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Full text of "Physical education in the high school"



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Physical Education 

in the 

High School 




published by the 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction 

Raleigh, N. C. 



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Educational Publication No. 104 Division of School Inspection No. 28 

Physical Education 

in the 

High School 




■ 1 


PUBLISHED BY THE 


y 


State Superintendent of Public Instruction 




Raleigh, N. C. 



CONTENTS 



Page 

Preface 3 

Introduction 4 

General Statement 5 

Aims of Physical Education 7 

The Program 8 

Physical Training 8 

Calisthenic Lessons 22 

Games and Relays 33 

Relief Drills 41 

Competitive Sports 48 

Corrective Exercises 52 

A School Health Program 56 

Inter-scholastic Athletics 57 



PREFACE 



The importance of Physical Education is generally recognized by school 
men and women everywhere. The Greeks had music for the soul and gym- 
nastics for the body. The expression, "Mens Sana in Corpore Sano" ("A 
sound mind in a sound body"), is Latin in form, but Greek in meaning and 
its validity is recognized everywhere. With the decline of Greek and Roman 
civilization there was a falling away, not only from the importance of 
physical training, but of mental training. During the Middle Ages there 
was a disposition to despise the body rather than to regard it as the temple 
of the soul, and, therefore, worthy of highest development. 

The demands of our present-day civilization upon the physical strength 
of an individual make it more imperative now than ever before that due 
regard should be given to bodily development. The increased emphasis, 
therefore, upon Physical Education is warranted from every standpoint. 
Spencer says that the first obligation of the school is to make the pupil a 
good animal. The physical basis is fundamental as the foundation upon 
which to build manhood and womanhood. 

In some schools the tendency has been to place undue emphasis upon 
competitive exercises and upon the more strenuous forms of physical train- 
ing called athletics. The purpose of Physical Education in a high school 
is not to train a few athletes, but to give systematic and properly-planned 
exercises to all boys and girls in order that their bodies may be developed 
and health promoted. 

It would be highly desirable to have a director of Physical Education 
in every high school. This, however, is impossible in the smaller schools. 
It is possible, however, for some training in Physical Education to be given 
in every school if principals and teachers will avail themselves of the in- 
structions and material in this manual. It is hoped that emphasis will be 
placed not only upon the recreational aspects of Physical Education, but 
also upon the corrective aspects and wherever possible that the health 
authorities of the community will be called upon to cooperate in the real- 
ization of the complete aims of a Physical Education program. 

" 'Tis Life, not Death, for which we pant; 
More Life and fuller that we want." 




V, October 9, 1926. State Inspector of High Schools. 



INTRODUCTION 



This course in Physical Education for the high schools of the State 
was prepared by Mr. J. F. Miller, Director of Physical Education, and 
W. C. Parker, Professor of Physical Education, of the North Carolina 
College of Agriculture and Engineering, Raleigh, North Carolina. 

The publishing of this bulletin is the outgrowth of considerable dis- 
cussion concerning the teaching of habits pertaining to the physical side 
of the high school student. It was felt that it is just at this period of life 
that the body, upon which the intellectual development is largely depend- 
ent, should be given at least a guide in proper exercises and activities in 
order that the mind and body should develop simultaneously. 

In fact, the purpose of this course is to follow in order the course pre- 
pared for the elementary grades and issued as our publication number 94. 
It is so prepared that it is not necessary for the teacher to have had 
special training in physical education. Any teacher by using these out- 
lines as a guide may instruct a class in the exercises set forth and thus 
aid in perfecting the physical life of the youth of the State. 

It is believed that this bulletin will serve a practical purpose and that 
work in physical education may be carried out that will bring gratifying 
results not only in improving the physical side of the child's life, but also 
his mental and moral side and the general spirit of the school. It is hoped 
that at least one teacher in each high school will take advantage of the 
outline presented to put on a program of physical education in each high 
school of the State. 

State Superintendent of Public Instruction 



PHYSICAL EDUCATION IN THE HIGH SCHOOL 



GENERAL STATEMENT 

Much has been written and much has been said about the training and 
the development of man physically, mentally and morally. Fine school 
systems have been developed to train the minds of the young, fine churches 
have been built to guide the morals of our people but comparatively no 
opportunity has been provided for the physical education of our coming 
generation. Practically the only organizations which have tried to put 
into actual practice the theory of the three-fold man, believing that the 
physical, mental and moral development were so inter-related that the one 
could not be properly developed without the aid of the other, are the 
Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. C. A. 

This ideal of perfecting the body, disciplining the mind and molding 
the character of the youth by selected forms of physical activity has 
been held and handed down through the ages. The zenith of the civiliza- 
tion of every country has been reached when that country cherished this 
ideal. It is always present but as has so often been the case, it drifts 
wraithlike out of sight and the nation suffers as the individual suffers. 
Intercollegiate and interscholastic athletics have been the most valuable 
exponents of physical education. Great throngs collect and cheer for the 
winning teams. Those who have time and opportunity to participate in 
this comparatively small group are out on the field winning honors for 
themselves and laying foundations of the firmest texture for their future 
lives. Those who needed the benefits of the work the most, the over- 
studious and the over-social, sat in the cheering sections. It is for them 
that the great benefits of physical education are awaiting. In the past the 
cause of nations losing the grip of this ideal was- due in most part to 
dissipation. Today the cause is not so much dissipation as the mere fact 
that time is placed before other and more important considerations. 

Few great movements in the history of the world ever started and 
lasted without some great crisis as its cause. The recent great World War 
was the crisis that brought with impelling force the lack and need of 
physical education and at the same time demonstrated the great benefits 
which systematic exercise could bring to the participant physically and 
socially. America was astounded and shocked out of much of her com- 
placency and apathy, when the draft revealed the positive fact that one 
out of every four of the young men who should have been in the prime 
of their physical manhood, were unfit to bear arms in the emergency 
call of their country. The result was that a thorough study of the situa- 
tion was made by the government. American education had failed in 
that it had neglected to provide for the physical development and health 



6 Physical Education in the High School 

of her youth. Immediately recreation, play and exercise on an organized 
basis was made a part of the routine of the vast armies in Europe. 
Physical education did much for the morale and physical fitness of these 
armies, helping make possible the victory that came. 

The ending of the war does not put an end to the physical impair- 
ments of the coming generation. The disastrous by-products of the war 
can even now be observed in the European countries. We must realize 
that competent authorities state that three out of every four children of 
the fifteen million school children of today are suffering from some physical 
defect which can be prevented or corrected. The schools of our country 
can prevent repetition of the facts disclosed by the war. The govern- 
ment of the United States has appropriated vast sums to assist the dif- 
ferent states in setting up opportunities for the youth of the land to play, 
to get supervised exercise and to develop habits of health. Many of the 
states have incorporated in their statutes, laws requiring physical educa- 
tion to be taught in their public school system. 

Educators of our country now recognize an educational value in 
physical education as well as a physical value. The experience of the 
war proved that the physiological benefits which had heretofore been 
recognized were minor in comparison to the social values. The precepts 
of good citizenship and the precepts of sound character and right habits 
of living have been taught in the schools almost since their origin; in fact, 
this is education. Educators realize that the playfields afford a laboratory 
for putting into practice these precepts, such as cannot be found any 
other place. The importance of physical education physically, mentally 
and morally in determining the high standards which our future citizens 
must maintain to be successful in this day and time is pretty generally 
recognized and provisions have been made for it in the school curriculum 
with equal importance to other subjects taught. 

A physical education program in a school should be to develop "ath- 
letics" and not to develop "athletes." It should be kept in mind that 
although the more obvious results of physical education are physical, the 
ultimate objectives are character training, habits of healthy living and 
the development of social responsibility. The main emphasis of the 
physical education programs in the high schools of North Carolina in the 
past has been placed on interscholastic teams. A small percentage of the 
student body who were fortunate enough to be endowed with a fine 
physique, were given the time and attention. 

Today, however, many cities in the State are putting on programs of 
physical education which include physical training classes, games and 
instruction in hygiene. A man or woman trained in physical education 
work is secured to organize and administer this program. The organiza- 
tion demands that classes be formed according to grades and work given 
at certain periods during the students' daily schedule. The modern school 
buildings being built in the State at the present time are equipped with 



Physical Education in the High School 7 

a gymnasium to centralize this work. The Director of Physical Education 
gives his entire time to the organization and teaching of physical training 
classes, hygiene classes, inter-school leagues, coaching interscholastic 
teams and many times supervising the physical training work in the 
elementary schools of the city. 

The large majority of high schools of North Carolina do not have 
these facilities to put on a program of physical education. It is the object 
of this outline to assist those schools which find it necessary to use teachers 
who have not had special training in physical education. This outline is 
by no means a complete syllabus of physical education but rather sufficient 
material so arranged that it can be put into practical use by any school 
desiring to instigate an organized program. Every teacher or leader 
should be able to work out his program for the year by using this sug- 
gested program and should seek every available opportunity to familiarize 
himself with physical education. 



AIMS OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION 

The aims of physical education in its broadest sense can be classified 
under four heads: 

A — Hygienic 

The promotion of health and development of organic vigor. Under 
this head are classified all forms of exercises which stimulate and increase 
the activity of the respiratory, circulatory, digestive and excretory sys- 
tems. Examples of such exercises include movements which bring into 
play the larger group muscles such as games, gymnastics, athletics and 
folk dancing. 

B — Educational 

This is primarily the training of subjective and objective motor control 
and develops such qualities as leadership, self-control, cooperation, fair- 
ness, truthfulness, self-confidence, obedience, courage, loyalty, determina- 
tion, quickness of perception and quickness of action. Examples of such 
exercises are games and response commands in gymnastics. 

C — Corrective 

Corrective aims are met by exercises especially designed to correct 
certain common physical defects found to a large degree in school chil- 
dren. The most common defects being poor posture, round backs, hollow 
chests, and flat feet. Although the corrective values should be stressed 
in all forms of physical training it becomes necessary at times to group 
certain of these students in separate classes where corrective exercises 
are the predominating types of exercises. 



8 Physical Education in the High School 

D — Recreative 

Physical education to be of its most value must be recreative in its 
nature. Results can only be accomplished when students are interested 
in the work they are doing. Plays and games lend themselves to this ac- 
complishment most readily, although gymnastics may be made interesting 
if proper explanation of its aims are clearly put before the classes. 

More specific aims of physical education in the schools may be stated as 
follows : 

1. Alleviation from mental strain. 

2. Relief from long sitting positions. 

3. Satisfy urgent desire of every healthy child for muscular activity. 

4. Establish habits of daily exercise. 

5. Furnish proper outlet for superfluous energy. 

6. Develop poise and strength. 

7. Improve discipline. 

8. Promote the joy of living and bring happiness into the school life. 

9. To make better citizens. 



THE PROGRAM 

The following program is suggested as one that would cover prac- 
tically all phases of physical education in a high school system. Each 
part of this program has been fully described and practical suggestions 
made for carrying it out in the following pages. This program is divided 
into six parts as follows: 

1. Physical Training Lessons. 

2. Competitive Sports. 

3. Relief Drills. 

4. Health Instruction. 

5. Corrective Exercises. 

6. Interscholastic Athletics. 



PHYSICAL TRAINING 



A — Scope 



The foregoing plan of physical training is designed especially to meet 
the needs of the many high schools which have not gymnasiums or special 
physical training supervisors. Although a much more elaborate and com- 
prehensive piece of work can be accomplished with the use of a gymnasium 
and the services of special supervisors of both boys and girls, it is still 
possible to promote a constructive program of physical training without 
either. It is the plan of this outline to give in detail all the information 



Physical Education in the High School 9 

necessary in carrying on a program of physical training, and to give this 
information in terms easily understood by the average teacher. 

B — Time and Division of Pupils 

The physical training periods should be at least thirty minutes long, a 
longer period is even better. Such periods should come at least twice a 
week, although the ideal situation would be once every day. 

Just where these periods should come in the school curriculum is a 
matter of local organization, and it would probably be impossible to sub- 
mit any one plan that would be advisable in every system. However, in 
schools having an average daily attendance under 140 it is suggested that 
an "activity hour" be set aside each day. This would permit the 
boys to have physical training two days and the girls two days and neither 
interfere with the other. If, however, these classes can be taken to a 
playground large enough both boys and girls can meet at the same time. 
This would permit more classes per week or give more days for other 
activities. Best results can be obtained by scheduling the "activity hour" 
late in the morning session. 

C— Who Will Teach These Classes 

The program outlined for these classes is so arranged and explained 
in detail that any teacher on the faculty could successfully carry it out. 
All teachers graduating from our normal schools and colleges of today 
have had more or less training in physical education and athletics, and 
could with very little preparation carry out its aims. Some, of course, 
will be better qualified than others. It is suggested that either the prin- 
cipal or the man in charge of athletics take charge, with the assistance 
of the other teachers. Wherever possible, it is desirable to have one of 
the women teachers handle the girls' classes and one of the men handle 
the boys' classes. 

D— Where to Hold These Classes 

The ideal place to hold the classes, of course, is the gymnasium. How- 
ever, where there is no gymnasium there are generally other available 
spaces such as the school yard or playground, hallways, or the classroom. 
Whenever possible it is advisable to hold these classes out-of-doors. In 
schools where the playground is of sufficient size the girls' and boys' 
classes can meet during the same hour on the same days. This will make 
it possible to have the classes more times each week or make more periods 
available for other activities. Where such a plan is possible one or two 
days could be given to the "Competitive Sports" program. 

E — Plan of the Physical Training Period 

The physical training period has been divided into three parts : 

1. Marching Tactics. 

2. Calisthenics. 

3. Group Games. 



10 Physical Education in the High School 

Such a division necessitates giving each phase only a small amount of 
time. Taking a thirty-minute period as a sample such division would 
consist of: 

Marching Tactics 5 minutes 

Calisthenics 10 minutes 

Group Games 15 minutes 

However, such a division need not be final and the instructor should 

feel free to put more or less time on any of the divisions depending upon 

local conditions. 

F — Marching Tactics 

Marching tactics are included for two purposes : 

1. Develop Response. 

2. Posture Training. 

Only the simple tactics and elementary marching is included. This 
type of work should come at the beginning of the lesson and can be used 
as "warming up" exercises, as well as for the development of a quick 
response and a good carriage. No attempt has been made to outline les- 
sons as the movements should be taken one by one, progressing only as 
fast as the class masters them. 

G — Calisthenic Lesson 

The calisthenic lesson is divided into eight divisions. This is done for 
the purpose of including exercises that will directly exercise all parts of 
the body. It is advisable to follow the order indicated in the lessons. 
However, should the lesson be shortened, certain parts can be omitted, or 
if lengthened, two exercises under certain divisions can be used. The 
lesson can also be lengthened by giving more repetitions of each move- 
ment. The divisions of the calisthenic lessons are as follows: breathing, 
arm and leg, posture, trunk, abdominal, balance, jumping, and breathing. 

H — Group Games 

Games should come at the end of the period. They are given the 
largest allotment of time because of their importance in any program of 
physical training. Not alone do they carry great physical benefits, but 
they are unexcelled in developing such qualities as leadership, cooperation, 
fairness, team-work, honesty, obedience, loyalty, quickness, and self-confi- 
dence. The success of the physical training periods will depend to a large 
extent upon the interest manifested by the pupils; games will do more 
than any other one thing to create and maintain this interest. 

A great deal of interest can be developed by having definite teams for 
these games and having these teams compete against each other during 
every physical training period. Keep a record of the results on the board 
in the study room or the assembly room. This will bring a competitive 
spirit into the physical training periods and will greatly help to build up 
the interest and enthusiasm. 



Physical Education in the High School 11 

If such a plan is not followed, teams can be selected each day by divid- 
ing the class into equal teams by lining them up in a single line and 
counting off in the desired numbers. 

Lists of games suitable for both high school girls and high school boys 
are included in the outline. 

I — Gymnastic Commands 

All gymnastic commands are divided into three parts : 

1. Preparatory or Explanatory Part. 

2. Pause. 

3. Executive Part. 

A— PREPARATORY PART 

The aim of the preparatory part is to explain briefly and concisely 
what is to be done. This should be done in a manner that will leave no 
doubt in the pupils' minds what is expected. 

B— THE PAUSE 

Following the preparatory command should come a pause long enough 
to allow the pupils to form a mental picture of what the exercise is to be. 
If the pause is too short the pupils will not have a clear understanding 
of what the exercise is. If the pause is too long, the pupils will lose interest 
and consequently not all act together when the executive command is 
given. 

C— THE EXECUTIVE PART 

This is the signal for immediate action. There are two accepted ways 
of giving this command — one by using the verb, the second by using num- 
bers. Examples : 

1. Use of Verb: Arms forward RAISE 

"Arms forward" being the preparatory part, telling the class what the 

exercise is — a pause giving time to think it over — and the verb "raise" 
coming as the executive signal to start the exercise. 

2. Use of Numbers : Arms raising forward . . . 1-2. 

In this method the present participle of the verb is used in the pre- 
paratory command, then the pause and then "1" as the command of execu- 
tion. "2" is then used as the command of execution to get the class back 
to the original position. 

Exercises may be given in rhythm very much the same way they are 
given by using the numbers. The rhythm is set by the teacher either dur- 
ing the first exercise or before the exercise is started. Example: 

Arms Raising Forward (in rhythm) . . BEGIN (1-2-3-4, 1-2-3-4). 
Rhythmical exercises are stopped by saying "Class Halt" on the 3rd 
and 4th count. 



12 Physical Education in the High School 

J — Methods of Presentation 

The matter of presentation of calisthenic exercises is a very important 
one. It is absolutely essential that the class understand exactly what 
the exercise is before they attempt to do it. In the main there are three 
accepted methods: 

1. Short Description — In this method the verb is used as the com- 
mand of execution. Exercises presented in this manner require a quick 
response and are of infinite value in developing quick reaction and 
alertness. Example : 

Arms Forward RAISE 

2. By the Numbers — By using this method the teacher can give a 
full explanation of the exercise in the preparatory part of the command 
using the present participle of the verb. The pause necessarily should be 
a little longer. The command of execution in this method is a number. 
If a two-count exercise is given, the numbers should be 1 and 2, repeated 
as many times as the teacher desires the exercise to be done. Example: 

Arms Raising Forward 1-2. 

(On "1" arms are raised forward and on count "2" they are lowered 
to position.) 

3. By Demonstration — When using this method the teacher sets the 
exercise before the class — she may or may not give explanations as she 
is setting it. This method is advisable when giving new exercises 
and when giving more complicated exercises. After the exercise has been 
demonstrated the command of execution is a number. Example: 

Demonstrate, Arms Forward Raise . . READY, 1-2, etc. 

K — Execution 

Emphasis should be laid upon correct form and energetic execution. 
There is very little, if any, benefit derived from calisthenic exercises if 
done in a half-hearted manner. Not only should exercises be done in good 
form, but should be done immediately upon the giving of the command of 
execution. 

This same emphasis should be stressed in the playing of games. Games 
lose a great deal of their value, both from the hygienic and educational 
aims if rules are not lived up to exactly, or if played in a % listless manner. 

L — Corrections 

Corrections should be made whenever the teacher sees that the exercises 
are not being executed properly. As a rule corrections should be made to 
the class as a whole. However, if after corrections have been made in 
this manner, and still pupils are executing them wrong, individual cor- 
rection must be made. Such general corrections or admonitions as "chest 



Physical Education in the High School 13 

high," "stand tall," "waists in," when giving posture exercises, for 
example, will be of general benefit in getting correct execution. 

M — Repetitions 

The hygienic values of calisthenics are only obtained by giving many 
repetitions of the different exercises. The number should be varied and 
will run from four to eight, depending upon the difficulty of the exercise. 

N — Suggestions in Teaching Games 

1. It is of prime importance that the teacher know all the rules. 

2. Teacher should always have a whistle. 

3. Give rules and methods of play of a new game in classroom with 
use of diagrams. It is best to explain the game before starting to play 
and not as game progresses. 

4. Change runners often. 

5. Lack of interest may come from having too many in the game, 
one or two being allowed to dominate play, sides uneven in strength, or 
tired of that particular game. 

6. Insist upon living up to rules at all times — this teaches fair play 
and gives all pupils confidence in teacher. 

7. See that everyone gets a chance to run or be "it." 

8. It always adds interest when the teacher participates in the game. 

9. The teacher should suggest different games and let the pupils 
choose the one they wish to play. 

10. N ew games should be taught from time to time, but when one 
game is extremely popular, it is not best to introduce a new one until the 
interest starts to lag. 

11. Insist upon all the pupils taking part; the very ones that are 
backward about playing are the ones that need it the most. 

O — Arrangement of Class for Exercise 

It is necessary to have one or two definite systems by which the class 
can be arranged for the calisthenic lesson. Two things to be taken into 
consideration are: first, that there is ample space between each individual 
to permit absolute freedom of motion; and second, to have the smaller 
pupils in front. 

The class should not always be kept facing in the same direction. From 
a teaching standpoint certain exercises can be seen better if the class is 
facing to the left or right of the teacher — trunk forward bend is an 
example of such an exercise. Some exercises it is best to have the class 
face on the oblique so that they will not interfere with each other during 
exercise. An example of this type of exercise is feet jumping backward 
and forward from a knee-bend rest position. 



14 



Physical Education in the High School 



Two simple but effective "open order" movements are as follows: 

1. With the class in a single alignment along the side of the gym- 
nasium or playground, count off in fours. On the command "open order," 
all the number one's start marching forward; on the fifth count, all the 
number two's start marching forward; on the ninth count, all number 
three's start marching forward; and on the thirteenth count, all number 
four's start marching forward. All stop on the seventeenth count and 
will then be in proper arrangement for the calisthenic lesson. 

"Close order," or the command used to get the class back to its original 
position, is executed in the reverse manner after giving the class "about 
face." 

Diagram Showing This Method of Open Order: 



I 2 34 
XX XX 



® 



12 3 4 
X XX X 

@ 



® 



® 



® 



® 



12 3 4 
X XXX 

!® 



® 



® 



23 4 
KXXX 

® 



® 



® 



234 
XXXXX 

® 



® 



® 



2. With the class in a column of four's down the center of the gym- 
nasium or playground, have the outside files (the number one's and four's) 
side-step outward six steps (taking twelve counts) and have the inside 
files (the number two's and three's) side-step outward two steps. The 
inside files should start on count nine, which will bring the entire class 
to a halt at the same time. 

"Close order" will be the reverse of the "open order" in that all files 
will side-step inward, all starting on the word "march." 

There are a large variety of other methods that can be used. 



P — Explanation of Movements Used in Marching Tactics 

1. FALL IN 

This command is used to get the class into an organized formation. 
On the command "fall in," the pupils quickly arrange themselves in one 
line, side by side, the tallest at the right and the shortest at the left. 

2. RIGHT . . . DRESS 



Physical Education in the High School 15 

Diagram Showing the Method of Open Order: 

,- -J 2 34_ _ 

© ©XX XX (3) ® 

__ .J 2 34„-- — .. 

© @._XX XX J3) @ 

,- I 2 34 . 

© ® xxxx'_0) <§> 

_ _| ^34. _ _ 

© ©_xxxx 0) @ 

,- . I 234.----. 

© ©/xxxx'O) 



At the command "right dress," the pupils place their left hand on the 
left hip, turning the head and eyes to the right, and arrange themselves 
in a straight line with the same interval between each pupil. 

3. FRONT 

On the command "front," the pupils turn their head and eyes to the 
front and drop their left hand. This will leave them in a straight line 
with the same interval between each one. 

4. RIGHT . . . FACE 

At the command "face," each pupil turns to the right on the heel of 
the right foot and toe of the left 90 degrees. It is a two-count movement — 
on count one turn on the heel and toe, and on count two, place the left 
foot beside the right. 

5. ABOUT . . . FACE 

"About face" involves a turn of 180 degrees. It is done by placing the 
right toe about four inches and a little to the left of the left heel and 
turning towards the right on the right toe and left heel. (The tendency 
in turning is to raise the left heel from the floor — this is wrong and will 
bring the feet too far apart.) 

6. HALF-RIGHT (or LEFT) . . . FACE 

This movement is executed the same as "right face" except that the 
turn is 45 degrees. 



16 Physical Education in the High School 

7. mark-time . . . march 

This is in reality marching in place and is done in rhythm at about 
120 steps to the minute. This movement should always start with the 
left foot and is done by raising the knees straight up in front until the 
foot is from four to six inches from the floor with the ankle extended and 
the toe pointing downward. 

8. FORWARD . . . MARCH 

At the command "march," step off with the left foot a full step (about 
30 inches); this is followed by the right and is done in rhythm of about 
120 steps to the minute. 

9. CLASS . . . HALT 

At the command "halt," the class should take two more steps, coming 
to a full stop on the second. 

10. TO THE REAR . . . MARCH 

The command "march" should be given as the right foot hits the floor. 
The class then advances one full step with the left, turns to the right on 
the balls of both feet and steps off in the new direction again with the 
left foot. It is a two-count movement. 

11. TO THE REAR . . . HALT 

Executed same as No. 10, except instead of taking full step with left 
foot, it is placed beside of right, class halting. 

12. SIDEWARD LEFT (or RIGHT) . . . MARCH 

At the command "march" each pupil takes a step of fifteen inches to 
the left with the left foot — the right is brought up beside the left on count 
two. This is a two-count movement and so any given number of sideward 
steps will require twice that number of counts. 

13. QUICK TIME MARCHING 

Quick time marching is the regular cadence of 120 steps per minute. 

14. DOUBLE QUICK TIME MARCHING 

Double quick time marching is increasing the cadence to 240 steps per 
minute. The arms are generally raised to a thrust position when doing 
double quick marching. 

Note — It requires four counts to change from double quick marching 
to quick time marching or to a halt. 

15. BACKWARD . . . MARCH 

This movement is executed the same as "forward march" except the 
steps are taken backwards and are only half steps (fifteen inches). 

16. BY THE LEFT (or RIGHT) FLANK . . . MARCH 
This command is given to change the direction of the marching. The 

command "march" should be given as the LEFT foot hits the floor, ad- 



Physical Education in the High School 17 

vance one full step — with the right and turn' on the balls of both feet 
90 degrees to the left and step off in the new direction with left foot. 

17. FOUR'S RIGHT . . . MARCH 

The class should be previously counted off in four's. At the command 
"march" every number one does a "right face" and marks time four counts. 
The number two's, three's and four's, execute a half right face and march 
into place beside of number one. On the fifth count all step off in the 
new direction with the left foot. The pivot man (number one) must turn 
on same spot he was standing on when command was given. 

18. FOUR'S LEFT . . . MARCH 
Same as four's right except executed to the left. 

19. FOUR'S RIGHT ABOUT . . . MARCH 

This movement is simply executing four's right twice in succession. 
Care must be taken to see that the pivot men turn in the same space they 
were occupying when the command was given. 

20. FOUR'S LEFT ABOUT . . . MARCH 

Same as No. 19 only to the left. 

21. COLUMN RIGHT . . . MARCH 

This command changes the direction of the column but keeping the 
column formation the same. The first set of four's execute a four's right 
at the command "march" (except that the pivot man takes half steps in- 
stead of marking time) and each succeeding set of four's turn at the 
same place. 

22. COLUMN LEFT . . . MARCH 
Same as No. 21 only to the left. 

23. ALTERNATE FOUR'S, LEFT and RIGHT . . . MARCH 
This command is given when marching down the center of the space 

in a column of four's. At the command "march" the first set of four's 
execute a "four's left" and the second set of four's execute a "four's right," 
with each successive set of "four's" alternating until you have two columns 
of four's marching in opposite directions. (All sets of four's turn at same 
place.) 

These two columns can be marched around the space until they meet 
at the opposite end and there one execute a column left and the other a 
column right and form sets of "eight's" marching down the center. 

24. TWO'S, RIGHT and LEFT . . . MARCH 

With the class in a column formation marching down the middle of 
the space the above command can be used to form two columns of two's 
going in opposite directions, At the command "march," the set of two's 



18 Physical Education in the High School 

on the left execute a column left and the set of two's on the right execute 
a column right. They can be united again in a column of four's in the 
same manner as suggested in No. 22. 

The above commands and movements are not all the marching move- 
ments possible by any means, but will give a working basis for marching 
tactics. 

Q — Explanation of Movements Used in Calisthenic Lessons and Relief 
Drills 

General Notations 

1. In the majority of cases the exercises start from the fundamental 
standing position (attention), although this is not always the case. When 
they do not start from this position they are said to start from a "new" 
starting position. A good example of this is the exercise "arms flinging 
side," a two-count exercise, from the position of "hands on neck." As a 
rule exercises of this nature involve the use of "short description" com- 
mands to get into the "new" starting position and the "numerical" system 
for the exercise itself. 

2. All the exercises explained are listed under the "short description" 
method of commands. 

3. The command "FLING" indicates a rapid movement. 

4. The command "RAISE" indicates a slow movement. 

5. The command "STRETCH" means a rapid extension of arms in the 
direction indicated from an "arms bend" position. 

Movements of the Arms, Forearms and Hands 

1. ARMS FORWARD . . . RAISE (OR FLING). Arms are 
raised forward to a horizontal position, with palms facing in and shoulder 
width apart. 

2. ARMS FORWARD UPWARD . . . RAISE (OR FLING). 
Arms are raised forward upward to a vertical position with the palms in 
and shoulder width apart. (An effort must be made to have the elbows 
straight.) 

3. ARMS SIDEWARD . . . RAISE (OR FLING). The arms 
are raised sideward to a horizontal position with palms facing down. 

4. ARMS SIDEWARD UPWARD . . . RAISE (OR FLING). 
The arms are raised sideward and upward to a vertical position, shoulder 
width apart with palms facing in. 

5. ARMS BACKWARD . . . FLING. Arms are carried back- 
ward as far as possible without raising the shoulders or bending forward. 

6. ARMS SIDEWARD WITH PALMS UP . . . RAISE. This 
movement is the same as described in No. 3 except the palms are turned up. 

7. ARMS CIRCLING INWARD . . . START. In this move- 
ment the left arm circles left (counter clockwise) and the right arm circles 



Physical Education in the High School 19 

right (clockwise). Each describes as large a circle as possible. The arms 
meet and cross in front of the thighs first and later over the head. 

8. HANDS ON HIPS . . . PLACE. Hands are quickly placed 
on the hip bone with the thumbs to the rear and elbows slightly back. 

9. HANDS ON NECK . . . PLACE. The arms are raised and 
the elbows flexed sufficiently to allow the fingers to touch behind the 
neck. Fingers should just touch and not be interlocked. Elbows should 
be forced back as far as possible. 

10. HANDS ON HEAD . . . PLACE. The arms are raised and 
elbov/s flexed sufficiently to allow the fingers to meet on top of the head. 
The elbows should be forced back as far as possible. 

11. ARMS . . . BEND. Elbows are flexed sufficiently to allow 
the hands with the fingers fully flexed to be placed at the side of the 
shoulders. (Hands are brought to this position on all "stretching" move- 
ments.) 

12. ELBOWS SIDEWARD . . . BEND. The arms are raised in 
the side horizontal plane with the elbows flexed in the horizontal plane 
with the thumbs and first fingers touching the chest. 

13. ELBOWS HALF SIDEWARD . . . BEND. The arms are 
raised in the side horizontal plane with the elbows flexed 90 degrees in the 
horizontal plane, palms turned in. ' 

14. ELBOWS HALF UPWARD . . . BEND. The arms are 
raised in the side horizontal plane and the forearms flexed 90 degrees in 
the vertical plane, elbows back and palms in. 

15. ARMS SIDEWARD AND DOWNWARD . . . STRETCH. 
A four-count movement, arms are raised to "arms bend" position (No. 11) 
on count one; on count two, arms are extended to side horizontal position; 
on count three, are carried back to "arms bend" position again; and on 
count four, extended downward to starting position. The following com- 
binations of stretching movements are possible: sideward and upward; 
sideward and forward; forward and downward; forward and upward; and 
upward and downward. They are executed in the same relative manner 
as described above. 



Body Movements 

1. TRUNK FORWARD . . . BEND. The trunk is bent for- 
ward at the hips 45 degrees. The relative position of the head, shoulders 
and upper back are unchanged. 

2. TRUNK FORWARD, DOWN . . . BEND. The trunk is bent 
forward at the hips as far as possible, with the relative position of the 
head, shoulders and upper back unchanged. 



20 Physical Education in the High School 

3. TRUNK BACKWARD . . . BEND. The trunk is inclined 
backward with the relative position of head and shoulders unchanged. The 
extension should come mostly in the upper back. The hips must be kept 
in same position and knees straight. Great care must be taken not to over- 
emphasize this movement as it will easily lead to an over extension in the 
lower back and the throwing forward of the stomach, making a bad posture. 

4. TRUNK TO THE LEFT . . . BEND. The trunk is bent to 
the left as far as possible with the head and shoulders retaining the same 
relative position. Avoid raising the heels from the floor and rotation of 
the hips. 

5. TRUNK TO THE RIGHT . . . BEND. Same as No. 4 only 
to the right. 

6. TRUNK TO THE LEFT . . . TWIST. The trunk is twisted 
to the left as far as possible. This movement must take place only above 
the hips. Avoid any movements of the legs or feet. 

7. TRUNK TO RIGHT . . . TWIST. Same as No. 6, only to 
the right. 

8. TRUNK CIRCLING RIGHT, LEFT . . . BEGIN. With the 
hips as a center the head describes as large a circle as possible. Head and 
shoulders are kept in same relative position. To the right is clockwise; 
to the left is counter clockwise. 



Leg Movements 

1. HEELS . . . RAISE. Heels are raised from floor as high as 
possible, keeping knees straight and body erect. 

2. KNEES . . . BEND. Bend the knees as far as possible, 
keeping body erect. This will necessitate raising the heels from the floor. 

3. LEFT (RIGHT) LEG FORWARD . . . RAISE. Transfer 
weight onto right leg and raise left leg forward and sideward, keeping 
knee straight and foot extended. Care must be taken not to bend trunk 
backward. 

4. LEFT (RIGHT) LEG SIDEWARD . . . RAISE. Same as 
No. 3 except leg is raised sideward. Care must be taken not to lean to the 
right. 

5. LEFT (RIGHT) KNEE FORWARD . . . RAISE. The knee 
is bent, forming a right angle. 

6. LEFT (RIGHT) FOOT FORWARD . . . PLACE. The foot 
is placed directly forward about twice its length with the weight equally 

divided on both feet. • 



Physical Education in the High School 21 

7. LEFT (RIGHT) FOOT SIDEWARD . . . PLACE. The foot 
is placed directly sideward about fifteen inches with weight equally divided 
on both feet. 

8. TOE, TOUCH FORWARD, FORWARD OBLIQUE, SIDEWARD, 
OR BACKWARD. All made in the same manner only in the direction 
indicated. The weight is transferred to the other leg, leg and toe ex- 
tended so that the toe barely touches the floor. 

9. FEET APART . . . JUMP. Feet are separated sideward 
with a little jump to about 24 inches. The command, "feet jumping apart — 
begin," indicates a continuous movement done in rhythm. 

10. JUMPING ON TOES . . . BEGIN. This movement is jump- 
ing up and downward right in place. The feet should be raised six to 
eight inches from the floor. It is a rhythmical exercise. 

11. CROSS STRIDE JUMPING . . . BEGIN. On count 1, one 
foot is crossed over in front of the other by a jump; on count 2, this foot 
is crossed back to position. This is a rhythmical exercise. The foot to be 
crossed should be indicated in the command — this movement is frequently 
used by alternating the foot crossing. 

12. ALTERNATE FOOT JUMPING, FORWARD AND BACKWARD 
. . . BEGIN. This exercise is started from a stride stand position 
(left foot forward . . . place). On count 1, on a jump, the left foot 
is placed back and the right foot forward; on count 2, the left is placed 
forward again and the right back. This is continued in rhythm. 

13. LEFT (RIGHT) FORWARD . . . LUNGE. The body falls 
forward at the same time the left (right) foot is moved forward about 
twice or three times its length. The rear foot is turned outward to be at 
right angles with the forward foot. The knee of the forward leg should 
be flexed and directly over the toe. The rear leg should be straight. The 
trunk is kept in an upright position. 

14. LEFT (RIGHT) SIDEWARD . . . LUNGE. Same general 
description as in No. 13, except the movement is sideward instead of 
forward. 

15. TRUNK FORWARD, BEND ON LEFT (RIGHT) . . . 
FOOT. This is a balance position and is executed the same as trunk for- 
ward bend, except the left (right) leg is raised backward at the same time. 

16. KNEE BEND, REST POSITION . . . TAKE. The knees 
are bent and the hands placed on the floor, inside the knees. 

17. FEET JUMPING FORWARD AND BACKWARD FROM KNEE 
BEND, REST POSITION . . . BEGIN. From the knee bend rest 



22 Physical Education in the High School 

position described above the weight is put on the hands and the feet are 
jumped backward on count one and forward again on count two. This is 
a rhythmical exercise usually, although the rhythm must be rather slow 
with only a few repetitions. 

18. ALTERNATE FEET JUMPING FORWARD AND BACKWARD 
FROM KNEE BEND, REST POSITION . . . BEGIN. This is es- 
sentially the same as No. 17 except on count one the left leg is jumped 
forward and the right leg jumped backward and on count two the reverse. 
This is a rhythmical exercise and usually started with the left foot back. 

19. PRONE FALLING POSITION. This is the position obtained 
when the feet are jumped backward from the knee bend rest position and 
held back. It is a position with the weight on the hands, arms straight, and 
toes. Head should be held up. 

20. ELBOWS BEND FROM PRONE FALLING POSITION. This 
exercise is merely the bending of the elbows, keeping the toes in place. 
The elbows should be bent to the extent of having the chest nearly touch 
the floor. This exercise should not be repeated many times. 



CALISTHENIC LESSONS 
LESSON I 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing from fundamental standing position, 1-2. (Empha- 
size arching chest and inhaling through the nose and exhaling 
through the mouth.) 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Raising on toes with arms flinging sideward, (by count) 1-2. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Hands placing on neck with alternate foot placing sideward, (by 
count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Hands on hip and feet apart Jump 

Trunk forward Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Hands and feet back to position Jump 

(Repeat several times by count — slowly.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Hands placing on hips with alternate knee raising forward (start- 
ing with left), (by count) 1-2. 



Physical Education in the High School 23 

balance exercise— 

Hands placing on hips and left leg forward . . . Raise 

Hands down and left leg . Replace 

(Repeat by count — slowly.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Jumping on toes in place (rhythmical) Ready, Begin 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Same as above. 



LESSON II 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, raising arms sideward, (by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms raising forward with alternate leg raising forward, (by 
count) 1-2. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Arms bending (hands on shoulders, elbows down) and stretching 
downward, (by count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips Place 

Trunk to the left Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Hands Position 

(Repeat by count, going first left then right.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Hands placing on hips with alternate knee raising forward, (by 
count) 1-2. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands placing on neck with alternate leg raising sideward, (by 
count) 1-2. (Slow exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and left foot sideward . . . Place. (New start- 
ing position.) Exercise jumping on toes (rhythmical) Ready, 
Begin 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Same as above. 



24 Physical Education in the High School 

lesson iii 
breathing exercise— 

Deep breathing with arms raising forward, upward, (by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms raising sideward with alternate leg raising sideward, (by 
count) 1-2. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

(Thumbs and fore-fingers on chest with elbows high and back.) 

Elbows sideward Bend 

Hands Position 

(Repeat several times by count — keep elboivs back.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Hands on neck and feet apart Jump 

Trunk forward Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Hands down and feet together Jump 

(Repeat several times by count.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Hands placing on neck with alternate leg fling forward, (by count) 
1-2. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips Place 

Knees Bend 

Knees Straighten 

Hands Position 

(Repeat several times by count — slow exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and feet apart . . . Jump. (New starting position.) 
Exercise jumping on toes (rhythmical) Ready, Begin 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 
Same as Lesson II. 



LESSON IV 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing with arms raising sidewards, palms turned upward, 
(by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Raising on toes with arms flinging forward, upward, (by count) 1-2. 



Physical Education in the High School 25 

posture exercise— 

Hands on neck . . . Place. (New starting position.) 

Ex.: Arms flinging sideward (keep elbows back), (by count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Hands on neck Place 

Trunk to left Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Hands Position 

(Can make this a two-count movement by using second and third 
exercises by count.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Arms raising sideward and alternate knee raising forward, (by 
count) 1-2-3-4. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Alternate leg raising forward with arms flinging sideward, (by 
count) 1-2-3-4. (Must hold counts 2 and 3 to make it a balance 
exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Feet jumping apart (rhythmical) Ready, Begin 1-2-3-4. (On count 
1 feet jump to stride position, on count 2 feet jump together 
again; should have hands on hips during this exercise.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 
Same as Lesson III. 

LESSON V 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

West Point breathing, (by count) 1-2. (Keep hands at sides, turn- 
ing palms outward while inhaling and back to position while 
exhaling.) 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms flinging forward, sideward, forward and downward, (by 
count) 1-2-3-4. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips . . . Place. (New starting position.) 

Ex.: Trunk backward Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

(Sloiv movement — bend should be in upper back with chin kept in.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Hands on neck and feet apart . . Jump. (New startiyig position.) 
Ex.: Alternate trunk bending left and right, (4 counts) 1-2-3-4. 



26 Physical Education in the High School 

abdominal exercise— 

Knee bend rest position . . . Down. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Feet jumping backward and forward, (by count) 1-2. (On 
count 1 feet are jumped back so that weight is on hands and 
toes — on count 2 feet are jumped forward again.) 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips . . . Place. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Knees bend and arms sideward- .... Fling 
Knees straighten and hands on hips . . . Place 
(Repeat several times by count.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Feet jumping apart with arms flinging sideward, (by count) 1-2. 
(On count 1 feet are apart and arms sideward — on count 2 feet 
are together and arms at side.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 
Same as Lesson IV. 

LESSON VI 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, arms raising forward, upward and raising on toes, 
(by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms sideward fling and feet apart . Jump. (New starting position.) 
Ex. : Arms flinging over-head and raising on toes, (by count) 1-2. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Elbows sideward bend and feet apart . . Jump. (New starting 

position.) 
Ex.: Arms flinging sideward and raising on toes, (by count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Arms forward, upward fling and feet apart . . Jump. (New 

starting position.) 
Ex.: Trunk bending forward with hands touching floor, (by count) 
1-2. (Rhythm slow at first — faster later.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Sitting position on floor. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Hands on hips and trunk backward . . . Bend 
Trunk upward (hands to the side) . . . Raise 
(Repeat several times by count — slow exercise.) 



Physical Education in the High School 27 

balance exercise— 

Hands on hips Place. (New starting position.) 

Ex.: Raising alternate knee forward and raising on opposite toe, 
(by count) 1-2-3-4. 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and feet apart . . Jump. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Jumping on toes, feet crossing in front, (rhythmical) 1-2-3-4. 
(On count 1 jump and cross left in front of right; on count 2 
jump, crossing left back to stride position; on count 3 jump, 
crossing right in front of left; on count h jump to stride posi- 
tion. Continue this in rhythm.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 
Same as in Lesson V. 



LESSON VII 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, arms raising sideward with palms turned upward 
and raising on toes, (by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms circling inward, (by count) 1-2. (Keep elbows straight, de- 
scribing as large a circle as possible — arms cross first in front 
of hips and again over-head.) 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Arms forward raise and left foot forward . . . Place. (New 

starting position.) 
Ex.: Arms flinging sideward, raising on toes, (by count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Arms sideward raise and feet apart .... Jump 

Trunk to left (right) Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Arms down and feet together Jump 

(Can use the first position as a new starting position and the second 
and third movements as an exercise by count.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Alternate leg, raising forward with arms raising sideward, (by 
count) 1-2-3-4. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands on neck and feet apart . . Jump. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Arms flinging sideward, (by count) 1-2. 



28 Physical Education in the High School 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Feet jumping apart with hands clapping over-head, (rhythmical) 
1-2-3-4. (As feet are apart hands clap over-head — as feet are 
together hands are at sides.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 
Same as Lesson VI. 



LESSON VIII 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, arms raising sideward, upward and raising on toes, 
(by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Arms forward raise and feet apart . . . Jump. (New starting 

position.) 
Ex.: Arms raising over-head, raising on toes, (by count) 1-2-3-4. 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Arms stretching backward and downward, (4 counts) 1-2-3-4. (See 
m Lesson II — hands go to arm bend position on counts 1 and 3.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Arms forward raise and feet apart . . . Jump. (New starting 

position.) 
Ex. : Trunk bending forward with arms flinging sideward, (by 
count) 1-2. 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Knee bend rest position with left leg back. (New starting position — 

see Lesson V.) 
Ex.: Feet jumping forward and backward, (rhythmical) 1-2. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Arms raise forward and left leg backward . . . Raise 

Arms flinging sideward and left leg forward . . . Fling 

Arms forward fling and left leg backward . . . Fling 

Arms down and left leg Position 

(Repeat by count — slow exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Jumping on toes turning V± turn to the right on every 5th count, 
(rhythmical) Ready, Begin. 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Any previous breathing exercise. 



Physical Education in the High School 29 

lesson ix 

breathing exercise— 

West Point breathing. (See Lesson V.) 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and left (right) sideward . . . Lunge 
Feet and hands Position 

(See explanation of a Lunge — repeat by count.) 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Interlock fingers behind hips, palms facing backward. (Neiv start- 
ing position.) (On count 1 turn palms upward, forward and 
downward; on count 2 return to first position.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Arms sideward, upward fling and feet apart . . . Jump 

Trunk to left (right) Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Arms down and feet together Jump 

(Repeat several times by count.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

From "prone falling position." (See explanation "prone falling 
position." ) 

Ex. : Elbows Bend 

Elbows Straighten 

(Repeat by count — sloiv exercise.) 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and knees . . . Bend. (New starting position.) 

Ex.: Change position of hands several times by command, such as 

"hands on neck," "arms sideward fling," "arms forward fling." 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Alternate feet jumping forward with arms flinging forward, 
(rhythmical) 1-2-3-4. (On count 1 jump, placing left foot for- 
ward and raise arms forward; on count 2 jump, return left 
foot and lower arms; on count 3 jump, placing right foot for- 
ward raising arms forward; on count U jump, return right foot 
and lower arms. Continue in rhythm.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Any previous breathing exercise. 



30 



Physical Education in the High School 



LESSON X 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, arms circling inward, (by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and heels Raise 

Knees bend and arms sideward Raise 

Knees straighten and hands on hips .... Place 

Hands down and heels Lower 

(Repeat several times by count.) 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Arms raising backward, turning palms outward and raising on toes, 
(by count) 1-2. 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Wood chopping exercise. Hands clasped on right shoulder and feet 

apart . . . Jump. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: On count 1 bend trunk left obliquely downward swinging hands 
down to position over left foot; on count 2 return to starting 
position, (by count) 1-2. 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Sitting position with hands on neck . . . Down. (New starting 

position.) 
Ex.: Trunk bending backward, (by count) 1-2. (Give girls any 
previous abdominal exercise.) 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Hands on hips and left (right) knee forward . . . Raise 

Left (right) leg forward, stretch arms sideward . . Raise 

Left (right) knee bend and hands on hips . . . Place 

Hands down and left (right) foot .... Position 
(Repeat by count — slow exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Hands on. hips Place. (New starting position.,; 

Ex.: Running in place, (rhythmical) Ready, Begin 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

LESSON XI 



BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Deep breathing, arms raising forward and sideward, palms up and 
raising on toes, (by count) 1-2. 






Physical Education in the High School 31 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Hands clapping over-head and feet jumping apart, (rhythmical) 
1-2-3-4. (See Lesson VII.) 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Elbows half sideward Bend 

(See explanation elboivs half sideward.) 

Forearms upward Raise 

Forearms downward Lower 

Hands Position 

(Repeat by count several times.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Left (right) sideward and hands on hips . . . Lunge 

Trunk Bend 

Trunk upward Raise 

Feet and hands Position 

(Repeat by count; can vary by having arms flinging sideward 
on second movement.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Knee bend rest position . . . Down. (Neiv starting position.) 
Ex.: Feet jumping backward and forward, (by count) 1-2. 
(Give girls any previous abdominal exercise.) 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Left (right) leg backward raise and arms sideward . Raise 
Arms fling over-head and right (left) heel . . . Raise 
Arms sideward lower and right (left) heel . . . Lower 
Hands down and left (right) leg Replace 

(Repeat by count — slow exercise.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Jumping on toes with one-half turn to the right on every fifth count, 
(rhythmical) 1-2-3-4. 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Any previous breathing exercise. 



32 Physical Education in the High School 

lesson xii 
breathing exercise— 

West Point breathing, (by count) 1-2. 

ARM AND LEG EXERCISE— 

Knee bend rest position . . . Down. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Jumping feet apart, raising trunk and flinging arms sideward, 
(by count) 1-2. (Count one as described on count to jump 
back to knee bend rest position.) 

POSTURE EXERCISE— 

Arms stretching sideward and backward, (4 counts) 1-2-3-4. (See 
Lesson VIII.) 

TRUNK EXERCISE— 

Left (right) forward lunge with elbows sideward . . Bend 
Trunk forward, bend with arms sideward . . . Fling 
Trujik upward, raise elbows sideward .... Bend 

Feet and hands Position 

(Repeat by count — can use second and third movement several times 
in a row, using first position as new starting position.) 

ABDOMINAL EXERCISE— 

Knee bend rest position . . . Down. (New starting position.) 
Ex.: Alternate foot jumping forward and backward, (rhythmical) 
1-2-3-4. 

BALANCE EXERCISE— 

Left forward lunge and hands on hips .... Place 
Trunk forward bend raising right leg off floor ... 1 
Trunk upward raise, replacing right foot on floor . . 2 

Feet and hands Position 

(Repeat, using numbers for all four movements.) 

JUMPING EXERCISE— 

Rocking step (rhythmical) Ready, Begin . . . 1-2-3-4. 
(Start with hands on hips and left leg forward. On count 1 place 
left foot where right was and raise right leg backward; on 
count 2 replace right foot and swing left leg forward again. 
Continue in rhythm.) 

BREATHING EXERCISE— 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

Note : Teachers can make an unlimited number of different lessons 

by combining any of the movements given in these twelve 

lessons or by adding different movements. 



Physical Education in the High School 33 

GAMES AND RELAYS 

Following is a list of group games and relays suitable for either boys 
or girls or both as indicated after each. These games are games of lower 
organization and can be used as part of the physical training periods. 

A— GAMES 

1. Dodge Ball (Both) 

Divide group into two teams. One team forms as large a circle as is 
possible by joining hands — the other team gets in center of this circle. 
Team on circle then drop hands. Team on circle has a ball (basket, soccer, 
volley) and throws this ball back and forth across circle trying to hit any 
of the team in the center. When one of the center team is hit he must 
leave the game. When the last man is hit the teams change places and 
play as above. The teacher should keep a record of the length of time it 
took each team to hit everyone of the other team. The team having the 
lowest time wins. 

2. Circle Ball (Both) 

Arrange all the players in a circle except one who is "it" in the center. 
The players on the circle have a ball (basket, soccer, volley) and throw 
the ball back and forth between them. "IT" tries to touch this ball by 
running back and forth after it; if he does touch the ball the one that last 
threw it or last touched it becomes the new "IT." The first "IT" takes 
his place in the circle. 

This game can be speeded up by having two "ITS." 

3. Three Deep (Both) 

Arrange players in a double circle in pairs facing in. Appoint one 
runner and one chaser. The chaser tries to catch the runner who may 
save himself by running in front of any player on the inner circle. The 
player immediately behind this player then becomes the runner. If the 
runner is tagged he immediately becomes the chaser and the first chaser 
the runner. (Players should be encouraged not to run for long but to run 
in front of someone immediately, thus making the game faster.) 

4. Pom Pom Pull Away (Both) 

Establish two lines across the playground fifty feet apart. Place all 
but one player "IT" on one of these lines. Place the "IT" in the middle 
between the two lines. The "IT" then calls "POM POM PULL AWAY, 
COME AWAY OR I'LL PULL YOU AWAY," upon which all the players 
run for the opposite line. "IT" tries to tag as many as he can — everyone 
tagged must join "IT" and help him tag the others. This is continued until 
all are tagged. The last one tagged is the winner and is "IT" for the 
next game. 



34 Physical Education in the High School 

5. Cross Tag (Both) 

Scatter all players but two over the playing area. One of the two is 
the runner and the other the chaser. The chaser chases the runner trying 
to tag him and must continue to chase him until one of the other players 
cross between him and the runner — the player that crosses between is then 
the runner. If the chaser tags the runner the two reverse places and the 
game continues. 

6. Black and White (Both) 

Establish two lines thirty feet long and sixty feet apart. Divide the 
group into two teams, BLACKS and WHITES. Arrange the two teams 
facing each other about three feet apart down the center of the playing 
area. Secure a piece of cardboard which is black on one side and white 
on the other. At a signal this cardboard is thrown up in the air where 
all can see it — if it comes down with the black side up the black team turns 
and runs for the line at their backs, the white team trying to catch as 
many as possible. All caught go to the other team. If on the other hand 
the cardboard comes down white, then the whites run for their line with 
the blacks trying to catch them. This is continued until one side has 
caught all of the other side, thereby winning the game. 

7. Double Tag (Both) 

Scatter all players around in the area except two "ITS" who link 
elbows. At a signal these two try to tag any of the other players. They 
must keep their elbows locked. Any player tagged exchange places with 
the "IT" that tagged him. 

8. Mount Ball (Boys) 

Arrange the group in a double circle in pairs. The inner circle being 
the "horses" and the outer circle the "riders." The "riders" mount the 
"horses" and are given a ball (basket, soccer). The object is for the "rid- 
ers" to pass the ball back and forth among each other while the "horses" 
try to make them drop the ball. If the ball is dropped the "riders" change 
places with the "horses." The "horses" must stay in place but may dodge, 
duck, side-step and use similar tactics to force the "riders" to drop the 
ball. The entire group changes, not simply the one that dropped the ball. 

9. Club Snatch (Both) 

Divide the group into two teams. Establish two lines about thirty feet 
apart with a circle in the center, equal distance from each end. Arrange 
the two groups on these lines, each being opposite an opponent. Put an 
Indian club, or an object in the circle. The players two at a time (one 
from each team) approach the object trying to snatch it and return to 
their line without being tagged by their opponent. The player that is suc- 
cessful scores one point for his team; if however, the player who snatches 
the club is caught a point is scored by the opposing team. 



Physical Education in the High School 35 

10. Broncho Tag (Boys) 

Divide players into groups of two's and scatter them around the playing 
area. Each player is a broncho, one the head and the other the tail. The 
tail grasps the head from the rear around the waist. Appoint one player 
to be the runner and one to be the chaser. The runner tries to save him- 
self from being tagged by catching on to the tail of one of the bronchos. 
The bronchos try to prevent this by running around, wiggling, and squirm- 
ing. When the runner does succeed in catching on to the tail the head im- 
mediately becomes the runner. 

11. Swat Your Neighbor (Boys) 

Arrange group in a circle about two feet apart. Appoint one "IT." 
The players in the circle face in and bend over with hands on their knees 
and eyes shut. The "IT" has a swatter (cylindrical piece of canvas stuffed 
with cotton or a knotted towel) ; he runs around in back of the circle and 
quietly puts the swatter in someone's hands. This person turns and swats 
the man on his right as many times as he can before this man can run to 
the right around the circle and get back into his place again. The man 
with the swatter then runs around and puts the swatter in someone else's 
hands, etc. 

12. Last Couple Out (Both) 

Arrange the players in a column of two's (couples) with the player 
chosen to be "IT" about ten feet in front, facing in the same direction. 
At a signal from "IT" the last couple, each running to the outside of the 
ones directly in front of them, try to join hands in front of the "IT" with- 
out being tagged by "IT." The "IT" cannot look around or attempt to 
tag either of the runners until they are on a line with him. The players 
running should vary their approach in such a way (by circling wide or 
zig-zagging, etc.) as to make it difficult to tag them. If one player is 
tagged he becomes the new "IT" and the other two take their places as 
the first couple. If neither is tagged the same one is "IT" a second time, etc. 

13. Hound and Rabbit (Both) 

Arrange all but two players in groups of three's scattered over the 
playing area. Two of the players in each group face each other and join 
hands, the third gets in between the other two. Appoint one of the re- 
maining two the "RABBIT" and the other the "HOUND." At a signal 
the hound chases the rabbit trying to tag him. The rabbit may prevent 
being tagged by running in under any of the groups holding hands — the 
one already in the center of this group immediately becomes the "rabbit" 
and must run or be tagged by the "hound." If the hound does tag the 
rabbit, the rabbit immediately becomes the hound and chases the former 
hound. Players should be encouraged not to run for a long time, but to 
run into some group and so change runners frequently. After the game 
has been going on for a little while have one of the ones holding hands in 



36 Physical Education in the High School 

each group change places with the one in the center. Make a similar 
change again in a short time and everyone will then have an opportunity 
to be a runner. 

14. Milling the Man (Boys) 

Divide the class into groups of from ten to fifteen. Have all but one 
of each group sit in a circle facing in with the bottoms of the feet all 
touching. Appoint one to be the "IT" and have him stand in the center. 
He should stand stiff and rigid and then fall as heavily as he can in any 
direction. The players sitting all raise their arms and try to prevent him 
from falling on them. They push him from one to the other, trying to 
keep him from falling on them. The "IT" tries to fall through; should 
he fall through the player whom he falls on becomes the new "IT." If the 
"IT" will keep stiff he will be thrown around with momentum enough to 
cause some player to let him fall. 

15. Call Ball (Girls) 

Arrange all the players except one who is to be "IT" in a close group 
in the center of the playing area. "IT" has a ball (basket, soccer, volley) 
and starts the game by tossing it in the air, calling someone's name in the 
group. As the ball is tossed in the air all the players scatter, except the 
one whose name was called, who tries to catch the ball. As soon as this 
player catches the ball she calls "STAND" and everyone must stop im- 
mediately. The player with the ball then has an opportunity to throw the 
ball at any player (who cannot move or dodge) ; if she hits the player 
that player becomes the new "IT," if she misses she becomes the new "IT." 

16. Fox and Geese (Boys) 

Appoint one of the players the "Gander" and all of the others "Geese" 
except one who is the "Fox." The geese get in a single line, each with 
his hands around the waist of the player in front — first one in line puts 
his hands around the gander's waist. The fox tries to tag the last goose 
in the line and the gander tries to prevent this by holding his arms out 
to the side and always staying in front of the fox. All the geese (keeping 
in line with their hands around the waist of the one in front) keep back 
of the gander. The fox tries to run by the gander to get to the back of 
the line and the gander immediately follows, staying between him and the 
geese — this means that the geese are continually moving either one way or 
the other trying to stay in back of the gander. If the last goose is tagged 
he becomes the "IT" and the former "IT" takes a place in the line. 

17. Maze Tag (Both) 

Arrange all but two in parallel lines, arms width apart and the same 
distance in back of the one in front. Appoint one of the remaining players 
"IT" and the other the runner. The players all join hands by raising 
their arms sideward. The "IT" then chases the runner up and down the 



Physical Education in the High School 37 

aisles formed by the players holding hands. The teacher at different inter- 
vals calls "RIGHT FACE," after which the players all face to the right 
and again join hands — this makes the aisles running in a different direction 
and will widely separate the runner and "IT." The teacher should time 
her call so as to protect the runner — that is, if "IT" was about to tag 
the runner while running down one of the aisles the call "RIGHT FACE" 
would put the runner and the "IT" in entirely different aisles and thus pre- 
vent the runner from being tagged. If the runner is tagged, he immedi- 
ately becomes "IT" and the former "IT" the runner. The teacher should 
frequently change both the runner and the "IT" and so give everyone a 
chance to run. 

18. Japanese Tag (Both) 

This is played the same as regular tag except the one tagged must 
hold one hand on the spot he was tagged while trying to tag someone else. 



B— RELAYS 

1. Over-Head Relay (Both) 

Divide the players into teams of from 10 to 12. Arrange each team 
in a single column, teams about ten feet apart with the first man in each 
column on the same line. The players should stand as close to each other 
as possible with arms raised over heads. The first one in each column has 
a basketball and on the word "GO" passes the ball back to the second one 
in line, the second one passes it back to the third, etc., until the last one 
in line gets the ball. When the last one gets the ball he runs to the front 
of the line (each player in the line moving back one step) and starts the 
ball back again. This is repeated until the original first man gets back 
to his original place. The team getting their first man back first wins. 

2. Underneath Relay (Boys) 

This is played exactly as "over-head relay" except instead of passing 
the ball over-head it is rolled on the ground between the legs of each 
player. 

3. Over and Under Relay (Boys) 

This is played the same as the above except every other player passes 
the ball over-head and every other passes it between his legs. 

4. Wand Relay (Both) 

The players are divided into equal teams as in "over-head relay." The 
first player is given a wand (any stick three or four feet long will do) ; at 
the signal "GO" this player runs forward to a given mark (should be about 
40 or 50 feet) and back — as he gets back he gives one end of the wand to 
the second player and they, one on one side and the other on the other 
side, carry the wand about 12 inches from the ground back under the other 



38 Physical Education in the High School 

players on their team. The other players each in turn jump as the wand 
passes under them. When these two reach the back of the line the player 
that was number two in line (the one getting the wand after the first 
man ran down to the given mark and back) takes the wand and runs 
down to the given mark and back giving one end to number three and 
they run back with it underneath their team as before. The team wins 
who first gets its number one player back to the front of the line again. 

5. All Up Indian Club Relay (Both) 

Arrange players as in "over-head relay." In front of each line (about 
40 feet) mark two small circles — in one circle place three Indian clubs (any 
object will do). At the signal "GO" the first player in each line runs down 
and changes the Indian clubs from one circle to the other and runs back 
and tags number two in line. Number two repeats number one's per- 
formance as does everyone in the line. The team winning that finishes 
first. 

6. Shuttle Relay (Both) 

Divide the players into groups of 12 to 20 each. Divide each group 
into two equal groups, which stand facing each other in single file, with 
the leader of each group on a starting line. These starting lines should 
be from 60 to 100 feet apart. Thus each team is divided into two groups 
facing each other. At the signal "GO" the leader of one group of each 
team (the leaders of the groups standing on the same line) run across the 
space and touches the leader of his other group, this player in turn runs 
across the playing space and touches the second player of the other group 
on his team, this player then runs across the space and touches the second 
player of the opposite group on this team. This is repeated until every one 
has run in both groups of each team. The team wins whose last man to 
run reaches the opposite starting first. The players, after running, should 
drop back out of the way, making it easy to see who is left to run. It is 
sometimes desirable to pass an object instead of merely tagging the next 
player to run. 

7. Zig Zag Relay (Both) 

Divide the players into teams of 10 to 20. Each team is again divided 
into two groups. These groups line up side by side with about three foot 
intervals, facing each other. The players of each team must be directly 
opposite each other. The first player of one group of each team is given 
a basketball. At the signal "GO" the ball is passed ZIG ZAG back and 
forth up the whole length of each team and back again (each player thus 
catching and passing the ball twice). The team to get the ball back to its 
original starting place first wins. 



Physical Education in the High School 39 

8. Skin the Snake Relay (Boys) 

Divide the players into two teams and place them as in "over-head 
relay." Each player then puts his right hand between his legs and grasps 
the LEFT hand of the player behind him. At the signal "GO" the last 
man in each column sits down, then lays down on his back while the rest 
all back until the next to the last man's feet are opposite the last man's 
head, he then sits down and lays down. This continues until all are on 
the ground on their backs. After the player that was the first in line is 
on the ground he immediately gets up and runs forward (straddling the 
others of his team who are on their backs, as he gets over the man in 
front of him he pulls that man up to his feet). This is continued until 
all are again in their original places. The first team to get back to its 
original place wins. (It is absolutely necessary that each player retains 
his grasp of his team-mate's hand throughout the entire relay — otherwise 
the chain will be broken and the relay spoiled.) 

9. Hopping Relay (Both) 

The players are divided as in "over-head relay." Some object, as a 
chair, or a line drawn on the ground, is placed 30 or 40 feet from the start- 
ing line. At the signal "GO" the first player in each line hops forward on 
one foot, holding the other up with his hand, around this chair and back 
to his starting position. He touches number two upon his return and num- 
ber two hops down around the chair and back. This is continued until 
everyone has gone down around the chair and back. The team who's last 
player returns to the starting line first wins. 

10. Avalanche Relay (Both) 

Divide the players into teams of from 10 to 20. Arrange each team in 
a single column (the teams should be about 20 feet apart) with about 8 
feet between each player. At the signal "GO" the last player on each 
team runs forward, clasps both arms around the player in front of him — - 
they then both run forward to the next player who is likewise clasped 
about the waist — this is continued until all are clasped together in one 
body. The entire body then runs forward to the finishing line (about 30 
or 40 feet in front of the front player). The team crossing this starting 
line first, with everybody clasped about the waist, wins. 

11. Centipede Relay (Boys) 

Arrange the players in equal teams as in "over-head relay," the first 
man of each team on a common starting line. Establish a turning point 
about 60 feet in front of each team. Give the first two players of each 
team a stick, have them place this stick between their legs, holding it 
with one hand. At the signal "GO" the first pair on each team runs for- 
ward around the turning point and back to the starting line. They then 
drop the stick and run to the side out of the way. The next two in line 



40 Physical Education in the High School 

then take the stick in the same manner and run around the turning point 
and back to the starting line. This is continued until all have run. The 
team which gets the last two back to the starting line first wins. 

12. Leap Frog Relay (Boys) 

Arrange the players in equal teams, each in a single column, the teams 
at least ten feet apart. Place three players of each team in a single 
column facing the same way the team is facing with their hands on their 
knees, heads down about six feet apart. At the signal "GO" each team 
runs forward, doing a straddle vault over each of the three players in 
front of them and return again to their original places. They should keep 
in the same formation throughout the relay. The team to get all of its 
players back to their original places first wins. 

13. Back and Forth Relay (Both) 

Arrange the players as in "over-head relay." Draw a circle one foot 
in diameter immediately in front of each team. Draw another circle one 
foot in diameter about 30 feet in front of the first circle. Place three 
small objects (baseballs, blocks of wood, or stones), in the circle nearest 
the players. At the signal "GO" the first player of each team carries 
these objects one at a time to the circle and runs and touches the third 
player, etc. This is continued until everyone has transferred the objects 
from one circle to the other. The team finishing first wins. 

14. Half and Half Relay (Both) 

Divide group into two divisions and each division into partners stand- 
ing in a column of two's — first set of partners of each division on same 
starting line about ten feet apart. The first set of partners in each divi- 
sion lock arms with one partner facing forward and the other facing back- 
ward. The object is for these partners to run to a "touch line" about 30 
feet from the starting line and back and tag the next set of partners. This 
is continued until every set of partners have run. The last set of part- 
ners to finish first wins the relay. The partner running backward must 
run backward on the way to the touch line and the other partner run back- 
ward on the return. 

15. Pass an Object Relay (Both) 

Divide the class into equal groups as in relay number one, only have 
the players face to the side (all facing to the same side). The first player 
takes hold of the second player's left wrist with his right hand — the second 
player takes the third player's left wrist with his right hand, etc., until 
every player is holding the wrist of the player at his right. Place six 
dumb-bells, baseballs, stones, or any small objects in front of the first 
player. On the word "GO" the first player picks up the objects one at a 
time and passes them back — the players, still keeping hold of wrists, pass 
the objects back to the last one on the line, the end player puts the objects 



Physical Education in the High School 41 

in a pile in front of him. When all six are in the pile, he picks them up 
one by one and passes them forward again. The team wins that gets 
all six of the objects back to the first player first. 

BIBLIOGRAPHY PHYSICAL TRAINING, GAMES AND RELAYS 

*Games, Contests, and Relays. Staley. A. S. Barnes & Co., New York. 

Games for the Playground, Home and Gymnasium. Bancroft. Mac- 
millan & Co., New York. 

^Gymnastic Teaching. Wm. Skarstrom. American Physical Education 
Review, Springfield, Mass. 

What to do at Recess. G. E. Johnson. Ginn & Co., New York. 

*The Theory of Organized Play. Bowen & Mitchell. A. S. Barnes & Co., 
New York. 

The Practice of Organized Play. Bowen & Mitchell. A. S. Barnes & Co., 
New York. 

The Posture of School Children. Bancroft. Macmillan & Co., New York. 

Play in Education. Lee. Macmillan & Co., New York. 

Exercise in Education and Medicine. McKenzie. Saunders & Co., 
Philadelphia. 

Health by Stunts. Pearl and Brown. Macmillan & Co., New York. 



RELIEF DRILLS 

A — Purpose 

The purpose of the "relief drill" is to give some form of physical exer- 
cise to counteract the prolonged sitting positions and to equalize and stim- 
ulate the circulation. Continual sitting is tiresome and is one of the great- 
est causes of inattention in the school. This can be overcome, however, 
by the use of the "relief drills," which as the name implies, gives relief 
from the monotony of school room recitations. 

The "relief drills" are especially designed for schools not having a 
physical training period, also for days when physical training is not given. 

B— Time 

These drills should be from two to three minutes in length. They 
should consist of a few carefully chosen exercises of an all-round char- 
acter. It is suggested that the teacher insert the drill whenever she feels 
that the class needs it, rather than at any definite hour. As a rule, two 
such periods in the morning and one in the afternoon will give the desired 
results. The ideal time to use these drills is between the longest sitting 
periods. 



*Books every teacher should have. 



42 Physical Education in the High School 

C — Fresh Air and Ventilation 

The relief drill should always be given with the windows open. The 
mere fact that the windows are opened will be of great benefit to the 
students. At some time during the drill it is advisable to face the class 
towards the open windows. 

The matter of opening windows can be facilitated by the appointment 
of WINDOW MONITORS, whose duty it shall be immediately upon 
getting ready for the drill to open the windows. They will immediately 
close them after the drill, unless the weather is such that they can be left 
open. 

D— Who Shall Give the Relief Drills 

It is the best plan to have the regular teacher lead these drills — such 
teachers will have better control of the class and therefore get a better 
response. When this is not found advisable, however, it is possible to 
select leaders from the class. These leaders can be given training by 
either the teacher or principal, and under the supervision of the teacher, 
effective work can be done. 

E — Arrangement of Class 

From the seventh grade through the high schools the boys should be 
in the front of the room and the girls in the back. This arrangement 
will take but a second or two if at the command "STAND FOR RELIEF 
DRILL" the boys of each row rise and walk to the front and the girls 
walk to the back, keeping in the same rows. At the command "TAKE 
YOUR SEATS," the students can walk to their original places and be 
seated. 

F — Wraps 

Coats, sweaters, scarfs, over-shoes, rubbers, etc., should always be re- 
moved before the drill starts. This is done to keep the pupils from perspir- 
ing unduly and to give freedom of movement. 

G— Make-up of Relief Drills 

The relief drill should be made up of four or five well-chosen exercises 
of an all-round character. In general these drills should be divided into 
four divisions: 

a. Breathing Exercises. 

b. Posture Exercises. 

c. General Exercise. 

d. Breathing Exercises. 

H — A Typical Relief Drill — (For explanation of terms see physical train- 
ing explanation pages.) 

1 — Deep breathing, arms raising sideward and raising on 
toes 1-2, 1-2. 



Physical Education in the High School 43 

2— Hands on neck PLACE 

3 — Hands on hips and feet apart JUMP 

Trunk forward . BEND 

Trunk upward . . " . RAISE 

Feet and hands back to position .... JUMP 
4 — Deep breathing, arms raising forward upward . . 1-2, 1-2. 

I_Twelve Graded Relief Drills 

Following are twelve graded drills. These drills will give material for 
one school year. After the first few lessons have been given some time 
should be spent in reviewing the lessons or parts of lessons previously 
given. It is hoped that teachers will make up drills of their own, taking 
the best exercises of these drills or new exercises. 

LESSON I 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing, arms raising sidewards .... 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Hands on neck PLACE 

Hands LOWER 

3. General — 

Hands on hips PLACE 

Trunk forward BEND 

Trunk upward RAISE 

Hands POSITION 

(Repeat by count.) 

4. Breathing — 

Same as above. 

LESSON II 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing, arms raising forward, upward, and 

raising on toes 1-2 

2. Posture: — 

Hands on hips PLACE 

Trunk backward BEND 

Trunk upward ' RAISE 

Hands LOWER 

3. General — 

Hands on hips PLACE 

(New starting position.) 
Jumping on toes (in rhythm). READY, BEGIN 1-2, 1-2, etc. 



44 Physical Education in the High School 

4. Breathing — 

Same as in Lesson I. 

LESSON III 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with arms raising sidewards, 

palms up 1-2, 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Elbows sidewards BEND 

Arms sidewards FLING 

Elbows sidewards BEND 

Hands POSITION 

(Repeat by count.) 

3. General — 

Hands on hips and feet apart JUMP 

Trunk to the left BEND 

Trunk upward RAISE 

Feet and hands back to position JUMP 

4. Breathing — 

Same as in Lesson II. 

LESSON IV 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with arms raising sidewards and up- 
wards and raising on toes 1-2, 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Hands on shoulders (elbows low) PLACE 

Arms sidewards STRETCH 

Hands on shoulders PLACE 

Hands POSITION 

3. General — 

Hands on hips PLACE 

Knees BEND 

Knees STRAIGHTEN 

Hands POSITION 

4. Breathing — 

Same as in Lesson III. 



Physical Education In the High School 45 

LESSON V 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with arms raising sidewards and 

raising on toes 1-2 

2. Posture— 

Hands on neck and feet apart JUMP 

(New starting -position.) Arms flinging sidewards, 

raising on toes, (in rhythm) BEGIN .... 1-2 
Hands down and feet together . ... . . . JUMP 

3. General — 

Hands on hips and left foot sidewards .... PLACE 

Trunk to left BEND 

Trunk upwards RAISE 

Hands down and left foot REPLACE 

4. Breathing — 

Same as in Lesson IV. 

LESSON VI 

1. Breathing— 

West Point breathing . . . 1-2 (With arms at sides turn 
palms outward, thumbs first, while inhaling. Turn palms in- 
ward again while exhaling.) 

2. Posture — 

Arms forward raise and feet apart JUMP 

(New starting position.) Arms flinging sidewards rais- 
ing on toes, (in rhythm) BEGIN 1-2 

Arms down and feet together JUMP 

3. General — 

Hands on hips PLACE 

(New starting position.) Feet jumping apart and to- 
gether, (in rhythm) BEGIN 1-2 

Hands POSITION 

4. Breathing — 

Same as in Lesson V. 



LESSON VII 

1. Breathing— 

Deep breathing with arms raising forward, upward and 

raising on toes 1-2 



46 Physical Education in the High School 

2. Posture — 

Arms upward BEND 

Arms backward STRETCH 

Arms upward BEND 

Arms down STRETCH 

(Repeat several times by count.) 

. 3. General — 

Hands on neck and feet apart JUMP 

Trunk to the left TWIST 

Trunk to the front TWIST 

Hands down and feet together JUMP 

(Repeat by count.) 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

LESSON VIII 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with hands placing on neck . . . 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Interlock fingers behind hips — on count ONE turn 
palms towards hips and downward; on count 
TWO reverse back to first position. (Repeat 
several times slowly.) 

3. General — 

Feet jumping apart with arms raising sidewards, 
(in rhythm) . . . 1-2. (As feet are 
apart arms are raised sideways, as feet are 
together arms are lowered.) 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

LESSON IX 

1. Breathing — 

West Point breathing 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Arms half sidewards . . . BEND (New starting position.) 
Forearms raising upwards (in rhythm) .... 1-2 
Arms downward PLACE 



Physical Education in the High School 47 

3. General — 

Hands on hips and left foot forward .... PLACE 

(New starting position.) 

Jumping on toes with alternate foot placing for- 
ward and backward (rhythmical) .... 1-2 

(On count ONE jump and place left foot in back 
and on count TWO jump, placing right foot 
backivard again, etc.) 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

LESSON X 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with arms circling outward. (Hands 
cross in front of body at hips first, then 
over-head.) 

2. Posture — 

Arms sidewards raise, palm up and feet apart . . JUMP 
(New starting position.) (Count ONE, trunk bend 

forward, hands touching floor; count TWO 

trunk raise and arms sidewards.) 
Arms down and feet together JUMP 

3. General — 

Hands on hips and left foot forward .... LUNGE 
Feet and hands POSITION 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

LESSON XI 

1. Breathing — 

Deep breathing with arms raising forward, upward 

and lowering sideways downward 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Hands on neck and feet apart JUMP 

Trunk to the left BEND 

Trunk upward RAISE 

Feet and hands POSITION 

(Repeat several times by count.) 

3. General — 

Feet jumping apart with hands clapping over-head . . 1-2 
(As feet are apart hands clap over-head, as feet 
are together hands are at sides.) 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 



48 Physical Education in the High School 

lesson XII 

1. Breathing — 

West Point breathing 1-2 

2. Posture — 

Left for lunge and hands on neck PLACE 

Trunk forward BEND 

Trunk upward RAISE 

Feet and hands POSITION 

(Repeat by count.) 

3. General — 

Rocking step (rhythmical). (Start with left leg 
raised forward — on count ONE left foot is 
brought to the floor where the right foot was 
and the right foot is raised backward; on count 
TWO, the right foot is placed on floor where 
left was and left is swung forward again — 
this is repeated in rhythm.) 

4. Breathing — 

Any previous breathing exercise. 

COMPETITIVE SPORTS 

Interscholastic athletics are an integral part of any school's curriculum. 
They are not alone beneficial to the students actually participating but do 
much to promote and develop school spirit. As a rule, however, inter- 
scholastic athletics include only a very small percentage of the total en- 
rollment of the school. The great pity is, then, that only about 20% of 
the students have an opportunity to receive any athletic training or derive 
any of the benefits from competitive sports. 

It seems, therefore, that it is essential to provide some form of organ- 
ized competitive sports for the majority of the students, and not have 
only a small minority participating. It is the purpose, therefore, of this 
outline to suggest ways and means by which every student may have the 
opportunity to participate in some form of competitive sports. 

If such a program is to be installed it would, of course, require 
careful planning and supervision of some of the teaching staff. But 
without doubt the benefits both physical and mental will greatly offset 
any extra efforts. Such a program would in the majority of cases neces- 
sarily be carried out after school hours. 



Physical Education in the High School 49 

Suitable Divisions 

The first step in organizing such a program would be to determine 
the suitable divisions possible in the school. Such divisions might be 
INTER-CLASS, INTER-ROOM, or INTER-TEAM. The latter by choos- 
ing team captains among the students and having these captains select 
their team. Such divisions should include both boys' and girls' teams, in 
either the same sports or different sports. 

Scoring Methods 

In the main there are two ways of keeping the results. The first and 
easier way is to have each league an entirety in itself. Each team plays 
each other and the team with the largest percentage of "wins," wins the 
championship. The second way is to have all leagues throughout the year 
count towards one final "COMPETITIVE SPORTS CHAMPIONSHIP." 
If this plan is to be followed each league would determine its winner the 
same as described in the first method, but would in addition be given a 
certain number of points towards the final championship. The latter 
method will create and stimulate a great deal of interest, and is perhaps 
the best method for keeping the interest throughout the school year. The 
last method, of course, requires the teams to represent some permanent 
organization such as class or society. 

If the latter suggestion should be followed, it will greatly increase the 
interest to give a certain number of points to each organization for each 
individual that represents that organization in any competitive sports 
league. These points might be allowed to count towards the final cham- 
pionship or might count towards a separate "PARTICIPATION CHAM- 
PIONSHIP." 

Possible Competitive Sports 

The various sports that are possible under such an organization are 
many. A few of the most popular ones are as follows: 

1. Fall: Soccer, cross-country, tennis, tag football, speed ball, 
basketball, and play-ground ball. 

2. Winter: Basketball, captain-ball, boxing, wrestling, foul shoot- 
ing, and volley ball. 

3. Spring: Baseball, track, play-ground ball, horseshoe pitching, 
tennis, rope pulls, captain-ball (girls), volleyball and bat-ball. 

(Rules for these games can be found in Games, Contests and Relays by 
Staley, or Games for the Playground, Home, School and Gymnasium by 
Bancroft.) 

Organization 

The organization of such sports is a comparatively easy matter. The 
students are very much interested and will willingly co-operate. After 
the suitable divisions are decided upon, a captain or manager of each 



50 Physical Education in the High School 

division should be appointed. This captain or manager should then be 
responsible for getting one or more teams from his division. He should 
furnish the teacher in charge of this part of the program with a list of 
eligible players before the actual play starts. 

The schedule should be drawn up and posted so that each team will 
know when they are to play. The posting of the schedule will add a great 
deal of interest to the leagues. 

The results should be turned in to the. teacher directing "competitive 
sports" immediately after each contest. This teacher should keep the cor- 
rect standing posted in some central place where all the students can 
easily see it. It often adds to the interest to keep individual records and 
post them, such as batting averages in baseball, or goals scored in basket- 
ball. 

If working on the INTER-ROOM divisions, each room teacher should 
assume the responsibility of organizing her room's team. In this case the 
league standings should be kept on board at all times. This will develop 
"room spirit" better, perhaps, than any other one thing. 

In the case of a championship game, and in schools where a part of 
the children are forced to leave immediately after school, it is well to 
lengthen the recess period and play the contest during school hours. This, 
of course, should only be done on special occasions. On the other hand, 
some of the "competitive sports leagues" can be played during the "AC- 
TIVITY PERIODS" when the sport is such as volleyball, tag-football or 
captain ball, as these games can be played within a 30- or 40-minute 
period. 

Awards 

Awards are not necessary. The students will be interested in playing 
for the "fun" they get out of it. If awards are once given, they will al- 
ways be expected and the students soon develop the trait of "not wanting 
to play unless there is something in it." The one exception, I would say, 
would be when the different leagues all counted towards one "COMPETI- 
TIVE SPORTS CHAMPIONSHIP," then a suitable banner to hang in 
the room of the winners is desirable. 

Practice Periods 

A little time before the opening of each league should be given for prac- 
tice periods for the various teams. These periods can come after school 
or might even come during the "ACTIVITY PERIODS" not used for 
physical training lessons, or at recess. 

Officials 

It will be far more satisfactory to the players if members of the 
faculty act as officials in the various leagues. However, when this is 
not possible in all probability some of the older boys or girls can be found 
that will make competent officials. 



Physical Education in the High School 



51 



The Making of Schedules 

Whenever possible, the leagues should be conducted on the percentage 
plan, with each team playing each other team once. The teacher directing 
this program should make out these schedules. It is possible to make a 
"blind draw" for the first round and then arrange the balance of the 
schedule so that the teams play in rotation — each team playing before 
any one team plays twice. This is easy when there are an even number 
of teams, but difficult when there are an uneven number of teams. 

In making out the schedules it will help to follow the "chart plan" 
described below: 





A 


B 


C 


D 


A 


X 








B 


OCT. 
9th 


X 






C 






X 




D 








X 



Arrange the teams in order down one side and across the top as indi- 
cated by letters A, B, C, and D. Mark in the X's as indicated. Then as 
a date is decided upon for a game between two teams put this date in the 
square opposite one team and under the other. For instance, team A 
plays team B on October 9. Write October 9, in the square as indicated 
in chart above. Follow this scheme throughout until all the squares are 
filled on one side of the chart and every team will be scheduled to play 
every other team once. If it is desirable to play every team twice, do the 
same thing on the other side of the chart and each team will then be 
scheduled to play every other team twice. 

If an elimination series is planned, the following rule will make it 
possible always to have the drawings come out right: Subtract the num- 
ber of teams from the next highest power of 2 — this number will give 
the number of "byes." The "byes" should be arranged with equal number 
in each half as indicated below. For instance, if there were ten teams, the 



52 



Physical Education in the High School 



next highest power of 2 would be 16. Ten from sixteen would leave six 
"byes" — these should be arranged as below : 



FIRST ROUND 



SECOND ROUND 



SEMI-FINALS 





1 
2 


BYE 






BYE 










































BYE 






4 


5 
6 

7 










BYE 








WINNER 




BYE 


































BYE 








10 











CORRECTIVE EXERCISES 

Regardless of how complete a program of physical training is pro- 
moted, there is always need for special corrective exercises. There are 
always to be found pupils with deviations from the normal, oftentimes 
these are slight and easily corrected by special exercises. Without ques- 
tion, this phase of physical education is of great importance in the high 
school, as it is in the years of adolescence that these deviations become 
fixed and tend to make a permanent deformity. In many instances school 
life is directly responsible, making the necessity of remedial measures all 
the more imperative. 

The most common deviations found in school children are: poor posture, 
lateral curvature of the spine and flat feet. The first of these, poor 
posture is by far the most common and probably the most harmful. Poor 
posture, including flat chest, round backs, protruding abdomens, is really 
a matter of habit. With no particular attention ever paid to standing or 
sitting positions, pupils very easily acquire the habit of standing or sit- 
ting in the most comfortable positions. Unfortunately these "most com- 
fortable" positions are very often detrimental to the best interests of the 



Physical Education in the High School 53 

student. Lateral curvature of the spine and flat feet cannot generally 
be attributed to school life, except possibly lateral curvature caused by 
contmually carrying large numbers of books always on the same side. 
These detects are nevertneless important in the development of the pupils' 
physiques, and should be corrected in our schools. 

It is the purpose of this outline to give, under the above headings, exer- 
cises especially designed to correct such defects. 

A — Posture 

The matter of correct posture is primarily a matter of habit formation. 
Posture training should be given throughout the school day in various ways. 
It is not enough to simply give specially designed exercises a few times 
each week, but the classroom teacher should continually keep reminding 
her pupils to "stand straight" or "sit straight" and so by persistent efforts 
establish the habit of standing or sitting straight. During study periods 
and specially during recitations should the teacher insist upon a good stand- 
ing or sitting position. 

If results are to be accomplished along this line, two things are neces- 
sary: first, explain to the pupils the advantages of a good carriage and 
the disadvantages of a poor carriage, and second, to actually show the 
pupils what good posture is. A great deal of this can be accomplished 
through the physical training periods; in fact, 90% of the pupils will 
only require the training given in these lessons. But there will always be 
some that have pronounced cases, and these few are the ones the following 
exercises are designed especially for. These exercises are designed to 
strengthen the muscles necessary in holding good posture and at the same 
time to give the pupil "the feel" of a correct posture. 

Exercises to Correct Poor Posture 

1. The first exercise to give is the position of "attention" in gym- 
nastics. This position is carefully explained under the heading, "Explana- 
tions of Movements in Gymnastic Commands." 

2. Deep breathing exercises are particularly good exercises for de- 
veloping a good posture. Any of the breathing exercises outlined in the 
physical training lessons can be used. 

.3. Any of the exercises outlined under the heading "Posture Exercise" 
in the physical training lessons can be used. These exercises with a 
larger number of repetitions will make excellent corrective exercises. 

4. With the pupil standing in the usual faulty position, place the 
hand about one inch in front of the sternum, tell pupil to raise his chest 
until it touches the hand. While in this position have the pupil take sev- 
eral deep breaths. Repeat the entire exercise 10 or 15 times. 

5. Have pupil stand with fingers interlocked behind hips, palms 
turned out. The exercise consists of turning palms upward, inward, and 
downward. Repeat 15 or 20 times. 



54 Physical Education in the High School 

6. Hands placing on neck or elbows forward bend followed by arms 
flinging sideward (described in physical training lessons) are especially 
good posture exercises. 

7. Have pupil lie in a prone position on a table, couch, or the floor 
with hands on neck. Either fasten the ankles or have another pupil hold 
them still. Raise the head and extend the spine, pressing the elbows 
back. This exercise should be followed by a breathing exercise. 

8. Same as No. 7 with the hands and arms in different positions. 

9. Same as No. 7 except lying in a supine position with hands at 
sides. Deep breathing with arms raising over-head. 

10. Pupil sitting on floor with hands on neck. Another pupil or 
teacher standing directly back with knee against pupil's back. Take hold 
of underside of elbows and gradually pull arms backward, pressing knee 
against pupil's back. Care must be taken not to pull too hard or too far. 

B — Lateral Curvature 

Lateral curvature is less prevalent than round shoulders, flat chests or 
the drooping head, although it very frequently accompanies these irregu- 
larities. In a great majority of cases the pupils do not know they have 
any curvature, do not know even that one shoulder is lower than the 
other. There are many contributory causes to lateral curvature, many 
of which are caused by school life. Some of the most common are poor 
sitting positions while studying, standing positions where the weight is 
thrown almost entirely on one leg, writing with forearms on the desk, and 
carrying books always under the same arm or on the same hip. Another 
outstanding cause, especially in boys, is the carrying of papers. As a 
rule it is the right shoulder that is lowered, this being due in the main to 
•the fact that the majority of children are right-handed and in the cases 
of carrying books and papers and in writing, it is the right shoulder that 
is drooped. 

The following special exercises are especially designed for the correc- 
tion of a lowered right shoulder. The same exercises reversed will correct 
a lowered left shoulder. Many of the exercises under "arm and leg" and 
"trunk" movements can be used with little variation for this work. 

Exercises Especially Designed to Correct a Lowered Right Shoulder" 

1. From position of "attention" raise right arm forward, taking deep 
breath. Raise on toes, flinging arms sideward and down on exhaling. 

2. Place left hand behind hips, raising right arms sideward, upward, 
raising on toes. 

3. With new starting position of left hand behind hips and right arm 
raised sideward, upward — bend trunk to the left. 

4. Place left hand behind hips — bend trunk forward, downward, touch- 
ing floor with the right hand. 



Physical Education in the High School 55 

5. Place pupil on a prone position on a table, couch, or on the floor 
with the teacher or another pupil holding his ankles in place. Place left 
hand behind hips and right hand on neck — raise the head and extend the 
spine, pressing backward with the right elbow. 

6. The lifting of a weight from the floor to over the head with the 
right hand is also a valuable exercise. 

7. From position of arms sideward, raise, bend trunk forward twisting 
to the left, swinging the right arm downward and the left upward. 

8. Raise right arm sideward, upward and left arm sideward — raise left 
leg sideward, raising on toes of right foot. 

9. From a prone position on a table, couch, or the floor, raise the 
right arm forward and the left arm backward at the same time raise the 
head and trunk. 

10. From a supine position, raise the right arm forward and upward, 
taking a deep breath — exhale sideward, downward. 

C— Flat Feet 

There are many cases of flat feet, or feet with a tendency towards 
flatness, which go unnoticed by either the pupils or their parents. In 
many cases they give no pain and without a physical examination are given 
no consideration. In many other cases, however, the pupil suffers pain in 
the arch of the foot or in the calf of the leg. The most marked charac- 
teristic, however, is an excessive turning out of the feet in standing, walk- 
ing, or running. Flat feet, except in the cases of falling arches, are really 
caused by the weakening of the muscles in the arch of the foot. In all, 
except extreme cases, therefore, the strengthening of these muscles will 
remedy this condition. Exercises given for flat feet should be done sev- 
eral times during the day with many repetitions each time. These exer- 
cises can, and should be, taken while at home or even while at play. 

Exercises for Correction of Flat Feet 

1. Walking and standing with feet pointed straight ahead. 

2. Raising on toes, feet pointed straight ahead. 

3. Jumping on toes. 

4. Standing with toes together and heels apart- — raising slowly on toes. 

5. Standing with feet together raise on toes, forcing heels apart at the 
same time. 

6. Standing with feet together, curl toes downward as far as possible. 
(This exercise can be done while sitting also.) 

7. Sitting with one leg across the other knee — rotate the foot out- 
ward, curling the toes at the same time. 

8. Stand feet parallel and about twelve inches apart — bend knees 
pressing outward. 



56 Physical Education in the High School 

9. Stand with toes together and heels apart — raise on toes and walk 
forward and backward. 

10. Picking up small articles on the floor, such as marbles, etc., with 
the toes. 



A SCHOOL HEALTH PROGRAM 

The scope of a school health program of today includes three phases of 
work; the acquisition of health knowledge, the practical training in health 
habits, the formation of ideals and attitudes tending to promote personal 
and community health. 

The history of the above program of school health has been a varied 
one with physical education, school health program, play program and 
last a combination of all, vying with each other for supremacy. The first 
era was controlled by physical education which had its origin as health 
measures. Medical sciences then came to the front. Physical education 
could not keep up with the contributions made to health promotion and 
disease prevention by physiology, bacteriology, pathology, etc. The school 
inspections then carried out brought to light an alarming number of 
physical defects, such as malnutrition, caries of the teeth, infected tonsils, 
infected adenoids, defective sight and hearing, heart and circulatory dis- 
orders. This school health program conducted through physical examina- 
tions predominated; physical education had made the mistake to lay 
emphasis on methods and technique. The third era of a school health 
program was instigated by the new psychology which brought forward the 
important role that instincts and emotions played in the activities, growth 
and education of the child. The play movement then predominated, and 
spread like wildfire but made the mistake of letting the emotions pre- 
dominate and athletes were developed instead of athletics for all. The 
fourth era brought physical education back into the limelight. The ap- 
palling revelations of the draft caused the schools over the country to 
seek a program which would achieve positive health and physical efficiency. 
Last, it was finally realized that all of these agencies had a common object 
in view. They were all interested in the physical examination and the 
follow-up procedures and physical efficiency tests. The public refused 
to support all of these agencies in their school systems when the same 
objective of the sound, vigorous, harmonious development of the body was 
the goal. The consequence is that- these agencies have been combined and 
work toward a common end. 

Health education may be pictured as a triangle, the base representing 
health instruction and the sides representing the physical examination and 
the physical training. Knowledge and health practice should go hand in 
hand. In the elementary schools the instruction and practice of health 
habits can be simple and should be correlated with the other subjects 
taught in the school. In high schools, however, a different situation exists. 



Physical Education in the High School 57 

The study of health in high schools involve the sturdy of physiology, biology, 
etc., that is, the why and how of the facts that have been taken for granted 
in the elementary grades. To a large extent the general health instruc- 
tion should be considered in connection with other subjects, but it is neces- 
sary in high school to incorporate it as a separate and distinct course in 
the curriculum. 

Health knowledge can be presented by a regular course in personal and 
community hygiene and by correlating knowledge gained in other sub- 
jects whenever possible. It is also advisable to give short health talks 
during part of the physical training period on such subjects as sunlight, 
fresh air, deep breathing, muscular exercise, sensible clothing, the art of 
eating, pure water drinking, regular bathing, high pressure living, rest 
and recreation, and the prevention of disease. Information can be secured 
through physical examinations and records kept and referred to, concerning 
the individual students. This examination should be given in such man- 
ner that the examiner can get acquainted and give advice, rather than to 
see how many pupils can be rushed through the examination. And last 
when the student has received instruction on what health habits are and 
why; and information has been secured concerning the individual, then 
follow this up with the physical training program to instill the habits of 
right living. 

INTER-SCHOLASTIC ATHLETICS 

Inter-scholastic athletics are an essential part of every school curric- 
ulum; they not alone are beneficial because of development of both physical 
and mental powers, but develop school spirit far better than any other one 
thing. The great difficulty with inter-scholastic athletics is that they are 
not properly supervised. When they are not properly supervised they are 
detrimental to individual development and school spirit. 

The first step in organizing inter-scholastic athletics should be the 
selection of a member of the faculty as athletic director. This man should 
assume full responsibility, under the direction of the Faculty Athletic 
Committee, for the conduct of the players, their training, and supervision 
of all games. It is necessary, therefore, that a man of high character and 
moral standards be selected for this position. 

The athletic policy of the school should be controlled by a Faculty Ath- 
letic Committee. This committee should consist of not less than three, or 
more than five members. It is advisable to have the principal act as 
chairman and to include at least one woman member of the faculty. Mat- 
ters of eligibility and the expenditure of funds should be controlled by 
this committee. It is not advisable to have members of the community 
on this committee. 

It is a good plan to have a student athletic association. Encourage 
all students to become members and have a small membership fee. This 



58 Physical Education in the High School 

association should have officers and be active in the promotion of athletics. 
In some cases it is well to have a representative of this association meet 
with the Faculty Athletic Committee. In many schools this member meets 
with the faculty committee once a month or once in two months. 

It should be the policy of the school to have as large a number Of 
candidates out for the various teams as possible. The great trouble is 
that only a few of the best players come out, as the others think there is 
no chance of making the team. It will help to have the athletic director 
go before the student body and make a general call for candidates at the 
beginning of each season. 

It should also be the policy to play only teams in the same "class," 
which means games with large city schools merely for the purpose of mak- 
ing a little money would be abolished. 

Sportsmanship, fair play, cooperation, physical development, playing 
according to the rules, teamwork, and winning by hard, clean play, should 
be stressed, rather than winning at any cost. The winning of the games 
is in reality merely incidental and the development of the above mentioned 
qualities, the main objective. 

Eligibility rules, especially the scholastic eligibility rules, should be 
lived up to the letter. No special cases should be made regardless of how 
"good" a player the boy is. The most satisfactory way is to have all 
schools play under the same eligibility rules. In this state the North Caro- 
lina High School Association rules should govern all athletic contests. 



UNIVERSITY OF N.C. AT CHAPEL HILL 



00034033983 



FOR USE ONLY IN 
THE NORTH CAROLINA COLLE