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Full text of "The Phrenological Journal and Life Illustrated"

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THE 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL 



Ain> 



LIFE ILLUSTRATED. 

4 



A RKPOBITOBY OF 



n(i^nt£, Jihiikture, nnd ft«ni|ral |ntj{IIi0«n«, 



DICVOTBD TO 



'fiTHKOiiOGT, Phtsioloqt, Phbekoloqt, Phtbioonoict, Socioloot, Pstcholoot, Edttoatioii, 

MSCBAKISIC, AOBICULTUItB, NATTTKAL HiSTORT, AND TO ALL THOSE PbOGRSSSTTB 
MSASUBES WHICH ARB CALCULATED TO ReFOBH, ElEYATE, AND IhPBOVB 

Mankind, Spibituallt, Intbllbctuallt, and Socially. 



4BttketttAeA wUi W'^mmm^ ^tftttzU$ tttm ^tttf mA otbty <Sti8t»tiu(|#. 



VOL. LX. OLD SERIES.— VOL. XI. NEW SERIES. 
JANUARY TO JUNE, 1878. 



8. R. WELLS, Editob. 






NEW lORK: 
8. R. WELLS k CO., PUBLISHERS, 787 BROADWAY. 

1876. 

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** Qnionnqne a tme trop haute id6e de la force et de la Jiutease de ses ralBonoomcjiB poor sc 
croire obllg6 de les sonmettre a une experience mille et mille fois r6pet§e, ne perfectionner^ 
jamaiB la physiologie du ceryeatL'' — Gall. 

** I regard Phrenology as the only system of mental philosophy which can be said to indi- 
cate, with anyliiing like clearness and precision, man^s mixed moral and intellectual nature, and' 
as the only guide short of revelation for educating him in harmony with his faculties, as a 
being of power ; with his wants, as a creature of necessity ; and with his duties, as an agent 
responsible to his Maker and amenable to the laws declared by the all- wise Providence.'* — 

John Bell, M.D. 

" To Phrenology may be justly conceded the grand merit of having forced the inductlyo^ 
method of inquiry into mental philosophy, and thus laid the permanent foundal'oDS of a tme 
mental B^eaoe.**'^Eneifdopedia BriUmnioa, 8th Edition. 




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CONTENTS-JANUARY TO JUNE, 1875. 



A. 

Aurora Borealls, The m! 

Air, Smphaais, and Etiquette ... t% 

Anthonbip. Sncceesfnl . 67 

AsBwcra to CorreapoDdents . .<r7, 

IS, aoe, 876, 844, 418 
Acricaltml Hints ftS, 130, S06, 

874, 842, 412 

Ab(«nt Mindednesa 68 

Apparel, Monminff ^i 

Acqaifitiveneaa, Too Much 1S9 

Afpinwall, Wm. H 1C7, 

Alfred Bnmine, ur Who Redeem- 
ed Uim? leO, 2S8, SOd, 386 

Appetite, Tyranny of 871 

Amoieeenta, Popular 878 

Abeenteelpm 818 

Atomic Theory Untatisfactory.. 886 
Aitiflta, Some New York 888 



Backbont, laaac C. W 

Before and After School 100 

Book Noticea. .. 73, 142, 818, 281, 846 

Babble, Tbo 896 

Black Nations of Bnrope 858 

Backingham. Late Senator 1^ 

Bennett, Sir Wm. Sterndale .... 886 

Beet Man, The 88T 

Basy Life, Our 863 

Boy.Whata 897 



Oowther. Bf abop 8. A 18 

Colored Dii^bopa, The Two 13 

Cai>hman, Charlotte 89 

Co-Rdncation of the Sexea 88 

Oedarhiuvt Papers, No. 1.— Tom 

Hopper 84 

CoqnitoPalra, The 86 

Cupid in the School Room S6 

CatUc easing in U. 8 40, 8C0 

CUtTfj, Some Thonghta about tbe lO, 
Cbild— £xpre8Blon. Contraats of 104 

Cornell, Ezra, Death of 107 

Chipplug Birds 128 

Coal Fielda, European and Amer- 
ican 186 

CnnsiDs, Marriage of 188 

Cla«sofl8r;4 W6 

Character, A Well-Balanced .... 147 

Currency, Onr 157,888 

< ropa. Ifotation of 187 

Capacity, Undeveloped ... 881 

Centennial RzpoAition, The 846 

Calkin-, Hiram 844 

♦'Crowbar Caae," Celebrated.... 818 

Cbicken-Hearted 876 

Common Sense in Religion 290 

Cedar Bird 820 

Cooper, Peter, Opinion of 8i6 

OompanioEi<mp 8^,9 

Conscience, Heart and Mind ... . 844 
Commins. Bi»hop of tbe Ref. 

Bpis. Church 869 

Cruelly, Phases of 868 

Cradle to the Grave, From the. . . 378 
Cerebral Anatomy, Investiga- 
tions in 888 

Criminal Statifitica 887 

D. 

Beith Without Pain 8 

Bon Carlos, and tbe War in Spatai 60 
B«tth,ChineM Ideas about 69 



Doea it Help yon f 68 

Death, Simulating 146 

Difference between Men 817 

Duty to Prlende 880 

Dialogue on the Stars 821 

Delense of Phrenology 888 

Ears, Our, and their Bigniflcance 17 

BarofMan,The 66 

EvilHabiU 206 

Ezercit^e 876 

Every Man in his Place 278 

Esthetic Nature, Culture of 827 

Eye, Human 846 

^iglitfh Language, The 886 

F. 

Flirting 68 

Finance and Farming 184 

Florida, Wintering in 196 

Finances, American 28!>, 808, 88S 

Face, Uow to < raw tbe. .199, £63, 881 

Facet*, Reading 284 

Failure, A Story of 8&7 

Greeley, Colorado 109 

GrinDel1.J.P.,M.D 116 

Girls, where some are Educated VS 

Good and True 269 

Growth ««. Clothes 297 

Civcr her a Chance 298 

Going to Eurooe 818 

Greatness, True 408 

Government, State and National 414 



Holly, BifbopJ. T., D.D 18 

Havcmeyer, Wm. F 48 

Head, Making a Good 66 

Hand, The 66 

Hadley, Jane 100 

Husband and WUe 106 

Hundred Teara Ago, A 160 

How to be Happy 188 

How to draw the Face. . .199, 863, 881 

How to find out 204 

Happy Homes 268 

Hickson, Joseph, R. i:. Manager 876 

I. 

Ingelow, Jean 75 

Iron Ships 9'i 

Insanity, Prevention of 110 

Insanity, Muddled 184 

Iron Works/The Largest 887 

Inner Life, The 298 

Individuality, Usea of 816 

Idiocy,Moral 845 

Insanity and Marriage 413 

jr. 

JeweU, Marshall 6 

Jane Hadley 100 

Kill Them, Why not f 68 

Knowledge, Worth of lt<i 

Kindness to Othera 166 



KinsKalakaua 861 

Kingsley, Chas tie- 
Know Thyself 17» 

King-bird, The 404 

Lips, Our 81 

Labor and Finances, American . . 44 

Legs— What they Mean 89 

Lotteriei* 188 

Lash in Nursery 841 

Language, The English 896 



Mind $v4 Body^ nonnectlon of. . 46 

Mr t>, How to Cmch ,.. .,,,.,*. 61 
M itiiekt^reg'^ Qn^t^Hnus , . . h » . . . . ^ . - &t 

MitLh 7^. IXt, 311, '2S0, 848, 416 

Mil ukJDd, Proper Study of , T7 

loup t hamctor *.,.*. 188 

MMCLkltid, U^^w can I ImpniVB.. . V09 
Mt'Lirurcment and &r«risties. ». . . 809 

M 1 ikL a h indepf^fiilPQi, , . ^. 2S8 

M< Unlrp, JorcniUiU * — 849 

M ] nd upon thfi Body ^ InSuenea of 846 
M)^.=1ot]«i, Cuni'e of ,,..,.„«.+« »r SB7 
MtjUdk^ft, Spring ■-^">>-^-<--«i Ml 

M< litid Center *I7 

Mjirrr^ WhoOugbt to 8<6 

Mc'iuorlam, In^...,... ., * 804 

N. 

NewYeaTjThe 6^ 

Nervous ExHtabillty 20» 

Nations, Prehistoric 888 

Nellie^s Birthday in Heaven .... 881 
Nursery, Laxk in the 841 



Old and New, The 6& 

One Flight 67 

One Deed of Good 166- 

Opinion, Public 268 

OurWork 866 

Our Loss 406 



P. 

Palm. Coqnito 86 

Population of the United States. 46 

Phrenology vs. Materialism 70 

Panics, their Lesson tO 

Prisons in Mass. and New York 180 

Paper Money 188 

Paper Promises 188 

Practical Phrenology. Instruction 

in ..: 141 

Phrenology, Personal Experience 

in 179 

Plant Growth 187 

Pri^on,In 886 

Phelps, E. A. B M9 

Prof. Draper's New Book 867 

Phrenological Test 816 

Probistorical Nations 888 

Prison Life, What I Know of ... 884 

Phrenology, Defense of 888 

Physician, The 844 

Physiognomy in the Pulpit 8A6 

PoUt^^^^Home and Abroad. 87^ 



Iv 



COJfTEJfTS. 



B. 

Reforms— Bff«ct upon Societj. . . 

Royal Visitor, Onr 

Bacefl of Men, Bible Origin. . . . 

Reading Faces 

RelVrion, Common Sense in 

Ring, Training for the 

8. 

Bnocesffnl Anthorshlp 

Stimulants, What are f 

Ships. American Iron 

Saicide and its Canses 

Bavage and Cirilized Man, Brno- 

tfons of 

Seasons. The 

Smith, GerrU 146, 



Tom Hopper 84 

Testimony, A Clergyman's 70 

Temperance Town, A 79 

934' Temptation 1S7 



TrfMifc, Geo.F 188 

Talks in his Sleep 809 

Training for the Ring 262 

The Specters of Come-Tl-Co. ... 861 

The Inner Life 29S 

Tilden, Samuel J. 804 

ThomaP.Dr. J. P 816 

Toour Friends 406 



Swedenborgian Physiognomy. . . 

Strickland, Agnes -""i tt n ^• 

Schoollnetmction in Europe ... 288 Up Broadway . 
Speaker and Clerk of the Mew 

York Assembly 94S 

Science, Rudimental Stage of. . . 269 

Sheppard, Nathan 283 

Sleeplessness 846 

SugarBoUing in Florida 403 

Spread-Bagleism, Appropriate. . . 409l Valedictory 



U. 

Uncle DaTe*s Final Success 124 

Undeveloped Capacity ^ 



Vasqnes, Tiburcio, the Bandit . 



401 
400 



Wanted by the Nations 6t 

What a Lady says of Herself 71 

Wisdom 72, 186, 211, 280, 848, 416 

Whitaker, Thomas 86 

W Oman's Success, A Key to 98 

Wounds and Blisters 118 

Well-balanced Character 147 

Ward, Bber B 161 

West Virginia, Resources of 168 

Where Some of our Girls are Ed- 
ucated— Wbeaton Seminary. 178 

Wren, The 178 

Webster, David 191 

Writer, Shorthand 877 

Wells, Samuel R 851 

WIU you tell mo why, Robin f . . . 872 
Women Medical Students in En- 
rope 886 

White Women and CItII Bights 
Bill 894 



Youth, The Other side of 826 



ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Aspln wall, Wm. H 

Art Qallery, Am. Expos. 

Alfred's Father 

" FriendH 

Buckhout, Ipaac C 

BeDnet, Sir Wm. Stemdale 

Brain, Mesial Section of 

Orowther, Samuel A., D.D 

Cushman, Charlotte 

-Ooquito 

Cornell, Ezra 

Calkins, Hiram 

Cedar liird 

Cummins, Geo. D., Bishop 

Cradle to the Orave, From the . . 

Don Carlos 

Bars— Large, Fine, and Coarse. . 

'* " CoarM 

** Medium and Fine, Calm 



and Stead; 
Regular and 



Irragnlar. 



2S7f 
804 
S»i 

in 

8iie 

mi 
u 

id: 

21'i 
8^i 

m 

IT 
1ft 



EarB- 



DfpcilltT and Sagacity, 
*, Stealth: 



81 



CoorijrruoiiA, stealthy 

A(FccUti:>U XV 

ObtiiM, rriTi edited 88 

tifmmciricalH Brutal 84 

*' Mean, Lop"Gjired 26 

'* Semldrciiiar» Oral, Square 

86,87 

Smashed 28 

KxhiMrionBaildlng.^ 885 

Greeley Public School 109 

Orlnnell. J P., MD 116 

1 1 ol ly, J. Theodo ru . n.D 15 

Hmvoniflycr, VVm. F, , 48 

How xtlfred nctomed from the 

Club.,. „,, 171 

mt\*ian. ^Ofleph, £. R. Manager 8T7 

Hayloarlffr 41* 

inc;el:nw, Jean 76 

jL^ell, MflrahaQ 6 

RlD^Kalakteia..^,- 801 



Kingsley, Chas 916 

Kine-blrd, The 406 

MoGuire, Jeremiah 918 

My Friend Stranff 896 

Phelps, E. A. B 849 

Smith. Qerrit 146 

Strickland, Agnes 886 

Strang and the Doctor Disputing 880 

Sweet Com 876 

Sheppard, Nathan 888 

Trask, Geo.F 188 

Tilden, Sam'lJ 806 

Thomas, Dr. J. P 81? 

Vasqnez, Tiburcio 401 

WhitUker. Thos 87 

Well and UUBom 104 

Ward,EberB 161 

Wheaton Seminary 178 

Webster, Darid 191 

Wren, Common 179 

Wells, Samuel B. 851 



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VOL. eo.- [LI re ILLUSTRATEIDc. Ill i875. 



XUMBEK 1.] 



January, /S75. 



[Wholk No. 433 



■ •*-. ... 




HAUSUALL JEWELL, POSTM ASTER-GEIS ER AL. 



TlTERE is superabundant vitality. The 
■^-'^'lamp of life' is full, even to overflow- 
ing. He tftkes on more than be gives off, 
living on tbe interest ratber tban drawing 
on the principal of his vital capital. See 



how deep and bow broad tbe chest! See 
how plump and full the face I This is a fair 
type of the vital temperament,, so unlike 
that of the typical Brother Jonathan that 
one almost doubts Mr. Jewell's genealogy. 



PHRENOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[Jan., 



The head is large, in keeping with the 
body, and there appears to be no marked 
deficiencies. The brain is broad, and indi- 
cates energy and propelling power. It is 
well developed oyer the eyes, showing large 
perceptive faculties, with fair reasoning pow- 
ers, giving a practical cast of mind. He is 
large in Benevolence, Veneration, and Con- 
scientiousness, showing sympathy, kindness, 
charity, reverence, and integrity. He is also 
large in the organ of Human Nature, which 
gives him an intuitive perception or discern- 
ment of the real character of others. He 
can form a very correct estimate of strangers 
at the first interview. He is large in Ap- 
probativeness, and desires the good opinion 
of worthy men. Self-Esteem is comparative- 
ly moderate, and he is modest, underrating 
rather than overrating his own abilities, and 
he is exactly the opposite of an arrogant, 
haughty, dictatorial, self-satisfied character. 
Indeed, self-distrust is a fault in him. Ex- 
perience, and a comparison of his views 
with those of others, tend to correct this, 
and enable him to take his own mental 
measure, and so meet untried responsibilities 
successfully. 

Tliere are also large Oonstructiveness, 
large Order, Form, Size, and Calculation, 
which enable him to appreciate new inven- 
tions and appliances generally, and to use 
tools and machinery. He is a better worker 
than talker ; his language is not copiious ; 
he can write better than he can speak. He 
will have things in place; plans, arranges, 
and reduces all things under his own con- 
trol to method. He has much of the artistic 
element ; large Ideality, Sublimity, and Imi- 
tation. He is mirthful, youthful, and hopeful. 

The social affections are strongly marked : 
he is popular, and finds enjoyment in the 
social and domestic circle. He has also 
much spirit, pluck, and courage — which are 
in the main subordinate to his intellect and 
moral sense. He resembles his mother in, 



and derives many, if not most, of his physical 
and mental characteristics from her, especial- 
ly his intuitive and esthetic characteristics. 

Marshall Jewell was bom in Winches- 
ter, N. H., on the 20th day of October, 1825, 
and is therefore, notwithstanding the silveri- 
ness of his hair, still on the sunny side of 
fifty, and in the prime of a vigorous man- 
hood. His father, Pliny Jewell, was a tan- 
ner in the village, and Marshall worked in 
the tan-yard until he was eighteen years of 
age, receiving such instruction at intervals 
as the neighborhood afforded. At eighteen 
he went to Boston for the purpose of ac- 
quiring the currier's art At that time the 
telegraph was a feature of marked interest 
to the public, as its utility was then develop- 
ing. Mr. Jewell was deeply impressed by 
the new system of transmitting intelligence, 
and gave himself up to the study of the 
science of electricity, which proved of much 
material value to him subsequently. 

He was about twenty years of age, and 
engaged in the business of a telegraphic 
operator, when his father removed from 
Winchester to Hartford, Conn., and com- 
menced, in a small way, the manufacture of 
leather belting. As the business grew, he 
called home his sons — Pliny, Jr., and Mar- 
shall — to assist him ; the former being then 
in the State of New York, and the latter in 
Mississippi. By industry, energy, and in- 
tegrity, the business became prosperous and 
extensive, until now it is probably the larg- 
est of the kind in the country. 

The father died in 1869, at an advanced 
age, but the old firm name of P. Jewell and 
Sons is still retained, and bears a wide repu- 
tation. The firm now consists of four sons, 
Pliny, Marshall, Lyman B., and Charles A. 
The oldest of the five sons is the Hon. Har- 
vey Jewell, of Boston, law partner of the 
newly-elected €k)vemor of Massachusetts. 
There are also two daughters-— all the seven 
children being fine specimens of good health 
and physical vigor. 

Mr. Jewell's first entry into public life was 
in 1869. Previous to that time he had given 
little attention to political matters, in fact 
had declined such a participation as might 
lead to activity as a party-man. Being nom- 
inated, however, by the Republicans as their 

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1875.] 



MARSHALL JEWELL. 



candidate for the governorship, he was elect- 
ed oyer Gov. Jas. £. English, the Democratic 
inenmbent and nominee. In 1870 he ran 
igain in opposition to Mr. English, and was 
defeated : but in 1871, and again in 1872, he 
was elected. Though not an orator, he filled 
the gubernatorial chair with dignity and 
marked ability. Possessed of a competence, 
cultivated by extensive travel at home and 
abroad, fond of good society, genial in social 
intercourse, dispensing a generous hospital- 
ity at his beautiful home, which is enriched 
with many treasures of art, and devoting 
time and business energy to the administra- 
tion of tke office, he is remembered as one 
of the most efficient of Connecticut's gover- 
nors. ^ 

When the Grand Duke Alexis was in this 
country, and visiting the seat of the State 
gOTemment of Connecticut, he became much 
attached to Governor Jewell. On one occa- 
sion the Governor pointed out the site of the 
leather experiences of his early life, and re- 
lated to Alexis how he had formerly labored 
as a boy in the tan-yard of his father. The 
Grand Duke exclaimed : " What ! is that the 
way Americans come up, from the tannery 
to the governor's chair ? " 

In the summer of 1873 he was appointed 
Minister at the Court of St. Petersburgh, 
Russia. He removed to that city with his 
femily, and remained there until recalled— 
about a year later — to accept a place in the 
cabinet of President Grant, as the successor 
of Postmaster-General Creswell. He entered 
apon this office on the 1st of September last. 
From all accounts that have reached us, Min- 
ister Jewell succeeded not only in perform- 
ing the duties of his high office in a manner 
that met the approval both of his own and 
of the Russian government, but in a social 
way himself and family won the esteem and 
friendly regard of the people and the court. 

At home, in* Hartford, Mr. Jewell is an 
active and consistent member of the Asylum 
Hill Congregatfonal Church ; and for a time, 
while he was governor, he acted as precentor 
in leading the congregational singing at that 
ehdnth. He carried his religious ideas with 
him to Russia, and instead of devoting the 
Sabbath to festivity, or visiting the theater, 
he was accustomed, with his family, to at- 
uad the little Protestant church. He was 



told, on arriving at St. Petersburgh, that all 
members of the court were accustomed to 
play for money, and he would have to learn, 
or risk the loss of social position. Mr. J. 
replied that he never had learned to gamble, 
and did not think it best to commence now ; 
and, furthermore, the Secretary of Legation 
was quietly informed that the gentleman who 
filled that office during his ministry must 
not be a gambler. This was strange doc- 
trine for St Petersburgh, but he did not 
lose social position by its avowal, and re- 
tained the respect of the emperor and court. 

He found that Americans, visiting St. 
Petersburgh, had no place where they would 
be likely to meet each other, and access to 
the American Minister was not so easy as 
desirable. So he established a free reading- 
room at the legation, supplied with Ameri- 
can and other newspapers, where American 
visitors could freely meet each other, and 
had his own office there, where he could 
readily be found by his countrymen. 

Mr. Jewell has been actively interested in 
every public enterprise in his own city and 
State ; is a director in the old Hartford Na- 
tional Bank, and in the Phoenix Fire Insur- 
ance Co. He was also interested, actively 
and pecuniarily, in the organization of the 
Travelers Life and Accident Insurance fco., 
and has been oh its board of directors from 
the start. He has large executive and busi- 
ness ability, a boundless capacity for work, 
and a sunny flow of animal spirits. When 
examined for a life-policy, a few years ago, 
he said he had never been sick in his life, 
but once while riding across the Arabian 
desert he one day had a bad headache. 

Bringing this tireless ability to bear on 
our national postal service, it would seem 
that the President could scarcely have found 
a more capable man for postmaster-general. 

Mr. Jewell's family have but just arriveil 
home from Europe, and all the brothers and 
sisters, with their respective families (except 
a sister who is now in Europe), spent the 
last Thanksgiving Day with their mother, at 
the family mansion on Washington Street. 
Hartford. Twenty-five of them in all sal 
together at this New England feast, and had 
" a right good time.'' 

May we not congratulate ourselves and 
the public on this ac(juisition to the public 
service ? We believe m the integrity and in 
the capability of Mr. Jewell, and predict well 
of his usefulness and success. r\r^nio 

Digitized by VjOOv IC 



PHRENOLOOIGAL JOURNAL, 



[Jak., 



prtmcnt of Ifligion and |s#olo0g^ 




WItlioat or »t»r, or MU^I, for their tnld*, 

Who wortblpa Ood aludl Ihid Mm.— rMNf« ATi^ TAciifkla. 

Tbe •oal, ttht mother of deep feara, of htfh bopoa Infiblle ; 

or fflorloM di^am*. myat«rinaa Xmu*, of tlMpImt ixmer tigkt.—Un. J 




DEATH WITHOUT PAIN. 

A RATIONAL AND PSYCHOLOGICAL VIEW. 



TO grow old gracefully has been indicated 
to be one of tbe greatest moral achieve- 
ments of a cultiyated mind. It involyes heroic 
qualities to part with youth, and whatever of 
beauty and eojoyment are associated with it, 
and adopt the costume of mature life — a fur- 
rowed countenance, a paler or duskier com- 
plexion, thin and silvery hair, dimming 
sight, and increased sensitiveness to the sev- 
eral agencies which co-operate to pull down 
" this earthly tabernacle." We sadden almobt 
imperceptibly ; the vivid zest of pleasure is 
superseded by the calmer enjoyment of re- 
pose ; we cast aside Shelley and other writers 
so attractive to the young, and take up Pope, 
Emrson — our American Plato, — and such 
au^ors as have condensed luxuriant ideality 
into axiomatic, sententious modes of expres- 
sion; we read Proverbs and Ecclesiastes 
instead of the Canticles ; our selfish propen- 
sities concentrate into avarice ; our passions, 
retiring from the post, leave greater space for 
affections and the sober virtues. 

Happy for us if we can really consider the 
transformation as beneficient and not chafe 
interiorly at it as a deprivation, a species of 
murder of our mere buoyant life. Happy if, 
with the blunders, the mistakes, the wrong- 
doings of' that earlier time, we have been 
conveyed onward to a fuller manhood or wo- 
manhood, all the better, purer, and holier for 
the experiences which we havet encountered. 
No sin works out a fatal event, no turpitude 
is mortal to the soul that will learn. One 
law rules, or rather inspires the universe, and 
operates alike in all times and all worlds— that 
of love. The Orphic earmen declared truly 
that " Eros mingled all." The Divine Power 
has sown no harvest of wrath for erring hu- 
man beings to gather at the end. 

Believing this, we may the more compla- 



cently consider the providence of Death. It 
comes from the same hand that gave us life ; 
Aphrodite, our earth-mother, is also the dark 
Cora-Persephoneia that gathers us to her side 
in the world of the dead. In both relations 
she is alike affectionate, nor has a fury- 
scourge, except that of memory and the un- 
healed wounds of the. world life. But even 
then she is more gracious than we apprehend ; ■ 
the very pain that is suffered is not only evi- 
dence of life, but is from the endeavors of the 
divine potency to overcome the baleful in- 
fluences that may yet be clinging as the taint 
and gangrene of the former period. The 
establishing of healthful conditions will an- 
nihilate the dreaded suffering. 

The terror of dyingis, perhaps, the great- 
est which we suffer. We would gladly bar- 
gain with fate for any amount of privation 
and endurable torture to secure exemption 
from the necessity. We become gloomy at 
the thought or mention of the dreaded oc- 
currence. A light WQrd upon any topic re- 
lated to it is regarded with a species of hor- 
ror. Persons have hesitated, while feeling 
full of life, to consider religious topics because 
they also brought the subject of death to the 
mind. So Dame Quickly recites the last 
moments of Falstaff : " 'A made a finer end, 
and went away, an it had been any'christom 
child ; 'a parted even just between twelve and 
one, e^en at the turning o' the tide : for, after 
I saw him fumble with the sheets, and play 
with flowers, and smile upon his fingers* ends, 
I knew there was but one way ; for his nose 
was as sharp as a pen, and 'a babbled ot 
green fields. * How now. Sir John ? ' quoth 
I, * what, man I be of good cheer.' So 'a 
cried out, • God, God, God I ' three or four 
times. Now I, to comfort him, bid him, 'a 
Bhould not thinl5.of jQd.^^^^^« tro. 



1875. J 



DEATH WITHOUT PAIN, 



9 



no need to trouble himidf with any miek 
thcughU ff€tV — King Henry F., act iu, scene 3. 

Others, in the mean time, considering that 
.they ** have made peace with Gk)d," are in- 
clined to exnit because now they have no 
more the supposed reason for fearing de&th. 
Yet we have never found in such persons any 
eagerness or even unusual willingness to 
•* leave this wicked world.'* The anecdote of 
the negro is In point. He had heard much at 
class-meeting of a glorious anxiety **to depart 
and be with Christ,** till he caught the infec- 
tious aura. Praying zealously one night, he 
was overheard uttering this petition : ** Come, 
Lord,'Tony's tired of this evil world and wants 
to go home. Cotne, blessed Lord, and take 
poor ' Tony home to glory.** At this moment 
a rap at the door startled him. ** Who*s dar ? ** 
he cried, trembling. ** The Lord,** answered 
a roguish wag outside; "1 have come for 
*Tony.'* In an instant the candle was blown 
out and he cried, almost screaming, "*Tony 
is not 'here ; he's gone to the meeting to- 
night; he hasn't been here at all.** 

However sure a sound Calvinist is of be- 
longing to the elect whose "number is so 
definite and certain that it can neither be in- 
creased nor diminished,** he is always perfectly 
willing to ** await God*s good time,** and to 
have it "a long time coming.** He thanks 
nobody for desiring his departure hastened. 
We smile at this, for it has a comical side. 
Yet he is right. He is no hypocrite, or par- 
ticularly a self-deceiver. He is obeying an 
instinct higher and holier than his religious 
idea ; and the latter, unwittingly, he has left 
in abeyance. Instincts are safer guides than 
beliefs. There is a purpose in our life, 
whether we recognize it distinctly or not, and 
it is but fulfilled when we live out our tim^ 
to the last. The attachment to life is a 
propensity implanted in us to hold us here 
and make us careful about unnecessary en- 
countering of danger. It is recorded of the 
tumbrel -loads of victims of the first French 
Revolution, that they were usually very fear- 
fal of being hurt when on their way to the 
iruillotine ; and that at the supreme moment 
they were so overcome and insensible from 
terror, that at the severing of their heads 
from the body, the blood scarcely flowed. 
Perhaps they were already dead. Madame 
Roland, however, was an exception — two 



streams gushed from her neck when the 
headsman did hb office. 

Now that milder and kinder views of the 
divine government are more generally enter- 
tained, and persons heretofore deemed in- 
corrigible and reprobate may cherish affec- 
tionate hopes of a future life not all poisoned 
and black with heavenly or diabolical vin- 
dictiveness, we observe as much care of life 
and dread of death as when the old-time 
pictures of endless torment were exhibited 
to alarm the sensibility as the means of 
reaching the conscience. This, to a reason- 
able degree, is normal, and we would not have 
it otherwise. A healthy person is never eager 
to encounter death. The pagan votary who 
performs self-immolation voluntarily, if there 
is any such, is in a morbid or abnormal con- 
dition, and life has little value in his eyes. 
Disease, privation, or overwhelming trouble 
is the occasion of such things. The word- 
ing of life insurance policies, exempting the 
companies from paying in case of suicide, is 
manifestly unjust, and ought to be denounced. 
But life insurance is largely extortion at the 
best, as it is transacted. Suicide is a death 
from disease, and is no more a breach of trust 
with insurers that many of our social nod 
dietetic practices. 

Nevertheless, however sacfed the instinct 
of life, it is the law of nature, and in the 
providence of God, that we shall die. Every 
plant and animal that ever existed, however 
remotely in geological time, was bom, lived, 
and died, by divine law inherent in all func- 
tional existence. The races of men are no 
exception. When a being came into the 
world with a cerebrum passing from the 
frontal region over the optical thalami and 
even above the cerebellum,he became upright, 
and a partaker, as no other animated being 
was, of the divine nature. But the same laws 
and contingencies pertained to his physical 
organism as to other creatures of fl,esh and 
blood. He can have no exemption. Accept- 
ing the event of death as ordered by the 
same law as that which caused our existence 
to begin, the motive that impelled the estat)- 
lishing of both conditions must be alike god- 
like, and equally benevolent and beatific. 
It is>best for us, most fortunate for us, that, 
having properly accomplished our careers, 

we die. 

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We need dread no hereafter, whatever that 
18, it is In the same hands, governed by the 
same laws, and tending to the same goal as 
tl)e present life. So far, we may die cheer- 
^Ily and with confidence that it is for better 
and not for worse. Sudden death, without 
premonition, now so common, is a boon rather 
than a hardship. If we have ** set our house 
in order," attended to all persons and matters 
requiring our care, and have not inoppor- 
tunely hurried our end, there is abundant 
reason to welcome such a conclusion. It 
seems to us a glorious thing to live our life 
out full, exhausting its powers without dis- 
ease, and then cease to exist from the sudden 
stopping of the machinery. If destiny, which 
overrules our acts and purposes, has that end 
in store for the writer, he would in advance 
declare it the mode most agreeable to him. 

In other days religious fanaticism induced 
men who had made God in their own image 
to think of him as a grand torture master,who 
deliglited in the seriousness and suffering of 
men, and was oflFended by mirth. They 
aifected the life, sores, and filth of the begr 
gar« Lazarus, because he was comforted, and 
pronounced the rich man in torment in the 
under world wicked, because he had in his 
lifetime received good things. Hence, not 
only were the rack, thumb-screw, and burn- 
ing alive inflicted on dissenters, but partial 
self-immolations, rigid scourging, and volun- 
tary starving were resorted to, as wearing out 
a corrupt nature. The pangs and violent 
anguish of neuralgic and infiammatory dis- 
eases were regarded as direct affliction from 
God for the welfare of the soul. A Hindoo 
fakir, swinging on a hook, or a dervis, lying 
down on a couch of sharp nails, only carried 
out the idea to greater length. Certain 
Scotch clergymen once denounced the use of 
chloroform by child-bearing women, because 
the third chapter of the book of Genens de- 
nounced pain in bringing forth as the penalty 
of the first woman for eating the fruit of the 
Tree of Knowledge. 

We are outgrowing all such ideas, and 
leaving behind the notion that we may not 
lawfully escape pain. Tet, what is termed 
" the agony of death " is the unutterable hor- 
ror which embitters life to very many. Not 
merely the Unknown before them creates awe 
uid deadly apprehension, but also the fear I 



that the final moment of mortality is one of 
terrific, unimaginable pain. If this could be 
obviated the present life could be enjoyed as 
the boon of a Benevolent Parent, and trusting 
the future to His benign care. But argument 
fails us here ; facts are what such eager souls 
wish for most earnestly. 

Emanuel Swedenborg explains the process 
of dying as follows : " When the body is no 
longer able to perform its functions in the 
nathral world, then man is said to die. This 
takes place when the respiratory motions of 
the lungs and the systolic motions of the 
heart cease ; but still maA does not die, but 
is only separated from the corporeal part 
which was of use to him in the world, for 
man himself lives continually." He goes on to 
define that the inmost communication of the 
spirit is with the respiration and with the 
motion of the heart, its thought being with 
the respiration and the afiection with the 
heart ; wherefore, when those two motions 
cease in the body a separation immediately 
ensues. These motions are the bonds which 
attach the spirit to the body, and their rup- 
ture is followed by the spirits' withdrawing 
upon the cessation of the heart's action, after 
which the body grows cold and begins to 
dissolve. 

There is a likelihood and liability of such 
a separation where a person is in the habit of 
heavy dreaming or trance. The spiritual 
individuality in such cases becomes more or 
less concentrated in itself, and the physical 
capacity becomes in a great degree separated, 
and sometimes apparently dead. This was 
the case with the ^wedbh seer, who, howev- 
er, possessed a prodigious vital energy as well 
as cerebral power, and could undergo these 
ecstases with little comparative peril. But 
others, reft thus from the body, fail to re- 
turn ; or, if resuscitation takes place, never- 
theless die shortly afterward from the pecu- 
liar shock. Passing by the clairvoyant and oth- 
er analogous phenomena of modem time, part 
of which are arrant impostures, and all of 
them contemptuously disregarded by igno- 
rant or uncandid scientists, we cite examples 
from the orient classics. Epimenides, a poet 
living in the time of Solon, had trances in 
which his body exhibited the appearance ^of 
a corpse, and he seems to have contemplated 
it as a thing distinct from himself. Pliny 

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DEATH WITHOUT PAIN. 



11 



relates tliat he was once insensible for fifty- 
seven years, but this is doubtless an exag- 
geration. Plutarch also mentions Hermo- 
dorus of Clazomen^, who was many times in 
eatoHs^ and had the power of inducing and 
of continuing the apparent death for a long 
period at pleasure. . His wife, finally, finding 
or supposing him dead, placed his body on 
the funeral pile, although it had not began 
to corrupt. 

It is evident, from such examples, which 
are more numerous than is imagined, that 
persons liable to trance are likely to escape 
from corporeal life painlessly, as a bird leaves 
a cage, or a traveler his inn. Persons some- 
times die from having no desire or energy of 
will to live. The individual of healthy body 
who has avoided disease and unwholesome 
habits, goes to. death as to a sleep, from 
which for once he fails to awake. It is more 
like the insensibility from chloroform than a 
breaking up of the physical economy. The 
stroke of lightning, the blow of the ax, and 
the instantaneous crushing of the brain, end 
life at once without a pang. The terror con- 
stitutes the entire suffering. Those who die 
in syncope, if they have any sensation, ex- 
perience one that is rather pleasurable than 
otherwise. 

The rack and the fagot infiict tremendous 
torture, and execution by hanging is, perhaps, 
next as a means of torment, now that cruci- 
fixion has gone out of fashion. It has long 
been a subject of marvel with us that Eng- 
lishmen and Americans, boasting of their su- 
perior enlightenment and Christianity, adhere 
80 tenaciously to such a barbarous infliction. 
The gallows is simply an infernal machine, 
an invention worthy only of one of Milton's 
devils. Wild beasts seldom hurt their prey 
very much, and they never equal men in 
cruelty. 

Most diseases remove the source of pain as 
they approach a mortal issue. The " agonies 
of death " are but struggles or writhings, in 
which there is no suflTering whatever. There 
are muscles which are moved or kept in 
quiescence by the influence of the will upon 
theoi. At the period of death, and some- 
times on other occasions, this influence is 
titbdrawn; upon which they quiver and 
exhibit appearances that unsophisticated 
q>ectatorB mistake for suflering. A bird with 



its head cut off struggles in the same manner. 
Those who die of fevers and most other dis- 
eases experience their greatest pain, as a gen- 
eral thing, hours, or even days, before they 
expire. The sensibility of the nervous sys- 
tem becomes gradually diminished ; the pain 
is less acute under the same exciting cause ; 
and so far from being in their greatest dis- 
tress when their friends imagine it, their dis- 
ease is acting upon their nerves like an opiate. 
Many times, indeed, they are dead, so far as 
respects themselves, when the bystanders are 
more to be pitied because of the anguish 
which they endure from sympathy. 

If we will look this matter of dying in the 
face, so to speak, as critically and calmly as 
we consider other topics, we can escape a 
world of apprehension, alarm, and misery. 
We are perishing etery moment, so far as the 
molecules of our bodies are concerned ; the 
textures are constantly giving way, and even 
oxygen, the vital air, takes the life from 
whatever it touches, and sets it to decaying. 
Yet this never alarms ; the crisis or culmiaa- 
tion is what we regard as the serious matter. 
There are three modes of dying, from syn- 
cope, asphyxia, and coma. The latter is the 
suspension of the functions of sensibility by 
operating on the brain. The long-continued 
action of cold, reacting like opium and 
chloroform, lesions of the brain, as by fever 
or apoplexy, occasions this condition. There 
is little or no sensation. Asphyxia, or suffo- 
cation, occurs from suspension of respiration, 
or the access of oxygen to the blood. At first 
the heart receives venom blood into the left 
side and transmits it over the body. ' This 
operates on the brain, suspending sehsation ; 
the medulla is paralyzed, and* with it the 
pueumogastric nerve ; the lungs refuse to 
transmit non-oxygenated blood, and the heart 
and other vessels cease action. Drowning, 
strangulation, and poisonous gases produce 
this condition. The partial stupor experi- 
enced in ill- ventilated rooms is of the nature 
of asphyxia. Syncope proceeds from the in- 
terruption of the circulation of the blood, and 
may occur through hemorrhage, weakness, or 
paralysis of the walls of the heart, as rn)ni 
the use of tobacco, or from injuries to the 
nervous system, as from concussion or shock, 
as from violent blows, lesions, violent mcntnl 
emotions, a stroke of lightning, exposure to the 

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sun, or from poisons which disturb the rhyth- 
mical motions of the heart, or aconite, di- 
gitalis, veratrum viride, gelseminum, etc. 

The death of Socrates by drinking the 
joice of hemlock {Gonium maeulatum) illus- 
trates the operation of narcotic poison. Hav- 
ing finiRhed the draught and appealed to his 
friends to forbear lamentation that iie might 
die with good manners, he walked about the 
room till the arrested circulation in his legs 
began to paralyze them. He then lay down. 
The man who had brought the poison exam- 
ined his feet, proving them bard ; then his 
legs and thighs, but they were cold and in- 
sensible. After this Socrates touched himself 
to ascertain how completely he was dead, re- 
marking that when his heart was reached he 
would depart. Prese^tly the parts around 
the lower abdomen became almost cold, and 
he uncovered his face to give the memorable 
charge ; " Crito, we owe the cock to.£scula- 
pius; pay it, and do not neglect it.'* He 
evidently was thinking of the oflfering made 
t<^hat divinity, at the Eleusinian Mysteries, 
just before the close of the initiatory cere- 
monies, as the candidate was about to become 
an adept. Shortly after speaking he gave a 
convulsive movement ; the man covered him, 
and his eyes were fixed, which, Crito perceiv- 
ing, closed his mouth and eyes. 

A little knowledge of physiology is suffi-* 
cient to show that neither of these modes of 
dying are attended with any considerable 
suffering, and generally with none at all. 
Disease, in its progress, when involving the 
nerves of sensation, or any violence to those 
nerves, will inflict pain to any degree of 
which the person is susceptible. Hence, man 
' suffers more from the same causes than the 
beasts, and they, in turn, more than the fishes 
and reptiles, and these more than insects and 
worms, et poBtim, Biit death seldom occurs, 
if ever, while such pain endures-. 

We have often questioned whether, in case 
of wearing disease like phthisis, cancer, or 
painful infiammation, where recovery was im- 
possible, or in the event of inevitable death 
from violence or starvation, it was not justi- 
fiable to resort to amesthetics or other means 
of speedy and Specially paiidess death. 
Recently a pamphlet, published in England, 
on the subject of Buthawuia^ has called at- 
tention to the same subject. We know of no 



immorality in so doing. As a rule, we think 
it best to endure, on the* principal that life is 
in some way beneficial, and, fherefore, shouUl 
not be laid aside before its uses are accom- 
plished. Our instincts generally impel us to 
the same conclusion. Nevertheless, we woula . 
no more censure the person who anticipated 
the time of dying, under such circumstances, 
than we would Socrates for drinking his hem- 
lock, or a man sentenced to execution for 
walking to the scaffold. Even the crow will 
poison his mate that is in hopeless captivity. 

But our purpose is to reconcile human be- 
ings to the inevitable, by showing them that, 
like most dangers, it is not terrible when 
contemplated in its true character. Death 
genernlly occurs when we are asleep or uncon- 
scious, and so comes upon us insensibly, like 
repose upon a weary man. Nature strives to 
render us indifferent or desirous of the end. 
While life is really precious, she intensifies 
the desire to live; but as its uses are ac- 
complished, she makes us willing to leave. 
To the well-ordered mind it is evident that 
death is as fortunate an event for us as any 
that occurs. 

"To die is one of two things," said So- 
crates to his judges; "either the dead may 
be annihilated and have no sensation of 
anything whatever, or there is a change 
and passage of the soul from one mode of 
existence to another. If it is a privation 
of all sensation or a sleep in which the 
sleeper has no dream, death would be a 
wonderful gain ; for thus all the future ap- 
pears to be nothing more than a single 
night. But if, on the other hand, death is 
a renewal, to me the sojourn would be ad- 
mirable. » ♦ » The judges there do not 
condemn to death, and in other respects 
those who live there are more happy than 
those that are here, and are henceforth im- 
mortal. To a good man nothing is evil, 
neither while living nor when dead; nor 
are his concerns neglected by the divine 
ones. What has befallen me is not the 
effect of chance. It is clear to me that to die 
now and be freed from my cares is better for 
me." 

As most of us do not accept the declara- 
tion of Winwood Reade and his fellow, 
philosophers, that " the belief in immortality 
must die," but instead look for a continuooi 

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THE TWO COLORED BISHOPS. 



13 



ezisteQce, it must appear obvious to us that 
our mundane life is a kind of preparatory 
school for the next. It certainly is not well 
to hasten thither till we graduate ; yet when 
the time arrives there is every reason for 
passing to the next stage gladly, and fear- 
ing nothing. By living morally and physio- 



logically we shall escape the pain so much 
dreaded ; by considering the matter calmly 
and reasonably we will annihilate the terror ; 
by faith in the loving and the right we shall 
apprehend all the great facts and know that 
we pass from the good to that which is 
better. albxaivdeb wildbb. 



THE TWO COLORED BISHOPS: 

SAMUEL A. CROWTHER, BISHOP OP THE NIGER; J. THEODORE HOLLY, D.D., BISHOP 

OP HAYTL« 



THE general convention of the Protestant 
Episcopal Church in the United States, 
held in October last, was distinguished, 
among other things, for the interest shown in 
misBionary effort. In connection with such 
work ministers were appointed to certain 
foreign charges, but one of the most interest- 
ing erents, which may be said to have grown 
out of that work of the convention, was the 
ordination of a colored man to be a bishop. 

BISHOP CROWTHBB. 

It is several years since Samuel kj^sX 
Crowther was consecrated, by English au- 
thority, Bishop of the Niger, in Africa. He 
had shown himself capable of performing 
the work of a missionary efficiently among 
the African people. He had also shown 
liigh intellectual capacity, notwithstanding 
that he belonged to a tribe whose members 
were poor, ignorant, and depraved. 

He was bom in 1810, in the Yaioiba coun- 
try, on the western coast of Africa. It can 
not be said that his parents belonged to the 
lowest order; but the people around them 
were, as compared with Europeans, very low 
in the school of intelligence. When Adjai 
was about eleven years old a war broke out 
between the various communities with rbgard 
to some trifling matter of trade, and the 
people became changed, through the influ- 
ences of their barbarous warfare, from peace- 
fnl dwellers of cultivated settlements, to re- 
Tengeful and bloodthirsty marauders. The 
Tillage in which Ac^ai's parents resided was 
boned to the ground, and his father killed, 

* We are indebted to Mr. Geo. O. Rookwood, Chnrch 
Pboiogrftpher, 889 Broadway, New York, for the likeneM, 
fram which our eogravlDg of the Bishop is made. 

Admowledgmentfl are also dae to Rev. Dr. Duane, 

Secretary of the Board of Mipslona, for the facilities 

I the editor in the preparation of this sketch. 



and he himself, with his mother and sisters, 
carried off as slaves by a hostile tribe, and, 
after passing through the hands of several 
different masters, he was. sold to Portugese 
traders, who took him on board ship, as the 
manner was in those days, for the purpose of 
transporting him and the other unfortunates 
who crowded the vessel, to America; but the 
slaver had not left the coast very long before 
she was pursued and captured by an English 
man-of-war, and the poor blacks were liber- 
ated and landed at Sierra Leone ; from Sier- 
ra Lepne he and the other liberated slave 
boys were sent to Freetown, where they were 
allowed opportunities for instruction two 
hours each day in the Mission School of the 
place. Adjai learned to read rapidly, out- 
stripping all his companions. The religious 
influences which were brought to bear upon 
him led to his acceptance of Christianity ; 
and when he was baptized he received the 
name of Samuel Crowther. He felt a de- 
sire to prepare himself for mission work, 
which was encouraged, and he was sent to 
London to be educated and prepared for it. 
Circumstances, however, proving adverse, 
he returned to Sierra Leone, and there he 
became a student at the Fpurah Bay Col- 
lege, exhibiting much proficiency in master- 
ing the course of study prescribed. After 
rendering several services of no small value 
to the missionaries of that region, he was 
sent again to England, where he was admit- 
ted into the Missionary College at Islington, 
and was subsequently ordained to the minis- 
try by the Bishop of London in 1848, then 
being about thirty-three years of age. 

Returning to Africa, he threw himself into 
work with great earnestness. Twenty years 
later the results of his labors began to be 

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noticed in England, and the Church Mission- 
ary Society deemed it altogether proper, and 
also for the best interests of African evangel- 
ization, that Mr. Crowther be made Bishop 
of the District of the Niger. Accordingly, 
on the 29th June, 1864, he visited England, 
and was there consecrated by Archbishop 



the moral and religious organs, indicate very 
clearly the direction of his leaning. The 
head is quite narrow, showing that the pro- 
pensities, as a class, are not controlling. He 
has little or no policy or shrewdness of the 
ordinary type. He would not be considered 
a ^* smart" man in the language of business. 




Canterbury. At the same time the Univer- 
sity of Oxford conferred upon him the title 
of Doctor of Divinity. 

There are some features in the head and 
face of this first native African Bishop which 
strike the attention. The great elevation of 
the top-head, the immense development of 



On the other hand, he is enthusiastic, 
earnest, energetic, in the line of his vocation. 
His feelings and sentiments are high-toned 
and warm, and he throws himself into his 
work with that thoroughness of self-devotion 
which could only proceed from a great pre- 
dominance of the sympathetic and religious 

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THE TWO COLORED BianOPS, 



15 



BISHOP HOLLY. 

J. Theodore Holly, D. D., however, is an 
American^ having been born at Washington, 
D. C, on October 3, 1829. His early ancestors, 
so far as can be traced, came from England to 
this country about the year 1690 and settled 



wore at the time of his inauguration is evi- 
•dence in that behalf. He waa but thirteen 
years of age when his fiEither removed North, 
taking up his residence in Brooklyn, NeW 
York. 

Theodore received his early instruction at 




at Leonardtown, in St. Mary's County, Mary- 
bocL They were free-born negroes, and of 
frugal and industrious habits. His father 
was a boot and shoe maker, and seems to have 
received the patronage of the upper classes 
of Washington society, if the fact that he 
manofactored the boots President Madison 



the public schools for colored shildren, at- 
tending in New York, in 1848 and 1844, that 
known as No. 2, in Laurens Street. Leaving 
school, he was set to learning the trade of his 
father, but his desire for knowledge could not 
be restricted to qualities of leather and shapes 
of lasts— he yearned to improve his mincL and 

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there was also an underlying hope that at 
some future time he might be fitted for the 
work of the ministry, which had its influence 
in stimulating his pursuit of learning. In 
fine, while working at his trade, he received 
instruction in the classics, Professor Davies 
being engaged to give him lessons. 

He had been brought up in the Roman 
Catholic faith, and attended at that time to 
the duties incumbent on a member of that 
church with much fidelity, until about the 
year 1850, when the Pope issued a bull against 
Free Masonry. The priests, in accordance 
with its requisitions, called upon the members 
of their" congregations to separate themselves 
from secret society connections. In the con- 
fessional, of course, the work of purging the 
church was most thoroughly conducted. 
Y(mng Holly, being a member of the Masonic 
order and of other secret organizations of a 
benevolent character, refused to submit to the 
exactions of his father confessor, and at length 
left the Roman Catholic communion. His 
strong religious sentiments led him first to 
join the Swedenborgians, having a warm per- 
sonal friend in that society. 

In 1852 he went to Michigan and took up 
his residence in Detroit. There he met Mr. 
Munroe, a colored clergyman of the Episco- 
pal Church, whose ministrations led to an ex- 
amination of the tenets of Episcopacy and a 
subsequent adoption of them as his religious 
belief. Then was revived his old desire to 
become a minister, and such facilities were 
afforded him for preparation that he at once 
availed himself of them, becoming a candi- 
date for orders in 1858. In 1854 he went to 
Buffalo, N. Y., where he remained one year 
teaching in a public school, and returned to 
Detroit in 1855 to be ordained a deacon. His 
choice being for some missionary sphere, he 
was recommended to the Board of Missions, 
by which he was appointed to go to Hayti for 
the purpose of obtaining inforipation with 
regard to the expediency of establishing a 
mission in that country. He visited Hayti, 
surveyed the field, and made a report which 
was regarded as satisfactory, but the appoint- 
ment of missionaries was deferred. 

Looking around for a suitable opportunity 
in which to exercise his ministry, he was led 
to make an effort to build up a parish in New 
Haven, Connecticut. In this he was success- 
ful, founding the church of St. Luke in that 
city and continuing its rector until May.1861. 
While engaged in his work there, he had 
been ordamed a Dresbyter, and thus author- 



ized to exej'cise all the functions of an Epis- 
copal minister, in 1856. 

On the 1st of May, 1861, Mr. Holly sailed 
again for Hayti, in the bri^ Maderia, with a 
colony of 111 persons, the purpose being to 
settle them as a missionary colony or center. 
The voyage proved a long one, and the change 
of climate had a most disastrous influence up- 
on the fortunes of the enterprise. Shortly after 
their landing in Hayti a low form of fevei 
exhibited itself, which sent to the grave a 
large number of the colonists, and its preva- 
lence and many privations which they were 
compelled to suffer in their new relations so 
discouraged many of the survivors that they 
returned to the United States, The pastor, 
however, with those of his family who were 
living, and about twenty others, remained and 
did what they could toward the prosecution 
of the original undertaking^. The success 
which was finally attained is a most credit- 
able testimonial to the energy and persever- 
ence of the minister and those who assisted 
him in the trying relations of missionary ef- 
fort in a tropical and untried land. Now 
there are, besides Dr. Holly, ten missionsu'ies 
connected with the Hayti work, with as many 
parishes in the island. Dr. Holly^s ori^nal 
church, Holy Trinity, at Port-au-Prince, is, to 
a large extent, self-sustaining, having, .as it 
does, a membership of eighty-one, all com- 
municants, besides other attendants on its 
services. The local contributions toward the^ 
expenses of the parish ($2,587, gold) will 
compare favorably with the annual revenue 
of many parishes in the United States. An 
examination of the work done in Havti by the 
Board of Missions convinced it of the pro- 
priety of the ordination of a bishop for the 
supervision of the church established there, 
and the worthiness of the first Episcopal 
missionary sent thither by American authority 
designated him as the person who should be 
intrusted with the dignity and functions of 
the Episcopate. Accordingly the Rev. Dr. 
Holly was consecrated Bishop of Hayti on the 
8th of November last, in the city of New 
York, Bishop Smith, of Kentucky, perform- 
ing the ofSce of the laying on of hands as 
prescribed by the Prayer Book, and a week 
or two later the recipient of this highest dig^ 
nity and function known in the Episcopal 
church returned to his island charge. 

In height Bishop Holly is about five feet 
ten, and is well proportioned. His head is 
somewhat above the average in size, the brain 
of good quality and well developed. The 
intellectual organs and moral sentiments are 
especially well marked. His memory is re- 
markable ; his voice and language excellent. 
He is a good thinker and a fluent speaker. 
More than all else, he is the embodiment of 
integrity, faith, and devotion. The world, 
we think, will hear more of this tirst Amer- 
ican colored bishop consecrated for work in 
a foreign field. ^.g.,^^^ .^ ^OOglC 



1875.] 



OUB EARS— AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, 



17 




hSBicsnoms, «r %m 4 frrackr. 



or tht toul, the body form doth Uk«:, 

For loul U ftfrm, and doth the body initk*.— 




OUB EARS— A..\D THEIR SieMFICANGE. 



EARS vary more than 
might at first be sup- 
posed, as may be easily de- 
moDstrated by any one who 
will take the trouble to ob- 
serve the different kinds of 
ears met with in the course 
of a single promenade. Be- 
ginning our examinations 
Trith a back view, the prin- 
cipal, perhaps the only, char- 
acteristics with which we are 
impressed are those of size 
and prominence. 8ome ears 
"stick out" exceedingly, especially in those 
whose heads are rather small, and who have 
thin necks, the close-cut hair of the present 
day rendering the development conspicuous. 
Other ears are set close to the head, and are 
not readily observed at a distance. Some^ 
by their enormous size, remind us of ele- 
phanVs ears; others, again, are little and 
round, like those of mice, while sometimes, 




Fig. 1— Labok Ain> Finb Eajl 




Pig. »— SxALL Ain) Finb. 

bat very rarely, we see an ear that in shape 
and tint resembles a delicate sea-shell, half 
hid amid wave-like masses of hair. Passing 
around to the side, which gives us, of course, 
the beat view possible, and examining the 



organ of hearing more atten- 
tively, we shall readily per- 
ceive that the ear properly 
consists of two parts — an in- 
terior arrangement of carti- 
lages, curiously folded, and 
forming a hollow orifice, 
the whole being admirably 
adapted to receive the at- 
mospheric waves of sound, 
and transmit them to the 
brain; and an exterior rim 
and lobe of flexible muscle 
and flesh, surrounding the 
first and projecting from the head. It is to 
the latter part more particularly that we pro- 
pose to confine our observations at present. 

In the majority of animals, the external ear 
is developed to a much greater extent than 
in man, lacking, however, almost entirely the 
folds and convolutions that characterize his, 
and there are few who do not excel him in 
the power of hearinu. The use of the outer 




Fig. 3— Small and Coakse. 

car seems to be to collect and concentrate 
the stray ripples of sound that continually 
take their numerous and diversified courses 
through the surrounding air, and, conse- 
quently, the greater its size, in proportion to 
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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



its fineness of textore and the angle at which 
it is set, or is capable of being set, upon the 
tvsad, the larger will be the number of those 
sound-wayes that it will gather, and the 
greater its ability to discriminate between 
them. From this, it might reasonably be 
supposed that large ears in man would indi- 
cate and accompany superior powers of hear- 
ing; but it not infrequently happens that 
large ears, where they are very large and set 
out from the head, are also thick and coarse 
in texture, and, consequently, though they 
may gather a good many sounds, do not dis- 
criminate very nicely between them — they 
hear confused noises, but not so readily sig- 
nificant sounds ; in short, they are ears that, 
hearing, hear not, in very many cases. Where 
a large ear accompanies a fine organization, 
we may reasonably look fer extensive and 
comprehensive powers of hearing. 




Fig. 4— LaBOB AMD COAB8V. 

A notable exception to the above seems to 
be exemplified in the case of birds, which 
possess no trace, as far as has l^een ascer- 
tained, of an external ear, although in some 
species, as the owl and kindred fowl, an ar- 
rangement of feathers seems, in some degree, 
to take its place, and which yet, to all ap- 
pearance, possess the power of hearing to a 
remarkable degree. We think, however, that 
it is an open question, whether its insignifi- 
cant ear, or its very large and sensitive eye, 
IS of most service to a bird of any species in 
warning it of the approach of danger — wheth- 
er the sound of the soft footfall on the grass, 
or the sight of the slight stir of branches 
that accompanies the movements of an in- 
truder, serve the quicker to apprise it of an 
unwelcome approach. We leave to natural- 
:Bt8 the settlement of this question. 



In animals, the external ear, from its great 
mobility and the ea^je with which it may be 
directed forward, backward, or sideways, 
drawn close to the head in fear, or boldly 
erected in courage, hope, or expectation, be- 
comes quite an expressive organ of language 
in interpreting the various impressions that 
actuate its possessor. In man, however, the 
ear being fixed and stationary, and capable 
of no voluntary movement, is reduced to a 
merely passive organ, adapted to receive im- 
pressions, but not in the least degree to ex- 
press them. 

CLA88IFICATIOK. 

Ears may be briefly classified, with respect 
to their several characteristics, as 

Large, Regular, Projecting, 

Small, Irregular, Close, 

any of which, as with all the other features, 
may be fine or coarse in texture. 

* LARGE BARS 

usually accompany the motive temperament, 
large bones, large features, and strong, vig- 
orous muscles, although they are not con- 
fined to large sized people, many small men 
being gifted with ears of no mean dimen- 
sions. 'These men will generally be found, 
however, to possess large bones in propor- 
tion to their size, and considerable muscular 
activity, as if nature had started out to make 
large men of them, but had been frustrated 
in her intentions by untoward circumstances. 
Among animals, those most noted for sagac 
ity, gentleness, tractability, docility, and 
teachableness, have the external ear largely 
developed, as is illustrated in the elephant 
and the domestic dog, representatives of sa- 
gacity and docility, combined with great 
teachableness. Their ears are long and broad, 
while in the horse, the deer, and the sheep, 
emblems of harmlessness and tractability, the 
ears are long and narrow. In those animals 
which are wild, intractable, and possess, in 
many cases, much keenness of perception, the 
base of the ear is necessarily large, in order 
to surround the large orifice that exists in 
almost every instance, the part of the ear 
projecting beyond the head is comparatively 
short, often remarkably so, and terminates 
quickly in the conical tip that affords such a 
contrast to the rounded tops of the first-men- 
tioned class. The wolf, fox, tiger, and do- 
mestic cat famish familiar examples; the 

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1875.] 



OUR EARS— AND IHEIR SIGNIFICANCE. 



19 



short-eared cat being far inferior in docility, 
sobmission, or teachableness to the long- 
eared dog. The broad-eared Newfoundland 
is much more gentle, tractable, and sagacious 




Fig. S.— Mbdiuk axd Fine. 

than the short-eared bull-dog, so well known 
and dreaded for his ferocious disposition. 

THS MXJLB AND OBSTINACY. 

From these facts physiognomists have in- 
fierred that large ears in man indicate the 
qualities of teachableness, mildness, and 
obedience in a superior degree, and, other * 
things being equal, they are doubtless cor- 
rect in their supposition. And here, very 
likely, some one will interrupt the chain 
of our argument by pointing to the long- 
eared mule, so noted for his obstinacy, the 
longer-eared donkey, whose stupidity has 
passed into a proverb, or some big-eared, 
blnndering schoolboy, into whose obtuse ap- 
prehension it seemed impossible to make any 




Pfg. 6— Monvs TXMPXRAiiENT— Calx and Steadt. 

idea penetrate, and exclaiming triumphantly, 
*^ Behold a complete refutation of your theory. 
How are you going to account for these in- 
contestible facts?" Not so fast, my friend. 
Well warrant ycur cars are not large phys- 



ically, whatever they be metaphysically. We 
would remind all such objectors that in pred- 
icating the demonstration of any particular 
quality of the ear, its texture and outline 
must be considered as well as its size. More- 
over large ears indicate other qualities be- 
sides teachableness, which may act with or 
oppose this quality as circumstances may di- 
rect. Taking the instances above referred to, 
who, that has seen the learned mule perform 
at a circus, but will admit that he is emi- 
nently teachable ? Who, that has seen him 
trudging mile after mile of rugged mount- 
ain road, under a heavy burden, not doing 
his own pleasure or choosing his own road, 
but quietly submissive to the will of his mas- 
ter, but must allow that, considering his 
strength and his acknowledged temper, he is 
wonderfully docile ? while pen would fail to 
do justice to the hardships patiently endured 
— the outrages meekly subndtted to by that 
most abused, derided, despised, but excellent 
creature, the donkey 1 What short-eared an- 
imal does, or would day afler day, and year 
after year, thus steadily and uncomplainingly 
serve an ungrateful tyrant, such as the Alpine 
mountaineers, who use him extensively, very 
generally are ? As to obstinacy, which is only 
Firmness perverted, not only is it not incom- 
patible with a teachable disposition, but very 
frequently accompanies it, as is manifest in 
the animal kingdom, from the fact that no 
long- eared animals arc without occasional 
outbreaks of it, while no short-eared animal 
ever manifests it. Not only horses, mules, 
and donkeys, but camels and elephants are 
subject to this failing, if that can be called a 
failing, which arises from the excessive force 
of some quality, which may be greatly aggra- 
vated by improper management ; and if any 
one doubts its presence in sheep, he has only 
to turn shepherd for awhile, and make the at- 
tempt to bring some hard-headed old bell- 
wether into his way of thinking upon some 
matter concerning which they entertain dif- 
ferent opinions. 

Obstinacy, as we understand it, and as we 
here use the term, is the quality that actuates . 
and sustains the persistent effort to do, or re- 
frain from doing, something by passive re- 
sistance merely, without any overt act of re- 
taliation. The mule, for example, jogging 
quietly along with his pack on his back, sud- 

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20 



PHRENOLOGIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



denly takes lit into his head to stop. He 
has, perhaps, no reason for this, he is not par- 
ticularly tired, and the spot he has chosen 
for a stopping-place possesses no special at- 




Fi;r. 7— Ukoui-ar— Well-Baulnced. 

tractions— is not half so desirable, it may be, 
as many that he has uncomplainingly passed, 
and it may chance that but a short distance 
now intervenes between himself and his jour- 
ney's end, where he will be at liberty to take 
repose, a fact of which it is reasonable to sup- 
pose he is well aware; still, the idea has 
occurred to him to stop ri^ht here^ and he 
stops accordingly. To his master's command 
to proceed, he returns no answer except to 
shake his head in a decided negative, and 
stands like a statiie, save for the occasional 
twitching of his long ears. Ah, those cars ! 
how expressive they are at this moment — 
quiet determination manifested in every 
movement I Wisdom would naturally sug- 
gest to the superior being who has him in 
charge, that the best, in fact the only proi)cr, 
course would be to indulge the hard-working 
creature in his little notion, and by a timely 
inspection and, if need be, readjustment of 
the harness, accompanied by a kind word or 
caress to divert his attention, cause him to 
believe that the opinion of master and serv- 
ant with regard to this little maneuver were 
the same ; and then quietly wait for him to 
move on, which he would quickly and will- 
ingly do, in the fond belief, so dear to man 
and beast, that he was doing as he pleased. 
But the majority of mankind are not gov- 
erned altogether by the dictates of wisdom. 
We learn that of old time a prophet was re- 
buked by an ass; and if the kindred of that 
animal at the present time could speak, they 
would find in many who are not prophets 



more folly to upbraid than ever entered into 
the head of the stupidest jackass that ever 
went on four feet. So the obstinacy of the 
brute arouses the brute of obstinacy in the 
man ; the first is determined to stand still, 
and the second is as equally determined that 
he shall move on ; so threats, curses, kicks, and 
blows fall in vehement and rapid succession 
upon the audacious creature which has dared 
to assert a will of its own. , Were not the 
mule a tractable animal, he would tear him- 
self away from the hands that so misuse him, 
and spuming all control, take incontinently 
to his heels, nor stop until he was fairly be- 
'yond the possibility of further ill-treatment. 
Were he not docile, he would turn upon hia 
master, as he is well able and strong enough 
to do, and with teeth and hoofs avenge his 
injuries blow for blow. But as it is only olh 
Btinacy that ails him, poor brute, he patiently 
abides the consequences of indulging in a 
manifestation of it; and, planting his feet 
more firmly, resists steadily, and with really 
heroic fortitude, the most vigorous hauling 
of the bridle in front, and the most furious 
chastisement in the rear. And so the un- 
equal contest is kept up until, having forgot- 
ten, in the excitement of the struggle, what 
he stopped for, it suddenly 6ccurs to the poor 
brute that this is not the most agreeable way 
of spending liis time ; and with a jerk and a 
smothered groan he starts on again, of his 
own accord, mind you, his dauntless spirit 
unsubdued and as ready to manifest itself as 
ever in a similar way. Talk of ignorance or 
stupidity, forsooth 1 in him or his cousin, the 




Fig. 8 -iRRKoui^R— Eccentric. 

donkey, in such cases as this. Did not the 
brute know well enough what was wanted of 
him at the very outset of the difiScultyf 
Certainly he did. Why, then, did not the 
provoking beast do it? Ah, why not, in- 
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18?6.] 



OUB BABS-^AND THUIB SIGNIFICANCE, 



21 



deed, tare enongli I And why do not beings, 
whose boart is the poMession of a grade of in- 
telilgenoe immeaaorably higher than his, do 




Fig. »— DocnjTT AXD Saaaoitt. 

always what they Icnow so well to be desir- 
able and right ? 

COMPARATIYB STBBkOTH. 

Bat imagine if yon can, reader, a contest 
like the above being carried on with one 
of the short-eared animals. Imagine, for 
instance, a tiger or a leopard that was being 
led in a leash, deliberately taking its stand 
fft laying itself down on the road and per- 
mitting itself to be beaten with whip or 
dub rather than yield to the will of its keep- 
er and move submissively on, and that with- 
ont any serious attempt at retaliation I The 
idea is preposterous. Wherefore we reassert 
that long-eared animals evince obstinacy, 
while short-eared ones do not ; and this be- 
canse the latter have neither the strength, 
power of endurance, or courage of the for- 
mer, appearances to the contrary notwith- 
standing ; for it is evident that great cour- 
age, endurance, and considerable physical 
strength of some kind must be necessary to 
enable an animal patiently and persistently 
to endure the infliction of severe pain when 
it is in its power to avoid it, either by flight 
or obedience. 

To test further the traUabiUty of the long 
and short eared animals, try the following 
experiment: Take a young kid, the most 
capricious and intractable of the first-men- 
tioned kind — take him when he is pretty 
hnngiy, and hold him firmly in your arms, 
while some one else, a little distance away, 
calls him to a bountiftd meaL He will strug- 
gle violently for a few .noments, though with- 
Ottt^nything like the amount of strength he 
actoally possesses or is capable of exerting. 



and finding his efforts unavailing, his last 
and only resource is a plaintive, appealing 
cry. Now take our household Tabby and 
subject her to the same ordeal. She, though 
not really as strong, will struggle with much 
greater energy and more desperate effprt, 
then oomes the impatient cry, and, shortly 
after, the warning growl, and if puss is not at 
once released, her domestic habits alone hav- 
ing caused her to evince so much forbear- 
ance thus far, she concludes that the point 
has been reached where patience ceases to be 
a virtue, and by a fierce onslaught of teeth 
and claws, testifies her resentment at the re- 
straint that is being put upon her liberties. 
Not even for the purpose of t)eing carressed 
will she permit her freedom of action to be 
impeded, and unless deterred by the fear of 
punishment, will not hesitate to use her nat- 
ural weapons to preserve her liberty intact. 
Save in very exceptional cases, pussy's edu-, 
cation can be little more than prohibitory. 
She can learn 7u>t to do certain things through 
fear of punishment, but can not easily be in- 
duced to do anything she does not fancy. 

From the above examples it follows, then, 
that in order to agree with their prototypes 
in the animal kingdom, people with large 
ears should be more tractable and docile, 
should possess more courage, strength, firm- 
ness — which may easily degenerate into ob- 
stinacy—mildness, and generosity, which is 
the usual concomitant of genuine strength, 
than those whose ears are smaller, other things 
being equal, and what those " other things '' 
are, we shall endeavor to indicate fiirther on. 

. THE LION, BEAR, ELEPHANT/ OX. 

In attributing a laiger share of physical 
strength to the large-eared animals, we shall 




Fig. 10— Pbojectiho— 0OURAOBOU9 ; CLoei— Stbaltht. 

probably be referred to the lion, emblem of 
strength as well as majesty, and the bear of 
powerful embrace, and asked to compare 



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22 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



their powers with those of any of the larger- 
eared quadrupeds, if the comparison can be 
made. Passing by the horse, whose strength 
is proverbial, we could easily overmatch 
either with the stately elephant, grand in 
strength and proportions, but will content 
ourselves for the present with comparing 
them with the ox. At first sight the two 
former, especially his royal highness, would 
certainly seem to merit the precedence in 
this respect; but we claim that there is more 
of that solid power, which arises from, and 
is connected with, the ability to endure con- 
tinuous effort, in the ox than in either of the 
others. If this appears doubtful, take the 
iion, put him to a cart or plow apportioned 
to his size, and work him steadily, day after 
day as an ox is worked, and see how much 
he would be able to accomplish, and for how 
long a time. If it be urged that his unshod 
feet, unprotected by hoofs, unfit him for this 
sort of labor, or that his strength is not 
available in this direction, try him in another 
way more in accordance with his ordinary 
habits and modes of life. In his native for- 
ests, it has been said, but on doubtful au- 
thority, that he will seize the body of a slain 
buffalo in his teeth, and, partly supporting 
it on his shoulder, carry or drag it the dis- 
tance of a mile or more to his den. Well, 
take the same brute to a slaughter-house and 
set him to work fetching and carrying the 
carcasses of slaughtered cattle, and see how 
long he would be able to endure the fa- 
tigue of unremitting exertion. With all his 
'strength he would soon droop and fail, and 
if the toil were long protracted would die 
under it -He is not fitted for it, it is true, 
nor are any small-eared animals. As they 
never equal the long-eared in aize, so they 
never equal them in strength. No small- 
eared animal equals the elephant either in 
size or the amount of labor he is able to per- 
form. The small-eared wolf gives way be- 
fore the larger-eared dog, which evidences 
his inherent robustness by the hard labor he 
is capable of performing in various services 
for man. The stag and moose, though ap- 
parently so much feebler, when wounded or 
brought to bay, are almost, and under some 
circumstances quite, as formidable adversa- 
ries as the lion himself; while their congen- 
ers of the frozen North are put to the serv- 



ice of mankind without any detriment to 
themselves. The small-eared, which are 
mostly beasts of prey, are well aware of the 
real, though not apparent, superiority in this 




Pig. 11— Apfbctatiow asd Tbanbfabxngt. 

respect of their would-be victims, and there- 
fore always endeavor to pounce upon them 
unawares, as if conscious of their inability to 
sustain a fair fight upon equal grounds. 
When, however, one of the long-eared kind, 
a buffalo or a stag, for instance, wishes to 
deliver battle, he first endeavors to attract 
his adversary's attention, by snorting, paw- 
ing the ground, and executing various pre- 
monitory feints before finally rushing upon 
him. Which course, think you, denotes the 
possession and consciousness of the greater 
strength ? Short-eared animals are capable 
of brilliant achievements and surprising de- 
monstrations of strength by concentrating 
their powers into a single effort ; but if the 
first essay proves futile, they usually show in- 
ability in following it up with success. Their 
strength is short-lived ; their power is great, 
but not enduring. 

BAYAOB AND CIVILIZED MAN. 

Large ears, then, in man, we conclude, de- 
note power, latent or active, physical or men* 
tal, often both. And this seems to be fur- 
ther certified by the fttct that as a race the 
Indians of North America, whose ears are rel- 
atively much smaller than those of the white 
man, though seeming individually to poaieas 
superior strength and powers of endurance, 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



1875.] 



OUR BARS— AND THEIR SIO N IFIOANCE. 



23 



ha?e not been able successfally to cope with 
him, and haye been foand inadequate to sus- 
tain the burdens imposed on them by civil- 
ized modes of life. Their inability to endure 
hard and continuous labor was demonstrated 
to the early settlers who undertook, in many 
parts of this country, to utilize them by re- 
dodng them to slavery; but finding that 
when worked steadily they either died oflF 
rapidly or, breaking away from such hated 
restraint, betook themselves to the woods, 
whence it was almost impossible to recapture 
them, they were obliged to abandon this pro- 
ject; and the importation of negroes- fol- 
lowed, mainly to supply the place which the 
aborigines were incapable of filling in the in- 
dustrial economy of the New World. 

Cheer up, then, dull, blundering school- 
boy, whose big ears and stupidity are alike 
the jest of your quicker- witted schoolmates, 
there is much hope for you yet. Many a big- 
eared, stupid dunce has astonished the world 
in after years by his masterly achievements ; 
not by remaining in stupidity and ignorance, 
but by developing and making use of the 
power that was in him. 

It is a wise and merciful dispensation of 
Providence that the greatest amount of pow- 
er and executive ability, both in mian and 
beast, is bestowed upon those which are 
harmlessly inclined. If the tiger had the 




^. IS— TmcK-EAiiiD— Obtubb. 

iBifldve weight, strength, and endurance of 
the ox in addition to his own agility and 
v^inary disposition, he would be far more 
potent for mischief and terrible to encounter 



than he is. Again, large, solid bodies, and 
the most powerful forces of nature, move 
slowly. So the large-eared animals, as the 
ox and the elephant, are very much slower 




Fljf. 15— Small— CoNCBiTBD, Impatusnt. 
in their movements than the small-eared, as 
the leopard or panther, whose movements, 
when once aroused, fairly elude the eye by 
their quickness. Even those among the for- 
mer who are noted for their swiftness, as the 
horse, the antelope, the hare, etc., can not ex- 
ecute any movement that in rapidity equals 
the lightning-like spring of the tiger upon 
his prey, or the impetuous rush of a pack of 
wolves when they have caught their victim 
at a disadvantage. So men .with large ear;*, 
and the large bodies that usually accompany 
them, are comparatively slow in their move- 
ments, their speech, and their methods of 
thought, slow to receive new impressions or 
to form their opinions, but firm in maintain- 
ing them when once formed. They under- 
stand no method of contending with diffi- 
culties except by open and steady opposition ; 
find it difficult to understand, still more to 
employ, subterfuge and the thousand crooked, 
underhanded devices that are included undei 
the general term of policy^ and are almost 
certain to blunder when attempting to em- 
ploy such means. They make their way in 
life, not by a series of brilliant or exception- 
al efforts, but by main strength, by steady, 
persistent endeavor in some one direction, 
and overcome obstacles, not . by dodging 
around them, but by putting them beneath 
their feet— like the massive elephant which 
clears for himself a path through the track- 
less forest by breaking down and trampling 
under foot alike tree and shrub, grass and 
flower, but not like the lithe tiger, which 
makes his way by gliding and creeping under, 
over, around, or through to,n^^o5t^g^^ll 



24 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



en logs, entwining bushes, and reedy grass, 
scarce bending a leaf or disturbing a twig 
by the soft pressure of his yelvety paws, and 
leaving no trace of the path he has taken. 




Fig. 14— SimamtioAi.. 
THICK BAB8. 

When the rim and lobe of the ear is thick, 
the features 'will generally be found to be 
more or less blunted in their outline; the 
whole indicating a corresponding degree of 
obtuseness, both mental and physical. Peo- 
ple so constituted are not easily irritated, 
oflfended, or hurt either by external annoy- 
ances, as heat, cold, discordant sounds, being 
pushed against, or jostled, or accidentally 
struck by hard substances, or by slurs, innu- 
endoes, or sarcastic remarks. They are not, 
therefore, very sensitive — are the reverse of 
thin-skinned, but are the detestation of those 
who are, for in their bluntness of manner and 
good-natured obtuseness they often tread 
with blundering ponderosity on other peo- 
ple's tenderest toes, and trample unconcern- 
edly under foot their choicest flowers of fan- 
cy and sentiment, as their prototype, the ele- 
phant, treads indiscriminately upon tender 
herb or fallen tree, blooming flower or bar- 
ren twig. Large-eared people need, as a gen- 
eral thing, to cultivate a delicate considera- 
tion for the feelings, sentiments, fancies, and 
prejudices of others. Though slow to take 
offense, yet when once thoroughly aroused to 
a sense of wanton ii^ury received, like the 
ox or the elephant, they are formidable in 
their rage, are not easUy subdued, and are 
much more dangerous than those small-eared 
people who spit and scratch at every little 
offense, but do no great damage after all. 

We think, on the whole, that large ears 
sum up pretty well in the list of their at- 
tendant qualificationa, and that their possess- 
ors have no reason to be ashamed of them. 
They are a class of needed and efficient 



workers, fitted to bear the brunt of life's bat- 
tle with the forces of nature and to bear off 
the well-earned palm. Great men in almost 
every department will generally be found to 
have, or to have had, laige ears. 

SMALL BARS. 

From what has been observed in the forego- 
ing connection, it would appear that people 
with small ears are less teachable or tract- 
able than others. They are aristocratic in 
their tendencies, impatient of restraint, dis- 
like, often exceedingly, to be *^ bossed," and 
however they may like to exercise authority, 
prefer to be governed by the dictates of their 
own consciences rather than by the mandates 
of others. They are lees stubborn, generally, 
than larger-eared persons, though often as 
firmly bent upoui^btaining their ends, but are 
not so obstinate as to the maniMr of obtain- 
ing them. 

Small ears may be found in large or small, 
coarse or fine organisations ; being found in 
the animal kingdom to belong alike to the 
big, burly hippopotamus and the little, deli- 
cate, agile squirrel, and in respect to size de- 
note the same quality in both, viz., untama- 
bleness united to blind ferocity in the one, 
in the other to harmless playfulness. 

DIFLUSKOB OF DOMBSTICATIOIV. 

It is well known that domestication has an 
inevitable tendency to increase the size of 
the ear, as is evident by comparing this or- 
gan in any thoroughly domesticated animal 
with the same feature in one of the same 
species in a wild state. The ears of wild cats 
are shorter than those of our household pet ; 
the difference between the ears of the wild 
and various breeds of the domestic dog is 
very perceptible ; but perhaps the most no- 
ticeable instance of all is apparent in the 




15— iBBSamiAB— Brutal. 



case of the various fancy breeds of domestic 
rabbits, whose ears present such a marked 
increase in size over those of the original 
wild stock. The same may be remarked of 

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1875.] 



OUR BAB8—AND THEIR SIGNIFICANCE, 



25 



the pig, the horse, etc, and we doubt Dot that 
a similar resalt, in a proportionate degree, 
would be prodaced in any creature, however 
wild and intractable by nature, that could 




Fig. 16— Mean and iNQinsinys. 

be subjected long enough to the restraining 
and modifying influences of domestication. 

FENDULOUS BAB6. 

Not only does domestication increase the 
size of the ear, but it eflects, in many cases, a 
striking change in its inclination and conse- 
quent general appearance. In wild dogs, 
sheep, and cattle of all kinds, as with every 
species of quadruped save one, the ears are 
mostly erect, projecting outward and upward ; 
bat in domestic dogs, and some varieties of 
domestic rabbits, sheep, and cattle, they are 
pendant; being the very reverse of the for- 
mer. Pendant ears, like those of the hound 
and the elephant — ^the most readily domes- 
tieatod of all animals,— denote the highest 
degree of domesticity attainable. 

This peculiarity of pendulousness is some- 
times indicated in large human ears whose 
tips show a tendency to lop over. Such ears 
should properly belong to indulgent parents, 
meekly submissive to the whims of their lit- 
tle self-imposed tyrants, or to '* that useful 
sad desirable domestic animal — a tame hus- 
baadl" 

THE BAB OF BEFINBMBNT. 

The small, fine, well-formed ear almost in- 
variably accompanies the nervous tempera- 
ment, and denotes quickness, refinement, del- 
icacy, and artistic perception, with a nervous, 
ttnsitiTe organization. Ears both large and 
well formed and delicate may be found, 
sometimes, in artists and musicians, and in- 
<Bcate force, combined with delicacy; but 
mail, pyriform ears almost invariably ac- 
company slender, medium or small sized 
bodies, small bones, and intellectual-look- 
ag heads. 



OENBRAL niTFBBBNCBS. 

Large ears, as has been observed, hear 
things in general, and denote broad, compre- 
hensive views and modes of thought ; while 
small ears hear things in particular, showing 
a disposition to individualize, often accom- 
panied by a love of the minute. Large ears 
are usually satisfied with learning the lead- 
ing facts of a case, with the general principles 
involved — ^too strict an attention to the enu- 
meration of details, especially all repetition 
of the more unimportant, is wearisome to 
them. People with such ears like generally, 
and are usually well fitted to conduct large 
enterprises, to receive and pay out money in 
large sums, in buying or selling would prefer 
to leave a margin rather than reduce the 
quantity of goods of any sort to the exact di- 
mensions of the measure specified, and in giv- 
ing would prefer to give with a free hand 
and without too strict a calculation as to the 
exact amount. Small ears, on the contrary, 
desire to know the particulars of a story as 
well as the main facts ; take delight oden in 
examining, handling, or constructing tiny 
specimens of workmanship ; are disposed to 
be exact with respect to inches and ounces 
in buying or selling, to the extent, at least. 
of knowing the exact number over or undei 




17— Lop^Babbxk 



the stated measure given or received. People 
with such ears would, in most cases, prefer a 
retail to a wholesale business ; it would cer- 
tainly seem best fitted for them, and, doubt- 
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PHBBNOLOQICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



less, the habits of close economy that accom- 
pany them, the disposition^ to look closely 
into particulars, which, when unaccompanied 
by Benevolence and other modifying qualities, 
cause them to be exacting in the matter of 
every penny given or received, and to con- 
duct their charities as well as everything else 
on a small scale, have given rise, in some 
parts of the country, to the idea that small 
ears denote stinginess. That this is not 
always the case, however, but depends upon 
the influence of other modifying qualities, 
need not be told to anyone who has studied 
character to much extent. 

MBDIUM-BIZBD BARS 

are those which denote a combination of 
the above peculiarities in degree propor- 
tionate to their size and character; the 
larger inclining toward the former, and the 
smaller toward the latter characteristics. Of 
course we do not insist that ears, either large 
or small, will in every instance indicate all, or 
even the greater part, of the characteristics 
we have assigned to them, for none know 
better than phrenologists the importance, 
nay, the necessity, of taking into -account all 
cne attendant modifications, probable or pos- 
sible, of quality, temperament, health, educa- 
tional influences, predominating or antagon- 
istic faculties, in predicating of one or more 
characteristics of any organ, the presence of 
such and such attendant qualities ; and as size 
in any organ taken by itself is so wholly a 
matter of comparison, it would be impossible, 
in a general statement, to fix any certain 
degree to which the manifestation of the 
qualities denoted thereby could be assigned; 
but we do say, that of two persons of equal 
size, physical development, temperament, 
vital stamina, et(f., he whose ears are the 
longest will manifest more, in proportion to 
their superior size, of the qualifications as- 
cribed above to large ears, than the other, and 
vice versa. 

Leaving now the subject of size, merely, 
we will next consider 

* PBOHINBNCB. 

The largest ears are generally the most 
prominent, though little ears show a tendency 
to stick out, sometimes. The more promi- 
nent ears accompany the most harmless char- 
acters, as is seen in the case of sheep and 
oxen, whose ears are very prominent laterally. 



YHiere Destructiveness, which b situated 
directly above the ear, is well developed in 
man, it seems to cause a slight hollow or 
cavity below the organ into which the base 




Fig. 18~-8bmicibculaii. 

or root of the ear is set, causing its external 
part to fit snugly to the head. This peculi- 
arity may be observed in Indians, who have 
generally small, close-setting ears, and in 
most well-known pugilists. 

Prominence of the ear, however, is of two 
kinds. In the first, only the back part of the 
ear bends out and away from the head, while 
the upper part remains close to it, causing an 
apparent prominence plainly visible from be- 
hind, but not noticeable in front In the 
second, the tips also stand out from the head, 
forming the truly prominent ear, visible both 
in front and behind. The first may be con- 
sidered as occupying a middle place between 
the latter and the close-set ear, of which no 
part projects, and indicates a proportionate 
blending of characteristics. 

Combativeness, which is located back of 
the ear, tends to give prominence to the back 
part of that organ, but Destructiveness draws 
the tips close to the head. Combativeness 
and Destructiveness are very different quali- 
ties in their character and their mode of mani- 
festation. Long-eared animals are to a species 
combative, while the short-eared are essen- 
tially destructive. Combativeness comes clat- 
tering in on noisy hoofs, hand in hand with 
Fimmess and expectation, inviting as well 
as offering battle, and willing to share the 
risks as well as the glories of combat ; and 
com[bined with Benevolence, Avhich is not in- 
compatible with, it would, scorn to take an 
unfair advantage of an adversary, and would 
readily help an opponent to regain his feet 
after once having had the fun of knocking 

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OUR EARS—AND THEIR BIQ NIFIGAN C E, 



2r 



him down. '* Gome on,*^ cries Combativeneae, 
feariesBly exposing his whole bulk to the an- 
ticipated assault '* Ck>me on, Vm your man," 
while his big ears, sticking oat like great 
jug-handles, offer a tempting place to lay hold 
o£ Destmctiveness, on the contrary, taking 
Secredveness and Cautiousness for allies and 
counselors, creeps stealthily in on yelvety 
paws, keeping itself out of sight as much as 
possible until the final moment, lays the ears 
close to the head so that the frenzied yictim 
shall not seize hold of them and thus impede 
its movements and imperil its safety, and 
bent only on inflicting the greatest amoimt 
of damage, scrupulously reserves all advan- 
tages to itself. 

REGULAR AKD IRRBOULAR. 

Irregularly-shaped ears denote mental ir- 
regularity or eccentricity of some sort Er- 
ratic geniuses, who owe allegiance to no 
authority but their own wills, will be found 
to have ears displaying great irregularity in 
their convolutions, whether large or small. 
Ears whose lines and curves are regular and 
well proportioned, denote a corresponding 
regularity and uniformity of character. 

COKTOXJR, 

in ears both large and small, should now be 
considered, keeping in view the conclusions 




Fig. 19— PnoFOBXf OB Oval. 

already arrived at as to what is indicated by 
s in size. From this stand-Doint ears 



may be conveniently subjected to a second 
classification into 

Long and Narrow, 
' Short and Broad. 
Or may be more minutely distinguished as, 
The wide at the top, or Pyriform JBar ; 
The wide at the middle, or Semicircular Ear. 
The wide at the bottom, or Pyramidal Ear. 




Fig. so— SQUARE. 



Ears, in common with other features, obey 
the law of conformity to th& general charac- 
ter of the physical system of which they form 
a part ; consequently, long, narrow ears will 
adorn long, narrow faces, while short, broad 
faces will be accompanied by ears of a simi- 
lar character. A much closer conformity ex- 
ists, however, in the mtyority of cases, between 
the contour of the rim and lobe of the ear and 
the outline of the jaw-bone and chin. This 
conformity is sometimes very exact, giving 
curve for curve, prominence for prominence, 
depression for depression with the greatest 
fidelity ; the ear being, in fact, a reproduc- 
tion, hfao-nmUe^ on a reduced scale, of the 
jaw. In almost every instance, a jaw widest 
at its junction with the head will be found 
to. accompany an ear widest across the top ; 
one projecting at the middle, an ear whose 
width is greatest at the middle, owing to the 
expansion or projection of the rim at that 
point; while a full-bottomed jaw, with a 
large, round chin, will accompany a full-bot- 
tomed ear, with a large, rounded lobe. A jaw 
tapering handsomely from the root of the ear, 
and ending in a small, delicate, oval chin, will 
be reproduced in the pyriform ear terminat- 
ing in the delicate oval lobe ; while one that 

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PHRBNOLOGICAZ JOURNAL. 



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takes a bold, strong carve from the ear to 
a broad, square chin, will be surrounded by 
the semicircular, sweeping ear, ending in a 
broad, square lobe. « 

The Pyriform, accompanying the pyriform 
face — often very small and never very large — 
indicates the quick, delicate perception, the 
love of the elegant, the graceful, and the art- 
istic that belong to the mental temperament. 
Such ears instinctively turn away from and 
refuse to listen to aught that can offend the 
delicate sense of propriety that resides within 




Fig. 81— A Smashed Subjxot. 

them, and are quick to perceive incongruities 
or to feel an insult. Without other modify- 
ing qualities they are apt to be morbidly sen- 
sitive, even to the extent that is commonly 
denominated thin-skinned, particularly when 
brought in contact with those who are defi- 
cient in tact. These are the ears that tingle 
at unkind or improper remarks. 

The Regular, semicircular ear, resembling 
that of the rat or weasel, seldom, we believe, 
attains what may properly be called a large 
size, but ranges from small to medium, gen- 
erally inclining toward small. They do not 
always accord with the contour of the head 
and features tp which they belong, but, when 
the opening of such ears is large and round, 
and they are set on a round head with rather 
blunt features and a short, up-turned nose, as 
is sometimes the case, they would seem to 
represent properly the inquisitive ear. Such 
ears would be likely to be open for the recep- 
tion of all sorts of nouveHeSy irrespective of 
quantity or quality ; they receive communi- 
cations with avidity, or, in short, to use a 
homely but expressive saying, ^^AlPs fish that 
comes to their net." Such ears seem espe- 
cially designed to be the receptacle of all the 
stray odds and ends of information that may 
chance to be lying about loose, and we war- 
rant that they are very few that fail of reach- 
ing their destination. 



Broad-bottomed, basilar, or, as we might 
call them, Pyramidal ears, go generally with 
full, heavy Jaws, a broad base to the brain, and 
a liberal share of rugged vitality. We believe 
they never accompany the mental tempera- 
ment, but belong to the vital-motive, or, 
oftener still, to the vital temperament. They 
usually accompany broad javrs and full 
cheeks, with a proportionate development of 
the propensities, more especially Alimeniive- 
ness and its kindred faculties. 

We will take, in conclusion, a brief view 
of the peculiarities noticeable in the 

LOBS OF THB BAB. 

With respect to shape, it may be conven- 
iently classified as 

Round, Looped, 

Oval, Square. 

The lobe of the ear is never, strictly speak* 
ing, perfectly round, but it approximates to 
that form in very small, delicately shaped 
ears, as does the chin. From what has been 
remarked above with regard to the similarity 
of contour between the rim of the ear and the 
profile of the jaw, it will be seen that the lobe 
always accords in shape and size with the 
chin, more especially with its profile. Round 
lobes usually terminate pyriform ears, and are 
generally delicately tinted, while oval lobes 
go with long, narrow, well-formed ears, are 
thin and frequently tinged with pink, giving 
them somewhat the appearance of semitrans- 
parency. These are the handsomest and finest 
forms of alL 

The looped lobe goes with the semicircular 
ear, and may be either thick or thin. It is so 
named because, instead of being set off from 
the ear as a distinct and separate part from 
the rest, though pendent to it like the two 
varieties preceding in thb kind, the gristly 
cartilage of the ear dips down into it, making 
of the lobe proper a narrow rim of flesh 
stretched around this gristly protuberance, 
the whole taking the form of a loop. These 
lobes are almost always wanting in color. 

In the fourth,the square kind,the ear and its 
lobe are merged into one, the lobe extending 
up into the ear or the ear down into the lobe, 
so that it is almost impossible to determine ex- 
actly where one ends and the other begins. 
Such lobes are generally thick and are always 
colorless, except, perhaps, in very cold weatii* 
er ; even then they are the last to take fire 

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OHABLOTTE OUSHMAN. 



20 



At the assidnoiis petBeeations of Jack Frost 
They acoomiMmy the square or basilar ear, and 
denote heaviness, toneless, and often ob- 
toseness. 

There is a type of fiice occasionally met 
with which it is difficult to designate by any 
other name than that of the *' smashed ^ face. 
Its lines and corres are broken, irregular, in- 
distinct, and so merged and confounded one 
with another that it seems difficult, often well- 
nigh impossible, to determine precisely what 
they mean. They give to the beholder an 
impression somewhat akin to that which is 
produced in gating on a flower or some large 
insect that has been crushed and trodden un- 
der foot, until almost all trace of its original 
and real contour has been lost It seems as 
if the iron wheel of adverse circumstances had 
rolled over such countenances, breaking up 
and confusing all those delicate lines that re- 
Teal the character and workings of the inner 
life. With the smashed countenance goes 
maally the smashed ear, which looks as If 
it had been spread over and pressed into the 
head rather than joined to it in the ordinary 
way. In such ears the lobe is hopelessly 
confounded with the rim, the rim with the 
inner cartilage, and the whole is merged 
gradually into the countenance. 



Tliis smashed appearance is often more ap- 
parent in the ear than in ^m ^tures, but, 
happily for mankind, both the smashed face 
and the smashed ear are comparatively rare, 
at least in this country, where people are now 
free to grow up fhnn within to the measure 
and contour that is rightly theirs, and are 
not forced, as in some other parts of the 
world, to turn and twist in obedience to 
the requirements of, and finally to grow into 
the likeness and stature prescribed by the 
outward restraints, conventional and polit- 
ical, which bind them as with bands of iron. 
We have now sketched briefly the marked 
features and characteristics pertaining to the 
organ of hearing in man and animals, and 
have endeavored to demonstrate how much 

' more it is than a m«re receptacle of sound ; 
but with the numberless modifications of 
them we have neither time nor space to deal 
at present, nor is it really necessary, for, 
however modified in individual cases, all ears 
will be found to incline toward one or the 
other of the above designated types with 
sufficient distinctness to be recognizable, and 
to afibrd the student of this interesting sub- 

/ject a basis and guide upon which to found 
his investigations, and from whence to draw 
his conclusions. ▲. o. 



CmBLOTTE GUSHMAK^ THS AGTBSSS. 



FOBTT years ago Miss Cuahman made 
her first bow to an audience, and sought 
its favor for her chosen calling of the actress. 
Recently, in fact on the evening of Novem- 
ber 7th, she bid fiarewell to the stage under 
cireomstances which must have impressed 
her that she had not passed through that 
loig, changefhl, and eventful career in vain. 
She had just concluded a series of represen- 
tations in which she* had shown that much 
of the fire and spirit which so distinguished 
the acting of former years still remained, 
when certain well-known citizens who were 
among her audience called her before the 
cortain. Among those gentlemen were Mr. 
William Cullen Bryant, the veteran editor 
and poet; Mr. S. J. Tilden, the Governor 



elect of New York ; Mr. Peter Cooper, Mr. 
W, M. Evarts, and others. A poem, written 
in her honor by R. H. Stoddard, was read, 
after which Mr. Bryant presented the great 
tragic actress with a laurel crown. Among 
his remarks are these fitting words: 

**The laurel is due to the brows of one 
who has won so eminent and enviable a re- 
nown by successive conquests in the realm 
of histrionic art. You have taken a queenly 
rank in your profession; into one depart- 
ment of it after another you have carried 
your triumphs. Through the eye and the 
ear you have interpreted to the sympathies 
of vast assemblages of men and women the 
words of the greatest dramatic writers. What 
came to your hands in the skeleton form you 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL 



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clothed with sinews and flesh, and gave it a 
beating heart and warm blood coursing 
through the veins." 
Miss Gushman responded in terms of grate- 



It was the intention of her parents to pre- 
pare her for the lyric stage, but at the outset 
of her study her yoice gave way. Unde- 
terred, however, by this misfortune, slie de- 




ful emotion, and the pleasant occasion cloBcd 
amid an overflow of popular enthusiasm. 

Charlotte Cushman is of American birth, 
having been bom in Boston, Mass., in 1816. 



termined to study for the stage. Her first 
appearance in New York City was in Sep- 
tember, 1835, when she assumed the T6le of 
**Lady Macbeth," Mr. Hamlin taking the 

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CHARLOTTE 0U8HMAN, 



31 



part of the kingly murderer. Two years 
later she made her bow as " Romeo '* in the 
old National Theater of the same city, her 
sister Adelaide playing '' Jaliet" It was at 
this time that her acting began to attract at- 
tention. She was fayorably received as El- 
wu in ^* Pizarro/' and the Queen in ^^ Ham- 
let," and was engaged to perform in the old 
Park Theatre. 

While Mr. Edwin Forrest was giving his 
strong representations, Miss Cnshman appear- 
ed in the principal female parts, and with 
general acceptance. From New York she 
went to Philadelphia, where, for a time, she 
managed the Walnut Street Theatre. In 
1844 Mr. Macready, the celebrated English 
actor, came to this coontry, and Miss Cush- 
man was induced to return to New York and 
support him. At the conclusion of the season 
she went to London, where she appeared on 
February 13th, 1845, and performed with 
great success eighty-four nights. In 1850 
she returned to New York and filled several 
engagements for different theatrical mana- 
gers. Two years' later she again crossed the 
Atlantic, and returned again to New York 
in 1857, where she resumed her representa- 
tions, always eliciting the warmest approba- 
tion of her audience. In the summer of 1861 
she visited Europe again, where she made a 
protracted tour. 

Returning to America, she concluded to 
make Newport^ R. L, her resident for thft 
remainder of her life, and for a while it was 
thought that she had retired from the stage; 
but the fascination which the actor's life has 
for its Votaries was too much for her, and she 
not long ago began a series of farewell per- 
formances, which were given in the principal 
cities of the United States, her still vigorous 
mind and body winning the old favor and 
^plause to which in earlier days she had 
been accustomed. 

There are the evidences of great force in 
the portrait of Miss Cushman which accom- 
^ panics this article, although it by no means 
does justice to the original The broad, 
full forehead, the great breadth of the space 
between the eyes, show appreciation of na- 
ture in its various forms, and indicate re- 
markable sosceptibility to external impres- 
ffions. The breadth of the head between the 
ears indicates unusual executive ability; in- 



deed, a strength of mind bordering on the 
masculine. As an exponent of active phases 
of passion she is wonderfully endowed. Her 
temperament is of the active order, and, in 
combination with her energy, inclines to 
high d^pree of excitability, thus adapting 
her to express deep feeling. Her artistic 
sense is readily seen in the very prominent 
Ideality and other associated organs of the 
anterior side-head, giving an apparent 
breadth to her forehead which is almost a de- 
formity. She has a very strong emotional 
nature, a disposition that would incline to 
extremes of manifestation were it not kept in 
Control. The magnetic influence she always 
excited as an actress is due to this very na- 
ture, her power to feel to the "very depth the 
passion she would represent. 

Miss Cushman purposes to give readings 
before the public from time to time, as op- 
portunity may permit, so that she can not be 
said to have altogether retired from public 
oonsideration. 

♦•» 

OuB Tell-Talk Lips.— I have observed 
that lips become more or less contracted in 
the course of years, in proportion as they are 
accustomed to express good-humor and gen- 
erosity, or peevishness and a contracted mind. 
Remark the effect which a moment of ill- 
temper or grudgingness has upon the lips, 
and judge what may be expected iqt an hab- 
itual series of such movements. Remark the 
reverse and make a similar judgment. The 
mouth is the frankest pai-t of the face; it 
can't in the least conceal its sensations. We 
can neither hide ill-temper with it, nor good ; 
we may affect what we please, but affectation 
will not help us. * In a wrong cause it will 
only make our observers resent the endeavor 
to impose upon them. The mouth is the 
seat of one class of emotions, as the eyes are 
of another ; or, rather, it expresses the same 
emotions, but in greater detail, and with a 
more irrepressible tendency to be in motion. - 
It is the region of smiles and dimples, and of 
a trembling tenderness; of a sharp sorrow, or 
a full-breathing joy, of candor, of reserve, 
of anxious care, or liberal sympathy. The 
mouth, out of its many sensibilities, may be 
fancied throwing up one great expression in- 
to the eye^as many lights in a city reflect 
a broad luster into the heavens.— Zei^A Hunt, 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 




|fp:trtiKcut of |iir Social |{fIalioiis. 



l>oia««Mc ]>«(>^hnif ibcia otilj' bllM 
or iMriidlt* rlMt bM t^tflTM] til* taX\ i 



GO-EDUCATION OF THE SEXES. 



THIS subject is now being agitated in a 
manner to attract very general attention, 
and, as the agitation of any question is the 
" beginning of truth," a little more agitation 
may not be unprofitable. As the sexes are 
brought up together in the fiunily, work to- 
gether, play together, attend church, parties, 
theaters, fairs, festivals, celebrations, '* hanging 
exhibitions," and even the primary schools to- 
gether, it would seem that, to separate them in 
the higher schools and colleges, is an anomaly 
which can only be Justified by facts and ai^gu- 
ments that are unanswerable. 

The only grounds on which the negative 
argument is based is the assumption that the 
organization of woman, because of the peri- 
odical function pertaining to maternity, renders 
her, at and after the period of puberty, unable 
to endure the mental strain that is necessary to 
pursue the same studies that men do without 
injury to her own health and tlie consequent 
deterioration of ofispring or sterility ; the gener- 
al degeneracy of the health of American wo- 
men, and the fact that, particularly in New 
England, the death-rate is steadily gaining on 
the birth-rate. These statements are adduced 
as cogent if not conclusive reasons against the 
same curriculum for the two sexes. And the 
inference is deduced that, because the studies 
which a young man can pursue without detri- 
ment, a young woman can not (provided she 
masters her lessons as well as he does) pursue 
without endangering health, they should be 
educated in separate schools. 

The leading champions of anti-co-education 
are Dr. Edward H. Clarke, of Boston, and Dr. 
Maudsley, of London, both eminent in theh: 
profession, and both members of and teachers 
in the most conservative school of medicine— 
the allopathic Dr. Clarke has written a book 
on his side of the controversy, which has had 
a large sale, if not a corresponding infiuence 
on public opinion. Dr. Maudsley has written 
a somewhat elaborate article in which he re- 
peats, with little variation, the arguments ad- 
vanced by Dr. Clarke. This article was pub- 



lished hi an English magazine— 7!/i4 Fartnighay 
.B^otato— and has been extensively copied and 
commented on in this country. But Dr. 
Clarke's book and Dr. Maudsley's article give 
us but little except assertions and opinions. 
They do not adduce any facts or statistics 
which are not sosceptible of a very diflbrent 
explanation, while most of them are wholly 
irrelevant 

These distinguished medical gentlemen have 
been promptly met by a dozen or more writers 
of the other sex, who have been co-educated, 
who have seen the experiment tried, and who 
have taught in co-educational institutions ; and 
they come down on the worthy doctors with 
an avalanche of facts and statistics that seems 
utterly overwhelming against the assumptions 
of Drs. Clarke and Maudsley ; they give the 
actual figures. Eleven of these women have' 
written essays in defense of co-education and 
equal education, which have been collected 
into a book, edited by Anna C. Brackett, en- 
tiUed "The Education of American Girls." 
Agahist the opinions of Drs. Clarke and 
Mandsley'they present the stubborn statistics. 
Against the loose inferences of Drs. Clarke and 
Maudsley they array the data of all the col- 
leges in the United States where the experi- 
ment has been thoroughly tested of co-eda- 
cating the sexes, and in the " female colleges " 
(colleges for women), in which the course of 
studies in all the scientific and higher branches 
has been the same as that of the mdU colleges 
(colleges for men). The result is that in every 
case the facts and figures — from Oberlin, where 
co-education has been established for forty 
years, to Michigan University, which has re- 
cently introduced it — tell most effectually 
against all the premises and all the conclusions 
of Drs. Clarke and Maudsley. These statis- 
tics do not except the learned professions. In 
medicine the women students have, as a gene- 
ral role, greatly excelled their competitors <tf 
the other sex, while in law, which so many re- 
gard as wholly without the comprehension of 
the mental oi^^anism of woman, they have, on 

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CO'BDUOATION OF TEE SEXES, 



33 



the average, made better profldency than the 
average of men. 

But all tiiese thioKS might be trae, admkthig 
the podtions of Drs, Clarke and Maudsley. 
The mental culture wnfffhi be at the expense of 
the vital conditions. This is, indeed, tlie only 
point of any importance made by Dr. Clarke*s 
book and repeated in Dr. Maud8ley*8 article. 
Bat this stronghold is demolished by a few 
irell-directed statistics. Historical data are 
given to show that these coedacated and sci- 
entifically-edncated women generally improve 
In health during the college course ; not only 
this, but their average health is better than 
that of the men who pursue the same course 
of studies and make equal proficiency. 

Those who are interested in this question — 
and a vastly important <Hie it is — will find the 
whole subject fhlly presented and the authors, 
pro and eon, critically reviewed in the last TF«st- 
miml&r Review (October, 1874). The writer, 
after showing the false positions, illogical ar- 
guments, and erroneous if not absurd conclu- 
sions of Drs. Clarke and Maudsley, proceeds 
to explain the real causes of the proverbial ill- 
health of American women ; and this he does 
in a manner that ought to set Drs. Clarke, 
Maudsley, the Popuiar ScUnee MbrUhly, Profes- 
sor Qoldwin Smith; Father Hecker, and the 
Bev. L M. Bulkley to investigating the sutject 
in the light of first principles, instead of look- 
ing at it in the darkness of artifidal usages 
and abnormal conditions. 

The writer traces the " degeneracy," etc., to 
mal-training, wrong education, and dissipa- 
tion — ^the causes that have brought all the na- 
ti<nis of the earth to ruin which have been 
ruined. American children are of a forced and 
hot-house growth. * They do not have repose 
enough, nor sleep enough. They are allowed 
to indulge in cakes, pastiy, strong meats, sweet- 
meets, candies, and other indigestible and per- 
nidoQs trash, and tl^ affects the girls n\ore 
than the boys, for the reason that the former 
are more sedentazy. Girls are allowed little 
wholesome exercise, either of work or play, 
but attend balls and parties at unseasonable 
hours and with utter recklessness of all health 
conditions in the matters of dress and ex- 
posures to] overheated rooms and chilling 
winds; and, as they approach the "coming 
out'' period, if not before, they are dressed in 
a manner that would render the young men of 
the nation quite as ''degenerate'' vitally if 
they were obliged to be constrained, imprison- 
ed, and tormented in a similar arrangement <^ 
what Is called fhshionable dress. 



The writer mentions the climate of our 
Northern States as one of the prominent causes 
that make the health of American women 
compare so unfavorably with that of the wo- 
men of all other civilized nations; but in this 
one particular I think the writer. is greatly mis- 
taken, or at least greatly exaggerates. The 
American climate may, all things considered, 
be less conducive to uninterrupted health and 
longevity than that of Europe. It is more 
dry, and the weather is more changeable. But 
the causes Just mentioned are amply sufficient 
to account for the contrast, leaving climate en- 
tirely out of the question ; and, at most, it can 
only be an insignificant factor in the case. 

If we trace the history of New England 
back a few generations, we find a stalwart race 
of mothers and grandmothers ; and even now 
there are specimens of these, healthy, active, 
hi^^y, of ages varying from three-score-and- 
ten to one hundred years ; and if we trace the 
history of American women from the landing 
of the Pilgrims to the advent of Dr. Clarke's 
book, we shall find the degeneracy exactly 
corresponding with the increase of sedentary 
habits, fashionable dress, gormandizing on in- 
digestible food and condiments, forced and 
precarious development, sensational literature, 
and dosing and drugging for the multitudinous 
ailments consequent on a mode of life which 
has so little of nature and so much of the pre- 
ternatural about it Until the children and 
young women of America return to the more 
nprmal ways of their ancestors, they will go 
down, down, in the scale of vitality, with or 
without co-education, or school education of 
any kind. Co-education is one of the meas- 
ures that will exercise a saving influence ; but 
alone it will not arrest the deteriorating ten- 
dency. This requires a thorough indoctrinat- 
ing into the laws of hygiene and their strict 
application to practical life. In this, and in 
this only, is the hope, not only of American 
women, but of American men, and, indeed, of 
the human race. R. t. trall, m. d. 



AaoRBOATBD Castigatioks. — ^A Suabian 
schoolmaster taught school for fifty-one years, 
and during that period he inflicted the fol- 
lowing punishments, and kept a faithful rec- 
ord of the same, viz. : 911,500 canings, 121,- 
000 floggings, 209,000 custodies, 10,200 ear 
boxes, 22,700 tases, 136 tips with the rule, 
700 boys he caused to stand on peas, 6,000 
to stand on sharpedged wood, 5.000 to wear 

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PHRBNOLOQIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Jan., 



the foora cap, 1,700 to hold the rod — total, 
1,281,986 cases of punishment. He had prob- 
ably never heard of old Roger Ascham's 
saying, that often the rod is laid on the schol- 
ar's back when it should be applied to the 
schoolmaster's. 



[Supposing this story to be true, and that 
there be a place for the punishment of the 
wicked in the other world, what would be 
the chances of this Snabian schoolmaster? 
Would he not find his quarters there un- 
comfortably warm ?] 



CEDABHURST PAPEBS-No. l.-TOM HOPPER. 



I WONDER why human nature is so con- 
trary v>i8e! I think we are a good deal 
like some dumb animals in that respect; take 
the mule and the pig, for instance. My reader, 
did you ever attempt to drite a pig off forbid- 
den territorry in warm weather, when King 
Mercury was one hundred and four in the 
shade ? If you never did, sometime, when you 
feel equal* to the exertion, try it 1 My word for 
it, you will soon perceive the analogy between 
brute nature and human nature. However, 
apropos of the remarks above, I want to tell 
you a little story about a friend of mine, Tom 
Hopper, a God-fearing man, a meek man, and 
also a married man. 

His wife, a very practical woman, by the way, 
said to him one day, that he had better get 
some May pigs to fat, 'twould be so handy to 
have them round to eat up the slops, sour 
milk, etc., and everything else their yellow dog 
wouldn't eat By the way, I wish you could 
see that dog. Every individual hair on his 
hide is in a state of perpetual, inquisitive sur- 
prise. They all appear to stand up on their 
own separate hook t tail and ears independently 
erect, and his eyes always look inquiringly into 
mine, as if forever saying, " Ahem ! hey ! what 
is it?" So I have dubbed him "Quiz;" his 
master calls him "Rove." But to return to 
my story. My friend got those May pig»— 
brand-new ones, too, and four of them, at that, 
and put them into a brand-new pen he had 
made before purchasing them; and after he 
had asked Mrs. Hopper out to see them, and 
had lifted the liliputian Hoppers up so they 
could see,he proceeded leisurely down town to 
his office. Returning home about two o'clock 
to his dinner, he walked along complacently 
stroking his beard in silent soliloquy, this wise : 
" That was a sen^ble thought of Mrs. Hop- 
per's ! I had thought of those pigs myself, but 
waited to see if she would be practical enough 
to propose it They won't be a bit of trouble, 
not the least in the world, only to feeS them, 
which I will attend to myself, and in the foil 



we'll have healthy, firm pork of our own rais- 
ing. Sensible idea, very I" Arriving at the 
conclusion of his soliloquy and his own gate at 
the same moment, where he met Mrs. Hopper 
rushing out to meet him, in wild alarm, ex- 
claiming, " Tom ! Tom Hopper 1 those pigs are 
•ut of the pen, and have been out ever since 
twelve o'clock ! I have chased them ever since, 
but they are so contrary," and back she hur- 
ried to see where those pigs were at that iden- 
tical moment Tom followed and found his 
wife with a mop handle in her hand, rushing 
hither and thither, fiourishlng her unique weap- 
on m frantic gesticulation far above her head, 
out of harm's reach of herself, or the pigs 
either, while the next-door neighbor stood at 
the side gate encouraging her endeavors by 
such observations as, "Here he is! There! 
Now you have him I" when finally, as Tom 
prepared to Join in this redoubtable hog race, 
Mrs. Hopper caught her foot in her hoop-skirt 
(they wore "tillers" then) and fell prone on 
the garden walk, with her face in the swill-tub, 
that for obscurity's sake had been placed there 
in the shade of the currant bushes. Tom 
rushed to her assistance. Just as she raised a 
much-be-swashed and somewhat soured visage 
fh)m the tub. Gasping, and grabbing his prof- 
fered hand, she raised herself stiffly and pain* 
fully upward, muttering something that sound* 
ed very much like "Confound those pigs I" 
and straightening herself up, walked composed- 
ly into the house, a Niobe, indeed, but not a 
savory one, with stringy tendrils of string- 
beans adhering to her hair, and patches of po- 
tato-skin court-plaster sticking on her face and 
neck I However, she washed herself and put 
on a clean dress, and then returned to the yard 
to see what Tom was doing, prepared, also, to 
do or die. She found him sitting astride the 
saw-horse nursing his new stove-pipe in one 
hand, and industriously mopping his face with 
a handkerehief in the other, and whistling 
dolorously ** Pop Goes the Weasel 1 " His hat 
was utterly demolished, while he looked as if 

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CEDARHURaT PAPERS. 



85 



be had been fished out of a frog pond, and then 
wrong out I Presently they went after " those 
pigs " agam, Tom and his wife, and finally ^e 
caught one by his tail, and carried him, amid 
j a concert of terrific squeals, to the pen, putting 

him through the aperture whence they had 'all 
escaped. A nail in one end of the board not 
baying been driyen entirely in, they had easily 
pried it ofL Tom then told Mrs. H. to stand 
there and hold the end of the board on while 
be caught or droye the others into the pen. 
AAer a good deal of driying and some tribu- 
lation of spirit, and, I fear, much mixed pro- 
&nity, and such minor inddents as splitting a 
new forty-dollar coat up the back, and getting 
his chin into some sort of entanglement with 
the clothes-line, Tom keeled oyer backward, 
striking on what a certain Moses calls his 
*" ponderous back brain," and lay with his six 
I feet of manhood prone on the ground. Putting 
\ his arm under his head. Tom told his wife to 
I ''Take it easy " for a little, as he had taken 
a rather sudden interest in the study of as- 
tronomy I Presently he arose, shook himself, 
and went at it agam. Talk about Chinese 
puzsIeB! they are not a circumstance to the 
I trot those pigs led Tom. Oyer the lettuce 
I bed8,.throngh the squash yines, round the cur- 
rant bushes, down the garden walks into the 
front yard, round the big lilac bush, behind the 
house again, Tom after him frill tilt, when, 
just as he oomered one near the pen, that dog, 
** Quiz,*' strode between them, and (while the 
p^ scampered away as fast as his short legs 
could carry him) looked in his master's per- 
^Mring face, with his eyerlasting ahem t hey ! 
what is it, expression. Tom's milk of human 
kindness all turned to acid just then, and he 
mt a good deal like the negro preacher when 
he said, " Bradders and sisters, I am just as 
sore of going to heayen as I am of catching 
that fly," slapping his hand down, then as sud- 
denly taking it up with an amazed countenance, 
be ^acolated, *" Golly, I missed him ! '\ Well, 
that race went on till nearly eyerything was 
demoHsbed. Tom managed to hold together in 
some miracalous way, but then, you know, we 
are told that ^ Man is fearfully and wonderfully 
made," and I belieye it now. When the last 
little pig mistook the open door of an outhouse 
for the ^ (^>en Sesame " to all ouVdoor creation, 
Tom showed him his' mistake by capturing 
bim and bearing him yaliantly to the pen. 
Tom told his wife (who had been doing picket 
du^ by the pen all this time) to hold fast and 
Ignrer one end of the board while he put in the 
laiBt porker. In trying to obey orders, it acci- 



dentally fell from her trembling hands, and out 
rushed the small "trie,'* hither, thither, and 
yon. Tom dropped the pig he had caught in 
disgusted amazement, and with an emphatic 
" Drat the pigs I " he took his wife's arm and 
retired to the house, where they forthwith pro- 
ceeded to take an inyentory of bruises and re- 
pair damages. 

They jumped, and kicked, and pranced. 
The next mcHniug, Tom looked from his cham- 
ber window on the pleasing prospect of four 
pigs rooting in luxurious abandon in his cab- 
bage patch. Though in a somewhat battered 
condition, our Tom went immediately to fetch 
the meat man, to see if he could be persuaded 
to take "those pigs" off his hands. "They 
wem't a particle of trouble, you know, not the 
least in the world ; " but the man did not care 
to purchase. Then Tom frantically told him he 
could have them gratis/ he -would feel amply 
paid in seeing them caught, and forthwith pro- 
ceeded to tell of hlB Tom O'Shanter drive after 
them. The butcher then asked him if he had 
tried to coax them, leading them into the pen 
by showing them feed, etc " No ! " Tom said, 
**he hadn't;" the pigs had done the leading 
mostly, he had only been a conceited dangler 
on after them. The man smiled, called for 
some tieed, and had them safe in the pe;i in the . 
time it would take to spell greenhorn! Tom 
and hlB wife looked yerdantly on. 

AU of this brings me back to my text, yiz,, 
that human nature and bnite nature are yery 
similar as regards contrariness and hatred of 
being driyen. I myself have seen a good deal 
of the world, and much of different phases of 
human nature, and in both men and women I 
have noticed that the bare suspicion of an at- 
tempt at coercion arouses the yery imp of per- 
versity in them all. Take a woman, for in- 
stance, who has unfortunately married a disci- 
plinarian. I say unfortunately, and I say it 
advisedly, for do^'t I know? didn't I do it? 
aye, and to my bitter, unavailing, and never- 
ending sorrow and humiliation, too. And I've 
been wicked enough many a time to wish tiiat 
the sun that shone on my bridal had freshen'd 
the grass on my grave. I say take such a case 
and witness the results of the driving method. 
The man, according to the masculine dogma, 
is the head of the house— »^ e., the head of the 
woman, his will is law, \m rule absolute. Cir- 
cumstances being so, the wife is forced to obey 
or deceive; the first derogatory to her dignity as 
a woman, the second foreign to his conscience ; 
and either course ending in dislike, sometimes 
verging into hatred, even, of the one whose 

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tyranny forces her into It Suppose the nus- 
band had tried a different conise, and treated 
his wife like a rational being, an equal, a 
"friend and a brother," if you like. In nine 
I cases out of ten she would haye yielded, and 
her love and devotion remained intact; while, 
per wrUra^ by the driving process, she rmghi 



yield, because, with some natures, might makes 
right, but it would be outward obedience only. 
Some writer says: "Quarrel with a woman 
over night, and you invite the devil to break- 
out ; " aye, and driw either man or woman any 
time, and you invite those whose name is le- 
gion. ABBT LOUIBB SPALDmO. 



THE AURORA BOREALIS. 



Where is thy birthplace, spirit of light ? 
povering the heavens at dead of night, 
Shedding thy glorioiis eflE^lgence afar. 
Shaming the hue of the brightest star. 

Sometimes in silver and sometimes in red, 
Flashing and flickering overhead, 
Dancing more lightly than clonds that fly, 
Air for thy musk, thy floor the sky. 

Bearest thou tidings of regions cold. 
Chilled by Molus with revels old ? 
Hast thou brought down to our sunnier clime 
Light from the bright Polar night for a time ? 



Where art thon traveling, spirit so fair f 
Seek*ftt thou a home in Uie boundless air ? 
Art thou condemned in a ceaseless round 
Ever to traverse creation's bonnd ? 

Then, sweetest spirit, I envy thee not, 
Beauteous and gay, yet how dark is thy lot ! 
Flitting and flashing thy frolicsome way, 
Turning thy darkness to radiant day. 

Thanks for thy pausing to cheer us awhile. 
Shedding the joy of thy fairy smile. 
When thou art vanished how cold the sky 
Looks from yon starry depths on high ! 

LODOLA. 



THE COQUITOy OR JUBJIA SPECTABILIS PALM. 



THE family of the palm, or the palmaeea^ 
comprises the most interesting forms of 
the vegetable kingdom, species of which are 
distributed over all the more habitable re- 
gions of the globe. The number of distinct 
species are believed to exceed one thousand. 
Of those whose character has been ascer- 
tained, there are seventy genera, ranging 
from the areca eateeku^ the most t>eautiful 
palm of Lidia, to the dwarf palmetto, with 
which Americans are more or less fiimiliar. 
The varieties of the palm in North and South 
America are numerous, and each possesses 
features of value or interest. The South 
American palms, however, are more service- 
able to man than those known to the inhab- 
itants of the United Statfes, as they fhmish 
no small part of the food, drink, clothing, 
houses, and articles of commerce of the peo- 
ple residing in those regions bordering on 
the equator. 

The subject which is the burden of this 
sketch, and of which an excellent illustration 
is given, is one of the most beautiful of South 
American palms. It is known generally as 
the coquito palm, of Chili, and is the only 



member of its genus. Its growth is some- 
what peculiar, being swollen or thickest in 
the middle of the trunk, which has a large 
diameter, and sometimes attains a height of 
forty feet. 

The summit is surmounted by a crown of 
large, spreading, pinnate leaves, of a deep 
green color, and from six to twelve feet long, 
the leaflets being from one to one and a half 
feet long and about an inch wide, springing 
in pairs from nearly the same spot, and stand- 
ing out in diflferent directions. The leaf 
stalks are very thick at the base, where they 
are inclosed in a dense mass of rough brown 
fibers, which grow upon their lower edges. 
In an account of the Royal Gardens, at Lis- 
bon, mention is made of a specimen grow- 
ing there in the open air, which has attained 
a height of thirty-two feet, and the trunk of 
which measures thirteen feet eight inches in 
circumference at its base. " In Chili," says 
the "Treasury of Botany," "a sweet sirup, 
called miel de palm, or palm honey, is pre- 
pared by boiling the sap of this tree to the 
consistence of molasses, and it forms a C9]|- 
siderable article of trade, being much ea- 

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87 



teemed for domestic use as sugar. The sap 
is obtained by what appears to us the very 
wasteful method of felling the trees and cat- 



hansted) providing a thin slice is shaved off 
the top every morning, each tree yielding 
about ninety gallons. The nuts, which hard- 




ting off the crown of leaves, when it imme- 
diately begins to flow, and continues to do 
ao for several months, until the tree is ex- 



en with age, are used by the Chilian confec- 
tioners in the preparation of sweetmeats, and 
by the boys as marbles." p. 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



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CUPID IN THE SCHOOL-BOOM^ 

OR, "THE HIGHEST IDEAL CAPACITY." 



BRET HARTE, in his popular ballad by 
Truthful James, as to the why and how 
" our society on the Stanislow " was broken 
up, tells us that he holds 

** It is not decent for a scientific gent 
To say another is an ass, at least to all intent** 

And further adds : 

**Nor shonld the individual who happens to be 
meant, 
Reply by heaving rocks at bim, to any great ex- 
tent" 

Nevertheless, Gail Hamilton, who, if not 
exactly a scientific gent, is a somewhat sci- 
entific and, withal, very sensible lady, says a 
certain scientific gent she has been reading 
about is an ass, at least to all intent. The 
occasion was this. The aforesaid 8. G., talk- 
ing about the duties and ofiSces of teachers — 
educators^ lie calls them,— discourseth this 
wise: '* Educators are to bear in mind that 
their business is, not to make fair copies of 
men and women, but to detect in their pupils 
the highest ideal capacity of each, and then 
bring them up to it,'' or this in substance. 
Thereupon this pugnacious pen-woman pro- 
ceeds to affix the forementioned long-eared 
and obnoxious title to him, in spite of the 
poet's warning. Now, if she may disobey 
the first clause of this injunction, why may 
not "the individual who happens to be 
meant *' trespass on the second, and reply by 
heaving rocks at A^ to a very great extent ? 
This was my dire intent when I first began 
to think up a reply, for I partly agree with 
this maligned educator of educators, and, 
for all practical purposes in this connection, 
he and I are one. Therefore, I am the indi- 
vidual who happens to be meant 

It was after bedtime, and, as I tossed to 
and fro on my uneasy couch, thinking bow 
to select a particularly hard and ugly piece 
of granite to hurl at the unlucky lady's head, 
and hoping specially to be aUe to hit and 
demolish the bump of self-conceit, surely, I 
said, there is such a thing as tapadty^ and 
capacity is simply unrealized capability. A 
pui>il may have in him, or her, the capacity 
for many things that he or she is not capable 
of performing. Therefore, this unrealized 



capacity is *' ideal capacity." And if there 
are gradee of capacity, there must be such a 
thing as "the highest ideal capacity," for 
mentioning which I am called a mule^s ances- 
tor. At this point I became very indignant, 
and, discovering symptoms of fatigue, con- 
cluded to go to sleep, then to rise with the 
robin — there are no larks in this vicinity — 
and renew the hurling of rocks with won- 
derful vigor and precision of aiuL But it is 
astonishing what a change a good night's 
sleep will sometimes make in a man's views 
and feelings. He retires like a tiger rushing 
into his lair, it may be, and revolving schemes 
of vengeance in his mind, he falls asleep. 
He wakes and rises, and goes about with the 
spirit of peace brooding over and upon him 
like a dove. All things about him and with- 
in him are so bright and beautiful he 

** Wonders bow his mind was brou&^bt 
To anchor by one gloomy thought" 

Much of this result, however, depends upon 
how well digestion and assimilation have 
proceeded during the night. It is humiliat- 
ing, this subjection of the soul to the moods 
of the bodily organs, but it has to be con- 
fessed by the best of us. It is no wonder, 
the ancients believing the soul to have its 
seat in the region of the waistband. And 
now I am about it, won't some of the scien- 
tists who are ransacking heaven and earth to 
find out a perfect theory of things, devots 
some of their time and talent to finding out 
and letting us know just how largely a healthy 
intellectual and religious state depends upon 
the normal condition of the physical system ? 
We all know it does largely, but how largely, 
totally? Say yes, and a pretty revolution 
you have inaugurated! I^e work it will 
make of the statutes! Beautiful yerdicts 
from the juries that would bring forth ! No 
more guilty of *^ murder" from the lips of 
foremen, but " Unfortunate in the first degree 
of a deformed brain." " Guilty of dyspep- 
sia." "Guilty of gluttony." "Must sleep 
more, or be classed as dangerous," etc, etc. 

That night I had a dream. It seemed my 
mind kept pondering on " the highest ideal 
capacity" question, even in sleep. That 
Oigitized by V^OOQIC 



1875,] 



CUPID IN THE SCHOOLROOM. 



39 



dream g^ve me a clue to it; at the same 
time it softened the rockiness of my purpose 
toward my accuser. So it is that dreams are 
strange things— of all mental phenomena the 
most pleasing, painful, and inexplicable. 
Forms of the departed, long since turned to 
kindred clay, rise up before us, and we start 
not a beholding them. Voices long hushed 
in death call out to us, and we are not sur- 
prised. Sleep is the realm of miracles. We 
are in the rational world and out of it as 
one steps from a smooth field into a tangled 
forest Birds liye under water, fish fly in the 
air, beasts are endowed with human speech, 
and ships sail on dry land, in dreams, and 
nothing seems strange or incongruous. And 
as for visions of the departed, and their ef- 
iect on the mind, who has eyer said anything 
better on tiie subject than this of BryanVs : 

*' One calm, sweet smile in tbat shadowy sphere, 
From eyes that open on earth no more ; 
One warning word from a Yolce once dear, 
How they ring in the memory o*er and o*er t " 

I was among strangers, in a strange place, 
when there appeared before me the face and 
form of a girl schoolmate, on whose grave 
the grass has blossomed and faded full twenty 
seasons, yet whose features were as familiar 
to me as though last seen but yesterday, and 
whose Toice sounded as though it had said 
&rewell but an hour ago. There are some 
memories cultivated in schooldays that long 
ootliye what we learn in books. I could not 
remember the lesson I repeated the day she 
came to school, but I remember even now 
that when she was there, no matter how dark 
the weather, the school-room seemed bright 
and pleasant, and when my favorite was not 
thoe, no matter how sunny the day, the house 
was dark, books were a bore, and lessons re- 
peated without, spirit I don*t know what 
the school-books contain about astronomy or 
geography, heavenly or earthly, now-a-days ; 
bat then they said nothing about two kinds 
of sunshine and two kinds of shadow— one 
without, the other within. This was one of 
Cupid^s revealing and not the school-teach- 
er*8^ And here was she before me in my 
dream whose presence, when living, could 
conjore sunshine ont of shadow, and whose 
absence from her- accustomed place cast a 
dkadow over my spirit and made all efforts 
at study unavailing, and what she said to me 



suggested the true path to the " highest ideal 
capacity " of school boys and girls. 

School subjects are always discussed as 
pertaining to the head or Ihtellect, solely and 
purely. Whereas, in every school where the 
sexes are coeducated — and there should never 
be any other — there are always, in fact, two 
schools in operation : one kept by the visible 
and ostensible teacher — of the head, and the 
other of the heart — Cupid keeps it And it 
is in his department that the lesson is learned 
that in after life is to prove of infinitely 
greater importance than all the learning of 
the schools, whether it be remembered with 
pleasure and profit, or with pain and a sense 
of great loss. There be frost-bitten bache- 
lors who have taken to cheap whiskey and 
five-cent cigars for consolation, and may be 
maiden ladies who have long since found 
comfort in the milder cup that ''cheers, but 
not inebriates," who will say: It had been 
better for us if this thing were not true, and 
who are trying through the length and 
breadth of the land to dispossess Cupid of 
his stronghold in the school-room. 

The learned essays now being written to 
oppose the coeducation of the sexes, are writ- 
ten mainly by frt>st-bitten bachelors or an- 
cient maiden ladies whose hopes have sailed 
to sea in a tea-cup, and are not expected to 
return, all because they failed to graduate 
from Cupid^s department in the days when 
they went to school together. They can not 
bear to see John and Julia sitting together 
declining nouns and conjugating verbs, lest 
they should, accidentally, of course, rap their 
knuckles together and so convey the electric 
spark of love. The logic of the separate 
course is, the tendency to the emotional or 
sentimental must necessarily interfere with 
the growth of the intellect, and it is desired 
to grant the intellect a monopoly of the priv- 
ilege of growth and detdopment during the 
school period. There is no doubt, however, 
that nature designs her human offspring, like 
all the rest of her children, to grow and de- 
velop in all departments of being harmoui- 
ously and at once. To claim for the intel- 
lect a monopoly of the privilege of growth 
and development during the school period is 
no less absurd than it would be to stop 
breathing while eating, in order to grant the 
stomach a monopoly of pleasurable function, 

igi ize y g 



40 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



Jan., 



or to tie up the arms that the legs might 
have a better chstnce to grow during the play 
lieriod. This is what is proposed by the ad- 
vocates of separate education of the sexes : to 
suppress and rob the social and sexual ele- 
ments of the students^ being to expand and 
enrich the intellectual part. What was my 
experience — what did she say to me about it ; 
she read my mind, I perceived, and knew 
what I was thinking of. " Do you remem- 
ber?" she asked; and I saw by the intro- 
spective light of her calm eyes that she was 
looking inward upon the chambers of mem- 
ory. " I remember," was my reply ; and 
^' What do you remember?" I asked. "In 
the light of this world where I am, of all 
the things I learned at school, but one thing 
remains that is of any consequence to me 
now." " And what is that ? " I asked. " We 
learned the holy mystery of love there," she 
replied. " Was that our highest ideal capac- 



ity as pupils, to fall in love with each oth- 
er?" I asked,. for my waking thoughts had 
become woven into my dream, and I em- 
ployed the very words I had been pondering 
over before falling asleep. " If not literally 
and exactly that," was the answer, " it was 
that which kindled and aroused the highest 
and best capacities of our minds ; do you not 
remember that after we met and became ac- 
quainted you would never allow any student 
to excel you in any study, because you would 
not become inferior in my sight ? " " Even 
so," I replied, and my visitor vanished, for 
angels' visits are not only "few and far be- 
tween," but notably of short duration. Her 
words, though few, had volumes of meaning 
for me, and I comprehended, as never before, 
the mighty influence of social conditions upon 
mental capacity, and that the " highest ideal 
cap^ity ^ is for nothing less than full and 
perfect manhood and womanhood. 

H. p. SHOVE, M.D. 




|«,frfrsa„djbfe.»«r,«i. 




I'bmt which mukMa good ConititaUon miut keap It, vlt., mm of wUdotn and tirtuc ; qualltlM that, hoc 
tnot-e. miut b4 oar«ral1y propagated by a rirtnout education of yonth.— FF«//iam Pen. 



I th«y 



not with woildly inh«r- 



THE CATTLE INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



rpHE true cattle of America are the buffa- 
-L loes of the plains. The domestic cattle 
of the United States are, like the people, of 
foreign origin, only European. With the 
first immigrants came the first importations 
of domestic cattle. Man and his faithful bo- 
vine domestics have been inseparably associ- 
ated since the days of Abraham. The asso- 
ciation has been of equal antiquity with that 
between man and the dog, and infinitely 
more profitable and necessary. 

Early in the sixteenth century Spanish cat- 
tle were introduced into Mexico, the progen- 
itors of the present races of longhoms of 
Mexico and Texas. With the settlement of 
Quebec, in 1608, came a small race of cattle 
from Normandy with immigrants from West- 
em France. In addition to any stock brought 
with the colonies of 1607 and 1609, import- 
ations from the West Indies were received 
in Virginia in 1610 and 1611. Dutch cattle 



were introduced into New York upon its 
settlement in 1614. The Plymouth and Bos- 
ton colonies brought English breeds into 
Massachusetts in 1824. About the same date 
Dutch cattle were brought into New Jersey 
and Swedish stock into Delaware. A Danish 
colony in New Hampshire brought over the 
dun-colored race of Denmark in 1681 and in 
subsequent years. English cattle were soon 
after brought into Maryland by Lord Balti- 
more, and fresh importations came later into 
Pennsylvania and North Carolina. In the 
formation of our native stock the English 
breeds are thus feeen to predominate, the 
other elements being of Dutch, Danish, Swe- 
dish, and French origin. The Spanish blood 
is, even now, almost unmixed, except in in- 
stances of improvements of Texas herds. 

IMPROTEMENT OF NATIVE STOCK. 

Increase in aptitude to fatten and in aver- 
age weight has been continuous and marked 



Digitized by V^OOQIC 



1875.] 



CATTLE INTERESTS OF THE UNITED STATES. 



41 



daring the last half century. Since 1817 
there have heen imported into North Amer- 
ica nearly if not quite one thousand well- 
bred animals for stock improvement, mainly 
the beef-yielding short-horn ; but also many of 
the best specimens of the Ayrshire for quan- 
tity of milk, the Jersey and its congeners of 
the Channel Islands, for richness of cream 
and quality of butter ; the black-and-white 
Dutch, Devons, Herefords, and other breeds, 
not excepting the fat cow of Brittany. So 
great has been the success of this attempted 
improvement, that the cattle of the central 
portions of the West have become high-grade 
short-horns of increased size and superiority 
of flesh, with a far smaller proportion of of- 
&1. Instead of degenerating, the thorough- 
breds have been improved by the skill and 
care of our wide-awake breeders, until one 
family of short-horns, the Botes stock, has 
been for years exported to England at prices 
commencing at |2,000 to $3,000 each, ad- 
vancing in a year or two to |7,000, as appre- 
ciation abro^ was intensified, and culminat- 
ing last season at the magnificent figure of 
140,600 for an elderly cow, amid the excite- 
ment of competition between the most skill- 
fhl breeders of two continenta. 

The average weight of importations two 
and' a half centuries ago probably did not 
exceed 300 pounds; in 1710 the average in 
the London market had been reported at 870 
pounds; at' the beginning of the present cen- 
tory the London average had advanced to 
about 500 pounds, an<l now the official aver- 
age is 600 pounds for British and 500 for 
imported beeves. The stock of this country, 
not including that of Spanish blood, is now 
nearly up to the British standard of weight. 

NUKBBRS AND FBICE8. 

1 estimate the numbers of cattle in the 
United States in January, 1874, as follows : 
milch cows, 10,706,300; other cattle, 16,218,- 
100; total, 26,923,400. The census of 1870 
returns an aggregate of 23,821,608 cattle ^^ on 
&rms,^' .with an aggregate of estimates of 
cattlQ not on farms of 4,278,973. The aggre- 
gate on farms returned by the census of 1860 
▼as 25,620,019; by that of 1850, 17,778,907. 

The estimated real value of these 10,705,- 
300 cows, at an average of |27.99 per head, 
is 1299,609,309 ; of the 16,218,100 other cat- 
tle of all ages, at |19.15 each, 1310,649,803 ; 



a total value of |610,269,112. The cows rep- 
resent a value nearly as large as that of all 
the working oxen, beeves, and young cattle 
combined. 

The pric^ of cows in the several Stattis 
vary with the value of pasturage and state 
of improvement. The highest average price, 
$45.75, is in New Jersey, not distant at any 
point from the great cities of New York and 
Philadelphia ; the lowest, $14.32, in Florida, 
and the next, $15.25, in Texas. The milch 
stock in Texas is mainly in the cotton-grow- 
ing or " agricultural " counties, few in num- 
ber, and nearly double in value, in compari- 
son, with the great mass of cattle in the 
stock-growing sections. In the States be- 
tween the lakes and the Ohio River the aver- 
ages vary little from $30. In New England 
the range of State averages is from $35.50 in 
Vermont to $42.50 in Connecticut. New 
York, a large State, extending to the great 
lakes and to the Canadian Dominion, shows 
a lower average. The following table gives 
these prices and total values in detail : 

VILOH cows. 

STATES. Average 

Number. price. Value. 

Maine 153,600 $87 50 $5,766,250 

New Hampshire .... 98,700 88 00 3,628,000 

Vermont 196,700 35 50 6,947,860 

MasBachaeetts .... 136,300 46 00 6,138,500 

Rhode lelaud 30,400 41 66 849,8(M 

Connecticut. 106,800 48 60 4,639,000 

New York 1,410,600 80 60 43,028,300 

New Jersey 147.900 46 75 6,766,426 

PennsylvanU 812,600 88 26 27.018,960 

Delaware 84,900 88 50 834,160 

Maryland 96,900 81 60 8,068,040 

Virginta 884.000 22 00 6,148,000 

North Carolina 199,100 15 60 8,066,060 

South Carolina 167,800 2188 8,462,664 

Georgia 867.400 18 64 4,772,196 

Florida 69,000 14 32 988,080 

Alabama 173,400 19 50 8,881,800 

Mississippi 180.100 2158 8,886,668 

LouI«<iana 90,700 20 70 1.877,4«K) 

Texas 686,600 16 26 8,029,125 

Arlcansas 161,800 17 76 8,694,450 

Tennessee 347,700 21 86 6,414,728 

West Virginia 184,800 27 60 8,418,250 

Kentucky 289.400 86 46 6,069,924 

Ohio 778,600 29 57 23,020,245 

Michigan 860,600 80 60 10,698,300 

Indiana 448,400 89 68 ' 13.281,608 

Illinois 726,100 30 03 21,744,758 

Wisconsin. 442,700 86 2ft 11,684,156 

Minnesota 196,900 86 87 6,172,563 

Iowa 660,600 86 60 15,091,750 

Missouri 421,400 83 15 9,460,480 

Kansas 381,100 25 80 5,846,880 

Nebraska 49,900 89 50 1,473,060 

California 810.600 85 88 10,964,440 

Oregon 78,600 34 48 1,794,870 

Nevada 9,000 87 60 887,600 

The Territories 868,700 88 48 8,408,676 

Total 10,706,800 8^99 |299,609,309 

**Oxen and other cattle," as a class, not 
including cows, make the largest aggregate in 
Texas, nearly three millions in number. not- 
Digitized by V^OOQIC 



42 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL 



[Jan., 



withstanding the constant drain of the past 
eight years; but prices are far lower than 
i£i any other State, the estimated average 
being |8.09. The total value of this class 
* is largest in Illinois, estimated at $80,602,205. 
Ohio comes next in order, followed by New 
York. The estimated numbers and value of 
oxen and other cattle are in detail as follows : 

OXBN AlfD OTHSB OATTLB. 

8TATX8. Average 

Number. price. Value. 

Maine 198,000 $89 14 $7,749,790 

NewHampahire.... 118,100 97 5S 4,434,656 

Vermont. 188,000 82 88 4,906,640 

Manaachtisetts 199,600 89 18 4,803,468 

Rhode Island 16,000 60 01 800,160 

Connecticat 107,800 44 10 4,758.980 

New York 688,600 98 88 19,749,868 

New JerBej 88,900 88 86 9,640,864 

Pennsylvania 799,600 96 40 19,141,674 

Delaware 81,TO0 99 41 710,897 

Maryland 195,600 99 87 9,879,479 

Viri^nia 406,700 17 90 6978,040 

North Carolina 816,600 9 88 9,968,770 

Sonth Carolina 184,900 1188 9,104,169 

Oeorria 406,800 84 8,988,169 

Florida 888,600 9 98 8^|698 

Alabama 884,100 1141 8,819,081 

MiMiasippl 899,800 19 99 4,068,949 

Louisiana. 178,900 10 98 1,787,699 

Texas 9,416,800 8 00 19,643,898 

Arkansas 966,600 1187 9,917,649 

Tennessee 866,100 14 99 6,049,699 

West Virginia 949,600 99 84 6;688,700 

Kentucky 880,400 99 66 8,678,090 

Ohio 889,900 96 80 98,990,970 

Michigan 468,100 96 89 11,886,069 

Indiana 780,800 90 67 16,288,801 

Illinois 1,978,600 M 08 80,609,906 

Wisconsin 444,800 91 96 9,707,806 

Minnesota 989,700 99 01 6,929,987 

Iowa 869,800 99 18 18,916,104 

Mlssonri 806,800 17 44 14,081,879 

Kansas 607,900 18 90 6,666,080 

Nebraska 87,800 98 69 9,078,886 

California 498,900 19 69 8,879,198 

Oregon 198,700 16 16 1,988,999 

Nevada 44,000 98 98 1,091,680 

The Territories 718,000 19 46 18,874,980 

Total 16,918,100 $19 16 $810,649,808 

At the close of the war prices were high 
and advancing. In all portions of the South, 
except Texas, the numbers were greatly di- 
minished, and as the resumption of agricul- 
tural pursuits became general the demand 
was accellerated and prices appreciated. The 
acme was reached in 1869, from which date 
the prices have been lower generally, though 
somewhat fluctuating, falling considerably 
befbre January of 1870, remaining stationary 
for a year or more, but receding further in 
1872, and in the case of milch cows declining 
still in 1873 and 1874. The decline from 
January, 1869, averages, for the entire coun- 
try, about twenty-five per cent. A similar 
result is seeiji in the record of other kinds of 
farm stock, with the exception of sheep, 
though the reduction is less in the classes 
"horses ^ and ** mules " : 



AimcALB. 1874. 1878. 1879. 

Horse* $7146 $7486 $7887 

Moles 8999 9694 9489 

Ox'n Mother 

cattle. ..1916 90 06 19 61 

MUchcowB. 97 99 99 69 8107 

Sheep 961 996 980 

Hogs 486 400 486 



1871. 1870. I860. 

$7861 $8188 #84 16 

10169 10901 10674 

9981 99M 9519 

87 88 89 19 89 11 

9 89 9 98 9 17 

619 699 696 



VALUE OF OATTLB PRODUCTS. 

The cost of dairy products to ccTitumerM 
aggregates a sum equal to the home value, 
not of cows only, but of all classes of homed 
stock combined. It amounts to fully double 
the cash value of the cows. Tlie cash value 
of these products to the farmer is annually 
nearly fifty per cent, more than the total 
worth of the animals furnishing the milk 
from which they are made. Mr. Willard, 
Secretary of the American Dairymen's Asso- 
ciation, has estimated the value of the dairy 
products of 1878 as follows: 

Milk consumed aa food at 9X eta. per qoart. .$918,000,000 

Condensed milk 1,000,000 

Batter, 700,000 Ihs., at 96 cents per pound. . . 176,000,000 
Cheese, 940,000 Ibft., at 19 cents per pound . . . 26,800,000 
Whey, sour milk, etc, converted into pork. 10,000,000 

Totol $497,800,000 

The consumer often pays two to three 
times the above price for milk, at least fifty 
per cent, more for cheese, and twenty-five 
per cent, more for butter. The ultimate cost, 
to consumers of all these products of the 
dairy, can not fail to exceed six hundred 
millions of dollars. 

The total value of meat products derived 
fVom cattle at the prices consumers pay must 
also reach an aggregate above that which rep- 
resents the home value of " oxen and other 
cattle." The farm prices of such products 
would make no inconsiderable aggregate. 
The veteran editor of the ** Herd Book,'' Mr. 
Allen, has estimated at 5,000,000 the cattle 
slaughtered annually ; the flesh, hide, and tal- 
low, at 600 pounds each ; the home value eight 
cents per pound, making a total of |240,000,- 
000. This may be too high at the present 
time ; if not, it represents three-fourths of 
the home value of the stock now on hand. 

The subject is one of great and growing 
importance. The question of meat supply 
will become still more absorbing as popula- 
tion increases. The sources of this supply, 
especially the resources of our great plaitas 
and mountain valleys, will be the subject of 
a second article in the Phbknolooical Jour- 
nal upon the cattle of the United States. 

J. R. DODGE. 



Digitized by VjOOQ IC 



1875.] ' 



WILLIAM F. HAVEMEYER, 



43 



THE LATE WILLIAM F. HAYEMETER^ MAYOR OF NEW YORK. 



rnHfi sudden death of this gentleman^ by 
■i. apoplexy, in his office at the City Hall, 
00 the last day of November, invites a pass- 
ing notice, at least, to a career which is 
both creditable and interesting. Although 
iar advanced in life, he had, nevertheless, ac- 
cq[>ted the responsibilities of the chief office 
of a great city from a sense of duty, and 



William F. Havemeyer was bom in New 
York City in 1804, in a house in Pine street, 
then known as 81. . His father, William 
Havemeyer, came to this country from Ger- 
many in 1798. Employed awhile as fore- 
man in a sugar factory, he, soon after the 
birth of the late Mayor, established a sugar 
refinery of his own. In his early boyhood 




bad endeavored, we are quite sure, to meet 
all its requirements. He was a gentleman of 
honest aims and purposes, and what errors he 
may have made can not be imputed, in any 
caie,to willfulness. His large Benevolence 
di^Msed him to be kind, sympathetic, and 
couiderate. His strong Conscientiousness 
icadered him appreciative of the moral na- 
tve of motive and purpose, and his convic- 
tions were held with a due sense of responsi- 
bOtty. 



William F. Havemeyer attended several pri- 
vate schools, among them one kept by Joseph 
Wilson, well-known as the blind teacher. In 
1819 he entered Columbia College, and grad- 
uated in 1828. Soon afterward he entered 
his father^s sugar refinery as an apprentice, 
and for four years worked steadily and with 
that perseverance which characterized his 
whole life. In 1828, having mastered the 
processes of sugar refining, he succeeded his 

father in business. For fourt^n_yev» ho 

Digitized by' 



44 



PHRESOLOGIGAL JOURNAL. 



[Jan., 



was at the head of the firm and conspicuous 
in trade as a man of unusual ability and 
sterling integrity. In 1842 he retired from 
active business with a handsome fortune. 
Up to that time Mr. Havemeyer had not taken 
a conspicuous part in politics; but a few 
years later he felt compelled to form some 
connection with the Democratic side, for 
which he had always exhibited the most 
favor, through a proper consideration of his 
interests as a business man and property- 
holder. As a delegate to Tammany Hall he 
performed important services. Ward's Island, 
with its departments for the care of emigrants 
and others, was planned after Mr. Haver- 
meyer's suggestions. Elected President of 
the Commissioners of Emigration, he dis- 



charged his duties with acceptance. He was 
elected Mayor of New York in 1846, and 
again in 1848. In the ten years which suc- 
ceeded this term of office he gave his atten- 
tion to the business of certain large incorpo- 
rated companies in which he had invested. 
In 1859 he was again made the Tammany 
candidate for the mayoralty, but was defeat- 
ed by Mr. Fernando Wood. From that time 
to his re-election, in 1873, to the office of 
Mayor, Mr. Havcmeyer lived quite apart 
from the whirl and excitement of political 
life. He, however, gave hearty support to 
the Union cause in the late war; and when 
the effort was inaugurated by the Committee 
of Seventy to extricate New York from the 
rule of a corrupt Ring, he was found among 
the most active movers for reform. 



AMERICAN LABOR AND AMERICAN FINANCES. 

A LETTER AND A REPLY. 



"TTTE append extracts from a running re- 
VV view, by one of the best thinkers even 
of Boston, of the money articles which have 
for the last few months appeai^d in our col- 
umns, numbering the points raised, and re- 
sponding to them in order : 

1. I firmly believe tliere is no place in the 
world where the hard-working, intelligent man, 
with no other capital to begin with but his 
labor, can do so well as he can right here. 

2. No place, I mean, where so much of the 
products of his labor remains in the hands of 
the laborer. 

8. And, in fact, the rate of interest shows 
that. The amount that goes to capital is pret- 
ty nearly measured by the rate of interest, and 
that is much lower here than at the West, or 
elsewhere out of this section. 

4. Besides, there is more labor- saving ma- 
chinery here, and it is always the case that the 
men who use or run machines get better paid 
than the men who merely work with their 
hands or with ordinary tools. Our laborers, 
as a rule, live better than the same men do 
elsewhere, and yet they put a very considerable 
sum into savings banks. 

5. Of course I agree with you so entirely 
about the principles of the money question 
that there is no room for argument there, but 
I think there is one thing which you perTiapa 
overlook that has to be taken into considera- 
tion practically. It is this : that no one has 



any confidence in either the wisdom or the 
honesty of our Goveniment. Theoretically, 
our Government is the people governing them- 
selves ; but practically, it is a ring of corrupt 
political wire-pullers, who administer the Gov- 
ernment to glorify and enrich themselves, with 
no thoughts of justice or care for the people, 
except to deceive them and get their votes. I 
shouldn't dare to trust our present law-makers 
or administrators with any more power than 
they already have, and I am sure that no repre- 
sentative money, the exchangeable value of 
which must almost entirely rest upon confi- 
dence, could be kept at par if issued by such a 
set of ignorant, irresponsible scallawags as con- 
stitute our Congress, or if controlled by the 
sort of officials that have prevailed in Wash- 
ington of late. 

6. What can be done and ought to be done 
is to force the powers that be to give us a de- 
cent greenback, equal in value to gold. No 
one would gain more by this than the working 
man, who must be swindled so long as the 
Government's promises to pay are not kept. 
Force the Government to receive its notes 
at par for bonds paying interest (six per cent, 
if no less will do it), and these promises would 
soon be worth their face, and we should be no 
longer disgraced by the meanest repuduiUan 
conceivable. This swindling repudiation seta 
a terriblj^ bad example all over the country, 
which, alas ! is followed fast and furiously. I 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



1875.] AMERICAN LABOR AND AMERICAN FINANCES. 



45 



almost despair when I see how things go ; but 
we must do what we can, and trust that truth 
will triumph at last, though we may not live 
to see It p. & c. 

BBSPONSE. 

1. We agree with you. 

2. As you multiply the natural products of a 
man's labor by the use of machinery ten to 
fifty times, and pay him but double what he 
could earn without it, we deny that so much 
rdoHtely remains in his hands as when he 
earns less, and receives a larger proportion of 
his earnings. 

3. If you rute that the rate of interest is the 
criterion of equitable exchange, how is it that 
the laborers of Prance and England, where 
usury is but one half of what it is in Massa- 
chusetts, get comparatively so poorly paid ?. 

4 Accepted as a generality, with this farther 
concession, that, unjust as is the distribution of 
surplus production, the worker gets much more 
comfort for a given amount of labor than ever 
before. 

5. A very deplorable picture, but too true. 
If our correspondent's deduction from the 
same is (hat^ we should despair of any good 
coming from our present political institutions. 
We fear that his digestive apparatus is not in 
tone, and advise him to rise at six o'clock, take 
a sponge-bath, and walk around the Common 
bef«re breakfast One of the members of the 
first Congress asked of a frieud, "Do you be- 
lieve that such a set of rascals ever got together 
at the same time as our Congress contains ? " 
Not that we think that our present Congress 
compares in moral worth with its earliest pre- 
decessors, but we are quite sure that the pres- 
ent criticism, harsh and deserved as it is, does 
not compare in malignity with that which char- 
acterized the administration of Washington, 
Jefferson, and Adams. Even with the not dis- 
tant experiences of New York city and the 
Washington rings, we have not approached 
the moral rottenness of the days of Judge Jef- 
fries in England. The public sense of common 
decency has not been shocked by such open 
deviltries as characterized Henry VIIL and 
other monarchs and courts. Hume, in his 
Mstoiy of England, says of Henry IH. that his 
••protection and good offices of ever}' kind 
were bought and sold," and the same abuses 
prevailed throughout Europe. Madox, in his 
**EBstory of the Exchequer," says, page 833, 
EUiDg, the dean, paid 100 marks that his mis- 
Mess shonld be let out of jail ; page 352, Rob- 
ert deVeaur gave five palfries that the king 
wouldn't talk about Mrs. Pinel; page 326, 



Lady de Neville gave him two hundred hens 
that she might pass the night with her husband 
(Sh' Hugh) in prison. These things have been 
reformed there by public sentiment and educa- 
tion, and we should not despair. And, it 
should be remembered, that while one-half of 
our currency (the national bank notes) which * 
have been delegated for distribution and man- 
agement outside of the (Government, has cost 
us some $25,000,000 per year, and been a per- 
petual bone of contention, the other half, issued 
by the Government direct, has been adminis- 
tered almost without cost, and without evoking 
one bitter criticism. 

6. We had thai decent greenback once, as cre- 
ated by the law of February 25th, 1862, which 
law simultaneously created the 5-20 bond, and 
the enabling clause promised thus " To enable 
the Secretary of the Treasury to fhnd the 
Treasury notes." We had the convertible and 
reconvertible principle fhlly recognized and in- 
corporated in this most excellent law, and 
there was no stigma of irredeemability attached 
to our people's legal tender. 

To be sure, as Mr. Hooper, of Boston, said 
when the Senate sent back the bill repudiating 
the legal tender as to duties on imports and in- 
terests on the public debt, " Its effect will be to 
depreciate those notes as compared with coin 
by declaring them in advance to be so depre- 
ciated." But even with that mutilation, they 
would have closely approximated gold in value 
long before now. If Congress, a few months 
later, had not further repudiated them by tak- 
ing fVom the citizen individually his power of 
converting them into six per cent bonds, and 
in March, 1869, again repudiated them by tak- 
ing from the citizen, collectively (t. «., the Gov- 
ernment), the power of paying the 6-20 bonds 
with them, which the "enabling" act con- 
ferred. It is to our comprehension wonderful 
that in the face of this triple repudiation the 
greenback is as near gold as it is. 

Repudiate the repudiations, give the nation 
the legal tender as it passed the House, receiv- 
able for all dues and convertible into interest- 
bearing bonds, and in less than a month the 
greenback and gold will be on a par. 

Strange to say, most people, in the face of 
this history, are so weak or wicked in compar- 
ing the power of the free legal tender, gold, • 
with the mutilated and shackled legal tender, 
the greenback, as to ascribe the superior pur- 
chasing power of the former to its inherent 
excellence, and not, as Mr. Hooper defined it, 
to the depreciation of its competitor by Gov- 
ernment enactment ^.^^^ by ^OOglC 



46 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Jan., 



INCREASING POPULATION OF THE UNITED STATES. 



THE first census of the country was taken 
in 1790, and decennial censuses have been 
taken ever since. An estimate has been made 
for llie ten years previous to 1860, from the data 
of years 1790, 1800, 1810, and 1820. An exami- 
nation of these years exhibited successively by 
subtraction, two second differences that were 
nearly equal, so much so, as to mdicate in gen- 
eral, as the law of their progression, approxi- 
mately, constant second differences. From the 
average of these second differences, treated as a 
second difference for completing the series, the 
population for the year 1780. was estimated at 
8,970,000. 

On examination of the population enumer- 
ated for the four decadee, 1880, 1840. 1850, 1800, 
it appeares that the first differences, are al- 
most in arithmetical progression, the second 
differences being nearly const^mt, and almost 
identical. From 1790 to 1820, the second dif- 
ferences were nearly constant, and from 1850 
to 1860 they were nearly constant ; but the sec- 
ond differences of the latter group showed a 
marked increase over the former. Assuming 
the approximate constancy in the latter group 
to continue, we find, by taking the average of 
these differences, what the population would 
have been in 1870 and 1880, had there been no 
war. We find that the population in 1870, 
which actually was 38,558,006, would have been 
41,718,000, a loss of more than 3,000,000. Con- 



tinuing under the same law, the population in 
1880 would have been 54,017,000 ; but making 
the same allowance of deficiency, we obtain for 
1880 a population of 50,858,000. Having now 
each decennial period, it remains to interpolate 
values in harmony by years in each decade. 
This was accomplished by an easily explained 
process on the assumption of second differences 
as before. The following are the results : 

POPULATION OP THE UNITBD STATES BY ITEABS. 
Years. Po 
1848.... 21 ,e 
1849.... 22,489.000 
1850.... 28.191,876 
185l....23,ft?m.000 
18S2... 24,803,000 



Y«ir«. PwBUHon 
1780 8,70.000 



1781 8 

1782 8 

1788 a 

1784 8 

1785 8. ' 

1786 8 

1787 8m 

1788 8/; 

1789 8- 

1790 8 

1791 4 

1792 4 

1798 4 

1794 ....4 

1795 4 

1796.. ..04 

1797 4 

1798 4 

1799 5 

1800 6 

1801 6 

1802 6 

1803 6 

1804 6 

1806 ....6 

1806 7 

1807. ...6 
1806.... 6 

1809 7 

1810 7.~ 

1811 7,468.000 

1812... .7,678,000 
1813 7,898.000 



00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
OO 
00 
00 
,.J81 



Ycftrt. P,r5.Li!fti-.in. 

1814.... f.l^iUuOO 

1816.... em^'.i'OO 

1816.... fj;i J.iiOO 

1817.... f.^if.iKX) 

1818.... ^.l^^.iOO 



1819.... fr 
1820.... ^ 
1821.... t 
1823.... 1( 
1828.... 1( 
1824.... 1( 
1825.... r 
1826.. ..11 
1827. ...i: 
1828.... 1! 
1829.... 11 
1830 ...15 
1881.... IJ 
1832 ...IJ 
1883... .11 
1884.. .1' 
1885.... 1< 
1886.. ..1! 
1887.. ..IJ 
1838.... K 
1839.... 1(. 
1840.... r 



iHif^.^OO 
r.rj^. 153 
N.-. ,00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
20 
00 
00 
00 
00 
00 
(10 
00 
00 
.«^,J00 
,069,438 
1841.... 17,591 ,000 
1842.... 18,132,000 
1843.... 18,694.000 
1844 19,276,000 
1845.... 19,878,000 
1846.... 90,500,000 
1847.... 21.148,000 



Popalmtkwi 
21,806,000 



1853.... 25,615,000 
1854.... 26,488,000 
1866.... 27,256,000 
1866.... 28,083,000 
1857.... 28,91 6.000 
1868.... 29.753,000 
1859....a0,576.0CO 
I860.... 81.448,821 
1861.... 82,064.000 
1862.... 82,704.000 
1868.... 83,365,000 
1864.... 84,046,000 
1866.... 84,748.000 
1866... 85,469,000 
1867.... 86,21 1,000 
1868.... 86,978,000 
I860.... 37,756,000 
1870....88,6r«,871 
1871.... 89,672,000 
1«72.... 30,881 ,000 
1878.... 41,976.000 
1874.... 48, 167,000 
1875... 44.884,000 
1876.... 45,627,000 
1877.... 46,627.000 
1878.... 48.191.000 
1879.... 40,51 1,000 
1880.... 50,^58,000 




True philowi.h) Lt n reTeUtloo of th«DiTin« will iiiiuiir«Ud in craatloB ; It bannooi>«a with all tmth. and ean oot wlih hui-uniiy b« tMK<«rcv«ii — CwhU, 

THE CONNECTION OF MIND AND BODY. 



THE fact that the brain is the organ of mind 
as the eye is the organ of sight, has be- 
come firmly established and is universally be- 
lieved. The mind is no longer a wanderer, 
without local habitation, but has homes of its 
own, varying in size and importance, in strength 
and durability, according to the organization 
of the individual. The brain consists of a mass 
of convoluted, nervous matter, quite soft and 
exceedingly mobile— it has been described as 
" something like blanc mange," and about five- 



sixths of its substance is water. Its minute 
tubes or cells really float in water, thus moving 
with little friction. How the mind acts through 
the brain has not been demonstrated, probably 
will not be in this state of existence ; hereafter 
we may attain to a knowledge of this and sim- 
ilar mysteries. 

The mind is improved or deteriorated by the 
condition of the body, because its organ, the 
brain, is affected thereby. The Latins ex- 
pressed this in one short phrase, Mens sana in 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



1875.] 



THE CONNECTION OF MIND AND BODY, 



47 



cffrpore mno, and it is as true now as in Cesar'a 
day. But do we often know the sound mind 
in the sound body? Who will tell us just 
where sanity ends and insanity begins ? What 
j lest will always apply? We can readily form 
an ideal of perfect bodily health, and can 
readily point out any departure from this model. 
Have we any such ideal of perfect mentality ? 
Can we say, with the same certainty, here dis- 
eased, there not normal ? 

Brain increases in size with bodily growth, 
but the mind itself does not grow in proportion 
unless continually and properly exercised, fol- 
lowing the same law as bodily strength and 
Tigor, viz., that it gains power and ease of ac- 
tion only by use. Again, bodily exercise car- 
ried to excess by overexertion in play, contin- 
nons labor, or heavy lifting, weakens the ph3rs- 
ical i)owers and stunts growth. 80, also, vio- 
lent mental labor in immattire years exacts of 
the sufferer a similar penalty. The mind can 
not be crammed with material which it is not 
strong enough to assimilate any less injurious- 
ly that the body can be so treated. It also 
needs rest between its hours for taking food, 
and it is more than possible that three hours 
feeding at a meal may be too much for mature 
minds, to say nothing of young children's ca- 
pacity to endure such treatment If school- 
hoars, for children under ten, were limited to 
four hours per diem, they would be healthier, 
happier, and less loth to school confinement. 

Brain growth is cotemporary with bodily 
growth, and should be equally favored; that 
is, furnished with a' suitable quantity and qual- 
ity of nourishment, rest, and recreation. 

Time and repetition are obsolutely necessary 
conditions of mind culture. Look at any me- 
chanical operation that a person is learning, 
how many times must the process be repeated 
before any perfect result is obtained. Notice 
the many repetitions of the piano-forte player, 
the " line upon line " of the artist, the con- 
stant chip, chip of the sculptor, the labored 
copying over and over of the writer, and won- 
der no longer that " precept upon precept" is 
required to aid the pupil in establishing that 
report between spirit and matter which will 
enable the brain to respond to the call of the 
mind as instinctively as the fingers respond to 
the musician's thought. 

Some children of nervous temperament by 
strength of will can concentrate theh* brain- 
force and learn very rapidly for a time; but this 
knowledge usually fades just as rapidly when 
the impetus is withdrawn ; besides, the brain 
» often permanently injured by this course. 



Steady application, with but the stimulus of 
acquiring knowledge and ability to apply the 
knowledge when gained, is far better, for how 
many of those idiosyncrasies, peculiarities, and 
perversions of intellect date their origin from 
undue and improper stimulation of the child- 
ish mind, can never be determined. But that 
too many can be traced to this source is the 
mournful truth. And it is more than probable 
the evil has originated in the misconception of 
the true relation between mind and brain. 

Exercise of any bodily member develops and 
strengthens that member, perhaps making oth- 
ers appear dwindled and defective by contrast 
The same rule holds with the mental fitculties: 
one-sided culture makes one mind seem to be 
all memory ; another is all imagination ; a third 
is all calculation, everything is counted, meas- 
ured, weighed by him, the whole world is but 
a mass of statistics to such a one. Another is 
all tune, to him the ocean's roar is an anthem, 
the tree's rustle and murmur as many differ- 
ent songs as the birds sing or the brooklet 
trills ; the cararact is an organ peal, and the 
** music of the spheres " is no figure of speech. 
Still another knows the form of things: the 
glowing masses of cloud are pictures of the 
"Transfiguration" or the golden chariots of 
£l\]ah ; the uncertain moonlight gilds floating 
figures of Seraphim and Cherubim, satyrs and 
graces. Every figure and face shows the germ 
of a grand, heroic image; in every mass of 
marble is plainly discernible the possible Ma- 
donna, the Venus, or Apollo. Though the oth- 
er faculties in such minds may be fairly devel- 
oped, they will seem dwarfed in contrast with 
the one predominant For this reason extra 
pains should be taken to train the subordinate 
powers in such a mind, that the character may 
be more symmetrical. The dominant faculty 
will find means to grow without much foster- 
ing care. 

^ Excessive physical labor dulls and deadens 
body and mind, almost crushes out the finer 
and more beautiful traits. Excessive mental 
labor, lonff continued, rouses the brain to un- 
due action ; it calls up more and more blood to 
give added strength for added labor; then 
part of the body is left without due nourish- 
ment, while the mind seems to soar away to 
grand heights and become indued with new 
and unusual powers ; then, suddenly, like an 
unorbed planet, it swings loose from its moor- 
ings and wanders into hopeless chaos. Tliis 
has happened so frequently to some of the 
noblest minds that if our literary men will not 
take warning from them, any caution of ours 

Digitized by V^OOQLC 



48 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Jan., 



would be useless, and we forbear *' pointing a 
moral." 

Whatever mind may be, an outgrowth of 
the body or a thoaght of God, still its health, 
and in a certain sense its very existence, de- 
pends upon laws similar and every way an- 
alogous to those that determine bodily health 
and existence. The mind or spirit of man, de- 
rived at first from the -breath of (Jod, is no 
doubt **part and parcel" of the Divine Being. 
The mind molds the body after its likeness; 
a slow, moderate intellect has a slow, heavy 
casing ; a quick, bright intellect is connected 
with a lithe, elastic tissue; a joyous spirit 
gleams from every line of its accompanying 
countenance, while the peevish, fretAil one 
frowns out in every wrinkle, and the calm, 
trustmg one sits serene upon a placid brow. 
Hence it seems certain the clay image, man, 
could not have been formed in the " likeness 
of God" unless the informing spirit that gave 
it vitality was part of the Divine essence. 

But is every new human being an entirely 
distinct, separate creation, or can bodies prop- 
igate spirit— mind ? Why are there corporal, 
family resemblances, and do these bodily like- 
nesses always or generally indicate spiritual 
resemblances? If the mind is a something 
that dwells wholly in the brain, there seems 
no possible solution to these questions. But 
if the mind be a subtle element pervading the 
physical organization more or less completely, 
while having its seat or focus in the brain, 
then there seems a path out of the tangle. 
One person, by practice and determination, 
forces a considerable portion of his brain into 
his legs and feet, becoming thereby a fine 
dancer ; another directs the brain-power to the 
arms and hands with a view to becoming a 
practical musician, and no one h»is watched 
the hands of an expert pianist without being 
convinced that brain really flashed in every 
finger-tip. The mind, thus pervading every 
tissue and particle of the living organism, is 
commimicable from parent to child, and the 
mixed mental traits of the parents form the 
new individual. 

Why, may be asked, do the traits of grand- 
parents and other relations often appear In 
children which were not perceived in the 
parents? Though latent, these traits must 
have existed In the parents, or they could not, 
by any reasonable hypothesis, be bom into the 
child. Then, again, many such* peculiarities 
of relatives are acquired at an early age by un- 
conscious Imitation or by a known and active 
desire to become like the person Imitated, the 



facial expression would follow as a matter of 
course. It would be well worth noting wheth- 
er members of families separated In childhood 
would resemble as closely as those living to- 
gether till grown. The experiment would be 
somewhat difficult, for, fortunately, most fami- 
lies are not so eariy scattered. This theory of 
inherited mind will account for all those haunt- 
ing and puzzling reminiscences which occur tr 
nearly every one, that what Is being done or 
said has happened to them previously, as if in 
a former state of existence; Instead, It has 
happened to their parents, and floating ends 
of such impressions have been wrought into 
the mind of the new being. 

The mind Is restricted, limited by the body. 
Very rare are those happy combinations of 
mind and bodily texture where the former is 
so dominant as to transcend bodily Imperfec- 
tions, and by Its superiority and might become 
a power ruling Itself and swaying the world ; 
such a one men name a genius. 

Mental, as well as physical exercise, should 
be cumulative. If the untrained mind be ap- 
plied to labor that tries Its powers to the ut- 
most, and persistently kept at Its work, It will 
as surely break down as would the body simi- 
larly treated. We would shudder and cry out 
with horror if we saw young, growing chil- 
dren laden with bodily burdens proportionate 
to the burdens with which they are daily 
laden in our schools. Crowding the memory 
with facts and words imperfectly comprehend- 
ed is like crowding the stomach with quanti- 
ties of rich, strong food which the system is 
powerless to assimilate. 

Many imagine there is no limit to the capaci- 
ties of the mind, that It may go on developing 
and acquiring for an Indefinite period; this 
may be in another state of existence, but not 
here. The mind is limited just as truly as the 
body is limited, in the extent and exercise of 
Its powers; there are "thoughts beyond the 
reaches of our souls," and whoever strives be- 
yond a certain point to attain them Is Invaria- 
bly crippled or crushed in the attempt 

AMELIE V. PETIT. 



PoBK AND Powder.— A friend of ours, who 
recently returned from the Black Hills Expedi- 
tion, says he was informed by a missionary 
among the Indians that " pork and white flour 
were killing ofi" the Indians faster than pow- 
der and bullets would do It" Yet many of 
our white Christian brethren, who do not, like 
the Indians, llve^li 



3^izft%y<«5t«^gB^»i^ 



'Dig^izl 



the 



187S.] 



RBFOBMS'-BFFECT UPON SOCIETY, 



4^ 



main, live simply, aro amazed when W8 tell 
them that pork is not the best meat, and tends 
to produce all sorts of bilious and scrofulous 
diseases, and that superfine flour is food neitlier 
for brain nor muscle, that it tends to promote 
biliousness, feverishness, constipation, and oth- 
er forms of ill health. They are amazed, and 
call ns fanatics. Still, Ihey complain of ill 
health, take medicine, are dyspeptical, feverish, 
and unhappy, and blame their surroundings. 



their hard work, their brain labor, theh: con- 
finement, and think they must go to Saratoga 
or j^ewport for a change and a rest, in order 
to eke out the labors of the year. A plain, sim- 
ple, nutritious diet, according to the laws of 
nature— coarse bread made of wheat ground 
without sifting, with fruits and vegetables, beef 
and mutton — if meat be eaten — are among the 
articles which may be trusted for health, vigor, 
labor, and long life. 



4»» 



REFORMS — EFFECT UPON SOCIETY. 



IT is so natural for us to enlarge upon the 
£iults and follies of humanity, and to be- 
wail its shortcomings in didactic and solemn 
phrase, that it is refreshing to shift the pic- 
ture occasionally, and take a look at its sun- 
ny side. Let the transforming radiance of 
human charity fall athwart its dark recesses 
and disperse the shadows. The world is 
dark enough of necessity; we want more 
sunshine. We crave it as plants do to grow 
and thrive in. There are rich veins of sym- 
pathy in the great public heart, and it only 
needs some firm and prudent hand to divert 
them into the proper channels. As it is, they 
make their way into the homes of the poor, 
into mission schools, and into almost an in- 
finite yariety of benevolent institutions. And 
they are not always visible. While some 
seek public recognition and approval, others 
flow on through quiet places unseen by most, 
but cheering many a toil-worn heart on their 
way. During the general reign of destitu- 
tion and distress among the unemployed 
poor of Chicago the past winter, many in- 
stances have come to light of the noble work 
of its more favored men and women in the 
way of special relief. And while they re- 
sponded to the bitter cry of want that arose 
from many a home, a special blessing to 
tbemselv^ has rested upon their efibrts, for 
they have not only come face to face with 
ythe degradation and wretchedness of pover- 
ty, supplemented by its too usual accompan- 
ment, vice, but have realized more vividly 
the causes that set class against class, and 
their tenderest sympathies have been en- 
luted for the innocent vicrims of ignorance 
and wrong. Women of culture, while seated 
securely upon their pedestal of virtue, breath- 



ing airs of social purity, and daily weaving 
the refined and the beautiful into life's fab- 
ric, have learned to judge more leniently 
those to whom in many cases no warning 
voice ever cfifme, no blessed home ever in- 
closed in its charmed circle, and opportuni- 
ties for moral, intellectual, and spiritual cul- 
ture shone dimly afar through the contami- 
nating air tbey breathed. These women arw 
beginning to reach strong, helpful hands to 
the fallen penitent, and to realize the re- 
sponsibilities that rest upon them in the 
work of reform of every type, and are keenly 
awake to the necessity of action. We admit, 
we afi^m, that they often mistake in their 
eager impulsiveness, and that they sometimes 
rush into errors, and stumble where they 
thought to stand firm. But even mistakes in 
the cause of right are far preferable to slug- 
gish insensibility to existing abuses, a nerve- 
less, moral quiet. To me these things indi- 
cate a persistent groping for more light, an 
unmistakable onward and upward tendency. 
In other words, this wide-spread ferment in 
society means progress. The press helps to 
keep alive the fiame of popular enthusiasm, 
and fans it with inspiring cheers or ingenious 
sneers, as the case may be, but always consti- 
tuting a moving panorama of passing events, 
keeping the subject in all its bearings before 
the people. Even the most conservative are 
not wholly unmoved, but catch the pervad- 
ing spirit of the times to a greater or less 
degree. 

When the public mind falls again into its 
ordinary gait, as it will eventually, I think 
that in spite of Macaulay^s sarcastic conclu- 
sion concerning the result of virtue's periodi- 
cal raids, we shall have gain^^^^e^mg. 



r' 



«a> 



•' /v 




PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



.[Jait., 



There will bfi'^ii>di£8 of stubborn trnths be- 
'Ca i6i^Q«4i^4^'3{^e of uncomfortable statis- 
>^: iirfec flY and^^iwtianswerable arguments in the 
shape of flesh and blood witnesses to the hor- 
rors of intemperance. Of the permanence of 
the present results of the " Women's Move- 
ment,^' we confess a shadow of doubt; the 
foundation is not laid deep enough. A man 
ccnyinced against his will, is of the same 
opinion still, and this will doubtless appear 
in this instance ; but though the framework 
of this new temperance structure is precari- 



ously weak, and subject to every revulsion of 
this breezy popular opinion, it is a begin- 
ning, and will doubtless be followed by oth- 
ers, stronger, more slowly matured, and more 
lasting. And though this wholesale stirring 
up of the most rep\ilsive subjects may bring 
much that is vile and noisome to the surface, 
yet the more rapid the stream of public feel- 
ing and work, the more effectually will it 
bear away its own uncleanness, and, wc hope, 
flow on through every haunt of wickedness, 
cleansing and purifying as it goes. 

EDITH LY8LS. 



THE OLD AND THE MEW. 



Chilly cold thy breath, December, 

And the North wind'« bitter wall 
Chants, Old Year, in solemn measure, 

O^er thy form so still and pale. 
As we loved thee, so we mourn thee. 

While each feeble, dying breath 
Cometh fainter, fainter, fainter, 

*Tiil the palse is still in death. 
List the knell of thy departure, 

Peel on peel from belfry-tower; 
Close the eyes that ne*er shall waken^ 

It is midnight's dreary hour. 
'Twere a heart of stone, not human, 

That could bend above that bier, 
Gaze upon the furrowed features, 

Tet refrain to drop a tear. 
But a stranger bids us ^erecting, 

In his youthful beauty clad 
With the white robe of bis sire: 

** Gentle friends, why look so Had ? 
** Ib it meet that ye should welcome 

Me with such a doleful face ? 
Whom yon mourn is gone forever; 

I have come to take bis place, 
'* Come to aak for your allefclance. 

For your sympathy and love, 
That earth's children live together 

As the angels do above. 



'* llmt ye banish selfish feeling, 
HatrtMl, malice, envy, strife ; 

Help to raise your fallen brother- 
Plant anew the seed of life. 

*' Gird the loin and don the armor, 
Have a purpose grand and strong ; 

With your banner truth-emblazoned 
Charge the citadel of wrong. 

*' Through the conflict long and weary, 
Never falter, never yield, 

*Till that emblem wave triumphant 
0*er God's glorious battle-field. 

" Ah ! I see you greatly marvel 
At these words from one so young ; 

But each moment hath its mission. 
And my race will soon be run. 

** Only for a little season 
Shall we journey side by side ; 

Will ye pledge your lives to duty- 
Will ye stem old error's tide ? 

*• Will ye wrestle with temptation. 
Rolling back his fiery wave? 

Living, be a worthy freemiln — 
Dying, fill an honored grave? 

** I will be your dally witness. 
And when chill December's blast 

Lays me low, with Joy or sorrow 
Tou shaV camly view the past" 



DON CARLOS, AND THE WAR IN SPAIN. 



rriHE bellicose aspirant to the throne of 
J- Spain, who is styled by his followers 
Charles YII., and by the world at large Don 
Carlos de Bourbon, Duke of Madrid, is near- 
ly twenty-seven years of age, haying been 
born in Austria in March, 1848. He is a stal- 
wart man, about six feet one inch in height. 
His face, while he wears a full beard, is quite 



handsome, as it in great part conceals the 
shape of a rather mean sort of mouth, not at 
all in harmony with his manly physical ap- 
pearance. He is a man easy of access, and 
with few traces of haughtiness. But he is 
rather hot-headed, and very fond of playing 
the part of a prince ; that is to say, of lord- 
ing it, in the old &8hion of Spanish kings, 

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1875.] 



BON CARLOS. 



51 



and of sarrounding himself with a large 
■imber of chamberlaius, aid-de-camps, seo- 
reUries, and people who have no other mer- 
it or daty than that of flattering his silly 
pride. His appearance indicates much of 
boyish emulation, dash, and brilliancy, with- 
out, however, a basis of strength and com- 
prehensive discernment. We do not like his 
nose; it, if anything in his countenance, in- 
dicates that sensual element which has so 
much blurred the history of the Bourbons. 
He married Dofia Margarita, Princess of 
Ptrais, in February, bj 
1807, and has two 
draghters and a son, 
the eldest, Infanta 
BIsDca, being tve 
years old, and the 
joangest. Infanta £1- 
Tira« two years ; the 
son, InfJEinte Jaime- 
Cbaries, was bom 
on the 27th of June, 
1870. 

Dofta Margarita 
hi8 the reputation 
of being a very clev- 
er woman; she is 
the stronger "ves- 
sePofthetwo,it is 
said, and with fair 
hair and blue eyes, 
looks much like a 
Gcnnan or an En- 
glish middle -class 
l«dy. A year older, 
richer than her hus- 
band, better educat- 
ed, and of a more settled turn of mind, she 
exercises great influence over Don Carlos. 

Don Carloe is a Bourbon by blood, and has 
for a further warrant for his claim to the 
Spanish throne the will of Charles 11. of 
Spain, who died in 1700, and the Treaty of 
rtrecht Charles 11. died without issue, and 
bequeathed his crown to Philip Y., Duke of 
Ai^u, and grandson of Louis XIV. of 
Pnuce. Out of the national discord excit- 
ed by that will, arose the great war of the 
Danish succession, which lasted twefye years 
>ad cost the nations of Europe vast expendi- 
tues in money and men, and finally was set- 
tled by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. That 




Treaty confirmed the will of Charles n., al- 
lowing Philip, of Aigou, to occupy the throne 
on condition of his renouncing all claims to 
the French crown. The succession to Philip 
was also limited to male heirs. 

On the death of Philip V., Ferdinand VI. 
succeeded him; then followed Charles III., 
and then Charles IV. In 1788 Charles IV. 
abdicated in favor of Ferdinand VEL In 
1888 this king, a weak tool, died. A deed 
was produced alleged to be his, by which Is- 
abella, his eldest daughter by a second wife, 
Christina, was nom- 
inated the succes- 
sor to the throne. 
Charles V., brother 
of Ferdinand VII., 
and rightful claim- 
ant of the throne, 
was forced to flee 
the country, leaving 
Christina in posses- 
sion. 

The younger bro- 
ther of Ferdinand 
Vn. refused to rec- 
ognize the validity 
of the will by which 
the Salic law was 
set aside, and insti- 
tuted that series of 
wars which has 
brought so much 
misery upon Spain. 
In 1889 Charles v., 
otherwise known as 
Don Carlos at that 
time, returned to 
France in despair, and dying in 1855, left 
two sons, Carlos and Juan, the former of 
whom called himself Charles VI., died 
childless. Don Juan, inheriting his broth- 
er's rights, renounced them in 1868 in favor 
of his son, the Duke of Madrid, the pres- 
ent Don Carlos, whose first political act was 
the issue of a proclamation to his party, 
convoking them to a congress in London, 
whence was organized the insurrection which 
terminated so unfortunately in the disasters 
of Orosoqnieta. 

Since that time he has been operating in 
his half barbarous warfare, finding his ad- 
herents almost solely among the poor, bigot- 
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52 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



Jan., 



ed people of the northern provinces of Spain, 
and where the nigged character of the coun- 
try affords him no little shelter against the 
forces of the republic. 

Were it not for the embarrassments which 
the Madrid government have labored under 
from the time the republic was proclaimed, 
the disorders, political and social, which 



have prevailed almost everywhere, the Cuban 
insurrection, and the occasional disaffection 
of leading officials themselves, it is certain 
that the Carlist movement would have been 
suppressed months a^o. As matters are, the 
prospect is unfavorable to Don Carlos, and, 
ere long, his pretensions may be left without 
an armed support, as they should have been 
long ago. 



AIE, EMPHASIS5 AND ETIQUETTE. 



A FIRST glance at the words heading 
this article will probably excite won- 
der in the mind of the reader as to what pos- 
sible relation they can sustain toward each 
other. In our daily converse, what has air to 
do with emphatic words, and what has em- 
phasis to do with etiquette ? Yet we hope to 
show that the ties of relationship are very 
close , not only in the prosaic and practical 
uses of speech, but in the amenities of social 
interchange. The pleasures of life are certain- 
ly enhanced by the agreeable formalities of 
daily intercourse, for politeness is but a deli- 
cate rocognition of the self-respect of every 
individual. Therefore, may we not discuss 
etiquette as among the " inalienable rights " 
which are ours in virtue of our individual 
existence? And, as the .properties of the 
whole are determined by the properties of 
the units of which it is composed, we shall 
discuss air and emphasis as components of 
etiquette in speech, and show, if possible, 
how, in the aggregate, they consciously or un- 
consciously affect our health and happiness. 
The chemical relations of oxygen to the hu- 
man system have been long understood ; but 
the relation of this effete of air — carbon and 
nitrogen gases — ^as a motive power for the 
production of speech, and its application to 
the esthetics of language, have received com- 
paratively but little attention. We have 
been taught to dread this fearful carbon that 
human beings throw off, which vitiates the 
atmosphere. The incarceration of men in 
the "black hole" at Calcutta, who were 
forced to poison each other by this gas, has 
deeply impressed the minds of youthful read- 
ers. Charcoal fires and ill-ventilated rooms 
suggest unpleasant sensations of suffocation ; 
but the uses as well as the abuses of even 



gases should be understood. As a motive 
power for the production of the useful and 
beautiful arts of conversation and singing, 
carbon is all-important, and one of the safest 
of gases. 

Breath is essential to life, for by it uaan 
became " a living soul," and the fullness of 
life is in proportion to the quantity and 
quality of air we breathe. If we take but 
little — ^if our breath is short and infrequent 
— we gain but little vitality ; if we take full 
respiration, we obtain buoyant life and 
health. Corresponding results are apparent 
in the human voice. A half inflation of the 
lungs gives us but a small amount of motive 
power for our vocal instrument, and under 
such circumstances it can play, at best, but 
feeble, uncertain tones. Frequent inspira- 
tion, at proper intervals and in proper quan- 
tities, is of material consequence to public 
speakers, if they desire their audiences to be 
at ease, and wish to become a success in 
their profession. Many persons of great tal- 
ent fail in this department from no other 
cause than simple disregard of this observ- 
ance. There is nothing which so tries the 
endurance of an audience as & speaker talk- 
ing upon an almost exhausted stock of air — 
completing sentences that seem to drain all 
the vital forces. Let a person of nervous and 
sympathetic temperament be obliged to lis- 
ten to a voluble talker whose chest is pinched, 
and who takes breath as seldom as possible, 
and when compelled to inhale this life-giv- 
ing element, does so with a spasmodic gasp, 
as though it were a waste of time to breathe 
at all, at the end of an hour the listener will 
either have a nervous headache or feel too 
exhausted to sit up, and both parties may re- 
main in ignorance of the cause that produced 

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18T5.] 



AIB, EMPHASIS, AND BTIQUBTTB. 



5S 



the unhappy result. If taking air in this 
case is not a matter of etiquette, it at least 
would be humanitarian. 

" Hold up your head, speak loud and plain, 
and mind your stops,'* were the concise di- 
rectionfl given to the youthful student of fifly 
years ago, engaged in the daily exercise of 
reading. The yenerated pedagogue of those 
da3r8 taught us a good lesson in these few 
words. It is claimed that punctuation points 
are used in the construction of a grammati- 
cal composition to mark the sense rather than 
the rhetoria But their function is two-fold. 
In oral reading, pauses should become land- 
marks, not only for guiding the mind to catch 
the sense, as it is developed by clauses and 
sentences, but as little stations where the ex- 
hausted stock of breath can be replenished ; 
for without breath we can not speak *' loud 
and plain." Thus '* minding our stops " be- 
comes a matter of extreme importance, and 
is altogether essential to good and correct 
reading and speaking. Through ignorance 
or carelessness, however, they are so seldom 
observed in either function that we might al- 
most conclude the fact had never entered 
people's heads that they serve any use, either 
for the eye or the voice. While we do not 
intend to enter into an explanation of the 
physiology of the voice, or of the method of 
respiration that yields the most favorable 
results, the matter has been touched upon to 
show the chain of relationship between air 
and emphasis. 

Emphasis in reading and speaking, it is 
well known, consists in giving stress to par- 
ticular words in a sentence, thereby making 
them more prominent than other words. In 
this position they become indices of the 
sense. In a certain degree, emphasis in read- 
ing is correlative to punctuation points in 
writing, which will be shown as we proceed. 
To give this increased force or stress to par- 
ticular words requires an additional amount 
of our motive power. And we must have 
some knowledge as to when the proper op- 
portunity has arrived that we can take breath. 
Happily, in ordinary reading, the pauses af- 
fin-d the opportunity. 

To illustrate how clearly allied are punc- 
tuation and emphasis, we will select an ex- 
ample often quoted to show the necessity of 
^minding our pauses." ^*A man, having 



gone to sea, his wife desires the prayers of 
the church." The venerable clergyman who 
intended to announce this fact to the congre- 
gation, had the same idea about pauses that 
many people have in regard to emphatic 
words, namely, that they are a matter of taste 
or convenience. His idea of a proper time 
to pause was when he could proceed no ftir- 
ther without taking breath. Therefore he 
read, without regard to sense, until his breath 
was exhausted, the pauses occurring during 
the process of inhalation. Consequently the 
9ongregation was astonished by the follow- 
ing intelligence : *^ A man having gone to see 
his wife — desires the prayers of the church." 
This is by no means an exceptional case. It 
is quite too common among many of our pub- 
lic speakers. And, although the habit does 
not always hit upon a subject allowing such 
a ludicrous rendering, it quite as effectually 
misleads the understanding of the hearer as 
to the real meaning to be conveyed. Indeed, 
in all cases emphasis is entirely dependent 
upon a proper management of respiration. 
In the example quoted the unfortunate re- 
moval of the pause— which shoqid occur 
after the noun sea — and the placing it after 
the distressed wife, where it does not belong, 
robbed sea of its legitimate sense, and it be- 
came to the ear of the listener a verb. While 
the pause following the noun wife rendered 
it emphatic, and she became the conspicuous 
object of danger to the man who was in need 
of the prayers of the church, which certainly 
made quite a change in the situation of af- 
fairs. One thing, however, consoles us in 
this particular case, which is that the man 
was the recipient of the prayers of the church 
all the same, whether his danger arose from 
tempest at sea or *^ tempest in a tea-pot" The 
proper stress would be given by making all 
the nouns slightly emphatic, with the breath- 
pause occurring" after each, thus : A nian — 
having gone to ua — ^his wi/)j— desires the 
prayers — of the church. Therefore let us 
bear in mind that in "minding our stops" . 
we stop for something, and should not pro- 
ceed without it ; that for which we stop is 
breath. 

The above manner of reading and speaking 
until the breath is exhausted is altogether 
different from the solemn style, so frequently 
adopted by clergymeu^whiclj^cj^ 



54 



PHBENOLOGICAL JOUBNAL. 



[Jak., 



form falling cadences of voice in the middle 
as well as at the end of every sentence. This 
style of speaking will throw an audience into 
the gapes or soothe them into somnolency, 
but it does not tax or drain the vitality of 
the listeners. It is sufficiently annoying, 
however, to feel obliged to connect seemingly 
finished sentences when one can with the ut- 
most difficulty keep awake. For when the 
falling cadence occurs, the impression is that 
the sense is complete — the sentence finished. 

Perhaps there * is no element of speech 
whose place is so difficult to determine and 
bring within the pale of fixed rules as that 
of emphasis. The particular words in a 
composition that shall receive prominence by 
force or loudness of voice is a matter that 
most persons consider should be left for the 
taste of the individual who reads to decide. 
It is argued that it gives a pleasing variety 
to listen to the different conceptions thus 
given of an author's meaning. People who 
ignore rules and accept the sovereignty of 
taste, forget that taste would lose its signifi- 
cance, or at least become very bad taste, if 
it should fail to translate an author's senti- 
ment correctly. Emphasis is something or it 
is nothing. If it has not a definite purpose 
it should be discarded. If it means anything 
it has a legitimate position, and is amenable 
to fixed rules. 

But who is to decide this matter ? Is not 
one person of good understanding as sound 
authority as another ? To the first question 
we would reply, nature is to decide. To the 
second, the best authority is the person who 
has studied to discover how nature actually 
reveals herself, and has learned her fixed laws 
in the matter. People in earnest, animated 
conversation or discussion, in answering or 
asking questions, always place the emphasis 
on the proper word, and would not fail in 
rendering their own written ideas correctly 
but that they have been taught reading by 
those who were ignorant of the fact that na- 
ture has invariable laws of expression. 

To disprove the possibility of determining 
a true emphasis, we frequently hear cited the 
words of Julia to Clifford, in the Hunch- 
back. "Clifford, why don't you speak to 
me?'^ There are just seven words in this 
sentence, and it is maintained that it can be 
rendered in seven different ways, so that the 



emphasis shall occur on a different word each 
time, and yet each make the sevse. Under 
seven different conditions, we respond, possi- 
bly they might ; but to express Julia's ques- 
tion, only two words can become emphatic 
" Ol\ff^ard^ why don't you tpedk to me f" 
The name of the person addressed would re- 
ceive stress in obedience to a law of etiquette 
which all obey when calling each other by 
name, as we would say Mr. Thompwriy are 
you well? The word "speak "in JnUa's 
question takes stress from the fact that Clif- 
ford was silent, and as a mark of surprise 
that he is thus silent, the question as pwt — 
" Why don't you tpectk to me ? " If the ques- 
tion were a repeated one from the continued 
silence of Clifford, giving evidence that he 
had some reason for not speaking, then the 
word " why " would take prominence, as de- 
manding the reason — "Clifford, why don't 
you spe&k to me ? " There are phases of hu- 
mor that Julia might have exhibited whore- 
by the emphasis could with propriety be 
transferred to other words ; but such, under 
the circumstances, could not have b6en l£e 
case. She was filled with the passion of con- 
trition that was pleading for him to speak. 
It was no pettish impulse to chide him with 
neglect that prompted the words. That she 
chose to lay bare her heart that he might see 
her suffering is evident from what follows. 
Clifford's reply is, " I trust you're happy." 

CouRTEBT requires that all proper names, 
when introduced for the first time, whether 
in reading or speaking, should receive em- 
phasis. -As, " Among the ladies present were 
Mrs. Thompson^ from Boston ; the lovely Miss 
Benton and sister, and the accomplished toife 
of Mr. Sherwood,^'' And the same law ob- 
tains in regard to the names of subjects when 
first introduced. " Ladies and gentlemen^ the 
subject of our discourse is The Natural His- 
tory of Animals,'*'^ The same law must be 
observed in presenting people to each other; 
and further, when several names are spoken 
in succession, each must receive stress, and 
must not be pronounced with the same pitch 
of voice or in the same breath. 

The folly of disregarding these laws will 
be apparent if we attempt to present a num- 
ber of persons, speaking all their names in 
one breath and on exactly the same pitch of 
voice. As, Mrs. Bostwick Mr. Bostwick 

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1875.] 



MAKING 'A GOOD HBAD\ 



M 



Mr. Sumner Mr. Bamsey. Nothing conld be 
more disregpectfoL Any person wbo will 
pracdoe speaking a few names in both ways : 
first in the same tone, and then each name 
on different pitches, will readily see that 
here is a law founded in the nature of 
things, and to neglect or disobey it would 
be inexcusable. After this fcmnal introduc- 
tion of nouns has taken place, on their re- 
currence, as a general rule, they do not receiye 
sQch marked prominence ; but their acts and 
qualities are next in order to be distin- 
guished. 

It is in better taste, as it savors less of 
bombast aud sycophancy, for speakers and 
writers to announce names before dwelling 
npon their attributes. There are prefixes, 
howerer, which courtesy demands should be 
impressively given : as, His Excellency — The 
Honorable — The Reverend Professor, etc. 
And yet there exist continuous violations of 
these simple rules by public speakers, both 
on the platform and in the pulpit. 

It is not g^erally known that two em- 
phatic words following each other in the 



same clause or sentence can not be uttered 
roundly and musically without an inhalation 
of breath between them — that modulation, 
force, and delicacy of expression can not be 
achieved without a full stock of air in the 
lungs ; and to most persons this may seem a 
matter too trivial for attention. 

But when we consider what a marvelous 
medium the human voice is, how slight the 
shades of infiection which convey opposite 
meanings, and how far-reaching in domestic 
and social relations are the results, it will be 
well for us to heed and to know what we are 
doing. We can not speak without making 
an impression of some kind. Shall it be for 
good or for evil 9 Shall our words give pleas^ 
ure or pain 9 It certainly is not kind or polite 
to distract our friends with a bard, monoton- 
ous clang of words, robbed of all modulation 
and variety of emphasis. We should, at least, 
keep our wonderful musical instrument in 
tune, and always bear in mind that with its 
bellows only half filled with air it can not 
produce full, round, harmonious tones. 

L. M. BRONSON. 



THE HAND« 



Slave of the will ! the skilled artificer! 
Tool of the brain ! without thee all is nan/^t! 
The plow would stop, the marble sleep qd- 
wronght, ' 
Empty the easel. Not again would stir 
Earth^s mifi^hty wheel; no power be ^ven to 
thought; 
Horrors would change the seas to solitudes, 
Cities and harvests vanish into woods. 



Shaper of leamin)c*s torch, what wonder dwells 

In this small map of muscles ! delicate spells 
In even the thnmb^s ball, in the finger's ends 
Each little sinew, every Joint that bends 

Is full of fate. Now waves the peaceful tree, 
And now the grand ship volleyed lightning 
sends, 

Or civilization wafts to earth's remotest sea. 

AURBD B. STBSar. 



MAKING A GOOD HEAD. 



IT is poarible that Phrenology may some- 
times do harm because young men are 
led to believe that, having small heads, their 
intellectual faculties are deficient, and there- 
fore there is no use for them to try to rise in 
the world. 

It is generally taken for granted that no 
young man has a chance to become distin- 
guished unless all his intellectual organs are 
well, developed at birth, and no account 
whatever is made of latent powers, faculties, 



or predispositions. They who have observed 
closely this, in any one generation, have notic- 
ed that men with well-developed heads were 
often unfortunate. Everything was learned 
quickly, distinction came almost unsought, 
and yet, after a time, it was seen that such 
failed to compete with others who commenced 
much later, and who seemed to progress more 
slowly. Often they failed for want of sound 
moral conviction, and then it began to be 
seen that their faculties, though resplendent, 
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66 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[jaw., 



WBre without " sharp edge." The foundation 
of good sense, of acute understanding, and 
of broad culture is in moral conviction ; and 
moral conyiction seems to arise from the 
OTcrcoming of difficulties. During the last 
few years we have seen many talented men 
who were prosperous, who had hosts of 
friends, and who were widely esteemed, and 
yet have sunk, for want of faith in common 
honesty, to raise no more. 

The world wonders at their misfortunes, 
but their misfortunes lay in their being too 
well bom and in haying too manyadvan- 



On the contrary, a young man may have 
an inferior head, and be poor and oppressed, 
•and the world may seem to have no place for 
him, and yet, if he resolutely set himself to 
work, all deficiences may be supplied, and he 
may rise to wealth and fame. The majority of 
successful men, who have been of service to 
mankind, were not, when young, remarkable 
for ability; many were so dull that they 
could scarcely understand arithmetic and 
grammat, and whatever they learned was ac- 
quired by slow and most painful application. 
Of course they were subjects of ridicule on 
the part of average bright young pers6ns ; 
and thousands must have sunk beneath the 
general verdict that they were dull, and 
thenceforth they plodded this life as third 
or fourth rate men. 

All such young men need to understand 
that their fate is in their own hands, and 
that they ought to be made to realize that if 
they acquire knowledge with the greatest 
difficulty they do thereby acquire strength, 
which, so far as it goes, is invaluable, because 
with it they will be able to take another 
step forward, though still with difficulty, 
and in so doing more strength is acquired ; 
and if this course is steadily pursued, year 
after year, they will finally pass the forward 
associates of their youth. 

It is of the utmost importance while this 
process is going forward that Conscientious- 
ness should be cultivated and that what- 
ever is useful to mankind, weak, blind, and 
distressed, shall be accepted and acted upon 
always. This is not at all necessary to 
operate on a large scale, rather seek a humble 
station ; but it is necessary that one should 
do the best he possibly can, as Burns says: 



** Who does the best he can 
WiU whiles do mafa-," 

and this idea should be accepted in the motto 
of life. 

It may now positively be stated that if 
this course is pursued steadily for a number 
of years, the head formerly small and defi- 
cient, both in intellectual and moral quali- 
ties, will change and grow so as to give out- 
ward expression of the mind within. Thus 
one will be indebted only to himself /or a 
fine head, and he will possess the gi^eat advan- 
tage of containing within himself the ad- 
mirable powers and qualities which those 
better bom are supposed to have. What in 
other cases has required the efforts of past 
generations,but which comes with diminished 
power, as light is weaker the further it is 
thrown, he will possess as a result of his 
own efforts, and which has superior power 
because he has concentrated the whole into 
a single life. 

It is not intended to be said that all young 
men can rise in this way, but only such as 
have an ardent desire, and who have a 
natural " genius for hard work." There are 
families not sufficiiently advanced to give 
their youth the required ambition, and these 
are not all likely to read this article, nor in ' 
any manner to be influenced by it. They are 
out of the question. But there are thousands 
of young men, belonging to good common 
families, who have the proper material lying 
latent within them, who have both a relig- 
ious education and a hereditary religion, who 
only need to be encouraged to enter upon a 
course of culture which will lead them to be 
great and good men. A few of these by acci- 
dent, or, perhaps, by an impulse from Pro- 
vidence, will be led into a course of perse- 
verance and excellence, but there is no reason 
why all may not become great, some in one 
way, some in another, as they follow out their 
natural bent. This is a wide subject, and 
much space is required to treat in detail ; but 
it is sufficient to say at this time that if a 
young man, conscious of having a poor head, 
wishes to have a good one, he can go to 
work in a life work to make for himself a 
beautiful, symmetrical, intellectual, and reli- 
gious head, which will be admired by the 
world and will be a blessing to the world. 

K. C. X. 

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1876.] 



8U00B88FUL AUTHORSHIP, 



67 



ONE FLIGHT. 



I W ISHED for ihe wtngs of a bird to fly 
Into tbe blue heights of the sky. 

Sadden I sprang from the scented grass ; 
I saw tan trees like flower stalks pass. 

Hie clonds above me greater grew 

Hiat had scarcely before obscured the blue. 

Then lost I seemed in a great gray mist. 
No sight to look to, no sound to list 

Up and up, till the wide, wide sky 
Burst like an ocean on my eye. 

I stayed my flying and hung a-poise ; 
No echo reached me of earthly noise. 

I hung o'er the head of the cloud below, 
Soft as a hill-top heaped with snow. 

I gased on the blue heights over me. 
And felt for a moment I was free. 

I was free to fly where I could in space; 
My thoughts were free from the world's face. 

A moment the thought of freedom won 
Thrilled me ; I turned to greet the sun. 

Ah! like a red ball he lay 

Hard at the henceward gates of day. 

E'en as X gazed the portals ope'd, 

And fainter and fainter the great rays sloped. 



He was gone, and a fear cams over me, 
X thought no more of the Joy to be free. 

But I thought of the night, of the dark and chill, 
Of the long, slow hours, the voiceless sUll. 

Above was the desert sky unknown. 
Below cloud 'seas ; here was I alone. 

Lonely 1 felt, as when children wake 

In the night, and cry for the terror's sake. 

And I cared no more for the wings to be free. 
So that the dear earth I might see. 

Downward, downward now closed the cloud, 
Qllmmering and chill as a dead man's shroud. 

An hour or a moment ? Lo, the earth lay bare, 
In the white moon's rising radiance fair. 

A world of shadows, with nothing clear, 
A world of darkness, but oh I how dear! 

Downward, downward the moon on the vano 
Gleams bright, lo ! alight in the window-pane. 

I touched the ground, its scent I knew, 
I kissed each grass— bent damp with dew. 

My wings were gone, I was free no more; 
But gone were the vain wishes felt before. 

And I knelt, while my thanks went up to God, 
For the love that binds man to the sod. 



SUCCESSFUL AUTHORSHIP. 



r' is a constantly-agitating question with 
those public writers who are obliged to 
live by the pen — What can I write that will 
be equally subseryient to the public good and 
aoceptaUe to popular favor ? And it is an 
important question — pecuniarily, physically, 
morally, and in whatever way we may view 
it 

Only the very few have been highly favor- 
ed in any respect, while the many writers 
have been temporarily gratified with now and 
then a bubble that bursts as soon as it is 
Uown. To give an individual opinion, we 
do not think that any have been successful 
by imitating those favored few, merely be- 
cause they met with success. There must be 
a genuine sympathy felt for their emotional 
method, or their methodical reasoning, be- 
fore' we can make our individual pen follow 
their peculiar traces. We must be in love 
witii our theme to be eloquent in our dis- 
posal of it; and the method must be our 



own — natural, not constrained^<»r there is 
no possibility of success. 

Writing for the press, with pecuniary mo- 
tives that are primary, may be called a legit- 
imate business; but whoever places his 
theme secondary to its popular acceptibil- 
ity, is sure to carry his heart in his purse, 
or with his ambition ; and his essay will be 
a hollow, hungry, famishing thing for him 
to senc^ ** a-begging,'' and he may be sure it 
will come in, empty-handed. 

If a lady admires the particular beauty of 
an ornamental piece of workmanship, which 
she sees in a shop-window, or in another 
lady's parlor or work-basket, it is a very nat- 
ural thing for her to conceive the idea of pro- 
ducing a similar article by her own handi- 
work. She goes home meditating upon the 
material requirements, not forgetting that 
the skill of her fingers and the delineative 
Imagery of her beauty-loving mind will be 
taxed to the uttermost in the successful corn- 
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pletion of the exquisite undertaking. She 
feels that a success would be cheaply bought 
at any price, if she could be sure of it at all. 

More than half the charm of the admired 
article lies in the workmanship —in the pa- 
tience of perseyerance, in the superior abil- 
ity and the cultured taste that speak through 
trhe production. It is the inaudible voice of 
genius that she has felt — not heard ; it is the 
unwritten harmony of color and combination 
that has thrilled a sense lying fisir back of the 
seeing eye ; it is this blind power to will " a 
thing of beauty" into existence, that she 
covets; and it is not the merely fashionable 
ornament of artistic beauty which may be 
bought for a vulgar money price, that calls 
forth her delight ; for of the thing, itself, she 
might grow weary in a week, to be enamored 
of something else; but of the art she might 
never tire, never grow dissatisfied. For this 
reason a spurious imitation would never be 
quite satisfactory to her, even though the 
artifice could not be surely detected. 

The bare question whether " genuine " or 
'^spurious" is tantalizing, and the vexed 
question unpopularizes its subject. It is 
gratifying a low ambition to "palm off" 
trifling things for the equivalents of valu- 
ables. Even admitting the selling " thing " 
to possess an availability more prompt and 
effective to some low purpose than a superior 
article is to a superior purpose, that kind of 
advantage will not justify an equal money 
value — ^that is, if "progress" is the law. 
And he who, because he can not sell a good 
article at quick sale and fair profit, must 
need to fill his purse by inferior manufacture 
and consequent vulgar profit of such articles 
at immediate sale, is like a partisan who has 
been bought over by the other side to fight 
himself and his party. He gives a ^ote for 
the " smarter " principle against the slower, 
better, and more enduring. He is bound to 
ride the winning steed, even to destruction. 
Such ambition is odious, in a political view ; 
it should be uprooted wherever it is found. 

Editors, and more especially publishers, 
of periodicals generally, cater to popular 
taste, as they think, by providing consumers 
with neutrally conservative, mental edibles. 
They are very much afraid to set substantial^ 
dishes upon the public table, lest the deli- 
cate should sneer, and poor dyspeptics make 



wry &ces, because they can not " bolt " the 
whole. The consequence of this is that the 
people, when they have waded through the 
sevenal courses, are heard grumbling " rather 
lean picking," " hash, warmed over," " dry 
baker^s bread," and "cold slops I" For 
fear of displeasing a few, the caterers fail to 
produce real, hearty pleasure for any. 

When our magazines were sent from the 
publishing offices "uncut," no matter how 
"popular" or " successful," in the majority 
of homes — ^with the exceptions of a few 
pages — the leaves remained " uncut." Thus, 
we see, it is not always the contents of the 
periodical that win popularity ; and we may 
safely infer that it is, generally, the influen- 
tial opinion of the influential reader that 
makes it much sought after. Much observa- 
tion will strengthen this opinion. 

Stopping with some friends a few weeks 
ago, I found among their books and reading 
matter nearly two volumes of 8cribner*$ 
Monthly, Having previously read only a few 
numbers of those two year's issues, I thought 
I would look them' over to see what was the 
general appearance of the volumes at that 
time ; but, to my surprise, as I supposed my 
friends were just the ones to appreciate 
8or&mer% nearly all the pages were inacces- 
sible to me, because uncut. This is but one 
example, yet I might give many similar, ol 
the Atlantie, and others, of which not a 
single number has been cut from cover to 
cover. Poetry, travels, science, morals, relig- 
ion, criticisms, and miscellaneous articles 
sealed up in those folded leaves I What an 
array of " brains " to waate on the " attic " 
air I 

Not overlooking the salutary influence of 
that little invention that now enables pub- 
lishers to send us neatly cut pages of litera- 
ture, so that we inadvertently begin to read 
that which we are glad to continue — still 
more important is the disabusing of one^s 
mind of the idea that he can make himself 
popular, and thus successful, by adopting 
other persons' manners and modes of dress, 
for his altogether different individuality. 

Henry Ward Beecher, with an immense 
variety of character, is Henry Ward Beecher, 
through and through. Chapin is, as he 
should be, Chapin "unabridged." Fanny 
Fern was obliged to write as Fanny Fcni 

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OHINBaB IDBAS ABOUT DBATH, 



59 



nadly dictated, or there would have been 
"a house divided against itself." Her ex- 
pr^sioQs and ideas were natural, spontane- 
ous, and frank ; and her solicitous relatives 
and friends could not check or despoil them 
of Iheir freshness. If there is one quality 
possessed by these popular writers and 
q>eakers that we would single out as more 
worthy of emulation and imitation, it is 
their demotion to the cause which they es- 
poused. These, and their little "charmed 
success-circle," have been willing servants 
of their convictions. They have cared little 
for the seeming, much for the reality. And 
thus have they made themselves, in their re- 
spective ways, our public benefactors ; while, 
at the same time, they have reaped " gold- 
en" harvests for their own delightful re- 
ward. BOSINB KNIGHT. 



CHINESE IDEAS ABOUT DEATH. 

IN point with the article entitled "Death 
Without Pain** in another part of this 
number, is the following by an English writer : 
The Chinese are almost indifferent to the phe- 
nomenon of dissolution, and frequently com- 
pass their own end when life becomes weari- 
some A wife sometimes elects to follow her 
husband on the star-lit road of death ; and par- 
ents will destroy their of&pring in times of 
fiimine and great distress, rather than allow 
them to suffer. SUll more remarkable is the 
custom of selling their lives in order that they 
■lay purchase the superior advantage of obse- 
'quies, which are considered to insure the body 
in safety for the future resurrection. A wealthy 
man condemed to death will arrange with his 
jailer to buy him a substitute for a certain sum 
of money, to be spent upon the poor wretch's in- 
terment and preservation of his body. Should 
be have parents, so much is usually paid to 
them in compensation for their son's life. 
Chinamen invariably help to support their par- 
ents; filial respect and devotion is the great 
Chinese virtue and religious precept, in which 
tbey rarely (kil. Regarding death as inevitable, 
he makes the best of a bad bargain, and cunning- 
ly and comically gets paid for dying. The whole- 
ale destruction of life in this country is great- 
ly the result of indifference. Hence the massa- 
cre of Europeans, so terrible to us, seems to 
Ifaem a matter of little moment, and they can 
not eompr^end why we should make a fuss 
iboutit They regard our indignant protesta- 



tion very much as we might treat our irate neigh- 
bor whose dog we had shot " Well, well, be 
pacified ; if it was such a favorite, I am soiry ; 
but it is only a dog and there are plenty more. 
How much do you want to be paid for it?" 
** You English think so much of a life," argues 
the Chinese ; ** have you not plenty of people at 
home?" Death in China is awarded as the 
punishment for the most trivial offenses, and 
frequently for none at all, except being in some- 
body's way. A story was told me as a fact that 
during a visit of one of our royal princes, a theft 
was committed of a watch or chain belonging 
to the royal guest. The unfortunate attend- 
ant was caught with the property upon him, 
and, without fiirther ceremony, his head was 
chopped off. The mandarin in attendance im- 
mediately announced the tidings to the Prince 
as a delicate attention, showing bow devoted he 
was in his service. To his astonishment the 
Prince expressed his great regret that the man's 
head had been taken off. " Your Highness*'* 
cried the bbsequious mandarin, bowing to the 
ground, ** it shall immediately be put on again !" 
so little did he understand that the regret was 
for the lite taken and not the severed head. In 
times of insurrection or famine, the mowing 
down of human life like corn-stalks at harvest 
time, is appalling to European ideas. I must 
confess to a nervous shuddering when I stood 
upon the executionrground at Canton — a nar- 
row lane or Potter's field — where so many 
hundreds had been hutched per diem during 
weeks together, the executioner requiring the 
aid of two smiths to sharpen his swords, for 
many of the wretched victims were not allowed 
to be destroyed at one fell swoop, but were 
sentenced to be ** hacked to pieces " by twenty 
to fifty blows. I was informed by a European 
who had traveled much and seen most of the 
fHghtful sides of life, that witnessing Chinese 
executions was more than his iron nerves could 
stand ; and in some of the details which he was 
narrating, I was obliged to beg him to desist 
And yet he said there was nothing solemn 
about it, and the spectators looked on amused. 
It was the horrible and grotesque combined. 



How TO Get Alokg in the Woiili>. — 
Don't stop to tell stories in business hours. 

If you have a place of business, be found 
there when wanted. 

No man can get rich by dtting around the 
stores and saloons. 

Never " fool in business matters," , 

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60 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Jak^ 



A man of honor respects his word as he 
does his bond. 

Help others when you can, but never give 
what you can not afford to, simply because 
it is fashionable. 

Learn to say No. No necessity of snapping 
it out dog-fashion, but say it firmly and re- 
spectfully. 



Use your own brains rather than those of 
others. 

Do not snuff, smoke, or chew tobacco. 

Avoid all alcoholic stimulants. 

Learn to think and act for yourBe]£ 

Young men ! commit this to memory, and 
if there be any folly in the argument, let us' 
know. 




2SrEW^ YORK, 

JANUARY, 1875. 

THE NEW YEAR. 

EVERYBODY likes something new. We 
read about 

** Patting on the new man,** 
which we suppose means being renewed, or 
coming up out of the lower into the higher 
life — out of the merely animal into the men- 
tal and spiritual; out of the bud of child- 
hood into the blossom and fruitage of ma- 
ture manhood. 

We always welcome anything new, even a 
new moon, a new day, week, month, or year. 
So, also, a new birth, with its mysterious, 
helpless simplicity, and its mighty possibili- 
ties I We always welcome the recurring sea- 
sons — ^winter, spring, summer, and the glor- 
ious autumn, with its rich stores of grass, 
grain, and luscious fruits. We like new men, 
who are believed to be intelligent, temperate, 
capable, and honest, in the places of slippery, 
tricky, dissipated, dishonored, and dishonest 
politicians. 

We like new discoveries, in new countries ; 
we like new books, by new authors ; and we 
all like new suits, of new garments ; so, also, 
new dwellings, new furniture, and new-found 
prospects, hopes, and joys ; and, would it be 
believed, there are those who look with 
eagerness for new numbers of the Phreno- 
LOQiCAL JoxtbkalI Yerily, we are among 



the number who like new things, new events, 
and the ever-new present life, with the prom- 
ises of the life of everlasting newness in the 
life to come. 

New phrenologists have entered the field. 
As we write, our annual class is in s€»sion, 
receiving practical instruction to qualify them 
for lecturing, teaching classes, and delineat- 
ing character on scientific principles. The 
good work progresses satisfactorily. 

New openings for phrenologists in other 
lands, as well as in our own, arc being made 
through our numerous publications. Aus- 
tralia, New Zealand, the Indias, China, Japan, 
and Africa, to all of which we send books 
and JouBKALB, are calling for practical phre- 
nologists. Who will go thither and reap the 
harvests which await the reapers and de- 
lineators of character 9 

Notwithstanding the crippled condition 
of trade and commerce caused by the panic, 
our business has been greater the past than 
the previous year. Present prospects are ex- 
cellent for 1875. We shall exert ourselves to 
earn increased success. 

The cry of " delusion, materialism, fatal- ' 
ism, infidelity," no longer prevents intelli* 
gent persons from seeking to learn the truths 
of mental science as revealed in the human 
head, face, and body. Clergymen, editors, 
teachers, physicians, legislators, and states- 
men not only study, but apply the doctrines 
of mental science to all the interests of hu- 
man growth and development. 

Young men and young women — and those 
not so young — are fitting themselves to teach 
and practice this man-improving science; 
material aid is furnished them, when neces- 
sary, to pursue their studies ; and the time is 
not distant when a large and able corps 
of lecturers and examiners will displace the 
ignorant and the mercenary self-styled " pro- 
fessors " now in the field. 

True Phrenology ope^^tj^e^^^of the 



im.] 



sow TO CATCH MEN. 



61 



mentally blind, and enables tbem to see that 
which is new and true on a hroader and 
higher plane than that on which they had 
previously been in the habit of regarding 
life. It lifts them np out of darkj cold, selfish 
skepticism, bigotry, superstihon, and preju- 
dice. It points them to man^s highest attri- 
butes and capabilities. 

Phrenology restrains the yenturesome and 
the reckless, and encourages the timid and. 
the weak. It does not flatter, but takes one's 
aaet measure, and permits him to see him- 
self—and others— exactly as he is. 

Phrenology declares the equal rights of all 
men. It bows down to no man, be he em- 
peror, king, prince, priest, or pope. It bows 
only to God. In the sight of Heaven, one 
man is as good as another when he behaves 
himself as well. 

Phrenology puts us all on our guard. It 
points out our temptations and our dangers. 
Our passions are to be restrained ; our moral, 
intellectual, and spiritual faculties are to be 
srtntrators, and we are to come under' their 
controLif we would advance toward perfec- 
tion. Children will, ere long, be educated, 
physically and mentally, in accordance with 
temperament and disposition. They will be 
developed into men and women such as G%d 
intended them to be, instead of being dwarf- 
ed and ruined in their bringing up. Bodily 
purity will be taught and practiced when 
HiBse principles come to be understood. 
Medical quackery and religious mockery will 
disappear in the light of a better knowledge 
derived from the study of man. 

Phrenology is not man-made, like some of 
our creeds ; it is God-made, and worthy our 
most serious study and respect Let us 
honor our Creator by living in accordance 
mth His loving laws; by doing His will; 
by loving one another ; by doing as we would 
be done by. 

The prayer of the Phbbnolooical Jour- 
HAL is that God may bless all mankind ; that 
we may so live as to be worthy of His bless- 
ing, and that we may finally reach the haven 
He, in his great mercy, intended for us. His 
creatures. Now is the accepted time for be- 
ginning a new life, if we have been remiss 
or negligent heretofore. Let the year just 
opened be in all respects to each of us A 
Happy New Ybab. 



HOW TO CATCH MEN. 

IT is an ol<l and trite saying that " it takes 
a rogue to catch a rogue," and, to a con- 
siderable extent, it is true. For example, 
makers of counterfeit money avail themselves 
of the services of rogues to put their spurious' 
materials on the market. It is the same with 
the saw-dust swindlers, who promise to send 
a fifty dollar watch for five dollars. It is so 
with the lottery dealer, who is also a swin- 
dler, and he makes use of other rogues to sell 
chances to sell other rogues who pay to get 
something for nothing, or, we should say, 
who pay to get much for little. Thus, by 
baiting the hook vnth money, or the sem- 
blance of money, mercenary rogues are caught 
— rogues who are at heart simply thieves, 
and only want an opportunity to put their 
thievishness into practice. 

Thus, by baiting the hook with money, one 
sort of victim may be caught, and this, per- 
haps, is the larger class of swindling victims 
among us. 

Another class arc caught with wine. Bait 
your book with a toddy-stick, and let the 
poor inebriate smell the i^mes of rum, and 
you have him ; he becomes an easy victim to 
this tempting bait. At first, he simply nib- 
bled, a little, sipping the sugar and wine at . 
the bottom of the tumbler — in other words, 
the dregs, after his superiors had drank off 
the body. Then he took to beer, porter, ale, 
cordials, and, finally, to the "real critter," 
old Bourbon, Scotch, or Irish whiskey, Jamai- 
ca rum, French brandy, and he is now not 
only in the net, but landed with a gaff ho^k 
in his gills, and he lies fioundering on the 
sands, or on the rocks, as the case may be. 
He is in a deathly alcoholic pickle. 

Lustful natures are caught vrith a hook 
baited with a bawdy picture, an obscene 
book, or circulars which wicked men send 
among the youth of our country in boarding- 
schools, seminaries, aye, in our private fam- 
ilies. A hook baited with that which excites 
one^s lustful passions catches hundreds, nay, 
thousands of our children while yet in their 
teens. These become victims of personal 
vices which undermine their constitutions 
and bring them to premature graves. After 
the bawdy book, the obscene picture, comes 
the act which the vile circular suggests, and 
then the quack-doctor is applied to by the 

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mortified victiin. Then the murderous abor- 
tionist; then the grave. These victims are 
caught by the allurements of perverted hu- 
man nature. 

Christ taught his Apostles to become fish- 
ers of men, and it is the office of religious 
men and women to redaim those who have 
fallen, and bring them into right relations 
with themselves and their God, as well as to 
save from falling those intrusted to their 
charge. Would they prove themselves me- 
diators between men and their Maker, let 
them bait their hooks with true Godliness ; 
let them liye circumspect lives; let them 
practice what they preach. Men are easily 
caught, indeed, very many, if not most men, 
would very soon reform and pursue the right 
when gently aided by kind admonitions, 
and when the real Gospel is so presented as 
to make the way seem clear for their accept- 
ance. Man seeks happiness ; indeed, happi- 
ness is the end of his existence. He prefers 
to be in normal or right relations, and it is 
only through febvbksion, or a wrong use of 
good faculties and powers, that he becomes 
fallen and corrupt. Inherited, of course. 
How could it be otherwise when the blood, 
bone, and muscle — every fiber of a father's 
being— is permeated by foul poisons, or of 
corrupting diseases? Of course, "he was 
bom so." The thing for us to do is, first of 
all, purify ourselves, then to catch and try to 
save others. 



WANTED BY THE NATION! 

▲ BOOK ON THE TREES OF AMERICA. 

"TTTE would have Congress appropriate a 
Y V sum of money — say from three to five 
hundred thousand dollars — to be expended 
under the direction of trustworthy commis- 
sioners for the production of a great national 
work, embracing a carefully prepared de- 
scription, with illustrations, of all the varie- 
ties of trees in the United States and Terri- 
. tories... The very best talent, literary and 
artistic, should be employed to produce the 
work. It should be properly divided and 
the trees classified into hard woods, soft^ 
wocds, evergreens, . trees of commerce, etc. 
Thus, the pines, cedars, hemlocks, firs, spruces, 
oaks, walnuts, hickories, • maples, beeches, 
ashes, ehns, and the many other trees of use 



and ornament would be set forth in detail i 
and also the fruit-trees, etc., with their hab- 
its, localities, values ; and particular instruc- 
tion be given with reference to their cultiva- 
tion. 

Audubon, almost single-handed— or with- 
out Government aid — ^produced his great and 
beautiful work. The Birds of America, 
copies of which now sell for a thousand dol- 
lars. Are not the trees of America as beauti- 
ful and as uttfvl as the birds ? 

A full-page illustration, drawn from life, 
should be appropriated to each of the princi- 
pal varieties. These pictures should be 
drawn, or photographed, then painted, and 
then chromoed in the highest style of the art 
Facing the tree, on the opposite page, should 
be given engraved views of the leaf, flower, 
nut, or fruit of the tree, with a section show- 
ing the grain and color of the wood, bark, etc. 
Then, full descriptive letter-press should fol- 
low, so that the reader could learn all that 
is known of practical use of each variety of 
tree. 8uch chromo-lithographs as we pro- 
pose would sell readily, if gotten up by pri- 
vate effort, at five dollars or more, and would 
find favor with all lovers of art. 

The book should be issued in numbers, at 
. ten dollars or more each number, and could 
be completed in ten or fifteen numbers, mak- 
ing the book cost the purchaser from $100 to 
$150. It is believed every gentleman of 
means who is a patron of art and of litera- 
ture would subscribe for the work. 

Merchants would place the beautiful book 
on their drawing-room tables, and its perusal 
would beget a love for trees in the minds of 
all beholders. In this way persons of taste 
and of means would acquire a knowledge of 
trees, their habits and their value, not other- 
ways attainable ; and, as a result, suburban 
residences would soon be stocked with the 
choicest varieties, and highly beautified by 
magnificent trees. 

If the project be objected to on the ground 
of its expensiveness, we answer that the en- 
terprise, if well managed, would prove a 
pecuniary success. Out of a population of 
40,000,000, at least 60,000 subscribers ought 
to be secured at $100 or $150 per copy, and 
this would amount to $6,000,000 or $7,600,- 
000. All profits, over and above salaries and 
commissions, should go toward a fund for 



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18^5.] 



DOBS IT HBLP TOUT 



es 



pabtishing a cheap edition of the same work, 
or an abridgement of it for gratuitous distri- 
bution among the people. A book costing a 
dollar or less, containing the gist of the larg- 
er work, would serve to educate the people 
up to a realizing soise o^ the utility and 
value of trees, and how to cultivate them. 

Whether this enterprise shall be under- 
taken by the General Government, through 
commissioners, or whether it shall be done by 
individual States and Territories, may be a 
question. But, as the subject is one of na- 
tional importance, quite as much so as that 
of our fisheries, we do not see why the work 
should not be undertaken by the nation. 

To create a more general and lively inter- 
est in trees is one of the chief objects. When 
one realizes the number of years it takes to 
mature a grand old oak, and when its com- 
mercial value is considered, it will tend to 
quicken and to heighten one's interest even in 
an acorn. It will also beget a desire on the 
part of one and all to raise trees, and so to 
fill up the waste places found on nearly every 
man's farm wiUi their beautiful growth. 
Oar climate, our rainfall, and temperature 
are believed to be more or less affected by 
the plentifhlness or the scarcity of growing 
trees. Many a barren waste would become 
fruitful, and even the desert would, under a 
proper system of tree-culture, *^ blossom as 
the rose." 

Among the men qualified to write on for- 
ot trees, fruit trees, and trees of ornament, 
we may name a few, not, however, in their 
supposed order of merit, but as they occur to 
us : Messrs. Josiah Hoopes, Thomas Meehan, 
John J. Thomas, R. 8. Elliott, Arthur Bry- 
ant, Sr., Drs. C. Schofield and John Atwater, 
Rev. Mr. Penney, Dr. Emerson, and Messrs. 
M. L. Dunlap and P. Barry. 

Among publishers with the best facilities 
for bringing out the work we would name 
the Messrs. Appleton, lippincott. Harper, 
Osgood; or, it might be published by the 
Government, at the Government Printing 
''Office in Washington. It must be done in 
these United States. 

Who will move in this matter ? We will 
subscribe for a copy of The Trbbs of Amer- 
ica in advance. Every public library in the 
Old World would buy a copy. It would 
pay. We commend the subject to Senators 
and Representatives, to national and State 
ofiiceiB, and to the people in general. 



I'OOES IT HELP YOU? 

ALL men and all women need encourage- 
ment. No one is " all-sufficient " with- 
in himself. Though saintly in some things, 
we are liable to be sinners in other things. 
We need a prompter to keep us to our duty 
and our work. Though we would do right, 
the flesh wars with the spirit, and we are 
tempted — tempted to relax our resolutions; 
relax our efforts ; relax our principles, and 
fall into the tempter's trap. If " eternal vig- 
ilance be the price of liberty," so is eternal 
effort the price of success, of health, of hap- 
piness, and of heaven. Growth in grace and 
in a knowledge of God comes by means. 
Those means are compliance with God's 
laws — spiritual, mental, physical. 

A young man writes us: "Your advice, 
teachings, and admonitions help me to 
withstand temptations. Your Journal has 
proved to me a moral monitor, for which 
you have my warmest thanks. I can now 
say No when invited to drink — to take 
chances in schemes and games in which bet- 
ting and gambling are practiced, and I feel 
. that now I can better trust tayself than for- 
merly." 

These are good words, and realize to us 
the utility and importance of our mission. 

The reading of much that is printed is 
mere mental dissipation. One reads to kill 
time, or for diversion. He does not care to 
remember, knowing that the matter is only 
foolish fiction. He is not improved thereby, 
but toorsed; his memory becomes like a sieve 
or a funnel, through which water runs with- 
out restraint — and this spoils the memory. 

The body is built up by the use of good 
food, and so is the mind strengthened, en- 
larged, improved by good mental pabulum. 
Fiction and romance a|*f the same to the 
mind as mere stimulants are to the body ; 
the more we use of either the worse we are 
off. " It helps me " can not be said of that 
which excites the passions or the propensi- 
ties, producing only morbid desires. Nor 
can it be said with truth that stimulants, bit- 
ters, condiments, etc., are good for one*s 
stomach. " It helps me " can be said of that 
which builds up either body or mind ; that 
which puts one in right relations with our 
fellow-men and with God ; that which brings 
only blessings in its course. Reader, can you 

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PHBENOLOQICAL JOURNAL. 



[Jait^ 



Bay this of the Phrenological J6ubnal? 
Do you feel better after perusing it ? Does 
it help you t Would it not help your son, 
your daughter, your preacher, or your neigh- 
bor ? As you think, so act. 



A NEW IDEA IN RAPID TRANSIT. 

IT is now decided by one of the London 
Tramway Companies to introduce a new 
motive-power, which will dispense with 
horses, boilers, and steam-engines. The new 
motiye-power is an arrangement of powerful 
springs, inside a cylinder, like watch-springs, 
on a very large scale. The springs are to be 
wound up at each terminus of the road by a 
small stationary steam-engine. They are ap- 
plicable to the existing cars, which require 
no alteration. It is computed that these 
springs will drive a car seven miles, leaving 
a large percentage of the springs to be run 
down on account of stoppages. 

[Well, why not ? Iron is cheap, steel wire 
may be used, and a great power thus ob- 
tained. 

For other purposes, we think such power 
may be secured by the rise and fall of the 
tides. Have a system of floats, with revolv- 
ing drums on shore, to be wound up as the 
tide rises, and the power gained held for use 
when wanted. There is no estimating the 
lifting power of the tides; and as it rises 
and falls, power may be gained, husbanded, 
and utilized. Who has enough Constbuct- 
rvENBSs to put these suggestions into prac- 
tical use, and secure fame and fortune ? Here 
would be a substitute for steam, wind, horse- 
power, and any other motor known to man. 
And it is cheap, plentiful, inexhaustible. 
Why not use it ? Where are our inventors ? 
The one who secures a valuable patent for 
' this idea should remember the Phrenologi- 
cal Journal.] 



WHY NOT CITIZENS? 

IS it wisdom, is it real charity for the in- 
dustrious workers of this country to pay 
twelve millions of dollars a year and more 
toward keeping, in idleness and pauperism, 
a few thousand shiftless, thriftless Indians 
who will not work ? There are strong, able- 
bodied men and Women anoiong them who 
could earn their own living as well as you 
and I, providing sensible legislation were had 
in their behalf. We can see no good reason 



why fTtf should be so heavily taxed for their 
support. Why not make citizens of them t 
Why not treat the Indians precisely as we 
treat others ? Why show them special flavor ? 
Is it a favor to them for us to keep them in 
the condition of " wards " or " minors " all 
their lives ? Would they not take to various 
industries, if put in the way of them ? Could 
they not become shepherds, and keep flockf 
and herds on the great plains, instead of fol-"* 
lowing the chase and eking out a precarious 
existence, and falling back on charity ? Is 
not beef and mutton as good as buffalo and 
antelope ? Is not wheat and com better than 
wild rice ? Are not apples, pears, and • 
peachds better than wild berries ? Are not 
houses better than wigwams ? Is not civil- 
ization better than barbarism ? * Christianity 
than heathenism ? Then why not bring them 
at once to these conditions ? 

Our past and present Indian policy has been 
and is worse than foolish. It has been wicked. 
Are oui: Indian agents honest ? Do they get 
rich out of Indian contracts ? Do they swin- 
dle both Indians and the government ? Do 
designing men stir up war for the sake of, 
gain? Change the policy ; make citizens off 
the Indians, and hold them accountable to 
the civil law the same as we ourselves are 
held. Require them to earn their own liv- 
ing as others do. Show no favors, except to 
women and children. Let able-bodied men, 
white, black, and red, become alike amen- 
able to laws, and required to defend the 
Stars and Stripes while under the protection 
of the flag. We demand fair play and equal 
rights. Make citizens of all the Indians in 
all the States and territories. Let there be 
no more fooling ; no more indulgence in idle- 
ness ; no more pauperism ; no more scalping 
of whites, and no more shooting of Indians, 
but fair, square, honest treatment, such as 
godly men have a right to demand in this 
our Independent Democratic Republic. 



The Tbmpkrambnts — ^Importance of Un- 
DERBTAKDiNG Them.— ^Ad New YorJs Medi- 
cal Edeetic says : ^' Every temperament, or its 
combination, points out the real forms of dis- 
ease to what it is subject, distinct from all 
others— its physical and mental power. To 
understand and read these is only to compre- 

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AGRIOULTVEAL HINTS. 



65 



bend the real work of nature. The practi- 
tioner of medicine who does not understand 
this, certainly makes the probability of suc- 
cess in curing the sick entirely a matter of 
chance. The same is true of men in busi- 
ness who are not able to read the *fece di- 
Tine.' In fact, the want of this knowledge 
dooms thousands of the sick to an untimely 
death, causes improper marriages, and fills 



the world with domestic unhappiness, and 
causes children to die before they are fiye 
years old, or makes cripples of them mental- 
ly or physically all the days or years they 
Uve." 

\l!\ie Siclecticis quite right. The tempera- 
ments ought to be known of all men. They 
are taught nowhere else except in works on 
Phrenology. 



4»» ' I 



AGRICULTURAL HINTS. 



A New Inrentioil.— We have heard 
nothing latelj of the Brisbane pneumatic tube 
in Washington, which is to suck and blow 
"copy" and " proof" and small packages gen- 
erally between the Government Printing OfBce 
and other Government oflaces. But while Bris- 
bane is putting together his tube sections that 
are constantly collapsmg, a Minnesota man 
has patented a pneumatic tube to which Bris- 
bane's pipe 18 as the most diminutive pop-gun 
to the bi^iEgest piece of ordnance ever mounted. 
The pipe is proposed to be laid from Chicago 
to New York, with steam engines and fans 
erery twenty miles, and grain is to be sucked 
and blown through at the rate of nearly a 
thousand miles an hour. The cost of the tube 
is estimated at $4,000,000, and the capacity 
400,000,000 bushels a year. A charge of twelve 
caits a bushel would pay the cost of construc- 
tion in a year, and leave $800,000 for operating 
expenses. 6rain could be transported from 
Minnesota to tide-water, even with this enor- 
moos profit, for fifteen cents a bushel instead 
of fifty. It will not do in these days to say 
anything is impossible. We can only wish the 
hyentor may raise his four million dollars and 
realize all his hopes. — Lincoln Oo. Farmer, 

[Well, why not? The dreams of one age 
become realities of the next Are we not com- 
manded to * * believe all things ? " Let us have 
the tube.] 

To Preserve a Boaqaet — ^When you 

receive a bouquet, sprinkle it with fresh water; 
then put it into a vessel containing some soap* 
sods, which nourish the roots and keep the 
flowers as good as new. Take the bouquet out 
of Uie suds every morning, and lay it sideways 
ii fresh water, the stock entering first into the 
water; keep it there a minute or two, then take 
it ont and sprinkle the flowers lightly by the 



hand with pure water. Replace the bouquet 
in soapsuds, and the flowers will bloom as 
fresh as when gathered. The soapsuds need 
to be changed every third day. By observing 
these rules, a bouquet may be kept bright and 
beautiAil for at least one month, and will last 
longer in a very passable state; but the atten- 
tion to the fair but frail creatures, as directed 
above, must be strictly observed, or " the last 
rose of summer " will not be ** left bloomUig 
alone," but will perish. — American Artisan. 

A Boot-Back. — One of %he gi-eatest 
troubles of the neat housewife in the country 
results from muddy boots of those members of 
the family who have to work in the fields, the 
stables, and the barn-yard. The wet boots must 
be dried and are generally left under the kitchen 
stove, where their presence is very disagreeable. 
Now, to have a neat kitchen, there should be a 
boot-rack placed behind the stove, in which the 
damp boots may be placed to dry. Such a con- 
trivance has been found a great convenience. 
It has three shelves about four feet long, ten 
inches wide, and placed a foot apart At one 
end a boot jack is fixed by hinges so that, when 
not in use, it is folded against one end of tlie 
rack and secured by a button. There is also a 
stand for cleaning boots at the front, which also 
folds up when not in use, and the blacking 
brushes are placed on the shelves behind the 
stand, and are out of sight, and when folded 
they hang down out of the way. The rack 
should be made of dressed pine boards, and 
stained Bome dark, durable color. 

Wash for Out-Buildings, — The 

cheapest and most durable material we have 
ever used for coating old buildings, says the 
Ohio Farmer f has been a lime wash, made as 
follows : 
To one peck of unslacked white or quick 

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PHREIfOLOaiOAL JOURNAL, 



[jA3r., 



lime, add one pound of tallow, and one pound 
of rock-salt ; the salt will harden the wash, and 
the tallow prevents the penetration of moisture. 
Dissolve the rock-salt in warm water, and use 
the same for slacking the lime and thinning the 
wash; put in the tallow while the lime is 
slacking ; it will then be melted and thorough- 
ly mixed in. When slacking the lime, do not 
allow it to become entirely dry so as to form a 
flour, nor yet flooded so as to prevent a through 
and rapid slack, but add the water as it is 
needed. After the whitewash has been pre- 
pared, add such pigments of paint as desired to 
get the color or shade of color which the fancy 
dictates. By adding Venetian red, a peach- 
blow color is obtained (the most desirable, in 
our opinion, for a bam); yellow ochre wlU 
make a straw color; lamp black a lead color, 
etc. The only sure test when mixing the colors, 
is to try the shade by applying some of the 
wash to a board and rubbing the same thorough- 
ly with a brush. Mix the pigment in water 
before putting it in the wash, and stir thorough- 
ly while adding it It id well to border with 
white any clap board buildings. Apply cold, 
with whitewash or paint bnish. We have test- 
ed almost every method of making washes for 
out buildings, and have never found tiny equal 
to this. The expense is but a trifle for ma- 
terials. 

To Make a Mannre Spreader.— Pro- 
cure a strong pole, about ten feet long and six 
inches in diameter, and secure a tongue in the 
middle, so as to form a large T. The tongue 
may be bolted or secured by mortise and tenon. 
After the tongue is made fast, set it up in a 
perpendicular position, and bore two-inch holes 
through the head-piece, one foot apart. Now 
fill the holes with spreading brush, letting the 
brush extend behind the cross-head from four 
to six feet The more brush one can fasten in 
the holes th e better. After the manure is spread 
with forks, hitch a team to the tongue, place a 
board on the brush behind the cross-head, and 
let the driver stand on the board as the spreader 
is driven across the field, back and forth like a 
harrow, and the brush will then spread and grind 
tlie manure into the ground and pulverize the 
lumps more perfectly than could be done by 
hand. A man and horse team can spread an 
acre per hour of any kind of manure. Such a 
spreader will be found useful in preparing land 
for seeding after it has been harrowed, as it 
will crush the lumps, fill up the dead furrows, 
and leave the field like a garden bed. In lieu 
of a large pole, a heavy slab or narrow plank 



may be employed for the head of the spreader. 
The spreader should be driven at a right angle 
to the first course, whenever all the bunches 
are not ground fine and spread evenly. 

The Qaestion has been asked why H 
is, if wheat can be carried in bulk from San 
Francisco to Liverpool, passing twice through 
the tropics, that it can not be carried down the 
Mississippi to New Orleans, there loaded into 
vessels, and shipped to a foreign market with- 
out injury. The answer is found in the differ- 
ence between the wheat raised on the Pacific 
slope, and that which grows east of the Rocky 
Mountains. The former is so hard, and com- 
pact, and utterly destitute of moisture, that no 
reasonable amount of heat can hurt it, whereas 
the latter is so fbll of moisture that when car- 
ried into a warm climate it swells and spoils. 

Turkeys vs. Grasshoppers.— Mrs. 

Lathrop Drew, of Pulteney, has a fiock of 80 
turkeys, many of them of \% to 18 pounds 
weight They have kept all the neighboring 
farms entirely clear of grasshoppers, and now 
daily resort to the woods for acorns and chest- 
nuts. — PratUburg Neua. 

Here is a hint Why do not aU farmers keep 
turkeys— If not for the profit to be derived from 
their meat,— to keep down grasshoppers, buj^ 
flies, slugs, and other pests, which injure fruits, 
crops, etc A few broods of turkeys will con- 
sume millions of these insects, and tlius help to 
keep a farm clean. Why not ? Of course very 
y^ung turkeys require some care— but do they 
not repay it with liberal interest? 

Cheap Milk-Tester. — ^In a late num- 
ber of the Massachussetts Farmer^ Mr. George 
Bachelder, of Stanstcad, province of Quebec^ 
communicates the following simple instructions 
for making and using a milk-tester. 

Take a dairy salt box which has the cover 
removed, turn it on its side with its open top 
toward you or in front, bore some holes in 
what now forms the top of the box of sufllcent 
size to insert glass tubes, letting the lower ends 
of the lubes stand on what now forms the inner 
side of the bottom of the box. These tubes 
may be made from lamp chimneys of the Ger- 
man student pattern, which may be had at 
nearly every country store, and if the bottom 
or bulge part is broken off", all the better. 

Now stop up the contracted part of the chim- 
ney with a cork coated with gum shellac, melt- 
ed sealing-wax, or that which ma^ assist in 
holding the cork and make it milk-tight, and 
you then have a uniform column of milk about 

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OUR MENTORIAL BUREAU. 



tt 



eight and one-third inches high, which, divided 
into one hundred parts, will make twelfths of 
mdies, which d^rees may he put on a card- 
board or a piece of shingle, forming a scale of 
wliich each twelfth of an inch represents one 
par cent 

After these tahes are set in their places, pour 
ioto them the milk which has just been drawn 
ftom the respective cow, whose name should 
be attached on a piece of card to the corres- 
ponding tube, care being taken to properly sUr 
or mix the milk of each cow separately, so as 
to get a uniform quality, for the milk remaining 
in Uie pail a few moments will be found richer 
at tiie top than at the bottom of the pail, and 
such unstirred milk would be an unfair test 

Let the mUk stand in these tubes in a room 
ofa temperature from fifty-eight to sixty-five 
degrees untU you think the cream has all risen, 



which will vary in different cows from twelve 
to forty-eight hours, and you can then readily 
tell by appljring the scale to the side of the 
tubes, the percentage of cream of each cow as 
well as see its color, and consequently learn the 
color and quantity of butter each cow will 
make, as well as learn their adaptation to but- 
ter or cheese purposes. 

If the cream is low in percentage and light 
colored, then turn her to cheese purposes, or 
prepare her for the shambles. 
4a» 

The Illustrated Annual of Phrbnol- 
OGY AND Physiognomy, for 1875, is expected 
to be issued by the time this number of the 
Journal reaches the reader, or very soon there- 
after. The table of contents may be found on 
a page in our advertising department, to which 
we would call the reader's attention. 




ur jliintorial lurpu. 




[In this Department will be noticed Bnch matters as are of interest to correspondents and to the general reader. 
Cootributlons for '* What They Say '' should be brief, pointed, and creamy, to secure publication.] 



§0 emr ffiorrespoitl^eitts. 

Thr Pressure 07 our Business is such 
mat wean not undertake to r«titm unavaUabte eontrilm- 
iow mieee the neouaary poetofft ie provided by the writ- 
99. In all e€U€Sy persons who communicate %oUh ut 
through Pte poet-ojice shouldy \f they expect a reply, in- 
Sm the retvm postage— etampe belnff pritferred. Anony- 
moa letters toiU not be coruidersd. 

QuECTioNS OF "General Interest" only 
teitf be answered in this department. But one question 
at a Hme^ and that dearly stated, must be propounded, 
if a correspondent shall expect us to give him the ben^ 
^ M early eoneideration, 

A Ministbe's Questions. — I write 
yon for the purpose of increasiDfir my Ijnowl- 
ed^ with reference to the principles of Phrenol- 
ofj;7, especially its bearing on Christianity. I 
have b^ a minister of the Gospel for several 
years, and also a reader of yonr Journal. I once 
regarded Phrenology as a hnmbng, bnt it was 
when I knew nothing of it Since studying H, and 
putting my acanlred Icnowledge into practice, I 
am forced to admit its claims. From what little 
knowledge I have collected from the perusal of 
the JouBKAL, also the Annual, and the small 
work ** How to Read Character,'^ I am enabled to 
detineate character quite well. Indeed, I am 
sometimes astonished to hear people' say, ** I could 
not have told It better myself." But there are 
tome things I am unable to explain. 1 have often 



noticed that people of Uuve Conacientionsness are 
not always ready to accept a truth — one that has 
been proven by the plainest evidence; while a per- 
son with less Conscientiousness will readily ac- 
cede to it How is this ? 

Ane. Persons with large Conscientlonsness li^ve 
settled convictions, and are not quick to change ; 
while those with bnt little Conscientiousness have 
no previous barriers of great strength to restrain 
them from accepting anything new. The same is 
true with those having large religi6u6 organs gen- 
erally. Those who are thoroughly devoted to a 
system of religious thinking are not inclined to 
change it, nor to accept any scientific proposition 
which suggests any possible change of religious 
belief. Hence it is that very devoted Christian 
people are apt to hold discoveries in science rigid- 
ly at bay, while people who are more lenient and 
latitudinous in religious belief, accept the new 
doctrine ; and this fact gives plausibility to the 
idea that a new doctrine is necessarily adapted to 
skeptics, and not to pious people. This was true 
of astronomy. The Church compelled poor Gn- 
llleo to recant his statement and bum his books ; 
but the successors of those religious teachers now 
cordially accept his doctrine on the very spot 
where he kneeled and made his recantation. Ge- 
ology and Phrenology have thus been kept at bay 
in past years. 

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2d. Whj is It thi^t we h%ye so many different 
rclij^ions faiths in the world ? Is it because the 
Bible teaches it, or is it because of the diversities 
in the oixanizations of mind ? 

Ans, Man is naturally relifj^ous, is hungry for 
something that tells him about God and futurity. 
His moral sentiments yearn for something which 
the world and the flesh do not give; and the ques- 
tion of what faith one shall adopt depends largely 
on instruction. Nevertheless, there are different 
oasts and classes of development; thus, those who 
are highly developed in Conscientiousness, C!au- 
tiousness, Firmness, and Self-Esteem, are more 
likely to collate from the Scriptures those strong 
statements of Justice and severity which are incor- 
porated in the Calvinistic faith ; while those hav- 
ing prominent Benevolence, in reading the same 
Bible will recognize the light and glory in the lan- 
guage of those Apostles which reveals the love of 
God, and they will crystallize their faith around 
these passages, ignoring those which speak to the 
Calvinistic class, especially if they have less Con- 
scientiousness, and they think God is too good to 
punish, or that wrong-doing is not worthy of eter- 
nal pains and penalties. We will give answers to 
further queries In this connection in our next 
number. 

Absent-MIndeditess. — A correspond- 
ent, referring to our reply to the question, What 
is the cause and what the cure, says : 

I am very absent-minded. I find some consola- 
tion in the remark that *' absence of mind is not 
stupidity." It is so very vexatious a thing, and 
often so very mortifying, that I am apt to call 
myself stupid. I remember hearing it said that 
** absence of mind Ls characteristic of a genius or 
a fool. Now, I know I am not a genius, therefore 
— ah ! it is not very flattering to carry out tlie syl- 
logism. A young friend here suggests, ** Change 
the minor premise." It certainly would be a pleas- 
anterjconclusion, and may be just as true. I guess 
there is a fallacy in the major premise. Besides, 
I can just as logically prove that I am a genius. 
Ruskln says all borti geniuses talk to themselves. 
I have the habit of talking to myself, therefore I 
am a gCDius. Isn't that sound logic ? 

[The lady makes out her case. She is clever ; 
but we knew that the moment we saw her like- 
ness.] 

Flirting. — ^Is this from a Quaker 
girl? The note comes from Philadelpnia. We 
guess a jealous young man wrote it This Is the 

aaestion : Is there any real moral or social obicc- 
on to that popular expression of gayety and in- 
born fun, namely, the so-called harmless Jlirting 
between strangers, such as is ever seen at places 
• of public amusement, resort, and promenade? 

Ana, That is a serious question, and must have a 
serious answer. Flirtations with strangers are al- 
ways dangerous. Harm is most likely to come of 
it. No father or mother would like to know their 
daughter was flirting with strangers. No brother 
or sister would be without fear of evU consequen- 



ces in such a case. There are better ways of form- 
ing acquaintances, and flirting is not necessary. 
Flirting is not right It is not harmles8h-4t is bad. 
Better not flirt with strangers, norwitti acquAint- 
ances. Better not flirt with single men, married 
men, nor any other men. Better not flirt witli 
anybody. Flirts are always in danger of comlAg 
to some bad end. Better not flirt. 

Why Not Kill Them ?— The follow- 
ing comes from Western New Tork : 

The parties concerned, as well as myself« having 
the highest respect for yon as an able expoundei 
of the science of life, etc., request me to ask youi 



3gm__ 
years of age, who is nervous, excitable, and aspir- 
ing, yet healthy, but somewhat averse to large 
families, is devotedly attached to a widow ladj of 
45 years, with eight children, but who is an honor 
to her sex, having every grace and virtue possible 
to woman so conditioned. Who, moreover, sup- 
ports herself and family respectably by her own 
Industry, and who, withal, reciprocates his affec- 
tion in the superlative degree. To such is happi- 
ness possible, or probable, if married. Please re- 
ply by private letter only, and oblige yours truly. 
Ans. We replied privately, but considering ttie 
matter too interesting to keep from readers of the 
JouBNAL, we give it with our reply, viz. : Now, if 
it were not for those eight children what a happy 
couple this might be! But the young man of 28 
doesuH like large families. What else can be d6ne 
but to kill the children ? Then the coast would 
be clear. But who knows that, should they many 
—the lad of 28 and the lassie of 45— there would 
he eight more children I What then ? To be rid 
of them could they not be served as we serve sur- 
plus kittens ? • Really, we see no other way for 
that young man of 28 than to procure a copy of 
our excellent little work, entitled Wedlock : or. 
Who May and Who May Not Marry— and foUovr 
, its teachings. 

Ladies' Fbizzles, Etc. — ^Woiild you 
kindly favor us with your Idea upon the taste and 
propriety of the now stylish, so-called ladies* 
'* bangs ''—the unsightly JHuUs that are made to 
nearly cover the forehead ? 

Ana. This is a theme so much "above buttons" 
that we must decline to give an opinion. Think 
of it, "bangs" and "frizzles!" We beg to be 
excused. 

Reader (of Jeiferson, Texas). — ^Law, 
first; literature, second; engineering, third; mer- 
chandising, fourth. See " Mirror of the Mind," 

CotOR OP Hair and Honbsty. — 

Would.you be so kind as to let me know through 
your esteemed Journal if there is anything to In- 
dicate the honesty or dishonesty of a person in the 
color of the hair or beard ? A friend of mine 
holds that if the color of the hair and that of the 
beard are of a different shade, that such person 
can be set down as a dishonest one. You will 
greatly oblige me and others to give your opinion 
on the above. 

Ana, If the saying that " all men are liars " be 
accepted as a fact, then that " friend " is prob- 
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69 



k\Aj ngbt Bat until be daxi give a reason for the 
(jpinion he " holds," it will not be largely credited, 
^e have not traced the nerves leading to the roots 
of the hairs to discover whether or not they lead 
to sources which are hdnest or dishonest. The 
color of the hair has a physical, rather than a 
moral significance, and is considered tempera- 
mestaL 

A Bankbk, who subscribes for this 
Journal, writes : 

I wonld lllve to subscribe for. some weekly or 
monthly periodical which reflects the linest thought 
on political ecouoroy. 'finance, and giving general 
information suitable for a person to read who has 
not much time. 

Ant, Among the monthlies either the AUantie or 
Lipplmcott; among the weeklies the ISvming Ibety 
the Ooldm Age^ and the Nation are excellent. 

ViTE. — Was not the first newspaper 
published durine tl^e colonial period of our hlsto- 
Tj published In the city of New York ? 
. Ant, No; Boston claims that honor. In 1701 
the publication of a little two-column half-sheet, 
twelve by eight inches in sice, called the Bpeton 
yewt-Lettery was commenced in that city, and it 
maintained an existence for over seventy years. 
No newspaper was regularly issued in New York 
nntn 1725, when the New York OaxaUe was cstab- 
Hshed. 

Comfortable Shoes. — Mr. Editor: 
Where do they make woman*s shoes with broad 
toes? 

Ant. Can any of our New York shoemakers come 
to the rescue of the ** sufferer from bunions,*^ who 
asks this question of general interest to all who 
' can afford to wear ^hoes ? 

A Patent Cow-Milker. — ^Here is a 
part of an advertisement cut from an old news- 
paper. Please inform me where the machine can 
oe foud, and if it is what the advertiser claims 
forU: 

** Successful cow-milker. Saves three-quarters 
of the time, labor, and money now expended in 
milking cows, at a very trifling cost. A child once 
taught can readily use it. Saves straining. Does 
away with numb fingers and strips the cow dry. 
Put up in boxes containing 10 sets for stockmen, 
dairrmen, and the wholesale trade. For sale at 
retail by first-class grocers and dealers in imple- 
■eots.''^ 

Ant, Altiiough we have inquired at several deal- 
ers in agricultural implements, we can not find the 
machine, or any one who can tell us anything 
tboQt it A note addressed to the editor of the 
ONmlry OmUemany Albany, N. Y., or to the PraU 
fUFkrmery Chicago, IlL, or to any other reliable 
tfricQltural journal, ought to elicit the dedred 
laftmaatlon. A good cow-milker would be a good 
t to have on a farm. 



Guii Arabic. — What is gum arabic, 
tad fkom whence it <*ome8 1 
iliUL In the conveoient language of an exchange, 



we answer: Ip Morocco, al>out the middle of 
November, that te, after the rainy season, a gum- 
my Juice exudes spontaneously from the trunk 
and branches of the acacia. It gradually thickens 
in the furrow down which it runs, and assumes 
the form of oval and round drops, about the size 
of pigeons* eggs, of different colors, as it comes 
from the red or white gum trec^ About the mid- ' 
die of December the Moors encamp on the borders 
of the forest, and the harvest lasts a full month. 
The gum is paeked in large leather sacks, and 
transported. on the backs of camels and bullocks 
to the seaports for shipment The harvest occa* 
Bion is made one of great rejoicing, and the people 
for the time being almost live on gum, which* is 
nutritious and fattening. Such is the commercial 
story of this simple article. 




What are Stimulants ? — ^In the con- 
troversy which is going on as to the effects of 
stimulants, little or nothing has been said'^ an- 
swer the question. What are Stimulants? There 
is, and should be, a distinction made between a 
stimulant and a nourishment— the latter may in- 
clude the former to a certain extent, but the for-* 
mer, as such, is, and should be, distinguished by 
physiologists from the latter. Nourishment sup- 
plies the wastes of life, and thus prevents death ; 
while a stimulant, as .different from a nourish- 
ment, only draws from that which has been al- 
ready generated 'or supplied by nourishment, and 
exhausts the capital of life which has been stored 
up, and death will ensue in the continued use of 
it All physiologists must be in favor of nourish- 
ment, and must acknowledge it as a necessity of 
life, but very few are in favor of the popular use 
of stimulants. The effect of a stimulant, as such, 
is to irritate the physical structures, and by it thus 
to affoct the bodily strength and the mind. In 
plain language, all stimulants are irritant poisont^ 
and when taken 'to an excessive extent the gen- 
eral effects of them all are the same— they ex- 
haust the system, and death ensues. As a com- 
mon example, alcohol has always been classed by 
toxicologists among irritant poisons. All stimu- 
lants are therefore hnrtfdl, but the exUnt of the 
use of them, like the use of any other substance, 
must determine their benefits or harm. So long, 
then, as alcohol or any other poisonous article is 
nsed so little as not to perceptibly have any effect 
as to a stimulant, then It does no harm ; but all 
Intelligent advocates of the use o# alcohol, or 
other stimulants, mostly avoid discussing the ef- 
fects upon the system after their use. 

It is well known by physiologists that the gen 
eral effect of stimulants Is to diminish the future 
strength of the physical system by causing over- 
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PHRENOLOaiCAL JOURKAL. 



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czertioi^ for the time, and after that the amoont 
•f rest required by the system !• proporttonate to 
the amomnt of strengUi which has thus been un- 
duly generated 'or drawn upon, so that in the end 
the Tictim is certainly no better off than be would 
baTe been without /the stimalant, being something 
like a race-horse undet the irritant stimulant of a 
whip or spur, It may carry blm through the race 
much quicker and with more spirit than he other- 
wise would have done, but the wear and tear of 
his system has been proportionately greater, and 
he must recuperate proportionately by rest and 
nourishing food in order to retain his health and 
to prolong his strength and life. Thns, it is a 
detriment to continued exertion. The difference 
of opinion between tiie adVocates of temperance 
and intemperance must be upon $timvlanU or no 
tamuianti, and not the issue as to whether the 
prevalent use of alcohol Is beneficial as a nour- 
ishment only. 

The physiological laws of healthy bodily and 
mental action say no §iimulanU or narootia, but 
nouriahment mid froptr mental and bodily eitreim 
tmdrett. B. a. a. 

CcBE Root.— One of onr " original" 
subscribers writes— i9ir ; I tfee in the November 
number of the Phrb«6looical Jou^hal, under 
the heading " Personal," that Mr. John Wells, of 
Marissa, 111., has invented a new process for cube 
root Will yon please send me the modus oper- 
andi, for I am anxions to become acquainted with 
it By so doing you will oblige one who hcu read 
.every number of your excellent journal from its 
^commencement. Tours, in the cause of right, 

WILLIAM T. TUCKER, Watcrbury, Conn. 
[Mr. Wells will be pleased to communicate with 
'those who are interested in the subject of his new 
< method.] 

Phrbnology vs. Materialism. — Oc- 
icaslonally we find people possessed of fair educa- 
/tional attainments combined with great religious 
.2eal, and only a partial knowledge of Phrenology, 
who consider Phrenology and materialism as wed- 
tded, andifihat of a consequence. all practicers and 
supporters of Phrenology are materialists. I wish . 
to explain away all such fallacious notions, for 
sndi is notifehe ease. Webster defines a material- 
ist as **onc wlio denies the existence of spiritual 
substances, and maintains that the soul of man is 
the result of .« particular organism of matter In 
the body." To illie casual observer there is really 
an exoosefor Itae above view of the matter. 

But he who win ooneentrate his mind upon and 
(become acquainted ^th the principles of Phrenol- 
ogy, win iMMrbe seimpreaaed. Phrenology rec- 
. ogBlzes. the spMtual part of man called the mind, 
or soul, as the power*** behind the throne" that 
gWee shape, .tone, and texture to the physical 
man ; and m ithcr btaln to the direct organ of the 
mind, and m (th*t 4a ar nucleus of organs corre- 



sponding with the known faculties of the mlBd, 
what better source can there be for obtaining 
knowledge of the strength of the mind than by 
examining the quality, size, and relative streogtb 
of those organay 

The expert dealer hi horses never mistakes the 
common farm, or dray-horse, for one possessing 
speed. Neither will the plirenologlcal expert 
point out a habitue of the liquor-saloon or gam- 
bling-hall as a minister of the Oost>el. How doea 
he ascertain this knowledge ? By examining ttao 
phytUal organ of the mind, and by that means as- 
certaining the quality of the mind of the subject, 
keeping in mind the Important fact 

** That of the soul, the body form doth take, 
For soul is form, and doth the body make.*' 
Phrenologists separate the faculties of the mind 
into three general divisions, i>r groups, viz. : Pbya- 
Ical, Intellectual, and moral. Consequently Uie 
physical organs of these faculties must be similar- 
ly grouped ; and when by an Examination of the 
physical oixans we find any one of them remark- 
ably developed, we have just reason to conclude 
that it exerts a controlling Infiuence. As the 
above are some of the general principles of Phreo- 
ology. It will readily be seen that Phrenology Is 
not a handmaid of materialism, but one of its foee 

When will Christian people realize the faet that 
'* true Christianity will gain by every step made In 
the knowledge of man," and let that principle 
govern their criticisms on matters not fully under- 
stood by them, instead of flinging the cruel and 
mercenary taunts of materialists, etc., at support- 
ers of doctrines that they In their Ignorance con- 
strue as such. Truths, not dogmias, should be the 
motto of aU. c. n. MooARif. 

A Lady Teacher writes us from Min- 
nesota as follows: I have received^ the Phbkvo- 
LOOICAL JouBHAL and the Science qf Health as 
usual, and, as Is always the case, am much, inter- 
ested In them. These publlc4itlonB have done my- 
self and my sister an incalculable amount of good. 
In a great measure they have educated us. Ee- 
peclally Is this true of the Phrbnologioal Joub> 
NAL. My having subscribed for It ten years age 
has been an unspeakable blessing to me. 

A Clergyman's TESTm ony. — The folr 
lowing note to the editor— not Intended /or publi- 
catioii--gives us real encouragement. Our read- 
ers shall enjoy it with us: 

BuRXsaiBB, N. Y.-nDsor Sir: I have been for 
two years a constant reader of the Phrkkologi- 
CAL JouBMAL, and it is with pleasure that I say I 
am delighted, and am becoming more and more 
Interested in each succeeding number. I think 
the last (September number), now lying on ray tft- 
)}le, the best of all. I do not see how you can hn- 
provo the Journal In the least Some minlstere 
appear to be afraid of Phrenology, but I believe 
any man can preach better, uid be more useful to 



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OUB MENTOBIAL BUREAU. 



n 



MiMlow-meB, by taking tad reading the PHks- 

MLOeiOAI. JOUBXAL. 

You nuiy coant me ms a. life-long sabscriber. I 
Bke the way yon take hold of and dificufts the Is- 
•■•• of the present day. I believe we should haye 
more to do In denouncing the tins of the present 
gjeneration, and have more to do with the United 
States, than with old Judea and Jewish history. 
I hid you God speed in trying to make humanity 
better by lifting the world upon a higher plune of 
moral grandeur. W. B. K., Pastor M. S. Church. 

What x Lady Says of Hbbsklf. — 
The editor had occasion to comment on and to 
criticise a lady eorreapondent^ There is real poetry 
and stirring eloquence in her beautiful utterances. 
And this is what she says of herself in reply : 

Thanks for your " criticism I " I will endeavor 
to profit by your words. I have a strange disposi- 
tion — self-willed, but not self-sufficient— over-sus- 
picious, yet over- trusting; believing, yet faithless 
-Hny whole nature seems a compound of opposites, 
a bundle of contradictions. 

I seem impelled to write, and yet all my efforts 
kK>k very poor and commonplace when they have, 
by much labor, struggled into birth; and I feel 
lie begging' everybody's pardon for having pre- 
sumed to express my thoughts. I imagilS^ there 
are very few who live as unsatisfactory a life as I 
do. My aspirations are heavenward, certainly, but 
oh, how much of earth creeps in to fetter and dla- 
courage! 

Can you imagine a fragrant, secluded retreat in 
a dim, pine forest, where the sunshine, glinting 
through the boughs in golden arabesque, falls in 
dancing showers upon the flower-kirtled moss be- 
tow ? A sweet- voiced rivulet, deep-dimpled and f ra- 
grant-lipped from kisses of clover bloom and thyme, 
ponra its jewels intojthe wood-fairy's granite cup, 
tbcoi with a foamy crest, rises 'gainst the rocky 
banier, leaps upward and away in dazzling rain- 
bow floods. In this beauty-haun\ed, mist-crowned 
vale, a brown-dressed, dark-eyed thrush bad sought 
a restful home. She loved the dreamy, peace- 
shadowed valleys, fnd almost unconsciously, all 
•untaught, learned to carol nature's unwritten 
music* in low, sad measures, keep the rythm of all 
her wordless songs. At length a haunting * ' sense ' ' 
—a call she can not disbelieve, whispers that, 
boiceforth, to sing of Heaven and God's unfath- 
omed love must be her mission ; so, hushing all 
heart^longlDga, she Itogers no longer in the vine- 
Biantled Tslley, hot seeks the unshadowed plains 
where man has reared his walls and spires of gran- 
ite, cold and drear. 

But, alas, for Uie ilBger with her pure but mourn- 
fiid, hsdf -niystBrions song I Bright-pluroaged birds, 
witb triumphant, passion-kindled strains, entrance 
a» throng, and only tb^ sad, earth- weary wander- 
9m^mVkU?% descending plane pause to listen to 
tb» mifttfi fjff tafef s the singer from ttie sylvan glade. 
Why dKmld the marcliing millions care to hear a 



strain so simple, learned alone from the sky, the 
brook, the flowers, the trackless recess amid the 
whispering pines, where only nature's full heart 
throbs in surgmg pulses, beating in unison with 
the '' Oreat SpiHt's " unspoken word ? 

What though the notes are dear and freet 
What though the theme is true? The earth is 
filled with other songs, and her's fall on unheed- 
ing ears. Only the Great Invisible, whose power 
alike conceived the thundering Sinai and the hum> 
blest flower, can understand the loving faith which 
gives the hermit-bird the power to still sing on, 
hoping, believing that, perchance, the love-freightp 
ed melody may stay some wandering step or lighU 
en a weary heart walking sadly the sandy waste of 
poverty and pain. m. m. b. o. 

Was it Elbctbical ? — The following 
from Rochester, Indiana, dated «)Oth July, was 
sent to the editor: Having been a reader of your 
JouBNAL for a number of years, I have learned 
many good things. A little circumstance hap- 
pened to me yesterday (Sabbath) morning that I 
can not explain to my satisfaction. While I was 
reclining on the lounge reading, about 6 a.m., with 
a paper thrown over my face to keep off the files, 
I was shocked by two heavy reports, in quick sue-, 
cession, of thuDder, as I supposed. I felt stunned, 
could hardly brea^e. I got up as quickly as I 
could, opened the blinds, and inquired of my wife,. 
**Wbat was struck by lightning?" 1 was sur- 
prised when «%he replied, ** Nothing,"— that there 
was no thunder nor a sign of rain. My sensations 
were the same as are usually experienced when 
one is close to an object when it is struck by light- 
ning. I feel the effecto of the shock yet. 

These are the facts in the case, and if you can 
give any light on the subject that will tend to clear 
up the mystery, I should for one be thankful I 
am not a believer in spirita or presentiments. 

B. K. 

[We submit the above for the consideration of 
our readers. The experience was evidently a 
nervous one ; possibly the writer's electrical con- 
dition sustained a sudden chaige, which to his 
consciousness appeared like a disohaige of elec- 
tricity from a thunder-cloud.] 

An Acknowledgment. — Eight years 
ago I knew not that there was such a science as 
Phrenology. My attention was first directed to 
the subject by reading *' Combe's Constitution of 
Man; " and I must say that I never read a book 
which contains more sound* practical wisdom. 
Since then I have read the Piuuuioix>oioal Jodr- 
HAL, Scimceqf Btaith^ and many more of your 
publications, and have become greatly interested 
in the '' Science of Man." As all your publications 
treat of subjects that are of paramount importance 
to the human race, it is the more necessary that 
every individual siiocld be their constant readers. 
- What little 1 know of Phranoiogy no taioney oould 

buy. s*««fliBlyz??^V300gpe*^ 



72 



PHRBNOLOQICAl JOURNAL. 



[Jur., 



WISDOM. 

** A LAUGH U worth a hundred grroans in any 
market^^— C%ar2e8 Lamb, 

No man can learn what he haa not prepan^tion 
for learning, howeyer near to his eyea is the ob- 
ject — Emerson, 

Bt the way many people in society waste their 
passing time, one would. think that they ^cpected 
to liye eternally. 

Choosb rather to have your children well in- 
structed than rich, for the hopes of the learned 
are better than the riches of the iguonnt.^JBpiO' 
tetut. 

Thb mind that is in harmony with the laws of 
nature, in an intimate sympathy with the course 
of events, is strong with the strength of nature, 
and is develoi>ed by its force. — Dr. MautMey. 

Enyt inflicta the greatest misery on its votaries, 
their sadness is perpetual, their soul is grieved, 
their intellect is dimmed, and their heart disqui- 
eted. 

Proflioaot consista not in spending years of 
time or chests ol money, but in spending them off 
the Hue of your career. Spend for your expense, 
and retrench the expense which is not yours. — 
SmeraoH, 

Rev. Charlim Brooks was asked, "What is 
the shortest sketch of human life ? *' He answer- 
ed thus : 

** At ten, a child ; at twenty, wild ; 
At thirty, strong, if ever; 
At forty, rich ; at fifty, wise ; 
At sixty, good, or never.** 

Thb way to escape sadness, when the light of 
one beautiful promise after another goes out, is to 
kindle in place thereof the light of one glorious 
reality after another.— TfWiam M, Alger, 

Public opinion can not do for virtue what it 
does for vice. It is the essence of virtue to look 
above opinion. Vice is consistent with, and very 
often strengthened by, entire subserviency to it. 

Thbbb are a good many pious people who are as 
careful of their religion as of their best service of 
china, only using it on holy occasions for fear it 
should get chipped or flawed in working-day wear. 
— DougUu Jerrold, 



4a» 



MIBTfl. 

** A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the wisest men.** 

** Good-mobnino, Smith; you look sleepy;" 
**Tes," replied Smith, "I was up all night." 
" Up ! where ? '» " Upstairs, in bed." 

**I WANT to know," said a creditor, fiercely, 
** when yon are going to pay me what yon owe 
me ? " ''I give it up," repUed the dabtor ; *< ask 
me something eaay." 



A* MAN named his best hen " Macdnli;" because 
he wanted her to ** lay on." 

** Thbbb ! " said Jones, as he wrathfuUy pushed 
away the pic which his landlady had just served 
him; ''that stuff isn*t fit for a pig to eat, and I 
ain't going to eat it" 

A CmoAOO gentlemen who recently traveled 
through Ohio, says that everybody he met called 
potatoes "taters," except one young lady, who 
called him a ** small pertater" 

Said a pompous fellow, browbeating his audit- 
ors, •* I have traveled round the world." Replied 
a wit of the Addisonian period, '' So has this cane 
I hold in my hand, bat it is only a stick for all 
that" 

thb fbmalb chin. 
How wisely Nature, ordering all below 
Forbade on woman's chin a beard to grow — 
For how should she be shaved, whatever the skill. 
Whose tongue would never let her chin be still ? 

A TOiTNO man who knows all about It, states 
that his experience has taught him that a flirt is a 
fool, who delights in fooling fools, and the fool 
who is fooled by%uch a fool is the foolishest kind 
of a fool. He's been fooled badly, we judge. 

A RSD-HAiRBD lady, who was ambitioua of lit- 
erary distinction, found but a poor sale for her 
book. A gentleman, in speaking of her disap- 
pointment, said, " Her hair is red (read) if her 
book is not" An auditor, in attempting to relate 
the joke elsewhere, said, *' She has red hair if her 
book hasn't" 

A MAN, praising porter, said it was so excellent 
a beverage that, though taken in great quantities, 
it always made him fat *' I have seen the time," 
said another, *' when it made you lean." " When ? 
I should be glad to know,'* Inquired the eulogist 
*' Why, no longer ago than last night— o^^iinst a 

I WAS sitting beside 

My destined bride. 
One still, sentimental day ; 

*' How I long," said I, 

** But to make you cry, 
And I'd kiss the bright tears away I •» 

Fair Cecily blush'd, 

Her voice was hush'd, 
I thoui^t she would cry, to be sure: 

But she lisp'd to me, 
. .Pouting prettily, 
** Prevention is better thAu cure I " 

This is the way a colored preacher at Richmond 
harangued hla hearers for mutual convenience: 
** De fore part ob de church will please sit down 
so de hind part ob de church can see de fore part 
ef de fore part persist in stand in' before de hind 
part to de utter exclusion ob de hind part by de 
fore part" ^.^.^.^^^ ^^ ^OOglC 



M7«.] 



OUB MBNTOBIAL BUREAU. 



93 




[fl?^ 




Ji m$ depmimeid art ^Uwn tA« ^i^te aikf pH<M (tf 
mttk Niw Books o* Aav« 6«m received from the puXh 
tUhat, Our reatUre look tone for tksee annpumoemenU^ 
md me skall endsawor to keep them well ii^ormaa toith 
fiftrenee to the cmrremt literature. 

The Life Cruisb op Captain Bbsb 
AnAMS. A Temperance Tale. By Julia MrNalr 
WrifTht, ftothor of '' Jaic dr Not,^' '' Nothing to 
Driok,*' etc One vol., li^mo; pp. 418; em- 
bossed maslin. Price, $1.50. NewTorlL: Na- 
tional Temperance Association. 
Here is enconraf^ement for right living. Tlie 
story pictures life as it is, and as it should be. 
Here are Uie chapter bcadinsrs under which she 
writes: A B^Inning of a Cruise; Outfitting; 
Sailing Orders ; Tides Along the Shore; Captain 
Adams* Chart ; A Voyage Well Begun ; Running 
on a Beef; A Refit in Port; Seaworthy ; Steering 
tor the Lights; Between Ports; Caught in a 
Siorm; Salrage; Port at Last 

Thb Song Monarch. A Collection of 
Secular and Sacred Music, for Singing-schools, 
Day-schools, Conventions^ Musical Academies, 
College Choirs, and the Home Circle. Consist- 
ing of Musical Notation and Exercises, Glees, 
Duets, Quartets, Anthems, etc. By. H. R. 
Palmer, assisted by L. O. Eqierson. One voL, 
• oblong ; pp. 192 ; boards. Price, 75 cents. Bos- 
ton : Oliver Ditson A Co. 
«* WbaVs in a namb ?" Why " The Song Mon- 
arch ? " We give it up. But the book, though 
Its title-pim^e and its name were removed, would 
•tin be full of beautiful tunes. There can be no 
- doubt of the excellence of this new work. The 
names of authors and publishers is a guarantee of 
this. Who that has enjoyed can ever forget those 
delightfnl singing-school days I Then the going 
home wiUi the girls ! Well, it must be a singular 
person who would not enjoy this. We like the 
book« the associations, and everything which 
comes of it 

The American School Music Reader. 
A Svstematically Graded Course of Instruction 
In Music, for Public Schools, with an Appendix. 
For Mixed Voices. Third Book. L. 0. Emer- 
son, W. S. Tilden. Vols. L, II., and III., 
12mo; pp. 78, 144. and 40; boards. Prices, 85, 
50, and 60 cenU. Boston : Oliver Ditson <& Co. 
At last! We though! it would come to this 
Elementary, or A B C Music Books for Children. 
We are to l»ecome a nation of singers. Messrs. 
O. D. A Co. furnish the documents neatly made 
and' cheap. Here they are, and will be bought 
Bks Webster^s spelling-book, by the million. 

The Childrens* Friend is a capital 
■agattne for young people. It is edited and 
^bttdMt at $L50 a year, by Anne F. Bradley, 
CdatesvlUe, Pla. Sample numbers are sent at 15 
MDti. Why not subscrlbo for it, and present it 
toboftaiidghrlsf 



Advancement of Science. The In- 
augural Address of Prof^ John Tyndall, D.C.L., 
LL.D., F.R.8. Delivered before the British As- 
sociation for the Advancement of Science, at 
Belfast, August 19th, 1874. With Portrait and 
Biographical Sketch. Opinions of the Eminent 
Sci&tist, Prof. H. Helmholtz. And Articles of 
Prof. Tyndall on Prayer. One vol., 12mo ; pp. 
105; muslin. Price, $1. New York: A. K. 
Butts & Co. 

These are the utterances wiiich have caused 
such a hubbub in the world of Indefinite theology. 
But why f May not an honest Investigator give 
expression to his discoveries, or even to his opin- 
ions, wiUiont upsetting ** established truth T' 
We wish tt> see science and religion ^go hand in 
*hand for the elevation and development of the 
race. 

The Heathens of the Heath. A Ro- 
mance, Instructive. Absorbing, Thrilling. Bv 
William McDonnell, author of ♦* Exeter II ail,^* 
etc. One vol., 12mo; pp. 498; muslin. : licc, 
$1.60. New York : D. M. Bennett 
A historical and heretical novel, which thinking 
men may read without danger to a settled faith. 
The author affiliates with secularists, skeptics, 
and radical^. He is one of the sort called icono- 
clasts, and deUghts in smashing the images. 

Esther Maxwell's Mistake. A Story 

Founded on Fact. By the author of ** Andrew 

Douglass," *' Femwood," etc. One vol., 12mo ; 

pp. 2^; embossed Ihiuslin. Price, $1. New 

York : National Temperance Association. 

Our neight>or8 of the N. T. A. must have " struck 

oil" in the way of reaching the public with their 

Temperance literature through stories. They are 

issuing a series of the best story books yet printed. 

Those who would escape mistakes in life should 

read this. 

New Practical Speller. A Coarse in 
Orthography, Oi^jthospy, Formation, and Use of 
Words, Grammar, and Construction of Sen- 
tences. Including ExempliOcatlon of Rules for 
Spelling, a Simple, Comprehensive Exercise in 
Prefixes and Suffixes, and a List of Proper 
Names, with Historical Sketches concerning 
them. By N. D. Wolfard. One vol., 12mo; ppl 
188; boards. Price, 50 cents. Cincinnati: Geo. 
E. Stevens A Co. 
We think ^is a good thing. Educators should 

send for a copy and examine It 

Issues of the Age; or, Conseauences 
' Involved in Modem Thought. By Uenry 0. 
Pedder. One vol., 12moj;>p. 175; muslin. Price, 
$1.50. New York : A. K. Butts A Co. 
The author quotes Tacitus: ** Everything that 
we now deem of antiquity was at one time new ; 
and what we now defend by examples will, at a 
future period, stand as precedents.** Mr. Pedder 
is a thoughtful writer, and in the present work dis- 
cusses ** The Scientific Spirit, and Its Consequen- 
ces; Skepticism— Its Function and Importance; 
Ancient Faith and Modem Culture ; the Suprem- 
acy of Law, and its Physical and Psychical Condi- 
tions ; the Doctrine of Human Progress and the 

Aim of Modem Thought" , r^r^^ir> 
Digitized by VjOOQIc 



74 



PEBBNOLOaiCAL JOURNAL. 



[Jak, 



It win h^ remembered tb&t the author wrote i. 
work entitled '* Man and Woman," which was pnb- 
iahed sereral years ago at this office, and which 
elicted considerable comment from the press, and 
th^ hearty approval of some. Mr. Pedder would 
be classed among radical thinkers. He •is well 
posted on psychological subjects, familiar with 
Bwedenborg and other advanced authors. The 
.^derof *' Modem Thought" will find much to 
wdcourage and to induce stody and investigation. 

What might hayb bbbx Ezpbctbd. 
By Frank R. Stoektota, author of '' Roundabout 
Rambles," ** Thig-aLing," etc. With Ulustra- 
tions bv Sol Eytinge, Sheppard, Hallock, Beard, 
and others. One vol., 13mo, pp.. S^. Price, 
$L60. New York: Dodd A Mead. 
Here are life pictures such as all youth delight 
to read. The author seems to enter into the spirit 
of his subject, painting his pictures true to life. 
The book is handsomely illustrated by several full- 
page engravings, and is suitable for a present to 
boys and girls at any season. 

^•T Still Waters. A Story for Quiet 
'^mirs. By Edward Garrett, author of " Crook- 
ed Places,^' '*■ Occupations of a Retired Life." 
** Premium Paid to Experience," etc. One vol., 
12mo., pp. 862; muslin. Price; 91,75. New 
York: Dodd A; Mead. 

The author dedicates his work **To my first 
friend who gave a blessing, which has grown since 
we parted here, and will 5e still growing when we 
meet again there." It is a religious novel, giving 
the history of an earnest, devoted, and lovlpg life. 
The book is beautifully printed, and must prove 
popular with story readers. 

Nathaniel Vaughan : Priest and Man. 

By Fredericka Macdoneld, author of '' The Iliad 
of the East," ** Xavier and I," etc. Three vol- 
umes in one. 12mo, pp. 404; muslin. Price, 
$1.50. New York: A. K. Butts <fc Co. 
One of the objects of the story seems to be to 
show how Roman Catholicism is at variance with 
some of the most beautiful instincts of human na^ 
ture, and what baneful influence a bigoted priest 
can acquire over the mind of a child ; also how 
love is stronger than religion in that same priest, 
causing him to forswear his creed (or the sake of 
the object of his affection. 

Our Publications in Prisons. — 
Quite a demand, or call, has sprung up of late for 
our books and journals in the several State pris- 
ons of our country. We have sent— gratis — to 
several, when solicited to do so, though we could 
ill afford it. Here is a sample letter recently re- 
ceived, to which we promptly responded by send- 
ing a small donation in books, etc. : 

Snco SiWG, N. Y. 
8. R. W«LL8— iWr; We have received at various 
times and from (different publishing companies, 
donations of books, papers, etc., to our library, 
and recently having had a number of applications 
for works of yours, I thought I would ask you to 



make us a donation. The following are the < 
I have had special calls for, and thej would be 
most thankfully reeetred : [Here follows a list of 
the bookst bust, etc., desired.] 

Many of the men confined here become veiy 
studious, and leave the institution well educated; 
and I feel it my duty to do all in my power to 
help them to advance in all things that are good, 
and this Is one of the ways I am compelled to 
take, viz., beg books for them. 

Hoping you will pardon my assurance, I an, 
sir, with respect, yours, 

i. A. CANFIELD, Chaplain 8. S. Prison. 

[A very proper thing to do. But why not ask 
the State, for which these prisoners labor, to make 
an annual appropriation of money to pay for such 
good books as are needed for their use, instead of 
asking publishers to donate the books at their ex- 
pense ? If this can not be done, then let there bt 
a fund raised by charity, and appropriated to this 
purpose. Who will start this most useful and 
reformatory work ? Our way to lay up treasures 
in heaven is to do good on earth. What oUier 
class need the Qospel of light, knowledge, and 
religion more than our poor prisoners ? Who will 
help? 

NEW BOOKS. 

Db. Ox, ahd Other Storibs. By Jules Verne. 
Beautifully illustrated. Holiday edition. 8vo. 
Price, fS. 

Thb Book of Onb Humdrbd and Nikbtt 
Stories and Pieobs. Compiled by the author of 
"Martha's Gift," etc. 16mo; pp. 370; mnsUli. 
Price,$l., A. 8. Un. 

80K08 FOB Littlb F0LK8. Containing the 
most Familiar and Popular Songs for the Little 
Ones, and 00 fall-page illustratlpns. Ifimo. Price, 
75 cenU. D. L. & Co. 

Many Lands and Many Peoplb. Being a 
series of Sketches of Travel in all Parts of the 
World. With 147 UlustraUons. 8vo ; cloth extra. 
Price, $2.50. Lip. 

The Poetical Works of Alfred Tenntsow. 
Crown edition, from new plates ; all the latest re- 
visions by the author. A handsome edition, with 
portrait 2 vols.,dvo; pp.466,468; doth. Price, 
•8. Osg. 

Little Folks. Well calculated to amuse, in- 
struct, and make children happy. Beautiful illus- 
traUons on every page. 4to; pp. 460; board^ 
colored cover, $1.50. In cloth, black and gilt, and 
colors, $2. A. N. Co. 

Knioht'8 Half-Hours with the Best Sngttsfa 
Authors. 4 vols., Idmo ; cloth extra, $0. 

The Romance of History. 5 tola. ; cldb. 
Price, $9.75. 

The Mirror ob Truth, and other Marvelous 
Histories. By Eugenie Hamerton. With illustia- 
tions. Cloth, gUt and black. Price, $2w Rob. bra. 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




LIFE ILUUSTKAT 



NinCBEB 2.] 



X 



■!^^ 



I^ebruafy, 7875. 




^^rm 



[Whole No. 434 



Sii^ 








JEA9 IN^ELOW, THE POET. 




niHIS lady ib generally acknowledged to 
JL be the chief among the living women 
iAqbq Teraes command the admiration of the 
roidiBg wDdd.^;>JUie.has 3R.oa her.way to. this 
high poettion quietly, modestly, ^ad-^y vir- 
tue of the essential merits of her composi- 



tions. She has risen from a comparatively 
humble position in English social life, ber 
father having been a small banker in the 
old town of Boston, in Lincolnshire, a north- 
eastern county of England. It is said that 
her mother is of Scottish desce&ISl^ a 



76 



PHRBNOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[Pbb., 



woman of superior capabilities. The por- 
trait of Miss Ingelow certainly shows feat- 
ures containing traces of the Scottish type 
of expression, but there is a softness and 
smoothness in the configuration, taken as a 
whole, which remind us of the work of a 
master chisel or pencil The character is at 
once robust and gentle. A strong intellect, 
marked by an unusual activity of the percep- 
tive faculties, is shown in the portrait, evi- 
dencing an urgent desire to obtain informa- 
tion — to know what is worth knowing. The 
head rises high in the region of Firmness, 
Self-Esteem, and Conscientiousness, a birth- 
right, we infer, obtained from her mother^s 
side. Persevering, earnest, unshrinking in 
what she has once undertaken, Miss Ingelow 
usually reaches or learns the end of it before 
she relinquishes the task. 

A fine temperament contributes its most 
valuable aid toward the balance of her or- 
ganization. She is endowed with excellent 
vital stamina, and is not easily wearied or 
hectored by unexpected and protracted effort. 
She appreciates responsibility, and keenly 
feels the lack of integrity and the moral de- 
linquencies of others. Her spirit is aroused 
far more quickly and thoroughly by an ex- 
hibition of indifference to the claims of duty 
and honor on the part of another than by the 
mere material loss which she may sustain in 
consequence of it. She is warm and gener- 
ous in her sympathies, but not promiscuous 
in her consideration of those who ask for 
help. The fullness of the side-head indi- 
cates an appreciation of utility, of the adap- 
tation of means to ends, and also a highly- 
endowed esthetic organization. Tempera- 
ment and organization combine to make her 
a true artist, a pure and high-toned poet; 
but the basilar organs of her brain are strong 
enough to preserve the balance, the orderly 
relations of her thought, so that her verses 
do not exhibit " a fine frenzy rolling," but 
aptitude and consistency. 

Miss Ingelow was bom in Boston, of which 
town mention has been made already, in 
1880. Her early life appears to have passed 
amid the quiet surroundings and avocations 
of the English girl. That she was fond of 
reading and contemplation when but a mere 
child is evident in her poems, and the taste 
for poetry was developed early in her life. 



The volume which first drew public attention 
to her as a writer of excellent verse was pub- 
lished in 1868. Its favorable impression in 
England was such, that it may be said of her, 
as it was similarly said of Lord Byron, that 
she *' awoke one morning and found herself 
famous." The book was republished in this 
country in the autumn of the same year that it 
appeared in London, and obtained a wide cir- 
culation. This first volume contained the 
inimitable " Songs of Seven " which has be- 
come familiar to evoi the schoolboys and 
girls of America, and many other of her 
best-known compositions. 

In 1867 Miss Ingelow published the " Story 
of Doom," which also was favorably received 
by the English and American reading public. 
Another volume was given to the world, the 
'* Monitions of the Unseen," and not long 
since still another, "Poems of Love and 
Childhood," in which most of the character- 
istics are sustained which made her first vol- 
ume popular. 

Miss Ingelow has won much esteem also 
by her ventures in the domain of prose, hav- 
ing written many stories and sketches for 
the Bunday Magcudne and other periodicals. 
Some of these have been collected and pub- 
lished in book form with the titles, " Stories 
Told to a Child," "A Sister's Bye-hours,** 
and " Studies for Stories," ** Poor Mat, or 
The Blinded Intellect," and *'Mopsa, the 
Fairy," all of which are excellent for the en- 
tertainment and instruction of children. 

A novel from Miss Ingelow's pen appeared 
in print about a year since, under the title 
" Off the Skilligs." Although excellent in 
many respects, this venture does not come up 
to the standard of her poetry in vigor, fresh- 
ness, naturalness, and knowledge of the in 
ner feelings. 

Of Miss Ingelow's private life very little is 
known. Naturally shy and reserved, she has 
shown the disposition to keep her personality 
out of sight, and to be known to the world 
merely as a name. With her widowed 
mother and a sister, she lives in a retired 
part of London, as she herself has said, ^ in 
a quiet street where all the houses are gay 
with window-boxes full of flowers." 

In her poems there is so strong a reflectioii 
of the real movements of the heart that we 
can not wonder at the hold thev hjrte obtained 
y y /x 



1875.J 



TKE PROPER 8TUDT OF MANKIND. 



11 



upon society. Here and there, too, crop out 
strains of o'er true philosophy. Fcht instance, 
in the *' Scholar and Carpenter : '*'* 
*• I loTed her weD, I wept her sore. 
And when her f aneral left my door 
I thought thAt I fthoald never more 
Feel any pleasure near me glow ; 
But I have learned though this I had, 
'118 sometimes natural to be glad, 
And no man can be always sod 
Uoless he wills to have it so." 

The movement of her verse is at times 
T^ beantifhl, at once intermingling and so 
accordant with the sentiment expressed that 
we are completely charmed by it. "Lily 
ind a Lute ^ is one of the poems which to 
us possess this characteristic in a marked 
d^ree. Witness the lines — 

"I opened the doors of my heart. And behold. 

There wis music within and a song. 

And echoes did feed on the sweetness, repeating 

it long. 
I opened the doors of my heart And behold. 
There was music that played itself out in seollan 

notes; 



Then was heord, as a fkr-away bell at long Inter- 

vala tolled. 
That murmurs and floats 

And presently dleth, forgotten of forest and wold, 
And comes in all passion again and a tremblement 

soft. 
That maketh the listener full oft 
To whisper, *AhI would I might hear it forever 

and aye, 
When I toll in the heat of the day. 
When I walk in the cold.' " 

A fitting close to this brief sketch of Miss 
Ingelow is the following life-lesson, which 
has of late obtained considerable circulation 
through the press : 

** What though unmarked the happy workman 
toU, 
And break, nnthanked of man, the stubborn 
clod I 
It is enough, for sacred Is the soil. 
Dear are the hills of Ood. 

" Far better in its place the lowliest bird, 

Should sing aright to him the lowliest song. 
Than that a seraph strayed should take the word. 
And sing his glory wrong.'* 



♦t» 



THE PROPER STUDY OF MANKIND. 



UNDER the above title the Rev. Dr. 
John Cotton Smith publishes the fol- 
lowing sensible article in a late number of 
his journal, Church and State. We are pleas- 
ed with such clerical utterances, for it shows 
progress in the right direction. Clergymen, 
above all others, save, perhaps, the physician, 
ihoidd know how to read character : 

"There can be no doubt that, to arrive at 
a comprehension of men's characters, to gain 
imight into the deeper sources of their opin- 
ions and actions, to be able to dissect and re- 
conatmct in our intelligence their whole 
moral and mental organism — that this is a 
matter of great practical moment and a 
power of great practical utility. It is this 
power that mi^es the successful diplomatist, 
the political chief, the leader of men in any 
^bere of action. Nor ia it less an advantage 
in the ordinary relations of life. Complica- 
tions are continually arising in our daily in- 
t^tourse which insight into each other^s 
cbancters alooe can hope to disentangle, 
wkicb, indeed, that insight would often pre- 
▼^t; and when the ties of intimacy are 



loosened, and the serenity of friendship 
clouded and troubled, it is by nothing so 
much as by our inability to understand each 
other. The advantage of clear perception of 
the characters and dispositions of those we 
live with is so obvious — it is something, in- 
deed, so necessary to the smooth and even 
course of life and the successful conduct of 
it, that it might seem strange *to find men 
generally exercising so little this faculty of 
insight, were it not evident that the difficulty 
of the study of character is, at least, equal 
to its importance. 

INCON8I8TBNCY AND VARIETY. 

" One difficulty that besets the study arises 
from the complexity and consequent incou- 
sistency of human character. We fancy it 
an easy thing to understand our fellow-be- 
ings; we think we can take them in at u 
glance. It is this haste and levity that n^ake 
our estimate of character so shallow, our 
judgment of motive so incorrect, our appre- 
ciation of conduct so mistaken. * La plupart 
dea caracteres vrau807it inconsequenta'* was the 

* ** Most trne characters are Inconeistent." 

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78 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Pm^ 



remark of a shrewd observer of men, and it 
deserves to be borne in mind. Heal men and 
women defy all attempts to bring them under 
rule and compass. When we think we have 
squared and fitted all the points of their in- 
dividuality into our estimate, there appears 
a new trait to confound the whole calcula- 
tion. The generous man has fits of avarice, 
the miser of liberality ; nay, the same man 
will have streaks of disinterestedness and of 
selfishness, or of vanity and humility, run- 
ning through his disposition and making it 
a tangle of many-€olored threads. Opposite 
qualities surprise us by presenting them- 
selves almost together; now melting into 
each other by imperceptible shadings, now 
balanced against each other in a fruitless ef- 
fort at equipoise. It is perplexing to have 
to do with such chameleons, as it might per- 
plex an architect to find a salient angle sud- 
denly become re-entrant under his view, but 
we must accept this disconcerting mobility 
as the very sign and condition of life. 

"If we would find a consistent sort of 
people, with few perverse anomalies in their 
composition, and comprehensible at a glance, 
we must go to fiction for them. In the poor- 
er sort of novels we find the hero conducting 
himself, throughout the most trying circum- 
stances, in a manner to move our constant 
admiration, while the villain*s blackness of 
heart is unrelieved by a single gleam of good. 
/ Personages who are the embodiment of a 
single characteristic are not especially diffi- 
cult to conceive or portray, but they certainly 
imitate humanity abominably. Truthful rep- 
resentation of human character as it lives in 
living men, with the discords of its multi- 
form complexity resolved in the secret har- 
mony of personality — this is attempted by 
very few, and accomplished by almost none. 
Since Shakspeare, perhaps no one, if we ex- 
cept George Eliot, has drawn human nature 
from a thorough comprehension of it. Even 
the genius of a Dickens is content with rude 
sketch and caricature, which makes an indi- 
vidual conspicuous by exaggeration of a 
single trait, or even by a single peculiarity 
of phrase or gesture. 

" From this variety and complexity which 
belong to human character it results, para- 
doxically, that the better we know a person, 
the harder he is to understand. As an ordi- 



nary acquaintance he appeared consistent and 
comprehensible enough ; it is when we come 
to terms of intimacy that the anomalies dis- 
close themselves which reverse our precon- 
ceptions. For the more we know of a man, 
the more elements of variety we discover, and 
the harder it becomes to construct the unity 
of the character. He is like the sea-coast, 
which, seen from afar, presents lnx>ad masses 
and bold outlines, easily appreciable, but 
which on nearer approach reveals lesser in- 
equalities, that before were melted into uni- 
formity by the haze of distance, and an in- 
finite variety that it baffles the attempt of 
keenest vision to take completely in. 

"One disturbing element enters into the 
problem of character which affords new evi- 
dence of its protean variety and adds to the 
difiiculty of its comprehension, and that is 
the fact that every one takes on a dififerent 
character for each person he comes in contact 
with. In the intercourse of mind with mind, 
and heart with heart, we involuntarily, and 
even unconsciously, assimilate to the charac- 
ter of each associate, or else react against 
him as against a polar opposite, so as almost 
to be a different man with each. Each draws 
out certain of our qualities and puts certain 
others into shade; shakes, at it were, the 
kaleidoscope of our being into one special 
pattern. Yet to each one we are equally our- 
selves; our untransferable nature remains 
fixed at the center, and colors each transfigu- 
ration. And this it is in which consists the 
mystery and the puzzle. Mere assumption 
of a certain character from hypocrisy would 
be nothing in itself occult. But here is no 
assumption ; what we appear we are ; what 
we are is not a simple, but a complex ; not a 
single, but a manifold. In like manner we, 
too, are active in this reflex interchange ; we 
impose our individuality on others, and the 
modifications of this reciprocal influence ex- 
tend indefinitely. In view of this it has 
been shrewdly remarked: *We should be- 
ware of saying we know a person because we 
have seen him under all possible circum* 
stances ; we have not seen him under that of 
our own absence.* 

WE 8R0X7LD KWOW OUKSIILTBB. 

" A chief source, however, of our failure to 
understand others is our ignorance of our- 
selves. In the study of character, the Del- 
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1875.] 



80MS TEOUGHTa ABOUT THE 0LERG7, 



79 



phic maxim must be the starting-point In 
this, if in any science, it is true that self-con- 
BcionsDess is the basb of knowledge. Tet 
how seldom do we let the curtain fiedl upon 
oatward yision, in order to turn the eye with- 
in. How few of us live habitually in the in- 
most chambers of our own soul ; how many 
have never once penetrated into the ' abys- 
mal depths of personality,* and stood face to 
&ce with their own Ego in the light of full 
aelf-recognition. And without this self-in- 
dwelling, how comprehend the action of the 
manifold influences that surround us, how 
Ity a band on the secret springs of our inte- 
rior mechanism ? We are often a weary puz- 
zle to ourselves. For we are microcosms — a 
world in miniature. We, too, have our cloud- 
islands and our earthquakes, our &ir-seeming 
morasses and fathomless oceans— yes, and our 
comets and shooting-stars. As often must 
we look on in wonder at what goes on within 
Tu as at what goes on without. And there 
come to most of us conjunctures, crises which 
bear within them a sudden season of calm 
and lull, when we draw apart for a space from 
the absorbing action that stifles thought, 
when we are let into ourselves and must 
stand amazed, perhaps afirighted, at behold- 
ing what manner of men we are. There are, 
indeed, wrapped up in this manifold and 
wondrous nature God has given us mysteries 



which only He can fathom, and at times, 
when a horror of great darkness shrouds the 
self from the self's own view, our only com- 
fort is in those words of His inspiration : * Be- 
loved, if our heart condemn us, God is greater 
than our heart, and knoweth all things.* 

" Another thing that disables us from read- 
ing character, and helps to its misreading, 
is lack of deep and genuine sympathy. In 
fact, these two, self-knowledge and imagina- 
tive sympathy, are the great methods of the 
study and the master-keys to the secret of 
character. To the insight of this sympathy 
all hearts and moods of mind lie open. It 
was the grand saying of the ancient, * Homo 
9um^ nihil humani a me alienvm puto,''* and it 
is for the Christian who has been shown the 
' more excellent way ' of charity to carry out 
that saying in fuller application and nobler 
use. Narrow-mindedness is but another as- 
pect of cold-heartedness. It is intolerance 
that shuts us from our kind. Let love enter 
the heart, and the scales drop from the eyes. 
Let the prejudice that hedges us about, and 
isolates us within the circle of our individu- 
ality, give way before the generous emotion 
that takes possession of the heart, that warms 
and quickens the faculties, that kindles the 
glow of a subtile perception, tremulous with 
the magnetism of heart-communion— and 
then we shall find our understanding not 
easily at fault in its judgments of our brother 
men." 



eparteiBnt of Mjjton mtH jsphologg. 




Know, 
WIthottt or sUr, or angel, for their KUide, 
Wbo wonldpa God shell And him.— ro«e0'« Niokt Thot^htt, 
The eool, the mother of deep fBera, of hiffb hopes InOatte ; 
or gloriooe dreeiM, mTsterloiia teere, of ileepleea lm$mr tight. 




SOME THOUGHTS ABOUT THE CLERGY. 



r[£R£ is no other class so closely scru- 
tinized and commented on as the cleri- 
cal By common consent, ministera of religion 
MSB to have been metamorphosed into a 
species of ladder, by means of which ordi- 
Dtry mortals expect to ascend to heavenly 
Tq^iona. They are required to maintain the 
t tt ha da o of gods while possessing the in- 
fautiet of humanity, to unite devoted hu- 
■ffity with ardent zeal and boldness, tender- 



ness with firmness ; and, in short, the wisdom 
of serpents with the harmlesene^s of doves. 
If by any means they could attain to the 
ideal standard of sanctity insisted upon, 
then it is to be feared that they would speed- 
ily become unfit 

** For human nature*s daily food ; " 

and, as in the days of yore, be quickly 

* *^ I am a man, and ooont nothing hmxuui totiflga to 
me." 

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PHRENOLOGIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Feb., 



translated to a more adyanced stage of ex- 
istence. 

While it is impossible to become oblivious 
to the apparent shortcomings of many clergy- 
men, nevertheless we have sought in vain for 
the profession or occupation in which no 
renegade or unworthy member is to be found, 
and ministers may triumphantly point to the 
'Wast cloud of witnesses^' who, from the 
earliest dawn of Christianity, have hazarded 
their lives and sacrificed their dearest earth- 
ly hopes that they might proclaim the Gos- 
pel of Christ. We can not forget the mar- 
tyred missionaries and faithful teachers of 
the cross. The names of Eliot and Judson, 
of Wesley and McCheyne, with their rich 
and affecting memories, come to mind, and 
we can triumphantly mention them as ex- 
amples and guides. Nor need we look to 
distant lands or to other days for noble illus- 
trations which cheer, or lives which adorn 
and bless their calling. They are found in 
the cultured and devoted pastors of village 
hamlets and quiet vales. Men who — 
" Nor e'er have changed, nor wish to change their 
place. 

Unskillful they to lawn, or eeek for power, 

By doctrines fashioned to the varying hour. 

For other alms their hearts have learned to 
prize; 

More bent to raise the wretched than to rise." 

And do we not meet them in the talented 
occupants of city pulpits whose eloquent ap- 
peals are wafted from shore to shore and 
across the ocean wave, and whose lives are a 
continual benediction ? 

There are some who appear to ^imagine 
that the studies of religion are so para- 
mount, its consequences and responsibiUties 
so solemn, that, no matter how languidly, 
drawlingly,tediously presented, their homilies 
should be received with profound awe and 
listened to with rapt attention. Instead of 
the clear waters of the river of life, they 
proffer muddy draughts to thirsty lips, and 
for the Bread of Life throw moldy crusts and 
crumbs to famished souls; and pre&ch not 
'* Jesus Christ, and Him crucified," but them- 
selves in their varying moods and phases. 
What lawyer could successfully plead for his 
clients, or what politician address his constit- 
uents, with the meager preparation and the 
listless manner which characterizes some pas- 
tors ? What orator could electrify his audi- 



ence, or what ambassador worthily represent 
the interests of his nation at a foreign court, 
were his statements obscure, his applications 
inappropriate, and his manner either tinged 
with funeral gloom or savoring of theatrical 
display? Taking for granted the special 
training now deemed indispensable as among 
the primary requisites for a successful minis- 
try might be mentioned the careful and im- 
partial study of the subject to be presented. 
Studied not alone from the solemn tones of 
theology, but from that great reservoir of 
light and knowledge, the Bible itself, which 
is not merely a skeleton of commandments, 
but replete with interesting histories and bi- 
ographies, and abounding in practical and 
dramatic incident. Another important but 
more neglected requisite is the study of hu- 
man nature ; not from books, but from ob- 
servation. It is not in the quiet study that 
the needs of our fellow-beings are principal- 
ly to be learned, but by mingling with them 
and by that intuitive sympathy which alone 
wins hearts. Lest the orthodoxy of such a 
statement be questioned, it may be impera- 
tive to add that nowhere is its magnetic 
power so clearly illustrated as in the life of 
Christ. 

No mention is made of His library and of 
His researches in classical lore ; but number- 
less are the tales related of His deeds of love 
and mercy. His visits to *^ publicans and sin- 
ners," and the words of kindness and of 
warning so eagerly listened to in places of 
public resort. Above all contamination, with 
an eye that pierced through every fraud, and 
a heart that grieved for every sorrow, well 
might the multitude throng to hear Him, 
and the affrighted soldiers with awe declare 
" Never man spake like this man ; " for He 
knew the hearts and needs of all, and each 
whom He addressed was conscious of the 
true life-portrait drawn by a master-hand. 

Paul might be termed the first Christian 
phrenologist, and in all his epistles his mark- 
ed respect for Individuality is shown. He 
does not irritate the Sadducees by thrusting 
on them the obnoxious tenets of the Phari- 
sees, nor require from Gentile converts a 
strict conformity to Jewish customs. He 
zealously declares that ** he became all things 
unto all men, that he might win some." How 
many shoot arrows at random in the air, 

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80MB THOUGHTS ABOUT THE OLEBGT. 



81 



teaching in iinknown tongnes and wounding 
where they should heal, or proclaiming peace 
when there is no peace. 

'Viewing life through the narrow vista of 
their own experience, judging the fettered 
lires of others by the Mosaic dispensation 
and their own comparatively sheltered and 
peaceiul ones, they know but little of the ten 
thousand temptations which encompass most 
of their hearers. Let them watch the weary 
laborer whose life is one long toil, and they 
will cease to wonder that to him all the joy 
cf rdigion is sununed up in the single word, 
^^rest." Let them visit the anxious mother 
as she industriously provides for the present 
and plans for the future of her children, and 
they will not be shocked that corroding cares 
are engraven upon her heart. 

Go where prejudice, ignorance, and vice 
have erected their fortresses and welded their 
adamantine chains, and what lessons of pity 
and forbearance will be learned! Observe 
the smile which innocent amusements have 
brought to the pallid cheeks and the light 
to the listless eye, aud their strictures on the 
frivolities of youth will be more lenient 
Gk) ** where ambition makes men mad," where 
the warrior fights for glory or renown, where 
tiie pale student bums the midnight oil, 
where the artist tries his skill, and the poet 
dreams of his ideals, and see not crime or 
useless efforts, but nature revealing herself 
in her children. 

Nothing can be more offensive to the at- 
tentive bearer than the drawling tone so fre- 
quently persisted in by some of the clergy. 
Not being endowed with the meekness of 
Moses, these did not urge as an excuse from 
sacred duties that they were "slow of speech 
and of a stammering tongue ; " nor did they 
tiiink of remedying their defective utterance 
by practicing elocution with pebbles in their 
mouth ; but were content to be confirmed in 
their hesitating manner, which painfully re- 
minds one of a school-boy not yet initiated 
into the mysteries of Webster. Not less rep- 
rehensible is the habit indulged in by some 
enthusiastic speakers of startling their hear- 
ers by - speaking in a tone so loud that a 
stranger might suppose that the greater num- 
ber of the congregation were afflicted with 
chronic deafness; it mars the solemnity of 
the occasion, grates harshly on the ear, and 



is inappropriate. Others, pursuing an oppo- 
site course, deliver their discoures in a tone 
so low as to be suggestive of the mysterious 
whispers of the oracles of Delphi, and are 
intelligible cmly to the favored occupants of 
front pews. 

Fortunately for the dignity of the profes- 
sion, levity in the pulpit is rare, and not 
characteristic of the true Christian shepherd. 
Jests and flippancy of speech are never so in- 
decorous as when heard in the house of God. 
They never win souls, and create but con- 
tempt and aversion. A celebrated actor, 
being persuaded to attend the church of a 
clerical friend, asked him, after the services 
were over, what important duty he was about 
to perform. " None," replied the clergyman. 
^' I thought you had, judging from the hasty 
manner in which you entered the pulpit and 
left it," said the actor. He then asked the 
divine what books were on the desk before 
him. " Only a Bible an^ Prayer-book," was 
the answer. " Only a Bible and Prayer- 
book 1 " repeated the player, " why, you toss- 
ed them backward and forward, and turned 
the leiives as though they were those of a day- 
book and ledger." 

The affected solemnity which would en- 
force its appeals with a dejected mein, and 
frequent moans and tears over a lost world, 
ever choosing the saddest and most terrify- 
ing portions of Bacred Writ for texts, repress- 
ing the most innocent of smiles, deprecating 
the most harmless pleasures, and portraying 
religion in its sternest aspects, is not the 
preaching which will teach the worldling of 
a ** peace which passeth all understanding," 
or bring the weary wanderer to Christ. To 
this class belonged the Pharisees of old, who 
wept and fasted that they might be seen of 
men, bound heavy burdens on the shoulders 
of others, which they themselves would not 
touch, and for a pretence made long prayers ; 
and no other sect so much excited the 
Saviour^s indignation. 

While feeling that much importance at- 
taches to elocutionary training, in so far as 
propriety of manner, careful enunciation, 
modulation of tone, and accent are concern*- 
ed, yet it should by no means degenerate into 
studied acting; for, although 'tis also the 
pastor's province to " hold the mirror up to 
nature, to show vii-tue her own features, and 

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[Fkbl. 



vice her own image,^ yet a higher sphere is 
also his. 

The model preacher is thus aptly sketched 
by Ck>wper: 

** Would I describe a preacher soch as Paul, | 

Were he on earth, would hear, approre, and own, 
Paul should himself direct me; I would trace 
His master-strokes and draw from hla design, 
I would express him simple, g^ve, sincere; 
In doctrine uncorrupt, in language plain, 
And plain in manner, decent, solemn, chaste. 
And natural in gesture, much Impressed 
Himself, as conscious of his awful charge, 
And anxious mainly that the flock he feeds 
May feel it too ; aflTcctionate in looks 
And tender in address, as well becomes 
A messenger of grace to guilty men.*' 

The times haye passed away when fierce 
denunciations and cruel persecutions were 
estimated fit and efTectiye weapons in a 
righteous cause, but the spirit that actuated 
them still lingers, and bigotry, sectarianism, 
and petty spitefulness still disturb the peace 
of churches and impede their progress. Mo- 
hammed promulgated his religion by the 
sword ; but the Christian pastor who seeks 
to imitate him in destroying liberty of con- 
science, repressing the €k>d-given instincts 
of the human heart, and forcing his flock 
into a path of his own devising, has neither 
rightly learned the teaching of Christ nor 
imbibed of His Spirit. 

In olden times and among ancient nations 
the office of the priest and physician was in- 
separable, and so much unhappiness, ill- 
health, and morbid feelings, with their at- 
tendant results on mind and morals, are 
caused by unhygienic habits of living, that 
it would seem, even now, desirable that min- 
isters should preach physical as well as moral 
truth and practice. The body may be but the 
casket which enshrines the soul ; but never 
in this mortal career can we afibrd to neglect 
its requirements and needs, for our physi- 
cal, moral, and spiritual natures are all inter- 
woven; and especially in the rural dis- 
tricts would a weekly or monthly hy- 
gienic lecture by the pastor be productive 
of much good. Might not the importance 
of culture in its various phases, the little 
civilities of life, the beneficial influence of 
good books and periodicals, and the advan- 
tages of a more liberal education be success- 
fully urged by country ministers in fire-dde 



conversations or social talks! The truest 
Christianity is that which teaches that hap- 
piness is its primary end and object, and lore, 
pure and eternal, its light and strength. 
Happiness is not found in selfishness, but in 
the eoBstabt path of duty, in the peace of 
an approving oonsdenoe, the enjoyment of 
earthly blessings and confidence, in a Heav- 
enly Father's protecting care. 

He best fulfills his ministiy who, by kind- 
ness and encouragement, combined with all 
needed firmness, 

'* Allures to brighter worlds and leads the way,'* 
cheers the despondent, strengthens the weak, 
restores the erring, and succors the tempted ; 
and by fervent charity toward all, calm cheer- 
fulness, and unfailing trust through all the 
storms and trials of life, unmistakably shows 
to his people that though 

*' To them his heart, his love, his griefs are given. 
Yet all his serious thoughts have rest in heaven ; 
As some tall cliff that lifts its awful form. 
Swells from the vale and midway leaves the 

storm, t 

Though round its breast the rolling douda are 

spread, 
Eternal sunshine settles on Its head." 

0. J. A. 



MOURNING APPABEL. 

IN a recent number of the E^brew Leader we 
find an article on the above subject which 
must commend itself to our readers for sound 
practical sense and pointed logic It is a fitting 
corollary to what has appeared in these col- 
umns on extravagant fhneials : 

The custom of wearing mourning apparel 
may be ranked among the unprofitable and 
discarded practices of the past We consider 
the fashion as unfeeling and crueL It is of no 
use to the dead, nor to the living. By many it 
is thought to be a mark of respect, but a very 
limited observation will at once show to the 
contrary. Look at the heir who has long wait- 
ed for death to come and remove a friend or 
connection. He entertains no respect for the 
deceased, and yet he clothes himself in all the 
habiliments of grief His soul is as cold as the 
very body that he follows to the grave. Tlie 
proper way to show respect for dqwurted friends 
is to imitate thehr virtues. 

But there are positive evils resulting fW>m 
this pernicious practice: 

1st The cost of mooming apparel This to 

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SIGN'S OF OHAHAOTBR. 



63 



mukj lamilies is v^ry bordenBome. For in- 
Etoiioe : a father of a nomerous family dioe, and 
leaves no property. His wife and little ones 
are thrown upon the charities of an unfeeling 
world. But yet, such is the tyranny of fashion^ 
that a ]arge sum of money must be spent in the 
preparation of garments that are supposed ab- 
solutely necessary for the occasion. 

2d All this work must be done at the time 
when it is extremely inconyenient ; when, per- 
haps, friends and relatives have been wearied' 
with midnight watchings; when all need re- 
pose from the moumfhl and tr3ring scenes that 
usually attend the closing hours of human ex- 



Id. The custom is the Teiy climax of impro- 
^iety. It is certainly shocking to the finer 
feeliags of our nature to see the relatives of the 
dead standing before the unburied corpse, dis- 
cussing the propriety of different dresses, dis- 
puting about the cut of a sleeve, or the fashion 
of a bonnet) when the same light that revealed 
the paltry trappings of fashion shone coldly 
over the rigid and awfhl features of the dead. 

4th. The custom renders death gloomy. 
Surely, death has terrors enough without our 
increasing them by an unnecessary custom. 
The passage to the grave should be rendered 



pleasant and cheerful. It would seem as 
though society had labored to render the end 
of human existence terrible in the extreme. 

We do wrong. God does not require it If 
we all had right views of death, one half of the 
gloom and sorrow that now pervade society 
would be banished from the world. ** The 
grave ! " says an eloquent writer, " The grave I 
Let us break its awful spell, its dread dominion. 
It is the place where man lays down his weak- 
ness, his infirmity, his diseases and sorrows, 
that he may rise up to a new and glorious life. 
It is the place where man ceases — in all that 
is fVail and decaying, ceases to be man — that 
he may be, in glory and blessedness, an angel 
of light" 

Let us not, then, throw around death so 
much gloom and. dread. If that philosophy be 
true which teaches us that the spirits of the 
dead are the viewless ministers' and watchers 
of the living ; attending and holy spirits watch- 
ing over frail mortality, and lingering about 
the places of their olden home, then would one 
tear, shed in the deep sincerity of bereaved af- 
fection, one sigh from the full heart of sonow, 
be far more acceptable to the departed spirit 
than all the pomp and circumstance of f\meral 
splendor. 




Of tlM Miri, Um body Ibrm doth take, 

For tool b ibnn, and doth tb« body m»k»*-'8ptnmr'. 



SIONS OF CHARAGTEB. 



r* 18 aipusing to read in the newspapers 
the speculations and impressions of ob- 
servers and non-observers in character-read- 
ing. Here are several " extracts," which in- 
dicate the growing interest of people in the 
sobject of physiognomy, if they are not al- 
to^Uier invested with ih&t scientific charac- 
ter which is the warrant for confidence. A 
writer, who, by the way, has ideas very like 
aoBie which have appeared within a year or 
80 in this Journal, says, in the New York 
(^ u i Btian AdvoeaU, on 

J1ZDOXH0 OHA&ACTSB BT FACES. 

*^A man^s character is stamped upon his 
fnebj the time he is thirty. I had rather 



put my trust in any human being's counte- 
nance than in his words. The lips may lie, 
the face can not To be sure, * a man may 
smile and smile and be a villain ; ' but what 
a smile it is — a false widening of the mouth 
and creasing of the cheeks, an unpleasant 
grimace that makes the observer shudder I 
* Rascal ' is legibly written all over it 

" Among the powers that are given us for 
our good is that of reading the true charac- 
ters of those we meet by the expression of 
the features. And yet most people neglect 
it, or doubt the existence of the talisman 
which would save them from dangerous 
friendships or miserable marriages, and, fear- 
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ing to trast a test so intangible and mysteri- 
ous, act in defiance of their impulses — ^intu- 
itions — and suffer in consequence. 

^ There are few who could not point out an 
actual idiot, if they meet him, and many 
know a confirmed drunkard at sight. It is 
as easy to know a bad man also. The miser 
wears his meanness in his eyes, in his pinched 
features, in his complexion. The brutal man 
shows his brutality in his low forehead, prom- 
inent chin, and bull neck. The crafty man, 
all suavity and elegance, can not put his 
watchful eyes and snaky smile out of sight 
as he does his purpose. The thief looks noth- 
ing else under heayen, and those who lead 
unholy lives have so positive an impress of 
guilt upon their features that it is a marvel 
that the most ignorant and innocent are over 
imposed upon by them. 

*' Perhaps it is the fear that conscientious 
people have of being influenced by beauty, 
or want of it, which leads so many to neglect 
the cultivation of the power which may be 
brought to such perfection ; but a face may 
be beautiful and bad, and positively plain 
and yet good. I scarcely think any one 
would mistake in this way, and I aver that 
when a man past the earliest youth looks 
good and pure and true, it is safe to believe 
that he is so." 

His Christian Age puts on its spectacles, 
looks wise and witty, quotes great authori- 
ties, and relates anecdotes bearing on the 
subject of character-reading as follows : 

THB GAIT PROCLAIMS THE MAK. 

^* Shakspeare makes Polonius tell his son, 
Laertes, that ^ the apparel oft proclaims the 
man.* But a greater than Shakspeare — Sol- 
omon — tolls us *that raan^s attire and gait 
show what he is.' And true it is, that self- 
sufScient men, bashful men, energetic, phleg- 
matic, choleric, sanguine, and melancholy 
men, may each and all be known by their at- 
tire and gait Theodore Hook was one day 
standing on Ludgate Hill, in conversation 
with Dubois, a well-known wag of the Stock 
Exchange, and one or two other kindred 
spirits, when their attention was called to an 
aldermanic-looking person, * with fair round 
belly, with good capon lined,' strutting along 
like a peacock, with double chin in air, his 
chest puffed out, and a stride of portentous 
self-importance. Hook, with his character- 



istic audacity, immediately crossed over the 
street, went up to him, took off his hat def- 
erentially, 

** *• And in a bondsman's key, 
With bated breath and whispering humbleness,' 

thus saluted him : * I really beg your pardon, 
sir, for the liberty I take in stopping you. 
But I should feel very much obliged to you, 
and so would some friends of mine over the 
way, if you would kindly gratify a curiosity, 
which we find irrepressible. We have been 
observing you, as you walked^ with very lively 
admiration, and we can not divine who yon 
can be. AmHyouMmebodywrypartietUarf*^ 
Here comes ffarperg' Bcuar, If it would 
devote more space to such discussions, and 
less as to how people must dress themselves if 
they would be in style, it would do more good 
in the world. We thank the writer for this 
bit of science — or is it Gospel truth I— on 

CUB FACES. 

^* The countenances of a nation define the 
characteristics of the people. Every human 
face indicates the moral training as well as 
the temperaments and the ruling traits of its 
owner, just as much as every human form in- 
dicates the quality and amount of physical 
exercise. This is proved by the varieties of 
human faces everywhere visible. Those lives 
that have been given to physical labor, un- 
brightened by an education of idea& have 
always a stolid, stupid expression, even while 
their limbs and muscles are splendidly devel- 
oped. The more savage a people, the uglier 
they are in facial development The very 
fea^res of their faces are disfigured by vio- 
lent and ungovemed passions. People whose 
employments are intellectual invariably have 
a large, clear gaze, a bright out^raying ex- 
pression, as if from inward light shining 
through a vase. Where a fine organization 
and deep sensibility accompany the practice 
of ihtellectual pursuits, often the features 
take on a transient, luminous look. Persons 
endowed with powerful sensibilities, however 
plain their features, always have moments 
of absolute beauty. *My sister-in-law is 
plain,' said one lady of another, ' but I have 
seen her so absolutely beautiful at times that 
she drew everybody in the room toward her. 
Then she is very happy, her face kindles with 
an absolute radiance.' The refining effects 
of high culture, added to deep religious feel- 
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810 NS OF CHARACTER. 



85 



ing, not only subdue eyil paasions, but beau- 
tify and elevate the entire expression and 
bearing of an individual. [Tea ; and in such 
a character heaven and earth are brought 
together. — ^£d.] Thus it is a physical as 
wen as moral fact that it is the power of 
erery person to improve his own beauty as 
well as bearing by a constant control of 
passion and temper, and a deep and con- 
stant cultivation of the intellectual faculties, 
pure affections, and the moral nature." 

We extract the following racy bit from the 
KewYork Herald on character-reading, as 
supposed by the writer to be revealed in the 
walk, or, as he puts it, in the 

OAIT. 

"• After studying the walk and gait of men 
at Saratoga during the summer, a corre- 
^ndent prepared a chart whereby one can 
tell * character,* just by noticing the walk. 

" Unstable persons like, Theodore T., Geo. 
P. T., Mrs. W., and Governor Beveridge, of 
Illinois, walk slow and fast by turns. 

" Fun-loving persons, like Sam Cox, Mrs. 
Harriet Beecher Stowe, Olive Logan, and Ol- 
iver "Wendell Holmes teter and tilt up and 
down when they walk. 

"Careless persons, like Lincoln, Greeley, 
Zack Chandler, and Susan A. are continually 
stubbing their toes or stepping on somebody^s 
drws. 

■ ** Jietiring persons, like A. T. Stewart and 
Charles O'Conor, walk swiftly and slip 
throngb acrowd unobserved like eels through 
a fish-rack. 

" Good-natured persons, like Schuyler Col- 
fax and Frank Carpenter, put an envelope or 
knife in the palm of their left hand, or snap 
their fingers every few steps. 

" Strong-minded people, like Anna Dick- 
inson and Secretary Bristow, toe straight 
ahead, shut their mouths, and plant their 
whole foot down on the floor at once. • 

" Wide-awake people, like Gen. Sherman, 
Gen. Sheridan, Speaker Blaine, and Senator 
Logan, swing their arms and * toe out,* while 
their hands fly about miscellaneously. 

" Lazy people, like Senator Morton, Judge 
Davis, of Illinois, and Gen. Grant, and others 
who smoke, slosh around loosely, first on one 
side of the walk, and then on the other, 
while they skuff their heels along the ground 
without lifting them up. 



"Managing and conniving persons, like 
Thurlow W^ed, Governor Fenton, and An- 
drew Green generally walk with one hand 
clutched hold of an envelope or stuffed into 
the pocket, while their heads lean forward, 
indicating subjective thoughtr 

" Observing persons, like Wendell Phillips, 
Henry Ward Beecher, and Josh Billings walk 
slowly, while their eyes look down on the 
ground and on each side, and the body fre- 
quently turns clear around, as if the mind 
were reflecting on something passed. 

" Careful persons, like Peter Cooper, Gen. 
Dix, Fernando Wood, and Augustus Schell, 
lift their feet high and bring them down 
slowly, often touching something with their 
canes, or kicking a stone or stick to one side 
of the way." 

**AN BSBAT ON NOSES," 

(which we found in an exchange without the 
author^s name attached) should have a place 
in this combination. It contains some well- 
drawn conclusions, and is by no means want- 
ing in piquancy. The writer thus alludes to 
the better known class of noses: 

*'The aquiline, when animated by blue 
blood, quivers in color with dilated nostrils, 
like the war-horse. The long, slim nose is 
generally followed by its owner into a sys- 
tematic and precise groove in the world, and 
seldom turns from a settled purpose. 

" Mrs. Grundy's nose may be said to have 
an independent respiratory apparatus*, and 
possibly is not unlike an interrogation point. 

*' What shall we say of the pug, the piti- 
able target for youth's remorseless arrows, 
and perhaps at that callow season not ex- 
empt from membraneous agitation, from in- 
haling of pepper or other pungent cures of 
an odious habit, applied to the apron sleeve 
by well-meaning mothers. 

"A broad, flat protuberance is sometimes 
set above a wide, mirthful mouth and solid, 
square jaws. 

"A piquantly retrovsti nose maybe charm- 
ing in coquettish young ladies ; but it un- 
happily ofttimes degenerates with their 
mother's years and obesity into an elevation 
of the olfactory organs, as if constantly 
offended. 

<^ A crooked nose does not by any meaus 
augur an angular disposition nor ^rewish 
propensities. 

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*' Another style, seldom possessed by men, 
is comely enough at the beginning and sym- 
metrical of bridge ; but in the culmination 
is a little, round, yjcious ball, which, on prov- 
ocation is exceedingly rubicund and irrasci- 
ble. It is a sort of barometer for internal 
indignation, and a focus from which sparks 
of fury scintillate. 

" It may not be intimated that an insig- 
nificant nose is not suggestive of unusual 
ability and attainments ; nor is it always to 
be taken for granted that prominent oues 
show marked intelligence ; yet we are wont 
to give the latter the benefit of the doubt'' 

Finally, this paragraph on the laugh of 
people, by which it will be seen that much 
of character depends on ** which side of the 
mouth " one laughs : 

" To recognize the character of a person by 
his laugh is not difficult There are as many 
kinds of laugh as there are vowel sounds. 



Persons who laugh in A are frank, inconsist 
ent, and fond of noise and motion. The 
laugh in £ belongs to phlegmatics and per- 
sons disposed to melancholy. The O indi- 
cates generosity of sentiment and boldness 
in movement Take care of its possessor, if 
you belong to the opposite sex. The laugh 
or giggle in I of children and innocent per- 
sons denotes a torrid, irresolute, devoted, 
and pliable nature. The blondes laugh in I, 
but that does not say that they are all inno- 
cents. Avoid like the pest those who laugh 
in U. These are the avaricious, the hypo- 
crites, the misanthropes. For them the joys 
of life have no charms.'' 

There is meaning in every action, if we 
could but read it. In our walk, talk, work, 
play ; in our frowns, our smiles, our weep- 
ing, or rejoicing we betray certain phases of 
character which may be read truly by the 
scientific observer. 



THE EAR OF MAN. 



Qatb of the hrain, and twisted like the shelL 
What mighty powers I bar its delicate way. 
And music bom of heaven, beneath whose sway 

The heart bends captive, dies; the tolling bell 
Wakens no solemn thought ; the oi^^an's voice 

And kindred man's unknown. The summer 
skies 

Are blue, and wide the sTunmer landscape lies 



In beanty, bnt no melodies rejoice 
The heart ; lost, water songs ; the tones of trees ; 
Yea, the whole tongue of nature. The eye sees 

But the ear hears not : sight without a sound ! 

The appalling lightnings, not the assuring bound 
Of thunder; bows the wood without a cause; 
One dull, monotonous peace; silence without a 
pause. 



THOMAS WHITTAKEB, 

TBB BKQLISH TBMPBRANCB RBFORMBR. 



TroS gentleman inherits a fine quality of 
constitution. He is about six feet tall, 
and weighs not far from 180 pounds, and is 
in all respects well built and robust in 
health. He takes from his mother^s side his 
sympathetic nature, which sometimes leads 
him to forget his own interests and rights. 
It is natural for him to serve and help 
others. 

He is uncommonly energetic ; is in- 
clined to grapple with difGiculty, to appre- 
ciate the far-ofi^, and get ready to meet it. 
He is also uncommonly cautious, watchful, 
and inclined to make everything sure and 
certain. He believes in justice, and loves 
the truth because it is true. He has regard 



for age and authority, and reverence for 
things sacred and great, and respect for the 
feelings of those who are weak. 

His social afiections enable him to win his 
way wherever he goes. People like him, en- 
joy his society, and he has a kind of magnet- 
ism that enables him to move and influence 
others. If he can get his eye on a man and 
take his hand, he is sure to carry his point, 
since he rarely claims that which is either 
unjust or improper. He can even ]>er8uade 
people to forego their own convenience to 
conform to his wishes. 

He is ambitious to be respected, and thinks 
, much of his reputation. He is full of fsMsts ; 
remembers what he sees, hears, and ezpe- 

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THOMAS WHITTAKEB, 



87 



riences, and, haying rather large Language, 
he can tell his thoughts in a clear and per- 
tinent manner. He is a good critic of char- 
acter and disposition, and also of subjects 
and topics ; reasons by analogy rather than by 



rightness, executive energy, and warm social 
affection, he is well calculated to work his 
passage to success. 

During the past three months Mr. Whitta- 
ker, who is one of the oldest, if not actually 





PORTRAIT OF THOMAS WHITTAKER. 




dry logic, and explains his subject so as to 
make a very clear and direct impression. 

He 19 ingenious, has taste fdr the beautiM 
and the grand. His chief qualities being 
practical talent, prudence, sympathy, up- 



the first, of the advocates of teetotalism in 
the United Kingdom, has been on a visit to 
the United States, and for the first time in 
his life has been engaged addressing Ameri- 
can audiences in support of the principles 



88 



- PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[FEa, 



and practices which he hae so long and ably 
urged upon the attention of his own country- 
men. There are thousands of adopted citi- 
zens in this country to whom the name of 
Thomas Whittaker will be familiar as house- 
hold words, and these will be glad to see a 
good likeness of him in this Joxtbnal ; and 
many hundreds of them will have the oppor- 
tunity of hearing once more his forcible de- 
nunciations of intemperance and of the drink- 
trafSc, and his earnest appeals on behalf of 
sobriety and the blessings which it brings 
to the toiling masses from whom he has 
sprung. 

Mr. Whittaker was bom in Yorkshire, 
England, on the 22d of August, 1818, and 
will, therefore, soon have completed his 
sixty-first year. Although past his three- 
score years, he is vigorotls as in his youth. 
Age sits lightly upon him. He can travel 
now, as he used to do in his early labor in 
the cause of temperance, many miles daily, 
and lecture almost every night, with very 
little apparent fatigue — with no apparent 
fatigue when warmed up with his subject 
and the sympathies of a good audience. 

The early life of Mr. Whittaker was spent 
in Lancashire. He was employed from boy- 
hood in the cotton factories of that great 
seat of the cotton trade. Like all the oper- 
ative classes of England at that time, he 
believed in his beer. Anything that would 
"rob a poor man of his beer" would be 
the height of cruelty and despotism. The 
aristocratic "ten thousand^ might rob the 
masses of education, of the rights of citizen" 
ship, even of cheap bread, so long as they 
did not " rob a poor man of his beer." 

Under this hallucination about the impor- 
tance of beer and its value to the working- 
man, Mr. Whittaker grew up to manhood, 
indulging in it, and, of course, stronger 
liquors, with his fellow- work men, until he 
learned by experience what evils they pro- 
duced. 

On the 18th of April, 1835, the subject of 
our sketch visited, out of mere curiosity, a 
temperance meeting held in Blackburn, Lan- 
cashire, where he was then employed in a 
cotton factory. This meeting was addressed 
by several of " the men of Preston," as Jo- 
seph Liveray, James Tear, and these early 
advocates of the first out-and-out teetotal 



pledge were then styled. It was not long 
before this time that they had " signed tee- 
total" in the now famous "cock-pit" of 
Preston. Some of these speakers were known 
to Thomas Whittaker, and, influenced by 
their arguments and appeals, and encouraged 
by the good counsel of his elder brother, 
William Whittaker, who was a godly young 
man, he decided upon signing the teetotal 
pledge. The two brothers went forward at 
the close of the meeting and affixed their 
signatures tp the roll-book of Blackburn 
teetotalers. 

From that date until this time Thomas 
Whittaker has been a noble champion for 
temperance truth and temperance teaching. 
Having a mind and a will of his own, the 
jeers and sneers and jests and jibes of fel- 
low-workmen had no effect upon him, except 
to make him bolder for principle and right. 
At that period they watched a teetotaler to 
see how long it would take him to die. They 
invariably saw, or fancied they saw, the ab- 
stainer wasting away daily from doing with- 
out "his beer." But Thomas Whittaker 
lived in spite of their prophecies, and grew 
healthier and heartier without the beer, 
while his beor-drinking opponents have 
gone down to early graves, none of them 
reaching his age. 

Very soon he became a public advocate of 
his newly-adopted principles. Mr. Whit- 
taker was bom a speaker. He possessed, 
naturally, those abilities that qualified him 
to be a ready, fluent, and witty platform 
orator. He was not long, however, occupied 
in addressing meetings in and around Black- 
bum when the annoyance which he received 
from his fellow-workmen made it exceed- 
ingly unpleasant and uncomfortable for him. 
He determined to get rid of this by remov- 
ing to Preston. And so, one morning in the 
year 1835, he walked from Blackburn to 
Preston to look for employment in one of the 
cotton mills of the latter towns. While at 
breakfast in the Temperance Hotel, Mr. Jo- 
seph Liveray entered the apartment, and, 
expressing his surprise at Whittaker's early 
visit, was not less sorry to hear of the reason 
for it. After some conversation, Mr. Liveray 
asked him, " Would you like to go out as a 
temperance missionary?" Mr. Whittaker 
looked upon this offer as a providential 

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1875.] 



THOMAS WHITTAKER. 



80 



opening for him. He agreed to return to 
Blackbom to consult M[rs. Wbittaker, and, 
if as agreeable to her as it appeared to him, 
he would accept Mr. Liveray's offer. He 
walked the nine miles back to Blackburn 
with a light heart. Mrs. Whittaker viewed 
the opening for temperance work as from 
the Lord, and from that time Thomas Whit- 
tak^ has been constancly at work as a public 
temperance advocate. 

That year he attended the Conference of 
the British Temperance League, held at Man- 
chester, and spoke several times. On the 
9th of May, 1836, he entered upon the work 
of agent and lecturer for the League. In 
this capacity he visited all the towns and vil- 
lages in the north of England, holding tem- 
perance meetings almost every night It was 
at that time no unusual thing for Mr. Whitta- 
ker to take a bell, a horn, a drum, or any in- 
strument that would make noise enough and 
gather a crowd, and thus equipped proceed 
through a town as his own bell man, an- 
nouncing his own meetings. By this means 
he usually succeeded in gathering an aud- 
ience, not generally of a very polished jtype. 
Bat Thomas Whittaker was well adapted to 
catch the attention of the roughest assembly 
of hearers, and to hold them under his sway, 
even when they entered determined upon 
being disorderly. In these early labors in 
the cause of temperance Mr. Whittaker was 
sometimes twelve months away from homo 
— absent from his wife and young family. 

So early as 1837 Mr. Whittaker found him- 
self introduced to a London audience, in that 
world-famed building, Exeter Hall. He 
was, comparatively, an uneducated Yorkshire 
man and cotton operative, bat his address 
produced a deep and profound impression. 
His allegorical style is peculiar to himself. 
He was early designated ** the Bunyan of the 
Temperance Reformers." His speech on 
** Great Britain Stranded in Drunken Bay," 
at the time that the steamer Oreat Britain 
was stranded in Dundrum Bay, was one of 
his happiest hits. ^* The Wrong Omnibus," 
**The Sweetmeat Shop," ''Irongate," "The 
Three Forms — Moderation Form, its Dan- 
gers and Difficulties; Drunken Form, its 
Madneas and Miseries; Teetotal Form, its 
Triumphs and Blessings," are a few of the 
all^orical subjects by which he presents the 



temperance question in a most effective man- 
ner before the minds of his audiences. 

In dealing with opponents of the temper- 
ance cause, Mr. Whittaker's power of keen 
and biting sarcasm have often been felt as a 
two-edged sword, piercing to the very " di- 
viding of the joints and marrow." Wielding 
this weapon too scarcely at times made for 
him enemies even among " weak-kneed " tee- 
totalers, who desired, like the Revs. Dr. Hall 
and Dr. Crosby, of New York, ** judicious 
advocacy of intelligent temperance." But 
wherever the temperance cause required a 
vigorous defendant, its friends might be cer- 
f^n at all times to find Thomas Whittaker 
in the thick of the fight. Wherever any one 
said " There is a lion in the path," Mr. Whit- 
taker was always certain to take that road and 
conquer " the lion." 

In the press Mr. Whittaker did most efli- 
ciont work for temperance. His pen has for 
all these years been as ready and as powerftil 
as his tongue. He published a paper of his 
own for a considerable time. In later years 
he owns and conducts one of the best of tem- 
perance hotels, in Scarborough, the famous 
English fashionable watering-place; and hb 
fellow-citizens have four times eltK^ted him as 
a member of the Common Council. 

Since his arrival in this country, on a visit 
to four brothers who reside in New York 
State, he has been addressing meetings in the 
States of New York, New Jersey, and Massa- 
chusetts with all his usual ability and energy. 
He has greatly delighted every audience that 
has had the privilege and pleasure to hear 
him. The State Temperance Alliance of 
Massachusetts kept him engaged for a month, 
and other State societies ought to keep his 
time entirely occupied until he prepares to 
return to his native Yorkshire in May next 



LEttS — WHAT THEY MEAN. 

AN enthusiastic Frenchman once declared 
the human leg the most philosophic 
of studies. '^ Let me see the leg," says Quan- 
tire, '' and I will judge the mind ; " and it 
does seem natural that the leg should indi- 
cate the disposition, as the shade of the hair 
should indicate the temperament What 
sloth, for instance, does the limb betray I 
What a shrew is the possessor of a limb like 



90 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Feb., 



a walking-stick I But what a gentle woman 
is she with the arched instep, the round 
ankle, and the graceful pedestal, swelling to 
perfection, and modulated to lightness I What 
dogged obstinacy the stumpy leg with the 
knotty calf exhibits 1 What an irresolute 
soul does the lanky limb betray 1 How well 
the strong' ankle intimates the firm purpose I 
How well the flat ankle reveals the vacant 
mind I Young men about to marry— ob- 
serve I The girl with the large 1^ will 
become fat at thirty, and lie abed till mid- 
day. The brunette, with slender, very slen- 
der limbs, will worry your soul out with 
jealousy. The blonde with large limbs, will 
degenerate at thirty-five into the possessiSn 
of a pair of ankles double the natural size, 
and- afflicted with rheumatism. The fair- 
haired damsel with thin limbs, will get up at 
half-past five to scold the servants, and spend 
her nights talking scandal over tea. The 



olive-skinned maid, with the pretty round 
limb, will make you happy. The little rosy 
girl, with the sturdy, muscular, well-turned 
leg, will be just the girl you want. If you 
find a red-haired girl, with a large limb, pop 
the question at once. No doubt these hints 
are reliable, and the fashions make them 
quite practical and available. 

[The saucy fellow deserves to have his 
ears boxed I We doubt if any lady, no mat- 
ter what the color of her hair, would accept 
him on any conditions. Having been re- 
fused, probably, he takes this method of 
revenging himself on the sex. 

By the study of our " New Physiognomy," 
it will be found that one part — ^be it hand, 
foot, leg, arm, head, face, neck, etc. — is in 
harmony with every other part So that, if 
the Frenchman bases his observation on 
Anatomy, Physiology, Phrenology, and the 
temperaments, he may read certain traits of 
character even in the human leg.] 




mi\ ^ounirg and liii |jesanr(|es. 




TkAi whieh mnkMft food CoMtltntioB Bvtt kttp It, tIi., nMn of wttdon waA rtrtM; qMlHl« tkat, fc 
taaec, mart b« oaraiUlf propHM«<l by » Tirtaom •daet to a of ywik.— Wimmm Amk 



I thqr dMetod Mt with worldly teb«r- 



THE BEI6N OF PANICS.— THE LESSON. 



SUCH is the theme treated by Bonamy 
Price, Professor of Political Economy in 
the University of Oxford, England, before the 
Chamber of Commerce of New York City. 
No subject of political economy, outside of 
the ))reservation of our political and religious 
rights, possesses a stronger claim to the con- 
sideration of Americans than this. Perhaps 
the above-named exceptions even should be 
waived, as it might be strongly urged that the 
more and more frequent recurrence of these 
hitherto unaccountable societary tornadoes 
called panics, by prostrating fortunes, scatter- 
ing savings, discouraging thrift, and number- 
less other forms of disaster, so discourage and 
generally demoralize society as to shake the 
foundations of our political, religious, and 
moral institutions. 

A most intelligent and estimable gentleman, 
president of one of our most successful banks, 
talking with the writer of this, remarked, 



" You earnestly advocate expansion of the 
currency as an eliminator of credit ; do you 
wish to be understood as desirous of entirely 
abrogating credit! ^' 

** By no means,^* was the response ; ^* but I 
urge making cash the general rule and credit 
the exception, ^especially in sections distant 
from the metropolis, where bank facilities, 
clearing-houses, and other contrivances for 
utilizing credit are not available, and where 
every dollar^s worth of production takes a 
dollar in money to move it advantageously.^ 

Our friend, not seeing the horns, hoof, and 
tail, as he evidently thought were inseparably 
connected with an advocate for expansion of 
currency, squarely joined us in deploring th« 
results of credit, unavoidable as credit might 
be. He remarked, *' The tendency of credit 
is to expansion. When that expansion 
reaches a certain point, explosion followed 
by collapse ensues.^' 

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THE REIGN OF PANICS. 



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We were too polite to say so, but it occurred 
to us at once, that be had truthfully stated 
the subject, and his next admission must log- 
ically be, that the real inflationists are the 
bankers and buUionists. 

We illustrated to him our appreciation of 
his position by the following story of Daniel 
Webster and Rufus Choate. Both were 
chronically impecunious. They met one day 
in the U. S. Senate cloak-room, each seeking 
the other for assistance in financiering. 

After long thinking as to how to get past 
three o'clock without a protest, Webster 
brightened up with, ** I vow, Choate, I be- 
tiere we can fix it. Loan me your note for 
$5,000, three months, and I believe Corcoran 
will discount it for me and we^ll divide.** 

"Done," says Choate ; " but if you will also 
let me have your note for the same amount, I 
think Riggs will do that for me, and we'll 
divide that too." 

^Brother Choate," said the immortal 
Daniel, *' with your amendment to my motion 
accepted, what the d ^1 is the use of divid- 
ing f If each man keeps his own proceeds, 
it is simpler and amounts to the same 
thing." 

" Gracious I Brother Webster," was the re- 
q>onse, *^ what a practical intellect you have ! 
I never could have planned it so admirably." 

And those two worthies exchanged notes, 
and an hour later the ledgers of the banking- 
house of Corcoran & Riggs had credits to the 
accounts of Webster and Mr. Choate — each 
|4,925--6ay $9,860; also credit to interest 
account of $150, and a debt to bills discount- 
ed of $10,000 ; and if those bankers had then 
made up a *' government return," the deposit 
account would have footed $0,850 more than 
it would have done an hour earlier. Multiply 
that transaction 100 times and the aggregate 
ii handsome. He admitted its entire perti- 
■eiice and we had forgotten the circumstance 
until Professor Price's remarks recalled it 

He began by adverting to the terrible un- 
defined fear which marked the inception of 
^ apaaic— more terrible because unexplained, — 
iiefa man's fright intensifying that of his 
|f ' Bcighbor, until, tornado-like, it had spent its 
lM<oe^ and men groped among the ruins for 
the remnant of their possessions. 

The Professor said, ^^ We know and have 
I in England, that the fathers of the city. 



the great bankers and wise men, sat in coun- 
cil all night and asked each other * What is 
the cure ? ' But a panic is not easily cured 
by sitting up all night. Some would say 
from their recurrence that they come under 
some physical law; are a periodic visitation, 
like a comet with a decennial period. A ten- 
year hnrricane is given by some as a law of 
the money market You are bound to be 
ruined every ten years. You are not con- 
scious that you have done any wrong, but it 
is simply a great typhoon raging over a great 
number of agitated minds. Is this so ? Is it 
a law of business that amounts to a physical 
law ? If it is, it certainly is a most extraor- 
dinary phenomenon, and one which ^equires 
very much bigger proof than the recurrence 
of panics. There would be a very unpleasant 
result, for if it is a law inherent in business 
there is no remedy. We can not cure typhoons 
and equinoctial gales. If they are the law of 
the money market you must reduce your sails, 
stand by your helm, and you may possibly get 
off with the loss of a mast or two. But of all 
that I believe nothing. I believe the cause 
of these panics can be stated, and when you 
know the danger and the cause likely to dis- 
turb, you can take proper precautions." 

WHAT ABB KOT THB CAUBBS. 

" A bad harvest in England was a loss of 
$150,000,000, with its sequence of buying 
bread-stuf& of the foreigner. This did not 
create a panic. 

^^ War is the most destructive thing in the 
world, but that does not create a panic. 

" Again, take a coiton famine in England. 
It was a terrible loss of money. Wealth in 
those districts was paralyzed because America 
had no cotton. The poor men had no wages. 
All that vast apparatus of capital was earning 
nothing ; consuming, buying, but not selling. 
But there was no panic. That year is not enu- 
merated as one of storm. Therefore, we don't 
get, by mere destruction alone, into a reign 
of panic." 

WHBBE IT STRIKES. 

^' The real fury of the storm, in its national 
importance in distinction to individuals, is 
its bearing upon banks, upon discounts. It 
is not so much on rate per cent, though that 
is bad enough, but it U the impowibUity qf 
discount which constitutes the terrific agita- 
tion and the loss to the nation." 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



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THB OAU819 IB TRB BO-CALLBD CBBDIT 
8T8TBH. 

" Modern trade, as you are iirell aware, is 
carried on npon a very peculiar method. I 
have no doubt it is in New York as in Eng- 
land. The characteristic is that it is carried 
on with other people*s capital, not the trad- 
ers'. The traders are not the people who pro- 
vide the capital for their business. Some they 
do proyide ; the bulk certainly not. The dis- 
tinctiye peculiarity of modem trade is that it 
is carried on by bills, and bills have to be dis- 
counted, because a bill means, * I can not pay 
to-day, but I will pay this at three months.' 
The goods are given, the sale is completed, 
and the man who sells holds in his hand a 
piece of paper which says that after three 
months he will have his money, but not be- 
fore. The man so circumstanced wants to 
go on with his business, which he can not 
do if he has to wait three months for his 
funds to come in. How are his workingmen 
to be paid or his ship to be sent away ? That 
is done by discounting bills at banks, and the 
national strain of the crisis is its action upon 
the general trade of the nation by acting up- 
on the discount market. This discounting 
takes place in banks, and, therefore, we now 
see a locality of the storm. It is somehow or 
other connected with banks. 

WHAT IS A BANK? 

*' Banks are peculiar institutions. I know a 
great many of the eminent bankers of Eng- 
land well. I have asked directors of banks, 
the Governor of the Bank of England, and 
personages of that kind a very simple ques- 
tion ; but I never met only one man, dead and 
gone now, who could answer me this ques- 
tion : What is a bank f and what does a bank 
deal in ? That lies at the root of the ques- 
tion of crises. 

** I know what a grocer is. He deals in 
candles, in tea, in sago. I know what a fruit- 
er is. If I ask such a man what he deals in, 
he has not the slightest difficulty in answer- 
ing my question. Now, will any gentleman 
in this room favor me with a reply? [A 
pause.] Can't anybody tell me? Some of 
you are probably bankers. Do you think mo 
a very troublesome fellow to ask you such 
questions? [Laughter.] You draw checks 
and you pay them, and that is enough for 
you." 



And right here let us remark, that this 
"Chamber of Congress," — ^this body which 
demands consultation and influence in the 
shaping the financial management of this 
nation, whose words are thought to be enti- 
tled to all the respect of the utterances ftt>m 
Mount Sinai ; these Sir Oracles, who expect 
no dogs to bark when they open their mouths, 
could not one of them teU what vxm a hank^ ichat 
it dealt w, and what were itsfanetvme. 

Shade of Dickens 1 If you were present you 
would have seen the Hon. Montague Tigg and 
Captain Jack Bunsby thrown in the shade. 
And when the old iconoclast told them that 
bankers dealt in money only to a very tM^ht 
extent; that their functions were those sim- 
ply of Irohers in credit^ and challenged them to 
discuss the question, it is not surprising that 
the old schoolmaster in the contempt he must 
have felt, told them that a dozen of his boys 
at Oxford could have readily answered his 
questions. 

But the point of the joke is yet to come 
The expected arrival of the worthy professor 
was duly announced by the city press, with 
mighty laudations, in true American flunky 
style, in those same columns which had never 
alluded to American teachers of the same 
truths, excepting in terms of scurrility and 
insult. With the same cringing servility and 
sycophantic toadyism, the Chamber of Com- 
merce was urged to invite him to address 
them, and when he told them in more or less 
polite terms that they were ignoramuses and 
inflationists of the worst sort, the fathers of 
panics, the stimulators of speculation, and as 
a corrollary crushers of production they threw 
up their hats in joy and published his caustic 
criticisms as a " campaign document.** 

And all this reminds us of a very pleasant 
personal experience with the president of that 
same Chamber of Commerce. 

Desiring some statistical information,- we 
obtained access to their library, and were very 
politely treated by the gentlemanly presi- 
dent, who informed us that he was the au- 
thor of that series of articles which were then 
conspicuously appearing over the signature of 
^'Knickerbocker," in the TVmea, and which, 
by the way, were very extensively copied, in- 
deed, and afterward republished in pamphlet 
form, and to this day are by many considered 
authority. The worthy l^jeff4^t Xf^^ned us 

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1875.] 



TEE REIGN OF PANICS. 



93 



to them M authority as far as they went in 
^ati^cSb 

We politely soggested certain errors which 
might be typogn^ibicaL 

''Impossible,'' was the response, ^^the edi- 
tor of the Timet sends the proo£s to me for 
refision.'* 

We pointed oat the errors and he insisted 
on the correctness of his figures until he con- 
salted the anthorities we designated, when 
he gracefully caved and expressed grateful 
appreciation of the favor we had done him, 
as he should have done, as, if not corrected, 
his errors mighl have been severely criti- 
cized. Notwithstanding which, he, knowing 
oar views on finance, invited a discussion. 

We declined, quoting the language of a 
recent personal letter from ex-Chancellor 
Halsted, saying: 

'* I was surprised to learn that ' a year since 
you would have thought the idea of a cur- 
rency without a gold basis a blasphemy.* I 
have long — ^many years — been of opinion 
that the so-called specie-basis system is a 
dieer absurdity, a false pretense. What per- 
centage of a sufficient circulating medium 
could be redeemed in specie ? The country 
wants, and the people are fast coming to the 
idea of a currency based directly on the credit 
of the €k)vemment, convertible into govern- 
ment bonds bearing a low rate of interest I 
agree with you that it has always been rash 
for this country to allow specie to be the 
basis Of our cun^pncy, and that nofr, when our 
currency has stood more firmly than ever, sub- 
jected to almost the greatest supposable 
strain for a dozen years (based on the credit 
of the government), to return to a system 
which has so often subjected us to ruinous 
monetary disturbances, would indeed be * in- 
sanity.' What stronger proof than the fre- 
quent recurrence of such disturbances do 
men want, that a money system on a so- 
called specie basis is, in Cioero^s words, in 
reference to another matter, ^non modo iin- 
ynHnUj 9ed etiam fcA/wu ' — ^not only what it 
ought to be, but also silly.'' 

On his further pressing the point, we agreed 
to such discussion, providing he would show 
that this nation pcrasesses one single gold dol- 
lar free frt>m daims of foreign creditors on 
which to base our currency, and consequently 
our industries and commerce. 



His response was that we had the material 
to draw the same from Europe. 

We responded, ** Surely not by produce, as 
the balance of trade is to strongly against 
us." 

" They want our bonds^" was his response. 
" Why ? " " For investment, to obtain the 
interest" " Yes," was our rejoinder, ** and , 
if no other element of mischief existed, our 
paying for the use of money twice what the 
average earnings of production yields would 
rapidly land us in bankruptcy and repudia- 
tion." 

We introduce this experience and that with 
the bank president before quoted as impor- 
tant testimony concurrent in various points 
with the more immediate sul^ect-matter. 

The Professor resumed — 

A BAimSB IS NOT A DBALEB IN KOKST. 

"Now the gentleman will probably say 
that a banker deals in money. I say, No. I 
deny that fiat. A banker is not a dealer in 
money. It is not an affair of money. I dare 
say many gentlemen wiU fire at me now. 
Shot for shot It is all fair. [Another pause, 
waiting for a reply.] Well, gentlemen, you 
don't seem ready for a fight. Well, we will 
go on then." 

Mr. Price then defined the word money as 
being derived from the Temple of Juno 
Moneta — the mint of Rome. Strictly speak- 
ing, coined metal was the only money, but he 
was very willing in this discussion to include 
bank notes as money. 

Mr. Opdyke inquired,!^ In what class would 
you place the paper promises issued by the 
United States Government that are made 
legal tenders ? " 

Professor Price, " They come under the def- 
inition that I have ^ven of money in the 
secondary sense. They roll about just like 
coin, and are taken fr^m hand to hand. Sir 
John Lubbock, of Robarts <& Co., analyzed 
the receipts of £19,000,000 of that firm, and 
found that in that amount £8 in £100 were 
cash, and ten shillings only were coin." 

Think of that, oh, ye who howl against the 
present volumn of currency of this nation, 
knowing as you do that is but half the amount 
per head of any other civilized nation. 

Think of the English solid, conservative . 
specie basis circulation wabbling around like 
a top with a basis of fifty cents to the $100. 

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PHRBNOLOGIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Feb., 



A BANKBB B88ENTIALLT A BBOKBB. 

^*A banker is essentially a broker. That is 
his true character and nature ; an interme- 
diate agent between two principals. Bank- 
ing has nothing to do with money, except in 
one single point. I can not thoroughly ex- 
plain that now. If you tell a banker to issue 
notes, he of course sells them to the public 
Erery note that is issued by the Bank of 
England or the United States Government, 
or by a private individual, is sold. The cus- 
tomers of this banker are the buyers. He 
collects their bills and he pays them in his 
bills. To that extent there is a resource in 
the banker who lends upon discount. That 
extent we know is limited in many cases. It 
has disappeared in England from the country 
banks." 

THE SPBOIB PIVOT IS NOT THB DfPOBTAin? 
MATTBB. 

" Now what is the good of all this investi- 
gation? What reference has it to crises? 
This ; that, as I said before, as banking is the 
region for commercial typhoons and hurri- 
canes, it is essential to see the causes that act 
upon banking, and it is not from such rubbish 
as a certain quantity of bank notes, certain 
things in the £8 in the hundred ; it is from 
these 97 things, and they are goods, are prop- 
erty, are goods sold, parted with, and the 
contract expressed on pieces of paper to pay 
money on demand or at the time specified.'' 

The reader will please remember that the 
97 things^ refer to Sir John Lubbock's analy- 
sis above quoted, which was in liquidation 
of £100 indebtedness thus— 

specie per cent X 

Banknotes....; S^ 

"Other things" 97 

Total £100 

^* Tliat is the force of banking, and, there- 
fore, gentlemen, if banking is abundant, it is 
because many goods have been sold, and the 
selters of these goods do not want to buy 
much. Let me repeat it. Banking is easy, 
discount is easy, the rate of interest is low, in 
the proportion that men have given away 
their goods and are not disposed to buy to a 
corresponding full extent of other goods. 
Then bankers have much to lend. But when 
this is the other way ; when the fanner has 
spent all his capital in caring for his fSeu-m, 
and the bad and naughty weather comes in 



August, and the com is spoiled, then the poor 
farmer is in very different circumstances with 
his banker. With a good harvest he has 
plenty of time to wait When he has no 
wheat, or little to sell, he goes into town— 
perhaps has his old horse to replace with a 
new one — and he puts nothing in his bank- 
er's hands and very possibly he asks him to 
lend him money. Look at the effect upon the 
banker. His means are reduced because the 
farmer deposited nothing and perhaps wanted 
money, and to whom he must lend. That is 
abundant means for banking and poor means 
for banking." 

In summing up the professor explains that 
so long as the trust ^nds in the banker's 
hands are kept entirely within his control; 
that if £5,000 ($25,000) are deposited with 
him for thirty days, and if he loans it and is 
sure to get it back before the depositor calls 
for it, all right. 

" But, encouraged by the size of his deposit 
figures, which may be and generally are con- 
structively derived from discounts, as we ex- 
emplified in the Webster and Choate experi- 
ence, he lends to a gentleman of great estate, 
£10,000 a year, whose land is capable of a 
great deal of improvement, and who wants to 
lay out £50,000 upon it. The banker is satis- 
fied with the solidity of the squire, and lends 
him the £50,000 to drain his land with. The 
man goes on draining, and what takes place ? 
He puts laborers to work. They eat, they 
drink, they wear their clothes out, and so on. 
The work may take a couple of years. What 
has been going on ? A great destruction of 
property, which is not reproduced. The silk 
man sells his silk, and that is reproduced. If 
you were to set all the inhabitants to making 
holes in the ground, and then to fill them up 
again, the result would be that at the end of 
the year they would all starve. You would 
want to get your coflins ready, because you 
would have been eating up all your stores, 
and when the operation is over you have no- 
thing at alL Then how is Mr. Banker in his 
position. The squire can not pay. His drain- 
ing has not been productive. The produce 
will come five years hence. But the food and 
clothing of the workingmen have been used 
up. The banker's resources fail therefore. 
Then come the crises. They are the conse- 
quences of the destruction of property which 

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AMERICAN IRON SHIPS. 



95 



is not replaced,'* and the principle inyolred 
in this demonstration is developed in inten- 
sity in proportion to the magnitude of enter- 
prises and the length of time required for re- 
imbursement. 

If the reader has carefully read the forego- 
ing he will have seen that all the professor's 
heavy and well-directed shots are aimed 
square at the head of credit as distinguished 
from cash transactions. 

^ The moral to the bankers is, look to the 
state of things made, the quantity of bread 
made, clothes, shoes, etc. Some banks may 
say, * Am I to look at all that ? Am I to 
watch the progress of the nation and know 
what everything means ? Tou are not a prac- 
tical fellow. Tou dont understand the bank- 
ing world.' Very well, then. Then comes 
the whirlwind. Don't blame me. It seems 
to me just as though you deliberately said 
that yoQ would rather have the storms than 
do as I say." 

When Professor Price is sufficiently relieved 
ei the attention of his obsequious worship- 
ers to study the history of our national 
finance for the past twelve years, he will find 
that, as soon as we cut loose from the silly 



adhesion to specie and based our currency on 
the resources of the nation, thus furnishing 
the government with ample means to make 
its enormous purchases for cash, production 
was wonderfully stimulated, credit was fast 
being eliminated, debts and mortgages were 
rapidly being paid of!^ mercantile failures 
were of rare and rarer occurrence, we passed 
the fatal tenth year when the panic was due 
without a ripple, and were fast solving the 
problem whether credits and their attendant 
panics could or could not be eliminated. 

But that school of political economists rep- 
resented by the Chamber of Commerce, hav- 
ing abandoned us at our hour of peril, sneaked 
again into our national councils, and, by their 
sophistries, ci^oleries, bribes, and intimida- 
tions, changed the fair aspect of our prosper- 
ous land to the den of idleness and bankruptcy 
which it now is. We trust that, as our credit 
mongers have so fully succeeded in destroy- 
ing the industries of this nation in annihilat- 
ing our cash resources. Professor Price will 
not cease in his warfare upon the enforced 
credit inflationists and their attendant panic 
imp until they shall be stricken so low that 
there can be no resurrection. 



AMEBIGAN IRON SHIPS. 



THE Nautical OatetU becomes "jolly" 
over the fact that our mercantile marine, 
almost destroyed or driven from the seas dur- 
ing the late war, is in a fair way of being re- 
established. Here is what it sayf : 

^ We are informed that already an Ameri- 
can iron ship-building firm on the Delaware 
is advertising in European newspapers that 
it is prepared to contract for vessels of all 
classes, to be built of the best American iron, 
jLnd at prices as low — ^if not lower — as can 
be obtained on the Clyde, Thames, or Mer- 
sey. 

"Although this announcement may sur- 
prise many of our readers, it does not sur- 
prise us, for long since we stated in these 
columns that this would be the result within 
a few years. The truth is, that our ship 
yards will ere long be thronged with busy 
artisans, turning out the best of ships for our 
tmnsatlantic cousins. We do not at first ex- 



pect to fill orders for British ship owners, but 
our early orders will come from Qermany, 
France, and other continental countries, and 
then in due season we shall fill orders from 
Great Britain. We can imagine the smiles 
wreathing the mouths of some of our canny 
Scotch readers;, but laugh as you may, dear 
friends, our words will come true. Our turn 
is coming, and we shall not only expect to 
reap a rich reward for ourselves, but to fur- 
nish a better ship than the world has seen for 
many a long day. We have everything here 
to enable us to fulfill our statements, and wc 
intend to let the world know it." 

A San Francisco paper, in allusion to the 
improvement which has begun to be notice- 
able in our American marine, says : 

"The increase in tonnage for 1878 over 
1872 was 628 vessels, with an aggregate ca- 
pacity of 150,164 tons. John Roach, the 
eminent American builder of iron ships, has 



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PHBBNOLOQICAL JOURNAL, 



[Feb., 



publicly announced that he is prepared to 
construct auch resaels at no greater expense 
than if they were built in England. The 
fact is, our ship-building interests have nercfr 
been nearly as promising since 1860 as they 
are at the present moment. As an example 
of the activity now prevailing Jn our ship 
yards, we cite the fact that for the single week^ 
ending July 25th, no less than sixty Ameri- 



can-built marchant vessels were awarded of- 
ficial numbers, and several of these vessels 
registered 1,500 and 1,600 tons each, while 
a large proportion registered frotti' 800 to 
800 tons each. We trust that tiiere will be 
no more frantic outbursts of lamentation on 
this very important subject, but that those 
who undertake to discuss it will first make 
themselves acquainted with the facts." 



♦ •» 



ISAAC C. BUCKHOUT, 

LATE GHIEF-SNGINSBR OF THB NEW TOBK AND HABLEH BAILWAY. 



ACOMPARA.TIVELY young man, yet as 
an engineer Mr. Buckhout had earned 
a reputation which would be considered 
highly creditable to any man in his profes- 
sion, and his death, on the 27th of Septem- 
ber last, is generally regretted as a loss to 
New York. Phrenologically, he was well 
organized. Combined with a large, well- 
balanced brain of fine quality were the tem- 
peramental conditions required for the most 
favorable results. The head was long and 
high. Observe the distance from the cen- 
ter of the ear to the top, and to the fore- 
head. The bulk of the brain was forward 
and above the ears ; consequently, his mind 
took an intellectual and a psychological di- 
rection. He was at once scientific, philo- 
sophical, and prophetic. He was also emi- 
nently social, kindly, and companionable, 
but of that quiet, unobtrusive nature, which 
does not exhibit the strength of its emotions 
except on occasions which compel their ex- 
pression. His features, as shown in the por- 
trait, were smooth and symmetrical, and his 
character, also, had little of the rugged, 
harsh, or severe in its composition. His fac- 
ulties acted with but little friction, yet were 
intense and thorough in function. Large in 
intellect, both perceptive and reflective, and 
he was an observer and a thinker. He had 
large Order, and was methodical ; large Cal- 
culation, and excelled in mathematics; large 
Causality, Spirituality, and Constructiveness, 
and he was original and creative ; Imitative, 
too, but more given to original plans and 
projects. Integrity was a leading trait in his 
character. He was honorable in all things. 
Isaac C. Buckhout was bom in Eastchester, 



Westchester County, Nj Yi, November, 1880. 
His early education was received at a pub- 
lic school. He first entered the business 
world as an assistant to Andrew Findlay, 
surveyor, in laying out the village of Morris- 
ania. From the experience here gained he 
felt his heart to be in the work ; and, choos- 
ing the profession of an engineer, he entered 
the New York University, where he received 
a thorough course of instruction under Prol 
Davies. In 1848 he was employed under 
Allan Campbell as rodman, in laying out the 
Harlem Railway, from Dover Plains to Chat- 
ham Four Corners. In 1851 he went with J. 
W. Allen, civil-engineer, and under his di- 
rection surveyed and laid out the city of Pat- 
erson, N. J. Returning to New York, he ob- 
tained an appointment as city surveyor, and 
entered into partnership with Captain South- 
ard. Resuming his connection with the Har- 
lem Railway, he superintended the construc- 
tion of the old viaduct over Harlem Flats, and 
the bridge over the Harlem River in 1853. 

In 1857 he was appointed engineer of the 
Harlem Railway Company, and in 1863 was 
made engineer and general superintendent, 
which position he held imtil July, 1872, when 
he resigned the superintendency. In 1806 
he designed complete plans for the New 
York City Central Underground Railway, a 
private corporation, of which Wm. B. Og- 
den was president. He next superintended 
the construction of the iron bridge over the 
Harlem River, the piers of which stand aa 
monuments of his skill. He designed the 
Grand Central D6p6t, New York, and also 
drew plans for a much larger one at St. Louis, 
which were accepted and adopted. He made 

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I8AAC 0. BUCKHOUT 



97 



plans of both the Underground and Elevated 
Railwajs for Ck>nimodore Yanderbilt, which 
were adopted ; and designed plans for an un- 
deigroand railway in Brooklyn, which were 
accepted. In 1872 he completed the plans 
for the Fourth Arenue Improvement, and 
was superintending engineer of this great 
work at the time of his death. He was also 



their request, for their building on Broadway 
New York. 

These extensive works are the more nota- 
ble of Mr. Buckhout's designing, and there 
were plans innumerable which his fertile 
brain had executed for charitable and private 
purposes. As a writer says, '* It can hardly 
be a wonder that he scarcely reached his 




at the same time engaged in engineering the 
Sixtieth Street Improvement, where there are 
in process of building bulkheads, piers, cat- 
tle-yards, and an immense grain elevator for 
the New York Central and Hudson River 
Railway Company. He also made plans for 
the Western Union Telegraph Company, by 



prime, for, with an overwrought brain, he 
was as conscientious in superintending every 
detail of the work as it progressed as he 
had always been in originating plans. ^' He 
was a victim of malaria (typhus fever), as- 
sisted or aggravated by overwork, exposure, 
and ceaseless anxiety. 

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PEBBNOLOGIOAL JOURNAL. 



[F«B., 



tprlnmit of |jur Social ||clatJon», 




l>lllb^Ci« tl4prl11^!««t tllUd DDir bl^B* 

Qi it*niltM \U*X bu «ai'Tlv«d 11m {kl:i I 



A>. 




THE KEY TO WOMAN'S SUCCESS. 

COUNSEL FOR THOSE WHO FEEL THAT THEY ABE DENIED THEIR PROPER PLACE IN THE 

WORLD. 



FIRST of all, my dear madam, have you 
a clear and practical idea of the thing 
you desire to do ? Have you a definite, 
calmly-considered, coolly-chosen aim in life, 
and the conscious ability, the determined 
pluck, resolution, daring, and perseverance 
to stand by it through all the blandishments 
of temptation and the dead, stifling atmo- 
spheres of discouragement? Are you ready 
to sacrifice personal ease and enjoyments, 
the love, sympathy, and companionship of 
friends, the flattering opinioti and approval 
of society, the graces, sweetnesses, intoxica- 
tions of an idle, irresponsible, aimless exist- 
ence, to the stern duty of accomplishing the 
higher end you hold in view? Have you 
the courage to face serenely the stinging 
sneers of scorn and contempt, to take meekly 
the jeering flings at your weakness and in- 
experience, and to push your way, unaided 
and alone, amid the rush and jostle of com- 
petition, with eye fixed singly, and heart set 
wholly, on the goal of your ambition ? 

Or is there, in place of a steadfast mark, 
only a glimmer and shimmer of dancing 
lights before your vision, instead of a firm- 
seated love, a flutter of great aspirations in 
your bosom, a yearning and sighing and cry- 
ing for some far-ofl*, indeflnable good ; a rest- 
less, vague, unhappy longing to do and be« 
and gain something, somewhere, somehow 
that shall make you the envied, admired, 
worshiped, and Jeted heroine of a nineteenth 
century romance ? Do you expect to glide 
along to the fulfillment and consummation 
of your grand, soaring, beautifully-shining, 
yet confused and indistinct desires, without 
cross or hindrance, struggle or surrender, 
missing no enjoyment, dispensing with no 
luxury, loitering, dreaming, pulling posies, 
singing songs, telling tales, casting lots by 



the way ? Do you look, because you are a 
woman, for all obstructions to be swept 
from your path, for gallant bestowal of priv- 
ileges and advantages in the unequal race of 
weakness with strength, for men to stretch 
out helpful hands in rough, precipitous 
places, and even to bear you on their shoul- 
ders up the dizzy heights to which your 
giddy fancy points ? 

On your honest self-examination and can- 
did answer to these questionings depend 
the assurance of your success or the certainty 
of your failure in worldly undertakings. If 
you are brave, strong, self-poised, self-de- 
pendent, shirking no hardships, shrinking 
from no responsibilities, asking no favors, 
pleading no exemptions from the general 
and impartial rule; patient, constant, active, 
cheerful, ready and willing to accept all 
risks, to take the bitter with the sweet, the 
rough with the fair, the disappointment with 
the reward, going straight with unwavering 
and unflinching resolution to the mark that 
is clearly set before you, then the worfd has 
not only a place and a mission for you, but 
a need so imperative that it will never cease 
its importunate calls, nor let you slip from 
the ranks of its busy and earnest toilers un- 
til, still striving for goals of higher en- 
deavor, you fall at the gate that opens to 
the wide freedom of the stars. 

But if you are uncertain of what grand, 
startling, overpowering thing you want to 
do ; if you are afraid of hard, unrelaxing, un- 
romantic, and uncongenial labor ; if you cry 
out at every smart and hurt and pain ; if you 
expect others to carry your burdens, and to 
lift you up to the attainment of your hopes 
and ambitions, it must be that you will often 
flnd yourself neglected, overlooked, outrun, 
and pushed to the wall by the rushing crowd 



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THE KST TO WOMAN'S SUCCESS. 



09 



of eager aspiiants, who know clearly what 
thej striye for, and your lofty claims disre- 
garded and set aside for the foolish, feeble, 
weak, and vain assumptions that they are. 

It is all very grieyons uid wounding, 
without question, but there's no use whining 
orer and bruising one's self against the hai-d, 
inSS^^ a^d immoyable rocks of fact. It 
has been said a thousand times, and may 
need to be said a thousand times more: 
There can be no success without resolute, 
nnyarying purpose, without persistent, unre- 
mitting effort, and the sacrifice of many pre- 
cious things which it would be sweet to 
keep. 

Men are not so generotts as to yield their 
own dearly-earned priyileges and advantages 
to weaker claimants, for whom it is so much 
easier to coin tender and gallant phrases. 
Women are not so trustworthy, and so well 
disciplined that they discharge with ability 
and entire fidelity the duties abeady con- 
signed to their hands. The ofSces that they 
covet are not so satisfying, nor so wide- 
reaching in power and influence as appeared 
in the hot, breathless struggle of attainment. 
Neither men, nor women, nor offices are what 
they might be, nor what they shall be when 
time and events have wrought a more per- 
fect work and adjusted each and all to true 
and harmonious relations. 

There is mhch to learn, much to be en- 
dured, much to be developed in this era of 
our progress frbm the darkness and bondage 
of error and superstition to the divine light 
and freedom of knowledge and truth. Bare 
afiSrmation and denial will not meet the de- 
mands of our day. All things must be 
proTcn. That woman has the latent power 
and inherent right to compete honorably 
and successfully with her brother in the re- 
spotisibilities and rewards of public life, a 
jew just, candid, and clear-seeing souls have 
eeurage to believe and declare, adducing in- 
fltances, rare but bright, in support of their 
daring fiiith. But it remains for the great 
body of womankind to justify and enlarge 
this generous confidence, so that there shall 
be no longer any doubt and caviling and 
discussion regarding the vital and important 
matter. And this can be done practically, 
not by clamor, appeal, an<f assertion, but by 
honest, hearty, thorough, and determined 



work in avenues already open, or in those 
which patience and perseverance may force. 
To be sure, it would be vastly easier, and in- 
finitely more agreeable, to make one*s elec- 
tion, and foUow one's chosen vocation with- 
out having to encounter the opposition of 
public sentiment, but the victory is always 
greater, and the discipline more perfect in 
proportion to the resistance overcome. It 
is something better to demonstrate to sneer- 
ing, captious, prejudiced unbelievers the fact 
of your ability to perform worthily a good 
and useful work in fields where your right 
to work at all is contested, than to act with 
every worldly advantage in your favor, and 
to achieve only, or less than, the results ex- 
pected and exacted of you. 

What, after all, is this loud outcry of 
wrong and injustice about? You do not 
want permission to exlybit your inferiority 
— your incapacity — in short, you do not ask 
leave to make a fool of yourself. When you 
have moved heaven and earth to get the 
tardy and ungracious acknowledgment of 
your rights, and the unwillingly-granted op- 
portunity to exercise them, it will be a little 
mortifying to fail, from any reason, to prove 
the justice and validity of your claims, giv- 
ing your watchful opponents thereby fresh 
ground for argument against your false pre- 
tensions. But if there be any honest work, 
in or out of your prescribed sphere, which 
you feel in your soul the power and the will 
to do, in God*8 name lay hold of it and pur- 
sue it with love and courage to the limits, 
and beyond the limits of law and conven- 
tion, trusting to the wisdom, sagacity, rea- 
sonableness, and equity of law- makers and 
conventionists to enlarge your boundaries 
and remove all arbitrary and unnatural re- 
strictions to the free play and employment 
of your capabilities. 

This perpetual reproach and storm of ap- 
peal to men, as if their sense of right was 
too obtuse to perceive the fairness of your 
demands, and their selfishness too intense 
and absorbing to yield to them except upon 
compulsion, creates a bitterness and strife of 
feeling above what is needful. Assume that 
whatever is conducive to your happiness, de- 
velopment, usefulness, and general good you 
have the undoubted liberty to take, quietly, 
firmly, without bluster or defiance, and the 

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[Feb., 



honor, dignity, chivalry, and self-respect of 
manhood will not forbid. When we look at 
it coolly, we see clearly enough that it is 
never contention and discussion which set- 
tles any uncertain and disputed question of 
morals or manners, the proof of actual ex- 
periment alone having power and sufficiency 
to break down the prejudice and opposition 
of obstinate and opinionated fogyism, and 
establish a new and better order of life and 
things. 

Are you ready, my friend, to give this test 
to the world ? Will you longer spend in ex- 
hortation, accusation, and abuse the breath 
that mi^ht be made so much more convinc- 
ing and available in actual and earnest 
deeds f The time has been when the sharp, 
pointed, piercing, and pursuing clamor of 



tongues was needed to open the sight and 
quicken the consciences of men; but the 
hour of speech is past, the day of action is 
begun. Evils without number you may have 
still to overcome, but if there be one wrong 
more grievous, and more to be complained 
of than another, it is the molding and train- 
ing of centuries of ignorance and supersti- 
tion which have made you so irrational, in- 
consistent, uncertain, and unreliable a creat- 
ure that now, when your own loud outcry of 
injustice and oppression has stricken the 
fetters of barbaric laws from your limbs, you 
stand regretfully holding the broken links 
of your beloved chain, shivering and shrink- 
ing from the wide, cold, untried freedom 
and self-dependence that you asked. 

A. L. MUZZET. 



BEFORE AND AFTER SCHOOL. 



BBFORB SCHOOL. 

**QnABTBR to nine! Boys and girls, do yon 

hear?" 
*' One more buckwheat, then— be qaick, mother, 

dear. 
Where is my luncheon-box ? "— " Under the shelf, 
Just in the place you left it yourself I " 
**I can't say my table !'*—" Oh, find me my 

cap!" 
** One kiss for mamma and sweet Sis in her lap." 
»*Be good, dearl"— **ril try."—" 9 times Q's 

81." * 
•*Take your mittens!"— "All right."-** Hurry 

up, Bill; let's run." 
With a slam of the door they are off, girls and 

boys, 
And the mother draws breath in the lull of their 

noise. 



AFTBR SCHOOL. 

"Don't wake up the baby! Come gently, my 

dear ! " 
"Oh, mother! I've torn my new dress. Just look 

here! 
I'm sorry, I was only climbing the wall," 
"Oh, mother, my map was the nicest of ^1 ! " 
" And Nelly, in spelling, went up to the head ! " 
" Oh, say I can I go out on the hill with my sled ? " 
" I've got such a toothache."—" The teacher's un- 
fair!" 
" Is dhiner 'most ready ? I'm just like a bear? " 
Be patient, worn mother, they're growing up fast. 
These nursery whirlwinds, not long do they last ; 
A still, lonely house would be far worse than the 

noise ; 
Rejoice and be glad iu your brave girls and boys ! 
— J2. /. Schootmaatar, 



JAITE UADLET. 



JANE HADLEY sat in the kitchen door- 
way of her father^s house, resolving, as 
she had done many times, to end her present 
mode of existence. Not that it was any 
worse in reality than it had always been, but 
Jane had outgrown it,, and her constant 
thought was to escape from it. 

** I can not lead this life any longer, father," 
she said, *^ it is degrading. To stay here all 
my life, to chum, and scrub, and black boots 
for my bread, is paying a price beyond its 



value, and I can not endure it. You have 
given the two boys the control of your busi- 
ness, and the girls are muried, save Marga- 
ret, and she soon will be. Then I shall be 
the drudge for her husband, as I have been 
for Hettie^s and her children, and I have 
made up my mind to find a home elsewhere.^ 
" What do you keq) preaching about your 
condition for, Jane ? it 'pears to me you aint 
half as grateful As you ought to be for what 
you've got," he answered. 

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JANE HAD LET. 



101 



*" Grateful I" she replied; "no, I am not 
gratefid for anything, for there is nothing to 
be grateful for. I am going where I can earn 
my living as a man does bis, without let or 
hindrance ; where my time will belong to my- 
self after I have done my daily work; where 
there will be no sisters to quarrel wiUi me, 
no brothers-in-law to attend to my shortcom- 
ings foT me, no vagabond brothers to insult 
me with insiniiations that I don^t work hard 
enough.** 

''Get married, then, like the others.** 

" Father, the kind of men who have come 
courting in this family are not the quality 
that satisfy me.*' 

" Jane Hadley, you are a fool,** cried her 
eldest sister, Hetty, who at that moment came 
out to where they were sitting. " You ought 
to get married, as father says, and get off his 
handa.** 

" Aa you have done, Mrs. Green,** replied 
Jane* 

The bare hint of this kind was enough to 
throw Hetty into a passion, and Jane knew 
it, for she had not gained anything by her 
marriage. The quarrel waxed warm, and the 
other members of the family came out to re- 
inforce the injured party, as they always 
termed anybody who was at war with Jane. 

The girl had reason to be nervous and 
tired that night. She had commenced the 
day with a headache ; yet she had ironed and 
cooked, and did chores, while Margaret sat 
in the parlor entertaining her beau, and Het- 
ty and her step-mother gossiped with a neigh- 
bor who was spending the day. The chil- 
dren, too, had worried her; for Hetty had 
two unnily urchins who were always in her 
way when the others wished to be relieved 
of their care. Now the day was over, and 
she sat there to quiet her head and rest Her 
£ither always fretted her with his fault-find- 
ing, and this night it was particularly jarring 
OB the poor unstrung nerves. Her step- 
mother made Hie harder for her than it would 
otho-wise have been ; yet it had never been 
a bed of roses. Her own mother had long 
been dead ; perhaps, if she had lived, the 
lonely, tired girl would have not been so ut- 
terly cast off; as it was, there was nothing 
bat tetagonism for her. 

*'Jane is always putting on airs, and 
making herself believe she is too good to 



work here, as we have done,*' said Margaret, 
who had never done any work of any account 
in her life. 

" And did not have as much as she could 
eat every day of her life,** chimed in Jake, 
the eldest brother. 

" Jane never wanted to go off and set up 
for herself until she met the city people who 
were in the village last summer,*^ was Hetty's 
response. 

" She wants to learn some women's rights 
views,'* said Margaret 

" Her pl^U», like all women*s, is in her fami- 
ly, with her mother and sisters,'* said Hetty's 
husband, the vagabond who had married her 
for a home. 

" Who is my mother and my sisters 1 '* ex- 
claimed the poor victim, her white face more 
pallid than ever. "He is my brother who 
protects me, and my sister is she who loves 
me. I have neither the one nor the other,** 
saying which she turned away, and walked 
wearily up-stairs to her little room. 

Once locked in this friendly retreat, she 
threw herself on the bed and wept bitterly. 
She longed to die, and be out of the wretch- 
edness and misery in which she lived. Then 
she thought of her mother, and somehow the 
mother in heaven seemed nearer to her than 
the household about her. She was restless ; 
an undefinable feeling seemed to possess her. 
It seemed to her that she was not alone ; that 
some one was near her; that if she could only 
catch the sound she could hear her mother 
speaking to her. Gradually she grew quiet 
and was soothed by the stillness and peace 
of the silent hour. It helped her to be still, 
for she learned how to think and plan ra- 
tionally,' not passionately, as she had before 
been forced to do. It was easy to act now. 
The way teemed opening before her, and 
something, perhaps it was her conscience, 
kept asking her questions that could not be 
passed over unanswered. 

" How much money have you, Jane, that 
is your own, and in your own possession ? '* 
it asked. 

, "Ten dollars,*' she answered, aloud, for- 
getting that she was alone. 

" What would you rather do as a life pur- 
suit?'* 

"I woilld rather teach little children, or 
be a clerk in a village with a library, which 

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I could read, or do any kind of work that 
would take me to a town or city, and let me 
live systematically, as I never can here." 

" Where can I go ? " she added, in an earn- 
est query that surprised herself. 

Thinking earnestly for a long time, she re- 
membered that a cousin of her mother^s, 
whom she had never seen, was a milliner in 
Linnville, a village a hundred miles away. 

" That's it 1 " she exclaimed. " I will go to 
Cousin Miriam, and ask her for work until I 
can learn of some position I can fill.'' Her 
resolution once taken, she was surprised that 
she had not thought of it before ; it seemed 
so easy of accomplishment. Just as does 
anything that one has been prepared by 
thought and suffering, long-continued, to un- 
dertake suddenly, and at the right moment. 
But the way has not just opened, it has been 
opening gradually, as one is being strength- 
ened to walk in it. 

It did not require much effort to arrange 
her small wardrobe, after which she set her 
room in order, and then dressed herself for 
traveling. It was past twelve o'clock when 
she had put everything to rights, and at two 
the man would be up to start to market She 
intended to go with him, yet without his 
knowledge at first. So, putting out the light 
and carefully unlocking her door, she glided 
down the back stairs and through the kitch- 
en door, out into the yard. 

The market man was already astir, and she 
lost no time in getting to the wagon. It was 
a large, old-fashioned, covered afiiedr, filled 
with barrels and baskets of vegetables and 
fruits, and behind these she climbed and 
seated herself on a box which she had 
thoughtfully provided. For moik than an 
hour she sat there waiting for the horses to 
be fed and harnessed. Then they started, 
and along the high-road they jogged, the 
moon shining bright, and the stats twinkling 
in all the heavens. 

As they neared the town, Jane hesitated as 
to what was best to do. She had said in her 
note, which she had left on her table for her 
father, that she should go with Abram, yet 
she was not willing to have him know of her 
presence. Fearing, however, that if he saw 
her get out at the market-place there would 
be a scene, she determined to speak to 
him. 



"Abram," she called, ^*I am uncomforta- 
ble here ; may I sit on the front seat ? " 

The man reined up his horses and looked 
about him in a startled, frightened way. He 
did not know where the voice came from. 

" It is me, Jane Hadley, Abram, so please 
don't be afraid that it is your ghost" 

" Golly, miss, how you did skeer a fellow ; 
but what are you doing there?" Abram 
was a staunch friend of Jane's, and had often 
openly muttered at the way in which her 
family treated her. 

**I am going away from the farm a bit, 
Abram, and I did not want Hetty, nor any 
one, to know of it In fact, I only made up 
my mind after they had all gone to bed last 
night, and I knew I could trust you to take 
me safely." 

Jane was not mistaken in the trust she re- 
posed in the kind-hearted man. Perhaps if 
she had let him know of her going before 
they started, he would not have taken her, 
but eight miles away,- he felt differently; he 
was her protector now, and would see her 
safely wherever she would go. 

" But where are you going, Miss Jane ? " 
he asked. 

" To a better place than I have left, Abram, 
I hope, but don't try to know now. I will 
thank you if you will not ask me, and when 
I am situated so that I can write, I will send 
you word where I am. I know you will be^ 
glad to hear that I am doing well, will you 
not, Abram ? " 

" That I will. Miss Jane, and I will help 
you if you wish for anything. 

"Thank you, Abram, I shall not go far 
just now, because I have not money enough ; 
but I am not afraid of the future. I will 
make my way." 

" Sure you will, ma'am. You know how 
to work for them what aint good to you. I 
guess you will please whoever treats you de- 
cent." 

At last they drove up to the market, and 
Abram jumped down and offered his hand to 
his companion. She asked the hour, and 
finding it was nearly time for the train to 
pass, she alighted, bade adieu to the honest 
friend she was leaving, and, with tears 
streaming down her face, she turned away to 
go into the wide world alone. 

It was an all-day long journey to Linnville, 

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JANE HADLET. 



103 



and it was quite night when she left the cars 
and entered the d^pdt alone. She asked a 
child standing near if he knew where Miss 
Miriam Wheeler lived in the village. *' Oh, 
yes, the honnet-maker she meant, did she 
not? Yes, he would show her the place." 
And, lifting her valise, he led the way along 
the village street and to the very door of the 
modest cottage where resided her relation. 
"Ma'am, a lady is come to see yer," yelled 
the lad, who, delighted with his fee, was 
hoand to show that he appreciated it. The 
door was opened by the lady of the house, 
and Jane stepped within the hall. *' Cousin 
MiHam, I am Jane Hadley*s daughter; do 
you remember her?" **Why, sakes alive, 
yon don't tell me so ? Of coarse I do ; " and 
the astonished hostess kissed her guest and 
looked at her delightedly. " Now this is a 
real pleasure, child, I am glad to see you. 
Come in.^ 

Jane was overcome with gratitude at the 
warmth of her cousin^s greeting, and could 
not speak in reply to her busy questionings. 
She followed her into a cosy room, and, 
throwing her arms about her cousin's neck, 
wept tmrestndnedly. 

She had found a real home at last, plain 
and unassuming it was, and small enough in 
external size to have been stowed away in 
one end of her father's old rambling house ; 
but home it was to her, and such as she had 
oerer known before. Her cousin was lonely 
and growing old, and it did seem " as if the 
Lord had specially sent Jane," she said, " to 
keep her company and learn the business. 
Girls,'' she added, " that just hire out any- 
where, and don^t care for anything, are waste- 
ful and careless ; and it is a real comfort to 
have one of your own blood to help you." 

It was just the place for Jane, and she, too, 
&lt that she had been led to it Encouraged 
by kindness, she soon learned the work, and 
tt night she would make bonnets and hats, 
and amuse her cousin, whosq, failing sight 
prevented her from using her needle readily. 

She did not keep her promise to let Abram 
know of her whereabouts for a long, long 
time. It was no good to have her family 
know where she was, she said, and as none 
of them had ever mentioned her cousin^s 
name to her, she was not wrong in believing 
that tiiey knew nothing of her, and would 



not suspect where she had gone. She had 
known her cousin only through the letters 
she had written to her mother in their young 
years, and these letters Jane had always re- 
tained as sacred mementoes of her^ mother. 
Nor was she far from right in believing that 
the sight of these old letters went far toward 
winning her the love of her cousin, and the 
invitation to make her house her home as 
long as she would stay. 

When she did send a message, five years 
afterward, to Abram, he wrote to her at once, 
telling her of the sad condition of her neg- 
lected father, grown old rapidly and down 
with rheumatism, the result of overwork. 
"He can not work any more," he wrote, " and 
your brothers want him to get out of the 
way as soon as' he can, now that your step- 
mother is dead. When he dies I shall leave 
the place, Miss Jane, and then, perhaps, I will 
stop and see you as I go on out West." 

She consulted with her cousin, and, gain- 
ing her consent to bring her father there, she 
sent Abram money and begged him to get 
her father to her as quietly as he had once 
taken her to the market, and, perhaps, he 
might do as much good. Her wishes were 
carried out, and the next week Jane had the 
inexpressible pleasure of welcoming her de- 
crepit and aged parent to her home. "It 
was as if the Lord had again been at work," 
said Cousin Miriam, who was as happy as 
Jane to have the old man find in her house, 
what he had not known for many years in 
his own, a place of quiet and rest. 

Jane could not help saying to her cousin 
one day, as she noticed the contentment and 
joy depicted on his wasted, worn face, 
"Seems to me, sometimes, when I look at 
father and know that but for this home he 
would have suffered the terrors of neglect 
and cruelty down to the last, that mother 
had a hand in bringing all this about, and 
if I didn't know that she had been dead all 
these years, I should say she had opened a 
way for both of us." 

" And how do you know that she hasn't, 
Jane ? " answered the pure and simple-mind- 
ed woman beside her. " How do you know 
who the good Lord sent to do this work ? 
And ain't you free to suppose that if He 
wanted a messenger to send to tell you to 
take the old father to your home, that your 

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mother would have been the gladdest soul in 
heaven to bear the tidings ? " 
Jane looked at the speaker affectionately 



and murmured, "'According to your faith 
be it unto you ; ' surely yours hath made you 

whole." LAURA C. HOLLOWAY. 



4»» 



CONTRASTS OF CHILD-EXPRESSION. 




WxiiL-BORN. 

"p-rERE are two pretty little girls. One, 
JLJL evidently, is all love and sunshine, 
while the other Is aallen and shadow. One 
is h appy , the other is unhappy. Why ? The 
one is the child of healthy, happy wedlock ; 
the other is the child of sorrow, regret, and 
of unhappy marriage relations. The one 
was wdcome^ and gave joy to the house ; the 
other was unwelcome, and gave grief and 
bitterness. The one was bom of clean, tem- 
perate, religious parents ; the other was nn- 




Ill-Bobv. 

fortunate in these respects, and her blood is 
tainted with rum, tobacco, drugs, and dis- 
ease. Stock-growers, who seek the best re- 
sults, " look out " that all the conditions of 
health, quality, and disposition are favorable 
to their purpose. How is it with regard to 
the human race? Who thinks of these 
things ? Who cares ? Goodness and grace, 
health and happiness, come through obedi- 
ence to God's laws. We need not discuss the 
point. A word to the wise ought to 
must be— sufficient. 



■♦•» 



HUSBANDS AND WITES. 



HOW much preaching, lecturing, and 
writing has been done to set the 
world right on the subject of marriage, pa- 
rentage, usefulness, and happiness in this, 
the most sacred of human relations. And 
yet how many go wrong 1 How much infe- 
licity there is in unhappy wedlock 1 Why ? 
There are many, many causes: 1st, incom- 
patibility ; 2d, ignorance of each other's dis- 
position; 8d, ungovemed temper; 4th, ex- 
treme sensitiveness; 5th, meddlesome inter- 
ference on the part of others ; 6th, jealousy ; 
7th, a lack of truthfulness and honesty on 
the part of one or both ; 8th, bad habits^ in- 



temperance; 9th, a lack of ec#nomy ; 10th, 
a want of that " charity which suffereth 
long and is kind," and failing to fulfill the 
Divine injunction of doing each as he or she 
would be done by. They have not yet 
learned that^ beautiful and truthful lesson-^^ 
that it is, indeed, "more blessed to give 
than to receive." They started wrong, and 
were influenced by wrong motives, principal 
among which was the one that he or she 
might gain something for his or her own 
selfish purpose. It was not with the in- 
tention of confirring a favor, but of ob- 
taining a favor, that he sought a wife 

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HUSBANDS AND WIVES, 



105 



and she a husband. Hence their nnhappi- 
ness. Here is a picture of a beautiful 
Chbistias household, from the Springfield 
MefpuhUcaUy which we commend to all read- 
era : Marriage is the union of man and wo- 
man in the love of each other to love the 
Father in heaven and the brother on earth. 
Civil marriage i» only the pledge of lovers 
to society that will thus marry. The most 
impassioned devotion between the wedded 
couple is only the germ from which this 
godly plant of Christian piety and philan- 
thropy can grow. And as the family is a 
diTine garden for the culture of heavenly 
lQfw% SO there is no position in which two 
hmium beings can do each other such fearful 
iilJiizy as in the paroxysms of revulsion and 
jealousy that desolate the home. Jealousy 
is not the natural accompaniment of a con- 
secrated love, but with sensuality, the base 
child of selfishness. While husband and 
wife are in the bonds of self, all these furies 
stand ready to ply the scourge of retribu- 
tion ; but when they have risen above self- 
worship to^he worship of the supreme love, 
these demons are exorcised, and the human 
frailties of each other are borne in the spirit 
of Christian charity. 

The great art of married life is to pre- 
serve youthful love, that it may ripen into 
this exalted religious consecration that binds 
a true family to society, humanity, and God. 
The method of educating a youthful love up 
to a Christian marriage is mutual reverence 
in husband and wife for each other's nature, 
and constant efibrt in both to develop that 
nature into the style of character for which 
it was designed by God. A true husband 
does not desire a feminine shadow of man in 
his wife, but aids her to be the finest woman 
she can become; knowing, as her woman- 
hood is developed, it will bless him in ways 
beyond the comprehension of a poor child- 
wife, stinted in spiritual stature. I have 
seen a noble woman marry a man in whom 
die had discovered the germs of greatness, 
tod consecrate herself to leading her boy- 
husband up to manhood, not stopping to ask 
if he might not outgrow and forget to prize 
her. What could bind him to her with such 
deatiiless affection as the thought that he 
owed bis manhood, under God, to her? 
The husband and wife should cheerfully 



resign each other to the duties, trials, and 
temptations of life. Each has a providential 
sphere of activity which will appear in due 
time, and only mischief comes from the at- 
tempt of either to relieve the partner from 
personal responsibility. Many young hus- 
bands destroy a wife by a mistaken desire to 
shield her from every sturdy experience, and 
sequester her in a bower of fiowery fancies 
and elegant laziness; and many a fond father 
thus dooms his daughters to a fate the most 
deplorable that can befall woman. Woman- 
hood is strength. A child-wife, shrinking 
from trial, scared by real life, is good for no- 
body. The ideal American woman should 
not be a hundred pounds of flabby muscle 
and neuralgic nerves, infolded in precious 
draperies and glittering with jewelry, but a 
healthy, active, cheerful, whole-souled and 
whole-bodied woman, ready to respond to 
God*s call, and fearing nothing in the way 
of her duty. The tempter gives such a wo- 
man the highway, but haunts her who, amid 
the dreadful ennui of a sentimental and idle 
life, rushes into crime for the excitement of 
something to do. 

Thirdly, the husband and wife must learn 
by experience the best way to endure each 
other^s infirmities of temper and character, 
and aid in one another's reformation. For 
such infirmities do always exist, and married 
happiness depends on the acquirement at 
once of fidelity to a true ideal, broad charity, 
and an indomitable spirit of mutual helpful- 
ness. So, dear young madam, when you 
learn that your God-like young husband, 
Julius Augustus Apollo, has a bad temper, 
smokes in your drawing-room, or doesnH 
" know it all," don't be angry with anybody 
that can't help seeing his faults. Hold up 
your head and say, " I never took this young 
gentleman for one of the celestials, but for a 
young man whom I loved better than any 
other ; and I intend to help him to become 
a better man, every year he lives." So do 
you not, oh, J. Augustus! make a fool of 
yourself by pretending not to know that your 
Minerva eats too much, trips in her gram- 
mar, or is too sharp on her neighbors. Ev- 
erybody knows it, and' your mission is to 
help her reform these unpleasant traits. 
Your little wife is to live forever, and if you 
begin in good season, ypu jomr JATQ ^^r a 

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[FEa, 



good lift toward becoming the angel she is 
not now, but certainly can be in the possi- 
bility of her nature. It is just at this point, 
when husband and wife know fully each 
other's faults, that the irreligious household 
explodes into anarchy, but the religious 
home develops in its noblest style. For each 
partner in such a house will at once go about 
self-reformation; and each will do all that 
can be done for the other. It is a delicate 
operation to attempt the reformation or im- 
provement of a husband or wife ; and often 
it only can be done indirectly by silent and 
gradual influences that bring the troubled 
and sinful soul into a new atmosphere of in- 
spiring love and peace. 

Finally, husband and wife should deter- 
mine to live with each other, learn, enjoy, 
and share life tx>gether. It is a fatal mistake 
to organize a family on the principle that 
one partner must ei\joy the privileges, and 
the other do the hard work and endure the 
sacrifices. The man who condemns his wife 
to the life of a home recluse while he runs 
over the world, or the woman who glorifies 
herself in a career of fashion that dooms her 
husband to eternal drudgery in the counting- 
room, violates the golden rule of the home. 
There are few associates or clubs that are 
not improved by the union of man and wo- 
man. Why should not the cultivated woman 
of Springfield be invited to enjoy the so- 
ciety of any distinguished visitor, like the 
men ? A great deal of domestic " incompati- 
bility " is the result of a persistent selfishness 
in husband or wife that clutches all the ' 
flowers of life for self, and leaves the com- 
panion only the withered blossoms of second- 
rate enjoyment. 

I am not romancing on the possibilities of 
family life; for I have seen better things 
than I have described. I could show you a 
little one-story cottage where this principle 
of Christian union has been acted out for 
half a century. Down in a valley, with the 
swelling hills and dense forest closing in 
upon the verdant meadows, sloping toward 
distant uplands in front, facing a quiet vil- 
lage road, a brook singing through a grove 
of elms, and thickets of fragrant alders be- 
hind, over-clambered by creeping plants, 
surrounded by borders of flowers, a narrow 
Uwn and garden on one side, and an old 



mill, rumbling day and night, on the other- 
stands this modest home. The rooms within 
are narrow, the ^furniture old, with few 
" modem improvements ; " but there dwelt a 
family whose members have been linked to- 
gether in a life which has borne celestial 
fruits. Fifty years ago the mother took her 
place in that home, and has been always the 
strong, wise, protecting " angel in the house." 
All has been done by earnest consultation 
between the husband and wife ; and, though 
wealth has not been gained, something bet- 
ter is there. A dozen children came in, and 
such as have not gone to God live an honor 
to their name and their land. Books and 
high thoughts have never been absent; 
Christian faith and hope have infolded the 
little house. The work of all has made the 
home a hive. Cheerfulness and joy abide 
after the ravages of years. Long ago the 
husband was called home. The wife re- 
mained, the counselor of lier sons and 
daughters, the revered center of holy influ- 
ence for the village, till, one Sabbath mora, 
she, too, was called above. Out of that house 
have gone words that have thrilled a thou- 
sand hearts with new life, and more than 
one strong soul that is now molding out civ- 
ilization, dates its noblest impressions from 
days spent under that lowly roof. This is 
but one home and one family; but what 
might we not become were every household 
such a league of living power! For only 
when palace and cottage shall vie in the 
glorious rivalry of the Christian life will the 
land glow with the beams of righteousness, 
and our beloved America become the king- 
dom of God. 



Confusion of Ideas.— My brother W. once 
found a lady's brooch, which he next day ad- 
vertised in the newspapers. Shortly after the 
announcement appeared, he was waited on by 
a lady who eagerly stated that she had loet a 
ring, and proceeded to describe it ** But,** said 
my brother, '* it was not a ring that I found ; it 
was a brooch." " Oh I yes," relied the lady, 
" but I thought you might have seen or heard 
something of my ring ! " Phrenologists would 
call this a want of Causality. It looks like a 
want of conmion-sense.— iZ. Chambers, 

[Well, what is a want of Causality, but a 
want of common-sense ?] 

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EZBA CORNELL. 



107 




EZRA CORNELL, THE ADYOGATE OF EDUCATION. 

FOUNDER OP CORNELL UNIVERSITY. 



THE death of this distinguished man, dis- 
tinguished for his interest in popular 
education, and in the liberal arts, occurred 
cariy in the month of December last. He 
WIS not an old man, having scarcely attained 
liis sixty-eighth year, but he had during the 
ten or twelve years previous to his decease 



accomplished what would be considered a 
noble life's work for any man, and stamped 
his name in undying characters upon the rc( - 
ords of American philanthropy. He will be 
remembered as the founder of Cornell Uni- 
versity, at Ithaca, N. Y., with the opening 
of which the American system of collegiate 
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•education may be said to have taken a new 
departure. 

He was bom at Westchester Landing, N. 
Y., on the 11th of January, 1807. His fa- 
ther was a potter, and young Cornell spent a 
good deal of his time in the shop- where the 
wares were offered for sale, and in perform- 
ing miscellaneous services. In 1819 the el- 
der Cornell removed to De Ruyter, in Madi- 
son County, where he settled on a farm, and 
also established a pottery. There the farm 
mainly occupied the attention of Ezra. His 
educational advantages were few, and ob- 
tained chiefly at De Ruyter, by attending a 
few sessions of the winter school. This lack 
of mental training in his youth doubtless had 
an important influence in the philanthropic 
projects of his later years. 

He exhibited a remarkable degree of con- 
structive talent when a mere boy. At eight- 
een he undertook to build a house for his fa- 
ther, and succeeded admirably. This trial 
of mechanical skill did much toward devel- 
oping his character. In 1826 Ezra left the 
home of his father to seek a fortune for him- 
self. Circumstances led him to Ithaca, where 
he formed such business and fk)cial relations 
that he made that place his permanent resi- 
dence. He worked in a cotton mill at first, 
then in a flouring mill for ten years, superin- 
tending the latter in every particular. 

Next we find Mr. Cornell interested with a 
brother in operations of an agricultural na- 
ture, which called him to different parts of 
the Union. During a visit in Maine, in 1848, 
while prosecuting his business, his attention 
was directed to the telegraph schemes of Prof. 
Morse by a gentleman who had contracted 
to assist in laying the telegraphic cable. Mr. 
Cornell became so deeply interested- in the 
matter that he joined the contractor in the 
execution of his part of the work, and by his 
ingenuity and tact contributed, in no small 
degree, toward the success of the experiment- 
al line of telegraph which was built between 
Washington and Baltimore. 

He devoted his time and means to the de- 
velopment of the practical uses of telegraphy, 
and in the end reaped a harvest of success 
and a splendid fortune. 

No sooner did Mr. Cornell become a rich 
man than he began to devise methods for the 
beneficial use of his wealth. His life-pur- 



pose was to found a great university, in 
which anybody could learn anything desir- 
able among the sciences and arts of life. 
And in the little village where he stopped, 
when a young man of twenty-one, to work 
for a few dollars a month he saw the realiza- 
tion of his dream in the stately buildings 
which now crown the hill overlooking Lake 
Cayuga. 
A writer in one of our weeklies says truly : 
** Mr. Cornell was one of the men who are 
called peculiarly American, because of the 
feeling that his qualities and bis career, the 
energy, probity, sagacity, industry, and econ- 
omy which gave him the victory over ad- 
verse circumstances, are precisely the forces 
which have subdued this continent and made 
this naticm. He filled many positions, among 
others that of the presidency of the State Ag- 
ricultural Society, and was chairman of the 
board of trustees of the Cornell University 
when he died, and in all he showed the same 
fidelity and intelligence. Personally tall and 
square, his face was of the American type, 
grave and shrewd ; and he made an immedi- 
ate and profound impression of honesty, sa- 
gacity, and pluck. His pride and joy was 
the university, to which his devotion was so 
absolute and absorbing that it was not al- 
ways easy for him to understand why others 
were not as wholly interested as he." He felt 
"that all his money and his time and his 
powers were but a divine bounty which he 
held in trust for the benefit of his fellow- 
men." 

We owe some tribute of consideration to 
this most worthy exemplar of noble charity 
in that he on more than one occasion showed 
a warm interest in phrenological science, and 
intimated to us his appreciation of its ben- 
efits as an aid to education and to the com* 
prehension of mental phenomena. 



♦♦» 



EfFBCTB of NoYBL-RbADINO, OB THB IM- 
AGINATION ON Hbalth. — The following in- 
cident has obtained some currency in the 
press : '* Alexandre Dumas was writing a se 
rial novel for a Paris journal, and one day the 

Marquis de P called on him. ' Dumas * 

said he, * have you composed the end of the . 

story now being published in the ?' * Of 

course.* ^ Does the heroine die at the end ? ^ 



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QREELET, OOLOBADO, 



109 



*0f course— dies of consumption.* *You 
must make her live.* * I can not.' * Yes, you 
mast, for on your heroine^s life depends my 
daughter's.' * Your daughter's ? ' * Yes, she 
has all the symptoms of consumption which 
jou have described, and watches mournfully 
for every number of your novel, reading her 
own fate in that of your heroine. No w, if you 
make your heroine live, my daughter will live 
too. Come V Dumas changed his last chap- 
ter ; his heroine recovered. Five years after- 
ward Dumas met the marquis at a party. *Ah, 
Dumas I* he exclaimed, Met me introduce 



you to my daughter. There she is. She is 
married and has four children.' 'And my 
novel has just four editions,' said Dumas; ^ so 
we are quits.' " 

[We think it unfortunate that any one 
should become so much of a slave to the im- 
agination, as to permit fiction to affect the 
health, but such is very often the case, and 
especially among those addicted to novel- 
reading. A proper religious training, with 
a good degree of faith in the goodness of God, 
tends to buoy one up, and prove curative in 
even severe disease and suffering.] 



GREELEY, COLORADO. 



THE temperance town of Greeley, Col., is 
located midway between Denver, Col., 
and Cheyenne, Wyoming, on the line of the 
Denver Pacific 'Railway, about fifty miles 
from either of the above points. It was 
founded April 5th, 1870, and hence is 
lees than five years old. Established as a 
colonial enterprise under the leadership 
of N. C. Meeker, then connected with the 
New York Tribune^ it received the in- 
dorsement of Horace Greeley, who was 
present at the initial meeting in Cooper 
Institute when the project was first 
brought before the public, and he be- 
came treasurer of the colony. About 
12,000 acres of land were purchased ; a 
town site one mile square was laid out 
into business and residence lots, and the 
remainder of the lands were subdivided 
into four, five, ten, twenty, and forty acre 
parcels, for the benefit of the colony mem- 
bers. Two irrigating canals were pro- 
jected, one on each side of the Cache la 
Poudre River — one thirteen and the other 
tbirty-two miles long — and the town 
3oon began to grow under the wise 
leadership of N. C. Meeker, Gen. R. A. 
Cameron, Henry S. West, and others, and 
under the guardianship of the man whose 
name it bears. 

To4ay Greeley is known through the 
length and breadth of the land as a town 
devoted Xo temperance, education, and social 
wlture. No saloon 'or tippling house has 
ever darkened its fair fame. It has about 
2,500 inhabitants, churches of different de- 



nominations, societies, schools, lyceums, and 
all the culture of towns east of the Missis- 
sippi that have been founded for fifty years, 
for the reason that its citizens have come 
from the States and brought with them the 




QnxKLBT Public School. 

civilization, the arts, the sciences, the habits, 
and the customs to which they had been ac- 
customed ; in a word, they had come to 
to this distant place to build up homes for 
themselves and for their families. 



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110 



PHBBNOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[Feb., 



No verbal description of the town will 
speak for it more strongly than the picture 
of the Greeley public school which is her^ 
with given. It cost $80,000, and is, as it 
may well be, the pride of its people. It 
points, with an index as true as the magnetic 
needle points to the pole, to the intellectual 
status of Qreeley, and is an assurance to all 
who look toward a residence in the town 
that education is one of the elements in- 
fused into its life and growth. Occupying a 



central site in the town, facing a park of ten 
acres, it is one of the first objects which 
greets the tourist or settler as the railway 
train whirls down the distance between 
Cheyenne and Denver. 

As might be supposed, Greeley is a grow- 
ing town. Its future is second only to Den- 
ver, for her location is such as to make her 
the center of the railway system of Northern 
Colorado, while her agricultural resources 
are unquestionably the finest and best in 
Colorado.* 




CnlUvmte the ph7sio4l mun tzeluirely, Mid you lur* 
l«ctti»I only, and yaa hav« a diieucd oddity— It may b« a 
th« eompUte man oau 



or a ■arafa; tha moral only, and you hara m «nthoilart or a maalae; tha latd- 
It U only by training aU togathai^-tha phytkal, Intdlaetaal, and iplfltul-lliat 



PBEYENTION OF INSANITY. 



MANY of us, at times, have felt that it 
would not be hard for us to become 
insane. Most of us have, at one time or 
another, felt insane promptings. Mad im- 
pulses have risen up in our minds, prompt- 
ing us, or at least suggesting the thought to 
us, to leap. from dizzy heights, to plunge 
into rushing waters, or to do some other 
fatal or insane act. We are conscious of 
these impulses, and know them to be wrong ; 
and we quickly check them and shudder at 
the realization of the dangerous character 
of the ground upon which we have been 
thought-drifted. 

Such experiences give us an insight into 
the manner in which others, with a strongly 
developed tendency to insanity, almost im- 
perceptibly drift into the region of madness 
and irresponsibility. We perceive how es- 
sentially important is the exercise of our 
wills in the control and diversion of our 
thoughts and the restraining of blind im- 
pulses. Although we may not be able to 
compel, directly, our mind to think such and 
such thoughts, and not to think other 
thoughts, yet, by arrangement of outward 
circumstances and direction of the attention, 
over which we have a large degree of con- 
trol, we may efficiently direct our thoughts 
as we most desire and as we deem to be best 
adapted to our good. In this way, it may 
well be believed, insanity may be and is often 



prevented. We often see two men start •ut 
in life, each with equally developed insane 
tendencies and possessing equally faulty her- 
itages. The one goes on to success and repu- 
tation, and the other to madness or suicide. 
The one has systematically bent all his ener- 
gies and abilities to the accomplishment of 
some great life-purpose, has renunciated 
much, denied self often, and thus efficiently 
disciplined self, and in this way has curbed 
in and restrained all vagaries of thought and 
impulse, and directed them into the general 
current of his efforts to the accomplishment 
of his life-work. The other, for the want of 
such a self-disciplining life-purpose, has been 
left without a sufficiently powerful motive 
to self-government, and in this way opened 
the door for those perturbed streams of 
thought and feeling which make madness. 

Not many persons, perhaps, need go mad 
if they knew the resources of their own na- 
ture and knew how systematically to develop 
them. Even the insane themselves some- 
times possess a great degree of self-oontrol. 
The fear of suffering if they yield to their 
insane propensities is often sufficient to re- 
strain them. They will sometimes effectually 
conceal all appearances of insanity when they 
have an object to gain thereby, such as per- 

« Beaden desiring more information abont Greeley 
can procare it by addresalng Messrs. Pabor and Allen 
of that place. 

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1875.] 



PREVENTION OF INSANITY, 



111 



petrating some insane deed as the avoidance 
odf being sent to the asylum. It is the power 
of self-control possessed by the insane that 
enables those in charge of insane asylums to 
preserve a good degree of order among the 
inmateB by calling out this element of their 
minds ; and the further development of this 
same self-£ontrol enables those who admit of 
amendment to subsequently recover reason. 
If, then, there is this power possessed by the 
insane which enables them not only to con- 
ceal their delusions, but also, when fully call- 
ed forth, restores to such of them as admit 
of recovery their reason and sanity, is it not 
likely that, had this power of self-control 
been developed in their youth, the insanity 
might have been prevented ? Certainly this 
is but a just and natural inference. 

The education of children should be such 
as calls forth the will-power and control of 
their impulses and emotions. A child should 
be taught that many of the most valuable 
experiences and objects in life are to be gain- 
ed only by self-denial, abnegation, and dis- 
r^^ard of inclination. They should be taught 
to war with circumstances, to resist inclina- 
tions, and temptations, and control impulses, 
propensities, and appetites. 

Anything which weakens the power of 
self-control tends to madness. The indulg- 
ence of appetites and passions, by weaken- 
ing the controlling power of the will, impels 
the predisposed toward insanity. The records 
of intemperance show that the unrestrained 
appetite for drink is one of the most power- 
ful causes of insanity. A striking example 
of this is afforded in the records of the Gla- 
morgan County Lunatic Asylum (England). 
During the period of the " strikes " in the 
coal and iron industries, in which Glamor- 
ganshire is extensively engaged, the number 
of admissions of male patients were only 
about half or a third as many as in other 
periods. The reason of this seemed to be 
that during the " strikes," for want of wages, 
the workmen had to live 'without drink, be- 
cause they had no money to spend in puF- 
diasing it There was, also, the same striking 
decrease in crime during the same periods, 
diowing bow close are the relations of in- 
temperance, crime, and insanity. 

The efforts of the individual may do much 
to prevent his insanity, even though he has 



a strong inherited tendency thereto. Gen- 
erally well-directed efforts will be sufficient 
for such cases. He who knows that he has 
this heritage should act understandingly in 
the matter. He should seek to regulate his 
actions, at all times, according to the dic- 
tates of duty, and principle, and truth. Up- 
rightness, honesty, and truthfuhiess are pow- 
erful mental sanitary measures. No indul- 
gences of appetites, propensities, or passions 
should be permitted. Particularly, no crav- 
ing for alcoholic drinks should be gratified. 
No mad suggestions or impulses should be 
permitted to sway the actions. 

Self-development should be the principal 
aim in life — a complete development— of the 
whole man in all his perfectness, in body, 
mind, and soul. Health of body, strength, 
and activity of all the muscles, the healthy 
performance of all the bodily functions, 
should be earnestly and inteUigeivtly sought 
after. Development of mind, a bringing out 
into activity its capabilities and powers, and 
establishing the controlling power of the 
will all tends to produce and perpetuate san- 
ity. Worthy motives and noble life-purposes 
are guiding principles in lifb which a right 
education will not fail to call into action. 

Another means of prevention of insanity 
is the avoidance of intermarriage among 
families in which insanity is inherited. When 
such a heritage exists in both parties, the 
•ffspring will be endowed with a double por- 
tion of the taint. This fact should be clearly 
understood and borne in mind by young 
people. A young man whose family are pos- 
sessed of the hereditary taint should not per- 
mit himself to "fall in love" with a member 
of another family of like heritage. Falling 
in love being much a matter of propinquity, 
an avoidance of it may be secured by keep- 
ing out of the way of the dangerous attrac- 
tion. If, however, they have already fallen 
in love, it is better that they should suffer a 
few pangs of heart-ache rather than bequeath 
to innocent children an increased heritage 
of mad tendencies. By the exercise of judg- 
ment in the assortment of marriages, much 
may be done toward eradicating this ten- 
dency to insanity from families, and then, 
by right education and proper way of living, * 
much of the insanity of the world might be 
done away with, hbkrt rbtkolds, m.d. 

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112 



PHBENOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[Feb^ 



SUICIDE AND ITS CAUSES. 



w 



E have received a letter from a valued 
correspondent, in which she says: 
** The cause of suicide is a subject which in- 
terested me. My attention has been more 
particularly called to the subject by reading 
a description of the attempted suicide of 
Miss Sykes, as her circumstances were favor- 
able for hope and happiness, and she was just 
entering upon her second college year at the 
university in Ann Arbor. There seems to be 
nothing in her circumstances to lead to the act 
of suicide, and it seems that the cause must be 
looked for in the peculiarity of her mental 
organization. We would add that the phy- 
sicians think she had not overstudied, and 
that her interregnum year, which was em- 
ployed in teaching after having passed one 
year successfully in the college, aflford no 
reason to suppose that she had overworked 
her brain ; and, as her health was considered 
to be good, they do not account for her de- 
sire to terminate her life from any mental 
aberration occasioned by overwork or by ill- 
health." 

Reply. — ^Many people overwork in busi- 
ness, in study, and in the cares of family, 
and perhaps a diagnosis by a {>hysician 
would not reveal any tendency to insanity ; 
yet there are thousands of people who are 
living on the very edge of the line which di- 
vides between sanity and insanity. Then 
there are weary, overworked, and care-bur- 
dened mothers whose husbands ill-treat them, 
and whose children awaken in them a load 
of anxiety lest they should follow the evil 
ways of the father, or becopie as poor as 
they are, and be obliged to do the battle of 
life alone. We occasionally read of such 
mothers murdering two or three of their 
children, and then attempting to commit 
suicide — ^perhaps succeeding in it. Such a 
case occurred in Brooklyn within a year, and 
the woman was taken to the insane asylum 
at Auburn, with Kate Stoddard, only a few 
months ago. 

There are persons in apparently robust 
health, who are fleshy, eat well, and can work 
» well, and evince no appearances of an ex- 
hausted or overworked brain, who require 
only some specific occasion to throw them 



over the line. There are writers, clergymen, 
and eminent business men who perform their 
daily labor with signal ability for years. All 
at once they manifest some strange freak of 
insanity. The great tension of thought and 
feeling had produced irritation and an in- 
flamed condition of some part of the brain, 
which resulted in disease and consequent 
mental aberration. 

There may be persons whose mental organ- 
ization, to use a paradox, is naturally ab- 
normal, that is to say, they have inherited 
peculiarities of development from parents 
who had lived an unbalanced or dissipated 
life ; and such persons may have a tendency 
to insanity under special and peculiar pres- 
sure, or to suicide, which is but another form 
of insanity. 

We have known cases where parents have 
been extremely anxious about money and 
their future prosperity; for a year or two 
they have been wrought up to a feverish and 
painful anxiety on the subject, and the child 
bom to them within that period has taken 
on, as his own nature, the abnormal and un- 
easy condition of .his parents during that 
period. While the children bom before this 
trouble, and those bom after it had passed, 
were easy, happy, hopeful, and not painfully 
eager for money ; children bom during sach 
years of financial depression and consequent 
painful activity of Acquisitiveness have been 
brought to us as thieves and pilferers by na- 
ture, and our advice asked with regard to 
their improvement. 

Suppose parents to be trembling on the 
verge of disgrace, of bankmptcy, almost in- 
sane, and, perhaps, contemplating suicide; 
one may imagine a mother to entertain the 
act of suicide for months, and it would not 
be strange if a child bom under such an in- 
fluence inherited a suicidal predisposition. 
Man is, indeed, "a harp of a thousand 
strings," and the wonder is that it is not 
** jangled and out of tune " more often than 
it is. Occasionally, one time in a thousand, 
a child may be introduced into life under 
favorable auspices, every condition being as 
good as it could be. In such rare cases hu- 
man nature is illustrated in its highest and 

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1875.] 



TREATMENT OF WOUNDS AND BLISTERS, 



113 



best phases. But the great majority of chil- 
dren bom are marred and marked, mentally 
or physically, with some infelicity of temper 
or some defect of talent, or animal tendency 
uidaced by the unfavorable conditions of his 
parents previous to his birth; then, being 
trained and educated in the family under 
these unfavoring conditions, he is marred, 
not only before his birth, but directed and 
coDtrolled afterward by conditions which are 
more or less imperfect. 

Looking at the subject from these points 
of observation, it will be easy for the reader 
to understand that a person may be bom 
with a thousand glorious attributes and 
traits, with a generous and loving spirit, with 
an outreaching intellect, harmonious and 
well poised, with good moral powers, and 
yet inherit a tendency to suicide, which only 
requires a little overwork or some wrong con- 
ditions, caused, it may be, by dyspepsia or 
strong drink, to develop it ; and that which 
is tme of the tendency to suicide, is also 
equally true, in some cases, in regard to 
theft, dissipation, or some other aberration 
of character or talent. 



TBEATMENT OF WOUNDS AND 
BLISTERS. 

\\T E extract the following from an ex- 
VV change: " Every pterson should know 
how to treat a flesh-wound, because one is 
liable to be placed in circumstances away 
from surgical and veterinary aid, where he 
may save his own life, the life of a friend, or 
of a beast, simply by the exercise of a little 
conunon sense. In the first place, close the 
lips of the wound with the hands, and hold 
them firmly together to check the flow of 
blood until several stitches can be taken and 
a bandage applied ; then bathe the wound in 
<5old water." 

We add to this the warning not to shut 
off the access of air with plasters or healing 
odves, but allow the blood to dry on the 
edges of a wound, as this is the best salve in 
the world. 

The following is also excellent, and ought 
to be published once a year. Take a pan or 
shovel with burning coals, and sprinkle upon 
them common brown sugar, and hold the 
woiAded part in the smoke. In a few min- 



utes the pain will be allayed, and recovery 
proceeds rapidly. In my case a rusty nail 
had made a bad wound in the bottom of my 
foot. The pain and nervous irritation was 
severe. This was all removed by holding it 
in the smoke for fifteen minutes, and I was 
able to resume my reding in comfort. We 
have often recommended it to others with 
like results. Last week one of my men had 
a finger-nail torn out by a pair of ice-tongs. 
It became very painful, as was to have been 
expected. Held in sugar-smoke for twenty 
minutes, the pain ceased and promised 
speedy recovery. 

One of the most generally diffused erro- 
neous notions is that it is good and beneficial 
to break a blister, whether it is caused by a 
bum or the heating of a part of the body by 
continued friction under pressure, to which 
the feet especially are exposed after long 
walks in ill fitting shoes or boots. Such 
blisters are always found filled with a clear 
liquid, which must be retained and not 
drawn off by lancing them ; and also those 
blisters often caused by a part of the skin 
being forcibly pinched and squeezed, and 
which contain blood, must be left alone. 
This water or blood in blisters is a healing 
substance, of a kind most appropriate for the 
parts where the skin is destroyed, and if the 
blister is allowed to dry out by itself, the 
new skin forms much more rapidly under it, 
and much pain is avoided. If the blister 
contains blood, it must be treated in the 
same way, as blood is the best healing salve. 
And, by the way, while using the term 
*\healing salve," it may be well to state that 
there are no healing salves or healing plas- 
ters. All salves and plasters retard healing, 
and many wounds which heal notwithstand- 
ing the salves and plasters applied, would 
heal in half the time if left alone. 



Onb of the most curious discoveries made 
during a recent investigation of alqis-house^ 
is, that the paupers live so long. The average 
length of life after admission is said to* be 
twenty years, though the nimates are, upon' 
entering most of them, well advanced. Stick 
is the advantage of being free from bother^ 
ation, worry, fret,^ trouble, anxiety, disf^ 
pointment, and the like things. 

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114 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[PEa, 




TnM phllotophy !■ a rtvelktion of thk Divlna will numtrMtcd in crMtlon ; It baimonlnt with all trath, uid eaa not with impanlty b« it«gl«ct«d.— Cbmi«. 



THE EMOTIONS OF SAYAGE AND €ITILIZED MAN. 



"TTTHAT mechanism in all natore ap- 
V V proaches in nicety of arrangement and 
perfect adaptation that of the human mind? 
" Fearfully and wonderftilly made " is man, but 
it is not in a physical sense that we can thus 
speak, for in the lower orders of life we find 
many examples of complexity of organization 
outrivaling his ; but in him alone is true intel- 
lectual development. Ah, the mind of man ! 
wondrous thought! how varied in its func- 
tions t how unbounded in its growth ! It is an 
undying principle, that when time ends will 
only have begun its march, and ever rising 
will follow a course limited only by eternity. 
It is the seal of heaven on man's brow, the 
stamp of Deity on his nature. In n\an physi- 
cal we find no typical feature that is not fore- 
shadowed in the animals preceding him in the 
order of development; but in his mental na- 
ture is a barrier which can not be scaled, an 
impassable gulf which separates him from all 
other creatures and constitutes him a being wi 

Prominent in the mind are the characteris- 
tics termed the Emotions. They are the source 
of man's supremest joys ; on their wings we 
are borne aloft, wafted heavenward. In them 
the tenderness of affection is nourished and 
lovo finds utterance ; they are the language of 
the soul— the echo of its feelings. They give 
home its hallowed charms, paint the '* bright- 
est pictures on memory's wall," and entwine 
firesh garlands around the past How beauti- 
fhl man's emotions when pure and good I they 
twinkle in the eyes of the laughing babe and 
play on infant lips when tliat first of words is 
lisped. They beautify youth, ennoble the man, 
• and encircle age with a halo of heaven. We 

fhear them in the merry laugh, in the shout of 
song and dance. In the dark, deep recesses 
^ of the sorrowbig heart with riduffied lips they 
' speak, they Join the bridal pageant, and Imger 
at the bier. They form the link that connects 
earth with heaven, binds man to God. 

But this is not all ; the picture hath another 
side. This robe, so pure, so bright, too oft is 



stained, and the fountain poisoned from which 
men drink crime and direst woe. Those wings 
which, well directed, soar to angel heights, 
may sink to deepest depths. That which kin- 
dles love and feeds the fiame may consume 
also. That beacon to virtue's path may beckon 
on to ruin. 

Hence, that the emotions should be minis- 
ters of good, servants to promote our well- 
being, they must be educated and controlled. 
They run wild when the charioteer lets loose 
the reins. As the passing cloud that kindly 
shelters us fh)m the rays of the summer sun, 
and pours out refreshing rain, may burst in the 
fury of a storm, so with the emotions. 

TWO LEADING CLASSES. 

Let us now compare the two great classes of 
men, and note the effects of education and 
other causes upon their emotional traits. If 
we trace the genealogical tree through all its 
branches, we will be led at last to two nudn 
roots, dedre and fear, which form the centers 
from which radiafes a long train of feelings 
and impulses. Some include among the fun- 
damental emotions Joy and sorrow ; but these 
are plainly the natural offspring of desire and 
fear. From desire flow love, hope, Joy, am- 
bition, selfishness, pride, and ostentation. Fear 
has for its progeny hate, revenge, sorrow, cru- 
elty, and superstition. In the savage heart the 
emotions are in a constant state of unrest^ and 
the chief deities there enthroned are selfish- 
ness and fear, fVom which emanates all the 
violence, mischief, misery, and crime that 
characterizes his nature. His earliest thoughts 
were directed toward self. Subsistence and 
safety from dangers by which he was surround- 
ed were the great end of his life, he experienc- 
ing no feelings of pride, patriotism, or affection. 

EMOTIONS m THE UNCIVILIZED. 

The passions of man in his primitive c<m- 
dition admit of a wide range and variety of 
modification, resulting fh>m a diversity of cli- 
matic and other natural causes ; in fact, they 
are to a great degree molded and directed by 
the aspects of nature. In countries where the 

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1875.] 



EMOTIONS OF SAVAGE AND CIVILIZED MAN, 



115 



dimate is austere, whose face is covered with 
fidds of eternal snow and impassable mount- 
ains of ice, where nature may truly be said to 
wear a freezing conntenance, man is weak and 
imbecile, a slave to the^ conditions under which 
he Kres. As, for example, the hihabitants of 
the polar r^ons. Descending somewhat, we 
find the Northmen, bom amid crags and cliflb, 
and cradled among the storms, leading a rug- 
ged life among surroundings less extreme, 
where labor is necessary to subsistence and re- 
ceives her reward. His capacities are devel- 
oped, and his enetgiee not appalled and paral- 
jxed by nature's overwhelming displays. He 
JB brave, warlike, and hardy. His heaven is a 
gnad battle-field, where men tight, and wound- 
ed bathe in fountains of pure water to be 
healed. He dreams of a festal board in the 
halls of Odin, where, in the presence of the 
war-god, he will drink from the skulls of his 
enemies. 

Bat, going south, we meet another extreme, 
where the vegetable world presents a scene of 
prolific spontaneity, where are Jungles of wild 
beasts and flow wide rivers, where venomous 
rq>ti]es crawl over the ground and insects 
8wami in the air. Here nature is overpower- 
ing, terrifying, and enslaving to man ; subsist- 
ence requiring no efiTort, his energies wane and 
he is a depraved, servile creature, everything 
mMmd him conspiring to degrade him. The 
foree of this argument becomes apparent when 
we contrast the regions of barbarism with the 
coantries where now exist the great civiliza- 
tions, and where, throughout his whole his- 
toiy, man rose most readily from degradation. 
The natural aspects of ancient Greece were 
fii?orable to the growth of a refined race. 
There nature was elevating in all its phases. Its 
indented coasta and glassy lakes, its beautiful 
skies and green slopes, inspired man with pure 
and lofty conceptions, and gave to the barbar- 
OQS Pelasgii an impetus that culminated in the 
lore of Athens and the valor and patriotism 
cf 8parta. In Europe we find the most per- 
fect intellectual development where nature 
fingers in mediocrity. 

In the instances where nations have risen in 
the scale of civilization, in climates where na- 
ture was extreme, we behold in their very 
growth the g^rms of intellectual and moral 
decay, as is exemplified in Egypt and Arabia. 
Under such circumstances, in all cases where 
refinement has been attained, it was of short 
dvation. 

Fear in the savage heart is due to ignorance 
of the phenomena of nature around him ; being 



unable to explain them, he is terrified. From 
fear superstition flows, which in turn aids 
in giving birth to credulity, which, among 
the uncivilized, is very strong, often leading to 
the extremes of cruelty and horror. In their 
ignorant conception of their deity's claims, 
they hesitate not to sacrifice themselves and 
their children to appease his wrath. Nature, 
amid which they live. Is a sealed book of mys- 
tery. They behold the sun rise and set, and 
the moon ride through the heavens, not know- 
ing what they are, whence the come, or whither 
they go. And in dumb terror they shrink 
from unusual occurrences. Hatred and re- 
venge in the savage heart are poison to those 
nobler qualities — mercy, charity, and benevo- 
lence. That these should be prominent in his 
nature is not strange, for unenlightened and 
superstitious, without moral standards, deluded 
by Ill-conceived ideas of religion, that— as a 
natural result— would follow. In this child- 
hood of the race we behold it in one of Its 
stages of incompleteness, without the lights of 
religion and science, struggling in its growth 
against great physical odds. Thus the emo- 
tions are not kind winds to fill the sails of 
this bark of life ; but boisterous, tempestuous 
gales to toss it to and fro and dash it against 
the rocks. 

BMOnOK IN THE CIVILTZED. 

But what of civilized man ? How stands he 
in the balance compared with his less-favored 
brother? Civilization may be divided into 
two classes, the lower and ibe higher. Under 
itfl infiuence the emotions assume peculiar 
features, although the same bases — desire 
and fear— underlie the whole. In the lower 
walks of life, where the refinements of society 
have not given polish, and education has not 
enlightened, they are ruder, plainer, and less 
complex than in the higher. Thus, among the 
peasantry and sturdy yeomen, we find ft^nk- 
ness and hospitality. In the humble cot a 
stranger is received unquestioned, and with 
true generosity made to share its homely fkre, 
and given with an unstinting hand. 
** Witihin the oyster^s shell uncouth 
The purest pearl may hide ; 
You'll often find a heart of truth 
Withhi a rough outside.** 

And In the walks of lowly life we find the 
finest examples of virtue, chastity, and frugal 
Industry. 

We may remark that among the lower claseee 
superstition is more common, for ignorance 
prevails to a gret^ter extent ; and, not unlike 
the savage, when failing to understand the 

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116 



PHRENOLOQIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Pra^ 



operations of nature, or -when anything oat of 
the ordinary course transpire, they attribute 
it to the supernatural. As a consequence of 
this, they are more devout in their religion, and 
belieTe freely in dreams, signs, and ghosts. In 
this class there exists different grades of super- 
stition; for example, persons living in the 
rural districts are more prone to it than the 
mechanic and laborer of the city. For the 
reason that the former lives in an isolated con- 
dition, being deprived of the knowledge that 
naturally flows from free communication ; also 
their subsistence depends upon the soil, and 
its success upon the weather, which is capri- 
cious, and whose changes they are unable to 
understand. They live in the constant pres- 
ence of nature, of which they are utterly ignor- 
ant The latter lives in constant association 
with his fellows; his support, flowing ftom his 
own efforts, is affected by no contingency of 
wind or weather, and is influenced by no 
agency which he does not understand ; hence 
he is more intelligent and less superstitious. 
Two other classes— the soldier and the sailor — 
afford examples of the effects of mode of living 
upon the emotions. 

The soldier conducts his operations on the 
land, amid scenes and circumstances that are 
natural and familiar to him ; while the sailor 
exists on an element which he fears, and whose 
movements he can not comprehend ; he is toss- 
ed upon the waves by adverse winds, and is 
carried hither and thither by the storm. Fresh 
mysteries are constantly before him ; he is un- 
able to explain how the winds blow, or the 
tides ebb and flow, and, as a result, is more 
superstitious and credulous. 

Tho.se of the lower classes are not, as a rule, 
. stimulated with ambition for power or wealth. 
They sail not on the turbulent sea of politics, 
nor run the giddy round of fkshion. 



Entering the home of luxury, another scene 
presents itself. In the refined centers of society 
a different variety of passions prevail. We be- ' 
hold there a strange intermingling of feeling. 
On the one hand we meet with the noblest and 
purest examples of virtue, chastity, benevo- 
lence, and religion. On the other we see vir- 
tue prostituted, benevolence transformed into 
grasping avarice, and Deity blasphemed. With 
the finest specimens of man*s l)est nature is as- 
sociated the basest depravity. Here men good 
and true would worship God, and there the 
air resounds with oaths and shouts of baccha- 
nalian revel. Here honest industry enjoys its 
reward, and gamblers clutcJi their gains. Ge- 
nius and ambition take wings and find loftiest 
flights, and infamy its grave. Luxurious ease 
and pride, half-starved, walk side by side. Self- 
ishness and philanthropy meet face to face. 
The higher ranks of society are characterized 
by politeness, honor, and gallantry.^ In this 
soil truth and falsehood grow ; there honest 
men and villains flourish. Deceit, flattery, and 
corruption Are standard commodities; and 
vice, under tiie doak of polish and refinement, 
simulates virtue. 

Thus ofttimes between the savage and civil- 
ized man how dim is the dividing line. When 
we compare the skulls of the pre-andent cave- 
dwellers and mound-builders with those of 
our own race, we are enabled to determine to 
a great degree their inteUectual condition, did 
no other evidence exist These long-buried 
bones are silent historians of the past, to' tell 
us of a people bold and barbarous ; and these 
skulls, contrasted with those of the Anglo-Sax- 
on, serve to show us how much of man physi- 
cal is due to man mental. 

** For of th6 soul the body form doth take, 
For BOol is form, and doth the body make.** 

ULT88B8 L. HUTBTTB, ILD. 



4f» 



J. P. GBUWELL, M.P. 



THIS portrait at once conveys the impres- 
sion that the original has relations to a 
pursuit essentially of the scientific or pro- 
fessional order. At the first sight we would 
pronounce him a physician. His perceptive 
organs indicate culture; they have been 
exercised to a great extent in the contempla- 
tion of physical phenomena, in the discrimi- 
nation and classification of things, so that 
they have developed in a harmonious order. 
He is a natural investigator, a true student 



in the realm of life. The form of his fore- 
head indicates the quality or class of brain 
which readily acquires information, and is 
alive to the reception of new and valuable 
truths. What interests him he is disposed 
to analyze ; is a keen observer, and also 
quick in conclusions. He is not, however, a 
credulous man — easily won by plausible 
statements or taking appearances, but rather 
disposed to demand facts and demonstration 
before acceptjng novelties. 

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J. P. QRUWELL, M,D. 



117 



HiB elevated top-head shows practical 
BeneTolence, active sympathy, while the 
set of the feature eyinces much positiveness, 
emphasis, aspiration, and energy. He be- 
lieves in God staunchly, but is not wedded to 
the observance of denominational tenets. He 
is a good-natured man, appreciates the mellow 
and humorous sides of life, but more given to 
the manifestation of the useful and beneficial 
in conduct and statement than to the mirth- 
fuL He has a fund of genial sociability, 
however, which contributes in no small de- 
gree to his success as a physician. He does 



that time these parts were almost an un- 
broken wilderness of lofty forest trees, but 
few openings or clearings having yet been 
made. Here and there the humble log- 
cabins of settlers made their appearance, con- 
structed generally without the aid of the 
saw-mill or nails. 

Neighbors were " few and far between ; " 
few being within l^ss than five or six miles 
of their new home. It was amid the wilds 
of nature, where the utmost caution and un- 
remitting vigilance could not always prevent 
the depredations of savage beasts, and where 




not appreciate money sufficiently to have it 
come between him and his services to a pa« 
tient 

The subject of this sketch was bom on the 
19th day of May, 1810, the fifth child of 
]Hou8 parents, in moderate circumstances. 
They had left the scenes of their early life 
very early in this century, and, with two 
small children, had set their faces westward. 
Ptasing over the mountains and the ** beau- 
tifW river," they entered a quarter-section 
of wild land, in Stark County, Ohio, neariy 
one hundred milet west of Pittsburgh. At 



the proximity of roaming Indians filled the 
mother's heart with apprehension, that our 
subject first saw the light of day. 

Both his parents died at advanced ages, 
but while he was yet a young man ; while 
they lived they patiently endeavored to pro- 
vide the real necessaries of life for a rapidly 
increasing family. Above all other consid- 
erations did they regard the training of their 
children in paths of virtue and probity, that 
they might lay a foundation for true useful- 
ness in their mature years. 

Schools, of course, in such conditions, were 

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simply out of the question, and many chil- 
dren grew Dp in the " settlement " destitute 
of book-learning, yet they were active, intel- 
ligent boys and girls, blooming with health- 
ful vivacity. The father of our subject, how- 
ever, had too much regard for mental in- 
struction to suffer his children to lack it alto- 
gether. As soon as they were old enough, he 
employed much of his spare time and wet 
days in teaching them to read and write. 

When John was about ten years old, a 
winter school of one quarterns length was 
opened in the meeting-house, and here, for 
the first time, he entered school as a regular 
scholar. 

To attend this, he and an older brother 
had to travel two miles through an imbroken 
forest, along a path, or trail denoted by 
" blazes " on the trees, made by hewing off 
the bark with an ax, and which could be 
seen at some distance. After this, a winter 
sohool, open generally for three months, was 
tanght in the neighborhood, which he had 
the opportunity to attend. Besides this he 
had no other school instruction. He, how- 
ever, sought to make the most of spare time: 
a principle which had been instilled into his 
habits in early childhood. This habit has 
doubtless influenced his whole life. 

When seventeen years of age, he had made 
considerable progress inthe common branches 
of an English education. He then left home 
to reside for a time with a married sister, and 
in her household the major portion of the 
following two years was spent. Here he 
was furnished with new and wider fields for 
observation, and he eagerly embraced the 
opportunity for improvement. A library in 
the place, owned by an association of which 
his brother-in-law, a man of taste and cul- 
ture, was a member, afforded him the means 
of gratifying his strong thirst for knowl- 
edge. A community of **Owenites'* in the 
vicinity gave rise to no small controversy 
and discussion. And the Hicksite defection 
in the Quaker Church, which culminated 
about this time, proved another exciting cause 
of disputation and investigation. These 
incidents, together with the change in his 
surroundings, seemed to inspire young 
Qruwell with additional life and vigor, and 
open out before him different avenues of 
thought. 



Always acquiring knowledge with facility, 
he now seemed to put forth all his energies 
to improve by his present opportunities and 
to subordinate all other things to the pursuit 
of literary and scientific acquirements. 

Having returned to his old home, and 
having obtained some knowledge of English 
grammar and geography, etc., and while 
pursuing other business and studies, he in- 
duced some young men and lads, his former 
schoolmates, to meet with him once a week, 
mostly Sabbath afternoons, for the purpose of 
taking lessons in these branches of learning. 

This proved to be a most pleasant and prof- 
itable association, and was dissolved only 
that he might engage in more extended 
duties as an instructor. 

He took charge of a winter school, and 
though a beardless stripling, succeeded well, 
giving satisfaction to patrons and gaining 
the confidence and esteem of his scholars 
generally. By the kind aid of a retired 
Philadelphia teacher, who, in his old age, had 
removed to the then " far West," he received 
instruction in the higher branches — algebra, 
geometry, etc., etc. This gentleman mani- 
fested a great interest in the young peda- 
go^e, as he saw him manfully struggling 
against the many formidable obstacles which 
lay in his way. 

Gruwell continued to teach in different 
schools for several years, with increasing 
prosperity and popularity, never quitting 
the vocation only to attend the Academy for 
a term, that he might be able the better to 
study medicine, the object of his ambition. 
He placed himself under the medical instruc- 
tion of a very respectable physician, but in 
the mean time continued to teach, as a means 
of obtaining funds to finish his studies. This 
relation continued for several years, until, 
through his own untiring industry and per- 
severance, and the kind and opportune assis- 
tance of friends, he was enabled to matricu- 
late in the medical department of the 
University of Pennsylvania. Having re- 
ceived his diploma, he entered upon the 
active labors of his profession at once, in 
Columbiana County, Ohio, where he rapidly 
gained the confidence and esteem of the 
people, both as a skillM physician and 
surgeon, and as a worthy citizen. 

His whole life has been linked with the 

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J. P. qruwsll; m,d. 



119 



idbrmatoiy moyements of the age. When 
young he took an actiye part in the Tem- 
perance cause, often giving it efficient aid 
by way of public lectures, in which he was 
quite popular. 

The ^* county association for the promotion 
ei genial education," in yiew of his ability 
and suitable qualifications for the work, 
while he was yet a teacher, engaged him to 
lecture in the different school districts of the 
eounty, on the importance and expediency 
of adapting the system of ccnnmon school 
edncation to the entire wants of the people." 
When the good and great Thompson yisited 
America on his mission of mercy and pre- 
sented his views on the nature and sin of 
negro slavery to the public, our young 
student's interest was warmly and actively 
enlisted in feivor of the abolition of slavery ; 
and he became a fearless advocate of the 
cause, in the face of Mobocracy, armed, 
though it were sometimes, with unsavory 
eggs, tar and feathers, etc. 

Under his medical instruction and profes- 
sional training, as private pupils, were a 
number of the most successful and worthy 
physicians of the West. Br. J. Miller, then 
of North Benton, Ohio, now of Topeka, 
Kansas, in writing of him to a frigid, says : 
^ As a man, he is honorable ; as a student, 
persevering and arduous; as a preceptor, 
industrious, ever laboring for the benefit of 
his students; as a physician and surgeon, 
skillful and entirely reliable ; he is kind and 
sociable in his £Eunily and among his friends, 
* * * has very agreeable conversational 
powers." 

Adopting the principle for his rule of 
action, that, in whatever capacity a man may 
offer his services to the public, it becomes 
his incumbent duty conscientiously to use 
all means within his reach to fill the position 
properly and efficiently, he seemed, therefore, 
as his practice increased, to hold his profes- 
sLoual duties as paramount to aU others, 
laboring assiduously, by diligent study and 
careful observation to make himself worthy 
of public confidence and patronage. These 
he soon secured in a remarkable degree, but 
£bw, under like circumstances, succeeding 
better in usefulness and popularity. 

Several years ago, for a time, he fiUed a 
pootion in an institution of learning as 



lecturer on the *^ anatomy and physiology of 
man," etc., which position he filled with 
ability and satisfaction. The proprietorship 
of the Institution was changed, and with it 
the Board of Instruction. During his con- 
nection with this school, his zeal and ambi- 
tion in the practical duties of his profession 
did not, in the least, abate, but it was the 
opinion, that the more he was pushed in his 
practice the more Hvely and pointed were 
his lectures. 

His height is about five feet ten inches, 
and he is well proportioned. Up to the age 
of thirty he was rather slender, with a weight 
of about one hundred and thirty pounds ; at 
present it is usually about one hundred and 
sixty-five. His eyes are bluish gray, and, 
when excited, penetrating; his hair, fine, 
straight, dark-brown, slightly mixed with 
gray. All his motions, as well as voice, are 
rather quick, particularly when excited. His 
walk, even at his advanced age, is remark- 
ably ^active, giving the impression of great 
energy and earnestness in his manner. 

In the session of 1873-4 he was appointed 
<me of the censors to examine the medical 
students, candidates for the degree of doctor 
of medicine, in the Iowa University. At this 
time he is giving a course of lectures in 
Penn College, Oskaloosa, Iowa, on Physiol- 
ogy and Hygiene, and kindred subjects. 



A Temfbrai^cb Town. — The Prattsburg 
I^ew9 — Steuben County, N. y. — says : 

*' We have no sympathy with, nor word of 
encouragement for, the traffic in alcoholic 
drinks. Legal restrictions have banished all 
such traffic from our fair village, and she 
now stands as a beacon on the heights to warn 
and encourage other towns in the work of 
banishing legalized rum and consequent dis- 
sipation and poverty. The business of this 
town was never more prosperous than during 
the months that liquor has been banished. 
The * grass has not grown on our streets. 
Good-will and kindness pervades the inter- 
course of our business men toward each 
other, and the sun of prosperity shines with 
bright efifulgence on all the walks of industry 
and trade that engage the activity of this 
people." 

[Nor is Prattsburg alone in her glory of 

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PHREirOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



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temperance principles. We coald name sev- 
eral towns ^hich are notable examples of 



thrift and of good order, and in which are 
no paupers of their own making.] 



THE WORTH OF KNOWLEDGE. 



KNOWLEDGE is power. This fact be- 
comes more apparent at each successiye 
step as we trace primitiye man from barbar- 
ism and weakness to enlightenment and 
power. We get the same veritable testimony 
in viewing the scale of creation from the 
nomad to the philosopher, from the in&nt to 
the adult man, and from the first perceptions 
of a child to the supreme wisdom and power 
of God. 

But facts of which we have knowledge »e 
very different in their degrees of importance 
to individuals, to communities, and to the 
world. 

For instance, a dog caught a rabbit — dark- 
ness followed the setting of the sun yester- 
day — these are very trivial facts, as they 
convey no knowledge that benefits man or 
enlightens the world. Much time is wasted 
in acquiring a knowledge of what are called 
accomplishments: such as dancing, music, 
and romance. These do not improve the 
intellects of their possessors, nor could they 
alone elevate a people far above Digger 
Lidians. 

History, as generally written, is of more 
importance ; still, it is subsidiary as a depart- 
ment of knowledge. Most historians have 
dished out to us in ancient style, so that 
it amounts to little else than tedious details 
of the doings of ignorant or cruel kings and 
potentates ; and half of what they write is 
traditionary or false, leaving us to judge 
which statements are worthy of credence. 

Herodotus and Eusebius, the most reliable 
among ancient historians, wrote many things 
that no civilized man could believe. The 
French wove a tradition into their history 
to the effect that they descended from the 
Trojans, a race of giants who, it is claimed, 
came and settled in France after the fall of 
Troy. (See an account of the Trojan war in 
Homer's Iliad.) When a youth, I read in 
Goldsmith of the unfortunate meeting of 
Sylvia and her lover; of the subsequent birth 
of her twin bastard sons — ^Romulus and 
Bemus; of their rescue from drowning by a 



wolf which suckled and reared them, eta — 
all told as solemn truth. 

The historian should be armed with 
veracity and science, that he may give the 
internal workings of a government, the 
characteristics of a people, the cause and the 
sequences of their doings. The study of 
language imparts a still more important 
knowledge. A thorough knowledge of the 
mother tongue is an indispensable requisite, 
but the dead* languages, besides furnishing 
roots to English words, and thereby correct 
ideas of orthography and definition, are of 
no great moment. To learn many languages 
consumes too much time that ought to be 
devoted to more useful departments of 
knowledge. 

Recently an intelligent young student, 
who had just entered upon his fourth year in 
college, confessed to me that he knew but 
little of science, as he had not reached that 
part of the curriculum, having occupied the 
whole of his time in the study of Latin, 
Greek, and what he called theology. This 
is but an example of the training in most of 
our colleges, particularly the old ones. 

And the curriculum for the gentler sex is 
no better. The best powers of the fair 
maiden's mind «re exhausted in learning 
absurd conventionalities — how to appear un- 
natural in company, and how to give the 
piano-forte the taetuB eruditus. 

All the kinds of knowledge yet referred to 
have the same relation to the mind that the 
decorations so much admired by savages do 
to the body — they are but paint, tattoo, and 
red beads. But practical matter-of-fact 
minds are not content with these things ; 
they grasp after more substantial facts, for 
more intellectual pursuits, for more exalted 
and useful knowledge. 

Man's intellectual and moral progress, his 
political and social condition, and his well- 
being in every relation of life depend upon 
his knowledge of the laws of natural pheno- 
mena. A proper conception and diffusion of 
thb knowledge alone can dispel the phantom 

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THE WOBTE OF KNOWLEDOE. 



121 



of soperstitition which prostrate^ man's 
reason to traditional mandates and his body 
to mythic gods. 

It is this knowledge that barsts the bar- 
ntcles which bind him to barbarism, that 
inspires him with noble conceptions of him- 
self and of his environment; that enables 
him to hold marvelous sway over the pheno- 
Biena which had overawed his reason, and 
enables him to apply them to his own use, 
comfort, and elevation, and fills him with 
reverence for the Deity. 

It is with this knowledge and power that 
Dfln stands forth a potential paragon, and 
flews in his person and in his surroundings 
the diastole of the Deific Heart With this 
knowledge he governs the State, controls the 
Church, and adorns the Earth. 

Science is everything to everybody at 
erery moment. And yet a few minds do 
the thinking for all; they solve the mysteries 
of nature's fundamental laws, and then touch 
the crude surroundings as with a magic 
wand, and bring forth the bounties, the com- 
forts, and the grandeur of an enlightened 
world. 

The ignorant masses around us have no 
appreciation of or care for those learned 
men whose researches and wisdom have 
given them all they possess above barba- 
rians They look upon all their comforts as 
coming directly from Gk>d, just as if God had 
filled the world with all these comforts to 
order and left man nothing to do. 

The land will not produce grain unless it 
is tilled, and th^n to get bread mills must 
be boilt, and to build good mills mathema- 
^ physics, and mechanics had to be taught. 
Had it not been for science, our great rivers 
had not been bridged and navigated, our 
gorgeous buildings had not taken the place 
of wigwams, nor ha(] enlightened England 
•dvanced beyond her cave homes and feudal 
huts. 

Bat let us further trace the proud record 
of science. Mathematics, as it deals with 
ipace, has surveyed our lands, erected our 
booses, and calculated the distances, veloci- 
ties, and approaches of the planets. 

As it deals with number, it is the chief 
ompire in all commercial relations. As it 
deals with force, constituting rational me- 
chanics, it has supplied labor-saving ma- 



chines, bridged our rivers, and tunneled our 
mountains. 

Physics has aided in constructing the 
barometer, hydrometer, microscope, telescope, 
spectroscope, and electroscope ; and we see 
chemistry and electricity performing an 
essential part in all the activities of life. 

Biology astounds us with its domain of 
organic life, 2,820,000 species of living forms 
are here presented, of which 2,000,000 species 
of animals have been classified and named. 
What a vast menagerie I And who did all 
this labor? Men of science. From these 
researches physiology was evolved, and by 
its development mountains of superstition 
have been removed. 

By this knowledge we have the power to 
promote health, to ward ofi* disease, and often 
to disarm death. It is a fearful responsibil- 
ity for an individual to be placed as engineer 
and conductor of a machine so complicated 
as the human body; when the certain re- 
sults of mismanagement are suffering and 
death. And another condition is that it is 
to be run without any knowledge of its com- 
plications, the relative dependencies of its 
parts, or of its capacity. And yet this is 
the real condition of all who live without a 
knowledge of physiology. 

No wonder, then, that wrecks, blow-ups, 
and break-downs surround us on every hand. 
In the daily rounds of my vocation I see here 
a nice young man who, by a sportive leap, has 
broken his 1^. There is a young woman suf- 
fering from a terrible malady. She has a 
finished education. Oh, yes! She sings 
sweetly in Italian, converses fluently in 
French, and touches the piano to perfectioiu 
But, unfortunately, she knows nothing about 
herself. Consequently, she took a cold bath 
yesterday, when the catamenia was just ap- 
pearing, and now she is dying of convul- 
sions. Superstition says: What a pity that 
God saw proper to kill this accomplished 
girl so untimely ? He never did it. 

Physiology underlies pathology, and has 
contributed mainly to its development as a 
science ; but it is pathology that scrutinizes 
and determines the elements of disease — that 
points out the suffering organ or organs, and 
tells the probable duration and tendencies of 
disease. 

It is pathology that traces signs and symp- 

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PHRBNOLOOIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Fib, 



toms to their sources, perceives the indica- 
tions and points to the remedial measures. 
And it is pathology that comes as a minister- 
ing angel to cool the fevered brow, to soothe 
the ruthless pain, and, when possible, to ward 
off the dark mantle of death. 

Then how important to society the knowl- 
edge and the office of him who in wisdom 
and kindness ministers to the suffering; and 
dead to true appreciation and to gratitude 
is he who fails to observe and to admire the 
mission and the progress of the medical pro- 
fession. Notwithstanding the thousands of 
parasitic fungi garbed in its honored mantle, 
true medicine, by dint of its great minds, has 
made a triumphal march and attained an 
exalted position. 

But it is true that none but intellectual and 
cultivated minds can make clinical observa- 
tions or profit by experience. Who can be- 
come an astronomer by gazing at the heavens ? 
Chemical and physical activities are going 
on all round us, though none but scientists 
can observe them. Physiological processes 
are every moment going on in our organisms, 
and only they who are veritable physiologists 
can comprehend them. In our evening walks 
we see the stamen of a plant deposit its 
pollen in the pistil of its companion ; we see 
insects developing in definite segments, and 
we see the ant milk the aphis. Do the un- 
educated see these things ? 

When told of nature's laws, wonders, and 
beauties, people say, " Oh, yes ; I knew all 
that ; I have studied all those things ; *' when 



they have studied them about as &r asa 
child has astronomy when it has seen the 
sun rise, or as it has zoology when it has 
learned to separate horses from cattle. The 
blacksmith thinks that after all his hammer- 
ing he knows all about so simple a thing as 
an anvil ; but he doesn*t know that when he 
closes his shop and goes to church his anyil 
keeps on at work, its atoms being in cease- 
less motion. The average physician may 
think that he knows all about water, but 
perhaps he doesn't know that if this bland 
fluid receives another atom of oxygen it be- 
comes a caustic, or that particles of silver 
dropped into it now will cause explosion, or 
that a single drop of the water we drink has 
its particles held together by forces which, 
if released, would dazzle the eyes with a flash 
of lightning. 

It would fill volumes to write all that may 
be written of the worth of science, and 
volumes more to portray its beauties. It has 
given the world the civilization and enlight- 
enment we see to-day ; it has released many 
nations from barbarism, and given them 
proper conceptions of Deity. Bcience is not 
at variance with religion, whatever the 
antagonism between it and the superstitions 
which have sprung out of paganism. The 
latter crushes reason and appeals merely to 
faith — to faith in the myths of tradition. 
True science, on the other hand, is but the 
mouth-piece of true religion. It emanates 
from God, is attested by veritable demon- 
stration and truth, and is embraced by 
reason. charlbs l. carter, h.d. 



ABOUT OHIPPINO BIRDS. 



THE chipping bird, or chipping bunting, 
Bmb&nea toeiaUs^ is a bird so common all 
over the United States that, I presume, every 
one is somewhat acquainted with him. As its 
name indicates, it is a very social little bird, and 
many stories are told illustrating its friendship 
for, and confidence in man. Alas I I fear it is 
sometimes, as is the case with human beings, a 
victim of misplaced confidence. 

I recollect once in early March, during a resi- 
dence in Minnesota, a socialis alighted in the 
yard, within two feet of me, and fluttered about 
in a strange manner, seeming to be too weak to 
fly. I tried to put my hand on him, but he 
would flutter away a little, just beyond my 



reach. I ran in and procured some crumbs of 
bread, which I scattered about and, stepping 
away a little, had the satisfaction of seeing him 
devour them ; after which he flew off, appar- 
ently much invigorated. 

I give the chipping bird credit for much in- 
dustry and patience. Its nest is simple, yet re* 
quires much labor in its construction, and is 
quite superior to the coarse nest of the robin 
You may look for them in low bushes or vines 
They are built of dried grass, sometimes inter 
speraed with bits of string and yam, and lined 
with cow hair. The number of eggs, as I have 
observed them, are three (I never saw more, 
though they are put down in the books as four 

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ABOUT CHIPPING BIRDS. 



123 



or fire), which are of a bluish green, or greenish 
blue, with bvown ^ots cm the lai|;er end. I 
feel a ptrticniar affecUon for this bird, partially 
on aocount of its quiet, confiding ways, but 
ffloie, perhaps, on account of its misfortunes. I 
bare four nests in my possession, the builders 
of which have " come to grief" this hist season. 
Two were robbed by boys ; one deserted with its 
thiee egg^ on account of disturbance caused by 
some workmen who were constructing an arbor 
for the vine in which it was located ; and the 
fourth I have something peculiar to tell 
tbout It was built in a honeysuckle running 
orer one of my neighbor's windows. The eggs 
were laid, and the period of incubation was 
fiurly commenced, when a cat-bird, who had 
boilt the prcTlous season in the back yard« spied 
oat the hiding place of our little friends, and, 
ooQcloding that ** possession is nine points of 
the Uw,** waged war upon chippy and, being 
the stronger party, forcibly took possession of 
the nest Poor chippy made a desperate resist- 
ance. There was much scolding and berating, 
tad sometimes a hand-to-hand fight, but all to 
DO porposa The defeated chippies lingered in 
the vicinity for two or three days, but finally 
gtre up the contest and ingloriously disappear- 
ed; wUilher I know not, but sincerely hope 
they were thereafter left to ** hatch*' their brood 
in peace. 

However, as is usually the case with evil 
doers, swift vengeance overtook the marauder 
and parloiner. It was not her lot long to thrive 
upon other people's hard earnings. It came 
about in this wise: She sat upon her little 
stolen nest until the eggs were hatched ; then, 
as the little kitten birds began to increase in 
sise, they found their domicile rather small. We 
watched them through the window, and such 
ugly, featherless creatures as they were, with 
aach great eyes and their mouths gaping wide 
open a greater part of the time, so that their 
heads seemed bigger than all the rest of the 
body! They became so crowded that one had 
to rest upon the others, and a comical figure he 
made of it! Then, when the mother would 
bring worms and cram them in their throats, 
their mouths would shut like a trap, and they 
would close their eyes and swallow in a sort 
of sleepy ecstasy. Oh, those wereliappy days 
for them, and I fear their childhood, like that 
of many a human, was the happiest part of 
their lives. 

But I was to tell how fkte arenged the rob- 
bing of the poor chippy birds. One evening at 
d«^ as we were watching the little ones 



grow, my neighbor, (a man, as I live I) whose 
curiosity exceeded his Judgment, raised the 
window in order to have a better view 1 The 
result was as might have been expected ; out 
Jumped the topmost fledgeling, and the other 
two followed suit They hid in the grass, and 
we could not discover their hiding-place. 
When the mother returned and found her 
young ones gone she was fhmtic with rage, and 
flew at us with such brave fUry that my friend 
was obliged to protect himself with a broom- 
stick. 

What was their future lot we know not, but 
suspect that a namesake of theirs, of the feline 
race, whom one evening we caught upon the 
window-sill watching the nest with eager eyes, 
knows more about it than she cares to telL 
And we think we have a right to suspect, for 
how could we expect any good to come of the 
progeny of parents of such unscrupulous prin* 
ciples? 

Nature's laws are inevitable. One ques- 
tion arises— Did tliose birds owe their misfor- 
tunes to total depravity, or to man's curiosity. 

CLAUDS INOLETOir. 



Woif AK A8 A Pbdbstbiak.— The Truckee 
Bepubliean, a Nevada paper, stated not long 
since that a woman passed through that town 
who *' has walked the entire distance from 
Kansas City. She has followed the railroad 
track closely, and has been some fifty days in 
making the trip. Nearly every conductor 
and brakeman on the railroad between Omaha 
and Truckee have observed her as they passed 
her on their respective trains. She was very 
reticent in conversation, but claimed to have 
a recreant husband in California whom she 
was seeking. Numerous offers were made 
her of a ride on the freight trains, all of 
which she peremptorily refused. She de- 
clined trusting herself to the dangers and 
uncertainties of railway travel, and walked 
every step of the way. Her dress consisted 
of a pair of loose Turkish trowsers, made 
of canvas, similar in texture to that used by 
miners for hose in hydraulic operations. A 
wool sack protected her neck and chest, and 
a small striped shawl was wrapped around 
her shoulders. In height and size she was 
rather below the medium. Her features were 
rather coarse, and« as may l)e supposed, se- 
Terely bronzed by exposure to the sun and 



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weather. The distance from Winnemaoca to 
WadBWorth — 186 miles — she made in four 



days, at the rate of 84 m&es a day. She 
made no hah in passing through Trnckeei'' 



CNGLE DATE'S FINAL SUCCESS. 



"T y NCLE DAVE " is an old darkey, aged 
VJ about fifty-eight ; is a native of North 
Carolina, but has spent the greater part of 
his life in Alabama, where, from the time he 
attained manhood, he acted as ** head-man ^'* 
for his master, which in slavery times was 
equivalent to being sub-overseer, and en- 
dowed with authority to punish idlers or de- 
linquents in the field. He was also his mas- 
ter's *' stand-by^' in the care of his stock, 
especially his horses and mules. To fiEkil in 
giving each its daily food, water, and cuny- 
ing was, to Dave's sneducated consdousness, 
the unpardonable sm. His twenty yean' ex- 
perience in ^ leading '^ the working-gaing 
developed in him that species of j%dg$nent 
in which colored men generally, from their 
long habit of simply foUowing direetionM^ are 
wofully deficient In 1872 Uncte Dave 
moved to Mississippi, having amassed a suf- 
ficient amount of money ** clear" to equip 
his family for the journey, and pay their ex- 
penses by rail — ^no insignificant matter, as he 
had a wife, two grown sons, three grown 
daughters, and a " perfect tribe " of younger 
children and infant grandchildren on his 
hands. He had no difficulty in getting a 
house to live in and plenty of work to do. 
It was late in November, but the cotton- 
fields in those Mississippi bottoms were still 
white to tthe harvest, the seared-brown fields 
looking as if powdered with new fallen 
snow. The owners were freely offering $1.25 
per hundred weight to pickers. Uncle Dave 
wisely took his pay in meat and com, and 
early in January, having this stock of pro- 
visions to go upon, made an advantageous 
trade with a gentleman, who agreed to fur- 
nish him land and horse-power for half 
the crop. Behold I now Uncle Dave jBadrly 
launched as . a frse, reiponnbU citizen^ hands 
to do and) heart to dare I His residence, in- 
deed, was 'Only a low, smoky, very dirty 
log-cabin, with Ma ample mud-chimney (in 
one comer of which Unele Dave and his dog 
not unfrequentfly ^Kissed the entire night 
when the weather was very cold), and his 



friraiture conasted merely of mde bedsteads, 
mattresses of shucks, pieced-up eom/orts, 
stools, a table, cup-board, and a few trunks ; 
but Uncle Dave craved no better, which dis- 
position on his part rendered his surroimd- 
ings satisfactory. He at once '^ pitched in " 
to get his sixty acr6s ready for planting 
time, there being much to do in the way of 
removing the debris of the previous year's 
crop, knocking dowp cotton and com stalks, 
piling and burning them, burning off sedge, 
clearing out drains and rebuilding fences. 
Unfortunately, his second daughter (an ex- 
cellent ^^hand"), contracted a severe cold, 
which turned to galloping consumption, and 
soon en^ed her life. Still another misfor- 
tune was the idea Dave imbibed that ^^ whis- 
key was an essential part of one's dietary on 
the bottom, in order to keep off chills^ — 
(an error confirmed by the teachings of the 
most eminent drug-doctors, and fostered by 
their advice, prescriptions, and pergonal 
practice). Uncle Dave was eminently relig- 
ious, yet his often exalted state of mind did 
not open his eyes to this quicksand of whis- 
key-tippling. His renter had stipulated to 
make all necessary advances in the way of 
provisions and clothes daring the crop-year. 
Dave's appetite, g^wing with gratification, 
soon made him regard whiskey one of tlie 
necessaries, and his gallon per week one of 
the things he mtu€ have. The demoraliza- 
tion attendant thereupon was ruinous to him 
in divers ways. During Saturdays and Mon- 
days (his spreeing days) his sons and daugh- 
ters utterly neglected their work, and fre- 
quently rebelled against his authority, alleg- 
ing that " daddie was dead-drunk." They 
" laid by " their com ** fired "^ from a final in- 
judicious plowing, which had cut the roots, 
and their cotton was so " foul " that it suf- 
fered terribly from the drought in July and 
August In the fall his family took chills, 
old Dave himself ''shaking" in unison, 
whiskey not having availed to keep them off. 
Another grown daughter died, and Dare 
concluded to hire his crop gathered, which, 

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126 



nith hk large whiskey bill, and other ex- 
peBseB^qoite exhausted IhD proeeedB of his 
yetr^ woik. Besides, he gave several " oot- 
ton-pickiiigs ;" that is, invited '* hands " to 
the namber of twen^ or thirty, repaying 
iSd&sk by a big dinner and lots of whiskey 
to drink. The upshot of the year's cropping 
was that Uncle Dave came out several hund^ 
red dollars in debt, with nothing to go upon 
fhe next year. Through the liberality of the 
land-owner, he was allowed another showing 
^-advances^ however, were made to him very 
eparingly. He had begun to see how it was 
himself and, to use his own language, *' ^ ter- 
mined to let whiskey alone, and sarve Qod 
Almighty.*^ The result has been, we think, 
a success. He has paid all his debts with 
ys share of the cotton crop, besides the 
nnt; settled for last year's advances as w^ 
asthia, and has a crib fhll of com, a garden 
of long oollards, plenty of peas and sweet 
potatoes, besides a good wagon and team. 
Aunt Judy, his big, fat wife, reodived train- 
ing as a cook in slavery-times, and knows 
bow to economize and make the most of 
her materialB. She sets the little ones down 
to potatoes and pot-liqnor, on which they 
seem to thrive, looking hearty and greasy. 



Dave ifl a great admirer of learning. I soma- 
timea give him copies of my illustrated pa- 
pers and magaxines to look at, which delight 
him greatly. He has sent his two younger 
daughtera and a couple of grandchildren 
regularly to school ^is year, and, at my sug- 
gestion, readily subscribed for a juvenile 
paper. I see him pass every Sunday, on his 
way to church, driving his wagon. Aunt 
Jndy sitting by him in her chair, her children 
and grandchildren clustering round her im 
their good clothes, reminding me of a nest 
lull of young birds. When I told him I was 
going to write a piece about him for the 
PHBBlroLoeiciX JotfBNAi., he said, ** If yon 
please, mistes, tell dem IVe riz by de help 
of de Lord." vtboikia d. covington. 

[A sensible story— ^or statement of fact — 
with a good moral, which whit6 folks may 
profit by. The Lord helps those who try to 
help themselves. We do not know of His 
helping men to success in life, or to ^* rise," 
while they continue to diink whiskey. At 
least, we should have no hope for such help 
while thus indulging a perverted appetite. 
Experience is a good teacher, and Uncle Dave 
happily proved tractable before it was too 
late.— £o.] 



THE EUROPEAN AND AMEBIOAN COAL FIELDS. 



PROFESSOR E. B. ANDREWS, the State 
Geologist of Ohio, has given some inter- 
esting statistical information of the coal fields 
so far as ascertalDcd of the world. The area of 
the coal strata of Great Britain is estimated to 
comprise 12,800 square miles ; France, 2,000 ; 
Belgium, 530 ; Spain, 4,000-, Prussia, 12,000 ; 
Bohemia, 1,000— a total of 82,820 square 
miles. The coal fields of America, according 
to the best estimates, cover an area of 192,000 
UpMie miles — ^more than six times the Euro- 
pean area, and fifteen times the British. This 
ertimate does not include the coals of forma- 
tions more recent than the carboniferous, of 
which there is an immense area in the United 
States, and of a quality believed to be much 
better than that of similar coals in Europe. 
Beginning at the extreme east, the first coal 
idda encountered are those of l^ova Scoida 
tad Kew Brunswick. Of these, the first-men- 
tbned are r^^ed as ^ most valuable, in 



respect both to quality and quantity. In 
Nova Scotia, although the carboniferous form- 
ation is of enormous thickness, the amount of 
available coal is relatively very small. The 
product of New Brunswick is a resinous min- 
eral called Albertite, which, though not a trae 
coal, resembles it, and is used in the man- 
ufacture of gas. Turning to the United 
States, the principal coal fields are those of 
Pennsylvania, containii^ anthracite in the 
north-eastern part, bituminous in the western, 
and semi-bituminous between. The total area 
of anthracite fields in that State is 472 square 
miles, and the product for the year 1878 was 
20,025,019 tons. The coal in these fields is 
believed by some authorities to have been 
greatly everestamated, and that it will not 
be more than ten or fifteen years before the 
maximum output of anthracite will have been 
attained. From tiie All^hany Mountains, 
westward as far as the-middle of Ohio, aorA- 

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ward a distance of one hundred miles, and 
south through West Virginia, Kentucky, and 
Tennessee, as far as Tuscaloosa, Alabama, 
stetches one vast continous coal field, meas- 
ured not by acres or square miles, but by great 
States. In all these six States are found seams 
of coal of the finest quality and of great hori- 
zontal extent. The coal is of the bituminous 
class, but includes cannel and splint. Far- 
ther west is another coal field of vast extent, 
lying partly in Indiana, but stretching across 
Illinois, and projecting southward into Ken- 
tucky. Across the Mississippi there is an- 
other large coal area in Iowa, MisM>uriy Ne- 
braska, and Kansas. Still others exist in Ark- 



ansas, North-western Texas, and Michigan. 
These are the fields belonging to the true coal 
measures. There are, besides, vast stores of 
coal of more recent age in Virginia and North 
Carolina, beyond the Mississippi, and far 
away on the Upper Missouri Rirer, and in 
Wyoming, Utah, Colorado, New Mexico, Cal- 
ifornia, Oregon, Washington Territory, Y^xt- 
couyer's Island, and even Alaska. There is 
also coal in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 
but it is of poor quality. The quantity of 
coal contained in all these vast coal fields is 
simply incalculable, and the possibilities, in 
connection with the future of our manufac- 
turing mdustries, it would be difficult to otct- 
estimate. [This w a '^ great country.^'] 




IS^E^VV^ YORK, 

FEBRUARY, 1875. 

••DEATH. RATHER THAN DISGRACE." 

THIS is supposed by some, who know no 
better, to be the language of "high 
honor,'' and is meant to conyey the idea that 
the person would rather die than be "let 
down '' in the esteem of his or her associates. 
But the expression is simply the sentiment 
of large Appbobativbnbss. It is not the 
outcome of Conscientiousness, integrity, or 
godliness. It means that the one who utters 
those words, " Death, rather than disgrace," 
is sfreid of " what they say." He is a slare 
of Mrs. Grundy, and has nothing of the no- 
bler martyr spirit which accepts the fact that 
at best poor human nature is fallible, and 
liable to err. 

An ambitious young tradesman, whose 
credit has been extended beyond his means 
to pay, sees only financial suspension or fail- 
ure before him. He can not borrow more, for 
he has no securities to o£fer. Bills payable 



are accumulating. Notes in bank are falling 
due. Collections are slow, or impossible. 
He can not sleep. Stimulants are prescribed. 
For a time these, with the accompaniment 
of a liberal supply of tobacco, drown his 
cares and smother his agonies, only for them 
to return with increasing force as his ritality 
becomes less and less. His appetite is mor- 
bid. He eats irregularly, bolting instead of 
masticating his food, washing it down with 
strong coffee, beer, brandy, oic "bourbon," 
and at length has an attack of dyspepsia ! 
For this he takes physic ; now constipation 
sets in, becomes chronic, and he is discour- 
aged. Blue devils surround him. He is 
tempted. Being weak in morals, having but 
the faintest trust in Providence, he gives way 
to despondency and finally to depair. Then 
comes the fatal philosophy, " I would rather 
die than he dugraced; " and he resorts to a 
fatal drug, the halter, the pistol, or to deep, 
dark waters, in which to hide himself from 
the world ! And by this cowardly course he 
hopes to escape censure, criticism, and blame. 
He would not meet the responsibilities of 
his own deliberate acts. He leaves his debts 
and other duties for his friends to discharge 
and to remember him by. Manly, is it not ? 
How NOBLE thus to " flat out " in this igno- 
minious manner. 

MoBAL. — Don't go in debt beyond your 
depth. Don't try to make a great business 
splurge at the expense of others. Should 
fire or flood cut short your reasonable expec- 
tations; should your ship go down, at sea ; 
should your steam mill explode, your factory 

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be swept away, your growiag crope be de- 
voured by giBSshoppen, or sboald calamity 
(A whatever nature be£all yon, accept it as a 
pooible "bleflsing in disguiae.^ Don't re- 
sort to stimulants " to carry you through.^ 
That is " oot of the frying-pan intp the ftre.^' 
"Bnt what is a poor fellow to do t *' Stop 
and think. Then start, but go slow. If the 
way be dark, seek light from sources whence 
oometh divine light. Try prayer and a tem- 
perate diet Many have been aided and 
goided by these means, and saved from self- 
destruction, if not from perdition. It is the 
fonction of the moral and spiritual faculties 
in the top-head to become UghU to the ani- 
nudand intellectual man. Prayer tends to 
reconcile one to the inevitable. It brings 
that peace ot mind which passeth under- 
itanding. It gives bravery and moral cour- 
age. It takes away fear. It enables one to 
ssj and to feel that blessed sentiment of 
** Thy will be done.'* No real, healthy Chris- 
tian ever committed suicide. Sanity and 
true Cbristiamty will carry one through 
e?ery trial, and fortify him against every 
temptation. 

The only thing in this world one should 
fear is sin. Bectitude, temperance, a well 
balanced mind, with industry, application, 
perseverance, and a will to serve God and 
one's fellow-nien, will prove a safe passport 
seross life's troubled seas, and land us, not in 
a suicide's dishonored grave, but in that 
''house not made with hands, eternal in the 
heavens." 

TEMPTATION. 
*']|r soQ, if slxkiien «iitioe tiue, eoneent thoa not" 

LOOKED at fh>m our stand-point, we 
should say the one most liable to be 
tempted, or to yield to temptations, would 
be the ignorant, the over-confiding, and the 
one of weak mind or of weak will. The next 
is he who has strong or predominant passions 
ind weak moral sense ; such yield readily to 
die lusts of the flesh, to appetite, to avarice, 
to a love for vain display, and to worldly 
smbltion. Here and there is one who is most 
readily tempted through over-sensitiveness. 
Toidi his so-called sense of honor, and you 
srinse his lower nature, and he resorts to 
hrnte force or to the more ** polite," though 



barbarous, method of settling disputes be- 
tween g4ntUmm^ by the duel, as though this 
bioody code, this most ungodly practice, yet 
m Togue in some parts of our country, could 
determine who is right A godly man never 
challenged a human being to mortal combat. 
Nor can a Christian accept such a challenge. 
This is a barbarous custom, and should not 
be tolerated among any civilized people. 
Here is where our text comes in — If sinners 
entice thee — or tempt thee, — consent thou 
not 

Take a poor, ignorant boy or girl, man or 
woman. He or she is like putty in the hands 
of a glazier, and may be led upward or down- 
ward — may be twisted, warped, perverted, 
and reduced to any sort of wickedness. 
And here is where the rights of society come 
in for its own protection — the right to de- 
natand education for aXL Tea, >' compulsory 
education," which fits, or aims to fit, each for 
self-support 

The lottery dealer tempts thousands of im- 
beciles and weak-minded persons — white 
and black — to part with their scanty means 
for a chance — ^to become a pauper to be sup- 
ported at the expense of the town or the 
State. This is avarice, cheating, swindling, 
and should be stopped. All good citizens 
are interested, or should be, in the protection 
of the ignorant and the weak. Gin-mills, 
drinking-saloons, spirit-vaults, comer grocer- 
ies, and other places where alcoholic liquors 
are sold are nothing less than infernal temp- 
tations to a large percentage of perverted 
men and women, who do not live on a plane 
above their appetites. To gratify this they 
spend their last dime, pawn their children's 
shoes, deprive them of bread, and imperil 
life itself Rum is the saddest, the lowest 
and the worst of all the tempters with which 
society has now to deal. 

The temptation to theft is to be overcome 
by moral and religious training. Children 
and others should be taught as to what is 
mine and what is thine. The same is true 
as to temptations to licentiousness. If one 
be clad with the armor of godliness, he%iwil) 
have self-control and live a life of bodily pu- 
rity. So of the slanderer and of the mis- 
chief-making gossip. Let each keep our text 
in constant view, and he will be safe. 

** If einnen entice thee, consent tbon not*^ 

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LOTTERIES. 
*TTT*B are sorry to 866 that the passion for 

V V lottery gambling is breiOdng oat again. 
The lottery no^ pnts on an air of respectability 
and calls itself a "* gift " enterpr^. Some one 
wants to sell an estate, and raffles it ofll Each 
l^urchaser of a ticket gets aa article of trifling 
value for his money, and besides, a chance ibr 
one of the priies— we should say ** gifts." Or 
there is a thin yamish of benevolence laid on 
to deceive the onwaiy. We have before us as 
we write, a ** scheme" cut from a most respect- 
able paper of this city, authorized by a State 
Legislature, and sanctioned by a ;covemor and 
any number of colonels and honorables. It 
comes before tis country under the plea of a 
public benefit, for the funds are to go to finish 
some enterprise, we will not here say what A 
ticket-office has been opened in this city, which, 
in our opinion, is a clear yiolation of the law. 
Policy shops have for years past l)een com- 
pelled to put on disguises to escape deteoiioii; 
but here is a lottery which shows its place of 
business onblnshingly to aU comers. 

Lotteries have alwi^ used the plea of gen- 
eral utility. In Kentucky, some public library 
has figured in the advertis^nents for we do 
not know how long. Canals, and county, and 
State buildings, and even churches, were wont 
to be announced in the schemes as beneficiaries, 
tfsually these public objects represented mere- 
ly the bonus paid by the managers to the State 
for the privilege of fleecing the people. The 
lotteries were managed for private profit and 
ended in private profit Thousands were vic- 
timized and managers grew rich. But, no mat- 
ter how honest the intention to accomplish an 
object of value to the community by a lottery, 
the means are wholly ui^Justifiabla Whatever 
tends to draw the poor away flrom steady labor 
as the sole method ordained of €k>d for the 
supply of human wants is demoralizing. The 
fostering of the gambling spirit is an unmixed 
evil to society. When the poor are tempted to 
risk their earnings in lotteries, they are tempted 
to their undoing. Money is wasted, delusive 
hopes of sudden wealth are excited, industry 
slackens, and an hifiituation takes possession 
of many, which makes prc^riety ever more im* 
possible. For these reasons the lottery has 
been suppressed in most of onr States, but ^e 
temptation to make profit out of the credulity 
of human nature is so strong Uiat it is contin- 
ually coming up again. We have driven it 
fh>m church fahrs, where for a time it sought a 
refuge, but it ever and anon spears in the garb 



of heavenly charttgr. The charltgr is Tery d»- 
bions that needs suoh a service, or such a 
servant 

In the name of public morality we protest 
against this revival of lotteries, and we protest, 
too, against the countenance given to them l^ 
respectabib daily papers. A Journal that ad- 
vertises a lottery is a partaker in the criminally 
of this hifiunons bushiess ; is a panderer to one 
of the worst of human passions, and does more 
for the undoing of the young and unwary than 
can be count«!acted by reams of editorial mor- 
alising. When a paper of pretensions to re- 
spectability foils into this offense it casts doubt 
upon all its professions of integrity and seal for 
the public good.— 2^ MelhodkL 

[Right lihis is the truth bravely spoken. 
We would that otber religious papers—and 
secular papers also— would help to put down 
this system of swindling. But, Brother Meth- 
odist, what do y6u think of quack medicines? 
Do you not think them bad t Would not your 
subscribers be better off not to buy ot swallow 
them t Then why not throw them out of your 
otherwise almost faultless paper t Can you not 
fbllow the example of the New York Obeemm 
in this respectt Announce to your reados 
that no more quack or patent medicine adver- 
4is6Bient8 will hereafter appear in your other- ^ 
wise excellent pages, and we bdieve the news 
would be hailed with hear^ thanks.] 



MESSRS. JAY COOKE & CO. 

ONE of our city papers says : One of the 
surprising things in connection with 
the failure of Jay Cooke & Co. is the magni- 
tude of their business^ At the recent triiu in 
Philadelphia, Mr. Morehead, one of the part- 
ners of the firm, testified that Cooke & Co. 
negotiated for the Government $1,980,000,- 
000 in bonds, and afterward bought and sold 
$8,000,000,000 in additidn. In ten yeara that 
firm transacted a business covering five bil- 
lions of dollars, a lai*ger amount than was 
ever handled in the same time by any house 
in the worid. It would seem that a firm 
having the handling of so much money could 
have made enough by its enormous transac- 
tions to carry the Northern Pacific through 
a three weeks* panic, if not enough to bmld 
the road. Certainly most bankers would 
have rubbed that small amount from the 
coin as it slipped through their finsers, and 
either the firm was very honest or did busi- 
ness in a very loose way, Mr. Morehead 
thinks the house failed fh>m over-confidoice. 
It had been daisied by the enormous sums 
it handled till a paltry $8,000^000 seemed a 

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■em IwigatcUa It is a remarkable instanee 
of Mare from doing a too large and profit- 
tbl« bosineas. 

As to the int^rity of the principal of that 
firm— we are not personally acquainted with 
other members — there is not the slightest 
ihsdow of a doubt Mr. Jay Cooke is an hon- 
est man. He is eminently a patriotic citizen. 
He is a Christian gentleman, and, banker 
tboagk he was, he performed no act on which 
ke CDold not honestly ask Ood^s blessing. 
He was engaged in an immense enterprise, 
requiring immense capital, and his resources 
were inadequate to the undertaking. He 
(iuled, possibly, through oyer-confidence, as 
other good men have done ; but he made an 
honest fulure. We venture to suggest that 
DO better man than Mr. Jay Cooke can be 
Bsmed for the office of United States Treas- 
urer. Intelligent, though not possessing pre- 
•aeace, honest, attentive, industrious, tem- 
perate, and profoundly religious, Mr. Cooke 
is, in all respects, worthy of a nation's confi- 
dence and trust 

It was the extreme modesty of Mr. Cooke 
which prevented us, years ago, from publish- 
ing his portrait and character in the Phbb- 
50L0GICAX JoTTBHAL. When approached on 
the subject, he begged us, frt)m time to time, 
to defer it, though many of our readers 
asked for it. We hope yet to overcome his 
otjections, and to furnish a likeness with a 
earefhl analysis of his real character. 



TOO MUCH ACQUISITIVENESS. 

THB Chicago Trihme reUtes the follow- 
ing painful circumstance : 
**The Rev. M. Craig, a clergyman, who is 

St present the pastor of a church in S , 

Wis., has been arrested here for the larceny 
of books from the store of Des Forges A 
Lawrence. He has been in the habit of visit- 
iag Milwaukee frequently during the last 
year or two, and various booksellers here 
hive, soon after his calls upon them, noticed 
that several costly books were missing?. Des 
?(ffges, not wishing to accuse the clerical in- 
diridnal of thefts without proof, concluded 
ta caleh him in the act, if possible. He i^- 
peered in the store yesterday, was well re- 
cabied, and allowed to step behind the count- 
eiAc'tlie purpose of examining the newest 
pahiioationa. A clerk was detailed to watch 



him, and when he left the store he reported 
that several books were taken by the preach- 
er. Des Forges followed, and had him ar- 
rested. About $15 worth of books were 
found upon his person. He admits his guilty 
but says nothing in extenuation of it 

'' It is understood that he has an extensive 
library at home, Mfhich was undoubtedly 
procured by theft from Milwaukee booksel- 
lers, as some one has carried on the larceny 
business very successfully in the book-houses 
here for a long time, and this man appears 
to be the person to whom the crimes will all 
be laid. He is now in jail here. He has a 
wife and one child, and is about forty years 
of age. His library will be examined by de- 
tectives, and the stolen property claimed, if 
it is possible to recognize it now.** 

[A similar case is that of Mr. Coombs, 
whose unfortunate disposition lately led him 
to commit suicide, rather than meet the 
consequences of an exposure. In a phreno- 
logical examination it would probably have 
appeared that Acquisitiveness greatly pre- 
dominated over Conscientiousness in the 
brain of these men, and that the practice of 
petty theft with them wfw, or is, a kind of 
mania. But such weakness may be a man^s 
only infirmity. In all other respects he may 
be a consistent Christian.] 



4e» 



OUR ROYAL VISITOR. 

Kma DAVID KALAKAUA,* of the 
Sandwich Islands, has been lionized 
thus far by Americans during his visit among 
us. He is a tall and rather stout man, of 
easy yet dignified manners, and makes a good 
impression generally on those he meets. Mr. 
Clark Mills, the sculptor of Washington, 
secured a cast in plaster of the king's head 
and face soon after the arrival here of our 
royal visitor. This cast shows, among many 
interesting characteristics, that it is above 
the average size of heads as we meet them 
among our own people, and manifests, ac- 
cording to the notions of phrenologists, large 
Firmness, Self-Bsteem, and Ideality. The 
physiognomy is much more English than 
American in expression, with strong marks 
of voluptuousness, and very little appearance 
of Asiatic origin. The cheek-bones resemble 

* ProDooDoed Kal-a>ka-oo-A. 



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somewhat those of a North American IndiaD, 
almost ooBoealed by the fullness of the mus- 
cles of the face. The lack of a good portrait 
precludes us from showing the features of 
Ealakaua at this time, but we hope to present 
them to our readers in the next number of 

the JOURHAL. 



PRISONS IN MASSACHUSETTS VS. PRIS- 
ONS IN NEW YORK. 

THE Prisoner's FHend^ a Boston news, 
paper, visited Sing Sing lately, and this 
is what he says : 

'' There is not a single feature of the Sing 
Sing Prison at all comparable with the Mas- 
sachusetts Prison. Evei'ything connected 
with the institution is a disgrace to the 
State ; there is no redeeming reatnre about 
the establishment, unless it be filth and nas- 
tiness, and we advise all who are anxious to 
commit crime for the purpose of getting into 
prison, on account of the comforts and lux- 
uries given them, to stop and think. The 
community must be corrupt which they wish 
to leave for the purpose of getting into purer 
atmosphere in a prison in the State of New 
York." 

[But what are prisons for, if not to punish 



criminals ? Would yon make their homes so 
comfortable that they would improve while 
in restraint? No, no. The theory is to pu$i' 
ishy not to REFORM the culprit, so that he ^111 
be no better when he comes out than when 
he went in. *^ Hit him again 1 ''] 
♦s» 

A Plaiit Fuksral. — ^That was a most 
salutary, and, we trust, influential example 
which was lately set at the Trinity Church 
funeral of the late Henry Grinnell, formeriy 
the head of the wealthy shipping-house of 
Orinnell, Hintum & Co. It was by bis di- 
rection that there were no pall-bearers and 
no music, and that any display was carefully 
avoided. The deceased was in his seventy* 
sixth year, and will be long remembered fw 
his generous expenditures in fitting out the 
expedition which sailed under the late Dr. 
E. E. Kane in search of Sir John Franklin, 
in May, 1850. 

Ordinary funerals in New York cost from 
$800 to $500, while those of the '' well-to-do '* 
cost from $1,000 to $2,000. But what is the 
use ? Why not spend the extra amount — ^if 
it must be spent — on some usefUl charity ? 



AGRICULTURAL HINTS. 



Care of Cattle In Whiter. -It is 

not only very important that cattle should 
be properly attended to during the wlnt« 
months, but there should be special prepar- 
ation before winter foiriy sets in. Loss of flesh 
by hunger and suffering is a miserable prepar- 
ation for winter. Oows, especially, need extra 
care. The milk drawn from them daily is a 
heavy draft upon animal heat, and for this rea- 
son they need warmer shelter than would 
otherwise be necessary. ♦ « « The mikh 
cows should be placed in the warmest sheds, 
the working oxen in the next warmest, the 
common stock in the next comfbrtable quar« 
ters. Horses should have warm stables, but 
ventilated, and not too near other stock, as the 
horse wants pure air, and should not be com- 
pelled to breathe, over and over agaUi, his own 
breath, or that of other animals. Sheep-folds 
and pig-pens should be so constructed that 
the occupants can select positions suited to 
their nature, and especially to their present 
condition, as regards the degree of fiitness and 



the length of wool A big sheep, in high 
order, with twenty pounds of wool covering 
him all over from head to hoofs, would select 
cooler lodging, and keep himself out of doors 
a greater part of. the day, than a little, meager 
one, with but two pounds of wool on his back, 
and little or none elsewhere. 

Wild Horses.— The habits of wild 
horses are well worth studying, for in some 
particulars they possess almost human intelli* 
genoe. They choose their own chiefs, which 
gives the signal for departure. When they 
find a field dried up, they walk through at the 
head of the column, and are the first to throw 
themselves into a ravine, a river, or an un- 
known wood. If any extraordinary object 
appears, the chief commands a halt He goes 
to discover what it is, and, after his return, 
gives by neighing, the signal of confidence, of 
fiight or combat If a fierce enemy presents 
itself that can not be escaped by fleeing, the 
herd unite themselves into a dense circular 
cluster, all heads turned toward the center, 

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A9BI0ULTUBAL HIKTS. 



ISl 



i^ere tiie young animals take refbge. It is 
Bddom that sacti a manoBtnrar does not force 
tigers or lions to make a precipitate retreat 

Keeping Apples nirongh the Wln- 

TBB.— Mr. Alexander Hyde, a well-known ag- 
ricaltoiist in the west part of the State, com- 
mimicated to the New York Timet some 
niefiil suggestioDS in regard to keeping apples 
throagh the winter. One method is to wrap 
esch apple in a bit of old newspaper, the paper 
lenring both to keep ont the air and prevent 
the apples from being bruised. A method 
more effectual still is to fin the barrels nearly 
fiiH of apples, and then put in some dry, fine 
Band or powdered plaster, and $hake it down 
gently. This will fill up all the interstices 
between the apples, and keep them fresh in- 
definitely. Another mode is to pit the apples 
in some dry, sandy, or grarelly sc^, just as 
tornipe and potatoes are pitted. On this point 
Mr. Hyde says: 

'*They will keep splendidly through the 
winter, thus pitted, but must be used speedily 
in the spring after they are dug out, as they 
will rot soon after exposure to the light and 
sir. In order to pit apples, select some dry 
spot where there is no possibility of water fill- 
ing the pit, and dig a hole three or Ibur f^t 
deep, and of any required size ; place some 
elean, diy straw on the bottom, and on this 
tlie apples, to the depth of two feet, covering 
tiie whole with a layer of straw, and then a 
layer of dry earth, rising the latter above the 
general level of the ground and sloping it roof- 
ftafaion, so ^at it will shed rain. The apples 
wiR come out in the spring as orisp as cab- 
bages when pitted in this way.'* 

Tobaeeo-Baisiiig Exhausts the Soil 

—In the interest of true agriculture, and the 
lecognition by intelligent economists that the 
American syvtem of farming, generally, is hos- 
tile to a protracted fertility of the best land, it 
shooM be widely known that no other plant 
makes such enormous drafts upon the soil as 
does tobacco. Gen. John A. Cooke, of Vir- 
^nia, says, on this point : " Tobacco exhausts 
oie land beyond all other crops. As proof of 
fiiis» every homestead from the Atlantic border 
to tile bead of tide-water, is a mournful monu- 
ment It has been the besom of destruction 
whidi has swept over the whole of this once 
fertile region." 

Tlie formers of the Connecticut valley be- 
ghi to see the same Impending ruin staring 
then in tiie face, and are eagerly seeking for 
\ fertflizer which will maintain the frult- 



fhlness of their soil. They have recently found 
an excellent one in com meal 1 So now we 
have a double waste. 

Renew the Forests.— Timber may be 

increased on those tracts of land upon which 
it is being cut away. Plant the ground in the 
fall with acorns, black and white walnuts, but- 
ternuts^ the seeds of the ash, etc. The nuts 
should be covered lightly with the soil and 
decaying leaves, so that boys and squirrels can 
not find them. They will come up in the 
spring, and if cattle are kept out of the woods 
— as they should be by all who would preserve 
tbe young trees— they will make a rapid 
growth. In the same way, cuttings may be 
put out in the timber in the spring. The 
mulching of the ground by the falling of the 
autunm leaves is the best dressing that can be 
put around such young trees, which, in a year 
or so, i^ill surprise you with their rapid growth. 

Trees on Boundary Lines. — The 

New York Court of Appeals not long since 
decided that a man has no right to the fruit 
growing upon branches of a tree overhanging 
his land where the trunks of the trees stands 
wholly upon the land of his neighbor. But 
the law regards the overhanging branches as a 
nnlsance, and they may be removed as such, 
or the owner of the land shaded may remove 
them if he is carefid not to commit any wanton 
or unnecessary destmction in so doing. Where 
the tnmk of a tree stands on the line, the own- 
ers of the adjoining land have a Joint owner* 
ship in the tree and fruit, and neither one has 
the right to remove it without the consent of 
the other. 

Farm-Lftnd In the United States. 

— An exchange laya: "Wlien we consider 
that less than one-third of the area of the 
United States, and less than a fifth of Uie en- 
tire domain of the United States is mapped 
into farms, and remember that of this &rm 
area only one-fourth is tilled or mowed ; and 
when we further reflect that the average yield 
per wsre could be doubled if the many could 
be brought np to the plane of the few, in cul- 
ture — then we b^n to realize what numbers 
our country is capable of feeding, and what 
waste of soil and efforts come fix>m neglect of 
the economic lessons taught by the statistics 
of scientific agriculture. 

Cnltivate the Fmit. — Mr. Fennlmore 
says: "My long experience has taught me 
that all vegetables, from the smallest to the 
greatest, small iVuit and firuit-trees, require the 
very best and constant cultivation in due sea- 
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son ; not to taflRur smali grain, and partksnlarif 
white clover, to grow around the roota. As 
the trees come into bearing, it is rery neces* 
sary that some stimulating mannres shonld be 
applied. Leached ashes are probably the best 
fertilizer yon can get— one hondr^ and fifty 
budhels to the acre ; the next best is well com- 
posted manure. In all cases plow shallow; 
the feeding roots are all searching moisture 
and the best soil Therefore, as the roots work 



to the surface, where the manure is, if you plow 
deep you destroy the feeding power." 

Paper Banels.— Decoi-ah, Iowa, has 
a pf4>er flour-barrel fiiketory in operation. The 
barrel is made of heavy compressed water-proof 

Eaper, one-fourth of an inch thick, with wooden 
^ and bottom, and two paper hoops on the 
ends on which the barrel rolls. This paper 
barrel weighs ten pounds less than the ordi- 
nary flour barrel, and will stand more rough 
usage. 




ur JHettlonal I ur^au. 




[Iir thif Department will be noticed such matters m are of interest to correspondents and to the genenl rtadec 
Contribationa for ** What They Say ** ahoold be brief; pointed, and creamy, to eeeon poblication.] 



§0 ^ttt ^ortespotibfitts. 

Thb Pbessubb of oub Business is such 
that we can not undertake to return unavailable contribu- 
tions unless the necessary postage is provided by the unit- 
ers. M all cases, persons who communioate tsith us 
through the post-<t^lce should, if tkMft expect a reply, in- 
doee the return posiage-^stnmps being preferred. Anony- 
mous letters will not be considered. 

Questions op " General Interest ** only 
will be answered in (his department. But one question 
at a time, and that deai^ stated, miust be pnpounded, 
{fa correspondent shiUl eaepeet m togUMktm thebm^ 
if onofxriyconMsirotH/m^ 

Mental Development and Relig- 
ious Chabaoteb.— Ist If dlfllBrent moral develop- 
ments irlve a tendency to divers reliji|^ou» creeds, 
how will you explain the language of Paul name- 
ly, '' TiU they all come in the unity of the Mth.*' 

A-ws, When people all believe alike in every- 
thing else, they wtU be Ukely to beUeve alike in 
religions matters; bat we fancy that if all relig- 
ious knowledge coald be entirely blotted oat, and 
a general statement of religioaa troth, not too 
sharply defined, was promalga{ed, the whole peo- 
ple coald accept It; but you remember that In 
ancient times one was for Paul, another for Apol- 
las, and another for Cephas, each person's mental 
tendencies accepted respectively the explanation 
of his ftivorite teacher. 

3d. la it true that different intellects are natur- 
ally inclined toward different faiths and modes of 
worship as held and practiced bv different denom- 
inations, and if so, can yoa tell by the develop- 
raents to which class an individaal belongs oris 
most naturally Inclined ? 

Ans, We have no doubt that WickUffb, Calvin, 
Wesley, Murray, and Swedenborg, reading the 
same Bible, were led to take their different views 
concerning religions troth through the influence 
of their several orgaqizationa, and that those who 



are like them would naturally follow after them. 
We do not pretend to tell, in each case, whether 
a person belongs to this or to that church, but we 
have often said, and believed, that in a city where 
men can classify themselves aa they wish, in re- 
speet to worship, we could tell whether a congr^ 
gatlon assembled, say in some lecture-room, were 
Presbyterians, Baptists, Methodista,Episcopaliana, 
or Universalists; because there wuuld be a type of 
mental development in harmony with the general 
spirit embodied in their doctrine and discipline. 
The Scotchman, who said in reply to some com- 
plaint made of his head-strong spirit, " If any 
man will convince mo of anything, Fll give up at 
once,^* but, with a knowing twinkle in hia eye, 
added, ** I would like to see the man who oould 
convince m«,** reminda ua of certain types of 
Christians. When we find a house full of such 
men, we think at once that they are Preabyteri- 
ans, or Quakers, or Baptists. We would not sup- 
pose them to be Episcopalians, Methodists, Unlver 
salists, or Unitarians. In our dally ezaminationii 
we are often impreased that a person belongs to 
this or to that denomination, and frequently say 
to a man that with snch a higlT crown of head, 
snch Caution and Conscientioosness, Firmneea 
and Self-esteem, we shonld suppose that ho came 
fjrom the old Scotch Covenanter stock, or Quaker 
stock, and we have sometimes found that he 
united a descent from both. Of coarse there are 
persons belonging to those denominations who 
have submissive, conformatory, and mellow tend- 
endee^ and lack Firmness and Self-esteem, Cau- 
tiousness and ConsdentioQsneas ; but a thousaad 
Presbyterians would have more high-crowned 
heads than a thousand Methodists or Tlnivereal- 
ists, and we think In general that the more liberal 
is the natural onranizatlon, the mere mellow, and 
gentle, and conformatory, the more latitude and 
pliability will there be In reltgioas ideas, and that 



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OUB MSNTORIAL BUREAU, 



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U why these divers reliji^otiB opinions hare been 
intiodaced into the world, derived, indeed, from 
the same book. A goat win eat mulberry leaves 
Hid convert tbem Into milk and flesh ; wlUle thr 
sOk-worm, eating the same food, will cpnvert it 
into silk ; each taking from the same food the In- 
gredients which are appropriate to its needs, and 
rejecting the rest We have heard the same text 
preached from by men of different denominations 
in the forenoon and afternoon of the same day, 
etch being honest and intelligent, and each using 
tlie text in a way to harmonize with the views of 
truth peculiar to his personal organization and 
tone, and temper of the mind. 

This same variety of character and mode of in- 
itmction is as w^ marked in respect to the 
tvelre apostles as anything we see in these days. 
The apostle Paul was logical, talked government, 
sathorlty, and law. St. John was distinguished 
for the sentiment embodied In '* Love one an- 
other." Although Paul included tb6 love, his 
nwrked stress and strength of teaching was of 
the philosophical and governmental sort 

«MayI Marby My Cousin?"— Be- 
osnse there are seeming exceptions to a general 
rale, namely, that consanguineous marriages are 
iMtlly mitforiiinate, there are young, inexperi- 
enced, nay, iirnorant young people who would 
rish .into wedlock regardless of consequences. 
Thb question comes to us again and again, ** Why 
Btj I not marry my cousin ? ** ** She is light— I 
am dark.*' Or the reverse ; and, while the old 
folks object, fearing it may prove unfortunate. w€ 
thbk there can be no danger, but have agreed to 
teave the question to the editor of the Phbbmo- 
LoozoiL Journal. 

im. We give consent on these conditions, 
oamely, that you put off the marriage till after 
the lady shall l|ave passed her fortieth year. Thm 
70a may marry ; otherwise we forbid the bans. 

In eeveral of the States the marriage of cousins 
k prohibited by legislative enactment They do 
this fai the Interest of the State. They would es- 
esps cost for the support of imbeciles, or of the 
deaf, dumb, and blind products of oonsanguin- 
eons marriages. 

Some very curious statistics in relation to the 
nbject of the marriage of blood relations have 
been presented to the French Academy, and large- 
ly published. In order to warn the people of that 
eoontry against the danger of consanguineous mar- 
ri^es. It is said that full two per cent of French 
narriafsea are those of blood relations. Without 
ffolng taito the ordinary representations in regard 
to tiie effect of such marriages on tiie health and 
bodily eonstitutions of the children, as well as the 
ttental capacity of those who have the use of the 
orpins of speech and bearing, these statistics are 
iivetad especially to the relation of consanguln- 
wm marriages with the birth of deaf and dumb 
dfldreo. Strangers in blood may be so unfortu-* 
itte as to have children who can neither speak nor 
koK But the flgnrea show that relations who are 
vedded are nrocb more in danger of that misf or- 



iune. In Lyons and Paris it has been ascertained 
that, while one child bom in ordinary wedlock 
may be deaf and dumb, the proportion of children 
of blood relatives is .twenty-five per cent greater. 
In Bordeaux it Is thirty per cent The liability 
to this misfortune increases very greatly, accord- 
ing to the nearness of the relationship. The per- 
sons who experience this misfortune have the fac- 
ulties of voice and hearing, but are afflicted by 
the deprival of their children of these advantages. 
On the other hand, it is a remarkable thingias 
connected with the marriago of persons who are 
deaf and dumb, but who are strangers in blood, 
that their children are generally able to speak and 
hear. -^ 

My EYEa— W. R V., of Texas, com- 
plains of weak eyes, and aaks for a remedy. He 
says; ** I read a vast deal, day and night" And 
then asks if it is living in a windy, prairie country 
that cauaes his eyes to trouble him so. We think 
the remedy in this case lies in not permitting his 
eyes to rest at night, and to spare them from read' 
hog **a vast deal" even during the day. Drugs 
can do no good ; whiskey and tol>acco will aggra* 
vate the evlL 

Handwritikg.— Is the handwriting, 
in your opinion, the hey to the character, as a 
rule ? Has there ever been written any work upon 
this subject ? 

Ant, No; the handwriting Is not the key to 
character, but may exhibit peculiarities which the 
writer^s oiganiiation possesses. A free, natural 
style, will show much of the individual in it, but 
it is not safe to trust to impressions derived from 
it in matters of Importance, unless the head con- 
firms the hand. Mm. d^Arpigny and DesbaroUes, 
French authors, have written a good deal on the 
subject in their volumes on Ghlronomy. See 
Nbw Phtsioonomt for a chapter on character as 
exhibited in the handwriting. 

Wants to Raise a Mustache. — I 
ean*t raise a mustache, and the girls all tell me I 
would be a good-looking fellow If I had one. If 
you can help me out, let me know by first midl, 
zor Tm In a hurry. Stamp Inclosed for answer. 

Ant, You will have to wait on old Dame Nature ; 
all the quack specifics for making the hair grow, 
to the contrary, notwithstanding. One will put 
on sweet cream Instead of soapsuds, and let Puss 
lick it off, instead of shaving. Another will use 
" b^r*s grease," sweet oil, or other so-called hair 
fertilizers. But Nature will take her time, and 
you must wait Let the girls laugh. It wou*t 
hurt <A«m. 

Papbb PB03nsES — When Intro- 

DUOBD.— win you please give me a brief history 
of paper money r 

Am, If you refer simply to the United States, 
Massachusetts, in 1090, to defray the expenses 9I 
an unsuccessful war against the Jesuits, made the 
first issue of paper money of any of the American 
colonists. In 1775 the Continental Congress pro- 



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Tided for the iMoe of ** bllla of credit,*' known as 
the Continental cnrrency. They were very mdely 
engraved, and printed on thick paper, which 
caused the Brltiah to speak of it as the ** paste- 
board money of the rebels.^* In five years its 
value had so depreciated that ,$iO of this money 
was only worth $1 in specie, and in one year more 
it was worthless. 

In 1781 Robert Morris was instrumental in es- 
tablishing a national bank at l^lladelphla, but in 
1791, through the efforts of Alexander Hamilton, 
the first bank of the United States was granted a 
charter, but It did not really commence operations 
until 17\^. 

In Europe the first banking establishment which 
issued notes was the celebrated Bank of Venice, 
founded as early as 1171, and which owed its ex- 
istence to wars, as an expedient for the govern- 
ment to get means to carry them on. The Bank 
of England was also founded at quite a remote 
date, 10M, and continues to the present day under 
a charter of the same name as when organiMd. It 
was not opened for business until January 1st of 
the succeeding year, when it Immediatdy issued 
bank notes, none of which were of a smaller de* 
nomination than £30. Notes of the denomination 
of £1 sterling, were, however, issued in 1797. 

The ancient Carthaginians had a kind of cur* 
rency made of leather, which answered the pur- 
pose of bank notes. Still others of the ancients 
fashioned a kind of currency from the Inner bark 
of the mulberry tree, stamped with the mark of 
the sovereign, the penalty for counterfeiting which 
was death. 




The Seasons. — ^That the eye of man, 
which seeks variety, might not be wearied by mo- 
notony, the Creator, in His infinite wisdom and 
goodness, has crowned the earth with four sea- 
sons, each alternately diversifying the face of the 
earth with its own peculiar charms. 

First in tlie train comes fairy Spring, the season 
of all lovely things, of leafy trees, of warbling 
birds, of daisied meadows, and purling streams. 
As far as the eye can extend, naught but beauty 
meets the admiring gace; for beautiful, delightful 
Spring 

Is dad in beauty's cheering bloom, 
Exhaling all her sweet perfume. 
To chase bleak winter's desert gloom. 
But the period allotted to this beautiful season 
must soon expire, and ere long Summer is ushered 
In to play lu brief part on the stage of time, and 
thongh the flowers still may bloom, and the birds 
still warble their joyons notes, yet there is not so 
much of loveliness in earth and sky, and the re- 



treahlng breeie Is wanting In that dtttdoua balnl- 
ness which charaeterixes the preceding season, 
while its oppressive heat and stifling dust prepare 
us to haU with intense delight that irresistibly * 
charming, though somewhat melancholy season, 
when the emerald dyes of summer are changed 
into the golden, crimson, and russet hues of Au- 
tumn. But as We survey her beautiful and gorgeous 
robe, a peculiar sensation, one of mingled pain 
and pleasure pervades the mind, for we know that 
it is but the herald of the naked bough, the leaf- 
less tree ; and fsncy pictures the stamp of decay 
written upon every leaf, and then comes the sad- 
dening thought that we, too, are verging toward 
the Autumn of life, and must soon pass away. 
For a similar reason we experience a melancholy 
pleasure in listening to the wailings of the Au 
tumnal winds, in viewing the fldling leaf, and lis- 
tening to its mournful rustling beneath our tread. 
At length Autumn has drooped into Winter. The 
trees are stripped of their foliage, the birds have 
left their bouglis, the flowers no longer bloom, the 
gurgling voice of the streamlet is hushed, and 
beauty seems to have departed from the earth, save 
when arrayed in Its robe of fleecy snow and pend- 
ant icicles ; then again we survey the earth with a 
delighted eye, and mentally exdaim. How frenutt- 
fultmnUwkUer! ic. A. JBHimfGt. 

A GBATEFUL reader writes as follows: 
Please accept this acknowledgment of the grati- 
tude I owe your flrm, not only for its periodicals, 
but also for its other publications, books so emi- 
nently fltted to direct the young toward a higher 
and better life. To these and the Jourhal, which 
I have read for some twenty years, I look back as 
the good seed from which sprang the aspirations 
for personal Improvement which have saved mt 
from physical and mental ruin, and rendered my 
life one of hope and labor, not for myself alone; 
but for others. Ever remembering you as a bene- 
factor of mankind, I remain, yours, truly, 

J. P. K. 

Finance and Fabmino.— A Kansas 
correspondent writes as follows: I send yon a 
check * * * for three dollars, subscription to 
the Phbbnolooical Joubkal. The dlsenthrone- 
ment of King Gold will become more important 
than the abolition of African slavery; It is the 
enfranchisement of the white down- trodden peo- 
ple. Proudhon, the great French thinker. In bis 
pamphlet, '* IUsum6 de la question sociale,** saya 
that a people who abolish royalty In man must 
abolish the domination of gold, if they are logical. 

The flnancial question is well discussed in the 
West, and its importance fully appreciated. A 
paper advocating the reform would flnd plenty of 
subscribers in the Western States; but, althoufffa 
we douH care about any political party as such, 
the ideas which gave vitality to both parties liave 
crystallized into institutions. Neither of them can 
present a new issue; their work la done, and new 
combinaUons are forming on new Issuea. We 



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OUR 0LA88 OF 1874. 



135 



tMoA in KaiMM an Independent raorement, snp- 
ported mafaily by the Grangers. The hard timet 
md the monej expended bj the old political rings 
will, periiaps, defeat our ticket, but we will sne- 
eeed next time. 

Kyeoro crop has been a complete faUore, partly 
OQ account of drought, bnt midnly from chinch 
bo^ I will buy eom in Iowa eariy in spring; I 
wiQ plant 100 acres in Has, and only 80 acres of 
eon. The 40 acres of Timothy seemed dead at the 
•od of Angnst, bnt now the ground is green as 
emerald. I wiU plant 70 acres of clover; some 
feed in the Timothy Is growing well. 

We had a good season of peaches from the 15th 

of July till 15th of October, and there were plenty 

of paW'paws in the woods. I find they are Ukt ban- 

laaa, and better. All our people in perfSect health. 

Toots, tmly, b. y. boibsisbb. 



WISDOM. 



DoxEsnc broils make nnsatisfactory meals. 

Ir ererywhere yon endeavor to be useful, every- 
vhere you will be at home. 

You have not fulfilled every duty unless yon have 
folfllled that of being pleasant. 

Wb are usually inclined to give advice by the 
bncket, and to take it by the grain. 

Lit the ideals of us, in the hearts that love us, 
be prophetic of what we shall become. 

Alott, on the throne of God, and not below, in 
the footprints of a trampling multitude, are the 
sacred rules of right, which no majorities can dis- 
place or overturn.— (^orJei Sumner. 



MIBTH. 

*^A little nonsense now and then 
Is relished by the wisest men.^ 

What Is better than a promising young man f 
A paying one. 

•* Tm afraid youMl come to want," said an old 
lady to a young man. "I've come to want al- 
ready," was the reply; "I want your daughter." 

"Thb honeymoon is well enough," said a pru* 
dent belle, *^but what I want to see beyond that 
is the promise of a fine harvest moon." 

A 8CHOOLMA8TBR thus describes a money-lend- 
er: '*He serves you in the present tense, he lends 
in the conditional mood, keeps you in the subjec* 
tive, and ruins you In the future I " 

Did you ever hear of the man who, l>eing re- 
quired by his physician to take two blue pills ** in 
some convenient vehicle," sat down in his wheel- 
barrow to swallow the pellets, as he didn't keep a 
carriage? 

'* Do you believe there are any people who never 
heard *01d Hundred?*" asked a musical young 
lady at a party. *'Lots of folks never heard it," 
interrupted a precocious youngster. ** Where are 
they, I should like to know?" replied she. **In 
the deaf and dumb asylums ! " rejoined he. 

Poor young thing, she fainted away at the wash' 
tub, and her pretty nose went ker-slop Into the 
soapsuds. Some said it was overwork; others, 
however, whispered that her beau had peeped over 
the back fence and called out: ** Hullo, there, 
Bridget, is Miss Alice at home ? " 



OUB CLASS OF 1874-CLOSINe EXEBCISES, 

THUBSDAY EVKNINO, DECEMBKR 10. 

OUR Tenth Annual Course of Instruction in Phrenology, Physiology, and Physiognomy 
concladed its sessions on the 10th of December. More than one hundred lessons 
were given to a class most industrious, zealous, and appreciative. All onr facilities for 
flitcnded illustration of Phrenology, human and comparative, were brought into requisi- 
tion ; our large collection of bust&-— casts of heads of every g^de, from the philosopher to 
the idiot, the highly moral to the most depraved, with human skulls from every part of 
the world ; the skulls of animals, from the bear to the weasel, from the eagle to the hum- 
Buog-bird ; also anatomical maps and charts, manikins, models, and skeletons were in 
constant use as sources of instruction and illustration. Dissections were made of the 
boman brain, the organ and source of all mental power. In no other place, and in no other 
way, can there be found so much material and such ample facilities for acquiring a practical 
knowledge of anthropology as in this collection. We give, below, the concluding proceed- 
ings of our late session, which were of a familiar, family character, and rery enjoyable, as 
reported by Joseph Plant, Phonographer.— Ed. Phrkh. Joitb. 



MB. SIZEB'S ADDBBSS. 



A XD tbnii, my fHeAds, we hare reached the end I 
^ Hon than a bandred tines have^m assembled 
vtft sa eanicet pmpoee to Isara aH that may he taoght ; 



and we have endeavored to oommunlcate to you all that 
thlrty-flve years of study and constant practice have en- 
abled us to learn. 

We began in this field a generation ago; we had 
books, a few ; we had speeimeBs to study, none. Hero 



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PHRBNOLOGIOAL JOUBHAL. 



[Feb., 



and there a Bknll, taeh m we miglit be able to oolleet, 
we carefblly studied ; and we had to work oar way to a 
knowledge of thie anbject without teachers, nnalded, 
except by each seal and ekin aa we ooald bring to bear 
upon it. 

By care, effort, and nO little ooet, we hare acquired a 
large collection of spectmenn, which have been laid un- 
der contribution for your benefit, and that yoa start in 
your scientific career under better auspioea. We have 
shown you many busts, skulls, casts, portraits, and liv- 
ing head? ; we have explained to you the principles of 
Phrenology and Physiology ; we have tried to show yon 
how to examine heads, how to read character, how to 
judge of your fellow-men on sdentiflc prindplee. Ton 
have studied with beooming earnestness, and have 
earned, so ftu: as attention and promptneas are concerned, 
our warmest approval We trust that the instruction 
yon have received, and the commendable efforts you 
have made to possess yourselves of a toXi knowledge of 
the Science of Man, will bear fhdt an hundred-fold. 

As yon go forth ftom us yos take a new podttan be- 
fore ttie world— one that will at once command reapect 
and awaken the criticism of your fellow-men. Those 
who are educated in the old schools of metaphysical 
philosophy may be slow to receive your teachings ; but 
the young, who are anxious to know all they can know 
of themselves, their friends, and their children, will 
gladly accept your instructions, will learn fhnn your 
lips thankftilly that which yon may be able to teach, 
and as yon go into this, to you, untried field, let us en- 
join upon yon to remember that the pathway to suc- 
cess has heretofore, to some extent, been broken. You 
are not now pioneers in a new cause. There are few 
people of intdllgence who have not heard something of 
Phrenology, something of the method of reading mind 
by means of this science. Many people you will meet 
who will extend to yon the right band of fellowship and 
of congratulation. They will take hold and do their 
best to aid you among strangers. They will be to you 
as brethren. Others may stand aloof, a few may oppose 
you ; but that opposition, when you shall have become 
accustomed to your powers and shall have learned how 
to use them, wUl only serve as an incentive to aid yon 
in your work. 

As you go into your profession, remember that it is a 
peculiar one, that yon are going to do for your fellow- 
men that which but few know how to do. There are a 
hundred doctors where there is one phrenologist, conse- 
quently the public knows a good deal more about medi- 
cine than about Phrenology. 

The subject of your teachings will be not unheard of, 
but not well understood ; hence there win be interest in 
that which you will have to communicate, because there 
is in practical Phrenology something intrinsically inter- 
esting. When you lay your hand upon a stranger and tell 
him how he feels, and hopes, and fears ; when you de- 
scribe to him his talents and his temptations ; when yoa 
seem to open out to him the book of his life, it will be 
common for him to say, *' Do you know mer '* You 
may then feel certain that yon are finding out and de- 
scribing the inner life. 

You need not be ashamed of your profession, for it is 
the most comprehensive profession in the world. There 
is none that ought to rank higher. Men honor their 
fellow-men for excellent service in any line of investiga- 
tion. It a man discovers a double star that requires a 
tdeaoope to discern It— a double star thai will let the 
world alone and its inhabitants, if they will not bother 
It— has his name paraded through the joamala of sdence 
and'tttefttttra as a man who has added aometidng to the 



werid's kDowledne. B«l he who can take a growliw 
girl and teach the mother how to guide her to honor, 
and prosperity, and happiness ; or a wayward son, that 
is going to ruin, and teach the ihther how to lead him in 
the path of rectitude and righteousness, should not bo 
overlooked, and, indeed, will not be forgotten when He 
who knows all things shall make up his jewels. 

Hie engineer Is a naefol man; he builds onr roiidaaBd 
bridges ; he lays the foundations of oat houses; he oon- 
etmcts onrmiUs. Bttt his sphere Is physical. Oliephy^ 
sidan, whoae fuaetion it Is to lessen oor snfibrings In 
s ie knes s, is a blessing to the body and indirectly to tlie 
mind ; but his field of effort, though usefel, is partiaL 
The lawyer, who conducts our legal matters and aids oa 
in settling our quarrels, is partial and special in his fono- 
tions, bnt he ranks high. The minister of religion 
teaches us theology ; but his field of eflbrt has been nar- 
rowed by custom and cnltore, so that he deems It hi a 
chlsT duty to teaeh as morala and religion ; but he \mm 
not been, for some generations passed, expected to do 
for the human race that which a thorough pbysiologiat 
and phrenologist is able to do for mankind. Boys maj 
be set in a row and required to repeat catechisms, and 
receive instruction in biblical litenture and history. 
They maybe taught the saactifjFing dootrinea of Christ, 
and at the same time those boys and girls may grow op 
with dyspepsia, with all sorts of bad habits originat- 
ing in ignorance. They will not have learned how to 
understand their complicated mental nature, and how to 
guide their passions ; bnt Phrenology lays its finger at 
the root of the difliculty, and teaches the mother, while 
the fondling is yet on her knee, how to guide him to a 
better growth in mental life, how to lead him flpom a 
crude, rude development up toward a higher moral and 
intellectual condition; oonseqoently, a phrenolo(<1ca] 
inspection covers everything that belongs to man phys- 
ically, passionally, intellectually, morally, and spirira- 
ally. You should be preachers, not of phy Biology merely, 
but of righteousness also, teaching men how to use aB 
their faculties, how to produce growth in the use of all 
the elements that are weak, how to rectify and reduce 
the power of those which are too strong. Men have 
stumbled, and struggled, and in vain labored to get solid 
footing and that intelligent culture in morals that would 
enable them to balance themselves and show a complete 
Hfe. On the contrary, every hope, every fear, every joy, 
every sorrow, every aspiration, and every effort to better 
the human condition, is pointed out, specifically, by 
the new mental phyaiology, called Phrenology. WhOe 
men are taught abstract morality, they are not taught the 
philosophy of morality aa Phrenology can teach it; they 
are not taught the root and springs of action ; and the 
consequence is, men are like glanta half blind, struggling 
for the better, bat not seeing the coarse clc9tfly. 

You should go out into the field, gentlemen, feeling 
that your profession is second to none. Yon can teU 
people how not to be sick, how to keep their healtit, 
how to become possessed ct9Xk that belongs to manhood 
and to womanhood. It is not enough to cure a man when 
he is sick, we ought to teach him how to live so that he 
shaB not become sick. Men ought to live to be old. 
Bvery one who haa Inherited a good constitution ought 
to live to the foil, ripe age of manhood. 

It is your ofiice to teach men their weak points, and 
how to make them stronger— their extra strong propen- 
sities, and how to guide, regulate, or restrain them, •» 
as to produce harmony, virtae, and happineaa. 

BeoMmber that new ideaa have not always be«i «•- 
oelved gladly, that the greatest teacheas have snsnatlmaa 
felt that the woddweaeald and reiNilaive toward Um»; 



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1875.] 



OUB CLASS OF 1874. 



1« 



tat remember that joa hare tlie trathas rereded in n»- 
taie, and that the trath that yoa dleeemtBate takes im 
the higheit elements of humanity, namely, the mind and 
Mil as well ts the body, and in doing this yoa will not 
AO to receive, eomewhare, your jnst reward. 

VBUTWKX OF DIPLOMAS. 

We haT»now the pleasure to extend to yoo, not oiUy 
the right band of fellowship, bnt also to give yon some- 
tUsg to indicate that our Intereats, hereafter, are one. 

To Kb. Pixxn : I hold in my liand for yoa a diplo- 

na, the evidenee^of yoor faithftil attendance here; and 

wlieo jo« shafl look upon it in fhtore years, we may liope 

tkat yoB fliall remember the pleasant acquaintance which 
Iiaa been here began. We ahaU expect to hear good 
■e«n from yon. 

To Ml. Wtsgabtxb : We have a diploma for Mr. Wye- 
ewer, a natlTe of Ohio, lyit of German stock, represent- 
iag the famd of Hnmboldt, Schiller, Goethe, and GaU. 
Gflrmaa men liaye a right to practice Phrenology. It 
VM bora within the limits of tliat great country ; and 
fboagh It was through bigotry driren from it, the sons 
of Gemany on this teo soil may preach Phrenology 
witbeit being driven ftom borne and coantry. 

To Mas. P. W. iKTuro: Here is a name distinguished 
la ttteratoFe for vlrtae, aseftdness, and amiability whidi 
wfl) make the name of Inring long remembered. Wheth- 
er bername is P. Watkingioti Irving, I am not advised, 
l»t we hope that the owner of it wiil at l^t do no 
diaeiedit to the name she bears. 

To ICa. Clabx : And here vre have an BngUshmaa. 
Whether it be a rdative of Adam Clark, we are not in- 
fonned ; it is a good name, and we expect the Bnglish 
am. representing the State of New Jersey, will do the 
subject justice, and reflect credit upon his teachers. 

To Kb. Hottxak: And here we have a name already 
taUlar to American ears in literature a»d law. Bom in 
ladhuia, of German stock, may his nsme be a premoni- 
tian of that snoeees wbleh in this country belongs to it 

To Kb. Wai;tsr: And here is a representative from 
OUo. now no longer a new State. It was an early giant 
Is the p ro gress of Western civilisation, and it sends 
ibioad now ita representatives in every field of honor. 

To Kb. Abtrub: And here is the representativie of 
LoBff blsnd, intelligent, dear-headed, earnest, and Mtb- 
M ia his nature. We expect he will do something ibr 
UsftDow-men : ttiat, as he increases in knowledge in this 
teU, he will render ample service to the people. 

To Kb. CiorPBBLi.: Another representative of the 
tete of New York, an old, honored name. May his 
■Boeees be sueb that people will congratulate themselvee 
vhen they hear that *' Campbell is coming.'* 

To Kb. Bolm: And here Is a representative of two 
knchetf of American civilization. Bom In that State 
hrtbest east, rioii in ice and granite and good men, now 
ttaasplanted to the fortlle and generous soil in the giaot 
tote of Iowa, we expect his Intelligence and his eam- 
Mtawss wHl make his success a certainty. 

To Mb. Sarobmt: Names are not mere sounds, they 
Bean somettmee more than we are apt to think. Solo- 
BBB aaM: ** A good name Is to be chosen rather than 
vcat riches.** Gentlemen, probably some of yon will 
ksveboCiL Here is a name known in literature, repre- 
totingthe State whldi gave to the country a Webster. 
Saigent fo not a bad name. It has been known to the 
eorid for Its If terary culture, for Its Industry, and for Its 
iiedesa. Mtj the name not ihll out by the way now. 

fo TbL Svtnr: Here Is a name not very fomillar, 
ftoethpertiapaflMstof us have heard it before. Ohio 



has given to Mlasourl a young man, Mr. Smith, and we 
tender to him the first diploma we have had the honor 
to give to one of that rare name. We hope that he, be- 
ing a pioneer in this new field, at least so Ihr as the 
name is conoemed, will be eminently snccessfol. 

To Mr. GxBBs: One of the best Mends I erer had was 
named Qibbs. Hewaaasafhthertome. He invited me 
to a debating society, and I was the only boy in it, and 
though a ihthcdy, good nkan, when I had straggled in my 
aigunMnt to make it reapectable, Bsq. Glbbs would of- 
fer the most ontrageons criticiams upon It, and provoke 
me to a reply, and thus he would hire me into the path 
of literature and olFhand debate, and I can not tell yon 
to^y how much I owe to him; oonsequeutly, it ghres 
me i^easnre to welcome to the phrenological field one 
bearing the name Gibba, firom ihat strong young giant 
of the north-west, Wisconsin. 

To A. Wallace Masok : I do not know of any coun- 
try, unless It be Germany, that has a better right to be 
represented in the phrenok)gical field than Scotland, the 
land of Wallace, Bums, and Combe. Here we have a 
name, A. Wallace Mas<m, a Scotsman, representing Can- 
ada, jnst now ; but we trast he will represent, as Combe 
and Bums have done, the world. 

To Mb. Hathaway : And here we have another man 
from the land of sunrise, that haa consented to leave the 
State of Maine and adopt the State of Massachusetts. 
You have something to do to shed luster on two such 
States. Welcome to the field of effort and of success. 

To Mb. Gbbbn : Pennsylvania has always been a good 
Bute for phrenologists. We have done a great deal of 
work In that good, old Commonwealth. Our young 
friend is not the first from that State whom we have wel- 
comed to this field ; we hope he is not to be the faist. 

To Mb. Pattbit: And l)ere comes lUinolf, rich in all 
that is worthy and strong. Mr. Patten, a name not nn- 
fhmlllar In this country, we hope he noay join the ranks 
and make his mark among the best 

To Mb. McDatid : Science and trath bring together 
extremes, and make brothers of those who are otherwise 
flu- apart We hare Maine and Wisconsin, and here we 
have South Carolina — well-known in literature and 
statesmanship. We welcome to our brotherhood Ita 
representative, Mr. McDavid. 

To Mb. Curbbm : Here we hare Mr. Curren, of Michi- 
gan, the third of a single flunily, and we expect he, with 
his two brothers, who have graduated before, wlQ make 
a business trio, and that we shall bear from the firm of 
Ourren Bros. If the public think as well of them aa we 
do, they will deserve and receive ample success. Michi- 
jCan does well for Phrenology when she sends us three 
represenfatives tnm a single flimily to bear the ban- 
ners to victory. 

To Mb. Hobhb : A representative of Germany, and also 
of Michigan. We expect he will preach Phrenology, 
bringing to ita advocacy an ardent love of religious trath, 
and that he will be a herald of religion and sdenoe in 
combination, and lead his foUow-men to a higher and bet- 
ter life. We suppose. In addition to speaking vigorous 
Bnglish, be win also speak Phrenology in the language in 
which it was first spoken. There Is not a better opening 
in^ this country than for a German man to enter the 
fdurenologlcal Aeld among our German fellow-citiaens. 

To Mb. Pubobll : Here we have another son of Penn- 
aylvania, but (like most of us) his blood hails frt>m be- 
3i«nd the sea— -his from the land made famous by such 
names as Grattan, Sheridan, Goldsmith, Moore, and 
O^Connel. We hope he may evince something of their 
literary talent, and attain to sontething of their renown 
mt. PateeU, bora In that hive of laAeDigeat industry. 



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[Fm., 



Pittsbnigtu now residing in Iowa, thni repreMntt throe 
localities, the land of bis fathers, the place of his birth, 
and the home of his adoption. May his spirit and his 
labors be cosmopolitan, and his success ample. 

To Rbt. Mr. Lausb: We have one diploma left, and 
it bean a title, not professor, but rererend. Ohio comes 
again to ns with one of its sons, and we welcome him to 
oar fraternity, not the less so becanse he has been wel- 
comed in another fold. We trost that he will preach the 
Gospel tmth in preaching Phrenology. last year, and, 
in Ikct, nearly every year, we have had at least one 
clergyman in onr dass. No man is so well qnaUfled as 
the clergyman, unless it be the educated physician, to 
teach and practice Phrenology. The founders of Phre- 
nology were physicians. One of its cbief supporters— 
Oombe—was a lawyer; his brother and coadjutor, in 
the great field, was a physician. Dr. Caldwell, of Ken- 
tucky, was one of the greatest phrenologists of his time ; 
and he was one of the best educated men in medical 
science that wo had at that time in this country. 

Mr. Laner, accept this diploma as a token of our re- 
spect, and of our expectation in your behalf^ We trust 
your fellow-men will feel that now,' indeed, you can be a 
preacher of righteousness to the bodies and to the hopes 
and aspirations of men, as well as to their souls. 

MR. WELLS* ADDRBSS. 

The public has been oomparatiTely prepared for your 
coming. Tou are no longer pioneers, obliged, first, to 
clear the soil of timber, and then plant the good seed. 
In the introduction of this new philosophy of the mind 
the hardest of the work has been done; the field is 
rather like prairie-land than like the timbered forest ; 
but, as in the prairie, there is work to be done in order 
to i^t the seed and reap the crop. The fttllow ground 
of the prairie has to be broken up ; you, too, must work 
your way ; and it gives ns pleasure to assure yon that 
there is a broad field, a willing soil, and, we trust, there 
will be benignant sUes. We repeat it, yon must work 
if you would win. We have worked in this moral and 
intellectual field many years, and people say we are grow- 
ing gray, though we do not feel it inside. Onr heart and 
hope are still strong, and, so llur as we can, we make 
every day a holiday ; feeling that whUe we are getting 
good for ourselves we are doing good to others, and as- 
sured that our eflbrts are directed for the improvement 
of humanity in its highest relation to this life and that 
which is to come, we rejoice in all that our hands find to 
do when we remember that the fhiit of our labor is not 
to perish, or to be wasted with the using. 

Be true to the great subject, whose open door now in- 
vites you. Let your teachings have a high aim, and 
your efforts a noble purpose ; and we shall be both proud 
and happy to remember that we have done what we 
could to help you Into this field of nsefhlness. 

Do not ibiget that we are your fMends, that we stand 
behind yon to sustain yon. Let ns hear of your trials 
and your triumphs. We ragard yon all, as well as those 
who have gone out from hers before yon, as our friends 
and brothren, bound together by ties richer than friend- 
ship and higher than selMaterest. 

But this is the proper time for ns to hear fh>m the stu- 
dents. We have done, so fkr, pretty much all the talk- 
ing. Let us have a f^ee and friendly interchange of 
thought and feeling. A word fkom each one would be 
acceptable. 

RnuBxs BT Mb. PuBOBLL.^Beq>ected tsachets and 
fiQewHitudents : It is now thirteen years since I first 



saw a phrenologist, who made an esaminatton of my 
head. About six years since I obtained a copy of ** Hew 
Physiognomy,** and read it through three times. I sm 
willing to work bard in the phrenological field. I tend- 
er my sincere thanks to the proprietors and teachers 
of this institution. For my classmates I entertain the 
highest respect and kindly feelings, fbr they all have 
treated me with cordial friendship and respect 

Mr. MoDavid.— It Is sufficient to state that there is 
something in the fhtun of onr country fbr thoee who 
shaU work In the field of Phrenology. I believe if we 
apply the science to the youths of the land, and teadi It 
to them, we will accomplish something worth living fbr. 

Mr. SiciTH.— About thirteen years ago I began to read 
a work on Phrenology. It was the ** Self-Instmctor,** 
and it awakened in me a desire to be a phrenologist 
Though I am the first of the name that has entered the 
field, I will try not to disgrace the name or my calling. 
For my teachers I entertain t^e highest regard, and in 
respect to the students I feel like a man leaving broth- 
ers and friends. 

Mr. Hathawat.— Phrenology, how mnch I owe to it ! 
I was always an enigma to myself. I read and studied 
Phrenology, and it explained a great many things to me 
(hat I could not understand before. In fhct It explained 
myself. To my teachers I offer sincere thanks for their 
kindness. In parting fh>m the students I feel as if I 
leave a band of brothers. 

Mr. Laubb.— Although accustomed to speaking fbr a 
good many years, I confess to a little weakness in the 
knees. Just now. I heard of Phrenology when a buy, 
and remember thera was a great deal said about the 
** bumps.** I have always believed in the truihfhlness 
of Phrenology. I could not resist this conviction. 
There was a difference among men, and that difference 
was plainly seen by those having a practical knowledge 
of the subject My fhther had a written description of 
character by one of the Fowlers, and It seemed to me to 
be such an accurate description of fhther*s chaiBcter 
that I devoured it greedily. On January 6th, 1868w I 
came to this city for the special purpose of having a 
written description of my character. I walked into the 
examinlng-room and met Mr. Sixer, and he read me 
through accurately. I did not know until within a year 
past where instruction was given in the science. Then 
I learned that Mr. Matlack, a friend of mine, had been 
here taking lessons. '' Well,** said I, ^If there is socii 
A school, that is the place I will go; I want to know 
Phrenology.** But, though I could not very well spare 
Ike time, I resolved to come hero and take a coorae in 
your school. I am glad I have come, and I hope I ebaU 
so deport myself aa not to bring this science and its 
teachings into discredit among men. I shall go home 
and foel that I am better qualified to tell my chlldrwi 
what to do and how to carry myself in tlieir pres- 
ence; I feel thati can preach the gospel that will do the 
body good. This science teaches, in Its Messed doc- 
trines, the truth, making the best of to-day, and how 
to take care of the body. I am not able to tell b«w 
highly I appreciate the leasons I have received and 
learned. Our teachers have been untiring in their ef- 
forts to aid us ; and if we go fhna this place Into tbe 
various fields of labor, and do not succeed. It will not be 
the fkult of our instructors. They have done their duty 
flUthfrilly. As this school has come to a doee, so wiU 
all onr eflbrts in this life end. Let as try to Ihre so that 
we shall never bring this class Into discredit asBoog 



Mb. 

abontfoot 



,— I beeame intareated in Phranologj 
yean Jgo, hp^r^^idinf work* on the subject. 



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OUE 0LA88 OF 1874. 



139 



ind tint sent me here. I hope we may help to teach 
the ideBce in erery school district. I retaro thanks to 
uj teachers fbr their good-will and ihlthftil Instmc- 
tkw. 

Mb. Pactsh.'— Gentlemen and Fellow-atadenta : When 
I wu six yean of age, my Ikther took me to a phre- 
Bokgist, where I recelTed my first Ideas of It At 
the age of dgfateen I was sent to a college, and a 
knowledge of science, and especially a knowledge of 
Phrenology, increased the latter In a two-f9ld ratio to 
the other sdoices. After finishing my coarse, I still 
Mdled Phrenology, and the conviction became stronger 
and stronger that Phrenology was the tme mental sci- 
coce, and theref^ro I came here to attend the class. I 
have a great desire that I may Hire to see the day when 
Phrenology will be taoght in every public school. 

Ma. Gbbkh.— The first I heard of Phrenology was 
aboat six years ago, and I was too yonag to appreciate 
the realities of the enbject. A man gave me an exam- 
iiation, and told me some things which I have since 
teamed to be trae. I obtained from a friend an old 
**Seir-Instmctor,** which I studied until I could recite 
portfotts of it Terbatiffi. From that old **BelMn- 
9ti«etor ** I soon learned so much of the subject that I 
vaa caDed a phrenologist, and last winter I examined 
beads. I had a strong hungering to study, and f^om 
this desire I have become a member of thla class. I 
owe a great deal to Phrenology from the thoughts it has 
gradoally developed and cultivated within me, and it 
li my aim to become well developed. If culture win do it 
If a. Sabosnt.'I can hardly suppress my emotions on 
this ooeaskm. Thej are like those of the poet, who 
wrote: 

** I am glad, and yet I am sad.** 

ind I fed sad because the time has come to extend the 
parting hand ; and I am glad, because I am proud that 
I can say I have been a student In this institution. 

Mb. Qixbs.— Teachers and Classmates : My acqualnt- 
aaee with Phrenology began several years ago. I read 
** Self Instructor.*^ and afterward ** New Physiognomy,*' 
"BdBcatiott Complete,** and *'Oombe*s Constitution 
of Man.** but I never bad the fortune to meet with a 
practical phrenologist until I came here. I shall ever 
efaeriph the kindliest remembrances of our Illustrious 
aad fraternal instructors. 

We part aa missionaries, to distant places go, 
Aafoimts of many waters that fkr divided fiow. 
Mlisoari*s brawny hand is stretched across to Maine's 
Aa shadows of the timber are cast upon (he plains ; 
Fraai chill Canadian winter to Soath Carotina's strand, 
Thm^ scattered, yet onr sdenos is seed In goodly land, 
And we must turn the fhrrows there, as no others can- 
Let's do It with a spirit, perti$i<me$ makes the man ; 
Onr victories are coming, though we may meet defeat, 
A Mare only sharpens and makes suecess more sweet. 
AH honor to our teachers, may we endeavor still 
lb emulate their kindness and imitate their skill ; 
60 Shan we be In fiitnm, not selfish in oar aims. 
Hot th^. In recollection, rofcret to know our names. 

Kn. WiLTBR. — ^I first read the Phbkicolooioal Jovm- 
lAL, whieh awakMied in me sach an interest in the sub- 
Jset that I sent f6r the **8tadenU' Set,^and the result 
Islam hsrc. 

Hm. OAHnsu..— Whatever I eoold say in regard to 
Phrenoiogy, wcmid be in its fiivor. I know it has been 
a great benefit to aaan, and I eongratolate yon, my teaoh- 
en, for the great sucoeaa yoa have attained in this field. 

Mn. Boul—Tmb my r«dttest boyhood I have believed 
iaP hr a n slqgy; lalMt,fi 



llevers in it, and seemed to have a natural love of the 
study of human nature. One of the first books I read 
was a little chart, published by this house; and as soon 
as 1 knew the location of the organs, I commenced ex- 
perimenting, and everybody in the house, frx>m my 
mother to the cat, sufltsred more or less ftt)m my man- 
Ipuhitlons. The next book I read was the ** Self-In- 
structor,** and I thus becanne able to read the extremes 
of character. By chance, I got hold of your drcnlar, en- 
titled ** Mirror of the Mind,'* reUitive to descrlptloas of 
charfcter from photograph ; so I sent to this ofllce to 
see if I could by that means find out what I was best 
fitted (br, and [.was surprised at the correctness of the 
delineation, and I thought If I could acquire the tuAn 
and principles of Phren<^ogy I might practice It ; and 
the result is I am here to-night; and I must say I am 
very thankftfl to my instructors for the kind and earnest 
manner In which they have labored In behalf of their 
class to impart a knowledge of this science. 

Mb. Abtbub.— Teachers and Classmates: The time 
has come when we must extend to each other the part- 
ing hand. In 1897 I came, a stranger to this office, for 
an examination, and obtained a very able delineation of 
my character, which gave me advice which was a benefit 
to me. I bought books on the subject, and resolved to 
come here and learn still more of the subject. May we 
succeed in disseminating this noble truth until It shall 
become a part of the education of the children In the 
pablic schools. Classmates, I bid you God speed. 

Mbs. Irviho.— I can say that fti>m my eariiest youth I 
have regarded Phrenology as a science. I have a senior 
sister who is a phrenol<^st, and I have heard her say 
that the time would come when a practical use would 
be made of It It is a study which I love. I feel thai 
my stay here has been very pleasant Both teachers 
and students have shown a kind spirit toward me. 

Mb. HomiAN.— About four years ago I attended a 
course of six lectures on Phrenology, and learned the 
location of the different groups of organs, and by ob- 
servation fbund that the theory in respect to their fane- 
tions held good. I sent on to this office for the book 
called **How to Read Character,** and having read it 
over and over, began to examine the heads of my 
friends. Then I ordered the ^ Stadenu* Set** and I be- 
came so ranch interested I worked very hard to obtain 
the means to defray my expenses in coming here. All 
doubts I had respecting the truthfulness of Phrenology 
have.slnoe disappeared. That which I owe to Phrenol- 
ogy, and those who have labored to dlseeminate It is 
second only to that which T owe to my parents. 

Mr Curren.— Among the many topics taught in the 
course of instruction now closing, Phrenology has Justty 
been the chief. Anatomy and pTlysiology are very im- 
portant and interesting, but act merely as ser\-ants to 
the great central source of thought and power, the brain. 
Here we have been able to study all tosreiher. I look 
for the time when not only common schools, but every 
college shall have a department of Phrenology, and no 
course of education shall be considered complete with- 
oat thorough Instruction in this science. To you, my 
teachers, I give thanks for your kindness and for yonr 
earnest eflbris in imparting to us a knowledge of the 
subject I am very gratefhl to my classmates, and to all 
connected with this institution, for courtesy and kind- 
ness. Tendering you all my best wishes, I bid you 
good-bye. 

Mr. Wtscabvbb.— Friends : 1 believe in work. Let 
us show our hands; show the worid what we can do. 
We are able to do, if we only say we will. Since I was 
' introdnced to Fhrsnology I have had a fervent deslit 



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to Inraftigate tbe nibject, beUerloK that there exieted 
some grand and noble troth bj meant of whidi we 
might nnlock the myetio chamber of the mind and com- 
prehend Itelawp of action. Mjr investlgatlone have not 
been in vain. I have been a bnndred times remanerated 
for my Ubor. Many skeptical notions I have had prior to 
the inveetlgatlon of this subject; bnt I am glad to say 
that they have disappeared as the frosts of October before 
the rays of the morning s«n. This subject has expanded 
my Ideas ; and many things in baman nature that were 
myeterions to me are now plain and easily comprelyend- 
ed. I shall pnrsne my coarse onwaveringly, sealdiisly 
and honestly endesTor to Implant in the minds of peo- 
ple these grand truths which lie at the foundation o(trao 
happiness and prosperity. 

Mb. Cxjlbx.— In 1865 I came to New York from Bng- 
land, and in passing thia estabUshmenl sooa afterward, 
I obtained an examination. My ehaiacter was described 
▼ery correctly. My fisalts and weaknesses were spoken 
of« advice was given me, what I must not do and what 
I ought to do. I became very much Interested in the 
subject, and it seemed that Phrencdogy was necessary 
for me to understand myself, and be able to guard 
agslDst my weaknesses. I am satisfied that if I can 
teach it ae I have been instructed to, it will do credit to 
me. 

Mb. Masoh.— Teachers and friends: I was bom in 
Scotland, of parents who gave me the best education 
they could. At seventeen I enlisted in the army to go 
to the £ast Indies. I there had a good opportunity to 
study character. About five years ago I got a little 
chart, with several illustrations, stating the location of 
the different organs. The next book 1 read was ^* Combe*a 
Constitution of Man,** and I prise it as the book which 
comes nearest to the Bible. I got the Pbbkkolooioal 
JouBNAL and aU the books which I could, in Toronto, 
on the subject. It Is chieily to my wife that I am in- 
debted for the opportunity of coming here. If we can 
educate th|S. motWs and the daughters In Phrenology' 
and Physiology, v^e may have children worthy of cul- 
ture. The tln^ will come when every teacher in our 
schools and colleges will be required lo know Phrenol- 
ogy. Qod speed Uie <lay I 

Mb. Hobnx.— Teachers and classmates : I owe my con- 
version to Phrenology to a young Scotsman in Canada. 
Gall, the German, converts Combe, of Scotland; the 
disciple and countryman of Combe, with true reciprocity, 
teaches the German. May tbe mantle of Gall, Spurs- 
helm, and Combe fhU,on nsl The founders of the 'sci- 
ence, like the founder pf Christianity, have passed from 
earth, but their teacbMi^ never will. In common 
with the German rac^ I always want solid bottom to 
build upon. I bronght^vei^ serions objections to Phre- 
noltifry into this school, but they have been dug out, 
root and branch, aQ4 scattered. The foundation of this 
science is built upon a rock. Teachers, the thanks I 
feel toward you I will o^ out by so living, that in after- 
life, when you shi^l hear of me, it will give yon pleasure 
to f«y, ** He sat s^ my feet.** Classmates, Phrenology, 
nice Christianity, \bb not succeeded as weO as it ought, 
not because it Is not the pure water of truth, heavoi dis- 
tilled, bnt because too many of tbe vessels that carry it 
abpnt are not cleimi enough. Let us not teach the sci- 
ence in the Artemus Ward style, if we would avoid 
moral consumption, Let us meet every antiphrenologlCal 
Brutus at Philippi. My highest ambition is that God 
may use me to ^ng the religion of Jesus and Phrenol- 
ogy together as mistress and handmaid. I have a word 
to »a7 in r^ga^ to Mrs. Wells. I hare never looked on 
licr race bnt it teemed to say to me, '* Up 1 Up ! ** 



BBSOLimOHS Oy THB CLASS OF 1974. 

yi^htrtm we, the members of the Claas of 1974, at tbs 
expiration oi onr course of Instruction, feeUng deaiiooi 
of expressing our sincere respect for the subjects pn- 
sented us, and for the invaluable Infonnatlon reoeivid 
from our able and highly esteemed instructors, therefore 

Betohed, That we, having investigated the subjects, 
Phrenology, Physiology, Physiognomy, Psychology, aad 
their relations to owselves and oar fbUow-man, do 
heartily acknowledge them to be indispenealile to tbs 
harmonious development of humanity, and that th^ lie 
at the basis of aU true culture, prosperity, and happi- 
neas. 

BmoiMd^ That Prof, a B. Wdls has Imparted to « 
valuable information upon Physiognomy and Psychol- 
ogy, and that to him we extend our thanka, ever remem- 
bering the kindly spirit he has always manifested to- 



Suolv€d, That Prot Nelson Siser has giren ns nOo- 
able instruction as a practical phrenologist and teacher, 
and that his gentlemanly demeanor and pleasing diction 
have left an indelible Impression upon onr mlnda. 

JS«tolved^ That the instruction given npon Anatomy 
and Physiology, by Dr. Nelson B. Sixer, has been hlg^ 
ly appreciated, and merits onr hearty appnnral. 

Me$olved, That Prof. Alexander Wilder, MJ)«, In his 
able Instructions on the laws and treatment of lasaai^ 
has laid ns under lasting obligation. 

Buolved^ That Madame Pe Lesdemier, as a teacher 
of Elocution, is worthy onr warmest commendation. 

Setolvsd, That the kindly bearing, modest demeanor 
and pleasing remarks of lirs. Charlotte i^wler Wella will 
ever be remembered with {Measure. 

Retolved^ That we are very gratefhl to sll others con- 
nected with this institntion for the kindneaa aBd sym- 
pathy they have manifested toward ns. 

Betolved, That we cheerfhUy commend the AyF«^*y 
Pkbxbologioal iKBTiTUTa to an wishing to study hu- 
manity in its manifold relations, it being the only Insti- 
tutlon in the world possessing the necessary fhcUillss 
for the fun advancement of those great truths of mental 
science which lie at the foundation of all true mental 
growth, prosperity, and happlneaa. 

Bmotud^ That a copy of these Beeolntloiia be pre- 
sented to the Professors of the Phrenotoglcal Inatitate. 
soliciting their publication in .the P hiuuioi/ )woal 
Joubbal. 

T. J. Wtsoabtbb, of Ohio. 

A.. WALULon Masoh, Canada. 

U.J. HomiAH, Indiana. 

Jas. S. Hour, Iowa. 

WiLUAH R. Gbxbb, Pennsylvania. 

R. Q. Pabbbb, Missouri. 

J. <^. MoDavib, D.D.8., BobUi CaroBaa. 

Su Waitbbs, Ohio. 

H. Clabbbcb Gibbs, Wisconsin. 

Bdwabd M. Pattsn, minols. 

LuHDT B. Smtth, Missouri. 

D. B. Hatsawat, Massachosetts. 

O. B. Sabsbbt, New Hampshlrs. 

WiLUB P. Abthvb, Lopg Island, M. T» 

William Hobnb, Michigan. 

8. F. Philbbicx, Ohio. 

H. W. CuBBBH, Michigan. 

(Rev.) .J. D. X«AUBB, Ohio. 

Tbomas Clabk, New Jersey. 

B. M. PuBCBLL, Iowa. 

Miss AucB Stoobtok, Ullnoia. 

Mrs. P. W. iBviHo, Connecticnt 

H. D. CkMTfM^ New To^ 



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PROFSaSIONAL INSTRUCTION, ETC. 



141 



PROFESSIONAL INSTRUCTION IN 

PRACTICAL PHRENOLOGY. 

Clam Pboorjjocb for 1875. 

FIR more than a quarter of a century, during each fall or winter, we have given, at 
our Cabikbt in New York, private and popular lectures, for the instruction of ladies 
and gentlemen desiring to become sufficiently acquainted with Phrenology for every-day 
me; and many merchants, artists, students in divinity, law, and medicine, parents, teachers, 
and others, availed themselves of these opportunities. But these popular lessons are not 
aofflciently spedfic and critical to meet the wants of those who desire to make practical 
Phrenology or scientific character-reading a life-profession. 

A demand exists for more thorough instruction, and, accordingly, for several years past, 
we have given instruction to classes of persons who desired to become not only character- 
leaders, but professional teachers of the science. Each of the pupils thus taught has received 
at oar hands a certificate of his attendance upon our instructions, which is a voucher that 
It least he has submitted himself to that training, discipline, and drill, the valuable results 
of which it would require many years of unaided practice to obtain. . Honest, intelligent, 
moral men and women, with a missionary spirit, good common sense, and a fair education, 
we welcome to the field, and will do what we can to aid them in acquiring the proper 
qualifications to teach and practice this noble and useful science. 

We propose to open our next annual class October 1st, 1875, one month earlier in the 
seaaon than formerly, in order that students may be prepared to enter the lecture field at the 
Iffoper season. Those who desire to become members are requested to give us early notice. 

In the fonhcoming course we propose to teach students how to lecture and describe 
character <m scientific principles ; how to become practical phrenologists and delineators 
d ofaaracter. The science needs more public advocates, and it is our desire to aid those 
who can, by proper training, do it justice. The world will extend its respect and patronage 
to those who are qualified to deserve them. ) 

Thb Subjbcts will bs Illubtbatbd bt oub laboe CoLLBonoN OF Skulls, Busts, 
Casts, Anatouical Pbbpabations, Skeletons, Manikins, and Pobtbatts. Among the 
topics treated in the course of instruction, the following will receive attention : 

•iMftMt or Aaatonf , imrtieolarlr of the Biala and 
Ncrrow fljitf. aod alio of the Y lul Oigans ; their of- 
to> ta the mft1nNwaf.*ce of hodllj vigor and proper sap- 
port of Uwbmin. 



Phyiotogy ; its general laws ; reciprocal inflnenoes 
of brain and bod} , the nervous system ; respiration; 
dftolation ; diges Ion and assimilation ; growth and 
dscay of the body ; air, exercise, simli^t, and sleep. 

The Doctftee of Tcf wiwfiata, as giving tone and 
pecBliarfty to meciah manifestations, also as alTecting 
the marriage ralat ona, or what constitates a proper 
coBbfnatlon of ten pecaments Ibr parties entering into 
the minrlage state, with reference to their own happi- 
ness, and also to th) health, character, and longevity of 
their children. Tt s branch of the subject will require 
•eveml lectnrea, an I will be oopionsly illustrated. 

Fooiaai IMet.~Ntttrition, its laws and abuses: what 
ibod Is best for pcrtOBs of dHVereot temperaments and 
of tiM 'wriiNM iranuita. What to eat and what reject to 
become tA or toms, or to Used brain or mnsde ; influence 
of bodily oonditicn as aflisetlng mind and character; 
Kifflnlattta, their nature and abuse ; alcoholic liquors, 
tea, coflbe, spicea, vinegar, tobacco, opium ; their effects 
on the bodily oanditions as affecting mind and health ; 
vhat to avoid, bow and why. 

OipninUn P h m — log y \ the development and po- 
cdlarWca of Om animid ktegdom; hints toward iheir 
I fai tte 0al»«f btliW^ ftoB tb» tow«it to the 



highest. Including the facial angle, embodying some en- 
rious and interesting fscts relative to the qualities and 
habits of animals, aU tending to show that disposition is 
according to orgaaisatlon. 

Htnmm Plire«ology | mental development explained 
and compared with that of the lower animals; instinct 
and reason, the line drawn betvreen them ; the phrenol- 
ogy of crime; imbecility and idiocy ; causes and man« 
agement; insanity, iu causes,- and bow to treat it. 

JLoeatlea of tlM Organ of the Bmta; how to find 
them and estimate their sise, absolute and relative, a 
matter of great importance— indispensable to the prac- 
tical phrenologist. 

The BleoMBCa of Mental Poree co u rage, energy, 
perseversnce, and industry—and how to estimate them 
in the living person, and train them to become the serv- 
ants of virtue and of success In life. 

The GovenriMg and Aspiring Group of ICental Organs, 
their influence on character and in society, and the mode 
of estinuiting their powers and regulating their action. 

Self-Proteetlng Oronp of Faculties, their location and 
how to judge of their size and Influence in the economic 
and decorative phases of life. 

IMvlskM between the Intellectual, Spiritual, and Ani- 
mal R^ona of the Bratai; how to ascertain this in a 
ttvteghsad. 

Measorf , how to Develop nd Improve It ; ita naton, 
qpiaU^imidaaea. * 



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PHRBNOLOGIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Feb., 



The Reaaoptiig FacoltieB, and the ptrt they plaj Sn 
dvllizatioa and in the great developments and duties 
of haman life. How to Judge of the »ize of these or< 
gans, and how to coltivate them. 

The BzamliiackMi of Heads Explained ; praetkal ex- 
periments ; heads examined by each of the students, 
who win be thoroughly trained and instructed how to 
make examinations, privately and publicly. Special 
training in the examination of skulls. 

The ComblnatieB of the Organs, and their influence 
on character. How to ascertain what group or oigans 
most readily combine in an individual, and bow to de- 
termine his mental tendency or leading traits of char- 
acter ; how he may correct his errors and improve him- 
self. 

The Moral Bearlags of Ptureoolpgy and a correct 
Physiology ; home training of the young, and self-cul- 
ture ; Phrenology applied to edacation, to matrimony, 
to legislation, and to the choice of pursuits. 

MatrimoMy ; its laws and the proper developments of 
body and brain, fox a true and happy union. How to 
determine this. 

The Natural Langiiage of the Faculties ; philosophy 
and bearing on the reading of character as we m^et peo- 
ple casually as stnmgers. 

Physiognoaiy— Animal and Human ; or, '* Signs of 
Character,'' as indicated in the fiice, form, voice, walk, 
expression, and so forth. 

Etfanotoicy. and how to judge of Nativity and of Race, 
including Resemblance of Children to Father and 
jf other. How to determine this. 

Biology* l^yehelogy, Mesmerisai, fHalmiyaBce, 
etc, explained. 

Ol^eetleiis to Phrenology Considered. How the skull 
enlarges to give room to a growing brain ; the IVoutal 
iinos ; loss or lojury of brain ; thickness of skull ; ik- 
taliem. materialism, moral responsibility. 

BlocMttoB, bow to caltivate the voice. Eloquence, 
V>w to attain the art. Instruction in reading and speak- 



ing wlU be given by a competent and experienced 
teacher In oratory. 

A Review of the whole, answering Questions on all 
points relating to the subject which may be proposed by 
students. Each student will be careftally examined in 
the branches taught, and will give, in his own words, 
his knowledge -on the subject. 

How to teach Phrenology. Instruction as to the best 
methods of presenting Phrenology and Physiology to 
the public, by lectures and in clas^ses ; not only bow to 
obtain an audience, but how to hold It and iustruct It. 

D is se ct ion and DemonstratloB of the Unmao Brain, 
in detail, giving the students a clear view of this crown- 
ing portion of the human system. 

The course will consist of Onb Hitkdbxd or more 
lessons, and it is proposed to give at the rate of three 
or more daily till completed ; though the wishes of the 
class will be consulted. Tbrms of the entire conrse of 
instruction, with Diploma to graduates. Orb Hundbbi> 

DOM^ABS. 

The Works moat essential to be mastered are ** How 
to Read Character,^' $1.S5 ; Phrenological bust, showing 
the location of all the organs, $S. 

The following are exceedingly usefhl to the student, 
and they shookt be read, vis.. Memory, $1.60; Self-Col- 
ture, $1.60 ; New Physiognomy, with one thousand il- 
lustrations, $5 ; Constitution of Man, $1.75. 

An of the above works may be obtained at the office 
of the pRBBNOLoeioiLi* JouBHAL. Thoso who order the 
entire set, to be terU at one time by exprees at tAeir ex- 
penee^ can have them by sending us $10. Post-office 
order or draft will be safe. 

Apparatus for the use of Lectuiers, snoh as portraits, 
skulls, and casts of heads can be Airuished to those who 
desire them. 

Application fOT membership should 1>e made at once, 
that complete arrangements may be made. Addrese, 
OlBoe of Thb Phbsmolooioal Journal, 880 BroadwAy, 
New York. 




In tfUs departmmi €re given the tUiee and pricm vf 
tmeh, Nbw Boobs « hwbt been re^^ieed from the pub- 
tUhtre. Our readere look to vf forihme emMmuMmmdM^ 
cmd we ehaU endeavor to keep them weU ii\ftrmed vHth 
f^fettnce to the ewrrent tUeratvre, 



Semi-Tropical CALiPORinA; Its Clim- 
atti, Healthfalness, ProductlTeneaa, and Scen- 
ery ; Its Macniflcent Stretches of Vineyarda and 
Groves of Seml-Troplcal Fruits, etc. Br Major 
Ben. C. Truman. One vol., 8vo. ; pp. 204; mus- 
lin, embossed and prof usely gilded. Price, $8. 
San Tninclsco : A. 8. Bancroft. 
This is a beautiful book on a delii^^htfal subject 
The author takes us with him through a most 
eharmlng country, and we become so fascinated 
M to wish to remain in that soft and salabrloiifi 
tUmate. We have here schools, churches, society 
tiade up of an enterprising population from vsrl- 
jQli parts of the world. Onr new possessions on 
«a Pacific has been settled and oecnpled more 



than a hundred years. Los Angeles was settled 
more than a hundred years ago by Christian men 
and women ; a history is herein given. 

Here is a rich agricultural country ; farmerB, 
mechanics, and merchants are thrifty. The cli- 
mate is so equable as to vary but little, summer 
and winter. Here the olive, the orange, the lime, 
the citron, the fig, the lemon, with groves of other 
fruits, with a variety of nuts — the almond, the 
walnnt, etc., are grown in perfection. Stock-rais- 
ing and wool-growing arc profitable enterprises 
Here arc also rich gold and silver mines, great 
oil repositories, and salt springs. By irrigation, 
moisture for crops is obtained by the husband 
man. He has no fear of unseasonable showera 
during haying and harvesting; but the reader in- 
quires are there no drawbacks ? Is it all sunshine, 
health, and beanty f Aye, verily, it is a ftiTored 
country. It is almost C&nltlcss in climate, in soil, 
in the productions wherewith to supply the wants 
of men ; and our author states facts, a perusal of 
which must convince the most skeptlcaL We 
commend those who seek information as to all 
these things, to the beamtlfnl book, whose Utle 
ire five abo«ve. 



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LIBBAET. 



143 



Thb Mak in thb Mooif, and Other 
People. By R. W. BaymoDd. OneToL»Umo; 

?[>. 847; embossed maslin. Price, 13. New 
ork: J. B. Ford&Co. 
Here is fact sod fiction combined. The author 
possesses a yiyid imagination, which he nsea for a 
nsefnl purpose. He combines instruction with 
smnsement, and his reader never tires of listening 
to his stories. The Han in the Moon is a war 
story. Under Land and Sea Is a story of adven- 
tare, full of thriUing interest We have also a 
LoTC Story, a New England Story, Two Old An- 
gds. What the Horse Said ; then we have a Rahiy 
Dsy's Story, the Results of HediUUon, a Story of 
the Spirits, in which Poverty Peter figures ; then 
s Dresm Story, a Christmas Story, My Baby and 
my Bird ; closing with Bow- Wow, the Dog's Tale. 
Tbe publishers have illustrated with some dozen 
fan-page pictures, with engraved initial letter- 
printing, the whole on the best superfine paper, 
rendering the book just the thing for a holiday 
present 

OuB First Hitndrbd Ybabs. Parts 
IV. and v., Oct and Nov., 1874. To be com- 

Sletedln one year. In twelve monthly narts ; 
TO. Price, 50 cents each. New York : United 
States Publishing Co. 

This important history is progressing in a satis- 
fictoiy manner, and promises to become popular. 
Mr. Lester, the author, has good reason to be sat- 
isfied with this ezoeUent ''hit," and with the 
manner of its .publication. 

The Ltpb and Adventures op Rear- 
Adxibal John Paul Jonbs, commonly called 
PaulJones. By John S. C. Abbott Illustrated. 
One vol., 12mo; pp. 859- embossM muslin. 
Price, $1.60. New York : Dodd & Mead. 
An admirable piece of stirring history, relating 
to the earlier periods of our national existence. 
Paul Jones was a character, and his name will go 
down to posterity with the leading patriots of the 
American Revolution. Mr. Abbott gives us the 
early history of Paul Jones with the "Infant 
Navy," the "Boarding of the British Lion," 
"Croise of the Bon Homme Richard," the " Bou 
Homme Richard and the Serapis," " Result of the 
Yictory; " next we have •• Paul Jones at Court," 
later the " Mutiny of the Landais," then the " Re- 
torn to America," *» End of the War," the " Mis- 
sion to Denmark," the "Russian Campaign," 
'^Adventures on the Black Sea," his " Retirement 
and Death." This is one of the most stirring and 
romantic of our sea histories. The book is hand- 
somely published, with several striking illustra- 
tloas» including a portrait of Paul Jones. 

Papers read before the Medico-Legal 

Society of New York, from its OiT^anization. 

Pirst Series. Revised Edition. Pp. 575; cloth. 

Price, $4.50. New York : McDivltt, Campbell 

* Co., Ill Nassau Street 

tUs work Is the first of its kind ever printed in 
the English language. It, therefore, deserves spe- 
M BtttiML Tha Madleo-Lsgal Society has the 



honor of being the first society of the kind ever 
organiied. The object of it, as stated by its con- 
tttution, is for the purpose of the advancement 
of the science of medical juri^Hrudence. There 
•re twenty-four papers in this volume on that sub- 
ject, and tbe oenstitution and by-laws of the so- 
ciety are in the appendix, and a history of the so- 
ciety is given in the introduction. 

These papers are by some eighteen dtflbrent per- 
sons, who are eminent la the profession of law or 
medicine ; and each of these papers have been re- 
vised by the individual author of it, expressly for 
this publication. While it will be found particu- 
larly useful to the legal and medical professions, 
it can not fail to be of interest to the general pub- 
lic This society is doing a good work in collect- 
ing and disseminating such knowledge as relates 
to medical jurisprudence. 

Orace for Grace. Letters of Rev. 
William James. One voU12mo ; pp. 841 ; mus- 
lin. Price, $1.50. New York : Dodd <& Mead. 
As an aid to tbe development of a devotional 
character, the book will prove useful. Mr. James 
states, in his address, that tbe present collection 
of letters is mainly due to the numerous and ear- 
nest requests which those holding them in their 
possession have received; that they would give 
them a fuUer and more extended publication. An- 
other strong incentive has risen from the fact that 
Mr. James was engaged with intense enthusiasm, 
during his later years, upon a work to which he 
brought all the treasures gathered in a life- time, 
from devout study, from rare spiritual discovery, 
and from tbe practical experience of a nature rich 
in feeling and profoundly receptive of divine com- 
munications. The subject of this work was that 
of his personal correspondence, viz. : What Christ 
does for the fallen soul in the way of redemption 
and conquest, and how tbe soul can obtain the 
sanctifying effects that flow from His salvation. 

Makino Reputations. The Prospectus 
of the Overland for 1875 trulv says *' that it— the 
Overland Monihlff — ^was mainly instrumental in 
achieving the literary reputations of Bret Harte, 
John Muir, Stephen Powers, CharlCR Warreu 
Stoddard, Prentice Mulford, Joaquin Miller, Ina 
D. Coolbrith, and others." 
The Overland is one of the best of our t4 mag- 
asines. It is well edited, beautifully printed, and 
every way creditable to California, whose re- 
sources this magazine has aided to develop. 

Christian - Co-operation in Active 
Life ; or, ** United Brethren in Christ" A Re- 
view of their Origin and Progress, and Some of 
their Elementary Principles. In Five Parts. 
Bv John Vinton Potts. One vol., 12mo; pp. 
4(k; muslin. Price, $1. Dayton, Ohio : United 
Brethren Publishing House. 
The author presents in a handsome volume the 
origin, basis, and evolution of the plan of Chris- 
tian unity. He also gives the result of this plan, 
when put into practical operation. Although it 
is written from a particular ttand-polnt, it Is not. 



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144 



PHBBNOLOQIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Fm., 



stricUjr spetldiiic, teotftriaii, Irat brotd tad oom- 
prehensive. The spirit of the work mij be In- 
f erred from the following ezpresiloDa by the an- 
thor : ** Ift &n independeiit book^ written by an 
independent man, who exerciaes independent 
thought, in an Independeot way, manifestinfc an In- 
dependent apirit, for t idependent people, who are 
willing: to do right, Vl a discreet way, and leave 
the results to God." The author would reach those 
of all churches as well as those of no churches. 
He aims to reach mankind. The book is warmly 
indorsed by prominent men, whose names are a 
guarantee for the author's ability and integrity. 

Daily Memobandum-Book fob 1875. 
Containing Almanac, Cash Account, BUI Book, 
etc. Published annually by Francis & Loutrel, 
Manufacturing Stationers and ttteam Job Print- 
ers, 45 ilalden Lane, New York. Price, from 
50 cents to $1 and $1.50. 
These manufacturing stationers are among the 
oldest in the city. They have all the machinery 
and other materials necessary to produce the best 
of everything in their line. Bankers, Merchants, 
Insurance Companies, etc., should send stamp for 
circular describing paper, ink, binding, etc, con- 
nected with blank book manufacture. 

The Hobticultubist. A Jonroal of 
Bural Life, Literature, Art, and Taste. Bdited 
and published by Henry T. Williams, New York. 
Price, $2 a year. 

We have been teasing Mr. Williams, the editor, 
to make the ff&rticuUuriet a $5 magazine instead 
of furnishing it at 92. We would have it the 
most beautiful and complete Journal of the kind 
in the world. At the higher price, with more il- 
lustrations of fruits, flowers, and designs for cot- 
tages and rural homes, we believe It would com- 
mand a larger patronage. But Mr. Williams 
thinks the more democratic price of $2 a year the 
best for the people. And his magazine is richly 
worth all he asks, and more. 

Haekness' Magazine, Vol. HI, No. 
10, 1875. Price, 80 cents a number, or four 
numbere for $1, John C. Harkness, Wilming- 
ton, Delaware. 

Mr. Harkness is becoming ambitious. He as- 
pires to furnish a first-chiss magazine at a second- 
class price. A dollar a year will bring to your 
toble Harkness' quarterly. We tWnk it cheap 
enough at twice this sum. The last number con- 
Ulns a number of beautiful lUnstratlons— among 
others, a portrait of our excellent friend Dr. 
Hicks, of the WayHde, whoso sketch appeared in 
a late number of the Phebholooical Joubnal. 
For 80 cenU Mr. Harkness will send a aingle 

number. 

What a BoyI Whnt Shall We Do 
With Him y What WUl He Do with Himself ? 
Who Is to Blame for the Consequences ? By 
Julia A. Willis. One vol., 12mo; pp. m; 
muslin. Price, fL50. Phlladelphta : J. B. Up- 
pincott & Co. 
From the cradle to neM«hood, what a my»- 



tary and what a history there la in the life of t 
child! Mrs. Willis pictures the boy. Who can 
pdnt the picture of the ever-changing girt ? But 
neither boys nor gbls are all alike. Each have 
many, many phases, shades, and peculiarities of 
character. No one is ever twice alike. How, 
then, is it possible to accurately describe oner 
Mrs. Willis gives us her views in a racy and in- 
structive style. Her name will be familiar to 
JouBNAL readers. Will she not now give us the 
girl, as a companion piece to the boy ? 

Eatino fob Steength. a Book Com- 
prising the Science of Eating. Becelpts for 
Wholesome Cookery, Becelpts for Wholesome 
Drinks, Answers to Ever-Becurring Questions. 
By M. L. Holbrook, M.D , editor of the SeraUi 
qf Health, »• ParturiUon^Wlthout Pain," etc., 
aided by numerous competent assistants. One 
vol., 12mo; pp. 157; muslin. Price, $L New 
York: Wood & Holbrook. 
Doctors disagree. There are many different 
schools of medicine. There are also many difler- 
ent religious creeds in the world. The question 
which each and every one desires to have an- 
swered is this : What Is right f One physiolog^t 
advocates the use of beef, pork, fish, fata, oils, 
etc., another condemns their use. Another adTO> 
cates a vegetarian diet, Inelnding fraite, nuts, 
roots, grains, etc., excluding the flesh meat StOl 
another advocates the use of stimulants, and an- 
other strenuously condemns them. 

Dr. Holbrook makes a compromise by including 
the platforms of the diflbrent schools, and eaten 
to alL Meat-eaters, vegetarians, etc., will each 
flnd a plank on which to stand ; but can this be 
called the ''Science of Eating?*' We ahoiild 
rather call it Eclecticism. 

His book will prove suggestive to many, though 
It may satisfy no one reader. Each will fall back 
on his own judgment after a perusal, and it win 
devolve on others to reduce this thing to method 

or to science. 

A Tbeatise on Acoustics in Connee- 
tlon with Ventilation, and an account of the 
Modem and Ancient Methods of Heating and 
Ventilation. By Alex. Sealtzer. 12mo ; pp. 
208 ; muslin. Price, $L50. New York : D. Van 
Nostrand. 

The author entertains original views on this sub- 
ject. ' He has a critical eye, and brings a critical 
judgment to bear in the discussion of these veiy 
important questions. Indeed, we feel it Incom- 
bent on us to consider his claims more folly 
than we can do in a brief notice, and shall, there- 
fore, defer till another time a review of his work 
Meantime, those who may wish to consult him 
may address the author at 807 East Eighteenth 

Street. New York. < 

The "Land of the White Elb- 
PHAHT," by Frank Vhacent, haa reached ite fifth 
edition (Harper A Brothers), which Is a notable 
success for so costly a book. It has been pub- 
Urtied in London, has been translated into Ger^ 
man, and is now about to receive a translation 
into French. 



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XtifBER n.] 



March, /875. 



[Whole No. 436 




PORTRAIT OP THB LATE QERRIT 8 M)lfefrzai.by V^OOQIC 



146 



PERENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[MABcn, 



THE LATE GEBBIT SMITH. 



A FEW days after last Christmas day 
this man, whose name had for many 
yeajs been recognized as a synonym for true 
nobility and worth, died at the residence of 
a son-in-law in New York city, where he was 
spending the holiday season. Although a 
man of retiring habits, his interest in mat- 
ters of public policy, and his lively sense of 
iuty when movements affecting the welfare 
of society were agitating the popular mind, 
frequently drew from him positive express- 
ions of opinion and practical co-operation 
with the side of progress and reform. 

Gerrit Smith was bom at Utica, N. Y., on 
the 6th of March, 1797. His father, Peter 
Smith, at one time a partner with John Jacob 
Astor in the fur trade, was a very wealthy 
man in landed property, having used most 
of the profits accruing from his business in 
purchasing large tracts of land in the interi- 
or of New York State. He purchased in one 
lot from the State 80,000 acres in the County 
of Oneida, where he resided. 

At the death of his father, Gerrit Smith 
fell heir to a vast estate. Coming thus into 
possession of great wealth at an early age, 
he was free to follow the bent of inclination. 
This led him to works of philanthropy. He 
was liberally educated, having graduated at 
Hamilton College in 1818. He, however, 
studied no profession until late in life. In 
1858 he was admitted to practice law, and sub- 
sequently conducted several important trials. 
His legal experience was, however, save in 
real estate transactions, a mere episode. 

He first appeared actively in political life 
as an anti-mason during the campaign of 
1827, and two years later ran for State Sen- 
ator as the anti-masonic candidate, and was 
defeated. Soon afterward he entered with 
all the enthusiasm of his nature into the anti- 
slavery movement, and several years after- 
ward embarked with the same zeal in the 
temperance cause. For many years he was 
wholly absorbed by these two questions, 
holding the most advanced views among re- 
formers. 

He also took an active part in the presi- 
dential campaign of 1844, supporting the 
Abolitionist candidate, James G. Bimey, 
against Henry Clay, for the presidency. 



Ten years before this he had met with six 
hundred delegates assembled in Utica to form 
a State Anti-Slavery Society, and when the 
meeting was broken up by the violence of a 
mob, Mr. Smith invited the members to meet 
in his own mansion, at Peterboro, where the 
organization was completed, and from that 
time his prominence dates as a leader of the 
opposition to slavery. In June, 1848, the 
Liberty League, and a split from the Liberty 
party, held a convention at Bufialo and nom- 
inated Gerrit Smith as their candidate for 
the President. It was at this convention that 
he uttered that remarkable sentiment, ** There 
is not in all the world a more honorable 
tombstone than that on which the slave- 
holder would inscribe, *Here lies a slave- 
stealer.' " Through his efforts, in 1842, Col. 
Fitzhugh, of Maryland, father of his second 
wife, was induced to liberate his slaves, and 
to purchase through agents those who had 
been formerly owned, and were subsequently 
sold by Mrs. Fitzhugh. All these were taken 
to Peterboro and supplied with homes. 
Many of them and their descendants re- 
main at present in that locality. He was 
accused of having contributed money toward 
the Harper^s Ferry expedition of old John 
Brown, but the charge was never proved. 

In 1852 he was elected to Congress as an 
Abolitionist from the district comprising the 
counties of Madison and Oswego. While in 
Congress he generally acted with the Whigs, 
with whom he naturally affiliated, but he 
never compromised his anti-slavery conyic- 
tions. It is said that he took but little part 
in the proceedings of the national legisla- 
ture, ^ding the atmosphere of Washington 
80 out of sympathy with his humanitarian 
spirit that he resigned his place at the close 
of the first session. 

He foresaw the' lace war at a result of the 
conflict on the question of slavery, and dur- 
ing its continuance with tongue and pen he 
urged the most vigorous, yet merciful, meas- 
ures on the part of the Union. The tall, 
commanding fig^ure of Gerrit Smith had been 
familiar to the American people for nearly 
half a century as **a man identified with 
public affairs for half a century, not as an 
officeholder or an active politician, but as a 

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1876.] 



A WBLL'BALANCBD CHARACTER, 



147 



molder of public opinion with speech and 
pen and by exiunple ; as a clear-headed, fear- 
less, yet self-contained and self-restrained ad- 
vocate of what he believed to be right, how- 
ever repognant it might be to the prevailing 
popular sentiment.'' 

His organization and temperament fitted 
bim for leadership ; not the leadership of an 
army, with mnsket and cannon, but the lead- 
ership of thinking men. His head was not 
remarkable for its development in the phys- 
ical realm so much as for its development in 
the intellectual and moral spheres. As ap- 
pears in the portrait, the superior region of 
the cerebrum, in general, was especially large, 
giving him strong reflective faculties, critical 
acumen, excellent judgment of men, warm 



sympathy, forecast, steadfastness of opinion, 
self-reliance, and marked sense of honor and 
of duty. His courage — Combativeness — ^was 
of the intellectual order. As a speaker he 
was clear, earnest, frank, dignified, an^ re- 
markably persuasive. Without policy or craft 
there was that nobility about him which com- 
pelled respect His views of life were lofty 
like his character. He was an idealist rather 
than a worker, a prophet and philanthropist 
rather than a politician or legislator. 

Those curious to compare likenesses of 
the same person, taken at periods widely 
apart, may find a portrait of Mr. Smith, 
taken when he had attained middle age, in 
** New Physiognomy," on page 686, to which 
we refer the reader. 



A WELL-BALANCED CHARACTER. 



A PERFECT balance of the human fac- 
ulties and temperaments is most diffi- 
cnh of attainment, perhaps impossible in 
the present stage of development, but a con- 
dition of culture and improvement which 
may be fitly designated by the term ** well- 
balanced," is within our reach. We meet 
many persons who are highly endowed by 
nature— organ, feculty, temperament conduc- 
ing to a progressive, improving, useful life. 
And we congratulate them on the possession 
of their high qualities, and admonish them 
with regard to what it expected of them. 
But the mass of mankind must struggle to- 
ward the attainment of a well-balanced or- 
ganization, if they would have it at all, and it 
is chiefly to the eflbrts to improve themselves 
wbich many make earnestly and persever- 
ingly that society owes its general progress ; 
for it is the character of the masses which 
impresses itself upon the history of an age 
or people. 

The Toronto Ewutgdical Witmeti has an 
ttticle in a recent number from the pen of a 
writer who appreciates the necessity of brain 
development in matters moral and physical. 
From it we extract the following paragraphs, 
which are quite consistent with phrenologi- 
cal prindples : 

^ There can be no real greatness without 
It There onght to b« cultivated by every 



one a desire to be great. But we must know 
and feel in what true greatness consists. In 
order to do this, it is not necessary for us to 
seek the highest posts of honor, political 
or social. Riches are not necessary to true 
greatness. To do pur work faithfully and 
well where we are, as mechanics, or clerks, or 
salesmen, or students, or laborers ; to be good 
sons or daughters, or brothers or sisters, or 
parents ; to act well and faultlessly our part 
in the sphere in which Providence has placed 
us — then shall we earn and receive the plau- 
dit, * Well done.' 

** Many a man has made a fool and a fail- 
ure of himself for life by aiming to be some- 
thing for which he had no qualifications, 
neglecting the while present duty and activ- 
ity in his present sphere. No course is so 
sure to call us to higher places, and more 
honorable and lucrative employments, than 
to do well and faithfully our present work. 
When we show ourselves fitted for it, tk<j 
place will seek for us. And by looking well 
to the formation of a good and well-balanced 
character, we shall best secure the esteem 
and confidence which will make us really 
great 

** True usefhlness can not be secured but 
by a due regard to the principles above laid 
down, To be useful^ how important! I 
can hardly think of life as worth having 

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150 



PHRENOLOOIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabch, 



the reader will obeerye that the ancient mys- 
teriee and the phenomena grouped about 
modem Spiritualism are, no doubt, subatan- 
tially identical. 

Reminiscences of the practice similarly 
crop out in many an ancient Gothic and Cel- 
tic legend, and in many a tale of magic and 
transformation, as an actual l>order-land be- 
tween sleep and death — something more than 
the one and something less than the other — 
inhabited by yisions and trances. Homer, in 
that viyid episode, the death of Patroklos, 
lucidly illustrates the primitive Hellenic idea 
of the relation between sleep and death ; an 
idea which, until the dawn of modem phys- 
iology, was very nearly universal. And how 
important the investigation of the facts and 
their literature, as now existing in India, the 
parent-land of all these races, is to the study 
of mythology from the critical point of view, 
will appear when it is considered that the 
real myth-formers of antiquity were its 
priests, and that mythology may thus be re- 
garded as the product of a mental aura en- 
gendered by the same conditions and prac- 
tices that the literature of modem Spiritual- 
ism describes. Take the descent into hade$ 
as it occurs in the BfMid of Virgil, and as 
transformed by Dante, and follow it back to 
its source. The Greeks had it, but not as a 
religious mystery, only as a myth. In the 
Assyrian tablets, exhumed in the summer of 
1878 by Mr. George Smith, of the British 
Museum, this legend appears as part of a 
primitive religious literature. 

This, however, to the {mictical modem in- 
quirer, is not the only aspect from which the 
investigation is important. On the contrary, 
in its various physiological relations it bears 
upon the singular phenomena associated with 
modem Mesmerism, and may possibly, on the 
principle of reversion as employed in the 
science of biology, indicate the etiology of 
many an attack of catalepsy. The German 
superstition of the doppelganger^ a specter in 
the image of the person attacked, supposed 
to range at will during the persistence of cat- 
aleptic rigidity— ^if, in view of the phenome- 
na of Spiritualism, it can be regarded as a 
superstition at all — ^had its origin, no doubt, 
in reminiscences of the primeval practice of 
apparent death. Finally, as a species of mor- 
bid slumber, the study of the facts may pos- 



sibly conduce to a better understanding of 
the nature and conditions of sleep, as a nor- 
mal function and a perpetuated iiabit of the 
nervous system. 

How it is that the Hindu fakir is enabled 
to counterfeit rigor mortu^ or rather to pro- 
duce a real rigor mortii in his own person 
and arrest death at that stage, will appear 
by-and-by, after a prefatory examinati<m of 
the physiology of sleep. 

.pimple as it seems — an act with all the 
phenomena of which every person is feuniliar 
from frequent repetition —it is, nevertheless, 
true that the physiology of going to sleep ia 
one of the mysteries that scientific men have 
not been able as yet completely to unravel, 
although many theories have been proposed 
and discussed by eminent m^ with the us- 
ual cleverness and acumen of sdebtific the- 
orizers. It appears to be settled that the vi- 
tal processes are carried on somewhat less 
•rapidly during sleep, and the circulation is 
considerably lessened in the motor and sen- 
sory tracts of the nervous system and in the 
coronal region of the brain — ^indeed, in the 
whole cerebral aiid cerebellar ganglia, the lat- 
ter the great center of locomotion, the for- 
mer of volition and ccmsciousness. Tbo 
great psychological discovery, that the spi- 
nal cord has exdto-motor properties and is 
a center of force, independent of the cere- 
bram and cerebellum, proximately solves the 
problem, by indicating how it is that the 
vital man never sleeps, while the mental and 
muscular man passes one- third of his whole 
life in slumber. The inunediate antecedents 
of sleep— as languor, heaviness of the eye- 
lids, partial and temporary relaxation of cer- 
tain muscles, nodding and dropping of the 
head, obtuseness to external impressions, 
yawning, and the like — call for no special 
consideratiiMi, except in so far as they are in- 
dicative of the order in which the several 
tracts of the nervous system partake of the 
disposition. Thus, the muscles of the legs 
and arms, and those co-ordinating the move- 
ments of the eyelids, yield first. These mus- 
cles, be it noted, all have their center of mo- 
tion in the cerebellum, whence it is conclud- 
ed that that center appreciably precedes the 
cerebmm in the act of going to sleep. The 
dropping of the lids sets up a barrier be- 
tween external impressions and the retina of 

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18 ;5.] 



SIMULATING DEATH. 



151 



the eye, and thus contributes to the resnlt ; 
although, iudepondeut of the cloeiLg of the 
lids and even when they have been removed 
by flargical operation, sight is the first of the 
sensory fiinctiona to be abolished. There 
are many animals, among them the rabbit, 
that sleep with open eyes. It is an error, 
hoverer, to assume, as many eareful physiol- 
ogists have done, that the Unction of vision 
(though the eyes are still open) is abolished 
in somnambulism. It is consciousness only 
that is absent, and as a careful dissection of 
the human brain will convince the candid 
inqdrer, who is willing to liberate himself 
from metaphysical dogmas, consciousness is 
not an essential part of vision or sensation 
fer M, although through it the impressions 
received and stored in the optic ganglia, and 
thence transmitted to the medullary tract, 
hecome subjects of perception. There are 
many facts showing that somnambulists see 
without the consciousness of seeing, and ex- 
ert the faculty of intelligence without the 
conaciousness of doing so. A somnambulist 
composes a pieoe of music or a sermon, or 
psmts a picture, in perfect unconsciousness of 
the act, it is true, but it by no means follows 
that the work is not co-ordinated by intelli- 
gence.* 

* One other element must, however, be taken 
tato coneideration in determfaiing the qaestion of 
tbe faiflaence of the cerebellam on the reproduc- 
ttre process, and that it the extent to which the 
sympathetic nervous system is concerned In the 
innenration of this department of the organism. 
And here I must correct an error in the text- 
books on physiology, which are very generally co- 
iaddeat In regarding the tympathetlc aystem aa 
baring its orifcin either in the anperior cervical 
pnglion or in the ganglion of ribes, whereas foetal 
diisections demonstrate that its first formed cen- 
ter is the great semilunar ganglion in the ref^on 
of the ^aphragm. This second nervous system, 
aoaieUmes styled the ganglionic systam of ve^eta- 
tire life, has a sp<>v!al relation to the nutritive, 
weretiTe, excretivci and circulatory processes, 
lad by its occasional intertextnres with the cere- 
bro-spinal nerves, particularly with the pneumo- 
giBtric and tbe superior maxillary, ia brought into 
idstion with the brain at large, but more inti- 
aatdy witb the oerebellnm, I thhik, than with the 
eentol centers. Thus, a fact that at first seems 
fitil to the exactness of the inductions of Fhre- 
lolofy, strikingly reinforces them when more 
n!en>8Copically examined ; and when the Invcsti- 
gitorhas finally worked down to the minute facta 



Par parenth^, the nomenclature of psy- 
chology needs, in thii departn<ent, to Le re- 
adjusted to the known facts of anatomy and 
function. In vision, for example, the rods 
and cones terminating the filaments of the 
optic nerve as it expands in the retina of the 
eye, and forms what may be termed the sen- 
sitive field, vibrate to waves of light ether ; 
these vibrations are primarily elaborated as 
subjects of sight in the optic ganglia ; whence 
they are carried to the medullary tract to be 
received and appropriated as subjects of per- 
ception ; whence, again, they are transmitted, 
if the term be admissible in a process not 
yet fully unraveled, to the external lamina of 
the cerebrum, there to be appropriated as 
subjects of cognition or consciousness. But 
were the lamina of consciousness to be dis- 
sected away from the brain, the sensory func- 
tion of vision would be left unimpaired. In 
audition, optic perception, olfaction, and 
gustation the same law prevails. The sensa- 
tion is first received and elaborated, then cor- 
related as consciousness, and consciousness 
may be extinguished without extinction of 
the sensory function. The elaboration of a 
terminology in harmony with these facts 
forms no part of the writei^s intent in this 
paper, and must be left to future cogitation. 
But the fact that sensation and intelligence, 
in the proper signification of both terms, are 
structurally and functionally independent uf 
consciousness, and may be, to a very consid- 
erable extent, active in intervals of uncon- 
sciousness, is important to the comprehension 
of many of the morbid phenomena of sleep ; 
and psychologists would not be far in error, 
perhaps, did they consent to regafd this or- 

of nervous structure, he finds himself vi« 4 ri» with 
confirmations of Gall and Spuraheim, where Buper- 
flcial scrutiny had led him to anticipaUa series of 
insuperable objections. For my own part, I con- 
fess Ihinkly that the minute accuracy of the views 
of those gentlemen amazes me, when I consider 
the imperfect microscopes with which the inves- 
tigations of their day were necessarily conducted. 
The nncerUlnty that exlsU as to the exact limiU 
of the function of the sympathetic nerve consti- 
tutes, however, one of the great aourcea of uncer- 
tainty in experiments on the cerebro-spinal sys- 
tem. For example, both the pnenmogastric und 
the sympathetic are so interwoven in the processes 
of respiration and circulation that as yet their rela- 
tive importance is open to conjeeture. 



I 



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PHRENOLOQIGAL JOURNAL, 



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ganic intelligence (or ganglionary intelli- 
gence) as the basis of what is generally 
styled imagination. Hence the strange ac- 
tivity of the imagination in the phenomenon 
known as dreaming, and those strange and 
often premonitory visions incident to that 
state. 

MaU d fM9 motUons. The muscles of the 
neck and those concerned in the expression 
of intelligence follow those of locomotion in 
yielding to somnolence. The great motor 
ganglia of the cerebrum are concerned and 
involved in this second step of the process. 
Most physiologists explain the means by 
which this is brought to pass, by supposing 
that the nervous filaments, proceeding from 
the medullary tract, and co-ordinating the 
action of the blood-vessels in the region of 
motion and consciousness, contract those ves- 
sels, which, unlike others of their kind, are 
incapable of distension, thus reducing the 
cerebral and cerebellar circulation to a com- 
parative nullity. That circulation is reduced 
by contraction of these vessels, and activity 
suspended in consequence, there is no doubt; 
but, as will presently appear, thdr contrac- 
tion is not due to an impulse transmitted 
from the vital tract, but, on the other hand, 
to the relaxati(m and withdrawal of nervous 
energy from the trajectories in question. 
The best definition of sleep, therefore, that 
can now be ofiered may be expressed in the 
terms of a suspension of the excitor function 
of the encephalic mass, and this is in conse- 
quence of a somewhat lessened activity of 
the vital centers, although, as Marshall Hall 
has epigrammatically said, the spinal cord 
never sleeps. 

The order in which the special senses give 
way is first, taste, then smell, next hearing, 
finally touch; and, conversely, a person is 
more easily awakened by tactual impression 
than by sound, by sound than by smell. 

What is the final cause of sleep, considered 
as a normal function and a perpetuated 
habit ? It is very easy to answer that the 
necessity for rest is responsible for the phe- 
nomen<Mi ; but in rebuttal of this proposition 
comes the consideration that the physical 
processes never rest, and that the question of 
the necessity for rest is primarily referent to 
these processes, which are, it is true, in the 
rest of the encephalic mass, relieved of no in- 



considerable tax on their energies. It is evi- 
dent from many facts that, next to nature, 
habit is omnipotent as furnishing laws of 
activity ; and in the perpetuity during sleep 
of the vital activities, without oiaterial re- 
duction, the physiologist is supplied with a 
hint that, in their nature, life and its forces 
and movements are sleepless. Why, then, is 
it that the cognitive and muscular man oLUst 
have a period of slumber, or die ? Say it is 
habit, if you will, but whence came the 
habit, and how was it first generated and 
transfomied into a law of organism? The 
man who, from physiological facts alone, 
should assert that any primary necessity ex- 
ists why the brain should sleep from seven to 
eight hours out of the twenty-four, would 
hazard an assertion without other warrant 
than the empirical observation that the fact 
is so. The fact is so, and it is, also, a £act 
that the tension on the vital man is very con- 
siderably lessened pending the period of 
elamber. But why should consciousness be 
extinguished altogether? Why, in other 
words, should it not suffer a reduction in 
the proportion of the reduction of the vital 
energies ? That even in the encephalic mass 
sleep is comparative merely, is abundantly 
demonstrated by many facts of psychology. 
There is unconscious as well as conscious 
cerebration ; the brain swarms with ideas and 
fancies tliat are never correlated as conscious- 
ness at all, except in those rare intervals, 
perhaps, when the unrest of this deeper life 
of the soul wreaks itself on a poem, a 
strange painting, or an unearthly gust of 
music. Men live and die, like things half- 
blossomed that never knew their own beauty, 
except in the blind promptings that impelled 
them to unfold it to the sunshine. It is in 
the awful abysses of the undeveloped that 
men perish, yet yonder lump of flesh, stolid 
and unimpressive, has that within that might 
move the world. PerdUy amid the rubbish 
of life he smothers the God. So, then, in a 
general way, our unconscious thinking is 
more than our conscious, and our brains are 
always thinking. The other evening I had 
been talking with a somewhat critkai friend 
about Dickens, and had struggled in vain to 
put into an expression my idea of the radical 
motive of his art That night I had no 
dream ; but an hour or two after I dropped 

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SIMULATING DEATH, 



153 



to sleep I was snddenly awakened hj the 
foy expression I wanted, bobbling to tbe 
surface : ^ Dickens," I waa saying to myaelf, 
'^ was great in that he drew out the destiny 
of tbe homan soal, every one after its way.^* 
I h$iik not been dreaming, and I was awaken- 
ed, no doubt^ by a train of thought that, bnt 
for that moment's awakenings would have 
passed forever unnoted. There arehnndreds 
of facts that sustain this hypothesis that 
sleep is never completed sleep until it merges 
iato death. And is it then ? If, however, 
perfect rest is an unknown thing even to the 
encephalic mass, and if rest is not the prim- 
ftfy motive of slumber, to what cause shall 
the f(»mation of the habit be finally re- 
fenedf 

I shall adven tu re a tentative hypothesis, 
which seems to me to be in harmony with 
all the £acts. It is that the cessation of con- 
sdooa encephalic function is primarily due 
to lessened activity of the vital centers, of 
which the brain is properly a continuation, 
and that tiie lessened activity of the vital cen- 
ters is contingent upon the withdrawal of 
tbe phydolc^cal action of light — ^the main 
soarce of all vital and nervous phenomena, 
and the parent of life. And this hypothesis 
brings with it a curious question. Had the 
earth been ao balanced among suns as to 
have no succession of day and night, would 
its inhabitaats have been sleepless ? Or were 
it to be snddenly placed in suoh a position, 
would the habit of sleep gradually disappear f 
lam inclined to think that the physiologist 
who will candidly weigh all the facts pro et 
contra^ will be impelled to answer both these 
qoeries in the affirmative^ but I will not 
stop to discuss the problem, as it is too fan- 
ciful for the purpose of the present inquiry ; 
bat here, in its various physiological rela- 
tioDs, lies the insuperable objection to the 
Qudulatory theory of light, as first advanced 
iu Sir Isaac Newton's day by that eminent 
mathematician, Professor Huygbens, and 
now asserted as a demonstrated fact by Pro- 
fessor Tyndall, according to which light 
oonatsts of the vibrations of a very thin and 
elastic ether that pervades all space and 
eren the interstices between the molecules 
of Biaterial substances, the several vibrations 
olended together in the solar ray having 
waves of a length and frequency peculiar to 



themselves. These vibrutions, impinging 
upon the minute papillated filaments of the 
optic nerve, are responsible for all the varied 
phenomena and harmonies of color, so that 
color is really susceptible of melody. Thus 
a light-wave .685 of a millimeter in length 
produces the sensation of red ; another .616 
in length, the sensation of orange ; another 
.560 in length, the sensation of yellow. The 
length of the green wave is .518 ; that of the 
blue wat^ .456; that of the violet, .410. 
Compare these wave-lengths with the sono- 
rous waves of the musical notes constituting 
the octave, and it will appear that the same 
law of harmony runs through both. 

Bnt though there is no doubt that light 
vibrates in waves of varying length and in- 
tensity, that all physical forces are propa- 
gated by vibrations, and that this aspect of 
the subject flimishes a fhll explanation of 
all the phenomena of reflection, refraction, 
polarisation, double refi*action, and interfer- 
ence, these facts have as yet offered no satis- 
factory solution of the varied and curious 
phenomena of absorption and transforma- 
tion ; and these phenomena He at the very 
basis of the physiological activities of the 
luminous agency, nor are they competent to 
all the phenomena associated with the pro- 
duction of tints ; while, again, if light con- 
sists altogether of the vibrations of an ether, 
how is it that the diflerent elements of the 
solar ray can be insulated in the same quar- 
ter of the spectrum, red light existing in thd 
violet spaces, blue light in the red spaces ? 
And why should the blue ray have a special 
relation to germination, the yellow to the 
deposition of tissue, and the red to the pro- 
cess of ripening ? 

Light is the vibration of an ether, and 
mare. Life is the beating of a heart, and 
more. The dee])er properties and relations 
of both are involved in the considera- 
tion of the problem, how the cessation of 
light produces sleep. These dip into the 
lower strata of transcendental physics, 
where light must be considered as an entity 
as well as a vibration, a molecular energy 
cognizable to the senses only through motion 
impinging upon the optic nerve. All our 
sensations are equivalents in consciousness 
for vibratory phenomena of different wave- 
lengths. For demonstration, making an 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



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electric circuit with both poles of the bat- 
tery, apply one of the conductors success- 
ively to the eye-ball, the nasal passages, the 
car, the surface of the tongue and the end of 
tbe finger — ^thus successively communicating 
the vibrations of the current to the optic, 
olfactory, auditory, and gustatory nerves. 
Flashes of red light, a sulphurous odor, a 
piercing sound, a bitter taste, and a sharp 
tingle of the finger rapidly respond as the 
pole is passed from point to point, and as 
the jequivalents in consciousness of the wave- 
motion by which the current is propagated. 
It comes, then, to this, that although all forces 
are propagated by vibrations, and all sensory 
phenomena are synonyms for vibratory phe- 
nomena, still that view of light that pretends 
to pursue it through all its transformations, 
now as heat, now as luminosity, now as elec- 
tricity, now as actinism, now as affinity, now 
as magnetism, now as nervous energy, must 
dip deeper into the problems of molecular 
physics than the mere cadences of propaga- 
tion. It is possible to scan the processes of na- 
ture in this way, as a freshman scans Homer^s 
hexameters ; but there is an important dif- 
ference between the acutest analysis of the 
mathematical structure of a poem and en- 
lightened criticism and estimate of the psy- 
chical forces exhibited in its production. 

So, then — ^not to indulge in further digres- 
sion, — it is to the withdrawal of the physiol- 
ogical action of light that the process of 
going to sleep is to be traced. This law 
extends through all the phenomena of na- 
ture, vegetable as well as animal, solving the 
problem of hibernation in animals, on the 
one hand, and fbmishing, on the other hand, 
an adequate explanation of apparent death, 
to the practice of which exclusion of light 
is an absolute condition. 

It is very possible that the cave-dwellers 
were hibernating races, that the remote an- 
cestors of the Hindu-European family slum- 
bered away the winter interval in Asiatic 
grottoes, and that the practice of apparent 
death is thus a survival of a once universal 
prehistoric habit Observe, in this connec- 
tion, that as civilization has progressed from 
living in huts and caves to dwelling in well- 
lighted apartments, cases of catalepsy have 
correspondingly diminished in number, and 
that, as a rule, its attacks are limited to per- 



sons living in comparatively unlighted hab- 
itations ; so that, on strictly scienti5c prin- 
ciples, the $VM qua non in disorders of this 
type, to be rigorously enforced by the at- 
tending physician, should be the removal of 
the invalid to well-windowed apartments, 
having a southern exposure and so flooded 
with sunshine. In other words, the mlarium 
(light-bath) is the main agent of recovery 
in disorders contingent on nervous atomy — 
a fact that connects catalepsy with tbe art 
of apparent death as practiced by the 
Asiatics, and indicates the physiology of the 
latter as a sdf -induced cataleptic fit 

Another fttct that connects the artificial 
with the spontaneous attack is the persistence 
of heat in the coronal region of the brain, 
indicating that consciousness may not be 
extinguished, for morbid function of the ex- 
ternal lamina of this center constitutes, 
without doubt, the true physiology of the 
deeper order of trance as distinguished from 
the state known as clairvoyance. Were 
there any way of ascertaining whether the 
spinal cord has lost its excitor properties it 
would constitute the ultimate and infallible 
test whether death has actually supervened. 

But how comes about the muscular rigid- 
ity in these cases ? This question involves 
the consideration of another problem, that 
of muscular contractility. The contraction 
of a muscle is an electrical phenomenon con- 
tingent on the disturbance of the electrical 
equilibrium of muscular tissue, and this dis- 
turbance, as experiments have proved, is due, 
not to a nervous impulse communicated to 
the muscle, but to the diminution of nervous 
energy in that trajectory. The function of 
the nervous system, in repose, is that of co- 
ordination. When I lift my arm I practi- 
cally withdraw that co-ordination fit>m the 
muscles concerned in the movement, and they 
contract of themselves. It is in this way 
that nervous exhaustion induces jerkings 
and $ie(m$9e$ of the muscles; and he who 
can educate himself to withdraw the nervous 
force by mere efibrt of will from the tngec- 
tories communicating with the muscular sys- 
tem, can by mere effort of the vdll induce'a 
perfect rigor mortu^ and arrest death at that 
stage, for dissolution can not actually super- 
vene so long as the spinal cord retains its ex- 
citer properties. The reader thus sees how 

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KINDNESa TO OTHEBB, 



155 



it was that Colonel Townsend wae able to 
lie down and die (apparently) of his own vo- 
liticn. The Tvholo theory of culture that 
enables the Hindu fakir to perform the same 
singular feat, is based upon the same prin- 
ciple of in-drawal of the nenrous energy, as 
my one may ascertain who will peruse the 
literature of the subject, or will observe from 
life. The writer has had several opportu- 
nities of comparing the phenomenon of 
counterfeit death, as practiced by Asiatic 
jugglers, with the cataleptic attack in its 
ordinary aspects, and can answer for the 
general identity of the symptoms. 

The physiologist finds himself, therefore, 
in the discussion of this subject, in contem- 



plation of several series of phenomena more 
or less related in their nature, and all de- 
pendent upon peisistence of the ezciior func- 
tion of the spinal cord during suspension, 
more or less total, of other functions. They 
are sleep, catalepsy, somnambulism. Mes- 
meric slumber, and apparent death, all hav- 
ing the same or a lesser dependence upon 
the withdrawal of light, the great agent of 
physiological activities and transformations, 
or, as in Mesmerism, upon vibratory phenom- 
ena. The psychical facts incident to these 
states of the nervous system are very curious 
in many of their aspects, but may be recon- 
sidered in a future paper. 

FRANCIS OBBBT FAIRFIBLD. 



^•» 



OlfE DEED OF GOOD. 



If I might do one deed of good. 
One little deed before I die. 

Or thhik one noble thought that should 
Hereafter not fory^otten He, 

I would not murmur, thovgh I must 

Be lost in death's unnumbered dust. 



The filmy wing that wafts the seed 
UpoD the careless wind to earth, 

Of its Bhort life has only meed 
To find the germ fit place for birth 

For one swift moment of delight 

It whirls, then withers out of sight 

F, W. B(mrdm<m, 



KINDNESS TO OTHERS. 



"T^O unto others as you would have 
-L' others do to you." Let us have a 
chat about who those others are. It is my 
conviction that the word means aU creatures 
with life^ from our fellow-mortals down to 
the crawling insect ; that we are not, except 
in self-defense, to do anything to the tiniest 
one of them that we should not like done to 
onreelves. It is my belief that in the eyes 
of God OUT treatment of these insignificant 
creatures is the measure of our charity — the 
charity which includes every good trait. 

The creatures who pray, " God bless me 
and my vrife ; my son John and his wife ; 
OS four and no more," and there are plenty 
of them, if they do not come out as honestly 
as that man did, are rewarded by living in 
an extremely narrow world, and, naturally 
entertaining envy and ill-will for the rest of 
mankind, have a very large world to react 
opon them, and repay evil for evil. The 
man " who does not needlessly set foot upon 
a worm,'* who takes himself out of the way 



that a timid bird may go to her nest, who 
does not kick a clumsy, recumbent animal 
away that his lordship may pass, but walks 
a little out of his path to avoid disturbing 
it, will do unto all others, larger or smaller, 
as he would be done by, and reap a harvest 
of love and kindness from his neighbors ; for 
such characters are universally beloved. 
When I compare him with his antipode, the 
ruthless wretch that loves to crush all the 
little structures that the smaller beings make 
with such labor, and esteems it a luxury to 
lash a poor negro, a horse, or a child, I think 
what a gulf is set between them 1 How it 
widens from their infancy up 1 the faculties 
of the one continually enlarging in sympathy 
with nature — those of the other warping and 
narrowing. How lurid and satanic the emo- 
tions of the latter compared with the for- 
mer ! It is true that the kingdoms of heaven 
and hell arc in the heart ! The latter burns 
with fire. Did you ever see an ill-natured 
or cruel person, child or adult, who did not 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[March, 



perpetually stir up a reaction of hatred, re- 
sentment, and ill-will of others against him- 
self? 

There is little reason for mankind to feel 
so loftily large as compared with animals 
and insects, that he can scarce endure their 
presence. He need not turn his nose up at 
the ant, and imagine that it has no rights 
that he is bound to respect. It has. A 
comparative insignificance is the common in- 
heritance with us all — man, animal, and in- 
sect. Tliis world, which seems to us so vast 
because of our littleness when compared with 
it, is not as large as a grain of sand con- 
trasted with the starry systems of the tmi- 
verse. Upon this grain of sand should we 
be even microscopic insects, viewed as a 
spirit or a God could view us from a distant 
system? See how $m€Ul you are! Would 
you like some monster to crush or torment 
you because of your smallness? As you 
would like your rights regarded, so regard 
the rights of the meaner beings around you. 
It is ordained that we shall slay and eat. 
But if we must kill, let us kill quickly and 
with little pain, and never kill, maim, or per- 
secute, or permit children to do so, for 
pleasure. 

I look upon Mr. Bergh as a herald of the 
'*good time coming.'^ He is an idea that 
will grow in the world like the t3rpe8 of the 
kingdom of heaven — the mustard -seed that 
grew into a great tree, so that the fowls of 
the air came and lodged in its branches — 
the little leaven that the woman put in her 
meal, and it leavened the whole lump. I 
never see or hear his name but I say. Heaven 
bless him I There is such urgent need for 
more Mr. Berghs, especially in my native 
South, where the whip seems yet to be the 
pastime of some of the inhabitants. 

There is another topic in this connection 
which one seldom hears much about, the 
9ewre punishment of children by their par- 
ents. It is a disagreeable subject, but if 
tender children can endure the reality, 
surely, for the sake of reform, we mfty read 
of it. Many parents ** spare the rod " when 
a slight infliction would reform the child, 
and wait until he is thoroughly '* spoiled ^' 
by habit ; and then, when their anger is suf- 
ficiently aroused, give a terrific beating — ^not 
only that, but prevent the child from crying, 



stop what nature demands as an outlet for 
pain. Those very persons could not bear, 
without writhing, five strokes upon their 
toughened, full-grown fiesh, while they may 
make the soft ficsh of a child bear perhaps 
fifty or a hundred^ and that without a cry. 
It ought to be a rule for every parent and 
teacher to strike himself with the rod at 
least once, and with as much force as he 
uses upon his offending child, and hnow how 
it feels before he inflicts it ; and policemen 
should seize the man or woman who prevents 
a child irom crying reasonably when it is 
hurt I speak strongly, because my sympa^ 
thies have been- put upon the rack by these 
brutalities, and they are common, even 
among otherwise respectable people, and 
should be exposed. 

What the child needs is to be taught 
prompt obedience from his infancy, when a 
firm word or judicious management is all 
that is needed to quell him ; and all his hab- 
its should be so supervised that an evil 
trait can not develop for want of exercise. 
This is ten thousand times the easier way to 
train youth, as any sensible mother will tell 
y«u. One must judge of her capability as a 
mother, however, by her obedient, thought- 
ful children, and not by her g^ieral knowl- 
edge, for the wisest are often dolefully igno- 
rant of child-nature. 

It may be said that when all the reforms 
one could wish for have been made the Mil- 
lennium will have arrived. Would there be 
any harm in each one of us trying, by our 
own conduct, to hurry that good time? 
Would that this paper could set one cruel 
person seriously to thinking or prompt him 
to one act of obedience to the Golden Rule, 
in place of a premeditated cruelty I Would 
that it could cause some cowardly tyrant to 
realize how he should feel if his back were 
scored, and cause him to spare some poor 
urchin, horse, or animal I Peradventure he 
might thenceforward adopt the habit of 
kindness to all creatures. 

KATB KATANAGH. 



Phrbkoloot in tbA Aobs Fast. — ^It was 
an old saying of the Hindu sages: **Tbe 
gods have inscribed the destiny of every 
man on his scull.'' - S, Q. EoUand. 

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1875.] 



OUR CURBENCY. 



157 



\ii\ |;Ountrg and Its lesaun|tq. 



TM which BMkM a go«d CoatUtatloB mart kMp H, ▼!>.» men of wlnlom and rlrtM | qulMM ttet, bMWM* thay d«0Md aet with wwldly talur. 
luac, mwt W earaAUly propafatad bj a rLrtooitt adocatloe of yottth. — WWimm Pmn. 





OUB €UB£ENCT — WHAT IT IS AND WHAT IT SHOULD BE. 

BBDSBMABILITT. 



rr our first series of articles as above en- 
titled, we demonstrated tbat while our 
greenback currency possessed the attributes of 
security and uniformity of value throughout 
the nation, it lacked the great requirements 
of stability, elasticity, cheapness (of rent or 
use), volume, and convertibility (or redeema- 
bUity). 

Then a part of the people of this nation 
seemed to regard finances as a matter requiring 
the most profound erudition to master even the 
slightest detail thereof^ and another part, in- 
cluding some of our most prominent and con- 
scientious bankers, looked upon it as an aggre- 
gation of most mysterious phenomena, emi- 
nently perceptible in results, but beyond the 
power of analysis. 

We were in as much obscurity then on the 
subject of money as in the middle ages we 
were in regard to the sciences, or a hundred 
years ago as to political economy. 

For ages the best minds were exercised in 
search of the philosopher's stone, or the uni- 
Tersal solvent, and in statesmanship the di- 
vine right of kings was considered the only 
basis for political superstructure. 

It required centuries to disprove and upset 
those ancient and universally-received falla- 
cies ; but in later years the press and telegraph 
have as much intensified power of intellectual | 
deyelopment and progress as the spinning- 
jenny and locomotive have multiplied mate- 
rial production and facilitated material loco- 
motion. 

History is created with entirely unprece- 
dented rapidity, and, should human life be 
measured by events, instead of by years, the 
STerage man of fifty years old now would be 
much older than was Methuselah at the time 
of his death. 

It is, therefore, entirely in accordance with 
tbe logic of events that the evolution of 
thought, the necessary precursor for intelligent 
action in this matter, has been greater within 

the past twelve months than in any previous 

centoiy. 



The five requisites above enumerated, as 
now lacking in our greenback currency, have 
received popular investigation to an unparal- 
leled extent, and with a unity of purpose, 
without consultation, approaching in unanimi- 
ty to the invariable action of the natural forces, 
a concentration of thought and discussion has 
obtained on the characteristics of converti- 
bility (or redeemability), while the other d^ 
aideruta have comparatively been held in abey- 
ance. 

The object of this paper is to present what 
thoughts and authorities we may have at hand 
bearing upon the subject-matter, and we shall 
find great assistance and most emphatic in- 
dorsement in the utterances of the old schools 
of political economists. 

But we beg our readers to constantly bear 
in mind that those old teachers mean converti- 
bility into gold, of which we have none with- 
out borrowing, and we mean convertibility into 
our own national bonds, which we have in 
such large supply that we are constantly em- 
ploying syndicates to hawk them over Europe 
at double the rate of interest that otlier first- 
class nations pay, and double what our pro- 
ductive industries earn. 

And ako to bear in mind that our element of 
conversion is the most highly esteemed ele- 
ment of gold conversion, and, as contrasted 
with gold, bears a premium of five to ten per 
cent.; or, in other words, gold, contrasted with 
the same, is at five to ten per cent discount 

And, please further remember, this proposi- 
tion, as irrefutable as any demonstration of 
Euclid, and we challenge any political econo- 
mist or mathematician to disprove it 

AN AXIOM. 

**Any debtor nation which bases its cur- 
rency, and consequently its production and 
commerce, upon specie, exists financially, pro- 
ductively, and commercially on the sufferance 
of its foreign creditors ; and ours is a debtor 
nation." 

But, as our six per cent bonds, being so 
much above the par gf |^ol^y^^ojj^£yMtantly 



158 



PHRENOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[March, 



tempt foreigners to obtain and convert green- 
baclcs into them for European investment, and 
thus intensify that absentee landlordism which 
has crushed Ireland, and is rapidly crushing 
US'; and, as the rate of six per cent, rent or in- 
terest is about double what our productive in- 
dustries can pay, without entire absorption, 
more or less remote, into the reservoirs of capi- 
talists, the popular demand has crystallized at 
the figure of 8.65 rent or interest per year, in 
currency, for the nation to pay its own citizens 
on the bonds, and as a compejlsation to the 
citizen bondholder for the apparent less rate of 
interest, the said citizen bondholder to have 
the privilege of withdrawing the principal 
when required. 

It is claimed that the following results would 
accrue: 

1st Substitution of Americans in lieu of 
foreigners as our national creditors, with con- 
stantly diminishing liability to national dis- 
turbance and crises from causes beyond our 
control. 

3d. Retention of the rent or interest at home, 
to be immediately again used in developing 
our own industries, instead of as now, fatten- 
ing the interests of our foreign competitors. 

8d. Elasticity would be secured, as tlie ex- 
cess of money which every summer crowds 
the financial centers would be absorbed, to be 
eliminated when the annual recurrence of ac- 
tivity sets in in the autumn. 

4th. It would form, incidentally, a national 
savings bank, and thus protect the savings of 
the workers and others from the big risks con- 
stantly incurred by deposits in trust compa- 
nies. 

The present daily increasing demand of the 
American people in this matter might proper- 
ly, truthfully, and concisely be expressed in a 
petition, somehow thus : 
To the Honorable Senate and House of Rep- 
resentatives of the United States of America 
in Congress assembled, as trustees of the 
rights and privileges of the people, whether 
individual or collective — 
Whereas, The long-continued deprivation of 
our greenback currency of the power of con- 
vertibility beyond the limited legal tender 
character thereof, results in disrepute upon the 
nation, and deterioration in its purchasing 
powers as contrasted with the nation's other 
and unrestricted legal tender, gold ; and, 

Whereas, The high rate of interest on our 
national bonds, with exemption fVom taxation, 
is more than double what our average indus- 
tries can produce ; and, 



Whereas, The payment of such interest, 
solely in gold, is a stigma, a reproach, a humil- 
iation and repudiation on the part of the gov- 
ernment when the conditions of the issue of 
the greenbacks and 5-20 bonds are considered ; 
and. 

Whereas, All classes of society are liable to 
have greater or less amounts of such green- 
backs without any safe depository fbr the same 
where they can earn a moderate interest 

Therefore, we, your petitioners, do hereby 
not merely supplicate as a favor, but demand 
as a right, from the aforesaid Senate and 
House of Representatives, as the fiduciary 
agents, factors, and trustees of said people, the 
very prompt passage of a very simple, and, 
therefore, easily-understood law, providing for 
the issue of Treasury notes (greenbacks) as 
legal tender for all purposes whatever, to the 
extent which the requirements of our produc- 
tion and commerce indicate, and make such 
legal tender reconvertible, at the option of the 
holders, into Treasury bonds, bearing a rate of 
interest riot much in excess of the average an- 
nual national increase of property— not over 
8.65 per cent per year. 

And your petitioners do hereby claim and 
aver, and substantiate such claim or averment 
by testimony herewith appended, that in this 
they are asking and demanding no new right 
or privilege, but a reinstatement of the powers 
and privileges conferred upon them by the act 
of February 25th, 1862, excepting the usuri- 
ous rate of interest therein provided, but of 
which they were wtongfully deprived a year 
thereafter with or without felonious intent of 
the advisory counsel of said Honorable Senate 
and House of Representatives. 

And your petitioners do ftirther claim, and 
herewith prove, that in the short period of the 
existence of such convertible feature, the ef- 
fect of such convertibility was everything that 
could have been desired, reducing the pre- 
mium on gold two-thirds of what it was at the 
time of its passage, and raising the gold price 
of six per cent bonds from ten per cent dis- 
count to two per cent premium. 

And your petitioners fhrther claim that if 
like causes produce like effects, they are au- 
thorized in affirming that such a course will 
now, fs it did then, raise the industrial inter- 
ests of the nation from deadly stagnation to 
active life, and confidently point to history in 
confirmation of their position. 

E. G. Spaulding— now President of the Far- 
mers* and Mechanics* National Bank of Buf- 
falo, N. Y.,— extreme buUionist, was i»i 1862 



1876.] 



OVR GURUENOT. 



159 



Chairman of the sab-committee of Ways and 
Means, House of Representatives, and he 
drafted the legal tender bill. 

In his "Financial History of the War," he 
^7^1 pages 152, 153 : 

"It T?ill be noticed that by the fourth sec- 
tion of the legal tender act the Secretary of 
the Treasury was authorized to receive de- 
posits in the sub-Treasury to the amount of 
t25,00O,OOO, In sums of not less than $100, at 
fire per cent, interest, with the privilege to the 
depositors of drawing it out again at any time, 
on ten days' notice, after thirty days. This 
was but another form of borrowing money by 
the Government at a low rate of interest Its 
operation at the sub-Treasury was somewhat 
lUie that of a savings bank, and the privilege 
was largely availed of by banks, insurance 
companies, and individuals. It became a very 
popular mode of temporary investment for 
corporations and individuals, and « « « 
became an advantageous mode for the Qovem- 
ment to borrow large sums of money. It be- 
came so popular that on the 17th of March, 
1803, the authority to receive these deposits 
was increased to $50,000,000. On the 11th of 
July following, the power was enlarged to 
1100,000,000 ; and by the act of January 80, 
1854, the authority was sUIl further enlarged 
to 1150,000,000, and the Secretary was author- 
ized to pay as high as six per cent on these 
depositB." 

Xr. Spaulding says, in same work, page 
Wl: 

" When that bill passed this House, our six 
per cent twenty-years' bonds were ten per 
cent below par. Now they are from one to 
two per cent above the price of gold." 

OONVXRTIBILrrT. 

After our experience in 1862-'68, as ftilly 
delineated in the preceding pages, of the 
entire beneficence in the working of the con- 
▼trtlbility of the greenback, and of the fearftil 
cost hi money and morals to our nation, which 
bsishice accrued by our departure therefrom, 
it does seem as an act of supererogation— 
SiMmg the refined gold or painting the rose — 
to bring in the testimony of theorists, when 
we have so lai^ an experience of facts. 

But the old saying of *' fkr-brought, dear- 
tK)a|^t,'' holds good, and though we are in a 
i^epohBc a century old, many of us are ib un- 
ttttenUy snobbish that if we can get indorse- 
BMat from across the water, especially on 
\ of 'finance, we gobble it down without 



t&tbis we are especially inconsistent as ex- 



ternally it is our biggest brag, that we have 
fought ourselves clear of afllliation with the 
political economy of Europe. 

But let our hawk-nosed, big-bellied, gold- 
spectacled, bald-headed ftiend, Judas L Bul- 
lion, ]Ssq., talk sonorously and sententiously 
about the solid — conservative — specie basis 
circulation of the " tight little island " of Eng- 
land, we bow our heads in shame that we are 
such infiated, detestable fellows, and ask him 
how we can ever get into such an enviable 
position. 

To be sure, quiet, modest Englishmen like 
Sir John Lubbock analjrze, and Professor Price 
quotes, the figures of their circulation, as 
one half of one per cent gold ; others tell us 
that when they V^see the inunensity of the 
superstructure and the minuteness of the basis, 
they tremble ; " others that the credit of the 
national finances was saved by finding, to 
quote the language of a director of the Bank 
of England, " at the lucky moment to save the 
credit of the country " a box of old bank-bills; 
but as that especial point is just now not our 
subject-matter, we will not now further advert 
to it Our readers will remember that in our 
first series on this subject we quoted very 
freely from Glovemor Buckingham, of Connec- 
ticut, advocating convertibility. 

The President, in his Message of December, 
1878, urged it 

Horace Greeley, as quoted in our earlier 
chapters ftt)m the Tribune of Nov. 0th, 1871, 
earnestly plead for it. 

General Spinner, United States Treasurer, of 
life-long experience as a dealer in money in 
and out of the Government, indorsed it very 
strongly in his report for 1878, and renewed its 
advocacy ip his report for 1874, but that por- 
tion was excluded by some mysterious influ- 
ence from publication. 

The Industrial Congress, with a constituency 
of 900,000 voters, make it the principal plank 
of their platform. 

The National Independent party, now or- 
ganizing, make it their prominent issue as 
contrasted with the paralyzing, and therefore 
repudiative, policies of both the Democratic 
and Republican parties. 

Its supporters in Congress, in response to 
the beating of the popular pulse, have for the 
last year gained so rapidly in numbers and in- 
tdligence, that almost on the first day of the 
present 8e«k>n (1874r-'75), they unhesitatingly 
inlKoduc^ and pushed the subject in the House 
of Representatives, under the able leadership 
of Judge Kelley, of Philadelphia, althougl^t 



160 



PHBENOLOQIGAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabcd, 



was in antagonUin to the Message of the Presi- 
dent, who, within a year, fh)m some inscrut- 
able cause, had exact)/ changed front on the 
question. 

On the 24th of January, 1874, Judge Eelley 
remarked, in Congress: "There are at this 
time at least $250,000,000 waiting to be handed 
to the Government in exchange for three 
sixty-five bond&" 

Mr. Haw ley, of Connecticut, mquired : " Al- 
low me to ask the gentleman if that indicates 
a scarcity of currency ? " 

Mr. Kelleyj responding: **I will tell you 
what it indicates. It indicates the condition 
of health shown by the falling man, who, with 
flushed cheeks and swollen eyes, drops speech- 
less upon the pavement as he walks. His 
hands and feet are cold and numb, and his 
limbs are bloodless, the circulation having 
gone to the brain or the heart Sir, the banks 
are now gorged with unemployed currency, 



because the limbs of industry are paralysed ; 
the forge and furnace glow no longer, and the 
loom and the spindle give shelter to the spider, 
that instmctively seeks a quiet comer in which 
to spin and weave its web. The toiling man, 
who had earned from two dollars to five dol< 
lars per day in productive industry, is eating 
the bitter bread of idleness and charity, and 
his unemployed boys and girls seek their food 
at the door of the soup-house. Give them em- 
ployment and wages by putting into circula- 
tion a suflScient volume of money to animate 
the industries of tlie country, to rekindle tbf 
fires in your forges and fUmaces, and to em- 
ploy the one hundred and ten thousand idle 
laborers in the State of New York, and the 
forty-odd thousand in Philadelphia, and ycra 
will find that there will be no- large accumula- 
tion of money in the banks of either New 
York or Philadelphia. It will then go into 
cuculation." 



4»» 



k HUlfDBED TEABS AGO. 



11/ HEN it is considered how many and 

VV great have been the changes in this 
country during the past hundred years, the 
propriety of a grand centennial celebration of 
the existence of our Republic can not be dis- 
puted. The BaUimore American^ in a few 
paragraphs, reviews some of the leading feat- 
ares which mark our national advancement, 
and also the general progress of civilization 
in the century past : 

" One hundred and ten years ago there was 
not a single white man in what is now Ken- 
tucky, Ohio, Indiana, or Illinois. Then what 
is now the most flourishing part of the United 
States, was as little known as the country in 
the heart of Africa itself. It was not till 1776 
that Boone left his home in North Carolina 
to become the flrst settler in Kentucky. And 
the flrst pioneers of Ohio did not settle till 
twenty years later still A hundred years 
ago Canada belonged to France, and Wash- 
ington was a modest Virginia colonel, and 
the United States was a loyal part of the 
British Empire, and scarcely a speck on the 
political horison indicated the struggle that 
in a few years was to lay the foundation of 
the greatest Republic of the world. 

"A hundred years ago there were but four 
small papers in America ; steam-engines had 



not been imagined, and locomotives, and 
steamboats, and railroads, and telegraphs, 
and postal-cards, and friction matches, per- 
cussion caps, and breech-loading guns, and 
stoves, and furnaces, and gas for dwellings, 
and India-rubber shoes, and Spaulding^s glue, 
and sewing-machines, and anthracite coal, and 
photographs, and chromo-printing, and kero- 
sene oil, and the safety-lamp, and the com- 
pound blow-pipe, and free schools, and spring 
mattresses, and wood engravings, and Brussels 
carpets, and lever watches, and greenbacks, 
and cotton and woolen factories, in anything 
like the present meaning of these terms, were 
utterly unknown. 

" A hundred years ago the spinning-wheel 
was in almost every family, and clothing was 
spun and woven and made up in the house- 
hold ; and the printing-press was a cumbrous 
machine worked by hand ; and a nail, or a 
brick, or a knife, or a pair of scissors or shears, 
or a razor, or a woven pair of stockings, or an 
ax, or a hoe, or a shovel, or a lock, or a key, 
or a plate- or glass of any size, was not made 
in what is now the United States. Even in 
1790 there were only seventy-five post-oflBces 
in the country, and the whole extent of onr 
post-oflSce routes was less than nineteen hun- 
dred miles. Cheap postage was unheard of; 

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1875.] 



EBEB B. WABD. 



161 



and had any one suggested the transmission 
of messages with lightning speed, he would 
have been regarded utterly insane. 

"The microscope on one hand, and the tel- 
escope on the other, were in their infancy as 
instraments of science, and geology and chem- 



istry were almost unknown. In a word, it is 
true that to the century past, have been allot- 
ted more improvements, in their bearing upon 
the comfort and happiness of mankind, than 
to any other which has elapsed since the cre- 
ation of the world." 




EBEB B. WABD^ THE AJAX OF MICHIGAN. 



BY the death of Captain Ward, the West 
loses one of the strongest agents in 
her rapid development of the past forty 
years. As shown in the portrait, he was a 
man of tremendous force, indomitable energy, 
and intense practicality. Physically he was 
a massive man, weighing two hundred pounds 
or more, with broad shoulders and a strong 
frame. The immediate cause of his death 
was an apoplectic attack, or what is other- 
wise known as congestion of the brain. Of 
his habits we do not know suflSciently to 
warrant any remarks upon their relation to 
the manner of his dea^h : but we may say, in 
& general way, that persons of great fullness 



of flesh and blood, such as is usually indi- 
cated by a weight of two hundred pounds, 
have reason to be prudent in their practices 
of eating and exercise, as, at the age of sixty 
and over, they may well be apprehensive of 
a tendency to congestion of the brain. 

Eber B. Ward was born in Canada (al- 
though an American citizen) in 1811, his 
parents having fled to that country from 
Vermont the same year to avoid the threat- 
ening consequences of the pending war with 
Great Britain. After the war was over they 
returned to the old homestead in the " Green 
Mountain State," where they remained until 
Eber was six years old. His home was lo- 
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162 



PHRENOLOQICAL JOURNAL. 



[Makoh, 



cated in the town of Wells, one of the most 
delightful spots in Vermont. 

Not long after the tide of emigration re- 
sumed its westward march, and in 1818, 
Eber's parents were among the travelers to 
the more lucrative fields of the South and 
West They set out for Kentucky, but being 
delayed at Waterford, Pa., for some time, 
and the death of Mrs. Ward occurring sud- 
denly, Ebcr's father changed his course and 
went to Ohio. After a short stay in that 
State events gradually pushed him westward 
imtil he permanently settled in Michigan. 

Mr. Ward, 8r., first visited Detroit in 1821. 
This was sixteen years after the old town 
had been destroyed, and at a period when 
there was but one frame house in the town, 
the average buildings being of logs, with 
cedar bark roofs. At this time the largest 
vessel that floated on the lakes was only of 
thirty tons burden, and when one of these 
arrived at Detroit*s solitary wharf, men, wo- 
men, and children thronged the river's bank 
to get a glimpse of the strange visitor. At 
this period, and for several years afterward, 
the whole fleet of the lakes could not carry 
as much as one of the present large grain 
vessels. And not one which then navigated 
the lakes was owned in Detroit. A public 
vessel, known as the brig Hunter, was the 
only means of water communication between 
Detroit and Buffalo. 

It was about the year 1824 that Ebcr ac- 
companied his father to Mackinac, where 
he commenced life by securing the very hum- 
ble position of " cabin boy *' on a small 
schooner. Observing his energy and activity, 
Mr. Samuel Ward, an uncle, the leading 
ship-builder of Marine City, called the youth 
from his sailor life and gave him a clerkship 
in his warehouse. This change marked the 
beginning of a life of usefulness and impor- 
tance in Michigan commercial affairs. Being 
constantly in connection with interesting 
marine transactions, his growing business 
talents were rapidly improved. 

His first fioating investment was a quarter 
interest in the General Harrison^ of which he 
became Master. He took command of this 
craft in 1885, and managed^ her successfully 
until the value of his interests at Marine City 
demanded his presence there. He was subse- 
qacntly admitted as a partner with his uncle, 



and he continued a most successful business 
until 1850, when he withdrew from the firm 
and went to Detroit, where a larger and less 
occupied field afforded him a peculiar oppor- 
tunity for success. Prom that day until 
within a recent date he pushed the marine 
interests of Detroit forward with a giant 
hand. Through his timely efforts her com- 
merce has grown and prospered, and the 
city's fioating property nearly doubled. Al- 
though his operations are mostly known to 
the people of Michigan, the following list, 
showing the names of the steamers and sail- 
ing vessels he has built, will be interesting. 
It is impossible, however, owing to frequent 
changes in ownership, to give the fates of 
these vessels. Many of them have been lost, 
and some of them are still actively navigat- 
ing the lakes and doing honor to their 
builder. There were the General Harrison, 
The Champion, Samuel Ward, The Pearl, 
Atlantic, B. P. Wade, Montgomery, Huron, 
Detroit, Pacific, Ocean, The Caspian, Planet, 
Arctic, and a number of smaller vessels. 

Within the last few years Mr. Ward has 
been gradually withdrawing from the vessel 
business, and investing his extensive capital 
in another direction. He was interested to 
the extent of about one million dollars in 
the Chicago Rolling Mills, and half that 
amount in a similar corporation in Milwau- 
kee, Wis. His stock in the Wyandotte Roll- 
ing Mill exceeds half a million, and his 
floating property is valued at nearly or quite 
this amount. He owned real estate to the 
amount of over two millions of dollars, and 
had in the neighborhood of three millions 
invested in different speculations. Just what 
the value of his property was at the time of 
his death it is impossible as yet to say. 

Captain Ward had been, during many 
years, a prominent member of the Repub- 
lican party, but one who preferred to con- 
tribute to the progress and strength of the 
country by close attention to his great man- 
ufacturing and commercial interests rather 
than to draw upon its resources by taking 
ofiice and playing the part of the partisan 
politician. 

He had been married twice, and leaves 
a family of five children by his first wife, 
all grown up, three sons and two daugh- 
ters. By his second i?rffe, who survives him, 

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IS75.] 



RESOURCES OF WEST YIROINIA. 



IGS 



he had two children, a boy of five years old, 
and a girl two and a half years of age. 

In a sketch published several years ago in 
the Phb£N0L06ICAl JouRNAii we said : 
"Captain Ward has a good share of that 
uncommon attribute, common sense allied to 
shrewdness and quickness of perception and 
untirmg energy, and, it may be added, cour- 
age. No disaster can conquer such a man. 
You may strip him of his possessions, but he 
will not yield ; he will rub hb hands and 
take a fresh hold. Should he fall and frac- 
ture a rib, he will be thankful that his neck 



is not broken. What a grand commissary 
of subsistence he would have made I lie 
could feed and move armies as easily as he 
can kindle forges and push steamboats and 
locomotives about him. He has the enter- 
prise of Vanderbilt, with more vigor and a 
larger brain — a brain cultivated by reading 
the best books in the language. In general 
intelligence the fast old gentleman of New 
York would suffer if placed in contrast with 
the Western sailor. With his powerful phys- 
ique and indomitable will he would have 
risen to distinction in any useful vocation." 



MATERIAL RESOURCES OF WEST YIRQINIA. 



"TTTEST VIRGINIA was bom amid the 
VV storm of revolution, and her early 
history was written in blood. After Vir- 
ginia had seceded in 1861, on whose soil was 
fought many severe battles in the late un- 
happy conflict, loyal Western Virginians met 
in Convention at the city of Wheeling, and 
organized the " Restored Government of Vir- 
ginia." Their action was indorsed by the 
Congress of the United States, and the 
** Restored Government " was recognized as 
the Intimate Government of Virginia. 
Soon afterward the legislature of the ** Re- 
stored Government " gave its consent for the 
organization of a new State out of the terri- 
tory of Virginia ; and in 1868 a Constitution 
was formed, ofScers were elected under it, 
and West Virginia was declared an inde- 
pendent State. On the 20th of June, 1863, 
by act of Congress, she was regularly admit- 
ted into the Union as the thirty-seventh 
State. The Virginia government at Rich- 
mond, of course, protested, but, being out 
of the Union and engaged in a rebellion 
against the Government of the United States, 
her voice was not heard and her protests 
were unheeded. After the termination of 
the war suit was brought by the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, in the Supreme Court 
of the United States, to recover the territory 
out of which West Virginia was formed. 
The Court decided adversely to the claims 
of Virginia, and West Virginia was allowed 
t() remain, as her citizens had elected, one 
of the States of the Federal Union. 



• The State of West Virginia comprises 
28,000 square miles of territory, and has a 
population of 442,000 souls. Taking it alto- 
gether, it is, perhaps, the roughest and most 
mountainous State in the Union; but its 
surface is covered with the best classes of 
timber, and the hills are inlaid with coal 
and other minerals, making it, in natural 
wealth, superior to any other State, and, in 
fact, wealthier than the same number of 
square miles of territory in the world. 

The people of this State are of the rustic, 
woodland sort, free, easy, independent, un- 
cultured. Until recently we have never been 
favored with a system of common schools by 
which the masses could be educated. It is 
no wonder, therefore, that a majority of our 
citizens have grown up without scholastic 
education. We now have, however, an ex- 
cellent system of free schools in good work* 
ing order, by means of which the rising gen- 
eration will receive a fair common school 
education, that will fit them for the ordinary 
business of life. Our State seal contains the 
motto, " Montani temper libei^iy^'^ but in truth 
none are really free who are uneducated. 
Mountaineers have natural talent, because 
they draw their inspiration from the hills 
that encompass them and the rocks that 
cast their shadows around their homes- 
grand hills that have withstood the storms 
of unchronicled centuries, and granite cliffs 
that will stand amid the sunshine of millen- 
nial ;rlory. But what will natural gilts avail 
ft umn if he fail to cultivate them ? 

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164 



THRENOLOQICAL JOURNAL. 



[Maboh, 



GEOLOGY. 

West Virginia, we are told by geologists, 
is characterized by geological features of 
great simplicity. Prof. W. B. Rogers, late 
State Geologist of Virginia, says : " The sur- 
face is undulating. The loftiest hills rise in 
gently swelling outlines, no very prominent 
peaks towering, acute and ragged, to denote 
that the strata have been subjected to vio- 
lent convulsive and upheaving forces." 

The geological features indicate that the 
now rugged West Virginia was once a level 
and fertile plain ; that these mountains were 
piled by some of nature's mighty upheavals, 
the causes of which are unknown and not 
understood. Prof. Rogers continues : 

•' Its topographical features give evidence 
that its inequalities were caused by the fur- 
rowing action of a mighty and devastating 
rush of waters, which by rapid drainage 
scooped out numerous valleys and basins in 
the upper strata. It is from this deep exca- 
vation by natural causes, combined with the 
other important circumstance of a nearly 
horizontal position, that we are to draw our 
estimate of the prodigious resources of a 
mineral kind possessed by the region before 
us ; for, whatever valuable material be in- 
closed in the strata, the horizontal position 
alluded to keeps them near the surface, or at 
an accessible depth, over enormously wide 
spaces of country; while the trough-like 
structure of the valleys, and their great depth, 
exposes many of these deposits to the day 
under positions in which mining is the 
easiest imaginable, and with an extent of de- 
velopment not less accommodating to the 
researches of the geologist than to the wants 
of the community." 

The coal deposits of the State are confined 
principally to eight or ten localities ; or, rath- 
er, it is only being worked in those localities. 
The Great Kanawha Valley shows a greater 
abundance of seams and varieties than any 
other section. A superior quality of coal, how- 
ever, has been mined in Ohio County, at and 
near Wheeling, for many years ; also at Pied- 
mont, in Mineral County, and in Harrison, 
Mason, and Boone counties. At Wheeling 
there is but one seam, five feet thick, while 
in the other counties there are no less than 
three seams, running from twenty-six inches 
up to six and seven feet in thickness, that 



are now being successfully worked. Out of 
the 23,000 square miles of territory in the 
State, 16,000 square miles have been desig- 
nated as mineral lands, being over three- 
fourths of the entire area of the State. The 
Elk River Valley, it is said, is the finest coal- 
field in the State, there being more coal, and 
of a better quality, than in any other locahty. 
Some of the seams are as thick as fifteen 
feet of good, workable coal in this wonderM 
valley, t 

Prof. D. T. Anstead, President of the Geo- 
logical Society of London, but a few months 
ago made an examination of the coal basin 
along the Great Kanawha River, and in his 
report used the following language : 

" The rocks on each side of the Kanawha 
and its tributaries consist exclusively of the 
coal measures, which lie nearly horizontal, 
having a general dip toward the north-west 
of about twenty feet to the mile. ♦ ♦ * 
Throughout the district there are no marks 
whatever of other disturbances than would 
result from the elevation of deposits, already 
split asunder by crevices produced by con- 
traction during the first consolidation of the 
mass from the state of mud and soft sand. 
I nowhere saw, in any part of the coal-field, 
the smallest indication of faulted ground, or 
a single slip or trouble that could interfere 
with coal working. * * * There is in all a 
total thickness of upward of sixty-three feet 
of workable coal in fourteen seams actually 
proven on the hillside, and above water-level 
in some of the valleys." 
* This, of course, is independent of a num- 
ber of workable seams below the water-level 
that have been discovered in the borings for 
salt-water in this valley. The time may come 
when, shafts will be sunk, and this valuable 
treasure, that lies so deep beneath the sur- 
face, will be brought forth, when those now 
seemingly inexhaustible seams above the 
water-level shall have been consumed. 

Having demonstrated the existence of coal 
in this State, I now desire to call attention 
to the several varieties ; and in the outset 
would state that all classes of coal that are 
found in any other State in the Union exist 
in West Virginia, and in greater quantitie?, 
except the anthracite. Thorough search has 
been made for its discovery, but thus tar 
without effect. 

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1875.] 



RESOURCES OF WEST VIRGINIA. 



105 



BITUMINOUS COAL. 

There are many grades of this class of coal 
m every portion of the State, varying in 
thickness from one to thirteen feet ; but it is 
not mined very extensively, owing to the 
feet that there are other varieties of better 
and more desirable coal. The following 
statistics in relation to the mining of this 
class of coal are taken from the Miners' (Pa.) 
Journal of 1872 : 

'*In 1871 Pennsylvania raised 26,181,707 
tons of coal, of which amount 8,446,206 tons 
came under the category of bituminous. In 
the same year the total product of the 
United States was 84,867,706 tons. After 
subtracting the production of Pennsylvania, 
we get 8,235,999 tons as the total production 
of all the remaining States in the republic. 
In other words, the amount of bituminous 
coal raised in Pennsylvania in 1871 was 
greater than the total product of all the rest 
of the United States." 

The reason that the mining of this class 
of coal in the Great Kanawha Valley is not 
carried on, is principally due to the fact that 
until quite recently there has been no outlet 
for it by rail, and a very unreliable trans- 
portation for it by water— the river not being 



navigable a large part of every year, on ac- 
count of ice in winter and low water in sum- 
mer. I think, however, that the fact will 
not be denied when I state that the bitumin 
ous coal-fields of the Kanawha Valley are bet- 
ter than those of Pennsylvania, simply be- 
cause they contain more coal. 

SPLINT COAL 

is the most valuable variety of West Virginia 
coal. It is only found in the Kanawha Val- 
ley, and derives its value from the fact that 
it is used for smelting iron without coking?. 
The seams are generally large, some of them 
being thirteen feet in thickness. It is almost 
as solid as granite, and can be handled with- 
out loss to the shipper; is entirely free from 
sulphur and other impurities ; has no tend- 
ency to clinker ; is free from combustive 
qualities, and bums well. It has been tested 
in a number of iron furnaces, and has been 
invariably pronounced superior to any other 
coal in use. I am indebted to Prof. M. F. 
Maury, Jr., for the following table, showing 
the analysis of various Kanawha splint coals. 
For the pui*pose of comparison he added the 
block coal of Indiana, the Mahoning Val- 
ley, Ohio, the Pittsburgh coal, and two of 
the best iron-making coals of Great Britain : 



LOCALTTT. 


H 

■< 

i 


i 

•*: 
Q 

a 

61.07 
62.61 
56.50 
6.3.74 
60.92 
62.66 

6i.r>o 

56.90 
59.00 
60.82 


a 
< 

1.21. 

1.81 

1.50 

6.13 

2.00 

1.16 

2.50 

1.00 

4.20 

1,50 




€HEXI8T. 


Campbeirs Creek 


85.64 
a3.26 
40.50 
80.13 
37.08 
8«.58 
82.60 
41.10 
86.80 
48.18 


1.88 
214 
2.00 

aeo 

8.60 
1.00 


Riverside Iron Company* Wheeling. 


Coalonrg, four ft. f earn 


Coalburg, main scam 

Paint Creek Mlnea . 


Levette, Indiana. 
Doremus, New York. 


Kelley'8 Creek 


Rogers, Virginia, 
Worraley, Ohio. 


Briar Hill, Ohio 


Star Mine, Indiana 


Levette, Indiana. 


Pittsburg CoaL .,..., 




CJTdeS^int 

WoTfboroagh, Yoi^ehiro 


Mnshet. 



This test gives Kanawha splint rank with 
. the best iron-making coals in the world — 
those named in the above table. 

CAXZTEL COAL. 

This class of coal is noted for its value 
as a fuel, and as an oil and gas producer. 
It lies in seams from twenty-six inches to 
five feet in thickness, and is also associated 
with other kinds of coal. It ignites very 
readily, and makes a charming fuel. As a 
gas-producer it has no superior, except it be 



the Bog-head, Scotland coal. It yields an 
average of two* gallons of oil to the bushel, 
or fifty-six gallons to the ton. It was pressed 
for oil as a successful business prior to the 
discovery of petroleum in Pennsylvania and 
this State also, which, of course, broke up 
the coal-oil business. It is found only in the 
southern portion of the State. 

BITUMINOTJS SCHIST, OR CA2WEL SHALE. 

The casual observer would not detect the 
difference in the appearance of this species 

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160 



PHRENOLOOICAL JOURNAL. 



[March, 



from the real cannel coal, as they very much 
resemble each other. The schist, or shale, 
however, has greater specific gravity, and is 
slatey in its structure. It is a valuable fuel, 
and has greater heat than any other coal ex- 
cept the splint. It is found in veins from 
two to five feet thick, and is easily mined, 
breaking loose in large blocks from the solid 
mass. Prof. Maury says : " It seems to be 
almost, if not quite, as rich in oils as cannel 
itself, and is, therefore, very interesting ; for 
if oil can be made from it at the figures usu- 
ally given, the undertaking could scarcely 
fail to be remunerative." 

An acre of coal five feet thick contains 
about 8,000 tons, and if there are sixty-three 
feet of coal in the Kanawha Valley, as stated 
by Prof. Anstead, and none of the many 
geologists who have examined it report less, 
we would have over 96,000 tons of coal to 
the acre. We have in the State some 16,000 
square miles of coal area, and there are 640 
acres in a square mile ; hence the coal value 
of the State is overwhelmingly great. 

IRON. 

West Virginia is not only a coal State, but 
it is underlaid with beds of superior iron 
ore. About two years since Prof. M. F. 
Maury made an investigation of the iron in 
the southern portion of the State, and in his 
report says : " The brown oxides of iron are 
sometimes found here in strata of^poor qual- 
ity, but they are usually in pockets. They 
are the result of the decomposition of the 
carbonates of iron that existed in the beds 
that were once superimposed upon the pres- 
ent strata. These beds have long since been 
worn oflf by denudation. As the softer ma- 
terials were washed away, the carbonate of 
iron settled down and was left resting on 
our hill-sides. In some places a great deal 
was deposited together ; in other places but 
a single lump, and hence it is that on many 
of the mountains are found pieces of good 
ore, and yet no deposit near." 

Since the professor made the above report 
he, himself, has discovered large veins of the 
brown oxide and black band ores that will 
yield fifty and sixty per cent, before roasting, 
and is now confident that the great iron belt 
that starts in New York and ends in Georgia 
and Alabama, passes through West Virginia 
in its span of the continent. 



SALT. 

West Virginia salt b noted all over the 
southern portion of the Union. It is entirely 
free from the bitter salts of lime and magne- 
sia, and requires no process of purification, 
being taken immediately from the furnace 
vats and barreled for shipment. 

The brine from which it is manufactured 
is obtained by boring wells from 300 to 3,000 
feet deep, and which is thrown into the 
evaporation troughs by means of force-pumps 
that are kept in motion day and night. One 
well on the Kanawha River, about 1,000 feet 
in depth, is so charged with gas that the 
saline water has been pouring forth, of its 
own accord, for over a quarter of a century, 
and shows no sign of suspension. 

There are about 40,000,000 bushels of salt 
consumed annually in the United States, one- 
half of which is imported. West Virginia 
manufactures about one-fifth of the amount 
ma(ie in this country, or 4,000,000 bushels 
annually, which command an average price 
of thirty-eight cents per bushel. For many 
years it has been the leading industry of the 
State. Dr. J. P. Hale, the most extensive 
salt maker in the State, says : 

"There is no other place within the 
United States where salt-water of equal 
quality and abundance, coal for fuel as good, 
cheap and abundant, and timber for pack- 
ages as good, abundant, and cheap, can be 
found together as in Kanawha. It follows, 
therefore, that salt can be made, barreled, 
shipped, and delivered in the Western mar- 
kets cheaper from this region than from any 
other source, and this is exactly what I claim 
to be true." 

TIMBER. 

West Virginia is as well stocked with tim- 
ber as with coal. In nearly every county in 
the State, with the exception of the clear- 
ings that have been made for farming pur- 
poses; we find primeval forests of the best 
timber of nearly every variety known. I 
have seen walnut and cherry trees thickly 
standing in forests from three to five feet in 
diameter. Oak, poplar, chestnut, maple, 
lynn, hemlock, pine, beech, and sycamore, 
also abound in endless quantities, and of 
the finest qualities. 

WATER- POWER. 

Water-power will some day be a great de- 



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1875.] 



WILLIAM H. A8PINWALL, 



167 



sideratain in the manufacturing interests of 
the United States. There is enough of this 
great natural power along New River alone, 
in this State, to run all the spindles in New 
England. For over fifty miles it rushes 
down like a cataract, with thousands of 
horsepower in force, and there is not now a 
single mill or machine-shop that pretends to 
ase it Then there is Gauley River, Elk, 
Coal, the Big ancl Little Eanawhas, the Ty- 
gants Valley, the Monongahela, and the 
Potomac ; all of which have superior water- 
power sites from their sources almost to their 
months. 

MEANS OF TRAN8I»RTATI0N. 

Herein lies the great embarrassment of the 
State. Better means of transportation must 
be obtained before the great natural re- 



sources of the State will or can be developed. 
There must be more railroads, canals, and 
improved rivers. But two railroads pass 
through the State, the Chesapeake and Ohio 
and the Baltimore and Ohio, and there is 
not a canal or improved river within West 
Virginian territory. The James River and 
Kanawha Canal, now in prospect of construc- 
tion, will pass down the Great Kanawha 
Valley, and give the coal, iron, and timber 
an outlet to the seas. Not only West Vir- 
ginia, but other States as well, are languish- 
ing for its completion. A number of local 
railroads have been chartered, and it is only 
a matter of time for the State to develop its 
vast resources and take its rank among the 
great and wealthy States of the Union. 

GBORGE W. ATKINSON. 




WILLIAM H. ASPINWALL. 



THE death of this enterprising merchant 
and promoter of American commercial 
interests at large was announced a short time 
ance. An old resident of New York, he had 



long been deemed one of the city's worthiest 
citizens. The son of John Aspinwall, a prom- 
inent merchant eighty years ago, Mr. Aspin- 
wall began life in thet counting-houa£LX>f G. & 

igi ize y g 



168 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabch, 



8. Rowland as a clerk, and in 1832, at the 
age of about twenty-five, was admitted into 
the firm. A few years later he assumed a 
prominent position in the business, the firm 
becoming known as Rowland & Aspinwall. 

The business increased very rapidly, and 
the ships of Rowland & Aspinwall paid fre- 
quent visits to the Pacific coast, to the East 
and Wedt Indies, to the Mediterranean, and 
to British ports. In 1850 Mr. Aspinwall re- 
tired fVom the active management of the 
firm, and devoted his energies to the enter- 
prise of the Panama Railroad and the foun- 
dation of the Pacific Mail Steamship Com- 
pany, a gigantic undertaking, with which 
his name will long be associated. European 
capitalists had long enter^ined some project 
of the kind, but it did not take any definite 
shape until 1850, after the Mexican war, when 
Congress, to render California more access- 
ible, authorized contracts for the establish- 
ment of two lines of steamers, one from New 
York and New Orleans to Chagres, and an- 
other from Panama to California. William 
R. Aspinwall secured the line on the Pacific 
side, and George Law that on the Atlantic 
seaboard. 

The construction of a railroad across 
the Isthmus of Darien was part of Mr. As- 
pinwalVs plan, and with Renry Chauncey 
and John L. Stephens he entered into a con- 
tract with the Government of New Granada 
for the construction of the work. A charter 
was granted by the Legislature of New York 
for the formation of a stock company. John 
L. Stephens was elected president of the 
company. Early in 1849 a contract was 
made for the construction of the road, which 
was begun in May, 1850, and continued for 
two years amid great discouragements. Up 
to 1851 the settlement about the terminus at 
Navy Bay had no distinctive name, .and on 
February 2, 1852, the place was formally 
named Aspinwall. The road was opened to 
the city of Panama on February 17, 1855, 
being forty-nine miles in length. In 1847 
Mr. Aspinwall, with others, received a con- 
tract from the United States for a monthly 
mail service on the Pacific Ocean, and be- 
came the active manager of the undertaking. 
In 1848 a charter for the Pacific Mail Steam- 
ship Company was obtained from the New 
York Legislature for twenty years. The 



capital stock was $400,000, which in 1850 
was raised to $2,000,000. The pioneer ship 
was the California. Until 1856 the company 
was very prosperous, but at that date Mr. 
Aspinwall, its founder, principal director and 
president, retired— -a loss which has been 
severely felt. During the last twenty years 
Mr. Aspinwall has not been very actively en- 
gaged in business, but in all matters of pub- 
lic importance he has taken a prominent 
part. Ris name and influence were ever 
readily lent to further public interests, and 
no appeal to his charity was made in vain. 
Of late years he traveled much, thus grati- 
fying his love for i\Q fine arts. 

In the early part of his career Mr. Aspin- 
wall had good opportunities in the commer- 
cial world. Re possessed the type of organ- 
ization which appreciates opportunities, con- 
verts them to practical account ; he was not 
naturally speculative, yet was given to large 
ventures. It would be found, however, upon 
investigation, that these ventures had a sub- 
stantial basis, that he could look forward 
confidently to definite results. 

The cast of his brain shows practical abil- 
ity through and through. Re had capital 
o£f-hand judgment, yet he was by no means 
a man of precipitate action. Re was pru- 
dent in the forming of an opinion, always, 
even in affairs of minor importance, carefully 
and comprehensively surveying the field of 
action, yet doing so in that rapid manner 
which is native to an intellect strongly intu- 
itive in its processes — resultantly he was 
steady and fixed in his convictions. 

Re possessed a good deal of pride, but did 
not exhibit it in arrogance or presumption. 
Ris pride proceeded from a pretty thorough 
understanding of his capabilities, and a sense 
of personal responsibility. Re was not a 
man to believe in fashions, do things because 
they are conventional. Re was a man of 
action rather than a roan of ideas and words. 
Definite, clear-headed, pointed, he expressed 
himself unambiguously and briefly. Inde- 
pendent, proud, spirited, self-poised, a thor- 
ough-going man, he was, nevertheless, sus- 
ceptible to kindly impression, appreciative 
of home and its relations, generous and sym- 
pathetic, but all this after his own manner, 
and the more efficiently so because of his 
very individuality. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



1875.] 



ALFRED RU MINIS. 



169 




,,«,|4oeM|««. 



DomMtIc bappfn«m, tbon only Ulw 
Of p«nidlM Ihnt baa •arviv*d Die Ml t 
Thoa art tiie nni-s* of virta*. 




ALFBED BUMINE; OR9 WHO REDEEMED HIMt 

BY HAL D. RAYTON. 

CHAPTER I. 

HB JOINED A CLUB, AND WHAT CAME OF IT. 



** "TT is siraply a question of circumstances." 

-L ** How do you mean ? " I responded. 

" Why, if a young man is well born and 
well bred, and has a business or profession 
which yields a good income, he will not be 
80 much disposed to contract deleterious hab- 
its as the young man wljp has been obliged 
to make his way for himself as soon, almost, 
as he was able to walk." 

" I scarcely agree with you in that opin- 
ion," T rejoined; "for the men who consti- 
tute the back-bone of society, who contribute 
most to substantial progress, are nearly all 
those who have ' hoed their own row.' " 

"Granted," said my friend; "but how 
many fall victims by the way as they * hoe 
their own row ? ' How many survive the in- 
citements of gain and pleasure, and come out 
*at the finish ' triumphant? Certainly, it is 
the roughness of the field they have gone 
over that has made the few successful ones so 
great m their after influence; the severity 
of their experience has been a crucial test as 
well as a prolonged drill of their mental and 
physical qualities. Look back into the lives 
of these few, but giant souls, and I'll war- 
rant you that you shall find that they were 
not ill bom. The well-endowed organization 
of a mother or of a father, whose early loss 
compelled the unnatural effort, descended to 
them, and in practice demonstrated their fit- 
ness to survive." 

" I see now, sir, the force of your first re- 
mark," I rejoined, " and I appreciate more 
clearly than before the reason that the thou- 
sandi of pitfalls of vice which are especially 
aggregated in our industrial centers owe their 
maintenance to * working men,' as it has be- 
come the fashion to style those who toil with 
the hand." 



"Yes, the number of gilded saloons to 
which resort the young men of good birth is 
vastly smaller in proportion to their number, 
throwing out of view their greater pecuniary 
capacity to support such places, than the 
number of porter-houses, groggeries, etc., 
which the mechanic, the porter, the cartman, 
and the laborer frequent. But," continued 
he, "human nature in its best estate is far 
from perfect, and young men who voluntarily 
expose themselves to the insidious allurements 
of the company and the tinselled pleasures of 
clubs and hotel bar-rooms, run risks far great- 
er than they dream of. Youth is susceptible 
and plastic, and inclined to exhibit its weak 
side. It is when temptation assails the weak 
side of a young man that his real danger ap- 
pears, and he should then avoid it by an 
early retreat, rather than court its nearer ap- 
proaches by a show of bravery and courage." 

" As in the case of young Rumine, I sup- 
pose," said I. 

" Rumine I " returned my friend. " "What, 
the fine fellow who lives in your row, and has 
two such noble sisters ? " 

" The same. I fear that he is already on 
the downward course toward inebriacy." 

" Shocking 1 I thought him destined for 
a life of use^lness and of distinction. Home, 
education, assgiciations in business and in so- 
ciety seemed to favor an upward career. 
How has it come about ? " 

" Six months ago, in compliance with the 
wishes of an intimate friend, and partly from 
his own desire to become acquainted with the 
accomplished writers and artists who make 
up a considerable part of its membership, 
he joined the Laurel Club. He entertained 
somewhat extravagant notions with regard 
to the advantages derivable from a familiar 

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170 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[March, 



acquaintance with authore and artists, and 
considered the opportunity too good to be 
lost Not that he had any ambition to be- 
come distinguished as an author, but his 
high-toned esthetic nature craved gratifica- 
tions which he hoped to find abundant amid 
the club associations/^ 

^^I know of some of the diitinguUhed, 
members of the Laurel Club," interposed 
my friend, ^* and although they are generally 
admired for their brilliancy as writers, or for 
their skill as musicians, they are subjects of 
painful anxiety to their near friends on ac- 
count of their propensity to excessive indul- 
gence in one or another of the vices which 

fashionable society tolerates. There are P 

and M , for instance, whose mastery of the 

piano-forte .is undisputed, and who are rarely 
seen on the street in a perfectly sober condi- 
tion. There are H and 8 , whose 

pens delight every reader of our better fic- 
tion, who are fast descending the incline to 
the vale of misery. And there are others 
whose wallets are lined with the wages of il- 
licit play. Was Rumine acquainted with the 
character of any of these men ? " 

**It is altogether probable that he knew 
something about them, but you know the 
Club is a large one, and I presume its gener- 
al reputation in our community had more in- 
fluence with him than the personal character 
or habits of a few members, whose shining 
talents, rather than their vices, drew popular 
attention. Besides, our young friend, doubt- 
less esteeming himself proof against solicita- 
tions which were hostile to his moral convic- 
tions, did not expect to find himself in an at- 
mosphere at all subversive of his high prin- 
ciples. Well, he entered the Club, and be- 
ing a very prepossessing young man, soon be- 
came a sort of favorite with several of the 
* lions * in it. H took to him very cor- 
dial ly, and after a little invited him to visit 

his rooms in the Clermont. H , you know, 

is one of the magnates of the Morning Rec- 
ord^ and his professional set is deemed the 
best in town. Rumine felt highly honored 
by his attentions, and a visit at the Cler- 
mont on the occasion of a sort of reunion of 
literary gentlemen, where he met many whose 
names he had seen in print, appeared like 
the realization of hopes long entertained. 
Wine was served, of course, but Rumine did 



not partake, and as he was not altogether 
alone in this assertion of prudence, and no 
sneers followed on the part of the well-lN*ed 
gentlemen around him, he did not feel much 
embarrassed. He is a good singer, you 
know, and could contribute a good deal in 
that way to an evening's enjoyment. This 

being known to H , he was two or three 

times called upon for a ballad, and very 
warmly applauded. During the winter Ru- 
mine must have attended half-a-dozen of these 
reunions, besides his regular visits at the 
Club. He was surprised to learn that nearly 
every man of talent with whom he came in 
contact either took wine habitually or as a 
social accessory." 

Here my friend broke in with the reflec- 
tion, " Were it not for the moral support 
given to the liquor evil by the professional 
men, of all classes who use it fo^ the pur- 
pose, as they allure, of stimulating their 
minds, or as a tonic medicine, the temper- 
ance men would not find their work of re- 
form so beset with obstacles." 

" Yes, it is a sad truth that social immor- 
ality has its defenders among the most gifted 
intellectually. Rumine took occasion, one 

day, to venture some remarks to H in 

deprecation of his habit of drinking. H 

replied, * Why, my dear fellow, brandy is a 
necessity of my life; its nervine stimulus 
gives me command of my thoughts and of 
my pen. I could not write without it. And 
the great majority of my press associates will 
tell you the same thing. You have no idea 
of the drain upon a fellow^s vitality which 
is incident to the daily cudgeling of his brains 
in the prepartion of matter for publication.' 
Rumine at first thought he might do some 
good in his new field of association by per- 
suading some to relinquish their drinking 
habits, but he found them so genial, so ready 
to meet a word of remonstrance by an inge- 
nious pretext, or by a quotation from scien- 
tific authority, or by badinage, that he be- 
came convinced that he could not champion 
the cause of temperance with any hope of 
success before such an auditory." 

"The case with these literary men," inter- 
rupted my friend, " seems to condense itself 
into this. They haven't, as a class, a great 
amount of back-bone or individual force of 
character, and their weaknesses are developed 

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1875.] 



ALFRED RUMINE, 



171 



rather than sappressed by public favor. The 
saccessful writer studies the whims of his 
constituency, the reading public, and so be- 
comes more their property than his own, los- 
ing in the processes of adaptation a great 
measure of his selfhood. Covetous of the 
world's applause, he at length fears to take 
any stand, even in morals, which may seem 
opposed to public sentiment. He lives, as it 
were, by the suffrages of the majority, and 
deems his interests identical with it. As 
for habits of drinking, he has on his 
side a plurality of physicians, men of 
weight in their profession who tell him 
that alcohol is a conservator of nervous 
energy, and even a food element. He 
does not consider its real effect upon 
his vital functions — how it exhausts by 
stimulating to unnatural manifestation 
the living forces which should be per- 
mitted to exercise their sustaining in- 
fluences in a calm and steady manner, 
but concludes that his frequent periods 
of lassitude and indisposition to ac- 
tivity are due to his * hard-worked ' 
brain, his professional employments. 
Bot 1 am detaining you.'' 

'* No, my dear sir, you are not. The 
interest of the subject we are consider- 
ing is worth an hour or two of our 
time, and what you say has a bearing 
uiwn my narrative. But to come to 
the point. Ru mine's weakness lay much 
in the same direction as that of many 
of his artist and author acquaintances, 
a lack of positive individuality. One 
evening, at the Club-room — it was, I 
think, a sort of anniversary celebration, 
and the company was 'unusually large, 
—a member proposed that a simple 
♦'ollation be served; and, suiting the 
action to the word, dispatched a messenger 
to a neighboring restaurant for it. Among 
ihe edibles brought in was a lobster 
^lad, which was pronounced * capital' by 
the epicures present, and of which Rumine 
partook freely. He had been unusually busy 
that day in the counting-room, and was by. 
no means in the condition necessary to digest 
BQch a compound as lobster salad, washed 



transgression of sanitary law. One of his 
Club friends, who was sitting near him, no- 
ticing the sudden pallor of his face, remark- 
ed in an under tone, * Rumine, are you sick ? 
You look ghastly.' *yes,' said Rumine, 
*I feel very ill, 8nd must go immediately 
home.' * But we can do something for yon 
here,' urged his associate, and at once sig- 
naling a waiter, he ordered him to go for Dr. 
Barr, a phyriician having an office in the 
Club building. Dr. B. happened to be in. 




dowa bj two or three glasses of strong lem- 
onade. Half an hour afterward he was taken 
ill, a violent colic attesting his imprudent 



How Alfred somktimks returnkd rnoM the Club. 

and quickly came up into the Club-room. 
*This way, doctor,' said the member who 
had taken Rumine's case into his hands, 
* our friend, here, needs some attention from 
you,' 

" Of course the entrance of the physician 
and his salutation drew the regard of all in 
the direction of Rumine, whose suffering was 
manifest in his features and attitude. Dr. 
Barr examined his pulse, asked a few ques- 
tions, and then remarked, * A somewhat pain- 
ful derangement of the digestive functions, 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Maiich, 



but we can soon relieve it,' and then, turning 
to members of the Club who had gathered 
around, asked, * Have you any brandy or 
port-wine handy ? ' * Yes,' answered two or 
three, and a pocket-flask was at once ten- 
dered him with *A capital article, real 
French.' *So much the better,' said the 
doctor; * there's nothing like good brandy 
for an attack of colic' He procured a glass, 
and poured some of the liquor into it, and 
on being informed by one of the young men 
that Rumine was not accustomed to take 
strong drinks, reduced it with about the 
same quantity of water, and, having added 
some sugar, he tendered the glass to Rumine. 

^' Rumine, without raising his hand, looked 
into the doctor's face and asked, 'Is there 
not something else you can give me, doctor?' 

" * There's nothing that viH so promptly re- 
lieve you, sir,' said Barr, with that sharpness 
in his tone which a man, especially a profes- 
sional man, gives expression to when he feels 
that a kindness done by him is not appreci- 
ated as it should be. 

***Take it, Rumine,' *Take it, my good 
fellow,' * You're sick, and that's the best Dr. 
Barr can do for you,' were some of the ex- 
clamations of the Club members grouped 
around. It was a trying ordeal for poor Ru- 
mine, and instead of getting up, thanking 
the physician for his readiness to serve him, 
and asking the company of one or two of 
his Club friends and going directly home, 
and there obtaining the ministrations of his 
intelligent mother and devoted sisters, he 
took the glass from the doctor's hand and 
gulped down the strong mixture. The nar- 
cotic influence of the brandy had some ef- 
fect in subduing the pain, but by the advice 
of Dr. Barr he swallowed a second glass be- 
fore he started for home. I should add here 
that Rumine's sedentary pursuit had induced 
symptoms of a dyspeptic nature, which had 
been suflSciently annoying at times to sug- 
gest that some modiflcation of his business 
routine, or habits of diet and exercise, should 
be made, but he had not yet set about it. 
Thonext day he felt languid and dull, hav- 
ing no appetite and an occasional spasm of 
pain in the head. His mother advised him 
to go to some physician for advice, suggest- 
ing Dr. Mear, as their old medical adviser. 
Dr. Pell, was absent from the city. On his 



way to the countinsj-room he called rt Dr. 
Mear's, and made him acquainted with his 
condition. The doctor pronounced his case 
one of debility, a torpid liver and an over- 
exerted brain contributing to the feeling of 
exhaustion. * You must,' said he to Rumine, 
' take something to arouse your liver, quiet 
your nerves, and at the same time strengthen 
your whole system.' 

"*Well,' replied Rumine, *what shall it 
be?' 

" * Simply wine and bark — calisaya.' 

" * Can I not take the calisaya without the 
wine ? ' asked Rumine. 

" * Certaii^ly, but it will not produce the 
effect desired. All that is needed is some 
li^ht wine like sherry. Til get it for you and 
steep the bark in it. Some of my patients 
take it constantly. Take a tablespoonful at 
mealtimes, and you will come out all right 
in a week or two. Come in on your way 
home to-night, and I'll have the bottle ready 
for you.' Intimating that he would do so, 
Rumine left the doctor's and proceeded to- 
ward his oflSce. He was beginning to regard 
himself as a sort of blockhead or mule for 
setting his opinion with regard to the use of 
spirituous liquors in opposition to the opin- 
ions of his acquaintances of the Club and of 
* honorable ' physicians who must know the 
true nature of them. As a beverage, they 
were positively ii^urious; but as a medicine, 
they might be beneficial, and therefore prop- 
er. What would the world think of him for 
asserting his views against the .learned and 
respected I Thus he reasoned, for the poor 
*fellow has told me about the severe struggle 
he had within himself ere he yielded to the 
professional tempter. He called at the doc- 
tor's office, obtained the sherry medicine, and 
commenced its use, at the same time putting 
in practice some simple hygienic rules which 
Dr. Mear saw fit to mention. He drank that' 
one bottle of wine and bark, and procured 
another and another until—well, until he 

could join his friends H and 8 And 

P and M fully in their convivial glass- 

e*s of Roman punch, and until he drank to in- 
toxication and went home in a state border- 
ing on the maudlin. Poor mother and sisters, 
how often they have assisted that young 
man to his couch, he being too much intoxi- 
cated to remove his boots I Their prayers 



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WHERE SOME OF OUR 0IRL8 ARE EDUCATED, 



173 



and entreaties may, I hope, save him yet, but 
his course is downward now." 
" * Does he still belong to the Club ? ' 
" * Yes, it is natural for the yictim of rum, 
you know, to cling to those who, like him- 
self, are fond of the cup.' 



" * Poor fellow I the first thing to be done 
is to get him out of that company.' 

" ' Certainly.' 

" * Why not make the effort ? Til join you 
in it,' said my friend. 

" * Let us try it ' — and we parted." 



[to bx comtinukd.] 




Wheaton Seminary. Norton, N. H. 

WHERE SOME OF OUB GIRLS ARE EDUCATED. 

" A little learning is a dangerous thin?, 

Drink deep, or taste not the Pierian spring; '* 
And if that famous spring you seek in vain, 
You're not in Massachusetts — that is plain ! 



FOR from Massachusetts pudding-stone 
the spring aforesaid gushes out into 
schools and colleges, very much as from New 
Hampshire granite the icy springs trickle 
into wooden wayside troughs. 

One of these centers of education is the 
Wheaton Female Seminary at Norton. 

'* Norton ? I never heard of the place ! " 
Look in the ** Gazetteer" and you shall learn 
that it is a post town in Bristol County, 
Mass., twenty-seven miles south-west from 
Boston, and seven north from Taunton. It 
has less than 2,000 inhabitants, and some 
manufactures. At the copper works in the 
south part of the town, there used to be 
made all the copper coins of the country. 



A faithful study of the Railroad Guide adds 
the information that to Mansfield, ten min- 
utes distant, come trains from Boston, Provi- 
dence, New York via Shore Line, New York 
via Stonington, Martha's Vineyard via New 
Bedford, Framingham, Fitch burg, Lowell, 
Concord, and the White Mountains. 

Norton Station, then, is very accessible 
from different points ; but when once you are 
there, the prospect is not cheering. 

The village, which is a mile away, over a 
sandy, newly-mended road, is reached by a 
cavernous, one-horse stage, lying in wait for 
passengers. Courage ! '' A mile can only be 
tedious, it can never be long," and before 
many minutes you have passed the white 

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174 



PHRENOLOQICAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabcq, 



church, and the carriage stops before an ir- 
regular group of buildings, set in a deeply- 
shaded, exquisitely-kept lawn. 

Pay the driver twenty-five cents, look up 
and down the elm-arched street, and hear 
why this school exists, and exists just here, 
in this village of two stores, two churches, 
two mills, four shops, and fifty houses. 

It is a story of unusual tenderness. Fifty 
years ago here lived Laban Wheaton, a man 
among men, greatly trusted at home and 
abroad, in social life, in Congress, and on the 
Bench. His only daughter having died soon 
after her marriage, his mind naturally turned 
to the subject of a fitting monument A 
member of the family suggested one of lio- 
ing marble — a school where other men's 
daughters might be fitted for usefulness and 
happiness. ^ 

Female seminaries were then an experi- 
ment, even in New England ; but whatever 
doubts as to their fitness lingered in the 
minds of the men called as trustees of this 
enteri)ri8e, must have been dissipated at their 
first meeting in 1885. When they were as- 
sembled. Judge Wheaton, a majestic man of 
eighty years, arose, and with quivering lip 
said : " I had a beloved daughter ; it pleased 
God to take her away, and yonder," pointing 
to the building just finished, " is a part of 
what I had intended for her. How much 
more may be bestowed upon it, I can not 
tell." How much more has been bestowed 
upon it there are few that can tell, for from 
that day to the present, this seminary, " whose 
walls were laid in a first-bom," has been the 
recipient of untiring interest and benefac- 
tions from the Wheaton family. True, it 
would not be worthy its New England ori- 
gin if it were not self*supporting, but new 
buildings, wholly or in part, new books, new 
furnishing, and a telescope, are gifts which 
would cost the saving of many a terra. 

This Wheaton liberality makes it possible 
to keep the prices very low, so that even in 
these times, board and tuition for the school 
year are but $255, while $20 will cover 
every possible "extra," except modern lan- 
guages, drawing, horsemanship, and other 
private lessons, which, however, are on very 
moderate terms. There are eight scholar- 
ships of $45, and the last catalogue contains 
an appeal for more. The managers of the 



school say that very rarely is a pupil of prom- 
ise allowed to leave through lack of means. 
For forty years this part of Judge Wheat- 
on's plan has been carried out in spirit and 
in letter. 

It is not, however, by standing at the gate 
and enjoying the seminary grounds and Mrs. 
Wheatou's garden, and listening to the merry 
chat of young girls as they come in from 
their walks, that we can judge of the school 
and decide if the bequest has been faithfully 
applied. We must know something of the 
daily life into which pupils come, and some- 
thing of their accommodations, surround- 
ings, and influences. 

THE BUILDINOS. 

Entering the front door, we find that the ir- 
regular front, 160 feet long, represents but a 
part of the boarding-house, there being in 
the rear two wings drawn out like telescope 
tubes. The lower story is mainly given up 
to public rooms, unusually numerous, to 
which the students have free access. One 
stranger, whose organ of Locality is an ach- 
ing void, once suggested that a girPs title 
to her diploma should rest on her ability, 
after four years* residence, to make a map or 
directory of this triple house, distinguish- 
ing between reception-room, society parlors, 
young ladies* parlor, principaPs parlor, 
drawing-room, reading-room, office, and all 
the music-rooms. Nothing on this fioor is 
showy, little costly, but all good and appro- 
priate, and much brightened by pictures and 
plants. 

The second and third fioors must be taken 
on trust, for there are the students* rooms, 
to which strangers are not invited. These 
rooms are of an average size of 15x12 feet. 
None has more than two occupants, and sev- 
eral of the smaller have but one. This year 
the house is in process of new furnishing 
with black walnut, solid and handsome, the 
praises whereof the enjoyers are never tired 
of sounding. 

The young ladies take charge, in part, of 
their own apartments, and the teachers say 
that the human nature there is in women, 
even the youngest of them, shows itself in 
this housekeeping, and in the pictures and 
ornaments, and green things growing, kept 
by the roommates jointly and severally. 

As in a family, so in a school — the din- 
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WHERE SOME OF OUR GIRLS ARE EDUCATED 



175 



ing-room is an objecdve point of interest. 
A professional man knows the influence of 
diet on mental actiyity ; a mother knows the 
comprehensive appetites of growing boys 
and girls. Both science and solicitude would 
be satisfied here by seeing the excellent meats, 
floars, vegetables, and fruits provided, and 
by bearing an old graduate say that she 
thought of this dining-room when she read 
in Chaucer of the Franklin : 

. "^In whose house it snewed of mete and drink.** 

Stin, there would be less occasion for par- 
ents to spare their daughters, during the 
four most interesting years of their lives, if 
comfortable rooms, good food, and social 
meals, desirable as these are, were all. It is 
what is done in the library and in the semi- 
nary hall tbat determines the value of the 
schooL 

DBPABTMENT8 OP STUDY. 

At present the Faculty is made up of the 
Principal, Mrs. C. C. Metcalf, with eight res- 
ident teacbers, five teachers from the city, and 
four lecturers, comprising, in all, eleven la- 
dies and seven gentlemen. Whatever the at- 
traction may be, the Norton teachers are very 
permanent. Probably an effort is made to 
find good ones, and to cling fast to them 
when found. The chronological catalogue 
shows that within twenty-five years there 
have been twelve teachers, whose aggregate 
record amounts to 145 years, and that five, 
now in of^ce, have had an average service 
of fourteen years. While retaining enough 
of its own graduates to link the present with 
the past, it has always been the policy of the 
school to call in enough teachers elsewhere 
trained, to give breadth and vitality to the 
different departments. Among former teach- 
as of long continuance and large influence 
are the names of Misses M E. Blair and Lucy 
Larcom, of Boston, Mary J. Cragin and S. 
E. Cole, of St. Louis, Harriet E. Paine, of 
Exeter, N. H., and Mrs. Harrison, of Brook- 
lyn, N. y. 

The entire course of study requires four 
years from a girl of average ability, but if she 
wiah» to accomplish much in music or the 
languages, she should be prepared to enter 
tn advanced class, or to stay longer, or to 
stop short of graduation. 

For twenty years the school has been strong 



in mathematics, owing to a teacher who, 
somewhat in advance of her day, gave oppor- 
tunity for original demonstrations in geome- 
try, and thought the university editions of 
astronomy and philosophy possible to the 
properly trained intellects even of ^irls. 

The natural sciences are made practical 
by cabinets, by herbariums, by experiments, 
and by some good apparatus, among which 
may be classed a fine refracting telescope, 
built for the school by Browning, of London. 
Young people who have learned to watch 
cocoons for their opening, seeds for their 
growing, and birds for their songs and nests, 
are provided for life with pleasant occupa- 
tions. 

Still further carrying out Mr. Squeers* prin- 
ciple (like many another good principle, 
known merely bj its perversion), "When 
youVe learned a thing out of a book, go and 
know it,** different classes are taken, as op- 
portunity offers, to visit manufactories, or 
art galleries, or famous historic ground in 
neighboring cities and elsewhere. 

Prominence is given to history and litera- 
ture, in which much account is made of charts, 
abstracts, and " topics.*' Both these and the 
philosophical studies receive their charm 
from the library, which is a noble one, both 
in its actual value and in its special adapta- 
tion to the purposes of the school. Free use 
of it is not only allowed, but required. A 
graduate's note-books would of themselves 
fill a respectable shelf, though the girls do 
complain that these are made at the expense 
of their prim, public-school handwriting. 

French requires equal thoroughness with 
other branches. To those finishing a course 
in this a certificate is given, we understand. 
A "French table" always in the dining- 
room, a German table occasionally, give good 
opportunities for colloquial practice. 

Throughout the four years composition 
receives its share of attention, but it is a 
specialty with the Seniors, each of whom, 
on anniversary day, reads an original essay, 
and takes part in a colloquy prepared by the 
class. This class is the sole charge of a crit- 
ical teacher, whose work is a science no less 
than an art 

The institution has a well-earned reputa- 
tion for music, and several of the graduates 
have continued their musical studies abroad* 
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PHRENOLOOICAL JOURNAL, 



[March, 



From time to time MuticaUs are given, very 
attractive, and more strictly classical than is 
common. In truth, none but the best Com- 
posers would feel at liberty to wander over 
the keys of any one of the ten pianos, which 
give abundant opportunity for pupils to prac- 
tice inusic and others to practice patience — 
so they say. 

The riding facilities are unsurpassed in any 
riding-school in the country. An accom- 
plished teacher, having first-rate horses, well- 
broken, and the best of accoutrements, gives 
road lessons in the quiet winding country 
lanes or pine groves, at prices no more than 
the lowest city rates for lessons in the ring. 

" But," do you say ? *' it is so utterly out 
of the world that there can be no lectures or 
concerts." Pardon, but Boston is not too far 
away for a day, nor Taunton for an occa- 
sional evening. In the town, too, when there 
is not a '' citizens' course " of lectures, the lit- 
erary societies take the business into their 
own hands, and arrange for popular lectures, 
in addition to the valuable literary and sci- 
entific lectures provided by the school. Miss 
Blair, of Boston, has begun this year's lec- 
tures before the school with a valuable series 
of papers on ** The Art Galleries of Europe." 

A daily "general question," a "Mutual 
Benefit Language Insurance Company," semi- 
monthly " general exercises," when the news- 
papers of the fortnight are reported on, the 
Psyche Literary Society and its younger sis- 
ters, all do their share of educating. 

Knowledge being served in such appetiz- 
ing forms, and with such mysterious hints 
of good things in store where this came 
from, it is not strange that graduates feel 
that they have taken in education only " one 
step," instead of a final break-neck leap. 
Neither is it strange that, greatly wishing to 
go forward, yet having left, all at once, the 
requirements of study-hour and class-room, 
the spur of companions, and the influence 
of instructors, many of these graduates have 
earnestly asked for a definite course of fur- 
ther reading and study. Neither is it strange 
that the teachers who have already bestowed 
so much love and labor on these young la- 
dies are very cheerfully, even gratefully, pre- 
paring post-graduate notes for home use. 

THE SCHOOL GOVERNMENT. 

What does all this indicate concerning the 



fulfillment of Judge Wheaton's desire for 
other men's daughters to have as good an 
education as his own? A stranger, seeing 
the hundred girls coming from varied homes, 
with varied degrees of attainment and self- 
control, yet mingling in this school life and 
fitting into the right places, unperplexed and 
unperplexing, naturally asks, "How is the 
school governed ? " One of the scholars 
says, " Oh, they wound it up years ago, and 
it goes like a clock." Knowing from sad ex- 
perience that the secret of perpetual motion 
has never been discovered in morals more 
than in mechanics, we apply to the teachers. 
Now, bom teachers, like born housekeepers, 
find it difiScult to give an exact recipe, and 
to our question are given various answers, 
perhaps none of them very complete. 

We conclude, on the whole, that it is by 
so arranging the school machinery that, 
according to the law of gravitation, it is 
easier for a pupil to stay in her own orbit 
than to go off on a tangent ; by the hearty 
friendliness between teachers and scholars; 
by the anonymous, good-natured criticisms, 
whose occasional reading by the principal is 
a power in la petiU morale of the house ; by 
the common-sense way of putting things; by 
the public opinion, which is of w«>rth in a 
school that has a long record, and which, 
after all, is the great wheel in this "social 
mill" where "they rub each other's angles 
down ; " and by sending home semi-monthly 
reports of lessons, and monthly reports of 
deportment, neatness, promptness, and " ac- 
curacy in accounts." 

It is the opinion of thoughtful educators 
that, over and above the necessity, in so large 
a school, of definite rales of action under given 
circumstances, the best good of th& individ- 
ual character requires that implicit, unques- 
tioning obedience to law should be learned. 
Still it is not necessary, the teachers at 
Wheaton say, to multiply rules for the discL 
pline to be gained in keeping them. Of 
course there are regulations for the laundry 
and for the library ; but beyond these there 
are few rules, and those few are aimed chiefly 
at promptness, health, and the securing to 
all an uninterrupted opportunity to do their 
work. 

HTOIEKB AND MORALS. 

Now, isn't this much study and discipline 

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WHERE SOME OF OUR GIRLS ARE EDUCATED, 



111 



a wenriness to the flesh ? Haye the facalty 
DO dread dream of Br. Olarke coming sud- 
denly and arraigning them before the bar of 
common sense and justice ? Ask the teach- 
ers, and they smile and say : " I only wish 
you could have seen the last class ; the looks 
and the words of the graduates would have 
answered for us. Of course there are girls 
here who ought never to be out of the watch 
and ward of their mothers; but the great 
majority have good health. It is a common 
complaint that they look so well when they 
go home, that nobody gives them any credit 
for the hard work they have done." 

Norton is well located. Though painfully 
level, it is, according to all testimony, on 
high land. It is just far enough from the 
sea to receive its modifying influences with- 
out feeling the bleakness of the shore. The 
soil is sandy. The drainage is admirable, 
and no water brought through lead pipes is 
used at the seminary.* The buildings are 
warmed by nine furnaces and three stoves. 
To those going to school it is of interest to 
know that gas is an unattainable luxury in 
that village, though the kerosene used is of 
absolutely " fire-test " quality. Safety lamps 
and safety matches are required throughout 
the houses, and fire-extinguishers are in dif- 
ferent halls, with suitable persons instructed 
in their use. 

A pertinent answer was recently given to 
the question " What are the prevailing dis- 
eases of Norton ? " " Old age." Physicians 
knowing the town sometimes recommend it 
for patients with weak lungs. The walks 
and drives are pleasant, while the distance 
from the railroad and exemption from com- 
mon factories afford freedom therein. The 
good health of the pupils is attributable to 
the regular hours, breakfast at 7 a.m., dinner 
at 12.80, tea at 6, lights out at 9.80 p.m.; 
the sensible food, the study, the exercise, the 
simple dress which is the e very-day fashion 
of the school, the instruction in hygiene, and 
the prompt action when any one is ailing. 
The principal says that for a long time she 
has been looking for somebody to be chief 
of the health department, caring for the sick, 

• ** We know of no prlTste flunllj/' tays one, " where 
the water ie more pore, or the dminago no careftiUy con- 
tioQed, and it most be owing to this that your seminary 
it 10 abaolotely free from epidemic or malarial dis- 



scolding the careless, instructing all. If the 
right person is to be found it would, doubt- 
less, be an unutterable relief to the teachers 
by whom these thankless duties are now as- 
sumed. They have one good counselor in 
their enthusiastic lecturer. Dr. Mary Saffbrd 
Blake, of the Boston University. 

Few parents are indifferent to the influ- 
ences, moral and religious, in which their 
daughters are placed. Wheaton Seminary is 
not sectarian ; it is Christian. To this end 
are the family prayers, the instruction given 
in a simple weekly service, the optional 
prayer-meetings conducted by teachers, and 
the system of half-hours by which each room- 
mate is secured a little time to herself, morn- 
ing and evening. To schools, as well as fami- 
lies, is set the hard problem how to make 
** the Sabbath a delight," and also "the Holy 
of the Lord honorable." At Wheaton, at- 
tendance is expected on one church service 
and at Bible-class. The Sunday library is 
opened and the parlors not closed ; but much 
visiting of rooms is decidedly discouraged. 
At evening prayers the service, which is va- 
ried from that of other nights, ends with the 
passing of a little basket in .the interest of 
the School Missionary Society. All these 
means of religious culture seem to be blessed 
by the Great Teacher in whose name the 
school has its being. 

THE ALUMNiB. 

Show you the women which these girls 
make ? Would that we all might be present 
on a graduation day like the last, which we 
find thus epitomized in a city daily paper : 

"The commencement at Wheaton Semi- 
nary was a grand success. The day was 
perfect ; the guests numerous and apprecia- 
tive ; the exercises brief and Interesting ; the 
eleven graduates dignified and audible ; the 
essays brilliant and fresh ; the colloquy {*• The 
Athens of Old Greece and the Athens of 
Young America,' written by the senior class), 
entertaining and spirited ; the elocution na- 
tural and effective. The dresses pretty and 
becoming," 

We would know of these graduates a few 
years later. It is said that it is impossible 
to enumerate the teachers, the artists, the 
writers, and the business women, or the 
wives of professional and business men among 
the 8,000 old scholars ; but it is claimed that 

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PHRENOLOaiOAL JOURNAL. 



[MABCHy 



there are few who are not useful and practi- 
cal in society, and many of them are actiye 
Christian workers. There do not seem to be 
many that are before the public in a way to 
justify their being here called by name. 
Last July^s Rushlight mentioned the receipt 
of two books recently published by alumnae. 
The popular " Beaten Paths ; or, A Woman's 
Vacation," was by Mrs. Ella Williams 
Thompson, of the class of '59*; and a thought- 
ful Sunday school lx>ok on the evidences of 
Chriatiaaity, '' Finding His Footprints," was 
written by E. S. Eastman, of '64. Quite to 
the point in tliit* founection is a testimony 
which we have been allowed to quote, pre- 
uvising that it was a spontaneous message 
sent to the Principal by a stranger, who is 
known to the public as an accomplished 
scholar and an editor of a literary periodi- 
cal : *^TcU Mrs, Metcalf, from me, that as 
editor of , I ll3i^ <^ seen many papers writ- 
ten by Wheaton Seminary ladies, and I have 
never seen one that was not well written. 
They teach their students to write good 
English." 

The school has special interest in certain 
missionaries, from the fact that they were 
once in it as teachers or pupils. We noted 
the names of Mrs. Hartwell, of China ; Mrs. 
Bryant, formerly of Turkey ; Mrs. Winsor and 



Mrs. Capron, of India ; Mrs. Grout, of South 
Africa, and Miss Cochrane, missionary phy- 
sician in Persia. 

June 30, 1875, will close the fortieth year, 
send forth the thirty-fifth class (making, in 
all, 226 graduates), and see the twenty-fifth 
anniversary of the efl5cient principal. It is 
said to be the first instance of any lady in 
New England remaining so long in charge 
of a seminary. At all events, the occasion 
will deserve, and probably receive, more than 
a passing ;^otice in the compositions of that 
day. It is proposed to have then a reunion 
of scholars and friends. There will, doubt- 
less, be a large gathering, for Wheaton girls 
love their Alma Mater, and, busy women that 
many of them are, gladly welcome any pre- 
text to visit the old home where they enjoy- 
ed and gained so much, and the teachers 
whom they know will give them such warm 
welcome. 

Two people are sure to be disappointed at 
Norton — the young lady who goes there to 
fashionably idle away a year or two, and the 
parent who expects that, at a stipulated 
time, his daughter will be sent home " finish- 
ed and labeled " with " no need or desire to 
open another book as long as she lives," and 
with no desire to make her life a test of her 
learning. 



THE LITTLE WREN. 



THIS bird is well known to Europeans and 
Americans, for almost everywhere, in 
town and country, some species of it is found. 
A sociable and courageous little bird, it builds 
its nest in gardens and hedges, and finds shel- 
ter from the cold of Tvinter in bams and out- 
buildings, and divides our interest and atten- 
tion with the familiar robin. The wrens com- 
pose a large group among the thin- billed birds 
of the creeper family and genus troglodytes, or 
cave-dwellers. There are fifty species known, 
most of whom are American. That most fa- 
miliar to Europeans is the kitty wren, an illus- 
tration of which, as given in an English publi- 
cation, accompanies this sketch. Its entire 
length is about four inches, its color being red- 
dish brown above, barred with dusky and 
white spots on the wings, and yellowish white 
below. 



In the United States the species most com- 
monly known is the house wren, or troglodytes 
csdoTiy in the language of naturalists. It is 
about five inches long from bill to tail tip, and 
approaches the European wren just described 
in the distribution of color, reddish brown be- 
ing the prevailmg tint on the back, neck, 
wings, and upper parts, with dusky bars, and 
the lower parts bemg of a pale, yellowish 
white, with a light brownisli tinge across the 
breast. It is a more familiar and sociable bird 
than the European wren, and a superior sing- 
er. It builds its nest in boxes which may be 
prepared for it, or under the eaves of project- 
ing roofs, or in out-of-the-way nooks in bams 
and sheds. In the breeding season it shows 
great boldness, the male attacking birds of 
twice its size which may intrude too near its 
domestic retreat. 

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PERSONAL BXPBRTENCB IN PHRBNOLOQT, 



170 



Thoagfa 80 small a bird, it seems as if nature 
would compensate for its littleness by multi- 
plying its numbers. The female 
produces from six to ten, and even 
more, eggs, and usually has two 
broods a season. The eggs are 
but a little larger tlian a pea, and 
of a reddish or chocolate color. 

Tlie wren builds a large nest, 
using hay, straw, moss, and feath- 
ers, and fashioning in an oval 
form, with a small opening in one 
side. 

Of the less common species the 
golden-crested wren is one of the 
most interesting. Great Britain Is 
a home for it, where it lives chief- 
ly in the fir woods. In North 
America there are two species alli- 
ed to 'that genus, known as the 
ruby -crowned and golden-crested. 
These birds are smaller in size than 
the common species. Then there 
is the great Carolina wren, which 
is six inches in length, a very 
lively bird, and inclined to live 
near the water ; and also the long- 
billed marsh wren, which is found 
throughout North America among 
sedges and reeds on water-courses and by the 
sea-shore. 

The food of the wren consists mainly of in- 
sects and worms, of which it destroys a vast 
number, and is therefore a most valuable ally 
of the farmer and gardener. The lively move- 
ments of this little bird afford an observer 
much amusement, there is so much of real 



intelligence, cunning, audacity, and enjoyment 
expressed by it 




The Common Whkn. 
An old English writer speaks thus affection 
ately of the wren : 

** Fast by my conch, congenial guest. 
The wren has wove her mossy nest ; 
From busy scenes and brighter skies, 
To lurk with innocence she flies ; 
Her hopes in safe repose to dwell. 
Nor aught suspects the sylvan cell.** 



4»» 



PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN PHRENOLOOT. 

AN INCIDENT OF TRAVEL.* 



"TTTE were seated for an express train ride 
VV of three hours from one of the cities 
of New England, and, with the usual accom- 
paniments of travel, had made ourselves 
comfortable. A chair next beyond us con- 
tained a heavy Scotch shawl, a small travel- 
ing-bag, and a book^vidently ** to be occu- 
pied." As the conductor sang out "All 

* The article herewith Is only a Barrative of Ikct 
There it no fiction whatever in it, the tabject being well 
known to the editor of the A. P. J. The immediate 
eaoae ofita narration is the desire to benefit those who 
are theorising apoo the advantages likely to accme fh>m 
Phrenology, wtiUe this tells what Juu b^m realized. 



aboard I " we noticed two men upon the 
platform shake hands, one of whom entered 
our car and took the " to-be-occupied " seat. 
Nothing at all unusual in all this ; but my 
companion called my attention to the man. 
We had previously been talking of the sci- 
enq^ and practice, and at that moment the 
gentleman, having taken off overcoat and 
shoes, turned to look around, and, with a 
pleasant bow to my fnend, commenced the 
perusal of his book. • There was a decision 
in his action which charmed me. "That 
man,'^ said my companion, "is a believer^ 

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PHRSNOLOQIGAL JOURNAL. 



[Maboh, 



and, as he declares himself^ a walking edition, 
of the practical results of phrenological 
training and culture, as applied to himself 
and his business. He does not allow him- 
self any idle moments, and when he has fin- 
ished his lesson, for he is studying a German 
book, we will haye an hour's chat with him, 
and you can then, for yourself, adyance any 
yiew you desire, and I doubt not that you 
will be pleased." 

That I was pleased you can well believe, 
and I confess it was with a little feeling of 
impatience that I waited for the end of the 
lesson. Meantime I was not idle, but asked 
my companion to tell me more of the man, 
of his position, and why he seemed so intent 
upon the use of his time. 

^^ That is easily answered," said my friend, 
'^because he is one of my friends, and I 
know his history. weU. That man came to 
this city some few years ago and commenced 
business in a line not much cultivated. He 
taade an out-and-out new departure in it, and 
is one of the most industrious, persevering, 
and driving men you ever have, or probably 
will see. He has the .operating control of 
several hundred thousand spindles and all 
the accompanying machinery, and is con- 
stantly busy; not in the flutter and bustle 
of purposeless hurry, but with the quiet 
push that accomplishes all it undertakes or 
a little more. He is never idle, and is cred- 
ited with sixteen hours a dry for work, and 
is never found sick, fatigued, or ill-natured." 

" But," said I, '' how does that do ? He 
can not work at that speed long." 

" Yes," answered he ; " he has done H for 
some years, as I know. He has several 
clerks, and is first and last in his office when 
at home. And is always at his business, and 
always with our best business men. The 
men of highest standing and best ability are 
the very men that esteem him most, and even 
many of them are denied any intimate rela- 
tions with him. There are very few who are 
intimate with him, and none familiar." 

" Then," said I, " he must be a very arro- 
gant man." 

** Not at all," was his answer ; " you could 
not make a wilder guess. He is not arro- 
gant, in any sense of the word ; but he is 
pleasant, unassuming, frank, and deals with 
you plainly, if at all. His ability entitles I 



him to respect, and he is entirely too much 
occupied with his own matters and those in 
his care to spend any time other than to some 
account" 

*^ If he is so occupied, then, I suppose he 
spends little time at home ? " 

" On the contrary," was the reply, " he is 
as regular as the clock. He can always be 
found at home when not in his office hours." 

^* But, then, he can not be identified with 
any of the institutions of learning, or in 
doing good ? " 

*''• You are wrong again. He gives cheer- 
fully, and no one has his confidence in that 
respect. But I do know that he gives to 
several Sabbath schools, two or three 
churches, supports a chapel, and how much 
else no one on eaith knows but himselC" 

" But," said I, ** where does he get the 
time to see to all this ; or does he intrust it 
to others ? " 

''He intrusts nothing to others; but is 
alert, prompt, decisive, short, as you would 
term it,^ but not rough. He thinks of a mat- 
ter, decides upon what to do, and does it 
almost instantly. He is as quick as a flash, 
is an engineer of no mean order, and a giant 
in figures and comprehension." 

" Well, is he intrusted with offices ? Is he 
a politician ? " 

*' He is trusted with all the matters of a 
judiciary nature he can take care of, is inter- 
ested in one or two bonks and a railroad, and 
he occupies positions of respect and honor 
in them all. He abhors politics and poli- 
ticians, and could have office, I think, but 
will not." 

** Do you know of bis personal habits — his 
system of living ? for if he is so regular he 
must have a system in that." 

'*Yes. He has a most excellent system, 
and pays attention to it, or he would not do 
the work of the quality or amount that he 
does. In the first place, be eats no meat, or 
none when at home ; drinks no liquor as a 
beverage, or occasionally ; uses no tobacco 
or snuff, and no profane language." 

" Is he never under the doctor's hands ? " 

'^I think not. Milk, oatmeal, crushed 
wheat, Graham flour, and com meal, with 
fruit, I believe, form the principal articles of 
his food. He rises at five and is in his of- 
fice at seven, and until seven SLg^in. You 

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PERSONAL EXPERIENCE IN PHRENOLOGY, 



181 



will hardly belieye me if I tell you he often 
writes from sixty to one hnndred letters 
every day, using phonography and a reporter, 
heing himself a writer of phonography." 

** You interest me more and more. I am 
getting impatient for the close of that lesson." 

" We shall soon be at W junction, and 

twill be dark, and then yon can enjoy a 
chat." 

"But," said I, "is this man a man that 
has firm friends, and is he loved by the peo- 
ple he employs ! " 

"You can rest assured that he is. His 
recreation is in doing some good. His peo- 
ple do love him. Those who know him best 
like him most. He chooses his own friends, 
and only confides in very few." 

The book was closed, to my joy, and in 
less than a minute the gentleman stood be- 
fore my companion. " Are you tired of this 
railroading?" he asked in a firm, cheerful 
tone. " How far to-night ? " 

" Oh, I go through." 

" Well, I am glad," said he ; " and your 
friend here goes too, I suppose." 

" YeSj and he desires to know you. We 
have been having a chat on Phrenology and 
kindred matters." And I was duly intro- 
duced to him. 

" That is a favorite theme with me, and 
one of practical value, tried and proved," 
remarked my new acquaintance. 

"Perhaps you would tell me something 
of it in your own way," I remarked, hoping 
to draw him out. 

" Tell you anything I can that will do you 
any good." 

" I desire to know, for the benefit it may 
give me, if, in a practical way, it is of any 
value," 

" You evidently do not know or realize 
what the value of it is. I can tell you 
something of my own experience. It is now 
nine years, or nearly, that I have followed 
the teachings of Phrenology. Of its value 
I have the most abundant proof, and in an 
entirely practical way. I sauntered into the 
New York office one August day — at the 
time I was out of business, and hardly 
knowing or caring which way I went, or 
what was to be followed. After looking 
about for a while a circular fell into my 
hands giving the terms of an examination. 



I finally decided to take, and did take, the 
fully written statement they give there, and 
the little book " How to Read Character," 
and I commenced to study them both, and 
closely. In them I found many points upon 
which I could not properly decide, and it 
resulted in a correspondence with the editor 
of the Phrenological Jouknal, in which 
all these points were treated one by one. 
This process roused me. The chart told me 
I was capable of managing a thousand men 
as easily as ten ; that I had not proper con- 
fidence in myself; also of a number of faults. 
I now set to work and tried to master my- 
self, to correct the faults and the disposition 
to encourage them. Where the examiner 
had marked * to restrain ' a faculty, I learned 
what was necessary to restrain it, and did so. 
To cultivate the deficient required effort, and 
it was done until I began business again, and 
in another channel. One thing led to an- 
other, and there were a great many things to 
be learned, and one by one they were taken 
up and learned and put to practical use. 
All this time I have been my own pupil, and 
I am still learning." 

" But can any one do this in the same 
way ? " 

" Certainly they can, and if they will fol- 
low their instructor until they are candid 
enough to admit their own fiiults, they will 
then be upon the right track to learn some- 
thing ; and that something is of more value 
to a business man than his capital, for if a 
man is thorough master of himself and of 
human nature, he can read a man instantly — 
can tell whether to trust him or not — and it 
is a policy of insurance that holds good 
through life. The premium is paid in the 
time spent in learning it; the dividends 
come in returns each day. The actual value 
of it can only be appreciated by a man who 
is master of it." 

" Has it any value beyond its application 
in your very practical way ? " I asked him. 

" Yes. I will suppose you are master of 
it. Your daughter receives the attentions 
of some of the young men. You can as 
surely decide what to do as though you had 
the man^s future all before you. Your son 
seeks a wife. You can settle the matter 
correctly, and if you can not, a good phre- 
nologist can." r-ir-irn^ 
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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Mabch, 



I could not refute this. Here was to me 
a new and different application of phrenol- 
ogy — ^practical, plain, sensible. I could raise 
no argument— K^ould only ask for information. 
\ '' Do you tbink any one can learn this as you 
have done \ " 

** Yes, and much better. It is with me a 
purely practical affair, a matter of business, 
an accessory to my capital ; and the princi- 
ples may be learned by any one who will 
learn them, and can be applied as many 
times in the day as you can look into another 
man's face, or notice his head, hands, walk, 
or other points." 

We were near our journey's end. I could 
hardly think what else to ask^ but decided 
to inquire — " Are you, as a successful busi- 
ness man, inclined to giye credit to this as, 
in some measure, the means of your success ? " 

'* I am far from what is termed a success- 
ful business man, but in the position that is 
given me it is a pleasure for me to say can- 
didly to you, or any o\ie else, that, next to 



God's blessings, my moderate success in life 
is honestly due to the correct outline of my 
character given me, and to my honest en* 
deavors to make it of practical use. I con- 
sider it as of more value than money, and 
when I tell you that the time spent in the 
office of the A. P. J. on that sultry August 
day, and the results directly attributable to 
it, are the principal means of my position of 
to-day, it is only a simple fact, and one of 
the pleasantest matters of my personal ex- 
perience. Here we are. Gk)od-night I " and 
he was gone. 

Our journey, too, was over. It gave me 
food for thought ; and now, my dear editor, 
this has been written out in the hope that it 
will stimulate some one or more to start right, 
keep right, and to attain a position of some 
importance. Another chat is promised me 
with reference to how this man lives, and, 
if acceptable, you shall have that. j. p. 

[We shall be glad to have additional fact* 
in such personal experiences. — Ed.] 



HOW TO BE HAPPY. 



1. T TAVE a healthy stomach, with good 
-CI digestion through eating and drink- 
ing only that which is healthful food. 

2. Have a clear conscience by being honest 
and doing that which is right between men, 
and striving to do as you would be done by. 
8. Engage earnestly in some useful pursuit, 
by which good to others and reasonable prof- 
it to yourself may accrue. 

4. Pay attention to the requirements of the 
body, exercise, bathing, clothing, etc., for 
health and for comfort, according to the laws 
of hygiene. 

5. Indulge in no bad habits ; if the quacks 
have induced you to swallow their pills or 
their slops, called "bitters," and thence you 
may have come to other stimulants or nar- 
cotics, drop them, one and all. They are in- 
sidious enemies. 

6. Keep your temper; do not permit your 
angry passions to rise. A bad or unregulated 
temper corrodes and spoils the one who in- 
dulges in unrestrained anger. 

7. Keep down an envious or a jealous spir- 
it. Seek to serve others rather than require 



others to serve you. It is always better to 
minister to others than to require others to 
minister to us. 

8. Avoid controversy. Good men, honest, 
godly men, men who seek the happiness of 
others, find it not difficult to agree with each 
other. Such men, when differences arise, seek 
divine aid to resolve the difficulties. 

9. Read the Phbenological Jouknal, 
and by following its teachings you will find 
out what you are good for, what you can do 
best, accomplish the most, and rise the high- 
est. 

10. At a proper time — age, — circumstances 
being favorable, you being in sound health 
and established in business, take a partner 
of the opposite sex, who is suitably organ- 
ized And cultured, and appreciative of the 
domestic relations. 

11. Read the Ten Commandments. 

12. And follow them to the letter. 
18. Pay attention to daily devotiopa. 

14. Pray for your enemies. 

15. And if you are not made happy, yon 
ought to be. 

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GEORGE F, TBA8K, 



183 



eEOBGE F. TRASK, 

THE LATE CHAMPION OF TOBACCO REFORM. 



OK the 25th of January Ihia worthy minis- 
ter and moet earnest advocate of social 
reform died. Aa his face and cerebral oigani- 
zation indicate, he was an active, vigorous 
thinker and worker. His mental exercises, or 
what in modem science is known as cerebra- 
tion, closely supplemented his physical expres- 
sions; thus he possessed capacity for the ready 
expression of thought in action. His Benevo- 
lence was a dominant quality, and needed but 
the aid of his keen perceptives to be stimulated 
at all times to the achievement of some benefi- 
cial end. His career is marked by persevering 
efforts in deeds of philanthropy, and that, too, 
in lines which frequently brought upon him 
the censures of the conservative, or excited 
the hostility of those whom he sought to ben- 
efit 

The useful in the character of Mr. Trask was 
discerned in his youth by one of his coUege 
professors, who remarked, " Trask is to be the 
Qsefal man of his class;" and by that sin- 
gle compliment, one of the few he received as 
a student, helped much toward shaping his 
career. 

He was bom in Beverly, Mass., in 1797, of 
poor parents, and was put to work when a 
mere boy. In 1812 he was apprenticed to a 
much older brother, Israel Trask, the first man- 
ufacturer of Britannia- ware in America, and 
foor years later he commmenced business for 
himself by opening a small hardware and 
jewelry store in Marblehead. After accumul- 
ating a little money, be carried out a long- 
cherished resolution, that of getting an educa- 
tion, for which purpose he studied at Gorham 
Academy, Maine, then entered Brunswick Col- 
lege; and, in the mean while, having deter- 
mined to make the Christian ministry his pro- 
fession, he supplemented his college course 
with the usual theological studies at Andover. 
Leaving the seminary, he was settled as a min- 
ister in Framingham, then in Warren, and in 
other places, and finally at Fitchburg, where 
he resided until the close of his life. 

Although an eamest laborer in his country 
fields, he had reached middle age, and passed 
the point where most men begin any life-work, 
before he joined the throng of men who 
crowded the May anniversaries of Boston and 
New York as the members of organizations 
pledged to put down all manner of evils, real 
or imaginary. Joining first the temperance 



party, he went a step beyond it, and attacked 
tobacco instead of alcohol, and the bitter little 
fly-leaves which he scattered broadcast pretty 
plainly intimated his opinion of lukewarm re- 
formers who saw nothing wrong in a cigar and 
did in a glass of wine. Keeping in general 
sympathy with the temperance reform, he at 
last ceased all active co-operation with temper- 
ance organizations, and an Anti-Tobacco Soci- 
ety was formed, to a very large extent oflflcered 
and manned by Mr. Trask. It was not an easy 
task which Mr. Trask had boldly set hunself to 
do— nothing less than, at a time when the tem- 
perance reformation had just been left strand- 
ed by the high tide of prohibitory legislation 




Gkoboe F. Tbabk. 

in Maine, New Turk, and fhlly a third of the 
Northem States, to make this reform, which 
he and almost he alone believed in, as promi- 
nent an object before the public as the older 
agitation of fifty years standing against alco- 
hol. He did succeed, but by unceasing labor 
— nearly all of it done after he was fifty years 
old — made the cause well known. His leaflets 
went everywhere, and as a lecturer he was 
known to almost every lyceum in New Eng- 
land, and a fashion he had of attacking,. tfaBOUg]) 
the religious press, any unpopular politiciiui or 
public man who smoked, and tracing the c<»n- 
nection between his cigars and his sins, nsade 
his invective familiar to a very wide constitu- 
ency. Like most agitators for social reforms. 

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PHBBNOLOQICAL JOURNAL. 

f 



[Mabcb, 



he went out of sight during the Ute war, but 
came brayely to the froni at its close with a 
series of tracts that found the cause of the war 
in smoking legislators, and unflinchingly 
traced every defeat to a smoking general. 
True to his principles, he supported Mr. Gree- 
ley, the non-smoker, rather than Mr. Grant, in 
the campaign of 1873. Just after that event 
hiB work was crippled by the loss of all the 
stereotype plates from which he had printed 



the peculiar polemics of his reform, and a sub- 
scription taken up soon after to replace them 
proved rather unsuccessful. He did not inter- 
mit his efforts, however, unsubsidized as they 
were, his noble nature could not refrain from 
activity in a cause so precious. His death of 
heart disease where he was long a pastor, ends 
a life spent in a reform which has gained, to 
the shame of society be it spoken, no represen- 
tative disciples to perpetuate his efforts 




epai[tmunl of^ jltgsiolojg— ^ur^arakhnn. 

Ciltir«to tht pbyilcal hmb txelodTvlyy umI 7011 lurt ui ktUtU or a wraft ; th« monl only, and 70a Imt* m Mithiulatt or a 
Uctoal oalj, and 70a bava a dlMaaad oddity— It iiia7 b« a Bioi>it«r. It la 0BI7 b7 traialng all tocMhor— fha pl^akal, taldketaal, a 
1k« eonplat* bmii eau b« fonnad. 




INSANITY MUDDLED. 



THERE is no subject treated of by medical 
writers, nor discussed in courts of Justice, 
more intricate and conflised than that of ab- 
normal mental conditions. The difficulty con- 
sists in false premises as a basis for reasoning. 
In the light of Phrenology the subject is ex- 
ceeding simple, perfectly intelligible, and emi- 
nently practical. But it happens that the pro- 
fessors of this branch of pathology in our 
medical colleges either do not understand the 
first principles of mental philosophy as taught 
by phrenologians, or ignore it entirely as ai)- 
plied to insanity. 

Under the heading of ** Insanity Classified," 
the New York Tribune reports the salient 
pohits of a lecture delivered by Dr. John P. 
Gray before the students of Bellevue Medical 
College, not long shice. Dr. Gray adopts the 
arrangement of Esquirol, which divides insan- 
ity into the three forms of melancholy, mania, 
and dementia. This is ample for all practical 
or even theoretical purposes. But when Dr. 
Gray comes to the rationale, I am obliged to 
dissent In the language of the reporter for 
the Tribuna^ " Dr Gray claimed that the whole 
range of insanity is embodied in a few general 
conditions— increased, perverted, or decreased 
mental action.*' 

Insanity is simply, in all its forms, perverted 
mental action, without regard to the degree of 
action. Dr. Gray's error is a most pernicious 
one if applied to the treatment of insanity. It 
is based on the false pathology of fever and in- 
flammation as taught in medical schools and 
books. Fevers are classified into high and 



low, d3mamic and adynamic, entonic and aton- 
ic, etc., on the theory that one kind are in- 
creased and the other decreased vital action. 
And inflammations are divided into active and 
passive, phlogistic and non-phlogistic, etc, on 
the same false theory. The truth is, fevers and 
inflammations of every name and kind are 
perverted vital or morbid action, with no ref- 
erence to the strength or degree of that action. 
If vital action is disturbed, unbalanced, de- 
ranged, in such a manner as to occasion heat, 
redness, pain, and swelling of a part, it is in- 
flammation. If in such a manner as to be 
manifested in paroxysms of cold, hot, and 
sweating stages, it is properly termed fever. 
But the vital action, as a whole, is not neces- 
sarily increased or decreased in either case. It 
IB simply deranged. If directed with preter- 
natural or disproportionate force in one direc- 
tion, it is correspondingly decreased in some 
other direction. Thus, if determined to the 
surface, the fever or inflammation is high, ac- 
tive, entonic, etc If from the surface, low, 
typhoid, passive, atonic, etc. In all cases it is 
perverted or abnormal. 

Applying this explanation of diseased vital 
organs to disordered mental powers, the na- 
ture and rationale of insanity becomes self- 
evident, and, in the light of Phrenology, sus- 
ceptible of philosophical demonstration and 
scientiflc treatment 

As Dr. Gray stated that all the modem clas- 
siflcations of the various forms of insanity 
are, essentially, unimportant modifications of 
that of Dr. Arnold, it may help the reader to 

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INSANITY MUDDLED. 



165 



see its absurdity if we arrange his classification 
in tabular form : 

Delusive, 

Whimsical, 

Fanciful, 

Vain, orselMniportaiit, 

HypochondricaL 

Pathetic. 



Ix&unTT. 



Incoherent 
ManiacaL 



Amorous, 

Jealous, 

Avaricious, 

Suspicious, 

Misanthropic, 

Arrogant, 

Irascible, 

Sensittve. \ ^^horrcnt, 
^ Bashful, 
Timid, 
Sorrowful, 
Distressful, 
Nostal/(ia, 
Superstitious, 
Fanatical, 
Desponding. 

Nothing can be more *' fanciful " than this 
arrangement, which made ejreiy word in the 
dictionary expressive of mental aberration a 
distinct form or species of insanity. As well 
might the nosologist term every symptom of 
dyspepsia of ferer a distinct disease, as, in- 
deed, some medical authors do. 

Dr, Gray informed his students that " classi- 
fying insanity on the basis of mental physiolo- 
gy was declared to be of no value, and not 
practical" Declared by whom? It is not 
difficult to show that mental physiology is the 
only basis that is either useftil or practical, and 
is the one that all the physicians of our lunatic 
asylums do recognize in practice, whatever 
theories they entertain in technical language. 
All disease of body or mind is disordered phyn- 
^Jiyy, and nothing else; hence, physiology in 
order, ** the normal play of the ftmctions," is 
the only possible basis on which we can scien- 
tifically explain or successfblly medicate the 
derangements or perverted actions of the vital 
or the mental organs. 

Insanity can no more augment mental pow- 
er than fever can augment vitality. If action 
ia pretematurally increased in one or more 
mental organs, it is decreased in others. To 
aay that the whole mind is strengthened by 
maanity is as absurd as the notion the vitality 
. can be " supported " by alcoholic poison. But 
if one mental organ is acting with an intensity 



that diyerts action firom other organs, and dis- 
orders the whole to the extent of inducing fidse 
recognitions, the condition and disease consti- 
tute insanity. 

To illustrate: give the stomach an emetic 
dose of ipecac or antimony and a meal of vic- 
tuals at the same time. The stomach will 
become sick. It will retch and vomit It is 
organically insane. In its "ravings" it will 
treat both medicine and food alike. It will 
struggle to eject both. It has lost its power to 
discriminate ; or, if it can still recognize the 
food elements as well as the poison elements, 
its efforts to expel the poison will also expel 
the food. This morbid action of the stomach, 
although remedial and defensive, is disordered 
physiology; and disordered physiology is 
pathology. 

Apply the same principle to a mental oigan. 
If any cause, mental or physical, so disturbs 
the circulation, nervous influence, and flmc- 
tional action of one or more mental organs, or 
of all of them, that the recognition of external 
objects are false, the manifestations of that dis- 
turbance constitutes the symptoms of insanity. 
The manifestations or sjrmptoms will corre- 
spond with the oi^n or organs most disturbed, 
proving again, if more proof be needed, that 
the mind is composed of a plurality of organs. 
Indeed, Arnold's classification recognizes this 
fact, although he ignores Phrenology, as does 
Dr. Gray. 

If the oi-gan of mind— the brain—were sin- 
gle, there could be but one form of insanity, 
but one mental process or recognition. If the 
bodily organization was a single structure or 
viscus, there could be but one vital process and 
but one form of disease. If our organs of ex- 
ternal relation — the five senses — were single 
instead of plural, seeing, hearing, smelling, 
tasting, and feeling would be resolved into a 
single function or sense. 

Now, the vital organization has a plurality 
of organs for its many functions. Ajid so has 
the mental organization. And when any vital 
or mental organ is disordered from any cause, 
its form of disease will be manifested in the 
derangement of the flinction pertaining to the 
organ. It is perverted or abnormal action in 
all cases. 

When all of the mental organs are so dis- 
ordered that all recognitions are abnormal, the 
affection is termed delirium or mania. If the 
malrecognitions be limited to a single organ, 
the insanity will relate to the objects which 
pertain to the organ, and is termed monoma- 
nia. The causes of insanity mav^o>^ 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[March, 



cially disturb a class or group of oigans, and 
the disease be manifested in erroneous recogni- 
tions of persons or objects wbicli relate to the 
domestic, social, moral, religious, self-relatiye, 
• or intellectual nature. 

Intellectual insanity means the false recogni^ 
tion of the data of knowledge; objects are 
seen, felt, or heard abnormally, hence the 
thoughts and reasonings are also abnormal 
This is the basis of what is termed ** notional" 
insanilf* All other forms relate to the affectu- 
ous mind, and are emMmoL And the fact that 
emotional insanity has Just as many yarieties 
(monomanias) as the phrenolologists have lo- 
cated emotional organs, is a very curious coin- 
cidence, if Phrenology is nothing but a verbal 
theory. The Tribune^9 report says : 

" The students were advised by the lecturer 
to study disease at the bedside. There they 
would not esteem it worth while to begin the 
minute philosophic analysis of mind as a prep- 
aration for treatment They would find it 
quite sufficient to diagnosticate mania, melan- 
cholia, or dementia; the Airther divisions they 
could leave to speculation. These states char- 
acterized all they would ever find in cases. 
The mind of man for the actions of life is a 
unit His mental bemg is constituted of emo- 
tional and intellectual powers. He feels and 
thinks, and out of these mental operations 
come his acts. Dr. Gray suggested the sub- 
division of mania into acute, sub-acute, chronic, 
paroxysmal, and periodic, as a method of more 
clearly designating the stage or characteristics 
of the maniacal state in individuals. Chronic 
melancholia is a term also properly applicable 
to cases that have passed into fixed conditions. 
Dementia, the lecturer spoke of as the feeble 
condition following mania and melancholia in 
the progressive degeneration from insanity, 
and ending often in a state resembling idiocy. 
Epilepsy was treated as a disease of the brain, 
which often leads to the various forms of in- 
sanity, but rarely develops melancholia. 

*' Classifying on a basis of mental physiology 
was declared to be of no value and not practi- 
cal. In strict scientific language, there is no 
such thing as physiology of the mind, because 
at the outset none are agreed as to what con- 
stitutes mind. Not even that distinguished 
master of philosophy. Sir William Hamilton, 
undertook to give any definition of the essen- 
tial constitution of mind. Now, the office of 
physiology is to treat of the elements out of 
which living cells, proximate, organic com- 
pounds and ultimate tissues are formed, to- 
fliether with the laws of their development and 



the regulation of their itmctions. But who can 
tell what the constituent elements of mind are, 
what the proximate compounds that form 
ideas, what the combinations by which elective 
afllnities produce sympathy or association of 
ideas, what the diffiision of a pervading thought 
throughout the entire mind, what the approxi- 
mate elements of a good memory, as compared 
with a poor one, or a loss of past ideas ? Who 
can even explain' why a glass of whiskey makes 
one man belligerent and another affectionate ? 
No system of physiology or chemistry can ex- 
plain mind as mind. It is hx more correct, 
therefore, to speak of the philosophy of mind 
than of its physiology, because all we know of 
mind is purely phenomenal, and is symptom- 
atic of a power expressing itself through an in- 
strument—the brain; which instrument, ac- 
cording to its physical condition of disease in 
insanity, either enlarges, diminishes, perverts, 
or otherwise modifies the representation of the 
mental state behind it Hence an insane man 
may lose his knowledge of the identity of per- 
sons, surrounding, and even. things which he 
sees plainly enough, but does not interpret 
mentally to himself, but sees them through an 
enveloping delusion. 

" Of impulsive insanity. Dr. Gray said it could 
not exist In insknity, both the premises and 
reasons might be wrong, inducing the acts, but 
the acts were not impulsive — they had emotion 
or passion behind. The lecturer quoted f^om 
Dr. Arnold a description of impul^ve insanity, 
wherein he had presented several varieties. Fi- 
nally he said, * Admitting the possibility of 
such fonus of insanity as impulsive and moral, 
there would be too few cases to trouble classi- 
fication.' He then spoke of the diagnosis of 
insanity, and said that in diagnosticating in- 
sanity from other brain diseases, there must be 
taken into consideration tlie peculiar mental 
manifestations as hallucinations, delusions, etc., 
which he had dwelt upon in a previous lecture. 
He spoke in detail of the various conditions of 
disordered health which would be found to 
precede insanity, and illustrated the subject by 
a number of cases of mania, three cases of mel- 
ancholia in its several stages, one case of de- 
mentia following melancholia, and one case of 
dementia of long standing and profound break- 
ing down of body and mind.** 

Perhaps it would be difficult to find a more 
complete illustration of what confhsion a 
learned professor may make of a very simple 
subject when reasoning from fklse premises. 
Should I characterize the above quotation as 
logical insanity, I should not mean that Dr. 

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PLANT' GROWTH— ROTATION OF CROPS. 



187 



Gray was crazy, but that hie premises were 
fklse. **All men are dogs; philosophers are 
men; therefore all philosophers are dogs." 
The conclusion is correct^ bat the premise is 
fiilse. Eeasooing from fiUse premises is pre- 
cisely the same mental process as insanity, so 
fiu* as intellectual recognitions are concerned. 

The physician who can not analyze the 
mental powers physiologically, is not fit to 
medicate their maladies. Whaj; would Dr. 
Gray think of a physician who should under- 
take to treat cephalitis, carditis, pneumonitis, 
gastritis, hepatitis, enteritis, or nephritis, and 
yet be unable to analyze, anatomically, the vital 
organism into brain, heart, lungs, stomach, 
liver, bowels, kidneys, etc. ? 

** The mind of man ibr the actions of life is a 
miit" This is no more true of the mind than it 
is cX the body. Dr. Gray, in stating that man 
"feels and thinks," and that his mental being is 
** constituted of emotional and intellectual pow- 
ers," contradicts his own "unit" theory, and 
tmconsciously admits Phrenology. Idiocy is 
a negation ; the absence of mental action, not 
its p^ersity, hen6e is as different from insan- 
ity as death is from disease. 

No such thing as mental physiology, because 
the great Sir William Hamilton can not define 
it, says Dr. Gray. Will he argue that there is 
no such thing as matter, mind, soul, spirit, 



force, or God, because learned men disagree 
in their definitions? But if Dr. Gray will 
study the works on Phrenology, he will find 
that all authorities en that science are agreed 
as to what constitutes mind. 

Dr. Gray iJropounds several very important 
questions, assuming that they are unanswer- 
able. Any tyro in Phrenology can not only 
answer, but explain every one of them, not ex- 
cepting the whiskey problem. But when Dr. 
Gray says, " No system of physiology or chem- 
istry can explain mind as mind," he confounds 
two subjects as naturally disconnected as a 
living organism and a lifeless stone. Vital or- 
ganisms are not in any sense chemical. Chem- 
ical elements are not compounded into ideas 
and feelings, as acids and alkalies are com- 
pounded into salts and minerals. Mind is not 
a chemical combination, nor is memory made 
of " approximate elements," admitting of an- 
alysis into distinct constituents; nor does 
thought ever " pervade throughout the entire 
mind," nor do ideas pass in or out of tJie mind. 
Thought itself is mental action ; memory is 
mental recognition, and mind itself is frmction, 
not entity. A very little knowledge of Phre- 
nology would have enabled Dr. Gray to avoid 
the perpetration of so much metaphysical nou- 
sence. 

When Dr. Gray will tell us how to treat in- 
sanity on his anti-physiological and anti-phre- 
nological theories, I will be ready to show him 
the better way of " ministering to a mind dis- 
eased," as its rules of practice are deduced from 
the principles of Physiology and Phrenology. 

R. T. TRALL, M.D. 




7n,«t4iUe.ophyU»reT«toiS<mofth»lMTfa«wmiiiMikttodln<n»^ 



PLANT-GBOWTH-BO 

THE three kingdoms of nature are but 
three steps in a grand system. The 
vegetable kingdom draws its food from the 
atmosphere and the soil. The animal king- 
dom derives its supply of nourishment from 
the vegetable ; in turn, the animals and the 
vegetables die and decay, and passing into the 
atmosphere and back to the ground, add to 
the inexhaustible stores of fertility, and thus 
provide the materials for a new round in the 
grand system of circulation. 

Plants are but the transformation of the 
soil and fertile materials held by the atmo- 
spheit. They are not the result of a new 
eserdse of the creative power ; at most, they 



TATION OP CBOPS. 

are only a chemical combination. Before 
this process of transformation of materials 
from earth and air into vegetation, the rudi- 
ments of the plant must be developed from 
the seed. Of the sixty elements which com- 
pose the mineral world, only four are mainly 
concerned in the veg^etable world: hydro- 
gen, oxygen, carbon, and nitrogen. The 
plant sends down its roots into the soil in 
search of mineral food, which it assimilates 
and lifts its leaves into the air, fix)m which 
it also derives, important nourishment. This 
process of assimilation is hidden in nature^s 
great laboratory. Under the influence of 
light, heat, moisture, and electricity, the 

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constitaeDts which enter into the growth of 
vegetation, are decomposed in the soil, and 
rendered capable of being dissolved in water, 
and in this condition are absorbed by the 
roots of plants. After the plant has grown, 
perfected its seed for the reproduction of 
its kind, it dies, is decomposed, part remain- 
ing in the soil and part melting into the at- 
mosphere. These gases which are ever pres- 
ent in the air, are absorbed by the leaves of 
the plant, recomposed and added to its struc- 
ture. The great system of circulation is 
completed. Vegetable life is a condition of 
unceasing motion, a never-ending transform- 
ation of matter. One generation buildeth 
up, and another generation pulleth down. 

Some philosophers, viewing this system of 
circulation, have maintained that crops can 
be produced without artificial manuring. 
That Dame Nature can be compelled to yield 
up her bounties with but little assistance. 
The atmosphere and water perform a very 
important office in vegetable growth, and it 
is asserted from this that plants should re- 
ceive their nourishment without the employ- 
ment of artificial means. M. Baudrimont 
would find the source of plant food in the 
interstitial currents which pervade all arable 
soils. He states that there is a material pro- 
cess at work, by which liquid currents rise 
to the surface from a certain depth in the 
ground, and thus bring to the surface mate- 
rials either to maintain its fertility or t« 
modify its character. Schleiden had a very 
plausible system on the phenomena of vege- 
tation. He does not admit of any relation 
between the fertility of a soil and the quan- 
tity of fertilizing materials expended upon 
it. He maintains that the productiveness of 
the soil depends upon its inorganic constitu- 
ents, so far, at least, as they are soluble in 
water, or through continued action of car- 
bonic acid ; and that the more abundant and 
various these solutions, the more fruitful the 
soil. This class of philosophers advance the 
theory, that in no instance do the organic 
substances contained in the soil perform uiy 
direct office in the nutrition of plants. As 
a proof of this theory, they reason in this 
wise: The annual destruction of organic 
matter all over the earth is one hundred and 
forty-five billions, or two and a fourth bill- 
ions of cubic fieet ; and if all vegetation de- 



pends on organic matter for nutrition, to 
satisfy this consumption, there must have 
been, 6,000 years back, ten feet deep of pure 
organic substance on the surface of the earth. 
Another proof of the truth of this position 
is found in taking the number of cattle and 
other animals in the world in any given year, 
and estimating the amount of food they con- 
sume. The process of nutrition would re- 
quire six times more than the whole number 
furnishes of organic matter toward reproduc- 
tion, and in one hundred years the whole or- 
ganic material of the world would be con- 
sumed. Again : an acre of sugar plantation 
produces 7,500 pounds of canes, of which 
1,200 pounds are carbon, and yet sugar plant- 
ations are seldom manured, and then only 
with the ashes of burnt canes. According 
to Link and Schwartz, an acre of water- 
meadow produces 4,400 pounds of hay, 
which, when dry, contains 45.8 per cent, of 
carbon. The hay then yields 2,000 pounds of 
carbon, to which 1,000 pounds may be added 
for the portion of the year in which the 
grass is not cut, and for the roots. To pro- 
duce this 8,000 pounds of carbon, 10,980 
pounds of carbonic acid are requisite. Ac- 
cording to Mr. Lawes, a plant of any of our 
ordinary crops has passed through it 200 
grains of water for every single grain of 
solid substance that accumulates within it. 
He asserts that the evaporation of an acre of 
wheat is 114,860 gallons during its growth, 
or 73,510,000 gallons per square mile. Prom 
this, it is seen that the quantity of material 
furnished by the atmosphere, though minute 
to an individual plant, is great in the aggre- 
gate. The necessity of understanding the 
relations between evaporation and rate of 
growth, and the laws and effects of absorp- 
tion in soils, is very important in the pro- 
duction of crops. It is also maintained that 
our domestic plants do not require a greater 
supply of nitrogen than is found in a state 
of nature. A water-meadow which has nev- 
er received any manure, yields yearly from 40 
to 60 pounds of nitrogen, while the best 
plowed land yields only 81 pounds. Experi- 
ments with various kinds of plants on vari- 
ous soils, have proved that increase of nitro- 
gen in the soil and in the crops does take 
place, irrespective of supplies of manure. 
These theories seem to conflict with facta in 

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1875.] 



PLANT-GROWTH— ROTATION OF CROPSf 



189 



ike growth of plants, though they have 
some points which should receive the atten- 
tion of intelligent cultivators. It must be 
admitted that the atmosphere is the great 
reservoir from which plants directly or in- 
directly obtain nearly all their nourishment. 
The portion of the plant that is purely min- 
eral is very small. This is illustrated by the 
accumulation of vegetable organic materials 
in the soil wherever vegetation is undisturbed 
from year to year. But while the soil is 
made rich by undisturbed vegetation, it is 
impoverished by agriculture. The farmers 
carry away the crops, and nothing is left to 
emich the soil. To equalize this they must 
restore to the soil an equivalent for the re- 
moval of the crop. This can be accomplished 
by a system of manuring. According to 
Baussingault, a medium crop of wheat ab- 
stracts from the soil 12 pounds per acre ; a 
crop of beans, 20 pounds; a crop of beets, 11 
pounds of phosphoric acid, besides a very 
large quantity of potash and soda. 

The statistician of our Agricultural De- 
partment, in 1868, presented the following 
tabic, showing the percentage of exhaustive 
and restorative crops respectively produced 
in the following countries, and the yield of 
wheat per acre in each, in the year 1868 : 

Yield wheat 
EzbanstiTe. Restorative. 9 acre, 
9 cent. |) cent. bashels. 

Rnsland.^ 018 67 S8 

PnitaU..^ .46 66 17 

Prance 64 46 14 

United States 00 40 IS 

This table corresponds with the facts in 
the case. In many of the European countries 
the annual yield per acre of all the lands 
onder cultivation is greatly on the increase 
from year to year, while in the United States 
the yield per acre is on the decrease. This 
table shows not only the condition of wheat 
cultivation, but is a good index to the differ- 
ent systems of agriculture. It is certainly to 
be regretted that a system of tillage has 
been carried on that has permitted the soil 
of Kew England, New York, Pennsylvania, 
and Ohio, to become so impoverished that, 
instead of yielding 80 bushels of wheat per 
acre, there is now raised only 15 bushels per 
acre. It is a bad system of cultivation that 
so soon exhausts the cotton plantations of 
the South. This system which impoverishes 
our lands should be discontinued. France, 
by a judicious system of tillage, has shown 



what a soil may be made to bring forth. Its 
territory is less in extent than the State of 
Texas, but in 1868 it produced more bushels 
of all the cereals, except Indian com, than 
the whole United States. That year a popu- 
lation larger than ours, and more domestic 
animals than we possess, were supported, and 
agricultural products to the value of $581,- 
000,000 exported. Our agricultural products 
that year amounted to $441,000,000. 

Rotation of crops, together with a system 
of green manuring, has given to Flemish 
husbandry its great and acknowledged su- 
periority over that of every other country. 
By rotation of crops, the farmers of the 
county of Norfolk, and other sandy regions 
of England, have converted those barren dis- 
tricts into fruitful, wealthy, and populous 
cbunties of that kingdom. This same sys- 
tem has made the agricultural improvements - 
in Scotland and Germany. By a system of 
rotation and judicious manuring, China and 
several European countries have carried on a 
profitable system of agriculture. •China, with 
a soil natm'ally poor and unproductive, and 
with no stock to produce manure to enrich 
it, has, for many centuries, supported 400,- 
000,000 people from its own resources. In 
Belgium, where the land has been tilled for 
more than a thousand years, the soil pro- 
duces 50 bushels of wheat per acre, with 
other crops in proportion. England, by a 
proper rotation of crops, by drainage, and a 
liberal use of manure, has brought up the 
averaged yield of wheat from 10 bushels to 
86 bushels per acre, and in some localities as 
high as 50 or 60 bushels. In Southern Eu- 
rope, by cutting off the forests, and contin- 
ual cropping, the land now yields but poor 
returns. The decrees of the Catholic kings 
furnish a picture of the gradual exhaustion 
of the Spanish soil. In the twelfth century 
the king Alonzo Inzeno, and Pedro the Cruel, 
of Castile, had issued orders for the saving 
of meadows and pastures; and Charles Y. 
commanded that the meadows recently turn- 
ed into fields, should again be used for pas- 
ture land only. At present, the land in Cat- 
alonia produces only one. crop in two years, 
and in Andalusia only one in three years. 
Our system is exactly that which impover- 
ished Italy, Greece, Spain, Portugal, and the 
West Indies. No nation, however powerful 

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she nmy haye been, has been able to exist un- 
less she has preserved the fertility of her soiL 

Mr. Gostaye de Neyell has contributed a 
valuable paper to the last Agricultural Re- 
port of the State of Wisconsin, on a proper 
rotation of crops. He says that whether 
stock-raising, dairying, or the growing of 
grain is to predominate, or whether, as ap- 
pears preferable, all these are carried on in 
fair proportions, successful fanning must 
have for its basis the growing in a great de- 
gree the cultivated grasses, and more partic- 
ularly that of clover. The proper rotation 
would be: the first and second years in 
clover, or clover and timothy mixed; the 
third year in pasture ; the fourth in com and 
hoed crops ; and the fifth in wheat. Afber 
manuring the pasture lands, if there be any 
manure left, spread.it on that land which is 
*to be sown to light grains, oats, barley, and 
then seed down. The same system of rota- 
tion is repeated for another six years. If the 
proper division of lots has been made, there 
will constantly be upon the farm one field of 
com, potatoes, etc. ; one in wheat, one in 
oats, barley, and light grains, and three lots, 
or one-half of the farm, in grass. All the 
lots of grass should receive a dressing of 
plaster each year; that in com should also 
be plastered at least once during the early 
stages of its growth. He considers pasturing 
the least expensive and most profitable system 
for restoring worn-out and exhausted soils. 

Grain-growing should go hand in hand 
with grass-growing and stock-raising. A 
smaller amount of land in the West for each 
farmer, and a more diversified agriculture is 
a system that will surely lead to success. 
Large tracts of land in the West have cre- 
ated a tendency to careless and slovenly till- 



age. Farmers do not make agriculture a 
business. Instead of pursuing a straightfor- 
ward course, and trying to increase the fer- 
tility of tiie soil, they oilen rush into a novel 
enterprise, and leave the tillage of the soil 
half done. It has well been said that the 
trae policy of the intelligent farmer is, when 
he sees hb neighbors turning their attention 
to pork-raising, for him to turn his attention 
to raising com, meanwhile omitting nothing 
essential to steady and uniform success. 
When any considerable number of farmers 
direct their attention to the production of a 
certain staple, to the neglect of a necessary 
article of consumption, the neglected article 
must enhance in value because of the defi- 
ciency of the supply. A more careful system 
of agriculture must be adopted in this coun- 
try, or our fertile lands will become impover- , 
ished. Our system of tillage has been, and 
is now, to a great extent, a scourging and ex- 
haustive one. Von Liebigy speaking of our 
system of cultivation, said that it was reck- 
less ana exhaustive. It is necessary for the 
welfare of the State, necessary for the wel- 
fare of the nation, that energy and mind 
should be engaged in agriculture, because 
without the promotion of this industry, it 
will be impracticable to maintain a great na- 
tion. Mr. Jefierson, with all his confidence 
in a free government, could not exactly fore- 
see how a republican government d)uld be 
maintained with such a population as the 
United States must ultimately possess in her 
cities. An enlightened system of agricul- 
ture is the greatest foundation upon which 
a nation can build, and all reasonable means 
should be used to impress the American 
farmer with the importance of his vocation, 
with a view to working a reform in our man- 
ner of cultivation. dabiub h. fikorbt. 



DAVID WEBSTEBy 

THE GALLANT SCOTTISH SAILOR. 



DEEDS of gallantly and self-devotion on 
land and sea always command the re- 
spect and admiration of society everywhere, 
and go far to confirm the oft-quoted saying 
of the poet — 

" One touch of nature makes the whole world 
kin." 



Hence we need make no apology for brin^ 
ing to the notice of the reader the young 
man whose name heads this sketch, as it will 
appear, as we proceed, that he deserve our 
consideration. 

David Webster was serving in the capac- 
ity of second mate on board of the bark Ar- 

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DAVID WEB8TBR, 



191 



racan, of Greenock, a well-known shipping 
port of Scotland, while on a yoyage last 
winter with a cargo of coal from Shields to 
Bombay. In the Indian Ocean the vessel 
took fire, and the flames spreading 'rapidly, 
the crew was obliged to abandon her, and 
take to the boats. For three days the boats 
kept together, the object entertained being 




FOKCBAIT OF DaTID WkMTBB. 

to reach the Maldive Islands, but the current 
being too strong, it was agreed to separate, 
and a division of provisions was made. 

The master of the vessel took command of 
the long-boat, which he headed for Cochin, 
while the mate and Mr. Webster, each in 
charge of separate boats, made for the Mal- 
dive Islands. After two days Webster*s boat 
was damaged by a heavy sea, and could not 
keep up with the mate's, and so lost sight of 
it. The brave fellow worked his little crafb, 
with its freightage of four persons besides 
himaelf, slowly along for about fifteen dajrs, 
or UQtM March 9th, by which time the supply 
of provisions and water had been consumed. 
Soon the hunger of the men became so great 
that lots were casi which of them should be 



first killed to serve as food for the rest, and 
the lot fell upon the youngest, a boy named 
Homer; but Mr. Webster, who had been 
asleep while this terrible business was going 
on, awoke in time to save the boy's life. 
The bafiied men that night made an attempt 
to kill Webster himself, but the boy Homer 
awoke him in time to save himself. On the 
following day Webster, having fallen 
asleep, was awakened by the struggles 
of the crew for the possession of his 
gun, with which to shoot him. Two 
hours later the crew again attempted 
to take Homer's life, but were pre- 
vented by the determined conduct of 
Webster, who threatened to shoot and 
throw overboard the first man who 
laid hands on the boy. The neirt day 
one of the crew attempted to sink the 
boat, but Webster mastered him, and 
prevented further-mischief. Two days 
later the same member of the crew 
again tried to sink the boat, and ex- 
pressed his determination to take the 
boy's life. For this he would have 
been shot by Mr. Webster had not 
the cap on the gun missed fire. Soon 
after, putting a fresh cap on his gun, 
a bird flew over the boat, which Web- 
ster shot ; it was at once seized and 
devoured by the crew, even to the 
bones and feathers. During the next 
five days the crew were quieter, sub- 
sisting on barnacles which attached 
themselves to the bottom of the boat, 
and on sea blubl)er, for which they 
dived. The following day some of the men 
became delirious. One of them lay down 
exhausted, when another struck him several 
blows on the head with an iron belaying- 
pin, cutting him badly. The blood which 
fiowed was citught in a tin and drank by the 
man himself and the two other men. After- 
ward they fought and bit one another, and 
only left oflf when completely exhausted, to 
recommence as soon as they were able, the 
boy Homer during the time keeping watch 
with Webster. On the thirty-first day of 
their experience in the boat they were pick- 
ed up, 600 miles from land, by the ship City 
of Manchester, by which they were taken to 
Calcutta. 
The lives of all, as is evident, were saved 

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[Mabch, 



by the courage and diacretion of Webater, 
and laat sammer, aa a testimonial in acknowl- 
edgement of bis noble conduct, Queen Vic- 
toria conferred upon him the Albert medal 
of the second class, an honor which was ac- 
companied with the approval of the British 
Board of Trade. The portrait is certainly 
that of a fine young fellow. The features 



generally are expressive of good-nature and 
sincerity of motive, while the lips and mouth 
indicate a staunch, resolute, self-reliant na^ 
tuie. The Scottish type appears cooi^icu- 
ously enough in the cast of the face and head, 
although the softness of the eyes would in 
dicate some infusion of a more southern type 
in his family relations. 



BIBLE OBieiN OF THE BACES OF MEN. 



IN the November number of the Phbeno- 
LOGiCAL JouBNAL, a wHter, signing him- 
self Orlando, discusses the subject of the 
Unity of the race, and claims it to be bibli- 
cal. He need not have written so many 
pages to prove his position, if he takes the 
King James version as his guide. There is 
no clearer proposition than this, that with 
the elimination of names and words and the 
substitution of English terms, having morn- 
ings different from, and sometimes opposite 
to, the Hebrew originals, our Bible is flatly 
committed to the unity of the race. Like 
most writers upon this subject, he has run 
over the Bible, picking up detached passages 
in support of his argument, and never once 
referred to his text, Gen. i. 26, 27. In these 
two verses in the King James version lies not 
only his proof, but his fallacy. 

It will be my object, in the limit of this 
article, to show that Gen i. 26 should record 
the bringing into existence a class of beings 
called by God himself, and named by him 
Adam, and that name is defined by Moses in 
Gen. V. 2 as male and female man, and that 
this was one distinct act of the creative fiat. 
Also that Gen. i. 27 should, in like manner, 
record the bringing into existence an indi- 
vidual man, called in the Hebrew Ha-Adam 
and in English The-Adamy and also a class, 
male and female — Th^Adam being the man 
put into the garden of Eden. There are thus 
in the Hebrew two Adams in the day of cre- 
ation, one a class male and female, and the 
other an individual man. 

That the reader can determine for himself- 
by observation the difference between the ac- 
count in the Hebrew with the Hebrew names 
Adam and The- Adam restored to their places, 
and the account as mutilated in the King 
James version, we give you them both : 



CREATIYB ACCOUKT WITH HBBRBW NAMES 
RESTOBED. 

Gen. i. 26. — And God said, let us make 
Adam (restored) in our image after our like- 
ness, and let them have dominion over tke 
fish of the sea, etc. 

Gen. i. Wt.—A'nd (restored) God created 
The- Adam (restored) in his own image in the 
image of God created he him, male and fe- 
male created he them. 

CBEATTVB ACCOUNT IN THE KING JAMES 
VERSION. 

Qten, i. 26. — ^And God said, let us make man 
(substitution) in our image after our likeness, 
and let them have dominion over the fish of 
the sea, etc. 

Gen. i. 27. — 8o (substitution) God created 
man (substitution) in his own image in the 
image of God created he him, male and fe- 
male created he them. 

It will be seen by comparing the two ac- 
counts that Adam^ in Gen. i. 26, has been 
stricken out of the account and man substi- 
tuted. Let us see what this Adam means 
biblically : Gen. v. 2, *^ Male and female cre- 
ated he them and blessed them, and called 
their name Adam in the day when they were 
created." 

That is, God created a class of people, 
called their name Adam, and we arc now 
asked to call that the Word of God which 
neither contains the name, nor the remotest 
idea of the transaction. Similar eliminations 
occur in Gen. i. 27, Ha-Adam, or The-Adam, 
is stricken out, as well as the word and at the 
beginning of that verse, and man substituted 
for the first, and the word «> for the second. 

WHY THESE ALTERATIONS? UNITY o4 THE 
RACE. 

Jn^ff^.— How do you account for these 
eliminations and substitutions ? 

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193 



Am,-^1 can not accoant for them on any 
other hypothesis than that the translators en- 
tertained the common theological view of the 
unity of the race, and hence, when they came 
to these Hebrew names and the word and in 
Qen. i. 27, that yiew wonld not be made out 
if they were retained, and to make the rec- 
ord what they thought it should be, they re- 
sorted to this mutilation of God^s Word. 
Why did the translators eliminate Adam in 
Gen. i. 26, as we have seen, and retain Adam 
in Gen. v. 2, the one being the definition of 
the other ? Because Adam in Gen. L 26 was 
in the way of the unity, and in Gen. y. 2 it 
was not Then why did they eliminate The- 
Adam altogether from our Bible, that name 
never appearing in it, although it occurs in 
the Hebrew thirty-six times in the first eleven 
chapters ? They eliminated it in Gen. i. 27 
because it was in the way of their honest 
conyictions of a unity, and they eliminated 
it throughout the Gknesis in order to make 
the Flood destroy all men, instead, as the 
Hebrew account has it, every The-Adam. 

These eliminations and substitutions made 
the second head of the unity of the race in 
Koah. There are no less than forty-three 
false namings and foreign terms used in the 
King James version in the first eleven chap- 
ten of Genesis to denote these two Hebrew 
names — ^I mean by this that the names Adam 
and The-Adam do not occur in the English 
where they appear in the Hebrew, and that 
no uniform term for each is used in their 
stead. Some readers may exclaim, '' What a 
heinous attack upon the Bible ! " I admit it 
if I am wrong ; but if I am right it may be 
construed as an attack upon those whose call- 
ing and duty it is to give the Word of God 
pure, as it is found in the Hebrew, and espe- 
cially to those who can not read that lan- 
guage, and who depend upon their teachers 
to explain the length and breadth, height and 
depUi of God^s revealed Word. When, there- 
fore, I use the word biblical, I do not mean 
the King James version, but I mean the Bi- 
ble with these names restored to it, as they 
are found in the Hebrew. 

.fii^ir«r.— How do these mutilations con- 
trol the construction of the unity of the race ? 

Am, — ^In Gen. i. 26 Adam, the class, is 
eliminated, and man substituted. In Gen. 
i, 27 Tke-Adam is eliminated, and man sub- 



stituted. The use of a common term, man^ 
having the same meaning in both verses, ad- 
mits of the use of «0 instead of and at the 
beiginning of Gen. i 27. Thus translators 
make the Bible declare that Adam^ the class, 
male and female, is identical with The-Adam, 
the individual man I The efifect of these elim- 
inations and substitutions is to strike out 
from the creative account altogether, a prin- 
cipal act of Gk>d in the creation of mankind, 
namely, the bringing into existence the class 
Adam, male and female ; next to ignore the 
creation of The-Adam^ and to confine the 
whole creative account to the positive terms, 
*' male and female created he them," in Gen. 
i. 27. 

In other veords, by the use of so for and, 
Gen. i. 26, is made a declaration of intention 
to do what is recorded as done in Gen. L 27, 
according to the King James mutilation. 
This is the groun-dwork of the unity of the 
race, and it is accomplished by striking out 
these two Hebrew names from the creative 
account, and the word and. The finishing 
stroke of this construction is made in the 
further elimination all through the Genesis 
of the Hebrew name The-Adam and substi- 
tuting the man, man, men, mm'i, and Adam 
wherever the account required, and thus to 
destroy by Flood every man that the unity 
might have a second head in Noah. 

TRYING TO SET THB HATTEB BIGHT. 

Inquirer, — How will the ordinary reader 
know that these Hebrew names occur inr the 
Genesis in the places spoken of ? 

Ans, — ^All I can do to enlighten him I 
have done; and here comes in a fact not 
creditable to any one in particular. I have 
made publications of these facts and sent 
them broadcast to Jews, Gentiles, rabbis, 
divines, and learned men, with the urgent 
request, in each case, to inform me if I was 
vnrong, thai I might correct myself. But 
though this subject has been before them 
several years, no one man of them, or any 
casual reader, has answered to this day, 
either admitting or denying my statements. 
This has seemed very strange to me; for 
while every church throughout the length 
and breadth of the land is begging pennies 
and dollars to teach tlie Word of God in this 
and foreign countries, one who is laboring 
to elucidate the most startling biblical idea 

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Ql trne) of the nineteenth century, doing 
much harm if he is wrong, and endeavoring 
to serve God and His Word in correcting a 
huge error if he is right, can not as much as 
receive an answer to a simple biblical in- 
quiry such as — ^Are these Hebrew names found 
in the Hebrew text where I claim they are ? 
I fear that Orlando speaks the sentiments of 
too large a class of theologians and teach- 
ers of God*s Word when he says: "This 
doctrine (of the unity), indeed, is deeply in- 
terwoven with thiB whole system of Chris- 
tianity, and to reject It would be to involve 
ourselves in difficulties greater than we have 
ever yet grappled with, or than we could 
hope to remove." What! reject the pure 
Word of God to sustain a false theology ? 
If those be the sentiments of our religious 
teachers, heaven protect us from their theolo- 
gies ! I am constrained to believe this to 
be his individual opinion. Mine is, that 
there should be no tampering or trimming 
with the Word of God when once known to 
us, for it will take care of itself, while all 
man theologies must take care of them- 
selves. 

Under this state of things the general 
reader must be content to read such a Bible 
as is vouchsafed to be printed for him ; and 
if the Hebrew names are left behind in the 
passage of God's Word to the English, and 
he has had forced upon him a construction 
not warranted, when the news comes to him 
of the fact he must do as I have done — if he 
takes any interest in the matter — look out 
for himself. He may be assured by me that 
he will find these Hebrew names in the 
places where I have claimed they are, and 
as surely, as printing exists on the leaf that 
he reads. 

ORIOmS OF THE RACBS. 

We have had enough of being descended 
from monkeys, apes, and molusks. We have 
had enough, too, of the unity of the race, 
which is a splice or a strong weld upon these 
theories. We have had enough of pre- Ad- 
amite man, and enough of mutilations of 
God's Word, which have been the rich soil 
out of which all these vagaries and theories 
have sprung and have been measurably sus- 
tained. It is high time, considering the in- 
telligence of the age, that we should turn 
our attention to the Word of God, look the 



Mosaic account squarely in the face, read 
with unbiassed minds, find our biblical 
origin, and know whence we came. It is 
clearly laid down there, and, more than that, 
we have a divine law of reproduction of the 
human kinds that will lead back every in- 
quirer to the origin of his kind in either 
Gen. i. 26 or 27. The whole machinery of 
creation of the various kinds of men is given ; 
the law of their continuance is given, and, 
if we will but read in the Word of God and 
not in the mutilations of it, we shall find 
that His revealed Word exactly coincides 
with his acts in nature. 

All human kinds which are persistently 
reproduced find their origin in the day of 
creation in the class Adam^ male and female 
man. Gen. i. 26, except the Hebrew kind, 
which finds its origin in Gen. i. 27. Now, 
why ? In answering this question I leave 
my subject of the restoration of the Hebrew 
names, and give my individual construction 
of the result of such restoration. I find the 
following divine command : 

Gen. i. 24.—" And God said let the earth 
bring forth the living creature after his 
kind," etc. 

Judging from constructions placed upon 
this command and law, there are those who 
deny its authority or its being a part of 
the Word of God. For myself, I regard it 
as vital in its force, strength, and intention 
as a command of God, as any of the Ten 
Commandments or any other portion of Scrip- 
ture. If man is a living creature of God 
he is bound in his reproduction by this law. 
I take it that he is, and is so bound, and 
that all our daily experience confirms the 
divine origin of the law. 

For one, I am not willing to cast this 
divine law and passage of Scripture into the 
waste basket to satisfy these mutilations, but 
in advance would acknowledge its binding, 
force, and investigate God's Word to ascer- 
tain on what it operates, and construe ac- 
cordingly. Orlando, in his argument on this 
point, substantially denies that man is a liv- 
ing creature of God. If the constructionists 
of the unity of the race are driven to such 
extremes to support their theology, it must 
be weak, indeed. 

LAW OF REPRODUCTION. 

There is a divine law laid down in Levit- 

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BIBLE ORIGIN OF THE RAGB8 OF MEN. 



195 



icu8 a^nst marriages of near akin which 
shonld be heeded in considering the number 
of each kind of men and women made on 
the day of creation. It can not be supposed 
that God would make a laW and not make 
provision for its operation. Hence we are 
bound to the conclusion that He made at the 
least two pairs of each kind of men and 
women. 

Giving force and vitality to these two di- 
vine laws, let us look at the creative account 
and the account of the Flood with the He- 
brew names restored, and see if the Word of 
Ood harmonizes throughout with itself^ and 
then see whether it harmonizes with His acts 
in nature. There is a law of reproduction 
for the vegetable kingdom, a like law for 
the animal kingdom, and, as we have seen, a 
like law for mankind, in all, three times re- 
peated in Gen. i. These laws have been 
recognized by all men in the vegetable and 
animal kingdoms, but not recognized as ap- 
plying to mankind ; yet reproduction in all 
three of these kingdoms is carried on by the 
same invariable results as we see them, 
namely, that everything reproduces itself 
after Us or his hind. 

How do these laws respecting mankind 
grovem our construction of Gen. i. 26, 27 ? 
We answer, there are two classes of human 
beings recorded as brought into existence : 
one the class Adam^ male and female man. 
Gen. i. 26, and a class male and female and 
an individual man, The-Adam, Gen. i. 17. 
First, they must be construed normally as 
classes and as they stand. Second, those 
classes must be several in numbers and in 
kind, to satisfy God^s law against marriages 
of near akin, the results of such marriages 
being idiocy or impotency. 

We must, then, conclude that the pure 
Word of Qod from the Hebrew must show 
the following facts, which it does on the 
restoration of the eliminated Hebrew names 
to our English Bible. 

First That all kinds of human beings 
which are now reproduced persistently after 
At« kind find the origin of their kind in the 
creative .account in Gen. i. 26 in the class 
Adam, male and female, except the Hebrew 
kind. 

Second. That the Hebrew kind find their 
origin in Gen. i 27 and their line of repro* 



duction of one branch of this kind commenc- 
ing in The-Adam and Eve and continuing 
through Noah, after the Flood. 

Third. That kinds of human beings in 
the primitive creation contained two or more 
pairs of male and female. 

ACCOUNT OF THB DBLUGB. 

Inquirer, — Then you do not conclude that 
the Flood was universal ? 

Ans. — If the Hebrew names are restored, I 
find nothing of the kind. I find that the 
descendants of The-Adam and Et>6 were de- 
stroyed, except Noah and his family, and 
that no more of the Hebrew kind were de- 
stroyed than those of The-Adam's genera- 
tion. 

If any one will take the trouble to analyze 
the account with the proper names restored 
to their places, and balance carefully what 
Moses has written upon the subject, I can 
not see how he can arrive at any other con- 
clusion. As the Flood is an important ele- 
ment toward a true construction of the record 
on this subject, I shall present to the reader 
every verse of the Genesis which relates to 
the matter wherein the Hebrew names occur, 
that he may judge for himself. 

In the first place, as to the record itself 
and whom it is about. 

Gen. V. 1. — This is the book of the gener- 
ations of The-Adam in the day that God . 
created The-Adam, in the likeness of God 
made he him (not them, as in Gen. i. 26). 

Now, who is Moses writing about ? Is it 
the class Adam, male and female, or about 
any other peoples, even Hebrews ? No ; he 
is simply and solely writing about the gen- 
erations of The-Adam, the individual, gov- 
erned by him at the end of the verse. Con- 
sequently, we need not look in the account 
of the Flood to find any one else except 
those about which Moses was writing. 

Gen. vi. 1. — And it came to pass when 
The -Adam (restored) began to multiply on 
the face of the earth, and daughters were 
bom unto them. 

Gen. vi. 2. — That the sons of God saw the 
daughters of The-Adam that they were fair : 
and they took them wives of all which they 
chose. 

Gen. vi. 8. — And the Lord said, My Spirit 
shall not always strive with Adam (the in- 
dividual governed by he), for that he also is 

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fleeh jet his days shall be a hundred and 
twenty years. 

Gen. yi. 4. — ^There were giants in the earth 
in these days, and also after that when the 
sons of God came in unto the daughters 
of The-Adam^ and they bore children to 
them, the same became mighty men, which 
were of old men of renown. 

Gen. yi 5. — And Gkni saw that the 
wickedness of Th&-Adam was great in the 
earth, and that every imagination of the 
thoughts of his heart was only evil oontinu- 
aUy. 

Gen. yi. 6. — ^And it repented the Lord that 
he had made Ths-Adam on the earth, and 
it grieved him at his heart. 

Gen. vi. 7. — ^And the Lord said, I will de- 
stroy The-Adam whom I have created from 
the face of the earth ; from Adam unto beast 
aod the creeping thing and the fowls of the 
air ; for it repenteth me that I have made 
them. 

Gen. yiL 21. — ^And all flesh died that 
moved upon the earth, both of fowl and of 
cattle and of beast and of every creeping 
thing that creepeth upon the earth and every 
The-Adam. 

Qen, viL 23. — And every living substance 
' was destroyed which was upon the face of 
the ground, both Adam aud cattle and the 
creeping things and the fowl of the heaven ; 
and they were destroyed from the earth ; and 
Noah onlj^remained alive and they that were 
with him in the ark. 

Gen. viii 21. — And the Lord smelled a 
sweet savour ; and the Lord said in his heart, 
I will not again curse the ground any more 
fe/r T7ie-Adam*$ sake ; for the imagination of 
The-Adam'^8 heart is evil from his youth ; 
neither will I again smite any more every- 
thing living, as I have done. 

We see from this account the verification 
of the text, Gen. v. 1, that God determined to 
destroy The-Adam, and that He did destroy 
every The-Adam except Noah and his family, 
and the account concludes by saying that He 
would not again destroy The-Adam. And I 
submit that with these Hebrew names re- 
stored that the whole account of the crea- 
tion of mankind and the account of the Flood 
are so simple and plain that no one could fail 
to understand the whole subject on the first 
reading. 



OAUBB OF THB FLOOD. 

There is one point which is contained in 
the account of the Flood that goes to prove 
the divine origin of the law of reproduction. 
The cause of the Flood is generally attribu- 
ted to " the wickedness of man." I would 
ask any reader if he would gather any such 
idea from reading the account ? It plainly 
states that the immediate cause was the mar- 
riage of the sons of God with the daughters 
of The-Adam. Do Scriptural passages mean 
anything? We think they do, and are as sim- 
ple and as plain as language can make them. 
Do we know what marrying means and is ? 
Marriage ordinarily is an honorable institu- 
tion, especially as God^s command was *' to in- 
crease and multiply and replenish the eartb.*^ 
The *^sons of God" are not described in 
Scripture so that we may know who they 
were, but they must stand normally as a peo- 
ple. Any one assuming to tell who they 
were is simply an inventor. Remember there 
are no Scriptural reasons directly expressed 
why the marriages and child-bearing of 
these women were ofiensive to God, and 
therefore we are compelled to look for some 
law that was violated by such acts. No 
other offense is charged, and hence no other 
must be inferred. 

If the "sons of 'God" had been the de- 
descendants of The-Adam and Eve, what 
law could be violated except the Levitical 
law against marriage of near akin ? 

We can not determine with certainty 
whether they were or were not descendants 
of The-Adam and Eve ; but one thing we can 
determine with mathematical certainty, that 
one or the other of these two laws were vio- 
lated, for the issue in the one case would be 
hybrid sons of God and hybrid Hebrews, and 
in, the other case idiots or imbeciles. From 
this passage of Scripture, too, we can gain a 
clear idea of the enormity of such sin in the 
sight of God when on its account he de- 
stroyed his chosen people, to whom he man- 
ifested himself in various ways, and who 
were selected to reflect his moral laws to the 
yrorld. Then the natural inquiry is, are these 
laws of Scriptural consequence, and should 
they have weight ? 

A STXTMBLmO BLOCK. 

The main question of construction of the 
unity of the race is not whether it is " inter- 
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\VJ 



wo?en with the whole system of Christiani- 
ty;'* it is whether it is biblical truth or er- 
ror. In my judgment, such construction is 
the heayiest load biblical faith has had to 
bear. It has been a bone of contention be- 
tween the clergy on the one side and a heavy 
array of intelligence, supported by the acts 
of God in nature, with no proof to disprove 
these acts as continuous to the day of crea- 
tion, on the other. Is it of no moment to 
tiie cause of Christianity that this vast line 
of intelligent opposition should be brought 
to the support of the Bible ? Is it not a mis- 
nonary field worth consideration if the clergy 
are supporting a false theology, based on 
mutilations of Qod's Word ? The construc- 
tionists of the unity should not forget the 
caae of Gallileo, and many other instances 
where what were pronounced errors have 
become living truths, and all rejoice in their 
establishment. The march of intelligent re- 
search into the truths of Holy Writ should 
develop some new facts, for sound reason 
would show that men who translated the 
Word of God from the Hebrew to the Eng- 
lish language were not perfect in their art or 
inspired, though they may have done the 
best they could to make a faithful transla- 
tion from their stand-point of belief. If, 
therefore, it shall be found that these Hebrew 
names have been dropped in places, and oth- 
er terms substituted by which a construction 
haa been formed or assumed which is not 
warranted, nothing should be more delight- 
ful to the constructionist in error than to find 
this jewel of truth, and be transferred from 
a constant defensive position to one of coin- 
cidence with the acts of God in nature, and 
the settled belief of many intelligent men. 
In this event the Bible and its multiform 
truths would be received as a whole in minds 
and in places where now it is debarred en- 
trance by i:eason of a false construction stand- 
ing at the gateway of Divine revelation. 

Inquirer. — Can you tell when these elim- 
inations were made, and by whom ? 

Afu. — ^I do not know when, how, where, or 
by whom they were made, nor is it materiai 
I have compared the present English with 
the Hebrew; the latter ii acknowledged to 
have been carefully preserved from the orig- 
inal manuscripts. If the Hebraist or trans- 
Ifttfir had chosen to translate Adam, the class. 



as man^ he should, in justioe to the reader, 
have put man in every instance in the Gene- 
sis where Adam occurs in the Hebrew. In 
like manner, if he had chosen to translate Tbe- 
Adam as The-Man^ he should have placed The- 
Man in every place in the Genesis where The- 
Adam occurred in the Hebrew. By so doing 
the sense would have been retained, and the 
construction would have been the same as 
though the names themselves had been used. 
But when Adam ia called man, and Adam 
and The-Adam is variously called the man, 
man, men, men's, and Adam also, and never 
once called The-Adam in the King James 
version, the whole account is falsified. This 
I am truly sorry to be compelled to say, 
though I say it boldly. But while I say it in 
the hope that we may have our Bible made 
right on this subject, I will retract publicly, 
over my own signature, all I have said if any 
skilled Hebraist or divine will convince me 
that I am wrong. I have no interest to 
maintain a wrong idea, but every desire to 
get at the right, and am a fit subject in this 
particular for missionary effort Indeed, I 
think these mutilations are a grievous error 
and a grievous sin, and I will be as humble 
as a child in any effort made to the end of 
correction. My name and address can be 
had of the editor of the Phrbkologioal 
Journal, 889 Brodway, New York. 

ADAH Aim THB-ADAM.* 



The Happy. — Those only are happy who 
have their minds fixed on some object other 
than their own happiness — on the happiness 
of others, on the improvement of mankind, 
even on some art or pursuit, followed, not as 
a means, but as itself an ideal end. Aiming 
thus at something else, they find happiness 
by the way. The enjoyments of life are suf- 
ficient to make it a pleasant thing, when they 
are taken en pauarU^ without being made a 
principal object Once make them so^ and 
they are immediately felt to be insufficient 
They will not bear a scrutinizing examination. 
Ask yourself whether you are happy, and you 
cease to be so. The only chance is to treat, 
not happiness, but some end external to it, as 

* ThiB eabject U discaesed at considerable length iu 
'* Genefis DiscloMd/* pabliaked by a. W . Carleton A Co. 



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the purpose of life. Let your self-conscious- 
ness, your scrutiny, your self-interrogation, 
exhaust themselves on that ; and, if otherwise 
fortunately circumstanced, you will inhale 



happiness with the air you breathe, without 
dwelling on it or thinking about it, without 
either forstalling it in imagination or putting 
it to flight by fi&tal questioning. — J, 8. MilL 



WIlCTERINe IN FLORIDA. 



[Here ai*e racy pen-pictures from a Jady corre- 
spondent DOW reveling among the orange groves 
of this popular winter resort We must warn the 
Northern reader against the fascinations of this 
tropical region, and suggest that there are huge 
WuDgry alligators down there, as well as delicious 
fruit. So look out!] 

MR. EDITOR— Of the two routes South I 
think that by water preferable, in spite 
of the sea-sickness which was my portion the 
entire trip. Travel by rail here is weari- 
some; the trains rarely connect; the accom- 
modations are generally miserable, and refresh- 
ments almost unobtainable ; while on a steamer 
travelers ean always have a spot to rest in and 
plenty of food. 

On a glorious October morning we arrived 
at Jacksonville, the principal town in Florida, 
which has one long street of sand, lined on 
each side with a curious combination of impos- 
ing hotels, laige brick stores, and negro shan- 
ties. There is but one market, which was 
overrun with swarms of Africans employed in 
<levouring huge stalks of sugar-cane, and giv- 
ing vent at intervals to unearthly yells—a 
species of amusement common among them. 
Harry penetrated the sable crowd in search of 
a boatman to row us across the St. John's to 
our destination, Arlington Bluff, and, as an il- 
lustration of Soutliem energy^ I assure you we 
were /our hours getting started. Exertion in 
this climate is considered a hardship never to 
be incurred when avoidable. 

The air near the coast and on the rivers we 
found rather too damp for rheumatic affec- 
tions, so concluded to locate farther inland, 
and on a very windy morning we attempted 
to recross the St John's in a leaky old tub, the 
white-capped waves dashing mercilessly over 
us and a huge colored gemman tugging at the 
oars, while Harry bailed out indefatigably with 
a rusty dn pan, our only fellow-voyager, a crip- 
ple, vainly endeavoring to steer, while I, sea- 
sick and drenched, desperately clung to the 
hiK£>A£)C ^^^ gazed despairingly on my trunk, 
which showed every intention of landing my 
worldly goods hi the bed of the river. We 
reached the steamboat just in time, and were 
soon slowly plowing our way, through beds of 



lilies and bamets, up the St John*s under a 
cloudless sky, the river looking more like a 
succession of lakes, in some places fi-om ^ye 
to ten miles wide, and so winding that W6 
seemed often to be sailing toward the shore. 
The river is four hundred miles long, its banks 
low and bordered with forests of live oak, pal- 
metto, pine, and cypress trees, the boughs thick- 
ly festooned with hanging moss, all present- 
ing a most picturesque appearance. Here and 
there along shore are groves of golden oranges, 
with white houses peeping fh>m theur midst, 
which are mostly inhabited by invalid North- 
erners. The landings at these various hamlets 
are certainly unique, as are their names. Not 
tAT ftom Jacksonville is Mandarin, Mrs. Stowe's 
winter residence. We spied her cottage among 
the thickly-hanging fruit Then come Hiber- 
nia, Magnolia, Green Cove Springs, noted for 
its sulphur baths, and Tocoi, where a little 
horse-ear is in waiting to take passengers to 
St Augustine, that ancient Spanish town, the 
oldest in America. 

When a steamer is wanted at any of these 
stopping-places, a white flag is hoisted, and 
sometimes the boat travels miles out of the way 
to receive a little package or a basket of or- 
anges. Are they not obliging In this country ? 
Even the trains stop if a man with a bag pre- 
sents himself, at no matter how great a dis- 
tance. 

After traveling a day we arrived at Palatka, 
a famous resort for invalids, and at daybreak 
on Friday we entered the Ocklawaha River, 
and, well wrapped in shawls and overcoats 
(for the mornings are ciiilly), we prepared for 
a feast 

As we turned out of the St John's we 
seemed sailing among the trees, so thick was 
the foliage on either side of us, and so narrow 
the stream. The trees in many places form a 
complete arch over the water, and the project- 
ing limbs sometimes damage the boat, and 
have been known to sweep people out of their 
berths if the windows were left open. 

We were told that an old gentleman, while 
on hie way up the river o.^|j^^^ gaz- 



1875.] 



EOW TO DBAW THB FACE. 



190 



ing peacefully at the wild and beautiful sceoeiy, 
when bis spectacles were suddenly lifted ft*om 
his nose and disappeared he knew not whither. 
On the return trip of the boat the next week 
he happened to be standing in tlie same place, 
and as he neared the spot where he had lost 
them, they as unexpectedly dropped at his 
feet, haying hung on a branch during the in- 
terval. [A pretty little story, but it requires 
laige manrelousness to accept it as truth, whei-e 
there was but one— romantic — eye-witness.] 

The river is full of alligators, that lie sunning 
themselves in the water like logs, and when 
alarmed dive suddenly below the surface. 
The sight of a dog or the ciying of a baby at- 
tracts them irresistibly, and they immediately 
give chase. A small boat stands a poor chance 
near their capacious Jaws. Their teeth are 
valuable, and are made into a great variety of 
articles. 

It is a strange sight at night to sail up this 
little river, hemmed in on all sides by tangled 
forests, the crew being sometimes obliged to 
cut their way through huge trees that have been 
blown across the stream. An immense bonfire 
is kept blazing in front of the little craft, so 
that the pilot can see into the darkness ahead, 
and the shrill cries of myriads of birds make 
the night hideous. All this, combined with 
the flailing of torches, crackling of bushes, 
scraping of branches over our heads, and the 
frightful yells of the negroes, is quite startling 
to a stranger. 

We arrived safely at our destination, and, 
mounting a *' Florida phsBton," composed of 
three planks and two wheels, behind an inde- 
scribable quadruped, were at last heartily wel- 
comed by the village schoolmistress, and ac- 
commodated with a place in her little home 
among the pines until we -can make arrange- 
ments for our own. 

The weather is simply glorious; the air 
balmy, soft, and salubrious ; the temperature 
the year round never over 95** or under 80'. 
The life here is very slow and lazy ; kindling 
wood grows all about us ; game can be shot by 
the l^on, a breakfast being oflen obtained at 
one's veiy door ; fruit and vegetables can be 
picked fresh the year round. 

This peninsula, as is generally known, is one 
vast sand-bank. Here walking through the 
roads is something like walking in a Northern 
street after a heavy snow-storm. It seems 
strange that such apparently sterile soil should 
hi reality prove so productive. The people 
an b^ghining to awake to the expediency of 
laising oranges. A tree in bearing condition 



produces from 500 to 3,000 oranges, and even 
more. One grove near Palatka has realized to 
its owner from ten to twelve thousand dollars 
per annum [when not cht off by frost.— Ed.] 

One hundred trees can be planted on an acre 
of land, which in some parts can be purchased 
for fifty cents. The fruit is very hardy and re- 
quires little cultivation. All that is needed is 
capital, with Northern energy and persever- 
ance, to make of this wild coimtry a paradise 
of birds, fruit, and flowers. 

Hunting and fishing are the favorite pas- 
times, and many nights have I been wakened 
by the barking of dogs and the. blowing of 
horns. 

Fish are so abundant as to be used for fer- 
tilizing purposes. In fact, this is the poor 
man's country as well as the sick man's. 

If I have told you anything interestmg 
enough for "that precious Phrenologigal 
Journal '* I shall be thankful. 

M. H. WIDNSLL. 



HOW TO DRAW THB FACE.* 

INTRODUCTION. 

DRAWING is an accomplishment which 
is calculated to vivify and adorn both 
Uie occupation and leisure of its possessor; and 
its acquisition is desirable in proportion to the 
advancement or refinement of tlie condition of 
mankind in any and all of the particulars 
which go to make up the sum of human pros- 
perity and happiness. It is an accomplishment 
which possesses special interest and advantage 
in these days of advanced facility and activity 
in all the various departments of thought, 
when every department is calling for its spe- 
cific form of exposition, and in which the art 
pictorial is in a greater or less degree a val- 
uable and desirable aid to their proper mani- 
festation. How often it is said, " If I could 
only draw or sketch the object I am endeavor- 
ing to describe, how much it would shorten 
my labor I " and how often is the inability to 
do this the one thing lacking which makes the 
labored description indefinite, unsatisfactory, 
or utterly in vain ; whereas, perhaps, the rudest 
sketch would at once throw a flood of ligiit 
upon the subject, and give the key-note where- 
by the efibrts of language would be redeemed 

* '' How to Draw the Facetnd Other Object^/* a man- 
ual of elementary principles in the art of sketching, de- 
signed chiefly for beginners .—In Pbbss. 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabob, 



fh>m the condition of an enigma, and trans- 
fbrmed into the clear logic of a demonstra- 
Uon. 

Of course it is ont of the question, as it 
would be unreasonable, to expect that the ma- 
jority of those who have occasion for the art 
of drawing as an aid in the practical affairs of 
life should, or could, become artists in the true 
sense of the word, or even proficients in the 
mechanical part of the art of delineation. But 
where there is one genuine artist, or, we might 
add, field of activity for one, there are hun- 
dreds who could, who would, find it greatly to 
theh* advantage, and who therefore should ob- 
tain a sufficient knowledge of the elementary 
rules and principles of art to enable them to 
sketoh widi reasonable ease and accuracy such 
simple forms and combiuations of objects as 
are before them ; or, in case of unfavorable op- 
portunities for so doing at the time, to be able 
to see them in such a way as to fix more firm- 
ly their leading features in the memory for 
future use, or even, if may be, to bring them 
up from the regions of Imagination for the pur- 
pose of elucidation. 

To those who have studied drawing from 
the various manuals in use, it may have oc- 
curred that few of them are adequately adapt- 
ed to the wants and requirements of the utter 
novice, either in example or precept ; that is, 
few of them offer such rales and specimens as 
come within the scope of their ready under- 
standing, or are impressed upon them in a way 
to enlist their attention and solve the scope 
and purpose for which they are given; and 
many are without the oral explanations which 
serve so largely to confirm the mind with re- 
spect to their nature and application. 

Besides these, there are many who, as young 
beginners in the study of art, require simple 
and familiar methods and forms of instruction, 
which are mainly adapted to discipline the 
hand and eye in the siniplest elements, while 
at the same time inculcating substantial prin- 
ciples and adding precept and encouragement 
to the efforts of practice in the first rudiments 
of the study. 

Others, again, merely wish for some confirm- 
ation in the principles they have been over, 
more or less, already, or have practiced with- 
out due consideration of tlieir importance or 
bearing upon the objects they have essayed, 
or appreciation of their use in flEu:ilitating or 
correcting the attempts or achievements of 
tiieir practice. 

Others, still, for both leisure and occupation 
—one, to adorn his time as an accomplish- 



ment, the other, to give elegance and value to 
the result of his workmanship — in many or all 
the various branches of manufacture, or in the 
practical or speculative departments of obser- 
vation, desire the knowledge and ability to 
avail themselves of this most important agent 
and adjunct to their operations. 

Still others, as the physical and mental phi- 
losopher, find it advantageous to them in theb 
several departments of study and research, 
while the anatomist, the surgeon, the chemist, 
the naturalist, and periiaps, more emphatically, 
the phrenologist, and even the divine, may all 
find that use for this accomplishment, the ab- 
sence of Which could hardly be recompensed. 

For all such, and all others who, from any 
reason, may desire an acquaintanceship with 
the principles underlying the art of drawing, 
and which form a basis for the highest art to 
rest upon, we offer this Manual of Sketching, 
hoping that it may answer the two-fold pur- 
pose for which it is intended, of suppljring the 
present needs of all, and directing such as may 
desire to pursue the subject further to some- 
thing better. F. A. CHAPMAN. 



Show amd Vahitt. — ^The world is crazy 
for show. There is not one, perhaps, in a 
thousfmd, who dares fall back on his real, 
simple self for power to get through the 
world, and exact enjoyment as he goes along. 
There is no end to the apeing, the mimicry, 
the false airs, and the superficial airs. It re- 
quires rare courage, we admit, to live up to 
one's enlightened convictions in these days. 
Unless you consent to. join in the general 
cheat, there is no room for you among the 
great mob of pretenders. If a man desires 
to live within his means, and is resolute in 
his purpose not to appear more than he* 
really is, let him be applauded. There is 
something fresh and invigorating in such an 
example, and we should honor and uphold 
such a plan with all the energy in our power. 

But how difficult to stem the direction of 
culture in our best circles where Approba- 
tiveness is nursed and tickled into excessive 
growth in childhood, and consequently bears 
its fruitage of vanity, display, and supercil- 
ious obedience to conventions in mature life. 
The extravagance of the development may, 
in time, bring about a reform. Already, we 
think, society is beginning to tire of its ex- 
ternal, artificial life. 

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J87&.] 



KINO KALAKAUA. 



sai 



KALAKAUA, KINe OF THE SANDWICH ISLANDS. 



THE portrait of the Hawaiian monarch 
indicates a man of average physical 
constitution^ with a brain of liberal • size, 
which is chiefly developed in perceptive in- 
tellect and in the basilar region, although 
the showing of Benevolence and Veneration 
is sufficient to warrant us in thinking him 
ft good-natured, kind, and reverential man. 
He has fair practical judgment in his t^- 
tions with men and things; is strong in his 
attachments, emphatic in his opinions, and 



ent, from New Bedford, Mass., foundered in 
the Pacific Ocean, and all on board perished, 
with the exception of four sailors, who made 
their escape in a boat^ and succeeded in 
reaching the Sandwich Islands, then in a state 
of semi-barbarism. One of these seamen was 
a fine-looking young man, from Barnstable, 
who, conforming to his new relations, at once 
engaged in such pursuits as a true Yankee 
genius discovered, for employment and live- 
lihood. He soon succeeded, and in a year 




plucky in the defense of his rights. De- 
spite the heaviness and voluptuous character 
of the lower part of his face, he is keen- 
sighted, and by no means so dull-witted as a 
superficial observer would be likely to pro- 
nounce him. He appreciates utilities, and is 
little disposed to consider theories or abstract 
discosfflons. According to the representa- 
tions of the Salt Lake Tribune^ Ealakaua is 
the eldest son of a shipwrecked Massachu- 
setts whaler, who married the only daughter 
of a Sandwich Island king. The story is ro- 
mtntic enough, and claims a brief recital. 
In the year 1821 the whaleship, Independ- 



or two had the extraordinary fortune of mar- 
rying the daughter and sole princess of the 
monarch then on the throne of the islands, 
and from this remarkable union came the 
present king of the Sandwich Islands, the 
only surviving eon of a largo family. The 
name Kalakaua denotes the origin of the 
sovereign, and, translated, means " safe jour- 
ney," or " God-speed," referring to the escape 
of his immediate ancestor from the wreck.* 
The father of our august visitor could 
not forget his home in the distant republic ; 

* According to another Aathority, Kalalmna means 

•» Day of Batae." . r\r^n i o 

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PHRENOLOQICAL JOURNAL 



[Maboh, 



bat day after day and month after month 
looked out from the portico of his palace for 
the fiag of his native land, but five and 
twenty years of watching were endured be- 
fore the keel of an American ship glided 
into the island harbors. 

When this did take place, the Yankee 
prince, yearning for the scenes and associa- 
tions of youth, one night deserted rank, wife, 
and children, and sailed away for the shores 
of Narragansett. After a long voyage Barn- 
stable was again visited, but the sailor prince 
found all things changed, and his mind and 
heart returned to the wife and children of 
more than a score of years in the far-ofif isl- 
ands of the Pacific. He then once more 
looked for a vessel to cany him back to his 
only home, and waited three years before an 
opportunity came. In 1847 the whaler, 
Thomas Jeflferson, from New London, Ct, 
was fishing in the Pacific. Meeting a school 
of whales, the crew prepared for action, and 
the prince was one of the first to volunteer 
in the hazardous duty. As has often hap- 
pened, the boat of the harpooners was de- 
molished by a wounded and infuriated whale, 
several of the men, including the father of 
Kalakaua, perishing in the disaster. When 
the New Englander fled from the Sandwich 
Islands, his spouse 'toioumed for a customary 
period, but grief did not cause her to neg- 
lect the grave responsibilities of widowhood. 
She gave her children the best education the 
island afforded, and David, being the favor- 
ite, though not the eldest son, was sent to 
San Francisco to study politics and finances. 

Kalakaua was proclaimed king, and as- 
cended the throne on the 12th of February, 
1 874. The agitations which had characterized 
the reign of his predecessor, Lunalilo, seemed 
about to culminate in bloody contest, but by 
pursuing a wise and conciliatory course, he 
soon quieted opposition to his government, 
and then devoted himself to studying the 
wants and interests of his people, calling 
about him for that purpose the ablest men 
he could find. He has already instituted 
many reforms, and, being of an enlightened, 
progressive nature, he labors earnestly for the 
general welfare and advancement of his king- 
dom. He is thirty-seven years of age, mar- 
ried, and well educated. 

The king came to the United States, not 



merely to visit and take account of our in- 
stitutions and manners, but also to ^ssbt, at 
least by his presence, in the negotiation of a 
treaty of reciprocity between the two govern- 
ments. 

In connection with this sketch a glance at 
the Hawaiian kingdom is not out of place. 
There are eight islands, having an area of 
6,100 square miles, and a population, in 1878, 
of about 56,000, divided thus : Natives, 51,- 
000; Chinese, 1,900; Americans, 890; Eng- 
lish, 610 ; other foreigners, 1,600. The group 
is 2,100 miles W.S.W. of San Francisco, in 
the direct route of the Australian steamers, 
but several hundred miles south of the course 
of the China steamers. Its government is a 
limited monarchy, having a constitution based 
upon that of Great Britain, a House of No- 
bles (native chiefs), and a House of Represen- 
tatives. There are also a privy council, a 
cabinet, supreme and circuit courts, and va- 
rious other institutions peculiar to a civil- 
ized community. Public schools are provid- 
ed, and it may surprise the reader to learn 
that there is scarcely a native child to be 
found who can not read, write, and cipher in 
the native language, while private schools 
and a well- organized college afibrd instruc- 
tion in English and the higher studies. 
Their religion is that which was given them 
by the American missionaries, but the native 
church became independent of the American 
Board in 1870, and has since been self-sup- 
porting. Physically, the natives are a fine 
people, although they have degenerated slight- 
ly by contact with foreigners and foreign in- 
fluences. The better classes of the men still 
present many noble specimens of manhood 
among them, while the women, high and low, 
are still the admiration of all foreigners yis- 
iting the islands, who see in these women a 
class of physical development almost un- 
known outside of the Pacific Islands. For 
one of the most beautiful specimens, in 
form and in feature, see the portrait of Ex- 
Queen Emma, on page 471 of '^ New Physi- 
ognomy,** published at this office. The 
people are very hospitable to strangers, and 
travelers speak highly of their kindness and 
consideration. The chief production of the 
islands for commercial purposes is sugar, of 
which there were 28,000,000 pounds export- 
ed in 1873, about two-thirds of which went 
to San Francisco. 



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1875.] 



EVIL HABITS. 



208 




:N'EA^ YORK, 

MARCH, 1875. 

THE WORLD STILL MOVES. 

THE 8cient\fi6 American giyes an early 
English opinion of railroads ttius : An 
old copy of the English Quarterly Bedew of. 
the year 1819 contains an account of a scheme 
for a railroad, on which it is proposed to 
make carriages run twice as fast as stage 
coaches. The editor evidently failed to ap- 
preciate the idea, or to believe in its possi- 
bility, for he comments upon it thuswise : 

*' We are not partisans of the fantastic 
projects relative to established institutions, 
and wc can not but laugh at an idea so im- 
practicable as that of a road of iron upon 
which travel may be conducted by steam. 
Can anything be more utterly absurd or more 
laughable than a steam-propelled wagon 
moving twice as fast as our mail coaches? 
It is much more possible to travel from 
Woolwich to the arsenal by the aid of a 
Congreve rocket." 

The ^' laugh " has been transferred from 
those who were so wise in their own conceit 
to the faces of those who believe in ^^ prog- 
ress and improvement." May we not look 
for equally important changes in other 
things ? What about electricity as a motive 
power f What about electricity as an illu- 
minator? May we not hope to light our 
houses, our streets, our ships, and our rail- 
way trains by electricity ? Are not the tides 
to be utilized ? Where is the '^ stick in the 
mud " to laugh at these possibilities, nay 
probabilities? What about improvements 
in our modes of living ? Are we not to have 
a better system of management, government, 
and of ventilation for our churches, schools, 
asylums, prisons, etc.? What about the 



present barbarous, empirical, and ridiculous, 
not to say outrageous and wicked, quackery 
now practiced on a deluded people under 
the name of medicine I Are we not to have 
a complete revolution here? What says 
hygiene? And may we not look for im- 
provements in our political relations ? And 
are not our public charities to be conducted 
more in accordance with careful economy and 
common sense ? Are not the races of men 
— ^tribes, nations, and kindreds — to come to- 
gether on religious grounds, and worship 
God in charity, love, and truth ? Are not 
science and revelation to shake hands with 
each other? We look for progress in aU 
things. Even emperors, kings, popes, priests, 
and the rest, are subject to change. Let us 
hope and pray that when changes occur 
they may be, indeed, for the improvement 
and elevation of man and for the further 
glory of GK)d. 



4»» 



■ EVIL HABITS. 

IT is related that an Indian once found 
a young lion, and as he seemed weak and 
harmless, never attempted to control him. 
But every day the lion gained in strength, 
and became more difficult to manage. At 
last, when excited by rage, he fell upon the 
Indian and tore him in pieces. It is thus 
with evil habits and bad passions. Have 
you an ungovernable temper? Do you get 
so angry that you can not, or think you can 
not, *^ contain " yourself? If so, you have an 
untamed lion. Is your appetite for stimulant 
or narcotics so overpowering that you be- 
come almost delirious without them? The 
lion has already got the mastery, and will 
bring you down unless you cast him off. 
Look into our jails, prisons, and poor-houses, 
and see the miserable victims there with 
mouths full of filthy stuff, and their bodies 
reeking with the stench of whiskey or tobac- 
co, and you will see how much more there is of 
the animal than of the godlike human in such 
perverted and fallen creatures I The lion has 
them by the throat, and will not let go. He 
has crushed them to earth, and they lie in 
the agony of faithless and helpless despair. 
Reader, do you rather admire the fragrance 
of a nice ^^ Havana ? " Do you like to see 
the lads indulging in the weed ? And is the 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL, 



[March, 



sparkling wine so delicious and exhilarating ? 
Look out I The lion grows upon that which 
feeds it; and though you are master to- 
day, you may be daw to-morrow. What 
are your habits ? Look out I 



CHRISTIANITY AND ITS PROFESSORS. 

ACOTEMPORARY says truly that " It is 
a tribute to the excellence of the Christ- 
ian religion that more 1b demanded of the pro- 
fessors of it than is required of others. The high 
and pure nature of its doctrines must necessari- 
ly make better those who beliere and practice 
Uiem ; therefore, the character and life of those 
personfi who profess so to do are expected to be 
exceptionally virtuous and benevolent. The 
world's people may be addicted to vice, and 
nothing to their disparagement is said about it ; 
but let a church member, and more especially 
a minister of the Gospel, go astray, and his of- 
fense is publicly noted and severely commented 
upon. It is because Mr. Beecher is a minis- 
ter, and has stood so eminent, that now, being 
charged with a heinous offense, lie is made the 
target for so many arrows ; and it is a tribute 
to the excellence of Christianity, and the irre- 
proachable character of Christian ministers 
generally, that such is the fact. We find no 
fkult with the course taken— it should be so; 
"by their fruits shall ye know them;" but 
when it is affirmed that Christianity is endan- 
gered by the delinquencies of professed Chris- 
tians, that when they stumble and fall the foun- 
dations of it are sapped, this we deny. Christ 
is not fallen, nor the basis of his kingdom 
shaken." 

#•» 

GERRIT SMITH. 

SINCE our sketch of this noble-hearted, 
great-minded man was put in type, we 
have received letters from several subscribers 
who testify from personal knowledge to his 
high character. Dr. Alexander Ross, the dis- 
tinguished naturalist, of Toronto, writes un- 
der dat« of January 80th : 

" I send you a portion of the last letter I 
received from him. It was written on his 
seventy-sixth birthday. An intimate ac- 
quaintance with Mr. Smith during the last 
twenty years, enables me to say that I never 
knew a more noble, generous, and high-mind- 
ed man than the deceased gentleman.** 

The excerpt from the letter alluded to in 



the above, traced in a peculiarly small, neat, 
and gracefhl hand, reads thus : 

" Heaven prosper your efforts in behalf of 
temperance. I am happy to learn that you 
like my letter to Miss Anthony." 
Another correspondent writes of him : 
"He was the most perfectly developed 
man intellectually, morally, and physically, 
that I ever saw ; the most Christ-like man I 
ever knew. Such was his profound knowl- 
edge of the Bible, that he used to say that 
he * should be ashamed to have any one 
mention a passage of Scripture which he 
could not turn to at once.' Seldom do we 
see so much true dignity united with such 
simplicity of character." To this we may 
add that it is very rare to see such agreement 
of opinion with regard to the character of 
a prominent man as has been shown by the 
press and the American people in their esti- 
mation of Mr. Gerrit Smith. To him may 
be well applied the apostrophe of the poet : 

'* His life was gentle, and the elements 
So mixed in him, that Nature might stand up 
And say to all the world, Thi$ was a man,^^ 



HOW TO FIND OUT. 



THERE is no more important question for 
the young than that of selecting the right 
thing to do in season to learn and enter upon 
it. Everybody is interested, at least all who 
arc not bom with a gold spoon in their mouths, 
to know what profession or line of busihess to 
adopt to secure success, comfort, and respect- 
ability. Almost everybody has ability enough 
to earn three meals a day, but most of us want 
somethbig more than mere animal existence. 
We want to live by the mind, by the higher 
faculties, somewhat Therefore we desire some 
occupation which will give us, not merely 
** day by day our daily bread," but position, 
means of improvement, and ei^oyment 

Many persons acknowledge to us the great 
advantage a phrenological analysis has been 
to them in selecting an occupation, or in aban- 
doning an uncongenial pursuit, and adopting 
one in which they secure both success and 
happiness. We have recentiy received a letter 
fh)m a young Massachusetts lady who sent us 
her likeness to be examined, and received from 
us a full written description of character. In 
her letter she says : 



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IBIS.] 



IN PBiaON. 



205 



" I Ihink yon have aiited my character thor- 
ooghlj and correctly. I hope to profit by the 
practical advice given. If I could have had it 
five years ago, I should not have been where I 
now am. I have two younger sisters whose 
pictures I want to send to you for professional 
advice as soon as I can get them. One of them 
ia a perfect puzzle to us all. I may thus be 
able to help them before they get as far ad- 
vanced in years as I am. QrateM for your 
advice, and encouraged hi my belief in the 
science of Phrenology, I remain, yours, etc, 

M ." 

FersonB residing too far from New York to 
visit us in person, may write, asking for the 
circular entitled " Mirror of the Mind," which 
will tell them how to have likenesses taken, 
and what measurements we require for giving 
fhU descriptions of character, talent, best occu- 
pation, etc It may secure for them a thousand 
dollars' worth of advice, or that which they 
would not be willing to part with for such an 
amount 



In PiuBoif. — ^Among the prisoners in the 
Maine Penitentiary is a former practicing 
physician and contributor to several high- 
toned literary periodicals. For several years 
be corresponded on intimate terms with Ed- 
gar A. Poe, who had a high estimation of 
bifl literary judgment. At one time he ac- 
quired some celebrity by announcing his dis- 
sent from the Newtonian theory of gravita- 
tion, and also from the nebular theory of La 
Place, both of which he combated in a pub- 
lic lecture. He was much esteemed in pri- 
vate life as a genial, scholarly, and modest 
gentleman. ~ 7^ Printeri' Circular^ 

A scholar* physician, and man of literary 
ability a State prisoner 1 What caused his 
fiall ? We presume he was a well-organized 
man, save in some one particular. Was he 
high-tempered? And, did he lose his self- 
control, and speak rashly or act violently ? 
Bid he give way to appetite, and drink al- 
cohol f Was it avariq^ that induced him to 
overreach, and violate the law? Was it 
throngh inordinate affection that he got into 
trouble t There was evidently a '* loose 
screw ^ somewhere in his mental machinery 
— ^where was it? Was he bom so? Was 
bis mother an invalid? Was his father a 
drunkard ? Is he in prison for life ? Is he 
improving? 



Chablbs KmesuBT. — We regret to have 
occasion to record the recent death of Canon 
Eingsley. An attack of pleurisy which 
came upon him while in this country may be 
said to have led to the fatal consummation, 
as the weakness resulting from it rendered 
him susceptible to colds and inflammation 
of the lungs. As a minister, Canon Eings- 
ley was a liberal member of the English 
Church, and extensively esteemed for his 
earnestness and ability. As a man, he pos- 
sessed hosts of friends, his cordial, gentle, 
modest demeanor winning all who came in 
personal contact with him. A sketch of his 
life, accompanied with a portrait, will be 
given in our next number. 



Akothbr Great Musical Affaib. — Cin- 
cinnati is to have a grand musical festival in 
May next, the performances beginning on the 
11th and continuing four days. Theodore 
Thomas is announced as grand director, and 
Otto Singer assistant. Preparations are mak- 
ing on a large scale. The following are the 
managers of the enterprise: George Ward 
Nichols, President; C. A. G. Adae, Vice- 
President; Bellamy Storer, Jr., Secretary; 
John Shillito, Treasurer ; John Church, Jr., 
Geo. W. Jones, W. W. Taylor, Julius Dexter. 
We should like to attend. Besides our mu- 
sical proclivities we have many pleasant 
memories of the Queen City which might 
find renewal by another visit 



4t» 



The Untvebsity Success. — In the recent 
oratorical contest between the students of 
our American colleges, which came off in the 
Academy of Music, New York, the first prize 
was awarded by a committee consisting of 
Messrs. William Cullen Bryant, €^rge Wil- 
liam Curtis, and Whitelaw Reid, to John C. 
Tomlinson, a student of the University of 
New York. In this tournament of brains 
Williams College, Cornell University, Rut- 
gers, Princeton, and Lafayette colleges were 
represented, besides the victorious institution 
which graces Washington Square. How 
much more creditable to our young Ameri- 
can students is such an affiiir as this than a 
noisy, turbulent, and even vicious dispute of 
muscle such as the boat race at Saratoga last 
summer I — d. 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[March, 



The Tbansit of Vehus. — Communica- 
tions received from the expeditions which 
were sent out to observe the phenomena of 
the late transit of Venus show that the 
weather at about two-thirds of the stations 
was favorable for their operations, and that 
the measure of success in this great astro- 
nomical enterprise was as great as could have 
been reasonably expected. 



"Rather Reverend^' is the title sug- 
gested in England for the very large number 



of rural Deans now in office, with a view to 
distinguishing them from the Very Reverend, 
the actual Deans of abbeys and cathedrals. 
It has been suggested that the same title 
might be as fitly conferred upon Deans of 
Convocation in the United States. It is also 
proposed to designate Deacons as "Quite 
Reverend,'^ and Lay Deputies as "Almost 
Reverend." The utmost stretch of ingenui- 
ty has not yet discovered a title for Deacon- 
esses.— i^pt«%ipa2um, Philadelphia. 
[Please to pass the smelling-bottle.] 



AGRICULTURAL HINTS. 



Forests and Climate,— The Khanate 
of Bokhara affords a signal illustration of the 
damage done by denuding a country of its for- 
ests. Thirty years ago the Khanate was one 
of the most fertile provinces of Central Asia, 
and, wooded and watered, was regarded as an 
earthly paradise. Five years thereafter a ma- 
nia for forest-clearing brolce out among the in- 
habitants, and continued to rage as long as 
there remained timber on which to vent itself. 
What trees were spared by rulers and people 
where afterward utterly consumed during a 
civil war. 

The consequence of this ruthless destruction 
of the forest growth is now painfully manifest 
in immense dry and arid wastes. The water- 
courses have become empty channels, and the 
system of canals constructed for artificial irri- 
gation, and supplied trom the living streams, 
has been rendered useless. The moving sands 
of the desert, no longer restrained by forest- 
barriers, are gradually advancing and drifting 
over the land. They will continue their noise- 
less invasion until the whole of the Khanate 
will become a dreary desert, as barren as the 
wilderness separating it from EHiiva. It is not 
supposed that the Khan has sufficient energy 
or the means at bis command to arrest the des- 
olation that threatens to spread over his terri- 
tories. Here is an example which should 
stimulate our National and State Governments 
to avoid a sunllar catastrophe by preserving a 
due proportion of forest lands in our domain, 
and by restoring those which have been im- 
providently laid bare. 

Take Notice, — Farmers who are in 
the habit of shipphag hay to New York will be 
interested to know that hereafter it shall not 



be lawfhl for any person to sell or offer for sale 
within the corporate limits of the city of New 
York, any hay or straw by the bale unless the 
exact gross and net weight shall be legible and 
distinctly marked on every such bale of hay or 
straw, under a penalty of $10 for each bale of 
hay or straw so sold or offered for sale in con- 
travention of the provisions of this ordinance." 
This ordinance goes into effect the first of 
March. 

Smart. — ^A New York horticulturist- 
sells Baldwin apples at $10 a barrel. Here is 
the secret : Take a slip of paper and cut chil- 
dren's names; then place the papers around 
the apples when they begin to color, and in a 
week or two Mamie, Jamie, Johnnie, or Susie 
appears on the at)ple3 in large red letters. 
These, picked and barreled by themselves, 
bring fancy prices for the New York Christ- 
mas market 

Fall and Spring Manuring. — A 
writer in the Garden argues the point, and 
comes to the conclusion that for heavy soils, 
which have enough clay to absorb the manu- 
rial elements, it is best to apply manure to gar- 
dens in autumn or early winter ; but when the 
soil is of a loose, sandy, or gravelly character, 
which will not hold it long, manure for spring 
or summer crops should not be applied until 
near the time the croi^ is put into the ground. 

Clean Seed and Good Crops.— A 

writer in the N. Y. HeraJd makes the following 
sound remarks: Tillers of the soil may greatly 
increase the amount of their crops by using 
clean seed and keeping the land free from 
weeds. This. is particularly the case wi;h 
wheat It is nothing uncommon for farmers 
having eight or ten acres of wheat to have 



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AGRICULTURAL HIKT8, 



207 



mixed with it ten or fifteen bushels of cockle 
and chess. It is believed that two hundred 
bushels of cockle and chess is a small amount 
to set down against the town where the writer 
resides, per year. AUowing that other towns 
in the connty raise the same amount each, it 
would give us about 4,000 bushels in the coun- 
ty. Allowing fifty wheat counties in the State, 
and we should have 200,000 bushels. Now 
suppose that only ten times as much wheat is 
grown in the United States, equally foul, and 
we have 2,000,000 bushels. Every plant of 
cockle or chess occupies as much ground and 
draws as much fertility firom the soil as a wheat 
plant would ; hence it is plain that by clean 
culture we can increase onr wheat crop largely. 

A Great Farm. — Our western read- 
ers have — ^most of them — ^heard of the great 
BuUivan form in Illinois. Its immensity is 
almost incredible, being about eight miles 
square, and containing 44,000 acres. Number 
of hands employed, 600; mules and horses, 
1,000; cattle (oxen), 50; number of acres in 
eom, 26,000 ; acres in small grain, 8,000 ; acres 
in tame grass, 8,000 ; head of hogs, 1,000 ; head 
of cattle, 600. Mr. Sullivan has reduced its 
operations to a close system. He can tell what 
it costs to raise a bushel of grain on any sec- 
tion of liis farm, and also the cost each month 
to feed his hands. The hands are all hired by 
the month and boarded. There is a resident 
doctor, who attends to the sick. According to 
actual figures, it is demonstrated that eleven 
cents per bushel, In ordinary seasons, will put 
com in the crib, and twenty-aiz cents per day 
will board hands. A general stock of goods is 
kept, from which the men are supplied at cost 
An elevator of 80,000 bushels capacity is ready 
to receive grain. 

Cost of Fences in the United States. 

In commenting u|K>n this subject, the Country 
QenUeman says: Taking the returns of the 
National Agricultural Department as our 
guide, wc find some curious items with regard 
to fences and their cost From these returns 
it would seem that the cost of our fences Is 
about the same as the amount of our interest- 
bearing national debt; that for each one hun- 
dred dollars invested in live stock, we invest 
another hundred in fences, either to keep them 
in or out The estimated annual cost of re- 
pairs, with interest upon capital invested in 
the fences, is estimated at $200,000,000. In 
Pennsylvania the returns indicate that each 
hundred acres of inclosed land has an average 
of 1>55 rods of fenoe, at a cost of $1.20 per rod, 



or $1,146. This, it must be remembered, is 
only an average, and that in many portions of 
the State the amount is much greater. The 
cost per rod varies firom 72 cents in Florida to 
$2.20 in Rhode Island. The amount to each 
100 acres varies fVom 400 rods in Minnesota, 
Nevada, and Louisiana, to 1,000 in Rhode 
Island. In Pennsylvania it would seem that 
of the fences 67 per cent were " Virginia " 
worm fence, 17 post and rail, 12 of board, and 
4 per cent of ** other kinds." In the same 
State 24 per cent of the openings are closed by 
gates, and 76 per cent by bars, and the aver- 
age cost of the former is $4.55. The returns 
state : ** The average proportion of bars in the 
whole country is about 58 per cent, of gaps 48, 
leaving 7 per cent of openings for slip-gaps, or 
other modes of entrance." The report very 
truly says, with regard to the sum total of the 
cost of fences : ** Experiment has proven that 
at least half this expense is unnecessary." The 
report furnishes material for the careful con- 
sideration of farmers. 

Ballsy Horses. — ^The Society for the 
Prevention of Cruelty to Animals publishes the 
following suggestions for the treatment of 
balky horses : 

1. Pat the horse on the neck ; examine the 
harness carefully, first on one side and then on 
the other, speaking encouragingly while doing 
80; then jump into the wagon and give the 
word go ; generally he will obey. 

2. A teamster in Maine says he can start the 
worst balky horse by taking him out of the 
shafts and making him go round in a circle 
until he is giddy. If the first dance of this kind 
does not cure him, the second will. 

Safety In Kerosene Lamps.— Cram 

all the wick you can (that is, make your wick 
as long as you can) in your lamp, fill up the 
spaces with sponge, and then pour in the kero- 
sene or coal-oil until the wick and sponge are 
filled, and the lamp will hold no mora As 
long as any oil remains in the wick or sponge 
the lamp will burn. This makes a fire-proof 
or safety-lamp. If your lamp is broken, or 
tipped over, no accident can happen, nor will 
it soil the carpet nor even a table-cover. As 
the wick bums away add more sponge, and 
keep the lamp full of it 

Within the past five years 700,000 
persons have left Gennany for the United States, 
being principally from Prussia. Most of the im- 
migrants were able-bodied young men of the 
poorer classes, the very kind desired for the 
German army, and it is not strange that Bis- 
marck has spared no effort to keep them at 
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208 



PHRENOLOQIOAL JOURNAL, 



[Mabch, 




:|ur Jlintorial 1 vx\u. 




[In this Department will be noticed euch matters as are of Interest to correspondents and to the general reader. 
Contributions for " What They Say " shonld be brief; pointed, and creamy, to secure poblication.] 



\wc ffi0rre$p0tf)»ent$. 



Thb Pressure of our Business is such 
that we eon not undertake to return unavailable contribu- 
tUme uhleee the necessary postage is provided by du writ- 
ers. In att cases^ persons who. communicate with us 
throuffh the post-ojfhs should, \f they expect a reply, ki- 
doee the return postage— stamps being pn^erred. Anony- 
mous lettere will not be considered. 

Questions of "Oeneral Interest" only 
wiU be answered in this department. But one guestion 
at a time, and that clearly stated, must be propounded, 
if a correspondent shall expect us to give him the ben^ 
qf an early consideration, 

A PuzzLB. — ^I am troubled with a 
queer complaint. If I lock a door, I stand and 
question whether it is locked, and f^o back and try 
it over and over a^lo. If I fill a stove with coal, 
I will stand and say to myself, "Is it filled; am 
I sure it is filled?" and so with much that I do. 
I can not believe it is dona. I am not yet twenty 
years old, and am in pretty good health. 

Ans. It arises from a want of co-ordination be- 
tween the two hemispheres of the brain. Some 
persons seem to possess double consciousness: 
one hemisphere of the brain acting in favor of a 
given course, and the other (containing similar or- 
gans) leading to or suggesting different action. 
The eyes and ears do not always report facts alike, 
and there is, consequently, confusion of vision and 
of hearing. Spectacles have to be adjusted to dif- 
ferent distances to accommodate the sight of the 
two eyes of the same person. We often have pa- 
tients whose hearing is acute who complain of 
hearing voices with one car when the other ear Is 
not affected by them. 

Nervous * ExciTABiLiTT. — I am very 
nervous and excitable ; have pain in the back and 
head, and hurry through with whatever I have to 
do. All my movements, thoughts, and actions 
are rapid and impatient. I am strictly of the men- 
tal temperament, with very little of anything else. 
What is the best method of overcoming this tend- 
ency? 

Ans, You probably have inherited your restless 
excitability from parents who drank strong tea and 
coffee and used tobacco, perhaps were called to 
overexertion until their nervous sjrstems were so 
exasperated that they could readily transmit to 
their posterity their condition. The true way for 
yon is to seek simple, nutritious diet, avoiding 
sugar, coffee, spices, tobacco, alcoholic stimulants ; 
eating plain wheat, ground without sifting, for 
your bread stuff; eating lean beef and mutton, 



and keeping clear from pork. You should sleep 
ten hours in the twenty-four, if you can, so as to 
rest and quiet your brain. 

Cebbbro-Spinal MsNiNrGins. — ^What 
are the causes, symptoms, and usual treatment of 
the disease called cerebro-spinal meningitis ? 

Ans, This question was asked in 1878, and an- 
swered in the November number as follows : 

The ** cerebro-spinal meningitis '* is an inflamma- 
tion of the " meninges,'* or membranes which in- 
close the brain and spinal cord. The form of 
this disease which is most common is the '* spot- 
ted fever," as it is called, or the epidemic form of 
meningitis. The spots are not always present 
The causation of the disease is yery uncertain. 
The symptoms yary— sometimes coma, at other 
times convulsions— with severe pain in Imck of 
head and neck, and great stifihess of the neck. 
Temperature goes up sometimes very high — ^at 
other times is not much altered. 

The treatment now most in use among ** the 
regulars'*— allopaths — is that of quinine with bro- 
mide of potassium in large doses, with ice-bags 
to the head and back of neck. Mortality under 
any treatment is about forty per cent 

The Ark op thb Covenant. — ^What 
became of the Ark of the Covenant after the dis- 
persion of the Jews ? 
Ans. Echo answers, What? Who can tell ? 

How can I improve Mankind ? — Is 
THB Rbpitblio Declinino ?— 1st Can you pre- 
scribe a course Of study which will qualify me to 
lecture for the improvement of mankind — ^physic- 
ally, intellectually, and morally? The people 
seem mainly to belong to one of two classes. The 
first has talent for maKing money and a good deal 
of wickedness, the second has muscle, ignorance, 
and animality. The man that will wisely work to 
reform these two classes and bring them together 
in one purified fraternity, will deserve the reward 
of a prophet. 

2d. Can you give me some hints on the details 
of a lecturing tour ? 

8d. Supposing, as some do, that our republic ia 
on the decline, when was it at its zenith f 

4th. What is the aggregate amount of property 
in the United Stetes f 

Ans. 1st We can hardly recommend any course 
of study, or course of lecturing, for the improTe- 
ment of mankind which does not embrace the 
study of man himselt And what course of stody 
or of labor to these ends is equal to that of Phre- 
nology and its twin topic. Physiology ? 

2d. In our annual course of instruction in Phre- 
nology and Physiology (a circular in regard to 
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1875.] 



OUR MENTORIAL BUREAU. 



209 



which we send to all who wish for it) we point 
cot all the methods of procedure for coursca of 
popular lectorea, and explain the best means to 
enlist the interest of the pablic, and how to make 
such labor pay expenses and remunerate the wor- 
thy worlier. 

8d. If our republic is on the decline, it entered 
upon its downward course when William L. Marcy, 
hi a speech in the U. S Senate during Jackson^s 
administration, declared that '*To the victors be- 
long the spoils of the enemy." As a result of this 
speech, and of the feelings which prompted it, 
there was a wholesale tnmlnj^ out of office all who 
had voted against the election of Jackson. From 
that day to this jMitrlotism and faithful service 
have been powerless to retain in office any man 
not a partisan of the incumbents of the places of 
power; and the spoils of office and the chance to 
rob the public have bep.n the rewards of party 
eabserviency. We believe, however, the republic 
will survive ibis sordid epoch, and rise at>ove all 
the echcmers of public plunder. Let us pray the 
Lord to speed the day. 

4th. The a^i^grepite amount of property in the 
United States and territories in 1870, according to 
the census taken that year, is 930,314,501,874, or 
OTcr thirty thousand millions. 

Retreating Foreheads. — ^Why are 

persona with retreating foreheads apparently more 
intellectual than tho^e who seem to have a mass- 
ive, square forehead f 

Am. Those who have large perceptive organs, 
m the lower part of the forehead, are smart, ob- 
serving, quick, and sharp, and the forehead may 
retreat somewhat from the extra largeness of the 
lower part of it; while some may have a short, 
square, perpendicular forehead, with not a great 
deal of reflective development, and decidedly small 
perceptive organs.. Such persons are dull, and 
lack quickness, clearness, and activity of mind, 
uut are really shallow and stupid. 

The Tariff. — Are the duties now 
ehanred by the general government on imports, 
laaaufacturcd articles jwrticularly, considered to 
be of a highly ** protective'* nature, or do they 
incline to a free-trade standard ? 

Am. They arc mainly of a protective nature, al- 
though there is much discrimination made in the 
rttes attached to different articles, some being 
cbarcred almost their cost in the markets of Eu- 
rope, and some being substantially free. As a 
general thing, Imported manufactures ** of luxu- 
ry " are taxed well up in the scale, while articles 
"of necessity"* are moderately taxed. Manufac- 
tured articles are charged much more in propor- 
tion to their cost than raw material. 

Writing fob one or for many Mag- 
A«HS8. — A writer may write under as many nomt 
^ piume as he pleases, and in as many difilerent 
oi*gazinea or newspapers. Horace Greeley may 
bave given his best thoughto to his IHbutie, but 
^ wrote much in other Jonmals. 



Character by Portraits. — ^A phre- 
nologist, looking at two photographs, said of one, 
'' He is a poet and an artist, and his mother before 
him was a poet and an artist." Of the other, 
** He is a judge of cattle and stock, but he looks 
like his mother." Turning: to a young lady he 
said, '* Any one could tell that your father was a 
combative man by looking at you.'^ How was he 
able to make these positive assertions. 

A71S. There ai-e certain organs which, with a fa- 
vorable temperament, lead to poetry and art, and 
the likeness. If properly taken, will show these 
and all other traits of talent and character. There 
are also characteristic developments which Indi- 
cate a resemblance to father or mother, but it 
would require many pages of the Journal to set 
them forth, besides many engravings. The ** Mir- 
ror of the Mind" gives information relative to 
determining character by portraits. 

Knotty Points. — ^Please inform me, 
as a teacher, through your Journal, how I can re- 
deem a dirty, slothful man, and how to manage a 
lot of scholars who are inclined to play lovejmyi. 

Am, We recommend short rations and a bath- 
tub for the first, and an ice-house for the last. 

He Talks in His Sleep, — I am much 
addicted to talking and singing in my sleep. My 
brain seems to be at work on something I have 
seen or heard on the previous day. For instance, 
I was told one morning that I had been delivering 
a lecture in my sleep; I attended a lecture the 

f)reviou8 evening. I sometimes laugh or sing so 
ondly as to partly awaken myself. I enjoy very 
good health, and sleep soundly. I am told thot I 
generally begin the performance early in the 
morning. Will you please explain the cause of 
this? 

Am, One cause of disturbed sleep Is late sup- 
pers ; another, strong tea or coffee ; another, an 
overtasked mind. As a remedy, try retiring on a 
stomach not overloaded. Take a brisk walk of 
half an hour, or its equivalent exercise, just be- 
fore going to bed, by which to equalize the circu- 
lation, and to produce slight bodily fatigue. Then, 
with a sweet hymn, and the usual devotions, the 
mind will be brought into a proper state for rest 
and repose. 




%a* BjcB fag. 




Measurements and Statisticts. — 
Dr. L. R. Evans, phrenologist, sends us the fol- 
lowing interesting facts which he has gathered 
while in the practice of his profession. Would It 
not be well for others to follow his example, and 
record their observations ? 

He writes : Ten years ago I began the system- 
atic study of Phrenology. Five years ago I com- 
menced lecturing and the practice of Phrenology. 
Last evening I delivered my 408th lecture on Hu- 
man Science. Studjing physiology and other 
branches of anthropology systematicallv, traveling 
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210 



PERSNOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[Mabcb, 



up and down among different people, investigat- 
ing the different Institutions, and gaining a knowl- 
edge of the ever-Tarying conditions of hmnanity, 
hare taken mach of my Ume and money as well as 
energy, but the knowledge will In future be de- 
voted more to advocating and advancing the 
science. 

Among the facts and statistics which I have ob- 
tained it may be interesting to state that the fol- 
lowing average measurements of man and woman 
are taken from one thousand actual examinations 
of adult males and of adult females respectively, 
made among all classes of people in the States of 
New York, Vermont, and New Jersey, of which I 
have kept a record of name, age, height, weight, 
size of chest (over vest or ordinary dress), and 
size of head (lateral circumference on a line with 
the occipital process and center of forehead). 
Women : average height, 5 feet 3 inches. 
** ** weight,' 116 pounds. 

•* *» chest, 88 inches. 

•* head, 21* inches. 
Men : ** height, 5 feet 8 inches. 

" " weight, 146 pounds. 

" «' chest, 86 inches. 

" ' »• head, 23 1-6 int^hes. 

The largest well-balanced male head measured 
around the base 241 inches ; from ear to ear (at 
the opening), 17i inches. The body on which I 
found it was compactly built, of good quality, 
and was supported by a deep chest, which meas- 
ured 42* inches under the vest, in tummcr. The 
man was in good health, active, weighed 200 
pounds, and stood six feet in his stockings ; tem- 
peraments well balanced, with slight predomi- 
nance of the vital. 

The man who owns this fine organization lives 
In Oswego County, New Tork, and does an exten- 
sive mercantile business, can-ies on a large manu- 
facturing business, and runs several large farms ; 
he bos always been successful against many ad- 
verse circumstances, from a small and poor begin- 
ning In life. He is a phrenologist. 

The smallest well balanced male head measured 
30 inches. I found it in Vermont, on a six-foot 
body that weighed 155 pounds, with a 84 inch 
chest. Though well educated, he is a poor suc- 
cess as an hostloi', a failure as a farmer, hotel- 
keeper, book agent, and in many other things 
which he had undertaken by favor of friends and 
circumstances. 

The largest well balanced female head measured 
33 by 16* inches. I found it in Vermont. With 
the assistance of 140 pounds of heolthy flesh and 
blood, standing five feet eight inches in height 
without high heels (and no Grecian bend), and 
measuring 88 inches around the bust, with no 
artificial palpitators to stretch the tape. This wo- 
man conducted a very lucrative manufacturing 
business, was filled with knowledge, sound sense, 
and a degree of affection, refinement, and healthy 
poetic sentiment which are never met with in 
small lieads, and never flow from large ones sup- 
ported by dwarfed or sickly bodies. 



The smallest female head on my list is 19 inches, 
and though the body is healthy and well devel- 
oped, she is a slave to circumstances and the man 
who owns her as his wife. l. b. bvahb. 

Panics — thbib Cause and Citbe.— 
A correspondent says on this subject : Monopolies 
may be the immediate cause of panics ; but in 
nine cases out of ten not the possessors of monopo- 
lies but the people at lat^e are the producers of 
monopoly; and though the monopolist may be 
guilty of wrong-doing, other people are respon- 
sible for the results of monopoly. The greater 
portion of society Is improvident and extravagant 
in the use of Its acquisitions, and this makes the 
road to wealth and monopoly easy to the few who 
are prudent and Industrious. One person can hon- 
estly acquire Just as much more than another as 
his ability is greater than that other, and can not 
do any more unless the second is improvident or 
indolent; and these last qualities are the main 
things which cause the great differences in the 
amount of wealth possessed by different men. 

Monopoly is a natural check to the destruction 
of society by its own power, when that power Is 
misdirected; and we may be thankful that this 
check will exist as long as needed. 

The growth of a spirit of wild speculation is an 
inseparable companion of the growth of monopo- 
lies. The improvident, squandering disposition 
which feeds monopolies feeds a spirit of specula- 
tion by the opportunity which it gives for specu- 
lation, which speculating spirit aids energy in the 
building up of monopolies. This speculation, as 
the people grow less cautious, is carried to extor- 
tion, and produces a wide-spread and rccklesa 
credit system, which continues to grow until a 
collapse ensues. In a credit system each operator 
is, to a greater or less extent, dependent upon the 
others. When one great dealer falls the entire 
commercial community is shaken or collapsed, 
and panic ensues. The history of the last panic, 
I think, can be found In the above principles. 

Commercial panics are beneficial to society. 
Monopoly is a barrier to the extravagant spirit of 
society, and panic is a barrier to the extreme prev- 
alence and destructive influences of credit and 
monopoly. Panics are natural effects of the pow- 
ers of the commercial world to restore an equilib- 
rium. A commercial panic is a better remedy 
for the profligacy of society than government can 
introduce, because it is a natural remedy. It la 
not panics that are to be dreaded and shunned, 
but the kind of living that makes them necessary. 

The root of the evil is, therefore, in the habits 
of the people, and the remedy is found In Chris- 
tianity. This it Is which only can and is changinip 
the manner of our living for the better. When 
society becomes Christianized, drops its follies^ 
and lives for good ends, then, and never until 
then, will the necessity for almost periodical com- 
mercial panics cease to curse the world. 

B. 0. TOUVO. 

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OUR MENTORIAL BUREAU, 



211 



WISDOM. 

"Think truly, and thy thought 
ShaU be a fruitful seed.** 

FoBTUHB dreads the braye, and is only terrible 
to the coward. 

As ^old is purified in the famace, so is charac- 
ter refined by pain. 

Truth and honesty often neglect appearances, 
hypocrisy and imposture are guarded. 

Distrust is the death of the son!, belief \» its 
life. The Just shaU Uve by faith. Infidelity is 
the abandonment of life; suicide of the s^rit 

I cut not conceive how he can be a friend to 
any who is a friend to all, and the worst foe to 
himself. — Thonua FuHier. 

Ip you're told to do a thing, 
And mean to do ft really, 
Never let it be by halves ; 
Do it fully, freely! 

Do not maise a poor excuse, 

Waiting, wealv, unsteady ; 

All obedience worth the name 

Must be prompt and ready. 

Takb care to be an economist in prosperity; 

there is no fear of your being one in adversity. 

Do not be content with well-doing, for it is only 
by constant striving to excel every previous effort 
that men ever arrive at great ends. 

Wb arc nsually capable of greater things than 
we perform ; we are sent Into the world with bills 
of credit, and seldom draw to thMr full extent 

We have but one moment at once, lot us im- 
prove it Our moment will soon come when this 
life will cease— may we so live as to meet It with- 
out regret. 

Regrbation Is not idleness. It is absolutely 
necessary at times that a man should get out of 
the routine grooves of worlc, that he may grow 
mentally and physically and become nearer per- 
fection. 

»•» 

MIBTfl. 

** A little nonsense now and then 
Is reliehcd by the wisest men.** 

A CABPiNO author complains that too much is 
said about the tongue. But how is it to be helped 
when the thing is always in everybody's mouth. 

" How d*ye do to-day ? *' said a friend to a queer 
and querulous old lady. " Well, I dew, and dew, 
and keep a-dewin* and tryin* to dew, and ean^t 
dew— and how dew ycu dew ? " 

** Do you get whipped at school now ? " asked a 
mother of a young hopeful who had recently 
ehanged his place of instruction. ** No, mother, 
I have a letter teacher, and l*m a better boy.*' 



The editor of a religious paper is road because 
ho undertook to state that Mr. Spurgeon, in his 
^* Sword and Trowel," said so and so, and the 
printer called it " Shirt and Towel." 

A FBRUTMAN was askcd by a timid lady whether 
any person was ever lost in the river over which 
he rowed. " Oh, no ! " said he ; ** we always flnd 
the 'em the next day." 

A Philadelphia officer who is very fond of a 
joke got up a jury of croes-eyed men, and it took 
the Judge some time to decide whether to fine him 
for contempt of court, or to laugh. He conclud- 
ed to laugh. 

"What makes you look so glum, Tom?" 
"Oh, I had to endure a sad trial to my feelings.*' 
"What on earth was it?" "Why, I had to ti^ 
on a pretty girl's bonnet with her mother looking 
on." 

" Your handwriting is very bad indeed," said a 
gentleman to a friend more addicted to boating 
than k) study ; " you ought to learn to write bel- 
ter." " Ay, ay," replied the young man ; " it is 
all very well for you to tell me that; but if I 
were to write better, people would find out how I 
spell." 

"Who's there?" sold Jenkins, one cold winter 
night disturbed in hie repose by some one knock- 
ing at the street door. ** A friend," was the an- 
swer. "What do you want?" **I want to sUy 
hero, all night*' " Queer taste — stay there by all 
means," was the benevolent reply. 

"What do you know of the character of this 
man?" was asked of a witness at a police-court 
the other day. " What do I know of his charac- 
ter? I know it to be unblcachable, your honor," 
he replied, with much emphasis. 

One of the excursionists on a Lake Champlnin 
boat recently went to sleep on deck, and in llic 
morning couldn*t find his shoes. " Where did you 
put them?" asked a sympathizing friend. "1 
opened that little cupboard, and laid them on the 
shelf," he replied. The victim bad opened the 
wheel-house, and laid his shoes on the paddle- 
wheel. 

Not a Good Example. — A female teacher in a 
school that stood on the banks of a river once 
wished to communicate to her pupils an idea of 
fiilth. While she was trying to explain the mean- 
ing of the word, a sraoll fishing-boat came in view. 
Seizing upon the incident for an illustration, she 
exclaimed, " If I were to tell you that there was a 
leg of mutton in that boat, you would believe me, 
would you not, without even seeing St your- 
selves?" "Yes, ma'am," replied the scholars. 
"Well that is faith," said the schoolmistress. 
The next day, in order to test the recollection of 
the lesson, she inquired, " What is faith ? " "A 
leg of mutton in a boat! " was answered from all 
parts of the school-roomi^d by V^jOOQ IC 



212 



PHRENOLOOIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Mjlbch, 




In thit deparlmerU are given the titles and prices qf 
fuch Nkw Books ae haw bten received f^om the pub- 
lUhers. Oar readers look to ve for these announcemente^ 
and we shall emJeavor to keep them well ii\formed with 
reference to the current literature. 

The Flora op Canada, Collected by 
Dr. A. M. Ross, Naturalist, author of "The 
Birds, Butterlies, Moths, Ferns, Wild Flowers, 
and Forest Trees of Canada." 
Dr. Ross jrivcs us over eiglity families of plants, 
"With some hundreds of varieties in his neat thirty- 
page pamphlet, which is published by Rowsell & 
Hutchison, of Toronto. 

In his ** Forest Trees of Canada" the author 
names eleven families of trees, with their various 
sub-divisions, as follows: three varieties tf the 
elm, including the slippery, the white, a^d the 
corky white elm; of the walnut family we have 
the shell-bark, hickory, white-heart hickory, pig- 
nut, bitter-nut, water hickory, butternut, etc. ; of 
the oak we have no less than twelve varieties, in- 
cluding the burr, white, swamp, willow, black 
pcrnh, n <!, etc. We also have seven varieties of 
the birch, eleven of the willow, and thirteen of the 
pine — the cedar, tamarack, juniper, hemlock, 
spruce, flr, etc. He gives us five varieties of ash, 
the white, red, green, black, and blue ash. Of the 
cherry and plum wc have twelve varieties. Of 
tiie maple five, including the mountain, striped, su- 
gar, silver, and swamp maple. There are three 
varieties of sumach, and one only of the linden 
family, which is the common basswood. 

We trust the author will continue his researches 
and give us something more elaborate, especially 
on the forest trees, their preservation, cultivation, 
etc. The author may be addressed at Toronto. 

A New, Philosophy op Matter, Show- 
ing the Identity of all the Imponderables and 
the Influence which Electricity Exerts over 
Matter in Producing all Chemical Changes, all 
Motion and Rest. By George Brewster. New 
and Revised Edition, with Additions, and an ex- 
tensive Appendix upon Electricity as a Curative 
Airent, by A. H. Stevens, M.D. 13mo; pp. 400. 
Price, $3. Philadelphia: Claxtou, Remson & 
Hatlcl finger. 

In a series of twelve or more lectures the author 
undertakes to tell us What is Common Electric- 
ity ; What is Galvanism; also. Galvanism and the 
Changes in Organic and Inorganic Matter. He 
describes oxygen and hydrogen, animal electricity 
and electric pathology; also, electro-magnetism. 
We have a lecture on light, another on light and 
boat, still another on heat, magnetic attraction, 
and on the aurora, concluding the course with a 
Ui'ture on gravitation and cohesion and motion of 
tlu- planets. Mr. Stevens, who adds an appendix, 
states that the work was written some thirty years 



ago, and first printed in 1S15, soon after which the 
author died. Some yean later, the edition, not 
being called for, was sold for waste paper. So 
highly was the work prized by Dr. Stevens that he 
has now brought out a new edition. In his appen- 
dix Dr. Stephens states how telegrams are sent' 
Much curious information it communicated in the 
volume. 

The Wonderful Life. By Hesba 

Stritton. 12mo ; pp. 325. Price, $1.50. New 

York: Dodd «fc Mead. 

A story of the life and death of our Lord. The 
table of subjects embraces : The Carpenter in the 
Holy Land; The Wise Men; The First Passover; 
The Prophet John the Baptist; Cana of Galilee; 
Samaria; The First Sabbath Miracle; His Old 
Home, Capernaum; A Holiday in Galilee, etc. 
Then, The Victim and Victor; The Traitor; Geth- 
semane; The High Priest's Palace; Pilate's Judg- 
ment Hall; Calvary; In the Grave; The Sepul- 
chre; His Friends and His Foes. The book is 
beautifully written 111 language easy to be under- 
stood by all readers. It will find a general accept- 
ance. * 

Journal of Social Science: Contain- 
ing the Transactions of the American Associa- 
tion. Number 7. September, 1874. Octavo; 
pp. 411; paper. Price, |a. New York: Hurd 
&, Houghton. 

Among the subjects discussed in this document 
are: The Work of Social Sciepce in the United 
States ; Tlie Duty of States Toward their Insane 
Poor; Statistics of Crime and Pauperism; The 
Farmers* Movement In the Western States; Ra- 
tional Principles of Taxation; Reformation of 
Prisoners; The Protection of Animals; State 
Boards of Health ; Public Uses of Vital Statistics ; 
Ventilation of Dwellings; Animal Vaccination; 
Hygiene in Schools and Colleges ; Training Schools 
for Nurses; Free Lending Libraries; Social Sci- 
ence Work of the Y. M. C. A. ; On Ocean Lanes ; 
Prison Reform ; The Question in America; Prison 
Architecture, etc, making one of the most valua- 
ble of all our public documents. Copies should 
be placed in every public library, that the people 
may be educated in all these momentous ques- 
tions. 

CnARACTER Sketches. By Norman 

Macleod, D.D. 12mo ; pp. 870. Price, $L50. 

New York : Dodd & Mead. 

Though dead he yet speaketh ; Norman Macleod 
will live long In his books. He was a prolific 
writer, a sound thinker, and a capital delineator 
of character. His writings are popular wherever 
the English langnagc is spoken. Here are the 
qnaint titles under which he writes In these 
** Character Sketches : " Billy Buttons ; Our Bob; 
Aunt Mary; T. T. Fitzroy, Esq.; The HIchland 
Witch; The Old Guard; The Water-Horse; A 
True Ghost Story; Job Jacobs and his Boxes; 
Wee Davie. Full-page pictures illustrate the text 
Messrs. Dodd & Mead are fortunate in securing 
works of such 8terlip|^.mgr^t.v^oOgie 



1876.] 



OUB MENTORIAL BUREAU. 



213 



Philosophic Reviews. Darwin An- 
swered; or, Evolution a Myth. Geometrical 
Dissertation. Notes on Definitions. By Law- 
rence 3. Benson, antlior of '' Benson^s Geom- 
etry," 1867; »* My Visit to the Sun ? or, Critical 
Essays on Physics, Metaphysics, and Etliics," 
1864, reprinted 1874; *• Scientific Disquisitions 
Conceminir the Circle and Ellipse," 1862, etc. 
One vol., 12rao; pp. 86; muslin. Price, $1.25. 
New York : James 8. Burnton. 
Amonc: all our authors, there are none who care 
lesa for ** what they say " than Mr. Benson. He 
refuses to ^* run in a rut," but strilies out boldly 
in the pathless sea of original thought and orig- 
inal discovery. There is no imitatioa here. It is 
all originality. Look at it. 



Transactions op the Eclectic Medi- 
cal Society of the State of New York, for the 
Years 1873-74. Transmitted to the Legislature 
March 18, 1874. One voL, octavo; pp. 498; 
musUo. Price, $3. Albany: Weed, Parsons 
&Co. 

These transactions embrfice papers by the lead- 
ing writers of the Eclectic school, including ad- 
dresses by prominent persons of both sexes. We 
have, for example, addresses by Horace Greeley, 
by Lucy W. Harrison, by Dr. Bedorthy, by Dr. 
Newton, Dr. Wilder, Dr. Davies, and many others ; 
papers on ** Female Physicians," on '* Small-pox 
and its Treatment," on ** Intermarriage of Kin- 
dred," " Psychological Medicine," Hygiene, etc. 
Of course all these subjects are treated from the 
Eclectic stand-point, and claim to be reformatory 
rather than according to the old-sthool methods. 
EcleeUcism is making progress. Whether it shall 
supersede allopathy, hom<Bopathy, hydropathy, 
etc., is a problem for the future to solve. Wb In- 
cline to the belief that Hygiene will swallow up 
mil the old methods, and hence we vote for tJiat 
ticket. 

If Christianity be an Improvement on Judaism, 
as is claimed by some ; If Protestantism be an im- 
provement on Catholicism, as is claimed by oth- 
ers, why may we not claim Hygiene to be, as it 
were, a new revelation In the principles of the 
healing art. 

Antiqcity of Christianity. By John 

Alberj^er. 12mo: pamphlet: pp. 62. Price, 36 

cents. New York : Charles P. Somerby. 

The author opens his discussion in these words : 
*•*• The origin of Christianity iflCinvolved In so much 
obscurity that the most distinguished fathers of 
the primitive Church explicitly declare that It had 
existed from time Immemorial" He gives us the 
philosphy of Pythagoras, of Socrates, Aristotle, 
Zeno, Epicurus, Plato ; a chapter of Hindoo, Per- 
sian, and Scandinavian mythology, etc. ; with 
much ouriom information (if it be accepted as in- 
formation) bearing on the subject. Of coarse no 
credit is ftlvcn by the author to the claims of Di- 
▼iolty In the Christian religion. 

The same publisher issues " The Cnltivatlon of 
Art, and Its Belations to Religious PoritanLsm and 



Money-Getting." By A. R. Cooper. The price of 
this is 25 cents. The author says: ** Whoever 
founds a library, or opens a picture-gallery, or in 
any way places within the reach of the public ad- 
ditional inducements and facilities to self-culture, 
has done somewhat toward utilizing the surplus 
wealth of the world. No millionaire can justly 
say that his fortune is his own, to be used as he 
thinks fit, regardless of the claims and interests 
of society." He holds that no man is lit to be the 
custodian of largo wealth who does not realize 
that it is not wholly his own, but that it is a sa- 
cred trust which he holds for the good of society, 
to be administered in some wise and beneficent 
manner, and not merely to be suddenly poured, 
when he dies. Into the pockets of eagerly expect- 
ant heirs, and by them wasted, perhaps, upon idle 
and wicked lives. 

HoT-AiR Bathing. Its Philosophy and 
Advantages in Health and Disease. lUustrated 
by numerous cases. By Emerson C. Angell, 
M.D. New York. Price, 25 cents. 
Dr. AngcU has spoken a piece. The piece was 
spoken in a medical college. It was so well re- 
ceived that those who heard It desired that it 
should be put into print Dr. Angell was willinsr, 
and here we have an octavo of thirty-two paires* 
in bright, red paper covers. Of course Dr. Aiigcll 
expects to sell many copies, and thereby bring 
grist to his mill. We wish him the best succeI^8 
in his efforts to keep men clean. 

Annual op the Christian Church 

FOR 1874. Edited by W. B. Wellous, D.D. 

Vol. 4; octavo; pp. 80; paper. Suffolk, Viu : 

Christian Board of Publication. 

This Annual contains the proceedings of the 
General Convention of the Christian Church at 
its regular session, 1874. All Interested in this 
liberal and reformatory religious body should ob- 
tain a copy of theoe proceedings, which contain 
the Church Directory, the New Union Movement, 
Sunday-School Convention, etc. 

The Starling. By Norman Macleod, 

D.D. One vol., 12mo; .pp. SftJ; muslin. Price, 

$1..50. New York: Dodd& Mead. 

A picture of Scottish life, sketched in Ihe Scot- 
tish vernacular, by a Scot who knows how to tell 
a story. The Rev. Dr. Macleod Is that man. 
Would the reader know something of Scottish 
manners, customs, and of Scottish religion y Ue 
may find it in this " Starling " story. 

The Lipe op Jesus the Messiah ; A 

Sacred Poem. Illustrated. By Albert Welles. 

Quarto. Price, $1.50. New York : E. Hoyt. 

A charming poem, Illustrated with more than 
twenty full-page engravings, describing the life 
of Jesus the Messiah. It is intended for x^hildren 
and youth, but Is no less adapted to those of riper 
years. How the book can be afforded for a dollar 
and a half Is a mystery. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



214 



PHRBNOLOGJOAL JOURNAL. 



[MUtCHy 



Taxation: Address of George H. An- 
drews before the ABaemblj Committee of Wayg 
aud MeaoB of the SUte of New York. Third 
edition. Pamphlet; pp. 82. NewYorlt: Mar- 
tin B. BrowD, 205 William Street, is the printer. 
Oar tax-payers should procure and peruse this 
earnest appeal The author concludes his address 
with tliese words: ** Never tax anythinfip that 
would be of value to your State, and that could 
and would run away, or that oould and would come 
to you." 

Annual Rkpobt op thb Southebn Pa- 
cific R. R. Co. for tlie year endin^c June 8pth, 
1874. New York : Eveniiig Jhgt Press. 
We have here a succinct statement of the pres- 
ent condition of this great enterprise. Mr. B. B. 
Redding, land agent of this Company, describes 
the climate, the rain fall, and the character of the 
lauds through which this road runs. He also gives 
the general productions, which Include wheat, bar- 
ley, oats, alfalfa, cotton, grapes, raisins, oranges, 
lemons, limes, citrons, almonds, olives, walnuts, 
and tigs. He also states on what condition the 
lauds are sold, gives us the policy of the Com- 
pany .in this respect, and concludes by recommend- 
ing emigration along the line of the Southern Pa- 
cific Railway. Those in qaest of particular in- 
formation should address Mr. Redding, at Sacra- 
mento, Cal. 

Messrs. Petkr Henderson & Co., 
85 Courtlandt Street, New York, have Issued their 
Seed Catalogue for 1875. It is a large octavo of 
nearly 100 pages, full of beautiful illustrations, 
some with plates in colors, with a list of. all the 
seeds and plants grown in vegetable and flower 
gardens. They also issue a spring catalogue of 
new, rare, and beautiful plants, with price-lists. 
This contains 70 or more pages with numerous 
illustrations. These two catalogues, with 175 
paiccs, containing five beautiful colored plates, 
with descriptions of seeds, plants, implements, 
fertilizers, etc., will be sent, post-paid, on receipt 
of 50 cents, which Is cheap enough. Address as 
above. — 

Mrs. I^ella French, of La Crosse, 
Wis., is publishing *' The American Sketch Book " 
in numbers. Already two or more have been issued, 
and others are in course of publication. The lat- 
est is that of Black River Falls, Wisconsin, with a 
birdseye view of the town, and an historical sketch, 
giving withal a business directory of this enter- 
prizing young city of about 2,000 inhabitants. 
Mrs. French proposes thus to describe and illus- 
trate all the principal places of that enterprising 
SUte. 

Mr. R. D. Hawley, the Seedsman, of 
Hartford, Ct., has issued a beautiful retail Flice- 
list and Catalogue of Seeds and Agricultural Im- 
plements for 1875. It is a large octavo pamphlet 
of seventy pages, with many fine iUustrationa. 
Send for a copy. 

The editor of the Prattsburff NeiM 
thus modestly puts forth the claims of his really 



excellent paper : '* We have labored to make it the 
best local fiunily paper that came to your dwell- 
ing ; one to inspire a noble and manly spirit In 
the breast o/ your son ; to give him wholesome 
counsel and advice ; one to cultivate that modesty 
and virtue with your daughter that would assist 
parental training to make her the joy and comfort 
of the home circle.** 

DOCUMENTS RECEIVED. 

Annual Report of the Treasurer of 
the United States to the Secretary of the Treasury 
for the fiscal year ended June aoth, 1874. A good 
statistical compend, for which Mr. Spinner has 
our thanks. 

RmsTA Di Discipline CiEtrcerarie in 
Relazlone con TAntropologla, cal dlritto penale, 
con la Statistics en. Diretta Da M. Beltranl Sca- 
Ua, Inspcttore Gencrale delle career! del regno 
presso 11 Mlnlstero dell *Interno. This interesting 
review of prison afikirs, not only those peculiar to 
Italy, but to Eorope generally, comes to hand 
r^ularly, and bears witness to the Improvemeuta 
which of late years have taken place in prison 
methods In the Old Woiid. 

Catalogue of the Officers and Stu- 
dents of Western Reserve College, for the Acade- 
mic year 1874-75. By which it appears that the 
students of the different departmeuts make up a 
total of 188. 

School of Mines, Columbia College. 
This catalogue gives a list. In detail, of the studies 
pursued In thd five courses prescribed by this de- 
partment of Columbia College. The faculty Is 
well constituted of the ablest instructors, and the 
apparatus fully commensurate with the require- 
ments of the curricula. 

NEW PUBLICATIONS. 

Caleb Kbinkle. A Story of American Life. 
By Charles Carleton Coffin C'Carleton**), author 
of '' Winning his Way," etc. 12mo ; pp. 500. 
Price, $a. 

Thb COAL-RaeiOMS of Ajisrioa; their. Topo- 
graphy, Geology, and Development With a col- 
ored Geographical Map of all the Coal-Regions, 
and numerous other maps and Illustrations. By 
James Macfarlanc, Ph.D. Third edition, with a 
supplement Svo. Price, $5. 

A DioTiOMAET ot Religious Knowledge, tor 
Popular and Professional Use, comprising full In- 
formation on Biblical, Theological, and Eccledaa- 
tical Subjects. With several hundred maps and 
illustrations. Edited by the Rev. Lyman Abbott, 
assisted by the Rev. T. J. Conant, D.D. Svo ; pp 
XV. 1,074. Price, to. 

Passages in the Life of the Faire Qospeller, Mis- 
tvess Anne Askew, Recounted by ye nnworthie 
pen of Nicholas Mold warp, B. A., and now first sei 
forth by the author of " Mary PoweiL" New edi- 
tion. 16mo; pp. 287. Price, $1. A picture of 
Puritanic life. 



Digitized by V^OOQ IC 




CHABLES KINGSLET, 

THE CANON AND THE AUTHOR. 



THI8 English divine lived to the age of 
fifty-five, and long enough to witness 
"May reforms iii the social polity of his 



country, and to assist in accomplishing man v 
important things for the amelioration of the 
people at large. The* Canon of Westminster 



216 



PHBENOLOQIOAL JOUENAL 



[Apbil, 



was, indeed, a champion of the oppressed 
poor ; not an agitator, in the common accept 
tation of the term, but a steady, shining 
light, whose mild influence and earnest, jet 
graceful, rhetoric stimulated the best minds 
of the nation to action in the cause of the 
poor and oppressed. His writings, sayings, 
and doings were expressive of the sentiments 
of his heart, and through them all there runs 
the element of usefulness. Ever thoughtful 
of the interests of others, his generous, be- 
neyolent spirit found pleasure in suggesting 
or promoting good works. No one can 
scrutinize the features of Mr. Eingsley, as 
shown in portraiture, without being im- 
pressed by the greatness of soul crystallized 
in and beaming through them. His head 
was not a massive one, but abundantly large 
for his body, he being a man of medium 
height and slender habit, while his tempera- 
ment was fine-grained and very susceptible 
to the higher emotions. The upper side- 
head, forward of the ears, was largely de- 
veloped, especially in the region of Ideality 
and Constructiveness, and this development 
was intimately correlated with his active in- 
tellect The tendency of his intellection 
was introspective and contemplative — ^his 
perceptives being large enough, however, to 
give him the disposition to view the pano- 
rama of life around him, and to glean for 
himself the materials for the laboratory of 
thought. His large top-head, especially the 
organs of Benevolence, Human Nature, and 
Spirituality, gave him eamestn^ss and inten- 
sity of feeling. He believed in the brother- 
hood of man, in affiliation^ ^ interest in all 
departments of human thought a'nd activity. 
He was largely endowed with Approbative- 
ness, but with enough Self-Esteem and Firm- 
ness to so regulate its influence as to give 
him character for delicacy, refinement, and 
dignified reserve. He was eminently a mod- 
est man. The two strong lines extending 
upward from the root of the nose are phys- 
iognomical signs of active Conscientious- 
ness. The showing of Imitation is con- 
siderable in the portrait, and that quality 
doubtless contributed its meed toward his 
success as a churchman and aa a member of 
conventional society. He was no agitator, 
breaking through the barriers of custom in 
the loud assertion of |^cal principles, but 



a gentle, firm, assured advocate of the right ; 
ready to meet the criticism and logic of op- 
ponents with candid argument and calm ex- 
postulation, and at the same time using his 
keen insight to character and motive. Thus 
he won many a prejudiced adversary whom 
the same array of logic, presented with an 
accompanim^it of sarcasm and denunciation 
— which characterizes too much of the lan- 
guage of so-called reformei:^ toniay — would 
have only grounded more deeply in his old 
views. His social nature was evidently 
warm. His large eyes had the open, cheery, 
genial expression of the frank, free man, 
whom to know was to esteem and love rather 
than to admire. His mouth was symmetri- 
cal, the lips being somewhat fuller than 
shown in the engraving ; and his chin was 
delicate in contour, indicating the man of 
, refined social feelings. 

Mr. Eingsley was bom at Holne, in Dev- 
onshire, England, on June 17, 1810. His 
father was then vicar of Holne, but afterward 
became rector of St Luke% Chelsea. The 
family of Kingsley is an ancient one in Che- 
shire. There was a Col. Eingsley who served 
under Cromwell, and a Gen. Eingsley who 
led a brigade at the battle of Minden. One 
ancestor emigrated to America, and estab- 
lished a branch which still exists in this 
country. The traits of force, martial valor, 
and public spirit which are said to have dis- 
tinguished the family in former times are 
Strikingly obvious in the works of Charles 
Kingsley, i^ they were in his character and 
in the conduct of his life. His childhood 
was passed in Holne vicarage, and amid sur- 
roundings of much natural beauty and many 
historic associations. These environments 
of natural loveliness and legendary lore had 
their strong and healthful infiuence on the 
development of his imagination, and his ro- 
bust and manly frame. From the age of 
fourteen till the age of twenty he was under 
the tuition and care of the Rev. Derwent 
Coleridge, at Ottley, St John. Then he 
went to Eing's College, London, and then, in 
his twenty-second year, to Magdalen College, 
Cambridge, from which institution he was 
graduated with high honors as a classical 
scholar and a mathematician. In 1844, hav- 
ing chosen the profession of the Church, he 
was settled over^fte^parifh^pf^^j;gflf^ in 



1876,] 



THE DIFFBRENCB BETWEEN MEN, 



217 



Hampshire, and there were passed many 
years of bis nsefdl and brilliant life. In 
1844, also, he was married — ^his wife being 
the daughter of Pascoe Grenfell, long a mem- 
ber of Parliament for Trtiro and Great Mar- 
lowe. His life at Eyersley mnst hare been 
serene and agreeable, for, thoogh he worked 
hard for the parish, he followed with the 
ardor of a boy those field q>orts of which he 
was passionately fond, and which kept him 
in health and cheer* As a clergyman he was 
stamichly devoted to the Established Church, 
yet broad and liberal in theology. As a 
jneacher he was simple, sincere, effective, 
and — ^by reason of his manliness, his sympa- 
thy with the poor, his knowledge of the 
wants and feelings of the humblest rustic — 
very dear to the people among whom he 
lived and labored. He rose in the Church 
to be Canon of Westminster, and he became 
one of the private chaplains to the Queen. 
Another office of honor that he occupied 
with credit and beneficence was that of Pro- 
fessor of Modem History at Cambridge Uni- 
versity. 

The writings of Mr. Eingsley are volumin- 
ous and diversified, showing great industry 
as well as prolific and versatile mind. His 
first work, ^' Village Bermons," appeared in 
1844. It is an earnest volume, and meant 
for simple readers; it urged the spirit of 
Christianity as the guide and helper in 
every-day life, and as the first and most es- 
sential force in righting social wrongs. His 
next work was, "The Saint's Tragedy," a 
poon, published in 1848, with a preface by 
Rev. F. D. Maurice. This relates to the his- 
tory of Elizabeth of Hungary, and depicts 
the human heart in revolt against asceticism. 

His third work, "Alton Locke," which 
was the first to render his name eminent 
among English writers, was put forth in 
1850. It espouses the cause of the poor, and 
eloquently urges that every human being 
should be permitted to make the best of 
himself that he can, according to the law 
of daty and conscience. A keen and pitying 
sense of the miserable state of the poor of 
London, working upon a nature ftill of ten- 
derness and of poetic aspiration and hope- 
Mnees, pervades this book, and gives it an 
astonishing vitality. Its originality and 
power seized the public attention, in its day. 



wit^ a very strong grasp. His subsequent 
publications were, "The Message of the 
Church to Laboring Men," 1851 ; " Yeast," 
1851 ; " The Application of Associative Prin- 
ciples and Methods to Agriculture," 1851 ; 
"Sermons on National Subjects," 1852; 
"Phaetheon, or Loose Thoughts for Loose 
Thinkers," 1852; "Hypatia, or New Foes 
with an Old Face," 1858 ; " Alexandria and 
Her^chools," 1864 ; " Westward Ho," 1855 ; 
" Sermons for the Times," 1855 ; " Glaucus, 
or the Warders of the Shore," 1856 ; " The 
Heroes, or Greek Fairy Tales," 1856 ; " Two 
Years Ago," 1857 ; " Andromeda and Other 
Poems," 1858; "Sir Walter Raleigh and 
His Times," 1859 ; " Good News of God," 
1859 ; Lectures and Essays ; " Hereward, the 
Last of the English ; " " Town Geology ; " 
and "At Last." One of his most notable 
minor works was a sermon on "Muscular 
Christianity," which he preached in St 
Mary^s, the church of the University of Cam- 
bridge. His stories, and notably those of 
"Hypatia," "Hereward," and "Westward 
Ho," will henceforth rank among English 
classics. His style was vigorous, though 
sometimes quaint, his thought exalted, and 
his themes original and worthy of the entbu- 
siaatic treatment as well as the popular con- 
sideration they received. 

He had accomplished much, and yet in 
what might be deemed the midst of his use- 
fulness he died. His works remain, and the 
loftiness of his example, too, which will exert 
their helpful infiuence in the hearts and lives 
of all who read and consider them. 



THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN MEN. 

THIS consists mainly in their respective 
capability to grapple with circum- 
stances and convert them to use. Most suc- 
cessful men, especially the men whom society 
esteems, have secured their success by hard 
work amid adverse circumstances. In fine, 
they have compelled circumstances to yield 
to their earnest, persevering, indomitable de- 
mands. An incident related by Gail Hamil- 
ton is quite in point here, and should be 
given with her comments : 

" Two painters were overheard talking in 
the room where they were at work. Bald 



one, 'I knowed him well 

Digitized by *- 



|a^was a 



218 



PHRSNOLOQIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Apbil, 



boy. Used to live with his grandmother, 
next door to us. Poor as JoVs turkey. But 

I ain^t seen him since, till Iheamhimin 

ball, toother night. Don*t suppose he'd come 
anigh me now with a ten-foot pole. Them 
kind of folks has short memories, ha ! ha I 
Can't tell who a poor workingman is no 
how.' 

"No, no, good friend; you are in the 
wrong. There is a gulf between yoif and 
your early friend, but it is not poverty. To 
say that it is, is only a way you have of flat- 
tering your self-love. For, if you watch 
those who frequent your friend's house, you 
will find many a one who lives in lodgings 
with the commonest three-ply carpets, cane- 
seat chairs, and one warm room ; while you 



have a comfortable house of your owfl, with 
very likely tapestry and velvet in your par- 
lor, and registers all about. No, sir ; it is not 
because you ar6 poor, nor because you work ; 
for he is as hard a worker as you, though 
not, perhaps, so long about it ; but because 
— ^begging your pardon— you arfe vulgar and 
ignorant ; because you sit down in your sit- 
ting-room at home with your coat off^ and 
your hat on, and smoke your pipe ; because 
your voice is loud, your tone swaggering, 
and your grammar hideous ; because, in short, 
your two paths from the old school-house 
diverged ; his led upward, yours did not ; 
and the fault is not his. You both chose. He 
chose to cultivate his powers ; you chose not 
to do so. Call things by their right name." 



SWEDEKBOBeiAN FHTSIOGXOMT. 



THE external man — man's material body 
— is familiar to us all. The believer in 
the theological doctrines taught by Eman- 
uel Swedenboi^ holds that man is a dual 
being; is so constituted that he is at the 
same time in the spiritual world and in the 
natural world — ^having two bodies, a spir- 
itual body, which is his real one, and a nat- 
ural body, which is the material or natural 
one that we see. This natural body is what 
I have just called the external man. The 
receiver of Swedenborg's teachings believes 
that these two bodies — which, for brevity 
and clearness, may as well be called spirit 
and body — correspond the one to the other ; 
that this relation between the two is perfect ; 
that the spirit is a formative principle, and 
the body a natural effect of it ; and that the 
body is in its shape representative of the 
spirit in its form, not only in general, as a 
whole, but in particular exactly, and in all 
the parts. 

This relation between man's spirit and 
body is called cobrbspondbncb ; and, as 
this word is the key-idea both of the theol- 
ogy of Swedenborg and of physiognomy, as 
popularly understood and taught, let us see 
somewhat more precisely what correspond- 
ence is. It is neither analogy, allegory, met- 
aphor, metonomy, comparison, fable, fiction, 
nor parable, in the ordinary acceptation of 



these words, which imply parallels and like- 
nesses between or among different things ; 
but it means more. It implies, as the late 
Professor Bush expresses it, "a formative 
force, and is thus the relation of a producing 
cause and its resulting effect." The relation, 
then, between the two is scientific. But it 
is not limited to man. The science of cor- 
respondence embraces the universe— the uni- 
verses, both the natural and the supernatural 
— and applies to inanimate things as well as 
to animate beings ; part, whole ; microcosm, 
macrocosm — all. The law, therefore, is uni- 
versal as well as scientific. Swedenborg's 
own language upon this point is this : "The 
whole natural world corresponds to the spir- 
itual world ; not only the natural world in 
general, but also every particular part thereof. 
Wherefore, whatever exists in the natural 
world from the spiritual, is said to be the corre- 
spondent of that from which it exists. It is to 
be observed that the natural world exists and 
subsists from the spiritual world, precisely as 
an effect from its efilcient cause." It is by the 
light of this law that that seer read to the 
world the doctrines of the New Church, by 
interpreting the Sacred Scriptures according 
to it An illustrative example or two may 
make the idea of the law more tangible. 
Truth stands to thoughts in the spirit-world 
as light does to obj^jg^J^^tlie^i^lgg^jForld 



1875.] 



aWEDBNBOBQIAN PHYSIOGNOMY. 



219 



—illuminates, makes visible, and beautifies. 
Truth and light, accordmgly, are correspond- 
ents. So, too, are error and darkness. Loye 
stands to that thought-world as heat does to 
khis matter-world about us— wanns, expands, 
sets in actiyity, and yivifies. Loye and heat, 
accordingly, are correspondents. Heat and 
light make up the sum of what we perceiye 
of the natural sun — their source; as loye 
and wisdom do of €k>d — their source. 

OOBRBSPONDBKCE A2n> PHT8I0GN0MT. 

But fuller details in this direction belong 
to a discussion of the science of correspond- 
ence itself— a field rich with a profosion of 
the flowers of beauty, the ^eeds of truth, and 
the fruits of good. My subject is but a 
small spot in that immense world. My pres- 
ent purpose is to trace the law under consid- 
eration in its result called the human body 
— the natural effect of the human spirit ; and 
which corresponds to it, as already stated, 
not only in general, but alpo in eyery particu- 
lar part We shall see, somewhat in detail, 
what is held to be the spiritual meaning of 
these seyeral and separate parts. 

Physiognomy, as taught in modem times — 
from Le Cat and Pemethy to Bedfield and 
Wells — also proposes to explain the relations 
between the outer man and the inner ; that 
is to say, between the natural man and the 
spiritual man — ^between the body and the 
spirit, or the real character of the indiyidual. 

Swedenborg, while dealing with the same 
principle and the same law, as well as the 
same material, does the same thing ; with 
this difference, that while the physiogno- 
mistB seek to define the relative meaning and 
fligmficance of features and parts in their 
peculiarities, Swedenborg proposes to give 
us the actual and causal meaning of these, 
both in themselves and in their peculiarities, 
bat mainly the former. He does this, how- 
eyer, with direct and sole reference to their 
meanings in the Bible, which he holds to be 
in the supreme sense the Word of God. 
The ends aimed at by the two classes of 
phyaognomitts— the popular and the Swe- 
denborgian — are accordingly different The 
former gives us directions for reading char- 
acters from the parts and shapes of the 
body, while the latter instructs us in the 
•piritoal meaning of the parts of the outer 
nian. The former assists us to read men, 



while the latter gives us a key to the mean- 
ing of the Bible. The one directs our atten- 
tion to the inner meaning of men, and the 
other to the inner meaning of the Bible; 
and the two come together in the facts that 
the Word was God, and that man — ^both 
natural and spiritual man, for they are alike 
— was created in the image and after the 
likeness of God. Spirit has form ; body has 
shape. Man is in the image and woman 
qfter the likeness of the Maker. 

THB FACB AND THE HIND. 

The two systems agree also in this, that 
they both look first and mainly th the face. 
The phyuognomist looks upon the face as 
the index of the character ; and the Sweden- 
borgian regards the face as corresponding in 
general to all the interiors — spiritual quali- 
ties or elements of character^— because the 
interiors of the mind manifest themselves 
by the face. That Js to say, the face is a 
general intelligence - office communicating 
with all points of the inner man. The fac- 
ulty that reads the face is called, in spirits, 
perception ; in men, intuition ; and in brutes, 
instinct Some angels, Swedenborg says, 
have an idea that the face is the mind in 
form, not body; and that the most ancient 
men held discourse by the> face alone, dis- 
course by words being a thing of later 
growth. There is, then, a deeper meaning 
than is usually understood in Jeremy Tay- 
lor's wise saw about words being given to 
man to conceal his thoughts. In a face, so 
the seer expresses it, which has not been 
taught to dissemble, all the afiections of the 
mind appear visibly in a natural form, as in 
their type ; hence the face is called the index 
of the mind. Applied to other things, by 
metonomy, we find the same meaning in the 
word face/ The face of nature, of the king, 
of the people, of the truth, of death, of God 
— all imply the essential beings themselves ; 
just as countenance means influence. 

SIGNIFICANCB OF THB HEAD. 

The head denotes the supreme ; and in 
spiritual things the interior, because the in- 
most in that life is supreme. It stands in 
this way for the whole man, a head meaning 
a person. The *^ head and front of my of- 
fending " means my real offense. Christ is 
called the head of the church. A king is 
the head of his government. Afathe^ is the 



220 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[April, 



head of his family. The God-head means 
God. As a part of the triune nature of all 
things, we have, in this theology, echoes of 
the triune God in all things under Him. 
Hence man is tripartite in his constitution — 
celestial, spiritual, natural ; and in his phys- 
ique we have the head, body, and feet, rep- 
resenting respectively the three degrees of 
his whole being— the highest, middle, and 
lowest planes of his being. Phrenology, in 
like manner, has three strata of organs in the 
head — ^the upper, that embraces such facul- 
ties as Veneration, Benevolence, Hope, Firm- 
ness, etc. ; the middle, that has such as Caus- 
ality, Ideality, Adhesiveness, Inhabitiveness, 
etc. ; and the lowest, that has Yitativeness, 
Aliraentiveness, Destructiveness, Amative- 
ness, etc. 

As the head denotes internals, so the hair 
denotes the outgrowth of the internal, or 
truths of a natural character. Sampson^s 
hair represented his natural supremacy — ^his 
natural, that is bodily, strength. As Abra- 
ham, Isaac, and Jac6b represented respec- 
tively the celestial, the spiritual, and the 
natural man, we see the meaning of the bring- 
ing down of Jacob's gray hairs with sorrow 
to the grave. The crown of his life was 
smitten down. 'The beard, which is the hair 
of the face, denotes also ultimate or natural 
things; of truths, the natural ; and of senses, 
the merely sensual. Hair-cutting and shav- 
ing typify removals of these ; and their pro- 
hibition to priests, who typify the Lord in 
all things, is full of specific teaching in rela- 
tion to these externals. The Levitical shav- 
ing represents a presenting of the spirit — 
til at is, the face— clean before the Lord. 

The brain is considered with regard to its 
two parts or lobes — the right and the left. 
The right represents the will, ftnd conse- 
quently the impulses that are either goqd or 
evil. The left represents the understanding, 
and consequently the thoughts of truth or 
falsehood. These points may be noteworthy 
to those students of psychology who are dis- 
posed to sit at the feet of Drs. Brown- 
Sequard and Hammond. The voluntary 
sense pertains to the cerebrum, and the in- 
voluntary to the cerebellum. The motions 
of the cerebellum and of the heart, which 
are beyond the control of man's will, govern 
the voluAtary forces. Gall did not overlook 



these points in his syntem. The . brain 
breathes as the lungs do — ^the one, tiioughts ; 
the other, air. And the purposes of the 
breathings are exactly correspondent. 

The forehead expresses love. That is, the 
exteriors in general are, as above stated, 
expressed in the face ; those of love, particu- 
lariy, being the highest attribute of soul, in 
the forehead. 

0RQAK8 OF THB 8EK8B8-— FBATURBS. 

The eyes correspond in general to the un- 
derstanding, and consequently to faith, which 
is always an act of the rational faculty, and 
to foresight. The sight of the right eye de- 
notes faith in the direction of good or evil — 
right or wrong ; and the sight of the left eye 
denotes faith in the direction of truth or 
falseness. Here, as in the dual brain, we 
hav.e the right representifig the will, and the 
left the understanding ; and the same prin- 
ciple may be seen in all the limbe and parts 
that are divided* in that way— the ears, 
cheeks, nostrils, shoulders, arms, hands, legs, 
feet, and every one of them in their details. 
" If thy right eye offend thee, pluck it out 
and cast it away,'' has in the light of this 
correspondence a specific meaning— If your 
mind is embracing falsities for truths through 
the influence of the wiU (through such /^ 
ing» as covetousness or envy), stop it, and 
resist it . The power represented by the 
light of the other eye is competent to exe- 
cute the commands. The same was never 
said of the left eye. On the contrary, when 
alms are commended, we are enjoined not 
to let the left hand know what the right is 
giving ; and the distinction is luminous with 
instructive significance. The eye denoting 
intelligence, persons of clear thought are 
called clear-sighted, and those of forethought 
are called far-sighted ; and all languages are 
full of similar expressions. Interior being 
denoted by what is above, lifting up the 
eyes means seeing interior or spiritual things. 
Thus Abraham, as he sat in the tent door in 
the heat of the day, in the plains of Mamre, 
where he dwelt, '^ lift up his eyes " and saw 
three angels appearing as men. 

Ears denote obedience; the right corre- 
sponding to obedience from will or love, and 
the left to that without will — .the involun- 
tary. " Do you hear f " in popular phrase 
often means, " Do ^^fj;^^ g^^ij^^bey ? »' 



1875.] 



aWBDEHrBORGIAir PHTaiOQNOMT. 



221 



Boxing the ear with an awl denotes the ad- 
diction to perpetual obedience of those who 
do not understand trath and are relatiyely 
not free. 

Month means voice, and tongne means 
speech, because they are the organs respec- 
tiyely of these; and the voice corresponds 
to the will with its affections and good, 
and speech to the understanding with its 
thoughts and tnjth. The former relates to 
the tones of the voice ; and the latter to the 
utterances — ^that is, to hearing and percep- 
tion. 

The popular physiognomist will tell you, 
and we all realize the truth, that the state 
of the a£GBCtiona — the love, hate, anger, envy, 
pity, hope, admiration, and the rest — can be 
told from the tones of the voice of men as 
we meet them in daily life. It is equally true 
of animals ; for the hunter can tell as far as 
he can hear the bark of his dog exactly what 
the dog feels concerning the game he is pur- 
sning — ^whether he has it at bay, cornered, 
up a tree, lost sight of, just within grasp but 
yet fleeing, or caught ; besides much else that 
se^ns perfectly incredible to city-dwellers 
who know nothing of the chase. In like 
manner, in the artieulaUan of the words, as 
distinguished from the tones of the voice, we 
hear the character of the speaker — the char- 
acter as to intelligence and thought. By 
our intuition we all measure a speaker's in- 
tellectual character as soon as we get a dis- 
tinct hearing of his articulation, and before 
he utters a thought. Here the two systems 
again touch and agre^. 

Lip denotes doctrine. 

Nose and nostrils signify perception, which 
is an act of the understanding. The breath 
of life — ^the spirit of love — ^was breathed into 
the nostrils of Adam, whereupon man became . 
a living soul. 

The teeth denote the lowest natural truths ; 
and in the opposite sense falses of the same 
kind. The teeth are the most nearly mineral 
parts of the animal frame. Gnashing of 
teeth ngnifies the collision and conflict of 
these lowest natural truths. The Psalmist — 
MiL 9— speaks with this meaning when he 
says : ^ Break their teeth, O God, in their 
mouth; break out the gpreat teeth of the 
young lions ; " and Eliphaz, the Temanite — 
Job iv. 10— is dealing in spiritual truths 



when he says that ** the teeth of the young 
lions are broken." 

THB NECK, 

like the knees, denotes conjunction and in- 
flux ; just as these parts in the natural body 
are connectives. The triune human body 
being head, trunk, and feet— corresponding 
to celestial, spiritual, and natural— the neck 
connects the flrst to the second, and the 
knees connect the second to the third. 

THB HBABT AND THB LUNGS 

play the most important part in the animal 
economy, as their spiritual correspondents 
do in the spiritual. Lof>e^ wisdom^ 9;n^ power 
cpmprehend the universes, beginning with 
their Creator. The heart corresponds to love^ 
and all things that flow from it; and the 
lungs to ioUdom^ and all things that flow from. 
it "With the third element— ^>Mrtfr— we can 
not deal here ; but the three in their opera- 
tion make up the all of creation that God 
looked upon and saw to be good ; make up 
man — ^the microcosm, the macrocosm — the 
two universes. But to return. The heart 
corresponds to love, the will, affection, the 
good, and charity ; and the lungs correspond 
to wisdom, the understanding, thought, the 
true, and faith. The sequences of each are 
infinite. The inter-relations of the heart and 
the lungs also correspond to those of their 
spiritual correspondents in every minute par- 
ticular. To give a complete account of these 
two organs and their functions, with their 
complex systems of generation, nutrition, ab- 
sorption, exhalation, assimilation^ and the 
rest, with all their relations and correlations, 
would exhaust anatomy; and similar treat- 
ment, were either ^possible, of their corre- 
spondents on the spiritual plane would ex- 
haust both psychology and theology. The 
heart co-operates with the cerebellum, and 
the lungs with the cerebrum, the former re- 
lating to motives and the latter to their guid- 
ance. From the two flows the current of 
life, and all that life, both human and divine, 
implies and involves. 

The breast — ^pectus — comprehending the 
heart, lungs, and other parts, in its corre- 
spondential meaning signifies them all ; but 
as the heart is the central figure, the chest ia 
a general way signifies charity, the greatest 
of the triune virtues, which flows from the 

^®*^ Digitized by ^OOgie, 



222 



PHBENOLOQIOAL JOURNAL. 



[Apbil, 



The breasts — bbera — denote the affectionB 
of both good and truth, and hence are the 
fountains of life in spirit as in body. 

THB HAKD 

signifies the power of truth ; the arm, greater 
power ; and the shoulder, all power. Bo the 
parts of these in detail, as the fingers, thumbs, 
palms, and fists, each in a distinct form ; and 
the further from the body the nearer the ul- 
timate in character. Whatever is on the 
right side signifies good and its procedure 
by truth ; and whatever is on the left signi- 
fies truths in their procedure to good. These 
operations signify power of the kind indi- 
cated ; and since good in its procedure by 
truth is the orderly evolution of power, it 
follows that the right hand means power jNir 
exceO&n^se; and the righ£ hand of Qod means 
onmipotence. In the song of Moscq we are 
told that the Lord will repent himself for his 
servant when he sees that their hand — trans- 
lated both power and hand — is gone ; and in 
2 Bamuel xiv., 19, we read : " And the king 
said. Is not the hand of Joab with thee in all 
this?'* The same signification of hand ap- 
pears in various forms in all ages of the 
world, and in all languages. Yirgil makes 
Dido cox^ure ^neas by her own tears and 
his right htaid— per has lachrymoi dextramqus 
tuam — to pity her falling houses Lucan calls 
the evils of the Roman civil war the wounds 
of the civil right hand — ctvUis wdn^ra dea- 
t/rae, 'Horace calls the lightning the red 
right hand of Jupiter — deztera rubens. 

OBOANS OF DIGESTION AND ASSIMILATION. 

Bowels signify mercy, compassion, pity. 
The royal singer says: "My bowels were 
moved for him." In Proverbs we are told 
that " th6 bowels of the wicked are crud," 
where the word is translated sometimes "ten- 
der mercies." The Psalmist cries, "Remem- 
ber, O Lord, thy bowels and thy loving kind- 
nesses," where also the word is variously 
rendered, generally by " tender mercies." 

The loins denote the interiors — the spirit- 
ualities of conjugal love, as the thighs do the 
exteriors. There are numerous illustrations 
of the uses of both these correspondents, both 
in «acred and secular literature. 

Afiihe liv^ and stomach in the natural 
man are concerned in the purification and 
digestion of natural nutriment, so their spir- 
itual correspondents are in the fuilctions of 



assimilation and digestion of spiritual food, 
goods, and truths. The kidneys also have a 
like function on both planes, to examine, 
separate, and correct So with all the inte- 
terior organs and parts of the body, they 
have spiritual correspondence of identical 
functions on the spiritual plane. 

THX LOWER LIMBS, 

as in the case of the head, trunk, and lower 
limbs, are sub-divided ii) a corresponding 
way into three parts: thighs, knees, and feet 
— celestial, spiritual, and naturaL Samson 
smote the Philistines interiorly and exterior- 
ly — utterly ; and the historian expresses the 
smiting correspondentially ; that is, "He 
smote them hip and thigh." Rather oddly 
this is rendered in the Paris translation of 
1805, as "/Z 2m laUU do» et ventre:' Igno- 
rance of the true difference between loins and 
thighs appears repeatedly in our English 
translations, notably in Genesis xlvi 26, and 
Exodus i. 5, where we have sometimes loins 
and sometimes thighs given for the same 
thing. The French translations prefer the 
safer course of dodging it; and we have 
fUes d$ 2ui, and nUs de Jaeoby but neither 
loins nor thighs. By further analysis of the 
lower extremities, we have the knees as con- 
necting the feet with the thighs — as the neck 
connected the trunk with the head ; and so 
the lower nature of man is connected with 
his higher by a link typified in the bending 
of the knees — prayer. The feet represent the 
natural — the lowest; so the soles of the feet 
denote the lowest of the natural, the sole of 
the heel being the ultimate lowest natural. 
When the risen Saviour, to identify himself 
to the eleven, who ought to have known him 
well, said, " Behold my hands and my feet," 
and then " shewed them his hands and feet,'^ 
we can hardly imagine that they had over- 
looked so obvious a thing as the wounded 
extremities, provided the lacerations still re- 
mained; and the Swedenborgian looks for, 
and finds, a rational explanation in the cor- 
respondential meanings of hands and feet 
But these speculations are beyond the do- 
main of physiognomy. In Isaiah vii. 20, 
also, we have a passage wherein a corre- 
spondential meaning, if any, must be found. 
The prophet says : " In the same day shall 
the Lord shave with a razor that is hired, 
namely, by them beyond the river, by the 

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1875.] 



AN INDEPENDENT MIND. 



228 



king of ABByria, the head and the hair of the 
feet; and it shall also consume the beard.'' 
From the crown unto the sole of the foot — 
firom the highest celestial to the lowest nat- 
ui;il— £rom the hc^est aspiration to the low- 
est psasioD-impnlse that touches the yery 
dirt--i8 not a chance expression. Kdther 
ue ^' She lay at his feet," said of Ruth ; " He 
that is washed needeth not save to wash his 
feet," said to Peter ; " He set my feet upon a 
rock;" "When my foot slippeth;" and 
uQoide onr feet'' No expression in the 
WAt can be chuice mast be conceded by 
tiiose who admit the inspiration, or even the 
trethfolnefls of that work. 

THE FHTSICAIi MEMBBltB A8 TYPICAL. 

80, taken as a whole, the entire man is 
lepresentatiTe. Taken in parts, the parts 
are representative. Taken in substance, these 
are bo likewise ; as the bones, the flesh, and 
the blood represent a scale from the lowest 
of the earth earthly bones, to the less earthly 
flesh, and to the least earthly blood. Blood 
lefoeaents truth, and the fledi good. Blood 



circulates tkrough the'flesh and contributes 
to the flesh — ^is transmuted into flesh; as 
truth put into action becomes creative of 
good — ^becomes good. Without the blood 
the flesh dies ; as without truth good is im- 
possible. They are interdependent, and to- 
gether live, and separated die. Hence in 
the scheme of the incarnation so much is 
said about the blood of the Lamb. Lamb is 
the correspondent of innocence. The blood 
of the Lamb is the truth of innocence — God's 
truth. 

As with the bones, the flesh, and the blood, 
so, also, with the skin, the marrow, the pores, 
the breath, the voice — ^the all that is the nat- 
ural man's, from the highest to the lowest, 
from the best to the worst — ^these all perform 
functions and act parts just like (by scientific 
identity 'just like) their correspondents on 
the spiritual plane. "There is a natural 
body," Paul said, " and there is a spiritual 
body ; " and the one dies that the other may 
live. Cremation does not concern that other. 

JAa WOOD DAVIDSON. 



4e» 



JlN INDEPEFDEITT MIND. 



0' 



VNE of the evidences sometimes rendered 
by men of their thinking and acting 
independently of the thought and action of 
their fellows, is the fact that their choice is 
often made in opposition to popular taste 
and early education ; that they reach conclu- 
dons and utter thoughts not in harmony with 
the sentiment and spirit of the age in which 
they live. The spirit of the age is the at- 
mosphere of society. All breathe in it ; all 
are affected by it Like the tide of the sea, 
hke the current of a mighty .river, it will bear 
before it or break in pieces everything that 
18 not supported by the power of faith, and 
none can make head against it except those 
who row with the oars of resolution. When 
early education coincides with the spirit of 
the age, it is like the confluence of two riv- 
ers, or like sails added to a ship that is mov- 
ing with the tide already. It is hard to stem 
such a double current The spirit of the age 
has two grand component elements — ^the senti- 
ments of the higher and the sentiments of the 
lower classes of society. When wo identify 



ourselves with either of these, great support 
is experienced in maintaining our principles. 
If the populace be against us, it is comfort- 
ing to think that we are on the side of the 
more intelligent, learned, and influential; 
that with us are all the men of intelligence 
and the men of fame. When on the side of 
the masses, their number and their plaudits, 
which are generally, hearty, inspires enthusi- 
asm and courage. When' a man's choice has 
none of these advantages ; when men of all 
classes and sentiments are opposed to him in 
thought and judgment, and yet he has the 
fortitude to think for himself, and the man- 
liness of spirit to act on his own convictions, 
this is true and genuine independence of 
mind. Men should, however, beware lest 
they mistake for independence some things 
that go under its name. To take their own 
will, to insist on having their own way, never 
to agree to anything unless it conduce to 
their interests, so fu from being a proof of 
independence, shows that they are the slaves 
of caprice and selfishness. To renounce what- 

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eyer is old because il is old, to lare a preju- 
dice against it, to pant after novelties and be 
forward to embrace them, is instability, and 
not independence ; for truth, viewed in itself^ 
has no respect to time, it knows no such dis- 
tinction as past and present, and, like its au- 
thor, it is everlasting and unchangeable. To 
be prejudiced against im3rthing because it is 
old or young,. shows such confused ideas 
about the stability of truth that no person 
can begin to have any idea of what true in- 
dependence in thought aud action means un- 
til such notions vanish away from his soul, 
and leave the light of the sun to shine on 
him unobstructed — ^the light of the same old 
sun which poured its radiance on the heads 
of all true men in days gone by. True inde- 
pendence is the subject and servant of truth. 
It submits to truth, it follows her whith- 
ersoever she goes. It points instinctively 
and incessantly to truth as does the needle 
to the pole. This implicit submission of the 
mind to truth is really the emancipation of 
the soul from all other masters. By this act 
it is made free from the dominion of men, 
and is free indeed. To follow man as man, 
however wise or excellent in character, is to 
surrender our own manhood and become the 
slaves and the tools, a part of the goods and 
the chattels, of a creature who, like ourselves, 
is made of dust and ashes. That we have 



tile power aad privilege to determine accord- 
ing to the conclusions of our judgment and 
tiie wishes of our heart apart from the thought 
and action of others, or the circumstances 
of our lot is asserted by our own experience. 
All the s^tient beings around us have the 
power of choice — a " free wilL" They choose 
.what is agreeable and reject what is offm- 
sive to their nature, and herein is the very 
essence of liberty. Had man notliing but 
animal elements in his constitution, his fac- 
ulty of choice would be limited to the ma- 
terial sphere in which he is located. But he 
has other and higher elements of being. He 
has reason, conscience, and religious senti- 
ment ; his faculty of choice, therefore, has a 
higher function and a wider range. Truth, 
right, duty course within its sphere. He has 
to select from the material and spiritual uni- 
verse elements suited to the appetites and 
wants of his complicated nature. He has to 
choose what will tell beneficially upon his 
own and his neighbor's hisitory a million cen- 
turies to come. How great is his responsi- 
bility. How necessary that he should rise 
above man, above all men, in forming his 
opinions and carrying them into action, and 
judge and act as in the presence of the In- 
visible, as one who, in point of exercise and 
privilege, recognizes God as his Father and 
Judge of all. Andrew habdie, m«d. 



4 



THE LATE AGSES STRICKLAND. 



SCARCELY an American youth of intelli- 
gent parentage can be found, who has 
not heard or read of this distinguished Eng- 
lish historian. Her various writings, in the 
department of biography particularly, were 
in that easy, natural style which interests the 
reading youth as well as the reading adult, 
and her choice of subjects, too, was peculiar- 
ly felicitous in several instances, and so 
"hit" popular attention. Few volumes of 
biography have found so cordial a welcome 
on both sides of the Atlantic as the " Queens 
of England," of which the first installment 
appeared in 1840. ^ 

Miss Strickland was nearly seventy years 
of age at the time of her death last year, hav- 
ing been bom in 1806, at Reydon Hall, near 



Southwold, in Suffolk County. She was the 
third daughter of a family of six daughters 
and two sons, nearly all of whom have con- 
tributed something to the literature of the 
day. The poems and romances of Sir Wal- 
ter Scott, read in her girlhood, gave her the 
impulse toward writing, and she composed 
romantic narratives in verse of the wars of 
the Roses, and the adventures of Charles IL 
after the battle of Worcester. Her composi- 
tion on this last-named theme was approved 
by Campbell. There was a time when Byron 
and the Greek war of independence took the 
place in her mind of Scott, and the chivalry 
of English or Scottish loyalty. She then 
produced "Demetrius, a Tale of Modem 
Greece." But when, after her father^s death, 

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THE LATE AQNEB STRICKLAND, 



225 



she and her elder siBter Elizabeth came to 
reside in London, they found together a more 
tabetantial kind of literary occupation. Hav- 
ing become regular student^ in the Britiflh 
Moseam Library, they collected historical 
materials, and began jointly to compile works 
of permanent interest concerning our national 
history. 

Their ** Lives of the Qneens of England 
from the Norman Conquest" appeared in 
BQCcessive volpmes, beginning in 1840 and 
continning to 1849. It was immediately fol- 
towed by " Lives of the Queens of Scotland " 
ind ** Lives of the English Prin- 
ceases Connected with the Regal 
Soccession of Great Britain." 

These works are not only popu- 
lar, but their general accuracy 
has been approved by scholars; 
though some of Miss Strickland's 
opinions regarding disputed mat- 
ters of fact, as well as her expres- 
sions of political sympathy, may 
have failed of much efifect with 
sober and impartial readers. She 
was an ardent partisan of Mary 
Stoart and of all the Stuart Kings, 
which is, perhaps, what might 
have been expected of a feminine 
mind early fascinated by Sir Wal- 
ter Scott's graceful creations of 
fancy playing with the figures and 
scenes of history. A pleasant 
story has lately been related of 
her Majesty Queen Victoria. She 
once, it is said, paid a high com- 
pliment to the deceased authoress. 
Entering the library at Windsor 
Castle, one day, she remarked to 

her then librarian, ** Mr. , do 

you know that Miss Strickland's 
*LiTes of English Queens and 
Princesses * have made me a devoted admirer 
of the house of Stoart ? " 

In 1862 Miss Agnes Strickland produced a 
separate volume, "Lives of the Bachelor 
Euigs of England,^' which comprised Wil- 
liam Rufos, Edward V., and Edward VL She 
produced irf 1866 " Lives of the Seven Bish- 
ops." It should be mentioned that besides 
her more important historical labors, she pub- 
lished a number of short volumes, as " Stories 
feom History," " Illustrious British Children," 
"The Pilgrims of Walsingham," "Historic 



Scenes and Poetic Fancies," *'01d Friends 
and New Acquaintances," and others. 

Hiough much indebted to the industry 
and talent of her sister Elizabeth in the com- 
pilation of her larger histories, Miss Strick- 
land put into print a very considerable 
amount of original and instructive matter, 
and secured a high degree of fame as a writer 
aiid contributor to the lasting literature of 
England. 

Miss Strickland possessed a robust phy- 
sique and a powerful mental organization. 
Her head was unusually large, and her tem- 




Thb Late Aghsb Stbioklakd. 
perament of the vital-motive order, judging 
by the portrait before us. Her face was ex- 
traordinarily long, evincing a self-reliant, 
persev^^g disposition. The quality of as- 
piration was her's in a marked degree, and 
led toward the achievement of ends calculated 
in their success to secure the respect of the 
world. She was scarcely a woman in suscep- 
tibility to the more delicate emotions of the 
heart, but rather partook of the strong and 
self-poised nature of a man. She appreciated 
what was due to her as a member of society, 



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PHRBNOLOGIOAL JOURNAL. 



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and accorded to that society what was 
due from her. Strong, earnest, emphatic, 
persevering, and ambitious, she was, neyer- 
theless, humane, considerate, kind, and pos- 



sessed in no small degree of that somewhat 
rare commodity, bom of native intelligence 
and acquired culture, known as common 




jpepartincnl of m 










THE BUBBLE. 



I HOLD a bubble in my hand, 

And watch whUe o^er it flit 
Strange shadows, that in order pass, 
Like forms which haunt a wizard's glass 

When black arts people it; 
As one within a dream I stand, 

Whose meaning mocks my wit 

Some specters seem to wish me well, 

While others frown and flee ; 
Here, rosy Hope is shrined in light, 
There, famished Care, the thrall of Night, 



Toils lone and drearily; 
And Memory, as they pass, would tell 
What each one was to me. 

As when a day its gloom forsakes, 

Jnst when the night is near, 
So, by a gleam of thought, I know 
The story that these shadows show, 

And whose days disappear ; 
The clock strikes twelve— my bubble breaks ! 

My bubble!— 'twas a year. 

B. B. HOLT. 



THE OTHER SIDE OF YOUTH. 



THERE is no other subject with which 
we are familiar that has received such 
an overplus of praise as " The Days of My 
Youth." Poete have vied with one another 
in striving which could most unreasonably 
estimate it; while jthe majority of those who 
have written from the other side have taken 
it at its most lugubrious point, perhaps just 
after they have discovered gray hairs or lost 
a tooth, and so*aIl life has become ashen- 
hued or corrugated. 

It is but just to take into consideration 
what one author has termed the " inertia of 
an impression," and the difficulty of dislodg- 
ing from the mind a thought that has once 
become fixed in it Having been told all our 
lives that " Youth is the most desirable pe- 
riod of existence," we accept the dogma as 
we do our first simple convictions, without 
inquiring as to the correctness of the premises 
by which they were attained. 

Youth, however, left to his own instincts, 
knows vastly better ; he tosses all such plati- 
tudes from him, and pushes on with ever-in- 



creasing delight toward manhood, with its 
duties, prerogatives, responsibilities, and hon- 
ors. It is nothing to him that older heads 
prate of youth as the one and only charming 
period of existence; his keen, penetrating 
vision pierces through all such illusions, and 
he knows what he knows, that to manhood 
are accorded the opportunities and privileges 
of Ufe. 

Without doubt the remoteness of the far- 
distant future lends to it the attrattiveness 
which distance generally assumes ; but who 
shall say that it is not this same remoteness 
which renders childhood and youth such a 
delightful retrospect to age. 

Childhood may be beautiful to age, but 
what is it to itself? Ordinarily, whatever its 
advantages, it is, as yet, incapable of appre- 
ciating them. All the fortuitoua conditions 
by which it may be surrounded, and which 
are looked upon by maturer eyes as blessinga, 
are usually regarded by youth 4s only so 
many impediments to happiness. Whateyer 
restricts the free play o^ lif^^^ijj^^al and 



fbJ^l^&dJ^fP' 



|I875.] 



THE OTHER SIDE OF YOUTH. 



227 



natural, can noTer be regarded by cbildhodd 
in the light of a bleeung. 

The truth is, that torn dreaeee, soiled gar- 
ments, stombles, and braises "generally, yexa- 
tions proprieties, mistaken conceptions of 
right and wrong acted out to the letter and 
rewarded accordingly ; sundry and constant 
idmonitions, both ^^entle and otherwise, con- 
stitnte the actual experiences of our early 
lift, and the honest recollections of our ma- 
torer years. 

Looking^ back we see now what we fiedled 
to oheerye then — that our trials were but pet- 
ty ones, our improprieties forgetable and re- 
medial, our limitations and the requirements 
exacted of us necessary to our right develop- 
ment and future usefulness. This is why we 
regard in later days so indifferently the trib- 
oiations of our childhood; but then — ah I 
then they did not appear tQ us in any such 
softened guise. 

And what have we lost by losing youth f 
Some things, ao doubt, of actual value 
which we recognize now, but which then 
did not enter the realm of our self-conscious- 
ness. 

Not long ago a lady put this same ques- 
tion to a gentleman; after some hesitation, 
he made reply: "Well, I don't think I like 
green apples quite as well as I used to." 
And Oliver Wendell Holmes, in his poem 
" I would I were a Boy Again," finds, long 
before he has finished analyzing the senti- 
ment, that unless he can take with him the 
dearer joys of his manhood, the others would 
be lamentably and ludicrously deficient by 
comparison. 

Youth, with all its ignorance, its power- 
leasness, its uncertainties, and its burdens, is 
rather an object of compassion than of envy 
or rivalry. Youth, in the quicksands, the 
perplexities, the delusions of life, rushes on 
blindly against the unknown future, open- 
ing a doorway here and there, unmindful 
whether it bring to him a flood pf sunshine 
or a tempest of storm. 

Maturity, who has gathered strength by 
the mistakes of the past, who has learned how 
to value joy by disappointment, who has left 
the passion and turmoil of youth for the se- 
rener atmosphere, and the more spiritual 
pleasures of age, who has gathered knowl- 
edge and wisdom and experience, is too often 



overloo|[ed by the side of fresh, giddy, 
thoughtless youth. 

But what are the facts of the case which 
we are so apt to disregard in our unthinking 
fashion ? upon whom are the honors, the emol- 
uments, the dignities of life conferred ? Al- 
most without an exception, youth is passed 
by that the scepter of power may be placed 
in the hands of age and experience. 

Youth is admired ; age is honored. Youth 
is looked down upon; age looked up to. 
Youth has achieved nothing ; age, if worthy, 
has achieved much. Youth does not know 
its weakness; age has learned its strength. 
Youth is uncharitable and exacting ; age is 
tender and forgiving. Why, then, should 
we underestimate the latter, that we may in- 
commensurably exaggerate the former ? 

It is false, then, to teach youth that youth 
only is to be prized and cherished. A right 
understanding and appreciation of age, a 
correct interpretation of aU that it should 
symbolize to us of dignity, worth, honor, and 
experience, would readjust our social opin- 
ions more rightfully, if not more righteously. 

In no cotntry does youth need this lesson 
more than in our own, where age b continu- 
ally bidden to move aside for his advancing 
footsteps. Here a man is expected to step 
" down and out " just when, in England, he 
would be 'considered ripe to enter upon his 
country's service. He need not wonder, how- 
ever, that the lesson which has been impress- 
ed upon every child from his babyhood up, 
that youth is the one golden period of ex- 
istence, should bring forth fruit such as might 
come fix>m such grafting. 

Not long ago I heard a mother say, in the 
presence of her children, " Oh, dear I it's aw- 
ful to grow old ; I can't bear to think of it 1 " 
and I could not but wonder if the meas- 
ure of her own example might not be meted 
out to her in the years to c6me. Instead of 
passing onward in life with accumulated 
sweetness and dignity, she stood shivering, 
looking backward toward that narrow, cir- 
cumscribed past, from which it was her priv- 
ilege to emerge with daUy-increasing honors 
upon her head. 

" It seems to me I have reached the most 
beautiful period of my life," a friend re- 
marked to me the other day, who had at- 
tained her three-score years. . '^Lhay&come 



I ye 

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to the Sabbath of my existence ; there is no 
longer any fret or worry ; if I can not have 
my own way, it has ceased to be a trial for 
me to yield it ; my days go on, each one a 
Sabbath to me, quite freed from either fric- 
tion or anxiety." And yet this woman^s 
cares are altogether beyond those of most 
mortals, but she has reached *Hhe Sabbath 



of life.'' Those sweet words ring in my ear 
like a hallowed evening chime. 

Already beyond the friction, the agitation, 
the perils and disturbances of ** evenr day,'' 
the seventh decade— the Sabbath of life is 
ixmg in ill sweet, clear, silvery tones, calling 
to an immortal youth, purified, chastened, 
and sanctified by the experiences of age. 

JUIiIl. A« WTTJiTH, 



4S» 



ALFRED BUMIJfE; OB, WHO. BEDEEMED HIM! 

BY HAL D. RATTOK. 
CHAFTEB n. ' 
▲ BLINB TiKADICR OV THB BLIND. 

— " What may they feel, 
In height of tormeDta, and in weight of TeDgeance, 
Not only they themselves not doing well. 
But set a light up to show men to YityV—IUddleUm, 



I HAD not thought of going much out of 
my way to induce Alfred Rumine to re- 
turn to his former temperate habits. My 
acquaintance with him was not of that inti- 
mate character which gives « a man warrant 
for assuming the mentor. His widowed 
mother and amiable sisters interested me 
enough to incline me to do something when 
•pportunity offered toward his redemption, 
just as a similar case coming within the prov- 
ince of any other man who seeks to do his 
duty to his family and immediate relation- 
ships would interest him. But my friend 
Strang's assurance of co-operation determined 
me to set on foot some measures for the re- 
form of the young man, and to follow them 
up, using all my leisure, if necessary, in the 
campaign. 

Strang was not a member of our Ordw, but 
I had always found him staunch and true on 
questions of social habit. He was well* 
informed with regard to the results of scien- 
tific investigation in the departmmits of food 
and drink, and possessed clear convictions, 
derived from much reading and experience, 
of the relations of habit to physical condi- 
tion. A lawyer, too, by profesoon, and in 
large practice, his opinions had no little in- 
fluence with others ; and as he carried out in 
daily life his hygienic ideas, and was a ro- 
bust, active man, his habits and appearance 
confirmed his precepts. Very positive, yet 
by no means obtrusive, in demeanor, I would 



have regarded him a most efficient ally in 
any undertaking. 

On the day following our interview, as de- 
tailed in the foregoing chapter, I was de- 
tained in my office until it was too late to g^ 
home for dinner, so I stepped into a neigh- 
boring restaurant for a lunch. The place 
was yet well filled with customers, and I 
took the first vacant chair I saw. Scarc^y 
had I sat down when I heard Strang*s voice, 
and on glancing around saw that he was 
discussing some question with Dr. Barr. 
Strang's back was toward me, but being at 
the next table, I could have touched him 
easily, but a good view of the doctor's flushed 
and half angry face deterred me, and I con- 
cluded to listen, as two or three other diners 
in our vicinage were evidently doing, to the 
conversation. 

*^ I tell you, sir," exclaimed the physiciaB, 
in a tone of high authority, ''pepp^ is a 
capital thing for the g^astric function; it af- 
fords that stin^ulus which the stomach needs 
for efiS3Ctive digestion. I would not ei^ a 
beefisteak or a potato without it" 

** So I perceive by the appearance of your 
plate," said Strang, quietly; ^* and* yet analy- 
sis informs me that p^per does not possess 
an atom of nutrition, therefore is not an arti- 
cle of food. Further, physiology declares it 
an irritant, as witness Dr. Beaumont's experi- 
ments on Alexis St Martin, which experi- 
ments you, as an «^tft;ft04-«^I%ifiUn, know 

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ALFRED BUM INS. 



229 



form the basis of all tliat is ^own relataye 
to the nature of digestion. Dr. Beaumont 
found that condiments in general, by excit- 
ing undue gastric action and inducing an 
inflamed condition of the lining membrane, 
lowered the tone of the stomach and weak- 
ened its power. Our stomachs were made 
for the purpose of digesting and assimilating 
food, and if we are so unnatural in our treat- 
ment of them as to take in substances haying 
no real dietetic property, we shall experience 
the penalties, of our willAil infringement of 
nature's ordinance." 

"But you don't make allowances, sir," 
broke in the doctor, ^^ for idiosyncrasies — ^for 
the fact, the very positive foct, sir, that 
* what's one man's meat, is often another 
man's poison.' " 

** Yes, I appreciate what you cali * idiosyn- 
crasies,' doctor, especially as in nearly all 
cases they are merely acquired habits, or the 
morbid results of habits. Good food is — 
must be — good food to all. Nature is kind 
to all her children. They who deem her 
harsh or despotic hare turned away through 
willfulneas or caprice from the simple line of 
duty which she enjoins. To be sure, some 
unfortunates suffer for the sins of their par- 
ents, but there are few of them, even, who 
may not, by normal, healthful practices, re- 
cover much of thbir prefer share of this life's 
cheer and happiness." 

"Very fine talking," retorted the doctor. 
**£zcellent philosophy, indeed, for— children ! 
Tou, of course, are prepared also to main- 
tain, in spite of Hammond, Flii^t, and eth- 
os, that wine is not a proper article of diet ; 
tiiat it is poHtiody injurious. Why, sir, I 
hMw a dozen men. and women who abm- 
badjf depend upon brandy and wine for ex- 



" Just as the poor Btyiians do upon arsenic, 
•ad as thousands of miserables in Europe Uve 
upon opium 1 " ndldly interposed Strang. Dr. 
Bair, without noticing the interruption, 
went on — 

^And look at me, sir; for the past twenty 
years brandy has been the support of my 
life. A chronic derangement of the stom- 
ach is sapping my heart's blood, and were 
it not for alcohol, I would not be here to- 
day." 

** And your dietetic habits have been much 



the same since boyhood, I suppose," said my 
Mend, with an air of sympathy. 

" Pretty much the same. Meats have con- 
stituted the major part of my meals. I am 
very fond of shell-fish, also, and usually take 
a dish of lobster salad or pickled oysters at 
night before retiring. Vegetables I do not 
care for ; they are too tame ; fill up the stom- 
ach too much, and are slow of digestion. A 
little chow-chow or piccalilli, however, is 
good as an appetizer. My digestion needs a 
good deal of strong food to arouse it." 

" Have you ever tried to relieve your dis- 
order by a change of diet?" inquired 
Strang. 

'* Yes, so far as reducing the quantity is 
concerned. Medicines have no effect at 
aU." 

'* I believe the hygienists are very success- 
fid in their treatment of stomach disorders. 
They recommend, as you probably are aware, 
the disuse of meat and the observance of a 
systematic diet of cereals and fruits, with such 
exercise—" 

'* Most arrant humbug I " cried the doctor, 
with such warmth that our neighbors who 
still lingered at the tables tittered. " Such 
stuff as that before you (Strang was eating 
very leisurely some oatmeal mush dashed 
with milk, and had besides a plate of very 
tempting baked apples, from whose juicy 
depths he now and then took a morsel) is 
only fit for horses and cattle." 

^' And yet you eat in your beef and onions 
a really lower form of the same components 
as are represented in my oatmeal and apples. 
The latest analysis shows that oatmeal con- 
tains sixty per cent more nutriment than any 
of the meats in common use as food. Scotch* 
men, who make preparations of oatmeal their 
principal diet, are famous the world over for 
mental and physical capability. You re- 
member the Scot's witty retort to the sar- 
casm of the Englishman? The latter re- 
marked that, * We feed our horses on what 
you people eat' *Yes,' replied the Scot, 
*■ and ye ken the reason ye ha' such fine horses 
and such poor men.' But, doctor, I believe 
you are sul:rject to periodical attacks of rheu- 
matism ? " 

"Yes, sir," responded the physician, who 
who could scarcely repress his irritation un- 
der the cool, swit^^J^ b|<|^co^^trang. 



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[Apeil^ 



^ And if you suffered as I do with swollen 
feet and tortured joints, youM. be ready to 
drown yourself in alcohol and opium for the 
sake of a little relief." 

" My experience has pretty well convinced 
me," said Strang, " that it is your beef-eaters, 
especially those who can^t eat meat without 
dosing it with condiments, and your eaters 
of greasy food, and your drinkers of ardent 
beyerages, and not to forget your tobacco- 
users, who are subj^t to the rheumatic 
diathesis. Well, I must not detain you fur- 
ther ; " saying this Strang rose from the table, 
and reached his hat, then turned to Dr. Barr, 




Stbano and TBI DocrroB Diapurnro. 



" but before I go, doctor, permit me to reply 
to what you said awhile ago about medical 
authority supporting the use of wine. Flint*s 
language is by no means positive — see his re- 
cent work on Human Physiology. His reli- 
ance upon a few inconclusive experiments is 
weak at the best But we can ofbet him and 
others you may be able to quote by abler tes- 
timony. Of course you have heard of Perei* 
ra, whose opinion is emphatic with regard 
to the poisonous nature of alcohol. Even 
Carpenter, an authority you would probably 
name with a flourish, says, * Alcoholic liq- 
uids can not supply anything essential to the 
due nutrition of the system ; ' and further 
says, * They tend to produce a morbid con- 
dition of the body at large.' Then there's 
Pro! Jacob Bigelow, who deplored the fact 



that so many persons had become ineMates 
' under the gpiidance of a physician.* And 
Professor Youmans has said that ^ the use of 
alcoholic liquors gives rise to the most serious 
disorders of the stomach, and the most mal- 
ignant aberrations of the entire economy.* 
And Drs. Bell, Edmonds, Mason Good, and 
Alcott— '* 

** Stop, sir P' cried the doctor, rising with 
great vehemence, ** I'll not sit here and have 
you teach me my business. What do I care 
for the opinions of these men^you so glibly 
quote. My experience, sir — my own experi- 
ence, sir, is sufficient for my purposes. Of 
what use to society are 
your literary doctors ? 
I*ve met them, and know 
what they can do in the 
sick-room — ^that's where 
my ability comes in; 
that's where skill tells — 
they know what I can do 
there. I don't want any 
of your advice. I can 
take care of myself." 
Seizing his cane with a 
vigorous jerk that over- 
turned his cup, emptying 
what remained of the 
coffee he had been drink- 
ing upon the tablecloth, 
he hobbled off toward 
the cashier's table, mut- 
tering to himself as he 
proceeded. Several of th( 
listeners withdrew at the same time. 

Strang turned around, and, seeing me 
Bmiled, and remarked, pointing toward Dr 
Barr: 
" Theory and practice well exemplified I *' 
**You have recited a severe lecture t« 
him," said L 

*^ The treatment is a little heroic, I must 
admit, but the patient is in eastremu.^ 
" It will not do any good." 
" Perhaps not, but others may have been 
awakened to a sense of their danger. There 
were young men near us who needed admo- 
nition on these important subjects, and I 
trust they derived a little instruction l^m 
our talk." 

*' It's very likely, as I noticed a young man 
at my table, who was about to smear his 

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1875.] 



UNDEVELOPED CAPACITY, 



231 



boiled fish with mustard when you spoke 
of the eifect of condiments on the stomach, 
slyly return the cruet unopened to the cas- 
tor." 

" A little leaven planted there. But time 
presses ; that affair of ours should be put in 
motion ; call at the hbuse to-night, and let^s 
talk it over ; " and giving my hand a cordial 
squeeze, he walked hastily away. 

I turned to my unfinished meal. Of what ? 
do you ask. A very simple combination: 
some thick-boiled pea soup, a bit of baked 
bass, a good^lice of Riching's brown bread, 
and a liberal dish of stewed prunes. Spring 
had not advanced sufficiently for the appear- 
ance of the early fruits. Having finished 
this, to me very satisfactory menu, I sat back 
in my chair to use the ever-ready toothpick, 
thinking the while of the tendency of society 
toward a complex and artificial dietary, and 
commensurately toward morbid bodily con- 
ditions; while it was evident, both to the 
logical mind and to the palate of experience, 

[to BB 001 



that the best food is that which is prepared 
in a natural manner, i. e.y simply with no 
tricks of manipulation and no dosing of 
drugs or chemicals or soap-stock. The 
rebicund countenance of Dr. Barr recurring 
to me reminded me of the passage in the 
"Seasons:" 

" Perhaps some doctor of ti-emendou3 paunch, 
Awful and deep, a black abyss of drink. 
Outlives them all, and from his buried flock 
Retiring full of rumination sad, 
Lamenta the weakness of these latter times." 

Dr. Barr^s rumination, however, whan he 
beat his retreat, was rather of the confound- 
ed,^ chagrined, irate order. 

" Anything more, sir ? " 

" No, thank you ; my check.'- 

The waiter shuffled his bits of pasteboard, 
and, selecting one, handed it to me, saying — 

'* Forty cents, sir ? " • 

" About right, I judge ;." and making my 
w%y to the cashier paid the score and de- 
parted. 

tMTINUBD.] 



UNDEVELOPED CAPACITY. 



" "TTTHAT a boor I " I said to myself, as I 
VV helped to tuck the buffalo robe 
about the feet of a young visitor whose hus- 
band was holding the reins of a spirited 
team. ^' How is it, and he the son of such a 
father ? " I queried, as they rode away. 

" Undeveloped capacity, Bessie," said the 
professor, smiling, as I returned to the sitting- 
room. 

" Ah, Paul, reading my thoughts again ! " 

" Yes, Bessie, and defining them, too. I 
saw you look at that large head with your 
phrenological eyes, and also saw your efforts 
to draw the owner into conversation during 
the visit completely parried." 

"I wanted to find out what Maud had 
married." 

^ Emerson quaintly calls ^ a man of mere 
capacity undeveloped, an organized day- 
dream with a skin on it.* " 

" And that is just about what, I think, she 
has married," I added. 

" And a very comlbrtable estate with it, as 
I understand their affairs," said Paul. 



" One would have supposed such a brain 
would have sought development from the 
force of its own power, as naturally as a 
heavy body slides an inclined plane." 

" And so it would, had there been a little 
of the nervo-bilious in his temperament ; in- 
stead of that he is decidedly lymphatic." 

" And he the son of such a father ! " I 
observed, repeating my soliloquy at the 
carriage. 

**But the father's was trained intellect; 
. he made the most of all the brain he had, 
and you knew him through the works of his 
middle 4ife. The son, though inheriting his 
father's capacity, is wholly untrained ; he is, 
in fact, uneducated, farther than reading and 
writing." 

"Why?" I asked. 

The professor continued, " He is the last 
of twelve children; the father had passed 
the years of active life when the son's train- 
ing should have commenced, and ho became 
a mere fon41ing. His own pleasure was the 
rule of his life ; any frivolous excuse was al- 

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PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[April, 



lowed to keep him from school while a boy, 
and when college was talked of, why, there 
would be two or three years first at a prepar- 
atory school, on account of his deficient edu- 
c^ation, then several more in college, and 
after that a profession ; he did not care 
about going. Would he like a trade ? Why, 
no, he did not want to leave home ; he would 
as lief succeed to the farm and take care of 
father and mother, and let the other children ^ 
take their portions in money. It was a sort 
of stroking with the grain, or the monotony, 
of age. The old gentleman congratulated 
himself with Philip^s filial afiection, became 
his own executor, called in his children and 
allotted them their portions to their satisfac- 
tion, and Philip, starting out in life with no 
need of exertion, has actually been dwarfing 
his intellect instead of developing it ; for ac- 
tion dilates* and expands, while inaction 
causes a shrinking and contraction of mind 
or body. * The understanding/ says Grin don, 
* will gradually bring itself down to the di- 
mensions of the matters with which it is 
familiarized, till, having been long accus- 
tomed to contract its powers, it shall lose 
well-nigh the ability to expand Ihem.' " 

^* So there is nothing like a little whole- 
some necessity to propel laggards." 

" That is true ; yet Philip might have 
been moved by a higher motive than want, 
such an impulse as a father in middle life 
would have given a son ; but dotage loves 
quiet, and fosters quiet habits in those about 
it." 

'* But how was it with his mother ? " 

Paul's lip curled slightly, and then un- 
rolled into a sort of comic expression as he 
replied, "I think she would have been a 
capital case to pit against Woman's Rights. 
She was a third wife, a skillful nurse, a pru- 
dent housekeeper, and a model step-mother. 
It was said that the younger children did 
not know that she was not their own mother 
till they were partly grown, when some boys 
in school told them, and they went home to 
hcyre it confirmed. As an economist, she 
might have been useful in Uncle Bam's 
Treasury Department. If she did not know 
how to make an extra dime earn another, she 
knew how to save it from being squandered. 
Being present one day when the mail was 
brought in, I saw her take an agricultural 



paper, the only one Philip indulged in, care- 
fully fold and stitch it, and then closely cut 
the margins off and make a handful of lamp- 
lighters. She was a woman of fair abilities, 
but the prime factors of her mind had been t 
absorbed by those brought into active use 
by her position in life." 

*^ Is it not a strong objection to Phrenol- 
ogy that a pebon should have a large, 
full brain, and be in character below medi- 
ocrity ? " 

" It is an apparent objection, because most 
persons rate size as the standard of power, 
as it really is, other things being equal. I 
remember overhearing L. N. F. some years 
ago, in one of his earliest tours in New Eng- 
land, during the examination of the heads 
of two ladies, say to the second one, who was 
a wiry, nervous little woman, * If you, with 
your active temperament^ had the volume of 
brain of the lady last examined, you would 
probably be insane ; or if she had your ac- 
tivity there would be a like result.* As it 
was, the temperaments balanced the powers 
of the ladies. Again, a large, full brain, 
with a lymphatic temperament, may be stim- 
ulated by che influence of a more active one. 
Some teacher^ have an ability to bring out 
the capacity of such pupils, starting them 
upon an easy upward plane, and the world 
hears from them in time, for they develop 
into solid men, if not brilliant ones." 

" Paul, you forget the old adage, * Scour 
as you will a pewter mug, it will be pewter 
still.' " 

" But all will admit, Bessie, that though 
pewter stiU^ it is all the better for being 
brightened ; many a porringer that has had 
hard usage during the pap stage, when 
brought into the hands of the polisher has 
been found to be sterling silver. Many a 
plot of ground given to waste, when the 
plowshare has run through it has yielded 
nutritious grains, delicious fruits, and fra- 
grant flowers. Men deem it worth their 
while to bring implements from afar to cat 
down interfering trees, to extract roots, to 
plow, to harrow, and to plant, tbat they may 
change the alluvia of the hills and the am- 
monia beneath the thick beds of leaves and 
decayed woody flbers into food. Whole 
acres of undeveloped capacity lie waste in 
our very midst, encircling our temples of 

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18V5.] 



UNDEVELOPED CAPACITY. 



233 



learning and centers of art ; in the domain 
of mind are deserts of Sahara and salt licks 
of Kordorfan and of our Western frontiers, 
which a little proper training and the 
warmth of good affections would make into 
gardens of intelligence. 

'^ As men portion out new land to different 
uses, devoting this plot to tillage, that for 
dwellings, and others to the various indus- 
tries, so minds should be assorted according < 
to their inclining capacities, and education 
should be directed to the development of 
those capacities for the end desired. If a 
youth is to be trained to fetters, science, or 
art, he should be put to quite a different 
course from the one who intends to go into 
a business house or mechanic's workshop at 
sixteen. How absurd is th^ study of a lan- 
guage or science that may not be brought 
into service at all in life, though eminently 
de»rable in a literary course I True, there 
may be discipline in it, but there would be 
far more in a study adapted to what the pu- 
pil is going to do. 

^' Much of the uneasiness and dissatisfac- 
tion with conditions of life arise from an 
improper selection of employment — one not 
in accordance with the ruling love or tend- 
ency. A boy who has a passion, as we term 
it, for cutting and carving wood, who* de- 
lights in the grains of walnut and rosewood, 
and would be happy in inlaying and em- 
bossing furniture, hates the day long drawn 
out behind the counter of dry-goods, or ex- 
ercised amid the petty details of the grocery, 
I have had pupils to whom a row of books 
was a line of links that enslaved them, and 
their desk the bars of a cage constantly chaf- 
ing their spirits ; who would have preferred 
dropping com to a lesson in grammar, or 
tnming the grindstone for a shop of mechan- 
ics to a recitation in mental arithmetic. 
Had they been admitted within an engine- 
room, a short time would have sufl^ced for 
them to comprehend all the operations of 
Talve, piston, and cylinder, and the engineer 
who would explain a movement would be 
king of all the professors in their eyes." 

^ But how would you ascertain this bias 
or inclination, by which to direct the train- 
ing or development of youth ? " 

*' There are few intelligent parents who do 
not or may not discover, even in a youth's 



play, something of what it loves best to do. 
The little child in the nursery that you at- 
tempt to amuse by setting up its toys in a 
fantastic way, will probably knock them 
over and set them up himself in quite a dif- 
ferent style from yours. One of my brothers, 
if mother called him to assist her in any of 
her arrangements, would be sure to find some 
process for doing it easier than the usual 
way; his toys were of his own make, and 
seemed to have a touch of the machine-room 
about them." ^ 

" Why did he not become a machinist ? " 

" He fell into that blighting error that a 
mechanic is lower in the social scale than 
a scholar, left the machine-room, studied 
French and philosophy because his elder 
brother did, and has been tossed on the 
wave of disappointment for life. There is, 
probably, no greater falsity afloat on the sub- 
ject of culture, than that artisans and me- 
chanics are necessarily lacking in intelli- 
gence. Let the parties change places, and 
it would soon be shown that those ranked 
educated are a most one-sided set, and 
learned in only a few principles and powers 
which for themselves they have never tested. 
The clergyman, the editor, the lawyer, the 
teacher, would show more incompetency 
among a kit of tools than the skilled artisan 
would among their books; for the educa- 
tion of the hand involves a corresponding 
development of the mind, while the mind 
may be educated without the hand, and that 
which combines both physical and intellec- 
tual must be the greater, however convention 
may class it." 

" But all parents are not equally intelli- 
gent, and all children are not so distinct in 
their special capacity." 

" Then let Phrenology step in. It is the 
highest wisdom to declare to the student 
what he can best do, while it is the function 
of education to train him for the doing it 
When the child has acquired the rudiments 
of an education, let him have an examina- 
tion in which the profession, science, art, or 
trade he is naturally most inclined to, or 
best adapted for, shall be ascertained, and 
let all his future studies be directed with 
reference to that pursuit, no time being 
lost in studies remote from that purpose. 
Then we shall have developed, instead of 

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234 



PHBENOLOQICAL JOURNAL, 



[Apkil, 



undeveloped, men, for the * capacity is the 
man.' " 

" But would not your theory upset most 
of our modem ideas of education ? " 

** By no means ^ it would only be bringing 
in a department that has been left out. Be- 
side our schools for intellectual culture there 
should be goyemmental craft schools, where 
the student should be placed, not to work 
that it may be seen how much capital may ^ 
be made out of his labor for a contractor, 
but how perfectly he may be taught the 
science and manual practice of the art he 
has chosen. Perfect models should be set, 
before him, perfect tools supplied for his 
use, the highest skill his teachers, and prizes 
and diplomas await his perfect workman- 
ship. Witli such a system in pActice, the 
State, ere long, would have a supply of 
skilled artisans ready for any emergency, and 
that numerous class with no occupation, so 
liable to digress into evil and crime, would 
gradually be reduced in numbers and in- 
fluence. Already the monopolies of Trade 
Unions are laying a foundation that will 
make such a governmental provision a ne- 
cessity." 

'* I thought you were in favor of Trade 
Unions." 

" I am, so far as they redress grievances, 
not so far as their restraining and forbid- 
ding apprenticeship to keep the supply of 
skilled workmen below the demand, that 
they may control the prices; or so far as 
their equal prices for skilled or rough work." 



"Does not the Worcester Free Institute 
represent something of your idea ? " 

" Yes ; it is a noble benevolence that leads 
men of capital to found and endow such cen- 
ters of practical education. Others than 
John Boynton and Stephen Salisbury have 
had hints of the same thoughts in their 
plans, but chiefly as an adjunct to support 
students in a literary qourse. Few, however, 
have carried it out so successfully as those I 
have named, 

"The number of applicants to the New 
Nautical School of the Board of Education 
of our dty shows how eagerly such a depart- 
ment in education is desired by youths them- 
selves. Something to do is innate with 
youth, and the mind applied to some useful 
art finds in the engagement the grave of ^n- 
hui^ envy, and discontent, and a resource in 
the hours of panic and broken finances. 

" No matter how much wealth a man has, 
and his children prospectively, there should 
be food and exei-cise provided for the facul- 
ties of the mind, as well as for the body ; 
and the father who fails to provide for this 
want leaves the capacities of his children 
undeveloped, and fails in the most essential 
part of their education. The mother who 
permits her daughters to grow up indolently 
because there is money enough to pay for 
attendants, who does not bend their minds 
to some intelligent and elevating industry, 
shuts the door to many a delight and pleas- 
ure and opens one to dissatiRfaction and 
corrosive fretfulness." b. g. powell. 



BEADING FACES. 



Youthful faces, happy faces, those aglow with, 

love, 
Seeming as the little cherubs peeping from 

above ; 
Sparkline as the raindrop, pure as autumn air. 
Sunshine playing ^mld their smiles to make them 

still more fair. 

Faces fair, faces fine, faces smiling all the time. 
Such to us at any hour is happiness sublime. 
Faces poJe, faces wan. faces with much care. 
Oft denote the inner birth of sorrow and de- 
spair. 

New faces, Hcklc fares, faces often seen, 
In wWoh arc mirrored sore regrets lor that whidi 
th«y have been ; 



And heai-ts that beat beneath them throb with 

much remorse and shame 
For kindly friendships had and lost, though 

" Friendship's but a name." 

Fashion's faces, fancy faces, faces with no soul, 
Reflecting passions, deep and strong, beyond their 

weak control. 
With orbs that bum with passion^s fire, 
Akin to envy, hate^ and ire. 

Faces sweet, faces bright— in shadow, life, and 

joy— [aUoy.^ 

In direst sorrow giving birth to peac» without 
Hopeful faces, calm faces, faces much resigned. 
Indicate the Heaven-hope to which they are In- 
clined. EDWA.RD JL. NAMGLS. 



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1875.] 



THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. 



235 



uii l^ouiitrg and |te Icsour^cs. 



That which iiMkM» itood CoiuUtmUoB moit keep it, ▼U., men of wiadom and virtae; qoalitlat that, beeaiue they deeoead not with worldly inher- 
taaoe, mart be oarefhlly propagated by a Tlrtaoai education of yoath.— TFU/taM Ami. 






'^ -—-J'- >.::i^^ij :rJ7: i-i^y^mAij'lE;;y^ ''''±^^^.} 



THE CENTENNIAL EXPOSITION. 

ITS BUILDINGS AND ITS PROSPECTS. 



SO mach progress has been made toward 
the object of a grand national, or rather 
international, jubilee on the occasion of the 
completion of the hundredth year of our ex- 
istence as an independent nationality, that 
its realization may be regarded as fully de- 
termined upon. Several Northern * States, 
whose co-operation was' deemed essential to 
the success of the undertaking, after exhib- 
iting more or less coolness toward it, and 
expressing, through their legislatures or high 
officials, adverse sentiments, on the alleged 
ground of the impolicy or inexpediency of 
so great expenditures in the present embar- 
rassments, financial and social, of the coun- 
try, as the aflfair would demand, have wheeled 
into line with its supporters. Perhaps much 
of the opposition which was exhibited by 
some of the Atlantic States was due to an 
undercurrent of jealousy toward Philadel- 
phia, the city of the Declaration, and, there- 
fore, most appropriately the city of the Ex- 
position, for the reason that so grand an 
occasion would naturally confer certain ad- 
vantages which would redound to Philadel- 



phia's prosperity, and give her a prestige 
over other prominent -cities of the sea-board. 
However, the citizens of Philadelphia, and 
of Pennsylvania in general, have thrown 
themselves into the work with the most cred- 
itable zeal, and what has been accomplished 
from the Fourth of July last, when Mayor 
Stokley broke the ground and threw up the 
first spadeful of earth, until this writing, 
has been almost entirely due to their energy 
and determination. 

The site of the Exposition is in Fairmount 
Park, and covers a very broad area. At 
present it presents a scene of absorbing in- 
terest. Hundreds, if not thousands, of work- 
men are shaping the stones in the quarries, 
piling up brick upon brick, fashioning the 
iron, and carving, in a thousand graceful 
forms and shapes, the pillars and cornices of 
the projected buildings, and even at this 
early hour, there is given us such an in- 
sight to their future achievements that wo 
may grasp some idea of the extent and 
beauty of the work when the last stone shall 
have been laid. To any one familiar with 

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236 



PHRENOLOGICAL JOURNAL. 



[April, 



the Gentenniftl grouads a few months ago, 
the extraordinary change of the interior 
seems to be more than human handa coald 
have wrought, and appears rather like the 
efforts of the genii of the ancient Arabians, 
for the art gallery of the structure has gone 
tzp almost as rapidly as the fabled castle of 
Aladdin. 

THE MAIN EXPOSITION BUILDIKO. 

In the engraving a general view is given 
of the appearance of the chief edifice when 
it shall falive been finished. Its location is 
immediately east of the intersection of Bel- 
mont and Elm avenues, on what is known 
as the Landsdowne plateau. It stands one 
hundred and seventy feet from the north 
side of Elm Avenue. 

The building, as indicated in the plan, is 
in the form of a parallelogram, extending 
east and west 1,880 feet, or more than a third 
of a mile, in length, and north and south 
464 feet in width. 

The larger portion of the structure is one 
story in height, and shows the main cornice 
upon the outside at 45 feet above the ground, 
the interior height being 70 feet. At the 
center of the longer sides are projections 
416 feet in length, and in the center of the 
shorter sides or ends of the building are 
projections 216 feet in length. In these pro- 
jections, in the center of the four sides, are 
the main entrances, provided with arcades 
upon the ground floor, and central facades 
extending to the height of 90 feet. 

The east entrance will form the principal 
approach for carriages, visitors being allowed 
to alight at the doors of the building under 
cover of the Arcade. The south entrance 
will be the principal approach from street 
cars, the ticket offices being located upon 
the line of Elm Avenue, with covered ways 
provided for entrance into the building. 

'f he main portal on the north side commu- 
nicates directly with the Art Gallery, and 
the main portal on the west side gives the 
main passage way to the machinery and ag- 
ricultural halls. Upon the comers of the 
building there will be four 'towers 75 feet in 
height, and between the towers and the cen- 
tral projections or entrances a lower roof is 
introduced, showing a ^cornice at 24 feet 
above the ground. 

In order to obtain a central feature for the 



building as a whole, the roof over the ceu- 
tral part for 184 feet square has been raised 
above' the surrounding portion, and four 
towers, 48 feet square, rising to 120 feet in 
height, have been introduced at the comers 
of the elevated roof. 

The areas of covered space will be im- 
mense, as shown by the following estimates : 

Squr* FmL Aera. 

Onthegronnd floor 872,890 or 90.09 

Upper floore in projections 87,844 '* .85 

Ul>per floon in towers 96,844*' .60 

Making a total floor capadtj of 986,008 Stir 

The general arrangement of the ground 

plan shows a' central avenue or nave 120 feet 

in width, and extending 1,832 feet in length. 

This is the longest avenue of that width ever 

introduced into an exhibition building.- On 

either side of this nave there is an avenue 

100 feet by 1,832 feet in length. Between 

the nave and side avenues are aisles 48 feet 

wide, and on the outer sides of the building 

smaller aisles 24 feet in width. 

In order to break the great length of the 

roof lyjes, three cross avenues, or transepts, 

have been introduced of the same widths 

and in the same relative positions to each 

other as the nave and avenues running 

lengthwise — viz., a central transept 120 feet 

in width by 416 feet in length, with one on 

either side of 100 feet by 416 feet, and aisles 

between of 48 feet. 

THE AKT OALLBBT. 

The building devoted to the exhibition of 
the dififerent arts is being pushed rapidly 
forward, and is entirely paid for by appro- 
priations received from the State of Penn- 
sylvania. It will be the great architectural 
triumph of the occasion, and will remain a^ 
a permanent memorial of the Exposition. 
Its architecture is the modem Renaissance, 
the materials used in its construction being 
granite, iron, and glass. No wood is used 
in its make up, and hence, in the fullest sense 
of the word, the building is fire-proof. 

It will cover an area of two acres. In the 
construction of the other buildings, iron is 
chiefly used for the columns, trusses, braces, 
and roofs ; so that the capacity of the struc- 
tures to meet any contingency requiring 
strength and solidity will be assured. 

Besides the two already mentioned^ there 
will be three other buildings, viz., the Ma- 
chinery Hall, to occupy a space of fourteen 



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1876.] 



LARGEST IRON WORKS IN THE WORLD, 



237 



acres; the Agricultural Hall, to cover ten 
acres ; and the Horticultural Hall, to occupy 
about one acre. All these are now in pro- 
cess of construction. 

FOREIGN COOPERATION. 

The centennial commission has already 
been advised of the intention of many foreign 
powers to contribute to the Exposition, in 
accordance with the terms set forth in the 
circulars which have been transmitted to 
them by the approval of the United States 



WHEN TO OPEN. 

The management have decided to open the 
doors early in the year — on the 19th of April, 
1876 — and it is confidently expected that the 
great buildings will be ready for the recep- 
tion of goods long enough before that time 
to enable the exhibitors and foreign commis- 
sioners to make satisfactory arrangements for 
the display of their contributions. The con- 
tractor for the main edifice, Mr. Dobbins, 
states that the entire structure will be com- 




Art Gallert, American Cbmtexnial Ezpobitioh. 



Government. Among the nations whose in- 
terest has been secured are : Argentine Con- 
federation, Belgium, Brazil, Chili, Ecuador, 
France, Great Britain and Colonies, Germany, 
Guatemala and Salvador, Hayti, Hawaii, 
Honduras, Japan, Liberia, Mexico, the Neth- 
erlands, Nicaragua, Peru, Sweden and Nor- 
way, Spain, U. S. of Colombia, Ven^uela. 
Most of these have appointed commissioners 
to superintend their respective parts in the 
great array of industries and arts. 



pleted fully sixty days before the time speci- 
fied in his contract. The Conservatory or 
Horticultural Hall and Machinery Hall are 
to be finished by October 1st, and the Art 
Gallery and main building on the last of De- 
cember next, according to the contracts. 
We trust that the American people will fully 
realize the importance of the projected event, 
and, forbearing quibbles, will prepare to 
make it in all respects what it should be, a 
great national jubilee. 



THE LARGEST IRON WORKS IN THE WORLD. 



ENGLAND erroneously claims to have the 
largest works, namely, those of Bolckow 
A Ya^ughan, at Middlesbrough and Wilton 
Park, in the north of England. It is tlie firm 
who twenty years ago initiated the iron trade 
in that region. The capital employed is $17- 



000,000, the amount of weekly wages and sala- 
ries is nearly $100,000, while upward of 12,000 
men are employed. They raise every year 
about one and a half million tons of coal, and 
nearly a million tons of iron ore from their own 
mines. They produce 250,000 tons of pig iron 

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238 



PERENOLOOJOAL JOURNAL, 



[Apbil, 



per year, of which they change 100,000 tons 
into rails, pJates, and bars. As their own ore 
threatens to give out soon if no other sources 
are found, they have secured the Bilboo mines 
in Spain, from, which they now export immense 
quantities of the best hematite ore, for the 
transportation of which they run a fleet of iron 
steamers of their own. They also manufacture 
1 all kinds of general machinery, castings, fire- 
brick, and rolling stock, while the number of 
wagons they employ in connection with the 
tftinsportation of their coal, ore, pig iron, and 
other products, is such as to appear almost in- 
credible. 

The above data are taken from a late relia- 
ble London publication, and, as usual, the ed- 
itor totally ignores the existence of other al- 
most equally large works on the continent, 
and especially the much larger works of Krupp, 
in Essen, Prussia. These works three years 
ago employed a capital of over $20,000,000, 
and have lately increased it considerably. 
They employ 20,000 men, while, owing to the 
lower rate of wages prevailing in Germany, • 
the total wages and salaries paid are not above 
those paid by the English firm. Of these 20,- 
000 men, 12,000 are employed in the works, . 
5,000 in the mines, 2,000 by building contract- 
ors, and 1,000 are employed as clerks and oflfl- 
cers. The production in 1872 was over 300,000 
tons of pig iron, of which 125,000 tons were 
made into steel; 50,000 tons into rails, 3,000 
tons into spring steel ; piston tii'es, 45,000 tons ; 
locomotives and car axles, 19,000 tons ; axles 
and wheels, 9,000 sets, and 38,600 springs. 
The production is now considerably above 
that, while the works occupy a surface of 
nearly 1,000 acres, of which nearly 200 are 
covered with buildings. 

This from ihQ American Working People^ and 
in considering it the reader should remember 
the great impetus given to such monopolistic 
enterprises by the perpetual expectation of war, 
which fills so large a place in the thought of 
European nationalities. The great iron found- 
ers and iron workers of England, Germany, 
France, Russia, etc., are ever busy in the man- 
ufacture of war material. In the United States 
the case is far different. Iron manufactures 
are chiefly conducted in the departments of* 
peace, and there being less of the monopolistic 
spirit permitted here than in the countries of 
aristocratic dominance, capital is far more dis- 
tributed in the iron trade, and furnaces and 
foundries and workshops are scattered through 
the country, being especially aggregated in 
those regions where the store of ore in the 



mine is supplemented by neighboring deposits 
of coal, and by convenient access to the sea- 
board. 

Notwithstanding the wide-spread depression 
in trade, and the general financial distress, 
many of the iron workers in the United States 
are pressed with engagements. Some are en- 
gaged upon large f(»reign orders, constructing 
locomotives, cars, steamships, and even steel 
for South American, European, and Asiatic 
railways. 

According to the Toronto Times, the value of 
the railway cars imported by Canadian com- 
panies from the United States between the 1st 
of January, 1873, and the 30th of April, 1874, 
was $259,967. 

American steel is competing successftilly 
with the best English. A firm in Pittsburg, 
we have been told by a friend in the sci^sors- 
and-shears trade, furnishes the best steel for 
the articles in their line that they can procure. 

Let C^gress, with the encouragement of 
the peoi>le at large, only enact healthful finan- 
cial and custom laws to relieve the distress of 
merchants and mechanics, and the American 
iron trade will at once commence to grow with 
wonderful speed, and contribute greatly toward 
our national prosperity. 



SCHOOL INSTRUCTION IN EUROPE. 

"VTOW that several of the States have 
-Li made education a necessary element in 
the development of their juvenile citizens, it 
may not be uninteresting for the reader to 
know that Americans are behind most of the 
nations of Continental Jlurope in providing 
for the mental growth of children and 
youth. 

In Saxony education is compulsory; all 
inhabitants of the kingdom can read and 
write, and every child attends school. 

In Switzerland all can read and write, and 
have a good primary education. Education 
is obligatory, and greater efforts, in proper- . 
tion to its means, are made to impart prima- 
ry instruction than in any other European 
nation. 

In all the smaller States of North Germany 
education is compulsory, and all the children 
attend school a certain part of each year. 

In Denmark the same is true. All the 
Danes, with a few exceptions, can read, write, 
and keep accounts. The children attend 
school until the age of fourteen. 

Digitized by V^OOQ IC 



1875.] 



AMERICAN FINANCES. 



239 



In Frnssia, where education has been com- 
pulsory fbr many years, almost all the chil- 
dren attend school regularly, except in some 
of the eastern districts. An officer who had 
charge of the military education of the Land- 
wehr, in twelve years had only met three sol- 
diers who could neither read nor write. An 
inquiry having been instituted, it was found 
that those three were the children of sailors, 
who had been bom on the river, and had 
never settled in any place. 

In Sweden the proportion of inhabitants 
who can neither read nor write is one in a 
thousand. As may be inferred, instruction 
is obligatory. 

In Baden every child receives instruction ; 
and in TVurtemburg there is not a peasant or 
a girl of the lowest class, or a servant in an 
inn, who can not read, write, and account 
correctly. 

In Holland public assistance is taken away 
from every indigent family that neglects to 
send their children to school. It is estimat- 
ed that the number of illiterates is but three 
per cent, of the population. 



In Norway almost all the Norwegians can 
read, write,, and cipher passably well. In- 
struction is obligatory. 

In Bavaria, among one hundred conscripts, 
but seven whose education was incomplete, 
or entirely wanting, were found. 

In Prance, with its twenty-three illiterate 
conscripts in a hundred, there has not been 
a system of compulsory training. 



Our Foreign Trade. — The following fig- 
ures will give some idea of the foreign trade 
of the United States for the year 1874 : Total 
value of imports, $466,576,835 ; domestic ex- 
ports, $612,082,780; foreign exp.orts, $17,- 
166,745. The heaviest business was trans- 
acted with Great Britain and Ireland, the 
imports from that kingdom amounting to 
$193,595,330; the domestic exports, $373,- 
566,508; the foreign exports, $7,587,644. 
Cuba and other Spanish possessions are sec- 
ond on the list, the imports being $99,468,- 
408; domestic exports, $21,861,834 ; foreign 
exports, $2,164,758. 



ahebican finances, 

A METHOD OF CONVERTIBILITY AND ITS REASONS. 



JUDGE KELLEY remarked, in conversa- 
tion with a Tribune reporter, Dec. 7th, 1874, 
that" the $60,000,000 of greenback snow locked 
np in the Treasury, which the owners are un- 
willing to use, and of which the Government is 
the mere depositary, and therefore dares not 
use, should be invested in 8.65s, and by the Sec- 
retary in the purchase or redemption of gold- 
bearing bonds, and thus they should be made to 
ran— to use again the language of Bonamy Price 
—to perform the functions of circulating medi- 
um. So, too, of the money now lying in apo- 
plectic volume in the vaults of banks— it should 
go into the 8.65 bonds, and again into gold- 
bearing bondb, or gold with which to call 
them. The world would note the animation 
in our industries, the emigration of skilled 
laborers now going so rapidly from our shores 
would cease, and the tide of immigration 
wonld again flow in upon us ; and, above all, 
that * debt, debt abroad,' which the President 
truly says * is the only element that can, with 



a sound cnn'eijcy, enter into our affairs to 
cause any continued depression in the indus- 
tries and prosperity of our people,* would be 
in so rapid a process of liquidation as to en- 
courage the hope that it would soon cease to 
possess the power to interfere with our domes- 
tic affairs. But the President seems to hav^e a 
vague idea that we can get gold somewhere 
with which to work wonders. I have not seen 
the report of the Secretary of the Treasury, 
and do not know what recommendations it 
contains, but, be they what* they may, tlie 
President accepts and indorses them, and says 
vaguely that * provision should be made by 
which the Secretary of the Treasury can ob- 
tain gold as it may become necessary from 
time to time when specie resumption com- 
mences.* I would have been grateful to him 
had he told Congress and the country where 
the gold was to come from. We certainly can 
not get it from foreign countries to whom we 
are indebted, nor can we retain the product of 

Digitized by V^OOQIC 



240 



PHRENOLOOICAL JOURNAL, 



[April, 



our mines while it is all dae to foreign coun- 
tries. Bonamy Price — and I quote him be- 
cause he is now an accepted authority among 
the money-mongers of the country— never fails 
to impress upon his readers the truth that the 
wealth of England which she can lend to indi- 
viduals, or to States, is not *ca8h,* but * com- 
modities/ and in his speech in the Senate ot 
the 22d of January last, Mr. Boutwell, late 
Secretary of the Treasury, informed the coun- 
try that when oyr bonds had been sold in 
London, and the proceeds allowed to accumu- 
late to the extent of $21,000,000, * the Bank of 
England, foreseeing that this accumulation of 
coin might be taken away bodily in specie, 
gave notice to the officials of the Treasury De- 
partment of, the United States that the power 
of that institution would be arrayed against 
the whole proceeding, unless we gave a pledge 
that the coin should not be removed, and that 
we would reinvest it in the bonds of the 
United States as they were offered in the mar- 
kets of London.* To our humiliation, Mr. 
Boutwell had to admit that *we were com- 
pelled to comply.' He also reminded the Sen- 
ate that wben the claim for the $15,500,000 
awarded us at Geneva was maturing, * the 
banking and commercial classes of Great Brit- 
ain induced tlie Government to interpose, and 
by diplomatic arrangements through thd Sfate 
Department here, operating upon the Treasury 
Department, secured the transfer of securities, 
and thus avoided the transfer of coin.' The 
withdrawal of either of these sums in bullion 
would have produced not only a perturbation 
throughout British and continental markets, 
but a panic that would probably haVe caused 
the Bank of England to suspend specie pay- 
ments. This illustrates the weakness of the 
gold basis upon which tlie President wants to 
build our future free banking system. But we 
have a more recent illustration than this — one 
within a fortnight When Germany received 
her indemnity in gold from Prance, Bismarck 
and Emperor William were too wise to take it 
to Geinnany. They invested somewhere from 
$10,000,000 to $20,000,000 publicly in United 
Stales bonds, and cunningly involved a large 
amount of gold, perhaps as much as they had 
put into our bonds, or a little more, in the 
commercial affairs of England, by depositing 
it with the Bank of England and elsewhere ; 
and when, some ten days ago, a government 
member of the Reichstadt, in the course of de- 
bate in that House, referred to the deposit of 
bullion to the credit of the government in 
London, and suggested its early recall, it so 



frightened the city, as the commetcial world of 
London is called, that the governor of the 
Bank of England called a special meeting of 
the managers, and at once added one per cent 
to the export duty on gold — for that is the ef- 
fect of the thing— by adding one per cent to 
the rate of interest on loans to be made by the 
Bank, showing how much a slave the debtor 
nation is to the creditor. The crafty rulers of 
Germany have thus taken control of the com- 
mercial markets of England by* generously 
confiding a large amount of bullion to the 
care of the British banks, and this incident 
serves to show the absurdity of any theory 
which depends on maintaining specie pay- 
ment in this country by borrowing gold from 
abroad." 

Henry C. Carey, of Philadelphia, the ablest 
political economist in America, and perhaps in 
the world, is a very earnest advocate of con- 
vertibility. 

The limits of our space prevent our advert- 
ing to and quoting from American authoritiee 
as fully as we could wish, especially as we 
desire to show the very earnest consideration 
which foreign political economists give to this 
matter. 

Bonamy Price, Professor of Political Econ- 
omy at Oxford University, England, said, in 
his work entitled " Principles of Currency : " 
" The defense of an inconvertible currency may 
be said to have disappeared from English lit- 
erature. No public writer of any weight for 
years <past has committed himself to so hope- 
less a cause. On the continent of Europe in- 
convertible currencies still linger in some 
states, but they are not defended on the 
ground of principle ; they are excused on the 
plea of an overwhelming necessity. The na- 
tions who adopt them are the objects of a cer- 
tain pity, as the victims of a misfortune which 
vanquishes their judgment" 

La the following quotation, evidently written 
** more in sorrow than in anger," one would 
almost think that he had direct cognizance of 
the hidden springs of action, which act— en- 
ticing congressmen, chairmen of committees, 
and secretaries of departments to betray their 
constituencies, at a cost of absolute ruin to 
the latter, but of large money gains to the for- 
mer. 

Professor Price complains that the teach- 
ings of political economy are disregarded. 

He might have added teac