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Full text of "Physical Fitness Manual"

GA 
N200 
.Ml 
1984 
P45 



Law Enforcement 

hysical Fitness Manual 





Department Of Natural Resources 






RECEIVED 



Documents 
UGA LIBRARIES" 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2013 



http://archive.org/details/physicalfitnessmOOgeor 




CO 



CD 



O 

o 



o 





03 




Table of Contents 

PREFACE 

Physical Fitness 10 

Commissioner's Memorandum 11 

INTRODUCTION 

Purpose of the Program 14 

The Program: An Overview 15 

PART I 17 

AEROBIC FITNESS AND WORK CAPACITY 

Fitness and Work Capacity 18 

Step Test 18 

Personal Fitness 20 

Five Cardiac Risk Factors 20 

1 . Hyperlipidemic 21 

2. Hypertension 21 

3. Cigarette Smoking 22 

4. Overweight 22 

5. Physical Inactivity 23 

Lifestyle 24 

Self-Scoring Test, Heart Attack and Stroke Risk 25 

How It Feels To Have A Heart Attack 26 

Stroke 26 

Back Injuries 27 

Fitness and Health 28 



PART II 31 

AEROBIC FITNESS PRESCRIPTIONS 

Determining Medical Fitness 32 

Your Fitness Prescription 33 

Intensity 33 

Heart Rate Training Zones 35 

Duration 36 

Frequency 36 

The Right Exercise 37 

Physical Activity Index 38 

Aerobic Fitness Prescriptions Chart 39 

Applying Your Fitness Prescription 41 

Warm-Up/Cool-Down 43 

Warm-Up 43 

Cool-Down 44 

Specificity 44 

Exercises Warm-up 45 

Aerobic Training Session 58 

Great Expectations 59 

Walk-Jog-Run Programs 59 

Starter Programs 61 

Red Walking Program 61 

White Walk-Jog Program 62 

Blue Jogging Program 62 

Intermediate Program (Jog-Run) 12 Weeks 63 

Advanced Aerobic Training 70 

Aerobic Supplements 71 

Skipping Rope 71 

Run In Place 72 

Stationary Bicycle 72 

Treadmill 72 

Bench Stepping 73 

Stair Running 73 

Maintaining Aerobic Fitness 73 

Year-Round Activity 74 



PART III 75 

MUSCULAR FITNESS AND WORK CAPACITY 

Muscular Strength 76 

Muscular Endurance 77 

Flexibility and Stretching 77 

Stretching Techniques for Increased Flexibility 78 

Static Stretching 78 

Upper Body, Trunk, and Lower Back 

Stretching Exercises 80 

Other Muscular Fitness Factors 86 

Balance 86 

Agility 86 

Skill 86 

Muscular Fitness 87 

Weight Training 87 

Safety Precautions 89 

Muscular Strength and Endurance Exercises 90 

Exercises For The Lower Back 97 

PART IV 1 05 

SPECIAL CONSIDERATIONS 

Running 106 

Shoes 1 06 

Clothing 107 

Running Technique 107 

When and Where? 108 

Environmental Factors 109 

Heat and Exercise 109 

Hot Weather Warning Signs 111 

Altitude and Exercise 112 

Air Pollution and Exercise 112 



PART IV — (CONTINUED) 

Exercise Problems 113 

Blisters 113 

Muscle Soreness 113 

Muscle Cramps 114 

Bone Bruises 114 

Ankle Problems 114 

Achilles Tendon 115 

Shin Splints 115 

Knee Problems 116 

Low Back Pain 116 

Stressful Exercises 117 

Sudden Vigorous Exercise 117 

Warning Signs 117 

Group No. 1 117 

Group No. 2 118 

Group No. 3 118 

PART V 119 

FITNESS AND WEIGHT CONTROL 

Death Rate and Overweight 1 20 

Height and Weight Table 1 22 

Cause of Obesity 1 23 

Health Problems Associated with Obesity 1 24 

Changes in Normal Body Function 1 24 

Risk of Disease 1 25 

Effects On Established Diseases 1 25 

Treatment, Prevention, and Control of Obesity 1 25 

Diet 125 

Short Method for Assessment of Energy Expenditure 128 

Cooper Guidelines for Healthy "Prudent" Diet 129 

Cooper Guidelines for Losing Weight 131 

Habit Examples — Exercise 1 34 



PART V - (CONTINUED) 

Habit Examples — Diet .... 135 

Caloric Cost of Various Activities 1 37 

Counting Calories 141 

Calories in Food Chart 141 

PART VI 1 47 

STRESS 

Relaxation Therapy Environment 1 50 

Stages of Relaxtion 1 50 

Prevention Through Education 151 

Stress Rating Scale 1 52 

PART VII 1 55 

PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT 

Resting Heart Rate 1 56 

Police Officer Standards for Resting Heart Rate 1 57 

Resting Blood Pressure 157 

Police Officer Standards for Resting Blood Pressure 1 58 

Bench Step Test 1 59 

Muscular Endurance 1 60 

Push-Ups 1 61 

Sit-Ups 1 62 

Flexibility 1 64 

Fitness Classification — Flexibility Females 166 

Fitness Classification — Flexibility Males 166 

Fitness Classification — Leg Press — Females 1 67 

Fitness Classification — Leg Press — Males 1 67 

Fitness Classification — Bench Press — Females 168 

Fitness Classification — Bench Press — Males 168 



PART VI! — (CONTINUED) 

Individual Body Composition 169 

Skinfold Measurement 1 70 

Order and Location of Skinfold Measurements 170 

Percent Fat Estimates for Men (Under 40) 1 73 

Percent Fat Estimates for Men (Over 40) 1 74 

Percent Fat Estimates for Women 175 

Male — % Body Fat 1 76 

Female — % Body Fat 176 

Formula for Determining Maximum and 

Training Heart Rate (THR) 177 



PART VIII 1 79 

CONCLUSION 

Personal Goals 1 80 

How to Exercise 181 

Exercise Precautions 181 

Spasmodic Exercise 181 

Prolonged Fatigue 181 

Alcohol 181 

Cigarette Smoking 1 82 

Chest Pain 1 82 

Shortness of Breath 1 82 

Competition 1 83 

Sports 1 83 

Sweating and Salt 1 83 

Staleness 1 83 

Medication 1 84 

Overemphasis 1 84 

Remember Your Age 1 84 

Time 1 85 



PART VIII — (CONTINUED) 

Evaluation Activities 1 85 

Special Mention 186 

History 1 87 

Selected Reference Book List 208 

Acknowledgments 209 




8 





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1 '« 








Physical Fitness 



PERHAPS great great grandfather was being chased by wild 
Indians, or a bear, or maybe he was simply covering a long distance 
that he had to travel as quickly as possible, with his only means of 
transportation — on foot. At any rate, it is not hard to envision him a 
long distance runner of years past, in perfect physical condition. 
We can imagine him getting his second wind quickly. 

IF he managed to survive many years in those rather brutal 
days, there is no doubt that his muscles must have possessed a 
deep-rooted strength. He was probably confident in the knowl- 
edge that he would be able to continue running until safety was 
reached, the journey was ended, or the wilderness had been 
overcome. 

OF course, it would never be accurate to imply, of any period 
of history, that physical fitness totally overshadowed mental alert- 
ness or intelligence. However, the hardships of pioneer America 
demanded that people like great great grandfather develop strong, 
physically fit bodies in order to cope with the prevailing life style of 
those rough and vigorously active times. 

TWENTIETH Century Americans have been accused of phys- 
ical flabbiness; they are encouraged to make a conscious effort to 
develop their physical potential. This is, no doubt, excellent advice. 
Even though the safe, American way of life does not demand 
extreme muscular fitness, it is true that simple good health always 
requires exercise. Beyond this, the emphasis on fitness in our lives 
certainly has changed. 

GREAT great grandfather was required to be physically fit, so 
that he could meet the demands of his life situation. What is 
required of us, so that we may be said to be adapting adequately to 
life in the 1980's and the years ahead? Some insight into the 
characteristic problems of our times may help answer that ques- 
tion so that we may focus on fitness, and establish a criteria for 
changes. 



10 



MEMORANDUM 



TO: All Law Enforcement Personnel 

FROM: Commissioner Leonard Ledbetter 

DATE: September 12, 1984 

SUBJECT: Physical Fitness Program 

Perhaps more than any other image, the uniformed Conserva- 
tion Ranger personifies the Department of Natural Resources to 
the public. It should be a matter of personal pride for DNR law 
enforcement personnel to make that image the best possible, one 
which can be readily backed up by top quality performance on the 
job. 

Work in Conservation Law Enforcement requires strength and 
endurance, although such demands are often sporadic. Fre- 
quently, Conservation Officers who are confined to desks and 
vehicle or boat patrols the majority of the year must engage in 
arduous field work during deer and dove seasons, drug enforce- 
ment activities, raft races, or other DNR activities. Without proper 
conditioning, the stress of such physical activity can be unpleasant 
and even harmful. 

As you are aware, the Department implemented a mandatory 
health screening examination for all law enforcement officers in 
1982. That program was prompted by our concern for employee 
health and safety. We also developed a physical abilities examina- 
tion to test applicants selected for employment as Conservation 
Rangers to ensure that they are capable of performing all assigned 
duties. Both programs were developed in cooperation with the 
State Merit System. 

Officers who are unconcerned about maintaining a healthy 
physical condition can quickly become a hazard to themselves, as 
well as to their colleagues and to the citizens they serve. Coping 
with unforeseen emergencies is a daily part of your duties; you 
must have the stamina to withstand stress and to persevere under 
circumstances in which a less capable person would fail. 



11 



With this goal in mind, we instituted a program to make it 
possible for you to achieve and maintain this level of physical 
fitness. Based on the "Aerobics" form of age-adjusted physical and 
conditioning program developed by Dr. Kenneth Cooper of the 
Aerobics Research Institute, Dallas, Texas, the program incorpo- 
rates a point system that makes it possible for you to attain fitness 
by any one of several forms of exercise, at a pace determined by 
your own capacities and needs. 

Two Law Enforcement Physical Instructors who were trained 
by the Aerobic Research Institute will conduct the training, design- 
ing an exercise program for each individual and periodically 
assessing the level of fitness achieved. 

Participation is on a voluntary basis. Being physically fit has 
many job implications and has always been a contributing factor in 
granting retirement extensions. Participation should also enhance 
your ability to compete more successfully for promotions. 

I urge each of you to view physical fitness as it relates to your 
overall health and well-being. I encourage your involvement in this 
program, if for no other reason than to better withstand the stresses 
to which you are subjected in your work. You have my complete 
support in the DNR Physical Fitness Program, and I will make 
available the time and personnel necessary for you to succeed. 



12 



Introduction 

Fitness means many things to many people. The physician 
may view fitness as the absence of disease. The body-builder may 
consider it well-developed muscles, while the young woman may 
think it's a curvaceous figure. The coach defines fitness as those 
factors related to success in sports, and the physical educator 
looks for strength, endurance, flexibility, speed, agility. 

Let me clarify what I mean by fitness and work capacity: 
Fitness is the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alert- 
ness, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits and to 
meet unforeseen emergencies. Work capacity is the capability to 
accomplish production goals safely and without undue fatigue. 

Understanding fitness is just part of our purpose. Achieving 
fitness is another. I'll explain how we will assess your current ievel 
of fitness, then prescribe specific steps you can take to achieve 
whatever fitness goals you may choose for yourself. 

But fitness is more than increased work capacity or improved 
safety on the job. It means better health and vitality, less risk of 
heart disease, a trim, pleasing appearance, and more energy. It 
enhances the quality of life by making an active lifestyle possible, 
it's the best investment you can make towards those retirement 
years. 

The purpose of this manual is to help you do just that. We hope 
reading it will give you an understanding of fitness and its relation- 
ship to work capacity and that it will encourage you to seek the 
benefits of fitness. 

PURPOSE OF THE PROGRAM 

The purpose of this program is to improve the cardiovascular 
capacity and increase general endurance and muscular strength. 
Cardiovascular deficiencies and musculoskeletal injuries are lead- 
ing causes of personnel being absent from duty or retiring early 
due to disability. The proper amount and kinds of physical activity 
will reduce the number of injury-causing accidents and increase 
the years of useful service as well as a healthful life for most 
personnel. 

Improvement in a person's physical fitness alone is not 
enough to reduce effectively the risk of heart disease. A change is 
required in your living habits at home, as well as at work, that will 



14 



further minimize the possibility of acquiring a heart problem. 
These alterations include the cessation of smoking and the initia- 
tion of proper eating habits, which include the right kinds and 
amounts of food eaten. 

THE PROGRAM: AN OVERVIEW 

1 . Health screening, introduction program and pre-testing of 
all Conservation Rangers by law enforcement physical 
training staff to determine your level of physical fitness 
and your ability to participate in the program. 

2. Presentation of various exercise programs composed of 
musculoskeletal and flexibility exercises, and exercises 
designed to increase cardiovascular capacity. 

3. Quarterly testing to determine progress or maintenance 
levels. 

4. Weight control and diet. 






^ 



15 






> 



o 

03 
QL 
CO 

O 




PARTI 



Aerobic Fitness and Work Capacity 

by: Brian J. Sharkey, Director 

Human Performance Laboratory 

University of Montana 

and 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service Equipment Development Center 

Missoula, Montana 59801 



For our purposes, aerobic fitness is primarily a well -developed 
oxygen system — strong heart and lungs that efficiently deliver 
oxygen to the working muscles. Your maximum ability to take in, 
transport, and use oxygen — maximum oxygen intake — is the 
best single measure of fitness and work capacity. Since metabo- 
lism in the presence of oxygen is termed aerobic, fitness can be 
defined in terms of aerobic capacity. 



MAXIMUM OXYGEN INTAKE = AEROBIC CAPACITY 

FITNESS AND WORK CAPACITY 

The connection between aerobic capacity and work capacity 
is a direct one. The body requires energy to perform work, energy 
created by burning fats and carbohydrates. This process takes 
oxygen. The tougher the job, the more energy — and oxygen- 
needed. 



STEP TEST 

A three minute step test will be given to predict each officer's 
ability to take in, transport, and use oxygen (aerobic capacity), the 
most important factor limiting the ability to perform arduous work. 
The body cannot store oxygen, so working muscles, which need a 
continuous supply to perform vigorous day-long work, require an 
efficient oxygen intake and delivery system. 

This ability can be measured in the laboratory on treadmills 
and bicycles. But lab testing is costly and time consuming, so it is 



18 



unsulted for testing large numbers of people. For that reason, the 
three (3) minute step test has been selected by the Department 
because It Is easy to administer and inexpensive. 

The step test was developed by Swedish physiologists. It was 
subjected to field trials to determine if it differentiated levels of 
fitness, and additional data were collected in lab studies to validate 
test scores. The step test proved accurate and easy to give. Most 
important, taking it does not tax older or unfit persons unnecessar- 
ily. The test is moderately strenuous but far less than a full active 
day in the field can be. 

The test itself is simple. It entails stepping on and off a bench 
(12 inches high) in time to the beat of a metronome. The rate of 
stepping is 24 steps per minute. Immediately after the three min- 
utes of stepping the officer sits down. The heart rate is measured 
by taking the pulse at the wrist or throat for 60 seconds beginning 
exactly 5 seconds after the step test ends. The results can be used 
to estimate maximum oxygen intake using body weight and age. 

In jobs where oxygen and energy needs are low, indoor office 
or classroom instruction for example, performance is not as related 
to fitness. When oxygen and energy demands are high, running 
chase in pursuit of a violator or other emergencies for example, 
individuals with a low aerobic capacity may only be able to work at 
25 percent of that capacity for prolonged periods. Those with a 
relatively high aerobic capacity may be able to work at 50 percent 
of that maximum for long periods. The fit officer is able to sustain a 
higher work rate than the unfit. 

But perhaps you have a desk job and never expect to do 
strenuous fieldwork or chase a violator. Will aerobic fitness help 
you? Well, aside from the health benefits which I will discuss next, 
here is how fitness can benefit the administrators and supervisors 
confined to the office. 

Muscles burn carbohydrate (sugar) or fat for energy. The 
brain and nervous system depend on blood sugar for energy. Unfit 
individuals tend to use more sugar for a given task than do the fit. 
As you train for fitness, you become better able to fuel working 
muscles with fat, thus conserving limited sugar supplies for the 
brain. With more blood sugar available, you are less likely to tire, 
either on the job or off. Your mind is sharper; you work better. 

Ask yourself these questions: 

• Do I tire during the workday? 

• Am I tired at the end of the workday? 



19 



• Do I have the energy left over after work for hobbies or 
other leisure-time pursuits? 

• Do I have the energy for weekend or other off day 
chores and some left over for fun? 

If you seem to tire easily without good reason, if you seem to 
need a lot of naps, if you lack the energy to join the children or 
friends in an active game, consider the benefits of aerobic fitness. 



FIT OFFICERS MISS FEWER DAYS OF WORK 

PERSONAL FITNESS 

Cardiovascular diseases (diseases of the heart and circulatory 
system) can be classified respectively as hypokinetic diseases and 
disorders. The word "hypokinetic" comes from the Greek word 
hypo, meaning under and kinesis, meaning activity. Lack of exer- 
cise, or under activity, is a major risk factor contributing to heart 
disease. 

Living habits, such as smoking or overeating, have been 
related to cardiovascular disease. Health conditions such as high 
blood pressure and high levels of cholesterol or other fatty sub- 
stances in our blood have also been found to be risk factors related 
to heart disease. 

Coronary heart disease is the end result of a process which 
begins many years before it first becomes manifested. Even 
though all of the risk factors are not known as to the cause of 
coronary heart disease, it is known that there are persons with 
certain characteristics who are likely to develop a heart attack. 

Individuals who have these particular conditions are called 
persons with high risk factors. There are approximately ten of 
these heart disease risk factors, however of these ten, five are of 
particular importance and are considered cardinal risk factors for 
coronary heart disease. 

These five cardiac risk factors are as follows: 

1 . Hyperlipidemic (elevated blood fats) 

2. Hypertension (elevated blood pressure) 

3. Cigarette smoking 

4. Overweight (increased percent of body fat) 

5. Physical inactivity 



20 



The goal in the prevention of coronary heart disease, there- 
fore, is to change these coronary heart disease risk factors by 
changing the life style and habits which you may have learned from 
chiidhood. 

Hyperlipidemia 

There is good evidence that a change in our diet habits, which 
would decrease our blood cholesterol, would significantly lower 
the incidence of coronary heart disease. The cholesterol (satu- 
rated fats) come principally from animal and dairy products. 
Examples of the saturated cholesterol fats are beef, pork, milk, 
cheese, ice cream and eggs. These saturated cholesterol fats 
become deposited in the inner wall of our arteries, particularly the 
arteries of the heart, and are the initial deposits which occur in 
coronary heart disease. 

Polyunsaturated fats which are fats obtained from vegetable 
oils such as corn oil, cottonseed oil and safflower oil, are beneficial 
to the body and may aid in lowering the deposition of cholesterol in 
our arteries. The fats in our diet should be principally polyunsatu- 
rated fats and not saturated cholesterol containing fats. The mono- 
saturated fats (olive oil, peanut oil and avocados) have no effect 
either in raising or lowering the cholesterol content. They are 
neutral fats and have no particular role except to supply calories. 

It is important to maintain a proper diet. This should be done 
by eating less beef and pork, substituting fish, fowl, (chicken, 
turkey) and veal as these contain a minimum of cholesterol fats. We 
should use vegetable margarines that contain polyunsaturates, 
they can be identified by a label which lists a liquid vegetable oil as 
the first ingredient. The only exception to this is coconut oil, which 
is a saturated cholesterol oil and should not be used. Many of the 
dairy substitutes contain coconut oil. 

Hypertension 

Blood pressure is simply the pressure put on the walls of the 
arteries as the heart pumps blood through them. In all human 
beings it varies from minute to minute, going up when we are 
excited, and down when we rest. However, in some people, blood 
pressure goes up too high and stays that way. This is called high 
blood pressure, or hypertension. 

The control of high blood pressure is an important way to 
lower the risk of coronary heart disease. An uncontrolled elevation 



21 



of the blood pressure (140/90 or over) Is a definite risk factor in 
coronary heart disease. Apparently, the pressure elevation within 
the arteries tends to damage the lining and causes blood clots to 
form which, added to the deposit of fats, narrows the channel in the 
artery. A regular medical checkup is the only way that early high 
blood pressure can be detected. The symptoms of high blood 
pressure are late in appearing. It is the only risk factor that can be 
controlled by medication. 

Anyone with high blood pressure should be under medical 
supervision. Treatment may include drugs to lower the pressure, 
diet to reduce weight, elimination of cigarette smoking and modifi- 
cation of stressful living habits. 

Cigarette Smoking 

For a heavy cigarette smoker (over 20 cigarettes a day), the 
danger of having a heart attack is three and one-half times greater 
than that in the non-smoker. For even the mild smoker, the individ- 
ual who smokes ten a day, there is a double increase in the risks of 
having a heart attack. The risk of cigarette smoking in the produc- 
tion of coronary heart disease is great. 

It is important to recognize that if no permanent harm has 
been done, an individual may be able to recover fully from the 
effects of cigarette smoking if he discontinues and does not start 
again. Stopping cigarette smoking completely is a mandatory 
requirement for maintenance of good health. 

As far as is known, smoking pipes or cigars involves no 
increased risk of heart attack, probably because the smoke is not 
inhaled. However, pipe and cigar smoking does increase the risk of 
mouth and throat cancer. 

Overweight 

The percent of body fat which an individual has is of more 
importance than his actual weight on a scale. The overweight 
sedentary American has approximately 25 to 30 percent of body 
fat. Ideally, an individual should have about 13.5 percent of body 
fat. 

Nutritionists and physicians who study weight reduction now 
believe that not only dietary restrictions but exercise must be used 
to lower the ratio of the percent of body fat to lean body mass. The 
use of skin fold measurements (callipers) is one way to determine 
the percent of body fat. The goal should be to decrease the percent 



22 



of body fat to about 1 3.5 percent of our total weight. There is some 
indirect evidence that the higher the percent of body fat, the higher 
the amount of cholesterol in the arteries. 

Physical Inactivity 

There is good evidence that the physically inactive person is 
much more likely to develop coronary heart disease than the active 
individual. 

The human body is provided with over 600 muscles and the 
body depends upon them for its life. Muscles move food along the 
digestive tract, suck air into the lungs, and tighten blood vessels to 
raise the blood pressure when needed for an emergency. The most 
important muscle of all is the heart which, by constantly pumping 
blood, nourishes the other muscles of the body. Inactivity leaves 
the heart muscle weak. Exercise strengthens it, making it a more 
efficient pump. The heart of the unconditioned person, for exam- 
ple, may eject only 70 percent of the blood in each chamber. 
Ejection may improve to 80 or 90 percent in the conditioned per- 
son, thus the heart will beat less often. This allows the heart to get 
more rest between beats. Exercise reduces the total work done by 
the heart. 

Unconditioned: heart rate = 70 beats a minute * 60 minutes an 

hour x 24 hours = 100,800 beats a day 

Conditioned: heart rate = 50 beats a minute x 60 minutes an 

hour x 24 hours = 72,000 beats a day. 

One of the characteristics of muscles is that if they are not 
used, they weaken and deteriorate. Muscles are consequently 
starved through lack of physical activity which is unnatural to the 
human body. The heart responds to the demands of exercise by 
beating stronger and your entire system will operate with more 
efficiency. 

As physical activity increases, the risk of heart disease 
declines. The American Medical Joggers Association, a group of 
runner-doctors, believes that runs of 6 miles or more a day give the 
runner virtual immunity from heart disease. Proper diet, weight 
control, no smoking or smoky rooms, and reduced tension and 
stress also are factors in preventing heart disease. So your lifestyle 
may be as important as physical activity. 



23 



LIFESTYLE 

• Vigorous physical activity 

• Sensible diet 

• Low body weight 

• No Smoking 

• Reduced tension and stress 

Simplified Self-Scoring Test of Heart Attack and Stroke Risk 



RISK HABIT OR FACTOR 


INCREASING RISK 


1. Smoking 




Up to 9 


10 to 24 


25 to 34 


35 to? 


Cigarettes 

Score 


None 


per day 


per day 


per day 


per day 





1 


2 


3 


4 


II. Body Weight 


Ideal 


Up to 9 


10-19 


20-29 


30 + 




Weight 


excess 


excess 


excess 


excess 


Score 




pounds 


pounds 


pounds 


pounds 





1 


2 


3 


4 


III. Salt Intake 


1/5 avg. 


1/3 avg. 


U.S. avg 


Above avg. 


Far above 
average 




hard to 


no use of 


salt in 


frequent 


frequent 


or 


achieve; 


salt at 


cooking, 


salt at 


use of 




no added 


table, 


some salt 


table 


salty 




salt; no 


spare use 


at table 




foods 


Blood pressure 


convenience 


high-salt 








upper reading 


foods 


foods 








(if known) 

Score 


< 110 


110-129 


130-139 


140-149 


150 or > 





1 


2 


3 


4 


IV. Saturated Fat 


1/5 avg. 


1/3 avg. 


1/2 avg. 


U.S. avg. 


Above avg. 


& Cholesterol 












Intake 


almost 


2 meatless 


lean meat, 


meat, 


meat, 




total 


d/wk no 


eggs, 


cheese. 


cheese, 




vegetarian; 


whole milk 


cheese 


eggs, 


eggs, 




rare egg 


products 


12x/week 


whole milk 


whole milk 




yolk, 


lean meat 


nonfat 


24x/week 


24x/week 


Blood 


butterfat 


only 


milk only 






cholesterol 


& lean 










level (if 


meat 










known) 

Score 


<150 


150-169 


170-199 


200-219 


220 or > 





1 


2 


3 


4 



24 



Simplified Self-Scoring Test of Heart Attack and Stroke Risk 

(cont'd.) 



RISK HABIT OR FACTOR 


INCREASING RISK 


V Self-rating of 


Vigorous 


Vigorous 


Vigorous 


U.S. avg. 


Below avg. 


physical activity 


exercise 


exercise 


exercise 








4 or more 


3x/week 


1-2x/wk 


occasional 


exercises 


or 


time/wk 

20 min. 

each 


20 min. 
each 




exercise 


rarely 


Walking Rating 


Brisk 


Brisk 


Brisk 


Normal 


Normal 




walking 


walking 


walking 


walking 


walking 




5 x/ week 


3x/week 


2 x/ week 


2.5-4.5 


less than 




45 min. 


30 min. 


30 min. 


miles 


2.5 miles 




each 


each 


each 

or 
normal 


daily 


daily 


















walking 












4.5-6 mi. 






Score 






daily 









1 


2 


3 


4 


VI. Self-rating of 


Rarely 


Calmer 


U.S. avg. 


Quite 


Extremely 


stress & tension 


tense 


than 


Feel 


tense 


tense 




or 


average 


tense or 


Usually 






anxious 


Feel 

tense 

about 

3x/week 


anxious 
2-3x/day 
Frequent 
anger or 
hurried 
feelings 


rushed 






Yoga or 


Relaxation 


Eat, 


Occasionally 


Take 




relaxation 


exercises 


drink, or 


take 


tranquilizers 




exercises 


occasionally 


smoke in 


tranquilizers 


on a 




at least 




response 




regular 


Score 


2 x/day 




to tension 




basis 





1 


2 


3 


4 



SCORING 

0-4 1/10 the average risk 

5-8 1/4 the average risk 

9-12 1/2 the average risk 

13-16 Average risk 

17-20 2 times the average risk 

21-24 5 times the average risk 



25 



EXERCISE COUNTERACTS FATAL HEART ATTACKS 



43.6% 



FATAL 

HEART 

ATTACKS 



28.6% 



FATAL 

HEART 

ATTACKS 



20.5% 



FATAL 

HEART 

ATTACKS 



Least 


Moderately 


Most 


Active 


Active 


Active 


Physically 


Physically 


Physically 



HOW IT FEELS TO HAVE A HEART ATTACK 

• Prolonged, squeezing pain or unusual discomfort in center 
of chest 

• Pain may radiate to shoulder, arm, neck or jaw 

• Sweating may accompany pain or discomfort 

• Nausea, vomiting and shortness of breath may also occur 

STROKE 

• Sudden, temporary weakness or numbness of face, arm or 
leg 

• Temporary loss or speech, or trouble in speaking or under- 
standing speech 

• Temporary dimness or loss of vision, particularly in one eye 

• An episode of double vision 

• Unexplained dizziness or unsteadiness 

• Change in personality, mental ability or the pattern of head- 
aches may also occur. 



26 



The following is a list of physical activity danger signals: 

1. Difficulty breathing, possible uncontrolled 

2. Dizziness and visual disturbance 

3. Loss of muscle coordination and body control 

4. Tightness in the chest 

5. Excessive heart rate 

6. Pallor-flushing in face 

7. Nausea 

If any of these appear, stop immediately and notify your 
instructor. Prevention of injury is much easier than treatment. 

BACK INJURIES 

Back injuries have become costly and debilitating to safety 
personnel in the country. One of the purposes of this physical 
fitness program is to give guidance which will, hopefully, reduce 
the frequency of back injuries. 

Any back problem should be checked out by a physician. 
Although there are many causes of back pain, approximately 80 
percent of back problems are of musculoskeletal origin. 

Because most back problems are localized in the musculos- 
keletal system, much can be done to alleviate the difficulty through 
exercise and changing the habits of work, sleep and play. 

Unilateral or one-sided activities cause musculoskeletal 
imbalance which, in turn, can cause pain (driving a car, truck, boat, 
shoveling, etc.). A slight scoliosis (lateral curvature of the spine) 
can cause back pain when one is under maximal stress, whereas it 
might not trouble one at other times. 

Causes of Musculoskeletal back problems: 

1. Scoliosis (spinal curvature) 

2. Poor posture 

3. Obesity 

4. Poor shoes and feet 

5. Unilateral skills and habits 

6. Short lower limb 

7. Hip tilt or imbalance 

8. Lack of strength 

9. Imbalances lifting 

10. Sleeping habits 

11 . Static positions: sitting, standing, driving car, etc. 



27 



Back problems can remain with one for life, but they can be 
minimized by changing habits and undertaking proper exercise. 

The spine must be used as a unit, i.e., when sleeping on your 
side, which is recommended, use a double pillow to align the head 
and neck with the remainder of the spine. Do not sleep in the prone 
position. 

FITNESS AND HEALTH 

What type of exercise is best? The only exercise which is of 
benefit to the heart and vascular system is a continuous, rhythmic, 
endurance aerobic type of physical activity. 

This includes jogging, cycling, hiking, walking, swimming, 
cross-country skiing, and other activities which use the long mus- 
cles of the legs and trunk in a continually sustained and rhythmic 
fashion. This exercise must be repeated every two and one-half 
days; after that time, the individual begins to decondition — you 
should exercise at least three days a week. 

The benefits of aerobic exercise and fitness extend beyond 
those related to your job. Activities that lead to improved aerobic 
fitness also: 

Reduce the risk of heart disease 
Improve circulation and respiration 
Reduce the problems of overweight 
Strengthen bones, ligaments and tendons 
Reduce tension and psychological stress 
Minimize fatigue 
Enhance self-concept and body image 

How will jogging or swimming help you achieve all of the 
above for your body or for that matter make you more productive at 
your job? The answer is found in the training effect. 

The controlled stress of regular aerobic exercise stimulates 
heart, lung and muscle activity, which produces beneficial changes 
in the body called the training effect. Aerobic exercise that pro- 
motes a sustained increase in heart rate, respiration, and muscle 
metabolism helps the body adapt to the added demands imposed 
by this kind of exercise, 

Adaptions include improved heart and lung function, improved 
muscular endurance. Respiratory muscles become more efficient, 
too. Fit individuals take in more air per breath, breathe deeper, and 
ventilate a greater proportion of their lungs, getting more oxygen 



28 



into the blood. Oxygen transport in the blood is improved by an 
increase in hemoglobin and total blood volume. 

The body learns to better distribute the blood to working 
muscles. This redistribution, accompanied by increased heart out- 
put, leads to an improved supply of oxygen to the working muscles. 
Aerobic exercise may increase the number of capillaries serving 
individual muscle fibers. 

Muscles undergo specific adjustments that enhance their abil- 
ity to take in and use oxygen to burn the food you eat, producing 
the energy for continued muscular contractions. 

Aerobic training influences other organs and systems; the 
nervous system learns to use muscles efficiently; the endocrine 
system learns to support your efforts with the appropriate hor- 
mones. Bones, ligaments and tendons get tougher. 

The physique and body composition can be altered. Body fat 
diminishes, muscle tone up and appearance improves. Along with 
improved appearance and the feeling of well being go some subtle 
psychological changes: improved self-concept and body image, 
reduced anxiety, improved vitality, increased self-confidence, and 
joy of living. 

There is evidence that the effects of aging may be temporarily 
offset with a vigorous aerobic fitness program, so that increased 
capacity and adaptability associated with aerobic fitness can add 
life to your years, not just years to your life. 

It is important to recognize that if coronary heart disease is 
already established, exercise will not change the atherosclerotic 
plaques (hard deposits) present in the arteries. 

Exercise will help the individual and his cardiovascular system 
to adapt better to the process. It does this by establishing new 
collateral vessels; by decreasing the heart rate so that the coronary 
arteries have a better chance to fill between heart beats; by improv- 
ing the strength and contractility of the heart muscle itself, and by 
improving the overall oxygen transport system. All of these are 
beneficial effects of exercise in an individual who already has 
established coronary heart disease. 

Exercise can prevent coronary heart disease from becoming 
more severe and gives you a better chance of survival if a heart 
attack occurs. 

The control of the five cardinal risk factors (1 ) Hyperlipidemia 
(2) Hypertension (3) Cigarette smoking, (4) Overweight, and (5) 
Physical inactivity can effectively modify, change and possibly 
prevent the development of coronary heart disease. 



29 



It is difficult to determine what percentage of these problems 
can be prevented, but research has shown that more active people 
have fewer heart attacks and if they do occur, they are less likely to 
be fatal. 

Cardiovascular disorders cost the nation $17.3 billion annually, 
afflict more than 27 million Americans annually, and kill more than 
one million people each year. 




30 



PART II 



Aerobic Fitness Prescriptions 



The benefits of fitness are achieved through regular aerobic 
exercise. Like any treatment or medicine, exercise must be pre- 
scribed with care if its benefits are to be realized, and its potentially 
harmful side effects are to be avoided. The first step is to determine 
the state of your health and your fitness. With this information we 
can design an exercise prescription that will safely, effectively 
promote aerobic fitness. 

Part 2 will help you: 

• Understand the medical implications of exercise. 

• Differentiate among the methods used to assess medical 
and physical fitness. 

• Identify your level of aerobic fitness. 

• Compare your fitness with others your age. 

• Understand the factors involved in the prescription of exer- 
cise for aerobic fitness. 

• Prepare a personal training prescription. 

• Prepare sensible training guidelines. 

DETERMINING MEDICAL FITNESS 

Should you have a medical examination before beginning a 
fitness program? Here's the opinion of noted Swedish exercise 
physiologist Professor P.O. Hstrand, M.D. 

anyone who is in doubt about the condition of 

their health should consult his physician. But as a gen- 
eral rule, moderate activity is less harmful to the health 
than inactivity. In other words a medical examination is 
more urgent for those who plan to remain inactive than 
for those who intend to get into good physical shape! 
The American College of Sports Medicine published this 
advice for those over 35 years of age: 

Regardless of health status it is advisable that any adult 
above 35 years of age have a medical evaluation prior to a 
major increase in your exercise habits. 
The Department requires that each officer prior to participat- 



32 



ing in the physical fitness program must have completed the State 
Multi Phasic Health Screening examination conducted by De- 
partment of Human Resources Medical Staff assigned to the 
Health Services Clinic. 

Medical problems identified or if you have any doubts about 
your health, you should consult with your family physician and 
have clearance prior to beginning this program. 

If you are medically fit to begin exercising, we then can deter- 
mine your aerobic fitness. If you have been completely sedentary 
this can be done with the step test. The 3-minute test tells your 
current level of aerobic fitness. 

If you are young or extremely active we may use a more 
vigorous method of predicting your aerobic capacity than the step 
test. This is the 1 V2 mile run. It is a fitness test based on the oxygen 
needed to run or walk at various speeds. It should only be under- 
taken by those who have been training for at least 8 weeks, because 
it demands maximum effort. 

YOUR FITNESS PRESCRIPTION 

Once you know the state of your health and your level of 
fitness, you are well on your way to a personal fitness prescription. 
The dose of exercise designed to bring about safe, steady 
improvements in fitness can be expressed in terms of: 

Intensity = Your training heart rate 

Duration = How many minutes (or calories) or distance 

Frequency = How often you need to train 

Let's consider each factor, then summarize with ways you can 
prescribe your own aerobic fitness program. 

INTENSITY 

The intensity at which you participate in your exercise pro- 
gram is probably the most critical of all of the above factors. The 
heart rate is the best indicator of exercise intensity, because it is 
directly related to both oxygen consumed and calories burned. As 
exercise becomes more intense, requiring more oxygen, heart rate 
increases. To participate at too low an intensity means you will gain 
little benefit, if any, from your program. To perform at too high an 
intensity could mean serious medical complications and sufficient 



33 



discomfort to discourage you from continuing. 

The benefits you gain from physical conditioning are lost just 
as rapidly when you stop your conditioning prog ram. Thus, for you 
to be successful in your program, it is necessary for you to estab- 
lish the level of intensity at which you should be exercising. This is 
determined on the basis of your endurance capacity as evidenced 
by results of your physical fitness assessment. 

Research has shown that fitness improves when you exercise 
at a given percentage of your maximum heart rate. You can obtain 
a substantial "conditioning effect" by exercising at a "comfortable" 
level which is between 60 and 80 percent of your capacity. Exercis- 
ing at a level below 60 percent results in little, if any, conditioning, 
and above 80 percent, the additional gains are small relative to the 
work required. 

The chart illustrates average maximum heart rates as well as 
heart rate training zones for those in low, medium and high fitness 
categories. The heart rate training zone tells you how intense your 
exercise must be to gain a training effect. Use your age and fitness 
level to determine your training zone. The minimum and maximum 
heart rates you should attain while training. 

In this program, we use 75 percent of your capacity as the 
intensity level. If you have a maximal oxygen intake of 40 ml/kg: 
minutes, you would exercise at a level representing 75 percent of 
this capacity, or 30 ml/kg: minutes. Since you can't easily monitor 
oxygen consumption during routine exercise, the same concept 
has been applied to a related physiological variable, your heart 
rate. You can easily monitor your heart rate by taking your pulse 
periodically during the exercise session and then adjusting your 
exercise intensity to bring your heart rate either up or down to the 
75 percent level. The 75 percent level heart rate is referred to as the 
Training Heart Rate (THR). Initially, you should stop about every 
five minutes during a 30-minute workout to determine your pulse 
rate. Immediately upon stopping the exercise, take your pulse for 
10 seconds at the wrist or throat; multiply by 6 to get the rate per 
minute. For example if you get a count of 25, your rate in beats per 
minute is 150 and will be close to your heart rate during the 
exercise. You do not need to train at near maximum levels to 
achieve the benefits of exercise. In fact, exercising within your 
training zone should feel relatively comfortable. If the zone for your 
age and fitness level feels uncomfortably high, do not despair. Try 
working at lower edge of the zone. If that is still too high, drop to a 
lower zone. 



34 



The chart illustrates average maximum heart rates as well as 
heart rate training zones for those in low, medium, and high fitness 
categories. The heart rate training zone tells you how intense your 
exercise must be to gain a training effect. 

Heart Rate Training Zones 1 



200- 

190- 
180- 
170- 



| 160- 

S 150- 

LU 

< 140- 



< 
LU 

I 



< 130- 



120- 
110- 
100 - 




A 



20 



90%^ 



80%* 




70%' 



Example — A 35 year old of medium fit- 
ness would have a heart rate training zone 
of 145-157 beats per minute. 



30 



J. 



40 



T" 
50 



60 



70 



AGE (Years) 

* Percent of maximum heart rate 

'Maximum Heart Rate Data From Cooper, et. al., 1975 



35 



Wear your wristwatch during your exercise period and prac- 
tice this very simple way of monitoring your exercise intensity. The 
beauty of the THR concept is that as you progress in your condi- 
tioning program, it takes more work to accomplish the same heart 
rate. Thus, you have a built-in control for progression. To deter- 
mine your THR, get your physical activity scores (score = intensity 
x duration x frequency), determine your level of fitness and apply it 
to the heart rate training zone chart. 

The "Talk test" is another good way of determining if you're in 
your training zone. You should be able to carry on a conversation 
as you exercise. With time, you won't need to check your heart rate 
because you will know how it feels to be "in the zone". 

DURATION 

As you'll find out, exercise duration and intensity go hand in 
hand, because an increase in one requires a decrease in the other. 
Exercise duration can be prescribed in terms of time, distance, or 
calories. The calorie is the basic measure of energy expenditure in 
work or exercise. It's the basic measure if energy intake (caloric 
intake from diet) and will be covered in more detail in the Weight 
Control section. 

If you're in the low fitness category, your exercise should last 
long enough to burn 100 to 200 calories; the medium fitness cate- 
gory, 200 to 400 calories; and the high fitness category, more than 
400 calories. It's wise to begin at the low end of the calorie scale for 
your fitness category. For example, if you're of medium fitness, 
your initial workouts should last only long enough to burn 200 
calories. 

If you're overweight and wish to lose excess pounds, exercise 
at a lower intensity (heart rate training zone) and increase the 
duration. Exercise intensity and duration can be varied to reduce 
boredom. In fact nothing should be rigid about your training 
program. 

FREQUENCY 

Two or three training sessions a week are enough for those 
beginning a program and for those in the low fitness category. As 
training progresses, you can begin to exercise more; continued 
improvements in fitness are proportional to the frequency of train- 



36 



jng. Refer to the prescription chart for information on training 
frequency, as well as exercise intensity and duration. The chart 
also includes some aerobic activities to give you an idea how long 
an exercise session should last to fill your exercise prescription. 
The aerobic exercise listed are simply suggestions. There are 
many more to choose from. Selecting the right exercise is what 
we'll cover next. 

THE RIGHT EXERCISE 

Once you and your instructor have decided on your fitness 
prescription; your next decision is to pick the aerobic activity or 
activities you'll engage in to achieve fitness. 

Your choice of an aerobic exercise should depend on your 
fitness goal. If your goal is to improve aerobic fitness to meet job 
standards in field conservation work, training that relates to the job 
is best. 

Years ago, before the information explosion in exercise physi- 
ology, researchers thought training for one activity provided the 
capability for another. They felt fitness was a general property; if 
you were trained and fit for swimming, you could apply that fitness 
in running. Today that picture has changed. The type of training 
should relate to the desired results. If you want to improve work 
capacity in your ability to hike long distances over mountainous 
terrains, or in marshes, then hiking would be the preferred way to 
train. 

The important thing to remember when beginning your exer- 
cise programs outlined in the manual is that you follow the three 
basic principles: (1 ) exercise at your THR, (2) exercise 20-30 min- 
utes per day, and (3) exercise 3-4 days per week. This is a simple 
and effective method of getting in shape and staying there. 



37 



PHYSICAL ACTIVITY INDEX 2 

Calculate Your Activity Index By Multiplying 
Your Score For Each Category 

(Score = Intensity * Duration * Frequency): 



Duration 



Frequency 



SCORE 



4 
3 
2 

1 



5 
4 
3 
2 

1 



ACTIVITY 



Intensity 5 Sustained heavy breathing and perspiration 

4 Intermittent heavy breathing and perspiration — as in tennis. 

3 Moderately heavy — as in recreational sports and cycling 

2 Moderate — as in volleyball, softball 

1 Light — as in fishing, walking 



Over 30 minutes 
20 to 30 minutes 
10 to 20 minutes 
Under 10 minutes 



Daily or almost daily 
3 to 5 times a week 
1 to 2 times a week 
Few times a month 
Less than once a month 



Evaluation and Fitness Category 



SCORE 



EVALUATION 



FITNESS CATEGORY 



100 




Very active lifestyle 


46 to 80 




Active and healthy 


35 to 45 




Acceptable (could be better) 


20 to 34 




Not good enough 


Under 20 




Sedentary 


2 From Kasari, 


1975 





High 

High 

Medium 

Low 

Low 



38 



AEROBIC FITNESS PRESCRIPTIONS 



Fttness Cateogry 



Intensity 
(in beats/min.) 



Duration 
(in calories) 
Men Women* 



Frequency 



HIGH (over45ml/kg/min) 



Over 400** Over 300** 



Age 20 164-178 

25 162-176 

30 160-174 

35 157-171 

40 154-168 

45 151-164 

50 148-161 

55 145-158 

60 143-155 



6 days 
weekly 



— Exercise duration and frequency 
remain the same regardless of age — 



MEDIUM (35-45 ml/kg/min) 



200^00 



150-300 



Age 20 153-164 

25 151-162 

30 148-159 

35 145-157 

40 142-154 

45 139-151 

50 136-149 

55 133-146 

60 130-143 



6 days 
weekly 



—Exercise duration and frequency 
remain the same regardless of age — 



LOW (under 35 ml/kg/min) 



100-200 



75-150 



Age 20 140-154 

25 137-154 

30 134-148 

35 130-144 

40 126-140 

45 122-136 

50 118-132 

55 114-128 

60 110-124 



Every other 
day 



— Exercise duration and frequency 
remain the same regardless of age — 



* Caloric expenditure is less for women, because they are smaller than men and burn fewer 
calories in a given activity. 

* For long duration workouts (over 400 calories), training intensity may be reduced to a 
comfortable level. 



39 



Sample Aerobic Activities 

(exercise duration in minutes) 



RUN JOG BICYCLE SWIM WALK 

Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women Men Women 

27* 20* 40* 3f> 48* 36* 45* 34* 72* 54* 

— Exercise duration and frequency remain the same regardless of age — 

14-27 10-20 20-40 15-30 24-48 18-36 245 17-34 36-72 27-54 
— Exercise duration and frequency remain the same regardless of age — 

7-14 5-10 10-20 7.5-15 12.24 9-18 11-22 8-17 18-36 14-27 
— Exercise duration and frequency remain the same regardless of age — 



Aerobic fitness training seems to coax a slow but continuous 
stream of adaptions from the working muscles. Muscles adapt to 
the regular demand imposed by training. For improvements to take 
place, workloads have to impose an overload on the muscles — the 
training workload must exceed regular daily demands on the mus- 
cle. The effects of training are specific to the demands imposed by 
training. Moreover, the effects are limited to those muscles exer- 
cised in the training. 

Because overload training to improve your hiking ability 
would eventually consume many hours as fitness improves, you 
can use a closely related activity (jogging or fast walking uphill with 
a load) to increase the intensify and decrease the duration of 
training sessions. However, since training is specific, the training 
should eventually be adapted to the actual working situation. 

When the job requires sustained arduous work during which 
the legs must support the body's weight, walking, jogging, or 
running should be included in your aerobic fitness program. Run- 
ning provides a greater training stimulus per unit of time. It's 
moderate and rhythmic; it allows a sustained heart rate. It can be 
done at any hour, in any weather, with a minimum of equipment. It 
can be done alone or in a group. In many ways running appears to 
be the best exercise. 

If your goal is also to improve fitness for recreational pursuits, 
you have a wide choice of activities that allow the necessary heart 
rate increase to last long enough to elicit a training effect. 

A recent study compared the fitness and weight control bene- 
fits of walking, running, and bicycling. Sedentary middle-aged 



40 



men trained at the same intensity, duration, and frequency for 20 
weeks. AN three groups improved similarly in aerobic fitness, and 
all showed similar weight control benefits. Remember, the benefits 
are the same only when the exercise heart rate is maintained in the 
training zone for the appropriate duration. Walkers will have to 
walk at a rapid rate or walk uphill to get the same benefits in the 
same amount of time as someone jogging or cycling for example. 

Walking, jogging, cycling, swimming — all are good. They're 
rhythmic, so less likely to lead to injury. If you have the skill they 
can all be sustained long enough at a moderate rate. 

The caloric cost of bicycling is influenced not only by skill but 
also by the gear used, the weight and quality of the bicycle, wind, 
hills, and so forth. Experienced cyclists often find it necessary to 
pedal very fast, pedal uphill, or use a higher gear to sustain a 
training heart rate. One approach is to work at a lower intensity for 
an extended period (cycle at a safe speed but burn twice as many 
calories). Another alternative is to work extra hard on hills and 
where safety permits greater speed. Before long, your fitness and 
skill will permit long bicycle trips. 

Like cycling, the caloric cost of swimming depends on many 
factors besides skill: stroke, speed, and temperature. 

Individuals who are unfit, unskilled swimmers, or both often 
find their heart rate well above their training zone, and they are 
unable to swim long enough to burn the necessary calories until 
they improve their fitness and skill. 

Popular games— tennis, handball, racketball, basketball — 
are fine for maintaining fitness, but no serious fitness enthusiast 
considers them adequate for training. Most tennis or handball 
players run to get in shape for competition. Games are not a 
substitute for aerobic fitness activity. They don't allow you to 
maintain your heart rate in the training zone. They often include 
brief periods of extreme exertion. You should be fit before you 
compete in strenuous sports. 



APPLYING YOUR FITNESS PRESCRIPTION 

Now that we have discussed aerobic fitness and have com- 
pleted a personal fitness prescription, we can put it into practice in 
a regular aerobic training program. Each session of your program 
should include warmup, aerobic fitness activity, and a cooldown 
period. 



41 



The warmup, which should last about 5 minutes, gradually 
prepares the body for the exercise to come. Begin with easy 
stretching exercises and then, as body temperature, circulation, 
and respiration adjust to the increased activity, move to more 
vigorous calisthenics. Pay particular attention during the warmup 
to: 

• Stretching the lower back to reduce back problems. 

• Stretching hamstring and calf muscles to prevent soreness 
and reduce the risk of injury 

• Increasing tempo of exercise gradually to adjust body to 
higher levels of intensity. 

A gradual cooldown after your aerobic exercise is as impor- 
tant as the warmup. Complete rest immediately after exercise 
causes blood to pool in the veins and slows the removal of meta- 
bolic waste products. Soreness, cramps, or more serious cardio- 
vascular complications may follow. Walking or easy jogging con- 
tinues the pumping action of the muscles, promoting circulation 
and speeding recovery. A few minutes spent stretching also helps 
avoid soreness. 

Never rush from a vigorous workout into a hot shower! The 
flow of blood to recently exercised muscles combined with the flow 
to the skin to dissipate heat may result in inadequate flow to the 
brain or heart. Always cool down after a workout. 




42 



WARM UP/COOL DOWN 

I. The purpose of a warm up session 

II. Physical changes in a warm up 

III. Physical changes in a cool down 

IV. Specificity 

V. Exercises - warm up 

Warm Up 

I. The purpose of a warm-up session 

1 . Gradual increase in heart rate and metabolism 

2. To distribute oxygen to the working muscles 

3. To facilitate capillarization 

4. To gradually heat the muscle filaments for more efficient 
work 

5. To reduce injuries and exercise downtime 

6. To increase the psychological preparedness 

7. Enhance activity performance 

'Spending 5-10 minutes in activity preparation and cool down time may become the 
greatest single contributor to total body efficiency and prolong exercise success. 

Warm Up 

II. Physical Changes 

1 . Increase heart rate (gradually) to work level 

2. Increase lung ventilation (gradually) to work level 

3. Increase 2 to various body parts (blood, circulation) 
(vasal dialation — vasal construction) 

4. Increase muscle filament temperature 

5. Activate body heat and waste product. Release 
mechanisms 

6. Stretch working muscle to allow more 2 into the tissues. 
Begin with slow static stretching and move to more of a 
ballistic motion. 

7. To increase the flexibility of the working muscles group 

8. To increase the flexibility of the antagonistic muscle 
groups 

9. To reduce soreness and stiffness 



43 



Cool Down 



Physical Changes 



1 . Decrease heart rate (gradual) to recovery level (100 afterS 
minutes or less) 

2. Decrease lung ventilation (gradual) to recovery level 

3. Allow waste material to be moved (by circulation and 
ventilation) out of the system 

4. Allow ample 2 to be supplied to working muscles which 
will enhance recovery 

5. Allow the working muscles to be stretched in the exten- 
sion position — (Slow and gradual movements to relax the 
antagonist muscle group) 

6. Use primarily a static stretch technique in recovery. Hold 
each stretch position 8-10 seconds or more 

7. To reduce soreness, stiffness and joint problems. 

IV. SPECIFICITY 

1 . Physical activities demand a specific body use. It is therefore 
important to prepare those body parts as efficiently as possible 
before their work begins and to cool (warm down) off after the 
work is accomplished. 

2. Over a given period of training time, these activities (if done 
regularly) will demand an efficient metabolic work reponse and 
the physiological pathway will become trained. 

3. If one is not careful body imbalances may occur which lead to 
breakdowns. 

A. Running — quadriceps to hamstring strength 

B. Weight training — Only training one movement pattern. 

— Failure to strengthen the muscle pairs. 

4. One sport or one type of activity will not necessarily prepare 
you for another sport movement. 

5. Warm up and cool down are a methodical approach to bring 
the working muscle into a state of "exercise readiness." 

Warm-up, Stretching and 

Calisthenic Exercises 

Are shown on the following pages 






44 



V. EXERCISES WARMUP 



Routine 1 — Standing 



Alternate Walking with Jogging 
or Running in Place 

Action: 

Walk for approximately one min- 
ute (breathing deeply). Jog or 
run in place approximately one 
minute. 

Repeat: 
3 to 4 times. 



Stretching and Deep Breathing 

Position: 

Standing, arms at side, feet shoul- 
der-width apart (Figure 1). 

Action: 

(a) Inhale deeply as you stretch 
both arms up, look up, and rise 
on toes. (Figure 2) 

(b) Exhale forcefully as you re- 
turn to starting position. 

Repeat: 
4 to 6 times. 





3. Neck Rolling 

Position: 

Standing, hands on hips, feet 

shoulder-width apart. 

Action: 

(a) Roll the neck slowly forward, 
sideward, backward in a clock- 
wise manner three times. (Figure 
3) 

(b) Reverse and go counter- 
clockwise three times. (Figure 4) 

Repeat: 
2 times. 




Figure 3 




Figure 1 



Figure 2 



Figure 4 



45 



Arm Circles 



Half Knee Bends 



Position: 

Arms extended out from sides at 
shoulder Jevel, palms down, feet 
shoulder-width apart. 

Action: 

(a) Make 20 small circles with 
the hands and arms while keep- 
ing the arms straight, stomach in, 
and head erect. (Figure 5). 

(b) Reverse and make 20 small 
circles in the opposite direction. 
(Figure 6) 

Repeat: 
2 to 4 times. 



Position: 

Hands on hips, feet shoulder- 
width apart, toes pointed straight 
ahead. (Figure 7) 

Action: 

(a) Bend knees until the bottom 
edge of your hands touch your 
thighs. Keep the trunk straight 
and the feel flat on the floor. 
(Figure 8) 

(b) Return to starting position. 

Repeat: 

10 to 20 times. 




Figure 5 



Figure 7 





Figure 6 



Figure 8 



46 



6 Pull Knee to Chest 

Position: 

Arms at sides, feet slightly spread. 

(Figure 9) 



Stretch Up, Look Up, Raise Knee 

Position: 

Arms at side, feet slightly spread. 

(Figure 11) 





Figure 9 



Figure 11 



Action: 

(a) Bring left knee up, grab it 
with both hands and pull it to 
your chest. Keep trunk upright. 
(Figure 10) 




Figure 10 

(b) Return to starting position. 

(c) Repeat exercise with right 
knee. 

Repeat: 

10 to 12 times with each knee. 



Action: 

(a) Bring both arms forward-up- 
ward and look up as you raise the 
left knee above the waist. (Figure 
12) 




Figure 12 

(b) Return to starting position. 

(c) Repeat exercise with right 
knee. 

Repeat: 

8 to 12 times with each knee. 



47 



8. Bobbing the Trunk 

Position: 

Hands on hips, feet spread widely 
apart, knees slightly bent. (Fig- 
ure 13) 



Arm Swings 

Position: 

Left arm extended upward, right 
arm down at side, feet slightly 
spread. (Figure 16). 




Figure 13 



Action: 

(a) Bend trunk slowly downward 
until your hands touch the floor. 
(Figure 14) 

(b) Bob by raising the trunk six 
to eight inches (Figure 15) then 
lowering it until your hands touch 
the floor. 




Figure 16 

Action: 

(a) Swing the left arm forward, 
downward, backward as the right 
arm goes backward, upward, 
downward, making big arm cir- 
cles. (Figure 17) 




Figure 14 



Figure 15 



(c) Bob six times and return to 
starting position. 

Repeat: 
4 to 6 times 




Figure 17 



48 



(b) After going forward 8-10 
times, reverse the movement and 
go backward 8-10 times. (Figure 
18) 

Repeat: 
2 times. 




Figure 18 

10. Leg Swings 

Position: 

Arms at sides, feet together or 

slightly spread. 

Action: 

(a) With weight balanced on the 
right foot, swing the left leg for- 
ward (Figure 19) and backward. 
(Figure 20) Swing your arms to 
maintain balance. Keep the trunk 
upright, the leg reasonably 
straight and swinging like the 
pendulum of a clock. 




Figure 20 

(b) Repeat the procedure for the 
right leg. 

Repeat: 

10 to 12 times with each leg. 



1 1 . Twist, Stretch Up, Touch Floor 

Position: 

Arms at side, feet widely spread. 

(Figure 21) 





Figure 21 



Figure 19 



49 



Action: 

(a) Twist to the right and look up 
as you stretch both arms over 
head, keeping the feet stationary. 
(Figure 22) 



(c) Stretch both arms upward 
and look up while the trunk is still 
twisted to the right. (Figure 24) 





Figure 22 



(b) Bend trunk and right knee, 
touching hands to floor outside 
the right foot. (Figure 23) 



Figure 24 



(d) Return to starting position 
and repeat to the left. 

Repeat: 

4 to 6 times to each side. 

12. Side Bends (Three Methods) 

Position: 

Heads on hips, feet shoulder- 
width apart (Figure 25) 




Figure 23 




Figure 25 



50 



Action: 

(a) Bend the trunk sideward to 
the right, hand touching leg as 
low as possible and at the same 
time raise or "hunch" the left 
shoulder upward. (Figure 26) 



Action: 

(a) Bend trunk sideward and 
forward to the right, touching the 
right elbow to the side of the 
thigh. (Figure 28) Right knee 
should be bent slightly. 




Figure 26 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat to the left in the same 
manner. 

Repeat: 

10 to 20 times to each side. 

Position: 

Hands clasped behind head, feet 
spread slightly wider than shoul- 
ders. (Figure 27) 





Figure 28 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat to the left. 

Repeat: 

10 to 12 times to each side. 

Position: 

Arms at sides, feet widely spread, 

knees slightly bent. (Figure 29) 




Figure 27 



Figure 29 



51 



Action: 

(a) Curl the left arm over the 
head and downward as you bend 
sideward to the right, right hand 
touching leg as low as possible. 
(Figure 30) 




Figure 30 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat to the left. 

Repeat: 

8 to 10 times to each side. 



Action: 

(a) Touch right hand to left toe 
as left arm is moved backward 
and upward. (Figure 32) 

(b) Touch left hand to right toe 
as right arm goes backward and 
upward. (Figure 33) 

(c) Continue with rhythm. 

Repeat: 

10 to 12 times to each side 




Figure 32 



13 Windmill 

Position: 

Feet widely spread, knees slightly 
bend, trunk bent forward, arms 
stretched sideward. (Figure 31) 





Figure 33 



Figure 31 



52 



14. 



Three-fourth Flat-foot Squat 

Position: 

Hands on hips, feet spread 
slightly wider than shoulders. 
(Figure 34) 



15. Jumping Jack 

Position: 

Feet together with hands at 

sides. (Figure 37) 





Figure 34 

Action: 

(a) Inhale deeply, keep feet flat 
on the floor as you bend the 
knees and place hands on floor. 
(Figure 35) 

(b) As you return to starting 
position exhale sharply, pulling 
shoulders back and stomach in. 
(Figure 36) 

Repeat: 

8 to 10 times. 



Figure 37 

Action: 

(a) Jump to straddle position 
and clap hands by raising them 
sideward and upward over the 
head. (Figure 38) 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat with rhythm. 

Repeat: 

10 to 20 times 




Figure 35 





Figure 36 



Figure 38 



53 



Routine 2 — On Floor 

Stretching and Deep Breathing 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms at sides. 

(Figure 39) 




Figure 39 



Action: 

(a) Raise the right left, bend the 
knee, pull knee toward chest with 
both hands. (Figure 42) 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat with the left leg. 

Repeat: 

6 to 8 times with each leg. 




Action: 

(a) Inhale deeply, suck stomach 
in, stretch both arms upward 
over the head along the floor. 
(Figure 40) 

(b) Exhale slowly and return to 
starting position. 

Repeat: 

6 to 10 times. 



Figure 42 



Hand and Foot to Vertical 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms extended 

behind head. (Figure 43) 




2. 



Figure 40 



Pull Knee to Chest 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms at side. 

(Figure 41) 




Figure 41 



Figure 43 



Action: 

(a) Bring right leg and left arm 
upward to vertical position keep- 
ing leg and arm reasonably 
straight while head and shoulders 
remain on floor. (Figure 44) 




Figure 44 



54 



(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat with left leg and right 
arm. 

Repeat: 

8 to 10 times. 

Push-ups 

Position: 

Face downward, body straight 
and weight supported on hands 
and feet. (Figure 45) Hands 
should be just outside the 
shoulders, fingers straight ahead, 
feet close together. 




Figure 45 

Action: 

(a) Lower body until chest barely 
touches floor. Keep the head up, 
body straight, buttocks should 
not be raised nor abdomen 
allowed to sag. (Figure 46) 

(b) Straighten arms fully to lift to 
starting position. Keep the body 
straight. 

Repeat: 

15 to 25 times. 




Figure 46 



Back Archer 

Position: 

Lying face down, hands in small 

of back. (Figure 47) 




Figure 47 



Action: 

(a) Raise the head, chest, and 
shoulders as high as possible 
keeping the hips, legs, and feet 
on the floor. (Figure 48) 

(b) Return to starting position. 

Repeat: 

10 to 15 times. 



Figure 48 



6. Lateral Leg Lifts 

Position: 

Leaning on right side, body sup- 
ported by straight right arm and 
side of right foot. Left hand on 
hip (Figure 49) 




Figure 49 



55 



Action: 

(a) Raise left leg straight up as 
high as possible. (Figure 50) 

(b) Return to starting position 
and repeat rhythmically. 

Repeat: 

20 to 30 times with each leg. 



8. 




(b) Return to starting position by 
extending legs fully before lower- 
ing feet to floor. 

Repeat: 

8 to 12 times. 



Sit-ups 

Position: 

Lying on back, hands clasped 
behind head, knees slightly bent. 
(Figure 53) 



Figure 50 




Pull Knees to Chest 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms extended 

behind head. (Figure 51) 




Figure 51 



Action: 

(a) Bend both knees upward, 

clasp hands around knees and 

pull knees toward chest. (Figure 

52) 




Figure 53 



Action: 

(a) Raise the trunk to a sitting 

position and touch your left 

elbow to the right knee. (Figure 

54) 




Figure 54 

(b) Return to starting position 
and then repeat by sitting up and 
touching your right elbow to the 
left knee. 

Repeat: 

15 to 25 times. 



Figure 52 



56 



Sitting — Opposite Hand to Toe 

Position: 

Sitting, legs reasonably straight 
and feet widely spread, arms 
extended upward, head back and 
looking at the hands. (Figure 55) 



10. Sprinter 

Position: 

Squat, hands on floor with fin- 
gers pointing forward, left leg 
extended to the rear. (Figure 57) 




Figure 55 

Action: 

(a) Right hand touches left toe 
as you fling the left arm back- 
ward. (Figure 56) 

(b) Return to starting position 
stretching arm and head upward 
and repeat by touching left hand 
to right toe. 

Repeat: 

10 to 16 times. 




Figure 57 

Action: 

(a) In one motion, reverse the 
position of the feet by extending 
the right leg as the left foot is 
moved forward toward the hands. 
(Figure 58) 





Figure 58 

(b) Reverse feet again, returning 
to starting position and repeat 
with rhythm. 

Repeat: 

20 to 30 times. 



Figure 56 



57 



AEROBIC TRAINING SESSION 

Warmup, aerobic exercise, cooldown — those are the ele- 
ments of your training session. Let's look closer at a typical ses- 
sion, say for a 35 year old man with a fitness score of 40, and see 
how these sessions lead to fitness. 

His fitness prescription would be: intensity, 145 to 157 beats a 
minute; duration, 200 to 400 calories; frequency, every other day at 
the beginning, then 5 or 6 days a week with 1 day off for good 
behavior. He has picked jogging as his aerobic exercise. After his 
warmup he will jog at a 12 minute-per-mile pace for 20 minutes 
(1.67 miles) to burn 200 calories (20 minutes @ 10 calories a 
minute). He can vary his session by jogging in different locales, 
working at the upper edge of his training zone for shorter duration, 
or at the lower edge for longer! After his run, he will cooldown with 
easy jogging, walking, and stretching. It won't take too many 
sessions like this before he begins to experience a training effect. 

Heart and lungs improve as the body adjusts to regular exer- 
cise, and he will soon be able to complete his session at a lower 
heart rate. As this happens, it's necessary to do something to insure 
a continued training effect. In the case of our35 year old jogger, he 
could: (1) jog the same distance at a faster pace (but calories 
burned remain the same); (2) cover a greater distance at same pace 
(calories burned increase but intensity falls below training zone); 
(3) slowly increase rate both pace and distance, thereby keeping 
heart rate in training zone while increasing calories burned. 

In practice, #3 usually occurs naturally. You increase pace 
without knowing it. You find yourself running faster without a 
greater sense of effort or fatigue. As fitness improves, it becomes 
easy to extend the duration of a workout. When you find this 
happening, you're ready to increase the intensity, duration, and 
frequency of your training sessions. Or periodically retake the step 
test or run the 1 1 /2 miles for time to pinpoint your fitness level. 

Some training systems advocate increasing speed at the 
expense of duration or distance. While this approach will improve 
aerobic fitness, it has several drawbacks: risk of injury — muscle 
pulls, strained ligaments, and so on increase with speed. Discom- 
fort increases — many find they no longer want to go out and 
punish themselves; eventually they get frustrated and quit. Bad 
psychology — exercise is not something you do in a hurry to get it 
over with; it's a rich experience and deserves an important place in 
your day. 



58 



By slowly increasing both pace and distance you avoid these 
pitfalls and get several extra benefits as well. Long-duration exer- 
cise burns more calories, so you lose weight, reduce the risk of 
heart disease, and lower blood lipids such as cholesterol that have 
been associated with heart disease. It's more enjoyable, so you are 
more likely to continue your participation for months, years— even 
for life. 

Great Expectations 

If you apply your exercise prescription in regular training 
sessions, you should expect to see a 20 to 25 percent improvement 
in aerobic capacity in about 3 to 6 months. Overweight individuals 
will see even greater improvement as they lose excess fat. You'll 
also notice significant improvement in your performance. For 
example, within 6 months, you may see as much as a 2 minute drop 
in your Vh mile run performance. You'll be able to jog distances 
with ease— distances that once were beyond your comprehension. 

But that's only part of the story. As aerobic capacity improves, 
and you're able to exercise longer and harder with less effort, your 
work capacity is increasing too. You'll be able to work at a higher 
percentage of your aerobic capacity. You'll see a dramatic 
improvement in your performance in the field. With prolonged 
training, your aerobic capacity begins to plateau, but your capacity 
to perform submaximal work continues to improve. You'll feel 
better, work better. Experience shows that fit employees miss 
fewer days due to illness or injury. 

WALK — JOG - RUN PROGRAMS 

Your fitness prescription gives you a great deal of freedom to 
tailor a personal fitness program to meet your specific work and 
recreational goals. You have a wide choice of exercises, and there 
are many options as far as the length of time you want to exercise 
and the intensity of that activity. Some of you, particularly those 
with a new-found interest in fitness, many prefer a more detailed, 
step by step approach. For this reason, I have included some walk 
— jog — run programs. 

I will describe programs for three levels of ability: a starter 
program for those in low fitness categories (under 35 fitness 
score), an intermediate program (35-45), and one for those in the 
high fitness categories (46 or better). The starter program was 



59 



prepared by the President's Council on Physical Fitness and 
Sports and appears in the booklet An Introduction to Physical 
Fitness. 




60 



Starter Program 

Take the walk test to determine your exercise level. 

Walk Test— The object of this test is to determine how many 
minutes (up to 10) you can walk at a brisk pace, on a level surface, 
without undue difficulty or discomfort. 

If you can't walk for 5 minutes, begin with the RED walking 
program. 

If you can walk more than 5 minutes, but less than 10, begin 
with the third week of the RED walking program. 

If you can walk for the full 10 minutes, but are somewhat tired 
and sore as a result, start with the WHITE walk — jog program. If 
you can breeze through the full 1 minutes, you're ready for bigger 
things. Wait until the next day and take the 10 minute walk — jog 
test. (Read Running Technique, page 107 before taking test.) 

Walk — Jog Test— In this test you alternately walk, 50 steps 
(left foot strikes the gound 25 times) and jog 50 steps for a total of 
10 minutes. Walk at the rate of 120 steps a minute (left foot strikes 
the ground at 1 -second intervals). Jog at the rate of 144 steps a 
minute (left foot strikes ground 18 times every 15 seconds). 

If you can't complete the 10-minute test, begin at the third 
week of the WHITE program. If you can complete the 10-minute 
test, but are tired and winded as a result, start with the last week of 
the WHITE program before moving to the BLUE program. If you 
can perform the 10-minute walk — jog test without difficulty, start 
with the BLUE program. 

Red Walking Program 

Week Activity (every other day at first) 

1 Walk at a brisk pace for 5 minutes, or for a 
shorter time if you become uncomfortably 
tired. Walk slowly or rest for 3 minutes. 
Again walk briskly for5 minutes, or until you 
become uncomfortably tired. 

2 Same as Week 1 , but increase pace as soon 
as you can walk 5 minutes without soreness 
or fatigue. 



61 



3 Walk at a brisk pace for 8 minutes or for a 
shorter time if you become uncomfortably 
tired. Walk slowly or rest for 3 minutes. 
Again walk briskly for 8 minutes, or until you 
become uncomfortably tired. 

4 Same as Week 3, but increase pace as soon 
as you can walk 8 minutes without soreness 
or fatigue. 

When you've completed Week 4 of the RED program, begin 
at Week 1 of the WHITE program. 

White Walk — Jog Program 

Week Activity (four times a week) 

1 Walk at a brisk pace for 10 minutes, or for a 
shorter time if you become uncomfortably 
tired. Walk slowly or rest for 3 minutes. 
Again, walk briskly for 10 minutes, or until 
you become uncomfortably tired. 

2 Walk at a brisk pace for 15 minutes, or for a 
shorter time if you become uncomfortably 
tired. Walk slowly for 3 minutes. 

3 Jog 10 seconds (50 yards). Walk 1 minute 
(100 yards). Do 12 times. 

4 Jog 20 seconds (50 yards). WalkJ minute 
(100 yards). Do 12 times. 

When you've completed Week 4 of the WHITE program, 
begin at Week 1 of the BLUE program. 

Blue Jogging Program 

Week Activity (five times a week) 

1 Jog 40 seconds (100 yards). Walk 1 minute 
(100 yards). Do 9 times. 

2 Jog1 minute (150 yards). Walk 1 minute (100 
yards.) Do 8 times. 



62 



3 Jog 2 minutes (300 yards). Walk 1 minute 
(100 yards). Do 6 times. 

4 Jog 4 minutes (600 yards). Walk 1 minute 
(100 yards). Do 4 times. 

5 Jog 6 minutes (900 yards). Walk 1 minute 
(100 yards). Do 3 times. 

6 Jog 8 minutes (1 ,200 yards). Walk 2 minutes 
(200 yards). Do 2 times. 

7 Jog 10 minutes (1,500 yards). Walk 2 min- 
utes (200 yards). Do 2 times. 

8 Jog 12 minutes (1,760 yards). Walk 2 min- 
utes (200 yards). Do 2 times. 

Intermediate Program (Jog - Run) 

If you have followed the starter program or are already 
reasonably active, you are ready for the intermediate program. 
You are able to jog one (1 ) mile slowly without undue fatigue, 
rest 2 minutes, and do it again. Your sessions consume about 
250 calories. 

You are ready to increase both the intensity and the dura- 
tion of your runs. You will be using the heart rate training zone 
for those of medium fitness (fitness score of 35 to 45). You will 
begin jogging 1 mile in 12 minutes, and when you finish this 
program you may be able to complete 3 or more miles at a pace 
approaching 8 minutes a mile. Each week's program includes 
three phases— the basic workout, longer runs (over distance). If 
a week's program seems too easy, move ahead; if it seems too 
hard, move back a week or two. Remember to make a warmup 
and a cooldown part of every exercise session. 

12-Week Program is 

shown on the 

following pages 



63 



WEEK1 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 11 minutes; active recovery (walk). Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to 1 /2 mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 5 minutes 30 seconds. Run twice (recover between 
repeats). 

Va mile in 2 minutes 45 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Jog Va to Vi mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 

2 miles slowly. (Use the talk test: Jog at a pace that allows you to 
converse.) 



WEEK 2 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 10 minutes 30 seconds; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to Vi mile slowly. 

Vi mile in 5 minutes. 

Va mile in 2 minutes 30 seconds. Run 2 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Va mile in 2 minutes 45 seconds. Run 2 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 1 minute 20 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Va to Vi mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
2Va miles slowly. 



64 



PACE GUIDE FOR GAGING SPEED OVER VARIOUS DISTANCES 

1 1/2 1/4 220 100 50 
Pace Mile Mile Mile Yards Yards Yards 
(in minutes and seconds) 

Slow 10/cal min. 

Jog (120cal/mile)* 12:00 6:00 3:00 1:30 0:40 0:20 

Jog 12 cal/min 

(120cal/mile)* 10:00 5:00 2:30 1:15 0:34 0:17 

Run 15 cal/min 

(120cal/mile)* 8:00 4:00 2:00 1:00 0:27 0:13 

Fast 20 cal/min 

Run (120 cal/min)* 6:00 3:00 1:30 0:45 0:20 0:10 

* Depends on eff icency and body size; add 1 percent for each 1 5 pounds over 1 50; subtract 1 
percent for each 15 pounds under 150. 



WEEK 3 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 10 minutes; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 4 minutes 45 seconds. 

1 /4 mile in 2 minutes 30 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 30 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

100 yards in 30 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
2 1 /2 miles slowly. 



65 



WEEK 4 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 9 minutes 30 seconds; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

1 /4 to Vi mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 4 minutes 45 seconds. Run twice (recover between 
repeats) 

1 /4 mile in 2 minutes 30 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 1 minute. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

1 /4 to Vi mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
2 3 /4 miles lowly. 



WEEK 5 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 9 minutes 30 seconds; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

1 /4 to 1 /2 mile slowly. 

1 /2 mile in 4 minutes 30 seconds. 

Va mile in 2 minutes 20 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 60 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

100 yards in 27 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

1 /4 to 1 /2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
3 miles slowly. 



66 



WEEK 6 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 1 /2 miles in 13 minutes 30 seconds; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 4 minutes 30 seconds. Run twice (recover between 
repeats) 

Va mile in 2 minutes 10 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 60 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

100 yards in 25 seconds. Run twice (recover between repeats) 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
3 miles slowly; increase pace last Va mile. 



WEEK 7 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

IV2 miles in 13 minutes; active recovery. Run twice. 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

M? mile in 4 minutes 15 seconds. Run twice (recover between 
repeats) 

Va mile in 2 minutes. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

220 yards in 55 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
3 1 /2 miles slowly; always increase pace near finish. 



67 



WEEK 8 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 8 minutes; active recovery; run 1 mile in 8 minutes 30 
seconds; active recovery; repeat (total of 3 miles). 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

1 /2 mile in 4 minutes 30 seconds. Run twice (recover between 
repeats) 

Va mile in 1 minute 50 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 55 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

100 yards in 23 seconds. Run4 times (recover between repeats) 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
3% miles slowly. 



WEEK 9 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 8 minutes. Run 3 times (recover between repeats). 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

Vi mile in 3 minutes 30 seconds. 

Va mile in 1 minute 45 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 50 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

100 yards in 20 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats) 

50 yards in 10 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between repeats). 

1 /4 to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
4 miles slowly. 



68 



WEEK 10 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 1 /2 miles in 12 minutes. Run twice (recover between repeats). 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 3 minutes 45 seconds. Run 3 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Va mile in 1 minute 50 seconds. Run 6 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 45 seconds. Run twice (recover between repeats). 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 
4 miles; increase pace last V2 mile. 



WEEK 11 

Basic Workout (Monday, Thursday) 

1 mile in 7 minutes 30 seconds. Run 3 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Underdistance (Tuesday, Friday) 

Va to Vi mile slowly. 

V2 mile in 3 minutes 50 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

Va mile in 1 minute 45 seconds. Run 4 times (recover between 
repeats). 

220 yards in 45 seconds. Run 2 times (recover between repeats). 

Va to V2 mile slowly. 

Overdistance (Wednesday, Saturday or Sunday) 

Over 4 miles slowly (more than 400 calories per workout). 



69 



WEEK 12 

Basic Workout 

1 V2 miles in 1 1 minutes 40 seconds. 

You've achieved the fitness standard of 45. Proceed to the 
advanced aerobic fitness program. 



Advanced Aerobic Training 

This section is for the self-trained runner. We will provide some 
suggestions for advanced training, but keep in mind there is no 
single way to train. If you enjoy underdistance training, by all 
means use it, if you find that you prefer overdistance, you will like 
the suggestions offered here. 

Long slow distance running seems to be the ideal way to train. 
It combines the features of over and underdistance with a min- 
imum of discomfort. Simply pick up the pace as you approach the 
end of a long run, and you will receive an optimal training stimulus. 
Moreover, since the speed work is limited to a short span near the 
end of the run, discomfort is brief. 

Consider the following suggestions: 

• Always warmup before you run. 

• Use high fitness heart rate training zone. 

• Vary the location and distance of the run (long - short; 
fast- slow; hilly- flat). 

• Set the distance goals: 
Phase 1: 20 miles a week 

Phase 2: 25 miles a week (ready for 3- to 5-mile road 

races) 
Phase 3: 30 miles a week 
Phase 4: 35 miles a week (ready for 5- to 7-mile road 

races such as the 4th of July Peachtree Road 

Race) 
Phase 5: 40 miles a week 
Phase 6: 45 miles a week (ready for 7- to 10-mile road 

races) 
Phase 7: More than 50 miles a week (consider longer 

races such as Boston Marathon - 26.2 miles) 

• Do not be a slave to your goals, and do not increase 
weekly mileage unless you enjoy it. 



70 



• Run 6 days a week if you enjoy it; otherwise, try an 
alternate day schedule with longer runs. 

• Try one long run (not over one-third of weekly distance) 
on Saturday or Sunday. 

• Try two shorter runs if the long ones seem difficult: 5 + 5 
instead of 10. 

• Keep records if you like — you will be surprised. Record 
date, distance, comments. Note resting pulse, body 
weight. At least annually, check your performance over a 
measured distance and observe progress (use a local 
road race or the 1 1 /2-mile run test). 

• Do not train with a stopwatch. Wear a wristwatch so you 
will know how long you have run. 

• Increase speed as you approach the finish of run. 

• Always cooldown after a run. 

AEROBIC SUPPLEMENTS 

When you are unable to engage in your regular aerobic 
fitness activities, consider one of these alternatives: 

Skipping Rope 

This is such a good exercise that it can be a full time 
aerobic fitness activity. The equipment is inexpensive and easy 
to transport. You can skip rope anywhere, even in a motel room 
or office. The exercise allows a wide range of exercise intensi- 
ties, and research studies have equated 10 minutes of vigorous 
rope skipping in cardiovascular benefit to 20 to 30 minutes of 
jogging. 

Rope length is important. It should reach the armpits when 
held beneath the feet. Commercial skip ropes with ball bear- 
ings in the handles are easier and smoother to use, but a length 
of #10 sash cord from your local hardware store serves quite 
well. 

Rope skipping requires a degree of coordination, and if 
done inappropriately can quickly raise the heart rate above 
your training zone. If this happens, walk or jog in place slowly, 
then resume skipping. 

Besides the aerobic benefits, rope skipping can improve 
your tennis or handball, where rapid footwork is important. 



71 




Run In Place 

For joggers and runners when weather or travel prohibits the 
usual run. Since it is necessary to double the time to achieve a 
comparable benefit, it can only be viewed as an occasional 
supplement. 

Stationary Bicycle 

Several systems are available for indoor cycling. They range 
from the inexpensive, which involves a stand for your bicycle, to 
the moderate price range (under $150.00) for a stationary bicycle, 
to the expensive (approaching $1,000.00) for fancy cycles that 
include the electronics necessary to provide resistance as well as a 
readout of heart rate responses to workload. You can use the 
aerobic fitness prescriptions to achieve training benefits on the 
bicycle. The indoor cycle must include a mechanism for the con- 
trol of resistance during cycling. Without resistance you will not be 
able to achieve your heart rate training zone. 

Treadmill 

Several relatively inexpensive (under $300.00) treadmills are 
sold. These nonmotorized devices must have an adjustable grade if 
they are to serve for aerobic training. Expensive motorized devices 
are excellent indoor training machines but price prohibits their 
general use. The stationary bicycle and the treadmill often are used 
in post-coronary home rehabilitation programs. 



72 



Bench Stepping 

A sturdy bench or box can become an exercise device. By 
increasing the rate or duration of effort specific training effects can 
be realized. By wearing a loaded pack, you can emphasize the 
muscular fitness benefits of the exercise. 




Stair Running 

Coaches often have their athletes run stadium steps in a com- 
bination aerobic — anaerobic — muscular fitness training pro- 
gram. When duration is emphasized, aerobic training predomi- 
nates. When speed is emphasized, strength and anaerobic capa- 
bilities are developed. The steps in a gym, state office or apartment 
building provide the opportunity for extended effort. 

MAINTAINING AEROBIC FITNESS 

Once you have achieved the level of aerobic fitness that suits 
your personal needs as well as the work capacity needed for your 
job, you can switch to a maintenance program. Research indicates 
that you can maintain a given level of fitness with 2 or 3 days of 
activity a week. The activity must be at the same intensity and 
duration you employed to achieve fitness. Exercise of lesser inten- 
sity but longer duration achieves the same effect. 



73 



If a 40 year old swims for several months to attain a fitness 
score of 50, he or she can maintain that level with two or three 
workouts a week, or one swim a week and 2 hours of tennis, 4 or 5 
days a week. A periodic recheck with the step test will tell you if you 
are, in fact, maintaining the fitness you worked so hard to achieve. 

You are encouraged to seek activities you enjoy and to inte- 
grate them into your lifestyle. Before long you will find that exercise 
and training are no longer viewed as an obligation. When exercise 
becomes an enjoyable — even essential — part of your day, you 
will have achieved the health, fitness, and work capacity needed to 
accomplish your job, and still have sufficient energy to enjoy 
leisure time pursuits. 

Year-Round Activity 

Year-round activity is the ideal way to achieve and maintain 
fitness. It minimizes the pain and soreness associated with the 
return to activity. It keeps fitness at an optional level and minimizes 
the problem of weight control. Take a moment to outline your 
current physical activity habits on a sheet of paper. Fill in the sports 
or activities you enjoy each season. When you find a blank spot 
consider a new activity, an exercise supplement, or an exercise to 
help you prepare for an upcoming season. This brief mental exer- 
cise will show how one activity might logically blend into the next, 
removing the need for extensive physical training. For example, if 
you work out in the gym all winter and run in the spring, you will not 
have to worry about your fitness for summer work projects. 



Activities 


Winter 


Spring 


Summer 


Fall 


Major 










Minor 



74 



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PART 



Muscular Fitness and Work Capacity 



We have related aerobic fitness to work capacity and provided 
you with prescriptions for achieving and maintaining aerobic fit- 
ness. Like aerobic fitness, muscular fitness is an integral part of 
total fitness for work capacity. It depends on muscular strength, 
endurance, and flexibility. 

MUSCULAR STRENGTH 

Dynamic muscular strength is clearly related to work capacity. 
Your dynamic strength is simply the most weight a specific group 
of muscles can lift at a single time. Strength depends largely on the 
cross section area of the muscle and connective tissue. 

Training and experience also influence strength. A learning 
effect occurs, whereby the nervous system becomes better able to 
use available strength. Also through practice and experience, we 
tend to lose the inhibitions that prevent us from using all the 
strength we possess. 

Muscular strength is the primary factor limiting work capacity 
when a single maximum lift is involved as lifting a dead deer or for 
repeated lifting of boat motor, gas can or truck wheel. Strength, 
muscular endurance, and aerobic capacity combine to set limits on 
work capacity. 

Some people, women and older men for example, may have 
high levels of aerobic capacity but low muscular strength. The 
average woman has about half the arm and shoulder strength and 
three-fourths the leg strength of the average man. But when 
strength expressed per unit of lean body weight (fat-free weight) 
the woman's leg strength is comparable to the mans, although arm 
strength is still 30 percent below male values. 

However, when women engage in strength training, as they 
have in several recent research studies, they gain muscular 
strength, and the strength is not accompanied by an undesirable 
increase in muscular size. Given the opportunity the average 
woman should be able to achieve the muscular fitness needed to 
carry out arduous work tasks. 



76 



MUSCULAR ENDURANCE 

Muscular endurance is an essential component of work capac- 
ity. Endurance implies the ability to persist and is defined and 
measured by the muscles ability to lift a load over and over. 

Physical conditioning increases endurance by improving the 
muscle fibers aerobic energy producing capability, and tasks 
involving repetitive action depend on well-developed aerobic 
energy production. 

Most work tasks require more endurance than strength. Many 
individuals mistakenly use the term strength when they really 
mean endurance. If an individual already has the strength to 
accomplish a task, physical conditioning should focus on endur- 
ance. Only those with inadequate strength need to engage in 
strength training. 

FLEXIBILITY AND STRETCHING 

Flexibility is important for success in work or sport. Excessive 
flexibility is not necessary, but some is helpful to assist the Ranger 
over and under fences, around fallen trees and to lessen the risk of 
injury in most forms of vigorous activity. Flexibility is the range of 
motion through which the limbs are able to move. Skin, connective 
tissue, and conditions within joints restrict this range. Improved 
flexibility can reduce the potential for injury. 




77 



The range of motion Increases when joints and muscles are 
warmed. This suggests that a warmup concentrating on stretching 
the leg muscles is a good idea. When beginning stretching exer- 
cises for example touching your toes, move slowly; then bob gently 
to further stretch muscles. Vigorous bobbing and stretching only 
tighten muscles. Muscles react to a sudden stretch with a reflexive 
contraction (stretch reflex). 

Flexibility exercises are especially important when training to 
increase muscular strength and endurance. They help to maintain 
the range of motion that might otherwise be lost. Stretching exer- 
cises also help reduce muscle soreness. So stretching shouid be 
done before and after exercise, and whenever soreness occurs 
(ususally 24 hours after vigorous effort). 

Finally, flexibility becomes more important as we grow older. 
We have to spend more time with stretching exercises to maintain 
the range of motion, because tissue becomes stiff and less elastic 
with age. Many low back problems are the result of poor flexibility. 



STRETCHING TECHNIQUES 
FOR INCREASED FLEXIBILITY 

Static Stretching 

When you begin to stretch, the first 5 to 10 seconds of the 
stretch are spent in the "easy stretch." Here you can totally relax 
while you feel an easy stretch. After this phase of stretching, slowly 
go into the "developmental stretch." Here the feeling of the stretch 
will become more intense but it should not be painful. 

When stretching, breathing should be slow, rhythmical and 
under control. If you are bending forward to do a stretch, exhale as 
you bend forward and then breathe at a slow, rhythmical pace as 
you hold the stretch. Do not hold your breath while stretching. If 
the position of a stretch inhibits the natural breathing pattern, then 
ease up on the stretch to where natural, slow, rhythmical breathing 
is possible. 

1 . Easy Stretch: 

Spend 5-10 seconds in this phase — no bouncing. 
Should feel a gentle pull-relax and hold. 
This reduces muscular tightness and readies the tissue for 
the development stretch. 



78 



Developmental Stretch: 

Move gradually from the easy stretch position into the 

developmental stretch. 
Relax as you pull. 
3e in control. 

The tension should ease off slightly. 
This phase fine-tunes the muscles and increases flexibility. 
Time may be 10-20 seconds. 

Breathing: 

Should be slow, rhythmical and under control. 

Do not hold your breath while stretching. 

Exhale as you bend forward and then breathe slowly as you 

hold the stretch. 
Relax. 

The Stretch Reflex: 

This system protects our muscles from over stretching. 

A nerve reflex responds by sending a signal to the muscles to 
contract. 

Holding a stretch as far as you can go or bouncing up and 
down strains the muscles and activates this reflex. This 
causes pain and some microscopic tearing of muscle 
fibers. This could be due to a loss of elasticity. 





Stretch 




Easy Motion 
Loosen Up 


Developmental 
Easy Stretch Stretch 


Movement 


2-5 minutes 


5-10 seconds 10-20 seconds 


Tempo increases if 
warming up 


Tempo decreases if 
cooling down 



5 . Most Appropriate Times for Stretching: 

In the morning before the start of the day 
At work to help release nervous tension 
After sitting for a long time 
Before activity — warm up 
After activity — cool down 
When you feel stiff 



79 



UPPER BODY, TRUNK, AND LOWER BACK 
STRETCHING EXERCISES 



Trunk Rotation 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles in the back, 

sides, and shoulder girdle. 

Starting Position: 

Stand astride with feet pointed 

forward; raise arms to shoulder 

level. May use bar to increase 

stretch to the deltoid muscle and 

waist. 

Movement: 

Twist trunk to the right; avoid lift- 
ing heels. Repeat 3 or 4 times 
before twisting to left side. 

Repetitions: 
10 

Double Arm Circles and Toe 
Raises 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles of the shoulder 
girdle and to strengthen muscles 
of the feet. 

Starting Position: 

Stand with feet about 12 inches 

apart and arms at sides. 

Movement: 

Swing arms upward and around, 
making large circles. As arms are 
raised and crossed overhead, rise 
on toes. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 15 




80 



3a. Forward Bend 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles of the but- 
tocks and posterior leg. 

Starting Position: Stand astride 
with hands on hips. 

Movement: 

Slowly bend forward to a 90 
degree angle; return slowly to 
starting position; keep back flat. 

Repetitions: 

10 

3b. Abdominal Chum 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles of the but- 
tocks, abdomen, and posterior 
leg. 

Starting Position: 

Stand astride with hands on hips. 

Movement: 

Lower trunk sideward to left; 
rotate to forward position and to 
right; return to upright position. 
Repeat and reverse direction after 
2 rotations. 

Repetitions: 
5 to 8 



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3c. Bar Hang 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles of arms, 

shoulders, back, trunk, hips, and 

pelvic regions. Good general body 

stretcher. 

Starting Position: 

Hang from bar with arms straight. 

Repetitions: 

1 for up to 60 seconds. 



81 



Shoulder and Chest Stretch 



Purpose: 

To stretch muscles of the chest 

and shoulders. 

Starting Position: 

Stand astride or kneel with arms 

at shoulder level and elbows bent. 

Movement: 

Slowly force elbows backward 

and return to starting position. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 15. 




5a. Lower Back Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles in the lower 

back. 

Starting Position: 
Crouch on back until buttocks 
touch heels; emphasize round- 
ing back; return to starting 
position. 

Repetitions: 
10 




5b. Alternate Lower Back Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch muscles in the lower 

back and buttocks. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on back with the legs extended 

or stand erect. 

Movement: 

Lift and bend one leg; grasp the 
knee and keep the opposite leg 
flat; pull knee to chest. Repeat 
with alternate leg. 

Repetitions: 
10 




82 



5c. Advanced Lower Back and Ham- 
string Stretch 

Purpose: 

To sketch muscles of the lower 

back and hamstring muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on back with legs bent. 

Movement: 

Keep knees together and slowly 

bring them over the head; 

straighten the legs and touch the 

toes to the floor; return to starting 

position. 

Repetitions: 
5 to 10 

6. Inverted Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch and strengthen the 
anterior hip, buttocks, and ab- 
dominal muscles. 

Starting Position: 
Sit with arms at side. 

Movement: 

Support body with heels and arms 
and raise trunk as high as pos- 
sible. 

Repetitions: 

10 





LEG STRETCHING EXERCISES 



7a. Front Leg Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch the muscles in the 

anterior leg. 

Starting Position: 

Kneel with tops of ankles and feet 

flat on the gound. 

Movement: 

Lean backward slowly; keep the 
back straight; maintain tension 
on muscles for 30 to 60 seconds. 

Repetitions: 
1 to 2 




83 



7b. Front Leg Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch the muscles of the 

anterior thigh and hip. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on the ground with face down 

or stand erect. 

Movement: 

Pull the ankle to the hip slowly; 
hold for 3 counts and release the 
ankle. Use same procedure for 
other side. 

Note: 

If difficulty is encountered is 
assuming starting position, ask 
for assistance. 

Repetitions: 
5 to 10 




10. Hamstring Stretch 

Purpose: 

To stretch the muscles in the 

posterior leg and thigh. 

Starting Position: 
Sit on ground with one leg ex- 
tended straightforward; place the 
other leg forward with the knee 
bent and the sole touching the 
inner thigh of the extended leg. 

Movement: 

Bend forward and attempt to 
touch the head to the knee; hold 
stretch for 30 to 60 seconds. 
Repeat with other leg. 

Repetitions: 
1 to 2 




84 



11 a. Calf Stretcher 

Purpose: 

To stretch the posterior leg and 

ankle muscles. 

Siarting Position: 
Stand in forward stride position 
with the forward knee partially 
flexed and the rear leg fully 
extended; keep feet pointed for- 
ward and heels flat on the ground. 

Movement: 

Lean trunk forward until a con- 
tinuous stretch occurs in the rear 
calf; hold stretch for 30 to 60 
seconds. Repeat with other leg. 

Repetitions: 
1 to 2 




11b. Calf Stretcher 

Purpose: 

To stretch the posterior leg 

muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Stand in upright position with the 

balls of the feet on the edge of a 

step. 

Movement: 

Slowly lower heels and hold for 
30 to 60 seconds; raise heels and 
rise on toes. 

Repetitions: 
1 to 2 



85 



OTHER MUSCULAR FITNESS FACTORS 

Balance 

Dynamic balance is the ability to maintain equilibrium during 
vigorous movements such as in walking a lap, jumping a stream, or 
carrying a heavy load. Balance depends on the ability to integrate 
visual input with sensory information from the semicircular canal 
in the inner ear and muscles (kinesthetic receptors). Although it is 
difficult to measure and predict how dynamic balance contributes 
to work capacity, ample evidence indicates that balance can be 
improved by physical training. Participation in sports and on-the- 
job experience also should improve dynamic balance. 

Agility 

Agility is the capacity to rapidly change position and direction 
with precision and without loss of balance. It depends on strength 
and speed as well as balance. Most agility-tests were developed for 
the world of sports and do not relate to work capacity. This is why 
the Merit System was asked to revise the test for applicants to make 
it more job related and test the ability skills to perform job tasks. 
But agility is certainly important in avoiding injury, especially in 
unpredictable work situations in the field dealing with game and 
fish violators. Studies show that agility can be improved with prac- 
tice and experience. Overweight hinders agility. Extreme muscu- 
larity is not a prerequisite for agility. Balance and agility may 
deteriorate with fatigue, so we can conclude that aerobic and 
muscular fitness are important in maintaining both. 

Skill 

Every skill is specific. Ability in tennis does not insure success 
in badminton or racketball. Each skill must be learned individually, 
and skill is not easily transferred as teachers, coaches, or re- 
searchers once thought. Skill is an important factor in work capac- 
ity. Skilled workers work more efficiently; they do not waste 
movement or energy. A skilled worker often can outperform a 
stronger or more fit coworker. 

Skill or technique can be learned. With proper technique you 
can make the best use of leverage and large muscle groups. The 
skills required to move or lift deer, outboard motors and truck 
wheels are rot complex and with good instruction most employees 



86 



can reach a satisfactory level of performance in a few practice 
sessions. 

MUSCULAR FITNESS 

Weight Training 

When participating in a weight lifting program you can train 
for muscular endurance or muscular strength. 

Muscular endurance is developed by training with lighter 
weights and more repetitions (10 or more). Muscular strength is 
developed by training with heavier weights and fewer repetitions (6 
to 8). 

While strength training results in an increase in the size of the 
muscle, endurance training will develop muscle definition. A pro- 
gram geared at taking advantage of both techniques would be 
highly recommended. This type of program would consist of train- 
ing with a medium weight, at 3 sets of exercises, with 8 repetitions 
per set, 3 times a week. Start your first set of repetitions at a weight 
which is exactly half of the maximum weight that you can lift in one 
repetition. Then increase the weight for each of the next two sets. 
As soon as the required number of repetitions can be easily man- 
aged, more weight should be added. 




87 



While strength does not increase rapidly, you should expect: 

• A rate of increase ranging from 1 to 3 percent a week (The 
untrained increase at a faster rate than the trained) 

• The rate of gain to decrease as you approach your poten- 
tial maximum strength. 

• Improvements to take place only in the muscle groups 
trained. 

Sedentary individuals who have done no lifting can expect to 
increase in strength 50 percent after six months of serious weight 
lifting. Active persons with no lifting experience may achieve 
between 25 to 50 percent, while active workers who have lifted may 
increase only up to 25 percent because they are approaching their 
potential maximum strength. 




When you engage in weight lifting, keep these points in mind: 

> Never hold your breath during a lift. This can cause a 
marked increase in blood pressure and in the work of the 
heart and the circulation in the coronary arteries. So just 
when your heart needs more oxygen, it gets less — a 
dangerous situation, especially for older, unconditioned 
individuals. Exhale during the lift and inhale as the weight 
is lowered. 



88 



• Always work with a companion ready to assist when 
lifting heavy weights. 

• Keep accurate records. Record your weights, repetitions, 
set; also, test for maximum strength every few weeks. 
Record your body weight and body dimensions — size of 
biceps, waist, thighs, and calves. 

• Alternate muscle groups during a training session. Do not 
do several arm exercises in a row. Also, allow recovery 
time between sets of the same exercise. 



Safety Precautions 

• Weight training routine should be preceded by flexibility, 
dynamic strength and other calisthenics routines as a 
warm-up. 

• Do not exercise alone. 

• Keep the weights close to the body. 

• Avoid hyperventilating. 

• Use breath control. 

• Use correct techniques. 




89 



MUSCULAR STRENGTH AND ENDURANCE EXERCISES 



Two options will be Illustrated for each of the following rou- 
tines. The first option (A) will utilize weights; the second (B) 
stresses the same muscle group, but without utilizing weights. 

Weight Training Warm-up 

Purpose: 

To utilize all of the major muscle groups in a warm-up routine prior to concentrat- 
ing on specific muscle groups. 

Starting Position: 

Place feet astride; bend knees; keep back straight; hold a bar with an overhand 

grip. (Position A) 

Movement: 

Straighten legs with back still straight; raise elbows to shoulder height or higher 

(Position B); lower elbows next to the trunk and keep the weight at chest level; 

press the weight over the head and fully extend arms (Position C); return weight to 

floor. 

Repetitions: 
8 to 10 









Position A 



Position B 



Position C 



90 



Jumping Jacks 

Purpose: 

To utilize all of the major muscle 

groups in a warm-up routine prior to 

concentrating on specific muscle 

groups. 

Starting Position: 

Stand erect with feet together and 

arms at the side. 

Movement: 

Swing arms upward until over head 
and spread feet apart in one move- 
ment; in second movement, return to 
starting position. 

Repetitions: 
20 

Military Press 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the shoulder, upper 

back, and arm muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Support weight at shoulder level with 

an overhead grip. 

Movement: 

Push weight directly overhead; keep 
the back and knees straight; return 
the weight slowly to starting position. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 12 

Curl 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the anterior arm 

muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Hold weight with a palms-up grip; 

keep arms straight. 

Movement: 

Bend arms and bring weight up to 

chest; return slowly 

Repetitions: 
10 to 12 






91 



Pull-up 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the anterior arm, upper 

back, and shoulder muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Place hands about 18 inches apart on 
overhead bar with either a palms-in or 
a palms-out grip; keep arms straight 
in order to support the body. 

Movement: 

Pull body up so chin comes above the 

bar; slowly lower the body to starting 

position. 

Repetitions: 
Progress to 10 to 15 

Sit-up 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the abdominal and hip 

flexor muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on back with knees bent and 
hands clasped under head or holding 
weight on chest. 

Movement: 

Raise head and trunk to an upright 
position; hold position for 3 counts; 
slowly return to starting position. 
Emphasize a roll-up type movement. 

Repetitions: 
15 to 20 





Leg Pull-up 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the abdominal and hip 

flexor muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Hang from bar with body straight. 

Movement: 

Bend knees slowly; bring knees to 

chest; return slowly to starting 

position. 

Repetitions: 
Progress to 10 to 15 




92 



Bent-over Rowing 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the mid to upper back 

and posterior arm muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Stand with feet apart slightly more 
than shoulder width; bend forward at 
waist with back straight and legs 
slightly bent; keep arms straight to 
support the weight. 

Movement: 

Raise weight to chest and return it 

slowly to starting position. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 12 




Pull-up Wide Grip 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the mid to upper back 

and the posterior and anterior arm 

muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Place hands about 36 inches apart on 

overhead bar with either a palms-in or 

palms-out grip; hang from the bar 

with arms straight to support the 

body. 

Movement: 

Pull body up so chin comes above the 

bar; slowly lower the body to starting 

position. 

Repetitions: 
Progress to 10 to 15 




93 



Supine Press 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the chest, anterior 

shoulder, and posterior arm muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on back on a bench 10 to 14 

inches wide; use an overhand grip on 

a weight supported on standards or 

held by two assistants; keep arms 

straight. 

Movement: 

Slowly lower weight to touch the 

chest; raise weight until arms are 

straight. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 12 




Push-ups 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the chest, anterior 

shoulder, and posterior arm muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on stomach with hands flat on 

floor and positioned beneath the 

shoulders. 

Movement: 

Push entire body except feet and 

hands off the floor until the arms are 

straight; lower body until chin touches 

floor. 

Note: 

Positioning the hands beyond the 

shoulders or putting blocks beneath 

the hands increases the stretch of the 

pectorals. 

Repetitions: 
Progress to 20 to 30 




94 



Back Hyperextension 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the lower back muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on a bench with the face down; 

extend the body from above the waist 

over the edge of the bench; strap or 

hold the feet to the other end of the 

bench. 

Movement: 

Lift head and trunk; slowly lower head 

and trunk. 

Note: 

Do not hyperextend. 

Repetitions: 
Progress to 10 to 15 




Back Tightener 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the lower back muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Lie on floor with face down; fold 

hands over lower back area. 

Movement: 

Raise head and chest and tense the 

gluteal and lower back muscles. 

Caution: 

Do not hyperextend; just raise head 
and chest slightly off the floor; con- 
centrate mainly on tensing gluteal 
muscles. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 15 




95 



Squat 

Purpose: 

To stengthen the anterior thigh and 

buttock muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Stand erect with feet astride and sup- 
port weight on shoulders with palms- 
upgrip. 

Movement: 

Keep the back straight and bend 
knees into a squat position; return to 
the standing position. 

Note: 

Do half squat if knees are weak. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 12 

Heel Raises 

Purpose: 

To strengthen the calf muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Place feet astride and hold weight on 

shoulders with a palms-up grip. 

Movement: 

Raise to a toe position; lower body. 

Note: 

A board may be placed under the toes 

to increase the range of motion. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 15 





Heel Raises 

Purpose: 

To stengthen the calf muscles. 

Starting Position: 

Place feet astride and use arms for 

balance if necessary. 

Movement: 

Raise to a toe position; lower body. 

Note: 

A board may be placed under the toes 

to increase the range of motion. 

Repetitions: 
10 to 15 




96 



EXERCISES FOR THE LOWER BACK 



Rangers who spend a great deal of time sitting in patrol vehi- 
cles or behind a desk often suffer from lower back fatigue, back 
pains, and sacroiliac strain. 

These conditions usually result from weak back muscles 
which do not give proper support to the spine. The following 
exercises are designed to help keep lower back muscles strong 
and supple. 



Pull Knee To Chest 

Position: 

Arms at sides, feet slightly spread. 

(Figure 1) 

Action: 

(a) Raise the left knee, grab it with 
both hands and pull it to your chest. 
Keep trunk upright. (Figure 2) 

(b) Repeat with the right knee. 






Figure 3 

Swing your arms to maintain balance. 
Keep the trunk upright, the leg rea- 
sonably straight and swinging for- 
ward and backward like the pendu- 
lum of a clock. 

(b) Repeat the procedure for the right 
leg. 



Figure 1 



Figure 2 



Leg Swing 

Position: 

Arms at sides, feet together or slightly 

spread. 

Action: 

(a) With your weight balanced on the 
right foot, swing your left leg forward. 
(Figure 3) and backward. (Figure 4) 




Figure 4 



97 



Side Bends 

Position: 

Hands on hips, feet shoulder-width 

apart. (Figure 5) 



Action: 

Hands clasped behind head, feet 
spread slightly wider than shoulders. 
(Figure 7) 





Figure 5 



Figure 7 



Action: 

(a) Bend the trunk sideward to the 
right, hand touching the leg as low as 
possible and, at the same time, raise 
or "hunch" the left shoulder upward. 
(Figure 5) 




Action: 

(a) Bend trunk sideward and forward 
to the right, touching right elbow to 
the side of the thigh. (Figure 8) Right 
knee should be bent slightly. 

(b) Return to starting position and 
repeat to the left. 




Figure 6 



Figure 8 



(b) Return to starting position and 
repeat to the left side in the same 
manner. 



98 



Position: 

Arms at sides, feet widely spread, 

knees slightly bent. (Fiaure 9). 





Action: 

(a) Curl the left arm over the head 
and downward as you bend sideward 
to the right, right hand touching leg as 
low as possible. (Figure 10). 

(b) Return to starting position and 
repeat to the left. 



Figure 11 

( b) Reverse the proced u re and rotate 
the trunk counterclockwise. 



Windmill 

Position: 

Feet widely spread, knees bent, trunk 
bent forward, arms stretched side- 
ward. (Figure 12) 




Figure 10 



Trunk Circles 

Position: 

Hands on hips, feet slightly wider 

than shoulders, knees slightly bent. 

Action: 

(a) Rotate the trunk in a clockwise 
manner, bending sideward, backward, 
forward in a continuous motion. (Fig- 
ure 11) 




Figure 12 



99 



Action: 

(a) Touch the right hand to the left 
toe as the left arm is moved backward 
and upward. (Figure 13) 




Figure 13 

(b) Touch left hand to right toe as 
right arm is moved backward and 
upward. (Figure 14) 

(c) Continue with rhythm. 




Action: 

(a) Raise the right leg, bend the knee, 
pull knee toward chest with both 
hands. (Figure 16) 

(b) Return to starting position and 
repeat with left leg. 




Figure 16 



Pelvic Tilt 

Position: 

Lying on back, knees bent so that 
both feet are flat on the floor, arms on 
floor. (Figure 17) 




Figure 14 



Figure 17 

Action: 

(a) Flatten lower back against floor 

by pulling abdominal muscles in and 

up and tilting the pelvis up. (Figure 

18) 



LYING 

Pull Knee To Chest 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms at sides. (Figure 

15) 




G 



Figure 15 




Figure 18 

(b) Hold this position for five seconds 
and relax. 

(c) Repeat 15 to 20 times. 



100 



Half Sit-up 

Position: 

Lying on back, knees bent so that 
both feet are flat on floor, arms at 
sides. fFigure 19) 




Figure 19 

Action: 

(a) Flex the trunk, raising the head, 
shoulders and upper back off the 
floor. Extend both arms past the left 
knee. (Figure 20) 




Figure 20 

(b) Hold this position momentarily 
and return to starting position. 

(c) Repeat, extending arms past the 
right knee. 



Both Knees To Chest 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms extended behind 

head. (Figure 21) 




Action: 

(a) Bend both knees upward, clasp 
hands around knees and pull knees in 
toward chest. (Figure 22) 

(b) Hold this position momentarily 
and return to starting position by 
extending legs fully before lowering 
feet to floor. 




Figure 22 

Bent Knee Sit-ups 

Position: 

Lying on back, hands on stomach, 
knees bent so that feet are flat on the 
floor. (Figure 23) 




Figure 23 

Action: 

(a) Flex the trunk, sit up and touch 
both hands to the floor between the 
feet (Figure 24) 

(b) Return to starting position and 
repeat. 




Figure 21 



Figure 24 



101 



Bridge From Shoulders 

Position: 

Lying on back, arms at sides, knees 
bent so that both feet are flat on the 
floor. (Figure 25) 



Action: 

(a) Extend both arms fully, lifting the 
head and chest up from the floor. Tilt 
the head back as far as possible. The 
hips and legs should remain on the 
floor. (Figure 28) 




Figure 25 



Action: 

(a) Raise the hips as far up from the 
floor as you can so that your weight is 
supported on the feet, shoulders, neck, 
and head. (Figure 26). 

(b) Hold this position momentarily, 
return to starting position and repeat. 



Figure 28 

(b) Hold momentarily, return to start- 
ing position and repeat. 



Back Archer — Leg Raise 

Position: 

Lying on stomach, hands on the small 

of the back. (Figure 29) 




Figure 26 



Walrus 

Position: 

Lying on stomach, hands outside and 
above shoulders, with fingers pointed 
straight ahead. (Figure 27) 



Figure 29 

Action: 

(a) Lift the head and chest up from 
the floor as high as possible, together 
with the left leg. Keep the left leg 
straight. (Figure 30) 



"SgCfcs^ 




Figure 27 



Figure 30 



102 



(b) Return to the starting position 
and repeat, lifting the head and chest 
together with the right ieg 

(c) Continue alternating the legs. 




103 




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PART IV 

Special Considerations 

RUNNING 

Most adults have learned to dislike physical activity — espe- 
cially jogging or running. Howcould a natural, invigorating form of 
human locomotion fall into disrepute? 

• Many coaches and gym teachers use running as a form of 
punishment: "Take a lap." 

• Most adults have never learned to run properly, comfor- 
tably, sensibly. Why? The sports in our schools emphas- 
ize short intense sprints, not slow leisurely runs. 

• Emphasis on the"instantfitness."This is bad psychology. 
It teaches people to get it over with quickly. There is no 
place for a long slow run in this type of thinking. 

We have chosen to emphasize running as an aerobic fitness 
activity because for the time invested, it provides a great training 
stimulus. It can be done at any time, in any weather, and with little 
investment in equipment. And it is specific training for our job in 
conservation enforcement for tasks that require the legs to support 
the body's weight during ardous field work. For these reasons, 
running appears to be the best exercise to train for conservation 
enforcement work. 

SHOES 

Nothing is so essential to your running enjoyment, so do not 
economize when selecting a running shoe. Go to your shoe store 
or sporting goods dealer for advice. Buy a training shoe, not a shoe 
built for competition. A firm, thick sole, good arch support, and a 
thick padded heel are essentials. (To test sole firmness, grip shoe 
on sides and squeeze, if the sole bends it is probably too soft.) A 
good shoe should bend easily at the toe. however, a firm heel 
counter is also a trait of a good shoe. Never attempt to train in an 
inexpensive gym shoe (sneaker). 

A good pair of shoes is $40.00. A less expensive shoe may be 
suitable, but be sure it offers the fit and protection the feet need for 
running. 



106 



Thick tube socks help prevent blisters. Some runners prefer a 
thin sock under a heavier outer sock. 



CLOTHING 

Jogging does not require fancy clothing. One of running's 
attraction is the fact that you do not need to spend much money. 
Nylon or cotton gym shorts and a T-shirt are adequate in summer. 
For winter running, a sweat suit or jogging suit serves until temper- 
atures fall below 20° F. Some runners prefer cotton thermal knit 
long underwear under their running shorts. Several layers of ligh- 
ter apparel are preferable to a single heavy garment. Add gloves 
and a knit cap in colder temperatures. When the wind blows, a thin 
nylon windbeaker helps to reduce heat loss. A cap is particularly 
important in cold weather, since a great deal of body heat is lost 
through the head. 




When temperatures fall below 20° F you may 
choose to wear both the underwear and the 
sweat suit. Many continue to run despite 
subzero temperatures. There is no danger in 
doing so provided you are properly clothed, 
warmed up, and sensitive to signs of wind 
chill and frostbite. 

Never wear a rubberized sweat suit in 
any weather. The water lost through perspi- 
ration does not contribute to long term 
weight loss, and your body's most effective 
mode of heat loss is blocked. 




RUNNING TECHNIQUE 

An upright posture while running con- 
serves energy. Run with your back comfor- 
tably straight, your head up, and shoulders 
relaxed. Bend your arms with hands held in a 
comfortable position; keep arm swing to a 
<n minimum during jogging and slow running. 
~}&> Pumping action increases with speed. Legs 

swing freely from hip with no attempt to 

overstride. Many successful distance runners 



107 




employ a relatively short stride. 

No aspect of running technique is vio- 
lated more often by neophytes than foot- 
strike. Many newcomers say they can't or 
don't like to jog. Observation of their foot- 
strike often reveals the reason: They run on 
the ball of the foot. While appropriate for 
sprints and short distances, this footstrike is 
inappropriate for distance runs and will 
probably result in soreness. The heel-to-toe 
footstrike is recommended for most runners. 
Upon landing on the heel, the foot rocks 
forward to push off the ball of the foot. This 
technique is the least tiring of all, and a large 
percentage of successful distance runners 
use it. The flat-footed technique is a com- 
promise where the runner lands on the 
entire foot and rocks onto the ball for push- 
off. Check your shoes after several weeks of 
running; if you are using the correct foot- 
strike, the outer border of the heel will be 
wearing down. 

When and Where? 

Run whenever it suits your fancy. Some 
like to get up early and do several miles 
before breakfast. Others elect to run during 
the lunch period, then eat a sandwich at their 
desk or in their vehicle. Many prefer to wait 
until after work, when running can help 
cleanse the mind of the days problems. A 
few are night owls who brave the dark in 
their quest for fitness; they are quick to point 
out that the run and shower help them to 
sleep like a baby. I would only caution you to 
avoid vigorous activity 1 or 2 hours after a 
meal, when the digestive organs require an 
adequate blood supply, and when any fat in 
the circulation hastens the risk of clotting. 

Where should you run? Almost any- 
where you please. Avoid hard surfaces for 



108 



the first few weeks of training. Run in the 
park, on playing fields, golf courses, in the 
pasture or running tracks. After a few weeks 
you will be ready to try the backroads and 
trails in your area. By varying your routes, 
you will maintain interest in your program. 
When the weather prohibits outdoor run- 
ning, try a YMCA, school or police depart- 
ment gym. You can also choose an exercise 
supplement you can do at home such as 
running in place or skipping rope. 

Unless you are a loner and enjoy the 
time spent by yourself, consider running 
with a companion. When you find one with 
similar abilities, interests, and goals, you are 
not likely to miss your run. 

ENVIRONMENTAL FACTORS 

Exercise or work in hot or humid envi- 
ronments or at higher elevations involves 
special consideration. 




Heat and Exercise 

At moderate temperatures the body 
heat generated by exercise or work is easily 
dissipated. As temperatures increase, the 
temperature regulating mechanisms increase 
perspiration rate to keep the body tempera- 
ture from climbing above tolerable limits 
(about 102.5° F). (As perspiration evaporates 
it cools the body.) When humidity is high, it 
does not evaporate, and no heat is lost. At 
that point, excessive sweating only contrib- 
utes to the problem. Perspiration comes 
from the blood and reduces blood volume. 
Also, salt and potassium needed by the cells 
are lost in perspiration. 

During work in the heat, it is common to 
lose more than a quart of sweat an hour. 
During vigorous exercise in a hot, humid 



109 




environment, sweat rates can approach 3 
quarts an hour for short periods. A good 
estimate of fluid loss is the body weight dif- 
ference after work in the heat. Athletes often 
lose 6 to 8 pounds in a single workout. Ade- 
quate replacement of water, salt, and potas- 
sium is vital to maintain exercise or work 
capacity and to avoid heat cramps, heat 
exhaustion, or heat stroke. 

To replace salt loss, use the salt shaker 
at mealtime. Avoid salt tablets. Potassium 
must be replaced with citrus fruits or juices. 
Some commercially available drinks supply 
fluid and electrolyte (inorganic chemicals 
for cellular reactions) needs. Another 
approach is to lightly salt lemonade or to 
drink tomato juice and water (or tomato 
juice, then water) in volumes comparable to 
the fluid loss. 

The body adjusts or acclimates to work 
in the heat. Gradual exposure to exercise in 
a hot environment leads to changes in blood 
flow, reduced salt loss, and increased pers- 
piration. After 5 to 7 days your heart rate for 
the same amount of exercise may decline 
from 180 to 150 beats per minute. While 
physically fit individuals may not acclimate 
more readily to work in the heat, their well- 
trained circulatory system makes them bet- 
ter suited to its demands. Acciimated indi- 
viduals should be able to replace salt loss 
with the saltshaker at meals. 



110 



Hot Weather Kills, 

Know These Warning Signs, 

And How To Treat Them: 



KEATASTHEMIA — Symptoms — 



First Aid — 



Easy fatigue, headache, heavy sweat- 
ing, high pulse rate, shallow breathing, 
poor appetite, insomnia. 

Move to cooler, dryer environment, 
drink plenty of fluids and (unless diet 
prevents it) a salt tablet. Rest. 



HEAT CRAMPS 



Symptoms — 



First Aid — 



Painful spasms in the voluntary mus- 
cles. Pupils dilate with each spasm, 
possible heavy sweating. Skin cold and 
clammy. 

Firm pressure on cramping muscles, 
warm wet towels, three or four doses of 
salty water at 15 minute intervals. 



HEAT EXHAUSTION - Symptoms — 



First Aid 



Profuse sweating, weakness, vertigo, 
skin cold and pale, clammy with sweat, 
pulse is thready, blood pressure is low. 
Temperature normal or subnormal. 
Possible vomiting, nausea, headache, 
heat cramps, mild head exhaustion. 

Movetocoolerenvironmentimmediatly. 
Bed rest, salty water. Seek medical 
help for severe case. 



HEAT STROKE 

(or sunstroke, 
heat collapse, 
thermic fever, 
heat hyperexia) 



Symptoms — 



First Aid — 



Excessive sweating, sweating stops just 
before heat stroke, temperature rises 
sharply, pulse is pounding and full 
blood pressure elevated, delirius or 
coma common, skin flushed at first, 
later reddens or purplish. 

Heat stroke is a severe medical emer- 
gency, summon a physician or get the 
patient to a hospital immediately. Delay 
can be fatal. Move victim into cooler 
environment reduce body temperature 
with iced baths or sponging. Use 
extreme caution. 



111 



Altitude and Exercise 




As you ascend to higher elevations to 
work or exercise, be aware of limitations 
imposed by the reduced oxygen supply. 

During the first few weeks of exposure 
to altitude, your ability to perform is im- 
proved. It can be improved over a period of 
several weeks by training at altitude. Altitude 
acclimatization leads to improved lung func- 
tion, increased red blood cells and hemo- 
globin, and increased numbers of capillaries 
in the working muscles. These changes 
reduce but never eliminate the effect on 
aerobic capacity. 



Air Pollution and Exercise 




Avoid exercise in a polluted atmosphere. 
Carbon monoxide takes the place of oxygen 
in the red blood cells, which reduces aerobic 
capacity. Air pollution can: 

• Initiate airways (bronchitus) 

• Break down air sacs in lungs (emphysema) 

• Reduce oxygen transport 

• Cause cancer 

One source of pollution can do all these 
things — the cigarette. It is probably the 
worst single source of air pollution. 

The U.S. Surgeon General has stated 
that the effects of smoking also may be 
harmful to the nonsmoker who is exposed to 
the smoke of cigarettes, cigars, and pipes. 
Pipe and cigar smoke is particularly un- 
healthy because it has not been inhaled into 
the smokers' lungs, which helps to filter out 
some of the harmful ingredients in the smoke. 



112 



EXERCISE PROBLEMS 




Previously inactive adults often encoun- 
ter problems when they begin exercising. 
You will avoid such problems if you vow to 
make haste slowly. It may have taken you 1 
years to get in the shape you are in and you 
will not be able to change it overnight. Plan 
now to make gradual progress. At the start, 
too little may be better than too much. After 
several weeks, when your body has begun to 
adjust to the demands of vigorous effort, you 
will be able to increase your exercise in- 
tensity. 

Another way to avoid exercise prob- 
lems is to warmup before each and every 
exercise session. Careful attention to pre- 
exercise stretching and warming eliminates 
many of the nagging complications that 
plague less patient individuals. Never forget 
to cool down after each workout. In short, 
prevention is the most effective way to deal 
with exercise problems. 




Blisters 

Blisters can be prevented by wearing 
good, properly fitted shoes. At the first hint 
of discomfort, cover the area with some 
moleskin or a large bandage. If you do get a 
blister, puncture that edge with a sterilized 
needle to drain the accumulated fluid, treat 
with an antiseptic, cover with gauze, circle 
with foam rubber, and go back to work. It is 
wise to keep the items needed for blister 
prevention at hand. 

Muscle Soreness 

Soreness, usually due to inactivity, may 
be caused by miscroscopic tears in the mus- 
cle or connective tissue, or to contractions 
of muscle fibers. It is almost impossible to 



113 




avoid soreness when you first begin exercis- 
ing. Minimize it by exercising modestly, at 
least at first, and by doing mild stretching 
exercises when soreness does occur. 
Stretching can be used to relieve soreness 
and to warmup for exercise on the following 
day. Massage and warm muscle tempera- 
tures also seem to minimize the discomfort 
of soreness. 

Muscle Cramps 

Cramps are powerful involuntary mus- 
cle contractions. Immediate relief comes 
when the cramped muscle is stretched and 
massaged. However, that does not remove 
the underlying cause of the contraction. Salt 
and potassium are both involved in the 
chemistry of contraction and relaxation. Cold 
muscles seem to cramp more readily. It is 
always wise to warmup before vigorous 
effort and to replace salt and potassium lost 
through sweating in hot weather. 

Bone Bruises 

Hikers and joggers sometimes get pain- 
ful bruises on the bottom of the feet. Such 
bruises can be avoided by careful foot 
placement and by quality footwear. Cushion 
inner soles also help. A bad bruise can lin- 
ger, delaying your exercise program many 
weeks. There is no instant cure once a bruise 
has developed, so prevention seems the best 
advice. Ice may help to lessen discomfort 
and hasten healing. Padding may allow 
exercise in spite of the bruise. 

Ankle Problems 

A sprained ankle should be iced imme- 
diately. A bucket of ice water in the first few 
minutes may allow you to work the next day. 



114 




A serious sprain should be examined by a 
physician. High-topped gym shoes reduce 
the risk of ankle sprains in games such as 
basketball, tennis, handball; low-cuts with 
soles invite sprains. Ankle wraps and tape 
allow exercise after a sprain, but again, 
prevention is a more prudent course. 

Achilles Tendon 

Achilles tendon injuries have become 
quite common. Some high-backed running 
shoes have been implicated in the rash of 
bursa injuries among runners. The bursa is 
located beneath the tendon and seems to 
lubricate its movements. When rubbed long 
enough, it becomes inflamed. Once inflamed, 
it may take weeks or months to return to 
normal. Ice helps, but continued activity is 
often impossible for several weeks. Rupture 
of the achilles tendon seems to be more 
frequent in recent years. Partial rupture 
occurs when some of the fibers of the ten- 
don are torn. Complete rupture results when 
the tendon, which connects the calf muscles 
to the heel, is completely detached. Preven- 
tion is the only approach to these problems 
since surgery is the only cure. 

An inflammation of the tendon could 
lead to partial or complete rupture if left 
untreated or abused. Also, individuals with 
high serum uric acid levels seem prone to 
achilles tendon injuries. Those with high 
levels should have ample warmup before 
exercising and should avoid sudden starts, 
steps, and changes of direction during their 
exercise. 

Shin Splints 

Pains on the lower portion of the shin 
bone are known as shin splints. They are 
caused by a lowered arch, initiated mem- 



115 




branes, tearing of muscle from bone, a mus- 
cle spasm due to swelling of that muscle, 
hairline fracture of the bones of the lower 
leg, muscle strength imbalance, or other fac- 
tors. Rest is the best cure for shin splints, 
although taping or a sponge heel pad seem 
to help in some cases. Preventive measures 
include exercises to strengthen shin mus- 
cles, gradual adjustment to the vigors of 
exercise, running on softer surfaces, occa- 
sionally reversing direction when running 
on a curved track, and using the heel-to-toe 
footstrike. 

Knee Problems 

A knee injury suffered early in life can 
affect the ability to exercise. For example, a 
knee injured in high school football may 
lead to signs of arthritis in the late twenties 
or early thirties. Such degenerative changes 
often restrict the ability to run, or engage in 
other vigorous activities. Those of you with 
knee problems should consult your physi- 
cian for ways to relieve the limitations they 
impose. Some have found that aspirin effec- 
tively suppresses the inflammation and pain 
often associated with exercise. Ice helps to 
reduce the inflammation and speed your 
return to activity. Knee problems also can 
result from improper foot support. Repair 
worn shoes, and if knee problems persist, 
see a podiatrist. 

Low Back Pain 

Lack of physical activity, poor posture, 
inadequate flexibility, and weak abdominal 
or back muscles cause the low back pains 
that beset millions of Americans. Specific 
exercises can strengthen one muscle group 
or stretch another to remove the muscular 



116 



imbalance and improve the posture. By 
improving abdominal strength and stretch- 
ing back muscles the forward tilt of the pelvis 
can be reduced. 

Stressful Exercises 

Anything that is "perceived" as a threat 
is stressful. One of the body's responses to 
stressful situations is the secretion of several 
"stress" hormones. Associated with this 
response is an acceleration of the clotting 
time of the blood. Exercise may be stressful 
when it is unfamiliar, exhaustive, or highly 
competitive. Older individuals should begin 
participating in unfamiliar activities gradu- 
ally, avoid exhaustion, and postpone com- 
petion until fitness and familiarity provide 
the proper background. 

Sudden Vigorous Exercise 

Any sudden vigorous exercise, such as 
chopping wood, or shoveling snow, is a spe- 
cial kind of stress. Failure to warmup prop- 
erly leads to cardiac abnormalities caused 
by inadequate oxygen supply to the heart. A 
5-minute warmup eliminates the problem. 

WARNING SIGNS 3 

As your training progresses, watch for these warning signs: 

Group No. 1 

If any of these occur, even once, stop exercising and consult 
your physician before resuming exercise: 

Abnormal Heart Action — Pulse irregular, fluttering, pumping 
or palpitations in chest or throat; sudden burst of rapid heartbeats; 
very slow pulse, when a moment earlier it had been in the training 
zone. (This may occur during exercise or it may be a delayed 
reaction.) 

Pain or pressure in the middle of the chest or in the arm or 
throat, either precipitated by exercise or after exercise. 

3 Adapted from Exercise Your Way To Fitness and Health by Lenore Zohman, M.D., 1974. 




117 



Dizziness, lightheadedness, sudden loss of coordination, con- 
fusion, cold sweat, glassy stare, pallor, blueness, or fainting. In this 
case, stop exercise — don't try to cool down — and lie with feet 
elevated or sit and put head down between legs until symptoms 
pass. Consult physician. 

Group No. 2 

Try suggested remedy briefly; if no help, consult doctor. 

Persistent rapid heart action near target level and 5 to 10 
minutes after exercise was stopped. To correct, keep heart rate at 
lower end of zone or below and increase very slowly. Consult 
physicians if persistent. 

Flareup of arthritic conditions. Rest and don't resume exercise 
until condition subsides. If no relief with usual remedies, consult 
physician. 

Group No. 3 

These usually can be remedied without medical consultation, 
though you may wish to report them to your doctor. 

Nausea or Vomiting After Exercise— Exercise less vigorously 
and take a more gradual cooldown period. 

Extreme breathlessness lasting more than 10 minutes after 
stopping exercise. Stay at lower end of training zone or below; be 
sure you're not too breathless to speak during exercise; if you are, 
stop exercising. Consult doctor. 

Prolonged fatigue even 24 hours after exercising or insomnia 
not present before starting exercise program. Stay at lower end of 
training zone or below and increase level gradually. 

Side Stitch (Diaphragm Spasm) — Lean forward while sitting, 
attempting to push the abdominal organs up against the diaphragm. 



118 










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PARTV 

Fitness and Weight Control 

Overweight is a serious problem for millions of Americans, a 
problem caused by a lifestyle of too little physical activity. The 
result has been epidemic rates of heart disease, millions of dollars 
wasted through lost work time, and impaired work capacity. Work 
capacity suffers since the overweight worker must carry his or her 
burden of fat around on the job, placing an extra load on the heart 
and lungs and restricting heat loss. With the body's mechanisms 
for throwing off heat restricted, performance suffers. 

In some types of heavy work, muscularity may contribute to 
job performance. But overweight is defined as excessive body 
weight— be it fat or muscle — and research has demonstrated the 
risks involved in being overweight. 

Most work capacity tasks do not require excessive muscular 
strength. And it appears reasonable and prudent to lose extra fat. 

DEATH RATE AND OVERWEIGHT 

10 percent overweight— 13 percent increase* 
20 percent overweight — 25 percent increase 
30 percent overweight — 40 percent increase 

* Increase in death rate. Source: American Medical Association 

We say fat because overweight is best understood in terms of 
your percentage of body fat. Use the weight table to help determine 
if you are overweight, but keep in mind that height-weight tables 
may give a false impression as to how fat you really are. Dr. Jack 
Wilmore, an exercise physiologist from the University of Arizona at 
Tucson, says it is not unusual for a person to fall within the normal 
range on the tables for his or her category but have 1 to 30 pounds 
of excess body fat. Percent body fat then, is much more reliable 
than weight as a measure of weight control. 

Although we can't specify precisely what your percent of fat 
should be, we can make some estimates, and we do know that 
excessive amounts pose a threat to health. 

Exercise provides the most physiologically sound approach to 
the problem of weight control. Diet and exercise combine to pro- 
vide the most effective and comprehensive attack on the problem. 
Some guiding principles are included to acquaint you with sound, 



120 



nutritional approaches to diet or caloric restrictions and other 
important factors. 

The calories consumed in the diet must not exceed the calo- 
ries used as energy, or the body will gain weight. Eating and energy 
go hand-in-hand. 

Three factors may be considered in a weight control program— 
the amount of food you eat, the kinds of food and when, during the 
day, the food is eaten. Writing down on a chart the kinds and 
amount of food eaten during an average day will indicate the 
amount of calories consumed. It is much easier to compute the 
energy taken than the energy expended. Writing down what you 
eat and the calories associated with each item helps you to learn 
which foods are high in calories. This procedure will also point out 
not only the kinds of foods but will show when, during the day, you 
are consuming the majority of calories. 

How does one distinguish between the terms "overweight" 
and "obesity"? Also, what is meant by the term "ideal weight"? 
First, overweight is defined as any body weight which exceeds the 
normal or standard weight allowed for a particular individual, 
based on his age, height and frame size. The values are established 
solely on the basis population averages. It is quite possible for you 
to be overweight, while actually being much leaner than individuals 
of the same age, height and frame size who are considered to be of 
normal weight or even underweight. There are also individuals who 
are not overweight by the standard tables, but who are actually 
obese. 




121 



HEIGHT AND WEIGHT TABLES BASED ON POPULATION 

STANDARDS 



Height 






Weight in 


Pounds 


(in inches) 




Men 




Women 


60 








109+ 9* 


62 








115 9 


64 


133+ 




11 


122 10 


66 


142 




12 


129 10 


68 


151 




14 


136 10 


70 


159 




14 


144 11 


72 


167 




15 


152 12 


74 


175 




15 





Heights and weights are without shoes and other clothing. 

'Desirable weight for a small-framed woman of this height would be approximately 109 
pounds minus 9 pounds, or a total of 100 pounds; for an average-framed woman, 109 
pounds for a large-framed woman, 118 pounds. 



Obesity refers to the condition where the total amount of body 
fat exceeds that allowable for a particular individual's body weight. 
This implies that the amount of body fat must be assessed much 
more accurately than can be guessed from the standard weight 
tables, which are based on one's age, height and frame size. The 
hydrostatic or underwater weighting technique is the most accu- 
rate method available for estimating body fat, but is not practical 
for the assessment of each officer, due to the length of time and 
cost for each test. A much simpler, faster and inexpensive tech- 
nique involves measuring with calipers the thickness of two layers 
of skin plus the interposed layer of fat. Theoretically, this skinfold 
will vary directly with the thickness of underlying subcutaneous 
fat, which is related to the total body fat. In either case, the quantity 
of fat determined is normally expressed as a percentage of individ- 
uals total body weight. Exact standards for allowable fat content 
have not been universally agreed on; however, men with over 25 
percent body fat and women over 35 percent should be considered 
obese. 



122 



Note: A simpler way to tell if you are carrying around excess fat is 
the pinch test. Pinch the skinfold on the back of the arm midway 
between shoulder and elbow (right side). Do not include any 
muscle tissue. Remove your fingers with a ruler. If the width 
exceeds three-eights of an inch, the accumulated fat could pose a 
health and work capacity problem. 



The concept of ideal weight is closely related to these upper 
limits of body fat. It is felt that the average male should possess 
approximately 10 to 15 percent of body fat and the average female 
approximately 15 to 23 percent. This will vary slightly between 
individuals, but does provide a realistic target to aim for. As an 
example, assume that a 1 80-pound man has 20 percent body fat, he 
would then possess 36 pounds of fat. The remaining weight, 144 
pounds, is referred to as the lean body weight or mass and repre- 
sents essentially his bone and muscle components. In order for 
this man to reach 1 5 percent fat, he would have to lose 1 1 pounds, 
providing his lean body mass remained the same. This would give 
him a target or ideal weight of 169 pounds. 

CAUSE OF OBESITY 

At one time, obesity was thought to be the result of basic 
hormonal imbalances in the blood resulting from a failure of one or 
more of the endocrine glands. Later, it was thought that only a 
small fraction of the total obese population could be accounted for 
by glandular malfunction, and that the majority were simply the 
result of gluttony. Fortunately, the results of more recent medical 
and physiological research show that obesity can be the result of 
any one of a combination of many factors. Its cause is not as simple 
or straightforward as was once believed. 

A number of recent experimental studies on animals have 
linked obesity to hereditary or genetic factors. Indirect studies 
suggest such a link for man. In one study only 8-9 percent of 
children with parents of normal weight were considered obese, 
whereas 40 percent and 80 percent were considered obese when 
either or both parents respectively were obese. 

Obesity has also been experimentally and clinically linked 
with both physiological and psychological trauma. Hormonal im- 
balances, emotional trauma, alterations in basic homestatic mech- 
anisms have all been shown to be either directly or indirectly 
related to the onset of obesity. Environmental factors— i.e., cultur- 



123 



al habits, inadequate physical activity and improper diets have also 
been shown to be a contributory to obesity. 

Thus obesity is of complex origin, and the specific cause 
undoubtedly differ from one person to the next. Recognizing this 
fact is important both in the treatment of existing obesity and in the 
application of measures to prevent its onset. To attribute obesity 
solely to gluttony is most unfair and very damaging psychologi- 
cally to obese individuals who are concerned and are attempting to 
correct their problem. Several studies have even shown that obese 
individuals actually eat less than the normal individual of similar 
sex and age but, they get far less physical activity as well. 

HEALTH PROBLEMS ASSOCIATED WITH OBESITY 

Obesity has been directly related to four different types of 
health problems. 

1 . Changes in various normal body functions 

2. Increased risk of developing certain diseases 

3. Detrimental effects on established diseases 

4. Adverse psychological reactions 

CHANGES IN NORMAL BODY FUNCTION 

Just as the cause of obesity varies from one individual to 
another, so do the prevalence and extent of changes in body 
function. However, there are certain trends which are specifically 
linked to obesity. Respiratory problems are quite common among 
the obese. They have difficulty in normal breathing, a greater 
incidence of respiratory infections, and lower exercise tolerance. 
Lethargy, associated with increased levels of carbon dioxide in the 
blood, and polycythemia (increased red blood cell production) 
due to lowered arterial blood oxygenation are also commonly the 
result of obesity. These can lead to blood clotting (thrombosis), 
enlargement of the heart, and congestive heart failure. Hyperten- 
sion and arteriosclerosis have likewise been linked to the obese 
individual, as have metabolous and endocrine disorders, such as 
impaired carbohydrate metabolism and diabetes. 



124 



RISK OF DISEASE 

Obesity has been associated with gallbladder disease, heart 
and circulatory disease, coronary artery disease, digestive dis- 
eases and nephritis. More importantly, the mortality rate of the 
obese is substantially higher for each of these diseases when 
compared to people of normal weight. 

EFFECTS ON ESTABLISHED DISEASES 

The effect of obesity on existing diseases is not clearly under- 
stood at the present time. Obesity can contribute to the further 
development of certain disease, and weight reduction is usually 
prescribed as an integral part of the treatment of the disease. 
Conditions such as angina pectoris, hypertension, congestive 
heart failure, myocardial infarction, varicose veins, orthopedic 
problems, and diabetes, would benefit from weight reduction. 

TREATMENT, PREVENTION, AND CONTROL OF OBESITY 

On paper, weight control seems to be a very simple matter. 
The control of energy consumed in the diet and energy consumed 
by the body in physical activity. In both cases the energy is 
expressed in calories. The body will normally maintain a balance 
between the caloric intake and the caloric expenditure, however, 
when this balance is upset, a loss or gain in weight will result. It is 
obvious that both weight losses, and weight gains, are basically 
dependent on only two factors, dietary and exercise habits. 



Diet 

The sole purpose of a weight reduction diet is to create a 
caloric deficiency, i.e., the caloric intake is lowered so that the 
caloric expenditure exceeds the intake. It has been estimated that 
the loss of a pound of fat requires a caloric deficiency that would 
have to average 500 calories/day, which is approximately the equi- 
valent of five scrambled eggs, three and one-half cans of beer (12 
oz. can), or a six ounce sirloin steak. A reasonable or sensible 
weight loss would be one to two pounds per week. Losses any 
greater than this should not be attempted unless under direct 



125 



medical supervision. By losing just one pound of fat a week, an 
individual will lose 52 pounds in only one year! Few people become 
obese that rapidly. 

Weight loss should be a long-term project. Research has 
demonstrated and experience has proven that rapid weight losses 
are usually short-lived and that original weight is quickly regained. 
Rapid weight losses are generally the result of large losses of body 
water. Since the body has built-in safety mechanisms to prevent an 
imbalance in body water levels, the water loss will eventually be 
replaced. Thus, the individual wishing to lose 20 pounds of fat is 
advised to attempt to attain this goal in a six to twelve-month 
period. 

Many special diets have come to the attention of the public in 
recent years, such as the drinking /nan's diet, Dr. Stillman's diet 
and Dr. Atkin's diet, each claiming to be the ultimate in terms of 
effectiveness and comfort in weight loss. Likewise, each diet has its 
loyal following of confirmed believers who make a strong case for 
the superiority of their particular diet over the others. Is there a 
superior diet? Research tends to show that almost all of these diets 
are effective, but no one single diet has been shown to be any more 
effective than another. Again, the important factor is the develop- 
ment of a caloric deficit, while maintaining a balanced diet that is 
complete in all respects with regard to vitamin and mineral 
requirements. The diet that meets these criteria and is best suited 
to the comfort and personality of each individual is the best diet. 

Several agents or aids have been advocated for assisting an 
individual in reducing his caloric intake. Anorexiagenic agents 
(agents used to decrease or suppress the appetite) such as amphe- 
tamines, have been prescribed with varying success, but they 
produce side effects such as insomnia, irritability, and tenseness. 
Thyroid hormone has also been used but its effects are highly 
questionable and it produces side effects similar to the 
amphetamines. 

Diuretics have been suggested, but the resulting weight loss is 
almost entirely salt and water, and should be used only on those 
patients who have problems of water retention or hyperhydration. 
Total fasting has been shown to be helpful in the initial stages of 
weight loss in highly obese individuals, but hospitalization and 
close supervision of the patient is required. However, regardless to 
their effectiveness, none of the above-mentioned agents or aids 
should be used except under the prescription and close supervi- 
sion of a physician. 



126 



A final point of information which will help to keep you on the 
road to weight control is that the older you are, the more the basal 
metabolism rate declines; therefore, it is necessary to adjust the 
intake of food and exercise level. 

Contrary to popular belief, exercise does not significantly 
increase the appetite: in fact, the contrary is true. Exercise prior to 
meals can actually curb the appetite and exercise approximately 
an hour following a meal will diminish the amount of fat that may be 
stored in the body from the previous meal. 

The typical no breakfast, light lunch and large dinner eater is 
usually overweight. These eating habits are conducive to gaining 
weight. A breakfast with at least one-third of the daily caloric 
intake, a moderate lunch, and a light dinner provides the caloric 
intake which can be utilized through the day, thereby decreasing 
the caloric storage associated with the large evening meal. 

In addition, if you are overweight because of caloric intake and 
are physically inactive you are making your job more difficult by 
carrying unneeded weight to the emergency situation and project- 
ing the image to the public of a person who leads a sedentary life. 

Practice behavior modification: 

• Don't starve and stuff. Eat at least three meals a day. 

• Maintain a minimal caloric intake equivalent to your basal 
energy expenditure. 

• Eat a balanced diet. 

• Avoid an excessive caloric deficit (difference between 
intake and expenditure should not regularly exceed 1 ,000 
calories). 

The human body has a basal energy requirement — the calo- 
ries of energy required to keep you alive. If you consume more than 
the basal value and maintain a sedentary existence, you will gain 
weight. If the activity level increases in the form of physical exer- 
cise, the energy requirements are increased and you will lose 
weight. Some people's systems are different and the above rule 
does not always apply. 



127 



Short Method for Assessment of Energy Expenditure 

1 . Calculate Basal Energy Expenditure 

Caloric 
Weight Expenditure* 

140 1550 *5'10" tall (add 20 calories for 

160 1640 each Inch taller, If shorter, sub- 

1 80 1 730 tract 20 calories) 

220 1815 

220 1900 

Basal Energy = Calories expended in 24 hours of complete bed 

rest. 

2. Add Increases in Caloric Expenditure 

Bed rest (eat and read) 10 percent 

Quiet sitting (read) 30 percent 

Light activity (office work) 40-60 percent 

Arduous activity (enforcement personnel) 60-80 percent 

Heavy activity (lumberman) 100 percent 

3. Add Calories Expanded in Non-Work (recreational) Activities 
Use caloric expenditure charts. Figure minutes of activity and 
cost in calories per minute. 

4. Adjust Total for Age 

Subtract four percent of Caloric Expenditure for each decade 

(10 years) over 25 years of age. 

Example: 5'10" tall, 200 pounds, 45 years old - Police Officer) 

Basal -1815 + 60 percent = 2904 -8 percent (Age) 

Total = 2672 

If you should decide to use the long method to compute the 
daily caloric expenditure, you will have to record all your activities, 
the cost for each activity and the time spent in each. Remember to 
adjust final totals for age. 



128 



THE COOPER CLINIC GUIDELINES 
FOR A HEALTHY "PRUDENT" DIET 

1 Eat enough calories to attain and maintain desired body 
weight. 

2. Eat a balanced diet and a variety of foods at each meal. "Bal- 
anced" means eating a protein source (meat or dairy product, 
beans or peas), carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, grains, 
starches), fats (oil or margarine) and fluid at each meal. 

3. Establish consistent eating patterns, i.e., 3 meals a day. This 
promotes sound nutrition and prevents broad fluctuations in 
blood sugar. Do not skip meals. 

4. Eat smaller, easily digested meals (high in carbohydrates, tow 
in fat, mildly seasoned). Sample foods: pasta, baked potato, 
rice, bread, cereal and milk, oatmeal, skim milk, fruit, vege- 
tables, applesauce, fruit salad and cottage cheese, broiled or 
baked chicken, fish, lean meat. 

5. Eat slowly in a relaxed, pleasant environment. 

6. Eat fewer foods high in cholesterol. Limit these: egg yolks, 
organ meats, shrimp, crawfish, meat and meat products, and 
dairy products (whole milk, sour or sweet cream, cheese, ice 
cream, butter). 

7. Eat fewer foods high in fat. These include: dairy and meat 
products, fried foods, oils, sauces, salad dressings, granola, 
triskets, party crackers and dips, fast foods, convenience foods 
and commercial pastries. 

8. Substitute polyunsaturated fats for saturated fats whenever 
possible. Saturated fats are usually animal fats, found in dairy 
and meat products (such as butter, cream, cheese, creamy 
salad dressings, visible and "hidden" meat fat, bacon, luncheon 
meats, sausage, and hot dogs, fried foods), but sometimes are 
vegetable fats, as in chocolate, coconut, and palm oils. Polyun- 
saturated fats are only from vegetable sources: vegetable oils 
and margarines (especially tub margarines), nuts, avocados, 
olives, and unhydrogenated peanut butter. 

Eat more fish, poultry, and veal in place of beef, lamb, pork 
and cheese. Use safflower, corn sunflower, soybean and cot- 
tenseed oils and margarines. 



129 



9. Eat more complex carbohydrates and less refined, simple sug- 
ars. Complex carbohydrates are: fresh fruits and vegetables, 
wholegrained and enriched cereals (bread, cereals, rice, pasta, 
grits, oatmeal, cracked wheat, bran), potatoes, corn, peas, 
beans, lentils. Simple sugars are: sugar, honey, jam, jelly, 
cokes, candy, cookies, cake, processed foods and beverages, 
sugar-coated cereals. 

Eat complex carbohydrates for vitamins, minerals, energy, 
fiber, water and fewer calories. 

10. Increase dietary fiber. Fiber is in: bran, wholegrains, raw fruits 
and vegetables (including peels and seeds), nuts, popcorn, and 
beans. 

1 1 . Drink 6-8 glasses of fluids a day. Sources are: water, juice and 
other beverages. 

12. Avoid excessive dietary sodium. Sources are: salt, pickles, 
olives, luncheon meats, hot dogs, ham, bacon, sausage, 
cheeses, processed foods, fast foods, snack foods (chips, 
crackers, dips, popcorn, pretzels), canned soups and vege- 
tables, sauces (chili, barbeque, soy, steak), pizza, commercial 
bakery products. 

13. Limit caffeine (a stimulant). Caffeine is in: coffee, tea, choco- 
late, cola drinks. 

14. Limit alcohol. 




130 



THE COOPER CLINIC BASIC GUIDELINES 
FOR LOSING WEIGHT 

1 . Eat a well-balanced diet, with a variety of foods at each meal. 

"Balanced" means eating a protein source (meat or dairy pro- 
duct, beans or peas), carbohydrates (fruits, vegetables, grains, 
starches), fats (oil or margarine) and fluid at each meal. 

2. Establish consistent eating patterns, i.e., 3 meals a day. This 
promotes sound nutrition; it prevents broad fluctuations in 
blood sugar (which helps to regular appetite); and prevent a 
"starve/stuff" eating pattern which leads to over-eating. Do not 
skip meals . . . particularly breakfast. 

3. Decrease calorie intake and increase calorie expenditure. One 

pound of stored fat equals 3500 calories. To lose two pounds 
(7,000 calories) weekly, omit 1000 calories of food daily. 
Increase activity to promote faster weight loss. A loss of 1-2 
pounds weekly is reasonable. 

4. Eat fewer foods high in fat. These include: fried foods, butter, 
margarine, mayonnaise, oils, sauces, salad dressings, nuts, 
avocado, olives, granola, triskets, party crackers and dips, fast 
foods, convenience foods, commercial pastries, meat products 
(bacon, sausage, cold cuts, hot dogs, marbled beef, lamb, 
pork), high fat dairy products (whole milk, sour or sweet cream, 
cheese, ice cream). 

Use low-calorie salad dressings; limit quantities of regular 
salad dressing; use yogurt in place of sour cream; drink skim 
milk and eat skim milk cheese. Eat chicken, turkey, tuna sand- 
wiches in place of hamburgers, cold cuts, fast foods, pizza. 

5. Eat less sugar. Sugar is in: sugar, honey, jam, jelly, soft drinks, 
desserts, candy, cookies, cakes, pastries, processed foods and 
beverages, sweetened juices and fruit, sugar-coated cereals, 
peanut butter containing sugar. Read food labels to identify 
sugar content. "Sugar" is also labeled "glucose", "corn sugar 
(sweeteners)", "dextrose", "fructose", "lactose", etc. Limit des- 
serts to one or two weekly. 

6. Eat more high-volume, high-fiber, low-calorie foods: raw fruit 
and vegetables (eat peels, seeds), baked potatoes, whole- 
grained cereals and breads, bran, popcorn, broth-based soups. 



131 



7. Eat smaller meat portions. Eat no more than 5-8 oz. lean meat 
(including poultry and fish) daily. 

8. Eat more lean meats. Particularly poultry, fish, veal, in place of 
beef, lamb, pork, and cheese. Lean beef cuts include: flank 
steak, tenderloin (filet, sirloin, T-bone), chuck, round, sirloin 
tip, rump. 

9. Prepare foods in a manner that minimizes the use of fat. Broil or 
bake meats on a rack. Drain off fat. For gravies, use meat 
drippings with fat skimmed off. Saute' foods in water (not fat). 
Steam vegetables or eat them raw . . . without sauces, dips. Use 
fat-free butter substitutes, i.e., Butter Buds, Pam Spray, butter- 
flavored extract, butter salt. 

10. Limit alcohol. One beer or 2 oz. cocktail or 6 oz. wine contain 
150 non-nutritive calories. 

11. Eat low-calories snacks: raw fruit and vegetables, popcorn 
(unbuffered), puffed cereals, diet beverages, water, broth, 
tomato juice, V-8 juice, pickled vegetables, salads. 

12. Drink 6-8 glasses of fluids daily. Sources are: water, juice, tea, 
other beverages. Drink mainly calorie-free beverages: water, 
diet drinks, club soda, tea, coffee, broth. 

13. Eat slowly in a relaxed, pleasant environment. Enjoy your food. 

Chew each bite thoroughly before adding the next bite. Allow 
20 minutes per meal. It takes 20 minutes to feel "full" after 
eating. 

14. Choose "crunchy" foods (i.e., apple) over "soft" foods (i.e., 
banana). Crunchy foods take longer to chew. 

15. Pre-plan meals. Have appropriate foods on hand. Planned 
meals and eating strategies prevent moods, circumstances, 
parties, weekends, holidays, vacations, etc., from interfering 
with your goals. 

16. Limit sodium. Sources are: salt, pickles, olives, luncheon 
meats, hot dogs, ham, bacon, sausage, cheeses, processed 
foods, fast foods, snack foods (chips, crackers, dips, popcorn, 
pretzels), canned soups and vegetables, sauces (chili, bar- 
beque, soy, steak), pizza, commercial bakery products. 



132 



1 7 . Eliminate external food cues. Store food out of sight; serve food 
from the stove to avoid food containers on dinner table; do not 
combine eating with TV, reading, etc.; be conscious of the 
delicious meal you are enjoying. 

18. incorporate more activity in your daily schedule and establish a 
regular activity program. Exercise burns calories, depresses 
appetite, and promotes cardiovascular and pulmonary health. 

19. Find ways to deal with stress effectively, without food or 
alcohol. 

20. Establish lifelong eating and exercise habits for permanent 
weight control. Weigh regularly, never allowing yourself a 
weight gain of 2-3 pounds over your optimal weight. 




133 



HABIT EXAMPLES 



EXERCISE- 



Quality Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 

1. Proper aerobic exercise (i.e., 
jogging, cycling, etc.) 

2. Proper intensity in terms of 
training and maximum heart 
rates 



POOR (-) HABITS 

1. Wrong exercise (i.e., bowling) 

2. Wrong intensity 

3. No exercise 



Quantity Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 


POOR (-) HABITS 


1. Proper duration (At least 20 


1. Wrong duration 


minutes) 




2. Proper frequency (At least 3 


2. Wrong frequency 


days) 




3. Regularity 


3. No exercise 



Situational Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 

1. Separating exercise from 
other habits 

2. Formal place and time for 
session 

3. Exercise with friends in a 
group 



POOR (-) HABITS 

1. Not scheduling a formal 
exercise session 

2. Hanging around non-exercis- 
ing friends 



134 



HABIT EXAMPLES 



—DIET— 



Quality Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 
Low-calorie foods such as 
yogurt, boiled eggs, lean meat, 
cottage cheese, and so on 
(include any foods that are 
low in carbohydrates or fats). 
Low-calorie substitutions such 
as ice water instead of beer, 
saccharin instead of whole 
milk, diet soda instead of reg- 
ular soda , popcorn instead of 
chips, carrots instead of nuts, 
and so on (anytime you eat or 
drink something less fatten- 
ing than usual; include low- 
calorie snacking). 



POOR (-) HABITS 
Fattening foods such as pota- 
toes, bread, fatty meat, fried 
foods, salad dressing, spagh- 
etti, lasagna (noodle dishes) 
and so on (include any foods 
that are high in carbohydrates 
or fats). 

Fattening snacks and bever- 
ages such as candy, nuts, 
pastry, chips, ice cream, non- 
diet soda, beer, wine, any 
alcohol, coffee or tea with 
sugar, and so on (include all 
fattening between-meal 
snacking). 



Quantity Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 

1. Reduced portions (anytime 
you eat or drink less than your 
usual amount — for example, 
one piece of toast instead of 
two, a half-glass of beer in- 
stead of a full one.) 

2. Ending a meal while still a bit 
hungry. 

3. Eating slowly, taking small 
bites or interrupting meal by 
five minutes or more. 

4. Leaving food on your plate 
after a meal at home, turning 
down offers o f food, throwing 
away leftovers rather than 
eating them. 



POOR (-) HABITS 
Extra portions such as seconds 
at a meal, large servings, and 
so on (anytime you eat more 
than usual). 



2. Eating until full or bloated. 

3. Taking large bites and eating 
rapidly. 

4. Eating to avoid waste (for 
example, by eating leftovers 
to prevent their being thrown 
out or to keep them from 
spoiling, or by finishing a 
child's meal for him). 



135 



Situation Control 



GOOD (+) HABITS 

1 . Separating eating from other 
activities — for example, by 
going to a special room to eat 
or by making an effort not to 
eat while reading or watching 
TV. 

2. Not eating between meals. 



3. Not eating because of time of 
day or because you have seen 
others eating (include anytime 
you do not eat when you 
normally would have). 



POOR (-) HABITS 
Eating when not really hungry 
— for example, at a party, due 
to "nervous energy", because 
others are eating (such as at 
meals), or due to time of day 
("lunch") (anytime you eat due 
to habit or just to be sociable). 
Eating between meals. (Note: 
if the item you eat is fattening, 
mark a minus for quality; if it 
is low-calorie, mark a plus.) 
Eating every item at a restau- 
rant just because you paid for 
it. 




136 



CALORIC COST OF VARIOUS ACTIVITIES 



Caloric Cost of Household and Industrial Tasks 



Cal/Min. 


Activity 


3.5 


Metal working 


3.5 


House painting 


3.8 


Carpentry 


3.8 


Farming chores 


4.1 


Plastering walls 


4.2 


Automobile and truck repair 


4.7 


Farming, planting, hoeing, raking 


4.7 


Mixing cement 


5.0 


Repaving roads 


5.6 


Gardening, weeding 


5.8 


Stacking lumber 


6.3 


Stone, masonry 


6.7 


Pick and shovel work 


6.7 


Farming, haying, plowing with horse 


7.5 


Chopping wood 


8.6 


Gardening, digging 




Caloric Cost of Various Other Activities 


Cal/Min. 


Activity 


1.2 


Sleeping 


1.3 


Resting in bed 


1.3 


Sitting normally 


1.3 


Sitting reading 


1.3 


Lying quietly 


1.5 


Sitting, eating 


1.5 


Sitting, playing cards 


1.5 


Standing normally 


1.7 


Classroom, lecture (listen to) 


1.8 


Conversing 


2.0 


Personal toilet 


2.6 


Sitting, writing 


2.6 


Standing, light activity 


2.6 


Washing and dressing 


2.6 


Washing and shaving 


2.8 


Driving a car 


3.1 


Walking indoors 


3.2 


Shining shoes 



137 



3.4 


Making bed 


3.4 


Dressing 


3.4 


Showering 


3.4 


Driving motorcycle 


3.7 


Cleaning windows 


3.9 


Sweeping floors 


4.9 


Mopping floors 


7.1 


Walking downstairs 


18.6 


Walking upstairs 



Caloric Cost of Sporting Activities 

The caloric cost of sporting activities depends upon physical 
condition and efficiency. Use exercise plus rate to confirm the 
caloric cost. 



lal/Min. 


Activity 


3.0 


Canoeing — 2.5 mph 


7.0 


Canoeing — 4.0 mph 


3.5 


Volleyball 


3.8 


Pitching horseshoes 


3.8 


Shooting pool 


4.9 


Playing ping pong 


4.7 


Playing baseball (except pitching) 


5.0 


Calisthenics 


5.0 


Rowing for pleasure 


5.0 


Cycling on level road 


10-12 


Cycling — 15 mph (10 speed) 


5.2 


Archery 


5.0 


Golfing 


7.8 


Bowling 


7.1 


Playing tennis 


5-8.6 


Playing basketball ( 1 /2-full court; more for 




fast break) 


5-10.2 


Playing football (American) 


8.9 


Playing football (Soccer) 


10.0 


Mountain climbing 


10.2 


Playing squash 


10.6 


Cross-country running 


23.0 


Sprinting 


5.2 


Dancing: Fox Trot 


5.7 


Waltz 


7.0 


Rhumba 



138 



7.7 






Square 


4.2 






Modern (Moderately) 


5.7 






Modern (Vigorously) 


11.7 


Sw 


imming: (pleasure) 


5.0 






Breast stroke (20 yd/min) 


7.5 






Breast stroke (30 yd/min) 


10.0 






Breast stroke (40 yd/min) 


5.0 






Backstroke (25 yd/min) 


7.0 






Backstroke (30 yd/min) 


9.0 






Backstroke (35 yd/min) 


11.0 






Backstroke (40 yd/min) 


11.0 






Sidestroke (40 yd/min) 


11.5 






Crawl (45 yd/min) 


14.0 






Crawl (55 yd/min) 


8-10 


Ski 


ing 


Moderate Slope 


+10 


Ski 


ing: 


Steep Slope 


9.0 


Ski 


ing: 


Cross Country (3 mph) 


17.0 


Ski 


ing 


Cross Country ( 8 mph) 


9.0 


Snowshoeing (2.5 mph) 


5-10 


Boxing (sparring) 



Caloric Cost of Walking 

Caloric cost of walking depends upon physical condition and 
efficiency; use exercise pulse rate to confirm the caloric cost. 



Surface 


Speed 


Cal/Min 


Road 


3.5 mph 


5.6 


Field 


3.5 mph 


7.0 


Hard snow 


3.5 mph 


10.0 


Soft snow 


2.5 mph 


20.0 


Uphill 






5% 


3.5 mph 


8.0 


10% 


3.5 mph 


11.0 


15% 


3.5 mph 


15.0 


Downhill 






5% 


2.5 mph 


3.6 


10% 


2.5 mph 


3.5 


15% 


2.5 mph 


3.7 


20% 


2.5 mph 


4.3 



139 



Caloric Cost of Running and Jogging 



Place 


Speed 


Cal/Min 


12 Minute. Mile 


5 mph 


10.5 


8 Minute Mile 


7.5 mph 


14.8 


6 Minute Mile 


10 mph 


19.3 


5 Minute Mile 


12 mph 


25.4 







140 



COUNTING CALORIES 

To lose weight it is unnecessary to use devices such as pills or 
medically harmful "crash diets". Through increased physical activ- 
ity and a reduction of your caloric intake, a safe level of reduction 
will be realized. Just by cutting 500 calories from your daily intake, 
at the end of the week 3500 calories or one pound of stored fat will 
have been used. 

Do not cut the nutritional value of foods from your diet. Cut- 
ting calories can be safely realized without removing the nutrients 
necessary for good health. 

Calories in Food 



FOOD 


AMOUNT 


CALORIES 


Fruit — Fruit Juices 






Apples 


1 sweet 


60-90 


Apple juice, fresh 


1 cup 


120 


Applesauce, sweetened 


V2 cup 


80 


Apricot 


1 medium 


18 


Avocados 


1 fresh 


370 


Bananas 


1 about 6 in. 


94 


Blackberries, fresh 


V2 cup 


40 


canned, sweetened 


V2 cup 


85 


Blueberries, fresh 


V2 cup 


45 


canned, sweetened 


V2 cup 


110 


Cantaloupe 


1 fresh 


80 


Cherries, canned, sweetened 


1 /2 cup 


100 


Cranberry sauce 


V2 cup 


225 


Fruit cocktail, canned 


V2 cup 


80 


Grapes, fresh 


1 /2 cup 


68 


Grape juice 


V2 cup 


67 


Grapefruit 


1 /2 grapefruit, 4 1 /2" dia. 


73 


Lemons 


1 fresh, 2" 


28 


Olives, green 


4 medium 


40 


Oranges, fresh 


1 orange, 3" dia. 


70 


Orange juice, fresh 


1 /2 cup 


55 


Peaches, fresh 


1 medium, 2V2" dia. 


47 


canned, sweetened 


2 halves 


85 


Pears 


1 pear, 2V 2 " dia. 


92 


Pineapple, canned, sweetened 


V2 cup 


100 


Pineapple juice, canned 


V2 cup 


60 


Plums 


V2 cup 


32 


Prunes, dried, uncooked 


4 


110 


Raisins, dried 


V2 cup 


190 



141 



FOOD 



Calories in Food (cont'd.) 

AMOUNT 



CALORIES 



Raspberries, fresh 


1 /2 cup 


canned, sweetened 


1 cup 


Strawberries, fresh 


10 large 


frozen, sweetened 


1 /2 cup 


Vegetables 




Asparagus, canned 


1 /2 cup 


Beans 




Kidney 


V2 cup 


Lima, fresh 


V2 cup 


canned 


Vz cup 


Snap, fresh 


1 cup 


Wax, canned 


Vz cup 


Beets (beetroots) 




peeled, fresh 


V2 cup 


Broccolli, fresh 


V2 cup 


Brussels sprouts, fresh 


V2 cup 


Cabbage, fresh 


wedge 


Carrots, canned 


V2 cup 


fresh 


1 carrot, 6" 


Cauliflower, fresh 




Celery, stalk 


2 stalks 


Corn, fresh 


1 ear 


canned 


V2 cup 


Cucumbers 


V2 cucumber, 7 1 /2" 


Eggplant, fresh 


V2 cup 


Kale, fresh 


1 cup 


Lentils, dried 


V2 cup 


Lettuce, head, fresh 


1 /4 head 


Mushrooms (field mushrooms) 


V2 cup 


Onions 


1 onion, 2 1 / 2 " dia. 


Peas, green, fresh, unripe 


V2 cup 


canned 


V2 cup 


Peppers, green, fresh 


1 large 


Potato chips 


7-10 


Potatoes, raw 


1 medium 


dehydrated 


V2 cup 


french fried 


20 pieces 


Radishes, fresh 


4 small 


Rhubarb, fresh 


V2 cup 


Sauerkraut 


V2 cup 


Spinach, canned 


V2 cup 


Sweet Potatoes, fresh 


1 small 


canned 


V2 cup 


Tomatoes 


1 medium 


canned 


V2 cup 



50 
100 

37 
125 

25 

90 
90 
95 
32 
22 

35 
24 
24 
25 
22 
20 
25 
17 
92 
85 
21 
20 
40 

110 
15 
26 
40 
53 
69 
24 

110 
85 
93 

275 

7 

11 

107 
24 

130 

107 
34 
25 



142 



FOOD 



Calories in Food (cont'd.) 

AMOUNT 



CALORIES 



Tomato catsup 


2 tablespoons 


Tomato juice, canned 


Vz cup 


Nuts 




Almonds, dried 


1 /2 cup 


Brazil nuts 


1 /2 cup 


Cashew nuts, roasted or 




cooked 


V2 cup 


Chestnuts, fresh, dried 




Peanuts, roasted 


1 /2 cup 


Pecans 


1 cup 


Walnuts 


1 cup 


Cereals, Cereal Products 




Bread 




Boston, enriched, brown 


2 large slices 


Corn or muffins, enriched 


2 


Raisin, enriched 


4 slices 


Rye, American 


4 slices 


White, enriched 




4% nonfat, milk 


4 slices 


Whole wheat 


4 slices 


Bread, rolls, sweet unenriched 


1 


Cornflakes 


1 cup 


Crackers 




Graham 


2 medium 


Saltines 


2 


Soda 


10 oyster 


Macaroni, unenriched, dry 


1 /2 cup 


Noodles, cooked 




Oatflakes, dry, cooked 


1 cup 


Pancakes, wheat, unenriched 


4 cakes 


Pie 


1 slice 


Popcorn, popped 


1 cup 


Pretzels 


5 small sticks 


Rice, cooked 


Vi cup 


Spaghetti 


1 cup cooked 


Tapioca, dry 


1 /2 cup 


Waffles, baked, unenriched 


1 waffle 


Wheat germ 


1 cup 


Confectionery Sugar 




Chocolate, sweetened, milk 


4 ounces 


plain 


4 ounces 


unsweetened 


4 ounces 


Honey 


1 tablespoon 


Jams 


1 tablespoon 



35 
20 

450 
485 

561 
579 
440 
696 
654 



219 
219 
280 
244 

275 
240 
323 
108 

55 

34 

43 

240 

90 

98 

218 

300-400 

54 

17 

78 

112 

263 

287 

365 



542 

471 

570 

62 

55 



143 



Calories in Food (cont'd.) 



FOOD 


AMOUNT 


CALORIES 


Jellies 


1 tablespoon 


50 


Molasses 


V2 cup 


350 


Syrup (chiefly corn syrup) 


V2 cup. 


427 


Sugar, brown 


V2 cup 


377 


cane or beet, white 


V2 cup 


387 


Fats, Oils 






Butter 


V2 cup 


716 


Mayonnaise 


V2 cup 


718 


Olive Oil 


1 tablespoon 


124 


Peanut Butter 


1 /2 cup 


581 


Dairy Products, Eggs 






Cheese, Cheddar 


V2 cup 


400 


cottage 


1 /2 cup 


85 


cream 


1 /2 cup 


374 


limburger 


1 /2 cup 


390 


swiss 


1 /2 cup 


370 


Cream, light 


1 tablespoon 


30 


heavy or whipping 


1 tablespoon 


53 


Eggs, whole, raw 


1 medium 


76 


Egg white, raw 


1 medium 


16 


Egg yolk, raw 


1 medium 


57 


Milk, pasterurized, whole 


1 /2 cup 


68 


buttermilk, cultured 


1 /2 cup 


40 


canned, evaporated, 






unsweetened 


M> cup 


139 


condensed, sweetened 


1 /2 cup 


480 


dried, whole 


1 cup 


496 


nonfat 


1 cup 


350 


Goats milk 


1 /2 cup 


71 


Ice cream 


1/6 quart 


200 


Meat, Poultry 






(raw unless otherwise stated) 






Bacon, medium fat, cooked 


2 strips 


97 


Beef (medium fat) 






hamburger, cooked 


Va pound 


225 


rib roast, cooked 


2 slices 


200-400 (lean fat) 


rump, cooked 


2 slices 


190 


sirloin, cooked 


Va pound 


300-400 (lean fat) 


canned, corned 


3 1 /2 ounces 


212 


liver 


1 slice 


85 


Chicken 






fried 


Va pound 


275 


broiled 


Va pound 


218 


liver 


Vz pound 


85 



144 



Calories in Food (cont'd.) 



FOOD 



AMOUNT 



CALORIES 



Ham 




boiled 


Va pound 


smoked, cooked 


Va pound 


canned, spiced 


Va pound 


Lamb (medium fat) 




leg roast, cooked 


Va pound 


rib chop, cooked 


1 /4 pound 


shoulder roast, cooked 


1 /4 pound 


Pork 




(see also Bacon & Ham) 




medium fat 


Va pound 


loin or chops, cooked 


1 chop 


Turkey, medium fat 


1 /4 pound 


Veal, medium fat 


Va pound 


Venison 


Va pound 


Seafood (raw unless 




otherwise stated) 




Clams, long and round 


Va pound 


Cod 


1 piece 


Crab, canned or cooked, 




meat only 


1 /2 cup 


Flounder 


Va pound 


Frog legs 


3 large 


Haddock 


Va pound 


Halibut 


Va pound 


Lobster 


1 3 /4 pound 


Oysters 


5-8 medium 


Salmon 




Pacific, cooked 


Va pound 


canned 


1 /2 CUp 


Sardines, canned in oil 


5 medium 


Scallops, fried 


5-6 medium 


Shrimp, canned, drained 


10-12 medium 


Trout 


Va pound 


Soup 




Broth 


1 cup 


Bean 


1 cup 


Beef 


1 cup 


with vegetables 


1 cup 


Chicken noodle 


1 cup 


Lentil 


1 cup 


Pea, creamed 


1 cup 


Tomato 


1 cup 



302 
397 
289 

274 

360 (less fat) 

342 



365 
265 
268 
220-360 
139 



81 
70 

85 
202 
210 
165 
171 
305 

66 

180 
190 
203 
425 
45 
210-290 



25 
260 
115 
80 
68 
600 
270 
100 



145 





Calories in Food (cont'd.) 




FOOD 




AMOUNT 


CALORIES 


Miscellaneous 








Gelatin, dry, plain 




1 tablespoon 


35 


dessert 




V2 cup 


60 


Yeast, compressed, bakers 


1 cake 


10 


Salad dressing 




1 tablespoon (french or 








thousand island) 


100 


Beverages, Non-Alcoholic 






Carbonated soft drinks 




1 cup 


80 


Chocolate milk 




1 cup 


210 


Cocoa 




1 cup 


175 


Coffee, black 




1 cup 


1 


with cream and sugar 




1 cup 


45 


Tea 




1 cup 


1 


Beverages, Alcoholic 








Beer 




1 cup (8 ounces) 


116 


Brandy 




1 ounce 


70 


Fruit wine 




1 /2 CUp 


85-105 


Port wine 




1 /2 CUp 


155 


Rum 




1 jigger (1 1 /2 ounces) 


140 


Whiskey 




1 jigger (IV2 ounces) 


130 




146 



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PART VI 

Stress 

The development of disease in general may depend on the 
expectations a person brings to his life, how he handles the pres- 
sures he is subjected to. Since Hans Seyle first began studying the 
phenomenon at the University of Prague in the 1920's, "stress" has 
become one of the most important new concepts in medicine. 

Dr. Seyle defined stress as a "general adaptation syndrome", 
the set of physical reactions in the body to various pressures a 
person is subjected to in day-to-day living. Physical pressures, like 
breathing polluted air, can cause stress reactions in the body. But 
purely psychological pressures, things like a death in the family, 
loss of a job, even positive events like marriage, can also cause 
stress. 

And stress has been shown to increase a person's susceptibil- 
ity to disease. Researchers at the University of Washington have 
developed a scale for ranking stressful life events (see chart). The 
death of a spouse is given 100 points on the scale, retirement 45, 
trouble with your boss 23. Tests of the scale have shown it to be an 
accurate predictor of disease. 

In one study, researchers used the scale to rate the amount of 
stress experienced by 250 U.S. Navy personnel in the six months 
prior to a tour of ship-board duty. The total amount of stress they 
experienced, as determined by the scale was compared with their 
medical records for the six months aboard ship. The sailors who 
scored lowest on the stress scale had significantly fewer diseases 
in the next six months than sailors who scored highest. 

Of course, if stress results in disease and that's all there is to it, 
most of us are in serious trouble. We live in stressful times, so much 
so that stress is practically unavoidable. Fortunately, what the 
mind can cause it can also prevent. 

Stress is any physical or emotional strain on the body or mind. 
Physical stress may occur when an external or natural change or 
force acts on the body. Heat, cold, injuries, overwork, malnutrition, 
exposure to poisons, or drugs are good examples of physical 
stress. 

Emotional stress may be a result of hate, love, fear, anger, 
grief, joy, tension, frustration or anxiety. Physical and emotional 
stress can overlap, as in special body conditions such as preg- 



148 



nancy, adolescence, or aging. During these times, body metabo- 
lism is increased or lowered, changing the body's physical func- 
tions, which in turn, affect the person's mental and emotional 
outlook of life. A certain amount of stress is useful as a motivating 
factor but when it occurs in excess or is of the wrong kind, the 
effect can be detrimental. 

The metabolic response of the body to either physical or 
emotional stress is to produce additional adrenal hormones. These 
adrenal hormones are secreted by glands which are above the 
kidneys. When released into the blood, these hormones prepare 
the body for action by increasing heart beat, blood pressure and by 
making additional energy available for quick usage. The responses 
are useful when physical action is needed, but in modern civiliza- 
tion there is little physical outlet for them; therefore, the body must 
react to stress by channeling the body's responses inward to one of 
the organ systems, such as the digestive, circulatory, or nervous 
system. When this happens, the system reacts adversely, and con- 
ditions such as ulcers, hypertension, backache, arteriosclerosis, 
allergic reactions, asthma fatigue and insomnia may often develop. 

Anxiety, a fearful or distressful feeling, is responsible for the 
stress of many people. Anything that threatens a person's body, 
job, loved ones, or values may cause anxiety. If the person cannot 
cope with these situations, stress is increased on the body, result- 
ing in many of the disorders associated with stress. Changes in 
attitude or life-style may be necessary to eliminate the needless 
strains and allow the body to function normally. 

The increase in the production of adrenal hormones which 
happen when stress causes an increase of metabolism of proteins, 
fats and carbohydrates, producing quick energy for the body's use. 
As a result of this increased metabolism, there is also an increased 
exertion of protein, potassium, phosphorous, and a decreased 
storage of calcium. Many of the disorders related to stress are not a 
direct result of the stress itself but a result of nutrient deficiencies 
caused by increased metabolic rate during stress periods. 

An example, Vitamin C is used by the adrenal gland during 
stressful conditions, and any stress that is sufficiently severe or 
prolonged will cause a depletion of Vitamin C in the body tissues. 

Due to the stressful conditions of the Law Enforcement pro- 
fession it would be well for all Rangers to maintain a nutritious, 
well-balanced diet, with emphasis on replacing nutrients that may 
be depleted during stress conditions. 



149 



RELATION THERAPY ENVIRONMENT 

First, select a quiet, preferably dark room where you are not 
likely to be interrupted by noise or the activities of others. Lie on 
your back or select a comfortable chair and close your eyes. The 
prone position is an excellent position for various physical reasons. 
If you are comfortable without a pillow under your head, proceed 
without one. Not using a pillow will help you relax with your spine 
in a more straight line position. Also you may place a pillow under 
your knees so that your knees are arched. This takes strain off your 
hips near the small of the back. 

STAGES OF RELAXATION 



1. Breathing 



2. Muscle Relaxation 



Inhale through the nose for four (4) 
counts and exhale through the mouth 
for eight (8) counts. Inhale = Stomach 
expansion not chest, this gives the 
lungs more room. 

Concentrate on chest and breathing 
and gradually let the tension ieave the 
body. 

Concentrate on each body part begin- 
ning with toes, feet, legs, stomach and 
work your way up to the neck, (right 
side-left side-etc.) 

Allow your attention to wander to each 
body part as you move up the body. 



3. Meditation 



Total concentration through pleasant 
thoughts (or no thoughts) as you 
become totally entranced within the 
scope of pleasing and relaxing mo- 
ments. 



150 



Prevention Through Education 

(Preventive approaches to health problems are possible when 
people educate themselves as to what they can do to reduce the 
occurrence of various maladies.) 

1. Stress Management and Relaxation Therapy are useful 
approaches to the effective handling of stress and tension if 
used regularly and correctly. 

2. The management of one's stress must become a regular (and 
preferably daily) part of life. 

3. It must be a system which can be accomplished anywhere. 

4. One must find a quiet, dark and peaceful environment. 

5. One must be able to completely concentrate upon moments of 
mental peace. (Fixed imagery of known pleasant thoughts.) 

6. One must physically concentrate upon each body part and be 
able to control muscular relaxation. 

7. One must continue to practice breathing relaxation exercises 
to achieve maximum ventilation benefit. 

8. One must concentrate on heart rate reduction through proper 
breathing. 

9. One must completely believe in the relaxation method and 
express an attitude which is positive. 

10. It would be preferred to be in a prone position and on a comfort- 
able and soft surface. 




151 



STRESS RATING SCALE 

Event Value 

Death of spouse 100 

Divorce 73 

Marital separation 65 

Jail term 63 

Death of close family member 63 

Personal injury or illness 53 

Marriage 50 

Fired from work 47 

Marital reconciliation 45 

Retirement 45 

Change in family member's health 44 

Pregnancy 40 

Sex difficulties 39 

Addition to family 39 

Business readjustment 39 

Change in financial status 38 

Death of close friend 37 

Change to different line of work 36 

Change in number of marital arguments 36 

Mortgage or loan over $10,000 31 

Change in work responsibilities 29 

Son or daughter leaving home 29 

Trouble with in-laws 29 

Outstanding personal achievement 29 

Spouse begins or stops work 28 

Starting or finishing school 26 

Change in living conditions 26 

Revision of personal habits . 25 

Trouble with boss 24 

Change in work hours, conditions 23 

Change in residence 20 

Change in recreational habits 20 

Change in church activities 19 

Change in social activities 19 

Mortgage or loan under $10,000 18 

Change in sleeping habits 17 

Change in number of family gatherings 16 

Change in eating habits 15 

Vacation 15 



152 



Christmas season 13 

Minor violation of the law 12 

Researchers at the University of Washington developed this 
scaie for ranking stressful events in a person's life. The higher the 
total score accumulated in the preceding year, the more likely 
there will be a serious illness in the immediate future. 






153 





154 










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PART VII 

Physical Fitness Assessment 

If the employee is cleared by the health screening or pre- 
employment medical examination they will be able to participate in 
the exercise and assessment part of the program. It should be 
noted that during the Department's employee health screening 
process that some officers were identified as having health prob- 
lems that required immediate follow-up by their personal physi- 
cian. Some of these conditions had negative impacts on their 
ability to perform their duties and the presence of many of the 
discovered problems were apparently unknown to the Rangers. 

After the health screening is completed the officers are tested 
to assess their level of fitness. Rangers are tested to determine 
cardiovascular endurance (3 minute step test or 1 V2 mile run, con- 
tingent on level of fitness determined at the time examined), flexi- 
bility for hips and low back (sit and reach), and strength (maximum 
number of push-ups and maximum number of bent knee sit-ups in 
one minute). In addition, resting heart rate, resting blood pressure, 
body composition (skinfold measurements to determine percent- 
age of body fat), weight, girth, and height information is obtained. 

After the Ranger is tested to determine fitness level, the 
Ranger receives assistance from a Department Law Enforcement 
fitness instructor to develop an individualized fitness exercise 
prescription. The prescription is designed to help each Ranger 
achieve the fitness goal at the desired levels. The fitness level goals 
may equal or exceed the Department's standard which will be 
developed from several testing sessions, based on sex and age. 

The instructors will monitor the progress of each Ranger who 
has obtained an exercise prescription. Fitness assessment retest- 
ing and medical health screening examination schedules will be 
established to ensure that Rangers are physically able to meet their 
goals and standards set without health risks. 

RESTING HEART RATE 

A resting heart rate will be taken prior to any test of physical 
ability. 

Heart rate will be taken in the sitting or prone position before 



156 



any exercise or warm-up activity. Subject will rest or relax in a quiet 
location for at ieast 10 minutes before the resting heart rate is taken 
and recorded. 

To determine your fitness category, compare your heart rate 
to the police officer standards for resting heart. 

Police officer standards for resting heart rate* 



Fitness 




Age Groups 




20-29 yrs (n=88) 


30-39 yrs (n=85) 


40-62 yrs (n=30) 


Category 


Heart Rate 


Heart Rate 


Heart Rate 




(beats/min) 


(beats/min) 


(beats/min) 1 


Excellent 


44 and below 


44 and below 


48 and below 


Good 


45 to 58 


45 to 61 


49 to 62 


Average 


59 to 66 


62 to 69 


63 to 69 


Below Average 


67 to 69 


70 to 85 


70 to 83 


Poor 


80 and above 


86 and above 


84 and above 



RESTING BLOOD PRESSURE 

As in the heart rate, a resting blood pressure will betaken prior 
to any exercise or warm-up activity. 

Blood pressure will be taken after at least 10 minutes relaxa- 
tion period in relaxed surroundings. 

Compare your resting blood pressure reading to the police 
officer standards for resting biood pressure, to determine your 
fitness category. 



157 



Police officer standards for resting blood pressure' 





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158 



BENCH STEP TEST 

The purpose of the step test is to measure the heart rate in the 
recovery period following three minutes of stepping; the results 
can be used to estimate maximum oxygen intake. 

The rate of stepping is 24 steps per minute. Immediately after 
the three minutes of stepping, the participant sits down. A 60- 
second heart rate starting five seconds after the completion of 
stepping is counted. 



Norms 






3-Minute Step Test 








Male 


Female 


Excellent 


71 


96 


Good 


70-102 


97-127 


Fair 


103-117 


128-142 


Poor 


118-147 


143-171 


Very Poor 


148+ 


172+ 




159 



MUSCULAR ENDURANCE 

Muscular endurance is defined as the ability to contract the 
muscle repeatedly over a period of time. Low levels of muscular 
endurance indicate inefficiency in movement and a low capacity to 
perform work. 

Two tests of muscular endurance will be administered; push- 
ups and one-minute timed sit-ups. For the push-up test the instruc- 
tor places his fist on the floor below the subject's chest. The subject 
must keep his back straight at all times and from the up position 
lower himself to the floor until his chest touches the instructor's 
hand and then push to the up position again. Only the total number 
of correct push-ups are recorded. 







^ 




160 



Push-up 



Men 



Fitness 

Category Percentile 

Years 



Total Push-Ups Per Minute 



20-29 



30-39 



40-49 



50-59 



Excellent 
Good 
Fair 
Poor 



50+ 
40-49 
30-39 
20-29 



40+ 



30-39 



20-29 



10-19 



35+ 



25-34 



15-24 



10-14 



29+ 



25-28 



15-24 



10-14 



Fitness 

Category Percentile 

Years 



Women 



20-29 



Total Push-Ups Per Minute 



30-39 



40-49 



50-59 



Excellent 
Good 
Fair 
Poor 



40+ 


35+ 


30+ 


25+ 


30-39 


25-34 


20-29 


15-24 


20-29 


15-24 


15-19 


10-14 


10-19 


5-14 


5-14 


5-10 



161 



In the sit-up test, the subject starts by lying on his back, knees 
bent, heels flat on the floor, and hands interlocked behind the neck. 
A partner holds the feet down. The subject then performs as many 
correct sit-ups as possible in one minute. In the up position, the 
individual should touch hiselbowsto his kneesand then return toa 
full lying position before starting the next sit-up. This test indicates 
the endurance of the abdominal muscle group, an area of impor- 
tant concern to the middle-age subject. 



Norms 






1 -Minute Sit Up 








Male 


Female 


Excellent 


49+ 


34+ 


Good 


42-48 


28-33 


Fair 


35-41 


23-27 


Poor 


26-34 


16-22 


Very Poor 


27 


15 




162 




163 



FLEXIBILITY 



Flexibility is included in total fitness assessment because of 
the widespread problems of low back pain and joint soreness. 
Many of these problems are related to sedentary living. Flexibility is 
defined as the range of possible movement in a joint or group of 
joints. It is necessary to determine the functional ability of the joints 
to move through a full range of motion. 

No general flexibility test measures the flexibility of all joints; 
however, the trunk flexion or the sit and reach test serves as an 
important measure of hip and back flexibility. Primarily, the elastic- 
ity of the muscles in the back of the legs and trunk is tested in the sit 
and reach position. The subject sits on the floor or mat with legs 
extended at right angles to a taped line on a box. The heels touch 
the near edge of the box and are eight inches apart. A yardstick is 
placed between the legs of the subject and rests on the box with the 
15-inch mark on the edge of the box. The subject slowly reaches 
forward with both hands as far as possible and holds the position 
momentarily. The distance reached on the yardstick by the finger- 
tips is recorded. The best of three trials is considered as the 
flexibility score. The subject should warm up slowly by practicing 
the test. 




164 



■F W ' '# 




The sit and reach test for hip and back flexibility 



165 



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166 



FITNESS CLASSIFICATION 

Leg Press - Females 

(N = 293) 



Body Weight (lbs) 



.100 



100-124 



125-149 150-174 



175+ 



FITNESS CATEGORY 




P 


ounds Presse 


-d 




Very Poor 


c55 


<91 


-103 


. 104 


. 110 


Poor 


55-117 


91-129 


103-146 


104-151 


110-163 


Fair 


118-180 


130-167 


147-188 


152-198 


164-217 


Good 


181-242 


168-205 


189-231 


199-245 


218-271 


Excellent 


24 3+ 


206+ 


2 32+ 


246+ 


272+ 



FITNESS CLASSIFICATION 

Leg Press - Males 

(N - 2198) 



Body Weight 


(lbs) 


aoo 


100-124 


125-149 


150-174 


175+ 


FITNESS CATEGORY 




P< 


Dunds Presse 


d 




Very Poor 




U05 


<132 


^153 


. 183 


-208 


Poor 




105-178 


132-180 


153-212 


183-240 


208-283 


Fair 




179-252 


181-228 


213-270 


241-298 


284-359 


Good 




253-325 


229-276 


271-329 


299-356 


360-435 


Excellent 




326+ 


277+ 


330+ 


357+ 


436+ 



167 



FITNESS CLASSIFICATION 

Bench Press - Females 

(N = 293) 



Body Weight 


(lbs] 


'100 


100-124 


125-149 


150-174 


175+ 


FITNESS CATEGORY 




P 


aunds Presse 


d 




Very Poor 




•41 


. 35 


43 


< 33 


• 45 


Poor 




41-59 


35-57 


4 3-64 


33-53 


45-66 


Fair 




60-78 


58-80 


65-85 


54-72 


67-86 


Good 




79-96 


81-102 


86-107 


73-92 


87 106 


Exre 1 lent 




97+ 


103+ 


108+ 


9 3+ 


107+ 



FITNESS CLASSIFICATION 

Bench Press - Males 

(N = 2198) 



Body Weight 


(lb? 

;ory 


■) 


'. 100 


100-124 


125-149 


150-174 


175+ 


FITNESS CATEC 


i 

-i — 

i 




P 


^unds Pressed 


















Very Poor 




| 


'65 


31 


• 77 


74 


-.84 


Poor 




i 


65-96 


31-92 


77-117 


74-123 


84-137 


Fair 




i 
i 


97-127 


93-153 


118-157 


124-172 


138-190 


Good 




! 
I 


128-158 


154-215 


158-197 


173-221 


191-243 


Excel lent 




1 

1 
1 


159+ 


216+ 


198+ 


222+ 


244+ 



168 



INDIVIDUAL BODY COMPOSITION 

Body composition assessment refers to the classification of 
total body weight into two main components— fat weight and lean 
weight. As mentioned earlier in the manual the amount of fat 
(percent of total body weight) in the body is related to heart 
disease, diabetes, cirrhosis of the liver, hernia, intestinal obstruc- 
tion and other health hazards. It is recommended that percent 
body fat be maintained at a reasonable standard. 

Body composition is measured most accurately by under- 
water weighing. Through this technique, body density is calcu- 
lated and converted to percent fat. The technique is a complex, 
expensive system with sophisticated procedures and is impractical 
for most situations. Thus, body composition must be estimated 
from simple field tests involving skinfold measures. 

Specific standards for male and females and the exact loca- 
tions for obtaining skinfold measures are shown by Jackson, Pol- 
lock, and Ward, Brit. J. Nutr. 40:497-504-1978. 

All site measurements are taken on the right side of the body. 

The conversion factors are shown on pages 173-176. 




169 



SKINFOLD MEASUREMENT 

Order and Location of Skinfold Measurements* 

1. Chest— diagonal fold on the lateral border of the pectoralis 
major muscle, halfway between the nipple and shoulder 
crease. 

2. Axilla — vertical fold at the middle of the side; on a line bisect- 
ing the armpit and hip at a level equal to the xiphoid process. 

3. Triceps — vertical fold over the belly of the triceps halfway 
between the acromion and olecranon processes. 

4. Subscapula — diagonal fold just under the bottom angle of the 
scapula; halfway between the spine and side of the body. 

5. Abdomen — vertical fold one inch to the right of the umbilicus. 

6. Supraifiac — diagonal fold just above the iliac crest; slightly 
anterior to the middle of the side. 

7. Thigh — vertical fold at the middle and front thigh; halfway 
between the greater trochanter and patella. 

* All measurements taken on the right side 




SUBSCAPULA 
TRICEPS 



170 




The following measures for women are taken: 

A. Thigh 

B. Suprailium 

C. Tricep 

TRICEP 
SUPRAILIUM 



THIGH 



Male Skinfold Meaures (Jackson and Pollock, Brit J. Nutr. 
40:497-504,1978) 

1 . Density = 1.112 - 0.00043499 (Sum 7) + 0.00000055 (Sum I) 2 
-0.00028826 (age) 

2. Example: 1.0766692 = 1.112 - 0.00043499 (68) + 0.00000055 
(4624) -0.00028826 (28) 

Note: Sum 7 skinfolds = 68mm; (Sum I) 2 = 4624; age = 28 yrs. 



3. Fat Fraction = 



.95 



-4.5 (Siri.NAS, 1961) 



D 



4. Example: 0.097 = 



4.95 



-4.5 



1 .0766692 



Sum of 3 equation (chest, abdomen, thigh) 
D = 1 .10938 - 0.0008267 (Sum 3) 

+ 0.0000016 (Sum 3) 2 

- 0.0002574 (age) 



171 



Female Skinfold Measures (Jackson, Pollock, Ward, Med. Sci. 
Sports. Exer. 12:175-182, 1980. 

1 . Density = 1 .097 - 0.00046971 (Sum 7) + 0.00000056 (Sum I) 2 
-0.00012828 (age) 

2. Example: 1.0407994 - 1.097 - 0.00046971 (130) + 0.00000056 
(16900) -.0001 2828 (28) 

Note: Sum 7 skinfolds = 130 mm; (Sum 7) 2 = 16900; age = 28 
yrs. 



3. Fat Fraction = 4 ' 95 - 4.5 (Siri, NAS, 1961 ) 

D 



4. Example: 0.256 = 495 -4.5 

1 .0407994 



5. Sum of 3 equation (triceps, thigh, suprailium) 
D = 1 .0994921 - 0.0009929 (Sum 3) 
+ 0.0000023 (Sum 3) 2 
-0.0001392 (age) 



172 



Percent Fat Estimates for Men (Under 40) 













Age to 


the Last Year 










, 


Under 


20 


23 


26 


29 


32 


35 


38 




Sum of 


3 


19 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 




Skinfc 


• Ids 




22 


25 


28 


31 


34 


37 


40 




8 - 


10 


.9 


1.3 


1.6 


2.0 


2.3 


2.7 


3.0 


3.3 




11 - 


13 


1.9 


2.3 


2.6 


3.0 


3.3 


3.7 


4.0 


4.3 




14 - 


16 


2.9 


3.3 


3.6 


3.9 


4.3 


4.6 


5.0 


5.3 




17 - 


19 


3.9 


4.2 


4.6 


4.9 


5.3 


5.6 


6.0 


6.3 




20 - 


22 


4.8 


5.2 


5.5 


5.9 


6.2 


6.6 


6.9 


7.3 




23 - 


25 


5.8 


6.2 


6.5 


6.8 


7.2 


7.5 


7.9 


8.2 




26 - 


28 


6.8 


7.1 


7.5 


7.8 


8.1 


8.5 


8.8 


9.2 




29 - 


31 


7.7 


8.0 


8.4 


8.7 


9.1 


9.4 


9.8 


10.1 




32 - 


34 


8.6 


9.0 


9.3 


9.7 


10.0 


10.4 


10.7 


11.1 




35 - 


37 


9.5 


9.9 


10.2 


10.6 


10.9 


11.3 


11.6 


12.0 




38 - 


40 


10.5 


10.8 


11.2 


11.5 


11.8 


12.2 


12.5 


12.9 


/"N 


41 - 


43 


11.4 


11.7 


12.1 


12.4 


12.7 


13.1 


13.4 


13.8 


en 


44 - 


46 


12.2 


12.6 


12.9 


13.3 


13.6 


14.0 


14.3 


14.7 


H 

O 


47 - 


49 


13.1 


13.5 


13.8 


14.2 


14.5 


14.9 


15.2 


15.5 


14-1 

c 

•H 


50 - 


52 


14.0 


14.3 


14.7 


15.0 


15.4 


15.7 


16.1 


16.4 


C/3 


53 - 


55 


14.8 


15.2 


15.5 


15.9 


16.2 


16.6 


16.9 


17.3 


4-1 
05 


56 - 


58 


15.7 


16.0 


16.4 


16.7 


17.1 


17.4 


17.8 


18.1 




59 - 


61 


16.5 


16.9 


17.2 


17.6 


17.9 


18.3 


18.6 


19.0 


o 


62 - 


64 


17.4 


17.7 


18.1 


18.4 


18.8 


19.1 


19.4 


19.8 


T3 

c 


65 - 


67 


18.2 


18.5 


18.9 


19.2 


19.6 


19.9 


20.3 


20.6 


c 
a; 


68 - 


70 


19.0 


19.3 


19.7 


20.0 


20.4 


20.7 


21.1 


21.4 


o 


71 - 


73 


19.8 


20.1 


20.5 


20.8 


21.2 


21.5 


21.9 


22.2 


T3 
£> 


74 - 


76 


20.6 


20.9 


21.3 


21.6 


22.0 


22.3 


22.7 


23.0 


< 


77 - 


79 


21.4 


21.7 


22.1 


22.4 


22.8 


23.1 


23.4 


23.8 


X. 


80 - 


82 


22.1 


22.5 


22.8 


23.2 


23.5 


23.4 


24.2 


24.6 


•H 


83 - 


85 


22.9 


23.2 


23.6 


23.9 


24.3 


24.6 


25.0 


25.3 


U-4 


86 - 


88 


23.6 


24,0 


24.3 


24.7 


25.0 


25.4 


25.7 


26.1 


o 


89 - 


91 


24.4 


24.7 


25.1 


25.4 


25.8 


26.1 


26.5 


26.8 


§ 


92 - 


94 


25.1 


25.5 


25.8 


26.2 


26.5 


26.9 


27.2 


27.5 




95 - 


97 


25.8 


26.2 


26.5 


26.9 


27.2 


27.6 


27.9 


28.3 




98 - 


100 


26.6 


26.4 


27.3 


27.6 


27.9 


28.8 


28.6 


29.0 




101 - 


103 


27.3 


27.6 


28.0 


28.3 


28.6 


29.0 


29.3 


29.7 




104 - 


106 


27.9 


28.3 


28.6 


29.0 


29.3 


29.7 


30.0 


30.4 




107 - 


109 


28.6 


29.0 


29.3 


29.7 


30.0 


30.4 


30.7 


31.1 




110 - 


112 


29.3 


29.6 


30.0 


30.3 


30.7 


31.0 


31.4 


31.7 



113 - 


115 


30.0 


30.3 


30.7 


31.0 


31.3 


31.7 


32.0 


32.4 


116 - 


118 


30.6 


31.0 


31.3 


31.6 


32.0 


32.3 


32.7 


33.0 


119 - 


121 


31.3 


31.6 


32.0 


32.3 


32.6 


33.0 


33.3 


33.7 


122 - 


124 


31.9 


32.2 


32.6 


32.9 


33.3 


33.6 


34.0 


34.3 


125 - 


127 


32.5 


32.9 


33.2 


33.5 


33.9 


34.2 


34.6 


34.9 


128 - 


130 


33.1 


33.5 


33.8 


34.2 


34.5 


34.9 


35.2 


35.5 



173 



Percent Fat Estimates for Men (Over 40) 











I 






Age to the 


Last Year 














41 


44 


47 


50 


53 


56 


59 


Over 




Sum 


of 


3 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


62 




Skin 


fc 


Ids 


43 


46 


49 


52 


55 


58 


61 






8 


— 


10 


3.7 


4.0 


4.4 


4.7 


5.1 


5.4 


5.8 


6.1 




11 


- 


13 


4.7 


5.0 


5.4 


5.7 


6.1 


6.4 


6.8 


7.1 




14 


- 


16 


5.7 


6.0 


6.4 


6.7 


7.1 


7.4 


7.8 


8.1 




17 


- 


19 


6.7 


7.0 


7.4 


7.7 


8.1 


8.4 


8.7 


9.1 




20 


- 


22 


7.6 


8.0 


8.3 


8.7 


9.0 


9.4 


9.7 


10.1 




23 


_ 


25 


8.6 


8.9 


9.3 


9.6 


10.0 


10.3 


10.7 


11.0 




26 


- 


28 


9.5 


9.9 


10.2 


10.6 


10.9 


11.3 


11.6 


12.0 




29 


- 


31 


10.5 


10.8 


11.2 


11.5 


11.9 


12.2 


12.6 


12.9 




32 


- 


34 


11.4 


11.8 


12.1 


12.4 


12.8 


13.1 


13.5 


13.8 




35 


- 


37 


12.3 


12.7 


13.0 


13.4 


13.7 


14.1 


14.4 


14.8 




38 


_ 


40 


13.2 


13.6 


13.9 


14.3 


14.6 


15.0 


15.8 


15.7 




41 


- 


43 


14.1 


14.5 


14.8 


15.2 


15.5 


15.9 


16.2 


16.6 


i-l 


44 


- 


46 


15.0 


15.4 


15.7 


16.1 


16.4 


16.8 


17.1 


17.5 


O 

14-4 


47 


- 


49 


15.9 


16.2 


16.6 


16.9 


17.3 


17.6 


18.0 


18.3 


e 

•r-l 


50 


- 


52 


16.8 


17.1 


17.5 


17.8 


18.2 


18.5 


18.8 


19.2 


to 

4J 


53 


_ 


55 


17.6 


18.0 


18.3 


18.7 


19.0 


19.4 


19.7 


20.1 


CO 
01 


56 


- 


58 


18.5 


18.8 


19.2 


19.5 


19.9 


20.2 


20.6 


20.9 




59 


- 


61 


19.3 


19.7 


20.0 


20.4 


' 20.7 


21.0 


21.4 


21.7 


T> 


62 


- 


64 


20.1 


20.5 


20.8 


21.2 


21.5 


21.9 


22.2 


22.6 


c 


65 


- 


67 


21.0 


21.3 


21.7 


22.0 


22.4 


22.7 


23.0 


23.4 


c 
a; 

E 


68 


_ 


70 


21.8 


22.1 


22.5 


22.8 


23.2 


23.5 


23.9 


24.2 


o 


71 


- 


73 


22.6 


22.9 


23.3 


23.6 


24.0 


24.3 


24.7 


25.0 


3 


74 


- 


76 


23.4 


23.7 


24.1 


24.4 


24.8 


25.1 


25.4 


25.8 


* 


77 


- 


79 


24.1 


24.5 


24.8 


25.2 


25.5 


25.9 


26.2 


26.6 


•H 


80 


- 


82 


24.9 


25.3 


25.6 


26.0 


26.3 


26.6 


27.0 


27.3 




83 


_ 


85 


25.7 


26.0 


26.4 


26.7 


27.1 


27.4 


27.8 


28.1 


O 


86 


- 


88 


26.4 


26.8 


27.1 


27.5 


27.8 


28.2 


28.5 


28.9 


E 


89 


- 


91 


27.2 


27.5 


27.9 


28.2 


28.6 


28.9 


29.2 


29.6 


3 

CO 


92 


- 


94 


27.9 


28.2 


28.6 


28.9 


29.3 


29.6 


30.0 


30.3 


v^ 


95 


- 


97 


28.6 


29.0 


29.3 


29.7 


30.0 


30.4 


30.7 


31.1 




98 


_ 


100 


29.3 


29.7 


30.0 


30.4 


30.7 


31.1 


31.4 


31.8 




101 


- 


103 


30.0 


30.4 


30.7 


31.1 


31.4 


31.8 


32.1 


32.5 




104 


- 


106 


30.7 


31.1 


31.4 


31.8 


32.1 


32.5 


32.8 


33.2 




107 


- 


109 


31.4 


31.8 


32.1 


32.4 


32.8 


33.1 


33.5 


33.8 




110 


- 


112 


32.1 


32.4 


32.8 


33.1 


33.5 


33.8 


34.2 


34.5 




113 


_ 


115 


32.7 


33.1 


33.4 


33.8 


34.1 


34.5 


34.8 


35.2 




116 


- 


118 


33.4 


33.7 


34.1 


34.4 


34.8 


35.1 


35.5 


35.8 




119 


- 


121 


34.0 


34.4 


34.7 


35.1 


35.4 


35.8 


36.1 


36.5 




122 


- 


124 


34.7 


35.0 


35.4 


35.7 


36.1 


36.4 


36.7 


37.1 




125 


- 


127 


35.3 


35.6 


36.0 


36.3 


36.7 


37.0 


37.4 


37.7 




128 


— 


130 


35.9 


36.9 


36.6 


36.9 


37.3 


37.6 


38.8 


38.3 



174 



Percent Fat Estimates For Women 









Under 


23 


28 


33 


38 


43 


48 


53 






Sum ol 


' 3 


22 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


to 


Over 




Skinfolds 




27 


32 


37 


42 


47 


52 


57 


58 




23 - 


25 


9.7 


9.9 


10.2 


10.4 


10.7 


10.9 


11.2 


11.4 


11.7 




26 - 


28 


11.0 


11.2 


11.5 


11.7 


12.0 


12.3 


12.5 


12.7 


13.0 




29 - 


31 


12.3 


12.5 


12.8 


13.0 


13.3 


13.5 


13.8 


14.0 


14.3 




32 - 


34 


13.6 


13.8 


14.0 


14.3 


14.5 


14.8 


15.0 


15.3 


15.5 




35 - 


37 


14.8 


15.0 


15.3 


15.5 


15.8 


16.0 


16.3 


16.5 


16.8 




38 - 


40 


16.0 


16.3 


16.5 


16.7 


17.0 


17.2 


17.5 


17.7 


18.0 




41 - 


43 


17.2 


17.4 


17.7 


17.9 


18.2 


18.4 


18.7 


18.9 


19.2 




44 - 


46 


18.3 


18.6 


18.8 


19.1 


19.3 


19.6 


19.8 


20.1 


20.3 




47 - 


49 


19.5 


19.7 


20.0 


20.2 


20.5 


20.7 


21.0 


21.2 


21.5 




50 - 


52 


20.6 


20.8 


21.1 


21.3 


21.6 


21.8 


22.1 


22.3 


22.6 




53 - 


55 


21.7 


21.9 


22.1 


22.4 


22.6 


22.9 


23.1 


23.4 


23.6 


ai 


56 - 


58 


22.7 


23.0 


23.2 


23.4 


23.7 


23.9 


24.2 


24.4 


24.7 




59 - 


61 


23.7 


24.0 


24.2 


24.5 


24.7 


25.0 


25.2 


25.5 


25.7 


H 


62 - 


64 


24.7 


25.0 


25.2 


25.5 


25.7 


26.0 


26.2 


26.4 


26.7 


XI 

c 


65 - 


67 


25.7 


25.9 


26.2 


26.4 


26.7 


26.9 


27.2 


27.4 


27.8 


CO 


68 - 


70 


26.6 


26.9 


27.1 


27.4 


27.6 


27.9 


28.1 


28.4 


28.8 


3 

•H 
rH 


71 - 


73 


27.5 


27.8 


28.0 


28.3 


28.5 


28.8 


29.0 


29.3 


29.5 


•H 
CO 


74 - 


76 


28.4 


28.7 


28.9 


29.2 


29.4 


29.7 


29.9 


30.2 


30.4 


>-i 

a. 


77 - 


79 


29.3 


29.5 


29.8 


30.0 


30.8 


30.5 


30.8 


31.0 


31.3 


3 
CO 


80 - 


82 


30.1 


30.4 


30.6 


30.9 


31.1 


31.4 


31.6 


31.9 


32.1 




83 - 


85 


30.9 


31.2 


31.4 


31.7 


31.9 


32.2 


32.4 


32.7 


32.9 


•H 


86 - 


88 


31.7 


32.0 


32.2 


32.5 


32.7 


32.9 


33.2 


33.4 


33.7 


H 


89 - 


91 


32.5 


32.7 


33.0 


33.2 


33.5 


33.7 


33.9 


34.2 


34.4 


U-4 

O 


92 - 


94 


33.2 


33.4 


33.7 


33.4 


34.2 


34.4 


34.7 


34.9 


35.2 


e 

o 

CO 


95 - 


97 


33.9 


34.1 


34.4 


34.6 


34.9 


35.1 


35.4 


35.6 


35.9 


» — ' 


98 - 


100 


34.6 


34.8 


35.1 


35.3 


35.5 


35.8 


36.0 


36.3 


36.5 




101 - 


103 


35.2 


35.4 


35.7 


35.9 


36.2 


36.4 


36.7 


36.9 


37.2 




104 - 


106 


35.8 


36.1 


36.3 


36.6 


36.8 


37.1 


37.3 


37.5 


37.8 




107 - 


109 


36.4 


36.7 


36.9 


37.1 


37.4 


37.6 


37.9 


38.1 


38.4 




110 - 


112 


37.0 


37.2 


37.5 


37.7 


38.0 


38.2 


38.5 


38.7 


38.9 




113 - 


115 


37.5 


37.8 


38.0 


38.2 


38.5 


38.7 


39.0 


39.2 


39.5 




116 - 


118 


38.0 


38.3 


38.5 


38.8 


39.0 


39.3 


39.5 


39.7 


40.0 




119 - 


121 


38.5 


38.7 


39.0 


39.2 


39.5 


39.7 


40.0 


40.2 


40.5 




122 - 


124 


39.0 


39.2 


39.8 


39.7 


39.9 


40.2 


40.4 


40.7 


40.9 




125 - 


127 


39.4 


39.6 


39.9 


40.1 


40.4 


40.6 


40.9 


41.1 


41.4 




128 - 


130 


39.8 


40.0 


40.3 


40.5 


40.8 


41.0 


41.3 


41.5 


41.8 



175 



Male - % Body Fat 





<30 


30-39 


40-49 


50-59 


60+ 


Excellent 


5.4-13.7 


7.8-16.7 


9.9-18.1 


12.3-19.3 


11.4-18.1 


Good 


13.8-17.3 


16.8-21.1 


18.2-22.7 


19.4-23.2 


18.2-22.1 


Fair 


17.4-22.1 


21.2-24.5 


22.8-25.7 


23.3-26.4 


22.2-26.2 


Poor 


22.2-27.9 


24.6-29.4 


25.8-30.3 


26.5-31.1 


26.3-30.2 


Very Poor 



28.0-40.7 


29.5-41.6 


30.4-41.4 


31.2-41.6 


30.3-43.5 



Female - % Body Fat 





<30 


30-39 


40-49 


50-59 


60+ 


Excellent 


3.6-19.8 


9.5-20.7 


14.2-22.8 


18.3-24.9 


14.5-24.6 


Good 


19.9-24.8 


20.8-24.5 


22.9-26.8 


25.0-28.5 


24.7-27.2 


Fair 


24.9-27.3 


24.6-27.2 


26.9-29.5 


28.6-31.9 


27.3-31.5 


Poor 


27.4-25.3 


27.3-33.1 


29.6-35.8 


32.0-36.6 


31.6-37.3 


Very Poor 


33.4-42.1 


33.2-42.3 


35.9-43.6 


36.7-44.0 


37.4-42.6 



176 



Formula For Determining Maximum 
and Training Heart Rate (THR) 

In addition to the Heart Rate Training Zone chart using norms 
to establish average maximum heart rates and training heart rates 
discussed in Part II of this manual, the following formula may be 
used to determine the maximum (never exceed heart rate) and 
training heart rates. 

To establish your maximum heart rate, using 205 as a con- 
stant, subtract one/half of your age. Then subtract your resting 
heart rate and multiply that figure by .75%, add back your resting 
heart rate and the resulting figure is your Training Heart Rate 
(THR). 



Example: 




205 


Constant 


- 25 


Minus 1 /2 your age (age 50) 


180 


= Maximum Heart Rate 


- 66 


Minus Resting Heart Rate 


114 




x 75% 


Multiply by .75% 


570 




798 




25.50 




+ 66 


Plus Resting Heart Rate 



151 .50 = TRAINING HEART RATE (THR) 



177 






178 




1 



Conclusion 



MT 



Special Mention 




w 



History 





Selected References 






Acknowledgements 



C 

o 

O 

c 

o 

O 



PART VIM 

Conclusion 

Dr. Kenneth Cooper's system and Dr. Brian J. Sharkey's exer- 
cise physiology with this manual give you many options in ways to 
achieve fitness. My own bias favors the walk/run programs, which 
has the advantages of being convenient (no special equipment, 
facilities or skills required) and fast (twice the aerobic benefit per 
minute of exercise, in comparison with the other primary forms). 
Fifteen minutes a day, four times a week can bring a runner to 
minimum fitness standards. I am presently involved in a walking 
program. For many others, though, bicycling, swimming or jump- 
ing rope may be preferred. Those and other options are proven by 
the program. 

PERSONAL GOALS 

Your goals in this program should be to increase flexibility, 
muscular strength, cardiovascular capacity and general endur- 
ance. By steadily increasing the intensity of the exercise program, 
your level of capacity increases, thereby giving you a surplus of 
energy to draw from. Your level of fitness will not be improved 
overnight. In undertaking to rehabilitate or improve your physical 
condition, you should be aware of overstressing yourself with too 
much exercise. 

Your level of fitness that you fall into will be determined by the 
first evaluation. You should adhere to the level of physical activity 
recommended for you in the Physical Fitness Manual. You will 
advance in your level of fitness as your progress permits. 

A previously physically active employee may start at the 
desired level of fitness, while an individual who has not been active 
will probably start at the beginning level. Hopefully, the motivation 
for both persons will be the same; the individual who has already 
achieved the desired level of fitness will work to retain the level of 
fitness, while the individual who starts at the beginning level will 
work equally hard to achieve the desired maintenance level of 
fitness. 



180 



HOW TO EXERCISE 

Exercise should be slow and rhythmic. Avoid excessive speed 
as exercising for speed is not important to adult fitness. 

1 . Give the body time to adjust. 

2. Tight tissue may tear and must have time to adjust. 

3. Relaxation comes from rhythmic exercise, not from the 
speed of the exercise. 

4. Give the body time to move through a full range of joint 
motion to improve the coordination of body movement 
as well as improving joint flexibility and relaxation. 

Avoid rushing into an exercise program. It usually takes5 to 25 
years to become unfit. You must allow adequate time in years for 
old tissue to adapt and become pliable. The tissue will change, but 
you must have patience. You cannot regain your youth, but you 
can effectively slow the aging process through exercise. Adults 
rehabilitate at varying rates. 

EXERCISE PRECAUTIONS 

Personnel participating in this program must be aware of 
certain factors that counteract the benefits of exercise. Recogniz- 
ing these deterrents often makes the difference between a 
successful or an unsuccessful exercise program. The following is a 
brief discussion of some of the more important negative forces that 
may interfere with a good exercise program. 

Spasmodic Exercise 

Spasmodic exercise is probably more detrimental than no 
exercise at all. It prevents thegradual conditioning and slow cardio- 
vascular changes so necessary for fitness development. The 
middle-aged exerciser cannot crowd his exercise intervals into one 
day per week, for fitness cannot be stored by the body — it must be 
continually replenished. 

Prolonged Fatigue 

Prolonged fatigue after exercise should be avoided. If fatigue 
lasts two hours or more following an exercise session, the program 
is too vigorous. The body has not yet had time to adapt to that 
heavy a load of work. The subsequent workouts should be 



181 



decreased in their intensity to prevent prolonged fatigue. Exercise 
should leave an individual with a sense of pleasant relaxation, not 
excessive tiredness. 

ALCOHOL 

Alcohol and exercise do not mix. Alcohol constricts the coro- 
nary vessels of the heart and may cause death due to oxygen 
insufficiency with vigorous exercise. Several hours (at least four) 
should elapse between alcohol intake and an exercise session. The 
better conditioned and trained, the less the risk; but for the adult 
just beginning his fitness program, alcohol followed by exercise is 
hazardous. 

CIGARETTE SMOKING 

Cigarette smoking tends to undo the gains made by exercise. 
Cigarette smokers never attain the high levels of fitness of the 
non-smokers. There is probable interference with oxygen exchange 
across the lung membrane in the smoker. The individual interested 
in his fitness should stop smoking. 

CHEST PAIN 

If chest pain develops during physical exercise, the activity 
should be stopped immediately and the person placed at rest. 
Personnel who experience the above symptoms must be checked 
and cleared by his own physician before restarting the program. 

SHORTNESS OF BREATH 

Obstructive pulmonary disease is found in emphysema, 
asthma and bronchial spasm from smoking. It is manifested by 
shortness of breath on exertion. Positive results of an exercise 
program in these cases are attained slowly and much more time is 
needed for adaptive changes to occur. 



182 



COMPETITION 

Competition in fitness programs is undesirable. Individual 
improvement and progress are important, not progress in competi- 
tion with the group. Rarely do two or more individuals begin exer- 
cising at the same level of fitness. Adult fitness is developed indi- 
vidually, and individual progress is the criterion for success. 

SPORTS 

A sports program is not a fitness program. Most sports are 
spasmodic and not rhythmic. The game dictates the intensity of the 
activity and frequently creates a sudden overdemand on the heart 
and vessels. Seldom are recreational sports preceded by an ade- 
quate warm-up for vigorous play so that injuries frequently result in 
the adult. Sports such as golf and bowling are of almost no cardio- 
vascular benefit, for they lack sustained activity of the endurance 
type. Participation in athletic activities should be limited until a 
suitable level of fitness is reached. 

SWEATING AND SALT 

Excessive, purposeful sweating should be avoided. Rubber or 
plastic suits that increase sweating are of no value in an exercise 
program. Clothing should be light and allow as much ventilation as 
possible. The weight lost by sweating and dehydration is not per- 
manent, and is soon regained with fluid replacement. Most physi- 
ologists agree that salt tablets are not needed even when exercis- 
ing during the hot summer months. Any salt lost with perspiration 
during exercise is better replaced by the use of table salt with meals 
than by ingesting salt tablets. The tablets frequently cause gas- 
trointestinal upsets. 

STALENESS 

It is possible for an adult to run too much and become stale by 
trying to overachieve in his individual fitness program. This is 
manifested by excessive fatigue, loss of enthusiasm, and decreased 
performance. Occasionally a person may become so enthusiastic 
over his fitness that too much emphasis is placed on exercise 



183 



goals, with decreasing emphasis being given to his life goals. This, 
too eventually leads to staleness. The problem is easily solved by 
decreasing the frequency or intensity of the exercise sessions for a 
time. A better perspective soon occurs. 

MEDICATION 

Regular exercise occasionally diminishes the need for certain 
medications and dosage adjustment is needed. A good example of 
this is that insulin requirements of the exercising diabetic are often 
decreased. Drugs used to lower high blood pressure may also 
need adjustment for regular exercise has a beneficial effect on 
blood pressure, and less medication is needed as fitness improves. 

If any employee is requiring any type of medication, he or she 
should consult their physician before engaging in the physical 
fitness program. 

OVEREMPHASIS 

Although exercise is an important phase of total fitness, it is 
not a panacea for all diseases, nor is it one's ticket to eternity. It 
should not be emphasized to the exclusion of the other compo- 
nents of total fitness; correct diet, adequate rest and sleep, emo- 
tional stability and maturity, relaxation, correction of any medical 
problems, and satisfaction in one's daily living. 

REMEMBER YOUR AGE 

Volleyball, handball and other power games should be avoided 
during the first three months of adult training. The muscles, joints 
and ligaments are not ready for sudden explosive movement until 
they have been conditioned by progressive training. Adults should 
not do deep knee bends, duck-walk exercise and other activities 
that fully flex the knee joint (squat-style activities). Ligament prob- 
lems, cartilage tears, and total loosening of the knee joint are 
mechanical possibilities with these exercises. Half-knee bends are 
permissible and of value if performed with the feet flat. 



184 



TIME 

Do not hurry fitness. Time is required for both musculoskeletal 
and cardiovascular adaptation. If the program is hurried, injuries 
ana discouragement may result. Remember, fitness is a lifetime 
dedication. 

EVALUATION ACTIVITIES 

Quarterly evaluations will be given to each person participat- 
ing in the fitness program. Results of these activities will appear on 
each individual's Physical Fitness Evaluation and Measurement 
Chart. Each employee's supervisor will notify them of the date, 
time, and location of the evaluations. 

The Department's fitness standards will be developed based 
on the above testing results and we will continue to upgrade the 
pre-employment physical requirements to coincide with our pro- 
gress. I appreciate the full support each of you have given this 
program and your sincere participation in our attempt in meeting 
our goal of good health. I guarantee we will all benefit from a 
healthful physical fitness program, we can't afford not to participate. 



V3u-^jl O Lidta^^-^- 



Colonel Drew E. Whitaker 
Chief, Law Enforcement 



185 



Special Mention 

Conservation Officers 

Sergeant Bob Brown 
Ranger John Thomas 

On their own volition, as advocates for a sound Department 
Physical Fitness Program they developed and conducted the phys- 
ical fitness activities for all DNR personnel attending the Mandate 
Training Sessions at the Georgia Police Academy. 

As volunteer instructors, their dedication and perseverance 
was instrumental in the realization of a statewide fitness program 
for all department law enforcement officers and is indicative as to 
their professionalism. 

This manual is in recognition and appreciation for their contri- 
bution to the program. 

Department Certified Physical Instructors 

Sergeant Bob Brown 
Corporal Johnny C. Chastain 

Editing and Proofreading 

Sergeant Elysia Greenlee 

Typing 

Denise Hicks 
Jean Johnston 

Graphics 

Joanie Miller 



186 




History 

department of Natural iBeBources 



GAME AND FISH DIVISION 

JorD. tanner 

COMMISSIONS 

Ceon Klrklanft Lf 83-25 

OlVlSlON OiPf CICH 



September 14, 1982 



MEMORANDUM 

TO: All Law Enforcement Supervisors 

FROM: Chief, LawNj^ftrcement 

SUBJECT: JOB ANALYSIS/PHYSICAL FITNESS 



The department has requested that the State Merit System Examination Research 
Development Section aid us In designing a Physical Fitness Screening Test to 
measure Conservation Ranger applicants physical abilities in areas of agility, 
strength, speed, endurance and swimming. In addition, the physical selection 
standards will be used as well for maintaining standards of current employees. 

In developing the physical ability standards, Merit System personnel will be 
conducting job analysis for our conservation classes and will contact employees 
and supervisors to schedule interview appointments. 

I will keep you inform as the research progresses and if you have any questions 
to discuss, please don't hesitate to contact this office. 

DEW/je 

cc: Personnel 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

187 




Separtment of -Natural SUBourceB 



Mat C. aanncr 

COMMISSIONER 

Icon *kirki.ini» 

DIVISION DlRECT< H 



November 2, 1982 

MEMORANDUM 

TO: ALL LAW ENFORCEMENT SUPERVISORS 

FROM: CHIEF, LAW ENFORCEMENT 

SUBJECT: PHYSICAL FITNESS PROGRAM - UPDATE 



GAME AND FISH DIVISION 



LE 82-36 



In my memorandum dated September 14, 1982, (LE 83-25), I informed you that 
the Department, jointly with the State Merit System, is in the process of 
developing a pre-employment physical ability examination and implementing 
a physical fitness program for all incumbent Conservation Rangers. The 
fitness program will encompass employment physical standards and physical 
abilities necessary for task performance and other conditions of employment. 
The essence of physical fitness is conditioning and weight management 
and our program is being established to improve and maintain a healthful 
physical fitness level. 

The program will require that Rangers meet and maintain mandatory minimum 
physical standards in the areas of stamina, cardiovascular endurance, 
strength, speed, agility, flexibility, swimming and percent body com- 
position. These standards will be developed primarily on the results 
of our Department testing which is being administered by State Merit System 
Test Analyst and specialist from the Human Performance Laboratory, Georgia 
State University. Observations of the physical activities performed by 
Rangers, the analysis of job tasks and the physical abilities necessary 
for most tasks have been completed by the Merit System, refined and vali- 
dated by approximately 25 Conservation Ranger supervisors and is now being 
finalized. The standards will be reasonable and should be easily attainable 
for anyone in reasonably good condition. 

Prior to beginning our physical fitness program, all Rangers must have a 
medical screening examination, provided by the Department and complete the 
DNR medical history questionnaire. The medical examinations will be admin- 
istered by DHR, Division of Public Health, Employee Health Services Office 
in Atlanta. All officers will be scheduled through the Regional L.E. offices 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

188 



LE 82-36 

Novemoer 2, 1982 
Page two 



beginning November 9, 1982, and continuing through December 10, 1982. 
Consideration will be given on an individual case by case basis for tem- 
porary or permanent exemption to certain areas of minimum standards, based 
on medical advice. In the event that any significant medical abnormalities 
are found that require immediate medical attention, the officer and his 
supervisor will be advised of the medical findings and the necessary 
measures will be taken for the employee to clear up the matter with his 
personal physician If a condition is discovered where it is required 
that the employee be relieved of duty and placed on sick leave, it will 
be necessary that clearance in writing is obtained from the personal 
physician before the employee will be returned to regular duties. 

Prior to testing applicants or determining the extent of physical conditioning 
necessary for incumbent Rangers, test specifications will have to be 
developed by testing approximately 40 Conservation Rangers. Only those 
Rangers who have successfully completed the medical screening test may 
participate. The test will determine from analysis of their abilities 
the setting of distances, times, speeds and number of repetitions, etc, 
All phases of the testing will be conducted under the direction of quali- 
fied medical personnel and our L.E. physical fitness instructors, trained 
by Human Performance Lab specialists to act as monitors. 

The Department's fitness standards will be developed based on the above 
testing results and then each Conservation Officer will be tested to 
determine their fitness level. 

Department instructors will design programs to assist each officer in 
achieving their fitness level and monitor their progress until the 
Department's minimum standards are reached. 

I feel that a healthful physical fitness program is long overdue and will 
benefit each officer and the Department in meeting our goal of good health, 
without risk when performing many of our strenuous tas:ks. Your support 
in achieving this goal is wery necessary if we are to be successful. 

DEW/je 



189 




Department of Statural ^Resources 



Jo« 9. (Danntrr 

COMMISSIONER 



GAME AND FISH OIVISION 

270 WASHINGTON ST.. S W 

ATLANTA. GEORGIA 30334 

<404)ftSfr3323 



Cron SirtUno 

DIVISION OIRECTOft 

April 6, 1983 



MEMORANDUM 



LE 83-57 



TO: 

FROM: 

SUBJECT: 



All Law Enforcement Supervisors 

Chief, Law vworcement 

IN-SERVICE TRAINING - NEW LEGISLATION/ 
CONSERVATION RANGER PHYSICAL AGILITY PROGRAM 



In-Service Training will be conducted in each District during the months of May 
and June by Colonel Drew E. Whi taker, Sergeant Robert Brown, and Ranger John 
Thomas. Topics covered will be New Legislation and the Conservation Ranger 
Physical Agility Program. This training will be held in conjunction with the 
District Meeting at each District Headquarters. 

Arrangements are to be made to seat all Game and Fish Division employees within 
each District and session will begin at 9 a.m. 

Walton District 
Cordele District 
Albany District 
Metter District 
Thomson District 
Manchester District 
Macon District 
Calhoun District 
Gainesville District 
Waycross District 
Brunswick District 
Demeries Creek District 

Direct any questions to this office, 

DEW/sbd 

cc: Commissioner Joe Tanner 
Director Leon Kirkland 
Mr. Terry Kile 
Mr. Mike Gennings 
Mr. Henry Struble 
Mr. Glen Williamson 



Friday 


- May 


6, 


1983 


Tuesday 


- May 


10, 


1983 


Wednesday 


- May 


11, 


1983 


Thursday 


- May 


19, 


1983 


Friday 


May 


20, 


1983 


Tuesday 


- May 


24, 


1983 


Thursday 


- May 


26, 


1983 


Tuesday 


June 


7, 


1983 


Thursday 


June 


9, 


1983 


Wednesday 


June 


15, 


1983 


Thursday 


June 


16, 


1983 


Friday 


June 


17, 


1983 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

190 



INTRODUCTION 

I. PHYSICAL FITNESS 

A) Physical Fitness is the organic condition of the body, which enables the 
individual to use his/her body in activities requiring, strength, endurance, 
flexibility, coordination, power, speed and accuracy. 

B) Commissioner Tanner, Mr. Kirkland and Col. Whitaker agree that it is very 
important for each of you to be in good physical condition. 

Why would they be interested - number of reasons! If there reasons were 
only selfish - than benefits to organizations . 

Physcially fit persons have less 

1) sick time 

2) absenteeism 

3) on job injuries 

4) workman's comp. claims/insurance claims 

5) early retirement, disability retirement 

6) dramatically increased job performance ratings 

Why should we be concerned with Physical Fitness? Number one reason, the most 
important person in the world is you. 

II: HEALTH HAZARD APPRASIAL TEST 

III: EFFECTS OF PHYSICAL FITNESS ON POLICE OFFICERS 

1) Ability to respond to emergency situations 

2) Increase cardio respiratory endurance 

3) Increase dynamic strength 

4) Increase overall endurance 

5) Increase ability to sleep 

6) Increase flexibility 

7) Increase ability to relax 

8) Improve appearance - self esteem 

9) Improve confidence 

10) Increase job performance ratings 

11) Decrease level of tension and anxiety 

12) Decrease fatigue level 

13) Decrease coronary risk factors 

14) Decrease per cent of body fats 

15) Increase "survibility" , hit be severe illness or injury 

16) Decrease stress level 

17) Increase sex life 

IV. TYPICAL POLICE PROFILE 

1) High coronary risk profile 

a) Inactive job tasks - example: ride in truck, boat, etc. 

b) Inactive exercise patterns - one reason irregular work schedule 

c) High mortality index for combined cardio vascular disease, diabetics, 
suicide 

d) High rate ot hypokinetic disease - back pain, etc. 

191 



e) 6 times high workman's comp claim rate. 

f) Higher rate of early retirments 

1) 22% caused by back problems 

2) 26% Cardio-vascular problems 

g) Deaths that occur on duty - 60% health related 
h) High rate of divorce and stress 

V. Show Film "SILENT KILLER" 

VI. OVERALL POLICE FITNESS LEVEL 

1) Young officers average of population 

2) Middle aged and older lower than population. 

This group's fitness level is lower than average violator 

3) Not too important when checking fishing license, however what about out 
of control situations 

example: 

runs 

rescue 

felony 

fight 

endurance - working long hours without rest. 

4) Ability to react to emergency situations 



VII. 



a) What do we have in mind? 

Football or high school athletics 

Fitness and exercise/punishment 

b) What we are advocating is spending 30 min. - 3 to 5 times per week and 
adding years to your life. 

c) We propose to structure individual fitness programs for everyone who is 
willing to participate according to ability. 

1) Those who are in good physical shape put on maintenance program 
designed to keep you in good shape. 

2) Those in bad shape put on a program to gradually elevate your 
fitness level at a rate that is comfortable for you. So that you see 
your progress. 



192 




department of Natural iSesnurres 



GAME AND FISH DIVISION 



Jot 0. danner 

COMMISSIONER 

Iron Sirkland 

DIVISION DIRECTOR 



NAME: 

CALL NUMBER: 

DISTRICT: 



( ) I am willing to participate in the ongoing D.N.R. physical fitness program, 
( ) I am not willing to participate. 
COMMENTS : 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

193 




iRpartment of Statural SUflourrjs 



GAME ANO FISH DIVISION 
270 WASHINGTON ST., S.W. 
ATLANTA. GEORGIA 30334 

Joe S. (Sanner (404) 656-3523 

COMMISSIONER 

Ceon Kiritlana 

DIVISION DIRECTOR 



August 2, 1983 



LE 84-11 



MEMORANDUM 

TO: All Law Enforcement Supervisors 
FROM: Chief, Law Enforcemer 



! ¥p 



SUBJECT: In-Service Training/Month of August 
PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT 



During the next scheduled district meeting in each law enforcement district, 
Sergeant Bob Brown and Ranger John Thomas will conduct individual physical 
fitness assessments for all participants within their respective regions. 

Preparations and arrangements should be made so that the test may be given 
in a controlled climate of 65 -75 F. The instructor and each subject 
being screened should be out of view of others waiting to be tested. This 
is to avoid a "performance" atmosphere of testing one at a time with the 
whole group watching. Individuals should not take the test while on 
medication or after exercising, meals, coffee or cigarettes. The objective 
is for the pulse rate to correlate with the physical exertion and recovery 
capacity unaltered by stimulants, apprehension or other influences. 

The following areas will be evaluated so that individual exercise pre- 
scriptions may be developed: 

3 Minute Step Test 
1 Minute Push-Up 
1 Minute Sit-Up 
Sit and Reach 
Percent Body Fat 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

194 



IN-SERVICE TRAINING/MONTH OF AUGUST - PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT LE 84-11 
August 2, 1983 
Page Two 

Participants may want to bring comfortable light clothing, suitable shoes 
for exercising and a towel. The following has been recommended as most 
suitable for our program. 

1. Nylon or cotton gym shorts and a T-shirt. 

2. A good training shoe with a firm, thick sole, good arch support, and a 
thick padded heel. 

3. Thick tube socks (helps to prevent blisters). 

In kicking off our program, I encourage each of you to do your best to 
make it successful for all concerned. 

DEW/bsd 

cc: Sergeant Bob Brown 
Ranger John Thomas 



195 




lejrartmoit of Natural Eeaourcea 



GAME ANO FISH DIVISION 
270 WASHINGTON ST., S.W. 
ATLANTA, GEORGIA 30334 

Joe 8. (Banner (404)656-3523 

COMMISSIONER 

Heon Kirkland 

DIVISION DIRECTOR 



August 4, 1983 



MEMORANDUM 



TO: Sergeant Bob Brown 
Ranger John Thomas 



£p 



FROM: Chief, Law Enforcemer 
SUBJECT: PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSES 



The following precautions must precede the administration of the Step 
Test: 

1. Immediately preceding the test, an individual should sit quietly 
for 5-10 minutes. The resting pulse rate should be taken after 
this rest. Extremely high (100+ BPM), thready, or irregular 
pulse would preclude test until a physicians permission is 
obtained. 

2. You should inquire about general health and if abnormal conditions 
are present, you must not test. Examples are heart or respiratory 
problems, fever, colds or other ailments. Do not test persons who 
are taking drugs or other medications. 

3. During testing, closely observe and terminate test if any of the 
following signs of distress occur: nausea, trembling, extreme 
fatique or breathlessness, pounding in the head, pain in the chest 
or arm, confusion, or complaints about onset of ill feeling. 

The equipment needed includes: 

1. Sturdy bench - 12 inches high 

2. Metronome or other audible signaling device such as a tape recording, 
set for 95 beats per minute. 



AN EQUAL EMPLOYMENT/AFFIRMATIVE ACTION EMPLOYER 

196 



PHYSICAL FITNESS ASSESSMENT 
August 4, 1983 
Page Two 

3. Scale accurate to - 2 pounds 

4. Blood pressure kit 

5. Stop watch 

6. Tape measure 

7. Stethoscope 

General directions for the test include: 

1. Have subject rest a few minutes before the test (do not take test 
after exercise, meals, coffee, cigarettes). 

2. Start the metronome or tape recorder (96 beats per minute). 

3. Have subject step onto bench and back to floor keeping time with the 
metronome beat. 

If subject cannot keep up with the beat because of poor condition, stop 
and retake after several weeks of conditioning. Change the lead leg if 
it becomes tired. Stop the test if the subject shows obvious physical 
distress or cannot keep pace with the timer. 

4. After 3 minutes of exercise, stop metronome and have subject sit down, 

5. Count subjects pulse (at wrist or throat) with a stethoscope 1 full 
minute , starting 5 seconds after the step test exercise. 

6. The precautions referred to in PAR 3 are equally important and 
applicable for the following remaining events being tested: 

a. Percent body fat (N/A) 

b. One minute push-up 

c. One minute sit-up 

d. Sit and reach 

e. l*s mile run (when applicable) 

Additional equipment needed: 

1 . Skin fold calipers 

2. Blanket 
DEW/bsd 



197 



CLASS TITLE 



D.N.R. 
MEDICAL HISTORY RECORD 



DATE : / / 



mo day year 



NAME 



SSN 



(Last) 



AGE 



(First) 



(Middle Initial) 



i H 



HEIGHT 



lbs. 



WEIGHT 



SEX: _____ BLOOD TYPE 
(M)or(F) 



DATE OF BIRTH 



/ / 



MO DAY YEAR 



WORK ADDRESS 



FAMILY PHYSICIAN 



CITY 



ADDRESS 



ZIP CODE 
( ) 



PHONE NUMBER 



-1- 

PRESENT HISTORY 

Check the box in front of those questions to which your answer is yes. Leave 
others blank. 

/ / Has a doctor ever said that your blood pressure was too high? 

/ / Do you ever have pain in your heart or chest? 

/ / Are you often bothered by a thumping of the heart? 

/ / Does your heart often beat fast? 

/ / Do you ever notice extra heart beats or skipped beats? 

/ / Are your ankles often badly swollen? 

/_/ Do cold hands or feet trouble you even in hot weather? 

/ / Has a doctor ever said that you had or have heart trouble, an abnormal 
electrocardiogram (ECG or EKG) , heart attack or coronary? 

/ / Do you suffer from frequent cramps in your legs? 

/ / Do you often have difficulty breathing? 

/ / Do you get out of breath long before anyone else? 



198 



Page two 



/_/ Do you sometimes get out of breath when sitting still or sleeping? 
/ / Has a doctor ever told you your cholesterol level was high? 
COMMENTS: (Please Print) 



-2- 

Do you now have or have you recently had: 

/ / A chronic, recurrent or morning cough? 

/ / Any episode of coughing up blood? 

/__/ Increased anxiety or depression? 

/ / Problems with recurrent fatigue, trouble sleeping or increased irritability? 

/ / Migraine or recurrent headaches? 

/__/ Swollen or painful knees or ankles? 

/__/ Swollen, stiff or painful joints? 

/ / Pain in your legs after walking short distances? 

/_/ Back pain? 

/ / Kidney problems such as passing stones, burning, increased frequency, 
decreased force of stream of difficulty in starting or stopping your 
stream? 

/ / Any stomach or intestinal problems such as recurrent heartburn, ulcers, 
constipation or diarrhea? 

/ / Any recent change in a wart or mole? 

/ / Glaucoma or increase pressure in the eyes? 

/ / Eye glasses or contact lenses. 

/ / Hearing Problems? 

COMMENTS: (Please Print) 



199 



Page three 

-3- 
WOMEN ONLY - Answer the following: 

/ / Do you have any menstrual period problems? 

/__/ Do you have problems with recurrent itching or discharge? 

/ / Did you have any significant childbirth problems? 

/_/ Do you have any breast discharge or lumps? 

/_/ Do you sometimes lose urine when you cough, sneeze or laugh? 

Please give number of pregnancies Living Children 

Date of last pelvic exam and/or Pap smear: Month: Year: 

COMMENTS: (Please Print) 



-4- 

MEN AND WOMEN - Answer the following: 

List any prescribed medication you are now taking: 

List any self-prescribed medications or dietary supplements you are now taking 



Date of last complete physical examination: 

19 Can't Remember [J Normal TJ Abnormal /_/ 

Month 

Date of last chest x-ray: 

19 Can't Remember / / Normal / / Abnormal / / 



Date of last electrocardiogram: 

19 Can't Remember / / Normal/ / Abnormal / / 

Month 

Date of last dental check up: 

19 

Month 

200 



Page four 

(Please print below information) 



List any other medical or diagnostic test you have had in the past two years 



List hospitalizations including dates of and reasons for hospitalization 



List any drug allergies: 



.5. 
PAST HISTORY 
Have you ever had: 

/ / Heart attack, how many years ago? /_/ Thyroid Problems 

_/ Pneumatic fever /_/ Pneumonia 

l_j Heart murmur /_/ Bronchitis 

J Diseases of the arteries /_/ Asthma 

J Varicose veins /_/ Abnormal chest x-ray 

_/ Arthritis of legs or arms /_/ Other lung diseases 

/ Diabetes or abnormal blood sugar test /_/ Injuries to back, arms, legs 

or joints 
__/ Phlebitis /_/ Broken bones 

/__/ Dizziness or fainting spells /_/ Jaundice or gallbladder problems 

J Epilepsy /_/ Polio 

_/ Strokes /_/ Urinary tract, infections, kidney 

stones or prostate problems 
J Dip then* a /_/ Scarlet fever 

/ Infectious mononucleosis / / Any nervous or emotional problems 



_/ Anemia 
/ / Emphysema 



/ / Cancer 
/_/ Syhpilis 



201 



Page five 



COMMENTS: (Please Print) 



-6- 

FAMILIAL DISEASES: Have any of your blood relatives had any of the following? 
(Include grandparents, parents, brothers, sisters, aunts and uncles, but 
exclude cousins , relatives by marriage, and half relatives). 



/ / Heart attacks under age 50 

/ / Strokes under age 50 

/_/ High blood pressure 

/ / Elevated Cholesterol 

/_/ Diabetes 

/ / Asthma or hay fever 

COMMENTS: (Please Print) 



/ / Congenital heart disease 

/ / Heart operations 

/ / Glaucoma 

/ / Obesity (20 or more lbs. overweight) 

/ / Leukemia or cancer under age 60 



OTHER HEART DISEASES RISK FACTORS: 

SMOKING 

Have you ever smoked cigarettes, cigars or a pipe? /_/ Yes /_/ No 

If NO, skip this section. 



Do you smoke presently? /_/ Yes /_/ No 

If you did or do smoke cigarettes, how many per day? 



If you did or do smoke a pipe, how many pipefuls per day? 



Age started _ 
Age started 



If you have quit smoking when was it?_ 



19 



Month 



202 



Pace six 



WEIGHT 

What do you consider a good weight for yourself? lbs. 

What is the most you have ever weighed? lbs. (including pregnancy) 

At what age? (years) 

Weight now. 1 bs . One year ago 1 bs . at age 21 lbs . 

EXERCISE 

Are you currently involved in a regular exercise program? /_/ Yes / / No 

Do you regularly walk or run one or more miles continuously? /_/Yes /_/ No 

If yes, average number of miles you cover per workout or do miles. 

What is your average time per miles? minutes seconds Dont' Know. / / 

Do you practice weight lighting, swimming or home calisthenics? /_/ Yes /__/ No 

Are you now involved in Aerobics program? /_/Yes /_/ No 

Do you frequently participate in competitive sports? /__/ Yes /_/ No 

If yes, which one or ones? 

/_/ Golf /_/ Bowling /_/ Tennis /_/ Handball /_/ Soccer /_/ Track 

/_/ Basketball /_/ Volleyball /_/ Football /_/ Baseball 

Average number of times per month 

In which of the following high school or college athletics did you participate? 

/_/ None /_/ Football /_/ Basketball /_/ Baseball /_/ Soccer /_/ Track 

/ / Swimming /__/ Tennis /_/ Wrestling /_/ Golf 

What activity or activities would you prefer in a regular exercise program for 
yourself? 

/ / Walking and/or running /_/ Bicycling (outdoor) /_/ Swimming 

/_/ Stationary running /_/ Stationary cycling /__/ Tennis 

/ / Jumping rope /__/ Handball, basketball or soccer 

/_/ Weight lifting /_/ OTHER: 



203 



Page seven 



COMMENTS: (please Print) 



Explain any other significant medical problems that you consider important 
for us to know: 



EMPLOYEE SIGNATURE 



204 



AFTER ACTION REPORT : 



At the start of the 7th Ranger Basic Course a Physical Fitness Assessment 
was given to participates. The results show that ten out of twenty-one 
were in poor condition. There blood pressure was above moderate range, 
resting heart rate was high, percent of body fat was high, flexibility was 
poor, their basic strength was weak, and their cardio-vasicular fitness 
was poor. 

Each participate was advised of his level of fitness and was given a 
starting Areobic Fitness Program designed for that individual's needs. 

During the course of eight weeks particiaptes were given alot of support and 
encouragement. At the end of this eight week period participates were retested. 
The results of the test were pleasantly surprising. Participates moved up at 
least one level of fitness and in some cases two levels. Their blood pressure 
and resting heart rate went down, flexibility improved, percent of body fat 
went down, in many cases drastically, strength improved, and most important 
their cardio-vasicular fitness significantly improved. 

The Aerobic Program used was a tremendous success. The participates enjoyed 
the program and showed great enthusiasiasm. 

The use of the Aerobic Fitness program has started the department toward a 
successful fitness program. 



Instructors- Sergeant Bob 3rown 
Ranger John Thomas 



205 



PHYSICAL FITNESS TEST WEEK I 



NAME 


BLOOD 


RESTING 


% OF 


FLEXIBILITY 


PUSH 


SIT 


1 MILE 


OVER ALL 




PRESSURE 


HEART 
RATE 


BODY FAT 




UPS 


UPS 


RUN 


FITNESS 
LEVEL 


Bennie Cochran 


138/78 


80 


19.9 


16 


38 


26 


11:12 


POOR 


Mickey Elrod 


142/84 


74 


14 


211 


49 


33 


9:30 


GOOD 


Wade Fulford 


140/78 


84 


25.1 


16 


30 


24 


10:23 


POOR 


Eddie Henderson 


136/74 


76 


9.0 


21 


27 


29 


8:47 


GOOD 


John Pickett 


140/74 


72 


21.9 


201 


44 


45 


7:26 


GOOD 


Butch Potter 


136/76 


88 


16.2 


201 


25 


25 


10:23 


POOR 


Blaine Samples 


138/78 


80 


13.8 


201 


39 


31 


8:10 


GOOD 


Gary Simmons 


138/70 


80 


15.2 


23 


27 


31 


9:10 


POOR 


Gregory Varnadoe 


136/78 


72 


6.8 


2U 


58 


52 


7:07 


EXCELLENT 


Neal Niblett 


136/76 


68 


20.5 


20 


35 


29 


9:55 


POOR 


Hal Clubb 


136/74 


72 


13.7 


16 


38 


39 


10:03 


GOOD 


Mike Crook 


138/78 


68 


9.7 


201 


33 


33 


7:49 


GOOD 


Marty Flemming 


140/78 


68 


11.5 


171 


40 


35 


7:52 


GOOD 


Adren Higgs 


140/82 


100 


36.2 


201 


35 


18 


12:10 


POOR 


Lee Moon 


136/68 


100 


12.4 


19 


15 


27 


9:08 


POOR 


Tom Bilderback 


138/76 


88 


17.3 


171 


20 


17 


10:43 


POOR 


George Dooley 


140/78 


64 


31.8 


16 


16 


25 


10:18 


POOR 


Jim Evans 


116/70 


76 


7.5 


241 


80 


31 


8:46 


GOOD 


Lawton Massingill 


138/78 


76 


15.0 


19 


34 


30 


9:06 


GOOD 


Paul Williamson 


140/74 


100 


11.6 


171 


18 


22 


13:07 


POOR 


John Thomas 


138/76 


48 


?.4 


241 


42 


43 


7:07 


GOOD 



206 







PHYSICAL 


FITNESS 
WEEK 8 


TEST 












BLOOD 


RESTING 


% OF 


FLEXIBILITY 


PUSH 


SIT 


1 


OVERALL 


NAME 


PRESSURE 


HEART 
RATE 


BODY 
FAT 




UPS 


UPS 


MILE 
RUN 


FITNESS 
LEVEL 


Bennie Cochran 


115/70 


63 


12.4 


24 


42 


47 


7:59 


GOOD 


Mickey Elrod 


126/70 


63 


8.5 


231 


65 


55 


7:24 


EXCELL^ 


Wade Fulford 


130/76 


65 


16.4 


20 


42 


40 


7:55 


GOOD 


Eddie Henderson 


132/78 


65 


7.1 


221 


41 


42 


7:36 


GOOD* 


Preston Pickett 


132/74 


66 


12.5 


24! 


55 


53 


6:30 


EXCELLEN 


Butch Potter 


138/70 


70 


10.9 


201 


43 


41 


8:25 


GOOD 


Blaine Samples 


138/76 


64 


11.2 


23 


48 


35 


7:29 


GOOD 


]ary Simmons 


128/78 


63 


12.6 


25 


33 


36 


7:39 


GOOD 


]reg Varnadoe 


132/76 


61 


3.9 


22! 


64 


60 


6:22 


EXCELLEN 


teal Niblett 


140/84 


67 


12.9 


17! 


46 


50 


7:56 


GOOD 


lal Clubb 


115/68 


65 


10.5 


20 1 


48 


45 


9:00 


G00D+ 


like Crook 


120/70 


61 


6.8 


22! 


50 


40 


7:40 


EXCELLEN 


larty Fleming 


132/78 


70 


9.7 


20 


43 


42 


7:16 


GOOD 


t dren Higgs 


138/70 


72 


17.2 


21! 


45 


35 


9:10 


GOOD 


,ee Moon 


126/70 


74 


11.5 


20 


36 


50 


7:36 


GOOD 


oe Bilderback 


132/74 


74 


12.0 


21| 


30 


31 


8:32 


GOOD 


eorge Dooley 


136/76 


63 


16.2 


22. 


40 


30 


8:24 


G00D+ 


i im Evans 


132/70 


74 


7.5 


26! 


85 


60 


7:09 


EXCELLEN 


anton Massingill 


132/78 


64 


14.5 


20 1 


48 


35 


7:22 


GOOD+ 


aul Williamson 


138/78 


86 


10.7 


19 


35 


42 


9:29 


GOOD 


1 ohn Thomas 


136/74 


49 


8.1 


24 


48 


45 


6:16 


EXCELLEN 



207 



Acknowledgements 



The Department is indebted to the following organizations 
and individuals for providing information, technical material, train- 
ing and direction. This manual reflects a compendium of their 
efforts. 

Institute for Aerobics Research 

Dallas, Texas 

Kenneth H. Cooper, M.D., M.P.H. 

President 

Human Performance Laboratory 
University of Montana 
Brian J. Sharkey, PhD 
Director 

U.S. Department of Agriculture 

Forest Service Equipment Development Center 

Missoula, Montana 

International Association of Chiefs of Police 
Physical Fitness Manual for Police Administators 
Law Enforcement Assistance Administration 

Georgia State Patrol 

Health and Physical Fitness 

Lt. John E. Hammock, Program Director 



208 



Selected Reference Book List 



• 



* 



A. Blakesley & Stamler, W\.D.;Your Heart Has 9 Lives; Pocket 
Books, Inc., N.Y.; 1966; 278 pgs $ .75 

W. J. Bowerman & W.E. Harris, M.D.; Jogging; Grosset & Dunlap; 
1967; 127 pgs $1.00 

Kenneth Cooper, M.D.; The New Aerobics; Bantam Book; 1970; 
191 pgs $1.25 

Dr. Hans Goldsmith; It's Square to be Round; Price-Sloan-Stern 
Publishers, Inc.; 1967 $1 .95 

Grant Gwinup, M.D.; Energetics; Bantam Books $1 .00 

F.W. Kasch, Ed. D and John L. Boyer, M.D.; Adult Fitness; National 
Press Books, 850 Hansen Way, Palo Alto, Ca. 94304; 1968; 147 
pgs $1 .95 

Hans Kraus, M.D.; Back Ache-Stress & Tension; Simon & Schus- 
ter, N.Y.; 1965; 183 pgs $4.00 

Jean Mayer, PhD; Overweight; Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey; 1968; 213 pgs $2.45 

Frank B. Prentup; Skipping the Rope; Pruett Press, Inc., Boulder, 
Colorado $1 .00 

President's Council on Physical Fitness & Sports; Adult Fitness 

Lawrence E. Lamb, M.D.; Your Heart and How to Live with It; The 
Viking Press; 1969; 247 pgs $5.95 

*Brian U. Sharkey, PhD; Physiological Fitness and Weight Control; 
Associated Student's Store, University of Montana, Missoula, 

Montana; 1971; 154 pgs $1.50 

(plus postage) 



Preferred 

209 



* 



NOTES 



UNIVERSITY OF GEORGIA LIBRARIES 

111 mi ii inn iii mi linn 111 ill mi 



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