(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "The Photographic and fine art journal"

^^PSiSgigiH||i-g^|i[|f|^ 



BSi 

§3 Scien tific Library ^ 



S3 



§3 
§1 

§3 

§3 
§3 



go 

Eo 

go 

go 
go 
go 




UNITED STATES PATENT OfFICE 






c§ 
og- 
og- 
og 

t>g 



t>g 



'•o ( kRrt i«MT vn ts riNo emoa 1 1 — 8025 




V 



m 





M 



-^' 




.* 



/^ 



-^ 



^ 





J. D. ntvwo iD Xeg. Rtotjn, Mats. 
C.)r,. John Bovk. 



Oils KlMHAl.!,. Iv- 



Q. 



]i[u.SK.- KlMBAl.I.. E.-Q. 



n. II. S.\) ! 1 im;. Print. 

Co!.. N. .v. ■[■|iiiMi'.':n\. 



T 1-31 E 1-3; E -^ "W O O ID Or IR. (D XJ -E> 



.T6 



/y./<^^ 



THE 



PIOTOGRAPHIC AND ME ART JOURNAL 



VOLUME XI.] 



JANUARY 



18 5 7^. 



[NUMBER I. 



THOMAS CRAWFORD. 

The following brief biography of this great sculptor, we. appropriate from that esMlIent 
family paper " Life Illustrated," 




in 
carving, 



RAWFOED was born in 
this city, March 22d, 
1814, and from an early 
age manifested a re- 
markable fondness for 
art, which his father 
lost no opportunity of 
encouraging, lie caused 
liim to be first tho- 
roughly instructed 
drawing and 
and then placed him 
with Mr. Frazee and 
Mr. Launitz, from whom 
. „. he acquired the art of 

modeling in clay. His tendency being manifestly toward the 
plastic arts, in 18.34, at 20 years of age, he was sent to Italy, 
and established himself in Rome, where he was so fortunate as 
to gain _ admittance into the studio of Thorwaldsen, to whose 
instruction and friendship he became indebted for much of his 
subsequent success. The purity of form and severe classicism 
of this eminent master are reflected in many of his 
works. 



pupil's 



_ 'After a few years of study, Crawford established his studio 
in Rome, and soon received abundant employment. He exe- 
cuted busts of the late Commodore Hull, Mr. Kenyon, the En- 
glish poet, Sir Charles Yaughan, formerly Minister at Wash- 
ington, and many others. One of the most felicitous and cha- 
racteristic is that of the venerable Josiah Quincy, executed at 
the request of the students of Harvard University upon his re- 
tirement from the presidency of that institution, and now placed 
in the College Library. In 1839 he designed his famous group 
of _" Orpheus," one of the finest productions of his chisel, and 
which IS said to have elicited fromThorwaldsen the remark that 
It was " the most classic statue in the studio of Rome." It was 
extensively exhibited in this country, and subsequently pur- 
chased by the Boston AthenKum, in whose sculpture gallery it 
now stands, and where may be seen "Cupid and Psyche," an 
exquisite group in marble by the same sculptor. His ideal 
busts of which " Sappo" and " Yesta" are good examples, are 
models of purity and grace. Some of his other most celebrated 
works are the "Genius of Mirth," "Adam and Eve," " David 
f.^rJu^ Conqueror of 6oUah," "David before Saul" (a bas-relief),' 

ihe bhepherds and Wise Men presenting their offerings to 
the Saviour" (a bas-relief containing twenty-four figures), 
Christ Disputing with the Doctors" (a bas-relief containin"- 
twelve figures), "Christ and the Woman of Samaria" (a 
bas-relief), " Christ Blessing Little Children," " Christ As- 
cending from the Tomb," "Christ Raising Jairus's Daughter" 
&c., &c. The execution of his bas-reliefs is delicate and 
spirited, and the religious subjects, especially those in which 
the person of the Saviour is introduced, are marked 
singular propriety and dignity of treatment. 

" His genius, however, was eminentlv progressive, and his 
crowning works were destined to come last. In 1 855 his noble 
statue in bronze of Beethoven, confessedly the only one yet de- 

VOL XI. NO. I. 2 



by 



signed which is worthy of the subject, or which gives an ade- 
quate idea of the original, was received in Boston, and deposit- 
ed in the Music Hall of that city with appropriate solemnities. 
With his last great work, the Washington Monument, ordered 
by the State of Yirginia, comprising a bronze equestrian statue 
of Washington on a lofty pedestal, with statues of Henry, Jef- 
ferson, ond other illustrious Yirginians, surrounding its base, 
the public have long been familiar from numerous published de- 
scriptions. The statue of Washington has elicited flattering 
enconiums from all who have seen it, including some of the 
most distinguished art critics of Europe, and is doubtless one 
of the most successful works of its kind of modern times. It is 
of colossal size, and was cast in the celebrated foundry in Mu- 
nich, under the personal superintendence of the artist. The 
accompanying statues have been designed, but not all executed. 
Among other designs which Mr. Crawford has made latterly, 
we may mention statues of Channing, Washington Allston, and 
Henry Clay. 

" Mr. Crawford was married some years ago to Miss Ward, 
of this city, a sister of Mrs. Samuel G. Howe, of Boston, the 
author of " Passion Flowers" and "The World's Own." He 
has left several children. For the last year or two he has been 
the victim of a dreadful disease, which has deprived him al- 
most entirely of sight, and caused him to renounce his art alto- 
gether. Last spring he was induced to leave Rome, and place 
himself under the care of Dr. Fell, of London, a young Ameri- 
can physician who had acquired some reputation for his treat- 
ment of cancers. For a while the sufferer seemed to obtain re- 
lief, but the eflbrts to remove the cancer, at the sacrifice of the 
eye itself, proved entirely unavailing; the disease penetrated to 
the brain, and after months of anguish, which he bore with sin- 
gular patience, he was relieved of his sufferings by death. Mr. 
Crawford was of a frank and generous disposition, and his 
death will be mourned not less by the large circle who enjoyed 
his friendship, than by those who admired his genius. 

" The loss of such a man in the maturity of his powers, al- 
though not yet in the maturity of his fame, to a nation still 
young in art, can scarcely be over-estimated, and it would be 
difficult at this moment to point to a successor who is worthy 
either by what he has done, or by what he promises to do, to 
occupy his place, AYhatever our painters may have accom- 
plished, it is through our sculptors that we have asserted our 
first substantial claim to be recognized as a nation capable of 
producing great works of art, and the names of Crawford and 
Powers are household words where other names in Americaa 
art are unknown or ignored. 

" The funeral of this celebrated American sculptor, took 
place on Saturday. His remains were brought from England 
m the ship Southampton, and reached this port on Tuesday 
last. On the following day they were conveyed to the resi- 
dence of his brother-in-law, Mr. Campbell, iS'o. 158 Grand st., 
whence they were removed on Thursday to St. John's Church. 
There they were visited by numerous friends of the deceased, 
who undertook to adorn the coffin with tasteful memorials. The 
cofi&n itself was rather a novelty.. It was made in London, and 
presented a striking difference to the coffins usually made in 
this country, being covered with the finest black iDroadcloth, 
and richly studded with bosses and ornaments, painted deeply 
black and highly varnished. The effect was rich, but intensely 
sombre. On Saturday the lid was covered by the friends afore- 



said with the choicest flowers — immortelles, forget-me-nots, 
caraelias, laurel, myrtle and lavender — woven into wreaths, or 
scattered promiscuously, just as the friendly hand had dropped 
them. Over the silver plate bearing the inscription was laid a 
cross composed of the choicest of these flowers. The inscrip- 
tion was: " Thomas Crawford. Born in New York, March 
22, 1813. Died in London, October 10, 1851." 

" The cbuichwas filled on Saturday with the personal friends 
of Crawford, and with hundreds of citizens who, not personally 
acquainted with him, honored his genius and his memory. We 
noticed Dr. Cogswell, Dr. Francis, Wm. H. Appleton, John 
Van Buren, David Dudley Field, Caleb Lyon, John Jay, Louis 
Gaylord Clark, Charles Elliot, Professor Botta and a host of 
the artists now resident in the city. The pall-bearers were 
Hon. Charles Sumner, H. T. Tuckerman, G. W. Curtis, Pro- 
fessors Greene and Lieber, and Messrs. Hicks, Kensett and 
Rossiter, the artists. Mrs. Crawford, widow of the deceased, 
was present, with his sisters, Mrs. Campbell, and her husband. 
The funeral service was conducted by Rev. Dr. Berrian, as- 
sisted by Rev. Drs. Dix, Weston and Young. Portions of the 
service was chaunted by the choir, which included Mesdames 
Bouchelle and Stoepel. The entire ceremony was that of the 
Episcopal Church for the Burial of the Dead. Rev. Dr. Wes- 
ton, with the relatives and pall-bearers, accompanied the body 
to Greenwood Cemetery, where it was placed in a private 
tomb. A monument will be erected over the spot in the course 
of the ensuing Spring. 

" Previous to the removal of the body from London, a funer- 
al service was performed over it, by the rector of the Church 
of St. Gabriel's, Pimlico. 

"At a meeting of the Artists and Amateurs of the city of 
Baltimore held at Carroll Hall on Thursday evening, Nov. 12, 
1857, Col. J. R. Johnston was called to the Chair, and J. K. 
Harley, appointed Secretary. 

Tlie Chair appointed a Committee of five, consisting of Gen. 
Ward B. Burnett, Elisha Lee, James K. Harley, D. R. Wood- 
ward and William Rinehart, to draft a preamble and resolu- 
tions expressive of the sense of the meeting in reference to the 
death of the distinguished sculptor, Thomas Crawford, of the 
city of New York. 

After retiring for a short time, the committee submitted the 
following preamble and resolutions, which were unanimously 
adopted: 

Whereas, we have heard with deep regret of the death of the 
American Sculptor, Thomas Crawford, of New York, and for 
the last twenty-three years a resident of Italy, who, by his in- 
dustry, originality, and brilliant genius, with the advice of the 
immortal Thorwaldsen, inscribed his name upon the Temple of 
Fame with those of the most distinguished artists of modern 
time, and who was alike distinguished for his frank and manly 
character and eminent degree of social virtue, therefore 

Resolved, That we express an unfeigned sorrow at his early 
demise in the midst of a professional career, in which he was 
daily adding fresh laurels to the wreath that fame had already 
placed upon his brow. 

Resolved, That we especially regret his death at this time, as 
after more than twenty yeai's of industry and assiduous study 
of the art in a foreign clime, he has been denied the high satis- 
faction of witnessing the results of his labor in connection with 
the extension of the Capitol at Washington, and of being wel- 
comed to the shores of the home of his youth by the cheering 
voice of his admiring countrymen, 

Resolved, That in calling the attention of our youth to the 
career of one, whose unflagging spirit and classic genius has 
made his name as durable as marble, we would remind them 
that his moral character was as pure as the Parian which will 
carry to the future his fame. 

Resolved, That we deeply sympathise with the family, rela- 
tions, and friends of the late gifted Crawford at his early death 
in a foreign land, and that the Chairman be requested to for- 
ward to them copies of the above proceedings. 

Resolved, That all the city papers publish the proceedings of 
the meeting. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal, 

ON THE FADING OF POSITIVES. 



BY THOMAS A. MALONE, 



We promised to remark upon Mr. Sutton's paper on the 
fading of postives. If the reader will now take our last num- 
ber in hand,* or No. 36 of the present volume of Photographic 
Notes, he will the better follow our remarks. The subject is 
an important one, and we are glad to have an opportunity of 
discussing it. It is a matter which certainly ought not to be 
left in so unsatisfactory a conditions. In France it has been 
proposed by some timid indivuals to aviod all allusion to the 
question, for fear of prejudicing the public! We in England 
like to know the worst of a bad business, and would not tolerate 
a journal that would make things pleasant outside when all 
was supposed to be rotten within. 

We are about to review Mr. Sutton's paper chiefly because 
we take more interest in this question of fading than in any 
other relating to our art. Something must be done. Another 
year must not pass without an earnest public discussion of the 
whole question. Already the retailers of photographs admit 
that people admire, but do not buy extensively, of photographs, 
solely because they have no guarantee that a print for which 
fifty shillings is asked may not become waste paper in a few 
months. Is not this the literal truth? We avow that we our- 
selves abstain from the purchase of a tempting subject because 
we do not know the history of its manipulation. We have 
seen one of the large continental photographic workshops, and 
we declare that we have no faith in pictures prepared for the 
market in the off-hand way we have witnessed. We believe 
that more pains are now being taken, but this, like many other 
questions, is one of degree, and who is to say where the line is 
to be drawn. 

Mr, Sutton's first paragraph is imperfect. We have photo- 
graphs which fade without forming a colored substance. We 
shall have to classify faded pictures according to their minute 
physical appearances. 

Certainly a pale yellow image is no longer a true photo- 
graph. 

We have no proof of the exact nature of this yellow sub- 
stance, and we do not believe that it is permanent against all 
time and natural agencies. Dr. Percy spoke of a sulphide of 
silver dense enough to form a good picture: he could not mean 
that a scarcely visible film suited any subject pictorially. Why 
must we say that it is only the assumed yellow sulphide of sil- 
ver that is permanent? We know nothing precisely about the 
comparative merits of black and yellow sulphide of silver. 
There is some confusion here. 

Not the pi'ocess of fading, but a process of fading, can be 
shown by the sulphide of ammonium. This toning and fading 
process is of our discovery, and if it be M'orth having it is right- 
ly ours. The action of " hydrosulphate of ammonia" was un- 
known to photographers till we made our experiments. Mr. 
Shaw is the only early photographer besides ourselves who 
tested the action of a sulphuretted compound, and communica- 
ted to others the result. The manner in which sulphide of am- 
monium acts is yet unexplained. Saying it is due to an excess 
of sulphuration tells us nothing; it may be the oxidation of a 
sulphuretted compound which generates the destructive sub- 
stance: even a hyposulphite may be formed, and be partly the 
cause, but no one would call this an excess of sulphuration. 
The best way is to say that we do not know the steps taken 
by the respective elements which exist in and about the pic- 
ture. The " hideous" color of a newly fixed photograph may 
be removed by heating strongly a damp photograph which has 
a trace of hyposulphite left in it. Is this sulphuration? It 
may be so; but if so, sulphuration need not cause a photograph 
to fade, for we have toned pictures of the date of 1844, which 
have not faded, though kept in an ordinary book. Hydrosul- 
phate of ammonia, as sold, is a very uncertain substance. We 

* See p. 3(J8, no. xii. vol. x. Photographic and Fine Art Journal. 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



liave in this journal explained the mode of preparing it: it will 
be seen that it is not likely to be uiform in strength. Besides 
it is acted upon by the air if kept in an imperfectly stoppered 
bottle. Hyposulphite of ammonia is said to be formed by the 
action of the air, so that unless care be taken the experiments 
will be vague. 

This sulphurating to a maximum is an assumption, and Mr. 
Sutton is doubtless too good a logician not to know that " what 
is gratuitously assumed, may be as gratuitously denied." That 
sulphur toning takes the picture on the road to destruction we 
admit, but it does not follow that a man will go the whole 
course because he sets out dangerously. Keep the toned pic- 
ture from a smoky, toning dtviospAcre, and it may stop on the 
road unharmed. We admit that the sulphur toning is an ob- 
scure matter. We have old toned prints which are still good, 
and that constitutes our stumbling-block. If gold tones wilhout 
sulphur, let us use gold, but do not let us therefore say that a 
sulphur picture must fade and a gold toned picture is perma- 
nent. We simply know but little about it. 

With regard to the influence of organic matter on the fad- 
ing, we are also tolerably ignorant. We are glad that Mr. 
Sutton has discovered that even the developed pictures may 
not resist sulphur. We, long ago, faded one of his "perma- 
nent prints," with sulphide of ammonium, in the presence of 
several chemists. We know of no permanent prints. Perma- 
nent prints are like the indelible marking ink, which the quick- 
witted French chemical student converted into "delible ink," by 
a touch of cyanide of potassium and iodine, or some such 
agency. 

Without pretending to know the nature of the hideous brick- 
red image, we may say that we think the organic matter about 
it does render it less stable, but we must not build on a mere 
hypothesis, let us say we do not know all the facts of the case. 

Now for more suppositions. We once, in conversation with 
Mr. Talbot, asked, " may we not suppose, &c.;" to which he 
good-naturedly replied, with a smile, " You may suppose any- 
thing you please." We felt the rebuke. There was no need to 
add-^supposing proves nothing. But seriously, this matter is 
too grave to allow of any loose chemistry being brought near 
ns. It is a rule in chemistry to ignore the existence of any ox- 
ide or sulphide which cannot be shown by analysis to exist, 
and this is a safe rule. We know that we have much to dis- 
cover, but we cannot therefore allow the justness of any mere 
assumption. The onus of proving the existence of a bisulphide 
of silver rests with Dr. Taylor and Mr. Sutton. Any one may 
utter guesses, and give a chemist a twelvemonth's work to de- 
monstrate their futility. This is not said to discourage specu- 
lation, but to point out the weakness of reasoning from mere 
surmises. What is it then? Why, it may be one of five hun- 
dred things not yet dreamed of in our poor philosophy I Has it 
been shown that the yellow compound is or is not an allotropic 
substance? Here is more mere guessing. 

We would ask Dr. Taylor to produce, chemically, this yellow 
double salt. The equivalents of sulphur and silver are known, 
and hydrogen can easily be oxidized. Can water be obtained 
from this yellow salt by the oxidation of its hydrogen? These 
are questions that we ought not to be asked to solve. 

The explanation of a theorist is often satisfactory enough, if 
we will only "adopt" his " notion;" but here lies the difficulty. 
We may adopt a thing that is false. Again, we say, the onus 
of proof lies with the theorist. Form this yellow sulphide, and 
we will gladly analyze it. 

In our time, we have had the notion that a sulphate might 
be formed, but we have long left off guessing, and determined 
to wait for more light. We have proved, by experience, that 
a positive, faded by iodine, can be very fairly restored by boil- 
ing it in potash; but a positive, faded by time, is not so restored. 
From this we do infer that the ordinary fading is accompanied 
by the formation of a soluble salt, for what little restoration 
takes place is of a blurred character in the one instance, and of 
a well-defined character in the other. This is reasoning from 
experiment. 

The mode of analysis suggested would not prove that a sul- 



phate had been formed. A hyposulphite might be formed; so 
much for hypothesis. Moreover, testing is not so easy as one 
might imagine; tracts oi sulphur salts are difficult to analyze 
qualitatively. 

Tbe remarks about light and darkness are vague; we do 
not understand the fact well. Theory about fires is very 
loose. Sulphur exposed to damp air forms sulphuric acid; tiiis 
would dissolve the silver, not sulphurate it. See how loose 
this is. We talk about sulphur and sulphnration in a very 
vague way. Mr. Sutton is not alone in this respect. 

Sulphur, as sulphate of lime, is wilder guessing still. Show 
us that sulphate of lime can blacken, or in any v»-ay sulphurate 
silver. As to sulphide of sodium, ultramarine is never put into 
cream colored papers, which yet yield f.iding pictures. 

We believe the sulphur compounds, in an impure atmosphere, 
have much to do with certain cases of fading, and we believe 
and know that a red picture will tone itself in the atmosphere, 
but not with gold certainly: with what then, but sulphur? — 
and if a print can tone by atmospheric sulphur, why cannot 
oxidation and more sulphur destroy this self-toned print? Let 
not this point be evaded. It is with us a strong position, and 
we wish we could be fairly dislodged from it. As to the re- 
moval of all traces of sulphur, we used potash with a view to 
aid in this matter, and we have still something to say about 
the use of potash; but we shall follow our own prescription 
and not talk about matters which only may or may not be 
founded in realities. The difficulties of analysis are very great 
where such minute quantities are concerned, and one had need 
give themselves up entirely to the subject or thing, not always 
practicable in this world of mixed duties. 

The chance of prints, made by the ordinary method, lasting, is 
this: certain prints made in a wholesale Way in 1844 have, as 
regards some of them, remained without the slightest deterio- 
ration to the present day; indeed, one might affirm that some 
of them have been temporarily improved. This, again, is a 
strong position, and we can never retire from it as long as 
these said prints remain in their present satisfactory condition. 
We say that any theory that fails to explain fully this fact 
still leaves us in the dark. Do we then confide in the old 
method? By no means: but we point to it to warn those who 
think they prove everything by saying, " here is a picture four- 
teen years old iy my process, &n([ it is unfaded." We reply, 
" here is one as old as yours, by the original process; and if 
one escapes why may we not learn how to enable all to escape?" 
You reply; the mnjority of yours fade, and the majority of ours 
stand good. Granted for a moment, and only for a moment; 
but your process is inferior in its results, and may yet require 
to be kept from the atmosphere; and so we may as well begin 
by protecting the superior results obtained by the old and un- 
explained method. 

The honorable course is to admit that we are very ignorant 
in this matter, and to tell the public that they must share with 
us in it. We will do our best, according to our knowledge, 
and having before us the fiict, that pictures of old date are 
still sound, we are not justified in asserting that any given pic- 
ture will fade because it was not made by our process. 

The difficulty is to furnish the guarantee. Self-asserted au- 
thority is valueless in the long run. The matter must be set- 
tled with the public, and not simply by them or against them. 

We believe we have now as fairly as possible arrived at Mr. 
Sutton's last paragraph; and as his remarks have been some- 
what desultory, so is our comment. He ends by deprecating 
the use of hot water in fixing. Now, the chemist knows, that 
when he can use hot water to wash a precipitate, it is to be pre- 
ferred, and on this ground we advocate hot water for washing, 
say water at 100° Fahr. We believe that the washing is ac- 
celerated by using a hot liquid, apart from any question of solu- 
bility; at all events, if probabilities are to guide us, cold water 
must be considered inferior to hot: the question is important, 
though to many it may seem to be only secondary. 

If, in our remarks, we have said anything that may appear 
to mar the general character of our criticism, we beg that it 
may be overlooked. We desire to obtain credit for being in 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



earnest in this matter, and we are very glad that Mr. Sutton's 
fearlessness has given us this opportunity of assisting to keep 
alive tlie discussion of this fundamental questioji. In justice to 
ourselves, we ought to add that the whole of our remarks have 
been noted down with a " running reed," and without time for 
minute revision; but we do not by this, wish to. imply that we 
doubt the truth of the jiositions we have taken up, but simply 
beg of the reac^er to excuse the manner in which, we have pro- 
ceeded, 



From the Liverpool rho-toc/rapJdc Journal. 

PAPER FOR PHOTOGRAPHY.* 



To return to. our sizing operation: the paper is put into an, 
oblong vat containing the warm size, a few sheets atatime, until 
a considerable mass has been immersed. A flat board,, placed 
perpendicularly in the vat is then forced up against the mass of 
sheets, which are also on their edges, to squeeze the whole into 
close contact; the excess of sizje is then run off and the mass of 
sheets removed ready to. be pressed, the adhering gelatine, now 
beginning to solidify, being first scraped away. Aiter under- 
going a nxoderate pressure the sheets are pa.rted, and again 
hung across the horse-hair lines to dry. As before from three 
to five sheets are suspeuded together, and the previous remarks 
respecting the conditions under which the sheets dry a^^ply here 
also. This dryingstage of themanufacture'is averyimportant one. 
If tlic moisture is removed too rapidly, as by fire heat, or 
in very hot weather, the sizing fails, as may be discovered by 
dipping a sheet so dried into water. This test wilj. show that 
the paper is still absorbent over the greater part of its surface, 
and consequently useless for either writing or photographic pur-- 
poses. In frosty weather the sizing is also likely to fail, but 
from what cause does not clearly appear. In very damp 
weather, long continued, failures occur probably from the gela- 
tine undergoing a species of decomposition. Again, during 
thunder-storms the paper sometimes suifers injury, as shown by 
the water test. 

From these statements it will be perceived that the sizing is 
a very delicate and uncertain operation, and yet probably our 
ultimate success depends chief y upon this stage of the process 
being well got over. One can now see why machine-made pa- 
pers, escape many of the difficulties which attend those of hand 
make, and one would be inclined to recommend the use of the 
machine for photographic purposes, did we not know that as a 
rule machine-made papers are liable to be more spongy in their 
texture, through the difQculty of imitating by a machine the 
felting " shake" of a hand-workman. liesides in machine-made 
papers a different sizing mixture is generally adopted, which 
interferes with the keeping quahties of. the sensitive paper. 
Plour and resin, or a resin soap with flour, and with or without 
alum, is said to be used, each ipaker having a formula of his 
own. These materials appear to aid sensibility, for it should 
be observed that the "Turkey Mill" paper already spoken of 
was less rapid than the Frence papers which appear all to be 
machine-made. If we could once get well made sheets from a 
uniform pulp, we might soon learn the influence of the sizing 
materials, and devise a method of combining all the known, 
good qualities, unless indeed sensibility and long-keeping are 
incompatible qualities. On this point we have not enough, 
evidence. All analogies drawn from the case of the Daguer- 
reotype are likely to be fallacious. 

The paper, after being suspended for a week or ten days, 
may be removed and pressed, and then hot-pressed or glazed 
by being placed between polished copper or zinc plates, or be- 
tween glazed mill-boards, several of which are passed at once, 
and repeatedly, between rollers, which exert a powerful press- 
ure upon the surface of the mass which is drawn through them. 
The amount of glaze depends chiefly upon the number of times 
the moss is sent through the rollers. If the pressure exerted be 
extreme, the paper appears full of pin holes, occasioned, I 

* Continued from p. 368, vol. x. no. xii. 



think, l)y the crushing of the lumps, which we have seen must 
be formed in the couching operation; and this was the evil I 
alluded to as being made evident at a later stage of the pro- 
cess. I believe these crushed parts will absorb and be acted 
upon differently at every stage of the photographic operations; 
and I doubt very much the policy of very high glazing. I 
think hot-pressing should be chiefly relied upon;, but we want 
exact experiments upon these points. 

We have now gone through the operations necessary to the 
production of a sheet of paper fit fo? photographic purposes; 
and do not let it be forgotten that paper has been made, of 
good quality, by the process I have described. We want first 
of all simply to study well the present method, endeavoring to 
reform it at those points I have indicated as being doubtful. 
Let us once obtain, wUh certainty, a paper equal to the old 
" Turkey Mill" specimens, and much will have been accom- 
plished. Further improvements wou-ld then soon follow. 

I have only to state that our linen paper passed through all 
the stages satisfactorily until it came to the sizing, here it 
totally failed. It resisted the size, although repeatedly dipped 
and dried between each dipping. The strength of the size was 
varied, and the dippings continued until the paper became size- 
siained, and yet, on finally testing it by immersion in water, it 
v/as found to be bibulous over the greater part of its surface. 
I now saw how unwise I was in permitting myself to be over- 
ruled with regard to the hoiling in alkali at the first stage. I 
have no doubt that such boiling would remove theresin or gum- 
resin, or /"a^^ or glutinous substance, whichever it may be, 
that belongs to the woody fibre, but which is quite distinct from 
the cellulose , 0^ vfhich the flax fibre chiefly consists. I may 
add, that a small portion of a sheet which seemed to take the 
size better than the ?est, was iodized, prepa?ed, and exposed in 
the camera; it gave a very characteristic result, and showed 
clearly that flax might be made to yield a paper having every 
good quality that v;e could desire. So far the experiment was 
not an entire loss, although it failed for immediate practical 
purposes. 

We shall , for the present, bring this subject to a close, hav- 
ing pointed out all that is known with certainty respecting the 
best materials for ensuring a good sheet of paper. Besides the 
negative paper made of linen, we had some paper made for posi- 
tives, by the advice of the manufacturer, and for this a material 
called government canvas was used. It was a fine kind of sail- 
cloth, and made a very strong paper. Some positives printed 
on it at the time are good to this day, although they have been 
kept in a portfolio with others which have faded. I am inclined 
to think that tlie riature of the paper has something to do 
with the fading of positives. The fact stated by Mr. Ross re- 
specting hard-sized paper is, in accordance with our experience, 
gained from the printing of Mr. Talbot's pencil of natui-e; but 
then all pictures on this hard-sized paper have not stood the 
test of time. We are in this subject met by such conflicting 
evidence that a sound observer mast hesitate in assigning any 
one cause as t/ie cause of fading. The removal of the size from 
the finished prints has been recommended; but against this we 
have the fact, that pictures with the size in them, in a very in- 
soluble condition, remain good, when others, on a paper feebly 
sized, fade altogether. So far am I from fearing the presence 
of good size that I have recommended sizing the picture anew, 
after a solution of potash has been used to tone the picture. 
Time alone can tell us who is right in this matter: If size is in- 
jurious, what shall we say of albumcnized prints? The size may 
effect us this way:- it may either aid or check, as the case may 
be, the action of certain atmospheric impurities, but we have 
already said the paper question requires a searcliing investiga- 
tion. There are a few miscellaneous points which remain to be 
noticed respecting the paper majiufacture. First, as to the 
presence of spots which appear in the finished picture. These, 
of course, arise from the presence of foreign substanoes. Par- 
ticles of iron or brass may be present from the rag-sorters 
overlooking covered wire, buttons, &c., even pins are sometimes 
overlooked and go into the engine to be beaten up with the 
stuff; bone buttons, hooks and eyes, and such-like fastenings 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



often pass into the pulp; and if tbcy are not torn to pieces 
completely, they abrade the brass bed of the engine suflicieutly 
to introduce particles of metals into the pulp; these particles 
decompose the silver solution and furnish wide-spreading spots. 
Our linen paper became foul from a peculiar cause: the water 
of the spring which supplied the engine contained a certain 
quantity of carbonate of iirae held in solution by free carbonic 
acid. This lime became deposited upon the wood-work of the 
vat fand indeed upon every part of the wood-work e.xposed to the 
water) in consequence of the expulsion, by constant agitation, 
of the loosely combined part of the carbonic acid. This deposit, 
after reaching a certain thickness, sometimes scales off during 
the beating operation, and becomes broken into a thousand 
pieces, and is interspersed throughout the pulp, and this hap- 
pened to us. At the outset I objected to the presence of this 
deposit, but I was told that it could not be removed ; and, in- 
deed, to remove it would be no easy task: it adlieres so closely 
to the wood that the scales bring away an impression of the 
grain of the wood. The deposit is, moreover, very hardi 
Again, the paper may become foul from the felts having been 
carelessly left exposed to dust and dirt, and washing is here not 
a sufficient remedy. The felts used for our linen paper were 
unfortunately, as it turned out, in a dirty condition: being finer 
than those usually employed, they had lain by and contracted 
dirt which no washing could remove. These felts were actually 
cleansed at the expense of our linen paper! — a most provoking 
piece of experience, for which the maker was in some degree to 
blame. Another source of Impurity may be found in the bleach- 
ing house. I have seen, at a very large establishment, metal 
pipes and taps projecting over j;he wooden vats which contain 
the pulp and chloride of lime; and I have seen these taps green 
and corroded from the chlorine vapor condensing in the water 
which was leaking out at bad joints and running into the pulp, 
carrying with it chlorides of the metals used in tlie pipes and 
taps. I think I have now stated quite enough to justify the asser- 
tion that the process of manufacture must be remodelled if we 
are ever to get paper pure and uniform in its character. I 
may also mention that I suggested that distilled water might 
be necessary for washing the pulp and for sizing, but I was, at 
the time, assured that the suggestion was impracticable. Now, 
however, there is an admission made that distilled water may 
be had at an economical rate. Indeed at present all the water 
used at the Feversham powder-mills in refining saltpetre for 
gunpowder is distilled expressly from large iron stills, and all 
the water used in the actual manufacture is carefully distilled, 
as I was informed on visiting the works, yet gunpowder is 
cheap enough, this nicety notwithstanding. 

I propose next to give the method employed in printing the 
plates used to illustrate the pencil of nature. 



From the Jour, of the Fhot. Soci 

REMOVAL OF SPOTS FROM COLLOBIOX. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal. 

Sir, — In the practical applications of photography I haVe 
frequently been tempted to exclaim, with Lady Macbeth, 
'' Out! damn'd spot-" but no, 'twas there; removal was de- 
struction. In collodion, specks of dust ivill gain a habitat, and 
there they lurk, ready, when poured upon the plate, to fix them- 
selves, and lend distortion to the fairest face. 

The same evil will sometimes result from spots of dust in the 
spirit varnish, and thus many good negatives are ruined for 
printing; the spot being certain to locate itself somewhere 
about the human face, to the total destruction of \i^. divinity. 

Now, Sir, if we wish to avoid a hulh for a nose, or a blot for 
a mouth (except where these really represent originals) , we 
must exclude with the utmost care all those insane atoms from 
our chemicals: to effect this I have devised a very simple filter- 
ing apparatus, viz, & gas jar inverted over a dish of water, and 
within it a bottle containing a funnel, and the funnel a filter. 
Now we may unstop the jar, and pour into the filter whatever 

1* 



we wish to cleanse from the " bottoms" or dirt it may contain. 
Collodion will filter through in a very short time, and with but 
little loss, even with a surrounding atmosphere of 60" or 10'^ F; 

C. Weay, M.R.C.S. 



Wroin La Lumiere. 
ON THE SOLUBILITY OF PYROXYLINE. 



BY M. H. DE LA BLANCHERE. 



There are rcany things to be said on the most simple manipu- 
lations of every-day photography. M. Van Monckoven, after 
describing how to rectify ether and alcohol, and to make good 
pyroxyline, states that a solution of this in the mixture of alco- 
hol and ether ought to be of a light yellow tint, owing to the 
pyroxyline itself being similarly colored. 

Being desirous of studying the properties of a quantity of 
colorless pyroxyline which had been sent to me, I dissolved equal 
weights, in the proportion of 3 per cent, in two liquids, one con- 
sisting of commercial alcohol and ether, and the other of the 
same solvents, as perfectly rectified as possible; they were then 
well agitated and allowed to stand. Some days afterwards I 
noticed that one of the solutions was perfectly colorless, with 
only a very slight nebulosity, whilst the other Was of a percep- 
tible yellow tint; the colorless solution was the one -which had 
been made with the rectified alcohol and ether. 

V/hence arises this reaction? Mr. Hardwhich, in the Journal 
of the Photographic Society of London, vol. iii. p. 182, remarks, 
when speaking of freshly iodized collodion, that the first colora- 
tion which is perceived is probably due to the ether, which may 
develope an oxidizing principle and become acid even when the 
liquid was originally alkaline. He does not however consider 
that the brown coloration of old collodion is entirely due to this 
cause; the pyroxyline has some part in it; for if the iodide only 
is dissolved in the alcohol and ether, the liberation of iodine is 
much slower: neither is it owing to the presence of free acid in 
the pyroxyline, for the same thing frequently takes place after 
it has been soaked in weak solution of ammonia. These facts 
led the above clever experimenter to imagine that the pyroxyline 
itself decomposes when in contact with an alkaline iodide, and 
he founded this opinion on some experiments which confirm this 
hypothesis, but which do not bear upon the present subject. 

But cannot the ijyroxyline itself decompose under certain 
conditions When ill contact with the alcohol and ether 1 The 
aboVe-mentioned commercial samples had not the least acid re- 
action, any more than the others which had been perfectly rec- 
tified: they merely differed in the presence of a little water. 

Is it an action of the elements of this water, decomposed by 
the pyroxyline; or is it a reaction of the pyroxyline on the li- 
quids which contain it 1 In the first pl9,ce, pyroxyline is in- 
soluble in water; but I remarked that the solvent power of the 
unrectified liquids was the greatef of the two, for after standing 
for a month, the clear part of the colorless liquid measured 13 
cubic centimetres, whilst that of the yelloto solution measured 
40 cubic centimetres. Here then is a singular action: the pre- 
sence of a liquid facilitates the solution of a body in two other 
liquids, when this body is insoluble in the liquid in question. 

The two solutions were decanted and diluted with their own 
volume of rectified ether; the yellow color of the one still re- 
mained. I then resolved to study the effect of this coloration 
on the sensitiveness *of the idolized collodion which could be 
made therefrom. The two samples of collodion were therefore 
idolized with equal portions of the same kind of iodide, and af- 
ter allowing them to settle for twenty-four hours, I proceeded 
to take consecutive and alternate pictures with them, under as 
near as possible the same conditions. 

I could not find the least difference in the adherence of the 
two films to the glass, nor in their resistance to the shock of a 
stream of watei'. The yellow collodion was as sensitive as the 
colorless one, only the pictures taken with the latter seemed to 
have more half tone; the same exposure giving a little more de- 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



tail. Tlie pictures from the yellow collodion seemed as if they 
were tdcen on a rather less .strongly iodized film, althoujrh in 
this respect the two samples were identical. The contrary 
ought to have been the case if the yellow color had been caused 
by a liberation of iodine, as then the pictures would have been 
more vigorous and the liigh lights more opaque. 

I should state that these points of difference were so minute, 
that it required the greatest attention in examining the results 
of the experiments to detect them; and in ordinary operations 
they would have been overlooked. The two collodions have re- 
mained several weeks without any change of properties, and 
have not got beyond a deep orange tint. They have beea tried 
in this state, but have shown nothing of importance. 

The conclusions which I draw from these facts are — that the 
color of the collodion is (as is well known) no criterion for its 
goodness; that this color depends upon modifications, perhaps 
only isomeric, of which we are yet ignorant; so that notwithstand- 
ing the respect to which bulky volumes are entitled, I think 
they attach too great importance in recommending the ether 
and alcohol to be highly rectified, when satisfactory results may 
be obtained with articles of a good average quality. The first 
are more costly and difficult to obtain, more liable to adultera- 
tion, and in fact of less uniform composition than that which is 
met with in commmcrce in hirge quantities, provided of course 
that this is of good average quality, as I consider ordinary sul- 
phuric ether to be, if carefully selected and without too acid re- 
action, and alcohol of 36'^, if free from any foreign odor. 

I conclude by stating, for the satisfaction^of my conscience, 
that a photographer of the present time requires no little men- 
tal discrimination in experimenting with the thousand-and-one 
uevv drugs and inventions which constantly assail him: far from 
being of any assistance, they are injurious in complicating his 
material, and he should be very particular in opening the door of 
his workshop to them, under however high-sounding and pomp- 
ous a name they announce themselves. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Jxnirnal^ 

THE REFLECTING STEREOSCOPE. 



The following note by Professor Wheatstone, although read 
before the London Society some four years since, has not yet 
found its way into our pages. A recently published Essay 
having described the reflecting stereoscope to be an obsolete 
and unmanageable iustruineut, we are the more anxious to di- 
rect attention to the various modifications of the original in- 
vention. We can assure our readers that the reflecting stereo- 
scope will never become obsolete, or be " merely confined to the 
experimental p2orposes of tin philosopher." Such a fate is much 
more likely to attend the rash assertions of the writer of the essay 
alluded to above. 

" The most perfect and generally useful form of the stereo- 
scope is that with reflecting mirrors, described in my earliest 
memoir ' On Binocular Vision,' published in the Philosophical 
Transactions for 1838. Pictures of any size may be placed in 
it, at the proper point of sight, with the proper convergence of 
the optic axes, and it admits of every requisite adjustment to 
make the pair of binocular pictures, coincide correctly. 

'• I have described, in my second memoir, a portable stereo- 
scope which folds into a small compass, and which is well 
suited for pictures not exceeding six inches by four. I have 
since constructed an instrument, very convenient for carrying 
about, which is adapted to exhibit pictures of the largest di- 
mensions usually taken, as well as smaller ones, and which may 
be made use of either for mounted or unmounted pictures. 
When closed it occupies a space of nine inches in length, five 
in breadtli, and four and a half in height: when expanded the 
instrument is two feet in length, one foot in height, and nine 
inches in depth. The base and sides consist of jointed bars on 
the principle of the lazy-tongs: the two mirrors fold together 
back to back, and, by means of a hinge on their support, fall 
into a groove on the base fitted to receive them. On the top 



of each of the expanding sides a clip nine inches in length re- 
ceives the picture (which there is no need to mount on card- 
board) and holds it by the pressure of a suitably disposed 
spring; and a similar but detached spring clip is applied to the 
lower end of the picture in order to keep it flat aiid in a verti- 
cal position. 

"The picture beiag fixed in the clips, so that their reflected 
images shall appear single and coincide in all their parts, the 
accurate adjustment to the sight of different persons is effected 
by sliding to and fro the pillar which supports the mirrors; the 
optic axes being caused to converge more as the mirrors are 
moved towards the eyes, and vice versa. As the height of the 
sides is variable through every degree, the pictures are easily 
adjasted to the same level by pressing on the side which is 
highest. The length of the base being also variable, the pic- 
tures if it be required, may be placed at different equal dis- 
tances from the mirrors. If the pictures are not straight with 
respect to the sheets of paper on which they are placed, one 
end may be brought lower than the other merely by drawing 
down that end so that it shall not enter the clip so far as the 
other. 

"The instrument is furnished with a pair of ordinary specta- 
cle lenses. No. 24. If the pictures were so placed that their 
reflected images coincided when the optic axes made an ano-le 
of 15", corresponding to the distance of twelve inches, no 
lenses would be requisite, as the distance of the binocular 
image, the convergence of the optic axes, and the adaptation 
of the eyes to distinct vision would have their customary cor- 
respondence. But, for reasons I have elsewhere stated, a much 
better effect is produced, and the objects appear larger and 
more distant, when the pictures are so placed that, to cause 
their most distant corresponding points to coincide, the optic 
axes are parallel, or nearly so; in this case, however, in order 
to see the objects distinctly, the rays proceeding from them 
must be rendered less convergent, and for this purpose lenses 
are necessary. 

"The lenses arc moveable in a vertical direction, in order 
that they may be fixed at the proper point of sight; the effect 
of a stereoscopic picture greatly depends on its lieiug thus 
viewed, though it is a circumstance which is very generally dis- 
regarded." 



Frtm the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

MR. LONG'S DRY COLLODION PROCESS. 

16 De Beauvoir Terrace, Culford Road, London, Aug. 12, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Fhotographic Jmt,rnaL 

Sir, — I feel so pleased with the success of a photographic 
tour whieh I have recently made through Belgium, that I can- 
not resist the temptation to make known, for the benefit of my 
brother photographers, the means by which such success has 
been achieved. 

In common with every photographer, I have longed for the 
day when collodion in the dry form, easy of preparation, could 
be employed in the field. The complicated nature of the pre- 
parations hitherto employed for out-door work has deterred me, 
and, I believe, very many others, from trying them to any ex- 
tent; and, therefore, I found with much satisfaction th.it Mr. 
Long, of Fleet Street, had discovered a process, at once simple 
of preparation, and certain in working. 

Having been assured that plates prepared by this new pro- 
cess had preserved their sensitiveness for at least a fortnight, I 
resolved to try it in my Belgian tour, and at once prepared a 
number of plates, 15 inches by 11, for the purpose. 

I had no time for testnig the keeping power of the plates be- 
fore my departure, and, as the development could not be made 
until my return to England, it will easily be imagined with what 
anxiety I worked this, to me, unknown process. 

My tour for a fortnight's duration having ended, I returned 
to London, and begau developing. To my great delight, I 
found all that Mr. Long had said, in favor of his process, fully 
realized. Picture after picture (I took twenty-eight) came out 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



■with great beauty, and, so far as the process is concerued, I 
have not had a single faiUire. 

As the season for photography is now passing away, I am 
anxious to see others try this beautiful and easy method. The 
plates were prepared according to the formula given in Mr. 
Long's book of instructions; i. e., first coated with collodion, 
and sensitized in the usual way, then covered with a preservative 
film of refined gelatine and citric acid, which is allowed to dry; 
and this is all. — they are then ready for the camera. The de- 
veloper is common gallic acid, to which is added a little alcohol 
and nitrate of silver. 

I have found that the development may be deferred for at 
least three weeks after exposure, and my candid belief is, that 
the plates may be kept for months without deterioration. 

If you should be disposed to find a place for this communica- 
tion in your valuable Journal, and thus make known to the pho- 
tographic world how, with but little trouble, and scarcely the 
shadow of a doubt as to success, they may pursue their delight- 
ful art on their travels, I shall be very glad. 

I send my card, and beg to state that it will give me pleasure 
to afford any further information which may be sought on the 
subject. G.R.Smith. 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

m THE SEPARATION 

Of lodiae, Bromine, and Chlorine, and the comparative degree of Affinity 
of these Elements for Silver. 



BY FREDERICK FIELD. KSQ. 



Extracted roni a paper read before the Royal Society, June 18, 1857. 

Although both bromide and iodide of silver are decomposed 
by the action of chlorine at an elevated temperature, yet chlo- 
ride of silver is completely decomposed by bromide of potas- 
sium, and both the bromide and chloride of silver by iodide of 
potassium. Even the action of hot strong hydrochloric acid 
has but little influence upon the iodide of silver; many days of 
continuous boiling are necessary for its entire decomposition. I 
believe that it has been the opinion of chemists that chlorine 
possesses an affinity for silver superior to all other elementary 
bodies, and we are told in Gmeiin's Handbook that all salts or 
silver, even the insoluble ones, are converted into chloride by 
solutions of metallic chlorides. From the following experiments 
it appears to me that bromine has a greater affinity for silver 
than chlorine, and iodine a still greater affinity than bromine. 

When a mixed solution of bromide of potassium and chloride 
of sodium is added gradually to a solution of nitrate of silver, 
not in excess, no trace of chloride of silver is precipitated, as 
long as any bromide remains in solution. 

If to a similar solution, iodide and bromide of potassium and 
chloride of sodium be added, iodide of silver and nitrate of po- 
tassa are formed, the bromide of potassium and chloride of 
sodium remaining undecomposed. 

When bromide of potassium is poured upon chloride of sil- 
ver, an entire decomposition ensues, bromide of silver and chlo- 
ride of potassium being produced. 

When iodide of potassium is added to chloride of silver, 
iodide of silver and chloride of potassium are formed; and when 
iodide of potassium is added to bromide of silver, there is a 
similar decomposition, the iodine replacing the bromine. 

When chloride of silver in excess is agitated with a solution 
of iodide of potassium and warmed for some hours, no trace of 
iodine can be detected in the solution; when however chloride 
of sodium is poured upon iodide of silver, no decomposition oc- 
curs, neither is there any action upon bromide of silver with the 
same salt: and when bromide of potassium it added to iodide 
of silver, there is no alteration in the union of the elements. 

From a number of experiments made in illustration of the 
preceding statements, I deemed it possible that the separation 
of chlorine, bromine, and iodine could be accomplished by this 
reaction . 



The method which I have devised is simply this: — After 
weighing three equal portions of the salts to be analysed, they 
are placed in three flasks with ground-glass stoppers, and about 
an ounce of water is added to each ; nitrate of silver being 
then added, slightly in excess, to the three, the stoppers are re- 
placed, and each flask agitated violently. The precipitates 
subside in a few minutes, leaving the supernatant liquid perfect- 
ly clear, They are then filtered through separate funnels, and 
washed with hot water. No. 1 is dried and weighed. No. 2 
is digested in bromide of potassium, dried and weighed; and 
No. 3 ia iodide of potassium, dried and weighed. 

To test the method, a mixture was made of 5 grains of iodide 
of potarssium, 5 grains of bromide of potassium, and 5 grains 
of chloride of sodium. The following is a comparison of the 
theoretical and experimental results: — 



Iodine 


Experiment. 
3-69 


Theory. 
3 81 


Bromine 


3 51 


.... 334 


Chlorine 


2- 02 


.q n2 





From the London Art Journal. 

THE FAMILY OF FIVE. 



How much character there is in the hand! How individual 
it is! It has its physiognomy and phrenology as well as the 
head. It is peculiar to man, and is the direct agent of his 
mind: no wonder then it should be impressed with his character. 
Our greatest portrait-painters have been the most careful with 
their hands. Sir Joshua with their ^oi-e, and Vandyke and Sir 
Thom.as Lawrence with their fose and drawing. We instinct- 
ively recognise the appearance of the hand as a part of individ- 
ual character. We see the hand of Cromwell broad, somewhat 
coarse, with swollen veins: somewhat flat too, but instinct with 
vigor, grasp, and decision: that of Newton definite and precise, 
but more delicate; motive, but attenuated by study. As there 
is great individual character shown in the handwriting, so I see 
it also in the hand. 

Actions and positions of the hand become habituated to in- 
dividuals. From its structure it is capable of a great variety 
of these. It is also affected by employment, and when ground 
and hardened by physical labor, is less delicate, sensitive, and 
expressive of thought; as indeed is the mind itself. Both are 
apt to get, as it were, deadened and ease-hardened by physical 
daily labor. So, doubtless, one sees in a man's hand a token of 
his condition. Without palmistry, it in some degree tells his 
fortune. 

The hand is a family of fingers, with an united interest and 
common object: a family of five, with each characteristic and 
individual in itself. Children in their nursery legend associate 
them in one litter, and run them over from the thumb to the 
little finger, singing, " This pig went to market — this pig stayed 
at home; this pig had some roast beef — and this pig had none; 
and this pig cried, ' wee, wee,' for a bit." In this is seen a 
common object — the obtaining of the family beef, and also a 
diversity in the parties concerned; for as with a family, so with 
the fingers — a strong likeness runs throughout, but the Individ' 
uals are different in character, tendency, height, width, size, 
and office. 

Thus the first, or forefinger, is the most active and intellec- 
tual. The index finger, as it is called, as being used, to point 
with and indicate, and from its assisting more in gesture than 
any other. It well has its name, too, of "first" and " fore'" for 
it is first and foremost in almost everything that the hand does, 
especially in its finer and more delicate offices. Thus, in con- 
junction with the thumb, it chiefly holds the pen and pencil, 
while it is the whole hand that grasps the sword, the hammer, 
or the plough. In nothing, that 1 recollect, that the hand does 
is the forefinger left out, but with its close assistant, the thumb, 
is always a-doing when anything is to be done. These two aie 
quite d'accord. and it is fortunate they are so, as one without 
the other would be comparatively useless. As it is, they trans- 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



act the principal business of the family; the others following 
their lead, and doing all they can to assist them. Thus, in 
holding the pen or the pencil, they are the chief agents, yet 
the middle finger is a very substantial assistant, and follows all 
their movements, while the fourth finger also gives her support, 
and even the wee wee little finger comes iu now and then to 
steady the whole hand on the paper. 

The hand, indeed, is an example to family circles, all its 
members so thoroughly pulling together. Without weakening 
this, however, there are little predilections and pet friendsliips 
among them, such as exists between the middle and fourth fin- 
ger. It is common to see these with their tips whispering as it 
were, close together like two sisters in a family who are near- 
est the same age. The two are especially affected to each 
other's society, and in almost every action they are found of 
the same mind. Such sociability is not so much the character 
of the little finger, which, perhaps, being the small one of the 
family, fancies he has none of his own standing to play with, 
and so amuses himself after his own fashion. The young gen- 
tleman is apt to have a strong will of his own, and is indeed 
somewhat eccentric and independent; and this the more in- 
asmuch as he really has a muscle all to himself, the extensor 
minimi digili, which occasionally sticks him out all by himself. 
He is a good little boy in the main, however, and is generally 
very happy to help his brother and sisters, as we have seen, in 
the affair of the pen and pencil. 

But to return to the elder branches: I always fancy the 
thumb to be the sturdy boy of the family, somewhat short of 
his age, perhaps, but making up for this in strength, and re- 
garding with great deference and affection his elder sister, the 
first finger, and always prompt to assist her. This eldest sister 
appears the most spiritudle of the family; also much the most a 
woman of business and of the world, although in stature, to be 
sure, her next kin and nearest sister has somewhat outgrown 
her. The middle and fourth fingers are, as I have said before, 
the two who keep closet together, very seldom separated at any 
time. Yet, for all this, they are ever ready to assist in what 
has to be done, setting thus an excellent example to all younger 
sisters. 

These diversities of character are more strongly developed in 
the right hand than in the left, although in both a greater 
readiness in action distinguishes the first finger and thumb from 
the rest. The powers of the members of either hand, however, 
are capable of being assimilated to a greater degree than might 
be at first thought, as may be seen in instrumental playing, 
where all arc brought into constant action on pretty neaiiy an 
equality. 

But to quit this fanciful personification of the fingers, I would 
add two or three purely artistic remarks on their form, and on 
that of the hand. In cases where grace and beauty are the 
principal objects, it is desirable, I think, to make the middle 
finger markedly predominate over the first and fourth, and that 
the little finger and thumb should be rather small; presenting 
thus a pleasing toper form, and combining sufficient length with 
delicacy. In this case, however, it might be said that beauty 
would err from the scholastic, but not very tenable rule, that 
utility and beauty are identical; for a hand is perhaps more use- 
ful and strong when it is in some respects like that of a monkey, 
with its thumb and fingers all more of a length, and is more 
suitable for playing on musical instruments. Such a hand could 
not, however, in my idea, be as beautiful as one possessing the 
former pfoportions. 

In a man's hand I would, however, keep utility and strength 
more in view, and not venture to vary the lengths to the degree 
I would in a woman's hand; but in this respect character is the 
guide. In a Hercules or a Samson the fingers might be of a 
slightly more even length than in an Apollo. In the left hand 
of the Belvidere Apollo the little finger is small. 

Of all the fingers only one is truly straight, having its two 
sides alike, viz., the middle finger; the other fingers incline at 
their points towards the middle finger, forming, either with or 
without the thumb, a tapering group. This is to be noticed not 
only when the hand is open and straight, but in all degrees of 



bending and being closed. The thumb also can hardly be said 
to be straight, as its two sides, where it joins the hand, are not 
alike. 

Beauty in the hand is also connected with the gradual lessen- 
ing of the lengths of the parts from the wrist towards the end 
of the fingers, which gradation is best observed in a bent hand, 
beginning with the space from the wrist to the knuckles as the 
first and largest measurement; from the knuckles to the first 
joint of the fingers as second, and as less than this in the pro- 
portion of about two-thirds, which proportion holds also in the 
decrease of the next spaces, viz., from the second to the first 
joint, and from the second joint to tho end. Thus the length 
from the tip to the second joint is two-thirds of that from the 
second joint to the first, which is two-thirds of that from the 
first joint to the knuckle, which in turn bears the same propor- 
tion to the first bend of the wrist. There are small diversities 
in this respect in the different fingers, but a gradation closely 
approximating to tliis holds with all. A false idea of grace 
has led to making the tips, or end joints, of the fingers too long, 
as if by an afterthought; but faithful delicacy and l^eauty does 
not admit of a true balance being destroyed, but requires the 
parts to be duly and naturally tapered in length, as well as 
width. 

The Greeks, in their statues, frequently cut the nails rather 
straight across; that is to say, they did not make them follow 
the hue of the tips of the fingers, nor that of their own growth 
from out the finger. I venture not to be convinced of this being 
either most reasonable or most graceful. The nail is Nature's 
protection to the end of the finger; in some handwork it wears 
away conformably with the shape of the tip. I confess I like 
the nails as close, or closer, at the angles as in the centre, by 
which means an even curve is obtained, repeating very nearly 
that of the tip of the finger, and beautiful as well as convenient, 
affording a double line — a kind of little rainbow arch — as the 
fiuial to the finger. 

There is a due medium in length of nails, in which beauty 
and utility coincide. The nail is wanted just a little protrud- 
ing, so that it may pick up things, but not too long, for fear it 
should tear. I have seen some fingers in statues look as if they 
had been bitten to the quick: whereas, on the other side, the 
only defect in Vandyke's hands is that the nails are often too 
long, projecting beyond the ends of the fingers: but this may 
have been the fault of the fashion of the day and the sitter, and 
not of the painter. I like best the line of the tops of the nails 
to be round, and close at the corners; the whole nail thus hav- 
ing a filbert, oval shape, with the little white moon at the base 
peeping up from below into an ellipse of a pink-tinted sky. 

There is something to me very uncomfortable, as Avell as un- 
beautiful, in a projecting edge of nail; it becomes a danger in- 
stead of a protection. The Chinese — that strange people who 
do everything that other folks do not — cultivate them into long 
talons, that is, many of the so-called upper classes do, to show 
they do not work ; a practice resulting in a very bird or wild- 
beast-like appearance- — fierce but useless, and on a par with 
the hideous faces they paint on their war-junks to frighten the 
barbarians. The infatuated devotees of India, who dedicate 
a limb to their Creator by rendering it useless, and with this 
object keep a joint in one position till itbecomesstiff and grown 
together, have a favorite position for an arm, which they will 
hold and tie in an upright position till nature fixes it there, 
with the hand and fingers clenched, which become equally fixed 
and inmiovable. In this position the nails continue to grow, 
which they do quite through the hand, and issue forth at the 
back, hanging in long strips. Fortunately we do not do such 
things here, the strongest manifestation in the way of nail 
growing being the schoolboy trick, that cherishes some pet 
nail till it grows so long as to be made into a pen, and written 
with. 

Each joint of the hand has a different character: the knuckle 
has a sort of petella shape, with a tendon running over it, as 
at the knee; the next has a somewhat heart-shape, with the 
point downwards; and the last is like a double bean. These 
are most seen when they are bent: when straight they are not 



1S''58. 



THE PHO'TOGRllPHIC AND FINE ART JOIT&NAL. 



so apparent, and in women and children they sink into dimples, 
either simple or complex. 

Among the many points to be observed in hands, it may be 
noticed that in those that are most gracefnl the sweep of sur- 
face across the back of the hand is not one round, but sinks in 
somewhat along the metacarpel bone of the fourth linger. In 
perfectly beautiful female form, the hand is also so proportioned 
to the wrist, and so pliable and capable of being compressed 
'into a long hollow, like a rolled leaf or a pholas shell, as to be 
easily drawn through thfe bracelet. Everybody, mothers es- 
pecially, acknowledge the great beauty of little babies' hands, 
although they do "call theth " puds," — being an abreviation, I 
suppose, for puddings, — alluding to their fatness. But there is 
nothing merely puddingy in a beautiful infant's hand, although 
the roundness of the form is carried to the extreme consistent 
witli beauty, which, however, is again harmonized by the small- 
ness of the scale. On the contrary, there are a vast variety of 
little sweeps and deviations of line in it not coinciding with seg- 
ftients of circles, but of various characters that in their aggre- 
gate produce the most agreeable flourishes of form all over it 
imaginable, and result in a, most varied, beautiful, and graceful 
image. A dear little child's hand, in all simplicity and abamdon 
ef repose lying on the white coverlet, is a perfect little nest of 
love to a mother's heart: and, with a true sense of the bathos 
of the addition, I may say also a perfect study to the artist, both 
in form and color, pink as a shell, and soft and graceful as a 
flower. 

I hope I shall not, however, lose with mothers by saying, 
that, artistically, a beautiful woman's hand is still a more per- 
fect object. The curves that draw this are of a character more 
truly productive of beauty than those which describe the former. 
They are less of circles and more of ellipses, and the more 
lengthened comic sections are more gracefnl in the outline of 
objects than the shorter ones. I may be perhaps allowed, en 
•passant, to make the observation that the varieties "of theiper- 
fect sweeps of the conic sections might well, in artistic views of 
form, accompany, if they did not supersede, Hogarth's line 'of 
beauty. For my part, I invariably see elliptic or parabolic 
curves in every beautiful form of nature I meat vvith,'&nd in none 
more than in a beautiful female hand. 

There is "in the trade," as the plastisrmen Call it, — that is to 
say, sold generally in the plaster castTshops, and more or less 
good according to the mould in which it has been made, — a 
beautiful female hand, well known by IJhe name of the "Italian 
lady's" hand. It also has been said to 'be the hand of the Mar- 
chioness Brinvilliers,-^a celebrated criminal mentioned in the 
" Causes Gdehres," who committed so many dreadful murders 
by poison that she seems to have been possessed by the fiend 
indeed. One would have been sorry to think that so exquisite 
a hand could have done such evil deeds, and mixed the potion 
for so many deaths, and one is glad to know that there is no 
real foundation for this pedigree. The true origin of the cast 
seems, indeed, to be lost, further than that it came at first from 
Italy. It bears on it intrinsic evidence to the artist's eye, in 
the individuality of its parts, that it is not wholly a work of 
Art, but moulded from life: yet the texture and minor marks 
of common nature are not on it. What seems most probable 
is, that the original cast was moulded from an exquisite exam- 
ple in nature, which was afterwards somewhat touched on by an 
experienced artist. It is in the highest degree delicate and re- 
fined, though pulpy, and reposed, though vital and motive; and 
we are at liberty, I hope, to believe, in spite of dreadful stories, 
that it originally belonged to a good, amiable, and refined wo- 
man, in all respects an ornament to her sex. 



OUR PHOTOGRAPniC ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Add a drop of distilled water to an ounce of collodion; that 
will most likely remedy pin-holes. 



If a positive collodion portrait be placed in a good light, it 
may be easily copied by a camera and a negative produced. 

VOL XI. NO. I. 2 



Out photographic illustrations this month, we consider decided 
improvements on our former efforts. In comparing these with 
the, so-called, plain photographs of the practical photographer, 
it must be borne in mind that ours do not receive the slightest 
tothch from the brush or pencil. They are what they purport to 
be, true photographs. When this comparison is made, we have 
no doubt all will consider ours of the present month, -quiteequ^l 
to any printed. The first is 

A GROUP; 

Negative by J. B. Heywood, of Boston. 

Containing pci traits of four of Boston's Celebrities. This nega- 
tive and several positives we have received ft-om Mr. Heywood, 
place him in the front rank 'of Americiin Photographic artists! 
The second is the 

RESIDENCE OF THE LATE G!ENERAL WI'NOHESTEE. 

(Near Cambridge, Massachusetts); 

Negative by Messrs. Whipple '& Black, of Boston; 

And is a fine view of a charming piece of American scetiery. 
We wish we could induce our photographers who send ns nega- 
tives, to accompany them with descriptions, biographies, &e. 
It would greatly enhance the interest of the picture given. 
Both thesepictures were printed by the following formulas: 

SALTING SOLUTION. 

i^'iltered Crdton water 1 "<al 

'Gelatine 1 80 gi-s. 

Chloride of ammonium 180 " 

The gelatine is first dissolved in hot water— just sufficient to 
effect the solution— and then the balance of the water added, 
and the chloride ammonium put in. The whole well shaken. 

NITRATE SOLUTION* 

iNitrate of silver i ounce. 

Filtered CrotOn water 1 fluid It). 

Four ounces of the solution poured off and aqua ammonia added 
till the precipitation is re-dissolved, then pour back the four 
ounces, and add seven drops C. P. nitric acid, and filter. Float 
the paper. 

Zoning bath. 

Filtered Croton water ■, . . . 1 gal. 

Hypo. soda. 1 lb. 

Chlo. gold (Burgess') 180 grs. 

Chlo. silver 2 oz. 

Chlo. lead solution 2 " 

The usual manipulations observed; the soluti6h being, how- 
ever, filtered every other day. In toning, the pi^mts wei'e not 
permitted to pass beyond a lilac tint, which was 6btained in from 
fifteen to thirty minutes, according to the strength of printing 
and the temperature of the atmosphere. A cold bath tones 
much slower than a warm one. 

After toning, the prints were well washeid off with a sponge 
on both sides, and put into running water, where they remained 
twenty-four hours — were then taken out again, well sponged, 
and hung up to dry. 

The title being printed, they "were passed through a plate 
press. 

The paper used was CansOn, and like all he now sendsto this 
country, a decidedly miserable article. Out of one ream we 
lost one hundred and eighty sheets, caused fto appearances) by 
some greasy substance in the tissue of the paper. It will also 
be perceived that it is very coarse grained. 



A PARCHMENTizED photograph will require to be submitted 
to pressure between rollers before it will be perfectly smooth. 
The spots are owing to some imperfection in the paper — proba- 
bly imperfect sizing. 



From the Liverpool Fhotoijrajjhic Journal. 

CHORITOX PliOTOGRlPJllC SOCIETY. 



The fifth monthly raeetinjjwns lielcl in the Cborlton Town 
Ilall, oil Thursday, the 8th of October, the Yicc-Presidcut in 
the chair. Alter the usual preliminary proceedings, the fol- 
lowing paper was read by Mr. Hooper, on — 

" TUB KESULTS OK UIS EXPERIENCE IN THE TKACTICE OF SEVERAL rilESER- 
VATITE PROCESSES.'' 

Having recently been Qccnpied with a series of experiments- 
to test the value of certain processes for out-door photography, 
that have been brought before the public with considerable re- 
tensions to excellency, I think it may not be unacceptable or 
unprofitable to place the results before the present meeting. 
Those that have chiefly occupied my attention are the dry col- 
lodion processes of Mr. Barnes, the gelatine process of Mr. 
Long, baked dry collodion plates, and a few others. 

I have carefully tried the process as published by Mr. Barnes, 
and the result iu my- hands has not been satisfactory, only 
being able by it to obtain a good negative occasioualJy: The 
great amount of care required iu every stage of the manipula- 
tion, will, I think, prevent its being generally adopted. Find- 
ing these plates Avere not always to be depended upon, I com- 
menced experimenting on the process of Mr. Long. The suc- 
cess I have met with from the first has convinced me that that 
process will, ere long, be generally adopted; the plates being 
easily and quickly prepared^ and keeping well, is a great ad-, 
vantage. 

I will briefly enter into the details of the process, and then 
develop the four plates before you, three of which were, ex- 
posed yesterday. The remaining plate I purpose printing on 
in your presence, iu order that you may see how a transparent 
picture is produced by gaslight. 

I have tried various sorts of collodion for this process, and 
find none answer so v.-ell as a very old and thin collodion uot. 
over iodized. The film on the plates I am to develop is so: 
very transparent that it v/ould seem almost impossible to ob- 
tain intensity on such. We shall see, however, that such is not 
the case, for any amount of intensity. can be obtained with that 
transparent film. If a thick collodion be used instead, of the 
kind I have just named, a blistering film is likely to be pro- 
duced, and which will probably disconnect itself entirely from 
the glass before the devc!o]-)inent can be completed. In carry- 
ing out my experiments resjjecting the collodion necessary to 
ensure freedom from blisters, I have found that ahnost any 
negative collodion will do if treated in the following manner: — 
To one ounce of negative collodion (made from gun coUo7i, that 
made from gun ]iaper not answering so well) add half an ounce 
of ffither and half an ounce of alcohol, and of iodine dissolved in 
alcohol sufficient to make the collodion a very dark color; a 
small bar of zinc immersed in this for some hours will make it 
colorless, and admirably adapted as a substitute for old collo- 
dion. Almost all the different collodions I have treated in this 
manner have passed from the contractile to the powdery or 
porous kind. With respect to the manipulatory part of the 
process, it being the same as for wet collodion negatives up to 
coating the plate with the gelatine solution, it will be unneces- 
sary to describe it. The gelatine solution T prepare and apply 
as directed by Mr. Long in his treatised on the subject. 

If ajiplied warm ujion a tliick film, there is not that tendency 
to blister as when used- cold; but with the thin collodion made 
as I have before stated, there is no tendency to blister, even 
when used cold. This solution should not be jircpared many 
days before wanted, the results not being so good if kept above 
a week. Before removing the plate from the sensitizing bath, 
it should be raised and lowered several times, to get rid of all 
appearance of groasiuess of surface; when taken out it should 
be slightly drained, and the preservative solution poured over 
it, beginning at the extreme edge of the plate, and made to 
flow to the opposite edge, carrying all the superfluous silver so- 
lution before it; let this run off the plate into the waste pan or 
sink; a fresh supply of preservative solntion is then poured on 
and off several times, taking the precaution to run it oil' at a 



different corner of the plate each time, so as to bring every 
part of the sensitive surface under its influence. 

I should have stated it is necessary to wipe the back of the 
plate with blotting-paper when removed from the nitrate bath, 
to prevent any solution running down and mixing with the 
gelatine solution afterwards applied, I find the exposure re- 
quired for plates preserved in this manner is nearly one-third 
longer than for those prepared by the collodio-albumen process. 
The development of the picture may be deferred for several 
days after being exposed; in many other dry processes I have 
found the plates required to be developed the same day as ex- 
posed. I cannot state how long this part of the process may 
be deferred, having only kept them, five days, the results then 
were as good as those ia which the whole of the manipulations 
had been completed the same day.. 

Before developing, the plate must be soaked in water, to re- 
move the gelatine cm its surface; this takes from two to five 
minutes; when the gelatine is got rid of, place the plate iu a 
saturated solution of gallic acid, to which has been added from 
three to six drops of a thirty-gvain nitrate of silver solution — 
the development takes from tvrenty minutes to an hour or two, 
depending on the amount of exposure the plate has received. 
The advantage of employing gallic acid without the addition of 
pyrogallie, is, should the exposure in the camera have been too 
short, the solution, does not decompose, however long the de- 
velopment may be continued; another advantage it possesses 
is, that slioaki a.thick collodion have been used and blisters 
formed thereby, I find when the plate is finished and dry, 
there is no appearance of blisters having been on it; had pyro- 
gallie acid been mixed with the gallic, and decomposition taken 
place, every blister would have been visible on the plate after 
drying. 

, Those of you who have read the work of this process, pub- 
lished by Messrs. Bland and Long, will perceive that I do not 
differ materially from the formulas therein named; the only dif- 
ference I have made is to use a very thin collodion, and to de- 
velop with a saturated solution of gallic acid, instead of gallic 
and pyrogallie mixed, and with a less quantity of silver solution 
added to it than is there recommended. Having described 
this process, I would state — any person who can work the neg- 
ative process with v.-et collodion, will be certain to succeed with 
this. 

Before concluding this paper, I would say a few words on 
another process, which was published about two years since, 
and wiiich I have employed during that time with much suc- 
cess; I allude to the collodio-albumen, which, for rapidity, ex- 
cels every other; the exposure in the can^era takes from two to 
three times that required for wet collodion plates — one opera- 
tor gets a more sensitive surface than another, caused by the 
different manner in which the plates are dried, a plate dried 
spontaneously, or at a low heat, being more sensitive than one 
dried at a high temperature. The cause of the great sensitive- 
ness of collodio-albumen plates, as compared with others, is, I 
think, to .be attributed to the formation of the double iodide 
produced in the film when the albumen (containing an iodide 
of any kind) is poured over the iodide of silver on the plate; it 
is uot nectssary to employ collodion as a base; I have fouud a 
layer of iodizcd-albumen answer the purpose, and to be equally 
as sensitive;* what is required is, some body to retain the 
iodide of silver on the plate, for the iodide in the albumen to 
act upon. I have floated iodized paper on albumen prepared 
for the collodio-albumen process, dried it, sensitized, washed, 
and again dried it; it answered the purpose and required less 
exposure in the camera. In all my experiments v,-ith paper, 
(substituted for the collodion), I found the picture visible when 
the paper was removed from tiie dark slide. The extra sensi- 
tiveness may be the result of the roughness of the paper surface; 
in order to satisfy myself on this jioint, I albuminized some 
paper for positives ('the albumen containing eight grains chloride 
of barium to each ounce); I also coated a plate with the same 
albumen, when printed on; the chloride of silver on the paper 

* Mr. Talbot di.scovciTcl this fact, and availed himself of it in his vnpid 
process. — Ed. L. & M. P J .- 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AXD FINE ART JOIJRXAL. 



11 



was acted on more rapidly by tlie light than that on the glass. 
As in the eollodio-albuuieu process, the plates having to go 
throngh so many operations, are very prone to blister, and 
during- hot weatlier, if kept a few days, generally turn brown, 
it is not surprising that so many try to tiud a substitute; of 
all, that have yet been brought before the public, none can be 
compared to that of Mr. Long, the plates are so easily prepared, 
and certain of proilucing good results. 

During the reading of the paper some excellent specimens 
were shown, and several negatives most successfully developed. 

A vote of thanks having been accorded to Mr. Hooper for 
for his essay, the proceedings terminated. 



From ilie Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

PII0T0G2AFFJC SOCIETY OF SCOTLAM). 

EdinLurg, 23rd August, 1807. 
To the Editor of the Phciogra'pldc Journal: 

Sir, — In the notice of the proceedings of the last meeting 
for the season of the above Society in tlsis month's number of 
the Journal, it is stated that " Mr. Tunny exhibited pictures 
printed on glass, parian and porcelain by his newly, discovered 
process" and that I " also showed specimens of a process giving 
very similar results to those of Mr. Tunny." As this would 
lead any one to infer (what is. the very reverse of the truth) 
that Mr. Tunny had made a great discovery, and that I had 
been attempting to imitate it, I beg to state that I examined 
his pictures minutely, and looked in vain for any specimen either 
" on parian or porcelain,"' and that those exhibited by me were 
what they were represented-to be, and the only photographs on 
porcelain produced at the meeting. _ 

Injustice to .myself I have to request the publication of the 
following letter, which gives the history of Mr. Tunpy's so-called 
discovery: it refers to the fact of his being consulted as a friend 
upon the value of my invention, and then shortly after setting 
up himself as the inventor of an anonymous paragraph in the 
Edinburgh newspapers. 

" 90 Princos Street, Edinburgh, IG July, 1357. 
''Mr.MCrax'J. 

" Dear Sir, — Having been the unintentional cause of the 
dispute between Mr. Tunny and you, I am perfectly willing at 
your request to give in writing a thorough explanation of the 
matter so far as I am concerned. 

" TVhen (contraiT to your wishes) I mentioned your disco- 
very to Mr. Tunny, he never hinted that he had been engaged 
with anything of the same kind, but joined me in congratula- 
tions of sympathy for your prospects, and with such, seeming 
sincerity that I was completely throv.'u off my guard, and gave 
him all the information necessary to put any photographers 
upon the track. I advised him at the same time to procure a 
licence from you, as porcelain was the very thing to substitute 
for paper; he acknowledged it was; I then left him, flattering 
myself I had vSecared another customer for )^o'j. 

" Some three or four days after at my request you showed 
Mr. Tunny a specimen in my presence, when, for the first time, 
he gave some indefinite hints about having been engaged in ex- 
periments of the same kind. On the following evening, he 
brought me tv/o pictures something similar to what yon had 
shown him, at the same time pathetically bewailing his fate that 
you should have had the start so complelely. 

" These are the simple but unanswerable fads^ of the case. 
What mv feelings were, when I read Mr. Tunny's paragraph in 
the Express of next n:orniug, I would rather decliae stating, 
and now remain, 

"Sincerely vours,. 
(Signed; "James Ross." 

" P.S. — Regarding the paragraph now going the round of 
the papers, it seems to me merely a mistake of the name, as 
Mr. Tunny had no pictures upon porcelain attlie meeting of the 
Photographic Society; the specimens he showed were ail trans- 
parencies on white glass, with the exception of one, v.'hich was 



upon Dutch tile. All the porcelain pictures exhibited were 
your own doing. 

" You are at perfect liberty to make what use of this you 
please , 

(Signed) " J. R." 

But Mr. Tunny has a frailty for making discoveries where 
others have been before him. In No. 22 of the " Photographic 
Notes" he actually claims to be the inventor of the collodion 
process, gives a slice of the credit to Le Gray, and says, " But 
I for one liave never doubted that Ivlr. S. Archer was an inde- 
pendent discoverer of a similar process."' Now this comes with 
a very bad grace from Mr. Tunny, as he was profoundly ignorant 
of the mode of manipulating, with collodion until I taught him 
Mr. Archer's mode with Mr. Archer's materials, as unsought and 
gratuitously as it was given to me in the summer of 1851, and 
it was not until long after that, he succeeded in showing any- 
thing presentable in the way of a collodion negative. As to 
lix. Tunny's last discovery in the paragraph alluded to, he 
catches at my' idea, and in imagination applies it to a long list 
of materials possible and impossible; but all that he has to show 
is a few nondescript pictures on glass, such as any photographer 
could get up on a day's notice, but which w«uld puzzle a philo- 
sopher to put to any use; the accomii ludvely says, " These pic- 
tures may be looked at as transijarencies or in tiie ordinary way;" 
but it must be confessed it is dihicult to see them. 

William M'Craw, , 
Patentee and inventor of the New Porcelain Process. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal 

APPAMTUS FOR WASHISG POSITIVES. 

At the meeting of the Norwich Photographic Society, on the 
'2nd ult., an ingenious apparatus, for the purpose of washing 
positives, was exhibited and explained by Mr, Thompson. It 
consists of a gutta-percha tray, about thirty inches in diameter, 
into which the prints are placed: this tray, which is large 
enough to wash fifty- stereoscopic prints in, is supplied with 
water from a horizontal pipe, having a siphon-shaped bend at 
the end to. allow of the water flowing into the tray in a perpen- 
dicular direction, and provided with a stop-cock worked by a 
long rod instead of the ordinary thumb-piece for turning the 
l.)lag. The tray is provided with a siphon which empties itself 
into a. small tin bucket, three inches in diameter, open at the 
top, and ha.ving a small hole .at the bottom; this bucket is at- 
tached by a jointed piece to one end of the long rod before 
alluded to, while .^t the other end is fixed a. balance weight. 
Upon turning the supply taj) the water flows through the hori- 
zontal pipe and stop-cock into the tray; and when nea-rly filled 
the siphon begins to act, the water running through into the 
bucket,, which, as it fills, becomes heavier and sinks down, turn- 
ing! the stop-cock- and shutting off- the supply of , water. The 
siphon acts until the tray is emptYj after which, as the bucket 
becomes empty, the water running throngh the small hole at 
the bottom, tlie balance weight on the other end of !hc rod 
falls down, and opening the stop-cock again allows the water to 
flow into the tray, which is thus kept alternately filling and 
emptying as long as the supply of -water from the main tap 
lasts, without any attention being required. We should ob- 
serve that a piece of perforated gutta-percha is fixed across the 
end o( the tray in front. of the siphon, to prevent the printsfrom 
stopping it np% The inventor conceives that considerable ad- 
vanta-ge is to be derived from this invention; its action is far 
superior to a coatinuous.stream,.as there is the certainty of get- 
ting a perfect chan.a'e of the water each time the trsy is emptied, 




stream is used, being by this invention kept constantly in a ro- 
tary motion, except during the few seconds each time the tray 
is emptied. . . 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

LATERAL BIOVEMENT FOR THE STEREOSCOnC CAMERA. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — In taking views for the stereoscope, with a single lens 
camera, I employ a very simple arrangement for shifting the 
camera laterally, which appears to me in some respects greatly 
preferable to Mr. Latimer Clarke's sliding table, or any modifi- 
cation of it. 

In the ordinary camera it is cnstomary to have a plate, 'Or 
socket, in the bottom, to receive the screw by which the camera 
is fixed to the stand; in my stereoscopic camera I have tivo such 
sockets, placed laterally, and 2| inches apart. This is the whole 
apparatus. In operating, I have only to transfer the screw from 
the one socket to the other between the exposure for the two 
pictures (re-focusing, of course, and providing for the requisite 
convergence), to secure the same result contemplated by the 
sliding table. 

This arrangement requires a little more time tlian the com- 
mon one, and is hardly suitable, therefore, for portraiture; but 
in taking views with a dry process, a minute or two's interval be- 
tween the first and second picture is of no consequence. The 
recommendations of ray arrangements are — 1. Economy in 
price, and in trouble of carriage. 2. A great increase of steadi- 
ness. 3. Ease and certainty in adjustment. W. -L. 



PHOTOGRAPHY AT fHB MARYLAND INSTITUTE FAIR. 

Baltijiobe, Xov. 5, 1857. 

Priend Snelling: — The Maryland Institute Fair is over, 
and I send you the result of the premiums awarded to photog- 
raphers and ambrotypists. 

Mr. P. L. Perkins received a silver medal for ambrotypes. 
Mr. P. had a fine display of pictures on exhibition, both plain 
and colored photographs. His life-size pictures in oil were 
effective, both in color and position. Mr. P. does the largest 
business in painted pictures in Baltimore, and from the many 
pictures he turns out, I should judge he pleases. As a practi- 
cal man, Mr. P. has no superior; he is eminently successful as 
an ambrotypist. And with his operator, Mr. Shaw, who is a 
student of the best galleries in Loudon, Mr. P. must succeed. 
He has just finished one order for plain photographs of the 
Ravel Family of 400 pictures; many of them in character. One 
a large group of the Martinetti Family about 20 in number, is 
the most perfect group I ever saw of so many. Mr. Shaw is 
a valuable acquisition to our city, and I hope he will not leave 
us; for when we have a good operator others try to compete, 
and thereby we have more good pictures than we should other- 
wise have. 

Mr. J. H. WnrrEHUEST received a silver medal for painted 
and plain photographs. 

His collection, take it as a whole or separate if you please, 
was fine; some of the life-size heads in oil were better than 
we have ever seen. Mr. W. made a better display this year 
than he ever did at any preceding exhibition. He has removed 
to his new gallery en Baltimore street below Charles; and 
although he has the finest gallery and the most complete ope- 
rating rooms in the city, there is no business done. But that 
is easily accounted for, as people can live without pictures 
these hard times, but they cannot do without bread. Mr. 
Bushnell is the operator for Mr. W. ; he does not work himself. 
Mr. B. is well known as an operator of much merit. 

Mr. Israel got a diploma for photographs and ambrotypes. 
Much injustice was done Mr. I., for his display v/as equally 
fine with Mr. Whitchurst and Mr. Perkins; and his cabinet 
pictures of the Durand Opera Troup, with many others I could 
name, are entitled to much praise and credit. His display of 
painted work was small. Mr. I. is his own operator, and his 
works show that he stands high in the art. 

Mr. Perkins, brother to Mr. P. L. Perkins, made a fair 
show in ambrotypes, but received nothing. 
Mr. Pollock still keeps pace with the times. 



Mr. B. F. Hawkes Las the rooms formerly occupied by 
Whitehurst on Baltimore street; no business of note is done. 
Mr. Ban. Bendham is his operator; he is lately from Richmond, 
Virginia, where he formerly had a gallery. 

Mr. Davis, on Baltimore street below Calvert, has a neat 
little gallery; he takes nothing but ambrotypes. 

Mr. Walzl, the daguerreotype and ambrotype stock dealer, 
has a gallery in connection with his sales room; some of his 
pictures I have seen, and are vel'y good. 

Mr. TuTTLE has opened a new gallery on Baltimore street 
below Charles. Mr. T. is not only a clever gentlemanly man, 
but a good operator. 

Mr. Dan. Stiltz, v/ho lately had ia gallery corner of North 
and Baltimore streets, has closed it for want of patronage. 
Never were times so dull in the picture trade as at present. 

Mr. Elisha Lee, as an amateur painter of photographs, suc- 
ceeds well: if industry and perseverance is any recommenda- 
tion, he has it. Mr. Clark is painting photographs for Mr. 
Israel. Mr. Wilson is coloring pictures for Mr. P. L. Perkins. 

The artists and amateurs of I3altimore held a meeting at 
Carroll Hall, {Col. John R. Johnston^ s studio), on Thursday 
evening. The proceedings'^ I take great ipleasure in sending 
you, were for the purpose Of expressing sympathy for the 
death of Crawford, the great American sculptor, who lately 
died in London. The number of artists are few in Baltimore. 
And as the late riots of the city has degraded the city to such 
a fearful extent there is likely to be less. I hope by the next 
letter you get from me, I can send you the joyful news of busi- 



ness being better. 



Respectfully yours, 



J. R. J. 



From the Jour, of thr, Phot. Soc. 

THE OXIIEL PROCESS. 

London, 7tli September, 1857. 
To ihe Editor of the Photographic Journal : 

Sir, — At the commencement of this summer I began to prac- 
tise the oxyrael process, but I could never obtain a negative 
sufficiently dense without giving the plates an exposure of from 
six to eight minutes; and I therefore commenced a series of ex- 
periments with a view of increasing the sensitiveness of this 
process. I have reduced the time of exposure to twenty to 
thirty seconds, and 'by minutely following the details of my ma- 
nipulation, I feel confident that any one will be able to produce 
similarly rapid results; as the same time I claim for this process 
nothing new, as I am only an humble follower of Messrs. Shad- 
bolt, Maxwell Lyte, and Llewelyn. 

I will describe the process as I use it for plates 5 inches by 
4, only remarking that I have taken large pictures by it with 
perfect success. I clean my plates on a board with a mixture 
of tripoli and whiting, washing off under a tap; as, in all pre- 
servative processes, absolute cleanness of the glasses is essential. 
•I use Hardwich's collodion, with a 30-grain nitrate bath con- 
taining an almost infinitesimal amount of free acid. I immerse 
the plate as soon as possible after coating with collodion, and 
allow it to remain for not more than two minutes at 60° Fah- 
renheit; it is then well drained, and about half an ounce of 
oxymel poured on at the corner adjacent to that by which it is 
held, allowing it te flow quickly over the plate, and pouring it 
■off at the opposite corner. 

The same oxymel is then poured on again and allowed to re- 
main on the plate half a minute and then drained off. After 
the plate is raised for the oxymel to drain off, it must not be 
allowed to resume a horizontal position till the picture is taken. 
This is most important, as the plate is sure to blacken if the 
oxymel be again allowed to run over the surface of the plate. 
The plate must not be exposed before it is q\ i^e dry: with my 
lens of 1| inch diameter and } inch stop, twenty-live seconds 
has frequently been sufficient to cause solarization. If the 
plate beibre it is oxymeled is washed in a 10-grain silver bath, 
it may be kept several days, and the exposure will not exceed 
one minute under the same conditions. 

* See article Thomas Crawfokd, p. 1. 



■1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



13 



To devclope, take i drachms of tlic following solution and 1 
■drop of the nitrate of silver bath. 

■ Pyrogallic acid 1 grain. 

Acetic acid 10 drops. 

Alcohol 5 drops. 

Water 1 c'unce. 

This is to be poured over the plate as quickly as possible, 
■when the picture will almost imnicdiately appear as a beautiful 
positive. The developer is then to be poured off, and 3 or 4 
drops more silver to be added to it. Meanwhile the picture 
will continue develoj^ing, and on the developer being again 
poured on it, will attain perfect opacity in the high lights, while 
the shadows ought to remain quite transparent. The picture 
should then be washed under a tap, and fixed with hyposulphite 
of soda, 4 ounces to the pint, T/hen by reflected light it should 
appear like a good positive just beginning to fog, and by trans- 
mitted light the sky should be of a yellowish black, wfrich prints 
beautifully, and the middle tints very well defined. 

Tlie oxymel I always use is prepared by Mr. Barber, Chem- 
ist, Lower Road Islington, and is very pure and go'cd. I can 
confidently recommend it to any one who will try this process. 

In conclusion I -would say, that so much certainty can be ob- 
tained by this method of manipulation, that I can generally 
guarantee that five plates oat of six will turn out well. 

A. R. M. 



From the Philosophical Magazine for Sept 1857. 

ON THE fflEASUREIENT OP TUB CHEMICAL ACTION OF LIGBT. 



BY JOHN W. DRAPER, M.D., 
Professor of Chemistry and Fliisiology in the University of New York. 

The recent experiments of Professor Bunsen and Dr. Rosc'oe 
encourage the hope that the attention of chemists will before 
long be particularly directed to photo-chemistry, which undoubt- 
edly offers at this moment one of the most promising fields of 
research. 

To be satisfied what a boundless opportunity for investigtion 
is here presented, it is enough to recollect that in the decompo- 
sition of carbonic acidby the solar rays lies the starting-point 
of all oi'ganization, both vegetable and animal; and that if it 
were not for that effect, the whole surface of our globe would 
be a mere desolate waste, presenting no appearance of life. Be- 
sides this relation to the world of organization, the influences 
of light are now recognized as occasioning combinations and de- 
compositions net inferior in number or importance to those pro- 
duced by heat and electricity. 

Impressed by such considerations, I devoted a great deal of 
time some years ago to the study of the chemical action of light, 
as the readers of this Journal know. But at that period the 
attention of chemists was so completely absorbed in the depart- 
ment of organic analysis, and in the application of the discover- 
ies so made to vegetable and animal physiology, that it seemed 
impossible to divert it even to the fundamental fact which in 
reality is at the bottom of all those investigations. Organiza- 
tion implies the prior action of light. The time has now proba- 
bly come when the wants both of chemistry and physiology will 
require the conditions of that action to be determined. ' The 
field of organic analysis has been pretty completely reaped; 
there is not now much to be done except by gleaners. 

Even among those who have devoted themselves to experi- 
ments in optical chemistry, the tendency has been to the iinprove- 
ment of the art of photography, rather than to the examination 
of facts which are at its scientific basis. A great amount of 
information, destined ere long to be advantageously used, has, 
however, in that way been indirectly obtained. 

It is quite evident that in the contemplated inquiry the first 
thing to be done is to invent some means for measuring with 
exactness the chemical force of light. More than twenty years 
ago I commenced making attempts with that view. These were 
first by the comparison of stains made on paper covered with 

2* 



chloride or bromide of silver. Subsequently I described in this 
Journal (Phi!. oNIag., Dec. 1843), under the name of Tithono- 
raeter, an instrument which is well adapted te such inquiries. 
It consists of an arrangement by which there may be obtained 
from hydrochloric acid decomposed by a voltaic battery, a mix- 
ture of e'qual volumes of chlorine and hydrogen. This mixture 
will remain without any change in the dark; but on exposure to 
the rays of a lamp, the two gazes unite in proportion to the 
qautity of the incident light. So great is its sen.sitiveness, that 
an electric spark, w^liich lasts, it is said, less than the millionth 
of a second, affects it powerfully even at a distance, and some- 
times occasions an explosion which destroys the tithonometer. 

By the aid of this instrument may be illustrated the change 
which I discovered that the sun's rays occasion in the properties 
of chlorine, and likewise the preliminary absorption of light 
which is necessary before chemical actions ensue. It is this 
period of preliminary absorption, iu the case of the iodide of 
silver, which is of snch interest in the art ol photography — the 
period during which invisible impressions are made on the da- 
gfierreotypc plate' and collodion film; capable of development 
in the one case byvapor of mercury, and in the other by pyro- 
gallic acid or protosulphate of iron. 

The tithonometer is the instrument of which Professor Buu- 
seu and Dr. Roscoe, in an improved form, have made such ex- 
cellent use. In its original construction I can still recommend 
it to those W'ho are disposed to engage in these enquiries, as 
possessing extraordinary sensitiveness: and if suitable correc- 
tions for variations of temperature and pressure be applied, of 
sufficient exactness. 

To such I would in addition suggest another means for meas- 
the chemical action of light. It will be found well adapted where 
extreme sensitiveness is not desired. It is an aqueous solution 
of peroxalate of iron. This substance, which is of a golden-yel- 
low color, may be kept, as I found, for more than three years 
(probably for any length of time) without exhibiting any change, 
if in total darkness; but on exposure to a lamp or the daylight, 
it undergoes decomposition, carbonic acid gas escaping, and the 
lemon-yellow protoxalate of iron precipitating. If set in the 
sunshine, it actually hisses through the escape of gas. The ray 
which chiefly affects it is the indigo, the same which affects the 
tithonometer, a-nd the silver compouncis used in photography. 
This ray, to produce its effect, undergoes absorption, as m ay 
easily be proved by causing a sunbeam to pass through two paral- 
lel strata of peroxalate, when it will be found that the light 
which has gone through the first portion is inoperative on'the 
second. 

Other properties which the solution of peroxalate of iron 
presents, strongly recommend it as a photometric agent Vo the 
chemist. XJidike solution of chlorine, it may be very conveni- 
ently confined in glass tubes by mercury. In its use there are 
two points which must be attended to: — 1st, the lemon-yellow 
protoxalate must not be permitted to'incfustthe side of the glass 
exposed to the light, and thereby injure its transparency; 2nd, 
the solution of peroxalate must be kept nearly at a constant 
temperature, for its color changes with the heat. At (he freez- 
ing of water it is of an emerald green; at the boiling, of a brown- 
ish-yellow. With these variations of tint its absorptive actioti 
on light varies, and therefore its liability to be changed. 

It may be remarked that the peroxalate of iron is an excellent 
photograj)hic agent. A piece of tissue-paper made yellow by 
being dipped in a neutral solution of it, when dried in the dark 
is very sen'sitive. Its invisible impressions may be developed by 
a weak solution of nitrate of silver, two grains dissolved in an 
ounce of water answering very well. 

In the application of peroxalate of iron to photometry, several 
different methods may be followed. The course I have most 
commonly taken has been to determine the quantity of carbonic 
acid produced — sometimes by volume, sometimes by weight. It 
is of course understood, that before any carbonic asid can be 
disengaged, the solution must become saturated therewith; and 
that beibre we can correctly measure the quantity of light by 
the quantity of acid produced, this dissolved "portion must be 
ascertained. In one of my photometers the expulsion of the 



14 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND TINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



dissolved gas is accomplished by exposure to a small bath of 
boiling water, in another by a stream of hydrogen. Both pro- 
cesses yield satisfactory results. 

But this metiiod, by tiie determination of. the produced car- 
bonic acid, is only one of the numerous plans which the employ- 
ment of peroxalate of iron suggests; for instance, we migli/t use 
in the determination the vveight of certain metals which the so- 
lution after ex])0sure will precipitate. Tlius a portion which 
has been made and kept in the dark, may be mixed .with chloride 
of gold without any action ensuing; but if it has been illumina- 
ted, the amount of metallic gold precipitated is in proportion 
to the incidcut light. On this principle I commenced an attempt 
to determine the hourly- and diurnal illumination of a given lo- 
cality. At the bottom of a hollow metal tube, arranged as a 
polar axis, was placed a bulb containing a standard solution of 
the iron salt, and at the close of tlie proposed periods the weight 
of gold it could reduce Avas ascertained. There is something 
fascinating in determining the quantity of light which the sun 
yields ns by ihe quantity of gold it can produce. Upon the 
vdiole, however, I would recommend to those who are disposed 
to renew these attempts, to select a method depending on the 
volume of carbonic acid, for it is alwavs easier to make an ob- 
servation than an experiment. 

Among the important results which may be expected from 
thc-c new modes of photometry, and which will doubtless be 
furnished at an early period, are the hourly, diurnal, and annual 
quantities of the sunlight. These are not only important in a 
meteorological point of vievi', but also as respects physical gso- 
graph}'-, and the great interests of agriculture. The sura of 
vegetable organization is in all climates and localities a function 
of the light distributed thereto. Even so far as heat is con- 
cerned, the indications of the thermometer are of little use. It 
is not theiutensiij', but absolute quantity which should be meas- 
ured^ To each plant, from thcmoment of its germinatioato the mo 
mentof its maximum development, and the completion of its physi- 
ological functions, a definite quantity of heat and also of light 
must be measured out. As respects the heat in such inquiries, 
it is not the thermometer but the calorimeter which should be 
used; and as to the light, the phototers here recommended de- 
termine its quantity, but not its brilliancy, and therefore answer 
the indicatioiis required. And since it is the light of the sun, 
and not the temperature of a locality, which is the effective con- 
dition of vegetable growth, we see how important, even in agri- 
culture itself, these proposed determinations really are. 

I hope that these remarks may draw attention to theploblem 
of the chemical action of light. To those who are disposed to 
devote themselves to such inquiries, I recommend as a photo- 
metric means a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen were great 
sensitiveness is- required, and in other. cases the peroxalate, of 
iron. - , • 



From ihe Liverpool P/iotajrcipMc Joiitnal. 

LIYERPOOIi PIlOTiJGRAriilC SOCIETY. 



The second meeting of the session was held on Tuesday.evc- 
ning, the 21st ult., at the Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, 
Liverpool. Mr. Corey, Vice-President, in the chair. 

Among some beautiful specimens of the art, circulated among 
the members for their inspection, were several excellent minia- 
ture portraits by Mr. Keith, the Honorary Secretary. Tiie 
back-ground was a delicate light color of great softness, and the 
portraits, wliich were finished in the style of enamel paintkig, 
stood out with great effect. Mr. Lqith said lie had brought 
them for the purpo.se of showing the .idvantages possesedby 
his now operating room in Castle Street, over the old one, the 
former Ix'ing constructed of tinted glass. The portraits were 
much admired. 

The CM.\iuM.\>r having referred to the exquisite photographs 
^•T J^'^. Grray, exhibited at the previous meeting, for the purpose 
of eliciting a discus,sion on the probable means adopted by that 



artist'in taking such.instaneous views, as enabled him to depict 
the effect of the curl of the wave, upou the sea-shore, — 

Mr. KErrii suggested that instead of the usual cap to cover 
tlie lens, a perforated sliding disc was used, by means of which 
the lens could be uncovered and covered in the fraction of a 
second. 

Mr. Corey was inclined to think, as far as the mechanical 
tontrivance was concerned, that that would answer the purpose- 
but they would agree with him that no negative hitherto pro- 
duced by the agency of pyrogallic acid could be obtained with 
so short an exposure as that involved by the passage of the 
disc in the front of the lens. It was clear therefore, that some 
other agent as a developer must have been employed, exceed- 
ingly expeditious in its action. He was confirmed in his belief 
because the development was just as sharp in the fore-ground as 
in the distance; but this could not be obtained by pyrogallic 
acid. He was convinced, therefore, that these pictures"w.ere 
taken in the first instance as positives, by the influence of iron 
and then converted into negatives.*' They knew that by.a very 
moderate light pictures migh.t be obtained by iron, almost with 
instantaneous exposure. Mr! Ivnott, one.of our most experienced 
operators, had said that he could never produce a negative with 
fore-ground and. distant perspective clearly rendered with any- 
thing else than iron. 

The Rev. Mr. Banxer said he had taken views almost in- 
stantaneously with pyrogallic acid. He thought he would have 
been entirely successful, but he could not get his camera sufiQ- 
ciently quickly covered. 

The Chairman . read a letter from Mr. Archibald Robinson, 
Honorary .Secretary of the Bombay Society, enclosing the names 
of four members who are to represent that Society as honorary 
members of the Liverpool Photographic Society. They were 
ordered to be entered on the list. 

Mr. J. B. PoRREST announced that a member of the Society 
would bring forward, at a future meeting, a paper on "The 
Bath," and what another member would read a paper on "Win- 
ter Pjiotography." The same gentleman having mentioned iu- 
cidently that the collodion film adhered so tenaciously to ground 
glass that was almost impossible to scratch it off. 

Mr. Keith stated that Mr. Frarn formerly made some experi- 
ments on polished ivory, finding the action very slow, he scraped 
the ivory with a piece of glass, and ,he then obtained a very 
rapid impression. 

The Rev. Mr. Baijxer exhibited„,and explained his portable 
stereoscopic camera, which, with the chemicals in a bos, weighed 
about six pounds. He had two light tripods, on one of which 
he rigged up a small dark room, placing a sort of bag over the 
upperportion, the floor of this unique " dark room" beingformed 
by a board which had also the effect of imparting additional ri- 
gidity to the tripod. On this board his materials, including 
bath, developing dish, bottles, &c., were placed, and he had free 
and ample accfss to them by means of a wide sleeve on each 
side of the bag. At the top of the bag was an aperture, inge- 
niously shaded^ through which he could see into the room to 
guide the operations, and ascertain when the pictures were fully 
developed. The whole '" room" was not more than a few inches 
square, and yet he found it as comfortable to work in as if he 
was in his own house. He always washed the pyrogallic off 
inside the " room." Some photographers said it didnot matter, 
but he thought they were in error, as the acid turned black im- 
mediately it was exposed to light. Tlie camera might be either 
placed at the top of the dark room or upon a separate tripod. 
He preferred the latter j)lan. Instead of screwing the camera 
on the tripod, he secured it by a stout clastic band. 

The Cairmax called attention to a series of prints published 
by the Architectural Photographic Society. They comprised 
prints from negatives by the most eminent English and French 
pliotogrnphcrs, including Robinson and Bcale, Bisson Frores, 
Fenton, Bedford, &c. Subscribers of JCI Is. and upwards would 
be entitled to select about eight for every guinea, and he stated 
that subscriptions would be receieved by Mr. Ellison, of 3G 
Bold-Strcot, the local agent. He proceeded to expatiate on the 

* By the agency of bicLiIorido ol' mercury, aud artcrwards ammonia. 



1S58. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



15 



striking- and sinG:n]ar beauty of the pictures, which certainly 
were fully entitled to the adniiratiou which they elicited. 

Mr. J. A. Forrest made the following interesting and impor" 
tant observations on 

EXPERIMENTS IN BURNING TUOTOGRAPHS INTO THE GLASS. 

lu the course of the summer, on the publication of M. Sella's 
process, I was induced to try some e.xperiments with a view to 
arrive at some process that would enable me to fix the photo- 
graph by burning in the impression in the furnace with a coat- 
ing of glass over it. From the specimens I exhibit to-night it 
will be for you to say how far they are encouraging. I regret 
exceedingly that my brother photos cannot try the experiments 
themselves, as very few have the opportunity of a furnace in 
which to try them. I may, in passing,, however, give them 
some encouragement, for out of these trials I find if you grind 
a piece of opal glass very finely, afterwards collodionize, sensi- 
tize in the usual manner, and lay a negative upon it by superpo- 
sition you will receive a very beautiful impression by trans- 
mitted light, and alter, being fixed, washed, and dried in the 
usual manner, you will discover that the film adheres most rigid- 
ly to the glass, and scarcely any amount of rubbing will take 
it off. This is a plan that any one may follow out ou a winter's 
evening by gas light, and no doubt would look remarkably 
well iu a hall lamp, or you might have your staircase window 
filled with landscapes taken by yourselves or friends. Any 
silver stains by this process can only be removed by regrinding 
the surface with fine emery. I will now proceed with the 
more immediate object of. the evening. In or about the year 
1280 it was discovered that the salts of silver, when laid upon 
glass and exposed to a temperature of about 150 degrees of 
heat, gave a beautifully transparent yellow, and during the 
time known as the Decorated and Perpendicular Periods, from 
the quaint and formal, description of the figures, it was this 
metal produced the brilliant glories around the heads of the 
saints in church windows, and is handed down to us in its pris- 
tine beauty, and with the prospect of remaining the same for 
ages to come; but in that day the discoverer did not think of 
the part the salts of silver should play in the nineteenth centu- 
ry, nor of the difficulty we should experience in making our 
work as permanent as his. My object this evening is to elabo- 
rate a few experiments on glass positives that have been per- 
.maneutly burned into the body of the glass, and to lay open a 
new.field to the intelligent photographer. I do not consider 
the matter by any means perfect, but I think the, specimens I 
now exhibit are highly encouraging, and leave little ground to 
doubt that it will soon lead to this very desirable end. It has 
been patent to all the members of this society, that-in conjunc- 
tion with Mr. Berry, we laid before you in the early part of 
this year a specimen, which if not entirely fixed into the glass, 
was nearly so. Since that time I' have been occupying my 
spare moments in following it up. The great difficulty we al- 
ways met with was the destruction of the image in the furnace, 
and the residue became a pale yellow, with complete oblitera- 
tion of the fine lines. I. found, however, that, the yellow was 
only developed by a continued heat, and in this position I left 
it, and resolved to try the chromic salts with a flux or glass 
film over them.„ The process I fouud best in this direction to 
produce the photograph was the following: — Float a solution 
of starch over a piece of glass; then pourupon it, when partially 
dry (in the dark) a solution of chromate of iron: allow it to 
dry, and print in.the usual way by a, negative laid on the coat- 
ing. When taken from the pressure frame wash and strengthen 
with sulphate of iron. When .this is done on opal.glass, say a 
stereoscopic print, it has a very beautiful effect, and the de- 
lineation is quite equal to the salts of silver; but the greater 
barrier to its success is the contractile nature of the starch, 
which breaks up whenever exposed to heat. Having tried 
every vehicle I could think of, I then threw overboard the 
chemistry of the subject altogether, as I thought, and resolved 
to. treat it in a mechanical point of view. Having succeeded 
in this direction to a certain extent, I now lay before you ray 
plan and results thereof. Take an ordinary glass positive, var- 



nished or plain, (I prefer tho latter,) and make the following 
mixture in oil of tar: — 

Flint glass (ground very fine) 16 parts. 

Pearl ash G " 

Borax 1 " 

Red lead (or minium) 3 " 

Chloride of sodium 1 " 

This must be thoroughly ground and laid evenly over the plate. 
When dry, lay it upon a piece of iron, lute over with whiting, 
and expose it in a furnace to, say about 750 degrees heat, until 
you perceive it becoming bright on the surface. For the first 
minute it will gradually become black, and afterwards the 
black discoloration like carbon passes away, and the photo- 
graph comes out with a covering of glass before the oxide of 
silver has passed into its natural yellow color, and without the 
slightest change upon the half-tones. All this is the work of 
two or three minutes, and in this state may remain or become 
the basis of ftirther operations in burning in the natural colors. 
Photographs ou porcelain look beautiful when treated in this 
way ; in fact it would be difficult to point out all the uses 
to which it may be applied. Thus far I had proceeded, 
but desirous to pursue the subject as much towards maturity as 
possible, I have enlarged the experiments. An intelligent 
friend had su<2:2;ested that the whole of the chemical and organic 
agents were not yet exhausted, that having with infinite pains 
tried the effect of starch, gums, albumen, honey, gelatine, and 
other analogous materials, caseine had not been employed. I 
therefore determined upon trying organic matter in this form. 
Once more resuming the chemical experiments, and acting upon 
the previous suggestion, I boiled milk until thick, applied it to 
the surface of the glass like collodion, and allowed it to dry. 
A solution of sulphate of copper and bichromate of potash was 
then poured over it, and allowed to dry in the dark; exposed 
under a negative until a good distinct impression was obtained; 
then washed v/ell until all the yellow was erased from the lights. 
I then used a solution of ferro-cyanide of potassium until a 
change took place from brown to green, washed carefull}^, and 
poured over a solution of sulphate of iron to intensify. This 
process is one of grea.t promise, and does not seem to break up 
in the furnace like the starch.. I hope by the next meeting to 
exhibit some specimens. 

Mr. Forrest produced several specimens, showing the results of 
his experiments, some to be used as transparencies for hall lamps, 
staircase windows, &c., and others to be seen by a reflected light, 
with adarkgroundunder them. Some of the transparencies, taken 
on opal glass were very beautiful. They were taken, he said, 
with wet collodion, and he was satisfied that he could print 
200 or 300 a day. Referring, in connection with the same 
subject, to the oxidization of the silver in the furnace, he stated 
that there were many, combinations of silver, of which in the 
present day, we were completely ignorant, aiKl he instanced a 
case in which one of his men, in preparing a furnrce for the 
production of yellow glass, neglected to withdraw the lime. 
The glass on being taken out instead of yellow was a brilliant 
purple. It was spoiled for the purpose it was wanted, but the 
mistake had produced a great novelty. He had since attempted 
to obtain the same results, but had not been successful. 

A vote of thanks to the treasurer fdr his paper and observa^- 
tioas terminated the-proceediugs. 



In' taking portraits itis very- desirable that the whole body 
be brought to the same focus, or as nearly to it as may be, which 
will avoid the unseemly distortion which is sometimes perceived 
when this particular is not attended to; for instance, the knees 
of a sitter are nearer to the camera than the head, and unless 
some contrivance be adopted to obviate this, the consequence is 
that the remainder of the body .will be out of proportion. This 
obstacle may be readily overcome by means of a contrivance 
where the sensitive surface is placed in an inclined position by 
using a moveable back with rackwork adjustment, and thus. 
i ictures in excellent proportions are obtained. 



16 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



THE 



From Tlie Jour 

AYAXED-PAPER PROCESS. 



of the riw. Soc, 



BY MR. G. DAWSON. 



Kead before the North-Loudon Photographic Association. 

As probably many ot the members present have given but lit- 
' tie attention to tlie waxed-paper process, I shall, in the follow- 
ing observations, be as explicit as time will permit, and descend 
to particulars of manipulation, which will render I trust to 
every one, the path to success easy in this branch of photo- 
graphy. The rage has been lately all for collodion; neverthe- 
less in points which will be obvious to all, waxed-paper presents 
many advantages, and will not, I think, be easily displaced by 
the collodion or any other known process. After an experience 
of upwards of five years, I can speak pretty confidently as to 
its merits, and I may safely say, that as respects certainity of 
results, neither collodion, albumen, nor Talbotype approach it; 
but to proceed. 

(1.) Selecling the paper. — The best paper I have tried is the 
thin Canson; its quality, however, varies very much. The old 
make, of a creamy color and uniform texture, is very superior to 
the usual samples now sold. The latter are generally of a 
bluish tinge, and less uniform in texture. Having cnt up some 
quires into sheets rather larger than the pictures to be taken, 
proceed to the selection in this manner; hold up each sheet se- 
parately between the eye and a strong light: should consider- 
able inequalities of texture, innumerable pin-point holes, black 
greenish spots be visible, reject the sheet. So variable is the 
quality of the quires, even out of the same ream, that it will be 
found necessary sometimes to reject almost every sheet, while 
at other times almost every sheet may be retained. The sheets 
rejected for waxing will answer very well for salting or albu- 
minizing as positive paper. 

Having thus got some sheets which, as far as the paper is 
concerned, are likely to produce negatives without spot or blem- 
ish, the next step is to ascertain the right side of the paper, that 
is, the smooth side on which the picture is to be impressed. To 
do this, hold up each sheet horizontally between the eye and a 
strong light, so as that the light rakes along the surface. One 
side will thus be found quite smooth, the other traversed in all 
directions by minute iron-marks. A little practice will make 
these easy to be detected. The smooth side should be marked 
in pencil with initials in the corner, 

(2.j Waxing the paper. — Unless systematically conducted, 
this is a very tedious operation. I have tried several plans -re- 
commended by others, but all have entailed a great waste of 
wax, blotting-paper, and time. That which I now adopt is, I 
think, very superior to any other, at least to any I have used or 
seen. 

Take a shallow porcelain dish, rather larger than the papers 
to be waxed; fit this (not very closely, to allow the steam to 
escapej into tiie mouth of a tin vessel of the same shape, about 
3 in. deep; filter the latter to the depth of 1| inch with 
water, and place over a charcoal-fire, spirit-lamps, or gas- 
burners. Put 2 lbs. or so of the best white wax into the 
upper or porcelain; the steain from the water below is 
quite sufficient to melt the wax thoroughly. When this takes 
place, lay one of the selected sheets gently on the surface; in 
about halt a minute or less ^longer with English paper) it will 
have become thoroughly saturated, when it is to be raised gent- 
ly by the corner and allowed to drip. If 100 sheets are to be 
ultimately waxed, prepare tweuty-tive in this manner, for each 
one tnkes up sufficient wax to finish at least four others. Hav- 
ing completed the first stage of waxing, proceed then as fol- 
lows : — In a folio place four sheets of thick blotting-paper, 
put two unwaxed on the top of these, and then one of the pre- 
viously sattu'atcd sheets; over this again two more unwaxed, 
close the folio, and with rather a hot iron on a flat-board, and 
with considerable pressure move rapidly over the sheet for a 
minute or two. When the wax is thoroughly driven through 
all the five sheets, open the folio while still hot, and add occa- 
sionally a clean sheet or two where there appears an excess of 



wax, and one of the saturated until there are about as many as 
twenty in the mass. Change the position of the sheets occa- 
sionally, and iron until the whole twenty are completely saturat- 
ed. Separate them while still warm. Remove the excess of 
wax in the following manner: in a clean folio of blotting paper, 
similar to the last, place say ten of these waxed sheets alter- 
nate with as many clean ones, and again iron rapidly on both 
sides of the folio for five or six minutes; by that time most of 
the excess will have been absorbed by the clean sheets, but if 
there are still shining patches, complete the process in blotting- 
paper. 

Care should always be taken to have four thicknesses of blot- 
ting-paper at least between the iron and the wax, and to move 
rapidly, otherwise the latter will be decomposed. The sheets 
which have been used in removing the excess from the others 
can be saturated in the fii'st folio as before. 

After a little practice the above plan, which any one can 
modify to suit his peculiar manipulation, will be found very effi- 
cacious and economical. Very little wax and blotting-paper 
are wasted, and the finished appearance of the paper is at least 
equal to that of any other process. 

(3.) Iodizing Hit paper. — This is an important operation, and 
one upon which a greater variety of opinion has been delivered 
(I believe) than on any other process of the Photogrophic art. 
I am inclined to think that almost any one of the published 
formulas will, under certain circumstances, produce satisfactory 
results. With English paper, iodide of potassium alone is suf- 
ficient to produce all the gradations of tone; inasmuch as it 
has more body, so to speak, than any of the foreign negative 
papers, and is sized differently. Presuming, however, that 
Canson's paper has been waxed, rice-water, whey, or solution 
of gum-tragacanth, are the best iodizing mediums. I shall de- 
tail the method of preparing each. 

For rice-water. AVash 4 ozs. fine rice, first in ordinary 
spring, then indistilled Avater. When the impurities adhering 
to or mixed with the rice have been thus removed, put it in a 
glazed earthenware pipkin along with 2 quarts distilled water. 
Place on a clear fire. The moment ebullition begins, remove, 
and stir with a glass rod for a few minutes. Pour off the li- 
quid portion into a decanter or glass beaker, where it should 
stand for for two days, covered over from dust, to allow the 
sediment of rough particles of starch to settle to the bottom. 
At the end of this time decant off rather more than a quart of 
the clearer liquid, which filter through 3 or 4 folds of fine mus- 
lin, and add the chemicals — 



■Rice-water 1 quart. 

Iodide of potassium 400 grs. 

Bromide of potassium 80 grs. 

Cyanide of potassium 30 grs. 

Fluoride of potassium 15 grs. 

Chloride of Sodium 8 grs. 

Sugar of milk 2 ozs. avoirdupois. 

Gum-arabic 1^ oz. " 

At first the solution is of a dirty milkish color, in which state 
it should not be used, as the half-tones of the picture will have 
a rough granular appearance ; but, after two or three weeks, it 
will have become beautifully clear; and when used once or twice, 
of a pale sherry color. Gum-arabic, from many exjieriments I 
have tried, undoubtedly adds to the clearness of the picture. 
Why it does so, I cannot venture a conjecture. Honey, which 
some recommend, is decidedly objectionable. Bromide of potas- 
sium is useful in shortening the time of exposure, and may be 
used in large proportions with advantage. Cyanide of potas- 
sium does not seem to affect the beauty of the negative in any 
way. It is only useful in assisting to remove the greasy appear- 
ance of the paper, and thereby lessens the chance of air-bub- 
bles in the exciting solution. Fluoride of potassium may be 
dispensed with altogether as unnecessary. Chloride of sodium 
adds considerably to the rapidity. Chloride of potassium , how- 
ever, even in large proportions, seems to answer tliis purpose 
still better. Albumen should not be employed if the exciting 
solution is to be used more than once; nor should free iodine. 






n 


a 


fi 




W 




H 




m 




H 




K 









^ 




H 




r 




U5 




E- 




1 tJ 




hi i 




-J 




OS 




^ i 




1 




O 




B ^ 




r 




H 




ffl 




[H 




P5 




H 


i 


^ 


o 


[3 


to 










p 




^ 

3 




P4 

3 





1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



17 



I f 

i ! 



when rice-water is the raeclium of solution. The consequence 
would be an immediate combination with the starch, and copi- 
ous precipitate of iodide of starch. 

A similar iodizing solution, in wiiich whey is the solvent, ans- 
wers remarkably well. It may be made as follows : — Take 
calf's stomach, quite fresh; wash thoroughly; cut up into small 
pieces, and preserve in a bottle of alcohol for any length of 
time. When wanted, pick out three or four pieces, and put 
into about 3 quarts of good skimmed miik slightly warmed. 
Stir with a glass rod, and place the vessel in a warm place. 
After a short time, the whey will have separated from the ca- 
seine. When this is completed, press out the liquid, which 
should then be boiled in an earthenware pipkin and skimmed. 
Strain through three or four folds of fine muslin. Allow to 
stand for a few days. Decant 1 quart of the upper portion, 
and add the chemicals, according to the following formula: — 

Whey 1 quart, or 40 fluid oz's 

Iodide of potassium .500 grs. 

Bromide of potassium 100 grs. 

Cyauide of potassium 30 grs. 

Fluoride of potassium 15 grs. 

Chloride of potassium or sodiurj 8 grs. 

When this solution has stood for two or three weeks, it will 
have become exceedingly clear, and will have deposited some 
casiene, which the previous processes had not entirely separated. 
It is then fit for use, and will keep any length of time. It is 
important to observe, that the rennet of the shops and dairies 
contains a great quantity of salt, and that not of the purest 
kind. Wlien definite proportions of salt are necessary such an 
article should not be used, as it may vitiate the whole results. 

Some of the later writers on the wa.xed-paper process recom- 
mend a larger proportion of iodide and bromide of potassium, 
omitting the other chemicals, and using distilled water as the 
solvent. They speak of an amount of rapidity absolutely 
startling to any one who has had patience to try the different 
methods. I can assert positively, as the result of many hun- 
dred experiments, that no such differences of rapidity exist. 
At most, the difference is small; and it may betaken, I think, 
as an established fact connected with this process, that papers 
which will keep good equally well for the same number of days, 
and under the same tamperature, are equally sensitive. 

Another formula: — 

Distilled water 1 quart=40 ozs. 

Iodide of potassium 500 grs. 

Bromide of potassium 125 grs. 

Gum-arabic li oz. avoirdupois. 

Gum-tragacantli 30 grs. 

Free iodine 2 grs. 

The gum tragacanth being very insoluble, should be first dis- 
solved in about a pint bottle of distilled water, placed on the 
hob or other vvarui place for four or five days, and occasionally 
shaken. Let this be added to another pint of distilled water, 
and add the chemicals. The color of this solution should be 
about the same as sherry,' and when it becomes clear by use, 
add more free iodine. This formula I have laterally exclusively 
used. It does not give a clearer negative, perhap-: not so clear 
as the rice-water or whey, nor is it more sensitive. It pos- 
sesses, however, an important advantage, viz. the power of ren- 
dering the negative capable of being developed for a very long 
time without injury. I have some good specimens which were 
upwards of two days in the development. 

Either of the above three formulce will give excellent re- 
sults. 

When the iodizing solution is wanted, pour into a porcelain 
tray a sufficient quantity to cover completely ten or twelve 
papers. Immerse them one by one, removing the air-bubbles 
carefully with a brush kept for the purpose. Not more than 
twelve should be in the solution at once, for there is danger, 
even with this small quantity, of those in the centre being un- 
evenly iodized. To avoid this risk, move them about occasion- 
ally with the brush during the progress of soaking. After 
soaking for at least three hours, hang up to dry, using a clip 

VOL XI. NO. I. 3 



for this purpose. Many of the papers, especially if the solution 
is an old one, will assume a dirty marbled appearance; this does 
not in the least spoil them, and will entirely disappear in the 
exciting solution. 

Many of the papers I use are iodized in the air-pump, but I 
do not see that it has any marked advantage over the method 
of carefully soaking. Indeed, unless the pump is a very good 
one and the whole operation conducted with the utmost care, 
there is a great deal more risk of failure and imperfect iodizing 
than by the former method. 

Pour the solution into a shallow porcelain tray. Immerse 
the papers one by one as before; but in this case as many as 
twenty or thirty may be used at one time. After two or three 
minutes roll them up (taking care that the bands are perfectly 
clean) and drop into a tall cylindrical glass jar. Pour into this 
the iodizing solution till it reaches the top of the roll, not far- 
ther. Wedge-in a piece of strong card or wood to keep the 
papers from rising above the surface of the liquid. Be careful 
to have at least 1 inch clear space between the surface of the 
solution and the top of the jar, because when the air is removed, 
the small bubbles adhering to the paper and in its interstices 
expand so much as to raise the liquid almost to the overflowing 
point. The jar should now be placed under the receiver of the 
pump, and the air exhausted as much as possible. As the ex- 
haustion goes on, innumerable bubbles rise to the surface and 
burst; when nearly complete, the solution will have risen to 
the top, and is covered with a thick cream of exceedingly mi- 
nute bubbles. In about five minutes after the air has been ex- 
tracted, the iodizing will be finished; but if there is any leak- 
age about th*) valves or receiver, which may be known by the 
solution gradually falling in the jar, the pumping must be con- 
tinued for that time. The air may be now adniitted and the 
papers unrolled in the tray in which they were first immersed, 
and hung up one by one over a very clean tape to dry. A pin 
cannot be used, nor even a clip, if the air has been very much 
exhausted; for the penetration has been so complete as to ren- 
der them as tender as so many pieces of soaked blotting-paper. 
When dry their texture will be as firm as ever. 

Paper iodized by any of these methods will keep well for at 
least tnree or four months, possibly much longer. But I have 
on two or three occassions observed a falling off of intensity 
when using papers iodized seven or eight months previously. 
I do not know that this was the cause, but I was unable at the 
time to trace the failure to any other source. 
(To ba coatinucd.) 



Frotn Art the London Journal. 

MR. JOHN BIRCH. 



Mr. John Birch died at South Hackney, near London, on 
the 29th of May. Although but little known in the " Great 
Metropolis," the chief portion of his life having been spent in 
Sheffield, he achieved an enduring reputation in thnt town as a 
portrait and landscape-painter. He was born at Norton, Der- 
byshire (the birthplace of Cliantrey) , on the 18th of April, 
180T, and, as a boy, gave early indicatio:i of his love of art, his 
leisure hours being absorbed in sketching the beautiful scenery 
of the neighborhood, notwithstanding he had never seen a print 
nor drawing of any description. For some liine he assisted his 
father as a file-cutter, a business he relinguishcd for a situation 
at Mr. George Eadon's carver and gilder, Sheffield, with whom 
he remained seven years, and then determined to commence the 
arduous profession of a portrait-painter. To perfect himself in 
the art he went to London, and studied under II. P. Briggs, RA. 
Here he received many commissions to paint the portrait of the 
late Mr. Cocker, of Shefiield, from the original by Briggs, and 
was so successful, that it was difficult to distinguish the copies 
from the original. Mr. Birch lost no opportunity that presented 
itself of studying the great masters of his loved art, and accord- 
ingly became a devoted student of the works of Reynolds, Gains- 
borough, Cciyp, Murillo, Wilkie, Constable, and many others. 
In cousiJeratiou of his ability, he was elected a life student of 



the British Institution. Several of his landscapes consist of 
the ma!:^nificent scenery in Derbyshire: " Dovedaie," " Miller's 
Dale," " Matlock High Tor," and the "Entrance to the Peak 
Cavern," were favorite subjects of the artist's pencil, lie was 
an intimate friend of the late Ebenezer Elliott, the corn-law 
rhymer, of whom he painted many portraits — in fact, Mr. Birch 
was the only artist to whom the poet sat. The half-length por- 
trait of Elliott among the rocks of Rivilin attracted very great 
attention at the exhibition in aid of the funds of the Sheflield Me- 
chanic's Institution, which took place at the Music Hall in 1839. 
The origin of the jiicture was as follows: — The poet and painter 
walked from Sheffield one summer's morning to the valley of 
the Rivilin, and lighting upon a most romantic spot, Elliott 
suggested that the rocks and gushing stream would make a 
glorious back-ground for a portrait. The artist soon " rubbed 
in" a portrait of Ebenezer Elliott, with the rocks, as suggested, 
for a background; and while the artist was busy with pencil, 
the poet took out his pen, and the lines called " Ribbledin, or 
the Christening," were composed on the spot. 

John Birch was a man of enlarged and liberal views, and of 
great conversational powers. For some years past he resided 
in London, making occasional visits to Sheflield; during his last 
visit he painted about forty portraits in nine months. He then 
returned home, and iu little more than two months died from 
disease of the chest, after protracted and severe sufferings. 
Within a few days of his disease he talked of his friend Ebene- 
zer Elliott, and be was so unconscious of the near approach of 
death, that he determined upon going te Manchester to see the 
Art-Treasures Exhibition. He has left a widow and son to 
mourn the loss of an upright and honest relative. 



From ike Liverpool Pliotograpldc Journal. 

LONDON PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETL 



The first raonthiy meeting of this Society, for the session 
1857-58, was held on Thursday, the 5t!i instant, at the Society's 
Rooms, No. 1, Coventry Street, Leicester Square; the Presi- 
dent, Sir Frederick Pollock, in the chair. 

The President congratulated the members and their friends 
upon the success which had attended their efforts to obtain 
premises suited to the wants of the Society. He thought it was 
a just cause of pride that, unaided by state resources, it had 
achieved so much. The progress of the Society, as a scien- 
tific body, had been unexampled; and there could be no 
doubt of their continued success, for all classes of the com- 
munity were interested in their proceedings and produc- 
tions. The present rooms could be relinquished in three, seven, 
fourteen, or twenty-one year's time should it be found necessary 
to provide more spacious accommodation; but those from whom 
they held the rooms had no such discretionary power. They 
could, therefore, at once proceed with confidence to carry out 
all the objects of the Society. 

Mr. Gl . SiiADBOLT, President of the Microscoiiic Society, read 
a paper 

" ox TUE MODE OF PRODUCrXG EXTREM15I,T MTTUTE PHOTOORAFnS FOR MICBO- 
SCOPIC liXAMINATION." 

He said: — During the winters of 1853-54, I was engaged in 
prosecuting experiments relative to the peculiarities of various 
samples of collodion, and amonst other tests 1 subjected the 
films to inspection under the microscope. I then observed that 
some kinds were not only entirely free from reticulations, but 
that the particles of iodide of silver were so nn'nute as to require 
considerable optical power to resolve them, At this point the 
idea occurred to me of ascertaining the relative capabilities 
of each sample of collodion in regard to its power of recording, 
pictorially, minntiffi of detail. 

It was accordingly resolved that pliotograjdis should be pro- 
duced of as small a size as possible, so as to bear inspection under 
the lower powers of a good conqionnd achromatic microscope; 
and as all things were arranged by the comnieneement of March, 
1854, the first pictures were then produced and exhibited 1o 
some friends at the house of Mr. Rosling. These pictures were 



also exhibited to the Society in the April ensuing, as was re- 
corded in the Society's journal at that period. 

The following diagram illustrates the general disposition of 
the various pieces of apparatus. 




a is the source of light; i is a thick short-focus less to collect 
the liglit of the lamp and throw it towards the picture, where, 
from the convergence of the rays, the light would form rather 
too small a spot ; the lens, c, is therefore interposed 
so as to spread the light out to cover completely the negative 
d. The negative, for convenience sake, being pressed against 
a plate of glass by a spring; all in the plane at d. Now the 
end of all this arrangement is simply to give us a clearly illu- 
minated picture of about three inches in size, which we proceed 
to reduce to microscopic dimensions by the microscopic camera 
lens, which is lixed in a tube at e; e being about the place of 
the " substage" of the microscope. Our camera lens is, of course, 
of exceedingly short focus, for its ground glass or collodion film 
substitute is to be placed at g, which is the usual place for the 
principal stage of the ordinary microscope. Wood is here sub- 
stituted for metal, because it is here that the sensitive film has 
to be placed to receive the image vt'hich the ground glass has 
aided us to find. Now let us look at the use of/, the only part 
remaining unexplained: f is the ordinary part of the microscope 
used to magnify anything placed at^^-, our collodionized film or 
ground glass substitute for example. Begin by focussing the 
microscope till the film at «■ is distinct, then turn the "fine ad- 
justment" screw at/ a little, to make correction for the chemi- 
cal focus, the amount being ascertained by experiment. Now 
leave the microscope with its final correction as it is, and look 
through it while, by the camera lens screw at e, you throw the 
image of the negative so that it shall be distinct to'the eye, as 
seen on looking in the previously corrected microscope. All is 
now ready; remove the ground glass or its substitute, and put 
a slip of glass, collodionized on the spot, excited in a little 
beaker gla«s full of nitrate of silver (cxteniporanenusly shel- 
tered by placing it in a small plate box) in the place of the 
ground glass or film iyi g, having beforehand covered the lens 
by a cap at the tube of e, placed between it and the negative. 
Remove the cap for a few seconds, and develop on the spot; 
wash and fix and dry as usual. 

Since then a demand for these minute pictures has arisen, 
and they are now a regular article of manufacture for microsco- 
pic examination. 

The principle acted upon was well known; it is this: — that a 
ray of light refracted by any medium traverses the same -path 
whichever end of the said |iath be made the starting ])oiMt. Take 
as an illustration the case of ordinary photographic portraiture. 
Tiie siller being placed in the anterior focus of the lens, the 
jilale is arranged so as to coincide with the posterior focus of 






1S58. 



TUE niOTOGRArillC AXD FIXE ART JOURXAL. 



39 



!l 



thff same Icii?, wliicli latter focns is sitnaterl witliin a mncli 
shorter distance from the lens tliau is the anterior focus. These 
two foci are termed the r.onjugale. foci; and if the sitter were 
phiced in tlie short focus, an enlari;,-ed picture would be produced 
upon a plate located in the place previously occupied by the 
sitter. 

Such an avran;i:ement is adopted wlicnever an object is placed 
under the microscope for c.xaininatioa, a picture on an enlarfjed 
scale beina; formed at a comparatively loui^ distance from the 
object ji'iass, ^m\ ■w/iic/i pi.clurc is sliil furtiier mn^zMiiGed by the 
eye-])iece. It is froui these considerations manifest that if an 
illuminated nejrative photoji-raph be made to occupy the ordi- 
nary position of the microscopic 7?it/tt?'f in /ke eye-piece, a greatly 
reduced imace of the same ouii'ht to be formed in the anterior 
focus of the object ixlass; aud this is found to occur when the 
trial is properly made. 

There are, however, some difficulties to encounter. — Firstly, 
it is difficult to ascertain the focus in the case wliere the five- 
hundreth part of an inch nelirer to or further from the lens is a 
matter of moment in placing the sensitive plate. Secondly, the 
lenses of microscopic object glasses, thoufili as visually correct 
as possible, have not tiie visual and chemical foci coincident, a 
corresponding: allowance having to bennule when they are used 
photographically. — Thirdly, it is necessary to make several trials 
to ascertain the correct exposure for any given negative — a point 
of some difficulty, simple as it appears, until the correct allow- 
ance for the actinic focus has been determined. A good micro- 
scopic object-glass is always over-corrected as regards color, that 
is to say, the blue rays are projected beyond the red. And let 
it not be forgotten that the most perfectly constructed lens is 
a thing in which o;iposite errors are so opposed as to leave only a 
niinimnm of aberration; we cannot have perfection — Lastly, if 
artificial light be employed for the purpose of illumination, it is 
necessary that tiie rays shall fall upon the negative, either paral- 
lel or slightly converging, in order that the source of light may 
be at least as large as the oiefi;ative iu appearance. Thus an 
equality of photogenic action is secured. 

Tlie apparatus was arranged as follows, viz. : Ilaving re- 
moved the upper stage-plate of a large compound microscope, 
I replace it with one of wood, supplied with guide-pins of silver 
wire, in order to admit to its supporting a slip of glass coated 
with collodion and excited in the nitrate of silver bnth in the 
usual way. If the ordinary brass stage-plate were left undis- 
turbed, it is obvious that it, and the excited slip of glass, would 
be mutually destructive. 

The microscope is now to be placed in a horizontal position, 
the objective, intended to produce the picture, made to occupy 
the place usually hlied by the achromatic condenser on the siib- 
stoge of the microscope, while another objective is screwed into 
the lower end of the body of the instrument, which is used, not 
only to focus with but also to make the requisite allowance for 
actinic variation. 

The negative intended to be reduced is then arranged verti- 
cally, with its centre in the a::is of the microscopic body, at a 
distance of from two to fcur feet from the lower object-glass, and 
with a convenient screen of card, wood, or thick paper, to cut 
off any extraneous light that would otherwise puss beyond the 
limits of the picture. 

A small camphiue lamp is employed for the purpose of illu- 
minating the negative, having a a-ood l)ull's-eye lens as a con- 
denser, so arranged with its flat side iie.xt the lamp, that the 
r 'I'racted rays shall fill the whole of a doule convex lens of about 
six inches in diameter, the latter being placed so as to refract the 
rays of light in a pnrallel direction upon the negative. 

By this arrangement the bulPs-eye lens of about 2^ inches in 
diameter appears as the source of light, instead of the small 
flame of the lamp. 

When first I made the attempt to produce these pictures, I 
focussed itpon the erciled collodion itself, in order that no error 
might arise from any variation in the planes of the focussing 
screen and sensitive medium; and to effect this, a piece of deep 
yellow-colored glass was interposed between the lamp and the 
bull's-eye, lens, which was removed for the requisite interval 



after focussing, to allow the action of the liglit to take cITect; 
but subsequently I found that it wns possible (o locus U|ion a 
slip of collodionized glass that had been excited, washed and 
dried, without removing the iodide of silver, and then replacing 
it by the slip intended to receive the impression. 

The manipulation is thus perfornifnl, viz., the focussing c:lass 
being placed on the wooden stage with the collodion fro7)i the 
observer, the body of the microscope is accurately adjusted so 
as to focns distinctly the film of collodion as seen through the 
slip of glass. When the exact point is turned, so as to focns 
the objective beyond the film, just so fa.r as the aclinic focus of 
the lens to he employed for prod wring the picture, differs from its 
visual one.; the last-named lens is then to be carefully adjusted, 
so that the image of the negative becomes distinctly and sharply 
dt fined wdieu viewed through the microscope; and v\dien so seen, 
the actinic image will fall in the exact plane iu wdiich the film 
of collodion is located. The light is then to be shut off, a sensi- 
tive film placed instead of the dried one, an exposure of from 
ten to si.\ty seconds allowed, and when removed from the stage, 
the picture is to be developed iu the usual way by means of a 
few drofis of the ordinary pyrogallic acid solution. The pic- 
ture quickly appears as a small dark on the glass. It is to bo 
h.xed and washed as is usual with larger pictures, and set aside 
to dry in a place protected from dust, which last-named sub- 
stance is perhaps the greatest enemy one has to contend with. 

With regard to the allowance necessary to be made between 
the visual and actinic foci, there are various methods by which 
this may be accomplished; but iu my opinion by far the best is 
that afforded by the fine adjustment of the microscope itself. If 
an over corrected objective, the actinic focns being more distant 
from the lens than the visual one, it is evident tliat a greater 
separation between it and the plate is required than for accurate 
definition by sight; but as the amount of variation probably 
differs for every individual lens, though nominally of the same 
power, the exact allowance can oidy be determined by trial; 
for a two-thirds of an inch that I generally use with the nega- 
tive about four feet from the lens, the correction required is an 
elongation of the focus by o-^jth of an inch; wdiilc 1^ inch ob- 
jective of similar make requires an allowance of ^V^^^ ^'" "'i inch. 

The proper correction may also be made by withdrawing the 
negative further from the lens after focussing. I may also ob- 
seivethatl have noticed a curious fact w'ith reference to the 
allowance for vai'iation in an over corrected lens, viz., that the 
amount of it is not the same for day-light, as for artificial light. 
This merits further investigation. 

It may also be desirable to describe the developing solution: 
- — Two grains of pyro-galiic acid to one of citric acid, aud one 
ounce of water, is l)etter for this purpose than an acetic acid 
mixture, the resulting picture being of a more agreeable tone. 
The micro-photographs, when finished, may be mounted by ce- 
menting over the collodiou a disc of very thin glass, by means 
of Canada balsam. 

"A SUPPLEMENT TO MR. SUADBOLT'S P.1PER," &C. 

He stated that his first attempt attaking minute photosraphs 
was made more than a year alter Mr. Shadbolt had described, 
privately, his mode of operating; aud it being his wi.^h to work 
by day-light, he commenced with a small camera, made for the 
purpose, and lent him by Mr. Thomas Ross. Mr. Jackson's 
description proceeds as follows: — 

This camera wasfurnisiied v,-ith the usual glass for focussinc, 
which, though ground tolerably fine, was far too coarse for any- 
thing like the precision necessary in a ])icture to be submitted 
to the microscope. I was therefore induced to construct a 
camera which would allow the use of a method of focussing 
that 1 had foimd advantageous in taking portraits of the ordi- 
nary size. The body of this little instrument is a piece of 
drawn brass tube, about an inch iu diameter, into the end of 
which another tube is screwed. The tube to which the object- 
glass is attached slides into this inner tube, aud is fasteneel by 
a pushing-screw; the sliding motion giving a rough focal ad- 
justment, and the screw on the intermediate tulie a fine one. 

The plate-holder has a short tube attached to it, which 
slips with moderate tightnessoverlhat which constitutes the body. 



20 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



AVhen the platc-Iiolder is removed, a hrass plate is laid across 
the end of tlie body, havinji; a tube screwed into it so as to ad- 
mit of adjiistinetit. In this tube is placed a small positive eye- 
piece, equal to a lens of h:ilf an inch focal length, which, for 
these minute pictures, miglit be nnich more powerful. 

It is evident that this eye-piece constitutes, with the olijcct- 
p:lass, a small telescope, in which the image is seen without the 
intervention of a ground-glass or other medium; and, when 
once accurately adjusted, the operation of focussing is a very 
simple one 

The original adjustment is made in this way. The distance 
at which au object is clearly seen when tiie oiiject-glass is ap- 
plied to the microscope, is carefully measured, and it is placed 
in the camera at tiie same distance from the sensitive surface. 
A picture is tiieii taken, and most probably found to be very 
indistinct; but, by a few trials, making use of the screw adjust- 
ment, the true focal distance is at last found; and the eye piece 
being adjusted by means of its screw-tube, the camera can be 
focussed by it again at any time, even if the negative be jilaccd 
at a different distance. This method has the further advantage, 
that no allowance is required for the difference between the 
visual and actinic foci; or ratlier, the allowance is necessirily 
included in the adjustment. I use a board four feet long, which 
can be hung in a |)erpendicular direction. At tlie upi)er end 
of it is a simiile apparatus for holding the negative, and the 
camera is fi.xed at the lower end. The light is thus taken di- 
rect from ihesky; and the time of exposure varies with the 
weather, the density of the negative, the aperture of the lens, 
and the collodion. 

Most of my pictures were taken with an inch-and-a-lialf mi- 
croscojjic object-glass, made by Smith and Beck; but 1 have 
lately tried one of Ross's old inch object-glasses, a single triplet 
of moderate aperture, and find it to answer very well. The 
time of exposure with this iens ranges from fifteen to sixty 
seconds. 

A great proportion of my clearest and best toned pictures 
have been spoiled by the film cracking into irregular hexagons, 
apparently the effect of contraction, giving the appearance of a 
net thrown over the figure. This is a difhcnlty that I have not 
yet discovered the means of overcoming; but the tendency to 
it may be lessened by diminishing the proportion of alcohol, 
and by allowing the plate to get nearly dry before plunging it 
into the silver bath. These remedies, however, produce another 
defect almost as bad as the original; for they appear to prevent 
the even penetration of the film by the bath, and the result is a 
, greyish picture covered with white spots. Any suggestion on 
this subject will be thankfully received. 

The developer that I employ is that recommended by Mr. 
Shadbolt; but I have latterly used it in a peculiar maimer. 

On one occasion I forgot to draw out the slider of the plate- 
holder, and only discovered it by the fact of being unable to de- 
velop anything on the glass. As an experiment 1 replaced it in 
tlie camera and exposed it the usual time, when I was agreea- 
bly surprised to find a clear and well-toned picture. 

Since that time I have generally poured the developer on the 
plate immediately after taking it from the silver bath; and after 
moving it to and fro two or three times, having poured it off, 
and placed the plate iu the camera as quickly as possible. On 
exposing it the proper time the picture is found to be fully de- 
veloped, and must be immediately washed and fixed in the 
usual maimer. Should it, however, be too faint, the washing 
may be delayed until it is sufficiently darkened; but it is not 
generally so clear as when the exact time of exposure has been 
hit. I have often tried comparative experiments, and I have 
constantly found that this method not only saves time, butgives 
the clearest pictures. 

Mr. Shaduolt and Mr. G, Jackson demonstrated personally 
the peculiarities of their respective arrangements and modes of 
manipulation. 

Mr. W. Jackson, of Lancaster, sent a paper 

" 0\ THE PRODUCTION OK DIRECT TKANSPAnEXT COLLODION POSmVES." 

Mr. Jackson stated that his atteutiou having been called to 



the fact that no process with the above object in view had been 
published, sent an account of some experiments made by him, 
two or three years ago, with the ordinary negative collodion 
process, which, by slight modifications, yielded pictures which 
were positive by transmitted light. One method was to follow 
the ordinary process with the pyrogallic developer, but as soon 
as a slight development took jilace, the plate was well Avashed 
with water, and then re-immersed for three or four minutes in 
the silver bath. This plate, on being again treated with the 
developer, gave positive shades, while the lights, which seemed 
unaltered, became transparent. Another and more ready me- 
thod was to allow diffused daylight to fall on the plates as soon 
as the image began to appear, and after pouring on the devel- 
oper. The effect is not produced if the picture be too much devel- 
oped. An amber-colored collodion is best, and used with ordi- 
nary nitrate of silver. Fused nitrate and colorless collodion 
give exaggerated high lights. Thin collodion is more sensitive 
than a thicker one, but does not gjve such deep shades. The 
strength of the nitrate bath vv'as varied from ten to fifty 
grains per ounce; the weak solutions being most manageable, 
but not giving such deep shades as the stronger ones. Twenty 
grains per ounce, with four drops of glacial acetic acid, gave 
good results. The pictures may be improved by washing off the 
developer, dipping the plate in a three-grain solution of silver, 
and then applying the developer again. This must be done be- 
fore the ))icture is fixed. Some practice is necessary to hit the 
right point of development previous to the reversing operation; 
and skies come oi>t too strongly, unless shaded off during part 
of the exposure; moreover, the ]/arts of the picture bordering 
on the skies often become negative. 

He regarded these pictures as being cnrious, rather than use- 
ful. The definition was good, and the plates were more sensi- 
tive than ordinary. In a postscript he further stated, that the 
amount of free iodine in the collodion modified the color of the 
shades. He also added that the pictures could be produced in 
one-fourth of the time required for ordinary eoUodiou positives. 
The most effective pictures were obtained when the exposure 
was such that the Si'st faint development occurred socn after 
the application of ilie pyrogallic acid solution, which was not 
stronger than from one-half to three-quarters of a grain per 
ounce. The method, by exposurs to light, is to be preferred;, 
, but, if the other plans are tried, the acetic acid must be omitted 
from the bath, and a stronger image be developed upon the fir&t 
exposure. To deepen the shade, it will be best to repeat the 
development before fixing — a solution of nitrate of silver of 
twenty grains per ounce may, in this casejie used. The cj'- 
anide,. for fixing, should be of the strength of from six to seven 
grains per ounce of water. 

Mr. JIalone, upon c-omment ])cing invited, oJjserved that, 
some four years ago, he had, by following the ordinary collodion 
process, obtained, to his surprise, a very good transparent posi- 
tive picture, when he expected to have produced a negative. 
The result luippened thus: — he exposed a plate in the camera 
to the image of a strongly-illuminated white pUister bust, for a 
much longer time than usuaL He then developed, with pyro- 
gallic acid, in the usual way, and fixed with hyposulphite of 
soda. The image, although a good one, did not seem to him, 
at that time, to be of practical interest. He, therefore, allowed 
the fact to remain without further investigation. It seemed 
extraordinary that light should, in excess, take away from the 
impressed plate the power of precipitating silver from the liquid 
upon its surface; and, at present, no thorough explanation is 
offered to the rationale of the pi ocess. The formation of a deposit 
iu the shades of the picture, he thought, might be accounted 
for by the length of the exposure being such, that the shadows 
which ordinarily do not affect the plate, at length, throw light 
for a sufficient length of time to impress parts which by a shorter 
exposure, would remain in a normal condition. But, by what 
strange action does the light destroy iti original work? 

Mr. Fenton had met with similar results, but could not com- 
mand the phenomenon with certainty. He thought the matter 
of greater importance than was generally supposed; he trusted 
Mr. Jackson would continue his experiments^ 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



21 



Mmwr 



Mr. Crookrs had repeated Mr. Jackson's experiments, and 
from the one which gives the result without the subsequent ex- 
posure to Hglit, he concluded that the action was not to be ac- 
counted for by a reference to the destructive action of light 
alone. 

Mr. Maloxe endeavored to reconcile the two cases by refer- 
ence to what he had observed in the process of " sunning" iodized 
paper. He had prepared in the usual way, and in the dark, a 
sheet of Mr. Talbot's iodized paper; upon this he placed a strip 
of black paper, and so managed as to cover up half of the iodi- 
zed paper and strip, the other half with strips interposed was 
exposed to sunshine for twenty minutes; then the other half was 
momentarily exposed to the light; next, the whole was treated 
with gallo-nitrate of silver. A black positire image of the strip 
appeared on the half that had been sunned, while a light nega- 
tive image or the other half of the strip was developed on the 
half of the sheet momentarily exposed: the result was very in- 
structive and at .Irst sight perjilexing. It would seem that the 
paper not sunned is capable of throwing down the silver sponta- 
neously from the developer by ordinary chemical action, while 
the same paper sunned loses this power, unless the action of light 
be limited, in which case it appears to exact the ordinary chemi- 
afBuity of the paper for the silver of the developer. The sub- 
ject is a very curious one and still obscure. 

A Member, whose name we were not fortunate enough to 
obtain, stated that he had obtained a direct positive by first 
exposing the plate entirely to light, and then exposing it to an 
image in the camera, developing as usual. This is in accordance 
■with Mr. Malone's experience; the exposure to light at first 
might be carried just to the verge of the destructive action, 
then the increase of light, from the luminous parts of the came- 
ra image, would bring on the destruction of the afSuity for the 
silver in the developer, and a positive must result. 

Mr. Shadbolt also took part in the discussion, and thought 
the destructive action of light was further evinced by these ex- 
periments. 

The thanks of the Society were given to the authors of these 
communications. 

Some good specimens of collodion positives were sent to the 
Society from a professional photographer in Australia, with a 
view of showing the present condition of the art in that distant 
colony. The process by which they were obtained was not 
communicated. The donor requested that some notice might 
be taken of them in the Society's Journal. The matter was 
referred to the council to deal with as they might think best. 
There was a slight disclination on the part of some members to 
give special prominence to these specimens, since they were not 
superior to some of those produced in London and Liverpool. 
The donor would enhance his gift if he would give the exact 
details of his process. 

At the conclusion of the ordinary business of the evening, the 
meeting was rendered a special one to consider the proposal of 
voting £50 from the Society's funds for the purposes of the 
Archer Testimonial. On the motion of Sir. Wm. Newton, 
seconded by Mr. Vernon Heath, the proposition was carried 
without a dissentient voice. 

Some interesting photographs by Mr. Howlett were exhibited 
during the evening. 

At the conclusion the President announced that the Secre- 
tary had kiudly provide tea and coffee for their refreshment, 
and especially for those who had taken part in Ike discussions. 



The most probable cause for the " wavy hues of a milky color 
beginning about a third from the bottom and becoming more 
curved and wavy as they reach the top," which appear on albu- 
men plates after they are taken from the silver bath, is the em- 
ployment of a horizontal bath on which the plates are lowered 
face downwards, the effect is exactly that which would occur 
were there to be any slight hesitation or irregularity in the im- 
mersion. More solution in the bath would perhaps remedy it; 
but we strongly advise the employment of a bath such as Mr. 
Ackland recommends. 

3* 



From the London Art Journal. 

MR. WILLIAM BRADLEY. 



The career of this distinguished artist has been so much con* 
nected with Manchester, and the features of so many of our 
" notabilities" iiave been portrayed by his pencil, that a short 
notice of his life and works may not be unacceptable. Mr. 
Bradley was born in ]\Ianchester on the iGth of January, 1801. 
He had the misfortune to lose his father (an ingenious and in- 
ventive man, who resided at Garratt Hall) when only three 
years of age, and commenced life as an errand-boy in a ware- 
house, at the small wages of three shilling weekly. Art draws 
her votaries rather from the field and the workshop than the 
mansion and the palace, and so she took William Bradley from 
the packing-room of Messrs. Weight, Armitage, and Co., and 
at the early age of sixteen we find him practising entire as an 
artist. His beginning was humble enough; he took black pro- 
files at one shilling each, and advertised himself as " portrait, 
miniature, and animal painter, and teacher of drawing." He 
had a limited number of lessons from Mather Brown, then in a 
high favor with the Mancunians, in whose mind, it is said, Brad- 
ley excited strong feelings of jealousy. At the age of twenty- 
one he went to London where his friend Mr. Leveson treated 
him with great kindness. He first took lodgings in Hatton 
Gardou, but subsequently removed to Gerrard Street: he ob- 
tained an introduction to Sir Thomas Lawrence, who took great 
interest in his works, and allowed him to bring them at all 
times fol" inspection, Mr. Bradley now became established in 
the metropolis, but occasionally paid a flying visit to his native 
town. In 1833 he paid a longer visit than usual to Manchester, 
accompanied by his friend, Mr. R. B. Faulkner; they worked 
together in the studio of Mr. Charles Calvert, the landscape- 
painter, in Princes Street; and in the same year Mr. Bradley 
married Mr. Calvert's eldest daughter, and, after the lapse of a 
few months, again returned to town. In the year 1847 Mr. 
Bradley removed entirely to his native town, where he continued 
to labor at his profession with devoted ardor; it was, however, 
obvious to all that his health was shattered, and his brain more 
or less affected. He lived a sort of misanthropic life, frequentiy 
never stirring from his studio for months together. He died at 
his rooms, at Newall's Buildings, on the 4tli of July, of typhoid 
fever. In his illness he received the devoted attentions of his 
wife and daughter up to the lust hours of his existance. As an 
artist, Mr. Bradley undoubtedly possessed high talent; and 
though showing but little of the creative faculty, and chiefly 
confining his attention to portraits and fancy heads, what he 
professed to do he certainly did admirably, ever giving the most 
elevated and exalted character to the subject that came under 
treatment of his pencil. His heads are remarkable for skilful 
drawing, and he was not second to any man of the day in pro- 
ducing a striking and intellectual likeness. He excelled in col- 
oriug, and wrought on purely philosophical principles, reduced 
from earne£t study of the words of the great masters. His 
knowledge of light and shade was profound; and his proficiency 
in this most difficult branch of artistic study contributed in a large 
degree to the success of his works. His fancy pictures are nu- 
merous, consisting mostly of beautiful female heads. Bradley's 
practice was chiefly based on the works of Rubens, Yandyke, 
Pvembrandt, and Ruphael, and on the principles reduced and 
exemplitied by their followers in our early english school — viz., 
Sir Joshua Reynolds, Gainsborough, Romney, and Sir Thomas 
Lawrence; " trying," as he said on his only visit paid to the 
Art-Treasures Exhibition, "to do something which should have 
resemblance to their work, putting touches which would puzzle 
the many to tell the meaning of, and which, when the work waa 
done, would please people in spite of themselves." His percep- 
tive powers were very extraordinary, enabling him at once to 
detect that which constituted the success or failure of a picture. 
Although in the receipt of a large income for many years of Ms 
life, such were, we regret to learn, his improvident and heedless 
Habits, that his widow and four surviving children are left in 
very unfavorable circumstances, The following are the names 
of some of Mr. Bradley's sitters: — Lords Beresford, Saudon, 



22 



THE PEOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



Denbigh, Bagot,and Ellesmere, Sirs E. Kerrison, John Glad-'' 
stone, Beiijamia Ileywoocl, Robert Jeppiiigs, and Thomas Pot- 
ter; Colonel Cureton, C B.; Colonel Anderton; \V. E. Gladstone, 
Esq., M. P.; Sir James Emerson Tennant; Sheridan Knowles, 
W. C. Macready, Dr. Dalton, Charles Swain, Liverseege, Jolm 
Isherwood, John Brookes; Joseph Brotherton, Esq., M.P. ; 
Padsey Dawson, Esq., Hornby Castle; Rev. Canon Stowelli 
Rev. H. Y\^. M'Grath, &c. We have only to add that the 
youngest son of Mr. Bradley displays a remarkable talent for 
drawing, and, with due cultivation and training, promises to add 
another name to our list of local artists. This training it is un- 
derstood, the necessitous circumstances of his widowed mother 
preclude and it has been suggested that an appeal should be 
made to the public, and especially to these whose portraits have 
been painted by the late Mr. Bradley, to assist Mrs. Bradley 
in maintaining and educating her family, and especially the.son re- 
ferred to (now about fifteen years of age), in placing him to 
pursue the study of Art under proper circumstances and disci- 
pline. 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soe. 

FORMULA FOR COLLODION POSITIVES. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal. 

SiR_ — Having often seen queries in the columns of your Jour- 
nal, as to the best mode of making positive collodion, and hav- 
ing had some little experience in that way, I have found the 
following (after many experimentsj to give results superior to 
any I have yet seen. Put 12 ounces by measure of good sul- 
phuric ether in a stoppered bottle, and add to it 42 grains of 
gun cotton, shake frequently to facilitate the solution; let it 
Btand for a few days, when any particles of undissolved cotton 
will sink to the bottom, and the upper portion may be poured 
off perfectly clear. The iodizing solution is made as follows: — 

1. Iodide of cadmium 14 grs. 

Alcohol 1 oz. 

Dissolve and fdter. 

2. Iodine 6 grs. 

Alcohol 1 oz. 

Dissolve and filter. 

3. Bromide of cadmium 80 grs. 

Alcohol 1 oz. 

Dissolve and filter. 

4. Make a saturated solution of common salt in water. 

To iodize the collodion, pour off an ounce and a half of the 
collodion into a perfectly clean bottle, add to it half an ounce 
of solution No. 1, shake well together, and then add 10 drops 
of solution No. 2, and 20 drops of solution No. 3, shake well 
together, and stand by for a few hours, and add 12 drops of so- 
lution No. 4, let stand for a few days, and it is fit for use. Col- 
lodion made as above, gives beautiful pictures, is very sensitive, 
and keeps good for a great length of time. The nitrate bath 
is made by nitrate of silver, 30 grains to 1 ounce of distilled 
water; the bath should be slightly .acid. Having coated the 
plate with collodion prepared as above, immerse in the bath for 
one minute only in moderately warm weather, — a little longer 
may be allowed in winter. The plate should be moved up and 
down two or three times in the bath before it is taken out. To 
develope the picture take — 

Protosulpbate of iron } onnce. 

Water 5 ounces. 

Glacial acetic acid 8 drops. 

Nitric acid 2 drops. 

Spirits of wine 1 drm. 

Dissolve and filter. 

Fix with cyanide of potassium, tea grains to the ounce of 
water. 

A. S. K. H. 



From the Jour, of the Pliot. Soe. 

COLLODM POSITIVES ON BLACK LEATHER. 

Crowle, October 1st, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Fhoiographic Journal, 

Sir, — The collodion positive I sent you on leather is done 
exactly in the same way as on glass or the enamelled iron 
tablets: the ouly difficulty in the process is getting the leather 
to sink in the nitrate bath; this I accomplish with a gutta 
percha dipper turned np the lower end, and at the proper dis- 
tance from the end I have inserted a piece of slightly curved 
silver wire through the dipperr this, when turned down, holds 
the leather tight in its place, and to remove it the wire only re- 
quires to be turned upwards; then, to keep the spring in the 
dark slide from making the prepared side convex, place a piece 
of glass of the same size upon the back of the leather. I think 
it advisable to coat the leather v/ith two or three dressings of 
any of the ordinary black varnishes, on the back and edges, to 
prevent any organic matter the leather might contain from 
spoiling the bath: it also helps to stiffen it. The, kind of 
leather I have used is such as saddlers employ, but I consider, 
if we could devise a plan to sink the leather (better than mine), 
the patent French calf would be preferable, on account of its 
smooth and finely polished surface; but, on account of the 
thin texture, it is objectionable. The only cleaning required is 
rubbing with wash-leather. 

J. S. Overton. 



From the Liderpool Photographic Journal.. 

MR. SUTTON'S CHALLENGE. 



The following letter, which has been addressed to the editor 
of the London Fhoiographic Joiunal, needs, at preseitt,. no 
comment: — 

Royal Square, Jersey, Aug. 11, 1857. 

Sir, — By this post you will receive three photographs, pur- 
chased by me of Mr. Sutton, and, no doubt printed and mounted 
at the establishment of Blanqnart, Evrard. 

In the last number of Photographic Notes, edited by Mr. Sut- 
ton, is a paragraph as follows: — 

" All Blanquart Evrard's prints have been mounted with 
starch. As I have repeatedly challenged the world to produce 
a faded print from that gentleman's establishment, without re- 
ceiving any reply, we may conclude, without theorizing on the 
subject, that starch is a perfectly safe cement to employ for 
mounting positives. — [Ed. P. N."] 

Now, Sir, that the three photographs above named, and sent 
herewith, ^arg faded, and that very much, there cannot be a 
doubt; but, when I tell you that they have been shown by me 
to Mr. Sutton some months ago, and that he of course could 
not but acknowledge the fact of their having faded, you will, I 
am sure, equally with myself, be astonished at the mendacity of 
the assertion — that the world has hei:urtpeatedly challenged to 
produce a faded print from Blanquart Evrard's establishment, 
and without reply. Will Mr. Sutton have the kindness to say 
when and where the challenge has ever before been given ? 

If Mr. Sutton desires another proof of the want of perma- 
nence in what he calls "the permanent process," he can be sup- 
plied with the article in the shape of a photograph of rocks 
(a fellow-print to one of those sent hcrewithj, to be had of his 
printer of the Azotes, where such view is exposed to-day (Aug. 
llthj for sale on Mr. Sutton's behalf; and, as it is the only 
photograph in the shop-window, the fact of its having faded 
seems to establish a somewhat singular contradiction of his as- 
sertion regarding the permanence of the prints in question. 

I think Mr. Sutton cannot reasonably complain of the chal- 
lenge so jiulMicIv given, and so repeatedly (?), being at last as 
publicly responded to; and I would beg to remark that, as I 
have the honor to be a photographer myself, I have therefore 
a kind of compunction in acknowledging that photographs in 
any cas-e may or do fade. This, however, is tempered, 
with the satisfaction of knowing, that, although the prints 



1858. THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



23 



may not come from the establishment of Messrs. Sutton & Blan- 
quartEvrard, it is quite possible that they may stand the test 
of time as well as those that do; and really think Mr. Sutton a 
little too arrogant when he asserts, that the future of fhotogra- 
pki) depends upon Ike success of the printing establishment in St. 
Brdade's Bay, Jersey Henry Mullins. 

Havinj^ inserted itflr. Mullin's letter, we insert Mr. Sutton's 
reply, and a rejoinder by Mr. Mullins: — 

S[R_ — I beg leave to offer a few words of reply to a letter 
which appeared in your last number, headed '• Mr. Sutton's 
Challenge," and signed " Henry Mullins." 

If Mr. Mullins will have the goodness to turn to No. 23, 
pane 104, of my " Photographic Notes," (to which he is a sub- 
scriber,) be will find in the second paragraph the following re- 
marks: — 

" I have only seen two faded prints by Blanquart-Evrard's 
process, and these have rather been destroyed than faded. They 
Belong to a Daguerreotypist in this Island. The image has 
evidently been coverted into iodide of silver by the destructive 
fumes of the iodine which escapes from his dark room; some 
prints of Mr. Fenton's have been destroyed in the same way, 
bv the same cause. One print, however, by Blanquart-Evrard, 
which was protected by some means, has escaped, and is as fresh 
as ever: it is si.K years old." 

I need scarcely inform him that he is the Dagguerreotypist 
alluded to. I have worked for a week at his rooms, with his 
bromine and iodine boxes, and I remarked that they allowed a 
"•ood deal of gas to escape. His room, which is large and in 
an airy situation, ought not to smell so strongly as it always 
does of these gases; in fact he is obliged, all the year round, to 
keep one of his three windows wide open. I need not inform 
your readers that the bromide of iodine is recommended in Blan- 
quart-Evrard's treatise, as a means of removing silver stains; 
and that the fumes of bromine and iodine are destructive to 
paper photographs. I may mention that Mr. Mullins selected 
the prints he sent you from a dozen or more which I showed 
him, and that the remainder arc in my possession and as good 
as ever. 

I have now disposed of what he has politely called my " men- 
dacious assertion." 

With respect to M. Le Fenvre's print, — I have not seen it, 
nor do I think it likely that he would exhibit a faded print in 
his window ;but I will make enquiry about it and let you know 
the result. 

With respect to my repeated challenges to photogrnphers to 
produce a faded print from Blanquart-Evrard's establishment, 
I beg to say that during the year 1856. I sent from Jersey up- 
wards of 9000 mounted prints, each bearing the stamp of" per- 
manent photograph" at the corner of the mount, and that not 
one has been returned to me as faded. Each of these prints 
may be considered in the light of an unanswered challenge. 

During the whole course of my experience, I have seen 
no faded prints from Blanquart Evrard's establishment, 
except those which Mr. Mullins sent you, (and fur which, 
you observe, I informed the readers of my " Notes," the 
months ago,) and very lately another among my own collection, 
the existence of which I do not wish to conceal. It is possible 
that among the subscribers to my Album there may be good- 
natured persons who may possess faded prints, but who have 
been unwilling to make me acquainted with the fact. But in 
the absence of such evidence, I must still hope that photographs 
which have been developed on iodide of silver, and properly 
treated, are permanent; for a very rare and occasional IwWnvQ 
may fairly be attributed to an accident of some sort. If they 
are not, then the whole system of photography , with the salts 
of silver, must fall to the ground, for this is the process by which 
ntn-atives are obtained, I repeat, that the fate of the present 
system of photography depengs on the permanence (not of my 
printing astablishment in St. Brelade's B^y, as Mr. Mullins 
would facetiously make out), but of Blanquart Evrard's 
positive print* 

Sept ember 29t k, 1857^ Thomas S pttox. 

* (?) Mr. Talbot's original " calolype" positive print.— Ed. L. & M. P. J. 



Postscript.— I went to M. Le Feuvre's yesterday, in com- 
pany with the Rev. T. M. Raven, (a member of the Photographic 
Society of Scotland,) to examine the print alluded to by Mr. 
Mullins. We agreed that it had not faded in the least degree.* 
M. Le Feuvre received it, with a number of others, from Blan- 
quart-Evrard, sound, about three years ago, and he allowed us 
to look over the remaining prints which came in the same par- 
cel. All are as fresh and perfect as they were on the day when 
he received them; and he says he has never seen a faded print 
from B-Evrard's establishment, although he has unfortunately 
in his possession many faded prints by other artists. 

I beg, therefore, to contradict the statement made by Mr. 
Mullins in the fifth paragraph of his letter. 

I ought to mention that, when Mr. Mullins first showed me 
the damaged prints which he has sent to you, we had some con- 
versation about them, in which I attributed their having per- 
ished to the action of the destructive gases which are always 
present in the atmosphere of his room, but particularly at nigiit, 
when the doors and windows are closed. Why did he not, iu 
common fairness, mention the circumstance of my having given 
him this explanation? 

" As you have permitted his letter to appear in your Journal, 
I trust you will, as an act of justice to me, insert my reply in 
your next number. It is the only communication with which 
I shall trouble on this subject, for Mr. Mullins has so far for- 
gotten himself that I decline entering into any further contro- 
versy with him. 



MR. IIULLIN'S REJOINDER. 

Sir, — In the current number of " Notes," No. 3T, Mr. Sut- 
ton, in referring to my letter in the last Journal observes that 
he has publicly acknowledged having seen the three faded 
prints I mentioned in my letter, and then, with the confidence 
natural to him, says, "the first part of Mr. Mullins' letter is 
disposed of" — how he jumps to this conclusion I am at a loss to 
imagine. The paragraph I alluded to, appearing in the 
" Notes," said that Mr. Sutton had repeatedly challenged the 
world to produce a faded print from Blanquart-Evrard's estab- 
lissment, and that, as he had never had any reply, we may con- 
clude, &c.: thus in as plain langauge as possible ignoring the 
fact of my having shown him the tliree which have faded, and 
were sent you at the time I wrote; and I think that his me- 
thod of disposing of the first part of my letter is 
merely a confirmation of what I said, viz., that Mr. Sutton had 
seen the prints: his having mentioned that fact in a former 
number of the " Notes" is nothing to the point. He said de- 
liberately that he had never seen a faded print from Blanquart- 
Evrard's establishment, and I reminded him that he had: but 
perhaps he thought that as he had mentioned them iu No. 23, 
page 104, they were disposed of. 

Now, as regards the print at Le, Feuvre's, which I said was 
hanging in the window, palpably faded at the time I wrote, and 
which Mr. Sutton now asserts (in capitals), was not: I must 
say that that assertion is "intemperate," for that print was not 
amongst those examined by him and his friend, the Rev. Mr. 
Raven, at Le Feuvre's, on the occasion he mentions, because 
before the appearance of ray letter in your Journal, I missed 
the photograph from the window, and on enquiring about it was 
told that it had beensold, to whom they did not know; however, 
I am glad to be able to say that I was not the only one who 
thought it likely to be a bad investment. 

Then, with respect to the charge of arrogantly claiming for 
the printing establishment at St. Brelade's Bay, the future of 
photography, which Mr. Sutton disposes of by saying that he 
has always frankly brought forward in the " Notes," the differ- 
ent processes of printing, such as those of Sella, Pretsch, Pui- 
tevin, <kc.: I for one have no wish to deny: it was matter for 
his "Notes:" but as a set-off, can any of his readers say that 
advantage has not been taken of every opportunity to bring iu 
Blanquart-Evrard and "Hollingsworth's thin paper ?" 

In conclusion, I only remark, that unless Mr. Sutton employs 
some better argument in the letter he requests you to publish 



24 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January, 



than we have been favored with in the " Notes," the facts, with 
all due deference to hiu), remain as they were. 

Henry Mullixs. 
Royal Square, Jersey, Oct. 13, 1851. 



From the Journal of the Pho. Sac. 

PREP.\RATinN OF IIYDRIODIC ACID. 

To the Editor of the Photographic Journal. 

Sir, — Seein<r in your last Number that one of your corres- 
pondents, Mr. Tichbone, has experienced some difficulty in mak- 
ing hydriodic acid in quantity by the action of hydrosulphuric 
acid, I beg to forward the plan I adopt, and by which it can 
be made in any quantity and of great strength. Take 1 ounce 
or any quantity of iodine, reduce it to powder in a large mortar, 
diffuse about 1 drachm in 1 ounce of distilled water, pass the 
hydrosulphuric acid gas through it until the iodine is decom- 
posed, pour the liquid into the mortar on the remaining iodine 
and stir well with the pestle; a considerable quantity of the 
iodine will be dissolved: return the liquid to the decomposing 
vessel, ngain pass the gas until decolorization has taken place, 
and repeat the operation until all the iodine has been taken up. 
By this process there are no solid particles of iodine to be en- 
veloped in the precipitated sulphur, and the operation proceeds 
in the most satisfactory manner. J. Foster. 



NEW YORK PnOTOGRAPIIIC GALLERIES. 



Prtend Spelling, — A short sketch of the New York Galler- 
ies will no doubt interest many of your Western and Southern 
readers I am sure, and I have taken the liberty of dropping a 
hasty line by the way. The first visit I made to the dilferent 
galleries of Art, was my old friend, T. Paris, Esq , late Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio. Mr. P. occupies the rooms formerly kept by 
Root, on Broadway. Mr. P. is an old operator and I could 
speak of him at great length, and of the many great and beauti- 
ful pictures he has produced. Mr. T. has no superior in his 
profession. The Diaphaneotypes that he gets up, are the most 
beautiful and artistic pictures that are made. The richness of 
color, the most exquisite and delicate touches cannot be 
equalled. In looking through Mr. P.'s gallery, I saw many 
old farciliar faces. His arrangement of groups are done in an 
artistic manner, which shows that no person of limited know- 
ledge could accomplish such things. I wish I had but time to 
speak of Mr. Paris' different pictures, but there are so many 
I cannot find space for them; and if any of my artist friends 
visit New York, I recommend them to pay Mr. P. a visit, and 
they will be richly repay ed. 

1 ne.xt strolled into Brady's, 205 Broadway, a small gallery, 
once occupied by the bearer of the above name. I saw several 
good pictures. Mr. Johnston is the operator, and a very ])0- 
lite gentleman I found him. I was much pleased with his pic- 
tures. 

Farther up Broadway, I found the real Brady, up to bis ears 
in business. He has 26 pei'sons in his employ, artists, opera- 
tors, and salesmen. The imperial photographs are a most 
beautiful style of pictures. They are simply fine large cabinet 
pictures beautifully worked in India ink, to a high degree of 
perfection. There you can see specimens of nearly all the dif- 
ferent distinguished personages that visit New York: those of 
Chas. Elliott, Esq., the artist, N. P. Willis, the poet, Ex-Secrc- 
tary Marcy, Bayard Taylor, are most perfect gems of art: I 
could name hundreds equal to those. I saw several full-length 
photograi)hs taken by Woodward's Solar Camera, lil'e-sizc, 
most wonderful pictures. 

A few doors below is Gurxey's gallery. Mr. G. has taken 
the premium for his beautiful pictures on many occasions, and 
deservedly so too, for he has had the best operators, and the 
very best artists, and has paid the highest prices for every- 
thing. Mr. G. is liberal, and he should be well patronized. 



Mr. G. has a large table, on it a shade in which is placed the 
many prizes he has got at the different institutions: he also has 
got a massive silver pitcher, awarded to him by the Committee 
appointed to present the Anthony prize for the best daguer- 
reotype, lie has various silver and gold medals too nnmerous 
to mention, for premiums taken in Europe and this country. 
Mr. Harry Moulton, the great photographist, does not work 
for Mr. Gurxey at present. Mr. G. has 25 persons in his em- 
ploy — artists, operators, salesmen, and messengers. He does 
not take ambrotypes; nothing but photographs plain, in oil, 
water, India ink, and pastelle, and also daguerreotypes. It is 
really a treat to visit Mr. Gurney's establishment. He is one 
of the best of men, and his son, the affable and gentlemanly 
salesman, is the very man of all others to have in a gallery. The 
many large oil pictures that adorn the walls, show plainly that 
Mr. G. is not only a man of taste, but keeps the best of artists 
in his employ. 

C. D. Fredericks, Esq., opposite the Metropolitan Hotel, 
has the largest and most spacious rooms in New York; be 
keeps eight artists in oil color; in water three, in pastele one, in 
India ink four — operators, artists and all, number thirty-two. 
Tlie Hallotypcs are not good: I have never seen one that I 
could call good yet, made either at Gurxey's or Fredericks'. 
But Mr. P. has certainly the most .spacious and best regulated 
rooms in the whole Union. His monthly receipts are $7000. 
I saw in one packet, 5000 negatives for photographs. A large 
portrait of Gen. Sam. Houston, is not only agreat likeness, but 
a spirited and well executed half-length portrait. There are so 
many portraits in oil, pastele, and water, that it would consume 
too much time to name half; but to speak at a glance, the 
visitor to New York must never leave without going to see Mr. 
Fredericks' Gallery. The greatest business that is done here, 
is in painted and plain photographs. The sum of §1500 is paid 
regularly to artists monthly — that is only one item. Mr. 
Fredericks, by his courteous and manly deportment, liberality 
of heart, has won for himself, not only a great name, but wealth 
and fame. 

Meade Bro. take daguerreotypes and photographs. Some 
of their pictures are superior in tone and beauty of position; 
bnt they appear to have lost their pride to a great extent. 
Some years ago, I remember Meade Bro, had the most spa- 
cious rooms in New York on the second floor, above the Astor 
House a short distance. They do a large business in furnish- 
ing goods to operators througliout the country. They take but 
few pictures compared with what they used to do. Their ope- 
rator's name is Mr. Lunson from Paris. 

A. PowELSON (307 J, takes photographs and ambrotypes; 
some of his specimens are very good, and business appears to be 
very brisk with him. 

C. P. Rockwell ^315), takes daguerreotypes and ambro- 
types very good. 

Mr. Lawrence takes very good photographs and ambrotypes; 
his place is in Broadway. 

Mr. QuiMBY takes good ambrotypes for 20 cents on Broad- 
way. You can get a good ambrotype done up in a plain case 
for 12^ cents. There numbers eighty galleries in New York, 
and I should be most happy to speak of them all but have not 
the time. I merely drop a line in haste, and I hope the balance 
that are not mentioned will not feel slighted. The business is 
woefully dull in New York as well as in other cities. These 
galleries that I have spoken of are the principal ones. 

I visited Anthony's depot for the sale of all kinds of chemi- 
cal and daguerreotype stock, and from the simplest thing used 
to the camera, can be h.ad; and the gentlemanly salesmen who 
are engaged by Mr. A., I could not fail to admire. Mr. An- 
thony is the agent for the sale of Woodward's great Solar 
Camera, one of the greatest inventions in photographic art. 
For the sake of being well posted up, I would recommend all 
operators in the country to visit the difi'erent galleries, when 
in the city, and note the great improvements that are being 
made in the manufacture of all kinds of pictures. 

And from my short visit to the establishment of the Photo- 
graphic and Fine Art Journal, I can promise myself that the 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



25 



Journal will be greatly improyed for the year 1858, and I ad- 
yke all to sabscribe early. lu haste, yours, J. R. J. 



From the Neio York Daily Times. 

WASHIXGTON ART ASSOCIATION. 

Washington, Wednesday, Dec. 16. 

The address before the Washingtoil Art Association, last 
evening', by Hon. J. R. Tysox, was an eloquent and beautiful 
production, and was heard by the dile of the city in Corcoran 
Hall, in which building- the Exhibition of Art was thrown open 
to the public at the couclusiou of the address. 

Mr. Tysox commenced by alluding to the discouraging cir- 
cumstances under which the Washington Art A.ssociatiou had 
entered upon their present enterprise. A fortitude deserving 
success, or indeed the ardor which commands, was requisite. 
The minds of men are attuned to an appreciation of the beau- 
tiful in art in the seasons of repose, which prosperity secures; 
but the blossoms of elegance are chilled by the frost of advers- 
ity. The etfort to impress the purposes of this Association 
upou the attention of the country at this period of financial 
gloom, is worthy the heroic spirit of the masters of the pencil 
and the chisel, as well as of song, who have lived and died for 
the glory of their professions. 

The speaker extolled the patriotic purpose of making a fe- 
pository of Art for the genius of the country, in its national 
metropolis, amidst the memorials of our greatness, whither the 
home student and the foreign tourist repair for glimpses of the 
taste and intellect of the nation. Here all the peculiarities of 
our people are exhibited, here Art is diversified by the variety 
of climate, and the varying conditions of society, and here an 
impartial and cultivated judgment should express iu candid criti- 
cism its chastening and improving verdict. 

Mr. Tyson assumed that every citizen desired that the Na- 
tional Capital should, reveal the evidences of a high civilization, 
and would feel a just pride in realizing that the grace and 
beauty surrounding him were the achievements of his own 
countrymen. In all ages, the artist has been cherislied by his 
own Grovernment, or by its Sovereign, princes, and nobles. 
"Without such aids the fine arts have ever languished. But we 
have no imperial or patrician rank, no law of primogeniture, 
no permanent class to whom the artist may look for patronage. 
The fostering aid of a legislature, and the appreciation of a 
schooled and reading public are his only resources, and he must 
turn to these iii competition with the demands for the develop- 
ment of vast and unexplored physical resources. 

Practical knowledge, the colossal machinery of Government, 
and the ordinary industrial pursuits, absorb so much of the de- 
votion challenged for the beauties of Art, that we may even 
wonder at the efforts of taste we behold in decoration, archi- 
tecture, landscape-gardeniug, statuary, and painting, for it re- 
quires the cooperation of artificial convenience and mental cul- 
ture with wealth, luxury, and leisure to excite the poetic senti- 
ment essential to the general appreciation of artistic genius iu 
its higher manifestations. 

These truths were eloquently sustained by parallels derived 
from the history of ancient Greece and Rome, and the pros- 
perity of Art in modern Rome. The deficiencies of practical 
England with respect to the fine arts were dwelt upon, and a 
beautiful tribute was rendered to the brief catalogue of artists 
who have adorned the annals of this land of high achievement 
and practical wisdom — whose genius has illumed science and li- 
terature, and from whom we have received better lessons and 
qualities than Italy could have afforded us. 

In America the native taste has been quickened by cultiva- 
tion, and private wealth has been liberal to Art. But the num- 
ber of persons of elegant taste and leisure is small; few models 
of excellence exist; no standard of taste prevails, and the me- 
rits of a candidate are often decided by caprice, whim, partial- 
ity or ill-nature. This the artist sustains in his unaided strug- 
gles, and with a mind ill fortified by discipline to endure it. A 
mind dwelling upon beauty in its varied forms hence contracts 

VOL XI. NO. I. 4 



a disgust for every-day existence, and acquires a taste for ficti- 
tious elegance incompatible with the struggle for bread, and 
prosperity is rarely attained until the lengthened shadows of 
life announce its decline. 

The speaker maintained that they err who suppose the artist 
has but few subjects of study in this country. Of superior 
specimens of Art we have enough to restrain the license and 
rectify the errors of genius, without repressing its originality' 
The eventful history and the majestic scenery of our country 
should afibrd ample inspiration. With themes so novel and 
suggestive, painting and sculpture may here form a school free 
from subjection to foreign ideas. The independent spirit of 
Benjamin West, an American artist, led him to the practical 
adoption of a conception that inaugurated a new era of Art iu 
England. 

After the recital of numerous historic instances, and some of 
them of a ludicrous character, illustrative of the unequal con- 
flict of merit and rank in Europe, Mr. Tyson said that it is me- 
rit which here commands the avenues to distinction, rank, and 
fame. Where nature has done her part, diligence and honor 
will do the rest. He also descanted upon the practice of visit- 
ing Italy to acquire the arts, and with them the frivolties and 
vices of that artificial land— an experience v/hich he did not 
regard as necessary for those whom nature had favored, quoting 
the couplet: — 

'• How much a fool T\ho has been sent to Rome 
Exceeds a fool who has beeu kept at home." 

But diligence as well as genius must combine with a be- 
nignant nature to produce a great artist. "No day without a 
line" was the maxim by which Appelles rose. 

The imitation of nature, transferring not merely the linea- 
ments but the expressive life and soul, is no mean achievement; 
but the pencil may combine objects in action and so dispose the 
parts as to evolve the complications of an intricate uarrative; 
or it may create scenes beyond the effect of language. Thus 
the sculptor or painter is essentially a poet, and capable of ut- 
tering the most pungent satire, the. most delicate irony, the se- 
verest libel, or the highest praise. It is also within his com- 
pass to depict the grandest conceptions of the human mind in 
corresponding proportions of beauty and majesty, and to reveal 
them in fearful aspects of terror and sublimity. 

The speaker, after paying a merited tribute to Copley and 
Allston, entered upou a vindication of Benjamin West, and 
pointed out , the political influences which led to hisdisparao-e- 
mentin England. He dwelt with emphasis upon the merits of 
this painter, whose simple monument he had seen in Saint Paul's 
Cathedral in London, with its meagre inscription. West had 
sat for many years on the throne of British Art, but while the 
marble which covers his ashes has no soothing word of regret 
or commendation, the monuments of artists around him are loud 
in eulogy. But marvelous changes had taken place iu the sen- 
timent of England, between the period when West was re- 
ceived with honor, before our Revolution, and that of his death, 
after our Independence; yet, it is still more marvellous that 
American writers and American opinion were even under the 
slavish influence of the British press. The mists of prejudices, 
however, have passed away iu both countries, and both coun- 
tries rejoice in his fame. 

A brief account of the character and excellence of some of 
the paintings of West was given, but the speaker dwelt chiefly 
upon his transcendent composition of "Death on the Pale 
Horse." The difficulties over which this great artist triumphed; 
his life of moral and religious purity; his manners as a polished 
gentlemen; his cordiality of feeling and generosity, were elo- 
quently presented for approval and emulation. The audience, 
and especially the artists among them, were pointedly informed 
that he was a stranger to professional jealousy; that he assisted 
the meritorious; that the state of Art in his own country lay 
near his heart, and that the formation of an Academy of Art 
iu Philadelphia engaged his countenance and sympathy. 

Mr. Tyson, in conclusion, earnestly commendecl the example 
of this distinguished man in all these characteristics to the 



26 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FIjS"E ART JOURXAL. 



January, 



study and imitation of American artists; and said that it was 
to be hoped that the inllnence of an institntion like this might 
concentrate tlie scattered rays of the talents of his country- 
men, and that whether called upon in the beautiful province of 
statuary, or the lofty fields of pictorial art, its judgments might 
be impartially pronounced, and its rewards faithfully distri- 
buted. 



« From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

JlMUAt REPORT 
Of t Ii 6 Manchester T li o t o g r a p li i c Society.. 



The annual meeting of the above Society was held on Tues- 
day evening November 3rd, 1851, at the Rooms of the Lite- 
rary and Philosophical Society, George Street; Professor Wil- 
liamson in the chair. There was a numerous attendance. 

The Honorary Secretary (Mr. J. Cottam) announced several 
contributions of pictures, and thanks were awarded to the 
donors. Amongst them were some of Macpherson's, from Mr. 
Higgins; five calotype pictures, from Mr. Davies, of Warring- 
ton; and two prints from collodion negatives, by the Secretary. 

The statement of accounts, v.'hich extended over a period of 
two years (the accounts not having been made up in time for 
the last annual meeting), showed a balance in hand of £QS 16s. 
6d. at the end of the year 1855-56, and a balance of £& 16s. 
6d. due to the treasurer at the close of the last financial year. 
The accounts having been passed, the Secretary read the 

ANNUAL REPORT. 

The members of the Manchester Photographic Society will 
have the satisfaction of knowing, on perusal of this second an- 
nual report of the Committee, that the position of the Society 
is one on which the Committee have cause to congratulate them, 
although its financial situation is not perhaps so satisfactory, as, 
but for a cause herein explained, it might have been. 

The Society has first to acknowledge gratefully the liberality 
of the council of the Literary and Philosophical Society, ivhich 
has enabled them to receive the more than usually large attend- 
ance of members, with much more comfort than heretofore. 

They have here to record their satisfaction with the manner 
in which the editor of the Liverpool and Manchester Photo- 
graphic Journal has placed his columns at their disposal ; the 
change which took place in the proprietorship and management 
of that Journal appeared to afford a favorable ojiportuuity for 
securing a prompt and efficient record of the Society's transac- 
tions, and the Committee are glad to find that the change has 
worked so much in accordance with their anticipations. 

The following papers have been read at the Society's meet- 
ings: " On the Albumen Process," by Mr. Cash; "Visits to 
the Society's Exhibilious," by the Rev W. J. Read; " Oa the 
Collodion Process," by Mr. M'Lachlan; " On the Collodio-Al- 
bumen Process," by Mr. Sidebotham, who has also communi- 
cated some facts as to Photography, naturally colored, and a 
paper on ". A New Dry Collodion Process." Several individu- 
als have achieved much success in this last, but from some yet 
unexplained cause, the results they have obtained have not been 
reached by other operators. The whole of these papers have 
excited great interest, and as the Society now consists princi- 
pally of practical photographers, much benefit may be expected 
from the operation of tlie hints therein contained. 

Number two of the Society's Illnstrations has also been pub- 
lished during the past year. The Committee have to thank the 
member who undertook the printing, for his voluntary services. 
The Committee tor the ensuing year will have to take the sub- 
ject into their early consideration, as the matter of printing is 
one which occupies much time and attention. 

During the past year, the Society, instead of holding what 
might reasonably have been expected to have proved a profit- 
able exhibition of their own, acceded to the wishes of the Di- 
rectors of the ]\Iechanic's Institution, and arranged, to combine 



their exhihitiou with that of the Institution. Their principal 
reason for so doing was to benefit the Institution, by giving 
them a novel and attractive addition, and also to obtain a more 
public and general exposure of the works admitted, than a spe- 
cial exhibition might have obtained; in these respects, success 
was obtained, but at a cost to the Society of £55 13s. 4d., as 
the Directors of the Mechanic's Institution only partially con- 
tributed to the expenses; and in the matter of catalogue, which 
had also nearly proved a loss in the Society, the Institution 
left it entirely to your Committee, who are admitted to have 
produced the best photographic catalogue that has yet ap- 
peared. With these exceptions, it was in itself, eminently suc- 
cessful; as even in point of numbers, had many of the pictures 
in frames been accounted for individually, instead of collective- 
ly, it would far have outnumbered any exhibition that has as 
yet taken place. Your Committee would hope that something 
may yet be done towards reimbursing some portion of the loss 
to the Society. 

As regards the general progress of the art to which the So- 
ciety is devoted, that is pretty well known to members general- 
ly. Photo-lithography and Photo-galvanography have per- 
haps the claims to attention — numerous new applications have 
been made — numerous new formulae have been propounded — 
among these, dry processes stand pre-eminent, and it is to be 
hoped that whatever processes members may have in hand, 
that they Avill frankly and freely contribute, according to the 
means and measure of their success, to the common fund of in- 
formation. It may be suggested to the Committee for the ensu- 
ing year, as an eligible field for employment, to adopt some me- 
thod of ascertaining the comparative merits of the different 
modes of manipulation in use, vvith a view to the obtaining cer- 
tainty in their results. 

It might have been expected that photography would have 
received a great stimulus from the Great Exhibition of the year, 
that of Art Treasures at old Trafford, it is but too painfully 
evident that such is not the result of the sanguine hopes enter- 
tained; the offers of assistance by this Society were not regard- 
ed — the contributions of members were neglected, pictures 
have been admitted vrhich would not have passed the scrutiny 
of your Committee; and it would appear from the various 
critiques which have appeared in the journals specially devoted 
to the heliographic art, that a tolerably universal opinion ob- 
tains that this part of the scheme hus been almost a failure. 
The Committee, upon mature consideration, find that concur- 
rence in the views as generally entertained is the only course 
open to them. 

Your Committee, in conclusion, hope that each member will 
not fail to evince a lively interest in the Society, either by sug- 
gestions to their successors, or by contributions of pictures to 
the Society's portfolio, or the communication of facts, either of 
novelty or usefulness, which may come under their notice. 

The CHAimrAN said that it must strike those present as a 
most satisfactory thing, and au evidence of the extraordinary 
vigor and healthiness of the Society, that, notwithstanding the^ 
heavy and unexpected drain U])OU their funds, resulting from 
their exhibition in connection with the Mechanics' Institntion, 
they were enabled to close the year's operations with so small a 
deficit. The item of expense to which he referrred was altoge- 
ther an exceptional one, and they might fairly consider that they 
were in a most gratifying positioii. 

In answer to Mr. W. Fairbairn, who wished to know how 
their loss at the Mechanics' Institution Exhibition was occa- 
sioned, it was explained by the Secretary and others, that there 
had been an understanding that the Mechanics' Institution 
should bear the whole expense of the photographic exhibition, 
whereas the Insinuation only defrayed part thereof. 

Mr. JosKPH SiDEBOTnAJi added that the Society had cause to 
think that they had not been very well used in the matter, and 
a similar opinion was expressed by Mr. Fairbairn. 

The Chairman said that the Mechanics' Institution, like the 
Art Treasures Exhibition, did not appear to have been suffi- 
ciently alive to the importance of photography as a process of 
art. The Society were in the position of men inaugurating a 



1858. 



THE THOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



2t 



new order of thiiiQ;s. and bad to encounter an immense amount 
of prejudice in artistic circles. He was glad to see, however, 
that tliis prejudice was gradually wearing away. 

Mr. Fairbairn said be supposed he must conclude, from what 
had been stated by the chairman, that the Society's contribu- 
tions to the Art Treasures Exhibition had not been properly 
appreciated. 

The Secretary replied that the whole of the pictures for- 
warded to London by himself were returned, apparently un- 
opened, by Mr. Delamotte, the authorized head of the photo- 
graphic department iu the Old Trafford Exhibition. 

Ou the motion of Mr. Dorrington, seconded by Mr. Faie- 
BAiRN, the report was unanimously received. 

The following were appointed as officers for the ensuing 
year: — 

President: — The Lord Bishop of Manchester. 

Vice Fresidents: — W. Fairbairn, Esq., F.R.S., J. P. Joule, 
L.L.D., F.R.S., H. E. Roscoe, Esq., B.A., W. C. Williamson, 
F.R.S., Joseph Sidebotham, Esq., Rev. W.J. Read, F.R.A.S. 

council: 

The President. The Yice-Presidenfs: — Messrs. Alfred Bar- 
ton, J. Compton, Jun., J. Dale, J. B. Dancer, F.R.A.S., J. 
Dorrington, Gr. Higgins, J. W.Long, F.R.A.S., G. T. Lund, 
Rev. T. W. Morris, E. Mann, W. T. Mabley, James Mudd, 
Arthur Neild, T. H. Nevill, John Parry, J. J. Pyne. 

Treasurer: — Mr. Edwyn Offer. 

Honorary Secretary: — Mr. Samuel Cottam. 

The thanks of the meeting were then voted to the officers for 
the past year for their services. 

Mr. SiDEBOTHAii exhibited four very beautiful prints from ne- 
gatives, taken from etchings by Mr. Nasmyth, which they very 
closely resembled iu every respect. He also exhibited some 
specimens of his backed collodion process. 

Mr. Higgins, asked if any one knew an antidote to the ef- 
fects of cyanide, some of which got into a cut in his hand a few 
weeks ago, and he had been suffering from it ever since. 

The Chaikman said that a concentrated solution of iodide of 
potassium would remove the stains of nitrate of silver. 

A conversation then ensued upon the adaptation of photo- 
graphy to micx'oscopic illustrations. 

Mr. Parry said he had paid some attention to this branch 
of the art, and he found that the gas supplied by the town was 
not so good this year as last, for everything else being equal, 
his pictures were not so good now as they used to be. 

The Chairman asked why solar light could not be used. 

Mr. Parry said he had now waited for a fortnight in the 
hope of being able to take a microscopic picture by solar light, 
at noon, and he had not been able to take one. 

A discussion of a conversational character ensued as to the re- 
lative value of various photographic processes, &c., and, on the 
motion of Mr. Sidebotham, small committees were appointed 
to experiment on the baked collodion, collodio-albumen, oxy- 
mel, and gelatine processes, and to make reports, accompanied 
by specimens, to the Society, in order, by a comparison of re- 
sults, to arrive at some definite information of a useful nature. 

By the kindness of Messrs. Agnew, a number of Egyptian 
photographs, by Mr. Firth, were handed round. They com- 
prise scenes of the highest historic and topographic interest. 
The views were admirably chosen, both as to locality and ef- 
fect, and the stay-at-home traveller will derive much assistance 
from them. There is a large set, nineteen inches by fifteen 
inches; and a small set, consisting of one hundred, price three 
shillings each, size, nine inches by seven inches. The photo- 
graphs are particularly sharp and clear, figures are well intro- 
duced, and the tone is very agreeable. It is difficult to specify 
where all are so good, but we were highly pleased with the 
large pictures of the temple known as the "Memnoninm," 
" Thebes," " The Ruins of Karnac," " The Temple of Philoj" 
(Pharaoh's Bed), and the Statues of Memnon. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman terminated the proceed- 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal, 

DIRECT POSITIVES ON COLLODION. 

BY T. hardwich, Esq. 



As we intend shortly to treat on the positive process on 
glass, we wish our readers to peruse beforehand, the fundamen- 
tal papers on this subject, by Mr. Hardwich. The following 
was read before the London Photographic Society, in 1854, at 
which time we gave a brief notice of it; but, the circumstance 
above-named, induces us now to publish it i?i extenso. 

I. — Condition of the film most favorable for the production of 
pictures to he viewed hy reflected light. 

" My own attention was first directed to the positive process, 
quite, as I may say, accidentally; it was at a time when I was 
comparatively ignorant of the effects which would be produced 
by varying the proportions of the ingredients in the sensitive 
collodion, and having adopted Archer's method of iodizing, 
viz.: by adding a certain quantity of a saturated alcoholic so- 
lution of double iodides of potassium and silver, I failed, from 
the alcohol I employed being in too concentrated a state. I 
had previously rectified it from carbonate of potash, and its sol- 
vent power being thus diminished, the amount of iodides taken 
up was not sufScient for the purpose; when I say ' I failed,' I 
mean it in the sense that I was not able to obtain good negative 
pictures, which was the object I had then in view; they were 
all sadly wanting in ' intensity,' and I found it impossible to 
'print' from them with anything like success. However, I soon 
began to notice that these pale, unsatisfactory negative pictures 
looked exceeedingly well when viewed as positives by reflected 
light; there was a nice gradation of tone about them which 
pleased me, and I adopted the plan of backing up with black 
varnish, and preserving them in that form. 

" Now at this time, as I said before, I was not aware that I 
was employing a collodion with an unusually small proportion 
of iodide; but if I had been, I should not have referred my 
success in producing positives to that cause. I had never seen 
it stated iu any work with which I was acquainted, that a dif- 
ference ought to be made in the two cases. The directions I 
had received were these: ' If you wish to obtain a positive, ex- 
pose in the camera for half the usual time, and develop with 
sulphate of iron, to get a bright deposit of metallic silver.' 
Now the object I have in view, in layiLg my paper before the 
Society this evening, is to prove that such directions as these 
are altogether insufficient, and that, if we wish to obtain the 
best results, we must use, not only a different developing fluid, 
but also a different collodion and a different nitrate bath, in the 
case of negative and positive pictures respectively. It may be 
asked, ' What is the inferiority of which you complain in the 
positives produced by collodion, as it is ordinarily sold?' I an- 
swer, it is this: 'That the vvhole of the picture is not to be seen 
at once upon the surface of the glass.' Suppose you are taking 
a portrait, which I think will readily be allowed to be one of 
the most severe tests of a collodion that can easily be applied, 
it will be found that the high lights, such as the forehead, the 
hand, and especially the shirt of the sitter, come out with ex- 
ceeding rapidity, and in a degree out of all proportion to the 
time taken by the shadows and half tints to impress themselves: 
the consequence of this is, that stop the action of the light when 
you will, you do not obtain a perfect picture; after backing up 
with the black varnish it will be seen either that these high 
lights above alluded to, are good, and the rest of the figure 
almost invisible; or, on the other hand, that the coat, dress, 
&c., are very clear, whilst the face and hands present an un- 
varied white and flat surface without any detail or distiuction of 
parts. These peculiarities, as I said before, do not depend 
upon the time of exposure, nor, I may add, in any way ou the 
developing fluid, but simply on the fact that the collodion em- 
ployed, is not capable of giving such a film of iodide of silver 
as is adapted to produce impressions visible by reflected 

°" Having thus stated the principal difficulties which we have, 



- ( 



28 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Jannafy, 



ordinnrily speaking, to encounter, I proceed to sbow how they 
may be overcome, and wliat is tlie best sensitive uiixturc for 
that purpose. lu making my experiments, I first prepared 
simple collodion by dissolving soluble coitou, four grains, in five 
drachms of icther and three of highly rectified alcohol; tlicse 
are the proportions reconuuended by Mr. Hadow, and I be- 
lieve tliera to be the best that can be used; they do not, how- 
ever, of coarse apply to commercial a;ther, which already con- 
tains H considerable quantity of alcohol. In order to iodize 
my collodion, I employed iodide of ammonium (purified with 
carej in four different proportions, viz., four grains to the ounce, 
two grains, one and a half grain, and one grain. 

"The films produced by these four mixtures, after dipping 
the plate in the nitrate bath, were very different in appearance; 
the lowest of all was pale, of a bluish opalescent tint, so trans- 
rent that the letters of a newspaper could be read through it 
with facility; the second somewhat similar; the third of a grey- 
ish hue, but still comparatively transparent; the highestof all, 
viz. the four-grain, creamy and opaque, 

" The photographic properties of the films differed considera- 
bly; after comparing numerous results, I was satisfied that the 
two-graiu solution v/as superior to the four-grain for the pur- 
pose I intended it; more of the details of the picture were visi- 
ble at once on the surface of the glass, and there was less ten- 
dency to the overdone, flat appciirance before complained 
of. Between the ' two-grain' collodion, the ' grain and a-half,' 
and ' the grain,' there was likewise a ditference, but not to the 
same extent; on the whole, I was disposed to give the prefer- 
ence to the ' grain and a-half,' the last of all requiring too long 
an immersion in the bath to be used with advantage. 

" It was not my intention at the time I began these experi- 
ments to make any variation in the amount of soluble cotton 
generally used; 1 found that four grains to the ounce gave a 
strong and eveu film upon the glass, and such being the case, 
there appeared nothing more to be desired; however, a fact 
that came under my notice soon afterwards altered by deter- 
mination; I began to suspect that the weak solutions of nitrate 
of silver I was employing did not penetrate the film properly, 
and consequently I wished, if possible, to remove this objection 
by diminishing its thickness. The result of the change proved 
eveu better than I had anticipated, although the solutions 
■were rather more troublesome to manipulate with; I obtained 
invariably more perfect pictures; the gradation of tints was 
now decidedly superior to anything I had met with before, and, 
although I could not immediately explain the reason, I was sat- 
isfied that I had gained an advantage. 

" The composition, then, of the collodion, which I found after 
many trials to work the best, is as follows : — .^ther, five 
drachms; alcohol, three drachms; soluble cotton, one and a-half 
grain; iodide of ammonium, one and a-half grain; instead of 
this, two grains of each may be used, or even so little as one 
grain, without very materially affecting the result; but in the 
latter case the mixture is so fluid that it is apt to run down the 
neck of the bottle whilst we are attempting to pour it on the 
plate. These proportions become very simple when it is con- 
sidered that they are at once produced by diluting down an or- 
dinary negative collodion rather more than oue half, with the 
proper mixture of alcohol and ffither. 

" There is one point relating to this subject which I ought 
not to omit to mention; it is this, that by diminishing the pro- 
portion of iodide in the film, and also by diminishing the solu- 
ble cotton, you increase the sensitiveness. Why is it that these 
weak films give better half tones than the opaque ones ? Be- 
cause they are more sensitive to /ce6/e ray/s of light! I made 
many experiments to determine this, and I have no hesitation 
instating that such is the fact. Neither is it difficult to con- 
ceive why it should be so, because, as it has been remarked, the 
more dilute the solutions from which iodide or chloride of silver 
13 precipitated the more gradual the precipitation, and the 
mqreliuely divided will the particlesof the precipitate be; hence 
we can well understand that such being the case, they ought to 
be more sensitive to light: however, we must not confound ' sen 
sitivcucss' with ' iuteusity.' I would use this latter term to sig 



nify that the deposit of metallic silver producing the imnge ia 
thick, and obstructs the luminous rays of light strongly, so fiiS 
to show well as a negative; 'intensity,' I imagine, relates in 
some degree to the nwmher of the particles of iodide of silver; 
in other words, to the thickness of the film; but ' sensitiveness' 
is independent of this. Now ' intensity' is required for negative 
pictures, but it is not required for positives, and therefore in 
such a case I would have as little iodide as possible. 

"vVt the risk of repetition, I will give a short recapitulation 
of the conclusions which I wish to establish. They are these: — 
That no proportion of alkaline iodide in collodion beyond that 
which gives the transparent opalescent film, is adapted to pro- 
duce a perfect image, visible in every part by reflected light. 
Allowing that a photographic picture is produced by chemical 
rays of light acting in various degrees on the several parts of a 
sensitive surface, it becomes necessary that the particles of io- 
dide composing that surface should be in a peculiar state both 
as to number and as to fineness of division .^ in order that the 
more intense and the feebler rays should work uniformly to- 
gether, the tendency being in the former, so to speak, to get 
ahead and outrun the latter. The author of the paper supposes 
further, that a diminution in the proportion of iodide assists the 
action of the feeble rays by producing a more finely divided de- 
posit, and curbs the violence of the more energetic rays by less- 
ening the number of the particles, 

II. — Nitrate Bath and Developing Fluid. 

"I have spoken of the condition of the film of iodide of silver 
which appeared most favorable to the production of collodion 
positives; I now proceed, with a view to the completion of the 
subject, to consider the proper strength of the nitrate bath and 
the developing fluid. 

" With regard to the former, that is the nitrate bath, there 
were two points of interest to be ascertained, — 1st, whether the 
salt of silver could be used in an accurately neutral condition, 
and if so, what v,rere the best proportions: 2nd, the effects of 
adding nitric acid in graduated quantities. 

"Three solutions of nitrate of silver ^Yere prepared, of differ- 
ent strengths: A, forty grains to one ounce of distilled water; 
B, thirty grains; C, twenty grains; all were carefully neutral- 
ized, and saturated with iodide of silver. 

"On immersing a plate coated with a fo^ir grain iodide col- 
lodion in each of these, it was found that with bath No. C, the 
decomposition of the alkaline salt was imperfect. However, 
with the proportion of iodide reduced from four grains to two 
grains, or one and a-half grain, the appearance af the film was 
the same in each bath, showing that even the lowest propor- 
tion of nitrate of silver was sufficient for the conversion of tho 
whole of the iodide of ammonium into iodide of silver." 

To be continued. 



From the Jov/r. of the Phot. So*. 

RETICULATED COLLODION. 

To ike Editor of Ike Pkotograpkic Journal : 

Sir, — I have purchased at various times this season, and from 
several of the well-kuown makers, who have a<rents in Edin- 
burgh, many bottles of collodion, a number of which produced 
reticulated pictures; and as reticulation has been so common 
this summer, I would remind your readers, that an antidote can 
be found for it in any village. I say, remind your readers, be- 
cause Mr. Shadbolt remarks, that chloroform is a capital in- 
gredient for rendering the collodion film " perfectly structure- 
less" fsce vol. i. p. 149) ; so, bearing this in mind, I have invari- 
ably found, that by introducing 20 or 30 minims of chloroform 
to each ounce of the reticulating collodion all the twil disap- 
pears; and further, after using the collodion several days, the 
rcticulatian returns, owing to the evaporation of the chloroform, 
for on adding a few more drops of it all will be right. 

In your July Nnmbei', Mr. Haviland proposes, with success, 
a modification of the developer; citric acid, however, cannot 
be had at every druggist's shop, but chloroform can. 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



29 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

PRESERVED COLLODION PLATES. 

Oct. iO, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Liverpool Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — I believe it Is a general idea among photographers 
that the sensitiveness of a washed collodion plate to receive an 
invisible impression, is in direct propoi tion to the strength of 
free nitrate of silver on the surface, and with this idea a very 
ingenious formula is given in the ' Journal,' vol. iii. page 13. 
In my own practice with preserved collodion plates, 1 have not 
found the sensitiveness in this proportion, and as it is an im- 
portant point in all keeping processes. I will state certain re- 
sults of my own experiences. 

Prepare a collodion plate and sensitize it in a 30-grain nitrate 
bath; wash it with plenty of distilled water, as much as you 
please: expose it, while wet, in the camera for about four times 
as long as it is necessary for an ordinary -unwashed plate; dip it 
in the 30-grain nitrate bath and develope as usual: the picture 
will probably be perfect. Now in this case, the quantity of 
nitrate on the plate during exposure was infinitesimally small, 
and yet only four times the ordinary exposure turns out to be 
sufficient. 

Again: — Li a keeping process I followed in hot weather 
and in a warm climate, my preservative liquid contained 5 
grs. per oz. of nitrate of silver: the plates thus prepared kept 
for a week at least, and the requisite exposure was about one- 
third more than for the same collodion used in the ordinary wet 
way. I endeavored to increase the quantity of nitrate in the 
preservative liquid, and tried it with 10 grs. of silver per oz; 
with this the plates did not keep long enough for my purpose, 
and I gave it up, but it appeared (with this 10-graiu strength) 
quite as sensitive as ordinary wet collodion. 

My plates were in all cases dipped in the 30-grain silver bath 
before developing: the collodion was but a few days old, and 
comparatively slow, for a highly sensitive collodion did not suc- 
ceed well there with intense sunshine, dazzling white walls, 
and black shadows. 

The general tendency of preservative methods aS d,t present 
practised is to wash off the nitrate of silver as much as possible, 
but as regards sensitveness, I think this is working in a wrong 
direction: it is <?enerally admitted that wet collodion gives the 
most artistic effect, and my object has always been to come as 
near it as possible by keeping as much nitrate as I could on the 
plates con.sistently with safe preservation. Messrs, Spiller and 
Crookes, good authorities, state that 1 gr. per oz. was as sensi- 
tive as the ordinary wet process (Photographic Journal, vol. ii. 
papes 5 and Tj, but I did not find this the case with my own 
plates. 

My opinion as at present formed is, that in a washed plate 
the sensitiveness increases according io the strength of the free 
nitrate on it, up to a certain point, and that when this point is 
reached, it is as sensitive to receive the dormant impression as 
the ordinary unwashed plate; from ray present imperfect data, 
I fancy this certain strength lies between 5 and 10 grs, per oz., 
the first or sensitizing bath being 30 grs. per oz. 

If some of your readers who have opportunity would deter- 
mine the practical exi)osure required for various strengths, say 
1, 2J, b, 7|, 10 and 15 grs. per oz. of nitrate compared with 
the ordinary 30 grs. per oz on the plate, it would form a really 
useful starting-point for all concerned in the use of preserved 
plates whether wet or dry, and would probably go far to clear 
up the discrepancies in the statements of different operators. 
My idea of proceeding would be thus: — sensitize a plate in the 
30- gr. bath, wash it well with distilled water, drain, and dip it 
in the weaker nitrate bath for a minute, expose it immediately 
in the camera to get a perfect picture, dip it in the 80-grain 
bath for a minute, drain and develope. This should be done 
with the various weaker baths, and the requisite exposure 
noted and compared with the exposure required for the unwashed 
plate. In this way no preservative process would be required. 

Of all preservative methods I prefer those which will allow 
of the plates being dipped in the nitrate bath (without injuring 

4* 



itj after exposure, and developing in the usual way with ])yro- 
gallic; when this is not allowable, the development must be by 
pyrogallic and silver mixed before pouring on the plate: in all 
such cases I have found much difficulty in getting intensity, and 
the plates thus treated were never, with me, equal to the others 
in cleanliness and transparency. 

One plate I remember thus ti'cated required six minutes to 
bring it well out, and the prolonged development produced a 
grey veil all over, which ought not to be the case, although the 
picture prints fairly, but slow; besides this, if the collodion is at 
all tender from age, the slow development is very liable to pull 
it to pieces. 



THE COLOROCILOTYPE. 



FriExd Sxelling: — My attention has been i-ecently directed 
to a new improvement in the mode ol treating photographs, by 
Mr. Hall, the patentee of the Hallotype; and I find it vastly 
superior to his former process, both in the preservation of thd 
whites, and in the illusory effect, which was considered a feature 
in the Hallotypes, particularly worthy of mention. 

You Vi'ill no doubt remember that I first introduced a similar 
style of back colored picture to the public, at 505 Broadway, 
some three or four years ago, which you were kind enough to 
notice in the June No. of the 'I th volume of your Journal. 

Now, I have, since there has been so much said, and written, 
and quarrelled about, in regard to this mode of treating pic- 
tures, concluded to give the subject some attention: and have 
by numerous trials, in connection with my former experience in 
this direction, very much simplified the manipulations, and suc- 
cessfully produced a style of picture, which is pronounced by all 
who have seen them, to be the best yet out. 

The pictures are made on a single glass, and the photograph 
rendered transparent in anew way — at once simple and effective. 
The air is all expelled, and the pores of the paper completely 
■filled with a medium, that gives perfect transmission to the 
light; which is necessary to the process. There is no tendency 
to crystallize, or to be become opaque, or to turn hroimi. The 
coloring which requires no previous practice, is quickly done, 
and is the nearest approach to nature of anything that has been 
before the public, in the way of colored photographs, since their 
introduction to this country. 

I would here state that I abandoned my former process, for 
the reason that I was not sure of the photographic impressions 
standing the test of time; as I found that some of them were 
fading out and leaving the colors alone on the plate. 

I have since, with many others, been striving to obtain 
"fadeless proofs," and have found that all those toned with 
lead, as recommended in your Journal, bid fair to be lasting. 
I have kept from my first experiments until now, samples of all 
the different modes of treatment given in the books, besides 
variations of my own, and find none so satisfactory as those 
done in the manner you name in your formulas. 

I think that we may safely predict, that in future (with of 
course, strict attention to the condition of our fixing and toning 
baths), our minds will rest relieved from that horrid want of 
confidence, in the behavior of the photographs we send out. 

This belief induces me to give the preference to that style of 
coloring that does not interfere with the lines of the camera im- 
pressions, as all pictures touched on the front with color are 
more or less changed, not to say injured in the likeness; but 
that depends on the minds appreciation. I prefer, however, 
and I presume as much for you, that the photographic impres- 
sion be left intact, and the pictures I send, you will acknow- 
ledf2;e, do this in the highest degree. 

With many thanks for your kind appreciation of my former 
efforts, 

I remain yours, &c., 

J. De Witt Bbinckerhoff, 

N,B. — I shall be happy to exhibit to any member of the 
fraternity, specimens of the above-mentioned style of pictures, 



(wbicli I have named the Colorcalottpe, in honor to Mr. 
Fox Talbot, who first gave the name Calotype to pictures on 
paper), at the gallery of M. M. Lawrence, 381 Broadway, and 
also any communication in relation to them, will be promptly 
answered. 



From the Jour, of thr. Phot. Soc. 

APPARATUS FOB WASHING POSITIVES. 

Leeds 10, September, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal : 

Sir, — I beg to send you a stereoscopic view and diagrams of 
a bath which I employ for washing paper proofs. It consists 
of a narrow box of white deal, 13 inches long by 3| wide, and 
12 inches in depth (all inside measurements;, divided vertically 
by two transverse partitions, a, o,j), q, into three compartments 
or chambers A, B, C. The first chamber A occupies 2 inches 
of the length of the box, B 9| inches, and Ci inch. The par- 
tition a extends from the top to the bottom of the box, but 
at the distance of 1 inch from the top there are small openings 
in it to allow the water to flow from A into B. The partition 
p q extends from the top to within i an inch of the bottom. 



■I- 



FIG. 



c fl/ 



^/^ 



11 

A 






\ X 

\ 






^ 



\> 



? 



sustaining any injury; and at half that rate, the whole of the 
water in the bath would be changed once in every ten minutes. 

FIG. 2 



0» 



W 



-7W\ 



Transverse section of clipper to which the proofs are pinned. This is 
lowered into the chamber B, and prevented from floating; up by a cross- 
bar of gutta percha, not shown in the Diagrams, hhhh. Flanges to which 
the proofs are fastened, ik Im Two proofs in position. 

•> My bath will wash at one time two proofs 10X8, or four 
proofs GiX4|, or six stereoscopic proofs; and by increasing the 
height and length, or doubling the width, its capabilities might 
be sufficiently extended to meet the requirements of most ama- 
teurs. A wooden cover protects the top from dust and dirt^ 
that it may be safely placed under the kitchen tap without risk 
to the proofs. I have placed gutta-percha hatches at a and e 
to regulate the supply and discharge, but these may well be 
dispensed with. If the opening at a is made 2 inches wide and 
and I or /^ high, and placed | of an inch from the top of the 
bath, there will be no danger of the proofs being exposed to 
too strong a stream; if the water is turned on too strong the 
superfluous portion will flow over the other sides of the chamber 
A, which should be made |th lower than the partition a o. The 
spout e should be placed an inch below the top. If the hatches 
are dispensed with, any carpenter can make the bath at a trifling 
cost. 

W. Best. 



From the Boston Transcript. 

THE LATE MRS. DASSEL. 



Longitudinal s?ctian of bath. — A. First chamber, into which the water 
flows from the tap. a b. Gutta percha hatches to regulate its flow into 
the second chamber B, in which the proofs are placed, c. Division to 
break the force of the stream. C. Third chamber through which the 
water rises to the dscharge- spout e. /".Handles, ajr. Feet. The arrows 
show the course of the water. 

The water is admitted from the tap into A, from which it 
flows into B, entering at the top, and as the only outlet from 
B into C is at the bottom at the opposite end, the water neces- 
sarily descends through B in the direction shown by the arrows. 
It then passes into C at q, ascends, and is discharged through 
a spout e I an inch below the top of the box. 

The proofs are pinned to a dipper, 12 inches high by 9| long, 
the construction of which will be best understood from the trans- 
verse section Fig. 2. It will be seen that the ends are connected 
together by a thin board, and that when the proofs are pinned 
to the flanges there is a clear space behind them as well as in 
front. The bath having been filled with water, the dipper iR 
gently lowered into the chamber B, and secured from floating 
up by a transverse bar of gutta percha. The middle portion of 
each end of the dipper is cut away at both extremities, in order 
that the flow of the water at a and q may not be impeded; so 
that the stream entering at a flows immediately over the 
upper edges of the proofs, and is divided into four currents, 
one at the back, and the other at the front, of each of the pic- 
tures — they are, in short, placed in an inverted siphon. 

The great advantage of this bath is, that the proofs cannot 
get huddled together, and the water is constantly changed on 
both sides of them. There is no danger of their being torn 
from the pins, if they are carefully fastened to the dipper and 
not put into the bath before it is filled. Causon's thin negative 
paper may be washed for many hours, when the water is running 
through the bath at the rate of half a gallon a minute, without 



About ten years ago. Hermine Boechard, a Prussian artist, 
arrived in this country. Happening to visit the Bavarian 
Consul in Philadelphia, to see a statue by Steinhausen, we were 
struck by the portrait of an Italian peasant woman on the wall 
of the Consul's salon. Observing the interest excited by a pic- 
ture which awakened some of the most delightful association of 
foreign travel, the Consul informed us that the work came from 
the pencil of a young lady of Koningsberg, who, from a natural 
love of art, left home to study at Dusseldovf and Rome, and 
after several years passed in the ateliers of the best masters in 
those cities, had recently come to the United States to set up 
her easel in New- York. The Consul expatiated upon the tal- 
ents, worth, and isolated position of h\s protege, whom we found, 
on returning to Gotham, occupying two rooms in the third story 
of a private house, surrounded with Italian sketches, heads of 
famous models, studies from the old masters, porfolios and pa- 
lettes. She was of German mould, — short and thick-set, — 
but her olive complexion, expressive dark eyes and sweet smile, 
breathed of the sunny South. 

At this time she spoke but little English, and that with a 
naive pronunciation singularly pleasing. Her simple manner, 
kindly disposition, modesty and ardent love of Art, combined 
with her solitary position, instantly excited an interest in her 
behalf. Accordingly she gained friends rapidly, and had as 
many orders as she could fulfil. The Art Union bought some 
of her pictures; the National Academy elected her an honorary 
member; some of our best families sent their daughter to her 
as pupils; she was often seen at the soirees of Mrs. Botta and 
Dr. Rosinson's accomplished lady. She executed many por- 
traits in pastel, and numerous fancy heads and groups in oil. 
years ago she married a countrymen, Mr. D.isssel; and her 
brother, an able Lutheran divine, is settled over a large Ger- 
man congregation at Dayton, Ohio. Mrs. Dassel's charities, 
domestic virtues and devotion to art, had thus gradually ac- 
quired for her the esteem and sympathy of many of our most res- 
pected citizens. She was early and late at hei easel, walking 



1858. 



THE rHOTOGRAPHIC A'SB FINE ART JOURNAL. 



21 



oat daily with her children, and usually passed the Summers at 
Newport, R. I., where she had many friends and plenty of 
portraits to execute. Great, therefore, was the sorrow of a 
large circle of Germans and of our own citizens, at the unex- 
pectected announcement of the Death of Hermine Dassel, last 
week, after a brief illuess. She made but one dying request, 
and that was to be buried in Greenwood. Her last works were 
two celebrated aud admirable copies of the •' Othello" and the 
" Fairees" of the Dusseldorf Gallery. She leaves a husband 
and three children. Agreeable in conversation, an enthusiast 
in art, frugal, industrious and affectionate, she was worthy of 
the love she inspired and the grief with which she is lamented. 



JJcraonal ^ ^xt Intelligence. 

— With the New Year we begin a new volume (the XI) of 
the Photographic and Fixe Art Journal, and we may say a 
new existence. For the fifteen or sixteen years last past, we 
have labored assiduously in the cause of photography; and 
more or less in every department. It is not our intention to go 
back and enumerate the variety and nature of our past experience ; 
but we wish to foreshadow the benefits which are likely to arise 
from the change we have lately made. A slight inkling of 
what may be expected, is presented in the improvements in our 
present num.ber. The photographs with which we illustrate it, 
are decidedly the best we have given since we commenced the 
publication. As specimens of plain photography, they will vie 
with nine-tenths of those produced at the present day: but 
they are not equal to those we shall produce, when we complete 
the printing rooms we have in contemplation, and which, with the 
assistance of our landlord, we shall finish as soon as possible after 
the first of May. This we shall endeavor to make a model 
photographic printery, where pictures from the smallest to the 
very largest, may be printed with the greatest facility and in 
the most perfect manner. We intend this not only for the bene- 
fit of the Journal, but for photographers throughout the coun- 
try, who may desire a large number of photographs printed, or 
their small ones enlarged. We have very great assurance that 
the method we have pursued at the present time, and shall pursue 
in printing our pictures, will ensure permanence. In a future 
number — probably the February — we shall give our views on 
this most important subject, of the fading of positives. We 
contend that there is no more reason for the fading of positive 
photographs than for water colors, or oil paintings. Time will 
destroy ail things; even oil paintings decay and photographs 
can be made to last as long as they — till the material upon 
which they are made crumbles into dust by the action of time. 
In our present number we have a portion of a controversy be- 
tween Mr. Sutton and Mr. Mullins of Jersey, upon the perma- 
nence of Mr. Blanquart-Evrard's photographs. It also ap- 
pears that the English mind is thoroughly inabued with the idea 
of the perishability of these beautiful pictures, and the nonsense 
many of them write on the subject has produced an effect upon 
the public mind, that will require a large amount of common 
sense and fact to eradicate. We have had hanging upon the 
walls of our parlor for nine years, sixteen photographs by Mr. 
Blanquart-Evrard, which are as fresh, strong in color, and as 
beautiful as they were the first day they were put up, notwith- 
standing they have been exposed to variable temperature, all 
kinds of weather, and different degrees of intensity of light. 
The tone is deep black, perfectly transparent in both light and 
shade, and they are as beautiful in every respeet as anything 
now produced. They show conclusively that in this respect, 
photography has not actually advanced a single step forward: 
but on the contrary — if we are to believe the English writers — 
retrograded. We have four other photographs, taken by M. 
Renard, and hung at the same time, which are fading. These 
are in the color so much desired by the French and English 
Photographers — a light brown, or sienna tint; and we assert 
that all photographs toned to that color must speedily fade. 
Bat we anticipate — we have much to say on this subject which 



will require more time than we have at present at command, 
and therefore cannot do it sufficient justice. It must therefore 
be deferred to a separate article. 

— Many of our subscribers have written complaining that 
we give them nothing on the Ambrotype TpTOcess. This proves 
that they either do not examine the pages of our Journal with 
proper care, or that they are ignorant of the fact that the 
terms Ambrotype and Collodion Foailive Pictures] Positive Col- 
lodion Pictures, and Positives on Glass are identical. Of these 
there have been numerous articles published in our pages. 

— It was our intention to have something to say about 
American Photographic Patents in the present number; but it 
is a subject that requires more time and attention, than we have 
had at our disposal since we made the promise. Matters are, 
however, becoming more settled, and we are in hopes that 
one or two months more will enable us to attend to this and 
other kindred matters, which are of importance to the art. 
Each issue of our Journal shall improve in originality as well 
as in photographic and typographical beauty. We have the 
pleasure of stating, that we have secured the services of a gen- 
tleman to furnish the Journal with sketches of American 
scenery, which will be illustrated in the best style of wood en- 
graving. These articles will add largely to the interest of the 
work, and place it still higher in the rank of American periodi- 
cal literature. Our patrons may depend upon it, that we shall 
stretch every nerve to carry out the design we have constantly 
entertained since we commenced the Journal; namely, making 
it the most beautiful monthly publication in the United States. 
It will be seen, that in order to accomplish this end, we relin- 
quished a position in one of the first establishments in New 
York, and that, consequently, we shall not be prevented by a 
sense of duty to another, to neglect the columns of the Journal. 
What we have produced, with a very small fraction of time 
from each month at our disposal, must be our guarantee of 
what we may accomplisn now that our time is wholly our own. 
By this change on our part, and the future regular appearance 
of our Journal, we trust the unfounded and false assertions of 
those who have for the last seven or eight years, endeavored, by 
such means to destroy us — but who have signally failed — will 
be entirely dissipated. As further evidence of the falsehoods 
of all such infantile attempts at our destruction, we invite the 
members of our beautiful art to call upon us when they visit 
New York. They will not " find the door shut and the latch- 
string pulled in," no matter what may be the object of their 
visit. 

— J. C. Gray, Jamestown, N. Y. — This gentleman has sent 
us a specimen of his skill in photography. Considering that 
it is the first production of a student without a master, it is 
praise-worthy. He is right in regard to the negative being too 
weak. The modulation of shade, however, are very fine; but 
he should bring up the high lights, and deeper shadows stronger 
in order to give still greater character and more marked con- 
trast to the features. It is also toned too long, having passed 
the purple stage — in the bath — a sure indication of future fading. 
The foreshortening is remarkably good, and the proportions 
well preserved. A re-development would have impiov d the 
negative materially, and made it almost perfect. We sliould 
also say, that notwithstanding the over toning, it is very clear 
and transparent. Mr. Gray has also sent us another speci- 
men — a keg of Jamestown butter, thereby feeding both mind 
and body. The picture, as a photograph, is good, but the but- 
ter, as butter, is better. But we have not the slightest doubt 
that the quality of the butter foreshadows that of his future 
photograjjhs. In reply to our acknowledgements of the gift, 
Mr. Gray writes a letter so much on a par with the butter that 
we take the liberty of transcribing it to our columns. Every 
line is worth thought: — 

" You give me too much credit for generosity, in ascribing my 
gift to be entirely gratuitous. Y'ou have certainly done me 
more than one favor, and by your kind replies I am encouraged 
to ask more, providing I can do so without putting you to in- 
convenience or trespassing too much upon your time and know- 
ledge; and here permit me to say that it is my desire that you 



-^ 



32 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



January^ 



make a suitable charge for your time and trouble, or for any 
knowledge you may impart to me. (a) 

"In one other way I feel indebted to you; indeed you are con- 
tinually laying me and, in (act, all your subscribers, under obli- 
gations, and that too in your capacity as Journalist; each 
month you give us a rich treat, and to say nothing of the illus- 
trations (of which many of them are valuable), it very fre- 
quently comes laden with that that imparts to us a knowledge 
which is worth a whole year's cost. You give us for our Five 
Dollars not only all you promised, but you give us more, much 
more than we were led to expect. Therefore, are we not under 
obligations to you ? Ought we not to manifest in some manner 
our appreciation of your services? are not our interests identi- 
cal ? and what encouragement do you meet with for renewed 
exertion in our behalf? Surely the payment of your demands 
is not all-sufficient, if paid in that cold, unfeeling manner which 
apparently governs the commercial world. Sir, there is too 
much distance between us, the Editor and subscriber. What 
communion have we ? we may know your sentiments, but what 
knowledge have you of ours ? but little, if any; who is the 
most benefitted ? Your subscribers are. You gain a few dol- 
lars, but they gain a knowledge that money cannot purchase 
from them. What know you of the estimation in which we 
hold you, of the satisfaction your labors give us. The promptly 
payingone's dues may be sufficient testimony that they appreciate 
your efforts, and that tlmy are pleased therewith, but should our 
relations end here? Certainly not; there is yet too wide a 
gulph. Suppose, sir, your subscribers should not only pay 
promptly, but should convey to you their thanks and an ac- 
laiow.ledgement of the good you were doing, would not this be 
an incentive to further effort on your part ? Should we not be 
mutually benefitted ? undoubtedly neither of us would have 
cause for regret. That a more friendly and intimate relation 
may exist is my sincere wish. You have the welfare of many 
to care for; do care for them, and provide them a food that is 
beyond a price. What should we do in return, we being the 
most benefitted, and oftentimes receiving an amount of know- 
ledge that is of great pecuniary benefit — what if we were oc- 
casionally to make you a present, a present however trifling, 
pecuniarily considered, would it not show you that your labors 
were duly appreciated, and your readers were grateful and had 
a lively interest in your welfare; and in return you would do all 
in your power to further their interests in reciprocation of such 
friendly relations. But, friend Snelling, I am moralizing too 
much; however, you have my sentiments, and I hope all your 
subscribers entertained as liberal ones; undoubtedly a majority 
do. But I must return to the suliject I commenced writing 
upon, that is: I have commenced the making of Photographs, 
and I need the aid of a friend in procuring me chemicals that 
are ptre. I could fill several sheets with my disappointments 
and failures in procuring good articles, both of dealers and 
manufacturers, even when I mark my orders: "best quality or 
none," and " price no object," &c. Now, I believe that if a 
genuine and pure article can be obtained, you, Mr. Snelling, 
can get it; and also of Pyroxyliue. I do want an article that 
is perfect, and has all the good qualities that a Photographer 
could desire, and if you will purchase me the list of articles 
enumerated below, you will greatly oblige me, (6) and would 
also be pleased to have you reply to the following questions: 

1st. In washing Pyroxyliue is it objectionable to pour boiling 
water on the cotton ? 

2d. Is it detrimental to the Photograph to tone in the open 
room, moderately lighted 1 

3d. Do you consider the chloride of lead of any benefit in 
the toning bath ? 

4th. Would you recommend as being good and performing 
what it promises, " Prof. Smith's Collodion Preservative ?" 

5th. It requires from 3 to 5 seconds to make a positive; 
same light for a negative requires 30 to 40 seconds. I think it 
is too long. Can you tell me what to do to shorten it. I am 
working Afoulton's proccess (as published). I think there are 
some errors in it, and that it is too iudefinite to be called an in- 
structor. Yours, John C. Gray." 



{a) Our reward in all such cases, is to see the photographic! 
art prosper and improve in its practitioners; to see high-toned 
and well executed pictures made by every one. For whatever 
good we have done, or ever shall do in this way, we ask (nor 
would we receive any) no specialr emuneration. With the pros- 
perity of the art, we desire that of our Journal. This is our 
pride — we think a worthy one — and with this we will be sat- 
isfied. 

(6) The chemicals we sent are of the same kind we use our- 
selves, and we consider them the purest in market. Their 
quality is uniformly the same ; which cannot be said of the 
French. Our advice to all is, never to make a change in their 
chemicals, after obtaining a make that proves acceptable to 
them, as this alone has a tendency to disturb their success. 

(?lst.) Warm water is not objectionable. It is in fact re- 
commended, to suffer the j>yroxyline to soak in it for several 
hours, if time is no object. 

2nd. It is not. All our photographs are toned in the full 
light of day. We have toned them by lamp-light and all things 
being identical, we could perceive no difference. 

3d. We do. Of more benefit than is generally conceded 
to it. It softens the tone materially; but its most important 
property, we consider to be its permanence. A photograph 
toned to the purple tint (no matter how deep; but it must not 
pass the deep purple), we think will last and retain its full 
strength, as long as the paper will hold together. The Evrard 
pictures, of which we speak in our first paragraph of this edito- 
rial,- are made with the lead bath. The destructive action com- 
mences in the photograph the instant it passes from this purple 
tint. This we have found out to our cost, in endeavoring to 
obtain variations of color in our illustrations. We shall here- 
after enlarge on this subject. 

4th. We cannot reply to this question from personal expe- 
rience. We have seen one or two very good negatives that 
were taken on plates said to have been kept three weeks. We are 
having a camera box made specially for dry collodion plates, and 
if we are favored with a bottle, shall give this "Preservative" 
a trial, and our opinion afterwards. In the meantime, try Mr, 
Sidebotham's process (P. & F. A. Jour., page 314.) 

5th. ]\[r. Monckhoven professes to take negatives in from five 
to ten seconds with his collodion. (Formulas P. & F. A. Jour., 
page 149, vol.ix.) The most sensitive collodion we have used 
is Anthony's. We have not used Moulton's process; but have, 
read it, aud think we should have no difficulty in practising it. 

As soon after the first of May next as an addition can be put 
to the building in which our office is located, we shall open a 
photographic printing room and studio, not only for the pur- 
poses of our business, but for the benefit of our patrons. It 
will always be open to their inspection, and they will be in- 
structed in any of the processes they may desire to learn with- 
out charge. 

— Mr. Frank: Ford, Ravenna, Ohio — Has sent us an excel- 
lent positive view on albumen paper. The tone is decidedly the 
most pleasing we have seen taken upon this kind of paper, being 
a very clear delicate purple-black. Every portion of the pic- 
ture, to the minutest detail, is brought out perfectly sharp and 
clear — even the little dog sitting by the fence, looks as if he 
wanted to bark at you — the very grain of the wood is, in some 
parts of the fence, perceptible. Mr. Ford should try his skill 
upon larger plates. 

— C. A. Johnson, Madison, Wis. — We regret to see by the 
Madison papers that this gentleman has been again burned out, 
losing his entire stock of pictures, apparatus, and fixtures. 
His loss was $1600. Insurance, $1000. 

— We have seen the Colorocalotypes mentioned in Mr. 
BrinckerhofFs communication, and deem them very creditable 
attempts at coloring photographs by transparency. We might 
describe them as a medium between the Hallotype and Dia- 
phaneotype, and do not require so nmch skill in coloring to give 
them a pleasing effect. More practice will undoubtedly im- 
prove these first attempts. 

— Wexderotii's Instantaneous Printing Process. — We 
have published this process in book form. {See advertisement.) 



it ^ 



w 



w^ 





pa 







03 






a 

IS 



o 

C3 



I w 



o 

to 
■3 

a 
6 



1858, 



THE PHOTOGRAPniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



33 



LIVERPOOL 



From the Liverpool rhotojraphic Journal. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 




HE montlily meetinnj of 
this Society was held 
at the Royal Institu- 
tioD, Cokiuitt-Strcct, 
oil Tuesday eveuinsij, 
November, Itth, C. 
CoRLEY, Esq., presid- 
ing. 

Mr. Keith, the Hon. 
Secretary, reported 
that at the last meet- 
ing of the Literary and 
Philosophical Society, 
the privilege of admis- 
sion to the meetings of 
that society, to the 
President, Yice-Presidents, Council, and Secretary of the Pho- 
tographic Society, was extended for another year. 

It was resolved that the compliment should be acknowledged 
with thanks and reciprocated. 

The Chairman acknowledged the receipt of the " Proceedings 
of the Historic Society of Lancashire and Cheshire," which were 
also ordered to be acknowledged. 

The Teeasurek, Mr. J. A. Forrest, exhibited a number of 
stereoscopic views, taken on ground glass, by Dr. Hill Norris's 
gelatine process, which seems admirably adapted for stereosco- 
pic pictures — the quality of hardness so objectionable in a land- 
scape picture forming in a stereosco])ic view one of its greatest 
beauties. Mr. Forrest stated that all the plates exhibited were 
printed at once on gronnd glass, by gas-light in the evening, 
and a piece of plain glass was placed over them, which secured 
them from accident. 

A number of stereoscopic views taken on ground glass, by 
Mr. Forrest, were also circulated amongst the members, v/hich 
the Chikman stated would bear comparison with those produced 
by Dr. Hill Norris. 

Mr. Forrest observed that the collodion film adhered so te- 
naciously to the ground glass that it could not be rubbed off. 

Among other photographic illustrations produced for the in- 
spection of the members, was a specimen of printing on opal 
glass, with a vignette, by Mr. Forrest It was the portrait of 
a lady, printed by superposition with wet collodion, the exposure 
being about an instant, and developed with pyrogallic acid. It 
had a very delicate and beautiful effect, the rich half-tones form- 
ing an exquisite contrast against the pure white of the opal 
surface. 

Mr. Cook presented, for insertion iu the Society's album , a 
number of well-executed prints from wax paper negatives. The 
prints which were passed round for examination, and generally 
admired, included views of Furness Abbey, Couway Castle, aud 
old Bidstone Church. 

In reply to the Chairman Mr. Cook stated that the prints were 
taken on albuminized paper, the salting solution being prepared 
with ten or twelve grains of salt to the ounce, with albumen 
diluted one-half. The wax negatives were obtained with Mr. 
Fitt's formula, the toning bath being prepared as follows, from 
a formula faruished by Mr. P, Frith j — 

Chloride of gold 12 grains. 

Chloride of platinum 6 " 

Carbonate of soda 25 " 

Water 20 ounces. 

One drachm of this was quite sufiBcient for a picture eleven 
inches by nine inches. The solution should never be used twice. 
The picture ought to remain in, face downwards, and be kept 
in motion by a glass rod until a perfect tone was oljtained, when 
it should be fixed with hypo, in the dark, although he had toned 
some of them with the window-blind partly drawn. It was de- 
cidedly the most satisfactory mode of printing they had ever 
tried. The silver should be washed out very carefully before 

VOL XI. NO. II. 5 



putting the print into the toning bath. The hypo was not very 
weak. 

In reply to Mr. Foi'rest, Mr. Cook stated that the English 
paper made infinitely better pictures than the French paper, 
the tone being so much superior. 

THE DRY COLLODION PROCESS. 

Mr. Cook produced a dry collodion plate, prepared with Mr. 
Long's Formula, and asked if ]\Ir. Forrest could explain the 
cause of the ridgy or streaky appearance it presented. 

Mr. roRUELT said the bath was to weak. 

The CnAiR.AiAN said the balance of silver in proportion to the 
strength of the chemicals was not duly preserved: the bath 
wanted strengthening. 

Mr. Keith thouglit there liad been too much iodide in the 
collodion, and suggested that Mr. Cook should cither let it 
down with plain collodion or increase the strength of his nitrato 
bath. 

_ Mr. Forrest said he had found that Mr. Keith's collodion, 
diluted one-third, using half ether and half spirits of wine, worked 
admirably, giving the powdery character to the dry collodion, 
which was so much coveted. 

novel jiethod of obtaining stereoscopic views. 

Mr. Forrest had great pleasure in drawing attention to a 
very novel and simple idea just originated by Mr. S. Gill, 90, 
Islington, Liverpool, and patented by him, in conjunction with 
Mr. Newton of .Jubilee Buildings, by means of which stereoscopic 
photographs could be taken with a single lens, by an 
ordinary camera, at a single sitting, and with one opera- 
tion. Two mirrors were so placed together, at a slight 
angle, that each received an image of the object proposed 
to be taken. The camera was then directed towards the 
mirrors, the images reflected iu which were taken on a 
single plate. In addition to the advantage of enabling 
the operator thus to use an ordinary camera, there was the ad- 
ditional advantage of having the picture correct in position, 
for as the mirrors would give what might be termed a left- 
handed view of the object, the plate in the camera would receive 
the impression naturally, so that in a portrait the hair would be 
shown parted on the proper side, and if there were any distinct- 
ive mark on the features, it would be represented in its right 
place. He (Mr. Forrestj, had seen some pictures taken by 
Mr. Gill in this manner, aud they were perfectly stereoscopic. 

Mr. Keith stated that he had tried experiments with photo- 
graphing from a single mirror, and he had always found that 
there was a double reflection, one from the surface of the glass 
itself, and the other from the surface of the silver at the back 
of the glass. 

The Chairman observed that that arose from the peculiar 
quality of the glass which Mr. Keith must have used. If he 
had a glass, the two surfaces of which were perfectly parallel,, 
the evil to which he had referred would not occur. 

PHOTOGRAPHY IN PALESTINE, 

The Secretary remarked that Mr. Francis Frith, whose 
Egyptian views were exhibited before the Society two month's 
ago, when they excited such general interest, was preparing to 
proceed to Alexandria, with the view ofjnaking his way to Pales- 
tine and the Nile, where he intended to take a series of views. 
It was his intention to have embarked on Saturday, in the Al- 
exandria Steamer, which unfortunately had sailed without him, 
in consequence of the captain having unintentionally misled Mh 
Frith as to the hour of her departure. The whole of his appa- 
ratus was on board, and would consequently arrive out before 
he could reach Alexandria. 

A strong sympathy was expressed for Mr. Frith in the an- 
noying and vexatious dilemma in which he was placed, Mr. For- 
rest observing that all lovers of photography could not but wish 
him every success in his important undertaking, as his views of 
Karnac, Thebes, &c., were the most sublime things of the kind 
he had ever seen, 

proposed PHOTOGRAPHIC SOIREE. 

Mr. Forrest had great pleasure in announcing that the Conn- 



34 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



cil of tlie Society had determined to hold a Photograahic Soiree 
in connection with tiie association, and he was encouraged to 
hope that the proprietors of the Royal Institution, where it was 
intended to hold the ooiret, would throw open their museum, 
and that the excellent gallery of art would also be accessible on 
the occasion. It was intended that the soiree should be held a 
week before Christmas, but more definite announcements would 
be made at as early a day as their arrangements would enable 
them to issue a programme. lie proposed that the Secretary be 
requested to wait upon the Committee of the Institution for the 
purpose of making the necessary application. 

Mr. Cook seconded the proposition, which was carried nem. 
dis. ,. 

Mr. Keith, the Hon. Sec, then read his paper on 
" OrERATIXG KOOMS."' 

In looking over the various photographic publications, the 
London and LiverpoolJournals, unA Fhotografliic Notes, I have 
observed constant enquiries as to the best plan of constructing 
a room for pliotographic purposes So far as I have seen there 
is as yet very little definite information on the subject, and both 
amateurs and professionals are left very much to their own 
fancies. One consequence of this is that a great number of 
rooms are totally unfitted for the purpose for which they were 
built; another is that a great deal of money and time is wasted 
in alterations and experiments. 

Since I commenced the practice of photography I have built 
three operating rooms, all of which have, to a certain extent, 
answered their purpose. In the hope that a description of them 
may be both interesting and instructive, I have brought here 
this evening plans and descriptions of them all. 

The great defect of nearly all the operating rooms I have 
seen, is that there is too much light. It appears to me that the 
great advantage of working within doors is that you are enabled 
to shut out the light. My early experiments in the collodion 
process were carried on in a back yard, surrounded on three 
sides with high walls, and on the fourth side a wall about ten 
feet high. 

I am inclined to attribute the measure of success which at- 
tended my efforts at that time to the fact that I had so little 
light. 

Pictures taken in the open air are usually flat and unsatisfac- 
tory, on account of the absence of definite shadow. If taken in 
the sun the general effect is to much improved, but they must 
then be considered rather as pictures than portraits, as the face 
is so much shaded as in many instances not to be recognizable. 

When I commenced the practice of photography in earnest, 
I could of course no longer work in the back yard. I therefore 
built my operating room No 1. The house 1 then occupied had 
a balcony about 5 feet wide, and 18 feet long; this I covered in 
with glass. The front was made in four frames, each 4 feet C 
inches wide, and 1 feet high, screwed together at the sides. The 
roof was also made in four pieces, the two centre pieces of which 
turned up against the wall. This mode of construction added 
a little to the expense, but enabled me afterwards to take it 
down with very little trouble. About this time Mr. Barker built 
a glass house in his garden, very much on the same principle, 
which answered very well. I was at that time of opinion that 
the more light I could get the better; and as I had light only 
at the top, front, and one side, I whitewashed the wall to pre- 
vent too deep a shadow. The pictures I then obtained were 
very unsatisfactory, and quite inferior to those taken in the back 
yard I therefore commenced to shut out the light with blue 
calico, but without any improvement in the result. I then ob- 
tained some thick brown paper, quite impervious to light, and 
went on gradually shutting out, — lirst the front, then the side, 
then the top, until theouly light admitted was from the two middle 
frames of the roof. I also found that the whitewashed wall 
was not only unnecessary, but predjudicial, and there also I 
nailed up a large sheet of brown i)aper. I then obtained pic- 
tures, which, as far as light and shade went, were everything 
that could be desired , and what may at first appear strange, 
without any increase in the time of exposure. I may here men- 
tion that this brown paper is a very useful article in experi- 



menting with the light. It is inexpensive, and very readily 
tacked up and taken down. 

My next essay at photographic architecture was at the rooms 
I now occupy in Castle-street. At that time they consisted of 
two rooms, with a dark attic. My ideas of light were by this 
time considerably modified, and I contented myself with cutting 
out the ceiling of the front room, removing the slates and joists 
up to the ridge, allowing the purlins to remain, and putting in 
a skylight about 13 feet by 10 feet. The front room occupies 
five-eights of the entire space; the piece of ceiling between the 
ridge and first purlin was allowed to remain. 

Yan will obrerve that I was a long way from the light. In 
summer I found this no disadvantage, but in winter the light was 
very poor. I therefore put up a platform at the back of the 
room, about 5 feet wide, and feet from the floor, but as the 
pictures obtained there was not at all satisfactory after trying 
it about a month, I had It removed (this experiment cost me 
about £10, in addition to the trouble and annoyance. I then 
had two platforms made, 2 feet G inclies high, 6 feet long, and 
4 feet 6 inches wide, one for the sitter and one for the camera, 
and in this room I worked for about three years with great 
success, and the plan is one that I can with confidence recommend 
for general use. The cost is not excessive, and where a very 
large room is not required, it leaves little to be desired. The 
only disadvantage is that the top light is rather strong, and 
consequently the shadows are sometimes rather heavy.* 

I now come to the room No. 3, the one I now occupy, which 
fully answers my expectations. It is sufficiently large for all 
ordinary purposes. It is beautifully lighted, and I am enabled 
to obtain any effect of light and shade I require. It has been 
formed by raising tiie back and side walls, and roofing it entirely 
with pale blue glass. The advantages of this are so numerous, 
that I do not think the additional expense should be a bar to 
its employment. 

The first impression on entering an operating room is generally 
one of discomfort and irritation on account of the immense of 
quantity of light. This is entirely obviated in my present room,, 
for there you have no idea that the light is stronger than ordi- 
nary. The pupil of the eye under the action of a strong light 
contracts, and the result of this is the stupid, half-drunken ap- 
pearance of many photographic portraits. My former room was 
glazed with ordinary sheet glass. During the first summer I 
obtained pictures in three or four seconds; the second summer 
it took six or eight seconds, and this year the sitting were pro- 
longed to ten or fifteen seconds. I was at a loss to account for 
this, until ray attention was called to the fact that ordinary 
window glass exposed to the action of long continued sunlight 
rapidly changes color. At a recent meeting Mr. Forrest ex- 
hibited some pieces of glass from a skylight, which had changed 
to a reddish purple, while the portion sheltered by the putty 
retained its original color. In my case the glass had acquired 
a decided yellow tinge, which malerilly impeded the action. Un- 
der the blue glass I have, during this month, obtained pictures 
in five seconds, and in fine summer weather the action was almost 
instantaueons. How the blue glass will retain its color cau 
only be decided by time, but from the nature of the material 
employed, cobalt, I have every reason to believe that it will be 
permauent. 

My new room may be considered as divided by the purlins 
into five portions. The first or lower portion is devoted to the 
dark room. The next three are glazed, and the fifth portion, 
sloping down to the back wall, is slated and plastered. The 
whole of the glazed portion is supplied with black blinds, and 
many persons have been surprised at the small portion of light 
which I use. If I have a full flat face I shut ofl" all the light 
except from the upper portion; for ordinary working I use the 
second portion, shutting off the light from the top of the head. 
If the features of the sitter are thin, and the eyes deep set, I 
shut the two upper portions and oi^en the third, by which 
means I get a broad light upon the sitter. As the sitter, I 



* MM. Gcrolwobl and Tanner work, in PiU'is, in an orthodox artist'a 
stiulio. Tbc sitter is placed on a stage. The light is high, and of small 
extent, lu Loudon more light is required to work in all seasons. 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



35 



may say, faces the light, I can obtain any amount of shadow 
upon either side of the face by partially drawing the curtains 
on that side. Operating rooms are generally colored or papered 
of a light color. This I consider objectionable, as trying to 
the eyes. My walls are colored a dark grey, almost black, so 
that it answers for a background at any part of the room, and 
as the sitter is placed he is generally looking into a dark cor- 
ner. The result is that the expression is easy and natural, and 
that unpleasant reflection in the eyes is entirely avoided. I 
have also a background made like a large cheval glass, with a 
different color on each side, so that I have the choice of three 
backgrounds. The ventilation is amply provided for by a large 
door opening at the bottom, window on each side, and ventilat- 
ing bricks in each side wall at the top. 

You are probably aware that my practice is almost confined 
to positives; how far the room may answer for negatives I am 
not at present able to state, but my present opinion is that 
they require more light, and that a lengthened exposure in a 
weak light will not produce the same etfect. 

Mr. Forrest said the paper they had just heard was most 
important and instructive. He felt this especially, as he was 
receiving letters almost every morning from amateur photo- 
graphers, requesting information on the subject. It was espe- 
cially gratifying thus to see a professional gentleman freely giv- 
ing them the benefit of his well-studied and successful expe- 
rience. He had very great pleasure in proposing a vote of 
thanks to Mr. Keith for his valuable paper, which, being duly 
seconded by Mr. Cook, was passed unanimously. 

Mr. Keith, having stated that the adaptation of the dark 
blinds arose from a suggestion made to him by Mr. Corey, ac- 
knowledged the compliment paid by the meeting. 

THE NEGATIVE BATH. 

Mr. Glover then read the following paper on 

" THE NEGATIVE BATH." 

The state of the negative bath is a matter of the greatest im- 
portance to the photographer. Whatever degree of perfection 
he may have attained as a manipulator, however pure his chemi- 
cals, and whatever formula he may adopt in the preparation of 
his secondary solutions, unless the nitrate of silver bath be in 
proper working condition, his efforts are fruitless, as far as re- 
gards perfection in this beautiful art is concerned. True, it is 
possible, with an inefficient bath, &c., to obtain images by the 
agency of light, the novelty of which, even with the uninitiated 
public, is not a sufficient guarantee for anything short of a fault- 
less photograph. We shall therefore enquire, without 
entering into the best established mode of preparing a new bath, 
what constitutes an imperfect bath, with the various causes and 
the remedies. 

Alkalinity is fatal to all attempts at photography. The 
cause may be generally traced to the presence of carbonates in 
the iodides or bromides used in the collodion: a small portion 
is thus introduced into the bath with each plate, until it has an 
alkaline reaction. Another cause may be the presence of free 
ammonia in the collodion. To counteract this, it is usual to 
add acetic acid, but we prefer the use of nitric acid, for obvious 
reasons, to which we shall hereafter call attention. 

Another, and we may say the most general cause of failure 
is, the presence of nitric acid in quantity. The cause may be 
attributed to the use of collodion containing free iodine, which 
no operator would wish to be without. It is evident to those 
who understand only sufficient chemistry to carry them through 
the process, that if the collodion contained only pure iodide of 
potassium, the decomposition would be as follows: — 

Kali-AgO N05=AgI + KaO NO^ 
So that, consequently, no free nitric acid could exist: but the 
case is far different when free iodine is present. Having a 
greater affinity for the silver than nitric acid has, the iodine 
take its place, liberating free nitric acid. There is no substance 
present with which it can combine, consequently, it must accu- 
mulate in the bath. 
The usual remedy for this has been the addition of ammonia 



till neutrality, or rather a slight alkalinity was obtained, caus- 
ing a small quantity of oxide of silver to be precipitated, nitrate 
of ammonia being formed in the solution, acetic acid was then 
added, which, uniting with the oxide of silver, formed acetate of 
silver. This fact requires special attention, as reference will be 
made to it in a subsequent part of this paper. Instead of the 
above, some recommend the addition of other alkalies, such as 
carbonate of potash or soda, both of which precipitate, car- 
bonate and oxide of silver, which have to be separated by fil- 
tration, thus abstracting the silver from the bath, at the same 
time a new substance is left in solution, nitrate of soda or 
potash. 

Others recommend the use of a piece of marble in the bath 
(carbonate of lime), which certainly is attended with the least 
trouble and inconvenience, no precipitate being formed of any 
consequence; but, there is one great objection, the formation 
of nitrate of lime which is held in solution. We shall with- 
hold further comment on this subject for a distinct and most 
important head of this paper. 

Among the rest of the causes of failure we may enumerate 
the presence of foreign substances in the bath, produced by the 
decomposition of the re-agents that have been fromtimeto time 
added to correct the acidity or alkalinity, and to which we call 
special attention in the foregoing part of our paper, viz. : — 
acetate of silver. This salt is decidedly prejudicial, the plates 
being more liable to stain when it is present. The least care- 
lessness in the cleaning of the glass is made doubly visible in 
the finished negative, and one of our greatest photographic 
chemists (Hardwich) asserts, not only the above, but that the 
presence of acetate of silver tends to solarization from over ex- 
posure, causing the peculiarity which most of us have observed, 
a light transparent red color in the high lights of the negative. 
For this reason we object to rectify an alkaline bath with acetic 
acid. When once alkalinity occurs, some oxide is thrown down, 
this is re-dissolved by the acetic acid, consequently, acetate of 
silver must be present. It is also very probable that other sub- 
stances, such as nitrate of lime, nitrate of ammonia, &c., before 
alluded to, are best dispensed with, if we can attain our object 
without them. 

Other minor causes of failure might be enumerated, though 
not strictly chemical. Some photographers are so sparing of 
their nitrate of silver as to mix only sufficient solution to fill 
their bath-holder; by this method, unless the solution be con- 
tinually filtered, which entails considerable loss, spots will be 
produced in the film, by the floating particles, and those in sus- 
pension subsiding on the surface of the plate. We would re- 
commend every individual to make twice the quantity of solu- 
tion he requires, so that he can pour sufficient off for his use 
without disturbing the sediment, by which he will be a gainer, 
no loss by filtration being required. 

The tendency to this practice may perhaps have increased 
since the introduction of those useful portable bath-holders, 
with water-tight tops. It was never intended that these should 
be the only receptacles for the solution, but were constructed 
for the convenience of the tourist only. 

Another minor cause of failure may be from weakness of the 
bath, caused by the abstraction of the silver, without sufficient 
being added to make up for the loss. We do not recollect to 
have seen any rule laid down, but the calculation is very sim- 
ple. For every ounce of collodion used, containing four grains 
of iodide of potassium, nearly 4yVth grains of nitrate of silver 
are removed. Of course, the quantities vary with the use of 
bromides, or of other combinations of iodine, the atomic weights 
of which are easily calculated. I may just remark here, that 
although the silver is removed from the bath by continued 
working, the specific gravity is very triflingly altered, as ia 
the use of the metallic alkalies as iodizers, one metal only takes 
the place of the other in the bath. Iodide of silver forming ia 
the collodion film, and nitrate of the oxide oi ■potassium remain- 
ing in solution. 

It is an error to suppose that the " specific gravity" and 
" yellow tinge" are owing to the redundancy of iodide in the 
bath, as after it has once been saturated at the time of prepa- 



36 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



ration no more iodide can possibly be absorbed, whatever vol- 
ume it comes in contact with. The yellow color is most proba' 
bly owing to the organic matter in contact with the nitrate of 
silver or nitric acid. Water has the power of separating the 
iodide, consequently when it is added to the bath a portion of 
iodide is precipitated, but if the water be again evaporated the 
iodide is re-dissolved. 

The foregoing arc the chief causes of failure in the negative 
bath, and in entering on the most important part of our paper, 
the point at which vve want to arrive is, the means of neutral- 
izing the nitric acid without the introduction of a foreign or 
deleterious substance, which will always occur, as we have 
shown, when a substance is added which effects a mutual de- 
composition. We will, therefore, give the results of a few ex- 
periments with a view to this object. 

Metallic silver was introduced, but it is very slow in its ac- 
tion, the nitric acid being so dilute. A difficulty presents itself 
in procuring (commercially we mean) pure silver for the purpose, 
our standard metal being alloyed with copper, therefore forming 
nitrate of that metal as well as silver. 

Pare oxide of silver v/as then introduced into an acid solu- 
tion of nitrate of silver. We obtained the oxide by precipita- 
tion from nitrate of silver by ammonia. The precipitate well 
washed with boiling water, to free it from the alkali, presents 
a finely divided surface to the attack of the nitric acid, and an- 
swers tolerably well. We allowed twenty or tlnrty grains to re- 
main in the acid solution for a day or two, shaking up occasion- 
ally. The uncombined oxide subsides to the bottom, and the 
clear and nearly neutral solution can be decanted for use. 

The last and highly satisfactory experiment we performed 
was founded on the chemical theory, that carlonic acid has a 
greater affmity for the base silver than that of sodium, sm^, 
secondly, that carbonic acid is displaced by oiitric acid without 
the presence of a second base. We selected as a good subject 
for our experimeut an old positive bath, prepared by the French 
formula, and we think resembling that used by our worthy 
Secretary. The problem to solve was to convert this exces- 
sively nitric acid bath into a negative bath. The quantity to 
M'ork upon was about twelve ounces, containing say twenty-five 
grains to the ounce, having been some time in use. We took 
three ounces of the above solution, added a solution of bicar- 
bonate of soda till the whole of the silver was thrown down in 
the state of carbonate, taking with it a small nuantitv of oxide 
of silver. This precipitate we thoroughly washed with boiling 
water to remove every alkaline trace. Carbonate of silver, as 
most are aware, is, when newly prepared, a white powder, 
insoluble in water. This, when added to the other nine ounces 
of acid solution, almost immediately neutralized the nitric acid 
with considerable effervescence, owing to the escape of carbonic 
acid gas, described thus: — 

AgO C03+N0,=Ag0 NOji-COa 

Thus we not only neutralized the nitric acid, but concentrated 
into nine ounces all the silver contained in the oricriual twelve 
of acid solution. We submit the first negatives taken with the 
altered bath. 

In conclusion, we beg to propose, by the same plan somewhat 
modified, to collect the silver from our washings of prints, old 
baths, &c. The plan is to precipitate the silver as carbonate, 
which will shortly subside, so that the then valueless liquid can 
be siphoned off aud thrown away. Water poured on, and the 
same washing repeated several times. The carbonate must 
then be collected on a filter, boiling water poured over it till all 
the soda is removed, then dried, and pure nitric acid added to 
saturation. By this means we get a strong solution of nitrate 
of silver, which can be tested by the hydrometer; or^evaporatcd 
and crystalized. This is attended with remarkably little trou- 
ble and cost compared with the old process of precii)itatiiig as 
chloride, and reducing to the metallic state, and re-dissolving 
in nitric acid, which requires some skill and apparatus not al- 
ways at hand. Thus every photographer can reclaim all his 
waste silver in the most valuable form for his purpose. 

Since writing the above wo performed the following experi- 



ment; — 120 grain.s of nitrate of silver were dissolved in about 
one aud a half gallons of water. The silver was precipitated 
as carbonate, the liquid syphoned off, and the washing repeated 
several tiraes. In running off the last water we syphoned 
rather too close, and lost about ten grains of silver, making 
110 to work upon. Without filtering or drying we added 
pure nitric acid, drop by drop, till the whole of the carbonate 
was changed to nitrate. We then added about a quarter of a 
grain of iodide of ammoninm, and made the whole up to three 
and a halt ounces with distilled water. After filtration, we 
prepared a collodion plate and made sensitive in the above so- 
lution, and now lay before you the result. 

Mr. Glover received unanimous and hearty thank* for Lis 
interesting paper, which he illustrated by several practical ex- 
periments. 

The meeting soon afterwards adjourned. 



From the Jour, of the Fhot Soc. 

OX mPSOVlXG THE TINT OP TRANSPAEEXT STEREOSCOPIC SLIDES, 



Many persons who have been perfectly successful in printing 
these slides by the process which I described in vol. iii. p. 303, 
object to the slight green tinge which, under some circumstances, 
the pictures present. To such it may be of interest to know 
that an excessively weak solution of sulphide of ammonium (ten 
or a dozen drops to an ounce), poured on and off the plate for 
a few times, will quickly change the color to a rich brown, vary- 
ing in tint according to the time v/hich the sulphide of ammo- 
nium has been allowed to act. It should be poured on after the 
plate has been washed free from hyposulphite of soda, but before 
the surface has become dry, aud as the different shades of brown 
follow each other with tolerable rapidity, the operation should 
be performed in a good light, and with a plentiful supply of 
water close at hand, so as to wash off the sulphide as soon as 
the desired tint is reached. After wash off, tlie plate may be 
allowed to dry as usual. W. C. 



SUBSTITUTE FOR CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM. 

To the Editor of thf Photograjihic Journal. 

Sir, — Observing in the last Number of the ' Photographic 
Journal' your notice of the warning given by Messrs. Harvey 
and Reynolds as to the indiscriminate use of the poisonous sub- 
stance known as cyanogen soap, and sold for the purpose of 
cleaning the fingers of photographers from stains of the nitrate 
bath, &c., allow me to propose a substitute of a most innocent 
character, by the application of which I have found, from expe- 
rience, that these annoying staius may be readily got rid of, 
without the possibility of any injurious effects ensuing. 

Beginners in this fascinating art do not often, I expect, es- 
cape the penalty of blackened fingers; at all events I have fonnd 
myself sulficiently clumsy at manipulation to incur it to the full, 
and confess I have, on a few occasions of my tyroship, felt con- 
siderably annoyed at the circumstance. Even Mr. Thomas's 
cyanogen soap did not always perfectly answer the cleansing 
expectation; whilst that ugly, portentous word "POISON," 
printed in large caps on the pot, did not seem to me very strongly 
recommendatory of its continual absorption by the skin. Per- 
haps, however, this has been more particularly the case in my 
own individual instance, since, fond of horticultural recreation, 
I am often using the budding or pruning knife, aud my hands 
are frequently made to feel, with somewhat more pungency than 
is by any means agreeable, that "roses have thorns." 

A picturesque mountain-stream happens to ruu bustling over 
a rocky channel through my garden, and it is to this brook 
that I generally repair to perform all such ablutions. Finding 
on one of these occasions, whea my fingers had become black- 
ened to an unusual extent, that the stains obstinately resisted 
even the poisonous application longer than I either liked or 
could patiently eudure, it occurred to me, almost in anger, to 
try the effect of friction with a small stone, rounded from its 



angular asperities by attrition in the waters of the stream. Gretlt 
was the satisfction I experienced at fiudiug that this exceedingly 
simple remedy perfectly succeeded. 

My scratched and thoru^Wounded digits now cause me no dis- 
may, for I have quite discarded the poison-soap, and no longer 
stand awe-stricken under the fear of inoculation. 

Perhaps I should add, that the stones I find thus eifectual 
are of that kind which occiir iu combination with an infinite num- 
ber of small glistening particles, most likely quartz; this gives a 
roughness to the surface, by which friction with the cuticle is 
greatly assisted. Of course, smooth pebbles would not answer 
the purpose; but any sandstone would probably do so, provided 
neither too coarse nor to fine in the grain. 

I shall be glad if this suggestion should prove serviceable to 
any of your readers. 

Thos. Lindsay. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal, 

ON THE METHOD OF PRODUCING MINUTE PHOTOGRAPHS. 



BY W. HISLOP, F.R.4.S 



Read before the North London Photographic Association, October 28th, 1857. 

The particular department of photography which I have the 
pleasure of bringing to your notice this evening, is worthy of 
attention, on account of the remarkable manner in which it ex- 
hibits the extraordinary capabilities of the art. 

I propose to explain the method of producing exceedingly 
minute pictures, either reduced from others, or taken direct. 
The term " microphotograph," has been improperly applied to 
enlarged pictures of microscopic preparation. This process 
being one of enlargement, is exactly the reverse of that which 
we have to consider to-night, and I conceive that the word mi- 
cro, signifying small or minute, can only be correctly applied to 
reduced and not to enlarged figures. The exceeding minute- 
ness of the pictures which can be produced can hardly be con- 
ceived by those whose attention has not been directed to their 
productions. As some indication of what may be done, I may 
refer you to the specimens which have been arranged beneath 
the microscopes before you, some of which contain elaborate 
groups within the space of the sixteenth of an inch, in which 
every detail is preserved, and even inscriptions may be read 
with ease. The material employed, too, admits, by skillfnl ma- 
nipulation, of all the effect of tone and contrasts of light and 
shade, which go to make up a perfect picture, being produced 
at will, and repeated to any extent. Although there are some 
who doubt the utility of pictures so small as to require a micro- 
scope to see them, yet I believe that any one who has seen a 
good micro-photograph, properly exhibited, will admit that 
this class of photographs may certainly be reckoned among the 
wonders, if not among the utilities of the art. 

It will easily be seen that the manipulation of this process 
must be extremely delicate, the materials should be of the finest 
quality; the instruments used most perfect in their adjustment; 
the subjects selected with judgment; and last, but not least, 
patience and perseverence on the part of the operator are es- 
sential to success. 

Two or three photographers and microscopists, besides my- 
self, have worked in this department, but, so far as I know, 
have not given the details of their manipulation to the public. 
Having worked it out independently, I have thought myself at 
perfect liberty to reveal what I have done, the more so, as I 
hold as a principle in science, that he who wishes to accumulate 
information, ought also be willing to impart the information to 
others. 

Having myself been led into photography by its connection 
with the microscope, and knowing that those who have succeed- 
ed with these small pictures are also microscopists, I am in- 
duced to believe that a knowledge of the management of a mi- 
croscope is of great importance in the process. The requisite 
delicacy of manipulation is difficult of attainment, and even a 
mieroscopist will not always succeed. 

5* 



I will now, after these preliminary remarks, proceed to tell 
you my own method of procedure: — 

First, as to the materials. All the various sensitive surfaces 
may be used, but I prefer collodion on glass. The pictures are 
best as transparent positives. The glass used should be the 
best thin plate, in the form of microscopic slides, three inches 
by one, and as neatness of appearance is important in every- 
thing relating to such minute productions, I prefer that the 
edges should be ground smooth and polished. Such slips of 
glass are supplied by Messrs. Claudet and Houghton, at 10s. 
per gross. Each slide should be careftilly examined by a mag- 
nifier, and those which have scratches or specks of any kind 
should be rejected. When the picture is finished and dried, it 
is covered with Camera balsam, and a piece of thin microscopic 
gla.ss placed upon it. Discs may be obtained cut to any size, 
also, of Messrs. Claudet and Houghton. 

The collodion I use is positive, rather thin, and producing an 
opalescent film. It is obvious that it must be perfectly struc- 
tureless, and here is one of the most serious difQculties which 
we encounter. For, I may safely say, nine cases out of ten, the 
pictures will be found to look as though covered with a piece of 
net. This appearance is not seen in ordinary photographs, sim- 
ply because we do not use the microscope to look at them with; 
but I have observed it in first-class photographs. I know of 
no certain remedy for this defect. I have tried chloroform, 
wood spirit dilution with ether, and other chemicals, but with 
no certainty of results, and I can find no one who can give any 
certain cure. You will, of course, ask how I get rid of this 
structural appearance, as my pictures do not show it. Simply 
by throwing aside the collodion as soon as it appears, and when 
I get a good sample, endeavering to use it before it is spoiled 
for my purpose. The exciting bath is the ordinary thirty grains 
solution, with a slightly acid reaction. 

All the various developments employed for wet collodion may 
be made use of. Pyrogullie, with acetic acid, often gives a 
brown tone to the picture; the salts of iron bring it out rapid- 
ly and with considerable bi'illiancy; but, under a tolerable mag- 
nifying power, the result appears granulated like a coarse mez- 
zo-tint. The development which I prefer for blackness of tone, 
sharpness and uniformity, is composed of two to four grains 
pyrogallic acid, and one to two grains citric acid to the ounce 
of water ; with sufficient spirits of wine to ensure even flowing 
over the plate. The picture comes out slowly, but any amount 
of blackness may be attained with safety. 1 fix with a single 
drop of a strong solution of hyposulphite of soda, and wash 
well afterwards with filtered water. 

We now come to the apparatus employed. The great es- 
sential is, of course, the object glass. This is a microscopic 
object glass, and must be of the very best quality. We shall 
find it a mere waste of time to endeavor to succeed even toler- 
ably with any glass that is not first-rate as regards its correc- 
tions. The focus I prefer is one inch. The angular aperture 
will be of small importance, except as affecting the quantity of 
light and consequent time of exposure. 

I produced a great number of pictures by using the ordinary 
microscope, removing the eye-piece and placing the prepared 
plate upon the stage. This method requires some particular 
precaution,, which I will detail. We must first decide whether 
we intend to operate by natural or artificial light. If by the 
latter, we may either place the body of the microscope upright 
and throw the light down the tube by some kind of reflection, 
or we may place it horizontally, in which case M'e must use a 
clip to hold the glass plate against the stage. The negative to 
be copied was supported in the first case on the ring of a retort 
stand, at a certain height above the body, dependant upon the 
size to which I wished to reduce the picture. In the horizon- 
tal position I place the negative in the dark frame of a camera 
with the lenses removed. In all cases of the use of artificial 
light care must be taken that the negative is illuminated by 
parallel rays. I prefer to effect this by using a large condens- 
ing lens between the light and the negative. For the natural 
light we have simply to place the instrument upright upon a 
table in the open air, in an inclined position, near a window, or 



38 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PIKE ART JOURNAL. 



FebiBary, 



in an horizontal position, directing tlie liglit by a plain reflec- 
tor. 

Having gauged the glasses to a uniform thickness, I then 
take one, coat it with a thick collodion, and sensitize it in the 
bath in order to obtain a surface for focussing on. After 
draining the plate, and drying it, I place it on the stage, all 
things being in position; and by the aid of a hand magnifier, 
applied sideways, I accurately focus the picture. We must now 
allow for the difference between the chemical and visual focus 
of the object glass. Microscopic object glasses are generally 
over corrected, the violent chemical rays being beyond the vis- 
ual focus. The glass must therefore be moved a little away 
from the sensitive surface to get the utmost degree of sliarpness. 
Rules have been laid down ibr microscopists, in taking enlarged 
pictures of minute objects, as to the amount of difference be- 
tween the visual and chemical foci for object glasses of different 
powers; but the corrections are so variable, and are so much 
modified by circumstances, that I Ijelieve the readiest and surest 
plan is to ascertain the point by trial till we succeed to our sa- 
tisfaction. When properly focussed, the instrument must be 
removed into the dark room, and the prepared plate placed on 
the stage, the whole wrapped round with a piece of black vel- 
vet, and then replaced upon the table iu the i>osition before oc- 
cupied. The velvet being now removed from the top of the 
tube, the plate is exposed, and must remain so for a space of 
from five to thirty seconds, according to the density of the ne- 
gative. If artificial light is used, we need merely turn it down 
or shade it vv'hile we place and remove the plat&. It must now 
be developed and fixed, as usual, the process being examined 
by a hand magnifier. After drying, it must be mounted in 
Canada balsam, of which I shall speak presently. 

This method of using the microscope is attended with incon- 
veniences innumerable, as the stage becomes stained by the 
chemicals employed; and if it be a valuable instrument, this 
method of producing micro-photographs becomes rather costly. 
I therefore made, in the first instance, a dark frame of brass to 
hold the slide, and theu contrived a special apparatus which 
could be used for either natural or artificial light. I have 
thought it best to exhibit the original apparatus, which I still 
use, as well as one made from the same model by Messrs. 
Home and Thornthwaite, who have made arrangements to sup- 
ply the apparatus. It simply consists of a mahogany board, 
about tliree or four feet long, six inches wide, and one inch 
thick, having two uprights at one end. Between these two 
uprights a small box slides up and down for adjustment to the 
centres of different sized negatives. This box is opened at back 
and closed in front, having affixed thereto a ruder brass fitting, 
with rack and pinion adjustment; on the axis of the pinion is a 
graduated micrometer head, with an index, by means of which 
the exact positioa of the object glass may be read off for any 
distance of the negative. The object glass is screwed to the 
inner end of the brass fitting, and stops of different sizes fit in 
to the front of the tube. At the back of the box is a fork- 
shaped piece of brass, in which the dark frame is made to slide 
into position, or it may drop into- a groove as in the ordinary 
camera. This dark frame is made of bvass, the back fastening 
in with a simple catch, and having openings back and front, 
which are closed by slops turning on centres. The front one is 
moved aside in exposing for a picture, and the back one is opened 
for focussing, which is now performed through the glass. The 
negative is placed in an ordinary frame, such as is used in dark 
slides, and this frame is held by means of eccentric buttons, 
upon a carriage which slides backwards and forwards, according 
as a larger or smaller picture is required. If natural light is to 
be used, the apparatus is inclined near a window, so that the 
■whole points towards the sky, as it may be maintained in a 
horizontal position, and a reiiector be used to take the light 
tlirough the system. A piece of black velvet must be thrown 
over the box before the i)kte is exjxised, so as to exclude all 
light but what passes through the object-glass. 

For artificial light, I use an argand gas-burner, and make the 
rays parallel by placing a large lens against the negative. The 
position of the burner being carefully arranged so as to throw 



the rays into the aperture of the object-glass, I then focus hj 
means of apiece of fiuely-groand glass or dried collodion film, 
placed in the dark frame, and viewed, both apertures being 
open, by means of lens. The distance of the chemical focus I 
ascertain by experiment. Wheu this focus i& obtained, I read 
off the micrometer head, and laark the reading against another 
mark, showing the exact position of the carriage carrying the 
negative. I then know the precise position of the object-glass 
for that particular distance of negative. 

I prefer a negative of small Intensity, but of course having 
all the details. Witli such a negative and a good gas-burner, 
the time will be from ten to sixty seconds. Our picture being 
obtained and dried, the next point is how to preserve the film 
from injury. For this end we must use a little microscopic in- 
vention. A mounting plate is prepared, consisting of a plate 
of raetal, v/hich may either be supported upon the ring of a re- 
tort stand or upon three legs fitted into it. This is placed over 
the flame of a lamp, and heated til! it is warm, but not too hot. 
The slides arc laid on the plate, a minute drop of Canada bal- 
sam placed on each, and a carefully cleaned disc of thin laicro- 
scopic glass, previously warmed, and dropped upon it. The 
slide is left for a quarter of an hour or longer on the plate to 
harden the balsam; it is then cooled and cleaned off with a soft 
cloth. 

This is the whole of the modus operandi. The apparatus de- 
scribed above, is capable of being used for other purposes. It 
may be employed for obtaining enlarged pictures of minute ob- 
jects; the illuminating medium being removed to the opposite 
end of the system, the object to be copied being placed in the 
small dark frame, and the prepared plate on the sliding carriage. 
There are also other a.pplications to which I may allude ou some 
future ocaasiou. 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Sac. 

mn ON COLLODION PLATES. 

47 Ludgate Hill, Sept. 2S, 1857. 
To ike Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — The various suggestions that appear iB what you call 
your "Minor Correspondence" are exceedingly valuable to the 
professional photographer. To the amateur, or those who pro- 
duce what is not intended for public criticism or for sale, a 
speck or spot is of no great consequence, but when a man's suc- 
cess and position in life dei>ends upon the perfect finish of his 
productions, those "insane atoms" assume a fearful' import, and 
lo get rid of them a matter of stern necessity. Did they 
choose to take their place in some quiet and unseen part of a 
lady's dress, there they might remain , and meet with the con- 
tempt they deserve. One woald not think it worth one's while 
to quote Shakespeare concerning them. But no— they must 
intrude in high places, lips or eyes, and of course, as you have 
been told, removal is destruction. These spots are occasioned 
by undissolved particles in the collodion that will not subside 
into what are called " bottoms," and therefore they must be fil- 
tered out. 

The suggestions made by your correspondents and others 
would generally ansv/er very well, but they are much too scien- 
tific and complicated (siphon, gas-jars, &c.), and of course 
troublesome, and besides add unnecessarily to one's stock of 
seldom-used apparatus, iu itself no small matter: all that the 
operator requires is to filter his collodion as he would filter any 
other solution through a glass funnel with ordinary filtering-pa- 
per, but taking the precaution to place a glass plate on the top 
large enough to cover the funnel. 

For the idea I am indebted to Mr. McMillaa of Fleet Street. 
It is much too simple a plan to be the offspring of my own 
brain. It is what I practice, and I believe it to be all that is 
required. There is a little waste, but scarcely worth mention- 
ing. Let therefore any one of my brethren, who has been an- 
noyed in the way described, purchase a small glass funnel and 
a few sheets of ordinary filtering-paper, and if he uses them 
properly he will have one trouble the less in photography. 

Edward Burke. 



1 



1858. 



THE THOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



39 



OX THE PRODUCTION OF PHOTOGRAPHS ON GLASS. 



According to this process, a thin film of iodide of sulphur is 
formed upon plate f^lass, by covering the glass, which must be 
perfectly clean, with a very thin coating of sulphur, and then 
impregnating this for a few seconds with the vapor of iodine. 
The glass plate is then placed in the camera, where at the same 
time the vapor of some quicksilver in an iron cup in the bottom 
of the camera acts upon the iodide of sulphur with which it is 
coated, and it receives the photographic image within a minute. 
The glass plate, when taken out of the camera, only exhibits a 
a trace of the picture, but this immediately comes out on expo- 
sure to the action of the vapor of bromine. If the picture be 
uow held over alcohol, and some of the same liquid be poured 
upon it, it will be fixed. Not more than from five to eight 
minutes are required for the v.'hole operation. 

The glass plates must be breathed upon and well rubbed with 
soft linen rag several times before use. They are coated with 
sulphur by burning sulphur sticks, made on purpose, in a 
proper tube, and holding the plates over it at a distance of 
about 3 inches. These sulphur sticks are prepared by dipping 
pieces of rush-pith into a melted mixture of sulphur and mastic, 
with which they become incrusted. For use, these sulphur 
sticks, which are about the size of a lucifer match, are stuck on 
a brass needle, introduced into the middle of a glass tube and 
kindled, so that the vapor of the sulphur may come in contact 
M'ith the glass plate held over it. 

These glass plates are so sensitive, that the coating of iodide 
of sulphur becomes instantly changed on exposure to direct 
sunlight, and give a Moser's image within five minutes when 
laid in a book. The figures thus obtained are most easily read 
by candlelight. In daylight, the blue betters can be recognized 
on the yellow ground only by looking through the plate to- 
wards the middle of the window, or towards a sheet of paper 
fastened in that place, the sulphur not having been removed 
either by vapor or bromine or by alcohol. 

If a glass plate, covered with a solution of gum aud exposed 
to the vapor of iodized sulphur, be placed in the camera, a pos- 
itive picture, with all its details, is obtained, the outlines of 
which can be laid bare by an etching-point capable of scratch- 
ing the glass. If a glass plate, so marked, be rubbed in with 
printing ink, the outlines will be filled, and the ink will remain 
in them when the glass is freed from the coating of gum by 
means of water. The picture is then easily transferred to 
paper, which is to be laid on the plate and rubbed over with a 
paper-knife. — Chemical Gazette, voi. x. p. 291. 



From the Jour, of (he Phot. Soc. 

POISONOUS EFFECTS OF CYANIDE OF POTASSIUM. 
To thi Editor of the Photograjphic .Journal: 

Sir, — I see in your last Number you have noticed the twad- 
dle which has been going the round of photographic and other 
Journals, respecting the supposed danger of using so deadly an 
internal poison as an external detergent. 

I will confidently affirm that the fear of its use externally is 
perfectly groundless; not only am I in the habit of using it in 
the form of ointment in neuralgia, but for the last three years I 
have used it as carelessly as a piece of soap when my fingers 
have been begrimed with nitrate of silver, and this whether I 
have abrasions on my hands or not. Beyond a smart, which is 
at once allayed by dipping the hand in water, I have never ex- 
perienced the smallest inconvenience, though I have often con- 
sumed on my hands a piece of cyanide as large as a shilling at 
a single ablution. Moreover, I have never heard of any authen- 
tic case of dangerous effects when thus used. Photographers 
may then, I think, be perfectly at ease on the point. 

W. H. Raxxkin, M.D. 



From the London Art Journal. 

THE MARINE AQUARIUM. 

BY MRS S. 0. HALL. 

'■ 'Tis said that Xerxes oflfered a reward 
To those who could invent him a new pleasure.'' 

Byron. 



Letters of inquiry of interest to the writer only must be ac- 
companied by a postage stamp to prepay answer. Ed. 



Happy are they who to the admiration of the beauties of na- 
ture — inseparable from a feeling and reflective mind — add a 
knowledge of the causes and effects of what the Giver of all 
Good has so abundantly scattered not only over the face of 
earth, but underneath the waters. Yet so universal arc the 
wonders of creation that those who go "abroad in ships" do 
not encounter greater marvels than are to be met with in stand- 
ing pools, or mingling with the murmurs of tiny rivulets " at 
home." To the lover and observer of Nature nothing is barren, 
nothing "common or unclean:" the blade of grass, the drop of 
water, the sparkling pebble, the stiff clay, the teeming mould, 
the rocky fragment, the glittering sand, the whispering shell, 
the bursting bud of the wayside flower, the penetrating sun- 
beam, the pale ray of the queenly moon, the crystal salt in the 
chasm to which the wave seldom returns — all are suggestive of 
thought, and all may be sources of enjoyment — while all, insig- 
nificant as they seem, are essential parts of a mighty whole. 

In the bright summer or cooler months of autumn, we who 
reside in London think it as much a duty as a pleasure to inhale 
the freshness of the country, and return from our rair.bles to 
our city homes laden with "specimens" of the material world, 
or flowers and ferns that will keep "green memories" amid the 
snows of winter; we enrich our "fern-houses" with tributes 
from our Glens or Highlands, and few things cheer us n:ore 
than the remembrance of how the little plant was obtained, and 
ivho assisted in the gathering. Dried leaves have too much of 
death about them to convey unalloyed pleasure to the living, 
and we consider " Ward's cases" to be acquisitions for which 
all town dwellers are bound to hold the inventor in high esteem 
— the living memory of many a mountain ramble is enshrined 
in a " Ward's case," or even beneath a simple bell-glass. But 
we Islanders are too fond of the element to which we owe our 
safety as well as our restraint, not to seek its shores, if we can- 
not cross its waves; and until lately the only mementoes we 
could bring away of the storm or quiet of the deep were dried 
" flowers of the sea," or beautiful shells, the least perishable of 
all the forms that enclose life: our own, alas, soon mingle with 
the dust to which they are doomed to return, while the dwell- 
ing of the periwinkle and the limpet seem to endure " for 
ever." 

The "new pleasure" to which we invite our readers, has to 
do, not so much with the homes of the limpet and the periwin- 
kle, as with the manners and customs of their inhabitants. We 
have become in some degree familiarized with the snail family, 
and understand their value in keeping the plants tiat flourish 
in our glass bowl from being coated with " fur" or slime. We 
have advanced a good many steps in our treatment of gold fish; 
we no longer doom the little animal to an eternal swimming 
mill, without the relief of shade; we permit him to meander 
through the groves of the delicate Vallisnena, and in the cen- 
tre of his crystal palace we build him a miniature Stonehenge, 
wherein he can play at hide-and-seek, and enjoy a cozy nap 
without disturbance, or even observation ; v/e introduce to his 
habitation a tiny shoal of minnows — most frolic-loving things — 
which, when we tap the glass, flock to the surface and greedily 
devour the fragments of "pastry-cook wafer" which, though 
they never did banquet thereupon in their natural state, they 
much enjoy in their captivity. We have learned from Mr. 
Warington to treat the tiny stickleback with as much respect 
as we were taught in childhood to bestow upon the beaver, and 
recommend our young friends to purchase a miniature aquarium 
especially for them, and so have the pleasure of observing the 
care bestowed by father stickleback in the formation of his 
family mansion, and the parental attention he pays to the pro-- 
tection and education of his young masters and misses, whom 



40 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Febraary, 



he keeps from the jaws of devouring minnows. We understand 
all such creatures better than we did, and it may be they return 
the compliment. 

Our own especial " new pleasure," however, is the Marine 
Aquarium. Concerning this drawing-room " romance of nature," 
we borrow a pen better qualified tiian ours to deal with the ob- 
ject to be attained, i. e. the arrangement of a collection of ani- 
mals and plants in salt water, in such a manner that, by the 
working out of natural laws, the whole may be permanently 
self-sustaining and self-purifying, without frequent change of 
the water being necessary. 

"The circumstances which brought about the growing taste 
for such an agreeable adjunct to our homes as the Aquarium, 
were mainly some experiments on the domestication of marine 
life, commenced — almost simultaneously — about five or six 
years ago, by Mr. R. Warington and Mr. P. H. Gosse. Then 
came some popular, accurately written, and beautifully illustra- 
ted books on the subject, by Mr. Gosse, followed by the open- 
ing to the public, in the spring of 1853, of the large and mag- 
nificently appointed aquatic collection of the Zoological Society, 
in Regent's Park, London, which produced as important effects 
on the branches of natural history to which it relates, as did 
the previous great event of 1851, in Hyde Park, on the sciences 
at large. 

" No sooner was it found possible thus to make daily ac- 
quaintance with the ' manners and customs' of a great variety 
of curious organizations previously hidden from all except pro- 
fessed naturalists, than many old notions on their natural his- 
tory became exploded, and indeed it would be easy to name 
more than one accepted text-book, dozen of pages of which 
must be cancelled by the aquarium-experiences of the last four 
years. Of course the desire to have Aquaria at home became 
obvious. In fresh-water, it was an ea.sy matter to plant aquatic 
vegetation among gravel at the bottom of a vase, and to put 
in fish and other animals: but the attempt to set up a marine 
collection and to maintain it in a healthy state, involved many 
difficulties. The supply of sea-water was uncertain and costly, 
and even when obtained, its purity, and that of the vessel in 
which it was brought from the coast, could not always be de- 
pended upon. In cases of accident, too, the whole of the live 
stock might perish before a fresh importation of water could be 
made. At length Mr. Gosse stepped in with a formula for the 
manufacture of an artificial sea water from its constituent salts, 
which, after adequate trials, has been found nearly to answer 
every purpose of actual seawater. 

f "It then became necessary to obtain the animals and sea-weeds 
from the coast. This, to residents inland, was a matter of dif- 
ficulty. Amateurs could not always find the time and means to 
visit the sea-side and collect for themselves. Nor was it al- 
ways practicable to employ an agency for the purpose; to hire 
a man to procure and transmit so small a quantity of specimens 
as would merely sufiSce for a vase or tank, would obviously be 
working at a disadvantage both to collector and purchaser. 
In short, it became essential that some one in the metropolis 
should be found willing to '* set-up shop" in this kind of " ma- 
rine stores;" to establish a regular communication with the 
coast; to receive consignments at stated intervals; and to be 
willing to retail them in any quantities according to the varia- 
tion of the tastes and means of the purchasers." 

* * * * * :): 

We commenced our salt-water " Aquarium" under the most 
favorable auspices. The accomplished secretary of the Zoolo 
gical Society was so good as to order for us a tank of " suit- 
able" dimensions, and permit one of his intelligent keepers of 
"marine stores" to arrange the interior of our mimic ocean; 
he also gave us the necessary quantity of sea water, •' dipped 
up" from the Atlantic, and some excellent advice; but we fur- 
nished our tank as young housekeepers are apt to furnish a 
bouse — with ranch more than was necessary. Every specimen 
we could collect was floated into " the tank." We should not, 
during the days of our young experience, have hesitated to 
have introduced a juvenile shark or cod-fish into our marine mena- 
gerie. It was in vain the Hermit crabs gathered in their claws, that 



swimming crabs and other crabs crowded from the bottom, and 
endeavored to reach the summit of the rocks to escape with 
life from the noxious gases generated by dying and sickly fish- 
without a sufficient counteracting influence of marine plants; it 
was in vain that the pied Crassicornis bloomed and died within 
a day, that the Actinia belli; (the hardy daisy), refused to im- 
plant itself among our pebbles — that the Sabellas crept out of 
their cases, and the delicate Actinia diantkus, and even the 
hardy Messevihryanthevium let their tentacles droop in unhealthy 
inertness; still we continued adding instead of withdrawing, 
pouring in half-pints of innocent periwinkles, and half-dozens of 
springing shrimps, until in a few days the water became offen- 
sive, and the whole contents of " the tank'' was obliged to be 
thrown away I We were " all in the wrong," — and in addition 
to the information derived from the secretary of the Zoological 
Gardens, from the kind counsel of Mr. Gosse, as well as from' 
hif books, varied and beautiful as they are; from that also of 
Doctor Farre, who wrote concerning the interest of those sea- 
creatures some twenty years ago; in addition to our sea-side ex- 
perience during the autumn, and our daily access to Mr. Heale's 
picturesque cottage at Ilfracombe, where ^ beneath a bower of 
roses and woodbine, his bright and pretty daughter has become 
as familiar with "ili«rf;-«pores" and " Sabellas'' and " Acdnice" 
of all kinds, as the generality of village maidens are with prim- 
roses and buttercups; in addition to the inspirations of " Glau- 
cus" and the concentrated wisdom of the pretty square books 
published by Mr. Reeve ; though we waded ankle-deep at least 
in Waterraouth Bay, and explored "tide-pools" and wide- 
s))readiHg sands in the bewitching localities of Ilfracombe and 
Torquay; in addition to the advice of friends, the information 
of books, the frequent inspection of the Vivarium at the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens, the " peeps" graciously afforded into the "tanks" 
of Mr. Gosse, Mr. Warrington, and others learned in Zoo- 
phytes — and, moreover, acquaintance with the varied creatures 
to be seen in Mr. Lloyd's sale-room, in the bowers of Capstone 
Cottage, Ilfracombe, or in the pretty " Shellery'^ of Mr. Pike, 
at Brighton — we had to learn the lessons that are taught only 

by EXPERIENCE. 

Atmosphere and light, and the least difference in position 
have such an effect both upon weeds and waters, that nothing 
but observation in fact — will enable you to maintain a marine 
Aquarium in health and respectability. If you give too much 
light the water resists the intrusion, and becomes opaque; if 
too little, the animals pine away. You must have practice and 
patience: in truth there is as much pleasure in both these vir- 
tues as in the peace and prosperity of your " Aquarium." We 
tried the sea-water three several times, and with the same re- 
sult; we ceased to over-stock our sea farm, yet still the crea- 
tures died I The water was thrown away and the shingle 
washed over and over again ; and an Irishwoman, a ' ' help," 
who assists all our experiments, declared, " No wonder people 
got say-sick crossing the say, if the water was all like that 1" 
At last, by Mr. Gosse's advice, we put our Aquarium under 
Mr. Lloyd's care; he nearly filled it with the composed water, 
replaced our weeds and shingle, and arranged the flagging Ac- 
tiiiicc in what he considered the best situations. The next day 
the water looked nearly clear, a delicate JDianthns had adhered 
to the glass, several Bellis had fixed themselves in the shingle, 
and those hardy fearless MwCT?ii;-?/a?z<Ac?;m»z5 were in their full 
bloom of activity. We felt singularly elated — we should have 
been so glad to have shown our minimic caverns, over which 
floated banners of the green Ulva, to Mr. Mitchell or Mr. Gosse, 
or even to the triumphant Mr. Warrington, who has kept 
his sea-water unchanged for upwards of five years, and whose 
venerable prawns prowl about perpetually, seeking what they 
may devour. 

But soon after, another kind friend sent os a bountiful supply 
of animals and most beautiful sea-weed from Falmouth; we did 
uot — however tempted by the swelling beauty of the Gernmacta, 
or the graceful bend of the Dianthus — overstock our tank with 
animal life; but we had a weakness for the picturesque, and we 
loaded it with sea-weed; child-like, "because it looked so pret- 
ty 1" Though we knew that the Ulva latisdma is all sufficient 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE AUT JOURNAL. 



41 



or the purpose of keeping the water pure — still we were tempt- 
ed, and tiie water soon became discolored and turbid. Mr. 
Gosse says the water under these circumstances can be brought 
back to purity by being placed in a dark closet, but we had uot 
a " dark closet," and so were obliged to get another supply of 
Mr. Lloyd's prepared salt, and replenish our ocean; since then, 
we have been greatly successful, the water is " clear as crystal" 
now, and it has continued so for mure than ten weeks. 

The desire to know something about, and to possess some 
specimens, of those " living flowers," is becoming so general, that 
" agents" can be met with at most of our sea-side resorts, who 
will procure a sufficient number of "zoophytes" to effect a com- 
mencement; but, we repeat, without patience you cannot pros- 
per. Your tank may be on the plan of those at the Zoological 
Gardens, oblong, formed of plate-glass and slate, and bound 
with iron (mine contains about 18 gallons, the cost il. 10s. j; 
you can have smaller vessels, from a finger-glass upwards; but 
all require patient observation, care, and cleanliness: whatever 
you put in must be first cleansed — of course, in salt-water. 

Very recently, however, improvements have been made in 
tanks; and such improvements should be made extensively 
known; for in many ways they greatly augment the " new plea- 
sure ;" first, as avoiding all danger to the inmates; and next, 
as supplying articles of furniture so elegant as to be accesso- 
ries to the drawing-room. I allude chiefly to the tanks manufac- 
tured by Messrs. Lloyd & Summerfield, of Birmingham. By a 
patented process, these gentlemen have substituted glass for 
wood and iron, in many cases where, heretofore, wood and iron 
were indispensable. In several of the large shopwindows of 
Loudon, the whole is of glass — pillars, supports, and sashes. 
Thus, in the tank, the plates of glass are brought together by 
glass pipes, neither wood nor metal being used anywhere. The 
advantages are so obvious, that hereafter, we imagine, this 
principle will be adopted universally, as at once more elegant, 
and more healthful to the inhabitants of tanks, either of fresh 
or salt-water, but especially the latter. 

But Messrs. Lloyd & Summerfield, we believe, designed these 
articles not so much to serve as tanks as for Pern-houses; al- 
tliough it is apparent that they are quite as well suited for the 
one as for the other. They are produced in very great varieties: 
some being larger and more shallow; others being without legs, 
to stand on tables; others are made to serve as fountains, 
standing on a graceful glass pillar, through which runs a metal 
pipe connected with a supply of water. These gentlemen also 
manufacture a variety of globes, large cups, vases, and basins: 
so that all the wants and wishes of those who cultivate Aqua- 
ria may be hence supplied — taste as well as convenience having 
been studied. 

A fresh water Aquarium is much more easily managed than 
a salt one, and the active movements of the fish increase its in- 
terest; but fish are by no means as varied and curious as the 
zoophytes. Wherever Nature is, there is interest and beauty, 
S) you can choose one or the other — or you may have both. In 
addition to your tank 3'ou will require a syphon, a syringe (of 
either glass or zinc), and a long-handled wooden spoon, with a 
sponge tied on the handle end; you must also have a little 
glass " test," to regulate the density of the water.* If a town- 
dweller, we suppose you will obtain the prepared salt from Mr. 
Lloyd; although Mr. Gosse and Mr. Warington prefer the 
sea-water, and it continues pure and healthy in their tanks: I 
have no doubt that when it can be procured pure, and not near 
the sea-beach — where it is necessarily injured by extraneous 
matter — it is far better than the artificial water. But whether 
you use the sea or the composed water, you must, first having 
washed and seasoned your tank for a few days (and all vessels, 
large or small, require a little salt water to stand in them for a 
day or twoj, put in a thin layer of sand, then a layer of shingle, 
then arrange a few carefully-washed rocky stones according to 
your own fancy, let them be rugged, because the Adiniic can 

* The syphou is necessary to draw off the water without confusing 
your arrangements; the syringe to throw in (if used for five minutes 
once a day), a supply of fresh air; the " spoon" to remove the dead ani- 
mals; and the sponge to clean the glass. 

VOL XI. NO. II. 6 



the better grasp them, and you can place your sea-weed to 
greater advantage: an arch, which joa can easily build o? have 
cut at a stone-mason's is always pretty, and the sea-weeds hang 
well from the top; then put in yoa sea-weed, taking care that 
it is growinjr, and has its roots fixed to bits of rock or stone; 
the Ulvalatissima (the delicate sea lettuce), and the corallines, 
are quite enough as a commencement; the "copper beech" of 
the ocean adds much to the beauty of your marine garden, the 
only difficulty being in the arrangement of light; it loves deep, 
waters, and will fade beneath the rays of a strong sm>. Hav- 
ing arranged your plants, leave them alone for two or three 
days, and then introduce the hardiest of your Adinia. 

Mr. Warington told us of a worm that conceals itself in the 
sand, beneath the shingle, and, in gratitude for its shelter de- 
vours all impure and dead substances; the prawns do this also, 
but we would not put pravrns into new water, nor until the 
lower organizations of animal life had been fully established in 
their several localities: the Bellis (daisy) hanging from some 
rough stone; the Dianthus wandering imperceptibly along the 
glass, now looking like a knob of jelly, then extending like a 
telescope with a number of the most delicately cut fibres at the 
end — a living white carnation: the Ge-Mmacea — so worthy of 
its name; and every class and color of the Mesembryanikemums 
from the scarlet strawberry to the delicate olive green, are all 
safe tenants, and may be introduced at the same time. The 
Craissicornis we have not been able to keep alive more than a 
week- — with one exception; a very small one fixed itself upon a 
fragment of rock, and we placed it near "high-water niiirk;" 
there it lived and bloomed seven weeks, at last dropped off and 
died. A very intelligent correspondent at Falmouth tells us 
that he takes his Crassicornes out o'i the water every day for a 
couple of hours, shakes a little gravel over them and returns 
them to the water, and that "they live months;" he does this 
"because," he says, "they are in their natural state frequently 
left exposed by the receding tide." 1 regret that I have not 
time to air them, as ladies air their lap-dogs — but the practice 
has reason in it. 

It may be that the daisies (bellis) will not fix, but "bloat" 
themselves out and roll about in the water; this is a bad sign, 
yet they may change their minds, and root well for all that; if, 
after three or four days, they are not fixed, they will lose their 
firmness andcolor, become spongy, and not withdraw their ten- 
tacles when touched; then lift them to the surface of the 
water in your fishing-spoon, and you will soon psrceive by the 
aroma that they are dead. Nothing dead must on any account 
be suffered to remain in the water, so throw them away, and 
put in others. Ascertain that your " test" globules floats up- 
right, and when you force it down, if it rises slowly, very slowly 
to the surface, tne water is fit; there is always, even when you 
cover your tank (which I strongly recommend you to do), an 
evaporation which renders your water too salt; you must pre- 
vent this by occasionally pouring in from a teacupfull to half a 
pint of fresh-filtered water, watching the movement of your 
"test;" you may also introduce the active and beiiutiful Anl/iea 
cereus, but I find it wiser to introduce the small not the large 
specimens. My large Anthea cereus all died after two or three 
weeks, but I have two small ones which are growing; one fixed 
itself at what may be called " high-water mark'' on the glass, 
the other floats on a leaf of Ulva, and never changes its quar- 
ters, while its sister moves an inch or so every day, but alwa3's 
near the surface; half-a-dozen periwinkles must be thrown into 
the water (taking care they do not remain on their bucks), they 
will prevent the accumulation of decayed vegetation, and mow 
from off the glass the mossy growth which would soon obstruct 
your view of your favorites, if permitted to accumulate. 
Avoiding disturbing the bottom of your tank; and note down 
the number you put in: a certain quantity of water can only 
afford nourishment to a certain quantity of animal or vegetable 
life, so I would entreat you not to overstock. You will require 
some ('say for a tank of 18 gallons three or four,) prawns (not 
shrimps, who must burrow in sand, and do not float about like 
the beautiful prawns); they are the most gentlemanly scaven- 
gers you can imagine. All Aclinice throw off a sort of a cob- 



42 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL- 



February, 



web, which in the absence of prawns I frequently sweep off with 
my sponge or a feather. I can see to a hair's breath if my 
Adiniiz move during the night, or during my absence; they 
suffer from cold, and I lost several that 1 had just received 
from Mr Dunstan, of Falmouth, simply because the water 
which warms the corridor where the tank stands, grew cold in 
the night, and the thermometer fell below freezing point; 
several diantlnts, hellis, and gevimacca were flat and dead in the 
morning. Crabs of all kinds are very active and interesting, 
but they are so restless and revolutionary in their movements, 
that I would not recommend them as inmates of an Aquarium; 
they scratch, and doge, and tear everything; the hermit crabs 
— in fact, the whole crab family are the same: in mischief they 
are the very monkeys of the sea. I have still some beautiful 
madrepores which 1 brought from Ilfracombe in September; I 
know nothing more beautiful than the madrepores, when they 
bloom from out their caves; but do not let the large Adinice 
creep too near them; if once their tentacles embrace a madre- 
pore, a prawn, a crab, a periwinkle, the next day they will dis- 
gorge the shell, but the substance will have been extracted. 
Sometimes, if my Adinice do not bloom freely in deep water, I 
remove them to the more shallow, and vice versa, which a young 
friends calls "giving them change of air;" though sometimes 
when I have removed a green, or a grey, or a scarlet Adinia, 
for the purpose of getting a nice bit of color at a particular 
point, so as to add to the beauty of my tank, the obstinate 
thing has either slid away or died, as if in sheer perversity. I 
have, therefore, learned, if they seem healthy and happy in one 
situation, not to attempt to remove them to another. 

I pray it may be understood that my notes upon this " new 
pleasure" are simply intended for the instruction of tyros, who 
will be saved much disappointment by going to the A, B, C of 
the "Aquarium," and then learning, from learned books and 
experience, what I — myself a learner — could not presume to 
teach. During the past winter, those "blossoms of the sea" 
have afforded me a great deal deal of enjoyment. Every bit 
of weed and rock — every zoophyte — has its little history. I 
have beguiled some lonely midnight moments by placing my 
candle, .so as to produce different effects of light and shade on 
my mimic ocean; and those dim links between vegetable and 
animal life have carried me back, without an effort, to the de- 
licious scenes from whence they came. 

How patiently have we watched the receding tide, to enable 
us to explore the mysteries of some tide-pool, difficult of access 
but richly repaying our exertions by the abundance and variety 
of its inhabitants! How have we deplored the loss of a "speci- 
men," and, like all bad workmen, quarrelled with our tools^- 
" the hammer was too heavy," the " chisel too light!" — and, 
when we made sure of " such a magnificent Bdlis ," how fool- 
ish we have felt when it disappeared from our grasp, sinking- 
into its rocky crevice, scarcely leaving a trace of its retreatl 
We triumph to this day in a dianUius, remembering how nearly 
our boat was upset beside a group of rocks off Torquay, while 
endeavoring to obtain the prize. What a delicious day that 
was! The overpowering heat of the southern sun, tempered by 
a breeze cool only by contrast, yet still refreshing! The sky, 
bright as in Italy! The distant splash of oars, as boat after 
boat passed to and from the delicious bays which indent the 
Devonshire coast with their mysterious beauty: there, a bold 
headland, purple and green amid its dark-browned rocks and 
golden veins, stands sentinel of sea and shore, shading without 
obscuring the low-roofed cottages, whose trellised roses and 
verdant lawns, hanging midway on yonder hills, realize an En- 
glish Arcadia! 

We frequently sought amongst the weeds which the lavish 
waves had heaped upon the strand for Adinia; and if we 
moved a stone, it seemed as if the bay produced nothing but 
crabs, such scrambling multitudes rushed forth and disappeared. 
We found one or two marvellously large "strawberries" there, one, 
who still hangs at the cornar of our tank, like a pendant of 
" Love lies bleeding" always in active bloom, seeking what he 
may devour— a fragment of beef, a bit of chicken, a dead 
" bdlis" or a minnow — a most gluttonous creature! and this re- 



minds me that he is the only Adinia I have ever fed. though 
Mr. Warington indulges his captives, at long intervals, with 
little scraps of mutton: and the blue old lobster, at the Zoolo- 
gical Gardens, has his food as regularly as the lions and tigers. 
But if you feed the zoophytes with palpable food, I doubt the 
possibility of keeping the water pure, and the water produces 
sufficient for their existence; though I dare say their growth 
would be increased by a more liberal supply. 

It is quite amusing to observe how the little children, both 
at Torquay and Ilfracombe, have caught the taste of the times, 
and come to the sea-side visitor with a bunch of "zoophytes,'"' 
as they used to do with a young bird or a bouquet of wild 
flowers. They patter along the shore with their bare feet, 
turning up the sea-shag, and astonishing the crabs and sand- 
hoppers; or plash boldly into the pools. One little fellovy 
brought we a worm in great triumph, calling it a sea-serpent; 
while his sister — brown, though blue-eyed — produced a green 
Adinia, which survived until Christmas: it is pleasant to re- 
member the children toiling up Capstone Hill, attracted as 
much by the music of the brass baud as by the hope of selling 
" zoophytes." 

\¥e need only recal our own hours of wearisome do-nothing- 
ness at watering-places, in days lang syne, to properly estimate 
what this " new pleasure" was to ns during our rambles along 
the coasts of North and South Devon — the lane-walks affording 
us such specimens of ferns and wild bowers as we never gathered 
before, and the shore rambles sending us to our lodgings with 
our living sea-flowers, to be turned into every available glass 
and basin, with the cheering and inexpensive speculation of how 
they would look "at home." 

It is impossible to admire these beautiful creatures, and the 
simple labors by which they exist, without thinking of Him 
who, insignificant as they appear, works for thera and in them. 
Surely, if He cares for them — which cannot except by the con- 
tentment they exhibit, acknowledge His bountry — how much 
more will He care for us! 

The amiable and enlightened Doctor Landsborough claims a 
remote antiquity for these wonders of the shore. In one of his 
charming books,* he says, "the Serlularue that wave their 
plumes in the sea in the present day, are not in the least more 
skilful than those that lived immediately after the Deluge. 
But they can boast of kindred who were great before the flood 
— which have for ever passed away — though their existence is 
proved by their wonderful remains, buried in the rocks in every 
place of our land, and they can more proudly boast of kindred 
yet alive in foreign chmes — numerous almost as the sand of the 
sea-shore, which have achieved what human power could never 
have accomplished, and with unwearied assiduity, and still car- 
rying on works which the united efforts of myriads of millions of 
mankind would in vain attempt to effect. We speak of the 
coral-forming zoophytes of foreign seas." 

Surely there is both simplicity and dignity in a pursuit which 
leads us to a more intimate knowledge of these dwellers in the 
sea, and when I perceive the birth of an Adivin and observe 
the little creature — hardly bigger than a pin's head— working 
its oars and seeking its own food, I cannot but feel that by 
" studying the nature and habits of these little denizens of the 
deep we see the kind hand of God, where our forefathers never 
thought of looking for it, and where we should not, in all pro- 
bability, have seen it, but for the invention of the microscope. 
In the very lowest department of Zoology we deal with things 
that have /j/e. Who, of earthly mould, can give life and vol- 
untary motion to the smallest creature ? This is God's doing; 
and it is not only marvellous, but pleasant to our eyes I 

I have thus endeavored to add my mite to a treasury, the 
wealth of which is open to all, earnestly desiring that many 
may share with me the enjoyment to be derived from this new 
PLEASURE. The longer we live the more we are impressed with 
the conviction that there can be no happiness that is not par- 
ticipated: it is a solemn yet a pleasant truth that we become 
happy by making others happy. 



' Popular History of British Zoophytes." Reeve & Co. 




The " season" is now approaching when thousand will quit 
for a time the " busy hum'' of cities for the breezy melody of 
the sea-shore: under such circumstances it becomes almost a 
duty to be idle; but surely "idle time" will not be " idly spent" 
by those whose daily strolls are ministers to a " new pleasure!" 



From the Jour, of the Fhot. Soc. 

MR. LONG'S DRY COLLODION PROCESS. 

40 Sloaue Square, Oct. 8th, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — In last month's Number of the Society's Journal, 
page 41, Mr. Q. R. Smith in eulogizing the dry collodion pro- 
cess, as published by Messrs. Bland and Long, gives to Mr. 
Long the merit of its discovery ; now if Mr. Gr. R. Smith will 
refer to the very ingenious preface to Mr. Long's pamphlet, he 
will find that Mr. Long does not claim any part of the pro- 
cess. 

The metagelatine* made with citric acid, by which means 
neutralization and filtration are avoided, was first suggested 
and successfully carried into practice by me. 

Some time before Mr. Long's pamphlet appeared, I showed 
him the results of my experiments; he considered them so satis- 
factory that he asked me for my formula, which I freely gave 
him and which he has since published, and I feel assured that 
he will corroborate this statement; moreover, I mentioned the 
subject at the Ordinary Meeting of the Society on June 4th, 
1857, and also on a former occasion. 

I wish it clearly to be understood that I do not claim the 
discovery of preserving sensitive collodion plates with gel.itine, 
as we are indebted for that to Dr. Hill Korris; but in justice 
to myself and brother amateurs, I do hope that, in future, 
should any of our little improvements be coosidered worthy of 
publication, the credit will not be so appropriated by others as 
to mislead such well-intentioned photographers as Mr. Gr. R. 
Smith. 

W. Adrian DelferIeb. 



J^rom the Juur. of the Phot. Soc, 

"RAISED" PORTRAITS. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — Under the appellation "Photo," in the answers to cor" 
respondents in the Journal for September 21, you gave me the 
following information relative to what I called " raised por- 
traits," that is, the portrait appeared to stand out from the 
background : — 

" Photo. 1. — The collodion side of the glass positive is 
placed in front, and then a background, &c. painted on the 
other, plain, side of the glass." 

I am sorry to say I do not understand what you mean. 1 
always frame my positives when colored with the collodion side 
in front, and if there was painted a background on the other, 
which is the plain side of the glass, it would not have the de- 
sired effect I allude to. I use a white sheet for a background, 
and what I wish is to have the portraits with white background, 
but still the figure to appear to stand out. I know an ama- 
teur at photography who cannot color a photograph, and yet 
he can bring out his portraits ' ' raised" in a beautiful style. 

As I very much desire to know how to bring my portraits 
out in this style, I shall be extremely obliged to you if you will 
notice the subject more plainly in next Journal ; and if you 
know any work that alludes- to the subject, I shall be glad of 
the information. 

Photo. 

*** We are tinable to give the precise information desired. 
Can any of our correspondents enlighten us ? — fEd. P. J.) 

* Maxwell Lyte's— Ed. P. J. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

CnORLTOX PHOTOGRAPHIC ASSOCIATION. 



The sixth annual meeting of this Society was held In the 
Chorlton Town Hall, on the 12th inqtaut, Mr. Hepwortii, V.P., 
in the chair. 

After the usual preliminary proceedings, 

Mr. L. E. VVhaite read the following paper 

ON COLORING THE BACKGROUNDS OF COLLODION POSITIVES. 

In a recent number of the Liverpool and Manchester Photo- 
graphic Journal^ there appeared an article on coloring back- 
grounds of collodion portraits, in which the writer expressed a 
wish that some additional information would be given by any 
one conversant with this interesting subject. Having in my 
practice, as an amateur, adopted a method which, after re- 
peated trials, I have found completely to answer my expecta- 
tions, I take this opportunity of communicating the informa- 
tion. 

What photographer, whether professional or amateur, is 
there that has not met with a spotty or stained background ? 
and perhaps, on the same plate, has obtained an exceedingly 
good and faithful portrait, but, in consequence of spots and 
stains, has destroyed the picture, and then labored again and 
again to obtain the former happy expression, but alas! in vain 
It may be that the background is clear, while there is too 
much of the same tone throughout the picture, and a ghastly 
look is thereby given to the sitter. Again, every operator is 
aware of the great difiSculty in taking portraits of childen who 
will not remain quiet, unless held by their parents or nurses; 
these, being behind the child, would of course be visible in the 
photograph, and disappear only when the background is put in. 
Unquestionably, pure photography is at all times to be pre- 
ferred, yet it frequently happens that circumstances such as 
those described above, will so deteriorate the impression, that 
some additional aid is required, otherwise, very many attempts 
might be requisite to produce a picture which would be satis- 
factory even in a moderate degree. 

The first thing to be done is, to free the surface of the plate 
from all grease, or any impurities of gum contained in the var- 
nish. This is done by washing it over with a few drops of 
liquid ox gall, and wiping it dry with a soft handkerchief or 
dossil of lint. 

I may say that, without this precaution, the color will 
shrink from its original place, and leave a sort of halo around 
the figure. 

Having decided on the tint of the background, say for in- 
stance a grey, or any other neutral tint, I take a small quan- 
tity of black and blue of the ordinary photographic powder 
colors, and a little of the liquid ox gall, grinding them, or 
rather mixing them, with a small palette knife on a piece of 
ground glass, adding a small quantity of moist Chinese white, 
which gives a body to the color and renders it opaque. I also 
add a small particle of red to give warmth to the grey. 

The color having been well mixed, Itlien proceed to lay it on 
the plate with a sable brush, which is done as quickly as possi- 
ble, taking care not to color over the outline of the figure. Af- 
ter having worked round it, I take a larger brush and fill up 
the remainder of the background: then I stipple with a swan- 
qaill or large camel-hair brush, which destroys all traces of 
previous brush-marks which may have been left by the sable 
brush, and not only gives an even granular texture to the back- 
ground, but serves also like so many cells for the reception of 
dry powder colors, which fill up the cavities and attach them- 
selves readily and firmly to the groundwork — in the course of 
a few minutes the groundwork is dry. I then proceed to lay 
on the dry powder colors with a small short camel-hair brush, 
thus gaining a more even surface, and producing with the 
powder colors all the graduated tones of a beautiful painting. 
Lastly, the excess of powder colors is to be dusted off; then, 
with a moist brush, clean over the figure, taking care not to 
touch the background. 

These observations will be more fully understood by a refer- 



44 



THE PHOTO GRArHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



ence to the specimens on the table, and I have only to add, 
that this process is not dilficult; it requires, like the rest of 
photographic operations, a little care and practice to enable 
the operator to produce a beautiful picture, varying not only 
the color, but the respective shades at pleasure, so that a true 
artistic eifect can be given. 

A vote of thaulis was unanimously given to Mr. Whaite for 
his very interesting paper. 

Mr. Alfred Deane then read a paper 

" ON THE PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF GUN COTTON." 

Of all the photographic processes, none for simplicity, quick- 
ness, general application, and artistic effects has equalled the 
use of collodion, the foundation of vviiich is gun cotton; a pre- 
paration tliat was once anticipated to be the grand agent of 
destructive warfare, and which is now a great promoter of 
friendship, peace, and the fine arts, and helps to work such mir 
acles of quick and accurate drawing, as to be, in its application, 
a wonder of this wonderful age — second to none. 

When first commencing with photography the importance of 
gun cotton was such, in rny estimation, that a month's experi- 
ments were not thought too long to devote to the subject. I 
learned that it can be made from any materials containing 
woody fibre — whether leaves, grass, wood, rags, potatoes, ropes, 
&c., but that cotton as presenting the fibre in its purest form 
and finest state of shreds, was the most eligible material with 
which nature has furnished us. I have tried animal wool and 
other substances, but, with the exception of wash leather, with- 
out any desirable result. 

First, procure the cotton as clean as possible, and then boil 
it in a strong solution of potash or soda, if somewhat caustic 
the better, or stir it well in some hot alkaline liquid, so that it 
may be freed from a natural oil it contains, which causes au un- 
equal action in the after process. 

Now procure an ordinary pickling jar of any size, and if the 
top is flat, or rubbed flat on a stone, so as to allow a piece of 
ground glass to lie evenly on its surface, to prevent the too 
easy escape of the fumes, so much the better. 

Mix by degrees iu a stoppered bottle an equal quantity, by 
measure, of commercial sulphuric and nitric acid, sold at about 
ten pence per pound; thougli not quite pure, it answers as well, 
and often better, being generally stronger, than the purer and 
more expensive kinds. When this cools, pour into the jar 
filled with cotton sufficient of the nitro-sulphuric acid to give it 
equal dampness to prevent an unequal action in the after 
process. 

The sulphuric acid of commerce can be generally bought 
strong enough for our purpose, but nitric acid varies so much in 
strength, and is mostly so weak, that I have found it best to 
make it from nitrate of potash, by adding by degrees the pound- 
ed salt to sulphuric acid. The mixture should be made in a 
stoppered bottle, and shaken leisurely, so as to prevent it heat- 
ing too much. No weighing or measuring is required, as it will 
be right if it is all fluid, at about 200 degrees temperature, or 
fluid enough to flow out of the bottle at half that heat. It 
will be quite solid when cool. No action worth considering 
takes place with the cotton in this strong acid when cool, or 
even warm; and here comes my grand secret — commence with 
the materials as cool as possible, then you may so apply heat 
that you command the progress at pleasure. 

AVarm the solid sulphate of ])otash just enough to allow it 
to flow out of the bottle into the jar of cotton, which, on well 
stirring with the mixed acids, becomes more fluid. Now place 
the jar covered with a piece of glass on a hob, sufficiently large 
to command different degrees of temj erature, or place the jar 
in a pan half full of warm water or sand, over the fire, and in 
th-i course of several minutes, just before the heat is at the 
boiling point, or at the boiling point if no solution is taking 
place, take it off. Quickly draw it out with a hooked wire or 
glass into a large pan of water, immediately stirring to pre- 
vent solution taking place in the inner part of the clotted cot- 
ton, by the weakening of the acids. 

With weak acids it is well to allow the heat to be high, 



though in them the cotton is most liable to dissolve, and once 
properly commenced the internal heat becomes so great that 
all the cotton disappears before you have time to draw it out 
into the water. 

The great advantage of using the heat of a fire, is in being 
able to regulate it, while the fumes go up the chimney. In a 
glass vessel you can watch the behavior of the cotton, and may 
consider it satisfactory if none of it dissolves. The redness of 
the fumes inside the bottle will soon become a good guide to 
the change the cotton is undergoing. 

A little experience will soon indicate to the novice the 
strength or weakness of his acids, for, if weak, the cotton is 
disposed to dissolve at a proportionately low temperature, while 
if strong, the heat may reach safely 212". Or the stronger 
the acids, the less heat required, and the greater the heat the 
cotton will bear the quicker the action. 

The beginner, should he suspect the weakness of his sulphuric 
acid, would do well to stop the action before it advances too 
far, and hook out a tuft of cotton into some water; and if it is 
unaltered in strength, it may be considered underdone; if it 
feels of a much greater specific gravity when washed, and is 
much more tender, it may be considered right; and if it falls 
away in the water, in rotten short threads, the cotton may be 
good, but it is dissolving from being over done. When first 
learning, I would take a piece of cotton out of the wide-mouthed 
bottle; roughly wash and quickly dry, first by squeezing in 
blotting paper, and then open it out and place it near the fire, 
and treat iu the following manner: — Place a tuft, quite dry, on 
a clean bit of glass or white porcelain; apply a flame, and if it 
burn slowly with much flame, and little or no explosion, leaving 
a black tinder, make sure, if the acids are strong enough, that 
more heat or more time is required. If the tuft slightly flames 
and suddenly explodes without much noise, leaving behind a 
little black ash, and especially a little damp, gummy residue, it 
may be considered satisfactory. If it suddenly and somewhat 
loudly explodes, leaving behind a dry white powder, it must 
be considered over-done, not probably because the acids were 
too strong, for of that there is little fear, but because the heat 
was too long, or high, or both. 

For the most certain test it may be as well to keep at hand 
one or two ounces of known quality of «ther, and alcohol mixed 
in equal proportions. In this the cotton should readily dii-,- 
solve, an inferior quality requiring a larger proportion of a3ther. 

Put about a grain of cotton to a dram of the fluid, and if it 
does not dissolve or only partially, and remains little altered in 
strength of fibre, it is underdone, but if it appears to be dusty 
it is overdone. If the cotton is diposed to make the whole fluid 
into a jelly whilst dissolving, a few drops of ether alone added, 
may cause it to liquify perfectly, but still this cottou will not dis- 
solve at the rate of more than three or four grains to the ounce; 
but, if made at a higher temperature, it would theu become per- 
fectly liquid in the test mixture. 

A good cotton will, in dissolving, instantly become transpa- 
rent, appearing for a moment like dissolving gum arabic, and 
soon becomes perfectly lost in the solvent, at a rate of eight 
grains to the ounce, and will even bear from four to six grains 
to the ounce, if three parts alcohol to one of ojther is used. 

This is the only cotton on which you can expect to get rich 
and brilliant-toned positives, as it has less of tiie cotton in its 
nature; for my notion of the cotton is, that in solution it is 
merely a neutral medium for the formation of the iodide of sil- 
ver, and receiving the reduced salt, while the underdone cotton 
has a tendency to unite with a more unreduced or oxide of 
silver. 

This very soluble cotton may be for color of deposit no better 
for negatives, but as it is most fres from network on drying, 
will bear the most alcohol, therefore less liable to tear off the 
glass, and is more porous, and therefore rougher and more sen- 
sitive. It must be the rule to get a cottou that will bear the 
most alcohol. A^iews or portraits on a rough porous alcoholic 
collodion, are bolder, softer, and more artistic. Should yonr 
cotton only partially dissolve, it shows that you have been too 
quick in your manipulation, not using the glass rod enough in 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



45 



stirring. I am not prepared to give any clear theory of the 
chemical chaoge the cotton undergoes, but will certainly deny 
that there are any definite kinds of gun cotton, for the cotton 
is capable of all degrees of change, from it being little altered 
to a more or less soluble cottou, until it goes on to the insolu- 
ble explosive gun-cotton, just as you may more or less alter 
cotton by heat until, from being a little burned, it becomes per- 
fectly carbon. 

With respect to the use of linen or paper, I have found no 
advantage over unrepelliug or washed cotton, especially if that 
cotton is cut with the scissors in short lengths, as paper merely 
undergoes a process that makes its fibres shorter, and thus pre- 
sents more open ends to allow the acid to get inside the cotton 
or fibre, but it has this disadvantage, that the outside of the 
fibre is more pressed over-lapped, or intertwined, and less ex- 
posed to action. The cotton, after being roughly washed in 
water, requires nothing more than being well squeezed in many 
changes of warm water, dried and bottled. 

In making collodion, I seldom use less than seven grains of 
cotton to the ounce, and reject, for good reasons, methylated 
aethers. A good collodion, can be made from two to sixteen 
grains of cotton to the ounce, and containing from three to 
eight grains of an iodine salt, while a developer may be used 
successfully from two to twenty grains of protosulphateof iron, 
according to circumstances, and the other materials used. 

Having tried all kinds of additions to collodion, such as io- 
dide of silver, essential oils, chloroform, &c. , I can only say 
that they are best let alone, with the exception of iodine, 
which sometimes tends to unite with and throw down invisible 
impurities in a new collodion, and therefore doing more good 
than harm, if not used in excess. One-fifth of a bromide is 
good for the better taking of certain colors. 

The opacity of the film after it comes out of the bath, is no 
certain guide of the strength of the collodion in iodides, for a 
porous collodion, with the same quantity of an iodine salt, will 
give a more creamy film than a close textured one, simply be- 
cause the particles of iodide of silver were formed slower, 
and, if I may be allowed to say, in a finer state of divis- 
ion, at least so arranged as to appear more transparent. A 
little water added to a very anhydrous collodion will often make 
a somewhat transparent film look more opaque, as the collodion 
has become of a more porous quality. 

Again, ma*ke an iodide of silver in a strong or weak solution 
of nitrate of silver, and the result is, a strong solution precipi- 
tates snowy flakes, a weak one a fine milky deposit, so that by 
a weak or strong bath, a porous or impenetrable film, the action 
is slower or quicker, and will give different opacities with the 
same quantity of an iodine salt in the collodion, independent of 
the different thicknesses of the film. 



From the JoU. of the Phot. 8oc. 

SPOTS ON COILODIOX CAUSED BY VOLTAIC ELECTRICITY. 

50 Blessington Street, Dublin, Sept. 5th, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir,— -Since the publication of my letters in vol. iii. of the 
Journal, pages 55 and 91, I have endeavored to ascertain the 
cause of othef pecuUar marks of a flame-like appearance radia- 
ting from the corners of the plates towards the centre. In con- 
sequence of having recently been experimenting with dry collo- 
dion, in which these marks never occurred, I naturally imagined 
that the silver corners of the slides might play an important 
part in the pheenomena; accordingly I covered the corners with 
a fine sUpofguttapercha, and found the remedy effectual. What, 
then, was the nature of the chemical change thus produced? I 
at once attributed it to a current of voltaic electricity generated 
in a manner requiring investigation, and accordingly constructed 
a small galvanic apparatus with a scrap of iron and a piece of 
silver immersed in dilute acid in a teacup. Having sensitized a 
stereoscopic plate in the usual way, I placed it horizontally on 
a stand, and gave it an inclination of 8 or 10 degrees, so as to 
allow the solutioa of nitrate to accumulate at the lower edge. 

e* 



Having shielded the ends of the connecting wires With silver 
foil, I applied them to the lower edge of the plate, one near the 
one and the other near the other corner, and after the lapse of 
twenty or thirty seconds, I stopped the action, and exposed and 
developed the plate, when I found the result to be exactly what 
I had anticipated, I then prepared another plate, subjected it 
to the galvanic action, and developed it without exposure, and 
the result was most interesting. I enclose prints taken from 
these plates. 

The result of my experiment proves that electricity is capable 
of producing effects similar to those caused by the action of light; 
and when we consider that the photographic image is produced 
principally by the violet and extra spectral rays (supposed by 
some to be magnetic), investigation may be directed into a chan- 
nel hitherto overlooked. 

I may add, that no visible effect was produced until after the 
developer was applied. 

It may be objected that galvanic action could not be produced 
when only one metal fsilver) is to be found in the slide of the 
camera. In answer to this I would observe, that we have in 
collodion, iodine, potassium, silver, and niiric acid, either sepa- 
rately or in combination, on the surface of a wet collodion plate, — 
bodies amply sufficient to cause the production of slight voltaic 
currents. W. C. Macartney. 



PflOTOGRAPHEES. 



Through a variety of causes, over whicli, it seems to me, I 
have had no control, 1 have been rather unfortunate in life. 
I was expelled from Warton Grammar-school immediately after 
the great Rebellion (I mean, of course, the barring out there, 
and not the more generally known affair of sixteen hundred and 
forty-two), although I protest I was led into it my senior. I 
was plucked in honors at Cambridge through the maglignancy of 
the examiners, who, because I did not graduate the Steel-yard, 
refused to graduate me; partly through a pecuniary embarrass- 
ment, partly through a misunderstanding of a mere legal sub- 
tlety, I was unable to obtain my attorney's certificate. Then, 
naturally turning my attention to bill-discounting, was unfortu- 
nate there; and, finally, upon the turf-— last scene of all, wl.er(in 
the Unsuccessful plays — my private Tart gave me false intelli- 
gence, and I laid the whole of my remaining store against the 
winning favorite, which I had most conscientiously believed to 
have been safely poisoned the night before, " When," as the 
bard has observed, " a man is like me, sans six sous, sans souci; 
bankrupt in purse, and in character worse, with a shocking bad 
hat and his credit at zero," what on earth can he now-a-days 
hope to become save a photographer? This profession, which, 
requires little capital, but gteat assurance; no book learn- 
ing, but considerable knowledge of character, was the very thing 
to suit me, and I may say that I have sticceeded in it! when 
generations yet unborn shall speak with fervor of the leafy wood- 
lands of Creswick, the breezy moorlands of Landseer, the peace- 
ful kine of Cooper, and a great number of other things of a great 
number of other people, they will not, perhaps, be altogether 
silent concerning Jones the photographer; his judicious group- 
ings will not, I venture to affirm, be then forgotten, whether 
they be his domestic---grandmother in centre with a baby on 
each arm, Paterfamilias, L. c, mother of the family, e.g., eldest 
son, left of male parent; eldest daughter, left of female parent; 
and miscellaneous offspring promiscuously disposed: or his classi- 
cal — tallest girl in sheet and wreath, with bread-knife and salad- 
bowl, as Melpomene the Tragic Muse. Second ditto, in ditto, 
ditto, with backgammon-board under the left arm, as Clio, Muse 
of history Small fat brother, upon one leg, in act of flaying, with 
wreath and-bow-and-arrow, complete, as God of Love; and Ma- 
terfamilias in arm-chair with hired peacock, as Juno, Queen of 
Heaven. Or his romantic — only son with exposed throat. Ready 
Reckoner for small edition of by Byron upon adjacent pillar, quill 
pen in the left, with back -ground of wood and water, with water, 
with turret— in any case, I say, grouping will challenge criticism, 
and their combined effects set competition at definance, All 
ameteur artists and many professionals forget that the situations 



46 



THE PnOTOGRArniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



are reversed in the photographic process, and tlie family ensign 
is but too often represented with his drawn sword in the 
wrong hand, and the domestic poet composing from right to 
left, after the manner of the literati of Japan. 

Before a man can become a first-rate photographer I hold it 
necessary that he should have had some experience as a photo- 
graphee. I made my living in the latter capacity for the first 
two years after my little Turf transaction, and laid by enough 
to purchase the instruments of my present profession as well. 1 
was that hussar whom, you know so well in the stereos- 
copic pictures, who is making love to the young lady in ball 
costume in the conservatory; I was perpetually doing it for up- 
wards of a fortnight, and tiien (as you also remember) I married 
her with considerable pomp, and that venerable divine who per- 
formed tiie ceremony is the very man whom I now employ su- 
perintending my apparatus. 

Many and many a time have 1 formed one of those delicious 
pic-nic parties, which look to you, my public, so ])leasant, and 
so real, with pasteboard tongue and fowls, artificial smiles, and 
a painted screen ior New Forrest scenery up two pair of stairs 
in the New Road. 

I was the bishop who is baptising the child in presence of that 
magnificently apparelled company at two shillings an hour, and 
to provide their own costumes; and I was the groom who is 
biting the puppy's tail off with an expression of enjoyment (price 
si.x sliillings and sixpence, and cheap at the price, besides the 
hire of the puppy) who is marked at the back of the stereoscopic 
slide— "A Study." 

I learnt thereby how persons in every rank of life are to be 
characteristically composed for pictorial representation, besides 
qualifying myself, better perhaps than most place-holders, to fill 
almost any position which the state has to offer. Is it a govern- 
ment office? Here is our newspaper and our official expression 
with the " I really don't know, sir," pleasantly balancing in it 
the " I really dont care," tape and pamphlets to any amount in 
the back-ground, and the government coals seen blazing between 
our departmental legs as we stand with our back to the fire, 
M'ith our coat-tails under our arms. Or is it the colonies them- 
selves? Here is the table of the house fdresser) sideboard, or 
other convenience, as occasion offersj, upon which the fingers of 
our right hand are impressively doubled up; those of our left 
upon the despatch-box — missionary or other — with slit, the 
second finger just touching it, and the " I hold in my hand, sir, 
the relutation" order of countenance after original on view every 
night at the exhibition just closed at St. Stephens', or is it a 
mere Queen's counselship? 

Here is our handlverchief, and our hand upon our heart, and 
the "upon my word and honor, gentlemen of the jury, I do be- 
lieve my unhappy client innocent," written in every lineament 
of an expressive visage, so that you can almost hear our broken 
tones. 

If, however, as is but too probable, none of these appoint- 
ments should be conferred upon me, photography is still to me 
its own reward. There are but lew professions which combine, 
as this does, pleasure and profit, enjoyment and a stroke of busi- 
ness. While I wander amongst the fairest scenes of nature, 
and, transfer them without robbery to my cabinet, by aid of 
her clever little handmaid, Art, making for me a sort of illus- 
trated autobiography which reanimates, whenever I set eyes 
upon any leaf of it, some by-gone scene with its associations, I 
do not feel much less joyous, because I am, at the same time, 
earning my bread. When I mirrored, indestructibly, that 
nook's green coolness by the river's side, or arrested in its de- 
decny, for years and years, yon blood-red ruin crumbling away 
in the deep stillness of its woods, my admiration, though per- 
liajjs weakened, was not annihilated by the reflection that trees 
were in demand and abbeys rising in the photographic market. 
I am, by nature, I believe, a man of sentiment, and though my 
past lifu has been of a sort to give the main chance a too prom- 
inent position, my present certainly tends to mitigate that e.x- 
perience. I have room, I hope, for tenderness and disinterested 
pity, yet. I felt for that kind lady and her family, yonder, in 
deepest mourning, whom I took but a month ago. 



" I must have two pictures of each of these," she said, point- 
ing to her children, " all that are left to me, so that in case 
of " 

She saw the poor, wandering artist had a heart, I think, for 
she made no effort to restrain her tears, and presently told him 
her sad story. Her son had lately fallen — been butchered — at 
an Indian station, and all she had of him now was a small por- 
trait — lifelike, real, of a soldierly, fine lad, whom any mother 
well might have been proud of; and this she must needs part 
with to his widowed bride, left more forlorn even than she her- 
self. When 1 assured her that I could give her a copy of this 
in a few moments, and presently succeeded in producing a most 
accurate one, I learnt, for the first tin)e, how great a benefac- 
tress is this simple art of mine, and how gracious a giver, in- 
deed, is the glorious sun. 

Once, when I had been engaged one morning at a country 
house, taking likenesses of all its in-dvvellers, I was ridden after, 
upon my road home, by one of the young gentlemen, who 
asked me if I would be so kind as to take him once again; 
when I said " Yes, certainly" — since I travel in a shnt-uj) fly 
with yellow blinds (smelling, by-the-bye, very horribly of collo- 
dion), and so am always ready for a subject. He produced, 
from round the corner of the road, his pretty cousin Caroline, 
and, getting off their horses, they were there and then grouped 
together very prettily, with his arm turned round her " dainty 
dainty waist," and his eyes looking at her with an expression 
with a good deal more of "kind" than "kin" in it. Poor young 
fellow! He little knows that I have an excellent copy of this 
which has been much admired, and a very singular contrast it 
presents to that which I took of him at his uncle's house a few 
hours before, where he has a manuscript sermon (roll of music) 
in that left hand instead of Carry's fingers, and is supposed to 
be preaching his first discourse to his first congregation. 

Again, shall I ever forget the young lady of thirty -five or so, 
who wished to know whether I would mind taking her by 
moonshine instead of vulgar daylight! Or that whole family 
of females who, being informed by their little nephew who had 
pressed under my black curtain, they appeared upside down, 
refused to be taken at all! Another feminine circle once 
jumped up from*thcir chairs and insisted upon seeing how they 
grouped in the camera before they were printed off, and very 
much surprised they were to find that wheu they M'ere in my 
place there was no group to look at. 

Gentlemen, I must confess however, have given me quite as 
much trouble as ladies; their portraits are quite as often pro- 
nounced by them to be " unnatural, inexpressive, unlike," as 
those of the other sex are held to have given them "too old an 
expression," or to have " very much exaggerated the feet." 
One Paterfamilias who won't be taken with a lot of babies, "to 
look like a scene in a pantomime," and the Paterfamilias who 
will, are both inexorable sitters, and very hard to please. 
" Why, you have actually made my hair grey!" cried one indig- 
nant parent of five-and-fifty; and " You have positively given 
dearest Edward John no nose at all!" complained another, as 
querulous about his little two-year-old as any grandmother. 

Handsome old gentlemen, with one expression, are my best 
photographees; then, old ladies; and worst of all, I am obliged 
to say (save babies) are young ladies. Their features are gen- 
erally too rounded, and they have rarely any medium between 
trying to look intellectual and giggling This is my usual 
monologue with the majority of them: "Not so much up at 
the sky, Miss Smith; look at me, if you please, and be so good 
as to part your lips; don't frown; your ankle is too exposed, 
it will be of a frightful size; thank j-ou: don't purse your mouth 
up as though you were going to whistle, and oblige me like- 
wise by not laughing, or you'll have such a mouth; now, steady 
— there you are you see, my dear Miss Smith, squinting abom- 
inably; I told you how it would be, if you would wink your 
eyes." 

Spoilt children are perhaps a trifle worse: some of them 
taking advantage of my absence under the curtain to throw 
stones at the camera, and others screaming with terror because 
they consider it to be a deadly weapon provided for their 



1S58. 



THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



41 



special destruction, which I have sometimes devoutly wished it 
was. But the most unwilling sitters whom I ever took were a 
couple of dozen gentlemen who were accepting, for various 
terms of years, the hospitalities of the governor of a certain 
north country gaol. More than one of them had recently 
shown a disposition to leave the place, and not to be burthen- 
some to him any longer; but their host was determined not to 
hear of such a thing; he was even prepared, in case of their de- 
parture, to go the length of fetching them back again, and ap- 
plied to me to assist him in such a case by enabling his servants 
to recognise them. The photographees did not like my inter- 
ference one bit. The machine seemed to remind them exceed- 
ingly of a bull's eye lantern, to which they had a very natural 
repugnance; their positions were far from graceful, their expres- 
sions such as had no parallel in all my photographic experience. 
I never saw folks so disinclined to look the sun in the face be- 
fore. There was, however, one among them, a mere lad, expia- 
ting his first offence in the prison, who had one of the most 
honest countenances I ever beheld: he was the only one who 
did not tell me he was innocent, and the only one who appeared 
to me as being possibly not guilty; he took occasion to entreat 
of me not to put him amongst a portrait-gallery of felons for 
the remainder of his days, because, if his mother should come to 
bear of it, it would surely break her heart — it was almost 
broken now, he said. I thought of the poor lady in mourning 
then, and how much worse than to lose a son it must be to have 
a sun in such a plight as this; and, whether there was something 
wrong about the collodion, or whether I handled this particu- 
lar photograph rather clumsily, it is very certain that the 
young lad's face is smudged, and by no means to be recognised. 

From the Jour, of tlw, Phot. Soc. 

riRECT POSITIVES ON COLLODION.* 



BY F. HARDWICH, ESQ. 



" A comparison was next made of photographic properties, 
the one-and-a-half grain collodion being used in every case. 

" 1st. Sensitiveness. — Here the difference was not very 
marked, perhaps the twenty-grain solution had a little the ad- 
vantage; at all events it was plain that nothing had been lost 
in this respect by diminishing the proportion of nitrate. 

"2nd. Cleaness of Image. — In every case the iuiage was 
perfectly clear, in the sense that there was no fogging or reduc- 
tion of metallic silver on the transparent parts, but there was a 
difference in the appearance of the ' lights;' when baths A and 
B were employed, they were always slightly obscured, espe- 
cially the shirt and forehead of the sitter, by a yellowish deposit 
of silver, which seemed as if it had been precipitated after the 
proper development was complete. I conclude that this deposit 
was derived from the free nitrate of silver on the surface of the film, 
which being in a more concentrated state in the two former cases, 
was the more readily acted upon by the developing fluid; how- 
ever, it may not be that the effect here alluded to will invaria- 
bly follow when a neutral bath so strong as forty grains to the 
ounce is used; much depends no doubt upon the nature of the 
developing agent; indeed the two must be associated together, 
the strength of one varying inversely with that of the other. 

" The conclusions arrived at are these, that with the dilute 
iodized collodion, nitrate of silver in the proportion of twenty 
grains to the ounce, gives equal sensibility, and in every respect 
the same perfection of image, as when used of greater strength; 
besides this, it has the merit of economy, and superior cleanliness 
of manipulation; if the proper precautions are observed, such a 
bath will remain constant in its action for a length of time. 

" Before proceeding to the developing fluid, there yet remains 
to be considered, as originally proposed, the effect of adding 
nitric acid in graduated quantities to the neutral nitrate bath; 
my experiments in this direction are, I am sorry to say, as yet 
incomplete; however, two or three facts o( importance are mani- 
fest, viz: that it is impossible to lay down any general rule as 
to what the effect of adding the acid will be unless we take into 

* Continued from p. 28 vol xi., no. i. 



account all the other circumstances of the case; no doubt there 
will invariably be a loss of sensitiveness, but wiiether or no ad- 
vantages will be gained in other respects, seems to depend upon 
further considerations. When collodion positives are tiiken by 
solutions modified as I have proposed, it will be found that the 
smallest amount of free acid, even such as cannot at once be de- 
tected by test paper, will sadly injure the ' half-tones' of the 
picture. 

" On the other hand, many photographers advocate the use 
of nitric acid, and state that they obtain a better result by 
means of it. 

" In explanation of this seeming discrepancy I would suggest 
(and the view I entertain are borne out by my experiments as 
far as they have gone), that the amount of free nitric acid which 
may be added to the bath with impunity depends mainly upon 
the strength of the solution of nitrate of silver; strength of bath 
is favorable to reduction, nitric acid is opposed to it, conse- 
quently the two, to a certain extent, balance each other. But 
besides this, I am inclined to think that something depends upon 
the thickness of the film of iodide of silver; perhaps it may be that 
the particles of iodide being less in number are more easily at- 
tacked; but, at all events, it seems necessary to regulate the 
acid, both in the bath and in the developing fluid, with greater 
care when weak films are employed thau under contrary con- 
ditions. 

" It is important then, and indeed essential that the dilute 
nitrate bath should be preserved accurately neutral; this may 
easily be effected by adding a little carbonate of soda and so 
setting free carbonate of silver, which can be allowed to remain 
continually at the bottom of iodide of ammonium is used in the 
collodion, this plan does not succeed, because nitrate of ammonia, 
which will then be formed in the bath, has the property of dis- 
solving carbonate of silver, and forming with it an alkaline so- 
lution; in that case it is better to keej) a piece of blue litmus 
paper always in the solution of nitrate and when the color is 
perceived to be changed by the small amount of acid liberated 
by the free iodine in the collodion, to add ammonia graduated 
to fortieths of a minim until the evil is removed. 

" Having now finished what I have to say on the subject of 
the nitrate bath, it only remains that I should speak of the De- 
velopment of collodion positives in order to complete my paper. 
The deposits which constitute the light portion of these pictures 
consist in all cases, excepting where the bichloride of mercury 
is used, of metallic silver; but it may be useful to class them 
under two heads, according as they do or do not jjossess metallic 
lustre. 

" The first is a surface bright and sparkling like frosted silver, 
very white when produced in perfection, but with occasionally 
a greyish tinfoil hue. 

" The second is dull and without lustre, of a whitish tint, 
slightly inclined to yellow or grey; there is no appearance of 
metal about it, the color being like that of a piece of chalk. 

" These two varieties require exactly opposite conditions of 
developing fluid to produce them; from what I can gather from 
the observations of others, it would seem that the first is ob- 
tained by means of a reducing agent checked, as it were, in, its 
action by the presence of a strong acid, consequently the deve- 
lopment proceeds slowly and gradually, and the particles of 
silver are large and crystalline; on the other hand, the second 
variety results when the action of the developer is sudden and 
violent, no impediment being offered by the presence of acid, 
except in minute quantity. The particles of metallic silver are 
here smaller than before, and being comparatively amorphous, 
they reflect light in a different manner. The distinction in the . 
two cases, then, if the views here given are correct lies in the 
amount and strength of the acid used; in the one it is simply 
sufGcient to whiten the picture slightly by preventing the pre- 
cipitation of oxide; in the other, being increased in quantity 
it tends to retard the development as well. In couductiig 
these experiments the action of several different develoi- 
ing agents was compared, viz : pyrogallic acid, the same 
with subsequent whitening by bichloride of mercury, protonitrate 
of iron, and protosulphate of iron. 



48 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



" 1st PyrogallicAcid. — 'Iliis skives, under certain circumstances, 
a beautifully white deposit of silver, free from lustre ; it should be 
used in the proportion of three grains to the ounce, with a small 
quantity of nitric acid ; if too much of this substance be added , 
the deposit is more metallic, but the half tones are not properly 
brought out, so that the pyrogallic acid is not adapted to pro- 
duce what I have termed the first variety; so also it does not 
succeed when the proportion of nitrate of silver in the bath is 
reduced to twenty grains to the ounce; in that case the deve- 
lopment becomes imperfect in parts of the plate, and large 
patches of a blue or greenish color are seen. 

" 2nd. Pyrogallic acid and acetic, with subsequent whitening 
ly bichloride of mercury, — I was unsuccessful in my attempts to 
produce good pictures by this plan; the color of the image was 
not sufficiently white, but had invariably a bluish tint, which 
was particularly unpleasant: other photographers, I am aware, 
have produced excellent results with bichloride of mercury, and 
it may be that the extreme tenuity of the film I employed was 
one cause of theblueness and transparency. Another objection ap- 
peared to be ihat the details of the picture were slightly injured 
by the action of the bichloride, and the whole image reduced to 
a certain extent in intensity; this was more apparent after black- 
ening by means of ammonia, and then again whitening a second 
time. 

"3rd. Protonitrate of iron. — This substance is peculiar in 
producing an image of brilliant metallic lustre, without the ad- 
dition of any free acid, hence it may at first sight seem to be an 
exception to the observations that have just been made on this 
subject; it is remarkable, however, that protonitrate of iron 
should be so feeble a reducing agent when compared with the 
corresponding sulphate; probably the reason may be, that in 
passing into the state oi persalt, a portion of the oxygen required 
is furnished by the decomposition of the nitric acid itself, and 
hence less would be extracted from other sources. In experi- 
menting with protonitrate of iron, I found a difficulty sometimes 
in bringing out the half-tones of the picture properly; to obviate 
this, it is advisable to use the solution of the salt in as concen- 
trated a state as it can be procured, and to increase the pro- 
portion of nitrate of silver in the bath, if required, from thirty- 
five to forty grains to the ounce. 

*' With the dilute nitrate bath of twenty grains to the ounce, 
protonitrate of iron failed entirely to develop the images, thus 
affording most conclusive proof of the close relation which the 
strength of the bath bears to the energy of the development. 

" 4th. Protosulphate of iron. — This salt appears better adap- 
ted for the purpose than either of the others when the twenty 
grain bath is employed. In order to obtain the tint which has 
been characterized as a dead white with absence of lustre; it 
must be used of such a strength that the picture comes out al- 
most instantaneously in all its details; it occurred to me at first 
that the gradation of tone would be injured somewhat by this 
violent method of proceeding, but neither is there any indication 
of fogging or over development if the solution be poured off from 
the plate tolerably quick. 

" The proportions I have been in the habit of using are 
these: 

Protosulphate of iron pure, gr. 15 to 18 or 20. 

Acetic acid (glacial) minims viij. 

Distilled water one ounce. 

" In the place of the acetic acid, strong sulphuric acid minim 
half, or nitric acid minim quarter, with fifteen drops of alcohol 
may be used; the alcohol certainly has the effect, as has been 
stated, of causing the solution to flow more evenly, but it ap- 
peared to me, that if present in two large quantity, the liability 
to ' specks' and ' dirty marks' was increased. 

" If the solution of protasulphate is in too concentrated a 
state, it will be difficult to pour it on the plate sufficiently quick 
to cover the whole surface before the action begins; in such a 
case, after fi,\ing with the cyanide, curved lines will be seen, such 
as would be produced by a wave of fluid flowing forwards and 
resting for an instant at a particular spot. 

" On the other hand, If the solution is too dilute the image 
becomes slightly grey and metallic on drying. 



" For fixing the picture by removal of the unaltered iodide of 
silver, cyanide of potassium* appears preferable to the hyposul- 
phite of soda, it may be used of such a strength as will clear 
the plate gradually in about half a minute or so, and is easily 
washed away by pouring a stream over the plate for a short 
time. 

•' For, ' Backing up,' I employ two varnishes, both of which 
dry speedily; the solvent is different in the two cases, and that 
of the black japan does not appear to act upon the transparent 
layer beneath. A complaint is sometimes made that collodion 
positives do not show to advantage through the glass,- but I have 
not myself been able to distinguished at all between the two 
sides, excepting in cases where the picture was slightly over- 
exposed. 

" With regard to the time required for taking' a portrait on 
a tolerably bright day, as giving some indication of what the 
degree of sensitiveness of the plates might be, I would say that 
with a Ross' portrait lens of two-and-a-qoarter inches, having a 
diaphragm of an inch and three quarters aperture, an exposure 
in the camera of two to three seconds is the average; when dis- 
tant objects are taken with the full aperture of the lens, it is 
hardly possible to remove and replace the cap sufficiently quick." 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

HINTS ON Tim COILODIO-AIBUMEN PROCESS. 
To tht Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — Since the publication of my small work, ' How to take 
Stereoscopic Pictures,' in which I slightly modified the collo- 
dio-albumen process, as given in your Journal, Nos. 45 and 46, 
I have been successfully following out the plan therein laid 
down, with only occasional failures; but the tracing of these 
to their primary cause has involved a large amount of trouble, 
and for the benefit of your readers I now propose to give my 
experience on this subject. 

On preparing a dozen plates by this process, I sometimes 
found that whilst the majority would be all that could be de- 
sired, one or two would turn of a reddish-brown tint when kept 
a few days after being excited; and, on being developed, 
stains and markings would occur which completely spoiled the 
result; indeed a plate in this condition must be exposed and de- 
veloped within a few hours after being excited to ensure a pas- 
sable negative. The cause of such failures was evidently the 
imperfect washing of the collodion film before pouring on the 
iodized albumen; for should any free nitrate be left on the 
plate, a part may be decomposed by the iodide in the albumen, 
but the greater portion evidently unites with the liquid albu- 
men, forming albuminate of silver. This being an easily de- 
composable body, soon acts so as to cause such a change as to 
spoil the negative, more especially in the presence of a trace of 
free nitrate left on the plate after exciting. 

In order to free the collodion film from every trace of free 
nitrate, I coat, excite, and well wash the plate as usual, and 
then immerse it in a tray or basin containing a solution made 
by dissolving ten grains of iodide of potassium in ten ounces of 
distilled water. After allowing it to soak for two minutes, the 
plate is lifted, only slightly rinsed with water, then stood up to 
drain for one minute; lastly, coated with iodized albumen in the 
usual manner. 

Since adopting this plan I have found that the sensibility of 
my plates is slightly increased; that no stains ever occur during 
development; the resulting negative has been uniformly clear 
and vigorous, and no change has taken place in plates kept sen- 
sitive for five weeks. 

Instead of using ordinary negative collodion with the addi- 
tion of tincture of iodine and glycerine, I have succeeded in 
forming a special iodized collodion for this process, which re- 
quires no such addition, and is supplied ready for use by Messrs. 
Home and Thornthwaite. 

This collodion improves by keeping, yields a perfectly struc- 



• Cyanide as jjure as can be obtamcd ecoQomically. — Ed. L. & M. P. J, 




i 



♦■' 



r... 




J. B. HiiwooB. Neg^ 



ivn It g 



H. H. S!«EI,1.IN9, Print. 



JVE , 1^ O Z J^ Tl T . 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



49 



tureless film, which adheres so firmlj to the plate that blisters 
never occur, and the plates may be artilicialiy dried, both be- 
fore and after excitini^, and are even improved by beinp; so 
treated, provided the heat employed does uot exceed 170° or 
180*'. 

Those who use e^^s for photographic purposes, must have 
noticed that the viscidity of the albumen sometimes varies to a 
considerable extent in different eggs, and at different seasons; 
but this viscidity is sometimes so great, that it is useless to at- 
tempt its tiltration when prepared in the usual manner. I 
therefore, for this reason, now prepare my iodized albumen as 
follows: — 

To the whites of three eggs add 15 drops of glacial acetic 
acid, and having stirred the whole together for two minutes 
with a glass rod, leave it to rest, for about an hour, and then 
strain through coarse muslin. Next, dissolve 1 scruple of io- 
dide of ammonium in 1 drachm of distilled water, and add it, 
together with 1 drachm, by measure, or ordinary treacle, to 
the filtered liquid. Stir well together, and pour it into a clean 
glass funnel, the neck of which has been slightly plugged with 
a fragment of sponge, and filter, so as to obtain a perfectly 
clear fluid free from sediment or floating particles. 

Plates excited in a bath solution which has been allowed to 
become discolored, never develope without stains or fogging, 
if kept any time after exciting; for this reason, it is advisable 
to allow kaolin to remain in the bottle containing the solution, 
and to return into the bottle that portion which remains from 
use when done with, so that it may be rendered colorless by 
the kaolin and ready for using again when next wanted. 

When the collodion employed has a tendency to blister, the 
use of cyanide of potassium for fixing frequently raises the 
film, so that creases are formed in drying: in such cases, a sat- 
urated solution of hyposulphite of soda may be used; but when 
the collodion is of the proper kind, the cyanide is preferable. 

The perfect removal of the nitrate of silver solution after ex- 
citing is very essential, and is best performed as follows: — 

Provide three gutta-percha trays, made as hereafter de- 
scribed, and having filled each with distilled or filtered rain- 
water, proceed to excite the plate by immersing it in the ni- 
trate of silver bath for one minute, then take it out, drain 
slightly, and pour distilled water over the back and front, so 
as to remove as much as possible of the nitrate solution; after- 
wards lay it, face downwards, in the first tray, and give it a 
rocking motion occasionally. When two minutes have elapsed, 
remove the plate, pour distilled water over the back and front, 
and place it iu the second tray; allow it to remain there for 
another two minutes, shaking the tray occasionally, and then 
place it for the same time in the third tray. Now wash the 
face again with distilled water, and rear up on filtering-paper 
to drain and dry, or dry by artificial heat. Of course in doing 
this the operator will understand that whilst one plate is being 
washed another may be exciting, so as to save time by dovetail- 
ing the operations into one another. The water in the trays 
will require to be renewed after the immersion of three 
plates. 

In developing collodio-albumen plates, gallic acid will be 
found preferable to pyrogallic, except where a plate has been 
under-exposed; and in that case pyrogallic solution, as given in 
your Journal, produces the best result. 

In using pyrogallic acid, the plate must not be laid on the 
levelling-stand, but the solution kept in motion by being poured 
on and off repeatedly, and changed, should it become muddy, 
until the full development takes place. 

The washing-trays* above referred to are a nest of three, 
the smallest of which is a trifle larger than the plate, and 
about 2 inches deep. A thin strip of gutta-percha is bent 
and when in use, is placed so as to overhang the two longest 
sides of each tray near one end, thus forming a bridge on which 
a sensitive plate may be laid face downwards in the tray 



the 



slightest 



risk of damaging the coated sur- 



without 
face. 

A vertical bath is preferable to all other shapes for exciting; 
but as the quantity of solution required is large, the horizontaHs 
mostly used in travelling. In this, sufficient of the recently-filtered 
bath solution is poured to cover the bottom for about half an inch 
depth; the bath is then tilted so that all the liquid shall run 
into the "well," and whilst in this position, a plate is laid, face 
upwards, in the upper portion. The bath is now made to re- 
sume its horizontal position, when the liquid flows over and 
covers every part of the plate. It is allowed to remain thus 
until the plate is considered to be fully acted on, when the 
liquid is again made to enter the "well," and the plate, after 
draining, removed by the use of a silver wire-hook. 

William Ackland. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

LONDON PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



An ordinary meeting of this Society was held on the Sd of 
December, Dr. Percy in the chair. After some routine busi- 
ness, Mr. Paul Pretsch read a paper 

" ON PROF PETZVAL'S RESEARCHES IN OPTICS." 
Mr. Prktsch said, I have the honor to address you concern- 
ing some researches in optics of Prof. Petzval, in Vienna, who 
is known as the originator of the combination of lenses, execu- 
ted by Voigtlander, Dietzer, and others. The principles of 
these researches are not contained in any compendious theory. 
They are the result of careful labor, continued for more than 
six years, and carried on by several able mathematicians, under 
the superintendence of Prof. Petzval. The expenses of the 
work having been paid by His Imperial Highness the Arch- 
duke Lewis; the Ministry for Public Instruction and the Im- 
perial Academy of Sciences co-operating. These researches 
will be published in Prof. Petzval's work, " The Integration of 
the Linear Differential Equations;" " Die Integration der 
Linearen Differential Gleichungen." 

He begins with investigations for the purpose of finding out 
the direction of a ray of light, which arrives on a separating 
surface of two different optic substances supposed to be a sur- 
face of rotation. The natural consequince of this is the defini- 
tion of the path of such a ray through several o£_^uch surfaces 
round the same axis of rotation, and therefore through a cer- 
tain number of lenses, or mirrors, or mirrors and lenses. 

This is a problem partly executed long ago by Euler, Do la 
Call; and in later times by Gauss, Biot, Schleierraacher, Lit- 
trow, Stampfer, Grunert. These researches would in all pro- 
bability not have been continued, if Daguerre's wonderful in- 
vention had not given rise to a demand for a camera obscura 
more perfect than a mere plaything for the purposes of amuse- 
ment; requirements in optical instruments having been hitherto 
limited to telescopes and microscopes, the only instruments used 
for scientific purposes. But there is now felt the want of a 
more perfect instrument for the purpose of fixing on a given 
surface the transient and immaterial image in the camera. 

Hence, therefore, arises the want of large and brilliant im- 
ages as free as possible from distortion, and correct in peispec- 
tive, and this want has compelled the mathematician to investi- 
gate more intimately the properties of the image formed by 
lenses of different curvatures. It was necessary to abandon the 
mode usually adopted in these calculations; it was necessary to 
develope by a suitable mode in series the co-ordinates of the 
point in which such a ray passes a surface put on any chosen 
place; — this series was continued far enough, and the terms of 
the same were analysed; by this mode he arrived at the imper- 
fections existing in the images, classifying the sameinasiua- 
able manner, he originated in this way a peculiar pathology 
of these optical images. 

But these enormous labors have not been undertaken only to 
benefit the photographic camera. It very seldom, perhaps 



* These trays were first suggested to me by Dr. Mansell, who, in __ ^ i,v^.i„ ,i,i, aiu^>.u, ^u .v.. ..^. .^ 

tour in Brittany last summer, took out with him forty-three prepared I "'"'"^""i ""^ puui^v/oiupiiii. ^atu^^u.. ^u .^.j ^v.. ^.^,^^.....,^.. 
collodio-albumea plates, and returned with forty good negatives. 1 never, happens that an important extension of our theoretical 

7 



VOL XI. NO. II. 



knowledge docs not furnish ns with a more or less fundnmcntnl 
reform of what we already know, and with the improvement in 
the practical art which is the base of such a theory. Thus an 
increase of knowled;i:e in optics leads us also to iitproveuients 
of tiie telescope and microscope. But these latter improve- 
ments mi^lit not be approved of immediately by the scientific 
world. Tlie astronomer migiit not tliink it worth while to re- 
ceive a telescope whose tube is reduced to half its usual length. 
[Nevertheless the new telescopes will gradually replace the old 
ones, like the achromatic telescopes have now completely re- 
placed the first unwieldy tubes. The same will ultimately hap- 
))en to the microscope, and Prof. Petzval is convinced that his 
new photographic lens applied to the solar microscope will, by 
degrees, perfectly change the views of those who use such an 
instrument. 

The above-mentioned calculations have been continued till 
the terms of the seventh order inclusive, and we are therefore 
enabled by the given theory to construct combinations of lenses 
and mirrors, wliose imperfections only belong to the ninth order 
of quantity. Thus we have arrived iu optics and mathematics 
at the same point as in astronomy, where Burkhardt has con- 
tinued the development of the functions (of interruptions) till 
the terms of the seventh order. 

This exact definition of the path of a ray of light through a 
system of surfaces forms the body of Prof. Petzval's researches, 
and all the other additions make it more practical and furnish 
the philosopher with new means of research. 

With the first approximation of the optic problem. Prof 
Petzval was obliged, to his own regret, to represent the four 
fundamental co-efficients of the first approximation, not iu the 
same compact form like Euler and Gauss, but in two other 
difierent forms, viz.: for the higher approximation as a sereis 
of factors, and for the theory of achromatism as extended 
algebraic polyno.nes. 

This first approximation with its consequence concerning the 
properties of light, magnifying power, field of view, and size of 
picture, with the practical applications on the theory of achro- 
matism of the false light, and of the eye-glasses, &c., will form 
the first part of his work ou optics, to be published by the 
Academy of Sciences. 

Although a great deal has been done in the construction of 
eye-pieces — see, for instance, the interesting work of Biot in 
the 19th vol®ne of the "Memoirs of the French Academy," — 
and although we possess astronomical and terrestrial eye-pieces, 
and many others, composed of two, three, or four lenses, we arc, 
nevertheless, not furnished for every case. Prof. Petzval gives 
several instances to prove this view. He considers all the pho- 
tographic pictures obtained through the eye-pieces of micro- 
scopes inferior to the picture received by the human eye itself 
by looking through the instrument; because the humau eye ac- 
commodates itself with a certain elasticity to the eye-piece 
which possess neither a chemical nor optical focus. For the 
purpose of obtaining good photographic pictures it is necessary 
not to change the object-glasses of the microscope, but to use 
another eye-piece with a different focus, giving a flatter picture. 

A second instance occurs in obtaining photographs of the 
moon. He considers it necessary for this purpose, to obtain at 
first improved refracting watches; secondly, a new eye-piece; 
because the image obtained in the focus of the object-glass 
would be too small, and the picture obtained with the eye- 
pieces now in use, would not show as much as we see through 
a good telescope. 

A third instance is furnished by the dialylic telescopes; they 
are imperfectly achromatic, possess a limited field of view', and 
represent a star, only sharp in the centre, showing many aber- 
rations on the edges. This could be obviated by having 
another eye-piece more fit for the purpose, by means of which 
we could obtain a large field of view and an even sharp picture, 
like tho.se obtained with perfect achromatic instruments. 

As a fourth instance, Prof. Petzval himself possesses a short 
telescope for searching for comets, five inches aperture, with a 
magnifying power about twenty times, and having a terrestrial 
eye-piece, not Galilais', neither is it the knowa one with four 



lenses, it being only composed of two lenses, so as not to lose 
light. 

It follows from these remarks, that eye-pieces may be looked 
upon as small tools ol science, like files, chisels, screws for the 
mechanic, and each physicist ought to be able to construct and 
to choose the one most fit for his special purpose, j 

The second part of Professor Petzval's researches treats of 
the theory of illumination. Fresuel only has partially treated 
of this subject, and our practice is such that the mode at pres- 
ent adopted for the illumination of our streets and public build- 
ings, at night, serves more to illuminate our atmosphere than 
to enable us to see our terrestrial paths. The instruments for 
illuminating purposes require to be very varied in form to act 
with economy in all given cases; rays of light possessing every 
variety of angle from to 180° have to be properly refracted 
and conducted to their appointed destination. 

Several important facts have been discovered by Professor 
Petzval iu the branch of optics relating to mirrors. He Snds, 
for instance, that every curved mirror receiving light from any 
source divides the same into two parts; the one he calls the 
optical part, because it is able to give an image of the source 
of light, and the other the non-optical part, because it is unable 
to form an image. The second quality is most especially to be 
used for illuminating purposes. 

Professor Petzval has had much experience in the con- 
struction of apparatus for the distrihUion of light. About 
twelve years ago he was led to devise a plan for illuminating 
apparatus for the production of dissolving views; and he soon 
discovered that, by the usual mode, one-thirtieth part of the 
light is really used; but he became able to employ sixty per 
cent, of the total quantity of light, and he could have rendered 
seventy-five per cent, effective, if all the small details of his 
plan had been executed. About the same time he made apian 
of an apparatus for the use of river steamers. It was so con- 
structed that the points of equal illumination were situated in 
the periphery of a long ellipse, the ship forming the centre. It 
was calculated that all objects in a straight distance of 2000 
yards, and sideways of 200 yards, were equally illuminated. 
i\ine years later he was requested to construct an apparatus for 
illuminating ])laces at a distance of 2800 yards, the longest 
range of the largest shell mortars. There was required lor this 
purpose a large reflector of four feet aperture, ground with 
great accuracy, and as light as possible, so as to be easily 
moved; furthermore, there were required lenses of particular 
combination and of very large dimensions, and it was necessary to 
construct a peculiar furnace or oven for melting and cooling 
these lenses. Nevertheless, it is expected that this important 
work will be finished by the end of this year. 

From his researches, Professor Petzval is led to doubt the 
well-known tale of Archimedes having set on fire the Roman 
ships of Marcellus in the harbor of Syracuse. Such a fact 
could only have been obtained at a short distance, and with an 
apparatus of immense size, and with perfect steadiness ou the 
part of the ships. 

It sounds, perhaps, like a paradox, but it is nevertheless 
true, that, for seeing objects at great distances, we must try to 
do with as little light as possible. This is one of the few cases 
where force can do but little, and prudent economy all. 

Professor Petzval considers the theory of illiminnthig suffi- 
ciently developed and based on principles, but this is not the 
case with regard to the art of prod udng light There is a cer- 
tain relation between heat and light which is not yet suflicient- 
ly explained. To prove how much the power of light depends 
upon heat, Professor Petzval made a fundamental experiment 
with a lamp which had three concentric wicks. After having 
well regulated the throe flames, placed one in the other, the 
lights appears thin and transparent, and of a wonderfully 
white-blue color, each flame being visible through the other 
one. But, if the flame in the centre is put out, we observe 
directly that the other two flames lose brightness — that they 
become poorer in light, less transparent, and longer or higher. 
If, in the same way, we put out the middle one, keeping only 
the exterior flame alight, then we observe that this last flame 



1858. 



THE THOTOGRAPniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



51 



has lost all its lustre; it appears yellow, and not at all transpa- 
rent. The great heat and supply of oxygen causing less car- 
bon to be separated in the flame, the light is given of a trans- 
parent character, but then tiiose particles which are separated 
are more intensely heated, and thus glow with increased bril- 
liancy: thus the light is brighter, though less solid. Experi- 
ments of this class should be continued with gas lights. To il- 
luminate economically a street it would be better to use one 
large light with twenty-tive distributors, instead of using 
twenty-live lights. It is not at all improbable that the time 
will come when, in every capital of Europe, and even, perhaps, 
in smaller towns, there will be erected a building of a dome 
shape, and an immense height, crowned witli a transparent pa- 
vilion, containing a gigantic flame, which would send to all the 
neigliborhood a much richer and more equal light than our 
present system of illuminating by an immense number of small 
points of light. 

It is very probable that Drummond's light and the electric 
light surpasses the intensity of the sun-light — that is to say, 
tiiat a square inch of the white-hot chalk surface sends out 
more light than a square iuch of the surface of the sun 
himself. 

The researches of Professor Petzval, of which the above 
statements furnish but a slight idea, will be published after the 
second volume of the " lutegration of the Linear Differential 
Equations." 

In conclusion, Mr. Pretsch said: — 

Having mentioned so many interesting facts, I feel it is al- 
most too much demanded from your patience to wait till this 
work is published. It will be easily imagined that the practi- 
cal execution of all these proposed improvements would require 
an immense deal of labor, time, and capital, and the co-opera- 
tion of many scientific and practical men. However, I can 
show you at least a few specimens, executed by an instrument 
which originated from a part of these investigations and re- 
searches I have the honor to place before this Society some 
photographic pictures taken with the lens and camera obscura, 
calculated and invented by Prof Petzval, and executed by Mr. 
Charles Dietzler, optician in Vienna. Tliese pictures are not 
very remarkable as photographs; you have seen far better 
ones, but they show the peculiarity and quality of the instru- 
ment. 

Here is a picture of the apparatus itself. The camera con- 
sists of two parts, or two bellows, a larger one, and a smaller 
one; on the last is the lens, consisting of six glasses, three of 
flint and three of crown. The ground glass is twenty inches 
square, and arranged that it can be moved out of the perpen- 
dicular, if required. The camera is movable on a prism, by 
means of a coarse screw. Having obtained the required length 
of the camera, the exact focal adjustment is obtained by means 
of a fine screw near the ground glass. The lens is three inches 
aperture, and gives sharp pictures of sixteen and more inches. 
The focal length is twenty-six inches; time of exposure, viz., for 
a landscape, in good light, three seconds; a group of figures, 
in the open air, fourteen seconds; in a room forty seconds. 
These are the particulars given to me, and I do not doubt they 
are true. 

Here is the copy of a map taken by this lens with a stop or 
diaphragm. You will find it sliarp in all its parts, and I think 
this picture proves the applicability of the instrument for maps 
in general, as well as for coi)ying drawings, prints, and paint- 
ings. Especially I should like to have this in.strument tried in 
copying paintings, because I consider this branch of photogra- 
phy a very important one, and I do not consider this problem at all 
satisfactorily solved at present. If my expectations of this in- 
strument are proved to be correct, I think the productions of 
it would give a new impulse to the applications of my method, 
"Photogalvanography." 

There is a view of the "Burgplatz," in Vienna, an oblong 
square of about 300 feet in length. The colossal monument 
stands in the centre of it, and the point from which it was 
taken, is the same distance from the monument as that is from 
the background. You see by the dial of the clock that the I 



time of exposure has been very short. Every part of the picture 
is equally si)arp, and tiie lines and perspective correct. I con- 
sider that this picture as it is, could not have been taken by 
any other instrument. 

Here are two pictures of architecture; they are no doubt 
very good, but they could have been taken by another lens; if 
we have light enough, time enough for exposure, and a suitable 
distance, then almost any instrument will serve for the purpose, 
perhaps even a little hole in the camera with no lens. But 
practical photographers know very well that these require- 
ments are very seldom to be had, and there are some cases 
where a picture can only be obtained during a few weeks of the 
best season of the year. 

The last picture which I have the honor to show you, is in- 
ferior as a photograph, because it is taken by the optician him- 
self, representing him amongst his apparatus. But it shows 
most of the peculiarities of the lens. You know perfectly 
well that each picture in a camera, especially when formed by 
a combined portrait lens, exists only in a curve, therefore the 
corners and edges cannot be as sharp as the centre, and the 
light is mostly concentrated in the middle, and so the photog- 
rapher is obliged to place the most important part of the pic- 
ture in the centre (generally the head of the person to be 
taken), and his skill and experience teaches him just to catch 
the picture when the lights are not too much overdone, and 
when the shadows just begin to appear. Tliese difficulties 
seems in this picture to be perfectly obviated; the light is dis- 
tributed over the whole surface, and the picture is equally 
sharp at the edges and corners as in the centre. I have here 
two copies, one mounted and another unmounted. I recom- 
mend them to your special examination. 

And now perhaps you will ask me where this instrument is 
to be had. I am nnable to give you a suSicient answer. I 
have already written to the manufacturer, with whom I am per- 
sonally acquainted, for some of these apparatus, but he hesi- 
tates to make them public before he has taken steps to secure 
himself the advaatage of at least the first sale. However, I 
hope in a short time to receive the terms and particulars under 
which they can be obtained, and then I shall be very glad to 
make them known to any person desiring the same. 

Before discussing M. Pretsch's paper, it was agreed that the 
following paper, by Mr. Grubb, M.R.I. A,, should be read; — 

"ON SOME OF THE OPTICAL PRINCIPLES INVOLVED IN THE 
CONSTRUCTION OF PHOTOGkAPHIC LEiNSLS." 

Understanding there is a feeling that the optical and phy.si- 
cal sections of the art (or science) of photography are not as 
adequately represented in communications to your Society, or 
its Jimrna/, as are the other sections of the art, I purpose to (at 
least in some measure) restore the balance by an occasional 
contribution of a paper coming under the head of the optics of 
photography. 

That the present is not my first essay in the same direction, 
will be recollected by some of your members; and, having re- 
cently glanced over the discussion, as published in you Journal, 
on huge versus small view-lenses, it ayipears desirable for me to 
make a few final observations on the same previous to entering 
upon a new subject. 

It is nuw just two-and-a-half years since " C. J. F." (follow- 
ing in Mr. Sutton's wake) informed the Society that he had 
practically ascertained the fitness of the smaller lens, by get- 
ting one made of one-and-a-half ii;ch diameter and fifteen inches 
focus, which gave very perfect definition up to the edges of a 
field of nine by seven inches. " C. J. P.," however, has given 
no information as to the aperture of the stop used in producing 
such result; and as the indistinctness arising from aberration is 
as the third power (or cube) of the aperture used, so almost 
any desirable distinctness of outline can be obtained with the 
worst len.s, provided only that the aperture be sufficiently re- 
duced; for example, I have seen a very fair photograph which 
had been taken with an ordinary single lens co ting half-a- 
crown. "C. J. F.," however, appears to have mistaken the 
question which I, at least, was discussing, viz., the size which a 



52 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



view-lens should be for a p:iven focus and field, in order to af- 
ford the best resxblt, and which I consider to include the condi- 
tions of the utmost distinctness throughout the (ield, when using 
a diaphragm or " stop," of the largest possible aperture, which 
other circumstances admit of. 

In respect of the specious argument advanced first by Mr. 
Sutton, and reiterated by " C. J. F.," viz., that that construc- 
tion wliicii ia best suited to the case of a view-lens of the larger 
aperture is not necessarily the best in the case of the smaller; 
and, therefore, that the experiment winch I originally proposed 
for ascertaining the least best aperture was not applicable (or 
conclusive), I would here observe that, if anyone competent to 
the matter will only make a diagram of an ordinary view- 
lens, and examine the passage of a pencil (central or lateral) 
as it occurs in practice, through the lens, he will find, that of 
the four surfaces of the compound, the difference (for either the 
large or small construction) is nothing for the first, second, and 
third surfaces, and for the fourth surface so little as not mate- 
rially to affect the general result; and, consequently, I assert 
that the experiment, as originally proposed by me, is coiidusive. 
" C. J. F.'s" assertion that all it (the experiment) proves is, 
that the outside of the picture is produced by the outside of the 
leus, is simply absurd. 

Lastly, I would observe, that two-and-a-half years having 
now elapsed (" C. J. F.'s" paper is dated May 5, 1855), and 
view-lenses being still, with few exceptions, made and used of 
the larger aperture, we can scarce help coming to the conclu- 
sion, independently of my arguments, either that " C J. F.'s" 
partially to the smaller lens has been misplaced, or that opti- 
cians are a sadly incorrigible class, or photographers a very 
soft one, to purchase and carry lenses of twice the diameter, 
four times the price, and eight times the weight necessary. 

As a postscript (and lest silence should be construed into 
assent), I desire to state that I have not found the radius of 
curvature of a field, g\vm by a plano-convex lens (plane side 
next parallel rays) to be equal to focus i" radius of convex 
side, as Mr. Sutton said I would. 

The subject which I propose to discuss on the present occa- 
sion has been selected more for reason of its importance, than 
probable interest. If (as I apprehend) error is being disserai- 
nated and acted upon by photographers, the sooner that more 
correct views are arrived at, the better. 

It will be necessary, as I proceed, to speak occasionally of 
'^angular aperfaref and, to avoid digressions, I would beg 
here to remind those who pay little, or only occasional atten- 
tion to such matters, that while "aperture" (of a lens) means, 
simply its effective or exposed diameter — " angular aperture" is 
the diameter, taken in connexion with its focal length. Thus 
■we may have lenses single or compounded of various sizes, and 
all of the same angular aperture; and, conversely, we may have 
several lenses of the one actual aperture or diameter, but of 
various angular apertures (provided their foci differ). It is 
important to photographers to have a clear conception of an- 
gular aperture, as with it varies the intensity of the chemical, 
as well as visual images, this intensity being as the square ot 
the angular aperture. 

[On account of the length of Mr. Pretsch's and Mr. Grubb's 
papers, we are compelled to omit a large portion of the latter, 
and also the discussion which took place npon both of them, 
till the publication of our next number, when we intend giv- 
ing a diagram in illustration of the remarks of the latter gen- 
tleman.] 



OUR PHOTOGRAPHIC ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I.— GARDEN SCENE, 

In Cambridge College Botanical Gardens. 

Negative by Messrs. Whipple & Black. 

This is a very good view of a part of one of the finest botani- 
cal gardens in the United States. It contains a very large col- 
lection of rare and useful medical plants, and is principally dc 
voted to the use of the students. 

11.— PORTRAIT OF MRS. J. M. MOZART. 

Negative by Mr. J. B. Heywood. 

This is a very excellent portrait; but we regret to say thai; 
the negative was somewhat marred in printing, and that some 
of the positives are not quite as good as they otherwise wouid 
have been. 

Both these pictures are printed on our American papers — 
which prove to be a much better article than Canson's, and 
only inferior to Saxe in the coarseness of texture. It would be 
better for life-size painted portraits. We shall, however, here- 
after use it in different ways to test it further. The formulas 
for printing were the same as for January. The March picture 
will be printed different. 



REMARKS 



From the Liverpool FJiot'ographic JonvnaL 

ON PHOTOGRAPHY. 



BY C. BURNETT, ESQ. 



Experience has proved that self-taught photographers are 
the most successful operators we have among us. In every re- 
spect they excell. A man who is obliged to seek the assistance 
of another on every occasion of a failure, and must depend 
upon that assistance for correction of the evil, can never be- 
come a first-rate photographer. Self-reliance is the only sure 
road to excellence in any study or business. 



Mr. Burnett has favored us with the following report for 
insertion in this Journal: — 

At the July, 1851, ordinary meeting of the Scottish Photo- 
graphic Society, W. Walker, Esq., in the chair, some specimens 
of unburnt photography on glass, parian, and porcelain having 
been exhibited, the Hon. Secretary mentioned that Mr. Burnett 
had some ccmmunications to make to the Society on the subject 
of photography on such materials. 

Mr. Burnett then remarked that he had been long trying* 
to stir up our photographers to immortalize their works on por- 
celain, glass, and allied imperishable materials, and was much 
pleased to see the interesting specimens then exhibited, but 
must, at the same time, fairly tell them that, — although by prepa- 
ring the surface for the reception of an ordinary silverpictureand 
subsequent varnishing, we might, as these specimens exemplified, 
produce tolerable, or very good, photographs, and find porcelain 
and allied fabrics — in some respects convenient supports for an 
ordinary picture (\i might be for one with other materials) — to 
give photographs, on such fabrics, their only real and charac- 
teristic value, the photograph must be burnt in. It was only 
thus that the photograph could be made to partake of the im- 
perishability of the fabric on which it was placed. The great 
obstacle and cause of failure, cr poor success in the attempts at 
burnt-in photography which had been hiterto made, arose from 
the change of color which the silver photographs underwent, 
generally turning yellow in the process of burning — nothing 
standing more in the way of progress here, as well as else- 
where, than the notion, which photographers in general seemed 
to be possessed with, that everything must be done by silver. In 
photography which was to be subjected to the action of thefurnace, 
he must lay it down as a law, and it was only by directing all 
our efforts in subservience to this law, that we could hope to get 
results worth having. We must direct our attention exclusively 
to the color which the substance, or mixture of substances, of 
which the photograph was composed, would assume after the 
operation of burning, not to that which it would present before 
burning. These two colors, it would be found, were by no means 
necessarily, and were seldom the same — frequently altogether 
unlike. These changes of color had been long known and care- 
fully studied by the painters, stainers and decorators of pottery 
and glass, having to be allowed for in all their operations; and 

* Both privately and publicly, see report on February paper, in Photo- 
graphic Notes of May 1, page 162. 



1S58. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE AUT JOURNAL. 



53 



their recorded experiences as to colors obtainable from varions 
oxides, and their mixtures, as well as their respective fixities in 
the furnace, and the methods of buruing-iu, should be carefully 
studied by photographers. 

Next, as to the praclkcihility of procuring photographs with 
more suitable substances than silver, he had been engaged at 
intervals, during the last two or three years, in an extensive 
series of experiments with a great variety of chemicals, partly 
to try whether he could not find some material at once less costly 
and less subject to change than silver for our ordinary paper 
photographs; but also, in a great measure, he might almost say 
principally, with a view to bumt-in photographs ou pottery and 
glass, to the production of photographs containing such sub- 
stances as would give black, brown, or other generally useful 
tints, alter their passing through the fire. He had already 
published, in a little fragmentary pamphlet,* the remarks in 
which as to the desirableness of producing from nature decora- 
tions lor our pottery, tiles, (fee, as well as otner of our remarks 
about photography on curved surfaces, &c., were intended to 
apply equally to true photography on porcelain, the means by 
which black, one-colored, or many^colored impressions from pho- 
tographically-prepared stones or plates might be produced on 
porcelain or glass, and the principle, as far as the study of change 
of color, was the same as he now described and insisted on. As 
to the mode of application of the photograph to the surface, in 
the case of the true photography with which they were now 
concerned, he named, amongst other varieties, the burning-in a 
print made with suitable materials, as preparations of chrome, 
iron, copper, gold, uranium, &c., or their combinations, or suita- 
ble preparations of them applied to a film of collodion, albumen, 
gelatine, dextrine, silica, alumina, or other suitable substance, 
or mixture of substances, with which the porcelain or other fire- 
proof material has been coated. The organic matter would 
turn away in the furnace, and the fixed oxides, or other sub- 
stances or compounds contained in the photograph, would sink 
down and amalgamate with the substance or the outer coating 
of the vitreous or ceramic material. Photographs on paper 
and other materials (and films of albumen and collodion, &c, 
with the photographic impression on them), might also be, he 
would suggest, after they were printed, attached to porcelain, &c., 
by an organic or inorganic cement, and all organic matter burnt 
away in the furnace as before. In this case, and M-e might also 
apply it to the film in the former case, he then would recommend 
for trial the application for some inorganic flax or vitrifiable 
substance, as borax, boracic acid, borate, silicate, or other sub- 
stance, or mixture of substances, to the paper or other film, either 
after its cementation to the porcelain or glass, or before its ce- 
mentation, or this application might be made to act also as the 
cement. Such an application might promote the amalgamation 
of the oxide contained in the photograph with the fire-proofs 
materials on which it is placed, as well as promote the fusion of 
the paper ash, and might, in the cases of pottery or other tablet, 
serve as its glaze, or might assist the vitrification of the surface. 
Nitrates, or chlorates, either alkaline, metallic, or earthy, and 
many other substances might be useful. 

* Photography in Colors; a Fragment. Published by Edmouston and 
Douglas. Edinburgh: Hamilton, Adams and Co., London. June, 1827; 
and republished in Notes for August. Is it not rather amusing to find 
M-r. Thomas Sutton, after publishing in his reprint of my pamplet months 
ago, in his Notes this plan of mine for burning into porcelain impressions 
or prints from photographically-prepared stones or plates, now trying to 
bring out the very same thing as a novelty of his own. This very remarka- 
ble re-suggestion was first made in Notes of 1st October, page 365 — " It 
has occurred to us that photographs might easily be printed on paper, in 
colored inks, from photogalvanographic or photo-lithographic plates, and 
sent to the potteries to be burned into crockery of all sorts." On the 
receipt of the Notes containing this, I wrote Mr. Sutton, quietly calling 
his attention to the fact that he was bringing out as his own what he had 
already published as mine, and calling attention to Mr. Poitevin's new 
farm of photo-lithography, as especially suited for the carrying out of this 
plan. Well, what sort of acknowledgment does Mr. Sutton make of this? 
what step does he adopt to clear himself from any possible suspicion of 
the intention to appropriate the property of another. In the last number 
of the Notes (Nov. 15), adding to it this new hint, he again brings the plan 
before the public, still as his own! Mr. Sutton writes me that my papers 
ar« " very suggestive," — so are the pockets of one class of her Majesty's 
subject to the fingers of another. 

1* 



As to the photographic chemicals which might be available 
for this photogriiphy, iron, copper, chrome, uranium, cobalt, 
gold, tin, manganese, nickel, bishmnth, antimony, lead, titanium, 
tungsten, molybdenum, and probably other metals were likely 
to be more or less available, many of them much more usefully 
so than silver, which, instead of being exclusively looked to, 
must be looked to as only an occasional variety for certain col- 
ors, or along with other metals. 

As to the means of their obtaing photographs with the desi- 
rable metals or their oxides, they might be many. His experi- 
ments pointed out that chromic acid, and the chromates applied 
in various ways, would enable us to fix photographically, or ob- 
tain photographs containing a considerable variety of metals 
likely to be useful. The ferrocyauides and ferridcyanides, and 
other allied salts, also came into play here, along with chromates, 
as also separately in other ways (e. g. by themselves or with 
uranium or other metals). Copper, iron, and chrome, separately, 
or in combination, any two or all three of them, from their iu- 
expensiveness and their fixity in the fire, were particularly de- 
serving attention. Copper and iron oxides, in combination, 
were already in use by porcelain printers, and furnished, after 
burning a good dark color, such as would be suitable for land- 
scapes, portraits, &c., &c. These dark colors and blacks ob- 
tained from the burning-in of photographs containing the already- 
mentioned oxides, or such other mixture of oxides (as cobalt and 
iron, cobalt and copper, cobalt, iron and copper, cobalt and iron 
or copper and manganese, &c.) as were in use in glass or porcelain 
staining, as might be found to answer, or blacks of uranium, were of 
course, the great desiderata, but at the same time it was well to 
know that we had, at our command, a variety of other and bright 
colors, as from cobalt, chrome, silver, lead, antimony, uranic oxide, 
&c., which might be brought into play for the colored decoration of 
pottery, glass, or allied materials with true photographs.f either 
simple photographs or kaleidoscopical ly combined. For com- 
pound colors and neutral tints, we might be considered as well 
prepared, as there was no difficulty infixing any reasonable num- 
ber of oxides at once in one photograph, through the instrumen- 
tality of the chromates, with or without the assistance of other 
metallic salts, and ferrocyauides or ferridcyanides, and other 
metal-cyanic salts. 

Various circumstances, as well as his time, having been much 
taken up with a variety of experiments in other directions as 
well as that of photography, had interfered to prevent his hav- 
ing here any burnt in specimens on porcelain or glass to show 
them, but he would show them a few practical results on paper, 
the results of his experiments with some of the metals which he 
had recommended, and he bad no hesitation in saying that, by 
calling attention to the cause of previous want of success, and 
by pointing out the direction in which we must look for 
a remedy : and the practicability, which he came pre- 
pared to prove to them, of producing photographs containing 
the suitable substances, he had removed at once the great diffi- 
culty which had been allowed hitherto to stand so formida- 
ble in the way, and placed it at once in the power of any person 
of ordinary intelligence and capability,! having the proper ma- 

t For all decorative purposes (kaleidoscopic and non-kaleidoscopic), 
photographic and other, we would direct particular attention to the Dia- 
tomoceae, Foraminifera, and other microscopic forms. 

i E. g. Mr. Forrest, who, at the last meeting of the Liverpool Society, 
not only brought out, as something entirely new and out of his own heiid, 
my already published plan (^see Journal for August) for getting rid of the 
obstacle which had hitherto obstructed all progress towards anything like 
a good burnt in photography on porcelain, enamel, glass, and similar fa- 
brics by substituting other materials, on the principle of attention to their 
burnt colors for silver, but actually brought out, on the same occasion, 
describing it step by step as his own, my copper-printing process (ciipro- 
type), as published, boih In the same August Journal and in the Fhoio- 
grapMc Notes, particularly in one number, in a letter of mine, in connec- 
tion with the contents of which Mr. Forrest had actually written to me 
for information ! and had a reply from me giving it. I am of opinion that 
the public is often most unreasonable bored about questions of priority 
and originality in mere trifles; but, where a man has freely made a gilt to 
the public of an invention by which he might had he chosen to make a 
patent monopoly of it, have coined thousands of pounds, he has some 
little right to ask that the acknowledgment due to him should not be 
given to another, I need hardly put the question, is it at all likely that 
a practical dealer and manufacturer, such as Mr. Forrest, would have 



54 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



terials and appliances at command, to produce a i-eally good 
dark colored barnt-in photograph on percelain, glass, and allied 
materials. 

These remarks, giving the only means of attaining a really 
useful or valuable true burnt-in photography on porcelain, gloss, 
tiles, enamelled surfaces of metal, stone, brick, &c., had been 
excluded from the little fragmentary pamphlet before alluded 
to from want of space in its single sheet; but he had much plea- 
sure in now communicating them freely to the public, and to put 
any attempts at monopoly out Oi the question; — lest anyone 
should think of taking out a patent for for them, he would now 
place in the hands of the Honorary Secretary the notes from 
which he had read. After shewing some specimens of ink pho- 
graphs, with remarks, aud some green photographs of leaves, 
(the coloring matter being Prussian blue, along with yellow 
iiitro-prusside of iron, J the latter interesting to contrast with 
with the brown autumnal-looking specimens he would next show 
them, aud remarking that all these processes, as well as the 
cyanotype prints, &c., might be applicable to burnt-in photo- 
graphy, frum the iron they contained. Mr. Burnett then pro- 
ceeded to show a variety of specimens illustrative of pho- 
tography, with materials suitable forning-in aud to give ex- 
planations and answer questions as to the processes by 
which they were obtained or might be obtained. The red- 
brown autumnal-looking photographs consisted of ferrocy- 
auide of copper. They are obtained by — 1st, preparing paper 
with a mixture of bichromate of potash and sulphate of copper; 
2nd, exposing in pressure frame under negative; 3rd, washing 
it to get rid of unacted-oti chemicals, (a little citric acid being 
added to the water) ; 4th, developing it more fully by a bath 
of ferrocyanide of potassium; and, 6th, washing again, and dry- 
ing. Tliere were other ways of obtaining the same result, some 
of which no doubt would be preferable, as by substituting an 
alkaline bichromate less soluble, and giving rise to less soluble 
products as well as less stable, we both quicken the printing 
and prevent crystallization, which was sometimes apt to be 
troublesome. With the latter view also nitrate of copper might 
be substituted for sulphate. He expected also to find the sub- 
stitution of a pure bichromate of copper for the mixture of salts 
an improvement. It was only as applicable to burnt-in photo- 
graphy that he then brought these prints before them. Their 
red color would interfere with their being generally valuble for 
our ordinary printing, but there was a method of toning them 
(by iron) Ijy which he expected to get rid of the red tone and 
to produce photograj)hs suitable for all purposes. He hoped by 
such toning to bring copper printing into general use as a for- 
midable rival to silver, and the toniug would probably also add 
to the value of the photograph for burning-in by adding more 
metal to it. He answered enquiries as to the probable perma- 
nence of such photographs in the uuburnt state, &c. The very 
distinct and dense olive-brown photograph was obtained on paper 
prepared with bichromate of potash and sulphate of manganese. 
Some other photographs shown, contained mixtures of copper 
or cobalt, with manganese and chrojue, <Stc., mixtures of several 
metals being obtainable either by mixture in the paper prepa- 
ration or by their after addition. Among the cobalt photographs 
shewn, the very dark brown ones, which might deserve consider- 
ation for unburnt photography as well as for burning-in, had been 



been willing to forego such an oppoi-timity of making a lortune, or would 
have made a free gift to the public, had it been iu his gift or refusal of a 
secret of such value? Mr, Forrest would have shared with his brother 
niunufacturers tiie profits of the opening up a. new branch of art, and he 
might havcbi e'l content with this. At the Liverpool meeting, and elsewhere, 
Mr. Forrest has recorded nothing, as far as I can see, but substantial fail- 
ures, from the employment of silver, till after the date of my suggestions 
for the substitution of other metals, on the principle of attention to then- 
burnt colors. Has Mr. Forrest .shown that, up to the date of my sugges- 
tion, he liad done anything more than hammer away, painfully and help- 
lessly, as others had done before him, at the useless silver, or that sinre he 
has done anything more than carry my plan into practice, with the ad- 
vantage of the furnace, the want of which " he so much regrets must pre- 
vent his brother Z'ro.tos from carrying on any sucli e.xpoVimentsV The 
only thing like original idea which 1 have found iu his papar, and for that 
he conscientiously acknowledges himself ol)liged to the suggestiojis of a 
friend, is the having found out that milk produces a liln; better adapted 
for carrying out such processes than starch. 



prepared by toning chromate of cobalt prints with sulphuretted hy- 
drogen and sulphohydride of ammonium. The uranium andiron 
photographs were their old friends of last Exhibition, and 
which he had explained in his yaper of February, when he had 
alsa called attention to them and others in connexion with bnrn- 
ing-in. In his allusion to burning-in in that paper, as printed 
in the Phologrxiphic Notes, the word silver was somehow substi- 
tuted for copper. The gold photographs were developments 
of iron-prepared paper (Sir J. Herschel's chrysotypej, aud of 
uranic papers, and highly gold-toned ordinary silver prints. The 
most desirable gold-print would be one containing it in union with 
tin, and he hojjcd to succeed, but had not yet, in getting any 
good photograph of this description.* Hant's silver chromotype 
should be tried with or without addition for color-printing. As 
to his own chromic printing processes, the specimens shewn were 
all on paper, but his experiments pointed out that they were 
likely to be equally available on animal and vegetable films, 
as albumen, gelatiae, dextrine, &c., so as to be applicable in 
this way for burning into porcelain, glass, and allied fabrics. 
There would be no use iu then entering into any further 
particulars of his chromate processes. For further informa- 
tion he referred them to. the accounts which, would be pub- 
lished. f His intention was to communicate the whole freely 
to the public, so that any one might be able to give them a trial, 
either as far as any of them were adapted for positive printing 
on paper, &c. (porcelaiu and glass being here also, though much 
less importantly, Included^, or for the system of burning-in on 
porcelain, glass, tiles, enamel, metal, stone, slate, &c., as regu- 
lated by the burnt colors in connection with which they had 
been then brought forward, and which he had no doubt would 
give results of the very highest value in a vast variety of ways. 



From the Liverpool photographic Journal. 

THE " PENCIL OF NATURE" PROCESS OF MR. FOX TALBOT. 



Mr. Talbot's work, "The Pencil of Nature," published, ia 
1844, by Longman and Co., will always be of historical inter- 
est to photographers, since it was the first work of any magni- 
tude that was illustrated by actual photographs. We propose 
to give an outline of th.e method by which its illustrations were 
prepared. The negatives, obtained by the calotype ov Talbo- 
type process, having been selected, some being waxed aud 
others uuwaxed, were copied upon chloride-of silver paper in 
the following manner: — Hollingworth's "■ Whatman's Turkey 
Mill" paper was taken, by preference, and dipped into salt and 
water, and left there for about two minutes; the salt being in 
the proportion of from one to two ounces to a gallon of water, 
varying with the quality or properties of the sample of paper 
used; and this variation was carefully attended to. The paper 
thus prepared was called salted paper. The excess of solution 
of salt was removed by laying the wet sheet upon a square 
of glass or a clean deal board, and dabbing its surface with a 
smooth cloth folded up into a sort of pad. As soon as ono 
surface was freed, from the solution the other side was turned 
up and treated iu the same way. The sheets were then dried 
by leaving them spread out on clean paper iu a warm: room. 
It was subsequently found that pressure in an ordinary press, 
after immersion in the salt and water, was sufficieot to re- 
move the excess of liquid; the paper being afterwards dried in 
any convenient manner. To render this paper sensitive, a solu- 
tion was prepared called amtiwnw-nitrate of silver, a prepara- 
tion long known iu pharmacy, but, we believe, first applied in 
photography by Dr. Alfred Taylor, the well known toxicolo- 
gist. This was at first made by adding gradually caustic am- 
monia to a solution of nitrate of silver until the precipitate of 
oxide of silver which was, at first thrown down was re-dissolved. 
Such a solution, spread upon salted paper and left to dry, gave 
a more sensitive surface than could be readily obtained by the 

* We \yould suggest the burning-in of a gold photograph on a surface 
of porcelain or glass already containing the oxide of tin, which, by itself, 
is white. 

t tiee /oucna/ of the Photographic Society for August, page 21, and 
Pholographic Notes of Sep. 1 and 15, <$». 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



55 



nse of salt and nitrate of silver only; but it was soon found 
that some uncertainty attended the use of this preparation, the 
pictures frequently turning out to be " smoky" in appearance, 
and of a cold, slate-colored hue. To remedy these defects, Mr. 
Talbot advised the use of nitric acid, an agent which has lately 
been recommended by Mr. Hardwich, doubtless without know- 
ing that Mr. Talbot had long ago relied upon it to improve the 
ordinary ammonio-nitrate solution. One formula was this: — 
Take of solution of nitrate of silver, of sixty grains to the 
ounce, any convenient quantity; add to this, solution of ammo- 
nia, until the mixture became almost free from the precipitated 
oxide of silver, the brown color of which served as a test of its 
presence. Then render the mixture as clear as possible by the 
addition of diluted nitric acid. No exact proportions could be 
relied upon. If the resulting prints were too red, a portion of 
the acid was neutralized, or the salt varied. If the color ob- 
tained was too cold, more acid w^as added, and sometimes the 
nitrate of silver had to be increased to obtain, with certain 
samples of paper, a good rich velvety " mulberry tint." The 
action of the nitric acid seemed to be an obscure one. It did 
not act merely by forming nitiate of ammonia in which oxide of 
silver is soluble, for a solution of oxide of silver in neutral ni- 
trate of ammonia did not give the same result. And we do 
not know that it can be said that the process was fully under 
control; much depended on the sample of paper used.' A pa- 
per called Nash's paper required no salting, and lately we have 
seen that Towgood's paper gives a peculiar tone to prints made 
with the ammonio-nitrate preparation. This subject still needs 
investigation. The solution was applied by a brush and left 
to dry spontaneously, using only at last slight warmth to insure 
the absence of all moisture. The paper so prepared was gen- 
erally used the same day, or, if kept, submitted to pressure and 
partial exclusion from the air by means of a copying frame or 
press. The prints were chiefly made in sunshine, and printed 
only a little stronger than the depth required in the finished 
print. Those over-printed were left longest in fresh hyposul- 
phite of soda, or lowered by immersion in iodide of potassium 
and subsequent exposure to light. Some fine results were ob- 
tained in this latter way. Of course, hyposulphite was used to 
remove the iodide of silver from the paper. The fixing liquid 
for these was used hot, aud contained one part of hyposulphite 
of soda to about ten of water. This overdoing and lowering 
gave a new contrast to the lights and shades. The prints, when 
removed from the copying frame, were washed in warm water 
to remove the excess of nitrate and some superficial deposit. 
The fixing took place in a fresh solution of hyposulphite of 



of 
soda, consisting of about one part of a saturated solution of the 
salt in ten parts of water; this quantity served for about 
twenty-five prints of seven inches by nine inches; it was then 
put aside or thrown away. The prints remained about ten 
minutes in the fixing bath, after which they were washed in 
only three or four changes of water. The absence of the well- 
known ?weet taste of hyposulphite of silver being taken, wiM 
the consent of high scientific authority, as indicating a fractical 
removal of the fixing liquid. About two or three gallons of 
water were taken for each batch of twenty-five prints, and the 
washing pans were arranged in series, so that the prints 
passed from pan to pan; being finally placed in thick blotting- 
paper to remove the excess of moisture. The drying took place 
nearly spontaneously, upon paper placed on shelves in a cup- 
board in a warm room, Latterly the prints were toned by 
heat near a fire, or by using a hot iron applied to the paper. 
Although it was observed that heat alone appeared to modify 
the color of the fixed print, it was found that a trace of the fix- 
ing liquid was required to give a purple or deep tinge to the 
finished picture. Pictures repeatedly ivashed would not take a 
deep tone by the action of heat; and, what is important to ob- 
serve, pictures bo toned have remained good from that time, 
1844, till now. We at present believe that they must have 
contained a trace of the fixing liquid. Experiments, requiring 
time, are in progress, with a view of ascertaining how long hy- 
posulphite of soda can remain exposed to the air without oxida- 
tioa and consequent destruction. 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soc. 

FILTERING GELATINOUS LIQUIDS. 

Marsten Rectory, Rugby, Nov. 10, 1857. 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal. 

Dear Sir, — The filtration of a strong solution of gelatine 
sometimes required for photographic purposes, is a very difficult 
matter, from the necessity of the operation being performed 
whilst the solution continues at a high temperature. An 
ounce of " Swinburne's Patent Isinglass," dissolved in about a 
pint of water, begins to thicken, sufficiently to interupt the pro- 
gress of filtration, at a temperature a little below ISO" Fahr. 
The following is the method which I have adopted, as the most 
simple, for the removal of this difficulty, in cases where the 
quantity required is limited to 10 or 12 ounces: — 

A cylindrical vessel, of common block tin, is made of sufficient 
capacity to hold 5 or 6 ounces of water, and to admit of a ves- 
sel_ being suspended above the surface of this in the interior: the 
height altogether must be sufficient for admitting the funnel. 
The water is brought to the boiling-point, and the steam, whicli 
fills the interior of the vessel, and of coarse, surrounds the gela- 
tinous solution, keeps it in a state perfectly mangeable liquidity 
as long as is reguired. 

I always use a piece of sponge, or tuft of cotton lightly pres-. 
sed into the neck of the funnel. "William Law. 



From the Jour, of the Phot. Soe, 

ACCOUNT OF A NEW PHOTOGRAPHIC PROCESS BY M. DUPUIS, 

Officer of Health to the French Army of Occupation at Rome. 



BY SIR DAVID BREWSTER. 



[Read before the Photographic Society of Scotland, Not. 5, 1857.] 

When I was in Rome last winter I became acquainted with 
M. M. Dupuis, a celebrated amateur photographer, who had 
produced the finest binocular pictures of the public buildings in 
that city. He mentioned to me that he had discovered and 
used with success a new process of dry collodion, which pos- 
sessed all the advantages of that of Taupenot, without its in- 
conveniences. This process was first published in some of the 
French Journals in 1855, and afterwards, in an improved form, 
in 1856, both in Cosmos and La Lumiere, 

The following process, which he sent to me, is considerably 
different from those previously published: — ■ 

The collodion is formed of — 

Ether, spec, gr, 60 80 cubic centilitres. 

Alcohol, •' 36 40 " '< 

Gun-cotton 1 gramme. 

Iodide of zinc 1 " 

Iodide of ammonium is more rapid, but not give so good 
blacks. 

The sensitizing bath is formed of-^^^ 

Fused nitrate of silver 10 grammes. 

Distilled water ...150 " 

Acetic acidfcommercial) 15 " 

Wash afterwards in distilled water, and coat with a solution 
of dextrine, of the consistency of So of the syrup-measurey of 
chemists. 

Developing solution: — 

Pyrogallic acid. 1 gramme. 

Distilled water 300 " 

Citric acid (crystallized) 1 " 

The picture can be strengthened by adding some drops of 
nitrate of silver. Half the above quantity of citric acid might 
be enough, and would allow the exposure to be shorter. 

The mode of developing the picture is the same as that which 
is published in Cosmos, 28th November, 1856; or in La Lu- 
miere, of the 8th of November. 

In order to test the value of the process, M. Dupuis prepared 



5G 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Febraary, 



six plates: one exposed and developed in Rome; two prepared 
and exposed in Rome; and three prepared in Rome, but not 
exposed. Tliese plates were prepared on the 6lh of May, and 
the box which contained them was not opened till I arrived in 
London on the 27tli of June, having been preserved from the 
inspection of the Custom-house officers through the kindness of 
Lord Normanby, who had the box placed in a Foreign-office 
bag as despatches of which I was the bearer. 

On my arrival in London, I had two of the plates which had 
been exposed in Rome, developed by Mr. Davis, the photogra- 
pher to the Stereoscopic Company; and one, both exposed and 
developed in London. An accident, however happened to 
this plate, and to another of the same kind, so that there is now 
only one remaining of the prepared plates. (The negatives 
were exhibited and much admired.) 

The following is M. Depuis' memorandum respecting the 
time during which the plates should be exposed. 

The two plates that are marked have been exposed; that on 
which will be found the picture of Trajan's Forum, was exposed 
two and a half minutes in bright sunshine at noon. The Pano- 
ramic View was exposed five minutes, without sunshine, at 
5 P.M. Tlie three other plates have not been exposed. When 
they are exposed, it will be necessary to regulate the time of 
exposure according to the following direction: — exposure in 
sunshine from two and a-half to three minutes with a small sin- 
gle lens, of ^th plate size; diaphragm 8 millimetres, focus 15 
centimetres. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal 

MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



lenses, when the Chairman enquired if any one had perceived 
the effect of stereoscopic pictures taken with lenses less apart 
than the usual two and a-half inches, which produced an enlarg- 
ing instead of a solidifying result. 

Mr. NiELD tliouglit it might be caused by the size of aperture 
used, large lenses at the usual distance not producing the same 
effect as smaller ones. 

The next meeting will be held on January 6th, when Mr. 
Mann, who is a very successful operator, will give the Society 
the benefit of the details of the oxymel process as he practises 
it. Mr. Neild promised to show some pictures with the oxy- 
calcium light at a future meeting. 



The monthly meeting of this Society was held on the 2nd 
instant, at the house of the Literary and Philosophical Society, 
36 George street, the Rev. W. J. Read presiding. 

The Secretary (^Mr.S. Cottamj stated that Mr. Mann had 
presented three photographic pictures to the Society's portfolio, 
(very beautiful prints from negatives by the oxymel process); 
and that Mr. Joseph Sidebotham had sent two colored photo- 
graphs, which he had done, to try the eifect in using them for 
the magic lantern. In his letter accompanying the photographs, 
Mr. Sidebotham stated: — "I think, with care, and avoiding too 
much color, some beautiful effects may be got in this way; the 
photographs should be lightly printed and not developed too 
deeply, otherwise the foliage, which is the great beauty of many 
pictures, would be lost. 'Phe colors I have used are the ordi- 
nary colors prepared for oil painting, selecting only the trans- 
parent ones. Crimson and yellow lake, gold ochre, burnt 
sienna, brown pink, Prussian blue, and ivory black will be 
found to be sufficient. The plan is to put a little of the colors 
from the tubes on a piece of blotting-paper, which soon absorbs 
the oil; then work them with a medium composed of turpen- 
tine six parts, and Canada balsam one part, using camel's hair 
pencils; and for the sky, on any part where shading is required, 
nothing appears to answer better than the end of the finger." 

A conversation took place respecting the recently announced 
experiments of Niepce St. Victor, referring to which subject 
Mr. Mabley stated that having occasion to cover some sensi- 
tive paper, it became impressed with the photogenic image of 
a label on a portfolio which he placed upon it. 

Professor Roscoe said that the subject was one which had 
been long uuder consideration, and was related to the theory of 
latent light, as it had been investigated by Moser; it might be 
enquired whether to other causes than light the effect may be 
referred. 

Mr. Wardley said that gummed labels placed upon prepared 
plates, had had the effect of preventing development on the side 
opposite to that on which they were placed. 

Mr. Pyxe stated that some plates prepared under the super- 
intendence of Dr. Hill Norris, had given good results, say in 
three minutes, with a quarter-inch aperture, six inches focus. 

Some remarks ensued respecting the use of rock crystal for 



ART IN BALTIMORE, 



Dear Snelling, — There has been since last I Wrote yoO, 
little or nothing done in the artistic world. I have visited 
nearly all of the galleries within the past week, and I find the 
proprietors and operators all on their oars. J. H. Whitehurst 
has a benutiful gallery, splendid tnpestry, carpets, curtains of 
the richest damask; instruments of the best pos>ible kind, ope- 
rating-rooms fitted up with great neatness, and yet he does not be- 
gin to pay rent clear of stock. Dr. Bushnell is the operator; 
a clever gentleman and does his best to please: but Mr. W. has 
almost lost his ambition, his spacious walls look blank, but fine 
specimens. All looks deserted. What is the reason ? Some 
will ask, why has Mr. W. lost his popularity? The question 
may easily be answered — by not strictly attending to his busi- 
ness. Mr. W had at one time more real genuine taste and 
energy, than all the daguerreotype men in the whole country. 
But " alas poor Yoric;" his ambition is gone, his popularity 
died out, and he is left solitary and alone, with no one to mourn 
over his loss or follies. But Mr. W. is young, and he may 
spur up and yet be able to come out winner in the race. I 
hope he may. 

Mr. J. W. Perkins has retired from the artistic world, as I 
have been told, and took a partner for life who was blessed with 
plenty of money. 

Mr. TuTTLE occupies Mr. Perkins' old gallery. Mr. T. is 
not only a good operator, but a gentleman of the first water. 
By his manly bearing, he has won for himself a host of 
friends. 

Mr. B. F. Hawks late of Whitehurst's old gallery, has the 
old stand of Mr. W. fitted up in good style. He takes photo- 
graphs and anibrotypes — some of the specimens I was shown 
were very good. I have not learned his operators name. Mr. 
Dan. Bendam was formerly engaged by him. 

Mr. Pollock, I learn, does a very good business. He is 
probably the most particular man in the business in Baltimore, 
and if you step on his toes he'll tell you very quick, maybe. 
He and Mr. Whitehurst have long been rivals, and now their 
glory seems to have departed. Mr. Pollock and Mr. W. both 
have Woodward's Solar Caviera, but don't make much use 
of it. 

Mr. P. L, Perkins. — Of this gentleman I could say much, 
for he is a prime good fellow. Mr. P. takes good ambrotypes 
and fine photographs. Mr. Shaw is the operator. Mr. P. 
takes a great mauy life-size photographs and has them painted. 
They fail in comparison to their other work. Ambrotypists 
think that an oil painting must necessarily be as smooth as 
glass, and they endeavor to get it done so. But the idea will 
soon explode, for any picture, no difference how rough, can be 
made as smooth as glass; so the roughness is no fault, so the 
picture is well colored and well drawn. The best painting I 
ever saw, was the roughest. The colors were literally put into 
the canvas in some places, with a palette knife. In time, the 
painting will soften itself, and if painted properly will improve 
much. There is not a great deal of taste displayed in the ar- 
rangement of pictures in Mr. P.'s rooms — I would specially call 
his attention to the fact. 

Mr. Israel, who is a great rival of Mr. P. L. Perkins, has 
his gallery but a few doors below: he displays more taste than 



any operator iu Baltimore, and makes tlie best show. Mr. I. 
is a plain Ijluiit man, and often offends when he does not intend 
to: his manners are not in tiie least prepossessing. But those 
who know him love him much; I have watched his course closely 
and long; and I believe he intends to do the right thing. 
But there is such a spirit of rivalry here, that when a man says 
anything, 'tis misconstrued so that great misciiief is often made, 
without even intending to make it. As regards the little gos- 
siping between different operators, and different proprietors of 
different galleries, it should be stopped, there is nothing gained 
from this backbiting. One proprietor of a gallery, for instance, 
in Baltimore, exhibited some pictures said not to be made by 
himself, in his establishment. This was said publicly, and a protest 
was entered to the directors of the Fair, at which the exhibitor 
of the pictures feeling himself agrieved, have entered suit 
against the parties for libel. What the result will be can be 
well told: a lawyer will get his fee, and tlie case will be quashed. 

Mr. Davis has a weat little gallery on Market street near 
South, and his specimeus iu photography are equal if not supe- 
rior to any in the street. Pie has a liberal share of the public 
patronage, and deservedly so, for Mr. D. is an old operator. 

Mr. idoRROW has a neat little gallery below the Sun iron 
building. His photographs are not so good as many, but expe- 
rience will teach him. 

Mr. Walzl has opened a gallery for cheap ambrotypes; some 
of his pictures equal the best. 

Mr. McCax uses Woodward's Solar Camera for all of his 
pictures. He drives a big trade copying small engravings, and 
making them large and coloring them iu oil. 

The Sular Camera is the greatest invention in photography 
of the day; no one in Baltimore has yet discovered the greatest 
powers of this instrument. But the inventor deserves to have 
himself well lectured for not making his instruments more 
known; but time will prove its valuable qualities. Mr. Wood- 
ward has placed his instruments at such a low figure, that 
every body can get one. In fact, I think Mr. W. has 
placed too low a value on the Solar Camera. 

I was shown some late improvements in the workings of this 
i nstrument, which places it beyond comparison with all other in- 
struments of a similar kind. In my letter :froni Cincinnati, I 
said Mr. Hall's instrument, used by J. P. Ball, was a similar 
invention; I think after a careful investigation I am mistaken. 
Mr. W.'s instrument must take precedence over all other in- 
ventions of similar kinds. 

The developing process is used in producing pictures by the 
Solar Camera in five seconds. This instrument is used at all 
times, even in cloudy days. 

Mr. Jas. K. Harley, the artist, was married last week; I 
wish most cheerfully a merry Christmas and a happy new year 
to the artist and his fair bride; may he now be inspired by 
his loving wife, to add great laurels to his name and fame. 

Mr. Elisha Lee has had large orders for his photographic 
canvas from the South. 

Col. JoHX R. JoHxsTON has his new studio in Carroll Hall, 
Xo. 5, where a room full of visitors may be seen at all times. 
His studio is full of work, mostly full-length pictures of 
children. 

A large sale of old paintings took place last week at the 
Baltimore Museum. Some of them were sold very cheap. Mr. 
Carvalorigh sold them. 

Mr. A. J. Way, the portrait-painter, is still here. 

Mr. T. Wood, the artist, has just returned from an Eastern 
tour, and is busily engaged upon numerous orders. 

We have many amateur photographic artists here, whom it 
is not best to slight in my notice. Capt. J. P. Dl-kehardt, 
conductor on the Baltimore and Ohio Bailroad, is oue eif the 
best operators in photography in Baltimore: strange to say, 
this gentleman is an old practical chemist, and for his pleasure 
made photography a study. 

There is nothing much in the artistic world, or I should be 
most happy to write you. 

Respectfully yours, J. R. J. 

Baltimore, Dec. 21, I85T. 

VOL XI. NO. II. 8 



From the Jimr. of the Phol. Soc. 

THE EXPERDIENHL CMDIHTEE. 
To the Editor of the Pholograjihic Journal: 

Sir, — Your remarks in the last Number of the Photographic 
Journal (on the diQiculties which an Experimental Committee 
would meet with in testing the various preservative processes) 
will be read witli regret by many who have become confounded 
amongst the numerous conflicting discoveries, modifications and 
remodifications which have been brought before the public, and 
who have tried iu vain to hit upon one which possessed the ad- 
vantages state by its author. To such (and I have no doubt 
but they are legion) the formation of such Committee would be 
the greatest boon. 

Obstacles such as you state might present themselves, but 
are they insurmountable? The photographer is constantly con- 
tending with and overcoming difficulties, and these would be 
more than counterbalanced by the resulting advantages. 

What is the character of the opposition with which tlie Com- 
mittee would have to contend? Probably some bigoted di-scoverer 
or modifier, or prejudiced operator, each clinging to his own 
peculiar crotchet, might attempt to ignore the proceedings of 
such a committee; but the opposition would be of a very harm- 
less nature, and would not prevent the decision having its due 
weight with every unbiassed photographer. 

But it may be said that there is no prescribed path to success 
in the art, that the same results can be produced by nearly every 
preservative process published; but this has not been satisfacto- 
rily proved, ior if we are to accept the statements of the various 
authors, each one is better than all the rest. It maybe urged that 
perfection has not been attained by any of the known dry pro- 
cesses, and that the labors of the Committee might be rendered 
useless by a discovery that the preserved plate could be made 
as sensitive as moist collodion; but without wishing to discour- 
age any one experimenting in that direction, it would be of the 
greatest importance to the amateur to know what are the com- 
parative merits of each known process, and only a Committee, 
such as suggested, can decide. 

If the author of a process or modification could not take part 
himself iu the experiments, he could delegate some successful 
operator who would do it equal justice. 

If the experiments were conducted impartially, and the re- 
sults submitted to a General Meeting of the Members of the 
Society, the decision would be looked for with the greatest in- 
terest by all who are anxious for the progress of the art. It 
would be the means of checking those prolific sources of annoj^ 
ance to the amateur, termed improvements (?), unless it could 
be proved that they possessed some great advantage over pro- 
cesses already tested. 

Take collodio-albumen as a standard, which is perhaps the 
process most generally acknowledged that pictures can be pro- 
duced by it which have never been excelled by any other; but 
the tedious manipulation, liabihty to blisters, &e., are urged 
as objections to the process. 

We have honey, oxymel, gelatine, metagelatine, glycerine, 
dextrine, gum-arabic, treacle, sugar, &c., the addition or suli- 
stitution of a single ingredient constituting a uew process and 
rival claimants contending for the laurels. 

Can we wondar that an amateur, pursuing his path in the 
dark among such rocks and shoals, should so often founder. Can 
it be shown that any of the above wmU produce a more vigorous 
negative, with greater certainty, with less exposure, and with 
finer delineations in detail than collodio-albumen? 

It can only be decided satisfactorily by an Experimental Com- 
mittee. 

Every photographer is indebted to those gentlemen who, apart 
from all mercenary motives, have given the results of their 
scientific experiments to the public; but suspicion will always 
be attached to the statements of those who, iu publishing a 
discovery (?), make it a medium for advertising some special 
compound, which can only be obtained of certain dealers; but if 
amateurs would make themselves better acquainted with the 
theory cf their interesting pursuit, the field for such photographic 
quackery would be greatly circumscribed. 



58 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



Pebrnary, 



I would commend the subject to the consideration of all who 
feel an interest in the future of the art, especially to those emi- 
nent professors who would take a pleasure iu conducting the ex- 
periments as suggested, and which, if carried out will act as a 
stimulus to many a wavering amateur in overcoming difficulties 
of manipulation in a known good process, instead of changing 
with every new (?) idea, and iu the end abandoning the art in 
despair. J. Hart. 



For the Photographic & Fine Art Journal. 

WHITE SPECKS UPON MELAINOTH'E PICTURES. 



Hundreds of applications have been made to Mr. Neff about 
white specks all over the Meiainotype pictures. Different me- 
thods for their prevention have been given, but never the right 
ones. 

Take 10 or 20 grains of bi-carbonate of soda dissolved in little 
water ; add it to your silver bath, and it will put a stop, 
if not add a little more: should it make your bath milky, too 
much has been added; filter and add 2 or 3 drops of nitric 
acid. If Mr. Neff or agents would make use of this, they will 
hear of less complaint. We use Meiainotype Plates altogether, 
it is so easy to work them. We never clean a plate unless we 
wish to be troubled ; if the impression ia not good, and it is washed 
off, rinsed and dried, and the plate cleaned with alcohol and ether, 
it will not work like a new one. They recommend all ambro- 
typists (not daguerreotypists) to take Melainotypes, whether 
they have a patent or not. They will have only half the work. 
The patent is, like most others, all humbug.* 

Dayton, Ohio. Louis Seebohm. 



From Tfie Jour, of the Pho. Soc. 

ARTIFICIAL LIGHT FOR PHOTOGRAPHY. 

46 Camden Street, Camden Town, Nov. 11, 1857. 
jTo the Editor of the Photographic Journal : 

Sir, I beg, through the medium of our Journal, to bring be- 
fore the photographic public a very ingenious application of the 
signal-fire (prepared by pyrotechnists) to the purposes of photog- 
raphy. 

Those who practise photography in such places as London, 
Liverpool, Birmingham, Manchester, Bristol, &c., have no doubt 
experienced considerable interruption, perhaps loss, from the 
prevalence of fog for nearly a fortnight lately, and as the year 
declines, more of sach anti-photographic weather must be ex- 
pected. 

Those photographers, therefore, who may wish to pursue their 
practice without interruption from foggy weather, will find this 
application of the light by which theatrical fairies are beautified 
in the eyes of mere mortals to be a very useful and respectable 
substitute for the sun's rays. The employment of this fire, and 
the mode of burning the photogenic compound, are secured by 
patent to Mr. Moule of the Hackney Road, who is himself a 
good photographer, and the inventor of a large lantern especially 
adapted for displaying the light. 

The lantern is closely glazed, is formed of galvanized iron, and 
has at its top a wide tube to convey away the sulphurous acid 
fumes caused by burning the fiery compound. 

Themode of proceeding is this. If the weather be foggy, or if 
the light be required in the evening, the lantern and stand just de- 
scribed (both being of very light weight) are placed in the ope- 
rating-room, and the sitter stationed about four feet from the 
lantern. The picture, by means of a lamp or candle, is focussed 
on the ground glass, the ready sensitized and collodionized plate 
placed in the camera, and the shutter raised; the lamp is then 
placed aside: about 2 ounces of the composition previously 
weighed out are then introduced, by means of a small door, into 
the lantern. The compo.sition is then fixed and the door shut; 
a brilliant blueish-white flame immediately ensues lasting for 
about 15 seconds; when the flame is over, the plate is removed 
from the camera and developed either as a positive or a negative, 

* Men differ on this subject and as in all patent matters, tbe dispute 
can be decided by the United States Court only. — Ed. P, & F. A. Jour. 



according to the intention of the operator; it will be found that 
the light has had sufficient actinic power to give a well-defined 
image. 

The preparation of the plate, and the development o^ the pic- 
ture, differ in no respect from the oi-dinary collodion process. 

I have no interest in, nor knowledge of, the patent, nor of 
the patentee, beyond having witnes.sed witli much pleasure the 
very ingenious and simple method employed by hiui to produce 
photographic pictures at night. 

The composition to be burnt in the lantern is supplied in tin 
canisters, each containing 12 lbs. weight, and it costs ^d. per 
lb., which will show the inexpensive nature ot the light. 

No electrical machine is required, no galvanic battery, no gas 
bags, nor any other troublesome apparatus; nothing is wanted 
beyond the lantern, so constructed by the inventor that the light 
shall be given out with the greatest effect, a supply of atmos- 
pheric air provided, and the stifling fumes of the light completely 
carried off. 

With a few modifications, I consider this light might be ren- 
dered available not only for portraiture, but for printing from 
negatives, an operation sadly interfered with by foggy weather. 

I hope at the next meeting of our Society to be' enabled to 
place the entire apparatus before the members, as I consider 
the invention well deserving of their notice. The patent has 
only just been obtained, and at present bat very little publicity 
has been given to it. R. W. Bdss 



From the Juur. of the Phot. Soc. 

BLACSHEATH PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



ORDINARY MEETING. 

At a meeting held October, 19, 1851, at Yverdon House, 
the President in the Chair, the minutes of the last meeting were 
read and confirmed. The President (James Glaisher, Esq., 
P.R.S.) read a paper describing the progress of the Photo- 
graphic Art since the Great Exhibition of 1851, and referring 
to the respective advantages of the several processes. He ex- 
emplified his remarks by a number of pictures taken at different 
periods, and by various methods during the last six years. The 
thanks of the meeting were unamimously voted to the President 
for his able address. Mr. Heisch, F.C.S., Vice-President, ex- 
hibited several interesting photographs, displaying the effects of 
disease upon the human body. 

After a few introductory remarks, a brief review of the history 
of photography and its advance since the Great Exhibition of 
1851, Mr. Glaisher proceeded to observe,-- 

" As a local society we are in a favorable position. Some 
among us are members of the Photographic Society, and are 
thus iu a position to bring into metropolitan notice any experi- 
ences which may appear worthy of being brought forward. 

" In relation to our common pursuit, I can fancy nothing 
more agreeable than the collecting together onr different suc- 
cesses and experiments. At the present time there is open to 
every one who practises, a variety of process, each one tolerably 
assured in its action, and each one easily distinguishable in its 
results, forming as it were different styles in photography, analo- 
gous to different styles in painting, some more applicable under 
certain circumstances than others. 

Collodion, which in 1851 was but little known, and still less 
practised, is now generally received as the most important pro- 
cess of any in use, and many, I doubt not, consider it to be the 
only process worthy to be worked, whether for portraits or 
general application; and this has had a somewhat depressing in- 
fluence on some, who, unwilling or unable to cope with its in- 
conveniences, have given up the pursuit entirely. For, myself, 
I have worked but little with collodion, and had no other pro- 
cess been open to me, must have given up the practice of pho- 
.ography. Three years ago I worked almost entirely with io- 
dized paper. By this process I have obtained, with rare failure, 
a large number of excellent negatives, some of which are not 
greatly behind collodion: the subjects have been in all cases build- 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



59 



iut^s or landscapes; in the latter the foliaj^ehas been superior in 
general effect at times to that given by collodion." 

Mr. Giaisiier here exhibited some negatives of the Royal 
Observatory, taken recently by the iodized process, and illus- 
trating the progress of a building erecting for the reception of a 
new iustrunjent. 

" The improvement of the lenses used in photography is a 
Very serious sulijcct of consideration. It is is my opinion, that 
in ten years not one of the lenses now in use will be employed. 
One of the most decided improvements in this direction is that 
communicated to me during the last month by Herr Pretsch. 
The improvement consists of a combined lens for photography, 
possessed of a comparatively short focus, and producing an even 
flat picture as sharp at the edges as in the centre, and reprodu- 
cing the different distances sharp without disturbing the cor- 
rectness of proportion. This evening is exhibited the first pic- 
ture taken with such a lens of 3 inches aperture. The picture 
is 16 in. by 13. in., and is remarkable for the equally clear and 
sharp definition of the multitudinous subjects it comprises. The 
curvature of the lens was calculated by Professor Petzval of Vi- 
enna, and the lens was executed by Mr. Diezler, optician, who 
likewise executed the photograph — an indifferent copy but sent 
only as an illustration of the power of the lens. Very shortly 
we shall have better lenses in the field than we now possess; 
their effect will be very perceptible upon all photographic re- 
sults." 

In conclusion, Mr. Glaisher observed, — " But photography, 
difficult as it is to bend to the rules of composition and those of 
art in general, possessed too as it is of a mannerism, which beats 
that of Turner even in his later days, must be pressed into the 
service of art, and fill a utilitarian place for years to come, sup- 
plying us continually, and at a moderate cost of time and money, 
with copies of objects both in art and nature, either educational 
to the youDg, or of peculiar and rare interest to the cultivated 
and well informed. In my opinion no tolerable photographs of 
ordinary interest should be lost or destroyed; and as the pub- 
lished productions of authors of all grades find certain recogni- 
zed depositories by a wise regulation of the State, so should 
copies of all photographs find recognized depositories, and no- 
where could such be so well originated as with private societies, 
of which our own is one only of many springing up iu various 
quarters for the furtherance of photography." 



From the Jour, qf the Fhot. Sod 

IE GRAY A^D THE DISCOVERY OF CfiLLODlO.^. 

Alma Cottage, Bishops Stortford, Herts, Oet. 29th, 1857, 
To the Editor of the Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — I have taken the liberty of forwarding to you a copy of 
a small Manual published by Mr. Archer, my late husband, in 
1852, in consequence of a paragraph in a letter from Mr. Tun- 
ny, which appeared la the last Number of the Photographic 
Journal. 

That gentleman does not seem to be aware that Mr. Archer 
always acknowledged M. Le Gray to be the first to published 
the possibility of the use of collodion in photography, as men- 
tioned in the Introduction of the accompanying work; but 
whoever will refer to the Practical Treatise,' will find that no 
process whatever was given. Collodion was merely suggested as 
one amongst several available media for photography. 

No one couid appreciate the value of M. Le Gray's labors 
raoi'e highly tlian Mr. Archer did, nor could any one be more 
anxious to give him, and evei'y one else, his full share of merit. 
It was quite contrary, to Mr. Archer's character, even to wish 
to appropriate to himself the merit due to another. 

Amongst the numerous letters of condolence I received, was 
one from a dignitary of our Church, who had known Mr. Archer 
for many years; as it contains a most just delineation of his 
character, I hope you will pardon me for quoting a passage. 

" In my humble judgment Mr. Archer was a man of extraor- 
dinary merit in many ways, not simply as an Artist, but in his 
whole tone of thought and feeling." ..." He was sometimes 



pleased to say ho owed much to me; I must injustice to his 
worth mention, that I was myself benefited by him, in the ex- 
ample he gave of meekness, gentleness, and goodness, which is 
uot often seen, and which indeed I have never known exceeded." 
Pardon me for endeavoring to rescue the name of such a man, 
even from the slur of concealing the merits of another. 

Fanny G. Archer. 



RECOVERY OF SILVER. 



Dayton, Ohio, Dec. 1851. 

Dear Sir, — The following plan for the recovery of silver, is 
well worth being tried by all operators^— Keep a large bucket 
or tub to receive the water from the washing of plates after de- 
veloping the picture; whenever this vessel is filled, dip out one- 
half without stirring the sediment; do this all through the year: 
finally pour all the clear solution off, put the sediment in an 
earthern or glass vessel, add some nitric acid, and put in a 
warm place. When the solution is almost clear, filter all; then 
add common salt or muriatic acid, and you will probably have 
two or three ounces of chloride of silver, according to the 
amount v/asted. Chloride of silver can easily be reduced to 
metallic silver according to Hardwich; or it may be used for 
the galvanic battery or toning bath. 

N.B. — No cyanide or hyposulphite must be washed in the 
tub, as it would dissolve the precipitate. 

Louis Seebohm, 



From the Jour, of the Phot, Soe. 

ON im OPTICS OF PHOTOGRAPHY; 

Bnt Particularly on the Clinracter of the Images formed npoa Opaque 

and Transparent Surfaces. 



BY SIR DAVID BREWSTER, K.H., D.C.L., F.R S., 

President ol the Photographic Society of Scotland, 

[Read before the Photographic Society of Scotland, Nov. 10, 1857.' 

Having for some time given up the practice of photography, 
it is not in my power to make any commnnication to you of a 
purely photographic nature; but there are so many accomplished 
amateurs and professional gentlemen engaged in the study and 
practice of the art, that particular branches of it shotild be 
taken up and pursued, nor merely by individuals, but by Socie- 
ties, who may have sufficient funds to give honorary or other 
rewards for valuable discoveries or improvement in the art. The 
photographer who works in Daguerreotype and Talbotype, — in 
taking negatives on glass, paper and porcelain, — in copying oil 
and other paintings (a very important and difficult art), and ia 
stereoscopic, microscopic and telescopic photography, is not likely 
to make much progress in any of them. 

Having turned my own attention principally to what may be 
called the optics of photography, 1 trust that a few observations 
on the subject will not be regarded as an inappropriate intro- 
duction to the business of the Session. In doing this, you must 
allow me to take for granted, what may not be true, that you 
are tolerably ignorant of the subject; and you will probably not 
take much offence at this assumption, when you have found from 
the sequal of this paper, that the authors of communications 
printed by the Royal Society of London, and graduates from 
the University of Cambridge, are assuredly more ignorant, than 
I have presumed you to be. In making so grave a charge before 
you, it is but fair that I should make an apology, for its truth, 
in so far as it is trne. The formation, upon a plane surface, of 
thz images of solid objects, or objects in relief, by means of lenses 
of various forms and sizes (the very foundation of photographic 
optics) , has not been treated of in any work, from the treatise 
of Euclid downwards to the present day, and I beheve has never 
been taught iu any of our schools or universities. 

It will, I presume, be universally admitted, that a photographic 
portrait is uot a favorable representation of the sitter. It will 



60 



THE PnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



be generally admitted that raany of these are hideous portraits; 
and there are somewho maintain tiiat the photographic patient, 
male or female, often ceases to be human. Without noticing 
the error of transferring to the sitter the blame which belongs 
to the art, we may accept as true the character of Sun-portraits, 
as involved in an expression used by the editor of the ' Times,' 
who speaks of the terrible fai/Ji fulness of pholograp/iy* 

It is not difficult to ascertain the nature and amount of the 
defect in the portrait, if any, arising either from the motion of 
the sitter or from the expression which he assumes. If any sharp 
or well-defined liue lying at right angles to the direction of the 
motion is not doubled, we have a sufficient proof that the sitter 
has not moved to an injurious extent; and if a bystander is satis- 
fied that the expression of the sitter is good, we must seek for 
another cause of the painful expression in the photograph; or, 
what is the best test of all, we may ascertain from the portrait 
of a person asleep whether the terrible reality attaches to the 
art, or to the motion and unnatural expression of the sitter. 

Before proceeding to consider the reasons which make photo- 
graphic likenesses terrible, we must first explain what really is 
a true representation of the human face and figure, upon a plane 
surface. In every treatise on Perspective we are taught, that 
if from a single point in space we draw a number of lines pass- 
ing through every point of an object in relief, the figure deline- 
ated upon a plane, placed either before or behind the object, is 
a correct representation of it as seen by an eye looking through 
the smallest possible aperture placed at that point. In snch a 
picture every point of the object supposed to be stippled on the 
plane with the same color, would be equally distinct. If, instead 
of viewing the object through the small pinhole, we look at it 
with one eye through the pupil, when yVt'li of an inch in diame- 
ter, the picture will be less perfect: every minute point which 
was formerly single will be expanded into a very minute circular 
disc, and it is demonstrable that the visible picture will be a 
combination of an infinite number of pictures, as drawn by the 
rules of perspective, from every point in the pupil. The imper- 
fection thus produced is too small to be recognized by the human 
eye; and therefore we may assume that, when viewed with one 
eye, the pictures of objects in relief are perfect representations 
of them. 

When we are thus looking at an object in relief, with one 
eye, let us open the other C3'e, and, while the head is fixed, di- 
rect it to the object. The point of sight being now 2^ inches 
from the first point of sight, the lines drawn from it will deline- 
ate a very different picture, leaving out of it certain parts of 
one side of the figure, and introducing into it certain parts of 
the other side of the figure. Hence the dissimilarity of the pic- 
tures of solid l)odies, as seen by each eye, is the mathematical re- 
sult of the ordinary rules of perspective. 

I need hardly say, that a picture, as seen by the eye, is the 
same as the image formed on the retina; so that a picture or 
image formed by a lens on paper or grey glass, is the very same 
picture that an eye would see if the pupil were of the same size 
as the lens. 

Let us now suppose that we take the photograph of an object 
with a lens one inch in dimeter, i. e. ten times as broad as the 
pupil of the eye; then it is evident that the separation of the 
individual points in the picture, as drawn by the rules of per- 
spective, from every point of the lens, or of the one-inch pupil, 
will be ten times greater, and the incoincidence of the numerous 
imao'cs ten times greater. In order to make this more intelli- 
gible, let us suppose that the image is formed by lines drawn 
from two points in the margin of the pupils or lenses j\ih of 
an inch, and 1 inch in diameter; then it is obvious that the dis- 
tance of similar points, which is a measure of the incoincidence 
of the images, is leii times greater in the large than in the small 
puj)il or lens. These results, derived from tlie rules of perspec- 
tive, have been proved by direct experiment, and entitle us to 
conclude that the imperfections of photographic portraits arise 



* " Most Portraits rather surprise the original at fir.st sight, and the ter- 
rible t'aithl'ulness of photograpby has disgusted many a ^vould-be Narcis- 
BMS."— Times, Oct. 10, 1857. 



principally from the size of the lens with which they are taken, 
and increase with the diameter of the lens. 

I have not alluded to another defect in large lenses, in conse- 
quence of which they introduce into the photograph objects 
actually behind, and eclipsed by, opaque objects whose breadth 
is less than the diameter of tlio lens, having already treated the 
subject fully iu my book on the stereoscope. 

The property of large lenses to give a combination of incoin- 
ciden images, and to introduce into the photograph, parts of the 
head and figure of tlie sittei', which cannot be seen from any one 
point of sight, has been admitted by every competent judge. The 
truth is indeed so obvious, that it may be demonstrated to the 
youngest pupil, male or female, who has mastered the first les- 
son in perspective; and yet Mr. Thomas Sutton, B.A., the edi- 
tor of "Photographic Notes," has pledged himself to demon- 
strate that it is contrary to theory and experiment, to the teach- 
ing of our Universities, and the practice of our best opticians! 
I caimot condescend to discuss a question in optics with a per- 
son ignorant of its most elementary truths. It will be sufficient 
to state the opinion of the most scientific of our professional 
photographers, Mr. Claudel, who has so far adopted my views 
as to affirm, iu the printed Proceedings of the Royal Society, 
that there are formed on the ground glass of the camera obsca- 
ra an infinite number of dissimilar and iucoiucident imagesf. 

The portraits taken by large lenses are subject to a second 
imperfectioji, which increases, like the former, with the diameter 
of the lens. When the photographer has adjusted his camera, 
so as to give distinct vision of the middle distance in the object, 
the parts of it nearer the camera, and more distant from it, are 
less distinctly painted on the grey glass, and the degree of in- 
distinctness increases with the diameter of the lens, because it 
is measured by the section of a coue of rays whose base is the 
lens itself. 

A third optical imperfection in photographic portraits arises 
from the great focal length of the lens, which makes the image 
a magnified representation of the object. The consequence of 
this is, that the pores in the skin, the wrinkles, and other super- 
ficial imperfections, are magnified to such a degree as to produce 
very disagreeable portraits of persons advanced iu life. The 
method of removing this imperfection in using the present came- 
ras I shall presently have occasicHi to notice. 

If the photographer acknowledges the existance of these d'e- 
fects in his art, or rather in his instruments, he will of coarse 
desire to correct them, which may be done in three different 
ways: — 

1st. By using small lenses in the cameras which are now in 
use. 

2nd. By a new method of taking portraits with the present 
cameras with large lenses. 

3rd. By taking very smell portraits in cameras an inch or 
two long, furnished with small lenses like the object-glasses of 
achromatic microscopes,, and then enlarging them. 

I. AYhen small lenses are used, the time of sitting must ne- 
cessarily be prolonged; and a new imperfection might arise in 
the portrait, from the raotiou and change of expression in the 
sitter. The risk of such an imperfection, however, is not so great 
as might be supposed, for I have found that in an ordinary state 
of the atmosphere, a portrait may be taken in sixty seconds with 
a lens less than half an inch in diameter, and in a strong light 
the same result might be obtained in half the time. These ex- 
periments were made by Mr. Szabo and myself with a single 
lens of rock crystal, intended for the lens of a pair of spectacles, 
and with its curves not suited to give the minimum of sperical 
abcrratiou. The portrait, thus produced, was regarded by every 
peron as greatly superior to the best portraits of the same per- 
son produced by Mr Szabo's finest lenses, wlien'considered only 
as a likeness; for, as might have been expected,, the other de- 
tails of the picture were much more distinct when it was taken 
by the large achromatic lens. This defect, however, would not 
have existed had the small lens been corrected for spherical 
aud chromatic abberratiou. When the photographic process 



t Tol. viii. No. 27, Juae IS, 1857. 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPSIO AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



61 



becomes more sensitive, so as to shorten the time of sitting, and 
when the public learn that small lenses will give better portraits 
of them, our present cameras will be used for landscape scenery 
alone. 

The second imperfection of large lenses, even when otherwise 
perfect, which consitsiu their making the near and distant parts 
of an object indistinct when those in the middle distance are 
exactly in focus, will likewise be diminished by the use of small 
lenses; but the tldrd imperfection which I mentioned, of magni- 
fyining roughuessses in the skin, will not be diminished by em- 
ploying small lenses, as it depends on the focal length, and not 
on the diameter of the lens. 

II. I come now to deacl'ibe the second method of taking cor' 
rect portraits with our present cameras and large lenses. 

All the imperfections of large lenses, acting photographically, 
are increased as we increase the size of the portrait, by bringing 
the camera nearer the sitter. The dissimilarity of the combined 
images becomes enormous when a large lens approaches an ob- 
ject in relief, and it increases with the depth of relief. The ef- 
fect thus produced may be seen in its most exaggerated form 
by looking at a bust with both eyes, at the distance of a few 
inches from its nose, and by opening and shutting each eye, al- 
ternately. The second imperfection, or the indistinctness of the 
image of the near and remote parts of the objects, is increased 
in a very great degree, both from the proximity of the object 
and the depth of its relief. ■ The third imperfection, or the en- 
largement of all pores, wrinkles, and irregularities in the face, 
is likewise increased in the magnified image. 

In order, therefore, to have a photographic portrait approxi- 
mately perfect, it should be taken at a great distance, and the 
negative subsequently enlarged to the desired size in a magni- 
fying camera; or what is perhaps better, a positive of the re- 
quired size may be obtained from the small negative by a single 
process. A positive of the same size as the negative might in 
many cases might in many cases be preferred, and looked at 
occasionally by a magnifying glass, either held in the hand, or 
permanently connected with the photograph, 

III. The third method of obtaining approximately correct 
portraits is, to employ small cameras an inch or two long (or 
even less than an inch), furnished with small achromatic lenses 
like the object-glasses of the compound microscope. 

la applying this method, we may use lenses whose diameter 
is equal to the pupil of the eye, so as to obtain portraits exactly 
the same as those which we see with one eye. A lens, like 
Ross's quarter of an inch object-glass, would answer this pur- 
pose,^while one like his eighth or twelfth of an inch would give a 
portrait almost identical with the true perspective representa- 
tion of the original, as formed by lines drawn from a single point 
of sight. These small negatives may be either enlarged, or 
employed to give positives directly, of the size we require. The 
beautiful microscopic photographs executed by Mr. Dancer of 
Manchester, prove that the grain of the collodion is not visible 
even when highly magnified so that it will not afi'ect injuriously 
the large positives obtained from the diminutive negative. 

Portraits taken by the two last method, but especially by the 
latter, will have an important application in steresoscopic pho- 
tography, when [the public are better instructed, and employ 
those photographers who work only according to the rules of 
science. To combine portraits which no eye ever saw or can 
see, and to combine them when taken at angles under which no 
two eyes ever could see them, is a practice which cannot be too 
severely condemned. If binocular pictures were taken at the 
proper angles corresponding to 2| inches, the average distance 
of the eyes, they might be made available to the sculptor who 
desired to execute a bust of the sitter, or to a surveyor who 
wished for information respecting certain distanpes in a building 
a'city, or a landscape. The distances between every pair of 
similar points in the two dissimilar pictures, mark the position 
of each point in space, and the difference between the distances 
of any two pair ol points is a measure of the relief, or the dis- 
tance in space of these two points. Hence it is possible, by nice 
raicrometrical measurements, to obtain useful information from' 
correct binocular pictures; and though the idea may appear es- 

8* 



fi'avagantj it is nevertheless true, that if a Witness should state 
that he saw from a certain point of space a criminal act perpe- 
trated at another point of space, his evidence might be confirmed 
or disproved by binocular pictures truly taken; and on the other 
hand, the testimony of a false witness might be sustained by 
the same pictures taken from points at a great distance*. 

Having directed yonr attention to those optical topics which 
relate to the images of objects in relief, as formed by large and 
Kuiall lenses, I come now to consider what has been called " The 
Phenomenon of Relief of the Image formed on the ground glass 
of the Camera Obscura." An ingenious paper beafing this title 
was read on the I7th of June at the Royal Society of London, 
by Mr. Claudet, F.R.S., and has just been published in their 
Proceedingsf . The apparently important discotery which it 
contains is thus described by Mr. Claudet :-=- 

" Having observed that the image formed on the ground glass 
of the camera obscura appears as much in relief as the natural ob- 
ject when seen with the two eyes. Mr. Claudet has endeavored to 
discover the cause of that phenomenon, and his experiments and 
researches have disclosed the singulal' and unexpected fact, that 
although only one image seems depicted on the ground glass, 
still each eye perceives a different image; that in reality there 
exist on the ground glass two images, the one visible only to the 
right eye, and the other visible only to the left eye. That the 
image seen by the right eye is the repfesentation of the object re- 
fracted by the left side of the lens, and the image seen by the 
left eye is the representation of the object refracted by the right 
side of the lens. Conseqtjently these two images presenting two 
different perspectives the result is a stereoscopic perception, as 
when we look through the stereoscope at two images of 
different perspectives. It appears that all the different 
images refracted separately by every part of the lens, are 
each only visible on the line of their refraction when it corres- 
ponds with the optic axis, so that while we examine the image 
on the ground glass, if we move the head we lose the pefception 
of all the rays which are not corresponding with the optic axes, 
and have only the perception of those which, according to the 
position of the eyes, gradually happen to coincide withlthe optic ax- 
es. Consequently when we look on the ground glass perfectly 
in the middle, the two eyes being equally distant from thecentre, 
the right eye sees only the rays refracted from the left of the 
lens, and the left eye only t'hose refracted from the right of the 
lens." 

After endeavoring to establish these points, by various inge- 
nious experiments, Mr. Claudet concludes bis paper with the 
following description of a new stereoscope which is to throw into 
relief a single plain picture composed of two right and left eye 
pictures saperimposed. 

" The consideration,^^ he observes, " of these singular facts 
has led the author to think that it would be possible to construct 
a new stereoscope in which the two eyes looking at a single im- 
age, could see it in perfect relief. Such a single image being 
composed of two images of different perspectives superposed, oue 
visible only to the right eye, and the other to the left. This 
would be easily done by refracting a stereoscopic slide on a ground 
glass through two semi-lenses separated enough to make the right 
picture of the slide coincide with the left picture at the focus of 
the semi-lense9. The whole arrangement may be easily under- 
stood; we have only to suppose that we look through a ground 
glass placed before an ordinary stereoscope at the distance of 
the focus of its semi-lenses, the slide being strongly lighted, and 
the eye seeing no other light than that of the picture on the 
gronnd glass. The whole being nothing more than a camera hav- 
ing had its lens cut in two parts, and the two halves sufficiently 
separated to produce at the focus the coincideiwje of the two op- 
posite sides of the stereoscopic slide placed before the camera." 

The elaborate analysis of the ground glass image by Mr. 



* An experimental confirmation of these views will be found in an ex- 
cellent anonymous ayticle in she National Magazine, part vi. p. 365, by a 
writer of whom I have no knowledge. He will do a service to the Art if 
he discusses more tuHy the subject of th« proper angle for stereoscopic 
photographs. 

t Vol. viii. p. 569.- It has been translated into FFench and published in 
Cosmos, Oct. 9, 1857. 



63 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



February, 



Claudet, and its application to a new and remarkable stereos- 
cope, though it evinces much ingenuity and careful research, is 
yet incorrect, and it is not possible to con-truct the stereoscope 
which he describes, I should not, under ordinary circumstances, 
have felt it necessary to discuss Mv. Claudet's opinions on tiiis 
subject, but having been attracted by their novelty, and having 
found that they were not compatible with my own published 
opinions, I am obliged to defend truths which I hold to be rigo- 
I'ously demonstrable by the refutation of opiuions which are 
diametrically opposed to them. 

The primary assumption of Mr. Claudet, that the image on 
the ground glass is in true stereoscopic relief, is not correct. 
The relief which does exist in the image of a landscape, is simi- 
lar to that which appears in fine photographs seen with one 
eye, or in photographs of bas-reliefs, (such as those on the table) 
seen by both eyes; and it arises in tiie ease of the landscape, 
from the perfection of the picture which like the original, seen 
with one eye, possesses all the distance-giving criteria, such as 
indistinctness in remote parts, — diminution of known objects, — 
gradations of color, and aerial perspective. 

In order to prove that the relief is not stereoscopic, let us 
throw upon the ground glass the picture of thiee discs of 
white paper strongly illuminated, placed at different distances 
from the camera, so as to produce a high stereoscopic relief when 
the semi-lens images of these are combined. When is done, they 
display no stereoscopic relief, because the picture affords none 
of the criteria of distance seen in the landscape. There is, how- 
ever, a slight relief when the two eyes view the picture perpen- 
dicularly, and this relief may be explained by the fact that the 
rays which form the picture of the distant parts of the object di- 
verge from foci a little in front of the ground-glass surface, while the 
rays which form the picture of the nearest parts of the object 
diverge from foci a little behind the ground-glass surface. 
But if we view the luminous discs obliquely with both eyes, no 
stereoscopic effect whatever is produced: and it is of importance 
to observe that the small degree of relief under consideration is 
diminished in coarser ground glass. 

Mr. Claudet's statement that there are combined on the glass 
two right and left eye pictures is not correct. There are not, 
and cannot be, any such pictures. The image on the ground 
glass is a combination of incoincideut images formed by every 
point of the glass, and the two eyes cannot select from the com- 
binations, and unite the pairs of right and left eye pictures 
which it contains, because different pairs required different de- 
grees of displacement. 

Admitting, however, the existance of aright and left eye 
picture on the glass, and the possibility of uniting them, the 
stereoscopic picture would be seen above the two pictures from 
which its component images have been displaced. 

"Whenever a stereoscopic picture is obtained from a binocular 
slide, either by the two eyes alone or by serai-lenses, the two 
original pictures are doubled : the nearest two of the four namely 
the two displaced images, coalesce, as it were, into the solid, 
leaving the others behind; but when the original pictures are 
already combined as on the ground glass, the stereoscopic figure, 
if it could be produced, would be obliterated by the two pictures, 
which, though doubled, are but slightly distant from the two 
which are displaced. Hence it follows that the new stereoscope, 
described by Mr. Claudet, cannot possibly produce the effects 
which he expects from it. 

It would be a waste of your time to pursue this subject any 
farther, and to explain how Mr. Claudet has misinterpreted the 
the experimental results which he obtained, and especially the 
partial evanescence of the images, by shutting each eye, and 
phenomena presented by the blue and yellow glasses. If he re- 
peats his experiments with objects which have no mutual con- 
nexion, and are either strongly illuminated or very bright, such 
as candles or iumiuous discs, he will not fail to discover the 
causes which have misled him. 



SuLPHURET OF SiLVER is prepared by passing sulphuretted hy- 
drogen through a solution of nitrate of silver. 



IJcrsonal ^ '^n JntcUi^ence. 

— This number is teeming with interesting and valuable mat- 
ter — too valuable for any to be crowded out by our own scrib- 
bling — our editorial must therefore be brief. Vie mnst, how- 
ever, explain the reasons why matters of interest, and which 
we have promised our readers, are necessarily deferred. We 
have found — on entering upon the entire direction of our Jour- 
nal and office matters — so many things to attend to, overhaul, 
and correct, that it has thus far been more of a tax upon our 
time than the establishment of an entirely new business could 
have been. A number of our subscribers, also, have pui ns to 
extra labor, and taken up our time unnecessarily in the collec- 
tion of our dues — time that should have been devoted to the 
editorial department of the Journal. We are sufficiently 
posted up in the Photographic Art, to give considerably more 
original matter in each number, and the only cause of our neg- 
lect in this department, is the backwardness of subscribers in 
remitting. They should understand that it requires cash to 
carry on such a Journal as ours, and that it is to our subscri- 
bers alone we have to look for the means. While clamoring, 
therefore, with us for more origii>al matter, they should remem- 
ber that we can only be enabled to devote the required time 
necessary to produce it by being as free as possible from the 
necessity of asking repeatedly for our dues. They should re- 
member that now more than ever, prompt remittances from 
every one is of great consideration to us, and that a little more 
interest taken in the advancement and circulation of the Jour- 
nal by its friends, will tend greatly to increase its value and 
usefulness to them. It is our desire — and it should be that of 
every one of its subscribers, both for its prosperity and their 
own — to make it the first Journal of the kind in the world. 
We shall do our part to effect so important a result, and we 
trust its friends — ^i:)articularly those who are so constantly 
— like Oliver Twist, " asking for more" — will do the lit- 
tle we ask of them in return. If every subscriber would add 
but one to our subscription list, he would be the gainer by the 
improvement we should be — as a consequence — enabled to 
make. We wish to call the attention of our readers to every 
article in this number, for, although they are "?i9# original,'' 
they are no less valuable, and we know they cannot be studied 
without profit to every one practicing the Photographic Art. 
Messrs. Pretsch, Brewster, and Grubb's articles otv optics and 
lenses, will furnish ideas decidedly new to every reader, and add 
much to their means of understanding many things that have hen- 
tofore been obscured to them. Those who make stereoscopic pic- 
ture sand Hallotypes, will be assisted by the articles " Novel Me- 
thod of taking Stereoscopic Views," and "On Improving the Tint ©f 
Transparent Slides." Mr. Burnett's article on Photography is 
very interesting, as is also that " On the Method of Producing 
Minute Photographs." In fact there is not an article in this 
number which will not improve the operator if studied; but 
we will call particular attention to Mr. Keith's article on the 
"Operating Room." The old readers of this Journal will find 
confirmation of many ideas we have, from time to time, ad- 
vanced and insisted upon in our columns^ They may be de- 
pended upon as correct, and that those who adopt them will 
reap a rich reward. The improvements- therein suggested will 
add facilities to photographic portraiture of priceless value. 
They are uot mere tlieoretical speciilations: but are advanced 
after carelul and lengthy experiments, and we hope our first 
class operators, at least, will not pass them by thoughtlessly. 
The Photographic Artists of our country — so far as regards 
improvements — may be placed in the same lijie witli our old 
Dutch farmers, who believe all beok learning to be rubbish. 
W^e recently rqad an anecdote that applies as truthfully to the 
former as the latter class. A farmer going to his labor one 
morning, met an artist sketching in his field and making notes 
of what he saw. As usual with his- class, he took occasion to 
inveigh against those who devoted themselves to such idle em- 
ployment, and to pouring over musty books and inventions 
of new things — in his mind all nonsense, capable of no good re- 
sults. The artist contented himself,, in reply, by asking whose 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



63 



plough he used. "Oh!" said the farmer, "Mr. and I 

would not be without it at ten times its cost. It is the great- 
est plow out." " That plow," said the artist, turning over the 
leaves of his sketch book and exhibiting a drawing of the iden- 
tical plow, " was invented by me." This proves, that a man, 
although uiay not be a practical worker in a particular branch of 
industry, may often work out for and teach those who have de- 
voted all their lives in its employment. None but the most 
arrant fool will scoff at written knowledge, and there are too 
many of the class among photographers and ambrotypists — the 
latter particularly. The only safe road to preferment and suc- 
cess in photography — eminently a scientific art — is diligent 
study. Every hour not devoted to its practice should be given 
to its theory — the two are handmaids that cai.not be separated 
with impunity. 

— "We had occasion to yisit Mr. Bogardss' gallery in this 
city, and were highly pleased, not only with his arrangements, 
but with the majority of his pictures. Mr. Bogardus is one of 
those who attends strictly to his business, pleases his customers, 
and finds his advantage in the attention he bestows. 

— The following article we copy from the Augusta (Ga.) 
Dispatch. Messrs. Tucker & Perkins are two of the most en- 
terprising and gentlemanly men engaged in the Photographic 
Art, south of Mason and Dixon's line. We have never been 
favored with specimens of their work; but if Mr. Perkins works 
the photograph half as well as he did the daguerreptype, he 
cannot do otherwise than excell. We have not the slightest 
doubt of the corrtctness of all the editor of the Dispatch says 
of them: — 

" It is as great mistake to suppose that anylndy can become 
a good photographist, as to conclude that any one can be a 
Hiram Powers or a Shakspeare. There was a time within the 
memory of all our readers, when the entire country was over- 
run with a set of one horst daguerrean operators, whose claims 
to the name of artist were about as well founded as those of the 
Rev. Dauphin Willianr.s to the throne of France. This " noble 
army ol martyrs" has been gradually decreasing for some years 
past, and a very superior class of men arc taking their places. 
Photography occupies now an acknowledged position among 
the Fine Arts, and has been brought to a high degree of per- 
fection, by the combined efforts of genius and labor. Mere 
dabsters have been taught that two or three weeks' is not suffi- 
cient to place them on a par with men who have spent years 
of toil and study in developing and perfecting the art. 

"No operators in this country have kept up with the times, 
more thoroughly, than Messrs. Tucker & Perkins, of this city, 
whose galleries are now attracting the attention of citizens and 
strangers. Their photographs, both plain and colored, are al- 
most unequalled and nowhere surpassed in the Union. Both 
members of the firm are artists — men who understand their busi- 
ness, in all its branches. They are old operators and have not 
only kept up with other establishments, but far in advance of 
many of much greater pretensions. Their facilities for doing 
work in the best manner and at the shortest notice are une- 
qualled in this region. With two sky-lights, a full and well 
drilled force and a thorough knowledge of the art, we do not 
wonder that they turn out an immense number of pictures, while 
their disposition to please and accommodate, added to the at- 
tractiveness of their galleries, render it not at all remarkable 
that they are always crowded. In this connection, we desire 
to call attention, particularly, to their plain photographs, which 
are gems in their way, and afforded at so low a price as to be 
within reach of all. 

" They have lately introduced a new and beautiful style of 
pictures, known as Hallotypes. To enable them to turn out 
these pictures in proper shape, they have secured the services 
of Mr. Foster, a talented and accomplished artist from Lon- 
don. His Hallotypes and Photographs, colored in oil and 
water, are among the most beautiful specimens of the art we 
ever saw, and those who have seen specimens of his work will 
bear us out in this opinion. 

" Messrs. Tucker & Perkins are also extensive dealers in 
such chemicals and other stock as are needed by the profession. 



Their chemicals are of their own manufacture and such as they 
use in their own business. They now supply most Oi the ope- 
rators in Georgia, South Carolina, Alabauia, Tennessee and 
Florida, and their business is daily increasing. 

" Such of our readers as have not yet visited their gallery, 
will, we feel sure, thank us for directing their attention to it. 
A more pleasant place to spend a few hours iu we do not 
know of." 

— A PETERSBURcn (Va.) Paper gives us the following. 
Our inability to speak of Mr. Minnis' skill personally, is caused 
by our never having seen any of his pictures. The fact, how- 
ever, that he has been able keep two galleries (one in Peters- 
burgh and one in Richmond^ in successful operation until the 
increase of business, prevents his attending properly to both, 
and obliges him sell one, speaks well for his skill: — ■ 

Daguerrean Tour. — We have always had a passion for sight- 
seeing, and from the happy days when molasses candy, hobby 
horses, and things of that description were our delight, until 
even now, you might as well have asked an urchin of five to 
keep his hands out of his pockets, when first provided with 
that luxury, as to keep us from a peep at any thing beautiful 
or wonderful in nature or art. Moved by this spirit, wo 
dropped in at the Daguerrean Galleries of this city on yester- 
day, and commenced a tour of inspection. Both of the " Gal- 
leries" were well attended by ladies and other.'^, whose evident 
object was the securing of an agreeable surprise present for 
some loved friend. We noticed one person whose intention 
could not possibly be mistaken; it was a youth of some twenty 
winters, on whose upper lip bristled au incipient moustache, 
which compared favorably with the general expression of his 
face. The youth was in love! — in his hand he held a locket 
which was destined to contain a duplicate of himself, to be pre- 
sented to some dear "Arabella" (Oh!) 

"We first visited Minnis' Gallery, and immediately entered 
upon the pleasures of our investigation. The room itself is one 
of the largest we ever were in, and is fitted up with that regard 
for beauty, as well as utility, which every where characterize 
the galleries of this famous " operator." Friend M., who is, 
let us say, suh rosa — an artist and a gentleman, aided us in our 
explorations, giving us the names of the numerous handsome 
faces which adorn his walls. The beauty, fashion and, we may 
add, "humor" of Petersburgh, together with a splendid collec- 
tion of the talent of our country, are here fixed on the sensitive 
iodized plate and gives a " local habitation." Ho who desires, 
at a small cost of time, to look at the greatest men and women 
of the Union, can here be accommodated. Mr. M.'s collection 
of "colored photographs" of large sizes cannot be surpassed. 
He will soon have more of these mammoth pictures, the highest 
triumphs of the art, which have won for him such an enviable 
reputation. 

" From this spacious gallery we directed our steps to that 
" gem of a place," Hopkins' gallery. Here we found friend 
"Compass," whose works have already been spoken favorably 
of far and near, up to his eyes in business. Mr. H. has but 
lately completely renovated these rooms, which, for compact 
elegance, can scarcely be equalled. Call on him and take your 

friends along, and if you have the slightest leaning for 

somebody, or a desire to leave your " counterfeit presentment" 
with a relative friend, call on "Compass," and be assured you 
will have a picture of the first order in tone, coloring and 
finish." 

— W. NoTMAN, Montreal, C. E. — This gentleman has sent 
us a very good positive portrait. He will excuse us, however, 
for saying we think the negative was a little over-exposed. He 
cannot regret more than we ourselves do, that we are obliged 
to draw so largely upon our English brothers for photographic 
matter. We do not suppose that they object to our giving the 
wide publicity to their articles we are enabled to do, as their 
object is, undoubtedly, to do the most good to the greatest 
number; but our regret is that we cannot repay them in kinr\ 
and return some of the obligations we owe them. One can;e 
of this is, that the only class of experimentalists we have among 
us are so ambitious to see themselves first in English print •, 



64 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Pebrnary, 



that they jump over hs and the entire Atlantic Ocean to find 
a marliet for the products of their brains instead of fostering the 
home market located at 95 Duane street, New York. We 
hope for better things in the future. Among our practical 
photographers, many valuable ideas and formulas are to be 
found; but their greatest care is to prevent their publication in 
the Journal, from the false notion that they would lose by the 
operation. We have administered many a dose of physic in 
hopes of purging them both of the notion and their experience; 
but we have found no medicine ])0werful enough to cause even 
a movement. We have ivK^ oil, soft-soaj), undi Spanish flies , 
equally without eliect. We have also tried the virtues of a 
Photographic Society, on the mutual benefit principle, and 
although all talk favorably, none put their shoulders to the 
wheel of fortune offered them, 

— C.J. QuiMBY. — The specimens sent us by this gentleman 
are well printed and toned, and the negative in detail, intensity 
and sharpness, is undoubtedly a good one; but we must advise 
him to pay more attention to position. The figures in the group 
all want ease and grace. This is a main point in perfect pic- 
tures. 

— F. A. Wenderoth. — This gentleman has discovered a 
process for printing life-size photographs instantaneously, (which 
we have published for him in book form) by the Solar Camera 
or in the pressure frame. Mr. AVenderoth desired to place his 
process betore the photographic public at as cheap a rate as 
possible, and get paid for the expense of the series of experi- 
ments by which he arrived at the process. While negotiating 
with ourselves for its publication, a man by the name of Hol- 
mau visited the galleries of New York, and professed to teach 
Mr. Wenderoth's process — asking a consideration — and claim- 
ing it as his own discovery. These facts we communicated 
to Mr. Wenderoth, and the following is his reply, with the re- 
quest to publish it. We do so in justice to Mr. Wenderoth, 
and as a caution to our photographers: — 

Philadelphia, December 31, 185*1. 

Mr. H. H. Snelling — Dear Sir: The contents of your let- 
ter of the 29th inst. took me by surprise. I had been expect- 
ing a letter from you for some time, as the one you speak of 
has never reached me. 

I never thought that a man would sell his honor so cheap as 
Mr. Holman has. The afternoon before he left for New York, 
he came to my rooms and told me that he was going to Nor- 
wich to take life-size photographs, and that it would be a great 
service to him to have my " Quick-working Process," but that 
he could not buy it. In answer to which I told him that 1 had 
made arrangements with you for the publication of said process, 
which prevent me from giving it to him. After which he 
pledged his word not to communicate to anybody what I would 
tell him. But having little faith in his pledged honor, I gave 
him one part of the process, the formulas for iodizing, but not 
those for the silver solution, which is the most important part, 
and which produces the quickness of working and the depth of 
the pictures. The formulas I gave him will work, but iu no 
way like those I communicated to you. 

My whole conversation with him did not last longer than 15 
minutes, and after he had left me, reflecting on his charac- 
ter, the thought struck me, that he would try and make 
some money by selling the formulas I had just given to him, for 
my "quick process;" which to prevent, I immediately wrote a 
letter to him, directed to the care of Mr. Gurney of New York, 
where he was to call, informing him of the fact. 

His pretention that ray "quick process"' was hia discovery, is 
just as shameless a lie as the selling of it by him against his 
pledged word is an infamy. Last summer, Mr. Ilolman tried 
the developing process for the Solar Camera; the formulas he 
used were the same which have been used from the time the 
wet process was discovered, and similar to the one which has 
been recommended by Mr. Whipple for paper negatives, and 
by which he got a picture in from three to six minutes, but very 
faint, and which almost disappeared in the soda, by dissolving 
out the iodide of silver. 

Mr. Holman would like very much to get up a name and 



make some money to boot; as he has not got talent himself, he 
tries to filch it from others. 

After some more experience in working the " quick process," 
I find that it is important to pnt the paper on the silver sola- 
tion first with the back side (not with the front as first recom- 
mended), and keep it so for 1 minute, tlien turn it on the front 
side, which, now being somewhat moist, will readily take the 
solution without producing marks, which often cannot be avoid- 
ed by putting the frontside on the solution first. If possible, it 
would be good to mention it in the book. 

As I have left it entirely to you to arrange this afi'air, you 
are at liberty to do as you think best. 

Most respectfully yours, 

F. A. Wenderoth. 

This letter came too late to add the paragraph regarding the 
silvering in the book; but it will have the desired effect in this 
place. 

— We do not often publish letters of the character of the 
following, and we do so now only as an acknowledgment of im- 
provement in our Journal. Had we room we might give many 
more: 

Brantford, C. W., Jan. 20, 18&8. 

Mr. Snelling — Dear Sir: On Saturday last, I received 
yours of the 13th inst., and also three numbers of the Fholo- 
graphic and Fine Art Journal completing my set, and gratify- 
ing me very much with the beauty of some of the plates, espe- 
cially those of the January number and the Negress. I can 
scarcely fancy any thing of its kind better than the " Heywood 
Group;" they do everything but speak, and there is so much 
animation and intellect iu their faces, that it is a cause of re- 
gret they cannot do that; as any thing they would say must 
be worth listening to. " The Negress" is a "chattel," with 
more mind and more soul in her, than a vast many of the "free 
and independent," whether on your side of the line or ours. 
Altogether, " the lot" has caused us much pleasure, and as you 
still promise improvement, I lire in hopes; especially of being 
lucky enough to get choice impressions. 

I thank you for your offer to duplicate any nnmbers that nafay 
fail to reach me, and I will let you know if they do not arrire, 
but not so early as the Gth or 8th of each month, because so 
recently as Monday the 18th, the sett you mailed on the 2nd, 
were received at the Post Ofiice here. AVhere they were de- 
tained, or how they could be so long on the road, I do not 
know. 

I will return them if you wish it, or dispose of them in any 
other way you may direct. I think you will not accuse me of 
impatience in writing to you on the 8th, for numbei's which you 
had told me would be mailed iu New York on the 1st. 

I think your mails for this part of Canada, cross the frontier 
at the Suspension Bridge over the Niagara river near the Falls. 
Yours truly, Chas. H. Stokoe 

Wo are glad to hear that both sets reached you, for more 
reasons than one, particularly as it gives us additional evidence 
to place before Congress on the mismanagement of oar Post 
Office department. The extra set you may dispose of where 
it will do most good. You need not return them. 

— William Armstrong, Esq., Toronto, C. W. — Webave re- 
ceived several fine photographic views from this gentleman, one 
of which we have selected — by his favor — to illustrate the Jour- 
nal. AVe have since received the negative, and are now print- 
ing the positives for our March number. We shall in that 
issue, speak of them more at length. Mr. Armstrong will 
please accept our thanks for his favors. 

Mk. J. Rogers will please accept our thanks for his Isind ap- 
preciation of our efforts. We shall strive to be more deserving 
iug hereafter. 

— Gentlemen writing for specimen numbers of the Journal, 
roust enclose 50 cents to pay for it. We find that many find it 
a very cheap way of obtaining the Journal, to order specimen 
numbers every month under various aliases. As we have lately 
detected this dodge, we are compelled to adopt the rule to send 
specimens to those only who inclose the price — 50 cents. 



#t 




jEi^Envci^^n c^r Tj :r JsT :ei ^^ ^ esg^ 



11. II. Snilliiii;. I'liiit. 



1858. 



THE PnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE AUT JOURNAL. 



65 



From the London Art Journal, 

RAFFAEILE IN ROME. 



BY F. TV. F^IRHOLT, F.S.A. 




E consecrate the memory of great 
raeu, and wheu the master-spirit 
has flown to him who gave it, is 
it not pardonable — aye, lauda- 
ble — that we treat reverently 
the relics of their sojourn here — 
that we endeavor, as best we 
may, to call np to the mind's eye 
tlie very habit and manner of 
the great souls long departed, 
and let the mind linger over 
their earthly haunts as if await- 
ing their presence again to re- 
vivify the scenes made sacred to 

^ .^w; --_«.._.,<s_-- ,^4ja:«^>=g9a '^s by such connection? There 
•^'^ ^ — 'iT'Sf^^^ jg^ perhaps, no spot of ''mother 

earth" more abounding with associations of all kinds, to inter- 
est men of every civilized country, and induce many hundred 
pilgrims, than those few miles of ground upon which stands 
Rome, that imperial ruin in a papal garb: — 

" We cannot tread upon it but we set 
Our foot upoQ some reverend history." 

The mind is here overwhelmed by the crowding memories of the 
great events of bygone time — " centuries look down upon us" 
from the ruined Colosseum — from the ivy-clad masses of wall 
where ouce stood the palace of the emperors of the world. 
These arches record their victories and their triumphs. This 
dirty, ill-enclosed space, now named from the cows who rest 
upon it after dragging the rude carts of the peasantry into 
Rome, was once the Forum — the very focus of all that was 
great in the whole history of the old world: — 

" Still the eloquent air breathes — burns with Cicero." 
On this small patch of ground occurred events which form the 
most cherished memorials of history. Around us on all sides 
are the crumbling mementoes of the great of old, whose pres- 
ence stirred the nations. The very fragments — the shadows of 
a shade — of their past greatness have been sufficient to revivify 
the human mind after many ages of mental darkness; and the 
long-buried works of the old Romans, in the palmy days of 
Michael Angelo and Raffaelle, quickened the genius of their 
great minds, guided their thoughts aright, and ultimately led 
to the purity and nobility of modern art. 

The great revival of learning in the fifteenth century led the 
student back from the legendary history of the middle ages to 
the more ennobling study of the classic era: and this acquaint- 
ance with the acts of the great led to the desire to possess more 
tangible relics of their period. Here coins and medals were 
sought after, not merely as works by ancient hands, but as au- 
thentic records of their history, rendered the more valuable by 
their autograph character. Inscriptions were sought for the 
same reason, Statues were untombed, and gazed at in wonder, 
for the truth and beauty of their proportions, as contrasted with 
the gaunt conventionalities of their own schools of sculpture. 
Men regarded these works as the productions of superior be- 
ings; but such contemplation resulted in elevating the minds of 
the students, and slowly, but surely, the long-lost Arts broke 
in fall radiance from the clouds which had so long obscured 
them. 

It was in these great days of resuscitation that Raffaelle 
lived. The popes and the nobles vied with each other in ob- 
taining the best works of ancient Art, and liberally rewarded 
the discoverers.* Lorenzo de Medici, well distinguished as 

* Felice de Fredis, who discovered in 1508 the celebrated group the 
Laocoon, in the Baths of Titus, had bestowed on him in consequence, by 
the Pope Julius IT., the lucrative gift of the tolls and customs received at 
the Gate of St. John Lateran — an ample fortune iu itself. Michael An- 
gelo, who was in Rome at the time, describes the excitement the event 

VOL 21. NO. in. 9 



"the Magnificent," made his palace at Florence a museum of 
Art, and liberally gave free access to all students who chose to 
come there. Michael Angelo was of the number who studied 
in the beautiful garden where the sculpture was located, and the 
great duke often spoke encouragingly to the young lad who 
labored there so thoughtfully and so well. Words led to deeds, 
and it was not long afterwards that the duke adopted Michael 
as his protege, gave him a room in his palace, and was the 
friend of him and his family, death only severing the tie. 
Many other artists had to thank the liberal duke for the use of 
his Art-treasures, and Raffaelle was among the number. The 
Cardinal Bembo, one of the most enlightened men of that day, 
rivalled the hospitality of the Medici, and received Raffaelle 
into his palace as a honored guest; — -and are not the names of 
both noble men more nobly immortalised by such patronage ? 

The early life of Raffaelle was happily circumstanced. His 
father was himself an artist, who saw his son's great genius, 
and fostered it from the birth. The child's early life was passed 
in a lovely home, rendered cheerful by the practice of refined 
pleasures, the ouly labor known there being the cheerful toil 
that awaits the student of Art. Of pleasant manners and 
agreeable looks, the boy-artist made friends everywhere, and 
the record of his whole life is a narration of the accession of new 
friends. In the Italian cities where he went for study he made 
warm friendships with the best and greatest in Art and litera- 
ture. It rarely falls to the lot of a biographer to narrate a 
life of such unvarying happiness as that of Rafl'aelle. Pleasant 
and profitable as this genial study and companionship would 
naturally be to the young painter, whose devotion to Art never 
relaxed, and whose patrons increased with his years, greater 
triumphs awaited him in the imperial city itself; and hither, in 
1508, he travelled at the request of Pope Julius II., to decorate 
the halls of the Yatican, the invitation having come through his 
uncle Bramante, the great architect, who enjoyed the patron- 
age of that pontiff. The artist was now twenty-five years of 
age, and had already given evidence of his powers; he had the 
fullest scope for their exertion, and the remainder of his too 
short life was devoted to the glory of the church and its head 
in Rome. 

In the labyrinth of short streets that lead to the heart of the 
old city, opposite Hadrian's Bridge, is situated the house ia 
which Raffaelle first resided. It is in a narrow street, known 
as the Via Coronari; the tall houses close it in, so that the sun 
never reaches the lower stories, — a valuable arrangement where 
shade is to be most courted, but which gives a gloomy and 
stifling look to Italian towns. The house is featureless, and 
might not be recognised but for the nearly decayed chiaroscuro 
portrait of its great tenant, which was painted by Carlo Maratti 
in 1105, when it was renovated and partly rebuilt. The inter- 
est of this house, in connection with Raffaelle, did not cease 
with his life; it was ceded at his wish to the Church of St. 
Maria della Rotonda, after his death, by his executor, Baldas- 
sare Pescia, the Papal Secretary, that a chapel might be en- 
dowed to the honor of the Yirgin in that venerable building, 
where prayers should be said for the repose of his soul. At 
that time the house produced a rent of seventy crowns per 
annum. In the year 1581, at the desire of Siticella, arch-priest 
of the Pantheon, Gregory XIII. united the property to the 
revenue of his office; and in the year 1105, the arch-priest of that 
time mortgaged the house to pay for the repairs noted above. 
It now produces a very small surplus, and that is said not to 
be applied to the purposes indicated in the will. 

The chief memorials of Raffaelle's residence in Rome, are the 
immortal works which still decorate the papal palace of the 
Vatican. The hall called della 



Segnafura was first decorated 



caused. By a happy omen had his god-fathers named him Felice. The 
gift was so large that the Church of St. John importuned the succeedmg 
pope to compound with him for its restoration; but he only gave it up 
for the noble place of Apostolic Secretary, which he enjoyed until hiB 
death in 1529. He lies buried in the left transept of the Church of tie 
AraCceli. The inscription on his grave-slab is nearly obliterated. _ Is 
there no kind hand in Eome, the city of sculptors, to recut the few liaes 
recording the name of one who did the world of Art much service T 



66 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURXAL. 



March, 



by him with the great compositions known as " The Dispute of 
the Sacrament," " The School of Athens," "The Parnassus," 
and "Jurisprudence." They occupied him nearly three years. 
Toward the end of that period the si^ht of Michael Angelo's 
grand conceptions in the Sistine Chapel are believed to have 
influenced the young painter to a greater elevation in the treat- 
ment of his works. The sybils and prophets in the Church of 
Santa Maria della Pace, as well as the painting of the prophet 
Isaiah in the Church of St. Augustin, executed about this time, 
are cited as proofs of this influence. On the walls of the palace 
of Agostino Chigi he had painted his famous "Galatea," and 
had achieved for himself a fixed and honorable position in Rome, 
surrounded by friends of the highest and most influential kind, 
and some few scholars who aided his labors. 

In 1512 the second hall of the Vatican was commenced, in 
the February of the following year the pope died. Julius was 
more of a soldier than a churchman; and is recorded to have 
told Michael Angelo to place a sword rather than a book in 
the hand of the bronze statue he destined to commemorate him. 
Leo X. had more refined taste, and became celebrated as a 
patron of the Arts. To narrate all of Raffaelle's labors for 
this pontiff would be to swell this page with a list of world-re- 
nowned works, familiar to the whole world for their lessons of 
beauty, cultivated by the highest technicalities of Art. Suf- 
fice to say that the Art-labors of the Vatican never ceased, 
and when Bramante died Raffaelle was appointed his successor. 
His first architectural work was the rows of galleries which 
surround the court-yard of the Vatican, the foundations of 
which had only been laid by his uncle Bramante. These triple 
arcades rising above each other, and commanding magnificent 
views over Rome, were richly decorated by Raffaelle with 
designs which startled the world by their novelty, and cap- 
captivated by their beauty. Founded on the antique mural 
decorations then recently discovered in the Baths of Titus, 
the genius of the painter adopted their leading ideas, infusing 
the composition with his own fancy and grace; and thus gave 
a new decorative art to the world. Raffaelle was ever alive to 
the progress of Art, and its interests were consulted by him in 
the largest way. He fostered the genius of Marc Antonio 
Raimondi, the engraver, at a period when the graphic art was 
looked on merely as a curiosity; in the midst of his laborious 
occupations he found time to design for him subjects for his 
hurin, and to superintend their execution. But more than all, 
he defrayed the whole expenses of these engravings himself, 
taking Marc under his protection, until the new art had estab- 
lished itself in popular favor, and could be followed as a lucra- 
tive profession. To Raffaelle, therefore, the art of engraving, 
and the traders in prints, owe a deep debt.* 

Tlie early artists were men of multifarious accomplishments: 
they were not painters only. We have record of their power 
in many branches, and examples of their versatility still remain 
to us; hence we need feel no surprise that the painter Raffaelle 
was installed to the post of papal architect. Michael Angelo 
also practised architecture, as well as sculpture and painting; 
but more than this, he fortified the city of Florence, and suc- 
cessfully superintended its military defence during six months, 
when it was attacked by the Prince of Orange in 1529. Ben- 
venuto Cellini has also left record of his fighting powers, when 
he served in the siege of the Castle of St. Angelo, in 1528. 
Albert Durer introduced the Italian style of fortification to his 
native city of Nuremberg, and wrote a treatise on the art; he 
was also painter, sculjitor, designer, and engraver on wood, 
copper and stone. Leonardo da Vinci excelled in the arts, 



* It should bo noted, however, that Albert Durer was really the chief 
popularizer of the art. His prints on copper and wood (the hitter par- 
ticulai-ly) had circulated over Northern Europe, and were well-known in 
Venice. Raft'aelle saw at once the latent power by means of which he 
might propagate and perpetuate his own designs, and at once encouraged 
tlie lubars of Kaimondi. This engraver had copied in Venice many of 
Durer's engravings, to his detriment, and Durer had coniphiined to (he 
magistracy for rcdres.s. It is to Durer we owe the discovery of etciiing 
and corroding a plate by acid, one of the greatest boons to the engraven 
and aa enormous saving of labor. 



and added thereto such sound philosophical views as to have 
been greatly in advance of his age; indeed, his research in op- 
tical science has led to his being considered the father Oi the 
modern daguerreotype, inasmuch as he propounded the possi- 
bility of securing images by the action of light alone. 

Of Raffaelle's architectural powers Rome has varied exam- 
ples. The principal are at the Vatican and St. Peter's, 
whose construction he superintended during the rest of his 
brief life. On the authority of Vasari we may attribute to him 
one of the most beautiful of the Roman palazzi, the Villa 
Madama. The Caffarelli Palace is also knovvn to be his de- 
sign, f as well as the very beautiful funeral chapel for his 
friend and early patron Agostino Chigi, in the Church of Santa 
Maria del Popolo. Among the quiet gardens of the Celian 
Hill is one of his most picturesque works, the little Church of 
Santa Maria in Navicella, an edifice abounding with the most 
interesting artistic associations. It stands on the site of the 
house of one of the earliest Christian saints, St. Cyiac, and 
was built by Leo X. entirely from Raffaelle's design, with the 
exception of the simple aim elegant little portico, which is by 
Michael Angelo. The paintings within are by Raffaelle's fa- 
vorite scholars, Julio Romano and Perino della Vaga. This 
interesting church takes its distinguishing name from the mar- 
ble galley placed on a pedestal in front of the portico, by that 
famous patron of the Arts, Pope Leo X., in whose time it was 
discovered. It is a very curious work of the Roman era. 

Raffaelle had achieved so high a position in Rome, and was 
so overwhelmed with commissions, that his scholars and assist- 
ants increased greatly. But for their aid it would have been 
impossible for him to have executed the large number of works 
he did. It became his practice to design, superintend, and 
finish only; but the labor of carrying out his works was left to 
his scholars, who all became men of mark. The chief was 
Julio Romano, who painted a large portion of the Vatican. 
The Loggie was the work of many hands; the figures, the flow- 
ers, the scrolls, and the ornament, were all apportioned to 
the facile and ready powers of the army of artists the " divine 
master" had at commavid. It is recorded that he had a 
retinue of some fifty who were thus employed; these formed his 
train in public, so that "he appeared like a prince rather than 
an artist;" the fascination of his manners led to affection for 
himself irrespective of his genius. 

But death came to carry the artist away in the midst of his 
triumph, ere he had entirely reaped the full harvest of his fame, 
leaving the world greatly the loser, Raffaelle, now a wealthy 
man and living like a noble, had purchased for himself a man- 
sion worthy of a nobleman born. His aCBanced bride, the 
niece of Cardinal Bibieua, died in 1518, and was buried in the 
Pantheon; and iu April, 1520, the painter was laid in his tomb 
in the same edifice. It was less than twelve years of thought 
and action that had sufiBced him to found immortal renown in 
Rome, and leave that city the bequest of the most glorious Art- 
treasures in the world. His life had indeed been sacrificed to his 
eagerness to serve the pope; harassed by a multiplicity of en- 
gagements, Raffaelle had hurried from the Farnesina, the 
palace of the wealthy banker Chigi, which he was engaged to 
decorate, to consult with the pope about his works at the Vat- 
ican. He had overheated himself with running this quarter of 
a mile; and he felt a sudden chill as he stood in the cold un- 
finished building; he went to his palace (a very short distance 
only), and in the course of a few days died there at the early 
age of thirty-seven, April 1th, 1520. 

The last home of Raffaelle is still pointed out in Rome; it 
stands in the district termed the Trastavere, in the small 
square midway from the Castle of St. Angelo and St. Peter's. 
It occupies one side of this square, and is an imposing structure. 
The architects were Bramante and Baldassare Pernzzi; it is 
now known as the Palnzzo dcgli Convertiti, and devoted to the 
reception of converted heretics. Here his body lay in state in 



f It is opposite the Church of St. Andrea della Valle, and is 
now called the Palazzo Vidoni; the upper portion is not Katl'aelle's 



work 



1858. 



THE THOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Ct 



his 



grandeur in 



front of bis unfinished picture of the " Transfiguration,"* 
greatest, as it was his last, worli. There was a 
such a death — a glory in such a death-chamber, " wiiich time 
has not yet effaced from the memory of man. It was no doubt 
one of tliese impromplus of the eloquence of things which owed 
its effect to a cause so much the more active and fruitful, be- 
cause it was natural and uot arranged."f 

" And when all hcheld 

Him, -n-hove he lay, how changed IVoni yesterday — 

Him in that hour cnt off, and at his head 

His last groat work ; when, entering in, they looked 

Now on the dead, then on the master-piece; 

Now on his face, lifeless and colorless, 

Then on those forms divine that lived and breathed, 

And would live on for ages — all were moved ; 

And sighs burst forth, and londest lamentatioas."J 

All Rome mourned the death of the great painter. The 
pope wept bitter tears; his loss was indeed great, for the spirit 
who could make his pontificate glorious had departed, and left 
none to fill the void. " Rome seems no longer Rome since my 
poor Raffaelle is gone," writes Castiglione to the marchioness 
his mother. His funeral cortege included in its ranks the great- 
est men in station, and the most talented in Art and literature. 
These, with his friends and pupils, marched amid the lamenta- 
tions of the wliole city to the Pantheon, and reverently laid the 
painter beside the altar he had endowed. 

Rome — perhaps the world — possesses no building of more 
interest than this. The ancients described it with admiration 
eighteen centuries ago, and it still remains the best preserved 
monument of modern Rome. 

" Relic of nobler days, and noblest arts ! 
Despoil'd, yet perfect, with thy circle spreads 
A holiness appealing to all hearts — 
To art a model ; and to him who treads 
Rome for the sake of ages, Glorj' sheds 
Her light through thy sole aperture ; to those 
Who worship, here are altars for their heads; 
And they who feel for genius may repose 
Their eyes on honor'd forms, whose busts around them close."§ 

Let US enter this noble relic of the past, sacred with the associa- 
tions of ages. Over the portico is an inscription, recording its 
erection by Agrippa in his third consulate (b. c. 25); the pil- 
lars of this "more than faultless" portico are Corinthian col- 
umns of oriental granite. The bronze doors are antique; so is 
the open grating above them: you pass them, and the interior 
strikes you at once by its simple grandeur. It is a rotunda 
supporting a dome, the only light being received through the 
circular opening in its centre. The rain falls freely upon the 
floor; and in the pavement may be noted the star-shaped aper- 
tures by which it may descend to the drains beneath. No an- 
tique building exists for modern uses so unaltered as this.|| In 
the walls are seven large niches, and between them are eight 
cedicula, or shrines which have been converted into altars of 
the Christian saints. Opposite the entrance to the left of the 
centre, the visitor will notice an altar, in front of which hangs 
a triple light, supported by a silver monogram of the virgin; 
the same monogram is above the altar. It is that founded by 

* The picture was afterwards finished by his pupil Julio Romano. It 
bad been ordered by the Cardinal Medicis for Narbonne, but was placed 
over the high altar of the Church of St, Pietro in Mortorio, at Rome. It 
was then removed to the Vatican ; from wlience it was carried by Napo- 
leon to Paris, but was restored to Rome at his fall. 

t Qnatremere de Qiiiucy, J Rogers' '• Italy.'" 

§ Byron, '• Childe Harold's Pilgrimage." The busts are now all re- 
moved. 

II " Though plundered of all its brass, except the ring which was ne- 
cessary to preserve the aperture above — though exposed to repeated firC' — 
though sometimes flooded by the river, and always open to the rain, no 
monument of equal antiquity is so well preserved as tliis rotunda. It 
passed with little alteration from the pagan into the present worship: and 
so convenient were its niches for the Cin'istian altars, that Jlichael An- 
gelo, ever studious of ancient beauty, introddccd tlieir design as a model 
in the Catholic Church,'' — Fokstths' Itah/. The bronzes here alluded to, 
which once covered the interior of the dome, was stripped off by Pope 
' Urban VIII,. and moulded into the great canopy now over the tomb of 
St, Peter in Rome; the rest was used for cannon which were placed on 
the Castle of St, Augelo. Venuti has computed its weight at 450,250 
pounds. 



Raffaelle, for the perpetual support of which he gave the house 
for the saying of prayers for his soul. The figure of the Virgin 
and Cliild, now known as " La Madonna del Sasso," was sculp- 
tured by his pupil Lorenzo Lotti. Under this altar the body 
of Raffaelle was laid, and upon a lower panel of marble to the 
left of it is the epitaph to the painter written by Cardinal 
Bembo. On the opposite side is the epitaph to Annibale Ca- 
racci; and in other parts of the building are buried Raffaelle's 
betrothed wife, and his scholars, Giouanni da Udine, andPerino 
della Vaga. Baldassare Peruzzi, one of the architects of Raf- 
faelle's palace, also lies here; as well as Taddeo Zuccari, and 
other eminent painters. Its most modern artistic monument is 
Thorwaldsen's bust to Cardinal Gonsalvi. Where can the Art- 
pilgrim pay a more soul-inspiriting visit than to this 

" sanctuary and home 

Of Art and piety ?" 

Carlo Maratti desired to place a more striking memorial of 
Raffaelle's resting-place than the simple inscription, and ac- 
cordingly, in the year 161-4, a marble bust of the painter, exe- 
cuted by Paolo Nardini, was placed in one of the oval niclies on 
each side of the chapel. The epitaph to Maria Bibiena (Raf- 
faelle's betrothed) was removed to make way for Maratti's new 
inscription; audit was currently believed that the skull of 
Raffaelle was removed; at least such was the history given of a 
skull shown as the painter's, religiously preserved by the iicad- 
emy of St. Lake, and descanted on by phrenologists as indica- 
tive of all the qualities which " the divine painter" possessed. 
But scepticism played its part: doubts of the truth of this 
story led to doubts of Yasari's statement respecting the exact 
locality of Raffaelle's tomb. Matters were brought to a final 
issue by the discovery of a document proving this skull to be 
that of Don Desideriode Adjutorio, founder of the society called 
the Virtuosi, in 1542, Thereupon, this society demanded the 
head of its founder from the Academy of St, Luke; but they 
would neither abandon that, nor the illusion that tiiey possessed 
the veritable skull of the great artist. Arguments ran high, 
and it was at length determined to settle the question by an 
examination of the spot, which took place on the 13th of Sep- 
tember, 1833, in the presence of the Academies of St. Luke 
and of Archajology, the commission of the Fine Arts (including 
Overbeck and others^, the members of the Virtuosi, the gov- 
ernor of Rome (Monsignor Grimaldi), and the Cardinal Zurla, 
the representative of the pope. 

The result will be best given in the words of an eye-witness, 
Signor Nibby (one of the commission of antiquities and Fine 
Arts), who thus described tlie whole to M. Quatremere de 
Quincy, the biographer of Raffaelle: — "The operations were 
conducted on such a principle of exact method as to be almost 
chargeable with over nicety. After various ineffectual attempts 
in other directions, we at length began to dig under the altar 
of the Virgin itself, and taking as a guide the indications fur- 
nished by Vasari, we at length came to some masonry of the 
length of a man's body. The laborers raised the stone with 
the utmost care, and having dug within for about a foot and a 
half, came to a void space. You can hardly conceive the en- 
thusiasm of us all, when, by a final effort, the workmen exhibi- 
ted to our view the remains of a coffin, with an entire skeleton 
in it, laying thus as originally placed, and thinly covered with 
damp dust. We saw at once quite clearly that the tomb had 
never been opened, and it thus became manifest that the skull 
possessed by the Academy of St, Luke was not that of Raf- 
faelle. Our first care was by gentle degrees to remove from the 
body the dust which covered it, and which we religiously col- 
lected, with the purpo.sc of placing it in a new sarcophngus. 
Amongst it we found, in tolerable preservation, pieces of the 
coffin, which was made of deal, fragnients of a painting which 
had ornamented the lid, several bits of Tiber clay, formations 
from the water of the river,^ which had penetrated into the 



If This will be understood when we remember that the Tiber has inun" 
dated this lower part of Rome several times. On the external wall of 
the adjoining Church of Santa Maria sopra Minerva, are the marks of 
the height to which the waters rose, and which is five feet above the pave- 
ment level. 



68 



THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOTJRNAL. 



Marcb, 



coffin by infiltration, an iron stelktta, a sort of spur, wit 
which llaffaelle had been decorated by Leo X., several fihuJa'' 
and a number of metal amlli, portions of his dress." These 
small rings had fastened the shroud; several were retained by 
the sculptor Fabris, who also took casts of the head and hand, 
and Camuccini took views of the tomb and its precious con- 
tents. 

On the following day the body was further examined by pro- 
fessional men: the skeleton was found to measure five feet seven 
inches, the narrowness of the coffin indicated a slender and deli- 
cate frame. This accords with the contemporary accounts, 
which say he "was of a refined end delicate constitution; his 
frame was all spirit; his physical strenj^th so limited that it was 
a wonder he existed so long as he did." The investigation 
completed, the body was exhibited to the public from the 20th 
to the 24th, and then was again placed in a new coffin of lead, 
and that in a marble sarcophagus presented by the pope, and 
taken from the antiquities in the Museum of the Vatican. A 
selemn mass was then announced for the evening of the 18th of 
October. The Pantheon was illuminated, as for a funeral; 
"the sarcophagus, with its contents, was placed in exactly the 
same spot whence the remains bad been taken. The presi- 
dents of the various academies were present, with the Cavalier 
Fabris at their head. Each bore a brick, which he inserted in 
the brickwork with which the sepulchre was walled in." And 
so the painter awaits " the resurrection of the just," and the 
fellowship of saints and angels, of which his inspired pencil has 
given us the highest realisation on earth. 



LIVERPOOL 



From the Liverpool PUolograpMc Jmrnal. 

PIIOTORRjlPIIlC SOCIETY. 



At the monthly meeting on Tuesday night, December 22nd, 
at the Royal Institution, Colquitt Street, there was an unusually 
good attendance, owing probably to the rumour that a proposi- 
tion was to be made to to merge the Society in the Historic 
Society of Lancashire and Cheshire. In the absence of Mr. 
Corey. Mr. Bell, one of the Yice-Presidents, was called to the 
Chair. 

• Mr. FoEP.EST, the Treasui'er, exhibited some beautiful speci- 
mens of the collodio-albumen process, by Mr. Robinson, of 
Leamington, and a vignette portrait, printed on glass, by Mr. 
Keith, of Liverpool, burnt-ia by himself, in enamel colors fluxed 
on the glass, and burnt-in over the photograph. Though hurri- 
edly done that afternoon, and subjected only to one burning, the 
result was highly satisfactory, as showing what may be done in 
this phase of the art. The outlines were beautifully sharp and 
distinct, the colors bright and natural, and the image perfectly 
indelible. 

THE POSITION OF THE SOCIETY. 

The Chairman said he had received a note from Mr. Green- 
wood, the Proprietor of the Liverpool and Manchester Pholo. 
graphic Journal, copies of which would doubtless have been sent 
to all the members, conveying the surprising intelligence that this 
Society had amalgamated with the Historic Society. He sup- 
posed they should hear something more about it, if they called 
upon Mr. Keith, who had received some communication from 
the Historic Society. 

Mr. Keith, Hon, Secretary, read the following letter: 

Liverpool, IWi Dec, 1857. 
Dear Sir, — At the council meeting of this Society last eve- 
ning your letter to Dr. Hume was discussed, and a deputation 
of tliree members, viz., Messrs. Sanson and Caxton, and the 
Rev. A. Hume, D.C.L., &c., hon sec. to the Society was ap- 
pointed to confer with the delegates of the photographic Society 
on the subject of your communication. — I am, dear sir, yours 
obediently, 

J. H. Lever, Asst. Sec. 
J. A. Forrest, Esq., &c. &c. &. 



Mr. Forrest, in reply to a member, said the coramunicatio n 
from himself, to whith this was an answer, was merely opening 
the question of amalgamation on the proposed basis of last year. 
He suggested that a deputation should be appointed to meet 
a deputation of the Historic Society, reporting the result of 
the conference to a future meeting. 

The Chairman supposed that the active members of the So- 
ciety, after giving it another year's trial, had not met with the 
support they had anticipated, very fevf members haiing come 
forward to assist the council with papers and photographic in- 
formation, although the usual meetings had been pretty well at- 
tended. His own impression was that by amalgamating with 
the Historic Society, which had a vast number of members, they 
would be advancing the interests of photography in Liverpool, 
and therefore in England, and therefore in Europe, by bringing 
the science before a larger body of members. He opposed the 
proposition last year because he did not consider the Society 
would be joining hands with the Historic Society on fair terms; 
their affairs were, however, now in a better position, and he 
had not the same objection he had theit. 

Mr. Forrest observed that with hard dunning and fighting 
the Society had this year paid its way, and he had in his hands 
a balance of £10 lis. Cd., against which there was an old un- 
settled account, which had stood over for three years, in con- 
nection with the Photographic Exhibition. When that was 
discharged there would still be a balance of £3 lis. 6 in favor 
of the Society. With respect to the amalgamation he stated 
that for the past four years he had devoted a great deal of his 
time to the Society but that now, owing to the ill-health of his 
partner he should be compelled to direct his entire energies to 
to his own business, and he should therefore be unable to take 
any prominent part in the work of the Society. 

In reply to Mr. Cook, Mr. Forrest stated that the grounds 
of the proposed amalgamation were, that they should enter the 
Historic Society as members — the payment of an annual fee of 
one guinea without paying the entrance fee; that they were to 
have the full privilege of attending all the meetings of the His- 
toric Society; that the council would enter into and form part of 
the council of the Historic Society, the officers of each acting 
together. It would, in fact, just be a transfer, having all their 
privileges and rights reserved. 

Mr. CooE — What guarantee would there be that we should 
have any photographic communications, and that we should con- 
tinue to be a photographic society? 

Mr. Bell. — There would, no doubt, be a photographic sec- 
tion every month. 

Mr. Forrest. — The Historic Society has a night set apart 
for the scientific section, and for miscellaneous matter. 

Mr. Corey, who aad just come in, on being appealed to for his 
opinion on the matter, as one who had taken a very prominent 
part, in the affairs of the Society, said: — Mr. Forrest has stated 
so much that he has left very little for me to say. We are entirely 
in the hands of the present meeting. I can bear witness that 
it has been a great labor to some of us to provide entertainment 
for members from time to time, and I for one say that I cannot 
do so any longer, though lam afraid, if we do amalgamate, 
that our individuality will be lost — that we shall no longer ex- 
ist at a Photographic Society. But, I do not think that the 
members of the Society should look to a certaia few of their 
body to provide them entertainment, month after month.. When 
we can do this no longer, we must give it up, as we are obliged 
now to do. If other gentlemen will come forward to provide 
papers and information for their ordinary meetings, I, for one, 
shall be prepared, most gladly, to add my quota towards the 
continuation of the Society as it is; and I came here to-night, 
prepared to support the continuance of the Society for another 
year, inasmuch as we should start on a much more advantageous 
circumstances than ever before. I don't think, however, unless 
there is some great change, some infusion of new effort and ener- 
gy, that this can be done with success, and I shall therefore sup- 
port the proposed amalgamation with an elder brother — the 
uniting ourselves with men of great talent in literature. We 
shall still have opportunities of discussing our own matters, on 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



69 



as many occasious as wc shall be able to provide matter fox" 
them. 

Mr. Keith thought the proposed arrangement was highly 
desirable. 

A Member asked what arrangement would be made about 
the riioldgraphic Jiiurnal being furnished to them, if they amal- 
gamated with the Historic Society? Upon which the Chairman 
referred his interrogator to Mr. Greenwood. Some conversa- 
tion ensued, during which some remarks were made by those 
members whose communicalions in the Journal had been com- 
mented upon in " foot-notes," by the Editor, to which subject 
it will be seen .we have referred in our address. 

On the proposition of Mr. Forrest, seconded by Dr. Ayrton, 
Messrs. Corey, Keith, and Foard, to whom the name of Mr. 
Forrest was subsequently added, were appointed a deputation 
to meet the deputation of the Historic Society. 

Mr. Foard consented to act as auditor of the accounts for 
the year just passed. 

CASEINE AS A SUBSTITUTE FOR COLLODION. 

Mr, Berry said he had been for some months past making 
experiments with the view of finding a substitute for collodion, 
and he had at length arrived at a tangible result, and hoped, 
on another occasion, to be able to submit specimens to the meet- 
ing. He had always, he said, considered collodion perfection, 
as a surface to work upon. They knew that it was perfectly 
fluid; that when poured on the plate it set with an equal thick- 
ness all over by the evaporation of the ether; and at last, while 
still moist, and the pores still beautifully open, when plunged 
into the bath it imbibed the nitrate of silver, and the necessary 
chemical decomposition took place. He had always kept these 
qualities in mind in searching for a substitute for collodion. 
Many organic bodies had been tried, as starch, for instance, 
which yields a very porous film, but does not adhere with suffi- 
cient tenacity to the glass. Starch pictures, too, were, nearly 
as rapid as collodion. With albumen it was the converse; it 
was perfectly fluid, and would imbibe the chemicals required; 
but when poured on to the glass it gixes off only water, and the 
result is a solid film almost perfectly impervious to the action 
of the bath. Albumen requires a sixty grain bath, at least. 
After casting about for some months, it struck him that casein — 
the rejected substance of Mr. Sutton's process, he using the se- 
rum only — if it could be made into a liquid which would be vola- 
tile, would give a pure homogeneous surface. In experimenting 
he found that it was soluble in strong acetic acid; and it struck 
him that a solution of casein and acetic acid would be a proper 
medium for receiving pictures. Unfortunately all the iodides 
and bromides he tried precipitated the whole of the casein from 
its solution in acetic acid. There he left it, believing that casein 
was not the thing at all. Accidentally turning over a chemical 
work one day, he found another peculiar property of caseins i. e., 
that it is very soluble also in alkalies, and especially in ammonia. 
It then struck him that if the casein dissolved in ammonia — would 
hold in solution the iodide and bromide required to make the 
surface sensitive, it might answer. He proceeded immediately to 
prepare some. He washed away the acetic acid from the pre- 
cipitated casein — then some five months old — dissolved it in am- 
monia, adding the iodide, and he obtained a perfectly homoge- 
neous fluid. There was a separation of a portion of the cream. 
In precipitating the casein from the skimmed milk, there would 
necessarily be some cream carried down; and when that was 
dissolved in the ammonia, it formed a kind of soap, and was 
difficult of separation. If it had not been so, he should have 
had some perfect negatives to have shewn them. They might 
make the solution as thick as thick as treacle if they liked° it 
would still be perfectly fluid. Casein, at a certain temperature, 
combines with oxygen and becomes insoluble in water; therefore^ 
in preparing the plates, they should not be exposed to a heat of 
more than 212°, but with that they would form a glossy surface, 
which could not be distinguished from albumen. If plunged in 
an ordinary thirty-grain nitrate bath, it coated almost asqTiiekly 
as coUdion, and it might be used either in its wet or dry state 
developing with ordinary pyrogallic acid. ^He preferred usiu(^ 

9* 



the citric to the acetic acid, because the latter had a tendency 
to dissolve the film: they must not use cyanide because it di.s- 
solvcd cascine as well as albumen. When the picture was cleared, 
all they had to do was to dry and heat it again, and then the 
film was so hard that they could scarcely scratch it with the 
finger nail. He had obtained very good negatives in a room 
with it, in two minutes, and they would have to give a minute 
at least to wet collodion. 

In reply to Mr. Cook, Mr. Keith, and other members, 

Mr. BERRYstated that applying heat about 212° the ammonia 
was driven off; the bath was not extra acid; he preferred the 
positive bath. It did not injure the bath in the slightest degree. 
Hecleared with hypo; if the negative was weak, and they cleared 
with gold, it would intensify the image very much. Unlike al- 
bumen, which a short period would serve to destroy, this casein 
substitute for collodion would keep twelve moths or longer. It 
was a chemical compound, just as soap was; it was, in fact, a 
solution of casein in ammonia. With a little care they could 
get rid of the oily matter precipitated by the acdic acid. 

The detail of the pictures obtained by this process was splen- 
did. 

A Vote of thanks was on the motion of Mr. Forrest accorded 
to Mr. Berry, who, in responding begged every one would try 
the process, the strength of the iodizing mixture to be used being 
six grains of iodide of ammonia to one ounce of this solution. 
They must not use the metallic iodides and bromides, because 
they precipitated the casein. He was inclined to think that 
potash or sodia was the best. The strength of the ammonia 
was quite immaterial. When the ammonia was evapora- 
ted the film was colorless, and they would not know there 
was anything on the glass. He had seen very good posi- 
tive pictures from it, as far as color went. He would not think 
of trying it forportraits, because it was not so sensitive as collo- 
dion; but for large surfaces it was muck more economical. 

Mr. Bell said he had seen two of Mr. Berry's plates, and he 
thought it was the greatest desideratum they had yet possessed. 

After some further conversation, the subject dropped, and a 
vote of thanks to the Chairman terminated the proceedings. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

BUR NT -IN PHOTOGRAPHY. 

To the Editor of the Liverpool Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — With a proper care, there is no doubt but that, even 
in this climate paper, or still more, parchment paper, (or silicaf 
or alumina-prepared paper,) may endure for a very long period; 
but the mischief is just this, that one week's, or perhaps one 
day's carelessness, the entrance of a few drops of rain, or the 
attacks of vermin, even some insignificant insect, might destroy 
what had stood for ages. In the case of photography used for 
book illustration, these risks are not perhaps so great, and must 
of course, from the nature of the case, be submitted to as far as 
they go, but in the cases of portraits, landscapes, copies of paint- 
ings or engravings of the larger size, such as might be suitable 
for the decoration of houses or public buildings, how very desi- 
rable to secure for the support of the picture a tablet of some 
material which shall both be itself iudestructable from time, 
damp and the ravages of vermin; and of such a nature as 
permit the penetration and amalgamation of the metallic oxides, 
or other substances of which the picture consists, to such an ex- 
tent as to secure the picture's partaking of the imperishableness 
of the tablet. That this absolute amalgamation is an essential 
requisite we see from the old daguerreotype which, though oq 
an imperishable tablet, is itself one of the most easily injured of 
photographs. Porcelain, glass and many other vitreous and 
ceramic, vitrified or semi-vitrified compounds, such as may be 
produced by the artificial combination of earths, alkalis, borates, 
&c. &c., (and metal, stone, slate, &c., with a coating of glass or 
allied compounds,) from the facility with whichthe metallic ox- 
ides, metals, or their compounds contained in the pictures 
may be made to adh ere to, or amalgamate with them on the ap- 

t See my February paper ia Fhotographic Nttei. 



10 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PIKE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



plication of heat, hold outcxacllj what we arc looking for. The 
same substances as supports for fihns of collodion, &c., may no 
doubt give very valuble and beautiful results, even without burn- 
ing in; but this still does not exactly give us what we arc so 
much in want of — a photograph which, though not of course proof 
against intentional injury or violence, shall yet have a durability 
identical and co-entcnsive with that of the uudecaying fabric 
on which it is fixed a work of art which, (whether the photo- 
graph be the principal consideration or only decoratively cm- 
])loyed,j shall give promise of such integrity after the lapse of 
ages as we now witness in the products of the potteries of ancient 
Etruria, of China, or of India. This I have long been wont to 
consider, fand I suppose I have not been altogether singular in 
my estimate of its desidcrableness, ) as the second great deside- 
ratum in photography, to be placed alongside that already allu- 
ded to, of a cheap and permanent, (as far as the paper will al- 
low, ) process for purposes of book illustration, and natural history 
delineation; and it has been also in a great measure — I may 
perhaps say fully as much with a view to the attainment of this 
second desideratum — that my experiments have been carried on, 
and it will, I believe, be found that the processes which I have 
already enumerated, along with the indicated variations, afford 
the means of producing good dark neutral tints, such as may be 
useful forall ordinary purposes of photography, (which silver 
has never yet been made to yield,) as well as a minor but still 
very interesting consideration — the means of decorating our 
pottery of every description, tiles for architectural purposes, glass, 
&c. &c., with an endless variety of photographic designs, sim- 
ple orkaleidscopic, in a great variety of neutral tints or color, and 
■we may even produce more than one color in one compound de- 
sign, printed at one time, c, g., by printing iu the first instance 
with the bichromate of avimonia, soda, or potash alone; and in 
the after stagesmanaging so that different metals shall be precipi- 
tated on the different parts of the design. We might even hope 
in the same way to obtain something like an approach to the 
representation of certain subjects in natural colors, though for 
this it is probable that the system of photo-chromo-lithography, 
which I have elsewhere described, might be found more workable. 
In all burnt in photography, the principle of attention to the color 
of the metallic compounds which form the residue of the picture 
after its passing through the fire, particularly as affected by heat, 
by these combinations with salica or silicates, and other substan- 
ces which exist in the glass, porcelain, or other tablets, or itssu- 
perGcial glaze or enamel, or with each other, as already well knov/n 
to, and carefully studied by, the painters, stainers, and printers, 
must be kept constantly in view. The cause of the imperfect 
success, as far as any generally valuble result goes, of all attempts 
at bui-nt-iu photography of which I have heard, has been the 
yellow color which silver produces in combination with 
silicates. My object at the meeting of July 14th, was to place 
the j)ho(ograp/ier on glass, on porcelain, &c., in something like 
the same position with regard to neutral tints and colors iu which 
the u'li-pkotographic printer , painter, and stainer had long been. 
This, I did by calling attention to the metals calculated to 
give the requisite tints and colors, and showing at the same time 
a variety ot photographs, with the metals recommended — cobalt, 
copper, iron, manganese, &c , com.bincd in various ways, (with 
explanations of processes,) as proofs of the perfect possibility of 
producing photographs containing the materials which I recom- 
mended, supplying tlius the hitherto wanting link in the chain. 
AVant of proper aj)pliances and convenience for the purpose, &c., 
prevented my having the actually burut-in specimens to show, 
but though there may be room for much further experiment as 
to the miuutae of manipulation, composition of cements, fluxes, 
enamels. Arc, the daily experience of bnrning-in the un-photo- 
graphic pictures and prints, is quite sufficient to settle the possi- 
bility of burning in the photographically prepared prints with 
the same materials, and were it not by rough experiments which 
I have been able to make, are quite enough to show the possi- 
bility of burning iu photographs in a variety of ways, from paper 
as well as other films with some variety of the metals reccom- 
raended, as well as with silver. In burning-inthcse wcdonotem 
ploy any fi^ri/jaWc mixture to form a glaze above the photograph. 



The silver, or silver and gold photographs, do appear as would 
be expected to burn iu much more readily, and at a lower tem- 
jjcrature than most or any of the others. With most metals it 
seems to be necessary, unless we have a vitrifiable glaze above 
the photograph, that the surface which it is to be made to amal- 
mate with should be exposed to sufBcieut heat to bring it into 
a state of fusion, or something very near it, and this, of course, 
necessitates that in burniug into glass, in this way, the glass 
should have previously received a coating of some vitrified (or 
vitrifiable) mixture, glass or enamel, which will melt or soften 
sufBcicntly at a considerably lower temperature than the glass 
itself. Iu burning in with various descriptions of pottery, porce- 
lain, tiles, &c., further experiments can aloue decide whether 
the photograph should be applied to the tablet iu its unglazed 
or in its glazed condition; whether any vitrifiable mixture (and 
of what exact composition) should be applied to the photogra- 
phic film of collodion, albumen, &c., after it is printed on, or to 
the film of paper, after it has been attached to the tablet. Gum 
appears to answer pretty well for the cementation of the paper 
photograph to the tablet, and it may be that the mixture of a 
little nitre or borax, &c., with the gu-m solution, or the soaking 
of the paper in some such salts, or both, may turn out to be an 
improvement where we do not intend applying any vitrifiable 
mixture to the paper after its attachment. In experimenting 
in a common fire, the sudden combustion and draught is very 
apt to carry away the paper entire!}' — the more gradual appli- 
cation of heat in a furnace, &c., will avoid this. To prevent the 
breaking-up a,ud detachment of the paper photograph, a very 
good ))lan will probably be, to keep it flat by a heavy or loaded 
slab of stone, glass, metal, or other material, till carbonization 
is absolutely complete, and then, it may be, remove the weight, 
and then cither apply a vitrifiable mixture, or trust to heat and 
the softening of the surface enamelled and attraction to produce 
amalgamation. The application of the vitrifiable mixture to 
the photograph, after it has been once in heat, unless either the 
plate has been cooled before the weight has been removed, so 
as to retain the carbon of the paper or other film, or unless we 
first again expose the plate to a heat suEcieiit to cause a sort 
of superficial attachment before we apply the final glaze, is hardly 
to be recommended, as, where practicable, it would be very gen- 
erally without an object. In the case of each description of 
tablet, experience of the ready trained workman, with all his 
appliances at command, will very soon decide whether it is better 
to trust entirely to the glaze below, or partially or entirely to 
a vitrifiable application above the photograph; and there are 
many other points of detail which his experience can alone, and 
will very readily decide, e. g., as to the best cement, where our 
photograph is attached to tiie tablet after printing, as I have re- 
commended with paper, &c. I have considerable hopes from collo- 
dion In many respects paper has advantages. I have tried various 
organic cements. As to the production of any required shade 
of color or neutral tint, we have to set to work on the same 
principle as we have descril)ed for nnburnt photography, only 
dcvotiiig our attention entirely to the color which the picture 
will assume after, and not to that which it will exhibit before 
burning, and regarding, of course, the cyanogen — radical salts 
merely with reference to the heavy metal contained iu the radi- 
cal, tiie fcrro, and ferrid-cyanides, being thus valued on account 
of their iron, and the cobalt cyanides for their cobalt, &c. It 
is likely that both iu neutral tints aud in colored photography, 
the cobalt, cyanides, and other salts, which I have noticed, &c., 
of comparatively small value in unburnt photography, may bo 
here among the most useful agents. Cobalt is not only valua- 
ble for the blue color of its silicate combination, but for the 
formation of many intermediate colors with other metals, 
and of most valuable neutral tints and very near approxima- 
tions to black with manganese, copper, iron, &c. Such mi.x- 
tures of metals are easily produced cither by an original mixture, 
of the metals in the sensitizing solution, by a judicious after-ap- 
plication of metallic salts, or of the metal organic salts. Both 
in copper, iron, cobalt, chrome, nickle, and manganese, which 
are the metals I have principally directed my attention to, there 
seems to be no difficulty in fixing any number of them, and in 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURXAL. 



11 



almost any required proportion in one photograph. To attempt 
any detailed enumeration of all the ways in which this miglit be 
done (besides being in some degree a repetition of what I have 
given in my former letter, would be filling pages to little purpose, 
as the general principle of acting oace laid down, and the most 
desirable chemicals enumerated, the application become insuSB- 
cieatly evident, but we may notice generally, some of the prin- 
cipal ways of securing the presence of a plurality of metals (or 
• oue metal) in the photograph. 

1. — In the first stage, that is before the metal organic deve- 
lopemeat, this may be accomplished. 1st.— By introducing one 
or any number of the metals not including the chrome of the 
chromic acidj at the very commencement of all, into the solution 
used for film or paper sensitizing, this being managed either by 
employing a bath, containing at once in alkaline-bichromate, and 
a salt or mixture of solts of the metal or metals desired, or else 
by dissolving the oxide or oxides, or neutral chromate or chro- 
mates of the same in solution of chromic acid (or the chromates 
in sulphuric or other acids), giving thus a bath containing me- 
tallic bichromates alone. 2nd. — By sensitizing with the bichro- 
mate of potash, soda, or ammonia (or some of the complex alka- 
lis) alone, and not applying the rael al or metals till after printing, 
as practised in the ink process of M. Sella, lately published. In 
the case of some metals, as copper and cobalt, it appears pretty 
indifferent in which of these ways we introduce them in this stage; 
but this was not always so. With iron for instance, the dark 
solutiou after precipitation from protosulphate and bichromate 
of potash does not answer well. 

II. — In the second stage we have the choice of a variety of 
metal cyanides, &c., for the expulsion of the chromic acid. The 
iron cyanides and cobalt cyanides act readily. It must be re- 
collected, however, that for burnt-in photography we do not 
gain in atomic quantity of metal by this developing unless we 
mean to follow it up by the application of the final metal bath, 
corresponding to the irou bath in the cuprotype as described, 
and still farther, that unless we use for the development a salt 
of a metal cyanide or other metal containing acid or radical, 
that we actually lose metal by the expulsion of the chromic acid. 
The object in going through this second stage for porcelain print- 
ing is therefore generally to substitute some other metal for the 
chrome and to supply by the proportion of the alkaline metal 
cyanide retained by the image, a basis for the introduction of 
additional metal in the third stage. 

III. — As to the third stage, the last opportunity of introducing 
metal by the final toning bath, we must depend here cither alto- 
gether on the alkaline metal cyanide retained, or else trust wholly 
or partially to the superior affinity of the metal in the toning 
bath for the metal cyanogen radical in the picture. Cobalt 
and copper, for instance, will, in many cases, replace iron with 
ferro-cyanogea and cobalt cyanogen, and iron or uranium will 
supplant other metals in other cases. We need hardly enlarge 
upon the command which the power of introducing metals at 
any one or in all of these stages gives us over the result. Where 
we wish a photagraph containing one metal alone, we might 
either accomplish this by the expulsion of the chromic acid, by 
an alkali, alkaline carbonate, or by a salt of some organic acid, 
e.g., the mellonide of potassium, or what may be generally found 
much preferable in many respects, secure its isolation in some 
such way way as the following. Develop a washed chromate 
of cobalt print by cobalt cyanide of potassium; wash, and tone 
by cobalt bath, with iron we may adopt the same system, sub- 
stituting the ferro-cyanide of potassium; however I dont think 
that iron alone in this way is likely to be so very useful. The 
developing of an iron print with ferro-cyanide or cobalt-cyanide, 
and toning with iron, copper, or cobalt, might give more 
useful results, but there are serious objection.?, however, 
to the introduction of iron in the first stage at all. I have al- 
ready, I thiidc, mentioned that the mixture of the protosulphate 
with bichromate of potash does not form a good bath 
(possibly the sulphate or other salt of the higher oxide or solu- 
tion of it in chromic acid might answer better), and even where 
we print first with an alkaline, bichromate alone, there is some- 
times a little difficulty to get perfectly clear lights owing to icon 



remaining in them (probably from its peroxidation by air, or 
precipitation by other impurities in the water. To prevent this 
1 have used a mixture of very little acid wilh some amount 
of success, still there is a risk of the acids attacking the 
chromate of iron of the picture, and on this ground it appears 
better to commence with another metal, as copper or cobalt, and 
to leave the introduction of the iron till afterwards, either by 
means of the ferro-cyanide bath or by the final toning bath, or 
we may introduce it in both of these stages in one print,, as in 
the cuprotype process. This ought to be a good process, and 
the experiments which have I have been able to make, though 
giving nothing like presentable results, gave very good promise, 
and sufficiently indicated that even a paper cuprotype, with no 
more metal in it than can be easily got, will give an effective 
burnt-in print. I have burned it into glass with enamel or flux 
below even without any vitrifiable mixture above the paper, the 
best results being obtained when the heat for burning in was 
pretty quickly got up. Among the processes on this model (or 
formula) likely to give good results may be named a chromate 
of copper prints developed in the same way, 'but toned by cobalt 
instead of iron in the final bath, or perhaps a chromate of co- 
balt print developed by iron, and toned by iron or by copper 
(or uranium or manganese). When our final toning is done by 
iron I have generally used, and believe there is advantage in 
using, a little acid mixed with the water with which the print is 
afterwards washed (as well as a little added to the bath). 
There is not the same risk incurred here as by its use in washing 
the print in its chromic stage, as the metallic ferro-cyanides and 
their allies are not nearly so easily acted on in this way as the 
chromates are. 

Manganese is a metal likely to prove highly valuable in burnt- 
in photography, particularly in union with cobalt, iron, and cop- 
per. I have obtained photographs containing these differently 
combined in various ways. On the whole the most successful 
of my manganese experiments have been those in which I stop- 
ped at the first stage, a very good dense photograph containing 
manganese and chrome being obtainable on paper prepared with 
bichromate of potash and sulphate of manganese. I have mana- 
ged to introduce iron, copper, and I rather think also cobalt 
into this by subsequent actions; but perhaps as good a plan with 
manganese, where the presence of chrome is not objectionable, 
is to mix a little sulphate of cobalt with the bichromate of pot- 
ash, (or ammonia) and sulphate of manganese used in prepa- 
ring the paper, (or film,) and the chromic acid might be at 
least partially removed by the application afterwards of an alka- 
li or carbonate, &c. It is probable, but my experiments do not 
enable me to speak with any confidence on this point, that man- 
ganese might also be employed in some cases as a final toning 
bath. 

As to photographs for burning in colors, chromate of nickel, 
(Mr. Bingham's chromatype,) a very distinct print might be 
likely to answer Vi'ell, and the addition to it of cobalt, easily made, 
might be an advantage. Chromate of silver, (Mr. Ilunt^s chro- 
matype,) with the addition of cobalt, might also give a good 
green, as might a cobalt-cyanide of iron, or cobalt-cyanide of 
silver. As to purples, tin and gold, with or withaut cobalt, 
might come into play, and tin, chrome, and cobalt might possi- 
bly answer; uranium also, along with cobalt, co])pel, nickel, and 
other metals might not improbably give good results. Chromate 
of cobalt, and I have alredy alluded to cobalt-cyanide of cobalt 
for blue. Let the photographer on porcelain only study the 
means I have pointed out of fixing the different metals, and then 
take up such a volume as the " Porcelainier Fayencier et Potier 
de Terre, Paris, Libraire Encyclopedique de Roret," or any 
similar treatise, and find what fixture of oxides he wishes to 
obtain, and he need not remain long in difficulty as to obtaining 
photographs containing most of them. 

It must be observed that, though I have now been directing 
attention principally to processes of which the chromates are the 
basis; there are many other processes which may enable us to 
fix a variety of metals and their combinations for the same pur-' ' 
poses. The prints by solarization of papers containing ferrid- 
cyanide of potassium or ammonium, (or f'erro-cyanic acid, wouldj 



12 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



but for their slowness of productions, be also a very convenient 
basis, giving pretty clear prints, and the iron of the base, after 
washing, being replaceable to a certain extent, more or less, by 
another metal or metals — copper, cobalt, or nickel for instance. 
It is likely also that by the cobalt cyanides, we might replace 
the ferro-cyanogcn with cobalt-cyanogen. Chrome-cyanides 
and cobalt-cyanides are little acted on by sunshine by themselves. 
Prints produced by developments of ferric salts might be tried, 
though I have got no very clear prints in my trials in that di- 
rection, gold and silver excepted. To return to the chro- 
mate prints; in point of facility of getting a print perfectly clear 
in the lights, I am not sure but what the method of printing in 
the first instance, with a bichromate of ammonia, soda, or pot- 
ash alone, has often been in other metals, though not so very 
materially as in iron, the advantage over other forms of the fir&t 
stage. 1 have found it answer well among others, with copper 
and with cobalt, and for one application of burnt-in photography, 
it will be by far the most convenient process — I allude to where 
we intend to produce on one piece of pottery, tile, or glass, a 
design containing more than one color or tint. In this case hav- 
ing sensitized the film with the alkaline bichromate, we might 
even print the whole design at once from one negative, and re- 
gulate the colors of different parts by the application of the so- 
lutions containg, and consequent precipitation of different metals 
in different parts of the design or picture. We have here obvi- 
ously the same choice as elsewhere of the three different stages 
for the introduction of each metal, the same choice of chemi- 
cal agents, metal salts, metal cyanides, &c.; with these succes- 
sive applications also given us, the power of depositing any re- 
quired mixture of metals. 

The separate actious on the different parts of the film might 
be secured iu various ways — by forming cells on the surface, if 
tolerably level for the reception of the different solutions, or in 
any case by immersing the whole in the different baths, having 
previously taken the precaution to protect against the action of 
such bath, by a coating of gutta percha or other easily removed 
impervious substance, the parts not wished to be acted on by 
that particular bath; (might it be possible that in this or other 
ways some approach to natural shading of colors could be ob- 
tained?) 

A few words as to the applications of burnt-in photography. 
How desirable to have portraits of our friends, or of histori- 
cally interesting characters enlarged from small pictures, and 
fixed impcrishably on slabs of porcelain, tiles, or other vitrified 
or semi-vitrified composition, or on enamelled plates of copper, 
stone, or brick. What an interesting gallery such portraits 
would form. They might, of course, be hung up like ordinary 
portraits, but by far the better plan would be, either by fixing 
them into panel frames in the wails, or building them perma- 
nently into the stone-work of our public buildings and galleries. 
How important thus to be able to decorate our public buildings 
with absolutely permanent memorials of thegreat men of our and 
all succeeding ages; and both public and private buildings with 
similarly imperishable landscape photographs, as well as copies 
of all that is most interesting in the way of sculpture, painting 
and engraving, either of fair size, or of any size suitable for 
their position. 

As to copies of paintings, there are difficulties from color, 
though these may no doubt be, in a great measure, got over, 
either by making our second negative from a judiciously touched 
positive, or by having the picture first translated into light and 
shade in china ink or sepia, ))y the original or other competent 
artist. The system of photochromo-lithography might enable 
us to give an approach to permanent reproduction in colors, if 
found practicable, and without colors. Photo-lithography in 
pictures of oxides, giving good nentral tints, might to a consid- 
erable extent, take the place of the true burnt-iu photograpliy 
for many classes of subjects. 

C. J. Burnett, 



From the Liverpool Photographie Journal. 

ACCOUNT OF A METHOD 
Of Convertins Collodion Xesalives into Positives, by Deal. 



BY JOH.V F. CAMPBELL, ESQ. 



In youth study, iu maturity compose, in old age correct. 



In the end of 1854, I observed that a broken glass negative 
changed color on being thrown into the fire. 

I then tried several experiments with small negatives. I * 
held the glass by one corner with the tongs, and passed it 
gradually into an ordinary coal fire, selecting a place between 
the bars of the grate where there was a good red heat and no 
flame or smoke. By carefully and slowly drawing the glass 
out after it had got to a red heat, by avoiding contact with the 
fuel, and by holding the collodion side of the plate downwards 
to avoid dust, I succeeded in producing a number of positive 
pictures, which I varnished and backed with black varnish in 
the ordinary manner. 

Many glasses were broken in my first attempts. Some pic- 
tures were too pale, some were yellow, Rome were too white; 
but the defects in those which escaped breakage appeared to 
be due rather to the chemical than the burning process, aud I 
persevered. 

I have made a number of experiments since 1854, and the 
result is the follovv'ing process, which I have found toleraby 
successful. 

PROCESS. 

Take a picture by the ordinary collodion process on plate 
glass, which stands heat better than the other kinds usually 
sold for photographic purposes. Carefnlly remove all traces of 
iodide of silver, which gives a yellow color in the shadows if 
any is left; dry, and varnish with amber varnish. 

The negative may now be used for printing in the pressure 
frame. To convert it into a positive: lay the plate, varnished 
side upward, on a layer of pounded chalk or white sand spread 
evenly on an iron tray (a shovel or a frying-pan will doj. Heat 
the whole to a dull red heat over a fire. It will be well to 
protect the plate from dust during the process by covering it 
with a bit of talc. 

The layer of chalk or sand distributes the heat gradually 
and evenly over the plate, and diminishes the risk of breakage. 
The vj/iikncss of the layer permits the process to be more easily 
watched. The varnish first smokes; the picture becomes clear- 
er and darker, then darkens all over — turns from black to 
grey. 

It then assumes a variety of colors, which by reflected light 
are very brilliant. It becomes orange in parts, then blue and 
purple in jjarts, the slate-colored in parts, lastly green in 
patches, and then a white positive picture. 

When the high lights are blue the shadows are generally 
orange, when the high lights first turn white some parts of the 
picture remain blue. One picture was stopped at this point, 
and retains some color iu the dresses. The faces and one cor- 
ner were beginning to whiten when the operation was stopped, 
but being backed with varnish, poured on the collodion side, 
the colors are faint, and by lamp-light hardly visible. 

When all parts of the picture first become white it is at the 
best.* It is then time to remove the plate from the heat, and 
allow it to cool gradually. Heat continued weakens the shad- 
ows by whitening them. Still more heat weakens the whole 
picture, probably by altering the condition of the silver. 

Seen through a microscope of strong power, by reflected 
light, the picture shines as frosted silver, in points of colored 
light on a dark ground. 

The points are nearest each other in the high lights. By 
transmitted light the plate appears covered with a fine dust, 
scattered thinly in the shadows, more thickly placed in the 
half lights. In the high lights the silver appears as a contin- 

* The rays of the .sun collected in a strong burning glass act on thecol- 
lodion pictnrcs in the same way as artificial heat, aad change the silver 
Irom black to white. 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



13 



nous film, with small holes in it at regular interrals. Seen by 
both reflected and transmitted lijrht, the silver appears like a 



white sand distributed on the glass, in several layers iu the 
white lights, but scattered in the shadows and lights. 

The possibility of producing photographic pictures with the 
natural colors by some modiilcation of this process, has fre- 
quently occurred to me, anil though I have hitherto failed to 
produce local color, I would suggest that those who have more 
leisure to devote to such experiments should turn their atten- 
tion to the subject. Many substances may be made to appear 
of any color by dividing them into plates sufficiently thin. 

The brilliant colors which succeed each other while the collo- 
dion is burning away, probably depend on the thickness of the 
film through which the silver dust is seen. The rate at which 
the collodion burns must depend on the conducting power of 
the substances in contract with it, and the thickness of the film 
may depend oa the amount of silver deposited on various parts 
of the plate. It may be that by some improvement of this 
roastiug process, the film may be so affected by the silver de- 
posited in it, as to vary in thickness to the amount which will 
produce color in its proper position. I have 
once succeeded in stopping the process when 
the sky of a landscape was blue and 
the trees green, but that result was acci- 
dental. 

The uses to which this burning process 
can be turned are numerous. Pictures tak- 
en oa metallic plates, glazed with a dark 
glass, would be less liable to break in heat-^ 
ing. By fusing aa enamel over the siK'fc^ 
ver, photographic enamels couldbe produced. 
A gentleman who superintends the glass 
works of Messrs. Powell, undertook to 
try some experiments for me several 
months ago, bat I do not know if he has 
produced enamels. The same gentleman 
was kind enough to allow me to use one 
of his furnaces, where, with his assistance, I succeeded in roast- 
ing a number of good-sized plates, with very few breakages. 

I have thought that the silver might be made by a great 
heat to sink into the glass and produce depressions on its sur- 
face, from which, the silver being removed by acids, prints 
might be taken with ink. 

I have tried to engrave a glass plate with fluoric acid, after 
removing the collodion by heat, but hitherto I have failed in my 
attempts at photographic engraving on glass; others may be 
more successful. 

It may be interesting to your readers to know that transpa- 
rent pictures copied in the camera, from glass negatives, make 
good ornaments for windows. Smaller transparencies make 
good slides for magic lanterns. They may be backed with 
white or with colored oil paints, when they appear like draw- 
ings or oil pictures. These plates must be varnished before 
they are painted. When the oil paint is dry, or while wet, the 
pictures may, with care, be removed entirely from the glass, 
and kept in books, while the collodion is wet, it may be trans' 
ferred from the glass to paper. A process for coloring paper 
photographs, in oil, was patented by a gentleman of the name 
of Duppa, some years ago. The method of coloring transpa- 
rent collodion pictures is preferable, but any one desirous of 
carrying on this process for gain, would do well to consider the 
terms of Mr. Duppa's patent. 

The oil coloring of prints made transparent with varnish, has 
long been practised, but the patent, referred to, for so coloring 
paper photographs, may include the use of oil paints ia color- 
ing photographic drawings of all kinds. 

Colored pictures resembling oil paintings, six inches square, 
have been made with a part of a microscope from a neo-ative 
taken from nature, with a small lens, at a distance of °about 
twelve yards. The arrangement for copying the negative was 
as follows: — 
The glasses were removed from an^ ordinary portrait lens,, 

VOL XI. NO. III. 10 



and the inch power of the microscope was screwed into the dia- 
phragm (A). The brass of the portrait lens, with the inch 
power and diaphragm inserted, was then replaced in a long- 
bodied camera (B), constructed, at my request, for this pur- 
pose, by Mr. Ross, last August. The negative was placed in 
an upright stand (C), and a looking-glass (D) was so placed 
behind it as to reflect light from the sky. The whole appara- 
tus stood on a table near a window. The advantage of taking 
negatives of small size, and magnifying them afterwards, is the 
great reduction iu the size of the apparatus 
necessary. 

If any of the makers of optical instru- 
ments would construct a camera to take 
negatives sufiBciently small, a photographer 
might carry his whole battery iuhis pocket, 
instead of requiring a cart-load of materials 
as at present; but, till a special apparatus 
is constructed, photographers may use 
small lenses in the field, and magnify their 
pictures at home by the method described. / 




From the Beport of the Royal Cornw. Polytech Soe, 

PRETSCH'S PROCESS OF PHOTO-GALVAJiOGRAPIlY. 



BY ROBERT HUNT, F.R.S. 
Read before the Royal CornwaU Polytechnic Society, 1 856. 

Mr. Hunt, F.R.S., said, ia front of the platform there hangs 
a series of pictures which are now exhibited for the first time to 
the public in this country, the production of Mr. Paul Pretscb, 
the late director of the imperial Printing OfiBce at Vienna. They 
were produced by a process which he designates by the compound 
term of photo-galvanogniphy; that is, pictures which are drawn 
by the light, and are engraved by electricity or galvanism. The 
process is an exceedingly simple and beautiful one and I am indebt- 
ed to Mr. Paul Pretsch for allowing me to communicate to the 
society, in the present state of the invention, the whole of the 
process, he having furnished me with the materials. You are 
aware of the processes, nov/ so common, for taking photographic 
pictures; but the ordinary process is not that employed by Mr. 
Paul Pretsch. Mr. Mungo Ponton, fourteen years since, dis- 
covered that a well known salt, the bichromate of potash, was 
susceptible of change when exposed to the influence of sunshine 
in connection with orecanic matter; and one of the most beautiful 
and simple photographic processes I am acquainted with, is sim- 
ply to wash a piece of letter paper with a solution of bichromate 
of potash — a salt which may be obtained in any druggist's shop 
— placing on that paper any object you wish to copy, such 
as fern-leaves or engravings. In the course of a short time the 
result is that you will obtain aa image; one part of the yellow 
paper having changed its color, and the other remaining un- 
changed. By soaking this paper, which has undergone this 
photographic change, ia water, all those portions not changed 
in color are readily dissolved out; whilst those which have chan- 



u 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



ged color remain permanent and fixed; the rationale being, that 
the bichromate ot potash parts with one portion of its chromic 
acid, and tliis chromic acid combines with the size, and forms a 
chemical combination of ciiromate gelatine or of fibrine, whicli- 
ever, it may be. Mr. Paul Pretsoh, in pursuing his investi- 
gation, does this; — he takes a plate of glass, and on that 
spreads his material, the material being ordinary glue, to which 
bichromate of potash is added, and to which a small quantity of 
nitrate of silver has also been added. For instance, he takes two 
or three solutions of glue, into one of which he puts a little nitrate 
of silver, into another bichromate of potash, and into another io- 
dide of potassium. He uses the silver and the potassium for the 
purpose of producing a little iodide of silver on the sensitive film, 
so as to produce on the picture that grain which is necessary for 
holding the ink in the process of printing. He then takes the 
photographic picture, obtained by any of the customary process- 
es, and this being placed on the sensitive ])lat6, on the glass 
thus prepared, is exposed to the action of light. In the course 
of a short time, (all those parts which are dark in the pho- 
tograph, protecting the plate from change, and all those which 
are white, allowing the sunlight freely to pass through and the 
change to take place), we have a combination of bichromate of 
potash and gelatine in two different states, one soluble and the 
other insoluble. Consequently, the plate is then put into water, 
and all the parts which remain soluble are dissolved out, whilst 
the other parts remain as they were; and we have the picture 
produced not only in different lights and shades, but also in dif- 
ferent depths, the solution being eaten into by the process (Mr. 
Hunt here exhibited plates showing the stage of the process). 
When the plate is prepared to this point, there is poured upon 
it a preparation of gutta percha, which being kept under pres- 
sure for a short time, receives the reverse image of the poto- 
graphic picture. This is now prepared for the voltaic battery, 
by being simply rubbed over with fine black lead; and it being 
placed in connection with the trough, copper is precipitated on 
the plate, which receives an image the reverse of the mould. 
Then by the ordinary electrotype process another plate may be 
obtained, from which prints like this (exhibiting one) have been 
printed. The capabilities of the process are evident when we 
examine the extreme beauties of detail, and the marvellous seriel 
effect of those pictures, all the middle tints being preserved. 
There have been several methods by which engravings have been 
produced from photographs; one by Mr. Talbot, in which he 
uses a steel plate and bichromate of potash, the plate being 
afterwards etched by bichloride of platinum. There are othei 
processes, amongst them that of Niepce; but in all these we have 
only the high lights and deep shadows, the whole of the middle 
tints being sacrificed; whereas, in this picture of York Minister, 
(taken by the process lam describing,) I would direct your 
attention to the beautiful ajrial effect of the middle tints; and 
details of the tower are faithfully given, as of the building on 
either side. We are also enabled by this process to take a pho- 
tographic likeness of any person, from which copper-plate prints 
can be obtained, in any number; and by the use of the camera 
the pictures can be copied of any size. This process is now be- 
ing brought before the public by Mr. Paul Pretsch, for the pur- 
pose of illustrating works of natural history, books of travel, 
and other works of that kind. He fMr. Hunt) hoped he had 
rendered himself intelligible in bringing before them the details 
of a process which promises to rival anything that had hitherto 
been done ia the photographic art. 



From the Liverpool rhotograpliic Journal. 

m SAME OP THE OPTICAL PRINCIPLES 
Involved in the Couslrudion of Pjjotugraphic Lenses.* 



BY MR. GRUBB. 



BiPHOSpHURKTTED Hydrogen. — This gas IS prepared by expos- 
ing to the action of heat phosphorous acid and water, in a small 
glass retort; in this process the oxygen of part of tlie acid and 
part of the water convert the other part of the acid into phos- 
phoric acid, the remaining part of the phosphorous unites with 
the hydrogen of the decomposed water, and forms the biphos- 
phuretted iiydrogen. It does not detonate spontaneously, but 
when mixed with oxygea and inflamed a violent explosion takes 
place. 



[The following is the concluding portion of the paper read 
by Mr. Grubb, at a meeting of the London Photographic So- 
ciety, on the 3d of December. In our last publicaiion we 
promised to give a report of the discussion upon this, and also 
Mr. Pretsch's paper, bnt upon reconsideration, as no really 
practical conclusion was arrived at, we have decided upon 
omitting it.] 

The acting angular aperture of a photographic lens (view or 
portrait) is varied fro tern., not only by the addition or substi- 
tution of a stop, but also by approaching the object to the leus, 
and thereby causing its image to be formed at a greater dis- 
tance on the other side; and in portrait photography the differ 
ence caused by the latter change is often considerable. It will, 
however, be sufficient for the present purpose if we consider the 
angular aperture as that w-hieh the lens or compound has for 
parallel rays; this is at once the maximum angular aperture, 
and that which is to be generally understood as meant. It is 
desirable also to premise that in speaking of the focus of a por- 
trait combination, its equivalent focus is generally to be under- 
stood. 

The focus of an ordinary view lens is approximately that of 
the distance of its first surface from the image (of a distant ob- 
jectj. The equivalent focus of a portrait combination may be 
readily found with sufficieut accuracy by dividing the measured 
focus of a spectacle-lens (by preference one of nearly the focus 
of the compound), by the fraction representing the respective 
linear dimensions of the images of a large distant object formed 
by the coaipound and the single lens; for example, say that the 
focus of the spectacle-lens is found to be ten inches, and the 
images formed by it and the combination are as 5 to 4 in linear 
measurement — then 10-^f=8 inches, the equivalent focus re- 
quired. 

The portrait photographer, desirous of reducing the time of 
action to a minimum, seeks by all possible means to effect so de- 
sirable an object. Amongst others, he tries that of lenses of 
increased angular aperture, but the diiBculties of keeping all 
portions of the object in tolerable focus (previously sufficiently 
harrassing) are now increased. Lately this difficulty is pro- 
/essedly solved; lenses are advertised of a " long chemical 
range," and, in swne cases,, at least, lenses have been selected 
for use — less for their intrinsic merits in other respects, than for 
the lesser indistinctness (supposed or real) o-f their ages, or ob- 
jects out of focus. 

Now the term *-' long chenrJcal range" must, from the manner 
in which it has been used, be understood to mean a longer 
chemical range than other or previous combinations of the same 
aperture and focus possessed; while any party who selects a 
lens out of several of the same nominal size, as having an appa- 
rent longer vi-sual range than the rest, must be under the im- 
pression, that not only the chemical, but also the visual 
"ranges" are not constant for a given aperture and focus. Con- 
ceiving that herein is error, at once directly opposed to optical 
truth, and calculated to retard sound photographic progress, I 
propose to consider whether the lohole affair is not siviply a de- 
lusion, which, the sooner it is discarded the belter. 

The first step herein is evidently to examine the origin and 
nature of the confusion arising from the ground glass (or sensi- 
tive surface) of a camera not being in the plane of the image, 
or (in photographic language) in true focus. 

Let L I; (see diagram on page 15J be a lens free from aber- 
ration, and forming a distinct image of a small brilliant object 
(a star for example) at/. This image (if bright enough) will 
be seen as a luminous point on a suitable surface placed verti- 
cally to the axis of the lens at /; bnt if this surface be moved 
alternately within and without the focus, the brilliant point 

• Coutiuued from p. 62, vol. xi., no. ii. 



will swell out into a disc of light, incrensing in magnitude ns 
the surface s s is made to recede from either side of the 
focus. 




And, as that which is true for any one point or star is also 
true for any number, so the confusion or indistinctness whicli 
we have under consideration is caused by the overlapping of an 
infinite number of little discs, instead of as many distinct and 
separate points being represented or projected on the surface 
placed to receive them. In other words, let an image be con- 
sidered as made up of an infinite number of distinct points, and 
let each one of tliese be supposed as spread out into a disc of 
greater or less magnitude, and we have a correct idea of tlie 
nature of the indistinctness caused by an image (or rather the 
converging pencils which would form suchj not been received 
at the true focus on tlie surface intended to receive same. 

So far for the nature of the indistinctness; next for the. laws 
which govern its amount. 

Chemical or antinic rays afford no exception to the general 
laws of optics, that rays proceeding through a medium of equal 
density, and not affected by any extraordinary force, do so in 
straiiiht lines. 

In the case before us, speaking strictly, and supposing the 
lens L L to be perfect; or, speaking practically, and supposing 
it to give as distinct an image as that given l)y a good plioto- 
graphic portrait combination, then it is obvious — first, that the 
diameter of any disc for traverse sectionj of the converging 
beam, L /L (which is also a measure of the confusion of the 
image) is directly proportioned to the distance of said section 
from tlie true focus, and the diameter of the lens conjointly; 
secondly, that traverse sections of the beams, taken at equal 
distances, as ^, d',d", s,s',s" (before nnd after convergence), 
from the point/, will liave equal measures and equal intensity; 
or let A be the aperture of the lens, /its focal length, d dis- 
tance from/ (if any section of the beam), and c the confusion 
of the image; theu 

d 
C=(AX— ) 

/ 

Such is the case so far as a single con^bination is concerned, 
which, as before stated, I have supposed to be aplanatic; and, 
without grossly departing from this latter condition, no practi- 
cal (or decided) amount of difference in that under considera- 
tion-can be obtained. I am, of course, aware, that by adopting 
a lens with a large amount of spherical aberration, tlie case 
would be slightly altered; but what then ? There would be in- 
deed a diminution of the circle of confusion on one side of the 
focus but there would be at that same time an equivalent, increase 
of the same on the other side; while the lens would, from its 
great spherical aberration, be worthless as a portrait-lens. 

I desire here to be clear, even at the risk of repetition. The 
ordinary view-lens will answer for illustration. It has a large 
and unbearable amount of spherical aberration for the whole 
aperture; but a small amount only for the diameter of any one 
pencil of rays, as admitted by the stop in front. Kow in this 
lens, and using the ordinary sizes of stops, no appreciable 
lengthening of the focal range on either side of the focus can be 
obtained, while an attempt to use a much larger aperture of 
the lens would at best produce as much shortening of the 
focal range on one side of the focus, as lengthening of the same 
on the other. Any one who has access to a camera, &c., can 
test what has been advanced, practically, iu the absence of day- 
light, as follows: — 

Near to one end of a room place the camera, and at the 
other a good Argand-larnp, without a muffled shade; screen the 



direct light of the lamp from the camera, and place a mercurial 
thermometer, having a spherical bulb, about one foot from the 
source of light, and so that the rays falling on the bulb will be 
reflected towards the camera. Thus will be provided an "arti- 
ficial star," which, being focussed in the camera, will be found 
useful for many experiments with lenses, both simple and com- 
pound. 

To prove the correctness of what has been insisted on, in 
respect of a corrected pencil of converging rays, proceed as fol- 
lows:— mark, or in any other way, register, the adjustment of 
the focussing when the image of the lucid point of light is dis- 
tinct on the greyed-glass (by using a portrait-combination with 
its full aperture, the results will be the most decided); then 
move the greyed-glass, by measured quantities, alternately within 
and without the focal distance, and measure the diameters of 
the respective discs at each position. If the lens be even mod- 
erately good, the appearance inside and outside the focal dis- 
tance will be singular, and agree, in all respects, with what has 
been stated. By using an ordinary view-lens, (after all stops 
and diaphragtus are removed, and its whole aperture exposed), 
the effects due to positive spherical aberration will be very ap- 
parent, and also be in accordance with what I have advanced 
in respect of such, viz,, than any leugtheniug-out of the focal 
range on one side is accompanied with, and neutralized by, a 
reverse effect on the other side of its focus. 

In the examination of any lens, simple or compound, for 
spherical aberration— if, on pushing the greyed surface, or 
screen, within the focal distance, so as to receive a section of the 
beam converging to a focus, the appearance is that of a lumin- 
ous ring filled up with a fainter light; then on drawing the 
greyed surface beyond the focus, or into the beam diverging 
from that focus, the appearance of the section will be that of 
a brighter central spot surrounded by a fainter light or halo, 
and the lens is under-corrected for spherical aberration. If, on 
the contrary, these appearances are inverted, the aberration is 
over-corrected. t 

Postscript. — It may be desirable to anticipate a question 
which will naturally occur to some persons, viz., how the differ- 
ence (real or imaginary^, of chemical or visual " range" arises ? 
Supposing it to be " real," I can account for it only by a 
small difference existing iu the angular aperture of the objec- 
tives under trial. This may arise from several causes, but 
(when the lenses are of the same make,) most likely from a 
difference of distance, mter se, of their respective lenses. An 
"imaginary," or apparent, but specious difference, would arise 
from the several objectives not affording equally distinct images 
{when in focus) . A given and equal indistinctness of objects 
out of focus will be comparatively, and therefore apparently, 
less in the case of an indifferent lens, than in one giving a very 
perfect image at its focus. In either case, i.e., whether the 
"longer range" is real, or only apparent, a choice conducted in 
reference to"this range, is likely to result in the selection of the 
least valuable lens of the lot. 

This communication has already exceeded its intended length; 
I trust it adequately demonstrates that, so far as a single com- 
bination at least is concerned, no range of focus can be commii- 
nicated to it other than that which is determined by the condi- 
tions of its focus and aperture. The modus operandi given for 
practically testing the matter, it will be observed, is equally 
applicable to all cases whether of single or compound oljec- 
tives. The subject will, however, have been treated more com- 
pletely, if, in a future paper, 1 shall show, on theoretic grounds, 
that compound or portrait-lenses, are placed under precisely 
similar limited conditions iu respect of their definitions of focus, 
as are the more simple or single combinations. 



Phosphate of Ammonia.— This salt is prepared by addmg 
ammonia to concentrated phosphoric acid until a pr,ecipitate 
appears. After which, by applying heat the precipitate 
will be dissolved from the solution, and upon coolmg the crys- 
tals will be formed. 



16 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



JProm La Lumiere. 
PDOTOfiRAPUY AND ENGRAVING ON WOOD. 



'The art of engraving on wood has been practiced for some 
time, and is now very extensively employed, in the illustration 
of various publications, which owe to it much of their success. 

" The specimens produced by wood-engraving are in general 
well-execuled, artistic, and cheap. Artists of taste and skill 
have brought this art to a degree of perfection which it seemed, 
at first unlikely to attain. MM. Gustave Dore and Jahyer, 
among otliers, have proved, by their splendid illustration of the 
' Wandering Jew,' that wood-engraving can produce remarkable 
works, which, in point of size, composition, and excution, are 
worthy to occupy, in the fine arts, an honorable place near that 
of the works of the celebrated masters. 

" It is precisely because wood-engraving is so highly appreciated 
both by editors and the public, that it cannot meet all the de- 
mands made npon it as promptly as one would desire. Many 
editors have therefore thought that the photographic processes, so 
quick and accurate in their results, might be made to assist it; 
60 that a photograph might be obtained on the wood block, 
which co^lld then be cut out in relief by the engraver. 

"This result has now been accomplished. 

"The inventor of the process which we are about to describe, 
M. Lallemand, is a skilful engraver. In consequence of his fre- 
quent transactions with the editors of works, in the ilinstration 
of which wood-engraving is often employed, he endeavored to 
solve the problem stated above. But at first two difSculties 
presented themselves. In the first place it was necessary that 
the wood should not be affected by the photographic chemicals; 
and secondly, that it should not be so coated or varnished with 
any substance as to interfere with the operations of the engraver. 
After more than a year of fruitless experiment, M. Lallemand 
discovered a process which is free from the above objections, 
and he has published it in a communication made to the Acade- 
my of Sciences, in the following terms: 

"' The surface of the wood (and that only), is submitted to 
the action of a solution of alum, and dried. The entire block 
is then coated with a mixture of animal soap, gelatine, and alum. 
When dry, the snrface which is to receive the image is placed 
for some minutes on a solution of hydro-chlorate of ammonia, 
and allowed to dry. It is next placed on a nitrate bath, con- 
taining twenty per cent, of nitrate of silver, and dried in the 
dark. A negative either on glass, or paper, is then applied to 
the sensitive surface of the wood, in a pressure-frame, made for 
the purpose, which allows the progress of the printing to be 
watched. The image is fixed by a saturated solution of hypo- 
sulphite of soda. A few minutes in this solution will suEQce. 
It is then washed for five minutes only.' 

" The sizing protects the wood from any moisture, and eight 
months experience has proved to the inventor that the employ- 
ment of alum and hypo-sluphite, instead of loosening the tex- 
ture of the wood, gives it a great toughness, which is favorable 
to engraving. 

" We trust this process may prove successful, for if the pub- 
lisher of illustrated works is compelled to have recourse largely 
to wood engraving, there are many other branches of industry 
equally important, which are also indebted to it. For instance, 
printing on textile fabrics, paper staining, &c. ; and also in the 
sciences, chemistry, archaalogy, geography, mathematics, medi- 
cine, &c. 

" The process of M. Lallemand is very simple, and before long 
many hard woods may be converted into photographic blocks, 
by means of which, proofs, very superior in some respects to those 
which are now produced, may be multiplied. 

" Photograpliy has been reproduced on steel and marble by 
M. Niepce de St, Victor. MM. Baldus, Negre, Delessert, and 
Riffaut, have obtained photographic reproductions on steel, and 
various metals. MM Robert and Bayard have produced proofs 
on i)orcelain. MM. Mayer Brothers, on linen; MM. Moulin 
andLeblanc an ivory, &c., &c. Photography on Wood is a new 
Step, which we have now to record. 

" The intelligent manager of the Imperial Printing-OfGce of 



Vienna has tried, in the interest of his art, most of the new 
processes, and has successfully employed those above-mentioned. 
We have been able to appreciate, in the Palais de I'Industrie, 
by an examination of the photographs, as well as other works 
exhibited from this magnificent establishment, how much is due 
to the exertions of M. Auer, (the manager), for its present 
position, and increasing prosperity." 



RESTORING TOSITIVES. 



Jamestown, January 24, 1858, 

Mr, SnELlinr, — Dear Sir: Perhaps the following may be 
useful, perhaps not. You will of course be the judge. 

A few days since, I was looking over my collection of photo- 
graphs, and found one that had darkened very much. I 
soaked it thoroughly in water, when it was easily separated 
from the heavy paper to which it was attached; I then im- 
mersed it in a weak solution of hyposulphite of soda, letting it 
remain there several hours, I took it out and washed it tho- 
ronghly, when it appeared as good as new, with the exception 
perhaps of being a little weaker in tone — I think it laid in the 
hypo bath longer that necessary. The picture was Crystalo- 
typed by Mr. Whipple, from a daguerreotype by Mr. Hesler; 
title, "Driving a Bargain," and appeared in the September No. 
of the F. 4- F. A. Journal for 1854. 

Yours truly, 

J. C. Gray. 



MODE OF TRANSFERRING 

A Collodion Negative from Glass to a Sheet of Gntta-Percfea, Em- 

plojed at the Imperial Priiitiug-Office of Vienna, 

BT M. LEON CASSAGNE. 
[Read before a Meetins of the French Photographic Society, June t9, 1857.] 

" It is generally known that at the Imperial Printing-Office 
of Vienna, when a good collodion negative has been obtained on 
glass, it is the custom to transfer it by means of a double filns 
of gelatine, and gutta-percha dissolved in chloroform. The pro- 
cess which I have adopted, and which has never been described 
in the Bulletin of the Society, consists in first dissolving, — 

Pure gutta-percha 192 grammes. 

Chloroform, or Benzole 3r09 „ 

or; 

Gutta-percha 256 grammes. 

Chloroform, or Benzole 3riO „ 

" You perceive that the quantities are not invariable. There 
are cases in which it is necessary to vary them. I shall not 
enter into details; the operator, in each particular case, will be 
able to decide for himself. 

" When the negative on the glass is dry and in good condi- 
tion, pour, on the collodion, side, a coating of the above solu- 
tion. Let it run slowly and unilormly, that it may have time to 
penetrate and unite with the collodion film. As soon as this 
coating is completely dry, strengthen it with a second, formed 
of the following substances: — 

Gelatine of commerce (very white). . ..30 grms. 

Filtered water, as much as the gelatine can absorb, until it 
has swelled to the utmost. 

Isinglass 5 grms. 

Alcohol 15 " 

"Melt the gelatine in the water which it has absorbed, by 
placing the vessel containing it in hot water. Melt the isinglass 
in the same way in the alcohol. Mix by degrees, and with care j 
stirring with a wooden spatula this species of varnish. Warm 
it with precaution, that it may not be injured by too much heat. 
Hold the negative, the coating of gutta-percha upwards, before 
a clear fire, or over a spirit lamp, until it is heated to 10 or 20° 
centigrade; then pour over it, immediately (removing it from 




t 



w 





a 

w 













cq 







.5-^ > 


H 




■*l 


P5 


a. 




R 


a, 




ffl 





1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



17 



the flame of the himp), a coatiils of gelatine, as thin as its densi- 
ty will allow. It is unnecessary to say that the gelatine must 
be warm and perfectly liquid at the time. Leave it for an in- 
stant to cool and dry, sheltered from dust, and you will be able 
to remove easily, by means of the steam from boiling water, the 
tripple film of collodion, gutta-percha, and gelatine. This ope- 
ration, which is very easy, is pcrrormed as soon as you see that 
tire ifilm is sliglitly softened by the steam, and you should then 
begin to remove it from the glass at tlie corner from which the 
excess of collodion was poured off when the plate was collodioii- 
iied. It often happens that the film diseny:ages itself at ihis 
corner of the glass. It is a good )ilau to facilitate the entire 
removal of the film, with a thin blade of fle.\ible polished horn, 
on which, with the help of the fingers, you support the film, while 
you detach it by degrees, either with, or without, the aid of 
a thin thread of water, running drop by drop from a tap, and 
which insinuates itself by degrees under the collodio:i, between 
it and the glass. As soon as the entire film is raised, flatten it 
between two pieces of glass, having good surfaces, and suffi- 
ciently thick to act by their own weight. The collodoin used 
must have suficient consistency, not so much however as to leave 
striae or lines on the plate when dry. 

" The chlo\\)form, or benzole solution, should be allowed to 
stand several days before being used, in order that the coloring 
matter, or any impurities in it, may be deposited. Filter through 
paper, that the solution may be sufficiently thin, shutting the 
top of the funnel to prevent too much evaporation, which would 
have the effect of thickening the solution. Benzole, of speci6c 
gravity much less than the chloroform, gives good results, but 
inferior to those obtained by chloroform, which gives a solution 
almost colorless, and adheres firndy when the evaporation is 
completed; which also takes place more rapidly than with the 
benzole. 

" The density of the solution of gutta-percha, which is always 
slightly colored, retards considerably its complete clarificatioa. It 
is uecessary to avoid all impurities in this solution." 



From the Photographic Notes. 

COLLnDIfl^ ox PAPER. 
To the Kditor of Pkofngrap/iic Ncles. 

Marston Rectory. Nov. 9, 1857. 
My Dear Sir, — Although agreeing, in the main, with the 
sensible remarks of Mr. Moultrie's letter, contained in the last 
number of the Notes, I cannot allow his opening observation to 
pass, without one word of explanation He conceives the direc- 
tion of my expeiiments to tend rather to the complication than 
the improvement of out-of-door Pliotography. Now, let me as- 
sure him, that whilst I entirely concur with his description of 
the properties and advantages of the different processes which he 
recommends, and aiu able, from successful practice of each, fully 
to appreciated their various qnalties, I have longthouglit it possi- 
ble that paper photograjihy might be improved ; that, in fact, the 
fine definition and beautiful gradation of tone indiccted in a good 
collodion negative, might find a rival even in these qualities, in 
the collodionized surface of paper; and it has been with this view 
simply, that my experiments, detailed in former numbers of the 
Notts, have been performed. I have many dozens of glass nega- 
tives, some of large size, and I have too often experienced and 
lamented the risk of breakage to which they are exposed, and 
it has often occurred to me to devise, or at least to attempt a 
remedy for a danger so imminent, and an evil so palpable. My 
first experiment was made in May last, upon waxed paper, and 
so far as the production of a picture was concerned, was per- 
fectly successful, but I found the adhesion of the collodion to 
the waxed surface so slight, that it was only with the greatest 
difficulty that I could fix and wash it; and even when dry, the 
slightest touch was sufficient to remove the film. With paper 
moistened on one side, and then applied to a plate of glass, as 
described in your report of the Meeting of the Birmingham So- 
ciety, the adhesion of the collodion was much greater, and the 

10* 



facility of manipulation vastly increased, but the repelling influ- 
ence of the moisture upon the collodion still rendered the film 
very liable to be removed under various operations which were 
necessary to the production of the finished negative. 

The account I sent you in my last experiment with iodized 
albumen, as a sub-stratum for the collodion, certainly seems to 
complicate the process, and to render it, as you rightly observe, 
less ivorkable, but, in my hands it has proved very successful. The 
introduction of a substance into the silver bath however, so de- 
leterous as albumen, except, as in my case, the operator has at 
hand an aceto-nitrate bath, used for Taupenot's process, is, if 
possible, to be avoided. This desideratum, I am happy to report 
to yon, I have accomplished thus: I dissolve about an ounce of 
Swinbourne's patent Isinglass in a pint of distilled water; then 
float upon this solution ^previously poured iutoa porcelain bath), 
the papers, cot to their proper size. I take them up in ten 
seconds, let them drain for twice that time, and then place them 
carefully in position upon the glass plates, and carefully press 
out all air bubbles, either with a piece of clean linen or blotting^ 
paper, and finally dry them before the fire. It is not absolutely 
necessary to warm the plates, although I should recommend 
their being brought to a temperature of 150' Parenheit. before 
the gelatined paper is applied. Before pouring the collodion 
on the paper, wipe it with a sik handkerchief, to get rid of 
dusty particles; sensitize as usual; and in case of the exposure 
not being immediate, after draining as much of the free nitrate 
off as possible, dose the surface twice with metagelatine, pre- 
pared with citric acid, as recommended by Mr. Long. After 
exposure (which is about the same as is required by the Taupenot 
plates), soak for a minute or two indistilled water, and develop 
with gallic acid solution and aceto-nitrate, in the usual propor- 
tions. With each of these processes, but especially the last, I 
have obtained some first rate negatives, of which I will shortly 
send you a specimen, on which yon can, if you please, report to 
your readers. I feel convinced the process is valuable. 

When the picture is developed and fixed, the gelatine will be 
found so softened that the paper can be removed without any 
difficulty whatever. The collodion seems to be thoroughly in- 
cor-porated into the paper, and when dry will bear any reason- 
able amount of rough handling. 

Your's faithfully, 

William Lait. 

PS — I am continning my experiments with paper previously 
iodized, in order to ascertain whether there is any advantage or 
otherwise, in the thorough impregnation of the paper with the 
iodide of silver. The paper I have principally used, is the thin 
Hollingsworth's, recommended in your Notes. 



From the Comptes Rendus de I' Academic de' ScienceSi 

PllflTOGRAPIll.\G A URAWL\G 
Upon the Wood on wiiicli it is to be Engraved in Relief. 



PROCESS BY M. LALLEMAND. 



The wood is first placed with its surface on a solution of alura, 
and dried ; it then receives with a soft brush , a coating composed 
of animal soap, gelatine, and alum, upon all its faces; when 
the coating is dry, the surface which is to receive the picture is 
placed for some minutes in a solution of muriate of ammonia 
(sal-ammoniac), then dried; then on a bath of nitrate of silver 
of 20 per cent., and then dried. A cliche upon glass or paper 
is then applied on the wood by means of a peculiar frame per- 
mitting the process of the reproduction to be watched. When 
satisfactory, the picture is fixed by means of a saturated bath of 
hyposulphite of soda. A few minutes is enough ; it is then washed 
for only five minutes the first coating preserves the wood from 
moisture; and eight months of experience, have proved to the 
inventor that the employment of alum and a hyposulphite, in 
place of destroying the wood, gives it a great strength favora- 
ble to the engraving. 



From Photographic Nota. 

ON THE FADING OF POSITIVES. 



BY THOMAS SUTTON, B.A, 



There are three important branches of every scientific investi- 
gation, viz., — Hypothesis, Experiment, and Demonstration; or, 
to use plainer words, guessinjr, trying, and provinir. lieibre 
trying comes guessing, or experiments would assume a very 
random character; and before proving comes trying, or demon- 
stration would be nothing more tiian guessing. Agiun, man is 
a progressive being; it is not in his nature to rest satisfied with 
any amount of knowledge gained; he has implanted within him 
an insatiable thirst for more, which coutinuaily imijels iiim to 
fresh enquiry; so that the life of an active, intelligent man, en- 
gaged in scientific pursuits, is passed, either in forming suppo- 
sitions, or in trying experiments which the suppositions sug- 
gest, or in collecting and comparing facts and proving a posi- 
tion. You may quite as reasonably expect to find a man of 
science indulging in speculation, as in trying experiments, or 
establishing a principle. In short, it is right and scientific to 
speculate. A guess, which appears to explain a difficulty, is 
the first legitimate step to.vards clearing it up. It was perfect- 
ly right and scientific of Sir Isaac Kewton, when the falling 
apple struck him on the head, to speculate on the cause of the 
accident, and suppose that there might be some law by whicli 
particles of matter were mutually attracted. It was also quite 
rigiit of him, on another occasion, to suppose, arguing from 
analogy, that the diamond might, at some future period, be 
proved to be combustible. It was quite right of Columbus to 
suppose that by sailing west from the shores of Spain he might 
ultimately arrive at the eastern coast of Asia. It was quite 
right of Adams and Leverrier to suppose that certain unex- 
plained irregularities in the motion of the planet Uranus might 
be occasioned by the disturbing influence of some undiscovered 
exterior planet. It is quite right of geologists to speculate on 
the previous history of the earth, from the present stratified 
appearance of its surface; and it is also quite right of any pho- 
tographic chemist to speculate ou the probable cause of the 
fading of positive prints, and to advance a hypothesis which ap- 
pears to explain satisfactorily all the facts of the case. 

These remarks are called forth by an article of Mr. Malone's 
in reply to ours ou the Fading of Positives, which appeared in 
this Journal. In that article, which was professedly specu- 
lative, we advanced the notion that there might be two dis- 
tinct sulphides of silver, a black, and a yellow; and we en- 
deavored to show how, on this supposition, all the facts con- 
nected with the fading of positives by sulphur might be ex- 
plained. Mr. Malone has discussed that article, paragraph by 
piii'agraph; but in doing so he does not advance a single ar- 
gument against our hypothesis, but merely objects to it on the 
ground of its being, what it professes to be, a hypothesis. He 
objects, in fact, to anyone's advancing any speculation or mak- 
ing any supposition at all, and relates the following anecdote: 

" We once, in conversation with Mr. Talbot, asked, — ' May 
we not suppose, &c.?' to which he good-naturdly replied, with 
a smile, ' You may suppose anything you please.' We felt the 
rebnke. There was no uaed to add, — supposing proves 
uothing." 

Who ever said that it did ? 

But would Mr Talbot's good-humored smile and rebuke, 
" you may suppose whatever you please," be as applicable to the 
suppositions of Newton, Columbus, Adams, and Leverrier, as 
to those of Mr. Malone? We think not. They would have 
been singularly out of place in the ca.ses we have ir.entioned. 
Why not then in au. tho.se cases in which the supposition made, 
no matter by how humble an individual, is consistent with the 
facts which it is proposed to exjilain. 

But since it is so wrong, according to Mr. Malone, to in- 
dulge in suppositions, we become anxious to know whether he 
advocates any ot/txir mode of proceeding in a scientific enquiry 
than that which we have described; in fact we are doubly 
anxious to ascertain his opinion on this subject, because he is 



one of a body of gentlemen (the Printing Committee), in whose 
liands a sum of money has been placed to enable them to prose- 
cute a certain chemical investigation. Fortunately Mr. Ma- 
lone does not leave us long in doubt on this point. His opinion 
of the proper mode of conducting a chemical investigation is 
given in another part of his article. He says " We have long 
left off guessing, and determined to wait for more light." 

To " WAIT FOR MORE LIGHT;" just as Mr. Macawber waited 
for "something to turn up!" IMiis is Mr. Malone's notion of 
how an enquiry should be conducted. But ought it to be the 
notion of any man who has received a sum of money to prose- 
cute an enquiry? \Vould such a notion have been publicly ad- 
mitted by Professor Faraday, or hundreds of other talented men 
in the country, had they occupied Mr. Malone's position? We 
are sure it would not. In fuct there is not a man of genius in 
the world who would not feel it a disgrace to have made the 
admission that he was " waiting for more light." There is not 
a wi.ser proverb tiian that which says "'Providence helps those 
who help themselves" If there is any direct command re- 
vealed to man by instinct and observation, it is the command 
to USE his faculties; not to sit down patiently and wait for 
" something to turn up." This wailing policy, whether in mat- 
ters scientific, political, or domestic, is, — to use a mild expres- 
sion, — sheer imbecility. 

We are sadly disa|)|)ointed with Mr. Malone's article, which 
he has written, he informs us, with a " running reed." He has 
brought forward no new facts, nor arguments of any kind, 
which induces us to modify a syllable of what we have ad- 
vanced. Our hypothesis remains untouched. But he has, he 
says, a strong position, from which he wishes he could be dis- 
lodged. He says, — 

" We believe the sulphur compounds in an impure atmos- 
phere have much to do with certain cases of fading, and we be- 
lieve and know that a red picture will tone itself in the atmos- 
phere, — but not with gold certainly; with what then but sul- 
phur ? and if a print can be toned by atmospheric sulphur, 
why cannot oxidation and more sulpiiur destroy this self-toned 
print ? Let not this point be evaded. It is with us a strong 
position, and we wish we could be fairly dislodged from it." 

Now we think this strong position of Mr. Malone's a very 
weak one; for a red print which has been fixed, not with hypo- 
sulphite, but cyanide of potassium, may be darkened immediately 
by holding it before the fire; or, in the course of a few days, by ex- 
posing it to solar light and heat. A red print, which has not be( n 
fixed with hypo, and which need contain no trace of sulphur, can be 
toned to a purple brown by a slioi't exposure to heat, or by a 
long expo'-ure to light. We state this fact as one whicii we 
have repeatedly proved. It may l)e simply tested, by holding 
before the fire a red collodion negative, which contains organic 
matter fgelatine for instance^, and which has been fixed with 
cyanide. Tiie reds will then become browns. All silver jjrint^', 
no matter by what process they may have been obtained, cr 
fixed, look redder in the water than they do when dry, ai d 
tliey darken still more by being held before the fire. The re- 
mark however, is only strictly applicable to ?t«toncd prints. On 
the occasion of our first visit to Bhuiquart-Evrard's Printing 
Estaljlishment at Lille, we were surprised to see the up|icr 
story of the building with a glazed roof, and a great number 
of prints hanging there on lines, exposed to strong sunshine. 
These prints, we were informed, had not been printed black 
enough, and they were acquiring a darker color by e.vpo>sure 
to light and heat for a few weeks. Tliis effect was not due to 
any hy)io. which the paper might contain, because it would have 
occurred in precisely the same way, had they been fixed with weak 
cyanide. Here are facts by wholesale for Mr. Malone; and 
we advise him, before he occupies "strong positions," to make 
himself master of such facts by becoming a practical photogra- 
pher. The prints done by Mr. Talbot in 1844, and darkened 
by ironing with a hot iron, have not tiecessarily been toned by 
sulphur; heat alone would have toned them had the paper con- 
tained no sulphur, and the argument which Mr. Malone would 
found on their permanence falls to the ground. The red print 
which he supposes to have been toned by atmospheric sulphur 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND PINE ART JOURNAL. 



19 



was in all probability toned by light. He has adopted, as he 
thinks, a strong position, in utter ignorance of certain impor- 
tant facts in Positive i)riiiting. 

But these discussions mny be terminated, before many months 
have passed, by the introduction of another printing process, 
superior in many respects to any method of silver printing. 
We allude to the Ink process. May that time speedily ar- 
rive, and may no quibbliug nor car|)ing interfere to delay it. 

In the fir.st two paragrapiis of Mr. Maione's article we en- 
tirely agree. The remainder contains much in which we differ 
with Lim, and nothing from which we gather any information. 



Fr(mi the Photographic Notes. 

lARGE vs. SMALL LENSES. 



The reader will find, on referring to p. 91 of the Photo- 
graphic Journal fov December, 1854, an article by us on this 
subject; and in t!ie number of that Journal for April, 1855, 
another article, in which we stated a curious fact connected with 
the plano-convex lens. Now it happens, that in investigating 
the optical principles of the camera obscura, the lateral pencils 
are found to have such great obliquity that the attempt to ap- 
ply ordinary optical formula to this problem leads to an erro- 
neous result. The problem of determining the maximum flat- 
ness of field of the image formed in a camera obscura requires 
to be treated in a peculiar way. We must in this instance make 
a fresh start in optics, assuming nothing but the simple law of 
refraction, and the geometrical properties of the circle. 

Proceeding in this way in the mathematics of a subject which, 
so far as we know, has never yet been discussed in any optical 
treatise, we have commenced with the simplest case, viz: that 
of the single piano convex lens, — and have thence conducted 
our enquiries through the whole subject, so far as the achroma- 
tic view-lens is concerned. 

The results which we have obtained are very curious and im- 
portant. But it is not possible, in a Journal of this kind, to 
•give complete demonstrations of complicated questions in Op- 
tics, involving large and costly diagrams. We must content 
ourselves with simply stating the facts proved, and in one or 
two instances only introducing a mathematical demonstration. 

In discussing the case of the single plano-convex lens, we 
discovered at once that the large lens, with a stop in front, 
gives a flatter field than a small central portion of the leas with- 
out a stop. From the demonstration by wl.ich this fact is estab- 
lished, it appears, that when a large piano-convex lens is presented 
with its plane side to extremely distant objects, t he image is formed 
on a spherical surface, which is concentric vvith the convex sur- 
face of the lens, the radius of tiie field being equal to the focus 
of the lens, plus the radius of its convex surface. 

As tiiisfact stands at the very threshold of the enquiry, and 
as no one can conduct the enquiry in a scientiiic manner without 
at once stumbling upon it, we are much amused at finding liiut 
Mr. Grubb has taken particular pains to deny it. In liis last 
communication, read at a Meeting of the Photographic Society 
ou the 3rd ultimo, he says — 

" As a postscript, and lest silence should be construed into 
assent I desire to state that 1 have not found the radius of cur- 
vature of a field given by a plano-convex lens, plane side next 
parallel rays, to be equal to tiie focus plus radius ot the convex 
side, as Mr. Sutton said I should." 

A day or two since, we received a letter from the Astronomer 
Royal, in which he makes the following remarks on this subject, 
which mav be considered as conclusive; — 

Tlie theorem of which you speak, relating to the images 
formed by parallel rays falling on the plane side of a convex 
lens- is perfectly correct, and (asyou remark) is not to be found in 
any Treatise on Optics, at least any with which I am acquainted. 
But I suppose tliat people have invented it, and re-invented 
it, when they wanted it. You will find it in a Paper of 
mine, printed about 30 years ago in the Cambridge Tranactions, 
entitled 'On the Sperical Aberration of Eye-Pieces.' I have 
there given it as an instance of the application of a general for 



mula, remarking, at the same time, that the geometrical demon- 
stration is simple." 

The theorem is therefore admitted by Professor Airy, and has 
been demonstrated by him in the Paper referred to. Mr. Grubb's 
experimental and mechanical mode of dealing with optical prob- 
lems has therefore failed in this instance. 

Now this remarkable theorem is approximately true in the 
case of the counnon achromatic view-lens, as we stated two years 
and a half ago, at the bottom of p. l.'>3 of the Photographic 
Journal for April, 1855. That is to say: the image formed by 
an ordinary achromatic view-lens, with a stop in front when pre- 
sented to extremely distant objects, lies (approximately) on a 
spherical surface, which is concentric with tlie posterior convex 
surface of the lens; while the image formed by the small central 
part of the same lens, without a stop, lies approximately on a 
spherical surface the centre of which is the point where the axis 
of the lens meets its posterior convex surface. 

Here then is complete solution of the question of the large- 
view lens with a stop in front, versus the small view-lens without 
a stop; for whatever the shape of the lens may be, it can be 
proved, that in the former case, tiie radius of the field is longer 
than in the latter, and the field consequently flatter. 

But this fact could never have been established by square and 
compasses, or by an appeal to experiment. Geometrical truths 
can only be established by mathematical reasoning. 

We shall return to this subject on a future occasion, when a 
diagram will be introduced, and a demonstration given of the 
fundamental proposition which we have stated with respect to 
the plano-convex lens. 

We cannot at present oflfer any opinion on the subject of M. 
Petzval's new lens. Our impression is, tiiat it may very proba- 
bly turn out to be an improvement on tiie present construction 
of portrait lenses, but that its excellencies may have been some- 
what exaggerated. The fact of the posterior lens having a plane 
surface appears to us to be greatly iu favor of the theory 
advanced. 



ON THE ADVANTAGES 
Of Ammoniacal Albumen iu Positive Printing. 



BY M DAVANNE. 

[From the Bulletin of the French Photographic Society for Dec, 1857] 

At the last Meeting of the French Photographic Society, the 
following communication was read by M. Davaune:-- 

" The idea of adding ammonia to the albumen used in photo- 
graphy, is not new. M.M. Humbert de Molard, and Bayard, 
alluded to it a long time ago, and if I now recall the attention 
of tiie Society to this old fact, it is because I am not aware that 
any one has m.ide use of the .suggi'stion in positive printing. It 
should doubt less have been employed in this process ; and those pho- 
tographers who have introduced ammonia into the iodized albu- 
men for negatives, ought certainly to have introduced it iuto 
their chlorizcd albumen for positives. 

"The following simple process, appears to me to offer some 
advantages: — 

" I first prepare the albumen bath in the ordinary way, 
thus: — 

AVhites of eggs SOO cubic centimetres. 

Water 200 „ 

Salt 25 grammes. 

I then add about 25 centigrammes of pure ammonia. The 
proportions of albumen and water must be varied according to 
the amount of glaze which it is thought desirable to obtain. The 
common formula is to put equal parts of albumen and water. 
But in imparting fluidity to the mixture, the ammonia destroys 
a little of tiie brilliancy of the proof, so that rather more albn- 
men must U' added to make up this loss. The mixture is beaten 
up in tlie usuiil way toa stiff froth and allowed 12 hours to set- 
tle, but it must not be put into a varnished bowl, for ammonia 
attacks certain varnishes very rjpidly. 

" Albumen, prepared in this way, possesses the following ad- 



80 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



vantages: — Itdoes not form streaks, — gives fewer air buVjbles,— 1 an role qu'ils jouent, etnn maniement."§ Let os now see what the 



can be filtered easily through paper, — and may be kept for seve 
ral months without undergoing decomposition, so that it may 
be used to the last drop, without any waste. The ammonia, 
being very volatile, evaporates completely during the drying of 
the papers, so tliat there is no fear of its introduction into the 
nitrate bath. It may possibly affect the sizing of the paper, 
but I have not yet perceived any bad effect arising from this 
cause. My prints precisely resemble those which 1 obtain by 
the ordinary process. 

" I believe this bath may be be kept a very long time, for 
after four months, I find it as good as on the first day oi its 
preparation. It should be strained before use, and a few drops 
of auiinoiiia added from time to time, until it smells strongly 
of that substance. When the bath gets low, fresh albumen may 
be added to it." 



From the London Art Journal, 

ON ENAMEl-PAL\TIAG.* 



BY CHARLES TOMLINSON. 

No. III. 

Twenty years ago, Mr. Alfred Essex published a paper enti- 
tled, " Some Account of the Art of Painting in Enamel, "f in 
which he expresses his opinion that " writers on the subject of 
enamelling confounded the art of painting in enamel with those 
of painting 071 glass and porcelain; although these three arts 
are almost as dissimilar as their products — a painted window, 
a richly ornamented vase, and an enamel painting." 

We have received from Mr. William Essex, " Enamel-painter 
in ordinary to Her Majesty and H.Il.H. the Prince Consort," 
a letter in which he makes the same complaint with reference 
to our treatment vi this subject. According to him, the differ- 
ence between the art of painting on porcelain and enamel-paint- 
ing is that " the latter can be fired as many times as required. 
I never finish a picture," he say.i, " in less than ten fires, and I 
have subjected one to thirty, but that is nnecessary, although it 
proves the durability of the material. The second distinction 
pointed out by Mr. Essex is that "on account of the great heat 
to which the picture is exposed, many metals are perfectly use- 
less to the artist in enamel, such as iron, copper and, lead." 

In answer to these objections, we must remark, that the chief 
reason why those branches of Art which depend so umch for 
their success on chemical operations are beset with so many diffi- 
culties, is that the artists are not chemists. Hence, too, it is 
that the early writers on the snl>ject are so confused and un- 
satisfactory; and it is not without justice that Mr. Alfred Essex, 
in the paper above referred to, exposes the complicated clumsi- 
ness of an enamel color which, in 1817, was crowned with the 
prize of the Society of Arts. Such a recipe would not have 
been concocted had the inventor been a chemist; and we think 
that Mr. William Essex's first objection would not have been 
made, had he taken a scientific, instead of a technical, view of 
the subject. The best writers regard enamel-paincing, or the 
manufacture of enamels, " only as one of the branches of the art 
of vitrification.";]; Labarte also says (p. 101), The subject of 
the present chapter will be enamel applied to jjainting on a me-" 
tallicexcipient; and in treating of the ceramic art, we shall speak 
of enamel-painting upon pottery." Laborde also says, "Toute.Ma- 
tiere susceptible cle supporter, sans briiler, eclater ou fondre la 
c'laleur necessarie pour faire entrer I'email en fusion, pent rece- 
voir cet email, pui, pour reussir completement, doit etre en rap- 
port de dilatation ct de contraction avec cette matiere. L'email 
apjilique sur le metal, et les emaux qui, -sous le nom de couverte 
verte et de vernis, recouvrent la porcelaine, la faience les briqnes, 
lesgres, les schistes, la lave, et les vitraux soutles memes quant 



chemists say on the subject. Thenard says, " Les emanx s'appli- 
quent |)ar la fusion sur lesmetaux et lespotteries/'|| Dumas says, 
" Tout le monde salt qu'on parvient a fixer sar Jes potefies,'le 
verre, et les emanx des couleurs varieea, brillantes et capable de 
resister a Taction de I'air, de I'ean, et inenie a celle de quelquea 
agens plus energiques. C'est en se prorurant des melanges fnsi- 
l)les colores par divers oxides nietalhqnes que Ton arriife a se 
resultat."^ And again (p. 629), " It est bien evident qn'avec 
des precautions convenables, toute matiere vitrifiable pourra 
servir a emailler. Rebonlleaa also recognises Jhe same fact: — 
" Les emaux destines a decorer les metanx doivent avoir toutes 
les qualites requises pour cen,-? qn'on applique ssr le verre oa la 
porcelaine."* =*= It may also be remarked that the French apply 
the term enamel to the glaZe which covers earthenware, the or- 
namentation of which Ave suppose Mr. Essex would scarcely ob- 
ject to as enamel-painting. Thus Dumas says, Tons les potJers 
savent fort bien preparer I'email qn'ils einploient comme cooter- 
te I our la faience coimiinno;" arid Brongniart defines the enamel 
so applied as "un endiiit vitrifiable, opaque, ordinairement s-Jan- 
ni'eiu," a definition accepted 1 y all good c'lcmists. Thus I'ro- 
fessor Miller, of King's College, in his "Elemnits of Chemistry," 
published in 1856 (Part ii. p. 767), says, " Enumd is the term 
given to an opaque glass, which owes its opacity to the presence 
of biuoxide of tin." 

But notwithstanding the chemical identity of the processes, we 
are quite willing to admit the technical differences insisted on by 
Mr. Essex, and to divide the art of painting in vitrifiable colors 
into — first, painting in enamel; secondly, painting on porcelain; 
and thirdly, painting on glass. With re>pect to the assertion 
that iron, lead, and copper are never used as sources of color 
under the first head, we may remark that the French enamel- 
p (inters employ all three metals: the copper, in the state of deu- 
toxide, for a green enamel; lead, in the form of minium, in what 
are called the emaux de Winn; and iron, in the form of Sne fil- 
ings, in a brown enamel, and, in the state of red oxide, for an 
orange-colored enamel. The calcined solphate of iron is also 
Used. Ma.iiy other examples of the nse of these metaSs migl.t 
also be given, although Mr. Es.sex may probably, in his o'^vn 
practice, object to their use. But this is a matter of very small 
importance^ our object in writing this article being to 
insist ou the important truth, that the difficulties whidi beset 
the art of painting in vitrifiable colors are chiefly dw to the 
absence of chemical kno^^ledge. The distiugnshed chemists who 
have written on this subject are not, and indeed do not reouire 
to be, enamel-painters; but it is quite necessary that the enamel- 
painters shoidii be cheuiisis, or at any rate be ready to receive 
with respect the observations of such men as I have quoted. This 
is not always the case. The practical man, as he deliglits to 
call himself, often assumes an antagonistic position with respect 
to the scientific man. He regards him as a mere theorist 
and fancies that he himself must know his own aft better 
than a man who has never been apprenticed to it. There is 
however, this great distinction between the methods of Art and 
those of science. Art (that is the technological, in eontvadis- 
tinction of the asstbetical |>ortion) consists of certaiw processes 
or facts, together with rules for their application; seience con- 
sists of |)rinciples whose peculiar function it is to gat&er up and 
generalise facts, to explain processes, and to .substitaHe laws for 
rules. Art is human and snbjcct, to error; science belongs to 
nature, and is precise and nneriing because divine. The light 
of science cannot shine npon Art without improving- it; and the 
practical man who refuses the aid of science or thej»y, as he is 
pleased to call it, voluntarily accepts a disadvantageous j)Osition 
l)y [ilacing himself behiiid'knowlcdge of his age. He may by his 
own skill and natural abilities attain a large share ol success in 
his art; but so long as he wraps himself up in his secrets, and 
carries on investigations alone — i.e., unaded by science — he will 
be subject to repf^ated and mortifying failures. 



* Continued from page 263, vol. x. no. ix. 

t London and Edinlmrgh PI)ilo>opliical Magazine, vol. x. 1837. 

X Labarte Description des ohjcts d'Art &c. (t'aris, 1847) or as it is called 
in the excellent English trauslatiou of the work, Uand-Book of the Arts 
(London, 1855), p. 405. 



§ Notice des Emaaz exposes dans lesyalerics da Museeda Louvre. Paris, 1852. 
II Truite de Chitnie, &c. 

II Tniite (le CInmie appUquee aux Arts. tome, ii- p. 702. 
"Nouveau Manual coinplei depeinturesurDeffe, sur PorcelameM'iur Email 
Paris 1844. ' ' 



1858. 



THE Photographic and fine art journal. 



81 



In onlei', therefore, that the results of Art may be harmo- 
nious and consistent, iind tiieir identity at ditfcrent linns re- 
main undoubted, we nuist avail Dursfivus, so far as we are aide, 
of the stability of nature as reVealed to us by science. In no 
other branch of teciniolony is there more need of the aid which 
is furnished by fixed ciieniical laws, tlian in the j)re[)aration 
and application of yitrifiable colors. In this art we can only 
be certain of our results by having- the materials in a stale ot 
chemical purity, and compounding- them according to the laws 
of definite proportions. For example, in order that the yellow 
color fdfnished by chroma te of lead shall be identical at all 
times, it is obviously a lirst condition that this compound con- 
sist of nothing but equivalents of oxide of lead and cliron)ic 
acid. If this condition be complied with, the pigment will be 
the same at all times, and in all places; and if Ojierated on 
under the same circnnistances, will produce precisely the sauie 
results; and if either of the proximate elements of this salt be 
impure, the compound is no longer to be relied on. Ditferent 
specimens will produce different results, according as they difl'er 
in the nature and amount of the impurity, although the identi- 
ty of the circumstances under which they are applied may be 
carefully observed at different times. But it is not always 
enough that the chemiciil puOity of the pigment be assured. In 
Certain cases the piiysical condition of one of the higredienis 
may have considerable influence on the I'esnlting color; such is 
the case with oxide of zinc, which enters into the composition 
of some of the enamel greens^ yellows, yellow-browns, and 
blues. If the oxide be lumpy, granular, dense, and friable, it 
will produce by its admixture with the coloring oxides a dull 
and unsatisfactory pigment, although it may be perfectly pui'ej 
whereas a light, fioccnlent, impalpable oxide of zinc, identical 
ia cheiilical composition with the former, will produce satisfac- 
tory results. It is further necessary to identity at different 
times that the solution of a particular metal, or its oxide, &c., 
be always made at the same temperature; that the acids, &c., 
which dissolve it be of the .-arae specific gravity; that the solu- 
tion be always of the same stfeugth; that the precipitate be 
neither more nor less rapid on one occasion than on another. 
AH these, and many other conditions necessary to the produc- 
tion of a definite color, requife the careful consideration of a 
scientific chemist^ which conditions having been well under- 
stood, committed to writing and published in some work of re- 
pate, an important step is made in advancx;; the artist as well 
as the chemist may proceed with ceriai.ityj the one to practice 
certain processes which have been made intelligible, the other 
to adopt such processes as a starting point for- new investiga- 
tions. Thus may mortifying failures and the repetition of 
scientific researches be avoided. During a long series of years 
such a course has been adopted at the porcelain manufactory at 
Sevres, and a large amount of valuable information respecting 
the preparation and application of vitrifiable colors has been 
digested and published, under the competent authority of M. 
Brongniart.* Most of the prescriptions for the preparations 
of the colors are the result of experience at Sevres, either made 
under M. Brongniart's direction, or copied from the archives of 
the factory, which contains minute descriptions of the proces.ses 
adopted for compounding these colors. M. Brongniart re- 
marks that the chemist, M . Salvetat, who for many yeafs has 
been etitrusted with the preparation of the colors, has dignified 
the art by imparting to it that .scientific perfection in which it 
was formerly deficient, " that is to say, he has given to these 
prescriptions the method, the exactitude, and all those precise 
conditions which belong to science, and which have been in- 
troduced with so mnch success and utility into industry." 
(Tome ii. p. 506.) Such a service as this Was fairly to be ex- 
pected of an institution which from the time of Louis XIV. has 
been maintained at the public expense, and has numbered 
among its directors such distinguished men as Macquer, Brong- 
niart, Ebelmann, and Regnault. 

Enamel colors are formed by the combination of certain me- 
tallic oxides and salts with certain fluxes, which enable them to 



* Traits des Arts C^ramiqUe& 
VOL XI. *N0. III. 



PariSj 1844. 



11 



fuse into colored glasses. The metallic oxides are usually those 
of chroun'nm, of iron, of uranium, of manganese, of zinc, o'f co- 
l)alt, of antimony, of cop|)e:-, of tin, and of iridium. The salts 
and other bodies used to impart color are chroraates of iron, of 
baryta, and of lead; the chloride of silver, the purple precipi- 
tate of Cassius, burnt umber, and burnt sienna, red and yellovt 
ocltre.s, &c. Some of these colors develop themselves at the 
highest temperature of the porcelain furnace, and they form the 
coulmrs degra-nd ftxi, as the French call them; others, and by 
far the larger numbef, are called muffie colors, since they retjuire 
only the more moderate heat of the muffle, in which the painted 
articles are enclosed, to protect them from the prodncts of com-' 
bustion of the filel. 

The cott/fi/,/-*- f/e^;-a7;ri /«it are limited to the Hue produced 
by oxide of cobalt, the green of oxide of chromium, the brown 
produced by iron, the yellows from oxide of titanium, and the 
uranium blacks These colors furnish the grounds of hard por- 
celain; and as the temperature employed in baking this sub- 
stance is capable of losing felspar, that substance is used as the 
flux. For an indigo blue, the proportions are 4 parts oxide of 
cobalt and t parts felspar; for a pale blue, 1 part oxide of co- 
balt and 30 parts felspar. The materials in each case are to 
be well pounded and mixed by sifting them together at least 
four times, aftef which they are to be ffised in a crncible in the 
porcelain furnace. The color thustorined is reduced to powder, 
and is ground up with oil of turpentine, oil of lavender, orsome 
other convenient vehicle, and is applied to the surface of tiie 
biscuit in the usual manner, when being again raised to the high 
temperature of the porcelain furnace, the color fuses and in- 
corporates itself with the substance of the ware. The other 
colors are afterwards applied in the usual manner, and these 
are fused and incorporated with the ware at the more moderate 
temperature of the muffle; but although the couleurs de grand 
feu ["equire so high a temperature for their fusion, this tempera- 
ture is accompanied with certain inconveniences in the case of 
cobalt, — it is liable to volatilise, so as to affect the objects 
near it; thus, if a white vase be placed near one that is being 
colored blue, the cobalt of the latter will rise in vapor, and give 
a decided blue tint to that part of the white vase which is near- 
est to it. Moreover, cobalt is uncertain in its re.sults; it occa- 
sionally leaves white uncolored patches, or it may present a 
dull granular surface, or display metallic grains, Oxide of 
chromium ia sometimes employed without a flux to impart a 
green color to hard porcelain, bdt as this color does not jiene- 
trate the ware, it is liable to scale off. A Uuish-green is pro- 
duced from a mixture of 3 parts oxide of cobalt, 1 part oxide of 
chromium, and one-tenth of felspar; this mixture is not pre- 
viously fritted, but is applied in a minutely comminuted state to 
the ware as usual. A tine black is produced from mixtures of 
the oxides of iron, manganese, and cobalt; and by omitting the 
cobalt various browns are formed. 

With respect to the muffle colors, which afe too numerous to 
be particularized here, it may be remarked that they are fli'ed 
at a temperature equal to about the fusing point of silver. A 
higher temperature would be of advantage to many of thcni, 
in increasing their solidity and brilliancy; but it would be in- 
jurious to those colors which are obtained from the purple pre-i 
cipitate of Cassiu.s, on which the artist relies for some of his 
finest effects. Muffle colors do not penetrate the glaze of por- 
celain, as m-ay be proved by boiling in nitric acid a piece of 
painted porcelain after it has been fired, when the colors will 
disappears hence the glaze of hard porcelain has but little re- 
action on the color, and if this be not acted on by the high tem^ 
perature, it ought to preserve its proper tint. The principle 
of painting on hard porcelain is, according to Dumas, the art of 
soldering by heat, to a layer of the glaze, a layer of fusilile 
color, the dilation of which shall be the same as that of the 
gla^e, and of the body of the ware. The function of the 
flux is to envelop the color and attach it to the glaze. lu 
most cases it has no action on the color, but is simply me- 
chanically mixed with it: it is, however, necessary that the flux 
should combine with the glaze Dumas gives a caution against 
the common uotion with respect to vitrifiable colors, that the 



color and its flux are capable of cliemically uniting by heat, and 
forming a homogeneous compound. In the case of muffle colors 
the contrary is usually the case, the flux being only a mechani- 
cal vehicle for tlie color. Hence the flux must vary with the 
color; but, ns all the colors ought to be capable of being mixed, 
the range of fluxes is but limited. A common flux is the sili- 
cate of lead, or a mixture of this with borax. The borax can- 
not bt replaced either by soda or potash, on account of the 
facility with which those alkalies become displaced in order to 
form other compounds: moreover, it is found that the presence 
of these alknlies causes the colors to scale off. Tlie mode of 
cxploying the flux'es varies with the color; in certnin cases the 
flax is ground up in proper proportions with the color, and is so 
employed, in other cases, it is previously fritted with the color. 
When the color is easily alterable by heat, the (irst mode is 
adopted; but when the oxide recpiires a high temperature for 
the development of its tint, the second mode is employed. 

The application of enamel-colors to metal is beset with greater 
difficulties than in the case of porcelain and glass, on account of 
the facility with which the metal becomes oxidised, and it 
would probably be found that in all cases the metal has acted 
iiijariously on the colors. The peculiar merit which Mr. Essex 
claims for his branch of the art — in being able to pass his work 
through the fire as many times as required — must be considered 
a doubtful advantage, for the oftener this is done the more likely 
is the oxide formed on the surface of the metal to become dis- 
solved by the enam.el, which thus displays defects which are be- 
yond the control of the artist. Another inconvenience result- 
ing from this frequent firing is, that if the enamel contain oxide 
of lead, — which it nearly always does, except in the case of the 
best Venetian variety, — the enamel reacts on the metal, metallic 
lead is formed, and the color of the enamel is destroyed. The 
oarly enamellers sought to get ri;l of this inconvenience by era- 
ploying gold as the excipient; but as gold is usually alloyed 
w'ith copper for the sake of imparting hardness, the difficulties 
were thus only partially evaded. If the excipient be copper or 
silver, the enamels are almost certain to be injured in color by 
contact with these metals, and the artist may think himself for- 
tunate if this change be confined to the layer which is in imme- 
diate contact with the metal, although even this circumstance 
would be fatal to the effect of transparent enamels. Hence 
opaque enamels are preferred, but with them the edges of the 
work often show the mischievous influence of contact with the 
metal excipient. 

In concluding these few remarks on the chemistry of enamel- 
painting, we will give a very short account of the method 
adopted at Sevres for preparing the purple precipitate of Cas- 
eins The number of rich and varied tints produced by this 
pigment have caused it to be highly esteemed by the enamel- 
painter, especially by the flower-painter. This pigment is 
formed by adding a solution of gold to one of chloride of tin, 
for which purpose fine gold is dissolved in aqua rcgia; the so- 
lution is diluted with water, filtered, and again largely diluteci, 
when the color should be of a light citron yellow. During 
these oper.itious a solution of tin is to be prepared with the 
greatest care, for on this depends the success oi' the operation. 
The tin is also to be dissolved in ^17?/,^ regiti, in small fragments 
at a time, and these must be allowed To disappear before a 
fresh q\iantity is added. Pure laminated Malacca tin is to be 
preferred, and the operation mu*t be conducted in a cool place, 
it being important to keep down the temperature of the solution. 
In this way a proto-chloride, and a deutofldoride of tin are 
formed, the mixture of the two chlorides being necessary to 
nUimate success. A scanty black sediment will also be formed, 
b'lt this may be separated by decantalion, after whieh the so- 
lution of tin is to bo poured drop l)y drop into the solution of 
gold, with constant stirring; but as soon as the precipitate is of 
a purple color, the oj)eration is to be arrested. Wik'd the pur- 
ple is deposited the liquor is to be decanted off", and the pre- 
cipitate collected on a filter; it should assume a gelatinous 
consistence. In this state it is fit fur use, but must be kept 
«nder water. The quantities used at Sevres are as follows: — 
15 grammes of tin are dissolved in aqua regia consisting of 4 



parts nitric acid, 1 part hydrochloric acid, and 10 parts water; 
the solution is then diluted with 5 litres of water. The quan- 
tity of gold dissolved in the aqua reguo is 5 grammes; but ex- 
cess of acid is to be avoided; this is diluted with 5 litres of 
water, and the solution of tin is added as already described. 
It is usual to wash the precipitate with boiling water, when it 
should remain of the fine color ol old wine; and when mixed 
with proper flukes, be capable of producing fine purple, violet, 
and carmine tints. 



THE niETIIODS OF EXLARUIN'G PIlOTdGR.lPIIS. OR OTHER PICTURES. 



BY JOSEPH PIXOX, OF JERSEY CITY. 



[Read before ttie Mechanics' Club of the American Institute, Feb. 10, 1858.] 

Ever since the great di.-covery by M. Daguerre, the inven- 
tive genius of the world has labored unremittingly, and with 
varied success, in subduing the diffienlties, simplifying the pro- 
cesses, of working and extending this wonderful art to the va- 
rious useful purposes of life. 

The mathematician and mechanic, have united their ef- 
forts in the production of optical and mechanical apparatus; 
while the magic hand of the chemist, has furnished the means 
of rendering the light drawn pictures of nature, real and sub- 
stantial things of life. " as tangible to feeling as to sight." 

Do we read a description of cities of far distant countries; 
of the ruins of Balbec; of Palmyra; of the Pyramids of Egypt, 
of the ruins of Pompeii; almost instantaneously the wand of 
the photographer waves over the scenes, and we behold, not a 
mere picture, a sketch by the hand of the most skillful draughts- 
man, but we have before ns the very impress of the Iking ilsc/f; 
every rock, and stone, and grain of sand, each crumbling ruin 
with all the markings of time; even the very individual leaves 
of the creeping ivy, are placed on exhibition. The living in- 
habitants of every clime and place, with all their peculiaritir s 
and domestic habits, once suinmoned by this powerful talisnnn 
must appear, not disguised, but in verity. Here, the Lap- 
lander, drawn by his dogs in a rude sledge on tlie frozen snow, 
takes his seat beside the dark-skinned African who is surround- 
ed by the ever verdant and luxuriant foliage of the torrid zone; 
each animal, from every part of the earth, sea, and sky, and 
the products of every clime and country, may pass, at pleasure, 
in review before tiie astonished admirer, as no artist can de- 
lineate. History, geography, architecture, mineralogy, and 
agriculture, are not alone benefitted by it; but the embellish- 
ments of manufactures in the various arts, have received a new 
impetus which carries them forward with an mcrensivg force; 
each difl'erent branch is being enlarged and at the same time 
lending its aid to the perfection of the whole. Painting, en- 
graving, lithography, poetry, glass staining, calico printing, 
and other branches, indicate the progress they have made in a 
manner not to be mistaken. 

One cannot pass along Broadway without being attracted by 
the beautiful photographs, colored and plain; pastel, colored 
and jiaiiited in oil, which are placed in the doors of artists to 
proclaim the excellence of the woi'k within. 

J might have mentioned before, that astronnmy has not been 
passed i>y without benefit. Whipple, of Boston, has given to 
the world a map of the moon, executed by herself, while others 
have partially succeeded in taking impressions from the fixed 
stars. 

I do not intend to give the vwdvs operandi of the various 
processes, nor to describe the pliotograi>hic ajijiaratus most in 
use, but it seems only justice to call your attention to the as- 
tonising snccc.^sful labors of our fellow citizen, C. C. Harrison, 
in the manufacture of that most difficult of all work, the 
Camera; these are not behind the best optical instruments made 
in the world, although Mr. Harrison has not the mathemetical 
assistance of a Petzval, nor the early training of a working op- 
tician. His success will be best appreciated by the man of 
science, who well knows the difficulty ©f working achromatic 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



83 



lenses of such enormous diameter as 3, 4, and 6 inches, to less 
than one foot focus; yet in tiiese he lias contrived to reduce the 
spherical aberration to a mere fraction, and the chromatic al- 
most to a perfect nonentity. Some of Mr. Harrison's instru- 
ments are even mufh larger, being not less than 9 inches in 
dear aperture — the largest ever made. The demand for such 
very hirge lenses, has arisen from the desire for life-size photo- 
graphs, several of which graced our Exhibition at the Crystal 
Palace last autumn. The cost of sucii large instruments must 
necessarily debar many artists of small means from their use; 
and this having been felt, has awakened the enquiry, " how 
shall we execute these larger pictures without the means to 
purchase the larger apparatus ?" But even with the largest 
apparatus, we cannot produce pictures the size of life; and the 
special object of this paper is to explain the best means of 
attaining that end. 

The Magic Lantern^ once the playtliingof onr youthful days, 
was brouglit out, but the light was found insufficient, and it 
was returned to its resting-place. The Solar Microscope was 
then taken up, it supplied the deficiency, and seemed the very 
thing for the purpose A negative collodion picture was put 
in the place of the common slider, and 'a picture at once was 
impressed upon the sensitive medium: it required a longer time 
of course, to make a picture of sucii magnihed dimensions, but 
as the object could be kept still for any h-ngtli of time, that 
was of little consequence. But the lenses of the common solar 
microscope being too small, larger ones were substituted, and 
thus full life-size pictures were produced from the common size 
negative on glass; these were put into the hands of the painter, 
who, now having something to work on besides a blank canvas, 
was enabled to bring out a more correct likeness, and with 
greater rapidity, than ever before: still the outline, even on 
this was not perfect, although it answered the ends of the 
painter better than nothing; and it is in this way the large 
full length portraits are made. Having fitted up an apparatus 
for exhibiting these large pictures to my friends, I was not a 
little mortified to find that my friend Mr. A. B. Moore, a cele- 
brated portrait-painter in this city, has had a much better ar- 
rangement in use for a long time. We all know that the mag- 
nified picture was never well defined. This arose from one of 
those stubborn laws, well known to the optician, the inflection 
of light, by which a pencil of rays, passing near an opaque body, 
is deflected and dispersed. 

As an illustration (for there are some here who, probably, 
have not paid much attention to the science ^f oi)tics), I will 
suppose that a room be dark, and a small opening in the shut- 
ter through which a very fine pencil of light enters; at a dis- 
tance from this is placed a white screen, which receives the 
light and exhibits a bright spot, but upon close examination, it 
will be observed than the spot is not like a piece of white p:iper 
cut out and fixed upon a black ground, hut exhibits an indis- 
tinct outline, with colored fringes on each side; and should a 
wire or thread be now drawn through this beam of light close 
to the opening, the shadow from it will be far from sharp, but 
will exhibit a blurred image colored on each side by fringes in 
the same manner, and these mixing with the fringes of the 
circle, give rise to that indistinctness which may be seen on all 
images thrown on a screen by the solar microscope, Every de- 
vice that mathematics could suggest in the configuration of the 
lenses, have ])roved ineffectual in correcting this species of im- 
perfection; — but to return to the apparatus of Mr. Moore, in 
which this dilficulty is not encountered , and which I will now 
describe. The light is not passed through the negative, and 
consequently near to innumerable opaque bodies, but is re- 
flected from the surface, thereby avoiding any interference with 
the rays in their passage to the tablet or canvas This appa- 
ratus is so arranged that the sun-light falling on a mirror, is re- 
flected, and condensed, upon a small daguerreotype or other pic- 
ture, by which means it is strongly iilnminated: directly in front 
of this is fixed a common small size camera tube, so situated 
that its axis is at right angles to the plane of the picture, and 
'being adjustable, a very sharp image is throwuupon the tablet, 
free from colored fringes and overlappings. 



The difference between the two methods will at once be seen 
to consist in the fact tiiat Mr. Moore receives upon his canvas 
a reflected image, retaining all the perfection and sharpness of 
the original, while by the method now used, a transmitted im- 
age is received, with all its attendant imperfections. Asa 
familiar illustration, it is well known to the practical photogra- 
phic printer, that should the glass negative be plated in (he 
|)rinters frame with the collodion up, and the paper placed upon 
the opposite side, that the rays of light passing by the opaque 
lines are dispersed, and a blurred and indistinct impression 
would be received, instead of the clear, sharp one he desired, 
and that he always aims to press the paper as closely against 
the collodion as possible in order to produce the proper effect. 
I say, therefore, that it is vain to expect a sharp enlarged pic- 
ture from si negative by transmitted light, however perfect the 
lenses may be figured; while by reflection, an ordinaiy lens will, 
with the exception of spherical aberration, produce a clear, well 
defined picture. By the method Mr. Moore employs, positive 
collodion pictures, daguerreotypes, engravings, and all pictures, 
are alike eligible, whether opaque or transparent; while bv the 
usual method a very dense negative on glass is the only kind" that 
can be enlarged, and even then, much light will pass through 
the silver film and assist in destroying the distinctness of the re- 
sulting picture. 

The form of apparatus which was invented by Mr. Moore 
over eleven years ago, has been constantly used by him ever 
since, and also by several of his personal friends in the same pro- 
fession, to whom Mr. Moore, with a liberality worthy of imita- 
tion, gave the plans; and by his permission the door is now tliown 
open to the public, with the hope that he has contributed one 
Moore stone to the building of this magnificent structure. 

I am aware that the evening is devoted to the discussion of 
another subject, and will not, therefore, longer consume time 
nor tax your patience. I feel an interest in this art, for the de- 
gree of perfection and usefulness it has already attained are 
truly wonderful; but I assure you that the various developments 
that have followed each other in such rapid succession, and that 
have excited in the world so much astonishment and admiration, 
are but as the tinted leaves that surro.und the opening bud, whose 
higher colors and greater perfections the warm sunlight of man's 
genius shall in time unfold. 

At some future time I may present to you, in detail, the vari- 
ous, methods, and processes, by which it is applied to the arts. 



From Photographic Notes. 

PHOTOGRAPHIC TRANSPARENCIES. 



Sir. — I have frequently seen in the Journals enquiries as to 
the best mode of pi'mting transparencies for the magic lantern 
and stereoscope. Whilst searching for such a process, I saw in 
one of the Journals a formula by Mr. Ross, for sun-jirinting on. 
salted albumen on glass. This I tried, but found it so veri' in- 
sensitive that in the present dull weather I could not, after many 
day's exposure, obtain a print of sufficient strength. 

It then occurred to me to spread the layer of albumen on a 
film of )ilain collodion, in order to quicken it. This succeeds 
quite well, and I can now get in a few hours the same result 
which before it took as many days to obtain. I imagine the 
collodion should be ot the character suited to dry processes. 

The alonnien I have used contains 14 drops of saturated solu- 
tion of chloride of sodiuni to each egir. Another advantage 
is, that instead of requiring a bath of 10 grains of nitrate of 
silver, ona of 40 grains will answer the purpose. 

I may mention, that in the first exp'-riment, having no simple- 
collodion at hand, I tried some old iodized collodion, not know- 
ing what the result might be; it darkened gri.uiu.a,lly, like the 
one on plain collodion, but I thought not quite so quickly. 

The exp.^riin"nt was interesting to me, as shewing that the 
outer layer of iilbunien only was sensitive. I mean to try il your 
process for paper, of developing with gallic acid, will answer 
with this process. 

G.S.Penny. 



? 



84 



TUE I'lIOTOGRAnnC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



OIR PIIOTOGKAPlllC ILLL'STliATlONS. 



I.- JEREMIAH GURNEY, ESQ. 

This gentleman, whose portrait forms one of onr illustrations 
this iiioiilh, h;is loii!^ been known in tlie photoirrapliic Art, and 
lias always stood in liie frunt rank, liotii in sliill and snccess. 
Mr. Giirney commenced daguerreotypin>r jn 1840, wiien the 
appliances for manipnlatiny,- were in the rudest state. The 
camera was poor in construction and in its operations; coatiM>jj 
boxes Wire niikiiown, a snucer containinj;- tlie dry iodine (bro 
mine then bein.L; unknown'), and placed in a cijijar box havinj^ 
to ansiver the pnrpo.se'; the plate being held over the vapor, in 
the lingers. Medium daguerreotypes taken in this way sold 
for live dullar.s. Since the lirst introduction of the daguerreo- 
type in the Uniteil States, Mr. Gnrnty has been assiduous in 
the pro.secution of the photo^r.iphic art — growing with its 
growrli, and adopting ev^-ry improvement .suggested by his own 
e.xperience, or that of others. At the present lime, his photo- 
graphs are unexcelled. 



" Coat the waxed block with collodion in the tisnai way. 

" Excite in the nitrate bath by floatation; rt.sing a ftat dish. 

"Print from a negative l)y iiiterposing between the iregative 
and the wood, thin strips of paper or card, to prevent actual 
contact; or take a negative on the wood in the camera. 

■' Dcvelojie in the usual way. 

" Wash olf the developer, but do not fix the picture with 
hypo or cyanide, as it is not necessary to remove the iodide of 
silver. 

"The picture, whether positive Or negative, wi?} be produced 
in black, ou a yellow ground, and is ready for the engraver. 



From Photographit' Notes. 

DRY vs. WET COLLBDION. 



II.— HUMBEltFORD, C. W. 

The property of H. J. Boulton, Esq. 

This very excellent view was negatived by William Arm- 
strong, Esq., of Toronto, C. W. Although our prints are as 
good as the paper and the process we have adopted in printing 
will permit, they are not as good as the jjositive sent us for ex- 
amination, which was taken on ali)nmenized paper. The heavy 
masses of foliage are much clearer in tlie all)Uinenized print 
than in these. Our prints, however, are equal to it in other 
respects, ami may lie considered very fair specimens of photn- 
graphic printing. This ueg^itive, together with the positives from 
others sent by Mr. Armstrong, evince taste and.vkill sufficient to 
master all the difficulties of the photographic art, and enables 
us to place him among the lirst landscape photographers ot 
America. 

The formulas for printing these pictnres are as follows: 

S.4LTING SOLtlTIOX. 

Chloride of Ammonium 180 grs. 

ITiltered Water 1 gal. 

NITRATE SOLUTION. 

The ammonio-nitrate of silver made as before directed in our 
Jauuary number. 

TONING aKD fixing BATH. 

Chloride of Silver 480 grs. 

Acetate of Lead 5ttO " 

Chloride of Sodium 600 " 

Filtered Walter \ gal. 

Hypo. Soda to saturation. 

First dissolve the acetate and add the sodium: next the hy- 
posul|)hite of soda until the precipitate, which forms on the ad- 
dition of the sodium, is dissolved and the solution is clear; then 
add the chloride of silver, and after its solution, put in hypo, as 
long as taken up by the liquid, and filter. No precipitate should 
be suffered to remain in the bath; Imt should be filtered out 
daily, as it otherwise spots the picture in the washing'trough. 
After filtering for the first time, if the immersion of the first 
print turns the solution milky, it is because there is not suffi- 
cient hypo, and more must be added. The picture must be 
printed quite strong. 



From Photographic Nott3i 

PnOTOGRAPlIY ON WOOD 

Mr. G. Robbin, of Huntingdon, has communicated the fol- 
lowing process: — 

" Hold the jiolished block of wood before a brisk fire till it 
is quite hot; then rub over it a piece of bee's-wax till there is a 
Rinoolh even coat. Hold it again before the fire till the wax 
runs; then put it in a cool place to dry. 



We insert the following extract from a letter from one of 
our most vdued correspondents. This gentleman has at differ- 
ent times during the last two year?; sent us magnificent specimens 
of his work by nearly every process;— Albumen, Wax-p:iper, 
and Colloiiion, and iiis- prints ou albumenizcd paper are (or 
were) particularly fine. We tru.^tour readers will consider well 
the remarks made by him on the suliject of printing aud tonittg 
by the ordinary niethod: — 

" I am disgusted with the prevailing mania, for 'Dry Collo- 
dion.' Every month there is some new absurdity. The collo- 
dion film is not adapted for Photograpliic purposes, after it has 
once ,s;/d dry It loses completely all its beautiful elasticity and 
tr.inslucency and becomes powdery and opaqne. Then I quite 
agreevvith you aliont the free nit rate. There must be lafrge excels 
on the film at the lime of exposure, or you cannot get a soft and 
:irtistic picture. 1 have loiiii- given up trying the dry processes 
that come out, and have made up my fWiiid to work nothing lout 
wet collodion. If a dry process wei*'e absolutely necessary I 
should go to fnfCr. Don't you feel every time you go out with 
the wet collodion that there is nothing that can touch it — ntot 
even albumen? I have never now any fear whatever aboat 
taking negatives. If the lij»ht is only good I am quite sure of 
pictures. I had hardly any failures oi< the contim'nt — worked 
away as sweetly and good-lemperedly (which is something!) as 
could be desired. A Friend of mine has a light basket, mounted 
ou wheels, which pack inside when travelling by rail or carriage. 
It iiolds tent, canier;i, ciiemicals, and everythimr, and is jiwt as 
convenient as the portal)le apparatus which the calotypist or 
wax-paper man carries, wifh the satisfaction of knowing what 
you've got, and of working the best known process. I think 
you are wrong about using pure ether and alcoiiol for your col- 
lodion. My collodion costs about l^d. pet ounce, from methy- 
lated ether and "finish" spirit, re-distilled, and I will gtvarantee 
it as fine as can be got anjwhere. There is most in the cotton^ 
and the spirit mUst l)e strong. I think there ought to be some 
bromide in it; 4 to 1 is what I use. I can't satisfy myself yet 
with plain pajier printing. I don't see the matter in the same 
light as you, but 1 agree with you that all prints toned it^ sul- 
phur and gold baths, must fade. I have a portfolio full of what 
were once exquisitely beautiful prints, rich, r.nd vigorous in tone, 
and they are fast going to ruin, the filthy yelJow veil is jiather- 
ing over them, and they will soon be consigned to the fire. For- 
tunately I have the negatives, I have now aidopted a new style 
of lu'inting which is scientifically correct (which the old plan is 
not), and gives most brilliant p' oofs, with pure whites, on allm- 
men paper; the color being nearly black Tiie picture is nearly 
all metallic gold, and there can be no sulphur. It it much more 
effective than yoursel d'or process, though founded on thesarue 
principles, but you will I hope see some good specimens. 

"Before I conclude I must have a fling at another prevailing 
mania — that tor the small lenticular stereoscopes. 1 detei-l 
the sight of them, and am sorry you advocate them. Little 
fiddling affairs — they are only fit for toys I There is some-' 
thing grand about the reflecting stereoscope, and if the dupli- 
cates were about 12x10 to 16x12 they would be worth look- 
ing at." 



■''^*'""'^— '—■— ' j*~"»r-"i 



1858. 



tSe photographic and pine art journal. 



85 



With respect to methylated ethei*, if a nuiforraly good arti- 
cle were made there is no ddubt it would do well enonirh, but 
at present we do not either fecoraniend it or trust it in our own 
work. We have great doubts about the use of bromide in col- 
lodion, unless it be to remedy, to some extent, the effects of a 
bad sample of ether. As for the reflecting stereoscope, we 
haVe a great partiality for it, and nearly always take duplicate 
pictures to be viewed by reflection. The instrument we use 
cost only four shillings, and is suitable for pictures 12x10 and 
tinder, possessing the necessary adjustments. We do not agree 
with What Sir David Brewster says about the loss of light by 
reflection constituting an objection to this form of stereoscope. 
We find, as a rule^ that the effects are more agreeable when 
the instrument is placed in a subdued light, in the middle or 
back part of the room, than when taken near the Window. 
And then again, when developed prints are waxed and viewed 
by transparency, the effects are very beautiful. Besides, the 
model picture is, with this instrument, entirely free from distor- 
tion. Large poftraits on the whole plate are really superb 
when viewed in this. It is surprising that the reflecting stereo- 
scope should not long since have become as much a necessity 
with the amateur photographer, as the camera itself. We have 
serious thoughts of publishing a pamphlet on the use of it, and 
of thereby endeavoring to call attention to this simple and ad- 
mirable instrument. We have almost conceived a contempt 
for single flat pictures. 

With respect to Dry Collodion, we entirely differ with our 
correspondent. Perhaps an extract from a letter received from 
Mr. Long may be amusing, as affording an enthusiastic view of 
the question: 

" I'm half mad with Dry Collodion, it is such a perfect suc- 
cess. Everyone who uses the process succeeds. Magnificent 
results-^^^o failures! Every picture comes oat as a matter of 
course, clean, bright and truthful. Half-tones superb; high 
lights opaque; shadows clean and transparent. In fact the 
process is all that could be desired." 



From the London Art JownaL 

TDE SUSSELBOIiF SCHOOL Of ART. 

To tht Editor of the Art-Journal: 

Sir, — At the present time the School of Diisseldorf consists 
of about six hundred artists, and two hundred students. The 
artists are divided into two schools; the academiciniis, and those 
who are independent, who follow no conventionality, but paint 
their own ideas. The two schools are separated by their differ- 
ent ideas of finish; the academicians holding in principle and in 
practice that minuteness of finish — an absolute and rigid imita- 
tion of nature, even to the surface of things — constitutes the 
great perfection of Art; the other party contending that this 
servility, or rather perfection of execution, is not necessary: 
that if a work has the effect intended on the mind at a proper 
distance, it is a waste of time to add details that could please 
only the ignorant. Among the academicians Carl Miiller and 
Herman Becker .^tand conspicuous. These gentlemen, like the 
majority of their adUerents, paint Scripture pieces. Why it is 
that they have fallen on these used-up subjects is hard to guess, 
except, perhaps, it is that the continual strain on their pa- 
tience, caused by their mode of study, naturally throws the 
mind into a religious mood. Another class of them paints ^ewre 
and still-life. Their paintings of still-life, to which their mode 
of execution is more peculiarly adapted, are really wonderful; 
they are not paint and canvas, but a reality that requires the 
touch to convince one it is only a shade. 

Taken as a whole, the academicians seem not to comprehend 
the object of Art; they paint blindly, without thought, without 
feeling. It is their ambition to produce deception, to imitate 
nature as it is; they never ask when this is done, what then? It 
does not concern them. Hence, after years of study they ac- 
complish in months what a photographic instrument would do 
in a moment. Their pictures have^ however, one great merit, 
that of mechanical execution; in this necessary branch of Art 

11* 



they can, possibly, instruct the world. Their drawing, color, 
light, and shade, are perfect; but as pictures, as works of Art, 
tiiey excite no feeling, appeal to no prejudice, are barren of all 
traces of mind! they amuse only the eye of the curious, or as- 
tonish the simple by their minuteness. 

The other school comprehends nearly all the artists residing 
here who have celebrity; among them we find the names of Les- 
sing, Sohn, Hildebrant, Koeler, the Achenbachs, &c, Of such 
men as these the " School of Diisseldorf" is properly composed; 
but because they have no marked peculiarity of style Common 
to them all, and no academy for the instruction of students, it 
is currently believed that this school is one of academicians — of 
men whose only artistic power is mechanical. This a mistake, 
and should be corrected, for it not only wrongs the artists who 
are the subjects of it, but also the artistic world. We have 
seen in criticisms on pictures by these artists some minute trifle, 
existing only in the critic's imagination, praised as an excellence, 
because the supposed finish to the characteristic of the school. 
These artists, ho wever,do not mistake the representation of threads 
for the finish of a painting, nor the imitation of surface for the 
highest perfection of Art; their pictures are not painted to as- 
tonish the vulgar, but are addresses to the minds of enlightened 
men. 

There are at present three exhibitions of paintings open to 
the public; two of these are annual, the other permanent. The 
first two contain upwards of five hundred pictures, sent from all 
parts of the continent; the permanent exhibition consists of 
woi'ks by the Diisseldorf artists, and are for sale. The great ma- 
jority of these pictures are genre, still-life, and landscape: in all 
three of the exhibitions together there are only five paintings 
that pertain to what is conventionally termed high Art. One of 
these is the " Hiding of Moses," by RGeler. This picture has 
the same beauties and defects as all the rest of Roeler's pictures. 
It has been engraved. In the engraving the faces af the two 
are much lighter than in the original; and several other parts 
have been altered , which give it a finer general effect than its 
original. A picture by Leutze, of " Columbus departing for 
America," is also in the permanent exhibition; this painting- 
seems to have been left imperfect; the tale is well enough told, 
but a disagreeable red color, and a want of shade which pervades 
the canvas, take much from its effect. However, the dignified fig- 
ure of Columbus, standing out against the sky, and pointing 
over the waters, as he receives the blessings of priests and friends, 
is well worthy of Leutze. M. Leutze has painted another work 
of the same subject, which is said to be much better both in de- 
sign and execution, than the one here mentioned; A " Syren," 
by Sohn, appears to be perfect of its kind: it represents a beau- 
tiful woman, with her harp hung on the top of a projecting crag; 
she has finisiied playing, and, leaning on one arm, bends over 
to witness the effect. An eagle is seen at the level of her feet 
flying downwards; this gives the spectator an immense idea of 
height. The figure is Iife-«ize, and fully draped, but in such a 
manner as to show the form throughout: it is relieved by a 
dark ground of clouds, through which a single star is shining. 
A painting, by W. Sohn, of " Christ on the Water:" Christ 
and the apostles are represented in a boat during a storm. 
The face of our Saviour, who has fallen asleep, suggests the 
idea that his mind is active and conscious of what is going on 
around him. Several other faces are equally excellent, but the 
imperfect light, coming apparently from several directions, and 
oniitting to illuminate certain things, together with the difficulty 
of conceiving how several of the figures could maintain their 
balance, makes the picture, as a whole, very unsatisfactory. 
The largest painting on exhibition is that of " Christ restoring 
Jairus's daughter to life;" it is painted by Qustavus Richter, 
of Berlin. This painting has called forth universal admiration, 
despite several portions of it that might be called faults. The 
attitude, foi- instance, of Christ has the appearance of bemg 
studied ; and the whole figure of the apostle on the left ex- 
presses mere vulgar astonishment. The head of the girl is 
slightly raised off her pillow, with the intention of showing 
that life is just reviving in her frame, but it seems difficult to 
fix in one*s mind that this is the case. The figures are all clad 



86 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



ill thick stuff, and, owing to the handling, the steps, floor, and 
background, have the appearance of so many bhuikets of their 
several colors tightly stretched. It may be said of it, that, as 
a wo'k of Art, it does not appeal to our sympathies, and, as a 
painting, its execution is far from perfect. It would ap[)ear, 
liowever, that its size, and the fact of it belonging to the king, 
are redeeming qualities even in this country. 

Among the other compositions on exhibition, those of domestic 
ficenes, by Ileddermann and Tidemand, are remarkable, Ijotli for 
tiie excellence of their designs and their masterly execution 
Some of these pictures may be compared to Wilkie's. The paint- 
ings of animals, on exhibition, are rather attempts than anything 
else. Two by Lachenwitzare noticeable fur their intense fierce- 
ness of expression andgreatbeantyof execution, The assemblage 
of Virgin, Saints, and infant Saviours, are not easily enumerated; 
for the most part, they appear to be attempts of students, nearly 
every one of which is a failure. These paintings are respecteil 
even by the collectors of auction pictures, and left alone in all 
their glory of vermillion and blue. A picture of the " Annun- 
ciation," by Carl Miiller, is considered as a successful attempt, 
in the style of the academicians, to illustrate Scripture. In this 
painting a book lies open before the Virgin at a page on which 
her name is printed ; the book is neatly gilded, and of modern con- 
struction. She kneels on a planed floor. The angel has on a 
pink muslin dress, very finely decorated with pearls, &c. Such 
is the painting by a man who is considered one of the heads of 
a school. He being a master in his way, some estimate maybe 
formed of his followers. 

The great bulk of the landscapes, like the subject pictures, 
exhibit a knowledge of Nature as it is, accompanied wirh me- 
chanical power of execution, but unaided by reflection. 1 fence, 
their landscapes look like studies from Nature— bard, barren 
Nature, unelevated by ideality, destitute of beauty. One by 
Lessing, and two by the brothers Achenback, are magniliceut, 
both for their arrangement, their effect and execution. 

Portraits are rare. One by Maria Weigman, of a boy, full- 
length, and one of an officer, by Hildebrant, are really ai dstic 
works; they are simple, expressive, and natural — nothing is over- 
done, and nothing is left to be desired, P. 

Vusseldoi-f JVovember 11, 1851. 



From the Liverpool riiotograpldc Journal. 

MANCHESTER PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



The monthly meeting of this Society was held on the 6th 
instant, as usual, J. Comptom, Jun , Esq., in the Chair. 
Mr. E. Mann read the following paper 

" ON THE OXYMEL PROCESS :" 
In introducing the oxymel preservative process to your no- 
tice this evening, I may remark that I have really no new or 
original method to lay before you; and I almost fear that I 
have some small amount of prejudice to contend with, as some 
parties have objected to the process, because it is, as they 
term it, a "sticky process," There is no doubt that a satis- 
factory dry process is the one we all require, and that great 
progress has been made in that direction latterly, various ex- 
cellent ones having been discovered; but, I think, it is still 
generally admitted that none of them have yet produced pic- 
tures equal to those obtained by wet collodion. 

The oxymel process may be termed a preserved wet collo- 
dion process, so aS' to distinguish it from the dry methods. 
The ai)}»lication of honey was the first means of all others dis- 
covered, by which the sensitiveness of collodion could be re- 
tained for a lengthened period, and there are three persons, I 
believe, who claim to be its originators, namely, Mr. Shad- 
bolt, Mr. Maxwell Lyte, and M. de Poilly, about June, 1S54; 
but the credit seems principally due to Mr. Shadbolt, his plan 
being the then best for retaining sensitiveness; and Mr, J. D. 
Llewelyn has since modified and brought it to its present state, 
by adding ac '.tic acid to the honey, and entirely washing away 
the silver. The pictures which Mr. J. D. Llewelyn has ob- 



tained are very beautiful, several were to be seen in the late 
Art Treasurers' Exhibition, and perhaps are remembered by 
most of you. 

All the various recognized processes have some peculiar ad- 
vantages and disadvantages, and I consider that the process 
now under consideration is capable of producing such beauti- 
ful results, that 1 feel I shall hardly be trespassing upon your 
time this evening by calling your attention to it, particularly as 
I have not heard that any one in this town has yet given it 
much attention. 

I commenced the oxymel process at the time collodio-albu- 
men was coming into notice, and have practised the latter dur- 
ing last winter and summer, and have also tried most of the 
dry processes, but have again returned to the oxymel, having 
been seldom able to obtain such satisfactory pictures by the 
other methods. Before entering into the details of manipula- 
tion, I will state what I consider to be the advantages and al- 
so (I regret I should have to add) the disadvantages of the 
process. There is more certainty in this than in any of the 
other processes I have tried. The method of preparing the 
plates is very simple, and easily and quickly managed. I have 
not yet tried the limit of their keeping qualities, but have ex- 
posed some more than six weeks after preparation, and not de- 
veloping until a week afterwards, making a period of seven 
weeks, without finding any signs of deterioration. The deve- 
lopment is easy, occupying about five minutes, or more or less, 
according to the quantity of silver used in the pyrogallic solu- 
tion: but the greatest advantages of all; and the most import- 
ant are, that the negatives are very intense, always free from 
fogginess, brilliant in the shadows, [and posssess the peculiar 
softness and half-tone of wet collodion. In fact I consider that 
it possesses all the advantages of wet collodion (except sensi- 
tiveness), without many of its difficulties; for instance, all pho- 
tographers know the liability of wet collodion to fog or solar- 
ise, and the difBculty of getting intensity. In taking still ob- 
jects I always prefer to use an oxymel plate, however near my 
operating room. 

Perhaps you may think I have been a little too enthusiastic in 
expatiating upon the merits of this process; but I must now state 
its chief and only serious defect, namely, want of sensitiveness 
— taking from ten to twenty minutes' exposure under favorable 
circumstances, with a landscape lens of fifteen inches focal 
length, two and a half inches diameter, and half an inch stop. 
However, if the plate is not required to be kept much more 
than a week, the sensitiveness ot collodio-albumen maybe ob- 
tained by leaving a trace of silver on the film, as I will here- 
after mention Mr. Llewelyn and some others estimate the ex- 
posure required as only about five times longer than fresh 
unwashed collodion. I have, however, found it rather more, 
though no doubt much depends on the age of the collodion, 
and I usually prefer^ old collodion, which may account for the 
difference. 

I will now describe my method of preparing the plates. For 
convenience, I have four dipping baths, the first containino- the 
nitrate of silver bath, the second and third rain water, and the 
fourth the oxymel. 

I cover a plate with negative collodion in the ordinary way, 
and render it sensitive in the usual negative bath solution; af- 
terwards I pass it through the two water baths, so as to remove 
the nitrate of silver; I then dip it, after draining a little, in 
the fourth bath containing the oxymel, draw it up once or 
twice, so that the oxymel may mix evenly on the surface of the 
film, then place the plate upright on blotting-paper against the 
wall to drain for about half an hour; afterwards it is as well 
to stand it on one of the lower corners only on the blotting-pa- 
per, so as to remove any of the oxymel which may remain at 
the lower i)art of the plate; it will then be ready for the slide 
or dark-box, which must be well varnished to prevent staining 
the plates. 

After exposure, dip the plate in water, which will cause the 
developing solution to flow evenly; or, if you like, pour on the 
pyrogallic solution without first dipping in water, as there is no 
difficulty in getting it to cover the film; pour on and ofl" two 




or three limes, and then add about one or two drops of silver 
(of the same strength as the bath,) to the drachui of developing 
solution, or more if you wish to develope quickly, taking care, 
of course, that no deposit of silver is thrown down in the solu- 
tion, or it might injure the film; keep continually pouring on 
and off carefully, so as to prevent any deposit which may form 
in the developing solution from settling on the plate; after suf- 
ficient intensity is obtained, wash with water by pouring from a 
jug, and fix with cyanide of potassium or hyposulphite of soda. 
I much prefer the cyanide, as the negative then requires less 
washing afterwards than when the hyposulphite is used, and 
consequently there is less danger of injuring the film. Prepare 
the oxymel as follows: To one pound of honey add sufficient 
water to reduce it to about the consistency of oil, hent in ajar 
in the oven; or in a pan of hot water; then add two ounces of 
glacial acetic acid, and carefully filter until quite clear and 
bright. 

Instead of using a dipping bath for the oxymel, it may be 
poured on the surface; this I used to do for some tin.e, but 
was then frequently troubled by bubbles of air. If, as I before 
mentioned, the plates are not intended to be kept very long, 
and greater sensitiveness is desired, the only difference in the 
preparation is, that the plates instead of being washed in plain 
water are dipped in a weak silver bath, containing about one 
ounce of nitrate to twenty ounces of water, jn'evious to the im- 
mersion in the oxymel. 

The negatives some of which I will show, are generally of a 
rich dark browu color, which I believe is attributable to the 
honey supplying the organic element so necessary to an intense 
development. I often add a little honey to the developer, 
which always produces an orange brown tone to the negative, 
and which color, of course, is the most effectual one for ob- 
structing the light in the after process of printing. 

I will now mention a circumstance which rather surprised 
me when I first discovered it, namely that the same bath, 
though producing excellent pictures with oxymel, would neither 
give a good positive or negative with a fresh and unwashed collo- 
dion plate. This shows that no very great nicety is required 
in the bath. 

I consider a little acetate of silver in the bath is very advan- 
tageous, giving greater intensity and ensuring the absence of 
free nitric acid, which is apt to accumulate by using old collo- 
dion containing free iodine. I have sometimes produced nega- 
tives in an old bath of a greenish color; but upon forming 
acetate of silver in the bath, have obtained the usual dark 
brown tone again. My plan is to add a few grains of carbo- 
nate of soda to the bath, until faintly alkaline, and then render 
the bath slightly acid with glacial acetic acid, and so forming 
acetate of silver. The developing solution I prepare with a 
larger portion of acid than is usual, namely, the same weight 
of citric acid as pyrogallic. As it is necessary to add a consider- 
able quantity of silver to the developing solution, a large 
amount of acid is required to [irevent the silver being at once 
deposited; and the solution becoming muddy. The developing 
solution may be used until it becomes as dark as port wine, and 
until it begins to deposit the silver. 

In conclusion, I beg to refer you to the London Photographic 
Journal^ (or 1856, where you will find several interesting com- 
munications by J. D. Llewelyn, the discoverer of this much ne- 
glected though valuable process. 

After reading the above, Mr. Mann developed a negative 
taken some days previously, and exhibited a number of nega- 
tives and positives, which were much admired for a peculiar 
softness and delicacy, and the absence of those violent contrasts 
of white and black which characterize so many of our photo- 
graphic productions. 

There was a considerable discussion, after the paper, amongst 
the members, as to the value of this process; the results were 
considered very satisfactory, but the length of time required for 
exposure appeared to be a great objection to it. Mr. Mann 
stated that he generally used that process even when he had a 
dark room at hand, being so certain of the results, and having 
no difficulty in producing the requisite intensity. 



Mr. SiDEBOTHAM exhibited a positive photograph on glass, 
taken with the revolving lens cap exhibited at a former meeting. 
The exposure might be said to be instantaneous; the entire time 
of revolution of the cap only occupying one-twentieth part of 
a second. He stated that by this means you might get more 
natural expression in photographic portraits, such as is impos- 
sible when a person has to sit even three or four seconds; this 
was exemplified by the specimen produced. 

Mr. Mabley exhibited some prints by Mr. Sutton's develop- 
ment process; some had been exposed in the pressure frame till 
the image was faintly visible, and others till almost dark enough 
for sun prints, and yet the finished prints exhibited little dif- 
ference; those exposed a long time required toning after the 
development, the others did not. Mr. Mabley also stated that 
he used paper dishes for development, but they were simply or- 
dinary porcelain dishes with sheets of paper to line them, a 
frjsh sheet being used every time. 

A Member called attention to the fact, that albumen pre- 
pared for the collodio-albumen process with ammonia, would not 
deteriorate by keeping. Some prepared nearly two years 
yielded as good results as ever, and does not throw down any 
deposit, as that prepared with acetic acid or fermented does. 

Attention was called to a curious appearance in certain spe- 
cimens of photographs that were exhibited, in which the edges 
of the trees or buildings were bordered by a narrow streak of 
light whiter than the sky, and in some cases very brilliant. A 
conversation took plact relative to the peculiar phenomenon, 
but it was not satisfactorily explained. 

The thanks of the Society having been presented to Mr. 
Mann for his interesting paper, and aiso to the Chairman, the 
meeting adjourned. 



SPECIFICATION 

Of Mr. McCraw's process for taking positives direct In the camera , 
on a white ground, by the reversed action of light. 



No. 1843. — William McCraw of Edinburgh, Artist, for " /m- 
provemenls in the Production of Photographic Pictures." 2nd 
July, 1857. — Not completed. 

This invention relates to certain improved processes for pro- 
ducing positive photographic images, or pictures, on white, or 
light-tinted substances, either vitreous, animal, or vegetable. 
A slab of porcelain, by preference unglazed, is coated with col- 
lodion or other suitable medium. It is excited in the nitrate of 
silver bath, and exposed in the ordinary manner. It is taken 
into the dark room, and the prepared surface is saturated with 
weak proto-sulphate of iron, or pyrogallic acid, or other de- 
veloper, which is immediately washed off before any apprecia- 
ble effdct is produced. It is then momentarily exposed to sub- 
dued daylight, or to an artificial light, and immediately treated 
secondarily with a developing fluid, when the latent image ap- 
pears as a positive, with the lights aLd shadows correct. It is 
however left-handed. To obviate this deftct, a negative pho- 
tograph on glass is taken and placed in front of the camera, at 
a suitable distance off, with a mirror or reflector placed be- 
liind the image at an angle of about 45", to act upon the pi'in- 
ciple of the microscopic reflector. The effect of this is, that in 
focussing in the camera, a clear and well-defined image of the 
kind required is obtiuned. The porcelain, or other prepared 
tablet, is placed in the camera, and the image developed as 
usual, and fixed with cycnide, or hypo- and washed. Its effect 
may be heightened by a solution of one grain of chloride of 
gold to the ounce of water. Various colors and effects may be 
produced by varying the strength of tlie solution of gold. The 
plate is then dried at a fire, at a considerable but gradual heat. 
When cool it is varnished, and colored if required. 

The photo.;'ra]ihic portraits may thus be jiroduced on porce- 
lain, china and earthen a are, and on white or opal glass, ivory, 
bone, prepared wood, or white or colored enamels. Stereo- 
scopic piijturos may thus be produced on opal, or white, or ordi- 
nary glass. 




The chief essential features of the invention are, the pl'oduc- 
tion of direct positive pictures on white surfaces in the camera ; 
the mode of employing the mirror; and the production of pos- 
itives by both, or either modes, on hard surfaces, such as por- 
celain, ivory, mother-of-pearl, &c., which are not adapted for 
receiving impressions in the ordinary priuting-frame. 



ON THE PERMANENCE OF niOTOGRAPHIC PRINTS. 



I. 

"We promised some time back to give our readers our expe- 
rience and views on the subject of fixing and toning photo- 
graphic prints. We shall now endeavor to do so in as plain a 
way as possible. 

The various theories on this subject advanced by numerous 
writers on, and practisers in photography, do not seem to 
have helped the matter along much. With the theory of the 
process we shall have little to do. The principles laid down 
are generally sound; but pliotographers are sometimes misled 
by a few who delve more into theory than practice. We all 
know that in order to fix a proof, it must be submitted to a 
chemical solution which shall have the power to deprive the 
paper of every particle of silver that remains unchanged after 
its submission to light under the negative; and also that it is 
equally necessary to afterwards remove every trace of the 
chemical employed in the solution of this unchanged silver from 
the picture; now asserted to have become sulphuret or sulphide 
of silver. 

For this removal of the unchanged silver, various methods 
have been adopted; but it now seems to be conceded by all, 
that hyposulphite of soda is the best and safest solvent; and of 
this, in our opinion, there can be no doubt. The length of time 
to which the print should be submitted to the bath of hyposul- 
phite, is also a mooted point. Many photographers advise, 
that the print be submitted to one or more baths of pure water, 
before putting them into the Sxiug bath; others place them 
first into a fixing bath and afterwards into the toning bath, 
and lastly into plain water. A simpler way we think the better 
way. 

First soaking in pure water, it is claimed, gives the print a 
clearer and more brilliant effect. This we doubt. The wasli- 
ing out of the unchanged silver in plain water, is not sufficiently 
expeditious to prevent a slight darkening in the lights, even in 
a dark room — the water itself — in our opinion, derived from 
our practice— inducing a change in this respect. 

Submittinjr the proof first to a hypo, and then to a toning 
bath is also objectionable, particularly when it is desired to pro- 
duce fine blacks. By this method the print imbibes an excess 
of hyposulphite of soda, that no amount of subsequent washins,- 
will eradicate, without destroying also its delicacy and strength 
of color. Mr. Evrard says in his Treatise on Photography, 
that " water has no action on the salt of silver which the light 
has reduced ," &c. In a manner this is correct, i.e. so far as 
the salt itself is concerned; but long soaking in water — suffi- 
ciently long to deprive the paper of all the hypo, imbibed by this 
process — loosens the texture of the ])iiper to such a degree, that 
portions of the changed silver are detached and washed away, 
leaving the proof exceedingly weak In following this method, 
it i.i usual to leave tlie print in the hypo, solution until it be- 
comes of a reddish-brown color; it is then submitted to the ton- 
ing bath until the desired color is obtained. Such pictures, so 
treated, will most assuredly fade. In fact, the destructive prin- 
ciple commences in the toning bath, and no aniunnt of washing 
will prevent its progress towards the entire obliteration of the 
picture. Both baths also soon become acid from hypo-sulphu- 
rous acid, a most powerful destructive agent. This is hastened 
in hot weather, and but a few seconds immersion will so effec- 
tually impregnate the print with this acid, that notiiing can 
save it. We arc speaking now of the use of two baths; the 
first a fixing bath of hypo, only; the second, a toning bath 
composed of hypo, chloride of silver, and chloride, or salt of 



gold. The first bath is useless, Whefl the second only ?s used, it 
should be of a strength sufficient to produce the deepest purple 
tint — in from ten to twenty minutes — not over twenty. To as- 
sure permanence by this bath, the deep purple tint never should 
be passed. To stop a little short would be more advisable. 
SnIphUration commences the moment the picture passes to the 
black. Allow the picture to remain in the Ijath, after it has 
passed the purple, a minute longer, and a slight fringe of yellow 
will circle its edges; take it out, wash it tv^enty-four hours in 
running water, and submit it to the light tinder any eircura- 
stiinces you please, it will fade in a short time. The most suc- 
cessful bath of this kind we have used was that, the formula 
of which was given in our June (1857) number. In publish- 
ing this formula, we should hate stated that we kept the 
baths in a perfectly neutral state, by the occasional addition of 
aqua-araraonia. We, however, lost a great number of prints 
subsequently by our printer neglecting this precaution. All 
our iroubles in printing — where tJ/e negatives have been good — 
have been caused by our printer neglecting to conform strictly 
to our instructions. There are so many more contingencies 
against producing good proofs than in favor, that socr.eciraes the 
sli^hLcsl deviation is disastrous. We shall pursue the subject 



m our next. 



H. H. Sneluns. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

LONDON PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



The usaal monthly meeting of this Society was held on the 
eveninff of Tuesday, the 5tb instant. The only snbject of im- 
portance brought before the members was the following paper 
by T. F. HARDwicii, Esq., 
'^ON THE PRINTING OF STEREOSCOPIC TRANSPARENCIES." 

Some apology is perhaps needed for my appearance before 
the Society this evening, inasmuch as I have nothing very no- 
vel to communicate. The subject of my paper is, however, 
one which possesses a general interest, and it has occurred to me 
that I might, by bringing forward a few notes of some experi- 
ments I have lately made, open up a discmsicD, and elicit useful 
information. 

Very fine transparencies have been taken' by Dr. Norrie's 
dry collodion process, but the i)lan v.'hidi I intend now to ad- 
vocate is the collodio-albumen of Tanpenot. To work on dry 
collodion with uniform success the eheraicals must all be in prime 
order, and although plates prepared by Dr. Norris himself have, 
as far as my experience has gone, turned out well, yet in the 
hands of the amateur, not quite «nre as to the state of his so- 
lutions, the collodio-albumen is, i think, the more certain pro- 
cess of the two. 

The remarks which I wish to make may be arranged uader 
the following heads. 1. The collodion for tiie process. 2. 
The albumen solution. 3. The aceto-nitrate exciting bath. 4. 
The water for washing the plates. 5. Exposure and develop- 
ment. 6. Fixing and toning. 

1. The Collodion. — The evils which might be anticipated 
from the employment of an unsuitable collodion are — blistering 
and a want of proper density in the image. In Norris's pro- 
cess it is particularly directed that the Clm should be in the 
condition termed rotten oi powdery, in order to ensure a rapid 
and intense development. In the collodio-albumen process, 
however, I find that ample density is obtainable even upon a 
collodion which is more or less of the contractile kind. No 
difficulty will therefore probably be experienced in this respect; 
but as regards the other source of annoyance alluded to, viz., 
blistering of the film, the era})loyment of a rather tenacious 
collodion is likely to favor its occui'rence, and I was at first 
quite unable to use it from this cause. Since I have adopted, 
however, the plan presently to be noticed, of adding acetic acid 
to the albumen, the diffii'ulty has in great measure ceased, 
acetic acid having the property of liquefying albumen, and mo- 
difying it chemically. 

In the course of numerous trials, I think I have noticed that 





PHOTOGRAPHER, / 



^CUTTING &TURNER] 
N? 10 TremonL "Row,. B ostou . 



Cutiin^ & Bradford's Photolithography 



I 



1 



i 



i 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



89 



collodion iodized with tlie alkaline iodides acquires, by keeping, 
a property of stickiii,L? tiglitly to the glass, independent to some 
extent of any change in physical structure. This idea may be 
inoorfeot, but it is worth attention. A collodion can be jire- 
jiared at cice in the powdery condition, but a film of this kind 
will sometimes rise in blisters wlicn the albumen has been laid 
on especially thick. Old and brown collodion which has be- 
come rotten by keeping, however, farely or uevcf blisters if 
common care be taken in cleaning and drying the glasses. 

The sensitiveness of the collodion for ordinary cainera work 
need not be taken into account in Taupenot's process. To 
prove this T selected two sami)les, one of which had only a 
straw-yellow tint, and gave a negative in five second, whilst the 
other was red and insensitive, requiring two minutes in the cam- 
era. When coated Vi'ith albumen they took a nearly equal 
length of exposure. 

2. The Albumen Sohiiion. — Take of 

Albumen . . » 1 fluid onnt^e. 

Water , i " 

Beaufoy's acetic acid \ " drachnii 

Iodide of potassium 3 grains. 

Chloride of ammonium.. ..... 5 " 

First mix the acetic acid-and the water; then add the other 
inirredients and shake together in a bottle for two or three mi- 
nutes. The solution may be made to run through paper, but 
as it sometimes deposits a sediment en standing, it is better to 
set it aside for twenty-four hour.', wheu the upper part may be 
drawn off clear with a siphon. 

In the formulas at first given by Dri. Taupenot, it was advised 
to add yeast to the albumen and to encourage fermentation, but 
this plan proved unsatisfactory. Ammonia was afterwards 
used, which certainly has an eff.'ct in preserving the albumen 
from decomposition. Acetic acid, however, is, I think, better 
than ammonia when transparencies are to be made. It pre- 
vents, in the first place, the formation of those raucous threads 
which often increase in the liquid almost as fast as they are 
filtered out, and it is also, as before mentioned, a partial remedy 
for blistering, by its action in rendering the albumen limpid. 
. But of more importance still is the facility which this mode 
of preparing the albumen affords for the employment of a strong 
and quickly acting developer in bringing out the image. Gallic 
acid is usually recommended in the albumen process as being 
the most certain, and when the layer of albumen is dense and 
horny, this is undoubtedly true. In such a case I have seen 
pyrogallic acid fail, and yet the very same plate, when washed 
and immersed in a solution of gallo-nitrate, in the course of an 
hour yielded a gtiod picture. Gallic acid does not react upon ni- 
trate of silver so quickly as pyrogallic acid, and heiice more 
time is allowed for a proper penetration of the albumen film. 
When, however, albumen properly liquefied by acetic acid is 
employed, pyrogallic acid niay be usad with certainty. IndieJ 
it is superior in such a case to gallic acid, being a stronger re- 
ducing agent, and more likely to bring out the half tones. 

With regard to the exact quantity of acetic acid which is ad- 
missible, I have tried various proportions, from twenty minims up 
to one fluid drachm to each oiince of albumen. The maximum 
quantity diminishes the sensitiveness, but good prints may be ob- 
tained by allowing a longer exposure. 

In addition to albumen water, and acetic acid the formula 
includes iodide and chloride. Experiments have been tried to 
ascertain the function of each of these salts, and I find that 
neither of them can be dispensed with. In the case of one 
sample of collodion which was quite powdery in structure and 
had become brown from spontaneous decomposition after iodiz- 
ing, omission of the iodides from the albumen appeared to make 
no difference. Some of my best prints were taken on albumen 
containing chloride only, and with unequally short exposure; 
thus, showing that, in this particular instance, the iodide in the 
collodion beneath receives the invisible impression, although the 
development is in the albumen, and the image can be partly 
rubbed off with cotton wool. A repetition of the experiment, 
however, with other samples of collodion gave different re- 

VOL XI. NO. III. 12 



suits. The picture came out red and indistinct when the iodide 
was left out, but developed with great intensity when it was 
added. I think it probable, therefore, that the presence of 
iodide of silver in the layer of albumen may compensate for a 
defect in the collodion basis, and if so, it will give greater cer- 
tainty to the process. 

'J'lie chloride, which is used with the iodide, can scarcely be 
supposed to take any part in the formation of the latent image, 
but it has a colorific action in tile development, imparting a 
brown tone, and lessening the tendency to that greenish-yellow 
often seen when iodides only are employed. Bromide acts in a 
similar way, but perhaps less decidedly. 

3. The exdiiiig haik of acdn-nitrals.— An old negative bath 
which has been laid aside as giving streaky collodion films, may 
be used for the albuminized plates, thirty minims of glacial 
acetic acid beino: added to each ounce. It soon becomes disco- 
lored, but I do not find it necessary to u.se kaolin; all my pic- 
tares have been taken with a solution as dark as port wine. 
The plates may be immersed in the aceto-nitfate for two mi- 
[lutes. 

Opinions diffef as to the pfopfiety of using one bath for the 
collodion and albumen. I have preferred to keep the two 
baths separate, thinking that the pictures develop more clearly, 
and that the chance of blisters is diminished by so doing. 

4. Thtwaitr for washhif the p/a/cs.— Ordinary filtered watef 
will often succeed, but it is best to test it with nitrate of silver 
for chlorides and carbonates. In the course of the late sum- 
mer, whilst spending a few days at the seaside, I found that 
all the water contained lime-salts, the effect of \^'hich, in Tau- 
penot's process used for negatives, was to produce over-action 
of light in the most expdsed parts of the film. The skies de- 
veloped crey and feebly, and were encircled by a dark hne. 

I see in the last number of the Journal an interesting paper 
bv the Secretary of the Scotch Photographic Society, in which 
the same thing is noticed. Hard water will, no doubt, produce 
such an effect both on waxed paper and on albumen. On my 
return to town, I brouL'ht with me a bottle of the water and 
examined it. There was a trace of sulphate and a small pro- 
portion of chloride, but the principal impurity consisted of a 
carbonate of lime. It required exactly one fluid drachm of a 
thirty-ffrain solution of nitrate of silver to precipitate the 
whole of the saline matter from a wine-pint of the water; and 
in twentvfour hours the deposit settled down clear without any 
filtering." This ready mode of purifying hard water might be 
adopted in case of necessity, but if carbonate of lime only be 
present, half-an-hour*s boiling, or the addition of a little acetic 
acid, ought to be sufficient to remove it. The use of nitrate of 
silver, however, has the advantage of precipitating the chloride 
at the same time with the carbonate^ 

F>. Exposure and derdopment.—The plates are exposed in an 
ordinary printing frame, either to a strong gaslight for five or 
six minutes, or in the open air^or a few seconds. There will 
be nodifficultv in hitting the right time, because if the plates 
are under-exposed, it will be impossible to develope the_ dark 
shades, and the pictures will appear black and white, without 
any middle tint. 

The solution of pyrogallic acid is prepared as follows:— 

Pvrogallic acid 3 grains. 

Citric acid Hg^i'S- 

Water 1 «""'=^- 

This formula was given to me by Mr. ghadbolt It aiay be 
used also for Norris's prepared plates, but as these develop 
more quickly than collodio-albumen, it will be advisable to di- 
lute it with an equal bulk of water. • ^^ „. 

Havino- soaked the sterescoi)ic plate in water for a minute or 
two, take t.vo fluid drachms of the solution of pyrogallic acid 
and add ten minims of a twenty-grain neutral solution of ni- 
trate of silver. Then pour the liquid repeated y on and oft 
from a measure. The image begins to appear in about one m n- 
nte, and is fully brought out in from five to eight minutes, lo- 
wards the latter end of the development the pyrogallic acid 



90 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



discolors, and may then be thrown away. I find it quite po- 
Bible to complete the process with one portion of the developer, 
but usually prefer to employ two, as a security against fogging, 
of which there is theoretically a danger when the plate is treat- 
ed with a discolored developer. 

If any failure occurs in this part of the process, it will pro- 
bably arise from spots or marbled stains, but I do not e:?peri- 
ence any annoyance from this source when the surface of the al- 
bumen-bath solution has been carefully cleansed from scum, and 
the albumen itself cleared by subsidence. 

6. Fixing and toning. — The pictures are fixed with plain hypo- 
sulphite of soda, and afterwards toned in the ordinary bath of hy- 
posulphite of soda and gold. Tlie fixing solution clears away the 
iodide and prevents it from getting into the toning bath and 
interfering with the deposition of the gold. If the toning bath 
is newly made, one hour's immersion will be sufficient to produce 
a dark color, but in an old buth the plates may be left for twen- 
ty-four hours, or longer. 

New hyposulphite, free from sulphuretting compounds, leaves 
the image of a reddish brown, the tone, however, varying much 
with the time of exposure and the length of development. 
Ilydrosulphate of ammonia, which Mr. Crookes has lately used, 
darkens the picture considerably, and may be employed with- 
out fear of causing fading, since the imagecontains more real sil- 
ver than any albumen sun-print. 

In conclusion, I may observe that my object has been to find 
a simple process, and one sufficiently certain to be recommend- 
ed. In preferring Taupenot's process to that on dry collodion, 
I have been guided principally by the difficulty of always ob- 
taining a collodion exactly in the right state. I ought also to 
mention that the negatives which I used in my experiments 
were rather intense. The film, in consequence, was liable to 
solarize in certain parts, and this I could not on Norris's plates 
altogether avoid. "With a more feeble negative there would 
have been no danger of solarization, and the results on dry col- 
lodion might in that case, have borne comparison with those 
yielded by coUodio-albumen. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

ON THE FORMATION OF PHOTOGRAPHIC I.MGES. 



From Photographic Note*. 

RESTORATION 
Of Prints thai have been Destroyed by Sea-Water. 



Sir, — Can anything be done to intensify prints which have 
suffered as follows: — In a voyage from Australia, the sea water 
got to them, and has almost entirely washed out the sliadows, 
thus nearly obliterating the picture. I do not know by what 
process they were printed, or the negatives taken. If you could 



suggest a cure you will much oblige. 



G. H. C. 



It is possible that the prints may have simply faded in the 
ordinary way, but supposing them to have been destroyed by 
sea water, the external part of the im.age M'ould probably 
have become converted into chloride of silver. In this 
case, the image might be darkened by immersing the jirint either 
in ammonia, or a fresh hypo bath, because that would remove 
the superficial white chloride of silver and expose tlie dark im- 
age beneath. Another way would be, to expose the print for 
some time to strong sunshine, and then treat it with gallo-nitrate 
of silver. If G. H. C. would allow us to see, and experiment 
with, one or two of the prints, we might perhaps hit upon some 
plan of improving them. If, however, they have simply faded 
to the yellow tint, in the ordinary way, and are totally insensi- 
tive to light, we know at present of no plan of reviving them; 
but it is probable that some jirocess 7nay be discovered for re- 
storing faded prints. Sliould the yellow sul)stance prove to be, 
as we suspect, a per-sulphide of silver, it might be possible, (a.« 
Mr. ^Moultrie has suggested), by treating it with a salt of some 
metal which would combine with the excess of sulphur and form 
a stable black sulphide to reproduce a black print. Faded prints 
should not be destroyed. The lime may come when some simple 
mode of rendering them more presentable, may be discover- 
ed.— [Ed. P. N.J 



BY M. M03ER. 



M. Regnanlt presented a paper by M. Moser, on the above 
subject, to the Academy of Sciences of Paris, on the 29th of 
August last, in which the author arrives at the following con- 
clusions: — 

1st. Light acts upon all bodies, and upon all in the same 
manner; the effects hitherto observed, are only particular in- 
stances of this general law. 

2. The action of light consists in modifying bodies in such a 
manner, that after this action they absorb certain vapors which 
they could not otherwise; the process of M. Daguerre depends 
on this, and offers a particular instance of this general action. 

3. The vapors are condensed, more or less strongly, by the 
bodies thus modified, according to their elasticity, and the in- 
tensity of the action of the light. 

4. Iodide of silver, as is known, becomes blackened under 
the influence of light. 

5. If the action of the light be continued, the iodide is trans- 
formed and becomes colored. 

6. The differently refrangible rays have one and the same ac- 
tion, and differ only in the time they require to produce a 
given effect. 

I. The blue and violet rays, and the obscure rays discovered 
by Ritter, commence the action very speedily on the iodide of 
silver; the other rays require, to produce the same effect, as 
much more time, as their refraugibility is less. 

8. Yet the action (5) is more quickly commenced and ef- 
fected by the red and yellow rays; the others requiring more 
time, as they have a greater refrangibility. 

9. All bodies radiate light, even in perfect darkness. 

10. This light does not appear to belong to phosphorescence 
for no difference can be discovered, whether the bodies be 
placed for a long time in the dark, or whether they be exposed 
to the light of day, or even to the direct rays of the sun. 

II. The rays emanating from different bodies operate in the 
same manner as sensible light, and produce the effects indicated 
at (2) and (4). 

12. These rays, insensible to the retina, have a greater re- 
frangibility than those of the sun, whether direct or diffused. 

13. Two bodies constantly imprint their images on each 
other, even when placed in perfect darkness (I), (9), and 

rii.) 

14. Yet for these images to be appreciable, it is necessary, 
in consequence of the divergence of the rays, that the bodies 
shall no' be very distant. 

15. To render the representation of a body visible, some va- 
por should be used, such as the vapor of water, of mercury, 
iodine, chlorine, bromide, or chloride of iodine, &c &c. 

16. As the rays which bodies spontaneously emit have a 
greater refrangibility than those which were previously known, 
they generally commence the action on other bodies with the 
greatest intensity. (X). 

11. There exists latent light as well as latent heat. 

18. When a liquid is vaporized, light, cor.-espouding to a 
certain degree of oscillation, becomes latent, and is again set 
at liberty, when the vapor condenses into liquid drops. 

19. It is on this account that the condensation of vapor pro- 
duces to a certain extent the same effects as light; thus is ex- 
plained the action of vapor as noticed (2) and (15). 

20. The condensation of vapors on the plates acts in the 
same manner as light, whether the excess of vapor simply ad- 
heres, as is the case with the vapor of water on most sub- 
stances; whetiier it adheres permanently as in the case of mer- 
cury; or lastly, whether it chemically combines with the sub- 
stance, as does the vapor of iodine with silver. 

21. The latent light of the vapor of mercury is yellow; all 
the effects proiuced by the yellow rays may be obtained by the 
condensation of the vapor of mercury. 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



91 



22. The latent light of the vapor of iodine is blue or violet; 
the action of the blue or violet rays may in like manner, as in 
the former instance, be produced by the vapor of iodine. 

23. The latent light of chlorine, bromine, chloride and bro- 
mide of iodine, appear to difler but little in refraugibility from 
that of iodine. 

24. With regard to the color of the latent light of the 
vapor of water, I can only say that it is neither green, or yel- 
low, nor orange, nor red. 

25. Iodide of silver owes its sensibility, in contact with the 
visible rays, to the latent light of the vapor of iodine. 

26. Iodide of silver is not more sensible to the invisible rays 
than is the silver itself. 

Remark — With the exception of the principles contained in 
9, 17, 18, and 25, all the preceding are deduced from numer- 
ous researches, which are described in the following papers in 
the " Annaks de Physique de, Poggendorff," &c. 

{a) De la marcht dt la vue, et de faction de la lumiere sur 
tous les corps. 

(J) Sur I'etat latent de la lumiere. ;; 

(c) Sur la lumiere invisible. "^ ' 

All theoretical views will be discarded, if we reject the prin- 
ciples contained in 9, It, 18, 25; but there will then be a de- 
ficiency in the explanation of the phenomena. 

M. Arago communicated to the Academy the following let- 
ter from M. Brequet, relative to a phenomenon which tends to 
confirm the experiments of M. Moser. 

" The remarkable facts discovered by Professor Mo'^er, and 
•which have been communicated to the Academy by M. Reg- 
nault, have brought to my recollection something analogous, 
which I have observed at different times in the interior of gold 
watch-cases, and even in the interior of the works, which are 
made altogether of yellow copper. 

" Every one knows that on opening the case of a watch, 
there is a second case below it on which is engraved the name 
of the maker. This second case comes very close to the first, 
and I have frequently seen on the outer case the image, revers- 
ed and very distinct, of the name of the maker, which is en- 
graved on the inner case. 

" In the works of watches where the parts are placed very 
near to each other, I have sometimes seen certain images, more 
or less remarkable. 

" I have observed these curious facts, and have even men- 
tioned them to some individuals, but not having had the time 
to observe all the peculiarities of the phenomenon, I have not 
until now made them public." 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

miED GLASS FOR ROOFS. 

Liverpool, 7tli Jan., 1858. 
To the Editor oftht Liverpool Photographic Journal: 

Sir, — I thank you for the opportunity your observations have 
afforded me for bringing forward further particulars respecting 
the important subject of the changes that take place in glass, 
and their probable effect upon the efforts of the photographer. 
As these changes are the results of time, it consequently fol- 
lows, that the experience of many years' standing, is of some 
value, and the following is a record of what has come under 
my own notice. 

Fifteen years ago I was consulted by a company established 
in Liverpool for the purpose of taking Daguerreotype per. raits, 
as to the best medium for their operating room. 1 recommend- 
ed " white" glass. In the course of twelve months they com- 
plained that the time of exposure in the camera had greatly 
increased, and that they could not account for it. I discovered 
that the glass had changed from a " white" to a purple, and 
hence the obstruction to the chemical rays. I likewise disco- 
vered by actual experiment, that of all the makes of plate 
glass none were so stable in color as the Ravenhead, which 
every one knows is of a blue tint. 



On examination of the stained glass in York Minster, I in- 
variably found, on turning np the lead, that the part exposed 
to 200 summers was the same in tint as the part under the lead, 
and of all the colors the b/ue\v;)s most completely unchanged. 

Cobalt being the coloring medium, I came to the conclusion 
it was the best material to tinge the glass with, especially as it 
favored the transmission of tiie actinic rays only. 1 hold tiieso 
statements to assume the position of undoubted facts, and they 
clearly go to prove tliut " thoroughly practical men" hold er- 
roneous views on this subject. I therefore court discussion 
upon the matter, not because I am connected with the glass 
trade, but because I am a photographer. 

I cannot accept the doctrine that because color in glass is a 
" tint," it must necessarily " deepen," so far from this being the 
case, I can show by specimens I have just described, at least 
200 years old, that this is an utter fallacy, especially with re- 
spect to blue tinted glass. I have placed in the roofs of the 
operating rooms of the London School of Photograph, as well 
as Mr. Keith's, and they inform me that not only is it quicker 
than " white' glass, but that the sitter is not constrained in his 
features during the operation. I make no claim to originality 
in this matter, for Mr. Hunt, as usual, is before me, and I re- 
fer you to his excellent work, on photography, pages 148 and 
302, for an account of his experiments. 

I am, Sir, 

Yours very truly, 

Jas. Alex. Forrest. 



From Photographic Notes. 

PHOTGGRAPBIC SUMMARY OF NEW IKVENTIOi\S, FOR JANUARY 1858, 



BY THOMAS SUTTOX. 



We have some interesting novelties in photographic processes 
to describe in the present number. 

Mr. Quinet has exhibited the manipulation of a new dry 
negative process on glass, in which the sensitive film is per- 
fectly transparent, and the mode of development rather pe- 
culiar. 

M. Leborgne has discovered some advantages which appear 
to result trom the addition of a salt of lead to the nitrate 
bath. 

M. Alexis Gaudin has described a process by means of which 
collodion negatives may be taken instantaneously, and devel- 
oped to a suflicient intensity, either by means of a proto-salt of 
iron, or a solution of gallic acid. Like M. Laborgne, he ob- 
tains his results by the addition of a salt of lead to the nitrate 
bath. 

Mr. Berry, of Liverpool, obtained some curious and promising 
results by the use of casein as a medium for supporting the sen- 
sitive iodide of silver on a glass plate. 

M. Davanne has described some advantages which appear to 
arise from the addition of ammonia to the albumen used in posi- 
tive printing. (See page 19). 

Mr. T. Bullock, of JMacclesfield, has favored us with an ac- 
count of his process of taking collodion positives direct on card: 
and Mr. Beattic, of Leicester, has kindly shewn ushowtoBolve 
a difBculty, proposed for solution a few weeks back by Sir Den- 
ham Norreys, which consists in transferring collodion positives 
from glass to glazed leather. 

Lastly; — Our correspondent, the Patent Agent, has sent us 
a copy of the Specification ol u Process, by Mr. McCraw, of 
Edinburgh, for taking positives direct in the Camera, on a white 
ground, by mQ?in?. oi reversing Ihi action of light. (Seep. 87.) 

A few words then on each ot these interesting topics, taken 
in the order in which we have announced them. 

The new dry negative process of M. Quinet is unfortunately 
a secret, for that gentleman intends to try and turn hisproce.s8 
to account by offering prepared plates and developing solutions 
for sale. This he has of course a perfect right to do, if he 
chooses. M. Quinet is the inventor and patentee of a modified 



92 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



form of stereoscope, or stereoscopic camera, to whicb he has 
given the iiiime of "Quiiietoscope," (an instruiiieiit which Sir 
David Brewster has funnily observed would seem tobeiutended 
for offering- some i)ecnliar facilities for viewiuf^ M. Quinet). A 
few days aj^o, id. Quinet, who appears very anxious to exhibit 
the mauijiulation of his process, called on the editor of " La 
Lu.niere," (M. Lacan), with his Quinetoscope and a box of dry 
sensitive plates, some of which had been excited cijjht days, and 
others two days previously. Tiie plates were exposed, in a 
garden, at about two o'clock in the afternoon, the weather be- 
ing very cold and foiruy. The time of exposure was from 30 to 
35 seconds. The sensitive plates were transi>arent, there was 
no opaque film of iodide of silver upon tliein. The plates were 
first moistened, and the pictures developed by means of three 
different fluids poured alternately on the plate. Tlie results 
were successful, and the negatives very sharp and vigorous, 
The process is stated by M. Lacan to possess two peculiarities. 
One is, that the older the plate the more sensitive it becomes, 
and the more rajtid the develojjment; — the other — that the de- 
velopment may be stopped at any moment, and continued even 
after an interval of many days. 

It appears therefore, that the process of M. Quinet possesses 
some marked ]K'Culiarities, and we confess we are curious to 
understand the chemical mysteries of the transparent film, and 
the peculiar mode of devi^lopment, which is said to be wonder- 
fully simple, and under the complete control of the operator. 
With respect to the capabilities of the process, they appear 
to have been sufficiently demonstrated, both at the last Meet- 
ing of the French Photographic Society, and in the presence of 
M. Lacan: but we are amused at observing, that since a secret 
was made of the chemistry of the process, the French Society 
was not to be made a cat's-paw of by M. Quiuet, and no men- 
tion is made of his experiment in the Report of the Meeting, 
which appeared in the last No. of the Bulletin of the Society. 
The liberal conduct of Dr. Hill Norris with respect to his pro- 
cess, (with which we are becoming more delighted every day), 
certainly contrasts favorably with the policy of M. Quinet. 

The process of M. Leborgne consists in increasing the sensi- 
tiveness of a collodionized plate by adding a salt of lead to the 
nitrate bath. The particulars are as follows: — 

Dissolve, in one vessel, 20 grannnes of acetate ot silver in 
100 grammes of distilled water; and in another vessel, 16 
grammes of nitrate of lead in 100 grammes of distilled water * 

Mix the two solutions, and use the bath in the ordinary way. 
Any of the salts of lead may be employed, but the nitrate gives 
the best results. 

The picture is to be developed by a solution compo.sed oi 
gallic acid 1 part, water 1000 parts; and lixed in the ordinary 
way. 

The advantages of the process are stated to be, — 1st, in- 
creased sensitiveness; — 2nd, the bath may be charged to satu- 
ration without giving any precipitate; — 3rd, the bath never 
becomes acid; — 4th, the sensitive plates may be preserved a 
long time without losing their properties, and may be used in 
tlie dry state ;-^5th, it is not necessary to develop the image 
immediately on removal from the camera, 

M. Laborgne states that this bath may be used with equal 
success in positive printing. 

We now come to the process of M. Gaudin for obtaining in- 
stantaneous negatives, which may be developed to a sufficient 
intensity by a proto-salt of iron, or a solution of gallic acid. 
We may observe, en passant, that the finest stereoscopic sub- 
jects we have seen are those by Mr. Wilson, of Aberdeen, who, 
we are informed, generally employs an iron salt as a developer, 
and has lately succeeded in obtaining instantaneous negatives 
of large size, developed in this way. We should be very glad 
to learn the particulars of his process, for certainly his works 

* We are inclined to tliink that there are rnistakcsi in tliis formuls,' 
acetate of silver is nearly insoluble in cold water. Perhaps "acetate 
d'argent" is a misprint for " azotate d'argent," nitrate ot silver. And 
again, 16 grammes of nitrate of lead could scarcely be dissolved in 100 
grammes of cold distilled water; while hot water would be likely to de- 
compose this salt. — Ed. P. N- 



exhibit extraordinary beauty of half-tone. But to retu rn to M. 
Gaudin. 

His jirocess consists in first making a nitrate bath according 
to the following formula: — 

Add to a solution, containing 10 per cent, of nitrate of sil- 
ver, a small quantity of reduced metallic lead, in a finely divided 
state, and also a small quantity of nitrate of lead; the propor- 
tions are not stated , being ))cr!iaps, at present, somewhat uncer- 
tain. Boil the solution. Tlie heat will precipitate a portion of 
the silver, and the liquid will become black. Subsalts of lead 
and silver will be produced, and after a quarter of an hour's 
boiling, the hath may be filtered, and is then ready for use. 

When gallic acid is to be used as a developer, a few drops of 
acetic acid must be added to the plombiferons silver bath; but 
when the iron salts are to be used, a much larger quantity of 
acetic acid must be added. 

The solution of gallic acid must be saturated and carefnlly 
filtered, and a few drops of nitrate of silver must be fidded to 
it in the measure, immediately before use. The negatives come 
out quickly, and are of a brownish tint, yielding very good 
prints. 

With the proto-sulphatc of iron, the bath is said to give very 
intense and perfect negatives, after an extremely short expo- 
sure. We imagine this to be the chief merit of the process. It 
is a Well-known fact, that the addition of a saiall quantity of 
acetate of lead to a solution of gallic acid increases the density 
of the negative. The action of the salts of lead in assisting de- 
velopment deserves to be carefnlly studied. AVe must not for- 
get also that iodide of lead is sensitive to light. 

Mr. Berry's process consists in employing casein instead of 
collodion, or aliiumen, as a means of supporting the sensitive 
film of iodide of silver on a glass plate. He has kindly sent us 
the account of his experiments through the medium of the Sec- 
retary of the Liverpool Pliotogra|)hic Society, who informs us 
t!iat the Paper was read by Mr. Berry at the last meeting of 
that Society. 

Casein is a substance closely resembling all>nmen in its pro- 
perties. It is held in solution by the alkali contained in milk, 
and is coagulated by the addition of certain adds. Mr. Berry 
has taken advantage of the solubility of casein in an alkali to 
spread it on a glass plate; it is afterwards coagnlated by I)eat, 
and the nitrate bath, and in this way a film is obtained which 
adheres to the glass and contains the photogenic materials. 
The process is at present one of those curiosities in photogra- 
phy which we are always happy to hear of, and insert, for they 
not only prove the ingenuity of experimenters, but affords hints 
which may be successfully followed up in someway or other. 

M. Davannc read a papo" at the last meeting of the French 
Photographic Society, in which he stated that he had discov- 
ered some advantages by adding ammonia to the albumen salt- 
ing-bath, used for positive printing. Albamen, like casein, is 
soluble in an alkali, and coagulated by the addition of certain 
acids. It ajipcars therefore, that by adding ammonia to the 
albumen bath, it is rendered more fluid, and the albumenized 
paper less liable to dry in streaks; while the nniii'onia, being 
volatile, esc:ipes from ihe ]iaper when drying. We are inclined 
to think this suggestion of M. Da valine's a very good one; but 
at the same time it seems quite possible that seme ammonia 
might be retained by the albumen,, and that this might occasion 
the discoloration of the pajier after being excited on the nitrate 
bath. Should anything of this kind occnr, a good remedy 
would probably be, to add some lemon juice or citric acid to 
the nitrate bath, particularly as lemon juiee always appears to 
increase the surface vigor of a print. 

We mentioned in our last number that Mr. Bullock, of Mac- 
clesfield, had kindly sent us a very prelJy po.sitivc collodion 
portrait, taken on the back of his address card. He has since 
furnished us with the particulars of his process. We are not at 
lilierty, however, to publish them, as they may be learnt on the 
terms stated in his advertisement, but he has left it to our dis- 
cretion to say just so much as may whet the curiosity of oar 
readers with respect to an ingenious and simple process, which 
it is well worth auv one's while to know. The facts stated in 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



93 



his advertisement are strictly correct. The picture is actually 
taken in the camera on the card, which is from first to last the 
vehicle for supporting the photogenic surface. No transferring 
is required. Tiie card is actually coated with black varnish 
and collodion, dipped in the nitrate bath, &c.; the face of it 
being of course protected during the operations in a very inge- 
nious way. 

In No. 34 of this Journal we solicited information on the 
subject of taking collodion positives on glazed leather. We are 
now able to inform our readers how this may be done in two 
different ways. For the first method we are indebted to the 
kindness of Mr. Beattie, of Leicester. He describes it as 
follows: — 

" Take the portrait on glass as usual; then cut the collodion 
film to the required shape. Clioose a piece of smooth leather. 
Moisten with spirits ot wine both the leather and portrait. 
Press the one on the other very carefully. Let dry. Then 
the portrait will come off the glass beautifully. I send you one, 
made for amusement only. You cannot scratch the film." 

This specimen is quite satisfactory. No one could possibly 
discover any edge to the collodion film. The portrait is oval, 
and there is a margin of glazed leather all round it, giving the 
transfer a mat-like appearance. Tiiis specimen exactly resem- 
bles that forwarded to us by Sir Denham Norreys, and alluded to 
in No. 34. Mr. Beattie's mode of transferring, is infinitely 
better than that which we suggested. 

The other method of taking positives on glazed leather, 
cloth, &c., requires no transferring. The collodion is poured 
at once on the glazed material, and the film may be either ex- 
cited by floatation on a nitrate bath, or by immersion, the 
glazed leather or cloth being in that case stuck to a piece of 
glass in such a way that the nitrate bath cannot get to the 
back of it. This is one part of Mr. Bullock's ingenious pro- 
cess. Glazed canvas may be obtained from Messrs. Ellington 
& Ridley, 89 Watling Street, London, at about three shillings 
per square yard. 

With respect to Mr. McCraw's process, (see p. 87): — The 
patent, applied for in July last, has not been completed, so the 
particulars mentioned in his Specification are now, we believe, 
public property. But his process is not new, since attention 
has been called to the fact of a positive having been produced 
by the reversed action of light, both in this Journal some 
months since, and also at a recent meeting of the Photographic 
Society. Nevertheless, we had no idea that this process was 
capable of yielding results sufficiently good to make it worth 
any one's while to take out a patent for it. It seems likely 
that Mr. McCraw's process may be turned to useful account 
by professional portraitists. We advise our readers by all 
means to experiment with them. 



PHOTO-LlTIIOGRAPnY OP MESSRS. L. H. BRADFORD & CO. 

We have the pleasure of furnishing our subscribers this 
month with prints by the Photo-lithographic process, from the 
establishment of Messrs. L. H. Bradford & Co., in Boston, 
in addition to our usual photographic illustrations. The por- 
traits are those of Messrs. J. A. Cutting and L. H. Bradford. 
They are exceedingly interesting, as exhibiting another success- 
ful advance in Photographic Art. This particular process for 
transferring the photograph to stone is the joint invention of 
Messrs. Cutting and Bradford. The impressions here given are 
taken direct from the stone, without any retouching, the trans- 
fer to the stone being made from a glass negative in the same 
way as other positive prints. The impression so obtained is af- 
terwards prepared so as to take the lithographic ink, and the 
prints are taken off in the press in the same manner as any 
other lithograph. The advantages, both to art and business, of 
this method of executing pictures, are very numerous, and have 
been long dwelt upon by many of the first photographers of 
Europe, who have devoted much of their time in endeavoring 
to overcome the difficulties that have stood ia the wav ofitsac- 

12* 



complishment. Specimens of photo-lithography have been oc- 
casionally shown, which were very fair; but the processes were, 
not sufficiently developed to produce the perfection required by 
art. This process of Messrs. Cutting and Bradford may be 
considered a decided step forward in this branch of art. These 
gentlemen claim that they can reproduc» any picture by the 
photographic with greater ease than by the ordinary lithogra- 
phic process, and the specimens of their work before us certain- 
ly will confirm this opinion, although, as Mr. Bradford himself 
says, the process leaves room for improvement , of which it is 
perfectly capable. H. H. S. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

ON TUE VARIATION OF THE FOCI OF LE.^iSES. 



BY. M. CLAUDET. 



The question of the actinic focus is involved in another kind 
of mystery, which requires some attention. I have found that 
with the same lenses there exists a constant variation in the 
distance between the two foci. They are never in the same 
relation to each other; they are sometimes more or less sepa- 
rate; in some lights they are very distant, and in some others 
they are very near, and even coincide. For this reason I con- 
stantly try their position before I operate. I have not been 
able to discover the cause of that singular phenomenon, but I 
can state positively that it exists. At first, I thought that 
some variations in the density or dispersive power of the atmos- 
phere might produce the alteration in the distance between the 
two foci; or that when the yellow rays were more or less abun- 
dant, the visual rays were refracted oa different points on the 
axis of the foci, according to the mean refrangibility of the 
rays composing white hght at the moment. But a new experi- 
ment has proved to me that these could not be the real causes 
of the variation. I generally employ two object-glasses; one 
of shorter focus for small pictures, and the other of longer focus 
for larger images. In both the actinic focus is longer than the 
visual focus; but when they are much separated in one they are 
less so in the other; sometimes, when they coincide in one, they 
are verv far apart in the other, and sometimes they both coin- 
cide. This 1 have tried every day during the last twelve 
months, and I have always found the same variations. The 
density of the atmosphere, or the color of light, seems to have 
nothing to do with the phenomenon, otherwise the same cause 
would produce the same effect in both lenses. I must observe, 
that my daily experiments on my two object-glasses are made 
at the same moment and at the same distance for each, other- 
wise any alteration in the focal distance would disperse, more 
or less, the actinic rays, which is the case, as it is easy to prove. 
The lengthening or shortening the focus, according to the dis- 
tance of the object to be represented, has for effect to modify the 
achromatism of the lenses. An optician, according to M. 
Lerebours' calculation, can at will, in the combination of the 
two glasses composing an achromatic lens, adapt such curva- 
tures or angles in both that the visual focus shall coincide with 
the actinic focus; but he can obtain this result only for one 
length of focus. The moment the distance is altered, the two 
foci" separate, because the visual and actinic rays must be re- 
fracted at different angles in coming out of the lens, in order to 
meet at the focus given for one distance of the object. If the 
distance is altered, the focus becomes longer or shorter; and as 
the angle at which different rays are refracted remains nearly 
the same, they cannot meet at the new focus, and they form two 
images. If the visual and actinic rays were refracted parallel 
to each other, in coming out of the lens they would always 
coincide for every focus; but this is not the case. It seems, 
therefore, impossible that lenses can be constructed m which 
the two foci will agree for all the various distances, until we 
have discovered two kinds of glasses in which the densities or 
the refractive power will be in the same ratio as the dispersive 
power. 



94 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

TEE "PENCIL OF NATURE" PROCESS OF MR. FOX TALBOT.* 



We have seen how the prints for the "Pencil of Nature" 
were obtained. It only remains tiiat I should make two or 
three remarks for the purpose of pointing out distinctly that all 
was done that our knowledge, at that time, could suggest. On 
looking back, the only flaw that can be seen is, ia that part 
which relates to the washing of the prints. To us it seems 
doubtful if three changes of water for each batch of pictures 
could suffice. Let it, however, be remembered, that the water 
used was as hot as the hand could hear^ and that the hyposul- 
phite of soda was from a freshly-made solution. The difliculty 
was to obtain a proper test of the absence of hyposulphites. 
The evil of over-washing, too, had to be avoided. I do not 
think blame attaches to the process, and indeed, one can only 
admire the comparative degree of perfection to which it was 
brought under so many circumstances of doubt and difficulty. 
With me, a very strong proof of the three changes of water 
being justifiable, is the fact that some of the pictures of the 
"Pencil of Nature" are, to this day, as good as ever. What 
has become of the hyposulphites which we should now say must 
have been left in the paper ? What other circumstances are 
needed to render hyposulphite fatal? Mr. Hardwich will reply, 
damp for one. True; but all the pictures are bound up in one 
book, and kept in a good library. Let us not loose sight of 
this fact when discussing the influence of hyposulphite on the 
fading. 

There is a point relating to the history of toning processes 
that may very properly be related here. Originally, all ammo- 
nio-nitrate prints were of a warm sepia color, more or less 
modified. This color was by many disliked, although scarcely 
two persons agreed as to what color would be most desirable. 
Advocates for the warm colors were then, as now, to be found. 
It happened, on one occasion, that some prints of a marble 
bust, by Mr. Henneman {the first established photographic 
printer), were executed for the late Mr. Walter, of The Times. 
These, being wanted in a hurry, were, after pasting, rapidly 
mounted and ironed with a hot iron to smooth and dry them. 
It was at once observed that a remarkable change of color en- 
sued, such as is never produced by ordinary drying or exposure 
to sun and pure air. It was at once hastily concluded that the 
paste was the cause of the phenomenon. Mr. Talbot commu- 
nicated the facts to M. Claudet (then a licensee under the calo- 
type patent), and to the writer of this, who, on being requested 
to procure some paste for the experiment, took the liberty of 
omitting the farina, and succeeded quite as well with water 
only! A certain amount of moisture, and it is believed, a trace 
of the hyposulphites being necessary, with the heat, to effect 
the required darkening of the print. From that time it was a 
common thing to iron prints, or heat them strongly by a fire 
whilst still damp. So simple a matter was not in use till 1844. 
Soon after this I discovered that nitric acid, added to hyposul- 
phite of soda, enabled us to obtain black tones in ammouio- 
uitrate prints. Sulphurous acid and free sulphur were liberated, 
and the print too much lowered, unless over-printed. These 
facts were not published at the time, but they were verbally 
communicated to those who took an interest in the art. The 
fashion of going into print on every occasion had not then set 
in. Several early experimenters have had their labors over- 
looked through being content with communicating their expe- 
rience verbally. I am not disposed to find fault with this, lor, 
undoubtedly, tlie publication of small matters aids materially 
the progress of the art. Still, let it not be forgotten, that the 
facts remain the same: realpriority will still belong to the first 
proposers of any method, although they lose the credit which 
rightly belongs to full publication. This is a point upon which 
much misconception prevails. It is too much the custom to 
suppose that non-publication arises from a selfish motive, whereas 
it may spring simply from a reluctance to push forward, or from 
want of skill in arranging such matters for the printer. More- 



over, there was no journal specially devoted to the subject of 
photography. Taking a great interest in tracing the history 
of photography, I have sought some rule to guide us in fixing 
the dates of discoveries, and enable us to apportion criticiiily, 
the degree of merit due to each inventor. An impossible task! 
some will say. It is a difficult one, and after much considera- 
tion and enquiry, I have come to regard Sir John Herschel's 
view of such matters as the best one. He says, treat the pub- 
lic as a jury; lay all the facts before them, and let them judge 
of the character and demeanor of the witnesses. Sir John 
strongly opposed M. Arago's method of fixing the date of a 
discovery by published documents only. The lustre of the dis- 
coveries of some of our greatest men would be much dimmed, 
were we to admit the validity of such a canon. 

It remains further to add, that the plates of the " Pencil of 
Nature" were printed at Reading, in Berkshire, where the first 
photographic printing establishment was set up, under Mr. 
Talbot's directions by Mr. Henneman, who had long assisted 
Mr. Talbot in his experiments. Some of our early photogra- 
phers will, doubtless, recal with pleasure the marvels of those 
first days, and bear testimony with me to the liberal manner in 
which Mr. Henneman communicated information to all earnest 
lovers of the art. It was there that the writer had the gratifi- 
cation of watching the steps of the process as detailed in these 
pages, and from that time he dates his full knowledge of the 
art, and also his first acquaintance with Mr. Talbot, M. Claudet, 
and M. Fizeau, his first qualified preceptors in all its chief 
branches. Now that the struggles respecting patent rights 
have terminated, he may, perhaps be allowed to add, with some 
chance of being heard, that no charge of want of liberality 
could ever be honestly maintained against the early patentees 
by those who were bent only upon a scientific and personal use 
of the respective patents of that time. He would be ungrate- 
ful if he attempted to conceal his experience in this respect; and 
he regrets that in this matter, the full truth is not universally 
■ ^ -"■ ' M. 



recognized 



Time and events will set all right. 



• Continued from p. 55, vol. xi., no. ii. 



STEREOSCOPIC VIEWS— CASE OF POISONING. 

Buffalo, N. Y., February 15, 1858. 
To the Editor of the Photographic a/nd Fine Art Journal: 

Sir, — In the last very interesting number of your Journal, I 
notice, in the reported proceedings of our Trans-Atlantic neigh- 
bors, a claim for a " Novel Method of taking Stereoscopic 
Views;" " just originated by Mr. J. Gill of Liverpool, and pat- 
ented by him." In this method " two mirrors were so placed to- 
gether, at a slight angle, that each receive an image of the ob- 
ject proposed to be taken. The camera was then directed to- 
wards the mirrors, the images reflected in which were taken on a 
single plate." 

Allow me to inform our friends over the water, that this pro- 
cess is an old American invention — the discovery of Prof. F. 
A. P. Barnard, of Alabama. 

A full description of this process by Prof. Barnard, with 
mathematical demonstration, and notice of accompanying pic- 
tures may be found in Silliman's Journal of Science for 1853, 
page 348. I myself made stereoscopic pictures from this de- 
scription, as many as three years ago, and found the results 
quite satisfactory. 

But the objection raised by a member of the Liverpool So- 
ciety, in reference to the formation of a double image by reflec- 
tion , from the anterior surface of the glass as well as from the sil- 
vered surface, is well founded when glass mirrors are used — at 
least so my experience teaches. I believe mirrors of polished 
metal only, can be successfully used. 

Another article from the Journal of the Photographic So- 
ciety, by W. II. Ptankin, M.D., on the poisonous effects of cy- 
anide of potassium, is, I believe, erroneous and dangerous. 
Mr. Rankin loftily pronounces recent articles on the supposed 
danger from the use of this poison as an external detergent, 
" twaddle," and declares that he " has never heai-d of any au- 
thenticated case of dangerous elTects from such use." 



1858. 



THE rHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



95 



Allow me to state one: — A yonng man in my employment, 
after washing a slightly scratched hand with this article, found 
the hand on the next day quite painful and swollen. The sec- 
ond day it was so badly swollen that he could not use it, and a 
physician was called on, who pronounced it a dangerous case of 
poisoning from the use of the cyanide. Happily, the antidote 
(from a photographic Journal) of 10 grains carbonate of po- 
tassa in 1 ounce of water, followed in a few minutes by ^ a 
drachm of tincture muriate of iron, with 5 grains sulph. iron, 
prevented any serious consequences. 

But a medical man should know that poison may be intro- 
duced into the system both by inhalation and absorbtion, as 
well as through the mouth. Though no immediate injurious 
results may be observed from the application of this poison ex- 
ternally, who can say that its continued use is not sapping the 
vitality of the system ? 

A saturated solution of hyposulphite of soda for removing 
fresh nitrate of silver stains, is much safer and nearly as eflfec- 
taal. 

J. H. Tompkins. 



Personal ^ !^rt Intelligence. 

— Each succeeding month brings to the Photographic Art 
gome new idea, some new process, and some decided advances 
in its progress towards perfection. Photography is thus gra- 
dually extending its usefulness into almost every branch of in- 
dustry, and is reaching, with slow, but steady and sure steps, 
into the bosom of the ''higher Arts." One of the most recent 
published improvements, or rather inventions, is that oi "Burnt- 
in Pholografhy," an article on which subject will be found in 
the present number. This idea is not new to us. Its practica- 
bility was presented to our mind two or three years ago by the 
discovery of a portion of a collodion negative which had passed 
through the seething fire that destroyed Mr. Harrison's manu- 
factory. The image of this piece of negative was not only 
completely vitrified, preserving all the characteristics of the pho- 
tograph, but it was engraved into the glass, so perfectly, that, 
had the surface remained flat — the action of the fire had ren- 
dered it concave on the collodion side — an impression might 
have been taken from it with printer's ink. The effect on those 
portions remaining perfect, was very beautiful. We longed for 
an opportunity to pursue the experiments which this incident 
suggested; but with the multiplicity of our duties, the thingwas im- 
possible; we therefore suggested these experiments to others; 
but there are few in this country who seem willing to grapple 
with and solve the mysteries of a new idea, and therefore the 
experiments were never made, and foreign photographers have 
in this, as in all other decidedly original photographic designs, 
been permitted to carry off the prize credit of its invention. 
Mr. Burnett's article on the subject will well repay perusal, and 
should not be passed over lightly. The most important as well 
as some of the most useful results are to be produced hereafter 
by this process. Its application to every species of glass orna- 
mentation will, in a few years, become highly popular, and we 
shall see vases, lamp-shades, windows, and crockery of every 
description beautified in this manner. 

The new theories lately put forth in regard to photographic 
lens, seems to be gaining ground rapidly, and Professor Petzval 
is obtaining additional honors by his labors in this branch of op- 
tics. But is not our own countryman, Mr. C. C. Harrison, en- 
titled to a very large share of the honors bestowed upon Prof 
Petzval. Did he not quietly solve this problem two years or 
more ago, and introduce to our photographic public, lenses on 
the same principles? Those who have used his cameras, made 
during the last two years, must certainly know that they work 
on the same principle. Mr. Harrison, in working for and pro- 
ducing this result, may not have been aware of the theory w^on 
which his labors were predicated, for he is eminently a practical 
man, and in knowing the requirements of photography, in his 
particular line of business, sought to effect it jpractically with- 



out troubling bis head about the theory. His aversion to mak- 
ing his rules of action public through our Journals will undoubt- 
edly induce such a belief; but those who know him personally, 
and know how laborious a student he is, and how wedded he is 
to his art, will form no such opinion. Two years ago he pro^ 
duced lenses which practically effect what Professor Petzval 
now asserts theoretically. 

Caseiv, as a substitute for collodion, has been successfully 
tried in England. The article on this subject, iu our present 
number, is interesting so far as the suggestions it makes towards 
future improvement. " Converting Positives into negatives by 
heat" is another new idea, successfully tried, but which can be 
of little use to the art as it complicates what is otherwise 
simple, and complications are to be avoided as much as possi- 
ble. 

Some improvements have been made in photography on 
wood in Europe. In this country we are considerably in ad- 
vance of the Europeans, but the usual policy of all our photo- 
graphers in matters of invention is such that they must neces- 
sarily lose all prestige as originators. 

The process for Collodion on Paper has some advantages; 
but not sufficient, we apprehend, to bring it into general use. 

Mr. Sutton lays down the law to Mr. Malone iu an ar- 
ticle on the "Fading of Positives" quite effectually. He has 
decidedly the advantage. Mr. Malone, it seems, is like the 
boy who declared he never would go into the water until he learned 
how to swim. We have quite a number like him on this side 
of the Atlantic. 

A process given for the use of ammoniacal albumen in posi- 
tive printing. We shall endeavor to give it a trial te-'orelong. 
We shall have something new of our own for the May number, 
probably for June also, which we have strong hopes will add 
great advantages to the printing process. What few experi- 
mants we have made, satisfy us completely. 

We have an iuteresting paper from Joseph Dixon, Esq., 
of Jersey City, on "The Methods of Enlarging Photographs, 
or Other Pictures." Many of the ideas advanced are worth 
preserving. Mr. Dixon is not, however, very well posted up 
in the history of the subject, and is rather obscure in relating 
the present methods of enlarging photographs. We do not 
agree with him that perfect pictures cannot be enlarged by 
transmitted light — our experience teaches us that they can. 
We have tried the experiment of enlarging a "half size" collo- 
dion negative portait to life-size — the measurements were in the 
image as in the model. The practice of the enlarging process 
is very little understood yet, and prejudice has found oj)inions 
that cannot be sustained in practice. We shall enlarge on this 
subject hereafter. 

All concede the importance of a perfectly successful dry 
collodion, and yet many are disposed, notwithstanding the re- 
sults that have been obtained, to give up the attempt of pro- 
ducing it. All the formulas, heretofore given, are more or less 
condemned by the mjijority, although the originators profess to 
sustain no failures in their particular cases. Several very ex- 
cellent results have been accomplished in this city, and we may 
have considerable to say in regard to them in a few weeks. 

The oxymel process of Mr. Mann deserves consideration. 

A method of producing positive pictures on white grounds 
is given, which will interest experimental more than practical 
photographers. 

A valuable paper on " Printing Stereoscopic Transpa- 
rencies," by Mr. Hardwich, will be found interesting to stereo- 
scopic photographers. The stereoscope picture business is ra- 
pidly increasing in importance, and will eventually be very lucra- 
tive. During these dull times it would be well for those who 
cannot find sufficient to do in portraiture, to devote their leisure 
moments to taking stereoscopic pictures. If we could gather a 
respectable assortment of good stereoscopic views of American 
scenery, we could soon find a market for them. 

Mr. Forrest in his article on "Tinted Glass," confirms 
the assertions we have so often made in regard to the advan- 
tages of using blue glass in sky-lights. 
— We have the pleasure of presenting to our readers this 



96 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



March, 



month, a decidedly new and valuable improvement in photog- 
rapliy, and it gives us the greater pleasure inasmuch as it is the 
result of the labors of a friend with whom we have been obliged, 
in times past, to be at variance, on another photographic sub- 
ject. We allude to the new piioto-litographic process of Mr. 
J. A. Cutting and his associate, L. H. Bradford. The an- 
nouncement of these gentlemen of their intention to send us the 
illustratiou that we issue witii this number, was too late to give 
us an opportunity of saying all we can say about it; we shall, 
therefore, again refer to it in our next. For the same reason we 
are obliged to omit one of the portraits (^tliat of Mr. Bradford) 
mentioned in our article ou this process, on page 93, until our 
next issue. 

— Frank Ford. — The positive prints you sent us are very 
good. You have an artist's eye and appreciation. The tone 
is precisely of the right kind for permanence. It is soft, clear, 
and agreeable. The positives are excellent. We shall advise 
you, however, to use a side-screen or reflector; and in toning, 
do not tone quite so long as to destroy the middle tints. This 
is the only fault we have to find with the specimens before us. 
We hardly think you need this advice, as the qualities of the 
pictures show that you understand all the points of a good pic- 
ture. 

— E. S. Wykes. — The characteristics of the specimens sent 
by this gentleman, are the same as those by Mr. Ford, with 
the exception of the faults we mention. The tone, clearness, 
and middle-tints are exquisite, and the details are very tine. 
You require no instructions Irom others to place you at the 
head of your art. We would here repeat our request to gen- 
tlemen sending us pictures, to do so unmounted, as we have a 
fine album in which to preserve such as give us satisfaction. 

— We cut the following from the Indianapo/is Journal: 

" All admirers of the beautiful will find at the Metropolitan 
Gallery, the finest photographs and Hallotypes made in the 
West. Mr. Bailey showed us, the other day, several new Hallo- 
types which he had made, which certainly cannot be excelled 
by any artist anywhere. He has a number of pictures of this 
kind at the Metropolitan, and a larger number of photographs 
— likenesses of ladies and gentlemen of this city, and views of 
several of our public buildings. For a good photograph or 
superb Hallotype, go to Bailey at the Metropolitan, and if a 
superior daguerreotype is wauted, Mr. Ohr, at the same gallery, 
can supply it. Messrs. Ohr and Bailey are chief among the 
picture-makers of the country." 

— This comes to us all the way from California, in the Fire- 
man's Journal. Mr. Selleck — we will premise— is perhaps the 
oldiist devotee to the Art in San Francisco, although he may 
be the 'youngest man. He has been identified with daguerreo- 
typing and photographing, ever since he was a shaver in lead- 
ing strings, and he can truly say that he has grown with its 
growth, and strengthened with its strength. We are, there- 
fore, happy to hear that he is so prosperous in the business: 

" Photographs. — Mr. Silas W. Selleck, whose proficiency as 
a daguerrean is so well known, is now engaged in taking pho- 
tographs of the members of the Pioneer Association. The list 
of members numbers about nine hundred, between five and six 
hundred of which have signified their assent to the undertaking, 
aud it is probable that tiie entire body will do so. It is de- 
signed to make books of fifty each, handsomely bound with the 
autograph of each individual represented. Such an under- 
taking speaks well for the arts and sciences in California for 
we doubt if in any other State, a work of such magnitude has 
been carried out, and in its accomplishment it could not devolve 
upon a more worthy man thau Mr. Selleck. His rooms are in 
Rabe's building, 163 Clay street. South-side, near Mont- 
gomery." 

— Friend M. J. Gurnf.y, of Natchez, Miss., at last, comes 
under our notice, and while remembering his pleasant counte- 
nance and smile, and the peculiar eloquence with which he 

dwelt upon the merits of the , we won't mention it friend 

Guruey, for fear medcsty will make you , we shau't say 

what — a jovial soul like yours can never look sad, whatever the 
tongue may say; it therefore gives us great pleasure to hear such 



things as the following said about you. We know it must be 
true, for many others have said the very same thing: 

" Natchf.z Gallery of Art. — We had the pleasure of visit- 
ing the room of M. J. Gurney, in Main street, a few days 
since by his polite invitation, and passed an iiour very pleas- 
antly in the examination oi his superb collection of Daguerreo- 
types, Photographs, Diaphaneotypes, Heliographs, Anjbro- 
types, Melainotypes, etc., taken from the smallest conceivable 
size, to the size of life. His cabinet pictures are perfect gems, 
and eminently worthy the examination of those who are capable 
of appreciating an elegant picture. As we have visited the 
|irinci|)al galleries of art, in London, Paris, New York and 
elsewhere, ample opportunity has been given us to notice the 
gradual improvements which have taken place since the inven- 
tion of Dagnerre was brought before the ))nblic, and we believe 
few artists, either in Europe or this country possess a more 
thorough knowledge of their profession than Mr. Gurney of 
Natchez. He is indefatigable in the search of every new chemi- 
cal improvement which may beautify and adorn his art; pos- 
sesses all the requisite facilities for producing the most superb 
pictures; understands thoroughly every branch of his profession, 
and by his untiring energy has attained a position as an artist 
which reflects honor upon the city in which he resides. Those 
who wish a magniBcent picture will do well to call upon him 
at their earliest leisure." 

— An Antwerp paper mentions that Queen Victoria, who 
has of late devoted much time and displayed great talent in 
the art of photography, has lately sent the Empress Eugenie, 
as a New Year's present, a charming album full of photographs 
taken by herself. On the leaves of this very unique work are 
to be found portraits of the royal children in the costumes of 
various Shakespearean characters, the portrait of Prince Albert, 
together with views of Windsor Castle, Balmoral, and Osborne 
house. 

— We have the promise of something verij interesting from 
Baltimore for our April number. We shall continue our arti- 
cle on toning prints, and shall also give the first of our series 
on the American Photographic patents. • 

— Mr. Burgess has published his fourth edition of the Ara- 
brotype Maimal, and has made large and valuable additions, 
on various subjects connected with Photography. The price is 
still the snmc, $1, cloth 12mo. 

— Mr. W. Notman. — W^e thank you for the offer, and gladly 
accept it. We shall always be pleased to hear from you on any 
subject that may strike you as original and good. 

— We notice that mention is made of a process by Mr Bul- 
lock of England, for taking photographic pictures, portraits, &c, 
on the back of visiting and other cards This is spoken of as 
new. Mr. Richards of Philadelphia, has possessed a process of 
this kind, and practised it for more than a year. This is 
another one of those ptiotographic cases, where the originator 
of a process has deprived himself of the honor of its introduction. 

— We regret to learn that Mr. Terhll, of Belvidere, 111., 
has been burned out, losing everything; but, judging from the 
good spirits in which he writes, we do not think he means to 
succumb to the disaster. 

— J.R.Rose. The Caraeotype process is claimed by Mr, 
J. Atkin, of Brooklyn, L. I., aud to him you should write for 
the desired information. 

— R. Shriver. There has not yet been a dry process pub- 
lished that is not subjected to objectional remarks, and that has 
given general satisfaction. The iuventors generally claim all 
the photographic virtues for them, while others confess their in- 
ability to work them. A trial of each process is the only means 
of ascertaining which will give the most satisfaction. 

— The contents of our present number indicates an increas- 
ing interest in photogra])hy on the part of our subscribers. 
We not only have more valuable matter from foreign writers, 
but the increase in original conmmnications is decidedly more 
satisfactory — of a higher order. We shall commence next 
month with our articles on photographic patents, and should 
feel much obliged to those possessing facts relating to the mat- 
ter, if they will communicate them to us. 




J. E. ITiTTrooii. Neg. 



11. H. Snelling, Print. 



2^^ ]R S 



G- IL, J^ ID ST-^ZSTE^ 

Of the Boston Theatres. 



k 



1858. 



THE PnOTOGRAPniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



91 



LIVERPOOL 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal 

PnOTOGRAPIIIC SOCIETY. 




AK monthly, meetinp: of tlie mf^tnbers 
of this Society was held at tiie Royal 
Institution, Colquitt Street, on 
Tuesday. evening, January 26th, for 
the i)ur|)0se of receiving the Annual 
Report of the Council, and the Re- 
port of the Deputation appointed to 
confer with a deputation of the His- 
toric Society of Lancashire and 
Cheshire, as to the terms under which 
it was proposed to merge the exist- 
ence of the Pliotographic in that of the Historic Society, and 
of deciding tiiereupou. 

C. Corky, E-;q., who iiresided, stated that it would be de- 
sirable to leave the consideration of these reports to the last, in 
order that every cliance should be afforded to absent members, 
who might still be in attendance before the meeting closed, of 
taking part in the discussion. In the a'jsence of more interest- 
ing matter, he (the Ciiairniaii) laid before the meeting a beauti- 
ful specimen of American photography, on the peculiar descrip- 
tion of highly pcilished black cloth, or leather used by ladies in 
crochet work. The ima^e was perfectly sharp, and apparently 

as indelible as it was distinct aud clear. 

****** 

Mr. Foard observed, with reference to the process of trans- 
ferring descrilied by Mr. Ross, that about three or four months 
ago he was awaited upon by a gentleman, who, from certain 
indications, he tiiought must surely be a photographer; and so 
it ap|)eared. The visitor said he had something very par- 
ticular to discover to him, and after much beating about the 
bush he said"he'had one mode of transver, vhich vos ver 
beautiful and ver simple," and asked him (Mr. Foardj to pur- 
chase it Now he had so many wonderful secrets, which were 
no secrets broui;'ht to him every week, that he was inclined to 
give the foreign gentleman something like hearty thanks, and 
wish him good day, but, after some further conversation, the 
secret was unfoMed. It described a mode of transferring by 
using sulphuric acid a method which he (Mr. Foard) found to 
be very simple and very succesotul. He gave the man a testi- 
monial, promised to keep the secret, which he had done until 
he found that it had been known and practised in France for 
some months, and now it appeared that it had been known 
some time before that in America; but he greatly preferred 
washing both the oil cloth and the film while just damp from 
partial draining, with spirits of wine, pressing the two very 
closely toirether, and leaving them to dry spontaneously, when 
the film will be found to have quitted the glass entirely, adher- 
ing solely to the oil-cloth or leather. 

Mr. J. A. Forrest then addressed some remarks upon cer- 
tain animadversions which he said had been cast upon him in 
the Liverpool a7id Manchester Photographic Journal, 2in& pro- 
ceeded to say: — "I deem it a duty I owe to the Society, to put 
the matter in question in a practical channel of settlement. As 
it is useless to prolong a di.-^cussion where theory and specula- 
tion only are opposed to kno.vn and tried results, I dechne 
f irther controversy but am content to set the matter at rest 
by a practical experiment of the most stringent kind; I there- 
fore propose that a committee be appointed for the purpose of 
investigating the subject; and to afford them the fullest facili- 
i e^ for so doing, let them call upon sundry parties who mny be 
most interested in the subject, to furnish s|iecimens of the differ- 
ent varieties of white or tinted glass. Mr. Keith has kindly 
otfered a portion of his operating-roof, for the purpose of glaz- 
ing with different specimens of white and tinted glass. I pro- 
pose that pieces of various tints and colors of glass, as well as 
white, be inserted in this roof, exposed to the full effect of the 
Buu's rays, and that corresponding portions of each specimen be 
placed with the committee in sealed envelopes. At the end of 
the summer the experiment will he complete. The pieces, from 
the roof, can be compared witli the portions in the hands of the 

VOL XI. KO. IV. 13 



committee; the difference in the results will substantiate the 
position taken by the Editor of the Journal^ or the statements 
of mine, which have been called in question. 

The Chairman thought Mr. Forrest's proposition was just 
the one that was wanted. 

Mr. Fo.\RD, in seconding the proposition, expressed some sur- 
prise that the Editor of the Juxirnal had not entered into the 
discussion in a more fair and liberal spirit. The remarks made 
in the leading article in the last Journal, as to the failure of 
blue glass, referred to the blue glass formerly in the Poly- 
technic, the tinted glass in which certainly retarded rather than 
assisted the process, and it was changed for white. But that 
did not settle the question, because that gla,ss was of a differ- 
ent tint to the glass advocated by Mr. Forrest. The glass in 
the Polytechnic was a dark blue, that referred to by iMr. For- 
rest being a light blue; the former did deeped in tint, and might 
have afforded some ground for the Editor's statements. 

Mr. Berry suggested that, in the event of the amalgamation 
with the Historic Society, the specimens of glass to be experi- 
mented npon should be put in a frame, and placed on the top of 
St. George's-hall. This would remove all ground for any sup- 
posed collusion which might be charged upon them, were a 
private establishment selected for the experiments. 

It was resolved that this suggested should be acted npon, and 
Dr. Ayrton, Mr. Glover, and Mr. Berry were appointed a com- 
mittee to conduct the experiments. 

Mr. Forrest wished to observe with reference to the remark 
in the Journal on his reference to glass in the York Cathedral 
being 200 years old, that there was one striking feature in 
ancient glass which was absent from modern glass. In olden 
times the salt was not skiinmed from the surface of the glass 
after it ^as melted, but it was allowed to float on the surface, 
and the result was the formation, by lapse of time, of a number 
of minute holes, caused by the separation of the salt. 

After some further couvtrsatiou the subject was allowed to 
drop. 

THE ANNUAL EEPORT. 

The Chairman read the following report and statement of 
accounts: — 

The Council of the Photographic Society, in presenting their 
fourth Annual Report to the members of the Society, would re- 
quest them to bear in mind that last year has been in some 
measure probationary, for it was entered upon with the ap- 
pointment of another Treasurer in lieu of the gentleman who 
had so ably fiiled that office heretofore, and withan increased 
subscription, chiefly to establish the fact, if possible, that the 
Society could be able to preserve an independent existence, and 
not need the fostering aiclof an elder brother by accepting the 
Triendly advances made by certain members of a learned and 
long established Society. The result of this exjieriment is not 
such as would just.fv the mendiers of the Council in recommend- 
ing to the main body of the Society to continue their present 
pliase of existence. The science of photography was so rapidly 
increasimr in its wondrous effects, that ere we had time fully to 
consider and to comprehend each new discovery, another light 
eclipsed the rays of the last new marvel, so that its admirers 
were glad to meet and increase the store of knowledge by the 
interchange of their several ideas; but either the science has 
nearly reached its culminating point, or there is some otlnr 
cause not within the province of your Council to divine, but the 
meetings have been fewer, and the proceals, as will be shown 
l)y the balance sheet, are insufficient for the further progress of 
•he Society as at present constituted In this exigency the 
question was again mooted at the last meeting of a coalition 
with the Historic Society, and a committee <f this body was 
selected to confer with the Council of the Historic Society; 
they met on the 14th of this month, and certain conditions weie 
then agreed upon subject to the approval of the resjjective bod.c s 
These will be laid before you in the course of the evenmg. it 
appears that there was an Act of Parliament passed, m 18o4, 
that has reference to our present j)Ositiou; by this enactment 
it is ordained that before a perfect fusion of two learned or lit- 



ernry societies can take place, there shall be two sepo- 
rate meetings of either or both of the several Societies, so tluit 
the condition of such junction shall be well and duly considered 
and deliberiited)ipon. The members will therefore have ampli' 
time to mature their opinions upon these conditions, as another 
meeting will be necessary before their fiat will be called for. 

The statement of accounts was. then read, and, together with 
the report, adopted, nem. dis. 

PROPOSED AMALGAMATION WITH THE HISTORIC SOCIETY. 

Tlie Chairman read the following minutes of the conference 

between the depntatious of the Historic and Photographic So- 

cipties: — 

Commillte of Covfcrenxe on the subject of union. 

Historic Society — Dr. Hume, and Messrs. Sansom and 

Buxton. 
Photographic Society — Messrs, Corey, Keith, Foard, and 

Forrest. 
Meeting in St. George's Hall, 14th January, 1858, at six 
P.M.; present, Thoma.s Sansom, Esq., in the chair, also Messrs. 
Keith, Foard, Forrest, and Corey. The following draft, was 
unanimously agreed to:- — 

1. That the Photographic Society, become part of the His- 
toric Society, i.e., that it accept the name and laws of the latter. 

2. That the number of sections, as fixed by the present laws, 
be not increased, but that communications on photography be 
admissable at all the ordinary meetings. 

3. That a Photographic Committee be appointed annually, 
at the commencement of the session, like the committees for 
printing, finance, the library, &c. 

4. That it be attowable to print papers on photography in 
anticipation of the annual volume of "Transactions," at the 
discretion of this committee. 

5. That the property of the Photographic Society become 
the property of the Historic Society, and that the members of 
the Photographic Society be enrolled without entrance fee. 

6. That the union date from the 3Lst March, 1858, if the 
preliminary arrangements be complete by that time. 

[The number of members of the Photographic Society is 
forty-five; and it was suggested that the Historic Society 
Council should resolve to fill up the first three vacancies in their 
own body by members of the Photographic Society, or to re- 
commend them for that purpose.] 

In reply to members, the Chairman stated that every dispo- 
sition was shown by the deputation from the Historic to meet 
any reasonable desire on the part of the Photographic Society; 
that it was intimated that photographic intelligence would be 
acceptable on every occasion, and whenever sufficient matter 
could be provided, so, as to exhaust an entire evening, the 
council would have great pleasure in setting an evening apart 
for that purpose. 

On the proposition of Mr. Bell, seconded by Mr. Leithead, 
it was then unanimously resolved, "That the terms which had 
been agreed upon by the delegates be accepted by the society." 

It being necessary that this resolution should be submitted 
at another general meeting, for the purpose of a second time 
receiving the sanction of three-fifths of the members then 
present, it was resolved that another meeting should be held 
on Tuesday, 8th February. 

A vote of thanks to the Chairman terminated the proceed- 
ings. 



PHOTOGRAPHY I\ AMSHIMTiiN. 



Ivory Black — Animal Charcoal. — Animal charcoal is 
found abundantly in commerce, and is procured by calcining 
bones. It is used in photography for bleaching the aceto-ni- 
tratc of silver when discolored by use or otherwise. It is used 
by pouring 10 parts of the aceto-nitrate upon 1 part ivory 
black, in a porcelain cup, boiling them for about 16 minutes 
and filtering. The liquid thus obtained is very clear, and con 
Ktitutes a very complex salt of silver, which gives very fine ne- 
gative results on iodized paper. 



Dear Snelling: — I paid a short visit to the capitol of the 
Nation — Washington. I found not only politics in full tide, 
but tlie artistic world was alive. Another new gallery opened. 
Mr. Brady, of New York, has opened the rooms formerly oc- 
cupied by Piumbe, and known as that gallery. Hie makes a 
fine display, but shows nothing but what he has exhiliited in 
his specimen gallery in New York. He lias many beautiful re- 
touclied pictures. I saw nothing plain that attracted, my at- 
tention. Bpt his. retouched pictures are the mostexqnisite pro- 
ductions exhibited fn Washington. But- all the credit is due 
the artist for his skill in India ink touching. Mr. Brady has 
many distinguished personages, and from hisuntiring industry 
and energy, he is deserving of the highest' praise ft>r having 
done so much in the photographic world. Many think that 
the portrait painter wilibe thrownin the shade by the invention 
and discovery of photography, and its application to life-size 
portraits. 'Tis a great mistake; they improve the taste by 
making good drawings^ The mechanical labor is taken off, for 
certainly the drawing is.thp mechanical part; for any one who 
can learn to write can. learn to. draw;, and to paint aphotograph 
good, it is necessary, to, have a good artist. 

Mr. Paiqe has the gallery familiarly known as Hoot's old place. 
I found him not only, gentlemanly, but a very good operator. 
He appears in do a good business without making much noise. 
In this case modest merit does not go unrewarded. 

Mr. MgClees' gallery has a fine start; and well it might, 
for such a host of noted men in his employ are bound to suc- 
ceed. Their pictares rank with the best in the country. Mr. 
Samuel Croner is the operator Of him I have spoken be- 
fore, but, his. pictures have improved so much of late, that I 
may add a kind word for him again. Some pictures that he has 
taken of a tribe of Indians would do credit tx) the fi.rst photo- 
graphers in the country, and so exquisite are they in richness 
of tone, that they would be spoiled to even touch them with In- 
dia ink. Mr. Brainard is the solicitor for this gallery, and his 
name alone will bring into_ any place a good share of business 
in Washingtoii, as well as that of Mr. Vannerson. 

T. J. NiMMO, the agent for the gallery, known as. the White- 
hurst Gallery, has, probably, the largest share of business. 
They had their large double whole plate lens stolen, for which 
he offers twpnty-five dollars reward, and no questions asked. 
The person who stole it is strangely suspected, and he had bet- 
ter return it for the sake of the profession. There are many 
bubbles on the glass, and it is easily told trom other instruments. 
Mr. Nimmo, by his manly deportment, and by being a frst- 
class operator in photography, has made many friends. Nearly 
all the members of Congress and Senators know him, and all 
familiarly address him as Sara. It is at this gallery where all 
experiments are tried by the vaaious operators of the country, 
who go to Washington to get patents on their inventions. 

In photographic chemistry Mr. Henry O'Neil stands with- 
out a rival in Washington, and all the operators concede him 
to be the best in the South, and I most cheerfully say I think 
him the best in the country. His pictures, as a general thing, 
need no retouching. They have a very fine workman in. India 
ink in their establishment, but every picture he touches he ruins 
the likeness; so that a picture witliout a likeness is worth no- 
thing. You may as well go and hiy a pretty picture. 

Nothing is done to any extent in the way of oil photogaaphs 
in Washington, except by Mr. Walker. He has a good share 
of what is going on in that way. 1 think Mr. O'Neil does the 
principal business here. 

I saw him using a varnish which may be good to some of 
your readers to varnish photographs. It makes them not only 
smooth, but it gives a richness of tone to the photograph not 
produced in any other way. Take white bee's-wax and turpen- 
tine, and dissolve it by a slow heat. Have the largest portion 
of the mixture wax; so when it is cold it will belike butter. 
To destroy the smell put in a little oil of burgamot. To apj)ly 
it, use a piece of canton flannel, and rub the picture hard, and a 
richness will be produced surpassingly beautiful. 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPniC A^'D FINE ART JOURNAL. 



99 



Mr. O'Xeii, uses Woodward's solar camera, but they do not 
have any business of tliat kind to do wortliy of note. 

Mr. Yannerson has invented something of a similar niitnre 
to Woodward's instrument, which, he says, does tlie bus uess. 
But I liave not seen, and cannot speak of it. iS'othiiip; cou d 1)' 
better than Woodward's, I think myself at present; but this is 
the age of improvement, and we shall see what we shall see 
soon. Our ingenius natures do not like to be outdone. As 
these new galleries progress I shall drop you a line, and keep 
you thoroughly posted. 



From the London Art Journal. 

TraiORETTO AT VENICE, AND MR. RUSKI\.* 



Most silvery of mornings ! and where could its light find a 
more interresting mirror than this open Langune of Yenice, 
whither an unusual stretch of activity has brought us fi'oni be- 
neath those lazy mosquito curtains thus early, to see the market 
boats flocking from Mestre and its neighboring shores towards 
the island city? The lake-like expanse of water, now at its 
utmost height and calmness, reflects little less than the full 
brightness and void serenity of the heavens, where it lies around 
us, with its own far-off ring of peaked mountains, the Jjilian 
and Friuli Alps, and its inlaying gems of islets, shining here 
and there with domes and campanili, between which the craft 
we came especially to admire yet again, seem now racing with 
each other, convergent towards the Cana'^reggio, as directly and 
as fast as little ducks who. see the feeder's hand held out to 
them. So pure and keen is the light that, notwithstanding a 
considerable distance, we can see well their various landings — 
heaped joints.of meat (copious veal and beef), the piles- of gar- 
den produce, and the other "gifts divine" which they are bear- 
ing to the markets about the Rialto; amongst them the scarlet 
gourds, a.id some masses of flowers shining with pre-eminent 
brilliancy. Further off, there lies a group of becalmed fishing- 
boats, which almost look suspended in a vacancy of silyer air; 
and in this woadrously clear atmosphere, we can discern the re- 
ligious emblems with which their green and amber sails are 
variegated. Nay, more remote than the.se by many a long- 
league, we cansee, kindling witii fair golden touches, what is 
but rarely beheld so brightly — the minutely jagged outlines, the 
broken peaks or needles of Titian's Cadore mountains, near 
which he was born, and whose forms fthe influence of which 
may be traced in some of his backgrounds) seem rapidly chang- 
ing from the pure aerial grey clouds to that of glowing rock 
and turfy steep. 

Where shall we go ? It were a glorious morning for some 
of the remoter parts of the Lngune; but then, how perfectly 
adapted is this light for displaying to the utmost those pictures 
by Tintoretto in the dusky halls of San Rocco^ which we have 
still to notice, in order to complete that investigation of the 
painter's woi:ks, and of Mr. Ruskiu's remarks on thenr, which 
we entered into on our former opportunity. Still, in that build- 
ing, tlie two or three most striking instances of Tintoretto's 
powers, and of Mr. Rnskin's errors, remain nntonched; and af- 
terwards we must to the Ducal Palace, and there close our in- 
quiries, appending to them, as we before said, a few brief, ob- 
servations on certain other subjects, which naturally branch 
out from them. Yes; the work half finished before freer plea- 
sures! Therefore will we fall in with these market-boats, and 
accompany them so far as our course mingles itself with theirs, 
on the way to the Scuola di San Rocco. 

And now let us mount the stairs, and, passing as we ascend 
that exquisite Annunciation by Titian, in which the Madonna 
is a lady of a refined sweetness and grace, unrivalled, perhaps, 
in any picture in Yenice, let us enter the tipper Hall, also co- 
vered, walls and ceiling, with large pictures by. Tintoretto. In 
some of them the figures, conceived and painted in a large and 
bold style, have a grand and imposing air; but the usual 



• Continued from p. 355, vol. x., no.xii. 



coarseness and a pompous coldness greatly prevail, and the co- 
loring is for the most part weak and cold; nor are any of the 
other characteristic attractions of the Yenetian pencil to be 
met with in them. Incomparably the finest production in this 
hall is the "Plague of Serpents" on the ceiling, assuredly a 
striking and terrific conception, and in that respeft one of Tin- 
toretto's masterpieces. Numbers of figures are lying scattered 
on the ground, at different distances, in various attitudes of 
agony, despair, and exhaustion, invaded and bitten by certain 
mysterious winged reptiles, not serpents, by-thc-by, and of no 
great size, yet full of liorror^namerous, inevitable, incessant, 
pitiless — terribly they bite their tortured and writhing victims, 
each of whom has been fastened on by one of the busy swarm, 
from which there is no flight or defence. It is a fearful picture 
of helpless agony. 

On the ceiling of the third hall, a smaller apartment beyond, is 
the painting referred toby Yasarias the subject of his well known 
anecdote illustrative of Tintoretto's deplorably off-hand habits of 
working. The brotherhood of the Scuola being delighted with 
his Crucifixion, newly set up in this room, determined to deco- 
rate their ceilings also with pictures, and accordingly invited 
corr.petition for the purpose, when Paul Yeronese, Zucchero, 
and Salviati, forthwith diligently set them.selves to work in pre- 
paring designs and studies. But Tintoretto, meanwhile, having 
secretly obtained the admeasurement of one of the spaces to 
be filled, completed a picture at once, outright, and managed 
so as to have it already set up in the alloted j)lace on the day 
appointed for settling the business, to the no small surprise of 
tlie meeting. He protested, however, that this was his way of 
preparing designs; the only way, he most likely added, of se- 
curely guarding against a picture unworthy of the sketch, or un- 
suited to the light and position, and offered to present them with 
the work, provided they objected to it on other terms; so, after 
s ime opposition, it was suffered to remain in its place. Hither-- 
to the "San Rocco in Heaven" in the ceiling has been supposed 
to be the work in question, but we cannot believe it.. Mr. Rus- 
kin, .without disputing the usual tradition to that effect, ob- 
serves that this picture is quite different from Tintoretto's com- 
mon works. It is indeed so entirely in its hard, bright coloring 
its dry flatness, and, above all, in its touch (in which especially 
an artist's genuine work is so prompt to declare itself), that we 
feel confident that it is not by Tintoretto, at all. Mr. Ruskin 
adds that it resembles Correggio more than any Yenetian 
painter, to which it may be replied that. nothing can be more 
unlike the work of Correggio. 

On the wall beneath it is the "Christ before Pilate," one of 
Mr. Ruskin's prime favorites. The tall figure of Christ wrapped 
in long white drapery, such as reminds you-something of a wind- 
ing-sheet, is an impressive figure on a cursory view, but it has 
nothing whatever of the moral beauty and interest one chiefly 
looks for, and we fear resembles too much an ordinary man 
doing penance in a white sheet. In allusion to this figure, Mr. 
Ruskin says it is "pale like a pillar of moonlight, half bathed 
in the glory of the Godhead, half wrapt in the whiteness of 
the sliroud." But there are not,, according to the best of our 
powers of perception, any traces of such glory or divineness in, 
Tintoretto's figure; and surely very properly in that, hour of 
trial and humiliation, when our Saviour having, if ever, "freely 
put off," that glory, submitted himself to the most degraded 
and dreadful lot of poor, simple, unaided humanity. To repre- 
sent himiis "half bathed in the glor.y of the Godhead" at such 
a moment is surely no proof of that insensity or truthfulness of 
imagination which Mr. Ruskin claims for this piiinter in his 
high-sounding, authoritative, theological style; and Tintoretto 
has, assuredly, fallen into no error of that kind here. What 
we should first look for, on Mr. Ruskin's own alleged principle 
of essential and undeviating accuracy is, of course, some touch- 
ing expression of that real, actual, substantial humanity — some 
moving picture of as much resignation, loving patience, and 
dignity as may truly become a man so tried. But of this we 
get nothing in the present picture, and instead of it ('according 
to the principles which Mr. Ruskin is never tired of enforcing 
on other occasions, and especially when depreciating Raphael) 



100 



THE PUOTOGRAPHIC AIs'D FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



we are not content to be put off with phantom similitudes, or 
evasive effects of ''pillars ol" moonligiit," and of inini>-led 
glories and fiTave-clotiies, not proper to the immediate matter 
or moment, however nmch so tliey might he as accessories in a 
representation of other events in our Savior's history. In tak- 
ing leave of this picture, we cannot help borrowing its eulo- 
gist's inappropriaie image, and applying it to his own descrip- 
tion — it is altogether a pillar, a tall pillar of moonshine itself. 

In the same room is Tintoretto's famous ''Crucifixion," in 
pointof invention his master-piece: a picture of which xMr. Rus- 
kin says that "it is beyond all analysis, and above £\ll praise.'' 
"I will not insult this marvellous picture," he says, "by an ef- 
fort at a verbal account of it. I would not whitewash it with 
jiraise." If to describe pictures is to insult them, alas ! how 
grievously has Mr. Ruskin insulted those other pictures of Tin- 
toretto's on which he expatiates with such fulness ! And if 
praise be whitewash, how cruelly has he whitewashed Angelico, 
Turner, Mii liael Augelo, and the arcades of the Ducal Palace 
and St. Mark's Church, and a u:ultitude of other things, which 
are qnite hidden and confused by the glare of his thickly ap- 
plied eulogies. But after all, these expressions of his are per- 
ha])S a mere thongiitless rhetorical flourish; at least, one thinks 
so after carefully .studying the picture, and discovering that de- 
cidedly moderate teruj of admiration suffice for its merits. It 
is alai'ge work, in which the subject is not treated in the usual 
way, but altogether originally, with novel incidents boldly con- 
ceived, and expressed with so much life and energy that much 
of the effect of an actual living scene is attained, especial- 
ly on the first impressions, which are wonderfully striking. 
The Saviour's cros.s, in the middle of this very wide picture, 
rises from its foot, and those to whom he was dearest are as- 
SiMubled beneath, some of them lying huddled together in an ex- 
haustion or trance of grief — i-omewhat coarse figures, but vigo- 
rously expressive. Elsewhere the evil powers of the world are 
represented as in vehement action. On our left they are draw- 
ing up the cross on which one of the thieves is already stretched; 
it is half up, pulled by a long cord with all the muscular energy 
of a powerful ruffian. On the other side, the third cross lies 
on the ground witii the other thief seated on it; and one stands 
over with a long auger, boring a hole for one of the nails, and 
another is pulling hard and cruelly at a cord which binds his 
limbs. Just before them, crouched low on the ground, are two 
throwing dice for the seamless garment — hideous, reptile-like 
figures, coarsely and darkly daubed in, as if by the artist's tho- 
rough scorn for them. Tliere are numbers of other figures en- 
circling all these — faithful men regarding Christ aloof w^th 
tender sorrow, and one nearer, by himself, is leaning forward 
and gazing on him with a calm but most intense earnestness, 
which exjiresses, if we mistake not, the tranquil but full enjoy- 
ment of triumphant malignity. Then there are pom, ous digni- 
taries carelessly looking on, as in some arena, at that event, 
which, as they may imagine, I'ids the world of a singular char- 
acter, who was beginning to make himself a little loo trouble- 
some. A w'aii, lurid liglit shines on the ground, and a very at- 
mosphere of horror seems to prevail around thecross, and there 
area fiendish animation and activity in some of the groups 
which strike the imagination ])Owerfully. A sombre, brownish 
to.ie prevails in the coloring, with heavy shades, and vehement, 
but coarse painting. It is an admirabfe scenic general conce]!- 
tiou of tiie event; buttlie event is almost every tiling, t\i& persons 
are not much; they will scarcely pass for tiie persons ot Scrip- 
ture. The St. John looking up at the Saviour, for insoance, is 
a very ordinary Italian, and some of the other saintly mourners 
are rude and almost grotesque figures. On looking further tor 
pathetic and sublime traits of individual character and feeling 
you are disappointed. 

The figure of Christ himself strikes us as being one of the 
feeblest parts of the jiicture, and Mr. Ruskin has strangely ex- 
aggerated its effect. In ascribing to Tintoretto an unrivalled 
depth of imaginative insight into this subject, he praises him 
for despising vulgar expressions of bodily i)ain, and for "seek- 
ing rather to express the fainting of the deserted Son of God 
bef^oi'c his Eloi cry, by the repose of the figure aud by casting 



the countenance altogether in shade " The passage is likely 
to be warmly admired everywhere but in front of the iiictnre, 
in which, unfortunately, all idea of fainting is excluded by the 
appearance of life and animated composure iu the figure. It 
seems as if speaking to the St. John wholooks up from beneath. 
Mr. Ruskin goes on to say that '' the agony is told by this, that 
though there yet remains a chasm of light on tlie mountain ho- 
rizon where the earthquake darkness closes on the day, the 
broad and sunlight glory about the head of the Redeemer has 
become wan, and of the color of ashes!" Here, again, the 
words fade lamentably before the picture, for the light is by no 
means awfully concentrated anywhere, and the pale grey, 
watery-looking halo round the Saviour'shead is so like the tone 
of the sky around it, and that of many other objects which as- 
sist in giving its general complexion to the work, that it becomes 
exceedingly doubtful whether Tintoretto had any such imagina- 
tion as that here attributed to him. "We think that if he had, 
he would at least have expressed it with some little emphasis, 
so as to render it in some slight degree effective; at any rate| 
this may be said confidently, as an expression of agony it is 
rendered valueles.s — quite nutralized by the perfect composure 
and serenity of the figure itself. 

But there is another " thought" in this picture which Mr. 
Ruskin places at the very apex of his fanciful pile of eloquence, 
his huge mountain of admiration reared in honor of Tintoretto! 
In the shade behind the cross you can ju.-t make out the man 
seated on an ass, who is pointing out to the multiiude the cru- 
cified Saviour with malignant triumph, whilst, as Mr. Ruskin 
has shown us, the ass on which he is seated is eating the verv 
palm leaves which that giddy multitude but a few days before 
strewed in his path with Hosannas and shouts of loving wel- 
come. "A happy idea enough!" one exclaims; " an ingenious, 
shrewd, satirical, Hogarthish touch, happily significant, cer- 
tainly, of the fickleness of the nndtitude, though one can haidly 
help wishing this fickleness had bten illustrated t)y some circniii- 
stauce less bordering on the vulgar and grote.'^que, some inci- 
dent more in accord.uice with the snblimest terror and sadness 
of the event, than this one of the donkey feasting on tlie rem- 
nants of the triumphal bran/hes." Kevertheless, we accept the 
" thought" graciou.sly, with rnild approbation of its infienuity 
and clevern(S^; but when we find it cited in Mr. Raskin's most 
solemn, puii-sant, afid authoritative diction, as the uiaster-stroke 
which must terminate at once all doubts as to the unequjilled 
depth of Tintoretto's imagination, we cannot help seeing at 
once, very clearly, that the powir-r of mind required to produce 
this thought, and its value when produced, have lieeii sinmdarlv, 
wonderfully exaggerated. Most of the woiks of Hogarth, 'it 
may lie confiilently stated, abound in touches at least' as si"-- 
iiifiiant and ingenious; and if such conceptions, indeed, place 
Tintoretto as a man of mind on the very summit of the painter's 
Parnassus, as Mr. Ru>kin evidently thinks, surely our own 
Fielding of the pencil ought to lie raised there too, very little 
or not at all beneath him — an exultation very gratilying to our 
feelings as Englishmen, certainly. And it sin uld be' added, 
with regard to this vaunted incident of Tintoretto's that there 
is absolutely nothing but the bare conception of it, lor the |iic- 
torial embodying is altogether coarse, slovenly, and uninter- 
esting. 

But surely such fancies as these discovered in Tintoretto 
(none of tlum, alter all, proofs of any rcmarkal le genius or 
inventive powt-rj are not tne foremost thiniiS we ouiiht to ex- 
|iect from great |;aiiitcrs. R;itlier wimt \\e fiist look lor from 
them is the direct expression of ihdught, |)assion,and character, 
beauty and dignity, us shown in the bodily form irud couv/enavre 
of men and things. Tl is is the pre-eminent ami exclu.-ive ofhce 
of Painting, to which History and Poetry, having said tlieir 
best, and laying aside their exhaustid jiens, lovingly and rev- 
erentially invite her, as the sole means of ruidering the record 
livingly complete, or the poetical vision jierfectly liright and 
clear, and enriched especially with tluse mute looks wln^se 
ekupiince begins to move us when words 'ail, and of wiiieh 
words yield no account. Were all these conceits ot Tintorfllo's 
so much lauded by Mr. Ruskin, as ingenious as his favorite 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FIXE APvT JOURXAL. 



lOi 



asitiine fancy in the Crucifixion, — the only one amongst thera 
which seems to us to liave some slight value, — we would de- 
lightedly exchange thera all for one direct touch of the more 
pathetic or sublime emotions of the persons portrayed, such as 
a higher order of painters had proved to be within the fitting 
aim of Art, and wanting which, Tintoretto's merely scenic no- 
tion of the crucifixion (however powerful and striking of its 
kind) must take rank with an altogether lower order of con- 
ceptions. 

But apart from the particular attempts in Lis chapter on 
"Imagination Penetrative" to prove that Tintoretto's imagina- 
tion and general power were of the very highest order, it is con- 
tinually striking us that tlie very limited praise to which Mr. 
Rnskin seems obliged to confine himself whilst describing the 
picture in detail, corresponds but ill with the admiration he 
ever bestows on the master when speaking of him generally. 
He admits over and over again that the conception of the more 
exalted subjects is often utterly unworthy, and the merits in 
these and other pictures are acknowledged to be in the concep- 
tion or execution of some suliordinate part or other: as one 
seems painted entirely for the glorious downy wings of the 
angel, another is chiefly to be admired for the painting of a 
fiir, or olive-tree, or a cloud, or a stone, or " the sublime head 
of an ass," or for the mystical significance of a color, or of some 
other allusion at least as trivial as any we have been mentioning. 
Sometimes detects in this painter are indulgently ascribed to 
ill-health, or to a mecliauical manner occasioned by too little 
reference to nature; but sometimes he is conceived to have 
wilfully daubed vilely from an aristocratic feeling of contempt 
for the humbler classes of his fellow creatures. 

The passage in which this last peculiarity is noticed is re- 
markable. In the Adoration of the Shepherds — " it seems as 
if Tintoret determined to make the shepherds as uninteresting 
as possible. I believe that this is one of the painter's fixed 
principles ; he does not, with German sentimentality, make 
shepherds and peasants graceful or sublime, but he purposely 
vulgarises them, — not by making their actions or their faces 
boorish or disagreeable, but rather by painting them ill, and 
composing their draperies tamely. As far as I recollect at 
present, the principle is universal with him: exactly in pro- 
portion to the dignity of character is the beauty of the 
painting. He will not put out his strength upon any man 
bjlonging to the lower classes, and in order to know what 
the painter is, one must see him at work upon a king, a senator, 
or a saint. The curious connection of this with the aristocratic 
tendencies of the Venetian nation, when we remember that Tin- 
toretto was the greatest man whom that nation produced, may 
become very interesting if followed out." 

Without admiring "German sentimentality," we really must 
be permitted to say that we prefer it to the aristocratic dead- 
uess of feeling supposed to be manifested in this very foolish 
and fantastical way, and which, though passed so lightly over, 
is surely as fitting a subject for sarcasm. If these remarks are 
just, the human sympathies of this painter (so paradoxically 
but so quietly assumed to be the greatest man whom his nation 
produced) must have been narrow, and ignorant, and dull in- 
deed, and we can the more readily account for his manifest 
want of power over the tender feelings of the heart, and his 
treating the most pathetic events of Scripture with little else 
than wild and dreamy fantasies. 

We now see how wild and coarse a latitude Mr. Rnskin al- 
lows him in them, from fish-shaped clouds and palm leaves re- 
moved to Mount Cavalry on purpose to be eaten by the ass at 
the crucifixion, up to the presence of the devil at Christ's bap- 
tism at a moment when surely he would have been neither so 
bold nor so foolish as to intrude himself. But when Raphael, 
in one of the noblest and most beautiful pictures in the world, 
the " Charge to Peter," takes an imaginative license in his way 
— that is to say, reverently offers up to the sacred theme all 
the tenderness and beauty of expression, and dignity, and ma- 
jesty, he can bestow on it, and, treating his subject in a poetic 
or ideal manner, which Mr. Rnskin would have applauded in 
Tiutoretto, departs from the close matter-of-fact rendering of 

13* 



the Scripture narrative, in order to represent with due dignity 
the establishment of the Petric supremacy, or of the Roman 
Church, acrnrdivg to his own creed (actually placing the keys 
in Peter's hands, to indicate that object unmistakeably), — this 
impartial and exceedingly temperate critic stigmatises the work 
as "infinite montrosity and hypocrisy," and Raphael's allusion 
to that erroneous though (we may assume) sincere article of 
his faith, as "a lie "* 

However, we must not pursue this subject at present, but 
confine ourselves to Tintoretto, and finally follow him to the 
Ducal Palace, where from want of space, our sojourn must be 
briefer than it otherwise would have been. There, in the Sala 
del Maggior Consiglio, is his " Paradise," which Mr. Ruskin 
inexplicably considers to be, on the whole, his chef-d'ceuvre, and 
" the most precious thing that Venice Possesses." It is said 
to be the largest picture ever painted on canvas, being a little 
more than 84 feet in width. At the very top sits the Re- 
deemer, bending with a most royal majesty towards the Ma- 
donna, who kneels reverently before him: they are both highly 
dignified and beautiful figures. All the vast space beneath 
them is crowded — literally crowded — with numbers of the 
blessed of different ranks and classes; it is estimated that there 
are not less than 500 of them, supported on clouds and in 
masses confused and intricate in themselves, yet divided into 
several stages of concave groups, wreathing under the two su- 
preme figures above, like horizontal vapors curling and travel- 
ing along beneath the beams of the uprisen sun; the bright 
spaces between them in the distance being also filled with 
crowds of beatified spirits, half merged or lost in light. So 
far all is nobly imagined; and the whole picture displays a com- 
mand of artistic resources and an energy in labor, which are 
certainly highly commendable; but the filling up is far less sat- 
isfactory: and these crowds and crowds of figures, sitting and 
bending and rolling together in the heavens, with but few ex- 



* The Coronation of the Virgin, by Mr. Ruskin's saintly pet, Fra An- 
gelico, are equally " lies" — lies of precisely the same class and character. 
Mr. Ruskin falls cruelly foul of the " handsome curled hair," " fringes," 
and " long robes" of Raphael figures in this picture, which plain things 
he stigmatised by the sufficiently inapplicable words, " vapid fineries;" 
yet when Angelico and the other earlier men array the Redeemer and 
the Virgin like a king and queen of the fourteenth century, in all the 
really vapid finery of madiaeval times, covering them with gold sprig- 
giugs and Gothic diapers till you are quite nauseated with the barbaric 
glitter and frivolity, his complacency is extreme, and the censer of his 
transcendental fancy swings apace till you can hardly help smiling at 
the wreaths of fantastical vapor which keep issuing from it. For instance, 
the gaudily gilt curtains of Angelico's Madonna, iu the Florentine UfBzii, 
which are stitt' with the most definite Byzantine patterns, are said " to flow 
with a visionary grace," and a few touches of gold leaf on angel's wings 
are most preposterously assimilated " to the glittering of many suns upon 
a sounding sea." To hide his palpable inconsistency in this matter, Mr. 
Ruskin says that these earlier pictures" had been received as pleasant 
visions, but the Cartoons of Raphael were received as representations of 
historical fact." Now this is begging the question altogether. Who that 
knows anything of Raphael will say that his works were intended to be 
received as mere accurate representations of historical facts .' Why, is it 
not perfectly clear that he was an idealist as much as any of his prede- 
cessors ?— one whose poetic imagination was ever adorning his subjects 
with beauty, majesty, and grace, according to his special and preemi- 
nent gift. Mr. Ruskin's fundamental error is to delude himself with the 
notion that Raphael worked from " pride," and without feeling, and in 
obedience to cold " academical formula." Such an opinion only shows 
a partial dulness in the writer's perception, or the heat of his prejudices 
and temper, or both. And with regard, by the bye, to these obnoxious 
curly heads and Athenian draperies, in what respect are they different 
from those of the ever supremely lauded Leonardo, or from the draperies 
and hair of Tintoretto's sacred figures, excepting that Raphael's drajierics 
are beautiful, and Tintoretto's bad— Raphael's hair healthy and vigorous, 
and Tintoretto's a good deal shabbier, and in less creditable order? But 
Raphael was the prime corrupter of Art ! Did his grace and beauty cor- 
rupt Art more than the magnificent ostentaiion and anatomical power of 
Michael Angelo. the object of Mr. Ruskin's boundless veneration ? Was 
not Art corrupted rather because those who followed could not compre- 
hend the divine spirit of either of these great men, and contented themselves 
with imitating their more superficial characteristics or mere effects. It 
is lamentable that this ingenious man should thus throw discreditable 
matter at the serene meridian sun of Art, inevitably to recoil on himself. 
His charicatured d scription of Raphael's Madonna is altogether false, 
ascribing to the painter motives and aims which every one acquainted 
with his works knows to be quite uncharacteristic of him in every respect, 
and all this spleen, and want of candor, and unjust, uncharitable attribu- 
tions of baseness, are put forth on high grounds of religion and morality ! 



ceptioiip, are devoid of expression, character, grace, beauty, or 
nay kind of interest. In Paradise one would naturally look for 
Bometljing of repose, ordsr, and expansive serenity; bnt liere it 
must be confessed that the blessed are a little in each other's 
^ray — they have not even elbow room. Neither a.re blissful 
coiitpnipliition, nor adoring rapture, nor any of the other infi- 
nitely varied kinds of happiness which one tnny suppose to pre- 
vail in Paradise, expressed in any interesting or towelling de- 
gree amongst these complicated hosts of Tintoretto-creatures; 
and you soon retire from the further contemplation of the pic- 
ture disappointed, little interested, and indeed almosi bewild- 
ered. 

Why it should be considered " the most precious thing that 
Yenice possesses," it is entirely out of our power even to guess. 
In another passage Mr. Ruskiii calls it "the most wonderful 
piece of pure, maidy, and masticrly oil-painting in the world." 
We were unable, after several impartiai attempts, totally una- 
ble, to discover the grounds of this last opinion either. The pic- 
ture does not appear to us by any means a specimen of either first 
or secDnd rate painting. The hlotcl e? of heavy black shadow, 
the abrupt scatteiei lights, and ihe di^ajfrceable ashy paleness of 
much of the flesh tints, all frequently to be found in Tintoretto's 
pictures, may be partly attributable to the injuries of time, and 
partly to the painter's known use of colors as fugitive as what 
we are apt to mistake for friendship; bnt the touch, as is also 
commonly the case witii Tintoretto, is coarse and heavy. As 
a piece of painting, it cannot for one moment be compared with 
tlie roundness and living freshness of Rubens,, or the exquisite 
lightness and graceful precision of Paul Veronese, or the crys- 
talline purity of Bellini, or, the tender and rich perfection of 
Titian; not to mention many other ]iainters much inferior to 
any of these. Mr. Ruskin is acquainted witli a vast number of 
objects and effects in nature (especially landscape nature), and 
no doubt can accurately decide whether the forms and hues 
have been accurately copied or not, up to, a certain ]3pint;. but 
his boundless admiration of such workmanship as this, and of 
much thick, heavy, bad execution of the Pre-Raphaelites, and 
we will add, his inveposterous rajitures at the hard, stiff, pain- 
fully miimte laboring of Lewis's last year's drawing, producing 
with such over lavish means, so thin and poor an effect, may 
well awaken a doubt whether he yet really knows what good 
pnivdng is. lie tells ns somewhere, that since he first dis- 
coursed to us on Art, \te has devoted ten years of his life unre- 
mittingly to the acquisition of a knowledge of the subject. Per- 
liaps in another ten years a still further accumulation of know- 
ladge may modify his views considerably, and induce him loudly 
to condemn much that he how authoritatively admires — with 
regard to such matters as we have now be;en discussing, as well 
as many others. 

Titian's magnificent pictures in the Ducal Palace, were, all 
but one, destroyed by fire the year after his death; but his im- 
petuous rival, Tintoretto, is abundantly represented there. 
With regard to Mm, as usual our admiration for frequent man- 
if>;statious of extraordinary power, is but too commonly 
checked and chilled by coarse, heavy jjainting, and the unex- 
pressive wholly uninteresting character cf many of. his allegori- 
cal or celestial groups, which seem inti-oduced merely as exer- 
cises or exhibitious of technical skill, rather than as appeals to 
our imagination or finer feelings. His frescos, however, in the 
Sala delle Qnattro Portu, 0!i that Sansovinian ceiling of bossy 
gold and azure, and pale statuary, above Titian's great Grimani 
])icture, and the four splendid marble portals of Palladio — his 
frescos there still affords glim])ses of a magnificent s])irit, but, 
alasl they are falling to pieces and spotted all over by the ap- 
pearance of the plaster behind them. And of atouching love- 
liness scarcely in its kind rivalled in Yenice, are those four 
sweet and innocent children reclining amongst the rushes or on 
t)ie grass, in the corners of the ceiling of the adjoining Antrio 
(^ladrjito. They are, we believe, ascribed to Tintoretto, but 
we have never seen anything else by him like them, or showing 
so tender an appreciation of infantine beauty and gentleness. 
Of his most daring productions, perhaps, the finest here is that 
large oval, of Yenice personilicd by an enthusiastic lady in bro- 



cade seated amid the clouds with many deities, in the ceiling of 
the Senate Hall, whose massy garlands of gilded fruits and 
flowers, and huge bands, entwine and grasp tlie picture like the 
convolutions of some enormous sea-serpent. Some of Tinto- 
retto's figures here exhibit limbs disproportionate and distorted 
Jn their most difficult fore-shortened postures. But vigorous 
conceptions full of genius aljound, and especially to be admired, 
js that long group of. figures of genii rising from the sea, Kke 
one huge wavy column, with the various treasures of the deep, 
to present them to Yenus, enthroned aloft. This is full of ani- 
mation and fine aerial movement. Something too much, liow- 
cver, is there in other works by Tintoretto here, of old do'^es 
kneeling before unintelligible aerial ]iersonagPs, who express 
little or nothing but the artist's skill in difficult postures, action, 
or foreshortenings. It is noticeable, by the way, that most of 
these same doges (who appear, on the whole, very little moved 
by all these displays of sacred patronage) are disagreeable, 
and some of them even mean-looking old men, with shabbily- 
wrinkled, huclistering, or even maudlin faces. You could easily 
fancy that some of them had been worried out of all heart and 
spirit by the ever dogging civilities of the Ten,, the Forty, and 
the Avvogadori: nay, in more than one instance, they look 
somewhat heavy-eyed and muddled, as if; hopeless of political 
excitement and })leasures, and thoroughly teased and worn out 
by all these various yet one-sided antagonistic councils, they had 
pudeavored too much to console themselves with the wine of 
Clary and Cyprus, with the deeper satisfactions of- the table — 
turbot from Malamocco yonder, and more sanguiferous dainties 
from the pastures of the Brenta or Isonzo. Or were they in 
other instances, in which a hard, sordid eye seems still to glim- 
mer under the ducal beretta, merchants, or bankers, taken from 
their counting-houses in part repayment of loans made to thore 
who influenced the election, and also became of a mean spirit 
which was not likely to give much trouble to the all- prevalent 
oligarchy? Tintoretto, no doubt, has here introduced their 
portraits with a valuable and highly commendable fidelity; but 
those aerial beings above them are most tautologically tiresome: 
and with regard to more superficial matters, the shadows are of- 
ten so black and blotchy, the flesh tints so yellow or ashy, and 
the execution, we must say, sometiaies so coarse and scene- 
painterly, that, on the whole, you are again tempted to beso-nc- 
wliat out of conceit with Tintoretto, till you pause in the Ante 
Collegio, or guard-room, before a picture of his so poetically 
conceived and admirably wrought, indeed so pleasing in all re- 
spects, that you wonder still more at the dull and uninterestin-g 
character ot so many of the others. Yes, here, 1/ Furin.^o 
TmtoreLlo, leaving ostentatious, barren displays of technical 
power, has once again had the gentleness and patience to make 
liimself thoroughly, agreeable. Adriadne, a,beautiful and noble 
figure, is seated undraped on a rock, and Bacchus, prol'asei-y 
crowned with ivy, advances from the sea and offers her the 
nuptial ring; whilst above, Yenus, her back towards you, lying 
horizontally in the pale blue air, as if the blue air were her na- 
tural couch, spreads, or rather kindles, a chaplet or circlet of 
stars round Adriadne's head. Here, those who luxuriate in 
what is typical, may tell us, and probably not without truth, 
that Tintoretto wished to co-^vey a graceful hint of Yenice 
crowned by beauty- and blessed ' with joy and abundance. 
Bacchus arising from the sea well signifies these latter gifts, 
and the watery path by which they came to her; and the 
lonely is'and nymph to whom he presents the wedding ring, 
may. be intended to refer to the situation and original forlo n- 
ness of Yenice herself, when she sat in solitude amidst the 
sandy isles of the lagune, aloof from her parental shores, 
ravaged by the Hun or the Lombard. The pale yellow sun- 
shine on these nude figures, and their light transparent shadows, 
and the mild temperate l)lue of the calm sea and air, almo,-^t 
completing the most simple arrangement of the coloring of the 
picture, are still beautiful, and no doubt were far more so before 
its lamentable fading, occasioned, it seems, by too much exposure 
to light; you feel quite out of doors, all on the airy cliffs, as you 
look on it, and almost taste the very freshness of the sea-breeze. 
With this picture of "Adriadne," paiuted with Tintoretto's 



1855. 



THE rnOTOGRArillC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



103 



most dclicato, golden pencil, we wonld willingly have closed 
these researches, had not our Ruskinian. notes ur.ged us, almost 
perforce, after two works in the Ante Chiosetta — "St, George 
aaid the Dragon," and "St. Andrew and St. Jerome," "paint- 
ed," says the eulogist, "in Tintorel's mostqniet and noble man- 
ner, and preeminently to be admired for their grave yet deli- 
cious color." This we found out to be one more of those won- 
derful stretches of admiration which, a week ago, would ha,ve 
surprised us greatly, but by this time, of conrse, surprise on 
sqch grounds was altogether over with us. Oh, what an un- 
gainly, uninteresting picture is that of the ugly and ungraceful 
princess seated on the dragon by St. George; and in the other 
what ordinary saints are those! Kor is the grave color in 
cither, in our opinion, worthy of the enthusiastic praise be- 
stowed on it. Indeed, we should not have thought it worth 
while to take the reader into this same A-nte Chiesetta at all, 
but that these |iictures afford a somewhat amusing instance of 
Mr. Ruskin's inconsistent and extravagant way of writing. It 
will be remembered how copiously he inveighs against the color 
brown, wjiicli is so much his capital aversion, as a prevalent 
hue with the obnoxious later schools, that when he finds his fa- 
vorite Dante applying it to twilight shades and dark water, 
apparently so jileasad with it as even to. lay on a couple of 
layers in, the words hruna bmnH', Mr. Riiskin very coolly and 
quietly assumes that the poet (although the most intensely ac- 
curate of bards in his expressions) did not know the meaning 
of the word he was using, and meant dark grey instead! And 
then, having jumped at this conclusion, and becoming puzzled 
immediately that Dante should not have acknowledged the ex- 
istence of brown at all — his browns being in fact all grey (oh, 
admirably solid yet modest foundation for the inquiry!) Mr. 
Ruskin proceeds to relate complacency how "one of our best 
living colorists" accounted in some measure for the poet's com- 
fortably assumed omission ,. by telling kirn tliat he "Iwd found 
there was no Ijrown in nature, what we call brown being al- 
ways a varietj' cither of orange or purple."* But here in the 
Ducal Palace, in exquisite harmony witli all this most sensitive, 
a,nd, indeed, almost anxious anti-brownishness, Mr. Ruskin tells 
us that the productions of his favorite colorist — which he ad- 
mires supremely for their color— "are nearly, all brown and 
grey," and that "he would rather have these two small brown 
pictures" fwe use his identical wordsj "than all the other small 
pictures in Venice put together which Tintoret painted with 
bright colors for altar-pieces." 

Now, independently of much admirable and indeed very 
superb brown in Titian, Rembrandt, Reynolds, and others, we 
have, no doubt, had too much brown in Art — bad brown espe- 
cially; and to guard us against a repetition of the excess might 
have laeen well enough, but to endeavor, in pages of abundant- 
ly self-sxtisfyiug, janty writing, to seduce us- into the notion 
that t'lere is in reality no such thing as brown in nature, in the 
face of numberless objects, in spite of the autumnal pomp of 
solemn groves, and especially of those deep,..rich evening glow- 
ings, which Dante has, after all, jastly denoted by his bruna, 
and. which we ourselves will remember to have enjoyed "at 
evening on the top of Fiesole," under the scarlet clouds of sun- 
set dispersed above the Carrara peaks — this, all this, is simply 
ridiculous, the mere humorsome partiality of one wlio- himself 
is but too apt, to substitute his prejudices and the exaggera- 
tions of his seldom resting fancy for the plainest and most ob- 
vious facts, strict as he is against that fault in. others; — a la- 
mentable habit in a critic, surely, who.se prima office it is to 
make distinctions clear, sober-mindedly, instead of confusing, 
and sometimes burlesquing, the objects under consideration, 
with the aid of an indifferent style of humor, the mystification 
and misleading especially of that weaker herd. of followers, un- 
fortunately so numerous amongst us, who are utterly in the 
thraldom of eloquence, and so much more easily convinced 
through their ears by copious and confident words than through 

* Is tliera no medium between this orangs and purple? What does the 
orange become when it begins to deepen in the shadows of a warm toaed 
atmosphere ? ' 



their own proper eyes. IIow whimsical is his assumed denial 
of brown by his favorite poet, contrasted with his admiration 
of his favorite colorist's use of it: how unjust and one-sided his 
voluminous abhorrence of the gloom and "feelingless manner- 
ism" of the later men, and his toleration or ignoring of so much 
of similar qualities in his idol Tintoretto, whose frequent black- 
ness, heaviness, and coarseness, are the less excusable, inas- 
much as he was, so far as they are concerned, a recreant 
Venetian, sinning in opposition to his original gift, and wivh 
the very finest influence of color and brightness beaming about 
him. 

Candidly, we cannot help suspecting that Mr. Ruskin, iiot- 
withstanding all his ingenuity and extraordinary activity of 
thought, all Ins powers of description and analysis, has not 
quite hit upon his proper vocation. His foremost and prevail- 
ing gift we take to be a brilliant but excitable and eminently 
fugacious fancy, such as is ever prone and precipitate to give 
its own high colorings, from vehement likings or dislikings, and 
to start away from the object professed to be contemplated, 
into its own airy regions; a quality, when predominant, fatal 
to just criticism, whose office is, of. course to present things as 
they are in themselves, apart from these subjective or modify- 
ing influences. Yes, "Memoirs of ray Fancy," we venture re- 
spectfully to submit once more, would have been better, or per- 
haps "Fra Giovanni's Pilgrimage," in which these free sallies 
and soarings of the mind would, in their more successful in- 
stances, have possessed a pure and unalloyed value, being mo- 
destly, submitted as such, and not as descriptive criticism au- 
thoritatively promulgated as from a judgment seat, to exalt one 
man and condemn another. An awful act, this last, not to be 
ventured on so lightly; and if done coarsely or wildly, as offen- 
sive, no doubt, to the illustrious spirits of those bepraised as to 
those censured, as Tintoretto's ghost may hereafter in the other 
world prove to his eulogist, by asking him why he doomed his 
unfortunate works to disappoint everybody. That chapter on 
"Imagination Penetrative," in all that regards this painter, we 
certainly take to be the master-piece, so far as we know, of 
imagination predilective, fugacious, combustible, explosive. It 
is indeed weightily valuable as a psychological lesson, showing- 
how far an excitable, headstrong fancy has the power of ignor- 
jng the actual, and substituting the airy offspring of its own 
likings and wishes. On the whole, we believe that Mr. Ruskin 
leaves Tintoretto precisely where he found him, having failed 
utterly in the attempt to put him forward as an imaginative 
genius of the highest order; since the thoughts he adduces as 
entitling him to that eminence are, in fact, either not in exist- 
ence in his works, or else poor, trivial, or erroneous without ex- 
C3ption. Tintoretto will, wj suppose, continue to rank jnst r s 
formerly, as a very energetic, but not delicately or sublimely 
imaginative painter of the second clasg — one strong in scenic 
conceptions, and in the more superficial and decorative resources 
of his art, but poor, very poor, in- the higher requisites of ex- 
pression and character: — a kind Venetian Rubens in short; not 
so fleshily coarse as the Fleming, but far inferior to him in poetic 
fire and exuberance of invention (such as rolls forth as from 
the very cornucopia of Plenty herselfj, and also much beneath 
him, as every other painter is, in rendering in a magnificent 
manaer the very health, bloom, and active pulses of physical 
life. Indeed, we cannot help wishing that Mr Ruskin had 
chosen Rubens for his second stalking-horse instead of Tinto- 
retto. Without being, so far as w^e are able to discover, in any 
considerable degree "typical" in his modes of treatment, we 
believe him to be far more legitimate subject for the purposes 
of fine encomiastic writing; besides, he is as little generally un- 
derstood and appreciated as Turner himself was formerly. A 
far more fruitful tree than Tintoretto would have been shaken; 
he would have filled out the splendid robes of eulogy with a 
portlier grace. How much unapprehended grace, infantine 
loveliness, and sweet naive human expression, how much mag- 
nificence and true poetic fire have been unhappily concealed 
from us by his too I3-lgian delight in lusty health, and bloom, 
and animal vigor. But should we turn away for erer from all 
those excellent former things we have just mentioned, and hosts 



104 



THE PnOTOGRArniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



of others, simply because they have become, iu a great number 
of instances somewhat too lusty and fat? 

A principal object in this essay has been to put the reader 
on his guard against inordinate habits of praise on the part of 
a writer whose confident eloquence gives him for the present a 
far too absolute influence over large numbers of captivated 
hearers. We will close our observations with a brief protest 
against that equally ill-founded censure and depreciation of some 
of our greatest literary men, in which he indulges in his recent 
volumes, singling out, especially for opprobrium and contempt, 
as we shall show, one whom most just and generous men, really 
acquainted with iiis works, would be warmly desirous of defend- 
ing. In these criticisms of Ruskin, cynicism has assumed its 
most insidious and mischievous form, — the theological Hav- 
ing, according to his own admission, passed most of his days in 
the intense contemplations and abstractions of solitude, he has, 
by an almost inevitable consequence, weakened in his breast 
most of the ordinary social sympathies. In the tender passion 
(to take one large instance) he seems to feel no interest, and 
very little indeed in those domestic virtues and enjoyments 
wliich spring from and surround it; and he has got himself far 
too much into the way of estimating tilings in the sour and 
austere spirit of some mortified anchorite; insomuch that he 
is dissatisfied even with men whose gracious gift and first ob- 
ject it was to afford pleasant relaxation, restorative amusement, 
remission from mental care, to their fellow creatures, — such as 
our great novelist and dramatist, — simply because they did not 
utterly spoil their work with brain-fussing, intellect-oppressing, 
monomauiacal considerations of theology and ascetic morality, 
such as appear to have grievously narrowed and weakened his 
owu mind. His morbid analysis of Scott, on this ascetic prin- 
ciple, in which he says that he "knows no poetry so sorrowful 
as his," and "that all his thoughts were in their outcome and 
end less than nothing and vanity," is one of the most mistaken- 
ly dismal and nauseating passages in literature, always except- 
ing his half-patronising estimate of Shakspeare, in which our 
bard of bards is looked down upon from the supremacy of that 
"specular mount," Denmark Hill, as an imperfect mind, decid- 
edly of a secondary order, also because not sufiBciently accom- 
panied by theology in its flights, in Mr. Raskin's favorite 
fashion. "It was necessary," we are told, "that he should de- 
prive himself even of his conscience, iu order to be able to 
sympathise so completely with all creatures." In this respect 
we always thought Shakspeare the most conscientious of 
writers, inasmuch as he reports of every one with the most per- 
fect impartiality, fulness, and fairness, nothing extenuating, and 
setting down nought in malice, and giving his worst of villains 
their due. Had Shakspeare possessed a conscience, it would, 
we are profoundly told, have made him unjust to these latter: 
as if injustice were a natural consequence of conscientiousness! 
Then we are informed that it was necessary for Shakspeare to 
be "utterly without purpose; that he was forbidden of heaven 
to have any plans. To do any good, or get any good iu the 
common sense of good, was not to be within his permitted 
range of work; not for him the founding of institutions, the 
preaching of doctrines, or the repression of abuses. Neither 
he nor the sun did on any morning that they rose together re- 
ceive charge from their Maker concerning such things." To 
which it may be answered, that to teach us the human heart 
and character in their varieties, to show by what insidious so- 
phisms our passions attain the mastery over us, to instruct us 
so that we may know ourselves and others, and enlarge our 
Bympathies to the world's width, and regard our fellow-crea- 
tures with such palliations as justice and truth require, was pur- 
pose and plan enough, and "good in the common sense of 
good," such as no other man uninspired ever accomplished. 
And as he effected this, we need not be disappointed tiiat he, a 
literary man, did not likewise found institutions, preach doc- 
trines, or practically attempt tiie repression of abuses. The 
passage last quoted, in which Mr. Ruskin with quiet decision 
alludes to the Creator as having views with regard to the poet 
in harmony with his own purblind paradoxes, is for modesty, 
i propriety, and what is commonly called good taste, exquisite. 



and altogether richly characteristic. We think it may be pret- 
ty safely assumed, and stated, without presumption, tliat on the 
morning when he penned these paragraphs Mr. Ruskiii had not 
"received charge" to criticise Sliokspeare. 

So far, however, all this ambitious and restless plunging af- 
ter profundity, which, diving past the pearls and golden sands 
of the clear deep, does nothing but stir up and fetch alwft gra- 
vel and mud from beneath, speaks sufficiently for itself; but per- 
haps, not so his hars'ier and more unqualified attacks on others. 
If there is anything in his writings to us more painful than the 
rest, it is the ruthless, cold, and summary way iu which he will 
drag forward and sacrifice the fame and character of certain 
other departed great men, for the very small purpose of giving 
point to some austere ascetic seiitiraeut, or of heightening the 
vivacity of a paragraph. If there is a writer wiiom we should 
iu former days have conceived to be respected by him it is Shel- 
ley, since himself in some of his best passages resembles him 
even remarkably. The most poetical of his descriptions, in 
which the fine landscape imagery is heightened by the color- 
ings of a brilliant fancy, are like faint echoes of the soaring 
skylark amfnigst the poets, the wondrous laureate of the clouds. 
And yet Shelley is the very poet now most frequently intro- 
duced by Mr. Ruskin in his writings to perform the mean office 
of foil to what he admires, to set off as a dark and impure 
shadow his own exceeding radiancy, and to be morally and in- 
tellectually misrei)resented in unfeeling and insulting language. 
Thus we have, without explanation or further comment, 
"passionate, unprincipled men like Shelley," though Shelley's 
moral principles are certainly conspicuous enough throughout 
his works, and at least as gentle, disinterested, loving, pure, and 
near the true Christian morality in several of the most essential 
points as those of any of the other poets of his day; whilst 
amongst them none equalled him in the courage, and few in the 
perfect sincerity, with which they were put forth. Secondly, 
we read with no small access of illumination that "Keats has 
no more real sympathy with Nature than he has with a bottle 
of claret; and Shelley is nearly the same, but with even more 
troublesome selfishness." The ardent philanthropist ^whether 
or not mistaken in some points, does not affect the question of 
selfishness), and cordial, helpful, generous friend, is not very sa- 
gaciously or temperately denoted by these words, "troublesome 
selfishness." And, by-and-bye, we have Shelley shown up on 
Mr. Ruskin's oratorical platform again, to be as briefly stigma- 
tised as impious, though lew men have ever felt a more habitual 
love and tender reverence for most good and noble things, ex- 
cept (as we take leave to lament no whit less than Mr. Ruskin) 
the doctrinal part of that religion which his unhappy scepticism 
— something palliated, surely, by the circumstances of his early 
life — estranged hiin from. Surely it does not evince much de- 
licacy of moral perception, much justice or charity, to apply to 
so noble and gentle a sufferer the hard, unmitigated, untender 
term "impious." Finally — but this is amusing — we find him 
exhibited in the decretals sent rorlh from our temporary "Vati- 
can of criticism, as an example of a morbid temperament, 
looked down upon as from a serene superior height, as a mind 
of the weaker class Truly, he was so, iu some sort, and very 
pitiable. But the author of the "Ode to the Skylark," and 
the "Prometheus Unbound," and the "Cenci," should have been 
designated as such, not frigidly or haughtily, but with the gen- 
tleness and tenderness of a deep fellow-feeling by one far more 
so — by one of so morbid a teini)erament as to give forth all this 
thoroughly unhealthy innammation about Tintoretto — by one 
so weak tiiat he rarely has the power of describing anything- 
without almost spoiling his description by some touch of exag- 
geration proceeding from the excitability of his fancy, or nau- 
seating his readers with some hard and austere assnmi)tion of a 
religious lone, in which the elements indispensable to religious 
writing of any value, such as modesty, truth, justice, and can- 
dor, are habitually wanting. It is a religion this with which 
the fancy seems to be incessantly on fire, but the heart the 
while appears to remain cold and untouched; indeed, the main 
tendency of his writings in this respect (like so much of the 
ot^hcr religious writing with which our press teems now-a-days) 




•c 
P-. 



K 



03 

n 



P 1 

^ 



w 



K 
M 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAij. 



105 



seems to us to be rather to weakea religion in our human 
hearts, its healthy, active, aud happy seat, and to make it rest- 
lessly, painfully, and consummingly burn in the mere dreaming 
faculty — the intellect and imagination. Mr. Ruskin is indig- 
uaut with Blackwood for having recoiumended Keats to return 
to his gallipots. But is it not better to depreciate even to that 
extent the literary productions of living men, than thus to cast 
rude and coarse opprobrium, as he has done, on the moral as 
well as iutellectual character of the voiceless, unreplying dead? 



nt S9LAR CAMERA— PRINTmC PROCESS— GLASS CLEANING. 



Mr. Snelling, — I use the Solar Camera which some of your 
contemporaries stigmatise as a " poor concern." I beg leave 
to say that I differ from these august sentiments. After using 
it six niontiis, I grow more astonished daily to see the results 
which I produce. I have printed by the Calotype, the Albu- 
men, the Ammonio-nitrate, and the Wenderoth Processes. The 
ammonia-nitrate and albumen process please me the best, as I 
have the time to print the limited number that I make. With 
the right kind of negative, from two to three hours will print a 
half-length portrait. 

I use in salting — 

Chloride of ammonium ^ ......2 grains. 

Water 1 oz. 

I have tried every amount from one grain to ten, and prefer 
the two grain solution as giving the best results. 

Nitrate of silver 30 grains. 

Water 1 oz. 

Made into common nitrate in the usual way, and one drop c.p. 
nitric acid added to each four ounces of solution. 

Toning bath as laid down in the Moulton process. 

The Wenderoth process works rapidly, and produces fine re- 
sults in my hands, bnt is more expensive and requires much 
more care, when only a small number of prints are made. In 
large establishments where hundreds are made a week, its value 
is not to be told. 

Por all our silver solutions, I melt clean snow in an earthen- 
ware vessel, and use it in place of distilled water, as it pro- 
duces better results than Croton, bottled (labelled distilled 
water), and sold for fifty cents per gallon. Those who have 
never tried it can easily save their fifty cents per gallon, and 
have a better solution in the bargain. 

The most pleasing pictures that I have printed in the print- 
ing frame, were made by a process for calotypes, by Mr. Sut- 
ton, but which I modified as follows: 

Water 1 oz. 

Pure white gelatine 6 grains. 

Common salt 4 " 

Put the ingredients into the water while cold, and warm it 
gently until they are all dissolved (care being taken not to get 
it boiling hot); filter it through a sponge while warm, and it is 
ready for use. This should be kept in a warm place, and the 
paper floated on it two or three minutes and then dried. 
For silvering I use — 

Water 1 oz. 

Nitrate of silver 35 gj.g_ 

Lemott juice V.V. .".'i or two "drops. 

Float the paper five or six minutes, as the thick body of the 
gelatine will require that tice to soften, so as to absorb a suf- 
ficient amount of silver. 

Print a very little darker than you want, and tone in the 
Moulton toning bath; or the bath used for toning your illus- 
trations, which is nearly the same. 

The superiority of this process lies in the fact, that the gela- 
tine keeps the picture on the surface of the paper, and the 
lemon juice gives the print a very warm violet tint when pro- 
perly toned. Mr. Sutton says,—" No one that has not tried 
it, can have any idea of the wonderful brilliancy imparted to a 
print by the mucelage contained in lemon juice." 

These remarks were made in reference to prints developed by 

VOL. XI. NO. IV. 14 



gallic acid: bnt I find they are equally applicable to those 
printed without development. In the prints that I have made 
by this method, the details are equal to the very best albumen 
prints. The gelatine having a very fine grain, the surface of 
the print has not a certain half-glassy, half-scaly appearance, 
which all albumen prints have on close examination. More- 
over, the lights, when properly printed and toned, are absolutely 
pure; which, combined with the other superior quality, make 
them the most deservable prints I have made. It is like all 
good things, more work to print a given number of copies by 
this process, than by the ammonia-nitrate, when the solution is 
spread with cotton, but the better quality will repay the extra 
trouble. In spreading the ammoaio-nitrate over the paper, I 
use cotton flannel, after having washed it thoroughly in a weak 
solution of sal-soda, rinsed and dried. Cut a patch to the de- 
sired shape and place it on the paper, nap side down; then lay 
a small ball of cotton wool on the middle of the patch, gather 
up the corners so as to enclose the cotton, and proceed to 
spread the solution, and you will seldom be troubled with 
greasy streaks which often occur when using the prepared cot- 
ton wool. 

I have tried many ways to clean glass when negatives were 
varnished with any of the spirit varnishes, and have never suc- 
ceeded to my liking until of late. I now make a saturated so- 
lution of sal-soda in water, lay the glass in this, and in a few 
hours the varnish will contract so as to detach the film from 
the glass. I then rub them over carefully with rotton stone or 
Norton's cleaning powder; wash it off and the glass is ready 
for another picture, 

I use the soda for cleaning all my glass now, and succeed in 
getting better results than ever before. 

Respectfully yours, 

F. B. Gage. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal, 

FRENCH PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



1000 grammes. 
32 grammes. 



At the meeting of the 18th of December, M. Regnault, 
member of the Institute and President of the Society, occupied 
the chair. Amongst other matters then communicated and 
presented was a large collection of prints from paper negatives, 
which were obtained by M. Civiale, by the following process: 

" PAPER NEGATIVES." 

The paper employed being papier Saxe negatif, of the weight 
of about fifteen pounds the ream. 
The bath for iodizing contains 

Cereoleine (10 grammes* of wax in a litre ) 

of alcohol of 40°) \ 

Iodide of potassium (dissolved in alcohol | 

of 36°) f 

The paper is left for two hours, at least in the bath, then it 
is suspended by a corner to dry. 
The sensitive bath contains — 

Distilled water 1000 grammes. 

Fused nitrate of silver 60 " 

Nitrate of zinc (crystallized) 24 " 

Acetic acid 30 " 

After immersion the excess of nitrate of silver is removed by 
three excessive washings in distilled water. The paper for the 
day may be made sensitive in the morning or overnight. 

In operatinsr in the Pyronees, where variations in altitude of 
more than 2000 yards were encountered, the exposure in the 
camera varied, in sunshine and shade, from six to twelve min- 
utes. 

The developing bath contained — 

Distilled water 1000 grammes. 

Gallic acid 3| " 

To this a little of the washing water containing nitrate of silver 
was added. After development the picture was four times 

* The gramme about 15 grains, and the litre about 2 pints. 



100 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



I'insed ia common water, aud then fixed iii a solution contain- 
ing— 

Common water 1000 grammes. 

Hj'posulphite soda 200 '• 

Pinally the negatives were washed in common water daring 
eight or ten hours, the water being often changed. 

M. GiRARD read a note by M. Frank de Villecholes, upon 
" THE USB OF DRY COLLODION." 

Among the dry collodion processes which have been pub- 
lished, several have given results generally satisfactory. Never- 
less many operators succeed only with difficulty, and desire a 
newer and simpler method than Taupenot's, the gelatine pro- 
cess, &c. 

The simplest method, " par excellence," is that of M. I'Abbe 
Desprats, which consists simply in washing the plate on its re- 
moval fro.n the bath. This method, wliich has long given me 
very uncertain results, has been abandoned by the greater part 
of those who have attempted it. 

Nevertheless from some information I received I tried again 
the method of M. I'Abbe Desprats, and convinced myself that 
my former failure arose from insufficient washing. Sensitive 
plates, washed for one or two minutes in a stream of water, 
succeeded but imperfectly, while similar plates, washed in the 
same way and left to drain for five minutes, and tlien rewashed 
as at first, gave a perfect picture. 

Certain collodions are not favorable in this case, especially 
those containing iodide- of zinc or cadmium, which do not suc- 
ceed, unless the bath is strongly acidulated by acetic acid. 

I expect M. I'Abbe Desprats' method, properly carried out, 
will supersede all others. 

M. MoNTREuiL remarked that the process just alluded to was 
the same as that indicated by him. He had learnt a year ago 
that all collodions well washed succeeded dry on an exposure 
three or four times the length of that used in the wet way. 
This year he had taken, on a tour, sensitive plates for eight, 
fifteen, and even thirty days, developing them only on his re- 
turn, and all had succeeded, excepting some which had con- 
tained iodide of cadmium, the cause being inexplicable. The 
great point was to wash sufficiently; common water might be 
used. 

M. Vaillat confirmed the observations of M.M. de Ville- 
choles and Montreuil; he saying that he had succeeded very 
well, by following the same method. 

M. Leborgnk stated that by mixing nitrate of lead with the 
nitrate of silver in the bath for collodion, he obtained finer re- 
sults. He used a weak solution of gallic acid, in developing, 
instead of pyrogallic acid. 



NEW NEGATIVE PROCESS. 

Montreal, Feb. 25, 1858. 

H. H. Snellixg, Esq., — D&ar Sir: In reply to your favor 
of the 19th, I have much pleasure in sending for insertion in 
your Journal, the following process for producing negatives; 
the time of sitting originally being less than for a positive. 

After exposure, develope with — 

Protosulphate of iron 2 ounces. 

Acetic acid (No. 8) 12 •' 

Alcohol (95°) 4 " 

Water 1 quart. 

Cover the plate with the above, and allow it to remain until 
all the details appear; then pour off and wash well with water, 
and continue developing with — 

ryrogallic acid 2 to 3 grains, 

Glacial acetic acid 6 drops. 

Alcohol 6 drops. 

Water 1 ounce. 

Previous to flowing the plate with the above, add to it two 
or three drops of a 30-grain nitrate solution to each drachm, 
and flow off and on the plate until the desired intensity is 
attained. In hot weather, the proportion of glacial acetic acid 
must be increased. 



Previous to making the above discovery some three or four 
weeks ago, to obtain a good negative 1 found it necessary to 
have a setting of fort3'-five seconds on an average. Now I find 
four or five seconds quite sufficient, having taken many good 
negatives since with simply removing the cap. The process is 
invaluable for children and groups, and the quality of the nega- 
tives are all that could be desired, giving beautiful detail in the 
shadows with instantaneous exposure. 

I use but one nitrate bath in my practice for positives and 
negatives, and but one collodion, viz. Anthony's, which I find 
first rate. 

It may seem strange to some, that the time of exposure is 
less than for a positive, but the reason is that a positive re- 
quires a more active developer, which cannot be prolonged to 
give the detail without injuring the tone aud clearness, so de- 
sirable in a positive. 

Yours truly, J. Notman. 



From tht Cosmos. 
PnOSPHOEESCENCE 
And Fluorcscenee Sliownby means of Pliotography. 



BY M. NIEPCE DE SAINT- VICTOR. 



Does a body, after being submitted to the action of light, 
preserve in the dark any impression of this light? This is the 
question which I have endeavored to solve by photography. 

The phosphorescence and fluorescence of bodies are known • 
but the experiments which I am about to describe, have never 
been made, to my knowledge. 

An engraving which has been kept in the dark for several 
days, is exposed to the direct rays of the sun for at least a 
quarter of an hour; one half of it being covered by an opaque 
screen ; this engraving is then laid upon a very sensitive photo- 
graphic paper; and after twenty-four hours of contact in the 
dark, there is obtained in black, the reproduction of the whites, 
of that part of the engraving which during the exposure was 
not covered by the screen. 

When the engraving has remained for several days in pro- 
found darkness, and it is applied upon the sensitive paper with- 
out first exposing is to the light, it does not reproduce itself. 

Certain engravings after exposure to the light, reproduce 
themselves better than others, according to the nature of the 
paper; but all papers, even Berzelius' filtering paper, with or 
without drawings, whether photographic or otherwise, repro- 
duce themselves more or less after a preliminary exposure to the 
light. Wood, ivory, gold beaters' skin, parchment, even living 
skin, reproduce themselves perfectly under the same circum- 
stances; but the metals, glass, and enamels do not. 

By leaving an engraving exposed for a very long time to the 
sun's rays, it will, if I may thus exj^ress myself, saturate itself 
with light. In this case it will produce a maximum effect, 
provided it be left for two or three days in contact with the 
sensitive paper. I have thus attained an intensity of impres- 
sion which leads me to hope that my operating upon very sen- 
sitive papers, and developing the image by gallic or pyrogallic 
acid, we may obtain proofs sufficiently strong to permit the for- 
mation of a cliche; this would be a new means of reproducing 
engravings. 

If a strip of glass is interposed between the engraving and 
the sensitive paper, the whites no longer impress the paper. 
The same results are found, by interposing a plate of mica, or 
rock-crystal, or a plate of glass colored yellow by oxide of 
uranium. 

It will be seen further on, that the interposition of these 
same substances arrests also the impression of phosphorescent 
lights placed directly in front pf the sensitive paper. 

An engraving coated with collodion or gelatine is reproduced- 
but one coated with picture-varnish, or gum, is not reproduced. 

An engraving placed at a distance of 01 inch from the sen- 
sitive paper, reproduces itself very well; if it is a drawing in 



stroug lines, it will be reproduced even at a distance of 04 
inches: the impression is therefore not the effect of lateral or 
of a chemical action. 

An engraving colored with several colors is reproduced very 
unequally, that is, the colors reproduce themselves with different 
intensities, varying with theii- chemical natures. Some leave a 
very visible impression, while others scarcely if at all color the 
sensitive paper. 

The same is true of characters printed in different inks; the 
fat ink, for printing in relief, or for mezzotint, and common ink 
formed by a solution of nut-galls and sulphite of iron, give no 
images, while certain English inks give very definite ones. 

Yitrified characters, traced upon a plate of glazed porcelain, 
such as biscuit ware, produces a slight impression. 

If after exposing an engraving to the light for an hour, it is 
laid upon a white card-board, which has been kept for some 
days in the dark; and if after leaving the engraving in contact 
with the card-board for at least twenty-four hours, the card- 
board is, in its turn, brought into contact with a sheet of sen- 
sitive-paper, we shall have, after twenty-four hours of this new 
contact, a reproduction of the engraving less visible, yet still 
distinct. AVhen a slab of black marble, sprinkled with white 
spots, is exposed to the light, and then applied upon the sensi- 
tive paper, the white spots alone are impressed upon the paper. 
Under the same conditions, a tablet of white chalk leaves an 
impression, while one of charcoal produces no sensible effect. 

When a black and white feather is similarly treated, the 
whites only impress their image. 

A parrot feather, red, green, blue, and white, produced 
scarcely any image, as if the feather had been black, certain 
colors, however, produced a very feeble action. 

I made some experiments with stuffs of different nature and 
various colors, and I will give you briefly the results which I 
obtained. 

Cotton. — White impresses the sensitive paper. 

" Brown (madder and alumina,) gives no effect, 

" Yiolet (madder, alumina, and salt of iron,) scarce- 

ly anything. 

" Red (cochineal) nothing. 

" Red Turkey (madder and alumina,) nothing. 

Cotton. — Prussian blue on a white ground. The blue pro- 
duced the deepest impression. 

" Blue, by the indigo bath — nothing. 

" Chamois (peroxide of iron,) made an impression. 

Stuffs of linen, silk, and wool, also gave different impressions 
according to the chemical nature of the colors. 

I call attention particularly to the following experiment, 
which seems to me curious and important: Take a metal tube 
(tin for instance,) or any other opaque substance, closed at 
one end, and covered inside with paper or white card-board; 
expose it, the open end in front, to the direct solar rays for an 
hour; after this exposure, apply the open end to a sensitive 
paper, and it will be found after twenty-four hours, that the 
circumference of the tube has formed its image. What is more, 
an engraving on Chinese paper interposed between the tube and 
the sensitive paper will be found also reproduced. If the tube 
be hermetically closed as soon as the exposure to light has 
ceased, it will preserve for an indefinite time the faculty of ra- 
diation which the exposure has given it, and this faculty will 
be demonstrated by the formation of the impression, whenever 
the tube is applied to the sensitive paper, after removing the 
cover. 

I repeated, with the luminous images formed in the camera 
obscura, the experiments which I at first made with direct 
lio-ht. A card-board is taken from the dark, and exposed for 
about three hours in the camera, into which a bright image of 
the sun is thrown ; the card-board is then laid upon the sensi- 
tive paper, and by twenty-four hours contact there is obtained 
a quite visible reproduction of the primitive image. A long 
exposure is necessary to obtain an appreciable result, and this 
is probably the reason why I obtained nothing by receiving the 
image of a solar spectrum upon a sheet of white card-board 



for an hour and a half only. I am, nevertheless, convinced that 
an exposure of several hours with a sheet of very absorbing- 
paper or card-board would give an impression of the spectrum; 
and this fact, which is not without its importance, may be con- 
sidered as established. I have not yet had an opportunity to 
experiment cither upon the light of the electric lamp, or the 
discharge in vacuo, but I purpose to do it as soon as possible. 

In some experiments, but as yet very few, I thought I re- 
marked that the light absorbed and kept in a vessel, exercised 
also an action upon plants, among other things upon flowers, 
which open by day and close at night. 

It remains for me to speak of the experiments which I have 
made upon phosphorescent and fluorescent substances. 

A drawing traced upon a sheet of white paper, with a solu- 
tion of sulphate of quinine, one of the most fluorescent bodies 
known, exposed to the sun and applied upon sensitive paper, 
reproduces itself in a much more intense black, than the white 
paper forming the ground. A plate of glass interposed be- 
tween the drawing and the paper, prevents the impression. A 
plate of glass, colored yellow by oxide of uranium, produces the 
same effect. If the drawing in sulphate of quinine has not been 
exposed to the light, it produces no effect on the paper. 

A luminous drawing traced with phosphorus upon a sheet of 
white paper, without exposure to the light, will impress the 
sensitive paper very rapidly, but if a plate of glass is inter- 
posed, there is no action. 

The same effects are produced by fluoride of calcium ffluor- 
spar,) rendered phosphorescent by heat. 

These are the principal facts which I have observed. Space 
is wanting to enumerate all the experiments that 1 iiave made; 
there remain still many more to make, and I therefore publish 
this note without waiting to make it more complete. 1 think, 
that I may be permitted tohope that my new mode of exhibiting 
properties of light heretofore scarcely suspected or imperfectly es- 
tablished, will attract the attention of physicists, and lead to 
important researches. 



PHOTOGRAPHY IN THE WEST. 



WooDviLLE, Miss., Feb. 12th, 1858, 

Friend Snelling: — Thinking that a few lines from this sec- 
tion might not be unacceptable, has emboldened me to write to 
you. At the time of closing my business in your city, I supposed 
I had bid "a long farewell" to the trials and perplexities as well 
as the pleasures of photography, but as human calculations are not 
infallible, I find myself once more, with renewed health, pur- 
suing my old vocation of Picture Making in this section of the 
"Sunny South." While journeying, without any definite object 
in view beyond recruiting my exhausted energies, I strolled into 
some of the leading galleries in the Western cities; a passing 
glance at those visited may not be out of place. At Cincinna- 
ti, the "Queen City" of the West (where a number of years of 
my photographic experience were passed), there are several who 
lay just claim to the front rank; among whom maybe men- 
tioned Faris, Porter, Hawkins, etc., etc. The many fine spe- 
cimens of the Photographic Art, exhibited at the rooms of 
Mr. Farris, attest his proficiency and skill. The new style of 
picture introduced by him and Mr. Hawkins are very fine, al- 
though, in my humble judgment, not equal to those made by 
Mr. Faris, at his New York gallery. Mr. Porter, whose motto 
is "Excelsior," is fitting up one of the most beautiful as well 
as convenient gallery in the country. His collection of life 
and Cabinet size photographs are the finest it has ever been 
my privilege to see. His artist, Mr. Quick, is a gentleman of 
fine talents, and an ornament to his profession. His operator 
in photography is a Mr. Wallace, a gentleman of superior 
skill. With such ability in the different branches of the art 
as it has been Mr. Porter's happy fortune to secure, his pro- 
ductions must secure liberal patronage. Mr. Hawkins is con- 
fining his attention entirely to his new style of picture — the 
"Diaphaneotype," a style of coloring photographs which is 
destined to become very popular. Of their merits I have 



108 



THE PHOTOGRArHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL, 



April, 



spoken above. From Cincinnati I passed to St. Louis; in that 
city there appears to bj bat very little attention paid to photo- 
graphinnj. The best unretouchcd I saw was at Mr. Long's gal- 
lery. He took the premium at the late fair. Fitzgibbons, the 
renowned "Fitz," has quite a number painted in water colors, 
by Mr. Brown (who, 1 believe, was for some time with Mr. 
Braoy, of your city), which are very creditable The other 
galleries, of \vhicli there are quite a number, are engaged al- 
most exclusively in Arabrotyping, of which style I saw many 
fine specimens. There is one gallery in that city which has 
passed by all tlie boasted improvements in the art, and has pur- 
sued "the even tenor of its way" with success. Mr. T. M. 
Easterly (to whom I refer) has continued to make the daguer- 
reotype in a style which will equal anything in the country; 
while his views of Niagara, and other scenery, are unsurpassed. 
It has been my good fortune, since my advent at this place, to 
meet with an amateur photographer (a rare circumstance, I 
believe, in this country), who not only makes very creditable 
pictures, but shows his love for, and appreciation of the art, by 
being a subscriber to your valuable Journal, and through whose 
kindness I have the privilege of meeting with my old friend. 

I see from the late No. of your Journal that you have taken 
upon yourself to supply tlie numerous wants (for cash) of dis- 
tant artists. May your success not only bring you honors, but 
"put money in thy purse." I shall, before returning North- 
ward, visit New Orleans, and may take a glauce at the gal- 
leries there. 

With the highest consideration, 

I am very respectfully yours, 

C. H. E. 



Trom. the London Art Journal. 

TALK OF PICTURES AND THE PAINTERS.* 



BY AN OLD TRAVKLLER. 



CHAPTER VII. 

First Visit of tlie Englishman in Venice — Paolo Veronese — Works at 
home and abroatl — Public Galleries — Laton House — Mr. Harford's 
Collection at Blaise Castle — Lord Darnley's at Cobh-im Hall — Boni- 
fazio Veneziano — Petworth — Colonel Egremont Wyndham's Gallery- 
Alton Towers— The R;'turn of the Prodigal Son — Works in Foreign 
Galleries — The Bassani — Examples in Collections open to the Public — 
Jacopo at Edinburgh — Francesco and Leandro at Hampton Court — 
Francesco at Liverpool — Pordenone — Lord Brownlow's Collection — 
Works at Chiswlck and Burleigh — Berlin — Udina and Piacenza — Man- 
tua — Venice. 

There is perhaps no Venetian master — Titian alone excepted 
— whose works receive, and have received, so much attention 
from the great body of English travellers, as do, and have done, 
those of Paola Veronese: all rush to the Ducal Palace before 
they are half a day old in Venice; and the certainty of this 
fact helps to diminish my regret that I cannot, with due respect 
to the brilliant qualities of an artist so much admired, here at 
tempt to do more than allude to the whereabouts of some few 
among the vast number of paintings produced by his hand. 

The National and Dulwich Galleries, Hampton Court, the 
Fizwiiliara Museum at Cambridge, the Royal Institution of 
Edinburgh, and other public bodies, possess pictures by Paolo 
Veronese always accessible to the student; there are besides 
examples of his works in almost all the moi-e important collec- 
tions in the country. The Marquis of Bute has four at Luton 
House. Lord Darnley's collection at Coljham Hall boasts an 
equal number. Mr. Munro has two, both of high artistic va- 
lue, and considered to exhibit the most admired qualities of the 
painter. In the collection of Mr. Harford, at Blaise Castle, 
there is a "Pieta" by Paolo Veronese, very beautifully painted. 
There are drawings by his hand at Chatsworth; and they have 
one in the magnificent collection of those treasures possessed 
by the University of Oxford; a banquet of cardinals is the 
sul)ject of this drawing, which is one of great interest to the 
admirer of the master. The portrait of Paolo, painted by his 

* Continued from p. 2(J8, vol. x., no. ix. 



son. Carlo Cagliari, will be found, amongst those of other great 
painters, in the collection of the Duke of Bedford, at Woburu 
Abbey; that in the Uffizii, at Florence, will be familiar to the 
recollection of all acquainted with the Florentine galleries. 

Works of varied character by Paolo Veronese enrich the 
Louvre: of these the most important and justly renowned is 
the "Marriage in Cana," a favorite subject with the gay and 
genial painter. To this picture increased interest has been 
given by the description which Zanetti cites, as preserved in the 
Venetian convent of San Giorgio Maggiore, that document 
proving nearly all the figures to be portraits of persons the 
most distinguished of tlieir time — the Emperor Charles V.; 
Francis L of France, v^ith his queen, Eleanor of Austria; our 
own Mary; Soliman I., Grand Signor; Alfonso D'Avalos, 
Marquis del Gnasto; and the justly celebrated Vittoria Colon- 
na, Marchese di Pescaro, — are among them, as is Paolo Vero- 
nese himself, with his brother Benedetto Cagliari, and his 
brethren in Art, Tintoretto and Jacopo da Ponte. 

Speaking of this work, Vasari calls it "Opera maravigliosa 
per grandezza, per numero di figure, per varieia d'abiti, e per 
invenzione."t When Vasari wrote, Paolo Veronese .was not 
more than thirty, or perhaps thirty-two years old — a circum- 
stance to which the biographer has previously alluded, | and one 
which amply accounts for the fact that Vasari has not described 
his works at greater length. 

A picture representing Jesus in the honse of Simon the 
Pharisee, and which, although scarcely so characteristic of the 
master as that last named, is yet of great interest, as regards 
many important qualities that cannot here be insisted on, vcill 
also be found in the Louvre: Vasari describes it as "La cena 
che fece Simone lebbroso al signore, quando le peccatrice se gli 
getto a piedi." In this work, painted for the refectory of San 
Nazzaro in Verona, a monastery of black friars, there are two 
dogs, highly praised, among other parts, by Vasari. — and with 
justice, as all who have remarked that animal when piinted by 
Veronese will readily believe. "They seem to be alive," savs 
the biographer; and to this adds the following — "More in the 
distance are certain figures of lame and halt, which are also 
excellently done." There is a sketch for this picture at Alton 
Towers, where will also be found a portrait of a lady, declared 
to be from the hand of the same master. 

To say nothing of Venice, — because all seek Paolo Veronese 
there, — the galleries of Vienna and Munich, the Brera at Milan, 
with the collections at Dresden, Berlin, and other capitals, have 
also works by this master, but those here named must suffice for 
our present purpose. 

Of Bonifazio Veneziano, of the Bassani, and of some few 
beside, among the Venetian masters of the period before us, we 
would fain cite pictures recurring pleasantly to remembrance, 
as the churches and palaces of Venice rise before the willing 
eyes of the gladdened memory; but we must restrain ourselves 
for the most part to the mere mention cf some few works in 
the possession of English collectors within reach of the Eng- 
lish student. By the first named painter there is a picture, bat 
not a good one, at Hampton Court — "Christ with the Woman 
of Samaria" is the subject, and the work was long atti-iijuted 
to Palma Vecchio; it has been much injured, but even when at 
best can scarcely have presented a fair specimen of the mas- 
ter. § Of much higher value is the "Last Supper," in the 
Royal Institution of Edinburgh — since tliis work, if my recol- 
lections do not mislead me, gives full evidence of that elevation 
of thought and dignity of manner so entirely distinctive of 
Bonifazio, and which raise him to a level with the very first of 
his contemporaries. Nor is the Edinburgh picture of less im- 
portance as an example of that perfection in coloring wherein 
Bonifazio, as is well known, was scarcely inferior. to Titian, 
whom he did without doubt follow zealously, as regards that 
great essential, but with no servility of imitation, nor in any 
manner derogatory to his own high and true genius. 

t See " Opere," vol. iv., p. 329. 
\ ''Opere." as above, p. 327. 

§ Many valuable details respecting this and other painters of the pe- 
riod will be found in the "Notizie" of MorrL'lli {L'Anoii mo.) 



]S58. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAu. 



109 



In tlic collectioa of Colonel Egremont Wyndham, at Pet- 
worth, tliere is an Adoration of the Kings, from the hand of 
Bonifazio Yeneziano, respecting which Dr. Waagen has the fol- 
lowing remark: — "Besides his usual warmth and transparent 
harmony of color, this picture exhibits a closer finish of detail 
than is usual with Bonifazio."* Higher eulogies might have 
been added, and with justice; nor is there reason to believe 
they would have been withheld, had the German writer con- 
gnlted his inclination only, and had he not been restricted by 
the brevity imposed on his words by the exigencies of his sub- 
ject. This may be inferred, not only from the general tenor 
of Dr. Waagen's works, as they relate to masters of the high- 
est class in general, but also from various remarks respecting 
Bonifazio in particular, to be found in other passages. Thus, 
describing a valuable picture by that most noble artist, in pos- 
session of Sir Charles Eastlake, — Our Lady with the Divine 
Child, and other figures, — Dr. Waagen speaks as follows: — 
' 'This rich and beautiful composition, with the fine character 
of the heads, especially that of the female saint, approaches 
Titian in warmth and harmony of coloring." So far the Ger- 
man critic, if he had added the declaration that Titian is not 
unfrequently surpassed by the less familiarly known painter in 
depth of thought, in purity of sentiment, and in elevation of 
purpose, he would have done no injustice to either master. 

But perhaps the most important and valuable work by Boni- 
fazio in possession of any English collector, is that now at Al- 
ton Towers, and which was long attributed to Titian. The 
subject of the picture is the Return of the Prodigal Son ; the 
figures, life-size, are in Venetian costume of the painter's day, 
they have, therefore, not the pastoral character always sug- 
gested to the mind by the words of the sacred text, but, apart 
from this circumstance, — redeemed by many considerations, that 
cannot here be entered on, from its seeming character of a 
fault, — these figures are absolutely perfect, as is the whole scene 
wherein they act, with all its details. The principal group is 
standing before a building, which, if not of the most lofty pre- 
tensions, is evidently the dwelling of an important and opulent 
personage; the moment is that immediately subsequent to the 
command, "Bring forth the best robe, and put it on him, and 
put a ring on his hand and shoes on his feet." The "shoes" are 
already on — one servant is presenting the "ring," which he 
holds daintily between his fingers, while another has approached 
his master with the robe, and stands at his left hand, holding 
the garment of honor with due respect across his outstretched 
arms. In the face of the prodigal, whom the father — a venei'- 
able and beautiful old man, and, as might be supposed, the chief 
person of the drama — is raising from what has doubtless been a 
second prostration, made in acknowledgment of his goodness, 
there are ample evidences of that weakness ever to be found, 
under some one of its many forms, in the company of vice ; nor 
has this been done by the wise and thoughtful master without 
due reference to our instruction; of tliat we may be sure, and 
shall do well to profit by it. The elder brother, on the con- 
trary, is a noble and dignified figure, as befits the man of pas- 
sions duly restrained and life devoted to life's duties: thus, al- 
though the lesson given us in this parable of our Lord does in 
some sort involve a reproof to the elder brother, yet is it on 
him — after the father — that the attention of the spectator is 
mostpermauently fixed, and not ou the prodigal, whom one is will- 
ing to leave to the cares of the servants, so dutifully ready to at- 
tend him. This our favorite then, despite his fault of momen- 
tary displeasure, which will not be lasting — we have but to look 
on his fine face for- assurance of that fact — is seated on horse- 
back at some distance from the principal group. He is return- 
ing from the chase, and his dogs are at the feet of his horse; 
servants also are round him, and from these he is receiving an 
explanation of the event passing before his eyes. It is impos- 
sible to imagine auythiug more life-like, and, at the same time, 
more graceful than are all the figures composing this group, on 
which the critic in Art might long expatiate before enumerat- 
ing half its merits: the horse is not such, at all points, as the 

* See "Treasures of Art in England," vol. ii.p. 265; see also vol. iii. 
p. 42. 

14* 



connoisseur would select for his uses; but Venice does not 
count among her glories the being an especial land of horses- 
nay, a man may live long years in the midst of her beauties — 
our benison upon them, one and all! — without ever seein"- a 
hoof, save only those belonging to St. Mark's stud, of immor- 
tal renown. But even the horse, noble as he is when truly por- 
trayed, and well as we love one "of a worthie race," as Ger- 
vase Markham hath it, can scarcely detain us in this instance 
from the human interests around us, and of these we liave in 
this one picture enough to minister food for thought that may 
last you a life-time. And in this fact is the real triumph of the 
master truly great, as is Bonifazio Veneziano. You will de- 
light in him for the beauty wherewith he has blessed your eyes; 
but that is a benefit you may derive from others: his distinction 
is that he awakens and enriches the mind, and for this you re- 
vere him and are grateful ; that he softens and amends the heart, 
and for this it is that you give Lim the dear love of a life- 
time. 

Not to all great painters is that last best tribute due; nay, 
you shall count the names that compel it from you on little 
more than the ten fingers of your hands — but Bonifazio Vene- 
ziano is pre-eminently among them; and with some two, or per- 
haps, three, of his Venetian brethren, added to certain among 
the older Florentines, will come first to your recollection when 
this highest of all qualities is in question, A bright name or 
two from the Roman schools, with yet more, and of better 
claims, from those of Umbria, rise appealingly to the recollec- 
tion, as one writes of this matter, and most lovingly has each 
"its claim allowed; ' but to your memory and your good heart, 
oh reader, must now be left to pay the debt for all, seeing that 
the grand work of the revered Venetian now before us looks 
for all our attention, and is not of the class that can be duly 
treated with aught less. A rich mountainous landscape forms 
the ultimate background and closes the whole, but within this 
are various distances, all appropriately occcupied: over one of 
them there is a hunting party galloping cheerily, and to them 
it is we may suppose the servant, making signal from an ex- 
terior gallery, is blowing a horn, bidding them return to their 
part in the feast about to be prepared. Beneath a portico of 
the lordly dwelling other servitors are preparing the board; 
figures are in movement within and without, and in all direc- 
tions, yet each maintained in due subordination, and none of all 
interfering with the chief action of the piece, which maintains 
its interest unimpaired through all. Women are looking forth 
from their apartments in an upper story of the house; there are 
two now issuing from a doorway; they approach the summit of 
a flight of steps: but half-informed of what is causing the 
movement below, they are about to summon a servant who will 
give them better intelligence: we need not listen to him, since 
we know all he can tell; but they have a pleasant "coign of 
vantage," there, with their faces to the beloved mountains, and 
it is not without reluctance that we leave it. 

Of this Bonifazio, we have said that it is noio at Alton 
Towers; but alas for the mutability of things human, how little 
value is there in that "now!" To be precise then, it is there 
at the now of the present — this bright and blessed morn of 
June, being the seveu-and-twentieth day of the month, in the 
year of our redemption one thousand eight hundred and fifty- 
seven. 

But when the month shall call itself August — where? 

It is a question that would bring most sorrowful considera- 
tions, were it not for our hope that the great lessons conveyed 
by this immortal work may be thenceforth secured for the bene- 
fit of larger numbers than have ever yet been permitted to pro- 
fit by them. Nay, who knows that we may not all become 
"part-owners" in this invaluable gift from one who stands high 
among the best of the richly productive past to the needy and 
desiring of our sterile present? Why should the nation itself 
not then be proprietor of Bonifazio's bequest to all time? Let 
us entertain so consoling a hope; there can be no good reason 
to be given ogainst its realisation ; and l)e sure that no picture 
in our present possession will assemble so large a crowd as will 




daily be seen around "The Return of the Prodigal Son,"* if you 
will but give it Qtting place in the gallery that must some day 
be made worthy to be called the JS^ational Gallery of Eng- 
land. 

There are three pictures by Bonifazio in the Lonvre — a Re- 
surrection of Lazarus, a Holy Family of great beauty, and a 
Madonna with the Divine Child, St. Catherine, St. Agnes, and 
St. John, also a child. This jiicture was long attributed to 
Talina Yecchio. 

Oar good and rarely failing friend, the Royal Gallery of 
Berlin has one work, and I think but one, of this master: the 
picture represents our Saviour pointing out the writing he has 
traced, to ttie Pharisees, who have brought before him the wo- 
man accused of adultery. The accused, surrounded by her 
captors, awaits her judgment at his hands; a group of pitying 
spectators is in the distance, and in the background there is a 
landscape with buildings. 

But for Bonifazio, as for all the masters now in question, the 
cities of Italy, more especially Venice, must be visited, if the 
student would make effectual acquaintance with their works. 
lu the Libreria Yecchia is a painting, wherein Bonifazio has 
represented the encampment of the Israelites: this is said to be 
the first attempt made by any painter to give the real effect 
produced by the sun. The Academy — Academia delle Belle 
Arti — has a picture, among others, of " The Rich Man's Sup- 
per," thus described by Kugler, M'ith whose words our brief 
notice of the master must close: — " The time is the afternoon, 
the place an open hall, with a table at which the rich man is 
seated between two female figures; one, with her hand on her 
breast, is assuring him of her fidelity, the other listens thought- 
fully to a lute-player, and to a half-kneeliag violincellist, whose 
music is held by a Moorish boy, while a bearded noble over- 
looks the group. On the left are two pages drinking wine; on 
the right, Lazarus, the beggar, is being turned away by a ser- 
vant with a dog; in the background is a stately garden, with 
falconers, pages, and grooms."! 

Other Venetian masters are represented in the Shrewsbury 
collection, and among them are Giovanni Bellino, Giorgione, 
Sebastian© del Piombo, Pordenome, Bonviciuo, and Tintoretto: 
no less than four pictures are attributed to the last-named of 
those great masters, and three of them may be by his hand; 
the fourth does not appear to be so, but it is a point we cannot 
now discuss. There is one by Carlo Cri velli , but of this, as of some 
by other masters, notice will be found in a subsequent column. 
Palmo Vecchio is also hei"e, as is Morone, who has four pictures 
under his name: of these, two are hung so high that the specta- 
tor has no power of examination; the third is certainly not by 
his hand, but the fourth has every appearance of being the 
work of Morone, and is a fair example of the master. 

The gardens of Alton Towers are said to be the finest in Eu- 
rope, and in their manner — they ai'e Italian gardens — they do 
certainly surpass all previously seen by the writer; even those 
of the Villa Doria, outside the walls of Rome, were not, in all 
respects, equal to them, although "beautiful exceedingly," be- 



• Since tbe above was iii type, the writer has heard numerous remarks 
from persons varying much iu condition, all proving this picture to be 
one of those that fulfil tbe highest purpose of the master — whose aims 
are truly great — by touching the large heart of the people ; a single in- 
stance shall suffice. Bewailing the dispersion of the paintings generally, 
a keeper in the Alton woods, declared to the writer, that for the loss of 
one. among them he could find no consolation. " That one I did love,-' 
said he, '• and when I used to be called to move any of 'em in John Tal- 
bot's time, — for my lord would have 'em changed sometimes, — I was 
more afraid of harm coming to that, than to all the rest put together. 
Aye ! I loved that picture." 
"" And that one," inquired the writer, "what was it?" 

" They called it the Prodigal Son," replied the woodman, and he looked 
down sadly on the bright green turf before him, evidently recalling the 
features of his lost favorite with a deep regret. These were the words, 
but how eloquent were the looks and tones! they were such as the noble 
master himself might have seen and heard with a just pride. 

" John Talbot " is the Straffordshire name of the earl. John, the pre- 
decessor of the late Lord Shrewsbury — few titles have so grand a sound 
as have those two names on the lips of the peasantry, still mourning him 
who bore them ; nor is any title often pronounced with so respectful af- 
fection as is that fine old name, " John Talbot." 

t Schools of Painting in Italy, vol, ii. p. 451. 



fore those grievious changes wrought among them, as in those 
of the Borghese Villa, during the year '48. 

The gardens of the Kinski Palace, outside the fortifications 
of Prague, will recur to the remembrance of all who, knowing 
them, shall ascend the private footway to the seat of the Talbot 
family; but there is a care and finish in the English garden not 
found in that of Prague. The gardens of Daserta, always a 
favored residence, and now the constant abode of the royal 
family of Naples, are extensive, and in parts richly decorated, 
but they are not equal to those of Alton. 

Unlike the German boast of Schwetzingen, also Tfidely re- 
nowned, the Alton Gardens, which resemble them in the va- 
riety of their fountains, waterfalls, temples, lawns, terraces, and 
gleaming statues, have the inappreciable advantage of a' fine 
site; and if in this respect the Boboli Gardens of Florence over- 
match them, as regards grandeur of distant prospect and wealth 
of association, yet is this fair Staffordshire " pleasance" richer 
in its bright loveliness, and infinitely more attractive in its im- 
mediate surroundings, or what may be called the home-views 
which consist of emerald slopes and wooded heights, well worthy 
to make part of paradise. They have, beside, the charming 
quality of being well within the range of vision, although ex- 
tending to great distances, and forming a truly magnificent do- 
main. 

To the beauty and rich odors of that series of living and 
breathing pictures called " the Rock-walk of Alton," no grounds 
known to the writer can offer a parallel. There is a delicious 
solitude, of slightly similar character, at Chatsworth, but even 
this — rarely seen perhaps, by any but such as linger most lov- 
ingly where Nature is least restrained, and little known to the 
mere passing visitor — will not presume to compare its paler 
loveliness with the royal perfections of its sister at Alton. Or 
you may here are and there find a priceless jewel hidden pre- 
ciously among the far depths of the flowery Pyrenean valleys, 
and to these the memory may recur, with a glad recognition' 
when coming suddenly on some new beauty in this bright vision', 
the legitimate "Pride of Staffordshire;" but in mere " grounds'' 
formed by man, look for no resemblance to it. Happy he who 
may linger in the whole fair region more years than we are giv- 
ing weeks to its enjoyment; yet even our weeks are growino- to 
months, may Heaven make us thankful for the privilege! and I 
would that you, who do but read thereof, were here to 
share it. 

That family of artists, of whom Jacopo Bassano, called Da 
Ponte, has the most distinguished name, is represented in our 
country by a picture in the National Gallery from the hand of 
Leandro, the son of Jacopo; at the Royal Institution of Edin- 
burgh, where there are two pictures by Jacopo himself- at 
Hampton Court, where there are several by Francesco Bassano, 
with one by Leandro; and at the Royal Institution of Liverpool' 
where there is a work by Francesco, with one attributed to Jaco- 
po but this last, unknown to the present writer,is not considered 
to be a good specimen of the master. In private collections 
works by the Bassani may also be found: that of Mr. Miles 
at Leigh Court, has a "Presentation in the Temple" from the 
hand of Jacopo, and there is an Adoration of the Shepherds 
also by Jacopo, at Belvoir Castle; this last is a work of "-reat 
beauty. At Chiswick there is a picture of high value by'^Bas- 
sano — it represents Christ bearing his Cross; and the Marquis 
of Exeter is in possession of a Return of the Prodigal Sou 
and "The Israelites gathering the Mana;" these are at Bur- 
leigh. The late Mr. Rogers had a picture by Giacomo Bassa- 
no, which he greatly prized, and with reason, the subject is, 
"Dives and Lazarus: in the same collection was a "Good Sa- 
maritan," by Francesco Bassano. There are two important 
pictures by Giacom at Devonshire House, and the "Maries," at 
Chiswick, will at once recur to the memory of all who have 
seen that work; there was one at Alton Towers, but the stu- 
dent who desires to see it must now look elsewhere. The sub- 
ject of the last-named work, also by Giacomo da Ponte, is the 
Nativity of Christ; it bears the name of the master, and if not 
iu all respects to be accounted among the best of his works is 
allowed, and by severe critics, to exhibit very fine colorino-. ' 



\ — 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



Ill 



The gallery of the Louvre is rich in works by the Bassani, 
and among them are several by Jacopo; Berlin has examples 
of all these masters. Dresden is equally fortunate, nor is 
Florence unprovided. "St. Martin dividing his Cloak with the 
Beggar," and the "Baptism of Santa Lucilla," are at Bassano. 
The early manner of Jacopo Da Ponte is, in many respects, 
preferable to that of his later day; a specimen from the hand 
of Francesco will be found in the Church of San Lugi de' 
Francesi, at Rome; and there is one by Leandro in that of 
San Giovanni e Paolo, in Venice; this last is considered to be 
a highly favorable example of the painter. 

Of Giovanni Licinio, called Pordenone, the friend and 
follower, perhaps the disciple, of him whose early death "the 
noble Arts" fas they are truly called by the loving Vasari) 
can never sufficiently deplore — the still and ever to be lamented 
Giorgione, as of the other admirable masters above named, none 
should presume to make a mere casual or hasty mention, nor 
shall we do so without extreme reluctance. He, too, is repre- 
sented at Hampton Court and in Edinburgh. A Holy Family, 
two finely painted portraits, and a lady playing on a musical 
instrument, form part of the first-named collection; the second 
has but one example, nor is that one among the best produc- 
tions of Pordenone — the subject of the work is our Saviour on 
the Mount. There are three pictures by Pordenone in Lord 
Brownlow's collection, — one, the figure of a man with an open 
music book, bearing the name of the master and the date 1524. 
There is an admirable work of the same earnest painter at Al- 
ton Towers, the figures recalling that elevation of character 
which all who have seen his works in Yenice, will remember, 
with a pleasure much enhanced by that respect for the artist 
which the best of his works inspire. "The "Adoration of the 
Kings" is the subject of the work ; and if there were not a 
thousand good reasons why the lover of beautiful Nature 
should ever rejoice in some fair excuse for visiting the attractive 
region surrounding Lord Shrewsbury's seat, the lover of Art 
will find sufficient cause for doing so in this one picture. In the 
best manner of the Venetian school, the "Adoration" here in 
question, might also be transferred with advantage to the na- 
tional collection. The head of the worshipper, who is bending 
to kiss the foot of the divine Child, is remarkable for the ma- 
jestic beauty which Pordenone so well knewhow to impart to the 
features of one whom he delighted to honor: the reverential 
expression impressed on the whole being of this noble person- 
age, in no wise detracts from the dignity of his aspect, which 
is entirely worthy of Pardeuone. The second of the Magi re- 
gards the Babe with a mingled expression ; whether to wonder 
most or most to adore seems undetermined in his mind; not so 
in that of the attendant beside him, whose face is eloquentof the 
deepest awe. There is not enough of the exterior world in this 
picture, which one longs to see extended, by that masterly hand, 
over a broader space of landscape. It is, beside, in so disad- 
vantageous a position at the present moment, that minute ex- 
amination is nearly impossible: let us hope that the coming 
change will at least correct that fault. 

The Marquis of Exeter is in possession of two pictures by 
Pordenone, erroneously attributed to Titian and Jocopo da 
Ponte. The first is the "Finding of Moses" — "noble in the 
characters and expression," — as it should be, if it claim to bear 
the name of Pordenone; — "grand in the forms, and of a warm, 
full tone of coloring, I do not know any other gallery which 
can boast two such works by this rare master." So says Dr. 
Waagen, speaking of the first-named of these paintings, the 
second he calls, and justly, "a rich and admirable picture." 
This last is that hitherto attributed to Bassano (Jacopo da 
Ponte), but declared by Dr. Waagen, as is the Finding of 
Moses, before mentioaed, to be the work of Pordenone. 

In the excellent collection at the Royal Museum at Berlin, 
there are two pictures by Pordenone which the writer remem- 
bers with pleasure, — these are "Christ washing the Feet of the 
Apostles," and the "Woman accused of Adultery;" a third is 
mentioned, but this we have not seen. 

Of Pordenone's works in Udina and Piacenza, we can but say 
here, that no student or lover of Art who may pass within reach of 



either city should neglect to visit them. Vasari speaks in 
highly eulogistic terms of a fresco at Mantua, exhibiting beau- 
tiful children twined fancifully amidst the giant letters of an 
inscription purporting that the dwelling of the owner is reared 
for himself and his friends, — a familiar custom of the day: this 
we have not had the good fortune to see, in the sole visit made 
by the writer to Mantua; a city which has not too much in all 
the riches of its varied associations to make up for the utter 
dreariness of its water-logged aspect. In the Venetian Aca- 
demy, in the Church of St. Rocco, and in other churches and 
palaces of Venice, are all works of inestimable value, by Por- 
denone; but we can do no more than intimate the fact. For- 
tunate the eyes that shall verify it for themselves. 



From the LiverpoolFhrAographk Journal. 

CHORLTOX PHOTOGRAPHIC SOCIETY. 



The ordinary monthly meeting of this Society was held in the 
Chorlton Town Hall, on Thursday evening, January 14th, Mr. 
Deane in the chair. 

After the minutes of the previous meeting were read by the 
Hon. Secretary, Mr, Hepworth read the following essay, con- 
taining — 

" AN HISTORICAL SKETCH OF THE PHOTOGRAPHIC ART- 
ITS PRESENT INFLUENCES AND PROSPECTIVE 
DEVELOPMENT, APPLICATIONS, 
AND USES." 

The rapid progress of photography during the last few years 
is no less remarkable than that its existence as a scientific art 
should be of such modern date, when we bear in mind that the 
great source of light, heat, and actinism has shed its radianco 
over the world for so many thousand years, and that silver, the 
principal agent at present employed , was one of the first metals 
of which man possessed any knowledge, and with several of the 
compounds of which the alchymists were intimately acquainted. 
Many of the effects of light upon 'color, too, must have been 
observed for ages, bleaching some and deepening others, yet 
the application of these to any practical purpose was reserved 
for the philosophical minds of the present century. Mr. Wedg- 
wood, in 1802, appears to have been the first to avail himself 
of the property that light possesses of blackening the nitrate of 
silver when in contact with organic matter, yet both he and 
Sir Humphrey Davy failed to fix the impressions that were ob- 
tained by this, the first imperfect printing process; and pho- 
tography seems to have been abandoned till 1814, when M. 
Niepce, of Chalons, directed his attention to the production of 
pictures by light, but by a process that was for several years 
kept secret. He appears to have experimented for about ten 
years alone, when he became casually acquainted with M. 
Daguerre, between whom a sort of partnership seems to have 
subsisted. The sensitive surface used by Niepce was a thin 
layer of bitumen, obtained by pouring upon stone tablets or 
metallic plates a sort of varnish composed of asphaltum, oil of 
lavender, and petroleum; when dry they were ready for use. 
This bitumen has the property of hardening on exposure to 
light, and of becoming imperfectly soluble in liquids that pre- 
viously dissolved it most readily; he had only, therefore, to 
submit his plates, after exposure in the camera, to the ac- 
tion of these for a short time, to remove such portions as were 
unaffected by light, and thus to obtain the first permanent pic- 
tures of which we have any record, though they required an 
exposure of several hours to produce them. 

In January, 1839, Mr. Fox Talbot communicated to the 
Royal Society his photographic discoveries, which consisted of 
the preparation of a surface of chloride of silver upon paper; 
on this he obtained a negative copy of an engraving, leaves, 
lace, &c , by placing them in contact and submitting them to 
the influence of light, and from the negative thus obtained, on 
similar sheets of prepared paper, was enabled to procure any 
number of positive prints, and these were fixed by the applica- 
tion of a saturated solution of common salt, in which chloride of sil- 



112 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



Ter is soluble to some extent. The patent for what is called the 
calotype or Talbotype was not obtained till 1841, a process so 
well known that it will be unnecessary for me to describe. 
This was even more sensitive thaa the beautiful process of Da- 
guerre, which was given to the world by the French Govern- 
ment about six month's after Mr. Talbot's first announcement 
in 1839. I well recollect with what wonder I gazed upon the 
first daguerreotype that I beheld about sixteen years ago; it 
was at the meeting of the British Association for the advance- 
ment of Science, held in Newcastle-upon-Tyne, and many of 
you who are listening to me will, I doubt not, have experienced 
similar feelings, for, despite, the wonderful discoveries that have 
since been made, I question if any process has produced such 
marvellous accuracy of detail and delicacy of light and shade 
as can be procured by the employment of the iodized silver 
plate. The Daguerreotype process was, however, at first ex- 
tremely slow, more especially before the employment of bromine 
as an accelerator; besides, it required the face of a sitter for a 
portrait to be smeared with whiting. I recollect an example of 
this: an intimate friend of mine who took considerable interest 
iu all scientific affairs, thought he would try his hand at pho- 
tography; he procured the necessary apparatus (and these 
were in those days very imperfect iu comparison with what we 
are now enabled to obtain), prepared his plate according to the 
most approved rules, chalked his face till he resembled a plaster 
cast, seated himself in his garden on a hot summer's afternoon 
with the sua beaming upon him, got a friend to focus and ad- 
just the camera, and resigned himself to the influence of a July 
sun. Now this gentleman was somewhat stout, and consequent- 
ly the perspiration streamed down his face during the fifteen 
minutes that he underwent the process of frying, and this in its 
descent of course removed the chalk, till his face somewhat re- 
sembled a modern map of this country intersected by railways; 
he sat his time, however, then ran with impatience to see the 
result of his fortitude, and after all did not obtain a trace of 
his countenance on attempted development. Whether this 
arose from imperfect manipulation I am not prepared to say, 
but it will serve by contrast to show what a wonderful improve- 
ment has since then been made in rapidity of action. The dis- 
coveries of Talbot and Daguerre are epochs in the history of 
photography, and from that time till now its progress has been 
most extraordinary. They were succeeded by many discover- 
ers of minor importance, who gave to the world a host of pro- 
cesses of various degrees of merit. Sir John Herschell and 
Mr. Hunt stand pre-eminent in this respect, and many and val- 
uable are their contributions to the scientific art. To them 
are we indebted for the chrysotype, cyanotype, energiatype, 
chromatype, and others. Sir John Herschell, too, was the first 
to employ glass plates for supporting a sensitive film ; this was 
in 1840. He was led to try this from observing that the calo- 
type failed to produce such delicate results as can be procured 
on metallic plates, in consequence of the rough texture ot the 
paper fibre. His method was to precipitate chloride of silver 
from very weak solutions, and allow it to deposit in a state of 
fine powder on a plate of glass placed at the bottom of the 
vessel used for precipitation: then by very carefully removing 
the surrounding liquid a layer of chloride in a fine state of di- 
vision was obtained. This plan is ingenious but difficult, and 
unadapted to the present requirements of the photographer. 
For the albumen process, by which the beautiful transparent 
stereoscopic slides are produced, we are indebted to M. Niepce 
de Sainte Yictor, nephew of the original discoverer of the same 
name; he published his mode of manipulation in 1848, but this 
process is better adapted for positive prints than for use in the 
camera, for, as well as being slow, it is deficient in that soft- 
ness which constitutes the beauty of a good photograph. M. 
Le Gray, of Paris, was the first to suggest the use of collodion 
for supporting the iodide of silver upon glass, and Mr. Scott 
Archer to carry this suggestion into practice. The process, as 
described by the latter gentleman, in 1851, continues to be 
practised with no material alteration, and certainly no disco- 
very has tended more to popularize and advance the photo- 
graphic art than this has done, for it has simplified the manipu- 



lation, presented us with a more sensitive film, enabled us to 
produce results hitherto unattainable, given an impetus that 
seems to increase with accelerated power, and casts such a fas- 
cination around the art as completely captivates the minds of 
those who are engaged in it, and ever leads them to persever- 
ance under the greatest discouragements. Still the mind of 
man remains dissatisfied so long as there is a nearer approach 
to perfection to be attained, and the further we progress the 
more desirous are we to press forward to this goal; consequent- 
ly imperfections, or rather, I should say, inconveniences, were 
soon experienced, and the last few years have been prolific in 
modifications to meet the requirements, more especially of those 
who work out of doors, the great drawback of the collodion 
process being want of portability in the apparatus and chemi- 
cals required. Various plans for preserving the sensitiveness of 
the plates were therefore devised to obviate this difiBculty. The 
use of deliquescent salts, honey, glycerine, and oxymel were 
tried and with considerable success; but as they always retain 
a certain amount of moisture, and consequently are liable to 
the adherence of dust, they are superseded by various dry pro- 
cesses, in which the surface was protected by a coating of gela- 
tine, metagelatine, dextrine, albumen, or other substances. 
The collodio-albumen process of M. Taupenot is, however, I 
think, the most worthy of attention, both for its keeping quali- 
ties and admirable results. The utility and convenience of dry 
processes is indisputable, but that they will ever be as sensitive 
at moist plates is not to be expected, inasmuch as moisture is 
essential to facilitate rapid chemical action. The waxed paper 
process ofM, Le Gray has produced such beautiful results when 
applied to landscape photography, as to leave but little to be 
desired; it seems to stand in the same relation to the calotype 
as the process of M. Taupenot does to collodion. Such is a 
brief and imperfect sketch of the photographic art. For the 
sake of brevity I have omitted a reference to several topics 
that might interest you; the limits of one essay will not, how- 
ever, admit of my doing full justice to so instructive a subject, 
and I will now attempt to describe its present influences. 
These, for the convenience of distinction, may be divided into 
three classes, — social, intellectual, and relative. 

The social influences of photography may be best exemplified- 
I think, by glancing at the assembly that is now collected with, 
in his room, and by calling your attention to the number of si- 
milar societies established in most of the important British and 
continental towns: men of difl'erent stations of society, and of 
various degrees of mental culture, uniting with one common ob- 
ject in view— the advancement of that art so universally ad- 
mired and practised throughout the civilized world. Nor do 
the advantages of such societies terminate with the mere at- 
tainment of the purpose for which they were instituted, but tend 
also to foster a more friendly feeling amongst their members, 
to remove the baueful spirit of jealousy, and prompt those who 
are professionally rivals generously to impart, for the benefit of 
all, such knowledge as experience has enabled them to acquire, 
and to depend alone for success upon their superior skill, appli 
cation, and artistic taste. Neither must we forget the benefits 
that photography has conferred on society, by casting a cheer- 
ing ray of influence into almost every family in the land, for 
now-a-days there are but few houses, from the cottage to the 
palace, that do not contain specimens of our art, Perhaps I 
may here be allowed a digression, to remark that I am not one 
of those who would indiscriminately decry the cheap portrait 
system, though it has its abuses; men must to some extent snit 
their prices to the locality in which they reside, and if all were 
to adhere to the charges that some think necessary to uphold 
the respectability of the profession, the poor man would be 
totally deprived of the gratification of seeing his humble dwell- 
ing adorned with the portraits of those who are dear to him; 
lie possesses the ordinary pride, instincts, and feelings of hu- 
manity, sometimes even in a stronger degree than those who 
claim to be his superiors; these have a right to be respected, 
and price is to him a matter of vital importance. Therefore 
the photographer who places this gratification within his reach, 
confers a boon that meets his niucerest gratitude. From the 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOTJRNAxj. 



113 



p32r to the peasant the hearts of thousands have been glad- 
dened and consoled by the possession of portraits of those who 
are united to them by the ties of kindred, affection, or esteem. 
None, I believe, but those who have experienced it, can appre- 
ciate to the full the value of this blessing conferred upon so- 
ciety. The widow could tell you with what emotion she gazes 
day by day upon a semblance of the lost partner of her joys 
and sorrows — the mother with what rapture upon the reflected 
countenances of those loved ones who are scattered abroad en- 
gaged in the ordinary pursuits of life, and between whom lands 
and seas may intervene — the child at school upon the fond, in- 
dulgent countenances of his parents — the lover upon the image 
of the idol of his heart — the man of the world upon that of 
those who have won his friendship or esteem — and people gene- 
rally upon the faces of the eminently good and excellent of the 
earth. All of you must have felt this influence in some degree; 
it will, therefore, be superfluous for me to dwell more fully upon 
it. 

In an intellectual point of view the influence of photography 
has been such as to excite in the mind a love for all that is 
uoble, grand, and beautiful in nature and art, and by leading 
us from effects to causes, to create a desire to become more in- 
timately acquainted with those laws by which the governance 
of the universe is maintained, and which are ever seen to act 
with as undeviating perfection upon the smallest particles of 
matter as in the motions of the planetary world. 

Every man, to be a really intelligent and successful photo- 
grapher, must possess a good knowledge of the properties of 
the substances with which he works, and such an acquaintance 
with chemistry as will enable him to understand the decomposi- 
tions that ensue in the processes that he employs, otherwise he 
will be continually groping in the dark, and dependent upon 
others for that aid which a more perfect knowledge would have 
enabled him to dispense with. Photography has excited a de- 
sire for this knowledge; books and teachers have not been 
wanting to communicate it, and many, I am happy to think, 
have availed themselves of the opportunities afforded for its 
acquisition. I would ask many who are present if they do not 
now possess such an acquaintance with the rudiments of che- 
mistry, optics, and the properties of light, as they would never 
have attempted to acquire, had they not been stimulated by the 
practice of this delightful art. Has the eye not been educated 
to appreciate more fully the beautiful — the taste elevated and 
refined; and do they not (apart from the mere practice of pho- 
tographyj feel that they are wiser, and consequently happier 
men. Nor does the development of the intellect end here; pho- 
tography has become a teacher to those who know nothing of 
it as a scientific art; aided by the stereoscope, it has made them 
more intimately acquainted with the scenery and inhabitants of 
distant lands than books or verbal description could ever have 
done. The world has been ransacked, as it were, to bring' be- 
fore us all that it contains that is worthy of admiration — the 
photographer with his camera has mounted the snowy Alps and 
trodden the torrid sands of Egypt, wandered through the peace- 
ful vales of Switzerland and over the battle-field of Likermann, 
sketched the crumbling palaces of the mighty Ceesars and the 
splendid structures of modern times, the statuary of Greece 
and Rome, the swarth Nubian and the fair inhabitant of West- 
ern Earope, the barren mountain and the verdant plain; and 
this, too, by the unerring pencil of nature, with a truthfulness 
that the most accomplished draughtsmen can never hope to 
rival. By this means may we now see more of the world in an 
hour, and at our own fireside, than months of toilsome travel 
would enable us to do. 

The influence of photography as a teacher may be aptly ex- 
emplified by the interesting exhibition that may be daily seen 
at the Manchester Mechanics' Institution, where small photo- 
graphs, illuminated by the o.xyhydrogen light, are magnified to 
cover a screen thirty feet square. Description would fail to 
convey an adequate idea of the beauty of most of these, I may 
remark, however, that whilst some are inferior as photographs, 
yet capable of imparting a vast amount of instruction, others 
are of surpassing brilliancy, and show by the rapturous ap- 

VOL. XI. NO. iv. 15 



plause with which their appearance is greeted that they at once 
impress the mind with wonder and admiration, and that their 
merits are fully appreciated. Where so many are beautiful it 
will be difficult to make a selection; yet few, I think, can gaze 
without emotion upon that magnificent statue erected to the 
memory of the gifted and much lamented Malibran, who died 
so suddenly in this town some years ago; there is something 
that is absolutely angelic and ethereal in the aspect of the pic- 
ture as it gradually fades from sight, whilst the organ gives ut- 
terance to the sweet plaintive melody that was sung by the ac- 
complished vocalist but a few hours before her melancholy de- 
cease. Other specimens of statuary are but little inferior to 
this; the copy of a gigantic vase, and the interior of a cloister 
are also especially worthy of attention, and are perhaps the 
best photographs that are there exhibited. Firth's Egyptian 
pictures require no comment of mine, for whoever beholds them 
and listens to the clear and instructive description given by the 
clever and energetic secretary of the Institution, cannot quit 
the building without having received both gratification and a 
large amount of information. The value of this Exhibition 
would, I think, be much increased, however, by the addition of 
pictures of local interest, and I would suggest, that if any of 
our members are in possession of such, they cannot do better 
than sand copies of them to the committee of the Institution, 
by whom, I have no doubt, they will be thankfully accepted. 

Did time permit, I could show that photography is not desti- 
tute of a moral as well as a beneficial physical influence, by 
weaning men from pursuits that degrade and enervate, whilst it 
substitutes those which purify the mind and invigorate the sys- 
tem; but to avoid trespassing too much upon your patience, I 
will next treat of photography in relation to the industrial arts. 
Its influence in this respect has been most remarkable and bene- 
ficial; it has not only given new impulse to several old branches 
of industry, but called many new ones into existence. To be 
satisfied of this it will merely be necessary to direct your atten- 
tion to the multitude of advertisements crowded on the covers 
of our journals and contained in the columns of our daily pa- 
pers. Paper makers vie with each other to produce an article 
suitable for the uses of the photographer; chemists to supply 
the constantly increasing demand for the products of their art; 
grinders of lenses to furnish the most perfect instrument that 
modern science enables them to produce; workers in brass to 
give perfection to the movements of these; manufacturers of 
porcelain to provide ua with baths, dippers, levelling stands, 
dishes, and various useful implements; makers of cameras, 
plate boxes, camera stands, stereoscopes, mats, preservers, 
cases, passepartouts, India rubber and gutta percha articles, 
colors, brushes varnishes, collodion, glass and metal plates, in 
fact the multitude that is daily laboring to supply our require- 
ments, bears testimony to the benefits that photography has 
conferred upon the industrial arts. In the future of photo- 
graphy there is such a scope for the imagination to revel in, 
that unless it be restrained by the curb of reason, we shall Le 
led into the most extravagant exaggeration. Beautiful as the 
present productions are, and faithful representations as they are 
of nature, still there is much to be acquired, and the mind will 
not rest satisfied till greater things are accomplished, or length- 
ened experience has shown that it is impossible to imitate her 
more closely. The great end to be attained is a fac-siinile of 
nature's magnificent colors, the finest copy will ever be inferior 
to the original so long as we cannot imitate her in this. To say 
it is impossible is an assertion as rash as it would be unreason- 
able, for there is no more improbability of this than there was 
twenty years ago of our being abljto obtain th3 results we daily 
behold; besides, there are now and then faint glimpses flicker- 
inn- as it were over the plate, sufficient to inspire us with hope 
for the future. Several have obtained a decided color in 
folia"'e, others the bright red reflections of brick buildings, and 
the true coloring in light and shade of stone colored edifices. 
On the Daguerreotype plate bright impressions of the solar 
spectrum have been obtained, as well as very close copies of 
highly colored drawings; but the latter have unfortunately 
been as evanescent as they were beautiful. You will be aware. 



114 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



too, that a Mr. Hill, of New York, was said some years ago to 
be in possession of fifty pictures obtained by him in all the 
beauty of nature's coloration; the process employed by him 
was to have been disclosed when more completely perfected, as 
this has never been done, we may reasonably question the truth 
of the statement; besides, without wishing to cast any asper- 
sion on the character of individuals, the intelligence comes from 
a very questionable quarter, as the lovg how is a weapon that 
is apt to be drawn to the fullest extent by our brethren across 
the Atlantic. The pictures were said to be obtained on iodized 
silver plates by the application of a new chemical preparation. 
Unsatisfactory as these results appear, I still most confidently 
expect that the ardent wishes of the most enthusiastic photo- 
grapher will ultimately be crowned with success. I do not, 
however, believe that it will be accomplished by the deductions 
of reason, but rather by some happy accident; men often stum- 
ble on the most brilliant discoveries, and so, I believe, it will 
be in this case. To assume also that we have attained the 
highest degree of sensitiveness in our preparations is, I think, 
equally unwarrantable, and if not, what may we not expect 
from the future of photography. The difficulty experienced in 
photographing the moon consists in the necessity of moving the 
sensitized plate in a corresponding degree with the motion of 
the earth, so as to keep the object constantly in the field of the 
camera; but if a sufficiently increased sensitiveness be obtained, 
this will be rendered unnecessary, and the planetary bodies be 
photographed as perfectly as objects in a state of rest. What 
interesting historical pictures, too, might be obtained of the 
most important events that take place, and illustrative of the 
manners and customs of a country, coronation, marriage, and 
funeral processions, riots and revellings, in fact of assemblies 
collected for any important object. Some of you may smile 
with incredulity at this, and attribute the idea to the warmth 
of enthusiasm; but have not similar effects been shown by Air. 
Fox Talbot, in his celebrated experiment at the Royal Institu- 
tion, when he caused a piece of printed paper to be attach- 
ed to a rapidly revolving disc, and copied it with such 
accuracy by the light of a strong electric spark, that the letters 
were perfectly legible. The brilliancy of the light in this case 
no doubt compensated for the want of sensitiveness of the film, 
still I do not see any reason to question the possibility of copy- 
ing bodies when in rapid motion by ordinary light, if we can 
but sufficiently increase the sensitiveness of the surface employed. 
Imagine, if you can, the interest attached to an accurate pic- 
ture of a crowd of persons agitated by a variety of passions 
and feelings, and this, too, probably rendered as endurable as 
the substance upon which it is taken, for burnt in photography 
promises much for the future, not only as contributing to the 
ornamentation of various articles of taste and utility, but also 
as enabling us to procure permanent records of interesting and 
important historical events. The purposes to which this branch 
of the art is applicable is legion; our fictile ware will, I doubt 
not, be ornamented with faithful transcripts of nature, instead 
of the montrosities that too often disfigure it. The time-hal- 
lowed willow pattern will have to give place to more elegant 
designs, and as noblemen have their crests engraved upon their 
plate, so may they also have their dinner and tea services 
adorned with views of their residences and the surrounding 
landscapes, and hall-lamps, glass shades, staircase windows, and 
other objects for which transparent media are used will, I doubt 
not, ere long be ornamented by this art. 

Photo-litiiography and photo-galvanography lead us to ex- 
pect that the future will be prolific in illustrated literature; how 
greatly then will the interest in our perusal of the books on 
Travel, Natural History, and other subjects be increased , when 
we feel assured that they contain true representations of the 
oljjects described, instead of being, as they too often arc, de- 
pendent upon the imagination of the artist. Suppose, for in- 
stance, that in reading of some of the wonderful monuments of 
antiquity, how much the interest will be enhanced when you feci 
certain that you see it as it is; that the picture even shows you 
the mosses and tufts of grass as they cling to the hoary ruin, 
and that every crevice, leaf, and lichen, is depicted with the 
greatest fidelity. I believe, too, that the long neglected Da- 



guerreotype will be reinstated in general estimation; for, as I 
before stated, I do not think that any of the more recently dis- 
covered processes can compare with it for microscopical accu- 
racy of detail and delicacy of shadowing: it has some defects, 
but these, I think, will be overcome, and by it alone, I think, 
we can ever hope to obtain nature's reflection of herself in all 
her gorgeous beauty of coloring. Nor is it improbable that 
the silver salts will, to a considerable extent, be superseded by 
others that are cheaper and likely to give more permanent pic- 
tures; for we fiad that those of iron, copper, nickel, and other 
metals are already used with considerable success, especially the 
chromates, these will, in all probability, completely revolution- 
ize the photographic art. I might also allude to the further 
application of photography to criminal detection, the recogni- 
tion of dead bodies, and other practical purposes; but this es- 
say has already extended to such an unusual length that I will 
sot trespass lurther upon your indulgence. 

It only remains for me now to give you a general summary of 
this paper, which I trust will not prove unprofitable, but repay 
you iu some degree for the patience with which you have lis- 
tened to it, for which I most cordially thank you. 

The historical part of my subject is necessarily brief and im- 
perfect, but sufficient, I trust, to show the rapid progress of the 
art, and to convince us that it has not yet attained the high 
standard of excellence that it will eventually reach; for where 
so many active minds are engaged in oue interesting pursuit, it 
is not possible for itt© remain stationary, but must continue to 
advance, and, ultimately, fulfil our most sanguine expectations. 
I have endeavored to show you its influence in a social, intellec- 
tual, and relative point of view; that it unites men into socie- 
ties for mutual edification — tightens the bonds of love, friend- 
ship, and esteem — elevates man morally and intellectuallj' — 
awakens in him an admiration for all that is noble, grand, and 
beautiful, in nature and art — prompts him to become acquaint- 
ed with the laws established by his Creator for the governance 
of the universe — weans him from pursuits that would degrade 
and enervate, whilst it inclines him to those which improve his 
mind and invigorate his physical constitution — it stimulates in- 
dustry, inculcates patience and perseverance, and, I doubt not, 
tends to make us better men, and more intelligent members of 
society. 

At the conclusion of the above an animated discussion en- 
sued on several of the arguments advanced by the essayist, and 
an unusually protracted meeting terminated by votes of thanks 
being passed to Mr. Hepworth and the Chairman. 

A conversational meeting will be held on the second Thurs- 
day in February. 



OUR PHOTOfiRAPUIC ILLUSTRATIONS. 



I.— MRS. GLADSTANE ; of Boston. II.— J. B. HOWE; as Kicbard IH. 

Negatives hy J. B. EeywooJ ot Boston. 

These two pictures by Mr. Hey wood are characteristic, and 
worthy specimens of the Photographic Art. They are printed 
on plain American paper, and are, therefore, not so good as 
they otherwise should have been. Our object in printing them 
thus, was to test the texture and sizing of the paper, in order 
to correct the imperfections in the next lot we are to have made. 
Consequently we experienced a great deal of trouble from 
spotting, inequalities in the sizing, &c.; besides thc'difficulty'of 
toning clear. We have also had considerable trouble with our 
nitrating solution, for want of pure nitrate of silver. 

[Since this paragraph was put in type we have succeeded in 
overcoming our greatest difficulty — spotting and want of cleanness 
— and our American paper works now as well as any paper wo 
ever used. The means will be given in our next.] 

Most of our readers are, probably, better acquainted with 
the personal histories of the lady and gentleman, whose por- 
traits are here given, than we arc ourselves; our knowledge of 
them extending no further than seeing their names on theatri- 
cal bills; but as their reputations arc widely known, the pic- 
tures will prove interesting. 

These pictures were printed by the following formulas: 



1858. 



THE rnOTOGRAPniC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



115 



SALTING. 

Filtered water 1 gal. 

Chloride ammonium 180 grs. 

The silver solution as heretofore, 

TONING AND FIXING SOLUTION. 

Water i gal. 

Acetate of lead 900 grs. 

Salt 720 " 

Chlo. Silver 720 " 

Acetic acid, No. 8 2 oza. 

Hypo. Soda to saturation. 

If a decided black is always desired from this bath, acetate 
of lead and acetic acid must be occasionally added in small 
quantities. This should be done when the bath fails to give a 
purplish black color in fifteen or tvv-enty minutes. If the so- 
lution becomes milky, clear it up by the addition of hypo. soda. 



From the London Art Journal. 

COLLODION AND PHOTOGRAPHY. 



BY ROBERT HUNT. 

Photography was, but a few years since, regarded as one of 
the wonders of science — it is now numbered amongst the com- 
mon things of the day. Herschel, Talbot, and one or two 
other men, were the only persons engaged in examining the strik- 
ing phenomena of chemical change under solar influence, and the 
results of their studies were, handed about as examples of a strange 
natural magic. Daguerre, the French dioramic painter, who 
has given his name to the photographic process, which he dis- 
covered, then required a period of twenty minutes to obtain a 
picture on his metal plate, and he then wrote to the writer of 
this article, stating his belief that he had discovered a process 
by which portraits from the life could be taken in from two to 
three minutes. Now, there are thousands at work, and their 
productions are in every person's hands. At the corner of every 
street we are beset by touters, proclaiming the merits of their 
respective works, and they parody the human face "at any price 
you please." From the twenty minutes of Daguerre, we have 
advanced in the chemistry of this art so rapidly that as many 
seconds are all that are now required, under ordinary circum- 
stances, to produce a far better result than any which he ob- 
tained. In skillful hands, and with careful manipulation, such 
a degree of sensibility can be secured that less than a second of 
time will fully impress the prepared tablet with any set of 
images, full of the minutest detail. It is instructive to contem- 
template what photography has done and is doing. 

From all parts of the world we receive sun-pictures of cele- 
brated scenes. The pyramids of Egypt, and tho tombs of her 
kings and priests, with every hieroglyphic, so faithfully printed 
that Mr. Birch can read their story with as much ease as a 
schoolboy reads our ordinary letter-press, are now in every pho- 
tographic portfolio. Assyria and Babylon, and the sites of old 
civilisations, are brought home to us in strange fidelity. The 
sands which have worn the porphyries of which the enduring 
monuments of those ancient powers were constructed, can be 
counted at the base of a statue, and the marks of the fine attri- 
tion are preserved upon the stone in the sun-picture. The ve- 
getation of any and every clime, in all its native beauty and 
wildness, can now be copied, and the botanist can study in bis 
closet the flora of far-off lands. The peculiar characteristics 
of the human race, whenever one of the great family is found, 
can now be secured and preserved for the benefit of the un- 
travelled ethnologist. Beyond this, the proverbially restless 
ocean, is now made to leave upon our photographic plates true 
delineations of its passing waves, and impressions of its break- 
ing billows. The fleeting cloud, whether in sunshine or in 
storm, now leaves its ever-varying image on the sensitive tablet. 
The moon — "pale mistress of the night" — is compelled by her 
"mild light" to print her own image; and the "god of day" is 
to be made to register, for our instruction, those strange dis- 



turbances, manifested to us as black spots, which are ever, with 
strange regularity, taking place in the atmosphere by which tho 
great centre of our system is enveloped. In our observatories, 
too, we press photography to our aid. The varying pressnro 
of the air is registered by it; — the constant changes of tem- 
perature are recorded by it; — and those mysterious alterations 
which are ever occurring in the magnetism of the earth are 
noted with rare accuracy by its means. Mau must have repose, 
and there are limits within which the range of human — even 
the most trained — observation are confined: consequently the 
most skilled observer could only register results at certain fixed 
periods, and many variations are too small to be noted by the 
human eye, or marked by mortal hand: — the camera-obscura, 
aided by the light of a common gas-burner, is placed for ever 
before the instrument, and each movement for every second of 
the twenty-four hours is marked for the study of the philoso- 
pher! 

All this arises from the careful study which, a few years 
since, was made of the chemistry of the art, but which we fear 
is too slightly thought of at present. In all our photographic 
processes there has been much refinement in the manipulative 
details, and whether we regard the calotype, the albumen pro- 
cess, the wax paper, or the collodion, we cannot but be struck 
with the degree of certainty with which, in skilled hands, a 
high degree of perfection is secured. To nothing, however, 
has the wide extension of photography been due, so thoroughly 
as to that curious chemical preparation to which the name of 
COLLODION has been given; and it is our purpose to devote a 
short space to the consideration of the physical peculiarities of 
this compound, and especially to direct attention to some im- 
provements, by which it would appear that the prepared collo- 
dion plates can be kept in a state of high sensibility for a con- 
siderable time. 

Gun-cotton dissolved in ether is called Collodion, because of 
its adhesive properties. If cotton-fibre or pape-r, which, being 
prepared from some vegetable fibre, is in fact chemically the 
same material, be examined as to their properties, we shall find 
that they will not dissolve in water, in alcohol, or ether, but we 
shall discover that if placed in nitric acid {aqua fortis) they 
change character, and are gradually dissolved. A careful in- 
vestigation of what takes place instructs us in the fact that the 
cotton or paper (chemically lignine) has received some oxygen 
from the acid, and then it has become soluble in that fluid. If 
sulphuric acid be added to the nitric acid in certain proportions, 
the latter acid will no longer dissolve the lignine. If we ex- 
amine the cotton or the paper treated with those mixed acids, 
we shall perceive that there has been a contraction of volume, 
but beyond this no visible change. Upon removing either of 
those substances from the mixed acids, we shall discover that 
they have respectively increased in weight by nearly one half, 
and they are now soluble in ether and alcohol. Beyond 
this, whereas the cotton or paper burnt but slowly in the first 
place, it exploded with violence when brought in contact with 
flame after it has been treated with the acids. "We have here 
a very remarkable change in the properties of a body without 
its having undergone any visible change of form. It was cot- 
ton to the eye, but there are striking physical differences be- 
tween the two substances. 

Schonbein, of Balse, the discoverer of this preparation, an- 
nounced the fact at the meeting of the British Association at 
Southampton, and it was then thought that it possessed proper- 
ties which rendered it in many respects superior to gunpowder 
as a projectile. Trials were made with it as a destructive 
agent, and great were the advantages to be derived, apparently, 
from its use. Additional experience proved, however, that 
there were many objections to the employment of gun-cotton 
in war, and the great danger which attended its manufacture 
in large quantities has in this country led to its abandonment 
for this purpose. In Austria, however, experiments are still 
being carried on in the hope of employing gun-cotton for artil- 
lery. 

Cotton thus changed in its character has been called pyrnxy- 
line. An analogous substance has been called xyloidine. Gun- 



116 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



cotton, or fyroxyline, appears to be a direct combination of an- 
hydrous lignine with nitric acid. Hydrogen and oxygen, which 
exist in the equivalents necessary for the formation of water, 
exist in the lignine, and, by the acid treatment which we have 
described, two atoms of these elements are replaced by two 
atoms of nitric acid. Lignine is composed of — 

Carbon, 

Hydrogen, 

Oxygen. 

This is treated with nitric acid j q^^/q"!'), | , and the re- 
sult is fyroxyline, having the following composition — 
Carbon, 
Hydrogen, 
Oxygen, 
Peroxide of nitrogen. 

There are three or more varieties of fyroxyline, dependent upon 
small differences in the mode of manufacture which has been 
adopted. Some of these are not so well fitted for photographic 
purposes as others. The gun-cotton best fitted for the manu- 
facture of collodion is not very explosive, but it dissolves freely 
and entirely in a mixture of ether and alcohol. It is not our 
purpose to describe the processes of making collodion further 
than we have already indicated them. We will suppose the 
amateur is either familiar with the best process for making it, 
or that he depends upon some skillful chemist for his supply. 

This collodion is to be impregnated with a salt of iodine 
(usually the iodide of potassium); this is effected by dissolving 
the salt in alcohol, and mixing the alcoholic solution with the 
collodion. In this state it is known as iodized collodion. When 
poured upon a plate of glass, and uniformly diffused over its 
surface, the ether, evaporating, leaves a very delicate film, which 
is the surface on which the future picture is to be formed. 
When the film is set, the plate is placed in a bath of nitrate of 
silver, and the iodine, combining with the silver, forms m the 
film iodide of silver. This iodide of silver, in contact, probably 
in combination, with the complex compound constituting the 
film, is rendered exceedingly liable to change under the influence 
of the chemical rays of the sun. 

The collodion has been frequently stated to be used merely 
"to support a delicate film of iodide of silver upon the surface 
of a smooth glass plate. This is but taking a very narrow 
view of the important part played by the collodion. In no 
other body with which we are acquainted have we the same im 
portant set of elements — carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitro- 
gen, so combined as to be constantly in what Sir John Herschel 
calls "a state of unstable equilibrium." By Heat, by Light, by 
Electricity, the balance of affinities is readily disturbed, and de- 
composition ensues. The sensibility of the collodion process 
depends upon this "unstable equilibrium," which renders the 
photographic compound one which is instantly overturned by 
the actinic power of the sun-ray; and the decomposition of the 
collodion is at once communicated to the metallic salt (iodide 
of silver) in combination with it. Iodide of silver, spread in 
the most delicate film on dry collodion, is no more sensitive than 
other preparations. The collodion process, on account of this 
■wondrous instability, which renders it so easy of manipulation 
at home, is a source of constant trouble to the traveller. The 
plates have been usually presented to the object while still moist, 
consequently a tent, or cumbrous couvtrivance about the camera- 
obscura in lieu of a tent, has to be employed out of doors. 
The operator has to prepare his plates in the field, and to carry 
from place to place his collodion and his silver bath, and indeed 
all his stock of chemicals. This has greatly retarded the use 
of collodion by the traveller; and it is quite certain that, al- 
though very fine photographs may be obtained by some of the 
paper processes, there is not one of them which ensures such 
perfection of detail as the collodion process. The attention of 
photographers has been turned to the preparation of collodion 
plates which would keep; and many of the modes adopted, es- 
pecially by Mr. Llewellyn, with his oxymel process, by Mr. 
Shadbolt, with his glycerine, by Messrs. Crooks and Spiller, 



with their deliquescent salts, and by some others, have been suc- 
cessful. One process, however, appears to commend itself be- 
yond others, and to that, a process devised and published by 
Mr. Charles A. Long, we desire to direct attention. Mr. 
Long has published all the details of his process in a little 
book, to which we refer our readers, intending only to deal with 
the preservative solution, which appears applicable to the collo- 
dion film under a great variety of conditions. In the first 
place we will give the mode of preparing this preservative solu- 
tion: — 

Some care is required in the preparation of this solution, in 
order that it may be clear and bright when finished, and not 
contain particles that would be deposited in its passage over tho 
collodion film when being used. The chief precaution to be 
observed, is not to allow it to beil too rapidly, and not to conduct 
the operation over too fierce a fire; attention to this will prevent 
many failures, and ensure a solution in every way suited for the 
process. Take 200 grains of the best transparent gelatine, cut 
it into small shreds, and throw it into a pipkin in which has 
been previously placed 10 ounces of distilled water; set this on 
a slow fire, or over a lamp, uutil the gelatine is completely 
melted; then weigh out 100 grains of pure citric acid, aud dis- 
solve it in 2 ounces of distilled water; adds this to the solution 
of gelatine, stirring it during the addition with a glass rod. 
The solution in the pipkin is now to be gently boiled until half 
of it has evaporated; this should be in about 15 minutes: re- 
move it from the fire, and add sufficient distilled water to make 
up the bulk of liquid to 12 ounces. When quite cold, the 
liquid in the pipkin is to be filtered through two thicknesses of 
pure white blotting paper into a bottle perfectly dry and clean. 
We now add to every 12 ounces of filtered preservative solu- 
tion 1 ounce of alcohol, of the specific gravity of 'S-iO. The 
solution thus prepared is ready for use, and should be of a pale 
amber color, without any signs of insoluble particles floating in 
it; should any appear after it has been prepared for some days, 
a second filtration will remove them, and render the liquid again 
bright and clear." 

The collodion plate being prepared, the preservative solution 
is applied in the following manner: — 

"Taking the plate in the left hand by means of the pneuma- 
tic holder, incline it slightly; then having poured into a perfect- 
ly clean measure rather more of the preservative solution than 
is necessary to cover the plate twice,* pour half of it along the 
upper edge in such a manner that a wave of the solution may 
flow uniformly from one end of the plate to the other; allow 
this to flow off into the waste pan or sink, and then bring the 
plate to the horizontal position, and pour on the remainder of 
the preservative solution, four times at least, allowing it to flow 
back into the measure from each corner in succession, in order 
that the whole plate may be brought uniformly under its in- 
fluence. The plate is to be then placed on a piece of clean blot- 
ting-paper, and its back wiped with a fragment of blotting or 
papier Joseph, in order to remove any of the preservative solu- 
tion that may have run from the surface to the underside in the 
previous operation. The plate thus preserved is to be reared on 
a piece of blotting paper, with its face against the wall, until 
dry, and is then to bestowed away in a plate-box, perfectly 
light-tight, to await the exposure in the camera-obscura." 

It will be evident that the great point which has been secured 
is the preservation of the collodion film from the influences to 
which the disturbance of its instability are liable. It is defend- 
ed by an air-tight coat of gelatine; and we can state from our 
own experience, that plates thus prepared have been kept a 
fortnight without losing any of their sensibility. A set of plates 
were prepared by Mr. Charles Long for a gentleman who took 
them with him to Belgium. He, without any trouble, impressed 
them with a set of views, replaced the plates in his dark pack- 
age, and on his return to this country the pictures on them were 
developed — and most perfect representations of nature they 
were. 

It will be understood, that the sensitive plate fully retains 
that degree of sensibility which it has when first the preserva- 
* A plate, 9 inches by 7, takes about 1 ouuce of solution. 





P'tiotjlitli.of J.A.Cuttiiip- a- L.H. Bradford . 



; ^/ 



^<^v ^Cf^^-:^^:?-^__ 




LITHOGRAPHER 221 , Vfashinp-ton ST. BOSTON 






i 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAr.. 



117 



live solution is applied. The sensibility is slightly lowered by 
its application, but for a month the plate is said to suffer no 
further loss of power; the surface is so hard that any number of 
plates can be packed together iu one parcel. They can be ta- 
ken out — in the dark of course — one by one as required, placed 
in the camera-obscura, and impressed with the lenticular image, 
again removed from the camera, and placed — in the dark — in 
the package, until a favorable opportunity occurs for developing 
the dormant picture. If the result of enlarged practice con- 
firms the results of our owu experiments, this process of Mr. 
Charles Long must prove a valuable addition to photography. 



MANCHESTER PnOTOGRAPHiC SOCIETY. 



The monthly meeting of this Society was held on the 3rd 
instant, \\\ the rooms of the Philosophical Society, George- 
street. Mr. Alfred Nield in the chair. 

Mr. SiBEBOTHAU read the following paper contributed by Mr, 
Jas. Mudd, ou 

"THE ARTISTIC ARRANGEMENT OF PHOTOGRAPHIC 
LANDSCAPES." 

Landscape photography I How pleasantly the words fall 
upon the ear of the enthusiastic photographei*. What agree- 
able associations are connected with our excursions in the coun- 
try. How often have we wandered along the rough sea-shore, 
or climbed the breezy hill-side, or descended into the shady val- 
ley, or toiled along the rocky bed of some mountain stream, 
forgetting, in the excitement of our pursuit, the burdens we 
carried, or the roughness of the path we trod. What delight- 
ful hours have we passed in wandering through the quiet ruins 
of some venerable abbey, impressing, with wondrous truth, upon 
the delicate tablets we carried, the marvellous beauty of Gothic 
window, of broken column, and ivy-wreathed arch. How plea- 
sant our visits to moss-green old churches, and picturesque cot- 
tages, and stately castles, and a thousand pretty nooks, in the 
shady wood, by the river side, or in the hedge-rows, where the 
twining wild convolvulus, the bramble, and luxuriant fern have 
arrested us in our wanderings. 

We may have had little mishaps; some disappointments. 
Our ingenuity may have been exercised to find a substitute for 
a broken ground-glass, or the ring of a lost tripod stand. The 
rustic population in bye places may possibly have misunderstood 
our vocation. Our mission not being clear to them, they have 
probably taken us for railway surveyors, electric telegraph peo- 
ple, sappers and miners, or, lower still, for ratcatchers, bird 
fanciers, or itinerant showmen. The writer of this paper has 
stood in the street of a small village in Yorkshire, at the side 
of his camera, surrounded by a numerous circle of wondering 
ruptics, while offers of a pecuuiary nature were freely made, by 
the small capitalists of the party, to secure a "look" at the 
peep-show. And, indeed, our conduct ou some occasions may 
have very reasonably excited a suspicion, that we were even 
worse characters than those already referred to. As, for in- 
stance, when prowling about some farm-yard, we have seized 
upon a stray wheelbarrow, hayfork, or milk can, to introduce 
iuto the foreground of our picture; the bewildered owner of the 
property, appearing suddenly at his threshold, and seeing his 
goods and chattels walked off before his eyes, might very ra- 
tionally doubt the safety of his hen-roost, and entertain the 
thought of letting loose the dog upon us. We have often ap- 
peased the worthy man's fears, however, and have entertained 
him with a view, on the ground glass of his house, and yard, 
and wheelbarrows, and wife — all wrong side up, the latter, to 
his amazement, walking comfortably about the premises on her 
head! After showing him the inside of the empty camera, 
without wheels, or clockwork of any description, (of which he 
was sure it was full,) and attempting a short description of the 
process, with the hardest possible words, he has walked away 
muddled and dead beaten; and, I have no doubt, while ponder- 

15* 



ing over a soothing pipe, has felt that there are more things in 
heaven and earth, than are dreamt of in his philosophy. 
After this, we could always do what we liked with the wheel- 
barrows. 

And thus, good humoredly bearing our breakages, or losses, 
or misunderstandings with the agricultural mind, we have made 
our way, and, on arriving at our resting-place for the night, 
have spent pleasant evenings in laughing at our adventures, and 
in the very interesting labor of developing the pictures we have 
taken during the day. And over that same development, how 
delightfully anxious — how timidly hopeful — how busy and flut- 
tering and interested we have been! 

You will perceive I have been assuming that the process em- 
ployed is a dry one, for I can scarcely imagine the same amount 
of pleasure in connection with the laborious duties of a tent. 
The constant occupation of time in preparing, exposing, and 
completing the plate on the spot, leaves but little leisure for 
enjoying the beauties of the scene around, while the demand 
upon the physical powers is something considerable. I have 
known photographers who remember, with no very plea- 
sant sensations, their voluntary incarceration in the portable 
tent, or, what may not inappropriately be called (remember- 
ing its Indian temperature sometimes), the photographic, black 
hole." 

Now, although our excursions, as I have said, are often very 
pleasant, we do not always return with really good pictures. I 
need not remind you of the many causes of failure. They are 
indeed too numerous to mention. It is often the case, however, 
that we get good photographs free from streak, or stain, fog, 
or blister — perfect specimens of some photographic process, but 
still they are not pictures. There are grave errors in the ar- 
rangement of the subject, or in the subject itself. The object 
of the present paper is to recommend attention to the selection 
of subjects, and to mention a few rules which are of use to the 
painter, and which may possibly be of some little benefit to 
photographers also. 

In the early days of photography the most commonplace ob- 
jects satisfied us. The ardent experimenter of that period 
looked with pride and wonder at the picture of a stack of grim 
chimneys, taken, perhaps, from his little laboratory window, or 
his surprising view of a dead brick wall and water tubs. He 
could count every brick; that was the marvel. But the novelty 
of this soon wore off, and something more was desired, namely, 
beauty in the object itself. So the photographer went to nature, 
and the hills and fields, and streams became fitting subjects for 
his art. 

Now, although nature may be said to be always beautiful, 
yet are there certain groupings of objects in relation to each 
other, certain agreeable outlines and combinations of forms, 
which, however difficult to explain in words, are seen at once, 
and recognised as picturesque, and it is to the selection of these 
points of interest the artist photographer would do well to at- 
tend. Great advances have been made in the artistic qualities 
of photographs, yet by far too many show a lamentable de- 
ficiency in this respect. Our delightful pursuit will have taken 
up a new and improved position in relation to art when more 
attention is given to the subject. Artists admire portions of 
our pictures, as a foreground, a rock, or tree, but justly com- 
plain of a want of completeness as a whole. 

Of course, the photographer has not the same command of 
arrangement as the painter. While the latter is but little de- 
pendent on the arrangements of external nature, and is left to 
himself to determine the order in which objects shall be asso- 
ciated the former, after all, must take the view as it really 
stands' before him. He has merely the power of selecting the 
best combination of objects from the most favorable points of 
view. It would be useless, therefore, where our power is so 
limited, to mention all the rules laid down for painters, but 
there are some which, I think, will enable us to determine which 
is the best view, and why it is. At any rate, we shall be none 
the worse for carrying this knowledge with us, and making use 
of it when circumstances allow us to do so. I will now refer 
to one or two rules for composition. 



118 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



Bat, first, let me recommend you, on arriving at the locality 
you are about to photograph, to take a careful survey of the 
spot. The photographer who plants his camera at the first 
pleasing object he meets with, frequently finds a much finer view 
of the same thing afterwards. Take, then, a liesurely walk 
round before you decide, dropping a stick or a stone on the 
grass to mark the points of view you like best. In making 
your selection, perhaps the following rules may serve as a 
guide: — 

Avoid getting the principal or leading features of a picture 
perpendicularly over, or horizontally level with each otlier. 
This is an important rule. J. D. Harding, in his work on Com- 
position, says, " The flat surface upon which a picture is paint- 
ed, and on which the painter has to invest the ideas of space, 
is not among the least of the difficulties with which he has to 
contend. The four lines at right angles with each other, which 
form the usual boundaries of a picture, present another obsta- 
cle to the painter, in consequence of the artificial limits thus 
assigned to his view; for it is as well known to all the world, as 
to himself, that natural views have no such artificial boundaries. 
These may appear at first self-evident and unimportant facts; 
. but it will be seen that they lie at the root of many of the dif- 
ficulties with which the painter has to contend in the composi- 
tion of his subject. In the composition the painter makes his 
first effort to convey the idea of the separation of the various 
objects, and to overcome the difficulties I have pointed out as 
connected with the flat surface on which he paints. To effect 
this none of the leading features of the picture should be perpen- 
dicularly over, or horizontally level with each other; because if 
they be so placed, they either repeat actually, or by suggestion, 
the horizontal or perpendicular lines which artificially limit his 
picture, and which require to be concealed as much as possible 
from observation." 

These remarks apply equally well to photography as to paint- 
ing, for the latter has the same difficulties to contend with as 
the former, namely, the flat surface upon which his picture is 
taken, and its artificial boundaries. In the case of stereosco- 
pic pictures, where the efi'ect of space is produced in another 
way, the difficulties are not so great or the defects of composi- 
tion so glaring; for, however confused they appear when the 
pictures are seen separately, the various objects become disen- 
tangled, and fall into their relative positions when placed in the 
stereoscope. Where, however, there is no assistance of this 
kind, as in the case of larger single pictures, you must rely upon 
the arrangement to prevent confusion of objects, and to give 
effect of space. And it has been found, from investigation of 
impressions made by art (not from a study or imitation of na- 
ture, for all pictures are equally true imitations of nature), that 
such result is gained, in some degree, by attention to the rule I 
have just mentioned. That, by a certain arrangement and se- 
paration of the parts of a picture, the efi'ect of space is pro- 
duced; while by placing objects immediately under or over each 
other, or on the same level, the contrary result of flatness is the 
consequence. 

It sometimes happens that the photographer finds it impos- 
sible to select his view free from disagreeable lines parallel to the 
bottom of the picture. In a case of this sort, a deal may be 
done to conceal them from the eye, in various ways. Here is a 
photograph of a very picturesque cottage, with the ground line 
and the line of the roof nearly parallel with the bottom of the 
picture. This defect has been considerably lessened, by rearing 
against the low walls of the cottage, some rough planks and 
logs of timber, which were lying about at the time the view 
was taken, and which serve admirably to attract the eye away 
from the horizontal lines, besides adding considerably to the in- 
terest of the picture. There is, frequently, some stray timber 
or branch of tree you may make very useful for this purpose, 
or for objects in the foreground. You may, also, if such means 
are not at hand, take the cap ofi' your lens, and rush into the 
picture yourself, taking care, however, that you are not made a 
ghost of by the still unbroken line showing through your body. 

Endeavor to occupy every portion of your picture by some 
object of interest or pictorial value. It often happens in pic- 



tures, especially in photographs, that strips from the top to the 
bottom, or across, may be cut away without removing one fea- 
ture of interest in it. The plainness of the skies, one of the 
greatest defects in a photographic landscape, must be as far as 
possible concealed, by breaking up the space with trees or other 
objects. Pity it is that we are driven to such a course, but we 
have not yet arrived at the knowledge which will enable us to 
combine the beauties of earth and sky. How beautiful would 
fine landscapes be with the clouds and skies of Le Gray! Let 
the fereground of your picture have mnch of your care and at- 
tention, The exquisite detail of rock and bramble, tall reedy 
grass and fern, or the gnarled roots or trunks of trees, which 
serve for excellent foregrounds, are also amongst the most in- 
teresting and beautiful objects in a photograph. By thus get- 
ting near objects at the base of the picture, you give distance 
to those beyond. We have all seen pictures very deficient in 
this respect. Here is one of the kind, with an unbroken soli- 
tude of field at the bottom; and above, a mass of white paper, 
which represents the sky. By removing both portions you have 
still all that is valuable left behind. 

But, while making these remarks, I would just observe, that 
it is impossible to crowd too much into a picture, so as to have, 
indeed, three or four pictures in one. In such cases the eye 
wanders from point to point, vainly endeavoring to decide which 
is the principal subject. There is no repose or order where so 
many objects are dividing the attention, and thrusting them- 
selves forward as principals. Let there then be one leading ob- 
ject, around which the rest are grouped as accessories. 

Let the principal feature of interest, whether it be a castle, 
or cottage, or group of rocks, whatever gives name to, or is to 
claim the chief attention in the picture, be placed in the most 
conspicuous position, which is near the centre of the picture. 
I do not mean the point where lines drawn from the opposite 
corners would intersect each other, but any point equally dis- 
tant from the sides, though unequally from top to bottom. 

But in thus placing it, take care that the objects on either 
side are varied, and do not resemble each other in size, or form, 
or weight of masses. For example: A building in the centre 
of your picture, and a tree on either side, equal in size and ap- 
pearance, would, you can easily imagine, produce a picture very 
faulty indeed in arrangement. When the subject is a single ob- 
ject, as a tree, it should be placed near the side. 

With respect to the subject of light and shade, — I may say, 
I think, with safety, — avoid broad unbroken masses of shade. 
Every photographer knows that the shady side of nature is her 
least attractive side. Amongst your collection of failures, I 
fancy we can find a more formidable array of ghostly forms, and 
half-developed images, arising out of the gloom of shady places, 
than Mrs. Crowe ever dreamed of in that very sepulchral work 
of hers — the "Night Side of Nature." But while avoiding 
much shade, we must not fall into the other extreme. A pic- 
ture with the light full in front is usually flat, and wanting in 
the agreeable variety and relief which shadows thrown from 
projecting objects give when the light comes in at the side of 
the picture. A side light is therefore preferable. 

Never let the horizon of a picture be half the height of the 
drawing; but above, or below, as the subject requires. 

In taking a view of au avenue of trees, a street scene, or 
long perspective of arches, do not let the distant opening be 
exactly in the centre of the picture, but more at one side, and 
nearer the base of your picture than the top. 

A word or two on the introduction of figures. How rarely 
do we find in photographic landscapes a nice arrangement of 
suitable figures. Why are they always looking full at yon? 
Why do they always seem to have so little to do with the pic- 
ture — to be in it but not of it — standing uncomfortably erect, 
with their faces to the spectator? No doubt it arises from the 
curious fact that people invariably look straight at the camera 
when invited to stand in a picture, and photographers usually, 
either for want of time or taste, allow them to arrange them- 
selves in that manner. Let us take a lesson from the painter, 
who generally finds his figures something to do in the scene he 
paints. Remembering the rule I have mentioned, be careful 



1858. 



THE THOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNAL. 



119 



not to place them immediately under any leading object of the 
picture. Let the "right man" be in the "right place," and all 
figures be appropriate to the scene. An old man, or child in a 
churchyard — a lishermau on tlie banks of a stream — a group of 
rustic children in a village — a farm laborer among his stacks of 
hay or corn — these are al! suitable to the character of the pic- 
tures, and in harmony with them. To introduce into such 
scenes, a fine dapper gentleman in glossy hat and kid gloves, or 
a lady, whose small circle of parasol above sets off the mighty 
circumference of crinoline beneath, would be absurdly out of 
place. And yet we see such mistakes every day. It may be 
difficult to meet with suitable figures, but that is no reason why 
unsuitable ones should be introduced: the pictures would be bet- 
ter without figures at all. 

Besides the roles I have mentioned in this paper, there are 
some others laid down for painters, but they are so very remote- 
ly applicable to photography, that I have not thought it neces- 
sary to refer to them, but have merely recommended those I 
thought most available. If what has been said should induce 
you to seek further on the subject, or to pay increased attention 
to the arrangement of your pictures, the object of this paper, 
and of my wishes, will have been gained. 

There are two things that photography must do for us; it 
must increase our love for nature, and our admiration for na- 
ture's imitators, the painters. 

We cauuot go forth into picturesque districts in search of 
subjects for our pictures without improving our taste, and in- 
creasing our love for nature. We cannot possess so many 
charming copies of those beauties, as our portfolios contain, 
without becoming more intimately familiar with all the beauti- 
ful details and exquisite finish of nature's handiwork. 

And while we admire these beauties, we are, I think, capable 
of appreciating better the work of the landscape painter. We 
see how earnestly and patiently he has studied, and with what 
truth he has rendered on his canvas the very forms we have be- 
come so familiar with : the ripple on the stream, the markings 
in rock and stone, and trees, and crumbling wall, and (what is 
beyond our art), the thousand hues and tints of earth and 
sky. 

There is one thing I should like to say before I conclude, I 
hope, as there will be no Art Treasures Exhibition to claim our 
time this season, we shall attempt something in landscapes of an 
important size. I should strongly recommend you to emanci- 
pate yourselves from the custom of only taking pictures for the 
stereoscope. In my humble opinion a good nine by seven land- 
scape is a more valuable work than twenty stereoscopic ones. 
The latter have engaged our attention almost exclusively for a 
season or two; and I fear there is a danger of our becoming a 
society of very small operators indeed. I do think, gentlemen, 
judging from my own sensations, that you would derive more 
gratification in the production of larger pictures. 

I have referred to the Art Treasures Exhibition. I refer to 
it again, in conclusion, hoping that we all profited by our de- 
lightful acquaintance with the great works of the painters ex- 
hibited there; and I trust by studying the rules which have 
been their guide, and by understanding the principles of art, we 
shall become the greater admirers, and the more successful prac- 
tisers of landscape photography. 

The above paper was illustrated with a number of diagrams, 
which made the subject very interesting. 

The Secretary, Mr. Cottaii, then read a communication he 
had received from Mr. Noton, relative to an experimental re- 
volver he had made, furnished with different shaped stops, and 
applied in front of a plano-convex lens tor views — diair.eter two 
and a quarter inches, focus about eight and a half. The revol- 
ver will carry a stop of any shape, (two inches from the lens, ) 
but so far only four shapes have been used, namely, a rectangu- 
lar one, 1'2 inches long by '007 inches wide; a triangular one, 
1-2 inches long, '2 inches at the base and '003 inches at the 
point; also a round one, '5 inches by '5 concentric. 

The object has been to ascertain whether or not the shape of 
the stop had any effect upon the picture, (not the exterior of 
the field). It is rather difficult to explain the various appear- 



ances of disturbance, distortion, &c., produced by the various 
shapes, but their character certainly alters, as one or the other 
are used. 

One experiment, with the rectangular stop, maybe men- 
tioned for illustration. The camera was set up on its legs in a 
room, and pointed to look through the window into the street, 
and focussed for an intermediate wall there, a five-eighths round 
stop being in front of the lens; this stop was then removed, and 
the rectangular one substituted for it. Upon revolving this, all 
the objects out of focus w^ere at once set in distorted motion — 
the disturbance was most in the bars of the window, those 
being the nearest; the wall in focus was apparently unaffected, 
and a slight motion in objects at a considerable distance could 
be perceived. When the slit was set at an angle of about 
45°, all the window bars were out of focus, as they were with 
the five-eighths round stop, (the light being of course less, as 
the area of the rectangle was only about one-fourth of the 
circle,) when the slit was vertical or horizontal, the vertical or 
horizontal bars were corresponding in focus, as were the lines 
in the objects at the greatest distance. 

The conclusions drawn from the experiments made, are, that 
a stop should be shaped to suit special cases; a scaffold pole, 
or a tree, out of focus, which cannot be got rid of, may be very 
much sharpened by a vertical stop of a proper shape. 



From the Liverpool Photographic Journal 

MR. SUTTON'S DEVELOPING PROCESS. 

The problem of printing on plain paper has occupied much of 
Mr, Sutton's attention for some years. As a matter of taste, 
he extremely dislikes prints on albuminized paper, and no doubt 
there are many who probably entertain the same feelings, and 
it is for them the present article is especially intended. Those 
who prefer that peculiar kind of vigor and brilliancy which is 
exhibited by a piece of black sticking plaster , or a well-polished 
Wellington boot, to the depth and vigor of the blacks of a fine 
engraving on plate-paper, need not concern themselves with 
this process; for the best results which it appears capable of 
yielding do not surpass, in point of vigor, the best proofs from 
the press of the copper-plate printer. 

With respect to this process; — let the copper plate or litho- 
graphic printer select, in the first place, a paper of the peculiar 
tint which he thinks most suitable for his purpose, and in the 
second place, an ink of the most appropriate and beautiful tint. 
This done, let him exert his utmost skill iu producing a fine 
proof. The result will be a proof on India paper, either in 
common printing ink, which is of a cold greenish black tint 
(very beautiful), or in a fancy ink of some tint lying between a 
purple brown and either a green or purple black, Now, 
Mr, Sutton affirms that this photographic printing process 
is capable of yielding positive prints which will bear the 
most critical comparison, as regards artistic effect, with the 
best copper-plate or lithographic proof. You may lay the 
photograph on the finest engraving or lithograph, and find it 
impossible to say that one is superior to the other in effect; 
both being equally vigorous and beautiful, and the effects being 
of the same kind in both. But for the peculiar truthfulness and 
inconventionality of the photograph it might be mistaken for an 
engraving. The process has also the merits of economy, and 
the prints are capable of withstanding the action of destructive 
tests, such as milky hypo, far better than those which are ob- 
tained by the common process, Mr. Sutton, however, admits 
that t^Q finest results are only obtained under certain favorable 
conditions, with respect to which there is at present some ob- 
scurity. He has not yet completely made out the subject of 
tints, as regards the production of effects with absolute uniform- 
ity: but the difficulties which remain only ajapear to be such as 
a little perseverance will surmount. 

The operations are very simple, and the want of uniformity 
in the results appears to depend mainly on the variable condi- 



120 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AKD FINE ART JOURNAL. 



April, 



tion of the nitrate bath. Variations iu the amount of light, 
and degree of temperature, affect the result of course to some 
extent, but he has obtained some of his best prints in the 
gloomy month of November, and apparently under the most ad- 
verse circumstances of light. His dark room is always heated 
to 60* Fahrenheit, at least. A temperature of 10" appears to 
be about the best, and he believes it to be impossible to work 
successfully at a lower temperature than 50". This process 
requires no toning bath. 

Any good photographic paper may be employed, but differ- 
ent papers require different treatment. The operations on Hol- 
lingsworth's thin paper are as follows: — First, for the salting 
bath take — 

Filtered rain water 1 ounce. 

Common salt from 6 to 10 grains. 

Lemon juice from 1 to 3 drops. 

Use a fresh lemon , and do not ou any account cut it with a 
steel knife. Stick a pounted piece of wood into it, or bite off 
a piece of the peel. If you introduce any citrate of iron into 
the paper, the nitrate bath willl turn black as ink. 

Observe, there is no gelatine, nor serum, nor any troublesome 
mess in the salting bath. The bath is nothing but salt and wa- 
ter, with a lemon squeezed into it. 

Filter the solution through a fine cambric handkerchief, laid 
in a glass or gutta percha funnel (not block tin), and use it at 
once. When done with, throw it away, and give the lemon to 
the cook. You may either immerse the papers in the bath a 
great many at a time, or float them on it one at a time. They 
should remain on the bath for at least two minutes, and if im- 
mersed, the time of immersion may vary from five minutes to 
twenty-four hours. A rather long immersion seems to give the 
most vigorous prints, and not to cause the print to sink in the 
paper and become mealy. Still, as the fine grain of the paper 
is somewhat injured by long immersion, it would no doubt be 
a good plan to submit it to pressure, when dry, between glazed 
mill-boards in an engraver's press. 

The papers may be hung up by one corner to dry. Mr. S. 
cannot say how long they will keep, for he has invariably used 
them within a week or two of their preparation. 

The next operation is to excite the paper on the nitrate bath, 

which is made thus: — 

Distilled water 1 ounce. 

Nitrate of silver from 20 to 30 grains. 

Lemon juice 10 minims. 

Filter the bath, and float the papers on it, for two or three 
minutes. Then hang up to dry by one corner. Never dip a 
pin into the nitrate bath, or it will turn the bath black. 

The paper may be excited over night, exposed the next 
morning, and the picture developed in the evening (i.e. twenty- 
four hours after it has been excited.) 

Expose in the pressure-frame until a faint image of the pic- 
ture is perceived. 

Develop with a solution of gallic acid, freshly made; or to 
speak more clearly, add four grains of gallic acid to an ounce 
o'i distilUd ViSiiQV] shake up well, and use at once; filtered of 
course. 

The cleanest and best way of developing the picture is to 
turn up the edges of the paper, and make the print into a tray. 
Lay it on a sheet of glass truly horizontal, with a piece of clean 
wiiite blotting paper under the print; then pour a little gallic 
acid solution on the darkest part of the print, and spread it all 
over as quickly as possible, with a bent glass rod. 

Push the developmeut to the proper stage; then wash the 
print in clean rain water, and place it ipimediately in the fol- 
lowing hypo, bath: — 

Clean rain water 20 ounceg. 

Hyposulphite of soda 1 ounce. 

Let it remain in this fixing bath for fifteen or twenty min- 
utes; then throw the hypo, away, and wash the print u'ell in 
several changes of water, under a tap, and leave it to soak for 
several hours in a tub, with other prints, changing the water 
several times. Lastly, hang it up to dry. The print is then 
finished. 



ON THE PERMANENCE OF rHOTOGRAPDIC PRINTS, 



IL 

In toning, there are no general rules that will apply to any 
one bath. The same batli will work differently on different 
days, and frequently at different hours of the same day. We 
have found our baths — no matter how made — to give beautiful, 
clear blacks in the morning, when in the afternoon no amount 
of toning would produce the same effect. Every attempt to 
change its operations only made bad matters worse. We 
therefore came to the conclusion to let them alone, and be 
guided entirely by the brilliancy or dullness of the print during 
its immersion: so long as they were clear and brilliant both in 
lights and shades we made no alterations. When dullness, or 
a veilness appeared in the whites, we added hypo, soda in 
small qnantities until the defect was corrected. If the shadows 
presented the same appearance we added chloride of silver; or 
chloride of gold gradually which often alone proved effectual; 
and when both lights and shades were dull or clouded, both 
hypo, and chloride were added; but when these were not effec- 
tual, we concluded the bath to be too acid, and neutralized it 
with aqua ammonia; or bi-carbonate of soda — the latter is the 
best. 

All the chloride of gold baths we have made, appear to 
possess wonderful disposition and faciltiy to change ; more 
particularly in warm weather — half an hour being sufficient, 
on some days, to alter its action entirely. We have toned prints 
at nine in the morning to the desired tint in fifteen minutes; 
have left them in the same bath the same length of time at ten 
o'clock, and had them so completely sulphurized as to be worth- 
less; laid aside they faded out entirely in a few weeks. Again, 
in the evening at six o'clock, twenty minutes would be required 
to produce the same purple tint obtained in the morning at nine 
o'clock. At first this state of things gave us great trouble, and 
iu our endeavors to cori'ect what we considered an evil, we 
spent an unnecessary amount of money. We threw away solu- 
tion after solution and made fresh — dosed the baths with hypo., 
silver, bi-carbonate of soda, and many other things too numer- 
ous to mention, as the auctioneers say, with no benefit to the 
general result. The amount of gold or silver taken up by each 
print, cannot be safely calculated for universal practice, as no 
two samples of paper will work alike in this respect; as a rule 
therefore, add more silver and gold when the picture appears 
weak or thin, after obtaining the desired color in the proper 
time — which should be in not more than twenty minutes. Of 
course it is necessary that the print should be brought up to 
the proper strength in the pressure-frame; which strength can 
only be ascertained by due reference to the capabilities of the 
negative, some requiring more intensity of coloring in the posi- 
tive than others, to produce a given result. Much of the bril- 
liancy of a print depends upon the quaUty of the paper. A 
porous — badly-sized — coarse-grained paper will be deficient in 
this respect; and it is in the fineness of grain more than any 
other quality, in the albumeuized paper that renders the prints 
made on it so charming to the artistic eye. It is, also, only 
albumeuized paper that a permanent sepia tint — so much admired 
by those of an artistic taste — can be obtained. When produced 
ou plain paper by removing the print from the toning bath before 
it has reached the purple tint, it must eventually fade — but more 
rapidly — as sulphuration, and consequently destruction, has al- 
ready commenced. In order to obtain this much desired color 
with a surety of permanence, we must employ a salt that will give 
it within the period of time necessary to fix the print. We have 
not tried the chloride of copper yet; but we should suppose it 
might be successfully employed. Two drops of chloro-chromic 
acid in the ordinary gold bath of half a gallon, will produce a 
very fine warm sepia, or brown, color; but we have some fears 
of its eventually destroying the picture. We see that Mr. 
Moulton gives, in his book , his formula for toning bath as con- 
taining 10 drops hydrochloric acid. This, we arc convinced, 
is a very dangerous addition, and will effect the destruction of 
every photograph in which it exists. It undoubtedly gives 
warmth to the tone; but if used p/c all, two drops, or even one, 



1858. 



THE PHOTOGRAPHIC AND FINE ART JOURNA^. 



121 



would be sufficient. We should, however, advise operators not 

to nse it. We have made two attempts to test the durability 
of photographs toned with the chloro-chromic acid addition; but 
have been foiled each time by the disappearance of the inipi'es- 
sions from their hiding place. They may not have faded, al- 
though they did not keep. However, the nature of this acid is 
similar in its action to the hydrochloric, and it must be used 
with caution. 

The use of warm water in fixing we consider decidedly inju- 
rious. The only quality, of all that are claimed for it by the 
English writers, it possesses, is its speedy removal of the hypo. 
Its objections are, weakening of the print, destruction of the 
sizing, and consequently loosening of the fibre; and imparting 
greater tendency to the sulphurization. Cold water is de 
cidedly preferable, as it obviates all these difQculties with- 
out creating new ones, besides giving greater brilliancy. 
Prints treated in every way alike, except in the tempera- 
ture of the washing bath, produced the difi'ereuces above 
stated; and when exposed to the atmosphere, those submitted to 
the warm solution faded in a few days, while the others have re- 
mained unchanged. We are indebted for the hint that led to 
this experiment, to C. Guillon, Esq., of Pliiladelphia, who, dur- 
ing a photographic tour to Schooley's Mountaia, observed a 
marked change for the better, in prints washed out in an icy 
cold spring, over those treated at home in water at the 
usual summer temperature. Where running water can be pro- 
cured, no other should be used for the final washing. 

H. H. S. 



METHOD OF ILLUSTRATiNG LECTURES 
Or Scientific Papers by means of Fliotograpliy. 



BY MR. W. HISLOP, F.R A.S. 



[Read before the North London Photographic Association, Dec. 30, 1857.] 

I wish SO direct the attention of the meeting this evening to 
an application of photography for the purpose of illustrating 
scientific lectures or papers, and also for educational purposes. 
Those who are called upon to perform these duties, either occa- 
sionally or continuously, know that a large portion of the labour 
and expense is expended in the preparation of diagrams. In 
microscopy, in physiology, and in astronomy especially, the sub- 
jects are often so elaborate as to require a great expenditure of 
time and money to prepare the representations which are abso- 
lutely necessary for the purpose of illustration. 

Transparent positive pictures have already been used in the 
magic lantern, and it occurred to me a short time since, that 
we have a ready and perfect means of producing a representa- 
tion of the object required on as large a scale as may be deemed 
desirable. My plan is as follows: — I take a drawing or en- 
graving of the subject to be depicted, and fastening it by pins, 
tapes, or any other convenient means against a board, with a 
small stereoscopic view lens of five or six inches focus, I take a 
negative, including the title or description attached, if there be 
any, and reducing the size if necessary. I then obtain a trans- 
parent positive from this negative, either by superposition on a 
dry plate, or on wet collodion by the camera, with the same 
lens. The result is mounted in the ordinary style of slides, or 
similarly to a stereoscopic transparency. The specimen which 
I now hand round has been prepared in this manner. It may 
be observed that we need not to confine ourselves to plain bliick 
and white, bat transparent color may be added by the ordinary 
methods. 

The slides may be shown by the magic lantern; but a very 
great improvement will be made if the common magnifier be 
removed, and a quarter plate photographic portrait lens be 
fitted in its place. This arrangement being achromatic will give 
a more perfect definition. 

In order to avoid the inconveniences of a perfectly dark room 
to the lecturer and audience, I should recommend a modifica- 
tion of the common plan. I use a ground-glass screen, about 
twenty-four inches square, set in a wooden frame with a foot. 

VOL. XI. NO. IV. 16 



This ;'s placed at a sufficient distance from the lantern to ba 
equally illuminated, and the space between the lens and the 
screen is covered with black cloth, supported on a light frame. 
The picture may thus be shown without the whole of the lights 
being extinguished. 

I take this opportunity of remarking, that by the aid of pho- 
tography, the view shown by the phantasmagoria lantern aie 
capable of an extraordinary amount of improvement, and I 
think that this method of preparing pictures has not received 
the attention which it deserves. At a far less comparative cost 
of labor and money, productions superior in every respect may 
be made to take the place of the coarse and incorrect represen- 
tations which now go by the name of "dissolving views." 



From, the Liverpool Photographic Journal. 

PIIGTOGRAPIliC SOCIETY. 



The Annual General Meeting of this Society was held on 
Tuesday, the 2nd of February, Lord Chief Baron Pollock in 
the chair. 

The minutes of the last meeting having been read and con- 
firmed, the Chairman, after a few congratalatory remarks on 
the increase of the Society and the prosperity of the Society's 
Journal, proceeded with the delivery of the annual address: — 

Gentlemen, — I have to call your attention to a very few mat- 
tei's; but there are some which I think I ought to mention on 
the present occasion. Among the first is a communication that 
I have received from the Royal Society of Arts, respecting the 
co-operation of this body in an object which I think every honest 
and well-directed mind would concur in for the protection of 
what might be called intellectual or artistic property. A com- 
mittee has been formed, composed of members of the Royal So- 
ciety of Arts, and they have selected some members of the Pho- 
tographic Society, and, I believe, of other societies, for the pur- 
pose of endeavoring to protect by law, (where direct protection 
is not afi"orded,) those i-esults of scientific labor, or the mere 
efforts of genius in producing that which instructs and delights 
mankind. 

In my opinion the Photographic Society is, at least as much 
— I had very nearly said more, and I am not sure that I should 
not have been right if I had said so, — is more interested than, 
perhaps, any other class of persons. It would be altogether 
out of place if I were to express any personal opinion as to the 
state of the law; it is quite sufficient to say that the most emi- 
nent persons that belong to that profession entertain considera- 
ble doubts as to what is the protection given to a photographer. 

I will give a case in illustration: — 

Some gentlemen, votaries of photography, arrange to go to 
some interesting spot, many hundred miles from this country, at 
great expense. They take with them an apparatus, calculat- 
ing to bring back memorials of all the treasures of art, of an- 
tiquity, and of whatever is curious that the spot they have se- 
lected can afford. They go there — they accomplish their ob- 
ject — they return, and communicate with some person whose 
business it is to make such things public. They receive scarce- 
ly more than a remuneration, — perhaps not so much as the ex- 
pense they have incurred in providing this instruction and en- 
tertainment for the public, — and, in a short time, the person 
who has advanced his capital for their remnneration discovers 
that an individual has purchased a single copy, has instantly 
derived from it a negative, and proposes to publish at an under 
price that which is an imitation of what he had purchased ; and 
it is said, — and I am by no means prepared either here, gentle- 
men, or anywhere else, to say otherwise, but it is said, — that 
that can be done without any let or hindrance from the law. I 
think that is a great grievance, and that such a proceeding is 
very dishonest Now, it may be said that the person who did 
this had a right to do it. He may say, " I violated no law," 
"I broke no commandment of either God or man " He may 
be