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Full text of "The photograph and ambrotype manual : a practical treatise on the art of taking positive and negative photographs on paper and glass, commonly known as photography, in all its branches, containing various recipes practised by the most successful operators in the United States"

THE GETTY CENTER LIBRARY 



THE 



PHOTOGRAPH 



AND 



AMBROTYPE MANUAL: 

A PRACTICAL TEEATISE 

ON THE ART OF TAKING 

rOSITIVE AND NEGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHS ON 
PAPER AND GLASS, 

COMMONLY KNOWN AS rHOTOGRAPHY, 
IX ALL ITS branches; 

CONTAINING ALL THK VARIOUS RECIPKS PRACTISED BY TilK MOST SUO- 
CESSFUL OPEUATORS IN THE UNITED STATES. 

BY N. G. BURGESS, 

PRACTICAL PIIOTOGEAPUEK, AND MANUFACTUBER OF CIIEMICAIS 
FOR THE ART. 

SEVENTH EDITION. 

NEW YORK: 
HUBBARD, BURGESS & CO., 

7S EEADE AND 99 CHUECH STEEETS. 

LONDON: TRUBNER & CO. 

18C1. 



I ■ 



Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year 1S58, 

Bx NATUAN G. BUIiGESS, 

la the Clerk's Office of the District Court of the United States for the Southern 
District of New York. 



THE GErrv CENTER 
LIBRARY 



PREFACE. 



Thk publication of the Ambrotype Manual, by 
tlie author of this work, a short tirae'since, and 
the great demand for the same, has induced him 
to enlai-ge that W(.>rk by the addition of the prac- 
tice of Photogra])hy in all its branches. 

It may not be inappropriate at the present 
time to refer to the progress of this wonderfnl 
art, since its first advent in 1839, and to note its 
tendencies and its effects, to trace its lead ins: 
features and results up to its present high posi- 
tion in the scientific world; and, finally, to mark 
out the commanding results which it is destined 
yet to achieve in its onward progress to pei-- 
fection. 

The Photogi-aphic Art was ushered into the 
world on the day when the immortal Daguerre, in 
1839, announced his sublime discovery to the 



4: PREFACE. 

French savans, and it Las steadily progressed from 
that day to the present time. 

It lias made many strides towards perfection, 
and has astonislied all with its accomplishments. 
In the short space of eighteen ^^ears, what has it 
not done ? 

"From the small and almost imperceptible im- 
pression upon the silver plate first exhibited by 
Daguerre, which cunld only be seen at a certain 
anule of lio'ht, and that very dimly, and of a blue- 
ish cold to*ne, to the magnificent photograph of the 
size of life, with all the perfect delineations of 
light and shade, wliat a wonderful advance ! And 
tliese great improvements have been so gi-adual, 
that few, if any, could mark the changes. Yet all 
will acknowledge, that the art is just now begin- 
ning to attest its true worth, f^^r wa now begin to 
receive the homage of all true lovers of art. The 
day has dawned in which the photographer can 
command even the service of the artist, whose 
highest pride should be to copy nature in all her 
works. For now we can exhibit true works of art 
drawn with the pencilings of the sun's rays, and 
drawn with such an unerring cori-ectness that it 
were sacrileo-e to touch it with the hand of the 
artist. It defies the artist's skill. It fairly out- 



PREFACE. 



vies the creations of a Rapliael or a Rubens in 
portraiture, and in the other certain works of the 
pencil. 

Tlie Photographic Art has become of such im- 
portance in this country, that many persons have 
embarked large amounts of capital in the manu- 
facture of materials for the use of the photographic 
artist. The inducement has been fully warranted 
irom the fact that all these persons who have in- 
vested in this branch of commerce have been fully 
rewarded. 

In view of these facts, it is thought proper and 
necessary to embody in this edition of the work 
a set of full and complete practical furmulae for 
the production of all kinds of Photographs on 
paper, as well as those on glass, known as Am- 
brutypes. The aim will be tu gi\'e only such 
known receipts as have been in actual practice b}'' 
the author and others, and to explain them in the 
plainest and most explicit manner possible, in 
order that the least practised operator may reap 
the benefit from the perusal of the work, as those 
of more mature experience. 

The practice of the art of taking Photographs on 
paper lias been attended with very diverse results 
in the United States, owing in a great degree to 

1* 



6 TKEFAGK. 

the fact tliat most persons who have embarked in 
it have heretofore been Dasjuerreian artists. Thev 
imagined thcit it only required the necessary skill 
and experience of a Daguerreian artist to ren- 
der them good Photographers. But this has been 
soon found to be a fallacy. There are many who 
are skilful in the process known as the Daguerreo- 
type, who can produce specimens of that art which 
would do credit to the profession, who nevertheless 
utterly fail in this Jiiglier branch of Photography. 
The reason is obviovis. They have vainly imagined 
that only the same care was necessary in tlie paper 
process that was demanded in the manipulation of 
the silver plate. Put how soon have their hopes 
of success been blasted ! Where the ordinary care 
bestowed upon a Daguerreotype would produce 
satisfactory results, the same care upon a Photo- 
gi-aph on paper would produce a worthless picture. 
Hence we see the necessity of looking into a higher 
range of art fur the perfection of this branch. 
And as we approach near the goal of perfection 
in this sublime art, so much the more does it de- 
mand of its votaries greater sacrifices on the altar 
of patience and perseverance, more nearly resem- 
Ijling the long and weary road of the successful 
painter, who rises in his profession through many 



PREFACE. 7 

years of patient toil, with his pencil and his pallet, 
to the highest eminence. 

i\.nd the day ma_y nut be far distant when only 
those who have been fur many long and weary 
years followers of the Photographic Art, shall be- 
come masters of their profession. 

It is well, therefore, to fully comprehend the 
greatness of the task one assumes who embarks in 
this profession. And to become a perfect master 
of it, will require all the known resources of his 
perseverance. Therefore such aids as may be 
found in the experience of others, will be given 
here, and it is trusted may be found of essential 
service to those who may purchase the work and 
follow the art as a profession. 

To the amateurs this work will no doubt be ac 
ceptable as a practical treatise, leading them into 
the more intricate fields of practice not found in 
scientific works on kindred subjects. 

Fortunately for this beautiful art, the number of 
amateurs is increasing in the United States, and we 
trust they may continue to augment until the num- 
ber shall equal tliose of England and other Euro- 
pean countries. For like all beautiful arts, the 
tempting field of pleasurable labor here opened, is 
beckoning onwards a host of fellow-laborers, which 



8 PREFACE. 

will render the task of ultimate success of very 
easy accomplisliment ; and it is trusted they will 
emulate those artists in England who have so will- 
ingly opened their stores of knowledge to the pho- 
tographic world, so that all may reap the benefit 
of their valued experience. 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

Preface 3 

Introduction 



CIIAPTEE I. 

History and Prosrress of the Photographic Art— Its Introduction 
into the United States — The Discovery or Uses of the various 
Chemicals — Positive Photographs on Glass 19 

CHAPTER II. 

Theory of the Photographic Process— Negative and Positive Pic- 
tures—Negatives on Paper and on Glass — Positives on Glass — 
Theory of the Positive and the Negative Process 30 



NEGATIVE PROCESS. 

CHAPTER I. 

On the Practice of the Negative Process through all its details— 
The Manipulations— Cleaning the Plate- Coating with Collodion 
—Drying tlie same— Time in the Camera— Developing— Re-devel- 
oping for Intensity— Varnishing the Negative— Frames or Shelves 
for Negatives— General Remarks on the Manipulation of the 
Negative Process— Arrangement of the Light — Use of the Ca- 
mera, &c., &c S^ 



10 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Nitrate of Silver Bath for Negatives— Preparation of the same — 
Formation of tlie Iodide of Silver for the Nitrate Bath — On the 
practice of the Negative Batli — Observations on the use of the 
Negative Bath — On the Intensity of tlie Negative— Color of tlie 
Negative, &c., &c 43 

CHAPTER III. 

On Photographic Printing— Salting Solutions — Salting the Paper — 
Silvering the Paper with Ammonia Nitrate of Silver — Plain Silver 
Solution — To prepare the Albumen for Paper Positives — Silvering 
Albumen Paper — On the practice of printing Negatives— Toning 
or fixing the Print — Wasliing the Positive Prints — Drying the 
Pictures — Varnishing and Mounting the Prints 56 

CHAPTER IV. 

To copy Daguerreotypes and other Pictures into Photographs — Od 
Enlarging Pictures — To enlarge Pictures from Daguerreotypes, 
Anibrotypes, or Photographs ; and to produce Photographs from 
them — To make Life-size Photographs on Paper — Iron Plioto- 
graphs, or Instantaneous Printing — On taking Stereoscope Pic- 
tures, Photographic Views, &c., &c 69 

CHAPTER V. 

On the Preparation of Negative Collodions — The Formulae for Neg- 
ative Collodions — Mixing various Collodions — Dissolving the Io- 
dides — Double Iodide Collodions — The celebrated German Pro- 
cess complete — The Negative Developing Solutions — Re-develop- 
ing Process — Bichloride of Mercury as a Re-developer — Fixii^g 
Solution — The Toning Baths — The Ammonia Nitrate of Silver 
Solution 81 

CHAPTER VI. 

Details of the various Recipes in the Photographic Process— Quick 
Method of Silvering and Printing Paper — Best Method of Salting 
Papers-Test for good Collodion orGun-Cotton — Varnish for Posi- 
tives on Paper — Instantaneous Printing Process — New Method of 



CONTENTS. 11 

varnishing Positives— To restore Prints that have changed color — 
Cleaning Glass Plates— To varnish Negatives— Dextrine Paste for 
mounting Pliotographs— Gum-Arabic and Gelatine— To restore 
Silver from Old Solutions— To remove AVater from Collodion, and 
to purify it— Test of Hyposulphite of Silver in Positive Prints — 
Printing various Backgrounds 97 

CHAPTEll VII. 

Hints and Suggestions in regard to the Negative Process— Imper- 
fections peculiar to Negatives— How to avoid them— Cautions in 
taking Negatives— Hints and Suggestions in regard to printing 
Positives on Paper— Cautions in regard to them— Imperfections 
found in Positives — How to avoid them Ill 



AMBROTYPE PROCESS. 

CHAPTER VIII. 

The Camera^Plate-holders necessary for the Camera— Prepanng 
the Glasses— Plate-blocks for holding the Glasses— Cleaning Sub- 
stances — Cleaning the Glasses — Cleaning old Glasses — Removing 
tlie Varnish — Holding Glasses after they are cleaned— Glasses 
used a number of times — Quality of Glasses necessary for Am- 
brotypes 125 

CHAPTER IX. 

Apparatus for Anibrotypes — Chemicals used — Substances for finish- 
ing the Picture — Preparation of the Nitrate Bath — To Iodize the 
Bath — Filtering Process — Adding Acid — Neutralizing the Bath — 
Full Directions for keeping the Bath in order — Renewal of the 
Nitrate of Silver 131 

CHAPTER X. 

The Developing Solutions — Manner of Compounding them — Various 
Formula} for Developing Solutions — Test of Acetic Acid — The 
Fixing Solutions — Cyanide of Potassium — Hyposulphite of Soda 
— Adding Chloride of Silver 141 



12 CONTENTS. 



CHAPTEE XI. 

On the Practice of the Art in all its Details, from the Cleaning of 
the Plate to the Application of the Fixing Solution — Drying the 
Picture 145 

CHAPTER XII. 

Varnishing the Picture — Single Glass Process— Stereoscopic Am- 
brotype — Trel)Ie Glass Process — Tiie Double Glass Process — Cut- 
ting's Pateut-^The Patent-leather Process 151 

CHAPTER XIII. 

The Manufacture of Gun-Cotton — Test of the Acids employed — 
Washing and Drying the Gun-Cotton — Preparation of the Collo- 
dion — Its Nature and Properties^ — Ether and Alcohol— To Iodize 
Collodion for Ambrotypes — Method of preserving Collodion, and 
keeping it ready fur use — Tests of good Collodion — To remove 

the color from Collodion 157 

/ 

CHAPTER XIV. 

Coloring Ambrotypes — Colors employed— Ambrotypes for Lockets 
— Taking Views — Copying Daguerreotypes by the Ainbrotype 
Process — Copying Engravings, Statuary, Machinery, <fcc 106 

CHAPTER XV. 

On the manner of Arranging the Light — The Falling of the same 
on the Drapery — Use of a Diapiiragm — Light on the Eyes- — Using 
Screens — Backgrounds — Eefleeturs— Diaphragm — Time in the Ca- 
mera — Over-exposure, and Under-developing — Taking Children's 
Portraits 174 

CHAPTER XVI. 

Alcolio'ic Solutions for pn-paring Collodion — Iodide of Silver Solu- 
tion — Bromide of Silver Solution— Bromo-Iodide of Silver Solu- 
tion—Saturated Solution of Iodide of Potassium in Alcohol— Of 
Bromide of Potassium— To make Ilydro-bromic Acid 179 



CONTENTS. 13 



CHAPTEE XVII. 

i'reparation of the Varnishes^White Copal Varnish — Gnm-Jemar 
Varnish — Blaclj Asplialtiim Varnish — AVliite Varnish of Shellac 
and Copal — Thickened Varnish for Cementing Glasses, in place 
of Canada Balsam — Gum-shellac Varnish for Plate-holders — Ap- 
plying the Varnislies 189 

CHAPTER XVIII. 

Causes of Failure in the Practice of the Art — Fogging the Pictures 
— To detect the Fogging of Plates — Black and White Specks on 
the Plates — Transparent and Opaque Spots — Impurity of Chemi- 
cals—Spots or Streaks on the Glass Plates 194 

CHAPTEE XIX. 

Cautions with regard to using the various Chemical Substances in 
making Gun-Cotton — Use of Ether and Alcohol — Use of Cyanide 
of Potassium — Nitrate of Silver — Cleaning the Hands — Solution 
for cleaning the Hands — Hints on the various Processes connected 
with Positives and Negatives — To render Collodion highly Sensi- 
tive — The Lampratype Process 202 

CHAPTER XX. 

Vocabulary of Photographic Chemicals — Acetic Acid — Alcohol — 
Ammonia — Bromine — Bromide Of Potassium — Carbonate of Soda 
— Cyanide of Potassium — Chloride of Gold — Hyposulphite of 
Gold — Hyposulphite of Soda — Iodine — Iodide of Ammonia — 
Iodide of Potassium — Iodide of Silver — Protosulphate of Iron — 
Litmus — Nitric Acid — Nitrate of Potash — Nitrate of Silver— Sul- 
phuric Acid — Properties of Ether — Properties of Water 211 

Weights and Measures 233 



INTRODUCTION 
THE AMBKOTYPE MAT^UAL. 



The Photographic Art, as known and practised 
at the present time, is capable of a great variety of 
modifications. Among these are positive pictures 
on gh^ss, which, on account of their imperish- 
ability, are denominated Ambrotypes — a name 
given to them by Mr. Cutting, a successful artist 
of Boston. They are said to be impervious either 
to air or water. 

It is by this name that all positive pictures on 
glass are known in this country. They are attract- 
ing the attention of the Daguerreian artists from 
the peculiarity of their appearance, and the new 
phenomena of their production, differing so widely 
from the Daguerreotype process. 

A desire has been often expressed that a work 
written by a practical operator, and of a practical 



IG INTRODUCTION. 

nature, might be within the reach of those who 
wish either to begin the study of the art at the 
outset, or to modify and improve the practice in 
which they may be ah-eady engaged. With a 
view to meet this want, the present work has been 
undertaken. 

It is designed to present the resuhs of a long 
practical experience, and of a uniform series of 
experiments in all the details of the art, together 
with receipts by the most skilful and successful 
operators of the present day. 

Ambrotypes being positive photographs on 
glass, it will necessarily require some knowledge 
of photography to fully understand the so-called 
ambrotype process. 

In this manual will be found such practical hints 
on the various processes (divested, as much as pos- 
sible, of technical expressions, which may tend to 
mislead the inexperienced artist), as, with a little 
practice under the supervision of one who has 
some knowledge of manipulating, will enable any 
person to master the art. 

The patented process known as " Cutting's Pa- 
tent" has tended in some ineasm-e to retard the 
efforts of many who were desirous to work by this 
process. At present, however, certain investiga- 



mXKODUCTION. 1 7 

tions are being made so as to undeceive the public 
on this point, and we can see the good results of a 
removal of this drawback to the successful prac- 
tice of this beautiful art. Tliere are various other 
methods of sealing the anibrotypes which will 
answer as well as those indicated in the patented 
process, if not better, which no one need be de- 
terred from adopting. 

In this work will be found detailed the many 
various processes which have been adopted by 
skilful artists. The whole operation from the first 
cleaning of the glass plate to the final sealing af 
the picture will be elucidated and explained in 
such a clear and satisfactory manner, as that it 
may be hoped that the amateur may make great 
proficiency in his practice after the perusal* of the 
work. 

The process, however, is capable of such a va- 
riety of changes, all tending to the same result, 
and liable, also, to a slight variation, without due 
care, that many, perhaps, who may adopt the 
practice will meet with difficulties where none 
were expected. But perseverance, which accom- 
plishes great deeds in all things, will at length re- 
ward the industrious student in this almost magic 
field of science. We believe that the day is not 

2* 



18 LNTRODUCTION. 

far distant when ambrotypes will be classed among 
tlie most beautiful creations of the Photographic 
Art, and command the wonder and regard of the 
picture-loving public. 

The art is capable of much greater variety of 
effects than the long-practised Daguerreotype. 
Here we may seal a picture with or without color- 
ing, and make the same picture aj)pear to be 
colored on viewing it on one side, and uncolored 
on viewing it on the other side — in truth, viewing 
two sides of the^face with only one portrait. Added 
to which is the great reduction of the time in the 
camera, by which moving objects and views may 
be taken without reversing, and likenesses of young 
children can be indelibly fixed on the glass tablet. 

For the production of groups, this process oifers 
many facilities not possessed by any other, from 
the fact that the ordinary iron head-rests may be 
dispensed with, if desirable, and an easy, graceful, 
and natural position attained. 

These and other considerations render the Am- 
brotype in many respects superior to other photo- 
graphic processes, and it will deservedly command 
the attention of all artists who wish to excel in 
this profession. 



PHOTOGRAPHY. 



CHAPTER I. 

HISTORY AND PROGRESS OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ART 

ITS INTRODUCTION INTO THE UNITED STATES 

THE DISCOVERY OR USES OF THE VARIOUS CHEMI- 
CALS POSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHS ON GLASS. 

The history and progress of an art so pecnliarly 
distinct from all other arts, demands from its vo- 
taries a certain knowledge of its early stages, its 
introdnction to the world, and its authors who 
brought it into being. 

The names of many of those who have been in- 
strumental in jierfecting it, are fast passing aw^ay, 
and it seems befitting that, if only as a tribute of 
respect to their memories, some mention at least 
should be made of their noble achievements in this 
field of science — especially their long and weari- 
some researches and labors in perfecting this ^won- 
derful work. 

To M. Daguerre, of France, whose name is so 



20 PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

identified with the Photographic Art, from the fact 
of its being associated with all those impressions on 
the metallic plate, is the world not only indebted 
for the first sublime idea, but also the first success- 
ful result. Although Mr. Fox Talbot, of England, 
who was prosecuting experiments at the same time 
with Daguerre, claims priority of discovery, yet 
the world would have slumbered in ignorance had 
not M. Daguerre so clearly demonstrated that 
light falling upon a certain substance known by 
chemists as iodide of silver, would impress thereon 
whatever image was presented for its magic work, 
and reproduce its own image with all the fidelity 
of an artist's skill. 

The details of M. Daguerre's process, as given 
to tlie world in June, 1839, were, of com'se, very 
imperfect; yet the j)rinciple was thereby estab- 
lished, and has been so successfully carried out 
by his successors, that he is fully entitled to the 
credit, and deservedly stands pre-eminent in the 
ranks as the original discoverer or inventor of this 
beautiful art. 

All the photographic processes since made 
known and practised, owe their origin, if not di- 
rectly, at least indirectly, to the fact of his original 
discovery. 



PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 21 

Pictures on paper, glass, &c., are in fact only 
modifications of his great achievement. They in- 
volve a change in the uatnre of the mere materials 
used, and do not in any degree affect the original 
^ fact that light mnst be brought to act upon the 
substance known as iodide of silver to produce the 
required result. 

The researches of Wedgewood'and Sir Hum- 
phrey Davy, in 1802, are familiar to most scien- 
tific readers. These individuals were cognizant of 
the fact that lio-ht actins; upon certain salts of 

O CD J. 

silver aftected its color. They engaged in these 
experiments in order to fix the image in the camera 
obscura at that early day ; yet owing to the imper- 
fect state of chemical science, and the fact that 
iodine itself was not discovered at that time, they 
finalh' abandoned it, and left the field for such in- 
dustrious and worthy investigators as Daguerre 
and ]S"iepce, who successfully prosecuted their re- 
searches, beginning in 1814, and finally announ- 
cing their successful result in June, 1839. 

Tlie world was astounded to be told that the 
seeming evanescent image that had flitted so beau- 
tifully before the vision of a dreamer's mind in the 
camera obscura for so many long years, had been 
caught and impressed indelibly upon a tangible 



22 PROGRESS OF PHOTOGRAPHY. 

substance ; that the long wished-for as]3irations of 
an artist's soul had been realized ; that now it was 
possible to transform the living pictures which 
Portia, two hundred years before, had exhibited 
to the gazing world as wonders of his genius; that 
they could all be imperishably iiiipressed, and be 
made to retain their beauty for ages. 

Philosophers' in science prosecuted their re- 
searches, and finally made additional discoveries. 
We find Sir John Herschel as among the foremost 
in the ranks. Hunt, Archer, and Mr. Fox Talbot 
himself, made great progress soon after it was an^ 
nounced that Daguerre had finally perfected his 
discovery. 

Mr. Talbot, however, was unwilling the world 
itself should profit by his discovery, and he forth- 
with commissioned agents to all parts of the world 
to secure patents wherever they could be obtained. 
With what success he met in their sale may be 
known from the fact that no one now claims any 
interest whatever in them. 

Mr. Talbot has seen proper of late to withdraw 
all claims to a patent by his process, and for the 
reason, no doubt, that it has been so urT'^as'n-aldv 
superseded by new and more useful improvements. 

A patent for any portion of this pz'ocess is almost 



FOX talbot's patent. 23 

conceded to be a misnomer. Certain it is that one 
always militates against the successful practice of 
it; and had M. Daguerre claimed one all over the 
■world, his name would not have attained its present 
fame. 

Mr. Talbot has been very justly censured in 
England for his long persistency in the claims to 
his patent. Many litigations were the conse- 
quences of it, in all of w^hich Mr. Talbot was not 
declared the victor, but he always brought upon 
himself the deserved censm*e of the photographers 
in Europe. 

M. Daguerre himself, very reluctantly, however, 
yielded to the wishes of some of his friends, and 
secured a patent in England, by taking advantage 
of a peculiarity in the patent laws of that country, 
yet it has been said he often regretted it. 

Wherever any patent has been secured for any 
peculiar detail of the Photographic Art, it has 
always tended to bring discredit on its projectoi-s, 
and render them odious in the eyes of the frater- 
nity, as grasping and over-reaching in their endea- 
vors to gain a few dollars and cents out of this 
beautiful process, which seems to belong to a higher 
race of discoveries than most others, partaking 
almost of the things spiritual. 



34 daguerre's pension. 

France awarded M. Dagnerre a pension for life, 
as well as one to M. Niepce, junior^ the father, 
who was the original co-laborer with Daguerre, 
having died in 1833. This pension was small, jQt 
it evinced a noble and generous spirit in the 
French government, and an example that is wor- 
thy of emulation in other countries. 

The process on silver plates soon made rapid 
strides towards perfection, and in a few years we 
find the art capable of producing specimens of 
great beauty. The discovery of the use of chloride 
of iodine, and bromine, and finally the gilding pro- 
cess of Mr. Fizeau, resulted successfully in com- 
pleting the whole j^rocess so perfectly, that few, if 
any, material improvements have been made since. 

This led others to investigate and essay experi- 
ments on various substances instead of the silver 
plate, that being an expensive article ; and, more- 
over, as the daguerreotype could only be seen with 
distinctness in a certain position, or angle of light, 
while paper oflered such unequal surfaces, a natu- 
ral desire was expressed to find some other sub- 
stance to remedy these defects. This first led Sir 
John Herschel to adopt glass as the readiest means 
of obviating the difficulties. This was in the year 
1844, and he obtained his results by precipitating 



herschel's pkocess. 25 



iodine and bromine, and chloride of silver upon 
glass. With this he produced some good nega- 
tives, which could be converted into excellent 
positives, 

Herschel describes his process as follows : "The 
glass plate so prepared receives in the camera a 
distinct negativ^e image, which appears either in a 
natural position, or reversed, as you look at it in 
front or behind. If a solution of hyposulphite of 
soda is spread cautiously over the surface, and the 
latter is afterwards rinsed with water, the picture 
vanishes, but as soon as the plate is dry, it comes 
again to light, when it looks similar in appearance 
to a daguerreotyi^e, more especially if it is placed 
on a dark ground, or blackened over the lamp, 
whereby, indeed, the negative is made positive." 

Here, then, we have the first germ of a positive 
picture on glass. Ileischel himself was searching 
after a negative picture whereby to produce a 
positive on paper, nor did it occur to him to pro 
duce a positive on glass. Had he done so, then 
the far-famed Ambro types, or j)ositive photographs 
on glass, w'ould have been of an earlier creation 
than those of 1850 in England. 

We see here the actual beginning of this art as 
far back as 1844. 

3 



26 DISCOVEKY OF JUN-OOTTON. 

The next improvement was made by ^iepce de 
St. Victor, of France, in 1848, which consisted in 
the use of albumen (the white of an egg), contain- 
ing iodine and a small portion of water. This was 
used for coating glass plates, and was practised 
with good success. It was found to possess only a 
small degree of sensitiveness. Yet it has been 
since used for taking views, having a further com- 
bination of bromine, with excellent results. M. Le 
Grey, of Paris, was the first to suggest the use o^ 
waxed paper. This process, with albumen, gives 
highly satisfactory pictures, and is only excelled 
by the use of collodion. It was in 1850 that tha' 
substance fii'st was known as the great desideratum 
of the Photographic Art, and from its discovery 
and foundation has been laid a superstructure 
which commands so much admiration in the scien- 
tific world. 

Had not Professor Schonbein, of Basle, Switzer- 
land, in 1846, made that curious, and at that time 
almost useless, discovery of gun-cotton, we should 
have groped our way in darkness in search of a 
Gubstance that would render all our labors so sure 
of success. 

The use of gun-cotton as an explosive material 
instead of gunpowder, was by some predicted 



FIKST USE OF COLLODION. 27 

when its discovery was first made known ; bnt it 
was soon found to be useless as an explosive agent, 
when happily a new element of its nature was de- 
veloped in the fact of its solubility in ether or 
alcohol. This produced the substance known as 
collodion, from a Greek word signifying " to stick." 
Its similarity to albumen soon caused it to be used 
instead of that substance, when lo ! a servant was 
obtained for the photographic artist at once so use- 
ful and willing that he has ever since, and prob- 
ably ever will, be subject to his rule. 

Collodion was first used in 1850, several claim- 
ing the origin of the discovery. Amongst the 
number may be mentioned Messrs. Archer, Fry, 
and Diamond, of London, together with Le Grey, 
of Paris, and De La Motte. * The latter asserts 
that M. Simon, an apothecary of Berlin, suggested 
its properties to him in the spring of 1850. 

After collodion had been established as a photo- 
graphic agent of such vast utility, it was soon 
found that positive pictures could be taken on 
glass with greater facility than those on the silver 
plate, and we find that many were sold in 1851 in 
that manner in England; yet they did not com- 
mand much attention, owing to their ^Jeculiar na- 
ture — being taken with a thin film, and a weak 



28 MR. cdtting's patent. 

niti-ate bath, tliey did not possess that strength 
which those of the present day exhibit. 

The use of collodion was employed mainly with 
a view to produce good negatives on glass, in 
order to obtain from them satisfactory positives on 
paper. It was not until positive pictures on glass 
were taken in this country, that they elicited any 
praise from the artist ; and we find Mr. Cutting, of 
Boston, running with railroad speed towards the 
Patent Ofiice in Washington, and securing the ex- 
clusive privilege of sealing two glasses, with one 
of them blackened, in order to render the pic- 
ture apparent — the examiners at "Washington not 
dreaming of the capital joke which was being 
i:)layed on them, for it is well known that these 
positives cannot bcseen without the black varnish. 

The necessity of the second glass blackened has 
since been entirely obviated by applying the var- 
nish directly to the picture, and at the same time 
rendering the picture more durable, by entirely 
excluding from it the air or dust. 

Since that patent was obtained, there Jiave been 
many improvements made in the preparation of 
the chemicals, and their use, all of wdiich have en- 
tirely superseded those of Mr. Cutting's, whose 
chemicals, strange to say, were also patented. 



DAGUEiiRE AND HIS FOLLOWERS. 29 

The name of Ambrotjpe was also given them, 
and they are now so well known bv it, that it is 
presumed they will be ever after called by that 
newly-coined word, which of itself is perhaps as 
suggestive and appropriate as any. 

Thus we see the progress of photograjDhs on 
glass has resulted in establishing an entirely new 
name for pictures which owe their origin to the 
immortal Daguerre. And although many of the 
followers of the great master in the art claim 
originality in many of the details of this art, and 
they are indeed entitled to much praise, yet had 
Daguerre and ISTiepce never lived, this art might 
not yet have had an existence. But Daguerre de- 
veloped and perfected an art which will be prac 
tised as long as the sun shall shine. 

3* 



CHAPTER IT. 

THEORY OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS NEGATIVE 

AND POSITIVE PICTURES NEGATIVES ON PAPER 

AND ON GLASS POSITIVES ON GLASS THEORY OF 

THE POSITIVE AND THE NEGATIVE PROCESS. 

The photographic process is one of the latest 
arts inti-oduced to the world which partakes, in 
some degree, of the arts of design, and from its 
nature is really superior, in point of attractive fea- 
tures, to many of the lesser arts. It seems to de- 
mand a more elevated range of thought and taste 
than others, being to a great degree allied to the 
arts of painting and sculpture. Though in a meas- 
ure mechanical, yet it possesses many peculiarities 
which demand from its votaries more than the 
limited judgment and skill necessary to the per- 
fection of ordinary arts. 

The theory of the process is said mainly to con- 
sist in that certain action to which light is subject 
of causing its own image or reflection to be ren- 



NEGATIYKS ANO POSITIV! S. P>i 

dei'ed apparent by that self-same reflection on sub 
stances capable of receiving the impression. 

The term Photography, ov painting hy lights is 
snfHciently definite for our purpose, and all we 
know about the actual theory is, that when certain 
conditions are observed with regard to light, an 
ini2:»ression may be obtained. But what is the 
real or definite action which takes place upon the 
surfece of the iodized plate, no man has been per- 
mitted to know. 

Photographs are known either as J^egatives or 
Positives. They are positive in the Daguerreotype 
and Ambrotyjje, and negative only in the glass 
pictures or paper pictures, from which positives 
are to be taken on paper, and on other similar 
substances. Tliese terms should be well understood 
by the operator who seeks success, as they form 
the basis of all photograj^hy. 

All pictures taken by the collodion process pos- 
sess either of the foregoing conditions. 

IS^egatives were first taken on paper, from which 
posiiives were produced by the process known as 
the Calotype, discovered and patented by Mr. Fox 
Talbot, of England. From the multiplicity of its 
in) perfections, it did not succeed, and no ])hoto- 
graplis were api)7*eciated by a dl-eeriiinir ]iublic 



32 THEORY OF NEGATIVES AND POSITIVES. 

until those negatives taken on glass were produced 
and positives exhibited from them which were 
creditable as works of art. 

Negatives possess all the various phenomena in 
their production that are possessed by positives. 
They are in some respects more difficult to be ob- 
tained in great perfection, and in others are less so 
from their peculiar properties. They ai'e, in fact, 
only matrixes from which other pictures can be 
obtained. Therefore they are not perfect pictures 
of themselves, but only parts of a whole. 

The manipulation connected with the negative 
process is given briefly in this work, mainly with 
a view to impart certain information with regard 
to the positive process. 

The theory of the positive and negative processes 
IS the same, which consists in the reduction of the 
silver to an oxide on the surface of the glass by 
the action of light, and the subsequent application 
of well-known chemical substances. Tliese several 
conditions must be well observed in order to secure 
good resnlts. The iodide of silver must be well 
formed on the surface of the glass. The light 
given must be only so much as will produce the 
image, and reveal it after the application of the 
developing solution, and this must be of just the 



POSITIVES ON GLASS. 33 

requisite strength to produce the reduction from 
the iodide to tlie oxide of silver. 

•The impression is therefore given solely by the 
action of light, or by certain properties of that 
mysterious body. Yet when the plate is removed 
from the camera, there is no apparent change pro- 
duced, but on applying the develoi5ing solution, 
the sleeping and invisible image awakes and starts 
into life, and commands from every beholder an 
expression of wonder and admiration. 

Fixing the picture is a subsequent operation, 
and is no part of the process of production, only 
so far as it may be necessary to render it perma- 
nent, and also to remove the unaffected iodide of 
silver, a portion of which is not at all changed by 
the light. Only those parts are affected which are 
necessary to produce the light and shade. 

Positives on glass are taken with chemicals 
varying slightly from those used in producing 
negatives, and also by a much shorter exposure in 
the camera. In fact, a positive is only a negative 
with a less degree of exposure to the action of 
light. All positives could of themselves become 
negatives were the time of exposure prolonged 
sufficiently to effect that result, though their uses as 
a means of producing subsequent positives on 



34 AMBROTYPES IN THE UNITED STATES. 

paper is a matter of doubt, for there are certain 
other conditions necessary for success in the pro- 
duction of good negatives not known in the posi- 
tive process. 

These positives on glass are now so widely rec- 
ognized as ATnbrotypes^ that we shall venture to 
assume that name as one sufficiently significant 
and appropriate for our purpose. 

Ambrotypes are now so well known, that they 
may almost be said to be identified with the prog- 
ress of the art in the United States, and belong 
exclusively to this country. Tliey are not known 
as such in Europe. They are there classed under 
the head of Photographs, and the public here are 
frequently led into eiTor on this point, and suj)- 
pose, in fact, that Ambrotypes are a new creation 
— a new kind of picture only known here, while 
in truth they were first taken in Europe, and are 
merely photographs on glass, taken positively in- 
stead of negatively. 

Tiie details of the process, and the necessary 
manipulations, are of course to be found only in 
the practical portion of this work. 

The whole art consists, therefore, in the careful 
preparation of the glass plate, in the most scrupu- 
lous cleanliness and accuracy of the employment 



PHOTOGRAPHIC DIFFICULTIES. 35 

of every material requisite to the process, and in a 
most implicit obedience to such rules as are laid 
down in tliis work for the guidance of those who 
would insure success. 

The results set forth in these pages were ob- 
tained after nnich patient labor and investigation 
on the part of a host of intelligent inquirers, who 
have successfully overcome difHculties which, could 
they have foreseen, would have appalled the most 
patient and determined mind. Happily for the 
photographer who now commences his operations, 
he may profit by the experience of others, and be 
spared the labor and investigation of earlier op- 
erators. 

The path for him is now rid of its most formi- 
dable difficulties,' and should he be induced to ex- 
amine carefully the abstruse philosophical princi- 
ples upon which this fascinating art depends, he 
mav, in his turn, become a contributor to its im- 
provement and advancement. 

The experience of the humblest may sometimes 
furnish a suggestion, which investigations of the 
most refined and cultivated may have long failed 
to accomplish. 

The art is greatly suggestive. It offers many 
fields of speculation, and the great aim of all who 



36 TRIUMPH OF AKT OVER NATURE. 

practise it sliould be to perfect it as soon as possi- 
ble, for, like all the creations of man's genius, it is 
not yet complete. But the rapid strides it is now 
making towards long wislied-for perfection are so 
apparent, that we confidently look to the accom- 
plishment of the greatest end sought — namely, the 
reproduction of the colors of nature. This result 
once obtained, the artist could lay aside his easel 
and pallet. He could then retire from the arena 
where he now stands contending so unprofitably, 
in a pecuniary point of view, with the photogra- 
pher. 

But this seeming triumph of nature over art by 
the pencillings of the sunlight — the sun himself 
becomin«: the universal and sublime artist ! — is 
really the triumph of art over nature ; for since 
art, conscious of the weakness and imperfections 
of her best eiforts, has had the tact and skill to 
wheel the forces of nature into her own ranks, the 
result should be set down to her own credit, as her 
own victory. 



PART I. 



PRACTICAL DETAILS 



OF THE 



NEGATIVE PROCESS. 



POSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHS ON PAPER. 



CHAPTER I. 

ON THE PRACTICE OF THE NEGATIVE PROCESS THROUGH 

ALL ITS DETAILS THE MANIPULATIONS CLEANING 

THE PLATE — COATING WITH COLLODION DRYING 

THE SAME TIME IN THE CAMERA DEVELOPING 

KE-DEVELOPING FOR INTENSITY VARNISHING THE 

NEGATIVE FRAMES OR SHELVES FOR NEGATIVES 

GENERAL REMARKS ON THE MANIPULATION Of 

THE NEGATIVE PROCESS ARRANGEMENT OF THE 

LIGHT USE OF THE CAMERA, ETC., ETC. 

There are so many various plans suggested by 
practical operators in the Photographic Art, all 
varying so much in detail, that the author has 
thouglit proper to simply confine himself to one 
line of practice, which has been found to produce 
the best results. 

All negative Photographs at the present stage 



40 NEGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

of the art are taken on glass, and they are called 
negatives from the fact that all the lio;hts and 
shades are reversed — i. e. where the portrait in 
life presents the high lights (or where the light foils 
the strongest, and it should appear the lightest), in 
the negative it appears the darkest. In like man- 
ner, where the dark shades are seen in a positive 
to be dark as in life, in the negative they are seen 
light, or to present the high lights. They present 
these peculiar phenomena only when viewed by 
transmitted light, or light passing through them, in 
which position they can only be seen with proper 
effect. When viewed as a positive, laid on a 
blackened substance, they resemble in some de- 
gree a positive that has been too long exposed in 
the camera. They cannot be viewed properly in 
any other manner than by transmitted light. 

However, they are never to be sealed up for 
sale in any form, but are always reserved by the 
artist to print from, any number of copies that may 
be desired. And herein consists the great beauty 
and perfection of this branch of photography. 
We have the power of multiplying ad infinitum^ 
even far greater than if it were printed from an 
engraving. The negative itself can be reproduced 
and multiplied so that exact fac-sitniles could be 



CLEANING THE PLATI-;. 4rl 

obtained, and even thousands printed by every 
negative, so nearly resembling each other, that 
none could distinguish the first original positive 
impression. 

Regarding the manipulation of negative process 
as a simple chemical operation, with certain chem- 
ical auxiliaries, it is very easy of accomplishment. 
When once properly understood, if certain rules 
are observed, it is more sure of success than most 
others in the art. 

The first requisite to success is the cleaning of 
the glass plate, which is easily done by I'ubbing it 
with a piece of cotton-flannel dipped in alcohol, 
slightly diluted with water ; and in case of using 
the glass the second time, a small quantity of rot- 
ten-stone, whiting, or tripoli poM'der, inay be 
added. 

Be careful to dust the glass with a flat camel's- 
hair brush just before pouring on the collodion. 
Holding the glass in the left hand, standing near 
the bath, pour the collodion on with a continuous 
stream from the bottle until there is enough, 
which when flowed over the whole surface of the 
glass will just cover it. Then let the superfluous 
quantity run off at the right-hand corner into the 
bottle, slightly moving the glass plate so that the 

4* 



42 TIMK IN THE CAMKRA. 

cullodiou M^ill not .dry in lines or ridges ; a qnick 
motion may be necessary to insure a perfect fiow 
of it over tiie surface. On holding the. glass up to 
transmitted light, it should appear perfectly clear 
and transparent, as though no collodion was upon 
its surface — at least, no lines, streaks, or spots. If 
any are visible, the negative will be faulty. 

Let it dry until it appears almost free from 
moisture ; now darken the room ; then place it in 
the bath for one or two minutes, or until the iodide 
of silver is perfectly formed on its surface, which 
can easily be ascertained by raising the plate from 
the bath. If the surface presents a uniform ap- 
pearance, clear and witliout any lines or streaks 
like grease or oil, then it is ready for the camera: 
a slight motion of the plate will produce this re- 
sult. 

The time of exposure in the camera is entirely a 
matter of judgment and expeiience. No definite 
rules can be laid down; but usually, in a strong 
light, with the ammonia collodion and the neutral 
bath, from fifteen seconds to one minute will an- 
swer. 

The time of exposure can easily be ascertained 
by a trial plate. 



DE\rRLOPING OF THE NEGATIVE. 43 

THE DEVELOPING OF THE NEGATIVE. 

This requires great care and mnch practice, for 
if the process in all its details is correctly followed, 
and only a slight variation in the developing of 
the image, the resulting negative will be of no 
avail. 

As soon as possible after the light has acted 
upon the plate in the camera, remove it to the de- 
veloping-stand,or it may be held in the hand, and 
pour the solution well filtered upon the surface, but 
only just enough to cover it, retaining all the fi-ee 
r.itrate of silver which had adhered to the plate on 
its removal from the bath. The silver itself acts 
as a means of darkening the negative. 

The developing solution of protosulphite of iron, 
on page 89, will be found the most useful, and in- 
deed the only one recommended for good nega- 
tives. After allowing this solution to remain on 
the surface for a few seconds, the outlines of the 
negative will appear. Then, if not sufficiently in- 
tense, pour off the develo|)er, and cover it again 
two or three times, until sufficient intensity is ob- 
tained. The negative should gradually appear 
first in the high light, then the drapery ; and, 
lastly, it should seem to fade partially away. 



44 VARNISHING NEGATIVES. 

FIXING THE NEGATIVE. 

Always fix the negative in a strong solution of 
hyposulphite of soda. This will of course remove 
the iodide of silver slowly, but tlie collodion is less 
liable to be attacked by the use of soda than by 
cyanide of potassium. A saturated solution will 
remove the iodide of silver more readily, although 
a less quantity of soda will answer. It is found 
that whatever quantity is employed, it loses its 
strength on the immersion of every plate, and 
must be frequently renewed. 

VAKNISIIING NEGATIVES. 

In order to preserve negatives in a proper state 
for future use, it is ^vel] to varnish them. If they 
are intended only to, print a few copies, a varnisli 
of gum-arabic is preferable, not very thick, about 
the consistency of collodion. 

If the negative is required for many ]v/Ints, the 
better course would be to varnish Avitli the wliite 
negative varnish. All vai'nislies are poured over 
the j)late in the same manner as collodion, and al- 
lowed to dry by l)eing ]^laced on its edge, secure 
from dust, until it has thoroughly dried. 



AKKANGEMENT OF THE LIGHT. 4:5 

rPvAMES OR SIIELA^ES FOR IIOLDIKG NEGATIVES. 

It is very necessarv that the neo:atives shuuld bo 
kept in some secure place ; and two shelves, hav- 
ing grooves in them above and belov»'-, so that the 
glasses shall stand on the edges in them, is the 
best receptacle when not in nse. Shelves of 
various widths, according to the size of the glasses, 
are required, and with a door that shall close in 
front of each to exclude the dust, &c. 

The manipulation of the negative process is so 
very important, that certain hints are necessary to 
insure absolute success. 

The arrangement of the light upon the sitter is 
of vast importance. It should fall with a full force 
upon the drapery, if it is of a dark color; and the 
background, whicli is usually of a somber hue, 
should also be well lio-hted up from the skvliijjht. 
Arrange the subject in a favorable position to pro- 
duce the most pleasing effect of liglit and shade 
upon the face — carefully attending to the pointed 
light upon the eyes. Avoid the long line of light' 
upon theuL If possible, produce a uniform light 
on the drapery, as that portion is more likely to 
be clouded than any other. 

The position of the camera should demand a 



46 EXPOSURE OF THE PLATE. 

careful stnd\-. Some cameras require to be eleva- 
ted more than others, which can be ascertained by 
actual experiment. Some will work more uni- 
formly over the whole plate M'hen arranged in an 
exact line with the face of the sitter. 

A skylight wliich is nearly flat, or one that is 
slightly elevated only on one side, has been found 
to produce the most pleasing effects in Photog- 
raphy, 

The length of time of exposure of the plate to 
the action of light is a matter of vast importance, 
because the intensity of the negative is affected 
thereby — which will be seen on application of the 
developing agent. If too long time has been em- 
ployed, the print will appear flat in details ; al- 
though the drapery may appear distinct, the round- 
ness will be lost. The middle tints of the fece 
which are so desirable, M'ill not appear. It is 
better to give a short time first, and bring up the 
intensity by developing. A short exposure in the 
camera, if the developing solutions are capable of 
producing a powerful negative, is found to be the 
best for strong and vigorous eflects. The point to 
arrive at is to allow just long enough exposure 
that the developing agent shall just bring out the 
negative of the required intensity, and no more. 



GLASS FOR NKGATIVES. 47 

By a trial picture giving what may be supposed 
nearly the exact time, if too short the augmenta- 
tion of the next succeeding trials will eventuall}' 
arrive at the correct result. 

It may be proper to mention, that glasses used 
for negatives do not require to be of such purity as 
those designed for positives ; even good window- 
glass, which is selected as free from bubbles as 
possible, will answer a very good purpose. The 
expense, therefore, for material for Photographic 
negatives will not be very great, and the artist can 
retain them for future use after one or two im- 
pressions have been taken, so that any future day 
he may produce more pictures for his patron with- 
out any additional sitting. 



CHAPTER II. 

THE NITRATE OF SILVER BATH FOR NEGATIVES 

PREPARATION OF THE SAME FORMATION OF THE 

IODIDE OF SILVER FOR THE NITRATE BATH ON THE 

PRACTICE OF THE NEGA'^^^S BATH OBSERVATIONS 

ON THE USE OF THE NEGATIVE BATH ON THE IN- 
TENSITY OF THE NEGATIVE — -COLOR OF THE NEGA- 
TIVE, ETC., ETC. 

THE NITRATE OF SILVER BATH FOR NEGATIVES. 

The bath of nitrate of silver, which is most com- 
monly in use for negatives, is that known as the 
nitrate bath. Great care is essential to its proper 
preparation, and we shall proceed to lay down the 
precise form to make a bath that will produce the 
most satisfactory results. The proportion of ni- 
trate of silver required to each ounce of water is 
usually about fifty grains, though this is not abso- 
lutely essential. 

All negative baths require a certain degree ot 
working or use before they will act to the best ad- 



THE NITRATE OF SILVER BATH. 49 

vantage. They should always be combined with 
a portion of iodide of silver ; and even that should 
be added again after long use, as many times that 
simple remedy will remove difficulties which were 
deemed insurmountable. 

Having' ascertained the number of ounces the 
bath contains (see page 50), weigh out the quan- 
tity of nitrate of silver necessary to produce, when 
dissolved, about fifty grains to each ounce of water. 
Dissolve about one ounce of the nitrate of silver in 
four or six ounces of water ; then dissolve the bal- 
ance of the nitrate of silver which will be required 
to fill the bath in the remaining ^Jortion of the 
water. 

For every ounce of nitrate of silver which is re- 
quired in the bath to render it fifty grains to each 
ounce of w^ater, there must be measured out three 
grains of iodide of ammonia. This is to be formed 
into iodide of silver b}^ fii'st dissolving the iodide 
of ammonia in about two ounces of water, and 
adding thereto say two fluid drachms of the solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver, in which one ounce of the 
silver has been dissolved in four ounces of water. 
This will immediately throw down a yellow pre- 
cipitate, which is the iodide of silver. Wash this 
precipitate three times with water, by filling the 

5 



50 rilK NITRATE OF SILVER BATH. 

graduate dish or bottle, which should contain at 
least six ounces of water, and allow it to settle ; 
then pour off the watei', leaving the iodide of sil- 
ver at the bottom. When this is well washed, 
add it to the ounce of silver previously dissolved 
in the four ounces of water. Shake it w^ell, then 
pour the whole into the bottle containing the bath. 
A niilivy appearance will be seen in the bath, 
which is well to remain in that state for a few 
hours to dissolve as much of the iodide of silver as 
possible. After filtering the bath until it becomes 
clear, it is ready for use. 

A bath prepared according to the foregoing, if 
requii-ed to be of sixty-four ounces of water, would 
contain the following proportions : 

64 X 50 = 3200 grains, or of nitrate of silver 6 J ounces. 

Iodide of ammonia 20 grains. 

Water ....... 2 quarts. 

There will be in 6f ounces of silver, 3240 grains, 
allowing 480 grains to each ounce. The above 
quantity will be as near 50 grains to the ounce as 
will be required for all practical purposes. 

Distilled water is preferable in all cases. Though 
perfectly pure, soft water will answer, if it has 
not been kept long in wooden vessels. If it has 
been so kept, it can be first boiled and filtered 



PRACTICE OF THE NEGATIVE BATH. 51 

tlirongli paper, to remove any traces of vegetable 
mattei"s. 

By referring to pp. 133 and 131, and the sub- 
sequent j^ages relating to tlie preparation of the 
nitrate of silver bath for Ambrotypes, much valua- 
ble information M-ill l>e found, which can be adopted 
in the negative bath. The bath will require neu- 
tralizing, should any excess of acid accrue in it. 
The process of neutralizing will be found on 
page 137. 

The negative collodion, which is more frequently 
used with a perfectly neutral bath, as above de- 
scribed, is that recipe found on page 82. 

ON THE PEACTICE OF THE NEGATIVE BATH. 

The use of the negative bath requires much care 
and attention, for herein lies one of the elements 
of success in the production of perfect negative 
impressions. 

By using the ammonia collodion constantly, the 
bath is liable to be changed, as it necessarily must 
be, in its chemical character. Iodide of silver is 
formed upon each plate, and consequently less sil- 
ver is contained in the solution, and alcohol is 
added to tlie compound from tiie collodion, as well 
as a trace of ether. It will soon be found to be 



52 PRACTICE OF THE NEGATIVE BATH. 

slightly acid in testing with litmus-paper. This 
acid tendency sometimes is not objectionable ; but 
if there is too much of it, neutralize the bath, and- 
test with a hydrometer to ascertain the strength of 
silver. Always keep the strength equal to fifty 
grains to the ounce. In adding more silver to the 
bath, it may be effected more readily by first dis- 
solving the quantity required in a separate bottle 
from the one used expressly for the nitrate bath. 
Filter always before adding to the bath. Always 
be provided with two bottles, having glass stop- 
pers sufiiciently large to hold the contents of the 
nitrate bath, into one of which it may be filtered. 

It is recommended also to add silver often to the 
bath, if it is in constant use, because if the greater 
portion of the solution is removed (as some must 
necessarily be every time a plate is immersed) by 
adding a large quantity, the whole nature of the 
bath is changed. 

Many operators provide themselves with sufii- 
cient solutions for two or three baths. This is a 
plan highly recommended, as a bath actually im- 
proves by age, even if it is not worked every day. 
Old baths which have been laid aside as useless 
except for restoration, have, after many days, on a 
new trial been found to produce good results. 



PRACTICE OF THE NEGATIVE BATH. 53 

There is a constant change taking place in the ni- 
trate baths, and there are many phenomena con- 
nected with them wholly unexplained as yet by 
the most successful operators. Sometimes an acid 
bath will work more surely for negatives than a 
neutral, and sometimes a neutral bath is preferred. 
The general rule to be observed is, that, if a bath 
is acid, the time of exposure in the camera is 
lengthened, and as we approach the neutral point 
the time is lessened. Therefore to work a bath as 
nearly neutral as possible, is the most sure of 
success. 

In order that the negatives should produce good 
positive pictures on paper, they should be very 
ti-ansparent in the dark portions, such as the dra- 
pery, &c., and of such intensity in the light parts 
that a ray of light can with difficulty be trans- 
mitted, and this must be combined with a regular 
gradation in the middle tints. 

These desirable results can be attained by using 
the collodion somewhat thicker for the negatives 
than for positives or Ambrotypes, as thereby a 
thicker deposit of silver is obtained on the surface 
of the glass. 

Also a stronger nitrate bath, and using it as 
nearly neutral as possible, and a longer exposure 

5* 



54 THE COLOR OF NEGATIVES. 

in tlie camera, together with less acid in the de- 
veloper; all these combined will produce the de- 
sired end, viz., an intensitji such as will print posi- 
tives having all the beauty ao much desired in 
good Photographs. The absolute intensity, how- 
ever, of a negative does not always depend upon 
the thickness of metallic silver, but to a certain ex- 
tent upon the color it may have when seen by 
transmitted light. Negatives also vary in color; 
some are translucent and of a bronze color, others 
are of a bluish-black, whilst some are of a gray 
color. The color most to be sought after is the 
bluish-black, because these are found to print 
more uniformly clear in their details. 

Sometimes the best negatives are those which 
may appear to be weak, because the chemical rays 
are more obstructed, and the print is consequently 
more uniform in its gradations of light and shade. 

Tlie color of the negatives depends on certain 
conditions of the bath, the time of exposure in the 
camera, the nature and strength of the developer, 
and the quantity of acetic acid contained in it. 
Sometimes the presence of organic matter, which 
wall collect in the bath, may affect the color and 
tone of the negatives. So that no positive rules 
can be laid down for the continued action of a 



UNCEKTATNTIES IN TIIIC ART. 55 

bath ; practice alone must be the teacher in this 
branch of the art. 

Seeming uncertainties may appear to some who 
have not had much experience in the art as obsta- 
cles of great moment. But they will all vanish 
after a short time. These apparent contradictions 
and perplexities are only met with for any length 
of time in the experience of those persons who do 
not attend to the minute details of the art, such as 
cleaning well the plate, decanting the collodion, 
the proper length of time of developing the pic- 
ture, &c. The practice of this beautiful art must 
not be condemned because it contains a few seem- 
ing contradictions ; for if it was easily acquired, 
and always certain of success, there would be no 
incentive to excellence, and those persons who pos- 
sessed only a limited taste and experience, could 
rival the artist in the creations of his genius. It 
may therefore be deemed a fortunate circumstance 
to those who would wish to excel, that the road to 
full success lays through a few rugged passes, and 
lie who would reach the goal of perfect accom 
plishm^ent must encounter some difficulties. 



CHAPTER III. 

ON PHOTOGRAPHIC PRINTING SALTING SOLUTIONS 

SALTING THE PAPER SILVERING THE PAPER WITH 

AMMONIA NITRATE OF SILVER PLAIN SILVER SO- 
LUTION TO PREPARE THE ALBUMEN FOR PAPER 

POSITIVES SILVERING ALBUMEN PAPER ON THE 

PRACTICE OF PRINTING NEGATIVES TONING OR FIX- 
ING THE PRINT WASHING THE POSITIVE PRINTS 

— DRYING TIIK PICTURES VARNISHING AND MOUNT- 
ING THE PRINTS. 

The printing of the Photographs is that por- 
tion of the art wherein o-reat care and attention is 
demanded, and where much of the beauty and fin- 
ish of the picture is due. The success of it de- 
pends upon a perfectly proper understanding of 
the process. 

Having selected the best quality of paper, it may 
for convenience be cut into sizes such as will be 
required for use in the printing frames. Though 
this is not absolutely necessary, the large sheets, as 
they are manufactured and imported for use, can 



THE SALTING SOLUTIONS. 57 

firet be salted, dried, and laid aside in some secure 
place, free from dust or fumes of chemicals. 
When wanted for use, they may be cut of what- 
ever size may be required. 

THE SALTING SOLUTIONS. 

One quart of pure soft water. 

90 grains of liydrochlorate of ammonia, or common sal 
n.mmoniac. 

(Sal ammoniac is found to be the best preparation of salt, 
as it contains less impurities than any other known.) 

Dissolve and filter. 

Place this in a large flat dish, which may be of 
gutta-percha, earthenware, or porcelain, or even 
wood, if it is varnished thoroughly with gum-shel- 
lac varnish. The dish must be nearly tilled, and 
of sufficient dimensions to admit the whole sheet of 
paper if laid in it. 

The paper is to be immersed one sheet at a 
time, by laying hold of tlie sheet at two corners, 
and it must be drawn quickly through the solution 
twice, allowing the liquid to wet it as it may on 
the surface of the paper only, in effect to lay the 
solution of salt upon its surface without disturbing 
the fibres of the paper. 

Hang each sheet up separately to dry in a room 
free from dust or any chemical exiialations. The 



58 SILVERING THE PAPER. 

better plan of suspending paper, either in the salt- 
ing or silvering process, is to use the yjatent 
clothes-pins, which can be arranged on a cord 
across the room. Great care should be observed 
in salting the paper to avoid stains, spots, or wrin- 
kles. The hands should never touch any portion 
of the paper except the corners. The salted pa- 
pers can be laid aside, and will keep for a great 
length of time. 

SILVERING THE PAPER. 

The paper already salted and dried, to be sil- 
vered, may be effected by two or three methods. 

The ammonia nitrate solution, the preparation 
of which is described on page 95, is the one mostly 
in use, and one that will produce, with plain salted 
paper, the most pleasing results. 

The silver solution Mhich may be required for 
use at one time, is first filtered into a clean bottle, 
and the paper laid u^^on a flat surface, covered 
with paper or card-board, is to be fastened down 
by the corners with pins or any other article which 
will cause it to remain stationary. The silver so- 
lution is then poured on the middle of the paper, 
enough to cover it ; and with a ball of cotton just 
newly prepared, carefully spread the silver over 



PLAIN SILVER SOLUTION. 59 

the whole surface, by means of round lines or cir- 
cles, from the centre of the paper to the circum- 
ference. Tlio superfluous silver can be poured into 
a bottle, but not used again, as it is changed into 
a chloride of silver, owing to its contact with the 
salt of the paper. It may be reserved in the bot- 
tle, to mix with other silver solutions, that are use- 
less except for the restoration of the pure silver, as 
described on page 105. The same ball of cotton 
can be employed to silver all the papers that may 
be wanted at one time, if it is laid on a clean piece 
of paper, but a new one will be required for a sub- 
sequent preparation. 

Tlie silvered papers should be hung up to dry in 
,a dark room, and only enough prepared that may 
be wanted for immediate use. In the winter sea- 
son, however, they can be used for two or three 
days after preparation, if kept carefully excluded 
from the light, in a portfolio or drawer. 

PLAIN SILVER SOLUTION. 

This can be used with the prejjared chloride of 
sodium paper, sold by dealers in Photographic 
materials, and consists of dissolving 2^ ounces of 
nitrate of silver in twelve ounces of water. This 



60 TO PREPARR ALBUMEN PAPER, 

is also used for silvering the albumen paper, whicl 
is prepared as described on page 61. 

TKe chloride of sodium paper and tlie albumen 
paper is silvered by laying each sheet separately 
on the silver solution, contained in a flat dish, and 
allowing it to float for five minutes, care being ob- 
served that no air-bubbles collect under the paper. 

The silver solutions must always be filtered 
through cotton before applying them to the paper. 
It is only necessary to filter such quantity as may 
be wanted for immediate use. 

The bottles containino; the silver solutions should 
be blackened over with black asphaltum varnish, 
to exclude the light, and always kept as much as 
possible in a dark place. Papers maybe silvered 
in a light room, though not where the direct rays 
of the sun can Ml on them. 

TO PEEPAEE THE ALBUMEN PAPER. 

Take the whites of three or four fresh eggs, and 
beat them with a glass rod or flat piece of glass 
until the article l)ecomes of a frothy consistency. 
Remove the froth, and j)lace it in a cool place, and 
allow it to return to its liquid state again, in a 
long bottle. 

Pour off the clear portion of this, and add to 



SILVERING ALBUMEN PAPEE. 61 

every fluid ounce say from one to four ounces of 
water, according to the strength of albumen that 
is required. To each ounce of this fluid of albu- 
men and water, which will readily combine, add 
fifteen grains of hydrochlorate of ammonia : filter. 
For salting paper with albumen, it should be 
floated three or four minutes. Thin paper is gen- 
erally preferred for the purpose. 

SILVEEING ALBUMEX PAPER. 

Albumen paper must always be silvered with 
plain silver, of the proportions given on page 59. 
It must also be floated on the surface of the solu- 
tion for four or five minutes, never brushed in, as 
in the ammonia niti-ate process. 

After using this silver solution with the albumen 
paper, there will a milky appearance be observed, 
which can readily be removed by mixing a small 
quantity of kaolin or china-clay with the silver, 
and, before using it, filter it clear. 

If the proper manipulation is attended to in the 
use of the albumenized paper, the results will be 
far more pleasing than by the ammonia nitrate 
process. The trouble and time required, how- 
ever, is much greater in the former than in the 
latter. Therefore the ammonia nitrate is generally 

6 



62 PRINTING FROM NEGATIVES. 

adopted by the profession as more certain in its 
results. 

PEINTING FKOM NEGATIVES. 

The usual time required to print a picture from 
a good negative, under the most favorable circum- 
stances, is about four minutes. It is proper to 
state, however, what are the most favorable cir- 
cumstances. They are good paper, good silvering 
solution, and a clear sun-light, with all the neces- 
sary details of the practice carefully followed, as 
in the foregoing directions. 

Negatives may be printed with a subdued light, 
and printed well, as there are many cloudy days 
when the prints are wanted. Of course, the time 
of exposure must be prolonged, and even an hour 
may sometimes be required to produce the neces- 
sary depth of color on the paper. 

The color which is to be obtained on the print 
before it is ready to remove from the printing 
frame, is of considerable importance. The best 
prints are generally those which are left long 
enough to assume a depth of shade nearly the in- 
tensity that may be wanted when finished and 
dried, rather darker than the color desired, in or- 
der that the time occupied in the toning bath shall 



TONING OR FIXING THE PKINT. 68 

fix the color, to lighten the shades only in a slight 
degree, • 

Prints that are too dark on removal from the 
printing frame, can be rendered sufficiently light 
by a long action of the toning bath. But such 
prints will be the more likely to assume a yellow 
hue, and ultimately fade. The shortest time in the 
toning bath to produce the desired shade and color 
is recommended. Therefore prints should not gen- 
erally be overdone or over-printed when one toning 
bath is used. 

Tlie kind of j^rinting frames recommended are 
described on page 109. 

After the picture is removed from the printing 
frame, it must be carefully excluded from the light, 
by jjlacing it in a portfolio or drawer, or where no 
vapors can reach it. A number of prints may be 
jsrepared and laid aside, and all toned or fixed at 
once. 

TONING OR FIXING THE PRINT. 

The beautiful tone or color of the prints in their 
removal from the jDrinting frame, has been a sub- 
ject of remark by many operators, and various 
efforts have been made to preserve that most to be 
desired color, yet it lias never been accomplished. 



64: TONING OR FIXING THE PKINT. 

As soon as the fixing solution comes in contact 
with the paper, a great change takes phice, which 
does indeed arrest tlie progress of the light, but 
produces another and entirely diverse change. As 
the art j)rogresses, some devotee may luckily ar- 
rive at the discovery of fixing the exact tone and 
color seen on its removal from the printing frame. 
The first operation of toning the picture is to 
place it in a bath of clear water, in a dark room, 
of course, or in a salt solution of two or three 
ounces of salt to one quart of water. This removes 
all the chloride of silver not acted upon by the 
light. They should remain in the salted solution 
only a short time, say one or two minutes, then 
place them in a bath of pure water to remove the 
superfluous salt. This plan of first placing the 
print in a solution of common salt may be omitted. 
It may be placed immediately on removal from 
the frame into the toning bath, or it may be laid in 
a portfolio, and excluded entirely from the light 
for several hours, then placed in the toning bath. 
After which they may be brought out in the light 
and placed in the toning bath, as found on page 
94, and allowed to remain there until the desired 
color is attained, wliich will vary according to the 
strength of the bath and the depth of the print — 



WASHING POSITIVE PRINTS. 65 

generally from ten to thirty minutes for ordinary 
prints, yet sometimes one or two liom's are neces- 
sary. They must be carefully watched in the 
bath, and as soon as sufiicient time has elapsed to 
produce the desired tone, remove them to a bath 
of clear water. 

WASHIN'G POSITIVE PEI^TS. 

This portion of the photographic jDrocess is of 
great importance, for unless the prints are well 
washed, so as to remove every trace of hyposul- 
phite of soda, they will invariably fade or turn 
yellow. Various methods are adopted to remove 
the hyposulphite, but the plan most likely to in- 
sure that result is of course recommended. The 
longer the jjrints remain in the water, and the 
oftener they are changed, will of course more eft'ect- 
ually remove the destroying agent. Strange, in- 
deed, that the very substance, hyposulphite of soda, 
which adds so much beauty to the Photograpli, 
should be the very one to cause its destruction. 

The most expeditious method is to place the 
print on a piece of plate-glass, and allow a stream 
of water to fall upon it for a few minutes. Then 
press it between clean white blotting-paper, re- 
peating the operation two or three times. It has 

6* 



66 WASHING POSITIVE PRINTS. 

been found that tlie oftener the water is changed 
in the washing process, the more beautiful the 
tones of the prints. Nor slioukl they remain for 
any great length of time in one vessel of water. 
The better plan to adopt, when it is possible, is to 
place the prints in a flat dish or tub, where they 
will float, and where a constant stream of water 
is running in, and of course another stream dis- 
charging as fast as the supply is given. A very 
small stream will suSice. By the foregoing ar- 
rangements, all those spots and stains so frequently 
met with will be avoided. 

The washing of Photographs may sometimes be 
completed by placing them in a large vessel of 
water, and allowing them to remain for several 
hours. This can only be done after they have 
been first immersed in several changes of water, 
say five or ten minutes in each. Still another plan 
of removing the hyposulphite of soda is highly 
recommended in the immersion of the prints in 
wariti water. By changing it often M'ith cold 
water, and allowing it to remain for about an hour 
in warm water, it will most effectually remove the 
traces of the soda. Lastly, press each print be- 
tween two thick pieces of plate-glass, and hang 
them up to dry. 



MOUNTING THE PICTURE. 67 

All these various methods are adopted by the 
profession, and the successful operator will follow 
those most convenient of practice, carefully observ- 
ing, in order to produce excellent results, that the 
prints shall not remain more than ten minutes 
in the first or second bath of pure water, because 
the chemicals which pass into the water, and are 
so necessary to remove in order to fix the impres- 
sion permanently, are likely to injure the beauty 
and tone of the picture. 

DRYING, VARNISHING, AND MOUNTING THE 

PICTURE. 

The prints may be hung up in the clothes-pins 
to dry, but not in the sun. As soon as they are 
well dried, place them in a portfolio, or between 
leaves of white paper, and press them under some 
object, so that they shall not wrinkle. They are 
then ready for mounting and varnishing. 

The varnish for pictures is made as described 
on page 100, and may be laid on the picture before 
it is cut in the shape required, or it may be eflTected 
after it is on the card-board. 

A solution of dextrine, prepared as described on 
page 104, is the best for holding the print in its 
place ; yet simple gum-arabic will answer if it lias 



68 MOUNTING THE PICTURE. 

been thoroughly strained and cleared of all parti- 
cles of dust. 

Tlie shape of the print may be made by laying 
a mat or border over it of any desired size, then 
marking with a pencil, and afterwards cutting it 
carefully with the scissors. Or it may be laid on 
a piece of plate-glass, with the mat laid over it, 
and cutting it into shape with a sharp penknife. 

In pasting the print upon tlie card-board, great 
care must be observed that no wrinkles are allowed 
on the surface, as they will invariably injure the 
print. After the prints are pasted on the boards, 
they should be laid under a pressure, so that great 
smoothness of surface shall be attained. A warm 
flat-iron is sometimes used with good success, by 
laying a piece of white paper over each print, and 
carefnlly pressing it smooth. 



CHAPTER IV. 

TO COPY daguerreotypp:s and other pictures into 

PHOTOGRAPHS ON ENLARGING PICTURES TO EN- 
LARGE PICTURES FROM DAGUERREOTYPES, AMBRO- 
TYPES, OR PHOTOGRAPHS AND TO PRODUCE PHO- 
TOGRAPHS FROM THEM TO MAKE LIFE-SIZE PHOTO- 
GRAPHS ON PAPER IRON PHOTOGRAPHS, OR IN- 
STANTANEOUS PRINTING ON TAKING STEREOSCOPE 

PICTURES, PHOTOGRAPHIC VIEWS, ETC., ETC. 

The copying of Daguerreotypes into other Da- 
guerreotypes, lias long been in practice. Latterly 
they have been successfnlly copied into Ambro- 
types and Photographs. But Photography has 
gone still further, and life-size pictures are now 
produced which, wlien painted by the skilful art- 
ist, have rivalled the creations of most painters, 
both in the correctness and faithfulness of the like- 
ness, which must needs be intallible. 

The last great achievement of the Photographic 
Art, is the production of life-size, full-lengtli por- 



70 ENLAKGEMENT OF PICTURES. 

traits. This is accomplished by the means of the 
new solar camera, lately introduced, which bids 
fair to supersede all other methods of enlarging 
pictures. Those who may not possess the new solar 
camera, can adopt the following process, which 
will be found very useful and practical. 



TO ENLARGE PICTURES FROM DAGUERREOTYPES, 

AMBROTYPES, OR PHOTOGRAPHS— AND TO 

PRODUCE PHOTOGRAPHS FROM THEM. 

The following apparatus will be required for the 
process, viz. : 

One quarter-plate tube, and lens. 
One whole-plate camera box. 
One or two mirrors to be used as reflectors. 
One camera box, capable of holding a glass 14 by 17 
inches. 

The pictures or portraits more frequently re- 
quired to be enlarged are the ordinary Daguerreo- 
types, from the fact that these are the kind of por- 
traiture the longest in use. Many are desirous of 
obtaining portraits of their deceased friends, life- 
size, and the demand for that class of pictures is 
consequently greater than any other. 

The plan more easily adopted, is first to take a 
negative from the Daguerreotype of the ordinary 



p;nlargement of pictures. 71 

half or wliole plate size, which is effected by the 
use of a quarter-plate tube on a whole-size camera 
box. Place the picture to be enlarged, whether it 
be a Daguerreotype, Anibrotype, or Photograph, 
in the direct rays of the sun, or by reflecting the 
sun upon it with a mirror, then bringing the 
camera box as near the picture as will be required 
to produce the desired size ; the focus being taken, 
a negative can easily be obtained by exposure of 
thirty seconds to a minute and a half. The nega- 
tive should be as large as possible if on a half- 
plate, in order that it may be enlarged to life size 
by the next operation. 

From the print now obtained, which must be 
first pasted on a card-board, another negative can 
be produced, either of the cabinet or life size, with 
the quarter tube attached to the camera box, which 
must be capable of holding glasses of 11 by Itt 
inches, and 14 by 17. Place the pictures in the 
direct rays of the sun, or use a reflector as before, 
and any size may be taken, up to the size of life, — 
showing, of course, only the head and shoulders. 

The print from this negative M'ill not be so dis- 
tinct in the outline as though it was taken from 
life ; yet it will retain all the outline and suflicient 
of the details for all purposes of painting, and it 



72 ENLARGEMENT OF PICTURES. 

may be printed either upon paper or canvas with 
the same facility as ordinary Photographic jjrint- 
ing. 

In order to insure a more perfect negative, it 
may sometimes become necessary to use more than 
one mirror as a reflector of the sun's rays upon the 
surface of the picture. The more powerful the re- 
flection the more distinct will be the negative. 
Tlie re-developing with bi-chloride of mercury, as 
given on page 92, is highly recommended in this 
process. 

A negative may be taken without the direct 
rays of the sun from any picture; but, in enlarg- 
ing, the i)owerful light of the sun is deemed al- 
most indispensable, as it greatly facilitates the pro- 
cess, and renders the time required much shorter, 
and secures a more intense and definite neo-ative. 

Should the Daguerreotype be an imperfect one, 
as is frequently tlie case, of course all the imper- 
fections will be magnified, yet they can be entirely 
removed by the skill of the painter. 

The usual time required for taking the negative, 
life-size, will vary from a minute to ten minutes. 
In consequence of the large size and the long dis- 
tance of the ground glass from the lenses, the time 
of exposure in the camera is greatly augmented. 



IRON PHOTOGRAPHS. 73 



IRON" PHOTOGRAPHS, OR INSTANTANEOUS PRINT- 
ING OF NEGATIVES WITH A DEVELOPER. 

A process has lately been introduced for print- 
ing negatives, with the use of a preparation of 
iron : hence the name Iron Photographs. This 
process, liowever, is a revival of an old one. It 
will be found very useful on many occasions, 
when expedition is required, as a negative may 
be taken and the positive picture printed, washed, 
toned, and dried in the same time as an ordinary 
Ambrotype. The process is as follows : 

Water 1 pint. 

Citric acid 1 ounce. 

Ammonia citrate of iron . . . 1 ounce. 
Concentrated ammonia . . .1 ounce. 

Mix these ingredients, and filter, and keep in a 
glass-stoppered bottle, excluded from the light of 
day. 

Apply this solution with a flat camel's-hair brush 
on one side only of the photographic paper, care- 
fully laying it on even by brushing it in both di- 
rections. Then hang it up to dry in a dark room. 
When dry, it may be cut ijito suitable sizes for 
printing, and kept in a portfolio. The paper will 
assume a yellow color. Print with the ordinary 

7 



74: THE TONING BATH. 

printing frames, but only for a short time, until the 
faint outlines appear. Remove from the printing 
frame, and apply the developing solution either by 
immersing in a flat dish, or pouring it on the pa- 
per after laying it upon glass. 

THE DEVELOPING SOLUTIOK 

Nitrate of silver . . . . j ounce. 

Water 1 pint. 

Aqua ammonia ...... | ounce. 

Filter the solution, and use over again. 

THE TOXING BATH. 

Hyposulphite of soda .... 1 ounce. 

Water 1 pint. 

Nitro-muriatic acid . . . .10 drops. 

"Wash the print well after developing, and place 
it in this toning bath for a short time, and the color 
will be changed from the deep reddish hue that 
it has assumed by the developer, to a purple color. 

The print must now be washed quickly in three 
or four waters, and placed between sheets of blot- 
ting-paper, and dried by the spirit-lamp. Should 
the tone not be desirable, a modification of the 
toning bath may be made by changing the propor- 
tions of hyposulphite and the addition of chloride 
uf gold. The tone maybe improved snmetimes bv 



THE STEREOSCOPE. 75 

exposure of the print for a few seconds to the di- 
rect rays of the snn. The addition of a saturated 
solution of gallic acid to the developer, in small 
quantities, will change the tone ; but it cannot be 
used over again. Therefore only mix enough for 
each print as it may be required for use. 

The sepia tone may be given these prints by 
omitting the hyposulphite bath entirely, merely 
washing them in water thoroughly after develop- 
ing, but they will be more liable to fade. 

Photographs by this new process may be printed 
from a weak negative, and even an ambrotype im- 
pression will answer. The tone of the prints will 
not be equal to those printed by the old process ; 
but sometimes expedition may be required, and 
Photographs can be taken and finished as soon as 
Daguerreotypes or Ambrotypes. 

THE STEREOSCOPE. 
Stereoscope pictures are considered by some 
operators as the most valued of the productions ot 
the Photographic Art. If they are properly exe- 
cuted, they are indeed the most curious and in- 
structive of any branch of Photography, though 
they have not received that attention in this coun- 
try which they have merited, — mainly, however. 



76 THE STEREOSCOPE. 

from the fact that few operators have devoted much 
attention to their production. The most pleasing 
are Photograph views. 

The stereoscope is an instrument invented by 
Prof. Wheatstone, for combining two slightly dis- 
similar images, so that out of two flat pictures one 
apparently real or solid object is produced — having 
all the projections, concavatures, and other pecu- 
liarities of the object itself, and standing out in all 
the strength and solidity of an actual tangible ob- 
ject. 

Tlie reason why two flat images should produce 
the effect of solidity, and a slight consideration of 
the best means of producing these flat pictures, so 
that they shall produce in the most proper manner 
this extraordinary result, will now be given. 

Ordinary vision may be considered under the 
two heads of Monocular, or vision by one eye, and 
Binocular, or vision by two eyes. If we look 
through a telescope, microscope, or single opera- 
glass, or close one eye, we have monocular vision ; 
and by using two eyes, or spectacles, or double 
opera-glasses, we have binocular vision. 

Let us first consider monocular vision. If we 
close one eye and look at objects, we perceive them 
by their forms, sizes, colors, and gradations of light 



TIIK STEREOSCOPE. 77 

and shade ; and reason and experience tell us that 
these appearances vary as the objects are near or 
distant from us. We find that as objects recede 
they become smaller, apparently, in size, and this 
decrease in size is according to fixed laws, upon 
which perspective is based. We also observe that 
light and shade are less marked, the colors less 
brilliant, the details less clear, and the whole of 
the objects less distinct; and according to these 
changes do we estimate relative distances. Upon 
this principle the artist, in his landscape, paints his 
distant objects small, vague, and indistinct, while 
the foreground is brought out strongly with abun- 
dance t)f detail; and in proportion as this is done 
skilfully, we admire it as an imitation of nature. 
There is, also, another means of judging of distance. 
The eye, like other optical instruments, has con- 
stantly to change its focus, according to distances 
to which it is directed, and this change of focus is 
another means of estimating distance. 

Stereoscopic pictures may be taken either with 
one or two cameras. If the object be still-life, a 
statue, or edifice, then one camera will do better 
than two, for you may set the camera at any point 
and work away until you produce a satisfactory 
impression. Having o])tained that, move the 



78 oTHE STEREOSCOPE. 

camera to the other point of view, and again work 
until you have achieved your object. But if you 
should have a picture of living objects to take, it 
is very desirable to produce the two pictures simul- 
taneously by two cameras ; for taking a view of a 
street, for instance, where figures are accidentally 
introduced, you might have them in one picture 
and not in the other, or misplaced, unless you ob- 
tained both pictures at the same time. But for 
portraits, though it is desirable to take both im- 
pressions at once, it is not necessary. And now 
comes the important inquiry, how far removed 
should the cameras be from each other in order to 
produce the best effect ? or, in other words, how 
wide should the stereoscopic angle be ? This is a 
question often put, but not so easily answered. 
Strictly speaking, the natural standard may easily 
be cited, and an answer based on it be given. The 
eyes are 2j inches apart, and as each camera is to 
represent an eye, the centres of tlie two lenses 
should never be more than that separated. This is 
the strict theoretical doctrine laid down by Sir D. 
Brewster, nevertheless it is very seldom adopted in 
practice. It has been stated, tliat the more dis- 
similar the two stereoscopic images are, the greater 
the relief, ISTow, dissimilarity of image is obtained 



PHOTOGRAPH VIKWS. 79 

by widening tlie distance between the two came- 
ras, and the greater the width or angle the greater 
tlie relief. As the stereoscope is chiefly valued 
for the production of this relief, the generality of 
stereoscopic pictures have been and are taken at 
too wide an ano-le, so that monstrous instead of 
natural relief is the result. If two pictures are 
taken at the same angle, no relief is obtained but 
that which is due to the magnifying power of the 
lenses. Increase the angle a little, and still greater 
relief is jiroduced ; increase the angle still more, 
and so on until you have passed the angle that 
produces natural relief, and reached that wdiich 
produces monstrosity. 

ISTearly all stereoscopes will have more or less 
of imperfection in the detail, owing to the fact that 
no two pair of eyes view the same pictures in the 
same focus. Hence we And some persons who 
cannot see the stereoscope pictures at all. 

PHOTOGRAPH VIEAYS. 

Yiews b}^ the Photographic process are attract- 
ing the attention of the artists in this country, and 
deservedly so. They are easily taken, because an 
ample supply of light is always obtained. Tlie 
only objection is the necessity of transporting the 



80 PHOTOGRAPH VIRWS. 

various solutions to the localities where the view 
is to be taken. This difficulty is overcome by the 
new dry processes which have been published 
lately. The albumen process on paj)er, page 61, 
is highly recommended for views, as the tone of 
those pictures is more appropriate for this style of 
Photographs. 

It is not necessary here to enter into the details-, 
of the processes. Suffice it to say, that the same 
collodions are to be used, and the same developers, 
as in the process for taking portraits. The lenses 
of the ordinary camera, however, must be changed 
to convert it into a view camera. It is done 
simply by removing entirely the set of lenses in 
the rear of the tube, and placing the front lens in 
their stead, and reversing them. It will also be 
necessary to put a diaphragm, with a very small 
opening, in front of the tube, or near the location 
of the front lens. The time of exposure required 
in the camera with a small diaphragm, will neces- 
sarily be somewhat extended in order to produce 
vigorous negatives. The use of the diaphragm is 
absolutely necessary in order to correct the perspec- 
tive of near and distant objects. Also to cut ofi*a 
portion of the diffused light, which would other- 
wise injure the negative. 



CHAPTER V. 

ON THE PREPARATION OF NE;GATIVE COLLODIONS 

THE FORMULA FOR NEGATIVE COLLODIONS MIXING 

VARIOUS COLLODIONS DISSOLVING THE IODIDES 

DOUBLE IODIDE COLLODIONS THE CELEBRATED GER- 
MAN PROCESS COMPLETE THE NEGATIVE DEVEL- 
OPING SOLUTIONS RE-DEVELOPING PROCESS BI- 
CHLORIDE OF MERCURY AS A RE-DEVELOPER FIXING 

SOLUTION THE TONING BATHS — THE AMMONIA NI- 
TRATE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 

This chapter will be devoted to careful and de- 
tailed formulae for the preparation of the negative 
collodions, the developing solutions, and including 
all the various receipts necessary to be well under- 
stood in the practice of the Photographic Art. 

Indeed, this chapter will assume one most en- 
tirely of reference, and, as will be seen, it must 
frequently require mention in other portions of 
this work. 



82 CADMIUM COLLODION. 

NEGATIVE COLLODIONS. 

For the preparation of negative collodions, we 
shall only give the proportions. The manner of 
dissolving the sensitive chemicals will generally 
be left to the judgment and experience of the 
operator, 

THE AMMONIA COLLODION. 

No. 1. Plain collodion ... 1 ounce. 
Iodide of ammonia ... 6 grains. 
Bromide of ammonia . . 3 grains. 

With the nitrate of silver bath neutral, and of a 
strength of 50 grains of silver to each ounce of 
water. 

CADMIUM COLLODION. 

No. 2. Plain collodion ... 1 ounce. 
Iodide of cadmium . . 7 gi'ains. 

Bi-omide of cadmium . . 3 grains. 

Nitrate bath 50 grains to the ounce. 

This collodion is greatly in use in warm climates. 

No. 3. Plain collodion ... 1 ounce. 
Iodide of potassium . . 8 grains. 

Bromide of ammonia . . 3 grains. 

Bath of 40 grains to the ounce. 
This collodion is highly recommended for nega- 
tives when combined equally with the ammonia 



THE COMPOUND CADMIUM COLLODION. 83 

collodion JSTo. 1. It will be found to work in some 
baths when no other collodion will succeed. It 
may be used also for Ambrotypes. 

The practice of the most successful operators has 
taught them that the mixino; of two collodions of 
diverse proportions, and made of different chemi- 
cals, will be found the most useful, and work with 
more certainty. The author himself would, there- 
fore, enjoin this hint upon those who may practice 
from the foregoing formulae. 

THE COMPOUND CADMIUM COLLODION. 

No. 4. Plain collodion ... 1 ounce. 

6 grains. 



Iodide of cadmium 
Bromide of cadmium 
Iodide of potassium 
Tincture of iodine . 



3 grains. 
5 grains. 
5 drops. 



Nitrate bath of 50 grains to the ounce. The 
bath to be iodized witli iodide of cadmium. 

Dissolve tlie iodide of jjotassium in water, and 
the cadmium in alcohol. 

The foregoing collodion is the one highly recom- 
mended for use, especially in warm latitudes. It 
is the most durable, and it improves by age, re- 
taining its working qualities for several mpnths. 
The author has adopted the cadmium collodion, in 
many instances w^ith great success, especially when 



84 DOUBLE-IUDIZKD COLLODION. 

it is combined in eqnal parts with the ammonia 
collodion No. 1. 

To unite the sensitive ingredients with all collo- 
dions, it is recommended to dissolve them first in 
a small quantity of alcohol when they are soluble 
in that substance, and only use water when they 
will not otherwise dissolve. Always dissolve the 
bromides first, and add the iodides to the same 
solution. The iodide of ammonia and bromide of 
ammonia will dissolve in alcohol if a small quan- 
tity of water is added. Iodide and bromide of 
cadmium will dissolve readily in alcohol alone. 

A DOUBLE-IODIZED COLLODIOK 

The following formula is compounded in a dif- 
ferent manner from any other, and is one that is 
highly recommended. Prepare two bottles of col- 
lodion separately, as follows 



No. 1. Plain collodion 

Bromide of potassium 
Iodide of potassium. 

Ko, 2. Plain collodion 

Iodide of ammonia 
Iodide of cadmium 



1 ounce. 

5 grains. ) Dissolved 

8 grains. ) in water. 



5 grains.) 
3 grains. ) 



Dissolved 
grains. S in water. 



'No. 1 will produce clear negatives, and perhaps 
rather weak. No. 2 will produce one very intense. 



TO SKNSITIZK THE COLLODION. 85 

But mix these two collodions in equal proportions 
after they have well settled, and the most perfect 
half-tints are obtained. Should it be desirable to 
produce a negative of more intensity, use a larger 
proportion of No. 2. In like manner, if a mixture 
of equal proportions produces too much intensity, 
then increase tlie quantity of No. 1. 

It will be found on using the two collodions 
above, separately, that as one will produce a weak 
negative, and the other a deep one, they can be so 
modified by uniting them in the proper proportions, 
that any degree of intensity may be obtained. 

THE GERMAN PROCESS. 

The following method of preparing negative col- 
lodion has been found to be very excellent in its 
results, and is known as the German process, so 
modified and rendered practical that any operator 
can work it successfully. 

The plain collodion is to be made with 10 ounces 
of ether and 5 of alcohol, rendered of the requisite 
consistency by the addition of gun-cotton. 

TO SENSITIZE THE COLLODION. 

Nitrate of silver dis-!olved in water . 50 grains. 
Iodide of ammonia dissolved in water 40 grains. 

Mix the two solutions, and wash the precii^itate 

8 



86 NITRATE BATH. 

* 

in several waters ; lastl}^, wash in alcohol. Then 
make the following compound : 

Alcohol at 95° . . . 2 fluid ouQces. 

Iodide of ammonia . . 100 grains. 

Bromide of ammonia . . 40 grains. 

When dissolved, add the iodide of silver, and 
agitate the whole for several minutes ; -then filter 
through common filtering-paper, and add the liquid 
to 20 ounces plain collodion; agitate the collodion 
for a short time, and add to it as follows : 

Fluoride of ammonia ... 40 drops. 

Tincture of iodine .... 10 drops. 

This iodized collodion may be used in 12 hours, 
but is much improved by standing 3 or 4 days. 
The tincture of iodine used in the collodion is 
simply a saturated solution of alcohol at 95°, with 
pure crystals of iodine. 

NITRATE BATH. 

Distilled water .... 56 fluid oz. 

Nitrate of silver . . . 4i oz. by weight. 

Dissolve the silver in 8 oz. of the 56 oz. of water. 

Then add iodide of aTumonia . 10 grains. 

"White sugar or rock-candy . 120 grains. 

"When dissolved, add the remainder of the water, 
and in this condition let the bath stand 12 hours; 



KE-DEVELOPINQ. 87 

then filter through common filtering-paper, add 
30 drops glacial acetic acid, and it is fit for use. 

DEVELOPING SOLUTION FOR NEGATIVES. 

Pure soft watei- . . . .16 ounces. 

Sulphate of iron .... 1 ounce. 

Alcohol at 95° .... 1 ounce. 

Acetic jfcid, No. 8 . . , . 2 ounces. 

First dissolve the iron, then add the remaininof 
properties, and when filtered it is ready for use. 

FIXING SOLUTION. • 

This is simply an}'- quantity of water saturated 
with hyposulphite of soda. 

PvE-DEVELOPING. 
The negative is re-developed after it has been 
cleared up. Make a saturated solution of gallic 
acid in distilled water 1 ounce, then add 30 drops 
of the folio win o; solution : 



C5 



Distilled water .... 1 ounce. 

Nitrate of silver .... 35 grains. 

When this solution is filtered, it may be used as 
follows :— After the negative has been fixed and 
washed, pour on it of the re-developing solution a 
quantity sufficient to cover the plate, and keep it 



88 NEGATIVE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS. 

on until tlie required intensity is obtained, then 
wash with water and dry. In developing and re- 
developing, the solutions must be kept gently and 
constantly moving on the plate ; for if allowed to 
stand still, or to remain for any length of time on 
one portion of the plate more than on other parts, 
the plate is liable to lines or streaks. -^ 

This re-developing process is not recommended, 
and if the collodion and bath are properly made, 
need never be adopted except it may be in dark 
weather, or when a child's likeness is taken. For 
it will always be found that the resulting negative 
is never so well adapted for printing. There- 
fore, as soon as one finds that he cannot pro- 
cure negatives sufficiently intense in an ordinary 
exposure without re-developing, he may be assured 
there is some portion of his chemicals at fault. 
The first opportunity should be embraced to reme- 
dy the difficulty : first, by changing the nature of 
the nitrate bath, then the collodion and developing 
agent. ^ 

THE NEGATIVE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS. 
The developing solutions which are required for 
the negative pictures are not very numerous. The 
one mostly in use is composed of protosulphite of 



NEGATIVE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS. 89 

iron and acetic acid. With this alone, and the 
various modifications, all the different varieties of 
negatives are produced in this country. In Europe 
the developing solutions mostly in use are com- 
posed of pyrogallic acid. 

The developing process must be thoroughly un- 
derstood before good results can be obtained. 
And, firs|, the nature of the collodion and the ni- 
trate bath must be known in order to form the de- 
veloper so as to produce the best results wnth that 
combination. The following formula will be the 
best adapted for working the neutral bath of 50 
grains to the ounce, with the ammonia or cadmium 
collodion, as prepared on page 82. 

Protosulphite of iron ... 2 ounces. 

Water 1 quart. 

Acetic acid, ISTo. 8 .... 6 ounces. 

The iron is first dissolved in the water and fil- 
tered, and the acetic acid is added in the above 
proportions, but only as it may be required for 
use. It will not develop properly if mixed and al- 
lowed to remain for several hours. It may some- 
times require a small quantity of alcohol to cause 
the solution to flow evenly over the plate. But the 
■addition of flic alcohol lessens the intensity of the 
picture, therefore it is best to avoid its introduction 

8* 



90 EK'DRVELOPING TROCKSS. 

as much as possible. Indeed, its use lias been aban- 
doned by good operators. 

By increasing the quantity of iron, the develop- 
ing process proceeds more i-apidly, and by lessen- 
ing the quantity of acetic acid it is modified. 

In order, therefore, to ascertain the requisite 
quantity of each ingredient that may be necessary 
for the particular combinations of collodions and 
baths, it will be proper to vary the projDortions of 
iron and acetic acid. By a few changes in the 
proportions, and a few trials, nearly all varieties of 
collodion may be made to produce a good negative, 
if the bath is of the requisite strength and all other 
due proportions are observed. 

There will, however, be found another formula 
for re developing negatives on page 91, which is 
given in addition to the foregoing mainly with a 
view to enable any person to obtain an intense 
negative, even if theii' chemicals are not properly 
combined. 



RE-DEVELOPING PROCESS. 

Frequently the negatives, after being developed 
by the foregoing solutions, will not assume that 
degree of intensity that is desired. They may still 



KE-DEVELOPING PROCESS. 91 

be made more intense by continning the process 
of developing in the following manner : 
Prepare two solutions as follows, viz. : 

No. 1. "Water 8 ouuces. 

Protosulphite of iron . . 2 ounces. 

Dissolve the iron and filter. 

The second solution is as follows : 

No. 2. Nitrate of silver . . . ^ ounce. 
Water ..... 8 ounces. 

The re-developing is attended with some diffi- 
culty, as there is great danger in producing lines 
or streaks on the negative. 

The following cautions must be observed : — Af- 
ter the first process of developing, wash carefully 
with a large quantity of water, still keeping the 
plate in the dark room upon the levelling-stand, or 
in the hand, and pour over its snrface enough of 
the solution No. 1 to nearly cover it ; then quickly 
pour enough of No. 2 to mix with it npon the 
plate, which must have a little motion in order to 
flow over the whole j)late as quickly as possible. It 
will be seen that no perceptible action takes place 
on the application of the iron solution ; but as soon 
as the silver is added, a quick and energetic action 
commences, and the intensity is increased to any 



92 BICTILORIDK OF MKRCURY. 

desired depth. Great care must be observed not 
to continue this process too far, as the negative will 
become too intense, and full of lines and streaks. 
As soon as sufficient intensity is produced, wash 
quickly with water all traces of the developer. 

BICHLORIDE OF MERCURY AS A RE- 
DEVELOPER. 

Make a saturated solution of bichloride of mer- 
cury, and always have it in readiness in a glass- 
stoppered bottle. 

This can be used with great success in copying 
Daguerreotypes or Ambrotypes into negatives. 
The solution must be reduced considerably from 
the full strength of the saturated solution, but only 
the quantity required for use. The exact amount 
of dilution will depend upon the strength of the 
negative after it is developed by the protosnlphite 
of iron developer. The plate is first developed in 
the usual manner as soon as it is removed from the 
camei'a, then carefully washed, and, before the 
light has fallen ujxjn it, a weak solution of the bi- 
chloride of mercury is poured quickly over it. It 
will assume a deeper intensity immediately ; and 
when sufficiently so, it is to be washed and fixed 
in the hyposulphite in the usual manner. All 



FIXING SOLUTION. 93 

negatives, rendered intense by the application of 
bichloride of mercury, will assume a deep bluish- 
black color, which can be modified by changing 
the strength of this re-developing agent. 

FIXING SOLUTION". 

This is always a saturated solution of hyposul- 
phite of soda. 

The plate is to be thoroughly washed with water 
after developing, and laid carefully in a flat dish 
containing the hyposulphite of soda ; and as soon 
as the iodide of silver is dissolved from the sur- 
face, which may be known by its becoming clear 
from that milky appearance, it must then be im- 
mediately washed entirely free from the least traces 
of soda. 

Then dried — or it may be varnished before 
drying, with a solution of gum-arabic, of the con- 
sistency of collodion which has been strained. Of 
course, the gum-arabic is to be poured over the 
surface in the same manner as collodion. 

TONING BATHS. 

The most useful and practical toning bath for 
paper, prepared with the ammonia nitrate of silver 
solution, is composed as follows : 



94 TONING BATHS. 

"Water 1 quart. 

Nitrate of silver .... 60 grains. 
Chloride of gold .... 60 grains. 

Or four bottles of the ordinary chloride of gold. 
Hyposulphite of soda . . . 2 ounces. 

In preparing the foregoing bath, the following 
method should be adopted to insure the most com- 
plete success. 

Dissolve the hyposulphite of soda in about four 
or six ounces of the water taken from the quart,_ 
and the chloride of gold in about four ounces ot 
water, in separate bottles. Convert the 60 grains 
of nitrate of silver into the chloride of silver, by 
dissolving it first in three or four ounces of water, 
to which add 60 grains of common salt. Wash 
the precipitate in water three or four times, then 
pour off all the water, leaving the M^hite precipitate, 
which is the pure chloride of silver. Now pour 
this solution of chloride of silver and hyposulphite 
into the remaining portion of the water, and add 
the chloride of gold in solution to it. It will as- 
sume at first a wine color, and may appear of a 
darker hue in a few moments. It is now ready to 
receive the printed picture from the printing 
frame, or it may be first immersed in salt and 
water, as described on page 64:. 

This toning bath is intended only for paper salted 



AMMONIA NITRATE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 95 

in the manner described on page 57, and silvered 
with tlie ammonia nitrate of silver solution, as de- 
scribed below. When not in use, it shonld be 
kept from the light in a glass-stoppered bottle. 
This bath, when once prepared in the foregoing 
manner, will improve by age and use, for the im- 
mersion of every print tends to increase the quan- 
tity of chloride of silver. A bottle of chloride ot 
gold must be added occasionally, dissolved in six 
or eight ounces of water. 

PREPARATION" OF THE AMMONIA NITRATE OF 
SILVER SOLUTION". 

Nitrate of silver 2 ounces. 

Distilled water 1 pint. 

Dissolve the silver in the pint of water, and pour 
out about two ounces into a separate bottle for 
future use. 

Now add of strong concentrated aqua ammonia, 
a few droj)S at a time, to the fourteen ounces solu- 
tion of silver and water. A dark brown precipi- 
tate is formed at first, which must be stirred with 
a glass rod, or, if in a bottle, it may be shaken. 
Continue to add more of the aqua ammonia, and 
stir tlie solution until it remains perfectly clear. 
Then add the two ounces which were reserved for 



96 AMMONIA NITRATE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 

use, as referred to above. This will cause the 
solution to be slightly turbid, which can be filtered 
perfectly clear, and it is then ready for use. This 
preparation must be kept entirely excluded from 
the light of day. 

This solution must be filtered, and only in sufli- 
cient quantity for immediate use. 

A more sensitive preparation may be made by 
adding to the above about six drops of nitric acid. 



CHAPTER VI. 

DETAILS OF THE VARIOUS RECIPES IN THE PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC PROCESS QUICK METHOD OF SILVERING 

AND PRINTING PAPER BEST METHOD OF SALTING 

PAPER TEST FOR GOOD COLLODION OR GUN-COTTON 

VARNISH FOR POSITIVES ON PAPER INSTAN- 
TANEOUS PRINTING PROCESS NEW METHOD OF VAR- 
NISHING POSITIVES TO RESTORE PRINTS THAT 

HAVE CHANGED COLOR CLEANING GLASS PLATES 

TO VARNISH NEGATIVES DEXTRINE PASTE FOR 

MOUNTING PHOTOGRAPHS GUM-ARABIC AND GELA- 
TINE TO RESTORE SILVER FROM OLD SOLUTIONS 

TO REMOVE WATER FROM COLLODION, AND TO 

PURIFY IT TEST OF HYPOSULPHITE OF SILVER IN 

POSITFt'E PRINTS PRINTING VARIOUS BACKGROUNDS. 

This chapter will be devoted to the variety of 
practice in the Photographic Art. Many recipes 
will be given of tlie various forms of operating. 
Many will be found useful, and it is trusted that 
none will omit to note down the variety here be- 

9 



98 A QUICK METHOD OF SILVERING PAPER. 

cause they number so many. These must neees 
sarily be given promiscuously, from the fact that 
no process here written has any peculiar relation 
to another. 

AN EXPEDITIOUS METHOD OF SILVERING PAPER 
AND PRINTING THE SAME. 

Employ the ammonia nitrate of silver, the usual 
strength, and fasten the paper already salted upon 
a flat piece of board, by means of a pin or small 
nail, at each corner. Then, with a ball of clean 
cotton dijjped in a solution of silver jnst filtered, 
and placed in an open flat dish, carefully rub the 
paper in all directions. Then dry it quickly by a 
fire in the usual daylight. As soon as it is dry, 
place it immediately in the printing frame, and 
expose to the sun's rays. This will insure a picture 
with very little delay ; and if proper care has been 
observed in the operation, very excellent results 
may be obtained. Many successful artists have 
adopted the foregoing process with marked success. 

THE BEST ilETHOD OF SALTING PHOTOGRAPHIC 

PAPER. 

Always use the hydrochlorate of ammonia (sal 
ammoniac) in salting paper, and never over 90 



TEST FOK GOOD COLLODION OR GUN-COTTON. 99 

grains to the quart of water. A larger quantity 
impairs the tone. 

This j)reparation of sodium lias been found to 
produce the best results, from the fact that it is in 
a purer state than any other known forms of salt. 
Hence it should take the preference of all others 
in the salting process. 

The addition of gelatine to the salting solution 
is strongly recommended, say about one grain to 
every ounce of water. The gelatine should be of 
the purest quality, and it should first be dissolved 
in warm water, and added to the salting soUition, 
which itself must be warmed if in the winter 
season. 

Always filter the salting solution, so as to avoid 
any spots of dust or foreign substances that may 
collect in the dish. 

TEST FOR GOOD COLLODIOI^ OR GUN-COTTON. 
There is a sure test, and one that it is well to 
remember and apply, in making collodion. After 
the gun-cotton is well dissolved in the ether and 
alcohol, and of the requisite thickness, pour a 
small quantity of the plain collodion on a piece oi 
glass, allowing it to drain off in the same manner 
as in coating the plate with sensitized collodion. 



100 VARNISH FOR POSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

If the glass appears perfectly clear and transparent 
after it is dried and held up to transmitted liglit, 
it may be used for working collodion ; but if there 
should appear any milkiness or opacity on the sur- 
face of the glass, there is a fault of the gun-cotton 
or the alcohol or ether. Unless a perfect, clear, 
and transparent film is obtained, the collodion, 
when properly sensitized, will not furnish good re- 
sults. The addition of a small quantity of alcohol 
will sometimes remedy the defect. 

YARNISH FOR POSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHS ON 

PAPER. 

The best varnish for paper pictures is undoubt 
edly gum-arabic and gelatine. 

The gum-arabic must be allowed to dissolve 
thoroughly, then with warm water dissolve the 
gelatine, using only a small quantity. The propor- 
tions are as follows : 

Gum-arabic dissolved, and about the con- 
sistency of collodion .... 1 ounce. 
Gelatine 2 drachms. 

Dissolve and filter through a cloth every time 
before using. To be laid on with a flat brush 
made of hogs' bristles. 



INSTANTANEOUS PRINTING PEOCESS. 101 



INSTAJTTAXEOUS PRIJ^TIKG PROCESS. 

In dark, cloudy weather, or in winter, it is 
sometimes desirable to print positives, and the fol- 
lowing method will be found to be useful, as pic- 
tures can be produced in the least portion of day- 
light. It is as follows : — Float the papers each for 
five minutes in a solution of bichloride of mercury, 
prepared as follows : 

Saturated solution of bichloride of mercury 6 drachms. 
"Water 1 pint. 

Silver it in a j^lain silver solution, 40 grains to 
the ounce of water. But it must be so done in a 
dark room, and the lamp carefull}^ screened by 
means of a yellow glass. Expose only for about 
two to ten seconds in summer, and .not more than 
a minute ^n winter, and then in a very subdued 
light. Of course the paper must be jjlaced in the 
printing frame in a darkened room, and the frame 
itself carefully excluded from the light during the 
operation, except the time required to make the 
impression. Remove the picture still in the dark 
room, when it will appear very feeble, but it is 
seen to be developed by means of a solution of 
sulphate of iron, as follows : 

9* 



102 TO EESTOEE FEINTS. 

Sulphate of iron . . " . 

"Water 1 pint. 

Glacial acetic acid . . . . ^ ounce. 

Develop until the picture is of the required 
depth of color, then wash, and immediately fix with 
hyposulphite of soda ; and finally, carefully wash, 
as in the ordinary process. 

NEW METHOD OF VARNISHING POSITIVE PHO- 
TOGRAPHS ON PAPER. 

Dissolve by a slow heat two ounces of white 
wax and add two ounces of common Venice tur- 
pentine, and stir the mixture well. This, when 
cool, will be of the consistency of paste. After 
the Photographs are dried, spread this paste even- 
ly over the surface with a brush, and rub it with 
a piece of woollen flannel ; hang it up to dry in a 
warm room for six or twelve hours. The smell of 
the turpentine soon leaves the print, an<!l when dry 
it may be rubbed hard with dry flannel until a 
fine polish is obtained. This process of varnish- 
ing Photographs not only greatly improves them, 
but also preserves them from liability to fade. 

TO RESTORE PRINTS THAT HAVE CHANGED 

COLOR. 

Wash the print well, and immerse it in a solu- 
tion prepared as follows : 



CLEANING GLASS PLATES. 103 

Water 1 quart. 

Saturated solution of the bichloride of) on dron- 
mercury ia muriatic acid . . . } 

Remove tlie picture as soon as the desired pur- 
ple tone is attained, then carefully wash it in sev- 
eral waters, and dry. Prints that are greatly 
faded may be restored by this process equal to 
new. 

CLEANING GLASS PLATES. 

Some operators experience much difficulty in 
cleaning the glass plates for negatives. It is a 
matter which to some is no difficulty, and there- 
fore not much attention is paid to it by those who 
work successfully. In order to feel perfectly sure 
that the plates are cleaned, they may be first im- 
mersed in a solution composed as follows : 

Water .... 1 pint. 

Cyanide of potassium . ^ ounce or 120 grains. 

Carbonate of potassium . 240 grains. 

By placing all new glasses in this solution for a 
few minutes all traces of grease or fatty substances 
are removed. They can then be washed, dried, 
and cleaned with alcohol in the usual manner. 
Glasses that have been used may be more readily 
cleaned by first laying them in water in order to 
remove the collodion. Then immerse them in 



104 GUM-AKABIC AND GELATINE. 

the foregoing solution, wash, diy, and clean as 
usual. 

TO VAENISH NEGATIVES. 

ISTegatives may be varnished with the common 
white negative varnish, or the diamond varnish, 
sold by all the dealers in photographic materials. 

t 

DEXTEINE PASTE FOR MOUNTING PHOTO- 
GRAPHS. 

The article known as dextrine is the best in use 

for pasting Photographs on card-board, from the 

fact that it is not so liable to cause them to fade. 

It is made simply by mixing a sufficient quantity 

of ground dextrine in hot water to render it of the 

consistency of ordinary paste. Then apply with a 

brush. 

GUM-ARABIO AND GELxlTINE. 

Gnm-arabic 8 ounces. 

Gelatine } ounce. 

Mix and dissolve in hot water, and strain through 
a cloth before using. . This is useful for varnisliing 
the Photograph after it is pasted on the card-board. 

By the addition of a little sugar to the above, a 
paste is formed which may be used for pasting the 
Photographs on the card-board instead of the dex- 
trine. 



TO KESTOKE SILVER FROM OLD SOLUTIONS. 105 

TO SEPARATE SILVER FROM OLD COLLODION 
SILVER BATHS, 

FROM THE NITRATE OF SILVER SOLUTION, USED IN PRE- 
PARING POSITIVE PAPER, AND FROM THE WATER 
THAT HAS BEEN USED TO WASH THE PRINTS 
BEFORE THE IMMERSION IN THE CHLO- 
RIDE OF GOLD, ETC. 

To the liquid containing the silver add a solu- 
tion of common salt, until no milkiness is percep- 
tible. This will precipitate the silver in the state 
of a chloride. 

After shaking well, allow this chloride of silver 
to settle, when the liquid should be poured away, 
and the precipitate washed several times in clean 
water. Tlie larger part of the water should now 
be poured off, and a piece of clean zinc put into 
the bottle, to which add a few drachms of sulphu- 
ric acid. The mixture will immediately effervesce. 
The zinc is dissolved in a short time, and the chlo- 
ride of silver will be transformed into metallic 
silver, in the state of a black powder. 

There should be an excess of zinc in the liquid, 
in order to effect the transformation of all the chlo- 
ride of silver into metallic silver. This change of 
the chloride to the metallic state, commences first 
with that which is in contact with the zinc, which 



106 TO REMOVE WATER FROM COLLODIONS. 

becomes immediatelv black. It must now stand 
without sliaking, until all the chloride of silver has 
become nnifornily black, when the remaining zinc 
should be taken out, the liquid poured off, and the 
silver washed two or three times with water acid- 
ulated with sulphuric acid, and finally with clean 
water. 

The silver can be separated from the water by 
filtering through paper, and is pure. It can be 
used to prepare nitrate of silver. 

TO EEMOYE WATER FROM COLLODIOIfS, AND TO 
PURIFY OLD COLLODIONS. 

A very simple method of removing water which 
may be found in collodion, is to add a quantity of 
common saleratus well dried — shake it well and 
allow it to settle : it \\\\\ not only remove the wa- 
ter, but greatly improve the quality of the collo- 
dion. Man}- old collodions may be ti'eated in this 
manner, and greatly benefited. 

The quantity of saleratus necessary to add to 
the collodion is not material — an excess will do 
no harm ; but it is recommended to pour oft' from 
the sediment of saleratus into another bottle, to 
allow it to become clear for use. 

The addition of albumen, or the white of an egg^ 



PEmTING BACKGROUNDS OF VARIOUS SHADES 107 

to a quantity of collodion, and allowed to settle, 
is also of great benefit to it, especially if it has a 
tendency to remain thick and turbid. 

CHLOROFOEM IN COLLODION. 

A few drops of chloroform may be added with 
advantage to collodion when it appears weak on 
the glass plate, and inclines to break on the appli- 
cation of water in washing off the developer. 

TO KNOW IF ALL THE HYPOSULPHITE OF SILVER 
IS REMOVED FROM THE PRINTS BY WASHING. 

When the prints are supposed to be well washed 
and hung up to dry, allow a few drops of the wa- 
ter from them to fall into a solution of bichloride 
of mercury. If a white precipitate is formed, the 
print is not well and sufficiently washed. It will 
in process of time fade or change color. They 
should be washed again until no precipitate is seen. 

PRINTING BACKGROUNDS OF VARIOUS SHADES. 

Any negative with a dark background may be 
printed with a light one, or vice versa / or if an 
imperfection happens to occur on the background, 
it may be entirely removed by the printing pro- 
cess, as follows : 

First print an impression, and without toning it, 



108 FEINTING BACKGKOUNDS OF VARIOUS SHADES. 

remove it from the printing frame, and cut out the 
figure of the head and bod_y with a knife or small 
scissors ; in fact, leaving entirely the background 
separate from the portrait. Fasten this background 
of paper so cut out around the edges, by means of 
gum-arabic, upon the negative, and print only the 
portrait, on another paper of course, leaving the 
background perfectly white. Now remove this 
print, and cover the portrait so printed with the 
piece of paper which was cut out of the first print. 
This will now become blackened by the action of 
light, and it must be attached to the second print 
only at the bottom by gum-arabic. Place it in 
the printing frame, which contains a clean glass, 
and expose the background only to the action of 
light. Of course any degree of shade of back- 
ground may be attained, and gradations of the 
light or dark portions can be also given by hold- 
ing a cloth or piece of card-board over such por- 
tion as may be desired of a light color. The card- 
board should be slightly agitated to prevent any 
sharp lines on the print. 

Figures of various kinds can be represented on 
the background by means of lace-work, or any- 
open work laid over the background in the second 
process. 



PRINTING FRAMES. • 109 

In printing these extra backgrounds, there will • 
necessarily be a sharp outline around the edge of 
the hair and draper}^, which can be removed by 
retouching with India inlj, after the picture is 

mounted. 

PRINimG FRAMES. 

There are numerous methods and apparatus in 
use for holding the negative and paper during the 
printing process. The common printing board is 
perhaps the most useful. They can be bought at 
any of the dealers in photographic materials. 

Another kind called pressure frames are rather 
more expensive, but jDOssess the advantage over 
the common printing board of giving the operator 
an opportunity to inspect both ends of his picture 
during the printing process. Every operator should 
possess more than one of these printing frames, as 
tlie saving of time will amply repay him if he has 
many prints to make. 

Another cheap, convenient, and equally good 
arrangement for holding the negative and paper, 
is to take three glasses — say one a full size, being 
the one having the negative upon it; and then 
take two glasses, each just half the size of the 
negative, and have a piece of very thick heavy 
cloth, cut the size of the negative glass, which can 

10 



110 PRINTING FRAMES. 



• 



be put between it and the two half glasses, and 
then they can be held together by means of the 
common spring clothes-pin. The advantage of the 
two glasses at the back is, that one can be entirely 
removed while the picture is being examined, and 
afterwards returned without in the least moving 
the impression. 



CHAPTER VII. 

HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS IN REGAED TO THE NEGATIVE 

PROCESS IMPERFECTIONS PECULIAR TO NEGATIVES 

HOW TO AVOID THEM CAUTIONS IN TAKING NEG- 
ATIVES HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS IN REGARD TO 

PRINTING POSITIVES ON PAPER — CAUTIONS IN RE- 
GARD TO THEM IMPERFECTIONS FOUND IN POSI- 
TIVES — HOW TO AVOID THEM. 

The art is so full of details in the manipulations, 
that it "is deemed proper to embody in a chapter 
many hints and suggestions that are very necessary 
to be well studied by those who adopt the line of 
practice laid down in this work. In thaf portion 
of this Manual devoted to the Ambrotype, will be 
found a chapter devoted to the failures, &c. ; also 
containing many valuable hints in regard to posi- 
tives on glass — all of which are valuable as a ref- 
erence in the negative process. 



112 EETOUCHJJSTG NEGATIVES. 

HIXTS AKD SUGGESTIONS IN EEGAED TO 
NEGATIVES. 

The addition of a small quantity of white sugar, 
dissolved in water, to the nitrate bath, will some- 
times increase the intensity of the negative. The 
addition of an ounce of alcohol for every quart of 
water in the bath, will also increase the intensity. 

When the collodion will not adhere to the plate 
on removal from the bath, add a few dro]3s of 
water to a sample of collodion, and it will gener- 
ally remedy the defect. If the defect is removed 
in a small quantity, add water to the whole. 

EETOUCHING NEGATIVES FOR PHOTOGRAPHIC 

VIEWS. 
In photograph views, the sky is not usually very 
truthfidly represented. It almost always appears 
too dark when representing a thunder tempest, or 
when the landscape, or whatever may be taken, 
betrays a shining sun. This unnatural effect may 
be overcome in the following manner :■ — ^The black 
varnish which is used for Ambrotypes, can be re- 
duced by the addition of spirits of turpentine, and 
with a small brush spread it over the entire sky. 
If it still prints too dark, give it another coat ; and 
if a white is desired, the negative must be made 
entirely opaque. 



ENGRAVING THE NAME UPON A NEGATIVE. 113 

Beautiful clouds and sunset effects may be intro- 
duced into the photographic landscape, and at the 
expense of very little time. The tempestuous 
storm, the dark and dismal cloud, with the vivid 
flash of lightning dancing upon its thundering bo- 
som, the rainbow and other scenes of grandeur and 
beauty, may be represeiitt-d in the photographic 
drawing. 

RETOUCHING NEGATIVE PHOTOGRAPHS. 

This is best accomplished with India ink, and 
some other lighter color to modify it ; the black 
spots may be retouched to their proper transpa- 
rency or opacity. Shadows, if too deep or too 
feeble, may be corrected ; defects in the eye also, 
if shaded too deep, may be corrected by a careful 
hand, guided by the use of a small camel's-hair 
pencil. 

ENGRAVING THE NAME UPON A NEGATIVE. 

Any name may be engraved upon the negative 
by marking it carefully with a pointed instrument 
— such as a needle or the point of a knife — before 
it is varnished. When printed, this will appear 
very distinct. 

10* 



114 IMPERFECTIONS OF NEGATIVES. 



IMPERFECTIONS COMMOK TO NEGATIVES. 

Tlie more frequent imperfections are those termed 
fogging, streaking, and spotting of the negative 
plate. 

The causes are — over-ex^josure in the camera^ 
over-develojying^ impure chemicals^ cmd light gain- 
ing access to the chemical-room^ camera^ or plate- 
holder. 

The over-exposure in the camera is easily obvia- 
ted by lessening the time. The over-developing 
can be obviated by lessening the time also, and 
weakening the developer — changing the quantity 
of acetic acid. 

The impurity of the chemicals in the collodion 
can only be ascertained by having a sample of 
collodion known positively by previous experi- 
ment to be of the good quality. Make a trial of 
this, and compare results. 

Light gaining access to the Chemical-room^ 
Plate-holder^ Camera, &c. — After coating the 
plate as usual in the dark room, hold it in your 
hand for a few moments ; then, without taking it 
out to the light, pour on the developer. If the 
plate blackens, white light gains admission to your 
chemical-room. Make it darker. If the cause is 

8 



SPECKS UPON THE PLATE. 115 

not here, coat another plate, put it in the plate- 
holder, place it in the camera, and, without taking 
the cap off the tube, raise the slide, and expose 
the plate for a few seconds in the darkened cham- 
ber of the camera — remove it to the dark room, 
and pour on the developer ; if it blackens, stop the 
leaks in the camera. If this does not obviate the 
trouble, coat another plate, put it into the plate- 
holder, place it in the camera, and, without rer 
moving the cap or raising the slide^ leave it a few 
seconds as before ; remove to the chemical-room, 
pour on the developer ; if it blackens, the plate- 
holder is not tight. These trials wnll generally dis- 
close the cause of fogging. 

Sometimes the cause may be removed by adding 
acetic acid to the bath when all other means fail. 
This is an excellent remedy for fogging generally, 
and will, in nine cases out of ten, obviate the diffi- 
culty. 

Specks upon the Plate. — These may occur from 
•the use of collodion holding small particles in sus- 
j3ension, or from too much acid in the developer. 
Isever use a sample of collodion until it has stood 
long enough to settle perfectly clear. All new col- 
lodions must be set aside w^iere they will be undis- 
turbed twenty-four hours before using. 



116 SILVEKY APPEARANCE OF NEGATIVES, 

Oily Spots or Lines ^q? and down the Plate. — 
These occur when the plate is taken out of the sil- 
ver bath, before the ether and alcohol have been 
washed away. Marks of the same shape occur, 
also, when the developer does not amalgamate 
readily with the surface of the film ; in which case 
add a little alcohol tu the developer. 

SILVERY APPEARANCE OF NEGATIVES. 

Negatives sometimes have an appearance of sil- 
ver under the collodion after developing, which is 
owing mainly to the imperfect cleaning of the 
plate. This is more likely to occur when old plates 
are used. To avoid this, use nitric acid diluted and 
rotten-stone in the next cleaning. Glass which is 
rusty will always present this silvery appearance. 
It must be discarded. 

Transparent Markings of various Jvitids. — 
These sometimes resemble fern-leaves, and other 
vegetable forms : add a few drops of chloroform to 
the collodion. Dark spots of various forms may be* 
caused by the collodion setting too Vm2^ — or by 
pouring on the developer entirely on one place — 
or by having the developer too strong. Apply 
the remedies before recommended. 



STRENGTH OF THE NITRATE BATH. 117 

THE STEENGTH OF THE NITKATE BATH. 

The last and highly important imi3erfection is 
often caused by the want of silver in the bath. A 
weak bath is indicated by certain parts of the plate 
having the appearance of transparency, as though 
no collodion was upon its surface. Test the bath 
with the hydrometer to ascertain the quantity of 
silver, and add enough to render the quantity 
equal to that required for the collodion, to be used 
generally 60 grains to every ounce of water. 

ifhere are, perhaps, many other imperfections 
in the negative process, which, were they fully 
enumerated here, would tend most likely to mislead 
rather than give information. 

It is hoped that the practice of the art, as laid 
down in tlie pages of this work, will not cause so 
many failures as will deter the persevering student ; 
assured that although the process is fraught with 
difficulties, it has been entirely overcome by many 
successful artists, the evidence of which is affo'-ded 
by their works. 

HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS IN PRINTING POSI- 
TIVES ON PAPER— PHOTOGRAPHIC PAPER. 

The quality of paper is very important, and 
must be of an even texture, and free from holes 



118 WASHING POSITIVE PKINTS. 

and spots when held up to transmitted light. One 
side must have a satin appearance when viewed at 
an angle across the surface. 

There is one side only of good j^hotographic 
paper which will receive the best impression, and 
that may be known by examining it carefully. The 
one side will appear to have lines crossing, each 
resembling fibres in woven cloth. The opposite 
side will appear to show like satin, which is the 
one to receive the silver. 

Avoid dust in the room where the paper is ^1- 
vered and hung up to dry. Especially be careful 
to exclude it from the silvering solutions by fre- 
quent filtering. 

WASHING POSITIVE PKINTS. 

In washing positive prints great care must be 
observed that the dishes used are free from any 
foreign substance,- as that would invariably cause 
spots or stains. The dishes mostly in use are 
gutta-percha or vulcanized india-rubber. With 
large prints, wooden dishes may be used if they 
are well varnished with gum shellac varnish, as 
described on page 191. The use of warm water to 
finish the washing is highly recommended, as in 



KETOUCHING PHOTOGRAPHS. 119 

that state the hyposulphite of silver is much more 
soluble. 

The value of the use of the chloride of gold in 
the toning bath has never been sufficiently esti- 
mated. It adds to the tone all the beauty so much 
desired. An increase of the quantity in the to- 
ning bath will frequently overcome the many dis- 
agreeable colors which are so often found in prints 
after washing. Its use in the finish of the Da- 
guerreo#)q3e was considered indispensable. Those 
wdio seek for the most beautiful Photographs must 
use large quantities of this metallic salt. 

EETOUCniNG PHOTOGRAPHS. 

All Photographs, when mounted, can be Im- 
proved by slightly retouching them with a small 
camel's-hair brush dipped in india-ink. Especially 
the eyes, lips, &c., which frequently will not print 
clear and distinct. The ink can be ground on a 
piece of glass, using only a small quantity at a 
time. By mixing a small portion of carmine witli 
the india-ink, any shade may be produced to cor- 
respond with the color of the print, and all the 
white spots that so frequently appear on the back- 
ground and drapery can be removed. A slight 
touching of the ink on the shadows of the nostrils 



120 IMPERFECTIONS IN POSITIVES. 

and lips will add greatly to the beauty of the Pho- 
tograph. 

Should any black spots require removal, use 
white water-color paint mixed with india-ink. This 
retouching will require only a short time, and must 
be done before varnishing. 

IMPEKFEOTIONS FOUND IN POSITIVES ON 
PAPER. 

If the print has a faded and yellow appearance, 
the hyposulphite is acid, or too old and weak ; or 
the print has been left in it too long a time, or has 
been washed too slowly. Add more chloride of 
gold ; if acid (which may be known by testing 
with litmus paper), add a few drops of aqua am- 
monia. 

If not sufficient contrast exists between the lights 
and shadows, the print being pale, and without 
vigor, then the nitrate of silver solution is too weak 
in proportion to the salt solution. Strengthen the 
silver solution. 

If too much contrast exists between the lio-hts 
and the shadows, and the details are not marked in 
the latter, then increase the proportion of salt. 

If pale spots appear, then thoie has teen insuf- 
ficient absorption of the xnt'*ate of silver by the 



IMPERFEUTIONS IN POSITIVES. 121 

paper ; this may result from the unequal texture 
of the paper, or from the silver being too weak. 

Black spots are caused by dust on the surface 
of the silver solution, oro;auic matter on the paper, 
or metallic particles in the paper. Be careful to 
avoid them. 

If the prints after drying have a mottled appear- 
ance in the high lights, they have not been suffi- 
ciently toned. The j^rints should always be held 
up and examined by transmitted light before re- 
moving them from the toning bath. 

If the bath is too weak, these spots cannot be 
removed except by adding more hyposuljDhite and 
chloride of gold to the bath. 

These imperfections noticed as found in posi- 
tive pictures on paper, probably do not include 
all, but those which are most likely to be encoun- 
tered in the practice of the art. They are given 
as material for refererce during the practical op- 
erations of the photographer, and should be often 
referred to in his leisure moments. 

11 



THE 



AMBPtOTYPE MANUAL. 

PAET II. 



PRACTICAL DETAILS 



OF TUE 



AMBROTYPE P R C E S S. 



POSITIVE PHOTOGRAPHS ON GLASS. 



CHAPTER VIII. 

THE CAMERA — PLATE-HOLDEES NECESSARY FOR THE 

CAMERA PREPARING THE GLASSES PLATE BLOCKS 

FOR HOLDING THE GLASSES CLEANING SUBSTANCES 

— CLEANING THE GLASSES CLEANING DLD GLASSES 

REMOVING THE TARNISH HOLDING GLASSES AFTER 

THEY ARE CLEANED GLASSES TSED A NUaiBER OF 

TIMES — QUALITY OF GLASSES NECESSARY FOR AM- 
BR0TYPE3 

It is presumed that most persons in whose hands 
this hook may fall, or at least those who see it 
after having sought it, are acquainted with the 
Dagjierreotype process, and possess a camera, and 
all the apparatus necessary for Daguerreotypes. 
It is needless to add to those who have had any 
ex]DeriAice, that a good camera is indispensable, 
much more so than in the Daguerreian process. 
"Without this necessary auxiliary, all labor will be 
but in vain. 

An entirely new plate-holder for the camera is 
requisite, known as photographic frames, for hold- 
ing the glass. It is made in such a manner that 

11* 



126 PHOTOGRAPHIC PLATE-HOLDERS. 

the glass plate will rest on each corner on glass 
itself. These holders are absolutely indispensable, 
because all attempts to use the old Daguerreian 
plate-holders will invariably produce bad results. 
These plate-holders can be obtained of any of the 
dealers in materials for the art. 

The glasses, of course, have sharp edges, which 
may be filed off with a coarse file, or ground on a 
grindstone, 'to avoid cutting the fingers in hand- 
ling. The wooden vise, which has been so often 
used for Peck's patent blocks, will answer a very 
good pm^pose for holding the glasses while clean- 
ing them. It is better to procure two such vises 
— one for the acid and rottenstone, and the other 
for the alcohol. 

The place where the ends of the glasses rest 
may be slightly raised, so that in passing the can- 
ton-flannel, or buff, over the glass, it shall pass en- 
tirely over the end or sides. 

The plate vise may be dispensed with, and a flat 
pine board may be used, covered with canton-flan- 
nel, of a size longer than the glasses that are to be 
cleaned. On the edge of this board riiust be nailed 
a narrow piece of hard wood, raised just above the 
edge, but not so high as the thickness of the glass 
to be cleaned. Now, by pressing the glass against 



CLEANING THE GLASS PLATES. 127 

this edge with a small stick of hard wood, or the 
left hand, the glasses will be held, and readily 
cleaned with the other. 

New glasses require cleaning first only with 
alcohol, or with alcohol and rottenstone. Common 
whiting has been found to answer the purpose even 
better than rottenstone. They are to be nibbed 
with canton-flannel, or tissue-j)aper, and then dried 
with the same substances. The plate must be 
nibbed in lines, round and round, and on both 
sides. It does not require as long rubbing as the 
Daguen*eotype plate. After which, it is necessary 
to buff them with two buffs, like a ball covered 
with soft buckskin. This ball may be made of 
cotton, and covered with buckskin, wath a handle 
made of the ends of the skin, drawn over, and tied 
with a piece of twine. The first ball, or tampon^ 
may be rubbed with rouge, or rouge and calcined 
lampblack- The second is to be kept free from 
all polishing substances. Rub first with the rouge 
buff, and finish quickly with the dry one. By 
slightly breathing on the surface, one can readily 
ascertain if the plate is clean, which will be indi- 
cated by a uniform condensation of the moisture. 
Both sides of the glasses should be rubbed ; also 
the edges of all should be wiped with a small 



128 BOXES FOR HOLDING GLASSES. 

piece of canton-flannel, before using, to remove 
any of the polishing substances which might ad- 
here to the glasses. 

Glasses which have impressions on them, and 
are dried, should first be placed in a flat dish con- 
taining water, or water and niti-ic acid, enough to 
make the liquid act slightly on the silver. They 
are then to be rubbed with rottenstone, or whiting, 
mixed with water and nitric acid — about two 
drachms of acid to four ounces of water. They 
ai'e then to be thoroughly washed with pure water, 
and allowed to stand a few moments, or they may 
be immediately wiped dry with a clean towel. 
They are now ready for the alcohol and the can- 
ton-flannel process, which is effected without any 
application of rottenstone or whiting, although 
a small quantity of either may be used with the 
alcohol. 

After the plates are buffed, they may be placed 
on their edges in some old plate-boxes which have 
done service in the Daguerreian art. The grooves 
can be cut out a little wider than those for plates, 
and then placed on the shelves near the bath, or 
laid on the edges ready for coating. 

Old pictures which have been fitted up with the 
various varnishes require more care in cleaning. 



VAPORS OF CHEMICALS AVOIDED. 129 

They should be first placed in a strong solution ol 
spirits of turpentine and alcohol, and allowed to 
remain there until the varnish becomes softened. 
Then they should be submitted to the acid and 
rottenstone, and finished in the same manner as 
glasses with pictures without varnish. It is well 
to place all pictures which are failures in water as 
soon as possible, rather than to allow them to dry 
with the collodion on them. 

The towel used for wiping the glasses should 
be used only for that purpose, and no soap, or any 
other substance, should be allowed to soil it. 
When washed, it should be only with soda, in- 
stead of soap, to insure more complete success. 

The glasses should always be kept away from 
any dampness and dust. Great care must be taken 
that no vapors of chemicals should come in con- 
tact with glasses after they are cleaned. Other 
substances may be employed, such as tripoli pow- 
der, photogene, &c., care being taken to remove 
all the polishing substances before the plate goes 
into the bath. 

Glasses, unlike Daguen*eotype plates, may be 
cleaned and used a great number of times ; but 
they will require more careful polishing after a 
few impressions are made, and it has even been 



130 QUALITY OF GLASSES. 

asserted by some operators that they will actually 
loose their sensitiveness after a few trials. It is 
well, therefore, not to use the glasses too long; 
yet the practice is so variable, that some kinds of 
glass may answer, whilst others may be useless. 

The finest quality of plate glass is best adapted 
for Ambrotypes, and that which is free from color 
will produce the most pleasing effects. Many per- 
sons, however, use an inferior quality of glass, 
which of com'se is a great detriment to their j)ic- 
tures. The thickness of the glass is of some con- 
sequence. It should not be too thick, else the 
picture will appear unnatural. A medium thick- 
ness is to be obtained, if possible. 



CHAPTER IX. 

APPARATrS FOE AMBEOTYPES — CHElVnCALS USED 

SUBSTANCES FOR FINISHING THE PICTURE PEEP- 

AEATION OF THE NITEATE BATH TO IODIZE THE 

BATH FILTERING PEOCESS ADDING ACID NEU- 
TRALIZING THE BATH FULL DIRECTIONS FOR KEEP 

mG THE BATH IN ORDER RENEWAL OF THE NI- 
TRATE OF SILVER. 

The following are the various utensils, or appa- 
ratus, necessary for the Ambrotype process : 

APPARATUS. 

One gutta-percha bath. 

One dipping rod — glass or gutta-percha. 

One flat dish for fixing solution, either of earthenware or 
gutta-percha — the latter preferred. 

One large earthen dish for the developing solution. 

One bottle for the developing solution, capable of holding 
two quarts. 

One four, or six ounce graduated glass. 

One large bottle, with a glass stopper, capable of holding 
more than the silver bath, and to be used exclusively for that 
purpose. 

Three glass or gutta-percha funnels, to be used respectively 
for the nitrate of silver, the developing solution, and the fix- 
iiig bath. 



132 AMBROTYPE CHEMICALS. 

One actino-hydrometer, for testing the nitrate bath. 

A new and distinct plate-frame, for holding the glass 
plates when placed in the camera. 

One pair of scales, containing apothecaries' and avoirdu- 
pois weights. 

Cotton for filtering. 

Two or three glass rods. 

Tlie following chemicals will be found necessary : 

CHEMICALS. 

Nitrate of silver (crystallized). Iodized collodion.* 

Protosulphate of iron. Nitric acid, chemically pnre. 

Acetic acid. Glacial acetic acid. 

Alcohol 95 per cent. Litmus-paper, blue and red. 

Cyanide of potassium. Iodide of potassium. 

Hyposulphite of soda. Carbonate of soda. 

The following substances are required to finish 
the pictui'e : 

EEQUISITES FOR FINISHING. 

"White varnish. Gum demar varnish. 

Black varnish. Venetian or Canada balsam. 

Amber varnish. Daguerreotype sealing-paper. 

Being supplied with all the various utensils and 
chemicals, the first and most important prepara 
tion would be the nitrate of silver bath, and herein 

* The preparation of the collodion will be found in Chapter XI. 



PREPAKATION OF NITRATE BATH. 133 

lies one of the main secrets of success in all the 
practice. IJnless the bath be properly prepared 
at the outset, with all care in manipulating and in 
the compoimding of the other chemicals, all the 
productions will be failures. 

The bath once in a proper state, success is much 
more easily attained. 

First measure the bath by filling it with water, 
then pouring it into the graduated glass to ascer- 
tain the exact number of fluid ounces which the 
bath contains. To every ounce of water in the 
bath must be added forty grains of nitrate of silver, 
pure and crystallized, and free from acid. Test a 
small quantity of nitrate of silver in solution with 
blue litmus-paper. If any acid is present, the 
paper instantly becomes red. 
• By calculation the quantity required for the 
bath can easily be ascertained, as there are 480 
grains to every ounce. If the bath contains two 
quarts, or 64 ounces, it will require exactly 2,560 
grains, or 5^ ounces of the nitrate of silver. Thus : 

64 X 40 = 2560 -f- 480 = 5^ ounces. 

Procure distilled water in all cases, if possible ; 
but if this be not always obtainable, pure soft 
water, which has been boiled and filtered, mav 

12 



134 lODroE OF SILVER FOR THE BATH. 

answer. In no case use water that lias any trace 
of lime or soda. 

As a test of pure water may not always be at 
hand, it is well to take a few grains of nitrate of 
silver, and drop it into an ounce of the water be- 
fore using. Should it appear to dissolve, or throw 
down any precipitate, you may be assured that the 
quality is not good, and it will not answer for the 
bath. 

Dissolve all the silver, except one ounce, in the 
water, which must be placed in the large glass- 
stoppered bottle approj)riated expressly for the 
bath, reserving, also, about four or six ounces of 
the water intended for the bath, which may be 
jjlaced in the graduated glass. Into this put the 
extra ounce of nitrate of silver, and dissolve. 

TO MAKE THE IODIDE OF SILVER FOR THE 

BATH. 

Take about twelve grains of iodide of potassium, 
and dissolve it in one ounce of water, and add to 
it two drachms of the nitrate of silver solution 
from the large bottle. Avoid strong daylight in 
this process. Immediately there will be seen a 
yellow precipitate, which is the iodide of silver. 
This must now be well washed three or four times 



FILTEKmO PROCESS. 135 

with soft water, by adding eight or ten ounces at 
a time, and allowing it to subside, when the super- 
fluous water must be poured off; then add fresh 
water until all the potassium is washed out, leav- 
ing the pure iodide of silver. 

This iodide of silver is now to be poured into 
the six ounces of water in which one ounce of ni- 
trate of silver was dissolved. Stir it with a glass 
rod, and after it is partially dissolved, pour the 
whole into the large bottle containing the solution 
for the bath ; shake it well, and filter through the 
funnel expressly reserved for the nitrate bath. 

This amount of iodide of silver will be required 
for a bath containing two quarts. The same pro- 
portions must be observed for baths of other di- 
mensions. 

f'lLTERING PROCESS. 

The best filter is composed of clean cotton, 
which must first be saturated with alcohol, and 
afterwards thoroughly washed out with water. 
This filter is preferable to all others for photo- 
graphic purposes ; and in all cases where filtering 
is required, it is strongly recommended. 

The color of the bath should at fii"«t appear to 
be a milky hue, but after filtering once or twice 



136 TESTING THE BATH. 

(as may be necessary), it sliould be clear as water 
There will be a portion of the iodide of silver 
which will not be dissolved. This must in all 
cases Ije filtered out, and the solution rendered 
perfectly clear before it is ready for use. 

After the bath is clear, test it with the hydrom- 
eter made expressly for the purpose, to ascertain if 
it be of the required strength — viz., forty grains to 
the ounce, which will be indicated on the scale 
graduated according to the table in the book ac- 
companying the hydrometer. 

The bath must also be tested with blue litmus- 
paper, by cutting off a small slip, and dropping 
one end of it into the solution. If it turns red, you 
have already a portion of acid. 

A small quantity of acid is necessary to produce 
the required tone and effect of the collodion, and 
also to remove any streaks that may sometimes 
present themselves. 

Two kinds are used, chemically pure — viz., ni- 
tric and glacial acetic acid. The former has been 
said to produce the finest white tones, yet it is 
more liable to change the nature of the bath, while 
the latter is said to possess a more uniform action, 
and to work with great regularity. 

The quantity used, however, of either is very 



NEUTRALIZING THE BATH. 137 

small — not over eight or ten drops to be added at 
first. Should lines apjiear running up and down 
the plate, five or six droj)s more may be added. 
Of course only one kind of acid is to be used at a 
time. 

TO NEUTEALIZE THE NITRATE OF SILVER BATH. 

In order to neuti-alize the bath, dissolve half an 
ounce of carbonate of soda in two ounces of water ; 
then pour into the solution a drachm or two at a 
time, quickly shaking the bottle. The bath will 
assume a whitish appearance, which will disap- 
pear on shaking the bottle. When a sufiicient 
quantity of the soda has been added to neutralize 
all the acid, this whitish appearance will remain 
after shaking the bottle. As soon as that is seen, 
there can be no more soda added without injury 
to the bath. "Try the litnius-paiDcr, and when 
enough soda has been added, it will of com-se re- 
main unchanged. 

Sometimes caustic potash is employed to neu- 
tralize the bath, when a brown precipitate falls, 
instead of a white. If nitric acid has been used, 
and one desires to employ the glacial acetic in- 
stead, it can be easily neutralized by the foregoing 
process, and the latter acid added. 

12* 



138 KEEPING THE BATH IN OKDER. 

Sometimes a perfectly neutral bath will succeed 
well in the Ambrotype process, and it is even rec- 
ommended at first to be used in that state before 
adding the acid — the acid being added only when 
the lines make their appearance on the plate. 

The bath should always be kept as much ex- 
cluded from the light as possible, and also covered, 
to avoid collecting dust and other foreign sub- 
stances. It may remain constantly in the gutta- 
j)ercha dish without serious injury. Many opera- 
tors prefer pouring it into the bottle after the 
labors of the day, both for safety from accident, 
and also on the score of cleanliness. 

Avoid the introduction of any vegetable or me- 
tallic substance into the bath, or the slightest par- 
ticle of alkahne ingredient, in any form. It fre- 
quently happens that particles of collodion will 
leave the plate, and be found floating in the bath. 
Whenever this occurs, it is necessary to filter it. 

The gutta-percha bath should be arranged in a 
square box or frame, at an angle of about thirty 
degrees, or, what is better still, a covered box, 
that should open when desired, and cover the 
whole when not in use. A dark cloth may also 
be employed to cover it. 

There should always be a sufficient quantity of 



BOX FOK THE PLATE-HOLDER. 139 

the nitrate of silver solution reserved in the large 
bottle to keep the bath full during the time of 
operating. An ounce of nitrate of silver, or a less 
quantity, may be dissolved in the bottle, without 
the addition of the iodide of silver, as in the first 
preparation of the bath. 

Some operators flow their bath only in the 
morning, in order to remove the dust which col- 
lects on the surface, and would fix itself on the 
first plate inti-oduced were it not so removed. 

Avoid the contact of the human hands with the 
niti'ate bath, as every drop leaves an indelible 
stain. 

It is recommended to obtain a box which will 
support the plate-holder in an upright posi- 
tion after the plate is in it, previous to being 
placed in the focus of the camera, thereby avoid- 
ing damage to the floor or carj)et upon which the 
camera stands. 

A nitrate bath once prepared according to the 
foregoing plan, and in good worldng order, will 
remain in action for years, by adding occasionally 
a little more acid, say ten drops at a time, when 
lines appear, and nitrate of silver when required. 
After using a bath for a great number of imjires- 
sions, it will be necessary to add more iodide of 



140 RENEWAL OF THE BATH. 

silver, wliich must be done in the same manner as 
described on page 134. 

When the bath requires a renewal of the nitrate 
of silver, as it necessarily will, after a given quan- 
tity of plates have been prepared, the impressions 
will appear to be covered unevenly with silver, 
after the application of the fixing solution. 

Test the bath with the hydrometer, and add 
inore silver to bring the sti'ength up to the requi- 
site standard — viz., forty grains to each ounce of 
water. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS — 1LA.NNER OF COMPOUND- 
ING THEM VARIOUS FORMULAS FOR DEVELOPING 

SOLUTIONS TEST OF ACETIC ACID — THE FIXItlG SO- 
LUTIONS CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM HYPOSULPHITE 

OF SODA ADDING CHLORIDE OF SILVER. 

THE DEVELOPING SOLUTIOK 

The chemicals used in the developing solution 

are sulphate of iron, acetic acid, and alcohol. 

^. Sulphate of iron, .... 2 ounces. 

Acetic acid, No. 8, . . . . 2 ounces. 

Alcohol (either 80 or 95 per cent.), . 1 ounce. 

Water, 1 quart. 

Tlie sulphate of iron should be of pure quality, 
which may be known by its clear and transparent 
green ciystals. 

Dissolve the iron and water, and filter; then 
add the acetic acid and alcohol, keeping it in a 
glass-stoppered bottle, ready for use. Use it by 
pouring out a small quantity at a time in an open 
mouthed bottle, which will contain six or eight 
ounces. 



142 THE DEVELOPING SOLUTIONS. 

Some prefer to add the acetic acid an<il alcohol, 
preserving the same proportions in the same bottle 
as it is required for use. 

If one is not consuming it very rapidly, this 
latter plan is recommended. 

It has been foimd, when all the ingredients are 
mixed at once, that the developing solution be- 
comes changed after standing a few days, and a 
precipitate is formed. 

In order to facilitate the dissolving of the sul- 
phate of iron, it may be pulverized in a mortar, 
and warm water added instead of cold. 

This solution is to be used only once upon the 
plate, as it forms with the silver another substance, 
which, on a second application, would injure the 
picture. Some operators, however, Lave filtered 
and used it again by adding a small quantity of 
acetic acid. 

There are other solutions and other formulas for 
the developer which are highly recommended, a 
few of which are given : 



No. 1. 



Proto-sulphate of iron, 


2 ounces 


Acetic acid, No. 8, 


2 ounces 


Alcohol, .... 


1 ounce. 


Nitric acid, 


i ounce. 


"Water, .... 


1 quart. 



IMPTJKITIES OF ACETIC ACID. 



143 



No. 2. 


Proto-snlphate of iron, 




4 ounces. 




Acetic acid, No. 8, 




4 ounces. 




Alcohol, 




4 ounces. 




"Water, 




1 quart. 


Ko. 3. 


Proto-sulpliate of iron, 




3 ounces. 




Acetic acid, No. 8, 


.- 


3 ounces. 




Alcohol, 




3 ounces. 




Sulphuric acid, . 




i ounce. 




Water, 




1 quart. 


No. 4. 


Proto-sulphate of iron. 


• 


1 ounce. 




Nitrate of potash (refined nitre). 


1 ounce. 




Acetic acid. 


• 


3 ounces. 




Water, 


. 


1 quart. 



The foregoing receipts are given mainly to in 
dicate the various processes, all tending to the 
same results. The addition of nitric acid and sul- 
phuric acid has been said by some to render the 
pictures whiter. But this is doubted by others; 
and the result of a long experience has shown that 
the first receipt here given will produce the best 
pictures. 

There are many impurities of acetic acid, and it 
is necessary to test it, which is done by putting 
merely one or two drachms of the silver solution 
from the bath into a small quantity of the acid, 
or either dissolve a small quantity of nitrate of 
silver, and add it to the acid. If the acid exhib- 



144 THE FIXING SOLUTIONS. 

its any precipitate, it will not answer for the pur- 
poses of a developing agent. 

THE FIXING SOLUTIONS. 
The fixing solutions are composed of cyanide of 
potassium and hyposulphite of soda, as follows : 

No, 1. Cyanide of potassium, . . . jounce. 
Water, 1 pint. 

Dissolve and filter, and it is ready for use. 

No. 2. Hyposulphite of soda, . . 4 ounces. 
Water, 1 pint. 

Dissolve and filter. 

The fixing solutions are very simj)le, and easily 
kept in order, except that, after using for a num- 
ber of pictures, they will require strengthening. 

Some operators add a small quantity of chloride 
of silver to the solution, and it is said it will render 
the pictures of a whiter and purer tone. 

Filter this solution often, and avoid dust and 
other foreim substances. 

The cyanide of potassium fixing solution is the 
one greatly preferred, and most commonly used 
for the Ambrotype process. 



CHAPTER XI. 

ON THE PRACTICE OF THE ART IN ALL ITS DETAILS, 
FROM THE CLEANING OF THE PLATE TO THE AP- 
PLICATION OF THE FIXING SOLUTION DRYING THE 

PICTURE. 

The practice of this art is such, that a careful 
and accurate manner of the manipulating through 
the whole is necessary to insure success. 

It is absolutely necessary to have a dark room, 
or one that can be made so at will, and yet a lamp 
or candle will be required in some portion of the 
process, or if a window is arranged with a yellow 
reflection within the room by yellow cloth or re- 
flectors it will answer as well. The lamp should 
be placed behind a yellow glass, so that whatever 
light falls upon the glass plate shall be of a yellow 
hue, as the plate is very sensitive to the light on 
its removal from the bath. By some operatoi-s it 
is asserted that all these precautions are not neces- 
sary. 

The plate glass is first to be cleaned thoroughly, 

13 



146 PREPAEING TKE GLASS PLATE. 

according to the directions in a former portion of 
this work. It is then well brushed off with a soft 
camel's-hair brush, in order to remove all the dust. 

Standing near the bath with your collodion well 
decanted, as described in the section of this work 
devoted to collodion, holding the glass in jour 
left-hand thumb and finger, pour out very care- 
fully a continuous stream of collodion upon the 
middle of the plate, sufficient in quantity when 
allowed to flow entirely over, to cover it entirely. 

Allow the collodion to flow first to the lower 
left-hand corner, then to the lower right-hand, and 
finally let the superfluous quantity retm-n into the 
bottle at the right-hand corner near the thumb. 
A little practice will enable one to pour the collo- 
dion on the glass, and return that portion not re- 
quired to the bottle without waste. 

Avoid any contact of the collodion with the 
thumb, as streaks will be caused thereby ; but if a 
portion should run on the opposite side of the 
glass, it will not injm-e the picture, as that can be 
easily removed after it is taken from the fixing 
solution. 

Hold the plate nearly horizontal with the day- 
light on it, so that the light shall reflect on the 
surface of the glass, and always retain the position 



FORXnNG IODIDE OF SILVER. 147 

of it clown, in the same manner as it was when tlie 
collodion was poured into the bottle from the glass 
— that is, the end where the collodion left the 
plate must always be kept lower than the other 
portion. As soon as the film appears to be > dry- 
ing, as it will in a few seconds, and when, by just 
placing the finger on a corner of the plate, the 
collodion becomes of a glutinous nature, or, rather, 
as soon as it is set, immerse it in your bath, with 
the same lower portion of the plate down as'' when 
you were setting the film. 

The plate should never be entirely dry, but hold 
a medium between moisture and dryness. The 
light must now be excluded from the bath, either 
by covering it with a dark cloth, or closing the box 
containing the bath, or the door of the room, and 
the plate allowed to remain in the bath one or two 
minutes. It may then be carefully raised from the 
bath, and if a film of iodide of silver is formed 
sufficient for its removal to the camera, it will as- 
sume a perfectly smooth appearance on viewing 
the surface ; but if the glass is removed too soon, 
it will have the appearance of grease, and run in 
lines down the plate. 

In order to facilitate the process, you can move 
the glass slightly from side to side in your bath, 



148 DEVELOPING THE PICTURE. 

raising it carefully, and viewing the surface, or the 
plate may remain in the bath three or four min- 
utes, during which time the person whose likeness 
is to be taken may be placed in position. 

On removing the plate from the bath, care 
should be observed that no daylight falls ujDon it. 
The nitrate of silver should be allowed to run off 
for a few seconds into the bath before placing it in 
photographic frames. After the plate is in the 
frames ready for tlie camera, it must always re- 
main in a perpendicular position, leaning against 
the wall, or some other substance. ITever allow 
it to be j)laced horizontally from the moment the 
glass is in the frame until it is developed, or lines 
will be produced on the plate. Before the next 
plate is placed in the frame, it must be carefully 
wiped dry with a dry cloth or towel. 

As short a time as possible should elapse after 
the glass is in the plate-holder before j)lacing it in 
the focus of the camera. The time required in 
the camera, of course, must be determined by ac- 
tual experiment. 

The plate is then taken to the developing stand, 
which must be so arranged tliat water can flow 
on the plate at any moment, after pouring on 
the developing solution. Holding the plate again 



TIME OF EXPOSURE NECESSARY. 149 

in the left Land, as in using tlie collodion, over 
a large dish sufficient to receive all the solu- 
tion that will not remain on the surface, quickly 
pour over the developing solution on the right- 
hand side of the glass, enough to cover it all 
at the same instant, and move it over the whole 
surface, as in gilding a Daguerreotype plate. The 
picture will quickly appear; and as soon as the 
outlines of the drapery are seen distinctly, then 
apply the water to the surface in a gentle stream, 
60 as not to remove the collodion film. 

A little care and experience will be necessaiy 
in the developing process, for in this consists the 
great beauty of the jncture. By a proper develop- 
ment all the fine half tints are produced, and the 
drapery is brought out with distinctness. 

It is preferred by some rather to over-time the 
picture in the camera, and use a shortened de- 
veloping process, yet the best results are attained 
by the exact time of exposure, combined with the 
proper development. It is well known that the 
longer the picture is developed, the lighter it be-* 
comes ; but beyond a certain length of time, a dis- 
agreeable tone is produced. It is necessary, there- 
fore, to allow sufficient time in the camera for the 
picture to be developed in the usual manner. 

13* 



1.50 DRYING THE PLATE. 

About ten or fifteen seconds, in ordinary tem- 
perature, is long enough for a successful develop- 
ment. This, however, is subject to a variety of 
changes, which must be learned by actual experi- 
ence. 

After thoroughly washing the solution from the 
glass on both sides, lay it in a flat dish containing 
the fixing solution, with the collodion side uppei- 
most. This may be performed in the light of day. 
If cyanide of potassium is used, it will remove the 
iodide of silver which has been unchanged by the 
action of the light in a few seconds. But if hyj)o- 
sulphate is used, it will require somewhat longer. 
As soon as the picture is seen clearly, be careful to 
remove it, to wash all the fixing solution from the 
glass with a good supply of soft water, as the 
slightest trace of these solutions will injure tiie 
picture. 

The plate can now be dried by a gentle heat of 
the fire, but not too quickly, as streaks wall be 
formed. It is now ready for the varnishes. 

The glasses may also be dried by the applica- 
tion of the spirit-lamp, care being used to avoid 
too great heat, which will cause the glass to break. 



CHAPTER III. 

VARNISHING THE PICTURE SINGLE GLASS PROCESS 

STEREOSCOPIC AMBROTYPE TREBLE GLASS PROCESS 

THE DOUBLE GLASS PROCESS CUTTING's PATENT 

THE PATENT LEATHER PROCESS. 

There are so manj kinds of varnishes in use, 
and such a variety of modes of sealing up the 
Arabrotypes, that one is in great doubt which is 
best to be adopted. We shall give all the various 
plans adopted by the profession, including the 
great process, known as Cutting's patent. 

SINGLE GLASS PROCESS. 

The j)lan mostly adopted of applying the var- 
nishes, is to pour them on like the collodion. 

All pictures which are put up with the single 
glasses are said to be improved by the application 
of the white varnish before the black is used ; yet 
by some it is asserted they are the same after the 
black is applied as though no white had been ap 



152 VAENISHING THE PICTURES. 

plied. The white varnish will dry very soon if the 
plate is slightly warmed by the spirit-lamp, when 
the black can be added, and allowed to dry by 
laying it in a horizontal position, with the varnish 
iij)permost. 

The black varnish can be applied directly on 
the collodion side, withont the white varnish. 

In most instances the black varnish has a ten- 
dency to darken the picture — hence the picture 
when dried and ready for the varnish should ap- 
pear rather lighter than you desire it when finished. 

Pictures can also be varnished with the white 
varnish on the collodion side, and the black on 
the opposite side. These can be colored as in a 
Daguerreotype plate, and sealed up with a mat 
and glass in the same manner. They are some- 
times colored before the white varnish is applied. 
Many are sealed up with the collodion side colored, 
and not varnished with the white, but only black, 
on the reverse side. 

STEEEOSCOPIO AMBROTYFES. 
There is quite a novel method of sealing Am- 
brotypes, by some called stereoscopic, because they 
have a stereoscopic effect, even without the stere- 
oscopic lenses. The Ambrotype is first taken with 



TREBLE GLASS PROCESS. 153 

a dark background, instead of the usual white one. 
After it is dried, a small camel's-hair brush is used 
to apply the black varnish to the reverse side of 
the glass, and only enough to cover the figure, and 
allowing the background to remain perfectly clear 
and transparent. Place a piece of white j^aper, 
or, what is better, Bristol board, on the back of the 
glass, and the picture will be seen to stand out 
from the background in relief. 

All the pictures sealed with the collodion side 
uppermost will require a glass over them for pro- 
tection. 

TEEBLE GLASS PEOCESS. 

By using a third glass instead of the white 
paper, a beautiful effect is produced, if the glass 
is coated with collodion, and exposed in the camera 
to the white background, and developed and fixed 
exactly as in the process of taking the portrait. 
Any desired shade can be attained, and a great 
variety of colors may be used, instead of white, the 
effect of which is very pleasing. 

Another beautiful effect may be produced by 
first taking a view from some engraving of scenery, 
tSrc. — coloring it, and using that for the third or 
back glass. 



154 DOUBLE GLASS PEOCKSS. 



DOUBLE GLASS PEOCESS. 

The use of Canada balsam in sealing up Am- 
brotypes has been adopted by those who have 
heretofore used the " cutting'''' process. The bal- 
sam has been found on trial to be very difficult 
of application, and jDcrplexing. The adoption 
of good white varnish instead is much prefera- 
ble, being attended with less than half the trouble, 
and rendering the pictures more clear and transpa- 
rent. 

They can be colpred on the collodion side, and 
put up with the transparent case with great fa- 
cility. 

The varnish, however, should be a little thicker 
than ordinary white varnish, which can be ren- 
dered so by exposing it for a day or two to the 
open air, or the addition of a little more gum 
copal will answer the same end. 

Only a small quantity need be used, say one or 
two drops on the middle of the glass. Gently press 
the second glass upon the varnish, and it will im- 
mediately flow over the whole surface. The pic- 
ture can be sealed with the sealing-paper before it 
has flowed over entirely, which will prevent the 



PATENT LEATHER PROCESS. 155 

superfluous varnish from running out at the sides 
of the glasses. 

Any white gums may be dissolved either in 
spirits of turpentine or alcohol, and used for the 
medium of holding the two glasses ; but the com- 
mon white varnishes have been found to answer 
quite as well as the Canada balsam. 

PATEIiTT LEATHER PROCESS. 

Ambrotypes can be easily transferred from the 
glass plate to the surface of patent leather by the 
following process : 

Add thirty drops of nitric acid to two ounces of 
alcohol, and after the picture is well dried upon 
the glass, pour enough of the alcohol, prepared as 
above, on the surface to cover it. 

Clean the japanned surface of the patent leath- 
er with soft canton flannel onlj-, and pour over the 
alcohol two or three times. Then lay the leather 
upon the surface of the picture, and place another 
glass over it, retaining the leather between the two 
glasses with the patent clothes-pins, or in any 
manner to press the glasses evenly over the leath- 
er, for about ten minutes ; they can then be sep- 
arated, and the picture will leave the glass and 



156 APPLYING THE CANADA BALSAM. 

adhere to the leather, which, when dried, can be 
rubbed without any possibility of removal. 

APPLYING THE CANADA BALSAM. 

In applying the Canada balsam, or any thick- 
ened varnish, between the glasses, great care 
should be used in pouring it on the surface of the 
glass. It must be placed on the middle of the 
glass plate, say about two or three drops, and the 
additional glass carefully cleaned, and free from 
dust, laid over first on one edge, then to be pressed 
gently doNvn, and before the balsam spreads out 
to the edges, it can be sealed up with the adhesive 
paper. It will in a short time spread entirely 
over the surface, and render the picture clear and 
transparent. 

The application of the balsam is necessarily at- 
tended with more difficulty than any other var- 
nishes which are recommended, from its peculiar 
glutinous properties, and the tendency it has to 
ooze out at the edges after the picture is sealed. 
It can, however, be removed effectually by alco- 
hol, and rubbing it with canton-flannel, as all the 
balsams and gums are soluble in strong 95 per 
cent, alcohol. 



CHAPTER XIII. 

THE MANUFACTURE OF GUN-COTTON — TEST OF THE 
ACIDS EMPLOYED WASHING AND DRYING THE GUN- 
COTTON' — PREPARATION OF THE COLLODION' ITS 

NATURE AND PROPERTIES ETHER AND ALCOHOL 

TO IODIZE COLLODION FOR AMBROTYPES METHOD 

OF PRESERVING COLLODION, AND KEEPING IT READY 

FOB USE TESTS OF GOOD COLLODION TO REMOVE 

THE COLOR FROM COLLODION. 

A WORK like this would be incomplete without 
full and practical details relative to the prepara- 
tion of gun-cotton, and its conversion into col- 
lodion, although the manufacture of it is attended 
with considerable diificultj and uncertainty. It is 
recommended to beginners, therefore, to purchase 
their collodion of those more experienced opera- 
tors, when only a small quantity is required. In- 
deed, the manufacture of gun-cotton itself is liable 
to great variation, as well as being very deleteri- 
ous to health. It is found that even those who 
make collodion for sale, purchase their gun-cotton 

14 



158 THE DISCOVERY OF GUN-COTTON. 

ready made. Both gun-cotton and collodion are 
all perfectly iodized and warranted. They can be 
found for sale by most dealers in Daguerreotype 
goods. 

Collodion is so called from a Greek word, which 
signifies " to stick." It is a transparent fluid, pro- 
cured generally by dissolving gun-cotton in ether, 
or ether and alcohol. 

It was discovered by Professor Schoenbein, of 
Basle, Switzerland, in the year 1846, and was firat 
used for surgical purposes only, being smeared 
over fresh wounds and raw surfaces, in order to 
preserve them from contact with the air by the 
tough film which it leaves on evaporation. It is 
now sold by druggists for the same purpose ; but 
photographers have hailed the discovery of collo- 
dion as the final keystone to their wonderful art, 
and they draw large contributions from this sub- 
stance. It is consequently of great importance 
that its preparation should be the most complete 
and exact that can be attained. 

Gun-cotton is procured by immersing the pure 
clean fibres of cotton in sulphuric acid and nitric 
acid, or sulphuric acid and nitrate of potash. 

If a large quantity of gun-cotton is desired, the 
mixture of nitric and sulphuric acid is generally 



TO MAKE GUN-COTTON. 159 

adopted. For photogmpliic purposes, however, 
the mixture of nitrate of j)otash and sulphuric acid 
is used as follows : 

TO MAKE GUN-COTTOK 



Granulated nitrate of potash, . 


6 ounces, 


Sulphuric acid, 


5 ounces, 


Pure cotton, .... 


. 160 grains. 



The nitrate of potash should be pulverized in a 
porcelain mortar, and the sulphuric acid added 
and mixed until a thick pasty substance is formed, 
when the cotton must be quickly immersed, and 
stirred with a glass rod, so as to thoroughly incor- 
porate the cotton in the mixture. Then pound the 
cotton slightly for a period of ten minutes. When 
the cotton assumes a stringy appearance, and on 
separating the fibres, it breaks easily, it must be 
quickly immersed in a quantity of water to re- 
move the acid, after which it is to be well washed 
for ten or fifteen minutes in water, constantly 
changing it, until all traces of the acid disappear. 
Great care is necessary to be observed in prej^ar- 
ing the gun-cotton. It should be made in an open 
space, where free circulation of air is obtained, in 
order that the deleterious fumes of the acid shall 
pass away. The quality of the ingredients is 



160 WASHmG THE ACIDS. 

Inglily essential. The rectified nitrate of potash, 
known as " Dnpont's grannlated nitre," is prefer- 
able. The acid shonld be of the specific gravity of 
1.860, and free from water. 

On mixing the acid and nitre, the temperature 
should be raised to about 140°, or it will become 
80 if they are of the required quality, in conse- 
quence of the small quantity of water contained in 
the nitre. 

The most expeditious plan to wash the acid out 
is to have running water, as from a hydrant. 

As soon as the acid is completely washed out, 
which may be ascertained positively by using lit- 
mus-paper, the cotton is then to be placed in alco- 
hol, in order to remove all traces of water ; then 
by wringing it out in a clean towel, all the alcohol 
can be removed, and it is then ready to spread out 
on white paper to dry, which will be done in a few 
moments. 

If the manufacture of the gun-cotton, as above 
described, has been successful, the product will be 
capable of the following conditions : A small quan- 
tity will explode on the application of heat. It 
will dissolve readily in a solution of alcohol and 
ether,, in certain proj)ortions, without leaving much 
residuum. 



TKEPARATION OF COLLODION. 101 

The manufacture of gun-cotton is usually attend- 
ed with many difficulties, and liable in all cases to 
result in failure from the slightest variation of the 
process, and withal is quite detrimental to health. 
It is therefore recommended to purchase the gun- 
cotton, when possible, thereby saving all the per- 
plexity and uncertainty attending its preparation. 

PEEPARATION OF THE COLLODIOK 

Assured that you have a good quality of gun- 
cotton, the preparation of the plain collodion is at- 
tended with very little difficulty. The proportions 
are as follows : 

Sulphuric ether, concentrated, sp. g. 720 . 10 ounces. 
Alcohol, 95 per cent., sp. g. 820 . . 6 ounces. 
Gun-cotton 80 grains. 

Mix these in the order above given, and shake 
them thoroughly, when the cotton will be seen to 
dissolve, and the substance to assume a glutinous 
appearance on the inner surface of the bottle. In. 
some instances it may require the addition of more 
gun-cotton to render the collodion of the required 
consistency. This can be ascertained by pouring 
a small quantity upon a piece of glass, and allow- 
ing the ether to evaporate. If a thick film is 

14* 



163 TO IODIZE COLLODION. 

formed on the glass sufficient to hold together, and 
to be raised up "without breaking very readily, it 
will answer ; but if it does not contain these requi- 
sites, add more gun-cotton. If too thick, then add 
more ether and alcohol, in the same relative pro- 
portions. 

Allow this to stand a few hours to settle, then 
decant into another bottle, leaving a small j)ortion 
at the bottom, which will remain undissolved by 
the ether and alcohol. This sediment may be re- 
served until the next lot is required, and added to 
it without loss. 

TO IODIZE THE COLLODION FOR AMBR0TYPE8. 

Pure collodion, .... 8 ounces. 

Bromo-iodide of silver, . . . 4 drachms. 

Prepared as described on page 185, 

Hydro-bromic acid, . . . .20 di-ops. 

Prepared as described on page 18Y. 

The iodizing of the collodion is also liable to a 
variety of uncertainties in the result. If there is 
any defect in the quality of the ether or the alco- 
hol, the collodion will not work with good results. 
This can only be known on trial. If the film 
sbould not prove thick enough on using, add 20 



PRESERVING THg COLLODION. 163 

grains of iodide of potassium and 10 grains of 
bromide of potassium, as follows : First dissolve 
the bromide in a drachm or two of water, then 
add the iodide. When both are well dissolved, 
add the whole to the eight ounces ; shake it well, 
and allow it to stand for a few days. It will as- 
sume at first a thick and opaque apj)earance, but 
will settle clear, if left in quiet for a suificient 
length of time for all the precipitate to fall. It 
can then be decanted into another bottle, ready 
for use. 

The remainder of the collodion recipes, together 
with the prej)arations of the iodides and bromides, 
and the various saturated solutions, will be given 
in a separate chapter. 

Collodion should be kept as much as possible 
from the light, although by some it is asserted that 
light does not affect its properties. Yet it must be 
apparent that if the collodion is affected by light 
in any form, it will certainly be if exposed to its 
rays for a long time. In no case should it be 
shaken after it is decanted. 

The most successful manner of using collodion 
is to be provided with three long bottles made ex- 
pressly for this purpose. Fill each one from the 
large bottle, allowing them to stand. Use from 



164 TESTS OF COLLODION. 

each bottle, alternately. By this means there can 
be no possibility of disturbing the j)articles in the 
collodion, and one will also avoid many spots and 
lines upon the glass plates. 

Collodion requires to be perfectly clear and 
transparent in order to work successfully. The 
color may at times vary. On first mixing the in- 
gredients, it will assume a yellow hue, changing 
to a darker shade, and finally to a red. The color 
does not in any degree afiect the working proper- 
ties of the collodion. 

The tests of good collodion before working are, 
that it ajDpears clear and trans^iarent, devoid of 
small particles floating in it; that it be thick 
enough to forai a film readily on the glass, and 
that it dries with- perfect smoothness, without 
ridges or lines. 

But the best test is to make a trial picture with 
it, and the result will soon convince one of the 
success or failure of his production. 

TO EEMOYE THE COLOR FROM COLLODION. 

It may sometimes be necessary to remove the 
reddish color which is so often seen in Ambrotype 
collodion. In order to do this there can be added 
a few strips of 2dnc, or, what is more expeditious, 



TO REMOVE THE COLOR FROM COLLODION. 165 

add three or four ounces of pure mercury, and 
shake it well for a few moments, when the whole 
will assume a beautiful yellow color. 

The mercury will subside, and the collodion 
may be poured off clear and transparent. 



CHAPTER XIV. 

COLOKmG AMBROTYPES COLORS EMPLOYED AMBRO- 

TYPES FOR LOCKETS TAKING VIEWS COPYING 

DAGUERREOTYPES BY THE AMBROTYPE PROCESS 

COPYING ENGRAVINGS, STATUARY, MACHINERY, ETC. 

The 23^23116^ of coloring tlie Ambrotype pic- 
tures has been questioned by many, and we may 
even doubt if they are improved by it ; but many 
persons desire to see themselves in their natural 
colors. The artist is therefore compelled to devise 
some plan of gratifying the public taste, and color 
his pictures true to life.. 

Many attempts have been made to color Am- 
brotypes, and seal them with the single glass, with 
the colors to be seen, but this plan has been found 
impracticable, except in a certain degree. Tlie 
colors may be seen through the glass if they are 
very deeply colored. 

The black varnish removes nearly all color, even 
when it is placed over the white varnish, and the 



COLOKS USED FOR AMBEOTTPES. 167 

opacity of the collodion is such, also, that the 
colors themselves cannot be seen through the irlass 
but very slightly, even before the black varnish is 
applied. The only feasible plan of applying the 
colors is on the collodion, blackening the reverse 
side of the glass. The colors are applied to the 
■ collodion after it is thoroughly dried, in the same 
manner as in the DagueiTeotype ; but it is neces- 
sary to color much more intensely, in order that 
the application of the white varnish may not re- 
move all the color, as it invariably will a por- 
tion of it. After the white varnish is applied and 
dried, the pictm-e can then be colored still more 
highly, if necessary, imtil the desired tint is ac- 
quired. 

The colors which are best adapted for this pur- 
pose are not those commonly used for Daguerreo- 
types. The following are those which can be ap- 
plied with the greatest facility, viz. : 

Chinese Vermillion. 
Chrome gi-een. 
Chrome yellow. 
Chinese blue. 

Purple, a mixture of Venetian red and blue. 
I 
The carmine used in the Daguerreotype will not 
adhere well to the Ambrotype, and the substitu- 



168 COLORING JEWELRY, ETC. 

tion of Vermillion has been found to work ex- 
ceedingly well, and to render tlie flesh color quite 
as natural as in the use of the carmine for the 
Daguerreotype. 

The coloring of jewelry, &c., with moistened 
gold colors can be adapted to the collodion. With 
some improvement it will not be affected by the 
black varnish. The gilding is seen distinctly on 
either side of the picture ; yet by some it is con- 
sidered as being too conspicuous, and therefore 
discarded. 

The application of most varnishes to the pictures 
after they are colored has a tendency to darken the 
whole of the light and shades. It will therefore 
be necessary to make the impression rather lighter 
than it is desired to have it when finished 

Many operators put up their portraits after color- 
ing, without applying the white varnish over the 
collodion, merely blackening the reverse side with 
black varnish. 

It is not to be supposed that they are so durable, 
because the silver is liable, after a lapse of time, 
to become affected by the atmosj^here, and it must 
necessarily change. All collodion pictures are of 
course much better protected by the aj)pli cation 
of varnish. 



AMBROTYPJiS FOK LOCKETS. 169 

It frequently happens that the liigh lights on the 
hair of many Anibrotype portraits are too ap- 
parent, producing what is termed gray hair. This ' 
may be removed by a simple process, as follows : 

Pi-epare some fine lampblack by holding a 
small piece of glass over an ordinary lamjj. A 
black dejjosit will be formed of the finest lamp- 
black. This can always be in readiness to darken 
the high lights ; which is effected by a wet brush, 
with a small portion of this lampblack laid on 
where a darker shade is required. 

AMBEOTYPES FOR LOCKETS. 

Portraits taken for lockets, breastpins, and me- 
dallions, by the Daguerreotype process, are easily 
inserted, but when taken on glass they are at- 
tended M'ith much more difficulty. 

A new and very useful invention has been made 
of a kind of plate, well adapted for locket pic- 
tures. They are known as the Melainotype plates, 
and are now employed by most operators fjr these 
kinds of pictures. Being composed of thin plates 
ofiron, and japanned, they require no application 
of the black varnish, and can be cut and fitted into 
lockets with the same facility as Daguerreotypes. 

Prepared paper is used by some operators for 

15 



170 VIKWS BY TUE AMBltOTYPE. 

these kinds of pictures, and p:iteiit-leather has been 
adopted by some. The process of taking them on 
patent-leather is given on page 155. 

All these various materials can be purchased of 
the dealers in photographic materials. 

"FOE TRANSFERRING AMBROTYPES TO PAPER. 

Gum-shellac 1| ounce. 

Borax ^ ounce. 

Wuter 8 ounces. 

Dissolve the borax in the water and add the 
shellac, which will require a slight degree of heat. 

Use the black-glazed paper, cut a little larger 
than the glass on which the Ambrotype is taken. 
Pour a portion of this solution on the paper, and 
allow it to partially dry ; then lay it over the Am- 
brotype, which nuist be well dried; and place. the 
whole under water for five or ten minutes, when 
the paper can be removed with the picture upon 
its surhice. Diy, and it is ready for use. 

TAKING VIEWS BY THE AMBROTYPE PROCESS. 
This is the most simple and easy process known 
in the art, because operators are always sure of a 
good light. The utility of it for taking views over 
that of the ordinary Dagucri-eotype will not be 
(juestioned when it is known that all objects ai'e 



COPYING DAGUERREOTYPES. ' 171 

taken without reversing, and that, too, without the 
use of a reflector. The camera must be used with 
a small opening diaphragm, in order to reduce the 
light, and render the half tints discernible. Tlie 
bath must be removed to some place near the ob- 
ject to be taken, because the plate will not be sen- 
sitive only as long as moisture remains on its sur- 
face. If many minutes should elapse after the 
impression is taken, it will be necessary to plunge 
the plate into the nitrate bath for a few seconds 
before applying the developer. It will then cause 
the picture to appear, even if it had been partially 
dried on its surface. As little time as possible 
should intervene after the impression is given be- 
fore the developer is applied. All views nmst be 
sealed up with the black varnish applied to the 
collodion, otherwise they would apj)ear revereed. 

COPYING DAGUEEREOTYPES BY THE AMBROTYPE 

PROCESS. ^, 

A." ■ 

The durability of the Daguerreotype has long 
been doubted, yet many persons possess them 
which are in a good state of preservation, although 
taken ten or fifteen yeare ago. 

But this new process of positive photographs on 
glass possesses advantages over the Daguerreotype 



172 CHANGING THE BACKGROUND. 

that will command the preference on the score of 
dm-ability. As this fact becomes more generally 
known, all those persons who possess a Daguerreo- 
type of a departed friend, will hasten to the Am- 
brotype artist, and have it reproduced with all the 
durability which this art possesses. Unfortunately, 
however, many Daguerreotypes cannot be copied 
as well by the Ambrotype process, in consequence 
of the dark background generally adopted, the 
Ambrotype requiring a white background in order 
to copy successfully. This difficulty can be over- 
come in a great degree, and the Ambrotype copy 
produced with a light background, having all the 
beautiful effects so much desired in this art. 

The original Daguerreotype must be first copied 
in the usual manner, with the black background 
apparent, of course, then dried, and the figure only 
blackened over on the reverse side, when a white 
piece of paper or pasteboard must be placed be- 
hind the glass, and a second copy taken with the 
white background apparent. The second copy 
will of couree be taken, possessing all requisites of 
a good Ambrotype. 

Many Daguerreotypes can be improved by this 
process, especially in the appearance of the back- 
ground. The necessity of a double copy is re- 



COPYING ENGRAVINGS, STATUARY, ETC. 178 

quired to produce the Ambrotype effect, or the 
first copy may be sealed with only the white paper 
inserted for a background. Yet the effect is not 
so pleasing, nor is it so durable. 

COPYING ENGRAVINGS, STATUARY, MACHINERY, 

ETC. 

Copying engravings is a very simple process, as 
the surface is always even, and the objects easily 
arranged in a favorable light. A small opening 
diaphragm can be used, which will render the 
copy very distinct in its details, actually beautify- 
ing the engraving itself. 

In copying statuary, it will be necessary to have 
a darker background than the plain white one so 
often used ; yet it need not be entirely black — a 
dark blue or brown color will answer. One having 
a lighter centre, and darkened at the sides, would 
produce a pleasing effect. 

In copying models of machinery, this process is 
of an incalculable utility, as it can be readily seen. 
The exact counterpart can be produced with a 
perfect perspective, and no reversal of the object 
copied. 

15" 



CHAPTER XV. 

ON THE MANNER OF ARRANGING THE LIGHT THE 

FALLING OF THE SAME ON THE DRAPERY USE OF A 

DIAPHRAGM LIGHT ON THE EYES USING SCREENS 

BACKGROUNDS REFLECTORS DIAPHRAGM TIME 

IN THE CAMERA OVER-EXPOSURE, AND UNDER-DE- 
VELOPING TAKING children's PORTRAITS. 

The proper adjustment of light for Ambrotypes 
is a subject which demands the utmost care, and 
is one which is of great importance to good suc- 
cess in photography. It has been found, of course, 
that a skylight is much more to be preferred than 
any side-light, although a very high side-light will 
answer for the purpose. A skylight that is not 
more than ten or fifteen feet from the sitter in the 
highest point, and falling over in such a manner 
that the lowest portion of it shall be five feet from 
the floor, has been found to work well. It is ab- 
solutely requisite that there should be a good 
volume of light on the drapery. This must be 



SCREENS AND BACKGROUNDS. 175 

Been in the camera, for unless this is attained, the 
drapery will appear undefined. 

By using a diaphragm with a small opening, 
the light becomes rather more diffused — hence the 
middle tints and the gradations of light and shade 
are more clearly seen, as well as a more perfect 
outline and sharpness. In consequence of the 
great sensitiveness in Ambrotyping, a diaphragm 
can be used more frequently than in the Daguerre 
otype process. Of course in a weak light it can- 
not be adopted, neither can it be used when chil- 
dren are the subjects. 

ON SCREENS AND BACKGEOUNDS. 

Tliere are three colored screens needed in an 
ordinary skylight — viz., blue, white, and black — 
the blue to be used, in connection with the white, 
at the side of the face, to modify the intense white 
that may sometimes fall on the eye; the black 
screen to be placed between the sitter, and at a 
considerable distance from him and the lower por- 
tion of the skylight, to cut off the large light that 
sometimes falls on the eyes. 

This light 0)1 the eyes is a very important fea- 
ture in producing good pictures, and it is one 
which is often neglected. AVithout a round, dis- 



176 PKEPARmG BACKGROUNDS. 

tinct light falling npon eacli eye, resembling a 
small jpin-head^ there can be no perfect picture 
produced. It will therefore be necessary to so 
alter and arrange the screens, and the position of 
the sitter, as to fulfil all these conditions before 
the impression is given. 

The background for Ambrotypes which has 
come into general use is the wliite one, because 
the effect is found to be more pleasing when finish- 
ed up with the black varnish. The intense white 
is not so aj^parent after the picture is finished. It 
assumes a much darker hue, resembling more 
nearly the neutral tint of the artist. If the film of 
the collodion is thin, the background will apj^ear 
still darker. 

The background should be made of strong cotton 
cloth, stretched on a frame of a size sufiicient to be 
taken in the camera, wdthout showing either side 
when taking groups. . 

An improvement can easily be made by coloring 
or whitewashing it with j)ure whitii^^ mixed with 
water, in which a small quantity of glue has been 
dissolved. Two coats of this whitewash will ren- 
der it a i^erfectly dead surface, w^hich is better 
adapted for the purpose than plain cotton cloth, al- 
though many operators use only the white cotton 



DEFINING THE DRAPERY. 177 

cloth well bleached. As much distance as possi-- 
ble behind the sitter is recommended ; even five or 
six feet, when it can be attained, will produce the 
best effects. 

Other backgrounds than white are frequently 
employed. Blue, brown, and a light yellow pro- 
duce very excellent impressions, if a good distance 
is obtained, and a strong light falls on it at the 
same time. 

The light being well adjusted, and a goodi focus 
obtained as well as position, the time necessary 
for the exposure of the plate will of course vary 
according to the many conditions under which it 
is taken. The time will be entirely a matter of 
experiment, but it has been found by all success- 
ful ambrotypers that an over-exposure in the 
camera, combined with a short time in develop- 
ing, will produce the most satisfactory results. 
Tlie pictures will assume a much more desirable 
tone. The drapery will be well defined, and the 
general effect much improved by pursuing this 
course. It is only when children are to be taken 
that operators can develop slowly. The rule to be 
observed in children's portraits is, to sit as long as 
they will without moving, then develop until the 
picture appears. The tone is never so desirable 



178 APPLYING THE WATEE, 

but the likeness will be there, which is often prized 
by the parents more than the most splendid pro- 
ductions of the artist. 

In developing, it may sometimes become neces- 
sary to arrest the process on the face, allowing it 
to continue on the drapery. This can be eflPected 
by j)ouring the water slowly on the face, and grad- 
ually extending it over the whole picture. Yery 
frequently beautiful effects can be produced by 
this means of manipulatina:. 



CHAPTER XVI. 

ALCOHOLIC SOLUTIONS FOE PEEPARIKG COLLODION 

IODIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION BROMIDE OF SILVER 

SOLUTION BROMO-IODIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION — • 

SATURATED SOLUTION OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM IN 

ALCOHOL OF BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM TO MAKE 

HTDRO-BROMIC ACID. 

The references made in a former portion of this 
work to the manufacture of collodion will now be 
given. 

All the recipes here presented are highly rec- 
ommended. All these collodions will work, and 
work well, if the proper nitrate baths are used in 
connection with them. But it may be found that 
many of them will fail at the first trial, yet if a 
difierent modification of the bath is adopted, they 
will work successfully. 

The general rule laid down by the most expe- 
rienced photographers is, that if a collodion is 
heavily iodized, it will require a larger quantity 
of silver in the nitrate bath, and, vice versa^ a 



180 keiin's ambkotype collodion. 

lightly iodized collodion will work with a bath of 
a less quantity of silver. 

The formula given in the chaj)ter on manipiila- 
ting, page ISO, is one which is said to be nsed by 
Rehn, of Philadel2:)hia. It certainly will produce 
very pleasing effects, and if cai-e is had in com- 
pounding, it cannot fail of absolute success. 

Tlie preparation of all collodions, however, is 
unavoidably attended with diverse results, from 
the great liability of some one of the ingredients 
being of an inferior quality. Nor can one be fully 
assured of success until the collodion is made and 
allowed to settle two or thi-ee days, and a trial had 
of the same. 

This will necessarily consume much time, and 
also cause disappointment. It is therefore sug- 
gested that, when convenient, the collodion which 
has already been tested by an experienced operatoi 
and maker should be used. 

Here follow the various recipes for collodions, 
and the baths which are necessary to accompany 
them. 

RehrHs celebrated Recipe for Ambrotype Collodion. 

No. 1. Collodion 8 ounces. 

Iodide of silver . . . .4 drachms. 
Hjdi-Q-bromic acid ... 20 drops. 



COLLODION RECIPES. 



181 



This collodion requires 40 grains of nitrate of 
silver to the ounce, with the usual developer. 



"N'o. 2. Collodion .... 
Bromo-iodide of silver 
Hydro-bromic acid 

Bath of 40 grains to the ounce. 



8 ounces. 
6 drachms. 
25 drops 



Cutting's celebrated Patent Recipe for Ambrotype 
Collodion. 
No. 3. Collodion . 
Gum camphor 
Iodide of potassium 

30-grain nitrate bath. 

"N'o. 4. Collodion . 

Iodide of potassium 
Iodide of silver solution 
Iodide of ammonia 
Iodine, pure 

30-grain nitrate bath. 

No. 5. Collodion . 

Iodide of potassium 
Bromide of potassium 

Nitrate bath 30 grains to the ounce of water. 

No. 6. Collodion . . . . . 
Iodide of potassium 
Bromide of potassium . 
Saturated solution of iodide of po- ) on droDS 
tassium in alcohol f 

Nitrate bath of 30 grains. 

16 



1 


ounce. 


1 


grain. 


5 


grains. 


6 


ounces. 


25 


grains. 


2 drachms 


5 


grains. 


1 


grain. 


17 


ounces. 


40 


grains. 


40 


grains. 


>f water. 


4 


ounces. 


12 


grains. 


16 


grains. 



) 2 ALCOHOLIC SOLUTIONS. 

^o. 7. Collodion . . . . . 6 ounces. 
Iodide of silver solution . . 1 drachm. 

Hydro-bromic acid ... 18 drops. 
Bromide of potassium ... 5 grains. 
Iodide of potassium , . .15 grains. 

Saturated solution of iodide of po-) ^i^ draohmq 
tassiura in alcohol j ^ 

40 grains in the nitrate batli. 

Veri/ sensitive Collodion for Children. 

No. 8. Collodion 8 ounces. 

Iodide of ammonia ... 40 gi-ains. 
Bromide of ammonia . . . 16 grains. 

40 or 60 grain bath. 

ALCOHOLIC SOLUTIONS FOR PREPARING 
COLLODION. 

These solutions are to be prepared and allowed 
to remain several hours before using, and kept ex- 
cluded from the light. When thej are added to 
the collodion, they must always be perfectly clear 
and transparent, nor must any portion of the pre- 
cij)itate which is seen at the bottom of the prepar- 
ation fall into the collodion. 

It is recommended to prepare all these solutions 
some days even before they are needed, in order 
that the alcohol and potassium shall dissolve a 
gi'eater proportion of the iodides or bromides of 
Bilver. The greater the proj)ortion of silver taken 



IODIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 183 

Up, the better cliemical effect will be produced in 
the collodion. These various preparations are the 
most difficult portion to be made in manufacturing 
the collodion, and require the greatest care and 
attention. 

IODIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 

Dissolve 80 grains of iodide of potassium in 4 
ounces of water, and 120 grains of nitrate of silver 
in the same quantity, but in a separate bottle. 
(This i^rocess must not be conducted in a strong 
daylight, but in one greatly subdued, or in a dark 
room by the light of a lamp.) Then pour them 
together in a large graduated dish, or an open glass 
vessel, when a yellow precipitate will be formed. 
This is pure iodide of silver. Wash this precipi- 
tate with water three times, allowing it to settle a 
few minutes, and decant or pour the water off. 
Then wash it with alcohol twice, to displace the 
water, pouring it off. and leaving the iodide of 
silver in the dish. This must now be placed in a 
glass-stoppered bottle that will hold ten or twelve 
ounces. Dissolve the iodide of silver in eight 
ounces of alcohol, 80 per cent., in which has been 
satm'ated one ounce of iodide of potassium, as fol- 
lows : 



184 BEOMIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 

Pulverize the ounce of iodide of potassium in a 
clean porcelain mortar, and add one or two ounces 
of alcohol from the eight ounces which is to be 
measured out for the iodide of silver solvent. Stir 
with a jDCstle the alcohol in the potassium, and a 
small portion will be taken up or dissolved. This 
must now be poured into the bottle which contains 
the w^ashed iodide of silver. Then proceed in the 
same manner, adding two ounces more of the al- 
cohol, stirring it well, and pouring into the bottle 
as much as will dissolve, until the whole eight 
ounces are added. There may be a portion of the 
iodide of potassium in the mortar not dissolved ; 
this can also be added to the iodide of silver. 
After shaking it, allow it to stand and settle per- 
fectly clear, when it will be ready for use. 

BROMIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION". 

Bromide of potassium ... 80 grains. 
Nitrate of silver .... 80 grains. 

Dissolve separately in four ounces of water; 
then mix it, when the bromide of silver is formed, 
and is seen in a precipitate at the bottom of the 
dish. Wash this precipitate with water three 
times, allowing it to settle a few minutes, and de- 
cant or pour the water off. Then wash it with 



BEOMO-IODIDE OF sAvKR SOLUTION. 185 

alcohol twice, to displace the water, pouring it 
off, leaving the bromide of silver in the dish. 
This must now be j^laced in a glass-stoppered bot- 
tle that will hold ten or twelve ounces. Dissolve 
the bromide of silver in eight ounces of alcohol, 
80 per cent, in which has been saturated one ounce 
of bromide of potassiiun. ' 

Pulverize the ounce of bromide of potassium in 
a clean porcelain mortar, and add one or two 
ounces of alcohol from the eight ounces which are 
to be measured out for the bromide of silver sol- 
vent. With the pestle stir the alcohol in the 
potassium, and a small portion will be taken up 
or dissolved. This must now be poured into 
the bottle which contains the washed bromide of 
silver. Then proceed in the same manner, adding 
two ounces more of the alcohol, stirring it well, 
and pouring into the bottle as much as will dis- 
solve, until the whole eight ounces are added. 

BEOMO-IODIDE OF SILVER SOLUTION. 

Dissolve separately in four ounces of water — 

Bromide of potassium ... 80 grains. 
Nitrate of silver .... 80 grains. 

Tlien mix and wash out with water three times, 
and with alcohol twice. Then pulverize one ounce 



16 



■5f 



186 IODIDE OF potIssium in alcohol. 

of iodide of potassium, and dissolve in eight ounces 
of alcohol, precisely in the same manner as de- 
scribed in the alcoholic solution of iodide of silver. 

These various solutions of silver, and iodides 
and bromides, are deemed very essential to success 
in ambrotyping. If they are prepared with care 
and attention, none can fail of success in making 
good collodion. 

They should be kept as much from the light as 
possible, and always in glass-stoppered bottles well 
filled, to prevent evaporation. 

SATUEATED SOLUTION OF IODIDE OF POTASSIUM 
IN ALCOHOL. 

Pulverize one ounce of iodide of potassium in a 
mortar, and add three ounces of SO per cent, alco- 
hol, stirring it for some minutes, and then allow- 
ing it to settle. Pour off the clear liquid into a 
bottle, and add a smaller quantity of alcohol, stir- 
ring this also in the same manner, and pouring off 
the clear solution into the bottle. Continue to add 
each time a smaller quantity of alcohol, until all 
the potassium is dissolved. 



BKOMIDE OF POTASSIUM IN ALCOHOL. 187 



SATUEATED SOLUTION OF BROMIDE OF 
POTASSIUM IN ALCOHOL. 

Pulverize one ounce of bromide of potassium in 
a mortar, as described in the preparation of iodide 
of potassium above, adding alcohol, 80 per cent., 
in the same manner, until it is all dissolved. 

These saturated solutions will be found very use- 
ful to add to collodions that will not work well, or 
if the film is not of sufficient thickness on with- 
drawal from the bath. By adding a small quantity 
of each of these saturated solutions, any desired 
effect can be produced. 

They also enter in the properties of some of the 
collodion recij)es given in this work. 

The quantity of each saturated solution used, is 
for bromide of potassium just one half as much as 
of the iodide of potassium — that is to say, if one 
drachm of iodide is used, one half drachm of the 
bromide would be sufiicient. 

TO MAKE THE HYDRO-BROMIC ACID. 

Alcohol (95 per cent.) ... 4 ounces. 
. Water (distilled) .... 1 ounce. 

To tliis is added one drachm of pure bromine, — 
then shaken quickly, and allowed to remain for 



188 TO MAKE HYDKO BROMIC ACID, 

twenty-four hours. It will assume at first a deep 
cherry-red color, but afterwards it will become 
clear again. Every twenty-four hours there must 
be added, say, five or six drops more of bromine, 
and continued for a week or ten days, adding a 
few drops every day, when it will be ready for use. 
It will eventually assume nearly a white trans- 
parent color, slightly inclined to yellow. 

This preparation is highly sensitive 'to light, and 
must be kept in a perfectly air-tight bottle, and 
not exposed to the light of day. 



CHAPTER XVll. 

PREPARATION OF THE VARNISHES WHITE COPAL VAR- 
NISH GUM-DEMAR VARNISH BLACK ASPHALTtJM 

VARNISH WHITE VARNISH OF SHELLAC AND COPAL 

THICKENED VARNISH FOR CEMENTING GLASSES, 

IN PLACE OF CANADA BALSAM GUM-SHELLAC VAR- 
NISH FOR PLATE-HOLDERS APPLYING THE VAR- 
NISHES. 

These varnishes for Ambrotypes are somewliat 
difficult to prepare, and likely .to soil the hands in 
their manufacture. It is well, therefore, to pur- 
chase them ready for use, thereby saving much 
trouble. However, a few recipes will be given for 
those who wish to manufacture their own. 

WHITE COPAL. 

Select the whitest j)ortions of white copal gum, 
and dissolve, say, one ounce in two ounces of tur- 
pentine. The coj^al is fii'st to be pulverized, and 
added to the turpentine, and allowed to dissolve. 
If the varnish is too thick for use, add more tur- 
pentine. • 



ii>l' BLACK VAKNISH. 

4 

GUM-DEMAR VAENISH. 

Gum-demar i ounce. 

Chloroform 2 ounces. 

These must be allowed to stand after shaking 
for two or three days, until the gum is all dissolved, 
then decanted off into a separate bottle, avoiding 
the sediment at the bottom. 

This varnish is highly recommended for using 
on collodion jjictures that have been colored. By 
pouring this carefully over, it will not disturb the 
color, and it dries readily, nor is it so liable to 
change by the action of light. 

BLACK ASPHALTUM VARmSH. 
Asphaltum, pulverized ... 1 ounce. 

Adding spirits of turpentine, and stirring it well in 
a mortar, until all is dissolved. Any consistency 
can be had which is desired, by adding more or 
less of the turpentine. A portion of the asphaltum 
may not dissolve ; this can be left in the bottom of 
the mortar, and rejected entirely. 

WHITE VARNISH OF SHELLAC AND COPAL. 



Alcohol, 95 per cent. 




New Zealand gum .... 


1 ounce. 


Gum-shellac 


), ounce. 


Gum- copal 


i ounce. 



GUM-SHKLLAC VAKNISH. 191 

Add sufficient alcohol to these three gums to 
dissolve them in a mortar, and a transparent var- 
nish is obtained, of su]3erior quality. 

THICK WHITE VARNISHES FOR OEMENTIITG 

GLASSES WITHOUT THE USE OF CANADA 

BALSAM. 

Gum-copal pulverized in a mortar, adding 
spirits of tui-pentine gradually, but only enough 
to dissolve it to form a consistency of Venice 
turpentine, or balsam of fir, produces the finest 
efiect on the application of the two glasses. 
GUM-SHELLAC VARNISH FOR PLATE-HOLDERS. 

Dissolve sufficient of gum-shellac in 95 per cent, 
alcohol to render it the consistency of cream. 

This varnish should be always on hand ready 
for use, to varnish over the photographic frames or 
plate-holders, as the action of the acid in the bath 
will cause the glasses in the corner to become 
loosened. By applying this simple varnish with 
a brush, the glasses will remain in their places, 
and. prevent the action of the nitrate of silver. 
The proper time to apply this varnish is in the 
afternoon, after the plate-holders are laid aside, 
because it will require some time for them to dry. 



192 APPLYING THE VAENISHES. 

Before applying tlie varnish, be careful to remove 
all moisture from the holders, and varnish all that 
portion of the plate-holders that is subject to being 
wetted bj the solution of the nitrate bath. 

APPLYING THE VARNISHES. 

The white varnishes are always applied in the 
same manner as the collodion — viz., by pouring it 
on the surface, and allowing it to run off at one 
corner into the bottle. It is necessary in applying 
most white varnishes that the glass plate should be 
slightly warmed, either by the fire or spirit-lamp, 
avoiding all dust or moisture. To entirely remove 
the dirty particles, it will be proper to filter the 
varnish through a thin white linen or cotton cloth. 

The black varnish can be applied in the same 
manner. It may be dried very quickly by placing 
it near a gentle heat, or laying it in the sun. Of 
course it must be laid in a perfectly horizontal 
position. X 

A soft camel's-hair brush may be used to apply 

the black varnish ; and if it is applied thin, it will 

dry in much less time. A second application of 

.the varnish can be made, should the first not prove 

intense enough. 

For protection, it is well to place a piece of 



PROTECTUSTG THE VARNISH. 193 

pasteboard (which has been previously blackened 
with the black varnish apd dried) on the back of 
the glass, with the blackened side towards the 
varnish. This insures a perfect black on the col- 
lodion, even if the varnish is very thin ; and if held 
by transmitted light, it would have a brownish 
appearance. It likewise affords a protection to the 
glass, avoiding breakage in case the picture falls 
to the ground. 

Some operators have adopted the black-glazed 
paper. Tliis presents too high polish for good 
effects, and will sometimes be seen through the 
varnish. A perfectly deadened surface of black 
is required to produce the effect. Black cotton 
velvet answers the purpose, and, as will be seen, 
has been adopted in all the transparent cases used 
for Ambrotyi^es. Cases lined with black velvet 
are being adopted for these pictures. 

17 



CHAPTER XVIII. 

CAUSES OF FAILURE IN THE PRACTICE OF THE ART- 
FOGGING THE PICTURES TO DETECT THE FOGGING 

OF PLATES BLACK AND WHITE SPECKS ON THE 

PLATES TRANSPARENT AND OPAQUE SPOTS IM- 
PURITY OF CHEMICALS SPOTS OR STREAKS ON 

THE GLASS PLATES. 

The process is so full of variations in the details 
of practice, and the chemicals are so liable to be 
affected bj the slightest change, that many who 
are induced to adopt this art meet with difficulties 
in great abundance. 

Failures in the art were formerly considered a 
general rule, and a matter of certainty, while good 
pictures were regarded as fortunate exceptions. 
"We have, however, progressed so far, that this 
state of things has not been encountered in the 
practice of late years, and we are now enabled to 
proceed with some degree of certainty. 

Nevertheless, the art is not yet perfect, and 



FOGGING THE PICTUKE. 195 

failures will meet the early practitioner at the 
threshold of his profession, and perhaps intimidate 
his too confident expectations of success. 

The various causes of failui-es will be explained 
in as clear and lucid a manner as possible ; jet 
there may be some causes overlooked which may 
occur to others that have not been observed. "We 
are indebted to Mr. Hardwich, of London, for 
much information on this subject, and it is hoped 
the author will not be deemed presumptuous if he 
profits by the experience of that ablest of photo- 
graphers of the present day. 

FOGGING THE PICTURE. 

The " fogging," as it is termed, will most fre- 
quently occur from a too careless exclusion of 
light. The liability to this failure is obvious, for 
the slightest trace of white daylight falling upon 
the plate will surely cause fogging. It will there- 
fore be highly important to guard against this oft 
recurring obstacle. 

Fogging is sometimes attributable to weak col- 
lodion, or to a bath too weak, and sometimes to 
over-developing. In order to detect the ultimate 
cause of this failure, when it occurs, a series of ex- 
periments may be made as follows : 



196 TO DETECT FOGGING. 



PLAN" OF PEOCEEDmG IN OEDEPv TO DETECT 
THE CAUSE OF THE FOGGING. 

If the operator has had but little experience in 
the collodion process, and is using good Arnbro- 
tjpe collodion of great sensitiveness in a new 
bath, the probability is that the cause of fogging 
will be over-exposure. Having obviated this, 
which can easily be done by shortening the time, 
proceed to test the bath, and add sufficient acetic 
or nitric acid to give a faint acid reaction to test- 
paper. 

Next prepare a plate as usual, and immediately 
on its removal from the bath, pour on the devel- 
oper : after a few seconds wash, fix, and bring it 
out to the light. If any mistiness is perceptible, 
the developing room is in fault. 

On the other hand, if the plate remains abso- 
lutely clear under these circumstances, it is possi- 
hle that the cause of error may he in the camera. 
Prepare another plate, place it in the camera, and 
proceed exactly as if taking a picture, neglecting, 
however, to expose the plate to the action of light. 
Allow it to remain for two or three minutes, and 
then remove and develop as usual. 

If no indication of the cause of fogging be 



SPECKS UPON THE PLATES. 197 

obtained by either of these ways, there is every 
reason to suj)pose that it is due to diffused light 
gaining entrance through the lenses, or some por- 
tion of the camera box. 

BLACK AND WHITE SPECKS UPON" THE PLATE. 
Opaque or transparent dots, thickly studding 
every part of the plate, are produced by the fol- 
lowing causes : 

1. The use of collodion containing floating par- 
ticles. — Each particle becomes a centre of chemi- 
cal action, and produces a speck or black spot. 

Collodion should never be employed imme- 
diately after mixing, but placed aside to settle for 
several hours, after which the upper portion may 
be poured off for use. This is especially necessary 
when the double iodide of potassium and silver is 
employed : the salt is decomj)Osed to a certain ex- 
tent by dilution.^ and small particles of iodide of 
silver separate, which eventually settle to the bot- 
tom of the bottle. 

2. Dust upon the surface of the glass at the time 
of pouring on the collodion. — Thoroughly cleaned 
glasses, if set aside for a few minutes, accumulate 
small particles of dust. Each plate, therefore, 
should be gently wiped with a silk handkerchief, 

17* 



198 TRANSPARENT SPOTS. 

or a buckskin buff made in the form of a ball, im- 
mediately before being used, and lastly dusted 
with a camel's-hair brush. 

3. Where an inferior kind of glass is used. — 
The surface of an inferior quality of glass is ofteiv 
times roughed and studded with minute specks. 
Occasionally these can be removed by means of 
diluted acid. 

TKANSPARENT AND OPAQUE SPOTS. 

Spots are of two kinds — spots of opacity^ which 
appear yiach when seen by transmitted light, and 
white by reflected light, and spots of transparency^ 
the reverse of the others, being white wdien seen 
on negatives, and black on positives. 

Opaque spots are referable to an excess of devel- 
opment at the point where the spot is seen. They 
may be caused by — 

1. The nitrate solution heing turhid., or from 
flakes of iodide of silver having fallen away into 
the solution by use of an over-iodized collodion ; 
from a deposit formed by degrees upon the sides 
of the gutta percha trough ; from the inside of the 
trough being dusty at the time of pouring in the 
solution. In order to obviate these inconveniences, 
it is well to make at least half as much again of 



FAULTS m THE PLAl-E-UOLDEE. 199 

the niti'ate solution as is necessary, and to keep it 
in the large bottle, from which the npper part may 
be ponred off as it is required. 

2. Faults 171 the plate-holder. — Sometimes a 
small hole exists in the slide, which admits a pen- 
cil of light, and produces a spot known by its 
being always in the same place. Occasionally the 
door works too tightly, so that small particles of 
wood, (fee, are scraped off and projected against 
the plate when it is raised ; or perhaps the opera- 
tor, after the exposure is finished, shuts down the 
slide too quickly, and causes a sj)lash in the liquid, 
which has drained down and accumulated in the 
groove below. This cause, although not a com- 
mon one, may sometimes occur. 

Spots of transparency are produced in a man- 
ner altogether different from that of the others. 

1. They may generally be traced to some cause 
which renders the iodide of silver insensitive to 
light at that particular point., so that on the ap- 
plication of the developer no reduction takes place. 

2. Concentration of the nitrate of silver on the 
surface of the film hy evaporation. — When the film 
becomes too dry after removal from the batli, tlie 
solvent power of the nitrate increases so much that 
it is apt to eat away the iodide, and produce spots. 



200 IMPURITY OF CHEMICALS. 

3. By raising the jplate off tlie nitrate Itath too 
quickly after its first immersion. 

4. By pouring on the develojper entirely on one 
portion of the jplate^ by which the nitrate of silver 
is washed away, and the development prevented. 

5. By use of glasses improperly cleaned. — Tliis 
cause is perhaps the most frequent of all. Great 
care should therefore be observed in cleaning the 
glasses, and in keeping them in good order, and 
in readiness for the collodion. 

IMPURITY OF CHEMICALS, ETC. 

Chemicals ai"e so liable to be of inferior quality, 
that this cause of failure is indeed one that appears 
almost insurmountable ;- yet, although a great diffi- 
culty here presents itself, there is a. possibility of 
obtaining good material, and they should be sought 
till they are found. 

The vapors of ammonia or bromine, or even 
iodine, will cause the plate to become covered 
with spots or stains. 

SPOTS OR STREAKS, ETC. 

Spots or streaks which are yet black, coming 
from the corner where the plate is held by the fin- 
gers, are caused by hyposulphite or cyanide of 



STREAKS IN COLLODION. 201 

potassium in some manner running from the hand. 
Streaks that are parallel, running up and down the 
'plate, are caused by the dust floating in the bath 
at the time of immersion. 

Streaks which lie in the bed of the collodion, 
looking like rivers laid down on a map, are caused 
by not washing the plate sufiiciently after the de- 
veloping solution has been applied. 

Streaks or lines resembling miislin, and streaks 
which have a cloudy appearance, occur when the 
collodion is thicker on some portion of the plate 
than on another. The streaks resembling leaves 
are also due to the same cause. If there is not a 
>!ufiicient quantity of acetic acid in the developer, 
it will not flow evenly over the plate, and will in- 
variably cause streaks. 



CHAPTER XII. 

CAUTIONS WITH REGARD TO USING THE VARIOUS 

CHEMICAL SUBSTANCES IN MAKING GUN-COTTON USE 

OF ETHER AND ALCOHOL USE OF CYANIDE OF 

POTASSIUM NITRATE OF SILVER — CLEANING THE 

HANDS SOLUTION FOR CLEANING THE HANDS 

HINTS ON THE VARIOUS PROCESSES CONNECTED 
"WITH POSITIVES AND NEGATIVES — TO RENDER COL- 
LODION HIGHLY SENSITIVE THE LAMPRATYPE PRO 

CESS, 

In the practice of the photographic art, great 
caution is necessary to be observed in regard to 
the various chemicals employed. 

By a singular coincidence of circumstances, very 
many of the chemicals are combustible, and are 
indeed of a very explosive nature, while those 
which are not inflammable are poisonous. It will 
therefore be the wish of every operator to avoid 
accidents, as they are always liable to occur un- 
less they are carefully guarded against. 

In preparing gun-cotton, the vapors arising from 
the combination of the acid and nitrate of potash 



DRYING GTJN-COTTON. 203 

were very deleterious, if inhaled, as they are liable 
to be, because it is necessary to stir the cotton dur- 
ing the whole time of immersion. Always ]3re- 
pare it in the open air, or where a free circulation 
of it may be obtained. 

When the cotton is drying, avoid any contact of 
iire, or an approach to the fire, for it explodes at 
the temperature of 370° Fahrenheit, while gun- 
powder requires 500°. If gun-cotton is kept a 
long time in large quantities, spontaneous combus- 
tion may ensue, if any moisture comes in contact 
with it. 

In using ether and alcohol, be careful to remove 
the lamj) to a great distance from it. In pouring 
the collodion on the plate, one is very liable to 
accident, for the vapors of ether are rapidly pass- 
ing off. They will ignite even if the lamp is within 
one or two feet of the bottle. Coat the plates by 
the light of day, if possible, thereby avoiding the 
possibility of combustion of the collodion. 

In pouring ether or collodion from one bottle to 
another, jDractice the greatest care, as the vapors 
will ignite at a long distance from these substances, 
when they are made to evaporate. 

Cyanide of potassium will have the effect of a 
virulent poison, if taken in the system ; and even 



204 TO CLEAIS TIIK HANDS. 

inlialing the fumes which constantly arise from it 
are injurious. Bj wetting the lips slightly with 
alcohol immediately afterwards, it will in some 
degree neutralize the unpleasant effects. 

Use no soap to remove the stains of nitrate of 
silver, but employ cyanide of potassium, which 
must be well washed with clean water to remove 
any traces of that substance. Should the skin be 
broken, a small quantity of cyanide will enter, 
causing considerable pain and inconvenience. 

Avoid the contact of the hands as much as pos- 
sible with the nitrate of silver solution, as well as 
dro23ping it upon the clothes. Wherever it may 
fall, it will cause a stain or mark that nothing but 
cyanide of potassium will remove. 

TO CLEAN THE HANDS. 

The most effectual way to clean the lingers 
when they become stained with nitrate of silver, 
is to moisten them and rub them with cyanide of 
potassium. This should be used as soon as possi- 
ble after the stains have been made. 

A piece of pumice-stone rubbed down to a flat 
surface is also very effectual in removing fresh 
stains. 



REMOVING STAINS OF SILVER. 205 

Als^OTHER PLAK 

"Wash the hands with a solution of iodine, dis- 
solved in alcohol, and while they are wet wash 
with a strong solution of hyposulphite of soda, 
afterwards with water, to remove all traces of the 

salt, 

METHOD OF EEMOVIl^G THE STAINS OF SILVER 
FROM LIKEIvT, THE HANDS, ETC, 

Mix together — 

Common alcohol .... 20 parts. 

Iodine 1 part. 

Nitric acid 1 part. 

Hydrochloric acid .... 1 part. 

These produce a reddish liquid, which, when aj)- 
plied to stains caused by any salts of silver, im- 
mediately converts them into chloride and iodide 
of silver, soluble in hyposulphite of soda and cya- 
nide of potassium. The effect is especially marked 
on stained linen. When a black patch is touched 
with the liquid, by means of a little brush, it in- 
stantly turns yellow, with a violet border, if the 
linen has been starched. On washing with the 
hyposulphite, or with the cyanide, the violet tint 

immediately vanishes, and the yellow spot by de- 

18 



206 HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS. 

grees. It is well to wash the stained place after 
the application of the iodized solution, in order to 
remove the acids, which might produce independ- 
ent stains by contact with the hji^osulphite or the 
cyanide. 

For the hands, the operation is the same, except 
that, instead of using a brush, the skin may be 
rubbed with a piece of rag or cotton. 

HINTS AND SUGGESTIONS. 

The following hints and suggestions in regard 
to the practice may be observed with profit : 

Always keep the stoppers in the bottle, except 
when the bottle is in actual use. 

Always cover the nitrate of silver bath, except 
when in use. 

Always rinse the fingers well in clean water 
after develoj)ing a picture, or the next will prob- 
ably be injured. 

The frames for holding the glass plates in the 
plate-holder will require revarnishing, as the ni- 
trate of silver often acts on the wood, and produces 
Btains on the jjicture. 

Frequently wash the glass bottles containing the 
developing solution. 

Be careful that the towels and clothes for clean- 



DECANTING THE COLLODION. 207 

ing the glasses are used for no other purpose, and 
are free from all contact of soap, &c. 

Kemove carefully any dried collodion which 
may form about the neck of the bottle. 

Particularly observe that in every thing con- 
nected with photography, the most scrupulous at- 
tention to cleanliness is indispensable to good suc- 
cess. 

Remember to decant from the large bottle a 
sufficient quantity of collodion every evening for 
use the following day into several small bottles, as 
the oftener it is decanted, the more pure the col- 
lodion. 

If the collodion is too thick, and requires the 
addition of more ether, the proper time to add it 
o'ill be when it is decanted. It may then be 
slightly agitated. 

Avoid in all cases the shaking of collodion, or 
of the varnishes. The collodion is always throwing 
down a precipitate which requires»many hours to 
fall again, if disturbed ; and the varnish will be- 
come full of air-bubbles, which on being applied 
to the surface of the plate, greatly injure it. 

In applying the thick varnish, or the balsam, 
between the two glasses, according to the "patent 
process," great care must be observed to avoid the 



208 THE USE OF TEST-PAPEKS. 

air-bubbles. It should be poured only on the cen- 
tre of the glass, and then with only a drop or two. 
After the pouring, the balsam should form a slight 
line, running to the edge of the glass, otherwise 
air-bubbles will inevitably be produced. Avoid 
pressing the glasses after they are sealed. 

Use gutta-percha dishes for all photographic 
purposes, and avoid bringing them too near the 
fire, as they will melt at a low temperature. 

In using test-papers, observe the following pre- 
cautions : They should be kept in a dark place, 
and protected from the action of the air, or they 
soon become purple from carbonic acid, always 
present in the atmos^^here in small quantities. By 
immersion in water containing about one drop of 
, liquor potasse in four ounces, the blue color is re- 
stored. 

Test-papers prepared with porous paper show 
the red color better than those upon glazed or 
strongly sized paper. If the quantity of acid pres- 
ent, however, is small, it is not sufficient in any 
case simply to dip the paper in the liquid : a small 
strip should be thrown in, and allowed to remain 
for ten minutes or a quarter of an hour. 

If the paper, on immei'sion, assumes a wine-red, 
or purple tint, in place of a decided red, it is prob- 



COLLODION HIGHLY SENSITIVE. 'J()!« 

ably caused by carbonic acid gas. In that case 
the blue color returns when the paper is washed 
and held to the fire. Blue litmus-paper may be 
changed to the red paj)ers used for alkalies by 
soaking in water acidified with sulphuric acid, one 
drop to half a pint. 

TO RENDER ANY COLLODION HIGHLY SENSITIVE. 

By the addition of two or three drops of a solu- 
tion of iodide of iron in alcohol to every ounce of 
iodized collodion, it will cause it to make the im- 
pression in the camera in an incredible short space 
of time ; but as it soon injures the quality of the 
collodion, it is well not to sensitize only as much 
as is wanted for immediate use. 

TO DAREIEN AMBROTYPES, 

OR THE LAMPRATYPE. 

A new and ingenious plan has been devised and 
successfully carried into practice by Mr. S. A. 
Holmes, of New York, of rendering Ambrotypes 
much darker in the dark portions of the picture, 
and whiter in the white portions. For distinction, 
he has named them Lampratypes. 

The method of efiecting this is as follows : 

18* 



310 PEARL AMBROTYPES. 



THE LAMPRATYPE PROCESS. 



After the picture is well dried on the glass, and before applying 
any v.irnish, gently rub it, on the collodion side, with a round buck- 
skin butF ball, made of the softest quality of buckskin, and tied 
very lightly over cotton. This buff must be used for no other pur- 
pose. Pass the buif lightly across the plate in straight lines, and it 
will assume a darker hue until the desired shade is attained. 

By tliis same process a portion cf the hair that may be too light, 
can be rendered darker by rubbing it lightly with a brush, or eamel's- 
hair pencil ; or any portion of the drapery may be changed, to a 
darker shade, if desirable. 



TO MAKE THE PEAEL AMBEOTYPES. 

Dissolve one ounce of bi-chloride of mercury (corrosive subli- 
mate) in half an ounce of pure muriatic acid, and add to this six 
ounces of water ; or a saturated solution of bi-chloride in water will 
answer as well. As soon as the ambrotype is finished in the usual 
manner, and ready for drying, place it on a Daguerreotype gilding- 
stand, and pour sufficient of this solution over the plate to cover it, 
allowing it to remain for a few minutes. At first it will assume a 
dark color, and lines appear on its surface ; but if allowed to remain 
a short time, or if a small degree of heat from a spirit-lamp is ap- 
plied, it will soon change to a beautiful clear pearl white, the lights 
and shades being very transparent. 

When the requisite color is attained, great care must be used in 
washing the solution from the plate, as the collodion is affected by 
the acid. 

These pictures can only be slightly colored, and only the white 
arnish applied, and backed with a blackened glass, without any 

ansparent medium. 

Tlie black varnish cannot be applied to the collodion side, in con- 
cquenee of the great transparency. 

Impressions which are too short time in the camera, may be ren- 
ered white and sufficiently clear by this process — hence it is very 
useful for taking children's portraits, and has been adopted by 
many with great success. 



CHAPTER XX. 

VOCABULARY OP PHOTOGRAPHIC CHEMICALS ACETIC 

ACID ALCOHOL^AMMONIA BROMINE BROMIDE 

OF POTASSIUM CARBONATE OF SODA CYANIDE OF 

POTASSIUM CHLORIDE OF GOLD HYPOSULPHITE OF 

GOLD HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA IODINE IODIDE OF 

AMMONIA IODIDE OF POTASSIUM IODIDE OF SIL- 
VER PROTOSULPHATE OF IRON LITMUS NITRIC 

ACID NITRATE OF POTASH — NITRATE OF SILVER 

SULPHURIC ACID PROPERTIES OF ETHER PROPER- 
TIES OF WATER. 

A VOCABULARY of the principal chemicals used 
in the jDhotographic art is deemed necessary mainly 
for purposes of reference. It frequently may occur 
to the experienced oj^erator, that a more intimate 
knowledge of the construction of the ingredients 
used in the art is required, and this can be sup- 
plied in a good measure without a reference to 
large works on chemistry. 

This vocabulary is not to be considered as a 
complete one on the subject ; but only so far as 



212 ACETIC ACID. 

one may require information specially connected 
with the practice of this art, will this be found 
useful. 

The symbols are omitted, for the reason that, if 
used, they would require further explanation, and 
continue to lead the more inexperienced chemist 
into difficulties, and would render the book too 
prolix with chemical terms. Some of these terms, 
however, are unavoidably introduced. 

ACETIC ACID. 

Acetic acid is a product of the oxidation of al- 
cohol. Spirituous liquids, when perfectly pure, 
are not affected by exposure to air ; but if a por- 
tion of yeast, or nitrogenous organic matter of any 
kind is added, it soon acts as ^ ferment^ and causes 
the spirit to unite with oxygen derived from the 
atmosphere, and so to become sour from formation 
of vinegar, or acetic acid, as it is properly termed. 

The most concentrated acetic acid is obtained 
by neutralizing common vinegar with carbonate of 
soda, and crystallizing out the acetate of soda so 
formed ; this acetate of soda is then distilled with 
sulphuric acid, which removes the soda and liber- 
ates acetic acid : the acetic acid being volatile, 
distils over, and may be condensed. 



ALCOHOL. 213 

Properties of Acetic Acid. — The strongest acid 
contains only a single atom of water ; it is sold 
under the name of " glacial acetic acid^'' so called 
from its property of solidifying at a moderately 
low temperature. At about fifty degrees the crys- 
tals melt, and form a limpid liquid of pungent 
odor, and a density nearly corresponding to that of 
water. The specific gravity of acetic acid, how- 
ever, is no test of its real strength, which can only 
be estimated by analysis. 

In purchasing the commercial acid (which is 
generally known as Acetic Acid No. 8) for photo- 
gra^^hic purposes, it is important to distinguish the 
glacial acid from a liquid oi '•'' ten per cent, real 
acid''"' sometimes sold ; also it is well to test for the 
presence of sulphuric acid., which may be recog- 
nized by the white precipitate produced on adding 
a drop of solution of cldoride of barium. 

ALCOHOL. 

Alcohol is obtained by the careful distillation of 
any spirituous or fermented liquor. If wine or 
beer be placed in a retort, and heat applied, the 
alcohol, being more volatile than water, rises first, 
and is condensed in an appropriate receiver ; a 
portion of the vapor of water, however, passes over 



21i AMMONIA. 

with the alcohol, and dilutes it to a ceriain degree, 
forming what is termed " spirits of wiiie." In or- 
der to render the alcohol thoroughly anhydrous^ it 
is necessary to employ the quick-lime^ which pos- 
sesses a still greater attraction for water. An equal 
weight of this powdered lime is mixed with the al- 
cohol, and the two are distilled together. 

Properties of AlcohoL — ^Pure anhydrous alco- 
hol is a limpid liquid, of an agreeable odor and 
pungent taste ; specific gravity at 60-794. It ab- 
sorbs vapor of water, and becomes diluted by expo- 
sure to damp air ; boils at 1.73 Fahrenheit, It has 
never been frozen. 

Alcohol distilled from carbonate of potash, has 
a specific gravity of '823, and contains 90 per cent, 
of real spirit. 

The specific gravity of ordinary rectified spirits 
of wine is usually about .840, and it contains 80 to 
83 per cent, of absolute alcohol. 

AlklMONIA. 

The liquid known by this name is an aqueous 
solution of a volatile gas. 

Ammoniacal gas contains one atom of nitrogen 
combined with three of hydrogen. These elemen- 
tary bodies exhibit no aflSnity for each other, but 



PKOPEKTIES OF AMMONIA. 215 

they can be made to unite under certain circum- 
stances, and the result is ammonia. 

Properties of Ammonia. — Ammoniacal gas is 
soluble in water to a large extent ; the solution 
possesses those properties which are termed allia- 
line. Ammonia, however, differs from the other 
alkalies in one important jDarticular — it is volatile ; 
hence the original color of turmeric paper, af- 
fected by ammonia, is restored on the application 
of heat. Solution of ammonia absorbs carbonic 
acid rapidly from the air, and is converted into 
carbonate of ammonia ; it should therefore be pre- 
served in stoppered bottles. Besides carbonate, 
commercial ammonia often contains chloride of 
ammonia, recognized by the white precii^itate 
given by nitrate of silver after acidifying with pure 
nitric acid. 

The strength of commercial ammonia varies 
greatly. That sold for pharmaceutical purposes, 
under the name of Liquor Ammoniae, contains 
about ten per cent, of real ammonia. 

The sj)ecific gravity of aqueous ammonia dimin 
ishes with the projjortion of ammonia present, the 
liquor ammonise being usually about 'PSO. 



216 BROMIDE OF POTASSroM. 

• BEOMIKE. 

This elementary substance is obtained from the 
uncrystallizable residue of sea-water, termed hit- 
tern. It exists in the water in very minute pro- 
portion, and combined with magnesium, in the 
form of a soluble bromide. 

Properties. — Bromine is a deep reddish-brown 
liquid of a disagreeable odor, and fuming strongly 
at common temperatures; sparingly soluble in 
water (1 part in 23 — Lowig), but more abundantly 
so in alcohol, and especially in ether. Specific 
gravity 3'0. 

Bromine is closely analogous to chlorine and 
iodine in its chemical properties. It stands on the 
list intermediately between the two — its afiinities 
being stronger than those of iodine, but weaker 
than chlorine. It is a powerful poison. 

BROMIDE OF POTASSIUM. 
Bromide of potassium is prepared by adding 
bromine to caustic potash, and heating the pro- 
duct, which is a mixture of bromide of potassium 
and bromate of potash, to redness, in order to drive 
off the oxygen from the latter salt. It crystallizes 
in anhydi-ous tubes like the chloride and iodide of 



CYANIDE OF POTASSroM. 217 

potassium ; it is easily soluble in water, but more 
sparingly so in alcohol; it yields red fumes of 
bromine when acted upon by sulj^huric acid. 

CARBON'ATE OF SODA. 

This salt was formerly obtained from the ashes 
of sea-weeds, but is now more economically manu- 
factured on a large scale from common salt. The 
chloride of sodium is iii'st conyerted into sulphate 
of soda, and afterwards the sulphate into carbo- 
nate of soda. 

Properties. — Tlie perfect crystals contain ten 
atoms of water, which are driven off by the appli- 
cation of heat, leaving a white powder — the anhy- 
drous carbonate. Cotwrnon washing soda is a neu- 
tral carbonate, contaminated to a certain extent 
with chloride of sodium and sulphate of soda. 
Carbonate of soda is soluble in twice its weight of 
water at 60°, the solution being strongly alkaline. 

CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM. 

This salt is a compound of prussic acid with po- 
tassium, and a very deadly poison. It is used in 
photography : added to nitrate of silver, it jnelds 
cyanide of silver, which is very sensitive to the 
action of light; but when added to the iodide and 

19 



218 CHLORIDE OF GOLD. 

the fluoride of potassium, it forms a triple salt of 
great sensitiveness. Cyanide of silver is insoluble 
in water, and in diluted nitric acid. It is decom- 
posed by hydrochloric acid, and changed into chlo- 
ride of silver. Solution of ammonia, the alkaline 
cyanides, and especially hyposulphite of soda, dis- 
solve it. 

The cyanide of potassium dissolves the iodide, 
chloride, and bromide of silver; hence it is used 
as a fixing agent for ambrotypes. It also dissolves 
the protoxides and suboxides of this metal when 
they are precipitated by gallic acid. A solution 
of the salt is useful, with the aid of a brush, to re- 
move the black spots which injure positive pictures 
on i^aper, only it must be applied with great cau- 
tion, and the print immersed in water immediately 
after its application, else it may destroy it entirely. 

CHLORIDE OF GOLD. 

This salt is formed by dissolving metallic gold 
in nitro-hydrochloric acid, or aqua regia^ and eva- 
porating at a gentle heat. The solution aifords 
deliquescent crystals of a deep orange-color. 

Pro])erties.- — The solution of terchloride of gold 
is of a bright yellow color when dilute, but nearly 
red if concentrated. As usually sold, it contains 



HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA. 219 

an excess of hydrochloric acid ; but even if freed 
from this, it is still acid to test-paper, although 
neutral, chemically speaking. It is decomposed 
with precipitation of metallic gold by charcoal, 
sulphurous acid, and many of the vegetable acids ; 
also by protosulphate or protonitrate of iron. It 
tinges the cuticle of an indelible purple tint. It is 
soluble in alcohol, and also in ether. 

The addition of ammonia to terchloride of gold 
produces the dangerous explosive compound known 
2iB fulminating gold. 

HYPOSULPHITE OF GOLD. 

Hyposulphite of gold is produced by the reac- 
tion of chloride of gold upon hyposulphite of soda. 

The salt sold in C(jmmerce as sel d'or is a double 
hyposulphite of gold and soda, containing one atom 
of the former salt to three of the latter, with fom* 
atoms of water of crystallization, 

HYPOSULPHITE OF SODA. 

This salt is very soluble in water at all tempera- 
tures. It is of great service in photography for 
" fixing" the positive pictures on paper, which it 
accomplishes by dissolving the salts of silver, such 
as the chloride, iodide, &c., which are insoluble in 



220 IODINE. 

water, and so removing tliem from the picture, 
and thereby preventing any further chemical 
change in the impression. The solution of h}'po- 
sulphite of soda, after it retains some of the salts 
of silver in solution, is more useful for the fixing 
process, as it gives better black tones than when 
first employed. It is the best fixing material yet 
discovered, both for positives on paper and nega- 
tives on glass ; and by careful manipulation, al- 
most every variety of tone can be given *to the 
pictures. With faint positive pictures, it is best 
to soak them for a few hours in a bath of clean 
water before submitting them to the action of the 
hyposulphite of soda, by which means the soluble 
salts of silver are removed without affecting those 
parts acted upon by the light, which constitute the 
blacks. Thus we abridge the time necessary for 
the action of the hyposulphite, and the fixed image 
is found to be more vigorous than if it had been 
placed at once in the hyposulphite of soda. 

IODINE. 

Iodine is chiefly prepared at Glasgow, from Tcelp^ 
which is the fused ash obtained by burning sea- 
weeds. The waters of the ocean contain minute 
quantities of the iodides of sodium and magnesium, 



PROPERTIES OF IODINE. 221 

which are separated and stored up by the growing 
tissues of the marine j)lant. 

Properties. — Iodine is met with in two forms — 
the commercial and the resublimed iodine. The 
former, which is sold at a lower price than the 
other, is sufficiently pure for most ])urposes. 

Iodine has a bluish black color and metallic 
lusti-e. It stains the skin yellow, and has a pun- 
gent smell, like diluted chlorine. It is extremely 
volatile when moist, boils at 350°, and produces 
dense violet-colored fumes, which condense in bril- 
liant plates. Specific gravity 4-946. Iodine is 
very sparingly soluble in water, one part requir- 
ing 7,000 parts for perfect solution. Even this 
minute quantity, however, tinges the liquid of a 
brown color. Alcohol and ether dissolve it more 
abundantly, forming dark-brown solutions. Iodine 
also dissolves freely in solutions of the alkaline 
iodides — such as the iodide of potassium, of sodi 
um, and of ammonium. 

Chemical jyrojperties. — Iodine belongs to the 
chlorine group of elements, characterized by form- 
ing* acids with hydrogen, and combining exten- 
sively with the metals. They are, however, com- 
joaratively indiflerent to oxygen, and also to each 

other. 

19* 



2-^3 IODIDE OF AMMONIA. 



Tlie iodides of the alkalies, and alkaline earths, 
are soluble in water ; also those of iron, zinc, cad- 
mium, etc. The iodides of lead, silver, and mer- 
cury are neaj'ly or quite insoluble. 

Iodine possesses the property of forming a com- 
pound of a deep-blue color with starch. In using 
this as a test, it is necessary, first, to liberate the 
iodine (if in combination) by means of chlorine, or 
nitric acid saturated with peroxide of nitrogen. 
The presence of alcohol or ether interferes to a 
certain extent with the result. 

IODIDE OF AMMONIA. 

The hydriodate of ammonia is a compound very 
easily decomposed : it must be kept suspended in 
a bottle containing a small quantity of carbonate 
of ammonia. 

Sensitive papers may be prepared by washing 
them with a solution of this substance previous to 
placing them upon the aceto-nitrate of silver ; an 
impression is received with great rapidity, which 
is developed with facility by gallic aid, to which a 
little acetate of ammonia has been added. • • 

IODIDE OF POTASSIUM. 
Iodide of potassium is one of the principal 



IODIDE OF SlL,VER. 223 

chemical agents in photography. It serves to fonn 
the iodide of silver, which is the sensitive salt 
upon which light acts with the greatest energy. 
This iodide of silver is insoluble in water, but sol- 
uble in hyposulphite of soda, which is used for 
'"'' fixing''' the negative pictures. 

This salt is usually formed by dissolving iodine 
in solution of potasli until it begins to acquire a 
brown color ; a mixture of iodide of potassium and 
iodide of potash is thus formed ; but by evapora- 
tion and heating to redness, the latter salt parts 
witli its oxygen, and is converted into iodide of 
potassium. 

Properties. — It forms cubic and prismatic crys- 
tals, which should be very hard, and very slightly 
or not at all deliquescent. Soluble in less than an 
equal weight of water at 60° ; it is also soluble in 
alcohol, but not in ether. 

IODIDE OF SILVER. 

Iodide of silver is obtained by adding iodide of 
potassium to a solution of nitrate of silver ; de- 
composition ensues, the nitric acid leaves the silver 
and unites with the potash, while' the liberated 
iodine coinl)ines with the silver, and falls as a yel- 
low precipitate, which must be well wasbed in 



224: PROTOSULPHATE OF IRON. 

distilled water, being insoluble therein, to remove 
the nitrate of potash, and then dissolved in a sat- 
urated solution of iodide of potassium. This mix- 
ture is to be added to the collodion in small quan- 
tities at a time, and agitated until dissolved. 

PEOTOSULPHATE OF IRO¥. 

This is the copperas or green vitriol of com- 
merce — a most abundant substance, and used ibi 
a variety of i3urposes in the arts. Commercial sul- 
phate of iron, however, being prepared on a large 
scale, mostly requires recrystallizing in order to ren- 
der it sufKciently pure for photographic purposes. 

Pure sulphate of iron is met with in the form 
of large, transparent, prismatic crystals, of a deli- 
cate green color ; by exposure to the air they grad- 
ually absorb oxygen, and become rusty on the 
surface. Solution of sulphate of iron, colorless at 
first, afterwards changes to a red tint, and de- 
posits a brown powder ; this powder is a hasic 
persulphate of iron, that is to say, a persulphate 
containing an excess of the oxide, or " hase?^ By 
adding sulphuric acid to the solution of protosul- 
phate of iron, the formation of a deposit is pre- 
vented, but the decomposition goes on slowly as 
before. 



NiTEic Acm. 225 



LITMUS. 

Litmus is a vegetable substance, prepared from 
various lich^ns^ which are principally collected on 
rocks adjoining the sea. The coloring matter is 
extracted by a peculiar process, and afterwards 
made up into a paste with chalk, plaster of 
Paris^ etc. 

Litmus occurs in commerce in the form of small 
cubes, of a fine violet color. In using it for the 
preparation of test-papers, it is digested in hot 
water, and sheets of porous paper are soaked in the 
blue liquid so formed. The red papers are pre- 
pared in a similar manner, and afterwards placed 
in water which has been rendered faintly acid 
with sulphuric or hydrochloric acid. 

NITEIC ACID. 

This acid is obtained by distilling a mixture of 
equal parts, by weight, of nitrate of potash and 
sulphuric acid. It is very abundant in commerce, 
and is useful in photography to form the nitrate of 
silver ; and in combination with muriatic acid 
{aqua regia)^ to yield the chloride of gold : added 
to the sulphate of the protoxide of iron, it converts 
it into the sulphate of the peroxide. 



226 NITRATE OF POTASH. 

It is also employed to darken the tone of the 
shadows of the jiositive paper pictures, after they 
have been submitted to the action of the hyposul- 
jAute of soda. Its action is similar to that of the 
muriatic acid used for the same purpose. 

As it possesses great solvent powers, it is very 
useful for removing the deposits left on the gutta- 
percha or porcelain dishes, &c. ; but the greatest 
care must be taken that no free acid appears in 
any of the preparations used in photography ; for 
however useful in its combinations with silver, 
&c., alone, it has a most destructive influence by 
its deoxydizing qualities, neutralizing the effects 
produced by the agency of light. 

NITRATE OF POTASH. 

This salt, also termed nit're or saltpetre, is an 
abundant natural product, found effloresced upon 
the soil in certain parts of the East Indies. It is 
also produced artificially in what are called nitre- 
beds. 

NITEATE OF SILVER. 

Nitrate of silver is the most important ingre- 
dient in photography. It is a compound of nitric 
acid with the metal silver in its highest state of 



NITKATE OF SILVER. 227 

oxydation. It is decomposed by iodide of potas- 
sium, by whicli iodide of silver is obtained. The 
best nitrate of silver is in thin colorless crystalline 
plates, which are soluble in an equal weight of 
cold water. Exposed to light, this salt blackens, 
especially if any organic matter is present. Ad- 
vantage is taken of this peculiar property to pre- 
pare the sensitive solutions which are spread upon 
the paper and glass, and other media employed in 
obtaining photographic pictures. It is readily de- 
composed by chlorides, bromides, fluorides, cy- 
anides, &c., producing salts of exquisite sensibility; 
and if these, or some of them, are added to the 
iodide of potassium, in the first preparation of the 
paper, when they are submitted to the contact of 
the nitrate of silver, compounds are formed, ap- 
parently intermediate in their atomic constitution^ 
between the protoxide and the suboxide of silver. 
As soon as the light strikes these preparations in 
this condition, they pass from the state interme- 
diate between the protoxide and suboxide to the 
metallic state, the silver is reduced, and is preci- 
pitated in a dark-colored form by gallic or pyro- 
gallic acid, in various degrees of strength, accord- 
ing to the extent of the reduction. The chiel 
object and aim in the future of photography is in 



228 SULPHURIC ACID. 

the direction of the developing agents. "We have 
found substances which require but an instantane- 
ous exposure to the action of light to effect that 
change, which, once set up, is continued and com- 
pleted by suitable developing agencies. 

SULPHURIC ACID. 

Sulphuric acid may be formed by oxydizing sul- 
phur with boiling nitric acid ; but this plan would 
be too expensive to be adopted on a large scale. 
The commercial process for the manufacture ol 
sulphuric acid is exceedingly ingenious and beau- 
tiful, but it involves reactions which are somewhat 
complicated, and do not admit of a superficial ex 
planation. 

Properties. — Anhydrous sulphuric acid is a 
white crystalline solid. The strongest liquid acid 
always contains one atom of water, which is closely 
associated with it, and cannot be driven off by the 
application of heat. 

Sulphuric acid possesses intense chemical powers, 
and displaces the greater number of ordinary acids 
from their salts. It chars organic substances, by 
removing the elements of water, and converts alco- 
hol into ether in a similar manner. The strength 
of a given sample of sulphuric acid may generally 



TEST OF SULPHUEIO ACID. 229 

be calculated from its specific gravity, and a table 
is given by Dr. Ure for that purpose. 

Impurities of Commercial Sulphuric Acid. — 
Tlie liquid acid known as oil of vitriol is tolerably 
constant in composition, and seems to be as well 
adapted for photographic use as the pure sulphuric 
acid, which is far more expensive. The specific 
gravity should be about 1*836, at 60°. If a drop, 
evaporated upon platinum foil, gives a fixed resi- 
due, probably bisulphate of potash is present. A 
milkiness on dilution indicates sulphate of lead. 

Test for Sulphuric Acid^ either free or in com- 
hinatimi with Bases. — If the presence of sulphuric 
acid, or soluble sulphate, is suspected in any liquid, 
it is tested for by adding a few drops of a dilute 
solution of chloride of barium or nitrate of baryta. 
A white precipitate, insoluble in nitric acid., indi 
cates sulphuric acid. If the liquor to be tested is 
very acid, from nitric or hydrochloric acids, it 
must be largely diluted before testing, or a crystal- 
line precipitate will form, caused by the sparing 
solubility of the chloride of barium itself in acid 
solutions. 

20 



230 PBOPERTIES OF ETHER. 

ETHER. 

Ether is obtained by distilling a mixture of sul- 
phuric acid and alcohol. The term sulpJiiiHc ap- 
plied to the commercial ether has reference only 
to the manner of its formation. 

Properties of Ether. — It is neither acid nor al 
kaline to test-paper. Specific gravity at 60°, about 
•720. Boils at 98° Fahrenheit. The vapor is ex- 
ceedingly dense, and may be seen passing off from 
the liquid, and falling to the ground — hence the 
danger of pouring ether from one bottle to another, 
if a flame be near at hand. 

Ether does not mix with water in all propor- 
tions — hence if the two are shaken together, after 
a short time the former rises and floats upon, the 
surface. In this way a mixture of ether and alco- 
hol may be separated from each other, as in the 
common process of washing ether. The water 
employed, however, always retains a certain por- 
tion of ether (about a tenth part of its bulk), and 
acquires a strong ethereal odor. Washed ether 
also contains water in small proportion. 

Bromine and iodine are both soluble in ether, 
and gradually react upon and decompose it. 

The strong alkalies, such as potash and soda. 



PROPERTIES OF WATER. 231 

also decompose ether slightly after a time, but not 
immediately. Exposed to air and light, ether is 
oxydized, and acquires a peculiar odor. 

Ether dissolves fatty and resinous substances 
readily, but inorganic salts are mostly insoluble in 
this fluid ; hence it is that iodide of potassium and 
other substances dissolved in alcohol are precipi- 
tated to a ceilain extent by the addition of ether. 

WATER. 

Water is an oxide of hydrogen, containing sin- 
gle atoms of each of the gases. 

Distilled water is water which has been vapor- 
ized and again cowidensed ; by this means it is 
freed from earthy and saline impurities, which are 
not volatile, and hence remain behind in the body 
of the retort. Pure water leaves no residue on 
evaporation, and should remain perfectly clear on 
the addition of nitrate of silver ; also it should be 
neutral to test-paper. 

Impurities of common Water. — Hard water, as 
it is termed, usually contains sulphate of lime and 
carbonate of lime, dissolved in carbonic acid ; also 
chloride of sodium in greater or less quantity. On 
boiling the water, the carbonic acid gas is evolved, 
and the greater part of the carbonate of lime (if 



232 PROPERTIES OF WATER. 

any is present) deposits, and forms an earthy in 
crnstation on the boiler. 

In testing water for sulphates and chlorides, 
acidify a portion with a few drops oi pure nitric 
acid, free from chlorine ; then divide it into two 
parts, and add to the first chloride of barium, and 
to the second nitrate of silver, — a milkiness, in 
either case, indicates the presence of impurity. 
The photogra/phic nitrate hatJi cannot be used as a 
test for chlorides, since the iodide of silver it con- 
tains is precipitated on dilution. 

Rain-ioater^ having already undergone a natural 
process of distillation, is free from inorganic salts 
if collected in clean vessels ; bmt it usually contains 
a minute portion of ammonia, and often organic 
matter, which tinges it of a brown color. 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 233 



WEIGHTS AND MEASURES. 

The weight generally employed in Photography 
is the apothecaries' weight ; but some of the chem- 
icals are sold by avoirdupois ; for what reason no 
one can explain. 

Nitrate of silver is usually sold by that weight, 
as well as most of the liquids. The acids and al- 
kalies, however, are generally sold by apotheca- 
ries' weight. 

apothecaries' weight. 

1 grain. 
20 := 1 scruple 
60 = 3=1 drachm 
480 = 24 = 8= 1 ounce 
5760 = 288 = 96 = 12 = 1 pound. 

AVOIRDUPOIS WEIGHT. 

1 pound . . . . =16 ounces. 

1 ounce . . . . =16 drachms. 

1 drachm , . . . = 26*343 grains. 

(1 ounce avoirdupois . . = 437'5 grains.) 

IMPERIAL MEASURE. 

1 gallon =8 pints. 

1 pint =20 ounces. 

1 ounce . . , . . = 8 drachms. 
(1 fluid ounce of water weighs 437.5 grains, or 1 ounce avoir 
dupois.) 

20* 



234 WEIGHTS AND MEASUEES. 



FLUID MEASURE. 

1 minim . , . . = 0'9I 

60 = 1 fluid drachm . =: 54-7 avoird. 

480 = 8=1 fluid ounce = 437-5 — 1 oz. 

9600= 160= 20 = 1 pint = 8-750= 1.25 lb. 

76,800 = 1280 = 160 = 8 =2 gal'n = 70-000 = 10 lbs. 
(1 pound avoirdupoi.i contains 700U grains.) 

1 pound Troy .... contains 5760 grains. 

1 imperial gallon of water ... '' 70,000 " 

I imperial pint of water contains 20 ounces, or 8750 " 

1 cubic inch of water " " " 252-4 " 

1 ounce avoirdupois . " " " 437-5 " 

1 ounce Troy . . " " " 480 

1 gramme ..." " " 15-4 " 

1 decigramme . . " " " 1-5 " 

1 litre of distilled water " " " 15,406-3 " 

The grain is the unit of weight ; but as three 
standards of weight are employed, much uncer- 
tainty and confusion often arise in the mind of the 
photographer as to which ounce or drachm is 
meant. The apothecaries' weight is generally un- 
derstood to be the one employed ; but it would 
save much trouble if the formulae for the various 
preparations were always given in grains. 



INDEX. 



PAOB 

Albumen paper, to prepare 60 

" " to silver 61 

Ambrotypes on paper 170 

" " on patent leather 155 

Art, PliotogTiiphic, History of the 19 

Art, triumph of, over Nature 86 

Atnbrotype clieinicals 3S 

" views, to take 170 

Ambrotypes in the United Statea 34 

" stereoscopic 152 

" for lockets 169 

" to color 1G6 

" to darken 209 

" to copy from Daguerreotypes 171 

" ai)|iaratus for 131 

Actino-Hydroiiieter for nitrate bath 136 

Alcoholic solutions for collodions 182 

Alcoholic solution of iodide of silver 183 

" of bromide of silver 184 

" of bromo-iodide of silver 185 

" saturated, of iodide of potassium 186 

•' saturated, of bromide of potassium 187 

Ammonia-nitrate of silver solution for positives 95 

Acetic acid — its nature and properties 212 

Alcohol — its nature and properties 213 



Backgrounds, to print various shades 107 

Bath, nitrate of silver, preparation of 133 

'• to iodize 134 



236 INDEX. 

PAOK 

Bath, nitrate of silver, to test the 136 

" •' to neutralize 137 

" '■ adding acid to • 13G 

" gutta-percha, arrangement of 133 

" flowing tlie 139 

" renewal of the ,. 14" 

" to keep the, in order l'*8 

" silver, for cliloride of sodium papers 59 

" for toning and coloring 93,94 

" chloride of gold "3 

" water, fur positives "^ 

Backgrounds for Ambroty pes 1 '" 

Black and white specks on plates 1^^ 

Bromide of silver, alcoholic solution of 184 

Bromo-iodide, alcoholic solution of 1°^ 

Bromide of potassium, saturated solution of 1^7 

Bromine— its nature and properties 210 

Bromide of potassium — its properties 21d 

Camera, time of exposure in the 46 

" solar, for life size '^ 

" importance of a good l-'^ 

Collodion, negative, to prepare ^2 

" ammonia °' 

" cadmium " °" 

" compound cadmium °3 

" double iodized °'* 

" to remove water from lo6 

" to purify old lf"5 

" to pour on tlie glass plate 146 

" Ambrotype, preparation of 161 

" to iodize, for Ambrntypes 162 

" to be kept from the light 163 

" tests of good 164 

" to remove color from 164 

" recipes for Ambroty pes ISl 

" to render any, highly sensitive 209 

" for negatives, preparation of 82 

" recipes for negatives 82 -S3 

" mode of coating glass plates with 146 

" first used 27 

" signification of 27 

" to preserve and keep ready for use 1 ''3 

Chloroform for collodion 1*^' 

Copying Daguerreotypes into Photographs 69-70 



INDEX. 237 



PAQK 

Canada balsam, application of 155 

Cautions in using chemicals, &c 202 

Cleaning the hands 204 

" glass-plates for Aiiihrotypes 126 

" " for negatives 41, 103 

Chemicals, Ambrotj-pe 132 

" impurities of 200 

Colors for Ambrotypes IGT 

Children's portraits, to take 177 

Chloride of silver, adding to fixing solution 144 

Cyanide of potassium, properties of 217 

" " danger of using 203 

Chloride of gold 213 

Carbonate of soda 217 

Daguerreotypes to copy life size 69-70 

" " in Ambrotype 171 

Diaphragm, use of 175 

Developing solution for negatives 89 

" " for iron Photographs 74 

" " for Ambrotypes 141 

" " various recipes for 143 

" " for negatives 89 

Dextrine paste for Pliotogniphs 104 

Double glass process 152 

Drying positive prints 67 

" the picture 150 

Enlarging pictures to life size 69 

Engi'aving name on negatives 113 

Engravings, to copy, in Ambrotype 173 

Ether— its properties 230 

" caution in using 203 

Ether and alcohol to form collodion 160 

Failure, causes of 194 

Filtering process 135 

Fixing solutions, preparations of, for Ambrotypes 144 

Fixing bath for negatives 93, 44 

" for positive jiajier 94 

Fixing solution for negntives 44, 93 

" for positives 94 

Fogging the i>icturcs 114, 195 

" cause of, and to detect 114,196 



238 INDEX. 



PAGB 

German process for negatives 85, 86, 87 

Gum Arabic paste for positives 104 

" " varnisli for negatives 44 

Glasses, preparation of, for Ainbrotypes 126 

" cleaning substances for 126 

" cleaning new 127 

" cleaning old 123 

" cleaning, tliat have been varnished 129 

" best adapted for Anibrotypes 130 

" proper for negatives m 47 

" cleaning, for negatives 41 

" to hold, after cleaning 45 

Gun-cotton, discovery of 153 

" preparation of 159 

" test of acids employed for 160 

" to wash and dry 160 

" caution in preparing 203 

Hints and snggestions on positives and negatives 112, 206 

" " " " on paper 117 

" " on negatives 112 

History of Photography 19 

Hydro-bromic acid, to prepare 1S7 

Hydrometer, actino, for nitrate of silver bath 136 

Hyposulphite of soda 219 

ofgold 219 

" of silver, to lest its presence in positives 107 

Iodine — its preparation and properties 220 

Iodide of ammonia — its preparation and properties 224 

" of potassium — its preparation and properties 222 

" " alcoholic solution of 183 

" ofsilver — its preparation and properties 223 

" " alcoholic solution of 183 

Iron Photographs, to make 73 

Instantaneous printing 101 

Imperfections in negatives 114 

" in positives 120 

Jewelry, to color, on Ambrotypes 168 

Lampratype process 210 

Light, to arrange, for Ambrotypes 174 

" " for negatives 45 



INDEX. 239 



PAGE 

Light on the eyes, to arrange 17(5 

Litin-us — its nature and properties 225 

Mnteiials for Ambrotypes, in finisliing 132 

Maeliinery, to copy, in Ambrotype ]7:J 

Manipulations by the Ambrotype process 146, 147, 148, 149, 150 

" by tlie negative process 41 

Mounting Photograplis 67 

Melainotype plates 169 

Negative process, theory of the 32 

" practice of the 39 

Negatives on glass 40 

•' definition of 40 

" on glass, to take 41 

" developing solutions for 43 

" fixing solution for 44 

" to develop 43 

" frames to liold 45 

" the color of 54 

" silvery appearance of 116 

Negative bath, the practice of the 51 

" •' changes of the < 53 

'• collodions, to prepare 81, 82, S3 

Nitrate of silver bath for negatives 48, 49 

" " preparation of, for Ambrotypes 49 

" " to iodize 49 

" " to neutralize 137 

Nitric acid — its nature and properties 225 

Nitrate of potasli — its nature and'properties 226 

Nitrate of silver — its nature and properties 226 

Old collodion, to purify 106 

" to remove water from 106 

Pearl Ambrotypes, to make 210 

Plates, to clean, on flat board 120 

Plate-holders, varnish for 191 

Plates, to hold, in proper position 147-143 

Plate-holders necessary for Ambrotypes 125 

Patent-leather process 155 

Patent, Fox Talbot's, notice of 22 

Plate-blocks for holding glasses 126 

Plate-vise for holding glxsses j IjiO 

Paper, Photographic, quality of 117 



240 INDEX. 



PAGB 

Paper, to dry salted 5S 

Practice of the negative process 89 

Printing, instantaneous 101 

" frames 109 

Prints, to restore faded 102 

" from negatives 62 

" positives with chloride of sodium paper and pure silver 29 

" " with ammonia-nitrate of silver ,. ... 58 

Photographic printing 56 

" views 79-80 

" process, theory of the 30 

Photographs, to wash 65 

" to mount 67 

" to varnish 67 

" to print 56 

" positive, on glass 29 

Photography — its history and progress 19 

" its introduction into the United States 28 

" chemicals first employed in 20 

Pictures, negative and positive, on glass and paper 31 

Positive process, theory of the 32 

" fixing the 63 

" washing the 65 

" drying the 67 

" mounting the 67 

" printing the 62-63 

Pyrogallic acid, solution for negatives 88 

Protosulphate of iron — its nature and properties 224 

Quick method of printing 93 

Kc-developing processes 87, 90, 92 

Ketouching negatives 113 

" " for views 112 

" positives on paper 1 19 

Eemoving stains from the hands 204 

" " from linen and clothes 205 

Rehn's recipe for Ambrotype collodion 180 

Statuary, to copy, in Ambrotype 173 

Screens and backgrounds 175 

" blue and white 177 

Stains, to remove, from the hands 204 

" to remove, from clotlics 205 

Single glaaa process ; 161 



INDKX. 241 



PAGE 

Silver, to add, to negative bath 52 

Silver solution, plain 59 

" " ammonia nitrate 95 

Silver, to recover, from old solutions 103 

Silvering the pnptr 5S 

Salting solutions for paper 57 

Stereoscope pictures, to make 75, 76, 77, 78 

" pliilosopiiy ol'the 76 

Stereoscopic Ambrotjpes 152 

Skylight, arrangement of 174 

Spots or streaks on plates 115, 2U0 

Solutions, developing, for Ambrotypes 141, 142, 143 

" " for negatives 87 

Solution, alcoholic, of iodide of potassium 1S6 

" " of bromide of potassium 187 

" " of iodide of silver lS:i 

" " of bromide of silver 1S4 

" " of bromo-iodide of silver 1S5 

Sulphuric acid— its nature and properties 228 

" " impurities of 2J9 

" " test of 229 

Treble glass process 153 

Transparent and opaque spots 19S 

Toning or fixing tlie print 63 

" bath for positives on jjaper 93, 94 

" '• for iron Photographs 74 

Transferring Ambrotypes on paper 1 70 

Uncertainties of the art 55 

Varnishing the pictures 152 

Varnishes, to prepare 1S9 

" applying the 192 

Varnish, for negatives 44 

" new, for Photographs 102 

" to remove superfluous 156 

" thick white, instead of Canada balsam 191 

" used instead of Canada balsam 155 

" white copal 1$9 

" gum-demar 190 

" black asphaltum ] 90 

" white of .shellac and copal 190 

" gum-shellac, for plate-holders 191 

Vocabulary of Photographic chemicals 211 

21 



242 INDEX. 



PACB 

Washing positive prints 65, 66, 118 

" the positive pictures 65 

Water, properties of 231 

'■ impurities of 231 

" distilled 231 

■Weislits and Measures, tubles of 233, 234 

Window-glass for negatives 47 



SCOVILL MllFACTURIXC COMPiNV, 

4 BEEKMAN ST., N. Y., 

Manufacturers, Importers, and Dealers in all Articles 

pertaining to the PiioToGRAPnio, Ambuotype, and 

Daguerreotype Processes. 



ScoviLL Manufacturing Co. liave always on hand 

A FULL assortment OF 

MATERIALS FOR PHOTOGRAPHS AND AMBROTYPES, 

At WHOLESALE and RETAIL. Consisting of 

CHXSIMXCALS 

Of the PUREST QUALITY, fully warranted. Also, 
APPAEATTJS, GUTTA PERCHA, PORCELAIN, and GLASSWARE, 

of all kinds used in tlia Art; 

CASES, MATTINGS, PIIESERVEIIS, and GILT FRAMES, 

Of every known pattern and finish. Together with .ill kinds of 

Of "White, f White, and other qu.Mities, in large varieties. 



Particular attention is called to the 

desi<:ned e^cprossly for Inyins over AMnp.oTYPKS and P Ar.irEP.nF,oTYPF.9. im- 
partinsr to the AMitnOTYi'R a hi^h artisiic tirii>h, even withont the nppliiaiii>n 
of the white varnish. The ntility of this Glass is prommnced unsurpassed by 
the most successful Artists, and it is sold as low as the ordinary Plate Glass. 

Also, a New Article of highly polished 

BIiACK GLASS, 

on which Ambrotypks are taken, supersedins the necessity of using black 
varnish. Tliis needs only to be known to bo adopted. 

Collodion (Iodized and Plain), Gun Cotton, &c., 

Made expressly for them by one of the most successful operators in the country. 



^ ■ » 



Agents for IfarrUon'x Improved Comera-i, Taglialnie'fi Coliodiometert, 
and Actino- Hydrometers for tenting Chemicals, cf-c, d-c. 

Address SCOVILL MANUFACTURING CO., 

4 Beekman St., Nkw Youk. 



HOLMES, BOOTH &1I1YDENS, 



MAKUFACTUREIIS & IMPORTERS 



OF EVERY VARIETY OF 




m^ 



Mm>i 






:s\\psis^\ 



WE 



'91 



DA&UERREOTYPE, 



AND 



PlOTOSMPHie GOOD§, 



OF THE 



BEST QUALITY ONLY. 



HOLMES, BOOTH AND HAYDENS' 



CAMERAS, 



From i to mammoth size, warranted. 



81 CHAMBERS STREET, XEW YORK. 



MMiiufaolory at Waterbury, Conn. 



Pill iiiiiiits 



FOR THE 



AMBROTIPE, PIIOTOORAPIIIC, 

AND 



DEPOT FOR 

Anthony's Celebrated Iodized Collodion for Am- 

brotypes, 

Anthony's Iodized Collodion for Negatives, 
Diamond Varnish for Ambrotvpes, 
Negative Varnish, 
Photographic Varnish, 



" Black Varnish 



Pure IVentral \itrate of Silver, 

Pure Iodides of Potassium, Cadmium, & Ammonium, 

" Bromides " " « 

And Pure Chemicals of all kinds used in the Art. 

Plate Glass for Ambrotypes, in great quantities, and 
of every quality. 

Gutta Percha Baths, Trays, &c. 
Ambrotype Preservers and Mattings. 



An experience of seventeen years in the business gives us 
confidence in ottering our goods. Catalogues furnished on 
api)lication. 

E. ANTHONY, 

Manufacturer of Dayuerreolijpe and Amhrolijpe Cases and Apparatus, 

501 Broadv(ray, New York. 

AMBROTYPE SHIELDS ON HAND, AND MADE TO OEDER. 
Agents for C. C. Harrison''- Cv.\.v.TZKTT.r> Camfp.as. 



K 



^(if 



GETTY CENTER LIBRARY 



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