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* ; 




§iiUx«nt ^m^Mpfi at tU ^nUf 









Entered aooording to Act of CongreeB, in the year 1864, 


In the Clerk's OfiEice of the District Court of the United States for the 
Northern District of New York. 











We shall hardly be contradicted, when we say that the study 
of language, as a science in itself, has attracted, so far, but very 
little attention in this country. Indeed, it would be quite im- 
possible for the student, however great his interest in the subject 
might be, to find the means with which to prosecute his inquiries. 
The study of philology, at the present time, prestipposes the 
ability to read, at least, French and German works. There are 
very few works published in this country which are devoted 
exclusively to this subject — we know of not a single general 
or comprehensive work similar to the one before the reader; 
nor do the works of English authors present us with anything 
like a complete view of the subject. 

There is, then, a want, which is every day felt, of a work 
which shall give a fair view of the present state of philological 
science, which shall initiate the inquiring student into the mys- 
teries of language, and inform him of its wonders and its beauties, 
of a work which shall be complete in itself, and which shall not 
imply anything else than a knowledge of the English and a dis- 
position on the part of the learner to study and reflect, a work 
which shall be simple and plain enough for anybody to read, 
and yet thorough and philosophical enough for even the experi- 
enced philologist to study with advantage. It is to be hoped 
that this may be found the work desired. 

No effort, no expense, has been spared by the author to render 
this work deserving of the attention and confidence of the student, 
and to make it complete, accurate, and intelligible. To name the 


number of years, long, weary years, that the author has spent 
in slavish toil upon this book, or to tell the number of books he 
had pored upon in order to render him familiar with the subject, 
and, especially, with the character and structure of the different 
languages of the world, or to state the amount it had cost him 
in collecting those books, nearly all of which were imported, 
many being rare and costly, would seem more boasting; and 
hence the silence upon that point. Suffice it, for the present, to 
say that he never suffered this work to go to press, until he felt 
that he had mastered the subject, and was able to take the 

Some credit is claimed for the general plan and conception of 
the work — one which i^ entirely new. It remains to be seen 
whether there is a better design for imparting a thorough know- 
ledge of the nature of language. How well the work has been 
executed, we leave the reader to judge. 

To make the work complete in itself, a brief sketch of English 
Grammar is given ; this is followed by a sketch of the Latin, a 
very different language and grammar. This is given to enable 
the student to understand or recognize the new features which 
he will continually meet with in the languages he is about to 
consider. This is followed by a critical examination of the 
nature of nouns, adjectives, cases, numbers, genders, comparisons. 
Much light is thrown upon the nature of pronouns, prepositions, 
adverbs, and conjunctions — showing what they are, and the forms 
they have in other languages. There is a thorough review of 
the forms of the participle, and a consideration of its develop- 
ment — the more particularly, because it is the basis of the verb. 
The nature of the verb, and the growth of moods and tenses, 
will be well illustrated in the comparative view that is given of it. 

The most important part of the whole work is the comparative 
view of the history and idioms of the principal languages of the 
world. It is believed that nothing can so well instruct us in 
the true nature of language, as the manner in which the differ- 
ent classes of people, or nations, express their ideas. Here, the 
selections have been very copious, and no pains have been spared 
to render their character and meaning easily understood. The 


subject of Etymology has, also, been tboronglily treated of, and 
tlie rules by which we may trace the connexion of words, have 
been carefully set forth. The large lists of words under this 
Head must prove very instructive to any one who carefully 
examines them. 

The main object of the work has been to present a compara- 
tive view of the different idioms of the world, and, besides, such 
facts as would best instruct the student in the nature of language. 
But, to make the work complete, we have sometimes felt it 
necessary to discuss, philosophically, some of the questions in 
philology. These discussions, however, occupy but a small space 
in the treatise, and are not expected to be particularly interesting 
to the general reader. 

It will be noticed that there are no references in the work, 
and it is for the reason that it is in no sense a compilation ; the 
only instances in which we are willing to admit that we have 
extracted from other works, are in the occasional selection of 
words and sentences for illustration. We have considered 
them as common property, and have always felt at liberty to 
take them when we had nothing better at command. But there 
are several works to which we are greatly indebted for our 
instruction in this science ; we have made constant use of many 
of them — but only as instructors. It may not be amiss to name 
them, partly to acknowledge our obligation, and partly to suggest 
to the student the names of desirable works. They are as follows : 
Bopp's Comparative Gram. (3 vols.) ; Prichard's Eastern Origin 
of Celtic Nations; Grarnett's Philological Essays; Latham's 
Ethnographic Essays — and Handbook of English Language; 
Wm. Humboldt on the Kawi (3 vols. Germ.) ; Kapp's Physi- 
ology of Language (4 vols. Germ.) ; Eichhoff's Comparison of 
Languages (Germ.) ; Sulzer's Origin and Nature of different 
Languages (Ital.) ; Grimm's German Gram. (5 vols. Germ.) ; 
Grimm's Hist, of Germ. Languages (2 vols. Germ.); Tooke's 
Diversions of Purley (2 vols.) ; Harris' Hermes ; Dobrowsky's 
Slavic Etymol. ; MtLller's Survey of Languages ; Dictionnaire 
Linguistique (Fr.); Bock on the Structure of Languages (Germ.) ; 
Arndt on the Origin of Europ. Lang's.; Jameson's Hermes 


Sytbicus; Diefenbaoh's Celtica (2 vols. Germ.); Latham's 
Eussian Races; Prichard's Nat. Hist. Man (2 vols.); Adelung's 
Mithridates (4 vols. Germ.); Pott's Etymological Inquiries 
(2 vols, (jrerm.); Schleicher's Compendium (Germ.); Donald- 
son's New Cratylus — and Varronianus; Michel on the Argot 
(French) ; Bemhardy's Sprachlehre (2 vols. Germ.); Diefenbach 
on the Roman Lang's. (Germ.); Julien on Chinese Syntax 
(French); Rask's Researches (Dan.); Drival's Comp. Gram. 
Sem. Lang's (Fr.) ; Benfey on the Egyptian Language (Germ.) ; 
Portal's Symbols of the Egyptians (Fr.); Grotefend's Rudiments 
UmbricsB (Lat.); E. Renan on Sem. Lang's.; Huschke's Osk. 
and Sabel Language-monuments ; Spohn on the Language and 
Letters of Ancient Egyptians (Lat.) ; Jenisch Comparison of 
Lang's of Europe, — besides other minor works, of which little 
use has been made. To enumerate the grammars, treatises, and 
specimens of text, which represent nearly every language treated 
of in this work, besides the lexicons for a large share of them, 
all of which have been examined by the author and studied by 
him for years, would require more space than we have to spare 

We have, as said before, taken great pains to make the work 
plain, as well as complete and accurate; but yet no one, we hope, 
will expect to find it so easy that he is to learn the science of 
language from it without effort, without earnest and unceasing 
study; no such book has eVeryet been printed — none ever will 
be. We must add, finally, that the author's little work, published 
in 1858, on the Errors of Grammar and Nature of Language^ 
must be taken in connexion with this. It contains an explana- 
tion of many theories which lie at the foundation of this work ; 
it will show, too, the road which the author has traveled to 
arrive at his present position. 

To Dr. Lewis, of Union College, who has spent several weeks, 
even while in declining health, in carefully examining, criticising, 
and improving, the manuscript of this work, the author is under 
the greatest obligations, and he knows not how to express the 
gratitude which he feels for a service which so few could 
perform, and which has been so kindly offered and so ably done. 





1. In discourse or composition, the first and leading divisions 
are sentences. It is merely the sum of these sentences, perfect 
and distinct individuals in themselves, that constitutes all that 
is spoken or written. Grammar, at least, has nothing to do 
with anything but sentences, either simple or compound. 

2. If we regard language as the medium by which we express 
or indicate thoughts, feelings, and facts, we may denominate a 
sentence the simplest and most elementary form of language. 
Every sentence is an expression indicating that something 
exists or is, or was or will be. It may have more than two 
parts, but it cannot have less. It must contain not only the 
word indicating the doing, or being, or existing, but the name, 
also, of the person or thing which does, or is, or exists; as, 
nten walk, the moon shines, Cicero spoke, the town is old, the 
hose was broad, 

3. In every sentence, then, besides the word which indicates 
what is done, or what is or was or will be, i. e. the verb, as it is 
called, there is found the name of some person, or thing, or 
place, or of some property or quality. We call these names 
Nouns; as, men, moon, Cicero, town, base, in the examples just 
given. Two divisions of nouns are usually recognized, those 
which are common, and those which Sive proper ; common names 
are such as apply equally to all of a large class, as man, tree, 
book, while proper names are applied to some individual of a 
class to distinguish that one from the others, as Joseph, j^lban^, 


Europe — or, in other words, one is a family, and the other is 
an individual name. It is impossible to draw any nice line of 
distinction between common and proper names, but the above 
will answer in practice. Collective nouns are also sometimes 
spoken of; they are names of bodies or collections, as array ^ 
assembly^ company^ nation. There are also abstract nouns, 
names of qualities, as lengthy wisdom^ goodness; and verbal nouns, 
names of acting, doing, being, as the speaking, the seeing , the 

4. To a certain extent, nouns have different forms according to 
the sex they represent; they are said to be of different Genders; 
as, lion and lioness, poet ^pd poetess, emperor and empress, hero 
and heroine, testator and testatrix. But a very large class of 
names are applied to individuals without marking the distinc- 
tion of either sex ; as, friend, sheep, servant, worker, lover. In 
some instances, the male of a class is known by a name very 
different from that which applies to the female of the same 
class; as, brother, sister ; lord, lady ; son, daughter ; boy, girl; 
gander, goose ; drake, duck. In some of these instances, as in 
that of goose and drake, the words are clearly related in origin, 
and in none of these cases were the words, as boy and girl, ori- 
ginally used for gender distinction. 

5. Persons and animals alone, with us, have gender — things 
are neuter (the Germans call it the sdchlich, thing-ly gender). In 
Latin and Greek, gender is conceived to extend to things, on 
the basis of their possessing masculine or feminine qualities, 
and, hence, they speak of them, often, as he and she, while we 
would say it — just as we, again, say of the ship, she sails, the 
moon casts her shadow, the sun sends his rays. 

6. Nou^s denoting males are said to be of the masculine gender, 
and those denoting females of the feminine gender. Nouns de- 
noting things which are lifeless, or which we do not speak of 
as having sex, as book, box, tree, rock, crowd, time, water, are 
said to be of the neuter gender. We should prefer to apply the 
term gender only to nouns which distinguish it by their form, 
but, in grammar, the practice is to call all nouns masculine 
which denote males, and all feminine which denote females. 
In other languages, as the Latin, gender is much better marked. 

7. The variation of forms of nouns to indicate unity or plu- 
rality, is much more common ; thus, we use the term books for 
more than one, and book when a single one is referred to, and 
so boxes and box, trees and tree, affection and affections, valley, 
valleys, sky, skies. We call plural the form indicating more 
than one, and singular the form indicating only one. The 
plural form is generally made by adding s or es to the singular, 
but not always; 'as, in oXj oxen ; child, children; brother, breth- 


ren ; man, men ; foot, feet; goose, geese; woman, women. There 
are some nouns which have no plural ; as, ten sheep, ten cattle, 
ten deer. In many cases, where we adopt the word of some 
other language, we adopt also its plural; as, datum (from Lat.), 
and plural data^ chervh (from Sem.), plur. cherubim; so, too, 
the above plural in en is rather after the German manner, en 
being for s or es. The forms foot and feet, man and men, etc., 
will stand as proof that the plural is only a variation of the sin- 
gular and contains nothing foreign or in addition to it. 

8. Case. In the words which are called pronouns, as, I, 
thou, he, and she, we notice two different forms, according aa 
they come before the word expressing doing or being, and 
hence are subjects, or follow this word, and are objects ; thus, 
we say I strike, but not strike I, rather, strike me) so, he strikes, 
but not strike Ac, rather, strike him; also thou strilcest, and strike 
thee, 'she strikes, and strike her. When these pronouns are 
placed before nouns to indicate whose or for whom, that is, 
possession or origin, they assume still another form ; as, (for i) 
m^ hook, (for he) his hook, (for thou) thy hook, (for she) her 
hook; so, again, we say his language, i. e. language coming from 

9. These different forms are called case forms, and the form 
before the verb is called the Nominative ; that after the verb 
is called the Objective. (Not only is this form taken when 
following such verbs as strike, but also after prepositions, such 
words as to, hy, before, with, etc. ; as, to him, with her, hefore 
^e, hy me). The third forms, as, his, her, thy, my, are called 
JPossessives, In other languages, as in the Latin, they carry out 
this system of varied forms for cases not only in the pronouns, 
but also in the nouns; they havener, boy, for the ^om., pueri, 
boy's, for the Poss., and puerum, boy, after verbs or preposi- 
tions. (They have even other case-forms, which we will notice 
elsewhere). The German, in this matter, holds a sort of middle 
place between us and the Latin. They have endings peculiar 
to certain case-forms in very many instances where they have 
long since disappeared with us, thus, they say der Sohn, the son; 
des Sohnes, the son's, or (of) the son; dem Sohne, (to) the son; 
den Sohn, the son (objective). Notice that the article has four 
forms, while our the has but one (the Germ, der is more like 
our three case-forms of pronouns ; as, he, his, him ; they, theirs, 
them.,). Even the Anglo Saxon, or old English, had more of 
these forms than we; thus, thaet word, the word (Nom.); thaes 
wordes, the word's, (of) the word (Poss.) ; thaet word, the word 
(Obj.); and besides these, they had a peguliar form for our 
objectives when found after the prepositions to and /or; as, tham 
worde, (to) the word, and in the plural, tham wordum, (to) the 


words (this case-form is called the Dative). All their nouns 
did not vary in this manner, or to this extent; thus, mnu^ son 
(N.) ; swwa, son^s (Poss.) ; «wwa, (to) son (D.) ; sunu^ son (Obj.) ; 
«wnewa, (of) sons (Poss. plur.) ; so mann, man (N.) ; mannes, 
man^s (P.); men, (to) man (1).); mann, man (Ob.); syn, sin; 
synne, sin's; synne, (to) sin; synne, stn (0.); syn/ia, siws (pi.); 
synnum, (to) sins (plur.). 

10. In English nouns, there cannot be said to be more than 
one case-form, or two, if we count the nominative, and that is 
the possessive ; as, man's authority, hoy's book, hand's effort — 
regularly formed by adding 's, s and apostrophe. Plural forms, 
which already end in s, add only the apostrophe to form the 
possessive; thus, hoys' hooks, i. e. books of the boys. Still, it is 
the practice of grammarians to treat the noun as having three 
case-forms, adding, only, that the nominative differs from the 
objecti^ form simply in the place it occupies — the nominative 
being the doer or subject of the verb, and the objective repre- 
senting the object of the verb or preposition. Sometimes the 
order of words is inverted, and the objective comes before the 
verb; thus, Mm they slew (him object of slew); so, the nominative 
often follows ; as, there stood the man (the man stood, man nom- 

11. Such verbs as is, was, are, will he, hecome, may have a 
nominative after as well as before; as, he is the man — man ie 
called predicate nominative. 


12. Nouns are not always used as names of things spoken of, 
that is, as subject or object; they are often placed before other 
nouns to indicate the kind of thing; as, trooc^-car, Aouse-work, 
tron-mine, ybres<-tree. Such words as wood, house, iron, and 
forest, are joined to the nouns to tell what kind, or to form with 
the noun a new name, that of a subdivision of cars, mines, trees. 
Nouns so used, or any other words so placed, are called adjectives. 
Speaking generally, adjectives are words joined to the noun to 
tell what kind, how many, or what thing. In our language, 
and more generally in German, nouns are joined as adjectives 
to other nouns without change of form, and this on the principle 
that the noun may be used in one and the same form both as 
subject and object. But, more commonly, a new form has 
grown up for the noun used as adjective; as, joyful mdin, joyous 
mirth, humane map, tolerahle success, amusing story. In many 
instances, the original noun on which the adjective has grown up 
is entirely lost sight of, or is to be found in some other language; 


as, in genuine logic, wicked men, happy men, shrewd men, 
great men, mortal men, (from Latin mors^ death), corporal 
punishment (from L. corpus^ l>ody), physical powers (Grreek 
phusis, nature). 

13. It is very common to find these adjectives used not only 
before the noun as above shown, but following the verb and 
closely connected with it, — especially after is, was, be, been; 
thus, he is happy, this seems excellent, some men are great, he 
becomes a soldier. It is common to call these words adjectives, 
and to say they belong to the subjects of the verbs which they 
follow. But, in the opinion of the author, this is a very unnat- 
ural way of disposing of them ; they are certainly adjectives in 
form and nature, but they have not the place of the adjectives. 
They are no more adjectives than one noun placed before another 
noun, without varying its form, is a noun. They certainly do 
not belong to the noun or pronoun before the verb, but, if at all, 
to some noun following them, and implied ; as, he is happy, i. e. 
a happy one, or person. Our preference is to treat them as 
adjectives whi6h belong to the verb and unite with it to form a 
new verb. 

14. But it must be borne in mind that every adjective has 
the nature of a verb (or, at least, of that form of a verb called a 
participle), and that in many languages the adjectives are treated 
as real verbs, that in such expressions aa is walking, is 'wise, is 
pevalent, is excellent, is here, is black, is a man, the very essence 
of a verb lies in these adjectives — so much so, that is, being a 
mere auxiliary, is left out entirely, in many languages, by which 
suppression the whole verb is seen to lie in these adjectives; or, 
in other words, the adjective holds the place and performs the 
office of a real verb. It is true, that every adjective is a noun 
in its origin, but it is that form of the noun, the objective, which 
is found following the verb and connected with it, either 
directly or by means of prepositions, and uniting with it so 
closely as to form with it a new verb — at the same time ceasing 
to have any of the real characteristics of a noun, which is known 
a» being the name of a person or thing. {See Errors of 
Grammar on objectives and adjectives) t 

15. Adjectives have different forms to indicate degrees of 
quality ; as, hard, harder,^ hardest ; or hard, more hard, most 
hard, — or, taking the descending order, hard, less hard, least 
hard. The first or simplest form . is called the positive ; the 
second, made by adding er or prefixing more or less, is called 
comparative; the last form, made by adding est or prefixing 
most or least, is called the superlative, or highest degree. Some 
adjectives are compared irregularly; as, bad, worse, worst; little, 
l€8S, least ; mtich, more, most ; good, better, best. 

14 PHRASI8» 

16. A particular kind of adjectives are'numhers, as, ten men, 
Jive books ; they are called numerals^ and are again divided into 
cardinals^ as one, two^ three, etc., and ordinals, as Jirgt, second, 
third, etc. 

17. Adjectives of very frequent occurrence, and wliich may 
be regarded as marks of the noun, are the ^ords a, an, and the. 
They are called the articles — a and an being called indefinite, 
and the being the definite article. 


18. The oft occurring words I, thou, he, she, and it, are called 
the personal ]^Tonomia, or the personals . The first, /, represents 
the speaker, and is said to be of the first person ; thou is used to 
denote the person spoken to, and is called the pronoun of the 
second person ; he, she, and it, are personals of the third person, 
and they always stand in the place of the name of the person or 
thing spoken of. 

19. The first personal has, for the three case-forms of the 
sing., respectively, /, my or min^, me (Nom. Poss. Ob.), and for 
the plural, we, our or ours, im ; in the same way, thou, thy or 
thine, thee, and plural, ye or you, your or yours, you ; and for 
the three personals of the third person, he, his, him (masc), sh^, 
her or hers, her (fem.), it, its^ it (neut); the plural is the same 
for these three, they, their or theirs, them, 

20. What is called a compound personal is formed by adding • 
self to the objectives of these pronouns; as himself, herself, itself, 
themselves, except that in the case of /and thou, the possessive 
form is taken ; as, myself, thyself. 

21. The words who, which, what, and that, are called the 
relatives, as referring back to some person or thing already 
spoken of. They have no peculiar forms when they represent 
plurals. The first has the case-forms who, whose, whom; whose 
is also used as the possessive of which; beyond this, there is 
no variation in the forms of relatives. 

22. To all of them, except that, the word ever may be joined 
to form what are knoi/fn as compound relatives ; as, whatever, 
whichever, whoever, besides whatsoever, whomsoever, 

23. Who, which, and what, are used in questions, and are 
called interrogatives — or, if we may judge from some other 
tongues, it is rather the interrogative that is used as relative. 
All pronouns are adjective in their nature, and become independ- 
ent individuals by the suppression of the noun to which they 
should belong. Every adjective used without its noun is, p'rop- 
Cfly, a pronoun; as, this is so, all walked, each spoke, none spoke, 
o^ic said, som^ said. 


24. Our own relatives, which ^ what, and that, are used as 
adjectives, as, which man, as well as relatives, as, in the man 
which said. And in other languages, as in Latin, the personals of 
the third person are used as adjectives too, just as if we said 
he mail, she girl, it thing, as we do say this man, this girl, that 


25. We have already anticipated, necessarily, to some extent, 
the office and meaning of a verb, and we have only to repeat, 
here, that verbs are used to tell \f hat is done, or what some one 
or some thing does, or what exists or is (in time either past, 
]^es€7U, OT future); as, he walks, he is struck, he seems, he becomes. 
Bearing these characteristics in view, verbs are easily distin- 
guished from other words. 

26. Verbs fall readily into two very important classes, or 
divisions, those which take objectives immediately after them 

• '^ and are transitive, as, James struck him, aiid, on the other 
hand, those which cannot have an objective attached to them, 
except through the connexion of a preposition, and are hence 
vntransitive; that is, the action is not looked upon as passing 
over to an object ; thus, James is writing, James speaks, James 
hoJcedfor him. Transitives are regularly followed by nouns or 
pronouns in the objective case ; no other verbs are transitive, 
save, if you will, those cases where it is assumed that the object 
precedes; as, him he slew. » But, even here, it may be questioned 
whether or not him. is not thrown out independently, and another 
tei, the real object, suppressed. 

27. The nouns that follow is or be in its different forms, are 
said to be nominatives ; as, he is a man, he will be an ojfficer, 
hut they are certainly not subjects like other nominatives, other- 
wise the verb would have two subjects, one before and one after 
(In Arabic, among others, we find ace. after be.). As before 
intimated, such nouns are pure adjectives, and adjectives are 
lllied to objectives. There are other cases where verbs are 
followed by nouns which are not properly objects, and the verbs 
are hence not transitive; thus, he seems a man, {to be implied), 
he became a m,an (came to be), he was elected prince (to be prince). 

28. Bat, it is well to bear in mind that intransitives taken 
with the preposition are as much transitive as any other verb, 
that is, they may and do have objects. We understand transi- 
tives to differ from intransitives only in the suppression of the 
preposition ; so, to write you is transitive, but to write to you is 
intransitive; flee the land is trans., but flee from the land is 

16 * PHRASIS. 

intrans.; we may say %eek Mm or seek for Aim r— the same verb 
being transitive or intransitive according as we use or do not 
use the preposition for. The verbs, in many instances, which 
we must use with a preposition, we find in other languages used 
without them. Verbs which may have objects, but yet do not 
have them in the particular case in question, are called intran- 
sitive; thus, the expression he writes is intran., but he writes a 
letter is transitive. i^See Errors of Gram, on reflexive verbs.) 

29. Another important division is into regular and irregular 
verbs; thus, those that form their past tense and past participle 
(that form of verb which follows have and had) by adding 
d or ed to the verb, are regular, and those which do not are 
irregular. Thus, the verb walk, past, I walked, and part., have 
walked; the verb love, past, 1 loved, part., have or had loved ; 
but not 80 with the verb see, past, I saw, part., have seen (not 
seed) ; so of speak, spoke, and spoken, of be, was, been, of make, 
made, made, of go, went, gone, do, did, done, come, came, com,e, 
strike, struck, struck. This last or irregular form, which, does 
not need the new element ed to form pasts, is sometimes called 
the strong^ and the other is called the weak tense. 

30. There are still two other forms of the verb, of rather of 
the transitive verb, which are uniformly recognized and are of 
great importance, the active, and the passive form. When we 
say John strikes James, or John loves James, we use the active 
form of strike and love, since John, the subject of remark, is the 
actor or doer ; when, however, we use another form, and say 
James is, or was, struck by John, or is, or was, loved by John, 
there the subject, James, is not the striker, the lover, but the 
one struck, or loved, the object, the one who suffers. The com- 
pound form is struck, was struck, and the like, is called the 
passive of strike, etc. But, really, as to form, is struck is no 
more passive than is happy or is striking, for both expressions 
denote simply a condition, or state, without reference to the 
action which produced that state, but it so happens that, in the 
passive form, the is, was, wiU be, have been, etc., are practically 
suppressed, and the whole force is thrown upon the participle, 
now become a verb, as in the case of struck. Every transitive 
expression may thus be reversed and put in the passive form, 
with the object as subject. (/See Errors of Gram, on passives.) 

31. Every passive expression is intransitive in its character, 
and we shall continually find it difficult to distinguish it from 
other intransitive forms, whenever is, was, etc., are used ; thus, 
he is celebrated is passive, if you understand that some one cele- 
brates him, but it is intransitive, if he is simply a celebrated man. 
All that is passive in the form lies in the participle after is, was, 
etc. ; has struck, in form, is as much passive as is struck, but 
struck is, in sense, active in the former and passive in the latter. 


32 Tenses. Verbs have different forms, or marks, by which 
they indicate whether an action or being is present, past, or 
future. These forms are called tenses or tense forms. 

33. The j)resent ten^e denotes a present or continuing doing 
or being, as walks, speaks, reads, is reading, are saying, is struck, 

34. The 'past tense denotes a doing or being that is finished, 
or one continuing in past time \ as, walked, read, spoke, was 
reading, was saying, was struck. The future tense indicates 
'what is to take place, or what will be taking place, and the 
mark of it is shaU or wiU; as, shall read, will read, will speak, 
will he reading, will be struck. A second future, or future 

j^fect, is made by using have after shall or will; as, shaU have 

read, will have been spoken. 

85. By the perfect it is indicated that something is just now 
or recently completed, and it is known by the mark have or has; 
as, has read, have spoken, have been reading, has been read. 
And, lastly, the pluperfect is known by the sign had, and it 
indicates a completion some time since ; as, had spoken, had 
read, had been reading, had been read. 

36. Moods. There are certain other forms, or combinations 
of forms, to indicate some condition or circumstance about the 
doing or being. These forms are called the moods. The simple 
form of the verb, which has no condition or qualification attached 
to it, is called the indicative; all those tense forms above given 
are of this mood. If we place before them if, though, unless, or 
other words indicating doubt or condition, we have what is 
called the svhjunctive form; as, if he walk, unless he walks, though 
he laugh, if he walked, that he speaks. Whenever we use the 
signs may, can, must, might, could, and should, before the bare 
verb, as, may go, might go, must go, we have what is called the 
potential mood — indicating that something is possible or neces- 
sary. In orders or requests, we use the bare verb ; as, go away, 
return now, see him, give me ; verbs used in this manner are 
called imperatives. That form of the verb which is uniformly 
found with the preposition to before it, is called the infinitive ; 
as, to vyrite, to speak — in a few instances the to is omitted, after 
teCj hear, feel, need, help, let, make, bid, dare, may, can, will ; 
as, may (to) go, hear him {to) speak, I saw him (to) go. 

37. Person. There is a variation also in the ending of the 
verb according to the person of the subject ; thus, we say / 
tpeak, thou speakest, he speaks, we speak ; so, / am, thou art, 
he is, we are, and we call these different forms the persons of 
the verb. Verbs in English can hardly be said to vary for 
number, since the three persons of the plural are regularly like 
the first singular ] as, I write, we, you, they write ; I, you, we, 
they turote. The verb be, as it is called j however, seems an 


18 PHBASI8. 

exception ; thus, (sing.) / amy thou art, he is ; (plur.) we are, 
you are, they are; past tense, I was, tJwuwast, he was; we were, 
you were, they were; the other tenses are regular, as fut., vriU be, 
2d. fut. will have been, perfect, have been, pluperfect, or past 
perfect, had been. 

38. Participles : Every verb has three other forms, known 
as participles; one in -ing, as, walking, speaking, reading, being 
(called the present participle) ; another ending in ed, as has 
walked, and for irregular verbs having various endings ; as, has 
struck, has gone, is hit, is bent, has been, a man seen there (called 
the perfect, past, or passive participle). There is a third, called 
the compound perfect, made by prefixing having to the perfect 
just noticed; as, having read, having gone, having seen, 

39. These participles are never connected directly with sub- 
jects, or nominatives, but through some form of the verb be (is, 
was, will be, etc.), or by h^ve, has, had ; thus, he is walking, 
he is struck, he has walked, has gone, has seen, has heard, wiU 
be known. These connective verbs, as well as may, can, etc., 
signs of the potential mood (besides do, did), are called auxili- 

40. The present and past, or perfect, participles are often used 
as pure adjectives ; as, a walking giant, a broken reed, a cele- 
brated man. They, as well as the compound, often stand as if 
independently; thus, the man walking by the sea heard the 
roaring; the man impressed with this, said; the man having 
heard it, said. The present part, in ing is often used as a noun ; 
thus, the walking. Participles and infinitives, besides other 
derived forms of the verb, are called verbals. A verb not of 
the infinitive mood is said to be finite. 


41. Of the different kinds or classes of words which go to 
make up a sentence, there remain three others usually named in 
grammar; namely. Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions. 
These three are not well separated from each other, and we often 
term them, taken together, Particles. They are generally small 
words, and often play the part of simple connectives. 

42. Speaking generally, adverbs may be termed adjectives 
which have ceased to belong to nouns, or, in other cases, as 
nouns in the objective case which stand independently in the 
sentence. They are found either referring to the expression of 
the whole sentence; as, then the torrent rushed with terrible 
roarings, or to the verb alone ; as, to speak fluently, or to an 
adjective ; as, extremely great, or to another adverb ; as, very 


violently. Generally, tbey tell the how^ when, or where, of a fact 
or doing, or they tell how much. Many of them are of pronom- 
inal origin (that is, adjective without noun), as, how, here^ there, 
now, etc., etc. 


43. It is often hard to distinguish the conjunction from the 
adverb, since there is no real difference in their origin ; they are 
that kind of adverb which never belongs to any word in the 
sentence, but they stand .independently, or they connect one 
sentence, word, or phrase, with another. There are several 
words which you may oaII, indifferently, either adverb or con- 
junction ; ai9 this is so, there/ore that is so ; he did as I ordered 
him to do. 

44. There are so few conjunctions that we give the following 
list, by^ which they may be known : and, also, if, or, either, 
neither, though, although, hut, nor, that, for, cw, because, unless, 
whether ,f yet, than, lest. 


45. They are easily distinguished from the other two classes 
of particles, not in their origin, for they, too, are adverbs, pro- 
nouns, or nouns, but in their Use. A preposition is such a 
particle (not being a verb) as is always followed by an objective 
noun or pronoun ; as, to him, with us, along the shore, behind 
the car, instead of that. All, olr nearly all, prepositions may be 
found without an objective following ; as, he was spoken to, he 
ran along, he fell behind, and they become adverbs, just as 
adverbs used with an objective become and should be called 
prepositions ; as, near lis, down the road, up the hill. Wee me. 

46. Here we give a list of prepositions : at, in, on, of, from, 
f<yr, by, with, among, against, before, behind, tiU, during, toward, 
about, up, dovm, out of, upon, along, under, between, after, 
ahove, over, round, through, to, across, below, without. 

47. The classes of words which we have now named are 
called the parts of speech — they are usually reckoned at ten 
(counting in participles^ articles, and those exclamatory words, 
called interjections), 

48. Let the learner be cautioned that the rules given for the 
distinction of parts of speech are not infallible — no such rules 
can be given in grammar more than elsewhere. Nature has put 
no landmarks to separate one class from another. 


49. We have given all that the student of language will need, 
but, of course, we cannot pretend to have written a complete 
grammar. Let it be borne in mind that the main object of 
this grammatical sketch was to enable the common student to 
understand the meaning of grammatical terms, without being 
compelled to refer to any other work. 


50. The English language is a modern language, and it 
possesses the usual features of modern languages; but the Latin, 
as well as the Greek and the Sanscrit, represents a class of ancient 
languages that presents many features which differ from those 
of modefn idioms. We will take a brief survey, here, of those 
features in Latin. 

51. The first thing that we remark as strange in Latin, is the 
six case-forms. Here, the endings of the noun and of the 
adjective (which is a form of the noun), have developed them- 
selves into the representatives of our prepositions, or prepositions 
with the article ; as, of the^ to the, hy the ; thus, puer^ a boy, 
but jmeri, of the boy, puero, to the boy, or with the boy. 

52. But it is not only in these prepositional cases, that we 
find an ending distinct from the base of the noun ; the nomina- 
tives, too, have common endings. There is a large class With 
the common ending a; as, al-a, wing, cur-a, care, silv-a, wood, 
a large class in us, and um; aa, vent-us^ wind, man-vs, hand, 
regn-um, kingdom, mal-um, evil, don-um, gift — besides other 
endings. In the adjective, they have, for their ofl&ce, to distin- 
guish gender; thus, take the three nominative forms hon-us, 
bon^a, hon-um (for which we have the single, unvarying, form 
gootT), Of these, we use bonus, when we say good man (a male), 
bona, for good woman (a female), and bonum, for good thing 
(a neuter). And, in the noun, too, these endings vary with 
the gender; so, a is for them' generally a /em., us a masc, and. 
um a neuter ending. Further, we may remark, that there is no 
doubt that this us, a, urti., is the equivalent of our a and the, 
suffixed (i. e., joined to the noun at the end). The Latins have 
no other article. Besides, this us and um are clear variations of 
one ending — and a is a weaker form of the same. 

53. We have certainly the germ of this common ending of 
Latin, in our final e, and perhaps in d, and others; thus, for the 
Latin caus-a, we have caus-e; tub-a, tub-e. There is but a slight 


difference between e and a. We might compare also son-us and 
s(mn-d^ jug-um and yok-e^ tot-iLs and tot-al^ riv-us and riv-er^ hort- 
us and gard-en^ corv-us and rav-en, man-us and han-d. The 
German endings cw, ?, cr, es, belong to this family. Besides 
these remnants of endings, it may be said, in many cases, that 
the change of vowel in the body of the word compensates for 
the gender endings lost; thus, soil, for L. sol-um, vel-um, sail, 
hor-a, hour, turb-a, troop, bon-uSy good, mit-is, meek, pac-e, 
peace, can-is^ hound. 

54. The cases found in Latin, are the Nominative, Genitive 
(sign o/j our poss.). Dative (sign to, for). Accusative, (our ob- 
jective). Vocative (the person addressed), and Ablative (sign 
with, from, by, in). The endings of these cases are by no 
means uniform for all nouns. The changes in the original 
endings of the nominative must produce a corresponding change 
in the other cases. Thus, the nouns which have the nominative 
in a, have their cases, in the sing., in this vfn'^ : penn-a, penn-x, 
penn-ee, penn-am, penn-a, penn-a; and for the plural, penn-se,' 
penn-arum, penn-is, pe(in-as, penn-8e,' penn-is. (The cases just 
given, correspond in order with the names above given). In 
English, those forms would be expressed (in the sing.) by pen, 
of the pen, for the pen, the pen (obj.), the pen (voc), with the 
pen ; so, in the plur., pens, of pens, etc. 

55. Vent'US, vent-i, vent-o, vent-um, vent-e, vent-o, (plural) 
vent't, vent-orum, vent-is, vent-os, vent-i, vent-is, — wind, of wind, 
etc.; plur., winds, of winds, etc. don-um, don-i, don-o, don-um, 
don-um, don^o; plur., don-a, don-ornm, don-is, don-a, don-a, 
don-is, — gift, of gift, etc.; plur., gifts, of gifts, for gifts, etc. 
rup-es, rup-is, rup-i, rup-em, rup-es, rup-e; plur., rup-es, rup-ium, 
rup-ibus, rup-es, rup-es, rup-ibus, — rock, of rock, for rock, etc.; 
plur., rocks, of rocks, etc. 

56. In many cases, the nominative ending is entirely lost; 
as, puer, puer-i, puer-o, boy, of boy, to boy. In other instances, 
this ending is not lost, but blunted; thus, pars (for parts, partes), 
g^n. part-is, a part; so, dens, (for dents, dentes), tooth; serm-o 
(for serm-on, serm-ones), gen., serm-onis, of speech. 

57. A moderate inspection renders it very evident that all 
these case-forms are variations of those forms with gender 
endings. We find is oft«n in the genitive, but it occurs also in 
the nominative in the place of us ; as, classis, a fleet. In the 
plural, we have the ending es or i combined with the gender 
ending us, a, um, or, existing as a mere variation of it. Those 
case-forms which end in i and o, are plainly shortenings of this 
is and tis. The uniform endings of the accusative are um, am, 
em, which are forms of the neuter um. 

58. The changes of these noun and adjective endings are not 


SO much prepositions as forms to correspond with the nature of 
the verb, or verbal, which governs them; thus, caret omni cvJpa^ 
he wants (in) all blame (culpa) ; caret is followed by an abla- 
tive, or in case, because it means wanting in; ortus regthus^ risen 
(from) kings; or«Ms= risen from, and, hence, has with it the 
from case, or abl ; natura animalibus tribuit, nature (to) ani- 
mals has given (tribuit ^ has "given to — hence the dat. case 
with it) ; curis vacuus, (from) Cares free (vacuus, free from-— 
hence the abL case) ; hostis virtutibus, (an) enemy (to) virtues 
(hostis, opposed to, inimical) ; amor nummi, love (of) money 
(amor, love, to be fond of) ; memor fragilitatis, mindful (o^ 
weakness. No principle seems better established, in all lan- 
guages, than that the preposition is a growth of the verb and 
belongs to it. Whenever found, it always belongs with some 
verb, or verbal, expressed or implied. When standing alone, 
it represents the verb and its participle. 

59. In concluding our remarks upon the cases of Latin nouns, 
"We may observe that all the cases following the nominative are 
known as oblique cases. It is to be observed, also, that the ace. 
(obj.) case, in neuter nouns, is always like the nom. ; and that 
the ablative plural of all nouns is like the dative. 


60. The Latin adjective has nothing peculiar in its character, 
save its varying form to correspond with the gender, number, 
and case, of its noun. Thus there is, as said before, a form 
bonus for mas., as bonus vir, good man, a form bona for fern's^ 
as bona jilia, good daughter, and bonum, neut., as in bonum 
telum, good dart. (In short, the form of the adj. is a repetition 
of that of the noun). And these three, bonus, bona, bonum, 
have each their six case-forms in each number, like so many 
independent nouns; thus, (sing.) bonus, boni, bono, bonum, bone^ 
bono ; and (fem. sing.) bona, bonse, bonse, bonam, bona, bona ; 
and (neut. sing.) bonum, boni, bono, bonum, bonum, bono (bonus^ 
like the noun ventv^, bona, like penna, and bonum, like donum)^ 
Thus, we have boni viri (of good of man), of a good man— »• 
treating the two as a unit, a compound ; borne filiee. (of good of 
daughter), of* a good daughter; bonarum Jiliarum, of good 
daughters ; bonis donis, for good (for) gifts. It is clear you 
must consider the adjective as lost in the one compound, or, 
that the two are individuals unconnected. The requirements of 
science seem to be, that each is independent ; that good, in any 
of these cases, does not so much belong to the noun, as, for 
instance, man, -afi, rather, to some general term, as, one, thing, 
included in the adjective itself; so, a good man, a good one a 


man, i. e. a good person or thing of the man class. There is 
much proof to sustain this position, which will be given, some 
of it, elsewhere. 

61. The comparative in Latin generally ends in lor, ius, our 
er^ and the superlative, inissim-us (us is an adj. ending), our 
est; as, dur-uSy dur-iOTj dur-issimuSy — hard, hard-er, hard-est. 
We look upon these endings as^ growth of the ending us. It 
strikes us as somewhat peculiar, to find in Latin that the com- 
parative is followed by the ablative (the with case) ; as, dulcior 
melle, sweeter than honey (in Lat., sweeter with honei/), i. e. the 
comparative is a real positive ; and we also have sweet hy tJie 
side of honey y or compared with honey. 


62. All the Latin pronouns are real adjectives, (of a particu- 
lar kind, it is true) sometimes used with a noun and sometimes 
alone — we have only to except ego-l^ <w-thou, and se-self ; 
these latter ones do not vary for gender, and they have only one 
set of case-forms. The other pronouns, like adjectives, have each 
three sets of forms and cases, for the three genders ; as, hie- 
this (mas.), Aaec-this (fem.), Aoc-this (thing, neut.); so, ille- 
that (mas.), t7Za-that (fem.), i/7Mc?-that (neut.) -, is-that (m.), 
ea-that (f.), tc?-that (n.). These three pronouns, A/c, ille^ is, 
mean this, that, when used with the noun, as thaf man, but they 
mean he, she, it, when used without the noun, as, ille dixit-he 
said (that (one) said). There is also ipse -himself, i]psa- herself, 
tpmm-itself ; so, qui-who, quse-Yfho {{.), quod - which (n.) ; 
and idem^he the same, eadem-she the same, idem-it the same. 


63. The Latin verb furnishes us with many peculiarities. 
The first we notice, is the growth of endings representing nom. 
personal pronouns ; as, I, thou, he ; thus, am-o, I love, am-as, 
thou lovest, am^at, he loves; am-amus, we love, am-atis, ye love, 
omrant, they love. This is precisely as if we should use hve^ 
for he loves, lovest for thou lovest — loves being the form proper 
forAe, she, it, and lovest the form for thou; so,* we might use 
om for I am, and is for he is, art for thou art. These few cases 
we about the only instances of verb forms in English to corre- 
spond with the personal pronoun, and these we never use as 
^uivalent to the verb and pronoun, i. e. without the nominative. 
Those Latin person endings extend, in slightly varying forms, 
*o all the tenses and moods (not inf.). 


64. In English, we have only one tense, the past, ending in 
ec?, which shows the tense hy the ending, and we use the auxil- 
iaries have^ had, and will, to supply the place of endings. But 
in Latin, save in exceptional cases, the tenses are all after the 
manner of our past in ed ; as, walk-ed lov-ed. 

65. The mark of the Latin past is ah, eh, corresponding 
exactly to our ed in lov-ed, lov-edst (2d. per.), and to which ah 
IS joined the ordinary person endings already shown in the 
present, thus : am-aham, am-ahas, -ahat ; -abamus, -abatis, 

66. The mark of the perfect is av, iv; thus, am-avi, am-avisti, 
am-avit ; -avimus, -avistis, -averunt. This tense, in meaning, 
and perhaps in construction, corresponds more with our past 
than with our perfect. But amaham is usually translated I 
loved, while amavi is put down as I have loved, amavit, he has 

67. The pluperfect, / had loved, runs thus : am-averam, 
-averas, -averat ; -averamtis, -averatis, -averant The future, / 
will love, is am-aho, -ahis, -ahit ; -ahimus, -ahitis, -ahunt 

68. The 2d. future is amavero amave-ris, -rit, etc. The 
present subjunctive (potential) is am-em, I may love, and has 
no tense element besides em : ama-rem, -res, -ret, etc., I might 
love (past subj.); amave-rim, -ris -rit, etc., I may have love4 
(perf. sub,) ; amavissem, -isses, -isset, etc., I might have loved 
(p. perf.). 

69. We thussee that in the subj. (pot.) mpod there are not 
those auxiliaries which we find in English. The infinitive has 
a common ending are, ere, ire, for one form ,our to, and avisse^ 
isse, for another form, our to have; as, amare, to love,, and 
amavisse, to have loved. 

70. If we use the present participle as a noun, as th^ walking, 
we use the simple participle form which is found also in the 
different application, a man walking by the sea. But, in Latin, 
we have a distinct form (both grown up from one form, however) 
for each case ; thus, we would have amhulandum in the first 
instance, and amhulans in the next. The forms amhulans, 
ambling, amans, loving, are pure adjectives, with very little 
variation, however, in the oases of the three genders; thus, viro 
amhulante, to a man walking (dat. form, to agree with viro^. 
These are called present participles. 

71. The form in andum is a true noun, and has its case forms 
andi (gen.), ando (dat.), andum (ace), like other nouns, while 
we would have one and the same form, of walking, to walking. 
This is known as the gerund. 

72. There is still another form, grown on the same base as the 
others, to which we have nothing in English that precisely 


corresponds. We refer to those forms, known as supines, which 
end in turn and tu ; as, ama-tum, to love, ama-tu, to be loved. 
It answers most nearly to our infinitive ; it is not often used. 

73. The passive in Latin presents us with a new set of endings 
and combinations. Our. own passive is regularly made by using 
some tense of the verb be (is, was, will be), and joining to it 
the perfect or passive participle of a transitive verb. 

74. We use is loved for our present passive, but the Latin 
amatus sum, loved I am, is a perfect, and is translated have been 
loved ; and amatus erat, loved he^was, is a pluperfect, had been 

75. The present is a simple form, thus : amor, amaris, ama- 
tur ; amamur, amamini, amantur — I am loved, thou art loved, 

76. The past passive is also a simple form : ama-bar, -baris, 
'batur; -bamur, -bamini, -bantur — I was loved, thou wast 
loved, etc. The future is amabor, I will be loved. The 2d 
future, amatus fuero, shall have been loved. Prest. subj., amer, 
I may be loved. Past., amarer, I might be loved. Amatus sim 
(loved may be), I may have been loved; amatus essem (loved 
might be) I might have been loved. These two tenses are the 
perf. and pluperf. 

77. The participle in tus, amatus, lov-ed, corresponds to our 
regular past participles. It has, as it is a true adj., nfem^ and 
neut. form, as well as mas. ; thus, amatus, amata, amatum. 

78. Another participle, called the future pass., as, amandus= 
to be loved, must be loved, is a variation of the gerund already 

79. But the peculiarities of the Latin idiom will be best 
understood and appreciated by means of some selections from 
its composition, to which we now turn our attention. 

80. Tenner e (held) tamen arcem (fort) Sabini — they-held 
still (the) castle, (the) Sabines (did). It is generally claimed 
that words placed like Sabini, are nominative to the verb, as, 
tenuere, but it strikes the author differently ; Sabini is thrown 
in, as we often find in Latin, parenthetically, as a sort of adverb 
or explanatory term. Jupiter inquit, tuisjussus avibus hie (here) 
m PalaMo prima urhifundamenta jeci — Jupiter, he-says, 
by-thy-own (Juis) being-commanded, by-birds (avibus), here in 
Palatium first to-the^city (of the city) (the) foundations I-have- 
laid (jeci) (i. e. here first I laid). Here tuis=thj, and avibus=z 
birds, are words which are claimed to belong together, though 
we find them separated hjjussus ; they certainly agree in num- 
ber and case. Still we do not think they properly belong 
together, i. e. not as the adjective belongs to the noun when it 

9 joined to it as iu tuis avibus ; we thinly every word belongs 


where it is found. The point here lies in the question hy whose 
or by whom he had been ordered — by thy own (and this comes 
first, as being the most prominent) ; farther on, he puts in av%- 
bus as explanatory, or as if in apposition with tuts ; prima, too, 
in form agrees with fundamenta (both neut. ace. plur.), but yet 
it is clear that prima is an adverb ==^rs^, and quite independent 
of the noun. 

81. Arcem jam (now) scelere emptam, Sabini habent — the 
castle now, by-treachery gained (as it was) the Sabines have 
(it) — emptam (got) is a part, (adj.) agreeing with arcem, and 
yet it is in every way isolated from it. Quite generally, the 
Latin ace, or obj., and everything used as objective and belong- 
ing to it, comes before the verb; but there are frequent instances 
where the object follows the verb also : tuum est, Servi, si vir 
(man) es, regnum — thine (it) is, Servius, if (a) man (thou) art 
(es), (the) kingdom (thine is the kingdom) :. regnum is usually 
taken as the subject of est, but, in its place, it is independent 
of the verb — kingdom (regnum^ is emphatic. 

82. Ea qusR ad (to) aures suas (his) pervenissent — those 
(things) which to (the) ears, his own, had come — ears his, 
aiires suas, for his ears ; f rater Antigoni, regis Macedonise — 
brother (of) Antigonus, king (the king) (of) Macedonia ; here, 
regis agrees with Antigoni, but yet no one calls it an adjective, 
rather, a noun in apposition, i. e. separate from the other noun 
and distinct, yet agreeing with it and denoting the same indi- 
vidual; ora modis attollens pallida miris — (her) countenance 
(in) manner bearing, pale wonderfully >i. e. having a countenance 
pale in a wonderful manner, or wonderfully pale; pallida agrees 
with ora, but it is evidently connected with the participle which 
it follows — she was pale as to countenance, not necessarily pale 
countenance ; so miris agrees with modis, but hardly, in this 
sentence, belongs to it — it is used in the sense of an adverb, 
she bore a countenance pale in a manner that was wonderful 

83. Ignotum argentipondus (weight) et auri — unknown (the) 
silver's weight and (the) golas (gen. sing.); ignotum agrees 
yf'iih. pondus ; fugam Dido sociosque parabat — flight Dido and 
(que) companions (she) prepared; the meaning is that Dido 
prepared for flight (fugam is ace), but it is not so expressed ; 
Bido stands independently, she is nom. of parabat, or it has 
none ; -que is the suffix and, and -bat is the past ending, 3d 
sing. Imoqiie trahens a (from) pectore vocem — (from) lowest, 
also (imo2'we=and from the deep) drawing from breast (a) voice, 
i. e. drawing from depths of (his) breast a voice; itno (que= 
and) agrees with pectore (abl.), but it is used adverbially or 
independent; and drawing /rom below a voice. 


84. St vestras forte per aures — if (to) yours perhaps to ears 
(it has come), i.e. if perhaps (it has come) to your ears; vestras 
agrees with aures, but it is not so placed as to belong to it 
directly; it is parenthetical — if perchance to ears (that is to 
yours) . 

85. The Latin preposition uniformly governs what follows 
and not what precedes it. 

86. Italiam qusero patriam — Italy (I) seek (it) (my) coun- 
try (my native country) ; here Italiam ku^ patriam agree, and 
yet, one is not an adjective belonging to the other; vani docv,ere 
parentes — vain (they have) taught, (the) parents (have). 
Here vani, adj., agrees with parentes, but it does not belong to 
it — it is an adverb in force, meaning in vain, vainly, as we also 
so often use the adjective without change of form in the place 
of an adverb; et vera (true) incessu patuit dea — and true (in 
her) gait was-manifested (the) goddess (dea), i.e. she was 
plainly a goddess by her walk ; vera agrees with dea, as if it 
were true goddess, but it has the force of triUy, and does not 
belong to dea, 

. 87. At Venus ohscuro gradientes (the walkers) sere sepsit — 
but Venus, (in) obscure, (them) walking (in the) air (she) 
buried, i.e. she concealed them walking, the walkers, in the s^ir; 
ohimro agrees with sere, but it is an adverb belonging to what 
follows ; Obscurely she buried the walkers in the air; gradientes 
ispresent part., in the plur., the walking (ones); ac veniendi 
poicere causas — and (of) coming to-ask (inf.) (the) causes; to 
ask the cause, here, is one verb, and coming (the gerund), in 
the genitive, is its object, i. e. to ask the cause (of) coming; 
hum in urbe fuit (was) mc<7ia— ^(a) grove in (the) city was 
(in the) middle (of it) : media agrees with urbe in the abl., but 
is independent of it. 

88. Quern si fata virum servant — whom if (the) fates (the) 
man preserve, i. e. if the fates preserve him, this man ; quern 
agrees, as an adj. pron., with virum (ace.) but cannot be joined 
to it (rather, standing independent) ; totum vulgata per orbem — 
whole (wholly) published through (the) world, i. e. through 
all the world ; totum agrees with orbem, yet it is an adverb, in 
the sense of wholly, belonging to published, with which it is 
found; so, too, in clara-que in luce refulsit — clear also in light 
(he) shone, i. e. and clearly shone (clara, an adj., but in place 
of adv.). / 

89. We have given these examples chiefly to prove that 
Latin words, especially the adjective, belong where they are 
found, that, at least for the Latins themselves, the order of 
words was a natural one, and needed no transposition, that it 
does not follow that every adjective must have a noun to which 


it may belong; that it neither follows that every verb must have 
a nominative outside of it, and every nominative a verb, or 
every objective a transitive or preposition to govern it. 

90. Farther examples will illustrate other features : MuUu 
cum (with) lacrymis vicinos or are coepit — (with) much with 
tears (his) neighbors to-beg (he) began (obj. before the verb, 
as we usually find it) ; multis agrees with lacrymis, but it has 
the force of much, i. e. much with tears he begged ; venatum 
iverant — to hunt (they) had gone (supine = inf. ) ; leo asinum 
(ace.) illam (acc.j partiri juhet — y^the) lion (the) ass that 
(i. e. it) to divide (he) commands; to divide it, the lion the ass 
orders (orders the ass) : first, we have divide that as a verb, and, 
nej^t, we have ass divide that, as another verb, depending on 
commands, of which leo is the nominative, and having, hence, 
its place before the real verb, i. e. all that follows it ; asinum is 
ace, as the subject of infin. always i^] partes poneret 8&quales — 
(the) parts (he) placed equal (or equally); aeg^a^es agrees with 

partes, but belongs to the verb. 

91. Sihi vix minimam reservans particulam — (for) self 
scarcely (the) least reserving, (a mere) particle {particulam is 
independent) ; hujus me calamitas docuit — his me (the) calam- 
ity (has) taught (me) ; either his me is independent of the rest, 
or his is subject of the verb, and calamity is parenthetical; his 
has taught me, i. e. the calamity has ; effusa mellis copia est — 
poured (of) honey (an) abundance (there) has (is); poured, 
effusa, a past participle, is used here as the verb, and est, is, is 
simply added at the end, i.e. it poured, the honey did (est) ; 
Grseci autem (but) quum audivissent — (the) Greeks, but when 
(they) had-heard, i. e. when the Greeks had heard. Yet 
Grseci ia not, most clearly, the nom. of the verb — it is inde- 
pendent; eum ibioccultari (pass, inf.) — (they heard) him there 
to be concealed, that he was there concealed (they heard that). 

92. In eodem quondam prato pascebantur grues, in same, once, 
(in a) meadow were-feeding cranes (were). Not in the same 
meadow, necessarily, though eodem agrees with prato; in eodem, 
= together, an adverb; legendum est mihi — reading is to me, 
i.e. I must read; est mihi voluptati — (it) is to me (for a) 
delight, while we would say it is a delight to me : peritus belli — 
skilled of war (skilled in war) ; dignus honore — worthy in 
honor (of honor) ; Csesar misit suos — C. sent his-own (or his), 
i. e. sent his soldiers (one case surely where an adjective has no 
noun to which it may belong). Such a use of the pronoun and 
adjective is very common in Latin ; the point lies in the whose, 
or the which, the what, and the thing or person need not be 
named ; is homo erat ut — he (a) man was (so) that, he was a 
man that, such a man. 


93. The use of adjectives, especially adj. pronouns, as adverbs 
having no noun to which to belong, is very common in Latin ; 
thus, eo jpervenit ut — to-this (there) he came that, i. e. so far 
(co) he came that; sunt quos juvat — (there) are whom (it) 
delights (those whom) ] ex doctoris imperitia — from (the) 
teachers unskillfulness ; earum ope — (by) their help (ope is 
abl., but earum= of them, is gen. plur., and yet, earum has the 
force of an adj. belonging to and agreeing with ope; quod quurri 
iUe cerneret — which when he saw (it) ; quod is another inde- 
pendent word, and not, as is often said, the object of the verb ; 
so, too, quam quum duceret — whom (fem.) when (he) lead (her) j 
i. e. when he led her. 

94. Nuntiatum est classem (fleet) devinci — announced (it) 
is (the) fleet to be beaten, i. e. that it was beaten (pass* inf*) ^-^ 
aD infin. pass, being used where we put a subj. or indie, with 
Hwbt, Caesar venitj vidit, et vicit — Caesar came, saw, and con- 
quered ; neither in the Latin nor the English form, has vidit 
and i;ic2< any nominative ; quis fecit — who did (it); objective 
pronouns are often implied, like it, in the verb^ as the article 
and pronouns are often implied in the noun; vtWes-ne, seest thou 
not, i. e. see thou? we is a mere interrogative mark (not) suf- 
fixed or added (see interrog.= negative); so, too, num venit^^ 
(has he) come, or came he? riwm==non, whether, not, a mere 
question sign; ea cum ita (so) «in<^- those (things) since so 
they are ; j?a^er amat liheros et tamen castigat — (the) father 
(he) loves (his) children and still (he) chastises (them) (see 
the pronouns included in the verb and noun). 

95. Caesar in Asiam profectus est — C. into Asia gone (he) 
has (is), i. e. has gone to Asia; the noun with the preposition^ 
as m Asiam, is treated in Latin as the true object of the verbj 
and hence comes before it; quo mihi hanc rem — (for) what to- 
me this thing, i.e. of what use, quo used as adverb, one of those 
many cases of pronouns, as well as adj's, without the noun ; si 
fMaliudnisi — if nothing other unless, i.e. if nothing else 
than; maxima minima — greatest least, i. e.*greatest and least. 

96. Many prepositions here, as in English, are used as 
adverbs, that is, have no objectives following them. 

97. Eoc est preceptoris — this is preceptor's (genitive), i. e. 
It belongs to the preceptor ; j9os^ .dSSieaB (gen.) mortem — : after 
-Eneas' death; eum secutus est (is) Silvius — him followed (he) 
^as Silvius (has) ; ut civium (gen.) numerum auxjeret — that 
(the) citizens' number (he might) increase (it) ; Marius consul 
cwws (est) — M. consul made (was), i. e. was made consul; 
w cornu tauri parvidus quondam (once) culex consedit — on 
(the) horn (of a) bull (a) little (one), once, (a) gnat sat, i. e. 
a little gnat sat; Hanihal navali prcdio victus — H. (in a) naval 


battle (being) beaten ; ut ex Europa recederet — that from 
Europe (he) should-depart ; Europa, is treated aa object of the 
verb, though governed by ex the preposition. 

98« Uanc (hence) oh causam is usually considered as if written 
oh hanc causam^ for this cause, but it is clear that hanc does not 
belong to caiisam, with which it agrees, but it is rather an 
adverb like the others we have noticed; or, we may take hanc- 
o6=here-of, in which case causam would stand absolute or 
independent' — at least ob cuts off causam from hanc ; so hac 
in re — (in) this in (the) thing, i.e. here in the thing; secundo 
quo-que anno — (in the) second also (in the) year, i.e. also in 
the second year. 

99. Scipio dicer e solehat — S. to say used, i. e. used to say; 
ea quoque res — that also (the) thing, i.e. this thing also; Alhx 
ruinis^ (of) Alba (from) ruins, from Alba's ruins. Thales in- 
tcrrogatus an facta honiinumdeos laterent — Thales (being) asked 
if (the) deeds (of) men (the) gods (ace.) escaped, i. e. were 
hidden from the gods. Fythagorse philosophi tanta fuit apud 
discipulos suos auctoritas — (of) P. (the) philosopher such was, 
among (the) disciples his (own), (the) authority; such was P's 
authority among disciples, his own. JSchoenus Atalantam (ace.) 
filiam formos-issimam dicitur (said) hahuisse — S. Atlanta (a) 
daughter most-beautiful is-said to-have-had (one), to have had a 
most beautiful daughter, Atalanta ; qusecursu viros (ace.) super- 
ahat — who (in) running (even) men (she) surpassed; ut ejus 
(his) voluntate id (it) sibifacere Uceat—ihdit (by) his will (abl.) 
that (thing) (to) selves to-do (it) may-be-permitted, i. e. to 
permif (license) them to do that; sihi is object o^facere liceat^ 
and id is the object of both together. ( See Errors of Gram, 
on objectives.). 

100. llle petiit ut quidquid tetigerat aurum fieret — he asked 
that whatever (he) had-touched gold (it) might become (past, 
subj.); Csesari quum id nunciatum esset — to C. when it told 
might be (esset) ^ i. e. when it was told to C. ; qui dicerent sibi 
esse in animo — who should say (that) to selves (it) was in 
mind, i.e. they intended; esse = inf., to be, butinfin's after verbs 
are treated as subjunctives or indicatives; obsides-que uti . {that) 
inter sese dent — hostages-also (^que) that between themselves 
(they) may-give (them), that they may give hostages between 
them ; obsides is ace, plur., independent ; hac oratione ah Di- 
vitiaco habita, mittit — (with) this oration of D. (being) had, 
(he) sends. This form of expression is very common in Latin, 
where we find the abl., generally with a participle, but some- 
times alone or with nouns, used entirely independent. We 
observe that the independence of the parts of the Latin sentence 
is its prevailing feature. 


101. Caesar Gallorum (gen. plur.) animos verbis confirmavity 
C. (the) Galls' minds (with) words (he) strengthened (them); 
his responsis ad Caesarem relatis mittit — (with) these answers 
to C. (they heing) related, (he) sends; so, his rebus yestls — 
these things (abl.) done, being done. 

102. The examples thus far given, illustrate most of the 
peculiarities of the Latin idiom. In order to prepare the student 
for what he will meet with elsewhere, we have given this large 
number of examples; thej will illustrate features which we shall 
continually meet with in other languages, and which seem strange 
to us, because not found in our own. We find the order of words 
often far different from ours, but we see that it is a natural or 
reasonable one after all. We find, among other things, a 
beautiful illustration of the truth, that all the parts of the 
sentence are complete in themselves, and that they do not really 
lean upon or belong to others ; we find the verb, here, contain- 
ing its own nominative, and its own objective pronoun, and that 
the noun implies its own adjective, its own verb. 

103. To carry the principle to extremes, each word contains 
the point, the expression, of the whole sentence, this being 
made up of repetitions of like terms. We may add, besides, 
that it can be shown that identity or similarity of forms of 
words does not prove common origin or connexion, since, viewed 
through a proper glass, all words have a common form and like 

104. Upon the Greek, it is unnecessary to dwell here, so 
little there is in it that is not English, or German, or, especially, 
Xiatin. Among the variations from Latin, we notice the devel- 
opment of a true article, *o, *e, to (three forms to correspond 
^^ith the genders). It has, besides the plural and singular forms, 
one that is called dual^ a form peculiar to nouns where two 
things are intended. The Lat. ablative case is absent, its place 
feeing supplied by the genitive and dative — there are, hence, 
tut five case-forms in Greek. There are in Greek several new 
tense-forms, especially new forms of the past, called aorists, 
lesides an abundant growth of participle and infinitive forms, 
besides the active and passive forms of Latin, there is in Greek 
^hat is called the middle form of the verb, one in appearance 
substantially the same as the passive ; but in meaning it is cou- 
fined to cases where self is concerned ; as, love myself^ strike 
*elf^ act for self. In other languages, this application of the 
verb is known as the reflexive. Beyond these, the Greek 
grammar is chiefly Latin. 

105. But the idiom, while it has much in it that is Latin, 
bas some in it, too, which is German, even English. The object 
we find, often, as in Latin, before the verb. The independence 


of the adjective from the noun, is far clearer here than in Latin. 
The use of those long adjectives which so much distinguish 
German,. is found here to some extent; as, a mark (of) the for 
you friendship^ while we would say of my friendship for you ; 
(a) token {of) the (my) for Hipponicus friendship, i. e. my 
friendship for Hipponicus; the for the gods (things), i. e. the 
(things) of the gods. The genitive is often a pure adjective 
before the noun. In Latin, we have hie munitissimtis habendi 
senatum locus — this most fortified (for) holding (the) senate 
place, i. e. this holding senate place, most fortified ; all the 
words before locus constitute one adjective, and they belong 
where they are found. 

106. We must notice, finally, on this branch of the subject, 
the constant occurrence of participles and infinitives, in Latin 
and Greek, which hold the independent place of pure verbs — 
always, however, depending upon some verb, or verbal, as a sort 
of object; thus, vi coacturos — by force (they) would compel 
(them by force) (dependent upon the idea they thought that) ; 
coacturos J in form a future part., ace. mas. plur., meaning aboiU 
to compel, is so much a verb, as to include in it sub. and obj. 
pronouns; it is generally assumed in such cases that esse = be, 
is, was, is implied, but this is simply unnecessary; se (self) pa- 
trihus suis didicisse — themselves (from) fathers, theirs, had 
learned, {they said) that they had learned; didicisse= to have 
learned, perf. inf. 

107. Some languages, as the Sanscrit and Finnish, have more 
than six cases, i. e. they have varied the forms more than the 
Latin has. In Sanscrit, there is a Locative case form, by which 
place is indicated, and an Instrumental form, denoting the cause, 
or means, or instrument — they may both be called variations of 
the ablative, which again is a form of the dative, 

108. It may be necessary to define the term root or base, 
which we shall often meet with. It is used to designate that 
imaginary, undefined, part of a word which remains af'ter divest- 
ing it of its prefixes and suffixes, its initial and its ^inane tters — 
precisely, as if we should speak of what was left of a stick after 
cutting the ends off. That part of a word which is common to 
a class of words, is called its ending, as the ing of walk-ing, 
speak-ing, the es of Lat. rup-es, sermon-es — what is left after 
striking off this ending is the root. 

109. Prefixes are sometimes called preformatives ; prefixes 
less individualized are called augments^ as the ge of Germ. 
ge-sehen==seen, ge-sicht= sight, g of g-lilck=\\ick, our a of 
a-live, a-rise, the e of Greek e-lip^ = left. Prefixes and suffixes 
taken together may be called the^xes of a word. 




110. Of nouns as a class, we have little that may be said in 
addition to what has already bepn stated under the head of En- 
glish Grammar. They are, of course, intimately connected with 
the adjective first, and the verb afterward. Nouns are, appar- 
ently, unmeaning names of things, but, on close inspection, wo 
find them rather names of qualities and actions, which distin- 
guish things; and, hence, they readily identify themselves with 
the two classes named, ^ouns, adjectives, and verbs, are alike 
in each having shoots grown out of them, which we call endings, 
and which are not so much marks of those classes, as represent- 
atives of whole words that seem thus to adhere, as parasites, to 
the main stem. It is the philosophy of these endings bf nouns 
which we propose to consider, and it is their comparative view 
which we intend to present — beginning with those of case. 

Oase Endiwjs. 

111. The farther back we go, in the history of the German lan- 
guages, the more we see of case and person ending ; thus, in 
Gothic cases, we find the broad us and a of Latin ; as, su7i-ii8, a 
^on'j Jlod-us, flood; /ot-us, foot; liand-us^ hand; arm-Sj arm; 
gard-s, yard ; mats, meat ; hveil-a, while, hour ; saurg-a, care, 
sorrow ; band-i, bond ; ded-s, d^ed ; knod-s, kind, kin ; hlom-a, 
bloom ; fauh-o, fox ; vard-Oj ward ; tugg-o, tongue ; rath-jo^ L. 
'•a^w, reason ; faurht-ei^ fear. These all have reference to the 
Greek and Latin nominative endings ms, a, wm, os. 

112. In old German, we again find these endings, but, gener- 
ally, not so long and full; thus, s«7i-w, son; ah-a, L. aqua, water; 
inrnd-a, L. mundus, Germ, welt, world; mur-a, L. murus, wall; 
«to-a, Germ, stund, time; tual-a, L. nrwra, dwell, delay; war-a, 
I^- cwra, care ; red-a, L. ratio, Germ, rath, reason ; kilouh-a, 
Wief (ki=ge of Germ.) ; sel-a, soul ; erd-a, L. terra, earth ; 
ninn^a, mind (love) ; heil-i, L. salus, health ; Jiert-i, hardness ; 
chvro, L. vacca, cow; tub-a, L. columba, dove (clb=tb)', wis-a, 
^se, way ; avar-a, image (after) ; witaw-a, L. vidua, widow ; 
f^z-a, L. cord-e, heart; oug-a. Germ, auge, eye; sam-o, seed. 

118. Old Saxon erth-a, earth ; forth-a, fear ; fold-a field ; 

. ^-tt, gift ; rast-a, rest ; Jcunn-i, kin ; gi-wirk-i, work ; gi-siun-i, 

vision, sight; rik-i,Jj. regnum; gum-o, L. homo, man (jgm=hm 

=wi); Ttian-o, moon; tog-o, L. dux, duke. There is, we observe, 

*gf eat resemblance between Gothic, old German, and old Saxon. 



114. Anglo Saxon luf-u^ love; sac-w, Germ, ^(^ih^ case; stig-u^ 
stage, step ; vraJc-u^ weak ; cynn-c^ L. genus, kind ; nett-e, net ; 
gum-a, L. homo, man; fleg-a, play; eordh-e, earth ;/o^-e, fold, 
field. Thus, in Ang Sax., we find these endings less prominent, 
and yet, much stronger and more common than in the present 
English. The old Friesic is much like the A. S. in this respect 

115. But, in place of these, the old North, and its descendants, 
shows the prevailing r (==8=U8); us^Jisk-r, fish; hest-r, horse, 
"hoss''; hring-r, ring; laekn-ir, doctor {lz=d) ] end-ir, end 
(Germ, -c?*); hiort-r, hart; lim-r, limb. Germ, lied, leg; kiol-ry 
keel; sef-i, L. sevum, age; and-i, L. animus, mind; hog-i^ bow; 
daudh-i, death; man-i, L. luna, moon; ux-i, ox; skugg-i, shade, 
shadow; thank-i, thought, mind; nagl-i {i^^^ir), L. clavuSy nail, 
claw; asJc-a, ask; vind-r, wind (-r=a=e). 

116. In middle German, these endings are less and lighter, 
in many instances, the final e appearing, as in A. S., where we 
and modern German have left it out — this e, like ours, being ■ 
the a of Latin ; thus, und-e, L. xind-a, wave ; mur-e, L. mur-v^, 
wall ; sag-e, say ; reis-e, ride ; wiind-e, wound ; bett-e, bed. 

117. The''modern German shows these endings in the adjective 
very prominently; thus, the mas., fem., and neut. forms of blind, 
in Germ., are blind-er, blind-e, blind-es, as in Lat., bon-us,-a,-ufn, 
good. These endings, er=es=:e, are changed, in the other 
cases, into en, em; er, in different Germ, dialects, we find as re, 
aro, earo,jaro (L. turns, ture, turn), rar, rer, and el. The 
Swedish adj. bliiul is (m.) blind-er, (i.)blind% (n.) blind-t — this 
t, which we see at the end of the neuter, is for en, et, which 
appears at the end of nouns ; as, pris-et, the price, arh-et, the 
bow (L. arcus), ed-en, the oath. Nothing is clearer, than that 
this suffixed article (so called), is a development of the very 
endings we have all along been considering, and that the L. us, 
a, um, is just such a suffixed article; also Wall, suffixed il, lu, le, 
a, i, and the Alb. i, e, Bask a — proof that the article is a devel- 
opment of an ending. That neut. t, et, of Swedish, appears in 
Gothic as ata (blind-ata), Sindjata; this is the same as L. atum, 
just as ands equals andum. It is the same, too, as the suffixed 
Per. ra of ace. case, Marathi la. 

118. No truth is easier to demonstrate, "than that the endings 
of all cases, and of both numbers, are simple variations of one 
and the same type, and nowhere is that truth more evident, than 
in the German languages. In Gothic, as we have seen, the 
nom. sing, had an ending s, is, us, like the us of Lat., and th© 
er, en, es, of Germ, adjectives. This nominative ending contin- 
ually tends to disappear, in the modern Germ, languages, by' 
withering away ; yet, its roots are never lost, but always lie 
hidden in the body of the word. In these languages, sornf^ 


nouns have one form through all the cases, and, over and over 
again, do we find the ending of one case common to the others. 
The ending am^ em, may be taken as the base for all noun end- 
ings; in that form it is dat. in Germ., and ace. in Lat. ; in the 
form of ew, wm, it prevails as dat. plural ; er, «r, cs, are other 
forms of this em, and are found prevailing in the gen. and nom. 
plural — though other endings for them are common. It is 
common to find these endings soften down to mere vowels; as, an 
=a, um==u; en, es, er=e — the L. am, ace. end., is known to 
be merely a developed a {^=^e). This is the case almost wholly 
in English, where we have tub-e for all cases in which the Latin 
would have tuh-a, tuh-ie, tub-am; and, in the plural, we have 
tuh-^s^lt. tub-se, tub-arum, tub-as, tub-is — observe ^wfe-ac (tub-e) 
= tub-es, i. e. a sing, form for the plural. 

119. It is hardly necessary to say that the Lat. and Gr'k cases 
can all easily be identified with those of Germ.; the L. gen. aB= 
our c, gen, i=is, ir ; gen. is=^es is also nominative; and we 
have often met with them in Germv ; the ace. am we have 
already noticed, and the abl. a, e {ad), is only a modification of 
this am^ em — the dat. belonging with the gen. (=rnom.); the 
w, in the plural of the 1st declension, is simply the es of our 
plur. speech-es. The um of L. gen. plur., we have often found 
in Germ. ; orum (gen. plur.) is a development of this um, and 
is properly double — its correspondent being the old North ar, 
old Sax. gen. aro, ero,jero, old Friesic era; ibus, dat. plur., is 
also a development, of is, es, and double — the b in it pointing 
to the m (dat.) of Germ. ; it is not different from the Gothic 
(nom. and gen.) plural eis (G'k ees), gis (^=e), gos, Jus {j= 

120. The Greek cases are much nearer English ; in the 3d 
decl., gen. os (L. v^, es, is), dat. i, ace. a (our e) ; nom. plur. es 
(cures), dat. st=is, es, gen. on=um, ace. ds=^es. In the 2d 
^ecl., nom. plur. ai=i, dat. plur. ois=^oi-es, ace. plur. ou8=oi-es^ 
L. 0%, us — ois=is, is another form of the L. ibv>s. 

121. Another positive proof of the identity of these L. cases 
with each other, is the fa'ct that, in the modern Latin languages, 
those variations found in the old tongue wholly disappear, i. e, 
one ending is found in all cases, as is the case with us. 

122. The Slavic languages will furnish us with some instruct- 
ive features in this connexion ; om, em,^ is a common ending in 
Kussian, instrum. in the sing, and plur., and dat. in the plural 
also— in the adjective, it is found in the dat. sing., as well as in 
the instr. and prep, cases. In some instances, it is reduced to a 
Diere vowel; it is precisely the L. am, Germ. em. In the plur. 
prep, case, we find ach or ak, for the ending of nouns — it is 
found also in the gen. plur. of adjectives. For animate beings, 


the ace. sing., here, is like the gen., and for inanimate beings, 
it is like the nominative. Russ. adj's have gen. sing, in ago ; 
this is no doubt the prepo. ending ak — and both are identical 
with the old Lat. abl. ad (Hung. ace. at^ and plur. ale), just as 
in some of the Slavic we find ccA, e/c, in the perfect tense, while 
we have ed, 

123. In Pol., we find substantially the same endings — adding 
that here, as in Buss., they are often reduced to mere vowels. 
We find in the dat. sing, owi, gen. plur. ow, lluss. gen. plur. ov 
(06), L. hi of ihl, sibi, and biis of the plural; but aw, oh, is 
evidently = am. To give the full forms of Pol. cases, we have, 
for the name John : N. Jan, G. Jaii-a, D. Jan-owi, A. Jan-a 
V. Jan-ie, In. Jan-em, Loc. Jan-ic; plural cases are Jan-owicj 
Jan-ow, Jan-om, Jan-ow, Jan-owie, Jan-ami, Jan-ach. 

124. In the Bohemian nouns and adjectives, we shall find 
similar endings; the ago is iho (g=zh), which may be reduced 
to a, e; and the owi, ov, appears here as u (uv), i {owi^. In 
the adj., the dat. sing, is imii, emu, while in the noun it is ovi, 
showing imu^^ovi. In Illyrian, we find nothing particularly 
new. The g, h, j, and cli, which we find running through the 
Slavic languages, is the ch of Germ. dat. mi-ch, di-ch, si-ch, as 
the em is that of d-em, ein-em, welch-em. 

125. From the fact, which we think is now made evident 
enough, that the case forms are produced by a simple change in 
one and the same ending, and from the fact, too, that one case 
form, under certain conditions and in certain cases, may be used 
to perform the office of any other, we infer that the expression 
of case does not lie in the ending, but that it lies, rather, in tbe 
body of the word, or in the context. Those endings are indeed 
growths to represent the prepositions, which may be considered 
as developments of just such suffixes, but they have only grown 
out to represent what was already a force in the word, given to 
it by virtue of the context. They add nothing to the word, for 
they have grown out of it. A noun in the dat. case was dative 
always, dative long before it ever developed its proper ending, 
dat. long before it was governed by a preposition. Words with 
endings, all words with prefixes and suffixes, are not compound, 
they are simple, single. Nor does the preposition put a noun 
in the dat. case, for example, (as said before, it was dative 
always) ; it adds nothing to the word ; if it was not already 
dative, it could not take the preposition which belongs with 
datives. So, again, we see the dative may be considered as 
having its force all reserved in itself, or, as getting that force 
from the whole sentence — it is immaterial which view we take. 

126. Let us not be surprised to find, the apparent inconsist- 
ency, that the word and the ending, or the word and preposition. 


both express the same thing ; the whole sentence, when critic- 
ally examined, is found to be only a multitude of repetitions. 
Do we not continually find such repetitions as these — a son of 
his^ extract itfrom^ to which he was directed tOy a senatu, by the 
senate, (wherein we find his=of him, extract=dTa.w from, 
senatu=hy the sens^te). 

127. So, we see plainly that the prepositions add nothing, 
that it is a simple case of duplication ; and yet, these are simply 
illustrations of a principle that is at work in all languages, and 
in all parts of them. Every time the Latin ist says ego amo, or 
pv£r amat, I love, the boy loves, he uses nominatives which are 
already represented in the verb by o and at (for, amo means I 
love, and amat, he loves) ; and it is really as if said / love-I, the 
hey loves-he — and to go still further, those endings indicate 
only what must be contained in am\ the root. You never can 
put the preposition ah in Lat., or from in Eng., before a word 
which is not ablative, which does not contain from or ah already; 
so, it is not man that is good, it is only the good man that is 
good — good can only be applied to that class of men who are 
good men (if it properly applied to other men, they would be 
good tod), and the word man must be used, to represent that 
class of good men. We see, thus, what must be the result of 
all philosophizing, the part expresses as much as the whole, is 
equal to the whole, 

128. We notice here a principle which we shall have occasion 
to advert to more than once; any oblique case (one not nom.)^ 
in fact, any form that appears in language, may be taken as the 
base of some new form. Any case form may, under suitable 
conditions, perform the office of another ; thus, in Latin, caput 
means head, and capitis (gen.), of the head, and this form cap- 
itis, still gen., becomes, as an adjective, capital; it is now treated 
as a new base, and as such receives the adjective ending is, as 
capit-al-is ; as such new form, it may now go through all the list 
of cases as if it were a noun — we find, among other forms, cap- 
it-al-ih-us, dat. plur., which we might treat as a noun meaning 
to-capital (ones), or to-the-capitals. So, every genitive may go 
through a new set of cases as the base of an adjective "; every 
adjective becomes, thus, merely a genitive run through the 
cases as a new noun. We, too, take the L. capital, and, forget- 
ting to observe that it was ever gen., forgetting, that it is any- 
thing else but a nom., or base form, we treat it as such, and we 
get the adjective (called adverb) capital-ly ; we do more, we 
treat it as a verb == to (have) capital, and get the derivative 
capital'ist (a pres. part, for a noun, like serv-ant); and, 
again, we take it as equaling to (be) capital, and we get the 
other participial form capital-ncss (called noun). If capitalists 


were like fish to be caught, we might then say again capital-ist- 
ing^ wherein the same ending, somewhat varied, occurs three 
times. Behold the origin and mode of all repeated endings. 

129. Further, we may notice that case endings are to be 
identified with the personal endings of verbs. Thus, it is 
noticed that at of the Latin supine amatuw,^ is allied to at^ ad, 
endings of old ablatives, and this is the at that appears in the 
3d person sing., as am-at. It is well understood, that the case 
endings are varied articles or demonstratives ; the person end- 
ings must be such also, for they represent pronouns, and hence, 
the two classes are related. Again, we shall show, hereafter, 
that the verbal and part, endings are to be classed with those 
of the persons, but the identity of those verbal endings with the 
noun and adj. endings of Germ., for example, has already been 
hinted at, and can easily be proved. Not only these, but all 
adj. and' adverb endings, such as L. -tim, -ter, G'k -then, nhy 
-tht, belong with the endings of case. 

130. We see, then, the same class of endings applied to several 
very different purposes ; this is not alone a law of language, but 
a law of the creation. In the animal and plant kingdoms, we 
everywhere see this working of one thing into very different 
results ; thus the nose of the elephant becomes his trunk, and 
his tusks are only teeth ; the shell of the turtle, and its protect- 
ion, is the internal skeleton of other animals; the beautiftil rose 
flower is only a bundle of leaves ; we might go on thus to infin- 
ity — everywhere one thing only differs from another in being 
more or less transformed. 

131. In the Finn, and Tart, languages particularly, we have 
the case endings developed into full suffix prepositions ; as, 
Hung. /a, tree, /«-&€>/, out of the tree- — showing the origin of 
prepositions following the noun. 


132. The identity of the plural with the genitive singular 
has be^n noticed elsewhere {^Err. of Gram?)] just as much as 
the genitive is a form of the nominative, so much, again, is the 
plural a form of it also. Both the gen. and the plur. have, often, 
endings where the nom. has not, and are in so far different 
from it, but we often find them both either like the nominative, 
or varying from it by only an internal vowel change (as m,an 
and mew), proving that in fact the three are not essentially 
different, and are only apparently so by developing, in some 
cases one more than the other, elements which all have alike. 

133. In many languages, the plural scarcely differs from the 
sing., at least, only as our this and these^ goose and geese, and in 



all tongues there are numerous instances of the identity of the 
two; as we say, ten sAeep, ten Jish, ten head. The Gr'k and L. 
noin. plural, {-es) has no element not found in the gen. sing., 
(-is). In G'k, neut. plurals are treated as singulars, mere 
collectives. Every gen. really indicates a plural; there can be 
no of a thing unless it has parts — 'it must be a minuend which 
contains the subtrahend and the remainder. Such words as 
money (much (of) money), as water (a pint of water), as land 
(an acre of land), are as much plural as hoys^ ten (of ) boys — 'ten 
indicates simply a certain quantity of the class denoted by hoya^ 
the words rrmch^ pint, acre, do no less. They are plurals which 
have no singulars. 

134. But the plural has other connexions besides this ; its 
agreement in different languages with the features of the fem- 
inine, is too striking to be passed by as unmeaning. In Latin 
and Grreek, the fem. ending is a, but a is the ending also of the 
neut. plur. ; as, bon-a, good, both fem. sing., and neut. plur. ; 
es, is, a fuller form of this a, is also a fuller form of the plurals 
a, i, ai, oi. Our ess, as in lion-ess (fem.) is clearly a variation 
of that plural ending es, as we see in the L. leon-es =^\ioTi8, and 
the fem. ending ina, Gr'k aina, San. ani, Germ, in, A. S. en, 
is the same as the Germ. plur. ending en, Per. an. The Slavic 
languages, and indeed many others, could furnish us proof in 
the same direction. The plural ending of Arabic and Persian, 
at, Ethiop. at, an, is also a fem. ending slightly varied. The 
Syr. tha, ta, is both a plural and a fem. ending. But it is 
unnecessary to go further to prove a truth so manifest. 

135. [It is tvv^Q*oth, at, ta, are supposed to be endings pecu- 
liar to the plur. of nouns which are feminine, but it is true, too, 
that some masc's (and in Per., neut's also) have this fem. plur. 
ending. Note th^t, in Sem., to the plur. in oth {at), im (the 
mas. end.), is also added — and we have the plur. of a plur., 
precisely like ox-en-s for oxeu]. 


136. One thing is at least certain; in the earlier stages of 
language gender-forms were not used to distinguish sex. What 
the precise meaning of the variation in forms for gender was, is 
not so plain. There are uncultivated languages, we know, 
where the distinction is simply of the animate from the inani- 
mate, and many others again, where no gender-forms arc devel- 
oped at all. To go back even no farther than the Greek and 
Latin, and the modern languages of Europe, we find the gender- 
forms do not indicate sex, and seem to have no reference to it 


at all. Thus, in L., sermo^ a speech, and liher^ a book, are mas., 
but pars, a part, and rvpes, a rock, are fern.; and in Russ., d^rni, 
a house, is mas., also korabl^ a ship, but kniga^ a book is fern. — 
while in Germ., hook (buoh) and house (haus) are neuter. 

137. In Russ., as well as in Lat., and elsewhere, fern, nouns 
have (for inanimate objects, abstracts) a common ending a, ia^ 
and for the mas. e and y mute. But that all gender endings 
are modifications of one and the same thing (and that the ordi- 
nary ending) is clear enough. There is no ending of any 
gender but which appears in some form or case f f another 
gender; thus, L. hoii-uni is nom. neut., but it is ace. mas. also; 
a is fern., but neut. plural also, and, in Greek, it is ace. sing. — 
having in Germ, languages even other offices. The difference 
in gender-forms is even less in the oblique cases than in the 
nom. — after the nom., the neuter commonly runs parallel with 
the masculine. 

138. The neuter seems to be objective in its nature; it 
certainly often agrees in form with the mas. ace. — in German, 
es is neut. adj. ending, but also mas. gen. The common Slavic 
neut. ending o is undeniably a condensed ego, eJio, eo, o, of the 
gen. mas. The conclusion to be arrived at, is that the neuter 
is, in its origin, an oblique case of the masculine, taken as the 
base of a new form — it is in this fact, that we find the explana- 
tion of that universal phenomenon, the neuter nom. never 
difiering from the neuter ace. — i.e. its nominative is already 
accusative. Neuters, referring as they do, to inanimate objects, 
can hardly be regarded as subjective, as acting, thinking — they 
can be objects alone. They are now assuming a nom. or sub- 
jective character, just as the infin. and subj. moods, known to be 
objective and dependent, get to be independent, i. e. indicative. 

139. The coincidence between the fem. and the plural has 
already been noticed. The coincidence, too, between fem. nouns 
and abstracts, such as goodness, harmony, Justice, is equally 
striking and general. It is a uniform feature in language, to 
find abstracts feminine. The nouns of the Latin 1st declension 
end in a and are fem. ; as, vita, life, h^ra, hour. There is a 
class of fem. nouns in Lat. which end in ia (a Russ. fem. end.); 
BBjjvstit'ia, justice, concord-ia, concord. There is a class of L. 
fem's allied to these, those in tas (our ty, the ta of so many, the 
heit of Germ., our ness, n=t) ; as, hrevitas, briefness, celeritas, 
celerity. The real ending here may be taken as as (the original 
of fem. end. a) ; the Hs a developed element latent or suppressed 
in the adjectives brevis, celer, but appearing in the abstract noun 
based on it — just as we have t grown up in verbs. Indeed, it 
appears before ia also, as tristitia. There lire feminines in tuido] 
as, magmtudoj magnitude, from magnus — where the real ending 


is o, the t being repeated in d. (Is not magnitud a pure ablative ? 
that is its form). In the Semitic languages, we find strongly 
this coincidence between the marks of fern's and abstracts, it 
being t and a in both cases. 

140. We find also Latin prudentia, prudence, and audacia, 
boldness; but they are precisely the neuter plural forms of the 
adjectives jprt^(^ews and avdax, i.e. they denote prudent (things), 
bold (things). There can be no doubt that such nouns are 
neuter plural adj's, and that they are nothing else — save that 
they are feminines also. In brief, we should call the fern, a 
neut. plural taken as the base of a new form — it is an adjective 
Tised as a noun in this case. 

141. The agreement of the pron. 2nd person with the fern, 
marked words, must not pass unobserved. In almost all lan- 
guages, the letters that mark the fem., also mark the 2d person. 
In Semitic, we find t used both for fem. and for thou; so, in L., 
<u=thou, and tas is fem. ending; as, es, is, are the marks of 
the 2nd person sing, of verbs, but also of fem. nouns. Our est 
of wdkest, Euss. esh, is the same as our she. TJwu is properly 
a feminine pronoun. 


142. This subject we have already considered in some of its 
phases {Err. of Gram.) ; there are other points of view to be taten, 
and these we will proceed to consider here. Not only is every 
adjective in origin a noun in the genitive case, it is equally true, 
that every noun in an oblique case may be considered an adjec- 
tive or adverb. Again, every case of an adjective with its noun 
18 a real compound of two nouns, just such a compound as wood- 

' ^we, where wood, though a noun, performs the part of a true 
adjective. When the union is close, as we find it in the Indian 
and Tartar languages, then the adjective does not vary to agree 
with the noun. When it has gained more independence, it has 
case and number endings, and it becomes an independent word, 
a case like nouns in apposition ; the more it assumes the char- 
acter and form of a noun, the greater its individuality. 

143. The Latin and Greek adjectives have far more individ- 
^% than those in German and English. Our adjectives must 
stick close to the noun, like a true parasite ; their adjectives are 
Jiot subject to such unvarying conditions ; they are often found 



remote from the noun, playing a part on their own responsibility; 
we say good marCs^ but they say good's man's; we say of good' 
men, they say of good of men, i. e. they use forms which make 
it equivalent to such an expression. 

144. We are prepared to advance still another idea with 
regard to the rise of adjectives, one which goes still farther 
back into their origin ; it is this, that in principle, adjectives 
are growths or developments of nmin endings ; it is certain that 
a large class of them, namely, pr(mouns, articles, dem^onstraiives, 
have such a source ; and that adjectives are developments o^ 
these elements (pronouns, etc.), we do not doubt. The class oP" 
nouns called diminutives are important in this connexion — such 
as the Germ. Lottchen, little Lott, fraulein, a little woman, chen- 
and lein having the force of little. There are abundant instances 
in all, or nearly all, languages } in the Italian, they exist in. 
great variety, so also in Persian. So, in Ital. we find Ubr-oney 
large book (Jihro), and lihr-accio, a large ugly book, uccell-ettOy 
poor, dear, little bird (uccelh). This proves two things ; first, 
that endings may be developed, in nouns, to represent two, and 
even three, adjectives; and, second, since those suffixes are 
evidently variations of other noun endings, that the noun alone 
embodies the idea of the same noun with the adjective. 

145. In regard to the compound that arises out of the adj- 
and noun, wc mark, here, that all compounds are cases of dupli- 
cates — nothing can be black except black things, nothing shady 
except shadi/ things. We find, in the Indian languages, abun- 
dant instances of these doubles, sometimes identical, as going- 
going, sometimes slightly varying, as issuing-going. Whenever 
we say he came running, he went going, he ran leaping, we have 
cases of repetition. (It is just such participles, we think, that 
give rise to adverbs ; in Euss., such participles, or gerunds, axe 
treated as adverbs). There are several absurdities arising from 
the assumed connexion of the noun with the adj., but we must 
omit to notice them here ; suffice it to say, there are no things . 
without qualities, there are no mere men, mere books ; they 
must be bad men, good men, white men, new books, good books, 
these books, blue books. 


146. Comparison is by no means peculiar to adjectives ; to 
say more (of a) bridge, more (of a) citi/, mostly men, Tfiostly 
wheat, these are comparative expressions, just as more black, 
most black; thus, we see in the Bask language, gizon, man, 
gizon-ago, more man. 


147. Nor are those comparative endings, as our er, L. «w, 
Gt'k ter (and idn), Slav, efsi, si, peculiar or anomalous; er we 
have often met with before, and si=is, es, is a form of er; the 
G'k ter^ Pers. tar, is also a development of er — it is the L. tur, 
tor. That the comparative is simply a form of the positive, is 
seen by the frequent use, in all languages, of the positive as a 
comparative ; thus, speaking of two boys, we call John the tall 
(one), the taller; again, many of our comparatives are formed by 
associating the positive with more, less, but we must observe 
that the adj. is, in this case, (as more beautiful,) comparative 
aside from the more — for, if more-beautiful alone was compar- 
ative, then, beautiful could not be so, and we should be reduced 
to the dilemma of having no comparatives but those in er, an 
absurdity which cannot be admitted for a moment ; once more, 
every expression treating the adjective as having a degree, is 
comparative ; such as so great as, so small, round like a ball, it 
was white as snow. So, it is clear that adjectives are compared 
without the adverb; it is clear, too, that it is compared without 
the ending er — so many instances occurring where it is such 
without that suffix. Besides, to show the identity of pos. and 
comp., we have many comparatives which are used as positives; 
as, the latter one, the former one, the better man, the senior 
editor, i. e. they are relative, comparative terms, but not more 
80 than many or all adjectives. 

148. We might say with truth, that every adjective is a com- 
parative term — nothing is good, or white, or black, by itself 
alone. A thing is sweet only by something which is not sweet, 
or which is sour. There are no absolute qualities ; A may be 
tall by jB (a very common form of comparative in many 
langiu^s), i. e. taller than B, but short by G who is very tall 
(a common superlative), i. e. tallest by A and B. It is on this 
principle that we so often find the ablative, or the bi/-CBse, 
following the comparative, as in Latin, for example. The 
gradation of these three degrees into each other, is one of the 
commonest things in language. 

149. Besides, if we think, we shall see that there are really 
no degrees in qualities ; a thing is more round, or square, or 
black, or crooked, only as one bridge is more bridge than another, 
or as one boy is more boy than another. We might say, too, 
that all qualities are really superlatives, for when a thing is 
really black, or really square, or really crooked, is not that the 
extreme, can it ever become blacker, or squarer, or crookeder f 
No more than when a thing becomes a house, can it ever become 
***<>»•« a house, or be the most house, 

160. Again, we must see that there can be no degrees beyond 
a comparative. In no way can the mind compare more than 


two things, that is, one thing with another. When we say A 
is the best of the three, or the good or better one, we mean the 
best of the group three (a unit). All we mean is, that he is 
better than the rest, which reduces it to a comparison. The 
history of the comparative in all languages, fully sustains the 
above doctrines ; it is only by remembering them that we can 
understand the form in which we often find it. 

151. Our superlative ending is es^, plainly a form of cr, the 
Lat. tim^ ssim^ Gr'k ist and tat. In lUyr. and Boh., we find the 
superlative existing as a compa-rative prefixed hjnej\ na (=the); 
as, Illyr. holji, better, najbolji, best, the better — in Russ., it is 
also expressed by the compar., and sometimes na is prefixed; 
so, in French and ItaL, we say the more beautiful for the most 
beautiful; in Hebrew, we find the good for best, i. e. the good 
one of the group, the best. 

152. Adjectives, we must add too, are very much in the 
nature of verbs ; a noun never becomes a verb, until it first 
becomes an adjective. One of the forms of the adjective (the 
adverb) is always joined to the verb, directly or indirectly. In 
the more uncultivated languages, the adjective scarcely ever 
differs in form from the noun, and in character from the verb. 
The adjective belongs to the noun just as much as the verb 
belongs to its nominative, but not more, and as, in principle, 
every verb has its own pronominal nom. (as, the man he-reads), 
so, the adj., too, belongs not to its noun but to its pronoun; as, 
the good (one) man, the being-good man, the man the one (who is) 

153. In those other languages where the adj. uniformly 
follows the noun, as the man (the) great= great man, it is clearly 
the representative of a complete, though dependent, sentence; 
thus, man wise (as in Fr.) = the man (being) wise, who-is-wise 
(=wise), i. e. wise takes the place of a full sentence. The 
adjective following the noun is more of an adverb, and is far 
less closely connected with the noun, than when placed before. 

154. All the agreement that lies between the noun and adj., 
arises from both representing the same thing in the same manner; 
both are adj's or nouns, and complete in themselves; as, to the 
good man, (as in Lat.) to the good (one) icy the man. 

155. [As well here as elsewhere, we may, by way of note, 
defend ourselves against the critic who will be sure to see that 
by the theory of this work everything is reduced to nothing, 
all dividing lines are destroyed, etc., etc. We confess that our 
main effort through all the work is to show that things which, 
heretofore, have been thought to have nothing in common, we 
now find to be really much alike, perhaps even identical in 
character ; but still, we should by no means deny that they are 


yet distinct. Thus, we show that adj's are, in origin, nouns, 
and that pronouns are adjectives — but they are nouns and adj's 
of a peculiar kind ; they hold places and develop forms foreign 
to ordinary nouns and adj's. Their connexion with the parent 
stock is obscured — it requires such an effort as we have been 
making, to render that latent connexion evident. In practice, 
the classes are very different, and we so treat them. Things 
may have the same origin, the same elements of character, and 
still belong to very different classes. When we say that two 
classes usually considered distinct are not different, we mean, be 
it always understood, only as to their origin, only when we 
examine them philosophically; just as jorice, jpraise, prize, Lat. 
pretium, known to be forms of one word, are not different, so 
(and in no other sense,) all things are not different.] 



156. Pronouns, in their connexions, extend through eveiy 
department of language ; they may, with propriety be regarded 
918 affording the basis of all the forms which we find developed 
as adverbs, prepositions, and conjunctions; they are, undoubtedly, 
"the original of a large class of primitive verbs, as, indeed, they 
are represented in all verbs by the personal endings ; in many 
languages, they are grown as possessives at the end of nouns, 
in others, they appear as the suffixed article, while the endings 
of all nouns, in all languages, must, in the end, identify them- 
selves with pronouns. It is a favorite idea of the author, that 
pronouns have arisen as a growth of these noun and verb 
endings thrown off, and it may be well for the student to keep 
this idea in view. We shall learn much of the pronoun in 
every class of words of which we treat, and to give its history 
in ftill here, would involve much which we should have to 
repeat under other heads, and, hence, we will omit so much as 
would properly come elsewhere. We shall content ourselves, 
principally, with presenting the new and various forms in which 
tbesame pronoun appears in different languages. We shall 
tbus discover to the learner, relationships which will often sur- 
prise, and always interest him ; it is by tracing the connexions 
of words, that we shall most successfully learn their nature and 

46 Pl^BASIS. 

167. We may observe, by way of note, that we tise the 
following abbreviations to denote the different languages : Germ. 
German; G'k^ Greek; Dan.^ Danish; Sio.^ Swedish; Du,^ 
Dutch; Slav,, Slavic, i.e. Kussian, Polish, Bohemian etc., Rtu,^ 
Pol., Boh.; Sem., Semitic, i. e. Arabic, Hebrew, Syriac, and 
Ethiopic, Ar., Heh., Sj/r., and Eih. ; Cel, Celtic, i. e. Webh, 
Irish, Gaalic, Cornish and Celt-Breton, Wd., Ir,, Cor., and C-B.; 
L. Latin ; Sp., Spanish ; It., Italian; Fr., French; Per., Persian; 
San., Sanscrit; Go., Gothic; Lith,, Lithuanian; A. S*, Anglo 
Saxon, and others which will need no explanation; In compar- 
ing the forms of pronouns and particles, the student should have 
constantly in view, the sections under the head of Etymology — 
Especially those on letters. 

Personal Pronouns. 

158. I: our personal of the first person is reduced to a single 
vowel, while in Latin it is ego, in Germ, ik, ich, and ih. It is 
clear that our simple 1 arises from the quiescence, or vanishing, 
of the g and ch into a silent h, thus ich={h=zi. In Dan., this 
pronoun is^e^ (L. ego);; Sp./o; Slav, ia and^a; Lith. 
asz, and San. ah : but in Celtic, it is mi (Fr. moi). Per. mew, 
Hungarian en, Semitic ana and ank. 

159. Bear in mind, that the forms above given are nomina- 
tives, and that even in those languages which are characterized, 
in this pronoun, by g, ch, k, j, and z, we still find in the 
accusative (obj.) the mark m, as in our own me. Germ, vnichj 
Slav, me and mne ; and we thus see clearly that all the various 
forms of /, above given, readily identify themselves with each 
other, g, k,j, and z, being not only equal to each other, but to 
n and m also. In Sem., we find those two apparently unrelated 
letters, n and ^, united in ank (or anok), just as we see in the 
Germ, mich (mk), our me. It only proves that n (and m)^=g 
is also=A;=cA, h; we may look upon anJc (nk) and m£ch (mk) 
as doubled, or as a case of elements repeated (nk, kk). 

160. The plural of this pronoun, which with us is marked by 
w (in we), in Slav, is mi and m^, Wei. ni. Per. ma. The es of 
the Lith. form mes, the « of L. nos, the eis of Go. weis and G'k 
^imeis, the s of our its (ws), the an of San. vayan, are all, sub- 
stantially, marks of the plural, for these forms. We easily see 
how this plural is only a variation of some of the cases of /; 
thus, me=^we (m=w). Germ, mir (me)=i^tr (we), and G'k 
m^ (me)=n^i (we), and the like. The difference between we 
and me, when it exists, consists chiefly in the former develop- 
ing a plural sign. 


161. Our is another form of we^ showing the r lost in our we 
but appearing in the Germ, wir; we find these forma of our; viz., 
Dan. vor; Go. uns-ar; Du.o?is (Germ, mu^ our us)] h.nost-erj Fr. 
not-re, and Port, nosso. The r, or, er, are clearly growths of 
adjective endings ; the -erer of Germ, uns-erer, and also -eros of 
Gr^k ^imet-eroSy are cases of double endings, or, they are adjec- 
tives formed upon an old one as a base, the Germ, form being 
grown upon unser, the genitive of we (our); our mine (my-en), 
and theirs (their-s) are of the same kind, and, no doubt, also L. 
nos-t-er (noster and ^Smeteros are, also, clear comparatives — 'ter, 
eter, other). 

162. We have only to remark on this pronoun /in conclusion, 
that the w, w, and especially s and z, which we find the base of 
it, are clearly demonstrative letters, and its origin may thus be 
traced back to the pronoun this, or its cognate adverb here ; / 
denotes the owe here^ or this, as opposed to that person there, thou 
or he, 

163. Thou : this pronoun has very little that is peculiar or 
striking in the forms it presents ; its leading letter is either t, 
as in Lat. and Per. tu, or 8, as in Gr'k su, d in Germ, du, th in 
our ihouy or nt, as in Sem. ant — all showing that thou is a clear 
demonstrative, like that or there, 

164. But the forms which we find this pronoun assume when 
it appears in the plural, are decidedly curious and interesting; 
thus, our own thou (th) becomes with us, you (y), in Go.^, 
Iceland ther, Dan. i (=y), A. S. ge (=ye). Germ, ihr and ir, 
Slav, fcy, Wei. chwi, Per. shuma, ^. vos, San. yuyan. The er 
of th&r, r of ihr, s of vos, and un of Sem. chun, are clearly plural 
endings. The letters which mark all these forms given, are 
unquestionably alike ; in the Germ, ihr, the th of thou and ther 
has softened into th or h; in Dan., the plural mark r disappears, 
and th becomes i, which again departs little from y, g,j; the w 
of Slav., and v of L., are forms only ofy(==u aqd v) which we 
find in ye and you — The Wei. and Sem. ch is a variation of the 
ih and g sound, seen above. 

165. Four presents also some peculiar forms ; thus, G^. izv-ar; 

Icel. yd^r; Sw. ed-er; old Sax. iuw-er ; old Germ, iw-ar; 

Germ, euer ; the d of eder has the place of y (=y), as we see 

by the Dan. form yer (yer); so Go. izv=ivy iw, ju, you. The 

d of eder also represents the h of German ihr, which is always a 

softening of th, in these pronouns; both point to the th of thov.. 

That eder=:%hr, we see by the other Sw. form er, for eder. The 

I^h has uw and uwe (you) for your and thy, i. e. the adjective 

pwt er is not developed; the Slavic your is wasz and wass 

(La*in vos), Latin vos-ter, French vo-tre. 

166. The pronouns of the '^d person are, unquestionably, in 


origin, the same as those of the 3rd ; the Germ. lAr, yon, is the 
same as Ihr-er, their, and ihr her; Germ, sie, they, is also nsed 
for 1/oic — indeed, the use of tJie^ for ^ou is common the world 
over; the th of our tJiou is the th of the, that, them. The student 
will also notice, that not only are the different pronouns alike, 
but also, that the different cases of the same pronoun are iden- 
tical, one having no element which the other has not; thus, 
Germ, ihr, you, corresponds to our your, and to the form iwar^ 
iuwar, and we have already noticed how the Dutch u^e %ls for 
our ; so, again. Germ, wir, Icel. ver, is our our, though used by 
them for we; our scarcely differs from your, as also L. vor, you, 
from lis; again, the Dan. han, he (Slav, on) is our him — indeed, 
there is no end to such comparisons if we choose to pursue them. 

167. The personals of the 3d person are far more' extensive 
in their connexions, and in the variety of their forms, and we 
shall have to proceed with less regard to order than we observed 
in treating of the others ; let it suffice that we give a complete 
and comprehensive view of them. And, first, take JSe; our 
form is equal to thej as we see by its plural they, th softening to 
h; in Gr'k, we find only e, acccompanied with a mark partially 
representing our h; in the Latin tongues, s, as in se (self), 
takes the place ofh — the German shows this « in its scwi, his, 
and sie, they, sich, self; in short sm (=him) runs clear througli 
the German languages for his. 

168. In German, the s, th, and h, entirely disappear, and we 
find er (ir in old Germ.) for he ; all we have here is that com- 
mon ending noticed above. It is the same as German der^ the, 
and ihr, their and your, the d and th vanishing in h, and thus 
becoming silent ; our here, Germ, her, is also a near relative of 
this er. There is a Gothic form gains, or Jains, equal to Danish 
hans (his), Gr'k ekein-os, Germ, jener (that), Slavic on, Fr. son 
(his), Welsh hon, Semitic hun, ain, Persian an (this), our him. 

169. The Latin has more than one form to represent he^ she, 
and it (or what is the same, this and that); in the form iUe, Fr. 
le and il, Sp. el, Sem. el, (the), the I, always equal to d, th, has 
taken the place of the usual t sound, so that iUe=le, de, the; 
in hie the c, no doubt, is for the common Lat. ending -que, and 
related also to the Germ, ch in ich, dich, sich, so that we have 
hi= he, they ; indeed, hi (these) is the plural form used for 
they — the other cases of hi-c, the gen. hujus and ace. htm-^, 
easily identify with his and him; is, ea, id, (he, she, it), another 
form, is a variation of this hie, the h=th quite disappearing, 
and the s, a, and d, being adjective endings; we have, in this 
form, ejus for hujus (his), eum for hunc (him), ii for hi (they); 
that there is a suppressed s=th=h here, is abundantly proved 
by its derivative suus (his), by the old Lat. sum for eum, sam 


for eam,^ and Go. si (she), and ^a (the); id is plainly our it^ and 
ea is our sAe with sh suppressed; the corresponding Greek is o, 
e, /o, (o and e with A breathing), the chafacteristic alone appear- 
ing in the neuter to — this is the Greek the, 

170. She and It^ it is hardly necessary to add, are only vari- 
ations of lie and tJie; in A.. S., heo is she, and %e is the; in Germ., 
sie is she. In A. S., it is Mt^ in Sw.^ det (Germ, daz)^ showing 
that t is not radical, but belongs to the ending as the d in Lat. 
id and ULud, In Danish, Ae ajid sA^ differ only as Aan and At^Ti 
(L. ewm and earn) ; in Slav., he, she, it, is on, o«a, ono, and in 
most languages the change is no greater. 

171. Of the plurals ^Acyand TAetr little need be said; The 
former, in Latin, is Jii and ii; Dan. c?e, Germ, die (our they and 
/Ac); Germ. «ie; Icel. ^ActV, thaug^ and ^Ac^^a (the forms of our 
their and <Aa<); Slav, oni {Germ, jener)] Welsh hwy^ Ir. siod, 
C-B. At; Sem. Aem and hum (our <Aem, in form). The other 
Lat. form illi^ they, Fr. ih and elks, It. eglino^ has the t^ to re- 
present the usual th, or A, and i final for plural mark, i.e. illi= 
li, di, thiy they ; so, we see illorum (of- them, their), in Fr., leur 
(their V Sp. les, It. loro. Besides these forms of their just given, 
there is yet to be noticed the A. Sax. hira; Dan. deres, Germ. 
ihrer and ir; L. eorum. The Welsh affords the form eu for 
their J Cornish aga (also agan, our, and agas, your) ; when we 
take in connexion the Welsh forms eicA, your, em, our, ych, you, 
«i, his, her, him. we can readily see that this eu and aga (g=ch') 
are to be referred back to the Germ, euch, you. 

172. For the articl(3, we will simply give some of its different 
cases, as found elsewhere, to show what various applications 
haye been made of them in English. In the Ang. Sax. nomi- 
native, we find mas. se (the), fem. seo (she), neut. thaet (that, 
it) ; gen. mas. thaes (these and this), gen. fem. thaere (their, 
there); dat. tham (them, him); in Germ., nom. mas. der (their), 
fem. die (the, they) and neut. das (that) ; gen. des (these) ; 
dat. dem (them). In Welsh, the article is yr (and y), Germ. 
€r, he. In Latin, the nearest corresponding pronoun to our the, 
is iUe, Fr. le. 


173. The usual demonstrative letters are th, d, s, and the 
li^te, but I is often met with in such pronouns, (as we saw in ille), 
and we shall find m and n common letters for a like office. Our 
own this and that may be regarded, we need hardly observe, as 
naodifications of tJte, The plurals these and those are only slight 
variations of this ; the Germ, dieser, this, is in form our these, 

174. In Slavic, we find these forms : Boh. ten, this ; Pol. on 



(Boh. owen), that (German jener^ our one) ; there is also the 
doubled Pol. ten-to^ this-here (Greek tou-tos) ; Illyr. ti, these ; 
Hung, ez, this, and az, Jihat, and emez {em-ez, double) this-here, 
ez-az, this (the-that) ; Alban. ata (also ai, agio), it and this; 
Sem. ze, dJiu, d; Go. sa and thana, and San. saSy sa, tan, tat; 
all these forms are easily placed in one and the same class. 

175. Another class is one which apparently departs from this, 
but which still is undeniafcly only a variation of it — it is the 
class marked by m, and the like ; thus, in Welsh, hvm, Tion, 
hyn^ are used for this (h^n= these also), and ht/ni/, hono, hwnw, 
for that; this is identical with the Dan. han and Slav, on (he); 
C-B. hen (he) and ann (the); Sem. hon or hun, and ain; Per. 
an and shan (them); Ir. sin, Dan. hin (that), and Go. gains (he). 

176. In Hung., erne'* and ama* are used for this and that; 
in Cornish, ma and na are used as suffixes at the end of nouns, 
in place of this and that (besides horn, this, and hon, that). In 
Manchu, cre=this (Germ, er), and <cre=that (Germ, der)} in 
Mongolian, cn6= this, and ^e?ie=that. 

177. In French, this, and that, is ce {the, Sem. ze, Pol. ci) ; 
we find also ces (these), cet (that) ; it has also ceUe and ce-fo, 
for this and that (L. ille and qualis. Wall, a-quel). For cet and 
cc«e, the Ital. has questo (L. is^e with q prefix), and forced, it 
has quello (L. t7^c) ; Fr. cc=It. che. 


178. That the relatives are simply a development of the per- 
sonals and demonstratives, as who of he, and what of that^ is 
proved beyond a doubt ; in other languages, the Latin for 
example, they are used as adjectives (demonstratives), as our 
own which, what, and that, so often are. In Germ., wer, who, is 
a form of er, he ; wekher, which, is a variation of Fr. ceUe^ Lat. 
ille, Ital. queUo, (our which is the same word, I suppressed, see 
Scotch quhilk {qu, vv, w) — so L. quod, wod, wot)} the Q^rm. 
der, the, is very commonly used as a relative, and our own that 
is a pure article Csee Anglo Saxon se, the, thaet), 

179. The Fr. and Sp. qvs (which, what) is the It. che {q=kj 
c), and this readily leads us back to Fr. ce, our th^, that; this 
que ia our who (Ang. S. hwa), qu=kv, hv, hw. The Wallach. 
has, for who, the forms qiMzre (where), quare-le (suffix article), 
and quine (him, whom). 

180. The Pol. kto, who, agrees nearly with our what (Latin 
quid, kid, kt), while co, what, is more like who; komu whom 
(him) ; in Bus., in place of kto, we find often ko, for who, and 
chto, or tchto, for what; in Boh., koho and cheho; for whose 
(L. cujus, Germ, wessen). The Latin qui, who, easily identifies 


itself with our who^ qu being equal to qw, hw, and, hence, to 
A. S. hwa ; ci«;'mss= whose, 5'wcm=whom, c and q=>^k, h; bo 
qjiod ^wh&t, San. kim. Alb. ke, kous, Mong. ken, Turk kim, 

181. In the Irish, we find cia, ce, ci, for who (It. che, Fr. que), 
dad, cad, what, (L. qv4>d) ] there is also Ir. da, (that), and this 
is reduced again to a, who, what. In Welsh is pwy, who, and 
whom, {p being used for L. q) ] the form yr hyn, the-this, is 
also used as relative. In Cor., also, py, pa, who and what ; 
also nep {pen). In C-B., piow, who, and pe, -what (Fr. que), 
Greek pos^ (and 1cos\ ti8\ tos*). 

182. In Semitic, we find ma and min, for what and who ; in 
Heb., we have a^her, shortened she, (Gro.and San. demon, sa) ; in 
Arab., the form the-this is used for relative. Hungarian has mi 
and mtk, what, me%, which (Germ, welcher) — besides Hand 
kik, who. In Manchu, this mis w, sa we, who (German wer) ; 
what is at, Celtic a, 

183. In Dan. and Swed., som is used for who, that; it is our 
«<?m€and same, so, as, such, Greek ^oi-men (some). 

184. Other languages have developed a class of pronouns 
from these relatives which we have not; thus, there is the L. 
taMs, such. Germ, solch-er. Go. swaleiks (so-like), Kuss. tolik 
and Lith. toley, G'k t^Uk-os, Pol. tak-i, Welsh sawl, Arfg. Sax. 
svnlc, Hung. oUy-an', all connected with that, L. iUe, Fr. ceV, 
This is demonstrative, and the relative form is L. qualis, what, 
or whai-Mnd, G'k kilikos, Euss. kolik, Go. hweleiks (how-like), 
Du. toelk {which) Hung, milly-en. This pronoun is identical 
with Germ, welch-er, and hence our which ; it is, too, the L. 
quis, who, with the I of iUe appearing. Quanttis, how great, 
and qvot, how many, in Latin, are other variations of quis; 
leave ofius, the adjective ending, and quaiU^^quot, quod, our 
what; there is, also, L. tot, so many, our that ; Hung, quot, and 
qwxnt, is hany (our many). 

We might observe that our like. Germ, gldch, G'k €lik-os, is 
identical with qua-lis (what-like), the q, lost with us, appearing 
in the Germ, g, — the Ang. Sax. yh, same, and hw-ylc, which, 
belonging to the same order. 

186. The student may learn from this relative class, how 
easily p, q, k, t, ch, c, h, w, and m, change for each other. 

Interrogatives are identical with relatives, and hence need no 
separate consideration.. 

. Indefinite Pronouns, 

1S6. Our every is in Danish, hver, showing that it is the same 
M Vihere, with which we often find it, as, in every-where ; in 



Gothic it is wazuh (was, what). The identity of this every with 
the relative, is proved by the frequency with which we find ever 
= even/ following it, as, who-ever, what-ever ; this ever in L. is 
cun, or doubled, cun-que (quern, whom), as in qui-cun-quey who- 
ever ; the L. quis is often used for some, ani/, and hence » aU, 
every. The German every is jeder, in form our either ^ but 
also whether, and hence which; we use either for hoth^ which 
refers us back to aU^ every. In Pol. it is kazdy, the k pointing^ 
to kto, who; in Hung., minden, every, each {melly, which) ; in 
Welsh, poh is every, hxxtpioy is who ; Cor. mym, all, ever, but 
ma = that, pup, all, and py, who. 

187. Each and any must be taken as variations of every ; th^ 
three easily replace each other; each, in Ang. Sax., is aelc, (Du. 
welk, which) ; in Fr. it is chaque; cAa. is ce, that, and que is 
suffix; the Asiatic eka, one^ is also equal to each; so we oftea 
find each-one, 

188. Any is the same as our an, one, a, and many belongs 
with it also; so do aU, and some. In Italian, qualche {qual^he, 
which-that) is used for some, as quis is in Latin. The Latin 
aliquis, some-one, is simply else-who, other-who, which-who^ iUe- 
who. The Spanish cada, each, any, is the Latin quot, quanta and 
Germ, jeder ; it is also the Slav, jeden, one. 

189. Many, in German, is viele (full), which refers back to 
welcher, which — the L. multus, our much, belongs to the same 
family. That many is the same as any, an, one, is seen by the 
Germ, man^ Fr. rni (old Fr. hom)^ for our one, and by the G'k 
mia, one. 

190. The word other may also be classed with these pronouns ; 
in Latin, it is alius and alter, Gr'k aUos, our else, Fr. autre; it 
is plainly, in form, connected with ille (and aU), as the ther of 
o-ther, and der of Germ, o-der, point to the article the, Either 
is identical with other. That some is a relative in origin, is seen 
by the use of Danish som for who ; some is equal to sam^, and 
both refer to Germ, article dem, and L. i-dem, same, Fr. meme, 

191. In concluding our chapter on pronouns, we may dwell 
briefly upon their component parts. We notice particularly. in 
pronouns, what is observable also in all classes of words, the 
repetition of one element in the same word, as in Lat. quis-quis 
(who-who) some one, Greek tou-tos. But, most commonly, the 
elements slightly vary from each other, yet never so much as to 
leave their identity questionable; thus, Fr. le-quel, which (the- 
which), Fr. ce-la, that (the-that) ; L. ille, he {the-that) ; Fr. 
quel-qvs, some (which-that) ; It. qual-cuno,, some {which-which), 
and qu^esto, this {which-that) ; Wall, a-qu-est, that {the-which- 
that), and in-sami, the-same (L. i-dem)) Dan. hvord-an, how 
(where-then) ; Pol. tam-ten, this (the-this), and k-to, who {wlio- 


thai) ; Ang. Sax. aeg-hwa, whoever (each-who)^ and hwae-ther^ 
whether (who-ihere) ; G'k ^os-tiSj and ^o-tij who, what {who- 
who) ; Germ, den-selbe, the-self, same, and der-jenige^ he {the- 
that) 'j Ari el-la-dziy which {the-the-this) , 

192. It is hardly necessary to multiply examples where they 
are found so numerous ; not only may we separate these words 
into elements, as we have, but those elements again, and so on 
indefinitely; thus, our that is plainly double, and our what also, 
as we see by its Gr'k equal o-ti, L. w^-^in brief, we may say 
that every consonant, every letter, represents this element which is 
repeated in the word. It may be noted, too, that every case of 
one pronoun following another, as he wlw, that which, this here, 
which one, is one of double pronouns. 


193. Under the head of Particles are included what is usually 
known in grammar as Adverbs, Prepositions, and Conjunctions; 
particles we will again divide into two classes, putting adverbs 
and conjunctions together, as there is no real difference between 
them, when properly considered. (We every where find the 
purest conjunction replaced by the common adverb). 

194. In investigating particles, we must constantly bear in 
mind one very important rule ; that two or more words which 
come together in text, belong together, that they are parts of 
one compound, just as much as there are such in any Compound ; 
and that, as such elements, they are duplicates, repetitions, and 
the one may be considered as a form of the other, or both as 
forms of one type; it is a matter of no importance, that in some 
cases we find the elements separated, and in others printed 

195. [We may mention here; by way of note, that in com- 
{)aring words together, as we do under the head of Particles, 
equality, denoted by the sign = , or by words, generally has re- 
ference to the meaning; it will be easy to separate the words 
which are mere definitions from those which are considered to 
be etymological forms of the particle in question.] 

We will consider first the class of adverbs, which includes 
also conjunctions. 



196. All adverbs are more or less connected, in their origin, 
with pronouns (except those which are cases of nouns, and they 
are not particles, i. e. they are not small words whose original 
form and moaning have become obscured) ; but a certain class 
of adverbs are more decidedly pronominal in form, that is, differ 
less from pronouns, than others; such adverbs, and indeed 
others, may be looked upon as presenting new forms of the pro- 
nouns. Thus, we have where, when, whence, whither, whether^ 
from relatives, what, which; and there, then, thence, thither, de- 
monstratives, from this, that, besides the other forms, how, why, 
while ; in many instances, we can find these very forms ais pro- 
nouns ; so, when, Germ, wann, is Go. wana, ace. of who, and 
tha7ia (then) is ace. of the, this; ibhere, in Icel., is huer, who, old 
Germ, wer and huer ; so, Go. watliar (whether), is who. Germ. 
wer ; hither, Germ, hin (be-hind), is Go. ace. hina, of his, hita, 
this; while is A. S. hwilc, who. Germ, well, old Germ, huilan, 
A. S. da-hwile (the while); old Germ, wanan, whence, and its 
equal wenan, is whom ; th^re is German der, the, and eta, there, 
Ang. Sax. thaer^r^of the; how (our who), A. S. hu. Germ, une, 
old Germ, wie and wis (wise), hus, wiose ; why (which), A. 8. 
dy (the), Gr'k ti, Lat. quia, Ang. Sax. hwi, Lat. quid (what), 
Germ, warum (was-um) — Latin quare, wherefore, why, is our 
where, L. cur, Illyr.jer; now is also demon., like how, but in it 
is used the n (so often found) for t, as Lat. nunc=^tuncy in Gro.^ 
gu (L.jam, earn), A. S. iu and geo (he, the,) (our ye^), besides 
mi (g=n) — it is after the form of old North inn (Germ.^encr) 
that, it. 

197. In Latin (and Greek), the pronominal form and char- 
acter of these adverbs is unmistakable; thus, quo (by-what), 
whether, wherefore; qv^d (what), that, as, since; quu, where, 
how (by-what) ; quam (ace. of which), how, and quum, a form 
of same, when, since; hie (he), here, then; dum, while, and 
turn, then (like forms), point to the Greek ton, the, an article 
lost in Latin — jam, now, then, is a variation of turn, but more 
nearly agreeing with the pron. earn ; nun and nunc (nov, new, 
L. nov-us), is a modification of dum r tunc, then, thence, corre- 
sponds in character with htin^ (ace. of ne) ; utrum, whether 
(either), a form of uter, which, points also Uyuti, that, Lat. id; 
an, also, whether, is the inn of old North, and related to when, 
Germ, wann — that an is related to nun, now, is seen by num, 
used like an, also by ne, not, and whether; uhi, where, there, 
is the dat. case ihi, to-that; ita, so, is a form of id, so is ut, nti, 
that; ideo, therefore, is made up of two parts, this-that, or 


198. By the way, the student, in looking over the list of par- 
ticles, in any language, cannot but be struck with the numerous 
cases of doubling or repetition, a subject we have spoken of 
before ; and these instances where the repetition is evident, are 
only very few compared with those where it is latent — it gives 
UB the secret of the growth of all words. So, we find qtiO'que=? 
also (where-as, which-what) ; nunc-nunc, now-now= sometimes; 
qfd^€m= indeed (whicb-the) ; nam-g'i^^for (for-that) ; vel-ut, 
like (which-that, or-that). 

199. In the German languages, we can see it in an even 
stronger light; as, Gothic this-quaruh-theiia where-e'veT (this- 
where-that) ; 9wa^swe== ao as, L. sic-ut (so-so) ; A. S. tha-th(i= 
then (then-then, the-the); on'this-heal/e=hj-ihia (L. hac, Germ. 
des-halh) ; S2ca-^waer-si(?a =where-so-ever (so-where-so) ; for- 
hwy^ wherefore, why (for- why) ; swa-gelice^ like (so-like) ; and 
all our own cases where two or more particles come together; as, 
now-then, as-wellros, so-that, never-the-less. 

200. We might go farther and find? the same state of facts 
existing in all languages ; that this class, at least, of adverbs 
presents new forms of pronouns, is as true in Asia as it is in 
Europe — it is true, too, in Africa. But we have done enough 
fully to illustrate the law; we will now proceed to consider some 
of the leading adverbs and conjunctions more in detail. 

201. And; this an equals a relative, just as ne equals whether; 
and equals ad^ at, hence, also, that. In Latin, and is et, Greek 
kai; judging by kai, et may be a transformed te; L. 2'we=and 
(but que is which); Fr. que (ke) = how, that, what, but; et has 
another form, L. ac {t—q, c) ; what is another form of c^, that; 
80 we find A. S. hwaet (what) for et, and, Lat. aut-em, ita-que; 
Germ, av/ch, Lat. ac, Fr. que ; in old German ge, gie,ja {jam, 
^»i, L.) Icel. og, Celt, ag, agus, A. S. eac, and, and kai, but; 
inAng. S., ge—c-um, t-um (g=ic); Go. ak, akei^hnt. Germ. 
oher, so h'tU is et; Goth, ith, Lat. auttm (if, L. si), et, Greek de 
(tlie)=:but; old Germ.jtoAiM (b-et)=but and et, and; so hut 
we^, with h; Fr. car iwir), for Latin quare, henee hai, et ; 
Ulyr. t and a==but, and (V^A=z, ac — a)) gar is found in the 
Tart, languages, slightly varied, meaning hut; C-B. e-get^^r, 
?«e, et, yet. 

202. As; as is clearly a transposed sa, A. S. se (the). Go. 
w; it is same as so (and that) ; in Germ., as is wie (how, who) ; 
it is the same as Fr. que, L. ac, also L. w<=that; in Germ., ah 
(else, L. alius) is cw; Fr. comme (L. quum)=how as; Welsh 
c(m(Fr. comme. Per. chun)—s8 — also/e^,/e% (Germ, welcher) 
Cor. Orvel (/=jp, Cor. pa = what), Lat. avec, with — Cor. ma 
war,inck7a=as, that {mia is demonstrative). 
208. &} has a variety of forms also ; thus, old Germ, stts, is 

56 PHBASI8. 

one of them, L. «i-c, si-c-ut, ita, and our same; we find al-io^ 
hence so equals al, als^ all: C-B. kerU^ ker^ ken (Fr. comme)^ 
so, L. tant {k^t) ; Cor. ages (Irish a^'w«=and, Welsh ag^sA^ 
with),c«=so, than; Fr. ain-si^BO (this-so). 

204. That is another form of as and sOy and it is oflben used 
in connexion with them ; that it is a form, too, of what^ is seen 
by L. qttod, what and that; Gro. 6t, thi, theiy thatei, unte^ (and) 
mean that^ German dass^ and well; Swedish at (to, too, two)=« 
th-at, Latin lU. 

205. Again : the idea of this particle is based on that of 
repetition, hence we find it connected with other , and, (Irish 
a^us) ; in Germ., it is wieder (whether) L, iterum^ G'k eteros, 
other ; the a is prefix, as we see by A. S. on-gean, Du. te-gen 
{to-gen), Germ, ge-gen, so that gain, gen^ is the true form, equal 
to Go. gai7is, (G'k ekeinos), Celt, gan, as, and with, (Lat. cun^, 
quum, quern) ; also Latin yam= now, Gothic j^'m, Germ.jfe, ever, 
Latin coji, with. 

206. A/fer is intimately connected with again; it is often 
pronounced ater, a form found in other tongues, and as such, 
we see it related to other, L. iterum=&gBm, Du. agter ; Grerm. 
n^ach is near, next, and after, Dutch echter^jet, German tioch 
(after) — so, we saj i/et-again ; L. infra {inf, ifr), Fr. apres; 
ItSit. post is after, It poi. Ft. puis. It. do-po i^p^f). Cor. wone^ 
woge; G-B. arre, yet, after; IWyr. polag, near (below), l^.poit, 
Slay, prez, our -proach. 

207. Back is related to^os^ and again (b-ack), San.o^a^, 
a-back, a-fter, old North aptr and eptri, after, posterior ; Slavic 
pa^M= again, G'k jpaZiVi, Illyr. A;a=>near, to, also ^(m2 » aQder; 
Greek apo, after and away, back, by — we say near-by, hence 
7icar = by, and 5y = back; Greek epi, epei, 

208. But: this we have already seen equal to et (and), tUy 
and yet; Dutch maar (more, o-ver), French mais, Per. magar 
(L. magis) = but — this is also Cor. ma, mar {ma is that, what) ; 
but, yet, German doch^noch, and nciaky F^* done {dum-queS; 
Germ, sond-em, Lat. sed, our sunder, mwis but — we use but m 
the sense of except; but may be taken as b-oiU, wUhovt, in old 
Germ., uzan being equal to but, sed (out); Go. o^a^ but, G'k 
alia, L. alius, other; Germ. a6er=«but (over, after), old Germ. 
afur, fiMor (o'er); in Illyr.; a=>but (Germ.' a6er, auer, a), also 
al (Greek alia), our else^ German als; Ital. rnaix- never (but, 
more) ; Corn. m6«= but, Gr'k men , Euss. no (Gr'k mm=«him, 
that) ; Welsh 07idf«=but (German sondern, our and) ; so, A. S. 
awdf=: but, L. autem; also Wei. pe,ped=T\f, is L. sed^ our hut^ 
as well as what (pe =wh^t). 

209. Uven, ever : even is same as ever, like, as, equal {v*=q^ 
Cor. avel^ C-B. evel, ^, like, equal, even-as, level; Cor. kepar*^ 


as, like, and kett^ ^lewery (Cornish relative wcj?, also, = any, 
every; also relative kemmys^ Latin quantus). 

210. Ever (every), Germ, imnier, Du. immers, L. s-emper and 
hno ; L. ibij uM {ether) ^ uhi-que (where-as)« everywhere, and 
w6i^w6i = wher-ever; Mod. Gc^eek po/e=:ever (relative); Latin 
un-quam (two pron's) = ever, and WMJ^-^wam = never (two 
pron*s), L. sevum, Ot'k aidn, ever, age; G'k pas, all, every, is a 
relative like^o«', hence pantes-^osoi, all-such, all-who (who who) ; 
Grerm. ye (the)=ever; Cor. a2;ar=carly — ever, cer, ere, early; 
Grerm. sehr, very, ever, Per. har, old Germ, sar, Tart, (jfar, old 
German war, Latin verc, German wahr, true. 

211. If: It. ove (where, L. ubiy ihi), Germ, oh (whether, or). 
Germ, wenn (when), all show how if^ Goth, iha, Ang. 8ax. <///*, 
old Germ. oJ\ oh^ jof^ are relatives in origin; Lat. si = if (the, 
this, Latin is), Sanscrit diet, Greek ci, Gothic ith (Lat. vt) and 
iliau; Gothic ga^l, g-ahai (Greek A;ai) ===if, Latin s-ive (that- 
which) s= whether, if; Welsh o, os, od (Latin si, and iit) =z\fy 
also ^6, pedssi'ii ( but pa = what) ; in Russ., esli is if, German 
als^ else, Kussian It} in Russian, hude equals if and he — we 
find the same form used for if and he in many languages ; thus, 
we say be this so, for if this is so — so, Fr. soi^=:may it be, or 
be it, is used also for either, or, whether, as, indirectly if. (It 
only shows, among other things, that be is pronominal also). 

212. Or : Fr. ou is or and where; It. ovvero is or, and ove is 
where; Germ, oder is or (other), L. vel, ve=OT, Germ, welcher); 
the Greek g, S-pou, or, are also relatives; Icel. eda, edur, (either), 
and ella (else) = or; A. S. aegther and outher, or, A. S. hwae- 
ther, either, Go. aith-thau, L. aut {alter, other), or, old Germ. 
eftha, or, aut ( after = other, or), also Go. other = or; see what 
compounds we find — who-else, else-where, A. S. elleshva (Lat. 
aUquis) ; Germ, et-was, et-lich (et, what); old Germ, aegh-wider 
(either-whether) — and, remember that words with which we 
find else = or, eithei^, associated, are like it; Cor. py is or, hvitpy 
is also a relative. 

213. Nor is a form of or ; it is or with n prefixed ; in Latin, 
Tie-que (nee) =nor (not-which), 'i. e. it is a form of que, which; 
in Germ?, nochz=doch, yet, now, is used for nor — Germ, weder 
(whether and neither) also = nor; it is plain that nor is a form 
of «€i<Aer = either; in Welsh na is nor and than, words which 
are alike — the vulgar say, better nor that (Swed. end (and) = 
than) ; so, in Greek, g (which, that, as) = or and than — as wo 
hear, better as that^ 

214. Not, in the form in which we have it, is identical with 
neither, though generally it is an ordinary demonstrative; as, 
the G'k mg {men, but), L. ne; L. nun is now, and non is not, so 
our now is like not) Ang. S. ne, noht and n^cht (Germ, noch is 



yet)=not; Gothic nithau ( neither) = not, Germ, nicht; in old 
German, els (else, German afo, as) and noMes mean not — naUa 
develops, with us, into 9W)we-/e«s, not-che; the Greek has a form 
ouk (ouy or), Icel. ecke, Danish ikke, for not; and Danish ingen 
(any) means none, Germ, kein (Goth, gainsy Greek e-keinoi) — 
German einigen, Greek enioi (some), Danish tn^en. 

215. Soon : Du. haast is soon (haste) ; Germ bald (bold) is 
quick, short, soon (Icel. ballr) ; old Germ, san and san^y Goth. 
suns, mean soon, quick (then, than) — it is often found as suffix, 
as hera-sun, here-soon ; Celt. B. kent (Lat. tant) is sooner j Cor. 
whare is soon (where) — soon is, like the rest, clearly pronom- 
inal. Rather, though connected with soon, seems more imme- 
diately identified with ready. 

216. Often: this word is connected first, in form, with after; 
it is the Ital. s-ovente, Fr. souvent, Lat. sse/pe ; old Germ, thicco 
(our thick) means often, so in Dutch, dik-wils (thick-whiles) is 

217. Our only, in form, is on^, but in other languages, it is 
more clearly pronominal; so, in Lat., tantum (80-much)is only; 
so, Kussian tolko (Latin talis), German nur (Latin nun\ Gothic 
that-ainei (that-on e) . 

218. Since is connected, in form, most intimately with soon 
and then, and is clearly pronominal ; in Lat., and in many other 
languages, it takes the form of as and when (a relative) ; A. S. 
sith-than, since, Germ, seit-dem (since-then) — A. S. sith, means 
late; L. pos^g^wam (after- which). It poi-che, ¥t. puis-que and 
de-puis. It. do-po, L. post-ea (after those) ; G'k epij epei (after) 
= since — so that since, here, is a form of post, sSter, which is a 
relative like Greek pds, pote, meaning when, 

219. Yet: Germ, noch means ye^and nor; Du. nochfe means 
neither; thus, we^ee y€t=znor; It. an-che, Fr. am-«t (German 
au-ch and no-ch), this-that, yet, (jterm.jedoch; L. tamen (so), 
G'k toi, our though, tho\ Germ, doch, Lat. qt^m-quam (whioh- 
which)=al-though, G'k kan for kai-an (and-ifj. (Such words 
as kan, which we may properly consider as the union of kav-a^, 
but which is still equal to our Latin quam, prove what we have 
claimed, that two words coming together, as and-ift are really 
elements of one compound); Ital. has pur = jet, even, German 
a-her z=h\xt old Germ, a-ftir, a-hur ; Welsh eto is yet (Latin et^ 
Germ, doch)) Goth, thauh^aba iayet (that-if), old Germ, thoh- 
thoh (tho-tho, that- that), and tho-widar (tho- whether). 

220. Though has the form chotia (It. che). Germ, s-chon. It. 
gia, Latin tarn (then, German demi), Cornish ken (Com. ytho 
(tho) is now, then) ; Welsh er is tho, and yr is the. 

Till : this is identical with our to, too, two (so) ; German his 
is till, to, and L. bis is twice, C-B. beta ; Go. unte, our unto and 


!m^(6erm. wnd^ and, as, so) — again, we see that what we call 
two words, as un-to, corresponds with our and, which we now 
see has its elements too — witness also u-t, that, Greek ^o-ti 
(whieh-that), our what; in L., tlU is ad (to) and ante (ad, and, 
as), also us-que (so-that, ut-qrie), ante-quam (to-which), do-nec, 
drum, quo-ail, 2iXi6. prius-quam (fore-that), Gr'k *^s (as, so) and 
'eff« (what, that). StlU is till with s prefixed; Lat. clam is our 

221. Together has the forms : GTerm. zusammen, It. in-sieme, 
Ang. Saxon oMgaedere (at-gather) — all identical with the-same 
(Lat simvl), to-same; in together, to is of course prep., and gc is 
a common prefix ; and thet^ is the pronominal part, with which 
wme often identifies; Grreek ^ofnou (same), Persian hem. 


222. We can identify prepositions with pronouns as easily as 
we have adverbs, indeed, the line between prep's and adv'bs is 
by no means strongly drawn, the one being often used to perform 
the office of the other . Prepositions are a growth out of pr on ouns, 
and, through pronouns, a growth out of the endings of nouns 
and verbs also. The case endings, it will be remembered, repre- 
sent not the prepositions only, but the preposition and the article, 
or the preposition and demonstratives, which are articles. But 
pronouns are all clearly developments of the endings of nouns 
and verbs, proof of which is found in the fact, among others, 
that in almost, if not all, languages, they are found in some of 
tlieir forms, inseparably connected with nouns or verbs, or both. 
In many languages, in the Semitic and Celtic, for example, the 
preposition and the pronoun, and article, readily unite into one 
v<Mxl, as German heim for hex dem, which proves the intimate 
connexion of the two classes. It is well known, too, that a large 
class of prefixes to verbs, in the various languages of the world, 
are nnmistakably prepositions — some of these have been thrown 
J>ff, as the ah of the L. ab-sitract, while others exist only in the 
inseparable state. 

223^. We find so many of our prepositions identify themselves 
with each other, after we proceed a short distance in tracing 
4eir origin, that it is almost impossible to make any just division 
among them ; we will use, however, a few leading prepositions as 
heads, under which, with very little regard to order, we will 
include all the most interesting and instructive forms of preposi- 
tions. Nor do we confine ourself solely to prepositions, but 
we notice, incidentally, the origin of certain other words which 
come in the connexion, thereby showing what remarkable van- 


ations some words haye, and what unexpected applications they 
are found in. 

224. With: We find the following forms; Germ. m/V, G'k 
meta and meth^ Sem. miw=in, Dan. mod and i-mod, meaniDg 
against, Germ, wider, and Go. withra, against (whither), A. S. 
tO'ioeardj (toward) and L. versus, against, A. S. with, against, 
Sw. vid, by (L. 2'i//(/ = what), Corn, worth, meaning to and 
against, Hung, vel (l=d, Germ, welcher) and ve, Russ. bez and 
Pcrs. hi, for without ; it has its forms in middle, medium, m>ean 
(Per. miyan and der-miyan, amidst, between), com-mon {com 
is prefix) = mean. Germ, r/e-mein, low, a-mong, San. madya, 
Zend, mat; there is another class of forms, as the G'k sun, 
sum (8==w), Lith. m, Russ. so and su, San. sa and sam, Pers. 
ham, L. cum (quum), *with and when, Lat. con, co (c= s), Welsh 
can (and (/an) =as and with, Fr. chez, at and with (Italian che 
equals when), our a-gainst, Germ, ge-gen {gen is rel. like Celt. 
can, Pers. chun, how and as) — L. contra., G'k ka-ta) as without 
is only one of the forms of with, the following connect with sttn, 
con; as, Fr. sans (and dans, in and with), G'k aneu, Russ. tmya, 
Germ, ohne. Go. V?m, old Germ, ana, aane, and awo (in, on), 
Germ, sondem meaning but, L. sed (with equals but). 

225. The branch headed by sun has very extensive connexions 
outside of the list of prepositions; our same is identical with 
San. sam, with, Pers. ham, our sim-ilar, G'k *amrt = (German 
zu-sammen, L. tc/em (= with), to-gether (geth equals with); 
from the sense of icith and together, taken with the etymology, 
we connect ]j. omnis equal to all,Illyr. vas, sva, Lith. wissas, 
Boh. «;.<?«« (with) =all, whole, full, G'k *olos, Oskish soUos, our 
sole, solid; San. sarva is every, whole, Latin salvus (/=r), our 
safe, sound, Per. har, Germ, jedcr. Germ. ^aw2;=:all {g=Cy «), 
our even — all these point to San. sa (ha) = with; (in Lat., we 
found qui=zSiiij, all, and, and que=zB\-so (both relatives); so, 
now, we find with, related to qui, also connected with words 
denoting all, whole, safe ; there is also L. semi and hernia half, 
which point to San. sam (halves are equals, same) — and many 
other cases which we cannot notice here. 

226. With, as we hinted above, is. connected with hetwixt 
(G'k meta-xu) and between, being identical with midst, t-wixt, 
L. inter (a form of iw) = between, and German unter (a form of 
m^er)^bc-neath and amid, and German hinter (a form of wifer, 
inner) =: behind and down, under; we have the connexions 
toith-out and with-in, and in A. Sax., with-aeften equals behind, 

. after, and loithforan equals be-fore, and hence with equals out, 
in, after, fore, since it unites with these words. 

227. Out: Germ, axis, ausscr (out-er). Per. az=of,, 
Lett, is, G'k eis for in, Gk). ut (L. ut= that). Per. ez, Lat. e and 


ex, OUT of, off (we say om^o/), San. ut, old German o/and aue; 
this preposition is plainly the same as to, so, that, the letters 
being transposed. 

228. Up and under : San. ^ipar and upa, G'k ^tipo and \vper 
meaning under and a-bove, Lat. super vin^ suhter meaning over 
and under, San. upari, our upper (outer), Germ, iiher, Fr. sur, 
Cor. war) Per. bar {u-par) is on, and upon ; L. supra is abovd 
and up-on; old German u-har (German aher for but, bout) and 
uffd, upha for ab-ove, ab-out; A. S. hufan (butan, hui)= super 
and a-bove, o-ver {aher, other, oder)) A. Sax. up and uppan = 
super, de-super ; Gr'kpera?! meaning above and beyond; Gr^k- 
para, onr from; G'k peri, our /or; Dan. ^)aa is up-on; Russ. 
jpo means a-bout, a-fter (L. post) ; Illyr. pak, our back ; Germ. 
au/ia up, on, of and off; Greek apo and ept=of, up, and on; 
Alb. mpi (hsitm ambi, Gerni. ^im-bei), Siudj^er^su-per ; Alb. 
a-pher (after), by; Ituh/ra (from) equals in-fra, in-ter, in-tra, 
our by; Cornish dre (un-der), through (Latin ^raws), and a-dre 
meaning around, Celtic Breton tro, French tour, our thro'. 

229. There is no end to the connexions of such words. The 
student will particularly notice here, what he will observe in 
every branch of language, that, from the full form Lat. su-per, 
for example, some languages use wer and vary it as her, har, ter; 
others use uper, upper, up, while the Fr. throw out thep, and 
have sur ; this shows that it is as true in words as it is with 
animals, that every part is complete in itself, and has the 
capacity, under certain conditions, observable chiefly in the 
lower orders of life, of becoming itself a whole ; and we observe, 
too, that a word may be divided, as to its elements, very differ- 
ently; thus, in-ter (in and ter, per, sur) or int-er (t?i^=and, ad), 
and ab-ove (over, of out), or a-bove (bout, but, by). So that 
we find representatives for parts of words, or for two words 
uniting together, in other simple (so considered) and complete 
words. These points, well kept in view, will enable the student 
to proceed much easier in tracing the lineage of words. 

230 Bi/ ; G'k e-pt. Germ, hei, Lat. oh (over), Lith. pi, San. 
ahhi and api^ Ck opisd (= a-fter), our back, Gothic bi, in and 
around, A. S. be, in and to, Fr. de, L. de, e equals of (our to) ; 
A. S. emb (em), em-be, ym-hutan, Gr*k am-phi, Lat. amb (and 
L. am-bo meaning both, as Germ, bei-de equals both; by equals 
and, and both), Euss. o-b, o, oh-o, old Germ, um-hi, Welsh am, 
Irish im-m, Latin circ-um, 

231. (We see by this am-bi, um-bi, the growth of a preposition 
by doubling, while the elements am and by are both used alone, 
with the sense of the full form um-bi; and observe, too, those 
elements um and bi (m-bi) may themselves be .conceived of, as 
made up of elements again like themselves ; Kuss. oh is clearly 


double, as mucb as amh^ and evon the o eqnal to oh has lis 
parts, undistiDguishable, as o-o. Such facts as these, in language, 
we find patent everywhere.) The L. a-pud meaning cU and witk^ 
belongs with epi ; among is to be classed with ambi; to and at 
are other forms of Z>y, pi (p=05 ^ t^^J *r® ^^so of the, that 

232. ^or ; the connexions of this particle are very extensive; 
the identity of orthography proves its relation with the follow- 
ing : fore, be-fore, former, forth, ere (fore), early, Latin prius, 
first. Germ. fruh==earli/ &ud fore, Sa.n. puras, G'k prm, Lith. 
pirm (all denoting fore, first, and marked by fr, pr, er) ; far 
and from {Go.fruma for first, Germ, erst), further (Germ, vor- 
der, fore) — our word prince, G^qtvh, f first, belongs with for, fore 
(a fore-man) ; there is the German frau, froh, fromm, and our 
force, frost, fresh, and very many others which we might name, 
also connected with fore, first, for. 

233. These are the variations /or undergoes: Gr'k pro, pros 
and proti (=for), Latin prae meaning for, and before, Rns. pra 
andprct^ (= before), Rus. pro for of, and about, and pre for 
beyond, and pri for near ; Goi faura and faurth, L. prseter for 
before, and above, Fr. pour, Fr. proclie for near, L. prope, Bus; 
protiv, against, Illyr. pored, near, and potlam, after, Welsh ger 
meaning near, and er, for, and er-hyn, against. Com. rag, (gar) 
equal to for, and from, and a-rak, before, Cornish re (rag and 
er), by. 

234. Of and off; of (ov) is thus connected : L. ah^ and, L. 
c and ex (=from and o/), G'k apo and aph (off), San. apa for 
off, away, and far, our afar, San. ava, away, off, Goth, af, Pers. 
az, Rus. ov, ot, and o=of, against, and from, Illyr. od and oda 
(our to), and van (German von, of, from) = outer, extra, (the 
Hebrew min meaning from, is to be compared with the German 
von, of) ) The Germ, v-on, of, shows the on equal of; Welsh o 
and odd (same as a and ay, with) equal of, and from-=— it is a, 
meaning of, in C-B. ; e, which in L. equals of, from, in C-B., is 
seen with the forms enn, el, er, for in, Fr. d-ans. If we bear in 
mind the G'k apo, we shall easily connect after and its family 
with of. In Alb., nte and mpe (into) is in, and of, and mpi is 
by ; in Fr. and L., dels of (to) ; in Wal., de and dela (?a = the); 
in Hung., it is tol, while nel (t=n) is by; old Germ, ir (is, aus, 
out) means of, from ; Slavic iz (aus) means out, Latin ex, of. 

235. To, at, m, and on : to equal to at, shows easily how the 
letters of a word transpose; Lat. ad, Wal. la (l^d) — showing 
to equal the; Sem. I and d, Fr. a and de (^at and to). Germ. »«, 
Rus. do and za, Gaelic do, Goth, and is in, and und is to, till; 
A. S. oth, old Germ, ant (at), at, and ana, an, in (hence in-to); 
also nah (ana) means to tina from, and v-a7i, f-ona (Germ, von 
— on with v) is used ion from and of; Lat. ante, French avant 


(on-to, in-to) meaning before, is a form of at, ad, and; so is L. 
ap«J, with, and G'k ana, on. The pronominal natilrc of these 
four particles is very evident. 

236. Through and across : through is thus represented : Lat. 
tram for over, across and beyond, Gaelic thar and trid, Welsh 
troihx over, Sans. tiraSy Knssian cherez, Illyrian srez (8=ch), 
sez, kroz (cross), all meaning through (cross is tros, trans), old 
Germ, thurg, thuru (thorough), Germ, durch, A. S. thurh, Goth. 
thdrh, Per. dar^ in, G'k dia, h.per (p = t), G'kper* for about, 
above, around, beyond, and hence over and across, through; 
Polish przez equals through (p = t) and przi/ equals by, j^f'ocz 
equals out, outer ; and for outer, out, out of, we find Pol. krom 
and o-^om (a-cross), krom for trom (k=t); the cr of cross is 
the <r of irarw, and the^r of per; so, too, it is the vr, pr, of 
o-ver, su-per, the ar of around (ard, dar), Germ henim ^Polish 
krom), (Door and all its class connect with through, German 

237. We may, as well here as elsewhere, state definitely, 
what we have before only touched upon, viz., the following law : 
Every case-form, tense-form, person-form, or form of any kind, 
is just as much a proper representative of the word, as that 
which we call the word itself, and which, as amo or ama, \^e 
erroneously conceive to be the root, the hase, the original. 
Every abbreviation of a word is one of its forms, every combina- 
tion of it with some other element is also a form of the same. 
And all this arises from the fact that one form may be more 
condensed or more developed than another ; to illustrate, amor 
^t (past tense) is one of the forms of amo, (it is amo in one 
of it8 developments, not amo of the present, but that imaginary 
*kiiig which we call the verb am^, that thing which is made 
nutnifest by its forms) ; whom is a form of who, lovest is a form 
yffo»«, lowngvA another form; before is a form of fore, attract 
M a form of troA^t, pretend is one of the phases of tend, 

238. It is only by remembering this law, that we shall under- 
stand how it occurs, that what we find used in one case, in one 
Dumber, or in one tense, is found, in another language, in 
Another case, number, tense, or application ; as, what we have 
for <Ae«e, the Germans have for this (dies-er, dees). 

239. We may remark, farther, that verbs are named from 
the 1st person, sipg. prest., but there is no reason why the verb 
should not be named as well from any other person, or tense, or 
mood — BO the verb amo we might call amare (inf.), or amahat; 
and 80 the noun may be called from any of its case or number 
forms, as well as by its usual name, the nominative. The verb 
or noun itself is an imaginary thing, and is only represented by 
the forms, called words, from which it is itself distipct, a3 the 


Boul is from the body. So amo is as much one of the forms of 
what we cStll the verb amo (but which might be called amare 
'as well) as amat or amavi is. We discard the idea of any form, 
or word, being the root or original of a class — we may use the 
term for convenience, but it can never stand testing. Where 
are the root or base-forms of the human race ? 


240. That at least three of the numerals, the first three, are 
pronouns, is beyond all doubt. In almost all languages, the 
numeral one is used as an article, or as a sort of demonstrative 
pronoun — it belongs to the family of our a, aw, awy, noiie, some. 
We have seen under the head of pronouns, that an is demon- 
strative as well as the. The Fr. on^ German man (Russ. ow, he, 
o^ii, they, Sw. han^ he), is used as we employ one^ in one asks, 
one sa^Sj and as thet/, in thei/ ask, tliey say. In Dan., we find 
eet (it) as well as een^ for one. The Germ, man, one, the Gr'k 
monos, al-one, only, and mia, one, shows many=one. 

241. The related forms of 07ie differ from it very materially 
in form. Even its own adjective ^rs^. Germ, erst, Gr'kprotos^ 
L. primus, Rus. pervi, is apparently far removed from it ; but, 
that these superlative forms are in the end identical with one, 
is seen by the Turkish hir, one, and Per. bar, once. The Lat. 
semel, is once, our simple, single, similar (same, even), L. send, 
demi (half), (middle, with, G'k sun), sole. Our each, Per. ek 
or yek, one, Gr*k ^apax, once (^p=ky) and Gr'k eka-teros, each 
(San. eka, one), is another form of one — either, wJiether, Lith. 
Jcatras, San. kataras, G'k poteros, is also a remote form (G*k ek 
(from, apart, alone) is eka, each, one (al-one), Latin ex). 

242. We will now dwell briefly on some additional forms of 
one as they appear in different languages. 'Thus, in Slavic, we 
find such forms as, jeden, eden, yheden ; this d does not appear 
in our one, L. un-us, Gr'k hen, but it is clearly the r of protos, 
first — strike out this d, and eden becomes een, one; other Slavic 
forms are ains, weens, wienas, our one. The Semitic has echad 
or ehad (San. eka, Slav, gheden), also had, and, ante — the Per. 

. class, besides jek, yek, has also ju, yuo. The Finnish class has 
egy (eka), aku, akt, ogy=^ot, it (Danish cet), wait (w-one), ykss 
and odyk (Slav, eden, d=k). Old Germ, has eyn for egen, een 


(Qt'k 'cis), Alb. gna equal to una — so, we Bee we have suppressed 
the g, /b, d, y, t, which appears in other languages, or we have 
only n to represent it. 

243. Two : The identity existing between sonifj.of the forms 
of OTie and two, is easy to be observed ; thus, the Turt. hir, our 
Jirst, is the Latin his, twice, and the either, each, and whether, 
which we have just connected with one, are also connected with 
other ^second, two ; so, too, the k and d marks of one, seen in 
so many languages, are not diflPerent frona the t and d of two. 

244. The numeral two is plainly identical with the demon- 
strative element ta, Gr'k to, our the, as well as with the adverb 
too, prep, to. In Latin, alter, other , is often used for second — 
in short, it is a prevailing feature in language, to find other equal 
to second. We can easily connect our two with L. his (bs, bt), 
by taking tw equal to th, reversed ht, hs. 

245. We will now give some of the forms of two. In Germ, 
class, we have twei, zwa, zween {een, ein, eins, one), zuene, tu, 
tov, and hais (Gr'k heta, L. his). Ii^ Slavic, two is dva, doua, 
du, diwe; Sem. dent, ith, aeth (leaving off some of the -endings) 
— there is also chl, quil, kill, haul, and ter (less the endings of 
the plural), where chl, ql, kl, and hi identify with kl, tl, tr, and 
point to our three, Lat. tres (See the forms of Sem. three). The 
Heb. form for two is sena-im (aim, im, is plural ending) ; this 
reminds us of the Malay forms for one, sa, sat, sar, isa, do, taha, 
tika. Of the Tartar languages, those whicji have emu, omin, 
for one, have also djm, djur, dsur, chojur (chj=dj), for two — 
and those which have hir equal to one, have iki, oke (k==t), for 
two. In Finn., two is kak,kyk, kit, kwektQc^t, w), in Malay, 
lor, kcU, dua, row, nou {I, d, k, r, and n=t, and tw, du) — lr=tr. 

246. Three : That three is not essentially different from two, 
must be evident on the sligl^test reflection — they are as nearly 
identical as this and that, or as here and there, here and the; 
Oerm. der, the, three. 

In the Gr'k, Slav., Germ., Cjelt., and Lat. class of languages, 
tr is the prevailing mark for three. In Sem., it is sel, tel, toul, 
d, se (all=<r, tl); in Malay, we have this same tal, tel, but also 
tig-a, tor-ho; Finnish kor, kor' {k==zt), also kwiu, huim, kolm, 
like our two (Jc=t)) \x^ Tart., it is iU (Sem. t-el), also gur (g= 
d, t) — and for such dialects as have hir for one, we find utsch, 
MM, wisse, for three (this we n^ay divide thus, ut-sch). 

247. Four : The variations which the number four exhibits, 
in the different languages, ar^e thpse : 

Tartar ; duin, digin, dort, dorV. 
Sem.; arV , har\ uV , arr' (arh=^har, f-our), 
Slav. ; chetyr, seter, chtir\ zetter (ch=z). 
Per.; tchetr, djahar^ zippar^^zittar, tsulor (ls=:d, t). 


Finn. ; neV^ 'f^^gy^ njul, 

Malay ; papat^ ampat, pat, opat, wutu, haa, ra, fa, e/ar, 
hpat, watt (w=py 

Gr'k; kat$f,tessar,pes8ar, catre, quatr, hator (b=q,/). 
Germ. ; Jiar% vier, JidwoVj feower {dw=w,u), 
Celt. ; ceithir, pedwar, pevar, peder (p=f), 

248. That all these forms can easily be connected, is a matter 
that does not admit of question ; in Tartar., du equals dg, dr, 
which is the tr, ter of G'k and Slav, four ; the Slav, cheti/r, L. 
quatvor, our quarter (fourth), Greek ^a^^r, catre, qiuxtr, Persian 
tchetr, djahar, have all developed an internal t which does not 
appear in our /our, but which does appear in the German form 
JidwoTy and in the Celtic pedwar for pevar (=fevar, feower, 
/our) — those letters t, k, q, c, tch, dj, 6, are all equals of our 
f=p. In Finn., ne?, ?ie<7, ?y7 equal nr,wr,fr. In Malay, we 
see how forms reduce; thus, papat, opat, efat, pat, wat, /a,, 
haa, ra; these easily go with peder, pessar, four, 

249. That this numeral might, as a matter of etymology, be 
identified with" any one of the three which precede it, is some- 
thing quite evident. The Tartar points clearly, in its duin, to 
the L. duo and its own dj'uo, two; the Finn, negi/ points to the 
San. eka and its own egt/, aha, one, while the tr, dr, prevailing 
in the Slavic, Greek, and German classes, indicates tres, three. 
There is indeed little question, that the different numerals are 
all allied, and are merely the different application and develop- 
ment of one element. But about the precise history of this /owr 
further than this, there is nothing demonstrable — though some- 
thing may be said as probable. 

250. It has been supposed by some, that four, in such forms 
as Celt, peder, Gr'k pessar, Slavic chetyr, our quarter, is a com- 
pound of one and three, the pe, qua, ch, representing eka, one, 
and ter, three, yet we cannot say that we have found any evi- 
dence sustaining this theory. The resemblance between four, 
in its different forms, in the course of languages, and two, is 
greater than that between four and any other numeral. The 
strongest evidence in this direction, is found in the Tartar class, 
already noticed, and in the Caucasian class which we may notice 
here ; thus, we find, there, the forms di and tchor equal to four, 
and tu, schi,jer (^^cher) equal to two. Besides, the ch, t, and 
p, so common as the initial element of four in the European 
languages, also points to the two, as does the dw of fidwor. 

251. It is supposed, again, but without any positive proof that 
we know of, that four is a compound = 2x2, or the 2d two. 
We can only take this proposition as nearly certain, that four stands 
in a closet relation with two than with any other numeral, in a 
word, that two is the element:, or fi^ndamental element, of four; 


taking etymology alone for evidence. There is no history on 
this point. There is, besides this, another theory, of which we 
can only say that it presents what is barely possible^ that four 
equals one from five, on the Horn, system of notation, iv; f(mr 
and jive^ it must be said, often resemble each other in form. 

252. There is some evidence to show that four has at times 
been treated as the base of the number system, being designated 
by a word signifying whole^ all, end. Taking this as true, and 
Temembering that/owr is probably a form of two, we should be 
finally brought to the conclusion that two is the base of the 
numerical system. In our opinion, two is the beginning and 
the end of all numbering-— beyond this and that, here and there, 
we have no numbers — ^all must come under the category of one 
or the other. To number is to compare, but we can compare 
only two things, or one with one. 

. 263» jFVvc ; There seems to be not so much doubt about the 
number ^ve. It is a fact not to be questioned, that numeration, 
in the earlier stages of society, was carried on with reference to the 
fingers, and we still find the child involuntarily resorting to the 
fingers in his first lessons in counting and calculation. It seems 
to be well established, that there are tribes who in their system 
not only count in the fingers of both hands, but after this count 
also their toes. — for instance, some of the Am. Indians. The 
Greenlanders can count with their numbers only to five, one 
hand, and when they go beyond that they must repeat, as we 
do when we get beyond ten — thus, six is one-on-2d-hand, eight 
is on-2nd>-hand-three. After ten, the toes of both feet are 
counted also; thus, for 13 they have onjirst/oot three. When 
they have twenty, they have, in their terms, "a whole man'*, 
and to get beyond twenty, -they must use a 2d man. 

254. In several languages, is easily discernible the identity 
between the term for^t?eand that for hand; thus. Per. panchan 
means Jive and pentsha means hand, and there are several 
instances of the like in the Malay class of languages. In some 
of the African tongues, not only is hand equal to Jive, but seven 
is expressed by hand and two, and fifteen by three hands. Alex. 
Humboldt tells of American tribes where four is used as such a 
base, six being four with two, and eight being ^i?c with three, 

255. Some of the forms of Jive are the following : 

Tart.; tunf, ton\ taU (<=rGr'kp); many of the Tart, tongues 
have hash, hesch, equal to five, but this is precisely the word 
for head, while hand is kal, gal, gar. 

Slav. ; pett,peiit,pin](^ piatt. (G'kpente, L. quinq\ GeTm.fUnf), 

Per.; pendj, pinz. Ions (in Ossete) (l^^p)* 

Finn. ; wiss, wjet, wit^ uet, at, ot (w=p, at=:p-at, p-ent). 

Malay; lima, rima, dimi (l=f, p) — lima, rima=hand. 



Gr'k; pea^ peiid, quinq, ainq, cinq — p, q, 8 = f of Jive. 

We notice in many instances, that hand and foot agree in 
form; notice in Gr*k aho pes, jyend equals fiye, and pes, pod ^ 

Germ.; fiinf, fyf, fimm, five ; Celt. cMig^pemp ic=q,p,/), 

Sem. ; kham/ {p^k, M), ham\ am/ (for Team, pam, liam). 

256. Six : Wo can ascertain nothing decisive about the his- 
tory of SIX. The Greek *ex is practically equal to ex, out of, 
beyond, over, and we notice something of this coincidence in 
some of the Tartar languages; moreover, ex^eks may be iden- 
tified with the eka, one, and we might thus take six sls one after 
or over (taking 6 as the basis or end), i. e. 6 and one more, or 
one in the 2d hand, or series. There are many instances of a 
coincidence between six and one, also between six and two=one; 
notice also L. sex=^seks, sequor, secutus, secutive (the one after 
or following). Some, again, have supposed six to be 2X3, two 

257. We may notice these forms : * 

Tart. ; nirvg\ njun\ dmrg\ surg (ng, njf^dj, ds, s of six} } 
many Tart, tongues have alt, alty {cdt^at, as, sa, six). 

Slav.; chest, se, sest (eh=»s). 

Sem. ; sis', seth\ schash, sedest, soas, sita (six). 

Eers. ; shess, shescK , achs\ spuz (sp=sh, «). 

Finn, ; kuss, hot, hud, kwet, hut (^«s). 

Malay; sad,\daou, anom^ ono, nel, ol, houn, elen — nam, atiam, 
appears in many of the Malay tongues ; it resembles the Tartar 
six and our nine. 

G'k; giast (^i*=si), ex, hex, sex,fiess (/=«), sie, seje, cheie. 

Germ. ; sex, sechs, segs, zies, sess, seks, saihs, six. 

The Tart, alti/ is connected with* our all, whole, heap. 

258. Seven : There is often a remarkable coincidence between 
six and seven; we even see it in the Lat. sex (6) and sept* (7) — 
but this is perhaps the very coincidence of one and two, this and 
that, a and the. It is quite possible, even probable, that six and 
seven are 1-f 5, 2 + 5, just as 11 = 1 + 10, 12 = 2 + 10; in 
one case 5 being the base, and in the other 10. We know the 
Roman numerals are made after that manner, as vi and vii. 
The forms of feeven are these : 

Tart.; nad, dol,jedi, edi, sett (n, d, j=s). 

Slav. ; sedm, sem, sept, 

Sem. ; sib', tah\ suh', ^aft. 

Pers. ; hapt, heft, "^aaft, ^awd, *owu {aaft—saft, sept). 

Finn.; kjet', ssis, ssat, het, la-but, locssat, ja-get. 

Malay ; pit', tudj, het, fil, it, fit, pitt, (see s-ept). 

Gr'k; state, hept, sept, set, siet, cheapt {set =M.ti\3iy fit). 

Germ. ; sebn, sibn, simm, sojn, san, sio, sov (sev-en). 


Celt. ; seachd) saitky seih. 

All these forms are easily identified. 

259. Eight: This is another number about whose history 
there is much that is dotlbtful. It has been maintained that 
with 8 and 9 we enter upon a subtracting method of notation, 
that 8 is two from 10, and 9 one from 10. Considering the 
great resemblance, often found, between the forms for eight and 
two, and between nine and one, the proposition is plausible. 
Indeed in the Eom. method, 9 is ix, one from ten. It is, we 
think, more probable, however, that the system applies to the 
nifie than to eight, as we find the fact in Koman. 

260. It has been claimed, again, that eight is two fours, as 
we imagined fowr to be two twos, and, considering the oft recur- 
ring coincidence of eight with two and septem (-which we believe 
to be accented on two, vfith Jive for a base), we regard this the- 
ory as the most probable. In Tartar and Finn., we find eight 
pointing most undoubtedly to two, 

261. Here follow the different forms of eight : 

Tart.; djak, djapk, naim' (nm = dj)), ssek, ss-egis (dk, 8k=^st). 

Slav.; osm, ossam, vossom, aszt, aM {sm==st, ct). 

Sem. ; semoun, tem-on, sem-ent (snn^stn, st). 

Pers. ; hasht, hasch, ast, utu (eight, ate, oct). 

Finn. ; kadekssan, kattesa, hyhwmyss, nilonou, nuvl, nillach, 
'9^'iglach (kdk, ktt'^oct, ott, Slav^^^, kyk=^nul'). 

Malay ] wolu, halu^ qual, arrou, a/a, de-lapan, salapan (wl, 
&Z, gl=:ior, ar; af^akt, oct), 

Greek ; tete, okto, oict, uit, vot, ott, vuit, huit, opt. 

Germ. ; acto, acht, ahtan, atta, eight, 

Celt; ; ochd, wyth, eiz, eith. 

Behold the variations ihat^«, kt, tt, ct, ch, ck, undergoes. In 
^Aifal., lua, rua, dalua equal two, and papat, apat, ampat equal 
^f<)Ur, hence de-lapan equals two fours, 

262. Nine : very little is to be said of nine, save what was 
^laientioned in treating of eight. In Tamil, nine is clearly one 

jfrom ten. The initial of Malay nine agrees with one ; the end- 
ings of all Finn, nin^s are like ten. It will be observed, also, 
"that some forms of nines equal novus, new, and it has been 
claimed that those words have the same origin. 

263. The following are the forms : 

Tart. ; ujun, jegin, jissun, Jessu, dokus {jeg == dok = nv) . 
Slav. ; devett (Tart, dok, nov, n^d). 
Sem. ; tisch, tis, tasa, nouh, zet, tse {ts:=ds, dv, nv), 
Pers.; nxyuh, nah (71= Slav, and Sem. d, t). 
Finn. ; ydekssan, ygoksse, uttesa, ykmyss, ontolon. Here we 
\2kY^ydek=ygok,ykmy, utt, ont (=dev, nov, dok). 
'Malay . songo, nawa, siwa (s=w), sir a, ea, tiva (s=^, n). 


Gr^k; 7iande, eniiea, enar, egnia, nou, nef^ nov {nd^diiy dv). 
Germ. : neun^ onun, iiegen {ng — (jr^^ dn), nio, ni (et7i=»one)l 
Celt.; naoidh, naw, nao {ndtt^dn, nw = wn, dn). 
We may notice here, without difficulty, great resemblance 
between some forms for nine and those for one and ten, 

264. T}en : We will lastly give the forms for ten ; 
Tart, 'j djan, men, arb, on. 

Slav. ; dessett, desymt, desmith, zassech, 

Sem. ; asro, gasrh, assir, ascher (asr^^das, deoem). 

Pers. ; desme, deh, des, lus {l^d, des=d-es). 

Malay; dasa^pulu, rouru {rr—pl), seik. 

Gr'k; djett, thiet, deka, dez, deu, de, des, diXy dfici. 

Finn.; kmn, {km^^dm), das, lu,jon (^j=^d). 

Germ. ; tehan; zehn, tern, tigen, taihun, ti, ten, 

Celt.; deich, deg. 

Behold the forms into which do, dg, dt, dk, develops itself. 

265. That the basis o^ ten is two, is evident enough— refer- 
ring, without doubt, to two hands, or fives. It is even possible 
that cem, in L. decern, represents j^ye, quinq, cinq. Ten, Greek 
deka, is no doubt, too, connected with dexter, the right, which 
again connects with deilmumi (Greek), to show, and with digit, 
finger or pointer, shower; toe belongs to the same family, as 
well as Germ, zahl, number, tell, count, show, say, in-dicate. Not 
only does the right agree witl^ ten, but in some languages also 
left agrees with^ve. 

We will notice briefly some of the numbers after ten. 

266. The uniform practice in the different languages, is to go 
on, after ten, adding to ten, as 13 « three and ten (thirteen). 
This position is clear for all except eleven and twelve, which 
differ considerably in character, so far as appearance goes, from 
the other combinations. That the initial part of twelve might 
be two is possible, but the Iv has little to do with teni 

267. The following forms will illustrate eleven; 
Fries.; andlova, alvene, elleva, 

A. S. ; endlufon. 

Icel.; ellifu. 

Goth.; aiVi-^^/* (one left). 

Fries. ; twelve is twiliva, tolva, tolef. 

Old Sax. ; twelif. 

Icel. ; tolf, 

Goth.; ^va-^i/* (two left). 

268. That this Iv, If, lif represents our leave, left, Go. leiban, 
G'k leipd, admits of little doubt; so that 11 would be one-left, one- 
over, or one-more ; and tioelve equals two-left, ttco-over. The use 
of this over, or its equivalents, in numbering in this way, is com- 
mon with us and elsewhere. In Wall., 11 is one over 10, or one 


and ten, as unu-spre-dece (this sprc equals sup^a, over, and) — so, 
twelve is two-over-ten. In Lithuanian, 11 is wieno-Uka^ and 12 is 
dwylika — and with the same lika up to 20. This like, can, it 
is true, be identified with deka, ten, as ten is remotely connected, 
again, with and, over, one, but that lika, in Lith., represents 
directly ten or deka, does not seem probable. It seems prefer- 
able to refer it to lif, Iv, which we have been considering, or to 
mper, over, and besides to the ly of only, thirdly, 

269. By the way, in French, 11 and 12 are reduced to onze 
■ and douze, not difierent from our once and twice — and even in 

our eleven and twelve, the one and two, being accented, prevail 
almost to the exclusion of the other element; this calls to mind, 
too, the form of some of those numbers which we have before 
been considering, simple in appearance, while in fact we know 
them to be compound (as eight) — the accented element prevail- 
ing to the exclusion of the other. 

270. But we do not find such irregularity or ambiguity, in 
these numbers, in many other languages. Thus, in Persian, 11 
is yazdah, 12 is duwazdah {yak — 1, du^=2, dah=10). The 
dah is plain, and i^ found so in all the rest of the teens, but the 
z, which is found in no others, save 19, seems to be a third ele- 
ment equal to az, by, with, and. In Gael., we find deaz in all 
the teens and in 11 and 12, without connexion, as aon-deaz, do- 
deaz. This system prevails in Celtic, It is the one of L. and 
Grreek, un-dedm, duo-decim, tre-decim. The connective is not 
developed in the Latin languages generally, though we do find 
y ^^»and in Spanish. In Polish, commencing with 11, the num- 
boxsare connected substantially as in Latin — the copulative is 
scarcely developed — though in Rubs., we see it appearing in a 
str-ong light ; .as, 7Mi=on,.over, and; thus, odin-na-dzat, one- 
a.nd-ten, eleven. 

271. The number twelve is often represented by dozen (same 

as-San. dasan^ten) — dozen (Germ, duzend) is connected also 

'^vith thousand. Germ, tausend. So that thousand is only a ten, 

^tid hind (-red) is not perhaps difierent. Gothic tai-htm is ten 

C2 fives ?), our teen, teh-en — here we see the hund. It is easy 

to see that Fr. douze (12) is our dozen ; Lat. cent (-um), hund^ 

equals Fr. cinq, five ; in some of the Tartar dialects, the same 

'Word is used for 3 and 100. Twenty is a developed two (Latin 

■^nti, twenty, is not far from quinque,five'). 

272. In Goth., we find for 20, 30, 40, tvai-tigus, thrija-tigus, 
fidwiT'tigus — ft^'!** another form of ten. In Lat., for these they 
^!^ viginii (bi^ginti), tri-ginta, quadra-ginta — the ginti here 
plainly representing ten, and yet agreeing in form more with 
c«»i(w» (100), and with five {quinq) — furnishing more proof of 
^^^hund, five (200 is du-centi). I« Irish, the case is still 


plainer, as 30 is trio-cad, and cead=100 (cead also is^r*^); in 
Cor., i-ganz =20 J and ca7is=100. In San., t?iVi-«a^t >^ 20, sata! 
==100, and pa7icha-sat=^b0. 

273. In Celtic, by the way, we do not find the same regular 
system of twenty, thirty, forty, as we do in other European lan- 
guages, but 30 is ten and twenty, 40 is two times twenty, 80 is 
4 X 20, 60 is 10 and 40, 300 is 16X20. We notice in Pers., 
that these numbers have scarcely developed enough to render 
the latter elepient distinguishable ; thus, 30 is si (and siA=3), 
gJia^t equals 60 and 6. 

274. In Latin, besides the forms decern et octo, and decern et 
fiovem, there are also duo-de-viginti (2 from 20), un-de-viginti^ 
for 18 and 19 — so the usual forms for 28 and 29 are two-froni- 
thirty, one-from-thirty. This lends credibility to the position 
that 8, as well as 9, is made by subtracting one from 10, two 
from ten. In the teens of Mod. Grqek, we find dekatreis (ten 
(and) three), but 11 and 12 are en-deka, dS-deka, In Alban., 
the connecting mpe == of, and, over, is developed, commencing 
with 11; as, nie-mpe-dgiete (11), tre-mpe-dgiete (13). We notice 
also in Alb., 20 is nie-dzet, 40 is di-dzet, while 10 is dget — so 
that they stand one-ten, two-ten, so far as form goes, making ten 
equal twenty, as it really is. The Greek eikosi (20) points the 
same way (deka = 10). 

276. In some of the dialects of Samoid, we find that 8 is' 2 
from 10, and 9 is one from 10. It is claimed that in others, 
however, it is difierent, that 8 is 2 X 4. It is true in this case 
that det, the last element, is like det==/our, but it is also not 
unlike (Jurak) kot and hied = ten. It is probable, we think, 
that 8 is formed in the Jurak dialect as in the Ostjak ; in «mc, 
tliLeju=ten is plain. In these dialects, 11. and 12 are formed 
just as 8 and 9, with only over in place of fro7n. It is clear 
that these two sets of numbers are really the same on different 
sides of the zero mark. It is worthy of note also that in Jurak, 
9 is called Samoidish-ten ; by the way, we find the very same 
word used for 10 as for 9-:T-in other cases, 9 is called Ostfak- 
ten; twenty is called two-tens. 

276. Mille, in Latin, is the same as our million in form, but 
is used for thousand. It may be remarked that many words 
denoting numbers, such as Gr'k muroi, chiUoi, are simply indefi- 
nite terms, as our heap, lot, Jtost, multitude — and even Jive, 
hundred, and tliousand, may be proved to have connexion with 
such terms. 

277. It is well known that in many languages, letters are 
used to indicate numbers. There is at least one language 
("Rothwclche'') where names of letters of the alphabet are used 
to denote numbers also. The first 9 letters of the G'k alphabet 


denote units ((counting in, for 6 ,an ancient letter not found at 

present), and the next 9 represent the tens (including an ancient 

one not used now, representing 90) — the last 9 being used for 

t^lie hundreds (with an extra one for 900). In Hebrew, the first 

■fcen letters are used to denote the 10 numerals, units ; 20, 30, 

etc., up to 100, are denoted by the next nine in order — the 

:remaining four being used for 100, 200, 300, 400. The same 

in Syr. and Arm. There is evidently a close relationship be- 

-*ween the names of letters and the names of numbers. 

278. It is clear to any one who inquires into the nature of 
3Diumbers, that they are only marks of order; so, we found the 
:first two numbers denoting only former and latter, and that 
^hree was allied to them, and four to be the one before five, or 
-the latter or second two ; we found 8 and 9 to be either the 2d 
^nd 1st (latter and former) before ten, or the 8 to be the latter 
or second ybwr; we found 11 and 12 to be the one or the two 
^rfter ten — ten being the former or first, the basis. This is the 
secret of the system ; twenty is only the latter or 2d ten, thirty 
the ten after 20, forty the latter or 2d twenty. So we find them 
proceed by steps, by comparisons. There can be no doubt hang- 
ing around this position. So much, at least, is certain about 
tlie nature of numbers; and it is by virtue of this system of 
crier, that, in Semitic and European languages, the alphabet is 
tis'ed to denote numbers. We repeat it, number is based on 
order; every number is a mere relative mark, or mark of relation, 

279. Twenty, for example, denotes only one, it is the latter 
or 2d ten — it is still only one thing, one ten — so, ten is the 2d 
fifth. Hence, we frequently hear it said, he has reached his 
twentieth year (=20 years). Observe that all ordinals, as 25th, 
point -only to one thing, the 25th — the same must be true, too, 
of cardinals, as 25. It is on this principle that the German 
(and others) says third-a-half (the 3d one being a half), for the 
number 2 J, showing that in numbering, regard is had alone for 
^ last thing numbered. 

280. The Arabic characters, or figures, can, without doubt, 
be identified in their forms with letters. Of these, we notice 
particularly that 2 and 3 resemble each other, while 7 and 8 
lave precisely the same character (v), only diiFerently placed. 

281. We notice in many languages, that the numerals are 
made to apply to things in the singular, and that where they do 
belong to the plural apparently, it is really to the genitive sing.; 
Au8, 20 men is twenty of the quantity or class men. Every 
number, bear in mind, is a unit. Hence, too, a coeffiofent, a 
number or a name, never belongs to a thing, but to something 
of it, as 20 (heads of) men, as we say head of horses, 20 pieces 
ofalver, for 20 silvers -^5 is always 5 one, 5ab is 5 ones of the 


ab kind. Every plural is a collective noun in the genitive case, 
it is the quantity, the denomination and the denominator. And 
as the denominator of a fraction never has reference to number, 
so it is with the plurals. We must repeat it, no number is plu- 
ral ; all, many, every, each, used with a plural application, are 
yet singular, and are properly followed by a genitive. It is cer- 
tain that every nominative plural is a genitive, for it is the 
quantity. We can hav6 no number, unless it be a number or 
quantity of sornething. 

282. Six of a thing, or number, is the same as six from it, 
but every subtraction implies a remainder ; hence, you never 
can take the whole of a thing, or from a thing, or, if you do, 
something must still be left. You have a heap of 12 apples, a 
. pile, a quantity; you may take from the pile until the last one — 
when you come to the last, there will be no taking from or o/, 
but simply a taking. Hence, there is no such thing as one of a 
thing or from it, if it be the last or the whole ; one and whole 


283. The participle, and under this head we will include all 
kinds of verbal nouns and verbal adjectives, may, with propriety, 
be taken as the basis of the verb, and as such its forms will first 
come under consideration. We will give a full comparative 
view of the participles of different languages, that the student 
may learn how they are marked, and may observe, also, the 
curious changes which is undergone by the final syllable which 
thus characterizes them. 

284. We will commence with the participles and verbals of 
the German languages. The Swed. infinitive is lind-a, Danish 
bind-e, A. S. hindran, Germ, hind-en, our bind ; so, the endings 
all reduce to e, and that, even, with us, disappears. The Gr'k 
ein, L. ere, er, belongs with them. That the Dan. e represents 
the L. er, is seen by the pres't ind., where the er appears; as, 

286. The present participle has the following forms ; Gothic 
hind-ands; old Germ, hint-anter; Icel. hind-andi; Germ, hind- 
end ;.^n^, hind-ing; Dan. hind-ende; ant, and, end, ing (g=d), 
are all modifications of one form, as, again, they are all a 
strengthening of the infin. en. The final s,- er, i, e, noticed in 
these forms, are adjective marks. 


286. The corresponding past participles, of these languages, 
are as follows; Go. bund-ans; old Germ, hunt-aner; Icel. huTidr 
inn ; A. S. bund-en ; Du. bond-en ; this participle, it will be 
seen, tends to identify itself with the infinitive, marking the 
tense rather by the body of the word than by the ending. We 
have, for this participle, both bound and bound-en. The en of 
this part, often appears as ec?, e<, ^, as in our own lov-ed, brov^h-t^ 
G«rm. ge-lieb-t (from Ueben^ love) — the e^^ showing the identity 
of this part, with that in end. The Gothic has a form of this 
part, in tks; as, scdb-ondsy sav-ing, salb-oths, sav-ed — the oth is 
our edy with the adjective mark s. 

287. With these German participles, those of Latin readily 
compare ; the present ends in ans {ants) ; as, am-ans^ loving 
(Gothic bind-ands) } the past ends in atu^ ; as, am-atus, lov-ed 
(Gothic salb-oths, -ots), the Go. « corresponding to the Lat. vs. 
The Anglo Saxon has a gerund in anne (with prefix to), from 
ande ; afl vrnt-ende^ writing, gerund writ-anne^ L. scrib-endum^ 
writing — the e of tha one and um of the other, being the noun 

288. It should also be remarked, that the German past parti- 
ciple has the prefix ge (varying in some of the family, and dis- 
appearing in others) ] as, schreibenj to write, and ge-schrteben, 

289. The French, Italian, and Spanish participles afford little 
that is peculiar, when compared with those already given ; in 
French, however, th^ e<, it^ of the past part, is reduced to e, i; 
BSypari-er^ to speak, parl-e^ sppk-en (for parl-et) — but in olu 
French, tlus t appears; as, done-it, given (French donn-e), ost-et 
for ot-e, 

290. Celtic Pakticiples : The Celtic languages have not 
developed the part, endings so strongly as the Germ, and Latin 
have, still; such as do exist are easily ranged along-side of those 
already noticed. 

291. The Welsh has no uniform infinitive mark, yet the 
ordinary endings od, ed, yll^ u, i, o, aw, may be taken as the 
representatives of it. In Gaelic, we find the more regular adh 
(Welsh ad) ; as, leagTi-adh, lav-ing ; it takes, also, the form, in 
Irish, of amh, ail. In Irish, the infin. has prefix do, the to of 
ours; as, buail, strike thou, do bualadh, to strike; the infin., in 
Irish, differs from the imperative not only by adding inf. mark, 
but also by a change in the body of the word ; as, righ, reach, 
inf. do-rochtain. This adh of Gaelic is the at of Latin supine 
am-atum, and the tas of brevitas. 

292. In Celtic, the present participle agrees more with the 
infinitive. In Irish, this part, has the prefix a, ag (our a in 
go a walking, also German ge of past part.), thus, teidh, go, do 


dhul (infin.), and ag dnl (part.) ; tahhair, give, do thabhairt 
(infin.), ag tahhairt (part.). In Cor., this ag is ou ; as, care 
(inf.), ou care (part.), loving; in Celt. Bret., it is o; a£, kana, 
to sing, o kana, singing (French chant-ant), 

293. The past participle in Celtic is marked by the usnal t; 
thus, in Irish, struck is Iniml-te; dean, do, dean-ta, done. In 
Cornish, this t appears as s; thus, care, love, hyr-ys, lov-ed; ry, 
give, re-ys, given. The Welsh uses its passive part, only for 
the persons of the verb ; thus, car-ir^ (he) is loved ; cerid, (he) 
was loved; cer-ir, (he) will be loved; car-wyd, (he) has been 
loved; car-asid, (he) had been loved — all these forms going 
through all the persons of the tense without change. The inf 
is here also used for this participle, and it shows well how the 
two are equal ; thus, I am wedi-dysgu^ I am after-learning, i. e. 
have learned. It has, too, another adj. form for this piu:t., in 
edrig ; as, car-edtg, loved, the ig being an adject, development; 
dysg-edig^ learned (teaiched). In C.B., dalea (and dalemtt), to 
delay; dale-et^ delayed; kana, to sing, kan-et, sung; kavout, to 
find, kav-et, found — from which we see how this part, and the 
infin. agree. It is seen most clearly, in Celtic, that all the par- 
ticiples are based on the infinitive. 

294. Slavic Participles : The Polish infinitive is marked 
by c=s, z, lluss. t; as, pis-ac, to write. The part's and verbals 
of Polish are as follows : 

Imper. pisz, write. P. Part, pis-an-y, written. 

Part. Pr. pisz-ansy writing. Past T. pis-'al, wrote, written. 
Ger'd j»w-anic, the writing. Past. act. na-pis-awszy, hav. written. 

Pisz-ans has also the declinable form jrisz-an^-y, Grerm. schretb- 
end-e, L. scrih-ent-e, from scribens {ans = ens) ; pis-an-y is like 
scrip-t-us, Lat., our writt-en : it is the precise form of Go. hund- 
ans; pis-an-ie is the A. S. writ-anne, L. andum; pis-alsspis-an; 
the past active has the common prefix na. All these forms of 
Polish verbals show very prettily how such forms may gradate 
into each other. 

295. The Russsan imperative is palt, burn ; infinitive paJrit, 
to burn ; the other forms are as follows : 

Pr. Part, paly-^ish-i, burniiig. Past act. pal-ivsh-i^ hav. burned. 
Pr. Pass, pal-im-if being burned. Pr. gerd. paly-otch-iy in burning. 
Past Pass, pal-enn-i, been burned. Past gerd. pal-iv («A-t), hav. burned. 

296. The Pr. Part, dsh-i is Pol. ans-i; im-i is Pol. any (Gr'k 
pot-im-os, to be drunk) ; enn-i is a variation of this imi (as we 
find anne=ande in A. S.) — other forms of this participle are 
given in t-i (L. t-us, our ed); as, ter-ti, rubb-ed, kalo-ti, pricked; 
-ivshri is P. -awsz-y. The gerunds are simply the present and 
past part's, differently applied; thus, while the part's are 


aflj's belonging to the nonn, the ger'ds are used iftdependently; 
as, (while) walking on the banks of the river, I mused, (in) 
serving our country, we -do our duty, having received your letter, 
I answered ; otchi is found shortened to a, la, and ivsJii to iv. 
There is, too, the past tense palril^ identical with palim, and inf. 

297. The Bohemian infin. is jnti, to drink, imper. piy (pij^, 
drink, volorti, to call, volej, call. 

pif-ici {pife)y drinking (R. ^ashi). volaj-id^ calling. 
piv'shiy hav. drunk TR. -ivshi), vola-vshi^ hav. called. 
voJr-ijtni, the calling (ger'd). volan^ being called (Pass.). 

As we saw in Russian, so here pivshi has the form piv, which 
again equals pil, drank, hav. drank ; so, also, volav equals volal^ 

298. The Slovensh has little that is noticeable ; del-atiy to do, 
del^t (supine), del-ajoc, doing, and ger'd del-aje (Polish ans), 
and det-anfcy the doing (A. S. anne, Lat. andum) Serb. Wend. 
pal-ic, to burn, ^aZ-acy, burning, ^a^i7 (pal-iwsi), hav. burned, 
jMi^ewy, burned (pass.) ; there is also a condensed ger'd, pal-o, 

299. The lUyr. is almost identical with those already noticed ; 
vid^U (videt) to see, vid-es, seeing, vid-evshi^ hav. seen, also 
vid-elj vid-jeUj seen (Pass. L. vis-urn), vid-jenje, the seeing (Pol- 
ish ante) — just so in Latin, andum is gerund mark, and andus 
passive participle. 

300. It remanis yet briefly to consider that past active part, 
in itDsi, ivshi, awszy. In origin, it is plainly only a growth of 
the pres't part, ans, yashi, ici; its identity, too, with the past 
in t7, al, is seen by its common reduction to iv^il. With its 
prefix na, as in Polish, it corresponds exactly with German ge- 
schrieben. But, in form, the ending is double, and it is as a 
present based on the past part. ; as, Russ. paliv-shi on palU; it 
IS like the L. die-to from dic-o^ the t representing the ending of 
ail infin. ; this v, w, at?, is used very generally, in Rus., to rep- 
resent the infin. ending in these forms Upon forms ; thus, we 
find, there, a pluperf. tense of pali^ pali-v-al^ which is the past 
of a new form of pali, paliv for palit^ it is the av of am-av-ere^ 
the base of am-av-eram (Lat.) ; the G-'k perf. part, tetu^h-ot-os, 
may, no doubt, be compared with it. 

301. The old Prussian infinitive ends in int, it, pres. part, in 
uns, ons (Go. ands), and the past or pass. part, in its, int-s (Go. 
tths). The Lith. has a pres. and fut. pass, in mas (R. imi), and a 
past act. in d-amas {dams), Russ. iv-shi, Sans, t-avan, also a 
future s-es (serw), G'k s'as, s-dn, Sans, s-t/an. 

302. HuNaARiAN Part's : In Hung., the infinitive ends in 
ni, as var-ni, to wait; var-o, waiting (short as in Boh.); var't' 


(paat part.) waited, (active and passive) ; var-and-o, a part, in- 
dicating one who will wait, or one to be waited for, and corre> 
sponding exactly to the Ger. zu lobendy to be praised (to prais- 
ing), and the Lat. a-mand-us^ (one) to be loved. The paxaUel 
between these part's and those of Latin is unmistakable — tiie 
present in o being a condensed form, as the Ban. c, infin. for L, 
are. Not only are the past and fut. part's used with both an 
active and a passive force, even the present part, is often used 
passively also. 

It has also a gerund var-van, shorter var-va, corresponding 
in form with the Slavic, and used like it. It is to be compared 
with Euss. short ger'd iv, Lith. dams^ Sanscrit van. 

There is also a pass, infin. var-alrni^ to be waited (for), va/r- 
at'O, pres. part, denoting ^Ae waited {for). Here is another 
case of a verb formed upon a new base — at^i is a double inf. 
ending. With varat as the base, it takes the full set of part's^ 
besides var-ato^ there is the past var-atot^ fut. vaflr-a/tamdo, gei^d 

803. Finnish Part's : The verbals of the different dialects 
of the Finn, family, present some interesting forms; thus, in 
Suomi, ole-man, the being (Gr'k men) ; olrcva^ being (part.) ; 
oUrU^ been ; san-ova^ saying (va=ing) ; san-onu, said (past, act.), 
san^itUj been said. 

Syrian, inf. ending wy (Hun. ni) ; as, y^ty-ny^ to send, send- 
ing ) yst-an, the sending ] yst-yg, sending (our ing) ; ^Mtroma, 
sent (G'k, -omen, 'men) ; as, m^ em yst^ma, I am sent. 

Wotjak inf. ends also in ny; as> kary-ny, to do ; ka/r, (imper.) 
do; kar-en, do-ing (em, Germ, en) and do-ne ; kar-ysf, doing 
(see Illyr.) ; also kar-yku, the doing ; in the latter we find the 
usual endings change into k, a letter which we will see again in 
the Turk, infin. -mek; we find also kao'-on and kar-ono^ doing 
(Pol. ante.) 

In Sheremis, we find for coming these variations, tol^m, tol-cu, 
tol-sa (sa=as) } tol-ema^ hav. come (^e-komm,en, G^rm.), also 
tot-mynga, (-muka), pointing to Turk. -m^k. 

In Ostjak, for ver (kar), make, we find ver-6?at (-end), t?cr-db, 
ver-m^n, making, and ver-em^ made. 

In the Lapp, form, we find et as inf. ending ; as, a^eU-etj to 
live; aeUem, living, and having lived. 

304. Turkish Participle : Following the Finn, and Hung. 
we may properly speak of the Turkish verbals. The infin. here 
ends in mek, mak, and ma, me — pointing to the men and ma 
of Greek verbals, and the m^ of Finn. ; for the verb love, we 
find inf. sev-mek, sev-mich (-mish) and sev-duk, hav. loved — 
the former being a form of infin., and the latter to be referred to 
the past act. of Slavic ; sev-er and sev-en, lov-ing, the er com- 


paring with Alban. arcs=ing (that er is used for en, is seen by 
L. inf. arc = Germ, en). There is a far longer list of verbals 
in this tongue, but it will not be of use to review them here. 

306. Albanish Participle : The present participle ends in «, 
se (L. ana) ; aa, mount-es, conquering; pene-se, making; divio-Sj 
hearing; divion^arej heard; dasovrre, loved — the past ending 
are, re (Latin -uruSy -art) ; we find also de-ne, given, and thene, 

306. Persian Participle : The Persian offers the following; 
perest is the imperative form, meaning adore, 

jfere9t-ende, the adorer. inf. peresUiden^ to adore. 

j7ere«^-an, adoring. perest-ide, hav. adored. 

perest-a, (shorter form). perett-ide buderij to hav. adored. 

It is easily seen that ende=^an, a; even this a is also sometimes 
dropped, making part.=imper. The form in ide is identical 
with inf. iden, also with Turkish form in duk. The inf. in d-en, 
Uan, oft^n, is double, and to be compared with Turkish mek, if 
not with Latin supine -atum, 

307. In this connexion, we might briefly refer to the Hin- 
dostani part's ; for the verb mar, strike, we have mar-na, to 
strike; mar-ta, -striking; ma/r-a, struck; mar, m^r-kar, hav. 
struck. The inf. mark na is Hung, ni and am, Grerm. en; the 
ta is our past sign, a is a shortened na ; kar is genitive sign. 

308. And here we may also introduce the Bengali verbals. 
The inf. and preset part, have the same form, and 'end in ite 
(Rus. it) I as, kar-ite, making and to make; past act. kar-iya, 
hav. done (Hind, a, Rus. iv) ; there is the verbal noun kar-an, 
JSar-nay kar-ana (Pol. anie), doing; there is, too, a form, like 
Slavic gerund, kar-Ue, on doing, being done (the precise Slavic 
past il; and like Slavic it is also found in the past tense), and 
another gerund kar-iha, doing, to do (Russ. iv, Hungarian,t?a), 
besides a passive in ta (Latin tus), 

309. Manohu Participle : The infinitive of this tongue ends 
in me (G'k men, T. m^k, me) ; as, khoach-ame, to nourish ; the 
participle ends in ra, re (L. are, T. er) ; as, khoach-ara, nourish- 
ing (used also for present and future tense) ; there is the form 
khoach-afi (Greek sas, Turkish tser). 

In MongoliiEin, the infinitive ends in cJio, ku (Turk, meic) ; as, 
ahvncho, to take ; there is a gerund ahu-m, taking (Man. afi)^ a 
supine abu-ra, to take (Manchu re). 

We might here present some of the Thibet verbals; infinitive 
hyed-par (var), to make ; hya-rou, hy-ar, to make (gerund) ; 
h/ed-pa (va), making; hyas-pa (va, ta), made (past part.); hya^ 
va, to make, Jj.facturtis. The endings ar, rou, re, va, are such 
as we have often met with. 

310. Semitic Participle : In Semitic, the participle endings. 

80 . PHRASIS. 

have not developed so strongly as we have seen in the languages 
so far treated of. It will be observed that such endings keep 
pace, in growth, with common noun and adjective endings. 
With us, as in Semitic, the us, a, wm, of Latin adjectives and 
nouns almost wholly disappears ; we have lost, too, as in Semitic, 
the ending of the infinitive, using with it only a prefix; we have 
only the ending ing for all the part's and verbals found in Lat, 
for such irregular verbs as run, set, strike. The Semitic parti- 
ciples are formed after the manner, principally, of the Grerman 
ge-schriehen, from schrdhen, ih write, and our strike and struck; 
that is, they do not develop new endings, but rely upon changes 
in the body of the word, adopting more or less generally^ such 
prefixes as m, a, I (Germ, ge, Celt, a, our he, to). But all the 
Semitic languages show this last participle ending very strongly 
as a development in the personal endings, which are variations 
of the verbal endings. The Syriac shows it, too, very clearly 
in the common noun or verbal ending ath, an (Latin tas. Germ 
en, Greek ma, Ethiopic ot, o, t). 

311. Thus, in Hebrew, we have : 

qatel-ah\ she kills. Part. act. qotel, killing. 

qatal-etta (eth), thou killest. Part. pass, qattdy killed. 

qatal-ettif I kill. me-qattel, ma-qetil, killing. 
qetol (inf.). to kill. 

And in Arabic : 

qatal-atf she kills. inf. qatal-un, to kill. 

qatal-ta (t), thou killest. Part. act. qatil-un^ killing. 

qatal-tu (t), I kill. Pass. part, ma-qtul-unf killed, 

imper. a^qtuly kill (root, qtl), • 

So the verb a-nsur, aid (imper.), also Irinsur; naser-un, aiding, 
fem. form naser-atun ; na^r-an, aiding, ger'd and inf. ; md-nsvTy 
aided (part, pass.), (root is nsr; a, I, ma, are prefixes). 

We notice here very plainly, in the persons, the t of our lov- 
eth, L. am-at and am-atum,am^ant; and the scarcely developed 
un of Arabic, points to the Latin ending um. 

312. Here we may introduce the Malay participles; they too, 
like the Semitic, are marked by prefixes. For diahat^ touch, 
we find men^diahat, to touch; ada-diahat, touching and touched; 
telah-diabat, having touched; tur-diahat (and te-), touched 
(pass.). The prefix men is very common; it is the Semitic ma, 
and it has the form also of pew; as, pen-diabat (verbal noun); 
ada and telah have also, as separate words, the value of is and 

313. Geeek Participle: We will first consider the infinitives 
and participles of the Greek active, bringing into the comparison 
those of Sanscrit and Latin as occasion may require The ordi- 
nary Greek infinitive ending is ein, as leijpein, to leave (our ing, 


leaving, Germ, en, hleihen, to leave); in modem Grreek, this cm 
becomes ei (Dan. e); as, graph-ein^ G-'k, graph-eij mod. Gr'k, to 
write. It has, also, the forms occasionally, of men, mein, also s, 
is, a growth or form of cm; there is the infin. ending at, (mod. 
G'k ct), peculiar to one of the past tenses (aorist) ; as, eleips-at, 
to have left, and a form enai, peculiar to the perfect tense, le- 
leiph-enai, to have left. This enai is a growth of ein, so as to 
become double ; it is practically an infin. of an infinitive, such 
as we saw in treating- of the Russian participle; it is like the isse 
of am-av-isse, to have loved, and the t-are of can-Uare, to chant. 
As it is past and double, it is also passive, and equal to -om-en 
of G-reek participle ending -omen-os. 

314. The regular passive infin. ending of Greek (also ending 
of middle, i. e. active) is esth-ai. We do not regard this as es- 
sentially different from enai, indeed, we find Snai also used for 
passive; esth equals est, eth, en, ein, et. The Latin passive infin. 
ending ar-i, ar-ier, is also double, it is hardly necessary to add. 

315. It might be matter of interest to the student to point out 
the connexion between Greek and Latin (especially old Latin) 
infin. endings and those of cases, but we must pass the subject 
by, simply reminding him that all verbal endings are to be iden- 
tified with case and noun endings. 

There is also the Latin supine ending turn, Greek ton, which, 
in Sanscrit tun, marks the ordinary infinitive; in old Latin, the 
infinitive ends in um, and tud is an old supine ending. 

316. The Greek ending for the present participle is dn, cms-a, 
on ; San. an, ati, an; Lat. ans; Lith. as, anti; as, G'k leip-dn, 
leav-ing; it is the same as infin. ein, our m^. In the gen. case, 
it developes into ont-os; as leip-ontos, of leaving. In the aorist, 
it assumes the form of as, asa, an (mas., fem., neut.), gen. ant- 
es (Polish ans, as) ; the full form of this participle is hip-s-as 
(leaving off augment of the tense), i. e. it is an ordinary partici- 
ple on the new b?^ Mp-s, itself representing an inf. or verbal. 
This sas is precisely the Slavic past act. part. In the perf. part. 
dn becomes ds, and ontos (gen.) becomes otos. In San., ds, uia, 
OS, is van, tisi, vas — sas, sasa, san, is tavan, tavati, tavat. 

317. For the passive and middle participles, om-en-os is the 
usual ending in Greek ; as, leip-omenos, leaving self, or being 
left. Leaving off the os (fem. I, neut. on) as the adj. ending, 
we have omen, men — in Sanscrit, an-as, and aman-as; so we 
see by San., that men = an, German en, t, Lith. am-as. Buss, mi, 
cm/,. Greek mxi. There is no more doubt that omen, men, is a 
growth of inf. em, than there is that Lat. atus (am-atus, lov-ed) 
is a form of supine turn, which is active. We find, in the aorist, 
eis, ent'Os, an active ending, in place of omen-os. 

318. The student will not fail to observe in the Gr'k parties 



pie forms, how beautifully they illustrate that feature of lan- 
guage by which new forms arise out of old ones, and how the 
endings become thus repeated. It is one of the most interesting 
phenomena of language, and it affords us one of its most import- 
ant laws. To illustrate the nature of it, we might refer to such 
forms as these, common among the illiterate ; bestest (superL of 
a superl.) } less-er (compar. of a compar.) ; worstest (sup. of sup.); 
lec'tur-ing (a part, on a part.) — the tur is itself a part, ending; 
so thru-st-ing — the st being a past participle mark. 

319. Participle in Urus : We will use this as a general 
head, under which to bring, in a manner somewhat disconnected, 
many leading and important points in the history of the partici- 
ple ; this participle is connected with all other verbal forms, and 
we can hardly say anything of those forms which will not, direct- 
ly or indirectly, have a bearing upon the character of the one in 
urus. While we have in Latin am-ans, loving, amor-tus, loved, 
ama-ndus, to be loved (fut.), ama-ndum, the loving, afna'4um, 
(and -tu), to love, the loving (supine), we have also atna-turuSy 
about to love (future), and what we wish principally to show is, 
that this participle is a development of the forms just given, 
containing no element that they do not, that it is an adj. with 
infin. or part, as basis; and, again, that it is identical with the 
passive form ama-tur, he is loved. 

320. In old German, bind-ing is hint-anter, Germ, bind^nde; 
and in German, this same participle -end, -ingy is used for just 
such a participle as that in urus (and endus)^ i.e. both are future 
(with the difference however that urus is active, while the other 
is pass.) ; thus, er ist zu lob-end^ he is for praising, to be praised, 
while we would use, iQ a similar ca^e, the infin. or ger'd ; as, so 
mu^ch there is to praise^ to be praised. In Hung., the ^ture in 
ando (Lat. andus), a form of Germ, end, is used both for future 
pass, and fut. act. ; thus, we find ir-ando level, Germ, ztt-^chreib- 
ender brief, to-be-written letter, a letter which will be written 
(pass.); one about-to-write (a letter) is also designated as tVanc2o, 
the precise L. scripturus. Still further, in Hung., the common 
preset part, is used precisely as this fut. ando; thus, elad-o bor 
(o ^ ing) ss elad-ando bor {ando^turvs). Germ. zU'Verkaufender 
wein, for-selling wine, selling wine, wine to-be-sold. 

321. In the Vedas, this same form tar is used both as prQs't 
part, and present indicative. The Lat. forms do-nor (n =«tj and 
da-tor (G'k do-t^r, Sans, da-tar), our giver, belong to the same 
class ; so, rap-tor, rob-ber (from rapio), scrip-tor, writ-er (from 
scribo). That these forms tor, ter, are the Lat. turus, is seen by 
the fuller forms scrip-tura, a writ-ing ; fao-tura, the mak-ing ; 
rwp-tura, a breaking. These forms, it will be seen, are purdy 
active; the or is precisely the er of giv-er, serv-er, speah-ery and 


this er we know is identical with ing (speak-er=the speaking 
one), as we see by the corresponding L. forms ten-ant^ serv-ant^ 
prud-erU (a?i<=s Latin ans^ ens, ing), and we have two ways of 
regarding this tor, both amounting to the same thing, namely, 
either from turns, tura, or as a present part, form (as serv-ant, 
serv-er=L.«en;-a7is) of a new verb, as scriptor from scrvpto, or 
scriptere, just as we see do-nor from the new form dono, from 
do, to give. This ending tor, ter, of nouns, is seen in many 
languages, and assumes a great variety of forms ; thus, in our 
murder (a killing); blun-der, tim-ber, thun-der; junc-ture, frac- 
ture; sepul-crum (-trum), mira-culum (-tulum, -turum), /w^crwm, 
mons-trum, spec-trmn, Gr'k hak-tron (-trum), and lektron) mas- 
ter, fa-ther, laugh-ter; nee-dle (dl=4tr), hal-ter, — and so on 
without limit. 

322. In the Wallachian, lauda-toriu (as well as laud-andu, 
L. andus) equals Lat. laud-ans, praising (i. e. <orms«ans, ing), 
while to express the Lat. t&rus they need this form, a fi lauda- 
toriu, td be "pxiihmig^laudratwrus, about to praise. To be more 
precise about it, toriu rather equals tor than turus, and the above 
form is properly he is to-he-prais-er, i. e. he will praise, exactly 
as we saw in German and English. 

And we must observe, too, that in none of the modern Latin 
languages do we find a ftiture part, in urtis (if we count not the 
above tor-iu), but we do find Span, canto-dor, Rhat, Bom. canto- 
twr, Fr. chan-teur, Wall, conta-toriu, Eng. chont-er or sing-er; 
so, we are left to infer that those languages supply the place of 
this urus by using the pres't in ens (as we saw above, a compound 
to-be-praising (praiser) for about to praise, laudaturUs), (By 
way of note, we may remark that the t of chanteur, chanter, be- 
longs with the root as well as with the ending t-er; er here—tur'), 

323. If we bear in mind, in connexion with the above, that 
Turk, lir^ans, ing, pres't part., we shall find it proved beyond 
question that turibs is only a modification, an application, of the 
present ans, and hence of infinitive are, or. We may prove its 
identity with inf. are by a stronger Way than such an inference. 
In Latin, the imperative has not only the form am-a, love, but 
also the longer form am-ato, showing that a at the end of verbs 
is a condensed ato, ao, as in Danish a= are, or. So that we 
miglit expect the infin. am-are to be really amo-tre (-<wr). Now 
in French, we find these very endings for infs ; as, e-tre, to be 
(old Fren. es-ire), also repai-tre, sui-vre (v =**<)? nai-tre, join-dre 
(dr==:t), ven-dre, 

324. It only remains now to be shown that turus is passive as 
well as active, since we have already shown that it is present as 
well as future. In old North, we find the past (and pass.) part's 
fall-inn, fall-en ; tel-dr, tol-d; hren-der, burn-ed. Here we find 


dr (==^mn in some verbs, German infin. cw), which becomes <?«•, 
hren-dlr^ in some of the persons of past tense, as the mark of 
past (and pass.) part. ; it is hardly necessary to say this is tur 
of Latin. In Icelandic, wo find eUha-dur^ lik-ed, loved, Latin 
crnia-tus^ and we find the same form -ader in the past active^ but 
shorter in the compound tense; as, hefe elskad, have liked. 
(We find also thier ehked, you like (pres't indicative), but hcum 
elskar, he likes, so that ar^ed^ edr). So, we find here, clear 
enough, that dr^ dur, Fr. trCy Lat. turns, is used in the passive 

325. Besides reminding the student of the precise L. amatury 
he is loved, let us refer more particularly to the Lat. iura^ our 
tu7'e. We find tura constantly used in Latin as an equivalent 
of tu8 and turn, noun endings, which are applications of the 
passive participles ; thus, we find posi-tura ^^pod-tus, position, 
which is identical in form with the pass. part. ; so, scriptwra = 
in-scription, something written, and /ac^ra=/acft« (pass), the 
making. We can easily see how our part, (or ger'd) in ing is 
used passively in similar cases; to strike a man is simply to 
make him he struck, which converts it into a passive idea; that 
which is spoken is a speech, a speaking, the being loved by God 
is called the hviny of God ; a man desires a hearing, i. e. to &e 
heard, he expects a scolding, i.Q,tohe scolded. We continually 
see our gerund in ing thus used as a passive : everything that 
is finished becomes passive, becomes something done; a ^xas% 
itself when finished becomes done (passive) ; so, all our verbal 
nouns, such as fight, thrust, draught, speech, depth, remty wreck, 
bond, song, and scores of like forms, are true passives. The 
endings t, th, k, d, g, ch, and the like, are the very t of L. pass. 
tus, our ed. 

826. We have certainly gone far enough in this discassion to 
enable the student to fully comprehend now the nature of this 
participle in urus. We find it simply a gerund, infin., or verbal 
noun, used just as we use our gerund in ing, and our inf., and 
getting its future force, and passive also, only by its expressed 
or implied connexion with the verb be; thus, just as we say he 
is to come to day, he is coming to day, i. e. will come, should 
come, just so the Latins constantly use urus for a future verb, 
suppressing he ; as, he 'promised that he would come, is to come, 
se venturum. The Danish afibrds the best illustration of the 
gerund in ing used aa pass. ; as, hkes-endc instmmeni&r, blow 
instruments, blowing ones, and den udgiv-ende Bog, the outgiv- 
ing book, book given out ; these forms are based on the more 
original form of expression the instruments are for blowing, 
where blowing is exactly equal to a Latin verbal noun in Para, 

327. There are other points of importance than those so far 
noticed, in the .history of verbals of the German languages, and 


we may b& well consider them under this head, as they have a 
bearing more or less direct upon the verbal in turus. In Ice- 
landic, we find ad dska, to like, and (past tense) eg var ad elska, 
I was to like, a liking, liking-^ inf. used as ger'd and part. In 
Swedish, we have vt ha/va kaU-at, we have called (Perf. act.)^ 
and vi hafva kail-ats, we have (been) called (Passive), also vi 
varda (German werden, are) kaM-ade, we are called. We see, 
here, three different applications of one form, having a corre- 
sponding change in appearance which is unknown to us, as we 
use caUed for all the cases. In the first place, it is very evident 
that kaUat equals kaUad\ evident from the fact that we, and 
others, use their equivalents without distinction of form ; the 
identity of kalUaU with them will become evident too, after a 
little consideration. In Danish, so nearly equal to Sw., those 
three applications of the past part, have no change in form to 
mark them ; thus, V8ere skrev-et, be written ; ha/t skrev-et, had 
written ; Aave vmret gjore-ty have been done (chor-ed) ; erfund- 
et, is found, has been found. 

328. So, it is already proved, clearly enough, that kaU-at 
(act.) is the same as kalta/ts (pass.). This is enough to convince 
us also that the whole Dan.-Swed. passive system is not different 
from the active. In the Swed. infin, this katt-ats above takes 
the form kaU-as (ats-^as), to be called; so, too, kall-as is used 
iA five of the persons of the pres't; as, du Ara^/as, thou art called, 
but alsoy kaUens^ ye are called (this is the Latin. e7w«=a^s, cw). 
If we bear in mind that kaU-ar (ar being L. passive ending) is 
used in the persons of pres't active, as han kall-ar, he calls, we 
sball have further reason to beli«(q|.a8»ar to be identical with 
active. y. 

Again, in the Icel. ad elskast, to be lik-ed, the ast (Sw. ats, 
and as) is our active est of lov-est, as Dan. pass, es is our act. es 
of giv-es, i. e. what we use for lik-esty they use for to be liked 
(inf. pass..), and what we have for gives, they take for is given. 

We are thus brought to the conclusion that the Dan.-Swed. 
passive in its different persons is based on the passive participle 
(which we have often found to be equal to the act.), that indeed 
it is that part, varying in the different persons of the sing, and 
plur., often but slightly, and sometimes not at all. 

329. Verbal Endings : We come now to consider some of 
the forms which these participle endings assume when marking 
certain kinds of nouns and adjectives. 

We often find several of these iendings joined to one root, but 
by no means all of them ; thus, in Grreek po-tos^ a drinking, a 
draught, {tos is L. tus past part.) — it means also drinkable, to 
be drank, and potimos has the same meaning ; po-tikos^ pertain- 
ing to drink; po-tSs^ a drinker (es=er); po-tisma^ a drink; 


po-ti8is, giving to dnuk',pO'tons=potos, potion] po-tamos, drink- 
able water, river. For neariy all these forms we may use the 
simple term drink, even drink-water (as Germans would say) « 
drinkable water, showing, thus, that endings are equal, or do 
not vary the meaning of the base word. The ending ikos, «=i^o«, 
t08, our ic of graphic ; ros, mos, inos Q^men, omen, Sans, cm), 
are also found as variations of tos ; as, zul-inos, woo<J-en (in =* 
en),pot-{mo8, drinkable, troph-imos, nourishing; nose-ros, sickly, 
pJuhone-roe, envious — tos is precisely the equal of mos; thus, 
lek'tos equals not only spoken, but also speakable, that may be 
spoken. So, we must consider our able, ful, Lat. ilu, hilis, and 
the like, as variations of this tos, L. tus, and in the end of ing, 
(Note, once for all, that the os, us, a, is, are mfere adjective end- 
ings, which may be left out of consideration). 

830. It can hardly be said that such endings have any force 
at all, if for no other reason for .this, that one is so often used 
for the others; thus, joyful == joyous, joy-ingj i. e. having joy} 
hurtful = hurting, that which is hurting, and flexible » bending, 
that which bends; bl, fl=tl, tr, turns. 

331. The ending men, ma (men-os, tus), is very common in 
Latin and Greek (besides Slavic, and elsewhere). It is equal 
to ing ; as, certa-men, striving, regimen, ruling, Sans, dha-m^an, 
a building, a thing built ; it often, too, denotes passives (just as 
we use build-ing to denote the action and building ^housej pas- 
sive); so car-men, a po-em, a work, (a thing) done; Sans, jan- 
man, a bearing, a birth, passive ; Greek ma, pra^gma, an act, 
something done, and gramma, a writing, something written. It 
has another development in <nur ment, L. mentum; as, our gov- 
ernment = governing, teg-m^lUum, a cover, covering, that by 
which we are covered ; in Ffen., it equals our l^ of adverbs, as 
intensive-ment, intensive-ly, as well as our ing, as etonnement, 
stunn-ing (stun-ment). There is, also, the wide prevailing ta, 
tos, our ence, ness, th ; thus, Rus. teplo-ta, warm-th, tepid-ness; 
L. brevi'tas, brevi-ty, brief-ness. We have scarcely yet made a 
beginning in that long list of Greek and Latin verbal endings, 
but we have given all that it is proper to give here. 

332. We will conclude this part of the subject by noticing 
some of the endings of Pers. The adjectives here are derived 
from nouns by the suffix ane (cw of silken) ; as, merd, man, 
merd-ane, man-like, -ly; also by in; ahen, iron, ahen-in, of iron; 
there is the mend, as devht, happiness, devht-mend, happy, derd, 
grief, derdi-mend, grievous (Fr. mcn« =ly) ; tebaJi, corruption, 
tebah'Mar, corrupt-er {tor of scrip-tor) ; nam, name, nam^dar, 
named, renowned, garan, heavy (L. gravis), garan-bar, loaded, 
heavy (bar of Germ, denkbar, thinkable), (dar=tar, turns) — 
bar takes the form, too, of var, yar, as baht, fortune, baht-yar, 


fortun-ate, dU^ heart, dU-dar^ loved {dar^^har)) purdde^ de- 
manded, jpwrmA, a demand (id=ish); giriftan^ to take, girift- 
ar, one taken, a prisoner {ar^ pass.) — ar is properly ^itnw with 
a passive application. 


333. If we take merely a surface view of language, it will be very 

easy for us to divide words into two leading classes, — nouns, and 

such as belong to nouns, and verbs, together with such as belong 

to verbs. If we rely wholly upon the appearance of these two 

classes, and inquire nothing about their origin and history, we 

shall find little which they have in common, and come to regard 

them as radically distinct. However, none but a superficial 

view could bring us to such a conclusion ) these classes when 

critically examined are found, in fact, to have everything in 

oonnnon.' All nouns are based upon a verbal idea; and, again, 

tlie basis of all verbs are nouns, that class of nouns called verbals. 

334. It is generally imagined that verbs have that peculiarity, 
in comparison with all other pa^ of speech, by which they ex- 
X>Tess and affirm. And yet it must be observed, that it is not 
SLlone im the simpler and less cultivated languages, that we find 
other parts of speech used in the place of verbs and having a 
^alue equal to Uieirs. In all tongues, we find abundant exam- 
ples where the noun and the verb (as, I wcdk, the walh) do not 

differ in form. In Tamil, nouns and adjectives are treated as 
verbs. In Japanese, the adjective is used as verb or adjective, 
according to where it is placed ; as, yoJdfito^ good man (or yoi 
fitd)^ fito yo9i^ man (is) good (or fiU) yoi) — so, a child would 
say tnan good^ for the man is good. In this language, the basis 
of every verb is clearly a kind of noun or adjective. 

335. In the Thibetan, among others, person endings are not 
developed, and the verb is simply a participle or verbal, scarcely 
differing in character from the noun. In all languages, the in- 
finitive, gerund, and participles, constitute an important portion 
of the forms of the verb. And yet, verbs as they are, they are 
also as certainly nouns and adjectives; they have all the cases 
and qualities that belong to nouns and adjectives. Even the 
Infinitive and Imperative are known to be only mere case forms. 

336. In Latin and Greek, we are particularly struck with the 
number of participles used as verbs ; they not only perform the 


office of verbs, they are verbs in fact. Whenever we use ex- 
pressions like these, / saw a man walking^ hear hint 9peak^ hear 
his speech, we use walking, speaJc, and speech, precisely as verbs. 
Every word used as a predicate, that is following ^, is a verb 
also ; as, he is there, he was wise, he is a writer ; in some lan- 
guages, as the Eussian, the is is left out, of so little force is this 
auxiliary; in particular cases, we also leave out the, auxiliary, 
and thus the predicate performs the part of a true verb ; thus, 
the one was here and the other there^ he becomes noisy, and I 
quiet. Indeed, to be precise about the matter, we may say that 
all objectives, or other words following verbs, bear the main 
weight of the verbal expression, and may, hence, be called verbs; 
thus, we say he catches Jlsh, i. e. he fishes, he trims with iron, 
i. e. he irons, he feeds grain to the horse, i. e. he grains the 

Personal Endings. 

337. We have already pointed out the identity between all 
case endings and the endings of verbals and participles. We 
shall observe hereafter, when we come to treat of tenses, that 
those endings of verbs which mark the persons, are modifications 
only of the endings which mark the participles. But what we 
wish now first to turn our attention to, is the parallel between 
the personal endings and those endings which in other languages 
mark the possessive pronouns. 

338. In Hungarian, we have var-tam, I have waited, vart-^, 
thou hast, and vart-a, he has waited, or expected. To compare 
with this, we have lov-am, my horse, lov-acl., thy horse, lov^, 
his horse. In Semitic, the parallel is quite as certain, but more 
remote. In the Finnish, we find the identity exhibited in a 
still stronger light. But it is the Samoidish that we find most 
instructive in this matter. 

339. We will state the whole case as we find it in SamoidiBh; 
it will surely be no harm that we note some things which have 
a more direct bearing on points discussed under other heads. 
Here, we find sawajale, (a) good day, hut jale-^a sawa^ day-the 
(the day) (is) good; sawa, (it is) good — precisely as we say - 
good for him; jah, (it is) day. Such expressions as the fore- 
going are often heard by us, but we regard them as only childish 
or savage. As we said before, eitery predicate is a real verb; 
in Samoidish, this fact is so well recognized, that the noun and 
adjective, when performing the office of predicate, develop end- 
ings equal to personal endings, and thus stand independent as 
true verbs ; thus, sawa, good, sawa-m, good-I, good-my, i. e. I 
(am) good; wwea, fia.ther, niseorm, father-my, father-I, i. e. I (am) 


father. Not this alone, that personal ending, by a slight vari- 
ation, may also indicate past time, or even future ; as, nisea-rnSy 
I (was) father, nisef-um, I (will be) father. To show the iden- 
tity of passive endings with personals, in Samoid., we give the 
following: Ayr = cow, %r-m, my cow, h^r4 thy cow, h^r-t, his 
cow; so, also, m?=hand, vd-ou (my), ud-ol^thj^, ud-et, (his) 
hand; and loga= fox, loga-u, loga-l, loga-t, his fox — for logau, 
we find also logam (ams=au), and logad equal to logal. To 
compare with this, we find the verb mada-u, mada-r, mada-day 
I, thou, he cut. So that the verb, here, may be conceived to be 
■what we see it is in all simple languages, a participle base,* or 
verbal, developing possessive pronouns, and the expression, / cut 
the wood, would be, in principle, the wood (is) ray-cutting (cut- 
ting-my). We see this clearly when we come to the verbal noun, 
which may receive these endings and become a true verb ; as, 
madawy, cut, hewing, becomes, with the personal ending, mad- 
awae-m=zl was (at) cutting, or was cutting (also is cutting). 
This is with the ending for predicates, and if we use possessive 
endings (a form only of the other), we get madawae-u =:mj 
cutting [(i. e. it is or was my), having a power equal to I have 

340. Not only do we have, here, possessives belonging to the 
noun, but the new form (noun with ending) may be carried 
through all the cases, as tea-u (my), tea-r (thy), and tea^da, 
(his) deer; and genitive, tea-n (of my), ^ea-w<^ (of thy), tea-nda, 
(of his) deer (reindeer). 

341. There is a slight difference, as we saw above, in two 
classes of pronoun endings, those called predicative, which 
grow upon predicates, as we saw in sawam, and those subjective 
(possessive) endings, which we saw in madau, madar, hgau, 
logal; but both are one and the same thing. The difference in 
their use is very slight ; thus, nan mu&-m, (the) bread took-I, 
the bread (was) my taking, and nan mue-u, I took bread. 

342. As a noun in Samoidish can be treated as a verb, can 
receive endings, and even tense marks, so does the verb, again, 
come to be treated as a noun and develop the different case end- 
ings. We see this in all languages where that portion of the 
verb embraced by participles and verbals, is declined precisely 
as the noun is, and with the same number of cases. But, in 
Samoidish, it extends to other forms of the verb. So it is in 
Tamil ; there, the verb is declined like nouns also ; thus, the 
verb denoting he walked, or he the walker, by a slight variation 
takes a case form, and means through him the walker, or hy the 
walk (one). 

343. There is a remarkable and significant coincidence, in 
this language (Samoid.), between th^ endings of case and those 



endings of verbs denoting pronouns or persons — ; thus, mis 
the sign of ace, it is the sign, too, of the 1st person ; rf, ad^ (io, 
are marks of dat. and abl., so they are marks, too, of the 2d and 
3d persons. We have long before this identified the case end- 
ings with the suffix article or pronoun. 

344. We find in many languages, incorporated as endrngs 
with the verb, not only such as we have, already noticed, and 
which denote the subject or the possessor, but also such as denote 
the object. So, in Hebrew, qatal-tay thou-hast-killed, and 
qatalta-ni, thou-hast-killed-me (<a=thott, and nissme); sOj in 
Italian, difendi-amo^, we defend selves (ct=self),procMra-<^, 
procure-thou-it (fo=it,), procurar-se-lo, to procure-self-it j so, 
in English, called-m, for called them, heard-er, for heard her; 
also we say, there killed-he-him, there gave-he-him-it, i. e. gave 
it to him. There is, theoretically at least, no limit to this devel- 
oping a new pronoun on a new base (for it is that and no more). 

345. It is true, it may be said of these pronoun endings denot- 
ing subject and object in other languages, that they do not 
exist separately. But not less may be said of the separate pro- 
nouns, for they, though printed separate, can only oe said to 
exist in connexion with the verb. In truth, all words are as 
little independent as suffixes — no word, more than any living 
thing, can exist hy itself ahne, can he separate. The separation 
of words from the base with which they are connected, is rather 
apparent than real. 

346. Having given now some general ideas of the original 
nature of the verb, and having considered also, sufficiently for 
present purposes, the matter of personal endings, we will now 
consider more in detail the different person, tense, and mood 
forms of the verb, as we find them in other languages — selecting 
only such for this comparative view as we find presenting some 
new or instructive features, and keeping all the while in sight 
this main object, the explanation of the growth and structure of 
verbs. And, for this purpose, we will begin with the Turkish, 
a language which possesses a verb more fully developed, and a 
system more complete in its parts, than any other we could select. 

Turkish Verbs, 

347. We will take the verb deug (imper.), strike, tap (Chreek 
tup') 5 we will arrange the verb in Turkish, and the same under 
the other heads, by placing the singular persons at the left, and 
the plural at the right; we will sometimes, also, perhaps, point 
ofl* the ending separate from the body or base of the word, but 
in this case we may give the student the caution, here, which 
we might have given in many other places, that t^e separatiiig 


of a word thus into parts, that is, drawing such a certain line 
between them, is always more or less arbitrary ; it is just like 
drawing such a marking line between head and neck, and arm 
and hand, or leaf and stem, or creek and river ; it is clear no 
such Kne can truthfully be drawn, and yet the distinction be- 
tween such things is indispensable ; and so in language, such 
marks are always serviceable, though always, also, open to 
objection. , 

348. JP^enent Tense. 

detiffur-um, I strike. deuffur-uz, we strike. 

deuffur^seriy thou strikest. deugur-^aiz, ye strike. 

det^r^, he strikes. deugur-ler, they strike. 

The verb fee, present tense, runs thus : 

tf», I am. izj we are. 

tenj thou art. «t>, ye are. 

dur, he is. durler, they are. 

We must add, too, that hen=l, sew = thou, 6i2J=we, si;5=ye> 
you — and ler is the usual plural sign; the present participle is 
deugur = striking. 

349. We conclude with regard to the forms of this tense, that 
the present participle is plainly the basis here, as we shall find 
it, also, in other languages. The endings of the 1st and 2nd 
persons, both numbers, may be taken as the representatives of 
personal pronouns, or of the verb he, or of both. If we take the 
analogy of the past tense, where was is clearly the element (9s 
it is separate), the pres't part, being the base, we might decide 
that it is the verb Se, thus bringing back to us the combination 
well known to us, in place of the prs'nt, «m striking, is striking. 
But, in most other languages, the endings have vanished down 
to a mere mark of the persons — though in principle, he is every- 
where a part of the form. Th« impossibility of deciding the 
point, arises from the fact that the verb he is, at best, only a 
pronoun, and so often has a form not to be distinguished from 

350. But we do not in either case look upon the form deugur- 
wi, for instance, as a compound, but rather consider that some 
verbal or part, ending has grown up into such representatives 
as we have just been speaking of. 

351. Imperfect, 

deugur idumzsz I struck (striking was-I). 
deugur idi=}vQ struck (striking was-he). 

Here the elements are separate — idum being past of he (was). 
In the 3d plur., we find the elements together, as well as sepa- 
rate; as, deugur idi-ler, and deugur-ler'idi,=ttliej struck — j-so 
we find for 1st sing., deugur-dum. 


There is a second imperfect (or past), formed with the sai^c: 
deuger and iminhem (anotlier past of he) — the two being separate 
as, deugur tmishiz, (we) striking were. 
352. Preterit. 

deuffdurrif I struck. deugduk, we struck. 

deuffdun, thou struck. deugdunuz, ye struck. 

deugdif he struck. deugdiler, they struck. 

This can be regarded as representing two main elements, deug^j 
a base only existing in the imperative, and the tdurrv = I was, 
noticed above. But there is the past act. part, deugduk (having 
struck) ; we may take this devgduk as the basis of these forms, 
and as having simply developed person endings (indeed it is the 
identical form in the 1st plural). This would be after the 
known principles of German, and other languages, where the 
past participle does constitute the past tense. The d^ here, is the 
representative of our past ed, t, but none the less may it be taken 
as the mark of was, verb he. 

353. There is another form, the 2d preterit, deugmishem = 1 
have struck, which is clearly pn the base of the past part, cteug- 
misA=hav. struck. Or, as in the case before, we can consider 
that it has the element mishem, one of the tenses of 6c, and 
meaning 1 have heen. All this proves at least one thing, that 
one element, if no more, of participles, represents the verb. he. 

354. Then follow other combinations, but containing no new 
principle. The preset and the past participles, above given, are 
the common bases, and they combine with new forms of the 
verb he, of which Turkish has more than one for the same 

The future is either like the present in form, or it makes a 
new combination of the fut. part, deugjek with am, is; as, devg" 
jekim, I will strike (also devgjegirn), and deugjektwr (c?Mr=is), 
he will strike. 

355. In the optative, there is the form deugem, I would strike 
(also deugeh irn). This may be looked upon as made on the 
base deug, with the verb he as element, or as a variation of some 
part, or verbal, as devgv^n (which we find) equal, to striking. 
It is precisely like the Latin amem, 1 may be. Then there is 
also the imperf. optative, as deugidum (or separate, deugeh idum), 
with the base as before, and idum=wsi8. These tenses are 
accompanied by the prefix that. 

356. The preset and fut. subjunctive has the following form, 
deugur sem, I may strike (also deugur isem) — present part, and 
tsem, 1 may be. There is, besides, the imperfect deugsem, I 
might strike, which we may consider as on the base of the part. 
deugiser ^ shout striking, or as deiig and isem, I may be (the 
deugeh which we saw before). 


357. The Finnish languages, a class related to the Turkish, 
furnish abundant proof in the same direction. Thus, in the 
Suomi dialect, we find the six persons of the verb come^ tulen, 
tvlety ttdee (or tidevi) } tulemmey tulette, ttilevat, they come. These 
are all variations of verbal or participle forms, such as tuleva, 
coming, tulema, the coming. In the Esthnish present of verb 
love, we have armasta, armastat, armastap ; armastame, arm" 
astate, armastawad; armasta is imper.=love, arma8tada=±:z 
the loving, also armastama, and armdstaw, and armastaw(is= 
loving (part.). In Wotjak, the pres't of do, is karo, karod, kar- 
oz (kara) ; karom (Jcaromy), karody, karozy (Jcaro), they do ; 
the past is kary, karyd, karyz ; karym, karydy, karyzy. And 
we find ^arem= doing, deed, karyny, karon, karysa,^ doing, 
karysf, doer, karem, done. In the past, we observe yd, ym, 
which is Turk, idum, Greek ema, ama. In another dialect, we 
find for come, preset tense, tolam, tolat, toles ] tolena, toleda, to- 
lat (jtolebes) ; and past, tolenam (tolesam), tolena t, tolen (totes) ; 
tolenna (Jtolemd), tolenda, tohnet (tolebe), they came. With 
these compare the verbals tolem, tolas, and tolsas, coming, the 
coming, tolsa, the comer, tolema (G-'k -ama), come (past part.). 

368. In Mongolian, another relative of the Turk., we find for 
ahu-cho, to take, imper. ah, in the pres't bi abun amui, I taking 
am, am taking {amui, I am) ; in the past, we have bi abubai, I 
taking-was, I took {abai, I was). The whole Mongol, verb is 
very plainly built up on the same plan as the Turkish, but we 
have not time to dwell on it here. We must observe that the 
inf. endings are acho, ucho, and the inf. of be is acho, showing 
the identity of verbal endings with be. The Persian verb may 
easily be placed parallel with the Turkish, and we will now 
examine this more in detail. 

Persian Verbs, 

359. We will take nush, drink, imperative and root. 

Present tense. 

ntuk-am, I drink, may drink. nush-im, we drink, may drink. 

nuah'i, thou drinkest. nuah-id, ye drink. 

mL8h-ad^ he drinkSi nush-and^ they drink. 

With these, we must take in connexion the isolated forms of 
verb be; as, em, am, i, art, est, is, im, we are, id, ye are, end, 
they are. We see the unmistakable identity between the end- 
ings of this tense and the verb be. It must be noted with 
regard to est, 3d sing., that we find d for the same in Turkish, 
so we find d in the Per. 2d plur., which generally is intimately 
connected with the 3d sing. So, we may look upon this tense as 


the root nusih and am, is; or, we can look upon it as a msrizr 
variation of the short inf. rnuhtd, or the part, mishan^ nushanc^^ 

360. The present, so called, is the same as this, together yrMt3 
the prefix mi; as, nt'Mmshcm, I am drinking. This element n^-^ 
which sometimes follows, and again is separate, may bd taken a^ 
the mark of our be, and we consider it as the equal of Germ, ^e^ 
and the Semitic m of part's ; nusham is precisely like L. amem. 
The future has the same form, save that mi is replaced by bi. 

361. Perfect. 

nuskidami I drank.* ntuhidim, we drank. 

nushidi. ntuhidid, 

nuskid, fiushidand. 

In this connexion, we want to b^ar in mind that nushtd is the 
short future, and nushidah is part. «= having drunk ; it ifl prO' 
cisely the Turkish deugdum. So, we can speak of nushi^m, 
aa formed on the base of the part, above, with endings to mark 
the verb 6e, or, on the basis of the short infin., for they do'not 
Essentially differ (so amatvm and amatus, inf. and part, in L.). 
But the former is the method. in the German languages. We 
may suppose, still further, that it is on the base nush^ as in Turk., 
with idarrij a lost form equal to Turk, idum, was (we .find Pers. 
btuiam=he). Again, we find the part, endings agreeing with 
be in form. There is besides all these, a part, adjective mutha^ 
shortened nush, 

362. Oonditional. 

nushidamu I might drink. nushidimif we might drink. 

hiMhidi, nushididi. 

nuahidu nushidandi. 

In this connexion, we may mark nushid^ the short itd&n., and 
and the past part, nushidah; either maybe taken as the base — 
but the former will be found best to agree with the usual form- 

363. Compound PreterU, 

nushidah-aniy I have drank. mubidahAm, we have drunk. 

nuahidah-i. nushidah-id. 

. nuahidak-ast. , nuahidah-and. 

This is the past part, and be ; we find nushidah the base of 
several compound tenses, on the foregoing plan. 

364 In Afghan, related to the Per., bi is the fut. prefix, u or 
w for the past, ki before the optative, or conditional tense — di 
is also used as a prefix here, as well as in Malay. As in Persian, 
the past part, is found used in the place of the perfect tense; so 
the simple infinitive is often used for past tense (as we have 
found it the basis of the past in other languages), changing the 
infinitive endings into personals. 


Hungarian Verbs, 

865. The present tense is as follows : 

varohj I wait. varunk, we wait. 

vartz, vartok, 

var, vamak. 


varekj I waited. 

varank, we waited. 





It is easy to see, at the first glance, how nearly identical in 
form these two tenses are. The base of the present varok is 
Tar=zvaro, the present part., and the endings representing the 
verb he, in harmony with the system of the related Turkish. 
And it is a question whether the imperfect is essentially differ- 
. ent. Whatever in principle may be the elements, they are in 
feet only the present part., with its endincs grown to represent 
the person endings of the verb he, • We shaJl, in other languages, 
find plenty of like examples. It is well to bear in mind another 
form of imperfect, a compound of the present tense, with all its 
endings, and vala, was ; thus, dicserek vala, I praised, dicserz 
vala, ttiou praisedst, dicser vala, he praised {dicser =s he praises). 
This leads us to believe that the past, in Hung., differs from the 
present only by the implied vala equal to was. 

366. Perfect, 

vartam, I have waited. vartunk, we have waited. 

vartal, vartatok, 

varU vartanak (yartak). 

The past part, is vart ; so, we may consider the perfect as a 
variation of the past part., corresponding with th^ Persian nushr- 
tdam, Turkish deug-dum. 

The pluperfect is made by taking the perfect in all its per- 
sonSj and adding to each the same vala or vaU=wsiB} SiS, vartam 
vala, vart vala^ I had waited, he had waited. 

367. Future, 

varandok, I will wait. varandunk, we will wait. 

varandaez, varandatok, 

varand, varandanak. 

This is merely a development of the fut. part, varando, An^ 
other future is made by placing the infin. varni, to wait, before 
each of the persons offogoky I will; as, vamifogok, I will wait, 
vamifoq, he will wait — fog being no doubt a variation of vag^ 
yon or van=^]&. 

06 PHBAS18. 

368. I^'esent Suhjunctive. 

varfak, I waited. varjunk^ we wait. 

vary. ' varyatok, 

varyon. vatyanak. 

This is substantially the same as the first indicatiye } it is im- 
perative also. 

Past Subjunctive, 

vamek, I waited. vamankf we waited. 

varnal, vamatok, 

vama. vamanak. 

This clearly corresponds with the same tense in Latin, ama- 
rem. It is plainly a development of the infinitive vami, with 
personal endings. 

369. Th^ forms of tenses which we have so far given, belong 
to what is called the {indefinite side. By a slight variation in 
the endings, these same tenses assume what is called the definite 
form. Thus, in place of the present already giv^n, we have, for 
the definite, varom^ varod^ varja ; varjuk^ varjatok^ varjaJc ;* 
and, for the imperfect, varam^ varad, vara; varok^ varatoky 
varak. This is precisely the case of Samoidish predicative and 
subjective endings, noticed under the head of personal endings, 
and which are used substantially to point out deflniteness or in- 
definiteness. So, in Hung., latom az erdot, (I) see the wood ; 
latok erdot, (I) see (a) wood. If we mark the possessive pro- 
nouns joined as endings to nouns, om, od, a, and Ja, unk, atok^ 
okj and Jok (my, thy, his, etc.), we shall see that they are al- 
most identical with these definite endings. We find the infin. 
confessedly receiving these very possessives = personals ; thus, 
vam-om keU, waiting-my must, it must my waiting, i. e. I must 
wait; and so vam-od kell and vam-ia keUy thou, he must wait 
(A;6Z?=«must, there must). 

370. It is to be observed also that this difference of form does 
not extend to part's and verbals, which do not denote person. 

Slavic Verbs, 

371. The system of tenses in the different Slavic idioms is 
substantially the same. We take first, as an example, the Bo- 


volanif I call. volame^ we call. 

voids, volate, 

vola, (for volat), volafi, 

372. The Polish, Serb.-Wend., Slovenish, and old Prussian, 


present nothing different. The endings of the Lith. sing, are 
a little shorter, as we see by the present lej-u, lej-t, lej-a; lej-ame, 
lefate, lej-a (loose). The Russ. varies from the above as follows : 

dala-iOf I make. dala-emy we make. 

dala-esh, dala-^ete. 

dala-et. dala-iot {-ut). 

The Russ. 3d sing, (and the 2d plur., which equals 3d sing.) 
shows that a in Bohemian is shortened for at. 

373. It is clear in the forms already given, that the same 
system prevails in Slavic that we have found in other languages. 
These presents may be taken as the growth of some present 
participle or infinitive, or, with equal propriety, as tho base vol, 
a shortened infinitive or participle, joined to the element am, is. 
We might call attention to the agreement between the Slavic 
endings and the Latin o, as, at ; amiis, atis, ant (an'). 

374. Perfect. 

The perfect in Slavic is compounded of precisely the same 
elements as in the languages before spoken of. We will take 
first the Slovensh. 

9im delcU, I have made. smo delalij we have made, 

si delal. sie delali. 

je delal. so delali. 

This is precisely the Latin amatus sum=l have been loved, 
save that here amatus would be used as equal to having loved, 
while iji Latin it is being loved — besides, also, the verb be in 
Latin follows, as it does also in the Bohemian perfect, as we see 
by the following : 

volaljsenif I have called. volalijsme, we have called. 

volaljsi. volalijste. 

volal (jest s= is, left out). vola^ (y«ow= are, left out). 

375. The Serb.-Wend. has the form of Slovensh. The Rus. 
is based on the formation of the Boh., but the element is, are, 
which we find slighted but retained in tHe others generally, is 
entirely dropped here, and all we have is the past act. part, with 
personal pronoun before, thus: 

ja dalal, I (have) ma^e. mi dalali, we (have) made. 

• te dalal. vi dalali. 

on dalal. oni dalali. 

376. The Polish presents still another variation : 

ezytalem, I (have) read. cxytalismyy we (have) read. 

czytalea. czytaliscie. 

czytal. czytali. 

In the 1st and 2d persons of this form, we have the element 
om, is, represented by mere person endings, joined to the part. 


It is the transition between Rus. and Boh. — the 3d persons are 
the participles, exactly as in Rus. This explains to us the Slav, 
present, showing that it differs from the perfect only in the ele- 
ment t (infin.) or I (part.), and that the endings are for avn^ w, 
are. We must remark, too, that the Russ. perfect corresponds 
entirely with our German past, walked^ el=ed. 

377. Let us turn next to the pluperfect, and first the Slovensli. 

sim Ml delal, I had done. 
tmo bili delalif we had done. 

This has the same elements as the perfect, and one more, hil 
=was, or have been ; and the form is literally Lam been done. 

378. And next the Bohemian. 
bi/ljsem volalf I had called. 
bylijsme volali^ we had called. 

This is the same as the Slovensh, with a different arrange- 
ment — been Lam called. In Serb.-Wend., this element am^ w, 
are, is suppressed, and we have hech wuhnyl^ I had learned (6ecA 
equals I was, I had). 

379. And next, the Polish pluperfect. 

czytalem byl^ I had read. czytalismy byli, we had read. 

We have here the bi/l=WQ8 following the perfect. 

380. The Rus. does not seem to have anything to correspond 
precisely with any of these pluperfects. Though there is the 
form ia hivalo vertal, I had turned (hival^vfaay or have been, 
and vertal, a perfect part.). The ordinary pluperfect is vertival, 
had turned — on the base of an infin. vertivat, from the ordinary 
inf. vertetj or from the gerund vertev. It is one of those cases 
of an infin. on an infinitive — but we may quite as well look 
upon that val as identical with the vil or 5i7 (was) of the other 
languages. We have even another infin., vernut, and a perfect 
on that base; as, la vernvl^ I (have) turned; there is even 
another pluperfect, ia hivalo vertival — both part's being double. 
We must, in conclusion, call the attention of the student to the 
/fact that the Slavic participle used as perfect or past tense, 
varies in gender and nunaber to agree with the subject. We 
will next turn our attention to the Slovensh future. 

381. Future. 

bom delalf I will do. bomo delalif we will do (make). 

bos delal. bote delali. 

bo delal. bodo delali. 

Bom is for hodem (Per. hudam), 1 will be, I am; we have the 
part, delal in place of an inf. In Serb.-Wend., the inf. is used, 
as hudiipalic, 1 will burn (Imdu=zwi\\ be, and paZzc = to burn) 


Polish is like Slovensb ; Eussian is like Serb .-Wend., in one 
of its futures ; another is a future = present, on the base of a 
xaew infin., as la vernu, I will-turn, from the infinitive vernutyoa 
opposed to the regular infinitive vertat. 

382. Our attention will next be directed to the Svhjunctive, 
Xn Slovensb it is hi delal^ I, thou, he, might do; and plural, hi 
^delcUi^ we, ye, they might do. This is the infin. (or part., if 
^ou prefer) with the prefix hi, one that is common in Slavic, 
£ind said to be equal to the conjunction that; it is really a prefix, 
like Per. li, mi. The past subjunctive inserts a 6e?ai= was, been; 
-fthus, bi, hil, delal, I might have done. In Polish, which makes 
its subjunctive after the same manner, the particle ah (=6/) 
:«receives the person endings ; as, ah-ym czytal, that-I read (may 
:vead). Polish has another form, a sort of past subj. ; as, czytal- 
^jym,, I would read, czytali-hysmy, we might read. This hym 
:ms the hi noticed above and here suffixed ' — it is identical, too, 
^^^ith he. In Russ., it is -clearly seen that the subj. is only an 
:mnfin. or past part. ; as, m zhelal hi yachat, I wished that to- 
-^epart, i. e. I would wish to depart; ia hi ne dumal^ I not 
■thought, i. e. I should not have thought — hi is a mere prefix, 
^nd as such not to be translated. So we say, 1 had wished, for 
.should have wished, 

383. In Boh., We find volal hych, volaZ hys, volal hy, I, thou, 
^e might call — the Pol. hym, separate, and pointing clearly to 
^e. In Serb.-Wend., hech=l was, hese^ihou wast; hych pculil, 
^J. would h\ixii)=hech palU (I had burned) — again we see hi= 
^e, if^ that, 

BeTvgallsh Verbs. 

384. The first or indefinite present only diflfers from the root 
1)y the addition, for the persons of the singular, of i, is, e, and 

for the plural, of i, a, en. The definite present is composed of 
the present participle and an element is, am {-chhi, -chhe). 

The indefinite past adds Ham, Hi, ilek, (for the persons of the 
sing.) to the root. It is the precise counterpart of the Turkish 
tense in idum, and may be looked upon as was joined to the 
root, or as the development of a participle. There is an adverbial 
part, in He, and ita of the preset part, is not essentially different. 

The imperfect tense is formed of present part, followed by 
was. The perfect tense is made by using the past part, of the 
verb and joining to the end am, is, are- — and ia pluperfect by 
joining was to the same. There is a future made by placing 
iba, the, ibek, after the root (as har-iha, I will do). This is the 
same as the Lat. future am-aho, and is no doubt a variation of 
the infinitive in ita. 


The conditional, I did or wovM do, is a variation of the infia., 
like the Latin amare-m, I would love. 

Hindustani Verbs, 

385. This language does not vary its verb to distinguish the 
persons. The present tense is simply the present participle used 
with the personal pron's; as, I (am) speaking, he (is) speaking. 
Another form of present is the same participle followed by hun 
as am, I speaking am. The imperfect id I speaking was (tha or 
<a= was). Another past is made by simply using the past part., 
as, I spoken (-* spoke). The perfect 1 have spoken, is 1 spoken 
am (have); the pluperfect is I spoken was (had). To express 
the subjunctive, I may speak, the form hulun is used — ZtuZsr 
speak, and un no doubt is for 7m7i=am. The future bulunga is 
equal to bul, speak, and unga for hunga, I shall or will be. 

Celtic Verbs, 

386. The tenses of these languages have generally corre- 
spondents, the one in the other. We will start with the Welsh. 

carwyf, I love. carym, we love. 

carwyt. carych. 

caryw, carynt. 

Cornish present — same verb. 

carafy I love. keryUy we' love. 

keryth. carough. 

car, . carons. 

Celtic Breton present of kana (for kanat), to sing. 

kanann, I sing. kanomp^ we sing. 

kanez, kanit, 

kan, kanont. 

Irish present. 

buailimy I strike. 

huailimid, we strike. 





Compared with the languages already examined, we find in 
the Celtic nothing peculiar. We have the root, as car, repre- 
senting the infinitive, or participle, to which is joined the mark 
of the element am, is, are. 

387. In Irish, these endings are not so developed as to dis- 
tinguish, so strongly as in the other languages, the ending of 


the infinitive or part, (which is adj adh) from the element he, 
JBuailid, the 3rd sing., is not materially different from hualad, 
the infin.y as Latin a/matum=amat. In the other languages, 
infin. endings are much lighter, so much so that the 3rd sing., 
which best corresponds with infin., often has no ending at all— 
but, in the other persons, the endings, which represent the inf. 
and part., are better developed. In Gaelic, the inf. is continued 
pretty uniformly through the persons of the tenses without vari- 
ation, followed by the personal pronouns separate — an excellent 
proof that the tenses in their persons are only forms of the inf. 
and participle. 

388. The Welsh present was not formerly used by good 
writers, its place being supplied by the future, as car a/ for 
carvyyf^ or by this better, 1 am in loving (I love), using am^ is, 
with the infin., or gerund, governed by a prep. The perfect is 
formed after the same principle ; as, / am after loving) differing 
from the other only in the preposition used. 

389. In Celtic Breton, verbs have besides the personal form, 
already given, an impersonal form, one which has no variation 
of ending for the persons, using the separate pronouns before a 
form like the shortened inf., or part.; as, me a gan=^l sing, te 
a ^an«»thou singest — a being a mere augment of participle for 
infin. So, in Cornish, mi/ a gar=l love, ti/ a ^ar= thou lovest 
(using the forin of the 3rd sing.). The verb do is sometimes 
inserted; as, my a wra care, I do lovei(i(?ra=do). 

It may not be amiss to give the present tense of the verb he 
in Cornish ; as, of, os, yu, (am, art, is) ; on, ough^ yns and ens 
(are). These are plainly the same as the endings of verbs. 

390. Celtic Past 

eareUf cares, care (cava)} caren, careugh, car ens, (loved). 
car-wn, car-it, car-ai; car em, carech, carent (loved). 
han-enn, kan^ez, kan-e; kanemp, kan-ech, kan-ent (sung). 

The first line is Cornish, the second Welsh, and the third 
C.-B. In this connexion we may notice the C.-B. past of he, 

oenn, oez, oe; oemp, oech, oent. 
So, with these kept in view, we can, with propriety, consider 
the car-en, car-wn, and han-enn, as car and han representing 
the gerund or part., and en, wn, enn, =was. If we compare the 
Celtic Breton kanemt of the past with kanann of the present, 
we shall find a close resemblance between them. We noticed 
such a resemblance in other languages. There should be the 
same identity between these two tenses that there is between the 
Lat. supine (inf.) amatum, and the part, amatus, or the same 
identity which we find between the inf., or gerund, and the past 
participle, in the German and Scandinavian languages. 


391. We may observe, too, that, from another point of view, 
caren, Ist person Cornish, and caret (for care)^ 3rd person, are 
identical with the past part. — the ending of the part, being <, 
in Irish, and en and et^ in Celtic Breton. So that we find this 
tense identical with the deugdwn of Turkish, and the nushid of 

392. The Irish past is for do hualadj to strike, as follows : 

do buaile-as, do huail-is^ do buail se, 1, thou, he struck. 

do huaile-^amar^ do httaile-abarf do huaileadctTy wrc, ye, they strnck. 

The prefix do which we find in the infin. and part., shows very 
well that this tense is based on them ; and the endings, leaving 
ofi* the ar of the plural, point very clearly to acZ, adh^ of the inf. 
This do is identical with all the numerous prefixes found in 
Celtic, such as ro, re, o, a. It is the Slavic da^ and it is found 
also in the old German dialects ; the prefix r is found also in 
old French, as r-avolr (to have), for avoir. 

There is another form in Celtic for the past, which we will 
now consider. 

393. Second Past 

keryt, kerst/s, ear as; kerayn, carsouffhy earsons (loved)* 
cerdi8f ceraist, carodd ; carasorif carasochy carasant (loved). 
kaniZt kanzoud, kanaz ; kamomp, kanzot, kanzont (sung). 
buailinn^ buaUtea^ buailead ; huailimis, buailti, buailidis (struck). 

The first is Corn., the 2d Welsh, the 3d Celt.-Bret., and the 
4th Irish (and it has the prefix do before all persons). In this 
connexion, we must bear in mind the Cor. past of he, esen, eses, 
ese; esen, esough, ens (was, were). So, we may regard thesd 
forms of the past as was or has been joined to the present part., 
or, which is preferable, as a development of a past participle, 
personal endings being added. The Irish 2d persons give very 
nearly the past part, huailte ; the 3rd persons present the part, 
ending as it appears in the gerund, or infin. The first persons 
give the Cornish form of past participle. 

We regard this tense as a regular Latin perfect, or as a Greek 
first aorist (mark the s in ker-s-ys^. 

394. Here we will give the pluperfect 

car sen, caraes, carae {{) ; carsen, caraeugh, carsens (would love). 
caraswn, carasit, carasai; cdrasem, carasechy carasent (had loved). 
kanaenn, kanaez, kanae; kanaempt kanaech, Aran^en^ (would sing). 
buailfinn, buailfeay buailfead; buailfimisy buailfidy buai^dia (would 

In kansenn (Celtic Breton), we have substituted s for/*, as it 
really should be; we find also kanzenn and kanjenn, and so 
through all the persons. This tense in form is not essentially 
diflfereut from the perfect, just as in Latin, amaverunt (perf.) 


equals amaverant (pluperf.). .You can divide car-sen^ or cars-en 
— using .se7i=had been, or C7i=was {cars, caras, for pcrf. part 
carat, or caret, as in Cornish and Celtic Breton). The student 
will observe here, as well as elsewhere, how the pluperf. indie. 
identifies with the subjunctive or conditional. Next we will 
consider the future. 

394. Future, 

In Welsh, the future runs thus, caraf, cert, car a {car'); car^ 
vm, carwch, carant ; caraf {f=s) and car ant plainly show the 
inf. ending — the tense is not different from the present. There 
is, in Welsh, a second future, carof, carych, caro ; carom, car- 
och, carontj which is plainly only a form of the other. 

The Irish presents a future where the mark is /, Lat. ho, G'k 
8, Rus. V of pluperfect ; thus, huailfead, huailfir, buailjid, buail- 
fimid, huailfid, huailfid (will strike) — we have here (see the 
id= infin. ad) nothing but the infin. of a new base, such as we 
have so often met with. This puts us in mind of remarking, 
that every tense is really a form of its own, and not derived 
from some other — indeed, so is every person form also. 

396. One single example out of several in Welsh, will show 
that the principle is unmistakably in the Celtic languages of 
representing he as a suffix at the end of verbs ; thus, we have 

^wyhod, to know. gwyhuaswn^ I had known. 

gwn, I know. gwybyddaf, I will know, 

gwyhyddwUf I knew. gwyhyddof^ I will havfe known. 
gwybum, I have known. 

Bod (Per. hudan) is inf. of verb he ; huaswn = l had been; 
hyddwn=l was, hyddaf^l shall be; hum=I have been. It is 
in the Celtic languages that we find most convincing proof that 
the auxiliaries, such as do, he, have, are practically developments 
of the endings of verbs ; it is there that we find them following 
the verb, either attached or separate. 

397. There are some other combinations which we must yet 
notice in Corn. ; thus, kared em euz, loved I have, i. e. I have 
loved : me em-euz Jcaret, I I-have loved, i. e. I have loved — 
me and em are both forms of /, but the em is so closely incorpo- 
rated with euz (have) as to cease to be an independent proiioun, 
and we have here, as in ego am^o, a pronoun separate and one 
in the verb ; so, in the 1st plural, ni hon-euz karet, we we-have 
loved. We find also karond a rarm, to-love (I) do, i. e. I do 
love, I love (a is an unmeaning prefix) ; so karond a reomp, 
love we-do, we love; there is also the heza em euz, to-be I have, 
meaning simply I have. 


GrceJc and Latin Verhs, 

398. We will next consider, in some detail, the elaborate sys- 
tem of the Greek and Latin verb. What we have already said 

^ of other languages will aid us much in obtaining a clear under- 
standing of the system now before us. ^ 

399. Present 

Lat. ; amoy amas, amat. amamuSf amatisy amant (love). 

G'k ; leipd, leipeit, leipei. leipomen, leipete, leipousi (leave). 

Span. ; amo^ amas^ ama (t). amamos, amaiSf aman (love). 

Germ. ; backe, backestf backet^ backen, backet, backen (bake). 

Dan. ; bager, bager, bager. bage, bage, bage (bake). 

Go. ; skaida, skaidis, skaidiih. skaidaniy tkaidith, skaiaand (Ger. sehdde). 

A. S. ; gife, gifast, gifath. gifath, gifath, gifath (give). 

Eng. ; give, givesty giveih. give, give, give (give). 

A mere glance at the above comparative view, will show the 
identity between those forms and the part, or infin. ; amat is 
the supine, less the um, and amant is the present part., or a 
form of amat. the amo is short, for amam or amaty as we 
see by Span. ama=L. amat; Gr'k leipei =leipet, as we see by 
the 2d plural ; leipomen is identical with the middle participle 

400. In Germ., we find et and en, known participle endings; 
in Dan. and Swed., er is equal to L. are of inf. The A. S. ath, 
adhj is the same as Gaelic inf. ending. That those endings are 
not properly pronouns added, is seen by the number of instances 
where the same ending occurs in more than one person, and, as 
in A. S., in more than one number. There is no doubt but that 
in many languages, as the Lat. and Gr'k, the developments are 
so strong that they may be considered, from their differentia- 
tion, as representing the persons, or, more properly, the different 
persons of the verb be — but the condition must be borne in 
mind that they are only developments of the one and same verb- 
al ending en, et, ar. 

401. The Fast. 

There are in the indicative mood of Latin, three forms which 
perform the part of past tenses. They are, for amare, to love, 
the imperfect (or past proper) ama-bam, the perfect ama-vi, 
and the pluperfect ama-veram; the endings of the past and 
perfect, after leaving the 1st person, have forms like the present, 
i. e. -am, -as, -at, -amus, -atis, -ant. It is one of the features 
of the Latin, as it is of others, that the 1st person sing, of the 
past tenses differs from that of the present, it being am for the 
former, and o for the latter. We observed this, even more 


strikingly, in Hung, and Samoid., where one denoted possessive 
endings and the other nominative. And so it is in Latin, the 
past tenses have accusative endings, such as we should find with 
an infin., while present tenses have nominative endings. The 
past tenses are everywhere objective, dependent. 

402. The form ama-ham corresponds exactly with Turkish 
deitg-dum, Persian nusM-dam, that is, we have the base am or 
ama, for the inf. or part, of the original verb, and ham or abam 
representing was. There is no form of he in Latin which cor- 
responds with h(xm (Germ, hin, Eng. beeri), unless we take it as 
a variation of eram= was (or of fui); it is clearly identical with 
Turk, dum^ tdum, Welsh hum, Slav, hechj hyl, our was (fe=i^); 
hain is in form a verb of itself, with base h and regular ending. 
We can, with equal propriety regard it as amah-am,, taking am- 
ah as a base, some infinitive as amare, or amat^um), receiving 
person endings. In this light, it is the Russ. v of pluperf. and 
other forms. There is no question that h of ham is the t of 
-atum (supine), and of can-to. 

403. But ham taken in connexion with the other endings 
aver am and avi, points more strictly to Lat. Tiaheo, have. It is 
very clear that have, which is so common as an auxiliary, in 
Germ., and in other languages which are conceded to be directly 
descended from Latin (as Fr., It., Span.), and which appears in 
later years in Latin itself as an auxiliary for these tenses, may 
be taken as corresponding with this ham and averam. It is 
equally clear that have is only a development of the endings of 
the verb, such as we have in Latin, and which has at last been 
thrown off or separated. 

404. Nearly all writers have treated these elements of Latin 
verbs as representing tenses of the verb he, but this is only true 
so far as he is have ; and if have is not he, then this ending 
under consideration is not he. The difficulty arises from the 
fact that in many languages, perhaps most, he is used in place 
of have — so it is in Fr. and Germ., among others. The truth 
is, they are identical in origin, and we so treat them; have is 
simply later in appearance than he. Not only have, but do, own, 
mean, may, shall, wiU (Slav, hyl), and perhaps all other auxili- 
aries, are identical with he. The proof of have equal to he is 
abundant, and beyond all question ] their use in common is of 
itself evidence enough ; etymologically considered, they are not 
different in most languages. 

405. Greek Past. 

e-'leipon, e-leipes, e-leipe ; eleipomen, eleipete, eleipon (left). 
The Sanscrit formation is the same. The augment e and a 
(Celtic do, ro, a, aq) shows the part., or infin., character of the 

106 .PHRASIS. 

base, as we find augments in other languages uniformly befop^^ 
infs and part's. Tire forms e-leipon^ eleipes^ eleipe (for deipe^^ "^ 
are not materially diflferent from German ge-hliehen (left). 

406. There is another past, called the Ionic or iterative past; 
it ends in skon, skes, ske (sing.) ; as, e-tupteskon^ for e-tuptan — 
the augment in this form is generally omitted. This s^=8 ifl 
the « which we shall find in the aorist, the h of Latin past; 
taking sJc—Jc, it is also the k of the G'k perfect; it is the G'k 
z in aitizein (for axtein)^ to ask often, and the sk in methuskSj 
I become drunk. So, in Rus., we find v (=G'k sk) as the mark 
of the iterative; as, kidat, to cast, kidivat, to throw often; and, 
again, we have seen it as the mark of the pluperfect. 

407. We can regard eleipon just as we have the past of other 
languages already noticed — either as the variation of the end- 
ings of a participle, or the on, es, e (for et) as the past of he. 
Though the usual form of w?as, in Greek, is somewhat different, 
there are dialectic forms which often occur, enabling us to 
assume a form for the persons of ««7a8 ; thus, ecm, ce», ee; eomen 
eete, eon. 

The Celtic presents us with an exact counterpart of these 
pasts in Greek and Sanscrit. In none is the final element so 
strongly developed as we find it in Latin, and the cognate lan- 

408. The Greek has another form of the past, called 2d aorist, 
which we will next proceed to notice. It runs thus : 

elipoUf elipeSf elipe ; elipomen, elipetey elipon (left). 

This is not essentially different from the foregoing in meaning, 
and it is identical with it in endings. It varies from the past 
in having the root or base lip^ in place of leip. Just such vari- 
ations in the body of the word prevail in the German class, and 
in other languages, in the past tenses ; as, German ich schlage, 
1 strike, ich schlug, I struck ; so, our write and wrote, sing and 
sang. This form compares well with the Germ. part, ge-borg- 
en, from hergen^ to bury, conceal. When we bear in mind that 
the prefix e is not an essential part of the tense, and is often left 
off, we will the more readily see how it agrees with our leave 
and left^ see and saw^ Latin capio and cepi (perf.), frango and 

409. These changes in the base, and of which we shall find 
more in Greek, seem to be as if in compensation for the short- 
ness or lightness of the ending, as in taught for teached, where 
t (for ec?) is almost silent ; so, in the plural, we have men for 
mans. It might be remarked, further, that these irregular 
forms, having lost their tense marks, are reduced to the form of 
mere presents ; as, give, gave, Goth, giba, gab, stila, stal, Latin 


capio^ cepi, ago, egii There can be no doubt that all such forms 
as these were originally, and are now, in principle, augmented 
like this aorist of Greek ] so, in Goth., we have sai^slep, the 
preterit of «/epa, to sleep, and hlai-hlaup, preterit of hlaupa 
(German lau/en,Tnn). 

Many verbs have no 2d aorist — it is a n^w form, wanting in 
all verbs ending in azO, ainQ, eu6. 

410. Aorist \st. 

Besides those pasts already noticed, there is a longer and 
fuller form, the 1st aorist, running thus : 

e-leip'ta, eleip-taa^ eleip-se; eleip-samen, eleip-sate, eleip»san (left). 

The Sans, endings to correspond with these are saw, sis, sit ; 
sma, std, stis; and if, in this connexion, we bear in mind the 
Sahs. asan, asis, asit; asma, asta, asan, the past of be (was or 
has been), the Greek esan, and Latin esam for eram, we shall 
have no doubt about what the aorist endings represent. This 
tense is also a faithful counterpart of the Latin am-aham, Pers. 
nush-idam. The San. san, 1st per., shows that Gfeek sa^sam, 
and Sans, sit, 3rd sing., shows Greek se^set or sat; so that in 
every respect this tense agrees with the Latin -ham, -has, -bat. 
In meaning, however, it answers better to our perfect. 

411. As we regard this tense in its parts as identical with such 
tenses as the Lat. amabam, it is hardly necessary to repeat here 
what was said of that form. That this s in Greek and Sanscrit, 
which appears as b, v, in Latin, is the same as the v of Slavic 
vertivat, the new infinitive on the old infinitive vertet, as well as 
the t of Lat. rogitare from rogare, the z of Greek JcomizO from 
komeS, admits of no doubt. 

412. As we have said of the others we say of this, that what- 
ever may have been its origin, it has developed an ending which 
represents an auxiliary verb, have or was. There are some verbs 
which have the aorist in ka for sa, that is, with the augment of 
the aorist they end in ka, like a perfect — being a transition form 
of the latter. 

413. Though the 2d aorist is not so full, it represents the 
same elements — the ending is shorter, less developed, but this 
is compensated by the vowel change of the root. There is a 
striking identity, which we must notice before closing this tense, 
the 1st aorist, between its endings and those of the participle ; 
as, as, asa, an (mas. fem. and neut.). Indeed, we find in mod. 
Greek imperf. sing., etimousa, etimouses, etimouse (I, thou, he 
honored) ; but ousa is the regular fem. participle ending in G'k. 
This not only shows the tense equal to a participle, but that the 
aorbt s is the same as that of ousa. 

We will next consider the perfect. 


414. Perfect. 

Closely related to the past of Latin and the aorists of Greek, 
is the perfect. Its fullest form in Latin is vi, as in ama-vi^ I 
have loved, from the verb amo ; a shorter, but nearly identical 
form, is that of the 2d conjugation; as, mon-ui (from moneo)^ I 
have advised. Neither the %l nor the v, we may remark, is 
peculiar to the perfect ; we find a whole class of verbs with the 
base ending in w, as aciu>, ruo^ metuo, and in v, as moveo, caveo, 
solvo, lavo. It is hardly necessary to remind the student that 
this V, M, is the very t which we have so often met before in 
many places. 

415. There is in Latin still another and much larger class 
which includes those that scarcely differ in their base from the 
present — regarding i as the ending of the perfect and o that of 
the present. They are such as follow : 

juvo^ juvi ; moveOf movi ; capiOy cepi ; faciOy feci, 
fugio, fugi ; farcio, farsi ; haurio, hausi; video, vidi. 
rumpOf rupi ; linquo, liqui; lego, legi; fundo, fudi. 

There are instances where a final letter of the base is repre- 
sented in the perf. by one of its cognates; such as augeo^ auoci; 
torqueo, torsi; indulgeo^ indulsi ; ardeo, arsi; juheo^ jusii; 
vivo J vixi; gero^ gessi; spicio, spexi; coalesco, coalui ; fingo^ 
finxi\ tergOj tersi ; cedo, cessi ; sino, sivi. It is clear here that 
g of the present is represented by x of the perfect, dhy s, b by 
ss, V and chy x, g by s, sc by u. 

416. In more languages than one, we have already found the 
past participle thfe base of the perfect tense, with sometimes 
nothing but personal endings developed, and in some cases even 
these omitted. It is very natural then that we should consider 
it the base in Latin also. We have observed this v mark of the 
perf., in Latin, having a strong tendency to disappear as t« in a 
large class of verbs, and vanishing entirely in a class still larger. 
Even in that class of Latin verbs where we should uniformly 
expect it, often it cannot be found ; thus, for amavisti we have 
amasti, for petivi we have pefii, and deleram for deleveram. In 
the Ital., Fr., and Span, languages, whose tenses are farmed on 
the same principle as those of Latin, these short forms are the 
prevailing ones, that is, the v ceases to be a consonant, as in 
petii, and is lost by harmony with the accompanying vowel. 
So, in Ital., we*find cant-ai, cant-asti, cant-o, French chant-ai, 
chant-as, chant-ait), both for the Lat. cantavi, cantavisti (can- 
tasti), cantavit. In Fr. forms, such as vendis, vendis, vendtt (I, 
thou, he has sold), we especially see the identity of the perfect 
with the old Fr. participle ; so, too, in servis, servis, servit (has 
served) — part, servi, for servit. Such* perfects become identical 
with the German pasts. 


417- In L., we find a strong tendency of the perf. to identify 
with the pass, part., and hence with the supine also; thus, pres. 
Jubeo, -perfect Jussi, paxticiple jusms (to order); rideOj Wsi, runs 
(laugh) ; parcOj parsi, parsus (spare) ; scribo, scripsiy sm'pttis 
(ps=:pt) ; ducOy duxiy ductus (x=ck=ct). And there is little 
doubt that the v seen in amavi is the t of amcUum j^o that, 
seen from this stand point, it is a mere part, developing endings, 
and we have amavi for amavim (as we see by amavim-us^ 1st 
plural), amavisti for amaviti, a double development often found 
in the 2nd person. 

The 3rd plural, amaverunt^ presents us with an unexpected 
growth ; we have here not only the W7i^=*they, and the av seen 
in the other persons, but also the inf. mark er. In mod. Latin, 
the V disappearing, we have this form reduced to a mere infin. 
with personal endings ; thus, Fr. chanter-ent, Spanish cantaron 
(they have sung), and the infin. chanteVy cantar. This growth 
of amavunt (amatunt) into amaverunt (^amatunint}y is precisely 
the growth of amaturus out of amare^ amatus, amandus. The 
Wallach. carries the r through all the persons plur., as laudar- 
amuy laudaratiy laudaro (for laudarunt)^ we, ye, they have 
praised — while in Latin we should have lavdavimus, l^udavis- 
ti8, laudaverunt (laudarunt). In Tuscan, we find poetic forms 
for the perf. 3d plural where the person ending is entirely lost, 
and we have the bare inf. = part.; as, creder^ lor creder-o^cre- 
der-ono. In the Goth, past («=perf.), we find the same doubling 
in the plural that we- do in Latin 3(i plural perfect ; thus, salbo- 
dtty salhodeSy salboda; salbo-dedum, salbo-deduth, salbo-dedun 
(saved) — the double d^d being found in the three persons plur. 
That this d^d is equal to the Latin av-er, is very evident from 
the identity of the tenses in which those elements are found. 
Both languages have a corresponding tense in the subjunctive, 
and in both this double element appears in all the persons ; as, 
salbfh-dedjaUy -dedeiSy -dedi; -dedeimay -dedeithy -dedeina ; Latin 
am-averimy -verUy -verit; -verimuSy -veritisy -verint (might have 
loved, may have loved). 

418^ If we would consider the Latin perfect as composed of 
parte, we may say it has the auxiliary have (avi) and the perf. 
or past part., a composition such as we find everywhere; aver- 
ufU of the 3rd plural has grown to represent the infinitive, avere 
(habere) and the person ending. The past in German is made 
by suppressing have and using the participle alone, even going 
still farther and suppressing the mark of the participle, as in 
the irregular verbs (so as to bring it still nearer the present). 
The same thing precisely seems to have occurred in Latin in a 
large portion of its perfeqtB. 

419. There are in Latin, also, a few scattered remnants of 


110 PHEASIS.* 

reduplicated perfects, such as we find prevailing in Greek and 
in a portion of the Gothic pasts; such as mordeo^ mo-mordi 
(bite), pendo, pe-pendi (hang), tandeo, to-tondi (shear). In 
sdme of these reduplicated perfects, the root vowel is also 
changed, as in our irregular verbs ; as, parco^ peperci, tango, 
tetigi, parioj peperiy cano^ cecinij /alio, /efelli. In that large 
class of Jjat. verbs where the root is changed and the reduplica- 
tion is not apparent, we may consider it as latent, and they are 
easily placed parallel with our irregular verbs; as, crescOy crSvi 
(grow, grew), mitto, misi (send, sent), sto, steti (stand, stood), 
sido, sidi (sit, sat), lego, legi (read, read, past), frango^ fi'^(/i 
(break, broke), ago, €gi (do, did), capio, dpi (take, took). 

420. There is also in Latin the pluperfect amaveram, amav- 
eras, amaverat (I, thou, he had loved); the 2d future amavero, 
-ris, -rit (I, thou, he will have loved) ; and the perf. subjunc. « 
amaverim, -ris, rit (I, thou, he may have loved). These are 
all identical with the perfect as it appears in the 3rd plural — 
ram and rim mark the ace. pron., and ro marks the nominative. 
They stand as if made of averam, which is the infinitive habere 
(avere) with endings, and the root am} in the a^am of the past, 
the endings are joined to the root instead of to the infinitive. 

421. *The perfect of Greek will next engage our attention. 
Of the reduplication we have already found traces in Latin and 
Gothic ; in the Greek, it is a feature more constant, it is one of 
the most prominent marks of the perfect in that tongue — thus, 
preset leipo, perf. le-leipha (levLwe), pleko, pe-pleka, k^ch (fold). 
But this manner of regular reduplication is not found in all 
verbs by any means. In a large class of verbs, namely, those 
which begin with two consonants (with some exceptions), the 
augment is 6, the same as in the aorist and past tenses ; thus, 
zeloOj e-z€loka {z^^dz); speiro, e-sparka; psallo, e-psalka. 
The reason of this variation from what we are wont to regard as 
the regular mode of reduplication is, that this reduplication is 
really a case of double letters, leleipa^Ueipa, pepleka^ppleka, 
and where two consonants come together, as ds, ps, sp, they 
being alike, as we have elsewhere shown, they are, also, already/ 
double. In such cases as grapho, ge-grapha, krind, kekrika, 
pneo, pepneuka^ Mad, tethlaka, where we have one of the two 
initial consonants Z, n, r, (some exceptions), the augment is 
regular, because such letters are little more than vowels. It 
hardly needs from us the hint that the perfect, in its formation, 
is precisely that of the aorists and the imperfect, that the aug- 
ment e, of those tenses, is only one of the forms of this very 

422. Having already suggested that all double letters and all 
cases where two consonants come together are augments, just like 


this one of the perfect, we must remind the student that even 
this Greek reduplication is by no means confined to this tense ; 
it is often found in the present, as ti-trdskdy I wound, pi-praskd, 
I sell ; it is often found in parts of speech not verbs (as gi-gas, 
a giant, toutOy this), and in other languages much more clearly 
than in G-'k. This augment has a history identical with that of 
the Germ, ge; this ge^ too, is a mark not of participles alone. 

423. Having considered the initial part of the Greek perfect, 
let us next consider that which marks its ending. The regular 
endings which mark the perfect are ka and j^ha (ya) ; as, peitliQ 
pepeika, tupto, tetupha. Remembering how often ^=^, we find 
no trouble in seeing in this k the t of Latin amatus, and the et^ 
ed, of Germ, pasts. In some forms of Slav., we have found the 
usual past sign Z«< appearing as ch—k; as, b^ch, bech, in place 

.of hyly was; so, we find wuknich (nik')^ I learned, and wuknyl 
(part.) learned — it is only a form of the infin. ending ic (is) for 
ity which we often find. The pha (vd) is only a form of ka ; 
the form v=»t also appears in the Lat. perf s. We need hardly 
mention that this k and v is the s of the aorist and of the future. 

424. We must observe here, too, that this ka and va ap- 
pearing in Greek perfects, is not some new element added to 
the verb, but simply, as we saw in the Latin perfect and supine 
a development of what was already in it, a growth of cognate 
letters from the end of the base or root of the verb. Thus, we 
have tuptd, (te)tupha (pt=ph); plekO, {pe)pleka ; legd, (le)- 
leka (cf^k)) ^aliskd, ^SlOka {sk::^k); ktizd, (e)ktika (z ==k') ] 
orussd, druka (ss=z=k)} ^amartand, ^SmartSka (n^g=k). 

425. But verbs ending in 6o, ao, 0(5, and the like, really seem 
to have an additional k ; as, phileOj (pe)philSka; timao, (te)- 
timika. But there is no doubt that there is an undeveloped n, 
8 or z, in this co, ad, just as we find it appearing in anOy izo, 
isko ; ad may be taken as a transition of and to o. So, chrao is 
for chravo (our grave, German graben), chad for chavd (gape. 
Germ, gaffen), kleo (Germ, klaffen) \ thad for thapo, brud for 

There are also such perfects as (e)stalka from stelld, and (e)- 
sparka from speird. These are related to the above in their 
vowel character, and what is said of one will apply to the other. 
We want to bear in mind that k though apparently a hard con- 
sonant is really equal to g=j=i, and associates well with v=u. 

We have thus found the Greek perfect to be the exact coun- 
terpart of the Latin perfect. As v represents habeo in Latin, so 
k represents echd, have, in Greek (for ekd). 

426. The perfects in G'k assume another form, a form exactly 
corresponding with our irregular or strong verbs. It is called 
the 2d Perfect, and is treated as distinct from the perfect proper. 


but it is clearly a mere form of it. They are evidently different 
in age, and one is meant to replace the other. That tBey both 
exist together, is no strange phenomenon in nature. Old fashions 
and ne^ ones are always coeval — but one or the other predom- 
inates. Degenerated forms which are represented in nature by 
others, are only suppressed, they are never extirpated. The 
forms we speak of are such as pepoitha from peitho, leloipa, from 
leipo, pleko^ pephka (porf. pepleka). It is a matter of history 
in Greek, in the Attic particularly, that the short forms are the 
older, and that hence the longer ones are the result of growth; 
so, the k and ph (v) are dropped in the more ancient Greek, and 
we have the ending aa or a, the s of the future does not appear, 
and we have alo for alesO^ kalo for kaleso, besides, kao replaces 
kaio^ and alein is for alUhein. 

427. In modern Gr'k, there is no simple perfect tense, unless 
we consider the 1st aorist as its representative; the aorist, having 
a form precisely that of ancient Greek, is used for the perfect, 
and also for the pluperfect and future. The modern Greek has 
not as many forms for past tenses as ancient Gr'k, for this plain 
reason, that the elements by age and growth had got to be so 
strongly developed that the auxiliaries, as have, have been cast 
off from the parent stem, and have become themselves individual 
verbs. There are as many tenses in Ijiter Greek as in the older, 
but in the later the elements are more frequently separate. Thus, 
echo^ grapsei, 1 have written, echeis grapsei, thou hast written; 
literally it is, / have (^to) have written^ as grapsei is the aorist 
(or perfect) infinitive ; this is not the only place where we may 
find the infin. in place of a part, past; so, in Polish, bede czytai^ 
will read (past part, where we use infin.) — so in old German, ut 
cuman (int.), is come, has come. We find siiso echo grammenon 
(perf. part.) corresponding in form to out I have written, though 
not precisely in meaning. In Greek the use of have following 
the aorist (perf.) part, in place of perfect tense, is very common; 
as, thaumasas echo, wondered I-have (having wondered I-have). 
The perfect participle followed by be is also very common; as, 
gegraphos esomaij (having) written I-shall-be, i. e. I shall have 
written ; tetumenoi eisi, struck (being struck) they-are, i. e. they 
have been struck. 

428. The Greek pluperfects, as e'le-leipein, e-pe-plekein, e-te- 
tuphein, are only imperfects on the base of the perf. The plu- 
perf., here, is a true infin. ; it is just such a form as the Latin 
amaveram^ amaverim. The developed person endings at the 
end of an infinitive we have by this time become familiar with. 
There is, besides, a 2nd pluperfect, based on the 2nd perfect, as 
e-pe-poithein, on pepoitha. (We may mention here, by way of 
note, that the Gr'k aorist inf. as leip-sai, is in form the same as 


a7na-vere, which in Latin, however, we find only in the past 
tenses with endings added). 

429. In Albanian, we find a compound perfect thus, kam 
dijiouare, he dijiouare^ ha difiouare^ I, thou, he, has heard ; ham 
hapourcj I-have opened. Here we have the G'k perfect ending 
ha existing^eparate. It has also a simple perfect, ending in ha 
(G*k pha, Lat. ham)) as, dijio-ha, I have heard, scro-ha, I have 
written. This ha is often reduced to a, and has the forms ze, 
tze, fe-^showing after all that it is the Eng. past ed, Germ. te. 
There is a past tense, ending in ona. ana^ na (Gr'k past ending 
on, Germ, en of part.) ; as, difi-ona, I heard, chap-naj I opened, 
pe-na, I made. 

430. Future. 

The regular future mark in Lat., is -ho, -5ts, "hity-himus, -hit is, 
"hunt, differing from the past -ham, -has, 'hat\ etc., in having 
nominative person endings. But, in the 3d and 4th conjugations, 
this mark 6 is suppressed, and we have the future identical 
(practically) with the present subjunctive, as regam is both fut. 
and pres't subj., I will ride, or I may rule) reget, he will rule, 
ftgat^ he may rule. There is, besides, a 2d future, which differs 
irom the perf. subj. only in being amavero, in place of amaverim,, 
in the 1st person sing.; its identity, too, with the pluperfect 
umaveram also necessarily follows. This identity of futures 
with pasts is by no means confined to the Latin. In Greek, too, 
s is both the mark of the fut. and of the 1st aorist, and leip-s-6 
(fut.) differs from {e)leip-s-a (aorist) only as ama-h-am from 
ama-b-o. This mark is often suppressed in the future, as we 
find it in Latin. To compare all the persons of these two tenses, 
we have leips-o, -eis,.-ei; -omen, -ete, -oun (will leave), and 
(e)leip8-a, -as, -e; -amen, -ate, -an (left, have left). 

431. Here we may introduce the Pol. fut., hede pisal, I will 

write, hedzie pisal, he will write, hedziemy pisali, we will write. 

This hede (Per. ?>mJam, Wei. hod, Rus. hit) is the fut. of he, and we 

have wiU he equal to will — insal\& the part, in place of inf. We 

have, in Pol., another arrangement, pisa.s hede, (to-write I wiW), I 

will write, where the inf. is followed by (will) he. The Slovensh 

has, for the 3rd persons sing, of will, hom, has, ho (Welsh hod), 

which approaches still nearer the future ending ho, his, hit, of 

Latin. In Bohemian, we have ie=will be, will, preceding the 

infin. ; as, hudeme piti, we-will (to) drink. Persian has also a 

compound future composed of will or wish and the infin. ; as, 

^hiham nushid, Lshall drink ; hhahad mishid, he-shall drink. 

The lUyr. uses the auxiliary Jiosu (or sw)=will, with the inf. ; 

a8,ja mpitati, I will (to) ask; tises piti, thou wilt (to) drink — 

and sometimes the m is suffixed, as sitat su ((to) read I-will), I 



will read; pit su, I will drink (sounded jp^-w). We have, here, 
the Greek s, and see what it represents. The Servian has this 
sanie auxiliary, in the form of odsh^i (old Slavic choshtu), our 
wish, Persian khash. • 

432. The Wallachian presents the following combination : 

(Jo) voiu laudOf (I) will praise. vomu laudaf (wej will praise. 
vei lauda. viti lauda. 

va lauda. voru lauda. 

Laxida is without doubt a shortened infin. We are reminded 
by this of the identity of future ending ho, his, hit, and Latin 
volo, vis, vult (will), of which the Wallachian presents a shorter 
form. The voru is our were) so the German uses werde, were, 
for will, and the Slavic uses hil (will) for wxis. 

433. In Albanish, we have this for the future : 

do te difoiffj (I) will hear. do te difiogeme, (we) will hear. 

do te difiotz. do te difioni. 

do te difioge. do te difiogene. 

The te mark is an augment, sign of infin. ; do stands for wiU. 
The modern Greek form is precisely the same ; as, iha qrapsO, 
I will write, tJui grapsgs, thou wilt write, tha grapsB, he will 
write, i. e. we have tha unchanged and the endings joined to 
the main verb. This tJia is to be compared with the do, for 
dona, of Alban., with the va of Wall. (v=0> ^^® Greek theld = 
volo, and the Irish ^a=be. The form grapsO used with it, is 
called aorist subj., but it is properly an aorist infin. receiving 
endings, as we saw in Albanian, and elsewhere. This language 
(modern G'k) forms a future also by using thel6 (==*volo, will) 
with aorist infin. ; as, theld grapsei, I-will write, thelei grapsei, 
he-will write — and sometimes the present inf. is used in place 
of aorist ; and, again, we find na replacing ta. 

434. Having gone thus far in showing the various forms 
which the future assumes, in different languages, and now 
remarking, incidentally, that the pres't indie, pres't subj., and 
the future are tenses that everywhere identify themselves, we 
will now consider more in detail the relatives of our auxiliary 
willyf so as to give a still better idea of the future tense. The 
connexion of he with will has been already sufficiently discussed. 
Next to this have is one of the most constant representatives of 
will. We have already seen the future placing itself parj(Jlel 
with the past tenses (marked by have), and the s of the Greek 
future identical with the h and v (for have) of the past tenses of 
Latin. It is a constant feature in Slav, to find have joined with 
an infin. to supply the place of the future, as we say, lam to do, 
or, / have to do, for will do. So, Gothic has taujan haha (to-do 
I-have)=I will do, and Latin dicere haheo (to-say I-have) = I 
will say, also Polish mam szytas (I-have to-read) = I shall read. 


435. In (xothic, munan, mun, is used for will; so we say, I 
mean (same word as mun) tO'do\ \, e. I shall do it, will do it. 
This rmn relates to Gr'k mellein^ also used for will^ and identical 
with it. Our owe^ oiight^ is also related to will, as we see better 
by the Greek form for it, o-pheild (Jil, will) — and Latin dsbeo^ 
ought, is a form of Aafteo=^ shall : must, wiay, mighty are related 
to owe^ ought, aud in form to mean, Go. mxm; shall. Germ, soil, 
is of course a form of m?^. The Danish has ftor=orfght, and 
related to de-heo^ to Wall, voru, German toerde, our loere. We 
haye noticed so far only a portion of the relatives of will, but 
perhaps the most important portion. 

436. It is in the Illyr. and Serb. Wend, that we notice this 
important fact, that an augment in the shape of a prefix preposi- 
tion, is the sign of the future; as, prepisem, I will prescribe 
(fore-write), za-pisem, I will record, write up (pisem, write) ; 
so, also, njesu, I carry, po-njesu, 1 will carry (and so in other 
forms of Slavic). 

437. The futures in the modern L. languages are marked by r, 
as Span, ama-re, a/ma-ras, ama-remos, ama-reis, ama-ran, will 
love. When we bear in mind that the perfect 3d plural is am^- 
f^^ntyn, which we know is for L. amaverunt, we are led to believe 
that this Span, future is the Lat. 2d future amavero=^amaro. - 
So, in French, sentv-rai, -ras, -ra; -rons, rez, ront (will smell). 
-^iiere is no 2nd future in these languages. 

438. Pasnve. 

We will first introduce the passive of Latin, present tense. 
Ifc runs tlius : 

avnoTy I am loved. 

amamur, we are loved. 





The 3d sing, is identical with the future participle, amaturus, 
living off the adj. ending us, a, um; amantur differs from this 
form only in the t strengthened by n; amamur has m used for 
* as often occurs ; amor is for amatr, as amo is for amam, am- 
, dt; another form, common for the 2(1 sing., is amare (for ama- 
tre) which is identical with preset inf. active — amar-is=amor, 
dniar, with an extra person ending common in this person; 
and, again, we find in the imperative, which should agree with 
this 2nd person, the form am^tor (as well as amare). So, five 
of the six person forms above given, are, unquestionably, iden- 
tical with amaturus, and the 6th is not less so, as we shall see 
on closer inspection. The form amamini has long been recog- 
nized as a participle similar to the -mcfnoi of the Gr'k pass, and 
middle ; {his.emen-oi is not only middle (a kind of active), but 
it is active in itself, ag we see in the infin. ending emen (active). 


There is no doubt about emcn^atur^ and hence amin-i=aiur^L 
Again, in the imperative, we find hortamini for hortatory and 
jprse/ammo for prse/ator, and hence we are led to believe that 
they arc equivalent forms. 

439. We must also remember how very plastic we found the 
part, in urus, when treating of its character. We found it used 
as pass, as well as act., and that it gave birth to a verbal noun 
in tura corresponding to our part, in I'nffy which is used passively 
as well as actively. And we shall find plenty of examples, indeed 
we have already under other heads, where the verbal noun is 
plainly the basis of the passive ; as, in Celtic, Slavic, and Scan- 
dinavian. We must remember, too, that or=er, .r, is by no 
means a constant mark of the passive ; it is the ending of infin. 
in other languages, as Fr. ; it marks the active person endings in 
Swed. and Dan. ; it is the er of our speak-er^ and the or of Lat. 
8cnpt-or, writer. We have noticed, elsewhere, the frequent use 
of the part, in urus as a verb in Latin, as amaturum esse, was 
about to love, and amaturas est, is about to love. We find am- 
a^^rMm= would love, but amarenij a purely past tense, is used- 
with the same force, and the two are perhaps not essentially 
different. And then we must bear in mind that all the perfect 
subjunctives are future in their character, as well as form, and 
we shall see see how the future equals the past, and hence the 

440. And there is, besides all this, a large class of verbs whict 
have this pass, ending -or, -aris, -atur, but they are still in every 
respect active in meaning ; as, miror^ I admire, miraris, thou 
admirest, miratur, he admires. It is true, they are called depo^ 
nents, as if they were not a form of the active, but they are act. 
nevertheless. They are just such actives as those verbs which 
have the middle form in Greek ; there, every verb is conceived 
of as having one form which is identical with the passive, and 
which yet, in meaning, is a true active ; as, hipomai, I leave, 
and I am left, Icipetai, he leaves, and is left. 

441. But the strongest proof on this point lies in the present 
passive of Icelandic : 

eff er elskadur, I am loted. 

thu ert elskaduTy thou art loTed. 

hann er elskadur, he is Icnred. 

Strike out the «m, t«, which may be easily suppressed, and 
we have only elsk-adur^ precisely the Latin mn-atur. But this 
language has another form for pass. ; as, eg brennest, thu hr&nnest, 
hann hrennest (in form hurnest\ I, thou, he, is burned. This is 
a sort of middle or reflexive form, and is identical with the Dan. 
and Swedish passive, ending regularly in cs, as — ; as, de tagas 
(Swed.), they (are) taken, chkes (Danish), is loved. We have 


already shown, under the head of the participle in urns, how 
evidently identical this form of passive is with the past part;, 
with the pres't infin., with the er marking the Dan. presH act. 
442. There are several interesting facts in Gothic, which we 
may notice, having a bearing on the eonnexioti between the 
passive and active. Thus, we find drobgan^h. turbarc (active 
infin.), and drohian ==Jjiitin turbari (pass, inf.), to be troubled, 
and lisluhan^Jjdit. aperirc (open), and usluknam^aperiri (7i=« 
Ati), and fraquistan^perderc^ fraquistnan^perdi (to be lost), 
(jst^=8tii) — we thus see what a slight difference there is between 
the active and passive forms of infin. in Goth., as well as in Lat. 
We might refer here to our own wliiten =io be white, thicken= 
to become thick, where we have the real German infin. ending 
used for passive infin. So, we find in Gothic, too, manna hait- 
ans Jaisus, (a) man (who is) called Jesus — where haitans^ 
voctitus (participle) is used for vacatur (is called). It is hardly 
necessary to say that whenever we use a past part, independently, 
as the man captured = the man who was captured , we use a part. 
as a passive. We find other instances in Gothic of participle fot 
passive; aid, sa reiks this faihrhwaus us-wair-poda^ the prince 
(Lat. rex) (of) this world (is) thrown-out (e-jected) ; all bagme 
usmaitadct, gah infon atlagada, every tree (shall be) cut-down 
(part.), and into fire (shall be) cast (participle) ; tharel sdiada 
(sowed) thata waurd, where (is) sowed the word ; gah ahmins 
weihis ga-fullgada (filled), and (with) ghost holy (shall be) filled 
(Lat. replebitur). It will be observed that this pass. part, alone 
is used not only for the present passive but for other tenses. 

443. The conclusion we thus far arrive at is, that the past 
(or pass.) participle is the basis of the passive ; but the past part. 
is intimately connected with the infinitive, as the infinitive is 
with the participle in urus. 

444. Slavic Passive. 

In Bohemian, for example, we ^nd jest hledan, he-is sought; 
Jsme hledani^ we-are sought. It will be remembered that this 
pass. part, hledan (sought) is not different from the verbal noun 
seeking (ending also in ani). 

445. The Polish presents the sanie history ; as, jestem koch- 
amy, I-am loved. The reflexive form is used for passive in 
Polish, as it is in so many other languages ; as, slowo pisze sie, 
(the) word writes self (is written). The impersonal form is 
also used as with us ; thus, one divides (they divide) the booty, 
i. e. the booty ?'.s* divided. And it is worthy of note that the 
form used impersonally in this way, in the sense of one dividra^ 
differs from the passive part, divided only as ano from rf;/y, or 
as szyt-ano from szyt-any, or podziel-ono from podziel-ony. 


446. In Russian, we have another instance of a langttagd 
having a passive part, in place of present passive, as We see by 
the following : 

ia dvizem, I (^m) moved* mi dvizemiy we (are) moved. 

ti dvizem. vi dvizemie, 

on dvizem, oni dvizemi. 

The Russian infinitive ends in at^ the past active ends in o^, 
and this ends in em — see the identity of the three. 

447. ItuTKjarian Passive, 

The present passive of varrti, to wait, runs thus : 

varatom, I am waited (for) • varatunk, we are waited (for). 
vdrtitol. varattok. 

varatik. varatnak. 

Here, we have a new base varaty in place of var, and probably 
identical with vart, past part., to which are joined person end- 
ings. It is not different) in its passive infin. var-atni (at-ni), 
from Latin am-aver (^av-er), or the Greek leip-sai («-ai), or the 
Latin am-atur (at-ur). It is the H found in Turkish deug-iler 
{iJrur=^at-ur)y he is struck. It must readily suggest itself to 
the student, that this so called insertion of an element, as t7, is 
only such an insertion as we have found the s mark of the fut. 
to be, and the k and v mark of the perfect, and no more. 

448. Alhamsh Passive, 

In this language, we find difioU'em, I am heard; pen-emj 
I am made ; chap-em, I am opened, and the 3d sing, for these 
forms is digion-ete, pen-ete, chap-ete. In this connexion, we 
Want to bear in mind that dfi^ow=he hears, and difionai^l 
heard; so that Alban. -em, -et^ur of atur, Greek mat and tai. 
The passive is unquestionably here, as elsewhere, the growth of 
a passive participle. In the past passive, we find diflon-esa, 
pen-esa, chap-esa. It is clear that the endings em andcsa have 
come to represent ^ia?yi = am, and tec == was. The pass, tense, 
called the definite past, differs (in the plural) from the same 
tense active only by augment ou preceding; as, diJiouaTne, we 
have heard, ou dijiouame, we have been heard. 

449. In Wallachian, we may add here, the passive takes the 
reflexive form, as jo me laudu, I me praise, i. e. I am praised, 
noine laudamu, we us praise, i. e. we are praised; but the form 
of sum amatus, I-am loved, is also used. 

450. Celtic Passive, 

The Irish passive present for hiiail, strike, is huailtear^ through 
all the persons, followed by the personal pronouns; as, huailtear 
me^ T am struck — huailtc, it will be remembered, is the passive 


part, equal to Latin amatus, in form ; and, hence, we infer that 
buailtear = amatur. The past passive has an unvarying base for 
all the persons; as, do huaileadh me, I was struck, do huaileadh 
tu, thou wast struck. The form huaileadh corresponds exactly 
with the Slrd person imperative active ; do la an infin. or part, 
prefix. Hence, we conclude that this is a pure infin., followed 
by the separate personal pronouns, but as the infinitive is so 
completely identical with the participles, in Celtic, we may call 
it the participle also. We have only to call to mind the identity 
of the present infinitive and the past active participle in Slavic, 
and of amatum (infinitive) with amatus^ past or passive part., 
in order to understand this phenomenon. A 2nd past passive 
is do buailti, fot all persons. This is plainly and simply the 
pass. part, huailte. The corresponding active tense has the same 
basis. The future passive is for all persons huailfear^ which 
differs from the present only in / for t. We think them really 
one and the same. The 1st person future active is huailfeadh:^ 
and we doubt not adh=ar ; feadh— fear = tear. There is, in 
Irish, a conditional for the passive as well as for the active, but 
we can see in it only a form of the future. 

451. In Welsh, the present pass, ends in ir for all persons ; 
as cdrir e/, he is loved, carir ni^ we are loved. This ir of Welsh 
is the or of Lat. amor. It will be observed that the correspond- 
ing Irish is tear=^tur-us. In this *V, we have, too, the ad^ adh 
of Gaelic ; the Welsh cared, let him love, is not different from 
carer ef (he), let him be loved. The Cornish form is carer. 
The Welsh past pass., for all persons, is cerid. This, if we are 
to judge by the Celt.-Bret., kared (loved), past part., as well as 
pass., besides the Irish past just treated of, is simply a past part., 
or if you prefer, an infin. In Cornish, ca7'as=was loved, is the 
identical form which we find in the past active; as, caras=^he 
loved. The two futures of Welsh passive, namely cerir, carer, 
cannot be mistaken. The perfect carwyd, and the pluperfect 
carotid can be seen to be substantially the same as the corre- 
sponding active tenses, carodd (3d sing.) and carasit (2d sing.); 
carwyd can scarcely be said to have developed any element more 
than cerid. 

452. The Welsh may say also, mi a garir, I (am) in loving 
(being loved), for I am loved ; efe a garir, he (is) a loved. 
There is, besides, an impersonal form yr ydys yn fy negharu, it 
is in my loving, i. e. I am loved ; yr ydys yn ei garti, it is in 
his loving, he is loved. 

It is important to bear in mind that the C.-Bret. uses harer 
(or harewr) ipa personally for one loves, and kared, foronejoved, 
karor, one will love, forms which are called passive in Welsh 
and Cornish. 


The common passive in Cornish is a compound, the usual one, 
of be and passive participle. 

453. Having given so much of other languages to illustrate 
the Latin passive, we have now only to add that its past pass, is 
amahar, -baris, -batur ; -bamuVy -bamini^ -bantur, thatfis, it is 
a present passive on the basis of past active ; we have amahor, 
future, on the basis of the amabo; so, we have amer from am- 
em, and amarer from amarem, present and past subjunctive. 
The other tenses are compound ; thus, amatus sum (loved am), 
I have been loved; amati erant (loved were), they have been 
loved; amati fuerimus (loved will-have-been), we will have been 
loved ; amatus sim (loved may be), I may have been loved ; 
amatus essem (loved might be), I might have been loved. 

454. Greek Passive. 

The present has the following forms : 

leipomai, I am left. leipometha, we are left, 

letpo (-esai). leipesthe. 

leipetai, leipontai. 

Making due allowance for insignificant letter changes, we have 
simply the element ai added to the preset act., which (repeated) 
is levpO {om), eis (e^), ei (c^) : omen, ete, otisi, or onti. And we 
find ur or r acting the same part in Latin, which leads us to 
infer that they are one and the same element. This ai, in a 
form sometimes disguised, extends to the other tenses, as the r 
in Latin. We may say, too, that these six persons seem to be 
merely a variation of leipomen(os)\ the pass. part. ; but leipomen 
is middle (or active) as well, and little doubt is left that ieipom- 
en{os) =^amatur(us'), in form. The ending mat, and its variation 
mi, and ma, men, is in Greek a well recognized active ending. 
Besides, we must remind the student of the form amamini = 
amatur in Latin ; and we may add, too, that while in Latin the 
2d plural has the ending amin-i of a part., the 2d plur. in G'k 
leipesthe is identical with the pass, infin. leipesthai (unquestion- 
ably the same as leipomen{os)). So, the Greek imperative 3rd 
singular, which should be same as indicative, is leipesthO, like 
the infinitive. 

455. Here we give the past or imperfect. 

eleipomeUf I was left. eleipometha, we are left. 

eleipou (^-eso). eleipesthe, 

eleipeto, eleiponto. 

The only real difference between this and the present, is, as 
in the active, only the augment e. The first and second plurals 
are precisely the same, and the 3d persons, sing, and plur.,- dif- 
fer only in o for ai. The reason of this likeness in tenses in 
Greek, which differ in Latin, is the same for the passive as for 


tlie active, namely, that the past iu Greek has not developed the 
i mark as in Latin. If the past in Greek really was a tense 
distinct from the present, it would have, what it now has not, 
an infinitive and participle of its own. 

Viewing these tenses as composed of parts, we might say ai 
equals be, m, and g/i«=iwas, having for the base a participle. It 
is certain these tenses have a tendency to develop such elements. 
456. We will next notice the perfect passive : 

Ideimmai, I have been left. leleimmetha^ we have been left. 

Ideipsai. leleiphthe, 

Ideiptai, leleimmenoi eisi. 

There is no doubt that all these persons are variations of the 
perf. pass. part, appearing in the 3d plural, and if we find such 
forms as levpsai (leaving off the augment), identical with the aor. 
inf. act., and levptai not different from leipetai (3d sing, preset), 
, this only shows that the part. (le)leipmeno8, having the form 
(k)le{mmeno8, is not different from the verbal form leiptos, 
"which corresponds in form with amatus. Hence, we may either 
regard the first five persons as the simple passive part, used for 
the passive, with he suppressed, or the ending ai as represent- 
ing Se, which becomes separate in the 3d plural. It is worthy 
of note in this connexion, that in the subj. and opt. moods of 
this tense, this form in men-os appears in all the persons followed 
^J he J as tetummenos eiSn, (struck might-be) I might have been 
struck. In modern Greek, this same participle without the 
*Qgment, as grammenos for gegrammenos^ is used thus unchang- 
ed through all persons with he; eimai grammenos, I have been 
""Written (literally, I-am written), etsai grammAios, thou art (have 
*^n) written, SmSn grammenos, I was (had been) written, Sm- 
^ha grammenoi, we were (had been) written. 

457. And next the Greek pluperfect passive : 

eleleimmen. I had been left. 
eleleipso, thou hadst been left. 
eleleipto, he had been left. 
eleleimmenoi esan, they had been left. 

This tense, evidently, has the same relation to the perfect 
that the imperfect has to the present. The part, which is at the 
"asis of it is the same as that of the perfect — am being an ele- 
ment represented in the latter, and was in the former. 

458. The future passive is leiphthSsomai, with pres't endings 
^li all persons, and the 1st aorist passive is eleiphthSn, thSSj th€ ; 
fh^men, thSte, thSsan. The element leiph, which is common to 
toth, is, it seems probable, for leiptos, with the element €somai 
*«will be added in the future, and in— was, in the aorist, i. e. 
these tenses are real participles which have developed their parts 
BO as to represent such elements. 



There is a 2d futuife tupisomaiy and a 2d aorist etupin* We 
regard these forms as substantially the same as the former, with 
the parts less strongly developed, or a portion of them latent. 

459. The modern Greek varies the 1st and 2nd aorist passive 
thus, egraphthika, for G'k egraphthin, and egraphlka^ for G'k 
egraphln — using A;a =«have, while Greek uses £na»was. We 
have only to add, to complete the survey, that the G'k has a fut. 
middle, leipsomai, based on the future leipso, and a first aorist, 
eletpsamirif based on the aorist active, eleipsa, 

460. It may not be amiss to- notice briefly here the Bengal . 
mode of forming the passive. There are two ways, one peculiar 
to verbs of Sans, origin, where be is joined to the past, or pass., 
part, in to, as is done in Germ., and elsewhere ; another, the 
more usual one, where a sort of gerund or verbal noun is used 
as the base, and the verb go follows it as an auxiliary; as, it 
goes to see, or seeing, i. e. to be seen — like our it goes to ruin, 
is being ruined, goes to destruction, is being destroyed; get ,is 
used in like manner ; as, get ruin, for be ruined, get hatred, for 
be hated. The Hindustani passive is made in the same way, 
save that go follows as an auxiliary in all the tenses. Just as 
the German says gone lost, for is lost, so the Hind, says lost go, 
struck go, for is lost, is struck {go lost, go struck}. 

461. That we may leave nothing unsaid that may tend to il- 
lustrate the connexion between the passive and the active, we 
will notice a point or two more, before we close the subject. 
The Greeks use briao in the sense both of to be strong (passive) 
and to make strong (act.) ; so, when we say the rope is long, we 
use long passively, but when we use lengthen, the verb form of 
long, and say lengthen the rope, we use long actively. And, too, 
the most imperfect scholar in Germ, and Fr. knows well how 
common there the passive form is for the active ; as, is gone for 
has gone, is come for has come, is fallen for has fallen, is frozen 
for has frozen, is disappeared for has disappeared — to say no- 
thing of our sells for is sold, and burns for is burned. The 
connexion between passives and ordinary intransitives is very 
close, indeed, it may well be said that the passive is a pure 
intransitive. It is in the Finn, dialects that we see most plainly 
the identity of Passives, Reflexives, Causatives, and all other 
derivative forms,* with each other. They all have the same 
formation, and their characteristic mark, moreover, is t=d, n, 
which in its variations is the t and d of German and Koman 

462. Subjunctive. 

The Latin subjunctive, so called, answers to what is usually 
called the potential in English, and includes the Greek optative 


and subjunctive. All t^ose Latin subj. tenses (of wbicli there 
are four) are very properly so named, being all dependent or 
subjoined, in fact or in principle, to some finite verb. More 
than this, at least three of the subj. tenses, the past amarem, 
the perf. amaverim, the pluperf. amavissem, are based on infin's 
(idways known to be dependent); the first on amare, the second 
on the theoretical amavercj and the third on the perfect infini- 
tive amavisse. 

463. All the subjunc. tenses, the three named above and the 
present amem, have endings like past tenses. Their close con- 
nexion with the infinitive may be shown by its frequent use for 
all of them. Thus, / desired him to do it, i. e. that he should 
do it, that he may do it j I expected him at that time to do it, 
i. e. that he may have done it, that he should have done it. Here, 
in these two examples, using the same infin. to do, we have the 
four tenses subj., may do, might do, may have done, might have 
done. And we shall bear in mind, too, that all our futures and 
subj's (potential) are based on infin's, that is, they are simply 
infin's with auxiliary will, may, Tnight, should. Again, the 
subj. very often identifies itself with the imperative, but this is 
known to be only an infinitive. 

464. As compared with the Latin, the subjunctives of Ital., 
French, and Spanish; have considerably changed their form. 
The Spanish has a tense called 1st conditional, thus : 

amar-ia, -ias, -ia ; -iamos^ -iais, -tan (should love) 

The corresponding Italian is : 

amer-ei, ■'■esti, -ebbe; -emmo, -estCf -ebbero (should love). 

The corresponding French is : 

aentir-ois, -ois, -oit ; -ions, -iez, -oient (would have smelt). 

All these forms correspond very nearly with the future ; it is 
evident they are identical with the form amaverim, as the fut. 
is with amavero. 

There is another form which corresponds, without doubt, to . 
the Latin amavissem. It is in Italian thus : 

am-asaif -assif -asae; -aasimo, •^aste, -assero (should love). 
. And in Spanish : 

am-cue, -ases, -ase; 'asemoSf ^aseisy -asen (should love). 
And in French :. 
sent'isse, -isses, -it; issions, -issiez, -issent (might have smelt). 

The past subjunctive of Gothic is also formed after the same 
principles as amaverim. The present subjunctive of this, as 
well as that of the other languages just named, is substantially 
the «ame as the present indicative. 


465. Under the head of the Slavic Verb, we have already 
seen the infinitiye, in the form of past participle, the basis ^and 
substance of the Slav, subjunctive, accompanied only, or marKed, 
by the prefix hi sometimes equal to ?/, sometimes to that, but 
always in fact identical with he. 

466. But the Celtic subjunctive, under the head of the Celtic 
verb, was noticed only incidentally, and by far too superficially 
to permit it to be passed by here. 

In Celtic Breton, the present subjunctive is formed thus, ra 
ganinn^ ra gam, ra gano (that I, thou, he, may or shall sing). 
This ganinrij gani, gano, is precisely the future indicative, ex- 
cept g for k by reason of the preceding ra (Jcaninn), This 
ra is the augment that appears, in different forms, everywhere 
in Celtic. It is the do of Irish, the a, ag, of Welsh, €he hi of 
Slavic — it is identical also with the Celt.-Breton ra«=do, make. 
This is the common augment for the tenses of the Celtic Breton 
subjunctive, and it may be said to take the place of our that, 
French que. While we observe here that the subjunctive tenses 
are all futures, we may add that the subj's of L. are all futures 
also, that is, amem, the present, has the same form as the futures 
in the 3rd and 4th conjugations;, amarem, thiB past, is in form 
the French future ; amavemm, the perfect, is the same as the 
2d future, and amavissem, the pluperfect, is not different from 
amaverim. The Welsh subjunctive is made by the infinitive 
with the help of ma^, covM, would, precisely as with us. In 
Cornish, the subj. tenses are the same as those of the indicative, 
some of them having the prefix re s= Celt.-Bret. ra. In Irish, 
as everywhere, the conditional, or subj., is the same as the fut., 
or it is based on it. 

467. Greek optative and subjunctive. 

The Gr'k subjunctive corresponds in form through its tenses 
with those of the indicative, save that the personal endings are 
uniformly 6, Ss, S ; omen, Ste, osi. There is every probability 
that there exists the same relation between leipo^ Ss, € (subj.) 
and leipo, eis, ei (ind.), that there is between Lat. amem (subj.) 
and amo (indie). All the tenses of the Greek subjunctive are 
present tenses, present on the basis of the different tenses of the 

468. We find the indicative tenses taken as bases for the op- 
tative tenses also, but with the endings oimi, ois, oi; oimen, 
oite, oien, for all the tenses except the first aorist, which has 
aimi, ais, ai ; aimen, aite, aien. That this optative ending is 
a development of the indicative is probable, but it has so devel- 
oped that oi stands forth as a new element. These facts we 
should bear in mind ; that verbs ending in mi are in their very 


nature past tenses ; that for oiW, oi«, oi, the Attic, dialect has 
oiin^ cne«, oie ; oiemen, oiete, oiisan ; also, eta, ems' eic, for ai- 
Tm\ ats, ai (of the aorist) ; bearing these things in mind, and 
taking in connexion the undoubtedly related forms of the Latin 
past subjunctive, we are induced to believe that the Greek opta- 
tive endings are all past endings, and the tenses all past tenses, 
corresponding in form, as well as in meaning, with the Latin 
amarem, amaverim^ amavwsem, 

469. But what is this element oi? In Sanscrit it hi/a; but 
i/a is used there for other purposes too — it is the passive mark; 
a class of verbs is formed there distinguished by this element. 
Our impression is, that oi corresponds to the infin. ending, that 
it is the re in amarem, amaverim. The ai of middle and pass. 
tenses ifepresents an inf. ending ; so does the ai of the aorist inf. 
= ein ; mod. Greek inf. ends regularly in ei for ein. We may 
identify it, too, with the s and b mark of the fut. In the Finn, 
languages, we find «/, the well known fut. sign, as the sign of 
the subjunctive, coming, as the future s in Greek, before the 
person endings. We find ka in these languages representing 
the Greek oi; this is same as st, as ^a=s in Greek ; it is also 
the t of past participle — ka is the mark of denominatives, and 
of desideratives ; it is the mark, too, of imperatives ; they are 
identical with subjunctive, here as well as elsewhere. 

470. German subjunctive. 

In the verb be, in German, the apparent difference between 
the present subjunctive and present indicative is greater than 
the real one. The present indicative is bin, bist, ist (singular), 
while the subjunctive is sei, seist, sei — but the plurals are more 
alike, sind, seid, sind (indie); seien, seiet, seien (subj.). The 
b of ind.=s of subj., as we see by the plural, where s replaces 
it, also by the 8umz=bin in Latin. The subj. best represents 
the inf. sein. In English| we find this be, as we should expect 
it, in the pres't subj. ; but it is infin. and in place of seien. 

471. In the ordinary and regular verbs of German, the preset 
subj. is like present indie. — except the 3rd sing, which differs 
thus; singet (ind.), singe (subj.), liebt, for liebet (ind.), and Hebe 
(subj.). There are other unimportant changes in the vowel of 
the base that occur in some verbs which we will pass over here. 

472. The imperfect subj. is also to be identified with the im- 
perfect indicative ; war, warst, war is sing. (ind. past), and the 
subj. is ware, warest, ware (our were') ; of have, (indie.) hatte, 
hattest, hatte, (subj.) hatte, hattest, h&tte; so kam, kamst, ham, 
is past ind. (came), but kame, kamest, kame, is past subjunctive 
(might come). In lieben, to love, and regular verbs generally, 
past indicative = past subjunctive. It is very clear that in the 

126 PHRA8IS. 

German languages, as in other tongues, the very essence of the 
subj. lies in the particles i/, when^ thaty expressed or implied 
(the base being like the ind.). The particle tJuit may be called 
the article of the subj., as to is the article of the infinitive. The 
German uses the interrogative form very commonly for subj., 
saying is this «o, for if this is so, comes he here, for if he comes 
here, struck he that, for i/ he struck that ; so, we say does he 
speak, all listen, i. e. if he speaks. 

The Verb Be. 

473. We propose now to give a general survey of this most 
important verb as we find it in the different languages. No 
comparative view can be more interesting to the student, or 
more useful. It will be especially important from its showing 
the surprising changes which the same word, be, may assume in 
passing through the different persons, numbers, and tenses, 
forms which are again varied as they appear in other languages. 
.It will be our aim to show how these forms gradate into each 
other. It will give to the student, too, the general plan or out- 
line of one of the most important verbs in the language where 
it is found, one which you may call the basis of all verbs, or 
which enters into their composition as an important element. 
It will show, too, the tense-forms and person-forms in an entirely 
new light, one which will serve well to illustrate the character 
of the forms which we have so far been examining. 

And first we will introduce the Gothic. 

474. Gothic Be. 

In the present, im, is, ist; sijum, si/uth, sind; tm= German 
bin, Latin sum, our am ; sijum for Lat. sumus, is only sum (am 
for are) — sind, Latin sunt (are). The. past is vas, vast, vas ; 
vesum, vesuth, vesun. In the pluraf, ves is for ver, our were — 
the um, uth, un, are only plur. endings. As our were (and are) 
is a pure infin., so is i;e«wm=Goth. visan (infin.). Germ, wesen 
(our essence). 

The subjunctive is sijau, sijais^-syai; sijaima, sijaith, sijai- 
ma. Call this^ an i, as it is, and we easily locate it with Germ. 
sei, seist, sind, Lat. sum and sim, our be — it has the form of the 
Gothic present plural carried through the singular as well. It 
reminds us of Latin sim, sis, sit; simus, sitis, sint (may be). 

476. There is a form for may be, thus, visan (wisan), visads, 
visai; visaima, visaith, visaina. This is the Latin essem, esses, 
esset ; essemus, essetis, essent (might be) ; and it is based on the 
form visan (Germ, wesen) ^ to be; while the s^'ai is based on 


the other infinitive djan (sigan), Germ. «em. The form vesjau 
(westfari), veseis, ved; vesevna, veseith, veseina, is only a slight 
yariation of visan (vtsau), and means migJit he (past subj.). 
Here we see Lat. esse equals be equals was, and the subj. again 
based on the infinitive. 

476. Anglo Saxon Be. 

The Ang.-Sax. has three forms for present ; as, 

eom, eart, ya / synd, synd, synd. 

beoy byst, byth; beothj beoth, beotk. 

weorthe, wyrstj wyrth ; weorthath, weorthath, weorthath. 

In the 2nd form, the h which we find in hin^ our fecm, is car- 
ried through all the persons. The form wyrth is the German 
warden, another form of were — the ending ath of the plural has 
come to be a mere plural mark ; it is the eth of speak-eth, and is 
not different from the infin. ending. There- are two forms for 
the past, both equal to were} as, waes, waere, woes; waeron, wae- 
ran, waeron, and waerth, wurde, waerth; wurdon^ wurdon, wur* 
don. Both are forms of the wyrth above — so, we see the pres't 
==past; the form wurde, whi<?h we find also in Germ., reminds 
us oi would — indeed, it is used in German for would, as werde 
(were) is used for will (see he = will). 

477. With slight variations, those three presents above given 
are also subjunctive, thus : 

«y> *y> «y/ «y«» fyn^ syn (Germ, sein =^io be), Lat. sim. 
heoj beOf beo ; beon, beoriy beon (been), Lat. «im, 6 8 «. 

The other form is weorthe (sing.), and weorthon (plur.). 
The past subjunctive is waere and wurde. 

wes, beo, weorthf are equal forms for imperative. 
wesaTiy beon (been), weorthan, equal forms for infin. 
wesende, beonde, weorthende, for present participle. 
wesen and wordefi^for past participle. 

See wesen =we8an, infinitive = participle. 

478. Looking over the imperative, and comparing ioe-s (w-er) 
and we-or-th with its equal, our he, we may observe that w-er 
has developed one infin. element and we-or-th two ; we-or-th-an 

■ has three, and we-or-th-end-e, at least four — see how elements 
are repeated ; the Lat. fiv-t-ur-us has three like Germ, w-er-dren. 
We may add that the 2d form of the present, heo, heoth, is used 
for future (L. ero). There is also an-weard^ (Lat. prae-sens) » 
being, and to-waerd (to-ward)s?B about to he {IttXmfutur-us, less 
the ending, 2i& fu-t-ur). These are merely Germ, werden, with 
augments (or prep's) cm and to. If we transpose, as often hap- 
pens, the letters oifutur, thus, furt, we shall see how it equals 
werd. Indeed, we can regard our were as equal to futur, the t 
being suppressed, as in Latin fuero (will have been, or will be) 


iorfutero or fuvero. The Latin ,/im (to be) is another form of 
futur^ where t is dropped, or otherwise represented. 

479. Old German Be, 

" There are few forms here that are new, compared with what 
we have already seen. In the present plural, however, besides 
the forms sm, sun^ sind, sit, already met with, we find hirumes, 
we are, hiruf, ye are (but sindun is they are). This bir is clearly 
were, which again equals are ; hirumes is identical with Latin 
eramus, we were (bir^wir, uh\ eer, cr); sind also equals werey 
for si7id is sid, sir, were (a=B/and w),. 

In the imperative, we find sus, sis, wis, wes (yes), all variations 
for he, L. sis, esto — sis, wes, is for si, we,^he, as German infin 
weS'en=»s-ein, L. esse. Swed. has vara mf.=wesen, i. e. r^s. 

The forms ves, var, ver, are common through the German and 
Scandinavian tongues for the imperative, showing that impera- 
tive equals infin. and the past, and, besides, what development 
be is capable of. 

480. French Be. 

The infin. etre equals hhtiu /iitur (us). Germ, werde, our were 
(^fut^uut, eet, et^ ; e^aw^** being (part.) is same as Germ, wesen 
(t=s); ete (been) is same as was {t=s). The present indie, 
is as follows : 

suisy esy est ; sommes, etes^ sont (am, are). 
The suis=^uuis, was, is; in es and est, the «=6, 7(7,/, disappears; 
the 2d plural, etes, Lat. estis (Germ, seid, our are)^ shows what 
the part, ete must have been. And the past tense etais, etait, 
for Latin eram, erat, shows t equal r. We find also : 

/w«, /w«, fut ; f limes, futes^furent. 
(Lat.) /wj, fuistij fuit; fuimtis, fuistis, fuerunt [fuere). 

This is clearly seen to be our was, werif German wesen. It is 

exactly the same as the present, only /for s ; fates equal etes; 

one of the plurals of Latin (fuere) shows the were very clearly 

(^fuere=zvueri, uuere, were). It is the same also as etais, only 
fn for et. The future sing, is serai, sera^, sera, Latin ero, eris, 

erit; the s suppressed in Latin appears in French — it is were 

with endings. 

The Fr. imperative is sois, same as suis, am, and taking s=:Wy 

it is our was, the ves found in some Germ, imperatives, the Lat. 

es. The preset subj. is sois, soit (may be). There is a past subj. 
fusse VLndfut (Lv^i. fuissem, fuisset), I might be, he might bo — 

this again is our was. 

481. The Italian presents few things of much importance. 
The infinitive is essere (for sesere). Span, ser, German sein, Fr. 
etre, Latin esse. The part, been is sta-to {to being Lat. tas, part. 


ending), Fr. ete (et^=8ta) Span, sido; the imperative is m, sia 
(,=«?, 6). 

The present indicative is as follows : 

tono, setose), e; aiamo, siete, so no (are). 

era, eri^era; eravamOy eravate, erano (were). 

This past is plainly the Latin eram^ erat, but it is important to 
observe the v appearing in the 1st and 2d plur. It shows that 
the b appearing in ordinary plist tenses in Latin, is suppressed 
in eram. The Italian present participle ess-endo is the A. Sax. 
wes-^nde, Spanish si-endo, 

482. Celtic Be. 

Of the Celtic class, we will first turn to the Welsh. The 
present is thus : wi//, wyt^ yw ; ym^ ych^ ynt — also the same 
forms with prefix yd; as, ydwyf. We want to bear in mind, 
in this connexion, the imperative forms hwyf, hydd^ hoed^ and 
inf. hod, and we shall see that wyf is for hwyf, relating to Germ. 
hin, hist; the plurals, by replacing the lost «, as sym, sych, refer 
alec to Germ, sind^ seid, Latin sum. 

The past singular, hyddwn, hyddit, hyddai, besides oeddwn, 
oeddit, oedd, refers to our was {hi=iw). It is based on inf. hod, 
imperative hydd, Slavic hiti, hede. 

483. The perfect tense is : 

buTTiy buostj bu; buom, buochy buant^ also 
buaiSf buaisty bues ; buasom, buasoch, buasant. 

The hum, hu, is our heen, he, French fus, fum^s (h =/). The 
second form, huais, is our was, Latin fuisse, French fusse. In 
elements, it is like Italian era-vamo (s=va). 
The pluperfect is not materially different, 

buaswn, buaait, buasai; buasem, buaseeh, buasent. 

The future is : 

byddof, byddif bydd; byddwity byddwch, byddant. 

It is easy to see in this only the development of the infinitive 
hod, imperative hydd (1st plural, here, like hyddwn of past). 

484. Cornish. 

The Cornish does not vary materially from the Welsh he. 
The present is of, os, yu; on, ough, yns or ens — which will 
easily compare with the Welsh. These make a new form by 
prefixing as, ys (the yd of Welsh), giving us assof yssof, ytho/, 
esof, sof, thof, (for 1st person) — pointing to is, was, Latin es, 
French sois. 

The past is esen, eses, ese ; esen, esough, ens — we easily see 
how this inentifies with Cornish present, our is and was (eas). 


There is a future =8ubj. (should be); thus, hef^ hes^ hethe; 
hen, heugh, hens — and a past tense (was) not different from it; 
thus, h2{f (hiie/), hus, hue (be) ; huen, heugh, hoiis. Here we 
see repeated again and again heen, Germ. 6aw, he, and 5ws=was. 
Both are based on the inf., that which we always find at the base 
of the past and of the fut.=subj. The imperative is hyth, 

485. Celtic-Breton. 

In this form of Celtic, the infinitive is heza, German wesen, 
French etre (t=z). The participle heen is het, the French ete 
less the h — or you may divide h-et, for et is part, ending. The 
imperative is hez, Anglo Saxon hi/th, French sots (fe=s); the 
form heZ'et=¥Tench. soy-ez (be-ye). The tenses are as follows : 

OMTiw, oudy eo f omp, ochj int (present). 
oenn, oez, ocf oemp, oechy oent (past). 
beziiriy beziy bezo ,• bezimpf bezotf bezint (future). 
benn, bez, ^cj bempy bechy bent (would be). 

In the present, the h and s, seen in other languages, as hin^ 
sum, are lost in vowels; the past is not differ^jit from it — oes= 
was, uas, and oe=wa-s. The future is a form of infin., but it 
agrees with was. The last form is like it, but has the z sup- 
pressed, and it becomes our he, heen. The Celtic-Breton weza 
is Welsh hues, huais, . 

486. Irish Be, 

The Irish imperative is hi, hiod. The present is as follows : 
bidim, bidir, bideann (bion) ; bimid, biti, bid. 

This hidh Germ, hist, Celt.-Breton heza (z:=d, s/). The form 
hidim is the French etant, the e=hi. The past is: 

bideas, bidis, bi^ biomar, biobar, biodar. 
So we see by the 3d sing, hi, that it is all a development of fte, 
the inf. ; hidis, leaving off h, is the Fr. ete^ etois; hiod, hiom, is 
our heen. There is another past, hidinn, hidtea, hidead (hiod) ; 
himis, hiti, hidis — hid-ead is a double infin., like German wer- 
den, Italian ess-ere. See how the plural agrees with the present 
plural. The fut. is heidead, not different from the second past. 
The infinitive is heit, having the prefix do (our to), showing its 
identity with the pasts, which also put do before all the persons. 

487. The participle with the prefix ar, is mheit — where we 
see the participle mark m of Semitic. 

We find simpler forms for he, as follows: is, as, for our is; 
had, ha for our was (h=w) ; hud, Welsh hod, =will be (hud= 
ha^, ha, he). 

We also find taim, tair, ta ; tamaoid, tataoi, taid, for am, is, 
etc. — this ta is the French ete. 


488. Slavic Be. 

In lUyrian, the present tense is : 

jesam, Jest, Jest ; JesvMy jeste, jesu. 
This ye is a prefix like the as, yc?, of Celt., e of Latin esum^ and 
as such it is often left off; as, sam, si, (but jest becomes ye) ; 
then we see the Latin sum^ sumus, sunt. 
The future is : 

budem, budes, bude ,* budemo, budete, budu. 
This is the imperative budi, infin. hiti, with person endings — 
it is, too, a development of he. 

There are two pasts, the first have been, and the next was, 

bih, bif bi (be) ; bismo, biste, bise (bese). 
biah, biasCf biase /. biasmo, biaste, biahu. 

We easily see the identity of the former with our &e, Germ. 
hist; in the latter, we see was, Celtic-Breton 6e2;a. The forms 
hiv^ hil, hit, are all participial forms, and all variations merely 
of hiti, to be (t?=»?, 0- 

489. Serh.'Wend, 

The present is like the Illyrian, less the prefix ye. The past 
is : 

bech^ bese (be), bese (be) ; bechmy, besce, bechu. 

This is precisely the Illyrian hiah, hiase. 

The future develops an extra z; as, plural hudzemy, hudzese, 
hvdza — this z is the s found elsewhere in the future ; but even 
the imperative is hvdz, while infinitive is hi/s (hyc), 6y?=been, 
hywsi (hav. been), Latin /wisse. 

The present subjunctive is hych hyl (I may-be been), I may 
be — also hudzich hyl (shall-be been), I should be. There is a 
pass. part, hyty =heen, which is same as infinitive, and like Fr. 
etc; there is the form siicy, B.udjso (so), German seiend, being. 

490. SlovenshBe. 

The present is like that of Serb .-Wend. The perfect is com- 
pound, Sim hil (I-am been), have been; and pluperfect, hil sim 
hil (been I-am been), had been — this tense subjunctive is hil-hi- 
hUXsee the elements repeated). 

The sing. fut. ia hodem, hodes, bode (shortened, bom, bos, bo). 
We find for would he, the form hesim, bese, he ; hesmo, heste, 
heso — strike off the he, and you have the ordinary pres't. We 
may regard the be as a, prefix, or the whole as a form such as we 
often meet with. 

491. Bohemian Be, 

There are few things of interest here, after having already 


given so much of the Slavic he. The present isy«€m, y«i, jest; 
jsme, jste, jsou — showing very clearly that the^s (jes) is only a 
kind of s. We find in the subjunctive, such repetitions as, 6y^ 
hych-hyl (been-may-be-been), I would have been. The partici- 
ples are (preset) ysa,y.sowc (Germ, seiend), and (past) hg/v, hymi 
(fyl), h./uisse, our been. There is also a fut. part., buda, budouc, futurus, Germ, werden, Persian, infin budan and skudan. 

492. The Polish presents scarcely anything different from the 
others noticed. The conditional, or subj., is bylhymr-bylabym' 
bylohym (I would be), and hylbys-ht/labys-hylobys (thou wooldst 
be) — in which byl^ or Z>e, is repeated, or appears, twice. 

493. In the Russian pres't, the former prefix y and yc appears 
as simple e; thus, esm^ €Si\ est (am, art, is) — showing also that 
the e of Latin est may be taken as prefix, making e-st=!mnt {$£). 
There is another style of Z;e in Russ., as bivao (am), bivaet (is), ^^ 

where we have hi as a prefix, or we may regard it as a mere re- 

petition of he. There are partes on this basis, bivat (inf.), bivi- Z3- 

vat (to have been), hivaioshi (being), hicavshi (been) — notioe^^» se 
that os^i and vslii are pres't and past part, endings respectively. «. 

We may as well notice after this the Albanish. 

494. Albanish Be, 

This appears in the present thus : 

gianiy ge, este / gemij gini, giani. 

kesey ke, ke ; kemi, kete, kene (past, was). 

In the giam, we may take gi as prefix and compare with otlt^mzm' tt 
am, or take g=s and compare with sum, Russ. esm, BohemiaK-^ES ^ 
jsem — the plurals compare with sumus, German sind {g^sjCZ'^^^ 
When we bear in mind how near </ is to A;, we see how near tb» -•r^-h 
Alban. past is to the present, especially in the plural. Taking .■^■^li 
k=w, icese is our was, German wesen, Celtic beza. It is relates ^^^^ 
to G'k givomai, Arab, kan, been. In the future, we find cfo t^ ^ 

giam, do te gemi, do te gene (I, we, they, will be). The do-V^ ^ 

may be translated will-that — but, in power, they are no mor»*^*^ ^^^ 
than augments, the whole verb lying in the present for future^^*^^*^' 
The Alb. shows other forms for the verb be ; we find a sort o*:^^ ^^ 
past subjunctive ; as, gese, gesem, gesete (1st sing, and Ist an^ -^^" 
2nd plural) — it is really a past indicative, where the k ha ^"^^^ 
changed to g, corresponding better with the present. 

495. Wallachian Be. 

There are some things to notice in Wallachian. The presen^^*** 
is as follows (two forms) : 

sum [sunt), es, e; suntemu, sunteti, sunt. 
escUf esci, este; 

In the second form (sing, only), we find e as a prefix. 


Tlie perfect, Latin /wi, is as follows (two forms) : 

/«t, fush fu ; furamu, furati, furo. 
ftuei, fmeaiy fuse ; ftisemUy fuseti, fusero. 

■^he plural of the first form, Vi'&furo^ corresponds with Latin /«- 
^'UTit (from fui) ; but the fusero of the second form is more 
like the theoretical fuverunt^ Latin amaveruntj the s represent- 
lOg ?; as usual. 

So the pluperfect (Latin fueram, fuerat) is : 

fusesemf fusesesiy fusese ; fusesemu, fuseseti, fitsese. 
riiis fusesem^ /usese, corresponds with fuveram (v=s=r), for 
/u€ram,/uverat-^OT with fuvissem, for /uissem. Infinitive is 
fi' (be), or fire — part./os^w, been, Jiendu, being (Germ, seiend). 

496. Hungarian. 

The present, past, and perfect, in order are : • 

vagyok^ vagy, vagyon {van) ; vagyunk, vagytok, vagynak. 
valek, valal, vala ; valank^ valatokj valanak. 
voltarriy voltal, volt; voltunk, voltatok^ voltanak. 

Tlie participles are, valo (being), volt (been), leendo {fiiturus). 
The vagy or van is our was, been (va*w^=b). The vol of the 
Perfect, is the Slavic hi/l. 

The Hung, has two forms for he, as we find also in so many 
other languages^ instead of beginning with v, the second form 
Commences with I; as, for the past, levek, level ^ leve; levenk, 
^Gvetek, levenek — the infinitive is lenni (len = henj bin), 

497. Finnish Be, 

The be of the Finnish dialects will somewhat illustrate the 
oharacter ef the Hungarian, besides furnishing us with some 
interesting forms. 

The Wotjak be has imperative ?w, ul ; infinitive vyl (Slavic 
^j/V) ; present vanj (Hungarian van)] past vylem; luiny (noun), 
feeing, (Hungarian lenni). 

The Suomi be is, for the present, olen^ olet^ on (been) ; olem- 
9ne^ alette, ovat (was) ; the past is olin, olit, oli ; olimme, olitte, 
^Dlivat — in the subjunctive, we find the forms lienen, lien, lie. 
TZThc ol, lie, which we see clear through; is the Slav, by I, our will; 
"fcearing in mind how often in Slavic the l^^v and to, b, we can 
jsee that le = be, we, was. In the imper., we find olkan, olkaat 

that k we have noticed already in Albanish. In Lapp., we 

:find infinitive ^= be, and Zem = am, lek^^ri, lae =is. Syrian 
-»^, vol=he (infin.), voly=W2ia, volan, being. 

498. Mongolian. 

This language presents some interesting forms of be. The 
iforms for the persons here are invariable, as they are, too, in 


Finnish. The infinitive is huku (be); present is hui (be, biri); 
past is holai (Slavic hi/l) ; perfect holuge (Slavic hyl) ; subj . ho- 
kessu (infin. ouku) ; the gerund being, having been, is horun 
(our were, Dan. var, Swed. vara). There is another form of be 
thus, acho (infin.), amui (am), ahat (was), asu (being). 

499. Persian Be, 

The infinitive, here, is hudan (German werden, he^were), 
and the past tense is budam, bvdXl was, he was) — change d 
to ?, and we have Slavic bul, byl. The imperative is 6a«A, i. e. 
we have here the two elements together, be and «, sh (ba-sK), 
which we find be alone representing in other languages ; it is 
also our was ; the preset tense sing., is basham, bashi, bashad. 

Then there is the second form shav {sha-v), imperative, and 
sfiavam, I am, shavad, he is. Here, again, we find double ele- 
ments, sh =s (of sum, set, sind), and v^b,w (of be, was, wesen). 

500. In the Hindustani, the root of be is hu, infinitive hu-na, 
pres't part, huta, past part, hua^ past act. part, hu, hukar. This 
hu is somewhat like Greek ei for be, and the u represents our b 
and w of be and was. 

501. In Japanese, are equals am, be, is, and atta (French e^c) 
equals was. 

502. In Arabic, we have already noticed that be is kan, G'k 
gin-omai, our can, Q^enm. kennen ; in Syrian and Hebrew, it is 
ith and is. 

503. Greek Be. 

The present and past tenses are : 

iimi, ei8 (ei), esti ; esmen, este^ eisi, 
eUf es, e ; emen, ete, isan. 

The present is easily connected with forms already met with ; 
6iW=am; in esmen, the e is a prefix, as in Slavic. The en of 
the past refers to our b-een, Celtic o-en ; the es and esan point 
to our w and was. The imperative is eso, esto, inf. einai (b-een, 
b-eing) ; present part, on, (b-eing), and ousa (German wesen). 

504. In the Greek, we see the initial b and s disappearing in 
vowels, but in Sanscrit, which is very much* like Greek, the s 
again, appears; as, the present asmi, asi, asti; smas, stha, santi. 
So, in the optative (subj.), we find, San. syan, syas, syat (sing.), 
but Greek elen, exes, ete (might be) ; San. infin. is as-tun. So, 
too, in place of Greek past, we have, San. asan, asis, asit; asma, 
asta, asan — the a is an augment here, but no more so than the 
a of present asmi. This past is not at all different in character 
from the present. There is another form of the past, known as 
the perfect; thus, asa, asitha, asa ; asima, asa, asus — our wa^ 
and is — this has another form, made by the prefix uv ; as, uv- 


asa^ uvasitha, tmma (for uvasima). Here, as we have noticed so 
many times before, there are two forms, at least, of he; besides 
the infin., as, as-tun, and vas^ vas-tun (Germ, wesen^ Go. wisari), 
there is, also, hhu, hhavitun (be, hait. /ui^ fuisse). To this form 
belongs the present part, form, hhavant (being, seiend), contrast- 
ing with the other forms sant (Lith. esant) and vasant (Gothic 
wisands). With the usual augment a, we find this aorist or 
past form, a-bhuvan, a-hhus, a-hhut (sing.). In the past, which 
is reduplicated, so called, the doubling is just such as we have 
found over and over again in the forms of other languages; they 
are such as, ba-hhuva, ba-bhuvus. 

Impersonal Verbs. 

506. To complete the survey of the verb, we notice yet cer- 
tain other forms and applications, in addition to the mood, tense, 
and person forms, which have so far engaged our attention. And 
first of these, we will notice impersonals. 

606. In Latin, as we find more or less in all languages, the 
3rd person sing, is used without a nominative, or subject ; as, 
pluit, it rains, tonat, it thunders, accidit, it happens ; so, also, 
in the passive, as curritur, it is run (there is running), vivitur, 
it is lived, they live, ventum est (coming is), it is come. All 
these forms are clearly the same as verbal nouns, and they have 
none of that expression which is conceived to be peculiar to verbs; 
so, jp?mY= raining, the raining (is), and vivitur is simply living, 
the living (is). But after all, these are as much verbs as any 
we find, and it only proves again what we have seen long before 
tfcis, that the verb is, after all, nothing but a pure noun (of the 
verb kind). And we may say, also, that in our own imperson- 
als, as it rainSy it hails, the pronoun it, so called^ is nothing but 
an article of the verb ; we may go still farther, and say that all 
pronouns used thus before the verb, as we walk, are only a de- 
velopment of this article it. The Latins, also, use such verbs 
transitively, as decet me, it becomes me,pudet me, it shames me 
(I am ashamed), miseret me, it pities me (I pity) ; we may see 
by the two last examples, how what we consider a nominative 
may be conceived to be objective (ace). 

507. That these impersonals are in fact nothing but partici- 
ples or gerunds, is shown in Greek, where the participle and 
infinitive are used in the place of just such impersonals as wa 
met with above ; thus, salpizontos, it sounding, or being sounded 
(by the trumpeter) — genitive participle; eiremenon, it being 
notified — accusative part. } prostachthen, it being commanded — 
accusative neuter participle; tuchon, it happening — neuter par- 


ticiple; mikrou dein, a-little it-wants — dein, infinitive, to want; 
emoi dokeiTij to-me it-seem — dokei7i=:to seem, inf., i.e. seeming 
(is) to me. 

508. This shows how such forms may be nsed in place of 
verb with nominative ; all our cases such as these, to speak pro- 
perly this is so, turning this over we shall observe, are instances 
where part's and infin's are used in place of verbs and without 
subjects, and still beinjj; as true verbs as any we can find. More 
than this, all our expressions, as they say, it appears, German 
man sagt (one says, they say), German es gieht (it gives), there 
reigns, are cases where there is really no nominative or subject, 
the pronouns it, they, man, there (adverb), being scarcely more 
than articles ; it is simply meant to be said that there is a say- 
ing, appearing, giving, reigning^ without indicating wlio — so 
those verbs, so called, are mere gerunds, or verbal nouns, with a 
pronoun for article. 

509. In Hebrew, the 3d sing. mas. is often used impersonally, 
as qara (he called) =they called, there was calling; so the pas- 
sive is used impersonally also, here as well as in Sanscrit, as it 
is thoitglit by me, for I think. In Georgian, such impersonals 
are very common. And in Russian, with others of the family, 
ye find many cases of impersonals, and some which are for us 
rafher peculiar. So, we have the neuter passive participle (as 
in Greek) used impersonally ; as, skazano, it (is) said, belyano^ 
it (is) commanded {is being suppressed) ; so the adjective is also 
used impersonally, as legko (it is) light, easy, ne mozhno (it is) 
not possible — so, again, emu dolzhno pisat, to-him(it) must to- 
write, i. e. he must write. 


510. This kind of verbs, more or less strongly marked, is 
found, perhaps, in all languages. In Lat., they are found based 
on the supine ; thus, clamo, to call, clamito, to call often or" 
quickly; so rogo and rogito, volo and volito — the supines being* 
clamatnm, rogatum, volatum. Other forms occur which ar& 
made by taking the supine of a supine as a base, as lectito (ori^ 
ginal supine ledum), dictito (supine dictum). Some Lat. verb» 
have two frequentatives ; as, for curro, we find curso and cursito^ 
for defendo there is defenso, defensito — showing, thus, very^ 
clearly that these new forms are not essentially diffierent from, 
the ordinary verb, as well as that a verb may alone express what> 
we might think could be expressed only by the verb in connex- 
ion with auxiliaries and adverbs, or, in other words, that on^ 
word expresses as much as several taken in the same connexion^ 


511. In Greek, what we use as a causative mark, the z or ize, 
as in legalize, .to make legal, is the frequentative mark } thus, 
^rijptazem (from ^riptein), to cast here and there, stenazein (from 
steneiri), to sigh much and deeply (one word sit/h = itself and 
adverbs). There is no supine in G k which corresponds clearly 
with the Latin supine in turn, but the z mark here observed, 
has its representative in the t of the verbals ; as, poteon, potos, 
strepteos and strepfos (of Greek). So we must give the same 
history to the z of Greek that we did to the t of Latin frequent- 
atives — here in Greek, as in Latin, we find this class of verbs 
to be only infinitives of infinitives. 

612. But we may as well observe here, that neither in the t of 
Latin, nor the z in Greek, do we find an exclusive frequentative 
mark. In many instances, the derivatives in t and z do not 
differ in meaning from the simple form to which we refer them ; 
and, in other cases, verbs with this mark have anything but a 
frequentative meaning; as, Latin ^o^o (on sup. potum), 1 drink, 
canto (on cantum from cano)^ I sing. This is especially true of 
the Greek verb ending z6^ as dikazo, j^^^ge? distnzd, doubt, 
erizo, stY'we — verbs with a frequentative form without a fre- 
quentative meaning. 

513. The Bohemian uses va for the frequentative mark (and 
80 does the Slavic generally) ; as, dclati^ to do, and dclavati, to 
do often. But in Slavic, as in Greek and Latin, this va or wa is 
used for other purposes besides a frequentative mark — it is 
identical with the G'k z and L. t, and has a history in common 
with them. In the Slov., we find freq's with infinitive ending 
the same as the common verb has; as, letati, to run often, 
lamatiy to break often — ati being one of the ordinary infinitive 
endings ; we find also in Slovcnsh, padem, I fall, and padam, 1 
fall often — showing how slightly the one differs from the other ; 
there is, besides, streltm, I shoot, streljam (inf. streljati), I shoot 
often — here, we havejati for vati, showing that the Slav, va is 
the Sans, t/a, found in so many different kinds of words. 

514. We should not pass over, in this connexion, that class of 
verbs in L. which is rather the opposite of those already noticed ; 
tliey end in illo, and denote that the thing is done slightly or 
little; as, canto, to sing, and cantillo, to sing low, cofiscribtllo, 
to write little, to scribble. That this I is the tund z seen before, 
is little to be doubted. Such verbs are also found in other lan- 


515. There is a class of verbs in Latin, similar to those found 
elsewhere, marked by sc — as, calesroj to become hot {caleo, to 



be hot), piterasco, to become a boy, to act the child (^puer, a 
boy), maturescoy to become mature (maturus, ripe). In general, 
we may observe that an adjective or noun lies at the base of 
these verbs in sco, and we find the usual verbal endings develop- 
ing so as to represent he. It is not, in principle, in the least 
different from the frequentatives ; thus, in form calesco=caUto^ 
labascoz=lahato — the latter being an assumed frequentative; 
s = sc, sk, st, t. It must be observed, too, that this sc mark is 
not peculiar to such verbs ; it occurs in verbs whose meaning is 
distinguished by nothing peculiar ; thus, cresco, perf. crevi, sup. 
crefum (grow) ; pasco^ pavi, pastum (feed) ; nosco, novi^ notum 
(know) ; scisco, scivi, scitiim (ordain). Compare with these, 
amo, amavi, amatum^ and moneo, monui^ Tnonitum^ and we shall 
see that these presents in sco have merely developed the t 
which is latent in amo^ and which appears as e in moneo ; so we 
observe that novi and notum, in their v and t, mark the sc appa- 
rent in noscOy while amavr, amatum, represent the sc = ^,- sup- 
pressed in amo. In our own verbs of this kind, we entirely 
discard this sc, and adopt the form of the ordinary Germ.^ inf. ; 
as redden, to become red, whiten, to grow white, or we leaVe off' 
also the ending en, as to cool (become cold), to warm (become 
warm), to polish (become polished), to rise (become raised), 
enlarge (become large), to improve (grow better), to mend (be- 
come mended), melt (become melted). (See how near such 
verbs are to true passives). 

616. The Greek has the mark sk. exactly corresponding with 
the Lat. inchoative sc, but we rarely meet with any signification, 
in verbs thus marked, which particularly distinguishes them 
from verbs not marked with sk ; generally the difference is of^ 
this nature ; didraskd, I run away, and drao, I run ; or it is 
such as cannot be perceived at all. Thus, we see that the Gr'k 
sk belongs more precisely with the sc of those Lat. verbs which 
have lost, or have never had, any inchoative meaning, instances 
of which we have already given. Many of the verbs in s7cd, in 
Lat. as well as Greek, are also marked by the reduplication ; as, 
bi'brdsko, gi-gnosko, mi-mnesko, pi-prasko, and in Latin (more 
rarely) disco, perfect di-dici, posco, perfect po-posci. 

517. This sk is conceded to be the identical sk in the skon 
which marks some Greek imperfects. This shows that the im-* 
perfects of this kind are made, precisely as frequentatives, by 
taking a supine as a new base, and that they are, beyond that, 
exactly like other imperfects, such as have not the sk. Just as, 
in Latin, we saw the sc identical with the v of perfect, and t of 
supine, so in Gr'k, we find this sk the same as the s of fut., and 
hence the same also as the s of aor., and k of perf. } thus, aresko, 
fut. areso {sk = s'), hi-hrosko, fut. hroso. It should have been 


remarked, of the pasts in skon^ that they have, also, a meaning 
of continuance or repetition, thus showing how past tenses are 
allied wit If such forms as frequentatives, inchoatives, and the 

518. The mark wa or va, which we have noticed hefore as 
occurring in frequentatives, in the Slavic languages, is found 
also in verbs which are purely inchoative ) thus, chory^ sick, 
chorowas, to be, or to become sick {as being ordinary infin. end- 
ing), piln^y diligent, pilnowas^ to be, or to become diligent; so 
alsojjiscrs, to write, pisywas^ to be busy writing, his^ to strike, 
beat, hijas^ to be busy beating, mowis, to speak, mawias, to be 
busy speaking (ja and ia = wa). But we find other inchoatives 
"where this wa is not so clearly developed ; as, siu?y, gray, and 
siwies, to become gray (es being infinitive ending), hiali/j white, 
and bieles^ to become white. We have only to add, that the 
term denominative might be used, and often is used, in place of 

619. There is still another class of verbs which we may briefly 
notice in this connexion, and that is Desideratives. In Latin, 
they seem to be based on the participle in urus^ or rather to be 
that part, used as a verb ; so, we find the verb dicturio (dico^ to 
speak, fut. part, dicturus), to desire to speak; so also empturto, 
from empiurus (verb emo), esuriOj from esurus, to desire to eat. 
These verbs express a wish, but a wish is a will; so, we see 
these verbs are pure futures, and no more. In Greek, we also 
find the desiderative form corresponding with the future ; as, 
gelaso (future), I will laugh, gelaseio, I wish to laugh (I would 
laugh) Another class of Greek desideratives end in ao and iao 
(in the present), and seem to be based on nouns ; as, strategian, 
to desire to be a general, thanatan, to desire death. It is hard- 
ly necessary to remind the student, that ad and iao equal the azo, 
izo, seen often before this. Desideratives in Sanscrit, are marked 
by sya, Greek future sign s. 


' 520. In Gr'k, the marks sk and z are not only used in forms 
such as we have before considered, but also as marks of the 
causative ; thus, methuo^ to be drunk, methusko^ to make drunk, 
jnno. to drink, pipisko^ to give to drink ; kathizo^ to make sit, 
polemizo, to make war, thaumazo, to make or have wonder (to 
.admire), elpizo^ to have hope (be hopeful), nomizd, to make as 
a law, erizo^ to have a strife (to strive). (We are constantly 
reminded how near make good, he good, and have goodness, are 
to each other — we find all of them marked by this z, and by 
the sk^. 


521. We have such causa tivcs as harden^ to make hard (aa 
well as become hard}, sharpen, to make sharp ; those in ize^ as 
harmonize^ to have harmony, or to make harmonioiA, leijalize, 
to make legal, ciUoglze^ to give eulogy on, aggrandize, to make 
great; those '\T\fy, as magnify, to make great, terrify ^ to make 
terrified, or give terror, amplify, to make ample. The ize, it is 
easily seen, is the Greek causative, while the^ is the Lat. Jico, 
faxiio (=make or do"), which we find in such words as tumefacio, 
to make swelled, satisfacio^ to make enough, amplifco, to make 
ample, magnifico, to magnify — facto = Jico, fo, fy. This^ is 
a common causative mark also in French. The Greek tzo, azoy 
is quite identical with this^o,^, (as both are sk, 2), and may 
be taken as representing ago^ to do, act. We are to learn from 
this, principally, how the ordinary t and s mark of supine and 
tenses grows into the representation and. form of ordinary aux- 
iliary verbs. 

522. But we have also many causatives which are not marked 
by any ending at all ; as, to lay (cause to- lie), to 8c^. (cause to sit), 
to stand (cause to stand), raise (cause to rise) ) and all such 
verbs as to tVon, to trim, to dress one, to paint, to indenty to 
shape — - indeed, all transitiDes gradate into causatives. But, it 
is not alone in English that we find the causative form identical 
with the ordinary verb ; this fact is patent in all languages ; 
thus, in Latin injlammo (the causative mark^ if any, being the 
en, in, prefix), hco, to place, give place to, termino, to end, to 
to cause to end, terreo, to terrify, to cause to be frightene'd, Jig^ 
uro, to figure, shape— and perhaps all other transitives which 
have a uoun as the base ; precisely so we find in Greek ; as, elpo 
(from elpis, hope), to raise hopes, jmrgoO, to erect into a tower 
(from purgos, a tower), timao, to honor (from time, honor). 
All this proves to us again, that ao, eo, azo, izOy isko^ are all 
variations of o alone, that the causative, and all related forms^ 
has no element not comm,on to all verbs. 

523. Our own /wTww/a^c, navigate^ castigate^ mitigate, termi- 
nate^ dictate, celebrate^ separate^ and the like, are all causatives, 
and yet they are only L. supinas, in form, used as a new base. 

524. The Sanscrit causative mark is ay a or ya (the^a which 
is found in so many other places), as karayami,^ I cause to 
make. This aya is the eo, ao, of Greek; in Goth., too, we find 
it ; as, satya, I place (sita, I sit), lagya, I lay (Jiga, I lie), 
lausya, I loosen {liusa, I lose). In Lithuanian, the causative 
mark is in (our en of harden) ; as, ilginu, I make long (length- 
en). This in, e?i, is the same also as inO, and, of so many Gr'k 
verbs, and the nu of Slavic. 

525. In I'ersian, we fiad rasidan^ to arrive, and ra^artidan 
(marked an), to cause to arrive; imricardaji^ t^o educate, and 


parwarandan, to make educate. The causative mark in Finn, 
is t (as well as denominative). The case of the German verbs 
is precisely that of English. The Semitic languages are inter- 
esting in this connexion, as showing these derivatives without 
the apparent addition of an clement ; thus, we have qatal, to 
kill, and qottel (^double t), to cause to kill — a change in the 
body of the word precisely as the German wachen^ to wake, be 
awake, and wecken (loekken) to wake, awake. (This form, mid- 
dle letter doubled, is not only causative in Semitic, but also 
denominative, frequentative, and the like). In Arabic and 
Syriac, causatives are made by assuming the prefix a, as qatal 
and a-qtalj our wake and awake — in Syriac, sometimes by the 
prefix 5, as in our s-lay, to cause to lie, or lay. (In Arabic it is 


526. Having treated thus far of some special verbal forms 
with special meanings, we will now consider, briefly, the accu- 
mulation of new forms of verbs which are not marked by any 
. particular application. In G'k ao, eo^ io^ o6^ mo, eud, azo, oskoj 
and, aino, uno, airo, eiro, besides others, all forms of one and 
the same thing, are common endings of verbs — - but mark also, 
they are not only seen in verbs, but they occur as well in other 
parts of speech ; as, oreinos^ mountainous {dii), Athenaios, Ath- 
enian (aio), noseros, sickly (er), graphikos, relating to painting 
{\k), paidikos, juvenile (ik), patdiskos, a little boy (isk). 

527. In Latin, we have also co, to, uoi These vowels e, i, u, 

are only representatives of consonants which we find appearing 

in a large share of verbs ; as ^ in Jiigo, d in dedo, g in lego, d 

in vado, ng in jungo, nd in Jindo, r in gero, n in sino, v in juvo, 

h in vejio, ct in pecto, U in pello, rp in serpo, m in premo, h in 

icTxho. Observe, here, what different forms the t, the same as 

we find in dicto from dico, and in datum from do, assumes in 

the different verbs , and observe, too, how it doubles in ct, nd, 

ng^ rp — the gi in fugio is a double of the same kind, so the ci 

^^ facia, de in ardeo, ce in doceo. We find the same history in 

Greek, and indeed in all languages ; for instance, in our own 

language, the final letters of verbs are properly this same t; as, 

the k in gpeak, y in say, e in see, nd in ^cnd, ng in muj, I in 

^^al^ II in sell, w in draw, tch in catch, rv in starve, t in icritc, 

wi in come, ft in lift, Id, in yield. That these final letters do not 

belong to the base of the verb, is seen by their entire absence in 

different languages ; thus, the French dire, for Lat. d.icerc, oitir 

for Latin audire; old North fra, Germ, fragen, Latin frango ; 

old North /tf, German yt/?i^c?i ; French a, Kynx have ; i)au. />c^', 


our abide, abode — to say nothing of the African and Polynesian 
languages, where one consonant, with a vowel, represents our 
longest verbs. 


528. In the science of separating words into parts, or, rather, 
of discovering new parts of words, etymology has lately made 
great advances. It is the course taken by all science ; the more 
intimately we become acquainted with the object of our study, 
the more points and parts about it we successively discover. It 
was first learned that sentences were made of parts, or, rather, it 
was assumed to consider certain parts of the sentence as distinct 
individuals — just as we are wont to look at the man as made up 
of head, hands, feet, while to the child or savage, perhaps, he 
appears as one whole, single and simple. 

529. But philology did not rest satisfied with dividing sen- 
tences into words ; it has divided compound words into their 
elements, and those elements again into syllables. Not content 
with that, syllables have again been separated into letters ; and 
there philology apparently halted — but halted only to renew 
the undertaking. Words have not only been divided into syl- 
lables, and syllables again into letters, but it was often observed 
that one letter is equal to or represents two or more letters; as, 
e = ie in field, i = ei in Germ, theil, or ai in Greek pais^j=dg 
in brldye, short u=oo in Jiood, s = st in listen, m = /m in calm, 
n = gn in sign, s = ss in hiss. So that these single letters 
which are representatives of the two combined, may be con- 
sidered as equal to the two, and as practically coptaining 
the two within themselves — latent though it be; just so the 
bud contains the leaf and the flower, and as this bud de- 
velops itself into the leaf and the flower, or the branch, so may 
we say, in language, that one letter develops itself into two or 
more of its own cognates — as s into st, m into Im, n into gn, k 
into ck, r into rr, e into ai (in said), o into an (in song). 

530. Nothing is more common in language, than for one 
letter to be the representative of two or more ; and though we 
may not see so much of it in the same language, we shall find 
more instances where a single character in one language is re- 
presented by two or more letters in some other language, as our 
till for one of the Russian letters, ds for one in Greek, dsli for 
one in Armenian, dschha for a San. character, sclia for another 
and gha for another. 


531. It is clear that we may regard these as actual equivalents, 
and one letter may thus represent several others; and, we may 
either consider the combination of letters, as tcji^ the growth or 
development of the single letter, as c, or that the single letter is 
really made up of the (invisible) parts represented in the devel- 
oped combination, and as including in itself, as the whole includes 
its parts, those different elements, in a latent, unappreciable 
state. This is no new thing, it is the universal phenomenon of 
nature. All the different instruments of a band of players, 
sounding in perfect harmony, produce one single strain, in which 
the single instruments lose their individuality and become un- 
distinguishable ; besides, any one of them may represent the 
elements of the whole combined, as one letter represents a com- 
bination of letters. (It is the leading law of nature, that the part 
is as great as the whole, contains as much^ and (binder suitable 
circumstances), can do as much. Every whole is hut an accumu- 
lation of equivalent . parts, parts which only apparently differ ; 
every whole is but the repetition of one and the same part. No- 
where is this law better exemplified, than in language). 

The blending of colors furnishes us with another apt illustra- 
tion ) thus, any number of colors mingle and produce a new 
color. — mark, but a single color. So, as we found that every 
letter may be an equivalent of several other letters, again, every 
color may be conceived of as made of two or more other colors ; 
and reversed, as every two or more letters combined produce 
some one sound, which is or may be represented by some one 
letter or character, so, too, in colors, any number of (?olors 
blended will produce some new color, one only, which we do 
represent, or may, by some new or other name. 

But where sounds or colors mingle and produce one, they 
are by no means lost or destroyed ; this new color, this new 
sound, is really those old colors, those old sounds, acting in 
harmony, in /joncert, and so losing their individuality. Two 
forces acting in concert produce a new force, or new direction — 
which is only new so far as we have two forces acting instead 
of one; one force never destroys another, and its own direction 
is never affected or varied. 

532. It is. with letters as it is with numbers, every one is 
part of some combination of numbers, as 2 is part of 4, 6, 
30, and it is itself made up of J, J. So we can divide a 
thing to infinity, with this difference, that for 28 and 2 we have 
a name 30, and for the parts of 2, as J, \, but not for the com- 
bination of letters str, or for the unnamed elements that go to 
make the sound s, or t, or h. That they, too, have their equiv- 
alent parts, is just as certfiin as that the sound hook, or str, has 
parts. It is the point of philology, now, having divided speech 


into sentences, sentences into words, words into syllables, a i». _^ 
these again into letters, also to establish the value of the el- _ 
ments which unite to produce the effect of a letter ; — thuis, w^^k? 
may take the elements of o to be certain values of a and u (^ "~r^ 
00, spoken quickly), of e |to be a in ale and i in it (sa-tdy sed^'^ 


633. Words are not represented in all languages by a coi 
bination of separate letters, a« in our own. In the old Egyptisi.ii 
inscriptions, we find the figures of men and animals, and oth. or 
objects besides, wrought up into symbols, hieroglyphics, whicjli 
have no connexion with letters, or, at least, only a remote one ; 
this part of the subject is too intricate and extensive to be treated 
of here with any degree of fairness, and we will pass it t>y. 
Next is the Chinese system, which we will dwell on briefly 
under the head of Chinese language. Here, the signs which 
stand for words appear, at first view, to be single; though macKe 
up by a combination, or interlacing, of strokes or lines, the whole 
presents to the uninitiated only the appearance of one idea. 
And, lastly, there is what is called the syllabic mode, one mi^i- 
way between our single letters and the Chinese word-signs» 
This we are now about to consider. 

534. In the Sanscrit and Thibetan languages, among others, 
every consonant is assumed to have within itself the force of 
the vowel a. Thus, their b has the force of ba, and I of Z'-c*; 
other vowels are denoted by affixing some mark to this 6, Z, or 
ba, la — sometimes above or below (after the Semitic manno^i^)* 
and again after or before the consonant, as in Europe. In tkfese 
cases, the original a sound inherent in the consonant seems '^ 
be suppressed — ba-i becomes bi. These alphabets are call^^ 

635. That our modern alphabets, and especially the Semi'i>i<'» 
are syllabic too, though perhaps not in the same degree, can \^ 
easily demonstrated. One of the Semitic class, the Ethiopia? ^ *® 
syllabic in the highest degree. The same letter there, as ^' 
slightly marked, is ba, be, bi, bo, bu. But, are the forms in '^^^ j 
other Semitics, the Hebrew for instance, the b with its dots a»-^^ 
marks above it and below it, for ba, be, etc., anything else, *^ 
reality, than just such marked b^s as we have in Ethiop5- ^ 
It is of no moment that in Hebrew the marks are separate fr^^^^ 
the consonant, and in Ethiopic attached to it. In both cae^^^' 
the vowel mark and the consonant constitute one single elem^ ^*^ 
Besides this, the vowel marks in Semitic are of comparatir -^^ -^ 
late origin, and, even yet, they are very commonly left out ^ 


the text ; now, in all such cases the consonants act as syllables, 
for they, even unmarked, represent an element composed of 
vowel and consonant, as h for ha, mlk for mdek. 

536. In all our cases where consonants come together, there 
is no doubt that we may conceive of an undeveloped vowel be- 
tween them — so drive is hardly distinguished from derive 
(^der = dr)j slect from select, fl from ful, ^pretend and i^erteml, 
claim and cullaim. We may see large numbers of instances in 
Slavic and elsewhere, where they insert a vowel, or leave it out, 
when we do not — showftig that if it is not expressed, it is only 
implied, and if it is expressed, it is merely not implied. Again, 
it is well understood that you cannot pronounce a consonant 
without uttering it with a vowel, showing thus the inseparable 
connexion of the two. 

537. We notice in most of the syllabic alphabets, that there 
is simply some mark accompanying the consonant, or attached 
to it, to denote the vowel, but in some instances, for example, 
the Mongolian and Ethiopic, there is considerable change in 
the form of the consonant itself, when different vowels are 
denoted. All this, too, shows the intimate union between the 
vowel and consonant; it shows too, that the vowels are not 
only all derivatives from the same base, but that the consonant 
with the vowel, as ha, he, etc., is a mere variation of one and 
the same thing — just as letters in Semitic vary according as 
they are initial, middle, or final, — and still remain the same 

538. It is evident, too, that these different forms of letters to 
indicate consonants with vowels, with or without marks, depend 
entirely upon the consonant they are associated with, and that 
their assuming the new form, or taking the particular vowel 
marks, is simply a matter of harmony between them and the ac- 
companying consonant. But it must be borne in mind that there 
is nothing in these vowel marks, or representatives of vowels, 
that distinguish them from some or all of the consonants. So, 
we have hridge, where g may be considered a mark to denote a 
particular sound of d, exactly as if it were a vowel mark, or 
vowel ; also laugh and myth, where h is used with g and t in the 
same way, and / and r in ahle, centre. 

539. In all these instances, and many more might be given, 
the following consonant is merely a mark to indicate a sound of 
the consonant to which it is attached ] it adds nothing to the 
sound of the fundamental consonant, but merely expresses or 
shows what force that consonant has ; and, in all these cases, 
we can find, somewhere, instances where the consonant has the 
same value alone that it has with the consonant attached. Thus 
d is often dj\ dg, th is often t, so i^ hi, h, and tr, t (in French). 



Let it be said, once for all, that adding letters to a word, in the 
coarse of its development, gives it no sound that was not in it 
hefore, hut it is a mark only to indicate a new force discovered 
or developed. Thus, in our spelling books, we find certain 
sounds of letters distinguished by certain marks, as $ =z, and 
they are precisely in the nature of those vowel marks we have 
been speaking of. No one thinks those marks give that sound 
to the letter, but rather that they indicate the sound which the 
letter has, even without the mark (so s has the sound of z in 
rise, mark it or not, as you like) ; so it is, exactly, with vowel 
marks, and with consonants joined to consonants. 

540. The Sanscrit family of alphabets, and the Manchu, show 
all the features of the Chinese and related alphabets ; several 
letters are here united into one character, or, rather, one char- 
acter possesses the marks of two or more letters ; this principle 
is at work in the Semitic, where letters are varied in form ac- 
cording to their place in the word. In all alphabets, more or 
less, we find one character representing two or more letters, as 
the German ss, tz, Greek st — and particularly in the Irish and 
Slavic alphabets. In the Manchu, the top part of the character 
is the consonant, and the bottom grows into the representative 
of the vowel, varying according as that is a, c, t, etc. 

641. The Thibetan alphabet, though it does not appear so at 
first sight, is yet clearly related to the Sanscrit, and both are 
evidently built on the same basis. They are both equally, as it 
is called, syllabic, that is each consonant has a as its base. And 
we think it may be discovered that there is a fixed part of this 
consonant to represent that a. Th^ point is clearest in the San- 
scrit; here, the consonants, with very few exceptions, have a 
perpendicular line, like our 1, as a basis, and the characteristic 
portion of the letter is fixed to that stroke. There are, too, 
leading facts having an influence on this question ; first, this 
perpendicular stroke is used separately as the vowel a, and second, 
when two letters, as ka and la, unite to form a single character, 
as kla or kl, the a sound is lost, and with it, also, this stroke in 
question. Besides, for the other vowels we find appropriate 
signs fixed to the consonant in some way — indeed it is the 
prevailing feature, in Asia, to find vowels attached to consonants. 
We have noticed this as a striking appearance in the Manchu. 
In Sanscrit, there are a few letters as t, th, d, dh, and r, where 
this base stroke is not so clear } but that these are vowels, and 
even variations of this a mark, is certainly undoubted; the first 
four are forms of i; r (and A) a form of a, related to i, 

542. But this base stroke of consonantsis not confined to Asia; 
it is found in our own, and in perhaps all others; we see it in 
our B, D, b, d, 1, m, n, t, E, F — it is still plainer in Rus., where 


some letters, as sA, are formed by the repetition of this I mark 
(like Greek 11). We need not be surprised that it disappears 
in some letters, when we remember how capital B, with its angles, 
changes for the rounded small e, and how A is changed into its 
related 0. So it is, we see, in the nature of letters, as well as 
of words, to be made up of elements. You caw find no element 
80 smallj that it has not also elements^ and as many as the origi- 

543. So, we are left to understand, from what has been taught 
under the head of letters, that words are merely a sign made up 
of signs, and hence that we do not in principle differ from the 
Chinese. Their signs of words are made up of parts as well as 
our own ; it is already admitted that most of these have two or 
three elements and contain a base character or key, just as we 
have found our alphabets to have a key in their consonants. 
That they have not developed their word-signs into as many 
elements as we have, is in perfect harmony with their evident 
want of consciousness of the division of sentences into words. 
That their alphabet is built up on the same system as the Euro- 
pean, or other Asiatic alphabets, is one of the clearest things in 
the world. It exists only in a particular stage of advancement, 
while the Eoman, the Semitic, the Sanscrit, represent each an- 
other stage of the same performance. The hieroglyphic system 
of word representation, in its different degrees of development, 
takes another place and presents still another phase. The 
Japanese system of characters is interesting as affording the 
transition between the Chinese and the syllabic arrangement. 

544. Marked and Double Letters : There are two sources 
from which the number of characters in an alphabet are in- 
creased : one, by marking old letters when they get a new force, 
and the other by doubling or combining two like letters. Really, 
all our letters which have two or more powers should be marked 
to distinguish them, and, thus, our alphabet would be greatly 
enlarged. This is done to a far greater extent in other lan- 
guages than in our own. The marks used are unmeaning, and 
are simply dots, or other marks above or below the letter, or a 
stroke across it — our own i with its dot above it, is a marked 
letter, so is Q a marked O ; the G'k d and cp are both a marked 
o = u, V and t ; our k is only a marked c or ^, the perpendicu- 
lar line being often found separate from the c or g part, i. e. 
from the two lines meeting at an angle. 

545. The number of letters which arise from the union of 
two, like our w=uu, in the different alphabets, is considerable, 
and it includes some we would hardly expect. Our B is a 
double o, V ; when placed on its back ( bd) its identity with W 
is plain, being crossed by a line at the top (as K is on the side), 


and rounded at the angles ; one of the Gr'k forms of ^ = h (71 
is this precise form j these resemblances are all not unexpecte^^ 
for b we know equals p, v, /, w. If we invert our M (w) 1^^ 
have W 5 m is clearly a modification of h and ic, and hen -^c 
double ) this is not unexpected, for m e([uals b and is oft-^:^, 
found for w ; n, which is half m, is often hardly diatinguishatz^Ie 
from u, V (as Greek v). 

546. Our s (S) is another double letter, and not only that^ it 
is double o, v, and identical with the b and m; the Greek s CL^) 
is only our W placed on its side. In Syriac, s is two o's ( or^^ \ 
Heb. ayin (=0, v) is identical in form with its z, s ; old H ^3b. 
8 (shin) was precisely our W, and B on its back unmarked (t-^i^)) 
in ancient Greek, s was precisely M, also in Phenician; it is- an 
important fact that in Hebrew (and Greek) an s follows the «*. 
7i, group ; in the Copt, alphabet, sh^ ch, is marked o (Greek c^--')i 
8 and sh we found in Russian based on i = u, o, v ; it has Ic^-^c 
been known that /and « were equal, but/= v, m, o. 

We may remark while on this subject of o's, that it is to ^ 
observed that the base part of^, b, q, cZ, is o — this is not .^ac- 
cidental, they are marked 0*8. In Russian, we find many cafiJ^s 
of united letters, sometimes side by side, sometimes one o\r er 
the other, sometimes one on the other ; in G'k, many instance-* 
are found of two or more letters united into one character, ex- 
actly as in Sanscrit. 

647. Assimilation of Letters : There is a tendency, 
which we observe, more or less, in all languages, for words (or 
syllables) and letters coming together to change so as to assume 
like forms, and thus coalesce so as to produce a single element. 
So, what would be tetapmai^ in Gr'k, is tctummai {j^m^mm)^ 
somatsi becomes somad {ts = i's), delknuntsi becomes deiknud 
(mits^miss), to Jieteron becomes thateron (to-he =the, tha)) so 
in Lat., we find effero where we might expect cxfero^ and assisto 
for adsisto (ads = ass). In Celt., the change of words or letters 
according to what they are associated with, is carried on very 
extensively and systematically. 

548. As an explanation of this phenomenon, we repeat here 
what we have often touched on already, that it is only like letters 
that come together^ that all the letters of a word are as&imilated, 
made like each other — and not alone the letters of the same 
word, but, also, the letters of two words which are associated 
together, and hence their tendency to unite and form a single 
word ; as, the Greek katheudo from kata heudo. 

The old North byggja^ to build (bide), will illustrate the case 
of like letters ; the y = (/, and y =y and /7, hence, the word is 
byyyya ; but b also equals v, u, y^ hence we have vyyyya, or 
yyyyya. • It is by this aj^similation of letters, that long words 


may be reduced to single letters; thus, our have is, in French, 
a, for have equals aave, aaue, aauu^ aaaa, so that the French 
a equal to have^ contains, or is, four undistinguishable a's. We 
need not be surprised that the letters of a word should be like 
letters, really repeated letters, and still have such different 
powers apparently; the two ^'s in swjgest^ and the c's in accent^ 
are double, and yet what could differ more than the former g 
or c from the latter g or c- Indeed, we may say that every case 
of double letters presents tioo letters of different powers ; thus, 
we have adjective, and the Italian has aggettivo — its gg must 
differ as our dj or dg^ and its tt as our ct ; so, the Dutch has 
hoek where we have booh, oe^=oo. In conclusion, we may say 
that since the words of the most undeveloped languages are 
very short, as no, na, ba, they really contain latent as many 
letters as our words, but they are so much in unison, so little 
differentiated, that they cannot be distinguished by our ^ars, 
though they might be by others more refined. 

The Form and Valiie of Letters* 

649. A — In the Samaritan, a=^t (we shall use the sign of 
equality, or the words, to denote that the two letters, both of the 
same alphabet, are alike in form) ; in Eth. and Arabic, a- = Z, 
indeed, our A is no doubt a modification of the Greek A (and 
perhaps A) : in Copt., A can hardly be distinguished from its 
D, as our a=^d. 

550. B — In Hebrew, B equals P; in Samaritan, B equals 11, 
and D is only a marked B or K; in Arabic, B equals F (p); in 
Ar. and old Hebrew, B = N; in Syriac, B equals K and P, so 
Ethiopic B equals K, also Hebrew ; Sanscrit B and M equal S. 
B must be'like / and r, for we find U, br, very often, as in blach, 
breaJc ; b and g are related, as we see by our go, Greek baino, 
and Latin bous (bos), our cow (^gau) ; we also find gladius (L.), 
our blade, and Lat. rabies, our rage (b^=g). B for be, is iden- 
tical with German prefix ge, as bleiben (for gehiben), our leave. 
B equal to m and w we have noticed before. 

551* C — This letter, as we have already noticed, is identical 
with g. We often use it for s, and that is the only value it has 
in Russian and Copt. Eth. c is a double k. C is equal to h, 
as we have chop equal to hack ; c is equal to Z, as Span, llatnar 
for L. clamare (and llama for Jiama, 11= Ji). Our chore (work) 
is Danish gpr, Sanscrit knr, Heb. bara, our crc-ate. C is like 
d and b, for our cut equals biff*, Greek dakno. In German, c 
identifies with h, as sch equals sh ; carry equals Latin /cto, our 
bear (c=f, b) ; c for t, as Latin capio (our catch), take. Germ. 


fangen. Observe that the different sounds of ch are also sounds 
of c. 

552. /) — The Heb. D has the form of Gr'k G, turned (n); 
I and R (Hebrew) are only variations of this D; Syrian D=R; 
Arabian I) = R, Z; Ar. D = N; Copt. D equals Eoman A. D 
equals u and «?, for we have L. duo^ and our dwells also Welsh 
dwfr ; we find also devour, define, digest, decamp (^dev for dv, 
dig for dg). D equals t and b, as we see in Greek deo equal to 
our tie and iiW. There is a great resemblance between the 
character of our d and that of our e; thus, mile is often pro- 
nounced mild ; the Danish uses d at the end of words (also t) 
much as our c, a sort of mute vowel ; as, man^ for m^n, langt 
for fow^, f/ofZ* for good^ frit ioT free. Again, d is often identical 
in sound with /, t, hence d=^i. D equals |j and t, as we observe 
in German denken^ Latin pensare, our ^AtwA; ; €? equals r, as in 
Gr^k dike = right, just (cZ ===;*); <^=Z, as in Greek dakru, our 
fear, Latin lachri/ma; d=f as Latin viduus^ French veil/", our 

553. -^, /, F, and O — It is well known that our E is the 
same as G'k H (eta) ; it must be equal, also, to the letters con- 
nected with h in history, as /, g, d, a, o. Our F is a form of 
E, as it is of Greek r and D (n). As e is equal to ^, so it is 
equal to y and g, as we see again in holy^ sounded hol-e, E is a 
form of c, as we see by small e=c. 

The identity of i with y and ?*, is so often seen that it hardly 
needs any illustration here. I is the same as j, but j besides 
being often y, as in German, is in French z,zh — hence, we see 
how i^z ; i being equal toy, is also equal to g (and d), a form 
of y, as we see by Greek y for g. I is identical with H, indeed 
H is really a double I connected. The Sans. i=c, w, d; t = 
lz=d, hence i equals d in power. 

Of y little need now be said ; it is w, as we see in-Kussian; it 
is i,y, g, and e; in Goth., y has power of to. In Eth., y (y) has 
the form of c? and precedes it. As is well known, o = w, v, tb ; 
it is h also, as we see by Eth. ^ = ayin (o) — in Eth., h has the 
form of U and y. is identical with Q= P, B. 

554. F — The identity of /with p, ph, is very common — 
one character is often used for both ; / is same as v, u, w ; f 
also equals (, for we often see the same sign used for th widph 
(/). The German fangen equals our taJce, Lat. capio, seize, so 
f=t,c,8. F equals d, for L.ferio, our strike, French /rorpper, 
is in old North drepa (Germ, treffen) ) /equals g, as in furnish 
equal to garnish, and firid, German fangen, get, gain ; / equals 
r, 2& foot equals root — Heb. regel is foot, Latin radius (root). 

555. G — That g equals k, c, ch, is well known; that it equals 
n, I, d, and r, we shall find very common; it equals y, and hence 


z also ; its identity with w, t;, w^ is seen by gu for lo, as guard 
equal to ward, Fr. guerre, war, and Gwil for -Si7Z, }Fi7/. Its 
identity with h is seen by its so often harmonizing with it and 
becoming silent, as in sight, night; see our mix, San. mih, Lat. 
mingo, Greek micho, Lith. meziu (x, h, ng, ch, z) ; ^ equals z 
and A, as we see by Lith. asz, Sans, ahan, Zend. a2;em, for our 
I, Grerm. ich, Lat. ego', g is for/, v, as in laugh, tough; g=h, 
as Lat. hoediis (kid), our goat, GTerm. Ziege ; g = w, sls in go= 
went, drag and drato, A-Sax. swelgan and swallow ; g equals p 
and V, as in sage, Latin* sapiens ; sergeant, Latin serviens. . Our 
beam, Grerm. baum (tree), old North badm-r, Go. bagm, bajms, 
shows that g,j, of Goth., takes the place of d, u, and e; Germ. 
and Sax. ge,je, ye, equals our the; g with n is very common, as 
in gnaw, and the two letters are often found to agree in forjn in 
other alphabets ; in Greek, gg equals ng. 

556. H — This letter has very extensive connexions, but most 
of them will be noticed under other heads ; its most immediate 
relatives are those with which we find it associated ; as, th, ch, 
gh, sh, ph, wh, ah, oh — that h gives birth to such letters, is 
most evident in Semitic. The Greek e, Russian e, i, has the 

* form of H ; th takes the place of our h in the Greek alphabet. 

557. K — The nearest relatives of h are c, g, h, p, q, and t. 
It equals t because c, one of its forms, equals t; and g, another 
form, equals d. It is naturally like q, which is really a k sound, 
as in French ; and since it is like q, it is also like p, a form of 
q, Arabian k (q) equals /; k (or ch) in Eth. equals n, also in 
Hebrew. French ch=sh, but ch=k, hence k=s. Take the 
relative pron. forms, and they will show the family to which k 
belongs; as, ki (Hung.), qui (L.), ti (G'k), Osc. ^i, (jt'kpote, 
Celt, and Sans, ma, German wer, our who and that, Gothic hwo 
(Fr. ce, L. se). It. che; k = r, for Latin rex is our king ; Sans. 
srut-as, Gr'k klut-os, Lat. clutus, our heard (sr, kl (kr), cl {cr), 
hr, all equal); k = w; as, Germ, krieg, Fr. guerre, our war ; it 
often, in German, takes the place of the prefix ge; as, k-lein, 
little, k'lotz, log, k'lump, lump — it is here a mere vowel equal 
to 6, h ; k, in some forms pf German, is in such cases replaced 
by h; as, hlachen, Germ, lachen, laugh; Gr'k kudn, Lat. canis, 
Fr. chien, Lith. szu, German hund, our dog — shows k^=d, as g 
equals k, d. 

558. L — This is most nearly related to m, w, r, d,g, and the 
vowels. Ital. bi equals our bl, as bianco = blank; French / has 
the power of i, y ; we find also oud for old, gaud for gold — in 
Slav., l^=^w, u ; L. lect-us is our bed, I for b; look == see, like = 
seem, 1 =s. French le is our he, the (she) ; Germ, schhiss, our 
close, loose, schl, cl=^l; Dan. alt for all. It for II. 

559. M — The connexion of m and n with I, with b, w, $, and 


the vowels, we have already noticed. The Osc. m shows itself 
to be a double H, or two 7i's; the Greek m is a marked u (/x); 
Eth. 7>i is B on its back ( bd) ; w equals /i, as L. mamis equals 
hand ; our make, too, is San. kfw, Yi. facia, Crerm. thmi, do, m, 
k, f, th, d ; mar = err, where m becomes a vowel and vanishes; 
so, make is ago, act, and mars equals war. 

560. N — The identity, in form, of w with H, is too frequent ia 
the different alphabets to pass by unnoticed, or to be considered 
unmeauintr — thus, llus. N is our capital H, and the G'k small c 
(h) is 11 (rj). This only shows in a particular way, what has loag" 
been recognized, the vowel tendencies of m and n. Being so 
nearly like vowels, these letters have a very extensive connexion; 
but we most frequently find and, in<j, ent, ence, ens, hi, m, hi, 
whicjb point out the relatives of n, i. e. those associated with it. 

561. i^and Q — The identity of ^ and q has been long known, 
and that of r with p and g, is not more doubtful. In Samaritan, 
q has the form of our P, the Greek K (P) — so, also, .in Heb.; 
q is only found in a few alphabets. Go. q is u, and its relation 
to u, V, w^ we might expect by its always occurring with u. Eth. 
p is our T ; Eth. u, w, is a crossed 0, varying so that it identi- 
lies with our Q, Greek *; Eth. q proper is this same marked o,. 
Greek tf) ; Eth. / and c? have the form of our P. As ^^ = ?) ^' 
g, we can see how the form r, 1, and F (without the middle 
mark) occurs in the Gr'k alphabets for P — -'that is, it identifies 
with g and/, as we might expect. In Bussian, small p is w of 
our letters ; P (see Gr'k n) is, ^like N, (Buss. H), a character 
of double ?*'s connected at top (n) ; <2'=s, as in Lat. quse;ro, our 
search ; p = w, as L. penria, our Jin, wing ;;, y. P ^ 
a late letter in alphabets. 

562. R — This letter has already received, under other heads, 
most of the attention that is due to it. We will remind t^® 
student that its relatives are s, t, d, I, besides p and q. T*^^ 
Chinese had no r, but / for it, (and the old Per. had no I). i*^ 
as well as 7n, n, d, and /, is closely identified with vowels, &^^ 
is easily replaced by them. 

563. S — The true character of this letter has already b^p^ 
shown under the head of double letters. Its changes are pn^' 
cipally with r, t, h, w, f. It often plays the part of a pre^^ 
like German ge and h, as Greek smxkros for mikros. 

564. T — The connexion of this letter with p, k, s, r, t^y '^ 
w, a, i, h, and others, has already been noticed. In (Jliristi^^^ 
t=ch ; in mention, t=sh. The connexions of t may be ^^^ 
seen by taking the article the, that, and tracing the diffet"^ 
forms it assumes as it appears in different languages, and in ^^ 
ferent kinds of pronouns. In Bus., we find a form of t exa.^^ 
as if the points at the ends of the cross line of T should ext>^^ 


down to an equal length with the middle line, making three 
parallel lines or i's, connected at top like m (m); this makes t 
a double jp (G-'k IT); our T is not different from E, except that 
it is placed differently, and the middle line is extended instead 
of the end lines; there are other reasons, which we will omit 
here, that go to prove T equal to c, i, and u, besides H, as a 

565. U, Vy W — These letters, all forms of one and the same 
thing, as i is of j, n of m, or p of q, r, need but few remarks 
here. The pronouns will best show their connexions. They 
are beautiful illustrations of vowels which become consonants. 
In Russian, u, y, and i, are represented by a letter like our H, 
another case of double i — we knew that y = i, and that u=i/ ; 
our own u is an illustration of parallel I's (n) connected at bot- 
tom. W equals d, as German wer and der, our will and Gaelic 
toil; MJ=^, G-'k kalos, well, and kakos^ wicked; wind = round, 
tarn, w, -r, t. We have seen w=g ; it is also equal to cA, k; 
as, German dich, Lith. tawe, Buss, tehm, Sanscrit tva, our thee. 

566. X, Yj Z — We have already spoken of X as a form of 
. K; it is nearly related to Z ; y, too, has been sufficiently noticed 

already, and z needs but a few words. As we consider Z a form 
of G'k G- (r), and hence of D also, we do not find it surprising 
that it often changes with d^ g^j^ v, y — hence, we find (J*k zao 
equal to San. yi'yam/, Lat. vwo^ our live; also G^r'k zcugon^ Lat. 
J'ugum, OUT Join, union^ yoke. The striking identity oi z with i 
and h we will again recall to the mind of the student. 

567. Order op Letters : The number and order of letters 
^D the different alphabets vary. It is said that the original 
'Jumber of letters in the Gr'k alphabet was sixteen, while later 
^reek, the one of which our own is a modification, has twenty- 
ft>ur. \V''e have great doubts about the number sixteen having 
anything more to do with the precise limit of fundamental letters 
than the number twenty-four or thirty. All letters in all lan- 
guages are closely related to each other ; it is very easy to see 
*n letters which appear very remote, that one is only a modifica- 
tion of the other. The number of characters, no doubt, increased 
itt olden times* as we know it to have done in later ones, by a 
fetter gradually assuming a new force in particular words, and, 
in the end, being marked, or in some way taking a new form to 
correspond with the place it holds; so with our marked s for z 
*($) the marked h's and d's of Arabic; and, again, by uniting 
"WO letters into one character, doubling, as it is admitted to be 
the case with our w (two w's), of which feature we find so many 
illustrations in Slavic and others. 

568. The Ileb. alphabet has twenty-two letters, corresponding 
substantially with the Greek and Roman, and in the following 


order; a, b, g, d, e (h), f (u, v), z, ch (h), t, y (Gr'k iota), ch 
(k), 1, m, n, 8 (G'k xi), o (a), p, s or z (not in G'k), q (G'k r), 
r (not in G'k), s, t. 

This order is almost identical with that of Gr'k, and it differs 
from Eoman chiefly as the G'k differs from it. The third letter 
in both is g ; this not only has the place of our c, but is identi- 
cal with it; one of the sounds of c is >fc=^, and by tracing the 
G'k g (r) through the various forms which it has assumed, we 
find the angle made by the perpendicular and cross line, become 
rounded so as to resemble C. The /is the Greek F, digamma 
(a form of r), now lost. The Hebrew e has the value of A and 
corresponds Setter with the Gr'k eta which has the form of H. 
The Heb. «, G'k dz (zeta) is plainly a form of ^ and indirectly 
of c?; Heb. z scarcely differs in form from Heb. d or v; in old 
G'k^ this z has the form of I, and in Phenician it is N placed on 
its side ( Izj), a form which shows its connexion with eta (H) — 
. in Russian, it Is s reversed (s) ; in Eth., it has the form of H, 
which is also the form of^; hence z=j\ g, again — Fr. g often 
has the sound of 2, zh. The Heb. ch after 2;, is the Hebrew c, 
G'k eta; t is the Gr'k theta — in both cases derivatives of h= 
e, z {t equals z in them, pronounced by foreigners zem) ; the 
Heb. ch=^k is our c, G'k k ; the s after n does not correspond 
in place or origin with our S; it is the Greek chi=zi; in old 
G'k, it has, like 2, the form of capital I ; the Heb. and Rabbinic 
forms evidently tend to identify with m of the same alphabet 
(again we see the connexion of m and n with «) ; the Heb. ayin 
(0) is almost identical in form with the s ox z following it — in 
Arab., one of its powers is that of ^, and in Syr. it has the form 
of Syr. g and I; the s or sh is in form a double ayin or o (also 
double z) ] the th or ^ is a form slightly varying from h and ch. 

569. The Gr'k adds to these a u and a v, and w in the char- 
acter ((p) phi (ph, f, v) ; it is really a marked o or v, w^ and it 
is not different from theta (th), which in Russian has the sound 
of/, 1; — it corresponds to our v and w ; the next Greek letter 
is our a:, called chi, and having the force of h — indeed, it is 
evidently only a modified k, as small k, in G'k, and x are exactly 
alike in form ; the next letter psi (^^ has the place of our z, and 
the value of ps equal to s, 2; ; in Russian, it loses its right arm, 
and has a form mostly like small y, and a value like tch, sh; it 
may be considered as a marked c (on its back), or s; it is clearly, 
too, identical with the Hebrew sh, or s (shin), which letter in 
Ethiopic (one of its forms) has the precise form of T. Howj? 
should be associated with s or «, as in this psi, need not appear 
strange, when we bear in mind what the Russian teaches us ; 
there, ^ and z have the same form, that of Greek 11, (save that 
the z is connected at the bottom instead of the top, as in p); 


again, p=t, and t=s and z ; in Sanscrit, p equals j and often 
becomes «, zh. 

570. We have, as stated before, the c, a converted g, and we 
have the k besides, while Greek had only the latter. Slightly 
varying the t, we havey, not known in Gr'k — comparing i and 
/, see what different powers the same letter may assume ; we 
havep, q^ r (three nearly related), while G'k has only^ and r; 
we have w^ which was formerly written two «'s, and then vv, 
and so w. In Rus., two &'s are developed, the latter having the 
value of i;, w; after 6, in place of Gr'k zeta, Euss. has two sj's, 
one already noticed as s inverted (3); it is evidently connected, 
in history, with the Greek chi, a;, ch; there are two t's, one of 
which is merely double, like G'k 11; its r is our P ; its « and z 
is our C; its w is oury; after u comes/, v, in form of Gr'k *, 
and then K, being our X, and having its form ; and next come 
four letters, all related, and having the value of z (ts), ch and 
sh, sh, and sh — they are, the first two, two 1^9 repeated, and 
hence the same as n(connected at bottom) ; and the next two 
are three parallel t's (LU) connected at bottom, that is, they are 
made by repeating one of the two first and uniting the two mid- 
dle lines ; they are related to the Hebrew ch (cheth) and th 
(tav) — the latter two are identical with the Hebrew sh (shin). 
The old Heb. furnishes a parallel in its 2, identical with i, y ; 
so, in Ethiopic, the sh, and t, is a double H, which equals i. 

571. Making allowance for the introduction of additional let- 
ters in the Armenian alphabet, and the considerable variation 
in the name and form of the characters, we may say that it is 
substantially the same as the G'k. The Arab, has added several 
letters to the Semitic as it exists in Hebrew and Syriac, making 
much change in the form and name of the characters, and yet 
the identity of the two classes is unquestioned. The h has de- 
veloped into a <, and th, besides a p in Pers., (marked only by 
dots and without change of form) ; three letters, not differing in 
form, arey (dg), A, and k, kh (this group includes the ^ which 
here identifies with A) ; two 2's or 5'S) from Heb. d; an « and 
d, 2, from Heb. z (tsadhe); a t, and a c?, z, from Heb. t (teth); 
an a, A and g, gh, from Hebrew ayin. 


572. This subdivision of letters demands still further consid- 
eration; we will treat principally of the connexion of vowels 
with each other. That a, e, i, o, u, amd w and y, are intimately 
related to each other, will not be questioned ; we will, however, 
give the following illustrations. Our a in late is precisely the 
European long e ;♦ a in ah equals in not, a in all equals in 


hmg^ cost ; mefal, in sound, would not differ if it was w?, il, ol, 
elf yl^ instead of ul; pahii^ at a distance, can hardly be distin- 
guished from pine; French i \on^ is our e in steel ; and it can 
hardly be distinguished from et ; hence, we hear yis for yes^ mm 
for men, thim for them. The Greek u becomes our y, and the 
Germ, u our t in it ; but hardly differs from Let, and hur not at 
all from ber, bir — and wc hear fur in place o£ for, hum for 
home, i. e. home=hom=hum. 

578. From the diphthongs we have much to learn in relation 
to vowels, as well as in regard to the union of letters generally. 
It is hardly necessary to remark that such letters as readily unit€ 
into diphthongs are closely related — but all the vowels unite 
in this way. We notice in regard to these unions of vowels, 
that they, as well as with consonants, do not arise from the de- 
struction of one of the vowels, but from the two harmonizing 
together, or from the one preponderating over the other ; in no 
case is the new sound, the diphthong, anything more than the 
ordinary sound of the two vowels following in quick succession ; 
so, boil is baU'ily the o of song, and the i disappearing in il; so, 
in said, sa-id, sa-d, sed — when the id preponderates, we get 
S'id, sid ; so, lo-af, lo-ef, loaf, and re-ad, re-ed, read; we get 
break by breh-ake, short e in met and long a in make, and bread 
by breh-ed, short e and short a ; in view, the i and e are both 
short (i ip mit, e in met), and w q& u preponderates; in field j 
fih-eeld, the i is short and e long ; in their, theh-ir, there, the e 
and i are both short; in sound, we have o in not and u=oo, or 
u in full — Germ, aw = this ou, ah-oo, and is the simple union 
of the ordinary German a and u; German ei=long i, and /em 
sounds as fine — here, the e is short, and it makes the i long, 
just as our e in fine does; Gr'k ai*=our long i, so pais, pah-is, 
sounds as pice; another German au is very much like this 
Greek ai, and arises from the use of German accented ii, like 
our i in mill (nearly) j German eu has same sound and on same 

574. The following list of words, taken chiefly from the Ger- 
man languages, will better illustrate the connexion and change 
of vowels. 


. English. 

Latin. Old Ger. Eng. 




per, trans heim home 




canis feim foam 




Go. saian dheoda kin 

gens, Ger. leute 


raw, rough 

crudus houbit head 

caput, Ger. haupt 



paucus troum dream 




Ger. gang guat good 







^R^d. German. 








arbor, Germ, baum 







vapor, " dampf 
quies, " ruhe 
egi, " that 

Mid. Nether. 

• English. 






sheep, ewe 

^ ovis 
vestis, Germ, kleid 


goat, kid 

capra, " ziege 
A-S. hveol 



mundus, Germ, welt 



lign-um, " holz 



luna . " mond 

There is also Go. dails^ Eng. deal^ Germ, theil, It, pars; Go. 
taiknSj Eng. token. Germ. Zeigen, Lat. signum ; Go. mats, Lat- 
vnagis, Eng. more, Germ, mehr ; Go. dauths, Eng. dead, Germ. 
todt ; Go. skeirs, Lat. clarus, Eng. shine, Germ, schein ; Goth. 
stiurs, Eng steer, Latin taunts; Goth, giuta, Eng. gush. Germ- 
giessen ; Germ, siegel, Eng. seal, Lat. sigillum. 

German Etymology, 


Ah'halten, hold-off (a62=off). 
^L-legen, lay-off, lay-by. 
-4cAte7i, 1-ook, Gr'k agad, San. 

ac, Gr'k osso, este6m 
■^hnlich, even-like, like. 
■^7i7ien, ancestors, anticipate; it 

is the Lat. a7ite, 
-4/sj al-so, as, else. 
-^nit, office, m, v, f. 
■^itgst, anxious. 
-<^^w, poor, as branch = arm. 
■^^ten, (take-) after (imitate). 
"^r^j arch, arrant. 
-^them, br-eath, Greek asthma, 

Lat. anima, Russ. dnch 

Auf-ruhr, up-roar. 

Auge, eye, 1-ook. 

Aus-hruch, e-rupt, out-break. 

Aus-dehnen, ex-tend. 

Aus-fuhr, ex-port. 

Aus-ruf, out-cry. 

Bauer, ^ boor, far-mer, 'bode. 

Bach, brook, G'k 'pege, 

Be-fehl, (order), fail, want — • 
the idea of words of com- 
mand seems based on wish^ 
want, not on authority ; so 
bid = beg. Germ, heten. 

Be-giehr, desire, crave, be-g. 

Be-qucm, be-come, comely, con- 
venient, Swiss hummllch. 

^ Note that u is nearer i in it than u ; so, 6 is nearer a in ale — an is 
yV.e ou in our ; e is not silent at the end of words, but is sounded uk 
(w in up) ; as, habe = hah*buh (asx^ah uniformly) — See Germ. Lan. 



JBe-sitz, pos-session. 

BecSuch.Yisit) (be-seek),be = v. 

Be-zahl, tell, pay, count, say. 

Bild, (shape), build. 

Billig, (fair), belle, L. meli-or, 

B-lattj leaf (b is com. prefix). 

Blasen, blow, s, w. 

B-leihen, leave, (b-leave). 

B'lick, look, blink. 

'BIoss, (bare), plain, bleak. 

Bosey (ill), bad, base. • 

Brdien^ roast, br, r. 

Brauchen^ (want), br^k, Lat. 
frui^ use, re-quire. 

Bfechen, break, San. c?ar, cut, 
G'k dero, strip, bare, but 
ge-hrechen = want, frail. 

Briefs (letter), write, chart. 

Briicke, bridge, breach. 

Briinnen, (well), spring. 

Brennen, burn, Ger. dorren. 

Burg, fort, Gr'k purgos, polis. 

Bund, bunch, bundle, band. 

Dach, (roof), deck, L. tectum. 

Damp, steam, dew. 

Ddmmem, dim. 

Degen, (sword), dagger. 

Dchnen,^ ex-ten d» 

Dicht, tight, think. 

Dienen, serve, tend. 

Dolch, dagger, dirk. 

Druck, thring, throng, press, 
drive, d, p, t. 

Dunkel, dim, dunn. 

DvMeti, dure, L. tolh, our in- 

Durfen, dare, durst. 

Durr, torrid, dry, burn. 

Ecke, nook, edge, corner. 

Edel, noble, d, b. 

EiUn, hurry, G'k elao, hie. 

Eifer, ire, ardor. 

Eivzeln, single, once. 

Els, ice, It. giaccio, Fr. glace, 
glass, smooth, Ger. glatt. 

Eisem^ iron; ei sounds C^ 

formly as i in ice. 
Endltch, final, end. 
Eng^ near, narrowj Sans, c^ 

G'kago, eggus^ 
Erhe, heir. 
Er-fahren, ex-pert. 
Erlauhm, allow. 
Enoerh, (gain), ac-quirlft. 
Er-zeugt, be-got, L. sa^tm, 
Essig, acid (vinegar). 
Fahren, fare, ferry, go. 
Fang, catch, finger, f, c, k. 
Fassen, fast, catch. 
Feder, feather, pen, Gr'k pter- 

on, wing, bird. 

Fertig, ready, pre-pared. 

Fessel, fetter, fast. 

Finster, dim. 

Flach, flat. i 

Fkissig, fleet, ap-ply. 

FUessen, flow. 

Flugel, (wing), fly. 

Fragen, ask, fraction, break, 

G'k ag, L. rogo. 
Frau, (woman) , L. virgo (herr)' 
Fremd, foreign, strange. 
Freude, mirth, joy ; eu sotuadfl 

between t and oi. 
Friede, peace, rest. 
Froh, cheer-ful, joy-ful. 
Friih, early, fore. 
Furcht, fright, fear, 
(rafee?, (fork), pierce, gore ; C5 ^^* 

gaval=get, hold, fia<l* 
Gahnen, yawn, gape. 
Ganz, all (g pref.), whole- 
Gar, ready, Jj. paro, very- 
Gattung, (sort), cast, class- ^--q 
Ge-hiet, (district), beat, bi^-^ 
Ge-falUn, please, fall. 
Ge-fahr, (danger), peril, 

risk, ex-periment. 
Gehen, go, m-ove, San. a&- 
Gheisf, ghost, gas. 

1 Those endings C7i are of the infin., and may drop. 



GeR)^ yellow. 

Ge-lenh, pliant, link, limber. 

Ge-mein, common, mean. 

Ge-prdge^ im-pression. 

Ge-seU^ fellow, se-lect. 

Ge-schlect, sect, class. ^ 

Ge-sichf.j sight, visage. 

Ge^alt, (power), pre-vail. 

Gewinn, gain, win. 

Ge-wolbe^ vault. 

Ge-ioohneny wont. 

GiesseTij gush, pour, G'k cheO, 

Glatt, sleek. 

Gnade, grace, kind. 

GrabeUj (dig), grave. 

Grei/en, grab, gripe. 

Cfreis, (old), G'k geraios, San. 
jar at y Russ. stary: 

Grimm y grim, wrath. 

(rroi, coarse, great, gross. 

Gunsty (favor), kind. 

Gurgely gorge. It. gola, 

Ma/ten, take, cleave. 

J?afo, (neck), collar, L. collumy 
hill, G'k gualon, 

JSagely hail. 

HandelUy (act), handle. 

HarreUy tarry. 

Haschen, catch. 

Hauhey hood. 

Hauchy whiff, puff, mouth. 

Haupty head, top, Fr. ^e^e. It. 
ca;po, Fr. cA<?/, t, c, h. 

5att^, hid^coat, skin. 

Heissehy hight, L. voco. 

HeeVy host, army, crowd. 

Heldy hero, 1, r. 

Helly clear, light (hi, cl), bril- 

Hehthy helve, handle. 

JELerTy sir, lord. Sans, cwr, Gr'k 
kariosy karl, Lat. vir. 

Hemdy (shirt), Fr. chemise, 

HerZy heart, breast. 

Heatey L. hodiey Sp. hoi/. 

Himmely heaven, Fr. ciely Go. 
himinSy hell. 

^im, brain, cran-ium. 
Ilirschy hart. 
Ilohely level, heaver. 
Ilochy high, L. a?^ = auu, G'k 

akros^ Go. r/w7is, wax. 
^oA^, hollow, hole. 
EoleUy haul. 
JZo^^j, wood, L. s^Zva. 
Hulle, veil, husk, case. 
HuUey hull, husk, shell. 
Hundy dog, L. ccm/s, G'k 7in/(5». 
EurtiQy hurry. 
Husten, cough, husky, 
Rilty heed, guard. 
Jo gen y chase. 

Jammery lament, whimper, 
Jungey young, boy. 
Jugendy youth, h.juve7iis, 
Kaldy callow, bald. 
KamiUy chimney, channel. 
Kampfy combat. 
Kargy chary, spare. 
Xastcn, chest. 
KauCy coop, cage. 
Kaueiiy chew. 
Kaucheiiy squat, crouch. 
Kaufy (buy), chap-man, get. 
Kehhy (throat), channel. 
Kehry turn, veer, k, t. 
Kciny no, none, G'k oxdi. 
KauTthy scarce, rare, sick. 
Kecky (daring), quick. 
Keicheriy gasp, cough. 
KeifeUy chide, f, d. 
Kdchy calyx, cup. 
Kenneiiy know, can, 'quaint. 
Kenschy chaste. 
Kiefcy jaw, chap. 
Kiesely pebble. 
Kindy child, kin, young. 
Kippey tip, edge. 
KlagCy com-plaint, wail, clamor. 
KlappCy flap. 

Kleidy (dress), cloth, G'k khio, 
Klein y lean, little. 
Khgy skill, sly, 'look. 
Klumpy lump, clod. 



Knabcy (boy), knave, L. natus. 
Knechty new, young, G*k gin. 
Knall^ clap, knell. 
Knapp^ tight, nip, pinch. 
Knochen^ bone, knuckle. 
Knopf, knob, bud, button. 
Knorz^ knob, snob. 
Knospe, knot, knob. 
Konig, king, zarr, reg-e. 
Kolhe, club. 
Kopf head, L. caput, top, cap, 

G'k kar, kephale, 
Korh, (basket), curb. 
KorUy grain, kernel. 
Korpter, body, corpse. 
Kraft, force, strong, L. vires, 
Krdhe, crow, rook, raven. 
Kralle, claw, craple. 
Krank, (sick), grieve, L. segre, 

Fr. en-ferm, Swiss A;wm= 

Kranz, wreath, crown. 
Kratzen, scratch. 
Kraut, herb, k, h. 
Kriegen, reach, ac-quire. 
Krieg, war, French guerre, cry, 

jar,' quarrel, kr,wr. 
Krippe^ crib. 
Kmig, crock, jug. 
Kuche, kitchen. 
Kugehi, roll, hill. 
Kuhn, (bold), keen, 0. Germ. 

Kummer, grief, trouble. 
Kunft, (arrival), come. 
Kund, ac-quaint, cunning. 
Kunst, (art), know, kennen, 
Kuppe, top, cap. 
Kurz, short, curt. 
Lappe, flap. 
Lassen, let, leave. 
Ldsslg, lazy. Go. lats, li.fiacco. 
Laster, (vice), load, charge. 
Last, load. 
Lauh, leaf. 
Lauern, lurk. 

Lauf, (run), loafer, elope, Swiss 
lope, San. ray, Lat. ruo. 

Laut, (sound), sound, loud. 

Ledig, idle, clear. 

Leer, void, clear. 

Lejgien, lean, lie. 

Leiclie, flesh, 1, fl. 

Lesen, read, lesson, 1, r. 

Lesen, col-lect, glean. 

Liefern, de-liver. 

Lied, (song)j lid, limb, mel-on. 

Loh, praise, laud, San. lap, lesen 

Loch, hole, loop. 

Lbcken, al-lure, e-licit. 

L'offel, ladle. 

Lohn, (wages), lend. 

Lobcn, L. laudo and lego. 

Los, loose, slack, 

Luft, (air), loft. 

LUgen, lie. 

Lust, (pleasure), de-light. 

Mangel, want, m, w. 

Mandeln, mangle. 

Mark, marrow, k, w. 

Masse, measure. 

Mauer, (wall), L. murus, mort. 

Maul, muzzle, mouth. 

Menge, many ,mix, men. 

Messer, (knife), mace. 

Mucke, midge. 

Miihe, pains. 

Mund, mouth. 

Muth, (courage), mood, mind. 

Nach-ahmen, take#tfter, (imi- 

Nacken, neck, nape. 

Nlihren, nourish. 

Narr, (fool), L. ignarus,marg€, 

Mass, wet, moist. 

Natter, adder, as we say Ned 
for Ed. 

Nebel, (mist), veil, L. nvhes. 

Nehmen, (take), L. emo. 

Neigen, bend, kneel. 

Neid, strife, need, San. nid. 

Netzen, wet, n, w. 



Nlltss, use, need. 
Oh^zoaUen, pre-vail. 
Orey (place), corner. 
Otter ^ otter, adder. 
^faffe^ pope, parson, papa. 
Pfandj pawn. 

P/eilj dart, bolt, pile, b, d. 
Pflegen^ (tend), ap-ply. 
Pflicht, plight, o-blige. 
lyrop/j cork, graft. 
Pfund, pound, pf, p. 
Plump, blunt, clumsy. 
PocTien, knock, beat, p, kn. 
Pracht, pride, bright. 
Prahlen, brag, brawl. 
Predigen, preach, dig, dg. 
Prii/en, try, prove, p, t. 
PidveTj powder. 
Punkt, point. 
Putzen, polish, re-buke. 
Rack, wrath, wreak. • 
Rad, (wheel), L. rota, radius, 
Rahm, cream. 
Rand, rim, rind, brim. 
Rosen, (sod), grass. 
Rosen, rave, rant, rage. 
Reden=lesen, speak, L. lego. 
Roth, (counsel), ratio, reason, 

L. ratus, Ger. reden, 
Rouch, rough. 
Rouchen, reek, quaff. 
Redlich, (honest), reasonable. 
R^ihe, row. 
Rein, pure, se-rene. Sax. hren, 

kran, Q-oth. hrain, 
R^send, rapid, rash. 
R^sen, tear, rent, rip. 
R^z, grace, ir-ritation. 
-^^len, rid, rescue. 
Riss, rent, crack, gap. 
Ritz, rift, crack, gap. 
Rock, (coat), robe, f-rook. 
Rodel, roll, scroll. 
Roh, raw, rough. 
^ohr, reed, crane. 
^otte, rout, troop, herd. 

Rilcken, ridge, back. 
Rufen, call,, voco, shriek. 
Euhm, renown, rumor. 
Ruhe, rest, quiet, Sanscrit, ci, 

G'k keio. 
Riihren, stir, roar. 
Rupf, pluck. 
Runzel, rumple, wrinkle. 
Rustig, lusty, robust. 
Riisten, dress, arm. 
Sache, (thing), from sage = 

say, as L. res, reason, from 

reo= speak, San. ah, G'k 

ad, ask. 
Saal, saloon, hall. 
Sa^cht, soft, ch, f. 
Satz, sentence, set. 
Schaar, (troop), herd. 
Schade, damage, scath, the 

same as schande, shame. 
Schaffen, (do), shape, make. 
Schalig, shelly, scaly. 
Schatz, treasure, tax, ex-che- 
Schauen, shudder. 
Schaum, scum, foam. 
Scheibe, sheaf, slip. 
Scheiden, cut, di-vide. 
ScheUe,^he\\, peal. 
Schelm, villain, scoundrel. 
Schick-lich, (fit), becoming, 

suitable, con-venient; in 

all these, come, go, is the 

SchicJcen, send, San. cac, Gr'k 

kekid, go ; ging (jgick) is 

past ofgehen, go. 
Schimmer, glimmer. 
Schinden, skin. 
Schirm, screen. 
Schdker, joker. 
Schlagen, slay, slew. 
Schlange, long, Latin anguis, 

serpent, snake. 
Sch-lecht, (bad), light, low, as 




Schlussy coQolusioB) close, looae^ 

key, Celt, chi, 
Schmuck, (dress), neat, from 

8chmack=a taste, tasty. 
Schnabel, nozzle. 
Schnau, nose, snout. 
Schnell, L. celus, It. meUo, 
Schnitt, cut, S. ci, G'k keid, 
Schnur, string; the n here and 

above is inserted, or schn 

equal to sck, 
Schbn, (fine), shine, belle, bril- 
liant, bright. 
Schreien, cry, It. gridare, 
Schreck, fright, crack. 
Schrift, writ, sch, w. 
Schritty step, stride. 
Schuld, guild, fault, L. scehia, 
Schurf, scrape, cut, San. Jmuv, 

Q'k zurady shear. 
Schutz, shed, shelter. 
Schwachy weak. It. ehete,, 
Schwinden, vanish, dwindle; 

sch is often a mere prefix. 
Schwefel, sulphur, .Fr. sou/re. 
Schwer, severe, heavy, hard. 
Schwingy wing, sweep. 
SeheUj see, show, g, h. 
Sehr, very, true. . 
Segel, sail. 
S^ne, sinew. 
Seide, silk, d, 1. 
Seicht, shallo)i7. 
Set/e, soap. 
Selig, holy, s, h. 
Seltsam, seldom. 
Sicker, secure, sure. 
Sichterij sift, sight. 
Seufzen, sigh. 
Sieg, victory. Sax. aig-or. 
Sinn, sense. 
Sitte, (custom), seat. 
SoUen, shall, s, sh. 
Sonder, sever, nd, v. 
Sorg^fihy sorrow, care, s, e, 
Spalten^ split, cleft, chop. 

Span, bend, bent; a span is a 

connexion, team, bridge. 
Speise, food, sp, f. 
Sperr, pinch, poor, press. 
Sperren, bar, sp, b. 
Spiegel, (mirror), spectU'um, 
Spiel, play, sport. 
Spiess, spit, spear. 
Spitz, peak, top, piquant 
Spinne, spider, spinner. 
Spliss, cleft, split. 
Spott, scoff, mock, Bpert. 
Sprechen, speak, preach. Sans. 

vak, L. voco, spr^ v. 
Spur, trace, step, spur. 
Stadt, town, city. 
Starke, starch, stiff. 
Stark, strong, sturdy. 
Stange, stake, stick. 
Starr, stiff, stare. 
Stauh, dust. 
Stauch, toss. 
Staude, stalk, bush. 
Steil, steep, 1, p. 
Steigen, stage, step, San. 9tigh, 

stair, Q-'k steicho. 
Stellen, place, put, sil,^ pi. 
Stemmen, dam, cut. 
AS'ter5e,(death), de-stroy, starve. 
Stern, star, rn, r. 
Stick, prick, bite. 
SOel, stalk, 1, Ik. 
Sti/t, tack, peg. 
Stiften, found, fix, stiff. 
Stimme, (voice), tune, say, G'k 

stoma, San. stu. 
Stirn, front, stern. 
Stock, stick, stop, staff. 
/S^^ofo, (proud), L. stvitus. 
Storen, di-sturb. 
Stoss, thrust, jog, stut. 
Stossen, push, stave. 
Strafen, (punish), straighten. 
Straklen, ray, San. ul, G. died. 
Strack, strait. 
Straff, strait, tight. 



Strang^ string, trace. 
Strasse, road, street. 
Strauh^ shrub, hmih, 
Strechj tract, stretch. 
StHckj siring, cord, str, r. 
StreiteUj strife, struggle. 
Streng, strict, strong. 
Strich^ stroke, strike. 
Strumpf, (stocking), trunk, 

stem, stump. 
Stuhe, (room), step, stoop. 
StUckj piece, stick, bit. 
Stumm, dumb, st, d. 
Stump/j (dull), stupid and 

Stundej time, st, t. 
Sturtzen^ throw, hurl. 
. StutZj shock, stab. 
Svchen^ seek, ch, k. 
^Timpf^ swamp. 
Siinde, sin. 

^ttM, sweet. Sax. suot, 
^t/lbe, syllable. 
^adel, chide. 
^% day, g, y. 
^0^, tallow, g, w* 
^dnd, toy, dandle. 
^dsche, pocket, sack. 
^ler, deer, L. /era, wild. 
^(iften, taste, touch. 
^(inchen, duck, dip. - 
•^<^umel, tumult, (recline). 
^(iugen, (fit), from which is 

iugend, tuch. 
^U8ch, trick, cheat. 
*j2icA, tank, (pond). 
-^ipich, tapestry. 
*2^a<, deed, act, did. 
2^7, deal, share, cut, part, 

San. da J kar, vil. 
*^rdne, (tear), run, drop. 
-^rdnen, running, train. 
^nrmy tower. 
. 'VZgrcn, ex-tinguish. 
Ktten, dig, till. 
iVnte, inl^ tint. 

Tisch, table, dine, dish. 

ToU, dull, fool, (mad). 

Ton, tone, sound, strain. 

Top/, tub, pot. 

Trachtf draft, dress. 

Tragen, (carry), drag, bear. 

Trauen, trust, true. 

Traube, grape. 

Trauer, sorrow. 

Treffen, strike, touch. L. tracto, 
¥r. /rapper, San. r/orp. 

Trennen, sever, separo, 

Treten=reden — path, in San., 
equals 'read and tread, 

Tri/t, drove, drive. 

Tritt, tread, track. 

Trocken^ dry, torrid. 

Trodeln, dawdle. 

Trost, (hope), trust. 

Trotz, (dare), scorn. 

Triihe, trouble. 

Trug, fraud, trick. 

Trumm, (wreck), ruins, our 

Tuch, (cloth), towel, Fr. drap, 
t, tr = dr. 

Tucke, trick, t, tr. 

Tugend, (virtue), from Tiichtig, 
fit, tight, also good, strong, 
equal to virtue. 

Tummeln, bustle, tumble, hurry 

Umr-kehren, re-turn, turn-a- 
round, t«m = around, c.iV- 

Uebel, (ill), evil. 

Uebung, use, (practice). 

Uhr, (clock), hour. 

Urn-stand, circum-stance. 

Un-gar, not-done, San. kar, 

Un-gern, un-willing, not-grain, 

Un-gliick, ill-luck. 

Un-kr a/tig, (in-effectual), in- 
firm, kra/t^s^kar, form. 

Uw-tchfuM, (in-noc^nce), not- 
hurt, not-guilt. 



Unter-haltungy sus-tenance, en- 
ter-tain, {sub = under), 
ten, tain = halt, bold. 

Unter-schri/ty sub-script. 

UrhaVy arable. 

Ur-lauh, fur-lough. 

Ur-sachej principle-both words 
are developments of ere, 
fore, or-igin, cause. 

Uppigy (luxurious), up-y, heap- 

Urtheil, (judgment), or-deal, 

Vr-weseriy fore-being, or-igin. 
Veilcherij violet. 
Ver-ha/ty caption, take. 
Ver-kehvy inter-course, run or 

turn-around, -among. 
Ver-lassen, let. 
Ver-loren, lose, for-lorn. 
Ver-2u8tj lost. 

Ver-nehmen, perceive, take-be- 
fore, or take-through. 
Ver-standy under-stand. 
Ver-wer/en, re-ject, re = ver. 
Vieh, beast. 
Vtely full, very, much. 
Vogel, (bird), fowl, falcon. 
Vor-fahr, pre-cessor, go-fore. 
Vor-geheriy fore-go, pre-cede. 

vor-gang = pre-cedenoe. 
Vor-haben, fore-have, in-tent, 

Vor-nehmeny pre-eminent, emt- 

neo = 'L, emoy take. 
Vor-redey pre-face, fore-read. 
Vor-spiel, pre-lude,fore-play. 
Vor-theily pro-fit, for-part. 
Vor-trageny fore-carry, pro-po- 

sal, for-place. 
Wacky awake. 
Wachseny wax. 
WachelTiy waver, wabble. 
Fo^e, balance, weigh. 
Wageriy (risk), wage, hazard. 
WahUfiy (choose), cull, pohl, 

S. valy G'k eloy will, pull. 

Wdhfiy fancy. 

Wahry true, L. verus. 

Waly battle. 

Waldy wood, L. si/lva. 

Walleuy wallow, walk, G-'k po- 

leOy San. paly pad, 
Wandy wall. 
WappeUy weapon. 
Wankeny waver. 
Wanne, fan, van. 
Warteuy wait. 
Weber, weaver, L. apero. 
Wechsel, change, L. vtcia. 
Wegy way, L. via, 
WegeUy move, Greek agd, wag, 

Weg-stecken, stick-away. 
Weg-schereriy shear-away. 
Weichy weak, It, Jiacco, 
Weide, food, L. victus. 
Weiserty (show), wissen, 
Welky wilt. 

Wenig, few, many, L. mtntu, 
WerdeUy (become), turn, the 
same as wenden=gqy wend. 
Weseny essence, being. 
Wichtigy weighty. 
Wickeln, wind, wick. 
Wider-sprachy contra-diet. 
Wiesey mead ; Wiey why, wi, 
Wimmehiy swarm. 
Winseluy whimper, whine. 

WinkUy angle, corner. 

Wirklichy (actual), from wirk- 
en = work, as ef-feotual, 
from facto = do, and act- 
tual, from ago = do. 

Wisseuy wit, L. vidiy wisdom, 
San. cudhy cvidh. 

Wittwey widow. 

WoUy well. 

Wolkey cloud, welkin. 

Wuchevy usury. 

WuMeriy wallow. 

WUnsch, wish, will, S. av. 

Wurde, worth, honor. 

Wurfy throw, warp, wreck. 


Wurtz, root, wurzel. Ziege^ goat, L. hoediis, 

Wust, waste. Ziegel. title. 

Wuth^ fury, fume, muth. Ziehen^ draw, tow, tug, S. du, 

ZaJdy (number), tell, say. Ziem-en^ seem, come, suit. 

Zagen^ shake, z, sh. Zier^ grace, a-dorn. 

Zank, wrangle, z, wr. Zimmer, chamber. It. camera^ 

Zapfen, stopple. room. 

Zart, tender, rt, d. 2^nn, tin, Fr. etain, It. stagno. 

ZaUher, charm. Zmse^ interest, rent. 

Zatisen, touse, tug. Zorn^ thorn, wrath. 

Zehcy toe. Zilchten, e-ducate. 

ZetcheUj token, sign, be-to-ken ZUchtig, chaste, chastise. 

= kennen, know. Zwecken^ peg, tack. 

Zeichnung, design. Zwangen, pinch, press. 

ZeUcj (li*i6)> file- Zweifeln^ doubt, double, doubt 
Zeit, tide, time, L. sevum^ diem^ = think = L. volvo^ turn, 

age, «to<, ewig, so re-flect = re-turn ; med- 

Zelt^ tent. . itate equals middle, doubt, 

' Zer-storen, de-stroy. double. 

Zer-reissen, tear, rend. 

The parallels we have selected are the most difficult we could 
find. A vast majority of German words differ far less from En- 
glish than those do which we have selected. Nothing can be 
plainer than that Germ, has a representative for every Eng. word. 
Even in the present state of philology, scarce a word can be 
found that cannot be traced by plain rules to some like word 
with us. Not only are the simple words made like ours, but 
their compounds also — and often when least expected. Thus, 
German ver-nehmen is per-take, precisely as per-ceive (ceive = 
capio, take), ge-walt, pre-vail (<7e=pre), g4auben, be-lieve (^= 
be), un-schuld, in-nocence, ob-ject, vor-werp, {ject and werp 
both equal throw). 

Dutch Etymology, 

576. The Dutch has most of its words practically identical 
with German, making allowance &r the replacement of some 
letters by their nearest relatives. There are, however, many 
words which bear a greater resemblance for English. Aside 
from the words which in their form are plainly Germ, or Eng., 
very few indeed can be found — and even those few can be 
brought near us by close examination. 

We select only a few Dutch words, enough merely to give an 
idea of the manner in which the Dutch orthography compares 
with English and German. 


** * i.kiiii -irinu. 
II (. « . Uh. 

H » «. 1 i 

tt * . ii .. :. \»!huM, 

H . »*.-. U ■. IM. 

M ^, ti. 

I -•■»(» • -. rnm, tikir. 

It, ..^ 

I ' . . !\'n\ (i 'ii'irfw. 

r.i.. 1 1 •!' •*». llivl. 

I.. . c ■ ». Ml^V.l. 
I . ■ I . • .« |V»- \l*ll. 
I I ' .»■ *: ill »;\«. J'U*'*^. 
I .I..-. :. I II- 1 .:':•. ••, tllko, vat, 
\^••.^^•|. lli'lil \iis{. 

\ it^, \ar.-tni'\ . 

/ if /.>.'/•< /(, oil I li>|to, olo|)t>. 

y't Ac /(, >i,mt, (uLrii. 

Sti'Ot, pllMll, i«. Afl'M, ttip. 
iNV«i/r, .stiMul, <«. i(Kt\tt. 

Sfni(nif\ il. j(/'(ir, Into. 
iS\7*fy»/*f'/i, hliaito, I*. Mhitjfrn, 
/h>(>A', (i. /'(fi/r/4, hiiuiko. 
/V/y, (I. f>fii\/t, 
Sint, (J. »rhf(tsn, liK'k. 

Z'M'Z. 8WeCl. ii. fUA. 

.S'7f*'W«vi. ail. ■ 
.Va^ measn 
A'"/-, liiuk. ibttui-. 
Schuir. RhoTe. diair. k i 

if //'(/.. dhiuej. blink, ink; 

Zarr/. Icuve. let. 

Sfhif/m, Hhell. pare. pEn. » 

paratc. de-cide. 
T>fy. wijie. fiweep. 
T7/<f/. flv, fled. 
Ge-uiif. < enjcrr ]. me. aoei. 
Brand, roast. 
B^ziy. buFT. 'use. 
Kwaad. bad. woxse. 
/i/*-/« iVi. be-lead. ocm-dvBL 
Rogfff. rye. 
A'lWi. ask. 

AV, there, G. ^a. door. 
0/t-hoogcn. np-bigli. xaae. 
J/oot, ( fioej, prenr vJibor). 
Be-ioop. be-mn. conxse. 
Bt'-l/even. p-leaee. 
JJoutj wood. G. ilioZr. 
AVy, irk, grieve, w-orafc, < 

(iryern^ L. j^ty:. 

Pa Utah Eti/mology, 

Aahiir^ open. 

vlr/y, yoke. 

Arif/cr, UHury, frain. 

Aand^ C^liost), L. animu. 

AarCy artery, car, f^raiii. 

Aarsag^ Germ, uhr-narh. 

Ad'/aenJj de-port,ya€r(/= fer- 
ry, carriage. 

Ad-gang^ ac-cess, to-go, gang'^ 
cess, both = go. 

Ad'Skilt, (separate), ad-split. 

Ad'VarCf ad-warn, warn. 

A/-/ordre, re-quire- 
A/'kran-c, 'quire ctxt*. 
Af-ragfi, shave, raie. 
A/-Htige, step-up. \(2/ « cr\ . 
A/-tt'gney de-sign. 
Agt, thought, act. 
AgteUcy esteem. 
Ai-mrt^Hy common, 
il//, all J Aldhriy^ (neTcr). 
An-give, in-dicate. 
An-ledning^ in-ducement, M 
equals duce, had. 



^n-namme, re-ceive, take. 
^f»-raa56, call-to, (German 

JLr, scar, seam. 
JLrheidey work, operate. 
jirt, sort, race. 
£ange, 'fraid, anxious. 
JBanke, beat, spank. 
JBare, bare, mere, pure, but, 

only, fore.- 
Sarin, breast. 
' Bam, (child), bom, boy, babe. 
i?c-5o6,i (dwell), L. vivo, Ger. 

wohnen, a-bode. 
Be-breide, re-proaoh, up-braid. 
Bede, beg, Germ, beten, 
Be-drag, fraud, be-tray. 

Be-domme, deem, esteem. 

Beesk, bitter. , 

Be-fatte, contain, vat. 
Be-gave, en-dow, g, d. 

Be-^egne, meet, engage. 

Be-giaere, desire, 'grudge. 

Be-^rihe, ap-prebend, grab. 

Be-greb, Ger. be-griff, com-pre- 
hend, grasp, (idea). 

Be-graede, re-gret, grieve. 

Be-Jior, depend, co-here. 

Be-kiende, own, know. 

Be-klaede, clothe. 

Be-Iee, laugh-at. 

Be-moie, molest, move. 

Be-qvem, be-come, con-venient. 

Be-rette, (advise), G. rath. 

Be-sked, share, de-cide. 

Be-skue, view, a-skew, 

Be-slutte, conclude. 

Be^iene, at-tend, 6€ = at. 

Be-troe, intrust. 

Be-tjp/k, press, t, p. 

Be-tyde, be- tide, be-token. 

Be-undre, wonder-at. 

Be-vant, usual, w6nt. 

Be-vare, pre-serve, guard. 

Be-vi%8, show, device. 

^ We notice prefix be in Danish, 

Bi-kuhe, hive, coop. 
B-lik, look, bl, 1. 
B-Uve, leave. 
B'lok, log, block. 
Bht, but, bare. 
Bo, a-bode, house. 
Bolle, bowl, swell. 
Borge, borrow. 
Brage, crack, crash. 
B-rase, roast. 

Brede, broad, spread, strew. 
Brev, letter, card, G. brief. 
Bro, bridge. 

Brug, use, G. branch, bru, u. 
Bruse, roar. 
Bryn, brim, brow. 
Braende, burnt. 
Brok, break, fraction. 
Bulder, bustle. 
Bund, bottom, soil. 
By tie, (change), L. muto. 
Baekken, basin, beaker. 
Baelg, hull, shell, peel. 
Bode, patch. 
B'dlge, billow. 
Bor, barrow. 
Bosse, 'buss, box. 
Daad, deed. 
JDaare, (fool), G. narr. 
Danne, (form), do, G. thun. 
Deel, G. iheil, deal. 
Digt, fiction. 
Diaerv, hard, rude. 
Drage, drag, draw. 
Dragt, draught. 
Dreie, turn. 
Dukke, duck, dip. 
Dulme, slumber. 
Dyd, virtue, good. 
Dyrt, dearly. 
Dblge, con-ceal. 
Dbmrae, deem. 
Eensome, on-ly, lonensome. 
Eg, edge; Egen, own. 
Enig, united, one. 
not appearing sometimes with us. 



Er-fare^ ex-periment, prove, 

ex-pert, erfahren, 
Ermdre, warn, wonder. 
Faae, G. /angen, get, aa, an. 
Faa, few, It.paucvs. 
Fad J dish, vat. 
Falde, fall. 
Falky falcon. 
Fahk, false. 
Fare, peril, fare, go. 
Fatte, fasten, fetch. 
Favn, fathom. 
Fegte, fight, fence. 
Fell, fault, fail. 
Finde, (think), feel, find. 
Fiaele, veil, con-ceal. 
Flere, more, L. plure, pi, m. 
Flig, fly, flap. 
Flid, ap-ply. 
Flyde, flow, fly, fleet. 
For-andre, other, alter, 
Forske, search, in-quire. 
For-staae, under-stand. 
For-syn, fore-sight. 
F-red, rest, Q^ffriede, 
Fremmed, foreign, Gr, fremd, 

strange, from. 
FuldJuW,- Id, 11. 
Fynd, force, nd, r, ( under = ' 

over = ver = for). 
Gal, wild. 
Gavn, gain. 
Gide, like, choose. 
Gierde, hurdle, yard. 
Gigt, gout. 
Gior, do, kar, chore, 'pare; old 

North gera^fa£ andpar'. 
Glimre, glitter. 
Gloe, gaze, look, glore. 
Green, branch, Gr. Grenz, 
Griin, grin, L. rideo. 
Grue, dread. 
Grov, gross, coarse. 
Guul, Gr, gelb, yellow. 
Hah, (neck), hall, channel. 
Han, (male), he, one. 

Handle, deal, handle. 

Hede, (call), G. hem, quot 

Heelt, wholly. 

Heft, hilt, handle. 

Hegn, hedge, fence. 

Hegte, hook. 

Hekkc, hatch. 

Hemme, stop, hem. 

Hen-syn, re-spect, seen. 

Hevn, avenge. • 

Hex, witch. 

Hidme, comer, horn. 

Hivl, wheel, Sw. hjul. 

Hoved, head. 

Hoppe, hop. skip, jump. 

Hoveri, average. 

Hugge, hew, haggle. 

Hoi, hill, high. 

Hdvl, level, heaver. 

Jdel, only, eet a one, etlich, 

Ilde, ill. 

lid, (fire), zeal. 

lie, hurry, G. eilen, 1, r. 

Jage, chase. 

Jorde, bury, earth. 

Kaahe, cloak, cape. 

JTaa*, course. 

j^a^, calling. 

J^aZA;, cup, chalice. 

Karm, frame, form. 

Karrig, chary, spare. 

Kielder, cellar, cell. 

Kiende, known, 'quaint. 

Kind, cheek, chin. 

Kiaede, chain, G. kette. 

Kibh, buy, kaufen, k, b. 

Klavre, clamber, climb. 

Klogt, wit, look, klug. 

Knap, close, narrow, tight. 

Knuh, knob, stump. | 

Koge, cook. 

KogU, juggle, k, j. 

Kone, wife, queen. 

Knegt, (servant), knave. 

Krog, corner, crook, hook. 

Krum, curved. 



JE^^itty (biit), on-ly, Ger. tchon. 
JSZcLempery champion, combat, 

JLtddt^ let, al-low. 
JOtCLd^ lazy. 
^ JLtahe^ lick, lap. 
JOedy (gate), lead. 
JLtedig^ lazy, leisure. 
JOee^ Iflugh, L. rw', 1,. r. 
-Erie, (bed), L. lect\ lay. 
jLtide^ (suffer), lot, L. latum, 
lyigge, lie. 
JLov^ (praise), laud. 
Lue^ flame, 1, fl. «» 
Lure^ lufk, lure. 
LuJeke^ c-lose, lock. 
Lj/de^ (sound), loud, lute. 
•Lys^, de-light, lust. 
Laene^ (prop), lean. 
Lbhe^ flow, run. 
Jdaal, mete, mark. 
^fige, matcli, make. 
J^agt, might. 
Jdandbar, (marriageable), i e. 

Mangel^ want. 
^at, faint, G. miide. 
Max&r^ meager. 
J^edlem^ member, with, med, 

mete, end. 
^eierei, dairy, G. MeiereL 
^eldm^ mention. 
-^cnwc«A;«, man, G. fnensch. 
^^gel, marl. 
-^<[n</c, memory, mind. 
-^w-Aoye, dis-gust. 
-^'^^y (spirit), mind, mood. 
-^o</m€, mature. 
j^o>, mellow, 1, r. 
•^Oflf/e, (grace), kind. 
j^«a^, needle, nail. 
"^«e, near, 1 each. 
v^^f^, name, renown. 
^<^i7<e, de-ny, L. tie^^o. 
^^mc, memory, from ne^men, 
take. t 


Nidsk^ niggard. 
iN^ysc, sneeze. 
Naeb, beak, nib. 
Naere, nourish. 
Naes, cape, (point), nose. 
iVo/e, nice. 
iVo/e, de-lay. 
iVbVZe, urge, force, need. 
Om-hytte^ per-mute. 
Om-hylle, en-velop. 
Ondy ill, bad. 
Op'Stille, set-up, still. 
Ordj word ; Orm, worm. 
Pant, pawn. 
Passe, fit, suit, pass. 
jPcen, fine. 
Penge, coin, penny. 
Perse, press. 
PiV^, pick, cull, pillage. 
Pindy pin, peg. 
Plads, place. 
P/cie, (care), ap-ply. 
P/e^, blot. 

Pose, bag, budget, purse. 
Prale, brag, brawL 
Prm, price, praise. 
Prygl, club, cudgel, drub. 
Pd7, pool, puddle. 
'Past, blow, brush. 
Raa, raw, crude. 
Raage, rook, raven. 
i?af/e, shave. 
Rank, right, e-rect. 
Ramme, frame. 
Ra>sk, quick, rash, brisk. 
Reen, neat, clean. 
Regne, reckon. 
Ret, right, reason, G. rath. 
Rette, correct, straight. 
Rfft, rent, cleft. 
Binge, poor, cringe, G. ge-nngy 

Roes, praise, r, pr. 
Rude, rue. 
Ruge, brood, 
.fiitu, rude, raw. 



i?y, rumor. 
Rydde^ void, rid. 
Ri/g^ back, ridge. 
Ri/ge^ smoke, reek. 
Ryk, tug. 
Ryste^ toss, rush. 
Red^ af-raid. 
RaehJce^ reacli, stretch. 
Rbre^ stir, brisk. 
R'or^ reed, seed. 
Rove^ rob. 
Rost^ voice, roar. 
JSaare, hurt, wound. 
&'a^^e, soft. 
iSai^, sale ; Sal, hall. 
jSaZt;6, volley. 
Sandj sure, sound, safe. 
Sunds, sense. 
Sandt, sound, certainly. 
Si'ge, say, 

SiJcJce, sure, secure. 
£izne^, sense, mind. 
Sinke, hinder. 
Skadcy hurt, scath. 
Skaffe, get, G. schafftn. 
Skandse, sconce.* 
£i^a^, tax. 

Skiende, chide, scold. 
Skifte^ part, shift. 
Skin, shine. 
Skiaere, carve. 
Skiaerpe, sharpen. 
Skiaev, (crooked), skew. 
Skion, (fair), shine. • 
Skov, wood, grove. 
Skose, scoff, s, f. 
Skraa, skew. 
Skride, stride. 
Skrigj cry, shriek. 
Skrive, write. 
Skud, shoot. 
Skvffe, (cheat), shuffle. 
Skugge, shade. 
Slag, blow, slay. 
Slet, little, slight, light, Germ. 

Sh'g, like, such. 

Slikke, lick, sleek. 

iS%, gulph. 

Slutte, close, shut. 

Slaegt, class, sect. 

Smaa, small. 

Snabel, snout. 

Snappe, snatch, map. 

iSwar, rapid, smart. 

£i7itV, cut, slice, slit. 

Snu, sly, cunning. 

Snyder, cutter, cheat, <fiss« 

and cA. 
fiior^, scwow. 
Sove, sleep, L. iomnia. 
Sparke, spurn. 
Spedenc, dis-patoh. 
Speide, spy. 
Sperre, bar, em-bar. 
Spidse, peak, speck. 
iSpi?, play, sport. 
Sprog, speech, G'k log(A, 
Spaende, span. 
Sted, step, spot. 
Stemmc, tune, G. thtfRflie. 
/S^t'A;, stitch, stick. 
Stille, still, place. 
Stoppe, stop, stuff. 
Straal, ray, str, r. 
Storme, rage, roar. 
/S^nfcf, strife. 
Stunde, tend. 
Sturte, hurl, start, 
^^oc?, stab, thrust, shock. 
iS'uA;, sigh, sob, k, g, b. 
Stoi, stir. 

S-vag, weak, faint, sv, w. 
Svare, an-swer, (s)word. 
Svamp, sponge. 
Svaere, move, hover, 
Synes, seem, seen. 
Saert, strange, forth. 
Sod, sweet, G. sUss, 
S'Sge, seek, search, ask. 
S'olv, silver. 
Somme, seam, hem, s, h. 



SSrge^ grieve, <»re. 
Taage, fog, t, f. 
Taam, tower. 
2'ah^ damage. 
Tag, thatch. 
Tapper, hrave, stout. 
TarVf (need), dare, dearth. 
Teguj sign, token. 
Tigger, beggar, t, b. 
^'(/aeZc^e, ac-cident, bothss 

fall, fall-to. 
Til-rette, a-right, to-right. 
IHrre, stir, irritate. 
Tot, ton, t, n. 
Tour, turn. 
Frane, crane, t, o. 
Trang, strait, narrow. 
Traeffe, hit, strike, f, k. 
Tra^ge^ press^ throng, 
^ro^^, tired. 
Traette, strife, tr, str. 
Taekke,XQOYex), deck. 

JZW^, tight, thick. 
TorkCf drought. 
Ud-drag, out-draw, ex-tract. 
Undrtage, ex-ccpt. 
Urt, wort, herb. 
Vakker, vigorous. 
Vakle, wiggle, totter. 
Vanke, wander. 
Ven, friend, Vj fr. 
to- Verden, world, earth. 
Vente, wait, want. 
Vide, (know), see, L. vid^, 
Vinde, win, gain. 
Vise, see, show, v, s. 
Void, force, G. toalt, 
Vred, wrath. 
Vride, wreath, wring. 
Vaelge, cull, pull, pohl. 
Vaen, fine. 
Vaev, web, wf ave. 
Tde, yield. 

Yngel, (brood), young, en-gen- 

Tj/sse, quiet, q, t. 

In Banish, as in German, we have selected for comparison 
words which vary most from their corresponding English or 
German ; a vast majority of Danish words are* either identical 
with English or German, or they diflFer from them by unimpor- 
tant variations. What words cannot be identified with one or 
the other of these two languages, constitute an extremely small 

The general oast of the Danish, as of the Swedbh orthogr*- 
phy, is far more English than German. 

Latin Etymology. 


Acies, ax, adz, sharp. 

JBg-er, sick, grief. 

^stimo, esteem. 

jEta^, age, state, (^JEkale), 

jEvum, age, v, g. 

Ager, (field), acre. 

Ag-gero, heap, herd, crowd. 

Ago, do, act, g, d. 

Aio^ say. 

Albu^, white, blank, pale 

Ala, fly, wing, fl, w. 

A'les, light. 

Alius, other, else. 

Alter, other, alter. 

Alte, (high), loft. 

Amo, love, friend, m, 1, v. 

Ant-plus, ample, full. 

Ango, strangle, anguish. 

Anma, mind, nm, mn. 



Annus, year, ring, n, r, — a 
or an, am, usually prefix. 

Aperio, open, cover. • 

A'pex, point, peak. 

A'pes, bee. 

Ap-paro, appear. 

Ap'pello, peal, call. 

Apt-U8, fit, apt. 

A-qua, water. 

Aquila, eagle, q, g. 

Arb'Or, tree, rb, tr. 

Arceo, keep, guard, bar. 

Ard-ens, burn-ing. 

Ard-uu8, hard, high. 

Argen-tum, silver, ore. 

A-ries, ram. 

Aro, ear, till, r, 1. 

Ars, art, virtue, force. 

Arvum, plow (r, 1), com. 

Arx, ridge. 

Artus, joint, part. 

J[«per, harsh, hard, sharp, se- 
vere; At T=hut. 

Ater, black, fatal, dark. 

Atr-ox, dark, cruel, dire. 

Aud-eo, dare. 

Aud-io, hear, ear, d, r. 

Aitgeo, wax, make (ago). 

Aula, hall. 

Auris, ear. 

-^Mr-MWi, gold, ore, l^T, also 

Barba, beard, b, d. 

Beat-US, bless-ed, b, bl. 

Belle, pretty, well, bl, pr. 

BeU-um, war, bl, wr. 

Bene, well, very. 

Benign-US, kind. 

Bon-um, good, bn, gd. 

Bov-e, cow, b, c. 

Brev-is, brief, short 

Boo, bellow, low. 

Brach-ium, branch, arm. 

Bulla, babble. 

Ca-do, shed, fall, go. 

Csecus, se-cret, close, (blind). 

Csel-um, (heaven), hell, Fr. 

ciel, wclk-in, cli-mate. 
Cal-amus, stalk, quill. 
Cal-co, (tread), walk. 
Calid-us, scald, bold. 
Calix, cup, hollow. 
Calror, warmth, scald, el, wr. 
CaU-us, hard, cl, hr. 
Calx, heel, cl, h. 
Candeo, shine, c, sh. 
Can-is, Gr. hund, dog, hound, 

as bon' tst good. 
Can-o, sing, sound, sink, chant, 

Can-US, (white), shine. 
Cap-ax, keep, hold, i. e. large, 

Capijo, take, catch; haheo^= 

Caput, head. Go. haubith, A-S. 

hea/od (heap, high). 
Capra, goat, Fr. chevr. 
Car^bo, coal, r, 1. 
Car-cer, (prison), bar, capio. 
Car-eo, (lack), scarce, spare. 
Car-men, poem, work. 
Carpo = capio, carve. 
Car-US, dear, c, d. 
Casa, house, case. 
Caste, chaste. 
Castigo, chastize. 
Casus, case. 
Cauda, tail, d, 1. 
Caveo, heed, care, v, d. 
Caulis, stalk. 

Cavo, scoop, cage, coop, v, p. 
Cavus, hollow, cave, v, 1. 
Cedo, go, yield. 
Cekr, fleet, Ger. schneUj Celt. 

Cel-sus, tall, (altus), 
Cen-seo, think. 
Cera, wax, seal. 
Cer-no, see, cut. 
Certe, sure, rt, r. 
CertOf try. 



CervuSy hart. 
CeS'So, cease, go. 
Cieo, in-cite, stir. 
CivitaSy (civitate), state. 
Cla-mo, call, SaDS. kal, kirad^ 

Sans. A;/rflrp = sound, rap, 

strike, clap, (club), cling. 
Claudo, close. 
Clavi8y 'lock, key, close. 
Cle-po, con-ceal. 
Cognit'USy 'quaint, known. 
Colo, till, c, t. 
Co'lumba, dove, 1, d. 
CoUum, (neck), G. Aafo, hill. 
Co-mis y meek, mild. 
Con-oTj can, S. can, G'k kon-eo, 
Com-^ij horn. 
Corona, crown. 
Corpus, corpse, (body). 
Cortex, bark, rind. 
Cor, heart, cour-age. 
Cremo, burn, (wro). 
Crco, grow, form, S. kar, 
Crepo, crack, creak, rattle, 

jingle, rustle, etc. 
Cruor, hlood, stream, gore, 

Crudwtj raw, Sax. hreaw. 
Cudo, beat, cuff. 
Culpa, fault, Ger. schuld, 
Oupio, wish, hope, San. kup. 
Cuprum, copper. 
Curro, run, hurry. Sans, dra, 

Germ, tragen, Gr'k drad, 

Currus, carriage, chariot, car, 

cart, coach. 
Cursus := currus, (course). 
Cygn^-uB, swan. 
Demo, take, Ger. nehmen. 
Dens, tooth, (dent). 
De7is-us, thick, dense. 

Dexter, right, d, r. 

Di'Co, say, show, do. 

Dign-ns, deign. 

Dts, rich, d, r. 

Do, give, dah-at, gave. 

Doceo, teach. 

Domr-us, home, d, h. 

i>o«, dowry, gift. 

jDw^ro, lead, d, 1. 

Dukis, sweet, Ic, s, G. «ite«, 

(duce), dear, 1, r. 
Dur-us, hard, d, h. 
Ebur, ivory. 
jE^o, go, walk, be. 
Equus, horse, q, h. 
Erro, rove, err, roam. 
Esca, eat, meat. 
E'Veho, con-vey 
E-vul-sum, pull, pluck. 
Ex-piro,^ breathe, ex-pire- 
Fa-cio, do, make, fashion. 
jPaZ^o, gull, slide. 
jPar, corn. 

Ferio, strike, Fr. f rapper* 
Fero, carry, bear, brood. 
Ferrum, iron, f, i. 
Ferus, wild, fierce, r, L 
Fides, faith. 
Filrum, thread, 1, r. 
Fin-is, end, bound, f, e. 
Flagrum, flog, lash, flame. 
Fko, be-wail, flow. 
Flo, blow. 
Flos, (flor), flower. 
Forts, door. 
Fortis, hardy, strong. 
Frango, (fract), hreak. 
Fremo. roar, fr, r. 
Frigidus, fresh, rigid. 
Fuga, flight, f, fl. 
Fugo, c\iVi^Q,Q[,jagen, 
Fundus, land, ground. 

^Tbe prefix z is a form of « or f«; tbu8, ezpiro := spiro, or espiro, ex* 
punge K 'spunge, extent =r stent, s-tretch, «a;-^0r = 8-trange, ez-vde=s 
8-weat. So, we may redace other prefixes to mere ordinary initial 



Funus, pomp, f, p. 
Futilis, foolish, ftl, fl. 
GaUina, hen, Hi, i. 
Gannio, whine, moan. 
Gaudium^ioj^ d,j, and glad, 

gl» g- . 
Gemini, twins. 
Gemo, groan, moan. 
Gens, kindred, gent. 
Genus, a kind. 
Gero =/ero, wear. 

Gigno, en-gender, gain, get. 
GUba, clod, lump. 
Glutino, glue. 
Gradus, de*gree, grade. 
Gramen^ grass. 
Gravis, heavy, S. gur, gr, h, 

grave, dear, bear. 
Grex, herd, crowd, g, h. 
Hsed-u$, kid, goat. 
Hah, in-hale, blow. 
Haurio, draw, hr, dr. 
Helix, coil. 

HUaris, glad, (hlar, hlad). 
JUio, gape, yawn. 
Homo, man, hm, m. 
Ilumilis, mean, small. 
Jaceo, lie. Sans, yic^, Grennan 

Jffc/o, SB jaceo, (throw, cast). 

Iro, str-ike, sm-ite. 

Ignis, 1-ight, fire. 

Iter, route, road. 

Inanis, vain. 

Juheo, bid, jb, b. 

Jmficium^ (Jhhih), Saxon d<h 

mo. doom, judg-ment. 
Jugrrumy acre. 
Jugum^ yoke, unite. 
Jungo, join, yoke. 
Jiirw, right, jur, r. 
JiirrNi$« voung, jv, yu. 
*/»r-o, aid, V, d. 
X(i&or« slip, 1, si. 
Xo4or, o-pera, work. 

Lapis, (lapid), G'k 2aa«, sUmB, 
lpd=ls=s8l, fitjlapssax- 
um, rock. 

Lacer, tear, rent. 

Lac, milk, lo, mlk. 

Lev-is, light, sleek. 

Lat'us, wide, broad, as to 
from /ero = &U'. 

Lat-us, side, coast, waist. 

Lav-o, wash, la, wa. 

Xc^o, read, G'k log\ Ig, rf. 

Lenis, gentle, 1, g. 

Zf^vo, lift, help, light 

Lex, (leg), law, lay. 

Liber, free. 

ii&cr, book, G'k hiblm, Ib- 
bl, br, fr. 

Lxbo, lick, slip. 

Libra, (weigh), bear; K, 7, oft- 
en takes place of a prefix. 

Lign-um, (ignis), log^ wood. 

Ligo, tie, bind, Ig, t, b. 

Lingua, tongue, 1, d, t. 

Linum, linen, flax. 

Loco, place, 1, pL 

Lo-quor, quoth, (speak). 

Luceo, light, shine. 

LuJo, p-lay. 

L%imen, light. 

Lupus, wolf, Ip, If. 

Luna, moon, month, 1, m. 

Lutum, loam, t, a. 

Mac-ula, spot, speck. 

Msd-eo, mobt, G. noit. 

Hag-nus, much, major. 

Maje^asy G'k mcyecAM, migla^^> 

JUale, ill, m, L 

Malum, apple, melon. 

.^an-iw, hand. 

ifor^, water, r, tr. 

Margo, border. 

Jierces^ hire, re-ward. 

Mcreo, earn, merit 

JKefo, mow. 

Jdi-^ro^ more. 



Mlt'is^ meek, sweet, m, 0. 

Mitto, 8eod. 

Molesy bulk, mass. 

Mollis, mild, plain* 

Mora, delay, tarry. 

M08, mode, way. 

Moveo, G'k moged, Sflns. mo^, 

Ger. wegen, much, 
ii^to, change, tarn. 
Mun-u» SB c^oniint. 
Morior,^ murder, S. mar. 
NidtLs, nest. 
Niger, (ater), dark. 
JVbo?, night, {nocte), 
Nudus, naked. 
Nuhes, cloud, G. }fo2%^. 
JVttTtten, nod, (ntUci), 
Oleo, smell. 
Omn-is, all, mn, 11. 
O'pera, work, S. ifear. 
0-p€«, power. 
Or6, circle. 
Orior=»9UTgo, rise. 
Oro, preach, (speak). 
Otium, ease. 
Oi;.ww, egg, V, g. 
Os, mouth, oral. 
JPab-tUum, food. 
Pango, strike, spank. 
Par, (even), pair. 
Par-cuB, spare. 
Pti,rlo, bring, bear. 
Partus, birth, (brought). 
jPar-vi/s, spare, short. 
Pa-SCO, feed. 
jPateo, open ] Pauci, few. 
jRoroeo, fear; Pax, peace. 
Pect-us, chest, breast. 
Pejor, worse, p, w. 
PeUis, felt, pelt, 
^e^o, drive, pi, dr. 

Pendo, weigh, hang. 
Pen-na, pen, feather, fin, wing, 

G*k ptenos:^ 
Penso, ponder, think. 
Pet'O, seek, beg, beat, bid. 
Pign-vs, pawn. 
Pingo, paint, picture. 
Pinguis, fat. 
Pisc-is, fish. 
Plaga, blow, flog. 
P/e68, folk, people. 
P/iM, more, pi, pi, r. 
Pono, put, place, lay, set. 
Porta, door, p, d. 
Pot-ens, power, t, w. 
Premo, press, San. pare, Gr'k 

prassorra do, form. 
Prendo, grab, pr, gr. 
Pretium, price, worth. 
Pro-cul, far. 
JVer, boy, born, as na/i«9 (born) 

means son. 
Pug-no, fight. 
Pulso, beat. 
Pukher, Fr. 5«S«, ^a«, jolly, 

Qumro, search. 
Quatio, shake, jog, quash. 
Radix, root. 
Rado, scrape, razor. 
Rapio, take, (capio), rob, grab, 

Ger. rawft. It. ra«o, rap^ 

tus, ravished. 
Ratio, reason, cause, occasion. 

It. cagione sa cause, from 

reor = say, reckon. 
Rego, rule, g, 1. 
Res, (thing), reason, read. 
Rete, net, snare. 
Rege, king, (r, k), G'k archos, 

San. ra/, Per. sha, queen. 

>-In some of these words, m is a mere silent prefix for us, in others it 
exuals A, w, t. 

'We must here remind the student that the parts of words are like 
the parts of animals, so intimately oonnected together, that cut as 
you will, you are sure to take more or less than belongs to the part. 



Rigor, cold, hard, rg, rd. 

RCdeo^ laugh, r, 1. 

Rite, right, rect-us. 

Rixa, strife. 

Robur, power. 

Rogo, crave, ask. 

Rota, Fr. roue, wheel, r. w. 

Ruber, red, ruddy, 

Rudls, rude, fresh. 

Ruga, c-raniple, w-rinkle. 

Ruo, rush, run. 

Ruptus. broken, burst, and rip, 

Ssevio, rage, fierce. 
Sngitta, sbaflb, gt, ft. 
Sag-um, sack, frock, jacket. 
Sagus, wise, w, s. 
Sulio, leap, skip, si, hi, 1. 
Saliva, slaver, spit. 
Salve, hail, s, h. * 

Salm, health, sound. 
Salvus, safe, heal, holy. 
Sanguis, blood, sap. 
Sano, heal, whole, sound. 
Sapio, savor, taste. 
Sax-um, rock,' s, r. 
Scalpo, scratch, carve, claw, 

Scopus, shank, shaft. 
Scelus, villainy, sc, v. 
Scio, (know), sage, see. 
Sci-tus, skill, civil. 
Scribo, write, sc, w. 
Sculpo, scalp, carve. 
Seco, (sco), cut, gnaw, saw, S. 

sagh, G'k ago, 
Sella, seat, saddle. 
Semen, seed, m, d. 
Sero, sow, strew, r, w. 
Serp-o, creep, spread. 
Servo, save, guard, care. 
Severus, serious, sober. 
Sider'y star. 

Signum, sign, token. 
Silex, flint, s, f. 
Silva, holt, G. holz, 
SoUd'Us, It. sodo, soand. 
SoUvo, loose, b1, Is. 
Somnus, (sleep), dream. 
Son-o, sound, ring. 
Sop'Or, sleep, s, si. 
Sors, lot, fortune. 
Spar-go, stre-w, spr-ead. 
Species, shape, fashion. 
Spes, hope, s, h. 
Spero, hope, trust. 
Spiro, breathe, savor, Sanscrit 

spar, live, spread. 
SptS'Sus, thick, sp, th. 
Splendid*, hxight, liQhtf spa= 

b, spl = 1. 
Spum-a, foam, sp, f. 
Stat'uo, stand,. set, sit. 
Stern-o, strew, spread. 
Stipula, stubble. 
Stirps, stalk, st^m, root. 
Strideo, crack, roar. 
Stult-us, fool, silly, sot. 
Surgo, rise, grow. 
Sus,^ swine, sow. 
TabeUa, tablet. 
Tact-US, touch, S. tag^ thigd. 
Tardus, slack, slow. 
Tect-us, hid, deck-ed. 
Tectum, house, G. dach, Gr'k 

stegos, thatch, deck. 
Tehim, dart, 1, r. 
Temp-US, time, mp, m. 
Tendo, stretch, spread. 
Teneo, hold, keep, t, k, find, 

Tento, tempt, try. 
Tener, tender, thin, fine, nice, 

Tero, rub, break, thrash, bray, 

wear, waste. 

^ The main point to be kept in view in -regard to t, is that it equals h, 
and often disappears entirely — that, besides, it is allied with c, e. 



Tefra^ earth. < =3 vowel often, 

or disappears. 
Tergum, ridge, G. riick, 
Tepeo^ hot, tp, ht. 
Testis^ G. Zeichniss, evidence, 

show, de-sign. 
Texoj weave, knit, net, (t, w), 

web, make. 
TimeOj fear, dread, t, f, v. 
Tollo, lift, S. ttd, G'k talao, 
Tond-eo, S. tud, cut, shear. 
Tono, sound, thunder. 
Torqueo, twist, turn, writhe, S, 

dhurv, curve. 
Torreo, toast, roast, parch. 
Trahs^ beam, tree, G. haum, 
TracUOi treat, touch, tact, 
Tradoj (=do), give, trd, d. 
Trahoj draw, drag, bring, force, 

stretch, wrest, drink* 
Trepidiu, tremble. 
Tristisj harsh, cruel, dark, sor- 
ry, Go. gaurs. 
Trudo, thrust, push. 
Tueor, see, look, view. 
Tutus^ safe, total, whole, sound. 

Vacuum^ void. 

Val^ns, able, force, 'vail. 

Veho, (ve-^o), carry, draw, drag, 

(go, cause- to-go). 
Velloy pull, pluck, tug. 
VeniOf come, go, went, 7, c. 
Venor, hunt, v, h. 
Verto, turn, borrow. 
VestiSy G'k esthoSj ge-wand. 
VetuSy past, old. 
Video, see, view, vision. 
Vigil, waking, watch, see. 
Vincio, bind, tie, v, b. 
Violo, force, vl, fr. 
Vir, (man), first, former, fore, 

as man «= one, hero. 
Vireo, fresh, green, strong. 
Virtus, virtue, force, courage, 

heart, value. 
Vith, life, V, 1. 
Vivo, live, dwell, v, dw. 
Unguis, nail, claw, ng, nl. 
Volo, will, fly, wish. 
Uro, burn, grieve, tease, Sans. 

MS, pr-ns. 
Vuitus, look, face. 

We have selected from among the most difficult words for 
comparison, and we have taken a large share, but by no means 
all of them. Few words can be found in Latin which are not 
Represented in the English and German languages. In most 
instances, the variation is very slight, often notfe at all. Of in- 
stances where the differences are greatest, illustrations have just 
*>een given in our parallel columns. It is worthy of note that 
*^J, or nearly all, of the endings, case, personal, adjective, verb- 
5|j and noun, are generally the same in Latin, German, and 
^nglish ; so, too, are the compound verbs, as they are called 
(really those which have developed representatives of preposi- 
tions in their initial letters), made of like elements.' Even 
^here the difference between two words is great, yet having the 
sanje meaning, as ignis and fire, somnus and sleep, audio and 
^«»*, peUo and drive, ago and do, those words have still, in 
""^•^glish, forms like them in some other parts of speech, as som- 
T^^^^nt, audience, compel, igneous, act. These latter words have 
^^eu claimed to be Latin words, but they are no more Latin 
^^rcis than nine tenths of the English — they are English 
^'or^g as much as there are such. We hence deduce the infer- 



ence, that though we may not often find the parallel so clear in 
the precise equivalent^of the Latin, we will generally find it in 
some related word. 

Greek Etymology, 

AiniUy hlood, L. sanguis, flow, 

str-eam, criior. 
Aimulos, mild, (at prefix). 
Aine^ fame, 1-aud. 
Ainos, {deinos), dire. 
Alx, goat, hsed'Us. 
Aiolos, fleet. 
Aiposy"^ height, d-eep. 
'Aireoy g-ripe, rob, take, kill, 

r, 1, de-stroy, G. sterben, 

Aisso, rush, w-az. 
Aiskos, shame, (at prefix). 
Aiskune, shame, ab-ash. 
Aiteo, s-eek, ask. 
AitWy c-ause, c-ase, Lat. ratio, 

Ger. r-ath, 
Aion, L. evum, time. 
A'kan-os, thorn, pin, spin. 
Ake,^ point, edge. 
Ake, silence, L. t-aceo. 
A'koue, sound, still, k, s. 
A-koud, L. audio, hear. 
Aktin, light, fl-ash. 
Alale, howl, yell. 
Ala-OS^ b-lind, 'look. 
Ala-omai, walk, Fr. otter. 
Algos, ache, anguish. 
A-lego, reckon, read, 1, r. 
Alio, ro-11. 
Alke, strength, 1, r, valor, 

Alla-sso, alter. 

1 Note that a is in Greek a very common prefix, or augment, without 

'Note that o«, on, a, 6, mai, and others, are endings that with us are 
generally suppressed. 

^AkiSf akte, akon, akron, akone, akoke, akmi, aichme, are forms of 
this Ake, and they give a good idea of the manner in which derivative 
forms arise generally. 


A'holos, foal, colt. 

Aga-mai, awe, adm-ire. 

A-gath-os, good, (kales'). 

A-gallo, brilliant, light. 

A-geiro, crowd, herd. 

Ageli, herd, flock, g, h. 

Age^ awe, 1-ook. 

Age, b-reak, wave, g, v. 

Agkale, (elbow), ankle, arm, 
branch, crook, break. 

Agk-os, cr-ack, cleft. 

Agkur, h-ook, anchor. 

A-glaos, {agallo), gleam, bril- 
liant, Ger. glanz. 

Ag-mos, br-eak, bank. 

Agn-os, G. rein, cl-ean. 

A-greo, grab, (aired), 

Aguia, way. 

Angko, squeeze, strangle. 

Ago, lead, go, Latin veho, go, 

A'difios, dense, thick, thin. 

^Ados, joy, L. gaudium, 

Adros, mature, ripe. 

Aeiro, raise, b-ear, c-arry, air 
= high. 

Aze, heat. 

A'Zelos,^ zealous, jealous. 

Athl-os, battle. 

Aideo-mai, awe. 

Aitho, heat, (burn). 

Ailrinos, ail, wail-ing. 



^Allo-mat, leap, L. salio. 

Aluke, trouble, anxiety. 

AlukroSj luke-wann. 

Alasso, walk, (escape). 

Amaxaj wagon, w, m. 

Amuo, heap, cumu-late. 

Ama-uros, dim. 

A-mhlus^ blunt, mbl, bl. 

A-melgo, milk. 

A-mergo, press, urge. 

A-milla, mill, battle. 

AmnoSy lamb, Fr. agneau, 

Amos, sand. 
^A-munOy de-fend, L. ntunio. 

A'fiagke, need, anxious. 

Aner, man, one. 

An-^Oy finish, end. 

Ara, prayer, curse. 

Arkedy ward, care. 

Ar-ma, car, chariot. 

Am-o8y ram, lamb. 

*Arpazd, rob, ravish. 

Arrat'08, hard, harsh. 

Arritiy brave, (male). 

Arties, right, ready. 

Archi, origin, first, Sans, arh, 
power, L. rex, 

AuUy hall, yard, fold. 

Avlos, flute, hollow. 

Auxd, wax, grow, augment. 

Achros, ache, pain. 

Bath-US, deep, bt, dp. 

Baino, (Bad), go, pass. 

Ballo, fling, kill. fall. 

Barus, grievous, heavy, br, gr, 
force, strong, harsh, grave. 

Baptd, dip, b, d. 

Basis, .pace, base, gait, foot, 
beat, tread, (G'k bema), 

Belos, dart, L. telum, (ballo) 

BeUion, better. Sax. bet-ra. 

Blax, flaccid, loose, lax, slug- 
gish, dull, silly. 

Blapto, stop, dam-age. 

B'lepo, look, live, light. 

Batio, bubble, swell. 

Boe, roar, shout, bawl. 

Bombed, bombast, hum, rum- 
ble, grumble, buzz. 

Bo'sko, feed, fodder. 

Baton, cattle, beast. 

Boun-os, mound, mount. 

Bradics, tardy, heavy. 

Bra-sso, stir. 

Brach-tts, short, crash, break, 
rattle, clash. 

Br echo, wet, sprink-le. ^' 

Britho, burden, press. 

Brime, rage, force, br, fr. 

Bronte, thunder, roar. 

Bruo, bubble, bud, bloom, 
flower, (bluzo, bluo, Jluo), 

Buthos, deep, bottom. 

Bolos, ball, lump, globe, clod. 

Gaid, rejoice, L. gaudiam, • 

Gamed, marry, woman. 

Gan-os, shine, sheen. 

G auras, proud, gr, pr. 

Gad, be, bear, born. 

Gelad, laugh, smile. 

Gen-OS, birth, be-gin, (been). 
Sans, yaw, young, family, 
nation, race, g, r. 

GemO, stem, hem,, hold, Sans. 

Geneian, chin, jaw. [i/am, 

Geran-os, crane, bird. 

Geud, taste, gustable, chew. 

Ge-phura, bridge. (Notice that 
g, ge, is often a prefix as 

Gi-gnd-skd, know, [in Ger.) 

Glax, (glak), milk, L. lac, 

Glauk'Os, blue, yolk, yellow. 

Glassd, glance, shine. 

Gluk-iLS, sweet, Latin dulc-is, 
gluk = duk, dulc, G. siiss, 

Gluphd, hollow, scalp, carve, 
grave, G'k graphd. 

Gldssa, tongue, L. lingua, 

Gnesios, native, L. natus. 

Goes, cheater, 'chanter. 

Graphd, write, L. scribo, grave, 
carve, score, sketeh. 



G-ripho8, riddle. 
Grup-osj stoop-ed, curv-ed. 
Gual-on^ hollow, vault. 
Or one ^ grotto, rock. 
Guion, hand, knee. 
Gur-os, circle, gyre. 
Goniay nook, angle, corner. 
Baizoy cut, tear, divide. 
Bato, burn, torch, ar-deo^ dah. 
Dak-no^ sting, stick, bite. 
Dalchiron^ tear. 
Dap-to^ hack, dev-our. 
Bas-os, thicket, dense. 
Beido, dread, awe. 
Deiko^ show, say. 
De-ma^ string, tie. 
Beleo, deal, split, kill. 
Demo^ build, timber. 
Del-OS, plain, dl, pi. 
Deris^ (cm), strife, quarrel. 
Dik-aios, just, right, d, j. 
I>ip8-0Sj thirst, dry. 
Dmao, tame. 
Bok-eo, think, seem. 
Don-eo, wind, bend. 
Dora, tree, spear, dart, trunk. 
Drao, do, serve, S. trag, 
Drepo, break, tear, strip. 
Dro-mos, run, course. 
Doma, house, a-bode. 
Do-ron, gift, dower. 
Dos, gift, dow-ry. 
Deo-mai, need, want. 
Deroy strip, bare. 
Deuter, t-other, other. 
Deiid, dew, wet, soak. 
Dexios, right, just, d, r. 
Egeiro, arouse, stir. 
Edra, seat, throne, chair. 
Eikos, like, just. 
Eilo, roll, whirl. 
Eirgo, ward, guard. 
Ela-runOj im-pel, drive. 
E'lachtbs, little, k, t. 
^EUco, pull, haul, draw. 
EnrtimoSy es-teemed. 

En-tonos, tend, strain. 

Epeigo, push, quicken. 

Ep-oSj speech, word, S. ab. 

Erao, lovCy friend, de-sire. 

*Erpd, creep, S. sarp, 8€rp\ 

Erg-on, work, task. 

Ereiko, break, split, bruise. 

Ereuna, search, track. 

Eruo^ draw, tug. 

Esthes, L. vestis, dress. 

Eur-us, broad, wide, far. 

E-phedra, sitting, seat. 

Echur-os, secure, firm. 

E'pseo, seethe, boil. 

Zao, live, blow, L. vivo. 

Zeug-08, yoke. 

Zel-os, zeal, jeal-ous. 

Zemia, damage. 

Zeteo, seek, search. 

Zone^ girdle, z, g. 

Zoros, pure. 

Ege-omaiy head, lead. 

Ed'Omai, pl-ease, glad. 

Edus, sweet, delight, 

Eko, come, go. 

ElakaU, stalk. 

El'OSy nail. 

^Epar, liver. 

Epiao, appease, soothe. 

Er, spring, early, fore. 

^Esson, less, weak. 

Thakos, seat, chair, th, b^ 

Thalassa, Qah), sea, salt 

Thallo, bloom, th, b. 
Thamh-os, awe, dumb. 
Tham-nos, stump, stem. 
Tha-omai, see, (wonder). 
Thapo, stup-ified. 
Tharros, courage, dare. 
Thau-mazo, es-teem, seaiT'* 

see, seem. 
Therm-OS, warm, ardent, n»^ 
fresh, tepid, hot, Sa. t^ 
Greek tupho, warm, eft- 
burn, (thero), 
Theo, run, go, L. itu. 



Thegoj whet, edge, 

ThigOy touch. 

Thlao, {thratto, klao, trad), 

thrash, bruise. 
Thrasm, brave, hardy, dare, 

courage, rash. 
Throeo.^ up-roar, dis-turb, ter- 
sThusan-os^ tassel. 
laUo, (hallo) ^ fling, roll. 
la-omai, heal. 
lapto, It.jactOj throw. 
lacheOj shout, ch, t. 
Idios, fit ; Idio, sweat. 
Idnoo, bend, do, ud. 
*Idrudy sit, seat. 
*Ieros, holy, r, 1. 
^Ik-anos, fit, equal. 
^Ikano, come. 
Ikmios, wet, moist. 
Ikria, deck. 
*lkd, come, go. 

*Ilao8y mild. 

Iliy troop, group, 1, r, ball, 

llm, filth, dirt, 1, r. 

Ipn^os, oven. 

^IppoSy L. eqwASy horse, p, r. 

Icfithus, fish. 

Ichnos, track, foot ; i often = 
/, or some similar conso- 
nant in English. 

Kaio, burn, cook. 

Kak'08, bad, wick-ed. 

Kal'08, well, belle. 

Kampto, bend, cramp. 

Kardia, heart, L. corde. 

Karp-oSy kernel, fruit. 

Karter-oSy strong, force. 

Keiroj shear, bore. 

Keimaiy lie, rest. 

KdeuOy im-pel, mp, k. 

Ken-oSy empty, vain. 

Kent-roriy point, thorn. 

Kendy pin, pick, k, p. 

Keutho, hide, coat, S. kiU, 

KephaUy head, L. caput, 
Ked-osy care, sad, d, r, dear, 

KeleOy calm, heal, charm. 
KeUy swelling, coil, boil. 
Kevy scarce, want, dearth. 
Keruxy herald, crier. 
Ket'OSy (whale), fish. 
Kik'USy vigor, k, v. 
Kiiharay harp, thr, rp ; ^ is 

often A, Vy w, 
Ki-neOy in-cite, stir. 
Kmd'UnoSy danger, k, d. 
Kichoy catch, reach, fetch, at- 
tain, find. (cA in G'k has 

the power of k). 
Kisy weevil, worm. 
Klaggiy clang, clatter. 
Klaioy wail, weep, de-plore. 
Klaoy clip„ break. 
Kleioy close, lock, key. 
KUnOy lean, bend, kneel. 
KluOy hear, listen, S. slu, 
Kogchiy concave, shell, conch. 
KoiloSy hollow, coil. 
KoinoSy common, n, m. 
Kolltty glue* 

Kopisy dagger, knife, cut. 
KoptOy cut, kpt, ct. 
KoraXy crow, raven, croak. 
Kor-oSy boy, puery born. 
KotuUy hollow. 
KrainOy reign, rule, kr, r. 
Krater'y hard, cruel, strong, 

brave, force, Ger. krajty 

KrauroSy dry, hard, brittle. 
Krekoy strike, knock, crack. 
Krenty (well), spring. 
Krizoy creak, shriek, sqk, cry, 

squall, bawl, shrill. 
Krino, part, cut, kr, pr. 
KrouOy crush, strike. 
KruptOy hide, coop, kr, h. 
Krvrerosy cold, fresh, freeze. 
Kta-omotiy get, ob-tain. ^ 



KteinOj kill, cut, S. han. 
KuklrOSj coil J circle. 
Kull'Os^ coil, circle. 
Kupe^ hollow, cup, goblet. 
Kupto, stoop, bend. 
Kur-ioSj sir, Gr. herr, k, h. 
Kut'OSj cavity, cup, hump. 
Kuan, dog, canis^ G. hund, 
Lagaros^ laggard, slack, lank, 

lean, thin, flaccid. 
Laios^ left. 
Lakeo^ rack, rend, lacerate, 

tear, tatter. 
Lakk-os^ tank, pit. 
Laleo^ talk, prate, prattle. 
Lampo^ ligbt, shine. 
LaoH^ folk, Gr. leute. 
Lasios, bushy, leafy. 
Lad, see, look. 
Le-go, 82ijj spea-k, tell. 
LeipOj leave, left, rest. 
Lept'Os, sleek, lank, thin. 
Lep-os, peel, hull, husk, strip, 

Letho, hide, (keutho). 
Liar-OS, warm, clear, bright, 

Lith-os, rock, L. lapid\ 
Litos, little, fine, thin. 
Log-oSj ta-lk, word, speak. 
Luk'Os, wolf, SI. vvlk. 
Lupe, grief, Ip, rf. 
Lusis, loose, free. 
Mak-ros, long, much. 
Malak-os, L. mollis, 
Mall-OS, wool, m, w. 
Math\ (mantK), teach, L. 6?o- 

ceo, (m prefix). 
Maraino; burn, parch, 
Marpo, grasp. 
Afasso, touch, mash. 
Mast-euo, wish. 
Me-gairo, grudge. 
Me-gas, great, m-uch. 
Melos, verse, member. 
M^n-os, might, mettle. 

Mer-os, part, turn. 

Mesos, middle, mean. 

Mig-numi, mix, join, yoke. 

Melon, (sheep), wool. 

Mik-ros, small, little. 

Mneme, mind, memory. 

Molos, toil, mill. 

Mogos, misery, toil. 

Moth-OS, battle, tumult. 

Naio, dwell, live, stay. 

Neatos, next, last, new. 

Neikeo, bicker. 

Nemo, deem, G. imhrnefn,, 

Ned, go, move, swim, spin, i_ -let. 

Neros, wet, G*. tiom. 

-/Vi'Are, victory, n, v. 

JVoeo, know, see. 

Nipto, wet, wash, dip. 

Nusso, push, spur. 

Zeo, shave, scrape. 

Zeros, torrid, arid, dry, p«r^ -^^j 

Ziphos, sword, cut, shave. 
Zuron, razor. 
0-gkos, hump, bulk, hunk. 
O'dazo, stick, pick, bite. 
O'dous, tooth, Ipdazd). 
Od'Os, road, way. 
Odune, pain, sad, d, p 
0-zos, shoot, sprout, shrub, « 

ast, R. suk. 
Oikos, house, tent. 
Old, see, think, v 
O-kazo, squat, crouch. 
O-ligos, little, small. 
* Omilos, family. 

Onnx, nail, hoof, Fr. angle. — ^ 
O'Xus, sharp, a-cute, cut. 
O'piso, post, back, (o prefix 

it often is). 
Ope, hole, open, hollow. 
O-ptao, roast, bake, parch. 
Opo, look, (or ad), 
Orge^ ire, anger. 
O-rego, reach, stretch. 
O-rthos, right, straight. 



Ormady urge, rouse. 

0-7'oSy rock. 

'Oro8, goal, mark, shore. 

Ossa, voice, (ops). 

Oudy n-ot. 

Oura, tail, roar. 

Ouros, guard, ward. 

Ochos^ L. veho, wagon, coach. 

Pagios, fixed, bind, S. pac, 

PaiSy boy, L. puer. 

PateOj beat, tread, path.* 

PauOy pause, cease. 

PachuSy thick, fat, {(achus), 

Peithoj obey, faith. 

Peira^ try, proof, peril. 

Pempo, bend, p, .s. 

Peno, pains, do, penury. 

PeptOy cook, bake. 

Petad, spread, e-xpand. 

Pikros, bitter, piercing. 

Pmax, plank. 

Pi'pto, fall, (L. cado), pitch. 

Plax, plank, plate, table. 

Plains y fl^t, broad, wide. 

PWco, plait, fold. 

PUssOy flogy Strike. 

Phoy fly, ply, S. plu, sail. 

jPrteo, blow, breathe, wind. 

Polla, (many), full. 

Por-osy ford, ferry , /aAren. 

Pole, flight. 

Prasso, do, form, practice. 

Praos, friend, philos^ San. A^r, 

L. paro. 
Ptaio, strike, beat, fall. 
Pter-on, plume, bird. 
Ptiix, tuck, pucker, fold. 
Pugmiy fist, fight, box. 
Puthmerij bottom. 
Pule, door, port, pi, dr. 
Pirgos, tower, p, t. 
'BabdoSy rod. 
'Ragos, crack, cleft, flaw, rent, 

crevice, chink. 
'Baino, rain, wet, drop. 
*Rai6^ break, ruin. 

'Rakos, ('ragos), 

'Rachisj ridge, back, 

'Rach-os^ crag, rock. 

^RetoSy said, G. reden, 

^Rinos, rind, skin. 

^RiptOy throw, rip. 

'Roe, stream, current. 

'Ruma, stream, run. 

'Rome, force, robust. 

'Rox, rock, c-rag. 

Sagma, saddle. 

SairO, grin. 

Sagis, sack, pocket. 

Saos, safe, sound, whole. 

Satto, saddle, seat, 

Seid, shake, toss. 

Selene, moon, L. luna, 

Selas, light, lustre. 

Sema, sign, omen. 

Sigad, silent, g, 1. 

Sitos, wheat, 

Skairo, skirt, leap, skip. 

Skallo, scratch, scrape, rake, 

grub, hoe, scull. 
Skapto, dig, scoop, shave. 
Skaphe, scoop, trough. 
Skello, wilt, wither. . 
Skepo, cover, pro-tect. 
Skene, tent, shed, hut. 
Skirtao, skirt, skip, leap. 
Skotos, shade. 
Skul'On, spoil, peel, shell. 
Skuph-os, cup, bowl, scoop. 
Soheo, shove, move. 
Sophos, sage, wise, sp, sw. 
Span-OS, scant, scarce, span, 

spare, rare. 
Spendo, spend, pour. 
Stegos, deck, cover, tectiis, 
Steiho, step, tread,- track. 
Stenos, narrow, Gr. eng, want, 

Stereos, strong, hard, firm. 
Stereo, strip, rob, de-prive. 
Stele, pillar, prop, Ger. stuM, 

(stell6)y style. 



Stonux = onux, 

Strepho^ {trepho)^ turn, twist, 

torture, G. treffen, 
Stupos^ stub, stock, club. 
Sphen, wedge, spj'Jw. 
Schema, shape, form. 
Tago, take, stretch. 
Taker-OS, soft, tender. 
Talant-on, balance. 
Talao, en-durfe, dare, Lat. titli, 

G. dulden, bear, child. 
Tarhos, terror. 
Tarasso, stir, disturb. 
Tophus j'^qnick, swift. 
Teggo, tinge, stain. 
Telno, strain, stretch. 
Teiro, rub, wear. 
Teh-mar, token, sign. 
TeJc'Os, chick, child. 
Teuch-08, (jr. Zeug, tool. 
Tlkto, be-get, chick. 
Tillo, pull, pluck, tug. 
Ti6, ^2Lj, atone. 
lolmao, L. tollo, bold, dare. 
Topos, space, spot. 
Toreud, bore, pierce. 
Treo, tremble, terror. 
Truge, fruit. 
Truo, rub, bore, wear. 
Tuko, do, make, fact. 
Tuche, luck, chance. 
Ugros, watery, weak. 

' C^feo, howl, yell. 

' Ule, wood, L. «^^2;a, G. holz, 

' Q?sc, weaving, woof. 

' Up8-08, high, up, heap. 

' Uo, wet, rain. 

Phaino, view, show, fancy. 

Phalar-os, clear, flare. 

Phan-o8, clean, G. rein. 

Phaos, day, light, see. 

Phao, say, show, shine. 

Phaul-os, small, foul, bad. 

Phend, kill, wound. 

Phtheir-d, de-stroy. 

Phthogge, tone, sound. 

Phial'Os, vial; bowl. 

Phil'Os, friend, kind, phr, fr, 

S. pa/, Ger. pflegen^ Lat. 

Phleo, flow, pour, boil. 
Phlego, flame, blaze. 
Phloio, flay, strip. 
Phra-zo, pray, say, phrase. 
i7m/<?, file, tribe, folk. 
Chalkos, copper, Ik, pp. 
Chaos, chasm, gap, yawn. • 
Charts, grace. 
Cheir, (hand), arm, grasp, 

CheU, claWj (hand). 
0-kus, swift, quick. 
0-lene, elbow, ulna, 
0-ritd, roar. 

This list, like the others, is selected from the most difficult 
words. When we keep constantly in view the particular laws 
which the Greek follows in orthography, the different letters 
with which many of our own are represented there, besides the 
peculiar combinations which they sometimes make, we shall not 
find the Greek etymology doubtful or difficult. We must keep 
constantly in mind, also, that any single letter or combination 
of letters gives character to, or decides the whole word ; that if 
we find a particular letter, or combination of letters, at the 
beginning of a word, for example, that letter may be taken as 
the basis of the whole, since all the remaining letters must be 
cognate with it. Occasionally we have brought together the 
like letters at the end of the line, with a comma between them ; 
but generally we leave the learner to bear in mind that when 


^e Iring a word which is Greek along side of one or more 
which is English, it is because the letters of the two words are 
alike or cognate, and that they may be replaced, the one by 
those of the other; thus,pa<eo, beat, tread; — 'pat and heat are 
easy; pat Ka^ tread are also easy, when we remember that p= 
ty and t=^tr. It is a safe rule, one which is important and uni- 
versal, that, in etymology, a letter is always equal to those with 
which it is found combined, or it is equal also to the combina- 
tion of which it forms a part; thus, that str=:r, or t, or.s, or 
9t; that mp==nd, because n=m,p=d, or m=h=p; that k= 
9qy because k=q; that jo/==/, because p==/; that pt=^pl, be- 
cause p=p, and t=l, both t and / being combined with the 
same letter p. Take also kiipto =8tooj^ — k==t, also st, pt==p^ 
since j?==p; and ^^eo=rack, because Z = r, also rend^ since k 
(of lak€o)s=^d and t, also tear, because I (oflak') = t, and k=r; 
and kt£md=\ii\ly since kt=k and n=/; thermos ='wskTm, since 
^=tt7, and the same equals ardent, since th may be dropped, 
and r=:rd, or rm=rdy — arc?«o= burn, where the b again re- 
presents the w of warm, th of therm; ^arp-o«= fruit, since k= 
fy and rp=rt. Understanding these things, we shall find Greek 
etymology easy. Then, we have to remind the student again, 
that many of the Greek words have their initial letters, which, 
compared to those of our own words, are mere prefixes or aug- 
ments. Taking the basis we have just established, the Greek 
can be easily made familiar. Very many words, and those the 
most common and characteristic ones, are alike in Greek, Eng., 
*nd German ; and in those where the difference is greater, . we 
ean, in most instances, easily explain it, and trace the connexion. 
Itt conclusion, we may remark that the orthography of Greek is 
much more German than is usually conceded. 

French Etymology, 

^--heiHe, bee, It. ape, Aout, August. 
•^•^hord-er, to board, (er is inf. Appui, prop, help. 

• ending). A-rhre, tree, L. arbor, br, tr. 

•^-•cheter, buy, get, kauf, A-rene, sand, gravel, r, s. 

•^gneauy It. agnmo, lamb. Atre, hearth. 

■^'igre, sour, severe, acrid. Aune, elder, au, el. 

■4^j wing, fly, L. ala, Aussi, so, as, also, G'k ds, 

-AUer^ walk, dley. It. ando, Baiser, buss, kiss. 

-A-maSy heap, mass. Balai, broom, 1, r. 

Arne, L. ontma, mind. Baisser, bow, a-base. 

Atniy L. amiciUj friend. Balayer, sweep, balance. 

Amiee, year, n, r. Bas, base, low, bottom. 



Basgin, basin, pan, vase. 
Bateau, boat. 
Batir, build, baste. 
Baton, stick, beat, bat. 
Beau, L. bonus, good. 
Beche, spade. 
Benet, ninny. 
Berceau, cradle, bower. 
Bete, beast, cattle. 
Beurre, butte# 
Bien, well, L. bonus. 
Bile, choler, gall. 
Blanc, clean, white, alho, 
Boire, drink, b, d. 
Bois, wood, b, w. 
Bon, good, kind, b, k. 
Bourru, morose, cross. 
Bout, button, tip, end. 
BriUant, bright. 
BrtUer, shine, sparkle. 
Briser, break, bruise. 
Br%8, wreck, break, b, w. 
Broult, gruel. 
Bruire, roar. 
Brider, broil, boil, flask. 
Brute, rough, brute. 

Cachet, cover, hide, c, h. 

Carr-eau, square. 

Cayer, quire. 

Caveau, cave, cellar, vault. 

Caver, hollow, hole. 

Chancre, cancer, sore. 

Chateau, castle, seat. 

Chaud, hot, warm. 

Chauve ,Ital. calvo, Ger. kahl, 
bare, bald. 

Cheminee, chimney. 

Chef, head, chief, f, d. 

Cher, dear, L. carus, 

Cheveu, fibre, hair. 

Chez, with, L. cum, que. 

Chien, dog, L. cams. 

Chose, thing, L. res, cause. 

Ciel, sky, shine, clear. Germ. 
himmel, hell, Lat. celum, 
Greek helios. 

Cire, seal, (wax). 

Cite, city, L. civita^s, state. 

Cle and Clef, Lat. clevis, Ger. 

schlussel, It. chiave, key. 
Cceur, heart, core. 
Coi, quiet; Coin, corner. 
Co/, neck, G. Aa&. 
Compter, count. 
Colder, flow, melt. 
Coup, cuff", blow, fit. 
Courbe, curve, crooked. 
Courir, run, L. cwrro, 
Cout, cost. 

Couture, suture, seam. 
Crainte, fear, cringe. 
Cramoisi, crimson. 
Crete, crest, t, st. 
Crepu, crisped, p, sp. 
Crevac, crucible, grave. 
Croc, crook, hook. 
Croire^ credit, trust. 
Croit, in-crease, growth. 
Croupe, crop, top. 
Cruche, crucible, mug. Germ. 

krug, crock. 
Cru, grow, ground. 
Cueillir, cull, collect, gather. 
Cuire, cook, bake. 
Cuisse, thigh. 
Cuve, cup, tub, coop. 
De-hat, de-bate, battle. 
Dehile, feeble. 
Dedain, disdain, Ital. sdegno, 

De-border, leap, board. 
De-lit, fault, L. delict*. 
Devoir, duty, debt, need. 
Di-re, say, tell, L. dicer e. 
Doigt, toe, L. digit. 
Doit, ought, should. 
Dol, fraud, Latin dolus, cheat, 

dl, fr. 
Dos, back, ridge. 
Douce, sweet, li. dulcis. 
Dress-er, straight, dress, Fren. 

drop ; De, (of), the, to. 



Droit, sfcraight, right, just, It. 

jure, eretto, direct. 
Duit, lead, L. ductus, 
Eau, water, L. aqua, 
E-carter, s-catter. 
Ej-cheUe, s-cale, shell. 
E'clat^ clap, lustre, splendid. 
E-coTce, bark, L. cortex, 
E'couter, hear, G'k a-koud, 
E-crit, w-rit, L. script; 
E'cu, shield. 
E-cueil, shoal. 
Effet^ fact, deed. 
Egare, error, wild. 
Eglise^ church, gl, ohr. 
E'lan^ leap, rapture. 
E-leve, raise, lever, Lat. alius , 

lift, tread, (pupil). 
-Ktre, elect, L. e-legere. 
E-loge, eulogy, laud, lob, 
^i», elect, chosen. 
Email, enamel. 
Emoi, anxiety, Q-. muhe, 
Ern^echer, push, stop. 
E-mu, moved, angry. 
EnrceifU, fence, close. 
En-cre, ink. 

Erirdroit, place, part, region. 
E-pais, thick, L. spissus. 
^fpingle, pile, pin. It. ^iUo. 
■%>oquey epoch, era, p, r. 
^squisse, sketch. 
^tage, stage, de-gree, story. 
-Etient, extinct, quench. 
-^teule, stalk, stubble. 
-^toUe, star, L. stella, e=s. 
•Etmner, astonish, stun. 
^trier, stirrup. 

-^troit, straight, strict, ex-act. 
^^KrUyrquer, ex-tort, wrest, turn, 

-^Jacife, easy, free. 
^^<xcher^ vex, anger, 
-^ct-irc, do, make, L. fa-cere, 
-^at^, fact, feat, deed, act. 

Faut, fault, want, defect. 
Fer, iron, sworn, L. ferrum. 
Feu, fire, G'kpwr, It, focus. 
FeuiUe, leaf, foliage, foil, Ital. 

Fief, fee, feud. 
Fier, trust, faith. 
Fierte, pride, fierce. 
Filet, thread, string. 
Fin, end, aim. • 
Fih, child, son, L.Jilius, 
Flot, wave, L. fluctus, flow. 
Forain, foreign, alien. 
Forer, bore, drill, pierce. 
Fort, stout, strong, firm. 
Fosse, pit, dig, grave. 
Foule, throng, troop, many. 
Fouler, tread, follow, fall. 
Foumir, furnish, afford. 
Foyer, focus, fine. % 

Fragile, frail, feeble. 
Frere, h.frater, brother. 
F-ripon, rogue. 
Froid, frigid, fresh^ cold. 
Frotter, rub, friction. 
Fuir, flee, L. fugere, g, i. 
Fut^ie, fury, passion, bear. 
Gage, pawn, pledge. 
Gager, en-gage, hire, wages. 
Gagner, gain, win, earn. 
Gant, glove, gantlet 
Gateau, cake. 
Geler, freeze, 'geal. 
Genou, knee. 

Gorge, throat, gullet, guUey. 
Guere, s-carce, spare. 
Gorge, G. hals, channel. 
Goutte, jot, drop. 
Crras, fat, greasy, G. gross, 
Chrave, serious, severe. 
Grele, shrill, slim. 
Griffe, claw, grab, paw. 
Gris, gray, brown. 
Havi, height, tall, aUas. 
Heurter, hurt, hit, butt. 
lie, island, isle. 



Jamhe^ limb, leg, G'k kampi, 

knee, j, 1. 
Jaune^ yellow, 
i/eii, game, jest. 
Jet, cast, It.jacto. 
Joie, joy, de-light, j, 1. 
JoUj pretty, belle. 
Jour, day, L. dies, clear. 
Jurer, swear, j, sw. 
Lever, lift, raise. 
Libre, free, bold, loose. 
Lier, league, tie, bind, join, 

Lievre, L. l^piu, G'k lagos. 

Lit, bed, L. lect-us. 

Lievre, book, L. liber. 

Macule, spot, stain. 

Maison, mansion, main. 
^ Jl/aZ, ill, e-vil, barm. 

Jlfart,«(husband), marry. 

Mauvais, bad, (mal). 

Mat, mast. 

Meche^ match, wick. 

Meier, mix, blend. 

Mer, sea, water, a^ua. 

Mettre, put, set, m, p. 

Moeurs, manners, ways, mode. 

Moins, less, more. 

Moitie, half, middle, meson. 

Montr e, show, monitor. 

Mordre, bite, carp, cut. 

Jlfor^, death, murder, kill. 

Mot, word, note, speak, say, 
verb, Gr. melden, 

Moudre, mill, mould, grind. 

Mu, moved, stirred. 

Mur, mature, ripe. 

Mur, wall, G. mauer* 

Moudre, mill, mould. 

Muge, mullet. 
. Naitre, born, spring, natus, 

Noir, black, niger. 

Nuage, mist, L. nubes. 

Obeir, obey, bend. 

Oeil, eye, L. ocul-us, auge. 

Oisif, lazy, idle, L. otium, easy. 

Oiseau, It. uccello, fowl, bird, 
G. vo^eZ. 

On^fe, nail, claw. 

Or, ore, gold, old = or* 

OreiUe, ear, auris. 

Orme, elm. 

0-ser, dare, bold. 

Owft/i, oblivion. 

Ours, bear, L. t^rsiM. 

Ouvert, open, free, (Uber), 

Ouvrer, work, operate. 

Pats, patria. It. paese. 

Paitre, feed, pasture, graze; 

Paon, peacock, 'L,pavo, 

Pareil, pair, e-qual, like. 

Parer, parry, ward. 

Parler, parley, prattle, talk* 

Purtir, depart, start, go. 

Pattc, foot, paw, flap. 

Peler, peel, pare, bald. 

Pencher, bend, pinch, ^cline. 

JPe«er, weigh, ponder, thinks 

Peu, few, little, L. paucus* 

Peur, fear, dread, terror. 

Perte, ruin. 

Pe<i«, petty, little, few. 

Peuple, folk, L. vtdgtis, 

Pierre, drain, L. lapis, stone^ 
L. rupes, rock, s-par. 

Poids, load, weight, L. pondus^ 

Poisson, fish. 

Poivre, pepper. 

Poli, gloss, polish, glass. 

Pour-voir, pro-vide, fore-see. 

Puce, flee. It. pulice. 

Pousse, shoot, push. 

Prendre, take, grab, prize. 

PrierCf prayer, Itpreco. 

Racine, root, radix. 

i?aie, ray, streak, stroke. 

Roide, stiff, rigid, steep, stub- 
born, rapid. 

Rouge, red, ruddy. It. rubro. 

Rouler, roll, rumble, rove, reel. 
Sa-voir, see, know, sage. 



Sage^ L. sagtiSy Q*k saphis, G-. 

sehen, S. sue. 
Saut, leap, jump, salio, 
Semhle, seeni) re-semble. 
Soie, silk, Ger. seide, 
Soifj thirst, wish. 
Soldcj pay, L. solvo, soldier. 
Sutvre, Lat. seqitor^ seek, San. 

saiky see, go. 
Songer, dream, think. 
S-ouventy often. 
^atTfe, tally, cut, tailor, S. dal^ 

split, deal, divide. 
^einty taint, dye, tinot. 
^*ewn)«. time, L. tompt^s. 

Trait, trace, dart, draught, 

treat, touch. 
Troupe, troop, herd, crowd. 
Troublfi, thick, dull. 
TVer, kill, slay, die. 
Tuyau, tube, pipe, tunnel. 
Val, valley, vale, dale. 
Valoir, worth, value, 1, r. 
^YeilUr, wake, watch. 
Yendre, sell, vend. 
Venir, come, go, went. 
Verge, rod, yard, wand. 
Verser, turn, pour, fill. 
Viand, food, meat. 
Vetu, clad, vest. 
T^, alive, active, quick. 
Vil, vile, mean, low. 
Voeu, vow, vote. 
Voie, way, means. 
FoZfec, flight, volley, brood. 
Voute, vault, arch. 
Vrai, true, right, Q-er. t^aAr, 

very, mere, L. verus, 
Verre, It. giara, jar, vessel. 

^eikfre, tend, ex-tend, go. 

^eu, top, L. tectum, head, sense, 
^j^e, s-tock, stalk. 
^mbre, stamp. 
^rer, draw, pull, tug. 
^cmher, tumble, fall, drop, ex- 
tract, re-quire. 
^€)ndre, cut, tome, shear. 
^our, tower, rock, turn. 

The foregoing list constitutes a large share of such French 
"^ords as diner very materially in their form from English and 
Oerman. The great body of the French scarcely differs from 
tlxose languages in orthography. It has strong hold, it is true, 
pix the Latin, but its general appearance is decidedly German, 
^ for no other reason, for the total absence of case, gender, per- 
sonal and other endings, or at least their existence in a blunted 

The French orthography is particularly useful in showing^ 
How one letter is equal to any development of that letter into 
t^^ro or more; as, d for Id, t for st, fiorjl; t for ext, ege for i, in 
^^^ere=lire. Even many letters, following the principle of one 
*^tter equal to several like letters, which appear in print, are 
^ot sounded in speaking; thus, temps is pronounced as if writ- 
^^B tern (even m is reduced to a mere vowel), and so it identifies 
^t;self with our time, much nearer than the Latin tempus. This. 
is all because mps is a development of m, otp, or s, and quite 
^<lTial to either one of them ; so hris=hri, i^is; depot =depo, 
^^ =0, just as we in so many instances do, as in blow (w silent), 
2cxan6 (h silent), calm (I silent), psalm (p silent), delt (h silent), 

Ixjuk (c silent), receipt {p silent), charm (r nearly silent), gist 

C» silent), ohligue (ue silent). 



The principle is the same in all languages; no letter is entire- 
ly silent, but some letters become so like others that they can- 
not be distinguished by the ear, any more than one double letter 
can from another. In fact, there is a perfect identity between 
the double letters, i. e. the vowel united with consonant, or the 
consonant with consonant; Am, hiis^ hist; the two s's are as 
much distinct as i from «, or as s from t in hist — and we con- 
stantly find different consonants, as st^ becoming double, as m, 
or one becoming a vowel, as is. We see this in taU for taU^ 
full for fuMy evil for iU, writt for script. 

We notice, again, that only like letters come together, and 
vowels are equal to the consonants with which they are found. 
Letters are never dropped, they are only merged with others, 
a^ sounds are lost in sounds which are in harmony with them. 

Russian Etymology. 

Agnez, lamb, Fr. agneau. 
BagoTj purple, g, r. 
Bazan\ wash. 
Bania^ Or. hdhen, bath. 
BayOj say, Q-'k phao. 
Beregu, be- ware, G. spar en. 
Bereg, border, shore. 
Beru, brat, bear, carry, tra^gen^ 

Blazhuy 'plaud, praise. 
Blyad, bleach, hlass, hleich. 
Bleskj look, hlick, glance. 
Bliacha, hlech^ plate. 
Bohr^ biber, beaver. 
yBiene, beating. 
Boby bohnCy bean. 
Bog, God, Bo. BuJi, b, q. 
Bogatch, rich. 
Bodu, stick, pick, beat. 
BozhUy beg, aiv-beten. 
Bo, battle, war. 
Boltayo, beat, plaudem^ 
Bol, pain, smart, L. dolor. 
Bormotchu, grumble, brum- 
men. trommeln. 

Boroda, brada, beard, barts 

Botaio, beat, strike. 

Boyo, fear, bange. 

Brat, brother, friend. 

Brov, eye-brow. 

Brayo, shear, barber. 

Briatchuy rattle. 

Buj fool. 

Burtchuj rush, roar, German 

Butchuy bucking, bev^ih. 
Bulk, buck, ox. 
Byo, bet, beat, strike. 
Byagu, flee, L. fuga. 
Byada^ pity. 
Byalenie, bleach, bleich, 
Byas, base, wicked. 
Vaga, hazard, wage. 
Vakshu, wax, wichsen. 
Valki, wag, wankend. 
Val-ios, fall. 
ValiayOy roll, walken. 
Vanna, fan, wanne. 
VaryOy brew, boil. 
Vaiayo, hew, dig. 
Wergayo, throw, wer/en. 

^ Let it be understood that words not English and not ^otherwise 
marked are German. 



Tgonia^o, hunt, vg, w. 

Vgrebai/o, dig, grahen. 

Vdovaj widow, wittwe. 

Vedu^ lead, head, guide. 

Velitchu, 'plaud, flatter. 

VelffOy be-feMen, fail, will. 

Verbuyo, earn, werben, 

Vertchuy turn, L. verto^ bore. 

Vetchi, old, L. vetvs. 

Vetcher, vesper, evening. 

Vesh, thing, L. res, sache, 

Vzd, view, see, L. video, 

Vzvalj throw, wdlzen, Greek 
balloj vzv=vw=w. 

VilM, fork. 

VzTio, wine. 

Vxshuj hang, wave, hover. 

V~kratchia, short, kwrtz, 

V'Jmihayo^ kost, cost. 

V'-lagai/o, lay, place, vl, pi. 

Vleku, drag, schleppen, 

Vrnalia, small, bald. 

^^t', new, (y is prefix). 

^^mA, ankle. 

^oda, water. 

V^gliad, look, bUck, vzgl= 
vvvl, wly bl, as G. schreib- 
. cw equals reiben, 
. ^«Aw, boss,^A»'en. 

^^^fnoffj might, t;o2;ms!S}V9n'. 

^%, wolf, L. vuljpea, 

.^^na, wool, wog/'e. 
^^ia, will. 
^^^on, raven, crow. 

^^pros, ask, Lat. ro^o, frage^ 
.^^ vopr ■» vpr, vr, fr, r. 
^^^ota, port, door. 
.^^^niia, time, L. ^empt£«. 
-|-^«4, wax, wachs. 
^OLd\ fall, Lat. cado, Greek 
^jp0, vp, p, c, pp. 

Vyadayo, know, L. video. 

Vper\ brings vp, p. 

Vyas, weight. 

Yi-dyao^ give, L. c?o, vd, d. 

T^asAw, wage, w'dgen, 

Vya-zhayo^ say, vy^, s. 

Viazhu^ bind, press, fast. 

Gadayo^ aoj, rathen. 

Gas, gauze, gaze. 

Gvardia, guard, gard. 

Gir, weight, L. gravis. 

Grasni^ red, scarlet. 

Gero, hero, held. 

Glaba, Bo. hlava, head, chap-r 

ter, G'k kephale. 
Glagolj word, L. lego, gl, 1, 
Glazh, flat, ^/oYi. 
(rZaa;, (eye), glance, gaze. 
Glas, voice, call, loud. 
Glub, deep, gl, gi, d. 
Gluchi, deaf, hear, gl, h, 
G-liazhu, look, see. 
Crnetu, bind, press, kpi|b. 
(rWM, bend, knej?. 
Gnyzado^^ nest. 
Goboryo, say, sprechen / gobor, 

gbr, br, pr, pray. 
(toc?, year, L. annus, d, v. 
(rofo, bald, Icahl. 
Golub, dove, L. columV. 
Gora, rock, 6er^. 
Gordo, proud. 
Gorh, gurgel. 
Gorki^ sour, bitter. 
Gorod, (grad), state, de-gree, 

burg, dorf. 
Gorge, warm, burn, g, w. 
Grabezh, rob, grab. 
Gradar, gardner. 
Grradus, grade, grad. 

t ^he Eussian shows most clearly the transition from initial letters 
^ Pirefixes ; in such eases as vi-dayo, we have a prefix without force, 
^^ the word is not different fronf dayo. 

^^^ee how often ^55? A is a mere prefix, or is lost in the following 



Grady hail, Lat. grando, Fr. 

Crranitckuy fence, granzen 
Grran, grey, grau, 
Grran, corner. 
Grehloy rudder, oar, row. 
Grreza, dream. 
Grrohy grave. 
Crroza, threat, drohung, 
Crrozd, grape, traitbe. 
Gromko, strong, loud. 
Groniy roar, rumble, thunder. 
Grruda, group. 
Grrud, breast, bosom. 
Gnibi, hard, coarse, ^ro5, rude, 

rough, derb, 
Gruzkij L. gravis, hard, heavy, 

Grunt, ground, grand, 
Grusha, pear. 
Grushu, grieve, sorry, trUhen, 

trauem, gloomy. 
Gtdiayo, walk, go. 
Gryaduy go, L. gredior. 
Grunia, lumpen, trumpery. 
Grurt, herd. 

Gvsar, hussar. * 

Grusto, tight, thick. 
Ghus,^ goose. 
DaZ, far, long, dl, fr. 
Dayo, giye, L. do, dabo. 
Dver, door, port. 
Dvigayo, move, he-wegen. 
Dvor, court, ho/. 
Dek, deck, cover. 
Den, dna, day, L. dies, 
Derehnia, town, dor/. 
Derevo, tree. 
Derzayo, dare. 
Deru, tear, zerreissen. 
Dlan, palm, hand. 
£>'lin, long, far, Fr. loin. 
Dob-ro, good, d, g. 
Dolgo = dlin, 
DoJg, p/licht, guilt. 

i>oZ, deal, iheil, part. 

Doma, home, house. 

Doroga, road, way, dr, w. 

Dorogo, dear. 

Dosha, desk, ^ucA, table. 

Dotch, daughter, tochter, BolK::F«h. 

Dragi==i dorogo. 
Drug, friend, dear. • 

Droft, scarf, scherben. 

Drotchu, thresh. 

Duga, bow, d, b. 

Dumayo, deem, think. 

Dura, fool, thorin. 

Dumo, bad, worse. 

2>2^A, ghost, gas, (^tnu^, ruc^ 

G'k ^uo8. 
Duyo, blow, Aauc^, dunst. 
Duim, steam, damp/. 
Dyalo, deal, done, deed. 
Delayo, do, deal, make. Bo" ^ >^' 

e^t^, equals done, work.^-* - 
Dyayo, equals delayo, do, 
Edinyo, unite, t;eretni9Fen. 
Emez, man, menscA. 
Emlyo, take, L. cmo, ne&»«^^»^' 
^c«, heresy, ^ef^perei. 
Eshe, yet, scAon. 
Zhar, warm, fire. 
Zhgu, stick, bite, bam. 
ZkaJko, kldglich, clamor. 
Zhal, harm, schade. 
Zhdu, wait, dure. 
Zhezl, stick, stab. 
Zhelayo, wish, will. 
Z^&, yellow. 
Zhena, woman, queen, zh— ^' 

ZMbu, live, L. t;tt7o. 
^ic^A^', thin, shad, GF. 9chUxr=^^' 
Zhmu, press, L. premo, 
^hilo, dwelling, live. 
2%rM, greedy, /rewcn. 

^ (7, in Russian, has principally the force of a strong A. 



^thti^o, chew, kauen, 

Zarmk^ lock, castle. 
Zima^ winter, L. htems. 

Zvon, sound, schaU, hlang. 

2tvnkf shout, schaU, 

Zvyar^ deer, L. fera^ thUr. 

Zdo^ dachy thatch. 

Zelen^ yellow, green. 

JZfemlia, I/, terra, earth. 

JZizMuj build, sH/ten. 

Zloy ill, acMecht, 

JZnahy sign, mark, zn, 6. 

ZaayOy know, Gr'k gno, Z, g. 

Zohh, ball, rufen, L. voco, 

Zlui^ slim, schlimm, 


•Zoloto, gold, yellow, z, g. 

Zraky look, WtcA. 

-^»^o, see, &'k orao, 

^ug, tooth, 2faAw, z, t, 

Zitchu, hiss, sigh. 

^iah, very, fiu:^ «eAr, 

-^o, yoke. 

-^yo, play, sport, 

•^K, go, L. itum, it, 

•foia, iment, name. 

•^w^^, monk, monc^. 

-^s-chod, out-going, ez-odus. 

J^s-Uyotch, ex-clude. ' 

•^^M, seek, wish. 

J^ere^ priest, Q-'k Meros, 

^cizanie, sign. 

^oreta, coach, chariot. 

-^ot?, cot, coop, ku/e, 

^Orzhuy say, show. 

^^yoy glue. 

•^pTti-enj stone, km, stn. 

•^3»iera, chamber, room. 

•^ndU, candle. 

'j^payoy drop, trickle. 
"^^pralf corporal. 
j^/^^a, correction, strafe, 
j£^i whale, L. coe^. 
■^/oc^a, log, Ajfoto. 
"^^^di*,! lay, place, load. 

^ f in Bossian, is for us generally a prefix, 

Klady load, last. 
Klegtchu, call, screech. 
Klik, call, clang. 
XifoA;, lock. ' 
Kniaa, prince, king. 
Kntga, book, Sem. Mtab, 
Knutj peitschey whip. 
Koza-y goat. 
EhUsOy wheel, rad, 
Kozha, coat, skin, hide. 
Koloy circle, wheel. 
iTo^, pale, p/ahL 
Kom, heap, clump. 
KoneZy finish, end, point. 
Koriy pony, horse, ro««. 
Kopa, heap, cumulate. 
KopayOy scoop, ditch, 
j^ora, bark, L. cortex, 
Korerty root, radix, 
Korga, crow, L. corvus, 
Korzina, korh, 
Kormay stern. 

Korova, krava, cow, kr, k. 
Koroly (JcarT)y king, Latin rca;, 

Bo. kral {^k-rege), 
Kortchagy cup, At^. 
Kotely kittle, kessd. 
Kosha, korhj curb. 
Koshka, cat, katze, 
Kraduy steal, G'k A;fepo. 
JTra, rind, brim. 
KrapayOy drop. " 
iTrtA;, creak, shriek. 
Kritchuj screech. 
Krob, roof, cover. 
KroTna, crumb. 
KroyOy cover, bury.. 
Krug, round, circle. 
Krupa, grit, gravpe, 
Krupno, grob, coarse. 
Krut\ strong, gross. 
Kryapy force, krafU 
Krothiy kind, soft. 
Kwpa, heap. 



Kupuyo^ buy, Jcaufen, 

Kusayo^ kiss, bite. 

Kuknia, kitchen. 

Layo, yell, bellow, low. 

LgUj lie, liigen. 

Lev, Hon, L. leo. 

Leghi, light, leicht 

Legkoe, lungs. 

Led, ice. 

LadnOj one, (^ is prefix). 

Lezhu, lie, L. Zoci(«. 

i/en, linen. 

iy6^, flow, flight. 

Liver, lever, (hever), heaver, 

Lizhu, lick, lecken. 
List, leaf, 5?a<<. 
Xi2?c, look, gaze, face. 
Lovl, claw. 
Lozhe, lay, lodge, Latin fec^vs, 

place, bed. 
Lokon, lure, Zoc^e. 
Losk, look, glance. 
Luna, moon, L. luna, 
Lyavo, left. 
Lyas, wood, L. ?wcws, 
Lyohh, love, liehen, like, long, 
S. ?wA, (lyobov). 

Lyod, leute, folk. Bo. ?ic?. 

Jfa^o, small, little. 

Manyo, wink, mahnen. 

Mash, butter, si, tr. 

Mat, mother. 

Mayo, ermilden, ah-matten. 

Mgla, nebel, veil, L. wutes. 

Med, honey, L. TweZ. 

Melyo, mill, mahlen. 

Mezh, with, miY, twixt, mid, 

Metch, sword*, messer, mace. 

Merknu, murky, dark, 

Mir, /riede, /roh, peace, 

Mir, world, L. mundus. 

Mleko, milk, L. lac. 

Mnogo, much, many. 

Mnu, kneten, knead. 

Mnyo, mean, believe. 

Mogu, may, might. 
Mokro, moist, mucky, 
Moloko =5= m leko . 
More, see, meer. 
Moroz, mraz, frost. 
Motchu, moisten. 
Motch, might. 
Mrak, dark. 
Mru, murder, die. 
Mucha, fly, Fr. mouche^ 
Myalkiy small, khin, 
Myasto, spot, place, state, 
Myaryo, measure. 
Mias\ meat, flesh. 
Muzh, man, niensch, 
Na-chozhy, in-go, in-vent, 
Nag, naked, bare. 
Nizki, be-neath, deep. 
Novo, new. 

Noga, hoof, foot, Fr. ongh^ 
Nozh, knife, messer, 
Nora, hole, gruhe, 
Nos, nose. 

Noshu, L. -yeAa, bring, push* 
Nuzhu, need, press. 

Obost, obst, 

Ovza, L. ove, sheep, ewe, 

0(7o», o^«, L. ignis, fire. 

Or^a, horde. 

OreZ, eagle, adler. 

Oryo, L, aro, harrow. 

Okno, window, look^ see, 

Ostrui, sharp, L. acer^ 

Padu, fall, Gr'kp^^o. 

Pa, part. 

Parad, pracht, parade, 

Paryo, burn, parch. 

Pashu, wehen, wind.. 

Piita, poet, dichten, 

Pishu, paint, write. 

PiYie, drink, L. jpiTW. 

Plam, flame. 

P!?oc^, fruit, pi, fr. 

PZi/^, plow. 

Pluivu, swim, sail,2>feo. 

Polnoe, full ; pulia, ball. 



i^abih, law, irttle, straight, 
line, true ; law ^lex^^t 

Fetch, stove, bake. 

Ptiza, bird, Boh. ptak^ Greek 
petomaiy fly. 

Pravo, right, de-praved. 

Rahot, work, arbeiL 

Baby serve, slave. 

Rvu, tear, nip/en^l 

Raztim, reason. 

Rdyayos^ red. 

Rebro, rib, rippe, 

Rad, joy, yroA. 

i?ov, grave* 

Rod, kind, art, way, (road). 

Rog, bom, rock. 

i^oto, oath. 

Ryatch, word, rccfe. 

Rvhez, riefe^ furrow. 

Rvka, hand, arm, G'k cAeir. 

.^tfta, fish, rb, f 

Ryaka^ river, run. 

Riad, row, rank. 

^i«Z, rudder, helm. 

Sazhayo, set, place. 

^a/o, tallow. 

Svinid, swine. 

Solnze, sun. Bo. slunce, 

Svara, quarrel, streit 

Svishu, whizz, whistle. 

JS'dayo, give-up, (s prefix). 

S'doryo, strive, streiten, 

JS'dirayo, tear-off. 

SlddJd, sweet, G^k, glukus. 

JShiroki, broad, spread* 

Semia, family. 

Serdze, heart, s, h. 

Sizhu, sit. 

Sila, strong, si, str. 

Sito, sieve. 

Siayo, shine, light. 

Skatchu, skip, spring* 

Skoro, short, hurry. 

Skrbu, scrape, shave. 

SlaM, slack, schlaff, 

Slava, glory, laud. ^ 

S'lagayo,^ lay-up* 

Slifoa, plum. 

fS'lovo,'^ word, G'k hgos^ sylhe, 

syllable. , 
tSluch, hear, ear, geruchi, S* 

srUj G'k khw. 
S-mert, death, murder. 
S-myah, bold, m, b. 
S-myachj s-mile, laugh* 
S-nimayo, ab-nehmen^ 
tSo'bak, dog, bk, dg* 
Sotchu, catch, take* 
Sol, salt. 

tStari, old, strong. • 
Stebel, stalk, Stengel, 
Strogi, strict, straight* 
Son, sleep, Lat. somniis, Fren^ 

Spat, splyo, sleep. 
Stablyo, stable, steUen, stall^ 

stand, stay. 
Stan, stand, station. 
#5^2;', stop, step, path* 
Stol, table, s^AZ* 
Stop, foot, step. 
Stoyo, stand, L. s<o. 
Stroenie, structure. 
Strvyo, stream, pour. 
StvJcy stick, strike, 8t088\. 
Svzhu, judge. 
SiiJc, coin, twig. 
Su'Tovi, rough, coarse. 
Suchi, dry, L. siccus, 
Sv^shi, sure, certain. 
Sir ana, tract, stretch, strtchf 

land « tract, as line =» 

rule, rect, 
Schod', go, scud, scatter. 
Syaku, hack, cut. 

1 Through all Russian, strike off the ending i/o as a. mere person 

2 5 is a prefix identical with ffy h. 



SyayOy sow, spread. 

Sad^ garden. 

Tvoryo^ work, tragen, born* 

Telia, calf- 

TemnOy dim^ dark. 

Temie, thorn. 

Tkan, web, tissue- 

2W, dim, darkness. 

Tb^a, troop, L. turba. 

Torg, trade, handle. 

TonkiCf thin, fine, tiny. 

To'Vare^ wares. 

Truba, trumpet, L. tuba* 

Trudy tiredj trouble. 

TVm^cAw, press, driicken* 

Tupo, dumb, stump. 

lyaloy body, corpus, tl, or* 

Tyo^, pack, ball. 

Tianu, ex-tend, dehnen. 

U-bozk^ poor, pov-erty. 

^•^0^, angle, winkd. 

U-goly cojJ. 

U-met, mist. 

U-tchu, teach, L. €ife>c6a. 

Chvala, praise, 7o2». 
Chozhy, go, walk, seek. 
Cholodno, cold. 
Chotchuy wish. 
C%t^, bad, worse, 
^a?, heal, whole. 
I'chadOf child, A:wm?. 
Tchad, vapor, steam. 
Tchemie, black, «cAtcarte,dark, 

Tcherta, stroke, chart. 
Tchislo, cipher, zaM. 
Tchisto, just, chaste. 
Tchitayo, read, re-cite. 
TcMen, member, glied, 
Tchudo, wonder, awe. 
Tchuyo, hear, L. audio^ 
Tcherv, worm, L. ver. 
TchoA, time, zeit, 
TcMn, rank. (TcA is on^ 

lazuik, tongue. 
UzM, narrow, tng. 
Urn, wise, d-eem. 

To this we will add only a limited number of Bohemift** 
words, such only as present important forms, since the great 
mass of Bohemian words, as well as the rest of Slavic, aresaV 
stantially the satne aa in Russian. 

Klobouk, hat, cap, head. 
Dum, house, home. 
Pilny, .diligent, fleissig. 
Sely, whole, ganz, 
Velke, great, much, viel 
Stul, stool, table. 
Sin, deed, done, thun, 
Vci, learn, teach, L. doceo, 
Idou, go, L. itu, it 
Pri-sel, came, walk. 
Hoch, boy, knabe. 
Kosar, coach, carriage. 
Mnoho, much, many. 
Rod, willing, ready, rather. 


Bydli, dwell, a-bide. 

Stin, shadow, dim. 

Imeno, name. 

D'louhe, long. 

Kapr, carp. 

Muz, man, mensch, 

Klis, key, lock, L. devis. 

Leto, year. ^ 

Zivot, life, L. vivo, G-'k zo^^^ 

la-zyk, tongue. 

Miluj, love, &\,ph%los, 

Psar, writer, painter. 

lehla, R. igla, needle. 

Bitva^ battle. 



JK^o-sile, shirt. 
Kuze, Hide, eoat. 
2^uc, gall. 
Xost, bone, L» os. 
Celcoti) wait» 
Hirati^ sport. 
T^Za<i\ call, L. voco. 
Loviti, hunt, lau/en* 
2>t, sajj L*' ^ico. 
Brati^ here, bring, take. . 
P«a<i, write, scriypsi. 
• Pratt, strike, bring. 
C^M, be-gin. 
Cfhciy will, choice. 
Jft^', have, habeo, (ti, iti^ ati 

is the infinitive ending). 
Ziti, out; ditij do. 
Cfti, read, re-cite. 
Strihu, shear, strip. 
Rici, say, L. reo^ pr-each. 
CJdehy^ (bread), loaf, G. lath, 

Go. cMdbs. 
Bily, white, bleach, L. albus. 
Zeply, warm, tepid, hot. 
Vemy, true, L. verus. 
Piny, full, L. plenus. 
Husty, thick. 
Chudy^ poor, bad. 

Drah^ dear, 
ifa, friend, G'kpAi?, 
-ffriw, curve, hrumm, 
Mrtev, dead, mort. 
Prost, free ; <vrc?, hard. 
Znam, known, sign. 
Zichu, still ; ^wAy, steif. 
Tmavy, dark, dim. 
Svaty, holy, saint. 
Ruchly, quick, rush, rapid. 
Hezky, pretty, hilbsch. 
2jimni^ winter, L. hiems, 
Zadost, joy, L. gaudium, 
Noc^ no8, night. 
Kratke, short. 
Ouzkost, anxiety, angst, 
Lez, lie, luge. 
Dluhj debt, schrdd. 
Pero, feather, /eder, /er, 
Olovo, lead, bled 
Pitij drink, im-bibe. 
Stribro, silver. 
Svire^ steer, thter, Jj. /era* 
Neve, heaven, L. tiubes. 
Krk, neck, hah. 
Pes, dog, bite. 
Bor, wood, for-est. 
Vlk, wolf, L. wipes* 

Slavic Etymology, 

583. Enough words have been given as examples ^ to show 
the peculiar cast and appearance which Slavic words present, 
when brought into comparison with Latin and German words. 
The list which has been given is pretty comprehensive, and it 
embraces a large share of the most common and leading words 
to be found in a language. With all their peculiar dress, the 
words of Slavic can with certainty be identified with those of 
the Latin, Greek, and German class. It bears, when properly 
viewed, a close relationship with each of these languages — few 
words being found in Slavic which cannot, even at the present 
day, be eiasily identified with those of Greek or Latin, or Ger- 
man and English. 

We have selected chiefly from the Kussian, with only a few 
from the Bohemian, as it was of little use, as a matter of etymo- 
logy, to bring more dialects into the comparison. Very few 

198 I>HBASIS« 

words could be found, in the related dialects, which do not ap- 
pear uniform with either those of Russian or Bohemian. There 
is indeed a remarkable identity, making allowance for letter 
changes, found in the forms of words in the whole Slavic class. 
After passing from the Bohemian and Russian, we should find 
little that would be particularly new or important in the ortho- 
graphy of the words. 

The most striking appearance in the forms of words in the 
Slavic, is the accumulation of consonants without intervening 
vowels. In this respect, it greatly resembles the Semitic class. 
We here find letters united which with us are separated by 
a vowel. And, in this prevailing character of the Slavic, as 
well as of other languages, we find renewed proof that the pre- 
fixes, so called, of the verb are not a distinct part of it, but 
rather inseparably united with the body of the word at the 
beginning, having, as we may say, grown upon it and from it. 
We have found in Slavic, as elsewhere, many of these prefixes 
existing only as a single letter, not divided from that which 
follows by a vowel, but united with it to form one single growth 
or element. Our own direct, straight, Fr. droit, right, furnishes 
a good illustration of this principle. We are wont to call di a 
prefix, because it is separated from r by a vowel, but it is plain 
that dir, str, dr, and r, are all equal, and that st, or d, is just 
such a prefix as the di, and, again, that they are no more prefixes 
than any other initial letter. The Slavic has left out this con- 
necting vowel of the prefix so often, that its dependent existence 
is clearly proved. We have done the same thing in thousands 
of words ; as in w-rong, copapared with right, p'lace with lay, L. 
locus, in h-now, k-nee, st-rip, sc-ruh. It need not be answered 
that <Aese prefix letters have no meaning, for what meaning has 
de in de-light, de-fer, which is acknowledged tib be a genuine 
prefix preposition? Most prefix prepositions, and we think all, 
have no more of an individual meaning than this de, or the let- 
ters p, 8c, k, which have been pointed off. 

It cannot be too well borne in mind that those accumulated 
consonants, as mn, zv, zvy, dl, vgr, in Slavic, are really to be 
taken as one letter, or as repeating elements like our vv^w; 
besides, in several instances, we are obliged to represent their 
single letter by two or three of ours, as in tch, shtsh, ia, zh. 

It must be noted, too, that the prodigious growth of endings 
in Russian, and often when we have none at all, tends greatly ' 
to obscure the real resemblance — instance 6/yac?-m*, German 
hlass^ our bleach. We have occasionally left off, or marked off 
these endings in the list, and where we have not, they should 
always, in etymological comparisons, not only in Russian, but 
in all, be struck off or disregarded. 



We may as well remark here as elsewhere, and once for all, 
that our lists are only etymological comparisons, and they can- 
not by any means be relied on as giving the true definition of 
the word, as we have often found it proper to give some related 
rather than direct meaning. Besides, considering that a word 
never loses its original force by becoming a new part of speech 
and developing endings, we have, for instance, used faithful ^si 
faith^ wise == wiser ^ amo s= amare^ true = truth. 

Gaelic Etymology, 

A'hairt, speech, preach. 
Abhar, cause, L. res, G. rath, 

from reden, speak. 
Abhaist, habit, fashion. 
A'bhra, dark, b, d. 
Achd, except. 
Achd, case, state. 
Achiofr, tart, sharp, L. acer, 
Acht, deed, statue, act. 
Acht, claw ; Ad, water. 
Adh, law, s-et. 
Adhm, know, L. video, 
Aedh^ eye. 
Agh, awe, battle. 
Aghaisach^ easy. 
Aicim, ask, be-seech. 
Aid, c-old. 
Aigein, ocean. 
Aighe, hill, high. 
All, will, while. 
AiU, place, course. 
AiUe, praise, laud. 
AiU, house, dwelling. 
Ailidh, white, blank. 
Aiminn, smooth. 
Aimsir, time, season. 
Aine, joy. 

Ainninjie, anger, ire. 
Ainn, ring, L. annus. 

Air, arise. 

Aire, straight. 

Aircann, certain. 

Aird, quarter. 

Airde, height, arduua. 

Aire, servant. 

Airghe, herd. 

Airg, prince, rex, arch. 

Airri, tyrant. 

Ais, bashful. 

Aisc, ask, re-quest. 

Ait, stead. 

Aith, quick, active. 

Al, stone, flint, G'k kias. 

Al, horse, Fr. chevaL 

Aladh, malice, skill. 

Allaidh, wild. 

Ahn, stone. 

Alt, brook, valley. 

Am, time, season. 

Amail, evil. 

Amha, man. 

Anac, wound. 

Anal, breath, L. ammus, 

Anam, life, L. anima, 

Anachuram, anxiety. 

Ang, r-ank, str-ing. 

Aoi, island, hill. 

Aoide, youth. 

Aoil, mouth, Gr. maul, ' 

1 It will be constantly noticed that the Gaelic, and the other Celtic 
words, when compared with ours have the appearance of abbreviations.. 
The initial letters of our words are for them mere prefixes, and we 
may consider them as silent. 



Arad^ strong, brave. 

Aran^ bread. 

Arc^ dwarf. 

Asam^ do, make, L./ocio, 

Ata^ hat, cap. 

Ba^ good, L. honus, 

Ba, death, b, d. 

BaCy hook. 

Bad, bunch, tuft, bush. 

Bagh, bind, bond, tie. 

Bail, place, (see aill), 

J?ame,.milk, b, m, 

Bair, game, battle. 

Bais, water. 

Balhg, blot. 

Ban, wan, pale. 

Banna, band, troop. 

Bar, bread, Sem. hara. 

Bar, son, born. 

Barr, top, head, first. 

Bata, stick, staff, French 5a- 

Batham, die, faint. 
J?e, life, L. vita, 
Beali, broom, 1, r. 
Beac, bee. 

Bean, woman, queen. 
Bearg, ire, anger. 
Bearr, short, brief. 
Bea&, sure, G-. ge-wis's. 
Beirt, burden, birth. 
Beo, alive, L. vivo. 
Beo, cattle, beef. 
Bothach, beast, wild. 
Bes, custom, way. 
Bi, bit, small, piece. 
Bian, skin, hide. 
Bil, blossom, flower. 
BU, good, Fr. heUe. 
Big, little, L. paucus, . 
Bvd, hedge. 
Bill, fool. 

Binn, sweet, voice, sound, 
Bior, water. 
Bir, brief, short. 
Bith, being, Q-. w^eft. 

-Bi<^, ha-bit, house. 

Bla, village. 

Bla, pale, yellow, blue. 

Bladh, flat, smooth. 

Bladh, flattery. 

Bladhm, brag. 

5^, flavor, taste. 

Blath, clean, white, blank. 

5o, cow, bull, L. 6o«. 

Bocan, hook, crook. 

Bochd, poor, want. 

5o(7, soft. 

Boidhad, beauty, pretty. 

jBoi?e, ire, bile. 

Bolg, bag, belly, swell. 

Bolg, bellows, swell, blow, 

gulp, bowl. 
Bory pride, swell. 
Borh, fierce, cruel. 
Bord, board, table. 
Bord, border, brim, brink. 
Borg, burg, borough. 
Borr, boss, burr, knob. 
Borral, proud, swell. 
Bos, base, low. 
Both; booth, house. 
Brae, arm, branch. 
Bran, poor, black, rock. 
Braos, gape, br, g. 
Bras, brisk, active. 
Brath, betray, treachery. 
Breas, prince, reign. 
Breisg, brisk, quick. 
Breog, weak. 
Bri, wrath, word. 
Briar, prickle, thorn. 
Brin, dream, Fr. reve. 
Brog, sorrow, brogan. 
Bru, bank, brow, brim. 
Brug, burg, borough. 
Bruighe, farm, Q-. batter, 
Buas, belly, pouch. 
Bims, breach, rout. 
Builgam, swell, boil. 
Bunn, work, done, been. 
Bur, swelling, ire, anger. 



^uSf month, fluout, Latin o«, 

bnss, kiss. 
Ca, honse, L. casa- 
€ah, head, cape, gap, 
Cahan, cabin, cab. 
Cad, high. 
CadaU, batth^. 
Oaec, blind, L. caBcui, 
Cagar, whisper. 
Cat, way, road. 
Caidh, cha^ite. 
Call, shield. 
CaiUj call. 

Caimis, shirt, Fr. chevr^uHf 
Cain, jent. 
Cairc, fijr, hair. 
Carraic^ crag, rock. 
Cairthe, chariot, cart, 
(7at^, sort, kind. 
(7aZ&, head, SI. glaha. 
Cola, hard, callous. 
(7a?Z, veil, con-ceal. 
Cam, sham, de-ceit. 
Canam, sing, L. cano. 
Oanaib, hemp. 
Caohh, bow, br^pc)^. 
Cammh, kind. 
(t7ao/, slim, small. 
Car aid, friend, near; 
Carhh, barge, car, 
Ca9, foot, c, f. 
Casag^ coat. 
Ca^A, battle. 
Ce, earth, G'k ^*, 
Cca?, heaven, Fr. ciel, 
Cealam, eat, Sem. c^u^. 
CeaJg, malice, beguile. 
Cean, fayor, kind. 
CeangaU, bond, L. ciTi^o. 
Cearb, silver. 
Cearn, man, L. vir. 
Ceasna, ne-cessity. 
CeUl, sense, will. 
Ceilg, de-ceit, L. celo, 
Ceirdy trade. 
Ceisd^ question. 

Ciach, fog, 

Cia», long, far. 

Cine, kind, L. genus, 

Cing, strong, bind. 

Cior, hand, Gr'k cheir. 

Cith, mist; c^&, lip. 

Claidamh, sword, L. gladius. 

Clarach, clear, bare, bald. 

Cleir, clergy. 

Clioc, hook, clan. 

Cloth, praise, laud. 

Cluas, hear, ear, Gr'k kltid. 

Cnag, knob, peg, snag. 

CneoAih, wound. 

Cneas, neck, (c is a prefi:( 

equal to g, k). 
Cno, nut. 

Coi^, wood, L. ^Iva, 
Coiinde, custom. 
Coin, hound, L. canis. 
Coinneal, candle. 
Coir, right, correct, crt, 
Coire, cauldron. 
Cois, foot, hoof. 
CoU, rnin, fall. 
Colum, dove, cohmba, 
pon, sense, dog, cani0. 
Cor, twist, turn. 
Cor, corner, near. 
Cosg, cease, stop. 
Corrhham, carve, grave, 
Cothi meat, victuals. 
Crann, tree, branch. 
Craptha, warped, curved, 
Creas, narrow, straight. 
Criobk, trifle. 
Criodh, heart, core. 
Criosd, quick, swift. 
Crogan, crock, Gr. krug. 
Croc, horn, L. comu, 
Cromh, worm. 
Cron, time, Gr'k chronos, 
Cruadh, hard, crude. 
Oman, red. 

Cruimam, thunder, grumble. 
Qruog^ need, press, crush, 



Cuala, heard. 
Cuirsam,^ tire. 
Cuire, throng. 
Cuisne, ice, frost. 
Cuisorij vise. 

Chdj chariot, coach, guard, cus- 
Curriy combat, G. Icamp/, 
Oumas, can, strength. 
Cur, power. 
Outha, rage, G. wuth. 
Gusty coat, skin. 
Cuth, head, cap. 
jDae, man. 

Dagham^ singe, burn, 
i>ai7, deal, part, lot. 
Daithy quick, active. 
Daigh, fire, pain, hot. 
Dan, work, done, poem. 
Daoirse, dearth, scarce. 
Dahh, coach, cab. 
i>ar<a7i,.herd, drove. 
Dath, dye, paint. 
J)eachair, follow, after, 
J)eadla, dare, bold. 
Deaith, wind, L. vew^i^s, 
Dealg, thorn, needle. 
Deanam, do, done, work. 
Dear, daughter. 
Dearbham, try, prove, 
Dearc, grave, cave. 
Deamam ?= deanam^ 
Deas, right, just. 
Deas, neat. 
D-eigh, ice. 
Deilchead, ill, bad, 
Deim, want, dearth. 
i>ciV, say, L. cZico, c?iV€, 
Z^eo, breath, G'kpweo. 
Deolaidh, aid, help. 
i>c<, food, victuals. 
Di, want, G'k deomat, 
Diachair, sorrow, care, 
DihecdL dumb, mute. 

Difir, difference, 

Digham, come, go, 

Dile, love, G-'kj?Ai7oa, 

Dioliochdadh, delight, 

Dimeas, con-tempt. 

Dinn, hill, deep. 

Dioach, divine, L. deus, 

Dtog, dyke, ditch, pit. 

Dioghais, high, tall, deep, 

Diolas, true, dear. 

2)ire, tribute. 

J)ith, want, defect. 

D'leachd, law, p-lace, 

Dluth, near, tight. 

Z)o6, stream, flow, go. 

i>owZ, hand, Fr. doigt^ 

Voire, grove, thicket. 

J)oite, quick, active. 

J)ol, space, distance. 

Donn, dun, brown. 

Dorr, wrath, L. durus. 

Dothar=dob, con-duit. 

Drab, spot, stain. 

Drabh, draw, cart. 

Dragh, trouble. 

Dream, tribe, family. 

Drean, wren. 

Droch, evil, bad, wrong, rig^^» 

straight, droit, 
Du, just, due. 
J9tt, land, G'k gi, 
DtLchas, visage, face. 
Duille, leaf, fold, /alia, 
Dulbhar, doleful, dark, glopi'*^ 

Jhir, hard, water, duru^ 
Each, horse, L. equus. 
Each, any, each. 
Eacht, feat, act, state. 
Eadh, time, season. 
J57a^, death, go. 
Eagar, order. 

Eaglais, church, Fr. egli^*. 
Ealang, fault, flaw. 

1 That mark s, which we so often elsewhere find as the sigi^ 
future, is found in many Celtic words. 



Balg^ excellent; 
EaUach, load. 
Bang, year, L. annus^ 
Earby offer. 
Ear, head, ere, crane. 
Earunn, share, portionv 
Easha, want, absence. 
Earr^ grand, noble. 
Ease, water, whiskeji 
Etde, cloth, G. kleid, 
Eifeacht, effect. 
Eight, science, art. 
Eirtgh, rising, arise^ 
EU, flock, herd. 
EU, battle. 
Er = earr. 
Ette = eadh, age. 
Eug, death. 
Eugas, likeness. 
Eun, bird, hen. 
JBulogh, escape, flights 
Fahhar, favor. 
Fachaim, fact, reason^ 
Fadail, delay. 
Faghaim, find, catch. 
Faigham, speak, L. for^ 
Faime, hem, brim, border^ 
Fair, watch, guard. 
Faith, heat, fire. 
FaUain, health, whole. 
Fan, wander. 
Fang, raven, vulture. 
FaoU, deceit, Jj.foMo. 
Farran, force, anger. 
Fa^, void, vase, hollow^ 
Fas, growth, wax. 
Feach. see, view. 
Feadhh, widow. 
Feal, bad, ill, e-vil. 
Feal, treason, villain ^ 
Fear, man, L. vir, 
Fearg, warrior. 
Fearh, Word, L. verhunt. 
Fee, weak, feeble. 
Feaihat, bowl, vessel* 
Feis^ pig, swine. 

Fen, wain, wftgon. 

Fes, mouth, face, L. osv 

Fiadh, land. 

Fiamh, fear. 

Fiar, crooked, warp. 

Fine, family, L. genus, natioii. 

Fioch, wrath, G. wMh, 

Fion, few, small, fine. 

Fionach, old, ancient. 

Fionn, white, blank. 

Fior, true, L. verus, 

Fios, science, L. video, 

Firsi, power, strength; 

Fis, dream, vision. 

Fiu, worth. 

Flaith, flower. 

Man, red, flame, blood. 

Flur, flower, blossom. 

Flock, lax, soft, flaccid. 

Foairn, swarm, herd. 

Focal, vowel, word. 

Foghar, voice, sound. 

Fois, rest, quiet. 

Folg, fleet, active. 

FoUas, plain, clear. 

Fonn, tune, song. 

For as, old, R. stary, 

Forcam, learn, instructs 

For tan, fortune, found. 

Fortil, hardy, L, fortis, 

Fot, giant. 

Frag, woman, G. ftau\ 

Fraoch, rage, fury. 

IVas, ready, active. 

Froghim^ wrong. 

Fuach, word, vocal, soundi 

Fuar, cold, chilly, freeze. 

Fuascrmm, fright, fear. 

Fuatham, hate. 

Fuil, blood, gore. 

Fuigam, leave, flee. 

Fulla, false, lie. 

Furtachd, comfort. 

Gabhail, spoil, catch. 

Gabhal, fork, G. gahel, gore* 

Ga^h^ dart, want. 



Gag, chink, deft. 

Gail, kill. 

Gaillian=^gathj L. teJur/t, 

Gaid, father, dad. 

Gair^ cry, laugh, Fr. rire, re- 
joice, L. gaudivm. 

Gal, battler, L. heUum. 

Garhhy rough, coarse^, grob, 

Garam^ warm. 

Garg^ rough, fierce, &m. 

Gasimj boy^ Fr. gargon, 

Ge, geadh^ goose. 

Gealj clear, fair, white^* 

Gean, favor, G. gunsU 

Gearr^ short, curt. 

Geilt^ wild, mad. 

Gen, wound, knife. 

6rion, will. 

Gtvlam, follow. 

Glacam, take, G'k labj 

Glaedhj broad, L. Iatu9i 

Glarriy shout, clamor. 

Glan, clean, pure. 

Glas,^ lock, seMosSi 

GlaSj grey, pale, glas^. 

Gleann, glen, valley. 

Gkire, elect, Fr. dire. 

Gleithy clean, pure, neat, white^ 
G. mn. 

6r^a«, order, class. 

Glic, wise, G. klug. 

Glinn, light, sky, gleam^ 

GUhy glide, slide. 

GloiVy^ glory, take. 

G^Zor, noise, speech^ yell. 

Geal = ^^. 

G^na, mode, way. 

Gnae, woman, G'k gurU. 

Gneath, born, L. nattta. 

Gnic, know. 

Gno,^ note, ktidv^, &m«/ 
GOf sea, water, L. a-^^ua^ 
Gahhar, goat, G. ^o«o^. 
G^oic, joke, scoff. 
Goirty sour, bitter, tart 
GooTj light, ore. 
G^or^, hunger. 
Crradti, charity, L. gradw* 
Graig, herd, drove. 
Grata, gi'^t, noble. 
Grian^ ground, G. grundt 
Grxnn, garrison^ 
Grith, skill. 
Grothalj gravel, sand. 
Guala, shoulder. 
Gubha, combat. 
Gruin, pain, dart. 
Gul, wail, Weeping. 
Grus, anger, an-guisb. 
Guth, voice, Totrel. 
i, island. 
lal, light. 

lar, dark, black, t>ird. 
lath, land ; tM, drink^^ 
Ic, cure, eek. 
icZA, use, L. utor. 
Idna, Weapon. 
11, well, plenty, much^ 
Inhear, marble. 
Im-lan, full. 
In-sMocas, choice. 
Ingne, fiail, Fr. ongUd 
Inntxn, mind. 
lolar, eagle, G. adleri 
lomdha, many much. 
lomhadh, envy. 
tonga, nail, claw, hoof^ 
lonnraic, upright. 
lofin'SamkuU, same, 
ir, anger, ire. 

^ ^, like other letters m Celtic^ is oftdn for us tf prefix. 

2 We shall constantly notice, in Gaelidy the tendency of its ort^ 
graphy to identify itself with French. 

B 6^ is a pretfix precisely as in Greek and German ; we see als9 ^ 
suffix c = L. quey at the end of the Gaelic words, like Latin hiti'^' 
there are other suffixes, or eommon endings } as, am, t-^tm. 




tris^ friend; irr, rear. 
ItJieadh, eating. 
L-alihairt^^ say, speech. 
jjachd, milk, L. lacte, 
Ladroti, thief, L. latro. 
Lag, weak, lag, lax. 
Laibh, clay, liine. 
Laith, many, Gr. letUe, 
Laftih, hand. 
LaogTiar, claW, too. 
La, day, 1, d. 
Loom, blaze. 
Lan, full; ?a«c^-, load* 
Lath^ youth, lad. 
Ltzbe, bed, L. leetus, 
Le-abhamy read, lego. 
Le'obhar, book, ^t&cr, (so that 

L. Ither is equal to sa^, 

LeaSy reason, L; res, 
Lear, elear^ 

LeathaUy broad, wide, L. latus. 
Letganiy let, lesve, allow. 
Ijeiniam, leap, jtimp. 
Letts^ light, kK)k. 
Zria, stone, Or*k laask 
Liach, spoon, ladle. 
Liobham, smooth, glib. 
ZiiUj follow. 
Zioc, place, Fr. IteUi 
Z/omj lean, bare. 
Lonn, strong, force. 
Lot, wool^ L. lana, 
Luachy price, G-. John, 
LuaUy inoon^ K ^na* 
IjtLath, fleet, foot* 
Zrw6, loop) hoop* 
Jj-uhhray work, opera* 
I/uchy mouse. 

Luchdy equal to ^atVA. 

i^ow^, ship, sail, p-low, G'k 

p-loion, pleo equal to sail. 
Luthy strehgth, power 
MaCy^ son, born, natus^ Go. wa- 

^t(8, maid. 
J!/ac?,3 hand. 
Maiddin, inorning. 
Main^ day, G'k ^emera, 
Madh, field, mead. 
Mai, king, L. re^, Sem. nfiaL 
Maoin, love, mind, think* 
Maon, mute, dumb. 
J[fao?, bald, blunt. 
Marbham, murder* 
Marc, horse, ioiare. 
Meall, ball, blunt. 
Meogal, medley, mix* 
Mil, honey, L. mel. 
Milis,^ sweet) L. mel. 
Mio8, mouth, L. mensisi 
Mir J part, bit* 
Mogh, man. 
Moin, mount. 
Mois, mode, L. fnos, 
Mor, great, much. 
Mort, murder. 
Mucag, mug, cuj)-. 
Muilly delay. 

Muinam, teach. !L. moneoi 
Jl/w?, multitude. 
MwTy wall, L. micfT««. 
Ndbadh, neighbor. 
Ndoi, ship, L. navis, 
Namh, enemy. 
Nathj science, note, know» 
Nathair, adder, Snake. 
Neal, cloud, L. nubes, 
Neamh, heaven, nubes. 

^ Abhairtf With the prefijt I, corre6t>onding with Gt€t. leaen, read, L. 

^ We find also macgim equal to t>ear, carry; so mac has the same 
origin as «on, in all languages equal to born, L. natus, L. puer, 

* The forms mad, man, and Zam^, are all equal to Latin manus^ out 

* Prefix nUwmmM, and vnesnot, bad, is common ;n GaeliCi 



Neasta, just. 
Neipj turnip. 
iW, DOt, thing. 
Nim, do, make. 
NoSj know, modei 
Nuall, noble. 

Obair, work, opera. 

Og, young, twig. 

Ogh, whole, ear. 

Oir, shore, border. 

Olan, wool. 

On, gain. 

Ong, fire, L* ignis, 

Ord, order, sericfs. 

Pais, passion. 

Paiteog^ butter. 

Peall, horse, Fr. cheval. 

Phsg, quick, G. pfofe. 

■^<^c, pig. 

i?ac, king, L; rex, rege. 

Paean, noise, racket. 

Racht, arose, arrive. 

Bag, wrinkle, rugous* 

Raith, entrreaty. 

Rang, rim, border. 

Raon, green. 

Read, thing, G. rath^ L. res^ 

Rad'ham, say, G'k re©. 

Readh, rage, fury. 

Raith, went, tan. 

Reim, troop, band. 

2?eo, frost. 

^t^A, arm, bracket. 

i?o(^i, rotten, shrunk* 

Roid, race. 

i?o<A, wheel, L. rota, 

Ruchd, room. 

Rtis, wood, brush, grove* 

Sa^ham, at-tack, set. 

Saisde, sage. 

^Saor, free, s, f. 

Sar, very, G. se^r* 

Sasat, L. sa<w. 

/Sci6, skiff, ship. 

Sdaid, state. 

Sdair, story. 

Sdeud, steedi 

/S'ean, ancient, L. seneo;! 

Searhh, sour, L. ocd*. 

Searg, seared, dry; 

Searr, horse, colt. 

z&is, skill ; ji^a, sake; 

Sgail, shade, sg, sc, shi 

Sgaol, scatter. 

Sgeil, skill. 

Sgille, quick, agile. 

Sglata, slate. 

Sgroibam, scrape^ scratch, 

write j grave. 
Sguaham, sweep. 
Silam, drop, distil. 
Sion, chain; bondj tie* 
Slan, sound, healthy. 
Sliogam, sleek, smooth* 
Smuid, smoke, vapor. 
Sochd, silence. 
Sodan, joy, L. gaudium, 
Spre, sparkle. 
Sread^ herd, troop. 
Sreamh, stream. 
Srian, strain, rein. 
Stain, tin, Fr. etain; 
SuH, eye, sun; 
Sur, search, in-quire. 
Tahhair, give, L. daho. 
Tai, deaf, silent, L. tac^o* 
Tais^ wet, dank. 
Talamh, soil, L. terra, 
Tarmadh, dwell, tarry. 
Teagh, house, sty, tectunim 
Teith, hot, toast. 
Tiag, sack, G. tasche. 
Time, fear, timid. 
Tig, go, come, L. it. 
Tin, be-gin. 
Tioncam, at-tend. 
Tir, ground, L. terra* 
Tiug, tight, thick. 
Toid, whole, total. 
Tor, lord, sovereign. 
Torg, de-stroy. 
Tread, herd, drove. 


Trean, strong, brave. Uidh, care, heed. 

Treotam, trot^ come. Uir^ fire. 

Tronij heavy, L. gravis. Uisge^ water, whiskey. 

TuiUy flood, deluge. Una, hunger. 

Tur, dry, bare, torrid. £/r, earth. 

Ugh, egg] Uige, wise. Tlachd, delight. 

We have noticed, in thi^s reviewing the Gaelic etyn^plogy, a 
striking tendency to the French and German forms of words. 
The words are very short ; in comparison with the Latin and 
Greek languages, there are here but very few of what may be . 
called formative syllables or letters. It is not alone the absence 
of gender and case endings, of endings to denote the persons of 
the verb and the agreement of the adjective ; there are very 
few of what in other lp,nguages we understaiid by derivative 
forms — that is, forms developed by the appearance of new syl- 
lables. Thus, we find borg for borough, bla for yeljow, cearb 
for silver, cealg for be-guile, cleir for clergy, fis for vision, ba for 
Latin bonus, difir foy difference, duil for delight, fee ^or feeble. 
We find, also, ipany instances where one consonant, or vowel, in 
Gaelic, represents two or more in our own language, as c-am=5 
sh-am, artt=^st-ead, ei-de==clO'th, oir^ash-ore, 

The comparison of Gaelic words which we have made with 
those which follow them, will easily be understood. The words 
which are given as Gaelic equivalents, are equal to each other 
as well as to the Gaelic term itself; and the letters of the 
Gaelic are supposed to correspond with those of its definitions ; 
as, in cail= shield, c=ish, and l=ld; bran == black, br^r=bl, and 
an=ack; bordr^brim^ i. e. brd=brm ; bosd^boastir^, d=^ 
ting — as ting is only a development of t; bearr=^sKort, b=sh^ 
rr=^rt, (brief = short). 

Bearing in mind the peculiar representatives or correspond- 
ents of Letters in Gaelic, and Celtic, when compared with other 
European languages, we find but very few words there which 
cannot readily be placed along side some equivalent in English, 
German, Latin, French, or Greek. Indeed, it is almost as easy 
to identify Celtic orthography with these, as it is to identify 
English with German, provided that we proceed in the right 

We might add, also, that the number of Celtic words identi- 
cal with Semitic, or nearly so, should not escape the notice of 
f^ny in(]^uirerj as it is really striking, 



Welsh Etymology, 
Ohaledj bard, callous. 
Bran, crow, raven, black, 
Cwmwl, cloud, L. cumvJ^, 
Merchj girld, maid. 
Ffenestr, window, finster, 
Bryn, hill, brow. 
Dyn, man, d, m. 
Golwg, look, sight. 
JPorsa, pasture. 
Adar, birds. 
Melyn, mellow, yellow. 
Coch, red ; Casglu, gather, 
Go'Sodj set, placQ. 
Fremiriy king, rex, first. 
Gw-lad, land. 
C'ry/, strong, G, A;rflR/i5, 
Atodl, ode. 
Plygiif bend, fold- 
Cm?7i, dog, G. Awncf, 
Pechod, sin, wicked, 
jifiar, briar. 

Tf^w, lambs, Fr. agneau, 
Pachgen, boy, mac, 
Sefyll, stand. 
Geffyly horse, Fr. chevah 
' Arth, b-ear, L. wr«2*s. 
Lly/r, book, L. Ziftcr. 
Milwyr, soldier, L. wi^, 
Cadpen, captain. 
Llythyr, letter. 
Ddinas, city, town. 
/^e^A, thing, L. re«. 
^mser, time. 
Ddear, terra, earth. 
Plwm, lead, plumb. 
Chleddyf, sword, L. gladivA, 
Hiechyd, health* 
Mehog, hawk. 
ffwch, swine, hog. 
Jfw7y^Z, muggy. 
fosiaw, pose, puzzle. 

Troed, foot, tread. 
Esgym, bone, L. oa, 
Pwmp, bump, lump, 
Crim, orimp. 
Ctc, foot, kick. 
Peled, bullet. 
Lhjoyar, ladle. 
Gwyfr, wire. 
G^M?w, gown, G. ge-wand^ 
Gwalt, welt, hem. 
Cri^<, crust, 
jl/u7^, smoke. 
JP%, plait, fold, 
JJlimp, slim, slender. 
Colpo, cuff, Fr. cowp, 
Stang, tank. 
Chweg, sweet. 
Saffwn, shaft, staff. 
Swmwl, stimulus. 
Gwylt, wild, L. vefoa, 
Cwrwf, G. 6ier. 
Deter, strong, L. mr. 
^awZ, sun, L. so?. 
>8fer, star, L. steUa, 
Prynu, buy. 
Marw, dead, morte. 
Chwerw, bitter, sour. 
C-fojf, lame. * 
Caer, wall, G. mauer^ 
Enw, name. 
Tref, town, G. dbr/. 
(ro/r, goat, L. capra, 
G-raig, rock, crag. 
Ckor, L. mr. 
TVa, very, h, verus. 
Cnoi, bite, gnaw. 
J3ach, little, L. pai*c-t««. 
5^w)iyW,^'dim, dark. 
Clywe3, hear, G'k A;?mc^. 
Chwant, want, wish. 

Sufficient has been given of Welsh to show what forms our 
words have when they appear there, and, besides, enough tq 
jgive some idea of the way in which Welsh compares with Gaelic, 



Semitic Languages. 

Our selections will be first and mainly from Hebrew, 
We shall notice continually in Semitic, and in Hebrew par- 
ticularly, that certain initial letters are pure augments, or pre- 
fixes, for us, and if we would compare them with European 
words we must cast them off entirely. The letter a in Hebrew 
we shall find oflen to be such an augment. 

Aoth = aor^ sign, show. 
Azad = Azal, Ar. zaL 
A-chaz, catch, L. capio, 
A-char, after, follow. 
A-mal, weak, G'k. amahs — 

other forms, malal, malja^ 

malaq; wilt. 
Ametz^ might. 

Ae-inesh, night, L. nox^ even- 
ing, Gr. abend. 
A-mar^ o-mer, word (m, w); 

mr, pr, spr, pray, Gael. 

abhar equal to speak, say. 
A-phalj veil, G. verhUUen; 

forms, aphil, a/a/. 
Aphen, o/en, time, temps. 
Aphesj pause, cease. 
A-phar, G./ahren^ fare, form, . 

pharar, Ar. /arak, Ger. 

sprossen, sprout. 
A-qqo, G. bock, goat. 
A-rag, string, right, strong, 

firm, force. 
Arrar^ stick, arrow* 
AereZj earth, erde. 
Aeshj ash, fire. 
Ashur. G. schrttty tread, a^har, 

Chal. atar, tread. 
Atha, ata, Celt, aeth, L. it, go, 

come, went. 
Aenosh, eush, G. mensch. 
Baar, bury, G. graben. 
Beer, G. brunnen, spring. 
Baash, Ar. baus, Ger. bose, 

base, bad. 

A-hir, strong, force, vir. 

Ae-hen, stone, SI. Jca-men. 

A-hag, bind, ball, wick. 

Agcim, ignite, bum. 

A-ffan, go, gone, tread, G'k 

A-ssan, ear, hear, aJcoud. 

Assal, walk, glide, go. 

A-^ar, gather, collect, G'k 
ageiro, our herd. We 
find the related forms 
ye-gar, gur, garar. 
A-cJial, eat, chew, San. ^aZ; to 
compare with our eat, we 
must strike off the I, al^ 
which is often a suffix, 
like several other letters ; 
Alb. cha. 
^-e^aw, red, Ger. roth. - 
At^rmo, bottom, G. boden. 

A-^der, Adir, wide, (r suf.) 

^^ah, aab, love, G'k agapad, 

^^^^l, Or. zeU, folk, od. [L . amo. 

-^"^y au, L. vel, wish. 

-^W, wood, brand. 
A.-val, oval, fool. 
Aid, strong, might, as we see 
by the form meodh equal 
ixi might, — atYisa cognate 
form, 1, d; this ail, el, 
shows that Aha, AUa, 
God, means power, the 

Aor, light, aurora, G'k orao 
equal to see, stare 'y ore 
equal to bright, shine. 



Bad^ part; hadal, G. theil, 
divide — other fonns are, 
had-ad^ bad-aa, had-aq, 
had-ar (bdr, brd, spread) 
— showing 1, d, a, q, r, to 
be equivalent suffix end- 
ings. These are letters 
which we shall often meet 
with as mere endings. 

Balal, G'k hallo, pour, throw, 
Fr. meler, blend. 

Bazar, spread, strew. 

Bo, boa, G'k haino, go. 

Bm8, tread, foot,/M«s. 

Bur, hor, G. forscheny fragen^ 
break, bury. 

Bosh, bash, shame. 

Baz, booty. 

Baza, Ger. spotten, mock. 

Baz-aq, piece (q suf.) 

Bata, hatal, hollow, empty, 
bottle, hauch. 

Biyn^ deem, b, d, L. video, 
G'k phaino, mean, medi- 
um, think. 

Biyra, burg. 

Bayith, heth, dwell, house, 

Bacha, weep, G. weinen, G'k 

Bal-aq, pour, spill; hal-a, 
bal-al, hal-ag, 

Bal-am, swell. 

Bana, build, G. batten. 

Bead, a-bout. 

Boat, beat, tread, walk. 

Baar, burn, brand. 

Baal, boil, flow, swell. 

Baqa, split, stream, brook, G. 
bach, break ; baq, baqaq, 
gush, pour. 

Boqer, early, morn ; so we use 
break in day-break, dawn. 

Bar, boy, born, L. ptier. 

Bar a, bar ad, baraz, stick, 
stab, brad, dart; pare 
equal to cut; barach, 
" break, is a related form. 
Bara forms, S. kar, L. parOy 
part, break; barar, cut, 

Gad,"^ go, come. 

Geeh, high, G. Iwch, 

Gav, heave, high, heap, cave, 
bow, back, ridge, hollow 
— ail founded on the idea 
of concave = convex. So 
we find the gee, slightly 
varying, representing all 
those meanings ; forms, 
gav, gav-av, gav-ah, gav- 
al, gav-oAih^ gav-ar, gav- 
ash. We see here one of 
the principal means of 
multiplying derivatives in 
Semitic, that of varying 
the final letter, with a 
corresponding variation in 

Ge-bor, force, strong, German 
ge-walt and kraft. 

Ga^bal, belly, G. gauch, 

Ge-ber, ge-ver, L. vir, man. 

Gadal, allied with gah, gav, 
heap, means great; gdl 
= gld, grd, grand. 

Gadaa, cut, hew. The whole 
family of words meaning 
cut, pierce, part, shear, 
shave, etc., etc., are iden- 
tical in Greek, Ger., and 
Sem., as a slight inspec- 
tion will show. 

Gadar, hard, grd, hrd. 

Gvhh, guv, hew. 

Gur, draw, deer, thier. 

Ga-zar, shear, cut, pare. 

Ga-cheleth, coal. 

^ Gis B. prefix in Hebrew which is very common, identical, too, with 
the g of Europe. 



G^:S^l, Ar. hal^ coil, Gr. Iiohl^ 

cylinder, G'k kuktos, 
Gf^^y corner, short, curt. 
Gailah^ clip, G-. glatt, 
Gctl^al^ gcdal^ roll, wheel; 
E.ass. kolo^ G. Ajrew, circa, 
GotZah^ walk, wallow. 
Gctlach, G. glatty callow. 
Gtxm, heap, high, cumu-late, 

Gctr^mdl^ gormar, mass, much, 

muUns^ mel. 
Ga-nabj knab, steal. 
Garad, scratch, grate. 
G-aphran, heap, curve. 
Ga-rahj raise, e-rect. 
Gerahj corn. 

Gor-ralj rough, raise, ran. 
Gor-raph, grave, tear, rent, rip. 
Garar, turn, G. kehren, schar- 

Gash-am, harsh, fast. 
^ob^ar, speak, pray (==amar), 
word, Gaelic lor-hairt = 
^a>gaJi^ dagal, deck, clothe, 
^or, dur, tarry, during, [d-gl). 
^cichah, stick, tap, beat — all 
the family of beat, strike, 
press, bind, etc. 
^a^, door. 

^Kyn, deem, doom, just. 
^oM, L. (bUo, bear, 
^am, blood, Fr. sang, 
I^amah, like, same. 
I^apaq = dachah. 
^arag, tread, Gr. trecTio. 
Darer = darag, turn. 
I^arash = darar, thrash, 

search, yro^en, break. 
Se-hd,^ blow, breath. 
Badak^ lead, guide. 
Bordar, draw, break. 

^•fi^ifl a common prefix. 

' C% (one letter) is often a prefix. 

Havah, Ar. huachy Ger. hauch, 
puflf, breathe. 

Se-vah, be, was. 

JSTor, G. Jer^, rock, R. gora. 

Halaky walk, go. 

Halaly Ar. ^a^, clear, Ac??. 

Hamas, mass, gather. 

Zeban, gain, win. 

Ze-hul, dwell. 

-^wf, seethe, cook. 

^u?, guide; zwr, press. 

Zakar, think (r suf.). 

Zal-al, eat, feast, ^a?. 

Zam-ar, song, sing. 

Zem-an, time. 

Zaak, squeak. 

Zara, strew, spread; zaraq, 
zarar, . 

Cha-hal,^ bind, ball ; related, 
chorhar, cha-hash, cha-had, 
cha-bah, (notice 1, b, r, sh, 
th, m, q, are the common 
suflfix letters). 

CTia-bath, bake. 

Chad-ad, cut, L. acer, axe. 

Chid =» gii/l. 

Chomah G. mawcr, wall. 

Choph, coast, brim. 

Ci^wr, hole, r, 1. 

Chorza, see, L. video, 

Cha-zon, vision. 

Chorzaq, fast, G'k ischtLS. 

Chaya, live, G'k zao, 

Chaka, wait, watch. 

Cha-kam, G. kennen, sage. 

Chalal, wound, kill. 

Cham, warm. 

Cham-ar, scum, foam. 

Chen, kind, favor. 

Chorsah, shun. 

Chatab, cut, hew ; in Ar., 
Aji«a6 = book, piece; writ 
= carved, graved, cut. 

Chasaph, G'k skapto, shave. 



Ghapha^ cover, cap, deck. 
Chaphar (krf), grave, carve. 
Cher eh, sword, b, d. 
Char ah ^ char, burn. 
Charath, G'k karatto, grave. 
Char-ashy chore, work, Grer. 

arbeitj raa^char-abychar- 

Cha-sah, silent, sigad, 
Tus, toss, G. stossen, 
Tovj tob, good, t, g. 
Taphashf fat, G^kpachtis. 
Taraph, tear. 
Te-or^ river, run. 
Faa?, fool. 
Ta-al, go, Fr. aZ^r. 
Ya-bab, G. rw/ew, babble. 
Tabal, G. juheln, L. jvheo, 
Yorhal^ stream, flow, go. 
Yor-bashy a-bash. 
Fa^a,. yoke, bind, press. 
Yagabh, G. ackem. 
Yoga, L. a^o, act, work 
Yagar^ fear, horror. 
Yadahj throw, h.jacto. 
Yadaa, know, oi(ia, L. vid-eo, 
Yom, day, G'k emera, year. 
Yach-adhj yoke, eA;a, one. 
Yacham = cham, warm. 
Fam, wine, G'k oino«. 
Yorkol, can, could, Cel. ^/aZ. 
Ya-ladh, L. latum^ born. 
FeZerf = child, brought, born. 
Yasadh, ya-sab, set, place. 
Faaw, yearn, G. gierig. 
Yorza, go ; Ax.ja = go. 
Fa-2;ar, form, S. A;ar, zwr, 
Ya-qabh, scoop, cave. 
Fa-2'ar, G. schwer^ L. gravis. 
Ye-qary worth, dear, Latin 

Yara, throw, wer/en, arrow. 
Ya^shar, straight. 
Kar.bad, heavy, G. bar-us. 

Ka^bash, wash, tread. 

Ka-baay bend, bow. 

Kabar, great, G. grob, Ger. 
hehen^ heave, high ; kabrb, 
gahaby gabar. 

Kad, G'k kadus. 

Kadar^ gather, L. tur-ba. 

Kava, G'k kaud, char. 

Kid, hold, G. halten. 

Kum, high, heap, cumu'.. 

Kuns=^ kurriy stand-up, raise, 
Arab, kan == be, stand. 

Kus, ball, cocoon, kvMos. 

Kur, roll, turn, ball. 

Kush, heap. 

Kid, G. keUy dart. 

Kokar, circle, G. kreis. 

Koly all, whole; 

Ka-labhy G'k laby grab. 

Keleby whelp, L. vvlpes. 

Kalaa, full, complete. 

Kelly y fasten, hold. 

Kal^imy call, speech ; Ar. kal 
=ft say, kid = voice. 

Kalaphy kataa, kalabh, grab, 
G. greifen, claw, club, G'k 

Ken, when. 

KemOy L. quomodoy how. 

Kau-am, wound. 

Kaph, cave, heap, hollow. 

Ka-phal, fall, fold. 

Kaphaph (kff), G'k kampo, 
cumboy bow, bend, cramp, 
scoop, hollow ; forms, ka- 
pha, qababy ya-kaVy kor 
vahy kuy na-qaby gav. 

Kaphar, cover, scoop. 

Ke-phathy fasten. 

Kary L. arieSy G'k kar. 

Kory G'k koros. 

Karahy grave, carve. 

Kereniy garden. 

Karar, turn, G. dreheii. 

^lor Y (yd) is a common Semitic prefix. 
2 ^ is often a prefix. 



Sarath^ cut, part.) 
■Keter^ Gr'k Mtaris, crown. 
■Katuihy contusus. 
£^atal^ chain, G. kette, 
KcLt'Wm^ cut, stick. 
Kuton-eth^ coat, G'k kiton, 
LcLdt^^ L. lateo^ hide, 
j&eow, G'k feo«, folk. 
LcLczm, L. ligo^ bind, tie. 
Lctha, lava, lion, L. feo. 
L€xl)-ah, laq, love. 
Lct,l)an, white, L. alba. 
Lcl^ush, c-loth. 
Let ah, flame, lamp, light. 
Lczha^ languish, lechen, 
Lctatj laab, burn. 
LctDa, bind, L. %o, ^o. 
Li£cha, light, L. ft^ceo. 
LfCLchach,'^ Iqq, G, lecken, 
LrcjLch-am, a variation of ZacA- 
ocA, lick, and of akal = 
eat, showing ^ to be pre- 
fixed, and to be divided, 
Uich-am, m, am, being 
suffix, and ach = eat ; it 
equals combat, G. kampf, 
J^<x^hadh, catch, G'k lab, 
J^ci^tash, tap, thump. 
J^^xmadh, learn, beat, Greek 

math; l-ama-dh, 
iaa^, speak, L. lego, 
I^Q'pathj wind, pack. 
I^d-qach, catch, take. 
La-qatj gather, co-llect 

La-shon, tongue, L. lingua. 
La-shadh, suck, lick. 
La-thaa, bite, tooth. 
Ma-amar = amar, 
Ma-hoa, in-go, entrance. 
Me-golla, roll, volume. 
Ma-gan, give, geben. 
Me-gamma, heap, ^am. 
Mo-debar, drift, drive. 
Ma-dad, G. denen, stend, tend, 

mete, measure. 
Mo'deyan, zank, wrangle. 
Me-dar, tarry, dwell. 
Morhalach, walk, go. 
J!/m^, m-ove, go, mog. 
M-ora, fear, horror. 
JI/m^A, die, mor«. 
Mazag, mix. 
Ma-zah, Or, saugeii, 
Mo-zah, fear, quake. 
Me-zomraa, sin. 
Mo-zem-or, sing, song. 
Me-chiyr, hire, price. 
Me-tah, extend. 
Malea, fill, whole. 
Mo'lla, word, fo^os. 
Malach^ salt. 
Me-lech, rego, lego (r, 1), Gael. 

ma?, king, re^/e. 
Ma-lal, speak, talk, ?aZeo. 
Maraq, G. amergo, rub. 
Marar, turn, press, force, run, 

Marshal, rule, Acrr. 
Jfaa^, smooth, ^ZaW. 

^ 2/ changes with n, as lachaz and nachaz ; w'lih. r, as a^u ; with J, as 
ra^^and ral; it is often introduced — besides being suffixed, as we 
have seen before. 

>The eha-chf qq^ is one of the many instances of double letters at the 
end, showing clearly that as a universal principle in Semitic, words 
grow by repeating the final letters. The«e doubles again vary, as 
double letters so often do, and instead of ZecAch, Iqq^ we might have 
Iqr, Igt, Iqk, Ixm, Iqsh — those qr, qty qk, qm^ qsh, being double as much 
as kk,qk, qg. 

» if is pretty uniformly a prefix, few words occurring with this ini- 
tial where it has not clearly this office. 



Naa^ raw,i n, r. 
Naad, wet, G. na^s. 
Naam^ G'k muo^ roar. 
Na-balj fall, flow, fool. 
Na-gady go, gad, R. c^c^. 
Nagiyd^ g^ide, prince. 
Nag-da^ flog, strike ; forms 
nag-on^ nag-aph, nag-ach, 
Na-dibhy gvfe, L. c?o. [na^-a«. 
Nubhj heave. 
iVwa, nod, G'k ncwo. 
Num^ sleep, L. 8omn-tM. 
iVitr, fire, G. feur» 
Na-chal^ hol4, halten. 
Ma-zal, glide. 
Nu-tal^ L. toZZo, talah, 
Na-tar^ na-zar, be-ware, L. 
Nasas, sick, nosos, [tueor, 

Naar, boy, L. pwcr, new. 
Norphach^ Gr./achen. 
Nh-qaph, c\iS, Fr. coup. 
Na-shakj bite, G'k c^a^. 
Na-shal, fall, slide. 
Na-tibh, G'k trihos, tread. 
Na-zar = L. <W€or. 
Northan, gpfe, ffe-than. 
J^Orthar, G'k <reo, tremble. 
Na-qar, bore, carve. 
/Safta, G. zecheUj suck, drink, 

Sa-gad, L. ca</o, fall. 
Sd-gar, grab, hold. 
JSadar, order, rank. 
/S'm«, horse, L. c-g^ww*. 
Suphy L. swmo, shave. 
Sak-achy deck, thick ; forms 

sk-r, sk-th, A:-l, sk-n. 
Salaa, sileo^ silent. 
Salachj walk. 
Saman, sign, G'k semain. 
Saphar, scrape, scribe; sipher 

= book, scrip, bit, — L. 

?i6er belongs with it. 

Seren, prince, czar. 

Abhad,'^ oper-ate, ergoy G. ar- 
beit, S. kar, 

Adar = sadar, order. 

Aeder, herd. 

J.wc^, wind, wood. 

Aod, again, L. iterum, 

Aun, G. wohneriy dwell. 

Aez, G'k aia, goat, ^lie^e. 

Air, gir, fire, warm. 

Auphy guphy cover, fly. 

-4Za, high, L. alta, 

Alaz, G'k alalazo. 

Am, L. ^c?M, G'k d^m-os. 

Am-ar^ L. mergo. 

Ana, answer* 

Amad, stand, qam, 

Aphal, gaph, hill, swell. 

Aphar = chaphar, 

Atsahh, G. schaffen, shape. 

^g^aZ, agar J turn, A:eAr. 

Aepher, heifer. 

Arag, L. rw^to. 

J.ra, bare. 

A-rach, aram, G. riisten, rich- 
ten, -rect, raise. 

Araph, strip. 

Asahy L. facio, act, a^o. 

Atdh, age, L. ae^os. 

PeaA, face, mouth, L. os. 

Pag a, It.pugna, beat. 

Pucha, blow, L. j??i€0, n*cA. 

Pwr, part, lot. 

Porzar, spread, strew. 

PachaVy paar, bake, parch. - 

Pala-a, pala-h, pal-adypaJrag^ 
pa-lach, split. 

Peleg, flood, L. y?MS«. 

Palrat, pal-az, paki-th == pal- 

Palathj flow, fleet. 

Pasas, pause, piece. 

Pasach, "ps^s^ pas-ag^pas-al. 

1 iVis generally a prefix, and is identical with m; it changes too 
pith r, y, *. 

* The letter at/in, which we will represent by a, is closely related to 



Paa-Z, G'k poieo, /aciOy kar^ 

Ar. /aal, gaol, 
Pdam, beat, vanish. 
Paradj spread j forms, par, 
par-as, par-am, par-az, 
par-aq, par-a^h, par-at, 
par-ah, par-ar, par-ag, 
Perachj G. tpross, sprout. 
Patk-cU, pask-aa, pash-ash, 
pash-ar, are other forms 
of parad, where sh == r, 
meaning break, split, 
Patah, L. pateo, o-pen. 
Paid, battle, beat. 
Poar, ap-pear, pareo. 
Ts-aba, go, G-'k had, war. 
Tie-haa, will, wish. 
Tsadh, side. 

TiOrdiq, just, G'k to-dikaion ; 
in Syr. ada>q = right, j ust. 
Tsa-hal, Or. hell, glance. 
TiOrhar, G'k oraO, ore. 
^iovah, Jj.juheo, 
Tidal, yell, G-. schall 
TfUT, turn. 

Tia-adh, go, tiu, G. steig, 
Tsaag, squeak, cry. 
Tsaphah, show, Or'kphan, 
Tidchaq, joke, laugh. 
Qabar, grb, G. he-grahen, 
Qadd, cut, G'k kedao, 
Qo-va, wish. 
Qol, voice, glas^ call. 
Qum, raise, be, been. 
. Qal-ah, gat, qat-al, cut. 
QaUan, little, bit, cut. 
Qd, light, G. schneU, a-gile. 
Qat'd = gal, L. fei;i«. 
Qa-maZ, wilt. 
Qop^oA, heap, cover. 
Qaraa, call, cry, kraz. 
Qa-zer, short, kurt, cut. 
Qerda, cry, call, read. 

^5 is prefix: 

Qarebh, G. krieg, war. 
Qarobh, proach, near. 
Raah, see, G'k o-rao, L. reor, 

Resh, res, head, L. rex; in 
Com. ruy == rex; in Ar. 
ras, res = prince, first, 
Shem, name. 
Rabha, gross, G. groh. 
Ragal, rd, tread, go. 
Regel, foot, tread, Wei. troed, 
Radah = re^e/, tread. 
Itaat, ruz, run. 
Rucha, G. hattch, Ger. ge-ruch, 

i?wm, raise, a-ram, high, g'wm. 
jRiM, riv, strive. 
Rakabh, d-rive, ride. 
Raphah, rap, G'k rap. 
Raq-aq, strike. 
Sa-gahh, high, = ^av. 
Such, shoot, stock. 
/Swrn, set. 
Sur, shear, part, cut, strive, 

rub, G.^err. 
Sachaq, joke, laugh. 

tSachah, see, seek, sak-al, hal 
= light, look. 

>Saar, rough, raw, hair. 

Sa-phaq, pick, peck, strike. 

Saraph, burn, scorch. 

/Sar, sarah, czar, prince, G. 
Aerr, ^r, res, 

Shaa, see, show. 

Shab-ab, cut, saw. 

Shebet, staflf, stock, scepter. 

Sha-bal, G. wallen. 

Sha-bar, break. 

JShe-beth, dwell, 6e<A. 

/SAir, sing, sang, speak, L. reor, 

Shith, set, lay. 

JShakach, seek, wish. 

Shalach, G. schicken, stellen. 



Shelet, Gt, scMld, 
JShalal, spoil. 
Shamat, smooth. 
Shamaa, hear, R. du, 
Shena, sleep, L. somnus, 
Shaar, shudder, fear. 

Shaqaa, sink, drink. 
Tama, wonder, Gr'k thauma, 
Taph-aph, tap, rap, tup. 
Tur, turn, ring, drehen. 
Tuph. Gr'k tupto^ tap. 
Taph-aph = tuph. 

587. The style of orthography is essentially the same in 
Syriac and Arabic as in Hebrew, and we will content ourselves 
with but a few words from these two — taking first the Striae. 

Garo^ arrow, dart. 
Giido^ crowd, troop. 
Acho^ brother, 
Athoy go, L. it, Celt, aeih, 
Anoshj man, G. mensch. 
Apha, face, over. 
Gunio, shame. 
Galaph, grave, sculp. 
Zan, kind, L. genius, 
Zaq, call, L. Doco, 
GhirOj free. 
Chob, debt, owe. 
Chado^ joy, L. gaudium, 
Chaya^ life, Gr'k zao, 
Chor, see, stare, cer-no, 
Z'Uro, rock, Gr'k or-os. 
Tarn, taste, 
Taraph, strike. 
I'laph, learn, take. 
Ku8, cup. 
Karyo, sorrow, sorry. 

Laho, liver, heart. 

Machor^ morrow. 

Ma-tho^ go, come, (m prefix). 

Ma-h^ word, G'k logos. 

Mazo^ may, might. 

Mora^ mister, sir, G. Jterr. 

Sar, S. kar, make, schaffen. 

Rabo, grow. 

Ragam, stone, rock. 

Rucho, wind, breath. 

Aktho, hate. 

Azar, treasury. 

Bish, base, bad. 

Barukj break, knee, bend. 

Gabo^ choose, heap. 

Gua^ common. 

Da-mar, ad-mire. 

Grur, form, fi-gure. 

Adar, aid. 

Gfiusa, love, ok, k, 1. 

Cha-za, saw. 

Very few words can be found in the Hebrew list that cannot 
be easily recognized in Syriac, as well as in Arabic ; besides, 
there are a great many words in Syriac so nearly like Greek, 
that they are erroneously thought to be borrowed from that 

The following are from Arabic. 

A'Zar, power, force. . 

A'/ar, fare, go, G. fahren. 

A-fal, fall. 

A-kil, rex, kar. 

A-mar, say, word, mando. 

Ansan, man, nas. 

Aal, folk, Heb. am. 

Awzz, goose. 

Aad, hard. 

Bag a, begin. 

Bar a, form, make, free. 

Barad, frigid, freeze. 

Bag, back, rest. 

Bar J per-ish. 


Croal^ har^ make. Ba-gib, wish, L. cupio, 

Cramal, collect, cumulate. Buhj rest, G-. ruhig, 

GaZf go, went. Hcui, g-row. 

Marr, burn, warm. San, tooth, L. dens. 

JBasan, handsome.. ScUl, schall,Ye\\. 

MaU, L. M>/vo, Loose. Sanaa, do, G. fAun. 

Sahi, L. dulds, Sar, form, A;ar. 

J7ar, L. eurro, run. ^a/, long, tall, SI. dal, 

J7a^, watch, wait. Alam, ilm, know, teach, learn, 

Karajj e»gres8. Heb. lamadh, 

Hazir, horror. Ala, high, L. a^. 

iTan, sham. ^mm, gani, common. 

Kal, false. CW, wood. 

Da^i, daga, talk, call. Fana, vanish. 

Doll, tell, L. dico. Qadar^ could, val^eo.^ 

Zara, L. ereo, grow. Qa^sar, short. 

Zarai), sharp. Qa^, call, say, (A:aQ. 

ZoZ^, vile, ill. Qam » A;an = ^tand. 

Ra^gaa^ go, re*turn. KaXaz, collect. 

Ra»gaZ, foot, walk. Laqat, L. /e^, -lect. 

589. Note. — Liable as we necessarily are, in a work new 
and peculiar as this is, to be misunderstood, or not understood 
at all, we may with propriety add a few words here to explain 
and justify the positions we have taken. 

It has been objected, that we pay too much attention to the 
growth of words, that we do not sufficiently regard the decay 
which always accompanies growth, or follows it — and the 
exception is perhaps well taken. It must be confessed that 
there is no more universal or important law in language than 
this, that words decrease or decline by decay, quite as surely 
and constantly as they increase or grow by development. This 
is the law of nature everywhere. But we have not thought it 
proper, here, to go into an extended discussion, such as would 
be necessary to point out the line of distinction between words* 
which have become degraded by decay, and those, on the other 
hand, which have increased by development. Generally, with 
the data so far at the command of philologists, it is almost 
impossible to decide whether in a certain form which we find, a 
word has become reduced bv decay, like the withering plant, or 
is in the first stages of development, as the tender germ. Again, 
it is often difficult to decide, in reference to two words, which is 
the older ; thus, we have regarded the Greek math and lah as 
older than manth and lanib, the latter having grown from the 
former by development ; but Dr. Lewis contends, and perhaps 
with as good reasons as we could bring to the contrary, that the 
^ Sound 9 as A; in Semitie. 

21,8 , PE&ASis. 

reverse is true, that maih and lah are the later fonnS| arising 
by reduction from the others. 

But whether it is difficult or easy to draw the lines in ques- 
tion, we have found it sufficient for our purpose to show that it 
is a law in nature that words, that languages, do live and grow, 
as the vegetable and the animal (and hence. must necessarily 
decay also), without making the least attempt to show what 
words are decaying, and what words, again, are increasing by 
growth. And, m very many instances where we have said that 
a certain word is a development from some shorter form, if some 
one should claim that they have rather arisen by decay from 
forms still longer and fuller, we should not object to it. 

590. To those who would feel alarmed at the evil tendencies of 
some of the doctrines of this work, or, at least, at the gross 
absurdities they must inevitably lead to, we have only to call to 
mind the fact, or phenomenon, known to every true thinker, 
that philosophizing on any subject, when carried to extremes, 
will always lead to absurdities ; that, if you would try the great 
ocean of thought, you must be content to keep close to the 
shore, resting assured that if you venture beyond your depth, 
you are certain to go down, and be buried in the depths of its 
dark and silent waters. He who has not had this experience, 
wherever may have been his path of inquiry, has surely never 
pursued thought very far. 

591. It is no objection, again, that the reader may know some- 
thing to be true which is quite contrary to some proposition in 
this work, and that what is found in one part of it may not seem 
to be exactly consistent with what is stated in some other part; 
a great many very different things may be true of one and the 
same subject — counting, mark you, from different stand -points ; 
thus, a man six-foot-eight is very tall (high J compared with 
common men, but by the side of a respectable liberty pole he 
would be called quite the opposite. . The question should be, as 
we understand it, whether the proposition is in itself true ; are 
the facts such as they are stated to be ; are the conclusions from 
them legitimate ? No matter about the consequences, or about 
the other things that, no doubt, are likewise true. 

592. And, finally, we ask those who complain that we identify 
and confound all things in language, to reflect and inquire, and 
see if they do not find that the identification of the unknown 
(which we exaniine) with the known (with which we are fami- 
liar) is the sole business of all inquirers, and if that identifica- 
tion is' not all there is of progress in science. He who sets 
about showing you that the splendid locomotive is but a devel- 
opment of the tea-kettle (on wheels), that the law by which the 
planets revolve in their orbits is the same as that by which the 


apple falls to tlie ground, that the pretty flower with all its 
variety of sepals, petals, stamens and pistils, is simply a leaf 
again and again repeated in all its changes of shape aiid coloring, 
busies himself solely with that ideatilcation which constitutes 
the basis of this work. 

PART n. 




When we treat of the English, we most also treat of the 
Anglo-Saxon, for the English takes its origin from the Anglo- 
Saxon, and there is no definite dividing line to distinguish the 
one from the other. Somewhere between 450 and 550, we 
cannot be precise about the time, England was invaded and 
settled by tribes from Germany. The foothold they gained was 
never wholly lost; they received accessions from time to time, 
and thus became the prevailing and fundamental people of the 
British Isles. Who it was that they replaced, what was the 
language of these aborigines, are problems that carry us too far 
back in the darkness of ages yet to be solved. Whatever was 
done, or whatever existed before the arrival of these German 
tribes, (Jutes, Angles, and Saxons, as they have been termed), 
relates to a people without history and without record ; we must 
be content to remain in passive ignorance of these ancient days, 
or to amuse ourselves with mere fanciful conjecture. 

594. For us, as philologists, we must start with the Anglo or 
the English-Saxon. As might be expected for history that 
dates back from us at least 1300 years, much of even this is 
questionable and uncertain. It is agreed that German is the 
basis of the English, that the Anglo-Saxon is German re-formed 
add re-wrought, and hence we are certain that German people 
are the stock out of which or on which has grown the English 
people ; indeed, philology can prove all this without the aid of 
history ; but the German people were, like all rustic and aborig- 
inal people, a nation of tribes. It is not probable that one tribe 
alone made and maintained its settlement in England ; indeed, 
we find different dialects in England, and these dialects could 
not have had one and a common base. 

595. Three names are common in history as denoting those 
tribes which, or parte of which, are said thus to have left their 
homes to settle iu England, the Jutes, from Jutland, the Saxons, 


from Saxony, and the Angles, supposed to have heen located in 
northern Grermany. But all this is called in question ; it has 
been claimed that Jutes and Saxons were not different, and 
that such a people as the Angles, from whose name that of the 
English is claimed to have come, never existed, or at least never 
had a " local habitation/' But all these are points we gladly 
pass over ; they afford little amusement, less profit, and infinite 

596. From about the latter part of the 8th oentury, the Danes 
and other Scandinavian people made frequent incursions into 
England, often for the mere purpose of plunder, but again with 
the apparent desig# of a permanent settlement. Under Canute 
and his sons, the Danish was used as the court language ; but 
as the Danish or Scandinavian settlement and mastery of the 
country was of comparatively short duration, it does not appear 
that their language had any material etfect upon the develop- 
ment of the Saxon«of-England« The precise, or even Approx- 
imate, value of that influence has not as yet been ascertained. 

597. A more important, because more lasting, influence was 
that of the Norman French. The period of its introduction 
usually dates from the victory of William of Normandy, at the 
battle of Hastings, in the year one thousand and sixty-six. But 
Norman French was introduced, though we may not say fixed, 
in Efigland many years before this. Edward the Confessor was 
a Frenchman by education^ and, inspired with a love for Nor- 
man customs and Norman language, he never ceased in his 
endeavor to make them popular and predominant. The effort 
to root out -the Saxon and put Norman French in its place was, 
however, under William, carried on in a more persistent and 
systematic manner. This French was not alone made the court 
language and the language of the higher classes of people ; it 
was ordered to be taught in the schools ; it was ^he language in 
which the laws were written, and in which legal papers were to 
be drawn^ Yet with all these efforts, carried on for years, sus- 
tained by all the power of kings and their nobles, thoi English 
still remained a Saxon,, that is a German language. And thosQ 
very kings were compelled themselves to turn from teacher^ of 
French to learners of Saxon; so Lard is the way of him who 
undertakes to destroy or change the spirit of a language, instead 
of being content to cultivate it as it is, or, at most, with changing 
its djreQtion. 

598. This Norman French has been t)ie n^eans, no doubt, of 
initrpducing , many, French term^, but it has qo mpre changed 
the true character and inherent spirit of the language than had 
the Latin in those European qoun tries where it wfis used as thet 
language of soienoe. But we, mmit bear in n^ind^ finally, that 

222' PHRASIS. 

the Norman French in its native land bordiered on the Crermtti, 
and that even there it has much that is identical with German ; 
and, if we find the English in the end somewhat assimilated to 
it, we must conclude that it was because of the coriginal likeness 
in their natures. 

599. Some there are who endeavor to give the very jrear 
(1356 and 1362 have been named) from which the English, 
as opposed to the Anglo-Saxon, is to date. its existence } but we 
shall content ourselves with treating the English and the Anglo- 
Saxon as one and the same language, wearing different dresses, 
and presenting a different appearance in the various periods of 
the world and stages of its existence. ^ 

600. We will illustrate the nature of these two languages, or 
two forms of one language, by giving numerous examples, com- 
mencing with the Anglo-Saxon, and giving the age, when we 
happen to know it, 

601. We Will start with the Lord's Prayer in Anglo-Saxon, 
of about the Ninth century, (called also Dano-Saxon) : 

Fader ure^ thu the earth on Heo/enum 
Si thin Nama gehalgod ; To be cume thin Rice 
Gewurthe thin willa on Eorthan swa swa on 
Heo/num, Ume ge ddgwanlican, Hlaf xyle us 
to dUffy And f orgy flux ure gyltas^ swa swa we 
forgyfaih urum GyUendum. 
. And ne gelddde thu tis on Cosinung, Ac alyse 
us of Yfle. 
Ure, our ; thu, the, thou, that, or who ; <m, in ; si, be (G^er. 
sei;) ge-halgod, is our hallowed, holied ; tarhe-cunte, impera. 
come, with prefix to and he ; rice, rick, Lat. regnum ; ge-tourthe, 
Ger. werden, be,' become ; sworswa, so-so, so-as ; ume, our, ouren; 
ge, every, or as a mere prefix ; ddghwanlican hlaf, daily loaf, or 
bread ; syle, send, Ger. steUen ; gyltas, guilt, Ger. schuld, debt, 
should ; gyUendwn, owing-ones ; in gelddde, lead, ge is prefix ; 
cx)stnung has, in other dialects, the form corung, koring, k being 
a prefix, the word being equal to wrong, error, correction, try, 
peril, prove ; a^lyse, loose, Lat. liber, a being prefix ; of, from. 
In the forms of other dates, we find swih for such, so ; for- 
lete, let, let-off ; halyed for hallowed ; ah it in Heaven y do, as 
it in heaven is done, y being the Ger. prefix ge ; uch, every, 
each. The prayer form of English in 1160 differs scarcely from 
the one which we have given. In the form of 1370, we find 
come-to for to-be-come, impera. come. 

603. The following lines are from the Saxon chronicle : And 
thry Scotta^ cwomon to Aelfrede cyninge on anum hate. And 
three Scots came ta Alfred king on (or in) a (one) boat Se 
hat wa£S ge-workt of thriddan healjre hyde. The boat was 


wrought of thiid half hide, that is, two and a half hides, a Ger. 
ezpreasion. He cwaefh that he bude on thaeni lande northe- 
tteoinAm with tha tpest me. He quoth (says) that he bide 
^dweil) in the land northward with (against) the west sea. 

604. And the following from the laws of Ethelbert; Gif 
Cj/img his leode to him ge-hatath^ and heom mon thaer yfel 

ffe-do — if king his people (Ger. leiUe^ to him citeth (hight), and 
him one (any one) there evil do ; in tne last clause, do is brought 
iast, as in German, while we say do him evil, 

605. We take the following from an Anglo-Saxon poem : 
Iha mec on-gan hreowon — then me 'gan (it) rue, 
TlMiet min hand ge-weorc — that my hand work 
Qnfeonda ge-^eald — in fiends' power (Ger. ge-waU) 
Feran sceolde — should fare (go), (fare should). 

606. We find this in another poem, marking the transition 
of Anglo-Saxon to English : 

He heom leojliche bi-heold — he them lovingly beheld, 

Lithe him heo drihten — merciful (to) him be Lord, 

Fethenen he nom mid fingre — feather (pen) he took with 

Andfiede on hoc-fcUe — and wrote (paint) on book-skin. 

And iha sothe word — and the true word 

Sette Uy-gadere — set together. 

The verb pretty uniformly in Anglo-Saxon, as in German, 
comes last ; thus, Jawaet do ic thaet ic ece lif age — what (shall) 
<]o I that I eternal life have (may have) ; %am hit monnum god 
tMnce — whether it (lo) men good seem (think) ; heo hine 
^ixode hrta/eg — they (of) him asked loaf; sceolde his Dinhtne 
Jhancian thaes leane$ — should liis Lord thank (for) this favor 
C^end, loaij, Ger. lohn.) 

607. He wUeth and wialdeth alle thing — knoweth, wieldeth. 
He i-ucop aUe tfeafte — ^ shapes all (things) shaped. 

He wrohtefisc on ther sae — wrought, on the sea. 
And/ogeles on thar lefte — fowls, loft (air.) 
'I^bese last last lines belong to the language in its later stages. 

608. We give the following quotations of English in its 
^rlier stages, principally illustrative of the peculiar forms of 
certain words, as well as the style of expression : 

John highte that oon and Aleyn highte that other ^ 
Ofoo toun were thei born that highte t^trother^ 
Ffer in the North, I cannot tellen where, 
This Aleyn maketh redy an his gere, 
And on an hors the sak he caste auoon. 
Bighte^ a common word in old English, is cite, called, and it is 
^Te used as part, for pass, verb ; ^t oon, the one ; thei, they ', 
ff^y far, over; ready all his gear — gear is apparatus. 


John knewe the weye — hym nedes no gide. 

And oMe meUe the tak adovm Tie layth, 
HiiD needs no guide — obj. proDonn for nominative, or we may 
treat needs as passive ; at the mill down he lays the sack. 

Avid therefore is I come and eek (also) Ale^/n, 
To grynde oure com, and carye it ham agayne. 
What tool (will^ ye done (do) while it is in hande f 

lis (am) cw iile (ill) a metier (miller) as are ye. 

This John goth out andfint his hors away^ 
And gan to crie, harrow, and wele away. 
Goes out and finds ; began to cry, hallo, and wail. 

Whilke way is he goon f Which way ? Ger. welcher. 
The foregoing lines are from Chaucer, who was born in 1328, 
and died in the year 1400. 

Then waxes his herte (heart) herde and hevye, 
And his heade grows febiU and dyssie (dizzy), 
His gast (soul) tJien waxes sek and sair (sick, sore), 
And his face vouches mair and mair (more) — lines from 
Northumbrian dialect of 15th century. 

The following lines are from the piece " Havelok the Dane'' : 
We haven (have), loverd (liord), alle gode (goods), 
Hors, and neth (cattle), arid ship onjlod^ (afloat, flood), 
Gold ami silver, and mich^l (much) a^ucJUe (else), 
That Grim ure (our) fader us bitawchte (betook, gave). 

But hise (his) children cdle fyve (all five) 

AUe weren (were) yet on live (a-live). 
Buleve her (live here), loverd, and all (shall) he thin (thine). 
Tho (thou) shalt hen (be) loverd, thou shalt hen syre (sire). 
And we sholen serven the and hire (they, your, their), 
Ne (nor) wantede (was) there no god mete (meat). 

The following is from the York dialect of the 14th century : 
In erthe (earth) is treys (trees) and gres (grass) to springe, 
Bestis (beasts) andfaulys (fowls) hothegret (great) andsmalle, 
FS^sschis (fishes) inflode; all othyr thyng- 
Thryffe (thrive) and have my hlyssyng alle. 

In hevyn er (are) angels fayre (fair) and brighie, 

St ernes (stars) andplanetis yar (their) curssis to ga (go). 

Ye mone (the moon) servis on to ye nyght, 

The son to lyghte ye day alswa (al-so). 

To swylke (so like) a lorde in all ye degre, 

Be evirmore lastande lovynge (loving, praising). 

Tat tyll (to) us swylke a dyngnite (dignity). 

Ha^ gyffyne before aUe othyr thynge (has given). 


These two lines are Nortliumbrian : 

WJia es he (who is the) king o/blisse f Laverd Strang (strong), 
And mightand (mighty) to fight, Laverd mightand lang. 

Here follow miscellaneous selections : 

A. wark ets Jit (work that's fit) /or nin (none) hut parson et 
cLea (to do, at do). 

Thxm that art to corny nge (to come, a-coming). 
Thynges that been to JUen (are to flee, to fly from), 
For suche men thai hen vilayns (that are villains), 

^e so thei mighten come a-londe — if that they might come 
to land (Gower, 14th century). 

In Douglas, born in 1475, we find ^cr« = grass, and in Gower 
brt/dde = hiTd. 

The gvMlIc (which) Juno nowthir lang dayis nor gyeris, nor 
nane diuyne sacri/lce may appeis (appease), — neither long days 
nor years, nor no (none) divine sacrifice ; and fails war hir 
contrare — and fates were (to) her contrary (Douglas). The 
is often left out, and u=sv, w, 

Quhither thay war Uvand — whether they were living. 
And that gye hnaw at gvJiais instance I tuke — ye know at 
W^liose instance I took ; gyit ne-the-les 1 aucht louit to he — 
yet none-the-less I ought praised to be (Ger. lohen, our laud 

Tyl she gan a^ken him howe Hector ferde — till she began 
C^K)) ask hiiii how fered (how he did.) 

Ful wel I thank it God, sayde Pandarus, 
Saue in his arme he hath a lytth wounde. 
^"ull well, very well; I thank (for it) God — save, a little 
W-ound (Chaucer.) 

Gif luf he vertew, than it is lefuL thing — if love be virtue, 
^Ixen it is lawful (Douglas.) 

Teoven (given) under our signet (sign, seal). 
Take'penne in hande and shape him a ful and plaine an- 
«-i«7carc — take pen in hand and shape (make, Ger. schaffen) a 
iVill answer. 

Les sum (lest some) historic, suhteU worde or ryme, 
CavMs me (to) mak degressioun sum tyme (some time.) 
Withouten (without) noyse or clatteryng of helleSy 
Te Dev/m was our songe and nothing elles (else.) 
Bim hehotieth serue himselfe that has no swayn. 
Or ds he is afole (fool) as clerkes sayn (say) — Chaucer. 
^t behooves him to serve, he must serve. 


Thah mi tonge were mad of stel (thougli my tongue), 
The godness myht y (might I) never telle. 1307 

With, face bolde they shullen hem selue (them selve) excuse^ 
And here (bear) hem doun that wold (would) hem a>ccuse. 
But rede (reed) that howeth down for euery (every) hkbste^ 
Ihd lyghtly cesse Tcease) wynde^ it wol aryse (wUl arise) — 
if the wind ceases. (Chaucer.) 

That 8che (she) might haue (u = v) t?ie copies of the pretendit 
writingis giuen (u = v) in, quhilkis (which) th£y haue diuerse 
(u=v) tymes requirit of the Quene's maiestie (i=j) and hir 
counsel, suppois (supposing) thay haue not as git (yet) ohtenit 
the s'amin (same) (Mary, Queen of Scots.) 

From hens to wend (go, went) fullfer into exile^ 
And ouer (over) the braid sey saylfurth many a myle^ — 
From hence to go — far into — the broad sea (Douglas.) 
Quhat (what) auenture (u=v) has hrocht the leuand hidder ? — 
thee living hither (Douglas.) 

Bot athir towart uthir tumis, hut mare 
And can hehold his fellow in a stare, — 
But other (one) toward the other turns, but more. 
If that I spehe after my fantaay (fancy) 
As taketh not a grefe (grief) of that I say. 
For myn (my) efitent is not hut to play, sitJie (since) ye hen 
(am) as gentyl home as L 

For neuir syne (never since) with ene (eye) saw I her eft 
(after). (Douglas.) 

Al shulde I dye — although I should die. 
Take rewarde (regard) of thyn ovme valewe (value). 
And certayne lie was a good felawe (fellow), 
Fvl many a draught of wine had he drawe (drawn.) 
Plesance of God (pleasure) ; governance, (government) ; / 
wote well, (wot well, know well) ; ouicept Kent, out-take (Ger. 
aus-nehm^n), ex-cept ; out-taken one, excepting one ; hie up in 
the lyft, high up in the loft, sky, (lyft, luft, is German, and so 
we find many German words in old English which do not occur 
in the present language.) 

For as thefisshe, if it he drie, 

Mote (might) in defaute (default) of water die (Gower.) 
In the 14th century, we find criand for crying (the aw<?=ung 
of German), plesand for pleasing, sayande for saying; and in 
1528, makand for making. 

609. We find a and on occurring often as a prefix to this 
part, or gerund (like the to of our inf., the de of French, and 


thereof German); as, on hunting , a hunting, in hunting; also, 
sound on sleep, asleep. We may notice also that some letters 
vbich we unite with a word, as the a in alive, are in old Eng- 
fisli separate prepositions — hence, again, we infer the identity 
of prepositions with prefixes and initials. To a very late day 
we notice, too, the existence of y, i, in place of Grerman prefix 
^ of part. ; as yHaught for taught ; in the 15th century, we find 
ckild that is i-horyn (born) to us, and a sons i-gevyn us, a son 
'given us ; also ge mowe i-leven, ye might believe (be=i, ge, y) ; 
in the 14th, we find alle beth {-turned of cristale, all be (were) 
turned of crystal. 

610. We find also the en, in, of German inf. occurring. very 
late in English, as, in a manuscript of 1400, we find, he schal 
lovin (love)no man but for Mis (his) owne profyt (own profit). 
And still later occurs the final e in the diflferent parts of speech, 
which we have lost ; thus, keuerid (kivered, covered) or clothid 
toith a cloude (cloud) ; also, unproperlicke sayde, improperly said; 
bryddes shall ete (eat) thy bodye (body) ; braste onpeces smale, 
burst in pieces small ; the brid is Jiowe, bird is flew, flown ; as 
she was bode (bid) to say. 

611. The instances where participles differ not from verbs, 
(after the Celtic manner), and where the tenses and persons are 
not distinguished, are very numerous in old English ; as, the 
einUspirytes that ben (been, be, am, are) in the regyon (region) ; 
that she must gon (gone, go) ; up is she go (gone) ; so, German 
M««=:do is our done. 

That char is chared, chore is chored (Sans. Tear, do) ; 1 haue 
^d leuer — I have well rather (liever) ; frende steige heiger — 
ftiend step (mount) higher; whanne (when) he was dreynt 
(pressed, Ger. driicken, throng, drive) with a grievous sleep; 
9^lfynge fruyt, seeking fruit; was to takynge, was to take. 

612. We proceed next to notice some of the phrases and 
expressions of the different dialects of England, of which there 
We several. Some would be inclined to pass them by as spuri- 
ons or vulgar, and hence unimportant ; but it must be observed 
l^t there is nothing spurious in language, that the colloquial 
idiom of the peasantry is just as much a form of language, and 
j^ as valuable to the philologist, as the more refined expressions 
of the court and nobility. 

In a Cheshire jpoem we find : 

Hym (for him) hade bene (been) better, in good fay e, 
Hade (if had) spared oyntmente that date, 
For wrocken (wreak) I will be some waie 
Of waste that was done thier (there). 

613. In Cornwall : 

Arrear then, Bessy, ly aloane the backy (leave, tobacco). 


Sty (stay) here a tiny hit, and let us talky (talk). 

Ay hut Fve more to say ; this xsiCt ale (all), 

You deanc^d wy (with) Mall Rosevear 't a sartin hale; 

She toald me so, and lefts me wy a sneare (with sneer). 

Ay you, Pengrouse, did dance wy Mail Rosevear. 
Hire (hear) me, I says, and thou shat (shall) hire the whoale. 
I hires some mizzick at an oald hearne (barn) doore. 

614. In Cumberland : 

Then TU sit dovm and wail 
And greet (weep, re-gret) aneaihe a tree, 
And gin (if) a leaf/a* i' my lap, 
Ts ca't (rll call it) a word/rae thee, . 
Wi' sec (such) thoughts i* my mind. 

615. In Derbyshire : 

Becoz (cause), mester, 'tis zo cood (cold) Iconner (can't) work 
wee the tachin at aw (all). Why dunner (don't) yo mend meh 
shoom (my shoen, shoes). 

And I said if they were /runted (aflfronted) wee 
Hester, they mid (might) he f runted wee mee. 
Hester hanner (haint) hin a charrin (choring) there sin (since). 

616. In Devonshire : 

Let*s tell o'zummet (of something) else; and you warent 
(wont) hear me ; iv I say is, if I say yes ; iv thee disnt (doesn't) 
zay thee wid (will) ha (have) me. 

I he a hit vrightened, hut let us hide yerr (stop here.) 

A urning (running) along like a hoss upon wheels. 

Us was fools to come yerr and to urn (run) into danger. 

617. In Kentish : 

And one of theym cam into an hows (house) and axed for 
mete (meat), and specyally he aocyd after eggys (eggs) ; and th^ 
goode wyfiyrifo) answerde that she could speke no JVenshe.. 
Loo, what sholde a man in thyse dayes now wryte, egges or eyren^ 
Certaynly it is hard to playse every man, hycause of dyversiie 
and chaunge of langage. 

618. The following is from an extract of 1340 : 

He answer ede thet (that) he com vram (from) the ze (sea) huer 
(where) he hedde y-mad (made) manye tempestes, vele (full, 
many) ssipes to-hroke (ships break), and moche volk (folk) 
adreyct (drown, drink). The maister acsede ine hou (in how) 
long time. He zayde, ine zuo (so) moche time hest (hast thou) 
ztLO lite (little) y-do (done) ? Manye werren and manye vigtinges 
— many wars and many fightings ; thet he hedde grat thing y-do 
(Ger. ge-than) — that he had great thing done. 

619. In Lancashire : 


Tlien. I opp'nt (the) dur (door), on whot te dule dust think — 
and what the devil dost (thou) think ; I took her for a hoo 
(higli) jtistice, hoor (her) so meety (mighty) y?7i€. 1 axt hur of ^ 
Mr, Justice wur o (at) whoam ; hoo (she, he) could naw (not) 
opp*n hur meawth (mouth) t-sey m'gh or now (to say aye or no). 

Thirs nawt like thryin (there's not like trying. Dunnos 
(dont) be fyert (fraid) ns aw (as I) %ed of ore (before), hut ston 
(stand) up for wots reet (right) ; so aw mun lyev awt moor ut 
aw av to say — so I must leave out more what I have to say. 
Wayn (we've) hdpt Kohdin^ un wayn ^elp yo (you) if yoan 
(you'll) set obeawt (about) yur wark gradely, 

620. In Somersetshire : 

JBem (he, me) war nation aveai d when tha vuss put him in 

Ta the grvt ooden box, maust sa big*s a corn binn ; 

Thad two gurt large winders, wV *oles vor tha glass ; 

Tha locked tha doors, an* there hem were va^s (fast) — 
Afeard when they first put him (me) in — To the great wooden 
box, most so big — It had two great windows, with holes — 
They locked the doors. 

Us war glowing right at hem,, ta zeen who hem coudfind, 

But avore hem coud look tha icar a. mile behind — 
We were staring to see who hiln (me). 

Nif Mr. Guy war hirch avaur, 
A now war hircher still — 

If Mr. Guy was rich before, he now is richer still. 

621. In Westmoreland : 

Us aw (as I) was a-sa'ing, me sweethart Nanny went ta Lun' 
nen ta be a laddies (lady's) made, en aw sud (should) like varra 
weel (very well) to see her et times. By gum, if aw tho^it (if I 
thought) he* ed been breken t* seals ov my leiturs es (as) aw sent 
ta Nanny, first time aw met him aw wad (would) giv him sic 
(such) a thumppen es he niver gat in his life befowre. 

622. In vulgar Cleveland dialect : 

She ommost flyted an* scau*ded me oot o* my wits (almost 
blowed (chided) and scolded). She war't t* arrantest scau*d 
'at (that) ever I met wi* H my boorn (born) days. She had 
sartainly sike (such) a tongue as never war i* ony woman* s head 
but her awn (own). 

623. The next is Craven-: 

Me nepped a lile wee nooken on*t (nipped a little wee corner 
(nook) of it), not t* validwm o* my thoum naal (thumb nail), 
arC spluttered it out ageean, gloaring (glaring) gon he war 
puzzom*d (staring as if he were poisoned). 

624. The next, from the Lancashire dialect, is * rather long, 
but its amusing character will warrant its insertion here. The 
subject is a newly discovered hedgehog : 


He whoavedhis wMsket owr't (hov-ed, heaved his basket over 
it), runs whoam (home), an' tells his neighbours he thowt in his 
guts 'at he'd fund (found) a thing 'at God newer mede eawt 
(never made out) ; /or it had nother head nor iele^ hond nor 
hough (hoof), midst nor eend. Loath to believe this, Iwave 
(half) a dozen on em woud geaw (go) t' see if they coud'n mey 
shift to gawm it (make shift to game it, make it out) ; boh it 
cap't em aw (but it oapp'ed them all) ; for they newer a won on 
'em e'er saigh (saw) th' like afore. • Then theyd'n a keawnsil 
(had a council), an' th' eend on't war, 'at teydn fotch a latvm, 
fawse, owdfeUy (they'd fetch a lame, false, old fellow) het 
(called) an elder, 'at coud tell oytch (any) thing, for they hok'nt 
07i him a>s th' hammd scoance, an' theawt he'r fuller o' leet 
(thought he are fuller of light) than a glow-worm's tele. When 
they'dn towd (told) him th' kese (case), he stroaked his beard ^ 
sowghd (sighed), an' order' d th' wheel-barrow wi' th' spon (span) 
new trindle (wheel) to be fotch' t. Twur done^ an' they beawld 
(bowled) him awey to th' urchon (urchin) in a crack. He 
gloated (stared) at 't a good while, droyd (stroked) his beard 
down, an' wawted it owr wH his crutch. " Wheel me abeawt 
agen o' th' tother side," said he, ^^for it sturs (stirs) and by 
that su'd be whick" (should be quick,alive). Then he dons his 
spectacles, steared at 't agen, and sowghing said, " Breether, its 
summot (something); boh feather Adam nother did nor cou'd 
kerson it (christen it). Wheel me whoam agen," 

625. We will conclude our notice of English, by giving a 
still further selection of Anglo-Saxon sentences, taken from the 

Tha com thaer an wif of Samaria wolde water feccan — then 
came there a wife (woman) of Samaria, (who) would water 
fetch; tha cwaeth se haelend to hyre, gyf me drincan — then 
quoth the Lord to her, give me (to) drink. 

Tha answer ede se haelend. and cwaeth to hyre (then answered 
the Lord and saith to her), gifthu wistes Godes gyfe (if thou 
knowest God's gift), and hwaet se ys he cwaeth to the, sele me 
drinken (and who (what) that is who says to thee, give (scfe) 
me to drink). Witodlice (then) thu bede hyne thaet he sealde 
the lyfes weater (thou (would) beg him that he (should) give thee 
living water) ; thu hafst nan thing mid to hladene, and thespctt 
ys deop — thou hast none thing with (which) to draw (lade), 
and this pit is deep. 

626. Let us observe, once for all, that all translations given 
under this head, as well as under the heads which follow, are, 
with very rare exceptions, meant to be word-for-word, follow- 
ing the precise order of the text. 




627. On the German language we shall dwell longer than 
tipon any other ; it is important, not only by the number of 
persons who speak it, and the number of minor languages 
which are related to it, but more especially by the extent and 
variety of its literature, and the peculiar manner in which its 
thought is expressed. 

628. The English is, as said before, a German language, and 
yet between the English and the German there is a great dif- 
ference, one far greater than is generally supposed. The words 
in one, it is true, have their undeniable representatives in the 
other, and yet we put these German words in a very different 
place, and apply them in quite a different manner, from that 
which would meet the choice of a true German. The German 
thought is different from the thought of any other people^ and 
as we might expect, it is clothed in a corresponding garb. 
They, the Germans, have the same grammar as we ; it is easy 
for us, English as we are, to recognize their moods, their 
cases, their nouns, their adjectives, their pronouns, their par- 
ticles ; and yet they do, in some way, manage to work up those 
very same elements in such a novel yet true German style, that 
we fiad it hard to bring it home to us. It takes time to master 
the language — let the student bear that in mind. . He may get 
a smattering in a far less period, he may learn the meaning of 
the words from the lexicon, he may get some little conception 
of the import of what he reads ; but, nevertheless, he has not 
mastered the idiom, the style^ the thought of the German 
people. It takes years for an Englishman to do it, hard labor 
and long months with that. But when it is done his toil will 
j^e well repaid. He has then mastered, if he be English, all the 
idioms of Europe, save the Latin and what belongs with it. 
And if, having the English and the German at command, he 
also be master of the Latin expression, there is no idiom of 
Europe that he will not easily understand. He may study the 
Slavic, the Finnish, the Celtic, the Scandinavian languages, 
• and he will find little in their style of expression that is peculiar 
or strange to him. The idiom is the soul, the essence,. of lan- 
guage; when we have mastered that, and not before, all flows 
along with us easily and smooth. The following selections will 
serve to illustrate the German idiom and peculiarities — with 
translations word-for-word. 
629. So scheint (shines) wirklich nichu bestandig (standing) 


ewig (ever) und des-namens-princip-wiirdig zu $ein, derm (tlian) 
allein die materie — so seems really nothing (nothing seems) 
lasting, eternal and of-the (des) name principle worthy to be, 
than (save) alone the ma,tter (ofrthe-name-principle-worthy, is 
one adjective, referring back to nichts, nothing). 

JSs kann eine kraft (power) so wenig ohne eirten (an) staff 
existiren, als ein sehen ohne einen seh-apparat — it can a force 
so little without a stuff exist, as (als) a seeing (sehen) without 
a see-apparatus (a force can so little exist). x 

Geht man aw/ (upon, up) den grund^ so erkennt man hold 
(soon) dass es weder (neither) kra/te noch (nor) materie gibt — 
goes one down to the bottom (ground), so knows (perceives) 
one soon (one sQon, sees) that it neither force nor matter gives 
(es gibt, there gives, is). 

Indem (in-that) der ver-fasser die feder (feathei;) er-greifb 
(grasps) — when the author the pen takes; umsich mit einem 
vor-wort (fore- word) zu der binnen wenigen (few) monaten nbthig 
(needy), ge-wordenen dritten auflage (edition) seiner " ^tudien'* 
an (on) das (the) puhlikum zu wenden — for (in-order-to) self 
with a preface to the within few months necessary become third 
edition (of) his " Studies '' to the public to turi^ (apply to); (for 
to turn (sich'Wenden), or go, to the public with a preface to th.e- 
witbin-few-months-become-necessary-third edition). The long 
adjective belonging to auflage (edition) is one of the striking 
peculiarities, very common, in German. The sich, self, often 
cannot be rendered in English — often being a mere article. 

Geschrieben wird (are) der accent nur zum (for-the) unter- 
schied (distinction) verschiedener formen und ah-leitungen (off- 
leadings) — written becomes the accent (it is written) only for- 
the distinction (of) different forms and derivations. 

Was die bis-her (to-here) be-kannten (known) Samoiedischen 
^rach'proben (speech-proofs) be-trifft — what the to-here (now) 
known Samoidish specimens, concerns (what-concerns, as cqu- 

Den winter lang werde (will, were) ich fische fangen — the 
• winter long (all winter) will I (arn I) fish catch. 

Ich weiss (wot, wit), das die menschen zu hause (house) sind 
(are) — I know, that the men to hopie are. 

Was W, Humboldt, in semen (his) geist-reichen (spirit- 
rich) werke iiber die Kauri sprache, gelegentlich iiber die aus. 
ur alter (early-age) zeit her-stammende (here-coming) ver- 
wandtschaft der Malay isch-Polynesiclien mundarten (dialects) 
mit dem Sanscrit merkt hat-— whht W. Humboldt, in his 
ingenious work over (on) the Kawi language (speech), oppor- 
tunely over the-out-(of)-early-time-originating relationship of 
the (der) Malayo-Polynesian dialects with the Sanscrit, re- 


marked has. (What W. Humboldt has remarked, in his work 
on Kawi, incidentally on the relationship of, etc.) 

Ware das Gothischefar uns ver-loren ge-gangen — were (if it 
were) the Q-othic for us lost gone (go-lost = lost). 

Gott ist dasun-ab'hdngige (un-hanging), selhst-stdndige wesen, 
welches (which) keines (no) andem wesens (essence) zu seiner 
existenz be-dar/, folg-Uch (follow-ly) vwi vmd durch svch-selhst 
ist — Qo^ is the independent j self-standing essence, which (of) 
no other essence to its existence needs (has need of no other), 
con-sequently of (yon) and through itseli (it) is. 

Der von (from) der schranke des iheismus jreie Kant^ ist Fichte 
— the-fr om-the-limits-(of )-the - theism-free (free - from - theism) 
Kant, is Fichte. 

TFcw nicht ge-lieht wird (are), nicht, ge-lieht werden (be, 
were) kan/n — what not loved is, not loved be can (cannot be 

Wird man sich so-dann (so-then) die /rage zur (to-the) klaren 
ent^scheidung (de-ciding) bringen miissen — will one self then 
Ihe question to-the clear decision (separation) bring must (if one 
will must bring, i. e. if one will bring, the question). 

Ich habe deinen bruder diesen morgen ge-sehen — I have thy 
l)rother this morning seen (I've seen him). 

Ich bin schon zehn yahre in Araerika — I am (have been) 
already ten year in Afnerica.; ich muss ihn sprechen — I must 
(to) him speak. Mn stein fiel mir (to-me) auf (up) den kopf — 
a stone fell (to) me up (on) the head. 

Dax buch ist keinen (no) thaler werth — ^the book is no (none) 
dollar worth. 

Wa^s ist aus ihm geworden — what is out (of) him become ? 
Ich sehe dich (thee) als meinen freund an — I see you as my 
^end on (look on thee as a friend). The separation of the 
*n from s^ is a very common feature in German — and often 
^hey are far wider separated. 

In emem (one) ta^fe Idsst sich viel thun — in one day lets self 
^xich do (may much be done). 

Jn zwanzig jahren werde (am) ich ein greis sein (be)— in 
**^'enty years will (am) I a gray (old man) be. 

Wenn^h nicht sinnen und dichten soil, so ist da^ hben m>ir 
(t:o me) kein leben mehr — when (if) I not muse and think 
*liall, so is the life (living) to-me no life more (if I should not 

Hr wusste nicht, soUte er (he) gehen oder nicht — he wist 
Cfcaew) not, should he go or not (whether he should). 

Ich schUme mich, dass ich es vergessen habe — I shame me 
^ ashamed), that I it forgotten have. 

Ich habe niemais (no times) in seinem hause mit xhm (him) 


wein ge-trunken — I have never in his house with him wine 
drunk (drunk wine). 

Ein hund stakl dem (from- the) kocJie ein stiick (piece) fieisch 
aus der kUche, und ent-fioh damit — a dog stole (from) the cook 
a piece meat (flesh) out the kitchen, and away-flew there-with. 

Undsprach: ^^den alien sultan (a dog's name) schiess (shoot) 
ich mergen todt, der ist zu nichts mehrniltze '/' the old sultan 
shoot I (to-) morrow dead, who (the, he) is to nothing more use 
(I will shoot him to-morrow, he is of no more use). 

Sie nehmeii ihr (their) kleines kind mi<-- they take their little 
child with (them). 

Alles licht vmerer atmosphdre geht von (from) der sonne aus 
— all light (of) our atmosphere goes from the sun out. 

Nehmen wir an — take we on (if we take on, claim) ; wenden 
wir (we) diese analogie auf das licht an — turn we this analogy 
up (on) the light on (we turn it to the light). 

630. We may observe here that, in pronunciation, German 
te = e«, ei p^ iV, u ^ oo, au = ou in our, a = ah, or as o in on, 
i= ee (short), e= a in ate, o mostly as u in up, or long 6, J is 
always as our y; e final is always sounded; v=/, w=v, gt 
vw, th^= t Thus, (very nearly) die is pronounced dee, W€m = 
mine, um = oom, haus = hous, man = mon, mir = meer, nuilir 
^=^mayr, kopf^=hap'f, so = so, je = i/e, habe = h^h'bvh, vater 
=/ahter, wojS = vwa^, thun = toon, schein = shine (sch =s sh). 

Forms of German, 

631 . The selections which we have so far given belong to the - 
literature of the present standard German. But there are many 
forms, branches, and dialects of this language ; that is, the term 
German may be applied to a great many varieties of the old 
Teutonic idiom, and we must endeavor first of all, to understand 
the application of the particular names which these varieties 

632. The first important division is that of High German and 
Low German, and alongside of these is usually placed another 
parallel class, the Gothic, called also Moeso-Gothic, or the Grothic 
of MoBsia. 

633. The High German is again divided into sections, corre- 
sponding with its age : the old or ancient High German, or the 
earliest stage of High German known to us. Middle High Ger- 
man, or the same as it appeared in the 12th to 15th centuries, 
and the present or modern High German. The old High Ger- 
man, in different dialects, was spoken up to about the 11th and 
12th centuries in southern Germany, in Switzerland, in Bavaria, 
Suabia, and Franconia — the name Francic, or Alemannic, is 
also Applied to it, or to ^ particular stage of it. 


634. The present German, or modern High German, is pro- 
perly the written language of Germany, dating from the time of 
the introduction of Luther's Bible ; as a spoken language, it is 
best represented in Saxony, Hanover, and Prussia — but at 
present, as well as in past times, the language spoken by the 
people greatly varies in the different portions of Germanic 

635. The Low-German class is large ; besides including the 
Anglo-Saxon and the English, the Old Saxon and Old Frisian, 
there is also belonging to this class the modern Dutch, and the 
Low German proper. The latter term, as a subdivision, applies 
to the dialects of the Elbe, Ems, and Weser. Grimm speaks of 
old Low German and middle Low German (or Netherlandish). 
The old Low German writings are found between the 8th and 
the 11th centuries, and the middle Low German between the 
11th and 16th. The modern, or new. Low German (also called 
Modern Saxon) has ceased to be written as a dialect, since the 
16th century, being replaced by the present High German. 
The Low German which is now spoken on the shores of the 
Baltic, differs very materially in sound from the ordinary 

636. The following are early specimens of German (Franoic), 
belonging, perhaps, somewhere between the 6th and 8th cen- 
turies — these selections also very well represent old Anglo- 
Saxon : 

Fader ist risa firio barno ; thu hist an them hohen hirailo Hkie ; 
Siuuihid si thin namo uuordu gihuUiciL ; cume thin craftiga riki; 
uuerthe thin uuiUeo obar uuerold; alia so samo en erduy so thar 
yppe ist an them hohon himilo rikie. Crib us dagegihuHices (whole ) 
^aidy drohtin thie guodo^ thina helaga helpu — Father is our (of us) 
lUen bom (sons of men, mortals ; firio^L^i. vir, a man) ; thou art 
(be'st) on the (them) high heaven kingdom {rikie, rick) ; blessed 
be (si) thy name word all (every word) ; come thy powerful king- 
dom ; become (German werden) thy will over world ; all so same 
ou earth, so (as) there up is (as it is up there) in the high heaven 
lick. Give us day every (each day) bread, Lord the good (one), 
tliy holy help. (It must be constantly kept in midd that uu = w). 

Thu bist thie uuaro, quat Petrol, uualdendes suno, libbiandes 

Grades, the thit lioht gi-schop (shaped), Crist cuning euuig (ever) 

-^thou be'st the true (waro), quoth Peter, pre-vailing son (of 

the) living G^d, that this light (lioht) made (made this light), 

Chnst king eternal (ewig). 

EhUtro habis thu an thinan herton gi-lobon — sincere have 

thou on thy heart belief (Ger. glauben) ; gi-frumide mid 

wuorclim endi mid uuercun — formed (performed) with words 

Uid with works ; eTidi (and) mid iro handon scriben an buok — 

236 ^ PHRASIS. 

and with their (iro) hands (to) write in book ; helagna (heal- 
ing) gest (ghost) — holy spirit. 

The liudi stuodun unhi — the people (German leute) stood 
around (by); hiegi-sah thar after — he saw there after (^t, cAi, 

?e, is oiten found with the past tense as a prefix here, while it 
elongs to the part, alone in German) ; Me sprak him mid is 
uuorden tuo — he spoke (to) him with his words to; ik is engU 
heon — I his angel am (been) ; thina dadi sind — thy deeds are ; 
thie guodo gumo — the good man (Lat. homo). 

So unit an uncro jvguthi — so we (two) in our youth : pe^ "■ 
uuis (was) thu — hail be (was) thou ; thu sceaUfari allon uuesan 
uuihon giuuihid — thou shalt (be-) fore all be (was) wives blessed 

(before all wives); htw mag that gi-utterthan so — how m&j 

that be-come so ; gi-sahan endi gi-horean — (to) see and (to ^^ •) 
hear ; thit ist mahtig thing — this is mighty thing. 

DhtLo ir (he) himUo garuuida dhar uuar ih — when he hea ^ i- 
ven pre-pared there was I; c^i-cAwWiY^ known, acquainted.^Ed, 
chirscaffanes ist = created is (shaped) ; chi-holan istfona mann^^-^^i^ 
angom — con-cealed is (it is) from men's eyes {chi=ge-^; ckCs^e-^ir 
hurt = birth, chi-boran, born ; Got chi-scuof mannan — Gt)<^ ^d 
made man; chi-frumida dhen — (he) formed him; chi-^Led^'^Sa 
(did) mih — made me. 

Gates gheizt ist sprehendi dhurah mih — God's spirit is speal^^Jft- 
ing through me; vuip^ ohe thu vuissis — woman (wife) if tho' ^kdvl 
wist; vuielih Gotes gift ist — what God's gift is; veiz %h daz < 
war (true) segist — know I that thou true sayest. 

Unde dir sinemo (his)- boden, vtianda ih sundic Mn, ioh i 
ge-dahidon ioh in vuorden — and (to) you his messenger^ sine 
I sinning am, both in thoughts and in words; ih chi-sah, I 8 a>^ w ; 
ih gi-sahi, gi-herte, I said, heard ; so waz so ih uuidar got ^^' 
uuillen gi-tati, so who so (what-so-ever) I against Grod*fi will d _-^id 
(widar = Latin iterum, our with = against). 

Nil auh huuer mac dhesiu stimna uuesan (be) — now of wE_ 'ho 
(whose) may this voice be? ih quhimu — I come; chisen^d^^dU^ 
sent ; chi-deda, made ; chindh uuirdit uns chi-boran^ sunu uuirc^^ dit 
uns chi-gheban — (a) child (Ger. kind) becomes (to) us boi^ci" rn, 
(a) son becomes (to) us given ; suueribi Gote — swear by Go^KZ=)d; 
dhine daga ar-fullide uuerdhant — thy days fulfilled were ; thet^s^-mo 
selueme cide — (at) the same time ; thuruhe salichedi selu s ^^^i n- 
eru — through (for) health (safety) (of) soul Kis (his soul). 

Aihe vane andem thie theru selvem. vuizzidi leven theru er 
selvo levitt — or (other) from others that (thie) (by) the 8a-'"3De 
(self) law live (by) which {theru) he (him-)self lives; thaa jr 
habe aUicha gi-lauba — that he have all-like (catholic) beKje/' 

637. Much of what we have now given would be classed wi^^ 


the old Siaxon, but we must observe that it is difficult to draw a 
line between old Saxon and old High German. There is a great 
resemblance in the orthography, the words being often identical. 
We notice the following differences ; the German person endings 
are -t*, -is, -it; -ames, -at, -antj but in Saxon they are -w, -i«, 
-id; -ady -ad, -ad ; Ger. inf. ending is -a/i, prest. part, -ant-er, 
past part, -an-erj but Saxon inf. -an, part, -and, part, -an^ ; the 
case endings do not materially differ. 

638. It is worthy of remark, that in both these languages (or 
disjects) the endings of nouns and verbs resemble those of Latin 
much more than the endings of the present German do, and they 
have, besides, more words like Latin, and English, in orthogra- 
phy ; thus, in old High German we find hreinij pure, serene ; 
kiriy greedy ; reiH, ready (L. pa-ratus) ; lindi, s-lendcr, thin 
(L. le-nis) ; peraht, bright ; klao (L. callidus) skillful ; Mat 
li. laetus), glad ; vruot (L. prvdetis), prudent ; Itioken, to look ; 
rpreitan, to spread; tueljan, dwell, delay; scolan, seal, shall; 
icoUa, should; chnahan, to know — and the corresponding Ger- 
man words are rein, gierig, he-reit, Mein and schlank (Jclar), 
Idxig (/roK), (vorsichtig), (^sehen), hretten, ver-weilen, soUek, 
soIUe, kennen, 

639. From the old Saxon, we may introduce the following : 
scado, shade, Ger. schatien; wac% watch, Ger. wach; hard, 
hard, Ger. hart; ward, guard and ward, Ger. wa^he and wehr; 
wa^, water, Ger. wasser. 

i/dd, acid, L. acet^u/m, Ger. essig ; swehan, L. somnium, 
dream and sleep, Ger. traum; heru, sword, L. gladius (gld = 
hrd), Ger. schwert; wiht, (some-)thing, L. quid, G^r. et-was. 

MikU, much, L. magnus, Ger. manche ; thimm, dim, Ger. 
dunkel ; &cip, ship (c=h), Ger. schiff; lith, limb, L. memb-rum, 
G-er. g-lied ; worold, world, Ger. welt, L. mundus (m = w) ; toth, 
tooth, L. dens, Ger. zahn, 

Lud, look (face), Ger. ant-litz ; gumo, man, L. homo, Ger. 
^^^%€nsch ; juguth, youth, L. juventus, Juvend (Ger.) ; cumhal, 
cymbal, L. signum, Ger. zeichen ; hrastjan, burst, Ger. bersten ; 
^n,tith, mouth, Ger. mund; dad, deed, Ger. that, L./act-um. 

Wapan, weapon, Ger. waffe; seola, soul, L. (anima), Ger. 

«€cfe; wreth, wrath, L. irattts, Ger. wuth; mester, master, L. 

^nagister, Ger. meister (e = a = ag = ei) ; suet, sweat, L. sudor, 

Q-er. schweiss; hlot, lot, L. fors, Ger. loos; grot, great, Ger. 

Qirou; bom, beam (tree), Ger. baum, o = ea, au. 

• Hobid, head, L. caput, Ger. haupt (o = ea, a, au, and bid, 

ptU,pt a= dd, did, d) ; gruri, horror (g = h), Ger. gravrcn, gray, 

i "hoary, (also Ger. schauer, shower, shiver, shudder, dread); hliop, 

i Wp, Ger. laufen, L. carro (cr=»hr = h); simnen, ever, L. 

\ temper, Ger. immer. 


Wurt, root, L. rad-ix, Orer, wurz-el ; ertha, earth,* L. terray 
GtGT, erde; morth, murd-er, Q-er. morden; thiohy thief, Ger. 
dieb ; hros, horse, G^r. ross ; her^ d-ear, Ger. hell, 

Quic^ quick (q-vick), L. i7ivw«, Ckr. lehen (lb — vv) ; garUy 
ready and prepared, L. paratusy G. bereit, gar ; kuthy ao-quainCed, 
L. notiis (for gnotus), Ger. kund ; stioty sweet, Ger. siiss ; suavy 
severe, L. gravis (sur, svr, vr =3grv, rv, vr), Ger. schwer (s-ch 
= s-k, s-g). 

Blithiy b-Iithe, L. Imfm, Ger. lustig; crumby crumb and crimp, 
L. curvus (cr^v, cr-vm, cr-um, cr-imp), Ger. krumm ; cvic, quick, 
L. vivus; suepuy sweep and brush, L. verro ( su « s-v, v), Ger. 
/e^en (fg, vg, vp). 

Hrojmy call, L. clamo, Ger. ru/en (hrp « clp, chn ; h-rp « rf ) ; 
raduy per-suade, L. svxzdeo, Ger. rath; /aru, fare, (go), L. 
ybre, were, L. vado; skaku^ shake, L. quatio (skk, shk =kt, kk, 
qt), schiltteln; gripu, gripe and grasp, L. arripio (arr=:gr), 
Ger. ergreifen, 

WritUj write, L. scriboy Ger. schreihen; scridu, L. gradiory 
stride, Ger. schreiten ; hniguy kneel, L. tn-cUno (cln = nl, knl), 
Gier. knien ; Itikuy lock, close, L. claudo, Ger. schrloss ; tiuhuy 
tow, L. traho (tr=* t), Ger. Ziehen ; biddu, beg, bid, L. petOy 
Ger. beten, bitten; deljan, deal, L. dividere (dlj i:* dlv, dv), Ger. 
iheilen; hlinon, incline (hi =*cl) ; copon, get, Ger. kau/en, . 

640. We will next give the following specimens of old Ger- 
man poetry. They will afford a fair idea of the way the ancient 
Germans, in common with the whole of northern Europe, 
expressed their thoughts, and an idea, too, of the pecidiar vein 
in which those thoughts are found to run. The lines are taken 
from a poem supposed to belong to the 9th century. 

Einan kuning uneiz ih * — A king knew Ij 

Heizsit her hluduig — called Herr Ludwig, 

Ther gemo gode thionot — that willing God tend (served); 

Ih uueiz her imos hnot • — I know he him reward ; 

Kinduuarth herfaterhs — (while a) child were he fatherless. 

Thes uuarth imo sar buoz — this was (to) him soon redressed ; 

Holoda inan truhtin — favored him (the) Lord (did), 

Magaczogo uuarth her sin — (his) leader became he his; 

Gcd) her imo dugidi — gave he him virtue (he gave) 

Fronisc githigini — and noble servants (people), * 

Stual hier in urankon — (a) throne here in France, 

So brv^he her es lango — so use he it long (time) ; 

Thaz gideHder ihanne — that divide-he then (he did) 

Sar mit karUmanne — soon with Carloman, 

Bruoder sinemo — (a) brother (of) his, 

Thia czala uuMnniono — the (a) great joy (to both). 


•Xoronuuolda «» God- — try (him) would his God, 
t)h her arheidi — whether he labor 

jSo iung thohnmahti — so young bear might (could bear it) ; 
Jjietz her lieidine man~ (then) let he heathen man 
Obar seo lidan — over (the) sea come (lead). 
This is considered a specimen of old High German. 

641. We add a few extracts from another Old German poem, 
called " Der Nibelunge Not/' Its great resemblance to old Eng- 
lish will be easily observed ; indeed, its style is not German. 

Do vmohs in Niderlanden — there grew (wax) in Nethe):land 
Eins richen kUneges kint — a rich king's son (child) ; 
De9 vater kiez Sigemunt — the father (was) called Sigemunt. 
Sin muoter Sigdint, — (And) his mother Sigelint, 
In einen hurye riche — in a (one) burg rich (a rich one), 
Witen wol be-kannt — wide, well known (ac-quaint) 
Niden hi dem Rine — Down (neath) by the Ehine, 
Diuwas ze Santen genant — It was to San ten named. 

4( 4c 4c * * 4c * 

So bin ich dines wiUen — So am I (of ) thy will 
Waerlichen vro — Truly (verily) glad 

VndwUdirz helfenenden — and will thee (it) help accomplish 
. So itt aUer beste kan^ — So I all best can (the best I can), 
Doch hat der kiinic GurUher — Though has the king Gunther 
YU manege hoch vertigen man — full many {a) valiant man. 


Welt ir den kiinic vinden — Will you the king find, 

Daz ma^c vil wol geschehen — That may full well happen (be) ; 

Injenem sale witen — in that hall wide 

Han ich in gesehen — have I him seen, 

Bi den sinen helden — By the his heroes ; 

Da suit ir hine gan — There shall you (to) him go. 

4c 4c He « 4c ♦ ♦ • 

" Das tvon ich" sprach Hagne — " That do I,'' said Hague, 
Zeinem venster er do gie — (To) his window he then went, 
Sin ovgen er da wenken — His eyes he there (let) waver, 
Zuo den gesten lie; — To the strangers (he) let (them); 
Wol behagte im ir geverte — Well pleased him their trappings, 
Dhd oUch ir gewant — And eke their garment (pleased). 
Si waren im vU vremde — They were (to) him full strange 
In der Burgunden lant — In the Burgundy land. 


Tr ros diu sint schoene — Their horse they are shiny (pretty), 
Tr kleider harte guot — Their clothes hard good ; 
Von swannen sie koment — From whence they came, 
Si tint hdde hoch gemuot — They are heroes (of) high mind. 


Also sprach do Hague — So spoke then Hagne, 
^^Ich wil des wol verjehen — I will this well confess, 
Swie ich nie mere — So (though) I never more 
Sivriden habe gesehen — Sivriden have seen, 
So wil ich tool gelouben — Yet (so) will I well believe 
Swie ez dar umbe stat — so (that) it there of stands, 
Daz ez si der recke — That it is that hero 
Der dort so herlichen gat — Who there so lordly goesr." 
The words are pure German, but with a tendency in ortho- 
graphy to the simplicity of the old English. 

642. Friesic. — The old Friesic was spoken a long time 
since by the Frisons of the Rhine, extinct since about the 16th 
century. It very closely resembles the Anglo-Saxon, and was 
intimately related to it, as well as to the Icelandic and old Saxon. 

There is the modern Friesic, still the language of a portion of 
the German race, in Friesland and elsewhere ; even this is again 
divided into different sections or dialects. 

643. Under the term Netherlandish, may be included two 
forms, varying slightly, of one and the same dialect of the great 
German language — the Fleinish, or Flandrish, and the Hol- 
landish, or Dutch. They constitute a class running parallel 
with the Friesic, and identical with it in almost every essential 
point — save variation in orthography. A brief notice of the 
Dutch will suffice to give a general idea of the peculiarity of the 

644. Notwithstanding all the similarity between the Dutch 
and German in their natures, there is yet considerable difference 
in the appearance they present. The Dutch construction and 
composition of words is entirely German, but the orthography 
is as decidedly English, rather English, however, in its older 
days — what of the Dutch is not either German or English, is 
a very small portion of it; so that for an English scholar under- 
standing German, the task of acquiring the Dutch is very short 
and easy, not to say pleasing also. 

645. A few examples will illustrate these facts : Voorts meen 
ik, insgelijksy ah regel te kunnen stetten — further think (mean) 
I, likewise, as (a) rule to can give (that I can give as a rule) ; 
ge'lijk-ook de daarvan af-ge-leide (off-lead) naam-woorden — 
like also {ook^ eke) the therefrom derived name-words (nouns). 
Om het bepalend lidwoord in het Makassaarsch uit te drukken 
— for the limiting (be-paling) article (limb-word) in the Mac- 
cassar out to press (for, to press out (express) the limiting 

DihwijU ook treft men zelfstandige naam-woorden an — thick- 
whiles (often) also meets one (one meets, hits) independent 
(self-standing) name-words on {treffen-an i= an-treffen^ strike 
on, hit). 


'Bet ondeficheid tuBt-chen heide/ormen — tbe difference (un- 
^^r-cat, sever) twixt both (beide) forms ; dat er em zekere na^ 
^^"tik CfpJiet tooord volt — that there {er^ Ger. gar^ dar) a (an) 
Certain (secure)' force (strike, bloyf) up (on) the word falls; 
l^etzij door fOLmnhechting van letter-gr^Msn -— it-be (al-beit) 
through on-fixing of syll8Jt)les (letter-groups). 

Oo% tot heteren ver-stande der oude schryvers is de kennis der 
dicUekten hoogU ge-wigtig — and for-the (iot, to, till) bet^r un- 
derstanding of-the (d!er) old writers (scribers) is the knowledge 
{oi) the dialect^ highest important (weighty). 
. I)e mkde consonanten Minken zoo als men ze uit een zuiver 
nederZandschen mond hoort — the single consonants sound 

^cling) so as one them (ze) out (of) a pure (sure, sober) Nether- 
landiBn mouth .hears (sound a^ one hears them from a). Set 
Mcheelde wemig of hy was dood ge-weest^^ it wanted (lacked) 
little but (or) he was dead been (as we would say, a little more 
aad he had been dead, or killed). 

Jk aud \t hem doen d^oen— I shall it him make do (do do i~ 
make do); hyzal hem nooit konnen doen werken — he shall him 
nev^r oaa (be able) to-make work (never make him work) ; de 
gene die ons kwam^ zien — the ones that (the, which) us came 
toHsee (came to see. us) {gene, written geen, is Ger. A;ew = none, 
our amy, one — it has the forcp also d£ which). 

Zie o/.(if) hy dat ge-daan hebhe — see if (whether) he that 
done has (has done that) ; Ik doe het eens-deels am de vriend- 
schap te onderhouden, en ander-deels am niet leeg te zitten — I 
do it partly (one-parts) for-to the friendship to uphold (under- 
hdd), and on-other-hand (other-parts), for-to (om) not idle 
(Qer. ledig, void, lazy) to sit (fo^r not to sit idle). 

Zo gy my (me).de eer wilt gunnen u alt-emets te zien — so 
(if) you (tl^ou) me the honor will grant (give), you alltimes 
(sometimes) to, see (to see you sometimes). De ziekte is erger 
(worse) dan fnen denkt — the sickness is worse than one thinks. 
HUjfs hqog (bow-od) onder onze voeten — the ice bend-ed under 
our feet (foots). 

One single example (John xx, 2) will suffice to compare the 
Bntok and German, as to appearance — and first the German : 
Da l&afi «te, vnd kommt zu Simon Petro, wnd zu dem^ andem 
fimgety welchen Jesus lieh hatte, vnd spricht zu ihnen : iSie haben 
' den Kerm weggenomm,en aus dem grabe ; und wir wissen nicht^ 
too tie %hn hingelegt haben. 

(Dutoh) : Zij liep dan, en kwam tot Simon Fetrus, en tot 
clen anderen discipel, dien Jezus lief had, en zeide tot hen : Zij 
hebben den Heere weggenomen uit het graf, en wij weten niet, 
wa4ir zij hem ge^^legd hebben. (Translated) : She ran (leap) 
then, (Ger., then leaped she), and came to Simon Peter, and 


to the other disciple, that {dien^ the, which) Jesus dear had 
(held dear), and (en) said to them : They have the Lord way- 
taken out (of) the grave, and we wot (know) not where they 
him laid have (have laid him).'' 

646. Swiss Idiom. — We will next dwell briefly on the 
Swiss form of the German. It is spoken in the greatest part of 
Switzerland, and is found in several dialects. It is particularly 
interesting from some of the peculiar forms which its words 
present. It is evidently German, but German with a ruling 
tendency to identify itself in orthography with the English. 
The German article ein is here reduced, as with us, to one let- 
ter, e, a; liai; em and tm, Ger. ihm, our Mm; e is ace. of 
our he ; our, Ger. unser, is here use, eiwe, eus, us / fVom-us is 
von-us, prep, united with pronoun, as we often find it elsewhere ; 
you, in the oblique cases, is ccA, uch, uwe, G^r. euch — in the 
nom. of this pron., we find the forms der, er, ier (i-er^ as if we 
said ye-r, Ger. ihr) ; de is for Ger. den and der, our ^ ; also 
da, ns da stier won-i g^haufb ha — the (that) steer which-I (wo 
s= which) bought have (which I bought); mi, Ger. mein, our 
my ; wek, Ger. welcher, L. quaUs and tUe ; de ma toon-i gseh 
hah — the man whom-I seen have; — there is a general tend- 
ency to slight the final n and m, as in ma for man, 

Er hed, he has, Ger. hat; m^er hand, we have, Ger. hahen 
and hahend ; % ha g-ha-, I have had (G. ge-haht) ; m^er w, we 
are, G. wtr sind; i hi g-si, I be (am) been (G. ge-wesen) ; «, 
be, G. sein ; % toiU, or i wolt, 1 will, or would ; give is ga, or 
gah, G. gehen; mer gend, we give, G. ge^end; for go, with /, 
we find the forms, gan, ga, gah, goh, gange; er gat, and er 
gohd, or gett, he goes (he go-ed) ; Ger. kommeUy to-come, is hero 
cho=go ; i hi cho, I be gone, have gone (go). 

647. We notice, here, many beautiful illustrations of the fact 
that every part or person of the verb presetits one of its simple 
forms, and that the form which we find with one application in 
one language, is found in a very different place in another ; thus, 
here, er hit (or lait), he lies, in form equals he laid; er seid 
^or said), he says (said) ; i gan (or gange), 1 go (gone, going) ; 
t wott, I will (would) ; i hi, I am (be); er loht, he praises 
(praised) ; gang, impera. go (going). So we see, again, that 
the past t^nse, or any other part of the verb, is quite identioal 
with the present. 

This language presents, too, many excellent illustrations of 
one letter representing two or more condensed, latent ; thus, 
chro^ (go) = Ger. k-ommen ; i ligge (G. liegen, lie), and er lit 
(li-es), hence lit is for liggit (iggi, iyyi, iiii, i) ; so Ger. haben 
is ha (dben, aven^ auen^ aee, a) ; er git, he gives, Ger. giebt (ieb 
-i) (give = go). 

^BBfliAN LAHaUAGB. 243 

648. We will m6zt add a list of a &w of its most peculiar or 
instraetiv^ wotds : 

A and a4it (brook, riyer), Ger. b-ach^ L. anmis, Icel. aa; 
auw, owy L. oviff, our ewe, sh-e^; beta, pa, Grer. vater, father; 
diistg, tame, still, L. taceo ; dolen, L. toUo, Icel. dol, Q. dulden^ 
en-^ure; trant (course, step), train, Du. ^a9i^= pace, tre«4» 
tramp, Ger. schritt; dur, through; tvigen, alone, one, Gi^r. eih; 
eppis, (something), Ger. etunis; eren, Ger. ackem, acre, ear, L. 
oroestill; geU, yell, G. tohaU; glaren, to glare, g-lance, look; 
jgfTifpPf crop, top, head, Ger. hopf ; lupfen, lifb, heave, L. lefvo^ 
Dan. lofte (loft) ; Imtig, lovely, lusty ; lutzel, little, Du. liUtel, 
Oo. letiU, Ger. k-lein ; mar and mor, Dan. me^, Fr. meur and 
"fTivr, L. maiurus (matur =:maur, mur), 

649. There are, besides, many other forms, or dialects, of 
Oerman Us it is now spoken in Europe; but to notice fully their 
many instructiTe features, would require a moderate-sized vol- 
mne. Many of them differ from the present standard German 
but slightly, and others vary from it as much, perhaps, as the 
Swiss form just noticed. There are, among others, the Bavarian, 
Austrian, l^rrolese, Thuringian, Transylvanian, and Jewish. 

650. The following is from the dialect of Augsburg : Father 
onser, daehr (Ger. der) dvh hucht em, Hemmel; Grehoyligt weard 
deih nahm; zua ons kumm daih Raich >* DoAh will g-scha wi em 
JHemmel, atz och auf earde; Onsar deklich broad gib ons heint 
(Ger. heitle); Ond vergiah ons onsr schvM, als wihr vergaba 
onsdm schtddigdrd ; Ond/uhar (G^r. /iihr) on^ nitt ind ver- 
sudchong; Sunderan er4oa8 (loosd) ons vom ibel, Denn dain 
ischt dds raich, ond did krafft, &nd dia hdrlikoit in ewikoit^' 
Father our, who (the) thou be^st (art) in Heaven ; holied were 
(be) thy name ; to us come thy kingdom (rick) ; thy will be 
?Ger. ge-schehen) as in heaven, as also upon {auf) earth; our 
day-ly (daily) bread give us to-day (this) ; and forgive us our 
guilt, as we forgive our debtors; and lead us not into (ind) 
temptation ; but (Gter, sondem) free us from evil. For thine 
is lihe rick, and the power, and glory in eternity (ever). 

651. In the Bavarian form, we find, keiligt werd, holy, hal- 
lowed, be ; zti-kumme tms, come (to) us ; gihw wns heind, give 
us to-day (Aeiete) ; un^e schvUn (our shalls), our debts, guUts ; 
von aUn thblamm; from all evil (blame). In Transylvanian : 
zau-kom ans demg rehch — to-come (come) us thy kingdom; 
deing ueU ge-schey aff (auf) jerden — thy will be on earth;' 
hriut;gaffaus heigd — bread give us to-day; auser sckuld, our 
debt ; mier fergien — we forgive ; fier ams net — lead us not ; 
erlUs aus von dem iiwell — loose us from the ^vil. 

These are as great differences (from common German) as we 
asually find in tibese dialects, and we easily see they are oonfii^d 
to mere orthographic variations. 

244 PiLtJLSlB. 

652. Gothic. —The Ck)thic is a German langtage, hut Get- 
man in a somewhat peculiar form. It may be placed alongside' 
with the other two branches of the great German family, the 
High German and the Low German, not running parallel and 
independent of them, bnt rather in a line converging with them 
the farther back we press into the shades of antiquity. Grinmi 
takes the Gothic as the base of Grerman, but it is only so because 
it is older than the rest, or that we have learlier records of it. 
It stands nearer to the High and Low German (with which, 
especially the former^ it is easily compared) than to the old 
North, or Scandinavian. 

653. It was the language spoken by people known in history 
as the Visigoths, the Ostrogoths, and the Moesogoths. Gt)thie 
is a very indefinite term — fus the Goths are, for us, a very inde- 
finite people. Goth was a favorite name with the Romans, to 
apply to wild hordes to the north of them. These Goths seem, 
too, to have been especially a progressive, a moving people. 
They made their settlements not only in the whole soath of 
Eutope, but we in time find G^ths in Spain and in Italy. In 
later times, they seem to be more particularly located m the 
liorth of Europe. Indeed, it is claimed that the Germans and 
the Scandinavians belong to the Gothic stock, that they are 
descendants, that is, a eontinuation, of the G^ths, or that they 
have commingled with them, the Goths. The term Gothic, 
finally, is oiten used as a convenient word to denote the Germab 
and Scandinavian combined. 

654. The Moeso-Goths :have the greatest importance for nsy 
they being by far the best known to us by their writings } Moeso- 
GoUiic is often (generally) denoted by the' temi Gothic alone^ 
it being the Gothic with which we are acquainted -r- it has 
been considered by some, and with some plausibility, a9 beings 
the original of High German. 

655. The oldest specimen not only of the Gothic,' bi<t older 
also than any other Germanic idiom, is the Gothic translation 
of the gbdpels by Ulfilas, the bishop of M oesia, supposed to have 
hoten made about the year 370. Some specimens from that 
ti^anslation will best illustrate the character of that language, as 
eompared with our own and wiih other German tongues. 

656. First, the beginning of the 7th chapter of John : m/ah 
tbarboda Jesus afar thata m Galeilaia ; ni auk vilda in Jvdaia 
\g€Ujigismy unte sohidedun inathai Judaieis m^inan'^ and walked 
Jesus after that in Galilee; not for (for not) would (he) in 
JudeAgo (^aw^^ going), for (andj) (they) sought him (tna), 
the Judeans (did), to-kill (him), (us-qiman^ over-come). 

' ThanM^ quelhim dm imma broihrfus ts-^then quoth (said) 
to him brotberii his '.(hie brethren); m4eUh ihathra jah ga/gg 

aEltMAH LANeUAGEl. 245 

(Mh^) — depart (ont-Iead) henoe (thither), and go {gang). (So 
^e Scotch say, where are you gangen f) 

Ifi mag so mancueths (the world) Jijan izms (you), tth (but) 
fntk fy'aith'>^uot may (cannot) the men hate you but me (it) 
hateth (men hate me, not you) ; thatuh than qath du im^ visancU 
in Galeilata — this when (he had) said to them (im), being 
(dwelling, as he did) in Galilee (when he had said these things 
to them); tth ik kann ina^ unte fra/m, ink/ma itn^jah, i» mik m- 
wandida — but (and) I know (ken^ acquaint) him, for (unte) 
from him (I) am, and he me sent (nie). 

Few Johanna daupjanda — was John dipping (he was bap^ 
tiring) ; ai^gibaiis varth — up'given were (were given up) j 
qemun than motarjoB dawpjan — came then publicans to-baptize 
(to be baptised) (prest. inf. often for pass.) 

657. There are, as has been already suggested, strong like- 
nesses between the Gothic and High German, as well as between 
the Gothic and Low German; and yet, notwithstanding the' 
impossibility of measuring quantity in such cases, we feel con- 
fitrained to say, in comparing these tongues, that the Gothic is 
more like the Low German, the Saxon, the English, than the 
High German, the literary German of the present day. 

658. First, the style, the expression, is rather Low German 
than modem German. From Mark i^ 8, we take the following 3 
Aihthan ik davpja izvis in vatin, tth is daupeith izvis in ahmin 
veih-amma -^ KnA (for) I dip you in water, but he dip-eth 
(dips) you (izvis) m (the) ghost holy (I baptize, but he will 
with holy ghost). In German it reads : . I dip you with water, 
but he will you with the holy ghost dip (baptize) ; 11th versCj 
jah stibna qam us himinam; thu is suntis meins sa liuha^ in thuzei 
vceila gcdedbaida — and (a) voice came out (us) heaven : Thou 
art (is) son Tof) mine the (be.)loved, in whom (that) well (I 
am) delightea. In German : There was (came) a voice from 
heaven, tibou art my dear son, on whom I well^pleasing have. 

Jah suns sa ahma ina ustauh in authida — and soon the 
spirit (Fr; ame) him drove (out-towed, out-lead), into (the) 
wilderness (Ger. wuste). In German : and soon drove him thd 
spirit (did) into the waste (wilderness). 

659. And next we find many words which are more like 
English, for example, than German, as the following list will 
demonstoate — Ist Goth., 2d G«r., 3d Eng.i a/ta, nach^ after; 
aibt, gahej oflfer ; air, fruh, ere ; airtha, erde, earth ; aivSy zeit, 
age, L. sBViim; akvUa, adkr, eagle. 

Baurd^ bretj broad; beitan, heissen, bite; hugjan^ kaufm^ 
buy ; dagt, tag, day; deds, that, deed; daUs, theU, deal; divan, 
ti^enj.die} dmps, tie/, deep. 

Dumbs, ihmm, dumb ; d-vola, naar, fool ; fairra, fern, far } 
/ofttt, fvAS, foot ; fod-eins, speise, food* 

^46 l»]SAASI6. 

Gaits, ziege, goat ; karan, sorgerty care ; haiftOy herz^ heart } 
haltSy lahniy halt ; hauhsy hochy high. 

Lamhy lamniy lamb ; letariy lasseriy let ; Ubauy leheUy live ; 
leiks, gleich, like ; lithv^y gliedy limb ; lukaUy schliesseny look. 

Jfan, menschy man ; manageiy mengCy many ; maurthry ntord^ 
murder ; mikilsy viely much 3 raihtSy rechty right ; rwm*, rauniy 

iSair, schmerZy sote ; «i7an, schweigeHy silent ; skadusy schatten^ 
shade ; s^s, schla/y sleep ; sUuthariy gleiten^ slide ; «uns, 5aZ<^) 
soon ; svistaVy schwester^ sister, (suister). 

TaiknSy zetchen, token ; ^rtt«, haumy tree ; tungOy zungty tongue ; 
tunihusy zahuy tooth ; T;an, mangely want ; vUjany woUeny will ) 
vo^Ais, 8t^8«, sweet ; ut^, wocAe, week. 

We must, of course, strike off the final «, as the representative 
of the Latin gender ending, usy a, ufn. To this list we add the 
following interesting forms, without any particular reference to 
the question in view. 

660. Airzisy err, German irre; aitheiy mother; atW, aiwvs 
(horse), L. equm ; alevy oil ; anorleikoy Ger. ahnlicky like, one* 
like; anda-vaurdiy answer, Ger. ant-wort (on-word) ; anstSy Oter, 
gunsty gnade, grace, thank; aray Ger. adter, eagle; augjany 
fihow, Ger. zeige-Uy and at«^o = eye,— hence we see eye = see, 
look, show ; auknaUy wax, (grow), L. augeo ; aurahiy g-rave 5 
aurkeiSy Ger. A:*rtf^, c-rock ; avthsy Ger. t<^{^, waste ; at;t, ewe, 
sh-eep ; away w-assevy L. a^t^a. 

Baiy both, Ger. fteiifc ; hairaUy Ger. tragedy drag, carry, bear ; 
hairhtSy bright; haitrsy bitter.; halvSy evil, base; 6aton (good), 
better ; hi-aukdviy wax, in-crease. 

Faur-theiy fear, Ger. furckt ; fra-liusany Ger. vcr-Zicrcnj lose 
(/ra^ from= ver); frmSy free, fresh ; frij&ndsy friend ; friks 
(greedy), L. a-varus. 

HnaivSy be*neath, Ger. niedrig; hropiy Ger. ru/y report; tn» 
veiteriy an^heten, in*vite; jt*A:=yoke, and /mA:aw e^ fight, con* 
quer — so we say to join in battle, to match (G'k maJcomai = 
to fight), to equal) and We get the idea of strife, contest, from 
that of union, joining ; every union implies two things united, 
afi well as contest, fight, does. 

KaSy cask, Ger. gefdss; kaurSy Ger. schweTy L» gravWy heavy ; 
kavtsfo is the way they spell caution, 

Laigaion is their orthography for legion ; laisjany Qer. lekreny 
learn, L. doceoy teach, d = l ; leisany learn, lesson ; lubauy (love) 
K= hope. 

Magus =\ioyy Celt, macy maid ; maisy more, L. majusy magis 
(mat/is^ ; meljan = write, Ger. malen = paint ; minsy Ger. 
wenig (less); naqatJiSy naked, Ger. nackt; 9i€to=snear, G^r» 


Qtmis (oomes), Ger. aiv-hmift (on-come), arrival ; rcifcs, prince, 
jCi. regis; sa-wazuh (the-what) = each, S'Was in old Ger., et-was 
in Ger. ; siggqan, sinK (gg= ng) ; and siggvan is sing (and read) ; 
sUubr, silver ; sinthan (= go), send ; sitts, Ger. sitz, seat, saddle, 
Grer. stuM (situhl); sinJcs, sick, Ger. sch-wach^ weak, s = wj 
skath, G^r. schaaen, scath; s-kevjan, go, scud; slavan, still, 
(sly) ; mivan = go, come ; staiga^ way, st = w ; s-vers, worth. 

iSnggvs (triuuvs) true ; thmthy good ; th-^ahan^ wash ; vaihts 
(thing), what, Ger. et-was; vair, man, L. mr; vaurd, word, 
Ger. rc^, read ; veitan (see), L. video; vitan, wit, know; vi^on, 
live, L. vivo ; vo^^an^ whoop (call) ; v-raton, ride (go). 

We must not omit to observe that there are also many Gothio 
words which are German and not English. 

661. Scandinavian: The Scandinavian (or North) language 
constitutes a large and important part of the great German or 
Gothic family. The three leading branches of this division are 
the Icelandic, the Danish, and the Swedish ; indeed, if we count 
in the dialects of these, especially of the two latter, we shall 
have, substantially, all there is of Scandinavian. 

662. These languages did not become individualized until 
after the 14th or 16th centuries ; before that time, they were 
merged in what is called the Old North ; or, turning to the de- 
scending side, the Old North gave birth to these modern dia- 
lects. The best representative of that old idiom is the Ice- 
landic. Living far away on their distant island, the Icelanders 
have been little affected by the culture of the continent, and 
have scarcely yet, as makers of language, been warmed ipto life. 
It may not be amiss to remind the reader of the great resem- 
blance between the Icelandic and our own, especially the old 
English, and the parallel which we can draw between it and the 
Gothic. It is claimed as a matter of history, and it is certainly 
very probably from the location, that the ancestors 6f these 
islanders were Norwegian colonists. Certain it is, the Norwe- 
gian, or a great portion of it (for it, too, has its varieties), is a 
dialect very closely connected with the Icelandic. Taken as a 
whole, the Norwegian has a distinct character as compared with 
the Danish or Swedish, and differs from them considerably ; yet 

that difference lies chiefly in the variation of orthography — the 

grammar being the same. 

The language of the Faroe Islands is a dialect with some dis- 
tinguishing peculiarities. 

663. We will treat more fully of the Swedish and Danish, 
and after them the Old North, and that will suffice to give a 
general idea of the Scandinavian peculiarities. 

664. To the student who is acquainted with both English and 
German, ihe acquisition of Danish and Swedish is exceedingly 


easy, so little does he find in them that he does not readily rooog- 
nize as either English or German. The general appearance, the 
cast, of Swedish and Danish, is rather English, rather Saxon, 
than modern High German ; the style, the idiom, with some 
exceptions, is not German but English. Yet, notwithstanding 
the orthography of the language is decidedly English, when 
considered generally, there are many words which are as decid- 
edly German and not English, as the following forms will 
illustrate : 

Angendm, angenehm, agreeable (first Swed., next Ger.) ; anlete^ 
antlitz, countenance; hegdr, hegierde^ desire; ie/a/, he/My 
command (befail) ; be-rom, ruhm, renown ; hetcUa, bezcMen^ 
pay ; bo, wohnen, dwell (bide) ; fara, ge-fahr, peril ; /ogel, vogel, 
bird (fowl); fdrdig, fertig, ready; Jmappt, hnappj scarcely 
(tight); kropp, korper, body; ogonhlick, atigenblick, moment 

666. A few specimens of the language will give something 
of an idea of its character, and we take up first the Swedish : 

Jag onskar dig den gladjen, att se dina bam lychliga — I 
wish thee the gladness, to {atC\ see thy (thine) children (thy 
born) lucky (prosperous) ; — 6am is singular ; one of the 
Swedish declensions has singular and plural alike. 

Den soldat hogaktar jag, som vdgar (wages) sitt liff for 
fddemeslandet — the soldier high-respect I {jag)y who risks his 
life for fatherland (I much respect him); Jmu cUskar hofwm 
sdsoin sin egenson — he loves (likes) him so-so (so-as) his (gin) 
own son. 

Det bli/ver fyra dr (year) t morgon sedan (sithen^jag sfuk- 
node — it becomes (leaves, is) four year to (i, in) morrow since 
I sickened; jag har lemnat dem ett ndjajktigt svar — I have (har) 
given (let) them an (the) accurate (satisfactory) answer ; jag 
pdr-minner mig den omstdndigheten — I remember me (be-mind 
me) the circumstance. 

Jag sag henne kommande — I saw her coming; det cLr far a 
om lifvet — it are (there is). danger about (the) life; vi siUfa 
e/ter vigt — we sell after weight ; jag tror^ att du kaai gora det 
— I trust, that you can do (chore) it; han kom gdendes — he 
came going (on foot) ; jag bad honom (aityidna mig sin bok — 
I bade him (to) lend me his book (in Ger. (to) me his book to 
lend, while the Danish is precisely English). Fa personer 
ha/va varit (been) begdfvade med sd utmdrkta (out-marked) 
sjdJsf&nmgenheter (souls-for-might-hood-er, soul-power), som 
(as) Crustaf Adolph — few persons have been endowed (be- 
gifted) with so remarkable soul-power as Gustav Adolph ; jag 
har kbpt en hdst — I have bought (got) a horse, (in Ger., I have 
a horse bought). 


66S. Danish : Det var (were) en toverdag morgen^ og netop 
den forUe JSqftemher, da dtn unge Russer meget Hdlig n^ste sig 
fra sU lefe, i den hensigt at gaa (to go) ud, for at optage etpar 
Mdser a/. AJbaneraoens. meest romantiske partkr — It (det) was 
a Saturday morning, and (og) just (neat) the first September, 
tiiat the young Enssian much early (timely) raised (him-)self 
&om (Jf^) his bed (L. lectus), in the view to go out, for to take 
(off«tu») a pair (conple) sketches of Albanersen's most romantic 

■ En hobmamd modtog (with-took) en fem shiUingi-mynt^ der 
ikke tynieB ham cU vaere (to be, were) 'a^gte, og spurgde (Ger* 
Jragen) der/or en aag/orer, 9om gik (jgajng^ went) forbi hani 
(his) buHky hvad han (he) tneente om (of) den — A merchant 
(bny^^man) received a five-shilling-piece, that not seemed to»him 
to be pure (jxegte\ and asked therefore an attorney, that went 
by his shop (booth), what he thought (meant) about it (that). 

I mange tu-fa^lde^ hyor der i(in) andre sprogtnlde vaere hrugt 
et adjectiv, bruges i Zulu sproget et svhstantiv — in many oases, 
where Uiere in other language would (mlde) be used an adjec- 
tive, is^used (hrttges, uses) in Zulu language a substantive. 

Taelle (tell) med fingrene^ hegyndende fra venstre haand», 

UUe-Jinger^ idet kver finger som er optagen i taellingen, raekkes 

iu2 (stretches out) — count (they do) with fingers, beginning 

from left hand, little-finger, until (idety every finger which 

(some) are (is) up- taken in counting, is-stretched out (ud)', — 

medens de ovrige (the overs) forblive knyttede — while the 

remaining (ones) leave (are left) knitted (shut) ; ere ogsaa for- 

fnede^udaf (out-of) vedkommenae (with-coming) hegyndeher — 

(they) are also formed out-of with-coming prefixes (beginners). 

SkuUe bruges — should (be) used; ttderne kunne ind-deles 

(deal, divide) — ^tenses can be-formed (can form, can form selves) ; 

det er naeppe (nip, G^er. hnapp) vaerd at se — it is scarce worth 

to see; jeg har et liUe besog at gjore i nabolauget — I have a 

little visit to make in (the) neighborhood. 

667. To show the great similarity between the Danish and 
Swedish, we will give the samiB verse used in German with 
Dntch. First Swedish : 

Dd, lopp Turn, och Viom tUl Simon Petrus, och till den andra 
lUrjungeriy som Jesus dlskade^ och sade till dem; De hafwa tagit 
R&rran bort utafgrafwen, och vyi wete icke hwart de hafwa lagt 

Danish : Da Job A«n, og horn til Simon Peder, og tU den 
anden discipel^ hviUeen Jesus elskede, og sagde til dem : De have 
bort'taget Herren af graven^ og vi vide ikke^ hvor de have lagt 
Jiam — Then ran (leaped) she, and came to (till) Simon Peter, 
and to the other disciple, which Jesus liked, and said to them, 


They (de) have taken Loi*d forth (afvay), (Dan. forth-taken) ont- 
of (Dan. off, eaf) (the) grave, and we wot not (jkhe) where they 
have laid him. 

668. Old North : Speaking approximately, we may say thati 
the Old North has the same relation to the modern Scandiuaviau 
languages, that the Anglo-Saxon, or' Old English^ has to tha 
present English, or that any old language has to its living de- 
scendants. The Old North is abundant in its relies, both poetry 
and prose. Poetry, in the early centuries, of course predomin^ 
ates, and it possesses all of that laconic and quaint style whicb 
characterizes so preeminently the earliest productions of aO 
northern Europe. Its mythological impress is also a striking 
fact ; its tales of gods and of the deeds of gods, suffer not, in 
beauty and interest, in comparison with the long-admired histoiy 
of the divinities of Rome and of G^reece. This impress, which 
we have noticed, is one of a hundred forcible evidences that 
connect and combine the German of the North with the Glassies 
of the South. 

669. The oldest monument of the German-North languages, is 
the poem entitled " Vauhib-Spa^'* of a date uncertain to history, 
but supposed to belong between the 5th and 8th centuries. A few 
selections from it will give some idea of the features of composi- 
tion in Old North, and some idea, too, of the comparative form 
of the words it contains : 

Aund than ne attu, oth thau ne ha/do —'mind (L. ammo), 
they not had, sense they no had ; lae ne laeti^ ne litu gotha — 
motion nor hearing, not face (look) (Ger. aniMtz) good; aundgaf 
Othinn^ oth gaf Haenir — mind gave Odin (he gave), sense gave 
Haenir ; lae gaf Lothr ok litu gotha — motion gave Loder, and 
face (litu) good (also). 

Ask veit-ek standa, heittr ygg-thrasM 
Har-hathmr, ausinn hvitom auri; 
Thathan koma davggvar, thaers i dalifaUa ; 
Stendr aei groinn yjir Yrthar-hrunni — 
Ash knew-I (to) stand, hight Odins-horse, 
Hair-tree, strewed (with) white dust ; 
Thence come dew (rain), that in dale fall, 
Stands (it) ever green over Urthar-brunni. 

7%riivar brendu thrisvar homa^ 
Opt ok osialthan, tho hon enn lifir 
Heithi hana hetUy hvars til husa kom — 
' Thrice burned (they) thrice born, 
Ofb and unseldom, though she yet live. 
Heithi her (they) call, where (whose) to house come (to 
whose she came). 


Bin sat hon tUiy tha hinn aldni kom, 

Tggiongr Asa, ok i augu hit; 

HverB fregniih mik, hvar freistith min 

Alone sat she out, there the old come 

(The) king (of) Ases, and in eye (of him) looked ; 

What ask (you) me, why try (thou) me (of me ? ) 

The follemng is a Terse of another style, taken from another 

Fraemr mtm ek seigia — farther will (mean) I say (tell) 
EffirdofT theigia — if Tthe) men (L. vtr) (be) silent; 
Fragom fleira — (we) learned more 
TUframa their a — to (of the) journey (of) theirs ; 
AeBtust «nd^»r— (were) made wounds (they were made)) 
Vilk Jofwrs fundir — by king's arrival; 
BrMn hrandir — strike (the) swords (did), 
VUh blar randir •— with (against) blue shields. 

670. A selection from Freysgode's Saga : 

HrafiUcett reid vpp eptir Fl/otsdahheradi^ ok sa hvar eydi- 
^Jofr gekk (went) upp af JokaUdcd ; sa dalr syndist (seemed) 
•^^frafiikeU hyggUigri^ enn adrir dcdir, their sent hann hafdi adr 
^^i; en er Hra/nkeU horn heim, beiddi hann/odur smn^ardciptu^ 
^>A tagdist hann (he) hustad vilja reisa thar. Thetta veitir fadir 
'^^^jnshanum ; ok hann gbrir hoe i dal theim, ok kaUar a Adal- 
^^caK. HrafnkeU fekk (took) Oddhjargar^ Skjaldvlfs dottur^ or 
^<^\JLt) LaxardaJ; thau atta tva sonu: het (hight) Atnn {the) 
^£ir% Thorirj en hinn i/ngri Ashjom, 

En tha er HrdfnkeU hafdi land numit at AdalboU^ tha efldi 

^coin blot mikit (much) ; Hrafrikell let gbra (make) hofmikit. 

■^^rafnkell elskadi ekki dnnat (no other) god meir (more) enn 

. C ^iluia) Frey^ ok hanum gaf hann (he) alia hina heztn gripi sina 

K^y^) half a vid sik. Hrafnkell byggdi (dwelt, bide) aJlan dalinn^ 

^^ g^jf fnonnum Wnd, en vildi tho vera yfirmadr theirra^ ok tok 

goiord yfir theim, Vid tlietta var lengt nafn hans, ok kaUadr 

J^^fy^godi — ok var ujafnadarmadr mikilly en menntr veL 

671. (Translated, word-for-word). Hrafnkell rode up through 
(after) Fljots-dals-pass, and saw (sa) that (where) (a) wastes 
dale went up from Jokulsdale; that (the) dale seemed (to) 
Hrafakell (more) dwellable, than {enn) other dales, those that 
(which) he had before (ere) seen {set); and when Hrafnkell 
csme home, asked (bade) he father (of) his (for) goods-division 
(to ^vide the property), and saidest (that) he (his) dwelling- 
pW (abode) will move there (would fix his abode there). That 
grants (the) &ther his (to) him (the father gives) ; and he made 
\S) dwelling (a bye) in dale that (one), and calls (it) to Adal- 

252 PHBA6I8. 

boli. Hraihkell married Odd., Sk's-daughter, from Lax. ; they 
had two son ; called the older Th, and the younger Ash. 

And when there Hrafnkell had land taken at Ad, then 
(would)^ make he (an) offering (a) great (one). (H. let make 
offer-place {hof^ great (one). Hfafnkell loved no other god 
more than Frey j and (to) him gave he all the heat property (of) 
his half with self. Hri^nkell settled all (the) dales, and gave 
men land, and wotdd then be (were) over^man (of) theirs (dieir 
governor), and took office-of-overseer (godord) over them. 
With that was long name (of) his (from that came his smmanie), 
and (i&) called Freysgodi ; find (he) was (an) imfair-man (very) 
much, but brave much (very brave, able). 

672. A few lines of Danish will show how it compares with 
the above : EbrafnkeU red cp qjennefm Fi/oUdcUsherredei^ og ma 
at en ode Dcd gik ep fra JokuUdcden ; derme Dal 9ynie$ ham 
heboelligere end de ajidre dale, han/or havde seet, Man da han 
kom A/em, bcui han sin Fader om at ski/te Godset med dg^ og 
sagde, at han vilde opslaa (strike up, move) iin Bolig hist. 

673. We conclude the subject of German langiuiges by re- 
marking, that to the philologist the most impol-tant members of 
the whole class are, besides the German proper, the Dutch, 
Danish, and Swedish, as they contain much of valuci, on the 
subject of his inquiry, which he will not find translated* 



674, The Celtic class of languages readily falls into two lead- 
ing divisions : the first composed of the Welsh or Cymric, of 
Wales, the Cornish, of Cornwall, now extinct, and the Celt- 
Breton (Armorican), of Brittany, a province of France ; and 
the second embracing the Scotch, or Gaelic, of the Highlands 
of Scotland, the Irish, or Erse, and the Manks language, of the 
Isle of Man. The term Cymric, or Welsh, is often used to 
denote the whole division to which that language belongs ; so, 
Gaelic is used to denote Scotch and Irish together; Erse is 
used in the same way by some ; Erse is also applied to Scotch. 

676. These two divisions have important features to distin- 
guish them, and yet when we become thoroughly acquainted 
with them, we readily see that they are simply strongly-devel- 
oped dialects of one and the same tongue. The Celtic idiom is, 
to the philological student, a subject of great interest. With all 


the odd dress it wears, and the peculiar lines of direction it is 
sometimes found to take, we have only to become thoroughly 
acquainted with its true character and spirit, to perceiye that it 
is not so strange as we have been wont to conceive it. We find 
that there is, i^r all, often cloaked in its own Celtic fashion, a 
remarkable identity with the English, French, and German 

676. The most striking feature which impresses us on our 
first acquaintance with Celtic, is the strange orthography into 
which it shapes not alone its own but foreign words, and we 
have only to master that peculiar fashion which it has, in order 
to make the Celtic appear to us a very common and familiar 
idiom. The oddities of arrangement in its sentences, when we 
keep French as well as English in view, are by no means great 
We find, it is true, particles piled on in greater profusion than 
we that are English might expect, though not so much greater 
than we find in many other languages which are not Celtic. We 
find the adjective, as in French and Semitic, very generally after 
4he noun, though by no means uniformly in. any of the different 
forms of Celtic, nor in all of them equally. The nominative is 
often after the verb, while it is generally before it with ua. 
TChere are many other important differences, but which we must 
pass by entirely, or which will be observed in the selections 
nrhich we are about to give. There is one very noticeable point, 
liowever, which we will dwell on here, a feature not by any 
means peculiar to the Celtic, for we find it well defined in French, 
in German, in Greek, and in many, if not, indeed, in all others 
— though perhaps nowhere so prominent as in Celtic ', we refer 
to the change which a word undergoes (to adopt the current 
idea) to correspond with some other word connected with it, and 
either preceding it or following — thus, in Greek, apo, from, 
before some words, is written aph, and kata, kath; and sun, with, 
connected with a following A; or ^ sound, becomes stig by assimi- 
lation. It is on this same principle that we find, in Celtic, pen, 
a head, alone and with eu, bb eu pen, their head ; but, with c/y, 
as cfy hen, thy head, pen changes to ben, and with;/^, my, as^ 
mhen, it changes to mhen ; and we find eiphen, her head ; also, 
hrawd, a brother, dy frawd, thy brother ; yy mrawd, my brother; 
also the forms, troed, droed, nhroed, throed, (foot) ; and ci, gi, 
nghi^ chi (dog) — according to their connections. 

677. It will be observed that all these changes or mutations, 
are mere variations of cognate letters, that these variations are 
on the same principle as those which occur in compound words, 
or in the different parts of the same word. All variations in 
the end of words, in all languages, to denote tense, person, case, 
etc., arise from this same principle of assimilation between cog- 


nate letters ; it is regarded as certain that these mutations in 
Celtic may be taken as representations of the case relation, or 
case variation. We nowhere find stronger proof than this 
which we find in Celtic, of our position that all the letters of a 
word, all the letters of compound words, of words coining to- 
gether in any way, are of the same nature, and continually tend 
to assimilate. 

678. The following selections will serve to illustrate the 
character of the Celtic languages, and we take first the Welsh : 

Prynoddy efyw ^e^Z— bought the (y) man (did) (a) horse 
(Fr. cheval); y dyn hwn (this) — the man this (one). Cododd 
y milwyr yn-erhyn eu cadpen — rose the soldiers (did) a-gainst 
their (eu) captain. DarUenwyd eich llythyr i-r aelodau-^ was- 
read your (etch) letter (was) to-the members. Fa (what) der- 
/ysg sydd yn y ddinas — ^what disturbance is (Ger. smd, are) 
in the city (town) ; gwdais e/— I-saw him (e/) ; a-v)el80ch chwi 
efneu hi — a-saw you (did you see) him or her ? 

T gvyr a-4 toraig a-ddaethant — ^the man and-his (a-i) wife 
a-came (a is common verb prefix, like the Ger. and G'k aug- 
ment). Gallwch chwi a-ch (and-your) gwraig /yned-*— can-you 
(you can) you and your wife go (mounts fyned) ; daeth efe-*^ 
came he; daethant hwy — came they; deg llyfr — ten book;' 
Gwelais geffylau, a phrynais hwynt — I-saw (some) horses, and 
I-bought them. Yr-toy/yn credu ei hod yn gwawrio —— there- 
am (I) in believing {i, e. I believe) it is (be, hod) in dawning 
(it dawns) {yr is a prefix, like our there in there is, and like Ger. 
c», Scand. er, and we may regard yr-wyf as double 6c, foryr*s 

Gwelais y milwyr a^ carcharwr yn myned i-r Vys •*— I«saw 
the soldiers and-the (r^=^yr, the) prisoner in going (a-going) to 
the (r = the) hall ; fel nas geUa/ei chredu — that not I-can its 
(ei) believing (cannot believe it). Fe Uaddai e/eji, etc mi (I) 
a-oheithaf ynddo — though (jpe, what) kill he me, yet I (will) 
a-trust in-him (i/nddo). It is a prevailing feature in Celtic, to 
find the pronoun and preposition united, as in yn^do, or accord- 
ing to our view, to see the preposition, as to, develop elself into 
the representative of pron. and prep., as to-me, 

Tr oedd y dyn yn ddoeth — there was a man in knowing (the 
man was wise (knowing); adjectives like in-wisdom, for wise, 
are common) ; mor drwm a phlwm — as heavy (drag) as (and) 
lead (L. plumh*) ; y/enyw yr oeddychyn ei gweled — the woman 
there (which) were (you were) in her seeing (the woman which 
you saw). Fy mhen, fy mraich, fy nhroed — my head, my arm, 
my foot. Faham yr ydych yn ceisio fy Uadd — why there are- 
ou (ydych) in seeking my killing'^ seek to kill me (yr must 
•e counted as an augment). 



Ifyfi yw y hara hywiol, yr-hum (the-this) a-ddaeth i waered 
o-r wc/— I (I-I, my-self ) am (is) the bread living, which a-came 
to down from-the (o-») neaven (L. nubes). Ynay cy fiavmyd 
yr-hyn a-ddywedcmd — then there (was) fulfilled the-this (what) 
(was) anspoken; lief a-glyhuwyd^-^ Yoice (was) a-heard (a is 
prefix); ac wedi ei gyfodi — but a^r his hearing, i. e., when he 
heard \ y gelwid ef — there (shall-be)-called he, t. e, he shall be 

Aeyny dyddiau hynny y daeth Joan Fedyddiwr^ gan bre*' 
gethu-yn niffeithwch Judea-^ and in the days those (y augment) 
came John (the) Baptfst, with preaching in (the) wilderness 

679. Cornish : Little can be said that is peculiar to the 
Cornish, when compared with Welsh. We notice our form of 
passive : OrU nef of dan/enys — from-the heaven I-am (o/) sent; 
bos rewardyys --^ be rewarded ; an gorhel my a-n gura (work) 
— the ship I it (will) make ; me a-s ygor an (the) darasow — r 
I (for^ them (m\\) open the doors. 

680. Celt-IBreton : The Celt-Breton has greater and more 
important peculiarities, not only orthographic but grammatical, 
as the following examples will show : Ann douar ho tigemero 
goude ho maro (death), am gwelo o vervel, hag enn han e vezinn 
douaret^^ the earth (L. terra) you (it) will-receive after (goude) 
your death (which receives you after), me (it) will-see (gwelo) 
to die (in dying) (see me die), and in it (e augment) I-shall-be 
(yezinv^ earthed (interred); it gant (with) hi — go with her; 
evid mond e bro — for (to) go into (the) country, gand he c-hreg 
hag he zaou vah — with his (he) wife (Welsh wraig) and his 
two sons (6u5, Ger. knabe) ; Jie za^u vab aM>a hanvet^-^ his two 
sbn a- was named; ead e bro — go into (the) country; Noemi 
Orlavaraz d-ezhi — Noemi arsaid (a augment) to her (hi), 

681. A few more words must suffice to give an idea of the 
orthography : Kaloun^ heart (/ = »*); «va, drink, L. bibo^ bever- 
age; mad^ good, L. magnus; mor, sea, Fr. mer ; an or, the 
door ; chatalj cattle ; gar leg, arm, G'k cAcir*» hand; lech, place, 
L. locus, 

Melen, yellow, mellow; moal, bald; nerz, force, nerve; mveTj 
number ; paz, all, G'kpas ; penn, head, L. caput, mount, point; 
tij house, sty, L. tectus ; teod, tongue ; deiz, day, L. dies. 

Breach, arin, L. branch ; ia>ch, health ; choad, wood ; war^ 
sure ; gwarek, arc ; gwir, true ; uhel, high, hill ; fall, e-vil, bad ; 
kaer, pretty, L.pul-cher; braa, great; mean, stone; dour, wa-ter; 
hreur, brother, Fr. frere, 

Koulm, Fr. colombe, dove ; pqotr, boy, L.puer; hano, name; 
km, fire; keich, circle; env, heaven; ali, bird, L. avis, 1, v; tra, 
thing, L. res ; avel, blow, wind, Fr. vent; wel, look. 

256 PHBASia. 

Kif dog, Fr. chieti ; haz^ stick, beat, Fr. baton; gweR, better, 
well, Fr. meilleur ; gwenn, white, Fr. hlanc, L. can* ; biz, digit, 
Fr. doigt ; he xoum, his hand, G'k cheir; piou, who; ohoar, 
sister, Fr. soeur, 

Kresky grow, Fr. crois, increase; dtgor (learn), L. disco; ro, 
give, L. c^, r, d ; kred, Fr. crois, credit, trust ; kika, put, place, 
L. locus. I 

Kar, love, dear, care ; lavar, (speak), L. lego; kav, Fr. trouv 
(find), re-trieve ; gall, can, will ; gwez (know), sage, wise ; dont, 
come, gone, d, g; mont^^dont, mount, went; k^a, go, Fr. va; 
gan, sing, L. cano ; dale, delay. 

Ober, work (make), L. opere ; ra, do, rann, done, r, d ; gra, 
do (g prefix); sevel, raise, Fr. lever; kaout, have, k, g, h; 
krenn^ round, sFr. rond, kr^=r; ^lin, in-cline, knee, Fr. genou; 
den, man, Fr. gens (plur. of den is titd, Gter. leute, folk). 

Lagad (eye), look ; geo, yoke, Fr. joug ; enk (straight), Grer. 
eng, narrow, anxious ;^arrc^, rook; trouz, Fr. bruit (noise); 
bran^ raven. 

These, and very many more which we might give, comprising 
a large portion of the language, are easily seen to be variations 
of French and German words. ^ 

682. Gaelic : Our next selections we will take from the 
Gaelic proper, or Highland Scotch: Agvjs a^deirim ribh — and 
I-say unto-you (a is an augment); agus ri m-shearbhant, dean 
so, agus nise e — and to my-servant (I say), do that, and dooth 
it he (he does it) ; nach d-fhair mi creidimh co mor ols so'-^ 
not (have) found I (mi) faith so great {mor) as that {I have 
not found) — d\ for do, is the predx or augment for the past 

Thigaedh (infin.) do rioghachd — come thy kingdom (G^r. 
rick, L. regnum) ; deanar do thoil air an talamh, mar a-nithear 
air (on, in) neamh — (be) done thy will (jthoU) on the earth 
(L. <erra) as a-done (as is done) in heaven (a augment); chualax 
guth an Rama — (was) heard (G'k khw) voice in Kama; agus 
an uair a-chunnaic iad (they) an reult — and the hour (t. e. 
when) a-saw they the star (when they saw) ; bha a chulaidh 
(clad) aig Uoin — (then) was the raiment to John (John was 
clad, clothed); thubhairt e m-^said he to-them; air ata (is) 
6 scriobhta — for is it written (it is written) ; ampobuU a-hha 
'nan suidhe an dorchadas — the people a-was (was) in sitting 
(was sitting) in darkness ; ag imeachd da Josa — in walking 
(coming) of Jesus (i, e , Jesus while walking). 

Agtis bha e an-sin gu (to) bas Heroid — and was he there 
(the-there) until death (of) Herod ; anns na laithibh sin (those) 
thainig Eoin Baiste, a-searmonach am fasach Judea — in the 
days those (those days) came John Baptist, a-preaching in wil- 


demetn (of) Jndea — agus ag-radh, and a-saying (in saying, 
T'adh (Qer. reden). 

Agus bhatsteadh tad leissam (by-bim) ann an Jordan ^ ag- 
mdmheU am peacanna — and (were) baptized they (were) by- 
him in the Jordan, a-oonf easing (admitting) the (their) sins; 
^hum gu-m biodh e air a bhauteadh lets (fe==by) — for that be 
be (for him to be) in (air) the baptizing by-him (baptized by 
bim) — a is a prefix ; chaidh (goed, went) e air ball suas as an 
nisge — went he (e) on (the) spot (J,, e. immediately) up out the 
water. Js e so mo (my) mhac gradhcuih, am bheil (Slav, byl) 
fno mJior Machd — is he that (this is he) my son {mac) beloved, 
(be) is my great delight — am is prefix. 

Vhum gurm biodh e air a bhtiaireadh (try, proved, b-r-d) leis 
an diabhol — for that be he (he be) on the (a is prefix) tempt- 
ing by {leis, by-him) the devil (to be tempted) ; air teachd do-n 
hhuaireadair — on coming of-the tempter, t. e., when he came ; 
an sin thug an diabhol e do-n bhaile (ville) naomha — the then 
(then) took the devil (did) him into-the city (the^ holy (one); 
Leanaibh mise (my-self ), aga>s ni (make) mi iasgeirian (fishers) 
air daoinibh dhihh — follow- (ye) me, and make I (I will make) 
^hers of men (of) you (dhibh); lean iad esan — follow they 

Cha^n fhevdar baile a ta air a shuidheachadh air sliabhh 
Jholach — not can (a) city which (a) is (to) on a sitting 
(which sits) on (a) hill hide (be hidden) ; ni h-ann a sgaoHeadh 
Orthainig mi, ach a choimhlionadh — not for the destroying 
(to destroy) a-come I (do I come), but the fulfilling — (the a 
here may be treated as the, to, but it is as much a part of the 
verb as any prefix is } so, in the sentence before, a, which was 
called whidb is so much a part with to, that in Irish it is 
written ato)- 

Chndla sibh gu-n dubJiradh^ Suil air son snla, agus fiacail 
air son facia — heard yo (ye have heard) that say (it is said), 
eye (L. occid-us) for sake (ot') eye, and tooth for sake (of) tooth ; 
tabhair (L. daho) do-n ti (the, that) a dh^iarras ort — give to- 
ihe he (to the one ) who asks of-thee — (dh is prefix, iarras, ask) ; 
buailibh an dorus, agus fosgaHear cf/mt&A— knock (blow-ye) 
the door, and (it shall be) opened to-you ; o-ir gach uile neach 
a dhriarras, glacuidh e — for each all one (every one) who asks, 
receives he (does) ; lean cuideachd mhor e — followea multitude 
great him (followed him). 

688. The idiom and grammar of the Irish is so nearly identi- 
cal with the Gaelic, which we have illustrated thus copiously, 
that we will not stop to select expressions from the Irish. We 
will next give a comparative view of the Gaelic, Irish, and 


Welsh, using, in this case, the verse in John already taken for 
a similar purpose. 

Gaelic : Ruith i an sin^ ofrus tliamifr i gu Simon Peadar, 
agus gus an deisciohul eile a h-ionmhuinn le h-Josa, agns a-deir 
I (she) rm; thug iad lea an Tigheam as an naigh^ agus chd 
n-eil fhios againn c-ait an do chuir iad e — run she {%) the then 
(then she run), and came she to Simon Peter, and to the (an) 
disciple (the) other, who w-dear (was dear) to h-Jeeus, and 
a-said she (she said) to-them {riu) : Took they (have) away the 
Lord out the grave, and not is (not) knowing to-us (^aga-inn) 
where that (do pref.) laid they him (we do not know where (the 
place) they have laid him). 

684. The same verse runs in Irish thus : Ut'me-sin (there- 
fore) do-rioih si {do is prefix, si=i^, agus tainigh si mar 
(where) a.-raihh (was) jSimon Peadar, agus an deiseiohal eile, 
noc do-h (who was) ionmhin le Jffiosa, agus a (pref.) dubhairt si 
riu, Rngh-adar (they took) an Tigheama leo- as an dt-uama, 
agus ni (not) hhjil (is) a fhios aginn gha-hait (what-place, 
where) ar (pref.) chir-eadar e (is laid he, they laid him). We 
notice that they {iad of Gael.) is here represented by the end- 
ing -adar, and we see the prefix do = Gael, a, our to, 

686. And next wc give the Welsh : Yna {\k\^\i) y-rhedodd My 
ac a-dddeth at Simon Pedr, a-r disgyhl arall (other) yr-hvm 
(who) yr-oedd (^/•= there, prefix) yr (to) Jesu yn ei garu (in 
his care, love), ac a-ddyw'edodd (a-said) wrthynt (to them) .• 
Ewy (they) a-ddygasant (took) yr Arghmjdd ymaith o-r hedd^ 
ac ni u^/ddom ni (not we-know not) pa le (what place) y-doda- 
sant ^/(him). 

686. The Irish is written with letters of its own, an alphabet 
of eighteen characters, differing considerably from the English 
or Roman. 

The amount of writings in Irish is very large, and in point of 
time they range between the 8th and 14th centuries. Those of 
the Gaelic are not so abundant as the Irish, nor do they bear a 
date by any means so ancient. 

687. In conclusion, we may remark on the Celtic languages, 
that though they present many features in a new form or new 
light, they are still much nearer the German and Latin class of 
languages than is generally supposed. When once we fully 
understand the nature of their orthography, and their system of 
prefixes, or augments, we shall find few words and few points 
in grammar, that cannot be compared with the English or 


CHAPTEfe IV. ; . ' 


68S. Tine Latin, long since an idiom without a living people 
to speak it, is represented still by these three impottant families : 
the Italian, the Spanish, and the French — and with thede we 
may count the less prominent Portugese, Wallachi^n, and Pro- 
vencial. There are, indeed, many other members of this great 
Latin family, which we inay either re^rd as branches of these 
late living languages, or" as themselves ihdepeiidfent dialects^ 
Such of them as come within our scope, will be noticed in the 
coarse of the review. The old Latiu itself we treat of sufficiently 
in another place, aiid it refnains to speak briefly of the main 
points observable in its desciendafets. 'We will' introduce the 
French first. 

689. We may with propriety divide the French into a north- 
•ern and a southern dialect, as we divided the German into HigK 
and Low German. Fbr 'practical* purposes, we may say tlie Loire 
marks the separation of two idioms very easily distinguised. The 
oldest, and once the ruling one, as a cultivated language, was 
the southern, to which the comprehensive term Proven cial is 
applied, as well, too, as the name Langue d'Oc. The northern 
is the source of our present modern French, the written lan- 
guage ; the names Langue d'Oil and Norman French have been 
applied to it. Besides these two leading sections of the French 
spoken language, in both north and south there are other sub- 
dialects, more or less defined and extensive in point of area, but 
we have not the space td dwell on them here. Suffice it to say, 
that several of them present some very interesting and instruc- 
tive features, when compared with the modern standard French. 

690. Of these two leading divisions we may say further, that, 
as we might expect, the northern, coming constantly in contact 
with the German culture, has received a German impress, while 
the southern, iotimately associated with the Latin languages, has 
been affected in its growth by their pressure, or, in other words, 

One presents a phase more or less German, while that of the 

other IB quite as much Latin. 

691. It should be noticed, with regard to the names Langue 
d.'Oc and Provencial, that they are sometimes used without dis- 
tinction, as denoting the southern .languages of France; still, 
the names are used in a narrower sense, to denote the idioms of 
tiwo different localities in Southern France; or, again, Provencial 
is used as the comprehensive name of the old idiom of South 
France, of which the Langue d'Oc ana others are now dialects. 

258 PHRASIS. > 

Welsh, using, in this case, the verse in John already taken for 
a similar purpose. 

Gaelic : Jiuith i an sin^ o^m thainifr i gu Simdn Peadar, 
agu8 gus an deisciohul eile a h-ionmhuinn le h-Josa, ag^is a^deir 
i{Bhey riu : thug iad leo an Ttghearn a« an uaigk^ agus chd 
n-eil/hios againn c-ait an do chuir tad e — run she (i) the then 
(then she run), and came she to Simon Peter, and to the (on) 
disciple (the) other, who w-dear (was dear) to h-Jeeus, and 
a-said she (she said) to-thcm (riu) : Took they (have) away the 
Lord out the grave, and not is (not) knowing to-us {aga-mn) 
where that (do pref.) laid they him (we do not know where (the 
place) they have laid him). 

684. The same verse runs in Irish thus : LVwe-sm (there- 
fore) do-rioth si (do is prefix, si=i), agtbs tainigh si mar 
(where) a-raibh (was) Simon Peadar, a gus an deisciohal eile, 
noc do-b (who was) ionmhin le Hiosa^ agus a (pref.) duhhairt si 
rill, Rngh-adar (they took) an Tigheama leoa^ an dt-uama, 
agus ni (not) hh/il (is) a fliios aginn gha-kait (what-place, 
where) ar (pref) chir-eadar e (is laid he, they laid him). We 
notice that they {iad of Gael.) is here represented by the end- 
ing -a^lar, and we see the prefix do = Gael, a, our to. 

685. And next we give the Welsh : Yiia (then) y-rJiedodd My 
ac a-ddaeth at Simon Pedr, a-r disgyhl arall (other) yr-hvm 
(who) yr-oedd (jyr = there, prefix) yr (to) Jesu yn ei garu (in 
his care, love), ac a-ddyw'edodd (a-said) wrthynt (to them) : 
Bwy (they) a-ddygasant (took) yr Arglwydd ymaith o-r hedd^ 
ac ni wyddom ni (not we-know not) pa le (what place) y-doda- 
sant e/'(him). 

686. The Irish is written with letters of its own, an alphabet ^ 
of eighteen characters, differing considerably from the English ^ 
or Roman. 

The amount of writings in Irish is very large, and in point of '^ 
time they range between the 8th and 14th centuries. Those of "^ 
the Gaelic are not so abundant as the Irish, nor do they bear a -^ 
date by any means so ancient. 

687. In conclusion, we may remark on the Celtic languages, « j 
that though they present many features in a new form or new ""^ 
light, they are still much nearer the German and Latin class of "^^ 
languages than is generally supposed. When once we fully ^ 
understand the nature of their orthography, and their system of 
prefixes, or augments, we shall find few words and few points 
in grammar, that cannot be compared with the English or 




68S. TliB Latin, long since an idioni without a living peopl0 
to speak it, is represented still by thfese three impottant families : 
the Italian, the Spkhish, and the French — and with theSe we 
may count the less prominent Portugese, Wallacbi^n, and Pro- 
vencial. There are, indeed, many other member's of this gi'eat 
Latin family, which we inay' either regard as branches of these 
late living language^, or' as themselves indejpehd'erit dialects^ 
Such of them as come within our scope, will be noticed in the 
course of the review. The old Latin itself we treat of sufficiently 
in another place, aiid it refnains to speak briefly of the main 
points observable ih its descbhdatits.' 'We will' introduce the 
French first. 

689. We may with propriety divide the French into a north- 
ern and a southern dialect, as we divided the German into High' 
and Low German. Fbr practical' purposes, we may say tlie Loire 
marks the separation of two idioms very easily distinguised. The 
oldest, and t)nce the ruling one, as a cultivated language, was 
the southern, to which the comprehensive term Proven cial is 
applied, as well, too, as the name Langue d'Oc. The northern 
is the source of our present modern French, the written lan- 
guage ; the names Langue d*Oil and Norman French have been 
applied to it. Besides these two leading sections of the French 
spoken language, in both north and south there are other sub- 
dialects, more or less defined and extensive in point of area, but 
we have not the space t(j dwell on them here. Suffice it to say, 
that several of them present some very interesting and instruc- 
tive features, when compared with the modern standard French. 

690. Of these two leading divisions we may say further, that, 
as we might expect, the northern, coming constantly in contact 
iv^ith the German culture, has received a German impress, while 
the southern, intimately associiated with the Latin languages, has 
been affected in its growth by their pressure, or, in other words, 
One presents a phase more or less German, while that of the 
other is quite as much Latin. 

691. It should be noticed, with regard to the names Langue 
fi'Oc and Provencial, that they are sometimes used without dis- 
tiinction, as denoting the southern .languages of France; still, 
'the names are used in a narrower sense, to denote the idioms of 
tiwo different localities in Southern France ; or, again, Provencial 
is used as the comprehensive name of the old idiom of South 
France, of which the Langue d'Oc ana others are how dialects." 

260 PHRASI8. 

692. A few examples selected from French antHors, witli the 
explanations belonging to them, will give a better idea of the 
leading points in this language than any abstract remarks. 

De meme que Twhich, as) Kepler — of same (the same) a» 
Kepler {de is called a prep, equal to of, but it often, as here, 
takes the place of our the^ with which it agrees in form also) ; 
Vhomme (T ■■ the) qui se sert du (of-the) microscope parte (speaks]) 
de grossissenients, et s'imaffine pouvoir a leur (their) aide con^ 
naitre mieux les ohjets — tne-man who self serves (server him* 
self with) of-the microscope speaks of enlargements, and imag- 
ines self (s' = self, a pure article, or pref.) to-be-able (pouvoir ^ 
power, \i, potisy possum, It, podere) by (a) their aid to-know 
better the objects. 

PeiU encore nous conduire — can yet us conduct (can conduct 
us) ; une demiere/ois nous Vavons (V -« it, the)preM^ sur notre 
cceur — one (a) last time we it-have pressed upon our heart 
(have pressed it) ; il est, it is, there is , nous avons vu que — we 
have seen that ; ce corps se trouve — that body self finds (finds 
self, is found); de cette maniere — of that (in that) manner; 
une partie en est dissoute dans le sue — one (a) part of (it) is 
dissolved in the juice (« —y). 

A dHjet^ — has ought (due) to-throw (has ought is good 
French and German, if not English) ; de donner — of giving, 
to give (c?e=to) ; deplus en plus — of more in more (more and 

L* etude de la structure intime — the-study of the structmre 
intimate (adj. follows) ; et meme de Fhomme — and same of the- 
man (even of man). 

Comme its (they) le sont in effet — as they it (fe) are in effect 
(are it= are) ; U a egalement — it has (there is) equally ; (f im« 
(an) maniere tout opposie — of (in) a manner wholly opposed. 

Rien de solide — nothing of solid (nothing solid) ; le monde 
animal suit les plantes — the world animal follows (pur-sues) 
the plants; sans dire — without to-say (i, e., saying, without 
saying); dit it — says he; mais ce principe unique de la vie, 
comment Barthez Va-UU concu ? — but that principle unique of 
the life (of life), how Barthez it (f) has-he conceived (how 
has he conceived it, Barthez) ? The French use generally this 
surplus it in questions — t between a (has) and ^ (he) is the 
usual connective letter. 

Je Vai d^a dit — I it (V) have already said (di£) — already 
said it, for already said that ; il faut de plus cannderer — it 
must of (the) more to-consider — there is need of more consider- 
ing; Utre roi proprement, c'est avoir (to have) des subfets et 
n* avoir point cTamis — to be king properly that-is (ce-est') to- 
have of-the subjects, and not (n') to-have none of (a') friends 


(not to hare friends) — the o/) and rumey are some of the many 
wordRy or particles, which the French employ, and which we 
have no nse for ; luidit-je, to-him said-I (Jez=zl)', Fun et Vautre^ 
the-one and the-other t. «., the hoth, or both ; ih sepaussent Vun 
f autre — they self push the-one the-other, t. «., they push each 
other; ye viens de recevoir — I come to (of) receive, come to 
receive, t. e., have received. 

Donnez-mai ce Uvre-la — give-me that book-there, t. 6., give 
me that book ; eette femme-cC — this woman-here (as we say, 
this 'ere woman) ; elle se hrvla la main — she self burnt the 
hand, she burnt herself the hand, t. e., on the hand. This self 
is very common in French, and in German and other European 
languages ; in many instances, it has the force of an article, or a 
^mple prefix, and generally it has no equal in English ; vende- 
^en un (one) — sell-me of them (en) one (one of them) ;^arfe- 
iuiren — spealL him-of-it, speak to-him {lui) of-it (en); de lire 

— of to-read, of read, of reading; dites-lui de veiiir — say-him 
(to him) to come {de =: of, with inf.) ; U ne fait qiie son devoir 

— he not does only (que, which) his due (duty) {ne = que, not 
that, only). 

693. There are many other idiomatic expressions in French 
as important and interesting as those just given, but there is not 
space to go further here ; it should be noted, however, that, 
strange as these expressions may seem to us, they are very com- 
mon forms, in Europe, in other languages besides the French. 

694. The principal difference between the Provencial and the 
French proper, is one of orthographic dress — though that is 
not the only difference ; we often find one using a word, French 
though it be, in a place and in a manner not common to the 
other. A few examples will illustrate the difference in orthog- 
raphy : 

695. First, Prpv., next, Fr. : Nouastre, notre, our; noum, nom, 
name ; creyni^ cr^e, crape ; cagar, chier ; chin and can, chien, 
I^ cants, dog ; cahraj chevre, L. capra, goat ; espigat and espade, 
^f>ee, spade and sword ; espina, epine, spine and pin. 

Etpes, epais, thick ; aigua, eau, L. aqua, water ; grat, gre, 
vr ill ; goust, gout, taste ; jaire, gesir, lie ; camba, jamhe, leg, 
l^xmb ; ahri, ivre, drunk ; hort, jar din, garden ; juni, jeune, 

Jjoch, lait, milk ; luec and loc, lieu, L. locus, place ; liame 
^^^^ lioMc, Hen, lien; liech, lit, L. lectus, bed; ligible, listble, 
'-^^ble; man, main, hand; boutar, mettre, put; neou, neige, 
aiacw; negre, noir, black. 

-P«, poids, weight ; pourpre, poulpe, pulp ; prochi, pres, near 
•■lad 'proach ; prest, prit, ready ; pregdr, prier, pray and preach; 


rahi and ragea, rctge, rage ; garri, rat, rat; ren and ves, rien, L 
res, thing; buou, taureau, stier and bull. 

696. It must by no means be supposed that the above may be 
taken as the proper measure of the difference between French and 
Provencial ; they are selected from the very few of their like— 
the vast majority of words varying but little, or not at all, from 
the French ; and it is to be noted, too, that the variation? of the 
Provencial which we have seen above, is in almost every case a 
variation in agreement with Latin. 

697. The changes of words in Old French, in its gradual 
growth into the late or new French, presents some interesting 
facts which may be noticed here. The older these forms are, 
the nearer they approach to Latin : acheter, to get, has the dif- 
ferent forms acapter (L. capio, catch), acater, achepter (c = ch, 
pt=t); (lonner^ give — dorrai, dourai, doint, doing; parler, 
speak -^poroler, pardtut^ aparlui^ mes-parler ; trouVj retrieve—* 
troz, truis, troeffe. 

Courir, course and run — escourre, sequeur (L. sequor^, keurty 
corre, se-cor ; dormir^ sleep -^ c?or<, dorge, devorge ; ouvrir, 
open, overt — aouvert, apert (apart), overt, iievrir, ubrir ; tenipy 
retain — tieigrient, tieg, tigne, tendrai. 

Faillir, fail, false and fault — faldra^ faulva^ fmiray far a; 
ouir, hear, L. audio — oyr, oyt, et, o^'ra, oon, ones ; voir, see, 
view — verrai, voyrras, veoir, vehoir, vehu, veir, veois, veoid, vir^ 
vinrent, varout. 

Boire, drink and beverage — heurai^ hurez, beivre, hoif; con- 
noitre, know, ac-quaint — cognoistre, conistre, quenoist, conuistre, 
cogtiehu, conusier, conissies; dire,82Lj — diet, dient, diomsj dixons, 
desiSy dites ; ecrire, write, scribe- — escripre, scripsi, escripvi, 

698. The G^ascowisanimportant dialect of the French. There 
is, too, in Switzerland, besides others found there, a form of 
French approaching near to the Latin, and called by the differ- 
ent names of Romanic, Rhaetish^ and Celto-Romanic. It runs 
parallel with the other Latin languages in every essential parti- 
cular. We find such variations in orthography as these, com- 
paring Romanic, Latin, and French: els, illi, Zcs, the, those ; 
madem, Fr. meme. It. medesmo, same ; tschel, quis and ille, ceUe, 
which and that ; jou and eug, ego^je, I ; fova^fui, /us, was ; sunt, 
sum, suis, am ; ean, sunt, sont, are ; Jilgs, L. Jilii, sons ; ilg, Fr. 
tl, L. ille, he. 

Un hum veva dus filgs ; Fr. Uh homme avait deux Jils — a 
man had two sons ; schet alg hah, Fr. dit a-son (to-his)^ere — 
said to-the {alg^ father; mi dai la part, Fr. donnez-moi {^\y% 
me) la part — me give (mi dai) the part (give it to me); a 


pcLrchiraUr ih pores y Fr. pour (fot-U)) paitre hs pourceauoo — to 
feed theporkff (swine); 

Mo nagin Igi deva — but none (to) him gave (Fr. donnait); 
€b j€m miei (aie) dyom^ Fr. et je meurs de/aim — and I die of 
famine (hunger) ; jou vi lavar si, ad ir tier (Fr. irai vers, go 
to) mieu bah — I will raise self (rise), and go to my father ; jou 
haz/aig puccau ancunter (^contra) ilg tschiel (Fr. del) adavont 
tei — • I have done sin against the heaven and before (JFr. avont) 
thee; ilg gual eis (is), the which art, who art (Fr. qui es); tieu 
ragindvel (L. regnum) vengig — thy kingdom come, (Fr. ton 
refjne vienne^; nou tiers — us to (to us); tia velgia da-ventig—^ 
thy will be-come. 

In the different forms of this idiom, for there are several sub- 
dialects, we find for da^entig (be-come), daventa^ d/vaint, 
dvtzinta; naunproa, for nou tiers; hoatz^ Ger. heute ; for debts, 
we find dabittSy dbits; culpants, L. culpa, Ger. schuld. We see 
that this Eomanic is French, with a strong tendency to the 
German, with which it is associated. 

699. The Walloon and Flemish (or Flandrish) are two kinds 
of French, possessing the form and spirit of the French, varying 
from it not by any striking differences of orthography, and yet 
so pressed by the German people, among which they have been 
located, that they have received much of the German finish. 
The Walloon and Flemish have much in common with each 
other, whole sentences being translated from one to the other in 
^Haost identical words. Both are interesting and valuable to 
*^e philologist, but more especially so the Walloon. 

Other forms of French we must pass by without notice. 
700. Italian : The Italian is a language spoken by a people 
tnown to be direct descendants of the Latins, and occupying 
to-day the very country which was the central part of the once 
proud and powerful Roman Empire ; and yet, take it all in all, 
the Spanish is a closer imitator of the Latin than, the Italian is. 
Still, the parallel between the Italian and Latin is very regular 
*tid exact. Its words are like emigrants, which, however far 
they may have wandered away, never seem to forget their nativ- 
ity, and point constantly homeward. 

It seems to have pretty much the same history as the French, 

and is more like it than any other language. Were they spoken 

in more limited localities, and by a people less strongly defined, 

they would easily be taken for dialects of the same language. 

It is common to French and Italian, that though they use the 

Latin word, somewhat varying in its form, they often give it a 

different place, and generally a different meaning. We select 

the following examples : 

701. Pochi giorni dopo la battaglia di Waterloo — (a) few 


days (Fr. jour) after the battle of Waterloo ; ntm avete un m- 
stanfe da perdere — not you-have a (one) instant to (of) lose 
(<ia = to, of); t momenti sono preziosi — the moments are' 

Ma gli uomint degli (of-the) altripartiti commciarono aUora 
contro di lui (him) una crociata, che fu pot (L. post) cawa 
princtpale di sua grandezza — but the men of the other parties 
commenced then against to him a crusade, which was (Ju) after- 
wards (the) cause principal of his greatness ; che cominciavano 
a temere deW influenzay che poteva (jpoi= could) esercttare U 
nome di lui, lo ammisero con diffidenza al consesso loro — (they) 
who (che) commenced to (a) fear of-the influence, which could 
(^poteva) exercise the name of him (his name could exercise), 
(they) him sent, with distrust, to-the {al) assembly (of) theirs 
(their assembly). 

Palla di cannone — ball of cannon (cannon ball) — as it is 
uniformly, too, in French ; U mo porta — the its port (its port) ; 
t nostri lihri — the our books (our books) ; egli non si limito a 
far (L. facer e) conoscere il effetto — he (did) not self limit 
(limit himself ) to make (^far) know the effect (to publish the 
effect) ; e la sua fantasia ando injlammando *si — and the his 
fancy went (on J inflaming (it) self (went inflaming) ; in che si 
giaceva — in which self laid (he was placed) ; lofaro — it (I) 
will-do (I will do it) ; dite-lo — tell-it; e cerca (search) di ritor- 
nare a vita il poverello — and seeks to restore to life the poor- 
one (poor-little); che credeva perduto — which (he) believed 
lost (perished). 

Eiipose-gli — responded he ; per esprimere — for (to) express ; 
con cui una sUlaha viene pronunziata apreferenza deW aUra — 
with which one syllable comes (is) pronounced in (to) prefer- 
ence of-the other. The personal pronoun is very often not 
expressed where we would find it indispensable ; viveva — lived, 
i. e., there lived; era — was, i. e., there was ;^mVa la corn- 
media 81 hallo — (being) finished, the comedy, one danced (they 
danced) ; piu ricco di mi — more rich of me (than me) ; voglio 
parlar-vi di questi affari — (I) will (wish) speak-you of these 

La citta ha fatto construire un pdnte — the city has made 
construct (has had constructed) a bridge; al lato di — to-the 
side of (near) ; che che sia — what that be (= whatever) ; nel 
modo che — in-the manner that (=how) ; Jin a quando — till 
to when (=till when); quando vuol ella (she) mandarfniH 
paniere — when will you send-me the basket; vuole dar-mi del 
pane — will (you) give-me of-the bread (some bread) ; li ho (I- 
have) avuti — them I-have had; non mi (myself ) /amento — 


xiiot me rdo-I) lament, lament myself, lament ; far del progressi 

to-make tne progresses, to make progress. 

U eUa ricca f h sono — are you rich ? it I-am (I am it, i. c, 
•^ sm), (she is used for you); r aiuto afar-lo — himl-aid to do- 
ity help him do it ; egli h piiJi, dotto cW io non credeva — he is 
anore learned (taught) than I not believed, t. e., than I believed; 
■'mo me loprocuro — I me it procure, I procure it (for) me, i. c, 
H prooure it ; noi veniamo amati — we come (» are) loved ] le 
^uali andarono foLlite — the which went failed, which failed 
^as G«r. go lost), 

702. In conclusion we may say, there is not a single impor- 
^tent feature in the Italian idiom that is not French as well. 

703. Like the French, the language of the Italians may be 
^vided into northern and southern classes, influenced by diflfer- 
^nt forces, and taking directions, hence, somewhat varying. As 
standing between the two, we may count the Tuscan and Komish. 

Other dialects are the Genoese, Milanese, Tyrolian, Venitian, 
IPiedmontese, Bolognish, Sabine, Tarentian, Friulan, Neapolitan, 
«nd 1^ few others, besides Sicilian and Sardinian. These are 
^Ualects pretty well distinguished, and having their own books 
— yet all plainly starting from the Italian, or Latin, as a base, 
and departing more or less from it. 

Of Uie Sardinian it must be said, it has more of the Spanish 
than of the Italian cast. 

704. Spanish : To the Spanish, or Castilian, we come next. 
For the English and Latin scholar, this is one of the easiest 
languages in the world to acquire. It is a Latin language in 
every respect ; it has not departed from the mother tongue so 
fer by any means as the French, or even the Italian — but so 
iiEtr as it has gone, that has been in a direction in common with 
them. To use a figurative expression, it has been somewhat 
squeezed out of shape, but the body is Old Latin none the less. 
It has been pressed, hard pressed, on the south by Moors, or 
Arabs, from Africa, and on the north it has been subject to 
incursions from the notorious and powerful Goths. The Moors 
lefl a lasting impression ; they added many words ; they changed, 
too, in a measure, the style of the native. Indeed, the Moors 
were masters of Spain for something near eight hundred years. 
They did not destroy or change the spirit of the tongue, but 
they did warp its form and mar the finish. 

705.^ The following will illustrate some of its peculiarities 
compared with our own idiom : 

luvo la hocagrande — (he) had the (a) mouth large (a largo 

mouth) ; quiero los qfos grandes — (I) like the eyes large (large 

eyes) ; casa de ladritto — house of brick, i, c, a brick house ; 

coluna depiedra — column of stone, i, e., stone pillar (Span, as 



well as Fr. and It.) ; e$ tan noble oomo tu lo dedas — (she) is 
so noble as (how) you it said (as you ssdd it, as you said) ; una 
nacion venctda — a (one) nation conquered, i, c, a conquered 
one; la dijo (also difo4a) — (to) her (he) said, i. e., said (toy 
her (laf= the, her); yomehe cortado d dedo — I me have {he) 
cut the finger (digit) — cut for me the finger, i. e., out mj fin- 
ger ; un homhre rico *— a man rich, i, e., a rich man. 

Yo mismo (Fr. meme^ same) lo vi — I same (myself) it saw; 
eUa U echd lo8 brazos al cueUo (L. coUum) — she him (le) threw 
the arms to-the (al) neck — threw around him the arms, i. Cy 
threw her arms around his neck ; so again, el cahaUero (Cavalier) 
le besd (bussed) las manos — ^^the knight (for) her kissed the 
hands ; no sabe lo que quiere — not (he) knows the which (what) 
(he) wants (re-quires) ; este quiso (-quire^ wish, qu) sujetdr-r- 
this (one) wished (to) subject (some one); ndda ae hahecho — 
nothing self has done (done self, been done). 

Se dice — self says, i, 6., is said; »o tiene razon de decir eUo 
— (you) no have reason to (de) say (inf.) that (no tiene, not 
it-has, luts not, is not) ; he de salir — I-have to (de — of, to) go, 
must go out (saliTy our walk) ; esta leyendo — is reading, pase^ 
andoj walking (passing) ; tiene de hacer-lo — he-has to do-it ; 
entraron cantando — they-entered singing; lo iron (run) dici- 
ehdo a todos — it (they) will-go (tVon) telling to all (go tell- 
ing it). 

Quiere que h haga yo — (he) desires (-quire) that it do I 
(that I do it); hay (has) muclio que hacer — there-is (^y) 
much which to-do — r much to do ; mis hijos 6 hifas vinieron todos 
hoy para ver-me-^mj sons (L. filii) and daughters came all 
(todos) to-day (Ger. heute) fq^ (to) see-me (ver-me) ; yo amo 
aun a mis enemigos — I love even to my enemies (I love them). 
An extra preposition is very common in other languages). 

JFue asolada'^^—YfBa d-esolated; es estimado — is esteemed; 
todos mis cartas estan por escribir hoy — all my letters are for 
to-wriite to-day — must be written to-day; pero nolehe hablado 
jamas — but not (to) him have-I {he) spoken never — never 
spoken (to) him (double ne^tives are common in Europe) ; todo 
esto se hizo — all this self did, t. e., was done, did self; esto es 
de mi hermano — this is of my brother — it is my brother's. 

706. The Catalan, or Catalonian, and the Yalencian languages 
in Spain, are built upon the Spanish basis, an4 are Spanish 
throughout, but they have received, from their locality, much of 
the French touch; there are those who think them more French 
than Spanish. In the Catalonian is especially observable the 
ending -it for the past part., as in Old French; as, estapossehtt 
— is possessed; haveu Uegit — have read; haveni oMt — having 
heard (L. audit). While the idiom is purely Spanish, the Ian- 


f^uage is chiefly interestiDg from the pecnlkr orthographic 
forms in which Spanish words appear here. 

707. The Castilian has several minor dialects, not particularly 
Imown to philology, and which we cannot here dwell on. 

708. The Portugese is spoken by a people having a sepa- 
Tate nationality, but so far as difference in written langnage is 
ooncernedj it varies from the Spanish no more than one dialect 
does from others of its class. Its nature is purely Spanish ; it 
is true, the pronunciation of the words as written differs considi- 
crably from that of the same words in Spanish. Its orthography 
presents us with forms of much interest. 

709. We will give here a comparative view of four of the 
languages related to the Spanish, taking first the Italian, John, 
ix, 2 : 

Lcumde eUa se ne corse (therefore she self then ran)^ vewne 
^went) a Simon Pietro^ e cUT (to-the) disoepeiOj U qucd (the 
which, who) Gesu amava (loved), e (and) dtsse loro (to-them): 
Turn toko (have taken) dcd (from-the) monumento il iSignore, e 
lioi (we} non sapptamo ove (where) r (him) abbian posto (have 

710. French : EUe courut done (then) trouver (to^find) Simon 
Pierre, et VmUbre (l\ the) disciple que Jems aimait (loved) ; et 
eUe leur (to-them) dit, on a (one has) enlevS du (from-the) 
sepulcre le Seigneur^ et nous (we) ne (not) savons (know) ou 
(where) on Va (him has) mis (put) (where one has put him). 
"711. Catalan: Ycorregue (and sne-ran), y vmi^mc a (to) Simo 
Fere, y a aqudl (that-which) aUre (other) deixehle amat (loved) 
de (of, by) Jesus, yls (to-them) digue : Sen hanportat (carried) 
h Senyor del (fromrthe) sepulcre, y no sahem (not we-know) 
ahont P han (him-^thejyhsLve) posat (jpnt). 

712. Portugese : Gorreo pois (then), e veio (went) a Simdo 
Pedro e ao (to-the) omJlro discipulo a quern (to whom) «/^«u« 
emavd, e disse-Uies (said-them) : Ao (to-the) Senhor Umuirao do 
(from-the) s^pvlcro, e ncLo (not) sah'em^>s onde (where) o (him) 
poxerao (they-have-put). 

718. And, finally, one of the dialects of Romanic (low Euga- 
dina) : Per il qual (for the which, therefore) ella currit, e verm 
pro Simon Peiro,epro (to) Tauter scular il qual Jesus cunava, 
e diss €td eh: JSdun els (nave they) tiU daX (from-the) m^onu- 
mairU U (the) Segner, e nvA nun (not) savain (know) ingio 
fhafantschanta (placed). 

714. Basque Language : There is a language of Spain, 
known to philology under the name of Basque, and sometimes 
ealled Iberian — an idiom somewhat celebrated, but certainly 
not well understood. The Basque, with some kindred dialects 


is the present language of the people of Biscay and Navarre, 
and is the representative of an ancient language^ now extinct, 
and of a people once powerful and prosperous, but long since 
departed and forgotten. There is reason to believe that it was 
once the idiom of all of Spain, or nearly all, besides of a large 
portion of southern France. 

715. It has been supposed, and with good reason, that the 
Basques, and their family, belonged in their connections with 
the Celtic people. There is, indeed, much in the general cast 
of Basque orthography that reminds one of Gaelic or Cymric, 
but in the grammar there are many strong points of difiference. 
With the limited knowledge we now have of the Basque, we 
would prefer leaving it to stand as some solitary monument, 
alone. It is not enough to say that all of its points of construc- 
tion and grammar have something similar to them in other lan- 
guages ; that many, no doubt most, of its words can be traced 
back to a relationship with words in the European or Asiatic 
languages ; the road we have to travel is far too long to allow 
us to call this connection and relationship a family likeness. Its 
very marked character can never be changed, though it is of 
course probable that time will make us more familiar with its 
peculiar features, and bring it nearer to some languages with 
which we are better acquainted. 

716. The language is found in Spain (and that is the only 
reason why it is introduced under the head of Latin Languages), 
but it is quite as different from Spanish as Irish is from Eng- 
lish. We will proceed now to give some idea of its prominent 
points : 

717. The article, so-called, is here found sufl^ed, as we find 
it in Scandinavian and elsewhere ; thus, gizon, man ; gtzonay 
the man; gizonak, the men; gizonbat, a man — bat is the 
numeral one, used for a, an, as we everywhere find it. The 
cases are formed by varying the endings, as in Latin ; thus, aita, 
father ; aitaren, of the father, or father's ; aiiari, to the father. 
This genitive attar en (the father's = that of the father), may 
undergo another change, or may be used as a base on which to 
form a new genitive; thus, aitar en-arena, that-of-that-of-the- 
father, and the latter form again as a new base, going on so 
without limit, just as we may say, that-of-that-of-that-of, inde- 

718. What we use as prepositions, they use as post-positions, 
placing them after the noun, and generally united with it at the 
end ; a«, ogirgdbe, without (jgabe) bread ; jauna^gaMc, through 
(gatic) the (a) Lord ; jaunorre-Mn, with (kin) the Lord ; aitor 
gana, to (gana) father ; ceruaren contra — heaven against ; gu- 
gami — to us (^a). 


719. The adjective is found after the noun ; as, guicon on, 
good ; abre on, good (on) animal. Not only are adjectives 

compared by a change of endings, but nouns are compared in 
the same manner , thus, hide^ way ; btdeago, more way ; so can 
participles be compared; as, edertzen da^ improving he is; 
edertzeik-ctgo da, more improving is he. 

720. In verbs there are two ways of conjugating, one the 
simple and older form, and the other compounded or circum- 
scribed by the use of participles with auxiliaries — the simple • 
form being used only with a few verbs. Verbs which are used 
in the simple can also be used in the compound form ; as, nator, 
I come (from etorrt), and etorten naz, coming I-am (wa«). It is 
■particularly noticeable that not only are nominative pronouns 
developed, at the end of verbs, but, also, the objective (ace.) and 
dative occur very generally in connection with the verb ; as, 
dut (dot, det) 1 have him, or it. Here d is the representative 
of the object him, u of the verb-root, and t the pronoun I ; so 
du is he has him, or it — here the mark of Ae, the subject, is 
not so developed as to be distinguished from u of the verb-root. 
It will be remembered that the marks of the third person very 
commonly lie latent. Again we find dugu, we have him, or it ; 
due, thou hast it; natzatzu, I am to you — where n marks 1, 
atz, root be, a is connecting letter, tzu marks to-you, dat. 

721. Speaking generally, the auxiliaries be and have, as we 
find especially evident in Turkish, are the basis of the verb, and 
are in fact the only real verb in Basque — to form the usual 
tenses of the verb, we must attach the participle to these as a 
base. The auxiliaries, as in other languages, are placed last ; 
thus, fnaitetuten dot — loving him-have-I (d'0»t), I loving have 
him, love him; maitetuten naz — loving I-am (7iaz), ' The aux- 
iliaries play a very conspicuous part in Basque, as we shall see 
by the examples we are about to give, and they are often too 
Domerous for us to dispose of in the translation. We find many 
elements united into one word, which we regard as distinct in 
our own and other languages, and, as we have seen in dut, those 
elements are often so little developed as to have only single let- 
ters to represent them. Examples will best illustrate further 
the character of the Basque : 

722. Uta hitz-aren ministre igan (been) diradenec — and the- 
"Word's minister been being (having been), i. e., who were min- 
isters of the word (hitz)) Jiats-etic fin-erano — beginning-from 
©nd-to, i. €., from beginning to end. Herodes Judeaco regue- 
Ten eguTiretan cen Zach^rias deitzen cen (G'k gin, been) sacri- 
ficadore bat — in-tho days (egun-etan) of-Hero(> of-Judea, the- 

king (of-the-king, regue-ren) was (there was, cen) sacrifizer one 
(a certain one, bat) named (who was named, deitzen cen) Zacha- 



Eta Karen (his) emaztea een Aaron-en alah-etarie — and (ete) 
his wife was (cen) Aaron's daughters-from-the (one from the 
daughters of Aaron) ; iai-quiric ioanen naiz (he, will) neure 
aita-gana — rising, go (ionanen) will-I my father-to (to my 
father); eta erranen draucat — and say will-I ; ethar cedin — 
come has, has come ; ihis cecan^ -^ seen has; hU egague — kill 
do-ye ; ecen ene seme haar hU cen — for my son this (one) dead 
(killed) was. 

Si bethi ene-quin atz — thou he me- with (with-me) ever (art 
ever with me); ceren hire anaye haur hU baitzen — for thy 
(hire) hrother this (one) dead was; ene gttda hire due — my all 
(jgucia) thine it-hast-thou (thou hast (it) my all). 

Ecen ikussi dugu haren icarra Orientean — for seen it- 
have-we (d-i*^) his star East-in (his star in the East we have 
seen); trubla cee^in -^ troubled was, had trouble; ezaiz Ju~ 
daco gohemadoren arteco chipiena — art-thou-not (thoti art 
not) Judea's governors among (arteco) the least (art not the least 

Scribatua e?wc— (is) written thou-hast-it (hast written); 
enganatu igan cen -^mocked been was, had been mocked ; etran 
igan cena — said been being, having been said ; to cegan haren 
famac Syria gucia — gone (to) has his fame Syria all-through 
(through-all, ^'lecta); cuec carete mundvLco arguia — ye are the- 
world's light; eznaiz ethorri abolitzera, baina complit-zera — 
I-am-not come to-abolish-for (for-to-abolish), but complete-for 
(to complete). The present part., used like ours, ends in -tc; 
as, itzir-icj leaving. 

723. Here we introduce, for further illustration of the char- 
acter of the language, ^ list of some of its words : aditu, hear, 
L. auditum ; andia^ grand (a = gra) ; aurra^ fore, ere ; begwUi^ 
eye, Ger. avge (be is pref.) ; beroa^ warm ; biar, morrow ; bidea^ 
way, path; burua, head; chiloa, hole, ch, h; ciUara^ silver; 
cerua^ heaven, Fr. del, r. 1. 

Deitu, call, L. dico; doya, just, Q-') dlki; eann, when ; echea, 
house, case ; esan and erran, say, Gr'k red ; edo, or, other ; eguin, 
make, do, L. ago and egi ; eguna, day, Fr. jour, g, d ; eman, 
give, L. dono; ez, not, Q-'k ouk, Ger. kein. 

Zaca, save, without, Fr. sans; gacia, acid ; gan and goan, go; 
gosna, cheese ; gauba, night, g, n ; goia, high, g, h ; gucia, all, 
Ger. ganz ; guero, near, g, n ; gura, will, Ger. gierig, gr, wl ; 
guti, little, bit ; hiru, three ; ibaya, river. 

Mintza and hitza, word, Fr. mot ; icena, name ; iccm, teach ; 
tcusi, see, look ; t?, die, kill ; igan, go, G^r. st-eigen ; igU and 
mZ, silent ; jdn, eat ; Zb, sleep, 1, si ; lora, flower ; Ztwra, earth, 
L. terra, 1, d, t. 

Mendia, mount; mta, mouth, tongue, word; obe, better (notioe 


that many letters in Basque are prefixes for ns) ; sendooy sound; 
9ua, fire, s, b. 

Tipia^ bit, little ; ucitu, cut, deal ; zaldia, horse, Fr. cheval; 
«rre, burn ; ikuo, see, 1-ook ; al, oan, Celt. gaU, our will ; arrtay 
(stone) rock ; hicia, life, L. vivo ; choriay bird. 

I^on, be, stand, do, L. ago ; izan, ucan, Ger. seiw, be — i is 
in Basque commonly a prefix, as, also, in igo, for our go ; mola^ 
L. muUus, many, G^r. vtel; cma, good, L. h-ona, 

724. Wallachian Language : The last language of the 
Latin class which we come to, and the most of all different from 
it, is the Wallachian. It is unquestionably built on the Latin 
basis; its whole framework is Latin; but it must not be forgotten 
that it is Latin as it has grown up in a Slavic atmosphere, and 
under Slavic influences. What there is of it that is not Latin 
18 Slavic — speaking generally, of course. While a vast majority 
of its larger words are almost identical with Latin, there is enough 
of the smaller words and particles so un-Latin as to divest the 
text of very much of its Latin cast — especiallv so, when we find 
fibad it, as we often do, written in the Cyrillic, or old Slavic 

725. The Wallachians call themselves Eomam, and their 
language is spoken in Wallachia (a country in Austria), in 
Moldavia, in Transylvania, in Bessarabia, and in parts of Hun- 
gary. It is divided into a northern and a southern branch. 

726. Among the prominent features of this language, we 
notice the suffixed article H, le, L. ille ; as, cane-Uy the dog ; 
urpe-Uy the serpent ; ceriu^ the heaven ; and we find the fem- 
enine article a ; as, mente-ay the mind ; flore-a^ the flower — 
aU of them, it seems evident, a pure development of the ending 
-iw, -a, -lem, of Latin nouns andi adjectives ; as, bon-us, -a, 'Um. 
This suffixed article takes a dative and genitive form in ui; as, 
tocrurl, the father-in-law (L. socer) ; a socm-lui, of the father- 
in-law (L. socert) ; frate-le meu, the my brother (L. /rater 
meu£) ; a frate-lui meu (L. fratrU mei, gen.), of the my bro- 
ther; pre fraieAe rneu (L, fratrem meum, ace), to the my 
brother -^pre is a mere sign of the accusative, a mere insep- 
tiable prefix, and is not translated in English ; and a performs 
the same part for the genitive ; de la frate-le meu (L. a fratre 
meOy abl.), from the my brother. Conclusive proof we find in 
these facts, that the prepositions are mere prefixes, and the 
articles, pronouns, case endings, and the like, are simply devel- 
opments of the endings of nouns. In the plural, we find a/rati- 
for mei (h. fratrum meorum, gen.), of the my (met) brothers. 

727. Other features will be best understood by the examples 
which we are about to give : 


Cicero oratorvA quelu mare — Cicero orator-the which great 
(one), that great, the great one, or who (is) great (Cicero the 
great orator) ; fa^ casa* de lemnu, nee de petra — make (L. fac) 
the-house from (de) wood (L. lignum)^ not from stone; caluP 
quelu suru mi 7 dede — the-horse (Fr. cheval) that cerulean 
(one) (to) me it (^l) given (he has), has given it, the horse, to 
me (this superfluons it^ as well as many other superfluous parti- 
cles, we find in other Latin languages as well) ; qizare-le (the- 
which) au (has) datu legi poporu-lui Romanu — who has given 
laws (to) the-people Koman (to the Romans) ; se chiama — self 
calls, calls self, i. c, is called. 

fera mi s-au (self has) aratat in vim — a beast (to) me has- 
self appeared (has appeared) in sight (to my vision) — show- 
self = appear ; se vede — self sees, is seen ; leuC au invinsu pre- 
ursu — the-lion has vanquished the bear — call pre an unmean- 
ing prep., or the sign of aco. ; omu cu intelepdune mare (L. 
magnus) — (a) man with intelligence great, man of great intel- 
ligence ; y^cZecaton/w cu direptale — judge with justice, a just 
judge; casa aquesta e buna — house this (this house) is good. 
We find the leading character of the Latin family here, the- 
adjective after the noun. It will be observed that all the fea- 
tures which strike us in the modern Latin languages, are onl; 
developments of what we may also find in the old Latin. 

JEste de vendutu — is to (de = of) sell, i, c, to be sold ; nu 
tempu si giaci (L. jaceo) in patu — not is time (it is not time)^^ID 
that you-lie in bed, time not to lie in bed — this si = that, "'"jTi^^T 
be treated as the or to^ and we shall always find the^ thai and to^ ^^ 
used to perform one and the same office ; the Wallachian Ian— -»• 
guage continually reminds us, by the identity of form, of thi- ■ n 

identity of prepositions with articles and pronouns ; witness th ( ^ i Q 

prepositions/a, c?e, din^ a. 

Vedu-V io — see-him I, I see him (V) ; io Vasi (him-that^" -■) 
lauda — I him might- praise (asi= that is merely sign of subj.) ; 

cedm^l este arboru4 quel (which) mai inaltu (L. aUvs) — the^^s- 
the cedar is the- tree that (the) most high, highest tree (we see i^r~"n 
in^altus the addition of prep, in, not found in other idioms, an»- d 
we find very many like instances — this shows that there is a— — n 
in undeveloped in L. alius) ; da^mi — give me, to me; June (. 
juvenis) albu (blank) la facia — (a) young (one, a youth) whii 
to face, i. e., with a white face (/a is preposition with n>rce i 
article) ; tener (tender, young) ager la mente — (a) youth acui 

(ager) to mind, i. e., in mind ; gradina nostra (our) cu (with n) 

aoa iugere este mai mai mare de (from) quaf (from what, fro - ^ 
as- much) a^vostra (your) — (the) garden ours by (with) i^^^o 
acres is more more great from what yours (is), i. e., greater ^Bt?/ 
so much than yours is ; greu {gravis, grievous) de smtu, diMowmjdt 
to ascend. 



Fmt'ti este aquestu ? — son-you (to-you, ti) is that, t. c, is that 
tliy son ? Btele-le quele mart (great) noui (us) se in^paru a-fire 
mici (much and mite) — the.stars which great (the great ones) 
to-us self show (appear) to-be small ; que voiu (will) face (do) 
qiui n (subj. sign) me mentuescu — what shall-I do that (jqita) 
me (-self ) I-may-save (may save myself) ; da-mi dare ("there-fore) 
una dintre (de-inter) quele — give-me there one from them ; 
'ormi pare — to me (it) 'pears (ap-pears to me); me dore capu 
— me it-pains (in-the) head (L. caput). 

728. There is very little else in Wallachian that is sufficiently 
peculiar to justify further notice here. We will next introduce 
the 2d of the 20th John, so as to compare it with the rest of the 
family : 

Deche au aJergat, si au (has) venit^ la Simon PetrUj si la chela 
(jquda) lalt ouchenik (disciple), pre karele iuvia Jesus^ si au-zic 
lor (to-them) : Au luat pre Dmnul din mormunt, si nu (not) 
sciu ounde l-au (him-have) pus^ (put) — afterwards (she) has 
run (t. e., she ran), and has come to (la) Simon Peter, and to 
that other disciple, whom {pre-harele^ which) loved Jesus (did), 
and has-said them (to-them) : (they) have removed the (pre 
sign ace.) Lord from grave, and not I-know where (unde) him- 
they-have put (have put him). 

729. Here follows a list of some important and interesting 
words, with Latin and English counterparts: peptu, pectus, 
chest J chidu, claudo, close ; cetate, civitas, state ; dosu, dorsum, 
back, d, b. 

Foam^, fames, hunger, f, h ; ^erw, gelu, cold, r, 1 ; nopte, nox, 
night; quelu. Hie, he, Ger. welcher ; tunu, tonitru, thunder, and 
tone, sound; porumbi, columhx, doves; reu, malvs, worse. 

Puntea,pont, bridge ; pruncu (horn), puer (boy) ; plopu, plebs, 
Vi^pcpul-us, people ; spunu and espunu, expono, expose ; scriu, 
«n6o, write; angeru, angelus, angel; santu, sanctus, saint; sore, 
9ol, sun. 

Ghia^cta, glacies, ice, gla, ya, i; delu, collis, hill; wewe, nix, 
B-now; ochiu, ocul-its, eye, Ger. auge; chiae, clams, key ; gaiina, 
gaUina, hen, gal, gai, hai ; scurtu, curtus, short, s prefix. 

Cercu, quaero, search and seek, cr, sr, qr; gatu,paro, get, g, 
p; scapu, fugio, es-cape; saru, salio, spring, walk, sr, spr, and 
b1, wl. 

Tocu, tango, touch ; tra>gu, traho, drag, g, h ; jvde. Judex, 
judge, d, dg; diori, aurora; golu, {nudui), bald, bare, g, b. 

Mim, s-mall, mite ; mane, morrow, morn (maun) ; afundu, 
profound, a, pro; naUu (for inaltu), L. altus; amu, have (our 
am) ; cUtngu, L. tango, at, t ; astemperu, L. tempero, ast, t ; 
oiunu, L. sono, as, s ; sbatu, quatio, quash, shake, sb, qu, qv ; 
tparWy terreo, sp, t. 





730. We pass next to the language of that extensive and 
powerful race, the Sclaves. These people were the last to com^ 
into notice on the theatre of European civilization ; but, onc^ 
organized, they have ever been active, and their march has beeif- 
constantly onward. Their course has exhibited the unchange— ■'^ 
ableness and majesty of the moving mountain. They stand i 
an ever-enduring monument of our Asiatic ancestry; they affwd- 
us a living demonstration of the transition from the wild and 
monadic Tartar to the proud and polished citizen of enlightened 

731. While we call to mind again the fact, that all classifiioa- - 
tions are more or less arbitrary, and that, particularly, subdiyis— 
ions in language cannot stand the test of critical examination, . 
we will yet, on the ground of convenience, and because even 
unjust classification is far better than none at all, divide the 
Slavic idioms into the following usually recognized families. 

732. First, the Lettic, or Lithuanian class, composed of ihe 
Old Prussian, the Lithuanian, in its forms of Lithuanian proper,! 
Samogitian, and Pruss-Lithuanian, and the Lettic or Livonian^ 
together with its several dialects ; the line of distinction ' 
tween this family and the rest of the Slavic, is very clear and 

733. Next, the Eussian, comprising, again. Great, Little, andJ^^ 
White Russian ; and the Illyrian, or South Slavic, comprising, of^:^^^ 

used as synonymous with, Servian, Slovenian, and Creation 

the Slovenian having the minor dialects of Carinthian, Windian,^ -i 
Carniolan, and Styrian. This constitutes the soutii-eastem^^^ 
branch of Slavic. 

734. And, finally, the western portion ; being the PoliBh^^ 
Bohemian, and Serbian, or Wend. 

735. There is, besides, the Bulgarian and tiie Polabian, quit^ 
distinct from any of the above. 

736. Having given this brief notice of the classification odT 
these languages, we will now take the Russian and describe it 
more particularly, as the representative of the whole Slavic 
class. The Russians are the leading and ruling people of the 
whole Slavic race ; Russia is the literary center, too, of ihe 
Slavic territoij; the Russian language contains the worb 
which will be toxmd by far the most important to the philolog* 
ioal student. 


737. In passing to the Russian, and to the Slavic generally, 
you find, together with much that is Latin or German, a great 
deal besides that is peculiar to it. It takes some time to be- 
come acquainted with and accustomed to its strange orthog« 
raphy, its consonants piled upon consonants, and its compara- 
tive scarcity of vowels; — in Russian, too, though not in most 
others, you must learn to know its peculiar, though not very 
difficult, alphabet. When you have once fully mastered these 
obstacles, your task, if you properly direct your efforts, is half 
done. Learn well its orthography, and you will find its prepo* 
aitioiiB, its pronouns, its conjunctions, and its adverbs, all famil- 
iar to you ; -you will find they have all their easily recognized 
xelatires in Greek, in Latin, or in German. Personal endings, 
|Murtioiple endings, and lastly, though less plain, the case end- 
ings, all those seeming little marks which when really mastered 
leave but little of our work yet to be accomplished, will be easily 
snade familiar, from the resemblance which they bear to similar 
aiarks fi)und elsewhere. 

738. The idiom of the Russian, and of the Slavic generally, 
the arrangement of its words, is to an Englishman exceedingly 
easy. There are, it is true, important differences, but they are 
^ery few ; and without assuming to have counted the points of 
likeness or unlikeness in any two cases, we have a feeling that 
the order of the Russian, and of others of its class, is more like 
ihe English than the order is of any other language of Europe. 
One cannot but be struck at every step, especially in Russian, 
with thi& remarkable identity. Russian is also strikingly Greek 
in many of its features, particularly in orthography; after Greek, 
it is German. 

739. The only real and lasting difficulty (and that one occurs 
in most fioreign languages, particularly so in Greek) is in the 
difference between the root given in the dictionary, especially in 
verbs, and the derivatives in the text which are assumed to come 
fifom it. No quick-or far-sightedness can provide against these 
obstacles, and so long as our dictionary system remains as it is, 
those derivatives must be learned as a mere matter of memory. 
The science of etymology can aid some, but it can do no more 
than help us. 

740. We give now the following examples in Russian, re- 
marking generally that the points illustrated, in nearly eveiy 
uuttance, are points equally the same in most or all of the other 
Slavic idioms. 

Ja dam vam trech tchelovyak — I (will) give (to) you three 
man. The Russian numerals are followed by the genitive sin- 
gular after 2, 3, and 4, and the genitive plural after other 
numerals — some few nouns are used in the nominative singular 


lie ( 

•I I li:i\\.' 

.•':'h'.\o f/ta 

• hii<i>f — 

. |»ljie<\< \V( 

;■ 'zhiio — (() 

j'> ^fis/iio — t. 

. iu'io are nc» ai 

:/'0/*' //'''"*•*•■/"' 

• .id (one ) l)urio'i 

•. ' '/> r<i/(i rii ( lln 

.•• V — iKit (is it ) p< 

^ . ."..•rmed woro {f^i/ij 1 

.' //rfr/ so/)ffi/f) — tiler 

» .''tfi, arrcln'o 

• ro n'ddt scat 

.'ve from ( //, to") us irolt 

"s.» \^i) lis take into eovcn 

. .!jci> thy covenant ; / / 

.''ii\a lie pf/pif'/dc/sf'/ — 

• oyos not ])resents-self' ( s/V. 

M-il'lo the eyes). Thi> extr 

. ». as elsewhere; // corof ::< 

..• tlu'y ) wrote our nauies ; na j 

. . .'lifu's ( 's = sell' ) If I'd rdi 1/(1 

.- ^ihe) palace {jlror::<i ) exen 

■,:\hnl ilUzi/d mnoi/o rrlikdif/d} 

. -.avet (are) many (of) maizuilicei 

nuidf/o). A leadinii' I'eature oft 

. .s»-e i»f the verb f)f\ in ca>es when^ 

li.-, matter, .Uussiaii is by no means 

.■iniiudf/dfui/d sohldfd))u — ( they ^ < 

are occupied — this iorm (»f pas; 

.1.- expression of case relatic»n by varyi 

:ii lli»^ use of ]»repositions. Kussiaii 

.1 I Latin ; mi mnt/fi sis/.uff (yo — we t 

'i.iii ; ilriKj-ifnuj — other (the) other, 

IhisA'Dd (Inlijo h\i<h t hrdnovuf-i^i/d id 

Moscow lon^will yUmJit. bo shiiie- 

V lUicytC) (of) cities (oi'; Kussia ; ^ukhi 


visluzMl pensiyo — soldier this (one) h as-served long, and has- 
received (a) pension; za eto ego nagradiU ordenom — for that 
him (they) rewarded (with a) decoration (he was rewarded with) ; 
Rossiya ohitaema mnogimi narodami — Ilussia (is) inhabited 
by-many nations ; la vas utchu, zhdaya vam dobra, i nadayas 
tchto vi (you) uspyaete v naukach — 1 you teach, wishing (as I 
wish) you good, and hoping-self (as I hope) that you (will) 
progress in (v) (the) sciences. 

• Odna vdova imyala (had) dvuch dotchere — a (one) widow 
had two daughters j tchto ia vizhu — what (do) I see ? gdya ti 
iaJc (so) dolgo hila — where thou (ti) so long (hast) been? i 
onya brosili's hit menshuyo dotch — and^ they (Ger. jener) ran- 
selves (ran) (to) beat (the) little girl (child, daughter). 

741. It may not be amiss to remind the student that ^, i7, Z?', /a, 
as endings of verb, mark the past, and equal our -ed ; that ^, it^ 
at, are infin. endings ; that am marks dat. plur. ; om, and em, 
instrum. sing. ; acJi marks instrum. plur., and ich marks gen^plur. 
of adjectives. We must note, too, that ya, ia, yo, tch, sh, and zh, 
we use as representatives each for a single character in Russian. 

742. It must be observed, finally, that the examples we have 
given here, as elsewhere, are those which contain some peculi- 
arity of expression, while, as a general rule, the Russian order 
scarcely differs from ours. The number of idiomatic expressions 
is not very large. 

743. Bohemian : The Bohemian possesses the general struc- 
ture of the Russian, as well as of the other Slavic languages, 
with, however, several strong points of difference. The orthog- 
raphy, while it possesses thoroughly the Slavic character, is 
yet considerably different from Russian — there are many words 
common to both, and many words, again (in the two languages), 
with equal meanings, have very different forms. 

744. The Bohemian has an extensive literature, and some of 
it dates back several centuries. Bohemia, it will be remembered, 
18 a country of Austria bordering on the German States — the 
people call themselves Tchezki, and number between seven and 
eight millions. It is spoken, too, in Moravia and Hungary ; 
the Slovak of Hungary is a leading form of it. There are 
several dialects of the Bohemian, which we cannot notice here. 

745. A few examples will be given from what would strike 
us as peculiar : 

Muj hratr naroz^n jest (is) v Praze — my brother born is 
(was) in (v) Prague ; to mesto kde jsem (am) prava studoval 
— that (the) town (place), where (I) am (have) (the) rights 
(laws) studied ; slave Viden, calls (self) Vienna, i. e., is called; 
jakjste star — how (much) are (you) old, i. e., how old are you; 
cisare sameho jsem vtdel — (the) emperor (czar) himself (the 


the great class of which it forms a part. The modern Illyrian, 
it will be noticed, is separated from Venice and northern Italy, 
by the dividing line of the Julian Alps ; the limits of ancient 
Illyria are not well understood, but there is every evidence to 
lead us to believe that the Illyrians were once a people far more 
numerous and mor« powerful than the modern Illyrians now 

749. The words are nearly all Slavic, but with a strong tend- 
ency to the Latin and German methods of orthography. As 
compared with the rest of the class, it is particularly noticeable 
that this family forms its past or perfect tense by the ending aA, 
ach^ or ecA, in place of Slavic Z, or our ed ; thus, Polish czytal^ 
read (past), Illyrian citah^ read (past) — and so, Illyr. hi-ah^Vo\. 
h-yl, Servian h-ech^ our w-aa. 

750. Illyrian compares with Bohemian thus : Otce nas koji 
(who) jest na nehesih ; (Boh.) Otce nas, jenz jsi na nebesich 
— father of- us (our) who art in (na) heaven Q'ejiz, Ger. 
yewer, that = who) ; Svetl se ime tvoje) (J^o!) po-swet se jmeno 

twe — hallowed (saint, holy) be name thy (sveti se, hallowed 
self, for be hallowed, reflex = pass). (In Boh. po-swet com- 
pared with sveti, we see pos = s, or that prefixes are devel- 
opments of initial letters, and add nothing in any case to the 
original or base word) ; pridi kraljevstvo tvoje ; (Bo.) jprijd 
kralowstwi twe — come kingdom thy (pridi = pr-idt ; pr is a 
prefix, and idi = go, L. ivit and it). 

Budi volja tvoja kako na. nebu tako i na zemlji ; (Bo.) Bud i 
wule twa jako w nehi taJc i na zemi — be will thy so (kako) in 
heaven so and (as) in earth ; kruh svagda7iji (daily) daj nam 
danas ; (Bo.) chleb'nas wezdejsi dejz nam dnes — bread (Bo. 
bread-our, our bread) daily give (daj) to-us to-day (dnes); nego 
izbavi nas iza zla ; (Bo.) ale zbaw (see iz-b = izb = zb) nas od 
zleho (ill, evil, z = v = i) — but (G'k alia) deliver us from 
(out) ill. 

751. We cannot resist the temptation to introduce here some 
Illyrian words, to show their departure from the northern and 
eastern Slavic style of orthography , in words clearly identical ; we 
will introduce some words, too, which are more or less peculiar 
to Illyrian. 

Ako (when), L. ac, and, at; bar (at least), bare, barely ; Becs^ 
Vienna ; bel (white), blank, bleach ; berz (quick), hurry ; bibeVy 
pepper, It. 'pevere; bodni, point (bodkin) ; bolse, well, better. It. 
meglio, L. melius ; brada, beard ; breh'r, beaver ; hrek, (dog), 
bark; breky burg; brod, boat, br, b; buha. It. pulce, flea, 
uh, ul. 

Car, czar, L. rex (king) ; carkva^ church ; carn^ dark (black), 
Nit. nerOy h, nigery Ger. schwartz, n, schw; cely whole; cepatiy 


Ger. spatten, It. q>accare, split, cep, cp, sp; cerv, worm, It. 
verme ; do = cil, whole, Ger. ganz ; cipelaj It. scarpa (cpl, 
srp), shoe ; civ, tube ; csa, It. cosa, che, what ; csedo, child, 
Gter. kind, cs, o ; cselciy bee ; csep, It. (apo^ stopple ; csesto. It. 
a^essoj oft, st, sp, ft; csez^ with, G'k me/a (through) ; mn, 
done, deed, cs, s, d ; csredoy It. greggia, herd, gr, hr — mark 
that the cs of Illyr. is very clearly only a kind of 8, or a kind 
of c; cmd, sense, Ger. sinn; csudan, wonder, cs, 217; csuttiy 
It. udire (cs prefix). It. sentire (hear) ; csuvar, ward (csuv, csv, 
sv, to), guard ; csverst, force, strong, Ger. stark ; cucak. It. cane, 
Gter, hu7id, (dog) — ak is a common noun ending of Illy r.; cukro, 
sugar, 0, s ; cura, girl, G'k kore, 

Dabar, beaver; dar, dower (gift); darvo and drevo, tree 

Swood) ; davati (give), L. past, dabat (gave) ; debeo, thick, 
euse ; decs-ak, It. giovine (young), child, d, g, ch ; desan, and 
desno. It. destro (just, d, j), right, d, r; diltti (iti, Illyr. inf. 
ending), deal, divide. It. s-partire (ire, inf. ending), separate, 
dvd, dl, spt ; dim, It. fumo, steam, d, st ; dlakka, It. pelo (pi, 
dl), hair; dreti, tear, It. stracciare, strip, Ger. zerreissen, dr, 
str, zerr — see Ger. prefix zer lost in the Illyr. dr; dug, due. It. 
deintOy Ger. schuld, sch, d ; duJia, o-dor, Ger. ge-ruch, r, d; dvor, 

Frigati (ati, inf. end.). It. friggere, fry, parch (bake) ; Gark, 
Greek ; Gjuro, George, gj, ge, g ; glas (sound), Ger. laut (gl= 
lor g pref.), loud ; gled, look (<g pref.), Ger. blick (b pref.) ; gliih 
(deaf), G'k kluo = hear, as It. sordo (deaf) = heard ; godina, 
year, gd, yr; gorje, worse; gorki (bitter), sour; govor (speech), 
word, verb (^o, pref.) ; grabiti, L. rapio, rob, gr, r ; gravran, 
raven, It. corvo ; gredem and grem, go (gr = g), L. gredior; 
griem, warm ; grih (sin), error (go, wander). 

Haran (thank). It. grato ; hit, jet, (throw), It. gittare ; jab- 
hn, apple ; jagnje. It. agnello, 1-amb ; jaje, Qgg, Ger. ey, ei, It, 
vow; jedin, union, join, one ((f suppressed) ; iskatti, seek, search 
— ts is treated as prep = iz = out, but it is our s in seek, isk, 
sk; ivan, John, It. Giovanni; izfrigati^ frigati, izf, f ; and 
iagrahite = grabiti, izg, g. 

jTcn, daughter ; kerv^ gore (blood) ; kip^ Ger. hild, pict-ure, 
%-are; kisd, acid; kljucs, key, Ger. schlUssel; klup (bank), 
cliff; kola, car, r, 1 (wheel) ; koleno, knee, (-cline, bend) ; kost, 
l)one, It 08S0; kralj, royal, kr, r; krepost, force, Ger. kra/t; 
krics, cry ; krivo, wrong, curve, -prave, It. reo ; krov, roof — 
niyr. k is often for us a prefix; kroz, through, -cross ; krupan, 
gross, robust, rp, rb (k pref.) ; krut, rude, c-rude, hard ; kucha, 
house, cage ; kuhan, cook ; kupiti, Ger. kait/en, It. comprare, 
bay — 80 we see k of kaufen is com of comprare, or pref. com 


becomes lost in the word ; and this is only one illustration of 
the universal law ; hus (bite), Jdss. 

Lahda, ball, Ibd, bl ; lagak, light, It. leggiero (strike off ah 
generally as mere ending) ; mek^ meek, weak, Ger. weich, It. 
molle; mil (deal), G'k phil-os, L. a-micus, It. OrmahUe; mivy 
Ger. friede and ruhe^ joy, fr, j ; mlad (young), lad ; mochy 
might, may; mraz, ripe; mnVi, die, r, d (m pref^) 

Nag, naked, nude ; narav, nature ; nauka, doctrine — na is 
Illyr. pref., but it is our t of teach and I of learn ; na-ucsan, 
taught, L. doctus, n, d ; nechjak, It. mjpo^c, nephew; nem, dumb, 
mute ; nemogu, not-may (cannot), nem = nm = m ; nor, fool, 
Ger. narr, ig-nor-ant, ign = gn (know); nuglo, a-ngle, Ger. eck, 
nick, nook. 

Ocsi, eye ; odkrit (pd pref.), discover (dscover), It. scoperfo, 
Ger. enUdeckt (decked) — krit, covered ; odpert, o-pen, German 
o-ffen. It. a-perto ; ogled (o = od), (object) look, glook ; opady 
fall (p, f ), L. cado ; ov (this), L. nhi, Fr. ou. 

Pal, fall ; penna, foam, It. schinma, scum ; pokrit, covered 
(po pref.) ; posobnost, substance ( po pref.) ; pot, sweat. It. 
sudor ; po-znan, known, Ger. be-kannt ; prav, right, -prave (p 
pref). L. verus; pridi, L. gredior, come, go, L. it (pr pref.)- — 
so pri-cM, come, go (j>ri pref) ; pri-lika (pri pref), likeness; 
pri-pek, burn, bake ; puk, folk, people. 

Rahiti, work, Ger. a-rheiten ; rasti, g-row, L. c-resco ; rat, 
war, Ger. k-rieg; razhor^ reason, It. ragione; razdel=del, deal, 
and razgovor = govor, word — raz is prefix ; so raz-krivati, 
cover ; raz-lika, un-likeness ; red, order. 

Sam, sole, some; san, sleep, It. 8onno,8, si; sarce, heart, It. 
cuore, core; sbitti, beat (« pref.) ; strov, rough («i pref.) ; skerh, 
care, It. cura, Ger. sorge (we see Ger. s, our c=^k, both used 
in Illyr. as sk)) sJcrovan, secret (s-covered); skuhati, cook 
(s-cook) ;. slava, glory ; smart (death), L. m^rs ; smok, sap ; 
sneg, snow. It, neve (s-neve) ; spor, spare, It. parco ; suh, dry 
(s, dr), It. secco; sur (s, g), gray. It. grigio ; svet, world, G^r. 
yjelt (sv = vv »=* w). 

Tat, thief. It. lad-ro (1, t) ; tvard, hard. It. duro ; tvor, work 
(tv=vv = w); tie?, limb, Ger. gl-ied ; ugal, angle, Ger. eck ; 
vart, gard-en ; voz, wagon ; vrata, port, door (p, d). 

Xiv, live, It. vivo ; zanak, knot (z, k), It. nodo ; zana^, 
-quaint, Ger. kunst, know ; zima, frigid, winter, L. hiems ; zvtr, 
Ger. thter, li, fier a (beast). 

752. Servian : The Servian subdivision is easily classified 
with the Illyrian ; they run parallel in every essential point ; 
they are evidently closely related dialects of one original tongue. 
Indeed. Illyrian is used as a comprehensive term for the Servian 
taken in connection with Slovenian and Croatian. 


, 758. Servia extends west to the Adriatic ; and on the south, 
merging into Bulgaria, it extends to Albania and northern 
Greece. The Danube separates it from Wallachia on the north; 
further towards the west, taking in the Illyrians, it crosses that 
river, and the Save, and extends to the southern limits of Hun-^ 
gary. The Servians number over five millions. Speaking geui- 
erally, Seryja is the northwest portion of Turkey. 

754. There are, of course, many forms of Servian ; two lead- 
ing forms, after the Illyrian portion, are the High and Low 
Wend, or High and Low Lusatian. The term Wend is used by 
the Germans often as synonymous with Servian. The High 
Lusatian is spoken in the country about Budissin, Reichenbach^ 
Kaimenz, Bautzen, Loebau, and Muskau; and the Low, in vari* 
ous dialects, in the region about Cottbus. 

755. The following selections are from the High Wend:, ^o 
czmi, $0 mamy wmtojneho a pilneho sahrodnika — that makes 
(Ger. thun), that (so) we-have (a) clever and (a) diligent gar- 
dener (s = g) ; wone budze dre skoro (shortly) czass — it (will) 
be very soon time (wone = one, Euss. on, he) ; to moze hyez — 
that might be; pol punta zokora^^half pound sugar (of 

Sciuo moze to wedziez — who {scht =■ w) may that (to, the) 
know (Ger. wmen) ; ja hdu 'mu tuMej nje$chto norpissacz — . 
I will (be) him here (of-this) something write (no- write, 
n- write). 

A t^'z to 4isym ja sesnal — and also that am (have) I known ; 
schtoz (what)ya newjem (ne pref.) — what I not-know; chzeoze 
(choose) dacz — will (you) give {dacz'). 

756. It is well to observe that these Lusatian dialects are 
often treated apart from the Illy r. -Serb., and placed in the 
Bohemian class, under the name of Serbian, Sorabian, or Wend. 
The term Servian for a language is like Servian to denote a 
people, anything but definite. 

757. Croatia lies between the Drave and Save rivers ; Cro- 
atian is spoken, too, in western Hungary. The Croatians, ot 
Croats, are also named High Slavonians. The language is emi-* 
nently Illyrian ; it also very much resembles the Bohemian^ 
Compared with these two, nothing particularly important can be 
said of it. The orthography presents very few peculiarities. It 
has, however, several forms, or sub-dialects. 

758. There is yet an extensive family, called the South Wends, 
"Who belong with the Illyrian race, or may be classed with it. 
Their, language is called, also, Slovenian and Corutanian, and is 
spoken in Styria, Carinthia, Carniola (Carniolan or Krain), 
countries above the north Adriatic — also in a portioa of Illyria 
and in Hungary. 

284 PHRASI8. 

759. The followiDg from the Hung-Wend (Lord's Prayer) 
will show how it compares with Illyrian or Servian : Otscha 
nasch, ki ssi (who art) vu nehesay ; ssveti sse (hallowed self) 
ime tvoje ; pridi (be) vx)la tvoja, Jcako (h&)je (it-is) vu nebi, tak 
i (also) na semli ; krucha nasega (our) vszakdenesnyega (daily, 
each day) daj (give) nam ga dnesz (to-day). 

760. We may notice here briefly the North Wend, or Pola- 
bian. This dialect represents a language once, beyond doubt, 
prevailing in different dialects, to a large extent, in northeni 
Germany. We hardly know where to class it; it is neither 
German nor Slavic, or it is both, as you like. A very large 
proportion of the words are German and not Slavic ; again, there 
are many others which are Slavic and not German. The follow- 
ing, from the Lord's Prayer, presents one of its forms : 

Nos holy a wader ^ ta toy (that thou) chiss (art) wa nehugay; 
sjunta woarda (holy be, were) tugi geima (name) ; tia rik k<m- 
ma; tia willy a schingot (be) koke (so) nehisgay kokkak (as) wo 
sims (earth). 

This language has been extinct since about the eighteenth 

761. Bulgarian : Here we may speak also of the Bulgarian. 
Bulgaria is a country in the northern part of Turkey. The lan- 
guage is clearly Slavic in its fomj and spirit, easily classed with 
the Servian or Illyrian, but having much stronger evidences of 
Greek relationship than any other Slavic tongue. The alphabet, 
differing somewhat from the Russian, may, like that, be called 
a form of the Greek, or, the three may be all forms of a common 

762. The following are selections: Oni mu rekocha — they 
(to) him said; c j3i«awo, is written ; otrotche to — child the; 
zashoto videchme zvyadza ta negova (of-him) na vostok (east), % 
doidochme da mu (him) ce poklonime — for (we) have-seen 
star that (the) of-him in East, and (we) have-come that (to) 
him self worship(-we) — that we may worship him, worship-self 
^ worship. 

We notice here the ch = k^ sign of past tense, like Illyrian, 
which may be looked upon as standing nearer the ka of Greek 
perfect, and the ed of English, than does the / of other Slavics. 
We find here the article, or demonstrative, to, te, to, following 
the noun, as we find possessives and relatives doing in the 
other dialects. 

Duwrashe — (and) said; veshe — was; govoreshe — he said; 
she ti dam — will (to) thee I-give, i. e., I will give thee (will 
is used separate to form future here, as in Illyrian) ; retchenno 
to — spoken the (the (thing) spoken) ; da hude void ta tvoa — 
then be will the thy, i. e., be thy will ; i sitchko to-H (and all 


the-thy) tyalo (body) %he da hude svyastlo — and all the-thy 
body shall then be lighted {jsvyastlo) ; da ne sudeni budete — 
that not judged (ye) be (that yo be not) ; sJie da retchesh — will 
then (thou) say (thou wilt say) ; i kato videcha narodi te — 
and when saw (they) people the (people saw). 

Dade, L. dedi, gave ; vide, L. vidi^ saw ; koito (which) ce 
naritcha — who self called (was called) ; ste, (ye) are ; tchuli ste 
zasho e (is) retcheno — heard (ye) are that (it) is said (have 
heard, it has been said) ; 726 mozhete da rahotite na (to) Bga i 
na mamuna — not ye-can (may) that ye-serve to God and to 
mammon (ye cannot serve) ; so, vrill that I deny, for I will deny ; 
and I have come that I destroy, for conie to destroy, 

763. Da is a prefix (separate) used before infinitives and im- 
peratives, equal to our to, do of Celtic, and the da of other 
Slavics — it is used also for that, and it shows very clearly what 
augments may become by development. We have nothing to 
add that is peculiar to the language, so thoroughly is it Slavic, 
not only in its form and grammar, but also in its orthography. 

764. The Bulgarian is an interesting and valuable language, 
and it is greatly to be regretted that it has not received greater 
attention from philologists. 

766. Lithuanian : The most interesting, in a philological point 
of view, of all the Slavic families, is the Lithuanian, sometimes 
called German-Slavic. It is intesesting because it shows the tran- 
sition of the Slavic to the German, or of the German to the Slavic. 
The leading members of the family are the Old Prussian, the Li- 
thuanian, with its branches, Samogitian, or Shamaitish (called also 
Pol. -Lithuanian), the Pruss-Lithuanian, which, too, has several 
minor dialects, and the Lett, or Livonian, which, again, has at 
least five 'recognized divisions (one of which is Semgallian). 
These languages constitute a well-defined family, possessing 
Uniform features, and alike distinct, as an individual, from both 
the Slavic and the German, while they are yet each and all 
made up of elements common to one or the other of the two. 

766. The Old Prussian we will take up first : it is, of all the. 
family, the nearest to the German. This was once, it is agreed, 
t^he language of a numerous people, divided into different tribes 
Xvith corresponding difference of idiom. They dwelt in north- 
ern Germany. Of the language, extinct since the seventeenth 
^sentury, very little remains to us, and we know less of it than 
^K>uld be desired. With all its German or Gothic orthography, 
:S.t is still essentially Lithuanian. Some examples will best show 
"^hat it is : 

767. As quoi stesmu ainan po-galban teclcint — I (as) will 
^to) him an (a) help make (give) — {int is one of the inf. end- 
Sjigs); stwi hiUa stas smunents — then spoke the (Ger. das) 


man ; twrri gerdant — shall say; <t«rri=sliave and shall ^ is like 
Lit^., and connected with Ger. solh^ shall, 1 >■ r ; laikuts wirst — 
held hecomes (is held) ; kai stai ismuktnt masi — that thej (to) 
learn (inf.) may (may learn); tou ni-turri — thou not-shouM 
(shouldn't) ; ka ast sta hUlitqn — what is that said ; -on^ -ats, 
-m<«, -<«, 'ton, are pass. part, endings; -ans, -uns, are of the act. 
part. ; -tweiy '•ton, -int, -ut, -it, -t, are infinitive endings. 

Ains dUants ast waisei (his) algas werts — a worker is (of) 
his pay worth (worthy); kai erains lahhan segge — what every- 
one good does ; bhe prei wiran hiUa Deiws — and to (the) man 
spoke (tell) God ; quoi warein kirsa (over) din tuari — ^^rhich 
power over him has (^wrri) (has power over him). 

768. We may notice the following orthographic forms be- 
sides : 

Adder, other ; a^nimts, Ger. ge-nommen (taken) ; arwis, true, 
right ; astin, thing (a form of «to«« the) ; aiisins, ear. 

Billa, say, tell ; buttas, house, a-hode, Semitic faith : diJm^ 
works (dl = dr) ; druwe (believe), trust ; eit, goes, L. it; gan- 
nan, woman, queen ; garrin, tree ; giwan, life, L. vivo, g, v, 2; 
gurins, poor, g, p ; ilga, long. 

Kackint, to catch ; kawids^ which (Jca pref.) ; kermens (body), 
L. corpus; Jdrd\ hear; kittan, other {k pref.); lahs (good), 
Slav, dohry, d, 1; laukit, seek, lopk(-for). 

MaMai (young), small ; mylis, love (my pref.), L. a-micvs; 
packe, peace ; per»eit = eit (go) ; per^gimmons (born) = gm- 
mons, G'k ginomai; po-lygu, Ger. g-leich, like (jpo pref.) ; po- 
simma, Ger. he-kenne, know. 

Schlusi, serve (schl = sr) ; sidons, sitting ; sparts, Ger. staxhy 
strong; stas, Ger. das, the, st, d; teihu, do, Ger. thun, make; 
ttrs, old ; wyrs, L. vir, hero, man, force. 

A very large portion of the words of this language are decid- 
edly Slavic. 

769. Lithuanian proper is spoken by a people not very large 
in numbers, nor possessing any particular national importance. 
They are found in Prussia and in Kussia, and number, with the 
Lett«, perhaps two millions. We proceed immediately to illus- 
trate some of the features of the language : 

770. Kas tar ausu (ears) klausyt — who hath ears to-hear— 
in Samogitian, ant klausimo, for to-hear; su juni-^Yiii\i hiiU; 
jie at-sakejam — - they to-said (said) to-him ; ir jis kel-es, naka^ 
erne (took) waikeli (wkeli, w-child) — and he (jis) arisen (hav- 
ing), by-night took (the) child ; bet girde-dams — but hear-ing 
(Samo. iz-girdes, heard); jis biis (be) wadinnams — he (shall) 
be called ; tary-dams, saying ; asz sakaujums — I say (to) you; 
sakyti — to say; galprkkelt — can raise-up (pri pref.) (galfot 


cdn is common — • our shaU^ Welsh gal) ; wand^mi — with 
water; ugenvmi — with fire; m« wandens — out (of) water. 

Kad jo kriksztijams butu — by him baptized to-be (butu) ; ir 
tu ateinipas mane (me) — and thou comest to me ; pa^kriksztitas 
— (being) baptizea {pa pref.) ; gundinams butu — tempted to- 
be; jey esffi (art) Diewo mnus — if (tbou) is God's son ; poto 
wede ji welnas i szwenta miesta — then took him {fi) (the) 
devil (did) into (the) holy city (place) ; ir state ji ant — and 
stood him on ; tai wislab du-su taw — these all (I) will-give 
thee (Samo. wistag duosin tau). See the s mark of the Greek 
and Irish future —it is common in Lith. Notice also the pasts 
with suppressed endings, like L. dedi and feci, in the forms 
sake, said, wede, took, state, stood. 

Jus este swieto szwiesybe — ye are (the) world's light; ne 
aiejau paniekint, bet iszpildit — not (I) come to-destroy, but to- 
fulfiU ; sakyta esant — said being (being said) ; eit wiena myle 
to-go one milo; eik su jumi — go with him (si* = G'k sun, L. 
cum) ; hutumbit — may be. 

Niekz ne gal dwiem ponam szluziti — no-one ict can two 
masters serve (none can) ; jey nori (L. nolo) — if (thou) wilt 
(this will is used with future also) ; busit wedami — (ye) shall- 
be brought (Samo. busite wadztati) ; ne turrit dum^ti — not 
(ye) have to-think (not to think, shall noi)] pa-duti yra — 
given are {pa pref.). Prefixes in the way of meaningless aug- 
ments are very common. 

Zinnotumbit — ye may know (had known), (Samo. zinotumet)] 
kasgi tadda gal iszganytas buti — who then came saved be ; zin- 
note — ye know; kas daryta yra — which done is (dar=^kar, 
chore) ; zmogus — man {zm = m) ; lygi yra — like is. 

771. After the examples given in Lithuanian, little need be 
said of Samogitian ; for the two are much alike. The Samogitian 
often changes the form, but seldom changes the principle. These 
few examples will suffice : 

Ejo pirm ju — (it) went before them ; ey-kite — go ye; hir 
bowo — where was (L. cwr= why) ; in^e (in pref.) ing namus 
(L. domus) — coming (they) in (the) house; idantji nuzuditu 

— for (-to) him destroy (itu is a common supine ending); tar- 
damas — saying; kas ira pa^sakati — what was said ; ira gir- 
detas — is heard; norejo buti palinksminta — will be comforted; 
isz-girdes — having heard ; huwo nuwestas — was lead ; palay- 
minti — blessed ; 4m8 wadinti — shall-be called ; priesz zmonies 
— before men, L.Aomine«; noriu — Iwill (L. woZo); idantmokitu 

— for (to) speak (preach); walgans ir gierans — eating and 
drinking : hir turejo Christus uzgimii (uz pref.) — where should 
(has) Christ (be) born. 

772 The Lettish is spoken in Livonia and in Kurland. It 


has considerable literature, and some of it goes back as far as 
the thirteenth century. We give only a portion of the Lord's 
Prayer of one of the forms of Lettish : Muhssu tehws dehessis — 
our father (in) heaven ; sswetihts lai tohp taws' wahrds — sancti- 
fied let be thy word (this lai is the prefix da we have seen else- 
where) ; lai nahk pee mums tawa walstiha — let come by us thy 
kingdom ; muhssu deenischka maisi dohd mums schodeen — our 
daily bread give (dohd) us this-day (to-day, heute) ; peedohd 

It bears a strong resemblance to the other Lithuanian dialects, 
but it has also several peculiarities of its own. 

773. We give here the Lithuanian form of the 20th John, 2, 
and will follow it with the other Slavic tongues, for comparison 
with it and with each other : 

Tay ji hega (then she ran), ir ateit (came) pas Simona Pe- 
tra, ir pa^ (to) ana kitta m^kitini (disciple), hurri (whom) Jezus 
myhQO^ ir sako jiem dwiem (to-them two) ; ateme (they have 
taken) Wieszpati isz kapo (out the grave), ir ne zimmoms (we- 
know) hir (where) ji (him) padejo, 

774, In Samogitian : 

Nvhego tada (came-she then), ir atejo pas Simona Petra, ir 
pas kita raokitini kuri milejo (loved) Jezus^ o sakiejems ; ateme 
Wieszpati isz graboy o nezinome kurji padejo (they-have-laid). 

776. In Bulgarian : 

Otortcha protchee, i doide (came, do pref.), kod Simona Pe- 
tra, i kod drugiat (olher) outcheniky kogoto (whom) obutchashe 
JisuSy i retche (and said) im; zeli (taken) Gda o grohat^ i 
ne znam (we-know) gdt/a sa (have) go (him) polozhiU (jpo 

776. In Bohemian : 

/ bezela (and she-ran), a prissla k (to) Simon^im Petrowi a 
k druhemu (other) ucedlnjkowi tomu (this) gehoz (which) miloioal 
(loved) Gezjsy a rekla (G'k reo) gim : Wzali Pana z (out) hrobu, 
a newjme (not-know-we) kde (where) geg polozili (placed-they, 
po=^p of place). 

777. In Hungarian Wend : 

Bezi zato i pride (ran then and came) k Simon Petri i k 
tomi (that) drugomi (other) vv^senikiy steroga je lubo JezuSj 
i ercse (said) nyima} odneszli (taken-they, od-ne pref.) szo 
Goszpoda z groba, i neznamOy kama szo (to) ga djali (him 

778. In the Polish : 

Biegla tedy (therefore) i przyszla do Symona Piotra, i do 
drugiego ucznia (disciple) ktorego (whom) milowal Jezus a 
rzekla im, ; wzietoc Pana z (from) grobu, a nie wiemy gdzie 
(where) go po^lozono. 


779. And last, in Russian : 

Itak (and then) hyazhit % prichodit (comes, pri pref;) k Sir 
momi PetrUy i k drugomu tUcheniku kotorago (which) lyohil 
Jims, i govorit im ; unesli Goapoda iz groha, i tie znaem (we- 
know) gdya polozhili ego (him). 

780. (We may make the general note here, that the contents 
of parenthesis, in the text, generally gives the meaning of the 
word that precedes that ; occasionally it only suggests some 
related word. In the selections from John just given, we have 
only given the meaning of a few words, the rest being sufficiently 
determined by the translation known, or from comparison with 
the others accompanying it. The order and number of words 
in our translations will uniformly correspond with the text, and 
when the meaning is not sufficiently clear it is explained in pa- 
renthesis. Generally, words in parenthesis, in the translations, 
are meant to be only explanatory and suggestive. Through the 
whole work, be it marked, letters and groups of letters are meant 
to denote actual equivalents when placed side by side, with or 
without the sign of equality). ^ 

781. In concluding our remarks upon the class of Slavic lan- 
guages, we may review some of its peculiarities. We notice, 
especially, the great abundance of prefixes and augments, not so 
developed as to affect the meaning of the root; or, as we may 
otherwise express it, we find them representing our initial letters 
by groups of letters, as gov for w, pol for p, mil for 1 — also many 
separate adverbs used as augments, as da; the existence of 
a dual, as in Grreek — but not so prominent ; the tendency to 
put the possessive pronouns after the noun, which show them- 
selves as suffixes in Hungarian, and which are like the follow- 
ing article in Bulgarian ; the use of the singular after numerals ; 
the absence of personals with verbs, and the medium between 
the particles of Greek and those of German ; also the common 
use of the reflexive (G'k middle) for either the passive or active ; 
the use of gerunds as a sort of transition between verbs and par- 
ticiples ; the strong development of case endings, and endings 
of all kinds, placing the class Q^uch nearer to Greek and Latin 
than to German ; the absence of an article such as German has, 
and the continual tendency to develop it from the numeral one 
and the demonstrative this, tha>t — seen more strongly in some 
members of the class than in others; as, in the Wend, ta, to, 
ton, Greek to and ton. 





782. The Finnish languages proper, the Hungarian or Magyar, 
and the Turkish, tire usually put together as one family ; but 
while we leave the classification so, it is with the obserration, 
that there is a greater difference between the three than is usu- 
ally found between members of the same family. The Finnish 
languages, embracing a large number of distinct dialects, are 
sometimes denominated Uralio, being found originally in the 
region of the Ural Mountains. The Voguls, Ostjaks, and Hun- 
garians, constitute the Ugric branch of the Finnic languages. 

783. We will treat first, and principally, of the Hungarian. 
There is, evidently, a closer relationship between this and Slavics, 
than is generally supposed ; and so there is between Finn and 
Slavic."^ There is not a feature in one that we cannot recognize, 
somewhat changed, in the other. The pronoun is not exactly 
suffixed in Slavic,. as in Finnish, but it is one of the leading 
marks of Slavic to find the possessive following the noun — and 
in Bulgarian the article also. 

784. The suffix preposition in Finnish strikes us as peculiar, 
but we find it even in German and English ; as, demr^ach (that- 
after), wo'mit (where-with), where-in, there-after, where-to, 
there-on ; so, Ger. meinen-freund an — my friend on, t. 6., upon 
'my friend ; ist keinen thaler werth — is no dollar worth, i, e., not 
worth a dollar ; we say, read a book through,, i. 6., through a 
book } the suffix na^h, after, is very common in German ; as, 
der sprache nach, the language after, i, c, after the language, 
dem um/ange nach, the extent after; also, but, as hs but, for 
btU he, as we say he however, for h^owever he. 

785. But we find, in the family in question, prepositions before 
as well as after, and those that follow are not different from the 
case endings of Slavic, except that they are more developed than 
those of Slavic. The verb system is about the same in both ; 
and in orthography they have much in common. 

786. The Hungarian is Eastern, but Slavic is Eastern too. 
The following illustrations will give the best idea of the charac- 
ter of the language : 

Az atyak — the father (Ger. d-as) ; aUtalap — the hat (a = 
az); 8zep estve — (a) beautiful evening; hazat epiteni — (a) 
house to-build ; a*hegy*en embert (man) lattam — the mountain- 
on (on the mountain) (a) man I-have-seen (en is suffix prep. =s 
on). Prepositions uniformly follow in Hungarian, save in some 


instances of pronouns ; egy (one) Bahorai kirdly — a Balsora 
king (king of Bals.) ] derek egy ember — excellent a man; szena 
gyujteni ment — hay to-collect he- went; ez a* konyv a* gyer- 
mekeke — this the book (is) the children's, i. e., belongs to them. 
The final e in the last word takes the place of the possessive 
sign ; a* ki magae lehet — the who (i. 6., who) his-own (i. e., own 
master) can-be. 

Nagy^ohh volt mint — greater was as (greater than) ; mas 
Ihiropai nemzet — (an) other European nation; ezen a* fa!n 
9ok alma van — this the tree-on (on this) much (many) apple 
is; heteg voU — sick was; betegek voltak — sick were; vettem 
lovat de nem igem szepet — I-bought (have) (a) horse, but not 
very (igen) beautiful (t, etj at, are accusative endings; nak, gen. 
• and dat. ; k, ak, ok, plural sign). 

The adjective, when standing before the noun, is not changed 
for case, number, and gender ; as, a' nagy varos — the great 
town ; a* nagy varos-nak — the great towns — - but after the verb 
he it suffers changes. 

JLov-aim igen kicsinyek — horses-my (are) very little (ek is 
plural sign of adjective taking place of verb — poss. pronouns 
uniformly suffix); legeros-ebb a* negylabu ailatok kozot — (the) 
strongest the four-footed (laby foot) among (prep, following sep- 
arate, frequently). 

The use of personal is very limited in Hung. — possessives 
mre never found separate ; kaptam levelet, de meg nem olvastam 

I-received (have) (a) letter, but yet not (have) I-read (it) ; 

%f^ en hazam, nem a' tied — the I house-my (i. c, my house), 
:siot the thine (this double personal 1 is very conmion — it is 
emphatic, like I myself) ; az b hazok-— the she house-her (her 
louse) — we would say his house, John's; house of him, John; 
^zavam, my word ; szavad, thy word ; szava, his word. 

BoMog az a* fiu — bulky this the son (is); o magat dicseri 

he self (same) praises ; a' vUagnak teremto-je — (of) the 

"World (gen.) its-creator (the world's creator). This superfluous 
-^ks^ the ending je^ and the like, is common, ad our the man his 
^loiue; az ember elete — the men life (for men's) — as we say 
^oose quiU, for goose's quill; a' mi-rol szohk — the what-of 
^where-of, of which) I-speak (say); mdlyet ma lattunk — which 
^^x>-day (mob) we-seen (have) (unk = we) ; a' micsoda jo h-nak 
. ^^udom annyit meger- — the what (-ever) good of-horse 1-knew 
^ftwZom) so-much worth (it is) (as far as I know)} a' mi-m van 

the my-what is, that what is to me, what I have; a* mid van 

-=— what you have (what is to you, yours). 

Latok (I see) valakit a' kert-ben—l-seQ some-one the garden- 
T.n (6€«=in); kiir, ki olvas — who (the-one) writes, who (the- 
oiher) reads; tttdom hogy nemeUy itek szegeny — I-know that 

292 PH&ASis. 

many of-yon poor (are) ; a' honyvtarha vcdo honyv-ek — the in 
(ha) library being (belonging) books; kezdek szolni — Lbegin 
to-speak (ni inf. ending). 

A' tanulo gyermek — the learning boy; egre HaUo vetek-^- 
(a) heaven-'to (to-heaven)- crying sin ; setalvan az oramat elvesz- 
tettem — walking (t. e., as I walked) the my-watch I-lost (in 
oramat, m «= my, and at is aoo. sign) ; varva va/rtam — waiting 
I-waited (have), i. e., I have long waited (in vartam, t is sign of 
past tense, the ending also of past part., and m =1) ; irva van 
— writing (it) is *= it is written, the pres. part, nsed as passive ; 
varalak — I expect you; kwari'lak laini — I-wish-you to-see; 
egy reszt igen szeretem — (to) a part (i. e., partly) very (much) 
lovd-him-I (partly love him much); ezt mondjak — this one- 
says (they say this); mikor pedig szuletett volna — when but 
(but when) been-bom was (had been bom). 

£$ mikor lattak volna — and when theynsaw was (when they 
saw, or had seen). We find prepositions before the pronouns ; 
as, benneniy in me, benned, in thee, benne, in him, rajtam,, on 
me, rajtad, on thee; keljfd — rise up; fd-kdvan — up-rising, 
t. 6., rising up; meg^haUatott — is-heard (meg. pref.); meg^hoU 
volna — dead was; b nekUfik al^atiA; -— he (is) tOrUS for-father 
(we have him for father). 

Negt/ven nap — forty day; mind ezeket neked adorn — all 
these to-thee I-will-give; m^mdatnak — they-shall-be^called (nak 
denotes th^^ and at the passive m>ond, Ger. mund-art, say, speak) ; 
U va{/ytok e' foldnek savai — ye are-ye the earth's salt; ne bJ^-^ 
not kill (kill not) ; valaki olend — whoever killing, i. e., that 
shall kill; mi Atyank ki vagy a' mennyek-hen — we father-our 
who art the heaven-in, t. 6., our father; senki nem szolgalhat 
ket tfcrnaifc — no^ne not can-serve two master (no one can). 

787. We here furnish a list of Hungarian words, to show the 
form whicb German and Slavic terms assume there : 

Szek^ stool; kar^ arm, branch, G'k cheir; has, meat; «er, 
beer ; nap, day, sun ; torony, tower ; det, life, el, 1} lo, horse, 
colt ; o, old ; so, salt ; szo, say, word, L. os. 

Ko, stone, Slav, ka-men; szu, heart, Slav, serdze; fi, son, L. 
Jilius; soh, much, G«r. sdir ; folyo, flow, river ; m;, new, «; = 
nu ; de, and, but, G'k de ; jidh, sheep, L. ovis, ewe ; arany^ gold, 
L* awmm. 

Ev, Slav, nev, sky, heaven ; kez, hand, claw; fwic, fire, heat; 
tra», writ; hgy, fly; keves^ little, G«r. toenig; hev, heat;^, 
ice ; szel, wind, blow (sz is used here, as in Slavic, as the equal 
of w, V, u, b). 

Ut, r-oad, L. tY >» go ; viz, water ; okor, ox ; ahm, sleep, al, si; 
etek, food, eat; hereg, worm ; halom, hill ; jarom, yoke. 

Oloniy lead, L. p^ttrnft', ql, pi; str^ grave; in, nerve, Ger. 


tekne; izj limb; Gyula, Jalins; draga, dear; vastag, thick, 
L. spisms ; vds, iron, Ger. eisen ; ercZy earth, metal. 

Ferfi, man, L. vir ; penzy money, pence ; pedig, but ; kardy 
sword ; Jiet, week, seven ; hang, clang ; mod, mode ; ev, year, 
L. aevum, age ; Aitr^, horn» 

Gotnhy know ; reaz, part, L. res = thing ; cstUag, star, L. «ee/^; 
Aa2, go, walk, Fr. aZZer ; lab, foot, c-law ; szem, see, eye ; 6ara^, 
£riend } lecmg, daughter, 1, d ; szo, voice, sound. 

^oZ, wall; Aany, how-much, L. 5^0* ; erdo, wood, Qer, wald ; 
^, just, tamd-ni, to teach; ir-ni, to write; erdem, work ; keres-ni, 
to seek, search ; lop-ni, to steal, Gr'k klep ; te and tesz, do ; Ai 
and hw, call, Ger. ru/en; akar, after, either. 

Adrfii, to give, L. (io ; allani, to stand ; ar, river ; azon, that ; 
Zo^, look; embert, man, L. mr (mber); Bees, Vienna, Ger. 
Wien ; biz, true, Ger. waJir and ge-wiss ; cscUa, battle, Ger. 
9chlacJU; cnnos, clear, shine, Ger. rein. 

Edes, sweet, G'k edtis ; egesz, whole, Ger. ganz ; ef, night ; 
d-ni, to live, be ; er-ni, to reach. 

Fed-ni, deck ; /e/cr, white, fire ; fel, half, Slav, pol; fo and 
yey, head, f, h ; fold, land, field ; Gorog, Greek ; gyonge, weak ; 
hajo, ship, L. navis ; hatra, after, back; haUani, hear, 1, r; 
A«^, high, rock ; hir, hear, Ger. ruf, report ; Aiif , oath ; hon^ 

ido, time, tide ; igaz, true, Ger. wahr ; iva«, drink, L. bibo ; 
jor-ni, go ; Jut-ni, go, L. lYww ; kis, little, Ger. A;^» ; kimen-ni, 
go, come ; A:ora, early ; kota, note ; koz, common ; koriil, circle, 

Me-gholt, killed, dead ; me-gini, a-gain ; myack, neck ; on, tin ; 
ok, cause, Ger. aache ; rossz, hod, worse. 

Telfes, full ; terirni, do, Ger. ihun; tett, deed, Ger. that ; tor»ni, 
break, twist ; tud-ni, know, L. video ; ut-ni, beat (b-eat) ; vad, 
wild ; ver-ni, strike ; viadal, battle. 

Zbld, yellow, Slav, zelen ; zseb, sack ; level, leaf, letter ; ur, 
sir, Ger. herr ; arok, grave; ?iyi?, nail, dart, Ger. p/eil; fond, 
pound, QoT, p/und. 

Zddo, Jew, Ger. Jud^ (yude) ; nep, folk, people ; ver, gore, 
L. cruor ; azon, that, QeT.jener, da^ ; ar, price ; bo, wide and 
rich; elso, first, 1, r ; hives, be-lief; igy, so; kptor, out-turn (ki 
pref.) ; kot-ni, bind, knit ; kdrom, claw, r, 1. 

Lang, flame; len-ni, be, been, 1, be; miv, work; mivel^i, 
huHd (mi pref.) ; nev, name ; ott, there, Ger. cZor^ ; dreg, old, 
Slav. »tory ; ven-m, take, Ger. fang-en ; veg, end, L. ^nts. 

788. The fact particularly noticed in Magyar, is the shortness 
of the wordSj the condensing, if you please, of two or more let- 
ters of ours into one of theirs ; thus, we often find that our initial 
letters are entirely suppressed ; as, ie^ «■ b-eat, ara= price, on « 


tin. Prefixed, prepositional, verbs of all kinds, are well developed 
in this language. 

789. Finnish : The Finnish class proper is as interesting 
and valuable as it is peculiar and beautiful. It has all the prom- 
inent features of the Magyar ; the two stand very nearly related 
in many particulars ; and yet the Finnish, and especially some 
of its forms, possesses the whole Slavic structure, only develop- 
ing some of its features in an unusual manner. The Finnish 
must stand as an invaluable light to show us the path that leads 
from Magyar to Lithuanian and the Slavic, or the reverse. All 
the endings and prefixes of Finnish, the verb be^ all the pro- 
nouns and particles, all the participles and tense forms, manifest 
a strong tendency to identify themselves with Slavic, and indi- 
rectly with German and Latin. Hence, the acquiring of the 
language is quite easy, and always full of interest. The Finns, 
as a whole, are not an organized people, though some portions 
of them are highly cultivated and possess many men of learning ; 
for example, those of Finland proper. They are divided into 
many sections, with their dialects each peculiar to them. 

790. There is an east and a west Finnish group, with consid- 
erable marks of difference ; the tribes or sections are, the Suomi, 
Esthnish, Syryanish, Wotjak, Mordvin, Tcheremish, Ostjak, and 
Wogul. We regret that there is not room here to speak of 
some of their most interesting peculiarities, especially in the 
structure of the verbs. 

791. We will give but few examples, sufficient only to give 
a rough idea of Finnish orthography and structure : 

Koska he olit Jeuningan hauUret — when they (he) had (was) 
(the) king heard (o/ of olit is the hyl of Slav, was) ) syndy-man 
piti — born shall-be (shall be born — puti is Slav, hudu^ be, the 
sign of future) ; syndy-nut oli — born was (was born); sen (that) 
kuvU — (he) that heard (heard that). Pasts are formed like 
Latin perfects, dedi^ fed^ rexi, with vowel endings ; notisi ja 
otti, arose and took ; nouseja ota, rise and take ; on kuulu-nut — 
is heard ; tdmd (same) on se — this is he (that one) ; (tuli), went; 
jonga minun kansaani pita hallitz-eman — who my people shall 
rule (piVa = be, shall) ; mind sanon te-iUe-^l say to-you (mine 
•= I); Isa meidan — father our. 

The case endings are heavy — prepositions follow, either suf- 
fixed or separate. Poss. pronouns are developments of noun 
endings not separated; ou prcyphetan kautta Mrjoi-tettu — is 
prophet by written (written by the) ; on tulewa — is to-come, 
will come; m^nit he — went they; huoneseen — house-in; he 
tdhden nd-it — they (the) star saw; he olit mennc^ (went) — 
they had gone ; Egyptistd kutzuin mind (I) poik-ani (boy-my) 


Egypt-OQt called (have) I son-my (called my son) ; joka aanoo 
— ^which says, 

Sanottu oli — spoken was; Rham-asa on ddni kuulunut — 
Rama-in is (a) voice heard ;yoA;a Jmtzutan — which (was) called; 
wedelld — with-water; tulella — with-fire; kastetta hdneldd — 
to-(be)-baptized him-by; he hastettin — they (were) baptized; 
kctatan teUd — baptize thee; hdnkastaa — he (shall) baptize; 
ei ihminen (h, . Jwminem) eld — not man (shall) live (e pref.); 
asetti hdnen — set him ( a pref. ) . 

Jos sind olet — if thou art ; ja osotti (show, o pref.) hdnelle 
kaikM (all) mailman (Ger. weU, L. mundus) waldakunnat — 
and showed to-him all world's kingdom (of the world); ndmdt 
kaikhi mind annan (give) sinuUe — these all I (will) give to- 
thee ; sUmd on (is) ruumin walkeus — (the) eye is body's light 
(of the body) ; klmd sUmdstd — eye for-eye; kuollet — the dead 
(killed) ; seura minim — follow me; se sana — that word (that 
= the), say; joka tehty os — which did is (made) ; hdnesd (in- 
him) olt elama — in him was life; he ky^yit — they asked. 

792. It would be a very easy task to show a multitude of Fin- 
nish words agreeing substantially with correspondents in Hunga- 
rian, and, with suitable allowance for their style of orthography, 
we might identify a large majority of its most common words with 
G-erman and Slavic, particularly Lithuanian — but we can barely 
touch upon this question here ; thus, we notice eld^ live, Hung. 
el-ni J tunde-nut^ knew, known, H. tud-ni ; mene, ^go, H. menni; 
tul, fire, H. tUz ;- pcja and^a, head, H. fo; jalg^ foot, H. lah, 
1^, lb ; toesi, water, H. viz; ssUme, eye, H. szem ; ssu, mouth, 
BL. szcy' ; kasi, ked, ki^ hand, H. kez ; nait, saw, H. nez-ni; 
^cuoUetj dead, killed, H. holt; puu, tree, H. /a, p, f ; ihminen^ 
XKian, H. ember ; vqj^ night, H. e;; anna^ give, H. ad-ni — and 
every one of these words can be identified with German or 

793. We give, next, the 2d of John 20, to compare with 
^Bungarian : 

Nu/n hcmjuoxija tali Simon Petarin tygo^ja sen opetttslapsen 
^iS/go jota Je$u8 raka^ti, ja sanoi (said) heille : he owat Herran 
^>ttanet pois haadasta,ja en me tiedd^ kuhunya he hdnen (him) 
^^[^anit — then she ran and came (tuli) Simon Peter to (tygo), 
£i.xid that disciple to (to that one) whom Jesus loved, and said 
-'t^o-them : they have (are, owa{) (the) Lord taken away grave- 
:fsx>m, and not we {me) know, where they him put (have). 
7S4. In Hungarian : 

Ei-fiUa azert es el-mene Simon Peterhez, es ama masik taniU 

'^^^xnyhoz^ a* kit Jezus szeret (cherished) vala, es monda (said) 

^TM^^Idk: El-vittek az Urat a' koporso-bol, es nem tudjuk hova 

€cUek otet — then (azert') she-ran {el pref.) and came Simon 


296 PH&ASis. 

Peter-to (-es), and that other disciple, the whom (kit") Jesus 
loved had (was, vala)y and said to them : taken (they have) the 
Lord the grave-from (-bol), and not know (I) where (hovd) laid 
(they have) him (^ot-et). 

795. The Syryan deserves this especial notice : In it we find 
muTia {mount), I go ; mtmy, went ; munly, has gone ; mtmaf 
will go; the verb be has em (am) for all persons singular, and 
emos in the plural — a fine proof that any person of a verb may 
represent all the persons. We find me voly (will), I was ; ^'a 
voli^y he was ; vony, been, be. In a form of this language, we 
find vi/ifym == enij showing e = vyjy, yyyy, eeee. 

796 Lapp : The Lapp language, of the Laplanders, is most 
undeniably a Finnish language ; it is, if anydiing, nearer the 
Magyar than the Finnish itself. It has by no means received 
that attention which its numerous points of interest justify us in 
saying it deserves — and this has arisen from the political insig- 
nificance of the Laplanders as a people, numbering, as they do^ 
less than thirty thousand. A single example must serve to give 
a comparative view of its features. Same verse as above : 

Wvobkei 8odn tdbheU ja pati Svmon PetrU'Sen kaik, ja tan 
mi^ben appetesahnan kaiky juoh Jems etsi,jajatti sonnon: Stfe 
Idh eritwaldam Herrah gruoptest^ja epe tete^ kosa litjeh pidjam 
so — ran she therefore and came (pati) Simon Peter to (katk'), 
and {ja) (jtan mubben) that other disciple to, whom (Juob) Jesus 
loved (^etsi), and said to- them : they have (are*, lah) taken-away 
(the) Lord grave-from, and not-we know (fete) where they-have 
put him. 

Attjes kuoren — father-his near (by his father); mo^kfum, me- 
with ; mon etsetowap — I lovcd-am ; sotn etsetowa] he loved-is; 
stfe Wb etsetowomen — they are loved-been; mife lepe etsetowoTnen 
— we are loved-been (are loved) ; etset^ to love. 

In Suomi, ovat = owap is used for are^ and ova, more or less . 
varied, is a common ending for verbals in the Finn languages — 
it is the ending, too,, of active tenses ; as, antavat, they give ; 
tulevat, they come ; tidwat, they came. In Lapp, we find lei, 
or li, for was; and orrat for be (are, L. eram); it is not different 
from oly Uiy U, of past. Lapp verbs have a dual form. 

797. The Serenian is the language of a Finnish tribe, on a 
Finnish basis — but having strongly developed the Slavic ten- 
dencies of the family. There are many points where it is Slavic 
and not Finn, and as many others where it is Finn and not 
Slavic. It is found written in the Slavic letter. 

798. The Karelian is another Finnish language, with a Slavic 
finish. It is written in the Russian letter. 


799. Samoidish Languages. — The Samoidish languages 
constitute a family located in the north of Russia and in the 
north and centre of Asia. They are connected, on one side, 
with the Finnish, and, on the other, with the Siberian family. 
Many of the leading features of the language are Finnish ; there 
is a strong tendency, however, to the peculiar North- Asiatic 

800. The following translation of Samoidish composition will 
give some conception of the manner in which they tell their 
stories : 

The woman goes ; the servant goes ; the woman (to) father 
came, into house went, father up-raised, father old ; two man 
sit, three brother stand — those two bad (are), those two sleep : 
woman sits, (to) servant says, back go, (to) him say, " two man 
came " ; servant back went. Other (one) man got up, out went, 
bow sounds, servant (he) killed ; man (into) house came, (with) 
selves they talk, laughing go-to-sleep ; morning get up, from- 
around folk came, "thy servant killed" (-is, they say); woman 
sits, sleep, woman wakes ; one-has-stolen-her (tualambadat)^ two 
mea came (in-)boat, take-her {tadaref), 

801. This gives us an instructive lesson on what language is 
in its infantile style or state — it shows how particles and end- 
ings and fixes are the result of growth out of fundamental 
words. The ancient poetry of northern Europe has advanced 
farther than this towards our present complicated style, but 
evidently by traveling the same road as this. 

802. Albanian Language. — The Albanian, we do not 
hesitate to say, is to be classed as one of the remote forms of 
Greek, especially of modern Grreek. Philologists are at a loss 
where to place it, partly from the little knowledge they have of 
it, and partly, too, from the peculiar phase the language pre- 
sents. But we feel confident that the more we become acquainted 
with it, the nearer we shall find it to Greek. It has not the 
character of an ancient language — it is essentially modern ; it 
has the article, compound tense, passive on the reflexive and 
with to be, the declining appearance of endings, and the like. 

803. It has many points that are Celtic, if not Greek, as the 
abundance of augments and little meaningless particles, and 
adverbs ; it has many more that are Slavic, others, again, that 
are particularly French, such as the adjective following the 
noun, and the orthography of some of its words. But all these 
points of agreement do not necessarily prove it related to these 
languages in particular; it rather shows that they have all 
traveled the same way, and have the same history. 



804. Albania proper belongs in Turkey; it lies north of G-reece, 
and between the Adriatic sea and Bulgaria. 

805. The language presents little that is really strange, little 
that we have not already seen in some other language. A few 
examples must suffice for it : 

Me mirre — more good (better) ; me is scarcely more than a 
prefix ; fort poukoure (L. jmlcher, pretty) — very pretty (most, 
super.); time dese — thou me lovest; dotui te shruoaig — I-will 
that (to, the) I- write (will write) ; dcmame te skrouagem^ — we- 
wish, etc; dijioig^ difimi — I, he, hears; chap — I open (gap); 
thom^ thote — I, he, says, th, s ; dall — go, Fr. ^aller ; pat skrou- 
are — he-had written ; pat hdekoure — he-had died. 

H i pirri (L. puer) i dot atig — and the son he said to-him 
(atig) (you may also call the i before dot an augment) ; se este 
idoutet i mpretit (prince) se mud (magnus) — for (it) is town tliat 
(the one) (of) king the great (tnat of the great king); bete mpe 
stepi (stoop) te Petrit — I-go into (mpe) house that (of) Peter 
(bete = went) — te here may be called a suffix article, indeed our 
own relatives that and which are not more than post-positive 
articles ; i Iwutem pemtise — (to) him I-pray to-God, i. e., I 
pray to him, to God (or call i an augment). 

Po ou thom gicmhet — but (to) you I-say to-you, i. e., to you 
I say to you (or call ou an augment). Such difficulties we have 
seen often before, and the student must be reminded that all the 
words of a sentence, when traced far enough back, prove to be 
duplicates like these; ai he seste me mmui — the (who) who not- 
is with me (as we say he who); se kouig pirri im — for this son 
(of) mine. 

JSi hountre este shrouare nte profeter^ na oune der/oig eggeline 
tim perpara phakese sate, ate-ke do te dertoge otidene tente (thy) 
perpara tege — so again (contra) it-is Written in (nte) prophets, 
behold I (ovjie) send angel the-my (tim) before face (of) thine, 
the- which shall (do = te) prepare way (road) thine before thee ; 
e si thurri nie gka kopigte, e pieti tzdo te gene (been) ketb — 
and so (he) called one (nie) from servants, and asked (Ger. 
heten) what that be (been) this, i ei, what it was {te augment), 
or what it may be. 

Etha: nie (one) nieri kis di dgielm — and (he) said : a man 
(G*k aner) had two sons (child); giati ine ke ge mpe Mel — 
father our which thou-art (ge^ be) in heaven ; pas (post) gio 
(G'k ou1c\ soume (some) ditet (dies) — after not many days. 

806. There are still a few words which we must notice for 
their extraordinary orthography : 

Skourtoig — to shorten; skoig, go (s pref.), scud; ikeig^ go; 
tzourare, tear ; pounoig (work), G'k poieOy Ger. thun ; krache 
(arm), bracket. 


Geiri(2irmY G'k cheir; mpe, up, 'pon; gkre, right, erect; 
SI, eye; ched (pour), gush; giaste, o\it;pime (tree), Ger. baum; 
lis (tree), L. lignum ; ourder^ order; serpeig^ serve. 

Feta, find ; lesoig, louse (notice that oig^ aig, eig^ are endings 
of first per. singular, and that -are is a part, ending) ; este (bone), 
L. OS ; xomple, example; thurra (call), Ger. ru/en. 

Strome (bed), L. stratum; lid (tie), L. ligo ; mplioump^ 
plumb, Ger. hhi (lead) ; lioule^ b-lodm, f-lora; Jiak (blood), L. 
sang-uis ; kekia^ bad, G'k kakos. 

Povke (bread), bake — Ger. brot, bread, is allied to hraten, 
roast, bake ; pris, break ; /erre, broad, far ; pirri, bring, bear ; 
bela, brother, 1, d, t; tzati, L. tectum, roof; tent, thine. 

Drod, turn, Ger. drehen ; streggoig, stress, press ; de, earth, 
G'k ge ; stere, earth, L. terra; arrig, reach, Ger. erreichen ; 
tremp, tremble ; pare, first. 

Chiri, carry, ferry ; zgiar, fire ; Jist, finger ; pisk, fish ; liy 
flax, linen; mise, meat; muze (fly), mouche; lioume (river), 
flume; froua (wife), Ger. /raw; lephter (free), left, loose; faz, 
peace, L. gavdium, L. pax. 

Phriout, fruit; phrike, fear, fright; Jithe (all), Ger. ganz — 
sound the / as ^, as it may in all cases in Albanian ; dourim, 
Ger. ge-duld, -dure, 

Riziko, risk ; chapsa, catch ; garaphe, grasp ; gkrig, freeze, 
gk, f ; musteri, mystery ; spirt, spirit ; litoure, lettered ; sos, L. 
iatis ; dreigte, straight, direct. 

Poune, business; worn (law), G'k nomos; phake, face; stat, 
- state, Ger. ge^-stalt ; pesoig (believe), faith ; ta-Uch, luck; zere' 
miri, grim ; berde, verdant ; phound, ground ; stepi (house), L. 
tectum; We (head), L. cranium; sent (holy), saint. 

Bape, hot; kemise, Ger. hemd (shirt); drou (wood), tree; 
ougia, hunger; re, young, new; niocha, know; ropa (cloth), 
Ger. rock ; mount (can), might, mought ; kake, Ger. kopf, head ; 
sorra, crow ; gete, be, live ; doua, love, d, 1 ; megges, morning ; 
nate, night ; m^re, Ger. narr, fool. 

Gkrigta, take, grasp; kale, colt, Fr. cheval; phuti, plant; 
pJdet, read, Ger. lesen, lego ; sktad, shade ; skoume, scum, foam ; 
sioch, see, seek ; bitorea, victory ; mount, sur-mount. 

Kentoig, sing, L. cano ; stereos, strong ; bdes, die ; mpourr, 
proud; zog, Ger. vogel (bird), fowl; lao^ folk, G'k laos, Ger. 
leute) bape, warm ; ouge, water ; phgiale (word), G'k logos. 

Seker, sugar ; be, lay ; bichem, become ; boub, dumb, mute ; 
pise, beast ; pout, foot ; pri, iiorn ; geni^ genus, kind ; giam, am ; 
gio, no, g, n ; glou, you, your; gkia, wild, gk, w; gkrig, cry. 

Fial (jgial), like, gleich ; frik, herd ; dex, take; drite, bright 
(light) ; eleuthero (free), loose ; emere, name ; zi, black, Ger. 


Schwartz, dark, dim, z, d; thele (deep), L. altus ; theke, dagger; 
thu, swine, L. sus, 

I'ken, gone, go; karre, car; kelk, glass; ken (dog), L. cants, 
Ger. hund; kies (laugh), L. ris-um; kipi, heap; koske, L. o«, 
Ger. kno-chen, b-one ; kourm, L. corpus, body ; kotts, who, Ger. 

Lehdoig, laud; mole, L. malum, apfel, Ger. pfel, ppel, mpel, 
mel, mol ; monede, money; mpareig, bear, carry, Ger. tragen; 
nam, fame ; nemer, number ; ntgiek, chase. 

JTes^ra, cistern ; oull, star, L. st-ella ; ourte, prudent; pgid 
(bear), beget ; pelouma, L. columha ; pgiese, piece ; pioul, wood, 
Ger. wald ; poune, thing, done, p, t. 

Ropa, rob; skiat, hat 7 skias, glide, skip; ^2;aZe, halt; tra'p, 
grave, t, g; phemige, family; phle, sleep; phsech, bedeck; 
phseche (thing), Ger. sache ; choda, go, lead. 

This is but a small portion of words of the kind. 

807. Turkish Language. — The Turkish is the last of 
the European languages which we shall notice ; it stands on the 
very threshold of Asia, and we must pass over it to reach Asia. 
Thoroughly Eastern in its spirit and origin, it has yet developed 
itself in the atmosphere of European civilization. Born of Arab 
and Persian ancestors, it has been educated under the roof of 
the Greek and the Slave. 

808. Very little need be said on this language here, for the 
reason that it has scarcely a feature that does not in a stronger, 
or at least in as strong a light, appear either in languages which 
we have already noticed, or, more especially, in the Tartar, Per- 
sian, and Semitic languages, which we shall notice hereafter. 
These few lines must suffice : 

809. Bahormuz ki sema-de sin — father-our who heaven-in 
thou-art (sin); mukaddes ola senin ismin — sanctified be thy 
name ; senin emrin olsun nitek i goj-de ojiejerde-de — thy will be 
so in (i) heaven and earth-in; vUa chelas cjle hizi, fena-da/n — 
but free make us (hizi) evil-from. 

810. We have already said that it is often grouped with the 
Finnish and Magyar, but we must also observe, that while it 
has several leading points in common with them, it clings as 
strongly to the Tartar as they do to the Slavic. 

811. There are many forms or dialects in which Turkish is 
spoken by the people. • Leading branches of the Turks are th^ 
Turkomans, Kirghis, and the Osmanlis, or Ottomans. The latter- 
are the dominant people of the Turkish empire, and it is theii= 
language which is generally intended by the term Turkish. 




812. One of the most interesting languages of Asia, or of the 
world, and to the philologist one of the most valuable, is the 
Persian. It gives evidence to us of the easy transition between 
the idioms of Europe and those of Asia, particularly Semitic. 
Its remarkable coincidence with the English, or German, not 
only in orthography but also in grammatical structure, is hardly 
what history would lead us to expect. We have been told, or 
rather it has been conjectured, that our ancestors were Asiatics, 
but not that they were particularly Persians or Semites. For 
aught we know, they might as well have been Tartars, or the 
people of India. Yet it must not be supposed that Persian is 
the only one of its neighborhood which is especially related to 
ours ; it only stands in the front of that relationship. The Se- 
mitic and Indian first, and the Tartar languages next, manifest 
a strong tendency to identify themselves with the European — 
the Persian has only developed that tendency in a higher 

813. Let it be remembered that Persian, while it agrees so 
nearly with ours, is still, nevertheless, eminently a Tartar and a 
Semitic language. The number of words in Persian confessedly 
Semitic, particularly Arabic, is very large, and an expert ety- 
mologist could easily identify nearly all the words of the two 
classes — not only the words, but the grammar also. Those 
decaying a, st, m, n, b, prefixes of verbs and verbals, are forcible 
illustrations of the connection. And Hindostani, which may be 
called a form of Persian, has also a large supply of Semitic 
words. Persian is also intimately connected with the Indian 
and the Afghan. 

814. The Persian which we treat of now is that of modern 
Persia. We have said that the Persian has the European style 
of orthography, and the grammar too of modern Europe, but, on 
the other side, the arrangement of the words and of the members 
of the sentences, the idiom, the thought, is not European but 
Asiatic. We are at the same time aware that others think differ- 
ently. In fact, the leading difficulty in thoroughly mastering 
the Persian, after knowing its particles, its endings, and its irre- 
gular imperatives (on which some verb forms are based), is the, 
to us, peculiar nature of its compounds, its arrangement, its 
expression, its thought. Persian words are far from being fully 


individualized (being like Sem. and Sans.)* We find many 
words united together which with us are separate ; thus, one- 
part, not'isy my-head, who-is. A limited number of examples, 
to illustrate, among other things, this peculiar thought, we will 
now give : 

815. The article does not exist developed as it is in Europe, 
or even as it is in Semitic ; there is a common ending of nouns, 
t, which, among other uses, performs the part of a suffixed a or 
an ; thus, kuh, a rock, kuM, a certain rock ; padishah, pacha or 
king, padtshahi, a certain king (Gr'k hasileus). As we have 
seen often before, and will often see agaiq^ here the numeral ou 
is often used to supply the place of a, an, and uniting with its 
noun as a prefix ; so an, that (Dan. han, Slav, on), and ain or 
in, this, he, are used in place of the definite article, the ; also 
uniting with the noun, as ini'ruz, this day, the day, to-day, 
im-sal, this-year. Of course, there is nothing unusual in all 

816. Noun endings are here in about the same stage of advance- 
ment as we find them in English ; thus, padar, father, padar- 
an, fathers (an = en of children, oxen) ; murgh, bird, murgh- 
an, birds ; man, I, man-ra, me-to, to me, tvrva, thou-to ; zan, 
woman, izan, of woman (the i coming from preceding word) ; 
zan-ra, to woman (ace. and dat); also ba-zan (6a = to), az zan, 
from woman, az zan-an, from women ; dil-am, my heart (-am 
= my), padar-ash, his father (-a«A = his), kitah-at, thy book 
(-a^aa thy); also, dili man, heart-of me (man), am man, that-of 
me, t. e., the mine; hah, good, hah-ter, better, hah-terin, best; 
ind az inglUtan ga'rm-teT as<— India than (by) England warmer 
is (warmer than England). 

Mah nicku-st — (the) moon splendid-is (all adjectives may 
thus develop he at the end) ; rahi-st rah ashek — (the) way-is 
(et =* is) way (-of) love; kah hich-esh kanarah ni-st — that any- 
its (to it) end not-is ; am kud — that-of self, his own. They 
say mai-ra nushidam — the wine I-drank; but if indefinite, 
then the form is, m^ai nushidam, wine I-drank (so that ace. end- 
ing ra has sometimes the force of the) ; irirzamin -— (at) this- 
time; im^shah, to-night; dust-am, or dust-i man, my-friend, 
friend-of me; asp-i kud-ash — horse-of his-self, i. e., his own 
horse ; hira-dar-i kud-at — brother-of thy-self (a^ = thy) ; da- 
vidan, to run, davanidan, to cause to run. 

817. In the abundant capacity for such compounds as Jtre- 
temple, rose-garden, mountain-country, lion-heart(ed), kub-awar, 
pretty- voice(d), nik-nam, (of) good-name, gul-afshan, flower- 
scattering, sar-afraz, head -exalting, battle-seeking, hard-hearted, 
we know of no European language it so much resembles as the 
German. The Persians are very partial also to compound verbs, 


made by a noun or adjective joined to make, do, have, strike ^ 
come, sit, find, take, like our take-rest, for rest, sit-smiUng, for 
smile, make4nquiry, for inquire, keep-watch, for watch, make- 
happy, for delight. 

818. Asp-ra didi — (the) horse did-you-see (ra sign of ace.) ; 
dar kuab didan — in^ sleep to-see (i. e,, to dream); mard kah 
au-ra didam — (the) man (L. vir) that him I-saw (^that is an- 
other case of doubles), i e., the man I saw ; so again, an mard 
kah au gaft — that man (the man) that he said (that-he = he) : 
parsidaJi shudah bvdam — asked been was-I, t. e., I had been 
asked; ma-pars — (do) not-ask; tamam kardan — complete 
to-make (to complete) ; rujuu namudan — returning to-show (to 
return); dar amadan — in to-come, i. c, come in. 

Prenx prepositions to verbs are common; ha-daria dar — in- 
sea in, 1. 6., in the sea (double, like Lat. ad homvii-em^; dikani 
hagi dasht — a-husbandman a-garden had fthe usual order is 
nom., obj., verb), (adjectives uniformly follow uounsy, padi- 
shahi takt-nisMn — the-king (the) throne-sitting (one), i. e., who 
sits on the throne; silah u (and) dirham dad lashkar-a^h-ra — 
arms and money gave-he (^dad) army-his-to (to his army). 

Atb^a gu/t kih na^kaaham kurd (eat) — to-her (he) said that 
QcUi) not-I-will eat (we would rather say, that he would not eat ; 
kurd is inf. less the ending) ; so we find, commanded that to- 
master robe and reward they-gave (that they should give, we 
would say) ; hay ad kah hizani — it-must that you-beat, i, e,, you 
must beat ; so, I-wish that I-go, for I wish to go. 

Man (I) ighar hi-didan'ash raftam w-ahas — I once to-seeing- 
his (to-see-him) I-went, and-only (once and only once) — w = 
and, pref. ; man kah man dashtam — I that I had-I, L c, I who 
had (thrice I, while we would have it only once). We need 
hardly remind the student again, that there i^ a tendency to 
such repetitions in all tongues — so we say, of whom it was 
spoken of ; 1-had-I, is taken as a new base, where the Fs are 
quite absorbed and cease to be felt; hirun shud — out he- was, 
went out (be = go) ; gahi ahi surk nordidam (seen) — some- 
times (i. c, never) water-of (being) red not-seen (have I) (never 
seen water red) ; baad az du ruz — after from two day (after 
two days); hama sarhai kahka zadah kandidand — all (the) 
heads (sarhai) a-shout striking they-laughed. 

Yaki ba-sanat-i kushti ba-sar amdah bttd'^^ one (a-man) in- 
art-of wrestling to-head (at-the-head) come was (bud), {, e., stood 
first in the art; dar-in — there-in; awardand — they have 
brought (related, L. fero, bring = tell) ; dar-u sih mahi shigaraf 
' — in-it three fish fine (ones), i, e., three fine fishes ; kah Ilut-i 
mpihr az rash-ki aishan bar ta-bah ghairat birian shudi — so- 
that Hut-of sphere (pisces) by (az) envy-of them (aishan) on 


fryiog-pan-of (tahdh) envy burnt migbt-be (was roasted on pan); 
kada-ra shukar laid (must) hi-kanam (hi pref.) kih namat-i 
dhat hi-man (on-me) ita farmudah ast (est, is) — to-God praise 
(it) must (that) I-make (I must praise) who (kih) blessing-of 
health on-me gift (ita) made has (dst) (who has bestowed). 

819. The foregoing will give a fair id^a of the peculiarities 
and difficulties of the Persian. Most of the difficulties are such 
as we find in all Asiatic languages; they did not, evidently, 
recognize the division of sentences in composition, and of words 
and phrases from sentences — at least not to the extent that we 
do. You do not find capitals, and periods, and commas, and 
such guide marks to steady you. The running of words to- 
gether, or rather the non-development of terms or expressions 
into their word-elements, is a uniform Asiatic feature, a feature 
which places them all so far back toward the original or infantile 
character of language. 

820. These compounds, as we are wont to conceive them, are 
the real words of the Oriental ; and as long as we have dictionaries 
that have not these words, but rather their assumed elements, 
so long must the first day's travel of the Oriental student be 
" hard upon the weary way." Be it remembered, that our own 
words are not ultimates — there are no ultimates in wholes. Our 
own words have their parts, parts that we now recognize, and 
more yet that we some time hence shall recognize ; and still we 
find the necessity of defining words aside from the elements. 

821. Of the forms of the Persian we have this to say : 
Parses is a name applied to the Old Persian; it, has been 

extinct for long centuries. There is a modem form of this 
ancient idiom, that of the Parsees, and called by that name. 
The Parsees live in the southern province of Fars; and a larger 
number still dwell in a portion of India. The term Persian, as 
applied to a people, is very comprehensive ; it includes the vari- 
ous tribes or j)eople which constitute the Persian nation. This 
Parsee was for a long time the prevailing language of Persia ; 
but when the Persians were mastered by the Arabs and the 
Tartars, there grew up under their influence, from this Parsee, 
a new language, the modern Persian. This became the national 
language, and it left the Parsee, or ancient Persian, to grow 
along into a mere provincial idiom. Persian is spoken in a large 
part of India ; a form of it is the language of Bukhara. 

822. The Pehlvi, called also Huzwaresh, and the Zend, are 
names of old languages of Persia, closely allied to the Persian, 
and once more or less prevailing. The Pehlvi shows the transi- 
tion of Persian to Semitic. 

823. The Zend is admitted to be one of great age ; it seems 
to have been a church language. It is not now much known, 


though it is attracting the serious atteution of philologists. Its 
identity with the Sanscrit, and, through it, with the Greek and 
Latin, is certainly remarkable. 

824. An interesting and valuable language is the Kurd. It 
is closely allied in form to the Persian, even so much as to appear 
to be a mere dialect of it. It, too, gives us many valuable hints 
on the connection between Semitic and Persian. It is the lan- 
guage of Kurdistan and Luristan, and exists in several different 
dialects. It is neighbor to the Armenian, and is much like it. 
It is without literature. 

825. The Beluohees language is evidently built on the same 
basis as the Persian, but it has varied the Persian orthography 
very materially. There are two leading dialects. 

826. It is here that we would remind the student, that a care- 
ful comparison of the different forms of Persian, must lead us to 
the belief in the identity really existing, in their origin, between 
the Semitic and the Persian families. 

827. Afghan Language. — The language of the Afghans 
is by no means well known, and its place in the family of tongues 
is not accurately defined. Some place it with the Persian, and 
others, again, put it in the Semitic division — and there are, of 
course, reasons for both conclusions. It is related to both, as 
they, too, are related to each other. . It plainly possesses the 
foundation common to both, but there are many points, especially 
in the orthography, where it differs very materially from either. 
It possesses those marks which we should expect to distinguish 
the idiom of a rude and wild people from that of a comparatively 
intelligent and progressive people. We will briefly notice some 
of its leading features. 

828. A prominent mark is the agreement of the transitive 
verb, in the past tense, with the object in gender and number, 
while the intransitive agrees with the nominative in gender. And 
there is reason in this. Their verbs, and, really, verbs in all 
languages, are true participles, and, as such participles, like 
adjectives, they have an agreement; the past tense is, especially, 
everywhere based on the passive or past participle. We have 
here a case precisely like that of French and Italian perfects, 
where the participle agrees with the object. So, 1 struck him 
== Ihave Mm struck, where it can well be seen that struck should 
agree with him. They, the* Afghans, do still more — they put 
an objective or instrumental form where we put a nominative ; 
as, th>e striking of him hy me, ratl\er than 1 struck him, i, c, 
they make of it a case exactly like our passive expression. All 
this iu Afghan has its counterpart elsewhere : by-the-man the- 



woman (was) struck, the man the woman struck, ?'. e., struck the 

829. The cases are clearly on the Persian system ; so are the 
plurals. The adjective precedes the noun. The Persian com- 
parative ending ter is. found here, but attached to, or connected 
with, the noun compared with'; many comparatives are made bj 
doubling the positive. 

830. The pronouns are decidedly Persian, and not Semitic: 
haga, he and him, reminds us of Danish Aaw, L. hac; d-ga^da^ 
dij this, the; kum and kam^ whom; zana, some, any; zah=il) 
ma, me ; tah, ta = thou, thee ; mung or muz, we. 

831. The Afghan has not only developed such endings as we 
find in Latin, and in nearly all other languages, as zah aus-nnj I 
exist, tah avs-i, thou or you exist, but it has some peculiarities 
besides. These endings, with or without the separate pronouns 
also (as liked), may be used with intransitives, and with the 
tenses, not past, of transitive verbs also. 

832. With transitive pasts they use the instrumental form of 
pronoun, as bt/me struck = I struck; or, more particularly, they 
adopt a form of pronouD, either prefixed or inserted, and not 
having an independent existence, which is different from the 
separate pronouns, and from the endings above noticed ; thus, 
mi kah -— I did ; di kah — thou didst ; mu kah — we did. 

833. These pronouns,. or prefixes, when used with verbs not 
transitive, denote the object or the possessive case. They remind 
us of the Semitic tense, where also the person endings are initial, 
and they must be explained in the same way. Their intimate 
connection with those augments which we find so prominent in 
Afghan (as bi, da, u), and which seem to characterize particu- 
larly the Semitic and Persian families, is undoubted. There are 
also pronouns, or prefixes, in Afghan used solely with the verb 
to denote the object. 

834. We find the infinitive used for past tense, and the past 
for the perfect and pluperfect tense ; indeed, it is very clear 
that all their tenses are but variations of participles and infin- 
itives. Passives are formed as in English or Persian, compound, 
and compound tenses are found made like theirs. 

835. The infinitive ending and those of the participle are 
Persian ; so, evidently, are many of the particles. Taken as 
a whole, we might call the Afghan a ^remote form of the 




836. An important, though by no means well-known, family 
of languages, related to the Persian, is the Caucasian group. It 
includes the Georgian and Armenian, both more or less cultivated, 
and these we will treat of separately in their turn ; but there are, 
boo, belonging to this group, many little dialects, well defined as 
they are, but unwritten. The four chief divisions are Lesghian, 
Misjeghian, Ossete or Iron, and Circassian ; and they, too, have 
their various forms or subdivisions. 

837. That they are all of them Persian in their character, 
disguised by a strange orthography, we hold to be unquestion- 
able. They bear a close relationship with the Finnish, Samoidish, 
and East Slavic ; but it is only as they also are related to the 

838. Compared with oiirs, their order of Words is much in- 
verted ; though, if we place them along-side the Persian and 
the languages of Eastern Europe, we shall find almost nothing 
that is remarkable. Their sentences are short, disconnected, 
and emphatic ; in a word, they possess the character of all 
uncultivated idioms. 

839. We will introduce a few examples of their expression, 
and we will note some points that are peculiar : 

In Lesghian : Emen nedscher sovalda-ish hugewk — father 
our heaven-in (thou) art; hugahi chatir dur km sov-alda hagadin 
ratUalda — be will thy (dur) so heaven*in like-as earth-in; dur 
zar — thy name. 

To- God death not (is), i. c, God dies not; toyman life much 
not'lasti'ng (is), t. e., man lives not long; ^et she sick (is); 
daughter hy sits (sits by), lOeeps (and weeps) ; this man blind 
(is), his wife deaf is; from^us (the) speaking not-hearing is (she), 
i, e., (she) hears not the speaking by us ; little eats, little drinks, 
i. e.y eats and drinks little ; nose (of the) face middle (is), (in 
the middle of face) ; tongue-and, teeth-and (and is suffix) ; (on) 
head hair grow; hones (are) hard stone like; moon great is 
star by J sun by (it is) small (large by a star, larger than a star); 
(the) hair long is, thin is^, i. e., long and thin ; Jire burn, we see 
smoke, flame (and) coal. It may be well to mention that words 
in parenthesis are not in the text. 

840. As an instance of the peculiar form our words take in 
this group, we note the numeral one, which is zo, zis, and hos, 
z equal to the d of the Slavic one ; other dialects have mi, G'k 


mia, and others still have ert and art, our erst and first; for two, 
we find ki-go, go being suffix, and Jci = ti ; in Circassian, we find 
tu = two ; day has the forms dge, ga, jogh, djaka, dent, toha, 
c^it;;— all variations of one form equal to dai/, Yv.jour; we find 
also for day the form ko, which equals ga = dge = da. It would 
be interesting, had we the space to spare, to go through many 
other comparisons of this kind. 

841. We come next to the Ossete, or Iron, the idiom of a 
people neighbors to the Circassians and the Georgians. It is 
without literature, and yet it is a language of great interest to 
the philologist, from the form in which it presents to us the 
Persian, and remotely the European in general. The orthog- 
raphy presents a very unexpected agreement with that of the 
Persian and the Eastern European, and even with the German. 

842. Mai stalutei istir-daru, choreitei kzill-daru — moon of- 
star (than star) great-er (is), of-sun smaller (it is), i, e., but 
smaller than the sun; as = I, c?i = thou, wi = he {ho, Per. aw), 
mach = we (Per. ma, Slav, my), smach = you (Per. shuma, Gr'k 
humeis), udo7i = thej (Slav, yeden, one, Sw. eder, Ger. rferand 
jeder) ; as dan, I am, c?e = art, isz = is ; mach stem — we are; 
s#M< = are-ye, ts^i = are-they. This d of dan (am) brings us 
back to the Turk, idum, Pers. hudam, A better representative 
is found in the Ossete past, uden, ude, udi ; plur. udsim^n, udsine, 
udseni ; wod (would) = be, was. 

843. Many verbs are formed here, as we find in so many lan- 
guages, by using make (kanin, Ger. thun, t = k, L. paro. Per. 
kardan), and noun or adjective as a base ; as, A;ar-A;amn — cry- 
make (to cry); achur-kanin — learn-make (to-learn). 

844. Augments before verbs here play a prominent part — 
they are fe, ni, ha (forms of Pers. hi, and Sem. m). We find 
the perf. part, ending nag and ag ; as, from kus or qtis, hear, we 
have qus-ag, which we find varied to qus-gond (thisa^ and. na^ 
are clearly related to our ing, Turk, mek. The imperative has 
prefix hai, hi, as hai-qus — infin. qus-en. So in the Tushi, an- 
other Caucasian tongue, the present part, ends in -in, as dagvrin, 
eating, from dago, eat ; and the perf. part, ends in -no, as xac-no, 
heard, from xace, hear. .The prest. indefinite of Ossete scarcely 
differs from the infinitive. 

The prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions, are easily recog- 
nizable as either Persian or European. 

845. A few selections will further illustrate its peculiarities : 
Ui'thychei, ama man umin chnzaw — this-for (for this), that 

I trust God; zei-thychei, Ger. was-fur, what-for; ama kanin 
chors — and do good ; za ui sidag dsinad sahi — what his (ui) 
holy law command; as kud fand-kanin chuzawei — I as judg — 
ment-make of»God (as I judge of) ; jul uni,Jul hud, jid soni 


all (everything) sees, all hears, all knows ; kud (how) ui iss ud 
(ghost) — as he is spirit. 

Fid mack kazi de wol-arwi — father our who art (dc) in- 
heaven ; stdag wond — holy be (was, being;) ; ali andar chuson 
all other things (Fr. chose); zitkin dar da*fidi ama da-madi — 
. honor give (L. do) thy-father and thy-mother ; ma amar (mur- 
der) — not-kill ; ma-zisah — not-say ; e kawi — his-d welling (c, 
his) ; dsul mach honthy (daily) rati machen ahon — bread our 
daily give us to-day {ahorC), 

846. It is to be hoped that in time this remarkable idiom will 
come to receive more study than it has so far. 

847, To the Circassian the same general remarks will apply 
that were made on the rest of the family. A few examples must 
suffice for this : 

Szie shad (Per. shud) — I was ) arr shad — he was ; masar 
whagoh me nachjin-sh — moon star by (me) greater-is (sh = is) 
— moon greater than star (nach = more,ym = great). The sh 
is an is developing itself at the end of adjectives, as we saw in 
Persian — it is not really t«, but a mark for it, and at the same 
time a part of jifi; hache, dogs; ha-Jcode, much dogs (kod^ 
much); sheh-kod, much horses (a beautiful illustration, this, of 
the growth of adjectives from nouns, similar to diminutive end- 
ings); sse unneh me ssoko — I house to go (to house) ; s-ah, my 
father ; w-ab, thy father ; r-ab, their father. 

Bdse-ma una (eye) iash, thakhuma eakom (not) — fish-to (to 
fish) eye is, ear not (is) ; my zugur naf-sh — this man blind-is. 
The pronoun object of a verb is incorporated with it. We notice 
in this language, as everywhere, words assuming different forms 
according to their different connections. 

. 848? Georgian.— The Georgian is another language belong- 
ing with the group under consideration ; it has received some 
attention at the hands of philologists, but it has not been studied 
with any great amount of perseverance. It is only valuable in 
respect to its linguistic illustrations. 

849. We will dwell but briefly on this tongue : Me am tsigns 
gtser — I this letter you-write (g is pref. =obj. you) ; ak dids 
kalaks Pharizs moivedith — here (to-this) great city Paris (I 
have) come; mowedin Supeva scheni — come kingdom thy;jpwri 
tshweni — bread our; danu — and not; szeda — earth-on ; tea^a 
■ — heaven-in. 

860. Postpositive particles, or prepositions, after the noun 
are here quite prominent. The comparative, marked by its 
ending, is followed by the genitive. The pronouns are easily 
referable to the Persian-German class ; their genitives are used 
afl pofisessives. The demonstrative letters are g=^d,m=n, and 


8 = t, The verb has considerable development in persoD end- 
ings ; and prefixes, or augments, are prominent. The endings 
of the participle are well developed. A leading difficulty, 
in acquiring a knowledge of this language, is its exceedingly 
strange alphabet. It is only after careful search that it can be 
found to be connected, though remotely, with the European 

851. The Armenian is the last of the class before us ; and 
it is by far the most cultivated and the best known. There is 
much written in this tongue — going back even to the fourth 
century. The ancient Armenian is extinct. The alphabet is 
odd to us, but very handsome ; and it is easily traceable to the 
Greek and Semitic alphabets. It has, like the Georgian, cap- 
itals as well as small letters. We notice, briefly, some of the 
features cf Armenian : 

852. In Armenian, and also in all the class, gender as a dis- 
tinctive mark is scarcely developed. The k mark of the plural 
is so far Hungarian and Tartar. The objective here, as we so 
often see elsewhere, does not differ in form from the nominative ; 
it has a prefix z, our to, the, and Heb. eth. The ra ending of 
some genitives reminds us of the ra of Persian cases ; the dat. 
ending is m, the am, em, of L. accusative — the abl. ends in e. 
.There is, besides, a dative prefix or augment, i, z. Many case 
changes are manifested by what are called inserted letters, but 
what is really a development of the letters in the word, as we 
term it, rather than at the end of the word as usual. 

853. The pronouns, and the particles generally, are clearly 
recognizable. Pronouns are often found as suffixes to the noun, 
as in Persian. The verb is well developed, having its augments, 
endings, and participles. We find the active and the passive 
participles undistinguished. There are full sets of compound 
tenses, by the aid of be and become. The infin. ending is el^ al, 
and the part, endings are a variation of it. The verb be is el, 
as in Amharic ; it reminds us, too, of the Finnish and Slavic 
classes } become is linil, and this also reminds us of Hungarian 
and Finnish. The present participle ends in og, our mg, while 
the past or passive ends in cai= infin. el. 

854. A few selections from the language we now give : Sair 
mer or zeryins ies — father our who in- heaven art (is) ) kam Uho 
(will thy) — thy will; harayr-n otevan norm woch evs hencher % 
tsayn yerkotz nora — (the) cavern (-n = the, her) the-abode of- 
her (jwrin) not more (no more) resounded with (i) sound of- 
voice hers ; kosel, to speak ; henchel, to resound. 

Ev linizi int orti — and may-come (be born) to-me (a) son-* 
(L. puer) ; ergou ortil ant — two sons are ; es em ortin ho — " 


am son thy (thy son) ; ev deseal ezna — and seeing him ; ase z»na 
Zrouan — said to-him Z. (did) ; orowk ez-hasdn arner — with- 
which sacrifice he-made } z- Ormitz^ to-Ormiz ; orti nora — boy 
his ; wasn oroh — cause (of) which ; wasn-ko — cause-thy ; 
wam-im — my cause; z-or arnem — which I-make (z pref.); 
has-d arar — sacrifice (he) made, i. e., sacrificed. 

Haindam esgsan Ormizt ev Arhmnen arn-el ararads — then 
began 0. and A. to-make creatures; im orti-n e — my son is 
(n= the) ; tou es — thou art (L. tu es) ; des-eal ez-na (z-na) — 
seen him ; ev amenain me zor Ormiztn arner pari er ev ougig 
— and all that what 0. made (am^er) good was (are, were) and 

Asetj I said ; asem, I say ; asen, they say -, kid»az, knew ; 
twr, his, her; nma, him, to him; z-iia, him, (hat; mek, we; 
mer, of-us (our), mez, to-us, z-mez, us; imkj our; touk, ye, tser, 
of-you, your ; sir, love (dear, cher-ish) ; presfent indie, sir^em, 
isir-es, sir-e ; plur. sir-emk, sir-ek\ sir'en ; imp. ind. sir-er, sir^eir, 
sir-er ; sir-eak, sir-eik, sir-ein; aorist sir-ezi, sir-ezir, sir-eag ; 
sir-ezak, sir-ezik, sir-ezin; infin. sir-el, part, sir-og. The end- 
ings of the pres. indie, are almost identical with am, art, is, etc. 
(em, es, e ; emk, ek, eii) ; infin. to he is el, part. eal. 

And we may note here, that the uniform agreement every- 
where of verb and participle endings with the forms of be, is not 
accidental, but it proves the fact that the verb he is only a devel- 
opment of those endings thrown off". 

855. Of the verb give we may noticfe these forms : dam, I 
give (L. dam\ derri), damk, we give, dan, they give ; dal, infin. ; 
dou-ael, part, aorist ; dou-og, pres. part. ; future part, daloz ; 
impera. dour; imperf. dahi ; dou^eal linim — given am (am 
given, become given) ; pazeal linim — openened (I) become 
(am openened) ; kid-em, I know, L. vid-eo ; gou-el, to go (tsh 
= g); lo-el, to hear (G'k k-luo), listen; say, impera , is asa, 
aorist part, asa-zeal, infin. as-el — other participles, as-og, aseloz, 
and astt'Zog ; e-dov (e augment), have given, L. dedi. . 

856. Aside from the alphabet, the language is easy to learn, 
and when learned it will prove one of much interest, importance, 
and beauty. The idiom is by no means hard or unnatural. For 
an Asiatic language, there is much that is European. There 
are very many words which are clearly identical with words in 
Europe ; the orthography of these is very interesting ; we have 
space here only to instance such words, in addition to those 
already named incidentally, as these: tun (house), L. dom-us; 
oskr (bone), L. os; air (man), L. vir ; lusin (moon), L. luna ; 
am (year), L. annus, time; mis (flesh), meat; (fs^arr, tree ; 
djur, water; glouk (head), Slav, glava; amam, summer;- koz 
(swine), L. sus; hur, fire ; div, day; agn^ eye, Ger. aage; liezu 


tongue, L. lingua; odn, foot, G'k pod-os,; adanm, tooth, G'k 

857. It is greatly to be regretted that this language has not 
been better studied, so well does it illustrate our own languages. 
The facilities for studying it are very limited, and the number 
of thorough Armenian scholars is very small. 



858. That the Mongolian, Manchu, Tartar, and Turkish, 
constitute one great family of languages allied to each other by 
various and unmistakable marks, and that they belong also with 
the Semitic and the Persian, are facts beyond all doubt; and 
yet these positions have each been often questioned. As a 
whole, we may denominate them the Tartar class. Those people 
are by no means all Tartars ; but as they are all closely related 
to the Tartars, and as the Tartars, if not the oldest, were at least 
the most prominent and most numerous branch of the family, 
the name seems fully justified. But let it be borne in mind, 
also, that Tartar as a name of a people or a tongue, is very 
indefinite. They, the Tartars, have at times conquered others, 
and have been lost with the vanquished ; they have themselves 
in turn been* overrun, and the limits that defined them have 
vanished in the darkness of the past. The Mongolians have 
absorbed a large share of them — they are themselves Tartars ; 
but Mongolian, as a country name, has to a great extent taken 
the place of Tartar. The name Tartar is now confined to nar- 
row limits, and is applied to that portion of the class most nearly 
connecte«l with the Turkish. The term Ouighour is also applied 
to it, or to a form of it. 

859. We may as well remark here, that the term Turanian 
is often applied to this class, taken in connection with Finnish 
and Samoidish ; the term Arian, or Indo-European, is opposed 
to Turanian ; the Semitic is accounted a third class, distinct 
from both these — as to which we will see hereafter. What is 
not Semitic or Turanian (Tartar) in Europe and Asia, speaking 
generally, that is, all that has the European character, is Arian. 
The Chinese and Malay class have so far been compelled to take 
a place outside. 

860. Tungusic and Manchu are names which may cover nearly 
the same limits, the one as the other ; and yet Tungusic is used 


in a narrower sense to apply to a subdivision of Tungusic, paral- 
lel to the Manchu, and indicating a people consisting of tribes 
in tbe north of Asia, principally in Siberia. 

861. Tartar : The Tartar (-Turkish) possesses those features 
which so strongly mark the whole class. And, first, we notice 
the strongly developed case endings, so far advanced as in the end 
to separate* from the stem and become postpositions. The gen. 
mark is ung^ ing; as, hack-ung — of-head (Slav, -ego^ -ych^ Hung. 
-nelc) ; de and den are abl. marks, as hach-de^ in-head (L. de^ Per. 
•ra^ and der) — besides these marks, separate postpositions are 
used. The suffix possessive pron9uns appear here as we saw 
them in Finnish and Hung. The adjective is always before the 
noun, with which it unites so strongly that the latter only re- 
ceives the case and number endings. The plural ending is lev. 
The absence of the article is a mark of the whole class, save that 
hir^ one, is used for a, and that for the, A few illustrations, in 
the way of selections, may now be given : 

862. Chedjy nam karye — Chedjy (by) name (a) village (a 
village called); guieuz-um lean doha — eye-my blood should- 
fill-with (if niy eye should be filled with) ; hu kiar-ing ferdjami 
— that anair-of (of that affair) end-its (the end of that affair); 
m huch-i — water chief-its,, i. c, head- water, the sea; heyler-hey^ 
of beys-the-bey ; mutemed adem-isi guiel-ub — faithful men-his 
arriving (his faithful men arriving) ; Mmi-miz — who-your, i. «., 
who of you, some one of you ; her hirimiz — every one-us (one 
of us); kande baghtche — where (is) garden. We find com- 
pounds as in the Persian style. 

Beuiles-ini guieurme-mich idi — like-of-lym (his- like) seen- 
not had-he (was) (had not seen ; me inserted = not) ; henim bir 
haghtch-em var dyr — to-me a [bir = one) garden-my is there 
(I have a garden of mine); guienrduk-leri — their-having-seen 
(/ert -> their), t. c, what they had seen; guield-iguim — my- 
having-come, V. c, what I had come to; bun-ing birle — fhatof 
for (biBcause of that) ; burUer guibi — those as (as those) ; benim 
dfins'im — of-me race-my (my race of mine); senung-ki — of- 
thine that, i, c, tfilit of thine, thine (A;i=that), like Ger. deinige; 
yok-dur — not-is, i, c, there is not. 

763. Besides the pronouns and particles of Tart.-Turkish, so 

easily reduced to European relationship, there are many other 

eading words, verbs and the like, which are by no-means strange, 

r we bear in mind the laws of letter changes. In the case of 

Brbs, we drop the mek of the infin. ; as, for ttmek, we take it 

the representative : 

Bos J press, bind ; var, go, walk, L. erro ; vir, give, L. fero, 

ing; a/, take, G'k el; geur, see, peer, view; eid, die, kill; 


hyl^ Sans, har^ I, r; gel^ go, walk; di^ L. di-co^ say; it^ do, 
Ger. thun ; ara^ search ; ak, blank, white ; ohu^ read, L. lego ; 
sev, love; ko, put, L. po' ; kara, black, dark; at (horse), G'k 

864. Mongolian : This has all the features characterizing 
the Tartar languages ; but, more than this, it can with a slight 
eflPort be placed along-side the Persian and European. The pro- 
nouns, the participles, the structure of the moods and tenses, 
the form of the verbals, all these are quickly made familiar to 
us by their resemblance to languages known to us, not only 
Asiatic but European also. 

865. The leading sections of the Mongolians are the East and 
West Mongolian, the latter being again named Kalmuk. They 
are closely related dialectic forms. 

866. Manchu. — This refers particularly to the language of 
the people of Manchuria. It is in all respects a Tartar language, 
but Tartar which has been pressed by the Chinese. It serves 
well to mark the transition of Chinese to Tartar. 

867. As a language of the class, we find little in the grammar 
to remark as peculiar. The plurals (for living beings only) end 
in sa, ta, (the k of other forms) ; i is the gen. sign, de is dative, be 
is ace, tchi is abl. We find an ending ngga, our tng of verbals, 
which is seen in all Tartar ; also, miningge, mine, and siningge^ 
thine (Ger. deinige). As we find in the whole class, so here we 
find no proper relative. We find, between the root of the verb 
and the infinitive ending, 5w as a pass, mark ; ako^ Turk, me, is 
the negative mark, joined to the verb (k m). Many of the 
particles are easily connected with the Greek. 

868. We will give a few examples of its peculiarities : Ere 
gisun-he niyalma tome kitchetchi atchamhi — this word (he is 
ace. sign) man all to-inquire ought (all ought to inquire, con- 
sider).* The genitive, like the adjective, is always before the 
noun : emke emkei — one to-one, one after another; emou niyixlma, 
i-ni dchoue niyaman imhe handchifi — one man, his two parents 
him bearing (whose two parents have borne him). 

Ouhahe dchafafi (jisouretchi — this assuming (if we) speak 
(oU'ha is a double this, he is ace. sign,^ pros, part., tchi is con- 
ditional mark — verbs have not developed personal endings, and 
the persons are often neither indicated nor expressed) ; touha-<le 
(dative mark) hitcM — that-in (there) (he may) be. i. c, he may 
be there (6i = be); toumen dckaka — all thing; mimhei/e — my 
body, my self; terehe we same moutemhi — that (-thing, ace.) 
who (we) to-know might (who might know) ; men^de emou sain 
sargan dchoui hi — us-to a (one) good girl daughter be (is) (we 


have a beautiful daughter) ; geneme, to go, gone ; geno, go ; 
gen-ere — will go (Fr. irai) ; sa-mhi — I, thou, or he know (Fr. 
sais) ; sav'ko — know-not (Ajo'= not). 

Kake keke — husband (and) wife {and is omitted, as it is uni- 
formly — conjunctions are scarcely yet developed here); banin 
keseboun sere dchoue kergen — nature (and) fate (so) called two 
words (two words, names, nature and fate) ) dergi edcheid band- 
chihoukangge (of or by) supreme lord being-been-born (bandchi* 
bouba, has created, or borne) ; moukchan dcheingge-i warangge 
— (with) staff (or) sword slaying; emou ikan-be bakatchi — one 
(a) ox (if you) receive (receive one ox, i. e., if you receive). 

Si aika sain-be yaboutchi — thou if good (you do) do ; tat- 
chire-de (teach) amourangge — to-learn loving (i. 6., loving to 
learn) ; bov touketchibe — house fall, ?*. e., although the house 
fall, G-er. wohnen^ a-bode ; bandchiboure wemboure sekiyen tede 
hi — (of) bearing (and) dying (the) fountain (in) him {tede) is 
(be), 1. e., their fountain is in that; blya chun-i — moon sun- 
with; goa koungtse-i barou kliend-ouke — one Confucius before 
said (one said to C.) 

869. A few parallel lines will give some idea of the compar- 
ative form of Tartar, Mongolian, and Manchu : 

Tartar : Atha wisum chy kok-ta sen-^ father our who heaven- 
in art ; wer wimm guiidaluch otmak — give (bring) to-us daily 
bread ; wou-gun — this-day ; garta wisni geman-dan — free us 

870. Rumanian: Bezom attU'inasz — to-us father-our; kem- 
Ico — who-art; hik-te — heave n-in ; s«e-/e«ow s2?e?i-ac?-o?i — holy- 
be Qez) thy-name-thine. 

Kalmuk, or West Mongol : Atshiga mani octorgi-du baiktshi 
— father our heaven-in being (who art) ; taninaratani — thy 
name-thine ; mani odor — our day; tani gar-tu amai — thy 
hand-in am (is) (in thy hand it is). 

871. Tungusic : Aminmun mungi avagu negdavgidadu — 
father-our (of) us (thou) art heaven-in; gerbish dngi — name 
thine (word) ; on singi bisin — for thine is (be-st, Ger. bist)', on 
^eg-dordu do endra-du — as heaven-in so earth-in. 

872. And, finally, Manchu: Abka-de the//e megni ama — hea- 
■yen-in (there) dwell our father; sini kebu enturinge okini — thy 
name (word) holy be (Arab, kan = be) ; na-de — earth-in. 

873. The Mongolian and Manchu have both an alphabet 
peculiar to them, though the two have a clear reference to each 
other, and are supposed to have been built on the same basis. 
They are written in lines downward, proceeding from left to 
right. These alphabets are syllabic, and are evidently related 
to the Chinese; and they have the character, too, of the 


874. The leading point which we notice in these languages, 
and in those of Asia generally, is that words here, where so 
many are connected together, are not yet individualized as they 
are in Europe : they are not yet old enough to be detached 
from the parent stem — as is particularly the case, also, in 
Sanscrit and Semitic. 


875. Our knowledge of the Chinese language is commensurate 
with our knowledge of the Celestial people. There is more than 
one point of obscurity in both. Still, the study of the Chinese 
character and Chinese idiom has many able devotees, and we 
are flattered with the assurance that we are daily becoming more 
enlightened in respect to this portion of the history of the 
" Central-Flowery-Kingdom." 

876. It is not many years since we were taught that the 
Chinese were a people without another with which to compare 
theip, and that their language was without a parallel or connec- 
tion iuvthe whole wide world. But time and labor have made 
us wiser. We now know for a certainty that the roots of both 
the language and the nation extend far back into the great 
Tartar class, in the north and went, and into the Malay and 
Indian^ in southern Asia — thus proving that here, at least, we 
do not find an exception to the great truth, that nothing is 
found in this world without its kind, its like, its homologue. 

877. All things considered, the Chinese is to be ranked 
among the most infantile and uncultivated idioms so far known 
to us. Speaking generally, we may say the language has all 
the characteristics of a wild people, and that it lacks those which 
mark the idioms of enlightened men. There is almost a total 
absence of those derived forms of adverbs, adjectives, verbs, 
case, number, and gender forms, besides those of tense, mood, 
and participle — an absence of everything that is properly in- 
flexion and derivation. The parts of speech and their subdi- 
visions are not distinguished by appropriate forms, but, rather, by 
their connection, and by the relative place they occupy. There 
is much in all this, and more that might be mentioned, that is 
Polynesian, that is even African. We have, here, says one 
author, only to do with naked stems or roots. 

878. The genitive is a pure adjective, and as such it is placed 


before the noun. It is placed thus without any variation from 
the noun form, as we do in our irow-horse, horse of iron; or, 
the genitive is followed by a sort of suffix prepostion, ti or cAi, 
i, €., of, or of the ; as, tca-<i, I-of, of me, or my ; ta-ti^ he-of, or 
his. Other cases are marked by prepostions placed before or 
after. The plural may be expressed by the singular, marked by 
some word equal to much, all ; also by suffix mun (= other). It 
is expressed also by the well-known mode of repetition. 

879. For all persons, all tenses and moods, all participles, it 
may be said that the same unchanged and bare form of the verb 
is used, i, e., the Chinese mind is scarcely conscious of these dis- 
tinctions. They know only live and dead, or full and empty 
words — meaning by the former verbs and nouns, and by the 
latter, particles ; beyond that, they are uncertain, unconcerned. 
The persons they distinguish by the context, or they use pro- 
m)uns before the verbs ; as, wo yu kin — I have gold ; ni yu 
kin-sha — thou have gold-dust. The tenses are either not dis- 
tinguishable, or auxiliary particles are used as in English. 

880. There is, in these respects, a great difference between 
the ancient and modern Chinese : in the former, there is an 
absence of these particles and auxiliaries — the sentence being 
here one unresolvable whole (while the other form shows the 
result of development). The modern is again divided into the 
Pekin and the Nankin dialects, having considerable differences; 
and, besides this, the written form varies greatly from the spoken 

881. The words of Chinese are chiefly of the simplest kind, 
such as we find m Polynesian and African — but they are not 
all monosyllabic. Not only is there an absence of derivative 
forms, but we scarcely find what we may call true compounding 
— unless we may consider every noun with adjective, or indeed 
the sentence itself, as a commingled mass or compound. Others, 
looking at it from another stand-point, decide that there are 
many compounds in Chinese. They, to say the least, are com- 
pounds of a character very different from what we consider com- 
pounds in our languages. 

882. From the absence of derivative forms, we find many 
instances where the same word, if we look to the form alone, is 
applied to several different objects — or, as we express it, one 
word has several different meanings. Generally, we either use 
different words, or words which have varied their form to corre- 
spond with the new application ) as, price^ prize, promise ; also 
me, rose, raise, raised, raiser, raising, rising. But the Chinese 
lias no capacity for such variation. In spoken language, they 
distinguish by nice variations of tone or accent, precisely as we 
do, to a limited extent, in prem-ise and pre-mise, read (present) 


and read (past), man and meii. All changes of vowels, and, 
more remotely, all changes of the word, are the workings of this 
variation of tone, found so prominently in Chinese. The Chinese 
carry the principle much farther, and they have many shades of 
tone not perceptible to us — these changes of sound being in- 
cipient to a change of form, and in a measure representing it. 

883. A very fruitful source of new words, or terms, in Chinese, 
is found in the associating of two words of similar meaning — 
an application of the universal principle of doubling or repeating 
words to form new elements. Their words having each a great 
variety of different applications, their meaning must be fixed in 
some way. They take two words having each one meaning like 
one of those of the other, and thus use one to determine the 
other. Our compound stage-coach will serve to illustrate this 
system in Chinese. The word stage applies to a great many 
different things, besides to a certain kind of coach, and so does 
coach apply to many other kinds of car besides that used in 
staging ; but put them together, and we know with certainty the 
object intended. 

884. In this and like cases, both stage and coach denote the 
very object pointed out by stage-coach^ but also so many other 
things as to be indeterminate. We see here, again, that the part 
really includes the meaning of the whole, that it is equal to the 
whole. This affords an instructive lesson on the origin of new 

885. Chinese Writing. — There are no letters in Chinese, s.uch 
as we find in European tongues. Their words are represented by 
characters which are known only as one sign, i. e., the parts have 
n« separate existence, more than the parts of the figure 4. But, 
more generally, the representatives of ordinary words are made 
up of two individuals, having each a separate value, somewhat 
as in our fractions 1-8, 2-5 — or even of three parts, as in our 
complex fractions 2-3-5. 

886. What may be considered the base of this Chinese word- 
sign, is the so-called radical, of which there are about 214 in the 
language. These radicals, or keys, are themselves words, refer- 
ring to elementary ideas. 

887. The other part of the word-sign is called the phonetic 
part ; it, too, ig a separate word, as the 3 of 1-3 is a separate 
number. The phonetic alone gives the name to the whole char- 
acter, as the fraction is called 4ths, 5ths, from its denominator 
alone. That is, as we understand it, generally the Chinese 
words or names are all adjectives, as indeed the case is every- 
where, and the radical is the base noun which becomes obscured 
or lost in pronunciation, as we say the good^ for good men^ the 
senior^ for senior one^ a level, for level ground. This, we think, 


is the precise principle in Chinese. So the words sea, river, 
lake, in Chinese, have for their key or base the element water, 
i. e., they are certain kinds of water ; the kind alone is expressed 
(the adjective), and water as a sound (but not as a sign) is lost. 
So the sign composed of the parts shut, water, and ciTig, blue, is 
called cing, and it means clear or pure. 

888. Some of these sound-giving signs have lost their mean- 
ing, and- are mere characters, while others are proper words. 
Chinese word-signs have at least one radical, and some have 
more ; they are hence all compounds, as Egypt-land^ for Egypt 
— in which land is not sounded. It is a very extensive appli- 
cation of that principle of determinatives, or radicals, which we 
notice in the Tartar, Malay, and other Asiatic languages; just 
as if we said, gold metal for gold, America-land for America, 
Persian-man for Persian, male-man for male, city-place for city, 
Jcing-nder for king, speech-make for speak, walk-go for walk. 

889. The Chinese word-characters have parts, as our own 
words have, but not so many recognized as we have. The Tar- 
tar and Sanscrit write their letters after the same principle as 
"we find in Chinese. There is no doubt but that the origin of 
these Chinese characters will be found in hieroglyphics. A few 
examples will best illustrate some of the peculiarities of the 
language : 

890. Ngo fu — I father, my father; s-in sin — man heart, 
heart of man; sin sin — man man, each man. The pronouns 
are, wo, I ; ni, thou ; to, he ; wo-mtm, we (mwn sign of plural) ; 
tarnu7iy they ; wo yu, I have ; wo sien-shi-yu — I had ; ta sien- 
shi-yu — he had; wotsiu yu — I will have (the words before 
yu being used as signs of tense — but even these auxiliaries are 
not used in the written language) ; wo mu yu — I not have; wo* 
ti torshan — I-of coat, my coat. 

iVa, which; shui, who; tung-si, thing; na-ko, the, that; che-ko, 
this ; che-ko ma, this horse ; ji ji, day day, every day ; kau-ti, 
high; twan-ti, short (ti gen. or adj. sign); ki to, how much; 
chi, only ; kin nien — this year ; kin ye — this night, to-night ; 
wo shi — I am; ta shi, he is; yu, there is, has; shi-ti, right (ti, 
the, of) ; lai, come, ku, go ; ta lai — he come ; wo»mun lai — 
we come; wo lai-liau — I came; ku-liau, went; ta tsiang lai — 
ho will come; tso, do; tso-yuen-liau — done. 

891. The following translations will exhibit some other fea- 
tnrea of this idiom : 

(The) ^olk (is) quiet (adjective used as verb, is being sup- 
pressed) ; fu hai, seu san — (his) luck (is a) sea, (his) life 
(-length) m,ountain, i. e., his-fortune (is) great-as-sea, his-life- 
length (length of life) like that of a mountain. All those qual- 
ifying words are not expressed in Chinese, or they lie latent'in 


the words luck, sea, mountain : they regard the points only of a 

Heaven (and) earth (are) hliLe (and) pah (remember that all 
words in parenthesis are not in the original text) ; (in) that land 
much mountain (is); (to) men all deep eye (and) high nose, i, e., 
they all have deep eyes ; body (and) face (were) broad. (The 
tense is known by context, and broad is a real verb in its office); 
mun prince {sin kiun') — a man (who is) a prince ; cold come 
heat go — (when the) cold comes (then the) heat departs. 

/ seu — has taken (several verbs are used, as with us, with 
other verbs to detiote past or complete action, as i, yu, he). The 
noun before another noun is uniformly the adjective, and the 
noun before the verb is the subject; je ming — night sing, i. c, 
in-the-night he-sings ; not can (he) far fly ; (the) prince why 
(he) grieve f (in) name-report under Kuang very far (was he), 
I. e., in reputation (was he) far under Kuang; thou come already 
long, i, e., hast long been here. 
V Place-place, every place ; he saw water suddenly came, i, c, 
saw it come ; Ae was a man he possessed, t. e., who possessed ; mid^ 
dlc'land hear it (but) not believe it^ i. e., China heard but did 
not believe (all thofee conjunctions and particles so used with us, 
are left out in Chinese); thou where see him, i. e., thou whom 
you see; I where have money, i. e., money which I have. 

892. Adjectives, as great, good^ can be used not only for is- 
great, was-good, but also for transitive verbs, as make-great, 
consider-great ; as, to = gr«at, chi=it, <a-cAi ^ increase-it, t. e., 
make-great it. Adjectives not before the noun are, as with us, 
adverb, participle, or verb ; as, we say great in all, being great 
in all ; formerly say Chin-tu, i. e., formerly they said Chin-tu ; 
India-of man, i. e., Indian man, Indians; different country dif- 
ferent use, i. e., (for) for different countries (are) different usages; 
from-far to-cite, i. e., to cite from far; (to) express (what) they 
it beautiful, i. e., what they think it beautiful (here, met, beauti- 
ful, is used causatively or transitively = to-think-beautiful). 

Man it love — what men love ; (if) king say how for good 1 
(of my) empire (must I act) (then) great man say how for good 
I family — i. e., if the king says how (must I act) for my coun- 
try's good (then too will the) great man say how for (that of our) 

893. We conclude the Chinese with the remark, that there 
is nothing there that is not found, at least in the germ, in other 
languages. The time will yet come when it will not be thought 
amiss to compare European words with those of Chinese. 




894. The Semitic languages constitute a large and distinctly 
marked class. From the peculiar phases in which they present 
language, they are to the philologist of the utmost interest and 
importance. They are very properly located on the confines of 
Asia ; their character and history affords us the transition from 
nrhat is European to what is Asiatic. It affords us another illus- 
tration of the truth that languages uniformly belong where they 
are geographically located. 

895. The Hebrew, Syriac, and Arabic, constitute the main 
body or branch — they are what we generally have in view 
when we speak of the Semitic languages. The Ethiopic is 
located in Abyssinia, and has been so long and so far removed 
from the fatherland in Asia, as to receive, on a Semitic basis, an 
impress peculiarly its own. The Egyptian is Semitic too, but 
it differs from the original family even more than the Ethiopic 

896. The Hebrew is without doubt the oldest of the family ; 
certainly, at least the oldest written monuments are found here. 
Like its near relative, the Syriac, it is now, and long since has 
been, for all practical purposes, an extinct idiom. Hebrew, as 

well as Syriac, is still spoken in some form or other by the ij4 

. scattered remnants of the old Hebrew family ; but it is rather, ^^ }^ \ 
like Latin, when spoken in its purity by the students of Europe, a>^ * 

as a language that on ce was, but now is not. It is a language ^\^ . .♦ 
"^ly of literature ; it is, ani in so far like the Sanscrit, a sacred ^ v '^\ ^ 
language, one appropriated to the church. The Hebrews no * 
more exist as an organized race, or people ; they were first swept 
down by the Syrians, and they in their turn were vanquished 
by the Arabs, a people'' that have long since absorbed all that 
was either Hebrew or Syriac in Asia. Scattered as the Hebrews 
now are over the broad face of the earth, they readily yield to 
the influences of the people that adopt them. 

897. Among the dialects or forms of the Hebrew, we may 
name the Rabbimcj which is Hebrew and Chald. in its features, 
and the Samaritan, The latter may indeed be called a dialect, 
but nevertheless it has several leading characteristics of its own. 
The Rabbinic alphabet is Hebrew slightly varied. The Samar- 
itan alphabet is Hebrew very much changed — it is old Hebrew 
(it has no vowel points). The number of Samaritans still living 
10 very small ; their language ceased to be a living one several 



centuries ago, but it is still written and read, like the Hebrew, 
as a church language. It is now replaced^ as a vulgar tongue, 
by the Arabic. 

898. The Phoenician runs closely parallel with the Hebrew, 
with several distinctive features however. It yielded much to 
Greek influences. Very little in the way of specimens of the 
language, and those inscriptions only, have come down to us, 
and hence our knowledge of it is very imperfect. The Phoeni- 
cian has an alphabet — it is old Greek also. 

899. The Chaldaic with the Syriac constitute a branch of 
Semitic called Aramaean. The former is mostly Syriac in its 
features — but it has some, too, which are not Syriac, but He- 
brew. It is written in the Hebrew alphabet. 

900. The Sdbien is an obscure form of Semitic, noticeable 
for its peculiar kind of alphabet. We might name also the 
Assyrian, But little is known of it ) it is, however, attracting 
some attention. It is known to be essentially Semitic. 

901. If the extent of territory which it covers, if the number 
of people by whom it is spoken, and the extent of its family 
connections, render a language worthy of study and attention, 
then, certainly, AraHc ranks among the very first in is claims 
upon us. Of ancient Arabic we have little that remains to us, 
and little that can be said of it. One of the forms of Old Arabic, 
Southern Arabic, is the Himyaritic^ of Yemen. It differs very 
materially, however, in a dialectic way, from the Arabic now 
known to us. It is known by inscriptions, and much is yet to 
be learned of it. It was spoken in Yemen as late as the fif- 
teenth century. Another form of old Arabic is known as the 

902. Unlike the Semitic idioms already spoken of, the Arabic 
is a living, progressive language. The Arabs as known to us 
are by no means an ancient people ; they do not seem to have 
begun to have an individualized existence until some centuries 
after Christ. ^ 

903. There is a difference between the literal Arabic and the 
vulgar or spoken language ; and the spoken language has differ- 
ences also, according to the region where it is spoken. 

904. The Ethiopic, as we find it, is supposed to have had its 
origin in an Arabic colony. Amharic may be called a modem 
form of Ethiopic, one modified by African influences. The lat- 
ter is now become practically a sacred language ; in its true 
form, it is no longer spoken. 

905. Ethiopic literature embraces about two hundred works, 
mostly translations from Greek and Arabic — the oldest repos- 
itory of Ethiopic is a copy of the Bible. About the fourteenth 
century, it began to cease to be spoken. The Tigre is a language 


similar to Amhario, and holding about the same relation to 

906. The Egyptian we notice next ; the connection between 
this and Semitic is undoubted. But it has a peculiar form 
nevertheless, which we shall see when we come to treat briefly 
of its character. The Coptic is properly modern Egyptian — it 
is the language spoken by the Christian portion of Egypt. The 
Coptic alphabet, in form, is a modification of the Grreek letters. 
The Coptic has three dialectic forms, differing from each other 
but slightly, and called, respectively, the Theban, Memphitic, 
and Basmurian. 

907. The Maltese is a Semitic (Arabic) language, greatly 
modified by European touches, or, if you prefer, by European 
admixtures. The Berber is the last of the class which we shall 

908. Semitic Languages. — The peculiarities that charac- 
terize the style of any one of the Semitic idioms (Hebrew, 
Syriac, Arabic, and Ethiopic), speaking generally, characterize 
the others also. So, we will dwell at length upon the idiom 
of the Hebrew ; and we shall after that have little that need be 
said on any feature belonging exclusively to any one of the 
remaining tongues. 

909. The difficulties in acquiring the Hebrew, or any of the 
class, do not arise from the unusual position and strange com- 
bination or order of the words ; for there is in all this, making 
due allowance for the simplicity of the language and its ex- 
pression, much that is quite natural to us. There is, however, 
a great uncertainty, often, arising from the absence, to a great 
extent, of inflexion, or variation of the forms of words, to indi- 
cate that one word belongs with another, and from the absence, 
too, of those marks or auxiliaries which point out to a nicety the 
different shades of mood and tense. We have to depend much 
upon position, and more upon the context ; there is much of 
latent or unindicated meaning in Semitic terms. But to the 
XLninitiated learner, there is yet a greater and more embarrassing 
difficulty — that of finding in the lexicon the words which shall 
denote the meaning of the word which he finds in the text ; for 
lie finds one form of word, a sort of root, in the lexicon, and a 
^ery different, more intricate, form in his reading. His gram- 
xnar informs him that some parts of the word which his text 
oflfers are ending or prefix, to denote the pronoun, subject or 
object, the gender, and to some extent, the case; that each verb 
lias its derived forms or conjugations, which have developed 
<iew letters, either prefixed or infixed ; that there is a large 
number of prepositions and adverbs, or conjunctions, welded to 


the word at the beginning, or incorporated with it, in a manner 
that is quite foreign to most of the European languages. 

910. It takes time, considerable time, before we can at a 
glance, as if by intuition, separate the formative letters (the pre- 
fixes, suffixes, and infixes) from the body of the word, and turn 
without hesitation to the very root or base-form which we should 
look for in the lexicon. The student of Greek can well under- 
stand these difficulties, but he must mark this difference : in ] 
Greek, it is the irregularity of a few words, while in Semitic it ' 
is the irregularity of the whole system. It is with great effort, 
too, that we become familiar with the Semitic alphabets, and 
with the oddity of reading the words (save the Ethiopic) from 
right to left. 

911. Nearly all the characteristics of these languages which 
seem so strange to us, are those which are more or less common 
in all the languages of Asia ; for instance, the union of particles 
and pronouns with the main word. So we see, that in Semitic, 
also, words are not individualized to the extent that they are 
with us. We offer now selections from Hebrew composition, 
as the best method of pointing out the peculiarities of the 
language : 

912. U'legach-tiy-cha — and-I-have-taken-thee (w = and, tiy 
= I, cha ^ thee, and legach is the root or base-form of the verb, 
found isolated in the third person present) 3 legache-fa-nu — 
(hast) taken-thou-us (thou has ttaken us) (ww«- us) ; he-malech-o 
— in-reigning-his (malech is the infin. or verbal noun, be = in, 
pref. prep., and r?, or w =his, meaning when or while he reigned, 
or he reigning ; this he is, without doubt, only a modification 
of the participle prefix m, as well as of the bi of Persian verbs) ; 
achal — he-ate ; be-achele-nu — in-eating-our, i, e., when we eat, 
or ate (inf. is achol) ; so, we find and-in-speaking'tni/, i. e,, in 
my speaJcing; h-shachen-iy — for-dwell-my, ^. c, for me to dwell, 
that I may dwell; u-be-yade-cha — and- in-hand- thine, i. e., in. 
thy hand (yad «= hand). 

The'Votce'thine-heard-I'in^arden (thy voice I have heard) ; 
given-I (I have given) to-thee the-aU (given thee the whole) 
dll-these (were) drawers (of) sword. The verb be in all its fo: 
is very generally omitted, ^. e., the nouns and adjectives 
real verbs here ; in the last example, shohphey is a participle 
the drawing (ones), the drawers — the word for sword, charebh^ ^*> 
is really a part of the participle, though separate from it, %, e.7 — > 
they (were) sword-drawers. 

And-not shaU-he-they (j/o-h^-u) to-thee^ i, e,, there shall no^ ^ r^ t 
be to thee, you shall not have ; give^to-us water and'shaU-drink -^"^S;- 
we (that we may drink) ; /ruit-of greatness-of heart (t. e., boast^^ *" 
ing) (the mark of the genitive being, in Hebrew, put on tb--^^^^ 


word governing it, when two nouns thus unite) ; (it was) heavy 
(the) famine iri'land, i, e,, there was a heavy famine (heavy ^ a 

913. The infinitive form, as that of to^know, equals a noun, 
as knowledge ; many participles and verbal forms are used, with- 
out any change, as real nouns. We find, comparatively, but 
few adjectives, but rather nouns and verbals with preposition 
used instead of them ; thus, we find ark of wood, for wooden 
ark ; with-power, for powerful. 

914. As we find the prepositions, or case fixes, placed at the 
beginning of the word, so we find also the article ; as, ha-yom 
— this-day, the day; ha'Oaretz, the-earth. In the use of the 
articles, we find such instances as men the-war, i. e., the war men, 
those-of-war ; the-city the-great (one); the-place the'that^ that 
pla9e ; honest (are) we ; thou he king mine, i. c, thou art my 
king {he taking the place of be). The possessive suffixes are 
used to denote objectives also ; as, wrong mine, i, e,, my wrong, 
wrong to me ; so, fear his, i. e., his fear, the fear for him; daughter 
(of) who, i, c, whose daughter ; which to-him, i, e., to whom ; 
which in'it (in-there), i. e., wherein. 

916. We find verbs repeated, one of them being infin., and 
the other acting as adverb with it ; thus, ask he-asked, i. c, he 
asked much, or urgently; so, he went going, i. e., he continued 
to go (like L. contewdit ire — goes to-go, starts to-go — so, in Ger. 
come-going, come-walking, our came-running ; hence, we see how 
one of them becomes an auxiliary, which gradually changes its 
form and iheaning, and in the end the repetition which really 
exists becomes obscured). The infinitive is used, too, in the 
place of a full verb, as, we-have-rehelled and turned, instead of 
we have turned (really, we do the same when we say we will go 
and see, where see is only an infinitive) ; water for the people to 
drink, in Hebrew is water for-the-drinking ofthe-people. 

916. In general, we may say that the infinite is used in most 
cases as a finite verb. The participle does not distinguish time, 
and may be used, according to context, for any tense; so, no- 
phel is used to denote one /ailing, or having fallen, or tcho will 

917. God perfect (is) way-his (his way is perfect); the-people 
removed he them (it); (a) light (a) great (one), i. e., a great 
light — the adjective follows the noun ; sin (is) hitter very (very 
bitter); (the) spirit and-soul (are) of God (pref. prep.); often 
year wa^-he (ten years old was he) ; (a) woman (being) good 
loves-she the- Jehovah (she loves God) ; placed-he, Jehovah (did), 
to- Cain (pref. prep.) (a) sign (God placed a sigp). 

They-caused-to-err thcrpeople-mine by-hoasting (caused them to 
err ; here is used simply the causative of the verb err, ta-gah, 


just as qatalj to kill, hv-qeti^l, cause-to-kill — which form, again, 
has its persons, like the original qatal ; we can see by this how 
such verbs as catise, make, do, etc., grow out of other verbs; he- 
macte, God (did), the-two (of) the-lights, the-great (ones), t. e., 
God made the two great lights. 

918. K Hebrew, and the rest, prove anything conclusively, 
it is the independence of the nominative from the verb to which 
it is supposed to be joined, and the independence, also, of the 
adjective from the noun to which it is supposed to belong. 

Behold we (are) binding sheaves (part. = verb) ; carrying^ 
masc. form, *- he (is) carrying, he carries; two (and) ten (of) 
lion (are) standing-they tJiere, L c, twelve lions are standing 
there. This participle is used precisely as if L. arnante^ (they- 
loving) be taken for amant (they love) — showing very clearly 
that the verb is a participle, and vice versa, 

919. The potential may say, can say, etc., is expressed by the 
future, will say ; go for-meet Moses (to meet) ; this (is) the-ma$, 
who fears the-Jehovah ; for not has^obeyed^she (she has not) ; 
wonders (are) thy testimony (wonderful) ; and'have-said-we, for 
we will say ; go (going) hast-gonc'thou fromr-with-m^e (go-gone 
= hast gone) f (the) doors (of) brass 1-wiU-break (them) ; tk 
pride (of the) man tt-shall-humble-him ; withrthe- God walked he, 
Noah (did) ; saddVed-they-him (for him) the-ass, (and) rode^he 
(he rode) upon-it ; I I-will-comfort-you. 

920. Short and disconnected sentences, we observe, prevail. 
One example more, illustrating repeated words, will close the 
Hebrew : dachoh de-chiy-ta-niyli-nephol — to-thrust hast-thrust- 
thou-me for-to-fall, i. e., thrust at me that I might fall (ta=thou, 
niy = me, Zt = foe, to, like our sign of infin. — we have here the 
double verb thrusting he-thrust, simply he thrust). 

921. The Syriac we find, in character, but little different. 
The following are selections, translations : cam^he set-he against 
Acco, ^. e., he came to besiege Acco (he-set, used for to-set— rso^ 
he began he opened, for he began to open) ; arose-they went-thy 
— they arose to go, i, e., they went ; all (every one) who shall- 
drink from this water again he-shall-thirst ; he-shall-come to-foe 
and-he-shallrdrink, i, e., let him come to me and drink; thatrh- 
shall-go and^shall-see, i. e., he might go and see (future = sub. 
and potential); entreat-they with-him that-he-shall-be (shaH^ re- 
main) with'them, i. e., they entreat his remaining (this future 
shallrbe has the Syriac prefix d, a true augment, with the force 
of that, the.; we find this d frequently with the infin. and part, 
and it is evidently a variation of the Hebrew and Arab I, and 
the m of verbals); who shaU-say, i. e,, can say; not shaU-fear^ 
i, e., fear not (future for impera.) ; sovght-he that-he-shaU-0) 


t. €., he sought to kill {d being prefix to the fixture, equal to 
the^ that, and indicating the true gerund. 

Blessing I-^illhless, i. c, I will greatly bless; going not went- 
he, t, c, he did not go at all; soughirhe for-catch, i, 6., (for- 
catching) he sought to catch ; the-knowmg (ones) (of the) law, 
i, e,, those knowing the law ; and-saw-he (a) company (jbl), great 
(one) whtch-coming (the-coming (one), wno came) to-him (the 
which before coming, or cams, is denoted by the prefix d, already 
noticed); (he-shall be) rising hrother-thine, i. e., thy brother 
shall rise (part, for future). Speaking generally, it may be said 
that the participle and infinitive may be used for the difiierent 
moods and tenses. 

Thou but (but thou) what (why) Jv>dge thou brother- thine (why 
judgest thou thy brother) ; 1 1, i. c, I am (pron. ■« be) ; ye in- 
mc ye (are), i, e,, ye are in me ; against-him (the) tyrant; 1 he 
(am) Jesus ; in-it in-field (in the field) ; to-it to-law (to the law) 
(this extfa pronoun is common). 

1 I (I am) Joseph that-sold-ye-me (i. e., whom ye sold ; for 
that, whom, we find, again, that prefix d) ; but that-of-he (his) 
that-sent-he-me (his who sent me — both thats are represented by 
prefix d) ; which-created God (did) in-the-making (it) (which is 
represented by prefix d, in by /, prep., and the by m verbal pref.) ; 
gueen that-of-south (queen of the south, d = that here is sign of 
genitive); sorrow-thy and-conception-thy, i. e., sorrow of thy 
conception, and (u) having place of of; da-bnay-nosho — of- 
sons-men (of sons of men - — that da, the d above, has the force 
of a preposition). 

922. Prepositions are not prefixes to verbs in Semitic, but, in 
Syriac particularly, we find them as suffixes to the verb, though 
separate ; as we say speak-of, wonder-at^ drink-from. The tend- 
ency in all Semitic is to bring the verbs first, and adjectives and 
participles after the noun. Comparisons are made thus, dear 
be/ore (the) queen, i. e,, dearer than. 

923. In Arabic there is very little that is not Syriac first, 
and Hebrew afterwards. We will notice only the following 
features : 

Proposed'he to-them what commanded-he-the-Mamun, i, c, 
showed them what Mamun had commanded ; (it) was went-he, 
i, e., he had gone ; was-he not doing, i, e,, he did not. In Arabic, 
/ is a common prefix, identical with our that, to, the, and the 
Syriac d; it may be termed the article of the verb, and it is 
often a mere unmeaning augment ; /, u, is used as a prefix, in 
the same manner — it is not different from the Semitic prefix u 
■» and ; that'^0'l= that I may go {that is prefix). 

924. Those double verbs, one being participle or infinitive, 
which we noticed in Syriac and Hebrew, are also common here. 

828 ' PHBASIS. 

From the verb give-you-it, having suffix pronouns, we get the 
participle, (the one) gtmng-you-it^ i, e., the giver-to-you-of-it. 
We find and ^ with ; thus, what (is) to-you and-Zeid (with- 
Zeid) ; not to-me (there is) father and not-mother (J. have not, 
etc.) ; (there is) dead to-me (a) brother, i. c, my brotner is dead; 
the-creating-thee, the one creating (he who creates thee) ; that- 
aid'I= that I may aid ; / (am) going ^ I go ; we (are) going 
^ we go ; tO'iLs (it is) long time not (have) seen-we-you (it is long 
since we have seen you). 

BusinesS'thy what (it is) thing now f i. e., what is thy busi- 
ness? one from the-animalsy i, e., some animal, an animal; time- 
time = from time to time. The genitive scarcely differs from 
the nominative; T-amur-Airkum — shall-command-he-you, i.e., 
shall command you {y is sign of future, hum is suffix pron. you^ 
and u may be taken as equal to he, or as part of the root) ; 
fa-mala-Vrhunna — and-fillcd-they-them (they filled them), fa 
= and, u = they, and hunna (fem.) = them. 

Elrma^ the water {el, 7 is the prefix article); el-m-aMru^ 
the-returning (el is article* m or ma is the augment of participles 
or verbals, common in Semitic). 

925. Semitic Kelations. — It is very generally claimed, 
even to-day, that the Semitic is an anomalous and distinct class. 
We will, however, examine briefly some of the leading features 
of the class, with a view to show that they are not so extra- 
ordinary as they have been considered, and that we may find 
clear parallels to them in the European and related languages. 

926. That the pronouns, particles, and numerals can be iden- 
tified with those with which we are familiar, is a truth which 
no one will dispute who understands the forms that are found 
in Semitic — we will at least pass them by without any special 

927. One of the most striking points of resemblance between 
Semitic and European, is the strongly developed prefix article. 
It is true that in Semitic it is associated with the noun, or united 
to it; but we must remember that in European, also, though 
printed apart from the noun, it is in conversation treated as an 
inseparable part of it. The Arabic article el, il, reminds us of 
the Latin ille, Fr. le ; a and ha of Heb. points to Lat. hi, hae, 
G'k ^,h — and the Syriac prefix d, used in so many different 
capacities, is a clear representative of Grer. die, der, Semitic ze. 
In Egyptian and Coptic, we find the articles pe, te (the), ne. 
In Ethiopic, the prefix ma is a demonstrative akin to the articles 
of the other Semitic tongues, though used in them more as a 

928. We may call attention to the fact, also, that the noxui 


endings n and t, so well developed in the formation of Syriac 
nouns, also the i, at, et, of Ethiopic, are evidently related to the 
soffix article of the Scandinavian class, and to that of the Alba- 
nian — as well as to the gender endings of Greek and Latin. 

929. Not only do we find the prefix article, but also, as in 
English and other European tongues, we find prefix prepositions 
(not separate, as with us, but united with the noun or pronoun). 
But it is a very common thing in Europe to find the preposition 
unite with the article or pronoun, as in Ger. beim, for bei dem, 
and our own to-em, for to them ; in Celtic, it will be remembered, 
the union of preposition with pronoun is a very prominent fea- 
ture, as in Irish a^aw^with me (a^ = with). 

930. All these Semitic prepositions are, without doubt, only 
a variation oithQ article el, i7, I — indeed, one of the most com* 
mon Semitic prefixes is I, and another is cA or A; (clearly point- 
ing to the cA, k, q, which we find everywhere marking either 
the relative or demonstrative). Another is m (also demonstra- 
tive) ; a fourth is b. This b is identical with m, as well as with 
the Syriac d, used as article, relative, conjunction, and preposi* 
tion. We might add to these eth, th, t, our to and the. The 
very common prefix u, though a conjunction equal to and, is to 
be classed with these, and is evidently identical with the prefix 
h; the prefix /= and, in Arabic, is another form of the u, v, 

931. But by far the most common of all the prefix letters of 
the Semitic languages, is m. It compares almost perfectly with 
the German g and ge ; it is used not only as the prevailing mark 
of the participles and the infinitives, but it is, like the Ger. ge, g, 
also a common mark of nouns and adjectives -wj^st as we find 
ge-ncht, sight, face, from sehen, to see, and g-lUck = \uck, g-leich 
= like, a-liko, Fr. e-gcd, equal. As there is no doubt that the 
Ger. ge is closely allied to the various prefixes and inseparable 
prepositions of the language, so, too, there is quite as little doubt 
that the Semitic m is closely allied to all the prefixes and articles 
of that class of languages. It may be even convenient to con- 
sider this verbal prefix m as identical with the article /, and the 
two as the bases of all the other prefixes in the class. We find 
this I not only used as a prefix preposition, but it is also, like 
this m, used as a prefix to verbs, a mere augment, particularly in 

932. The identity of the prefix prep, b with the m is shown, 
among many other ways, by b, as well as m, being used in Per- 
sian as an augment before the verb, and at the same time as pre- 
fix preposition. Even m itself is used somewhat with the force 
of a preposition in those abstract or verbal nouns, with prefix 
m, denoting place where (and equal to in), and the instrument 



(equal to 2i^) ; as, in Arabic, katah, write, and m<i-ktahj (a place) 

933. We must not forget that the Spiac prefix c7, in ltd dou- 
ble force of relative, or article, and preposition, is also a good 
representative of this m. The Egyptian participle prefix nt, <, 
= who, which, also represents Semitic m. In E^iopic, the par- 
ticiple prefix m, ma, has the force of the, as ma-ammes »= the- 

934. To understand the nature of this m, we must bear in 
mind that one of the most common pref. preps, is m, and 'that 
m is a prominent relative or demonstrative letter (and Coptic 
n = m is one of the articles). 

935. But m has still other very important representatives or 
connections in Semitic. We find it, varying its form and taking 
that of some related letter, used as the mark of certain forms of 
the verb. In the form of n (known to be equal to m the world 
over) it marks in Hebrew the reflexive ; as, qatal, kill ; nuqetal^ 
kill self (and in some Hebrew verbs, it marks the passive; in 
others it is a simple active). Welsh has the same prefix for the 
same purpose ; as, plygu, bend, yvnMygu, bend self; in Cornish, 
it is cm ; in Armoric, it is double, 6w-cm, thus, en-em-wiska, to 
dress self (wiska, to dress), en-emrtotskomp, (we) dress selves. 

936. Among other proofs of the identity of this n with the 7J% 
treated of, we notice that while the participles of other formtf of 
the verb are marked by m, the participles of this refiexive-pass. 
form is marked only by this n, i. e., the participle form practically 
identifies with the tense form, niqetal, above. 

937. In Arabic, this n, m, has the form an; in Syriao, eth 
takes the place of an, n, ni; the Ethiopic as (as well as an), 
the Arabic, Amharic, and Ethiopic a^t, are other forms of eth 
= c7i. In Amh. and Eth., a8=a8t is chiefly a causative mark 
— in Arabic, it indicates a wish ; as, Hm, know ; asUilm, or 
ast-alam, desire-to-know. 

938. But n is by no means peculiar to such forms of the verb; 
it is often used, like other augment letters, to begin verbs (and 
other words) with, and then it seems to have no special office ; 
thus, we have nortal, to raise (G-'k tlao, L. toUo), in Heb., and 
the form talal besides ; so, norshal, slip, fall («=/), also na-thanj 
nortan, give, L. dono (t=^d). It is a prefix letter also in Per., 
as w^-sAaw=sign, ne-zr, see, peer. It is used, too, as a mark of 
persons in the future tense. Again, it is not only the mark of 
many other things besides passives and refiexives, but, on the 
other hand, many of these are made by using other marks, and 
others again are found without any prefix letters at all ; thus, in 
Heb., qittel, kill, massacre ; quttaly be killed, massacred. 

939. In concluding upon this letter, we may notice that the 


prefix ethty est, is so strongly deyeloped as to well represent is, 
be. Is there any doubt that these passive forms, thus marked 
with prefixes, are anything more than participles with the prefix 
m deyeloped ? 

940. We find, in Heb., the prefix AtVA=Syriac eth, another 
prefix to indicate the reflexive, and hath or hoth to indicate the 
passive. This hith, ith, equals is and the. This same hith, 
reduced to hi, becomes a causative mark ; as, hi-qetiyl, cause-to- 
kill ; it is identical with Syr. and Ar. a, Syr. sh, and Ar. t, an. 
We must notice that these forms, commencing with hi, as well 
as those with ni, do not take an additional m in the participle, 
but change the hi to m, showing that hi =» m (but forms with 
hith have ni'ith in the participle). 

941. In Arabic, t ia & very common prefix to verbs. It is 
used to mark the passive and reflexive, and is plainly identical 
with a, an, a^t, as well as Heb. hith, Syr. eth. In Amhar. and 
Eth., we find the prefixes nt, ant, showing that n, being asso- 
ciated with t, is equal to it ; and hence t='n^m. This t is 
found in many other places besides passives and reflexives; 
among others, in the form of th, it marks person forms, as a 
prefix, in the future. 

942. We must add to this, that we find in Persian this same 
m, a, on, ast, t (among others) as prefix to verbs, nouns, and 
adjectives, and having precisely the same office as our prefixes 
or augments be in be-wail, per in per-form, re in re^cess, Ger. ge 
in ge*sicht, our a in a4ive. 

943. So we easily come to this conclusion about the verb- 
fonns in Semitic : that those prefixes are developments of m, 
being all identical with each other; that while they do appear 
in tbese verb forms, they are by no means peculiar to them, 
being found not only in the original form of the verb, but also 
as initial letters of parts of speech which are not verbs ; and we 
conclude, finally, that these prefixes, as well as others, are iden- 
tioal with the inseparable prefixes and augments of our own and 
other languages. 

944. Ajid we must remark, also, by the way, that no cla^ of 
llkl^uages is so valuable as the Semitic, to point out the history 
md character of prefix letters, to show that they have all one 
eommon origin, and that they all diverge from one and the same 
point ; and again that there is no class of languages so valuable 
to prove that all particles, pronouns, and auxiliiuries, are devel- 
(^mepts of initial (or final) letters, which in the end separa,te 
from the stem and become individualized. 

945. We now perceive that, contrary to the general opinion, 
the Semitic languages have inseparable prepositions before verbs. 
They are not used to the same extent, and not always in the 

332 PHBA8IS. 

same manner, that they are in all European knguagea; btit we 
can find parallels for them, in Europe, for every office which we 
find them performing in Semitic. Not alone in Celtic do we 
find prefixes used to play such parts, but even in our own we 
find them; thus, in en-lart/e, make-large; en-lrap, take in a trap; 
Ger. ein-kleiden^ en-clothe, to dress; er-lauben, give-leave — we 
find en, ein, er, used precisely as the Semitic causative a. (And, 
if we mistake not, the form is-gone, is-lefi, is-taken, is a fair 
representative of the Semitic passive form). We might refer 
also to «-Zay= cause to lay, G'k «fc-Z/o= cause to go (from eld); 
Ger. sch'icken =cau9e to go (from gehen, gtng, gick). 

946. So the Greek reduplicated forms, as pi-j9i«A:5=: cause to 
drink, may be taken as forms similar to the Semitic. And 
the Slavic languages use their prefixes of verbs in a inanner, if 

not identical with, very similar to, that of Semitic. They are ^ 
there used as signs of tenses (particularly future) ; also to denote .^5 

completed action. And the prefix m we know has its repre- :- 

sentative, as a mark of infinitive and participle, in more than ^~-m 
one of the languages of Europe. 

947. There is no single instance of importance where we shalLfT Jil 
find the Semitic verb system differing from that of Europe. We^^^ e 
have thus far seen prefixes play an important part in the makin gE^ g 
of new forms, but it is far more common to find new forms arisin^^^ g 
not by assuming these augments, but by changes in the body oftr'^T 
the word — just as we get sung and song from sing^ rose ftotxsz^^cn 
rise, written from write, men from man, 

948. A very prominent way of deriving new forms of verbs -^^, 
is by doubling some of its consonants, as we have^^ andyb/fen ^'^, 
gleam and glimmer, beat and battle, Ger. leiden, past litty partzn^B* 
ge-litten (suffer), mix and mingle, ng-r^gg, wag and ivtggh. 

Many new forms are made, again, by inserting letters (as j8 

it is said), just as we have L. dicfo from dico,fundo ^*n /tf f/f^ \ 

G'k tupto and tnpo, esthlos and ethlos, tkapsd and thapd, 

949. There are but two simple tenses in Semitic, and thei ^e 

are no more in any language. These two are made to stippL ^J 
the places of our usual compound tenses, just as we use tfa^^e 
present sometimes for the future, and the past for the perfe^^^t 
and pluperfect. The past tense of Semitic has developed en— d- 
ings in full, as they are in Latin and others, to denote the p^^^r- 
sons. But the tense called future has the apparent peculiari tj 

of developing the initial letters to indicate the pronouns, inste =ad 

of the final letters as usual. We consider this subject one cf 
sufficient importance to entitle it to special notice here. 

950. We remark, first, that so far from being peculiar, it=^- m 
precisely as we form all our tenses ; thus, he-says, we-say, th^^n- 
sayest — with this difference only, and that not real, tkat w^S.t2i 


118 the pronoun is printed apart from the Yerb, thougli in con- 
versation it is closely united to it. 

951. To enable us to understand what these initial letters in 
Semitic are, we give them as follows : 

1st sing., a for Heb., Syr., Ar. 1st plu. n for Heb., Ar., Syr. 
2d " th " " " " 2d " th " " " " 

3d " y " " Ar., Syr. n 3d " y " " " Syr. ». 

952. In Coptic, we see what the initial letters are by noticing 
the persons of mer, fill; thus, sing., tmeTy k-mer^fmer; plur., 
tn-mer^ tetn-mery se-mer. The 2d 8ingular4 k-mer, is masculine ; 
te-mer is feminine. The Amharic and Ethiopic present nothing 
peculiar compared with Hebrew, Arabic, and Syriac. 

953. There are several facts which we must now notice. All 
except y are letters which we have already seen to be verbal 
prefixes or augments* But this y or i is also a very common 
prefix. That it is identical with the others, as they are identical 
with each other, is a fact not to be doubted. That it is equal to 
w, is seen by n replacing it in Syriac; that it is equal to /and a, 
is shown also in Coptic; that a=tj we see by t, ti, of Coptic 
Ist singular. 

954. It is not in the least to be doubted that these future 
initials are the ordinary prefixes of the verbs, and that they may 
be considered as a variation of the prefix m. The basis of the 
future is the infinitive, in other languages ; and, in the Semitic 
clasS) it is known also that the infinitive is the basis of the 
future ; but the infinitive we know also has the prefix m. It is 
one of the plainest laws in natural history, that the same member 
in different animals m.ay he developed in a very different man*' 
ner and put to very different^uses ; thus, the fore feet of quadru- 
peds, the wings of birds, and the fins of fish, are known to be 
homologous. In the Latin, for example, it is the ordinary end- 
ings of participles that we find representing the persons. And, 
if we notice the Semitic future final letters, we shall observe 
that the future has the same person element as the past tense, 
though not so fully developed as in the past. 

955. We may with equal propriety consider the future as a 
participle having the article prefixed, as we find it in Arabic ; 
thus, the knt>wing (ones), the knowers, for those who-knoWy shall 
know. This transformation of participle with prefix article into 
a verb with pronoun nominative, is most clear in Coptic. 

956. It is important in this connection to notice that in one 
of the forms of Arabic, that spoken in modern Syria and Egypt, 
an m is prefixed before the first person plur4 future, and a b 
before all the other persons •'^ showing that such prefixes do 
ehange for the persons. This b and m is in place of the I which 

384 PHBA818. 

we find 80 constantly, in ordinarj Arabic, united to the fntnte 
in some of its applications (that h and m is prefixed in addition 
to the nsnal person letters, as well as the Arabic Z). 

957. The whole history of the Semitic future shows that it is 
really a dependent form ; it is the exact counterpart of the Lat. 
subjunctive, in application as well as in origin* Both are alike 
identical with the infinitive, and both from mere usage are trans- 
formed sometimes firom a dependent, objective expression, to 
one which is independent, indicative, as opposed to subjunctive. 
Dependent, or objective, as we know the Latin infinitive to be, 
it is still often used as an indicative. 

958. It is over and over again, particularly in Arabic and 
Syriac, that we might replace their future by a participle or an 
infinitive— and the Syriac uses the gerund or participle, with 
the prefix /, where the Arabic uses a future. Where we say, he 
^ent to sow, the Arabic has it toent that-heshaU^saw (future) ; 
instead of sitying he desires to aid, it is, in Ar., desires that he 
shall aid. The imperative, with its prefixes a and l, is one of 
the forms of the future. 

959. To all this we may add, that, in all instances where 
relatives occur as subjects of the verb, we have a parallel to 
this Semitic future ; as, I speak of him who»does it, t. «., the- 
doer of it, the one-doing it ; the word which-was-spokenj t. e., the 
word the-spoken (one) — the relatives being developments of 
prefix articles, as we may assume. 

960. To continue the parallel of the Semitic and the European 
languages, we must remind the reader of an auxiliary which, in 
Semitic, has the office of our be, and which is clearly identical 
with it. In Arabic particularly, we find this auxiliary be used to 
form compound tenses as in Europe. We learn, too, in Semitic, 
that this be is only a variation of he, she, it — they being often 
used for he, 

961. And Coptic teaches us that this be is, in Semitic at least, 
a development of the ordinary prefix letters. Thus, we find at, 
I was, or have been, and ai-me, I have loved (me, love) ; and 
nei, I was, nei-hmoos, I sat (hmoos, sit) ; eie, I shfiU be, cie- 
mou, I shall die (ntou, die). Other forms of 6e are prefixed to 
denote mat/, might, would. The infinitive has the prefix e, n, m, 
and participles the prefix e, et, and we may with propriety con- 
sider the auxiliaries above as developments of these prefixes. 

962. Having thus disposed of the apparent anomaly of the 
tenses, we may add, forther, that as far as regards the assumed 
peculiarity that Semitic roots are composed of three letters, we 
nave only to remark that, by a proper method of reduction, we 
can bring the number down to two, or even one, and, on the 
other hand, if we insert the vowels, the h of aspirates, and dou* 


ble letters, we shall increase the number considerably beyond 

963. There is an almost entire absence of such compounds as 
we find in the nearly related Persian —-yet we must consider, at 
least, that every case where two nouns are united, one of which 
is genitive, is a true compound. 

964. Endings such as the tos, ta, um, of Latin, are not very 
prominent in Semitic } still we begin to find them pretty gen- 
erally and clearly in Syriac and Ethiopic, as well as in Arabic ; 
thus, wo find such verbal endings as o, ot, an, ta, na, av, avi, 

966. Egyptian. — The Coptic, and Egyptian, while it is em- 
phatically a Semitic language, as said before, still has developed 
some Semitic features in a peculiar manner. So far as stage of 
life is concerned, it is considerably in advance of the common 
Semitic, with a strong hold, nevertheless, upon its embryonic 
structure. Not only the alphabet is not Semitic, but rather 
Greek, but the orthography too, as we might infer, is not Sem* 
itic. There is the same system of prefixes that so strongly char* 
acterize the others of the class, but they are strongly developed, 
and are often strangely applied, while the old uses, such as that 
of prefixes for verbs, are often nearly or quite lost sight of. 

966. There is here the Semitic pref. article, but it is no longer 
oZ and ^, as there, but pe, te, approaching nearer to our own; 
it is ne in the plural, like the Persian an; thus, the vowel being 
eclipsed, p-noute, the-Grod, n-rome, the-men. We find also the 
double nor-p = the-the = that«the, that«of. We find here deriv- 
atives formed by change in the word, as opposed to fixes so pre- 
Talent in the other Semitics. Compound terms, which are rudi- 
mentary in the rest, are here more common. 

967. And, after the pure Semitic style, we find derivatives 
thus, mat, to-love, met'tnai, the-love, or loving (met is the Sem. 
pref. m). We find, as we have seen elsewhere, the pref. ma to 
denote the place where. As in the rest, cases are denoted by 
prefixes and prepositions ; nte marks the genitive case, ha the 
dative, e the ace; ngis= the, is the sign of nom. Derivative 
adjectives are formed by prefixes, that same part, prefix modi* 
£ed. We find compound adjectives as in Persian. 

968. The pronouns are strictly Semitic, and they readily be- 
come suffix with particles ; poss. pronoun is suffix as in Semitic. 
Double pronouns are common, as pe-k = the- thy, for thy. Im- 
peratives have the prefix ma of Semitic ; «o has the infinitive. 
Tenses and moods are formed by augments or prefixes, as in 
Semitic. Among the many compounds of Coptic, is that of the 
^nitive following its noup, and identical with the construct 
case of the other Semitic languages. 

886 PHRASIS. % 

969. The following selections will abo illustrate the lan- 
guage : 

Pi-koitdgi ebol oute ni apoitolos tev'Ou — ihe-small from among 
the (m) apostles all- these (ter « all), i. «., the least of the apos- 
tles all ; tei-hime — this- woman ; pe-et — he- who. The articles 
are used for verb he; as, pe = he is, te = she is, ne =««= we are ; 
ank*pe — I am ; anan ne — we are ; p-hootU tape pe nte-Srhime 
— the-man the-head is of-the-woman ; nt-af — oi-him (in Celtic, 
efmmhe) ] ou = what, cn< = who, esh = what (Sem.), mm=who ; 
shat= to cut, 8hent = to he cut ; talo= to offer, taleoiU^s:^ to be 
offered ; A:o= place, A:c=be placed (see active = passive). 

Pen tot et khen nipheout — our father who (et) in the heavens; 
pen oik nte (gen. sign) rasti mei/nan m-phoou — our bread to- 
morrow give us (nan) this-day ; n-^tero-n — our-debts (the-debts- 
our); eihrefi {ethre-f-i — e=to, <Are = make, /= him, t=go, 
come) to-make-him-come (see how one word develops itself into 
several of ours). 

In pek ran = thy name,jp-e-A: is composed of at least three 
parts, jp = the, c = his, k = thy ; so also in p-e-n tot = our father ; 
rok^ face-thy, thy face or mouth ; ro-i = face-my ; Qkteif=^ 
Ork'-teirf^ thou hast given him (a <sss past augment, or have, Ic = 
thou, tei= give, /= him, to-him) ; oube-k ^^ against-thee, ovbe-f 
= against him; neme-t = with-me (ncm, with); pe-dih-^K^^^o 
say, may be considered as having the elements (at least) jpe-cf«A-an 
=the-say-our, the-saying-of-us (these elements may be again 

970. While the Persian exhibits the Semitic as taking one 
direction, and having a certain phase, the Coptic, or Egyptian, 
exhibits Semitic as taking another direction and assuming an- 
other phase. We learn from Coptic many important facts, 
among these, that pronouns and particles may be developed from 
either end of the word ; that one and the same element, with or 
without variation, may perform the office of pronoun, particle, 
and auxiliary ; that the letters of a word represent an accumula- 
tion of repeated elements, which in the end come to represent 
individual words (and that even these letters have their elements 
in turn). 

971. Ethiopio : The Ethiopic and Amharic are so thoroughly 
Semitic that very little need be said of them now. The Am- 
haric, especially, shows a very strong development of endings, to 
correspond with our -oik, ^nes&y •ing, etc. •» proving again that 
the germ of such endings really exists in Semitic, and is sup- 
pressed in some of its forms. Many derivatives are formed by 
prefixes also, and we find the very prefixes of the Sem. conjuga- 
tions, such as t^ a, m, a€, €ut^ the initial letters of nouns as well. 


Nouns are derived by infixing, as well as prefixing, such letters; 
also by reduplication of letters. 

972. The auxiliary he here plays a conspicuous part. It is 
placed (in form of a/, hal, identical with Arabic article aQ after 
the verb, as it is in Lat. amatus est =» loved is. In Ethiopic, 
we find it used with the ordinary future, before it or after, and 
separate from the main verb. When the auxiliary is thus used, 
we have an expression equal to he'WiUrCome he-will^ for he will 
come ] also, iUwas he-ca/me, for he came (as in Arabic). 

It is in the Amharic that we find the peculiar constructive 
mood, a transition, as it is, between verbal, or infinitive, and verb, 
but still possessing more or less of the nature of a verbal noun. 
It will yet be found to be identical, in its character, with the 
Semitic future. 

973. Berber. — The Berber language, spoken by people 
living in North Africa, must be considered a very rude form of 

974. The Berber verb is full of interest. The language may 
be said to have but one individualized tense, and that the past ; 
but this is so far like the Semitic future, and unlike the Semitic 
past, that it has initial letters varying for the persons. Thus, we 
find askar, imperative, make (Sans. kar = do); past tense, 1st 
person, seker-ngh, 2d te-seker-ad, 3d usker ; 1st plur. nresker, 2d 
tC'SkeT'em, 3d seker-end ; so also the pers9ns of he (i7, Arab. art. 
el), ellrigh, te4li-d, i-Ula; n-eUa, te-lla-m, eU^ant. We see be- 
sides the variation of the prefix letters, also the regular changes 
for person endings ; so, we are taught that in the Semitic future 
the former are not to take the place of the latter ; also that these 
prefix changes are not confined to the future (indeed those end« 
ings id, am, ant, must remind any one of the person endings 
it, am, ant, of Latin). 

975. The future, and present, is made by prefixing ae2 = d to i 
the tense already given (just as I and d in Semitic, which letters 
ad equals, as well as Persian hi). Thus, a^«^A;er=he makes, 
ad-^nesker^=vie make. Possessive pronouns are developed at the 
end of nouns, as in Semitic. 

976. The tendency in all Semitic to discard real adjectives, 
abstract terms, and individual conjunctions, has gone in Berber 
4ilmost to their entire absence. Hence, its sentences are very 
short and disconnected ; thus, he-eats he-goes, he eats and goes. 
'There are evidently many points of interest in the idiom, but 
-there is much yet to be learned in regard to it. It is chiefly 
nraluable in showing how Semitic languages may have European 





977. None of the family tongues of Asia are at present receiv- 
ing greater attention, or are studied with greater interest, than 
the languages of India, and of these, especially £he Sanscrit. The 
Europeans have made permanent settlements in Southern Asia, 
and a knowledge of these languages is the more valuable on that 
account. But more than this, the Sanscrit, the type, if you 
choose, of the family, is found to be a great repository of ancient 
philosophy. This has been one of the impulses to the study of 
Sanscrit, but there is yet one more. There has been unexpect- 
edly found a remarkable identity in the words and structure of 
the Sanscrit and European, and of the European, particularlythe 
Greek and Latin. 

978. The Sanscrit is an ancient language, with all the char- 
acteristics of one which has grown old and gone down. It has 
not been a spoken language for many centuries ; it has become 
a mere repository of literature, laws, and particularly of religion; 
running in this respect a course very much resembling that of 
the Latin. To what extent it has given rise to the modem 
idioms of Southern Asia, is not at present accurately deter- 
mined. It is certain they have replaced it, but not it alone. 
There is reason to believe it was not the only language of India. 
One thing is certain } the languages of India which we shall 
notice hereafter, all bear a close connection with the Sanscrit, 
and seem beyond doubt to have the relation to it of a modern 
to an ancient tongue. 

979. The Sanscrit is written in an alphabet peculiar to it and 
to its cognate idioms. Neither the Semitic nor Greek alphabets, 
at first sight, bear any resemblance to it ; though, on closer in- 
spection and careful study, we find it has a basis in common with 
them. If we look at the grammatical structure of the Sanscrit, 
and even to the form of many of its words, we shall be forced to 
confess that it has a greater resemblance to Greek than any other 
Asiatic language. But this we do not understand proves that 
the Sanscrit has, as often is claimed, in respect to origin, a so 
much closer relationship to Europe than the Semitic does, or 
the Persian, or the Tartar. It has only developed, exhibited, 
germs and features which, to a greater or less extent, lie latent 
in those less cultivated idioms. Hence we see that the modem 


languages of India are far more Persian first, and next Tartar 
and Semitic, than Greek, or Latin, or even Slavic. 

980. And mark still further ; notwithstanding this remarkahle 
parallel between Sanscrit grammar and Greek grammar, and 
Sanscrit orthography, to a certain extent, and Greek orthog- 
raphy, a fact which must be surprising to every student, yet the 
style, the thought, the idiom, the soul, of Sanscrit, is not Greek 
or European, but rather Asiatic, and not only Asiatic but Indian. 
It is hard estimating values in such cases, as said before, and yet 
we feel constrained to say, that in these latter respects, the Per- 
sian, and even the Arabic, is more European than even the San- 
scrit is. 

981. So little do we find peculiar in the Sanscrit grammar, in 
the case and person endings, in the forms of their comparatives, 
their pronouns, their particles, their moods, and their tenses and 
participles, when compared with Greek and Latin, we shall need 
but little space for it here. Its forms worthy of remark we 
notice elsewhere. The striking and characteristic features of 
the language are the size and number of its compounds. We 
had particularly noticed this principle at work in the Persian, 
but the Sanscrit has carried it much farther. We do not look 
upon this phenomenon as a simple union of two or more individ- 
ual words. It indicates, rather, that in Sanscrit the words are 
in many cases not individualized; it is in this respect far behind 
the languages of Europe. The words had not so far grown to 
maturity as to be able to separate from the parent stock. This 
same feature we find in all ancient languages ; we find it in Latin 
and Greek, in their moods and tenses, their cases, their partici- 
ples, and prepositional verbs — and, to a limited extent, in their 

982. One class of compounds is made by the non-development 
of andj and the union of two words or more which we could con- 
nect by it; as mn-moon, for sun-and-moon ; song-music'dance 
(and dance). These elements unite as a single unit, the last 
alone taking the case-sign ; just as we say, Peter-the- Greaf s (not 
Peter's). It is clear in all these compounds, that of their being 
made of elements the Sanscrit mind was quite unconscious; 
so, we find pretty 'hrow-nose-eye-hair^ for having a pretty brow, 
etc., or pretty browed^ nosed, etc. ; this-shape, t» e., this-shaped, 
shaped like this ; lance-hand, i. e., lance-handed , lance-in-hand 
(having). In all the compounds of Sanscrit, we shall find united 
only such as belong together in all languages ; the principle is 
the same in all languages, and it only works in Sanscrit on a 
grander scale. 

983. One single selection must suffice to give a little idea of 
Sanscrit composition : Asti Magadha-dese Champakavati nam' 


aranyani, Tasyam chiran mahata snehena mriga-kakau niva- 
satah. Sa cha mrigah swechchhaya bhramyan hrishfa-pushtan- 
gah, kenachit srigal^navalokitah. Tarn drishtwa srigalo chin' 
tayat: ah, katham-etan-man-sam sukilitam bhakshagami — 
(there) is (in) Magdha-land (dese) Champakavati (a) name-large- 
forest (a forest called Ch.); there (in-it) long (in) great 
(mahata) friendship (a) deer-crow (and-crow) dwell (the two 
did) ; (he) the also (cha, L. que) deer (the deer also) at-pleasure 
roaming gay-fed-body (by a) certain jackal- seen (-avalokitah, 
part, seen) (i, c, the deer was seen roaming at will) ; him (tarn) 
(having) watched the- jackal (he) thinks (thus) : oh, how-this- 
flesh delicate (shall I) eat (how can I get it). 

984. Here follows a list of some of its most important funda- 
mental or root words : 

As, be, Ger. sein; an (live), animal, mind ; ah, say, gpr-echen, 
Qer.; ag, near, G^r. eng; ag, move, go , Ger. wegen, shake ; agh, 
fl-og) Ger. sch-aden', a>c, respect, Ger. acht; av, will, wish, love; 
am, honor, L. amo ; ab^ speak, G'k epo ; ab=ag ; ap, have, 
hold, L. c-apio ; arh, power, G'k archo; arf, work, Ger. arbeit 

Svan, sound, tone ; saik, go, seek ; sagh, saw, cut ; sUc, see, 
sage ; sarp, go, creep ] sar, go, run, spring ; da, give, L. dono, 
do ; da, divide, deal, Ger. theil; dah, burn, L. ardens, ar-dens; 
duh, draw, tug, L. duco ; die, show, say, digit ; dar, tear, break ; 
dra, run, G'k drao; dal^ split, deal, Fr. taiUe; dha, put, L. 
do, po. 

Tan, tend, extend ; tag, take, touch ; tvae, deck ; tap, burn, 
tepid ; tur, move, turn ; tars, torrid, toast, parch ; trag, go, drag; 
tut, bal-ance. 

Stigh, step, steep ; star, strew, spread ; iks, see, look ; ir, run, 
go, L. erro ; il, go, Ger. eil-en, walk ; yam, hem, hold ; han, kill, 
G'k kteind, wound ; hi, pour, gush ; Aar, grasp ; hcU, hollow ; 
hul, veil, conceal. 

Cvid, white ; ci, lie, G'k keimai; can, hew, L. cavus; car, 
bore ; cm, hear (sru) ; gal, eat, swallow; jam, been, born, kin, 
G'k genao ; jna, know; jna, bend, knee; jiv, live, L. vivo, 

Ghas, chew ; kan, sing, tone, L. cano ; kup, hope, desire, L. 
citpio ; kruc, screech ; karp, break, L. carpo ; kal, yell, call ; 
cad, shine, L. candeo ; khya, say, L. Ugo ; ksur, shear. 

Us, burn, L. us-tum, from uro ; tU, flame, Ger. stralen ; va, 
go, L. venio, Fr. va ; vid, know, L. video ; vac, speak, voice, L. 
voco ; vil, di-vide, Ger. theilen. 

Ma, measure ; man, think, mean, mind ; math, move, L. mitto ; 
mar, kill, murder ; bal, live ; bhi, fear; bhar, bear, L. gero, wear, 
carry ; pa, hold; pa and pi, drink, h, pi-no ; pad, go, foot, path ; 
pac, pack, bind ; pu, pure, Ger. rein ; parth, spread, part ; pri, 
love, friend; prach, preach, speak; pU, press, tread, walk, fly. 


S-par^ breathe, L. spiro; arch, go, Q'k erchomai; radh, work, 
G'k redo ; rat, read, speak ; W, run, flow ; ruj, break ) raph^ 
break, force, ravish ; lut, read, L. lego ; luh, love ; laks, look j 
Ivhh, love, will, wish ; laip, leave, run. 

985. These, it must be observed, are the elements of the lan- 
guage ; they do not generally occur in this crude form, but rather 
with the additional development of pre- and suf-fixes, like our own 
pel, in the form ex-pel or ex-pel ling, /cr, in pre-fer-ence, L./cro, 
rog, L. rogo ^ ask, in pre-rog-ative. 

986. It will be noticed, also, that the above forms given are 
greatly reduced, t. e., many of their letters have not developed into 
two or three, as with us and elsewhere ; compare an and mind, 
ac and look, respect, arh and force, power, da and deal, divide, 
ah and speak. We observe, also that they represent our letters 
by very different ones, but, as we shall find elsewhere, always in 
accordance with the law of letter changes ] thus, d=^8p, t = b, 
g=^v,j^v and I, h = g, gr,jn = kn, p = h, d, etc. 

987. Mabathi : The following is a short list of words from 
the Marathi, a modern Indian language : Asan, seat; avaz, voice ; 
ehede, one ; uga^ quiet ; umer, age, Ger. immer ; upar, over, 

Kaiir, severe, hard ; had, edge ; Jear, do, form ; kal, time, 
Ger. mal ; kid, all ; Mr, dirt ; kaid, catch, capture ; kith, castle ; 
khali, hole ; khara, salt, r, 1 ; khali, hollow ; k?ied, dig. 

Gat, gang, band ; gat, fate ; gam, compassion ; gaman, giving; 
garami, warm; ga^a,eoWy ga, sing, ca-no; guha, cave; gira, 
fair ; ghar, house, yard ; ghe, catch (the infinitive ending ni in 
all cases left out). 

Choi, walk ; chir, tear ; chain, sound ; chap, stamp ; jan, live ; 
jad, join ; jalad, quick, L. celer ; jor, force, L. vir. 

Tar, trick ; daU, form, style ; tamam, all, Ger. zammen ; 
tar, wire, t, w; ter, great; dam, breath, Ger. damp, steam; 
dar,'per; dad, just, G'k diki; das, slave, tie, bind; de, 

Nanga, naked ; nak, nose ; nad, noise ; nav, boat, L. navis ; 
nir, water ; pad, foot ; par, through, L. trans ; pun, again ; pus, 
ask ; per, boy, L. puer ; phar, very ; phir, turn. 

Bara, well, very ; hin, without, L. sine ; heli, talk, old Prus. 
hiU; hhala, well, L. bonus ; hhal, bear, 1, r; hhed, view; mis, 
meat ; mus, mould. 

Metha, great, L. magnus ; ran, war, rattle ; rang, rank, row ; 
raza, king, L. rege; vach, read, L. lego, voice ; vap, vapour; vara, 
air ; mr, hero ; vel, time. 

This is only a few of the very many words which we might 
cite as familiar in this language. Many are Sanscrit, many more 

342 PfiRASis. 

are Semitic and Persian ; and then, besides, there are large num- 
bers of words almost identical with those found in European 

988. Bengali: The two most important languages of modem 
India are the Bengali and the Hindostani. The former is spoken 
by perhaps over thirty millions of people, and the latter, in its 
dialects, is spoken by fifty millions. 

989. The Bengali is perhaps the most Sanscrit, but slightly 
varying from it. Case endings are well developed, and post- 
positions are also common. The adjective with the noun forms 
a compound, and hence it takes no case or number signs ; it is 
compared by -tara (our -cr) and -tama (our -e«#, L. -tirmui). 
The verb seems to be built up after the Turkish manner, with a 
participle for base, and 5e, in its tenses, for auxiliary. The pro- 
nouns, particles, and endings, are all familiar. A few examples 
will best illustrate the character : 

990. Si balakke amara-mkat ana — the boy me-to (to-me) 
bring (bring to i^e; 8i=thaty used as the). This language 
abounds in compounds, as in Sanscrit, which may have an inde- 
finite length; as, the-beauti/'O/'shootS'/ruiU'JlowerS'clusters-^nd' 
buds. A standing rule in arrangement, in Bengali, is to put the 
nominative first and the verb last, bringing the object* before the 
verb. This may be peculiar to us, but it is a common Asiatic 
feature. The adjective goes before the noun. 

Amra tanhar tara dekhite paiyachi — we his star (tara) see- 
ing have-got (have-seen, 23a=get); taha^ tahara kahUa — 
then they said; ei mat likh-ita ache — it thus written is; 
takhan se uthiya shishu o tanhar matorke (ke ace. sign) la-iya 
hhraeJrdeshe aila — then he ris-ing (the) cnild and his mother 
tak-ing {la-iya)^ Israel-land (into) went (he), i, c, taking them 
he went. 

Prachar kar-iya kahUa — preach making said (he), i. c, he 
preached (compound verbs of all kinds are very numerous) ; ei 
amar priya putra — this my dear son (is) ; Johan dwara — 
John-through (by- John) ; tint uttar karilen — he (this-one) 
answer made (answered) ; kebal rut-ite manushya banch-ibe na 
only bread- by (by-bread) man shall-live not (not by bread 

Not only the noun comes first (the nominative), but also all 
that belongs to it as an adjective ; the rule is the same with 
regard to the object and all that belongs to it. 

Tumijadi ama-ke — thou if me (if thou me) ; ami si sakcU 
toma-ke diha — I this all (to) thee will-give (diba) ; tanhar seba 
kar-ite lag-ila — him service to-do (they) began (another com- 
pound, they-began-to-make-service = they serve) ; jaite^'aite, 


going-going, t. c, while going (double words of this kind are 
very common) j upadesh dite-dite — (his) teaching making- 
making, t. c, making-teaching, teaching simply ; prachar 
kariterkarile — preaching making-making, simply preaching. 
(Our possessives, as his^ its, are rare — so also him, it, them, as 
the object of verbs); tomar ichcha swargete jeman hauk — 
thy will heaven-in so be. 

Se giya tomav'^igr^ path prastut karibe — he going thee- 
hefore (thy) way prepared shall-make (shall-make-prepared, 
shall prepare) ; Jardan nadite haptaijit haila — Jordan in bap- 
tized (they) were ; pashchat-pashchat^garnan-karila — (to) fol- 
low-foUow-going-he-did (^ari7a=be did), i, e., did go following, 
he followed simply ; raja jini janmi-yachhen tiiii kothay — 
(the) king who was-born be (this-one) where ? t. c, where is he 
who ; hhar-er sahit — (their) load-s with. 

991. A leading peculiarity of Bengali is the inversion in the 
order of clauses, from the fact already noted, that not only the 
object, but all that belongs to it, must come before the verbs — 
thus, we find, I which man I saw this (is) that (one), i. e., this 
is the man whom I saw ; he my desire (if he) grant does, I sat- 
isfied shall be, i. e., if he grants my desire. 

992. HiNDOSTANi : To this language we come next. It is 
written in the Persian (Arabic) character. It is this form of 
Indian that shows most forcibly the connection with Semitic and 

993. Here, as in Afghan, we find transitive verbs in theif 
past tenses agreeing with their objects — the nominative appear- 
ing in an ablative or instrumental case. It is really using a 
passive form thus, by 'me he was struck, for I struck him (in Hin., 
it would be me-hy <Ac man-to the-striking (was). 

Alone, the language is the most interesting of its class, but 
compared with what we have already noticed, Qiere is little that 
is new, being, as it is, mostly Bengali or Sanscrit, as well in 
arrangement as in orthography and grammar. Much of it is 
Semitic also. 

994. Hence very little must suffice as a specimen of the lan- 
guage : iu kis tarahjanta hai-^ thou (in) what manner known 
hast (is) ? (how hast thou known) ; aur kaha ki is larke-ko tar- 
hiyat kar — and said that this boy (ko ace. sign) instruct make 
(do instruct, t. e., instruct him; he told him to instruct the boy) ; 
ek bat Tnenja (go) nikla — a wood into gone coming (or wander- 
ing), i, c, wandenng into a wood ; wise wahan aur to koina nazar 
aya — (to) him there other then some not (nothing) sight came 
(came to him), i, e., he saw no other sight; puchha, ate-ho 
kahan-se aur (and) ja-oge kahan — asked (he), (you) coming- 


are where-from and go- will (you) where (he asked whence come 
ye and where will ye go). 

995. An older than the Hisdostani, but one closely resembling 
it and the Sanscrit, is the Hindee. Another one of the ancient 
languages of India, and long since dead, is the Pali. It is closely 
connected with the Sanscrit, but in what precise relation as to 
origin is not yet determined. There is also the Pragrit, a form 
of Sanscrit. There are other languages in Southern Asia be- 
longing to the Indian, or more or less related to it, and more or 
less important, but all these we must pass by here. 

996. We can only name the Telinga as belonging to the San- 
scrit family, and partaking largely of its characteristics. 

997. The Tamil is a language of considerable interest. It 
belongs to the Sanscrit and Indian class, and so little is there in 
it that we have not already noticed in these languages, we will 
scarcely dwell on it here. It is the leading member of the class 
which includes also the Telugu^ Malayalam^ and Canarese. Its 
literature is considerable. 

998. Prepositions, adverbs, and conjugations, are all 'rare ; 
the relative is absent. The whole verb system is plainly built 
on participles, or verbal nouns, from which are developed per- 
sonal and tense endings. What few prepositions do exist are 
real nouns, or adjectives, and are placed after. 

999. The Birman is a language of Southern Asia, which is 
very instructive to the philologist, but by no means well known. 
Many of its essential characteristics are those of the language of 
Thibet, but in simplicity and lack of development it is, perhaps, 
most like the Chinese. It may be said to be destitute of inflex- 
ion — a want which is compensated for by compounding. Many 
parts of compounds have no separate or individual existence. 

1000. In the structure of sentences, the relations of words are 
indicated by particles. The adjective and noun constitute a com- 
pound. The verb, in all its forms, is nothing but a participle. 
As we might expect, the parts of discourse are scarcely distin- 
guished. Intonation here, as in Chinese, plays a conspicuous 
part. Like the people of Southern Asia generally, they rather 
sing than talk. 

The languages of Siam and Anam are classed with this. 




1001. From the Indian we naturally pass to the Malay lan- 
guages. This class, from the peculiar and new phase in which 
it presents language, is very important as well as very extensive. 
Its rdbts plainly extend far into the Indiam idioms, but as an 
individual growth, it has much to distinguish it from its neigh- 
bors. The whole family is decidedly infantile in structure ; yet 
some of its members are more so than others. The leading 
members of the class are the Malay proper and the Java tongue. 
We will start with the Malay, and notice the others in the order 
in which we come to them. 

1002. One of the most striking features of the Malay is the 
inordinate growth of inseparable particles, often where none 
exist in other languages ; but the character of those particles, 
prefixes, and suffixes, are like those of all tongaes; thus, from 
a^a=be, they get A:a-a^«an ==jBxistence ; Tne-rnvkol^^ to beat, 
from pvkoly strike — p changing to m after me. 

1003. We find here, too, in a strong light the variation in the 
forms of words according to what they are associated with. At 
the same time, with the great growth of the particles spoken of 
above, there is an absolute want of what should correspond to 
the Latin case, gender, and person endings — of everything that 
belongs to inflexion. We find double or repeated words very 
common; as, radiorradia, for princes (L. reges)-, kcUa-icata, 
word-word (words), (Fr. mot). And we should remark, that 
much as the members of these duplicates seem to resemble each 
other, they are still very distinct and different, and one is used 
as a mark or determinative for the other; this is clearly estab- 
lished in Chinese. 

Orang laki'laki — person (man) male-male, i. e., a male man, 
a male; ka^pada rumah (L. domus, room) — to-wards (the) 
house; deri-pada rumah — from-away (the) house (double, and 
even treble, prepositions are common, like our daum-alang»nde^ 
away-fram^ fram^heneaik) ; dengan tvlong nahi — by aid (of) 
prophet (genitive without sign) ; pukol akan andieng itu — 
strike. to dog that (one) {akan is often used as a mere sign of 
ace., and tfu as a sort of suffix the); mata hart — eye (of) day, 
(t. e., the sun) ; hamba punia ouang — I (=my^ own silver. 

Mati= dead ; kor-mati-an = death ; boat = to do ; per-boat^n 
(a) work ; baier = pay ; pemrhaier « payment ; peng-Uaa^ fol- 


lower (pew^ is prefix); kawal=tO'gaa.Td; peng-awal= (a) guard; 
samorsama, together, Ger. sammen; ber-sama-sama-anwEM union; 
kuda (Goli) putih — (a) horse white (adj. generally after) ; but, 
putih kuda radia — white (is) horse (of) king. The verb he is 
generally left out, or it is represented by pronouns, as inSemitic, 
as / that = I am. 

Leheh manis deri-pada (by-with) gula — more (leheh) sweet 
by (than) sugar ; ter-ladiu, very-rapid ; ter-lebeh ttta, very great 
old, very old ; ka-mana (to-where) tuan hendahpergi (L. perge) 
— where (do) thou (prop, master) wish (to) go f apa tuan man 
(must) maka — where thou must (will thou) eat (or eating) ; 
martkor-itu — those-there, they; akupuma — I (my) own; mata- 
mtt=eye(of) yours; awaMaw = son-thy (thy son); kapala- 
Tim = head-of-his (ma, his). 

Prefixes to verbs are common ; di-pvko-nia = his striking, he 
Strikes, or struck {di is a mere augment) ; yang haik — which 
(is) good ; itu, the, that, L. id; ini, this, L. hinc, Slav, on ; sirapa 
= the- which, what; orang mana itu — man what that? (what 
man is that); yang am-punia ruma — who (whose) the-own 
house, I. e,j to whom belongs the house ; ia-itu «• this-that, 
that is. 

Ada is used for 6e, and (ii-CTc/t = become (ada with augment); 
ada-lah pada hamba — (there) is to mc (I), i, c, I have (lah 
is not person ending) ; hendak ada — will be {ada, Fr. ete, Turk. 
idunif our the and that') ; orang ada maka — man be eating, t. e., 
the men are eating, they eat; dia diadi kata — he becomes 

Men-diadi-kan radia — to-make-be king (causative o^ diadi — 
kan is often for infinitive ending, but not for that alone) ; ter, 
like Ger. ge, is pass. part, sign, as ter-^w^w = written, ter-bunoh 
«■ killed ; bri, give, bring ; pergi, go (thou) ; mari-lah, come ; 
hata and burkata, speaks, says ; apa kata kamu — what say 

Di-tidor-nia = he slept, or sleeps (nia = his) ; tidor ==■ sleep 
(thou); dia akan tidor — he (is) to sleep, i. e., will sleep; ada 
tidor — is sleeping (see the absence of person and verbal ending); 
sudah tidor, or telah tidor, having slept (sudah and telaJ^ are 
both used for have and having, but they are called adverbs — so 
lagui, yet, now, is tised in place of is) ; ber-tidor = to sleep ; 
ka-tidor-an, also ber-ka-tidor-an, sleeping, in sleeping (see the 
growing particles, like our accumulated consonants at the begin- 
ning of words, as strip, for rip, dispense for spense, secede for cede; 
dialan = to walk ; kamusudah dialan — thou hast walked ; tdah 
bur-dialan — have walked. 

1004. Most of the prepositions, adverbs, and conjunctions, are 
rendered familiar by keeping in view the forms of the Indian 


languages ; s-m, W^, s-ana, m-ana, and many others, are com- 
pounds, the-thi8, the-thatj for hercj t?iere, then; so the preposi- 
tions dcdam, Fr. dam, in; arah, around; ka^ to, A: = t — conj. 
dan = and. 

1005. Prepositions have pronouns as a sort of affix ; aSypada- 
ku =to-me {ku) ; pada-nia^ to-him ; humi dan languit — earth 
and heaven ; hidorku (A:w=my) =« my horse ; kudarmu= your 

. horse ; anak manusia itu — son (of) man the (one) (suffix art.); 
itur-lah dunia ini — is world this (the) (is this world) ; gigiganti 
gigi — tooth for tooth ; ^a^o-nia «> saying (nia is a verbal ending, 
as well as pronoun) ; ber-kata-lah ia = said he ; kamu tdak 
munungar — ye have hear (heard); hapa-mu yangada dishorga 
— father-K)ur who (he, that) be (art) in-heaven. / 

Sagala fihak fihak — all part part (all parts) ; ka-rwrnah-mu (thy house) ; . dA}%a dosormu telah di-ampuni — 
sin sin-thy (thy sins) are forgiven (fe-Iah^ is,. the, that) ; buat- 
lah inimaka di-buat-nia itu — do this and (maka^ doeth-he it 
(he does it); akan di-bri — shall give, for giving, i. e., shall be 
given ; teAah mati — is dead; telah ber-bang-kit deripada (up- 
from) matt — was risen from dead ; telah datang — is come. 

Kata kamu aku ini — say you I (am) this. It seems to be a 
leading feature of Malay to develop a verb be from he, the, this, 
or that, Malay only thus illustrates a universal principle ; ini-lah 
aJeu handaJc buat — this I will do ; audah mati-^ was dead ; telah 
hidop — is alive ; yan ber-nama Yakya — who by-name (named) 
John (was named). 

Subab tiada di-kunaUnya {nya = his, he) akan (the) suara 
orang-orang-asing — for not knew-he the voice (of) man-man- 
stranger (strangers, or strange ones; akan is sign of ace.) ; orang- 
«^~man-the, the one; aku burkata pada-mu — I say (&wr is 
prefix) to-you {mu « you) ; ahi ini-lah pintu — I am door (mi 
= this, and it has lah the verb ending) ; aku-lah gombala yang 
haik itu — I-am (lah verb end.) shepherd which good the, i. c, 
I am the good one ; mum-bri (mum is ^ref.)jtLa'nya ganti domba 
%tu — (he) gives life-bis for sheep the (the sheep); angkau ini- 
^a itvrdia — I this-he (am) that-he, t. c, I this-here (am) that- 
tliere, for 1 am he, 

1006. We notice a great abundance of conjunctions, for which 
we can find no place in translation ; just as we say, now*when- 
therefore he went, for when he went We have given this large 
amount of space to the Malay, to illustrate some of its many 
peculiarities. The order of words is remarkably i^atural to us--^ 
but their form and composition are often strange. . Besides this, 
the features which we have noticed are common, more or less, to 
all of the class, and they will not need to be noticed again. 


1007. J A VAN : The Java idiom runs closely parallel with the 
Malay. We find, here, the same absence of proper inflexioD, of 
case, number, gender, and person ending, the same duplication 
of words, the same abundant growth of inseparable prefixes and 
suffixes, particles which have not yet gained an independent ex- 
istence. The prefix si represents an undeveloped article. Not 
only are many new terms formed by doubling, but the initials 
are often doubled after the manner of the Greek reduplication. 
Personal pronouns are not used for lifeless objects ; we find suf- 
fix pronouns, as aku tuku omah'tnu — I buy house*your. 

1008. One of the most common prefixes of the verb is met, so 
often seen in Malay and Semitic. The prefix ha, seen often in 
Malay, is used, among other purposes, as a sign of past participle, 
like ge in Ger. ge^sehen^ ge'tnacht. Tenses are marked not by 
developed endings, but, as in Malay, by proper adverbs or aux* 
iliaries. New words are formed by compounding or uniting 
different words, as well as by doubling or repeating the same 

There is so little in the grammar of the Java idiom that is not 
Malay, that we need not dwell on it farther. The orthography 
alone is somewhat different. The Java alphabet is peculiar, 
while the Malay is written in Arabic. 

1009. Macassar : One of the Malay class is the Macassar, 
a leading language of the island of Celebes. We find the same 
prefixes here in like abundance as in Malay, and very nearly 
every feature found in Malay and Javan, is found here also, and 
but little more. In this, as in all the related languages, there is 
great want of individuality in the words ; they have all a strong 
tendency to run together. 

1010. In this language there are no relatives, and possessive 
pronouns are suffix. Derived verbs are formed by doubling, and 
by using the prefixes a, maj ni, ta, pi, ka, pa-ka, and si. We 
find the ending ang very common ; it is the Malay an, our -ing, 
4on, as in per-form-ing, per-form-ance. It is clear that all these 
prefixes and endings have their representatives with us. ^ 

1011. Many verbs are made by compounding two different 
words, as akanatodjeng = to true-word (make), i. e., to make an 
oath, a being prefix, kana =word, todjeng = true. These com- 
pounds are treated in all respects as simple verbs, and as such 
they receive the ordinary fixes. The prefix ni, Malay di, else- 
where ri, is use^, like ge in German, for pass. part. ; as, ni-^alle 
e= (been) taken, alle, take ; ni^huno = killed ] ni^gau == become 
blue, make blue; and ta, Malay ter, is used also as participle 

1012. We find here, as in Javan, (it is) true his*word, i. e., 


his word is true; inakke asare — I giving, i. e., I give, gave, 
have given, should give,, etc.; ikatte asare — we giving, etc.; 
inakke ni-sare — I (am or Was) given ; also, hv^sare — I givq, 
gave, etc.; ki^sare — we give; na^s'are — he give (pronoun 
united with verb as prefix — a Semitic feature); asare^ya=^ 
give I, i. e., I give, gave (it also means give me); asar€-dj'a=^ 
give*ever-I, i, e., I ever give, am giving; osare-s-a = give-once- 
I; asarc-A;an^-— give-we, i. c, we give (give-US') . 

1013. These added or inserted adverbs, so called, are plainly 
the result of a tendency to develop auxiliaries, precisely as L. 
am^ah-am = loving-was-I, loving-did-I, I loved. As we might 
expect, it tends to develop obj. and subj. pronouns, like Semitic, 
at the end. Adverbs are, as in Malay, used to denote time as . 
auxiliaries ; as, lebah^ past, done ; leba kursare — already-I-give, 
t. 6», have given; or the personal, as with our auxiliary, unites 
with the adverb, so called, as leba^ka a«are— already*! give, 
have-I given, did-I give. 

The alphabet is one of its own. 

1 014. Kawi : The Kawi was once a language on the isle of 
Java, and no doubt on some of the neighboring islands. Its 
precise relation to Javan and Sanscrit is not yet determined.' It 
has the grammar of the Javan, but many of the words are San- 
scrit* It represents, no doubt, an ancient growth of the Malay 
class, which has been long since dead. It evidently stood nearer 
to Indian than the modern Malay idioms do. 

1016. Its article is sang, Malay i/ang, who, and the si and se 
of others ; ka, Ger. ge, is not only passive sigh, but it is often 
used elsewhere ; sa =one, the, is a prefix denoting the singular; 
ma-nama, by-name, named-— this is the common Semitic and 
Malay prefix, used for adjectives as well as verbs. 

1016. Here, as in all the class, it is a prominent feature to 
find the verb a mere verbal noun, and the nominative pronoun 
in the poss. or instrumental case ; as, my giving, or giving by 
me, for I give ; my seeing (was) star = I saw star. As We might 
expect, we do not find a real passive in these languages. All 
the passive we find is made by the use of verbal nouns with he 
omitted. A word without the least change may be used as verb, 
noun, and adjective. 

1017. Hawaii Language : Still more infantile in structure 
than any we have so far noticed is thfe Hawaii, or the language 
of the Sandwich Islanders. It is one of the members of the 
Polynesian branch of the Malay languages, a branch which may 
be said to represent Malay, and indeed language in general, in 
itfi least advanced stage. The Polynesian idioms are those of a 


savage people, with the usual features of savage idioms, but with 
a greater tendency to develop itself, and far greater inherent 
power for that development, than we find in the languages of 
the wild Americans. The numerous members of this Polynesian 
class are unmistakably connected with each other, and more 
remotely with the Malay. 

1018. In these languages, dififerentiation in classes of words 
has gone but a little distance ; there is scarcely to be found either 
clauses or accent ; even our individual words are hardly distin- 
guishable in the molten mass This is the history of all wild or 
uncultivated languages. It is worthy of remark, too, that there 
is a great predominance of vowels over consonants. Vowels are 
clearly earlier than consonants. 

1019. In all savage idioms, speech has but few variations, few 
notes ; there is much of singing about it, but it is mostly like the 
singing of infants, merely an up and down, up and down. 

1020. Inflexion we find, of course, at zero. We give the fol- 
lowing illustrations : wahine maikai — wife good, wife (is) 
good, or good wife; wahine kane-make — wife (of) man-dead, 
i. e., a widow (we havej. here separated the words, but they are 
found united together) ; haawiy to-give, haawi»ia^ be-given (ia is 
pass, ending, it is the Malay iya). Duplicates are numerous ; 
keik% child ; keikirkane^ male-child, i. e., son. 

1021. There is, as in Malay, much of prefixes, and some, as 
ke^ ka^ na, are called articles ; ke»kanaka — the-man ) ka-^mea 
— the-thing ; kuu mea — my thing ; keia mau mea — • the some 
thing, i. c, these things ; kahi, one, ke-kahi, the-one. The sin- 
gular is often used for the plural ; o = the ; o na mea — the 
these thing3, i. e., the things. 

He is used for the article and for be ; he aina maikai o Fa^ 
rani — be (is) land good the France (good country France is); 
he maka no ka maka — be eye for an eye ; o ka moha nui Nu 
holani o na moku a-pau ma ka honua nei — the this island great 
(one) New Holland (of) the those (no) island the-all (^a^pau) 
in (ma^ the earth here (largest of all islands) ; ia (he) is used 
for preposition. 

1 kei la — on this day ; kana hana — his deed ; kana oleh — 
his word; o-ke keiki hipa — the (p-ke) child (of the) sheep 
(lamb) ) or, a-ka hipa — of-the-sheep; ko is article and preposition 
also; ko Aigupita — to Egypt; na lima — the hand (hands); 
(no = the and o/) ; no Fertisia — of Prussia; ma = in and 
where, really a pronoun (it is in this language that we particu- 
larly see prepositions and he identical witji pronouns). 

lo makou nei — to us here; au and zoaw = I.(Mal. ahu) ; 
oe and oukou = thou, you (Mai. kamou) ; ia and na = he (Mai. 
i^a, nia) ; all these pronouns have prepositions corresponding 


with them, and these again unite with these pronouns ; thus, 
na-na = of him, his, o-na^to him ; ko wahine — thy wife; kela^ 
that ; wei, here and now ; lakou net — see here (look) ; ta kanaka 
la — the man there, that man ; wai, who, which ; ka inoa wax la 
— the name which there? (what name) ; %a-wai= whom ? o-wai 
= whose? mc = with, as, and how; me ka lima — with the 
hand; poepoe ka honua — round the earth (is). 

1022. As we have seen in the languages before, verbs are not 
properly varied with inflexions such as we have, but they develop 
particles or auxiliaries like prefix prepositions. They are prop- 
erly augments ; e, mat, o, tor the present and future, i for the 
past, as s in Greek; ke is used like that — indeed, all these 
augments are clear pronouns. 

Ana, which we found in Malay equal to -ing, is here also ; ke 
ola-^a, the living; a{=he, have, shall, and pass, sign — the ii/a 
of Malay ; aloha, loves, aloha-ia, is-loved ; ike, see, know, ikeia, 
seen, known; ho-tke, let-see (cans.); ike-ike and ho-tke-ike, see 
ofteh ; e ^by, m^to; oia ka mea au e-haawi aku net ia-oe — 
this the thing (is) (which) I (by-me) give thei'e now to-you (e 
is present sign ; ia is dat. sign) (the thing which I give you). 
Mark the abundance of adverbs. 

Ka-u keia i-haawi aku ia-oe — I (by-me) this gave (giving, 
with past mark i) there to-you ; e-haawi ana aku — giving there 
him (e and ana are both present or continuing signs) ; ka mea 
e-haawi-ana aku — the one giving there, i, e., the giver (mea = 
thing, one) ; ka haavrirana — the giving; o oe no ke Akua nana 
i'hana ka-lani — the thou art the God he (who, by whom) made 
the-heaven (no = indeed, but it has the place of 6e) ; nxirna = 
by-him (ka is article or ace. sign, i is past sign). 

1023. The simplicity of this language is its difficulty for us. 
There are many other points which it illustrates, and we regret 
to be obliged, for want of room, to stop here. Its relation to 
the Malay, through all its variations, is never lost ; very many 
of the words are clearly Malay — and others can be discovered 
with a little effort. Through the Malay we connect the Poly- 
nesian with Sanscrit and European. Nothing could be more 
interesting than to compare with European the forms of many 
related elementary words in Malay and European, but there is 
no space for it. • We should find many surprising identities. 
Pronouns, numerals, and all particles, are easily traced back to 
those with which we are familiar. 

1024. All the Polynesian languages, particularly the Eastern, 
as the New Zealand, Fejee, Tonga, Tahitian, and Marquesian, 
have the general characteristics of the Hawaii. We find aug- 
ments to denote tenses, particles or prepositions as signs of cases, 
the same abundance of adverbs, and the use of one and the same 


word for present, adverb, pronoun, auxiliary, and augment or 
prefix (proving the oommon origin of these parts of speech and 
elements, here at least). As in all the Malay, except Tagale, the 
adjective follows. Here we may give some of the forms of the 
pronouns as we find them in Malay, Jav., Bugis, Mad., and Tag., 
in order : I, aku and ku^ haku, iyak and idik^ zao and ahou, aco 
and co; thou, angkau and kau, kowe and ko and ?A;o, ano and no^ 
tea and lyo and tayo ; he and the, ii/a and i/ang, hiya, yatu^ izan, 
siya and niya, 

1026. Madagascar : An interesting language of the class, 
and possessing the usual characteristics of the Malay proper, and 
Javan, is the Madagascar. Here, all verbal prefixes begin with 
m : soulon, a change, ma-noulon (h for «), to change ; /outsi, 
white, ma-Tnoutsi, to whiten. The prefix c?c, the di of Malay, is 
very common here, and, though an augment, it has the real 
value of be, is. The passive (or intransitive) is used in prefer- 
ence to the active ; so, rehe/a hitcf.'ny ny Petera izany — ad see- 
he (his) by Peter this, i. e., Peter he-saw this (-wy = his) ; mi- 
tady, he seeks ; nitady, has sought ; hitady, will seek ; tenses 
are formed by a change of • initials, as well as by augments or 

Izany no sorata-ny — this is write-his (he), he write this, is 
his written ; ary no ny efa nilaoza-ny ny Devoli izy — and was 
the been (efa, past sign) leaving-he (by-him, his) by (by-the) 
devil he, i. c, he was left by him the devil, the devil left him 
(jty = his, the, by, and by-the). 

1026. Tagale : Another important Malay language, of the 
Phillippine class, is the Tagale. The words do not vary by in- 
flexion, but, as in others, they use particles separate and fixed, 
fts verb is perhaps the most complete of the Malay class. It 
has, like others, a fondness for passive in place of active. A 
peculiarity, which we find, too, in Malay, is the insertion, so 
called, of 171 and un after the initial consonant. "We find some- 
thing like it in Semitic ; but we regard it rather as a new form 
of the initial than the insertion of a new element ; so, from hating, 
cut, cutting, we get h-in-atlng-an, cut-been, been-cut (in being 
inserted, and an the passive end.) ; can-in mo ito — eaten-been 
by-you (mo) this, i, e., eaten or eating by you, or you eat, will 
eat, this; i-higai mo — given by-you, you give (there are three 
styles of passive -—t as prefix, an as suffix, and m) ; in is future 
and impera. sign ; from sulat, writing, s-um-ulat, to write. Pre- 
fixes ma, mag, and man, are very common ; ma is intrans. and 
passive sign. Reduplication of initial syllable, as in Greek, 
prevails here ; it is used in the present. 




1027. The transition from the Indian languages and the 
Malay, to the Thibetan, is both easy and natural; Thibet lies 
to the north of India, and the idiom has evidently much of its 
history in common with the Sanscrit and its related tongues. It 
is already conceded that there are many points of resemblance, 
and it is certain that as we become more acquainted with it, we 
shall find it built on the same foundation as the Indian lan- 
guages — and hence, too, the same as the European. It is, 
indeed, a very different growth from any European or Indian 
language } but the elements, the base-forms, are the same as in 

1028. There are the pronouns, the reliable index in all cases, 
nga, I, L. ego ; kht^od, thou, you (Hy = (y = y in ye — r- pr trans- ' 
pose JlJid to dkh, Ger. dich) ; kho, he, who ; Tide, this, the, there, 
h being prefix; sou, who — ♦also cAi, Ital. che, our that 

A little examination renders the numerals familiar ; there is 
dfug, six = sigs; dun, seven — other forms, chet and sat/t; gad^ 
eight— other forms, jpay< andpe^; gu, nine, g = n', dju, ten, « 
two; la, five — other forms, w^a and nam; fschi, four — also 
pou; smm, three — also sam and thum; nntss, two — also «o, 
hait; djig, one, a, an — also nin, noo. These are easily com- 
pared with European and allied forms. 

1029. Then take, besides, such leading words as dje, tongue; 
8SO and /an, tooth (fang); lag, hand, also me, ma, Fr. main] 
nawa, nose; hu, go ;hou, head; ma, mother; pa, father; ««a, 
earth, L. terra, &k ge; la, moon, L. liina; me^ fire; — then 
the verb and the verbal endings, which we notice elsewhere ; 
also the particles. 

1030. As we have found in so many other languages, we find 
liere also a great abundance of prefixes ; but they are yet so 
feeble, in most instances, that though they e?:ist in writing, 
they are mute in pronunciation, exactly as our p in psalm, or h 
in hour. It is clear that these are as much prefixes as those in 
the Thibetan— and so in all other cases where words begin 
with a consonant. There are endings like those of Latin ; they, 

.too, are not of strong growth ; they are often silent or but feebly 
expressed. This language presents the Chinese feature of small 
^ords — generally mere monosyllables reduced to the smallest 
possible ; as, va, fox, na, malady, kka, snow, na, fish, m, earth, 
djo, master. 


354 P^RA8IS. 

1031. In inflexion, it has mucli of the Malay character — 
everything is expressed by particles, so called ; they represent 
inflexion in its earlier stages. There are endings following nouns 
and adjectives, corresponding to suffixed articles, and grown into 
gender endings, like the -w«, -a, -wm, of Latin. So we find mi- 
vo, the-man (yo = the) ; mi-mo, the>man (fern.) ; lag-pa, tie- 
hand (jpa =the). Sometimes we find double endings; as, hyed- 
pa-po — the-doer, i, e., do-er-the (j?a = -er). Cases are ex- 
pressed by preposition endings, sucn as hi and gi for gen., la for 
dat. We look upon these endings, as with those of Latin, bs 
the development simply of the suffix articles just noticed. 

1032. In regard to the adjective, we notice that when it is 
placed before the noun, it takes no case particles, or it assumes 
the genitive form, just as in Latin we use the same unvarying 
form ejus, of-him, his, for the full number of cases of its noun; 
as, by his (ejus) act, his (c/ws) act, his (efus) acts. But when 
the adjective follows, it, and not the noun, takes the case end- 
ings, just as we place the preposition before the adjective alone, 
as /or all times — and for like reasons in both ca^9, that the 
whole unites as one unit. 

1033. The verb is pretty well developed for an Asiatic lan- 
guage. The present participle ending is pa, corresponding to 
our -ingy a variation of this, par, is the infinitive ending. Aux- 
iliary verbs are used in the formation of tenses. The past part. 
has* the same ending, pa, as the present, but on a new base, 
apparently just as we find in Latin two infinitives, esse sudfutsse. 
Such aux's as do and make are often used ; as, do go forgo. The 
perfect is only a past part, used as a tense ; we find augments 
also. The future is formed as in German, he go, or become go^ 
for win go. The imperative takes sometimes the dative form, 
as our infinitive to go ; we find this so in several (rther languages. 
Bronouns are used before verbs just as we use them; taking one 
form of the verb for all pronouns, there being no variation for 
nvmber and person. 

1034. The arrangement of the words is somewhat peculiar. 
The verb is placed at the end of the sentence. The use of the 
instrumental, or ablative, for nominative, is favored ; we find it 
before transitives and passives, and the nominative before in- 

1035. The passive is a mere verbal noun, and so is not dis- 
tinguished from the active, except in the use of the instrumental 
pronoun ; thus, ngas khyod rdourtg-har hyed-do — by-me thou 
striking (inf.) make (hyed'do, make-do, do-make), i. e., I strike 
thee, or thou art struck by me. Another important point is the 
making a participle by adding the particle jing to the verb ; as, 
smrorjing, bay-ing. 


1036. There are many points of interest in the language, but 
none of importance that have not been illustrated under other 
heads. The alphabet is peculiar to it, and is after the Sanscrit 
style ; we also find letters connnected together and placed one 
above the other. 



1037. The Japanese has many of the characteristics of the 
Thibetan, but it is perhaps nearer related to some forms of the 
Chinese than to any other. Here, as in other Asiatic idioms, 
we find but three parts of speech are recognized by the Japanese 
themselves ; they are noun, verb, and particles. They seem to 
be conscious of no other classes, and indeed they are all that 
can be said' to properly existun .these idioms. 

1038. There are suj£z gender signs, and, as in Thibetan, 
suffix articles and case signs; as, fito-va^ man-the, or a man; 
JUo-no^ of-man ; fito-'wo^ man (ace.) ; fito-ni^ to-man ; Jlto-bito, 
men. The genitive, like the adjective, precedes. As in all 
Asiatic' tongues, we find much of the so-called determinatives, 
base-words of a compound ; as, Egypt-land, for Egypt, Paris- 
city, for Paris. We may notice the pronouns ware and waga, I ; 
nandzi, thou ; ano-Jlto, this-man, he ; ko-r^j ko-no^ this ; so-re^ 
so-no, that ; to-re, to-no, who, which ; a-re, a-nOy he, this. In 
the verbs, there are no person endings, and the tenses are based 
on the participle, and compounded after the usual manner with 
be ; thus, ware aro, I am ; are aro, he is ; ware atta, I was (has). 
The subj. ends in ha, as ware areba, that I be. We^nd verbals 
with A»to= thing as ending; aro, to be, aro-koto, be-thing, being; 
atta-koto, been-thing, been-being, or being-been. 

1039. The past tense is a participle. The passive ending is 
rare, as act. age, pass, age-rare. Doubling is very prevalent. 
Prepositions follow. The progress of inflexion here is indicated 
by the following : koro, (Fr.) le noir ; korosa, noir-ceur ; horoki^ 
noir, noire (black); AioroAo, black-like; korosi, ifr-black; koro- 
moro, noircir ; koromo, se noircir (blacken). The use of pro- 
nouns is rare. 

1040. The Japanese writing is much simpler than the Chinese, 
but is evidently connected With it. They write down in per- 
pendicular lines. The language exists in several different forms 
or dialects^ 




1041. If we except the country north of the Great Deserty 
where we find Arabic in some of its forms, and also Egypt and 
the country of the Ethiopians, where we find other idioms of the 
Semitic family, we may say that Africa presents us with a wholly 
new and peculiar class of languages. They are the tongues of 
people wild and little known to us, and we find the language 
untamed and uncultivated. Our progress towards an acquaint- 
ance with theln is very slow. However, one by one, at intervals 
more or less long, a grammar of the idiom of some new tribe or 
nation appears, and we are gratified with the consciousness that 
Our sphere of vision is becoming more and more enlarged, and 
that the data on which we are to found our conclusions, are be- 
coming daily more and more extensive. 

1042. Yet we must not suppose that these wild tongues, how- 
ever peculiar they may seem, are without their relatives, in Asia 
at least. The idioms of Eastern Africa are neighbors to the 
Malay class, exhibiting strongly its leading features ; while the 
idioms of Southern Africa are evidently also connected with 
Malay or Semitic. Through these southern idioms we may 
connect those on the western coast with the languages of South- 
ern Asia. 

1043. As a people, all the tribes of Africa are too insignificant, 
too ill-defined, and too little known, to admit of. any labored 
account of their idioms. Speaking generally, we may say that 
most of the chief characteristics of the great Malay class also 
prevail here in the African languages. 

1044. The first thing that impresses itself upon us, more in 
some than in others, but strong in all, is the prefixes or augments. 
Many of them are used to perform the usual office of prefixes in 
other languages — but very many more have not developed them- 
selves into any individual significance. We see these prefixes 
in great abundance in the Herero, a language of the western 
part of Southern Africa. We find here such prefixes as omtt, e, 
oka ; as, omu-ndv.^ man ; omu-ko^ region ; oha;^ which is reaJly 
an infinitive prefix, like our to, is used also as an ordinary noun 
prefix ; oha-oko, arm ; oku-ripamrhu^ pride. 

1045. Many of these prefixes clearly identify themselves, in 
use, with the Malay articles. Many of them are doubled, or 
receive a new pronominal element with them; such are the 
double prefixes Wrdi^ im-hay inrga. We find others thus^ amvr- 


na-t^ti^a=^ the- with -hating, i. c, the hating one, the enemy (an 
= with). 

1046. The common origin of these prefixes with demonstra- 
tives, or pronounSj in the first place, and with prepositions next, 
is proved over and over again in these tongues. We notice in 
all these languages an entire absence of all that labored system 
of case, gender, and person ending, which characterizes the 
Greek and Latin and others of their class. And yet we find in 
all these languages, in some more than in others, an evident 
tendency to develop this very system of inflexion. Hence, we 
find a general absence of those marks which with us, and others, 
distinguish the noun, adjective, and verb from each other, and 
the same form unchanged may be used to perform the office of 
any one of them. 

1047. In the Namaqua or Hottentot, in South Africa, we find 
the pronouns take the place of a suffix article and case ending ; 
as, koicy the man ; koi^a, the men ; kots, thou man ; koi-da, we 
men — proving the identity of pronouns, case-endings j and arti- 
cles. So we find ba here as a dative ending ; thus, kov-ha^ to 
man — this ba is a clear demonstrative, and we shall find it also 
with the verb ; di is in like manner used as a genitive sign. In 
Akra, or Ga, we find tse, among others, as a sort of determinative^ 
or ending ; thus, man-tsey sien-tse, friend ; dien-tse, self. 

1048. In all these languages, we find diminutives more or less 
developed ; as, in Zulu, a form of Caffer, in South Africa, wi/a= 
dog, m/ana == little dog; tw?«* = house, inlwana^ little house.. 
In this tongue, we find nouns derived from verbs, distinguished 
by a certain prefix, as im in im-hazo = an ox (from baza). So, 
in Suaheli, from soma=^U> read, we have w-«cwm»= reader (show- 
ing that this im, m, is the Semitic prefix m of verbals). Infin- 
itives are used as nouns, retaining their prefix uku; as, uku^ 
hamba, going. 

1049. The plural is not generally well distinguished, but in 
Zulu, as in others, we find it varying .thus from the singular : 
umuntu == man, abantu = men ; irdu = house^ izinlu = houses 
— ^being a change in prefix. 

1060. The adjective generally, in the African languages, fol- 
lows the noun, showing its participial or verbal character. Com- 
parisons are expressed by dififerent contrivances ; as, in Herero, 
mountain this goes above that, i, e., is higher than that ; honey 
this very fine by thaty i, e., is finer than that. In the Ewe lan- 
guage, of West Africa, adjectives formed by reduplication are 
very common ; as, dso-dsoe == right, ko-ko, holy. In short, redu- 
plication appears evefywhere in the African languages. In them, 
too, we find the adjective used aa verb, just as if we should use 
wise for is^iscj was-wise. 


1051. In Zulu, we find adjectiyes of elements like this, the- 
withstrengthj for strong; as, umuntu u na-manla — man the 
with-strength (na = with); umuntu o na-manla — man who (is) 
with-strength, i. e., who is strong. The absence of is in African 
tongues is general. Verbs as well as nonns can be used as 
adjectiyes, with the affix ^o, and that, too, not only in the present 
but the past ; as, inkosi e lungUe-jo — king the good-being, i. 6., 
being good, the good king ; umuntu o hama^jo — (the) man the 
wandering, t. e., who winders; izinto e ngi zenzile-Jo — (the) 
thing the I heard, i. e., which I heard. In all these cases, the 
yerb is turned into a true participle, and e and o are used as 
augments = the, who. 

1052. We notice particularly of the Zulu adjectiye, that it is 
preceded by prefixes which yary according to the initial of the 
noun preceding it ; as, umuntu om-kulu — man great, i. e^y great 
man (kvlw^ great); into en-hvlu — thing great; isika esi-kvk 
— - tub great. Properly speaking, the real adjectiye hardly exists 
in African, and it is rarely used. In some of the tongues at 
least, the attributiye adjectiye yaries in form from the predica- 
tiye, as de and cfeto, den and denen. In some cases, the single 
adjectiye is used in one application and the duplicate, or double, 
in the other. 

1058. In the African class generally, the pronounis thou and 
/ exist independent, but the demonstratiyes, and hence the per- 
sonals he^ it, and she, tend to identify themselyes with prefixes 
and suffixes of nouns and yerbs, and tney are generally foiind as 
such. In Zulu, this is particularly eyident ; there^ as in Herero, 
the personals of. the 3d person and demonstratiyes seem to haye 
a yery close connection with the noun ; they are mere forms of 
the noun prefix, and yary according to the prefixes of the noun 
they are associated with ; 2iS,jena for he, when the noun prefix is 
um or u, and sona when it is isi-^— also kona when it is uku. So 
We find le in-doda — the husband (U with prefix im). All this 
shows that the personal.and demonstratiye are mere duplicates 
of the noun and yerb augments. 

1054. Here, too, the interrogatiye is to be referred back to 
the demonstratiye, and questions are made thus : ini loku na — 
what this here ? ini na are used together equal to what, but both 
are demonstratiyes ; so, again ) into ini loku na — thing what this 
here ? i. e., what thing is this ? leli Hike lijini — that (the) stone 
it what (Jini, what that), i. e., what stone is that? h umuntu u 
jini — that man he what, t. e., who is that man? 

1055. Relatiyes here are only demonstratiyes of a certain kind, 
yarying according to the noun they are found with ; for example, 
Uizwe elirmkaulo u kude — (the) land which-limits (whose-lim- 
its) it far (are far) (di is noun prefix, eli is relatiye prefix, really 


.= a, the that, but here which, whose) ; umuniu tU-zwe lake li nar- 
mania — (the) man the-word his it mighty, i, e., a man whose 
word is mighty ; ikald u li tandajo — (the) horse thou it hold, 
horse thou hold which, i. e., which you hold ; amadoda e f^gi 
honile wona — (the) men which (e) I seen them, or which I have 
seen ; o ngi huluma huje — whom (o) I speak to him (Je), i. 6., 
whom I speak to. 

1056. The use of pronoun for verb he is also common ; thus, 
in Herero, oami Jehova — I (am) Jehovah; oete imh-a — we 
(are) this. Here, toe, the separate personals used as object 
are before the verb ; as, ami me hii tono — I, I thee strike, or 
I will strike thee. The superfluous pronoun is very common ; 
as, the m>an he speaks, for the man ^eaks; a/mi a/mi ani — I, I 
who, I who am I. 

1057. In Namaqua, the personals are all demonstratives; so 
is the interrogative. The pronouns of this and other African 
languages, are easily referable to those of Semitic and South 
Asiatic ; for instance, in Akr% ene and no, the, this ; le, the ; ni, 
who. . Here, too, all the augments, prefixes, and auxiliaries, are 
seen to be pronouns, or it is seen that pronouns are not different 
from these augments. The same thing is seen very clearly also 
in the Oji. In the African languages generally, we may say thj^t 
pronouns, in all their kinds, are found both separate and as fixes ; 
the relative, like conjunctions, being usually absent or repre- 
sented by demonstratives. 

1058. With, regard to the verb of African tongues, we notice, 
nerally, that regular forms for tense and mood are not found, 

ut that they are indicated by augments and auxiliaries. So, in 
Namaqua, koiba ma, man gives ; koiba go ma, man has give 
(ao perf. sign). We find, here, tita ma — I give, or ma-ta, give- 
i; ^0,. ma-ta go, give-I have, have given. The imperative and 
infinitive here are the root ; there is a participle ending la, as 
moria, giv-ing ; ge and a represent the verbs he and have (really 
they are pronouns) ; tita ge koita, I be man ; koih ge ma, man 
be give, does give, gives. 

1059. As an instance of that repetition, that superfluity, so 
often found in uncultivated languages, we instance this in Na- 
maqua : tita ge ra ma — I be do give, i, c.j I give. The passive 
in this language is a form of the active ; as, tita ma-he — I am- 
given (he being passive sign). In Zulu, the passiye differs from 
the active, thus, loha (active), lokwa (passive); tanda, love, 
tandwa, be loved ; hvhisa and hujiswa ; to form causatives, they 
use is or isa) as, hamh-isa, from hamha, to go ; gi hamha, 1 go ; 
ga hamha, I went (change in gi, the pronoun); go hamha, I 
shall go (pronoun changed) ; gi hamhMe, I have-gone (ending 


1060. The help-verbs are ha (be), ja (go), and za (come); 
gi nga hamha — I can go. In Akra, e is the augment of the 
perfect, as in Greek; as, /o=to do evil, c/b=has done evil. 
We find here a great many compounds of two verbs, one of 
which grows into a simple auxiliary ; as, go-Bee (go and see), for 
see; take-show (take and show), for show;-Ae walks and goes 
Ga, L e., he goes to Ga; read this story show me, i, c, read to 
me this story. 

1061. In Herero, as in Gaffer, there are many derivative forms 
of verbs ; as, suta, sutisa, sutika, sutira, having causative, reflex- 
ive, and other meanings. Here, as in Zulu, tenses and moods 
are indicated by augments and auxiliaries. In Herero, ri^ be, 
r{ra= become. In Oji, mi-kOj I go; wo-ko, thou go; o-ko, he 
goes ; ma-ko, 1 (have) gone ; wa-ko, thou (hast) gone (change 
of pronoun, as in Zulu); mi-be-ko, I will go; wo-be-ko, thou 
wilt go. It is hardly necessary to remark that in all these lan- 
guages, the participle and its class are scarcely developed. 

1062. In Ewe, as in all West Africa, there is a great heaping 
of verbs to express a single idea — all but one being a pure aux- 
iliary; thus, he brought (a) sheep come give me, i. e., brought a 
sheep to me ;. A€ took his boy (to) go (to) stand up, i, e., stood 
him up. Many of these form-, or help-verbs grow, in some 
languages, to be conjunctions and prepositions, and their origin 
is thus shown. 

1063. We find in all the known languages of Africa, conjunc- 
tions, prepositions, and adverbs. The last are more numerous, 
being mostly pronouns, nouns, adjectives, and verbs, used ad- 
verbially, just as we find in other languages. Gonj unctions 
especially are rare, and so are prepositions. Sentences and clauses 
are detached, or they are connected as the elements of our com- 
pounds without a conjunction. In Herero, it is said, there are 
only four real prepositions, mu = in, pw = by, ku = np and on, 
n>a = with ; all of which are pronominal in their character. 
Many others are compounded from these, taken with some 
noun or pronoun, like our in-stead, inr/ront =hef ore, 

1064. But m many instances where we use prepositions, they 
express the relation by the verb alone. The conjunctions in 
Herero are almost identical with those four prepositions already 
named. We find here, as in all languages, but particularly in 
Semitic, nouns used as prepositions; as, in Ewe, ta, head, dsi, 
cover, gbo, side. In Namaqua, the prepositions are principally 
to be referred back to a verbal origin, and stand regularly after 
the noun. 

1066. We notice particularly in these lan^ages, a scarcity of 
abstract terms, and a multiplication of words by reduplication. 
We find mai^y points of resemblance in orthography, not only 


between the languages themselves, but between them and the 
languages of Europe and Asia. We find reduplication, or repe- 
tition, to express frequency of action, plurality, etc. ; but we 
notice often a slight variation in one of the duplicates, juat as 
we find with us. We might remark that all our cases of verb 
with kindred objects (or any other) are also duplicates ; as, dream 
a dream, ask a question, talk a talk, see a sight; also, one-hy-one, 
here-and'ihere. * 

1066. A very noticeable peculiarity of the South African, is 
the clacking, geese-like sound of their talk ; in short, it may be 
remarked that in all the rudest languages the talk partakes more 
and more of the character of the clacking, chirping, or even the 
singing of birds. 



1067. The aborigines of the New World, the Indians, present 
lis with a class of uncultivated languages, difiering considerably 
from those we have already noticed ; yet the more light we get 
on them, the more do we perceive that they are built on a basis • 
precisely similar to those of the Old World. As they have no 
literature of their own, that is, as their language is not tangible 
and we are left to the uncertainties of oral discourse, we can make 
but a slow and unsteady progress towards an acquaintance with 
these American idioms. Using such information as we now have 
upon the subject, we will notice a few of the features of some of 
the languages coming under this head. The Greenland tongue 
we will notice first. 

1068. It possesses that leading character which marks the Amer- 
ican languages generally, namely, long words and few of them ; 
every word is here properly a whole or condensed sentence. 
The pronouns are developments not yet detached from the noun 
or verb; thus, igdhm^^hi^ house, igdlut=ihj house; takuva, 
he sees it ; takusava, he will see him ; takuvat, thou see it ; 
terianiak takuva — (the) fox he-saw-him (he saw the fox). 

1069. In the noun we find developed endings like the Latin 
case endings, and equal to them ynunane, on land ; nunamit, from 
land ; nunakut, overland. Interrogative form of verb, takuvauk, 
saw he him ? takulerpa, begin to see him (a variation of takuva). 
In fact, we find generally in^hese idioms much that partakes of 


862 PHBASI8. 

the nature of inflected forms — especially a great variety of forms 
of verb like the Semitic. 

1070. The demonstratives are familiar to us ; ma, here, tcus, 
there, uv, here ;. manga^ from here, mana, this, na that and what; 
kina, who, mk^ what, kikat, which ; nuna-ga, my land, nun-ei, 
thy land, nuna-mit, of land, nunaunit^ of my land. 

1071. Nominative and objective forms exist; as, nuna, land 
(obj.), nunap (nom.); so, tasek (ohj. \'tatsip (nom.). Even the 
particles are developed at the end like the Latin -qv>e, -vcy -ne ; 
pitmtj the poor, pitsutdlcy but the poor ; kavane, in South, kavanv' 
lunit, or in South. Some particles are separate ; tokuvok angur 
nito — he-is-dead his-father-also, i, 6., he and his father are* dead ; 
angune tokungmat, uterpok — his-father-when he-was-dead, he- 
came-back (when his father died); kitomanut tumupa — to-his- 
child he-gave-it; kajak issiyara omikatit — (a) kajak I-saw- 
him he-comes-to-you, i. e., I saw a kajak who came to you. 

1072. Many of these particles which we use, are not expressed, 
or they lie latent in the verb, showing, as we understand it, that 
every sentence, with its pronouns and particles, is a pure growth 
of the verb of that sentence; so, in naparssimassup misigilerpok 
— he-began-to-mark that-he-is-sick — the first being a growth 
of the verb mark, and the litter, of the verb-adjective sick (a fine 
illustration of the growth of the parts of a sentence in all languages. 

Nuna-vtinit kanipok — by-our- lands he-is-near (he*near). All 
adjectives in this and other American idioms, are real verbs or 
participles ; as, nuna panertok — land the-dry, being dry, which 
is dry ; they develop endings, as I-great = am great, Tie-great 
= is-great; igpagssak kikia'lia^ra — yesterday my-made-nail 
(Jdkiak is naU, liak=lia has the force of made, ra= my). 

1073. Participles, infinitives, and moods, have their own end- 
ings ; tenses are not much distinguished. Prepositions follow 
the noun. We notice here and throughout the class, that a dif- 
ferent object makes a difierent verb ; so, they might have the 
word wash in was'h'hands,2indL another verb to express washrface, 
t. e., they do not always generalize as we do. What we consider 
as the same kind of action, known by one common name, they 
mfigr look upon as quite different, and on the other hand, for very 
different things, they have names which can hardly l)e distin- 
guished, that is, they generalize often where we particularize or 

1074. The absence of abstract,, insensible, ideas exists every- 
where in the American class of languages ; they can think of 
this tree and that tree, my tree or his tree, beech tree or pine tree, 
but not of a tree in general, i, e., of no particular tree at all. We 
notice in all these Indian tonguej, that they do not see things 


as indiyidualsy but always as being somewhere and belonging 
with something. Their sentences are not made up of words, but 
they seem to be struggling to grow words out of sentences. 

1075. In Dakotah (Sioux), we find a suffixed article, hm.; 
toicaxta-kin — the man. The adjective follows the noun ; as, 
maha waxta — land good; from which we judge that the adjec- 
tive is a true verb or participle. .Poss. pronouns are prefixed ; as, 
ta-wa =his God ; ^a-t(7aZa=his ship. So the persons are known 
through prefixes ; as, wakaga=:l make, ya-A;a^ai= thou makest, 
kaga =he makes ; wa-ni, I will, yorni, thou will, ni, he will ; ni 
lUa= he make will, will make ; toai/a = I am ; yaya = thou 
art ; ya = he is. Prefixes are prominent in this language ; as, 
na^on;= hear, na^a=»flee, 90-^171=3 stand; in like manner the 
prefixes ana^ ko, o, etc. There are many verbs with ending ya, 
the verb be ; cawte-ya = love ; iye-ya = make. The passive, 
infinitive, moods, tenses, and participles are hardly differentiated 
here ; they are either indicated by particles, or known by con- 

'1076. There is a general tendency in all these languages, as 
well as elsewhere, to conjugate all parts of speech, that is, to 
treat them as verbs. It should be borne in mind, by the way, 
that when we put a noun, adjective, adverb, etc., after &e, we 
treat it as participle, i, e., as a verb ; thus, is here, is on, is a man, 
is good. So they also take the word man in the sense of being 
a man, and from or on this develop the pronouns ; as, he-man 
=he-being-a-man, or he is a man, all a development of man. 
This is not strange, when we bear in mind that with us gO'er=s 
one-who-goes, and this latter expression contains no more than 
goer-one, the who being represented by the development er. 

1077. In the Lenapi (Delaware) language, we find the adjec- 
tive and noun united; as, chingo^teney = greai village (chingae 
= great, and ofewey= village. Indeed, in all the wild tongues, 
we can say that the parts of the sentence, short and frequent 
as sentences are, constitute one undistinguishable mass. 

1078. Ki'soghen-injenin «=«I take you by the hand (one word, 
or the growth of one) (of this, the part 8ogenaut=^ take, grasp, 
onir^ima s? hand, ki= thee) ; soginikenin = take-by-the-hand- 
him (nininj=mj hand, kining^ thy hand). In these conglom- 
erations of words, we do not find the fiiU form of the separate 
elements, but only a part of them, indicating that those parts are 
not full grown. We find this mutilation of elements in the com- 
pounds of other languages not American. In the first example 
take-hy^hand is plainly a growth on hand as a basis — and we 
may call to mind our own handle, from hand, which may be 
used for take-by-the-hand. And the moment it gets to be a 


verb, it may of course also develop nom. and obj. pronouns, like 
any verb. 

1079. Let us take one term more : qmta'gischg'ook = serpent 
which fears the day (and lives in the earth) ; the first part indi- 
cates quitameu = to fear; (7iscA^w = light, day; acJigood= ser- 
pent (a fear-light serpent). We find in this language, as in 
others, many prefixes. Here, as elsewhere, the person sighs of 
verbs are prefixes to them ; as, n^pendame ■» I understand, n-pen- 
dax{= I am understood. 

1080. We will dwell a moment on the Huron, one of the mosfc 
instructive of these wild idioms. They have neither derivative 
nor compound forms as we 'have. No noun is found without its 
pronoun — not /afAer alone, but his- father, my-father, etc. Thej 
are without the use of pure abstract terms. Their adjectives are 
pure verbs. They do not speak of good and bad alone, but tbej 
always use those words as a verb } thus, he is good, you are bad. 
And'if they do not have separate adjectives, they neither have 
separate verbs, as walk, go, cut. Active verbs are fouDd only 
with their objects ; as, .cut-wood, cut-head-off. The same is true 
of the Mexican verb. To take the verb away from its object or 
subject, is an abstraction unknown to them. They have no pre- 
positions or conjunctions. They do not have distinct forms to 
denote act, actor, acting. Tenses hardly exist. Such are some 
of the points in the account given of the Huron. It accords 
with our notion of what a language most infantile would be in 
these respects. 

1081. There are many points ,of identity which we. find be« 
tween the different and even remote American idioms, especially 
the prevailing n for I, k for thou (as in Semitic). In the Peru 
tongue, carni=l am, co-ng^wi = thou art, can.«=he is, or they 
are; mamai/=mj mother, maman= his mother. In Mexican, 
nuauh =1 go, ti'auh,j-auh = he go ; 7no-ma=thy hand, mo-ca 
== you with, no-ca = me with ; ni<,a = I am, ti-ca = thou art,. 
ca = he is. This language and that of Peru seem more elevated 
than the other Indian idioms. 

1082. The importance of any of the American tribes as ^ 
people is not sufficient to justify here any extended review o^ 
these idioms. We have given only briefly a few points in whic?^^ 
they particularly instruct us. They are languages embryoni-^ 
and more or less chaotic. They give us positive proof of wh^^ 
embryonic language is. In so far, and only so far, are the^^ 
Valuable at present. 




Reduplication, > 

1083. No feature is found more universally in language thati 
reduplication. It is found in all idioms, but it is most promi- 
nent in the wildest and rudest tongues. It is in these languages 
that we see most clearly that doubling is the leading and origi- 
nal source from which new terms are got — doubling not only of 
syllables but of words. This phenomenon continually impresses 
itself upon us, meeting us everywhere, at every step and at every 
turn, forces us to conclude that language in its whole growth 
and in the growth too of its parts, is a mere result of the working 
of the principle of repetition. That language is in the likeness 
of a living organism, following the laws of a living organism, is 
a fact admitted by all intelligent philologists of the present day. 
The proposition itself is not denied, but the notion of it is crude 
and imperfect; it needs time and thought to enable us to feel 

• and see that language does live and grow. 

1084. But if language does live and grow, it must live and 
grow as the animal, the plant, and the crystal, for all things 
grow alike. And what is the fundamental law of their growth ? 
It is development by repetition; this is plainest in the lowest 
orders of creation, and it grows dark as we reach the organism 
which is more perfect, more intricate. In the plant we see the 
leaf, even the twig, the branch, repeated hundreds of times. In 
the lowest animals, which are still far above plants, we see the 
same arm, the same foot, the same segment, repeated, with 
scarcely any perceptible difference, over and over again. As we 
rise higher in the scale of being this likeness of parts, this dou- 
bling, becomes obscured. The highest animal has just as many 
parts or organs as the lowest, but they have become differentiated, 
so that in quadrupeds, for example, what things we find so much 
alike as to be called by one name, we find again in man so much 
unlike that we call one set arms and hands, and the other set 
legs and feet. 

1085. But even in the highest organism, as man, there are 
certain parts of the structure that evidence this duplication prin- 
ciple most clearly; there are the two ears, two eyes, two feet, 
the fingers, the hairs of the head, the te^th, and the like. Go 
^here you will in the living creation, you will find all increase to 
"be a continuous repetition of one model, as one cell followed by a 
like cell, one bud followed by another bud, one segment by a 


like segment, one arm by another arm. And if when the being 
is arrived at maturity, we find the highest parts differing from 
the lowest in character, the skillful naturalist can show you 
where this difference is apparent and not real, and that the two 
most remote parts of the body are yet repetitions of one type. 
No new part is ever created ; one structure has as many and the 
same parts as every other structure. To repeat illustrations 
given elsewhere, the elephant has a trunk and tusks, but they 
are only a developed nose and teeth; the wings of the bird and 
bat, the fins of fish and the claws of the crab, arc only develop- 
ed arms and feet; the shell of the tortoise is but the internal 
framework of bones of other animals, here gtown upon the out- 
side. In chemistry we find the same evidence ; a few simple 
elements lie at the base of all things, that is, all things are made 
of the same ingredients repeated over and over again. (Even 
the number of these few elements is becoming less and less, as 
we become acquainted with their character). 

1086. The picture we have given of the living creation is the 
picture as well of language and its parts. We need only take a 
comprehensive view to perceive this truth ; in fact, we may use lan- 
guage to illustrate growth in nature generally. The Eight or 
Ten parts of speech are the development of one type, and we can 
easily trace them all back to that common ancestry. The dif- 
ferent letters which we find in the alphabet are the growth of 
one single letter, or at least of a very few; and it is the repetition 
of this one, or these few, which constitutes the framework of so 
many thousand words. Words repeated or words growing upon 
words make new terms; these new terms by doubling again pro- 
duce new terms of a higher scale, as leaf follows leaf and twig 
follows twig. Terms make phrases, phrases make sentences, and 
these again make composition, and all by growth, all by the re- 
petition of like elements. There is no true compounding, no 
putting together of old parts ; all being one from the other or on 
the other, as we find budding in plants and the lower animals. 

1087. We have seen elsewhere that the letters of the word 
are duplicates, as the hairs of the head are duplicates; the words 
of every term, as that from adjective and noun, of every phrase 
or sentence, are repetitions of words having meanings in fact 
alike, without which likeness they would not grow together. 
The cause gives character to the effect, the parent cannot beget 
that which is not in harmony with its nature. When we say the 
fisher fishes fish with afishline (fisher), every one sees the repeat- 
ed words, and yet the same kind of repetition exists in every 
sentence. When we say the man catches fi^h with a hook^ we 
use man = fisher, ca^cAe5= fishes (a particular kind of fishing), 
Aoo&= fisher, fishing-thing (sometimes used in fishing). 


1088. Bnt then there is about this tenn and idea of repe- 
tition, something to be borne in mind, in natural history as 
well as in philology. Nothing is properly repeated; it is only 
that imaginary thing, the form, that is thns repeated. The 
b of book is as different from the b of boy as o and y, or o 
and k. However mnch alike any two doubled words or doubled 
letters may be, they are yet besides as unlike, as distinctly in- 
dividual, as any two other words or letters. So, again, in living 
beings, similar as may be our two eyes, two ears, two hands, they 
are nevertheless, too, very distinct, very different, things; one 
never does and never can take the place of the other. 

Interrogative Expressions. 

1089. The difference between interrogative and affirmative 
amounts, when carefully sifted, to nothing. We know indeed 
that we use i^e relatives who, whichy and whatj as interrogative 
without any change of form and meaning; we know, also, that 
we can take an affirmative expression, as i/ou spoke, and make a 
question of it by adding the interrogative sign, thus, you spoke? 
Again, the very form which we commonly denominate interrog- 
ative, as d^es Tie speak f is not peculiarly such ; we use it in cases 
not interrogative ; as, does he speak, (then) all listen, t. e., if 
he speaks. Every subjunctive expression is one which con- 
tains a question, and is hence interrogative. Our ordinary 
question forma, aawJuU (did) he say?, imply another part which 
is commonly suppressed, as I ask what did he say, or what he said ? 

1090. Every question is a dependent form, like a subjunctive 
expression, governed by some such verb as ask, wish-to-know, 
etc.; thus, can he reisd^^Iwith to know {if) can he read, or 
tM me (if) he can read. Hence, we must insist that our ques- 
tions are subjunctive, questionable, doubtful, and not, as gram- 
marians say, indicative. While our question-form differs often 
from the indicative, we must bear in mind that, in very many 
languages, there is commonly no difference at all in the arrange- 
ment. In many cases, a particle is used with the form to indi- 
cate doubt or question, like our if he speaks, does he speak, 
whether he reads, perhaps he reads = does he read? All such 
words or particles in any language indicating doubt or question, 
are pure interrogative marks. 

1091. Negative forms are closely related to interrogatives. 
We can say equally can he read?, or can he not read?, will you 
take this? or will you not take this? It is as true in philology 
as it is in philosophy generally, that the negative is a form, a 
growth of the affirmative, or that both are different developments 

. 868 PHRASIS. 

of the same form ; thus, ignorant denotes knowing^ but a particu- 
lar kind of knowing, i. e. knowing nothing or little ; so, unsuc- 
cessful is a kind of successful^ and the former is a growth of the 
latter by a development of the prefix ww, just as wrong \& a form 
of righty and there a form of here. 

1092. We must identify negatives with opposites ; the opposite 
of heat is cotd^ and we may call one the negative of the other, and 
still one is just as positive, as real, it is as much something, as 
the other is — so, taking is as positive as giving, minus is as pos- 
itive as plus, low as high, empty as full, bad as good. 

1093. The idea should be forever banished that a negative is a 
nothing, a nonentity; that nothing is not a thing as well as some- 
thing is. We have more than once had occasion, etymologically, to 
identify what are usually considered the most opposite terms, as 
hig and little^ one and none, few and many^ to and from. We 
have noticed in other languages a regular class of negative verbs; 
based on the affirmative, they are merely a departure from it, as 
our cant from can^ mistake from take^ undo from do — just such 
verbs as de-har^ in-lay^ dis-cover. 


1094. Every instance where an adjective is joined to a noun 
affords us an example also of a compound; and we must bear in 
mind in this connection that the case of one noun joined to an- 
other lo denote a single object, is one precisely that of an ad- 
jective joined to a noun — every adjective being a real noun in 
an oblique case, and always to be so considered. 

1095. But the real question under this head is, how two names 
usually denoting each one thing, can come to be so united as 
together to denote but one object. It occurs to us that these 
two names, however much we may endeavor to unite them^ never 
do cease each to denote their own object, though it may be true 
that one is more or less slighted, as road in rail-road. Express- 
ed in other words, we are using two names to denote one object, 
with the design of being more specific or definite, exactly on the 
same principle as we say a tallold-oak-tree^ one which is tall, old, 
and of oak. That the name rail may be used to denote the ob- 
ject known as a rail-road^ may be seen by such expressions, as 
goods sent hy rail, travelling by rail, 

1096. Another kind of compound is found in such expressions 
as Clayton- Bulwer treaty, i, e. the treaty of Clayton and Bulwer, 
the South-Atlantic ocean, i. e, which is south and Atlantic. 

1097. So that we conclude any two or more words joined togeth- 
er by any connective, as tall and straight, men and women, better 
than that, men of talent, nails with heads, iron for wheels^ constitute 


a true compound, and just such a one as talented men, headed- 
nails, wheel-iron. It will be remembered that in the Eastern 
languages the great body of compounds were found to be words 
thus connected. We now understand that there is a reason for 
such expressions, in Hebrew, as the choice of thy valleys, for thy 
choice valleys, the strong of shields, for strong shields, and a reason 
why we say the fashion of the place, for the fashiondbleness of 
the place. 

1098. Compound sentences are as much compounds and just 
such compounds as we have found in words — they are made up 
of two or more inseparable parts, elements, and yet the compound 
is practically a unit, a single sentence. How two sentences as 
this is the man, whom 1 saw, i, e. this is the man, him I saw, can 
ever become one sentence, is just as incomprehensible, for it is 
the same question, as how we should ever come to consider one 
thing as being two, or two things one. It is the identical ques- 
tion of the idea of number, and one not so easily solved. 

1099. It will have been observed long before this, that the lin- 
guistic system of this work is based not on the current doctrine 
that two things unite and form one, but, reversed, that one thing 
develops, grows, and manifests the new elements not as real, separ- 
ate individuals, but as formerly latent, covered, folded parts now 
becoming visible. This idea is illustrated and repeated in the 
history of every living, growing thing. The majestic oak now 
with its thousand leaves and scores of boughs, once emerged 
from the ground a simple, single, stem, with all its parts folded, 
compressed, encased. It has displayed its innumerable parts, 
but all the while it remains in number simply one, an oak. So 
it is with words that grow into parts, and so it is with the sen- 
tence also. 

1100. In the sentence named above, if we take the idea of 
one sentence, we must consider whom I saw as an adjective, or 
rather participle, belonging to man; that is the relation it now 
holds to the main body of the sentence. The word whom as a 
relative is known to be an adjective; it has a tendency to become 
independent, just as the personals, originally adjective pronouns, 
are now become individualized; — in this respect, the relative 
stands as a sort of transition from the adjective to the personal. 
As before suggested, whom-Lsaw is a true participle =<Ae-«cen- 
one-by me; indeed we say, he is the man seen by me, he is the 
man Lsaw (me-seen, my-seen). It is very clear that whom is 
not the object of saw, that it is the mere development of a parti- 
ciple prefix, like the in the-seen-one. We have no doubt that all 
adjective expressions like these in compound sentences, are the 
growth of participles at first suffixed to the main verb in a rude 



1101. All other compound sentences are to be referred back 
to the relative class as the original one, especially those made by 
connectives, as and, as, when, all of which are pronouns, and 
more than that, relatives also; thus as=8k-osz=za8=who; Fr. 
que = which = and, as ; when z=: which ; if= L . ibij vM, where, 


1102. After having discussed the other moods as we have, 
little need be said of the imperative. In all languages, it has a 
history in common with the infinitive first, and with' the future 
and the subjunctive next — all of which are often used for the 
imperative, though they may differ from it considerably in form. 
With a uniformity remarkable, in the different languages, the 
imperative is the shortest, barest, form of the verb — -so much so 
as to give us often what is called the root of its class. 

1103. Indeed there is very little of the verb about the imper- 
ative ; it is a mere term of exclamation, and partakes most of the 
character o£ an interjection. When a man exclaims in terror, a 
tiger ! a tiger 1 he uses an imperative as much as if he said see ! 
see ! If 1 say roam where we will, I use roam as a mere abstract 
noun = a roam be it where we wiU, or be the roaming where we 

1104. The imperative, being identical with the infinitive, is a 
dependent, objective, term always governed by some implied 
verb, as 1 wish that, or ask that, or demand that you do this, 
for do this. Hence, we easily understand how it tends to identiiy 
itself with the form of an oblique case; thus, in Latin, rc^c^imp. 
rule; is identical with rege=zhj a ruler; and audito=heaTthou, 
and hear him, also auditu=zwitli hearing; and ama= love thou, 
aM^i=hear thou, have the form of an ablative singular. G'k 
imperatives have case endings; witness on'tdnz=gen. plur. 

1105. It is worthy of remark that the simple form of the 
Latin imperative, as ama= love, is condensed for am^t, for we 
find another form of the same, amato ; besides, it is often seen 
that the iinperative is a mere departure from the 2d sing, prest. 
ind. (or subj.) amas, ames. But amato may perhaps better 
show the supine in the abl. case. In G'k, too, tupte (imp.) = 
tuptet, as one of the forms is tupteto. The old L. es^uc?=be 
(imper.) also shows the ablative^ 




1106. We frequently speak of words being understood or im- 
plied; we seem to imagine that a word expresses or indicates 
more than it does express or indicate, that a wOfd means moxQ 
at one time than it does at another, more when it stands alone 
than when accompanied by other words. Thus, we say that in 
the expression the wise are esteemed, wise means wise men, or wise 
people. The point which we must first settle in discussing this 
question is, wliai is the difference between the wise' are esteemed, 
and wise m>en are esteemed? There is certainly a difference in 
the forms of these expressions, and is there not an equal differ- 
ence in their value and nature ? In the first case, wise presents 
to the mind one idea, that of a certain and distinct class, the 
wise; in the next, there is an attempt made tQ direct the mind 
to two objects, two classes, at the same time, men and the wise 
of men. But as it is impossible for us to think of two objects 
at the same time, when we turn to one, we must lose sight of the 
other ; we think of the wise or of mew, according as we emphar 
size, or accent, the former or the latter. It is a mistaken idea 
that wise is not as much the name of a class as men is, and that 
one is not as much adjective or noun as the other. All such 
terms made by the adjective and noun are compounds, two inde- 
pendent words united, precisely as in any other compound j — as 
in stone-house, hammer-handle, 

1107. But more than this, in all such cases, when we mean 
to speak of wise men as a class of men, distinguished or marked 
by their wisdom, the adjective, so called, is the real principal, 
and men is the real adjective, the cipher. It is not men that are 
esteemed, it is a class, a part, of men; it is the wisdom, and not 
the manhood. Nouns following adjectives in this way are the 
determinatives, the radicals or general terms, which prevail in 
the Asiatio languages. They are the kind of thing named, but 
the adjective points out the what of that kind. The denominar 
tor of the fraction represents the noun, while the numerator, 
which tells how many or what, is the adjective. Anid just, as 
the numerators, and coefficients, are alone added, subtracted, an4 
divided, leaving the denominator, the thing ns^med or nuniber- 
ed, to follow along as a valueless and uqnoticed element, so it is 
precisely with the adjective. 

1108. The point always lies in the adjective; that is the real 

872 I»HRASIS. 

subject. When we say we like good men, or tall men, or sweet 
apples^ or sour wine, it is not the men, or apples, or wine in gener- 
al, that we like; it is only a certain kind of these classes ; it is 
the goodness, the talln^ss, sweetness, sourness, that strikes us so 
favorably. When we say ten hooks vrlll suffice, we have no re- 
ference to what will suffice, the thing, the kind, but rather how 
much, or how many, and that point lies in the word ten. Hence 
ten, we apprehend, is the real and only subject — ftoo^s being 
parenthetical, adjective, valueless. If we say ten of books have, 
the ancient of poets have, much of money has, this of business 
has (all which are common and prevailing forms in other lan- 
guages), no one would for a moment doubt that the adjective is 
the subject, and that the noun is the real adjunct or adjective. 
Why is not the fact the same in the equivalent English express- 
ions, ten books, ancient poets, much money f 

1109. But if the point does lie in the adjective, if that is the 
real and only subject, of what use is the noun following it? Of 
the same use as the denominator, the thing numbered, in Arith* 
metic — this and no more. But numbers are alone considered 
in Arithmetic, while the thing numbered is continually lost 
sight of. This is exactly the case in language. When we speak 
of a certain kind of thing, denoted by the adjective, we lose 
sight of the thing to which the kind belongs ; and though the 
kind is not dropped in print, or in conversation, it is so disre- 
garded, so slighted, in pronunciation as well as in thought, that 
we leave it unaccented, and it passes along for a mere cypher. 
In language, as in mathematics, as soon as the subject of thought 
or conversation is named or known, we need not have it repeat- 
ed again; we deal after that only with adjectives, with marks 
that point out who, what, what kind, exactly as in mathematics 
we deal only in numbers,* or marks which indicate how many. 
Thus, speaking of John, we say : he (or John) rises early in the 
day, prepares himself for its labors, and sets about performing 
them ; at night (he) may turn back and see what (he) has ac- 
complished. Observe that the subject appears but once for all 
these verbs ; and should it ]^e named before each one, it would 
be none the less a mere cipher. , 

1110. We now begin to see how one word may represent 
several words, as is often said, and we see what the real state of 
the case is when words are said to be implied. We say the vnse 
are esteemed (instead of wise men"), because the point lies only 
in the adjective, and the noun falls off a^ useless. (It is usual- 
ly said, in such case, that the adjective stands for a noun. This 
is not correct, for wise, if it stands for anything, stands for wise 
m,en. But is there not a palpable absurdity here, when wise 


is assumed to stand for, or be equivalent to, itself and something 
more ?) 

1111. We observe still further, that in the expression mse 
men are esteemed, wise and rken both of themselves indicating 
a class, one or the other, in the thought, must be eliminated, for 
we cannot speak of the wise and of men also. If we give the 
adjectives the force, we wish to distinguish the wise from the 
foolish (nothing said or thought of men) ; but if we give the 
force to men, we wish to distinguish men from those who are 
not men (nothing said or thought of wise, or any- other class of 

1112. The student cannot be impressed too thoroughly with 
the idea that nouns point out a kind of thing, to distinguish 
from some other kind of thing, precisely as the adjective does ; 
that a noun may be or is understood after every noun, just as 
much as after wise in the expression the wise are esteemed. 
There are hook things, men persons, hoiLse property, tahle articles, 
exactly as there are good things, wise persons, this property, that 
article. We speak of servant, and that is a pure noun ) but 
servant is a serving one •— it is really the Latin form of our 
serving, and no more. Our words, senior, level, walker, wader, 
youths, a black, a gray, we see clearly are adjectives, and only 
adjectives ; — other nouns are just such adjectives, though their 
history may not be quite so plain. And as no one thinks that 
any noun is understood after such nouns, so no one should thinks 
of supplying a noun after adjectives used alone as these nouns 

1113. The sooner we come to understand that many words 
stand unquestionably alone and independent, the sooner we shall 
find language a simple and easy thing. It is perhaps unneces* 
sary, so often has it appeared already in the course of this work, 
in different ways, and yet we reproduce it, and remark, that not 
only some adjectives have no nouns with which to be connected, 
but rather that no adjectives have such nouns, in the sense in 
which the proposition is usually understood ; that they each 
stand independent of the other, and are wholes in themselves, 
bearing latent, each in its own individuality, the essence of the 
whole clause. We see this most strikingly in the Chinese 
tongue, where there is no connection or agreement, and where 
every word stands apart from the others and independent of them. 

1114. And the difficulty which we so often experience when 
we undertake to dispose of adjectives in which we assume that 
something is understood, lies in the fact that we start upon this 
wrong basis, namely, that every adjective must belong to some 
noun. We all know that many adjectives do occur where it is 
impossible that any word should be implied ; such as, in vain, 

374 i*HRASis« 

at leastf at first, besides all pronouns and adverbs (whicli we 
know to be adjectives in origin). There are also those cases 
where the adjective follows the verb ; as, is glad^ grows warm, 
looks ^ne, stands erect ^ was mine : who would say that it is glad 
something^ or erect something f Just as much as in the express- 
sion he is an oratory it is orator something — just as n^h and 
no more. So in the case of participles, 9iahe is walking ; here 
we are wont to call waVcing a participle, i, e., an adjective, and 
to say it belongs to he. But it is well known that walking is as 
much a noun as any one can be which follows a verb in this 
way, and hence it need not have, any more than such a noun, 
another word to belong to. The original form of such expressions, 
it must be remembered, and that form still exists in many lan- 
guages, was he is a walking^ at or in walking,-7- in wnich the 
noun character of the participle cannot be mistaken. Again, 
we speak of the Germans, the Bomans (L. Romani) , and never 
* think of putting people after them ; so in tropics, blacks, ones^ 
skeptics. , . 

1115. But this fundamental error which we have spoken of, 
is not confined to adjectives. It is also wrongly assumed that 
every verb must have a nominative, while in fact many verbs 
have none (if any do). Thus, John reads a sentence, reflects, 
and understands (it). The subject is named but once, and it 
need not be repeated. The point is not who, but what. What 

9 does John do ? — Answer, reads a sentence^ reflects^ and under- 
stands (it). Will any one insist that those verbs ought to have 
nominatives? It is at least certain they do not have any. 
Again, what is John engaged in ? — answer, reading, reflecting 
(or reflection), and understanding. Do these nouns need to 
have nominatives forced upon them ? No. But all words are 
developments of just such verbal nouns as these ; and in their 
application, they never get to be more than verbal nouns, never 
have any more of expression or affirmation than • they do. In 
other words, to insist that every verb must have a nominative, 
whether it will or not, is to assume that every inflnitive, ev.ery 
participle, must have one ; it is to ipsist that every verbal noun, 
or one derived from a verb, as addition, reception, government, 
and the like, must also have one. We need not, then, say that 
many verbs have no nominatives, but that they do no more have 
them than all nouns and adjectives do, those derived from verbs 
at least. 

1116. In other languages much more generally than in this, 
verbs are without nominatives, it being assumed, as in Latin, 
for example, that the endings (which we have elsewhere shown 
to be a mere development of participial endings), represent 
nominatives. Again^ in all our cases where pronouns are assumed 


to be the nominative, we may say the verb really has none. 
When we say John writes and he reads, the he is valueless ; it 
is nothing but an augment or prefix. We have shown else- 
where that a Ae, she, it, and they, are only forms of the, an article 
which we know to be a meaningless prefix to the word that fol- 
lows it. We have seen in more than one language, they reading, 
the reading (ones, plur. form of part.), get to be they read, or 
represent it. We have proved over and over again that the 
verb in all its moods, tenses, and persons, is only the participle 
wrought up into different shapes. So when we say it rain^, 
there goes, they say, there is really no nominative ; it is not 
me^nt to say who or what goes, says, rains, but merely that there 
is a going, saying, raining (verbal nouns and no more). 

1117. In conclusion, we claim that words should always be 
treated as what they are, and not as what we would assume or 
wish them to be. 

1118. We turn next and consider, in this connection, the sub- 
ject of abbreviated words. Is there anything implied in an 
abbreviated word ? To use a paradoxical expression, is there 
anything in it that is out of it r By what right do we assume 
that Kob., or Bob, is a shortening of Robert ? We say a part is 
left off in the case of Rob. (-ert) ; hence, it is only a part of a 
word, only a part of Robert. Is that true ? Only a part of 
a word ! Is not Bob a whole word, a real name, as much as 
Robert itself ? We might as well claim that rise is a shortening 
of rising, or faith of faithful, or hit of bite. Words are not 
parts of words, or less than a word, because they are short ; a 
is as much a word as and, and as much a whole word. So we 
apprehend that ^ar, kath, meth, and aph, are just as much forms 
of Greek prepositions, and independent forms, as para, meta, 
kata, and apo, from which they, the former, are assumed to be 


1119. In looking over the Asiatic languages, we are struck 
with the unwonted abundance of general terms. They are 
wanting in that luxurious growth of endings which we find in 
European languages, and among other substitutes for these 
endings, they employ general or generic terms which are lost 
with us ; thus, they would say male man, for male, London city, 
for London, walk go, for walk, Persian man, for Persian, preach 
make, for preach, stranger man, for stranger, white metal, for 
silver, great water, for ocean. These general terms are known 
as radicals, or determinatives. 

1120. The Chinese radicals or keys belong in this category. 


Every Cliinese word has at least one of these generic or common 
names as an element. Those radicals have so little force, are so 
abstract and ethereal, that, although found in the written char- 
acter representing the word, they have no part in the sound of 
the word when spoken; they are unaccented — mere ciphers. 
They play a part eicactly as the ending of our words, such as 
'(msy in joyous, -er, in worker, -ment, in treatment, and we 
consider the two classes parallel in every respect. Some of 
these endings of ours grow into distinct individuality, and being 
detached, become themselves words. So in Chinese, of these 
keys, or radicals, some are found as separate words, while others, 
again, exist only as component parts of the word-sign. That 
these generic terms, these radicals, have grown out of or on the 
other part, the sound-giving and accented element, of the 
word-sign, just as oms, from joy, and er from work, we believe 
is capable of demonstration. 

1121. But it must be remembered that while those Asiatic 
languages which thus abound in these general and apparently 
superfluous terms, are by no means destitute of common end- 
ings, our own languages are quite as far from being destitute of 
common radicals. Every time we say go lost, for lost, go walk- 
ing for walk, take a sleep, for sleep, keep watch, for watch, stand 
talking, Delaware state, Albany c%, negro men, for negroes, 
loving ones, for lovers, ten heads of hors^es, for ten horses, we 
are using those very same meaningless, valueless, terms which 
we think characterize the Asiatic tongues. Our auxiliaries, 
such as do, be, make, go, keep, etc., belong here — so do our 
pronouns and particles. 

1122. Prefixes may also be referred to in this connection ; 
- they also are meaningless marks, having a general and abstract 

character, similar to those radicals under consideration. That 
they have no more ' value than these radicals, is seen by the 
numberless instances where the word which is found with the 
prefix in one language is found without it in others } as, the 
Latin ^e?/b=.expel, re-pel, paro ==:ap-pear, parozz= prepare, 
porto = trans-port, Fr. partir = depart. 



Abbreylations, explained, 157, 

Adjectives, what they are, 12; when found after verbs, 13; they hav» 

the nature of verbs, 14; their degrees, 15; numerals, 17; ac[j. 

and noun make a compound, 142, 143 ; they are developments of 

noun endings, 144 ; like verbs, 152 ; after nouns they are adverbs, 

153 ; how adj's and nouns agree, 154. 
Adverbs, 41 ; what they are, 42 ; their forms and history, 196 ; those 

of clear pronominal origin, 196, 197. 
Afghan lang., 827 to 835. 
After, its forms, 206. 
African lang's, 1041 to 1066. 

Albanian lang. and specimens, 802 to 805 ; forms of words, 806, 
American lung's, 1067 to 1082. 
Amharic lang., 904. 
And, its forms, 201. 
Anglo Saxon lang., its history, 593 to 599 ; it» forms and specimens, 

601 to 607, and 625. 
Aorist, 104: in Greek, 408; 1st Aorist of Greek, 410 to 413. 
Arabic, Etymology, 588; its forms, 901; selections, 923. 
Armenian lang. , 851 ; selections, 854. 
Articles, what words, 17 ; forms, 172. 
As, its forms, 202. 
Augsburg dialect, 650. 
Augments, defined, 109. 

Back, its forms, 207. 

Basque lang., or Iberian, its features, 714 to 721; speoimens, 722; 

forms of words, 723. 
Bavarian dialect, 651. 
Be, the verb ; in Gothic. 474 ; Ang. Sax., 476 to 478 ; Old Qerm., 479 ; 

French, 480 ; Italian, 481 ; Celtic, 482 to 487 ; Slavic, 488 to -19) ; 

Albanish, 494; Wallachian, 495; Hungarian, 496; Finnish, 

497; Mongolian, 498; Persian, 499; Arabic, 602; Greek, 608, 

Beluchees lang., 825. 

Bengali lang., 988 and 989; selections, 990. 
Berber lang., 978 to 976. 
Birman lang., 999. 

Bohemian, etymology, 582, ; lang. and specimens, 748 to 746, and 77d, 
Bolognish dialect, 703. 

Bulgarian lang., and specimens, 761 to 764:, and 776. 
But, its forms, 208. 
By, its forms, 230. 



Case, what are case forms, 8; names of cases, 9; in Latin, 51 ; names 
and forms in Latin, 54, 56; in Germ, and Ang. Sax., 9; in Latin, 
case-forms a variation of gender-forms, 57; they vary to corres- 
pond with verbs governing them, 68; oblique, 59; more than six 
in some lang's, 107; endings of case, history and forms, 111 to 
131 ; common ending for nom. case, 112 to 118; endings of all cases 
a mere variation of one tyne, 118; Greek cases like Germ, and 
English, 119, 120; ending*disappear in mod. Lat. lang's; Slavic 
case ending, 122; every genitive a plural, 133; identical with 
personal endings, and a variation of suffix articles and demonstra- 
tives, 129; adverbial endings belong with those of case, as well 
as verbal and part., 129; case endings in Polish, 123; in Bohemi- 
an, 124; they are a growth to represent prepositions, they add 
nothing to the word but grow out of it, 126. 

Catalan lang., 706; specimen, 711. 

Causatives, 520 to 625. 

Caucasian lang's, 836 to 867. 

Celtic lang's, history, 674; features, 676 and 687; Celtic mutations, 
676 and 677. 

Celt Briton, specimens, 680; forms of words, 681. 

Chaldaic, 899. 

Cheshire dialect, 612. 

Chinese lang., 876 to 893; writing, 885; specimens, 890 and 891. 

Circassian lang., 847. 

Clacking sound of African lang's, 1066. 

Cleveland dialect, 622. 

Comparison, of adj's in Latin, 61; not peculiar to adj's, 146 and 147; 
oompar. a form of positive, 147; every adj. a comparative, 148; 
really no degrees in quality, 149; and none beyond comparative, 
160; superlative endings, 161. 

Compounds, all duplicates, 145; all made of like elements, 194; dis- 
cussed, 1094. 

Conjunctions, what they are, 43; the list, 44. (See Particles.) 

Cornish lang., 679. 

Cornwall dialect, 613. 

Craven dialect, 623. 

Croatian lang., 767. 

Dacotah lang., 1075. 

Danish, etymology, 577; its words and Germ., 664; specimens, 666 

and 672; compared with Swedish, 667. 
Demonstratives, 173 to 177. 
Derbyshire dialect, 615. 
Derivatives, 626. 
Desideratives, 519. 
Devonshire dialect, 616. 
Dutch, etymology, 576; lang., 644; specimens, 645. 

Each, and any, their relatives, 187 and 188. 

Egyptian, 906; lang. and specimens, 965 to 969. 

Eight, its forms, 259 to 261. 

Endings, defined, 108; of case. 111 to 131; personal, 337 to 345. 

English lang., its history, 593; Old Eng. specimens, 608 to 611, 618; 

specimens of Eng. dialects, 612 to 624, 
Ethiopic, 904; lang. and character, 971 to 972. 

INDEX. 870 

Etymology, separating words into parts, 528 ; separating letters into 
parts, 529,530; that of Germ., showing the form which certain 
words of ours assume there, 576; that of Dutch, 576 ; Danish, 677 ; 
Latin, 578; Greek, 579; how its words identify with ours, end of 
579; of Russian, 581; Gaelic, 584, note on same, end of 584; of 
French, 580 — Fr. Orthography shows one letter equal to several, 
end of 580; Welch, 585; Hebrew, 686; Syriac, 687. 

Every, its relatives, 186. 

Even, Ever, forms, 209, 210. 

Ewe lang., 1062. 

Faroe Islands, lang., 662. 

Feminines, 137; agree with plurals, also fern's and abstracts, 139; 

fem's and 2d person agree, 141. 
Finnish lang's, 782 to 798; Finn, proper, 789; divisions, 790; and 

specimens, 791 to 793. 
Finite, what it is, 40. 
Five, its forms, 253 to 266. 
Flemish lang., 643 and 699. 
For, its forms, 232, 233. 
Four, its forms, 250 to 262. 
Forms of words, any case-form or person-form is a form of a word, 

237 to 139. 
Frequentatives, 510 to 514. 
French lang., its forms and history, 689 to 691; specimens, 692 to 

710; Old French forms, 697. 
Friesic lang., 642. 
Friulan dialect, 703. 
Future, in Latin, 430; in Pol., etc., 431; Wallachian, 432; Albanish, 

433; equals pres't ind. and subj., 484; in Goth., 436; inlUyrian, 

436; modern Latin, 437. 

Gaelic, etymology, 684; specimens, 682; compared with Irish, 683. 

Gascon dialect, 698. 

Gender, what it is, and the kinds, 4, 6, 6; endings in Latin, 52; its 

true nature, 136. 
Genoese dialect, 703. 
German lang., its history and character, 627, 628; specimens, 629, end 

of 645; pronunciation of Germ, letters, 630, note, page 167; 

forms of Germ., 631 to 636; Old Germ., Francic, specimens, 636; 

Old H. Germ, endings, 638 ; and its poetry, 640 641; dialects of 

Germ., 649; etymology, 676; their compounds like ours, end of 

Gerund, what in Latin, 71. 
Georgian lang, 848 to 850. 
Gothic lang., 652 to 656; specimens, 666 to 658; forms of words, 669 

and 660. 
Greek lang., idiom like Latin, 104; comp'd adj's, 106; articles, 104; 

Greek etymology, 579 — how words identify with ours, end of 679. 
Greenland lang., 1068 to 1073. 

Hawaii lang., 1017; specimens, 1020, 1021. 

Hebrew, etymology, 586; difficulties, 909; selections, 912 to 920. 

Herero lang., 1056 and 1063. 

Hindostani lang., 992; selections, 994. 

Hindee lang., 995. 


Hungarian, lang. and specimens, 783 to 786, 794; forms of words, 787. 
Huron lang., 1080. 

If, forms, 211. 

Illyrian lang. and specimens, 748 to 750; forms of words, 761. 

Implied words, 1106 to 1118; adj. and noun form a compound, in 
which one or the other must be lost, 1106; the adj. is the real 
principal, 1108 and 1109; the noun folio wing adj. is like the denom- 
inator in arithmetic, 1109; nouns have nature of adj's, 1112; 
adj's stand independent, 1113 and 1114; all verbs do not have 
nominatives, 1115. 

Impersonal verbs, 505 to 509. 

Inchoatives, 515 to 518. 

Indefinite pron's, 186 to 192. 

Indian lang's, 977. 

infinitive, in Latin, common ending, 69. 

Instrumental case defined, 107. 

Interrogatives, 23; compared with affirmatives, 1089 to 1090. 

In transit ives, 31 » 

Irish lang., compared with Gaelic, 684; letters, 686. 

Italian, its character, 700; specimens, 701; like Fr., 702; dialects, 708. 

Japanese lang., 1037 to 1040. 

Javan lang., 1007. 

Eawi lang., 1014 to 1016. 
Karelian lang., 798. 
Kalmuk, 870. 
Kentish dialect, 617. 
Kumanian, 870. 

Latin, grammar, 50 to 79; selections, 80 to 101; its etymology, 578; 
how easily it compares with Eng., end of 578; Latin lang's, 688. 

Lancashire dialect, 624. 

Lapp lang., 796. 

Laws; the working of one thing into different results, without losing 
identity, 130; that addding letters to a word gives no new sound, 
but indicates an old one, 539. 

Lenapi lang., 1077. 

Lesghian lang. with specimens, 889. 

Letters, the latent parts, 581 ; syllabic, 635; vowels implied in conso- 
nants, or latent, 535 to 539; the base stroke or key of consonants, 
640 to 548; our words like Chinese letters, 543; marked and single 
letters really double, 544 to 546 ; assimilation of letters, 647, 648 ; 
the form and value of the letters of the alphabet, showing the 
connection of each, 549 to 566; the order of the alphabet in Heb., 
Greek, and Russ., 667 to 671; other alphabets, 571; vowels, rela- 
ted to each other, 572; they unite in diphthongs from harmony, 
673; what vowels for ours, in Old Germ, and Lat., 67.4; letters 
never lost nor silent, end of 680 ; their harmony, note, page 184. 

Lettish lang., 772. 

Lithuanian lang., 765 and 769; specimens, 770. 

Locative case, 107. 

Macassar lang., 1009 to 1013. 
Madagascar lang., 1026. 

INDEX. 381 

Malay lang's, 1001 to 1016; selections, 1003. 

Maltese, 9vj7. 

Mancbu lang., and specimens, 866 to 869. 

Many, its relatives, 189. 

Middle, form of yerbs, 104. 

Milanese dialect, 703. 

Mongolian lang., 864, 865. 

Moods, what are they, and the names, 36. 

Namaqua lang., 1047, 1068, 1069. 

Neapolitan dialect, 703. 

Negatives, allied to interrogatives, 1091; and opposites, '1092; not ii 
nothing, 1093. 

Neuters, objective in character, 138; neut. plur. and abstract, 140. 

New forms, any oblique case may be base for sueh, 128. 

Nine, its forms, 262, 263. 

North (Old), 662; history, 668; specimens, 669 to 671. 

Nominatives, after be, 27. 

Nor and Not, forms, 213, 214. 

Notes, about all reduced to identity, etc., 156) explaining the mean- 
ing of equality, 196; on decay of words, 689; all philosophizing 
leads to absurdity, 690; explaining translations, 780; it is no ob- 
jection that one proposition does not agree with every other, 591 } 
on identifying all things, 592. 

Nouns, defined and divisions, 3; their history, 110. 

Number, in Grammar, the kinds, 7. 

Numerals, their history, 240; those over twelve, 272 to 276; letters 
used for them, 277 ; are only marks of order, 278 to 280. 

Oblique cases, what are they, 59. 

Of, Oflf, their forms, 234. 

Often, its forms, 216. 

One, its forms, 240 to 242. 

Only, its forms, 217. 

Or and nor, forms, 212, 218. 

Order of words — words belong where found, inC Latin, 80 to 101, 89. 

Ossefe (or Iron) lang. and specimens, 841 to 846. 

Other, its forms, 190. 

Out, its forms, 227. 

Pali lang. and Pracrit, 996. 

Parts of Speech, how many, 47; no distinct line to mark them, 48. 

Parsee lang., 821. 

Parts of words, their development, 229; part as great as whole, 581. 

Particles, their history, 198. 

Participles, what they are and the kinds, 88; usedlikeadj's, 40; used 
for verbs in Latin, 106; their history, 283; Gdrman, 284 to 288; 
Celtic, 290 to 293; Slavic, 294; Hung, part's, 302; Finnish, 308; 
Turkish, 304; Albanish, 306; Persian, 806; Hindostani, 807; Ben- 
gali, 308; Manchu, 809; Semitic, 810; Malay, 812; Greek, 818 to 
318; part, in urus, 319 to 326^ 489) other points in German verb- 
als, 327 and 828; Old Eng., 609 to 611. 

Passive, in Latin, 438 to 443; Slavic, 444 to 446; Hung., 447; Albs- 
nish, 448; Wall., 449; Celtic, 450 to 452; Latin past pass., 458 ; 
Greek, 454; Greek past, 456; Greek perfect, 456, and p. perf., 


457; Greek future, 458; Bengali, 460; other points in Greek 
passive, 461. 

Past tense, in Latin, etc., 401 to 404; in Greek, 405 to 407. 

Persian lang's and specimens, 812 to 819; forms of, 821 to 823. 

Pehlvi lang., 822. 

Person, what it is, 37. 

Perfect tense, in Latin, etc., 414 to 419; Greek, 421 to 426; Mod. G'k, 

Philology, abstract, 1083. 

Phoenician lang., 898. 

Piedmontese dialect, 703. 

Pluperfect tense, in Latin, 420; in Greek, 428; in Albanian, 429. 

Plurals, connected with fern's, 134, 135; identical with genitives, 132; 
not different from sing., 133; a noun in gen. case, 281. 

Portugese lang., 708; specimens, 712. 

Polish lang» and specimens, 746, 747, and 778. 

Polabian lang., 760. 

Polynesian lang's, 1024. 

Possessives, 10. 

Preformatives defined, 109, 

Present tense, in Latin, etc., 899 and 400. 

Prepositions, what they are, 45; growth by doubling, 531. 

Pronouns, personals, 18, 19; compound, 20; relatives, 21 ; compound, 
22; interrogatives, 23; pron's equal adj's, 23; in Latin, 62; their 
history, 156; they have arisen by growth of noun and verb end- 
ings, 166; personal, I, 158, 159; it is a demonstrative, 162; plu- 
ral, we, 160; poss., our, 161; personal, thou, 163; in plural, ye, 
164; poss., your, 165; those of the 2d person identical with the 
3d; the different cases of pron's all variations of the same form, 
166; personals of 3d person, 167 to 171; he and it, 169; she and 
it, 170; they and their, 171; demonstratives, 173 to 177; rela- 
tives, 178 to 185; indefinites, 186 to 192; the parts or elements 
of pron's, 191, 192. 

Provencial lang., forms of words, 695. 

Prussian (Old) lang. and specimens, 766, 767 ; forms of words, 768. 

Rabbinic lang., 897. 

Radicals, in Asiatic lang's, what they afe, 1119 to 1121; prefixes, 

Reduplication, 422; words grown by repetition of like elements, as 

plants and animals, 1083 to 1088. 
Relatives, 178 to 185, 21. 
Repetitions, the sentence is made up of them, 103, 126, 127 ; repetition 

or doubling in adverbs, 198, 199; in compounds, 194. 
Romanic, or Rhaetish, dialect, its words and specimens, 698, 713. 
Root, or base, defined, 108. 
Russian etymology, 581 ; lang., 7;^6 to 739; specimens, 740 to 742, 


Sabien lang., 900. 

Samaritan lang., 897. 

Samoidish lang's, 799. 

Samogitian lang. and specimen, 771, 774. 

Sabine, Sicilian, and Sardinian dialects, 703. 

INDEX. 383 

Sanscrit lang., 978; alphabet, 979; list of words, 984; compounds, 
982; specimens, 983. 

Saxon (Old), differs from Old H. Germ., 637; forms of words, 639. 

Saxon (Ang.), see English. 

Scandinavian, its branches or forms, 661. 

Semitic lang's, 908; history and forms, 894 to 907; relations and pe- 
culiarities, 925, 964; prefixes, 932 to 964; tenses, 949; Semitic 
etymology, 686. 

Sentence, what it is, 1, 2. 

Servian lang., 752. 

Serenian lang., 797. 

Seven, its forms, 258. 

Since, its forms, 218. 

Six, its forms, 256, 257. 

Slovenian lang., 758. 

Slavic etymology, 583; lang's, 730 to 781; its forms, 732 to 735; its 
peculiarities, 781. 

So, its forms, 203. 

Soon, its forms, 21f . 

Spanish lang., history, 704; specimens, 705. 

Still, its forms, 220. 

Subjunctive, in Lat., 462, 463; modern Lat., 464; Slavic, 465; Celtic, 
466; Greek (and optative), 467 to 469; in German, 470 to 472. 

Suomi lang., 796. 

Supine, in Latin, what, 72. 

Swedish, specimens, 665; compared with Danish, 667. 

Swiss idiom, 646, 647; list of words, 648. 

Syrian lang., 795. 

Tagale lang., 1026. 

Tamil lang., 997. 

Tartar lang's, 858 to 874; Tart, proper, 861, and spec, 862. 

Telinga lang., 996. 

Tenses, what are they, 32 ; in Latin, 64 to 68. 

Ten, its forms, 264, 265. 

That, its forms, 204. 

Thibetan lang., 1027 to 1036. 

Though, its forms, 220. 

Three, its forms, 246 to 249. 

Through and across, 236. 

Tigre lang., 90e. 

Till, its forms, 220. 

To, at, in, on — their forms, 235. 

Together, forms, 221. 

Transitives, what are they, 26, 28. 

Translations, are word-for-word, 626. 

Turanian, 859. 

Tungusic lang., 860. 

Turkish lang., 807 to 811. 

Tuscan lang., 703. 

Twelve and eleven. 266 to 271. 

Two, its forms, 243 to 245. 

Tyrolese, Thuringian, and Translvanian dialects, 649. 

Up and upper, their forms, 228. 


Yalenoian lang., 706. 

Venetian dialect, 708. 

Verbs, what they are, 25; trans, and intrans., 26; reg. and irreg., 25; 
history, 333; do not peculiarly affirm, 334 to 336; in Latin, 63; 
Turkish verbs, 347 to 857; Finn., 357; Mongolian, 358; Persian, 
859; Afghan, 364; Hung., 865 to 370; Slavic, 371 to 383; Ben- 
gali, 884; Hind., 386; Celtic, 386 to 397; Greek and Latin, 398. 

Verbals, what are such, 40; verbal endings, 329 to 332. 

Wallachian lang., 724; features, 726; specimens, 727 and 728; words 

compared with Eng. and Latin, 729. 
Walloon lang., 699. 

Welsh, etymology, 585; specimens, 678; compared with Gaelic, 685. 
Wend, language and specimens, 754, 755; Hung. Wend, specimens, 

759 and 777. 
Westmoreland dialoot, 621. 
With, its forms, 224, 225, 226. 

Yet, ' xorms, 219, 

Zend lang., 828. 
Zulu lang, 1051. 


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