dat kin, is net utmakke. 

2. Direct object, as Soch, hwet dy hjitten loirdt. Nimmen wit, 
wer't er hinne gien is. Elk freget, oft it wier is, Hy sei : ' Ik soil 
! dwaen.' Hy sei, det er it dwaen scoe. Hy sei, hy scoe it dwaen. 
k wit, hy hat it dien. 

3. Indirect object, as Hy jowt it {oan) hwat der rjiicht op hat. 
Oy sinen it is, scil ik it weromjaen. 

4. Attributive adjunct (apposition), as Hy joech my de rie : doch 
'at net tcer. Wy hienen de forhoping, det it better wirde scoe. Do 
aem de fraech, Jio't it oanlein wirde moast. 

5. Adverbial adjunct, as Ik leau net oan hwet er seit. Der is folic 
nerheid yn hwet er sei. Hy wirdt skoudere om hwet er foartiid 
ien hat. 

293. Adjective clauses serve as attributive adjunct, as It hoek dat 
k lezen ha. It hits der't wy yn wenje. It plak der't er wei is. De 
iid det wy lyts wieren. Dat is krekt sa'n hoek as ik ha. It hinne 
leselde Ijue as dy't hy uzes tvieren. 

294. Adverbial clauses serve as adverbial adjunct, as Ik doch it, 
mdet it net oars kin. Hy kaem, do't alles ofroun wier. Sa't it is, 
oil it hlimve. Hy rop, det elk-en-ien it hearre koe. Oft it wier is, scil 
t der raer hy stean. It is net sa slim, as wy tochten. Prate as hy 
locht, kin ik net. Hy wier der net hy, det hy kin it ek net meidien ha. 
ilfortsjinnet er folic, hy kin alles op. Hwet tr ek seit, it komt altyd 
)ars ut. Hy laket der om, hivet ik siz. Bist it der sed, kom den hjir 
nar. Elk moat him sels reddc, tinkt my. 

295. It often happens that sentences are incomplete. In this 
ase they are : 

1. Contracted, as Hy giet hjoed foart en komt moarn icerom. Hy 
eartfor dokter en syn hroer for domeny. 


2. Elliptical, as Neat to redden. lenhear en net wer. It Ms klear 
en de man dea. 

In comparison the word or word -group preceded by the com^ 
parative conjunction as may be regarded as an incomplete sentence, 
because they also occur in the complete form. Examples — Hy is 
greater as iJc. It is nou better slagge as lest en. 

296. The co-ordinative and subordinative relations may be 
repeated in a sentence-group. Two or more dependent clauses 
may be co-ordinative to each other. In a dependent clause we 
may also have other subordinate clauses. Examples — As 't net kin 
sa 't moat, den moat it mar sa 't kin. Hwet scil in oar sizze, as ii 
hikend wirdt, hwet Jijir foarfallen is? As wy it safier hienen, det dii 
klear icier, lieten wy den ris sjen, hwet wy fierder koenen. 

A particular form of sentence appears in the following examples, 
sometimes used in ordinary speaking, in which the same 
part belongs to two sentences: Wy hienen do in famke ilt'e stea 
wier by us utfenhus. It wier sa'n aerdich lyts huske stie der foartiid. 
It is saHn moaije, heldere glans leit der oer. 

In such sentences as Dat hinne dingen dy't ik wit det bard binne. 
the demonstrative pronoun dy, though belonging to the seconc 
dependent clause, stands in the first and with the remains of thf 
conjunction det acquires the function of a relative. 

Means of Expeessing the Different Eelations 

297. The relations described in the preceding sections ar( 
expressed in the first place by means of the signification and th( 
accent. It is apparent from the examples given above that th( 
simple placing next each other suffices in many cases. 

Besides this there are also the following means : 

1. Prepositions (§§ 279. 5, 7 ; 281 ; 283. 2, 3 ; 284 ; 286. 2 
287. 4, 5, 8, 9 ; 288. 2, 4 ; 292. 3, 5). 

2. Conjunctions (§§ 271 ; 283. 2 ; 287. 6 ; 291 ; 292. 1, 2, 4 
293; 294; 295). 

3. Adverbs. The adverbs sa, net sa, like, even, mear, minder helj 
to express the degrees of comparison. Berom, dertroch are used ai 
connective words in the co-ordinative relation (§291. 5) ; al ma] 
introduce an adverbial clause (§ 294). Conjunctions are oftei 
formed from adverbs by suffixing det, eft (§§ 259 ; 292. 1, 2, 4). 

4. Eelative and interrogative pronouns (§§ 292. 1-5 ; 293 ; 294) 


5. The inflexion of substantive and adjective words (see the 
actions relating to this in Chapter III). 

6. The concord of the verb (see § 298). 

7. Expletive parts of a sentence. The demonstrative pronoun 
I expletive in phrases as Heit dy wol it net lije. Hwa't it sein hat, 
y moat it wier meitsje. The personal pronoun it may be provisional 
ibject or object, e. g. It is goed, det it tvaer omslein is. Hy loit it, 
)ks met net iver harre. Adverbs show the same use, e. g. Moarn 
zn scil iJc wer oanTcomme. As ik kin, den soil ik dy helpe. Hypraet 
er fen, det erforfarre wol. 


298. The principal kind of concord which still exists in Frisian 
1 that of the verb, which as a general rule must have the same 
erson and number as its subject. The following remarks must 
3 made : 

1. When the subject is a plural denoting a whole of some kind, 
le verb is singular, as Fyftich goune is in hulte jild. Twa kear twa 

2. The indefinite pronoun men sometimes takes the verb in the 
lural, as Men scoenen sizze. 

3. In sentences as It hvnne us ulden, Dat wieren goede dagen, 
)it ivirde us hurljue, the verb agrees with the complement instead 
f with the subject.^ 

4. In sentences as It reinde appels fen de beam, It reinde 
)kwinsken op myn jierdei, the original impersonal verb agrees with 
be indefinite pronoun and not with the plural noun which is 
roperly the subject. 

5. When two subjects in the singular are joined by the conjunc- 
lon en, the verb is in the plural ; when one of the conjunctions 
f, noch, sawol as, mar ek is placed between them, the verb is in the 

6. But when the subjects joined by the conjunction en are 
reated as a whole, the verb is in the singular, as Lyts en great 
loat der hy weze. 


299. Modality (i.e. the particular kind of predicative relation 
ccording to the idea of the speaker) is expressed in different ways. 

^ Also : Bit bin ik. Bat bistou. Cf. Ik bin it. 


To denote certainty, probability, possibility, affirmation, negation 
desirability, a question, a wish, an order, and other shades o 
meaning, the following may be used : 

1. Intonation, as Scille wy mar gean? (rising intonation in thi 
interrogative sentence). Be stoarm hat gdns shea dien (fallinj 
intonation in the communicative sentence). 

2. Word-order, as De reliken is hitelle. Is de relcJcen hitelle ? L 
oar gelyhjaen docht er net. Moarn horn ik wer. (See §§ 300-4.) 

3. Adverbs, as Kom mar yn. Hy Jcomt net, al, grif, /est, wo'i 
Hast it soms, faeks, forgetten ? 

4. Verbs, as Ik lean, det it zvier is. It liket wier to wezen. R 
soil wol to let kommen weze. 

5. Tenses and voices of the verb, as Docli dynpUcht en lit de Iju 
rabje. Hie ik dat witten ! Scoe it wier weze? Aswysafierwierer 
lieten wy den ris wer sjen. Detst ek net wizer wierste. Hie da 
Ijeaver sa dien. Der wieren wy al ! 

6. Adverbial clauses, as tinkt my, ti/nh ik, leau 'k, woe 'k ha, bin ' 
bang, ha 'k soarch, sa 't liket, nei't se sisze. Examples — Dat koe ux 
oars, tinkt my. Her is neat can to dwaen, sa 't liket. 

7. Interjections, as Ei, doch dat effen ! To, siz it my ! 

Order op Words 

300. In the following paragraphs a survey is given of th 
principal rules of word-order in Frisian. 

1. In communicative sentences the subject stands before th 
verb, as Hy komt moarn by uses. 

2. When, however, another part of the sentence by emphasis i 
placed first, the order of subject and predicate is inverted, as Wit 
is it. Dat scoe ik net for kar nimme. Moarn komt er by uzes. I 
oar seit er alles en my neat. Jong is dat bern al bidoarn. Rinne ki 
men tsjinwirdich net mear. Do't er dat sein hie, gyng er by us we 
Bisletten is it, dat wit ik klear.^ 

3. To emphasize the verb standing in a simple tense, th 
auxiliary dwaen is necessary. Cf. Hy skriuwt us hast net mear an 
Skriuwe doeht er us hast net mear. 

4. Questions open (1) with the predicate, or (2) with an inte: 

^ Observe the word-order in such sentences as Praien hdld ik net fen. 1 
aide Ijue wirdt net nei harke. In nij stik Mean kin men net can ta komme. In sue 
sentences the emphatic word opening the sentence is separated from ii 


igative pronoun or adverb. In the latter case the subject is also 
it after the verb. Examples — Komjy eJcriswer? Honear scoe 
koHime ? Hwa wit der it rjuchte fen ? Op hokker plaJc scille wy 
'ie / 

5. When the verb is in the imperative, it opens the sentence ; 
le subject, if present, is put after it. Example— (S^eA; (jy) dat 
d yn 'e bicse. 

6. When the sentence contains an unrealizable wish, and when 
e exclamatory words ho and hwet open the sentence, the subject 
llows the predicate, as Wieren wy mar thusbleaun. Hie ik dat 
rder witten ! Ho koest der eksa raerhy komme ! Hwet hat er syn 
st dien. 

7. This is also the case when the principal sentence is paren- 
letic or post-positive, especially when the verb is one of the words 
aze, rqppe, tinke, leauwe, miene, or their synonyms, as 3Ien moat, 
it de Skri/i, yens evenminske Ijeafliawwe} 

301. As a rule the subject stands immediately before or after 
le predicate. Exceptions : 

a. In cases of inversion adverbial adjuncts sometimes separate 
le subject and the predicate, as Der komt hjir sneins net foUe folk 
t tsjerke. By uses ivirde alle dagen de hlommen bigetten. 

b. Also in interrogative sentences other parts may be put 
)tween predicate and subject, as Hat hjir jister ien oan 'e dear 

c. In dependent clauses, see § 304. 

302. Subjective and objective complements, objects, and adver- 
ial adjuncts, are as a rule put after the verb, when it is in a 
mple tense, and after the auxiliary, when the verb is in a com- 
)und tense.*^ They mostly precede the infinite verb. Examples — 
>e sinne giet jouns yn it westen under. Wy binne met inoar op rcis 
en. Ik sell him moarn syn jild weromjaen. Ik seacJi him de hdn 
1 'e buse stekken. 

The indirect object stands before the direct object, except (1) 
hen the latter is a personal pronoun, and (2) when the indirect 

^ In this case the sentence has the tendency to become an adverbial clause, 
Bcause the original dependent clause contains the principal idea (§ 299. 6). 
^ For exceptions see §§ 300, 301. The direct object and the indirect object 
ith the preposition also, though less frequently, follow the whole compound 

mse, as Hy hat my sjen litien de priis dy't er woun hie. Earst hie er ofbitelle de helt. 
: hie it Ijeaver jovm oan ien fen myn maien. 


object is preceded by a preposition. Examples — Wy jowe elk hwet 
Ontkrij him dat. IJcjoech us Jieit dat hoek. Ik joech it Mm. Ik joccl 
dat hoek oan us heit. 

303. Attributive adjuncts are placed partly before, partly after 
the substantive word to which they belong (see § 287). 

Some, however, are often put elsewhere in the sentence, as sels. 
allinne, heide, togearre, allegearre. Examples — Hyselsliatit measU 
wirk dien. Hy hat it measte ivirk sels dien. 

As a rule articles and adjective pronouns precede all othei 
adjective words, but they stand after the numeral al, and the 
indefinite article follows the interrogative pronoun hwet and th( 
adverbs sa, ho, as al it jild, al lis hern, hwet in wille, sa 'n wirk, ho 't 

The adjective clause may be separated from the antecedent, e. g 
Ik ha him it hoek loerhrocht, dat er my liend hie. 

304. In dependent clauses beginning with a connective wore 
the subject and the predicate are separated by the other parts 
e. g. Ik woe wol, det ik dit tvirk mar hitsjen litte koe. 

But they have the word -order of the principal sentence (§ 300) 

1. In quotations, as Hy sei : ' Ik sell it noch mar ris tveagje. 
' Kom gau ris tverom ! ' waerd my taroppen. 

2. When in the principal sentence the predicate denotes ai 
observation, a thought or sentiment, as Ik seach, hy koe him allinnt 
net redde. Hy sei, hy scoe it net werdivaen. Ik soargje, it scil icol tvei 
mis iveze. But with the conjunction : Ik seach, det er him allinn 
net redde koe. Hy sei, det er it net tverdwaen scoe. Ik soargje, det i 
wol wer mis wcze sell. 

3. When an adverbial clause relates to condition, as Der moa 
hwet oan dien wirde, scil it hetter tvirde. But Der moat hwet oai 
dien wirde, oft (as) it hetter wirde scil. 

4. When a conclusive adverbial clause begins with the conjunc 
tion det, as Ik ha him yn lung net sjoen, det hy scil wol net goed weze. 

5. When the adverb al opens the adverbial clause, as Al is Ui 
hus hwet lyts, it is tige geryflik.^ 

6. When the conjunction of, e/(not to be confused with oft, eft 
opens a dependent clause, as Hy komt hjir net Idns, ofhy sjucht effer 
hy us yn. Ik wit net hetter, ofhy hat itjister tsjin us sein. 

1 No inversion in the principal sentence. 




1. De liepe skieppedief. 

(In aid folksteltsje) I 

Der wier ris in feint dy't jierren lang mei stellen oan 'e kos 
kommen wier. Hy wier sa Hep, dot nimmen hie him yet pakk 
kinnen. Mar op 't lest bigoun er it dievelibben sed to wirden, i 
stellen en taken wearzge him en hy woe wer in earlik man wird( 

Do gyng er fier foart en hy kaem op 't lest by in boer der't « 
him as feint bistelde. Mar al stiel er net langer, hy koe it docl 
net litte om tsjin syn boer oer syn liepens en oer de fiten dy't ( 
uthelle hie to praten. Dy woe der lykwols neat fen leauwe : c 
feint wier sa earlik en bidaerd en hy die syn wirk sa goed, det 
woe de boer net oan det der sokke flinken yn sieten. Hy sei, h 
scoe den sa 'n liepe set wol ris fen him sjen wolle. En dat gyr 
njunkelytsen oan. 

Op in dei kaem der in slachter dy't in fet skiep fen de boer koi 
Do't er der mei nei hus ta teach, sei de feint tsjin de boer, hy k( 
de man dat skiep wol ontstolle sender det dy der hwet fen fornaen 
De boer joech him der frij ta. Do naem er gau in pear skoen e 
roun de slachter, dy't troch in bosk hinne moast, efternei en i 
sydpaed lans foarut. Midden op 'e wei smiet er do de iene skoec 
del en in ein fierder, in bocht om, de oare. 

Do't de slachter mei syn skiep by de earste skoech kaem, kri^ 
er dy op en sei er yn him sels : Hwet in griis det de wjergeac 
der net by is, den scoe ik in pear goede skoen ha, mar mei ien ki 
ik neat bigjinne. En do smiet er de skoech wer foart. Mar do't i 
in hiindert tred ef hwet fierder de oare foun, spiet it him det er ( 
earste lizze litten hie. Hy boun it skiep oan in beam en ( 
werom om dy to heljen, Dat wier it krekt hwet de feint tocl 
hie : hy it skiep los en dermei foart. En do't de slachter wero; 
kaem, wier der gjin skiep mear to bikennen en moast er wol wi 
nei de boer ta om in oaren ien to keapjen. Dy die krekt eft < 
nuver opharke en forkoft it selde skiep wer. 


1. da li'apa 'skiipadrav. 

(on Old ^folksteltsja.) 

dor ui'8 r8z en faint dit jiran lar) mal st£:lan can a kost 
)m9n ura. hei ui'a sa li'ap, dot niman hi-a m jit paka 
:nan. mar op t Isist ba'gun ar at 'di-avaliban s£:d ta uodan, at 
s:l9n sn taikan ui'azga him sn hei uu'a uer an I'alak mon uoda. 

du gig ar fi-ar fuot sn hsi ka:m op t le:st bsi am bu-ar dst ar 
im OS faint ba'stslda. mar ol sti-al ar nst lagar, hsi ku-a t dop 
•t lita om tsji sim bu'ar u'a si li-apaz en u-a da fitan dit ar 
thsla hi'a ta pra:tan. di uu-a dar 'likuolz ni-at fo lioua: da 
int ui'a sa i'alak em ba'daid en hei di-a sT uork sa gu'ad, dot at 
I'a da bu'ar net o-an dot ar soka fligkan i si'atan. hsi sai, hsi 
ra don sa li'apa set uol ras fon am sis uola. en dot gir) 
(oqka'litsan can. 

op an dai ka:m dar a slaxtar dit 3 fst ski'op fon a bu'ar koft. 
lit ar der mai nai hus ta ti'a§, sai da faint tsjin a bu-ar, hei ku'a 
9 mon dot ski-ap uol ont'stsda sondar dot (d)i dar uot fo fa'na:m. 
B bu-ar jug am dsr frsi ta. du na:m ar gou am prar skiion s 
in da slaxtar, dit trog am bosk hina moast, eftar'nai en a 
idpaid lo:z far'yt. midan op a uai smrat ar du da i'ana sku:§ 
si sn an ai fiidar, am boxt om, da cara. 

dut (d)a slaxtor mai sT ski'ap bsi da I'asta sku:x ka:m, krig 
r di op s sai in am selz : uot aq gri:z dot (d)a 'uiergi'ada 
e net bsi iz, do su'a k am pi'ar gu'ada skiion ha, mar mai i'an km 
k ni'at ba^giina. sn du smi'at ar da sku:§ usr fuot. mar dut ar 
a hundat trsid ov uot fiidar da o'ora fun, spi'at at him dot ar da 
asta liza litan hi'a. hsi bun at ski'ap o'an am bi'am sn du 
sr'om om di ta hsljan. dot ui-a t krekt uot (d)a faint toxt 
i'a : hsi at ski'ap los sn 'dsrmai fiiot. sn dut (d)a slaxtar usr'om 
a:m, ui'a dar gii ski'ap mi'ar ta bakinan sm moast ar uol uer 
ai da bu'ar ta om an o-aran i'an ta ki-apjan. di di'a krskt ot ar 
y.var ^opharka s fa'koft at selda ski'ap usr. 

^ Note that the sound o in diphthongs is very slight (§ 43), and that 9l, am, 
n, ar are often reduced to syllabic consonants (§§ 142-8). 


Nou, sei de feint, naem er oan om it de slachter for de tvvaddi 
kear kwyt to meitsjen en de boer, dy't net bigripe koe, ho't de fein 
sa liep en de slachter sa sleau weze koe, sei : eft er dat klear spile 
den mocht er it beste fette skiep for him sels lit 'e keppel siikjfl 
Do roun de feint sa bird as er koe it bosk wer yn en tichte by i 
ste der't it -skiep weiwirden wier roun er under de beammen trocl 
en rop : be, be, al mar oan. Der harke de slachter forheard fen op 
mar hy wier dochs ek bliid, hwent by tochte nou it skiep dat e 
kwyt wier wer to krijen. Dat er oan it tou hie waerd wer — ei 
nou goed tocht him — oan in beam boun en do hy it lud efterne 
dat er hearde. Mei in omwei roun de feint do nei it plak der't i 
skiep festboun wier, dat sa gau as 't koe los en do wer nei bus ta 

In tocht letter kaem de slachter der ek wer oan, lilk det er s 
forrifele wier, hwent hy tocht nou net oars ef hy wier foar ' 
soaltsje halden. De boer lake tige, mar makke it do wer goed me 
de man en de feint hie mei syn liepens in best fet skiep fortsjinne 

2. De koal. 

(Yet in teltsje) 

Der wieren ris in boer en in arbeider, dy wennen tichte b 
inoar. De boer hie fjirtich kij op stal en al it oare wier de 
neffens en de arbeider hie oars neat as in geit en in pear bij( 
koerren, dy't under in aid forfallen ofdakje stienen. Hy hie ek i 
lyts lapke groun, in pear koarte smelle ekerkes en dy laeije 
njunken in stik bou fen de boer dat gi'eater wier as in moargei 
Der wier mar in smelle furge twiskenbeiden. 

Hwet woe nou it gefal ? Der stie in grouwe wite koal op d 
arbeider syn gerjuchtichheid en dy hong sa fier oer 'e furge hinn 
det er mear as heal boppe de boer syn Ian wier. En do krigen m 
dy twa de greatste ruzje, hwa syn koal dat nou einliks wier. D 
boer sei : Dou hast my al sa faek bistellen, det dou krigest di 
kear nou ris gjin gelyk. En de arbeider sei : It is mar sa, it ft 
wol altyd boppe driuwe en wyljue moatte altyd de minste wez< 
Mar der slacht de deale troch, ik jow nou ris net ta. Gjin ien wo 
syn ein slupe litte, it roun op 't lest sa hoi, det se waerden fjui 
slachs deilis en se wieren mekoar hast oanflein. 

Do sei de boer : Wiste hwet, wy scille it sonder kreauwen e: 


nou, sai d9 faint, na:m 9r can om at (d)8 slaxter foa da twada 
['9r kwit to maitsjen en da bu-ar, dit net ba'gripa ku-a, hut (d)a faint 
1 li'ap en da slaxtar sa sliou ueiza ku-a, sai : at ar dot kli-ar spila, 
3m moxt ar at beista feta ski-ap foar am selz yt a kepal si:kja. 
a run da faint sa hod oz ar ku-a at bosk uer in en tixta bei at 
e: det at ski'ap 'uaiuodan ui'a run ar undar a bieman trox 
ro:p : be:, be:, ol mar o'an. dsr harka da slaxtar far'hi'ad fan op, 
lar hei ui-a dogz ek bli:d, uont hei toxta nou at ski-ap dot ar 
wit ui'a uer ta kreian. dot ar o'an at tou hi-a ua:r uer — en 
3u gu'ad toxt am — O'an am bi'am bun en du hei at lu:d eftar'nai 
)t ar hieda. mai an 'omuai run da faint du nai t plak det at 
:i'ap 'fe:stbun ui'a, dot sa gou os t ku-a los en du uer nai hus to. 

an toxt letar ka:m da slaxtar der sk uer can, lilk dot ar sa 
'rifala ui'a, uont hei toxt nou net o'az of hei ui'a foa t 
'altsja ho:dan. da bu'ar la:ka tiga, mar maka at (d)u uer gu'ad mai 
I mon en da faint hi-a mai si li'apez am be:8t fet ski'ap fa'tsiina. 

2. da ko'dl. 

(jit an teltsja) 

dar ui'an raz am bu'ar en an 'arbaidar, di uenan tixta bel 
luor. da bu-ar hi'a fiitag kei op sto:l en ol at o'ara ui-a de 
ifeiz en da 'arbaidar hi'a o'az ni'at oz aq gait en am pi-ar 'beia- 
loran, dit undar an o:d fa'fo:lan 'O'adakja sti'an. hei hi'9 ek 3 
rS lapka grun, am pi'ar koata smela 'e:karkaz en di laian 
oqkan a stik bou fon a bu-ar dot grotar ui'a oz an moargan. 
ir ui'a mar a smela fuorga twiskan'baidan. 
uot uu'a nou t ga'fol? dar sti'a aq groua uita ko'al op a 
rbaidar sir) ga'rioxtaxhaid en di hor) sa fi'ar u-ar a fuorga hina 
t ar mi'ar oz hral bopa da bu'ar si lo:n ui'a. en du krigan, mi 
two: da grosta ru:zja, ua: sir) ko'al dot nou 'ailaks ui'a. da 
I'ar sai : dou hast mi ol sa fa:k ba'ste:lan, dot (d)ou krigast dit 
'ar nou raz giir) ga'lik. en da 'arbaidar sai : at iz mar sa, at fet 
1 'oltid bopa driuwa e 'ueilio mata oltid da mi:sta ue:za. 
ar der slaxt (d)a do'ala trox, ik jou nou rez nat ta. giin i-an uu-a 
1 ain slupa lita, at run op t le:st sa hoi, dot sa ua:ran 'fio- 
]XS dailaz e sa ui'an ma'ko-ar hast 'o'eflain. 
du sai da bu'ar : uista uot, ui sila t sondar kriouan I 

1466-2 H 


sonder slaen utmeitsje. Wy scille der om lige en dy't it best lig 
kin, dy scil de koal ha. Dat wier de arbeider goed ; hy sei, d 
boer scoe den mar earst. 

Dy bigoun : Dou moast witte, lis pake, aide Gjalt Sweitses, wie 
boer lyk as ik. Mar hy hie gans hwet greater bislach as minei 
Syn rigele kij der wier de ein fen wei. Saun jier op 'e kop of hi 
er wirk om se to tellen en hwet it frjemdste wier, hy koe s 
allegearre by de namme. Aide Ale is eris as lytsfeint bigoun m( 
de groppe op to striken en do't er amperoan dien hie, moast er de 
by wei, hwent do wier it lottersdei en hy moast bird rinne om op 
gritenijhiis to kommen, hwent hy hie do de jierren ek det er lots; 
moast. En us pake wier in man, dy triek him alles sa oan. 
in dei stoar de underste kou en do wier er suver fen 'e wize. 

Nou, sei de arbeider derop, dat kin heel sa wol weze. Mar i 
pake dy hie in bijestal, dat wier sa 'n greaten ien as der sont n» 
wer west hat. Der stienen safolle bijekoerren yn, det hy hie sau 
jier wirk om se to tellen. En dochs koe er alle bijen by de namm 
En as der hwet miskearre, den triek er him dat sa oan, det de 
wier er alheel fen 'e wize. It mei my tinke, det der ris ien fe 
syn bijen wei wier. Pake mirk it al ridlik gau, hwent hy wi» 
mear by syn lyts fe as yn 'e hus. Do waerd ik der op lit stjui 
om it forlerne skiep wer to siikjen. Nou, dat wier in hei-krewe 
Ik gyng by alle hynste- en skieppeblommen lans, mar ik foun hii 
net. Hele fjilden koalsied en reade klaver socht ik of, it joech nea 
En sadwaende dwaelde ik mar oan en mar wei, der gyngen wikc 
mei hinne en ik rekke altyd mar fierder fen bus of. Do kaem i 
om Alderheljen hinne by in greate boerepleats, ik koe net sizze d 
ik der earder west hie. Om to sizzen sa't it wier, ik wier it pa( 
bjuster. De buthiisdoar stie iepen en ik seach in rigele kij, s 
lang, sa lang, ja wol hundert kear sa lang as Berltsum. De feii 
wier dwaende en striek de groppe op. Hy hie in gol en blL 
wezen, ik tochte : kom, ik gean der effen yn, licht kin dy my t 
rjuchte wize. En sjuch je wol, de underste stal wier leech, mar : 
seach dochs dalik, det der lis bijke staid wier. It hie in nijac] 
tich hoarntou om. Ik bond my lyk eft ik fen neat wiste en s 
tsjin de feint : Goede goant, hwet is dat, det jimme der sa 
frjemd beest op stal ha. — Ei ju, sei er, der ha 'k sa'n fortriet fer 
dou moast witte, dat hat myn boer, dy aide nepert fen in Gja 
Sweitses, yn 't hof oantroffen en do hat er it mar nadere en op 
ienichste lege stal set dy't der noch wier. Hy koe fest oars ne 


sondor slam 'ytmaitsjg. ui sila dar om li:g8 en dit 9t bsist li:g9 
km, di sil da keel ha. dot ui'9 da 'arbaidar gu'od ; hsi sai, da 
bu-ar su'a dom mar rast. 

di ba'gun : dou most uita, ys pa:ka, o:da *giolt *swaitsaz, ui'a 
bu'ar lik oz ik. mar hsi hi-a g5:z uot grotar ba'slax oz minaz. 
SI rigala ksi dsr ui-a d ai fo uai. so: ji-ar op a kop O'a hi-a 
ar uork om za ta tslan s uot at frismsta ui-a, hsi ku'O za 
''olagisra bei da nama. o:da *a:la iz araz oz 'litsfaint ba'gun mai 
da gropa op ta strikan sn dut ar 'amparo'an di-an hi-a, moast ar dar 
bsi uai, uont du ui-a t 'lotazdai sn hei moast hod rina om op at 
grita^nsihys ta koman, uont hsi hi-a du da jiran sk dot ar lotsja 
moast. sn ys paika vvq n mon, di tri-ak am olas sa o-an. op 
9n dal sto'ar da undasta koii sn du ui-a ar sy:var fon a ui:za. 

nou, sal da 'arbaidar dsr' op, dot km he:l sa uol us:za. mar ys 
pa:ka di hi-a am 'bsiastoil, dot ui-a sai) grotan i-an az dar sont nst 
usr usst hot. dsr sti-an 'safola 'bsiakuoran in, dot hsi hi-a so: 
ji'or uork om za ta tslan. sn doxs ku-a r ola bsian bsi da noma, 
sn oz dar uot mis'kisra, don tri-ak ar am dot sa o'an, dot do 
ui-a r oPhe;l fon a ui:za. at mai mi tigka, dot ar az i-an f3 
sim bsian uai ui-a. pa:ka mork at ol rilak x^u, uont hsi ui-a 
mi'ar bsi si lits fe: oz in a hu:z. du ua:r ik tar op yt stju-ad 
om at fa'lsna ski-ap usr ta siikjan. noii, dot ui-a n 'hai-krauai. 
ik xi"] l^si ola hnsta- s 'skiipabloman lo:z, mar ik fun am 
nst. he:la f iildan ''koalsi-ad s ri-ada klaivar soxt ak o-a, at jug ni-at. 
£ sa'dwamda dwailda k mar o-an sm mar uai, der giqan uikan 
mai hma sn ik rska ''oltid mar fiidar fon hu:z o-a. du ka:m ak 
om oldar'hsljan hma bsi ag grota bu-ara'pli-ats, ik ku-a nst size dot 
ak dsr isdar usst hi-a. om ta sizan sat at ui-a, ik ui-a t pa:d 
biostar. da butyz'do-ar sti-a i-apan sn ik si-ag a rigala ksi, sa 
lag, sa laq, ja uol hundat ki-ar sa laq oz bslsam. da faint 
ui-a dwa:nda s stri-ak da gropa op. hsi hi-a ar) gol sm bli-ai 
u£:zan, ik toxta: kom, ik xi'an dar sfan in, lixt km di mi ta- 
'rioxta ui:za. s sio ja uol, da undasta sto:l ui-a le:§, mar ik 
si-a§ dogz dailak, dot (d)sr yz bsika sto:ld ui-a. at hi-a an 'nsiax- 
tag 'hoantou om. ik houd mi lik ot ak fon ni-at uista s sai 
tsjm a faint : gu-ada goant, uot iz dot, dot jima dsr sa 
frismd be:st op sto:l ha. — a-i jo, sai ar, dsr ha k sQ fa'tri-at fon ; 
dou mast uita, dot hat mim bu-ar, di o:da ne:pat fon ai) *giolt 
*swaitsaz, in t ho:v 'o-antrofan sn du hat er ot mar na:dara sn op a 
imaxsta le:ga sto:l sst dit ar nog ui-a. hsi ku-a fs:st o-az ni-at 



mear fine, hwent dit hele skoandere bislach f6, der't hast gjin 
trochkommens ein oan is, hat er by inoar stellen. . . . 

Dat lygste, sei de boer, dy't him al lang bidimme moatten hie, 
mar it nou dochs net langer iithalde koe. 

Den haw ik it woun, sei de arbeider, de koal is mines. 

3. Waersiik. 

Jilke siet yn 'e hus mei de han oan 'e holle en in gesicht as in 
Turk. Ja, dat siz ik nou al, mar ik ha by myn witten noait in 
Turk sjoen, libben noch dea. De miening is det er swart seach, 
sa swart as in toerre ; dat ding kin men yen foarstelle. Nimmen 
koe him hwet nei 't sin dwaen, it wiif net, de faem net, nimmen 
net. En for goede wirden krigen de hiisgenoaten sims in hounsk 
biskie werom. De frou socht him to troaijen en del to bedzjen ; 
hja wier tige goedlik, hja wist syn skeel wol en rekkene det der 
ridlik gau betterskip komme scoe, as . . . 

Mar de faem briek hjar de holle net mei 't gefal. Dy sei yn 
hjar sels : Ik tsjuch it my net oan, hear ! As de boer lilk weze 
wol, lit him den mar liUc weze. En wol er wer goed wirde, den 
moat er mar wer goed wirde ; oars bliuwt er mar lilk. Ik ha de 
man neat gjin omkromte bylein. En hja helle ris fiks fleurich op. 

De boer wier onreedlik en dat kaem foart ut syn kwael : it gyng 
him as Sije, hy wier waersiik. Dy kwael iepenbiere him net yn 't 
krus ef de teannen, it waer doogde net for syn holle, it wier him 
lang net nei 't sin, al yn dagen net. Mei boerkerij hie dat lykwols 
neat lit to stean. De faem neamde him wol boer, mar dat gyng 
sa lit alder wenst. Jilke wier boer-rintenier, hy hie de skiepkes 
op it droege. Hy hie lang en kras boerke en de foardielige tiid 
tige mei hawn ; sadwaende siet er der nou fiks waerm by. Hy 
biwenne in kreas hus, dat er sels sette litten hie, in eintsje buten 
de burren. De frou houd in faem, dat mocht hjar wol barre en it 
kaem hjar ek wol ta : it minske hie net fen fierren stien yn 'e 
dagen do't der for 't frouljuesfolk by de boer mear to dwaen foel 
as tsjinwirdich. Dy Ijuwe hiene dos eigentlik de wrald op in 
boerdtsje. De man stie ek net bikend for sa dwers en koart- 
kearich ; elk koe 't ornaris skoan mei him birinne, mar nou net. 
Nou hie er hast in heale wike op kop en earen yn 'e hus sitte 
moatten, hwent it wier dei oan dei sa bidroefde onlijich, det 
it kaem oan in kuijerke net ta. Der waerd er swiersettich under. 


mi'8r fina, uont dit heilo skcandera be'slax ie:, dst' liasl glin 
'trokomaz ain o'en iz, hat or bsi eniior stsilan . . . 

dot lixste, sai de bu-er, dit em ol lag be'dime maten hi-a, 
mar at nou do§z net lagar ^ythoida ku-a. 

don hav ik at uun, sal da 'arbaidar, da ko'al iz minas. 

3. 'ua:rsi:k. 

*jilka si'at in a hu:z mai da ho:n can a hola en aq ga'sixt oz an 
tOrk. ja:, dot siz ak noii ol, mar ik ha bei mi uitan no'it an 
tork sju'an, liban no§ di-a. da mi-anag iz dot ar swat si-ag, 
sa swat oz an tuora : dot dig kim m§ jl 'foastela. niman 
ku'a m uot nai t sin dwa:n, at ui:v net, da fa:m net, niman 
net. e foa gu'ada uodan krigan da 'hyzgancatan samz an hu:sk 
ba'ski'a uer'om. da frou soxt am ta tro-ian en del ta beidzjan ; 
hia ui'a ti:ga guodlak, hia uist si ske:l vol e rekana dot 
ar rilak xou 'betarskip koma su'a, oz . . . 

mar da fa:m bri-ak har da hola net mai t gafol. di sai in 
har selz : ik tsjog at mi net can, jer ! oz da bu-ar lilk ue:za 
uol, lit am dom mar lilk ue:za. e uol ar uer gu'a^ uOda, don 
mat ar mar uer gu-ad uoda ; o-az bliuwt ar mar lilk. ik ha da 
mon ni^at giin ''omkromta 'beilam. e hio hela ras fiks fl0'arag op. 

da bu'ar ui'a o'reidlak en dot ka:m fuot yt sii) kwa:l : at xii) 
am OS *seia, hel ui-a 'ua:rsi:k. di kwa:l i-apm^bi-ara him net in t 
krys ov da tienan, at ua:r do:gda net foa sin hola, at ui'a am 
lag net nai t sin, ol in daigan net. mai buorka'rei hi'a dot 'likuolz 
nrat yt ta sti'an. da fa:m ni-amda m uol bu-ar, mar dot xi^ 
sa yt o;dar ue:st. *jilka ui'a bu'ar-rinta'ni'ar, hei hi'a da skiipkaz 
op at druga. hei hi'a lag eg kros buorka en da fa'di-alaga ti:d 
ti:ga mai ho:n ; sa'dwamda si'at ar dar noii fiks ua:rm bei. hei 
ba'uena ar) kri-az hu:z, dot ar sels seta litan hi'a, an aintsja butan 
da biioran. da froii houd a fa:m, dot moxt har uol bara en at 
ka:m har ek uol ta : at mi;ska hi'a net fo fiiran sti'an in a 
da:gan dut ar foa t 'fro-.ljasfolk bei da bu-ar mi'ar ta dwS fu'al 
OS tsji'uor^. di lioua hi* an dos 'aigantlak da uro:d op am 
biiotsja. da mo sti'a ck net ba'kind foa sa dwes eq koat- 
'ki^arag ; elk ku'a t o'nairas sko'an mai am ba'rina, mar noii net. 
noii hi'a ar hast an hi'ala uika op kop en I'aran in a hu'.s sita 
matan, uont at ui'a dai o'an dai sa ba'dru:vda o'leiag, dot 
at ka:m o-an ar) koeiarka net ta. der ua:d ar swi-ar'setag undar. 


Hy wier mei de tiid forlegen, hy roun de frouljue om 'e hannen 
en him sels yn 'e wei. It wiei* slim. 

Mar dat giet dochs ek hwet fier, tinke jimme, sa forkeard en 
onpesjintich to wezen, allinne omdet it waer yen net noasket. Ik 
mien it ek. Dy't him net leart to skikken nei 't waer, dy hellet him 
sels al in aeklik lot op 'e hals, hwent it waer skikt him grif net nei 
lis. Jilke scoe forstandich dien hawwe, as er hwet bitocht hie om 
binnendoar oanslach to finen op tiden det er buten net bankje koe. 
Mar Vjinne der dochs net in boel minsken, dy't in aerdtsje fen de 
man syn kwael beet hawwe ? C. Wielsma. 

4. Baes Piktried. 

Jimme hawwe wol ris heard fen in kearel as Karst, en det 
Karst in kearel as in stikelbosk wier ? Nou, sa'n kearel as Karst 
wier baes Piktried ek, to sizzen : stiek in fikse ju de earm lit, den 
koe hy der sahwet likernoch sonder kantroeren under troch rinne : 
hy wier derby sa meager as in range, hy hie in kleur as in skyl- 
fisk en in lud as in pikelhj erring. Sa'n mantsje wier baes Pik- 
tried ; in spjirring wier 't, mar hy hie gans smoar nei det it in beest 
wier, en gjin amerij hie baes Piktried rest. Syn pokdobbige 
troanje, der't de noas mei in optik ta litstiek, en syn griis hier, 
sweefden altyd hinne en wer ; syn lytse eagen flikkeren oan ien 
wei rjuchts en lofts. Der ontkaem him gjin ding, hy hie rounom 
hwet op to lekskoaijen, en hy wist it altyd best. As er oer 'e 
barren gong, den slingere en sloech er mei syn earmen, krekt eft er 
mei beide hannen roun to siedzjen, en ienkear pompte er in faem 
dy wetter toge sa tsjin de iene amer oan, det hy der sels fen 
bipoezze rekke. ' Ezelskyn ! ' rop er, wylst er him ofskodde as in 
wetterhoun, ' koest den net sjen, det ik dy fen efteren ynkaem ? ' — 
Op in oar tiid rekke er der net better of : do sloech er yn syn iver 
krekt yn in tine fen in eide, dy't op in ierdkarre laei, det it bloed 
der nei roun. ' Men scoe nou den ek by mooglikheid sizze, ho 
kinne se sa 'n ding sa mids yn 't paed stean litte,' sei er, ' men kin 
ommers de burren langer net ongeskansearre lans komme ! ' 

Hy wier in skoenmakker fen syn hantwirk, en as er arbeide, 
den helle er de tried sa fuleindich vit, det er elk dy't net fierder- 
noch fen him ofbleau, de fust jin 't liif oan sloech. Gjin feint 
bleau langer as in moanne by him, hwent hy hie op it beste wirk 
altyd yet hwet to sizzen. Den wieren de stekken net egael, den 


;ei ui'9 mai da ti:d fa'le-.gan, hei run da fiO:lja om a honan 
n am selz in a uai. at ura slim, 
mar dot x^it do§z ek uot fi'ar, tiqka jima, sa fa'ki-ad sn 
mpa'sjintax ta u£:zan, o'lina om'dot at ua:r jin net noaskat. ik 
tii'an at sk. dit am net li'at ta skikan nai t va:r, di helat am 
elz ol an a:klak lot op a holz, uont at vaiv skikt am grif net nai 
s. jilka su'a fa'stondag di'an hava, oz ar uot ba'toxt hi'a om 
iinan'do-ar 'o'eslax ta finan op ti:dan dot ar butan net barjkja ku-a. 
aar bina dar do§z net am bu'al mi:skan, dit an a:tsja fon da 
110 siq kwa:l be;t hava ? se: 'ui-alsma. 

4. ba:s *'piktri'3d. 

jima hava uol raz hied fon ar) ki-aral os *kast, en dot 
kast ar) ki'aral oz an 'stikalbosk ui-a ? noii, saq ki'aral os *kast 
'i'a ba:s *'piktri'ad ek, ta sizan : sti-ak a fiksa jo da I'arm yt, dor) 
;u'a hei dar ''sauot likar'noig sondar kontru-aran undar trog rina ; 
lei ura der'bei sa mi'agar oz a raga, hei hra aq klo-ar oz a 'skil- 
isk en a lu:d oz an 'pikalhierar). sam montsja ui'a ba:s *'pik- 
ri'ad ; a spiirar) ui-a t, mar hei hi-a go:s smear nai dot at am be:st 
)i'a, er) giin ama''rei hra ba:s *'piktri'ad re:st. sim 'pokdobaga 
roajia, det (d)a no-az mai an 'optik ta 'ytsti-ak, e sir) gri:z hi-ar, 
iwe:vdan 'oltid hina e uer ; si litsa i-agan flikaran o-an ra 
jai rioxs e lofts, dar ont'ka:m am giin dig, hei hi'a ^runom 
?ot op ta 'leksko'ian, en hei uist at 'oltid be:st, oz ar u'ar a 
)uoran goq, do sliqara e slu:g ar mai si ierman, krekt ot ar 
nai baida honan run ta siidzjan, en 'i-aqki-ar pompta r a fa:m 
iiuetar to:ga sa tsjin da rana a-mar o-an, dot hei dar sels fon 
)a'puoza reka. *'e:zalskin ! ' ro:p ar, uilst ar am 'O'askoda oz a 
uetarhun, ' ku'ast (d)on net sien, dot ak ti fon eftaran 'ir)ka:m ? ' — 
)p an o'ar ti:d reka r dar net betar O'O : du slu:g ar i sin i:v9r 
irekt in an tina fon an aida, dit op a 'iitkara lai, dot at blu'ad 
Jar nai run. 'ma su-a nou don ek bei ''moiglakhaid siza, hu 
ana za san dig sa midz in t pa:d sti'a lita,' sai ar, 'mag km 
)maz da buoran lagar net oggasko'ziera lo:z koma ! ' 

hei ui'a a 'skuo(m)makar fo sin 'hontuork, en oz ar 'arbaida, 
Ion hela r da trrad sa fuPaindag yt, dot ar elk dit net 'fiidar- 
ao:x fon am 'O'abliou, da fust jin t li:v O'an slu:§. gii faint 
sliou lagar oz an moana bei him, uont hei hi'a op at beista uork 
oltid jit uot ta sizan. do uran da stekan net e''ga:l, do 


wier de iene skoech langer as de oare, den wieren de hakkei 
ongelike heech, den wier it lear net genoch kloppe, altyd wier dei 
hwet. En as se hjar fordigenje woene, den rop er : ' Sa't ik siz 
sa is 't, en tsjinpraten wol 'k net ha : hwet net goed is, kin 'k el 
net goed neame, en 'k scoe my skamje, as ik it yn 'e sliep wei ne 
better meitsje koe ! ' H. S. Sytstka. 

5. Utfenhus by de boer. 

De moarntiid. 

It Ijocht brekt troch de griene gerdyntsjes. De klok slach 
heal wei fiven. De wylde fugels tsjirmje oer 't fjild. De hoann( 
kraeit en de Ijipkes liepe yn 'e finne. De protters kwele ei 
tsjotterje op it uleboerd en de skoarstien. De earrebarre klap 
halzet. De Ijurken sjonge oer 'e skurre. De aide mem heart d( 
klok : Bouk ! seit se, dou moast der of komme, fanke ! en ropp( 
Hidde en de feint, den kin de aid boer yet hwet lizzen bliuwe.— 
Croed, seit Bouk, en wriuwt eris yn e eagen en strykt oer de readi 
roune wangen. Se skout oer 'e bedsplanke, klaeit hjar oan ei 
ropt Hidde en de feint. 

Dermei is alles yn 't spier. De feint jowt de kij earst in lyti 
jeft hea en Hidde bigjint to mjuksjen. Bijke, dy't de hele nach 
op de aid boer syn broek lein hat, rekt him lit en de buthiisdoa 
aitgeande, snuffelt er op it hiem om en siket de onganzen op 
Bouk set nou fjur oan en hinget it tsjernwetter oer : mar w^ 
moatte ek hwet Ijocht ha, seit se, en skout it ramt op en smyt d( 
finsters iepen, det se tsjin 'e murre stuitsje. Nou stekt se hja 
tsjeppe troanje yn 'e loft en sjucht mei in pear frjeonlike eagei 
oeral yn 'e blide dage om. It Ijochte grien fen e simmer 
krite skimert troch de tsjuke dauwe. It jonggud haffelt yi 
'e lizen om. De ropeintsjes wraggelje nei hjar ta en lang 
halzje om in hanfol beane. De aide mem lit it molken yn 'e tin* 
rinne. Se is in minske fen sechstich jier en dochs tilt se de tini 
mei op, det hjar de lidden knieze en set him op 'e tsjerne en lit i 
molken der lit rinne, det it brust. Dermei wirdt de spatskutel de 
op lein, it tsjernlid festkile, de pols oanslein. De aide loaije bunt( 
wirdt fen 'e stal helle en bigjint to tsjernjen, det it hus dreunt ei 
de bynten kreakje. 

Nou it oar folk sit to melken bigjint de aid boer him ek to rissen 
Hy stiet op en klaeit him oan en snijt for it folk elkmes in tsjul 


L'9 d9 i'ana sku:§ lar)9r oz da o-ere, do uren de hakan 
>r)g9lik8 he:§, do ui'9 t li-ar nst ge'noix klopo, 'oltid ui-9 d9r 
)t. sn OS S9 har f9'di:g9nJ9 uu'9n, do ro:p 9r : ' sat ik siz, 
3 IS t, sn ''tsjimpra:t9n uo k net ha : uot net x^'sd iz, kir) k ek 
et xu'9d ni'9m9, eg k su mi skamjg, o k ot in 9 sli-gp vai nst 
st9r maitsja ku'9 ! ' ha: ss 'sitstra. 

5. ytfan'hniz bei da bu-ar. 

da 'mdantid. 

at lioxt brekt tro do gri-gna g9'dintsJ9z. d9 klok slaxt 
uelui fi:v9n. d9 uildg fugalz tsjirmja u'9 t fiild. da hoana 
ra'it en da liipk9z li'9p9 in 9 fing. dg protgs kweilg sn 
)jot9rJ9 op 9t ^ulabirad en da skoasjan. da -lerabara 'klap- 
olzat. da liorkan sior)9 u-9r 9 skuorg. dg o:da mem hiet (d)g 
lok. *bouk! salt so, dou mast gr O'a koma, fagka, e ropa 
hidg sn dg faint, dog km do o:d bu'ar jit uot lizan bliuwa. 
u'ad, sait *bouk, e uriuwt araz in a I'agan s strikt u-a da ri-ada 
una uagan. sa skout u-ar a bsts-'plagka, klaut har can e 
opt *hida sn da faint. 

Msrmai iz olaz in t spi-ar. • da faint jout (d)a kei I'ast a lits 
sft hi-a sn *hida ba^giint ta mioksjan. *beikg, dit (d)a he:la naxt 
p 9 o:d bu'9r sim bru:k lam hat, rekt am yt en da butyz'do'ar 
t'xi'snda, snofglt gr op gt hi-gm om e sikgt dg 'oggoizon op. 
bouk set nou fju-gr O'gn sn higgt gt 'tsjeuetgr u-gr; mar uei 
Qatg ek uot Tioxt ha, salt so, e skout gt ramt op e smit (d)a 
i:staz i-gpgn, dot sg tsjin 9 miiorg stoeitsjg. noii stskt sg har 
sjspg troajia in a loft s sioxt mai am pi-ar fr0'elaka i-agan 
u'arol in a bli:da da:ga om. at lioxta gri-an fon a 'simar- 
i:rita skimart tro da tsjuka do'ua. at 'jogguod hafalt in 
» li:zgn om. dg 'ropaintsjgz uraggljg nai har ta e 'lag- 
lolzjg om gn ho:fol bi-gng. dg o:dg mem lit gt molkgn in a tsjena 
'ina. sa iz an mi:ska fo sekstag ji-ar an do§z tilt sa da tina 
nai op, dot har da lidan kni'aza s set am op g tsjeng e lit gt 
nolkan d^r yt rina, dot gt bruist. 'dermal uot (d)g 'spotskutgl dgr 
)p lain, gt tsje'lid ''feistkilg, dg polz 'o-aslain. dg o:dg lo'ig buntg 
wt fon 9 sto:l helg em bggiint tg tsjejign, dot at hu:z drOint en 
Jg bintgn kri-gkjg. 

noii gt 0'9r folk sit tg melkgn b9'giint(d)g o:d bu-gr him ek tg risgn. 
aei stilt op sg kla'it gm o-gn e snsit foar gt folk slkmgz gn tsjuk 


stik brea. As dat dien is, faget er it mes of en stekt it yn 'e ski 
Hy nimt de bril ut it finsterbank en bigjint to lezen yn de re 
nei it himelske Jeruzalem. 

It melken is dien. It folk komt by de bird. De aide man nin 
syn roun-breed-skade hoedtsje of en bidt. De feint gobbet eft« 
de hoed wei en giizjende tsjin Bouk trapet er hjar undei-wiles c 
'e teannen, det se it laitsjen ek net ynhalde kin. Elk nimt syn sti 
brea, leit it op 'e knibbel en yt der fen. De aide mem is bang di 
it waer foroarje scil, sa hat it hjar jisterjoun yn 't krus stitse] 
De aid boer klaget ek, oer jicht en de slimme tiid. Hy biskrobb 
it jongfolk, det se sa oerdwealsk net weze moatte, hwent det hjj 
de earen yet wol bikoge wirde kinne. Dermei, as de kopkes € 
pantsjes opbirgen binne, biredde de frouljue de tsjerne en bjinne ( 
tinen en aden vit. De manljue geane oan 't seadriden ef leikje ( 
simmerdykjes op. De aid man bliuwt yn 'e hirdshoeke cm ( 
fuken to lapjen en bisjucht de kobbe mei de bril op 'e noas . . 

J. H. Halbertsma. 

6. Be sliep. 

't Is joun. Stil is 't rounom. De nacht komt en lukt sy 
tsjustere gerdinen gear om 'e ierde, en alles makket him klear oi 
syn soan, de ingel fen de sliep, wolkom to hjitten. Dy swee 
nou de ierde oer, en alles hwer't er syn wjukken oer utslach 
forjit de droktme fen 'e dei yn swiete slomme. — 

Mar net alles, net allegearre meije hjar forbliidzje yn in bisii 
fen dy woldwaende ingel. 't Is wier, mannich earme bodde 
dy't de deis yn it swit fen syn antlit it brea for syn wiif e 
berntsjes fortsjinne, hat er bileanne mei in swiete rest, mannic 
brave libbet de lokkichste uren fen syn wolbisteld libben yetr 
troch yn nochlike dreamen, mar. . . . Der binne filantropen, dy 
it hjar plicht achtsje yn it lijen en de earmoed fen hjar me 
minsken to foarsjen, mar ho foUen — en ho foUen dy't hjar hel 
faek it nedichst wieren — wirde troch hjar foarbygien. Sa'n filai 
troop scoe men de sliep ek hast neame kinne, hwent in bull 
jowt er rest, mar ek in bulte dy't forgees langhalzje nei sy 
komste. 't Is as wol er net roppen wirde. As er in hert hat, d 
ingel fen 'e sliep, den is it bird as in stien ; hwent ho mannic 
earme stumper, dy't op syn siikbed kreunt fen pine, lit er ongi 
treast yn syn smert, en ho follen, dy't de wrald en it needle 


k bri-a. oz dot di'en iz, fa:g9t 9r at me:s 0*8 s stskt dt in 9 ski'9. 
i nimt (d)9 bril yt 9t 'fT;st9rbaqk sm b9'giint t9 Isrzgn in dg raiz 
1 9t ''him9ls(k)9 jg'ryzalsm. 

9t mslkan iz di'9n. 9t folk komt bsi da hod. da o:da mon niml 

run-bre:t-ska:da huotsja 0'9 em bit. d9 faint gobgt eftar 

hu-ad uai eg gi:zjanda tsjim *bouk tra:pat ar bar undar'uilaz op 

tisnan, dot sa t laitsjan sk nst ''inho:d9 km. elk nimt si stik 

[•9, lait 9t op 9 knib9l en it 9r fon. d9 o:da mem iz bar) dot 

ua:r far'o-arja sil, sa hat at bar jostar'jun in t krys stotsan. 

o:d bu'ar kla:gat ek, u-ar jixt en da sliraa ti:d. hei ba'skrobat 

'joqfolk, dot sa sa u'a'dwi'als(k) net ueiza mata, uont dot bar 

I'aran jit uol ba'koiga uoda kina. 'dermal, oz da kopkaz em 

ntsjaz 'o(b)borgan bina, ba're:da da fro:lja da tsjena em biina da 

i9n en aidgn yt. d9 mo:lJ9 gi'9n9 0'9n t 'sje:dri:dan ov laikja da 

mardikjaz op. dg o:d mon bliuwt in a hodz'huka om da 

kan ta lapjan em ba'sioxt (d)9 ko'ba mai da bril op a ncaz. 

je: ha: 'holbatsma. 

6. da sli-ap. 

IZ jun. stil IS t runom. da naxt komt e lukt sin 
iostara ga'dinan gi'ar om a i-ada, en olaz makat 9m kli-ar om 
so'an, da igal fon da sli'ap, 'uolkom ta hiitan. di swe:ft 
>u da i-ada irar, en olaz vet ar si uiokan u'ar 'ytslaxt, 
'jit (d)a droktma fon a dai T swrata sloma. — 
mar net olaz, net ola'giera mai9 bar fa'bliidzja in 9m ba'si:k 
n di 'uoldwamda iqal. t iz ui'9r, mangg I'grmg bod9r, 
t (d)9 dalz in 9t swit fo sin 'ontlit at bri-a foa si 'ui:v em 
nisjas fa'tsiina, hat ar ba'liena mai a swi-ata re:st, mana§ 
ra:va libat (d)a lokaxsta u'aran fo si 'uolbasteld liban jitras 
o§ in noflaka drraman, mar . . . dar bina filon'troipan, dit 
; har plixt axtsJ9 in gt leign en 'dg lermu'ad fon bar -'mai- 
iiskan ta fa'sien, mar hu folan — en hu folan dit bar help 
i:k at neidaxst ui'an — uoda tro§ bar fa'beigran. sa filon- 
ro:p su'9 man da sli-ap ek hast ni-ama kina, uont am bolta 
ut ar r£:st, mar ek am boltg dit fg'ge'.z 'laqholzja nai sir) 
jmsta. t IZ oz uol 9r net ropan uoda. oz gr an bet hat, di 
lal fon 9 sli'9p, don iz gt hod oz a sti'9n; uont hu mangg 
armg stompgr, dit op si 'sikbe:d kr0:nt fom ping, lit gr 'ogga- 
•rgst T SI smet, en hu folan, dit (d)a uro:d en at 'ne:dlot 


jimmer dwers wieren, lit er mei iepene eagen yn 'e tsjuste 
nacht sjen, sender se him ienkear to sluten en yn Ijochte drear 
bylden him dat tsjuster forjitte to litten. En wirdt er fen sokk< 
net meast oanroppen ? 0. H. Sytstka. 

7. Wintersinneopgong. 

In froastige winterdei daget oer 'e Suderse en de iggen dy't 

De lege bank, dy't yn 't easten mei syn swartens skiedii 
makket twisken it skiere skimerjen fen 'e loft en it grounic 
grien opjaen fen it dynjende wiet, kriget in Ijochte ranne. u 
breder en breder, al bloedriger en bloedriger wirdt er. Den bre 
yn-ienen de wintergreate sinne heal boppe dat bloedgerdyn lit < 
stjurt syn kjelderich reade wjerskyn nei 't westen, mei de weag 
dy't fen 'e froastkening syn siken tsjin 'e stiennen bear fen 
Krabbersgat oanjage wirde. De ienlikens fen dat wide wett( 
fjild dijt aloan en forliest geandewei syn grinzen. 

dy pracht fen it sinne-opkommen, simmers great en great 1 
't winter ! O dy liifdracht fen 'e dage, simmers goud en winte 
poarper, simmers read en winters reader ! dat wiken fen 
nachtskaed, simmers swart en winters swarter, foar de sim 
goudne pylken ! 

Loaits! de romte tynt, nou't it easten Ijocht jiet yn s; 
donkere djipten, sa't se tynt as me ut in delte it dun bikliuwt € 
kliuwende, omsjucht! 

Loaits ! de wrald wirdt great en greater, nou't syn breid hj 
poarte ontskoattelt, butedoar komt yn hjar breidspronk, en hj 
earmen for him iepent ! Hastich, red en redder, riist er ut nacl 
fierten hjar tomiette, oer it tapyt fen sinnestrielen dat hja fc 
syn fiet utroUet ! Langst nei Ijeafde is yn syn haestjen, lan§ 
nei resten oan hjar herte ! 

Loaits ! de se, de onwiten wylde ; loaits ! it breinroer, brii 
gjend munster, dat de skippen brekt en brizelt, dun en dyk tome; 
oan brokken ; loaits ! de se, de woeste, oerstjure, hwa't nin teai 
haldt, noch helter, draegt de wjerskyn fen 'e dage, draegt h; 
poarper op syn weagen, draegt de moarnsbreid op syn skoudei 
jowt him op, sa seft, sa mijen, sa't in heit him seftkes opjo 
under 't Ijeaflik bern dat hoarsriidt op syn rech, en it mij 
foartdraegt! J. J. Hof. 


lor dwss vii'8n, lit gr mat rapona i-egan in 9 tsjostara 
)(£n, sondar za him i''ar)ki'ar ta slytan en 1 lioxta 'dri-am- 
dan him dot tsjostar fa'jita ta litan. I uot ar fo sokan 
mi'ast 'o-eropan? o: ha: 'sitstra. 

7. rintar'sinaopxor). 

J fro-astaga 'umtardai daigat u-ar a *sydar'se: sn da igan dit ar 


da leiga bar)k, dit in t i-astan mai sT swatnz ski-adaq 

ikat twiskan at ski-ara skimarjan fon a loft sn at gruna§ 

an 'opja:n fon at dijianda ui-at, krigat 3 lioxta ro:na. ol 
3:dar sm breidar, ol bluodragar sm bluodragar uot ar. dom brekt 

i'anan da 'uintargrota sina hi-al bopa dot 'blu'adgadin yt e 
U'at sig kisldra^ ri-ada 'uieskin nai t usstan, mai da wagan 
; fon a 'fro-astk0:nar) sT sikan tsjin a stiinan bi-ar fon at 
rabaz'got cejaiga uoda. da 'i'elakez fon dot ui:da 'ustar- 
Id dsit olo'an a fa'li'ast 'gi-andauai sir) gri:zan. 
ou di praxt fon at 'sina-opkoman, simaz grO'at ei) gro'at bei 
uintar! oii di 'liivdraxt fon a da:ga, simaz goiid e uintas 
arpar, simez ri'ad s uintaz ri-adar! ou dot uikan fon at 
3xtska:d, simas swat I umtas swatar, foa da sina 
iidna pilkan ! 

lo'lts ! da romta tint, nout at i-astan lloxt jit 1 sin 
qkara djiptan, sat sa tint oz m(a) yt an delta at dyn ba'kliuwt sn, 
[uwanda, 'omsioxt! 

lo'its! da uro:d uot gro-at er) grOtar, nout sim braid har 
ata ont'skoatalt, buta'do-ar komt in har 'braidzprogk, en har 
rman foar him i'apant ! hastag, re:d e re:dar, ri:st ar yt naxts 
[tan har ta'miita, u-ar at ta'pit fo 'sinastri-alan dot hia foa 

fi-at 'ytro:l9t ! laqst nai li-avda iz i sin ha:sjan, lagst 
11 re:stan o-an har beta ! 

lo'its ! da se:, da o'uitan uilda ; lo'its ! at 'brairu'ar, bri:z- 
and m0:star, dot (d)a skipan brekt em briizalt, dyn en dik ta'mielt 
am brokan ; lo-its ! da se:, da uu'asta, u-a'stju-ara, ua:t nin ti-ama 
):t, nox heltar, dra:xt (d)a 'uieskin fon a da:ga, dra:xt har 
)arpar op sT ui'agan, dra:xt (d)a m6a:zbraid op si skoudaz ; 
ut am op, sa s£:ft, sa metan, sat an hait am se:ftkaz 'opjout 
ador t li'avlak be:n dot 'h6asri:t op sT re:g, en at meian 
ao(t)dra:xt ! je: je: hof. 


8. It Moaije. 

Hin! it Moaije is allyk it not dat me mei it tsjef yn it so 
skept. De arbeider skoddet it sou en it tsjef forstout foar c 
wyn, mar it goe-not follet de sekken. 

Yetteris is it Moaije allyk in ruge diamant, dy't fen 'e dolde: 
yn ierdryks yngewant foun wirdt. En de dolders sjugge nc 
noch witte net, hwent de diamant is ruch en in koarste moddi 
sit der omhinne. Mar de wasker wasket en de sliper slipet ; d( 
wirdt de diamant as de jounstjer dy't oan 'e loft blikert en < 
minsken bigeije syn pracht en sizze: der is in skat foun yn 
ierdryk en de nacht hat it Ijocht berne dat yn syn skerte wier ! 

Alweroan is it Moaije allyk siekerlen dy't fen it fugelt fal 
litten wirde yn in forgetten herntsje. Hwent de maitiid komt < 
de sinne pattet dat herntsje, det de siekerlen waerm wirde en 
waeksdom komme. En de mylde simmerwyntsjes streakje 
libben dat de ierde ontgiet, det der langst nei memmewi] 
ontstiet yn 'e kliene stallen en frucht tynt yn hjar bugende iere 
Den scil dy neisimmers goud weagje op dat forgetten herntsj 
en it ripe not scil roppe om de man dy't de risping biredt. 

En einlings en to'n lesten is it Moaije allyk it goe-woan he 
dat me simmerdei yn 'e skurre riidt. It bisakket yn 'e golle 
mar wirdt net wei ; it broeit, mar it barnt net, noch forliest s] 
helm, hwent de broei is licht, om't it hea woan is, do't de Iju 
heech kleau en de sinne onbihindere syn strielen oer it med get 
En as de dagen komme, det it greate each fen 'e ierde of sjuc 
en de sinne hjar bern skoudert ; as de skaden lang bliuwe en 
stoppel net wer litrint ; as de beamtuke hinget, mar net f< 
frucht ; it med wyt is, mar net fen dauwe, den scil it syn n 
dwaen. Den scil de hiisman de seine priizgje dy't fen 'e mi 
yn 'e swinge hongen is, en de haeijer greatsk weze op it yl ; 
syn hannen, as er de riuwe twisken 'e tekspierren lizzen sjuc] 
Hwent in hiel bislach bisten tart op 'e frucht fen hjar flitigens 
wirdt sed. 

Wez den op dyn iepenst, det nin swym dyn each ontkoB 
noch nin klank dyn ear foarbygiet. Swylje gear al hwet foar d; 
fiet leit en biwarje it yn 'e skurren fen dyn onthald, det d 
moed net toar wirdt en dyn herte to ninter tiid om tinz 
forlegen weze mei, noch dyn mule om wirden. Hwent de dag 
komme det de siedder net rispje scil, det de mier net meant, nc 


8. at mo'ia. 

hin ! 8t mo'ia iz o{l)'lik at no:t dot ma mai at tsjsf in at sou 
[spt. da ^arbaidar skodat at sou sn at tsjef fa'stout foa da 
n, mar at gu-a'noit folat (d)a sskan. 

jitraz IZ at mo-ia o(iyiik a ruga dia'mont, dit fon a doldaz 
^i-adriks ^iggauont fu: uot. en da doldas sioga nst, 
)g uita net, uont (d)a dia'mont iz rux en ar) koasta modar 
t ar om'hina. mar da uoskar uoskat en da slipar slipat ; do 
3t (d)a dia'mont oz da 'ju:stier dit can a loft blikart en da 
liiskan ba'gaia sim praxt e siza : dar iz 3 skot fun in at 

adrik en da naxt hat at lloxt bena dot T si sketa ui-a ! 

ol'uero'an iz at mo'ia o(l)iik 'si-akeln dit fon at fugalt fo:la 
tan uoda in a fa'getan hentsja. uont (d)a ''maitid komt en 
a sina patat (d)ot hentsja, dot (d)a 'si-aksln ua:rm uoda en ta 
;a:ksdom koma. en da milda ''simaruintsjas stri'akja at 
[ban dot (d)a i-ada ont'xiit, dot ar lai)st nai 'memauila 
nt''stiit in a kli'ana sto:lan e froxt tint in har bu:ganda i-aran. 
sil di 'naisimaz goud ui'ogja op tot fa'getan hentsja, 
Q at ripa no:t sil ropa om da mon dit (d)a rispar) ba'reit. 

sn 'aTlar)z en ta leistan iz at mo'ia o(l)'lik at 'gu-auoan hi-a, 
ot ma simar''dai in a skuora ri:t. at ba'sakat in a golan, 
aar u6t net uai ; at bruit, mar at ba:nt net, nox fa'li-ast sin 
lelm, uont (d)a brui iz lixt, omt at hi-a uoon iz, dut (d)a liork 
ie:x kliou en da sina omba'hindara sT stri-alan u-ar at me:d gi-at. 
n oz da da:gan koma, dot at grota i-a^ fon a i-ada O'a sioxt 
n da sina har be:n skoudart ; oz da ska:dan lar) bliuwa en da 
topal net uer 'ytrint ; oz da 'biemtuka higat, mar net fo 
roxt ; at ine:d uit iz, mar net fon do'ua, do sil at sin not 
[warn, do sil da ''hyzmon da saina pri:zgja dit fon a mi'ar 
n a swiqa hor)an iz, en da ha-iar grotsk ue:za op at il T 
in honan, oz ar da riuwa twiskan a 'tekspiiran lizan sioxt. 
lont an hi-al ba'slag bis(t)an tat op a froxt fon hjr ''fiitagaz e 
)6t se:d. 

ue:z don op tin i-apast, dot ni swim din i-ag ont'komt, 
lOg nil) klaqk din i-ar fa'beigiit. svvilja gi-ar ol uot foa di 
vat lait em ba'uarja t in a skiioran fon din ont'hoid, dot (d)im 
nu-ad net toar uot en din beta ta nintar ti:d om ti:zan 
■e'le:gan ue:za mai, nog dim mula om uodan. uont (d)a da:gan 
ioma dot (d)a siidar net rispja sil, dot (d)a mi-ar net mi-ant, nog 



de haeijer net haeit, en it ierdryk syn skerte ta haldt. Den scitte 
dyn each seinje om't it opmirk en dyn ear om't it harke. 

J. J. HOF. 

9. Matth. 7, 1-5. 

1. Oardeel net, det jimme net oardeeld wirde. 

2. Hwent mei it oardeel der't jimme mei oardele, scille jimmf 
wer oardeeld wirde, en mei de selde miette der't jimme mei 
litmiette, scil jimme wer tametten wirde. 

3. Hwet dochs sjuchstou de splinter dy't yn dyn broers each sit, 
en merkste de balke net yn dyn eigen ? 

4. Ef ho kinste oan dyn broer sizze : Lit my de splinter ut dyi 
each helje, en hin, der is in balke yn dyn eigen ? 

5. Dou skynhillige, luk earst de balke ut dyn eigen each, en 
sjuch den hoste de splinter ut dyn broers each helje scilste. 

10. Matth. 22, 34-40. 

34. De Farisieuwen nou hearrende, det er de Saddusieuwen d< 
mule snoerre hie, kamen by inoar : 

35. En ien fen hjarren, in wetgelearde, frege, him tantsjende er 
sizzende : 

36. Master, hwet is it greatste gebod yn 'e wet ? 

37. Jezus nou sei tsjin him : Dou scilste God Ijeaf hawwt 
mei heel dyn hert, en mei heel dyn siele, en mei heel dyr 

38. Dat is it earste en it greate gebod. 

39. En it twadde, deroan gelyk, is : Dou scilste dyn evenminskt 
Ijeaf haw we as dy sels. 

40. Oan dy twa geboaden hinget de hele wet en de profeten. 

11. Matth. 25, 31-40. 

31. As de soan fen de minske kommen is yn syn hearlikheic 
en al de hillige ingels mei him, den scil er sitte op 'e troan fer 
syn hearlikheid. 

32. En alle naesjes fen 'e ierde scille foar him by inoar komme 
en hy scil hjar fen inoar skiede lyk as de harder de skiep skiedt 
fen de bokken. 


19 ha-iar net ha'it, sn at 'i-edrik si sksta ta ho:t. do sita 
lin i'8x saijia omt at 'opmork sn din i-ar omt at havka. 

je: je: hof. 

9. *ma'te'az so:n, fes ran o-ant fi:v. 

1. 'o'ade:l net, dot jima nst 'cadeild u5da. 

2. uont mai at 'o-ade:! det jima mai 'o-adeila, sila jime 
uer 'o'ade:ld uoda, sn mai da sslda miita dst jima ma! 
'ytmiita, sil jima usr 'tamstan uoda. 

3. uot do§z ''sioxstou da splintar dit in din bru*az i-ax sit, 
n msrksta da bolka nst in din aigan ? 

4. of hu krsta can din bru-ar siza : lit mi da splintar yt din 
ra§ hslja en hin, dar iz an bolka in dm aigan ? 

5. dou skin'hilaga, luk i-ast de bolka yt din aigan i'a§, s 
sio§ don husta da splintar yt din bru-az i'a§ helje sista. 

10. *ma'te-az 22, 34-40. 

34. da fari'si'auan nou 'hisranda dot ar da 'sadysi-auan da 
mula snuora hi'a, ka:man bsi anuor : 

35. sn i'a fon haran, an 'ustgali'ada, fre:ga, him ''tontsjanda e 
sizanda : 

36. mastar, uot iz at grosta ga'bod in a ust ? 

37. je:zaz nou sai tsjin him : dou sista god Irav haua 
mai he:l din het, sn mai he:l di si'ala, en mai he:l di 

38. dot iz at I'asta sn at grota ga'bod. 

39. sn at twada, 'dsro-an go'lik, iz : dou sista din 'eivanmiiska 
Irav haua oz di selz. 

40. o'an di two ga'bo-adan hiT)at da he:la ust en da pro'feitan. 

11. *ma'te'az 25, 31-40. 

31. oz da scan fon da mi:ska koman iz i sin 'hi-arlakhaid 
en ol da hilaga iqalz mai him, do sil ar sita op a tro-an fo 
sin 'hi'arlakhaid. 

32. en ola na:sjaz fon a i-ada sila foar him bei aniior koma, 
en hsi sil har fon aniior ski-ada lik oz an hadar da skrap ski'at 
fon da bokan. 


33. En de skiep scil er skikke oan syn rjuchterhan, mar de 
bokken oan syn lofter. , 

34. Den scil de kening dy't oan syn rjuchterhan steane sizze : 
Kom harren, seinen fen myn heit, ervje it keninkryk dat jimme 
fen 'e grounlizzing fen 'e wrald tatocht is. 

35. Hwent ik hie honger, en jimme hawwe my iten jown ; ik 
hie toarst, en jimme hawwe my drinke litten ; ik wier frjemd, en 
jimme hawwe my opnommen. 

36. Neaken wier 'k, en jimme hawwe my klaeid ; ik wier siik, 
en jimme hawwe op my tasjoen ; ik siet finzen, en jimme hawwe 
my forsocht. 

37. Den scille de rjuchtfirdigen him anderje, sizzende : Honear 
seagen wy jo hongerjen en joegen jo iten, ef toarstich en lieten jo 
drinke ? 

38. Honear dochs seagen wy jo as frjemdling, en namen jo op ? 
Ef neaken, en klaeijden jo ? 

39. Honear dochs seagen wy jo siik ef yn 'e finzenisse en 
hawwe jo forsocht ? 

40. En de kening scil anderje en tsjin hjar sizze : Sikersonk siz 
ik jimme, sa hwet jimme dien hawwe oan ien fen dizze myn lytste 
broerren, dart haw^ve jimme my dien. 

12. Simmermoarn. 

Hwet bistou Ijeaflik 
Rizende Simmermoarn ! 
't Opgeande sintsje 
Laket my oan. 
't Hoantsje kraeit : kukelu ! 
't Douke ropt : rukuku ! 
Ik wol ek sjonge 
Fleurich fen toan. 

AUes hwet libbet 
Docht der nou sines by : 
Foltsjes en kealtsjes, 
Hynsders en kij ; 
Goeskes dy snetterje, 
Skiepkes dy bletterje, 
Lamkes dy springe 
Nuvere blij. 


33. en d9 ski'ap sil er skika cei si 'rioxtarhom, mar da 
bokan o-e si loftar. 

34. do sil da k0:nar) dit o-a sT 'rioxtarhom sti-ano siza : 
kom haran, sainan fan min hait, srvja at ''k0:nagkrik dot jima 
Fon a 'grulizari fon a uroid 'tatoxt iz. 

35. uont ik hi-a hogar, s jima haua mi itan jun; ik 
lii'a to'ast, e jima haua mi drigka litan ; ik ui-a frismd, e 
jima haua mi 'opnoman. 

36. ni'akan ui-a k, s jima haua mi kla-id ; ik ui-a si:k, 
I jima haua op mi -'tasju-an ; ik si'at fi:zan, e jima haua 
mi fa'soxt. 

37. do sila da rioxt'fodagan him ondarja, sizanda : hu'ni'ar 
3i'agan ui joii hoqarjan s jugan jou itan, of to'asta§ e li-atan jou 
dnrjka ? 

38. hu'ni'ar dop si'agan ui jou os 'frismdlit}, sn namian joii op ? 
ov ni'akan, si) kla'idan joii ? 

39. hu'ni'ar do§z sragan ui joii si:k ov in a 'fi:zanisa en 
baua joii fa'soxt ? 

40. en da k0mar) sil ondarja en tsjin har siza : sikar'soqk siz 
[k jima, sa uot jima di-an haua o-an i-an fon diza mi lista 
briioran, dot haua jima met di-an. 

12. ''simarmo'an. 

'uot bistoii 'li-avlak 
'ri:zanda 'simarmo-an ! 
t 'opxi'anda ^sintsja 
'la:kat mi ''o-an. 
t ''hoantsja kra-it : 'kukalu: ! 
t 'doiika ropt : 'nikuku: ! 
'ik uol ek 'sioqa 
'fl0'ara§ fon 'to'an. 

'olag uot 'libat 
'doxt ar noii 'sinaz bet : 
'foiltsjaz eg ^kteltsjaz, 
''hindaz eg 'ket ; 
''giioskaz di ''snetarja, 
'skiipkaz di 'bletarja, 
'lamkaz di 'spriqa 
'ny:vara 'blei. 



't Ljurkje yn 'e wolken, 
't Eintsje yn 't lizich wiet, 
't Moskje en 't swealtsje, 
Elk sjongt syn liet. 
Eabarren klapperje, 
Ljipkea wjukwapperje, 
Skries, op 'e hikke, 
Ropt : grito-griet ! 
'k Woe for gjin goune 
Det 'k yet to sliepen laei : 
't Is my sa noflik 
ler op 'e dei. 
Protters dy tsjotterje, 
Eksters dy skotterje, 
AUes is fleurich 
Ik bin it mei. 

W. Dykstra. 

13. Skipperssankje. 

Forjit my net, as bolle wyntsjes waeije 

En ik oan 't roer myn sankje sjong ; 
As kroeze weagen 't gledde skip omaeije ; 

Eorjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as millioenen stjerren 

En 't frjeonlik moantsje my biskynt. 
En dou swietdream hast yn 'e sefte fearren ; 

Forjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as wylde touwerfleagen 

My slingerje der't God it wol ; 
As ik ompolskje mei de dea foar eagen; 

Forjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as wreed de stoarmen bylje. 

En 't libben hinget oan in tried ; 
As wy forslein oan 't needtou ride en fylje ; 

Forjit, forjit my net ! 
Forjit my net, as swarte tommelweagen 

Oertruzelje it warleas skip, 
En alle eleminten tsjin vis teagen ; 
Forjit, forjit my net ! 


t 'li6rkj(8) in a ''uolkan, 
t 'aintsJQ in t 'liizeg ui'at, 
t ''moskje sn t 'sweltsja, 
'elk sioqt sx ''li'9t. 
'isbaren 'klaparja, 
'liipkoz uiok'uaporJG, 
'skri'8z op 9 'hika 
'ropt : gritou-'gri'at ! 
k 'uu'O foar giir) 'guina 
'do k jit ta 'sli'apan lai : 
t 'xz mi sa 'noflak 
'i'8r op 9 'dai. 
'prot9z di 'tsjotarja, 
'ekstoz di 'skot9rJ9 
'olaz IS 'fl0'9r9§ 
'ig bin 9t 'mat 

ue: 'dikstra. 

13. ''skipd(s)sar)kj3. 

far'jit mi 'net, oz 'bola 'uintsjaz ''ua'i9 

en 'ik o'9n t 'ru'ar mi 'sar)kJ8 'siog ; 
OS 'kru:za 'ui'egan t 'gleido 'skip om'a'ia ; 

fgr'jit, fgr'jit mi 'net ! 
fer'jit mi 'net, oz mili'u*9n9n 'stieran 

en t 'fr0'8l9k 'moantsje 'met b9'skint, 
en 'dou swi*9(t)'dri'8m hast in 9 'seifta 'fiergn; 

far'jit, far'jit mi 'net ! 
fei-'jit mi 'net, oz 'uilda 'touar'fli'egan 

mei 'slir)9rJ9 det 'god at 'uol ; 
oz ik 'ompolskjo mai da 'di'a foar 'I'agan; 

far' jit, fgr'jit mi net ! 
far'jit mi 'net, oz 'ure:d do 'st6arm9n 'bilja, 

en t 'liban 'hir)9t can an 'tri-ad ; 
oz uei fa'slain o-an t 'ne:(d)tou 'ri:d(a) e 'filja ; 

far'jit, far'jit mi 'net ! 
fgr'jit mi 'net, os 'swotg 'tom9l'ui'agan 

u'ar'try:zalja at 'uarli-as 'skip, 
en 'ola e'la'mintan 'tsjin ys 'ti-agan; 
far'jit, far'jit mi 'net! 


Forjit my net, as we einlings yet forsinke, 

En teare yn 'e djippe se : 
Wol den mei triennen oan my tinke ; 
Forjit, forjit my net! 

E. Halbertsma. 

14. Winternocht. 

Oer hus, oer klus, oer finne 

Leit leeljeblank en wyt 

Wer winters snietapyt, 
Hweroer Gods goudne sinne 

Mei bliere strielen glydt ; 
Mei speeglich iis bifloerre 

Is mar en poel en wiel ; 
Oan tuken, toer en skurre 

Blinkt eptich iisjuwiel. 
Hwer't oars de weagen geane, 

Swiet wiggelje op en del, 

By riten rou en fel 
Nei 't swirk opstouwe en fleane, 

Der rinkelt slide en bel. 
Der riidt nou kreaze Sytske, 

In faem as molke en bloed, 
Op 't holtsje in tillich kypske, 

Sa swierich mei hjar Sjoerd. 
Hwa tinkt om tersk, om tsjerne ? 

It iis dat is sa moai ! 

Hwa sit nou klomsk en loai 
To stinnen yn hirdsherne? 

Elkien giet oan 'e goai. 
't Is nocht yn greidhoek, walden, 

Yn boukant, wetterlan, 
Gjinien is thus to halden, 

De skeaf boarst lit 'e ban. 

Aldgroun ! wez jamk biferzen, 
Swaei, ruge Jukelbird, 
Al d' ieuwen roun jou swird, 

Tsjoen blommen op us glezen, 
Tsjoen blommen oan iis bird ; 


fer'jit mi -'net, oz v{q) 'ailiqz jit fo'siriko 

sn '^'9X9 in 9 'djip9 'se: : 
vol 'don mai 'triingn o'9n mi 'tiqkg ; 
fgr'jit, f9r'jit mi 'net! 

e: 'holbetsma. 

14. 'uintarnoxt. 

u'9r 'hu:z, u'9r 'klu:2, U'9r 'fing 

lait 'le:lJ9'blaqk e 'uit 

usr 'uintgs 'sni'9t9''pit, 
u£r'u'9r godz 'goudng 'sin9 

mai 'bli'9r9 'stri'glan 'glit; 
mai 'spe:gl9§ 'iiz b9'fluor9 

iz 'mar em 'pu'al e 'ui'ol ; 
o'9n 'tukgn, 'tu'9r e 'skuor9 

bligkt ''ept9g 'i:zJ9ui'9l. 
ust '0'9z d9 'ur9g9n 'gi-gng, 

swi'9t 'uig9lj(9) 'op en 'del, 

bei 'ritgn 'rou e 'fel 
nal t 'swork op'stou(9) e 'fli'9n9, 

der 'rigkglt 'slid(9) em 'bel. 
der 'ri:t nou 'kri'9Z9 *'sitsk9, 

a 'fa:m oz 'molk(9) em 'blu'9d, 
op t 'holtsj(9) 9n 'til9x 'kip8k9, 

sa 'swi'9r9§ mai bar *'sju'9d. 
ixi: 'tigkt om 'tesk, om 'tsjeng? 

9t 'i:z dot IS sa 'mo'i ! 

vq: sit nou 'klomsk e 'lo'i 
t9 'stin9n in hodz'heng ? 

'elki'9n giit o'9n 9 'go'i. 
t IZ 'noxt iq 'graidhuk, 'uo:don, 

im 'boukont, 'uetgrlom, 
giin'i'9n is 'tys ta 'hoidgn, 

d9 'ski'9v bast yt 9 'bo:n. 
o:d'grun! ue:z 'jdmk b9'f£:z9n, 

swa'i, 'rug9 'jukglbod, 

'ol d i'iign 'run jou 'swod, 
tsju'9n 'blom9n op yz 'gle:z9n, 

tsju'9n 'blomon o'9n ys 'hod ; 


Hear Fryske boikes praten 

Oer frouljue, waer en wyn, 
En tapje frjeon en maten 

Jou ' boerekofje ' yn ! 

L. C. Murray Barker. 

15. De Bernewrald. 
De bernewrald, sa tear, sa fyn, 
Der leit de hele takomst yn. 
De lytse berntsjes, gol en blier, 
It binne bledtsjes wyt pompier ; 
Der skriuwt men op, al hwet men wol, 
It hele wite bledtsje fol ; 
En ho't men letter triuwt en wriuwt, 
It wol net lit : it measte bliuwt. 
Us jonges, manljue yn 'e dop, 
Us famkes, frouljue yn 'e knop, 
Wirdt gau hjar lytse wrald to nau, 
Den slagge hja de wynsels ou ! 
Den draegt it soantsje heite pak. 
Sit memme pop op memme plak. 
En — wirde wy al stram en aid — 
Sa halde wy in nije wrald. 
0, Ijeave berntsjes fen us Lan ! 
Hald jimme us aide eare yn stan. 
Biskamje nea lis hope net : 
Bliuw Frysk fen hoUe en Frysk fen hert! 

W. Faber. 

16. Swellesang. 
Wjuk, wjuk, troch de loft, 
Meitsje neat gjin geroft, 
Doch in swaei en in swier 
As in flitse sa flink, 
Fljuch nou ritsdy en swink, 
Nim sa red wer in gier, 
Snap in michje yn 'e flecht, 
Den in swier en in swaei, 
Mei in gier en in draei 
Op 'e goate wer del 
En sjong der den de sang fen de swel : 



hier 'fri8(k)8 'boaikas 'pra:t9n 

u'ar 'fro:lJ9, 'ua:r s 'uin, 

£n 'tapja ^fro'Qn em 'luaitan 

jou bu'ero'kofja in ! 

si se: mOre: bakor. 

15. da 'benauro:^. 

da 'bsn8'uro:d, sa 'ti-er, sa 'fin, 

ds(r) lait (d)a 'heila ''takomst in. 

d9 'litsa 'bsntsjaz, 'gol en 'blrar, 

9t 'bina bletsjaz -'uit pom'pi'ar ; 

ds{r) 'skriuwt man op, 'ol uot ma 'uol, 

at 'heila ''uita ''bletsje 'fol; 

en 'hut me 'letar 'triuwt e 'uriuwt, 

at uol 'net yt : at 'mi'asta 'bliuwt. 

yz 'jogaz, 'mo:lja in a 'dop, 

ys 'famkaz, 'frorlja in a 'knop, 

uot 'xou bar 'litsa 'uro:t ta 'nou, 

do 'slaga hia da 'ui:salz 'oil I 

don 'dra:xt at 'soantsja 'haita 'pak, 

sit 'mema 'pop op 'mema 'plok, 

en — 'uoda 'uei ol 'stram en 'o:d — 

'sa ho:da uei an 'neia 'oro:d. 

oil, 'li'aua 'bentsjas fon yz 'loin I 

ho:d 'jim(a) yz 'o:da 'i'ar(a) i 'stom. 

ba'skamja 'ni-a ys 'ho:pa 'net : 

bliuw 'fris(k) fon 'hol(a) e 'fris(k) fon 'het ! 

ue: fa:bar. 

16. 'swelasarj. 
uiok, 'uiok, tro da 'loft, 
maitsja 'ni'at giii) ga'roft, 
dog e 'swa'i en e 'swi-ar 
oz a 'flitsa sa 'flirjk, 
fliog nou 'ritsti e 'swigk, 
mm sa 'reid uer ar) 'gi-ar, 
snap an 'mixj(a) in a 'flext, 
don a 'swi'ar en a s'wa-i, 
mai ar) 'gi'ar en an 'drau 
op a 'go'ata uer 'del 
e slog 'der don da 'sag fon a 'swel : 


'Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere Here liere Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch.' 

As it gaeike us tsjilpet : It nestke moat klear, 
Den tsjugge w' er flitich mienskipHk oer gear, 
Wy wietsje en wy knetsje hwet Hem en hwet klaei, 
En foegje 't en loegje "t mei 'n strieke ef in raei. 
En strike 't en plakke 't, nei foechsum bistek, 
Goe sljuchte torjuchte mei poatsjes en bek. 
As 't mitseljen dien is, biklaeije w' op 't lest 
Mei moas en mei plomkes de boaijem fen 't nest. 
Sa sitt' wy by nachttiid, by onwaer ef wyn. 
Den koeskes en smoutsjes mei 't wyfke deryn, 
En hawwe, as us seis-, sauntal berntsjes yet komt, 
Wy for litfenhuzers noch gasten gjin romt'. 
Jin 'e tsjerke oan der wenje wy best nei lis sin, 
Det ek in goe wird lis birikke yet kin. 
Boppe al, stiet in freedlik from man it lis ta, 
WoUe w' under syn hiistek lis wente graech ha. 
Doch oars, as it hjirsa noch dersa net wol, 
Jaen w' ek under tillen en breggen lis dol. 
Hast', burman, in kliitsje? jow dat mar oan my, 
Ik ha hjir hwet ruchte, dat 's gading for dy : 
As ien sa hwet oer hat, in oar hwet to koart, 
Wy helpe mankoaren burskiplik mei foart ; 
Sa reitsje wy handich mei 't nestke op stel, 
En sjonge ris froalik de sang fen de swel : 

' Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol. 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere liere liere liere 1 . . e . . e . . ch. 

Komt in mosk op lis ta, 
Om it nest, dat wy ha, 
Us skelmsk as in kaper t' ontsetten, 

^ Sa, seit it sizke, sjonge de swellen. 


fe'line 'ji'ar, 
dut 'ik hiir 'ui'8(r), 
ui'8 'dit fsk ''fol, 
en 'dot fek 'fol, 
en 'no\i is t 'olagiera trara li-era li-era Irera 'le:g.^ 

oz at 'ga'iko ys 'tsjilpat: at 'neske mat 'kli-ar, 

don 'tsjoga u 9r 'fliteg mi'e'skiplak u'8 'gi-er, 

ui 'uiitsj(8) e ui 'knstsja ix)t 'li'am e uot 'kla'i, 

e 'fu:gJ9 t e 'luigja t mai a 'stri'9k(e) ov § 'ra-i, 

e 'strike t em pldka t ; nai 'fuixsam ba'stek, 

gu'8 'slioxte ta'rioxta mai 'po'atsjez em 'bek. 

OS t 'mitseljen 'di'an iz, ba'kla-ia u op t 'leist 

mai 'mo'9z em mai 'plomkez da 'boa-lam fon t 'ne:st. 

so 'sit ui bei 'nax(t)ti:d, bei 'oixiir ov 'uin, 

dog 'kuskaz e 'smoutsjaz mat t 'uifka der'in, 

en 'hau(a), oz ys 'sais-, 'so:ntol 'bentsjaz jit 'komt, 

uei foar ytfan'hu:zaz nog gostan 'gii 'romt. 

jin a 'tsjerk(a) o'an der 'uejia uei 'be:st nai ys 'sin, 

dot 'ek ar) gu'a 'uod yz ba'rika jit 'km. 

bop(a) 'ol, stilt e 'freidlak from 'mon at ys 'ta, 

vo V 'undar sin 'hystek yz 'uenta gra:§ 'ha. 

dog 'o'az, oz at 'hiisa nog 'desa net 'uol, 

ja: V 'ek undar 'tilan em 'bre:gan yz 'dol. 

hast, 'biiormon, ar) 'klytsja? jou 'dot mar o-am 'mei, 

'ik ha hiir uot 'ruxta, do z 'ga:dar) foa 'del : 

oz 'i'e sa vot 'u'ar hat, an 'o-ar i;ot ta 'koat, 

uel 'helpa moq'ko-aran bu'a'skiplak mai 'foat ; 

sa 'raitsja ui 'hondag mai t 'neska op 'stel, 

e 'sloqa ras 'frcalak da 'sai) fon a 'swel : 

fa'lina 'ji'ar, 
dut 'ik hlir 'ui'a(r), 
ui'a 'dit fek 'fol, 
en 'dot fek 'fol, 
en 'noil is t 'olaglera ti'ara li'ara li-ara li-ara 'le:§. 

komt an 'mosk op ys 'to, 
om at 'ne:st, dot ui 'ha, 
ys 'skelmsk oz ar) 'ka:par t ont'setan, 

' sa, salt et siskd, sior)e de swelen. 


Elk fen us docht mei, 
Wy fit'rje him wei, 
En witte 't him wol to biletten. 

As in wikel ef earn 
Ef in hauk it bistean', 
Op it oare frij fugelt to loeren, 
Den kitelt us bloed, 
Wy flink en fol meed, 
Us krije se net yn hjar kloeren. 

Ha w' in seinrop earst jown 
Oan de fugels yn 't roun, 
En glupe de hinnen biside, 
Den wy der op yn 
Sa red as de wyn, 
Wy doare de skobbert bistride. 

Jow him hommels in pjuk, 
En den gau wer wjuk-wjuk, 
Dy ropsek kin lang us net krije ; 
En ha wy oerwoun, 
Strykt er 6f foar us boun, 
Den kin it in sankje wer lije : 

' Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere liere liere liere 1 . . e . . e . . ch 

Hat it wyfke lis nestje fol aikes lein, 

Den briede wy trou om bar, 
En habbe wy pykjes, o den wirdt der flein, 

Den stelle w' lis wakker to war ; 
Den giet der by beide nin tiid forlern, 
Hwent hongrige bouterkes binne de bern. 

Sa wekket de swel for goed en bloed, 

En wykt for syn plichten net wei, 
En teant er jamk, hwet flinkens en moed, 
As me 't mei inoar haldt, formei. 
Doch sonder geroft 
Pilet hy troch de loft, 


'elk fon yz doxt 'mai, 
usi fitrJG him 'uai, 
s 'uito t him 'uol te ba'lsten. 

oz 8 'uikel ov 'I'an 
ov 9n ''houk 8t ba'sti'an, 
op ot 'o'9ra frei 'fugalt to 'lu'eren, 
dog ''kitalt yz 'blu-ed, 
uei 'fliqk s fol 'mu'ad, 
ys 'kreio Z8 'net in hdr 'klu-aran. 

ha u a 'sairop i-est 'jun 
0'8n da 'fugelz in t 'run, 
er) 'glupa da 'hinan ba'sida, 
do 'uei dar op 'in 
sa 're:d oz da 'uin, 
'uei do'ara da 'skobat ba'strida. 

jou am 'homalz am 'pi5k, 
en dor) 'gou uer uiok-'uiok, 
di 'ropsek ki 'lag yz net 'kreia; 
en 'ha vi u-ar'uun, 
strikt ar 'o-a foor yz 'bun, 
'dor) km at a 'saqkja uer 'leia : 

fa'lina 'ji'ar, 
dut 'ik hiir 'm'a(r), 
ui'a 'dit fek 'fol, 
en 'dot fek 'fol, 
en 'nou is t 'olagiera ti-ara li-ara li-ara li'ara 'le:§. 

hat at 'uifka yz 'nesja fol 'aikaz 'lain, 

don 'bri'ada ui 'troii om 'bar, 
en 'hdba ui 'pikjaz, ou 'do uot ar 'fiain, 

do 'stela u yz 'uakar ta ixir ; 
doq 'gilt ar bei 'baida nin 'ti:d fa'len, 
uont 'horjraga 'boiitarkaz 'bina da 'ben. 

sa 'uekat (d)a 'swel foar 'gu-ad em 'blu-ad, 

e 'uikt foa sim 'plixtan net 'uai, 
en 'trant ar 'jamk, uot 'fligkaz em 'mu'ad, 
oz ma t 'mai anuor 'ho:t, fa'mai. 
dox 'sondar ga'roft 
'pilat hei tro da 'loft. 


En saeit mei in swier 
As in blits hinne en wer, 

Snapt hjir en der 
In michje yn sa'n gier ; 

Den docht er in swaei 
Mei in linige draei 

Op 'e goate wer del, 
En kweelt by syn gaei 
D' ienfaldige sang fen de swel : 

'Forline jier, 
Do't ik hjir wier, 
Wier dit fek fol, 
En dat fek fol, 
En nou is 't allegearre tiere Here Here Here 1 . . e . . e . . ch. 

H. S. Sytstra. 

17. Maerteblommen. 

Dit is in hanfol Maerteblommen, 
De foarjiersberntsjes fen myn hert, 
Dy't earst in lange, lange set 
Yn 't kalde winterwaer forklommen ; 
Mar dy't op d' earste foarjiersdei, 
Do't mylde boUe wyntsjes ruzden, 
Troch 't hirde wynsel hinne bruzden 
En kipen lit hjar herntsjes wei. 

De Maerteblom is fyn en tear, 
En doar him hast net buten weagje ; 
As der de kalde stoarmen reagje. 
Den fait er of en is net mear. 
Mar as der mylde siichjes waeije, 
Dy't him it pruze kopke aeije, 
Den driuwt er widzjend op 'e wyn 
En liedt de simmer laitsjend yn. 

De Maerteblom is wyt en kein, 
De deakleur leit him op 'e wangen ; 
Hy stjert foar d' earste fugelsangen, 
Hy bloeit mar koart yn snie en rein. 


£ 'sa'it mat o ^swi-er 
oz em 'blits hin(8) s 'usr, 

snapt 'hiir sn 'dsr 
em 'mixj(8) i sag 'gi-ar ; 

don Moxt 8r a 'swa-i 
mai a 'linaga 'dra-i 

op 8 'go'ate usr 'dsl, 
SI) 'kwe:lt bsi sir) 'ga'i 
d i-a'fo:daga ^saij fon a 'sw£l: 

fa'line 'ji'9r, 
dut 'ik hiir 'ui'8(r), 
ui'9 'dit fsk 'fol, 
sn Mot fek 'fol, 
en 'nou is t 'olagisra ti-aro li-ara li'aro li-ara 'le:§. 

ha: £s 'sitstra. 

17. 'ma:t3bloman. 

'dit iz an 'ho:fol 'ma:ta'bloman, 
da 'foarji'az'bsntsjaz fom min 'hst, 
dit 'i-ast a 'laqa, 'laqa 'sst 
in t ''koida ''uintar''ua:r fa'kloman ; 
mar dit op d 'rasta 'foarji-azdai, 
dut 'milda 'bola 'uintsjez 'ruizdan, 
trox t 'hoda ''uT:sal 'hina 'bruizdan 
£n 'kipan yt bar ^h£ntsjaz uai. 

da 'ma:tablom is ''fin sn 'ti-ar, 
£n 'do'ar am 'hast n£t 'butan 'wagja; 
oz 'dsr da 'ko:da 'stoarman 'ri'agja, 
do 'folt ar 'o-a sn 'iz nst 'mrar. 
mar oz dar 'milda 'siixjaz 'ua-ia, 
dit him at 'pru:za 'kopka 'aua, 
don driuwt ar 'uidzjand op a 'uin 
sn 'li'at (d)a 'simar 'laitsjand 'in. 

da 'ma:tablom iz 'uit sr) 'kain, 
da 'di£kl0'ar 'lait am op a 'uagan; 
hel stlst foa d 'i-asta 'fugalsagan, 
h£i 'bluit mar 'koat i 'sni'a £ 'rain. 


Dochs lit er blier syn klokjes klinke I 

En sjongt syn simmer-profecy, 

En makket mannich herte blij, , 

Al kin er 't sels net witte ef tinke. 

Wol, Maerteblommen fen myn hert, 

Den ek for oare herten bloeije, 

Lit der wer foarjiersglanzen gloeije, 

Lit wike d' aide wintersmert. 

Wol der wer nije hope bringe 

En den — forwylje en stjer den wei ; 

De Pinksterblommen scill' tonei 

Blier laitsjend lit 'e knoppen springe. 

P. J. Troelstra. 

18. It Heitelan. 

Der't de dyk it Ian omklammet, 

Lyk in memme-earm hjar bern, I 

Der't de wylde se jamk flammet 

Op in hap lit Friso's hern', 

Der't de Stiennen-man syn eagen 

Stoarje lit oer fjild en stran, 

Der't men eanget fen gjin weagen, 

Der is 't Ijeave Heitelan! 

Der 't Reaklif sa swietkes lonket 

Yn de jountiids-sinneskyn, 

Der't it bokweitblomke pronket 

Twisken heide en beamgud yn, 

Der't de Aldehou syn brommen 

Uren fier sims dreunt yn 't roun, 

Der't it tilt fen fe en blommen, 

Der is 't oeral Fryske groun ! 

DSr't hjar freed de geaen spriede 

Twisken Lauwers, Linde en Flie, 

Eestich drogjend, oft 't op ierde 

Rounom noft en frede wie' ; 

Der't de groun de soargen leannet 

Fen der minsken warbre han, 

Der't men frij en feilich wennet, 

Der is 't ynljeaf Heitelan ! 


'dop lit 8r 'bli'9r siq 'klokjes 'kligka 

s '8ior)t sT 'simar-profe'ssi, 

sn 'maket 'mane^ 'beta 'bki, 

ol 'km 9r t 'selz net 'uit(8) of 'tigka. 

vol, 'maite^blomGn fom min 'bet, 

don 'sk foar 'o'oro 'beton 'bluio, 

lit '(d)£r usr 'foarji'ozgloizan 'gluie, 

lit ''uiko d 'oido 'uintorsmst . 

uol ''der usr ''nsio 'boipo 'briqo 

sn ''don — fe'uiljo s ''stisr do ''uai ; 

<39 ''pirjkstorblomon sil to-'nai 

bli'or 'laitsjond yt o 'knopon 'spngg. 

pe: je: 'tru'elstra. 

18. at 'halt3lo:n. 

det (d)o 'dik ot 'lo:n om'klamot, 

'lik on 'memo-'isrm bar 'bsn, 

dst (d)o 'uildo 'se: jamk 'flamot 

op on 'bap yt 'frizoiz 'hen, 

dst (d)8 stiinon-'mon sin 'I'Ogon 

'stoarjo lit u'or 'fiild e 'stro:n, 

dst mon 'I'oqot foi) gii 'ui'Ogon, 

'dsr IS t 'li'ovo 'baitolom. 

dsr t ri'o'klif sa 'swi'otkoz 'logkot 

in do 'junti:dz 'sinoskin, 

dst ot 'bokuit'blomko 'prorjkot 

twiskon 'baid(o) sn bismguod in, 

dst (d)8 'oidohou sin 'bromon 

'u'oron 'fi'or somz 'drOmt in t 'run, 

dst ot 'tilt fo 'fe: sn 'blomon, 

dsr IS t 'u'orol 'fris(k)o 'grun. 

dst bar 'fru'od do 'gi'O-on 'spri'odo 

twiskon lo'uoz, 'lind(9) s fli-o, 

'rs:sto§ 'droigjond, of(t) t op 'i'odo 

'runom 'noft e 'fre:do 'ui'O, 

det (d)o 'grun do 'soargon 'llenot 

fon dor mi:skon 'uarbro 'ho:n, 

dst me 'frsi s 'failo§ 'usnot, 

'der IS t 'ili'ov 'haitoloin ! 


Lit lis tinke oan aide tiden : 
leuwen fol fen lest en noed, 
Kriich tsjin frjemdfolk, fjuchtsjen, striden, 
Wrakseljen mei wetterfloed. 
Der't Dy 't aide folk biwarre, 
Dreech tsjin stoarm en twingerij, 
Der scill' wy, as Friezen, swarre: 
' Aldfaers erf, wy weitsje oer Dy ! ' 

J. L. VAN DER Burg. 

19. Simmerjounsbyld. 

Nij hea rukt oer it wide gledde wetter, 
Abeeljebeammen ruze oan jinse kant 
Op 't boerehiem, hwer't d'eintsjes slugje, hwent 
Hja binne wirch fen 't duken en gesnetter. 

It westerrea forblikt ; it wirdt al letter 

En 't blau tapyt mei gouden stjerren spant 

Oer alles hinne : fugel, fe en plant 

't Sliept alles; eltse klank en sang forstjert der. 

In greate tsjalk komt swart fen seil oandriuwen, 

In twjirke dounset oan en brekt it byld 

Fen boerepleats en beamte yn 't glanzich wiet. 

It byld trill't lang, om einlings dochs to bliuwen, 
De weachjes glide oan d' ich en — fol en myld 
Sjongt op de tsjalk de frou in widzeliet. 


20. Tsjuster. 

Swart, aeklik swart is nou de nacht : gjin bran 

Fen sinnefjur, noch 't sefte moantsje jiet 

In wite striel oer 't stille gea ; men wit 

Fen bou noch greide of mar, fen se nochstran. 

It bem is bang by tsjuster, 't knypt de ban 
Fen heit, dy mei him 't stille fjild trochgiet ; 
It skriirt for 't beamke dat der ienlik stiet 
By 't wetter, oan 'e kant fen 't flakke Ian. 


lit ys ''tir)k(9) can 'oide ''thdon : 

'i'9U9n 'fol ^ ^le:st en 'nu-ad, 

'kri:§ tsjin ''friemdfolk, 'fioxtsjan, 'striidan, 

'vrakselJGn mat ''usterflu'ed. 

dst (d)si t 'o:d9 'folk b9'uar9, 

'dre:g tsji 'stoarm en twir)9'rei, 

der SI 'uei, os 'fri'9Z9n, 'swar9 : 

'o:dfa:z ''erf, uci 'uaitsja u'9 'dei ! 

je: el fon dar bOr§. 

19, ''simarju:z''bild. 

nel 'hi'9 rukt u'9r gt 'uiida 'gleidg 'ueter, 
a'be'.ljabieman 'ru:z(9) 0*9 'jusa ''kont 
op t bu'9ra'hi'am, uet d(a) ''aintsjas ''slugja, 'uont 
hla ''bina ''uorx fon t 'dukan eg ga'snetar. 

at 'u6sta(r)ri'a fal)likt ; at uot ol 'letar 

en t 'bloii ta'pit mai 'goudan ''stieran 'spont 

U'ar 'olaz 'hina : 'fugal, 'fe: em ''plant 

t 'sliipt ''olaz; 'eltsa 'klagk e 'sai) fa'stiet ar. 

eg 'grota 'tsjolk komt 'swat fo 'sail 'o-andrluwon, 

an 'twirka 'du:sat 'o-an em -"brekt at ''bild 

fon bu'ara'plrats en 'biemt(a) in t 'glo:za§ 'ui'at. 

at 'bild trilt 'lar), om 'ailigz do§z ta 'blluwan, 
da 'waxjaz 'gli:da o-an a 'ix en — 'fol en 'mild 
stogt op da 'tsjolk da 'froii an 'uidzali-at. 

je: be: ske:paz. 

20. tsjdstar. 

swat, 'arklak 'swat iz noii da 'naxt ; gtim 'bro:n 

fo 'sinafju'ar, nox t 's£:fta 'moantsja 'jit 

an 'uita 'stri-al u-a t 'stila 'gi-a; ma 'uit 

fon 'bou nox ''graid(a) ov 'mar, fo 'se: nox 'stro:n. 

at 'bs:n iz 'bag bei 'tsjostar, t 'knipt (d)a 'ho:n 
fon 'halt, di 'mai him t 'stila 'fiild tro(x) 'gnt; 
at 'skrilt foa t 'biemka dot (d)er 'i-alak 'stlit 
bei t 'uetar, o-an a 'kont fon t 'flaka 'lo:n. 


Sa is 't yn 't sombre, kalde deafet nacht, 

Hweryn de dragers ienkear sakje litte, 

Dy't skriljend wike moast foar Dea syn kracht. 

Den scil, hwaens siele skaette, net mear witte 
Fen nacht en tsjuster, moanne of sinnepracht, 
En fljucht de geest it iiw'ge Ijocht tomiette. 

P. SiPMA. 


'sa IS t in t ''sombre, 'koide 'diefet 'naxt, 

usr'in do -'drdigaz ^vQx^kvQv 'sdkJ9 'lite 

dit 'sknljond 'uikg ^moast foa Mi* 9 sig 'kraxt. 

M5 sil, ua:z 'si'olo 'ska:t8, 'net mi'or 'uita 
fon ''naxt sn 'tsjostar, ''moane ov 'sinopraxt 
s flioxt (d)8 'geist et 'i:vg9 'lioxt te'miita. 

pe: 'sipma. 


The order is strictly alphabetical (I, = a ; 6, ^ = e ; 6 = 0; li, u = 

Phonetic transcription in [ ]. 
Abbreviations : 

fn. = female name. 

gn. = geographical name. 

iv. = irregular verb (§§ 249, 

mn. = male name. 

'pn. = proper name. 

s. = substantive. 

sn. = neuter substantive. 

sv. = strong verb (§ 247). 

8WV. = strong weak verb (§248] 

The others need no explanation. 

Masculine and feminine are not indicated (see §§ 188, 189). 

The ordinary numerals after a word refer to the paragraphs in th 

The Roman numbers after sv. 
verbs in the Grammar (§ 247). 

indicate the classes of the stronj 
aerdich [a:d9g] adj. nice, pretty 

abeeljebeam [a'beiljebi'am] s. 

abele-tree, white poplar. 
acht " 



num. eight. 
s. attention. 

achteloas ['axtelcez] adj. care- 

achter [Oxtsr] adv. 'prep. 113. 
behind, after. 

achting [axter)] s. esteem, regard, 

achtjin [axtjon] num. eighteen. 

achtsje [Qxtsje] wv. to esteem ; 
to think. 

achtslaen ['axtsldm] sv. VI, a. 
to pay attention. 

achtste [axste] num. eighth. 

aed [a:dj sn. milk-basin. 

aei [a'lj sn. egg. 

aeije [a-ie] wv. to stroke. 

aeklik [aiklek] adj. dismal, 

aerd [aid] sn. nature, kind. 

S.Qaers ['o:fa:zJs. 195. ancestor 
afysje a'fisjo] sn. 138. plac( 

post, berth, 
after [after] adv. prep. 113. b< 

hind, after. 
aikje [aikja] wv. to stroke. 
al [ol] adv. already. 
al, alle [ol, ola] num. all. 
aid [o:dJ adj. old. 
Aldehou ['oidehoii] pn. a tow( 

at Ljouwert (Leeuwarden). 
alder [oider] s. parent. 
^Idfaeui [o:d'fa:m] s. old maid 
aldfaers ''o:dfa:z] s. ancestors. 
Ale [ailaj «iw. 

ftlf, aive [olv, olva] num. elevei 
alfte [olfte] num. eleventh, 
alheel [oPhe:l] adv. wholly, quit 
alhowol [olhu'uol] conj. althougj 
allegearre [ole'gisre] num. alt( 

allerhande ['olerhonde] ad 




illerlei ['olerlai] adj. sundry. 
tiles [oIgz] ind. pr. all, every- 
illyk [o'lik] adj. alike. 
lUinne, allinnich [o'ling, 
o'lin8§] adv. alone, lonely, by 

iloau [oFcan] adv. continually. 
-Ityd l/oltid] adv. always. 
ilweroan [oPusrcan] adv. again, 
liner [aimer] s. pail, 
imerij [a'me'rei] sn. moment. 
imperoan [^ampere en] adv. 


mderje ['onderje] wv. to answer. 
linker [ariker] sn. anchor. 
4.nkje [ar)kjaj^. 
Anne [o'ne] mn. 
antlit pontlit] sn. face. 
mtwird ['ontuod] sn. answer, 
intwirdzje ['ontuodzje] wv. to 

appel [apal] s. apple. 
arbeid ['arbaid] s. labour, work. 
arbeider ['arbaider] s. labourer, 

arbeidster ['arbaistar] s. char- 
arbeidsum [ar'baitsem] adj. 

arbeidzje [^arbaidzjo] wv. to 

as [oz] conj. as, when. 
au ! [au] int. oh ! 
aveseare [ave'si-ero] wv. to ad- 
vance, to hurry up. 

baen [bam] s. way, road. 

baes [bars] s. master, boss. 

bak [bak] s. bowl, basin. 

bakker [baker] s. baker. 

bakkerinne [bake'rine] s. 
baker's wife. 

bakkerij [bake'rsi] s. bake- 

bakmoal ['bakmcel] sw. baking- 
baksel [baksel] sn. batch. 
bal [bol] s. ball. 
balke [bolke] s. beam, joist. 
bS.n [b3:n] s. band, tie. 
bang [bar)] adj. afraid; timid; 

bank [baqk] s. bench. 
bankje [bagkje] wv. to hold out, 
bar [bar] s. turn. 
barm [barm] s. 152. berm. 
barne [bane, bame] wv. to burn, 

to be on fire. 
barre [bare, bo're] wv. to happen ; 

to receive. 
beage [bi-ege] s. 160. hame (of 

a draught-horse). 
beaken [bi-eken] sn. 160. beacon, 
bealich [bi'ele§, bo'ele§] s. 165. 

bealigje [bi-elegje, bo-elegje] 

wv. 165. to toil. 
beam [bi-em] s. tree, 
beamgud ['bismguod] sn. trees. 
beamte [biemte] sn. trees, clump 

of trees. 
beamtuke ['biemtuke] s. bough, 

beane [bi-ene] s. 192. bean. 
bear [bi'er] s. bear ; boar ; dam. 
bSd [bs:d] sn. bed. 
bddsplanke [bsts'plaqkej s. 

beest [be:st] sn. 192. beast; cow. 
beet hawwe [be:t have] iv. 250. 

to get hold. 
beide [baide] nwm. both, 
beitel [baitel] s. 162. chisel. 
bek [bek] s. bill, beak, mouth. 
bel [bell s. bell. 
beppe [bspej s. grandmother, 
berch [bsrg J s. mount, mountain. 
bergje [bsrgje] wv. to pack up. 
Berltsum [bslsem] gn. village 

in Friesland. 
berm [berm, bsirm] s. 142 n. 




bern [bsn, bsm] sn. child, 
bernachtich [^bsnaxts^] adj. 

berne [bene] /)as<. j)art. born. 
bernewrS-ld ['ben8uro:d] s. the 

bernsbern [^beizbsn] sn. grand- 
bernsk [beisk] adj. doting. 
bernskens [''beiskez] s. second 

childhood, dotage. 
b§st [be:st] adj. best. 
betel [be:tel] s. 162. chisel. 
better [beter] adj. better. 
betterskip ['betorskip] s. ame- 
beu [b0:] adj. tired, disgusted. 
beuke [b0:k9] wv. to beat. 
by [bei] adv. prep, at, near, 

bibel [bi:bal, bibol] s. bible. 
bidaerd [be'daidj adj. calm, 

bidde [bido] sv. II, b. to pray. 
bidimme [bo'dime] wv. to calm, 

to smooth down. 
bidjerre [beMieraJ sv. Ill, c. to 

corrupt, to deprave. 
bidriuw [be'driuw] sn. action, 

deed ; trade ; act. 
bidroefd [be'druivd, b9'dru:gd] 

adj. 113. sad, pitiful. 
biede [bi'Qda] sv. II, a. to offer, 

to bid. 
bien [bran] sn. bone. 
bier [bi'ar] sn. beer. 
biezem [bi-ezem] s. broom, 

bifinge [be^fige] sv. Ill, d. to be 

taken with cold. 
bifloerje [bo'fluorje] wv. to floor, 

to pave. 
bifrieze [be'fri'eze] sv. II, a. to 

bigeije [ba-'qaia] wv. to cry. 
bigge [bige] s. pig. 
bigjinne [be'giina] sv. Ill, a. to 


bigripe [bg'gripe] sv. 1, b {p.p. 
bigrepen) to understand, to 

bihalven [ba'holven] prep, ex- 
cept, besides. 

bikeare [ba'ki'sra] wv. to con- 
vert, to I'eclaim. 

bikearling [be'ki-erlir)] s. con- 

bikend [be'kind] adj. known, 

bikenne [ba'kinej iv. 249. to 

biklaeije [be'kla-ie] wv. to clothe. 

bikliuwe [bQ'kliuvi'e] sv. I, c. to 
ascend, to climb. 

bikdgje [b9'ko:gJ9] wv. 246. to 
chew. De earen wirde him 
bikdge : he learns by hard 

bij [bsi] s. bee. 

bijekoer ['b£i9ku'9r] s. bee-hive. 

bijestal ['b£i9sto:l] s. bee-shed. 

Bijke [b£ik9] pn. dog's name. 

byld [bild] sn. image. 

bileanje [b9'lieji9] wv. to re- 

bilette [b9'l£t9] wv. to prevent. 

bylje [bilj9] wv. to roar ; to 

bine [bing] sv. Ill, a. to bind, 
to tie. 

bineame [b9''ni'9m9] wv. to 
appoint, to nominate. 

binne(n) [bin9, bin9n] adv. prep. 
in, within, inside. 

binnendoar [bingn-'dcer] adv. 
in the house. 

bynster [bi:st9r] sf. binder, tier. 

bynt [bint] sn. joist. 

bipoezje [bg^piiozjg] wv. to spill 
upon, to splash. 

bird [bod] sn. beard. 

birddde [b9''r£:d9] arrange, 
to manage. 

biriede [bg'ri-gdg] wv. 246. to 
consult, to confer. 

birikke [be'rikg] wv. to reach. 



inne [ba'rina] sv. Ill, a. to 
(vertake. It is wol mei him 
;o birinnen : he is not a dis- 
igreeable person. 
lakje [ba'sakjg] wv. to sink 

ide [bg'sidaj adv. beside ; hid. 
iik [b9'si:kj sn. visit, call. 
lite fba'zitajs. 138. visit, call. 
jen [ba'sisn] sv. II, c. to look 

ikaefd [ba'skaivd] adj. polite, 

kie [ba'ski-e] sn. answer; 

kildigje [ba'skoldagje] vjv. 
o accuse. 

kine [ba'skina] wv. to shine 

krobje [ba'skrobja] wv. to 

lach [ba'slax] sn. the live 
;tock (of cattle). 
lute [ba'slyta] sv. II, b. to 

ipiele [ba'spi'ala] wv. to wash. 
'Pylj© [ba'spilja] wy. to play on. 
itean [be'sti-en] iv. 250. to 

itek [ba'stsk] sn. plan, 
(telle [be'stsla] wv. to order, 
to appoint. 

(telle [bo'stsdaj sv. V, a. to 

stride [ba'striida, ba^'strido] 
w. I, a. to fight, to combat. 
;e [bita] sv. I, b. to bite. 
;iid [ba'tird] adv. adj. early, 

;sjen litte [ba'tsjsn lita] sv. 
EI, c. VII. to stop, to omit, 
warje [ba'uarja] wv. to keep ; 
to preserve, to protect, 
wenje [be'usjie] wv. to inhabit. 
Lnder biinder] s. scrubbing- 

Inne [biin8] wv. to scrub. 
Lst [biist] s. beest, beestings. 

bjuster [biostar] adj. at sea, con- 
blank [blaqk] adj. bright. 
blau [blo'ii, blou] adj. blue. 
bl§d [blsid] sn. leaf. 
blfidside f'blstside] s. page. 
bleek [bleikl «. bleach-field. 
bleek [ble:kj adj. pale. 
blein [blain] sn. 137. baleen, 
bletterje fbleterje] wv. to bleat. 
bleu [bl0:] adj. timid. 
blydskip ['blitskip] s. gladness. 
bliede [bli-ada] wv. 246. to 

blier [bli-ar] adj. merry, 
bliid [bliid] adj. glad. 
blij [blsi] adj. glad, 
blykber [blikbor] adj. apparent. 
blike [blike] .iwv. 248. to appear. 
blikerje [ sparkle, 
blyn [blin] adj. blind, 
blinens [blinnz] s. blindness, 
blinke [bliqka] sv. Ill, d. to 

shine, to glitter, 
blits [blits] 8. lightning. 
bliuwe [bliuwa] sv. I, c. to 

bloed [blu'ad] sn. blood. 
bloedderich [bliiodra^] adj. 

bloei [blui] s. blossom, flower, 
bloeije [bluie] wv. to bloom ; to 

bloeisel [bluisal] sn. blossom. 
bloeitiid ['bluiti:d] s. time of 

blom [blom] «. flower, 
boaijem [boo'iam] s. bottom. 
board [bo'ed] s. collar. 
board [bo-ad] sn. board, brim, 

boarre [boara] s. tom-cat. 
boarste [basta, boasta] wv. to 

boarterij [boata^rsi] «. play, 
boartsje [boatsja] wv. to play, 
boat [bo'atl sn. boat. 
boat [beat] sm. steamboat. 



bocht [boxt] s. bend, 
bodder [bodarj s. toiler. 
bodzje [bodzJGj wv. to toil. 
boek [bu:k, buk] sn. book. 
boekekas [^bukakos] s. book- 
boel [bu'ol] s. crowd, a great 

boer [bu'or] s. farmer. 
boerd [bu-gd] sn. board. Hy 

hat de wrald op in boerdtsj e : 

he is in clover. 
boerehiem [bu'era'hi'em] sn. 

boerekofje [bu'era'kofje] s. hot 

beer with brandy, nutmeg, and 

boerepleats [bu'8r8''pli'9ts] s. 

farmer's house ; farm. 
boerinne [bu'o'rina] s. farmer's 

boerkje [buorkje] wv. to farm. 
boers(k) [bu-az, bu-ask] adj. 

bdge [bo:ga] s. bow ; arch.1 
boi [boai] s. boy. 
bok [bokj s. he-goat. 
bokweit [^bokuit] s. buck-wheat. 
bol [bol] adj. soft, chubby. 
bont [bont] adj. 155. motley. 
boppe [bopa] prep. adv. above ; 

on high, upstairs. 
bosk [bosk] s. 190. wood. 
bosk [boskj sn. bundle. 
bou [bou] s. plough-land. 
Bouk [boukjyn. 
boukant ['boukont] s. farming- 
boun [bun] sn. 156. league, 

bout [bout] s. bolt, pin. 
bout [bout] sn. leg of a sheep or 

a calf, drumstick of fowl. 
bouterke ['boutarka] sn. baby, 

little darling. 
braef [bra:v] adj. honest. 
bran [bro:n] s. tire. 
branje [bro:jia] s. fuel. 

brea [bri-a] sn. bread. 

breed [breid] adj. broad, large, 

brSge [brsiga] s. bridge. 
breid [braid] s. bride. 
breidspronk ['braidzpror)k] s. 

breinroer [''brairu'ar] adj. furi- 
brekke [breka] sv. IV, a. to 

bretael [br'ta:l] adj. 136. pert, 

briede[bri'ada]wu. 246. to roast, 

to fry. 
brief [bri-av] sn. letter. 
bryk [brik] adj. wry, slanting. 
bril [bril, brol] s. spectacles. 
brilloft [^broloft] s. wedding. 
bringe [briga] iv. 250. to 

brinzgje [bri:zgja] wy. to roar. 
brizelje ['briizaljaj lov. to crush, 

to split. 
broei [brui] s. heating (as hay). 
broeije [bruia] wv. to get warn^ 

or hot. ^ 

broek [bru:k, bruk] s. trousers. 
broer [bru-ar] s. brother. 
brok [brok] sn. piece. 
bromme [broma] wv. to growl. 
bruije [broeia] wv. to drub, 
brukber [brukbar] adj. useful, 
bruke [bruka] wv. to use. 
brukel [brukalj adj. annoyec 

brukme [brukma] sn. use, usage 

bruksum [bruksam] adj. traci 

briin [bryn] adj. brown. 
bruze|bru:za] wv. to foam, to fizz 
buge [bu:ga] wv. to bend, to bow 
bugel [buigal] s. metal ring, 
bui [boei, buoij s. shower. 
buk [buk] s. belly. 
bult(e) [bolt, bolta] s. a grea 




nt [bunt] adj. 155. motley. 
rman ['buormon] s. neigh- 

.rren [buoran] s. village. 
.rskiplik [bu'9'skiplek] adj. 
obliging as good neighbours, 
.se [buse] s. pocket, 
.sgat ['busxot] sn. pocket- 

Lte(n) [bute, butan] adv. 
prep, outside, without, besides, 

Ltendoar [buteu'dcar] adv. 
out of doors. 

itentiids [butan'tiidz] adv. at 
an unusual time, 
i.thus ['buthys, 'butyz] sn. 

lei [da'i] sn. dough. 

'6gJ6 [da:gJ8] wv. to dawn. 

,ge [da:g9] s. dawn. 

,lik [dadek] adv. immediately. 

.n [don] adv. then. 

,ngelje['dar)9lJ8jwu. to dangle. 

,t [dot] dem. and rel. pr, that, 


,tjinge [dot^jiqe] dem. pr. that 

,uwe [do'uo] s. dew. 

I [do] art. the. 

d) [di-9, di'9d] s. 128. 

ia(d) [di'9, di'9d] adj. 128. 

afet [^disfst] sn. coffin. 
lagean ['di'9gi'9n] iv. 250. to 

akleur ['di'9klo'9r, 'dieklo'or] 
s. colour of death. 
ale [di'9l9, do'9l9] s. 165. devil, 
lales [di-9l9z, do'9l9z] int. 165. 
zounds ! the deuce ! 
lastil [di'9stil] adj. still as 

lel [de:l] sn. 163. part. 
li [dai] s. day. 

deihier [dai'hi'ar] s. 192. day's 

deije [dei9] wv. to kill. 
deilis [dail9z] adv. disagreeing, 

at odds. 
deilisskip ['dallaskip] s. discord, 

deimennich ['daimen9§] s. some 

deizen [daizgn] s. plur. bacon- 
laths before the chimney. 
dekke [d£k9] sv. IV, a. to cover, 
delbdd^je ['delbe:dzJ9] wv. to 

dele [de:l9] wv. 163. to divide. 
deljaen [Msljam] iv. 250. yen 

deljaen : to lay oneself down, 
delsette ['dslseta] vw. to set 

delte [dslt9] s. low place, dell. 
den [don] adv. then. 
der [dar, dr] adv. there. 
dSr der] rel. pr. 230. who, that. 
d6r(re) [der,d£:r9] adv. 94. there. 
dSrmei ['de(r)mai] adv. 253. 

with it ; then. 
ddrnei ['d£(r)nai] adv. 253. after 

ddroan ['dsro'9n] adv. 253. by 

ddrom ['derom] adv. 253. there- 
dSrop ['dsrop] adv. 253. upon 

that, after that. 
ddrsa ['de(r)sa] adv. there. 
dSr't [dst] adv. 259. where, 
dfirta ['d£(r)ta] adv. 253. to it, 

for it. 
dfirtrocli ['de(r)trox] adv. 253. 

by that means, hence. 
det [dot] conj. that. 
deugd [d0:|d] s. virtue, good 

quality ; service. 
deun [ d0:n] adj. economic, chary. 
diamant [dia'mont] s. diamond. 
dy [di] dem. pr. that, those. 
dichter [dixtar] s. poet. 
die(d) [di-9, di-ad] s. 128. deed. 



dief [di'av] s. thief. 

diel "di'elj sn. 163. part. 

diele [di-ole] wv. 163. to divide. 

diger [diigerj adj. sparing. 

dyk [dik] s. dike. 

dije [dsig] wv. to prosper; to 

dyjinge [di^jiije] he, she. 
dimmen [dimen] adj. modest. 
dyn [din poss. pr. thy, your, 
ding [dir)] sn. thing. 
dynje [dijig] wv. to swell, 
dipper [diper] adj. industrious. 
dit(te) [dit, dot, ditg, dota] dem. 

pr. 94. this. 
dy't [dit] rel. pr. that, who. 
divel [di:vol] s. devil. 
dizze diza] dem. pr. this, these. 
djerre [disroj s. yolk. 
djip [djip] adj. 129. deep. 
djipte [diiptaj s. 129. depth, 
djoeije [djuiaj tov. 129. to frisk, 

to run up and down, 
djur [dju-9r] adj. 129. dear, 

do [du] adv. then. 
doar [do'ar] s. door. 
doare [do'ere] iv. 249. to dare, 
doarp TddarpJ sn. village. 
dobbe [do'bej s. water-hole, pool 

of water. 
doch [dox] adv. but. 
dochs [doxs, dogz] adv. yet, 

though, notwithstanding. 
dochter [doxtarl s. daughter. 
doek [du:k, duk] s. linen, 
dof [dof] adj. dull, dead, faint. 
doge [do:g9] iv. 249. to be good, 

to be worth. 
dogge [doga] s. bulldog. 
dokich [do'keg] adj. hazy. 
Dokkum [dokem] gn. town in 

dokter [dokter] s. doctor. 
dol [dolj adv. down. 
dolder [dolder] s. digger. 
doUe [dol a] wv. to dig. 
dom [dom] adj. stupid. 

domeny [Moimani] s. minister, 
dommens [domez] s. stupidity, 
dong [dor)] s. dung, 
donker [doqkgr] adj. adv. dark, 

obscure, dusky, gloomy, cloudy, 
doofstom [do'.f'stom] adv. deaf- 
doop [do:p] s. baptism. 
dop [dop] s. shell, 
dope [do'.pa] wv. to baptize, 
dos [dds] adv. thus. 
do't dutj conj. when. 
dou douj s. dove. 
dou [dou] pres. pyr- 228. thou, 

dounsje [duisja] wv. to dance. 
dozyn [d9''zin] sn. dozen. 
draei [dra-i] s. turn. 
draeihikke [^dra-ihike] s. turn 

draeije [draue] wv. to turn. 
drage [draige] sv. VI, a. to bear, 

to wear. 
drager [draigor] s. bearer. 
drave [draivo] wv. to trot. 
dream [dri-em] s. dream. 
dreambyld [Mri-ambild] s. 

dreeeh [dreig] adj. strong, solid. 
dreune [dr0:n8] wv. to ruml)le, 

to resound. 
drinke [drirjka] sv. Ill, d. to 

drip [drip] s. drop, 
driuwe [driuwe] sv. I, c. to 

drive ; to float. 
driuwkelje ['driuwkelje] wv. to 

float softly. 
driuwkje [driuwkja] wv. to float 

droech [drux] adj. dry. 
drdgje [droigje] wv. to dream, 
drok [drok] adj. busy. 
drokte [drokte] s. business ; stii 


droktme [droktme] s. stir, noise 
driif [dry.v] s. grape. 
druije [droeie] wv. to dry. 



bel [dubol] adj. adv. double, 


ffels [dofalz] adj. duffel. 

ke [duko] swv. 248. to dive. 

n [dyn] sn. dune, hillock. 

nsk [dy:sk] adj. ruttish (cow). 

r [du'8r] s. duration; op en 

iur : in the long run. 

rje [duorja] nw. to last. 

s [dos] adv. thus. 

St [dyst] s. dust. 

^aen [dwa:n, dwan] iv. 250. 

;o do. 

^ale [dwaile] tvv. to err, to 


'ars [dwas] adj. adv. 152. 

TOSS ; wrong-headed ; across. 

era [dwss] adj. a(iy. 15 2. cross; 

rrong-headed ; across. 

ylje [dwilje] wv. to rave. 


[g] art. 105. the. 

jarre [^lebaro] s. stork. 

3h [rel] sn. 160. 161. eye. 

SJe [regja] wv. 160. 161. to 


ig [I'or)] adj. anxious. 

igens [I'eqez] s. anxiety. 

igje [i'8r)J9] wv. to fear. 

agstme [i-aqstme] s. anxiety. 

r [i'9r] sii. ear. 

:(e) [i'9r, I'Qtq] s. honour. 

rber [i-erber] adj. respectable. 

:der [ledar] adv. sooner, rather. 

rlik [I'Glak] adj. honest, fair. 

rm [I'erm, lerm] s. 143. arm. 

rm I' arm] adj. 143. poor. 

pmoed ['isrmu'ed] s. poverty. 

rmoedich [ier'mu'oda^J adj. 

poor, needy. 

en [i'9n] s. eagle. 

rne [I'ene] adv. anywhere. 

fnen [i£nn,isrn] adj. of copper. 

rrebarre pierabare] s. stork. 

rst [i'8st] num. adv. first. 

p't [iet] conj. before. 

eart [ist] sn. offal. 
earte [isto] s. 192. pea. 
easkje [I'oskja] wv. to require, 
east [I'ast] adj. adv. east. 
easten [I'ostan] sn. east. 
eat [I'at] ind. pr. anything, 
eaze [i-aza] wv. to scoop. 
ebbe [sba] s. ebb. 
echter [sxtsr] ('^'v- P^^P' 113. 

behind, after. 
ef [of, ov] conj. or. 
effen [efen] adj. adv. smooth ; 

eft [ot] conj. if, when, 
efter [sftar] adv. prep. 113. 

behind, after. 
efterhalden [eftar'hoidan] adj. 

reserved, close. 
efternei [effcor'nai] adv. after, 

egael [e'ga:!] adj. equal, 
ei ! [aij int. ah ! 
eide [aida] s. harrow. 
eidzje [aidzja] wv. to harrow, 
eigen [aigan] adj. own. 
eigentlik ['aigantlak] adj. adv. 

ein [ain] s. duck. 
ein ain s. end, extremity, 
ein ain sn. part, stick, distance, 
einliks [ailaks] adv. properly, 
einlings ['aTlir)z] adv. at last. 
ek [ek, ik] adv. also, too, as well, 
eker [e:kar] s. field, 
ekster [skstar] s. magpie, 
elemint [ela'mint] sn, element, 
elk [elk] ind. pr. every, each, 
elk-en-ien [slkan'i-an] ind. pr. 

every one. 
elkoar [elk'o'or, slk'oar] rec, 

pr. each other. 
en [sn, in] conj. and. 
eptich [eptag] adj. neat. 
er [ar] pers. pr. 227. he. 
er ar adv. there. 
erf [srv] sn. inheritance. 
ergewaesje[erga'ua:sj9] s. vexa- 
tion, annoyance. 



eris [eroz] adv. one day. 

erve, eryje [srv9, srvje] wv. to 

even [e:van] adj. adv. even, 
equal, just. 

evenminske ['e:v8(n)mi:sk8] s. 
fellow creature. 

ezel [e:z8l] s. donkey; block- 

ezelskyn ['eizalskin] s. block- 


fabryk [fa'brik] sn. manufac- 

faei [fa'i] adj. fey, in danger; 

faek [fa:k] adv. often. 

faeks [fa:ks] adv. perhaps. 

faem [fa:in] s. maid, girl. 

fakeu [faiken] adv. often. 

faksen [faksen] s. 195. caprices. 

fal [foil s. fall. 

fal [folj m. hatch. 

fald [foid] s. fold. 

falle [fo:la] sv. VI, e. to fall. 

falsk [folsk, fols] adj. false. 

famke [famka] sn. girl. 

fange [farjo] sv. VII, b. to 

fanke [faqke] sn. girl. 

Farisieu [fari-'si-u] fn. Pharisee. 

farre [faro, io'Vd] sv. VI, b. to 

farsk [fask] adj. 152. fresh. 

f6 [fe: ] sn. cattle. 

feal [fi'al] adj. fallow. 

fealens [fi-elnz] s. fallowness. 

fear [fi-er] s. feather. 

fearje [fisrje] wv. to be elastic. 

fearren [fieren] adj. feather. 

feger [feiger] s. sweeper. 

feije [faig] wv. 246. to sweep, to 

feilich [fail9§] adj. safe. 

feint [faint] s. manservant. 

fek [fsk] sn. box, section. 

fel [fel] sn. skin, fell. 

fen [fon] prep, of, by. 

fersk [fssk] adj. 152. fresh. 

ferve fsrva] s. 1 52. paint, dye. 

ferver [fsrverl s. painter. 

fervje [f£rvJ9] wv. to paint, to 

fSst [fs'.st] adj. adv. fast, regular, 
fixed, steady, surely. 

fdstbine Pfsistbina] sv. Ill, a. 
to bind (tie) fast. 

fet [fst] sn. vat, vessel. 

fet [fet sn. fat. 

flele [fi'ela] vw. to feel. 

Sem [fi'amj s. fathom. 

fier [fi'ar] adj. adv. far. 

fierte [fiite] s. distance. 

flfel [fifol] num. four and a half, 

fyft [fift] num. adv. fifth. 

fyfteheal [fifte'hi'elj num. four 
and a half. 

fyftich [fif tag] num. fifty. 

fyftjin [fiftjan] num. fifteen. 

flich [f i:g] s. fig. 

fiif [fi:v] num. five. 

flks [fiks] adj. adv. clever(ly). 

filantroop [filon'trorpj s. philan- 

fylje [filja] wv. to file; to swing 

fyn [fin] adj. fine. 

fine [fine] sv. Ill, a. to find. 

finger [firier] s. finger. 

finne [fine] s. pasturage, grazing- 

flnster [fiisterl sn. window. 

flnsterbank ['fiistarbaqk] sn. 

finzen [fiizan] past. part. VII, b. 

finzenisse ['fiizenise] s. prison. 

fisk [fisk] s. fish. 

flskerman ['fiskermon] s. fisher- 

fyt [fit] s. trick. 

flterje [fiterje] wv. to drive on. 

fyts [fits] s. bicycle. 

fytse [fitsa] wv. to bicycle, 

fiver J^fi:ver] s. pond. 

fjild [fhld] sn. field. 



i [f lid] num. adv. fourth, 
ieheal [fiide'hi'el] num. 
aree and a half. 
del [fiidel] num. three and a 

tich [fiiteg] num. forty. 
tjin [fiitjan] num. fourteen, 
iwer [f iouer] num. four, 
iwersprong ['fiouarspror)] s. 

3hte, fjuchtsje [fioxta, 
ioxtsje] sv. Ill, d. to fight. 
r [fju'ar] sn. fire. 
tje [fjorja] wv. to fire. 
I'slachs [^fjoslaxs] odv. vehe- 
(lently, sharply. 
!iks [flaiks] sn. flax. 
i;ge [flag9, fla-ge] s. flag. 
t [flak] adj. flat. 
nje [f lamja] wv. to flame ; to 
earn for. 

X [floii] adj. faint. 
me [fli'sne] sv. IT, c. to fly. 
Jht [f Isxt] s. flock ; flight. 
8 [flaiz] sn. flesh, meat. 
irich [f l(}'8r8§] adj. blooming, 

)e [f libel s. spittle, 
e [fli'aj gn. strait between 
Vlieland and Terschelling. 
)r [f li'ar] s. floor. 
skerje [flikarja] w; flicker, 
to glitter. 

ik [fliqk] adj. clever, 
iken [fliqkanJs.^Zwr. caprices, 
ikens [fliqkez] s. cleverness, 
t [flit] s. diligence. 
;ieh [f lita§] adj. diligent, 
bigens [flitegoz] s. diligence, 
tse [flitso] s. arrow. 
erje [fluorja] v)v. to floor, 
les [flyaz] sn. fleece, film, 
ir [foar] adv. prep, before. 
irby [fa'bei] adv. past, be- 

Eirdeel, foardiel [^fcadeil 
'fo'edi'al] sn. profit. 
ardel [foa'del] adv. down. 

foardelich, foardielich [fa'de:- 
lag, fa'di'alag] adj. profitable. 
foardet ['foadotj conj. before. 
foardoar [^foadcar] s. front- 
foarfalle ['fcarfola] sv. VI, e. 

to happen. 
foarjaen ['fcarjam, 'foajain] iv. 

250. to give an advantage. 
foarm [foarm] s. form. 
foarsjen [fa'sien] sv. II, c. to 

foarst [feast] num. adv. first. 
foarstelle ['fo-astela] uyv. to pro- 
pose ; to imagine. 
foart [fuot, foot] adv. forth ; 

foartbanne ['fiiotbona] wv. to 

drive away. 
foartdrage ['fuo(t)dra:ga] sv. 
VI, a. to carry away (further). 
f oarthelpe [ 'fuothelpa] sv. Ill, d. 

to help forward. 
foartiid ['f6ati:d] adv. formerly. 
foartkomme [^fuotkoma] sv. 
IV, b. to get on ; to come forth. 
foarut [far''yt] adv. beforehand. 
foechsum [fu:xsam] adj. suit- 
foegje [fuigja] vov. to join; to 

foerman ['fuormon] s. coach- 
man ; carrier. 
foermanderij [fuormonda'rei] 

s. coachman's trade. 
foet [fu'at] 8. foot. 
fol [fol] adj. full. 
fdle [fo:la] s. foal. 
folje [folja] wv. to fill. 
folk [folk] sn. folk ; relatives. 
folksteltsje ['folkstsltsja] sn. 

foUe [fola] mim,. much, many, 
for [foar] prep. for. 
forbliidzje [fa'bliidzja] wv. to 

forblikke [fa'blika] wv. to grow 



forbolgen [fe'bolgan] adj. in- 

fordeald [faMi-old, fa'do-eld] 
adj. int. 165. devilish; the 
devil ! 

fordigenje [fo'diigenje] wv. to 

fordjerre [fa'disre] sv. Ill, c. to 
corrupt, to spoil. 

fordwine [fs'dwina] sv. Ill, a. 
to disappear. 

forfallen [fG'fo'lon] adj. crazy. 

forfarre [fa^fara, fa'fa'ro] sv. 
VI, b. to remove. 

forgees [fe'geiz] adv. in vain. 

forginne [fe'gone] vw. to envy, 
to grudge. 

forgrime [fa'grimQ] adj. wrath- 

forheard[f8r'hi'8d] acZJ. amazed. 

forhoping [far'hoiper)] s. hope, 

forjaen [fo'jam, fer'jam] iv. 
250. to forgive ; to poison. 

forjitlik [fa'jitlek] adj. forget- 

forjitte [fe'jite, far'jitg] sv. II, 
b. to forget. 

forkeap [fa'ki'op] s. sale. 

forkeapje [fa'ki'epje] iv. 250. 
to sell. 

forkeard [fe'ki'ad] adj. wrong, 

forklomje [fQ'klomje] wv. to be 
benumbed with cold. 

forkomme [fe'kome] sv. IV, b. 
to come to nothing. 

forlegen [fe'leigen] adj. em- 
barrassed, perplexed. 

forlern [fe'len] adj. lost. 

forlibje [fa'libje] wv. to over- 

forliden [fe'lidon] adj. last. 

forlieze [fe'li-ezo] sv. II, a. to 

forlyn [fe'lin] adj. past ; last. 

formeije [fe'maie] iv. 249. to 
be able. 

fornimme [fo'nime] sv. IV, h. to 

perceive ; to learn ; to inquire. 
foroarje [fer'o'orje] wv. to alter. 
forrifelje [fo'rifelJG] wv. to 

forrin [fa'rin] s. expiration. 
forsiikje [fe'siikje] iv. 250. to 

visit; to request. 
forsinke [fa'sirjke] sv. Ill, d. 

to sink down, 
forskate [fa'skaite] num. several, 
forslein Jfe'slain] adj. dismayed. 
forstan [fs'stoinj sn. intellect. 
forstandich. [fa'stondeg] adj. 

forstjerre [fa'stiera] sv. Ill, c. to 

forstouwe [fa'stoua] swv. 248. 

to fly away. 
fortelle [fe'ts'le] wv. to tell. 
fortriet [fa'tri'ot] sn. sorrow. 
fortrietlik [fe'triitlak] adj. 

fortriette [fe'triita] wv. 246. to 

fortrouwen [fa'troiian] sn. trust. 
fortsjinje [fe'tsiijio] vyv. to gain; 

to deserve. 
forwylje [fe'uiljaj wv. to wither^^ 
fraech [fraigl s. question. " 
frage[fra:g9j s. question. 
franje [frajia] s. fringe. 
frede [freida] s. peace. 
freedlik [freidlak] adj. peacefi 
freegje [fre:gJ8] wv. to ask. 
frette [frstoj sv. V, a. to ei 

(animals) ; to gorge (persons),! 
Pries [fri^Qz] pn. Frisian, 
frieze [fri-gza] sv. II, a. to freez* 
frij [frsi] adj. free. 
frijdom 'frsidom] s. freedom. 
frijlitte pfrsilita] sv. VII, a. 


Frys(k) [frisk, fris] adj. Frisiai 
Fryslan ['frislomj gn. Fries-j 

Friso ['frizoii] jm. the pretend© 

ancestor of the Frisians. 



sel [frisal] s. braid, 
imd [friemd] adj. strange ; 

imdfolk [^friemtfolk] soi. 

imdling ['frisradlii}] s. 

entsjer [frisntsjer] gn. 
'raneker, a town in Friesland. 
>on [fro'en] s. friend. 
onlik [fro'alak] adj. adv. 

onskip ['fro'eskip] s. friend- 

onskiplik [fro'e'skiplok] adj. 

ilik [fro'Glek] adj. merry, 
ist [fro'ast] s. frost. 
istich [fro'9st8§] adj. freez- 

sd [fru'9d] adj. modest. 
tn [from] adj. pious. 
mmis [fromez] sn. woman. 
11 [frouj s. mistress. 
aljue ['frodia] s. plur. women, 
aminske ['fromeska] sn. 

cht [froxt] s. fruit. 
;el [fugal] s. bird. 
:elt [fugelt] sn. fowl. 
:e [fuke] s. bow-net. 
[ful] adj. violent ; stingy. 
Bindich [fuPaind9§] adj. adv. 

ge [fuorge] s. furrow, 
t [fust] s. list. 


be [ga:ba] onn. 
ling [gaider)] s. choice. 
>i [ga'i] s. mate. 
like [ga'ike] sn. mate, 
m. [golm] s. sound. 
IS [g3:z] adv. very. 
je [garja] wv. to collect, to 

it [gost] s. guest, 
[got] sn. hole, opening. 

gau [goii] adv. quickly. 

gavel [ga:v8l] s. fork. 

gea [gi'e] sn. region. 

gean [gi'enl iv. 250. to go. 

geandewei [^gi-andauai] adv. by 
little and little. 

gear [gi'sr] adv. der oer gear 
wdze : to be about. 

gebiede [ge'bi'ede] sv. II, a. to 

gebyt [ge'bit] sn. set of teeth. 

gebod [ga'bod] sn. order. 

gebruk [qQ'bruk] sn. use. 

geel [geilj adj. 163. yellow. 

geest [ge:st] s. spirit. 

gefal [ga'foij sn. case, event. 

gegei [ge'gai] sn. weeping. 

geit [gait] s. goat. 

geklei [ga'klai] sn. lamenting. 

gelyk [ga'lik] adj. alike, right, 
equal, similar. 

gelok[g9'lok]*». luck, happiness, 

gemien [ga'mi'on] adj. common ; 
low, vulgar. 

gemeente [g9'me:nta] s. muni- 

gemoed [g8'mu'9d] sn. mind. 

genamt [cj9'namtj s. namesake. 

genier [ge'ni'arj s. market- 

gendch [g8'no:|] num. enough. 

gerdyn [ga'din]^ sn, blind, cur- 

geriif [ga'ri: v] sn.accommodation. 

geryflik [ge'riflak] adj. com- 

gerjuchtichheid [ga'rioxtex- 
haid] s. ground, domain. 

gerocht [ga'roxtj sn. 113. 

geroft [ga'roft] sn. 113. rumour. 

gSrs [ge:z] sn. grass. 

gesicht [go'sixt] sn. sight ; view. 

geskrep [ge'skrsp] sn. stir, 

gesnetter[g8'snstor]sn. chatter- 



geur [g6'9r] s. scent, odour. 
gewirde litte [go'uoda lita] sv. 

VII, a. Lit him gewirde : 

let him have his way. 
gib [gib] s. wild-pigeon. 
gielTgi'el] ac?;. 163. yellow. 
gier [gi'arj s. turn, swing. 
giizje [giizja] wv. to sneer, to 

laugh jeeringly. 
ginne [gone] wv. not to grudge, 

to allow. 
ginst [q0:st] s. favour, 
girdle [goloj s. girdle. 
Gjalt [gioltj m«-. 
gjin [giin] jyron. num. none, no. 
gjirrich [giir9§] adj. avaricious. 
glS,ns [gl5:z] s. lustre, glance, 

gl&nzich [glo:z9g] adj. glitter- 
glSd [gls:d] adj. slippery. 
glei [glaijac^j. swollen. 
gleon [glo'en] adj. glowing, red- 
gl6s [gle:z] sn. glass ; pane, 
glide [gli:d8, glide] sv. I, a. to 

glide, to slide. 
glimme [glimg] sv. Ill, d. to 

glimmer, to glow. 
gloeije [gluie] wv. to glow. 
glupe [glupg] swv. 248. to sneak. 
gnauwe [gno'uo] wv. to gnaw. 
gnyskje [gniskjo] wv. to grin 

slightly .^ 
gnize [gni:ze] wv. to grin. 
gnoarje [gnoarjg] wv. to growl, 

to grumble. 
gnob [gnob] sn. trifles, small 

gnuve [gny:v8] kw. to peer, spy. 
goal [go'i] s. oan 'e goal: in 

goaije [cjO'ie] wv. to throw. 
goant ! [goant] int. Laws ! 
goate, goatte [gcota, goate] s. 

gobje [gobje] wv. to jest, to joke. 
God [god] s. God. 

goe(d) [gu'od, gu-e] adj. good, 
well ; net goed : ill. 

goe(d) [gu'ad, QU'q] sn. good(s). 

goedens [gu-ednz] s. goodness, 
good-nature, clemency. 

goederjowsk [gu'eder'jousk] 
adj. liberal. 

goedlik [giiodlek] adj. good- 

goedmeitsje ['gu'8dmaitsje]tOT. 
246. to retrieve. 

goedmoeds [gu'od'mu'odz] adv. 
not in a passion. 

goes [gu'9z] s. goose. 

gol [gol] aci;. frank, open-hearted, 

golle [gole] s. hay-mow. 

gong [gor)] s. gait ; course ; pas- 
sage ; corridor. 

goud [goud] sn. gold. 

gouden [gouden] adj. gold, 

goune [gu:n9] s. guilder. 

graech [graig] adv. adj. will- 
ingly; eager, hungry. 

grave [graive] sv. VI, a. to di". 

great [gr6'9t, gr0:t] adj. 165. 

greatheid [''gr5'9thaid] s. great- 

greatsk [grotsk] adj. proud. 

greaufgriou] s. greaves, i-efuse fat. 

gr§ft [grsift, grsft] s. 152. moat. 

greide [graide] s. grass-land. 

greidhoek [^graidhuk] s. pasture 

greppel, grippel [grep9l, gripgl] 
s. trench. 

grien [gri'9n] adj. green. 

grif [grif] adv. positively. 

griis [griiz] adj. grey. 
grins [gri:z] s. frontier. 

[gripe] swv. 248. 




gripe [gripe] s. fork. 
gr3rpsjes[gripsjez]s. 195. foolish 

grysjes [grisjez] s. 195. foolish 




litenij [grite'nei] s. munici- 

iitenijhus [grite'nsihys] sn. 
municipal house, 
itsen [qrttsen] s. 195. whims, 
rytsje [gritsjoj fn. Maggie. 
■oat [gro'ot] sn. 168. groats. 
odzemods [^grodzamodz] sn. 

'oei [grui] s. growth. 
•oeije [gruia] lov. to grow. 
'oeisum [gruisem] adj. helping 
growth (of weather). 
•oetenis ['gru'9t(8)n9z] s. salu- 
tation, regards. 

:oppe [grope] s. stable-trench. 
[•6t [grO:t] sn. 168. groats. 
:ou [groii] adj. big ; coarse. 
rou [grou] gn. village in Fries- 

'oun [grun] s. ground. 
'ounich [grun8§] adj. adv. 

•ounlizzing [''griilizer)]^. foun- 

•ouwelich [grou'ue:l8§] adj. 
riis [grys] sn. grit. 

id [guod 

sn. things ; texture. 

guod an] ind. pr. 

ids [ godz] s. horse, 
ids [guodz] ind. jw. some. 
lie [gu:la] vw. to cry. 
inzje [gu:zJ9] wv. to hum. 


I, habbe, hawwe [ha, haba, 

have] iv. 250. to have. 

led [ha:d] sn. head. 

leije [ha'ia] wv. to make hay. 

leijer [hauar] s. haymaker. 

lest [ha:st] s. haste, hurry. 

lestje rha:sJ8] wv. to hurry. 

iffelje ['hafelja] wv. to nibble. 

ikke [haka] s. heel. 

ilde [hoida] sv. VII, c. to hold. 

haloazje [ho'lcazja] m. watch, 
hals [holz] s. neck. 
ban [ho:nJ s. hand, 
haudelje ['hondalja] wv. to act ; 

to behave ; to trade. 
bandich [honda§] adj. adv. 

handy ; quickly. 
banfol ['hoifoll sn. handful. 
b§,nsel hoisalj s». handle. 
biinsum [hoisam] adj. fit, easy, 

bantwirk ['hontuork] sn. trade. 
bap [hap] s. bite, bit. 
barder [hadar] s. shepherd. 
barkje harkja] wv. to listen. 
Hams hQ:z] gn. Harlingen, a 

town in Friesland. , 
barren ! [haran] int. hither. 
harsens[ha88zjs. 195. 152. brain. 
bart(e) [hat, hata] m. 152. 

bast [hast] adv. almost, nearly, 

basticb [hasta§] adj. hasty. 
bauk [houk] s. hawk. 
bazze [haza s. hare, 
bea [hi'a] sw. hay. 
beafek [^hiefek] sn. hay-mow. 
beak [hi-ak] s. 160. hook. 
beakkel [hiekal, hskal] s. 124. 

rake to clean ditches. 
beakkelje [hiekalja, hskalja] 

wv. 124. to rake out ditches. 
beal [hi'al] adj. half, 
bealwei [''hislvi] adj. half-way. 
bear(e) [hi-ar, hi'ara] s. lord, 
beare [hi-ara] wv. 97. to hear, 
bearlik [hi'arlak] adj. brilliant ; 

hearlikheid ['hi'arlakhaid] s, 

bearre [hiera] wv. 97. to hear, 
beas [hi'az] adj. hoarse, 
beecb [he:g] adj. high. 
Heecb [he:g] gn. village in 

beel [he:l] adj. 163. whole. 
beelje [heilja] wv. to heal. 




hegeskoalle [he-gg'skoab] s. 

heide [haidej s. heath. 

hei-krewei [^haikrouai] s. toil. 

heine [haino] wv. to catch. 

heislik [haislok] adj. adv. 
horrible, horribly. 

heit [hait] s. father. 

heitel&n phaitalo:n] sn. father- 

helder [hslder] adj. bright, clear. 

helendal [he'lon^dol] adv. en- 

helje [hsljg] wv. to fetch. 

helm [hslmj s. strength, force. 

help [help] s. help. 

helpe [hslpe] sv. Ill, d. to help. 

helt(e) [hslt, h£lt9] s. half. 

helter [hsltar] sn. halter. 

herberge phsrbsrga] s. 152. inn. 

hern(e) [hen, hsng] s. 152. 

hersens [hssez] s. 152. 195. 

hert(e) [hst, hsta] sn. 152. heart. 

hy [hsij^ers. pr. he. 

hichte [hixtg] s. height. 

Hidde [hide] mn. 

hiel [hi'ol] adj. 163. whole. 

hieltyd ['hiltid] ac?v. continually. 

hiem [hi'Om] sn. premises, farm- 

hier [hi- or] sn. hair. 

hier [hi'or s. hire, rent. 

hiere [hi- are] wv. to hire, to let, 
to rent. 

hikke [hike] s. railing. 

hilde [holdo] s. homage. 

hillich [hilag] adj. holy. 

himd [himd] sn. shirt. 

himel [himel] s. heaven. 

himelsk [himglskjac^j. heavenly. 

himmel [himQl] adj. clean. 

himmelje [himelje] wv. to 

hymphamp ['himphamp] s. 

hin [hin] s. hen. 

hin ! [hin] int. see ! 
hinger [higor] s. hangman. 
hingje [higjoj sv. Ill, d. to hang. 
hinkje [hirjkjg] sv. Ill, d. to 

hinne [hina] adv. away. 
hinnegean ['hinagi-en] iv. 250. 

to go away ; to pass. 
hynsder [hindar, hiizdar] sn. 

hynst [hT:st] s. stallion, 
hynsteblom ['hnstablom] s. 

hynsteride ['hiisteri'de] sv. I, a. 

to ride a horse. 
hird [hod] s. hearth, 
hird [hod] adj. adv. hard(ly) ; 

hirdsherne [hodz'hsna] s. fire- 
hirdshoeke [hodz'huka] s. fire- 
hise [hisa] wv. to hoist. 
hja [hia, ja] pers. pr. she ; they. 
hjar [har] 2) her ; their. 
hjelt [jelt] s. handle, hilt, 
hjersfc [hisst] s. autumn, 
bjerstmis ['hissmaz] adv. in 

hjidde [hiida] s. flax-fibres, 

hjir(re) [hiir, hiira] adv. here, 
hjirfen ['hiifon] adv. 253. of 

this, hereof. 
hjirinei['hiimai] adv. 253. with 

hjirsa phiisa] adv. here. 
hjitte [hiita] sv. VII, a, to name, 

to call ; to order. 
hjoed [ju-ad] adv. to-day. 
hjouwer [jouar] s. oats. 
ho [hu] adv. how. 
hoanne [hoana] s. cock. 
hoarn [ho* an] s. horn. 
hoarntou ['hoantoii] sn. hoi-n- 

hoarsride ['hoasri'da] sv. I, a. 

to ride a horse. 



loarte [hoate] tov. to jolt, 
noas [ho'9z] s. stocking, 
hoastje [hoasje] wv. to cough, 
hoed [hu'ed] s. hat, 
tioeden [hu'edenj adj. 104, 3. 

hoef [hu:vj s. hoof, 
hoege [hug8] wu. 113. to want, 

to need. 
hoek(e) [huk, huke] s. corner, 

hoekebak ['hukobak] int. (used 

in lifting a child), 
hoep [hup] s. hoop. 
lioeve [hu:v9] vjv. 113. to want, 

to need. 
hdf [ho:v] sn. garden ; court. 
hok [hok] sn. kennel. 
hok, hokker [hok, hoker] int. 

pr. what. 
hokkerdeis [hoker'daiz] adv. 

the other day, lately. 
hoi [hoi] adj. adv. hollow ; 

holle [hole] s. head. 
hommels [homelz] adv. sud- 
ho'n [hun] int. pr. what. 
hondert [hondat] num. 155. 

houear [hn'm-er] adv. when, at 

what time. 
honger [hor)er] s. hunger. 
hongerich ['hor)9r8§] adj. hun- 
hongerje [''hor)9rJ9] wv. to suffer 

hoopje [ho:pJ9] tov. to hope. 
hope [ho:p9] s. hope. 
hottefyljer'hot9filJ9]M?v. to carp, 
hou ! [hoiu int. ho ! stop ! way ! 
houn [hun] s. dog. 
hounsk [hii:sk] adj. adv. doggish, 

hout [hout] sn. wood, 
houwe [hou9] wv. to hew. 
howol [hu^uol] conj. though. 
hud [hu:d] s. hide. 

hiil [hyl] s. shell. 

hunderst [hundast] num. hun- 

hundert [hundat] num. 155. 

hune [hyn9] wv. to tease, to nag. 

hxinlik [hy:l9k] ac?;. aggravating. 

huntheijer ['hunthaigr] s. noisy 

hus [hu:z] sn. house. 

husfrousfaem [hysfrous'fa:m] 
s. cook-housekeeper. 

husgenoat ['hysx9no'0t] s. in- 

hiishalde ['hysho'd9] sv. VII, c. 
to keep house. 

husman ['hyzmon] s. husband- 

hiistek [^hystek] sn. roof. 

hutte [hota] s. cabin. 

hwa [ua:] who. 

hwennear [uo'ni-ar] ac??;. when. 

hwent [uont] conj. for. 

hwer(re) [uer, usira] adv. where. 

hweryn [usr'in] adv. 253. 

hweroer [ver'u'gr] adv. 253. 
about Avhat. 

hwertroch [us'trog] adv. 253. 
by what. 

hwerut [uer'yt]ac?tJ.253. whence. 

hwet(te) [uot, i^ota] ind. and int. 
jyr. what. 

ich [ix] s. edge, margin. 

ider [id9r] ind. pr. every one. 

ider-en-ien [^idaran'i'an] ind. 
pr. everybody. 

ien [i'9n] num. ind.jyr. one, some- 

yen [jin] refl. pr. 234. oneself. 

ien-en-tweintich ['jinantwain- 
t9§] num. twenty-one. 

ieufald [^i'efo:d] s. naturalness, 

ienfaldieh [i-e'foidag] adj. 
simple, humble. 



ien(n)ichst [i-enexst, jinexst] 

adj. only. 
ienkear [^i'Qijkvorladv. once. 
ienlik [i'elak, jilyk] adj. alone. 
ienmel [i'amal] adv. once. 
ienris [i'Srez] adv. once, 
iens [i'ez] adv. once; of one 

iensum [i'esam] adj. solitary. 
iepen [i'opan] adj. open. 
iepenbier [i'opom'bi'er] adj. 

iepenbierje [i'epem'bi'erja] wv. 

to publish ; to disclose. 
iepenje Pi'openja] wv. to open. 
ier ri'arT s. ear. 



s. vein. 

ier [i'9r adj. adv. early. 

ierde [i-ade] s. earth. 

ierdkarre ['jitkara] s. cart. 

ierdryk [^i-edrik] sn. the earth. 

yeske [jiska] s. ashes. 

yet(te) [jit, jita] adv. yet. 

yet(te)ris [jitroz] adv. once more. 

yettik [jitak] s. vinegar. 

ieu [i'u] s. century. 

iis [i:z] sn. ice. 

ik fik] pers. j/r.l. 

yl il] sn. callosity. 

immen [imenj somebody. 

in [on] art. a. 

yn [inj adv. prep. in. 

yngean [^iggi-en] iv. 250. to 

enter, to walk in. 
ingel [igol] s. angel. 
Ingelan ['ir)9lo:nJ gn. England. 
yngewant ['irigeuont] sn. en- 
ynha,lde ['inho:da] sv. VII, c. to 

contain ; to restrain. 
ynhalden [^inhoidgn] s. 195. 

frame, constitution. 
ynheakje ['ihiskja] wv. to hook 

in, to hitch. 
ynhiere ['inhi'ere] wv. to hire 

ynhouten [^inhouten] s. 195. 


yn-ienen [in'i'enan] adv. im- 

ynjaen [^ija:n] iv. 250. to ad- 
minister; to suggest. 

inkel [iqkel] adj. num. single. 

inket iqkatj s. ink. 

ynkomme [''irjkome] sv. IV, b. 
to enter. 

ynljeaf Pili'av] adj. dear, beloved. 

ynlik [ilak] adj. inner; cordial. 

ynllzze ['TlizoJ iv. 250. to lay in ; 
to preserve. 

inoar [a'niior] rec.^r.each other. 

ynpakke ['impak9] wv. to pack 

ynswart ['iswat] adj. very 

ynswiet ['iswi'at] adj. very 

ystermint [istr'niint] sn. instru- 

it [at] art. the. 

it [Qilpers. and ind. pr. it. 

ite [ite] sv. I, b. to eat. 

iten [itan] sn. meal ; food. 

itjiuge [et^jiijaj dem. pr. what. 

ytlike ['itleka] num. several. 

iver [i:u8r] s. diligence. 

iwich [i:u9g] adj. eternal. 

iwichheid ['iuaghaid] s. 

izer [i:zar, iizder] sn. iron. 

izeren [iizaren] adj. iron. 

ja [ja, ja:l adv. jes. 

jachtsje [jaxtsje] wv. to run up 

and down. 
jaen [ja:n] iv. 250. to give. 
jak [jak] sn. jacket. 
jamk [jamk] adv. often. 
jammer [jamer] s. Itis jammer : 

it is a pity. 
Jan [jon] mn. John. 
jarre [jaro] s. dung-water. 
jas [jos] s. coat. 
jeft(e) [jsft, jsfta] s. gift. 




eije [jaia] vw. 246. to hunt. 

elne [jslna, jsln] s. ell, 

ern [jsn] sn. yarn. 

erne [jsna] adv. willingly. 

leruzalem [ja'ryzalsm] gn. 

iewiel [J9^ui'9l] sn. jewel. 

(,Jezus [je:z8z] 2m. Jesus, 
iy [JQ, 228. you (ye), 
jicht [jixt] s. gout. 
jior [ji^ar] sn. year, 
iierdei ['jidi] .9. birthday. 
iiierrieh[jira§] adj. aged. 

adv. yearly. 
sv. II, b. to pour, 

jiers [ji'9z' 

jiette fjito^ 

jiffer [jifgr, jofar] s. 158. 

jild [jild] sn. money. 

jilde [jilda] sv. Ill, d. to cost ; to 

Jilke [jilka] mn. 

jimme [jimo] pers. pr. you. 

jimme [jimoj j?os«. pr. your. 

jimmer [jimor] adv. ever. 

jin [jinl adv. prep, against, to. 

jinder [jindar] adv. yonder. 

jins \}v.z\ poss. pr. 233. your. 

jinse [ji:s8j adj. yon. 

jinsen [jiisan] adv. yonder. 

jinter jjinterj adv. yonder. 

jister n OS tar] adv. yesterday. 

jo [jouj^er*. pr. 228. you. 

jok [jok] sn. 155. yoke. 

jokje [jokjg] wv. 155. to itch. 

Jong [joq] adj. young. 

jongfolk ['jor)folk] sn. youth. 

jonggud [^joqguod] sn. young 

jou [joii] poss. pr. your. 

joun [jun] s. evening. 

jouns [ju:z] adv. in the evening. 

jounstjer ['juistisr] s. evening- 

jountiid ['juntid] s. evening- 
hour, evenfall. 

ju [jo] ^ers. pr. 227. 

ju [joj s. in fikse ju : a stalwart 

Jul [joei] s. debauch. 

juk [juk] sn. 155. yoke. 
jukel [jukal] s. icicle. 
Jukelbird [^jukalbod] pn. the 

jukje [jukja] wv. 155. to itch. 

kachel [kaxal] s. stove. 

kaei [ka-i] s. key. 

kaem [ka:m] s. comb. 

k&ld [ko:d] adj. cold. 

kammenet [kama'nst] m. cabi- 

kanne [kona] s. jug. 

kant [kont] s. border, side. 

kantelje ['kontalja] wv. to topple 

kaper [kaipar] s. privateer. 

kar [kar] s. choice. 

karre [kara] s. cart. 

Karst [kastj mn. 

kas [kos] s. cupboard ; wardrobe. 

kastlein [kas'lain] s. innkeeper. 

kat [kot] s. cat. 

keal [ki-al] sm,. calf. 

keal [ki'al] adj. bald, callow. 

keakelje [ki-akalja] wv. 165. to 

keap [ki-ap] s. 160. 161. pur- 

keapje [krapja] iv. 160. 161. 
250. to buy, to purchase. 

keapman [''kiepmon] s. mer- 

keapmanske [/kispmoska] m. 
merchant- woman. 

kear [ki-ar] s. turn, time. 

kearel [ki-aral] s. fellow. 

keatling ['kietlii), 'kstlii)] sn. 
124. chain. 

keel [ke:I] s. 163. throat. 

kein [kainj adj. proper, nice. 

kel [kel] adj. 124. kel wirde : 
to be startled. 



ka''lin] sm. cornelian. 
ka''nin, knin] s. rabbit. 

kening [k0:nar)] s. king. 



keninkryk pk0:n9r)krik] m. 

kenne [kine] iv. 249. to know. 
keppel [kspyl] s. herd, flock. 
kerl [kel] s. grain. 
kern [ken] s. 152. notch. 
kertier [ko'ti-er] sn. quarter. 
kerve [ksrvg] sv. Ill, b. to notch, 

to carve, 
kesiten [ka'ziten] sn. so much 

hay as a cow eats in a winter. 
kiel [ki'ell s. 163. throat. 
kies ki'ozj s. grinder, 
kieze [ki'ozg] sv. II, a. to choose. 
kile [kile] s. wedge. 
kylje [kilja] luv. to wedge. 
kinde [kondo] s. knowledge. 
kinne [kin8] iv. 249. can, may, 

to be able. 
kinst rk0:st] s. art. 
kyPJ6 Ikipjo] wv. to look. 
kyps [kips] s. woman's hat. 
kiste [kiste] s. chest. 
kitelje ['kitelja] wv. to tickle. 
kiuw [kiuw] s. gill. 
kjel [kiel, kel] adj. 124. See kel. 
kjeld [kield] s. cold. 
kjelderichT''ki£ld8r9g] adj. adv. 

klabats [kl8'bots]s. riding-whip. 
klaei [kla'i] s. clay. 
klam [klam] s. 152. catch ; stress. 
klank [klaqk] s. sound. 
klaphalzje ['klapholzje] wv. to 

clack the bill. 
klapperje [''klaperja] wv. to 

clap, to rattle. 
klas [klos] s. class. 
klaver [kla:v9r] s. clover. 
klauwe [klo'uej wv. to scratch, 

to sciawl. 
klean [klren] s. 195. clothes. 
kleankas ['kli'8r)kos] s. ward- 
klear [kli-gr] adj. adv. clear(ly), 

pure(ly), evident(ly), ready. 
kleaune [klo-ene] s. clew. 
kledaezje [kle^daizje] s. dress. 

kleije [kla-ia] wv. 246. to com- 

kleur [kl6'9r] s. colour. 

klibbe [klibej s. a large block or 
pile (e.g. of hay or peat). 

kliber [kliiber] s. heap, crowd, 

klien [kli'en] adj. slender, slim. 

klimme [klime] sv. Ill, d. to 

klinke [kligko] sv. Ill, d. to 

kliuwe [kliuwa] sv. I, c. to climb. 

kloek [klu:k, kluk] at^^". sparing, 

kloer [klu'ar] s. claw. 

klok [klok] s. clock. 

klomsk [klomsk] adj. chilly. 

klopje [klopje] wv. to knock. 

klots [klots] s. cap, barret. 

klucht [kloxt] s. 113. farce, fun, 

kluchtich [kloxteg] adj. 113. 

kluft [kloft] s. 113. farce, fun. 

kluftich [kloftog] adj 113. 

kliinje [klyjie] wv. to walk on' 
skates off' the ice. 

klus [klu:z] s. hermitage ; cot- 
tage ; cell. 

klute [klyto] s. clod. 

knarse [knase] wv. 152. to 

knerse [knesa] wv. 152. to 

knetsje [knetsjel wv. to knead. 

knibbel[knibal j s. knee. 

knieze [kni'eze] tw. to bruise. 

knipe [knipo] swv. 248. to pinch. 

knoop [kno:p] s. lie ; button. 

knop [knop] s. knob, knop, bud. 

koai [koa'i] s. nest-egg. 

koaije [ko-ia] wv. 246. to chew. 

koaitsje [kcitsja] wv. 246. to 
cook, to boil. 

koal [ko'Gl] s. cabbage. 

koalsied ['koalsi-ed] sm. cole- 



>arste [koasto] s. crust. 
)art [koat] adj, short. 
)artkearich [koat'ki'argg] 
adj. surly. 

)arts [ko'9ts] s. fever. 
)bbe [ko'be] s. fishing-net. 
)el [ku'el] adj. cool, fresh. 
)elje [kuoljo] wv. to cool. 
ser [ku'Or] s. basket. 
3es(kes) [kus, kuskez] adv. 

quietly, sheltered. 
igje [koigja] wv. 246. to che\^. 
jmfoar [ko fear] s. 138. chaf- 

^miue [komo] s. IV, b. to come. 
Dmmedeare [kome'di'ora] wv. 

165. to command. 
om8t(e) [komst, komste] s. 

op [kop] s. pate ; op 'e kop 

6f: exactly. 
op [kop] s. litre, 
ost [kost] s. meat, food ; board, 
osten [kosten] s. 195. costs. 
ou [koii] s. cow. 
racht [kraxt] s. 113. strength, 


racht [kraxt] s. 113. water- 

raeb [kra:b] s. crab. 
:raech [kra:g] s. collar, cape. 
Taeije [kra-iej wv. to crow. 
xaft [kraft] s. 1 1 3. water-bottle, 

:rante [kronta] s. newspaper. 
:ras [kros] adj. adv. hale, clever ; 

xeakje [kri-okja] wv. 160. to 

crack, to creak. 
:ream [kri-em] s. stall, stand ; 

:reas [kri'Gz] adj. adv. neat(ly), 

:reauwe [kriouQ] wv. to quarrel. 
:reazens [kri'Gzez] s. neatness. 
Lr6bbe [krsibo] s. crib. 
Lreft [krsift] s. 113. strength, 


krfeftich [krsfteg] adj. strong. 

krekt [krskt] adj. adv. exact(ly). 

kreune [kr0:n8] i<w. to croon, to 

krigel [kriigal] adj. cross. 

kriich [kri:§] s. fight, competi- 

krije [krsia] wv. 246. to obtain, 
to acquire. 

krimpe [krimpa] sv. Ill, d. to 
crimp, to shrink. 

kringe [kriqa] sv. Ill, d. to 
throng, to crowd. 

krite [krite] sv. I, b. to cry, to 

krite [krita] s. region, district. 

kroade [krceda] s. wheel-bar- 

kroan [kro'8n]s- crown; chande- 

krob [krob] s. beetle. 

krddde [kro'da] s. field-mustard. 

kroesrkru:z]aci[/. curly, wrinkled. 

krom [krom adty. 155. curved. 

krud [kru:d] sn. herb ; gun- 

krum [krum] adj. 155. curved. 

krupe [krupa] swv. 248. to creep, 
to crawl. 

krupyn [krup'in] sn. cot. 

kriis [krys] sn. cross ; small of 
the back. 

kruse [krysa] wv. to cross; to 
cruise ; to crucify. 

kruslings ['kryslir)z] adj. cross- 

kuche [koxa] if^v. to cough. 

kuer [kyar] s. whim, caprice. 

kuijer [koeier] s. stroll. 

kuper [kupar] s. cooper. 

kwael [kwa:l] s. complaint, 

kwea [kwi'8] adj. bad. 

kwealik [kwi'alak] adj. adv. 

wrong(ly), scarcely. 
kwele [kweila] ift'. to warble. 
kwikker [kwikar] adj. neat. 
kwyt [kwit] adj. lost. 



laed [la:d] sn. drawer. 
laem [la:mj sn. lamb, 
laitsje [laitsje] wv. 246. to laugh. 
lfi.n [lo:n] sn. land, field. 
lang [laqj adj. long. 
langhalzje [^Idgholzje] wv. to 

langskonk ['lar)skoi)k] s. gnat. 
langst [lar)st j s. longing, 
langsum [lar)S8m] adj. slow. 
lllns [13:z adv. along. 
lansmau ['13:zmon] s. native. 
lape [la:p9] s. patch. 
lapje [lapja] wv. to patch, 
latte lot9] s. lath. 
Lauwers [lo'uez] gn. a small 

river in Friesland. 
lavearje [Ig'visrja] wv. to tack, 
lea [li's] s. 195. body. 
lean [li-gn] sn. wages. 
leane [li-onol s. lane. 
leanje [lisjioj wv. to reward. 
s. doctrine. 
sn. leather. 

to teach ; 





lears [li-az] s. boot. 
leauwe [lioue] wv. to believe. 
leech [le:g] adj. low. 
leech [le:gj adj. empty. 
leechlan ['Ie:glo:n] sn 

leed [le:d] sn. grief. 
leelje [le:lj9] s. lily. 
leep [le:p] s. peewit. 
lef [Isf] adj. cowardly. 
leffert [Ist'at] s. coward. 
leije [la'is] s. small and shallow 

leikje [laikje] wv. to dredge. 
lekkage [l£'ka:zj9] s. leakage. 
lekkens [iskoz] adj. cloth. 
lekskoaije ['leksko'i9] wv. to 

find fault. 
leppel £l£p9l] s. spoon. 
les [IssJ s. lesson. 

ISsboek ['Isizbuk] sn. reading- 
ISst [Isist] s. load, burden, 
listen [le:sn] adv. lately. 
ISstich [l£st9g] adj. troublesome 
let [1st] adj. late. 
l§ze [l£:z9] sv. V, a. to read. 



sn. life. 

adj. alive, livelj 

libje [libJ9] wv. to live, 
licht [lixtj <^dj. adv. Iight(l3 

easy, easily. 
lid [lid] sn. limb; member; joii 
lid [lid] sn. cover, lid. 
liede [li'9d9] wv. 246. to lead. 
liede li'9d9 wv. 246. to ring. 
liem [li'9m] sn. loam. 
liep [li'9p] adj. cunning, sly. 
liepe [li'9p9J wv. to cry. 
liepens [li'9p9z] s. slyness. 
liet rii'9t] sn. song, 
lige [li:g9] sv. II, a. to lie, t( 

liif [li:v] sn. body, belly. 
liifdracht ['li-.vdraxt] s. wearii 

His [li:z] s. flag, water-flag. 
lij [l£i] adj. lee, sheltered. 
lije [l£i9] wv. 246. to endure; 

lijen [l£i9n] sn. suffering. 
lyk [lik] adj. equal, 
like [lik9] adv. like, equally. 
Iikern6ch ['lik9rno:§] adv. 

lykhalde [^Iikho:d9] sv. VII, c 

neither win nor lose. 
lykje [likjg] wv. to resemble. 
lykwols ['likuolz] adv. however 
lilk [lilk] adj. ugly ; angry. 
lilkens [lilkez] s. ugliness 

Linde [lindg] gn. a river ii 

line [ling] s. line, string. 
linich [lin9g] adj. supple. 
linker Tlir)k9r] adj. left. 
linnen [lin9n] sn. linen. 




s rii:zl ac?;'. empty. 

e [lipoj wv. to cry. 

pe [lipe] s. lip. 

;s [litsj adj. little, small. 

»ens [litsez] s. littleness, 


;sfeint ['litsfaint] s. second 


be [lita] sv. VII, a. to let. 

ze [liza] sv. VI, a. to lie. 

ze [lizaj iv. 250, to lay. 

w [liuw] s. lion. 

ich [li:z9§] adj. grown with 


af [li'8v] adj. dear. 

afde [li'avdo] s. love. 

aflik [li'Gvlak] adj. lovely. 

dder [lieder] s. ladder. 

ppe [lispe] wv. to spring with 

a pole. 

p [liip] s. peewit. 

rre [liirej s. smoked beef. 

sk [liiskj s. groin. 

•Cht [lioxt] sn. light. 

)chtblau [iioxtbloii] adj. light 


)chtgrien [lioxtgri-en] adj. 

light green. 

ouwert [lioiit] gn. town in 

Friesland \Dutch: Leeuwarden). 

le [lio] s. 195. people, folk. 

irk [liorkj s. lark. 

iwe [liu\y9, lioiie] s. people, 


ai [lo'i] adj. lazy. 

aikje [loaikje] wv. to be lazy, 

to idle. 

aitsje [lo'itsje] wv. 246. to 


ane [lo'ena] s. loan. 

Dht [loxt] s. sky. 

chts [loxts, loxs] adv. to the 


egje, loeije [lu:gj8, lu'ie] wv. 

246. to pile up, 

ere [lu'ere] wv. to watch, to 


f [lof] sn. leaves. 

loft [loft] s. sky. 

lofter [loftar] adj. left. 

lofts [lofts] adv. to the left. 

16ge [lo:g8 s. flame, blaze. 

lok [lok] sn. luck, happiness. 

lokkich [lokgg] adj. happy. 

lokwinsk [-'lokuiisk] s. con- 

lompert [lompat] s. rude fellow. 

longe [lor)9] s. lung. 

lonkje [lorjkja] wv. to ogle. 

loom [lo:m] adj. heavy, slow. 

los [los, losj adj. loose. 

losmeitsje ['losmaltsje] wv. 246. 
to loose. 

lot [lot] sn. fate, lot ; ticket. 

lotsje [lotsje] wv. to draw lots ; 
to draw for the conscription. 

lottersdei [''lotozdal] s. day of 
. drawing for the conscription, 

lud [laid] sn. sound. 

lud [Iu:d_ adj. loud, 

luke [lake] swv. 248. to draw. 


Maeije [ma-ie] s. May ; the 12th 

of May. 
Maert [ma:t] s. March, 
maerteblom ['maiteblom] s. 

maet [ma:t] s. comrade, mate. 
mage [ma:ga] s. stomach, 
maitiid [^maitid] s. may- time, 
mal [moil] adj. foolish, mad. 
malkoar [mePkcar, mal'koar] 

rec. pr. each other. 
man [mon] s. man ; husband. 
mank [maqk] ^^re^^. among. 
manljue [moillo] s. plur. men- 
mannich [rnane^] num. many, 

manuich-ien ['manegi-en] ind. 

pr. many a man. 
mS.nsk [moisk] adj. strong, 

mar [mar] s. mere, lake. 



mar [mar] adv. conj. but, only, 
marse [masa] s. pedlar's pack, 
masine [mo'sina] s. engine, 

master [master] s. master, 

master(s)ke [masterka, mas- 

teske] s. mistress. 
me [me] ind. pr. one, man, 

meager [mi'oger] adj. meagre. 
meale, mealle [mi-ole, misle] 

wv. to grind. 
meane [mi-ene] wv. to mow. 
mear [mi'9r] adv. more, 
meast [mi'ast] adv. most. 
meastentiids ['mi'ostanti'.dz] 

adv. generally. 
m§d [me:d] sn. mowing-land. 
mei [mai] adv. frep. with, 
meidet ['maidot] conj. with that. 
meidwaen ['maidwa-n] iv. 250. 

to join, to help in doing. 
meije [male] iv. 249. may, to be 

allowed ; to fancy. 
meiminske [^maimiiskg] s. fel- 
low man. 
mei't [mait] conj. with that. 
meitsje [maitsje] vw. 246. to 

mekeare [ma'ki'ere] vw. to fail. 
mekoar [me'kcer] rec. pr. each 

melke [mslke] sv. Ill, d. to 

mem [msm] s. mother. 
memmewille ['memeuile] s. 

maternal joy. 
men [men] ind. p". one, man, 

mennich [meneg] num. many, 

raerke [msrka] sv. Ill, b. to 

mark ; to observe. 
merke [merka] s. fair. 
m§s [in£:s] sn. knife, 
mesk [mssk] s. mesh. 
m6st [ms:st] s. mast. 

mestelbank ['meselbaqk] 

mette [mete] wv. 246. to mee 
mich [mix] s. gnat, midge. 
middei pmidi] s. midday, no< 
midden [miden] sn. middle. 
mids [midz] adv. amidst. 
miede [mi-edo] s. meadow. 
miene [mi'ene] wv. to mean, 

miening [mi-eneg] s. meanii 

mienskiplik [mi'e'skiplek] a 

mier [mi'er] s. mower, 
miette [miite] sv. II, b. 

miette [miite] s. measure, 
mije [meie] wv. to avoid. 
mijen [msien] adj. timid, 
mil [mol] s. waist. 
myld [mild] adj. lenient, soft, 
myldens [mildez, mildnz] 

miljoen [mel'ju'en] wwm. milli 
min [mm] adj. little, mean. 
myn [min] 2>oss. jpr. my. 
minder [minder] adv. less, 

minge [miqe] sv. Ill, d. to m 

to mingle. 
mynhear [men'hi'er] s. Sir. 
minske [mi:ske] s. man, hun 

minske [miiske] sn. woman, 
minst [mi:st] adv. least. 
mint [mint, mont] s. mint. 
mird mod] s. polecat. 
mis [mis] adj. adv. miss, wror 
misdwaen [miz'dwam] iv. 2: 

to do wrong. 
miskearje [mis'kisrja] wv. 

miskien [me'skin] adv. perha 
miskomme [mis'kome] sv. ] 

b. to inconvenience. 
misse [mise] wv. to miss, 




lissizze [mis'siza] iv. 250. to 

(I give cause for offence, 
lits [mits] conj. provided that, 
jitselje [mitsaljaj wv. to set 

:mw [miuw] s. sea-gull. 
:juks [mioks] s. dung, 
rjiiksje [mioksjo] wv. to dung. 
;oai [ mo'i] adj. beautiful, nice. 
:oaijens [moaiez] s. beauty. 
: oal [meal] sn. meal. 
: oandei ['mandi] s. Monday. 
: oanne [moana] s. moon. 
: oanne [moano] s. month. 

oargen [moargan] sn. land 


oarn fmconl s. morning. 

oarn [mcon] adv. to-morrow, 

oarnier [ma^ni-ar] adv. early 

to-morrow morning. 

oarns [mda:z] adv. in the 

morning, every morning. 

oarntiid ['moantid] s. early 


oas [mo'9z] sn. moss. 

oatte [mate] iv. 249. must, to 

be obliged. 

odder [modar] s. mud. 

oed [mu'Gd] sn. mind. 

oed [mu'QdJ s. courage. 

oeije [muoio] wv. to be sorry, 

to pity, to trouble. 
.oeike [muoike] s. aunt, 
loeite [muoita] s. trouble, 
loete [mu'Gtol wv. 246. to meet, 
logelikheid ['mo:gl9khaid] s. 


Lolke [molka] s. milk. 
lolken [molken] sn. milk to be 


looglik [moiglok] adj. possible. 
losk [mosk] s. sparrow. 
loude [mouda] s. mould, 
louwe [mo'ua] s. sleeve, 
lule [mula] s. mouth, 
lunster [m0:st9r] sn. monster, 
lunts [muonts] s. monk, 
lurre [muore] s. wall. 

mus [mu:z] s. mouse, 
muske [myska] ^/i. rogue, urchin, 
mutel [mutal] adj. chubby, 
mutse [mutsej s. cap. 


nacht [naxt] s. night. 
nachtskaed [''naxtska:d] sn. 

shade of night. 
naderje [naidarje] wv. to seize, 
naesje [na:sJ8] s. nation. 
namme [name] s. name, 
narje [narjo] wv. to tease, to vex. 
natuer [na'tyar] s. nature. 
nau [nou] adj. narrow, 
naule [noib] s. navel. 
n6 [ne:] int. nay, no. 
nea [ni'e] adv. never. 
neaken [ni'ekan] adj. naked, 
neame [ni'eme] wv. to name, to 

nearne [ni-ane] adv. nowhere, 
neat [ni'ot] ind. j)r. nothing. 
nedich [neidog] adj. necessary. 
need [ne:d] s. need, 
needlot Pne:dlot] sn. fate, 
neffens [ns^z] prep, according 

nei [nai] adv. prep, near, after, 

neidet [nai'dot] conj. after that. 
neigean [^naigi'9n] iv. 250. to 

trace, to follow. 
neisimmer [^naisimar] s. a mild 

neist [naist] ^>rep. next, nearest, 
nei't [nait] conj. after that. 
neitiid ['naitid ] adv. afterwards. 
nepert [ne:p9t] s. niggard, 
nfist [ne:st] sn. nest. 
ndst [ne:st] prej). before, ago. 
nestelje [nssaljaj wv. to nestle, 
net [nstl sn. net. 
net [nstj adv. not. 
nicht [nixt] s. cousin. 
nidich [nid9g] adj. angry. 
nidle [nil9, nol9] s. needle. 



nift [nift] s. cousin. 

nij [nsi] adj. new. 

nijachtich ['neiaxte^] adj. a 

little new. 
nijsgierrich [nsis'kiirag] adj. 

niid [niid] s. envy. 
nils [ni:zl adv. just now. 
aimme [nime] sv. IV, b. to 

nimmen [nimen] nobody, 
nin [nin, nan] art. 203. no. 
ninter [ninter] adj. to ninter 

tiid : never. 
njirre [niire] s. adder, viper, 
nju [nio] s. joy. 
njuet [nyot] adj. tame. 
iijiiggen [niogon] num. nine, 
njuggende ['niogendo] num. 

njuggentich ['niogenta^J num. 

njuggentjin ['nioggntjen] num. 

njunken [niogkan] adv. 'pre'p. 

next, beside. 
noadich [no'9d8g]ac(;. necessary. 
noait [no'it] adv. never, 
noas [no'9zJ s. nose. 
noaslge [noaskja] wv. to please, 
noat [no'ot] ^a. grain. 
noch \x\yy^adv. yet, still, besides. 
noch [nox J ccmj. neither, nor. 
ndch fnoig] adv. enough. 
ndch [no:§ adj. done, cooked, 
nochlik [noxlak] adj. agreeable. 
nocht [noxt] s. joy. 
nochteren ['noxteren] adj. 

empty, sober. 
noed [nu'ad] s. care. 
noedlik [nuodlak] adj. pre- 
noflik [noflak] adj. agreeable. 
nofteren [nofteren] adj. empty, 

ndt [noit] sni. grain, 
nou [noiij adv. now. 
nou't [nout] conj. now that. 

nut not] sn. use, profit. 

nut nytj s. nut. 

nutebeam ['nyt9br8ni] s. wi 

n'dtsdop ['nytsdop] s. nutshel 
nuver [ny:v9r] adj. singul 


oan [o'9n] adv. prep, on, to, 

oanbiede ['O'embi'ede] 8v. II 

to oflfer. 
oandriuwe['o'9ndriuw9] sv. 1 

to drive on. 
oanfleane ['o'9nfli'9n9] sv. I] 

to fly at. 
oangean ['o-gggrgn] iv. 250. 

oanhalde ['O'9nho:d9] sv. VIl 

to continue. 
oanheare ['0'9nhi'9r9] wv. 

hear, to listen to. 
oanhearre ['0'8hi£r9] wv. 

hear, to listen to. 
oankomme ['o'9r)kom9] sv. '. 

b. to arrive. 
oanlaitsje ['0'alaitsJ9] wv. 2 

to smile at. 
oanlizze ['0'aliz9] iv. 250. 

stop ; to manage. 
oanmeitsje ['0'9mmaitsJ9] 

246. to make haste. 
oannimme ['cgnnimgjsv. I^' 

to accept, to admit. 
oanpiele [''o'9mpi'9l9] wv. tc 

careful of. 
oanprange ['0'9niprar)9] wv 

oanroppe ['o-aropg] sv. VII 

to call, to invoke. 
oanslacli ['caslax] s. attem 

oanslaen [^ceslain] sv. VI, a 

oanslaggen [''o'aslag9n] s. 1 




instean [^o'esti'en] iv. 250. to 

instekke ['o'est£k9] sv. IV, a. 
to put in ; to fire. 

ant [cent] ])rej), to, till. 

antrekke ['o-antreka] sv. IV, a. 
to take to heart. 

antsjen [^O'ontsjsn] sv. II, c. 
to draw, to put on. 

ar [car] adj. other. 

ard [o'9d] num. second. 

ardeel ['ceded] sn. judgement, 

ardeheal, oardel ['o'edehi'el, 
O'edel] num. one and a 

ardele ['cadeile] wv. to judge. 

arloch [''celox] s. war. 

ars [o'9z] adv. otherwise, differ- 
ent, else. 

er [o'9r] jrrep. adv. over. 

eral ['u-orol, u'er'ol] adv. 

lerbliid [u'9r'bli:d] adj. \erry 

erbolgen [u'er'bolgon] a^j. in- 

lerdwaen ['u'9(r)dw^a'n] iv. 
250. to do over. 

>erdwealsk [u'9'dwi'9lsk, u'9- 
dwi'9lz] adj. rash, headlong. 

erginst [''u'9rg0:st] s. envy, 
bergrime [u'9r'grim9] adj. angry, 

jerhawwe ['U'9rhav9] iv. 250. 

to have to spare, 
serjaen ['u'9rja:n] iv. 250. to 

^erkomme [''u'9rkom9] sv. IV, 

b. to overcome ; to arrive, 
jerlibje [u'9r'libJ9] wv. to over- 
Derrinne ['u'9rrin9] sv. Ill, a. 

to run over. 
jerstjur [u'9'stjir9r] adj. dis- 
aertruzelje [u'9'try:z9lJ9] wv. 
to flood. 

oerwinne [^u-aruina] sv. Ill, a. 

to save money. 
oerwinne [u'9r'uin9] sv. Ill, a. 

to conquer. 
of [of] conj. or. 
6f [o:f, 0'9] pre]), adv. off. 
dfbitelje ['0'9b9tslJ9] lov. to pay 

6fdak ['o-gdak] sn. shed. 
dffalle ['0'9fo'l9] sv. VI, e. to 

fall down ; to go off. 
dffeije ['0'9fai9j wv. 246. to 

wipe, to dust. 
dfgean ['0'9gi'9n] iv. 250. to go 

dfriede ['O'gri'gde] wv. 246. to 

6frinne ['0'9rin9] sv. Ill, a. to 

run away ; to expire. 
6fskod^e ['0'9skodzJ9] wv. to 

shake off. 
dfstrike ['0'9strik9] sv. IV, a. to 

strike off ; to flee. 
oft [ot] conj. if. 
okse [oks9] s. ox. 
om [cm] prep, round, for, at. 
omaeije [om'a'ia] wv. to stroke. 
omdet [om'dot] conj. because. 
omgean ['omgi'en] iv. 250. to 

go round ; to frequent. 
omke [omk9] s. uncle. 
omklamje [om'klamjg] lov. to 

omkromte ['omkromte] s. trou- 
ble, omkromte bylizze, to 

put to inconvenience. 
ommers [om9z] adv. indeed, for. 
ompolskje ['ompolskJ9] wv. to 

drive round. 
omsjen [''omsien] sv. II, c. to 

look round (back). 
omslaen ['omslam] sv. VI, a. to 

beat down ; to turn over. 
om't [omt] conj. because. 
omwei ['omuai] s. circuitous 

onbidich [om'bi:d9§] adj. ex- 



onbihindere [ombe'hindera] 

adj. unhindered. 
onbruksum [om^bruksam] adj. 

onforstandich [ofe'stondog] adj. 

ongans Poggoiz] sn. garbage. 
ongeef [or)'ge:vJ adj. unsound, 

ongelyk [orjge'lik] adj. unlike, 

ongemaklik [ogga'makbk] adj. 

uncomfortable, uneasy ; morose, 
ongeskansearre [origeskS'zisro] 

adj. whole. 
ongetreast [ogga'tri-est] adj. 

onlijieh [o'leigg] adj. rainy and 

onmacht ['ommaxt] s. impo- 
onpesjintich [ompa'siinteg] adj. 

onreedlik [o'reidlek] adj. un- 
onrSst ['ors:st] s. unrest. 
onrSstich [o'rsisteg] atZj. restless. 
ons [o:z] sn. ounce. 
onsjuch [o'slox] adj. unsightly, 

onsljucht [o'slioxt] adj. uneven. 
ontank [^ontagk] s. ingratitude. 
ontankber [on'tar)kb8r] adj. 

ontgean [ont'xi'sn] iv. 250. to 

onthald [ont''ho:d] sn. memory. 
onthalde [ont'hoido] sv. VII, c. 

to remember. 
ontjaen [ont'jam] iv. 250. to 

open, to expand. 
ontkomme [ont'komo] sv. IV, b. 

to escape. 
ontkrije [ont'krsia] wv. 246. to 

take away. 
ontnimme [ont'nima] sv. IV, b. 

to take away, to deprive, 
ontsette [ont'sste] wv. to relieve. 

ontskoattelje [ont'skdatv^ljg 

wv. to unbolt. 
ontstean [ont^sti-an] iv. 250 

arise ; to stay away. 
ontstelle [ont'sts'Is] sv. V, a. ti 

onwaer ['oua:r] sn. thunder 

onwaerje [^ouairja] wv. to thun 

onwiten [o'uiten] adj. gigantic, 
op [op] adv. prep, on, upon, up. 
opbod PobbodJ sn. auction. 
opdyk ['obdikj s. byway. 
opdwaen ['obdwa-n] iv. 250. t 

open ; to obtain. 
opgean ['opxi'on, ^obgi-on] i\ 

250. to go up, to rise. 
opgong ['opxor), ^obgor)] s. ris( 
ophalde ['ophoide] sv. VII, c. t 

hold up ; to stop. 
opharkje [^opharkjo] vw. to b 

opheapje ['ophispje] wv. to hea; 

ophelje ['ophsljo] wv. to dra^ 

up ; to sing. 
opjaen ['opja:n] iv. 250. to giv 

up, to raise. 
opjaen ['opjam] sn. raising. 
opkomme ['opkomo] sv. IV, l 

to come up, to rise. 
opkrije [^opkrsiG] wv. 246. t 

pick up. 
opmerke ['opmsrka] sv. Ill, I 

to observe. 
opnimme ['opnime] sv. IV, I 

to take up. 
opskouwe ['opskouo] swv. 24S 

to push up. 
opstean ['opsti'on] iv. 250. t 

stand up, to lise. 
opstrike ['opstriko] sv. IV, a. t 

stroke up. 
optik ['optik] s. tip. 
ornaris [o'nairez] adv. ordinarilj 
ou [oil] prep. adv. off, down. 
oun [oun, u:n] s. oven. 



aed [pa:d] sn. path, 
ak [pak] sn. pack, suit, 
ake [pa:ko] s. grandfather. 
antsje [pomtsja] sn. saucer. 
" ' par] «. pear. 


arse [pasa] s. press, 
artij Tpa'tsi] s. party, 
asse [pbsa] wv. to suit, 
atsje [patsja] wv. to kiss. 
eal [pi'al] s. pole, pile, 
lear Tpi-er sn. pair, 
lerk [psrk sn. park, 
terse [pssaj s. press. 

J m 

ler [pi-arj mn. 
liip [pi:pj s. pipe. 
»yk [pik] s. chicken. 
ikelhearring ['pikalhierarj] s. 

pickled herring, 
(ikswart [pikswat] adj. black 

as pitch. 
►iktried['piktri'9djsn. wax-end. 
)ylje [pilja] ^ov. to dart. 
)ylk fpilk] s. arrow, flash. 
)ine [pinaj s. pain. 
)inksterblom ['pirjkstarblom] 

)ipe [pipa] wv. to pipe. 
)mwe [piuwa] wv. to mock. 

)juk [piok 
)lak [plak" 

s. pike ; stab. 
sn. place, stain. 

)lakke [plaka] uw. to paste, to 

)lanke [plagka] s. plank, platter, 
slant [plont] s. plant. 
}leagje [pli'agjaj wv. to tease. 


pli'9ts] s. fann(-house). 
[plixt] s. duty. 
jliigje [pli:gja] iv. 250. to be 

ploaitsje [plcitsja] wv. 246. to 

jloege [pluiga] s. plough. 
ploegje [plu:gJ9] wv. 246. to 

ploeije [plu'ie] wv. 246. to 


ploffe [plofa] wv. to bounce. 
pldkje [pb'.kje] wv. 246. to 

plom [plom] s. plume. 
plum [plum] s. plume. 
poanne [poana] s. cap with 

poarper [poarpar] sn. purple, 
poarte [poataj s. gate. 
poat [po-at] s. leg. 
poat peat s. pot. 
poel fpu'alj s. pool. 
poes [pus] s. puss. 
pokdobbich [^pokdobag] adj. 

pols [polz] s. pulse. 
pols [polz s. pole for springing. 
pompe [pompa] wv. to pump ; to 

pompier [pam'pi'ar] sn. paper, 
pong [poq] s. purse. 
pop [pop] s. doll. 
p6t [port] s. pot. 
poun [pun] s. pound. 
pracht [praxt] s. magnificence. 
prate [praita] wv. to talk, 
priis [pri:z] s. price, 
priizgje [pri:zgja] wv. to praise. 
prikstok ['prikstok] s. dry 

prinses [pri'sss] s. princess. 
priuwe [priuwa] sv. I, c. to 

profecy [profe'ssi] s. prophecy. 
profeet [pro'fe:t] s. prophet. 
prdlle [pro'.la] s. kidney. 
prom [prom] s. plum. 
pronk [pror)k] s. show ; Sunday 

pronkje [pror)kja] wv. to make 

a great show, to parade, 
protter [protar] s. starling. 
prum [prum] s. plum, 
prus [pru:z] adj. charming. 
pHl [pul, piiol] s. pod. 
putheak ['pothi'ak, pOtak] s. 

pole of a well. 
putte [pOta] wv. to draw water. 



rabje [rabjo] wv. to backbite. 
rach.e [rax©] '^^^ to scold. 
raei [ra'ij s. grass-stalk. 
raenjen [raipan] s. 195. freaks. 
raer [ra:r] ad^. strange, queer. 
rakkert [rak8t] s. urchin. 
rame [raime] wv. to thrust, to 

ramt [ramt] sn. window. 
rane [rame] wv. to melt. 
range [raqa] s. branch, twig. 
rS.nne [roma] s. brim, edge, 

raze [raizo] wv. to rage, to rave. 
rea(d) [ri-ed, ri'a] ad}, red. 
readhud ['ri'9dhu:d] s. red skin. 
reagje [ri'agje] wv. to sweep 

away cobwebs, to sweep the 

reak [ri'9k] s. hayrick. 
Beaklif [ri-e-'klif] gn. clifF near 

reamme [rieme] s. cream. 
reau [riou] sw. tools ; horse and 

rfich [re:g] s. back, ridge. 
rfid [re:d] sn. wheel. 
r6d [re:d J ad}, nimble, swift. 
rSdde [re:do] wv. (p. p. rSdden) 

to save. 
redeneare [rida'nrara] wv. to 

rddsum [reitsem) adj. handy, 

reed [re:d] s. 192. skate (for 

reed [reid] s. ride. 
reek [re:kj s. smoke. 
regear [ra'gi-er, re'gi'erj sn. 

reign, government, 
reid [raid! sn. reed. 
rein [rain] s. rain. 
reine [raino] wv. to rain. 
reis [raiz] s. journey, voyage. 
reitsje [raitsje] wv. 246. to 

touch ; to get. 

reizgje [raizgjo] wv. to travel. 
rek [rsk] s. a long time, 
rekke [rsko] sv. IV, a. to extend 

to lengthen. 
rekken [rekon] s. bill, reckoning 
rekkenje [rekanja] wv. to count 

to reckon. 
r§st [rs'.st] s. rest. 
rSste [rsiste] wv. to rest. 
rfistich [rs:st9g] adj. quiet. 
ribbe [riba] s. rib. 
richel [rixol] s. border, edge. 
ride [riide, rida] sv. I, a. to ride 

to skate. 
ridlik [rilak] adj. adv. tolerable 

rie(d) [ri-ad, rra] s. advice. 
riere [ri-ara] wv. to stir. 
rigele [rigala] s. row. 
rij [reij adj. prodigal. 
rijens [reigz] s. prodigality. 
ryk [rik] adj. rich, 
rikeljue ['rikalio] s. wealth; 

rikje [rikja] wv. to smoke. 
rikke [rikaj wv. to reach. 
rykrak ['rikrak] sn. somethin] 

old and worn. 
rinder [rindar] s. runner, huci 

ring [rir)] s. ring. 
rinkelje [rigkalja] wv. to rattk 
rinne [rina] sv. Ill, a. to run. 
rintenier [rinta'ni'ar] s. retire 

ryp [rip] adj. ripe. 
Ryp (De) [da'rip] gn. village i 

ris [ras, raz] adv. once, 
rys [ris] s. rice, 
risping [^rispari] s. harvest, croj 
rispje [rispja] lov. to harvest, t 

gather the crops. 
risse [risa] wv. to equip. 
rite [rita] s. while. 
ritsdi r^ritsdi] int. 
riuwe [riuwa] sv. I, c. to tag, i 




iuwe [riuwa] s. rake. 

•ize [ri:z8] lov. to rise. 

'ju [rio] adj. rife. 

jucht rioxtj adj. right. 

jucht rioxtJ sn. right. 

juchter [rioxter] s. judge. 

ijuchterMn [rioxtor^ho:n] s. 
right hand. 

JTichtfirdich [rioxt'fode^] adj. 
just, righteous. 

'juchts [rioxts, rioxs] adv. to 
the right. 

•oaije [ro'i9] ww. to aim. 

roas [ro'9zl s. rose. 

roedlings {/ru'edlegz] adv. close 

roeije [rule] vrv. to row. 

roeikje [ruikje, ruoikjs] lov. to 

roer [ru'erl sn. rudder. 

roer fru-arj s. stir. 

roet [ru'9t, ruot] sn. soot. 

rogge [roga] s. rye. 

fdk [rO:k] s. underskirt, petti- 
coat, kirtle. 

pdle [roila] s. roll. 

r61je [ro'.ljo] wv. to roll. 

Pom [rem] adj. wide, large, 

romer [rormer] s. rummer. 

romte [romtej s. room, abun- 

rook [ro:k] s. scent, smelL 

ropein ['ropain] s. kind of duck. 

roppe [ropa] sv. VII, b. to call, 
to cry. 

ropsek Propssk] s. glutton. 

r6t [roit 
rou [rou 

adj. raw, uncooked, 
roun [run] adj. round. 
rounorn ['runom] adv. on all 

sides, everywhere. 
rouwe [ro'ua] wv. to mourn, to 

ruch [rux] adj. shaggy, hairy; 

rtLchte [ruxte] s. shagginess. 
rude [ryda] s. scabies. 

Ruerd [ryodj mn. 
ruilebutsje [''rceilebutsjo] tov. 

to exchange. 
ruilje [rceilja] tov. to exchange. 
ruke [ruke] swv. 248. to smell, 
rum [rum] adj. wide, large, 

rup [rup] 8. caterpillar. 
ruze [ru:z9] kw. to rustle. 
ruzje [ru:zJ9] tov. quarrel. 


sa [sa] adv. so. 

sa-sa [sa'sa] adv. nearly, just; 
so-so, passable. 

sabeare [sa'brera] adv. quasi. 

Saddusieu [sady'si'u] s. Saddu- 

sadwaende [saMwainde] adv. 
thus, in that manner. 

saed [sa:d] s. well. 

sakje [sakja] tw. to sink. [so:t] sn. salt. 

s&lte [soita] wv. to salt, to pickle. 

sa'n [san] adv. such. 

sfin [so:n sn. sand. 

sang [saqj s. song. 

sa't [sat] conj. as. 

saun [so:n] num. seven. 

saunde [soinda] num. seventh. 

sauntal 'sO:ntol] sn. (number of) 

sauntich [sonteg] num. seventy. 

sauntjin [sontjen] num. seven- 

sawol . . as [sa'uol . . oz] conj. as 
well as. 

scille [sila] iv. 249. {pr. sell, 
scilst, soil, scille ; imp. scoe, 
scoenen ; p. p. scillen) shall, 

se [sa] pers. pr. she, they. 

s6 se:] s. sea. 

sead [sis:d] s. sod. 

seage [si'aga] s. saw. 

seagje [si-agja] tov. to saw. 

seame [si'amaj s. seam, bottom. 




sear [si'8r] adj. sore, painful. 
sechel [ssx^l] num. five and a 

sechste [ssksto] num. sixth. 
sechsteheal [ssksta'hi'el] num. 

five and a half. 
sechstich [sskstog] num. sixty. 
sechstjin [sskstjen] num. six- 
sed [s£:d] adj. satiated. 
s6dyk [se:^dik] s. sea-dike. 
s§ft [ss:ft] adj. soft. 
seftkes [seiftkoz] adv. softly. 
sell [sail] sn. sail. 
seine [sama] s. scythe. 
seinje [saijie] wv. to bless. 
seinrop Psairop] s. signal, 
seis [saiz] num. six. 
seistal [^saistol] sn. (number of) 

sek [ssk] s. sack, bag. 
selde [sslda] adj. same. 
sels [seIz] dem. pr. self. 
s^man [^seimon] s. seaman, 
set [set] s. trick, 
sette [sste] wv. to set, to place; 

to build, 
sy [ssi] jpers. pr. she, they. 
side [sida] s. side, 
side [sidg s. silk. 
sydpaed psidpa:dj sn. side-path. 
sie(d) [si'9d, si'o] sn. seed. 
siedder [slider] s. sower. 
siedding [slidig] s. sowed land, 
siede [si'edo] sv. II, a. to seethe. 
siedzje [slidzje] wv. to sow. 
siekerl ['si'aksl] s. grain of seed. 
siel(e) [si'Qle, si'9l] s. soul. 
sige [siige] wv. to filter. It siigt 

hjir : there is a draught here. 
sigen [si:g9n] s. draught. 
siichje [si:xJ9] sn. soft wind, 
siik [si:k, sik] adj. sick, ill. 
siikb§d [^sikb£:d] sn. sick-bed. 
siikje [si:kJ9, sikje] iv. 250. to 

Sije [sslg] mn. 
sike [sika] s. breath. 

siker [sik9r] adv. positively. 

sikersonk [sikarsorjk] adv. in- 

sykte [sikt9] s. illness, malady. 

syl [sit] s. lock, sluice. 

sile [sile] vw. to sail. 

silver [solver] sn. silver. 

simmer [simgr] s. summer. 

simmerdyk ['simerdik] s. low 
weir, serviceable in summer. 

simmerjoun [^simarjun] s. 
summer evening. 

simmerkrite [^simarkrite] s. 
hay-meadow liable to flooding 
in winter. 

simmermoarn [^sim9rmo'9n] s. 
summer morning. 

simmers [simgz] adv.m summer. 

sims [s9mz] adv. sometimes. 

sin [sin] sn. humour, temper, 

sin [sin] s. signification, phrase. 

syn [sin] 'poss. pr. his, its. 

sinke [siqka] sv. Ill, d. to sink. 

sinloas ['silo'9z] adj. out of one's 

sinne [sin9] s. sun. 

sinneskyn [^sinaskin] s. sun- 

sinnestriel [^sin9stri'9l] s. sun- 

sint [sint] adv. since. 

sister [sostgr] s. sister. 

Sytse [sits9] mn. 

Sytske [sitskg]/?*. 

sitte [site] sv. V, a. to sit. 

sizze [siz9] iv. 250. to say. 

sjen [slsn] sv. II, c. to see. 

sjippe [siipg] s. soap. 

sjitte [slite] sv. II, b. to shoot. 

Sjoerd [sju'9d] mn. 

sjonge [slor|9] sv. Ill, d. to sing. 

sjongster [sloi]st9r] s. songstress. 

Sjoukje [sjoukJ9]/n. 

sjuch [slox] adj. nice. 

sjud [slod] s. flax-brakings. 

skaed [ska:d 
skaffe [skafe 

sn. shade. 
wv. to procure. 



jkamje (yen) [ji skamje] wv. to 

lie ashamed, 
skansearje [sko'zisrje] v)v. to 

3kar, sker [skar, sker] sn. share 

in a common grazing- ground, 
skat [skot] s. treasure. 
skatterje [skoterje] wv. to laugh 

3kea [ski* a] s. damage, 
skeaf [ski'av] s. sheaf. 

skeel fsked 
pkelf [skelv 

sn. complaint. 
adj. oblique, 
fekelle, skilie [skela, skila] s. 

fikelms(k) [skslmsk, skslmz] 

adj. roguish. 
fikeppe [skepe] sv. VI, d. to 


sk£:rin] sn. screen. 
skste] s. lap. 
3kie [ski* a] s. sheath, 
skiede [ski'ada] wv. 246. to 

skieding [ski-adar)] s. separa- 
ikielik [ski-alak] adv. in a short 

jkiep [ski'ep] sw. sheep. 
skieppeblom [^skiipebloni] s. 

Dutch clover, 
jkier [ski-ar] adj. grey. 
ikikke [skika] wv. to arrange ; 

to send. 
jkild [skold] s. guilt, debt. 
skylfisk pskilfisk] s. haddock, 
ikimer [skimar] s. twilight, 

jkimerje [skimarja] wv. to 

glimmer ; to get dark or light, 
ikyn [skin] s. shine ; appearance, 
jkine [skina] wv. to shine; to 

ikynhillieh [skin'hila§] adj. 

ikinke [skigka] sv. Ill, d. to 

present; to retail, to pour 


skip [skip] sn. ship. 

skipper [skipar] s. ship-captain, 

skirte [skota] s. lap. 

skjin [skim] adj. clean, pure. 

sl^irre [skiira] s. scissors. 

skoalbern ['skoalben] sw. school- 

skoalboek ['skoalbuk] sn. 

skoalle [skoala] s. school. 

skoaltiid ['skoaltid] s. school- 

skoan [skcan] adj. adv. ex- 
cellent, very good. 

skoander [skcandar] adj. ex- 

skoarstien [skoasjan]s. chimney 

skoattel [skoatal] s. bolt. 

skob [skob] s. scale. 

skobbert [skobat] s. scamp. 

skocht [skoxt] sw. while, part of 
a day. 

skoech [sku:§] s. shoe. 

skoenmakker [8kuo(m)niak9r] 
s. shoemaker. 

skoerre [skuora] wv. to tear. 

skoft [skoft] sn. while, part of a 

skom [skom] sn. scum. 

skonk [skor)k] s. leg. 

skoppe [skopa] wv. to kick. 

skouder [skoudar] sn. shoulder. 

skouderje [skoiidarja] wv. to 
give the cold shoulder. 

skouwe [skoua] swv. 248. to 

skreauwe [skrioua] wv. to cry, 
to clamour. 

skrepp© [skrspa] wv. to make 

skrieme [skri'ama] wv. to weep, 
to cry. 

skries [skri'az] s. black-tailed 

Skrift [skrift] s. Holy Writ. 

skrift [skrift] sn. writing, 



skriften [skriften] s. 195. works. 

skrilje [skrilja] vw. to be 

skrippe [skripe] wv. to make 

skriuwe [skriuwa] sv. I, c. to 

skriuwer [skriuwer] s. writer. 

skroar [skrcer] s. tailor, needle- 

skroarje [skroarje] wv. to make 
clothes, to do sewing-work. 

skroeije [skruie] wv. to scorch. 

skuile [skoeilej wv. to slide ; to 
play at ducks and drakes. 

skrute [skryt8] wv. to be 

skruteu [skryten] adj. easily 

skiif [sky:v] s. move ; slide. 

skurre [skuora] s. barn. 

skutel [skutol] s. plate, dish. 

slach [slax] s. blow, loss ; clap ; 
battle ; kind. 

slachter [slaxtar] s. butcher. 

slaeb [sla:b] s. baby's feeder, 

slaen [sla:n] iv. 250. to beat. 

slagje [slagje] wv. to succeed. 

sleat [sli*9t] s. ditch. 

Sleat Lsli'etJ gn. town in Fries- 

sleau [slioii] adj. indolent, slug- 

slide [slida] s, sledge. 

sliep [sli'9p] s. sleep ; temple. 

sliepe [sli'ape] wv. 246. to sleep. 

slim [slim] adj. bad, evil. 

sUngerje [slirjorje] wv. to sling, 
to swing. 

sliuke [sligke] sv. Ill, d. to 

sliper [slipar] s. grinder, 

slypje [slipje] wv. to sharpen, to 

slite [slita] sv. I, b. to wear 
away; to retail. 

sljucht [slioxt] adj. smooth; 

sljuchtsje [slioxtsja] wv. to 
smoothe, to level. 

sljurkje [sliorkje] wv. to slide. 

slomje [slomJQJ wv. to slumber. 

slomme [slomoj s. slumber. 

slop [slop] adj. slack, limp. 

sluch [slux] adj. sleepy; sluggish. 

sluere [slyaro] wv. to slide. 

slugens [slugaz] s. sleepiness. 

slugert [slugetj s. sleepy-head. 

slugje [slugja] wv. to slumber. 

slupe [slupe] swv. 248. to steal 
along or away. 

slute [slyta] sv. II, b. to close, to 

smarre [smare, sma-ra] lov. to 

smeitsje [smaitsja] wv. 246. to 
taste, to savour. 

smel [smsl] adj. narrow. 

smert(e) [smeta, smst] s. sorrow, 

smeule [sm0:l8] wv. to scorn. 

smite [smita] sv. I, b. to throw. 

sm,oar [smear] sn. grease. 

smoarch [smoar§] adj. dirty. 

smoargens [smoargez] s. dirti- 

smoke [smoika] wv. to smoke. 

smout [smout] adj. sheltered. 

sm.outsjes [smout8Jaz]acZ'u. under 
the lee. 

snappe [snapa] wv. to catch. 

snauwe [snoiia, sno'ua] wv. to 

Snein [snaln] s. Sunday. 

snettei^e [snstarja] tov. to chat- 

snie [sni'a] s. snow. 

suieflok ['sniiflok] s. flake of 

snies [sni'az] sn. score (twenty). 

sniewyt [sni-auit] adj. snow- 

snije [snsia] sv. I, d. to cut. 

snije sneiaj wv. to snow. 



Snits [snits] gn. town in Fries- 
land (in Dutch, Sneek). 

Snjeon [sno'on] s. Saturday. 

snjitte [sniita] wv. to sprinkle. 

snjitterje [sniitarje] wv. to 

snoerje [snuorja] lov. to shut up 
(a person). 

sauflfelje [snofelje] wv. to sniff. 

snuve [sny:va] lov. to sniff. 

soal [so-ell s. sole. 

soal [seel] sn. navigable lane in 

soaltsje [sceltsja] sn. In the 
phrase for 't soaltsje hftlde, 
to make fun of (a person). 

soan [so'8n] s. son. 

soarch [s6ar§] s. care, trouble. 

soargje [soargja] wv. to take 
care; to be afraid. 

sobkje [sobkjs] lov. to suck. 

sok [sok] dem. /w. such. 

soks [soks] dem. pr. such a thing. 

somber [somber] adj. dark, 

somlike [somlake] num. some. 

sommige [somagej num. some. 

soms [somz] adv. sometimes. 

sonder [sondar] prep, without. 

sender det [sondsr dot] conj. 

sent [sont] adv. prep, since. 

sent det [sont dot] conj. since. 

sou [sou] sn. sieve. 

soun [sun] adj. sound, hearty ; 

spanne [spone] wv. to stretch, 
to put to. 

spatte [spota] wv. to spurt, 

speeglich [speiglag] adj. reflect- 

spegel [spe'.gel] s. looking-glass. 

spiele [spi'ela] wv. to rinse, to 
wash up. 

spier [spi'9r] s. rafter. 

spier [spi'QrJ sn. In the phrase 
yn 't spier, at work. 

spierring [spiiraq] s. smelt, 
spije [spsie] sv. I, d. to spit, 
spiker [spiker] s. nail. 
spikerfSst [^spikarfsist] adj. 

clinched and riveted. 
spil [spol] sn. game, play ; 

spylder [spildar] s. player. 
spylje [spilje] wv. to play. 
spylman [^spilmon] s. fiddler, 

spinne [spina] sv. Ill, a. to spin ; 

to purr, 
spitsen [spitsan] s. 195. com- 
spjucht [spioxt] s. woodpecker, 
spjuehtich [spioxta^] adj. lanky. 
splinter [splintarj s. splinter. 
splite [splite] sv. I, b. to cleave, 

to split. 
spoen [spuon] s. chip. 
sprekke [sprska] sv. IV, a. to 

speak ; to boast. 
spriede [spri-ada] uw. 246. to 

springe [spriga] s. Ill, d. to 

stadich [sta:da§] adj. slow, 
stftl [sto:l] s. stable. 
std.lle [sto:la] wv. to stable, to 

stalle [stoila] s. stem, stalk, 

stftn [sto:n] s. position ; yn stftn 

hftlde, to keep up. 
stappe [stapa] suw. 248. to step. 
stean [sti-an] iv. 250. to stand. 

ste:, ste:d] sn. place, 


st^, steed 

stdd [st£:d 

stSdman ['stsdmon] s 
tant of a town. 

stfidshus [stsdz'huiz] sn. town- 

st6d8(k) [ststsk, ststs] adj. 
municipal, townish. 

steger [steigar] s. scaffolding. 

stek [stek] sn. railing. 

stek stek] s. stitch. 



stekke [steko] sv. IV, a. to prick. 
stel [stsl] sn. In phr. op stel, in 

order ; ut stel, indisposed, 
stelle [steda] sv. V, a. to steal. 
sterk [stsrkj «<%'. strong. 
steure [stO'ere] wv. to disturb, 

to care about. 
stichtsje [stixtsje] wv. to found ; 

to edify. 
stiel [sti'8l] m. steel. 
stiemmoer pstii(m)mu'9r] s. 

stien [sti'en] s. stone. 
stiennen [stiinen] adj. {of) stone. 
Stiennen-man [stiinen'mon] 

Xm. statue near Harlingen. 
styfsel [stisel] s. starch. 
stiftsje [stiftsje] wv. to found; 

to edify. 
stiif [sti:v] adj. stiff. 
stiifflst [sti:ffs:st] adj. adv. 

steady, without exception. 
stiivje [sti:vJ8] wv. to starch. 
stik [stik] sn. piece, part, 
stikel [stikoll s. prickle ; thistle. 
stikelbosk ['stikelbosk] sn. 

stil [stil] adj. still, quiet. 
stinne [stine] wv. to gi-oan. 
stins [sti:z] s. castle. 
stirt [stot] s. tail, 
stjer [stisr] s. star. 
stjerre [stiera] sv. Ill, c. to 

stjitte [stiite] wv. 246. to thrust. 
stjonke [stiogkej sv. Ill, d. to 

stjonken [stiorjkan] adj. stink- 
stjUre [stju'9r9] wv. to steer ; to 

stoarje [stoarje] wv. to look, 
stoarm fstoarmj s. storm. 
stobbe [sto'be] s. stump, 
stoel [stu'9l] s. chair. 



s. matter, texture. 
sn. dust. 

st6k [sto:k] s. stick, cane. 

stdkblyn [stoikblin] adj. stone- 

stoomboat [''stombo'et] s. steam- 

stoppel [stopal] s. stubble. 

stove [sto:ve] *'. stove, foot- 

stouwe [stoue] swv. 248. to be 

straffe [strafo] wv. to punish. 

stram [stram] adj. stiff. 

stra.n [stroin] sn. beach, strand. 

streakje [stri'akja] wv. to stroke. 

stride [striida, stride] sv. 1, a. 
to fight. 

strie [stri-a] sn. straw. 

striel [stri'el] s. ray, beam. 

striemin [stri-omin] adj. very 
bad (ill). 

strike [strike] sv. IV, a. to 
strike ; to iron ; to stroke. 

strjitte [striito] s. street. 

strdt [stro:t] s. throat. 

strou [strou] s. pancake. 

struije [stroeio] wv. to strew. 

strupe [strupaj s2^7t;. 248. to strip, 
to skin. 

stuit [stoeit] s. rebound. 

stuit [stoeit sn. moment. 

stuitsje [stceitsjo] wv. to re- 

stumper [stompor] s.poor fellow. 

stur [stu'Or] s. penny. 

such [su:g] s. sow. 

sud [syd] adj. south. 

Suders6 [syder'se:] gn. Zuider- 

suge [su:go] wv. to suck. 

sunder [sundor] pre2). without. 

sunt [sunt] adv. prep, since. 

suntsjes [syntsj9z] adv. softly, 

supe [supo] swv. 248. to tope. 

sur [su'ar] adj. sour. 

sutelje [sytalje] wv. to retail, to 

suver [sy:var] adj. pure. 

suze [syiza] wv. to buzz. 



siizje [sy.zjal wv. to buzz, 
swaei [swa'i] s. swing, turn, 
swaeije [swauo] wv. to swing, 
swan [swon] s. swan, 
swarre [swara] wv. to swear, 
swart [swat] adj. black, 
swartens [swatnz] s. blackness, 
swartrdk ['swatrok] s. black- 
sw6 [swe:] sn. swath, 
sweal [swi'gI] s. swallow, 
swealtsje [sweltsje] sn. swallow, 
swel [swsl] s. swallow, 
swerve [swsrvo] sv. Ill, b. to 

sweve [swe:v9] wv. to float in 

the air. 
swichte [swixto] wv. to yield, to 

give in. 
swier [swi'er] s. swing. 
swier [swi'er adj. heavy, 
swierich [swi'oraf] adj. elegant. 
swiersettich [swi'ar^ssteg] adj. 

swiet [swi'et] adj. sweet. 
swietkes [swi'atkaz] adv. softly. 
swietsjes [swi-etsjazj adv. softly, 
swifte [swifte] wv. to yield, to 

give in. 
swije [swsie] stov. I, d. 248. to 

be silent, 
swylje [swiljo] vw. to rake (hay). 
swym [swim] s. semblance ; nin 

swym, nothing. 
swimme [swima] sv. Ill, d. to 

swinge [swiqa] s. cross-beam, 
swinke [swirjke] wv. to turn, 
swird [swod] sn. sword, 
swirk [swork] sn. welkin. 
swit [swit] sn. sweat. 

ta [ta] adv. to, towards ; shut, 
tachtich [taxteg] num. eighty. 
taei ta'i] adj. tough. 
tael ta:lj s. speech, language. 

tahaide ['tahoida] sv. VII, c. to 

keep shut. 
tajaen ['tajam] iv. 250. to grant, 
take [taika] wv. to steal. 
takomme ['takoma] sv. IV, b. 

to have a right to ; to obtain, 
takomst [/takomst] s. future, 
tamiette ['tamiitaj sv. II, b. to 

tantsje [tontsja] wv. to sound, 
tapje [tapja] wv. to tap. 
taroppe ['tarope] sv. VII, b. to 

cry to. 
tarre [tara, ta-ra] vw. to spend, 

to consume, 
tasjen ['tasisn] sv. II, c. to look 

on, to watch, 
tastean ['tasti'an] iv. 250. to 

tatinke [^tatigka] iv. 250. to 

team(e) [ti-ama, ti-am] s. bridle; 

tean [ti'an] s. toe. 
teane [ti-ana] wv. to show. 
tear [ti-ar] s. fold, 
tear ti'ar adj. tender. 
teare [ti-ara] wv. to fold; to 

tui'n turtle, 
teije [taia] wv. to thaw. 
teiken [taikon] sn. token, sign. 
teikenje [taikanja] wv. to sign, 

to draw. 
tek [tek] sn. covering, thatch. 
teken [teikan] sn. token, sign. 
tekenje [teikanja] wv. to sign, 

to draw. 
tekspier [^tskspi-ar] s. rafter. 
telle [tela] wv. to count, 
teltsje [teltsja] sn. tale. 
tepyt [ta'pit] sn. carpet. 
terp [tsrp] s. mound, terp. 
tersk [tssk] s. thrashing. 
terskftier [^teskfii'ar] s. thrash- 
terskje [tsskja] wv. to thrash. 
th6 [te:] s. tea. 
thus [tys] adv. at home. 



tichelje [tixalje] wv. to make 

ticht [tixt] adj. close, dense. 
ticht(e) [tixta, tixt] adv. near, 
tichthus ['tixthysj 5W. prison. 
tydlik [tidlek] adj. temporal, 

tydlings ['tidl9r)z] adv. at times. 
tiergje [tiirgje] wv. to tear, to 

tige rti:g9, tigo] adv. very, 
tiid [ti:d] s. time. 
Tiisdei ptiizdi] s. Tuesday. 
tikje [tikjo] wv. to tick, 
tiksel [tiksel] s. shaft. 
tille [tile] wv. to lift. 
tille [til9 s. small fixed bridge. 
tillieh [tilQ^adj. erect. 
timmerman ptimarmon] s. car- 
tin [tin] adj. thin. 
tine [tine] s. milk-basin. 
tine tine s. tine. 
tine [tinej wv. to swell, 
tinke [tirjke] iv. 250. to think. 
tins [ti:z] s. thought. 
tjems [tiemz] s. hair-sieve. 
tjilling [tiller)] s. teal. 
to te] adv. too. 
to [te prep, to, at. 
toaije [to'io] wv. 246. to carry 

(heavy burdens). 
toalf, toalve [tolv, tolve] num. 

toalfte [tolfte] num. twelfth, 
toan [to'8n] s. tone. 
toar [toar] adj. dry, barren. 
toarst [to'8st] s. thirst. 
toarstich [tcesteg] adj. thirsty. 
tobbe [to'ba] s. tub. 
tobek [te'bsk] adv. backward. 
tobite [te'bito] sv. I, b. to 

tobrekke [ta'brsko] sv. IV, a. to 

tocht [toxt] sn. while. 
toer [tu'orj s. tower, steeple. 
toerre [tuore] s. beetle. 

tofreden [te'freiden] adj. con- 

togearre [te'gisra] adv. both, 
between them. 

togoede [te'gu'ada] adv. to the 

tdgje [toigjo] wv. 246. to carry 
(heavy burdens). 

tokke [toke] s. branch. 

toknieze [te'kni'eza] wv. to 

tokoart [to'koart] sn. shortage. 

wv. to grind. 
adv. In phr. 

tomealle [te'misle 

tomiette [te'miite' 

tomiette komme, to come to 

tomme [tome] s. thumb. 

tommelje [tomolje] vw. to 

tonei [te'nai] adv. afterwards. 

tonge [tor)o] s. tongue. 

tonger [toger] s. thunder. 

tongerje [togerje] wv. to thun- 

Tongersdei ['to:zdi] s. Thurs- 

tonne [tone] s. tun, ton. 

torjuehte [te'rioxto] adv. In 
phr. torjuehte wize, to in- 

tosk [tosk] s. tooth, tusk. 

toskoerre [te'skiiore] wv. to 
tear to pieces. 

tou [tou] sn. string, end, rope, 

toudounsje ['touduisje] wv. to 

touwerfleach ['toiierfli'eg] s. 
gust of wind. 

traepje [tra:pje] wv. to tread. 


trs:d] s. tread. 
trsidj num. third, 
trgddeheal [trside'hi-el] num. 

two and a half. 
tr6ddel [trsidel] num. two and 

a half. 
trSdderlei [trsider'lai] adj. of 
three sorts. 



trefiFe [trsfo] sv. Ill, d. to hit. 

trekke [trske] sv. IV, a. to pull, 
to draw. 

trettjin [trstJ9n] num. thirteen. 

trettjinde [trstjandej num. thir- 

trie(d) [tri-ad, tri'8] s. thread. 

trien [tri-en] s. tear. 

trije [tr£i9] num. three. 

trijekleur ['trsiaklS'ar] s. tri- 

trilje [trilja] uw. to tremble. 

trime [trima] s. rung. 

Tryn, Tryntsje [trin, trintsje] 

tritich [trit8§] num. thirty. 

triuwe [triuwe] sv. I, c. to 

troaije [trcie] wv. to lead softly; 
to caress. 

troan [trcan] s. throne. 

troanje [troajio] s. face. 

troch [trox] adv. 2)rep. through. 

trochdet [tro'dotl conj. because. 

troch de wei det [tro da uai dot] 
conj. because. 

trochdriuwe ['tro(g)driuw8] sv. 
I, c. to drive through. 

trochkomme [''tro(x)kom8] sv. 
rV, b. to get through. 

trochreed [''tro(x)re:d] s. pas- 

trochsette ['tro(x)s£t8] tov. to 
push on. 

trochwiet [tro(g)ui'8t] adj. wet 

tromme [trome] s. drum. 

trou [trou] adj. true, trusty. 

trouwe [trO'uo] wv. to marry. 

trouwers [trciiez] s. 195. wed- 
ding pair. 

tsien [tsi'8n] num. ten. 

tsiende [tsi-enda] num. tenth. 

tsiere [tsi-ere] wv. to quarrel. 

tsiis [tsi:z] s. cheese. 

tsjalk [tsjolk] s. tjalk (kind of 

tsjef [tsjsf] sn. chaff. 

tsjen [tsisn] sv. II, c. to march, 
to go. 

tsjep [tsjsp] adj. comely. 

tsjeppens [tsjspaz] s. grace. 

tsjerke [tsjerko] .<(. church. 

tsjerkfoud [''tsjsrkfoud] s. 

tsjerkhdf [^tsjsrkhof] sw. church- 

tsjerne [tsjsne] s. churn. 

tsjernje [tsjsjie] iw. to chum. 

tsjilpje [tsjilpja] ww. to chirp. 

tsjin [tsiin] adv. prep, against. 

tsjinje [tsiina] wv. to serve. 

tsjinprate ['tsiimpraita] wv. to 

tsjinst [tsiist] s. service. 

tsjinwirdich [tsii'uod8§:, tsKi- 
''uor§] adv. at present. 

tsijirmje [tsiirmje] uw. to cry, to 

tsjoed [tsju'od] adj. bad, ill. 

tsjoene [tsju-ena] uw. to over- 
look, to bewitch. 

tsjoenster [tsju'ester] s. witch. 

tsjok [tsjok] adj. thick. 

tsjoksel [tsjoksal] s. kind of 

tsjotterje [tsjotarja] wv. to 

tsjuk [tsjuk] adj. thick. 

tsjuster [tsjostar] adj. dark. 

tiich [ty:g] sn. rigging, harness. 

tiich tyx] sn. trash, dust, weed. 

tuge [ty:g9] wv. to rig; to 

tuke [tuke] s. branch. 

tule [tyla] s. gauze. 

tume [tume] s. thumb. 

tumelje [tumelja] wv. to tumble. 

tun [tyn] s. garden. 

tune [tun9] s. tun, ton. 

Turk [tOrk]^. Turk. 

tusken [toskan] adv. prep, be- 

tuzen [tu:z8n] mim. thousand. 

twa [two:] num. two. 

twadde [twa da] num. second. 



twastriid [^twastriid] s. inde- 

tweintich [twainteg] num. 

tweintichste [twaintexste] 
num. twentieth. 

twer [twsr] adj. loath, loathing. 

twiebak ['tw(i)ibak] s. biscuit. 

twiich [twi:g] s. twig. 

twinge [twiqe] sv. Ill, d. to 

twingerij [twirja'rsi] s. tyranny. 

twjilling [tw(i)il9r)] s. twin. 

twjirre [tw(i)ir9] s. whirlwind. 

twisken [twisken] adv. prep. 

twiskenbeiden [twiskan'bai- 
danj adv. now and then ; pass- 


ule [ulo] s. owl. 

uleboerd [^ulabu-ad] sn. tri- 
angular end-board on the ridge 

of a barn. 
under [under] adv. prep, under, 

down, among. 
underhans [undar'hoiz] adv. by 

private contract. 
underskate [undor'skaito] adj. 

different, various. 
underst [undast] adj. In phr. de 

underste kou, the first from 

the outer door. 
underwiles [under'uilaz] adv. 

unt- [unt]. See ont-. 
ure [u'arej s. hour, 
us " 

yz] poss. pr. our. 
yt] adv. prep, out, from. 
litboeid ['ydbuid] adj. bandy- 
utbringe ['ydbriqe] iv. 250. to 

bring out. 
ut-doar [''y(d)do'8r] s. outer 

uterje [yterje] wv. to utter. 

uterlik [yterlsk] adv. outward, 

to all appearance, 
litfenhus [ytfan'huiz] adv. 

(=from home), as a guest or 

utfenhuzer [ytfen^huizer] s. 

utfenhu^e [ytfen'huizje] wv. to 

stay as a guest. 
utgean ['ytxi'en] iv. 250. to go 

uthalde [^ythoida] sv. VII, c. 

to suffer, to hold out ; to main- 
lithelje ['ythsljo] wv. to play 

utkomme [''ytkome] sv. IV, b. to 

come out. 
litmeitsje ['ytmaitsja] wv. 246. 

to make out ; to finish ; to 

litmiette ['ytmiita] sv. II, b. to 

mete out. 
litrekke [''ytrske] sv. IV, a. to 

stretch out. 
utrolje ['ytro:lJ9] MJv. to unroll. 
litslaen ['ytslainj sv. VI, a. to 

beat out. 
litstean [''ytsti'en] iv. 250. to 

endure ; to have to do with. 


waeije [uaue] lov. to blow. 
waeksdom puaiksdom] s. 

waekse [uaikse] sv. VI, c. to 

waer [ua:r] sn. weather. 
waerm [ua:rm] adj. warm. Hy 

sit der waerm by, he is a 

well-to-do man. 
waermte [ua-rmte, uarmte] s. 

waersiik [''ua:rsi:k] adj. out of 

sorts through the state of the 

wakker [uaker] adv. very. 



wal [uo:!] s. water-side. 

wald [uo:d] sn. wood, forest. 

Walden [uordan] gn. wooded 
districts in the east of Fries- 

walgje [uolgja] wv. to disgust, 
to loathe. 

wan [uon] adj. wrong. 

wang [uag] sn. cheek. 

war [uar] s. In phr. yen to war 
stelle, to oflFer resistance. 

warber [uarbar] adj. diligent. 

warleas ['uarli-ez] adj. helpless. 

warre (yen) [ji uare] wv. to do 
one's best. 

wart [vat] s. wart. 

wasker [uoskarl s. washer. 

waskje [uoskje] sv. VII, b. to 

weach [ui-ag] s. wall, back- wall 
of the bed. 

weach [weg] s. wave. 

weage [ui-ega] sv. VI, a. to 

weagje [ui'GgjeJ wv. to wave. 

weagje [ui'SgjaJ vjv. to venture, 
to risk. 

weak [ui-ek] adj. soft. 

weakje [uiskja] wv. to soak. 

wearzgje [ui'ezgja] vjv. to dis- 
gust, to loathe. 

wedzje [usdzje] wv. to lay a 

weet [ve:t] s. wheat. 






ue:g9rJ8] lov. to refuse 
uaij s. way. 
uai adv. away, lost. 
weiflterje ['ualfiterja] wv. 

drive off. 
wein [uain] s. wain, waggon, 
weitsje [uaitsje] wv. 248. 

weiwirde [^uaiuoda] sv. Ill, e. 

to get away, 
wekker [uskar] adj. awake, 
wenje [uejie] wv. to live, to re- 
wenne [uene] iw. to accustom. 

wenst [usist] s. custom. 

went(e) [uenta, uent] s. house. 

wer [usr] adv. again, back. 

werbringe [^us(r)brir)9] iv. 250. 
to bring back. 

werdwaen ['u£(r)dwa'n] iv.250. 
to do once more. 

werjaen ['i;e(r)ja:n] iv. 250. to 
return, to restore. 

weromjaen [usr'omjam] iv. 250. 
to give back. 

werom [usr'om] adv. back. 

weromkomme [usr^omkomajav. 
IV, b. to return. 

werpe [u£rp9] sv. Ill, b. to cast, 
to throw. 

westen [usstan] sn. west. 

westerrea(d) ['u£st8rri'8(d)] sn. 
evening sky. 

wet [ust] s. law. 

wetgelearde ['ustgeli-ada] s. 

wetter [ustar] sn. water. 

wetterfloed pueterflu'ad] s. in- 

Wetterlan ['ustarloin] gn. 
watery districts in Friesland. 

weve [ug:v9] lov. to weave. 

w6ze [u£:z9j iv. 250. to be. 

w6zen [u£:z9n] sn. existence. 

wy [u£i, ui] 2>^rs. pr. we. 

widdou J/uidou] s. widow. 

widner [uidn9rj s. widower. 

widze [uidz9] s. cradle. 

widzeliet ['uidz9li'9t] «?*. cradle- 

widzje [uidzjg] wv. to cradle. 

wiel [ui'9l] s. pool. 

wier [ui'9rj adj. true. 

wierheid Pmirhaid] s. truth. 

wiet [ui'9tj adj. wet. 

wiette [uiit9] s. wetness. 

wif [uifj adj. unstable, uncer- 

wyfke [uifk9] sn. female. 

wiggelje [uig9lJ9] vw. to rock. 

wild [ui:d] adj. wide. 

wiif [ui:v] sn. woman, wife. 



wiis [uiiz] at^j. wise. 
wye [usiaj wv. to devote. 
wike [uika] s. week. 
wike uikoj wv. to retire, to re- 
wikel [uikel] s. kestrel. 
wyks [uiks] adv. weekly. 
wyld [uildl adj. wild. 
wiles [uilazl adv. meanwhile. 
wilewalje [^uileualja] wv. to 

wille [uila] s. pleasure, 
wylst [uilst] conj. whilst. 
wyn [uin] s. wine. 
wyn uin s. wind, 
wynderje [^uinderja] wv. to 

make wind. 
wine [uine] sv. Ill, a. to wind, 

to turn. 
winke [uirjke] sv. Ill, d. to 

winne [vine] sv. Ill, a. to 

wynsel [uT:s9l] sn. bandage, 
wynsk fui:sk] adj. wry. 
winter [uinter] s. winter. 
winterdei ['uintardai] s. winter 

winterdei [uinter'dai] adv. in 

wireh [uor§] adj. worth ; tired, 

wird [uod] sn. word. 
wirdboek ['uodbuk] sn. diction- 
wirde [uode, uora] sv. Ill, e. to 

wirdearje [ue'dierje] wv. to 

wirdich [uSd8§] adj. worth. 
wirk [uork] sn. work, 
wirkje [uorkja] tov, to work, 
wirkmaster ['uorkmaster] s. 

agent, doer, 
wyt [pit] adj. white. 
witeTuita] iv. 249. to know, 
wite [uite] sv. I, b. to blame. 
witnis [uitnaz] s. knowledge. 

wytsje [uitsja] wv. to white- 

witte [uita] iv. 249. to know. 

wize [uiiza] s. tune ; fen 'e wize 
w§ze, to be flurried. 

wize [ui:za] wv. to show. 

wjergeade ^msrgi'ada] s. equal. 

wjerhalde uisr'noida] sv. VII, 
c. to refrain. 

wjerkoaije ['uisrko-ia] wv. 246. 
to ruminate. 

wjerljocht [^uielioxt] s. light- 
ning. _ 

wjerskyn ['uie(r)skin] s. re- 

wjerstean [ui£(r)'sti'8n] iv. 250. 
to resist. 

wjirje [uiirja] wv. to (expose to 
the) air. 

wjirm [uiirm] s. worm. 

wjudde [uioda] wv. to weed. 

wjuk [uiok] s. wing. 

wjuk [uiokj int. 

wjukkelje [uiokalja] wv. to 

wjukwapperje [^mokuaparja] 
wv. to flap the wings. 

Woansdei [ua:zdi] s. Wednes- 

woartel [uoatal] s. root ; carrot. 

woast [ucest] adj. desolate, 

woelje [uuolja] wv. to wind 

wol fuol] s. wool. 

wol [uolj adv. well. 

wolbisteld [^uolbesteld] adj. 

wolf [uolf, uolv] s. wolf. 

wolfeart Puolfi-at] s. welfare. 

wolk(en) [uolken, uolk] s. cloud. 

wolkom ['uolkom] adj. wel- 

wolle [uole] iv. 250. to be will- 

wolmienend [uol'mi- onend ] adj. 

wonder [uondar] sn. wonder. 

wraggelje [uragelje] t 

wrak urakl sn. wreck, 
iwrak urakj adj. shaky. 
wrakselje [urakselje] wv. to 

wrald [uro:d] s. world. 


V. to 


wreed [ure:d adj. cruel; rough. 
wrine [urina s. coverlet. 
wringe [uriqo] sv. Ill, d. to 

wriuwe [uriuwe] sv. I, c. to 

wiinder [uunder] sn. wonder. 



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