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Full text of "Photographic amusements : including a description of a number of novel effects obtainable with the camera"

TR 
148 
W6 
1905 



y ^>/ \& r ' >-^^ (^-^ '^ ' 



LIBRARY 

UNIVERSITY OF 
CALIFORNIA 

SAN D1EQO 



Df C. Theron v. E 
Physician &Surgeon f 

Graduate of Royal University of Berlin. 

Specialty Diseases of Women. 

DAVENPORT, - IOWA. 




HOTOGRAPHIC 



AMUSEMENTS 



INCLUDING A DESCRIPTION OF A NUMBER 

OF NOVEL EFFECTS OBTAINABLE 

WITH THE CAMERA 



WALTER E. WOODBURY 

FORMERLY EDITOR OF 

"THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES"; 

AUTHOR OF 
THE ENCYCLOPEDIC DICTIONARY OF PHOTOGRAPHY, 

"ARISTOTYPES AND How TO MAKE THEM," 
ETC., ETC. 



A NEW EDITION 



NEW YORK : 

THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION 
34 UNION SQUARE 

1905 



Copyrighted, 1896. 
BY THE SCOVILL & ADAMS Co., OF NEW YORK, 

1905, 

BY THE PHOTOGRAPHIC TIMES 
PUBLISHING ASSOCIATION. 



PHOTO-TIMES PRES 



CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

INTRODUCTION, 5 

THE MIRROR AND THE CAMERA, - - 7 

THE PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS, - 14 

STATUETTE PORTRAITS, IT 

MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS, - 19 

SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY, - 21 

PHOTOGRAPHY FOR HOUSEHOLD DECORATION, - 29 

LEAF PRINTS, - 33 

To MAKE A PEN AND INK SKETCH FROM A PHOTOGRAPH, 36 

PHOTOGRAPHS ON SILK, 36 

PHOTOGRAPHING A CATASTROPHE, 38 

PHOTOGRAPHS ON VARIOUS FABRICS, - 39 

SILHOUETTES, 41 

PHOTOGRAPHING THE INVISIBLE, 44 

How TO MAKE PHOTOGRAPHS IN A BOTTLE, 44 

PHOTOGRAPHS IN ANY COLOR, 45 

THE DISAPPEARING PHOTOGRAPH, 47 

FREAK PICTURES WITH A BLACK BACKGROUND, 48 

How TO COPY DRAWINGS, 52 

SYMPATHETIC PHOTOGRAPHS, - 56 

DRY-PLATES THAT WILL DEVELOP WITH WATER, 56 

CARICATURE PHOTOGRAPHS, - - 57 

PHOTOGRAPHING SEAWEEDS, 62 

STAMP PORTRAITS, 63 

LUMINOUS PHOTOGRAPHS, - 63 

FLORAL PHOTOGRAPHY, - - - - 64 



4 CONTENTS. 

DISTORTED IMAGES, - 67 

PHOTOGRAPHS WITHOUT LIGHT, - 67 
ELECTRIC PHOTOGRAPHS, 
MAGIC VIGNETTES, - 

A SIMPLE METHOD OF ENLARGING, 71 

MOONLIGHT EFFECTS, 71 

PHOTOGRAPHING SNOW AND ICE CRYSTALS, - - 73 

PHOTOGRAPHING INK CRYSTALS, - 78 

PINHOLE PHOTOGRAPHY, 80 

FREAK PICTURES BY SUCCESSIVE EXPLOSIVES, 83 

WIDE-ANGLE STUDIES, - 85 

CONICAL PORTRAITS, 88 

MAKING DIRECT POSITIVES IN THE CAMERA, 90 

INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY, 91 

ARTIFICIAL MIRAGES BY PHOTOGRAPHY, 98 

PHOTO-CHROMOSCOPE, 98 

COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY, - 99 

TELE-PHOTO PICTURES, - 101 

LIGHTNING PHOTOGRAPHS, - 105 

PHOTOGRAPHING FIREWORKS, 106 

DOUBLES, . 106 

DOUBLE EXPOSURES, 113 

COMICAL PORTRAITS, - - - - 114 



INTRODUCTION. 



A> Mr. Woodbury stated in his introduction to the 
original edition of this book, in order to avoid 
misunderstanding, it would be well to explain at 
the outset that it is not intended as an instruction book 
in the Art of Photography in any sense of the word. It 
is assumed that the reader has already mastered the 
technical difficulties of Photographic practice and is able 
to make a good negative or print. 

It was the purpose of the author to describe a. num- 
ber of novel and curious effects that can be obtained by 
the aid of the camera, together with some instructive and 
interesting photographic experiments. 

The contents of the work were compiled from various 
sources, chiefly from "The Photographic Times," "The 
Scientific American," "The American Annual of Photog- 
raphy," "La Nature," " Photographischer Zeitvertreib, " 
by Herman Schnauss, and "Les Recreations Photogra- 
phiques," by A. Bergeret et F. Drewin; and the illustrations 
were likewise taken from various sources. 

In conclusion the author or compiler modestly lay 
claim to very little himself, quoting the words of Montaigne, 
who said: 

"/ have gathered me a paste of other men s flowers, of which 
nothing but the thread that binds them is mine own." 

And yet so popular did the book prove that in the 
course of its nearly ten years of life, it ran through edition 
after edition, and now is entirely out of print. 

The publishers of The Photographic Times thereupon, 
acquired the copyright of the popular volume and, here- 
with, republish an entirely new edition, which they send 
forth on its mission of instruction and entertainment. 

W. I. LINCOLN ADAMS. 
NEW YORK, January, 1905. 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



THE MIRROR AND THE CAMERA. 

QUITE a number of novel effects can be obtained by the aid of 
one or more mirrors. If two mirrors are taken and placed 
parallel to one another, and a person placed between, the effect 




FIG. I EFFECT OBTAINED WITH PARALLEL MIRRORS. 

obtained is as shown in Fig. 1, where one soldier appears as a 
whole regiment drawn up into line. To make this experiment 
we require two large-sized mirrors, and they must be so 



8 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

arranged that they do not reflect the camera and the photog- 
rapher, but give only multiple images of the sitter. This will 
be found quite possible, all that is necessary is to make a few 
preliminary experiments, adjusting the mirrors at different 
angles until the desired effect is obtained. 

A process of multiphotography which was at one time quite 
popular consisted in posing the sitter with his back to the 
camera as shown in Fig. 2 and 3. In front of him are arranged 
two mirrors, set at the desired angle to eacli other, their inner 
edges touching. In the illustrations here given the mirrors are 
inclosed at an angle of To deg., and five reflected images are 
produced. When an exposure is made and the negative 
developed, we not only have the back view of the sitter but 




FIG - 2 DIAGRAM OF THE PRODUCTION OF FIVE VIEWS OF ONE 
SUBJECT BY MULTIPHOTOGRAPHY. 

the full reflected images in profile, and three-quarter positions 
as well. 

In the diagram, Fig. 2, reproduced from " The Scientific 
American," the courses taken by the rays of light determined 
by the law that the angle of incidence is equal to the angle of 
reflection is plainly marked out. We see here their passage 
from the sitter to the mirror and back to the camera. Pro- 
vided the mirror be large enough images of the full length figure 
can be made as shown in Fig. 4. 

For photographing articles where it is of advantage to 
secure a number of different views of the same object this 
method of photographing with mirrors opens up quite a wide 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. <) 

field of possibilities. In France it is used for photographing 
criminals, and thus obtaining a number of different portraits 
with one exposure. 

The use of an ordinary mirror in portrait work lias en- 




abled photographers to produce very pleasing results. There 
is often a very striking difference between the full and side 
views of a person's face, and by means of such a combination 
as this, one is enabled to secure a perfect representation of both 



10 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



at the same time. In making reflection portraits it has often 
been noted that the reflection lias a more pleasing effect than 
the direct portrait. The reason of this is that it is softer, and 
the facial blemishes are not so distinctly brought out. There 
is naturally a slight loss of detail, but this is by no means a draw- 
back. The worst fault of the camera in portrait photography 
is the tendency to include every little detail which the artist 
would suppress. It not only includes all the detail but often 




FIG. 4. MULTI-PHOTOGRAPH OF A FULL-LENGTH FIGURE. 

exaggerates it to a painful extent. By making a portrait by 
reflection this defect is avoided. Of course the image is reversed, 
but this is in most cases of little consequence ; in fact 
the sitter himself would be more likely to consider it a far 
more truthful likeness, for when we look into a mirror we 
do not see ourselves as others see us, but a reversed image. 
"With some faces the difference is quite striking. 



12 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Very many amusing effects can be obtained by the use 
of a convex mirror. Even an ordinary, well-polished spoon 
may be made to give some curious results (see iig. 6). Ine 
thin man becomes an oblongated mass of humanity that 
Barnum would have given a big salary to, while the fat man 
may be reduced to the proportions of a walking-stick. 

Convex mirrors for producing these ludicrous effects can be 
purchased at any mirror 
manufacturer's store. The 
advantage of the camera 
lies in the ability to secure 
permanently the curious 
images produced. 

Even more ridiculous- 
looking images can be 
secured by the use of a 
piece of uneven glass 
silvered. For a method of 
silvering glass we are in- 
debted to the kindness of 
Dr. James H. Stebbins, Jr., 
the well-known analytical 

chemist. Dissolve pure 

nitrate of silver in distilled 

water in the proportion of 

10 grains to 1 ounce, and 

add carefully, drop by drop, 

sufficient strong ammonia 

solution to just dissolve the 

brown precipitate at first 

formed, stirring constantly during the addition. 

Make a solution of Rochelle salts, 10 grains to the ounce of 

distilled water. Clean the plate of glass thoroughly with a 

little wet rouge and polish dry with a piece of chamois leather. 

Warm it before the fire or in the sun to about TO to 80 deg. 

Fahr., and lay it on a perfectly level surface. Then mix 1 

ounce of the silver solution with half an ounce of the Kochelle 




FIG. 6. ELONGATED REFLECTION 
IN A SPOON. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 13 

salt solution and pour the mixture on the glass, so tliat every 
part of the surface will be evenly covered with it. 

Allow this to stand in the warm sunshine from half to one 
hour, when the reduced silver will be deposited as a fine film 




NO. 7. CURIOUS EFFECT OBTAINED WITH A CONVEX MIRROR. 

over the surface of the glass. When this is done waoh off the 
glass with distilled water and wipe the entire surface very 
gently with a little wet wadding, which will take off the rough- 
ness and render it easier to polish. When perfectly dry the 



1-t 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



silver should be polished by rubbing with some smooth, hard 
surface. The plate is then varnished by pouring over it a 
suitable varnish and is ready for use. 



THE PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS. 

THE name anamorphosis has been given to two kinds of 
pictures distorted ascording to a certain law, and which are of 
such a grotesque appearance that it is often impossible to 
recognize the subject of them ; while viewed with proper 





FIG. 8. ANAMORPHOSIS VIEWED IN CONVEX CYLINDRICAL 
MIRROR.* 

apparatus they appear as perfectly correct images. One kind 
is designed to be viewed by reflection and the other is recon- 
stituted by means of a special rotary apparatus. 

Until quite recently, these pictures were drawn approxi- 
mately from the reflection of the object as seen in a convex 

* From " Experimental Science." Published by Munn & Co., New York. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



15 




FIG. 9. A PHOTO-ANAMORPHOSIS. 

mirror, the position of which was indicated on the drawing 
and which restored it to its real form. M. Fenant conceived 
the idea of employing photography for obtaining these pict- 
ures. Fig. 9 reproduces a photo-anamorphosis from a negative 
by M. Fenant. If a cylindrical mirror be placed on the black 
circle shown in the reproduction the photograph will appear 
in its original form. Our illustration represents a portrait, 
although the features are barely recognizable. Similar 
pictures may be obtained by photographing the drawing or 
subject reflected in a cylindrical concave mirror placed 
perpendicularly. 

The second kind of anamorphosis is produced by the distor- 
tion of the picture in the sense of one of its dimensions. To 
reconstruct it, it is caused to rotate rapidly, at the same time 
that a disc, perforated with a slit through which the picture is 
viewed, is rotated in front of it at a slightly different speed. 

The apparatus invented by M. Linde for producing the 



16 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



anamorphosis is shown in Figs. 10 and 11. G is a camera 
provided with a revolving plate-holder, T. II is a revolving 
disc the movement of which is made to bear a certain relation 
to that of the plate-holder by means of the band F and the 
pulleys D D. The whole is set in operation by a piece of 
clockwork and the G and F. A is the axis of the camera, 
B that of the plate-holder, and C that of the revolving disc. 
On this disc is fixed the picture from which it is desired to 
make an anamorphosis. The relative motions are so regulated 
that when the plate-holder has made a complete revolution the 
disc has turned through an angle of 60 to 80 degrees in the 

- 




FIGS. TO AND IT. LINDE'S APPARATUS FOR PHOTO-ANAMOR- 
PHOSIS. 

opposite direction. Between the plate-holder and the lens is 
a diaphragm pierced with a slit about 10 millimetres wide. 
The action of the light on the plate takes place through this 
slit. The negative obtained, prints are made upon plain salted 
paper and rendered transparent with wax or vaseline. These 
pictures can be viewed in the ordinary apparatus used for 
showing anamorphoses of this kind. The print is fastened to 
a revolving apparatus and in front of it is another disc painted 
black and provided with a number of slits. The latter revolves 
at one-fourth the speed of the picture, and the image when 
viewed through the slit resumes its normal proportions. 



I'HOTOGKAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 1 < 

STATUETTE PORTRAITS- 

THESE were at one time quite popular, and if properly man- 
aged can be rendered very effective. There are several meth- 
ods of making this kind of picture. If the photographer 
possesses a pedestal large enough, all that is necessary is to 
place this on a stand and the person to be photographed 
arranged behind. 

The breast is uncovered and some white soft material art- 
istically arranged in folds over the shoulders and in such a 
way as to appear connected with the pedestal. A black back- 
ground is placed behind and the exposure made. To give a 
more realistic effect the hair, face, and all other parts showing 
should be liberally powdered over with a white powder or rice 
flour. The negative produced will have a clear glass back- 
ground, but the body of the figure will still be visible. This 
is removed by cutting away the film round the pedestal and to 
the arms on each side, leaving only those parts remaining that 
are required to produce the statuette. In printing we get a 
white statuette portrait on a dark background. 

If the photographer does not possess a pedestal the next 
best means to produce these pictures is to get a large sheet of 
cardboard and cut it out to the shape shown in the figure 
beneath, and with white paint make the picture of a pedestal 

shading with a little 
gray to give rotund- 
ity. The figure is 
stationed behind it, 
and a black back- 
ground used. 

A third method 
involves still less 
trouble. This is to 
purchase a ready 
made pedestal nega- 
tive. These are film 
negatives of a pedestal that can be adjusted to the negative of 




18 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



the subject desired to be reproduced as a statue. After the 
negative is taken and varnished the film is scraped off round 
the figure, cutting off the body as shown in the first illustration, 
after which the pedestal negative is adjusted, fastened, and 




. B. Bradshaw. 

FIG. 13. STATUETTE PORTRAIT. 






fe revereible and * be used 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

MAGIC PHOTOGRAPHS. 



19 



TAKE an ordinary silver print and fix it without toning. 
Thoroughly well wash it to remove all traces of the fixing 




solution and then immerse it in a saturated solution of bi- 
chloride of mercury, when the image will disappear. The 
bichloride of mercury changes the photograph into white 



20 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 




chloride of silver and chloride of mercury which is also white. 
The image when on white paper is thus rendered invisible. 

Next soak some strong bibulous paper in a saturated solution 
of sodium hyposulphite, and, when dry, paste a piece of the 
paper to the back of the invisible print with a little starch 
paste attaching it by the edges only. All that is necessary is 

to soak the print in a little 
water, which dissolves the 
sulphite and causes it to 
attack the print and make 
the image perfectly visible 
as a brown picture. Of 
course the image can also be 
made to appear by soaking 
the invisible print, without 
the bibulous paper attached, 
in a solution of sodium 
sulphite, hypo, or water with 
a little ammonia added. 

Magic photographs made 
in the manner above described can also be developed by smoke. 
A novelty introduced in Paris some time ago, consisted of 
a cigarette or cigar holder, shown in Fig. 14, containing 
in its stem a little chamber for the insertion of a small 
piece of apparently plain paper, but in reality invisible 
photographs produced in the manner already described. 
The ammonia vapor in the smoke passing through the 
chamber attacked the print and developed the image. By 
blowing the smoke on the latent image it may be made to 
appear, but the operation is rather tedious, and anyone with a 
little ingenuity can easily construct a cigarette holder with an 
arrangement to hold small pictures and allow the smoke to 
pass through. 

The chamber of the cigarette or cigar holder must of course 
be sufficiently large to allow of the print being inserted in such 
a manner that the smoke can readily attack its surface, other- 
wise uneven development of the image will take place. 



FIG. 15. DEVELOPING THE IMAGE. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 21 

SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPHY. 

MANY years ago, in the old wet-collodion days, a well-known 
photographer was one day surprised by the visitation of a 
spirit. The apparition did not make its appearance during the 
nocturnal hours, as is, we have been given to understand, the 
custom of these ladies and gentlemen from the other world, 
but, strangely enough, in broad daylight ; and not by his bed- 
side to disturb his peaceful slumber, but upon the photograph 




SPIRIT PHOTOGRAPH. 



he was in the act of producing. Had this gentleman been of 
that soft-brained kind, so easily gulled by the professional 
spiritualist, it is possible that he would not have done what lie 
did, which was to make a thorough and scientific examination 
as to the probable cause of the phenomenon. The case was 
this : A gentleman sitter had been taken in the usual manner 
upon a collodion plate. Upon taking a positive print from 



22 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



the negative, lie was surprised to find a dim white figure of a 
lady apparently hovering over the unconscious sitter. Upon 
examination of the negative, the image of the figure was also 
visible, but not so plainly as in the positive. The explanation 




From La Natur 



FIG. 17. SPIRIT PICTURE. 



of the whole matter was soon made easy. In those days glass 
was not so cheap as at present, and all new or spoilt negatives 
were cleaned off and freshly prepared with collodion for 
further use. In this case the glass had previously supported 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



23 



the negative image of a lady dressed in white. Some chemical 
action had evidently taken place between the image and the 
glass itself, turning the latter slightly yellow in some parts. 
This faint yellow image, although hardly visible in the nega- 




FTOIU La Natur 



FIG. l8. SPIRIT PICTURE. 

tive, had, being of a non-actinic color, given quite a distinct 
image in the positive. The case was net an isolated one, as 
these spirit photographs, as they were called, often made their 
appearance when old negatives were cleaned and the glass 



24 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

used again. The precise action producing the image has 
never, we think, been satisfactorily explained. It could often 
be made more distinct by breathing on the gldss. We do not 
know if any enterprising humbug ever took advantage of this 
method of producing spirit photographs to extort money from 
the unwary, but about ten years ago a work was published, 
entitled " Chronicles of the Photographs of Spiritual Beings 
and Phenomena Invisible to the Material Eye," by a Miss 
Houghton. In this a number of reproductions of photographs 
of " spirits " were given with a detailed explanation of how 
they were obtained and the difficulties attending their pro- 
duction, the " spirits " being apparently of very independent 
natures, only making their appearance when they felt so 
inclined. It is quite possible that a person entirely ignorant 
of photographic methods might be led into the belief that 
they were actually photographic images of the dead, but we 
fear that the book is hardly well enough written to deceive 
the experienced photographer. At certain and most unfortun- 
ate periods in the process employed, some of the plates had a 
convenient habit of slipping into the washing tank and there, 
according to the author, becoming utterly ruined ; also we 
learn that many were ruined by being accidently smudged by 
the photographer's fingers. We should not, we fear, have a 
very high opinion of an operator who was in the constant 
habit of " smudging " negatives with his fingers so as to 
entirely spoil them, nor can we quite understand what brand 
of plates was used that "got spoiled by falling into the water." 

It is not difficult to explain how these pictures were pro- 
duced. There are quite a number of methods. With a weak- 
minded sitter, over whom the operator had complete control, 
the matter would be by no wise a difficult one. It would 
then only be necessary for the spirit, suitably attired for the 
occasion, to appear for a few seconds behind the sitter during 
the exposure and be taken slightly out of focus, so as not to 
appear too corporeal. 

If, however, the sitter be of another kind, anxious to dis- 
cover how it was done and on the alert for any deceptive prac- 



PHOTOGRAPH 1C AMUSEMENTS. 



25 



tices, the method described would be rather a risky one, as he 
might turn round suddenly at an inconvenient moment and 
detect the modus operandi. In such a case it becomes neces- 
sary to find some other method where it would not be requisite 
for the "spirit" to make its appearance during the presence 
of the sitter. 

The ghostly image can be prepared upon the plate, either 
before or after the exposure of the sitter. The method is this : 
In a darkened room the draped figure to represent the spirit 
is posed in a spirit-like attitude (whatever that may be) in 
front of a dark background with a suitable magnesium or 
other arrangement light thrown upon the figure, which is then 
focused in the " naturalistic " style ; or, better still, a fine piece 
of muslin gauxe is placed close to the lens, which gives a hazy, 
indistinct appearance to the image. The exposure is made 
and the latent image remains upon the sensitive plate, which 
is again used to photograph the sitter. Upon developing we 
get the two images, the "spirit'' mixed up with the figure. 
The spirit should be as indistinct as possible, as it will then be 
less easy for the subject to dispute the statement that it is the 
spirit-form of his dead and gone relative. ISome amount ol 
discretion in this part of the perfor- 
mance must be used, wefancy, otherwise 
the same disaster might happen asdid to 
a spiritualist some little time ago. An 
elderly gentleman had f come .for a 
stance, and, after some mysterious 
maneuvers, Jhe gentleman was in- 
f<&Hed that the spirit of his mother 
was there. ''Indeed!" replied the 
gentleman, gome what astonished. 
"What does she say?" "She says 
she will see you soon," informed the 
medium. "You are getting old now "SPIRIT" PK 
and must soon join her." "Quite 

right," replied the old gentleman ; " I am going round to her 
house to tea to-night." Total collapse of spiritualist. 





FIG. 20. PHOTOGRAPH OF "SPIRITS." 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



Fluorescent substances, such as bisulpliate of quinine, can 
also be employed, This compound, although almost invisible 
to the eye, photographs nearly black. If a white piece of 
paper be painted with the substance, except on certain parts, 
the latter only will appear white in the picture. 




FIG. 21. PAINTING BY N. SICHEL. 
From which " Spirit " Photograph was made. 

We hope that it will not be inferred that we desire to ex- 
plain how to deceive persons w r ith regard to photographs of 
spirits, for this is not so ; we only hope that they will be made 



28 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

merely for amusement, and if possible to expose persons who 
practice on t'ie gullibility of inexperienced persons. 

Fig. 20 is a reproduction of a " spirit " photograph made 
by a photographer, claiming to be a "spirit photographer," 
and to have the power to call these ladies and gentle- 
men from the '-vasty deep" and make them impress their 
image upon the sensitive plate by the side of the portraits 
of their living relatives. 

Fortunately, however, we were in this case able to expose 
this fraud. Mr. W. M. Murray, a prominent member of the 
Society of Amateur Photographers of New York called our 
attention to the similarity between one of the ''spirit" 
images and a portrait painting by Sichel, the artist. 

A reproduction of the picture is given herewith, Fig. 21, and 
it will be seen at once that the spirit image is copied from it. 

In a recent number of The Australian Photographic Journal 
we read of the following novel method of making so-called 
spirit photographs : " Take a negative of any supposed spirit 
that is to be represented, put it in the printing frame with 
the film side out; lay on the glass side a piece of platinotype 
paper with the sensitive side up ; clamp in place the back 
of the printing frame and expose to the sun for half a 
minute. Now place in the printing frame the negative of 
another person to whom the spirit is to appear, and over it 
put the previously exposed sheet film side down ; expose to the 
sun for two minutes' until the image is faintly seen, then 
develop in the usual way and the blurred spirit photograph 
will appear faintly to one side or directly behind the distinct 
image. Sheets of paper with different ghost exposures can be 
prepared beforehand." 

Spirit photograph might "easily be made by means of Prof. 
Roentgens newly discovered process of impressing an image 
upon a photographic dry-plate without uncovering the shutter. 
The process would however entail considerable expense and 
would necessitate the use of so much costly apparatus that we 
will content ourselves with the simple mention of the pos- 
sibility. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



29 



PHOTOGRAPHY FOR HOUSEHOLD DECORATION. 

How few amateur photographers there are who thoroughly 
enter into the enjoyment of the art-science as a pastime. 
Many of these, perhaps, must be excused for the reason that 
they are ignorant of its capabilities. Indeed, how many there 
are who imagine that the art of photography consists in mak- 
ing negatives and, from these, prints good, bad and indifferent. 
All the friends and relations are called into requisition " to be 
taken." At first they do not mind, thinking it a fine thing to 
have a portrait made for nothing; but when they see the 
result they very naturally object to be caricatured, and the 
amateur loses many a friend, and the maiden aunt leaves all 
her money to the home for stray cats. If he is a married man 
and. delights in a happy, cosy home, neatly and artistically 
decorated, photography can be of very great assistance to him 
how much, few 
realize. There are a 
thousand different 
ways in which it can 
be of use, and the 
photographer has al- 
ways before him some 
permanent record of 
his travels and skill. 

Let us take, for in- 
stance, the making of 
transparencies. 
These are very simply 
made. Carbutt, I 
believe, supplies 
plates ready made for 
the purpose. Every 
amateur becomes pos- 
sessed after a time of a large number of negatives, good, 
bad, and indifferent. Let him carefully go through these, 
selecting a'l t!:e printable ones and pictures that he mostly 




30 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

admires. From these, transparencies can be made, either by 
contact, or enlarged or reduced inthe camera. Persons residing 
in cities often have a nicely furnished room utterly marred by 
an unsightly outlook. Perhaps a view of chimney pots and 
dirty back yards. In such a case all that is necessary is to fit 
in the lower panes of glass some neat photographs on glass 
backed with thin ground-glass. These can be puttied in, or 
they can be fitted in neat brass frames and hung up against 
the windows. 

The craze of the present day appears to be in the direction 
of bright and gaudy colors, except with the more highly 
cultivated, who recognize the artistic 
value of unobtrusive colors and deli- 
cate tints. A photograph, provided 
it is a good one, is always to be pre- 
ferred to colored pictures unless the 
latter are by good artists. We once 
constructed with a half dozen of trans- 
parencies a very neat lamp shade. 
Some idea of it can be obtained from 
Fig. 23. 

A brass frame is first constructed, 
and any wire maker will execute this 
so as to hold the six or eight pictures. 
The transparencies are made, cut down 
to the size and shape required and fitted 
in small brass tabs at the back to keep 
them in their places behind the trans- 
parency; then ground glass of the 

same size and shape is fitted. The glasses should not fit too 
tightly in the brass frames or on expanding by the heat tlu-y 
willl crack. 

A hall lamp can be treated in the same way, the colored 
glass removed and photographic transparencies substituted. 
Photos on glass can in the same way be used for a variety of 
other purposes, such as fire screens, candle shades, etc. 

Next look up your stock of prints, scraps, waste prints, etc. 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



31 



Often from a large, spoilt picture you can get a neat little bit 
about a couple of inches square or less ; look up all these and 
from them a photographic chess-board can be made. Our 
illustration in Fig. 24 is intended to show what is meant, 
although our artist has not been happy in the selection of his 
material to represent photographic views and portraits. First 
mark out a square the size you wish the chess board to be. 
Divide it into sixty four equal squares and draw a neat border 
round it. Thirty-two of the squares are then neatly pasted 




no. 24. 

over with selected photographs as varied as possible in subjects. 
Sixteen are fitted one way and sixteen the other. Our illus- 
tration is incorrect in this respect. The sixteen pictures 
should be placed the right way on the sixteen squares nearest 
to each player. "When the photographs have all been pasted on 
and dried the whole is sized and varnished. If, however, it is 
desired to preserve this photographic chess board, and at the 
same time to use it frequently, a better plan is to cover over 
with a glass plate and bind all round the edges to prevent, dus* 
from entering. 



32 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

In a similar way a neat card table can be manufactured. 
Fig. 25 is intended to illustrate the top of the table covered 
with photographs and protected by a glass plate. 

A little consideration will no doubt give various other 
similar ideas to the reader. 

Those who can work the carbon process successfully have it 
in their power to transfer .photographs in various colors to all 
kinds of supports to wood for instance. The panels of a 
door can be very considerably -improved by -t!;e insertion 
of photographs on fine grain wood, varnished. 




FIG. 25, 

Pictures can in this manner bo transferred to plates, china 
and ornaments of every description. 

Various methods of printing on silk and various fabrics 
have from time to time been given. Perhaps the best for our 
purpose is the primuline process, as various colored images can 
be produced, with but little trouble, on all kinds of material. 
A description of the process will be found in another part of 
this work. 

These' the amateur can hand over to his better half or female 
relations, who with the natural feminine abilities will produce 
all sorts of pretty artistic articles for decorating the room. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



33 



We are well aware that we hare by no means enumerated 
one half of the various means in which photography can be 
employed for decorating the house, but hope at least to have 
given the reader some idea of what its capabilites are. 



LEAF PRINTS. 

XOTHING can exceed the beauty of form and structure of 
the leaves of different plants. Kuskin observes: "Leaves 
take all kinds of strange shapes, as if to invite us to ex- 
amine them. S J .ar-shaped, heart-shaped, spear-shaped, fretted, 
fringed, cleft, furrowed, serrated, sinuated ; in whirls, in 
tufts, in spires, in wreaths, endlessly expressive, deceptive, 
fantastic, never the 
same, from footstalk 
to blossom, they seem 
perpetually to tempt 
our watchfulness and 
take delight in out- 
stripping our won- 
der." Photography 
has placed in our 
hands a simple 
method of preserving 
facsimiles of their 
every varying shapes 
that will lact long 
after the leaf lias died 
and crumbled to dust. 
Although the discov- 
ery of the darkening 
action of silver chlor- 
ide when exposed to 
light was discovered 
by Scheele as far back as 1777 little was apparently known of 
the possibilities attending the discovery until 1839, when Fox 




FIG. 26. LEAF PRINT. BY T. GAFFIELD. 



34: 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



Talbot read a paper on "A Method of Photogenic Drawing." 
in which he described various experiments that could be made 
with paper coated with this substance, and showed many 
pictures of leaves, ferns, and pieces of lace which he had 
obtained. 




FIG. 27. LEAF PRINT. 



BY T. GAFFIELD. 



The illustrations which we reproduce herewith are repro- 
ductions from leaf prints made by Mr. Thomas Gaffield, who 
has made quite a study of this fascinating pastime. In a 
little work entitled " Photographic Leaf Prints," published in 
1861), he describes his method. The leaves and ferns are iirst 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 35 

selected and pressed between the leaves of a book. They 
must not be dried as in that state they do not so readily permit 
the light to pass through and the delicate structure of the leaf 
would not be reproduced. They should therefore only be 
pressed sufficiently to allow the excess of moisture to be 
extracted. A sheet of glass is put into the printing frame and 
the leaves artistically arranged. When the arrangement is 
satisfactory the leaves are attached to the glass with a little 
mucilage to prevent them from slipping out of their places. 
A sheet of sensitive paper, albumen, aristo, or platinum is then 
inserted, the frame closed up and exposed to the light until a 
very dark print is obtained. The time required in printing 
must be found by practice ; it will, of course, differ according 
to the intensity of the light. It is a good plan to employ an 
actinometer to judge of the correct exposure. It is not possible 
to open the frame as a double or blurred picture would result. 
The leaves should be exposed sufficiently long to enable the 
light to penetrate through them and give a distinct image of 
the veins and structure. 

When the printing is completed the paper is removed and 
toned and fixed in the usual manner. If platinotype paper is 
used, this, of course, requires development. The resulting 
picture gives us a light impression of the leaves on a dark 
background, but if so desired, the print thus obtained can be 
used as a negative. It can be made transparent with wax or 
vaseline, and prints obtained from it giving a dark image on a 
white ground. It is difficult to say which picture is the more 
beautiful. We give illustrations of pictures of both kinds. 
Fig. 26 and 27. 

Naturally enough the beau'y of these pictures lies in the 
careful selection and arrangement of the leaves. Those which 
are too thick should not be used. Delicate ones showing 
by transmitted light, all the veins are the most suitable. Thev 
can be arranged artistically in any shape, or form. We pre- 
fer, however, a life like arrangement to the construction of 
various shapes and designs. 



36 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

TO MAKE A PEN AND INK SKETCH FROM A 

PHOTOGRAPH. 

BY the following method anyone can, without any knowl- 
edge of drawing, produce from a photograph a pen and ink 
sketch suitable for reproduction as an illustration. From the 
negative a silver print is made on albumen or gelatine or 
collodion paper. This is fixed without toning in a solution of 
hyposulphite of soda. It must then be thoroughly washed to 
remove all traces of hypo, and when dry, the outlines of the 
photograph are traced over with a fine pen and a waterproof 
ink, obtainable at any artist's material store. If the photog- 
rapher possesses a little knowledge of drawing some of the 
shading can also be attempted. "When the ink is dry the pict- 
ure is immersed in a saturated solution of bichloride of mercury 
(poison) when the photograph will disappear, leaving the out- 
line sketch intact. The picture is again well washed and 
dried. Newspaper sketches are often made from photographs 
in this manner, a zincotype being quickly produced from the 
drawing. 



PHOTOGRAPHS ON SILK. 

PHOTOGRAPHS can be made very effective printed upon silk, 
satin, or other fabrics. There are several methods of accom- 
plishing this. A simple one is the following :* The silk best 
suited for the purpose is that known as Chinese silk, and this 
is first washed in warm water with plentiful lather of soap ; 
then rinse in hot water, and gradually cool until the final 
washing water is quite cold. Next prepare the following 
solutions : Tannin, 4 parts ; distilled water, 100 parts. Sod- 
ium chloride, 4 parts; arrowroot, 4: parts; acetic acid, 12 
parts; distilled water, 100 parts. 

The arrowroot is mixed up into a paste with a little of ti/e 
distilled water, and the remainder added boiling hot, with the 
acid and the salt previously dissolved in it. When the solution 

* From the "Encyclopaedic Dictionary of Photography," by the author. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 3 

is quite clear the tannin solution is added, and the whole allowed 
to get fairly cool. The silk is then immersed for about three 
minutes, being kept under without air in the folds, and then 
hung up to dry, or stretched out with pins on a flat board. 
The material is then sensitized by brushing over with the fol- 
lowing solution: Silver nitrate, 12 parts; distilled water, 100 
parts ; nitric acid, 2 drops to every 3 ounces. Other methods 
of sensitizing are by immersing in or floating on the silver 
solution. After sensitizing, the material is dried by pinning 
on to a board to keep flat. It is then cut up as required, and 
printed behind the negative. Every care must be taken in 
printing to keep the material flat, and without wrinkles or 
folds. It must also be kept quite straight ; otherwise, the 
image will be distorted. Printing is carried on in the same 
manner as with albumenized paper. It is then washed and 
toned in any toning bath. The sulphocyanide gives the 
best action. Fix in a 10 per cent, solution of hyposulphite 
of soda for ten minutes ; wash and dry spontaneously. When 
just damp, it is ironed out flat with a not over-heatfd 
iron. Black tones can be obtained with a platinum toning bath, 
or with the uranium and gold toning bath, made up as fol- 
lows: Gold chloride, 1 part; uranium nitrate, 1 part. Dis- 
solved and neutralized with sodium carbonate, and then added 
to sodium chloride, 1C parts; sodium acetate, 10 parts; sodium 
phosphate, 16 parts; distilled water, 4,<>00 parts. 

Very effective results may be made by printing with wide 
white margins, obtained by exposing with a non-actinic mask. 

Another method is the following : Ammonium chloride, 100 
grains ; Iceland moss, CO grains ; water (boiling), 20 ounces. 

When nearly cold this is filtered, and the silk immersed in 
it for about fifteen minutes. To sensitize, immerse the silk in 
a 20 grain solution of silver nitrate for about sixteen minutes. 
The silver solution should be rather acid. 

Or immerse the silk in water, 1 ounce ; sodium chloride, 5 
grains ; gelatine, 5 grains. When dry, float for thirty seconds 
on a 50 grain solution of silver nitrate. Dry slightly, over print 
and tone in the following bath : Gold chloride, 4 grains ; sod- 



3S PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

him acetate, 2 drachms; water, 29 ounces. Keep twenty-four 
hours before using. Fix for twenty minutes in hypo, 4 
ounces to the pint of water. 



PHOTOGRAPHING A CATASTROPHE. 

Ox this page we reproduce a curious photograph by M. 
Bracq, which appeared some time ago in the Photo Gazette. 




in Photo Gazett 



FIG. 28. A CATASTROPHE. 



Despite all the terrible catastrophe which it represents, carry- 
ing pictures along with him in his fall the -subject has notexper- 



PHOTOGKAI'HIC AMUSKMKXTS. 




FIG 29. 



fenced the least imeasiness, not even so much as will certainly 
be felt by our readers at the sight of the tumble represented. 

The mode of operating in this case is very simple and we 
are indebted to La Nature for the description of the method 
employed by M. Bracq. The photographic apparatus being 
suspended at a few yards from the floor of the room, in such 
a way as to render the ground- 
glass horizontal (say between the 
two sides of a double ladder a 
combination that permits of easy 
focusing and putting the plates 
in place), there is spread upon the 
floor a piece of wall paper, about 
feet in length by 5 feet in 
width, at the bottom of which a 
wainscot has been drawn. A lad- 
der, a few pictures, a statuette, 
and a bottle are so arranged as to 
give an observer the il 1 usion of the 
wall of a room, that of a dining room for instance. A hammer, 
some nails, etc., are placed at the proper points. Finally, a 
5 feet by 2^ feet board, to which a piece of carpet, a cardboard 
plate, etc., have been attached, is placed under the foot of a 
chair, which then seems to rest upon this faUe floor at right 
angles with that of the room. 

Everything being ready, the operator lies down quietly in 
the midsts of these objects, assumes a frightened expression, 
and waits until the shutter announces to him that he can leave 
his not very painful position. This evidently is merely an 
example that our readers will bo able to modify and vary at 
their will. 

PHOTOGRAPHS ON VARIOUS FABRICS. 

Bv means of a dye process known as the ' Primuline Pro- 
cess," very pretty images in various colored dyes can be made 
upon silks, satins, cotton goods, etc. The material is first 
dyed in a hot solution of primuline, made by adding about 15 
to 30 grains of the dye to a. gallon of hot water; a little com- 



4() PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

mon salt should also be added. On immersing the fabric, and 
stirring it about in the solution, it becomes of a primrose 
yellow color, when it is removed and washed under a cold- 
water tap. The next process is to diazotise it by immersion 
for half a minute or so in a cold solution of sodium nitrate, 
one quarter per cent, which has been sharply acidified with hydro- 
chloric or other acid. The material is again washed in cold 
water, but it must be kept in a weak light. It can be hung 
up to dry in the dark, or exposed while wet beneath the object 
of which it is required to produce a positive reproduction. 
This process gives a positive from a positive, so that any ordin- 
ary picture on a sufficiently translucent material flowers, 
ferns, etc. can bo reproduced. Printing requires about half 
a minute in the direct sunlight to half an hour or more in dull 
weather, or if the material to be printed through is not very 
transparent. The high light becomes of a pale yellow, so that 
a faint image is perceptible ; but this is made visible in almost 
any color by development i.i a weak solution (about one-fourth 
per cent.) of a suitable phenol or amine. The following have 
been found suitable : 

For Bed. An alkaline solution of /3-napthol. 

For Maroon. An alkaline solution of /tf-napthol-disul- 
phonic acid. 

For Yellow. An alkaline solution of phenol. 

For Orange. An alkaline solution of resorcin. 

Brown. A slightly alkaline solution of pyro-gallol, or a 
solution of phenylene-diarnine-hydrochloride. 

For Purple. A solution of a napthylamine hydrochloride. 

For Blue. A slightly acid solution of amidol, /3 napthol, ft 
sulphonate of sodium, now better known as " eikonogen." 

If the design is to ba made in several colors, this can be 
done by painting on the different developers, suitably thickened 
with starch. After developing, the material is well washed 
and dried. With the purple and blue developers it is necces- 
sary to wash the material finally in a weak solution of tartaric 
acid. Wool and silk require a longer exposure to light than 
other fabrics, and cannot be successfully developed with the 
maroon or blue developer. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 41 

SILHOUETTES. 

SILHOUETTE portraits were at one time very popular. They 
are simply made, and if the effect is well carried out will 
afford considerable amusement. The best description of their 
manufacture was given some time ago by Herr E. Sturmaun, 
in Die Photographisclie Correspondenz. His method is as 
follows : 

B 



FIG. 30. 

Place two dark back-grounds in parallel position about 4- 
feet from the sky and side light of the studio and distant from 
each other about six feet. Improvise a dark tunnel bv draw- 




no. 31. 



ing a black cloth, of non-reflecting material, over the two dark 
grounds, and arrange a white screen, somewhat larger than the 
distance between the two dark grounds in an oblique position 
SO as to be fully illuminated. 



42 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

A A. The sky and side light. B B. Two dark back-grounds. 
C. The white screen in oblique position. D. The subject. E. 
The camera. 

The subject to be silhouhetted must be placed in the centre 
of the tunnel, one side of the face turned towards one ground, 
but comparatively nearer to the white screen so that the side 
of the face turned towards the camera is as much as possible 
in the shade. 

Focus must be taken accurately, so that the outlines of the 
figure are perfectly sharp. 




FIG. 32. 

As it is the object to obtain a perfectly transparent, glass- 
clear silhouette upon an absolutely opaque ground, but a very 
fhort time of exposure is required. 

Develop as usual and to secure perfect opacity intensify 
more than usual. Plates of lower sensitiveness invariably give 
the best results. A slow plate or one made particularly for 
reproductions is well adapted for this kind of work. With 
ferrous oxalate of hydrochinon developer there is scarcely any 
need of intensifying. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



43 



To obviate the shadows cast upon the floor by the lower 
parts of the figure, place it upon a thick, large plate-glass, sup- 




no. 33. 
ported bv props of. iive or six inches in height, and spread 




FIG. 34. 

upon the floor under the glass a piece of white muslin. The 
musKn must be free of folds or wrinkles, and be so con- 



44: PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

uected with the white screen, that the division line between is 
not reproduced upon the plate. 

The very feeble shadows of the feet can be easily touched 
away with pencil. 

Single persons or groups of two or three figures can be 
photographed in this peculiar style with very good effect. 
For head and busts expose in the usual man- 
ner, but to obtain silhouettes, similar to those 
our grandmothers had cut in black paper, and 
long before photography was thought of, 
cut an appropriate mask of black paper to 
cover the part not wanted during printing. FIG - 35- 

It should be born in mind that in this class of work the 
white background only is the object to be photographed, hence 
the necessity of but very short exposures. With longer ex- 
posures absolute blacks and whites are impossible. 



' goou ei 

I 



PHOTOGRAPHING THE INVISIBLE. 

THE following is a curious and interesting experiment, 
based upon the peculiar property possessed by fluorescent 
substances of altering the refrangibility of the chemical light 
rays. Take a colorless solution of bisulphate of quinine, and 
write or draw with it on a piece of white paper. When dry 
the writing or design will be invisible, but a photograph made 
of it will show them very nearly black. 



HOW TO MAKE A PHOTOGRAPH INSIDE A BOTTLE. 

GET a glass-blower to make an ordinary shaped wine-bottle 
of very thin arid clear glass, and clean it well. Next take 
the white of two eggs and add to it 29 grains of ammonia 
chloride dissolved in I drachm of spirits of wine, and one- 
half ounce of water. Beat this mixture into a thick froth. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 45 

and then allow it to stand and settle. Filter through a tuft 
of cotton-wool, and pour into the specially made bottle. By 
twisting the bottle round, an even layer of the solution will 
deposit itself on the sides. Ponr off the remaining solution, 
allow the film in the bottle to dry, and again repeat the 
operation. 

The next operation is to sensitize the film with a solution 
of nitrate of silver, 40 grains to 1 ounce of water. Pour this 
in and turn the bottle round for a few minutes, then pour off 
superfluous solution and again dry. Hold the neck of the 
bottle for a few seconds over another bottle containing 
ammonia, so as to allow the fumes to enter it. Printing is 
the next operation ; this is accomplished by tying a film 
negative round the bottle, and covering up all the other parts 
from the light. Print very deeply, keeping the bottle turning 
round all the time. Toning, fixing, and washing can be done 
in the ordinary way by filling the bottle up with the different 
solutions. The effect is very curious, and can be improved 
by coating the inside of the bottle with white enamel. 



PHOTOGRAPHS IN ANY COLOR. 

THESE can be produced by what is known as the powder or 
dusting-on process. The principle of the process is this: An 
organic, tacky substance is sensitized with potassium bichro- 
mate, and exposed under a reversed positive to the action of 
light. All these parts acted upon become hard, the stickiness 
disappearing according to the strength of the light action, 
while those parts protected by the darker parts of the positive 
retain their adhesiveness. If a colored powder be dusted over, 
it will be understood that it will adhere to the sticky parts 
only, forming a complete reproduction of the positive printed 
from. Prepare Dextrine, one-half ounce ; grape sugar, one- 
half ounce ; bichromate of potash, one-half ounce ; water, one- 
half pint ; or saturated solution bichromate of ammonia, 5 



Q PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

drachms ; honey, 3 drachms ; albumen, 3 drachms ; distilled 
water, 20 to 30 drachms. 

Filter, and coat clean glass plates with this solution, and dry 
with a gentle heat over a spirit lamp. While still warm the 
plate is exposed under a positive transparency for from two to 
five minutes in sunlight, or from 10 to twenty minutes in 
diffused light. On removing from the printing frame, the 
plate is laid for a few minutes in the dark in a damp place to 
absorb a little moisture. The next process is the dusting on. 
For a black image Siberian graphite is used, spread over with 
a soft flat brush. Any colored powder can be used giving 
images in different colors. When fully developed the excess 
of powder is dusted off and the film coated with collodion. It 
is then well washed to remove the bichromate salt. The film 
can, if desired, be detached and transferred to ivory, wood, or 
any other support. 

If a black support be used, a ferrotype plate on Japanned 
wood, for instance, pictures can be made from a negative, but 
in this case a light colored powder must be used. The Jap- 
anese have lately succeeded in making some very beautiful 
picture in this manner. Wood is coated over with that black 
enamel for which they are so famous, and pictures made upon 
it in this manner. They use a gold or silver powder. 

With this process an almost endless variety of effects can be 
obtained. For instance, luminous powder can be employed 
and an image produced which is visible in the dark. 

Sometime ago we suggested a plan of making what might 
be termed '< post-mortem " photographs of cremated friends 
and relations. A plate is prepared from a negative of the 
dead person in the manner described, and the ashes dusted 
over. They will adhere to the parts unexposed to light, and 
a portrait is obtained composed entirely of the person it repre- 
sents, or rather what is left of them. The idea is not par- 
ticularly a brilliant one, nor do we desire to claim any credit 
for it, but we give it here for the benefit of those morbid indi- 
viduals who delight in sensationalism, and who purchase and 
treasure up pieces of the rope used by the hangman. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 4 < 

THE DISAPPEARING PHOTOGRAPH. 

A method of making a photograph which can be made to 
appear at will is thus described in Les Recreations Photo- 
yraphique'. 

TAKE a convex watch crystal, Y, or any similar glass larger 
if desired for instance, those used for colored photographs; 
clean the glass well, place it perfectly level, convex side down, 
and fill it even full with a mixture of white wax and hog's- 
lard. When it has solidified, apply to the back a Hat glass 
plate, P, cut exactly to the largest dimensions of the convex 




FIG. 36. 

glass, secure the glasses together with a strip, ?>. of gold- 
beaters' skin, fastened by strong glue as shown in the figure. 
Now mount a portrait, with the front towards the convex glass, 
on the plate P. The combination is now ready ; by heating 
it the wax between the two glasses melts and becomes trans- 
parent, allowing the portrait to be seen ; on cooling it will 
lose its transparence and the portrait will disappear. 



48 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

FREAK PICTURES WITH A BLACK BACKGROUND. 

IF an object be placed against a non-actinic background 
and an exposure made, the black parts surrounding it will not 
have any effect upon the plate, and the object can be shifted 
to another part and another exposure made. In a recent 
article published in La Nature, and translated in the /Scientific 




FIG. 37. A DECAPITATION. 

American, a number of curious effects obtained by 
M. R. Riccart, of Sainte Foix les Lyons, are described and 
illustrated. 

The system employed by the author of these photographs is 
that of the natural black background obtained through the 
open door of a dark room, combined with diaphragms skill- 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 49 

fully arranged in the interior of the apparatus, between the 
objective and sensitized plate. This is the surest method of 
obtaining the desired effect with the greatest precision, without 
the junctions being visible, and with perfect clearness for the 
section of the parts removed. To this effect, it is necessary to 
place the diaphragm at three or four centimeters from the 
ground glass, in the last folds of the bellows of the camera. 




FIU. 38. ANOTHER DECAPITATION. 

The following are a few data as to the manner in which the 
scenes that we reproduced were obtained. The first, represent- 
ing a decapitation by means of a saber (Fig. 37), was taken by 
means of an exposure in which the head was placed upon the 
block, the subject inclining forward upon his knees, and a 



50 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



diaphragm, occupying about two-thirds of the plate, com- 
pletely masking the body up to the neck. Then, without 
changing the position of the apparatus, the diaphragm was 
placed on the other side in order to conceal the head, and the 
body was photographed in the second position along with the 
person representing the executioner. It would have been 
possible, by a third exposure, to so arrange things as to make 
the executioner the decapitated person. It was by the same 
process that the three following scenes were obtained: A per- 




FIG. 39. THE HEAD IN THE WHEELBARROW. 

son with his head placed before him in a plate (Fig. 38); a 
man carrying his head in a wheelbarrow (Fig. 39); and a 
person to whom his own head is served in a plate (Fig. 40). 
Such scenes may be varied to any extent. Fig. 41 is a 
photograph of a decapitation, while Fig. 42 is made by 
two exposures of an individual at different distances but so 
combined as to give the appearance of one exposure. Fig. 43 
> that of a person in a bottle. The individual represented was 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 51 

first photographed on a sufficiently reduced scale to allow him 
to enter the bottle. This exposure was by using a screen con- 
taining an aperture, as for the Kussian background. But this 
precaution was taken merely to conceal the floor, and yet it 




FIG 40. THE HEAD UPON A PLATE. 

would perhaps be preferable in such a case to have the subject 
stand upon a stool covered with a very black fabric. However 
this may be, when once the iirst impres ion has been made, 
there is nothing more to be done than to photograph the bottle 
on a larger scale and the result is obtained. 



52 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

HOW TO COPY DRAWINGS. 



THERE are three principal methods of copying mechanical 
drawings, tracings, sketches, etc. These are: (L) A process 
to obtain white lines upon blue ground ; (2) a process by 
which blue lines upon a white ground are obtained ; and (3) 
a process giving black or violet-black lines upon a white 
ground. 




FIG. 41. THE SAWED-OFF HEAD. 

The first process is undoubtedly the simplest, as after 
printing upon the paper it is developed and fixed by simple 
immersion in cold water ; but, at the same time, the white 
lines on the blue ground are not so clear and effective as the 
other processes. The cyanotype paper, as it is called, can be 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



53 



obtained ready for use at any draughtsman's stores, but if you 
prefer to make it yourself, here is the recipe : Two solutions 
are made 20 parts of red prussiate of potash are dissolved in 
100 parts of water, and 10 parts of ammonio-citrate of iron in 
60 parts of water. These two solutions should be mixed 
together immediately before using, and the operation must be 
performed in the dark. Paper is floa'ed on this solution, or 




FIG. 42. THE REDUCTION. 

applied with a broad camel-hair brush, and hung up to dry. 
If it is well dried and carefully preserved from light, moist- 
ure, and air this paper will keep for some time. After print- 
ing which, when sufficient, should show the lines copied of 
a yellow color upon a blue ground the prints should be 
washed in several waters ; and if a few drops of chlorine 



54 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

water or dilute hydrochloric acid be added to the washing 
water, the blue ground will appear much darker and the lines 
rendered clearer and whiter. By this method the commercial 
paper sold is generally prepared. The prints, may, if desired, 
be changed from blue to black by immersing in a 4 per cent, 
solution of caustic potash until the blue is changed to yellow. 
After being well washed, they are laid in a solution of tannin. 




FIG. 43. MAN IN A BOTTLE. 

Blue prints may be given the black tone by plunging them 
into a solution of 4 parts of potash in 100 parts of water; then, 
when the blue color has entirely disappeared under the action 
of the potash, and a yellowish color has taken its place, they 
are immersed in a solution of 4 parts of tannin in 100 parts of 
water; then, washing them again, we obtain prints whose tone 
may be assimilated t<? that of pale writing ink. 



PHOTOGKAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 55 

In the process giving blue lines upon a white ground, it is 
necessary that the action of the light shall be to convert the 
iron compound into one that can be discharged from instead 
of being fixed on the paper, so that we obtain a positive from 
a positive. Abuey describes the process as follows : Thirty 
volumes of gum solution (water 5 parts, gum 1 part) are 
mixed with 8 volumes of a citrate of iron and ammonia solu- 
tion (water 2 parts, double citrate 1 part), and to this is added 
5 volumes of a solution of ferric chloride (water 2 parts, ferric 
chloride 1 part). This solution thus formed is limpid at first, 
but will gradually become thicker, and should be used soon 
after mixing. It is then applied with a brush to the paper 
(which should be well sized) and dried in the dark. Exposure 
is accomplished in a few minutes, the paper being placed 
under the drawing in the printing frame. It is then devel- 
oped with potassium ferrocyanide, 50 grains, water 1 ounce, 
applied with a brush until all the details appear of a dark-blue 
color. The print is then rapidly rinsed, and placed in a dish 
containing the clearing solution, made of 1 ounce of hydro- 
chloric acid and 10 ounces of water. 

The third process, which gives violet-black lines on a white 
ground, is the following : Make up the sensitive solution with 
water, 10 ounces; gelatine, 4 drachms ; perchloride of iron (in 
a syrupy condition), 1 ounce ; tartaric acid, 1 ounce ; sulphate 
of iron, 4 drachms. The paper is floated on or brushed over 
with this and dried. The exposure is about the same as with 
the last process. When sufficient, the greenish-yellow color 
will turn white, except the lines, which should be somewhat 
dark. The developing solution is composed of 1 part of gallic 
acid in 10 parts of alcohol and 50 of water. When immersed 
in this solution the lines will turn blacker. The finish is then 
made by thoroughly washing in water. 



56 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

SYMPATHETIC PHOTOGRAPHS. 

THESE are obtained as follows : A sheet of paper is coated 
with a ten per cent, solution of gelatine, and when dry this is 
floated on a ten per cent, solution of bichromate of potash. 
Again dry and expose beneath a positive transparency. The 
print thus obtained is then immersed in a ten per cent, solu- 
tion of chloride of cobalt. The parts unacted upon by light 
will absorb "the solution .~ Wash and dry. We then have a 
faint image which will alter its color according to the state of 
the atmosphere. In damp weather it will be almost if not 
entirely invisible, but when the weather is fine and dry, or if 
the image be heated before a fire it will turn to a bright blue 
color. 



DRY-PLATES THAT WILL DEVELOP WITH WATER. 

SOME time ago dry-plates were placed on the market which 
would develop, apparently, with water and a little ammonia 
only. The secret of the method was that the backs of the 
plates were coated with a soluble gum, containing the devel- 
oping agents, and, of course, when the plate was immersed in 
the water, they instantly dissolved and formed the developer. 
Plates thus prepared are useful in travelling where it is not 
always possible to get the necessary developing solutions. To 
prepare them the backs are coated with the following mixture ; 

Pyrogallic acid 154 grains 

Salicylic acid 15 grains 

Gum or dextrine 1 54 grains 

Alcohol i fluid dr. 

Water 5 fluid dr. 

This is allowed to dry at an ordinary temperature. After 
exposure, all that is necessary to develop is to immerse the 
plates in water containing a small quantity of ammonia. 



1'HOTOGKAl'HIC AMUSEMENTS. 

CARICATURE PHOTOGRAPHS. 



57 



THERE are quite a number of different methods of making 
caricature portraits. A simple one is to make two photographs 
of an individual. One of the head alone and another of the 
entire body on a much smaller scale. From these two nega- 
tives prints are made, tl.e larger head is cut out and pasted on 
to the shoulders of the full length figure. Any signs of the 




From Tisandu-rV Handbook. 
FIG. 44. CARICATURE PORTRAIT. 

cutting out are removed by the u.-e of a brush and a littje 
coloring matter. From this combined print another negative 
is made so that any number of these caricature prints can be 
made without extra trouble. Ths effect is shown in Fig. -J4. 

Foregrounds for making caricature portraits are sold in this 
country. The method of using them is shown in Fig. 45. 



58 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



The card containing the grotesque drawing is held by the 
sitter on his knees and arranged by the photographer in such 
a way that his head rests just above the 
neck of the painted body. A white 
background is arranged behind and 
when the negative is made all traces of 
the edges of the foreground are re- 
moved by careful retouching. 

Another method of obtaining gro- 
tesque caricature portraits lias been de- 
vised bv M. Ducos du Ilauron. His 
apparatus which he calls '' La Photo- 
graphic Transform iste," is thus de- 
scribed by Schnauss in his "Photographic 
Pastimes." "A Fig. 46 is the front of 
the box which is furnished with an ex- 
posed shutter formed of a simple sliding piece fitting into the 
grooves II R, R li '' H B" are two screens pierced with slits 




.45. CARICATURE. 







FIG. 46. MAKING THE CARICATURE PORTRAIT. 

a a, c c. C is the rear end of the box where the dark slide is 
placed. D is the lid of the box, which is lifted either for 
placing trie slotted screens or for putting in the sensitive plate. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



59 



When not working direct from nature, the transparency is 
placed in the grooves R R, R R, at A. 



Is. 


in 


\ 


jl 


\ 






B 


if 1 '! 




: A 


'] a 


x. 


S 


u 


L: 


I 




I / 








'-., r 


( I 





FIG. 47. THE HAURON " TRANSFORM ISTE." 

According to the arrangement of the slits, the caricatures 
obtained will be different. If, for instance, the fii>t slit be a 




FIG. 43. PH >TOGR APH AND DISTORTIONS WITH THE 
" TRANSFORMISTE." 

vertical one, and the other, ?'.<?., the one nearest the picture, a 
horizontal one, the picture, in comparison with the original, will 



60 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

be distorted lengthwise. If, however, one of the slits forms 
no straight line, but a curved one, the transformed picture 
will show either lengthwise or sideways curved lines, accord- 
ing to the slit being a vertical or a horizontal one. The form 





FIG. 49. 



FIG. 50 





FIG. 51. 



FIG. 52. 



of the resulting picture will also be different according to 
which one of the slotted plates is inserted more or less ob- 
liquely in the box, 

The slits must be made very exactly ; above all, their edges 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



61 



must be absolutely sharp, e.very incorrectness being transferred 
to the picture. They niay be made about one-third of a milli- 
metre wide ; if they are too narrow the picture will not turn 
out sharp. In making the slits it is a good plan to cut them 
in thin black paper, and to mount the latter on glass plates. 
In a later description of the apparatus we learn that the 




discs containing the slits are never made circular in shape and 
so arranged that they can be revolved as shewn in Fig. ,">.'>. 
This, of course, allows of a still greater variety of positions of 
the two apertures in relation to each other and an increas- 
ing number of grotesque effects. Reproductions of some of 
the pictures obtained are given.* See Figs. 48 to 52. 



'Reprinted from La Science en Famille. 



g2 1'IIOTOGRAPH 1C AMUSEMENTS. 

PHOTOGRAPHING SEA-WEEDS. 

OF all the glorious creations of nature few are more 
beautiful than the delicate sea mosses to be found by 
the sea shore. Many delight in preserving them in a dry 
state, mounted on cards, but unfortunately they are usually so 




FIG. 54. SEA WEED PHOTOGRAPH. 

fragile that after a little while they fall to pieces. The 
photographer, however, is able to reproduce these beautiful 
formations and preserve them in a more permanent form by 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



means of his camera. It is true that he cannot reproduce 
their delicate colorings, but the photographs can, if so desired, 
be lightly printed on platinum paper and colored as well as 
possible by hand. 



STAMP PORTRAITS. 
A SPECIAL camera is sold for making these little pictures. 




KIG. 55. STAMP CAMERA. 

It contains a number of lenses all of the same focus. In front is 
an easel where the portrait is attached sur- 
rounded by a suitable border. The images 
given are about the size of poslage stamps 
(see 3' T ig. 50), and when the negative is 
printed from an albumen or aristo paper. 
toned and fixed, they can be perforated 
and gummed at the back. They are very 
useful for sticking to letters, envelopes, and 
for business purposes. 




LUMINOUS PHOTOGRAPHS. 

THERE are several different ways of making these. Obtain 
some Balmain's luminous paint, and coat a piece of cardboard 
with it. Place this in the dark until it is no longer luminous; 
place this behind a glass transparency and expose the light, 
either daylight or, if at night-time, burn a small piece of magne- 
sium wire. Return to the dark, remove the transparency, and a 



64 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

luminous photograph is obtained on the prepared card. A 
simple plan is to merely expose a piece of the prepared card 
board to the light and place it behind a transparency ; then 
retire to a darkened room. The luminous paint, showing 
through it, will have a very pretty effect. If no glass trans- 
parency is at hand, a silver print can be used, if previously 
oiled and rendered translucent by vaseline or any other means. 



FLORAL PHOTOGRAPHY. 

PERHAPS the beauties of natnre are nowhere better exem- 
plified than in flowers, and nothing can be prettier than pho- 
tographs of them carefully arranged. "When we say carefully 
arranged we mean, of course, artistically. The secret of 
arranging flowers an art in itself is to hide the fact that 
they have been arranged. 

The charming pictures of flowers and fruit which appear 
on this page and the next, are by John Carpenter, an English 
gentleman, who has made this particular branch of photog- 
raphy his chief study, and has been awarded many prizes and 
medals for flower studies. 

Some time ago we wrote to him asking for a few particulars 
of his method adopted, and he has been so very kind as to 
send the following valuable notes : 

Suitable Flowers. I find that the best colors to photograph 
are pale pink, yellow, white or variegated colors. Reds, 
browns, and dark colors generally, do not answer well. 

Flowers of irregular form are most suitable, such, for 
example, as chrysanthemums, lilies, poppies, etc. These give 
beautiful gradations of light and shade. 

Grouping. There is great scope here for artistic feeling. 
All appearance of formal arrangement must be avoided and 
a natural grouping should be aimed at. This becomes more 
difficult as the flowers must be somewhat on one plane to get 
them in proper focus. A round bunch of flowers which may 
appear very pretty to the eye would probably be utterly 
wrong to make a picture of. 




J. Carpenter. 



FIG. 57. FLORAL STUDIES. 



6ft PHOTOGRAPHIC' AMUSEMENTS. 

Lighting. -I have never worked in a studio but have a 
small lean-to glass house in which I work. The top light is 
softened down by light shades so that the strongest light 
comes from the side. This gives solidity to the subject and 
is more pleasing than a flat lighting. Of course, the sun 
should never shine on the subject. 

Plates and Exposure. It colored flowers are being photo- 
graphed, orthochromatic plates are a necessity, but for white 
flowers and light-green foliage ordinary plates may be em- 
ployed. I generally use a medium isochromatic, stop the lens 
to j/722 and give exposure of from thirty to sixty seconds in 
summer and vary according to the season ; sometimes twenty 
minutes is not too much. 

Development. My usual and favorite developer is pyro- 
ammonia, and in careful hands it cannot be beaten. I com- 
mence development with a minimum of pyro and work 
tentatively. 

Using 100 per cent, solution for 2 ounces of developer I 
should commence with 1 grains pyro, 1 grain bromide, and 
2 grains ammonia. If the image does not gain sufficient 
density add more pyro and bromide, but unless very fully 
exposed it is difficult to avoid too much density, especially if 
white flowers are being photographed. 

I find a plain gray or dark background most useful, and to 
avoid flatness it may be set at an angle and not too near the 
subject. 

Flowers should be photographed as soon as gathered, and 
if possible be placed in water. I have often found a plate 
spoiled by movement of the leaves or flowers, even with short 
exposures, although the movement was not perceptible to the 
eye. This is more especially the case in hot weather. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 67 

DISTORTED IMAGES. 

TAKK a portrait negative that is no longer of any use, and 
immerse it in a weak solution of hydrofluoric acid. The film 
will leave the glass. It is then washed and returned to the 
glass support. By stretching the film one way or the other, 
and allowing it to dry in this position, the most amusing 
prints can be made. 



PHOTOGRAPHS WITHOUT LIGHT. 

A CURIOUS experiment showing that a photographic dry- 
plate can be otherwise affected than by light, so as to form 
an image upon it, is the following : 

An image of copper in relief is necessary a penny will do 
for this purpose. Place an unex posed dry plate in a normal 
pyro developer, and on it lay the copper coin. After about 
five minutes or so, remove the penny, fix and wash the plate, 
when a perfect image of the penny will be found on it. 



ELECTRIC PHOTOGRAPHS. 

SIMILAR experiments to that described above have been 
carried out by Prof. Fernando Sanford. lie placed a coin on 
a dry-plate and connected it with the terminal of a small 
induction coil, capable of giving a spark of three orfour milli- 
meters, while a piece of tin foil upon the opposite side of 
the plate was connected with the other terminal of the coil. 

Several negatives were made in this way, the accompanying 
photograph, Fig. 58, being from one of them. With one ex- 
ception, they all show a fringe around them, due to the escape 
of the charge from the edge of the coin, which accounts for 
the formation of the dark ring observed around the breath 
figure made upon glass. 

Later on he undertook to photograph in the same way 
objects insulated from the photographic plate, and has since 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 




FIG. 58. 



made negatives of coins separated from the plate by paraffine 
shellac, mica, and gutta percha. The accompanying photo- 
graph, Fig. 59, was made with the coin insulated from the 

photographic plate by a 
sheet of mica about 0.04 
mm. thick. The mica 
was laid directly upon 
the film side of the plate, 
and the coin was placed 
upon it and connected to 
one terminal of the small 
induction coil already 
mentioned. A circular 
piece of tin foil of the 
circumference of the coin 
was placed upon the glass 
side of the plate directly 
opposite the coin, and 
was connected to the other terminal of the induction coil. 
The little condenser thus made was clamped between two 
boards, and was covered up 
in a dark room. Two small 
discharging knobs were also 
attached to the terminals of 
the induction coil, and were 
separated by a space of less 
than a millimeter, so that, 
when a single cell was con- 
nected with the primary coil, 
the spark between the knobs 
seemed continuous. 

The plate was exposed to 
the action of the waves set 
up in this condenser for one 
hour, when it was taken out and the negative image de- 
veloped upon it by the usual process. 




FIG. 59. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



69 



MAGIC VIGNETTES. 

THESE are reversed vignettes, that is to say the margins 
round the portrait instead of being white as in the ordinary 
vignette are black. A method of making them was recently 
described by "Teiute" in The PJiotoyram. This was as fol- 
lows: 

Two methods can be adopted. The first of these about to 
be detailed, though entailing, perhaps, in the first place a trifle 
more trouble, produces the best results. AVe require a black 
background, preferably of black velveteen, large enough for a 
head and shoulders. As the material is not usually obtainable 
of a width greater than twenty inches or so, there will have to 

be a seam, and this must 
be very neatly done. 
The seamed velveteen is 
then stretclii d taut on a 
frame, which should pre- 
ferably be covered tirst 
with calico, to prevent 
' ' saggi n g. " A 1 way s, be- 
fore use, dust the vel- 
veteen with a soft bnir-h 
sav. a hut brush to 
remove any adhering 
dust or fluff. In>tead of 

Ma> 3 i, 1887. velveteen, a good paper 

FIG. 60. MAGIC VIG.NETTKR. background can be used 

only it must be seen that the surface is smooth and free from 
cracks or creases, and is dead 1>1<-1\. 

AVe require also a vignetting mask suitable to the subject, 
with a serrated edge. This has to be lixcd inside t e camera 
between the lens and plate.* The proper position can be found 
by trial ; the further the card is away from the petal the softer 
and more gradual the vignetting. No special arrangement for 
holding this is required beyond what can be prepared by any 
one who can use his fingers. We take a piece of stout card, 

* Avignetter for the purpose, as shown in F.g. 60, has been placed on the market. 




70 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

the outside of which will just fit into the folds of the camera's 
bellows, and by a little twisting it can be sprung in between 
the folds and will hold them. There is an opening in the 
center, square in shape, about quarter plate size. This acts as 
a frame to hold the vignetting mask which has the opening of 
proper size and shape. By using a frame as described the 
vignetter can be moved about up and down and from side to 
side, and when the correct position is found fixed by drawing 
pins. The frame and vignetter should be blacked all over. 
For this purpose take some lampblack ground in turps, and 
mix with it a little gold size sufficient (found by trial) to pre- 
vent the lampblack from rubbing off when dry, but not enough 
to cause the paint to dry shiny. 

A good distance to fix the vignetter is about one-third the 
extension of the camera when the object is in focus, measuring 
from the lens. 

We adjust the camera so that the image of the figure falls in 
the correct position on the screen, and the vignette is made of 
such a size and shape as to give the amount required. 

The shadow of the mask protects the edges of the plate sur- 
rounding the image, and in development we obtain a negative 
in which the image is vignetted into clear glass, and on print- 
ing from such the margins print dark. The printing of such 
a negative should be prolonged until the margins of the pict- 
ure are quite lost, or they are apt to show after toning. 

The sketch shows the arrangement of vignetter inside 
camera. 

The other plan consists in making an ordinarv negative, 
using preferably a dark background. From this is made a 
vignette in the ordinary manner. When this comes from the 
frame it is placed on a piece of clean glass- face up and 
another piece of glass free from flaws placed over it. Now 
cut a piece of card to the size and shape of the vignetted por- 
tion of the print, and fix this with glue to a piece of cork. 
This piece of cork must vary in thickness with various pict- 
ures. Now place the cork on the glass so that the mask covers 
the picture and fix with glue to prevent slipping. Place the 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 71 

whole out in diffused light, and allow the darkening of the 
margins to go on until sufficiently deep. The print is then 
toned. 

The height of the card from the print must be such that no 
abrupt line is produced between the first printing and the 
darkened margin, but that one will shade into the other with- 
out break. 



A SIMPLE METHOD OF ENLARGING. 

IF we have an ordinary gelatine negative, say, of half-plate 
size, and requiie to enlarge it to a whole plate, the simplest 
plan is to thoroughly wash it and immerse in a solution com- 
posed of citric acid, 2 ounces; hydrofluoric acid, 1 ounce; 
acetic acid (glacial), 1 ounce; glycerine A ounce; water, k 2<> 
ounces. The action of the hydrofluoric, acid will be to detach 
the film from the glass, while the other acids will cause the 
film to spread out considerably ; the action bein<j; even all over 
the image is completely enlarged. It is then carefully 
removed and washed in plenty of clean water, after which 
it can be transferred to a larger piece of glass. The action 
is sometimes to we'iken the negative in density; it is there- 
fore occasionally necessary to intensify it. 



MOONLIGHT EFFECTS. 

CURIOUS as it sounds, very good moonlight effects can be 
procured on a bright sunshiny day. A photograph is made 
-of a landscape in dazzling sunlight, a small stop and rapid 
exposure being given. The plate should, if possible, be 
backed with any of the substances recommended to prevent 
halation. Choose a landscape, with the reflection of the sun's 
rays in water, and include this and the sun itself on the plate. 
It is best to wait, however, until the sun just disappears 
behind a cloud. Shade the lens so that the rays do not shine 
on it direct, and expose rapidly. Use an old or weak devel- 




Photographed fiom Nature by Fred. Graf. 
FIG. 6l. MOONLIGHT PHOTOGRAPH. 



I'lIOTOGRAI'llIC AMUSEMENTS. 73 

oper. The sun and its reflection will, of course, make their 
appearance first. Continue the development until the detail 
in the under-exposed parts is just visible, and fix. Print very 
darkly, and slightly over tone. If printing is done upon green 
albumenized paper, and a little re-touching with Chinese white, 
the effect if very good. 



PHOTOGRAPHING SNOW AND ICK CRYSTALS. 

Few photographers there are who appear to he awaiv <>f 
the many beautiful phenomena of nature that can be studied 
by the aid of photography. I'nder the title of a Schner ( 'r\-- 




FIG. 62. SNOW CRYSTALS. PHOTO BY DK. XEUHAUS. 

talle,'' Dr. G. Hellmann has published* a hook on this subject 
profusely illustrated with engravings and photo-micrographic 
collotypes from direct photographs by Dr. R. Neuhaus. 

* Rudolph Ml'ckenberger, Berlin 



JTJ. 1MIOTOGKAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Dr. Xealiaus describes his method of photographing snow- 
Hakes in Dr. Eder's Jarlrach, from which article we extract 
the most important and interesting paragraphs: Were we 
to attempt to photograph snow crystals in a perfectly cold 
room, the temperature is still higher than that out of 
doors ; moisture at once precipitates upon the carrier of the 
object, the crystals would melt and evaporate after a short 
time, the work must be done in the open, and perfect success can 
be expected only w"ien the temperature is at least 50 deg. P.. 




FIG. 63. SNOW CRYSTALS. PHOTO HV 1)R. NEUHAUS. 

Snow crystals evaporate rapidly even in low temperature, 
and the work requires to be done rapidly and with caution. 
Freshly fallen snow only will give a good photograph, and as 
we are compelled to work in the midst of the snow storm, the 
task becomes still more complicated and difficult. Snow 
crystals but a short time after falling break, the broken piece 
freeze together and crystallization is destroyed. For the 
illumination of snow crystals, transmitted light only can be 
used, reflected light destroys the shadows, and injures the high 



PHOTOGRAPH IO AMUSEMENTS. 



lights, and tlie result is necessarily but a very imperfect picture 
of the object. 

Diffused light, especially that of a dark winter's day, and 
during a snow storm, is not fit for this kind of photo-micro 




Photo by Martin. 



FIG. 64. A NATURAL PHENOMENON IN ICE. 

graphic work, and we must resort to artificial light, preferably 
to that of a petroleum lamp. To prevent heat action emanat- 
ing from the illuminating ray cone, an absorptive cell of alum 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



solution should be interposed. As alum solution freezes solid 

in 5 cleg. It., chloride of sodium is added. With llartuark's 

projection system = 3 1 mm. focus distance, from 5 to 7 seconds 
upon an erylhrosine plate is ample. 

Dr. Xeuhaus has made photographs of more than <>0 dift'er- 




HG. 65. PHOTOGRAPH OF SNOW CRYSTALS. 
BY JAS. LEADBEATF.R. 

ent ice and snow specimens. The pictures of ice crystals much 
resemble those of hoar frost, deposited after a cold winter's 
night. Of snow crystals, the doublets are highly interesting, 
two crystals merged into one, and those having passed through 



PHOTOGRAPH 1C AMUSEMENTS. 



77 



a moist stratum of air, when microscopic drops of water will 
freeze into the hexagonal form, giving the picture an appear- 
ance very much resembling cauliflower. 

The most difficult question of all remains, the cause of the 
various forms of the hexagonal crystals, which frequently 




FIG. 66. PHOTOGRAPH OF FROST. BY JAS. LEADBKATKK. 

change in the same snowfall. Instead of advancing a new 
hypothesis, says Ilellmann, it is better to acknowledge thaj 
we know nothing positively in regard to this. In our 
knowledge of the form and structure of the snow we have 
made great advance since the time of K- pier, but after nearly 



78 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

four hundred years, we cannot give a satisfactory answer to 
his question, " Cur autem sexangula C ' 

We do not know the special conditions which determine the 
formation of one or the other form of snow crystals. AVe have 
found that a low temperature favors the formation of tabular 
crystals ; a higher temperature the star shaped crystals ; the^e 
groups show such multifarious forms that it is necessary to 
seek for other causes which influence the formation of snow 
figures. There is offered here a broad field for new investiga- 
tion and study. 

We give a reproduction Fig. <>4 of a photograph of a curious 
group of crystals. Some water had been left in a 1 x 8 dish on a 
winter day, and a film of ice was seen floating on the surface. 
The formation of the crystals and the floral design were so 
beautiful that it was taken out and photographed. The delicate 
lace-like edging of the glacial tracery is the result of the 
deposition of hoar frost while draining off the water from the 
ice leaves and flowers and fixing the image in the camera. 

Quite recently Mr Jas. Leadbeater has favored us with some 
account of his beautiful work in this his fascinating branch of 
photography, some samples of which are here given. He first 
makes his windows perfectly clear and waits for a keen frost. 
The camera is inside the room and a dark cloth-covered board 
ivas placed on the outside, lean'ng against a low balcony of 
ivood. The exposure varies with the thickness of the crystals 
Tom two to ten seconds, principally with a very small stop. 
Cwo reproductions of his pictures will be found on pp. 76-77. 



PHOTOGRAPHING INK CRYSTALS. 
THE study of crystallization is undoubtedly an interesting 
and fascinating one, and photography may be made to play 
an important part in securing permanent records of these 
curious formations. If a drop of water containing a salt be 
allowed to drop upon a glass plate, it will upon evaporation, 
deposit crystals of various kinds. In a recent article in L<i 
Nature, by Dr. E. Trouessnrt, a description is given of the 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



70 



beautiful cry stall ic forms deposited by a drop of ink on evap- 
oration. The article is translated in the Literary Digext, 
from which we make extracts : 

" Take a sheet of glass, deposit on it a drop of ink and 
spread the drop a little, uniformly ; let it 'dry for a lew min- 
utes; then examine with a microscope, magnifying from 50 
to 200 diameters, and you \\\\\ be able to see the flowers of ink 
in process of formation under your eyes ; that is to say, regular 
white crystal particles which detach themselves from the 
black or violet medium, and arrange themselves so as to form 
regular figures. 

''If your are pressed for time, this beautiful result will 
easily be obtained by passing the sheet of glass over a spirit 
lamp or a candlo to 
evaporate the moisture. 
The crystals will then 
be smal'er and more 
numerous, presenting 
the appearance of a 
dark firmament densely 
sprinkled with bright 
silvery stars. But if 
you have patience to 
wait for evaporation 
without heat, you will 
obtain larger crystals 
ofmore varied forms, 
arranging themselves as 
crosses, flowers, etc. 

" These crystals may 
be varied indefinitely 
by modifying the con- 
pitions of evaporation, 
adding more ink, etc. 
But it in quite possible that different inks will give different 
results. The inks I use, like all the other inks in use, have a 
basis of sulphate of iron and gallic acid. 




From " The Lite 
FIG. 67. INK-CRYSTALS, AS SEEN THROUGH 
MICROSCOPE. 



80 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

;i Bv allowing tlie evaporation to proceed ulowly, it is quite 
easy to watch the formation of the crystals. The geometrical 
figures are more or less perfect cubes, pyramids, lozenges. 
crosses, needles, etc., the pyramids beingformed by cubes super- 
posed one on the other, as in the pyramids of Egypt. The 
flowers in our illustration are formed by the union of crystals, 
each of which represents the petals or sepals of a flower. The 
Maltese cross the crucifer or four-leafed flower ir> the normal 
regular form, but multiples of four frequently occur, by the 
formation of new crystals in the intervals; and also by the 
accidents of crystallization, we get flowers of three and five 
petals, resembling Rirfriacew, lilies, orchids, violets, etc.*' 



P1NHOLE PHOTOGRAPHY. 

ALTHOUGH a lens is the most inrportant part of the photog- 
rapher's apparatus, it is not absolutely necessary for the pro- 
duction of photographs. Very good pictures can be made by 
means of a pinhole. Remove the lens from the camera, and 
insert in its place a sheet of thin, hard cardboard. In the 
centre make a tiny hole with a fine-pointed needle made red- 
hot. Another method is to make a large hole in the card- 
board, and paste over it a piece of tinfoil and make the pin- 
hole in this. The essential point is that the hole be perfectly 
round without any burring at the edges. The most perfect 
arrangement can be obtained by getting a watchmaker to drill 
a fine hole through a piece of sheet metal. The diameter of 
the hole should not be greater than the one-fiftieth of an inch. 
Whatever is used, cardboard or metal, it should be blackened 
till over to prevent the reflection of light in the camera. The 
focusing glass should be brought within about 6 inches of the 
hole. Owing to the small amount of light admitted, focusing 
is very difficult, It can be done by pointing the camera 
towards the sun and focusing its image. For the same reason 
the exposure is very long, ranging from ten minutes to half 
an hour ; it is, in fact, difficult to over-expose. 




Negative by F. C. Lambert. " From Anthony's International Annual, 1894. 

FU;. 68. P1XHOLK PHOTOGRAPHY. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



83 



It is usually stated that no focusing is required, the larger 
the plate the wider the angle, but according to Prof. Picker- 
ing, 12 inches is the maximum distance for sharp work. 

Peculiar diffused effects can be obtained by using a tine sli*; 
in place of the pinholc. The picture shown on page 82 is ai? 
example. 



FREAK PICTURES BY SUCCESSIVE EXPOSURES. 

WE have already described the various remarkable photo 
graphic pictures which may be taken by successive exposures 
with the same individual in different positions against a 
perfectly black and non-actinic background. This, however, 
is not easily obtained, 
and a French photo- 
grapher, M. I>racq, has 
invented an ingenious 
attachment to a camera 
by which the same 
effects may be obtained 
with any background 
and under the ordinary 
conditions of amateur 
photography. The 
following description 
is from La Nature 
translated in the Pop- 
ular Science News, 

The apparatus, Fig. 
T<>, is attached to the 
back of the camera, 
and consists of a frame 
suitable for holding FIG 7o 

the usual ground 

glass, or plate holder. Directly in front of the plate holder is 
placed an opaque screen perforated with a horizontal slit the 
width of the photographic plate used. By means of a screw 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMKNTS. 



and a crank tlie screen with its o])ening may be made to move 
up and down befo/e the plate, thus allowing all parts of it to 
l>e successively exposed. A pointer connected witli the screen 
.-hows the position of the slit at any time when it is covered 
by the plate holder. 

The operation of the apparatus is evident from the above 
description. To take, the picture illustrated in Fig. 71. for 
instance, the table wi.h 
the boy upon it is 
placed in the proper 
position and supported 
by planks, another 
table, or in any con- 
venient way. After 
properly focusing it on 
the ground glass, the 
screen is screwed down 
till the opening is at 
the bottom of the cam- 
era, and the plate 
holder being placed in 
position, the slide is 
drawn and the handle 
turned till the indica- 
tor shows that the open- 
ing has reached a point 
corresponding to the 
image of the bottom of 
the table on the plate. '' ' '' 

The slide is then replaced in the plate holder, the table and its 
support removed, and the boy placed in the second position, 
and the exposure continued by screwing up the screen 
until the entire plate has been impressed with the double 
image, which, upon development, appears as shown in the 
illustration. 

The perforated screen may also be made to move horizon- 
tally as well as veriically across the plate, and by a combination 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMTSKMENTS. 85 

of the two directions the same individual may be taken four 
or more times in different positions in the same photograph. 
Many amusing and astonishing effects may be obtained by this 
simple means, which will readily suggest themselves to any 
practical photographs r. 



WIDE-ANGLE STUDIES. 

BY the use, or rather the abuse, of a lens having a very wide 
angle, say, 100 degrees, some very amusing effects can be 




Copyright, 1894, by W. J. Demorest 

FIG. 72. A PHOTOGRAPHIC FEAT. 

obtained. By apparent exaggeration of perspective we say 
apparent advisedly, for if a view made with one of these 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 




FIG. 73. A WIDE-ANGLE STUDY. 

lenses, say of 5 inches focus, be viewed by the observer at a 
distance of 5 inches from the eye, the perspective will appeal- 
correct ; but, of course, this is never done under ordinary cir- 
cumstances. Every person, unless extremely short-sighted^ 
will hold a photograph at a distance from the eye of about \'l 
or Irt inches. 

The effect of using a wide-angle lens under ordinary condi- 
tions is to make objects in the foreground appear ridiculously 
large, while those in the background have a diminished 
appearance. Fig. 72 is an example of this ; it is hardly neces- 
sary to observe that the gentleman's pedal extremities were 
aot so gigantic as represented in the photograph. Fig. 73 is 
another and scarcely less painful example of this exaggeration. 



1'EOTOGRAPllIC AMUSEMENTS. 



In the Practical Photographer^ some time ago, it was 
humorously suggested that sportsmen could, by means of 
the camera, bring home apparently indisputable evidence as to 
their skill or prowess. Tims, for instance, you and your 
friend Jones have been out fishing together, and realized the 
truth of the old saying about anglers ?'.<?., " a worm at one 
end of a rod and a fool at the other." You have, however, 
managed to catch a fish (any sort will do) about the dimensions 
of a good-sized sprat. It is the usual custom of anglers, I 
believe, to view their captures through magnifying-glasses 
before discoursing upon them. A better plan, however, is to 
photograph your fish, and then there can be no dispute what- 





K1G. 74. FIG. 75. 

ever, because it is the popular belief that photography cannot 
lie. However, all that is necessary is to hang the fish in front 
of the camera to the bough of a tree, we will say, with a piece 
of black thread. You then retire several paces behind it, 
holding up your arm as if you were holding up the fish. 
Your friend will then adjust the camera so that the fish just 
comes under your hand, focuses, places a very small stop on, 
so as to get everything sharply defined, and makes the neces- 
sary exposure. Thus it is possible, with a little trouble, to 
obtain everlasting records of your marvelous day's sport, for 
you can easily make yourself appear to be holding a fish of 
gigantic proportions say, 5 ft. long, or so. Fig. 74, 75. 



$8 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Our illustrations are from " Photographic Pastimes " by Her- 
man Schauss. 

"With a very wide angle lens it is also possible to make a 
photograph of a little suburban garden, and it will appear to 
resemble a park or palace grounds. This is a trick often 
adopted by auctioneers and estate agents, so that in viewing 
photos of property, it is really impossible to form any safe 
idea regarding the place itself. 



CONICAL PORTRAITS. 

AMUSING caricatures may be obtained by deforming the 
sensitive surface of the negative. The accompanying conical 
portrait is one."* 




FIG. 76. 

To depict the features of a person on a paper cone is not an 
easy matter ; whilst to obtain them by photography is a toler- 
ably simple operation. 

*" From " Les Recreations Photographique." 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



89 




FIG. 77. 




FIG. 78. 



90 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Having glued on the interior face of a plate holder (the slide 
being drawn), in the place of a sensitive plate a cone made of 
strong card board, superpose on it an unexposed film, which 
has been cut to the form of the development of the cone (as 
shown in Fig. 77) the film is secured by means of two or 
three pins. Having focused on a point of the subject in a 
middle plane, the ground glass is afterwards drawn back a dis- 
tance equal to half the height of the cone, taking care not to 
derange either the subject or the objective. To obtain a sharp 
image a very small diaphragm must necessarily be used, but 
with a rapid plate and good light that is of little moment. 
The camera should be placed in the dark room, the lens bein<r 
inserted in a hole in the partition just its size, and the subject 
in the adjoining apartment opposite the lens this because the 
cone will not allow the plate-holder to be closed by the slide. 

Fig. 76 shows the arrangement of the camera and holder. 
The exposure made, the film is developed, as usual. The 
negative gives a print deformed as shown in Fig. 76. The 
original, if not grotesque appearance of the head disappears 
when the print is rolled into a conical form and the observer 
places his eye in the prolongation of the axis of the cone. 
Fig. 78 shows the head as seen under these conditions. 



MAKING DIRECT POSITIVES IN THE CAMERA. 
Prepare a saturated solution in water of the crystals of 
thiosinamine, and add from two to eight minims of it to an 
ordinary pyro or eikonogen developer. Expose rather less 
than usual. The effect of this addition to the developing agent 
is an entire reversal of the image, a positive instead of a nega- 
tive being obtained. Ammonia will assist the reversal. Col- 
onel Waterhouse, the discoverer of this process, recommends 
in some cases the plates being subjected to a bath of 5 per 
cent, nitrate acid and 3 per cent, potassium bichromate before 
exposure, followed by a thorough washing. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



91 



INSTANTANEOUS PHOTOGRAPHY. 

IN THE very earliest days of photography this term was ap- 
plied to what would now be considered very slow work indeed. 
We now usually apply this term when the exposure does not 
exceed one second. In some cases this only amounts to the 
one-thousandth part of a 
second. This exceedingly 
brief exposure is usually 
given to the plate by means 
of a suitably constructed 
shutter. 

The immense strides that 
have recently been made in 
instantaneous photography, 
owing chiefly to the advent 
of the dry-plate process, 
have caused photography to 
become useful to almost 
every branch of science. 

To Muy bridge and An- 
schiitz we are greatly in- 
debted for the strides made 
in instantaneous photogra- 
phy. These gentlemen have 
succeeded in photographing 
moving objects hitherto con- 
sidered impossible to be pho- 
tographed G alloping horses, swift-flying birds, and even bullets 
and cannon balls projected from guns have been successfully 
photographed, showing even the little head of air driven along 
in front of the bullet. 

Both Muybridge and Anschiitz hare also succeeded in mak- 
ing series oi : twenty-four or more photographs of a horse 
during the time it makes a single leap, and thus illustrate its 
every movement. The value of these and other possibilities 
with the camera for artists cannot be overestimated. Its aid 




FIG. 79. 



92 PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

to meteorologists in photographing the lightning, to astrono- 
mers in stellar, lunar and solar photography, and to all othtr 
sciences would require a work as large as this to describe. 




By Lt. Joachim Ste 
FIG. 80. INSTANTANEOUS STUDIES. 

For the making of instantaneous pictures a large number of 
suitable cameras have been devised. In most of these the lens 
is a very rapid one, and in some cases so arranged that all 
objects beyond a certain distance are in focus. With an in- 
stantaneous came 1 a a secondary image is necessary, so that the 
right second can be judged for making the exposure. This 
is usually produced by a finder. In making instantaneous 
exposures the following tables may be useful : 

Approximate distance 
per second. 

A man walking 3 miles per hour moves 4% feet per second 

A man walking 4 miles per hour moves 6 

A vessel traveling at 9 knots per hour moves. ... Is 
A vessel traveling at 12 knots per hour moves. . . i9 
A vessel traveling at 17 knots per hour moves. . . ,28 
A torpedo boat traveling at 20 knots per hour 

moves ^3") 

A trotting horse 36 

A galloping horse (1,000 yards per minute) \ 50^- 

An express train traveling at 38 miles an hour ... 59 ( ' * 



^^-i^^^jlti 







FIG. 8l. "A RISE IN THE WORLD." BY THE MARQUIS DE ALFARRAS. 



94: PHOTOGEAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

Approximate distance 
per second. 

Flight of a pigeon or falcon 61 feet per second. 

Waves during a storm 65 

Express train (60 miles an hour) 88 

Flight of the swiftest birds 294 

A cannon ball 1,625 

An object moving 



1 milt 
2 
5 
6 

8 
9 
10 
11 
12 
15 
20 
25 
30 
35 
40 
45 
50 
55 
60 
75 
100 
125 
150 
200 


per hour 


moves 1 1 / 2 feet 
3 


per sec 


ond 


7/4 


... 9 

10> 


12 


13 


14 1/ 




15 


17^ 
22 


9 

7 




44 
,51 
1 59 
66 
73 


80 
88 
110 
147 
13 


220 


...257 



"With these tables it will be very easy to find the distance 
that the image of the object will move on the ground glass 
screen of the camera. To do this, multiply the focus of the 
lens in inches by' the distance moved by the object in the 
second, and divide the result by the distance of the object in 
inches. 

Example, find the movement of the image of an object 
moving 50 miles per hour at a distance of 100 yards with a 
lens of 9-inch focus. 

Q X 876 = 7,884 -*- 3,600 = 2i inches per second. 
We must also find out the speed of the shutter required to 
take the object in motion, so that it will appear as sharply 
defined as possible under the circumstances. To do this the 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 95 



circle of confusion m*7st not exceed y^th 'of an inch in 
diameter. We therefore divide the distance of the object by 
the focus of lens nnltiplied by 100, and then divide the 
rapidity of the object in inches per second by the result 
obtained. This will give the longest exposure permissible in 
the fraction of a second. For example, we require to know 
the speed of a shutter required to photograph an express train 
travelling at the rate of _50 miles per hour at a distance of 50 
yards with an 8| inch focus lens. 

The train moves 876 inches per second., 

i, 800 distance in inches -f- (S$ X 100) = 1,800 -=- 850 = f 5. 

876 X 17 
876 speed of object per second -r- |S = -- = 413 = ^{^ second. 

36 

Given the rapidity of the shutter, and the speed of the 
moving object, we require to find the distance from the object 
the camera should be placed to give a circle of confusion less 
than Y^-g-tli of an inch. Multiply 100 times the focus of the 
lens by the space through which the object would pass during 
the exposure, and the result obtained will be the nearest pos- 
sible distance between the object and the camera. For 
example, we have a shutter working at one-fiftieth of a 
second, and the object to be photographed moves at the rate 
of 50 miles per hour. How near can a camera fitted with a 
lens of 8 inch focus be placed to the moving object. 

Object moving 50 miles per hour moves per second 876 
inches, and in the one-fiftieth part of a second it moves 17.52 
inches, so that 

8i X 17.52 = 8.5 X roo X 17.52 = 14,892 inches = 413 yards. 
Instantaneous photography can only be successfully per- 
formed in very bright and actinic light, and should never be 
attempted on dull days, as under-exposure will be the inevit- 
able result. In developing it is necessary to employ a strong 
developer to bring up the detail. Some operators make use 
of an accelerator for this purpose, but it is not to be recom- 
mended ; the simplest is a few drops of hyposulphite of solu- 
tion added to about 10 ounces of water. In this the plate is 
bathed for a few seconds previous to development. 



0>@ PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 

The following is a table by H. E. Tolman showing dis- 
placement on ground glass of objects in motion: 







Distance on 










Ground Glass, 










in Inches 


Same with 


Same with 


Miles per 
Hour. 


Feet per 
Second. 


with Object 30 
Feet Away. 


Object 60 Feet 
Away. 


Object 120 
Feet Away. 


1 


1H 


.29 .15 .073 


2 


3 


.59 .29 .147 


3 


^A 


.88 


.44 .220 


4 


6 


1.17 


.59 


.993 


5 


^Yz 


1.47 


.73 


.367 


6 


9 


1.76 


.88 


.440 


7 


IOK 


2.05 


.03 


.513 


8 


12 


2.35 


.17 .587 


9 


13 


2.64 


.32 .660 


10 


14M 


2.93 


.47 


.733 


11 


16 


3.23 


.61 


.807 


12 


17^ 


3.52 


.76 


.880 


13 


19 


3.81 


191 


.953 


14 


20^ 


4.11 


2.05 


1.027 


15 


22 


4.40 


2.20 


1.100 


20 


29 


5.87 


2.93 


1.467 


25 


37 


7.33 


3.67 


1.833 


30 


44 


8.80 


4.40 


2.200 


35 


51 


10.27 


5.13 


2.567 


40 


59 


11.73 


5.97 


2.933 


45 


66 13.20 


660 


3.300 


50 


73 14.67 


7.33 


3.667 


55 


80 16.13 


806 


4.033 


60 


88 


17.60 


880 


4.400 


75 


110 


22.00 


1100 


5.500 


100 


147 


29.33 


14.67 7.333 


125 


183 36.67 


1833 9.167 


150 


220 44.00 


2-2.00 11.000 



98 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



ARTIFICIAL MIRAGES BY PHOTOGRAPHY. 
SOMK time ago a photographer made quite a sensation by the 
publication of a fine photograph of a mirage, a phenomenon, 
frequently observed on the plains of Egypt. The wily pho- 
tographer had, however, never traveled away from this 
country. He had simply produced the effect by artificial 
means. 'A method of making these pictures was given some 
time ago in the Scientific American. A very even plate of 
sheet iron is taken and placed horizontally on two supports. 
The plate is heated uniformly and sprinkled with sand. 
Then a small Egyptian landscape is arranged at one end of the 
plate, aud the photographic instrument is so placed that the 
visual ray shall properly graze the plate. A sketch of the 
arrangement is shown in Fig' 82. 



THE PHOTO-CHROMOSCOPE. 

THIS instrument was devised by M. Paul Nadar, the cel- 
ebrated French photographer, but anyone can construct a 
similar apparatus. The arrangement is shown in Fig. 83. 

The slides A and B B are ad- 
justable so that any sized 
picture can be inserted and 
the sides closed round it to 
shut out the light from be- 
hind. A silver print un- 
mounted is made transparent 
with vaseline and placed ou 
the glass. Pieces of paper of 
various colors are placed in 
the reflector, C, and by the 
means all kinds of effects can 

FIG. 83. NADAR' S PHOTO-CHROMO- be btained ' A ^dsCRpe 

SCOPE. can be viewed as though 

under the pale reflected light 

of the rising sun behind the mountain which may be changed 
gradually to the full %ht of day. 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 99 

COMPOSITE PHOTOGRAPHY. 

THIS is a process of combining a number of images in such 
a way that the result obtained is an aggregate of its coin- 
ponents. Francis Galton was one of the first to employ this 
system. In the appendix to his " Inquiries into Human 
Faculty," Galton has described the very elaborate and perfect 
form of apparatus which he has used in his studies ; but 
entirely satisfactory resulrs may be obtained with much more 
simple contrivances. The instrument used by Prof. Bow- 
ditch* is merely an old-fashioned box camera, with a hole'> 
cut in the top for the reception of the ground-glass plate upon 
which the image is to be reflected for purposes of adjustmeir. 
The reflection is effected by a mirror set at an angle of 45 
degrees in the axis of the camera, and pivoted on its upper 
border so that, after the adjustment of the image, the mirror 
can be turned against the upper side of the box, and the image 
allowed to fall on the sensitive plate at the back of the camera. 
The original negatives are used as components, and are placed 
in succession in a small wooden frame which is pressed by 
elliptical springs against a sheet of gla:-s fastened vertically in 
front of the camera. By means of this arrangement it is 
possible to place each negative in succession in any desired 
position in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the camera, 
and thus to adjust it so that the eyes and the mouth of its optical 
image shall fall upon the fiducial lines drawn upon the groin d- 
glass plate at the top of the camera. An Argand gas burner 
with a condensing lens furnishes the necessary illumination. 

"For our amateur photographers," writes Prof. Bowditch, 
"who are constantly seeking new worlds to conquer, the 
opportunity of doing useful w T ork in developing the possibilities 
of composite photography ought to be very welcome. Xot 
only will the science of ethnology profit by their labors, but 
by making composites of persons nearly related to each other, 
a new and very interesting kind of family portrait may be 
produced. The effect of occupation on the physiognomy may 

* From McCture s Magazine, September, 1894. 







From McClure's Magazine. 



Photographed by Prof. Bowditeh. 
FIG. 84. PLATE I. TWELVE BOSTON PHYSICIANS AND THEIR COMPOSITE PORTRAIT. 
THE COMPOSITE IN THE CENTRE. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 101 

also be studied in this way. By comparing, for instance, the 
composite of a group of doctors with that of a group of 
lawyers, we may hope to ascertain whether there is such a 
thing as a distinct legal or medical physiognomy. 



TELE-PHOTO PICTURES- 

DURING the last few years many so-called tele-photographic 
lenses have been placed upon the market. These instruments 
enable one to photograph objects in the distance and obtain 
images very much larger than those given by the ordinary 
photographic lens. These lenses are, however, very costly. 
In an article by Mr. O G. Mason, published in THE PHOTO- 
GRAPHIC TIMES for June, 1895, that gentleman describes a 




FIG. 85. CAMERA WITH OPERA GLASS ATTACHED. 

simple method of obtaining tele-photo pictures by replacing 
the ordinary lens witli an opera glass. lie says : " Several 
devices have been brought forward with a view of decreasing 
the expense of tele-photo lenses, but I have seen no others so 
satisfactory, cheap and simple, as the utilization of the ordinary 
opera glass for the camera objective, which was described, 
figured and finally constructed for me about a year ago by Mr. 



VHOTOGRAPHIO AMUSEMENTS. 



Alvin Lawrence, the horologist of Lowell, Mass. An opera or 
Held glass is a convenient and useful instrument in the kit of 
an y touring photographer ; and when he can easily and quickly 
attach it to his camera-box as an objective its great value is at 
once made apparent. Mr. Lawrence's method of doing this 
at little cost is a good illustration of Yankee ingenuity. It is 
not claimed that such a device will do all or as well as a tele- 




no. 86. CAMERA SHOWING ARRANGEMENT FOR 
OPERA GLASS. 

photographic lens costing ten times as much ; but it will do 
far more than most people could or would expect. Of course 
the field is quite limited, which, in fact, is (he case with the 
most expensive tele-photographic objective, and the sharpness 
of the image depends much upon the quality of the opera or 
field glass used. The accompanying views show the relative 
size and character of image by a forty-five dollar rapid rectil- 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



103 



inear view lens and a four-dollar opera glass attached to the 
same camera and used at the same point. The other illustra- 
tions show the camera as used and the method of opera glass 
attachment t j the lens-board. It will be seen that the eye end 




FIG. 87. VIEW TAKEN WITH OPERA GLASS. 

of the opera glass is placed against the lens-board, one eye- 
piece in a slight depression around the hole through the 
centre, and by a quarter turn the brace between the two bar- 
rels passes behind a projecting arm on the board, the focusing 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



barrel resting in a slot in this arm, where it is firmly held in 
position Ivy friction alone. 

As opera glasses are usually constructed for vision only, no 
attempt is made by the optician to make correction for secur- 
ing coincidence of foci of the visual and chemical rays of light 




FIG. 88. VIEW TAKEN FROM SAME SPOT WITH AN ORDINARY 
VIEW LENS. 

as in the well-made photographic objective. Hence, it is often 
found that the actinic focus falls within, or is shorter than, the 
visual. When this is the case, the proper allowance is easily 
made after a few trials. 



DrC. Theron v. Engel, 

Mit'tv I'i-eases of Women. 
DAVENPORT, - IOWA. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 105 

LIGHTNING PHOTOGRAPHS. 
THE method of making photographs of lightning flashes is 




FIG 89. PHOTOGRAPH OF LIGHTNING MADE AT BLUE HILL. 

very simple. The camera is focused for distant objects. 



106 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



During a thunderstorm the camera is pointed in the direction 
of the flashes, a plate is inserted, the cap is removed from 
the lens, and as soon as a flash takes place the lens is covered 
up and the plate is ready for development. To avoid halation 
a backed or non-halation plate should be used. 



'PHOTOGRAPHING FIREWORKS. 

PHOTOGRAPHS of pyrotechnical displays can also be made at 
night. The method of procedure is the same as described for 
photographs of lightning. The camera is focused for distant 
objects and the lens pointed towards the place where the dis- 
charge takes place. Fig. 90. 



DOUBLES. 

SOME very amusing pictures can be made by double expo- 
sure. For instance, Fig 91 represents a man playing cards 




FIG. 91. A DOUBLE. BY H. G. READING. 

with himself. A method of making these is thus described by 
W. J. Hickmott in " The American Annual of Photography 

for ] 894 " : 



108 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



Fit an open square box into the back of the camera, having 
it fully as large, or a little larger, than the negatives you wish 
to make. My attachment is made for S x 10 plates and under, 
and fits into the back of a 10 x 12 camera. In shape it is like 
Fig. 91, and I will designate it as A. The box is about 



FIG. 91. 



FIG. 92. 



FIG. 93 . 



3 inches deep. AVlien put into the camera il appears as in 
Fig. 92. Now have a plain strip of wood just one-half the size 
of the opening in A like B, Fig. 93. Have 
B fit very nicely in A, at the opening toward 
the lens, and so that it can be be moved 
freely from one side to the other. It is 
very convenient to have a rabbet on the top 
and bottom of A so that B can be moved 
from side to side and maintained in any 
position. 

To make a " Double," attach A to the 
camera as shown, put B into its place in the 
opening in A, say on the right-hand side as 
you stand back of your camera, thus cover- 
ing up the right-hand side of the plate when 
exposure is made. I 'ose your subject on the 
left-hand side, which will give you an image 
on the right-hand side of your ground glass 
and plate, draw the slide and expose, imme- 
diately returning the slide. This finishes 
one-half of the operation. Shift B over to 
FIG< 94 ' the left-hand side of A, which will cover up 

that portion of the plate just exposed, pose your subject again, 




PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 109 

but on the left-hand side, which will give you the image on 
the righthand side of the ground glass and plate, draw the 
slide and expose out for the exact length of time as at first. 
On development, if the exposure on both sides has been cor- 
rect, and of equal length, a perfect negative will be the result. 

The camera must on no account be moved between the ex- 
posures, nor the focus changed. After making the lirst 
exposure the correct focus for the second is obtainedby mov- 
ing the subject backward or forward until an exact focus 
is secured, and not by moving the camera or ground glass. 
The whole apparatus should be painted a dead black. 

When the attachment is in place it will be noted on the 
ground glass that while the strip B is just one-half the size of 
the opening in A, it does not cut off just one-half of the ground 
glass, a line drawn through the center of which showing that 
a space in the center of the plate about one- 
half an inch in width receiving a double exposure, 
but this is not apparent in the finished negative. 
The figure should be posed as near the center of 
the plate as possible in each instance. This 
apparatus, as described, is only available for 
making two figures. By making 1> narrower, or 
one-third of the width of the opening in A, 
three figures may l.e made, using each time a separate piece to 
cover up that portion of the plate exposed, and by changing 
the form of B, to that shown in Fig. t>3. four positions can 
be secured. 

Yal Starnes describes * another and still simpler method. 
He says: Take a light card mount and carefully cut from it a 
disc that will fit snugly inside the rim of the hood of your 
lens, resting against the circular interior shoulder (Fig. 90.). 
Cut from this, in a straight, true line, a small segment 
(Fig. 97,). The exact amount to cut off you can determine 
by slowly thrusting with one hand a card with a straight 
edge across the lens hood, looking the while at the ground 
glass ; when the shadow has crept almost to the center of the 

* " American Annual for 1895." 



110 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



focusing screen, hold the card firmly in place and notice 
how much of the circle of the hood is covered by it; cut 
from your disc a segment corresponding* to the amount left 
uncovered. Don't let the shadow creep quite to the center 
of the ground glass, for you might go the least bit beyond, 





FIG. 96. 



FIG. 97. 



and an unexposed strip would result. Now paint your disc a 
dull black ; loosen the hood of your lens on its threads, so 
that it will revolve easily and freely, and you are ready for 
business. 

Get your focus and then place disc in hood of lens 
straight edge perpendicular (Fig. 98). Cover lens with cap 





FIG. 



FIG. 99. 



or shutter; insert plate-holder and draw slide; pose your v- 
\ figure directly in front of uncovered portion of lens ; expose. /* 
ftext, without touching disc, slide, or anything but the hood, 
gently revolve the hood on its threads one-half turn (Fig. 99), 
and pose your figure on opposite side ; expose. The trick's 
accomplished. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



Ill 



Another arrangement devised by Mr. Frank A. Gilniore, of 
Auburn, R. L, is shown in Fig. 100. 

A black-lined box is fitted to the front of a camera. The 
front of the box is closed by two doors. On opening one door 
a picture may be taken on one side of the plate ; on closing 
this door and opening the other, the other half of the plate is 
ready for exposure. 




FIG. 100. 



CAMERA FITTED WITH ARRANGEMENT FOR 
DUPLEX PHOTOGRAPHY. 



The subject poses in one position and is photographed 
with one door optn. care being taken to bring the figure 
within the proper area of the negative. The finder enables 
'his detail to be attended to. Then the door is closed, the 
other is opened and the second exposure for the other half of 
the plate is made with the subject in the other position. 
It is not necessary to touch the plate-holder between the 
exposures. The cover is withdrawn, the one door is opened 
and the shutter is sprung. The doors are then changed and 
the shutter is sprung a second time. Time exposures are 
rather risky, as involving danger of shaking. A picture made 
by Mr. Gilmore will be found on the next page. 



PHOTOGRAPHIC AMUSEMENTS. 



113 



DOUBLE EXPOSURES. 
AMATEURS often obtain unexpected results from careler- 




Tly C. A. Bates. 
FIG. 102. RESULT OF A DOUHI.E EXI- 



ness in exposing their plates. Some very amusing pictures 




Copyright. 1894, by W. J. Deinorest. 
FIG. 103. RESULT OF A DOUBLE EXPOSURE. 

can. however, be obtained by making two different exposures 



114 



PHOTOGBAPHIC AMUSEMENTS 



on one plate. The subject should, of course, be of a very 
different nature. Our illustrations, Figs. 102-3, are examples. 
In making these it is necessary to give a very short exposure 
in each case, about one-half the amount that would be ordin- 
arily required. The negative must be carefully developed, 
using plenty of restrainer. Similar effects can, of course, be 
obtained by printing from two different negatives, but the 
results are, as a rule, inferior. 



COMICAL PORTRAITS. 

IF the photographer be skilled in drawing he can make 
some laughable pictures that will amuse his friends by draw- 




FIG. 104. 



ing a sketch of a comical body without a head, as shown in 
Fig. 104; a photograph of anyone is the cut out and the head 
pasted on. 



OR, C. 

Physician & Surgeon, 

Graduate of Royal University of Berlin 



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F I "VHE OLDEST American Photographic Journal. Has 
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REGIONAL LIBRAR Y FACILITY 




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University of California, San Diego 



DATE DUE 



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.Eft 

15. 



DEC 11 1978 



C139 



UCSD Libr.