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Full text of "The phonology of the Pistojese dialect .."

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THE PHONOLOGY 



OP THE 



PISTOJESE DIALECT 



DISSERTATION 

PRESENTED TO THE BOARD OF UNIVERSITY STUDIES 

OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY FOR THE 

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



BY 



JAMES DOWDEN BRUNER 



BALTIMORE 

The Modern Lanouage Association of America. 

1894 



• • • « 



. t * *„ 



THE PHONOLOGY 



OF THE 



PISTOJESE DIALECT 



DISSERTATION 

PRESENTED TO THE BOARD OF UNIVERSITY STUDIES 

OF THE JOHNS HOPKINS UNIVERSITY FOR THE 

DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY 



BY 

JAMES DOWDEN BRUNER 







baltimore 
The Modern Language Association of America. 

1894 




JOHN MURPHY & CO., PRINTERS, 



BALTIMORE. 



[Reprinted from the Publications of the Modern Language Association of 
America, vol. IX, No. 4.] 



PC \M 
87 



TO 

PROFESSOR A. MARSHALL ELLIOTT, 

OP 

The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland, 

who has been not only my kind and 

efficient instructor, but also 

my true and constant 

FRIEND, 
THIS MONOGRAPH IS GRATEFULLY DEDICATED. 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Page. 

Signs of Transcription vii 

Introduction 1 

Bibliography 3 

Chapter I: Vowels 7 

1. a 7 

2. e 12 

3. e 13 

4. i 24 

5. o 29 

6. p 31 

7. u 35 

8. au 38 

Chapter II: Consonants 39 

A. Labials 39 

1. V 39 

2. pp 40 

3. 6 40 

4. bb 42 

5./ 42 

6. /. 43 

7. v 43 

3. w 44 

B. Dentals 45 

1. t 45 

2. it 51 

3. d 51 

4. dd 54 

5. th 54 

V 



T'&'TS'E 




vi Table of Contents. 

Page. 

C. Sibilants 54 

1. « 54 

2. ss 57 

3. z 57 

D. Liquids 58 

1.1 58 

2. II. 65 

3. r 66 

E. Nasals 70 

1. m 70 

2. mm '1 

3.« 71 

4. nn 75 

F. Gutturals 76 

1. Palatal c' 76 

2. Velar c 77 

3. Palatal at/ 82 

4. Velar cc 82 

5. ch 83 

6. Palatal g' 83 

7. Velar g 84 

8. Velar q («) ■ 85 

9. x (As) 86 

10. Spirant j 87 

11. Aspirate h °7 



SIGNS OF TRANSCRIPTION. 



Vowels. 



e = closed e of the Italian. 
e = open e " " " 
o = closed o " " 



u 



o = onen o " " " 



= open p 



II. Consonants. 



c (k) = voiceless velar. 

g = voiced " 

c' = palatal c. 

9' = " g. 

p = voiceless th in think. 

S = voiced th in thine. 

o = voiceless ch in church. 

g = voiced c=j in June. 

V =gl of the Italian. 

n' =gn" " " 

s = voiced s. 

z =ts. 

$ = voiceless sh in shine. 

z = voiced s. 

z = « z. 



J. D. B. 

Vll 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE 
DIALECT. 

Introduction. 

The Dialect of Pistoja and of the Pistojese mountains 
forms one of the group of Tuscan dialects. The writer spent 
six months in 1892 at Pistoja and in the villages of the Pisto- 
jese mountains, in order to collect material for the following 
monograph, which is based chiefly on the patois spoken by the 
natives of this district. 

My purpose in this study is two-fold : to consider the dia- 
lect first from an historical and a physiological point of view ; 
and secondly in comparison with other Tuscan (Italian) dia- 
lects. The sources at my disposal were the MSS. of the 
libraries and cathedrals of Florence and Pistoja; private MSS. 
and publications ; the speech of the people of Pistoja and of 
the peasants of the Pistojese mountains. At Florence I found 
seven MSS. 1 in the Pistojese vernacular, one of the xiii cent- 
ury, dated 1259 (six years before the birth of Dante); the 
remaining six are of the xiv century. 2 At Pistoja I found 
several MSS. and a considerable amount of printed matter. 
The most important MS. noted here is that of Albertano da 

1 Two of these MSS. were published by me in Modern Language Notes, vol. 
vnr, cols. 208-214. 

* I wish here to acknowledge my indebtedness to Signor E. G. Parodi, of 
the Istituto di Sludi Superiori di Firenze, who kindly helped me to avail my- 
self of these MSS. 

1 



25 J. D. BRITNER. 

Brescia, bearing the date of 1268. It was published by Ciampi 
at the beginning of the present century. Another valuable 
MS., which I propose to publish in the near future, is the 
Apochalisis di Iohani, probably of the XIV century. Of the 
publications, the most interesting are those of Prof. Gherardo 
Nerucci,the Sonetti Popolari (1890) of Alfredo Pasquali, and 
especially the anonymous Pratica della Grammatica per le 
Scuo'e Elementari del Circondario di Pistoja, 1887. 

After collecting all the MSS. and printed material I could 
control, my attention was turned to the speech of the people, 
in order to verify the pronunciation of what I had already 
obtained from the printed page or from script, and to supple- 
ment this material by drawing directly on the vernacular of 
the country. To this end I spent about two months in the 
hospitable and beautiful home, only two miles distant from 
Pistoja, of Signor Gherardo Nerucci, a retired professor, who 
has written several valuable works in the patois. To his 
kindly assistance I owe much of my material ; he not only 
supplied me with his own books, and made it possible for me 
to converse freely with the peasants on his own farm, but also 
introduced me at Pistoja to the professors and librarians, and 
aided me in procuring lodgings in private families where I 
was sure to hear the patois in its purity. 

During July and August I lived at Cutigliano, a pleasant 
little village in the Pistojese mountains near San Marcello. 
Wherever I went abundant opportunities presented them- 
selves for hearing the natives speak their dialect. Since the 
literary language is taught in all the schools, the patois is 
gradually dying out ; in fact one cannot get the dialect in its 
absolute purity except from the older inhabitants, and espe- 
cially from the old women. 

In the following monograph I have proved that the orthog- 
raphy of the MSS. is phonetic ; by the side of the old MS. 
forms are put the modern products, just as they are pronounced 
by the people to-day. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY. 



I. PlSTOJESE. 

XIIIc. 

1. Documento Pistojese del 1259. Firenze, R. Archivio di 
Stato, scrittura originate, edita da F. Berlan nel Propugnatore 
IX, 255 l (MS. 1259). 

2. Volgarizzamento dei Trattati Morali di Albertano Giu- 
dice di Brescia da Soffredi del Grazia notaro Pistoiese. Fatto 
innanzi al 1278, Trovato da Sebastiano Ciampi. Firenze, 
1832 (AL). 

3. Le Rime di Oino da Pistoja, ed. da Bindi e Fanfani, 
Pistoja, 1878 (Cino). 

XIVc. 

1. MS. No. 1. Pistoia, 1307, di Luglio, cart, 2 (MS. 1307). 

2. MS. No. 2. Allogazione di una bottega di prestiti a 
pegno, Pistoja, cart., 1397, sett. 30, ott, 1 2 (MS. 1397). 

3. Statuti di S. Jacopo di Pistoja volgarizzati Vanno 
MCCCXIII da Bellebuoni. Pubblicati da S. Ciampi, Pisa, 
1814 (J.). 

4. Istorie Pistoled daWanno MCCC al MCCCXLVIII, 
Prato, 1835 (I. P.). 

5. MS. 1311-1338, Archivio di Stato di Firenze (MS. 
1311). 

6. MS. 1330, Archivio di Stato di Firenze (MS. 1330). 

7. MS. 1339, Archivio di Stato di Firenze (MS. 1339). 

8. MS. 1362, Archivio di Stato di Firenze (MS. 1362). 

1 Also published by E. Monaci in bis Crestornazia italiana dei primi secoli, 
pp. 160-1. 

2 Published by me in Mod. Lang. Notes, vol. vni, cols. 207-12. 



4 J. D. BRUNER. 

9. Meditatione sulla poverty di Santo Francesco, Pistoia, 1 847 
(8. Fr.). 

10. L' Apocalisse, MS. esistente nell' Archivio Capitolare 
della Cattedrale di Pistoia (Ap.). 

XVc. 

1. Capitoli della Gabella de Vino fatti per la citta di Pistoia 
nel 1444, MS. Biblioteca Forteguerri, Pistoja, E. 382 (MS. 
1444). 

XVIc. 

1. Capitoli dell' Opera di S. Pier Maggiore di Pistoia, del 
1511, MS. Biblioteca Forteguerri, Pistoja (MS. 1511). 

2. Capitoli dell' Opera di San Pier Maggiore di Pistoia, di 
nuovo compilati nel 1535, MS. Biblioteca Forteguerri, Pistoja, 
E. 374 (MS. 1535). 

3. Capitoli della Gabella del Yino per gli anni 1 542 e 1543, 
MS. Biblioteca Forteguerri, Pistoja, E. 382 (MS. 1542). 

XVIIIc. 

1. Lori, Jacopo, La Festa, pubbl. Pistoia, 1880. 

2. Lori, Jacopo, Serenata, pubbl. Pistoia, 1889. 

3. Lori, Jacopo, ha Ilea di Polito, con annotazioni filo- 
logiche di Pietro Fanfani, Pistoia, 1870 (If.). 

XIXc. 

1. Le Selve della Montagna Pistoiese, canti tre, dell' Ab. 
Giuseppe Tigri, Pistoia, 1844 (Selve). 

2. Vocabolario dell' Uso Toscano corapilato da Pietro Fan- 
fani, Firenze, 1863 (Efeo). 

3. Saggio di uno Studio sopra il Vernacolo montalese da 
Gherardo Nerucci, Milano, 1465 (&)• 

4. Guida della Montagna Pistoiese con una carta topogra- 
jica, Pistoia, 1868. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 5 

5. Voci e Maniere del Parlar Fiorentino di Pietro Fanfani, 
Firenze, 1870 (V. and M.). 

6. Cincelle da Bambini da Gherardo Nerucci, Pistoia, 1881 
(C). 

7. Pratica della Grammatica per le scuole elementari del 
circondario di Pistoia, proposta da un Pistoiese, Pistoia, 1887 
{Gr. P.). 

8. Delizie del Parlar e Toscano di Giambattista Giuliani, 
Firenze, 1889. 

9. Due Letter e di un Montanino Pistoiese, pubbl. da A. 
Chiappelli, Pistoia, 1889 (Due Lett.). 

10. Sonetti Popolari da Alfredo Pasquali, Pistoia, 1890. 

11. Sessanta Novelle Popolari Montalesi da Gherardo 
Nerucci, Firenze, 1890. 

II. General. 

1. ArcMvio Glottologico Ltaliano, Ascoli (A. G.). 

2. Biondelli, B., Saggio sui dialetti gallo-italici, Milano, 
1853. 

3. Brugmann, K., Comparative Grammar of the Indo- Ger- 
manic Languages, translated from the German by Joseph 
Wright, Strassburg and New York, 1888 (Compar. Gram.). 

4. Caix, Origini della Lingua Poetica Ltaliana, Firenze, 
1880 (Origini). 

5. Caix, Dialetti d } Ltalia, Parma, 1872 (Dial. d'Ltal). 

6. Caix, Studi di Etimologia Ltaliana e Romanza, Firenze, 
1878 (Studi). 

7. Fernow, Romische Studien, vol. 3, Zurich, 1806-8 (Rom. 
Stud.). 

8. Gellrich, Lntelligenza, Breslau, 1883 (Intell.). 

9. Grober, G., Grundriss der Romanischen Philologie, Strass- 
burg, 1886. 

10. Hirsch, " Laut- und Formenlehre des Dialekts von 
Siena," in Zeitschrift fur Romanische Philologie, IX, X (Zs., 
IX, X). 



b J. D. BRUNER. 

11. Korting, G., Lateinisch-romanisches Worlerbuch, Pader- 
born, 1891 (Wb.). 

12. Lippi, L., II Malmantile Racquistato, di Perlone Zipoli, 
Mila.no, 1807 (Mai. Mac). 

13. Longfellow, H. W., " Italian Dialects," in North Ameri- 
can Review, vol. 35 (N. Amer. Rev.). 

14. Mariani, Fr., "Assetta," in Teatro Italiano Antico, vol. 
X, Milano, 1809-12. 

15. Meyer-Liibke, W., Italienische Grammatik, Leipzig, 
1890 (Ital. Gram.). 

16. Meyer-Liibke, Grammaire des Langues Romanes, Tra- 
duction francaise par E. Rabiet, Paris, 1890 (Gram. Rom.). 

17. Modern Language Notes, A. Marshall Elliott, Manag- 
ing Editor, Baltimore (Mod. Lang. Notes). 

18. Monaci, E., Crestomazia Italiana dei Primi Secoli, Citta 
di Castello, 1889 (Crest). 

19. Mussafia, Beitrdge zur Kunde der norditalienischen 
Mundarten im 15. Jahrhundert, Wien, 1873 [Beitrdge). 

20. Papanti, G., / parlari italiani in Certaldo, Livorno, 
1875. 

21. Parodi, E. G., Dialetti Toscani, Romania, XVIII. 

22. Pieri, S., " Fonetica del dialetto lucchese," in Archivio 
Glottologico Italiano, XII (A. G., XII). 

23. Pieri, S., " Fonetica del dialetto pisano," in Archivio 
Glottologico Italiano, XII (A. G., XII). 

24. Puccino, Cento Sonetti in Vernacolo Fiorentino, Firenze, 
1890 ( C. Son.). 

25. Romania, Paris. 

26. Salvioni, Fonetica del Dialetto Moderno della cittd di 
Milano, Torino, 1884 (Dial. Mod.). 

27. Seelmann, E., Die Aussprache des Latein, Heilbronn, 
1885. 

28. Schneegans, Laute und Lautentwiclcelung des Sicilian- 
isches Dialectes, Strassburg, 1888 (Sicil. Dial.). 

29. Schuchardt, H., Der Vokalismus des Vidgdrlateins, 3 
vols., Leipzig, 1866 (Vokalismus). 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 7 

30. Tanfucio, Cento Sonetti in Vernacolo Pisano, Firenze, 
1872 (C. Son.). 

31. Wendriner, Die Paduanische Mundart bei Rusante, 
Breslau, 1889 (Pad. Mund). 

32. Zarnbaldi, Vocabolario Etimologico Italiano, Citta di 
Castello, 1889. 

33. Zehle, H., Laut- und Flexionslehre in Dante's Divina 
Commedia, Marburg, 1886 (Laut- und Flex.). 

34. Zeilschrift fur Romanische Pkilologie, G. Grober, Halle 
(Zs.). 

35. Zuccagni-Orlandini, A., Raccolta di Dialetti Italiani, 
Firenze, 1864 (Race). 



VOWELS, 



§ 1. Tonic a. 
(a) a remains. 

1. -ario, the learned form, is found in old Pistojese where 
the modern has -ajo : operario (J., 3). 

2. -aro, half-learned: ventaliaro (Gr. P., 43). — Cf. Luc. 
calsolaro, capettaro, Race, 246. 

3. -are: cavattare (Rice, 5). 

4. -aio is found in old Pistojese : denaio (I. P., 437). — Cf. 
Luc. denaio, B. Luc, 12. 

5. -ajo, half-learned: boajo (j = ii)} 

6. -aglio 2 is used along the valley of the Lima, particularly 
from Cutigliano to the Lucchese mountains. Most of my 
examples are taken from the Mea di Polito : 3 gennaglio 
(31. 8), acciaglio 12, staglio 16, agoraglio 25, merciaglio, mer- 
daglio, acquaglio 30, macellaglio 43, pollaglio 91, carbonaglio 

1 cf. Petrocchi, Vocab. Pron. e Orl., p. X. 

2 cf. Caix, Dial, d'llal, p. 210, n. 2. 3 cf. Introduction. 



VE&SIT 



8 J. D. BRUNER. 

108, Feraglio (Due Lett., 19), liscaglio (Uso, 49); paglio pSrium 
(M. 23) is not a suffix. — Cf. Luc. febbraglio, Race, 253, gra- 
naglio, fornaglio. 1 

7. -aglia: grondaglia (M. 92), migliaglia 102, anguinaglia 
( Uso, 505), fungaglia, poveraglia. 2 

(b) a > e: deva (31. 5), andeva (N. 123) and stem 160 are 
formed by analogy with verbs of the second conjugation, 
though Wentrup (Neapol. 31undart, 7) 3 cites the correspond- 
ing Neapolitan forms fteva and steva as examples of phonetic 
change. — Cf. Sen. dea, stea ; 4 — Luc. devo, stevo, andevo ; 5 — 
Pis. devo, andevo. 6 

(c) a>e. 

1. Before n: dechiarendo (MS. 1444), trionfente (C. 25) and 
sanguinente 26 are formed by analogy with the second conju- 
gation. — Cf. Sen. lavorente. 1 

2. Before r : sberno exbraniim (31. 43) and peri pariiim 
(I. P., 466) are Gallicisms ; the e in eria (8., 6), found only 
in alVeria, is due to dissimilation ; era < ariam : primer a- 
[??ienfe] Al., 75, lumera (Cino, 228), manera 184. 

(d) a>ie. 

-ieri < -aritim, under French influence, 8 is a very common 
form in both old and modern Pistojese : consilieri (Al. 41), 
pe7isiei*i 58, gabelUeri, gonfalonieri (J. 9), cancellieri 11, ter- 
zieri 24, sparvieri 29, destrieri (I. P. 6), forestierl 451, staffieri 
(Rice., 7), mazieri 60, aversieri (31. 50), cavalieri 68, cimieri, 
arcieri 68, n., levrieri (8. 94), par avieri 110, carubinieri 116, 
camberieri (C. 60), barbieri (N. 12), currkri 14, perruclxleri 
2S0,giardinieri (Gr. P. 10), panieri 13, quartieri 16,meschieri 
17, brigadieri 23. — Cf. Sen. cancellieri, candelieri, carnieri, 
cavalieri, cellieri, conseglieri, destrieri, dispensieri, enfermieri, 

l A. G., XII, 116. 

'Giuliani, Deliz. d. Pari. Tosc, XI, 340. 
3 A. G., IV, 147. 4 Zs., IX, 433-4. 

14. G., XII, 109. 6 /Wd., 142. 7 Zs., IX, 520. 

s For another explanation cf. Ascoli, A. G. I, 484-5, n., and Canello, 
A. G. Ill, 301. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 9 

foredieri, fornieri, gonfalonieri, ingegnieri, leggieri, mestieri, 
panieri, pel(l)egrinieri, pensieri, scardazzieri, spezieri, verzieri; 1 
— Luc. forestieri B. Luc, 38, banchieri 71, vinactieri 72, ovrieri 
101, Droghieri (Race. 248); — Sioil. pimpieri, argentieri, curri- 



eri, cammerieri. 2 



Variants. 



(a) a > i: brindolo O. H. G. brato (S. 7). 

(b) a (+ n) > q: gronchio, (A. G. XII, 130), cignco, 128. — 
Cf. Luc. gronchio A. G. XII, 130, cignco, 128. 

§ 2. Atonic a. 
1. Pretonic a. 

(a) a (-f- r) remains under influence of the Lucchese(?): 
diavularia (31. 8), porearia 12, biancaria 24, gallantaria 64, 
chiacchiaria 65, furfantaria, villanaria 77, grazionaria 86, 
acquarello (8. 27), ostaria (Gr. P. 43). — Cf. Sen. amarb, ama- 
rei, etc. ; 3 — Luc. argentaria, porearia, calzarotto, caldarone, 
lazzaretto;* — Pis. pagaria, cavallaria, Catarina, comparare, 
Stentarello, Migliarino, condannarb, confessarae, lasciaremo. 5 

(b) a^> e. 

1. Before r: cherubine (M. 33); the following three ex- 
amples are due to dissimilation : seramento (Al. 68), mercaix 
(Gr. P. 40), deranno. 

2. By incomplete assimilation : Bietrice (B. 77), Sensone 
(C. 99). 

3. Special cases : setanasso (Rice, 57), by dissimilation, 
trebucco (J. 25) cf. Fr. trebucher. — Cf. Sen. effetto = affetto, 
Nepoleone, secrestia, seramento ; 6 — Pis. Sensogna = Sassonia, 
Bernabe. 

(c) a > i. 

1. In hiatus: piese pagensgm (Rice, 30) by incomplete 
assimilation. 

1 Zs., IX, 521. * A. O., XII, 113. 

' l Schneegans, Sicil. Dial., 23. "Ibid., 143. 

3 Zs. } IX, 523. B Zs., IX, 522. 



10 J. D. BRUNER. 

2. By the influence of the following s, z the a is raised to 
the i: monisterio (B. 80), niscondere (C. 84), oulizione 10. 

3. By dissimilation : imbasciadore, imbaciata (Rice, 22). — 
Cf. Pop. Lat. monisterio; 1 — Flor. monistero Purg., XVIII, 
122, colizione Tancia, 976, caticrisma C. Son., 10 ; — Sen. colizi- 
one C. Son., 68 ; — Luc. imbasciatore Can. Pop., 17 ; — N. Ital. 
munistiero, mortilitade. 2 

(d) a > o. 

1. Before labial: oprire, perhaps formed according to eop- 
rire; 3 opritura, oprimento (C. 85). 

2. Before I, r by assimilation : olocco alucum 4 (Gi\ P. 15), 
eorogio Grk. al/xoppayla (M. 90),forbottare barbuliare (C. 11). 

3. Before n : sgronchirse crfinciilire (31. 90), scioncare, § 1, 
variants, (b). — Cf. Flor. occidente Tancia, 948 ; — Rom. oprire 
(Belli, 9). 5 ' 

(e) a > u. 

1. Before labial : cherubine (31. 33), carubinieri (S. 116), 
cammumilla (Gr. P. 16). 

2. Special cases : intrurompere (Al. 23) is due to incomplete 
assimilation, uccidentale (Al. 54) is influenced by uccidere, and 
usciolo asiSluni (S. 6) by uccello. — Cf. Aret. cherubina (Belli); 5 
Rom. cherubigneri (Belli, Son., 165). 5 

Apheresis. 

liso allisum (Uso, 40), locco 533, roganza 834, uto (C. 8), 
'gnamo 9, leatio 79, micizia (Gr. P. 19). — Cf. Flor. liso (Uso, 
40), gnamo C. Son., 43 ; — Sen. manza, Vignone, 6 'oidai (C. Son., 
32), 'u(o 52; — Pis. 'gnamo C. Son., 5; — N. Ital. giron, sassino. 7 

Syncope. 

Pretonic a is sometimes syncopated in the Fut. and Condit. 
tenses of the strong verbs in -are: drae (Al. 33), slranno (J. 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 203. 2 Mussafia, Beitrage, 111. 

3 Meyer-Liibke, Hal. Gram., § 51 ; Grober, A. L. L., Ill, 140. 

4 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 180. 6 Zs., IX, 523. 

5 Quoted by Caix, Dial, d Ital, 205. 7 Mussafia, Beitrage, 115. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 11 

3), strae 4, strd (M. 89),fresti,frebbe. — The syncope of pretonic 
a in the strong verbs in -are is also a strong Florentine charac- 
teristic: strd Tancia, 892,/rd 895, /rd 908, fremmo 916, strem 
930, drei 958, dra, stra,fresti,frebbe; 1 — Lnc. dra, B. Luc, 59. 

Prosthesis. 

1. Prosthetic a (-\-l, r) is of frequent occurrence in modern 
Pistojese ; the I or r is doubled. 

(a) + 1: allaccare (S. 31), alloscire, allonzare, allogagione 32, 
allastrico Uso 41. 

(/3) + r : arritornare (S. 6), arraccomandare, arricordare 
37, arraccontare, arriverciare, arrosolire, arrammentare (C 
53), arreplicb (JV. 6), arripesco (' Stor.,' 8), arrimettilo 6, am's- 
contrare 12, arriposare. 2 

2. Before other consonants than Z, r; abbeneclie' (C. 11), 
accapare (8. 26), accost (iV. 6), addimandare (Stor., 15), 
appopolato (Gr. P. 35), assurtire, assommare (8. 41), assapere 
(C. 54), asserbato (N. 35). — Cf. Sen. ar(r)acomandare, arra- 
comidare, arrandellare, arrassomigliare, arrendare, arricor- 
dare, abbisognare, acconvenire, accosie, allapidare, appoplare, 
as(s)apere, assortire; 3 — also in Aret. and Rom.; — Corton. 
arrimpire Race, 265 ; — Neapol. abbasta, abballo, accossl, 

arrendere, attassare} 

Metathesis. 

stranuzzire (V. and M., 179). 

2. Post-tonic a. 

Variants, 
(a) a remains. 

1. Before r: zuccaro. 

2. Morphological are ogna 5 (Al. 14) from neuter plural 
omnia, dua (C. 20) from neuter plural dua, mana (N. 332), 

1 N. Amer. Rev., 1832, p. 319. 4 Collez. Napol., XXVIII, 6. 

8 Arch. Trad. Pop., Ill, 373. b A. G., XII, 113. 

3 Zs., IX, 521-22. 



12 J. D. BRUNER. 

formed by analogy with feininines of I declension, fuora ftfras, 
formed according to contra and other adverbs. 1 — Cf. Flor. ugna, 
dua, fuora, mana, zuccaro; — Sen. zuecaro Race., 283; — Luc. 
and Pis. dua, ugna, trea, and the proparoxy tones zuccaro, can- 
taro, gambaro, Lazzaro; 2 — N.Ital. zucaro? 

(b) a > e: Cesere (C. 62) by assimilation or under the influ- 
ence of r. — Cf. Sen. sighero, C. Son., 31. 

(c) a > i: canipa (Gr. P. 11) by dissimilation. 

(d) a > o: scandolo (Ap. 11) influenced by the I. 

Epithesis. 

ina (Al. 43) < ine < in, okimmea (S. 7) where the a repre- 
sents an off-glide. 

Apocope. 
un' (undo), Gr. P. 12. 

E 

§ 3. Tonic e. 

(a) e>e. 

1. In open syllable: tenia (Gr.P.,49); the oxy tones me, 
te, re, ire are learned ; neve* (Gr. P. 41), nei 50, deve are due 
to dissimilation; — cf. Rom. re, me, te; 5 — Piacen. re, tre; 6 — 
Mil. tre. 5 

(°) ? > C/ e; m ?j e i t?j e > t r ?j e (M-)> ^ ne e ' 1S lengthened so that 
an off-glide e is developed and then j is inserted to break 
hiatus. — Cf. South Italian teje, seje, 7 and especially Neapolitan. 8 

(c) e > ie.. 

1. In open syllable. 

a. After a palatal in old Pistojese : increscievile (Al. 23), 
dolciez(z)a 27, agievile 52, dicieva (Ap. 5), ricieve 11, piangiea 
23, merciede 47, dispiacievole 73, ciena 81, facieano (I. P. 17). — 

1 Meyer-Liibke, Hal. Gram., \ 107. 

*A. G., XII, 113, 144. 3 Mussafia, Beitrdge, 112. 

4 cf. Tuscan neve by the side of neve. Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Rom., \ 115. 

5 Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Rom., g 114. 7 Caix, Diet*, d'itai., 256. 

6 Zs., XIV, 137. 8 N. Amer. Rev., 1832, p. 308. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 13 

Cf. Flor. dicievo Uso, 92 ;— Luc. facievo 1 Uso, 92, n. 3 ;— 
Tuscan diciea B. D'Ant., 2 59, piaciere, ricieve, ciera 63, gla- 
cier e 65. 

/3. After n: Valdinievole (L P. 25), nieve. — Cf. Luc. Val- 
dinievole, B. Lug., 5; — Pis. nieve; 3 — N. Ital. nieve. 4 

2. In closed syllable. 

After a palatal : Franeiesco, Cieeco (Gr. P. 21). 

Variants. 

(a) e remains. 

1. In open syllable: menima (Al. 10) formed on meno ; 
primavera. 

2. In closed syllable : arckitetto follows diminutives in 
-etto. 5 

(b) e (+ palatal) > ei: reie reggm {Al. 53). 

(c) e>*. 

1. In open syllable : nimo nemo (C. 9), influenced by 
niuno. Meyer-Lubke 6 says nimo is formed upon nissuno, 
but are not nimo and nissuno (both popular forms) formed 
according to niuno? 1 dipo de + p5st (AL 21), despiri (Cino, 
145). — Cf. Flor. nimo, nissuno; — Luc. nimmo; 8 — Pis. nimo, 
dipo. 9 

2. In closed syllable : isse lpsiim (Al. 22), cuV 6c[cum] + 
Hie (C 15).— Cf. Flor. qui' C. Son., 9;— Sen. gista (= questa) 
Assetta, 263. 

§ 4. Tonic e. 
(a) e remains. 

1. In hiatus: Deo (Cino, 365), meo 428.— Cf. Flor. deo 
(only in rhyme) Purg. XVI, 108 ; meo Petr., Son., 26. 

1 Both elements of the diphthong ie are pronounced. 

2 Zs., XV, 65. 4 Mussafia, Beitrdge, 111. 

3 Meyer-Lubke, Oram. Rom., § 115. 5 Meyer-Lubke, Ital. Gram., \ 62. 

6 Gram. Rom., \ 116. 

7 cf. Ital. Gram., \ 56, where Meyer-Lubke himself thinks nimo is formed 
according to niuno. 

«A. G., XII, 109. 9 Ibid., 142. 



14 



J. D. BRUNER. 



2. In open syllable: In the learned words petro (Al. 4), 
convene 13, sede (Cino 22), tene 356, vene (in rhyme) 357, 
mele (8. Fr. 23), dreto d'retlr^o (M. 19), a#e»o (iV. 56), ceto, 
ceco(Gr. P. 20), Cfesarc 46, ^r^e, rc##e, kgge.—Cf. Flor. drefo 
^awcia, 888, Petro 905, petraFetr. f ,Son., ( 4, ritene 21, ven 140, 
tewe 146, dece 200 ;— Luc. vene B. Luc, 22, tene 23 ;— Gen. ten, 
ven, dexe d6c6m, inseme; 1 — Alatri mele,pe&e; 2 — Sicil. deli, meli 
with final i, petra. 3 

3. In closed syllable. 

a. Before nas. -f cons. : In the learned words scendere (Gr. 
P. 49), faecenda, grembo gremium ; tempio is formed under 
the influence of tempo. 

p. Before open cons. : fancello (Al. 42) is due to change of 
suffix, 4 stella, ellera hederani, ermo 6r6milm.— Cf. Logdu. stella, 
erta: 5 — Mil. stella. 6 

(b) e (in closed syllable) > e. 

1. Before n' : vegno (Cino, 139), tegno — the n' raises the 
e to e. 

2. eutrettola 7 cauda + trepidam follows diminutives in -etto. 

(c) e>ie. 

1. Before hiatus i: rid (Al. 38), Graciadiei (MS. 1364), 
ski, es (M. 70). 

2. In open syllable. 

a. After a palatal : primogienito (Ap. 3), cietere 23, gieneri 
(Gr. P. 43). 

/3. After^ other consonants: lievora (Al. 7), sieguito 14, 
siedere < sSdere < severe (if. 22), m>#o (C 32), ' liepre 39, 
fteya (Gr. P. 19), and even after cons. -f r: priego (8. Fr. 8) 
by the side of Flor. prego 8 Tancia, 902 ; brieve ', grieve (Cino, 
308) is out of secondary e. — In early Tuscan the diphthong ie 

1 Ibid., X, 144. 3 Schneegans, Sicil. Dial, 17. 

2 Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., § 45. * Schuch., Vokalismus, II. 

b A. G., XIII, 137. This e is not so open, however, as in Tuscan. Ibid., 
140, n. 1. 
6 Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., \ 91. 
Ubid., \ 62. *Ibid., I 88. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 15 

and the simple e are found side by side. Dante uses ie in 
open syllable rarely : triegua Inf. VII, 88 -,—Intell. niego, 
priego, lievo ; — Bocc. priego, Dec. I, 1 J B. D'Anl. priego, 
lieva; 1 — Sen. lieva by the side of leve, Pietro, Petro, Siena, 
Sena; 2 — Pad. priega, lieva, mierita, sieguita; 3 — old Venet. 
lievore, brieve, lieve, grieve, niega, siegua, prieghi;* N. Ital. 
priego. 5 

3. In closed syllable. This phenomenon is quite common, 
particularly in old Pistojese when the e is preceded by a pala- 
tal and followed by a nas. + cons. Both elements of the 
diphthong ie are pronounced. 6 

a. The old gerundives nosciendo (Al. 2S),faciendo 27, vegi- 
endo (B. 77), diciendo (Ap. 7), affligiendosi 49, piangiendo 77. 

j3. Vincienzo (Al. 27), ciento (B. 81), incienso (Ap. 33), 
argiento 41, piangienti 77, giente (Gr. P. 21). 

<y. e followed by nas. -f- cons., but not preceded by a pala- 
tal : The gerundives habiendo (J. 15), volliendo (Al. 55),poni- 
endo 5Q,formiendo (I. P. 247), sappiendo (8. Fr. 62), and the 
modern forms tiengo (31. 21), viengo (C. 18). 

8. e preceded by a palatal but not followed by nas. + cons. : 

statieia (Al. 4) probably out of st&tgria, 7 cierto 27, lucierna 

(Ap. 79), ricietto (M. 153), uceiello auegllum (Gr. P. 20).— Cf. 

Flor. ciento Crest, 20, deciembre 28, tiengo C. Son., 38, vienga 

51 ; — Sen. viengo C. Son., 7 ; — Luc. sapiendo B. Luc, 3, abbi- 

endo 55, facciendosi 64, tiengo, viengo; 8 — Pis. tiengo, viengo; 9 

— B. D'Ant. ciento Zs., XV, 56, digiendo 58, cierto 60, argiento 

61, cierbia 67 ; — Neapol. priesto, tormiento, cappiello, castiello, 

viento. 10 

Variants. 

(a) e (+ n -f- cons.) > a in old Pistojese: sostenanze (Al. 20), 
sanza kbsgntia (B. 82). — Cf. Flor. sustanza, Par. VII, 5, 

1 Zs., XV, 63, 68. 6 Also in Lucchese. Cf. Uso, 92, n. 3. 

2 Ibid., IX, 523. 7 Parodi, Romania, XVIII, 596. 

3 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 8. 8 A. O., XII, 164. 

4 A. G., XII, 248. 9 1 bid., 176. 

5 Mussafia, Beitrage, 111. 10 Collez. Napol., XXVIII, 5. 



16 J. D. BRUNER. 

sanza IntelL, 155; — Aret. sanza (Billi); 1 — sanza is found iu 
many old Tuscan texts ; 2 — Fr. sans. 

(b) e (-f n') after a palatal > ie: ingiegnio lnggnmm (Gr. 
P. 25) ; the n' raises the e to e. 

(c) e (in open syllable) > i: migghio (8. 5) by assimilation, 
undicima (Al. 8) influenced by undid. 

(d) f (in closed syllable) > u: nuse 6xit (N. 89) formed by 
analogy with pretonic u in uscire = uscio + 6xlre. — Cf. Pis. 



usee. 3 



§ 5. Atonic e. 

1. Pretonic e. 
(a) e remains. 

1. In hiatus : neuno (Al. 3), ciascheuno 12 is the primitive 
and legitimate form out of quisqug + unum ; 4 neente (J. P. 
109). — Cf. Brunetto Latini, who has neuno, neente,whi\e Dante 
has the forms in i; both, however, have the forms leone, kale, 
beato, creare; 5 — IntelL neente 130; — Luc. neuno ' B. Luc.,' 4, 
cescheuno 93. 

2. Latinisms are incontenente (Al. 21), Melano (Rice., 22), 
pregione (Cino, 435), asseguro (31. 107), securo (Gr. P. 41); 
original Latin pretonic e is also preserved in averebbe (I. P. 
177), affinechZ 256, operire (S. 6), adoperare (C. 47), serebbe 
(N. 28), saperrd, 46, lemosena 200, avvederai 439, poterebbe 
452. — Cf. Sen. mesurare, pregione, securo, fenestra, Renaldo, 
segnore; 6 — Luc. serd P. Pwc, 28, poteranno 79, menuto 81, 
seguro, pregione; 7 — Pis. awerd 0. /S'on., 22, securo, mesura, Mel- 
ano, pregione; 8 — P. TP Ant. averebbe, saperebbe, poterebbe; 9 — 
Aret. securo Guit., 6, pregione 14 ; — Petr. secura 7 ; — modern 
poetry prefers nepote, securo, etc.; 10 — Logdu. mesura; 11 — Pad. 

1 Quoted by Caix, Died, d'ltal, 205. 

2 Zs., IX, 524. i A. G., XII, 113. 

3 A. G., XII, 142. 8 Ibid., 144. 

4 Caix, Studi, I 20. 9 Zs., XV, 72-3. 

5 Zehle, Laut- und Flex., 21. 10 Caix, Origini, 61 . 

6 Zs., IX, 532-3. n A. G., XIII, 106. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 17 

segure, mesura, preson ; 1 — Gen. preson, mesura, seguro, segnor, 
besogno, and in the proclitics and enclitics me, te, se. 2 

3. The prefix de- is sometimes preserved : denanzi (Al. 
9), dechiarendo (MS. 1444), defetto (N. 276), defende (Gr. P. 
36), deliberare, desiderare, devenire. — Cf. Flor. depende Par. 
XXVIII, 42, desiderio Par. XXXIII, 48, by the side of 
disiderio Purg. XV, 33 ; — Sen. denanzi, defetto, dechiarare, 
deliberare, devenire ; 3 — Luc. and Pis. defetto.* 

(b) e > a. This development of pretonic e > a is a promi- 
nent characteristic of both old and modern Pistojese; the 
change may take place before any consonant or group of con- 
sonants. Assimilation and dissimilation play an important 
part in this development. 

1. By assimilation : aguale 5 (Al. 13), asaminare 43, contas- 
tare 59, damando (I. P. 230), sanato 468, raguardate (S. Fr. 
12), maladire, maladeggio (S. 98), malafera nietaphSr&ni [Gr. 
P. 13), maladizione 15, pallareccio pal&t + erlcium 16, sgan- 
garato cancer + aturn 6 (If. 107); antrata (Al. 23) and gian- 
darmi (Son. Pop., 49) are influenced by the nasal (+ cons.). 7 

2. By dissimilation : assempri 6x6mplum (Al. 9), amendare, 
aleg(g)ersi 5 eliggre 13, piatosa (Cino, 308), aterno (M. 10, n.), 
assercito (S. 13), abbreo 5 (C 45). 

3. Before r : quarelle (M. 35), arredi heredem 48 ; mar- 
coledie (S. 7) and possibly (?) vennardl 187 are influenced by 
martedl; sargente s6rvi6nt6m (Gr. P. 11) influenced by O. H. 
G. scarjo 8 and Span, sargento; iarsera (Uso, 470). 

4. Special cases : afecto (Al. 5) = efetto is confounded with 
afetto; dapoi (31. 1534), sagreto = secretum + sticrdttim (M. 
10, n.), aducazione (C. 44), oppuramente (N. 2) is formed by 
analogy with solamente and other adverbs ; the pretonic a in 
tutt' addua (N. 218) comes from the neuter plural. — Cf. Pop. 
Lat. camaratum, Marcator, marcado, pargamina, Armogenes, 

1 "Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 15. 5 Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., \ 137. 

1 Flechia, A. G., X, 147. 6 Canello, A. G., Ill, 360. 

3 Zs., IX, 532. 7 Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Rom., \ 368. 

*A. G., XII, 113, 144. 8 Diez, Worterbuch, p. 292. 
2 



18 J. D. BRUNER. 

Calandina, iantare, aclesia, Amatista, Matauro ; 1 — many other 
dialects change pretonic e to a particularly before r: Flor. aterno 
Lam. di Cec, 3, accellenza 33, assendo, sagreto Tancia, 905, 
iarsera 919, aducazione C Son., 47, sarvare 86, sarvietta 96 ; 
— Sen. iarsera, venardl, Arcolano, arrare (errare), caldarone, 
comparare, delibarare, parsona, povaretto, serafino, vitoparoso, 
Aduardo, agualmente, carastia, piatoso, sanatore; 2 — Luc. ven- 
nardie, quarella, gliarsera, 3 cambariera ; i — Pis. venardie, Vala- 
riano, piata, ialsera = iersera, b aduazlone C. Son., 47 ; — Corton. 
jarsera Race, 258, sappard 259 ; — Emil. sarpent, narburu, 6 
arsira ; 7 — Pad. alletto, piatoso, spiandore, arrore, arsera, ; 8 — 
Gen. asempio, aspose, aspeitar, axalta, axamiano, arror, mar- 
chante, sarafim, sarmon; 9 — Mil. quar&lla, marmoria, venardi, 
parchd; 10 — N. Ital. damanda, piatosa, spiandore, asperto, adefi- 
care, imparadore; 11 — Campobasso, maremma, cumarella (cu)cu- 
merella. 12 

(c) e (-f- palatal) >• ei in hiatus in old Pistojese: neiente nee 
-4- 6nt6m (Al. 9), leiali legalem (J. 2). 

(d) e>i. 

1. In hiatus. 

a. e -\- a > i + a: criatura {Al. 63), biato, Biatrice (B. 79), 
crianzia (31. 83), riavisassi re + Sdvisare (C. 93). 
/3. e + a > i + e : Bietriee (B. 77). 
<y. e -\- i^> i -\- e: dientro de -J- intro ( Or. P. 22). 
8. e -f- w> i + o : riobarbero rfiubarbarum (Gr. P. 14). 

2. By assimilation. 

a. siguitamente (Al. 28), pigiore 47, milliore 49, cilimoni&re 
(M. 75), zinia <yeved (S. 10), prioissione processiongm (C. 12), 
carizia c&restiam 61, discrizione discretiongm (N. 410), spiri- 
menti (Gr. P. 13), pittirosso pectus + russurn 15, appipito ; 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 208-15. 7 Flechia, A. G., II, 11. 

a Zs., IX, 529-30. 8 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 16. 

3 A. G., XII, 113. 9 Flechia, A. G., X, 146-7. 

4 Baccolta, 347. 10 Salvioni, Dial. Mod., 105. 

5 A. G., XII, 144. u Mussafia, Beitrage, 112, 115. 

6 Mussafia, Romg., 82. u D'Ovidio, 4. (?., IV, 156. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 19 

the prefix de- > di-: discrivere (Al. 16), diliberato (I. P. 98), 
dilicato (Rice, 63), disidero (S. Fr. 23), dilicatezze 52 ; the 
prefix re- > ri-: riplicare (N. 32), ribillione 152. 

3. By dissimilation : nicessita (S. Fr. 21); the prefix de- 
>di-.* dicretali {Al. 16), dinnegars 6; the prefix re->n-: 
river enzia (If. 79). 

4. ex < is: imminare {Al. 43), ismisurata (Rice, 23), isban- 
dire (8. 8), isventolare 92, istravolto extra, + vfllutiini (iV. 2), 
iscoprendo 8, ispaventosa 10, ismovere 115; also es^>is: istate 
aestatgm (6r/\ P. 11), istivali aestivalgm (Dite ie^., 13). 

5. The atonic pronouns me, te se > mi, ti, si before lo, la, 
ne: 1 si ne (Al. 21), mi ne 59, mi lo (M. 14), mi la 25, mi V 
23, mi ?ie 15, mi n' 17, £i lo 21, £i fe 93, si la 95, mi Za, ti lo, 
silo(Uso, 678). 

6. Special cases : isopo (Al. 10) and convisatione 38, where 
the i is under the influence of the s; iguale aequalgrn (Al. 60), 
sicundo (Rice, 103, dipoi (Cino, 13), biltate 62, and vintura 
424 are formed according to the regular Italian rule for the 
development of pretonic e; ubbidienza (V. and M. 144) is 
formed according to ubbidire, and nissuno (N.-N. 8) accord- 
ing to niuno. 2 — Cf. Pop. Lat. Biates, diliberat, dilicatus, dis- 
cribere, disiderio, sicunda, etc.; 3 — Flor. biato Lam. di Cec, 4, 
sipoltura 29, binigno Tancia, 884, appipito 896, cilimonie 899, 
nicistd 921, pricission 925, mimoria 926, dilibrati, nissun(o) 
945; piggiore Dec, I, 1, migliore I, 2; mi n'andai Tes., 22; 
mine passo Intell., 3 ; — Sen. criatura, biato, Lionardo, riale, 
appipito, cimento, cirimonia, dinajo, disiderio, lunidl, mimoro, 
nicisita, pricissione, sicondo, sipoltura, spiciale, isbandire, isco- 
prire, iscusare, iscumunicare, ismontare, ispedire, istate, isti- 
mare; i — Luc. ghirone, ciaschiduno, vissica, iscire; 5 — Pis. issuto, 
vissica, sigondo, istate, finire, iscire, 6 precissione C. Son., 36, 
nissuno 48 ; — Aret. apitito, sirvito, sintire ; 7 Corton. priciso 

1 This phenomenon is limited almost entirely to San Marcello. 

2 cf. \ 3. (d) 1. 3 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 298-302, 382, 426. 

* Zs., IX, 531, 533. 6 Ibid., 144. 

5 A. O., XII, 114. * Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Bom., I 35. 



20 J. D. BRUNEE. 

Race, 258, sira 259, nieisserio 260, sii^vitu 261, binissimo 
262, mn'ta 266 ; — Gen. dinai = denari,jirir, neccissitae, nigun 
nee uno. 1 

(e) e > ie is a prominent characteristic of old Pistojese. 

1. After a palatal cons. : concieduto (Al. 20), cielato 37, 
sacierdotale (Ap. 5), vincierd 9, comincierd 17, reggierd 33, 
vangielizzb 43, giacieranno 45, magiestd 65, piangieranno 75, 
disciendea 85, dacciello 89, velociemente 95, gienerazione 97, 
giendarmi (S. Fr. 12) ; also in modern Pistojese : chiac- 
chierone (Gr. P. 20), Gfienerale, cieseraria 21, gieografia 22, 
sviscierato 23. 

2. mielate (C. 18), sientiede 43, tienere 106, and vienere 110 
are formed by analogy with the stem-accented forms. — Cf. 
Flor. vienuco C. Son., 27, bieltate IntelL, 132; Prat, gieloso 
Crest., 95; — Pis. vienuto C. Son., 19; — Aret. gientile Guit- 
tone 170, rieievendo 179; — 5. D'Ant. ciercando Zs., XV, 
58, ingieneroe, uccielletti 61, dolciemente 62. 

(f) *>o. 

1 . e ( -f- labial) : proveduto (Al. 47), adovenire 54, doventare 
54, n., soppellire sepgllire (J. P. 461), romanere 476, n., rfopoi 
(if& 1 444), propotemzia (S. 199). 

2. Confounding of prefixes : soddusse sfibducere instead of 
seducfere 2 (J. P. 476, n.), protenzione, procetti (Gr. P. 12), 
projudicare, prosunzione; perhaps also soppellire, proveduto 
and propotenzia of the preceding paragraph. 

3. oscire flstium -f exire (-4/. 65) is learned. — Cf. Flor. sop- 
peZ/ifo Lam. di Cec, 35, protenzione V. arid 31., 144, sodusse Tes., 
5 ; — Sen. dovenire, doventare, dovoto, procendi, proferire, profetto 
perf ectum ; 3 — Luc. soppellire, romase, dopende, eiometerio. 4 

Apheresis. 

'saminamento {Al. 48), 'scrudere excludere (S. 7), Manuelle 
100, strazione 142, qui/ibrio 121, rma 123, 'state aestatSm (C. 

M. G.,X, 147. 3 Zs., IX, 534. 

8 Meyer-Lubke, JfaZ. Gram., § 137. * A. G., XII, 114. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 21 

103), lemosina (N. 200), reda, sperto. — Cf. Flor. 'siliato C. Son., 

41, 'limosiniere 85 ; — Sen. mendare, difizio, senpro (exemplum) 

spresso, 1 'resia C. Son., 44, 'Manuelle 77 ; — Luc. spetlare, state, 

scire exire ; 2 — Pis. stinguere, rede, spettare, scire exire, 3 ' Uropa 

C. Son., 21. 

Syncope. 

1. Between mute and liquid : pricolo, considrate (M. 52), 
sprimentare ( Uso, 935), sparare. 

2. Between s + r in the Fut. and Cond. of the verb essere: 
sro, srd, srei, sresti, srebbe, etc. 

3. istu i = se tu (Al. 7). — Cf. Flor. pricolosa Tancia, 877, 
sre } 881, delibrato 908, stu 930; — Sen. mercordl C. Son., 91. 

Epenthesis. 

Between mute and liquid : pigherizia, mitera mltram ( Gr. 

P. 22). 

Metathesis. 

presempio (31. 57), suprestizione (V. and M. 81). — Cf. Sen. 
presempio C. Son., 5; — Luc. presempio Uso, 751. 

Post-tonic e. 

(a) e remains in old Pistojese. 

1. In paroxy tones: diece (J. 2), lunge (Cino, 67), domane 
{S. Fr. 28). 

2. In proparoxy tones : gioven (Cino, 83). — Cf. Sen. gio- 
veno; 5 — Luc. domane B. Luc, 72. 

(b) e > ie after a palatal cons. This development is a strong 
characteristic of old Pistojese and is also found in the modern 
language. Both elements of the diphthong are pronounced. 

1. In paroxytones : lucie (Al. 5), pacie 6, dolcie 7, vocie 13, 
nuocie 20, dispiacie 25, radicie 34, leggie leggm 46, erode (B. 
78), fornacie (Ap. 5),falcie 61, meritricie 69, lungie 75, invecie 

1 Zs., IX, 534. * Grober's Grundriss, I, 528. 

2 Ibid., 125. b Zs., IX, 541. 

*Ibid., 153. 6 Also in the Lucchese. Cf. § 4. (d) 3. a, n. 



o 



22 J. D. BRUNEE. 

{Gr. P. 15), f elide 67.— Cf. Flor. diecie Crest. 24, pacie 26; 
B. d'Ant. dolcie Zs., XV, 51, piaeie 62, leggie 63, 6ocie 70. 

2. In proparoxytones : cresciere (Al. 35), sempricie 40, 
calicie 53, angielo (Ap. 7), soduciere subducgre 11, leggiere 
(Gr. P. 20). 

(c) e > o in old Pistojese. 

1. In paroxy tones. 

a. Primary e : puro (Al. 67). 

/3. Secondary e : tuo < £ue < tu (non sai) Al, 4, piuo < piwe 
< pm (tosto) 8, and rendeo < vendee < mitf£ (7oc/e) are due to 
assimilation ; x — aveto (decto) Al. 68. — Cf. Sen. rendeo, cadto, 
poteo, sed6o, vendio. 2 

2. In proparoxytones in modern Pistojese : lellora hgdSram 

(Gr. P. 13). 

Variants. 

(a) e > a in old Pistojese. 

1. In paroxy tones : adonqua (Al. 51) ; ina < me < in 43 

where the a is out of secondary e. 

2. In proparoxytones : senacha (Al. 7) by assimilation. — 
Cf. Flor. dunqua Intell,, 162; — Luc. qualunqua B. Luc, 1, 
quantunqua 2, chiunqua 18; — Pad. ancha, doncha; 3 — old 
Ven. adonca.* 

(b) e > i in proparoxytones. 

1. In hiatus : Imm (Gr. P. 21) by assimilation. 

2. After a vowel : pre#i (Ji. 12) pr6sbyt6riim > prevete > 
preete y> preiti by dissimilation. — Cf. Pop. Lat. linia, tinia, 
vinia ; 5 — Neapol. prevete. 6 

(c) e > w : suguro subSr + (If. 34) by assimilation. 

Syncope. 

povra Omo, 67 (in rhyme). — Cf. Flor. povra Fiera, 77 (not 
in rhyme) ; — Sen. poro C. Son., 42. 

1 cf. my article on tu> tue> tuo, Mod. Lang. Notes, Vol. VIII, No. 2, cols. 
97-99. 'A. G., XII, 254. 

8 Zs., IX, 427. 5 Schuch., Vokalisrnus, I, 437, 441-42. 

3 Wendriner, Pad, Mund., 22. 6 Ibid., II, 356. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 23 

Epenthesis. 

Between mute + liquid : maghero (8. 7), aghero (C. 49), 
pighero. — maghero and pighero are found in other dialects. 1 

Epithesis. 

e used as an off-glide with oxytones is a strong Pistojese 
characteristic ; in fact the rule is almost constantly observed 
by the contadini. 

1. a -\- e: arae (Al. 8),farae 10, strae 14, tacerae 15, drae 
16, potrae 19, giae 31, siae 42, viverrae 53, atrae 57, vendi- 
carrae 58, aquae 71, strae (J. 4), parrae 7, sae (M. 3), anderae 
(8. 34), same (C. 12), hae 27, we 50, fee 78. 

2. e -J- e: ee (Stor., 8), raee (#. 71), potee. 

3. i + e: lallie (M. 8), o?ie, lunedle, lacqule 51, sie, cw£e (C. 
9), accost 10, costle, seppettie 20, Z£e 21, c/iie 39, martedle, 
marcoledle 81. 

4. o -{- e: altroe (Al. 11), lagrimoe 20, fevoe, apeloe 21, eioe 
24, peroe 68, amoe (#. Fr. 21), ririvoe (M. 10), androe (8. 34), 
soe,fermoe, imperoe (C. 8), arrioe, doe, addenteroe 9, scontroe, 
saroe 10, woe, covoe 11, andoe,foe, cavoe, noe 18, principioe 19, 
scramoe 21, fessoe 24, £iroe 25, rfiroe 27, seccoe 29, rnontoe 32, 
garboe 36, comandoe 37, staroe 42, nentroe 43, menoe 44, tornoe 
(N.-N. 521). 

5. w -f- e: £we (J./. 4), swe susiim (O. 10), #twe 14, lassue = 
la -f- su 19, /we 26, _pwe 89. 

6. j?ere (Clno, 51). — Cf. Flor. fee, e"e, piwe, iam. rfi Cea, 
4, fr/e Tancia, 911, ^iwe C. /Sow., 7, noe 19, cosie 46, Geswe 50, 
quae, lae 55, o/wie 77, fue Crest., 24, de Intell., 138; Dante 
uses the epithetical e generally for the sake of the rhyme : ee, 
Inf. XXIV, 90, tie, Purg. XXVIII, 8, sue, Purg. XVI, 
30 ; 2 — Sen. colae, mee, eosle, perde, gilie, cide, gicte, pine, sue, 
chie, tue, quie, lie, cittcte, veritcie, necesit&e, volont&e; 3 also numer- 

1 Caix, Dial, d'ltal, 126. 

2 Zehle, Laut- und Flex., 24. 3 Zs., IX, 536. 



24 J. D. BRUNER. 

ous verbs : ambe, andbe, cercbe, fermbe, levbe, etc., 1 anderde, 
durde, farae, potrae, doe, dae,foe,fae, soe, stoe, voe, vae, etc. ; l — 
Luc. ae B. Luc, 1, quie 2, seguitrde 15, farae 27, fue 47, po?*- 
terde, vorrae 55, gwe 72, noe,fae 79, stoe 87, piue 91, serac 
92, dirroe Race., 253. 

I. 

§ 6. Tonic i. 

(a) i in Pistojese shows very few variations from the literary 
Italian. 

(b) i remains : si si (S. Fr. 8), ditto dictum 2 (C. 19). 

(c) i > g : £m& ( Jf. 95), donzena 3 dodicin& by change of 
suffix. 

(d) i > i'e .- serviervi (N.-N. 4). 

(e) i > t* .• fubbie or jiubbe (31. 24 and note), the vowel is 
assimilated to the labial consonant. — Cf. Ven. fiuba, Lomb. 
fubia, O. Fr. afubler. 4 

§ 7. Atonic i. 
1. Pretonic i. 

(a) i remains: agevilez(z)a (A\. 52), licito (J. 19), nuviletta 
(S. Fr. 8), signato (MS. 1444), incora hinc -f- 6r£m (Due Lett., 
13) ; the i remains in the atonic pronouns ci, vi before lo, la, 
ne: ci lo (M. 40), ci la 75, ci n' 5, vi lo 20, vi la 97, vi ne 101. 

(b) i>e. 

There are many examples of this phenomenon in both old 
and modern Pistojese. Meyer-Liibke 5 says that the forms 
with pretonic e are under Umbrian-Aretino or Provencal 
influence. 

1 Ibid., 427-8. 

*I give dlctflm according to Ascoli, A. G., I, 23, and note 3; Korting, 
Lat. Rom. Wb., 2558; Pieri., A. G., XII, 109, gives ditto as formed upon 
dissi. 

3 cf. Italian dozzena, Canello, A. G., VII, 319. 

4 Caix, Died, filed., 205. 6 /to/. Gram., \ 123. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 25 

1. By assimilation : relegione (AL 6), lecenza 56. 

2. By dissimilation : inemica (AL 35), rikgioso 67, openione 
71, ipoci-esia (Rice, 51), omessione (I. P. 86), temitoso (M. 88), 
prencipi 90, letigio (C. 21), redicolo (Gr. P. 23). 

3. Special cases : vertudie (Al. 4), vectoria 51, vetuperio 77, 
i?er#i (Cino, 25), vertudioso (31. 78), metragghie (S. 112), per- 
ruchieri pilucarlum (iV. 230), gennasiia (Gi\ P. 45), mesurare ; 
in = en (em) : entroni in -}- torniini (J/. 23), nempare impar£t 
(Crr. P. 20). — Cf. Pop. Lat. prencepe, prencipe; 1 — Flor. vertu, 
Intell., 134, promession Decam., I, 1, sempatia, C. Son., 35, 
vecino; — Sen. fenire, rileggioso, trebuna, vettoria, enfermo, em- 
parare, and many others ; 2 — Luc. prencipio, fenire, perrucca, 3 
mesurai Race, 252 ; — Pis. menuto, besogna, vertude; 4 — Gorton. 
ordeneto Race, 259. 

(c) i > o. 

1. Before labial cons. : obbriaco, ombuto (N.-N. 16), om- 
possibile, onfiare (?) C. 85, onferno (f). 

2. Before I: 5 baggiolare vacillare or vagillare 6 (S. 232), 
ventolazione 8. 

3. Special cases: Modonesi (I. P. 301), formed on Modona; 
oncenso (J. 28) the pretonic o of which probably comes from 
the article /of 3 — Cf. Flor. doviso Tancia, 877, noboM 932; 
— Sen. ombusto, ombuto, omper adore, omperio, oncenso, onferno, 
onterdetto; 7 — Luc. fonire, ombuto, onferno, 3 ompiccio Race, 245, 
ompossibile 250 ; — Tuscan ombuto, romasuglio. 8 

Variants. 

(a) i > a: arbatrato (Son. Pop., 43) and sarvatico are due 
to assimilation ; giangia giogivam (S. 7) under influence of 
the nasal consonant n. — Cf. Flor. Modanesi, Sec. Rap., 4; — 
Corton. antendere Race, 259 ; — old Tuscan salvaggio. 9 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 28, 54. 6 Caix, Sludi, \ 179. 

2 Zs., IX, 539-40. 7 Zs., IX, 540. 

3 A G., XII, 114. 8 Caix, Dial. cCItcd., 123. 

*Ibid., 145. 9 Caix, Origini, 75. 

5 Canello, A. G., Ill, 335. 



26 J. D. BKUNER. 

(b) i > u : unutile ( Gr. P. 49) by assimilation ; buzzeffe bis 

+ ff (S. 235) influenced by the preceding labial consonant b 

and perhaps by the u in due; vestuario. — Cf. Flor. vestuario; x 

— Sen. purate, subillo, utulita; 2 — Luc. unutile Race, 253 ; — Pis. 

funire, 3 sumiglia C. Son., 63 ; — Aret. buzzeffe. 4 

Apheresis. 

, (a) Before nasal + consonant. 

1. After article or pronoun : lo 'ntendimento (Al. 5), chi 
'ngura, le figure, la 'ngiuria 8, gli 'nvidiosi 9, lo 'nsegno, lo 
'ngegno 16, lo 'ncominciamento 18, lo 'nduscio 22, la 'ncacti- 
viscle 30, lo 'nferno 35, lo 'mperio 41, lo 'nprincipio, li 'ncomin- 
ciamenti 43, che 'ntendea 60, lo 'mperadore 73, alV 'ncanto (M, 
30), lo 'nsaccava 54, se 'ntoppano 63, lo 'nteresse 69, lo 'nterpidi 
71, lo 'mparb, della 'ndivia, vine 'ntendete 101, la 'ndulgenzia 
106, la 'mpamata (8. 119), la 'nserenata, la 'nvezzata 152, la 
'nnarzata 210, la 'mpromessa 274, 'ghi 'ntraviense (C. 8), tene 
'nteso 9, dallo 'ngrasso 11, lo 'mprumettiedi 12, loro 'nzino 
13, uno 'n 15, lo 'nsacca 17, fo 'nvito, tene 'nfrattanto 18, £m 
'mperoe, alio 'mprovviso 19, eZe^o 'ngordo 23, '^Ai 'ngolaa 28, 
to 'w, & 'ncapocchire 29. 

2. After the words e and a: e 'nduscie (Al. 36), e 'nffine 76, 
a 'ndevinar (M. 8), a 'nnamorati 14, a 'ngorgar 58, a 'n£ra- 
versar 74, a 'nfustirsi 76, a 'ntormentire (S. 28), a 'ngrassa (G. 
10), a 'ngozza 14, a 'ntende 18. 

3. After auxiliary verbs: era 'ncoccio (31. 30), cw?a 'nzurlito 
46, Aa 'nsegni (S. 3),fussi 'nnamorata 32, s*e 'ngiallito 87, fussi 
'nchiostro 151, Aa 'mpegnato 266. 

4. Special cases : dei 'mframec/ere (Al. 3), c?a 'mparare 30, 
o^na 'nduscio 36, soperbia 'ngenera 50, sappia 'nsinor (31. 15), 
naso 'nnun 30, coresto 'mbattina 109, ^>ere ''mparare (8. 27), 
ri7to 'ntostita (C. 11), accosle 'nsino 15,/oco 'n£m 18. 

(b) Before cons. -4- vow. : magine (J. 28), to/m (Rice, 24). — 
Cf. Flor. e 'ntenda, Tancia, 877, Ao 'wfeso 899, fo 'ntoppo 906, 

1 [/so, 1023. 2 Zs., IX, 540. 3 /6id., 145. 4 [/so, 192. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 27 

la 'nvilia 914, chi 'mpard 922, fa 'nchino 933, fa 'nferno Intell., 
167, anno 'nteso 170, £ 'nfr-a 148, la 'nsegna 168, fa 'mbusto 177, 
Jb/m 183, fa 'ntenzione Decani., I, 2, fa 'ngegno, I, 3, fa 'nquisi- 
tore, I, 6, £m#o 'nfaro C. Son., 18, fa 'nsegnaan 28, 'taliano 4] , fa 
struzione 42 ; — Sen. fa 'ngegno, lo 'ntelletto, la 'nvidia, ho 'nteso, 
a 'nganni, ne 'ncresce, senza 'npaccio ; 1 — Luc. uno 'nferno, la 
'mpostura, 2 lo 'ncontri Cant. Pop., 18; — Pis. una 'nfamita, 
questo 'ncanto, Talia, 3 lo 'mpossibile, C. Son., 26, tutto 'ntero 35, 
£ 'nutile 46, uno 'gnorante 47, ho 'nteso 88 ; — Tuscan fa 'npera- 
dore B. d'Ant., Zs., XV, 56, fa 'nbusto 65, e/fa 'ndugiare 66 ; 
— Neapol. mporta, npace,* nfacda, ncapo, ngiuria. 5 

Prosthesis. 

The popular Latin prosthetic i before s impurum appears 
in Pistojese even when the preceding word ends in a vowel : 6 
(unde) iscrito (Al. 34), (divina) iscriptura 35, (e) isforzansi, 
(tuo) istato 37, (ogna) ispirito, (ria) isperanza 38, (sono) ischer- 
niti 40, (piuo) istrania 41, (sothi) istipulament' 46, (soperbia) 
iscenderd 50, (consilio) ispecialmente 51, Squall) istuo 52, (e) 
istabile, (fae) istolto 58, (potrasse) iseelere 61, (unde) isdegna 
62, (tiosso) iscudo 66, (motto) istudiare 30, (nello) istangnio 
(Ap. 89), (swa) iscenza (Al. 68), (vollio) ispoglare, (cose) iscure 
71, (£) ispezia 74, (sercfc) iscandalizato 76, fawfa ispretato (N. 44), 
(correva) istupita 84, (/oro) istevano 414, (strijjpata) istasera (C. 
16). — Cf. Pop. Lat. iscripta, ispirito, isj)ecies,ista7'e, istabile, etc. 7 

Syncope. 
In the loan 8 word testimonanza (Al. 71). 

Epenthesis. 

aguaito < Ger. wahten (^1£. 40), abibisognio (Ap. 17) by 
reduplication ; ^/farte 75, nessiuna (S. Fr. 21), sciabbiosa (N. 

1 Zs., IX, 541. 8 CW/ez. iVapoZ., XXVIII, 7. 

2 4. G., XII, 125. 8 cf. Meyer-Lubke, Ital. Gram., \ 144. 
3 Ibid., 153. 7 Schuch., Fo£a/<smws, II, 338, 342, 346. 
4 N. Amer. Rev., 1832, p. 308. 8 cf. Grober's Grundriss, I, 533, § 78. 



28 J. D. BRtTNEE. 

154), distribuizione (Gr. P. 13), influenced by distribuire; 
diotto 24, inghilese 22 influenced by Inghilterra. — Cf. Proven- 
pal aguaitar. 

Metathesis. 

furigelli filucellum (M. 47), where the u is attracted to the 
initial syllable by the labial consonant/. 

2. Post-tonic i. 

(a) i remains in old Pistojese. 

1. In paroxytones : forsi, where the i remains on account 
of its proclitic position. 

2. In proparoxytones. 

a. Learned words ending in -bills : 1 nuvili, odievile, ras- 
cionevile (Al. 9), chonvenevile 14, increscievile 23, abondevile 32, 
piacevili 38, inghannevili, usinghevili 40, agievile 52, innomere- 
vili 53, onorevile 70, bisognevili (J. 7),fievile, debile (31. 8, n.). 

ft. Special cases : sindico (I. P. 299), solidi (MS. 1444). — 
Cf. Sen. onorevile, ragionevile; 2 — Luc. personevile, bisognevile, 
onorevile ; 3 — Pis. convenevile, ragionevile, onorevile.* 

(b) i> e in proparoxytones : nuveli (Al. 50), honor evele (Rice, 
54), nobele, simele, utele. — Cf. Pop. Lat. nobelis, sierelis, nomene, 
ordene; 5 — Sen. onor evele, mobele, simele, utele, ordene; 2 — Pis. 
simele, omeni; 6 — Corton. grandene Race, 259, subbeto 260; — 
old Venet. simele, nobele; 7 — N. Ital. graveda, nuovelo. 8 

(c) t>te 9 in paroxytones: nascie, finiscie (AL 23), conoscie 

25, conducie 29, disdicie 35, istringie, dlgiungie 45, contradicie 

53, crescie 56, vincie (Ap. 11), dicie 17. — Cf. Flor. dicie 

Crest., 24. 

Variants. 

(a) i > a in the proparoxytone Modana (S. 7) by assimi- 
lation. — Cf. Flor. Modana, Sec. Rap., 4. 

1 cf. Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., \ 119. 

2 Zs., IX, 541. 6 Ibid., 145. 

»A. G., XII, 115. iA. G., XII, 252. 

4 Ibid., 145. 8 Mussafia, Beitrage, 113. 

5 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 14, 21-2. 9 cf. Post-tonic e> ie. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 29 

(b) i > o in proparoxytones : Modona (I. P. 21 9) by assimi- 
lation, possivole (C. 37) by assimilation to the preceding labial 
consonant. — Cf. Flor. utole Tancia, 892, noboi 932, possivol, 
Lam. di Cec, 2 ; — Luc. Ilodona, possibole. 1 

Syncope. 

(a) In hiatus. 

1. Before a: the loan 2 words ingiura (AL 5), memora, 
pecuna 63. 

2. Before e: spece (Gr. P. 15), superfice 20. 

3. Before o: silenzo (AL 15), ispazo 23. 

(b) Between consonants : medesmo (AL 3). — Cf. Flor. vitu- 
pero, impero, purgatoro Bocc, lussura Intell. ; 2 — Sen. engiura, 
matera, stora; 3 — Luc. medesmo, B. Luc, 81. 

Epenthesis. 

After I, r, n: cuculio (8. 8), alia 32, premuria (C. 90), 
usuria, tnbunia (Gr. P. 16), minia, miria 17, calibrio 18. 

Metathesis. 

Post-tonic i in hiatus is attracted by the tonic syllable : 
fiube (M. 24), sidda (C. 100), schioppo (N. 22), pianere, ris- 
piarmo (Gr. P. 13), pianerino 19, stiuda 21, siero 49. — Cf. 
Flor. pianere, Lam. di Cec, 23, sieda; — Sen. pianere, C. Son., 
39, stiuda Assetta, 275; — Luc. rispiar-mo, sieda, stiuda; 4 — 
Pis. rispiarmo; 6 — Aret. rimiedo. 6 



O. 

§ 8. Tonic o. 
(a) o remains. 

1 . In open syllable before labial cons. : omero, giovane by 
the side of giovane. 

l A. G., XII, 115. 2 cf. Grober's Grundriss, I, 533, g 78. 

Zs., IX, 542. 4 A. G., XII, 126. 5 Ibid., 153. 

6 Billi, X>ia2. Chian. cf. Caix, J>ta2. d'ltal., 195, n. 2. 



I v E 









30 J. D. BRUNER. 

2. In closed syllable: adqnqua, (Al. 9), lectqra 16, ngtta 
nullani (rimproverane) 32, where the translator was doubtless 
influenced by the non iniproperat of his original Latin text : 
gionto junctum (Cino, 35), 1 alcona alicun&m 17 (in rhyme), 
donche (C. 8), pqnto punctiim. — Cf. Flor. donche Lam. di 
Cec, 7 ; — Sen. donque, 2 gionto, ponto ; 3 — Corton. donqua Race, 
261 ; — Fr. done; — Span, donques. 

(b) p>o. 

1. In open syllable before r: loro (Gr. P. 49), ore, allora, 
aneora 50. — Cf. Luc. ora, allora, loro, costoro, coloro;* — Pis. 
ora, allora, loro, costoro, coloro: 5 — Fr. or, encor, lor. 6 

2. In closed syllable. 

a. Before r (+ cons.) : corto, giomo. — Cf. Flor. giorno. 
/3. Before I (+ cons.) : volgo (Gr. P. 47), colla 50, volto. 
7. Before cc: moscio muccidiim, 7 mocci'o, bocca ; secondary 
cc: sciocco. 

(c) > u. 

1. In open syllable: supra (Al. 25), devuto 32, du' de + 
ubi, induve (ill. 43), nu'= noi, vu'= voi (S. 118), nun (N, 1). — 
Cf. Pop. Lat. nus, vus. 8 

2. In closed syllable. 

a. Before nasal (+ cons.) : Alfunso (Al. 5), prunto 31, 
unde. — Cf. Pop. Lat. funic, prunte. 9 

(3. Special cases : amoruso (M. 3, n.), scussi 29, puppa, 10 
fussi (N. 1). — Cf. Flor. nui Tancia, 926, nun Race, 278, vu 
C Son., 77 ; — Sen. duve, nun, supra, unde; u — Luc. duve, 
fussi; 10 — Pis. nun Race, 291, duve, fussi. 12 

1 Fernow, R6m. Stud., Ill, 278. 

*Uso, 351. *A.G., XII, 112. 

3 Ibid., 633. & Ibid., 143. 

6 Meyer-Lubke, Gram. Rom., 146. 

7 Uso, 606. 

8 Schuch., Vohalismus, II, 98. 

9 Ibid., 118-19. u Zs., IX, 544-6. 

10 A. G., XII, 110. 12 Rid., 142-3. 



the phonology of the pistojese dialect. 31 
§ 9. Tonic o. 



(a) o remains. 

1. In open syllable in learned words : lenzolo (S. 94), mag- 
ghiolo mallealtim 97, solo 140, tpno 147, ovo 201, bono (C. 8), 
fora, foco 11, fori, novo 16, cocere 18, core 22, logo 24, omini 
33, sono 35,figliolo, omo (N. 1), vole, coce 20, coco 29, voto 208, 
sona (Gr. P. 11), trecioli citrlolum, 12, razziolo 15, scola 33, 
boi 47. — Cf. Flor. core, omo, bono, dole, sole Brunetto; l Dante 
has loco, foco in rhyme, trovo, 2 gioco, Tancia, 904, foco, omo, 
Intell., 138, loco 144, schola 146, bono 147, novi 150, for 153, 
^ioco 201, pd, coce, core 204, figliola C. Son., 17, sore 28; — 
Sen. bono C Son., 3, sora, fora, vole 7, ovo 8, novo 10, efomo 
95; — in West Lucchese only the forms in o are heard; 3 — Pis. 
" II dittongo dell' 8 e oggi costautemente ridotto nella citta, 
ma resiste pur sempre in alcune parti della campagna ; " 4 — 
Sicil. bonu, novu, rota, cori; 5 — Pad. bon, core, fora, homo, nova, 
pd (p5st) ; 6 — Gen. omo, bona, sor solet, vol vuole, nova, fora, 
po potest, cor, sona. 7 

2. In closed syllable: longo (Cino), 8 ogni. — Cf. Luc. longo 
Race, 253 ; — Gen. longo. 9 

(b) o > u. 

1. In open syllable: humo (MS. 1330), nuve (MS. 1339), 
luglio lSlium (S. 95), ugna (pure) = bisogna sftnium 151. — 
Cf. Pop. Lat. humo. 10 

2. In closed syllable : in ugni (N. 1) and ugnum (31. 95) 
the o is raised to the u by the u -\- i ; fursi (31. 1 2) is unex- 
plained. 11 Is the u due to the following if — Cf. Pop. Lat. 
prursus; 12 — Flor. ugni Lam. di Cec.,A.; — Luc./twsi, ugni ; 13 — 
Vis. fursi, ugni; 14 — Corton. pu pdst Race, 259. 

1 Zehle, Laut-und Flex., 12, 13. 8 Fernow, Bom. Stud., Ill, 278. 

*A. G., XII, 110. 9 Mussafia, Beitrdge, 114. 

3 A. G., XII, 109. 10 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 134. 

4 Ibid., 142. " Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., g 65. 

6 Schneegans, Sicil. Dial., 17. 12 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 123. 

6 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 12, 13. 13 A. G., XII, 110. 

M. G., X, 145. u Ibid., 142. 



32 J. D. BRUNER. 

(c) o in open syllable > uo: rispuose (Al. 4), truono (J. 26), 
pruovo, truovo. — Cf. Sen. rispuose; 1 — Luc. muodo, duodeci; 2 — 
Tuscan truova, puote; 3 — Pad. mud (= modo), nuovo, — uolo, cuo- 
fano, nuove (<n5v8m), ruosa, cuorpo, muorto, puovero; 4 — old 
Venet. pruova, compuose, muodo; 5 — N. Ital. muodo, nuove, 



ruosa. 6 



§ 10. Atonic o. 

1. Pretonic o. 

(a) o > a. 

1. Before r: argollio (Al. 8), barbottare ftopfiopos -\- (S. 46) 
influenced by barba; 7 scarpione (Gr. P. 16). 

2. Special cases: canoscentha (Al. 60), accupare (S, 8) is 
due to the confounding of the prepositions ob and ad, Salamone 
(C. 96) by assimilation. — Cf. Flor. Attavione, Salamone, scar- 
pione, 9 Taniri Purg. XII, 56, ancidore Inf. V, 61 ; — Sen. 
scarpione, acconare, accasione, ac(c)upare, Salamone; 9 — Pis. 
calosso, Bartalomeo ; 10 — Pad. hanore, canoscere. 11 

(b) o>i. 

1. By assimilation : giritondo n gyr[are] -f rotunda (M. 77), 
pricissione (S. 7). 

2. Special cases : vilume (M. 8, n.) is influenced by viluppo, 
vilucchio, Vi accomidare (S. 8) is formed on comido = comodo by 
analogy with the many forms in -ido, u innunistante (JV. 33) 
where the i is probably prosthetic i before s impurum, 15 — Cf. 
Flor. ignum Tancia, 907, pricission 925 ; — Aret. diminio, 
accomidare; 16 — Rom. accomidare? 1 

1 Zs., IX, 542. 8 Parodi, Romania, XVIII, 601. 

2 A. G., XII, 109. 9 Zs., IX, 547. 

3 B. d'Antona, Zs., XV, 51. 10 A. G., XII, 145. 

4 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 13. u Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 20. 

5 A. G., Ill, 249-50. 1Z cf. Caix, Dial d'ltal., 195, n. 2. 

6 Mussafia, Beitrage, 114. 13 Mussafia, Beitrage, 114. 

7 Korting, Lal.-Rom. Wb., 1286. M Parodi, Romania, XVIII, 601. 
16 Zs., IX, 547. 

16 Billi, Dial Chian. cf. Caix, Dial d'ltal, 195. 

17 Caix, Dial d'ltal., 205. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 33. 

(c) > U. 

This development of pretonic o > u is a strong Pistojese 
characteristic, particularly of the modern language. 

1. In hiatus : in Buemia (I. P. 466) and tuelette (Gr. P. 15) 
the e raises the o to u. 

2. u with following i. 

(1.) Before labial cons. : ubriaza (Al. 65), ubbrigoe (C. 15), 
ubbidienza (V. and 31. 188), Uvidio (Al. 54). 

(2.) Before other cons, than labials : ucchiello ( Uso, 1007), 
udiato (Al. 8), ulivo. 

/3. Other cases of u with following i. 

(1.) Before I, m, n, r: tavulini (M. 31), culizione (C. 10), 
culizionare 13, cultivazionc (N. 228), inchuminciamenti (Al. 11), 
parturird, 16, sbaturlir (M. 26). 

(2.) Before other cons, than ?, m, ?i, r: puchino (N. 228), 
cucchierl 320, costudimento ( Gr. P. 1 2), devuzione (Son. Pop., 57). 

(3.) w with following e. 

a. Before labial cons. : comprumetto (C. 9), mumento 16, 
imprumettere 77, mumentino (Gr. P. 39), Ruberto (N. 42), 
puvesia, puveta, puvetare 91. 

/3. Before n: muneta (C. 41). 

7. Before r: garanturerd (M. 71), curtelluccio (C. 15), cwr- 
Zetfo (.V.-iV. 19). 

S. Before £: prutedoe (C. 36), prutezione 179. 

4. w with following «. 

a. Before liquids : diavularie (31. 8), diavulaccio 17, j?ro- 
pulaccio 76, crullare (8. 8), luntano (Al. 42), bronturar (31. 
68), tremurar 81. 

/9. Special cases : cugnato (Al. 16), giucare (31. 3, n.). 

5. Special cases : curruccio (I. P. 487) and nunustante (Son. 
Pop., 57) are due to assimilation ; frugiuron (M. 66), spenzu- 
rone 80. — Cf. Pop. Lat. cugnata, muneta; 1 — Flor. munimento 
Tntell., 198, ulivo, ubbrigare, pulizia, Spideto, 2 mumento C. Son., 
9, culizione 17, upinione 30, puetico 33, prugresso 52; — Sen. 

1 Schuch., FoWismus, II, 127, 136. 2 Parodi, Romania, XVIII, 601. 

3 



34 J. D. BRUNER. 

arnmunire, amunizione, arbuscello, buttiga, buttino, co(n)pusi- 
zione, crullare, cumuno, cumunione, cuprire, munisterio, muneto, 
pulizia, spuleto, ubligare, up(p)inione, urechio, 1 prucissione C 
Son., 70, mumento, ugnun Compon., 315 ; — Luc. cugnato, 
pulenta, cureggia, Lunardo, muneta, 2 cucchieri Race, 247, 
nunistante 253 ; — Pis. prutesta, muneta, mumento, fumento, 
cuscienza, unore, udorato, sumiglia, innucenzia, impvumessa, 
preputente, memuriale, capurale, piruletta, cugnato, cunsegnare, 
Furli, menumare, accumiatare, arnmunire; 3 — Corton. puduto 
Race, 258, cugneta, pruvista 261, vussignuria 263, puchino, 
furestiero, scuprire, puisie ; 4 — Neapol. accusl, pueta, prufeta. 5 
(d.) o > uo by analogy With stein-accented forms: ris- 
puondendo (Al. 24), suonato (Gr. P. 11), scuolaro 22. — 
Cf. Flor. suonando Purg. X, 4, tuonar XV, 138 6 ; — N. 
Ital. repuosare, aluogare, muolare? 

Variants. 

(a) o remains in the learned word cocina (Gr. P. 43). — Cf. 
Sen. cocina. 8 

(b) o>e: interpidi (M. 71); precissione (Gr. P. 11) is 
due to the confounding of prefixes. — Cf. Pis. precissione C. 
Son., 36. 

Apheresis. 

'bria ftbliiit (Al. 13), gni, gnuno (Rice, 30), immd = o(h)ime 
( V. and M. 100), ibb = oibd ( Uso, 470).— Cf. Flor. gnun Tan- 
cia, 910 ; — Sen. 'gnuno C S071., 8. 

Syncope. 

disnore (Al. 43), bainetta Bayonne + (S. 8). — Cf. Sen. dis- 
nore, s bainette C. Son., 64. 

1 Zs., IX, 547. 5 Collez. Napol., XXVIII, 5. 

2 A. G., XII, 115. 6 Zehle, Laut-und Flex., 30. 

3 A. O., XII, 145. 7 Mussafia, Breitrage, 114. 
1 Caix, Dial, d'ltal., 123. 8 Zs., IX, 548. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 35 

2. Post-tonic o, 

(a) o > e. 

1. In paroxy tones: quande (Gh\ P. 22) formed by analogy 
with dove, donde. 

2. In proparoxytones before r: metafero (Gr. P. l'3),fos- 
fero 14. 

(b) o (+/)> w (+/,»•) in proparoxytones: diavulo (M. 
88), nocciur nucgtfluin 4, lucciuro 9, sdrucciuro 29, rossignuri 
luscintiolit 81. — Cf. Pop. Lat. diabulo. 1 

Variants. 

(a) o remains in the proparoxytone lievore I6p5r6m (Al. 7). 

(b) o > a in proparoxytones : jilosafo (C. 72) influenced by 
s£p6re; atamo (Gr. P. 14) by assimilation. — Cf. Sen. Jilosafo. 2 

(c) o > * in the proparoxytone comido (C. 64) formed by 
analogy with the many forms in -ido. 3 

Syncope. 
dialo di&b5liim (.47. 55). 

Metathesis. 
entroni (M. 22). 

U 

§ 11. Tonic u. 

u remains : (un') uncia (Gh\ P. 12), probably influenced by 
the article un, is the only example in Pistojese where tonic u 
varies from the Italian. 

§ 12. Atonic u. 

1. Pretonic u. 
(a) u remains. 
1. In hiatus : ciuino suiniim (Ner.), 4 suave (S. Fr. 60). 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 133. 3 cf. Parodi, Romania, XVIII, 601. 

2 Zs., IX, 548. 4 Quoted by Caix, Studi, 289. 



36 J. D. BRUNER. 

2. In learned and half-learned words. 

a. Before labial cons. : supradetta (B. 83), suprabunda (S. 
Fr. 23), puppare (Uso 780), summitd (8. Fr. 11). 

/3. Before liquids : populazo (Rice, 32), multiplicare (S. Fr. 
27), particulare 52, difficulty (N. 181), urvieto (Rice, 25), 
ratturbare (C 92), currieri (N. 14), giocurare (Uso, 437). 

7. Before n : habundare, fundare (8. Fr. 2), circundata 8. 

S. Before s : circustantia (S. Fr. 9), cwsl. 

e. Special cases : crucifisso (J. 29), scudella (Gr. P. 12) 
formed on scudo. — Cf. Dante, who preserves the pretonic u 
before I: maculato Inf. I, 33, caniculare XXV, 10, singulare 
Purg. VIII, 67, sepulcrale XXI, 7, articulare XXV, 69 ; 1 — 
Sen. scudella, manutenere, abundanza, voluntd, cullui ; 2 — Luc. 
ruvina, scudella, curtello, singulare ; 3 — Pis. scudella, curtello, 
popidare, cusi ; 4 — Corton. cusi Race, 263. 

(b) u > i through il ; 5 that is u is fronted and then un- 
rounded : bigia (Ap. 97) ; bifonchiaro (31. 48) and timore 
tuinSrSm (C. 106) are due to dissimilation; 6 manitengolo 
42.— Cf. Flor. Ridolfo Purg. VII, 94, ognindl Tancia, 936, 
monimento 955; — Sen. rimore, giramento, gidicare, gignore 
(juniorem); 7 — Luc. piggello, dindolare; 8 — Pis. nicciolo. 9 

(c) u > o in old Pistojese. 

1. In hiatus : perpefoa/e (Al. 66), continoamente 72. — Cf. 
Pop. Lat. perpetoali. w 

2. For pretonic u > out of hiatus it is difficult to formu- 
late a rule. Perhaps the cause of this development can be 
traced to the influence of the Umbrian-Aretino school : soper- 
bia (Al. 9), omana, otilitade, natorcde, anonziano 12, pronon- 
ziano 13 by assimilation, soficente 15, prodenza 19 formed on 
prode, adolterio 34, soccidere 35, innomerevili 53, ineobriato 
54, ponire 55, vitoperio 57, oscire 65, istodiosamente 70, torri- 

^ehle, Laut-vnd Flex., 31. 6 Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Rom., \ 358. 

2 Zs., IX, 549. 7 Zs., IX, 549. 

M. <?., XII, 115. M.G ., XII, 115. 

4 Ibid,, 145. »i.e, XII, 146. 

5 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 191 /oW. 10 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 162. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 37 

bile tus (turis) -f- (J. 3), dinonzare 1 2, sopportare (I. P. 273) 
and dobboletto [M. 35) by assimilation, nodrite (Cino, 94), occiso 
105; modern are ahnosando (M. 71), gostasse 91, soppidiano 
(8. 8), costudimento (Gr. P. 12), omore 1 by assimilation. — 
Cf. Pop. Lat. homano, ponire; 2 — Guittone d'Arezzo and his 
school : ottulita, osaggio, storbare, gostando, soperbia, omilta, 
soficiente, prodenza, sopporre, dobitoso; 3 — Sen. nodrire, onever- 
sita, omore, osanza, congiogale,forare,form€nto, robrica, soprire 
(supplire), stromento, totore (tutorgm) ; 4 — Luc. torbato, coscino, 
Nonziata, oncino; 5 — Pis. scoltino, morella, usorieri, torbato, 



oncino. 6 



Variants. 



u > e before r : teribule tus (turis) + (Ap. 33), userajo 
usurariuni (8. 8) by dissimilation. — Cf. Sen. teribilo. 7 

Apheresis. 

'n = uno (Son. Pop., 43), 'na = una 55, Universale 43. In 
'n and 'na the tonic u becomes pretonic before it is cut off by 
apheresis. — Cf. Flor. 'n, 'na ; — Sen. 'na C. Son., 13, 'Golino 
41; — Luc. 'na Can. Pop., 19; — Pis. 'Golino C. Son., 23, 
'na 85. 

Syncope. 

After q: catrino (C. 36), ligori (Gr. P. 43).— Cf. Flor. 
chistione C. Son., 40. 

2. Post-tonic u. 

(a) u remains in proparoxytones. 

1. Before I: teribule tus (turis) -\- (Ap. 33), populo (S. Fr. 
40), seculo 51. 

2. Before Z> r: bruscuro btixulum (M. 2>),pisuro 7, roturo 
25, scarrabatturi 31, cioture German, schutt -f ultlm 37, trot- 

1 Fernow, Rom. Stud., Ill, 274. 

2 Schuch., Vokalismus, II, 182, 186. 

3 Caix, Origini, 95 ; Zehle, Laut-und Flex., 32. 
4 Zs., IX, 548-9. 6 Jbid., 145. 

5 A. O. XII, 115. 7 cf. pt > ct, 1 16, 2. 



38 J. D. BRUNER. 

tura, fignuro German, finne + ulum 42, spiguro 43, brocuri 
53, ventricuro 56, pillura, rozzura, moccuro Uso, 639. — Cf. 
Flor. maculo Lam. di Cec, 8, popul Intell., 200 ; — Luc. pil- 
lura, becuro, pentura, tomburo, populo, tabemaculo, turibulo ; x 
— populo, turibulo? 

AU 

§ 13. Tonic au. 

au (generally secondary) remains in old Pistojese : paraula 
(At. S),paulo 21, laudi 22, diaula .48, imparaule (J. 16), taula 
24, auro, tesawo (Cino, 424). — Cf. Flor. auro Intell., 132; — 
Luc. aulo, paraula, taula, diaulo, fraula, miraulo, Paulo ; 3 — 
Pis. naulo, raula, taula, caulo, Paulo. 4 

Variants. 

(a) au^>u; that is the a is rounded by assimilation to the 
u and then uu is reduced to u : u aut (Al. 7). 

(b) au > uo : pub paucum (Gr. P. 40). 

§ 14. Atonic au. 
1. Pretonic au. 

(a) au > a : in old Pistojese : atorita (Al. 53), aricafoo 
(J. 24). 

(b) au^> o : odierae (Al. 36), osingatori 39, ogosto (Rice, 
3), by assimilation, odito (Cino, 72), orolegio = lauro -f- re^io 
(7. and M. 21).— Cf. Luc. Ogosto B. Luc, 16. 



1 A. G., XII, 115. 3 /6W., 110. 

2 /6id., 146. 4 Ibid., 143. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 39 

CONSONANTS. 

A. LABIALS. 

P 

§ 15. Initial p. 

Variants. 

(a) p > c: cicco = piccolo (M. 28) by assimilation. 

(b) j? >/•• fermanenza (Gr. P. 18), probably permanenza 
-f- fermare, (fd)foo=poco (Son. Pop., 43) by assimilation. 

§ 16. Medial p. 

1. Intervocalic p. 

p>pp: sappiente (M. 6), (co') ppie 53, doppo (C. 11), trap- 

pocho (Gr. P. 25). — Cf. Sen. pappa, doppo, G(igli), V(ocabola,7'io 

Cateriniano), remarks : " Doppo scrisse la Santa (Caterina), e 

tutti i Sanesi, ed i Lucchesi, ed i Pisani, ed i Pistojesi, ed gli 

Aretini." 1 

Variants. 

(a) p remains : apo apud (Al. 16). 

(b) p > b : abis lapis (Gr. P. 11). 

2. p before a consonant. 

p(-\- 2) > c (+ £) in old Pistojese by analogy with the numer- 
ous Latin words in ct as dlctttm, etc. : corrocto cfirruptum (A I. 
8), achacta Sdcaptum, scricto 12, iscrictura, incactiviscie 30, 
sectembre 71. 

Variants. 

(a) p (+ t) remains : scripto (Al. 7). — Cf. Pis. scripto Crest., 
166. 

1 Zs., IX, 566. 



40 J. D. BRUNER. 

(b) p (+ r) > b (+ r): abrile (Al. 74), ginebro junip'riis 
{Gr.P. 14). ' 

Syncope. 

(a) Intervocalic £>: piolare pipilare (C. 89) by dissimilation. 

(b) Before t: iscrito (Al. 14), Batista (J. 16), setanta (Gr. 
P. 12).— Cf. Pop. Lat. otime, Setembres, setimo. 1 

PP 

§ 17. Medial pp. 

1. Intervocalic pp. 

pp~>p in old Pistojese: aparechia appariciilare (Al. 12), 
apuntato (Ap. 7), aporra 99. 

2. pp before a consonant. 
pp + r > pr : apresso (Al. 9), aprossima (Ap. 97). 

B 

§ 18. Initial b. 
Variants. 

(a) b >/: forbotta (C. 11) by dissimilation. 

(b) b > m .- migna by the assimilation of the oral labial to 
the nasal labial. 

§ 19. Medial b. 

1. Intervocalic b. 

(a) 6>66: abbominatione (Ap. 71), rubbato (N. 115), 
scabbelli (31. 31), dobboletto 35, ro66a (& 10), M6era (C. 9), 
subbito 12, (gm') bbambino (Gr. P. 23), subbitana 24, sabbato 
35. — Cf. Sen. robba, robbare, 2 subbito C. Son., 8; — Luc. debbito, 
nobbile; 3 — Pis. libbero, subbito, dubbitare. 4 

1 Schuch., Vokalkmus, I, 143-4. 3 A <?., XII, 124. 

2 Zs., IX, 566. 4 Ibid., 152. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 41 

(b) 6 > g probably under Etruscan influence : lagorare (S. 
93), nugole nubllem (C. 22), lagoro. — Cf. Flor. lagorare Tan- 
da, 875, lagorio 877, lagoro 926 ; — Sen. lagorare, lagorio, 
diagol dnibttliim. 1 

Variants. 

(a) 6 remains in old Pistojese : dubio (Al. 5), debono (J. 1), 
obedire 15. 

(b) b > sc: diascolio (C. 43), diascolo. — Cf. Flor. diascolo 
Tancia, 876. 

(c) 6 > v : possivole (C. 37). 

(d) b > w : avvorto &b5rtum (M. 46). 

2. b after a consonant. 

m -f- b >> mm: incommensa cumbSre + (Gr. P. 17). — Cf. 
Luc. incommensa, incammo = in -f- cambio. 2 

3. 6 before a consonant. 

Variants. 

(a) Before r. 

1. 6 remains : labra {Al. 3), febraio (Rice, 34), fabrica 
{Gr. P. 43). 

2. 6 > 66: Zi66ro, libbra (Gr. P. 11). 

3. 6 > p : Ottopre (Gr. P. 11). 

4. 6 > r by assimilation : Ferrago (S. 76). 

5. 6 > v : livre llbr&rn (J. 2), livra (J. 2, n.). — Cf. Sen. 
livro librum, livra; 2 — Pis. livra, ottovre. 3 

(b) 6 (-J- s) remains: observare (Al. 13). 

(c) 6(+ t) > c(-f- £) in old Pistojese by analogy with the 
many Latin forms in ct as dictum, etc. : 4 socio subtus (Al. 4), 
soctilmente 13, soctile 27, asoctialiamento 31. — Cf. Luc. socto 
5. iwc, 5. 

Zs., IX, 566. 3 /6iof., 152. 

*A. G., XII, 124. 4 cf. p< >c<, § 16, 2. 



o: 



■ 



42 J. D. BRUNER. 

Syncope. 

(a) Intervocalic b : altroe &liter + tibi (Al. 5), diaula 48. 

(b) Before a consonant : oservare (Al. 46), solevb (Ap. 79), 
Feraio (Rice, 60). — Cf. Pop. Lat. Feraras (= Februarias)} 

Epenthesis. 

After m the voiced labial b is introduced as a glide in modern 
Pistojese : stombaco (31. 6), rigombitd = vomito 8, omb& 16, stom- 
bachini 47, camberata 72, sembola (C. 17), cambera 21, rembo- 
lare r&mdrare (N. 76), sembolino, gombiti, prezzembolo (secondary 
m) pStr5s6tin6n, coombero cucumergni (Gr. P. 12). — Cf. Flor. 
omb& Tancia, 879; — Luc. cambera, coombaro, tomburo, sembola, 
gombito, stombaco; 2 — Pis. cambera, coombero, sembola, gombito, 
stombaco; 5 — Aret. fiamba, sembola;* — Ladini stombec* 

BB 

§ 20. Medial bb. 

1. Intervocalic bb. 

Variant. 

bb>b: babo b&bum (Gr. P. 21). 

F 

§ 21. Medial f. 

1. Intervocalic f. 

f^>ff only after the conjunctions e, che, the prepositions a, 
da and the article la: effine = e -\-fine (Ap. 5), effaJ 9, effugli 
25, effortezza 31, effu 35, effedeli 73, effano 75, chefecie 59, «/for- 
michare 11, affimre, daffare (Gr. P. 40), laffemmina (Ap. 71). — 
Cf. Aret. affine, affare Crest., 176, e ^a, afforza 179. 

1 Schuch., Foi-ahsmus, 1, 128 ; III, 64. 3 Ibid., 150. 

2 A G., XII, 120. 4 Ascoli, A (?., I, 308, n. 2. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 43 

2. / after a consonant. 
Variants. 

(n+)f>(n) + f:'nffine(Al. 76). 

Prosthesis. 
fazione=fare -f- azlone (Gr. P. 18). 

FF 

§ 22. Medial ff. 

1. Intervocalic f. 

f>f: oficio (Al. 21), dificile (Rice, 29), difiulta (Gr. P. 15), 

afezionata 21. 

2. Jf before a consonant. 

(a) f (+ r) >/(+ r) : o/Woono (Gr. P. 22). 

V 

§ 23. Initial v. 

(a) v>6: bomitare (Ap. 17), bode = voce 19, bassogliate 
vasoriurn -f (If. 43), boto. — Cf. Pop. Lat. bia, bice, benisti; 1 — 
Flor. boce; — Sen. boce, bociare, boto. 2 

(b) v > g ; that is 6 becomes bilabial and is then backed 
under Etruscan influence: golaa, golatina, gorpe = volpe (C. 
10). — Cf. Sen. golpe, golare, goto. 

§ 24. Medial v. 

1. Intervocalic v. 

Variants. 

(a) v remains : pavura (C. 9). 

(b) vy-vv: provveggo (31. 54), intravvenuto (N. 31). 

(c) v > b : eba (Al. 26). 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 75. 2 Zs., IX, 567. 



44 J. D. BRUNER. 

(d) v > g : rigomitd (M. 8). 

(e) v -\- i > bi : gabie gav6& ( Gr. P. 43). 

2. w before a consonant. 

(a) i; (+ >p(-M): ciptadella (Rice, 10), ciptadino 11, 

cipto 27. 

Syncope. 

Intervocalic v in modern Pistojese : (/a) 'ogghio (S. 7), 

arriare 11, rimoere, (ti) 8ggo 32, riende 80, Liorno 92, ciilino 

96, Ciitaecchia, (ci) 'engo 104, w&o 106, (eK) Were 122, cKino 

151, (prendera') 'ista 152, gioentu 159, (7a) 'os^ra 205, $erra- 

a^e 231, traerso, proerbio (C. 8), cattio, 6rao 9, £ea, die??io 15, 

gioane, caati 18, gioanino, cittta, leatico, taola 19, taolino 29, 

gioanotto 36, dierfo 40, incattiita 43, rinciilita 44, and in the 

old language /ao (Ji. 15); secondary i>; ae>e (/S. 20), £>dero 

29, caa^o 30, toagghia Germanic Jmahlja 58, aanzo 116, 

laorare 128, scriano, troare 151, beanda blb&ndS, 153, feoro 

((7. 22), awfo, addoe 26, 6eer bibere 27, caalluccio 32, goerno 

33, scriere (S. and C. 21). — Cf. Flor. attto Tancia, 936, (ci) 

'orrebbe C. Son., 6, (potessi) 'enire, (si) 'ede 7, (Aa) '*sfo, fr»oa#o 

10, (wna) 'orto 13, dientare 14, feare 15, goerno 41, 6rao 44, 

tooto 77, spiouto Race, 280, ccaofo 282, quiggione, riceere 

284; — Sen. 6ree, (waso) We (7. Son., 7, awfo 16, jpoero 26; — 

Luc. auto, beuto, riceuto, attroe; 1 — Pis. auto, beuto, riceuto, 

piouto, attroe. 2 

Epenthesis. 

Intervocalic v: Pavolo (Gr. P. 46); under the influence of 
the labial vowel o, intervocalic v is intercalated in order to 
break hiatus. 

W 

§ 25. Initial w. 

Variants. 

(a) w > b : bidalesco German, widerrist (M. 41). 

1 A. G., XII, 119. - Ibid., 148-9. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 45 

(b) w>g f : giangie O. H. G. wankja (Gr. P. 14), by- 
assimilation. 

(c) w > v: verra German, werra (Al. 68). 

B. DENTALS. 
T 

§ 26. Initial t. 
Variants. 

1. Simple initial. 

ty>ch (= k) through tj: chiepido (31. 58), chienire ( Gr. P. 37) 
< tienire < tfinere. 

2. Initial group. 

K+ r ) >/(+ r ) • fracchienere (C. 28). 

§ 27. Medial t. 
1. Intervocalic t. 

(a) t > tt after a, che : atte ==a -\-te (Ap. 9), attestimoniare 
97, chettu, chettiene 7, chetteme 81 ; also etterno 59, mattutina 
13, etta (Rice, 44), (sia) ttopi (31. 34), anedotto an-ec-doton 
( Gr. P. 47). — Cf. Luc. acchitto, cottone, tittolo ; 1 — Pis. cottono, 
uttilitade, Prottonotaio, 3Iattelda, 2 regalatta, pagatta, compratta, 
usatta C. Son., 59. 

(b) t>d. 

1. In the terminations -ate, -uie, -tore in old Pistojese: gen- 
eralitade, oscuritade (Al. 3), volontade, amistade 4, veritade, 
Jidelitade, vanitade 7, malvascitade 8, nequitade 9, otilitade, 
crudelitadi 12, quantitade 13, qualitade 14, sanitade 15, adver- 
sitade 19, dijicoltade 23, onesiacle, bontade 25, humanitade, 
somitade 31, voluttade, infermitade 35, necessitade 36, iniqui- 
tade 50, possibilitade 52, autoritadi 59, povertade, parentadi 

1 Ibid., 123. * Ibid., 151. 



46 J. D. BRUNEE. 

61, libertade, mendieitade 62, cittade 64, benignitade 69, san- 
tade 71, nimistade 74, ereditade (B. 81), nativitade (J. 1), 
etade, podestade 2, solennitade 5, universitade 7, metade 9, 
festivitade 10 , proprietade 16, nuditade (Ap. 17), chiaritade 91 ; 
vertude (Al. 57), servitude Q6 ; servidore 5, inperidore 53. In 
Albertano there are only two forms in which the termination 
-ate is preserved: utilitate 47, cupiditate 71, while the preser- 
vation of -tore is the rule : difenditore 12, uditore 14, lusinga- 
tore 21, gridatore 25, etc. 

2. Special cases : privadi (AL 21), rachidine Grk. pa^lri? 
(Gr. P. 14), podere. — Cf. Flor. volontade Crest., 20; " Die 
Endungen der Substantiva auf -afe, -wte, welche bei den altes- 
ten Dichtern fast ausschliesslich gesetzt werden — hochst selten 
sind -ade, -ude — haben bei Dante ebenso haufig -ade, -ude 
neben sich, sowohl im Reim wie in der Mitte des Verses. 
Audi Brunetto hat beide Formen." 1 imperadore Inf. I, 134; — 
Sen. fadiga, amministr adore, staduto, mudande, podere, pri- 
vado; 2 — Luc. fedeltade B. Luc, 3, voluntade 18, podestade, 
meitade, dignitade 32, comunitade 34, utilitade 61, quantitade 
70, cittade 74, etc. ; — Pis. uttilitade, 5 servidore Crest., 58 ; — 
Canzon. ital. podestade, eitade, sanitade, aversitade, onestade, 
utilitade, amistade, gioventade, chastitade, bonitade, pietade, 
charitade, by the side of the forms in -ate, etc. Also ama- 
dore, galiadore, validore, rappidor, miradore, partadore, spera- 
dore, by the side of vengiatore, etc. 4 

(c) t > th ()>) regularly in modern Pistojese ; the develop- 
ment occurs more frequently after the accent than before it. 

1. After the accent. 

a. 5 Pres. Indicative and Imperative : fathemi, dathemi, 
scusathemi, stathe, parlathe, siethe, vedethe, credethe, dithe, sen- 
tithe, venithe, etc. 

yS. Perf. Participle : datho, statho, natho, amatho, portatho, 
pagatho, tentatho, scusatho, mostratho, adoperatho, autho, sapu- 

1 Zehle, Laut- und Flex,, 53. 3 Ibid., 151. 

8 Zs., IX, 560. 4 Caix, Origini, 155-6. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 47 

tho, perdutho, itho, sortitho, capitho, sentitho, venitho, Jinitho, 
salitho, etc. 

7. Other cases : pothere, ripethere, vitha, giomathe, mutho, 
consuetho, and in the old language popolatho (Al. 58). 

2. Before the accent : patherno, pothea, compathire, (egghi) 
thornava, dubithb, pietha, pathibolo, (ehe) thiene, (la) therra, (la) 
thesta, muthamento, and in the old language catholica (Al. 66). — 

In the Florentine dialect intervocalic t after the accent be- 
comes ch (written in Uso oh, in C Son. c, before a, 0, and ch 
before e, but pronounced open ch). Examples from Uso : 
Pilacho, restacha, vedeche, sieche, ache, entracho, aspettache, 
dareche, voissucho = volsuto, pedache, veniche 206, voleche, 
potucho, siache, peccacho 207, facciacha, parlacho, diche, no- 
tache, usacho, ripetucho 208, etc. Examples from C. Son. : 
jinico 19, scappaca, procuraco, stampaco, proibica, studiaco 
20, giornaca, guadagnaca, disgraziaca, sudaco 22, staco 29, 
sentico, portaco 30, nottache, giulebbache, sonache 33, daco, 
citaco, sieche 36, etc. 

Variants. 

(a) t> ct: tictolo (Al. 4). 

(b) t >• gg': meggia meta" (C. 8). 

(c) ty> r: coresto eccu + tibi + istum (M. 11). 

t + i 

(a) t (+ i) remains in old Pistojese : gratia (Al. 3), isposi- 
tione 5, genneratione, gratiosa 8, malitia 11, amicitia 12, 
giustitia 15, tristitia 20, pretioso 27, avaritia 34, malitiosi, 
convisatione 38, liberatione (J. 9), pretio 11, amonitione, repa- 
ratione 15, operationi 17, tribulationi (Rice, 1), ufitiali 16, 
devotione 23, venitiani 24, tristitia 51, tribulationi 57, laudatia 
(Ap. 5), sag? , ifitii 11, tentatione 15, beneditione 21, orationi, 
natione 23, intossichationi, fornicationi 41, dannatione, bordel- 
latione 69, abominatione, amiratione 71, dilitie 75, giustifica- 
tioni 81, gratiosamente 89, difitio 93. — Cf. Luc. restitutione B. 
Luc, 2, conditione 6, spetiale, petitione, gratia 15, inquisitione 



48 J. D. BRUNEE. 

23, comparitione 29, generatione 48, distributione 54, exami- 
natione 91, emendatione, probatione 101, dijjinitione 102; — 
Canzon. ital. conditione, pretioso, vitio, gratia, iustitia, karitia, 
dovitia, rationale. 1 

(b) t(-j- i) > sc (-{- z) = s in old Pistojese : rascione (Al. 4), 
induscio, dispresciare 6, mavasciamente, malvascitadi 8, maZ- 
vascio 11, serviscio 12, diliberascione 23. — Of. Flor. rascione 
Crest., 20; — Sen. condan(n)ascione, denunziascione, rascione, 
serviscio; 2 — Pis. prescio, rascione Crest, 167; — Canzon. ital. 
prescio, rascione. 3 

(c) £(+i) > z (= fe) in old Pistojese; this development takes 
place principally with the suffix -iti£ : a,spreze [Al. 7), caldeze 10, 
dolceza 15, vechieza 16, riccheza, grandeza 22, dimesticheza 49, 
agevileza 52, stolteza 58, allegreza, gentileza 61, macteza 68, /ar<7~ 
Aeza 69,forteza (Rice, 10), belleza, dispreza 45; also modern 
witaza mat(t)ea (Grr. P. 21). — Cf. Aret. vagheza, graveza, giente- 
leza, belleza, richeza Crest., 174, allegreza 175, a^fcza 180. 

(d) £ (+ i) > zs (+ i) = #si in modern Pistojese : prezzio 
(N. 205), ringrazzi (Gr. P. 20), grazzia, disgrazzie, ozzio 21, 
pastorizzia, vizzi 22, nazzioni, pazziensa, condizzione 21. 

Variants. 

(a) £ (i) > c : ispreciando (Al. 22). 

(b) f (-f- j) > c (= &) : incumincare (Al. 68). 

(c) £ ( + *) > th (})) : grathia (Al. 16), impathe 19, ricceiha 62. 

(d) £ (+ /) > sc (s£) : rascone (Al. 64), indusco 68, dispresca 
69, 'nduscare 70. 

(e) ^ (+ &) > s # (+ *) = 2.' rasgione (J. 5). — Cf. Prat. 
rasgione Crest, 95 ; — Pis. stasgione 58 ; — Aret. rasgione 168. 

(f) £ (-f- i) !> c£ (+ i) : discretione (Al. 4). 

2. if. after a consonant. 

(a) (s +) t > (s -J-) c ^ (= &') : foraschiero (C. 35), mescliieri, 
asche.ro (Gr. P. 17). 

1 J&id., 157-8. £ Zs., IX, 561. a Caix, Origini, 160. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 49 

(b) (s -f) t (+ r) > 88 by assimilation : nosso, vosso (M. 32), 
mossato (M. 32, n.). 

(c) (c -{-) t (-\- f) remains: indictione (Al. 16), subiectione 
75, electione (J. 2), factione 6. — Cf. Luc. exactione B. Imc, 

18, detractione 61 ; — Pis. benedictione Crest., 166. 

(d) (n -4-) < (+ i) remains in old Pistojese : pronontiare (Al. 
13), dinontiata 67, licentia (B. 77), conscientia (J. 3), reverentia 
5, mentione 11, loquentia (Rice, 44), potentia 30, presentia 51, 
patientia (Ap. 5), silmtio 33, assentio 35, mercantie 75. — Cf. 
Luc. licentia B. Luc, 9, credentia, dinontiare 12, sententia 13, 
mercantia 16, stantiato 19, antiani 104, presentia 113; — Pis. 
presentia Crest., 166, mercantia; 1 — Aret. sapientia Crest, 175. 

(e) (n 4-) ^ (+ i)> ( w +) ^ (1>) i Q old Pistojese : cm£A£ (.4X 
3), usanthi, sapientha 11, prudentha, canoscentha 47. — Cf. Luc. 
dinanthi, innanthi B. Luc, 12. 

(f) (n +) £ (+ i) > (n) + « * Firense (Gr. P. 12), mancansa 

19, scensa, coscensa 20, pazziensa 21, indigensa 44, innansi 
67. — Cf. Sen. benivolensa, cominsare, Fiorensa, dinansi, sensa, 
stansa; 2 — Luc. dinansi B. Luc, 23, credensa, dilivansa 99, 
rinonsare 101 ; — Pis. senblansa, doglensa, amansa, pietansa, 
intensa, disviansa, accordansa, soffrensa, dubitansa, partensa 
Crest., 78, valensa, fallensa, dottansa, convenensa, tardansa, 

plagensa 79; — Aret. sembiansa 170, temensa 176, valensa, 
negrigiensa 183. 

(g) ( w +) * (+ £) >( w +) 2 (+ ?: )-* confidenzie (N. 101), 
presenzia 106, reverenzie, sentenzia 124, avvertenzie 315. 

(h) (s +) * (+ i) > s + eft (= &') + i : beschiaccia (C. 24), 
beschia, fracchienere = trattenere 28, oschia (Gr. P. 11). 

(i) s (-f- > ss by assimilation. 

1. Pret. Ind. 2 : passassi, mangiassi (IS. 208), prestassi, 
andassi, stassi (Gr. P. 43), cadessi (S. 207), cognoscessi 62, 
potessi 117, ebbessi (C. 47), cogghiessi 65, cfo'ssi 68, siedessi 101, 
tacessi 105, tienessi 106, vedessi 109, fussi, facessi, dicessi (Gr. 
P. 33), sentissi (8. 138), partissi 207, vienissi (C. 110). 

M. G., XII, 151. 8 Zs., IX, 561. 

4 



50 J. D. BRUNER. 

2. Pret. Ind. 5: andassi (8. 34), stessi (C 103), ebbessi 
(8. 29), cognossi 62, cogghiessi 64, volessi 156, /wssi (C. 70), 
paressi 86, potessi 90, siedessi 101, tacessi 105, tienessi 106, 
vedessi 109, dicessi (Gr. P. 33), sentissi (8. 138), vienissi 155, 
partissi (C. 87). 

3. Conditional 2: anderessi (8. 34), ameressi 173, saressi 
74, daressi (C. 14), diressi 32, averessi 48, cogghieressi 66, 
saperessi (N. 169). 

4. Conditional 5 : anderessi (S. 34), aressi 30, cogghieressi 
66, dirressi 68, saressi 74. 

5. Imp. Subj. 5 : andessi (8. 34), aessi 30, cogghiessi (C. 
65), dicessi 68, /ttssi 71, sapessi (N. 145), vienissi 40. — Cf. 
Pop. Lat. Pret. 2: duxissi; 1 — Sen. Imp. Subj. 5: aitasse, 
andasse, avesse, dessi, dicesse, dovesse, facesse, persassi, pigli- 
asse, sapesse. 2 

Variants. 

(a) (s -(-) £ remains : j?sfo'o, stianto ast[u]la" (GV. P. 11). 

(b) (c +) * > cc (= M) : spacco (GV. P. 43). 

(c) (£+)<> (J +) #'.• vo/^a/e = «>o#afe (^. 1 3). 

(d) (n +) £ >• (w +) ch (== ¥) : manchienuta (M. 12), volen- 
chieri (C. 22). — Cf. Flor. volenchieri C. Son., 11. 

(e) (n +) t > (n +) ct : tancte (Al. 59). 

(f ) (c +) £ (+ j) > 22 (= fts) -f * ; qfezzionato ( GV. P. 21). 

(g) ( l +) * + i > (* +) s • fi lm fi 1 '^ (^ -P- 21 )- 

(h) (n +) < + j >(w +) c (= h) : fancullo ( O. P. 21). 

(i) n 4 t + i > ^ + cn (= &') + * •* denanchi (Al. 54). 

(J) ( r ~\~) t (+ i) remains : fer/io (Rice, 41). 

(k) (r +) < (+ %) > (r +) s: forsa (Gr. P. 24), smorsata 43. 

(1) (s -J-) t (-f j) > «*: possa pSstga" (Al. 6). This assimila- 
tion of the t to the s is caused by the strong sonorous character 
of the s. 

3. t before a consonant. 

Variants. 

(a) t ('c) > g + i (g) : viagio (Al. 10). 

(b) t (+ r) > ft (+ r) : <w teftre! = ftftte e tre' (Gr. P. 24). 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 145. 2 Zs., IX, 413. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 51 

(c) t (+ 2) > I (-f- 2) : falzoletto dimin. of German, fetzen 
(Gr. P. 10); t > 2 by assimilation and then 2 > Z under in- 
fluence of the following If 

TT 

§ 28. Medial tt. 
Intervocalic tt. 

(a) # > ct (k't) in old Pistojese : tuctora, versecto, infra- 
mectere (Al. 3), saecte 5, tucto 7, mecteno 11, poghecto 13, 
bactalia 29, conbactere 66, macteza 68, mactina 71, lectera 
(Rice, 14). — Cf. Sen. inpromectere Crest, 164 ; — Luc. iwcfo 
P. iwc, 3, quactro 22, saectare 23, mectare 66, dimactina 92 ; 
— Pis. £wc££ Crest., 166; — Aret. fotcfo 177. 

(b) tt^> t: quatro (Ah 30), £«& 31, saefe 51, atesfo ((xr. P. 
44). 

Variants. 

(a) # (+*)!> ec (= M) : goccolone guttia + ( Or. P. 20). 

(b) t(t) + i > 2: ammazato m£t(t)e& + (Gr. P. 67). 

D 
§ 29. Initial d. 
d(+ j) ">g: gorno dmrnum (Al. 22, Gr. P. 16). 

§ 30. Medial d. 

1. Intervocalic d. 

(a) d -*- > dd : sopraddetto (B. 79), daddio (Ap. 17), addue 
45, adduoi 51, tuttiddua (M. 4), verneddi 17, contraddanza (S. 
154), actaoperct[>e] (C. 47), deddio (Gr. P. 16).— Cf. Flor. d 
ddafo Crest., 25 ; — Luc. soddomito, rimmeddio, imbiddia, mar- 
teddl, gioveddl, luneddl. 1 

l A. <?., XII, 123. 



52 J. D. BRUNER. 

(b) d > th ("S) in modern Pistojese : rithere, vithi, motho, 
erethe, stratho, grithd, (sono) thebitore, uthire, methesimo (secon- 
dary d), (si) theve, siethere, cothardo. 

Variants. 

(a) d remains : ched (£) quid ( Al. 64). — Cf. Sen. eked; 1 — 
Luc. died e; 2 — Pis. ched el. 3 

(b) d > I: olorare = Sdgrare + 5l6re (Al. 55). 4 — Cf. Flor. 
olore Tancia, 1. 

(c) d > r : mirolla mfidullam ( Gr. P. 11 ). — Cf. Sen. mirollo. 5 

(d) d^> t: temitoso (31. 88) by assimilation, mucito (Gr. P. 
15), acito 23, influenced by aceto. — Cf. Luc. tiebbito, friggito, 
sucito; 2 — Pis. velocipite, ossito, liquito. 6 

(e) d > v ; that is d disappears and v is introduced as a 
voiced labial glide under the influence of a labial vowel or of 
a (?) : avolterio (Al. 22), chiovo (31. 3, n.), slavigli (cf. pavesi) 
Gr. P. 13. 

(f) d (+ i) > g -\- i (g)> ogi (Al. 54), segiole. — Cf. Sen. 
ogi Crest, 162. 

(g) d ( -J- i) > gh : poghecto pSdium + ( Al. 1 2), segho (Ap. 75). 
(h) d -f- i > ggh : cregghiate (31. 3). 

(i) d (-f- i)^> gl -\- i (l f ) : noglia = noja, gioglia (31. 11). 
0) ^ (+ &) > # n ~M ( n ') : vergognia (Gr. P. 20). 
(k) d! (+ $ > is mezane (Al. 13), mezo (Gr. P. 22).— Cf. 
Luc. mezo B. Luc., 21. 

2. d before a consonant, 
d (secondary) -\- r > th + r (jSr) : pathre, mathre, lathro. 

Variants. 

(a) d (+ y) remains in the learned word adversitade (Al. 19). 

(b) d( + j)> gl (= I') -f i : agliutare (Gr. P. 44). 

1 Zs., IX, 561 . * A. (?., XII, 1 23. 3 A. G., XII, 152. 

4 Cf. Brugmann, Indo-German. Gram., I, § 369. 

6 Zs., IX, 562. 6 A. G., XII, 151. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 53 



(c) d(+r) >Z(+r); itropico Grk. vSpcox (M. 8), ritro- 
pisia (Gr. P. 14). — Cf. Luc. ritropico; 1 — Pis. ritropico. 2 

(d) d (+ t) > c(+ t) : macto maditum (Al. 4). 

§ 31. Final d. 
d > * : at = ad (Al. 21). 

Apheresis. 
(pa#0 '« = $ (if. 25), (spin') orsale (Gr. P. 14). 

Prosthesis. 

deccogghi = eccogli (C. 9), (una) distanza = istanza (Gr. P. 
12). — Cf. Pis. d&ccomi C. 8071., 51. 

Syncope. 

The d of the prefix -ad is frequently syncopated before 
consonants in old Pistojese; perhaps, however, the process 
is that of reduction, that is the d is first assimilated to the 
following consonant, and then the double consonant is reduced 
to a single consonant. 

1. Before a labial consonant: qfermi (Al. 6), amaestramento 
9, avenire 12, abisognano 14, afigeno 19, afatiamento 31, amoni- 
tione (J. 15), and in the modern language aversieri (M. 50), 
afanni (Gr. P. 22). 

2. Before other consonants : acompagnera (Al. 11), aguagli 
38, asai, asodiliare 16, alora 19, asoctiliamente 31. — Cf. Sen. 
acomandare Crest., 82, asai 163. 

Epenthesis. 

After n the voiced dental glide d is introduced : cendere 
(Gr. P. 11), cenderone 12 ; perhaps the d of inde (?) is pre- 
served in in-d-un = in uno (8. 24), y ndel (Gr. P. 40), and 
ndella 67. — Cf. Luc. ehende, sinde, 3 ind ello, ind uno; 4 — Pis. 

1 A. G., XII, 123. 3 Caix, Origini, 166. 

8 A. G., XII, 151. *A.G., XII, 120. 



171 

©3 



54 J. D. BRUNER. 

ind uno, ind ello, cendere, tendero ; 1 — Canzon. ital. where the d is 
evidently from inde : vonde = vonnejande, nd 'agio, kende = che 
ne, co 'nde, minde, also nond' d, the d of which is epenthetical ; 2 — 
French cendre. 

DD 

§ 32. Medial dd. 

Intervocalic dd. 

dd (secondary) > d: freddo (M. 41). 

TH 

§ 33. Medial th. 

1. Intervocalic th. 

Variants. 

(a) th remains : matheo (Al. 53), timotheo 73. 

(b) th > d: grysolido chrysolithum {Ap. 92). 

(c) th > z (probably pronounced th = 3) : 3 cazolica {Al. 66). 

2. th before a consonant. 
th{-\- m) > mm by assimilation : arimmetica (Gr. P. 20). 

C. SIBILANTS. 

s 

§ 34. Initial s. 
Variants. 

(a) s > c': ducciano siictiare {Gr. P. 36) by assimilation. 

(b) s > sc -\-i (s) : scialiva (C. 23). 

1 Ibid., 149. *Uso, 206. 

3 Cf. anthi = anzi, prodentha=prodenza, sapienlha = sapienza, etc. \ 27, 
2. (e). 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 55 

(c) s>z(s): zole (M. 6), zinfonia (Gr. P. 11).— Cf. Sen. 
which changes s into z (s) after I, m, n, r: il zole, etc. 1 

§ 35. Medial s. 
1. Intervocalic s. 

(a) s > .s ; cosa, cam. 

(b) s — ss in old Pistojese after si, di, a, che, e, ma, tu: (si) 
ssi (Al. 21), (di) sse 53, (a) ssoffeinrlla 60, chessono, essignificd, 
essignioria (Ap. 3), chessi 7, masse, massono, chessiate 9, essa- 
peranno 15, tusse 17, assedere, essopra 19, esservono, essah 33, 
chessole 41, assonare 43, chessia 45, essara 59, essigniore 73, 
essolevo, chessuonano 79, assanta 95. The gemination of s 
takes place rarely in the modern language : in assaltare and 
assercito (M. 48, n.) the s < &s is doubled after the pretonic e 
has become a; sessia (Gr. P. 67). I have noted only one 
example of s > ss after the accent: risposse (Gr. P. 22) by 
analogy with scrissi, vissi. — Cf. Flor. (da) 8somaja Crest, 20, 
(la) ssua, (da) Ssan 21, (di) ssopra 23, (ke) ssono 24, (ke) sso- 
dammo 25 ; — Luc. usso, ussare, visso, vissitare, rossa, chiessa, 
musso, sposso, spossare, Luchessi, etc. ; 2 — Pis. " 8 mediano fra 
vocali, quando e sonoro, si raddoppia di regola nel pisano antico. 
L'espressione grafica ne e z 6 ss; e son superflui gli esempj ; " 3 — 
Aret. (e) sse Crest., 175, (e) ssollicito 176, (e) ssaggia, (che) sson, 
(che) ssiamo 179. 

(c) s (+ i) > sc (= sk) : cascone (Al. 64), basco basiuni 74, 
buscardo O. H. G. b6si + (?) 43, mahasco 69. 

Variants. 

(a) s > z: ritropizia (Gr. P. 44). 

(b) s (+ i) > s (+ i) : malvasio (Al. 11), Asio 51. 

(c) s (+ j) > c (= k) : caco c&sguni (Gr. P. 21) by assimi- 
lation, chamica 20. 

(d) s (+ i) > g: cagonate (Gr. P. 21). 

1 Zs., IX, 560. 2 A G., XII, 119. 3 J6id., 149. 



56 J. D. BRUNER. 

(e) s + i > c -f i (s) : camicia. 

(f ) s -f- j > sc -|- i (s) : chascione (Al. 3). — Cf. Prat, cas- 
cione Crest., 95 ; — Sen. cascione, diviscione} 

2. s q/?er a consonant. 

(n -{-) s ^> (n +) 2.' smenza = immensa (C. 24), 'nzomma 
17, ricompenza (Gr. P. 20), acchonzente 46. 

Variants. 

(a) (n +) s > (n +) c' (c) : sawct (M. 77). 

(b) p -f- s > |) + ss : scripssi (Al. 29). 

(c) (r +) s > 1. (r +) c' (c): wmar (if. 83) ; 2. (r +) z: 
horze = corse. 

(d) (n -f) s (+ i) > 1. (7: prigone (Gr. P. 21) ; 2. sc + i 
(s) : priscione (Al. 10) ; 3. sg -\- i (z) : prisgione (J. 2) ; 4. 
(n +) 2 (+ *) : protenzione, protenzionoso (Gr. P. 12). — Cf. 
Sen. piscione ; pisgione, presgione. 2 

Apheresis. 
capata (M. 94). 

Prosthesis. 

1. Before a labial cons. : sbasi (M. 45), sbeffare, sposare = 
posare 45, n., sfusciarre 93, sviolturi 95, sbrendoloni (C. 10), 
sfiammicante 11, spolverino (Gr. P. 16). 

2. Before a guttural : scataverno (M. 43), scampare 45, n. 

Syncope. 

1. Intervocalic s: ventiei (Rice, 23). 

2. Before c: dicendiamo (Al. 51). 

Metathesis. 

amestico amethystum (^4p. 93), strapoeto (Gr. P. 12), s6i- 
lungo = bislungo 23. 

1 Zs., IX, 559. * Caix, Orient, 139. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 57 

ss 

§ 36. Medial ss. 

Intervocalic ss. 

ss > s : discorresi (Al. 4), promeso 24, prosima (secondary 
ss) 44, sonase (Rice, 7), dovese 8, neciesaria (Gr. P. 21), 
posiede 67. 

Variants. 

(a) ss > sc -\- i (s) : fracascio (C. 29). 

(b) ss > zz: spazzaa (C. 14). 

Z 

§ 37. Initial z. 
z > r: razzamaglia (M. 11) by dissimilation. 

§ 38. Medial z. 
1. Intervocalic z. 
z (+ J) > ^ (+ *) • topatio tSpazium (Ap. 93). 

2. 2 q/fer a consonant. 
(cons. +)z > (cons. -\-)s: falsoletto (Gr. P. 10), scersi 67. 



58 J. D. BKUNEK. 



LIQUIDS. 

L 

§ 39. Initial l. 

1. Simple initial. 
/'> n': gnin = gliene (M. 38). 

2. Initial group. 

(a) (lab. +) / > (lab. +) r : * frussione (Gr. P. 13), prurale 
22 by assimilation, bramerebbe (C. 33), fragello 34, sprendore, 
sprendido. 

(b) (gutt. -f)£> (gntt. -\-)r: groria (Al. 50) and grorifi- 
cano 61 b) r assimilation, Crolinda (S. 125), Crasio, grobo (Gr. 
P. 13), scrama (C. 9). — Cf. Pop. Lat. fragellum, fros, fruc- 
tuantes, grades; 2 — Flor. sprendore Tancia, 885, sc?*uso Lam. 
di Cec, 36, sprende 0. Son., 65, Crotirde 97 ; — Sen. cremenzia, 
sprendido, sprendore? fremma C. Son., 1, fragello 55 ; — Pis. 
Frora C Son., 87 ; — Canzon. ital. sprendore, -sprende, bronda, 
craro, pruzora, prasire, brasmare, froreS 

§ 40. Medial l. 
1. Intervocalic I. 

(a) / remains : alegreza {Al. 21), mandalo 29, ralegratevi 
(Ap. 79), olocco aldcum (Or. P. 15). 

(b) I >> 11: istabille (Al. 6), parolle 9, malli 11, dillegente 13, 
periccollo 43, vigillie (J. 4), allexandro (Rice, 24) bavulli = 
bag + ulum (GV. P. 43), collica Grk. kcoXlktj 44, also fre- 

1 Words borrowed from the Latin change in the old language their Z into 
r. Meyer-Liibke, Gram. Rom., \ 423. 
2 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 138-9. 
3 Zs., IX, 551-2. * Caix, Origini, 139. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 59 

quently in Ap. before the article and personal pronoun after 
such monosyllables as a, da, ma, e, che, chi: allui 5, dalloro 
37, malla 95, ello 5, clla, elli 7, ehella, chelli 71, chelle 89, chillo 
11 ; also before nouns : allaudatia 5, allangielo 7, ellingue 59, 
chellione 41 ; sella = se -f la (B. 79), allui (Rice, 13), ellui 
{Gr. P. 41).— Cf. Flor. he lie Crest, 22 ;— Prat, di llui 94, 
co llui 95 ; — Sen. cho llor'o 118, a llui 163 ; — Pis. da llei 58, a 
llei 79; — Aret. a llui 170, no Hi 176, e llaida, e lloco, se llui 
177, elloro 178, e llargo 179. 

(c) I > r is a strong Pistojese characteristic and is in con- 
stant use at San Marcello : pungoro (Al. 73), miscorino (J. 4), 
pistorese (Rice, 14), piura (M. 44), furigelli 47 by dissimila- 
tion, buried 54, vor (6'. 152), var' 172, pittore (Gr. P. 17) by 
dissimilation; the suffix -Slum or -ulum >> -uro in Mea: brus- 
curo 3, nocciur 4, bricciurin, pisuro 7, lucciuro 9, spazzure, 
brendur 11, roturo 25, sdrucciuro 29, scarabatturi, notturi, 
mesture, penture 31, picciuro, mugura 34, cloture 37, gocciuron, 
spenzura 38, appisuro 40, nocciuro, tomburon 41, trotlura, fig- 
nuro, mignuro 42, spiguro, entragnuri 43, broccuri, moccuri 
53, ballodure 55, ventricuro 56, rivendugliuro 63, riboburo, 
frugiuron Q6, svocciura 76, briciuro 81, rossignuri 81. — Cf. 
Luc. pentora, bamboro, bellicoro, gallettoro, etc. ; ! — Pis. am- 
6itro, aminduro, Pecciori, Montetoperi. 2 

(d) £ -f- i is written in the older language ft, #/, #/ (= Z r ), 
lgl(=l'),i. 

1. li: z jiliuolo (Al. 3), me/to 5, consilio, eonsilieri 10, ciZia 
13, asoctiliari 16, similianza 19, clionsiliare 21, meraviliare 22, 
mofo'e 23, batalia 64,filiola (B. 80), vermilio (J. 24). 

2. Hi : 3 filliuolo (Al. 3), mellio, isveflia 7, argollio, selli = se 
-f- e^/i 8, consillio 10, similliantemente 14, bactallia 28, agual- 
liare 59, vermillio (J. 24). This #£ was not pronounced as £' 
as is proved by the modern pronunciation in the Pistojese 
mountains : travalli (Gr. P. 22), fillio 67, etc. 

*A <?., Xn, 117. * Ibid., 14:7 . 

3 The writing Zi or i7i prevails in MSS. of the middle of the xiii century. 
Cf. Caix, Origini, 137. 



60 J. D. BRUNER. 

3. gl(—l') : mogle (B. 77), glavesse, glaltri 81, meglo 83, 
fogla, paglaio (Gr. P. 21), travaglo, glomini 22. 

4. lgl(==l'): volglendo (B. 77), melglo, volglo, valglano 82, 
jilgluoli (MS. 283). 1 

5. i: meV melius (^Z. 27). 

The modern language has also 11, gli,j,jj> 

6. II: pattaraccio paleft + ericms (Gr. P. 16). 

7. <j$: o^io (Gr. P. 43) by the side of the learned olio. 

8. J : tajare, pijare ( Gr. P. 49). 

9. jj: mejjo melius (Gr. P. 39).— Cf. Sen. II, I for V: 2 filiuoli 
Crest., 39, mofte mulier 40 ; lulglo 37, (e) Igli, algli, dolglio, sol- 
glio, volglio 81-2, melglio 163, M^'o 165; — Luc. tavolieri B. 
Luc, 2d,filiuolo 46, taliare 51; ricolliera 11, similliante 18, 
familliale 19, filliuolo 23, pilliare, vattia 29, famittia 40, alli = 
agli 48, Lullio 58, o^io 91, pilliamento 100; — Pis. jilio Crest, 
166, piliare 167; m«ffw 79; solglio 58, melglio, dolglio 59, 
dolgliensa 78; — Aret. follia Crest, 168, toUiate 176; volglia, 
dolglia 168, orgolglia, acolglia, tolglia, folglia 169, solglio 172, 
^^/i 182 ; — Canzon. ital. de K; vollio, dollienza, milliore, mera- 
villia, Jcellie; meglo, voglo, spogla, vagla, dogla ; melgliore, 
melglio, volglio, maravilglia, spolglia, volglia, dolglia ; 3 — Sicil. 
meglu, figlu, consiglu, spogla, famigla, olgluS 

(e) Z + i >i > <7<7^*. s For the J stage cf. above, § 40, (d) 
8 tajare, pijare (Gr. P. 49). ##/« is a modern Pistojese 
development : ammogghiato (S. 23), cigghio 5, 'ogghio 7, ^Ai 
— egli 11, quegghi 25, pagghia, giunchigghia 29,figghiolo 43, 
pigghiare 45, f ogghio 94, mogghie 110, figghia 148, cordogghio 
151, svegghiava 158, magghioli 177, mantigghia 195, cogghi 
200, metragghie 212, figghio 245, sbaigghiare 131, tagghi 166, 
cavagghieri (S. and C. 6), egghino, pigghia, megghio (C. 8), 
degghi, deccogghi = ecco -\- gli 9, consigghio 11, a^Ai 13, 

*Cf. .Mod. _Lem0. iVotes, vol. VIII, No. 4, cols. 219-12, where I have pub- 
lished MS. 283. 

2 Zs., IX, 553. 3 Caix, Or^tm, 137. 

4 Schneegans, aSici/. 2)£aZ., 134. 

6 Caix gives this development. Cf. i)ia/. d'ltal., 133, 210. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 61 

dagghi 14, fogghie 29, spogghiassi 18, sbadigghio 32, bat- 
tagghia 35, botigghia 36, fogghiolino 38, vigghiaccone 39, we#- 
ghi 41, cogghie 65, toagghia bwahlja (O. P. 48). — Cf. Flor. 
chegghi, fogghio, 'ogghi, egghi, 1 gghi, (occhi), egghino, megghio, 2 
scegghi, cogghi; 3 — Luc. pagghia. 4 I + i> j > gghi is also 
met with in many southern dialects and is general in Sicilian; 5 
Sicil. pigghiu, megghiu, figghiu, pigghia, risvigghiu, gigghia, 
cogghi. 6 

2. I after a consonant. 

(a) l>r. 

1. (Lab.) + ?> (lab. +)r: risprende (Al. 5), assempri 9, 
moltipricherano, ubriaza 65, obriare 68, risprendiente (Ap. 81), 
contempre (Cino, 12), apprica (31. 6), pubbricazioni 72, sem- 
price 3, n., ampre 20, publico 74, repricoe (C. 9), comprimenti 
19, ubbrigato 28, arreprica 29, repubrica (Gr. P. 15), esprica, 
affritto 48. 

2. (Gutt.) + £ > (gutt.) + r: negrigenza (if. 3, n.), cow- 
crusione (S. 153), concruda (C. 44), incrinazione (Gr. P. 16), 
'ncrinato 24. — Cf. Flor. obbrigato Tancia, 933, concrusion 
896, incrinazione 949, rifressione C. Son., 28, compricato 40, 
infruenze 49, qfrizione 77, concrude 92; — Sen. afriggiare, 
affriziove, affritto, ampro, assempro, compressione, contempra- 
zione, discripina, ob(b)rigare, repricare, semprice, risprendare f 
supricare, pubrico, ripubrica; concrudano, negrigenzia; 7 — Pis. 
comprimento C. Son., 49 ; — Canzon. ital. afritto, obria, obrianza, 
exempro, dobbra; nigrigenza ; 8 — Pad._pw6rico; 9 — Guittone has 
many examples of this / > r. 10 

(b) (r -f)/ > (r -f ) // is a special old Pistojese characteristic. 
The I is doubled in order to give a stronger pronunciation to 
the r: disporllo, achiararllo (Al. 3), dirlla 6, parlla 9, parllare 

1 Uso, 206. 3 Caix, Dial. cPItal., 133. 

* Ibid., 209. M. G., XII, 116. 

5 Caix gives this development. Cf. Dial, d'ltai, 133, 210. 

6 Schneegans, Sicil. Dial., 134-5. 

7 Zs., IX, 552-3. 9 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 28. 

8 Caix, Origini, 139. 10 Caix, Origini, 141. 



62 J. D- BRUNER. 

11, ritenerUo, mutarllo 32, esaminarllo 42, compierlla 44,farllo 
45, ssoferirlb 60, regharlli 61, usarllo 63, corromperlla, carllo 
66, pregarlli 70, perdertta, rinovarlla 72, wer^i (i&cc, 1 6). — 
Cf. Prov. parllam Bartsch, Chrest. Prov., 1, parllar 554. 

( c ) r -f V>gghi l in modern Pistojese. This phenomenon 
takes place only when the personal pronoun gli is joined to the 
infinitive: arrispondegghi (C. 8), mangiagghi 14, auzzagghi 
19, cucinagghi 20, fagghi 22, toccagghi 23, badagghi 28, por- 
tagghi 30, dimandagghielo 33, raccontagghielo 42, leagghi = 
levargli, regalagghi 43. 

3. Z before a consonant. 

( a ) / _j_ cons . > i _)- double cons, only in the modern lan- 
guage. By the law of least action the friction is taken off 
the point I so that an i is developed, and then the following 
consonant is doubled by compensatory lengthening : coippo, 
cai'ddo, gaiceina, aittro (S. 11), aitto 39, soiddcdo 140, aittura, 
aittreltanto (C. 49), caizza, caizzoni 60,goippe = volpe 75, soiddo 
101, Poiddo (Gr.P. 46),faccoitta, quaiccuno, voitto. — Cf. Flor. 
aimmeno C. Son., 67, faccoitta, quaiccuna, saitta, aibbusiUis, 
aittro, voissucho, , oitte = volte, aivvostro; 2 the favorite Floren- 
tine development, however, is the assimilation of the I to the 
following consonant without developing an i: lorattri C. Son., 
11, iedil 14, soddi 16, attrimentl 17, attro 18, soddlno 68 ; also 
where the i is swallowed up in the i of the article : iffatto = il 
fatto, iggrillo, diccanto, ippresente, ittempo, ivvostro, ipprimo, 
e t c . ; 3 — Sen. Vaiddarbia, 4 taicche C. Son., 7, aimmanco, aiz- 

zano 89. 

(b) I ( + cons.) > n ( + cons.) : 'ntandi = un + tal + d% (M. 
44) by assimilation ; antro (G. 52), antre (M. 10), voantre 97, 
noantri and lorantri (S. 118) get their n from the indefinite 
article ; aneipresso ( Uso, 52). — Cf. Flor. manineonoso Tancia, 

1 Cf. Intervocalic V > gghi, I 40, (e). 3 Ibid., 208 foil. 
* Vso, 206 foil. 4 Zs., IX, 551 . 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 63 

946, antro; — Sen. apostono, cononello;^ — Pis. antro C. Son., 
20; — Tuscan antro. 2 

(c) /(+ cons.) > r(-f- cons.) is a strong Pistojese charac- 
teristic. 

1. By assimilation: vortare (S. 22), varzere 154, Sorferino 
209, Garibardi 228, artri, bardoria, stravorto, seportura (C. 
8), ortre 21, isvorgere 42, agricortura {Gr. P. 22), artrimente, 
artare, Sarvatore, Orotirde. 

2. By dissimilation : svortoloni (S. 114), curtello (S. and C. 
19), tarquala = talquale (C. 11), svortala 13, curtelluccio 15. 

3. Other cases are: morta (S. 71), uorfo 151, carze 154, 
quarcheduno, soy^dati 158, sorc?o 172, 'nnarzata 210, corpo 
225, carzo , = calzone, bared' (S. and C. 4), forfo 5, marfattore 
7, J.rpe (N.-N. 4), vorte, cuarc , = qualche (C. 8), parmo 9, 
arto = alto, gorpe = volpe, sortanto 10, vdrs' 11, sarva, arza 
13, iscerta = scelta, finarmente, dimorti 17, cardo 18, quarcun 
19, sciorto, corpa, sarta 21, ascorto 23, sartabecca 29, euar- 
eosa = qualcosa 32, sarvdtia 35, torpe (GV. P. 15), corfo 36, 
urtimo, furmine, pormone, farso, Rinardo, marvagio, civirta, 
civirmente, facirmente, inutirmente, nobirmente, sarvamente, spe- 
ciarmente, er, ar, der, dar, ner, cor, sur, etc. In the older 
language there is one example : cavarcione (J. P. 8). — Cf. 
Pop. Lat. arvo, arta, Arbuciano, murtiperas, farsa, carce- 
donius; 3 — Flor. quarche C. Son., 10, dimorto 11, tarquale 12, 
'orta = volta, mar (di) 13, civirta 26, puree 31, nobirmente 44, 
speciarmente 54, urtimo 57, sortanto 59, sordati, carzone 61, 
sorcfo 62, convursioni 77, sarvare, artare 94, pormone 95, Oro- 
£irde 97 ; — Sen. archimia, artro, carsolaro (calsolajo), er, ar, 
cor, der, ner, etc., finarmente, insurtare, morto (multum), pontu- 
armente, quarcuno, sarvamente, sordo, tarquale, vorta, 4 artronde 
C. Son., 3, sortanto 14, arfo 16, sartato 21, furmine 27, quarche 
32, (dar) jjefto 34, Leopordo 43, ascorta 46, sarye, Sarvatore 
49, carcfo 51, arcuna 58, Rinardo 60, 'nutirmente 88, mercordi 

1 iiid., 552. 3 Schuch., Fo&aZismus, I, 138-9. 

* Caix, Diai. d'lta/., 116. <Zs., IX, 551-2. 



64 J. D. BEU2STEE. 

91, purcijpormoni 104, urtimo 109 ; — Luc. "Oggi, nel contado, 
I die preceda a consouante vien di regola a r: antro, cardo, 
sordo, dor co e dorce, farce sareio tarpa corpo arba parmo borso 
ecc. I documenti non offrono di questo fatto se non esempj 
sporadici : nessuno in bdl., se ho ben veduto ; marvagio pod. 
35, fraterto fratel tuo 48, parmo inv. 85, farsa 90 ; " 1 — Pis. 
carzolajo Race, 279, er {coco) 281, sarto, morto 290; "Preso 
la plebe della citta e nel contado, I seguito da consonante vien 
di regola a r. * * * Nei documenti, e fenomeno sporadico : 
arbagio, sarvamento, carvellino, Erba, farda, 2 er (convurso) C. 
Son., 5, quarche, der (tempo), facirmente, sur (serio) 6, ar 
(timone) 10, vorte 11, artronde 14, armeno 18, artro 22, artare 
23, sarta 24, sortanto, pormone 41,farso 45, artero 49, Pur- 
cinello 50, Rinardo, sartimbanchi 58, virmente 79, From 87; — 
Pad. cortello, Marchioro? 

Variant. 

l(+t)>U(+t) only in colltello (Al. 67). 

Apheresis. 

Initial I is sometimes suppressed by the people, believing it 
to be the I of the article : usinghe, usinghevoli (Al. 40), abis 
lapis, acero (Gh\ P. 11), ago 15, astrico, aberinto, orolegio. — 
Cf. Sen. le tanie = le litanie, attone, ordura; 4 — Luc. tanie, 
ombrico, astiaco, abberinto, ago, abbro, upo; 5 — Tuscan astraco, 
aberinto, ombrico, orbaco, orolegio; 6 — Mil. apis, astreg = las- 
trico, ares, usUl (lucello- o luxello-?), ornett, utomia. 7 

Prosthesis. 

I of the article : lusanza (Al. 6), lellora hederft (Gr. P. 13), 
lavaro 16, letichetta 17, listesso (C. 80), listessamente. — Cf. Sen. 
lampolla, lape (= api ; 4 — Luc. lamo, lellora, lapa (= ape), londa, 

1 Pieri, A. G., XII, 118. 5 A. G., XII, 125. 

2 Ibid., 148. 6 Caix, Dial, d'ltal., 107. 

3 Wendriner, Pad. Mund., 28-9. 7 Salvioni, Dial. Mod., 111. 
*Zs., IX, 551-2. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 65 

lacclua = acciuga ; l — Pis. llstesso, lusuraio, litterizia, lamo, lel- 
lera, lacca = anca, 2 listessa, llstessamente ; 3 — Mil. lecco, lovalta, 
loto = lottone, lusurla.* 

Syncope. 

(a) Intervocalic I is syncopated only in the older language : 5 
tal (Al. 10), chotai 23, mai 25, quai 71, fedei (Cino, 240). 

(6) I after a cons. : semplce (Al. 6), slngozzo sJngltittus ( Gr. 
P. 14). 

(c) I before a cons. : idio (AL 43), abergare, mafattore (M. 
4, n.), utimar 85, puce, pucino ( Uso, 777), utimo. — Cf. Flor. 
mortal Intell., 20, crudei 13, utimo C. Son., 95; — Sen. bestial, 
cardenai, carmal, mal, rival, cache (= qualche), mafattore, 
utimo; 6 — Pis. utlma C. Son., 69; — Canzon. ital. mal, leal, 
augel. 7 

Metathesis. 

Reciprocal metathesis of I and r : palora (S. 1 53), Orollndo 
186, grolla, grolloso, ballre. — Cf. Flor. palore Tancla, 893, 
grolloso 946 ; — Sen. grolla, grolioso. 6 



LL 

§ 41. Medial ll. 

Intervocalic ll. 

II > I: alegare (Al. 15), quelo 22, metalo (Ap. 77), aluminera 
95, chastelo (Rice, 34). 

Variants. 

(a) ll remains: tollere (J. 9), glllia argillft (Gr. P. 14). — 
Cf. Canzon. ital. tollere. 9 

(b) //> V: cancegllerl (Gr. P. 10), cavaglierl (N. 90). 

1 A. O., XII, 125. 3 Uso, 532-3. 

2 Caix, Dial, d'llal., 108. 4 Salvioni, Dial. Mod., 176. 

5 Cf. A. O., IX, 98-9 ; Grundriss, I, 533, \ 78. 

6 Zs., IX, 552. *Zs., IX, 554. 

7 Caix, DiaZ. cfitaJ., 136. 9 Caix, Origini, 138. 

5 






66 J. D. BRUNER. 

R 

§ 42. Initial r. 
Variants. 

(a) r°>d: disipola erysipelas (Gr. P. 13). 

(b) r > I : leppicar = replieare (M. 3). — Cf. Flor. liverenza 
Lam. di Cec, 33 ; — Sen. lobrica (rw&Hccr), loveri (robur). 1 

§ 43. Medial r. 
Intervocalic r. 

(a) r >• rr: errano (Ap. 5), scriverro 17, emtrerro 19, erragu- 
natevi 83, arredi = er&di (M. 48), c£mt& (& 20), temperrino ( GV. 
P. 22), barrile 23, miserria 4:4,forro 47. — Cf. Flor. a rrascione 
Crest., \§,perrispese 26 ; — Pis. diri^b 23 ; — Sen. amerrb,temerrb, 
sentirrb, entrarrdL, etc. 2 

(b) r^>l: volgale (Al. 53) and famigliali (J. 11) by assimi- 
lation, dilettrice (Gr. P. 10) and tortale turtiirSm 15 by dissimi- 
lation, isvaliato (Al. 54), cilimoniere (M. 75), valicosa (Gr. P. 
25), galantisco 34. — Cf. Flor. cilimonie Tancia, 899 ; — Sen. 
celabro, matiscalco; 3 — Luc. Quilico;* — Pis. Quilico, Catalina, 
ingiidia. 5 

Variants. 

(a) r remains : parochia (Gr. P. 44). 

(b) r^>d: contradio (Al. 15). — Cf. Flor. contradio Tancia, 
885; — A ret. contradio Crest., 178. 

(c) ry>tt: otta, allotta (C. II). 6 — Cf. Flor. otta Nencia, 1. 

(d) r + i > I': gennaglio (M. 8), etc. Cf. § 1, (a) 6. 

2. r after a consonant. 
Variants. 

(a) (n -\-)r > (n -{-)rr: conrrompe (Al. 57). 

(b) (p +) r >(j9 +) I : empftci (O. P. 17). 

1 Zs., IX, 553. 3 /fczd, 426. 5 Ibid., 148. 

* Ibid., 426. 4 A G., XII, 118. 6 Cf. Grundriss, I, 535, g 89. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 67 

3. r before a consonant. 

(a) r(+ cons.) > /(+ cons.) : volgalmente (Al. 58) by assimi- 
lation, afbitrio (J. 11, n.) by dissimilation, saldine (Gr. P. 10), 
falsa fsSrsa' 15, appaltamento 16, polche 17, alter i a 25. — Cf. 
Pop. Lat. alteriae, Foltnnatae, felvente} — The phenomenon r 
(-f- cons.) > l(-\- cons.), which is rare in Pistojese, Lucchese, 
and Florentine, is of frequent occurrence in Senese, and is the 
rule in Pisano. — Sen. alchetto, alco, Peltrando, riselvare, albitro, 
dlbo?-o, 2 bilialdo, paltire C. Son., 85, ritolno, Livolno, giolno, 
impolta, 86 ; — Pis. " Presso la plebe della citta e in parte del 
contado, r seguito da consonante oggi vien di regola a I: calta, 
polta, porta, peldere, soldo, sordo, pglco, melcato e melee, spal- 
gere, corpo corpo, elba felmo velso ecc. Nessun indizio di cio 
nostri testi," 3 attravelso C. Son., 5, Foltunato 6, pelche", folnelli, 
calbone 9, tolno 13, Tolquato 14, convelsazione, paltita, pelsone 
19, Govelno, melcato 24, Lungalno, diveltimento 25, discolsi 26, 
giolnale 27, dicelto 28, pelsiane 29, Velginio 30, celca 31, giol- 
nata 33, solgente 37, dolme, gualdia 38, foltuna 42, felmo, 
giolno, folno, tolmenti 43, selpente 46, alchitetto 49, velgine, 
Elnesto 51, ielsera 53, celvello 56, pelmesso 62, Maltino 63, 
pelso, osselvazione 65, Vennaldi 66, etc. 

(b) In modern Pistojese the r of the infinitive is frequently 
assimilated to the initial consonant of the personal or reflexive 
pronoun that is joined to it. 

1. r -f- c > cc: Sssecci (C. 8), riedicci 10, salicci 17, rimet- 
teoci 23, rappresentacci (Son. Pop., 61). 

2. r + l^>ll: sbeffallo (0. 8), vedello 9, addentalla, riaella, 
ingrassalle, campalle, esfortolallo 14, ricercallo 16, mangiallo 
17, potello 18, agguantallo 19, acchiappallo 20, menallo 21, 
ritirallo, troallo 23, aspettallo, tambussallo 24, rafreddalla 25, 
marimettalla 26, brancicalla, rimedialla 37, rivestilla 40, am- 
mazzallo (S. 175), arrivedello (Gr. P. 17), ricompensallo (Son. 
Pop., 19). 

1 Schuch., Foioiismws, I, 137. 3 /fct'tf., 148. 

2 Zs., IX, 553. 



68 J. D. BRUNER. 

3. r + m > mm: ingrassammi ( C. 11), pigghiammi 20, mow- 
giammela 26, sbatacchiammi 29, levammi (S. 187), battemmi 219, 
vedemmi, sentimmi (Son. Pop., 29). 

4j r -f- s > ss: smoessi, pigghiassi (C. 12), spassionassi 13, 
cercassi 14, dilontanassi, essessi, caricassi' 15, seniissi 18, 
restassene 20, spiegassi 21, portasselo 22, misurassi, lamentassi 
24, andassene 25, posassi 26, apprissi, serrassi 29, arrampi- 
cassi 31, persuadessi, caassi, stucassi 32, mcttessi 42, fermassi 
(Son. Pop., 45). 

5. r + i>^: mettettl (0. 8), mangiatti 10, pappatti 11, 
cucinatti 15, ingrassatti 17 , pigghiatti 18, contentatti 21. — Cf. 
Flor. d?7/o O. Son., 5, troallo 10, guarillo 27, dimenallo 36, 
offendilla 52; spiegammi 31, dammi 36, rimpiceiammi, chie- 
dimmi 43 ; riposassi, tappassi, sfrapazzassi 25, fermassi 58 ; 
portatti IS, fcdti, essetti, amatti 14, vedetti, stalti, recitatti 43; — 
Sen. da/ft', e/^Y/a, /a/fo, lavorallo, murallo, portaUo, mantenello, 
vedello, 1 avello C. Son., 4, chiamallo 82; rimediacci 11, aveccd 
54 ; rifammi 35, fammi 53 ; cZi^i 5 : — Pis. stiafallo, rispettallo 
C Son., 31, martrattallo 77, vedello 95 ; pensacci 78 ; selbammi 
95; godessi 8, strapazzassi, sbaglassi 21, trovassi 41,guadag- 
nassi 58, levassi 70, scardassi 74, buscassi 83. 

Prosthesis. 

ritropico = idropico (31. 8), rarrabatai 48, (Signor) Rispet- 
tore(Gr.P. 10). 

Syncope. 

1. r after a consonant: contastare = contrastare (J. 5) by 
assimilation, propio (C 8), cZrefo de -f- rStro (ili. 52) by dis- 
similation, castica = gastrica (Gr. P. 25). 

2. r before a consonant: convisatione (Al. 38), fotezc (Rice, 
10), maciolo rnarcnm + (Crr. P. 25). — Cf. Flor. drrfo Tancia, 
901, propio Lam. di Cec, 14 ; — Sen. drieto, detro; 2 — Pis. drefo 
(7. /Sow., 102. 

1 Zs., IX, 428. * Jiid., 554. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 69 

Epenthesis. 

1. Intervocalic r : coresta = codesta. 

2. r after a consonant. 

(a) after a labial: prungitopoli, frusto fustis (Gr. P. 13), 
prugne 37. 

(b) after a dental : drotrina (Al. 29) by assimilation, mas- 
tricare 31, listra (Gr. P. 16), mantrice 17. 

3. r before a consonant : mandorlino (Gr. P. 11), aermaria 

41. — Cf. Flor. coresto Lam. di Cec, 11, attronito 13, concu- 

brina Tanoia, 929, mandorlino C. Son., 33, aliustre Race, 

282 ; — Sen. Prietro Crest., 40, caprestro; l — Luc. bruscola,frin- 

estra, vespre ; 2 — Pis. bruscola, calubrinieri, troccolo = tocco, 3 

aliustre Race, 283. 

Metathesis. 

vemeddX (31. 17), frebbe, preta 17, n., sberno 43, drento 47, 
presempio 57, scropiti (C. 9), Preto. — Cf. Flor. drento Tancia, 
895, Preto 905, vreto 930, frebbe 948,p'eto Lam. di Cec, 17; — 
Sen. catredale, drento, frabicare, frebbe, Grabiello,persente (prae- 
sentem), prefeto (perfectum), vreto ; l — Luc. jpresempio ; 4 — Pis. 
treato, Penestra. 5 

For the reciprocal metathesis of I and r cf. § 40, Metathesis. 

RR 

§ 44. Medial he. 

Intervocalic rr > r : tera (Al. 11), nararo, guera 21, terena 
33, coruccio 68, discoro (8. 49), gueriera 1 27, arosto (8. and (7. 
13), /ero (0. 24), jpori porrum (6rr. P. 13), emorogia haimor- 
hagia 16, guera 21, soccoriamo 23, ricore 44, erore, corezione 
46, carozza, caro 47, afferare, accorer 67. — Cf. Luc. tera, faro, 
tore, corere, fero, caro, guera, teritorio ; 6 — Pis. tore, fera, soc- 
corere, coreggiere. 3 

1 Ibid., 554. * A. G., XII, 125. 

8 AG., XII, 118. b Ibid., 153. 

3 J6id., 148. M. G., XII, 118. 



70 J. P. BRUNER. 

E. NASALS. 
M 

§ 45. Medial m. 
1. Intervocalic m. 

(a) m remains : dlmi (Al. 27), bestemla (Ap. 69),femina 73, 
solevomi 91, mostromi 95. — Cf. Sen. fumo Crest., 163; — Luc. 
femina B. Luc, 49 ; — Canzon. ital. femina. 1 

(b) m > mm : amme, damme = da + me (Ap. 17), cliemmi 
43, consummate (8. 17), fummare 137, cammerieri (N. 162), 
stommaco (Gr. P. 12), ammente 13, camummilla chaimaf melon 
16,fummo 17, ammodo 32, (cZi) 'mmondo 50, cammera, nimm,o. 
— Cf. Sen. comme; 2 — Luc. nimmo, cocommalo, cammera, sem- 
mola, presumma, insiemme, chiamma, primma; 3 — Pis. commo, 
cammera, presummere, fummare ; * — Aret. che mme Crest., 171. 

Variaut. 
m > n: lagrunare (Al. 62). 

2. m before a consonant. 

(a) m(-{-n). 1. remains: omnipotente (Ap. 5) ; 2. becomes 
«/ (written ngn): ongni (J. 18), ongniuno (Ap. 99); 3. be- 
comes r(+n).' auturno (M. 19), sciorni ex + sSmntim 72; 
4. becomes s(4- w): smenso (N. 115) by assimilation. 

(b) m(+ lab.) > n(-\- lab.) by dissimilation : senpice (Al. 
6), tenporale 61, tenperare 72, inparare 76, inprima (B. 77), 
fampe (-4p« 19), anpolle 23, canpo, senpre (Gr. P. 20), Lanberto, 
banbina, tenpeste, conpratore 2 1 , tenperino 22, dinpero = de + 
impero 23, conposto 24, onbrelli 43, canbialo 66, ronpetto, 
ganba 67, 'nvecille (C. 8), tewpo. — Cf. Pop. Lat. Decenbres, 
Novenbres, senper, ponpae; 5 — Sen. anbasciadore, anbo, ban- 
bino, canbiare, decenbre, ganba, menbro, canpana, canpo, sen- 

1 Caix, Ori^n?, 142. 2 Zs., IX, 558. 3 ,4. <?., XII, 120. 

4 ifti'd, 150. 5 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 108. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 71 

pro, tenpo; l — Pis. senblansa Crest, 78 ; — Aret. menbranca 63, 
conperagione 169, conpiuto, conpimento, senbrate, senpre 170, 
tenpestoso 171, enpone 174, menbra 177, tenpo 178, scanpare 
179, canpana 181, conpagnia 182; — Canzon. ital. tenpo, sen- 
pre, inpero, canpana, menbre, scanpar, conpimento, onbra, 
tenpestoso; 2 — in old Tuscan texts: onbria IntelL, 6, insenbre 
17, assenbiamento 19; B. d' Ant. tenpo, inper adore Zs. XV, 
55, conpagnia 56, canpana 57, inprometto, canpare 62, Lon- 

bardia, scanpare 63. 

Syncope. 

Before n: danegiare (Al. 37), dona 50, onipotente (Ap. 21), 
that is run > nn by assimilation and then n by reduction. — 
Cf. Aret. onipotente Q-est., 170. 

MM 

§ 46. Medial mm. 

Intervocalic mm > m by reduction : somo summum (AL 8), 

somitade 31, somaria (J. 5), amiratione (Al. 1V),goma gumma 

(Gr.P. 11). 

Variant. 

mm > rm : gatlomarmione (M. 26). 

N 

§ 47. Initial n. 

n > n': gniochi niiclgum ( Gr. P. 43), gnente nee + 6ut6m 
(& 46) ; that is the dental becomes palatal according to the 
law of least action, for gnente = one action and niente = two 
actions ; for the same reason ne'e -f untim > gnun, niv6m > 
gneve. — Cf. Flor. gnun Nencia 13; — Sen.pergnente Race, 283, 
gneve; 3 — Luc. gnucca nuca ; 4 — Pis. gnucca; 5 — Tuscan gneve, 
gnucca, gnente; 6 — Rom. gnuca, ggnente; 6 — Venet. gnente. 6 

l Zs., IX, 558. *A. G., XII, 120. 

2 Caix, Origini, 146. 6 Ibid., 150. 

3 Romania, XVIII, 603. 6 Caix, Dial, tfltal., 132, 208. 



72 j. d. brunee. 

§ 48. Medial n. 
1. Intervocalic n. 

(a) n remains : inanzi (Al. 6), genaio {Rice, 2), maganzino 
Arab, machsan (Gr. P. 1). 

(b) n^> nn: gennerale (Al. 3), dinnegare 6, ingennera 7, 
genneratione 8, nonnavere (Ap. 9), nonne 71, ennuda 73, non- 
neso 83, annulare (Gr. P. 13), 'wn-n aete (6'. 75), 'un-n § 155. — 
Cf. Flor. si nno Crest., 23; — Sen. inn ima 37 ; — Pis. gennero, 
cannapo, gennerale, tennesse, vennisse, tenne, venne; 1 — Aret. tra 
nnoi 170, inn esta 172, sennato 173. 

(c) n + i is written variously as its correlative I -\- £; ni is 
correlative to li, nni to Hi, gn (n f ) to gl (U), gni (n r ) to gli (I'), 
ngn (n f ) to Igl (l r ), and w^m (n') to Igli (l'). 

1. ra: miniatte (Gr. P. 43). 

2. nni: sinniore (Gr. P. 20), punniale 21. 

3. #n: calugna = old Italian calogna ciUumnEi (GV. P. 
19), vegno, tegno. 

4. /7m: bisognia (Ap. 3), abibisognio 17, signiore (Gr. P. 
22), ingiegnio 20, compagnio 66. 

5. n<7?i in old Pistojese : tengnano (B. 82), singnore 10, 
vengnono (J. 14), ritengnano 19, assengnato 23, and the 
modern compangni (Gr. P. 22). 

6. n^m only in the older language : vingnia vinga" (^4p. 
61), bangniata, singniore. — Cf. Pop. Lat. regnio, signium; 2 — 
Prat, tengno Or est., 94; — Sen. singnoria 40, chonpangni 161 ; 
signiore 161; conpangnia 162; — Pis. sengnor, sengnoria 59, 
sengnoraggio 79; vegna 166; — Aret. sengnoragio 64, sen</- 
non'a 168, sengnor 171, Bolognia 176; — Canzon. ital. seng- 
nor 0*7 io, sengnoria, vengno; tegno, vegno. 3 

Variants, 
(a) w > n'.* pezzalagna (M. 40). 

1 J6id, 150. 3 Caix, Origini, 148-9. 

2 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 116. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 73 

(b) n > I by dissimilation : molimento (Al. 79) perhaps in- 
fluenced by moles, malucano (S. 14), consolante (Gr. P. 13). — 
Cf. Sen. calonaco. 1 

(c) n > r : marimette' (C. 9). 

2. ft after a consonant. 

gn > n' (written gn, gni, ngn, ngni. Cf. n -\- i > n'). 

1. gn: 'gnualo Ignudiim (C. 18),'gnudassi 19. 

2. o-fti: regnio (Al. 5), indegnatione (Ap. 69), legnio (Gr. 
P. 20), legniame 26. 

3. ft<?ft: ingnude (AL 68), sengnare (J. 4). 

4. ngni: rengnio (Ap. 5), insengniare 11, dengni 15, sm?- 
ftiafe 41, angnielo 57, sengnio, mangnifichera 63, slangnio, 
rengniarono 85. — Cf. Pop. Lat. congnatus, ingnes, singno ; 2 — 
Sen. lengna Crest., 37, Angnelone 117 ; — Pis. congnosciuto 167 ; 
— Aret. degnia 170, benignio 175, regniando 176, pegnio 178, 
pugniando 183; sdengni, dengno 169, lengno, pungnare 173, 
ingnoranza 174; — Canzon. ital. segnio; dengno, sengnare} 

3. w before a consonant. 

(a) n (+ lab.) remains in the prefixes m and cow in old 
Pistojese. 

1. m: inpercioche (Al. 7), inpedimento, inpedisca 14, inposto, 
inportuno 15, inpossevile 16, inmantenente 22, inpara 30, m- 
prende 44, inperadore 53, inparaule (J. 1 6). 

2. con: conposta (Al. 15), conpresa 16, conbacteno 53, 
conrronpe 57. — Cf. Sen. inbarbagliato, 'nbrattato, inpegnare, 
inperiale, 'npicca.re, inpregnare; enpazzare, enpedimento, enper- 
cib, enpiegare.* 

(b) ft + # >• n'.* divegna (Al. 9), vagnelo ev -4- avye\tov, 
pertegna 12, pognasi 59, piagnere (N. 89), ugnerlo 115. 

(c) ft -j- / > # by assimilation in cow -f a personal pronoun 
in old Pistojese : cholloro (Ap. 11), coZfoti 19, co^ei 75. 

1 Zs., IX, 557. 3 Caix, Orient, 148-9. 

•Schuch., Fo/toZ/smus, I, 114. 4 Zs., IX, 539, 555. 




IVES 



74 J. I>. BRUNER. 

(d) n( + cons.) > m(+ cons.) in old Pistojese. 

1. Before labials by assimilation ; 'mframectere (Al. 3), 8am- 
paulo 4, lamfrancho 16, urn (proverbio) 38, Sampietro 52, gram 
(parentadi) 61, dom (francesco) 81, chomforta, chomfessoro (Ap. 
15), comfusione 17, rcom (finavano) 21, #ram (fornacie) 37. 

2. Before dentals by dissimilation : temto^ (^p. 9), pera^Ve 
13, nom (truovo) 15, emtrerrb 19, vemtriquattro 21, assemtio 35, 
vemfre, dmfro 43, onipotemte 63, c/iom (tecAo) 81, ardemte 91, 
chomtaminata 95; remdette Z,gramde, chamdellieri 5, risplemde 
7, gramdissima 13, ripremdo 17, nascomdeteci 29, Rubem (d-) 
31, gramdine 35, remdere, vemdichare 47, amdera 71, disciem- 
deva 89, rispremdiente 93. 

3. Before a sibilant: comsiglib (Ap. 11), cAom (se#e) 21, 
inciemsi 33, worn (se) 57, nom (si«) 67, schomsolata 11 ; dinamzi 
3, penitemzia 9, potemza 39, semsa 57. 

4. Before gutturals : adomqua (Al. 3), imcontrario 7, cim- 
gue 39, sa?n (giovanni) B. 78, temghono (Ap. 11), com (gramde) 
21 ; 'mgiura (Al. 53), primcipe (Ap. 3), primcipio 5, amcAe 9, 
#ram (cittade) 11, amglelo 15, cAom (gregarli) 67. 

5. Before a liquid : sam (lorenzo) B. 79.— Cf. Pop. Lat. 
tamtam, duocemlum, cessamte, Palamtino, quamtum, sentemtiam, 
volumtas, fervemte, umde; optumsi, demsis; quincumque, avom- 
culus, tamgentium, umguentum; 1 — Prat, comquisa Crest., 94, 
#ram (6ewe), nom (possa), im (/oco) 95; — Sen. comferemte, sam 
(p), ahum (modo), aleum (fratre); Amtonio, dipemtore, novamta, 
quamto, rimcomtro, aliomgo, aroamgelo; osservamzia, quittam- 
z(i)a, nom (pajono); 2 nom (so), pemsleri Crest., 81 ; — Aret. tm 
(buona) 169, comquiso 182;— Canzon. ital. nom poria, im parte, 
gram bene, imf rondo, comforto; pemsar, comsento. 3 

Variant. 
n _|_ y . > r> - ; marritta (Gr. P. 15) by assimilation. 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 75, 109. 

»Zs., IX, 556. 

3 Caix, Origini, 150. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 75 

Prosthesis. 

n of the preposition in: 1 nentrare {C. 21), ninferno, nabisso; 
n of the adverb ne:' 2 nusciamo (C. 9), nesce 15, nescita {8. 
84) and probably nempara = irnpara { Gr. P. 25). — Cf. Flor. 
nescire Lam. di Gee., 10; — Sen. ninferno; 3 — Luc. nentrare, nis- 
cire;* — Pis. nentrare, nuseire. 5 

Syncope. 

(a) Intervocalic n: 8a iacopo (At. 35), no' abbia, no' ostante 
(J. 29) are also modern Pistojese. 

(b) n before a cons, only in old Pistojese : comendando and 
comesso (Al. 22) by reduction, go' (loro) 39, ubriaza = oblianza 
65. — The n of the preposition con(+ cons.) falls occasionally 
in Pop. Latin : cofisse, coiectis, covenimus. 6 

Epenthesis. 

Before a cons. : Banbilonia (Ap. 59), andonque 53 and 
angonia (M. 12) by assimilation, schiansimo = spasimo (M. 
5), rinchiesta (J. 8), stencurito = steccolito (if. 4(3). — Cf. the 
Pop. Lat. which inserts n after long vowels before s, and after 
both short and long vowels before other consonants, than s: 
Allans, diens, Cheronensi, Kerens, Indigens, disponsuit; candi, 
recendens, cendentes, frenquens, congnato, tringinta, vinginta, 
sinbi; 7 — Sen. ancadere, anconciare, parangone, rinchiedare, 
sineondo, enscire. 6 

NN 

§ 49. Medial nn. 

Intervocalic nn > n by reduction : anonziano {Al. 12), 
anonziamente 16, inocenzo 32, cinamomo Kivi'd/xo/xov {Ap. 77). 

1 Caix, Origini, 150. 5 Ibid., 153. 

2 Meyer-Liibke, Ital. Gram., \ 196. 6 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 107. 

3 Zs., IX, 555. 7 Ibid., 112-14. 

* A. G., XII, 125. 8 Zs., IX, 445, 455. 



76 J. D. BRUNER. 

F. GUTTURALS. 

PALATAL C. 

§ 50. Initial c'. 

Variants. 

(a) c/> c(h) = ¥: chelano (Al. 46), checco 46, n. 

(b) c'^>t: tin caglieria = chincagliera (Gr. P. 12). 

§ 51. Medial c'. 

1. Intervocalic c' . 

c r > c' (s) is a strong modern Pistojese and Florentine char- 
acteristic : (a) cinque, (e) cento, dice, dicea, coce, cocea, face, 
facea, (ma) cietta, cueire, cucina, (la) celia, (doppo) cena, (la) 
ci, diacere, piace, piacere, giudice, diece, undid, dodici, (che) 
cerchi, (una) cestina, bocina, 'nvecille, (di) certo, vicino, (poero) 
ceco, facile, difficile, porticina, decidere, (la) citta, macina, (di) 
celo, (a) cervello,fece, piacimento, capace, voce, noce, croce,foce, 
luce, etc. ; secondary c' in camicia, bruciare. — Cf. Sen. c > sc 
(sf) : crosce, dodisci, drusciolare, vosce. 1 

Variants. 

(a) c'> ch (= k') : rnendichitade (Al. 62), chiachierone (Gr. 
P. 20). 

(b) c'> gh(g'): poghissime (31. 89). 

(c) c' ' -\- i> cc (Jck) : noccuolo, becchacca (Gr. P. 21). — Cf. 
Sen. bracca, dicotto, fanculla. 1 

(d) c'+ i > zzi: sarifizzi (Gr. P. 22). 

2. c' after a consonant. 

Variants, 
(a) l(-\- c') > l(-\- z) : calzone. 

1 Ibid., 564. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 77 

(b) (r +)</> 1. (r +)c; barcetta (Gr. P. 21); 2. (r +)*; 
artibugi (M. 33). 

(c) (s -f) c'> sci (s"): mascile (Gr. P. 20). 

(d) (n) -f- « + g > (^ +)#& (#0 •' giangie O. H. G. wankja 
(Gr. P. 14) by assimilation. 

(e) (s +) c'-f- v > sci (s ) •• pescio ( 6rr. P. 11). 

VELAR C. 

§ 52. Medial c. 

1. Intervocalic c. 

(a) c remains : piacuto (Al. 20), sicome (Ap. 65), sfiammi- 
cante (C. 11). 

(b) c > cc (kk) : perlccolo (Al. 43), accolui (Ap. 9), accoloro 
35, ctccavallo S'3,giuccate (N. 27), acciw (6r?\ P. 40), articcolo, 
domicciliato Son. Pop., 39. — Cf. Pis. Pocco, articcolo C. /Sen., 
59; — Aret. a ccomune Crest., 176, a ccui 179. 

(c) c > c/i in old Pistojese. 1 Traces of this open consonant 
ch are still found in the Pistojese mountains. Ciampi 2 says : 
" L'aspirazione dopo la lettera c accanto alle vocali a, e, o, u, 
e proprio della pronunzia toscana, e specialmente fiorentina. 
In que' principj della scrittura volgare seguitavasi servilmente 
il suono che ne udia l'orecchio, percio in questo codice 6 quasi 
sempre Yh dopo la c unita a quelle vocali. L'orecchio e certa- 
mente stato sempre la guida principale nella scrittura ; ed ha 
prevalso di sovente alle regole grammaticale." 

Examples in old Pistojese : (si) chome, (a) chui, (di) chas- 
cione, (mio) charissimo, (che) chanti, (percuote) choW, (quella) 
chosa, (e) chod (AL 3), pechato, (e) chato, senocha, (uomo) 
churiciato, amicho 4, (de) chonsolare, bocha 7, (di) choloro, 
nemicho 8, (puote) champare, (buoni) chostumi 9, siehura, dicho, 
fuocho, (morire) cho, anticho 10, (chi) chastiga, (quasi) chani 

1 Cf. my article, "Manuscripts in the Pistojese Dialect," Mod. Lang. Notes, 
vol. VIII, No. 4, cols. 213-14. 
*Albertano da Brescia, 89. 



78 J. D. BRUNER. 

11, achatta, sechondo 12, (gudico) cholui, (la) chonvenevile, (la) 
chupiditd, 14, (del) chomendare, (apresso) chonfortare, (la) chon- 
fortazione 15, echo, (tua) chugnata, (lo) chaso, (b) churato 16, 
medicho, richo, (la) chasa 19, etc., (viene) cholli, (e) choloro, 
domenicha, (sette) chamdellieri, (li) chapclli, focho (Ap. 5), 
(usciva) choltello, secholi 7, etc., etc. 

Examples in modern Pistojese : (di) chamica, (la) cholpa, 
(dalla) chulla (Gr. P. 20), amicho 21, trappocho 25, (de) chas- 
telli, (vacca) cholla 43, nemicho. — Cf. Pop. Lat. sechundo, locho, 
monachicho ; 1 — Sen. (la) chasa, (nei) chalcari, rachonciatura 
Crest, 36, (e) charta, 37, richolse domichato, (che) choriva 38, 
(la) chonpagva, domenicha 39, (a) chui 82, jachomo, Cacia- 
chonti, sichuri 161, sichome, (avemo) chostumato, (e) chosl, 
rachondati, (a) chagione, (avemo) chon 162, prochuratore, (ne) 
chapo, achordo, (da) chorte, (e) chavalchate, achatata, (neuna) 
chosa, tochase 163, etc. ; — Aret. (e) chasa 175, pocho 176, dicho, 
anticha, (che) chapitale, giocho 178. 

(d) c > g : pogo (M. 37), jigo, sego, amigo, aguto, siguranza 
10, n., (che) gosta, seguzione 84, asseguro 107, (-o) gattivo. 

Many words which in Italian are exceptions to the rule 
that voiceless cons. — > voiced, follow the rule in Pistojese, 
e. g. segondo, savere, tregento, etc. — Cf. Pop. Lat. segundo, 
plagat, logationis; 2 — Flor. (paese) gastigar Tancia, 930; — 
Sen. aguto, Jabriga, fatiga, logagione, loriga, vagazlone, 3 gativi 
Crest., 165 ; — Luc. segura scure, seguro, segondo, fogaccia, 
pogo, miga, sbigorare, regare, giuogo ; i — Pis. siguro, segondo, 
pogo, oga, duga, stadigo; — Aret. pogo Crest., 64; — Canzon. 
ital. siguro, poga, asigura, segondo. 5 

(e) c^>gh: in old Pistojese: luogho (Al. 7), pogho 14, 
pregho 33, (-e) ghostantino 72, draghone (Ap. 49), (quattro) 
ghomiti ctibitum 93, and modern botteghaio ap5thecariurn ( Gr. 
P. 21). — Cf. Aret. preghar Crest., 169, pogho 176, negho 177, 
seghondo 178. 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 74. * A. G., XII, 121. 

2 Ibid., 126-7. 5 Caix, Origini, 169-70. 
*Zs., IX, 562. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 79 

(f ) c > h (sometimes written h, but generally c) in modern 
Pistojese : poho, domeniha, magnifiho havallo, (bella) honsola- 
zione, (di) huore, (fece) horrere, (horrere) harubinieri, (bravo) 
hustode, (fatto) havaliere, (di) Jiaresima (Gr. P. 50), rediholo, 
diho, sihuro, pehora, imbriaho, (cattivo) heme, (a) hapito, (a) 
homido, delihato, (e) hammina, (le) hapre, (le) harze, cieho, (wna) 
hattiva, foho, coho, amiho, nemiho, periholo, spettaholo, fiho, 
miha, cohombero, diffihultcl, (la) harne, (ugni) hosa, (si) hosta, 
(la) hampana, (Id) hompro, (si) homprende, (la) hontadina, (mi) 
rihordo, mediho, (le) liode, paniho, (i) havalli, masihana, fihura, 
portiho, etc. — This development of intervocalic c > h is quite 
as common in modern Florentine as in Pistojese; — Sen. hatia- 
liere, halende, hontento, judiho ; x — Lnc. Qui pure il ben noto 
digradamento toscano a iricativa (la liasa, memiho; * *), * * * 
se non che il h lucchese differisce da quello d'altre parlate, in 
especie dal fiorentino, per la minore ' stretta orale ' come anche 
mostra il suo totale dileguo; 2 — Pis. "Qui pure il digrada- 
mento a fricativa." 3 

Variant. 

c -f- i > cc (kk) : facca faceat (Al. 76). 

2. c after a consonant. 

(a) (I -f)c > (l-\-)ch: alehuno, (7) chane (Al. 3), (net) 
chuore, (it) chapo, oricalcho (Ap. 50), (net) chospetto 47, (yt) 
charatere 59, and modern (il) chane (Gr. P. 21). — Cf. Sen. 
(el) chosto Crest., 163, (al) chumune 164, (el) chonte 165; — Pis. 
alehuno 167; — Aret. alehuno 169. 

(b) (n -)-) c > (n +) ch: mancha (Al. 10), inchuminciamenti 
12, (in) chasa 19, vincha 34, anchora, (chon) choreggia biancha 
(Ap. 5), imbiancharono 33, ancho (MS. 22). — Cf. Pop. Lat. 
choncava, speluncha; 4 — Sen. (in) chorsa Crest., 162, (in) chon- 
cordia 163, ancho 164, inchorata, inchontanente 165; — Aret. 
spiloncha 176. 

l Zs., IX, 563. 3 Ibid., 150. 

2 Pieri, A. G., XII, 120-21. * Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 73. 



80 J. D. BRUNEE. 

(c) (r +) o > (r 4-) eh: cercha (AL S),porcho 49, (p) chom- 
battere 37, archo 41, merchatanti 75. — Cf. Sen. merchantia 
Crest, 161, (pr) choviene 162, (per) chanpare 165. 

(d) (s -f~) c > (s +)c/i: oschura (AL 8), naschoso 10, rfis- 
chaccia 20, didaschalo 35, pascha (Ap. 49), mescholato 63, 
veschovado (MS. 22), rischuotere (MS. 183).— Cf. Pop. Lat, 
coruscho; l — Sen. Meschada Crest., 36. 

3. c before a consonant. 

(a) c (-}- r) >> # (-{- ?■) : lagrunare = lacrimare (AL 62), 
sagrifitii (Ap. 11), sagramento 71, (i) grostini (Grr. P. 21). — 
Cf. Pop. Lat. sagramenta; 2 — Sen. gruogo (crocum); 3 — Pis. 
(povero) gristiano C. Son., 23. 

(b) (vow. +) c (-f- r) > h in modern Pistojese : (la) hresima, 
(la) hreazione ( Gr. P. 50), (lo) hredo, (lo) hristiano, (la) hrose, 
sahro. — Cf. Luc. (la) hroce, sa/wo. 4 

(c) c(-\- t) remains in learned words in old Pistojese : doc- 
trina (AL 3), sancto, dilectione, facto, dido 4, drictura, effecto 
5, tracta, costrecto 6, aspecta 8, drictamente 9,predecte 12, dilec- 
tamente 13, j recta, frectoso, drictissimo 14, tractare, lectora 16, 
fructo 19, benedecto 20, convicti, vendecta 21, Risurrectione 25, 
auctorita 33, dilecta 38, sospecto 42, vectoria 51, distructa 52, 
efecfo' (/. 2), ocfo 3, /ecte eVectji (?) 24. — Cf. Luc. /oc/o B. Luc, 
1, cficfo, tractato 2, nocte, distrecto 3, ocfo 5, (?/Tecfo 6, victoria 7, 
efecfo 15, distructo 20, contracto, conductori 41, afficto 56, e.mc- 
fore 59, cocfo 84, sospecto 83, Octobre 90, auctorita 99, diricta- 
mente 100, predecto 111, etc.; — Pis. dicto Crest., 166, vendecta 
167 ; — Canzon. ital." constrecto, giecto, facto, dilecto, tracto, con- 
ducto, puncto. 5 

(d) c (+ £ + j) remains. Cf. (c + ) £ + i, § 27, 1. 

Variants, 
(a) c(+ d) > z: soza (AL 5). 

1 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 73. 2 i7>i'd., 1 26. 3 Zs., IX, 562. 

4 Pieri, A. G., XII, 120-21. 5 Caix, Oi0tm, 175. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 81 

(b) c (+ I) > 1. cc' (cc): speccietti (Gr. P. 43); 2. chi (= 
hi) : orechie (Al. 3), ochi 10; 3. ti: mastio (Gr. P. 11). 

(c) c(-\- t) > 1. cc(hk): spacco (Gh\ P. 43); 2. t: altorita 
(Rice, 14); 3. ss: resurressione (Ap. 87). 

Syncope. 

1. Intervocalic c is regularly syncopated in modern Pisto- 
jese. The different stages of the development of intervocalic 
c > g > cA > h then syncopation, are all supported by exam- 
ples ; e. g. paucum > pQcu > poco > pogo > pooho >• £>o/io >• 
poo^>po: mia (M. 33), siuro, rediole (C. 8), cieo 11, manio 
18, cKo 25, sarvatia 35, (s*) 'onosce, (progresso) 'ammina, (ugni) 
'osa (Son. Pop., 11), (santi) } aro 17, gioondo 19, poo 27, letiare 
29, (picchiava) 'ol 33, (ci) 'ontaa, (lo) 'ondanna, (di) 'ado 35, 
pizziore, (mi) 'ultello 37, (partire) 'onfini 43, avvoato 45, (di) 
'ore 47, (e?i) 'orsa, (£) ' avalleggeri, (enno') 'orazzieri, nemio 49, 
(di) 'o/one 55, (sm') 'omitato 61, (/a) 'ambiale 63, coombero, 
(della) Iesa, (la) iave (Gr. P. 12), difiutta, (questa) 'ofaccia 15, 
(fe) 'ante, (si) 'ompra 24, etc. ; I have noted two examples also 
in old Pistojese : afatiamento (Al. 3), ebraiamente (Ap. 39). — 
The syncopation of intervocalic c is of frequent occurrence in 
modern Florentine; — Sen. auto, amio, coo (cuoco), diano (deca- 
num), dio (dico), givo, musia, periolo, rediolo, siurare^ (bevetti) 
'or, (mi) ' ara, giudiare C. Son., 1, (ti) 'onfondi 3, avvoato 4, poo 
5, (di) 'ascare 7, (dv?) astagne 8, (mondo) 'ane, (de') 'omprimenti 
10, Gioondo, (tanto) 'onfidenza 12, (fate) 'onfusione 13, etc. ; — 
Luc. (la) asa, nemio ecc. ; 2 — Pis. repubbria, assiuro C. Son., 8, 
foo 9, (di) 'oraggio 10, (mi) 'onfondo 12, dio, (co') 'avalli 13, 
(fece) 'omprimenti 16, amio, (mi) 'ugino, etc. 

2. c before a consonant. 

(a) Before r: saramento (J. 2), (una) 'resta (C. 11), (lo) 
'redo 15, sarestano (un) rimandello (Gr.P. 12), miroscopio 14, 
sarafizzi 22, (dottrina) 'ristriana 50. — Cf. Sen. saramento, sara- 

1 Zs., IX, 562. » Pieri, A. G., XII, 120-21. 

6 



I71E 

war 



82 J. D. BRUNER. 

ficio, (lo) 'redo C. Son., 7, (Dio) 'ristiani 25 ; — Pis. (lo) 'rederesti 
0. Son., 12, (la) 'rociata 44. 

(b) Before t; that is ct > tt by assimilation and then > t 
by reduction : otava (Al. 8), vendeta 21, drito 28, drotrina 29, 
dileta 38,fato 58, vetoria 65, diletione 75, charatere (Ap. 59), 
benedito (Gr. P. 21). — Cf. Pop. Lat. vitoria; 1 — Sen. otobre 
Crest., 36, defo 37, oto 38 ; — Luc. exatione B. Luc, 31. 

Variant. 
Before d : anedotto ( Or. P. 47). 

Epenthesis. 

1. Intervocalic c : giranico (Gr. P. 17), stantico 24 ; medico 
13 is formed by analogy with police, indice. 

2. After r : sciorcinati (M. 68). 

PALATAL CC'. 
§ 53. Medial cc'. 

(a) cc f ^> c' (c): socidere (Al. 3b), facia 52, itci'so (.4p. 53), 
Zwcese (Rice, 10). 

(b) cc'> cc'(cc); roccetfia (^. 62), foecetfo (iHf. 35). 

VELAR CC. 

§ 54. Medial cc. 

1. Intervocalic cc. 

(a) cc > ch: pechato (Al. 4), bocha 7, achusatore (Ap. 51), 
suchero (Gr. P. 23). 

(b) cc > cc/i : eccho (Ap. 5), boccha 1, riccho 9, saccho 27, 
Jiacchola 35, piccholi 87, roccha (Gr. P. 20), acchovacata, sac- 
cho, schocchare, becchacca 21 , socchorso 44. — Cf. Aret. toccha 
Orest., 179. 

1 Schuch., Fo£ah"smws, I, 134. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 83 

2. cc before a consonant, 
co (+ I) > c (+ I) : eclesia (J. 12). 

Epenthesis. 
Before qu: terrdccqueo (Gr. P. 12). 

CH 

§ 55. Initial ch. 
ch^> c (k) : coccolata (Gr. P. 43) by assimilation. 

PALATAL G'. 

§ 56. Medial g'. 
1. Intervocalic g f . 

(a) #'> g' (g) in old Pistojese : legerai (Al. 4), lege 6, legiera- 
mente 7,fugire 12, ajigeno 19, regesse 24. 

(b) g'^>g' (z) in modern Pistojese and Florentine just as 
intervocalic c'> c' (s) : (hua) gira, (co) gesti, (le) genii, etc. 

Variants. 

(a) g'y-v: paved pagensem (S. 253) ; the g' disappears and 
then the voiced labial glide v is introduced to break hiatus. 

(b) #'> zz : (terra) Ghozzi Gogem, Maghozzi (Ap. 87). 

2. g' after a consonant. 

Variants. 

(a) (n +)g'> (« +)g: Angolino (Gr. P. 21). 

(b) (r +)#'> (r -\-)i: ariento, inarientata (J. 24). — Cf. 
Flor. ariento Tancia, 926 ; — Luc. ariento B. Luc, 48. 

Syncope. 
Intervocalic g': (le) iande = ghiandi < glandem ( Gr. P. 13). 



84 J. D. BRUNER. 

VELAR G. 

§ 57. Initial, g. 

g remains: goia (Al. 65), and modern goie (Gr. P. 21), 
gubba 22, gallo 23. 

§ 58. Medial, g. 
1. Intervocalic g. 

(a) g > c : ficurati (S. 168), sficurito 210, ficura (C. 17), 
(febbre) castica (Gr. P. 25). — Cf. Sen. ficura, lecato} 

(b) g > gh in old Pistojese : Aghostino (Al. 5), reghole 46, 
sinaghogha (Ap. 9), gastigho 17, aghore 39, piagha 45, (terra) 
Ghozzi Gogem, Maghozzi 87, and modern voghan (Gr. P. 21). 
— Cf. Aret. fighura Crest, 170, mitighando, piagha 175. 

Variants. 

(a) g ^> ch in old Pistojese : rumichare (AL 30), (sofferente) 
chovernarsi 60. 

(b) g^>v: tevoli tegula' (GV. P. 17), bavulli bag + ulum 
43 ; the # disappears and the voiced labial glide t> is intro- 
duced to break hiatus. Cf. intervocalic <?'> v. 

2. g after a consonant. 

(a) (l+)g~> (l-\-)gh: volghare (Al. 16), tolgha (Ap. 17), 
folghore 19. 

(b) (n +)# > 1. (m -\-) gh: temghono (Ap. 11) ; 2. (w +) 
(/A; lunghamente (Al. 7), inghanno 9, vengho (Ap. 7). — Cf. 
Pop. Lat. longho. 2 

3. # before a consonant. 

g(-\- n) remains : cognosci (Al. 10), and modern cognoscere 
(S. 62). — Cf. Luc. cognoscere; 3 — Pis. cognoscere.* 

l Zs., IX, 565. 3 A. G., XII, 122. 

* Schuch.,Fo kalismus, I, 74. * Ibid., 151. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 85 

Prosthesis. 

granocchiaccio (S. 5), granocchio (C. 75). — Cf. Luc. grag- 
nolo; 1 — Pis. granocchio. 2 

Q(U) 

§ 59. Medial q. 

1. Intervocalic q. 

g > h (generally written c) in modern Pistojese : (ma) 
huando, (e) huarche, (yieni) hule, (vieni) hua, (e) hualo, (due) 
huattrinelli, (scrama) huarcun, (huella) huercia, (e) home, (bus- 
cassi) huarhosa, (sulla) hualita, (una) huantita, (e) hualunche, 
(se) huattro, (e) huasi, (ma) huasimente, (ecco) huanto, (uno) 
huattrino, and in old Pistojese (errasti) cuando (Al. 47). — Cf. 
Flor. which has regularly the same development of intervo- 
calic q > h; — Luc. (la) huantita, etc. 3 

Variants. 

(a) g > qq: aqque (Ap. 5), laqquie (M. 51). 

(b) q > c' (c) : rickdere (Al. 12), dioce = dio che 22. 

(c) q>g: (zii) guasi (Gr. P. 23), ligori 43. — Cf. Flor. 
(resta) guasi C. Son., 11 ; — Sen. (rimase) guasi C Son., 14 ; — 
Pis. liguori C. Son., 84. 

(d) q > cc(kh): accua, accuolina (C. 18). 

2. q after a consonant. 

(n -J-) q > I. (n +) ch (= h'): quantunche (Al. 63), qua- 
lunche (J. 5), douche (C. 8), chiunche; 2. (n -\-)c, h(h): cincu' 
(S. and C. 4), (un) huattrino, (un) huattrinello where the tongue 
is drawn back from the teeth and the velum is closed so that 
simple aspiration is produced. — Cf. Flor. douche Tancia, 895 ; 
— Sen. chiunche, qualunche, douche, oncheS 

X A. O., XII, 122. * Ibid., 121. 

2 Ibid., 151. *Zs., IX, 563. 



86 J. D. BRUNER. 

Syncope. 

Intervocalic q: (codesti) uaderni (Gr. P. 24), euatore 50, 
(ecco) ui, (vieni) ua, auila, (la) uantita, (la) uale, (ate) uarche, 
(uella) uercia, (e) uasi, (hai) uasimente, (va) uando, (vuole) 
uanto, (la) ualita, (uno) uattrino. — Cf. Flor. which regularly 
syncopates intervocalic q; — Sen. (vieni) 'ua C. Son., 9, (bada) 
'uanto 10, (guardi) 'ome 11, (la) 'uadriglia 29, (essere) 'ualun- 
que 65. 

X 

§ 60. Medial x (= ks). 
1. Intervocalic x. 

(a) * remains in learned words in old Pistojese : proximana 
(Al. 54), proximo 75, crocijixo (J. 3), relaxare 16, allexandro 
(Rice, 24), exercito 28. — Cf. Luc. proximo B. Luc, 2, exac- 
tione 18, relaxare 29, texeno 50, taxare 87 ; — Canzon. ital. 
luxura, exempro, proximo; 1 — "Anche nel P. Intell., e cosi in 
molti cdd. del sec. XIV e talvolta nell A. Petr. e perfino in 
rima : crocijixo (: abisso) C. D. Cornm. 96." 1 

(b) a>s: p7'osimo (Al. 5), masimamente 12. — Cf. Pop. 
Lat. prosima. 2 

(c) x > ss : assempri SxSmplum (Al. 9), essercito (Ap. 
83), lassa\mi\ (C. 9). — Cf. Luc. lassare B. Luc, 114; — Pis. 
lassamo C. Son., 16. 

2. x before a consonant. 
Variants. 

(a) *(-f- c) remains : exceptione (MS. 283). 

(b) x(-{-p) remains: experto (J. 6). 

(c) x (-f- s) > 1. c' (c): preciutto p6r6xsucttim (Gr. P. 21) ; 
2. sc (sk): scocchi exsuciim (Gh: P. 67) ; 3. st': stioccd gxsucafit 

1 Caix, Origini, 176. 2 Schuch., Vokalismus, I, 75. 



THE PHONOLOGY OF THE PISTOJESE DIALECT. 87 

(Gr. P. 36). — Cf. Sen. excesso, excepto; l — Luc. exceptoB. Luc, 
12; preciutto; 2 — Pis. preciutto. 3 



§ 61. Initial j. 

j > g in both old and modern Pistojese : gusto (AL 6), gudi- 
care 7, Gobo 20, ga jam 47, govare 48, gudice 56, guridizione 
57, gustamente 62, gudico = giudicio 63, 6rWZa 64, guratori 70, 
gamai 71, gustitia 75, goventudine 76 ; govane, gocoolone (Gr. 
P. 20), Gro^o 21, guramento 44, gudicie 22. — Cf. Sen. Govdni, 
gudisio* gugno, gudice Crest, 39. 

Variants, 
y > cK: diaceglio (M. 38), diaceglione 41, diacere (C. 24). 

§ 62. Medial j. 
1. Intervocalic j. 

Variants. 

(a) j > #' (# ) : magiormente (AL 5), magiori 13, ^e^io 30, 
pegiora 63. — Cf. Prat, magiore Crest, 95 ; — Sen. ma^'o 36. 

(b) i > .9 •' magoremente (AL 67), magore 68. 

2. _/ q/ifer « consonant 
( n +)i > ( w +) <7 •' ingura (AL 8). 

H 

§ 63. Initial h. 

A remains in old Pistojese : Zionore (AL 5), honesta 7, humite 
13, huomini 38, homana 48, /iora (J". 14), honestamente, habi- 
endo 15, heride 25, homicidiale (Ap. 91). 

'Zg., IX, 564. »IJid., 151. 

2 AG., XII, 122. *Z».,IX,565. 



88 J. D. BRUNER. 

Variants. 

(a) h falls and the I of the article takes its place : lamo 
harnum (Gr. P. 15). 

(b) h falls and r takes its place : racinto hyacinthum (Ap. 
93), ritropisia hydrops + (Gr. P. 14). — Cf. Luc. ritropico; 1 — 
Pis. ritropico? 

§ 64. Medial h. 

Variant. 

Intervocalic h falls and V takes its place : (di) glieri hen 
(if. 79). 

To be followed by the Morphology. 

James Dowden Bruner. 






l A. G., XII, 123. 2 /Wd.,151. 



LIFE. 



I, James Dowden Brunei*, was born near Leitchfield, Kentucky, 
May 19, 1864. I attended college two and one-half years at 
Georgetown College, Georgetown, Ky., and one year at Franklin 
College, Franklin, Ind., taking the degree of proficient in the 
former institution in 1886, and that of A. B. in the latter in 1888. 
During the year 1885-6 I was Instructor in Latin at Georgetown 
College, Ky., and for two years, 1887-9, Instructor in French and 
German at Franklin College, Ind. In October, 1890, I entered 
the Johns Hopkins University as a graduate student in the special 
department of the Romance Languages under the direction of 
Prof. A. Marshall Elliott, assisted by Drs. H. A. Todd and F. 
M. Warren. In my first subordinate subject (Italian) I followed 
the lectures of Prof. Elliott and Dr. John E. Matzke, and in my 
second subordinate (The Renaissance in Italy), those of Prof. H. 
B. Adams. I spent the summer of 1891 (four months) in Paris 
for practice in speaking French, and at the same time I carried on 
linguistic investigations in the National Library. In February, 
1892, upon the advice of Prof. Elliott, I went to Italy to collect 
material for my thesis on the Pistojese Dialect, returning to 
Baltimore in October of the same year. I studied several months 
of this time under Prof. Pio Rajua of the R. Istituto di Studi 
Superiori di Firenze, and did manuscript and other work in the 
Florentine National Library. In July, 1893, I was elected 
Assistant Professor of Romance Languages at the University of 
Illinois, Champaign, Illinois. 



Baltimore, Maryland, 
October 11, 1893. 








, n I „ 

Gi|iipJ!Ji" 






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1 6 n 



THE UN.VERS.TY OF CAUFORN.A UBRARV 



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