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«. . A 


O F T H E 

Being and Attributes of GOD, 


Works of Creation. 

Being the SUBSTANCE of 

Sixteen SERMONS 

Preached in St. Mary -k- Bow Church, London. 

At the Honourable Mr. B TL JS'sLectures, 
in the Years 1711, and 1712. 

With large Notes, and many curious Obfervations. 

B;W^ERHAM, Canon of Windfor, R>3or 
of Upminfter in Effex, and F. R. S. 

Mala & imfiu confuetudo eft contra Deos difputare^five ammo id Jit, 
Jivejimulate. Cicir. de Nat. Deor. L. 2. line. 

The Twelfth Edition. 


Printed for W. Innys and J.Richardson, 
in Pater-nofter Row. MDCCL1V. 

\ - .\ 


T O T H E 


Moft Reverend Father in God, 


Lord Archbifhop of Canterbury, 
Primate of All ENGLAND, &c. 

The Surviving Trustee of the Honourable 
Mr. BOTLEs Lectures. 

May it pleafe Tour Grace, 

MAY juftly put thefe 
Lectures under Your 
Grace's Patronage, their 
Publication being wholly 
owing to You : For having 
the Honour to be a Mem- 
ber of the Royal Society, 
as well as a Divine, I was minded to try 

A 2 what 

iv The Dedication. 

what I could do towards the Improvement 
of Philofophical Matters to Theological Ufes ; 
and accordingly laid a Scheme of what I 
have here Publifhed a Part of $ and when I 
had little elfe to do, I drew up what I had 
to fay, making it rather the diverting Exer- 
cifes of my leifure Hours, than more ferious 
Theological Studies. This Work (although I 
made a confiderable Progrefs in it at firft, 
whilft a Novelty, yet) having no Thoughts 
of Publifhing, I laid afide, until Your Grace, 
being informed of my Defign by fome of my 
Learned Friends, both of the Clergy and 
Laity, was pleafed to call me to the unex- 
pected Honour of Preaching Mr. Boyle's 
Lectures: An Honour I was little aware 
of in my Country Privacy, and not much 
acquainted with Perfons in High Stations, 
and not at all particularly with Your Grace. 
So that therefore as it pleafed Your Grace, 
not only to confer an unfought profitable 
Honour upon me (a Stranger) but alfo to con- 
tinue it for two Years, out of Your good 
Opinion of my Performance, in fome Mea- 
fure, anfwering Mr. Beyle's End ; fo I can do 
no lefs than make this publick, grateful Ac- 
knowledgment of Your Grace's great and 
unexpe&ed Favour. 

But it is not myfelf alone, but the whole 
Lecture alfo is beholden to Your Grace' s 
kind and pious Endeavours. It was You that 
encouraged this Noble Charity, and affifted 


The Dedication.' tf 

in the Settlement of it, in the Honourable 
Founder's Life-time; and fince his Death, it 
was You that procured a more certain Salary 
for the Lecturers, paid more conftantly 
and duly than it was before *. 

Thefe Benefits, as I myfelf have been a 
Sharer of; fo I fliould be very ungrateful, 
fhould I not duly acknowledge, and fepay 

* It many not only gratify the Reader's Curiofity, but alfo 
be of Ufe for preventing Encroachments in Time to come, to 
give the following Account of Mr. Boyle's Ledlures. 

Mr. Boyle, by a Codicil, dated July the 28th, 1691. and 
annexed to his Will, charged his Mefluage, or Dwelling- 
Houfe, in St. Micbaets Croaked- Lane, London, with the Pay- 
ment of the clear Yearly Rents and Profits thereof, to fome 
Learned Divine in London, or within the Bills of Mortality, 
to be Elecled for a Term not exceeding Three Years, by his 
Grace the prefent Lord Archbiftiop of Canterbury (then Dr. 
Tenifon) Sir Henry AJhurft, Sir John Rotberam, and John Eve- 
lyn, Efq;. The Bufinefs he appointed thofe Lectures for, was, 
among others, To be ready to fatisfy real Scruples, and to an* 
fiver fucb new Objections and Difficulties as might bejlarted, to 
which good Anfiucers bad not been made. And alfo, To Preach 
Eight Sermons in the Tear 5 viz. the fir ft Monday of January, 
February, March, April, and May; and of September, Octo- 
ber, and November. The Subject of thefe Sermons was to be, 
The Proof of the Chrifiian Religion againfi Notorious Infidels ; 
viz. Atheijls, Pagans, Jews, and Mahometants 5 not de- 
fending lower to any Controller fie s that are among Chrifiianf 
them/elves. But by reafon the Lecturers were feldom continued 
above a Year, and that the Houfe fometimes flood empty, and 
Tenants brake, or failed in due Payment of their Rent, there' 
fore the Salary fometimes remained long unpaid, or conld not 
be gotten without fome Difficulty : To remedy which Incon- 
venience, his prefent Grace of Canterbury procured a Yearly 
Stipend of 50/. to be paid Quarterly for Ever, charged upon 
a Farm in the Pariih of Bnll, in the County of Bucks: Which 
Stipend is accordingly very duly paid, when demanded, with- 
out Fee or Reward. 

A 3 witfy 

w ' ^ Dedication^ 

with my repeated Thanks and good Wiffies. 
And that the Infinite Rewarder of Well-do- 
ing, may give Your Grace a plentiful Re- 
ward of thefe, and Your many other, both 
Publick and Private, Benefactions, is the 
hearty Wifli of 

Tour Grace** 
Moft Humble and Thankful 
Son and Servant \ 

W. Derham. 

T o 

TO t HE 


5 the Noble Founder of the 
Lectures I have bad 
the Honour of Preaching, 
was a great Improver of 
Natural Knowledge,^, in 
all Probability, be did it out 
of a pious End \ as well as 
in Purfuit of bis Genius. For it was bis fet- 
tled Opinion* that nothing tended more to .cul- 
tivate true Religion and Piety in a Maris 
Mind, than a thorough Skill in Pbilefopby. 
And fuch EffeSl it manifeftly had in him, as is 
evident from divers of his publijhed Pieces j 
from his conjlant Deportment 
in never mentioning the Vi f- *&* , B ™- 

«*t c r* _*_ vir *. NKTi Funeral a«r- 

Name of God without a mn> p . 24 . 
Paufe, and vifible Stop in his 
Difcourfe; and from the noble Foundation of 
bis LeSlures for the Honour of G o d, and the 
generous Stipend be allowed for the fame. 

A 4 And 

viii To the Reader, 

Andforafmuch as his LeSiures were appointed 

by him for the Proof of the 
^.Jifr.BoYiV, chriftian Religion againft A- 

theifts and other notorious 
Iiifidels, I thought \ when I had the Honour to 
be made his Le&urer, that I could not better 
come up to his Intent, than to attempt a Demon- 
firation of the Being and Attributes of God, 
in what I may call Mr. Boyle'j own, that is, a 
Phyfico-Theological Way. And, befides that, 
as it was for this very Service that I was called 
to this Honour, I was the more induced to follow 
this Method, by reafon none of my learned and 
ingenious Predeceffors in thefe Leflures have done 
it on purpofe, but only cajually, in a tranfient, 
piece r mcal Manner-, they having made it their 
Buftnefs to prove the great Points of Chrijlta~ 
nity in another Way, which they have accord- 
ingly admirably done. *But confidering what our 
Honourable Founder'* Opinion was of Na- 
tural Knowledge, and that his Intent war, 
that thofe Matters, by pafjing through divers 
Hands, and by being treated of in different 
Methods, fhould take in mojl of what could be 
faid upon the SubjeEl ; J hope my Performance 
maybe acceptable, although one of the meanefi. 
As for other s^ who have bejore me done fome- 
thing oj this kind, as Merfenne on Gencfis; 
Dr. Cockburne in bis Effays; Mr. Ray in bis 
Wifdom of G o d, &c. and I may add thefirft 
if Mr. Boyle'* Le&urers, the mojl learned Dr. 
.Bentley, in bis Boyle'* Le&ures, the eloquent 
Archbi/hop of Cambray (and, 1 bear, the inge- 

To the Riadi *. Ix 

nious Monfeur Perault bath fotnetbing of this 
Kind, but never faw it) I fay, as to theje learn- 
ed and ingenious Authors, as the Creation is an 
ample SubjeSl, Jo I induflrioujly endeavoured to 
avoid doing over again what they before had done ; 
and for that Reafon did npt, for many Tears, 
read their Books, until I had finijhed my own. 
But when I came to compare what each of us 
had done, I found myfelf in many things to have 
been anticipated by fome or other of them, e/pe- 
cially by my Friend, the late Great Mr. Ray. 
And therefore in fome Places I JhorterCdmy Dif- 
courfe, and referred to them ; and in a few o- 
tbers, where the Thread, of my Dijcourfe would 
have been interrupted, I have made ufe of their 
Authority, as the be ft Judges $ as of Mr. Ray'* 
for Injlance, with relation to the Mountains, 
and their Plants, and other Projects. If then 
the Reader Jhould meet with any thing mentioned 
before by others, and not accordingly acknowledged 
by me, I hope he will candidly think me no Pla- 
giary, becaufe I can affure him I have all along 
(where I was aware of it) cited my Authors 
with their due Praife. And it is Jcarce poffible, 
when Men write on the fame, or a SubjqSl near 
a-kin, and the Obfervations are obvious, but 
that they muft often hit upon the fame Thing : 
And frequently this may happen from Perfons 
making Obfervations about one and the fame 
Thing, without knowing what each other hath 
done-, which indeed, when the firjl Edition of 
my Book was nearly printed off, I found to be 
my own Cafe, having [for want of Dr. Hook'* 


k- To the R £ a o £ »; 

Micrography being at hand, it being a very 
fcqrce Book, and many Tears Jince I read it) 
giving Defcriptions oftibo or three Things, which 
J thought had not been tolerably well obferved be- 
fore* but are defcribed weu by that curious 

One is a Feather, the Michanifm of which 
we in the main agree in, except in his Reprejen-* 
tation /« Fig. i. Scheme 22. which isfomewhat 
different from what I have represented in Fig. 1 8. 
&c. But lean Jiand by the "Truth, though not 
the Elegance of my Figures. But as to the other 
Differences, they are accidental, occajioridby our 
taking the Parts in a different View, or in d 
different Part of a Vane ; and to fay the Truth $ 
(not flattering my f elf, or detracting from the 
admirable Observations tf that Great Man) 1 
have hit upon a few ^Things that efcap'd him, 
being enabled to do fo, not only by the Help of 
fuch Micr of copes as he made ufe of ; but alfo by 
thofe made by Mr. Wilfon, which exceed all I 
ever Jawy whether of Englifh, Dutch, or 
Italian Make; feveral of which Sorts I have 
feen and examined. 

The other Thing we have both of us figured 
and defcribed* is, The Sting of a Bee or Wafpj 
in. which we differ more than in the loft. But 
by a carejul Re-examination, 1 find, that al- 
though Dr. Hook'j Obfervations are more critic 
cal than any where before, yet they are not fo 
true as mine. For as to the Scabbard {as be 
calls it) I could never difcover any Beards 
thereon j and I dare be confident there are none % 
1 but 

To the R e a d £ *u xi 

but what are on the two Spears. And as to 
the Point of the Scabbard, be hath represented 
it as tubular ', or bluntijh at the Top ; but it 
really terminates in a Jharp Point, and the 
two Spears and the Poifon come out of a Slit, 
or longifh Hole, a little below, the Top or 
Point. And as to the Spears, he makes them 
to be but one, and that the Point thereof 
lies always out of the Scabbard. But by aftri& 
Examination, they will' be found to be two, as I 
have f aid, and that they always lie within the 
Scabbard, except in Stinging-, as I have repre- 
fented them, in Fig. 21. from the tranfparent 
Sting of a Wafp. And as to the Spear being 
made of the Joint s y and parted into two, as ins 
Fig. 2. Scheme 16, reprejents, I could never 
upon a Review^ difcover it to befo, but imagine, 
that by feeing the Beards lying upon, or behind 
the Spears, he might take them for Joints^ and 
by feeing the Point of one Spear lie before the 
vther, he might think the Spear was parted in 
two. But left the Reader Jhould think bimfelf 
impofed upon by Dr. Hook, and my Self, it is 
necejfary to be obferved, that the Beards (or 
Tenterhooks, as Dr. Hook calls them) lie only 
on one Side of each Spear, not all round them j 
and are therefore not to be feen, unlefs they are 
laid in a due Pojlure in the Microfcope; viz. 
JSde-ways, not under, or a top the Spear. 

The lad Thing (which fcarce dejerves men- 
tion) is the Mechanifm of the Hair, which Dr. 
Hook found to befolid, like along Piece of Horn, 
'not hollow, as Malpighi/wW/V infome Animals. 


xii To the R e a d e r? 

And I have found both thofe Great Men to be in 
fome Meafure in the Right, the Hair oj fome 
Animals, or in fome Parts of the Body, being 
very little, if at all, tubular ; and in others, 
particularly Mice, Rats, and Cats, to be as 
I have reprefented in my Fig. 14, Gfr. 

And now, if my Inadvertency in other Takings 
hath no worfe EffeSi than it hath had in thefe, 
namely, to correB, or clear others Obfervatiom, 
I hope the Reader will excufe it, if be meets with 
any more of the like Kind. But not being con- 
fcious of anyfuch thing [although probably there 
may be many fuch) I am more follicitous fo beg 
the Reader' s Candor and. Favour, with relation 
both to the Text and Notes : In the former if 
which, I fear hi. -will think I have as much un- 
der-done, as in the latter over-done the Matter c 
But for my Excufe, I defire it may be confidered y 
That the textual Part being Sermons, to be de- 
livered in the Pulpit, it was neceffary to injifi 
but briefly upon many of the Works of God, 
and to leave out many Things that might have 
been admitted in a more free Difcourfe. So that 
I wijh it may not be thought I havefaid too much, 
rather than too little, jor fuch an Occafion and 
Place. And indeed, I had no fmall Trouble ip 
expunging fome Things, altering many, antf 
foftening the mojt, and, in a word, giving, in 
fome Meafure, the Whole a different Drefs than 
what I had at Jirjl drawn it up in, and what it 
now appears in. 

And as for the Notes, which may be thought 

too large, I confkfs I might have fhortened them, 

1 and 

To the R e a D e a. xiii 

end had Thoughts of doing it, by cafling fome of 
them into the Text, as an ingenious learned 
Friend advifed. But when I began to do this, 
I found it was in a Manner to new- make all, 
and that Ifhould be necejfitated to transcribe the 
greatejl Part of the Book, which {having no 
Affiflant) would have been too tedious for me % 
being pretty well fatigued with it before. I then 
thought it bejl to pare off from fome, and to leave 4 
out others^ and accordingly didfo in many Placet, 
and would have done it in more, particularly 
in many of the Citations out of the Ancients, 
both Pcefs and others ; as alfo in many of the 
Anatomical Obfervations, and many of my 
own and others Obfervations : But then I con- 
Jidered, as to the Firft, that-* thofe Citations do 
. {many of them at leaf) fhew the Senfe of Man- 
kind about God's Works, and that the mojtof 
them may be acceptable to young Gentlemen at the 
Univerfities, for whofe Service thefe LeBures are 
greatly intended. And as to the Anatomical 
Notes, and fome others of the like Nature, moji 
if themferve, either to the Confirmation, or the 
lllufiration, or Explication of the Text, if not 
to the learned, yet to the unfkilful, lefs learned 
Reader ; for whofe Sake, if. I had added. more 9 
1 believe be would forgive me. And lajlly, as to 
the Obfervations of myfelf, and fome others* 
where it happens that they are long, it is commonly 
where a NeceJJity lay upon me of fully expreffing 
the Author's Senfe, or my own, or where the 
Thing waf new, and never before publifhed ; in 
which Cafe, it was neceffary to be more Exprefs 


xiv To the R e a d e r. 

and Particular, than in Matters better known > 
or where the Author may be referred unto. 

In the former Editions I promifid, another 
Part I had relating to the Heavens, if 1 was 
thereunto encouraged. And two large Imprcf- 
fons of this Book having been fold off, fo as to 
admit of a Third before the Tear was gone about ; 
and bearing that it is tranflated into two, if not 
three Languages $ but especially being importuned 
by divers learned Perjqns, both known and un- 
known, 1 have thought my f elf fufficiently engaged 
to perform that Premife; and have according- 
ly publijhed that Part. 

So that I have now carried my Survey tbrd 
mofl Parts of the vifible Creation, except the 
Waters, which are for the mofl Part omitted % 
and the Vegetables, which, for want of Time^ 
J was forced to treat of in a perfunSlory Man- 
ner. And to the XJnderJlanding of the Jormer of 
thefe, having received divers Solicitations from 
Perfons unknown, as well as known, I think my- 
felf bound in Civility to mm their Favour, and 
to return them my hearty Thanks for the kind 
Opinion they have Jhewn of my other Perfor- 
mances, that they have encouraged me to under- 
take this other Task. And accordingly I have 
begun it, and (as jar as my Affairs will per- 
tnit) have made fome Progrefs in it: But Age 
fnd Avocations growing upon me, 1 begin to fear 
IJhall fcctrce be able to finijh it as I would, and 
therefore mafl recommend that ample and noble 
SubjeSl to others, who have more Leifure and 
would do it better than L 

To the R E AD E R. XV 

As to Additions, J have been much follicited 
thereunto by divers curious and learned Perjbns, 
who would have had me to infer t fome of their 
Obfervations, and many more of my own ; but 
in a Work of this Nature \ this would have been 
endlefs : And although the Book would thereby be 
rendered much better \ and more compleat, yd I 
could by no means excufe fo great an lnjujtice to 
the Purcbafers of the former Editions. And 
therefore (except in the fecond Edition, where 
it was not eafy to be avoided) few Additions 
have been made, be fides what were Typographical 
or of^ fmall Confederation. Only in the third 
Edition I amended tbefirfl Paragraph tffNote i. 
Chap. 5. Book 1. concerning Gravity; and in 
the Fourth^ Page 16, and 18, I inferted two 
Paffages out of Seneca, that were inadvertently 
left out , and correffed many Things, that upon 
a careful Review, feemedto want Amendment. 

And lajlly, as to the following Analyfis, it 
was added at the Requefi of fome of my learned 
and ingenious Friends ; and although it might 
have been contrasted, they would not fuffer it to 


A N 


O F T H E 

Following Book. 

THE Works of the Creation relating to our Terraqueous 
Globe, are fuch as are viflble in the 

Outworks or Arondages of the Globe, «t//«. thefe Three : 
"i. The AtmSBhere, 

CompofedofAir and Vapours, Page 4. 
Ufeful to 
"Refpi ration and Animal Life 5. 
Vegetation of Plants 9. 
. Conveyance of 
*W C The winged Tribes. 
I I ( Sound 11. 
I I The Functions of Nature, 
j L Reflecting and Refrafting Light 12. 
L Containing the 
^ f Winds, which are of great Ufe and Neceffity 
j f To the Salubrity and Pleafure of the Air 14* 
In various Engines 1 $. 
_ In Navigation. 
Clouds and Rain : Of great Ufe to the 
j Refrefbmentofthc Earth and the Things therein 2# 
\ Origine of Fountains, according to fojme 23. 
2. Light. Its 
f Fountain 26. 

I Wonderful Neceffity and Ufe. 
^Improvement by GlafTcs aS. 
j j Velocity. 

(.Expanfion 29. 
L3- Gravity. 

* 1* 


1 r 



C Its great Benefit 33. 

7 Caufe of Levity, which is of great Ufe in the World 35, 
Terraqueous Globe i.tfclf. Of which I take a View in 
"General, of m 

fits Spherical figure, which is the moft commodious in 
regard of 
Light 40. 
1 Lodgment of the Waters. 
LThe ^inds 41. 
Its Bulk 43. 
Its Motion ibid. 
C Annual. 
( Diurnal. 
Its Place and Diftance from the Sun, and other Heavenly 

Bodies 46. 
Its Diftribution, (6 as to caufe all the Parts of the Globe to 
( Balance each other 48. 
\ Be helpful to one another. 

The great Variety and Quantity of all Things ferving for" 
Food, Phyfick, Building, and every Ufe and Occafion 
of all Ages, Places, and Creatures 53. 
An Objection anfwered 55- 
£ Particular, of the Earth ; of its 
-Conftituent Parts, trix* Its 
f Soils and Moulds, neceflary to the- *W' 
C Growth of various Vegetables 61. 
\ Various Occafions of Man, and other Animals 62. 
Various Strata or Beds, affording Materials for 
r Tools. 
1 Firing. 
< Building. 

I Dying, and thoufands of other Things 64. 
(_ Conveyance of the fweet Fountain* Waters 65. 
Subterraneous Caverns and Vulcano's ; of great Ufe to the 

Countries where they are 67. 
b Mountains and Valleys, which are not rude Ruins, but Works 

<rf Defign, inafmuch as this Structure of the Earth is 
fThe moil Beautiful and Pleafant. 

I The moft Salubrious : to fome Conftitutions, the Hills ; 
I to (bme, the Valleys 71. 
I Beft to fkreen us, and other Things 72. 
^ Beneficial to the 

j r Production of various Vegetables. 
I < Harbour and Maintenance of various Animals 73. 
I l Generation of Minerals and Metals 75. 
L Abfolutely neceflary to the Conveyance of the Rivers ; and 
in all Probability to the Origin of Fountains ib. 



I Conclafion again/l blaming G O D 8 1 •• 

LIts Inhabitants ; which are cither Se*Jiti<vc or Iufenfit'rve. 

Concerning the 
"Senfitive, fome Things are 
f Common to all the Tribes, particularly thefe Ten : 
[L The Fiye Senfes and their Organs ; the 85. 

fEye, an admirable Piece of Mechanifmin regard of its 
f J win, for the moft part Spherical, which is beft for 
1 The Reception of Objects. 
I Motion of the £ye 90. 
Situation in the moft commodious Part of the Body 

of every Creature. 
Motion, in fome Animals. 
( Every Way. 
( Fixed ; and the excellent Provifion in that 

Cafe 91 . 
Size ; which is in 

r AH Creatures, according to their Occafiotis, 
i Such as live Abroad in the Light, larger. 
( Such as live under Ground, left. 
Number, in fome Animals : 
t Two 94. 

I More : Together with the wife Provifion to pre- 
vent double Vifion. 
Parts ; fome of which are viewed 
f Tranfientfy, the Arteries, Veins, and fome of 

< the Mufcles and Tunicks. 
(.More ftri&ly, fome of the 

Mufcles, and the excellent Provifion made for 
their peculiar Ufes, Equilibration, &c. 96. 
Tunicks : Among which the various Aper- 
tures, Forms, and Pofitions of the Pupil 
I are particularly noted 99. 
J Humours, efpecially the prodigious Finery and 
Compofi tion of the Cryftalline, according to 
Mr. Lewenhocck. 
L Nerves 105. 
C Optick. 
( Motory. 
_ Guard and Security, provided for by 
rThe Reparation of the Aqueous Humour. 
1 Covering of the Eye-lids. 

< Strong and curious Bones; 
I Hard and firm Tunicks. v 
( Withdrawing them into their Heads 109. , 

Of ereaVifiop 111. 




Hearing. Its 
" Organ, the Ear 113. 
f Double, enabling us to hear every Way, and a 
I good Provifion for the Lofs or Hurt of one. 
^ Situated in the very beft Place for Information, 
I ' Security, and near the Eye and Brain, 
LTheFabrickof the ^ 

f Outward Ear which is in 

!A11 Creatures formed, guarded, placed, and 
every way accourercd according to their 
various Places and Occafions 15. ; 

Man fui table to his creft Pofturc ; and all its 
Parts, the Helix, 7ragut r Ctmcka? Sec admi- 
rably fuited to the Reception and Meliorati- 
on of Sounds, and the Security of the Part. 
I Inward Ear : In which I take a View of the 21 . 
"Auditory Paflage, curioufly tunnelled, toitu- 
ous, and fmooth; and being always open, is 
lined with the naufeous Ear-wax for a Guard. 
TubaEuftachiana 122. 
Eone, particularly hard and context for Guard, 

and to aflill the Sound. 
Tympanum, 'and its Membrane, Mufcles, and 
four little Bones to cofrefpond to all Kinds 
of Sound* 
Labyrinth Semicircular Canals, Cochlea ; all 

made with the utmoft Art 127. 
^Auditory Nerves, one of which is ramified to 
the Eye, Tongue, Mufcles of the Ear, and 
to the Heart ; whence a great Sympathy be- 
tween thofe Pars 28. 
Object, Sound, Under which I confider, 
€ The Improvements thereof by the Wit of Man 1 29. 
< Its great Neceflky, and excellent Ufes 132. 
( ItsPleafure, and the Power of Mufrck 134* 
Smelling. Inwhich Senfe thefe Things are remarkable, the 
rNoftrils, always open, cartilaginous, and endowed 
I with Mufcles 37. 
J Lamina;, . ferving for 
J j A Guard agninft noxious Things 138. 
J ( The fpreading of the Olfa&ory Nerves. 
L Prodigious Ufe of it in all, efpccially fome of the 

Irrationals 3^ 
Tafte. The Things moft remarkable in which Senfe 

are, the 
f Nerves fpread about the Tongue and Mouth, with 
I their Guard. 
I The Papillae, nearly made 140. 



I Situation thereof to be a Centinel to the Stomach 
. and Food. 
Content thereof with the other Senfes, by fome 
Branches of the fifth Pair 141 . 
^Feeling 14a. 
( Whofe Organ is the Nerves 143. 
I Which is difperfed through every Part of the Body, 
and the admirable Benefit thereof. 
II, Refpiration the grand Aft of Animal Life 145. 
f Mini firing to the Circulation of the Blood and Diaflole 
of the Heart. 
The Parts concerned therein are, 
TThe Larynx, with its great Variety of Mufcles, fcfr. 

for Rrfpiration, and forming the Voice 148. 
J Trachea and Epiglottis, exquifitely contriv'd and made. 
^ Bronchi and Lungs, with their curious Arteries, Veins 

and Nerves 150. 
I^Ribs, Diaphragm, and the feveral Mufcles concern'd. 
Jts Defe£b in the. 
. f Foetus in the Womb 153. 
< Amphibious Creatures 157. 
L Some Animals in Winter. 
JII. The Motion of Animals : Concerning which I confider 
rTranfiently the 



~ Mufcles, and their Struclure, their Size, Faftening 

to the Joints, Motions, cjfr. 158. 
Bones, and their curious Make. 
Joints* with their Form, Bandage, and Lubricity 161.. 
Nerves, and their Origine, Ramifications, and Inofcu- 

_More particularly the Loco-motive Act. itfelf, which is 
'Swift or flow, with Wings, Legs many or few, or none 
at all, according to the various Occafions and Ways 
of Animals Lives. As particularly in 
r Reptiles, whofe Food and Habitation is near at hand. 
\ Man and Quadrupeds, whofe Occafions require a lar r 
1 ger Range, and therefore a fwifter Motion 164.* 
L Birds, andlnfs&s, whofe Food, Habitation and Safety 
require yet a larger Range, and have accordingly; 
a yet fwifter Motion and direct Conveyance. 
Geometrically and neatly performed by the- niceit Rules. 
fc Well provided for by the 
t Due Equipoife of the Body 165. 
I Motive Parts being accurately placed with regard to. 
the Center of the Body's Gravity, and to undergo. 
. their due Proportion of Weight and^Exercifc. 

a a IV. Thq 

[ l wne 

i LwL 


IV. The Place allotted to the feveral Tribes of Animals 
to Live and Ad in. In concerning which I obferve, that 

S Their Organs are adapted to their Place *6j. 
All Places habitable are duly docked. 
Various Animals have their various Places ; and the 
Wifdom thereof 168 

V. The Balance of Animals Numbers, fo that ike World 
is not 

C Overftocked by their Increase. 
( Depopulated by their Death. 
Which is effefted in 

f The feveral Tribes of Animals by a due Proportion in the 
I C Length of their Life 169. 
\ Number of their Young, in 
" Ufeful Creatures being many. 
Pernicious few. 
'an very remarkably, by the 
Different Length of his Life. 

1r Soon after the Creation 171. 
J When the World was more, but npt fully Pee- 
led ibid. 
en it was fufficiently flocked, down to the pfe- 
fent Time. 
Due Proportions of Marriages, Births, and Burials 1 74. 
Balance of Males and Females 17c. 

VI. The Food of Animals. In which the Divine Manage- 
ment and Providence appears, in the 179. 

~ Maintaining fach large Numbers of all Kinds of Ani- 
mals on the Land, in the Seas, and divers Places too 
unlikely to afford fufficient Food. 
Adjuftment of the Quantity of Food to the Number of 
Devourers, fo that 

! There is not too much, fo as to rot, and annoy 
the World 181. 
The moil Ufeful is the moft Plentiful, and eafieft 
Propagated ibid. 
Delight which the various Tribes of Animals have to the 
Varieties of Food, fo that what is grateful to one, is 
naufeous to another : Which is a wife- Means to caufe 

SA11 Creatures to be fufficiently fupplied. 
All forts of Food to be confumed. 
The World to be kept fweet and clean by thofe 
Means 183. 
Peculiar Food, that particular Places afford to the Crea- 
tures refiding therein 1 8a. 
Curious Apparatus in all Animals for Gathering, and 
Digeftion of their Food, viz. the 


[ vii ] 

"Mouth, nicely fhaped for Food, fcfr. In 
("Some* little and narrow 189. 

Some, with a large deep Incifure. 
J Jnfefts very notable to catch, hold and devour 
Prey ; to carry Burdens, to bore and build their ;■ 
Habitations 190. 
m Birds as notable, Horned in all. In fome 
f Hooked for Rapine, climbing, tffr. 192. 

Sharp and ftrong to pierce Trees, fcfr. 
* Long and {lender to grope, 
j Long and broad to quaffer. 
Thick and (harp-edged to hufk Grain. 
[ Com prefled to raife Limpets, GV. 
Teeth, which are peculiarly hard, firmly inferted in 
the Jaws, varioufly (haped in the fame, and different 
Animals, deficient in young Creatures, fcJV. 194. 
Salival Glands, commodioufly placed for Maftication 

and Deglutition 196. 
Mufcles and Tendons, ferving to Mailication, ftroag 

and well lodged. 
Gullet, fized according to the Food ; with curious 

Fibres, &e. ibid. 
Stomach; 197. 

r Which hath a curious Mechanifm of Fibres, Tu- 
nicks, Glands, Nerves, Arteries, and Veins. 

1 Whofe Faculty of Digeftion by fuch feeming weak 
M iiflruums is admirable. 
Whofe Size and Strength is conformable to the 
Nature of the Food, or Occafions of Animals. 
Which is in 
C Tame Animals but one. 
\ Ruminants, Birds, &c. more. 
Guts, whofe Tunicks, Glands, Fibres, Valves, and 

Periftalcick Motion, defer ve Admiration 201. 
Lacteals, together with the Impregnations from the 
L Pancreas, Gall, Glands, and Lyrnphaeducts. 
L Sagacity of all Animals in finding out, and providing 

Food. In 
C Man lefs remarkable for the fake of his Ujpierllanding 202 
( Inferior Creatures. In fuch as are 
f Come to mature Age, and are able to help themfelves, 

by their 
I f Accurate Smell 203. 
I J Natural Craft. 
>( j Hunting and groping out of Sight. 

^ Seeing and Smelling at great Diftances 205. [in, 

J Climbing; the flrongTendons andMuicles a&ing there- 
in Seeing in the dark. 
Helplefc. As 20 

a 4 


[ via ] 

Young Creatures. 

r Man, born the moft helplefs of any, the Parent* 

) t eafon, Hands, and Afre&ion fufficing. 

J Irrationals : For whofe Young the Creator hath made 

L . a fufficient Provifion, partly by the 

arent Animals own 

r Xropy \ and Diligence in Nurfing and Defending 

1 them 207. 

I Sagacity and Care in reporting their Eggs and 

(Young, where Food and all Neceflaries are to 
be found 209. 
L Ability of the Young themfelves to fhift for, and 
help themfelves, with the little Helps of their 
Dams 210. 

w Creatures deflitute of Focd at fome Seafons, or likely 
to want it, who 
( Are able 10 live long without Food 211. 
( Lay up Food before- hand. 
VII. The Cloathing of Animals, which is 214. 
'Suited to the Place and Occafions of all. In ' 

"Man it is left to his own Reafon and Art, joined with 
fufficient Materials : Which is bell for him, 

IEecaufe he may fait his Cloathing to his Quality 
andBufinefs 218. 
For Perfpiratiori and Health fake. 
To exercife his Art and Induftry. 
To excite his Diligence in keeping himfelf fweet 
and clean. 
In being the Parent of divers Callings 219. 
4 Irrationals : Who are either 

Ready furnifhed with proper Cloathing, 
r On the dry Land with Hair, Fleeces, Furs, Shell?, 
\ hard Skins, &c* 220. 

1 In the Air with Feathers, light, ftrong, and warm. 
L In the Waters with Scales, hard for Guard ; fmooth 
for Paflage ; or with ftrong Shells to guard fuch 
as move more flowly 223. 
^Provide for themfelves by their Textrine, or Archi* 
techtonick Art Of which under the next Branch. 
_Wdl gaAifhed, being all Workman-like, compleat, 
in its Kind beautiful, being 224. 
f Adorned with gay, various and elegant Colours. 
< If fordid, yet with exatt Symmetry, and full of curi^ 
i. ous Mechanifm. 
VUL The Houfes and Habitations of 




("Man, who is abundantly rVniflied with 

I f Contrivance and Art to build and garnifh his Habit** 

< < dons 226. 

I I Materials of aU forts to efle& his Works. 

(. Irrationals, whofe marvellous Inftincl is manifefted by the 

S Convenience of their Nefts and Habitations for die 
( Hatching and Education of their Young 228. 
I Guard and Defence of themfelves and their Young. 
Fabrick of their Nefts, fcarce imitable by Man, and 
{hewn by their Contrivance and Make, being exactly 
faitable to their Occafions, and made by 
r Putting only a few ugly Sticks, Mofs, Dirt, Wr. toge- 
V ther 231. 

< Building Combs according to the beft Rules of Ma- 
I thematicks. 

(.Weaving Webs, and making Cafes, For which Service 
the Parts of their Bodies, and Materials afforded by 
them, are very confiderable. 
IX. Animals Self-Prefervation. For which there is al- 
ways a Guard in Proportion to the Dangers and Occa- 
fions of their State. Which is obfervable in 
f Man, whofe Reafon and Art fupplies the Deled of 
< Natural Armature. 
t Irrational Creatures : who 

~As they are on one hand fufficiendy guarded by their 
f Shells, Horns. Claws, Strings, &V. 239. 
Changing their Colours. 
Wings, Feet, and Swiftnefs. 
Diving in, and tinging the Waters. 

1_ EjedUng Juices out of their Body. 
Accurate Smell, Sight, and Hearing. 
Natural Craft 243. 
Uncouth Noife, ugly Gefticulations, and horrid 
1 Horrible Stink and Excrements. 
^So on the other hand can by their Strength, Sagacity, 
or natural Artifices entrap and captivate what it 
neceflkry for their Food and other Occafions. 
X. Animals Generation. 
( Equivocal, is denied 244. 
J Univocal : Which of 

{ Man, is «t/7rp«ri»«? mxu 9 pafled wholly by 
I Irrational Creatures, which is remarkable for their 
TSagacity in chufmg the fitted Place for their Eggi 
J and Young i Where it is obfervable what a 


Ir Compleat Order they obferve* 
\ Neat Apparatus their Bodies are provided with 
I for this Purpose 248. 

I Natural Venom they inject with their Eggs into 
Vegetables to pervert Nature, and produce Balls, 
and Cafes 250. 
Making Ufe of the fitteit Seafims # either. 
( AHSeafons 251. 

\ When Provifions are moll plentiful and eafieft had* 
Due Number of Young 252. 
Diligence and Concern for their Young, in point of 
{ Incubation 253. 
I Safety and Defence 254. 
.Faculty of Nurfing their Young, by 

"Suckling them. In which it is obfervable 

{How fuitable this Food is. 
How willingly parted with by all, even the mod lavage. 
What a compleat Apparatus in all Creatures of 
Dugs, 6fr. 
Putting Food in their Mouths, with their proper Parts 

for catching and conveying Food 255. 
fc Neither way, but by laying in Provifions beforehand 256 

Having in the Fourth Book thus difpatched the Decad of 
Things in common to the Senfttivt Creatures, J take a View 
of their particular Tribes, *viz. of 
'Man ; whom I confider with relation to his 

Soul. Concerning which, having curforily mentioned 
divers Things, I infill upon two as (hewing an efpecial 
divine Management, the 

{Various Genii, or Inclinations of Men, which is a wife 
Provifion for the Difpatch for all the World's Affairs, 
and that they may be performed with Pleafure 263. 
Inventive Faculty. In which it is remarkable that 
f Its Compafs is fo large, extending to all Things of 
< Ufe, and occafioning fo many feveral Callings. 
C Things of greateft Neceflity and Ufe were foon and 
eafily found out ; but Things lefs Ufeful later, and 
dangerous Things not yet. Here of divers parti- 
cular Inventions, with an Exhortation to exercife 
ai.d improve our Gifts. 
Body. In which the Things particularly remarked upon 

are the 

If The mod convenient for a Rational Being. 
[ Mamfellly intended, as appears from the Structure 
I ^ of fome particular Parts mentioned 285. 

J! J Nice Structure of the Parts miniflring thereto. 
[ Equilibration of all the Parts 286. 

Figure and Shape of Man's Body moft agreeable to 

his Place and Bufinefs 287. 
Stature and Size, which is much the belt for Man's 

State 28a, 
Struaure of the Parti, which are 
f Without Botches and Blonder*. 
I Of due Strength, 
<{ Of the bell Form* 

j Moft accurately accommodated to their proper 

I Offices. r *^ 

Lodgment of the Parts, as the 

rFive Senfes tor* 

I Hand. 

Legs and Feet 
«( Heart. 

j Vifcera, 

I Several Bones and Mufcles, &c. 298. 

L Covering of all with the Skin. 
Provifion in Mai/s Body to 

r Prevent Evils by the 

I f Situation of theEye^Ear^rongue.andHand 3^. 

1 j ^ Gaai - d ^^deda?l»efpeciallytheprincipalPait^ 

I C Duplication of fome Parts. 

^Cure of Evils by means of 

i Proper Emunclories 301, 
Difeafes themfel ves making Difcharges of Things 
more dangerous 303. 
Pain gi vingWami ng^nd exciting ourEndeavours. 
LConfentofthePam, effeclcd by the Nerves, a Sam-. 
pie whereof is given in the Fifth Pair, branched 
^ to the Eye, Ear, &c t 
^Political, foriable State, For the Prefervation and Se- 
cunty of which the Creator hath taken Care by 
Variety of Mens 
f Faces 308. 
< Voices. 
I Hand- Writing. 
Quadrupeds. Of which I take no Notice, bat wherein 
they differ from Man, «w«. 
"Prone Pollure* which is confiderable for 
"The Parts jniniitring to it, cfpecially the Legs and 
Feet, n>,ed and made in fome for 
Strength and flow Motion 315. 
Ability and Swiftnefs, 
Walking and Running. 
Walking and Swimming. 
Walking and Flying. 
Walking and digging. 


f 1 

[ «B 1 

J Traverfing the Plains. 
(.Traveriing Ice, Mountains, £ffr. 
b Its Ufefulneis to 
" Gather Food 317, 
Catch Prey. 
< Climb, Leap, and Swim. 
Guard themfelves. 

te Carry Burdens, Till the Ground, and other Ufes 
of Men. 

..Parts differing from thofe of Men, 
p Head, wherein I confider 

Its Shape, commonly agreeable to the Animal's Mo- 
tion 319. 
The Brain, which is 
' { Letter than in Man 319. 
I Placed lower than the* Cerebellum. 
The Nictitating Membrane 321. 
Carotid Arteries, and Rete Mirabile- 
L Nates* 

X Anfwering the Length of the Legs 322* 
( Strengthened by the Whitleather. 
Stomach 324. 

C Correfponding to the feveral Species. 
( Suited to their proper Food, whether Flefh, Grafn.cjjTr. 
Heart: Its 
f Ventricles in fomt 
[ f One only 325. 

Three, as fome think. 
I Situation nearer the midft of the Body, than in Man. 
I Want of the Fattening of the Pericardium to the 
[ Midriff 327. 
^Ncrvou $ Kinds. A Sample of which is given in the diffe- 
rent Correfpondence between the Head and Heart of 
Man and Beaft, by .the means of the Nerves 329. 
Birds. Concerning which I take a View of their 
'Body and Motion ; where I confider 
p Th e Parts concerned in their M otion 33V 
["The Shape of the Body, made exactly for fwim- 
ming in, and paffing through the Air. 
Feathers, which are 

!Moft exactly made for Lightnefs and Strength. 
All well placed in every Part, for the Covering 
and Motion of the Body. 
Preened and dreffed 3^4. 
Wings, which are 

("Made of the very befl Materials, viz. of Boms* 



[ xiii ] 

light and ftron^ ; Jmnts eVaclly opening, (hut- 
ting, and moving, as the Occasions of Flight 
require ; and the Ptgoral Mujiltr, of the great- 
eft Strength of sny in the whole Body. 
t Plated in the nictft Point of the Body of every 
Species, according to the Oocafions of Flight, 
Swimming, or Diving. 
Tail, which is well made, and placed %o kpep the 
Body fleady, and affift in its Afcents andDe- 
fcents 337. 
Legs and Feet, which are made light for Flight, 
and incomparably accouterM. for their proper 
Occafions of 
f Swimming 338. 

I Catching Prey. 

Wading and Searching the Waters. 
Lifting them upon their Wings. 
Motion itfelf 

C Performed by the niceft Laws of Mechanicks* 
\ Anfwering every Purpofe and Occafion. 
^Other Parts of the Body, <uix. the 
'Head remarkable for the commodious 
"Shape of itfelf 341. 
Forms of the Bill. 
Site of the Eye and Ear. 
Pofition of tne Brain. 
Stru&ureof the 
f Larynx. 
< Tongue. 
C Inner Ear. 
fc Pi-oviiion by Nerves in the Bill for tailing and 
diftinguiming Food 344. 
Stomachs, one to 
C Macerate and prepare 345% 
( Grind and djgefl. 
Lungs incomparably made for 
[ Refpiration 346, 
[ Making the Body buoyant. 
.Neck, which h made 
€ In due Proportion to the Legs. 
< To fearch in the Waters, and 
£ To counterpoife the Body in Flight. 
State. Of which I take Notice of three Things, *riz. 




"Migration remarkable for 


, i ne Knowledge Birds have of 

\ J Their Times of Paflage 348. 

J ( The places proper for them. 

L Their Accommodation for long Flights by long or el£ 

Arong Wings. ' 

Incubation, which is considerable for 
f The Egg, and its Parts 351. 
Aft itklf; that thefe Creatures mould betake them- 
felves to it, know this to be the Way to produce 
their Young, and with Delight and Patience fit 
fuch a due Number of Days. 
The Negle&of it in any, as theOftrich, and the won- 
derfuf Provifion for the Young in that Cafc 354, 
Nidihcation. Of which before. 
InfeBs. Which altho* a defmfed Tribe, doth in fomeRt- 
fpecls more fet forth the infinite Power and Wifdom of 
Ae Creator, than the larger Animals. 
The Things in this Tribe remarked upon are their 
-Body 359. 
f Shaped, not fo much for long Flights, as for their 
Food, and Condition of Life* 
Bailt not with Bones, but with what feryes both for 

Bones and Covering too. 
Eyes, reticulated to fee all Ways at once 360. 
Antenna, and their Ufe 361. 
Legs and Feet made for 
p Creeping 363. 
I Swimming and Walking. 
j Hanging on fmooth Surfaces* 
j Leaping. 
L Spinning and Weaving Webs and Cafes* 
Wings, which are 
'"Nicely diftended with Bones j6c. 
Some incomparably adorned with Feathers and 

elegant Colours. 
Some jointed and folded up in their Elytra, and 

diftended again at Pleafure. 
In Number either 
C Two, withPoifes. 
I Four, without Poifes. 
^Surprizing Minutenefs of fome of thofc Animals them- 
felves, especially of their Parts, which are as numer- 
ous and various as in other Animal Bodies 367 . 
State ; which fets forth a particular Concurrence of the 
Divine Providence, in the wife and careful Provifion 
that is made for their 



fSecurity againft Winter, by their 
I. fSubfifting in a different, w*. their Nymph* or Ail* 
I 1 relia-State 369. 

j ^ Living in Torpitude, without any Wafte of Body or 
j I Spirits 3.70. 

L L^aying np Provifion before-hand. 
Prefervation of their Species by their 
f Chafing proper Places, to lay up their Eggs and Sperm* 

Ifo that the 
i Eggs may have due Incubation J73. 
^ { Young: fufficient Food. 
Care and Curiofity in repofiting t^cir Eggs in neatOiv 

der, and with the proper Part uppe/jnoft 382, 
Incomparable Art of Nidification, by being eudow'd with 
f Parts proper for, and agreeable to the {everai Ways 

< of Nidification, and the Materials they ufe in it. 
£ Archite&onkk Sagacity to build and weave their Cells, 

or to make even Nature herfelf their Handmaid ? 84. 
Reptiles. Which agreeing with other Animals in femething 
or other before treated of, I confider only their 

[Motion, which is very remarkable, whether we confider the 
F Manner of it, as 
j f Vermicular 394. 
j Sinuous. 
L Parts miniftring to it. 
LPoifon, which (erves to 
f Scourge Man's Wickednefs 398. 

< Their eafy Capture and Maftery of their Prey. 
I Their Digeftion. 

fc Watery Inhabitants confiderable for their 
f Great Variety 401. 
j Prodigious Multitudes. 

I Vail Bulk of fome, and furprizingMinutenefs of others 402 
J Incomparable Contrivance and Structure of their Bodies, 
j Supplies of Food. 
I Refpiration. 

) Adjuftment of their Organs of Vifion to their Element; 
LPoife and Motion of the Body every Way 403. 
^Infenfitive Inhabitants.. Among which having mentioned 
Foflils and others, I infill only upon Ve^eyibks t and that 
in a curfory Manner upon their 
"Great Variety for the (everalUfes 'of the World 404. 
Leaves 407. 

Flowers, and their admirable Gaiety. 
Seed, remarkable for its 


f ( xvi ] 


(Make. ' 

^ Containing in it a compleat Plant 408. 
J Prefervation and Safety in the Gems, Fruit, tarth, &e. 
^Sowing, which is provided for by Down, Wings, Springy 
Cafes, carried about by Birds, fown by theHufband* 
man, &c. 412. 
Growing and Standing : Some by 
r Their own Strength 417. 

< The Help of others, by clafping about, or hanging upon 
(, them. 

^ Remarkable Ufe, efpecially of fome which feem to be pro- 
vided for the Good of 
5 All Places 420. 
( Some particular Places, to 
C Heal fome Local Diftempers. 
f Supply fome Local Wants. 
Praclical Inferences upon the Whole are thefe Six, <tfjfc. 
That GOD's Works 

1. Are Great and Excellent 425. 

2. Ought to be enquired into, with a Commendation of fuch 
as dofo 427. 

3. Are manifeft to all, and therefore Atheifin unreasona- 
ble 428. 

4. Ought to excite Fear and Obedience 43 1. 

5. Ought to excite Thankfulnefs 432. 

6. Should move us to pay God his due Homages andWor- 
ihip, particularly that of the Lord's Day : which is an Appoint- 

{The moft Antient 438. 
Wifely contrived for Difpatch of Bufmefs, and to prevent 
Whofe proper Bufmefs is, to ceafe from Worldly, and to 
follow Spiritual Employments ; the Chief of which is the 
Publick Worfhip of GOD. 


O F T H E 

Terraqueous Globe. 


|N Pfal.cti. i. The Pfalmift aflert$ f 
j That the (a) Works of the Lord are 
great ; fought out of all them that have 
Pleafure therein. This is true of all 
God's Works, particularly of his Works 
of Creation : Which, when fought out ; 
or, as the Hebrew Word ( b ) fignifieth, when 
beedfully and deeply pried into, folicitoufly obferved 
and enquired out, efpecially when clearly difcovered 

(«) It is not unlikely that the Pfalmift might mean, at lead 
have an Eye to, the Works of the Creation in this Text, the 
Word r"H&P£ being the fame that in PfaL 19. 1. is translated 
God's Handy-work, which is manifeftly applied to the Works 
of Creation, and properly fignifieth Faflum, Opus, Opificium, 
from ntBJ) Fecit, Paravit, Jptavit. And, faith Kircher, Signi- 
ficat taltm affeftionem, qua aliquid cxiflit mil realiter, vet ornate, 
ml ut not* fit in frifiinoftatu quofuit. Concord, p. 2. col. 931 . 

(b) gfj*) guafevityperquifrvittfcifcitatus eft. Boxtor. in verb. 
Et fimul importat curam, & folicitudinm. Conrad. Kirch, ib. 
£• 1. col. 1174. 

B to 

2 Survey of the . 

to us ; in this Cafe, I fay, we find thofe Works of . 
God abundantly to defervc the Pfalmift's Chara&er 
of being Great and Noble -, inafmuch, as they are 
made with the moft exquifite Art, (c) contrived with 
the utmoft Sagacity, and ordered with plain wife 
Defign, and miniftring to admirable Ends. For which 
reafon St. Paul might well affirm of thofe Iloiii/xara 
of God (d) That the invifible Things of God, even 
his eternal Power and Godhead, are underftood by them. 
And indeed they are the moft eafy, and intelligible 
Demonftrations of the Being and Attributes of God ; 
(e) efpecially to fuch as are unacquainted with the 

(c) Qnodfi omnes mundr partes ita conftituta funt, ut tuque ad 
ufum meliores potucrint effe, neque ad fpeciem pulcbriores ; *videa- 
nms ntrum ea fortuita fint, an eo ftatu, quo cobarere null* modo 
potuerint, nifi fenfu moderante dvvinaque procidentia. Si ergo 
meliora funt ea qua Naturd, quant illa^ qua Arte perfeRa funt, 
nee Ars efficit quid fine ratione, ne Datura quidem rationis expert 
eft babenda. Qui igitur conntenit, . fignum, out tabujam pikain 
cum adjpexeris, fcire adbibitam effe artem ; cumque procul eurjam* 
nawigii wideris, non dubitare, quin id ratioue atque arte mn- 
weatur: aut cum Solarium, &c. Mundum autem, qui & bos 
ipfas artes, iff earum artificer & cunSia compleSatur % coufiiii 
& rationis ejfe expertem putare? Quod fi in Scjtbiam, out in 
Britanniam, Spbaram aliquis tulerit banc, quam nuper famtliaris 
nofter effecit Pofidonius, cujns fingula cowverfiones idem efficiunt in 
Sole, &c. — — — quod efficitur in cash fingulis diebus & noSibus ? 
quis in ilia barbaric dubitet, quin ea Spbarafit perfcQa Ratione ? 
Hi autem dubitant de Mundo, ex quo fcf oriuntur, & fiunt om- 
nia, cafune ipfe fit effeSus, -an Ratione, an Mente dimnd ? 

Et Arcbimedem orbit r ant ur plus walwffe in imitandis Spbara con~. 
verfionibus, quam Naturam in ejficiendis, prafertim cum multis 
fartibus fint ilia perfecla, quam bac fimulata, filer tius, &c. 
Cic. de Nat. 1. 2. c 14, 35. 

(d) And a little before be faith of Nature itfelf, Omnem ergo, 
regit Naturam ipfe [Deus] JsV. 

(e) Mundus codex eft Dei, in quo jugiter legere debeaus. Ber- 
nard. Serm. 

Arbitror nullam gentem y neque Hominum foci eta tern, apud quos 
ulla Deorum eft religio, quidquam habere facris Eleufiniis aut Sa- 
motbraciis fimile : Ea tamen obfeure docent qua profitentur : Na- 
tura *uero opera in omnibus animantibus funt perfpicua, Galen. 
de Uf. Part. 1. 17. c. 1. 


Jertaqueous Gloiei 3 

Subtiltles of Reafoning and Argumentation s as the 
gfeateft Part of Mankind are. 

It may not therefore be unfuitable to the Nature 
and Defign of Ledtures (f) founded by one of the 
greateft Virtuofo's of the laft Age, and inftituted 
too on purpofe for the Proof of the ChHftiari Reli- 
gion againft Athcifts, and other Infidels, to improve 
this Occalion in the Demonftration of the Being and 
jptribuies of an infinitely wife and powerful Creator, 
frdm a Curforv Survey of the Works of Creation, or 
fas often called) of Nature. 

Which Works belong either to our Terraqueous 
GUbi) or the Heavens. 

I ihall begin with our own Globe, being neareft, 
and falling mod under our Senfes. Which being a 
Subjeft very various and copious, for the more me- 
thodical and orderly proceeding upon it, I fhall di- 
ftribute the Works therein : 

I. Into fuch as are not properly Parts, but Apptn- 
dages or Qus-works of the ulobe. 

II. TheG&feitfelf. 

(/) Pbilofipbia tfi Caitcbifmus ad Ft dm. Cyril, i . contr. J«l. 


Survey of the 

B o o K I. 

Of the Out-Works of the Terraqueous 
Globe ; the Atmofphere, Light, and 


Of the Atmofphere in General. 

\ HE Atmofphere, or Mafs of Air, Vapours 
and Clouds, which fufrounds our Globe, 
will appear to be a Matter of Defign, and 
the infinitely wife Creator's Work, if we 
confider its Nature and Make (a), and its Ufe to the 
World (b). 

i. Its Nature and Make, a Mafs of Air, of fub- 
tile penetrating Matter, fit to pervade other Bodies, 
to penetrate into the inmoft Recefles of Nature, to 
excite, animate, and fpiritualize ; and, in fhort, to 
be the very Soul of this lower World. A Thing 

2. Of greateft Ufe to the World, ufeful to the 
Life, the Health, the Comfort, the Fleafure, and 
Bofinefs of the whole Globe. It is the Air the 

(a) Mundi pars eft Aer, £& quidem mcejfaria : Hie eft enim qui 
caelum terramque conntdit, &c. Seoec. Nat. Qu. 1. 2. c. 4. 

(b) Ipfe Aer nobifcum *vrdet 9 nobifcum audit, nobifcum fonat ; 
nihil enim eerum fine eo fieri pot eft, &c. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 
1. 2. c. 33. 


Chap. I. Atmofphere. g 

whole Animal World breatheth, and liveth by ; not 
only the Animals inhabiting the Earth (c) and 


(c) As the Air is of abfolute Neceflity to Animal Life, fo 
it is necefiary that it fhould be of a due Temperament or 
Confidence ; not foul, by reafon that fuffocatcth ; nor too rare 
and thin, becaufe that fufficeth not : with Examples of each 
of which, I (hall a little entertain the Reader. In one of 
Mr. Hanvkjbee's Compreffing Engines, I clofely (hut up a 
Sparrow, without forcing any Air in ; and in lefs than an Hour 
the Bird began to pant, and be concerned ; and in lefs than 
an Hour and half to be tick, vomit, and more out of Breath ; 
and in two Hours time was nearly expiring. 

Another I put in and comprefled the Air, but the Engine 
leaking, I frequently renewed the Compreflure ; by which 
Means, (although the Bird panted a little after the firft Hour) 
yet after fuch frequent Comprefliires, and Immiffion of frcfh 
Air, it was very little concerned, and taken out feemingly 
unhurt after three Hours. 

After this I made two other Experiments in comprefled Air, 
with the Weight of two Atmofpheres injected, the Engine 
holding tight and well ; the one with the Great Titmoufe, the 
Other with a Sparrow. For near an Hour they feemed but little 
concerned ; but after that grew fainter, and in two Hours time 
fick, and in three Hours time died. Another thing I took No. 
tice of, was, that when the Birds were fick, and very reft lefs,. 
I fancied they were fomewhat relieved for a fhort Space, with 
the Motion of the Air, caufed by their fluttering and waking 
their Wings, (a Thing worth trying in the Diving- Bel/.) I fhall 
leave the ingenious Reader to judge what the Caufe was of 
both the Birds living longer in comprefled, than uncomprefled 
Air-, whether a lefs quantity of Air was not fooner fouled and 
render'd unfit for Refpiration, than a greater. 

From thefe Experiments two Things are manifefled ; one is, 
that Air* in forae meafure comprefled, or rather heavy, is ne- 
cefiary to Animal Life : Of which by and by. The other, that 
frcfh Air is alfo neceflary ; for pent-up Air, when overcharged 
with the Vapours emitted out of the Animal's Body, becomes 
unfit for Refpiration. For which Reafon, in the Diving- Bel/, 
after fome time of flay under Water, they are forced to come 
up and take in freih Air, or by fome fuch Means recruit it* 
But the famous Cornelius Drebe/l contrived not only a Veflel to 
be rowed under Water, but alfo a Liquor to be carried in that 
Veflel, that would fupply the want of freih Air. The Veflel 
was made fpr King James I. It carried twelve Rowers, befides 
the Paflengers. It was tried in the River of Thames \ and one 
P B I of 

6 Survey of the JJook I. 

of the Perfons. that was in that fubmarine Navigation was then 
alive, and told it one, who related the Matter to our famous 
Founder, the Honourable and moft Ingenious Mr. Boyle. As 
to the Liquor, Mr. Boyle faith, he difcovered by a Do&or of 
Phyfick, who married DrebelPs Daughter, that it was ufed from 
time to time, when the Air, in the fubmarine Boat, was clog- 
ged by the Breath of the Company, and thereby made unfit 
for Refpiration ; at which time, by un flopping a Veffel futt 
of this Liquor, he could fpeedily reftore to the troubled Air 
fitch a Proportion of vital Parts, as would make it again far 
a good while fit for Refpiration. The Secret of this Liquor 
Drebell would never difclofe to above one Perfon, who him- 
felf allured Mr. Boyle what it was. Vide Boyle's Exp. Pfyf 
Miecb. of the Spring of the Air, Exp. 41 . in the Digreffion. This 
Story I have related from Mr. Boyle, but at the fame time mock 
queftion, whether the Virtues of the Liquor were (6 efre&ual 
as reported. 

And as too grofs, fa too rare an Air is unfit for Refpiratioa. 
Not to mention the forced Rarefactions made by the Air-Pump, 
in the following Note ; it is found, that even the extraordinary 
natural Rarefactions, upon the Tops of very high Hills, muck 
affe& Refpiration. An Ecclefiaftical Perfon, who had vifiDed 
the high Mountains of Armenia, (on, which fome fancy the Ark 
refted) told Mr. Boyle, that whilft he was on the upper. Part of 
them, he was forced to fetch his Breath oftener than he was 
wont. And taking Notice of it when he came down, the People 
told him, that it was what happened to them when they were fa 
high above the Plane, and that it was a common Obfervatum 
among them. The like Obfervation the fame Ecclefiaftick made 
upon the Top of a Mountain in the Qevennes. So a learned Tra- 
veller, and curious Perfon, on one of the higheft Ridges of the 
Py ranees, call'd Pic de Midi, found the Air not fo fit for Refpi* 
ration, as the common Air, but he and his Company were fain 
to breath fhorter and oftener than in the lower Air. Vide Phil, 
Tranfag. N°63. or Lowtborp's Abridg. Vol.2, p. 226. 

Such another Relation the learned Jofepb Acofta gives o| 
himfelf, and his Company, that, when they pa fled the high 
Mountains of Peru, which they call Periacaca, (to which ho 
faith, the Alps tbemfehies feemtd to them but as ordinary Heqfes* 
in regard of high Towers,) He, and his Companions, were fur- 
prixed with fuch extreme Pangs of Straining and Vomiting, (meS 
without cafting up of Blood too,) and with fo violent a Diftetnper % 
that he concludes he JhouU undoubtedly have died', but that this . 
lafted not above three or four Hours, before they came into a more} 
convenient and natural Temperature of the Air. All which he. 
concludes, proceeded from the too great Snbtilty and Deli- 
cacy of the Air, which is not proportionable to Ipunaii 
Refpiration, which requires a more grofs and temperate Air, 
Vide Boyle, ubifupra* 


Chap. I. Atmofpheret 7 

Air (d), but thofe of the Waters (<?) too. Without it 


Thus it appears, that an Air too Subtile, Rare and Light, 
is unfit for Refpiration : Bat the Canfe is not the SuL f til ty, or 
too great Delicacy, as Mr. Boyle thinks, but the too great Light- 
nefs thereof, whiqh renders it unable to be a Counterbalance, 
or an Antagonift to the Heart, and all the Mufcles rainiftring 
to Rtfiiration, and the Diaflole of the Heart. Of which fee 
Book 4. Chap. 7. Note 1. 

And as our Inability to live in too rare and light an Air, may 
difcourage thofe vain Attempts of Flying, and Whimfies of 
pafling to the Moon, &V. fo our being able to bear an heavier 
State of the Air is an excellent provihon for Mens Occafions in 
Mines, and other great Depths of the Earth ; and thofe other 
greater pre/Tores made upon the Air, in the Diving-Bell, when 
we defcend into great Depths of the Waters. 

(i) That the Inhabitants of the Air, (Birds and Infects,) 
need, the Air as well as Man, and other Animals, is manifeft 
from their fpeedy dying in too feculent, or too much rarified 
Air ; of which fee the preceding and following Note/. But 
yet Birds and Infects (fome Birds at lead) can live in a rarer Air 
than Man, Thus Eagles, Kites, Herons, and divers other Birds, 
that delight in high Flights, are not affected with the Rarity of 
the Medium, as thofe Perfons were in the preceding Note. So 
infects bear the Air-Pump long, as in the following Note (f). 

(/) Creatures inhabiting the Waters need the Air, as well as 
other Animals, yea, and frefh Air too. The Hydrocanthari of 
all Sorts, the Nymph* of Gnats, and many other Water-Infects, 
hare a Angular Faculty, and an admirable Apparatus, to raife 
their Back-parts to the Top of the Waters, and take in frefh 
Air, It ifr pretty to fee, for Inftance, the Hydrocanthari come 
and thruft their Tails out of the Water, and take in a Bubble 
of Air, at the tip of their Vagina and Tails and then nimbly 
carry it down with them into the Waters ; and, when that is 
fpent, or fouled, to afcend again and recruit it. 

So Fifhes alfo are well known to ufe Refpiration, by paf- 
fing the Water through their Mouths and Gills. But Carps will 
live out of the Water, only in the Air ; as is manifeft by the 
Experiment of their way of Fatting them in Holland, and 
which hath been practifed here in England, viz. they hang 
them up in a Cellar, or fome cool Place, in wet Mofs in a fmall 
Net, with their Heads out, and feed them with white Bread 
foaked in Milk, for many Days. This was told me by a Per- 
fon very curious, and of great Honour and Eminence, whofe 
Word (if I had leave to name him) no body would queftion : 
And it being an InHance of the Refpiration of Fifhes very 

B 4 fcftg&M, 

8 Survey of the Book I. 

mod Animals live fcarce half a Minute (/)-, and 
others, that are the moil accuftomed to the want of 
it, live not without it many Days. 


Angular, and fomewhat oat of the way, I have for the Rea- 
der's Diverfion taken notice of it. 

(/) By Experiments I made myfelf in the Air-pomp, in 
September and Q Sober, 1704, I obferved that Animals whofc 
Hearts have two Ventricles, and no Foramen Ovale, as Birds, 
Pogs, Cats, Rats, Mice, &c. die in lefs than half a Minute, 
counting from the very ifirft Exfuction 5 efpecially in a finall 

A Mote (which I fufpe&ed might have born more than other 
Quadrupeds) died in one Minute (without Recovery) in a large 
Receiver; and doubtlefs would hardly have furvived half a 
Minute in a fmall Receiver. A Bat (although wounded) fu- 
ftained the Pump two Minutes, and revived upon the Re-ad- 
minion of the Air. After that, he remained four Minutes and 
a half, and revived, daftly, After he had been five Minutes, 
lie continued gafping for a Time, and after twenty Minutes I 
re-admitted the Air, but the Bat never revived. 

As for Infefts : Wajps, Bees, Hornets, Grajboppers, and Lady- 
Cows feemed dead in appearance in two Minutes, but revived 
in the open Air in two or three Hours time, notwithstanding 
they had been in Vacuo twenty four Hours. 

The Ear-wig, the great Staphylinus, the great black lowfy 
Beetle, and fome other Infe&s would feem unconcerned at the 
Vacuum a good while, and lie as dead ; but revive in the Air, 
although fonie had lain fixteen Hours in the exhaufted Re* 

Snails bear the Air-Pump prodigioufly, efpecially thofe ii* 
Shells ; two of which lay above twenty four Hours, and feem'd 
not much affe&ed. The fame Snails I left in twenty eight 
Hours more after a fecond Exhauftion, and found one of them 
quite dead, but the other revived. 

Frogs and Toads bear the Pump long, efpecially the former, 
A large Toad, found in the Houfe, died irrecoverably in left 
than fix Hours. Another Toad and Frog I put in together, 
and the Toad was feeraingly dead in two Hours, but the Frog 
juft alive. After they had remained there eleven Hours, and 
feemingly dead, the Frog recovered in the open Air, only 
weak, but the Toad was quite dead. The fame Frog being 
put in again for twenty- feven Hours, then quite died. 

The Animalcules in Pepperwater remained in Vacuo twenty 
four Hours. And after they had been expo fed a Day or two 
to the open Air, I found fome of them dead, fome alive. 

• (f) That 

Chap. I. Atmofphere. 9 

And not only Animals themfelves but even Trees 
and Plants, and the whole vegetable Race, owe 
their Vegetation and Life to this ufeful Element ; 
as will appear when I come to fpeak of them, and 
is manifeft from their Glory and Verdure in a free 
Air, and their becoming Pale and Sickly, and Lan- 
guifhing and Dying, when by any means excluded 
from it (g ). 

Thus ufeful, thus necflary, is the Air to the Life 
of the animated Creatures *, and no lefs is it to the 
Motion and Conveyance of many of them. All 
the winged Tribes owe their Flight and Buoyan- 
cy (b) to it, as (hall be fhewn in proper Place : 
And even the watry Inhabitants themfelves cannot 


ig) That the Air is the principal Caufe of the Vegetation 
of Plants, Borelli proves, in his excellent Book DeMot. Animal. 
Vol. 2. Prop. 181. And in the next Propofition, he affureth, 
InPlantis quoque peragi Aeris refpirationtm quandam imperfe8am 9 
a qua tarum vita pendet, & confer vat ur. But of this more, when 
I come to furvey Vegetables. 

Some Lettice Seed bang fawn upon fame Earth in the open Air 9 
and Jome of the fame Seed 9 at the fame Time, upon other Earth 
in a Qlafs Receiver of the Pneumatick Engine, afterwards exbau* 
fled of Air : The Seed expofed to the Air, was grown up an Inch and 
half high within Eight Days ; but that in the exhaufted Receiver 
not at ail. And Air being again admitted into the fame emptied 
Receiver, to fee whether any of the Seed would then come up, it 
was found, that in the Space of one Week it was grown up to the 
Height of two or three Inches. Vide Phil. Tranf . N° 13 . Lowth. 
Abridg. Vol. 2. p. 206. 

(h) In vollucribus pulmones perforati aerem infairatum in totam 
vent ris cavit at em admit tunt. Hujus ratio, ut propter corporis truu* 
cum Acre repletum W quafi extenfum, ipfa magis volatilia evadant 9 
faciliufque ah aere externa, propter intimi penum, Jufiententur. 
Equidem pifces, quo levies in aquis natent, in Abdomine veficat 
Aere inflatas geftant : Pariter fcf volucres, propter corporis truncum 
Aere impletum & quafi infiatum, nudo Aeri incumbent es t minus 
gravantur, proindeque levius {$ exfeditih volant. Willis dc 
/Inim. Brut. p. 1. c. 3. 

(0 Fijhii 

jo Survey of the Book. I. 

afcend and defcend into their Element, well with- 
out it (/'). 


(«) Fijhes, by Reafon of the Bladder of Air within them, can 
fuftain, or keep themfehues in any Depth of Water : For the Air ho 
that Bladder being more or left comprejfed, according to the Depth 
the Fijh fwims at, takes up more or lefs Space ; and confequently, 
tie Body of the Fife, part ofwhofe Bulk this Bladder is, is greater 
or Ufs according to the federal Depths, and yet retains the fame 
Weight. Nona the Rale de Jnfidentibus humido is, That d 
Body, that is heavier tbanfo much Water, as is equal in Quantity 
to the Bulk of it, will fink, a Body that is lighter will fiwim ; a 
Body of equal Weight will reft in any Part of the Water. By this 
Male, if the Fijh, in the middle Region of the Water, be of equal 
Weight to the Water, that is, commenfurate to the Bulk of it, the 
Fijh will reft there, without any Tendency upwards or downwards : 
And if the Fijh be deeper in the Water, the Bulk of the Fijb be* 
coming lefs by the CompreJJton of the Bladder, and yet retaining the 
fame Weight, it will fink, and reft at the Bottom. And on the 
other Side, if the Fijh be higher than the middle Region, the Air di- 
lating itfelf and the Bulk of the Fijh confequently increafing, hut 
not the Weight, the Fijh will rife upwards, and reft at the Top of 
the Water. Perhaps, the Fijh by fame Aclion can emit Air out of 

its Bladder ■ — ; and, when not enough, take in Air, ■■ ■ « 

and then it will not be wondred, that there Jbould he always a 
fit Proportion of Air in all Fijhes tojerve their Ufe, &c. Then fol- 
lows a Method of Mr. Boyle's to experiment the Truth of this. 
After which, in Mr. Lowthorp\ Abridgment, follow Mr. Reft 
Observations. I think that— — hath hit upon the true Ufe of 
the Swimming- Bladders in Fijhes. For, i . It hath been obfisrved, 
that if the Swimming- Bladder of any Fijh be pricked or broken, 
Juch a Fijh jinks prefently to the Bottom, and can neither Jupport or 
rafe itfelf up in the Water. 2. Flat Fijhes, as Soles, Plaife, &C. 
which lie always grovelling at the Bottom, have no Swimming- 
Bladders that ever I could find. 3. /* moft Fijhes there is a ma- 

nifeft Channel leading from the Gullet to the faid Bladi 

der, which, without Doubt, f ewes for the conveying Mr thereunto* 
— — hs the Coat of this Bladder is 'a mafculous Power to con- 
trol? it when the Fijh lifts. See more very curious Obfervations 
relating to this Matter, of the late great Mr. Ray, as aifo of 
the curious anonymous Gentleman, in the ingenious Mr. Low- 
thorp's Abridgment before cited^ p. 845. from Philofoph. Traujfc 
N° 114, 115. " • " 

(k) Among 

Chap. I. Atmjphere. n 

But it would be tedious to defcend too far into 
Particulars, to reckon up the many Benefits of this 
noble Appendage of our Globe in many ufeful En- 
gines (k) ; in many of the Fun&ions and Operati- 
ons of Nature (/) in the Conveyance of Sounds \ 
and a thoufand Things befides. And I fhall but 


(£) Among the Engines in which the Air is ufeful, Pumps 
may be accounted not contemptible ones, and divers other Hy- 
draulical Engines, which need not to be particularly infilled 
on. In thefe the Water was imagined to rife by the Power of 
Suction, to avoid a Vacuum, and fuch unintelligible Stuff; but 
die juiUy famous Mr. Boylt was the firft that folved thefe Phe- 
nomena by the Weight of the Atmofphere. His ingenious 
and curious Obfervations and Experiments relating hereto, may 
be £een in his little Tract, Of the Caufe ofAttraSion by Sudion, 
and divers others of his Tracts. 

(1) It would be endlefs to fpecify the Ufes of the Air in 
Nature's Operations : I (hall therefore, for a Sample only, 
name its great Ufe to the World in conferving animated Bo- 
dies, whether endowed with animal or vegetative Life, and 
its contrary Quality of diffolving other Bodies; by which 
Means many Bodies that would prove Nuifances to the World, 
are put out of the Way, by being reduc'd into their firft Prin- 
ciples (as we fay) and fo embodied with the Earth again. 
Of its Faculty as a Menftruum, or its Power to diflblve Bodies, 
I may inftance in Chryftal-Glaffes ; which, with long keeping, 
racially if not ufed, will in Time be reduc'd to a Powder, 
as I have feen. So divers Minerals, Earths, Stones, Foffil- 
Sbells, Wood, &c which from NoaPs Flood, at leaft for 
many Ages, have lain under Ground, fo fecure from Corruption, 
that, on the contrary, they have been thereby made much the 
ftrongcr, have in the open Air foon mouldred away. Of 
which laft, Mr. Boyle gives an Inftance (from the Dijfertatim 
de admirandis Hungar. Aquis) of a great Oak, like a huge 
Beam, dug out of a Salt Mine in Tran/ylvania, fo bard, that 
it would not eafily be wrought upon by Iron Tools, yet, being 
expofed to the Air out of the Mine, it became fo rotten, that in 
four Days it was eafy to be broken, and crumbled between one's 
fingers. Boyle's Sufpic. about fome hidden Qualities in the 
Air, p. 28. So the Trees turnpd out of the Earth by the 
Breaches at VVeftTburrock and Dagenbam, near me, although 
probably no other than Alder, and interred many Ages ago in a 
rotten oaay Mould, were (0 exceedingly tough, hard) and found 

12 Survey of the Book. I. 

juft mention the admirable Ufe of our Atmofphere 
in miniftring to the enlightening of the World, by 
its refle&ing the Light of the heavenly Bodies to us 
(m) ; and refra&ing the Sun-beams to our Eye, be- 
fore it ever furmounteth our Horizon («) 5 by which 
means the Day is protrafted throughout the whole 
Globe; and the long and difmal Nights are 
fhorten'd in the frigid Zones, and Day fooner ap- 


at firft that I could make bat little Imprcffions on them with 
the Strokes of an Ax ; but being expofed to the Air and Wa- 
ter, foon became fo rotten as to be crumbled between the Fin? 
gers. See my Obfervations in Pbilof. Tranfael. N°. 335. 

(m) By reflefiing the Light of the beaven/y Bodies to us, I 
mean that Whitenefs or Lightnefs which is in the Air in the 
Bay- time, caufed by the Rays of Light {biking upon the Par- 
ticles of the Atmofphere, as well as upon the Clouds above, 
and the other Objects beneath upon the Earth. To the fame 
Caufe alfo we owe the Twilight, viz. to the Sun beams touch- 
ing the uppermoft Particles of our Atmofphere, which they do 
when the Sun is about eighteen Degrees beneath the Horizon* 
And as the Beams reach more and more of the airy Particles, 
fo Darknefs goes off, and Daylight comes on and increafeth. 
For an Exemplification of this, the Experiment may ferve of 
tranfmitting a few Rays of the Sun through a fmall Hole into 
a dark Room: By which means the Rays which meet with 
Dud,, and other Particles Hying in the Air, are rendered vifi- 
ble ; or (which amounts to the fame) thofe fwimming fmall 
Bodies are rendered vifiblc, by their reflecting the Light of the 
Sunbeams to the Eye, which, without fuch Reflection, would 
itfelf be invifible. 

The Azure Colour of the Sky Sir lfaac Newton attributes to 
Vapours beginning to condenfe, and that are not able to re- 
fled the other Colours. % V, Optic. 1. 2. Bar. 3. Prop. 7. 

(») By the refractive Power of the Air, the Sun, and the 
other heavenly Bodies feem higher than really they are, efpe- 
cially near the Horizon. What the Refractions amount unto, 
what Variations they have, and what Alterations in time they 
caufe, may be briefly feen in a little Book call'd, The Artificial 
Clock-maker, Chap, n. 

Although this infleSive Quality of the Air he a great Incum- 
brance and Confufion of Agronomical Obfervations ; ■■— »» yet it 
is not without fome considerable Benefit to Navigation ; and in- 
deed in fome Cafes, the Benefit thereby obtained is much greater 


•Chap. I. j/ltmofphere. 13 

proacheth them ; yea, the Sun itfelf rifeth in Ap- 
pearance (when really it is abfent from them) to 
the great Comfort of thofe forlorn Places (0). 

But paffing by all thefe Things with only a bare 
Mention, and wholly omitting others that might 
have been named, I (hall only infift upon the excel- 
lent Ufe of this noble circumambient Companion of 
our Globe, in refpeft of two of its Meteors, the 
Winds, and the Clouds and Rain (p). 

than would be the Beneft of having the Ray proceed in an exaS 
ftraight Line [Then he mentions the Benefit hereof to the 
Polar Parts of the World.] But this by the by (faith he.) The 
great Advantage I confider therein, is the firft Difcovery of Land 
upon the Sea ; for by Means hereof the .Tops of Hills and Lands 
are rai/ed up into the Air, fo as to be dif cover able fever al Leagues 
farther off on the Sea than they would be, were there nofuch jRf- 
fraftion, which is of great Benefit to Navigation forfieering their 
Courfe in the Night, when they approach near Land; and likewife 
for direcling them in the Day time, much more certainly than the 
moft exacl Celeftial Obfervations could do by the Help of an uniu- 
fleSed Ray, efpecially in fuch Places as they have no Soundings, 
[Then he propofes a Method to find, by thefe Means, the Di- 
fiance of Objeas at Sea.] Vide Dr. Hook'/ Poft. Works. LeS. of 
Navig. p. 4.66. 

(0) Cum Belga in nova Zembld hybernarent, Sol iUis apparuit 
16 diebus c'ttius quam r ever a in Horrzonte exifleret, hoc eft, cum 
adhuc infra Horizontem deprejfus effet quatuor circiter gradibus, & 
ftidem aerefereno. Varen. Geog. c. 19. Prop. 22. 

[Thefe Hollanders] found, that the Night in that Place Jhor- 
tened no lefs than a whole Month ; which muft needs be a very 
great Comfort to all fuch Places as live very far towards the North 
and South Poles, where Length of Night, and want of feeing the 
Sun, cannot chufe but be very tedious and irkfome. Hook Ibid. 

[By Means of the Refra&ions] we found the Sun to rife twenty 
Minutes before it Jhould ; and in the Evening to remain above the 
Horizon twenty Minutes (or thereabouts) longer than it Jhould* 
Capt. James % s Journ. in Boyle of Cold. Tit. 18. p. 190. 

(f) Aer in Nubes cogitur : humor emque colligens terram auget 
imbribus : turn effluens hue &f illuc, ventos ejpeit. Idem annuas 
frigorum, fef calorum facit varietates : idemque 13 volatus Alitum 
fuhnet, & Jpiritu duclus alit & fuftentat animantes. Cic. de 
Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 39. 


t Hi 

C H A P. II. 

Of the Winds {a). 

TO pafs by other Confiderations, whereby I 
might demonftrate the Winds to be the infi- 
nite Creator's Contrivance, I (hall infift only upon 
their great Ufefulnefs to the World. And fo great 
is their Ufe, and of fuchabfolute Neceffity are they 
to the Salubrity of the Atmofphere, that all the 
World would be poifoned without thofe Agitations 
thereof. We find how putrid, fetid, and unfit for 

■ ■ ■ i ■■ ■■ ■ ■■ » 

(a) Ventus eft aer fluent, is Seneca's Definition. Na. S>u. /. 5. 
And as Wind is a Current of the Air, fo that which excites or 
alters its Currents, may be juftly faid to be the Caufe of the" 
Winds. An JSquipoife of the Atmofphere produceth a Calm ; 
bat if that iEquipoife be more or lefs taken off, a Stream of 
Air, or Wind, is thereby accordingly produe'd either ftronget 
or weaker, fwifter or flower. And divers Things there are that 
may make fuch Alterations in the JEquipoik or Balance of the 
Atmofphere, viz. Eruptions of Vapours from Sea or Land ; Ra- 
refactions and Condensations in one Place more than another ; 
the falling of Rain, preflure of the Clouds, fcf r. Pliny 1. 2. 
c. 45. tells us of a certain Cavern in Dalntatia, called Sewta, in 
quern, faith he, dtjtfto levi fonder i, quamvis tranquillo die, fur* 
tint fimilis emicat procella. But as to Caves it is obferved, that 
they often emit Winds more or le(s. Dr. Conner, taking No- 
tice of this Matter, fpecifies thefe, In regno Neapolitan* ex im- 
ntani Cumana Sibylla antro tenuem ventnm effluentem percept. 
The like he obferved at the Caves at Baia, and in fome of the 
Mines of Germany, and in the large Salt-Mines of Cracow in 
Poland. Ubi, faith he, opifices, &f ipfe fodina dominus Andreat 
Morftin, Neb. Pol onus, mi hi afjeruerunt, quod tanta aliquando Pen- 
torum tempeftas ex ambagiofis bujus fodina receffibus furgere filebat § 
quod labor antes fojfores burnt proft erne bat, nee non port as & domi* 
cilia {qua fib i in bde fodina artifices exflruunt) penitus evert fiat* , 
Bern. Connor. Differ. Med. Phyf. p. 33. Artie. 3. 

And as great Caves, fo great Lakes fonie times fend forth 

Winds. So G offend us faith the Lacus Legnius doth, E quo dum 

exoritur fumui, nubes baud dubie creanda eft, qua fit brevi in 

1 tempefta* 

Chap. H. Of the Winds. ig 

Refpiration, as well as Health and Pleafure, a ftag- 
nating, confined, pent-up Air is. And if the whole 
Mafs of Air and Vapours was always at Reft, and 
without Motion, inftead of refrefhing and anima- 
ting, it would, fuffocate, and poifon all the World : 


tempeftatem faviffimam cxtneranda. Gaffend. Vit. Peirefk. L 5. 
p. 417. 

Bat the moft univerfal and conftant Alterations of the Ba- 
lance of the Atmofphere, are from Heat and Cold, This is 
manifeft m the general Trade- Winds, blowing all the Year 
between the Tropicks from Eaft to Weft : If the Caufe there- 
of be (as fome ingenious Men imagine) the Sun's daily Pro* 
grefc round that Part of the Globe, and by his Heat rarefying 
one Part of the Air, whilft the cooler and heavier Air behind 
preffeth after. So the Sea and Land Breezes in Note / And 
fo in our Climate the Northerly and Southerly Winds (Com- 
monly efteemed the Caufes of cold and warm Weather,) are 
really the Effects of the C61d or Warmth of the Atmofphere : 
Of which I have had fo many Confirmations, that I have no 
Doubt of it. As for Inftance, it is not uncommon to fee a 
warm Southerly Wind, fuddenly changed to the North, by 
the Fall of Snow or Hail ; to fee the Wind in a frofty, cold 
Morning, North, and when the Sun hath well warmed the 
Earth and Air, you may obferve it to wheel about towards the 
Southerly Quarters : and again to turn Northerly or Eafterly 
in the cold Evening. It is from hence alfo, that in Thun- 
der-Showers the Wind and Clouds are oftentimes contrary te 
one another, (efpecially if Hail falls) the fultry Weather be* 
low directing the Wind one way, and the Cold above the 
Clouds another Way. I took Notice upon March the iota, 
1710-119 (and divers fuch like Inftances I have had before 
. and fince) that the Morning was warm, and what Wind ftir- 
red was Weft- South- Weft, but the Clouds were thick and 
black (as generally they are when Snow enfues :) A little be- 
fore Noon the Wind veered about to North by Weft, and 
fbmetimes to other Points, the Clouds at the fame time flying 
fome North by Weft, but fome South- Weft : About One of the 
Clock it rained apace, the Clouds flying fometimes Norths 
Eaft, then North, and at laft both Wind and Clouds fettled 
North by Weft ; at which Time Sleet fell plentifully, and k 
grew very cold. From all which I obferve, 1, That al- 
though our Region below was warm, the Region of the 
Clouds was cold, as the black, fnowy Clouds fhewecL 2. That 


16 Of the Winds. ' Book L 

But the perpetual Commotions it receives from the 
Gales and Storms, keep it pure and healthful (b). 

Neither are thofe Ventilations beneficial only to 
the Health, but to the Pleafure alfo of the Inhabi- 
tants of the Terraqueous Globe ; witnefs the Gales 
which fan us in the Heat of Summer ; without 
which, even in this our temperate Zone, Men are 
fcarce able to perform the Labours of their Calling, 


the Straggle between the Warmth of ours, and the Cold of 
the cloudy Region, flopped the airy Currents of both Regi- 
ons. 3. That the falling of the Snow thro 9 our warmer Air 
melted into Rain at firft ; but that it became Sleet after the 
fuperior Cold had conquered the inferior Warmth. 4. That, 
as that Cold prevailed by Degrees, fo by Degrees it wheeled 
about both the Winds and Clouds from the Northwards towards 
the South. 

Hippocrates, 1. 2. De Vi8. Or at. Omnes Fentos vel h nive* 
glacie, vehement! gehi, fluminibus, &c Jpirare ntceffe judical* 
Bartholin, de ufu Nivis, c. 1 . 

(h) It is well obferued in my Lord Howard'* Voyage to Con- 
fiantinople, That at Vienna they have frequent Winds, which if 
they ceafe long in Summer, the Plague often enfues : So that it is 
mow grown into a Proverb, That if Auftria be not windy, it isfub* 
jeQ to Contagion. Bohun of Wind, p. 21 3. 

From fome fuch Commotions of the Air I imagine it is, 
that at Grand Cairo the Plague immediately ceafes, as foon as 
the Nile begins to overflow ; although Mr. Boyle attributes it 
to nitrous Corpufcles. Determ. Nat. ofEffluv. Chap. 4. 

Nulla enim propemodum regio eft, qiut nan bah eat aliquem flatum 
txfe nafcentem, 6f circa ft cadentem. 

Inter cat era itaque Procidentia opera, hoc quoqut aliquit, ut dig* 
nam admiratione fufpexerit. Nm enim ex una causa Fentos out 
invenit, ant per diver/a difpofuit : fed primum ut aera non finer ent 
p$grefcere,fed ajjidud vexatione utilem redderent, vitalemque troths- 
ris. Sen. Nat. Quaeft. 1. 5. c. 17, 18. 

All this is more evident, from the Caufe alfign'd to malig- 
nant epidemical Difeafes, particularly the Plague, by my in- 
genious, learned Friend, Dr. Mead; and that is, an hot and 
moid Temperament of the Air, which is obferved by Hippo- 
crates, Galen, and the general Hiftories of Epidemical Difear 
les, to attend thofe Di ftempcrs. Vide Mead of Poyfons, Effay 5. 
p. 161 • But indeed, whether the Caufe be this, or poifon- 
ous, malignant Exhalations or Animalcules, as others think, 
1 tho 

Chap. II. Of the Winds. 17 

or not without Danger of Health and Life (c)\ 
But efpecially, witnefs the perpetual Gales which 
throughout the whole Year do fan the Torrid Zone, 
and make that Climate an healthful and pleafant 


tbe Winds are however very falatiferous in fuch Cafes* in 
cooling the Air, and difperfing and driving away the moift 
or peftiferous Vapours. 

(c) July 8. 1707. (called for fome time after the Hotftief. 
day,) was fo exceffively hot and foffocating, by reafon there 
was no Wind ftirring, that divers Perfons died, or were in 
great Danger of Death, in their Harveft-Work. Particularly 
obe whd had formerly been my Servant, a healthy, lufty, 
young Man, was killed by the Heat ; and feveral Horfes on 
the Road dropped ddwri and died the fame £>ay. . 

In the foregoing Notes having taken Notice of fome Things 
relating to Heat, altho' it be fomewhat out of the way, £ 
hope the Reader will excufe me, if I entertain him with fome 
Obfervations I made about the Heat of the Air under the 
Line, compared with the Heat of our Bodies. J. Patrick, 
who, as he is very accurate in making Barometrical and Ther- 
mometrical Instruments, had the Curioiity, for the nicer ad- 
juring his Thermometers, to fend two abroad (under the Care 
of two very fenfible ingenious Men) one to the Northern 
Lat. of 81 ; the other to the Parts under the jEquino&ial : In 
thcfe two different Climates, the Places were marked where 
the Spirits flood at the fevereft Cold and greatelt Heat. And 
according to thefe Obfervations he graduates his Thermome- 
ters. With his Standard I compared my Standard Thermo- 
meter, from all the Degrees of Cold, I could make with Sal 
Jrm$niack t &c. to the greateft Degrees of Heat our Thermo- 
meters would reach to. And with the fame Thermometer 
(of mine) I experimented the greateft Heat of my Body, 
in July, 1700. Firft in an hot Day without Exercife, by put- 
ting the Ball of my Thermometer under my Armpits, and 
othjer hotteft Parts of my Body. By which means the Spirits 
were raifed 284 Tenths of an Inch above the Ball. After* 
that in a much hotter Day, and indeed nearly as hot as any 
Day with us, and after I had heated myfelf with ftrong Ex- 
ercife too, as much as I could well bear, I again tried the 
(sine Experiment, but could not get the Spirits above 288 
Tenths ; which I thought an inconsiderable Difference for fo 
fcemingly a very different Heat of my Body. But from fome 
i Experiments I have made (altho' I have unfortunately forgot- 

: c u* 

18 Of the Winds. Book I. 

Habitation, which would otherwife be fcarce habi- 

To thefe I might add many other great Conve- 
niencics of the Winds in various Engines, and va- 
rious Bufineffes. I might particularly infift upon its 
freat Ufe to tranfport Men to the fartheft diftant 
Legions of the World ; (<i)and I might particular- 
ly (peak of the general and coafting Trade- Winds, 
the Sea, and the Land-Breezes ; (e) the one ferving 
to carry the Mariner in long Voyages from Eaft to 
Weft } the other ferving to waft him to particular 

Places i 

ten them) in very cold Weather, I imagine the Heat of an 
healthy Body to be always much the lame in the warmeft 
Parts thereof; both in Summer and Winter. . Now between 
ihofe very Decrees of 284, and 288, the Point of the Equa- 
torial Heat faflcth. From which Observation it appears, that 
there is pretty nearly an equal Contemperament of the Warmth 
of oar Bodies, to that of the houeft Part of the Atmofphcre 
inhabited by as. 

If the Proportion of the Degrees of Heat be defired from 
&e Freezing Point, to the Winter, Spring, and Summer Air, 
the Heat of Man's Body, of heated Water, melted Metals, 
and fo to aftual Fire ; an Account may be met with of it, by 
my moft ingenious Friend, the great Sir Ifaac Newton, in Phil. 
franfca. N° 270. 

(a) In hoe Providentia ac Difpofitor itte Mundi Deus, aerm 
mentis exercendum dedit,<—neu ut not ckffes partem freti eccm- 
faturas cempleremut milite annate, &c. Dedit tile vent* mi 
cuJIoMeudam carli terrarumque temperiem 9 ad evocandas fupprimem* 
dafque aquas ; ad alendos faterum atque arbcrum fruQus ; anus 
ad maturitatem cum aliis can/is aiducit ipfa jaQatio, attrabems 
cibum infumma, & ue tar peat, promavens. Dedit mentis ad ulie- 
flora nofcenda : fuiffet enim imperitum animal, & fine magna ex- 
ferientid rerum Homo, fi circumfcriberetur natalis foil fine. Dedii 
uentos ut commoda cujnfque regionis fierent communia ; non ut le- 
pones equitemque gefiarent, uec ut perniciofa gentibus arma trauf* 
whereat. Seneca, ibid. 

(f ) Sea-Breezes commonly rife in the Morning about Nine a 

Clock. Tbeyfirfi approach the Shore gently, as if they were 

afraid to come near it, // come s in a fine, fmall, black 

Curie upon the Water, whereas all the Sea between it and the 
there {not yet reached by it) U as fmootb and even as Giafs in 


Chap. II. Of the Wind*. 19 

Places j the one ferving to carry him into his Har- 
bour, the other to bring him out. But I fhould go 
too far to take Notice of all Particulars (/). Lea- 
ving therefore the Winds, I proceed, in the next 
Place, to the Clouds and Rain. 

Comparijbn. h half am Hour's Time after it bos reached the 
Shore, it fans pretty brij&ly, and Jb increa/eth gradually till 
Twelve a Clock > then it is commonly the ftrongojt, and lofts fo till 
Two or Three, a very hrijk Gale. ■ After Three it begins to 
Me away again, and gradually withdraws its force till ailisjpent ; 
and about rive a Cloc k ' ■■■■ — // is mlltd ajlcef, and comet no more 
till next Morning. 

And as the Sea Breezes do blow in the Day, and reft in the 
Night lib on the contrary [the Land-Breezes] {low in the Night, 
and reft in the Day, alternately fueceeding each other.— ~-fbep 
firing *p between Six and Twelve at Wight, and loft till Six, 
Bight, or Ten in the Morning. Dampier's Difc. of Winds, 
chap. 4. 

(/) One Thing more I believe feme of my Friends will ex- 
pect from me is. That I fhew the Refult of comparing my 
own Observations of the Winds, with others they know I have 
from Ireland, Switzerland, Italy, France, New-England, and 
feme of our Parts of England. Bat the Observations being, 
fame of them, bat of one Year, and moft of the reft of bat 
« few Yean, I have not been able to determine any great 
Matters. The Chief of what I have Obfcrved is, That the 
Winds in all thefe Places feldom agree ; bat when they moft 
certainly do fo, it is commonly when the Winds are ftrong, and 
of long Continuance in the fame Quarter: And more, I think, 
in the Northerly and Eafterly, than other Points. Alfo, a ftrong 
Wind in one Place, is oftentimes a weak one m another Place, 
or moderate, according as Places have been nearer or farther 
diftant. Fide Fbilo/oph. TranfacH. N° 297, and %z\. Bat to 
give a good and tolerable Account of this, or any other of the 
Weather, it is neceflary to have good Hiftories thereof from 
all Parts ; which, as yet we have bat few of, and they imper- 
fect, for want of longer and fafficient Obfervations. 

C a C 9 A P. 

[ 20 ] 


Of the Clouds and Rain. 

TH E Clouds and Rain {a) we (hall find to be 
no lefs ufeful Meteors than the lad mentioned ; 
as is manifeft in. the refrefhing pleafant Shades 
which the Clouds afford, and the fertile Dews and 
Showers which they pour down on the Trees and 


(a) Clouds and Rain are made of Vapours raifed from Wa- 
ter or Moifture only. So that I utterly exclude the Notion 
of Dry, Terrene Exhalations, or Fumes, talked much of by 
moft Philofophers ; Fumes being really no other than the hu- 
mid Parts of Bodies respectively Dry. 

Thefe Vapours are demonftratively no other' than fmall 
Bubbles, or Veficulae, detached from the Waters by the Power 
of the Solar, or Subterraneous Heat, or both. Of which 
fee Book 2. Chap. 5. Note (£). And being lighter than the 
Atmofphere, are buoyed ud thereby, until they become of an J 
equal Weight therewith, in fome of its Regions aloft in the ^ 
Air, or nearer the Earth ; in which thofe Vapours are formed 
into Clouds, Rain, Snow, Hail, Lightning, Dew, Mifts, and 
other Meteors. 

In this Formation of Meteors the grand Agent is Cold, 
which commonly, if not always, occupies the fuperior Re- 
gions of the Air ; as is manifeft from thofe Mountains which 
exalt their lofty Tops into the upper and middle Regions, and 
are always covered with Snow and Ice. | < 

This Cold, if it approaches near the Earth, presently pre- J i 
cipitates the Vapours, either in Dews ; or if the Vapours more I « 
. copioufly afcend, and foon meet the Cold, they are then con- 
denfed into MiJIing, or elfe into Showers of final! Rain, fall- 
ing in numerous, thick, fmall Drops : But if thofe Vapours 
are not only copious, but alfo as heavy as our lower Air it 
felf, (by means their Bladders are thick and fuller of Water,) <* 
in this Cafe they become vifible, fwim but a little Height | fc 
above the Earth, and make what we call a Mifl or Fog. Bat I fc 
if they are a Degree lighter, fo as to mount higher, but not | 
any great Height, as alfo meet not with Cold enough to con- I £ 
denfe them, nor Wind to diffipate them, they then form an J * 
heavy, thick, dark Sky, lafting oftentimes for feveral Weeks 


Chap. III. Of the Clouds and Rain. 2 1 

Plants, which would languifli and die with perpe- 
tual Drought, but are hereby made Verdant and 
FJourifliing, Gay and Ornamental ; fo that (as the 


without either Sun or Rain. And in this Cafe, I have fcarce 
ever known it to Rain, till it hath been firft Fair, and then 
Foul. And Mr. Clarke, (an ingenious Clergyman of Norfolk,) 
who in his Life- time, long before me, took notice of it, and 
kept a Regifter of the Weather for thirty Yean, which his 
learned Grandfon, Dr. Samuel Clarke, put into my Hands, he, 
U fay) faith, he fcarce ever obferved the Rule to fail in all 
that Time ; only he adds, Jftbt Wind be infome oftbe Eafterly 
Points. But I have obferved the fame to happen, be the 
Wind where it will. £nd from what hath been faid, the 
Cafe is eafily accounted for, viz. whilft the Vapours remain 
in the fame State, the Weather doth fo too. And fuch Wea- 
ther is generally attended with moderate Warmth, and with 
little or no Wind to difturb the Vapours, and ah heavy At- 
mofphere to fupport them, the Barometer being commonly 
high then. But when the. Cold approtcheth, and by conden* 
fing drives the Vapours into Clouds or Drops, then is way 
made for the Sun- beams, till the fame Vapours, being by fur- 
ther Condenfation formed into Rain, fall down in Drops. 

The*Cold's approaching the Vapours, and confequently the 
Alteration of fuch dark Weather, I "have" beforehand per* 
ceived, by fome few fmall Drops of Rain, Hail, or Snow, now 
and then falling, before any Alteration hath been in the 
Weather * which I take to be from the Cold meeting fome 
of the draggling Vapours, or the uppermoft of them, and 
condenfing them into Drops, before it arrives unto, and exerts 
ilfelf upon the main Body of Vapours below. 

I have more largely than ordinary infilled upon this part 
of the Weather, partly as being fomewhat out of the way ; 
bat chiefly, becaufe it gives Light to many other Pbenomena 
of the Weather. Particularly we may hence difcover the 
Original of Clouds, Rain, Hail, and Snow ; that they are Va- 
pours carried aloft by the Gravity of the Air, which meet- 
ing together fo as to make a Fog above, they thereby form a 
Cloud. If the Cold condenfeih them into Drop*, they then 
fall in Rain, if the Cold be not intenfe enough to freeze them : 
But if the Cold freezeth them in the Clouds, or in their Fall 
thro 7 the Air, they then become Hail or Snow. 

As to Lightning, and other enkindled Vapours, I need fay 

little in this Place, and {hall therefore only obferve, that they 

owe alfo their Rife to Vapours; but fuch Vapours as are. dc- 

C 3 tached 

22 Of the Clouds and Rain. Book I. 

Pfalmift faith, PJal. \xv. 12, 13.) The little Hills re- 
pice on every Jide % and the Valleys fbwt for Jey % they 
alfo fing. 


cached from mineral Juice*, or at lead that are mingled with 
them, and are Fired by Fermentation. 

Another Phenomenon referable from what hath been (aid 
fs, why a cold is always a wet Summer, vr*. becaufe the Va- 

efUrs rifing plentifully then, are by the Cold foon collected 
to Rain. A remarkable Indance of this we had in the Sum* 
mer of 1 708; part of which, efpedally about the Solftia, was 
Oiuch colder than ufaally. On June 1a, itwufocofd, that 
my Thermometer was near the Point of hoar Froft, and in feme) 
Places I heard there was an hoar Froft \ and during all the cool 
Weather of that Month, we had frequent and large Rains, (o 
that the whole Month's Rain amounted to above two Inches) 
J)cpth, which is a large Quantity for Ufminftir, even in the 
wetted Months. And not only with us at Vfmhfttr, but in 
Other Places, particularly at Zurich in Switzerland, they feern 
to have had as unfeafonabJe Cold and Wet as we- Fuit hie 
frenfij—pnettr nudum humzdus, fif magne euidem *vtg$t*bilihui 
hominibuftue damn*. Metkum compntmit Fmmm % &c. complain* 
the Induttrious and Learned Dr. J. J. Scheuchser: Of which* 
and other Particulars, I have given a larger Account in Phil. 
Tranf. N* 321. 

In which Tranfa&ion I have obferved farther, that about 
the Equinoxes we (at Vfminfier at lead) have oftentimes mor* 
Rain than at other Seafons. The Reafon of which is naani* 
fcd from what hath been faid, was. in Spring, when the Earth 
and Waters are looted from the brumal Condipations, tho 
Vapours arife in great Plenty: And the like they do in Au- 
tumn, when the Summer Heats,, that both diffipated them, 
and warmed the fuperior Regions, are abated ; and then tho 
Cold of the fuperior Regions meeting them, cendenleth them 
Into Showers, more plentifully than at other Seafons, who* 
either the Vapours are fewer, or the Cold that is to condense 
them is Ids. 

The manner how Vapours are precipitated by the CoU, or 
reduced into Drops, I conceive to be thus : Vapours being, 
as I faid, no other than Inflated VtfieuLe of Water ; when 
they meet with a colder Air than what is contained in them, 
the contained Air is reduced into a left Space, and the wa, 
ttry Shell or Cafe rendered thicker by that means, fo as to 
become heavier than the Air, by which they are buoyed ujv 
and consequently muft needs fall down. Alio many of those 


Chap. in. Of the Clouds and Rain. 23 

And if to thefe Ufes, we fhould add the Ori- 
gine of Fountains and Rivers, to Vapours and the 


thicken'd VeficuU run into one, and fo form Drop, greatei 
or (mailer, according to the Quantity of Vapours collc&ed 

As to the Rain of different Places, I have in fome of our 
TraufacJious affigned the Quantities; particularly in the laft 
cited TranfacJion, I have affigned thefe, wi'A the Depth of the 
Rain one Year with another, in Engtijh Meafure, if it was to 
ftagnate on the Earth, would amount unto, at Tonvnfy in 
lanc'ajbire, 42 Inches and a half; at Vpndufier in EJtx 19 
laches and a quarter ; at Zurich in Switzerland 3 s Inches and 
a quarter; at Pi/a in Italy 41 Inches and a quarter ; at Paris 
in Fraud 19 Inches ; and at Ufle in Flanders 24 Inches. 

It would be endJeft to reckon up the bloody and other pro- 
digious Rains taken notice of by Hiftorians, and other Au- 
thors, as preternatural and ominous Accidents ; but if ftrid- 
Jy pried into, will be found owing to natural Caufest Of 
which, for the Reader's Satisfaction, I will give an Inftance 
or two. A Bloody Rain was imagined to have fallen in France, 
which pat the Country People into fo great a Fright, that they 
left their Work in the Fields, and in great hale flew to the 
neighbouring Houfes. Peirefc (then in the Neighbourhood) 
flriSly inquiring into the Caufe, found it to be only red 
Drops coming from a fort of Butterfly that flew about in 
great Numbers at that Time, as he concluded from feeing fuch 
red Drops to come from them ; and becaufe thefe Drops were 
laid, Non Jupra eedificia, non in drvexis lapidum fuMrficiehms, uti 
deomerat contingert, ft } carlo J anguine pkaffet ; Jed in fubcavis 
potitu & in foraminibus. ■ ■ Atceffit, quod parittes it's tinge- 
bantur, non out in mediis oppidis, fed qui agrorum nddni trout, 
neque ficundum partes clot i ores, fed ad mediocrem fobm altU 
huttnem, quantam nsolitaro PapiSoms folent. Gaflend. in vifc 
Peirefk, 1. 2. pi 156. 

So Dr. Merret faith alfo, P/uvia Sanguinis pirn esrsifime torn* 
fiat effie tantum JnfetJorum excrement a ; Plnvia Tritici quant nibU 
aliud ejfe quint Bsdtra baccifer* granaa Sturm s aruerata excreta* 
que comparanti HfmaWmi patet. Pinax rerna, &c. p. 220. 

The carious Wbn tells of the raining of Brimftone, 
in. 1646. Man 16. ttk Ha/niar dm hrenti pltmd iota urbs, 
omnefque ita inmndarentur plate*, ut grejus bominum impediret, 
Sufybureoque odore atrom injfeeret, dtlapfis aBquantulum aqstUt 
fmmtfdam be lods eoJBftrt Hcnit SnJjpEureum pulverem, enjus 

Crtiuuem fer*vo f colore, mhn 9 fcf sHa verum Sulphur fereutem, 
uf. Worn. L. i. C. tit left, u 

C 4 Toje- 

24 Of the Clouds and Rain. Book L 

Rains, as fome of the moft eminent modern Philo- 


Together with the Rain we might take notice of other 
Meteors, particularly Snow ; which altho' an irkforae Go eft, 
yet hath its great Ufes, if all be true that the famous T. Bar- 
tbolin faith of it, who wrote a Book d§ Nfais Vfu Medico. 
In which he (hews of what great Ufe Snow is in fructifying 
the Earth, preferving from the Plague, curing Fevers, Cho- 
licks, Head-Aches, Tooth- Aches, Sore Eyes, Plnrifies, (for 
which Ufe, he faith, his Country Women of Denmark keep 
Snow- water gathered in March), alfo in prolonging Life, 
(of which he inftanceth in the Alpine Inhabitants, that live to 
a great Age,) and preferving dead Bodies ; Instances of which 
he gives in Perfons buried under the Snow in paffing the Alps, 
which are found uncorrupted in the Summer, when the Snow 
is melted ; which fad Spectacle he himfelf was an Eye? 
Witnefs of. And at Sfitiberg in Greenland, /dead Bodies re- 
main entire and uncorrupted for thirty Years. And laftly, 
concerning fuch as are fo preferred when flain, he faith they 
remain in the fame Pofture and Figure : Of which he gives 
this odd Example. Vifum id extra urbcm nofiram [Hafniam] 
quum, ii Feb. 1659. bppugnantes hofies repellerentur, magnate 
ftrage occumberent ; alii enim rigjdi iratum *vuftum oliendebant, 
alii oculos dittos ; alii ore dtduSo tingentes, alii bracbiis exfenfis 
Gladium ^ni'nari, alii alio fou frojfrhti j'acebant. Bart hoi. de 
ufu Nhr. c". 12. 

But altho* Snow be attended with the Effe&s here named,*' 
and others fpecified by the- learned Bartholin ; yet this is not 
to be attributed to any peculiar Virtue in the Snow, but fome 
other Canfe. Thus when it is faid to fruclify the Earthy it 
doth fo byguarding the Com or other Vegetables againft the 
intenfer Cold of the Air, especially the cold piercing Winds ; 
which the Hofbmdmen obferve to be the moft injurious to 
their Corn of all Weathers.- So- for Con/erring dead Bodies, it, 
doth it. by conftipating fuch Bodies, and preventing- all fuch 
Fermentations or internal Conflicts of their Particles, as would 
produce Corruption. 

Such an Example as the preceding is faid to have happened 
fome Years ago at Paris, in digging in a Cellar for fuppofed 
hidden Treafure ; in which, after digging fome Hours, the 
Maid going to call her Matter, found them all in their digging 
Pofturcs, but dead. This bring npifed abroad, brought in not 
only the People, but Magiflrates alfo, who found them accord- 
i»gly ; llle qui ligone t errant effoderat x &focius qui faid efojam 
terram remwtrat, amb'o pedibus ftabdnt, quafi fuo qui/que oper\ 
ajjixus incubuitfet ; uxor uuitn q&aji ab ofere def-ffd in fcamno, 
} folieitQ 

Chap. III. Of the Clouds and Rain. 2 5 

fophcrs {b) have done, we fhould have another In- 
ftance of the great Ufe and Benefit of that Meteor. 

And now, if we refleft upon this neceffary Ap- 
pendage of the Terraqueous Globe, the Atmofphert\ 
and confider the abfolute Neceffity thereof to many 
Ufcs of our Globe, and its great Convenience to the 
Whole : And in a Word, that it anfwereth all the 
Ends and Purpofes that we can fuppofe there can be 
for fuch an Appendage : Who can but own this to be 
the Contrivance, the Work of the great Creator ? 
Who would ever fay or imagine fuch a Body, fo dif- 
ferent from the Globe it ferves, could be made by 
Chance, or be adapted fo exadtly to all thofe fore- 
mentioned grand Ends, by any other Efficient than 
by the Power and Wifdom of the infinite God ! 
Who would not rather, from fo noble a Work, 


folicito quodam vulsii, fedebat, inclinato in palmam maims genibus 
innitentis capite ; pueruius Jaxatis braccis in margins exc&uat a fa- 
me* dcfixis in t err am oculis alvum exoutrabat ; omnet in naturali 
fittty earner taxqnam ftatv* rigi<ti f apcrtis oculis & *vultu <vitam 
f**fi re/pirante, examines ftabant* Dr. Bern. Connor, Difiert. 
Med.Phyf. p. 15. 

The Doctor attributes all this to Cold ; bat I fcarce think 
there could be Cold enough to do all this at Paris, and in a 
Cellar too. But his following Stones are not improbable, of 
Men and Cattle killed with CVd, that remained in the very 
fame Po dure in which they died; of which he gives, from a 
Sfanijb Captain,, this Joiiance, that happened two Years before, 
of a Soldier, who unfortunately ftraggled from his Company 
that were forraging, and was killed with the Cold, but was 
thought to have fallen into the Enemies Hands. But foon after 
their Return to their Quarters, they faw theiv Comrade re- 
turning, fitting on Horfeback, and coming to congratulate him, 
found l)im dead, and that he had been brought thither in the 
fame Poflure on Horfeback, notwithftanding the jolting of the 
Horfe. Ibid. p. 18. 

(b) Of this Opinion was my late mod ingenious and learned 
Friend, Mr. R*y, whofe Reafons fee in hi3 Pbjfico-Tbeolog. 
I)ifcourfes, Difc. z. ch. 2. P. 89, &f c. So alfo my no lefs lear- 
ned and ingenious Friends, Dr. Halley, and the late Dr. Hook, 
many of the French Vertuofo's alfo, and divers other very con- 
Qtjf rabje Men before them, too many to be fpecifled here. 

(f) An 

a6 Of Light. Book I. 

readily acknowledge the Workman (V)> and as eafily 
conclude the Atmofphere to be made by GOD, as an 
Inftrument wrought by its Power, any Pneumatick 
Engine, to be contrived and made by Man! 


Of Light. 

THUS much for the firft Thing miniftring to 
the Terraqueous Globe, the Atmofphere and 
its Meteors ; the next Appendage is Light, (a) Con- 
cerning which, I have in my Survey of the Heavens 
(b) (hewed what admirable Contrivances the infinite- 
ly wife Creator hath for the affording this noble, glo- 

(c) An Polycletum quidem admirabimur propter fortius* Statute ■ 
■ convenientiam ae proportionem? Naturam autem non mod* 
non laudabimus, fed omni etiam arte prrvabimus, qu<? partiam 
froportionem non folum extrinfecus more Statuariornm % fed in pro- 
/undo ctiam fer<va<vit ? Nontie &T Poiyeletus ipfe Nature eft imita- 
t§r 9 in qui bus fetlt cm earn potuit imitari t Potuit autem in fe/U 
externis parti bus in auibus art em confideravit , With mack more 
to the like Parpofe. Galen, de Uf. Part. 1. 17. c. I. 

(a) It is not worth while to enumerate the Opinions of the 
jfriftotelians, Cirttfians, and others, about the Nature of Light, 
Ariftotle making it a Quality ; Cartes a Pulfion, or Motion of 
the Globules of the fecond Element. Vide Cartes Prineip. p. 3. 
Sed. 55, {ffc. But with the Moderns, I take Light to confift of 
material Particles, propagated from the San, and other lumi- 
nous Bodie3, not inftantaneoufly, but in Time, according to 
the Notes following in this Chapter. But not to infill upon 
ether Arguments for the Proof of it, our noble Founder hath 
proved the Materiality of Light and Heat, from actual Expe- 
riments on Silver, Copper, Tin, Lead, Spelter, Iron, Tute- 
nage, and other Bodies, expofed (both naked and clofelv fhat 
up) to the Fire : All which were conftantly found to receive an 
Increment of Weight. 1 wifh he coald have met with a fa- 
vourable Seafon to have tried his Experiments with the Son* 
Beams as he intended. Vide Boyle V Exp. to mob tin and Flam 

(b) Aftro-Theol. Book 7. 


Chap. IV. Of Light. 2? 

rious, and comfortable Benefit to other Globes, as 
well as ours ; the Provifion he hath made by Moons, 
as well as by the Sun, for the Communication of it. 
And now let us briefly confidcr the great Necef- 
fity and Ufe thereof to all our animal World- And 
this we fhall find to be little lefs than the very Life 
and Pleafure of all thofe Creatures. For what Be* 
ncfit would Life be of f what Pleafure, what Com- 
fort would it be for us to live in perpetual Dark- 
nefs ? How could we provide ourfclvcs with Food 
and Necefiaries? How could we go about the lead 
Bufineft, corrcfpond with one another, or be of any 
Ufe in the World, or any Creatures be the fame to 
us, without Light, and thofe admirable Organs of 
the Body, which the Great Creator hath adapted to 
the Perception of that great Benefit ? 

But now by the Help of this admirable, this firft 
made (c) becaufe mod: neceflary, Creature of God ; 
by this, I fay, all the animal World is enabled to 
go here and there, as their Occafions call ; they can 
rranfaft their Bufinefs by Day, and refrefh and re- 
cruit themfelves by Night, with Reft and Sleep. 
Theyxan with Admiration and Pleafure, behold the 
glorious Works of God ; they can view the Glories 
of the Heavens, and fee the Beauties of the Howry 
Fields, the gay Attire of the feather'd Tribe, the 
exquifite Garniture of many Quadrupeds, Infe&s, 
and other Creatures •, they can take in the delight- 
fome Landfkips of divers Countries and Places ; 
they can with Admiration fee the Great Creator's 
wonderful Art and Contrivance in the Parts of Ani- 
mals, and Vegetables : And, in a Word, behold the 
Harmony of this lower World, and of the Globes 
above, and furvey Gob's exquifite Workmanfliip in 

j every Creature. 

! To 

■i i i 1 m i ■ ^ ■ « ». 


(c) And God /aid, Lit there be Light, and then was Light. 

! Gca. L ju 

'! V*. ^ 


28 Of Light. Book I. 

To all which 1 might add the Improvements 
which the Sagacity of Men hath made or this noble 
Creature of God, by the Refraftions and Refleftions 
of Glaffes. But it would be endlefs to enumerate 
all its particular Ufes and Benefits to our World. 

But before I leave this Point, there are two Things 
# concerning Light, which will deferve an efpecial 
Remark ; and that is, its fwift and almoft inftanta* 
neous Motion, and its vaft Extenfion. 

i. It is a very great Aft of the Providence of 
God, that fo great a Benefit as Light is, is not long 
in its Paflage from Place to Place, For was the Mo- 
tion thereot no fwifter than the Motion of thef'fwift- 
eft Bodies on Earth, fuch as of a Bullet out of a 
great Gun ; or even of a Sound (d) (which is the 
fwifteft Motion we have next Light,) in this Cafe 
Light would take tip, in its Progrefs from the Sun 
to us, above thirty two Years, at the rate of the 
firft ; and above feventeen Years, at the rate of the 
latter Motion. 

The Inconveniencies of which would be, its E- 
nergy and Vigour would be greatly cooled and aba- 

(d) It may not be ungrateful to the Carious, to take Notice 
of the Velocity of thefe two Things. 

According to the Obfer vat ions of Merfennus, a Bullet-fhot 
out of a great Gun, flies 92 Fathom in a Second of Time, 
{Vide Merfen. Balift.) which is equal to 589 Englijb Feet and a 
half; and according to the Computation of Mr. Huygens, ft 
would be 25 Years in p 3 fling from the Earth to the Sun. But 
according to my own Obfervations made with one of her late 
Ma j efty' s Sakers, and a very accurate Pendulum -Chronometer,, 
a Bullet at its firft Difcharge, flies 510 Yards in five half Se- 
conds, which is a Mile in a little above 1 7 half Seconds. And 
allowing the Sun's Diftance to be, as in the next Note, a Bal- 
let would be 32 Years and a half in flying, with its utmofi 
Velocity, to the Sun. i 

As to the Velocity of Sound, fee Book 4. Chap. 3. Note 28, 1 
according to which Kate there mentioned, a Sound would-be ' 
near 17 Years and a half in flying as far as the Diftance Is from 
the Earth to the Sun. Confer here the Experiments of the 
Ated. del Cimtnt, p. 1 40, C? * 
ft W Mr. 

Chap. IV. Of Light. 29 

ted ; its Rays would be lefs penetrant ; and Dark- 
ncfs would with greater Difficulty and much Slug- 
gifhnefs, be diflipated, cfpecially by the fainter 
Lights of our fublunary, luminous Bodies. But paf- 
fing with fuch prodigious Velocity, with nearly the 
inftantaneous Swiftnefs of almoft two hundred thou- 
fand Englijb Miles in one Second of Time, (e) or 
(which is the fame thing) being but about feven or 
eight Minutes of an Hour in coming from the Sun 
to us, therefore with ail Security and Speed, we re- 
ceive the kindly Effe&s and Influences of that noble 
. and ufeful Creature of God. 

^ 2. Another Thing of great Confideration about 
Light is, its vaft Expanfion, its almoft incompre- 
henfible, and inconceivable Extenfion, which, as a 


(?) Mr. Renter's ingenious Hypothecs about the Velocity of 
Light, hath been eltablifhed by the Royal Academy, and in 
the Okfermatory, for eight Years, as our Phil. Tranf. N° 136. 
obferve from the Journ. des Scavans ; our moil eminent Aftro- 
nomers alio in England admit it : But Dr. Hook thinks with 
Monfieur Cartes, the Motion of Light Inftantaneous, Hook's 
Poft. Works, Page 77. And this he endeavours to explain, 
Pag. 130, &c. 

What Mr. Romer's Hypothefis is, may be feen in the Phil. 
TretnfaeJ. before-cited : As alfo in the before-mentioned 
Sir lfaac Newton's Opticks : Light is propagated from luminous 
Bodies in Time, and fpends about /even or eight Minutes of am 
Hour in paffing from the Sun to -the Earth. This was firfi oh- 
ftr<oed by Roraer, and then by others, by means of the Eclipfes of 
the Satellites of Jupiter. For thefe Eclipfes, when the Earth is 
between the Sun and Jupiter, happen about feven or eight Mi- 
nutes fooner than they ought to do by the Tables ; and when the 
Earth is beyond the Sun, they happen about feven or eight Mi- 
nutes later than they ought to do : The Reafon being, that the 
Light of the Satellites hath farther to go in the lattjr Cafe than 
in the former, by the Diameter of the Earth's Orbit. Newt. Opt. 
L. 2. Part 3. Prop. 11. 

Now forafmuch as the Di (lance between the Sun and the 
Earth (according to the Computations in my Aftro-Theolo^y^ 
B. 1. Cb. 3. JV*/*2.)is 86051398 Englijb Miles; therefore/ at 
the Rate of 7 Minutes and a half, or 450 Seconds, in paffing 
from the Sun, Light will be found to fly above 191 225 Miles 
in one Second of Time. 

30 Of Light. Book I. 

late ingenious Author (f) faith, " Is as boundlefi 
" and unlimited as the Univerfe itfeif, or the Ex* 
" panfum of all material Beings : The Vaftnefs of 
" which is fo great, that it exceeds the Comprehen- 
** fionsof Man's ITnderftanding. Infomuch, that 
44 verv many have afierted it absolutely infinite, and 
M without any Limits or Bounds. 

And that this noble Creature of God is of this 
Extent, (g ) is manifeft from our feeing fome of the 
farthcftdiftantObjeds, the Heavenly Bodies, fome 


(/) Dr. Hwt's Pofthnmoos Works. Led, of Light, *. 76. 

(g) For the Proof of this vaft Extent of Light, I flnll take 
the Computation of the feme great Man, pag. 77. If, find* 
he, we confider firft, the vaft Dtftance between us and the Sun, 
which from the heft and lateft Observations tu Afironomy, is judged 
to be about 10000 Diameters oftbe Earth, eacb of which is about 
79 j 5 Engliu Miles ; therefore the Sum's Diftsmee is 7925000 
Miles ; and if we confider, that, according to the Obfervmtioni, 
which 1 puhlijbed to prove the Motion of the Earthy [which wcrv 
Obfervations of the Parallax of fome of the fix'd Stars in the 
Head of Draco, made in 1699,] the whole Diameter of the Orb, 
viz. 20000, made the Suhtenfe but of one Minute to one of tba 
fx*d Stars, which cannot therefore he lefs diftant than 3438 Dtaw 
tneters of this great Orb, and consequently 68760000 Diameters of 
the Earth : And if this Star be one of the near eft, and that tie 
Stars that are of one Degree lejfer in Magnitude (I mean not of 
the fecond Magnitude, becanfe there may be many Degrees between 
the firft and fecond) be as much farther \ and another Sort jot 
f mailer he three Times as far ; and a Fourth four Times as fkr p 
and fo onward, pojfibly to fome 100 Degrees of Magnitude, fuck 
as may he dij covered by longer and longer Tele/copes, that they may 
be ico Times as far\ then certainly this material Expavfiou, m 
Part of which tve are, muft be fo great, that ' twill infinitely ex» 
eeed our Jballow Conceptions to imagine. Now, by 'what I loft 
mentioned, it is evident, that Light extends itfeif to the utmoft ima- 
ginable Parts, and by the Help of Telefcopes, we colleB the Ray*, 
and make themfenfible to the Eye, which are emitted from fome of 
the almoft inconceivably remote ObjeBs, Sec. Nor is it only 

the great Body of the Sun, or the vaft Bodies of the fix" d Stare, 
that are thus able to dijperfe the Light thro 1 the vaft Exfanfum 
of the Univerfe ; but the fmalleft Spark of a lucid Body muft do the 
very fame Thing, even thejmalleft Globule firuck from a Steel by m 
F/sMt, Sec. 

Chap. V. Of Gravity. 3 1 

'with our naked Eye, fome with the Help of Opti- 
cal Inftruments, and others in all Probability farther 
and farther, with better and better Inftruments : 
And had we Inftruments of Power equivalent to the 
Extent of Light, the luminous Bodies of the utmoft 
Parts of the Univerfe, would, for the fame Reafoiv 
be vifiblctoo. 

Now as Light is of greateft Ufe to impower us 
to fee Objeds at all, fo the Extenfion thereof is no 
lefs ufeful to enable us to fee Objects afar off. By 
which Means we are afforded a Ken of thofe many 
glorious Works of the infinite Creator, vifible in the 
Heavens, and can improve them to fome of the nobleft 
Sciences, and moft excellent Ufes of our own Globe. 


Of Gravity. 

THE laft Thing fubfervicnt to our Globe, that 
I fhall take Notice of, is Gravity (a) ; or, that 
Tendency which Bodies have to the Centre of the 


(*) That there is fuch a Thing as Gravity, is manifeft from 
its Etfe&s here opon Earth ; and chat the heavenly Bodies at- 
tract or gravitate to one another, when placed at due Diftan- 
ces 9 is made highly probable by Sir Ifaac Newton. This at* 
tractive, or gravitating Power, I take to be congenial to Mat* 
ter, and imprinted on all the Matter of the Univerfe by the 
Creator's Fiat at the Creation. What the Caufi of it is, the 
Newtonian Plrilo/opby doth not pretend to determine for want 
of Phenomena, upon which Foundation it is that that Philo- 
fophy is grounded, and not upon chimerical and uncertain Hy- 
pothecs : But whatever the Caufe is, that Caufe penetrates 
cunt to tbt Centres of the Sun and Planets, without any Diminu- 
tion of its Virtue ; and it afteth not according to the Superficies of 
Bodies (at Mechanical Caufes do) hut in Proportion to the <!>uan~ 
tity of their folid Matter : And laftly, it aBeth all round it at 
mfe Diflances, dtcreafing in duplicate Proportion to tb*fe 


3 2 Of Gravity. Book I* 

In my JJtro-Tbeology^ Book 6, Chap. 2. I have 

fhewn of what abfolute Neceffity, and what A 


Diflaneei, as SiV lfamc Newton faith, Princip. pag. alt. What 
ufeful Deductions, and what a rational Philofopby, have been 
drawn from hence, may be feen in the fame Book. 

This Attra&ion, or Gravity, as its Force is in a certain Pro- 
portion, fo makes the Defcent of Bodies to be at a certain 
Kate. And Was it not for the Refiftaacc of the Medium, all 
Bodies would defcend to* the Earth at the fame Rate ; the 
lighter! Down, as fwiftly as the heavieft Mineral : As is mani* 
feft in the Air-Pump, in which the lighted Feather, Daft, £sfo 
and a piece of Lead, drop down feemingly in the fame Time, 
from the Top to the Bottonvqf a tall exhaufted Receiver. 

The Rate of the Defcent of heavy Bodies, according to* 
Galileo, Mr. Buy gens, and Dr. Balky (after them) is 1 6 Feet 
one Inch in one Second of Time; and in more Seconds, as the 
Squares of thofe Times. But in fome accurate Experiments 
made in St. Paul's Dome, June 9, 1710. at the Height of 
220 Feet, the Defcent was fcarceJy 14 Feet in the firft Se- 
cond. The Experimennts were made in the Prefence of 
fome very confiderable Members of the Royal Society, by 
Mr. Hawhbee, their Operator, with Glafs, hollow Balls, fome 
empty, fome filled with Quicksilver the Barometer at 297, 
the Thermometer 60 Degrees above Freezing. The Weight 
of the Balls, their Diameters, and Time of the Defcent is in this* 
Table. ,^y 

Bails fil 

Jed with Quick-filver. J | 

Empty Ba 


Time. *? 



1 Time, 
[half Seconds. 






Inch. | Tenth 

naif Second^ 





5 1 * 

17 - -1 




8 lefs. 


5 * 






5 1 1 

16* - 


7 & half. 

8 more. ■ 


5 nearly. 

16 &haK. 


7 & half. 



5 nearly. 




7 & half. 

8 more. 


5 [ * 



The Reafon why the heavy full Balls fell in half the Time 
of the hollow Ones, was the Refinance of the Air : Which 
Refiftance is very ingenionfly and accurately affign'd by Dr. 
Wallis, in Philof. Tranf. No 186. And the Caufeof the Re- 
finance of all Fluids, (as' Sir Ifaac Newton, Opt. Q. 20.) it 
pardy from, the Fri&ion of the Parts of the Fluid, partly from 
the Inertia thereof. The Refinance of a fpherical Body meet* 
with from Friaion, is as the right Angle under the Diameter 

Chap. V. Of Gravity. 3 3 

noble Contrivance this of Gravity is, for keeping 
the feveral Globes of the Univerfe from (hattering 
to Pieces, as they evidently muft do in a little Time* 
by their fwift Rotation round their own Axes (J). 
The Terraqueous Globe particularly, which circum* 
volves at the rate of above iooo Miles an Hour (c\ 


and the Velocity of the moving Body : And the Refinance 
from the Vis Inertia, is as the Square of that Product. 

For a farther Account of the Properties and Proportions, &c. 
of Gravity in the Fall or Projection of Bodies, I fhall refer 
to the larger Accounts of Gali/<gu, Torricellius, Huygens % 
Sir 1/aae Newton, &c. or to the (hotter Accounts of Dr. Halley 9 
mPbifofcpb. Tranfatf, abridged by Mr. Lmotborp, Vol. I. p. 561. 
or Dr. Clarke in bis Notes on Rohault, Pbyf. 2. c. 28. feB. 13, 
16. And for the Refiftance of Fluids, I refer to Dr. Wallis % 
before-cited, and the A8. Erudit, Lip/. May 1693. where 
there is a Way to find the Force of Mediums upon Bodies of 
different Figures. 

(b) That the Heavenly Bodies move round their own Axis, 
is, beyond all Doubt, manifeft to our Eye, in fome of them, 
from the Spots vifible on them. The Spots on the Sun (eafily 
vifible with an ordinary Glafs) do manifeft him to revolve 
round his own Axis in about 25 Days and quarter. The Spots 
i on Jupiter and Mars prove thofe two Planets to revolve alfo 
from Eaft to Weft, as Dr. Hook difcovered in 1664, and 166c. 
; And Venus alfo (altho* near the ftrong Rays of the Sun) hath, 
Lfrom fome Spots, been difcovered by Mr. Caffini, in 1666. and 
k-*^5fr» to have a manifeft Rotation. Vide Lvwthorp\ Abridge 
J; I. p. 382, and 423, 425. And fuch Uniformity hath the 
ii§r ebferv'd in the Works of Nature, that what is obfer- 
i in one, is generally to be found in all others of the feme 
S$kL So that fince 'tis manifeft the Sun, and three of hit 
ets whirl round, it is v&ry reafonable to conclude all the 
Jifeft do fo too ; yea, every Globe of the Univerfe. 
» . (0 The Earth's Circumference being 2503 1 Miles and half, 
(according to Book II. Cbap. 2. Note (a) if we divide that in- 
to 24. Hours, we fhall find the Motion of the Earth to be near 
. 1043 Miles in. an Hour. Which, by the by, is a far more 
\ reasonable and lefs rapid Rate, than that of the Sun would 

I be, if we fuppofe the Earth to (land (till, and the Sun to 
move round the Earth. For according to the Proportions in 
Note (#) of the preceding Chapter, the Circumference of the 
, Mipms Orbit h 54068622; Englijb Miles, which divided by 
' 14 Hoars, gives 22528364 Miles in an Hour. But, vital \* 

D t&* 

34 Of Gravity. feooK I. 

would by the centrifugal Force of that Motion, be 
foon difllpated and fpirtled into the circumambient 
Space, was it not kept together by this noble Con-* 
trivance of the Creator, this natural inherent Power, 
namely, the Power of Attra&ion or Gravity. 

And as by this Power our Globe is defended 
againft Diflipation, fo all its Parts are kept in their 
proper Place and Order. All material Things do 
naturally gravitate thereto, and unite themfeves 
therewith, and fo preferve its Bulk intire (d). And 
the fleeting Waters, the moft unruly of all its Parts, 
do by this Means keep their conftant JGquipoife in 
the Globe (e) 9 and remain in that Place wbicb t the 
Pfalmift faith, God bad founded for them ; a Bound bt 
badfet, which they might not pafs ; that they turn mi 
again to cover the Earth, Pfal. civ. 8, 9. So, that 
even in a natural Way, by vertue of this excellent 
Contrivance of the Creator, the Obfervation of the 
Pfalmift is perpetually fulfilled, Pfal. lxxxix. 9. Thou 
rtdefttbe raging of the Sea, when the Waves thereof 
arife, thmfiilleft tbem. 

To thefe, and an hundred other Ufes of Gra- 
vity that I might have named, I fhall only juft 
mention another Thing owing to it, and that is Z* 

this to the Rapidity of the fix'd Stars, if we fuppofe thtfc* 
not the Earth, to move r Which is a good Argument for tfef 
Earth's Motion. 

^ (d) Nihil majus, quam quod Urn ftabilit eft Mundus, atque its 
coh&ret ad permanendum, ut nihil ne excogitari quidem poffli op* 
tins. Om*es enim partes ejus undiqut medium locum empejfeute^ 
mtuntur ttqualiter: maxime autem corpora inter ft jun&a ptrwm* 
nenty cum quodam quafi vinculo circumdata colligantur : quod fm» t 
tit ea natura, qua per omnem mundum omnia Mente, fcf Ratim 
couficiens, funditur, &T ad medium rapit % fcf convertit extremmt 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. z. c. 45. 

(e) Eddem rations Mare, cum fupra terram fit, medium U 
terra locum expetens, conglobatur undique aqualiter, neque n 
unquam, neque offunditur. Id. paulo pan. 

Chap. V. Of Gravity. jj 

vity, (f) that, whereby what we call light Bodies 
fwim, a Thing no lefs ufeful to the World than its 
oppofite* Gravityy is in many Refpe&s, to divers 
Tribes of Animals, but particularly ferviceable to 
the railing up of Vapours (g ), and to their Con- 
veyance about the World. 


{/) That there is no fuch Thing as pofitive Levity, but that 
Levity is only a left Gravity, is abundantly manifefted by the. 
acute &/£*• Aipb. Boreilide Mvt.a Grav. pond* cap. 4. See alfo 
the Annotations of the learned and ingenious Dr. Clark, 01 
fthaulti Pbyf. p. 1. c. 16. Note 3. Alfo the Experiments of 
the Acad, del Cimento, p. 118, &c. Dr. Wal&f* Difceur/e of 
Gravity and Gravitation before the Royal Society, Nov. 12. 1674, 
P. 28, &c . 

(g) I have before In Note (a), Chap. 3. (hewn what Fa* 
fmri are, and how they are rais'd. That which I (hall here 
note, is their Quantity : Concerning which, the before com- 
mended Dr. Halley hath given us fome curious Experiments" 
in our Philofoph. franfacl. which may be met with together 
ia Mr. Lotvtbotfs Abridg. Vol. II. p. io3, and 1*6. Mr. Sedt* 
lean alfo at Paris obferred it for near three Years. By all theif 
Obfervations it appears, that in the Winter Months the Eva* 

rations are leaft, and greateft in Summer, and moft of alt - 
Windy Weather. And by Monf. Sedikan's Obfervations 
It appears, that what is raifed in Vapours, exceeds chat which 
Jalleth in Rain. In the (even laft Months Of the Year 1688* 
the Evaporation! amounted to 22 Inchet 5 Lines ; but tho 
ftaia only 10 Inches 6 Lines one third: In 1689, the Eva- 
porations were 32 Inches 10 Lines and half; but the Rain 
18 Inches 1 Line: la 1690, the Evaporations 30 Inches 11 
Lines; the Rain at Inches one third of a Line. Vide Mm. 
de Math. Pbyf. An. 1692, p. 2c. 

If it be demanded, What becomes of the Overplus of fix- 
lalatioris that defcend not in Rairir I anfwer, They are 

Sxry tumbled down and fpent by the Winds, and partly 
bend in DewS, which amount to a greater Quantity than 
a commonly imagined. Dr. Halley found the Defcent of 
Vapours in Dews fo prodigious at St. Helena, that he makes 
no doubt to attribute the Origin of Fountains thereto. And 
rlmyfelf have feen in a ftill, cool Evening, large thick Clouds 
tagging, without any Motion; in the Air, which in two or 
itfcne Hours time have been melted down by degrees, by the 
jCoid of the Evening, fo that not any the leaft Remains of them 
toe been left. 
i D z t % 3»t* 

36 Of Gravity'. Book I. 

And now from this tranfient View of no other 
than the Out- works, than the bare Appendages of 
the Terraqueous Globe, we have fo manifeft a Sam- 
ple of the Wifdom, Power, and Goodnefs of the 
infinite Creator, that it is eafy to imagine the whole 
Fabrick is of a Piece, the Work of at leaft a fkilful 
Artift. A Man that fhould meet with a Palace (b) 
befet with pleafant Gardens, adorned with ftatcly 
Avenues, furnifhed with well- contrived Aquedufts, 
Cafcades, and all other Appendages conducing to 
Convenience or Pleafure, would eafily imagine, that 
proportionable Architefture and Magnificence were 
within : But we fhould conclude the Man was out 
of his Wits that fhould affert and plead, that all was . 
the Work of Chance, or other than of fome wife 
and fkilful Hand. And fo when we Survey the bare 
Out- works of this our Globe, when we fee fo vaft 
a Body, accouter'd with fo noble a Furniture of Air, 
Light, and Gravity ; with every Thing, in ftiort, a 
that is neceffary to the prefervation and Security of j 
the Globe itfelf, or that conduceth to the Life, | 
« Health, and Happinefs, to the Propagation and 
Increafe of all the prodigious Variety of Creatures 
the Globe is (locked with ; when we fee nothing 
wanting, nothing redundant or frivolous, nothing 
botching or ill-made, but that every Thing, even in 
the very Appendages alone, exaftly anfwereth all its 
Ends and Occafions : Whatelfe can be concluded, , 
but that all was made with manifeft Defign, and that 
all the whole Structure is the Work of fome intelligent £ 
Being ; fome Artift, of Power and fkill equivalents h 

[b) Sec Book II. Chap. 3. Note (c). 


; [ 37 3 

♦♦♦»»♦♦»»' > »»»♦» »* »• > »» »♦ » » ♦»» ♦» ♦'> ■>■ > ■> ■>»» »♦♦ 


0/" /^ Terraqueous Globe it/elf in 

| N the foregoing Book having difpatch'd 
the Out- works, let us take a Survey of the 
-— r r^j rm Principal Fabrick, wz. the Terraqueous 
' ESliftral G'afo itfelf ; a moft ftupendious Work in 
every Particular of it, which doth no lefs Aggran- 
dize its Maker (a)> than every curious, complete 
Work doth its Workman. Let us caft our Eyes 
here and there, let us ranfack all the Globe, let us 
with the greateft Accuracy infpedt every Part there- 
pf, fearch out the in moft Secrets of any of the Crea- 
tures ; let us examine them with all our Gauges, 
zneafure them with our niceft Rules, pry into them 


(«) Licet — — oculis quodammodo contemplari fulchritudimm 
rum rerum, quas DMnd Procidentia dicimus conflitutas. Ac ■ 
principio Terra unwtrfa cernatur, locata in media mundi fede, fo~ 
lida, &f globofa — njtflita fioribus, her bis, arbor ibus> frugibus. 
Quorum omnium incredibiiis multitudo, infatiabili varietate di- 
Jlinguitur. Adde hue Fontium gelidas perennitates, liquores per* 
lucidos Amnium, Riparum veftitus veridij/imos, Speluncarum con* 
cwvas altitudines, Sax or urn a/peritates t impendentium Montium 
altitudines, immenfitatefque Camporum : Adde etiam reconditat ' 
Auri ■■ vena*— Qua verb, & quam varia genera Beftiarum? 
- Qui Volucrum lap/us, at que cant us P Qui Pecudum paclus f 
» ■ Quid de Hominum genere die am ? Qui quafi cultores terra 
eonfiituti, &c. Qua Ji 9 ut animis, fie oculis videre pojfemus, 
um§ cunSam intuens terrem, de Divind Rat tone dubitaret. Cic. 
de Nat. Deor. 1. a. c. 39. 

D 3 \>\ 1 

3 8 Of the Terraqueous Globe, &c. Book II. 

with our Microfcopes, and moft exquifite Inftru- 
snents (Jb), ftill we find them to bear Teftimony to 
their infinite Workman ; and that they exceed all 
human (kill fo far, as that the moft exquifite Copies 
and Imitations of the beft Artifts, are no other than 
rude bungling Pieces to them. And fo far are we 
from being able to efpy any Defed or Fault in them, 
that the better we know them, the more we admire 
them ; and the farther we fee into them, the more . 
exquifite we find them to be. 
And for a Demonftration of this, I (hall, 

I. Take a general Profpcft of the Terraqueous 

II. Survey its Particulars. 

I. The Things which will fall under a general 
Profpeft of the Globe, will be its Figure, Bulk, M<h . 
tiou, Place, Diftribution into Earth and Waters, and j 
the great Variety of all Things upon it and in it* 

(h) I cannot here omit the Obfervations that have been made in 
theft later Times, fince we have bad the U/e and Improvement of 
the Microfcopc, concerning the great Difference, which by the Help 
of. that, doth appear betwixt Natural and Artificial Things. 
Whatever is Natural, doth by that afpear adorned with all imagi- 
nable Elegance and Beauty.-— Whereas the moft curious Worh 
tfdrt, thejharpefi, fineft Needle, doth appear as a blunt, rough 
Bar of Iron, coming from the Furnace, or the Forge. The moft 
accurate Engravings or Embojments fern fuch rude, bwtgHng, 
deformed Works, as if they bad been done with a Mattock, or a. 
Trowel. So vaft a Difference is there betwixt the Skill of Na- 
ture, and the Rudenefs and Imperfection of Art. Bifiop Wilfct 
Nat.Rel. L.i. Ch. 6. ' 


f 39 3 

C H A P. I. . 

Of the Figure of the Terraqueous Globe. 

THIS I fuppofe I may take for granted to be 
Spherical, or nearly fo (a). And this muft be 
allowed to be the moft: commodious, apt Figure for 
a World on many Accounts ; as it is moft capa- 
cious, as its Surface is equi-diftant from the Centre, 



(a) Altho* the Terraqueous Globe be of an Orbicular Fi- 
yct it is not ftri&ly fo, i . On account of its Hills and 
allies, fiat thefe are inconfiderable to the Earth's Semi- 
diameter ; for they are but as the Dull upon a common Globe". 
But, 2. Our modern Aftronomers affign a much greater Varia- 
tion from a globous Form, namely, that of a prolate Sphseroid, 
making the Polar about 34 Miles fhorter than the Equatorial 
Diameter. The Caufe of which they make to be the centri- 
fugal Force of the diurnal Rotation of the Globe. 

This Figure they imagine is in J»piter % his Polar being to 
his Equatorial Diameter, as 30 three fifths to 40 three fifths. 
But whether it be fo or no, I confefs I could never perceive, 
altho' I have often viewed that Planet through very good, anil 
long GlaiTes, particularly a tolerable good one of 72 Feet in 
my Hands : And altho' by reafon of cloudy Weather, and 
(at Prefent) Jupiter's Proximity to the Sun, I have not been of 
late able to take a review of that Planet ; yet Saturn (fo far 
as his Ring would permit,) and Mars appear perfectly round, 
through Mr. Huygenfs long Glafs of 1 z6 Feet, which by Will 
he bequeathed, with its whole Apparatus, to our Royal Society 9 
by whole Favour it is now in my Hands. And moreover, I 
believe it difficult, next to impoflible, to meafure the two 
Diameters to a 40th Part, by reafon of the fmallnefs of Ju- 
fitgr's apparent Diameter, and by reafon he is moving all the 
Time of meafuring him. 

As to what is alledged from lengthening the Pendulums of 
Clocks, fo make them keep the fame Time under the Equator, 
as they do in our Climes ; I have {hewn from the like Varia- 
tions in the Air-Pump, that this may arife from the Rarity of 
the Air there, more than here. Vide Phil. Tranf. N* 294. But 
if the Degrees of a Meridian grow larger, the more we go to- 
wards the JUnt, (as Mr. QaJJini affirms they do, by an 800th 
D 4 ?*x\ 

40 fbe Figure of the Book II. 

not only of the Globe, but at lead (nearly) of Gra- 
vity and Motion too, and as fome have thought, of 
the central Heat and Waters. But thefe, and divers 
other Things I fhall pafs over, and infift only upon 
two or three other Benefits of this globous Figure of 
the Earth and Waters. 

i. This Figure is the moft commodious in regard 
of Heat, and I may add of Light alfo in fome mea- 
sure. For by this means, thofe two great Benefits 
are uniformly and equally imparted to the World : 
They come harmonioufly and gradually on, and as 
gradually go off again. So that the daily and year- 
ly Returns of Light and Darknefs, Cold and Heat, 
Moid: and Dry, are Regular and Workman-like, 
(we may fay) which they would not be, efpecially 
the former, if the Mafs of Earth and Waters were 
(as fome fancied (£) it) a large plain j or as others, i 


Part in every Degree, in Phil. Tranf. No 278.) then there is 
great Reafon to conclude in behalf of this Spheroidal Form. 

The natural Caufe of this Sphericity of our Globe, is (ac- 
cording to Sir 1/aac ffewtQifs Principles) that Attraaion, 
which the infinite Creator hath ftamp'd on all the Matter of 
the Univerfe, whereby all Bodies, and all the Parts of Bodies, 
mutually attract themfelves, and one another. By which 
Means, as all the Parts of Bodies tend naturally to their Center, 
fo they all betake themfelves, to a globous Figure, unlefs fome 
other more prevalent Caufe interpofe. Thus Drops of Quick- 

filver put on a fpherical Form, the Parts thereof ftrongly at- 
tracting one another. So Drops of Water have the fame Form, 
when falling in the Air ; but are Hemifpherical only when 
they lie on a hard Body, by reafon their Gravity doth fo far 
overpower their felf-attracting Power, as to take off one half 
of their Sphericity. This Figure is commonly attributed to the 
Preffure of the circumambient Air : But that this can't be the 
Caufe, is manifeft from the Air-Pump; the Cafe being the very 
fame in an exhaufted Receiver as in the open Air, and not 
any the lead Alteration of the Figure that I could perceive, k| 
all the Trials I have made. 

(h) It would be frivolous as well as endleft, to reckon apjfcf 
various Opinions of the Antients about the Figure of the Tdr- > 
/aguepns Globe ; fome of them may be fcen in Yart* CrngK * 

if U 



Chap. I. Terraqueous Globe. 41 

like a large Hill in the midft of the Ocean 5 or of a 
multangular Figure ; or fuch like. 

2. This Figure is admirably adapted to the com- 
modious and equal Diftribution of the Waters in the 
Globe. For fince, by the Laws of Gravity, the 
Waters will poffefs the loweft Place; therefore, if 
the Mafi of the Earth was cubick, prifmatick, or 
any other angular Figure, it would follow, that one 
(too vaft a part) would be drowned ; and another 
be too dry. But being thus orbicular, the Waters 
are Equally and commodioufly diftributed here and 
there, according as the Divine Providence faw moft 
fit ; of which I fhall take Notice by and by. 

3. The orbicular Figure of our Globe, is far the 
mod beneficial to the Winds and Motions of the 
Atmofphere. It is not to be doubted, if the Earth 
was of fome other, or indeed any other Figure, but 
that the Currents of Air would be much retarded, if 
not wholly flopped. We find by Experience, what 
Influence large and high Mountains, Bays, Capes, 
and Head-lands have upon the Winds ; how they 
flop fome, retard many, and divert and change 
(near the Shores) even the general and confiant 


/, t. f 5. imt. or Johnfton y % Tbaumat. c. i. Artie 3. But a- 
mong the Variety of Opinions, one of the principal was, 
That the vifible Horizon was the Bounds of the Earth, and 
the Ocean the Bounds of the Horizon, that the Heavens and 
Earth above this Ocean, was the whole vifible Univerfe ; and 
that all beneath the Ocean was Hadts, or the wvifibU Wirli. 
Hence, when the Sun fet, he was faid nngere fe Oceans ; 
and when any went to H*des, they mud fir 11 pafs the Ocean. 
Of this Opinion were not only the antient Poets, and others 
among the Heathens, but fome of the Chriftian Fathers too, 
particularly Laftantius, St. Jugufline, and others, who thought 
their Opinion was favoured by the Pfalmift, in Pfal. xxiv. 2. 
aad exxxvi. 6. See Bijbof UJber'i Anpwer to a Jef. Cbalf. 
f. 366,^. 

(ft Neitfcet 


4* tte Figure of the % &c. Book II, 

Winds if\ that blow round the Globe in the Tor- 
rid Zone. And therefore, fince this is the Eflfeft of 
fuch little Excrefcences, which have but little Pro- 
portion to our Globe, what would be the Confer 
quences of much vafter Angles, which would equal 
a Quarter, Tenth, or but an Hundredth Part of the 
Globe's Radius ? Certainly thefe muft be fuch a Bar- 
ricade, as would greatly annoy, or rather absolutely 
flop, the Currents of the Atmofphere, and thereby 
deprive the World of thofe falutiferous Gales that 
I have laid keep it fweet and clean. 

Thus the Figure of our Globe doth manifeft it to 
be a Work of Contrivance, inafmuch as it is of the 
tnoft commodious Figure ; and all others would be 
liable to great and evident Inconveniences. 

(e) Neither do thefe conftant Trade-Winds ufually blow near 
tie Shore, but only om the Ocean ; at leafi 30 or 40 Leagues off at 
Sea, clear from any Laud; effecially on the Weft Coaft, or Side of 
any Continent : For indeed on the Eafi Side, the Eafterly Wind 
being the true Trade-Wind, blows almofi home to the Shore, fo near. 
as to receive a Check from the Land-Wind. DampierV Winds, 
Ch. 1. 

And hot only the general Trade-Winds, bnt alfo the conftant 
coafting Trade-Winds, are in like Manner affe&ed by the Lands. 
Thus, for Inftance, on the Coaft of Angola and Peru. Bat 
this, faith the curious Captain Damfier, the Reader muft take 
Notice of, That the Trade-Winds that blow on any Coaft, except 
the North Coaft of Africa, whether they are conftant, and blow 
all the Tear, or whether they are Jbifting Winds, do never blow 
right in on the Shore y nor 'right along Shore, but goflanting, mat- 
ing an acute Angle of about zz Degrees. Therefore, as the Land 
tends more Eaft or Weft, from North or South on tbt Coaft } fo tb§ 
Winds do alter accordingly. Ibid. Ch. 2. 




Of the Bulk of the Terraqueous Globe. 

TH E next Thing remarkable in the Terraqueous 
Globe* is the prodigious Bulk thereof [a). H 
Mais of above 260 Thoufand Million of Miles fo- 
lid Content. A Work too grand for any thing left 
than a God to make. To which in the next Place 
we may add, 

wmminarmmmmwmm m i i ■ i i i mm ■ i ^tw^^^w^e 

(*) It is pot difficult to make a pretty near Computation of 

the Balk of the Terraqueous Globe, from thofe accurate Ob* 

fervatiqns of a Degree made by Mr. Norwood in England, and 

Mr. Picart, and Mr. Caffini in Franc*. Whofe Meaiiires do In 

a furprizipg Manner agree. But Mr. Coffin? s feeming to be the 

tnoft accurate, (as I have (hewn in my Jftro-7keology, Book 1. 

Cb. 1. Note (a.) I have there made me of his Determinations; 

.According to which, the Diameter of the Earth being 7967,7* 

-E*£&ft> Miles, its Ambit will be 25021 Miles and half; and 

{fappofiflg it to be Spherical) its Surface will be 199444220 

Affiles ; which being multiplied into ope third of its Semidia- 

*neter, gives the fohd Content, nn%. 264^56000000 Miles* ' 



7%e Motions of the terraqueous Globe. 

THE Motions the Terraqueous Globe hath, are 
round its own Axis, and round its Fountain of 
Light and Heat, the Sun (a). That fo vaft a Bo» 
dy as the Earth and Waters fhould be moved at 


{a) With the Copernicans* I take it here for granted, thai; 
the Piurnal and Annual Revolutions are the Motions of the 
Terraqueous Globe, not of the Sun, &fc but for the Proof 
thereof I fhall refer the Reader to the Preface of my Jftro- 
Uf$Jofj t and fiooi 4. Chap. 3. 

(h) Every 

44- Motions of the Book II. 

all (£), that it fhould undergo two fuch different 
Motions, as the Diurnal and Annual are, and that 
thefe Motions fhould be fo conftantly and regular- 
ly (c) performed for near 6000 Years, without any 
tne leaft Alteration ever heard of, (except fomc 
Hours which we read of in Jojh. x. 12, 13. and 
in Hezekiab's Time, which, if they cannot be ac- 
counted for fome other Way, do greatly encreafc 


(h) Every thing that is moved, muft of neceffity hi moved by 
fimething elfe ; and that Thing is moved ly fimething thai is moved 
either by another Thing, or not by another Thing. If it he moved 
by thai which is moved by another 9 *we muft of Neceffity emu to 
feme prime Mover, that is not moved by another. For it is im- 
fofible, that what moveth, and is moved by another , fhould proceed 
in infinitum. Ariflot. Phyf. 1. 8. c. 5. 

Solum quod feipfim movet 9 quia nunquam deferitur a ft, mm* 
cuam no moveri quidem definit : quinetiam cater is qua moventur 9 
one fins : hoc principium eft manendi. Principii autem nulla oft 
e+igo : nam ox principio oriuntur omnia ; ipfum autem nulla ex re 
aha nafcis poteft : nee enim ejfet id principium, quod gigneretur 
aliunde. Cicer. Tufc. Queft. 1. 1. c. 23. 

Cogitemus qui fieri poffit, ut tanta magn\tudo % ab aliqud poffit 
natura, tanto tempore circumferri f Ego igitur ajfero Deum cam/am 
qffe f nee alitor poffe fieri. Plato in Epinom. 

(c) Among the Caufes which Cleantbes is faid in Tally to 
affign for Men's Belief of a Deity, one of the chief is, JE- 
quabilitatem motus, converfionem Carli, Solis, Lunar, Siderumqne 
omnium diflinclionem, varietatem, pukhritudinem, ordinem: qua- 
rum rerum afpefins ipfe Jatis indicaret, non ejfe ea fortuita. Ut 
fiquis in demum aliquant, aut in gymnafium, out in forum <uo~ 
nerit; cum videat omnium rerum rationem r modum, difciftinmm 9 
non poffit ea fine causa fieri judicare, fed effe aliquem intellimat 9 
qui profit, £f cui pareatur : multo magis in t ant is motibus 9 tantjf- 
que viciffi udinibus y tam mult arum rerum at que t ant arum ordini- 
bus, in quibus nihil unquam immenfa &f infinita vetuftas mentita 
fit, Jlatuat necejfe eft ab aliqud Mente tantos natura motus guber- 
nari. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 5. 

Homines caperunt Deum agnofcere, cum viderent Stellus 9 1 ant am 
cencinnitatem efficere s ac dtes, neclefque, aftate y & by erne, fuos 
fervare ftatos ortus, atque obitus. Plntaxcli 4e plaeit. I. i t 
c. 6. 

Chap. III. terraqueous Globe. 45 

the Wonder (d) •, thefe Things, I fay,) do manifeftly 
argue fome divine infinite Power to be concerned 
therein (e) : But, efpecially, if to all this we add 
the wonderful Convenience, yea, abfolute Neceflity 
of thefe Circumvolutions to the Inhabitants, yea, aU 
the ProduAs of the Earth and Waters. For to one 
of thefe we owe the comfortable Changes of Day 
and Night ; the one for Bufincfs, the other for Re- 
pofe (/) ;' the one for Man, and moft other Ani- 

(d) We need not be folicitous to elude the Hiftory of thefe 
Miracles, as if they were only poetical Strains, as Maimonidts* 
and fome others fancy JoJbua\ Day to have been, m. only an 
ordinary Summer's Day ; but fuch as had the Work of many 
Days done in it ; and therefore by a poetical Stretch made, 
as if the Day had been lengthened by the Sun (landing ftill. 
But in the Hiftory they are ferioufly related, as real Matters 
of Fa&, and with fuch Circumftances as manifeft them to hare 
been miraculous Works of the Almighty : And the Prophet 
Habakkuk, iii. 1 1 . mentions that of Jojbua as fuch. And there- 
fore taking them to be miraculous Pervcrfions of the Conrfe 
of Nature, inftead of being Objections, they are great Argu- 
ments of the Power of God : For in Hezettab's Cafe, to wheel 
the Earth itfelf backward, or by fome extraordinary Refracti- 
ons, to bring the Sun's Shadow backward 10 Degrees: Or in 
Jojbua'% Cafe, to flop the diurnal Courfe of the Globe for 
fome Hours, and then again give it the fame Motion ; to do, I 
fay, thefe Things, required the fame infinite Power which at 
firft gave the Terraqueous Globe its Motion. 

(r) Nam cum difpofiti quafiffem fcedera Mundi, 
Prafcriftofque Maris fines % Annique meatus* 
Et Lucis, NoSiifque vices : tunc emnia rtbar 
Confilio firmata Dei, qui lege mcveri 
Siderm, qui fruges dvverfo tempore nafci 9 
Qui variam Pbaben alieno jujferit ignt 
Compleri y Solgmque fuo ; porrexerit undii 
Uttora ; Jellurem medio /ibraycrat axe. 

Claudian in Rufin. L. I. initio. 

ff) Diet noBifque viciffitudo confewat animantss> tribuens aliud 
agendi tern f us t aliud quiefcendi. Sic undique omnia rathnt conclu- 
ditur y Monte, Confilioque diwino omni in hoc mundo md Jalutem 
omnium, confervaiionemqui admirabiliter adminiftrari* Cicer. de 
Nat Deor. 1. ?. c. 53, 

46 Place and Situation, &c. Book II. 

mals to gather and provide Food, Habitation, and 
other Ncceflaries of Life ; the other to reft, refresh, 
and recruit their Spirits (g)* wafted with the La- 
bours of the Day. To the other of thofe Motions 
We owe the Seafons of Summer and Winter, Spring 
and Autumn, together with the beneficial Inftanetft 
and Eflfe&s which thefe have on the Bodies and State 
of Animals, Vegetables, and all other Things, both in 
the Torrid, Temperate, and Frigid Zones. 

(f) The acute Dr. Cbejnt % in his ingenious Phi/of, Princ. of 
Jfcftr*/ Religion, among other Ufes of Day and Night, faith, 
the Night is moft proper for Sleep ; becaufe when the San k 
above the Horizon, Sleep is prejudicial, by Reafon the Perfpl- 
Jatjons are then too great. Alfo that Nutrition is moftly, If 
not altogether, performed in Time of Reft; the Blood having 
too quick a Motion in the Day ; for which Reafon, weak Per- 
fons, Children, &V. are nourished tnofi, and recruit beft by 


Of the Place and Situation of the Terraqueous 
Globe, in refpett of the Heavenly Bodies. 

ANothcr Thing very confiderable in our Globe* 
is its Place and Situation at a due Diftance 
from the Sun (a), its Fountain of Light and Heat ; 


{a) It is a mani/eft Sign of the Creator's Management and 
Care, in placing the Terraqueous Globe at that very Diftance 
it is from the Sun, and contempering our own Bodies, and all 
other Things, fo duly to that Diftance. For was the Earth 
farther from the Sun, the World would be flawed and frozen 
with Cold : And was it nigher, we fhoukl be burnt, at leaft the 
moft cottboftible Things would be fo> and the World would 
be vexed with perpetual Conflagrations. For we fee that a fevT 
•f the Hays of the Sun, even on more than what fall wfthkl 
the Compafsof half an Inch or as Inch in * Burning- Glafy 
wUl ire combuftible Bodies, even in our own Climate. 

Chap. V, Diftributim of> &c. 47 

and from its neighbouring Planets of the folar Sy- 
(iem, and from the fix'd Stars. But thefe Things I 
have fpoken more largely of in my Survey of the Hea- 
vens (t) 9 and therefore only barely mention them 
now * to infift more largely upon, 

(*) Jftrv-ThetUgy, Book vii. Chap. 7. 


"the Dijlribution of the Earth and Waters. 

TH E Distribution of the Waters, and the dry 
Land, although it may feem rude and unde- 
fined to a carelefs V iew, and is by fome tax'd as 
fuch {a) y yet is admirably well adjufted to the Ufes 
and Conveniences of our World. For 

(*) The moft eminent Author I have met with, that finds 
fault with the Distribution of the Earth and Waters, and in- 
deed with the whole prefent Stru&nre of the Globe, is the 
learned and eloquent Theorift, Dr. Burnet, who frequently ex- 
claims on this Point : Tellus nofira, fi tot am Jimul compleQamur, 
man eft ordinata Cff mtnufta rerum compages—fed moles aggefta 
«uario, incertoque citu parti urn, nulla ordinis out venuftatis ha- 
bit & rations. Theot Sacr. 1. 1 . c. 7. Ecquis autem a Deo hac 
itafaSa T &c. ib. Quo autem Herculeo labor e opus effet ad exca- 
<vandam t err am in tantum hiatum P — - Si immediate* a causa 
frima effeQus fuijfit hie alveus, aUquem faltem ordinem, men* 
Juram, cf proportionem notare voluij/et in ipfius forma, 63* par- 
Hum difpofitione i—ftd confufa omnia, &fr. ib. c. 8. Tellus no- 
fira cum exigua fit 5 eft etiam rudis : Et in ilia exiguitate multm 
funt fuperfiua, mult a inelegantia. Dimidiam terra fuperficien 
inundat Oceanus ; magna ex parte, ut mihi *videtur, inutilii. 
And then he goes on to fhew how this Part of the Creation 
might be mended, ib. c. 10. AH this to me is furprizing from 
an Author of great Ingenuity, who feems in his 800k to have 
a juft Opinion of, and due Veneration for God. But certainly 
fuch Notions are very inconfiftent with the Belief of God's 
creating, efpecially his governing and ordering the World. 
Bat fuppofe the Terraqueous Globe was fuch a rude, confut- 
ed, inconvenient Mafs, as he pretends, yet it is well enough 
for a finful World. But befides, what others have \otv£^o i- 

48 Dijlribution of the Book IL 

For in the firft place, the Diftribution is fo well 
made, the Earth and Waters fo handfomely, fo 
Workman-like laid, every where all the World over, 
that there is a juft TEquipoife of the whole Globe, 
The Northern balanceth the Southern Ocean> the At- 
lantic!: the Pacifick Sea. The American dry Land y is a 
Counterpoife to the European^ Afiatick an<J African. 

In the next place, the Earth and the Waters are 
fo admirably well placed about in the Globe, as to 
be helpful to one another, to minifter to one ano- 
ther's Ufes. The great Oceans, and the leffer Seas and 
Lakes, are fo admirably well diftributed throughout 
die Globe (b\ as to afford fufHcient Vapours (c) for 


bundantly anfwered, the following Survey, will, I hope, {ef- 
ficiently manifeft it to be the Work of a wile and beneficent, 
as well as omnipotent Creator. 

(£) Some have objected againft the Diftribution of the Earth 
and Waters, as if the Waters occupied too large a Part of the 
Globe, which they think would be of greater Ufe, if it was 
dry Land. But then they do not confide r that this would de- 

Srive the World of a due Quantity of Vapours and Rain. For 
: the Cavities which contain the Sea, and other Waters, were 
deeper, although the Waters were no lefs in Quantity, only 
their Surfaces narrower and leffer, the Evaporations would be 
fo much the lefs, inafmuch as thofe Evaporations are made 
from the Surface, and are confidently, in Proportion to the 
Surface, not the Depth or Quantity of Water. 

(<r) I took notice before in Book I. Chap. 3. Note (a), That 
the Vapours conitituting Clouds and Rain, are VeficuU of Wa- 
ter detached by Heat. The manner of which I conceive to be 
thus ; Heat being of an agile Nature, or the lighted of all 
bodies eafily breaks loofe from them ; and if they are humid, 
in its Paflage, carries along with it Particles, or little Cafes of 
the Water; which being lighter than Air, are buoyed up 
thereby, and fwim in it ; until by knocking againft one ano- 
ther, or being thickened by the Cold, (as in the Note before- 
cited,) they are reduced into Clouds and Drops. 

Having mentioned the Manner how Vapours are raifed, and 
there being more Room here than in the Note before- cited, 
I (hall, for the 1 11 uft rati on of Nature's Procefs, take notice of 
three Things obfervable to our Purpofe, in Water over the 
fire, J. That the Evaporations are proportional to the Heat 


Chap. V. Earth and Waters. 49 

Clouds and Rains, to temperate the Cold (c) of 
the Northern frozen Air, to cool and mitigate the 


afcending out of the Water. A fmall Heat throws off bat 
few Vapours, fcarce vifible : A greater Heat, and afcending 
in greater Quantities, carries off grofler, larger, and more 
numerous Veficul<e, which we call a Steam : And if the Heat 
breaks through the Water with fuch a Fury, as to lacerate and 
life up great Quantities or Bubbles of Water, too heavy for 
the Air to carry or buoy up, it caufeth what we call Boiling. 
And the Particles of Water thus mounted up by the Heat, are 
vifible Spherules of Water, if viewed with a Microfcope, as 
they fwim about in a Ray of the Sun let into a dark Room, 
with warm Water underneath : where fome of the Vapours 
appear large, fome fmaller Sphaerules, according (no doubt) 
to the larger and leffer Quantities of Heat blowing them up 
and carrying them off. 2. If thefe Vapours be intercepted in 
their Afcent by any Context, efpecially cold Body, as Glafs, 
Marble, &c. they are thereby rduced into Drops, and Maflfes 
Of Water like thofe of Rain, fcfr. 3. Thefe Vapours in their 
Afcent from the Water, may be obferved, in Cold f rofty 
Weather, either to rife but a little above the Water, and there 
to hang, or to. glide on a little above its Surface: Or if the 
Weather be very cold, after a little Afcent, they mey be feeit 
to fall back again into the Water ; in their Afcent and De- 
fcent defcribing a Curve fome what like that of ah Arrow 
from a Bow. But in a warmer Air, and dill, the Vapours 
afcend more nimbly aud copioufly, mounting up aloft, till 
they are 'but of Sight. But if the Air be warm and windy too, 
the Vapours are fooner carried out of Sight, and make way 
for others. And accordingly 1 have often obferved, that hot 
Liquors* if not fet too thin, and not frequently ftirred, cool 
flower in the greateft Frofts, than in temperate Weather, efpe* 
daily if windy. Aud it is manifeft by good Experiments, that 
the Evaporations are lefs at thofe Times than thefe; lefs by 
far in the Winter then the warmer Months. 

( c) As our Northern Hhnds are obferved to be more tem 
perate than our Continents, (of which we had a notable In- 
fbmce in the great Froft in 170I, which Ireland and Scotland 
felt lefs of than moft Parts of Europe befides ; of which fee 
BooklV. Note(c) fo this Temperature is owing to 
the warm Vapours afforded chiefly by the Sea, which, by the 
preceding Noie, muft neceffarily be warm, as they ate Vapours, 
or Water inflated by Hear. 

The Caufe of this Heat I take to be partly that of the 
Son, and partly Subterraneous. That it is not wholly that of 

£ \ta 

jo Dijlribut'ion of the Book It 

Heats (d) of the Torrid Zone, and to refrefli tho 
Earth with fertile Showers ; yea, in fome Meafurc 
to minifter frefli Waters to the Fountains and Rivers, 
Nay, fo abundant is this great Bleffing, which the 
mod indulgent Creator hath afforded us by Means 
of this Diftribution of the Waters I am fpeaking of, 
that there is more than a fcanty, bare Provifion, or 
mere Sufficiency ; even a Plenty, a Surplufage of this 
ufeful Creature of God, (the f refti Waters) afforded 
to the World ; and they fo well ordered, as not to 
drown the Nations of the Earth, nor to ftagnate, 
fiink, and poifon, or annoy them ; but to be gently 
carried through convenient Channels back again 

■ to 

t}ie San, is manifell from Vapours, being as, or more eopjJ 
oufly raifed when the Son-Beams are weakeft, as when ftrong- 
eft, there being greater Rains and Winds at the one Time thaa 
the other. And that there is fuch a Thing as Subterranean 
Heat, (whether Central, or from the meeting of Mineral 
Juices ; or fuch as is Congenial or Connatural to oar Globe* 
I have not Time to enquire ; but I fay, that fuch a Thing is,) 
is evident not only from the Hot- Baths, many fiery Eruption! 
and Explofions, &c. but alfo from the ordinary Warmth 
of Cellars and Places under Ground, which are not barely 
comparatively warm, but of fufficient Heat to raife Vapour* 
alfo : As is manifeft from the fmoking of perennial Fountains 
in frofty Weather, and Water drawn out of Pumps and opeo 
Wells at fuch a Time. Yea, even Animals themfelves are 
fenfible of it, as particularly Moles, who dig before a Thaw, 
and againft fome other Alterations of the Weather ; excited, 
no doubt, thereunto by the fame warm Vapours arifing in 
the Earth, which animate them, as well as produce the fuc-. 
ceeding Changes of the Weather. 

(d) Befides the Trade- Winds, which ferve to mitigate thp 
exceffive Heats in the Torrid Zone, the Clouds are a good 
Screen againft the fcorching Sun-Beams, efpecially when the 
Sun paffeth their Zenith ; at which Time is their Winter, or 
cooleft Seafon, by Reafon they have then moil Clouds and 
Rain. For which Service, that which Varene takes Notice of, 
is a great Providence of God, <w*. Pier a que /oca Zon* Torrid* 
nneinum habent mare, ut India, lnfulne Indict, Lingua Afric* m 
Guinea, Brafilia, Peruvia, Mexicana, Hifpania: Paucahcm, 
Zona Torrid* funt Mediterranean Varenii. Geogr. L a. c. *6* 
Prop. 10, feft. 7. 

« That' 

C» A*. V. Earth and Watm> 5 1 

to their grand Fountain (1) the Sea ; and many of 
them through fuch large Trads of Land* and to fuch 
prodigious Diftances, that it is a great Wonder the 


ff) That Springs have their Origin from the Sea, and not 

from Rains and Vapours^ among many other ftrong Reafons*. 

I conclude from the Perennity of divers Springs, which al* 

ways afford the fame Quantity of Water. Of this Sort there 

are many- to be found every where. But I (hall, for an In* 

fiance, fiugle out one in the Parilh of Vfminfttr, where I live* 

as beiagvery proper for my Purpofc, and one that I have had' 

better Opportunities of making Remarks upon above twenty 

Years. This in the greateft Drouths is little, if at all, dimi* 

nifheaVthatl could perceive by my Eye, although the Ponda 

all over the Country, and an adjoining Brook have been dry 

for many Months together ; as particularly in dry Summer 

Months of the Year 1705. And in the wetted .Seafons, fuch 

as the Summer and other Months were, preceding the violent 

Storm in Nvuember 1703. {Vii> Pbilof. Tra*f. N* 289.) I fay* 

in fuch wet Seafons I have not obferved any Increment of its 

Stream* excepting only for violent Rains falling therein, of 

raining down from the higher Land into it j which difco- 

looreth the Waters oftentimes, and makes an Increafe of* 

only a Day's or fometimes but a few Hours Continuance* 

But new, if this Spring had its Origin from Rain and Vapours,, 

there would be an Increafe 2nd Dccreafe of the one, as there 

fould happen to be of the other : As actually it is in fuch. 

temporary Springs as have undoubtedly their Source front 

Rain and Vapours. 

Bnt befidea this, another considerable Thing in this Upmin* 

fiir Spring (and Thoufands of others) is, that it breaks out 

, of fo inconsiderable an Hillock, or Eminence of Ground, 

i that can have no more Influence in the Condensation of the 

■ Vapours, or (topping the Clouds, (which the Maintained or* 

tak Hypothecs fuppofe) than the lower Lands about it have. 

By fome Critical Obfervations I made with a very nice porta- 

Ue Barometer, I found that my Houfe itends between 80 and 

! 90 Feet higher than the Low- Water Mark in the River of* 

Thmes, neareft me 1 and that Part of the Rivet being fcarcC 

thirty Miles from the Sea, I guefs, (and am more confirmed 

from fome later Experiments 1 made nearer the Sea) that we 

cannot be much above 100 Feet above the Sea. The Spring 

J judge nearly level with, or but little higher than where my 

Houfe ftands ; and the Lands from whence it immediately 

iffiies, I guefs about 1 5 or 20 Feet higher than the Spring % 

and the Lands above that, of no very remarkable height. 

Ra And 

52 Difiribution of the Book It 

Fountains fhould be high enough (f), or the Seas- 
low enough, ever to afford fo long a Conveyance; 
Witnefs the Danube (g) and Wolga of Europe, the 


And indeed, by aAual Meafure, one of the higheft HiTb I 
Have met with in EJex, is but 363 Feet high j (Fide PHI. 
7ra*f. N° 313. p. 16.) and Iguefs by Come very late Experi- 
ments I made, neither that, nor any other Land in EJfex, to 
be above 400 Feet above the Sea. Now what is fo inconfi- 
derable a Rife of Land to a perennial Condensation of Va- 
pours, fit to maintain even fo inconfiderable a Fountain, as 
what I have mentioned is ? Or indeeed the High-lands of the 
whole large County of EJfex, to the maintaining of all Its 
Fountains and Rivulets ? 

But I jhall no father profecute this Argument,- but refer tfr 
the late learned, curious and indubious Dr. Plot's Temtame* 
Phil, ie Orig. Font, in which he hath fully difcufled this Matter, 

As to the Maner how the Waters are raifed up into the 
Mountains and higher Lands, an eafy and natural Represen- 
tation may be made of it, by putting a little Heap of Sand, 
^klhes, or a little Loaf of Bread, &c in a Bafon of Water j 
where the Sand will reprefent the dry Land, or an liland, and 
the Bafon of Water the Sea about it. And as the Water in the 
Bafon rifeth to, or near the Top of the Heap in it, fodoth the 
Waters of the Sea, Lakes, &e. rife in the Hills. Which Cafe 
I take,to be the fame with the Afcent of Liquids in Capillary 
Tubes, or between contiguous Planes, or in a Tube filled with 
Afties : Of which the induftrious and complete Artificer ia 
Air-Pumps, Mr. H&wksbee, hath given us fome, not contempti- 
ble Experiments, in his Pbyf. Mscb. Exp. p. 1 39. 

Among the many Caufes affigned for this Afcent of liquors, 
there are two that (pid the faired for it, <uiz. tht Pre/Jure of tbt 
Atmofphere, and the Newtonian AttraSion. That it is not the 
former, appears from the Experiments fucceeding, as well, or 
better in Vacuo, than in the open Air, the Afcent being rather 
fwifter in Vacuo. This then being not the Caufe, I (hall fop- 
pofe the other is ; but for the Proof thereof I fhall refer to 
fome of our late Englijb Aushors, efpecially fome very late 
Experiments made before our moft famous Royal Society, which 
will be fo well improved by fome of that illuilrious Body, as 
to go near to put the Matter out of doubt. 

(f) See Book III. Chap. 4. 
. (g) The Danube, in a fiber Account, performs a Courfi of 
above 1500 Miles, {i. e. in a ftrait Uxkt)from its Rife /# its 
faJL Bohuns Geogr. Dift. 

\b\ Troffw 



Chap. V, Earth and Waters. 53 

Nile {b) y and the Niger {i) of A/rick, the Ganges (k) 9 
and Euphrates oiAJia % and the Amazons River (l) y and 
ita de la Plata of America, and many others which 
might be named ; fome of which are faid to run 
above 5000 Miles, and fome no lefs than 6000 from 
their Fountains to the Sea. And indeed fuch pro- 
digious Conveyances of the Waters make it mani- 
feft, that no accidental Currents and Alterations of 
the Waters themfelves, no Art or Power of Man, 
nothing lefs than the Fiat of the Almighty, could 
ever have made, or found, fo long and cpmmodious 
Declivities, and Channels for the Paflage of the 

{h) Tra&n/ fc. Longitudo [Nili] eft milliarium clrtittr 630 
Germ, five Hal. 2520, pro quibus porter e licet 3000 propter cur- 
paturas. Varen Geogr. 1. 1. c. 16. p. 27. 

(f) Farene reckons the Courfe of the Niger, at a middle 
Computation, 600 German Miles, that is 2400 Italian. 

(k) That of the Ganges he computes at 300 German Miles. 
Bat if we add the Curvatures to thefe Rirers, their Channels 
are of a prodigious Length. 

(I) Oriter, flumen (quod plerumque Amazonum, &c.) baud 

froeul $>uito iri> montibus Cum per leueas Hifpanicas 1356. 

curfum ab Occident e in orientem tontinudrit, oftio 84 leueas lato— 
in Ouamtm precipitator. Chr. D'Acugna Relatio de flumine 
Amaz. in Ad. Erud. Aug. 1683. 


A %e great Variety and Quantity of all things 
*\ upon, and in the 'Terraqueous Globe, provided 
3 for the Ufes of the World. 

: T^HE laft Remark I fhaH make about the Ter^ 

j I raqueous Globe in general is, the great Variety 

jf ofKinds* or Tribes, as well as prodigious Number 

of Individuals of each various Tribe, there is of all 

1 E j Crea? 

1 4 Variety of cfbingsl Book Hi 

Creatures (a). There are fo many Beafts, fo many 
fords, fo many Infe&s, fo many Reptiles, fo many 
frees, fo many Plants upon the LancJ j fo many 
Fifties, Sea-Plants, and other Creatures in the Wa* 
ters ; fo many Minerals, Metals, and FofTiles in the 
Subterraneous RegiQns •, fo many Species of thefc Gm 
ncru 7 fo many Individuals of thofe Species, that them 
is nothing wanting to the Ufe of Man, or any 
other Creature of this lower World. If every Ago 
doth change its Food, its way of Cloathing, its 
way of Building ; if every Age (£) hath its Variety 
of Difeafes j nay, if Man, or any other Animal, 
was minded to change thefe Things every Day, ftilj 
the Creation would not be exhaufted, ftill nothing 
Would "be wanting for Food, nothing for Phyfick, 
nothing for Building and Habitation, nothing for 
Cleanlinefs and Refreftunent, yea, even for Re* 


(a) Non dat Deus benefcia f Untie ergo ifta ftue poffsdes f — — 
XJnde h*c innumerabilia, oculos, aures % artimum mklcentiaP 
\J*de ilia luxuriant quoque inftruens copia? Neque enim neceffi- 
tatibus tantummodk noftris prwifum eft: ufque in aelicias ama* 
mur. Tot arbufta* non uno modo frugifera, tot herb* falutares, 
tot <oar'utates cibwum, per totum annum digeft*, ut inerii que- 
tuefortuita terra alimenta praberent. Jam animaUa ernnis g§~ 

ueris t alia in ficco* fcfr.— ut omnis rerum naturm fare trU 

butum aliquod nobis confirret. Scnec. de fienef. 1. 4. c. c. 
ubi plura vide. 

Hie, ubi habit amus non intermit tit fuo tempore Caelum nit ef cert, 

arbores frondefcere -turn muhitudinem peeudum partim ad 

wefcendim, partim ad cultus agrorum, partim ad vebendum, far* 
tim ad corpora veftienda; hominemque ipfum quafi contemplate* 
rem caeli ac deorum, ipforumque cultorem. - — * — Hetc igitur, l£aU* 
innumerabilia ciim cernimus, poffumufne dubitare, quin bis pr*tfi 
aliqvis vel EfftSor, Ji bare nata funt, ut Platoni <Otdetur : *0$l fi 
femper fueriut, ut Arifioteli placet, Moderator tanti opens Gf 
V>u*e'.is ? Cic. Tufc. Quaeft. 1. 1. c. 28, 29. 

ib) Sunt fcf gentium differentia non mediocres — - qua con- 
tempfctfa auftrt rurfus nos ad ipforum animalium naturae, inge* 
nitafque it's <uel certiores morborum omnium medicinas. Enim 
ntero rerum omnium Parens* nullum animal ad hoc tantum n$ 
pafieretur, out alia Jatiaret nafci whit : arte/que Jaltfares. %i$ 
tfijtruerit. Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. zy. c. 13. 

(c) This 

Chap* VT. in the Terraqueous Ghbel ^j- 

creation and Plcafure. But the Munificence of the 
Creator is fuch, that there is abundantly enough to 
fitpply the Wants, the Conveniencies, yea, almoft 
the Extravagancies of all the Creatures, in all Places, 
all Ages, and upon all Occafions. 

And this may ferve to anfwer an Obje&ion againlt 
the Excellency of, and Wifdom (hewed in, the Crea- 
tion 5 namely, What need of fo many Creatures (c)t 
Particularly of fo many Infefts, fo many Plants, and 
fb many other Things ? And efpecially of fome of 
them, that are fo far from being ufeful, that they are 
very noxious ; fome by their Ferity, and others by 
their poifonous Nature, &?r. 

To which I might anfwer, That in greater Va- 
riety, the greater Art is feen ; that the fierce, poi- 
fonous, and noxious Creatures ferve as Rods and 
Scourges to chaftife us (d) 9 as Means to excite our 


in i i ■- '- „ i i 

(<*) This was no very eafy Queftion to be anfwered by fuch 
*a held, That all Things were made for Men ; as mod of the 
Antients did ; as Ariftotle, Seneca, Cicero and Pliny, (to name 
only fome of the Chief.) And Qcero cites it as the celebrated 
Cbryfippuii Opinion, Pneclare trim Cbryfippus, Catera nata ejjb 
Homiuum Causa, fcf Deorum. De fin. bon. & mal. 1. $. And 
in his De Nat. Dear. L 2. fin. he ferioaily proves the World 
itfelf to have been made for the Gods and Man, and all 
Things in the World to have been made and contrived for the ' 
Benefit of Man, [par at a 1$ inventa ad fruftum Hominum, are 
his Words.) So Pliny, in his Preface to his 7th Book, faiths 
Nature made all Things for Man ; but then he makes a Doubt, 
Whether the ihewed herfelf a more indulgent Parent, or cruel 
Step-Mother, as in Book IV. Chap. 12. Note 2. But fince the 
Works of God have been more difcovered, and the Limits of 
the Univerfe have been found to be of infinitely greater Ex- 
tent than the Antients fuppofed them ; this narrow Opinions 
hath been exploded. And the Anfwer will be found eafy tc* 
toefc Queftions, Why fo many nfelefs Creatures ? In the Hea- 
vens, Why fo many fix'd Stars, and the greateft Part of thenv 
fcarce vifible ? Why fuch Syftems of Planets, as in Jupiter^ 
Saturn* Sec. (See my JJtro-fbeologj.) In the Earth and Waters*. 
Why fo many Creatures of no Uie to Man ? 

(</) Nee minis clara exitii documents fun* etiam ex content* 
njmdii ammalibus* hL Varro author eft a cuniculis fijpju** 

E 4. im 

$6 Variety of Things. Book IL f 

Wifdom, Care, and Induftry, with more to the fame 
purpofc. But thefe Things have been fully urged 
by others ; and it is fufficient to fay, that this 


tas. Citra Cynamolgos jEthiopas late defer ta regit) eft, a /c or pie- 
mbus & folpugis gente fubLtd : i$ a fcohpendris abados Trcri- 
tnfes, author eft Tbeopbraftus. Plin. Nat. Hid. 1. 8. c. 29. 

To thefe Inftances may be added, the Plague they fome- 
times fuffer from a kind of Mice (they call Leming, Leminger, 
Lemmusy Sec ) In Norway, which eat up every green Thing, 
They come in fuch prodig'ous Numbers, that they fancy 
them to fall from the Clouds ; but QL Magnus rather thinks 
they come from fome of the Minds, Hrft. /. 8. e. 2. Jf the 
Header hath a mind to fee a large Account of them, with a 
Difpute about their Generation, a handfome Cut of them, 
with the Prayers, and an Exorcifm againit them ufed in the 
Church of Rome, I fhaii refer him (it being too tedious to 
recite in thefe Notes) to Mufrum Wormian, 1. 3 c. 23. 

§>uare patimur multa mala a creatura quam fecit Dens nifi 

quia off endimus Deum? De poena tud peccatum tuvm accufa, 

non judicem. Nam propter Superbiam inftituit Deus ereaturam 
tftam minimam &f abjeSijfimam ut ipfa nos torqueret, ut cam 
fuperbus fuerit homo, eff fe jacJaverit adverfus Deum % —~cim 
fe erexerit, Pulicibus fubdatur. Quid eft quod te infias human*, 
fuperbid ?•— 'Pulicibus refifte ut dorm*as. Cogno/ce qui Jfs. Nam* 
propter fuperhiam no ft ram domandum ■■ ere at a ilia quae mo left m. 
font : populum Pharaonis fuperbum potuit Deus domare de Vrfis m 
de, (fte. Mufcas cif Ranas illis immifit, ut rebus <vilijfimis fm- 
ferbia domaretur. Omnia ergo per ipfum——fa3a funt ; £9* fme 
ipfofaQum eft nihil. Auguft. Tracl. i, in S. Johan. 

But altho* the infinitely wife Creator hath put it in the 
Power of fuch vile Animals to chaftife us, yet hath he (hewed 
no lefs Wifdom and Kindnefs in ordering many, if not moft 
of them fo, as that it (hall be in the Power of Man, and other 
Creatures, to obviate or efcape their Evils. For, befides the 
noble Antidotes afforded by Minerals, Vegetables, &c. many, 
if not moft of our European venomous Animals carry their Cure, 
as well as Poifon, in their own Bodies. The Oil, and, I doubt 
not, the Body of Scorpions too, is a certain Remedy againit its 
Stroke. A Bee, Wafp, or Hornet, crushed and rubbed, and bound 
upon the Place, I have always found to be a certain Cure for 
the Stfng of thofe Creatures. And I queftion not, but the Flem, 
cfpeciajly the Head, of Vipers, v/ou\d be found a Remedy for 
their Bites. <W* 


Chap, VI. in the 'Terraqueous Globe. 57 

great Variety is a moft wife Provifion for all the 
Ufes of the World in all Ages, and all Places. Some 
for Food, fome for Phyfic (*), fome for Habitation* 
fome for Utenfils, fome for Tools and Inftruments of 
Work, and fome for Recreation andPleafure, either, 
to Man, or to fome of the inferior Creatures them- 
felves-, even for which inferior Creatures, the liberal 
Creator hath provided all Things neceffary, or any 
ways conducing to their happy, comfortable living 
in this World, as well as for Man. 

And it is manifeft, that all the Creatures of God* 
Beads, Birds, Infeds, Plants, and every other Genus^ 


Our Viper -Catchers have a Remedy > in which they place fo great 
Confidence, as to he no more afraid of the Bite [of a Viper] than 
efa common PunQure, immediately curing them) elves hy the Appli- 
cation of their Specifick. This, though they keep a great Secret, 1 
have, upon ftricl Enquiry, found to he no other than Axungia Vi- 
perina, prefently rubbed into the Wound. This Remedy the lear- 
ned Dodor tried himfelf with good Snccefs, in a young Dog 
that was bitten in the Nofe. Vide Mead of Poyfons, p. 29. 

And as to the Means to efcape the Mifchief of fuch noxious 
Animals, befides what may be effected by the Care, Induftry, 
and Sagacity of Man; fome of them are fo contrived and" 
made, as to give Warning or Time to Creatures in Danger 
from them. Thus, for Inftance, the Rattle Snake, the moft 
poifonous of any Serpent, who darts its poifonous Vapours to 
fome Diftance, and in all Probability was the Bafilijk of the 
Ancients, faid to kill with its Eyes: This involuntarily gives 
Warning by the Rattle in its Tail. So the Shark, the moft ra- 
pacious Animal of the Waters, is forced to turn himfelf on his 
Back, (and thereby gives an Opportunity of Efcape) before he 
can catch his Prey. 

(e) Htec fola Natura placuerat effe remedia parata vulgo % in- 
vtntu faci/ia, ac fine impendio, ex quibus vivimus. Poftea frau- 
des hominum £sf ingeniorum capture officinas invenire iftas, in qui- 
hus fua cut que bomini vcenalis promt ttitur vita. Statim compofi- 
Hones & mtftur* inexplicable s decant antur. Arabia atque India 
in medio arjiimantur, ulcerique parvo medtcina a Rubro mari im» 
putatur, cum remedia vera quotidie pauperrimus qui/que cornet. 
Piin. 1. 24. c.i. 

Nonfponte fua ex tellure germinant Herba*, quit contra q*of- 
tunque morhos accommoda funt ; fed e* voluntate Opificis % ad 
Bffiram utilitatem produQafunt. Bafil. Afcet. Tom. 2. 
Confult here Book X. Note (z) [aa) (AA). 

5 8 Variety tf Things] Book Hi 

havcj or may have, their feveral Ufes even among 
Men. For although in one Place many Things may 
lie negle&ed, and out of Ufe, yet in other Places they 
may be of great Ufe. So what hath feemed ufelefs 
in one Age, hath been received in another ; as all the 
new Difcoveries in Phyfick, and all the Alterations 
in Diet dp fufficiently witnefs. Many Things alfo 
there are which in one Form may be pernicious to 
Man ; but in another of great Ufe. There are many 
Plants (/), many Animals, many Minerals, which 
in one Form deftroy, in another heal. The Cajfada 


(f) Among poifonous Vegetables, none more famous of 
Old than Hemlock, accounted at this Day alfo very dangerous 
to Man, of which there are fome difmal Examples in our PhiL 
franf. Wepfer, &c But yet this Plant is Food for Goats, and 
}ts Seeds to Buftards ; and, as Galen faith, to Starlings alfo* 
Neither is this io pernicious a Plant, only Food, but alio Phy- 
fick to fome Animals. An Horfe troubled with the Farcy, and 
could not be cured with the moil famous Remedies cured 
Umfelf of it in a fhort Time, by eating Hemlock, of which he 
cat greedily. Fid. Phil. Tranf. N° 23 1 . And a Woman which 
was cured of the Plague, hut wanted Sleep, did with very good 
JLffea eat Hemlock for fome Time ; 'till falling ill again of a Fe- 
ver, and hawing left off the Ufe of this Remedy, he [Nic. Foo- 
tanu&l endeavoured to procure her reft hy repeated Dofes of Opium. 
which had no Operation, till the Help i/Xicuta was again called^ 
in with defired Succefs. Mead of Poif. p. 144. 

And not only Hemlock, but many other, if not moft Plantav 
accounted poifonous, may have their great Ufe in Medicine r 
Of which take the Opinion of an able Judge, my ingenioua 
and learned Friend Dr. Tancred Robinfon, in a Letter I have of 
his to the late great Mr. Ray, of Nov. 7. 1 604. viz. According to 
my Promife, I here fend you a few Obfervations concerning fome 
Plants feldom ufed in Medicine, being efteemed poifonous, which 
if truly arretted, or exactly do fed, may perhaps prove the moft 
powerful and effeclual Medicines yet known. Having then given 
an Account of fome of their Correctives, he gives thefe fol- 
lowing Examples, viz. 1 . The Hellebores incorporated with 4 
Sapo, or Alkaly-Salts alone, are fuccefsful Remedies in Epilepfies % 
Vertigo's, Palfies, Lethargies, and Mania's. Dof a 9j. to 56. 
2. The Radic. Affari, Cieutar, and the Napellus, in Agues and 
periodical Pains. Dof 9J. to ?>fi. 3. The Hyofcyamus in Ha* 
mirr&agies, violent Heats and Perturbation of the Bleed, andal- 

Chap. VI. 'in the Terraqueous Globe'. 59 

Plant unprepared poifoncth, but prepared, is the very 
Bread of the Weft-Indies (g). Vipers and Scorpions* 
and many Minerals, as deftru&ive as they ate ta 
Man, yet afford him fome of his bed Medicines. 

Or if there be many Things of little, immediate,' 
Ufe to Man, in this, or any other Age ; yet to other 
Creatures they may afford Food or Phyfick, or be of 
fome neceffary Ufe. How many Trees and Plants, 
nay, even the very Carcafes of Animils, yea, th& 
very Duft of the Earth (£), and the rnoft refufe, 
contemptible Things to be met with ; I fay, how 
many fuch Things are either Food, or probably Me- 
dicine to many Creatures 5 afford them Retreat, art 
Places of Habitation, or Matrixes for their Generati- 
on, as (hall be lhfewed in proper Place ? The prodigi- 
ous Swarms of Infe&s in the Air* and in the Waters, 
{many of which may be perhaps at prefent of no great 
Ufe to Man) yet are Food to Birds, Fifees, Rep- 
tiles, Infedts thcmfelves, and other Creatures (1), for 
whofe happy and comfortable Subfiftance, I have 
(aid the bountiful Creator hath liberally provided, as 
well as for that of Man. 

1 iii 111 i i 1 ■ 

fo in all great Inflammations, Dof 9J. to 3& 4. The Semen 
Stramonia is a very good Anodyne, ufeful in Vigilia's, Rbeumatifmt, 
Hyfierick Cafes, in all the Orgafms of the Blood or Spirits, and 
wherever there is an Indication for a Paregorick. Dof. 3jj« to 3^ 
5. Elaterium thus corrected, may he given from gr. x. to xv. in Hy- 
dropical Cafes* without any fenfible Evacuation or Difturhance. So 
mayjhe Soldanella and Gratiola in greater Dofes, 6. Opium cor- 
Yt&ed as afore-mentioned, lofes its Narcotic Faculty 9 and may he 
given veryfafely in great Dofes, and proves more than ufually pre* 
valent in Convulfive Cafes, Fluxes, Catarrhs, and all painful Pa. 
tojcyfms, &c. 

{g) It is of the moft general Ufe of any Provifan all over the 
Weft Indies, efpeciaUy in the hotter Parts, and is ufed to victual 
Ships. Dr. Sloan's Nat. Hift, of Jamaica, Vol. 1. Ch. 5. Scft. 12. 

{h) I have ihewn in the Phi /of Tranf that the Pedicuhs fa- 
ftdicus, Mortifaga, Pulfatorius, or Death* Watch there defcribed, 
fcedeth upon Duft ; but that this Duft they eat, is powdered 
Bread, Fruits, or fuch like Duft, not powdered Earth ;' as is 
tnanifeft from their great Diligence and Curiofrty in hunting 
among the Duft. See more in Philof Tranf N° 29 U 

<i) SeeJMIV. Chap, n, 

[ 6o ] 

»»»» * < < » * » »» » | * »» »» » »» »»l ' a '»»»»»»»»tK». >»» »»»»» 


0/* the Terraqueous Globe in Particu- 
lar^ more efpecially the Earth. 

AVING thus taken a General Profpeft 
of our Terraqueous Globe, I fhall in this 
Book come to its Particulars. But here 
wc have fuch an immenfe Variety pre- 
fenting itfelf to our Senfes/and iuclt 
amazing Strokes of Power and Wifdom, that it is 
impoflible not to be at a Stand, and very difficult to 
know where to begin, how to proceed, or where to 
end. But we muft however attempt. 

And for the more clear and regular Proceeding 
on this copious Subjeft, I fhall diftrihute the Globe 
into its own grand conftituent Parts. 

1. The Earth and irs Appurtenances. 
II. The Waters and Theirs. 

The firft of thefe only, is what at prefent, I (hall 

be able to take into this Survey. 

And in Surveying the Earth, I intend, 

i. To confider its conftituent Parts, or Things 

peculiar to itfelf. 

2. The Inhabitants thereof, or the feveral Kinds 
of Creatures that have their Habitation, Growth, 
or Subfiftence thereon. 

1. As to the Earth itfelf, the moft remarkable 
Things that prefent themfelves to our View, are, 

1. its 


Chap. I. Of the Soils. 61 

x. Its various Moulds and Soils. 

2. Its fevcral Strata, or Beds. 

3. Its very Subterraneous Paflages, Grotto's and 

4. Its Mountains and Vallies. 


Of the Soils and Moulds in the Earth. 

THE various Soils and Moulds are an admira- 
ble and manifeft Contrivance of the All- wife 
Creator, in making this Provifion for the various 
Vegetables (a), and divers other Ufes of the Crea- 
tures. For, as fome Trees, fome Plants, fome Grains 
dwindle and die in a difagreeable Soil, but thrive 
and flourilh in others ; fp the All- wife Creator hath 
amply provided for every Kind a proper Bed* 

(«) It is not to be doubted, that although Vegetables de- 
light in peculiar Soils, yet they Owe not their Life and Growth 
to the Earth itfelf, but to fome agreeable Juice* or Salta, &c. 
refiding in the Earth. Of this the great Mr. Boyle hath given 
us fome good Experiments* He ordered his Gardener to dig 
up, and dry in an Oven, fome Earth fit for the Purpofe, to 
weigh it, and to fet therein fome Squajh Seeds , (a Kind of In- 
dian Pompion.) The Seeds when fown were watered with 
Rain or Spring-water only. But although a Plant was produ- 
ced in one Experiment of near 3 fe and in another of above 
14th yet the Earth when dried, and weighed again, was fcarce 
dhnmimed at all in its Weight. 

Another Experiment he alledges is of He/mon's, who dried 
200 lb. of Earth, and therein planted a Willow weighing 51b. 
which he watered with Rain, or di Hilled Water : And to fe- 
cure it from any other Earth getting in, he covered it with a 
perforated Tin-Cover. After five Years, weighing the Tree 
with all the Leaves it had born in that Time, he found it to 
weigh 1691b 3 Ounces, but the Earth to be diminifhed only 
about two Ounces in its Weight. Fid. Boyle's $ceft. Cbjm. Part 

$3 Of the Soils! Book. H£ 

If fome delight in a warm, fome in a cold SqiI* 
fome in a lax or fandy, fome a heavy or clayie Soil ; 
feme in a Mixture 6r both, fome in this, and that, 
and the other Mould, fome in moid, fome in dry 
Places {b)\ ftill we find Provifion enough for all 
thefe Purpofes : Every Country abounding with its 
proper Trees and Plants (V), and every Vegetable? 
flourifhing and gay, fomewhere or other about the 
Globe, and abundantly anfweriqg the Almighty 
Command of the Creator, when the Earth and Wa- 
ters were ordered to their peculiar Place, Gen. 1. 1 1. 
And God /aid, Let (be Earth bring forth Grafs \ the Her A 
yielding Seed, and the Tree yielding Fruit after bis Kind.. 
All which we a&ually fee is fo. 

To this Convenience which the various Soils that 
coat the Earth are of to the Vegetables, we may 
add their great Ufe and Benefit to divers Animal?,' 
to many Kinds of Quadrupeds, Fowls, Infefts, an& 
Reptiles, who make in the Earth their Places of 
Repofe and Reft ; their Retreat in Winter, their 
Security from their Enemies, and their Nefts to re- 
pofe their Young; fome delighting in a lax and per* 
vious Mould, admitting them an eafy PafTage; and 
others delighting in a firmer and more folid Earth, 


(b) T&t XI ToVtf* %nrt? r& •»xi»a?, « yum rd vtfirrd Tib 
XiiXfvv, &C. T« plv yd$ QfaT |«jpa?, ra <3i livtytx, rd $ XVPtf** 
»a$, rd ft rpom'Attt, rd Ji >m*XKTX-it3$,~ xa) ox»t 9 rd f*w opma? rd H 
tWIng.' ■ i Zdtbi* ydf rd wpoalpopot. xard tjj? jepaVir, tr\ }f aV0f»? f 
xeu io^vfdfMec) /9a0v ggi£a,*at iwr»woA«io££»£«, tea) i»tk «Mi) haf^dp 
Hard rd fAi^ij— •IIa»T» yd% ravr» 9 Irs 3t rd ofcota tyin? ro opo**' 
or, «** rd *vq(aoioc pri rn aCrof, or** $ tk «ra$afcXayiJ r%% fvVltffc' 
Tbeophraft. de Cauf. Plant, L 2. c. 9/ 

[e ) Nee vero Terra ferre omnes omnia poffutsf. c 

Fluminibus, Saliees, crajjifque paludibus Alni 
Nafcuntur; fteriles faxofis tnontibus Orni : *§ 

Littora Myrtetis latijjtma : denique apertos 
Bacchus amat coUes: Aquilonem & /rigor a Taxi* 
Afpice & extremis domitum cult or i bus orb em t 
Eoa/que domos Arabum, pielofque Gelonos: 
Pivtfig arboribuj patriot, &c. yifc Georg. I. tl 

Chap. II. Of the Strata of &c. 63 

that will better fecure them againft Injuries from 


Of the various Strata, or Beds, obferoable in tbt 

THE various Strata, or Beds, although but lit* 
tie different from the laft, yet will deferve a 
diftincSt Consideration. 

By the Strata, or Beds, I mean thofe Layers of 
Minerals (a), Metals (£), Earth and Stone (c), ly- 
ing under that upper Stratum, or Tegument of the 


(a) Although Minerals, Metals and Stones lie in Beds, an4 
have done fo ever iince Noah's Flood, if not from the Crea- 
tion; yet it is greatly probable that they have Power of grmo>~ 
ing in their refpedive Beds : That as the Beds are robbed an4 
emptied by Miners, fo after a while they recruit again. Thus, 
Vitriol, Mr. Boyle thinks, will grow by the Help of the Air. So. 
Alum doth the fame. We are affured (he faith) by the exftt 
riene'd Agricola, That the Earth, or Ore of Alum, being robbed of 
its Salt, will in trad of lime recover it, by being expofed to the. 
Air. Boyl. Sufpic. about fome Hid. Qual. in the Air, p. 18. 

(b) As to the Growth of Metals, there is great Reafon tp 
fufpe& that alfo, from what Mr. Boyle hath alledged in hia 
Observations about the Growth of Metals : And in his Scept, Chym f 
Part 6. pag. 362. Compare alfo HakenviFs Apol. pag. 164. 

And particularly, as to the Growth of Iron, to the Inftances 
he gives from Pliny, Fallofius, Cafalpinus, and others ; we may 
add, what is well known in the Foreft of Dean in Gloucefier- 
jbire ; That the bed Iron, and moft in Quantity, that is found 
there, is in the old Cinders, which they melt over again. This, 
the Author of the Additions to Ghmcefterjhire, in Cambdens Brit. 
of the laft Edition, p. 245. attributes to the Remiflhefs of the 
former Melters, in not exhaufting the Ore : But in all Proba- 
bility, it is rather to be attributed to the new Impregnations 
of the old Ore, or Cinders, from the Air, or from fome feminal 
Principle, or plaftick Quality in the Ore itfelf. 

(c) As for the Growth of Stone, Mr. Boyle give two Inftan- 
ces. One is that famous Place in France, called Les Caws* 

Goutteres : 

64 Of the Strata of Book III. 

Earth laft fpoken of, all of a prodigious Ufe to 
Mankind : Some being of great Ufe tor Building; 
fome ferving for Ornament; fome furnifhing us 
with commodious Machines, and Tool? to pre- 
pare our Food, and for Vcffels and Utenfils, and for 
Multitudes of other Ufes ; fome ferving for Firing 
to drefs our Food, and to guard us againft the In- 
fults of Cold and Weather ; fome being of great 
Ufe in Phyfick, in Exchange and Commerce, in 
manuring and fertilizing our Lands, in dying and 
colouring, and ten thoufand other Conveniences, 
too many to be particularly fpoken of: Only 
there is one grand Ufe of one of thefe Strata, or 


Goutieres ; Wbtrt the Water falling from the upper Parts of the 
Cave to the Ground doth prefently there condenfe into little Stoma f 
of fuck Figure as the Drops, falling either federally, or upon one 
another, and coagulating prefently into Stones, chance to exhibit \ 
Nid. Scept. Chym. p. 360. 

Such like Caves as thefe I have my felf met with in Eng- 
land ; particularly on the very Top of BredonHill in Wor- 
ksfterjhire near the Precipice, facing Perjhore, in or near the 
eld Fortrefs, called Bembjbury-Camp ; I faw fome Years ago 
fuch a Cave, which (if I m if- remember not) was lined with 
thofe StalacJical Stones on the Top and Sides. On the Top 
they hung like Icicles great and fmall, and many lay on the 
Ground. They feemed manifeftly to be made by an Exfoda- 
tion, or Exfoliation of fome petrifying Juices out of the 
rocky Earth there. On the Spot, I thought it might be from 
the Rains foaking through, and carrying with it Impregnations 
from the Stone, the Hill being there all rocky. Hard by the 
Cave is one or more vaft Stones, which (if I miftake not) 
are incruflated with this Sparry, StalacJical Subftance, if not 
wholly made of it. But it is fo many Years ago fince I was 
at the Place, and not being able to find my Notes about it, I 
cannot fay whether the whole Stone is (in all Probability) 
Spar (as I think it is,) or whether I found it only cafed over 
with it, notwithstanding I was very nice in examining it then,' 
and have now fome of the Fragments by me, confuting, among 
Other mining Parts, of fome tranfparent angular Ones. 
• The other Inftance of Mr. Boyle, is from Linfchoten, who 
faith, that in the Eafi- Indies, when they 'have cleared the Dia- 
mond. Mines of all the Diamonds, In a few Tears Time they 
Jf»d/x the fame Place new Diamonds produced. Boyle ibid. 

(d\ It 

Chap. II. the Earth. 65 

Beds, that cannot eafily be omitted, and that is, 
thofe fubterraneous Strata of Sand, Gravel, and 
laxer Earth that admit of, and facilitate the Paflage 
of the fweet Waters (</), and may probably be the 
Colanders whereby they are fweetened, and then at 
the fame Time alfo convey'd to all Parts of the Ha- 
bitable World, not only through the Temperate and 
Torrid Zones, but even the fartheft Regions of the 
Frozen Poles. 

That thefc Strata are the principal PaJJages of the 
fweet Fountain- Waters, is, I think, not to be doubt- 
ed, confidering that in them the Waters are well 
known to pafs, and in them the Springs are found 
by thofe that feek for them : I fay, the principal 
Paflages, becaufe there are other fubterraneous Guts 
and Channels, Fiffures and Paflages, thro* which many 
Times the Waters make their Way. 

Now that which in a particular Manner doth feem 
to me to manifeft a fpecial Providence of God in 


(<0 It it not only agreeable to Reafon, bat I am told by 
Perfons converfant in digging of Wells throughout this Coun- 
ty of Effex y where I live, that the fureft Beds in which they 
find Water, are Grave/, and a coarfe, dark coloured Satut\ 
which Beds feldom fail to yield Plenty of fweet Water : But 
for Clay, they never find Water therein, if it be a ftrong, 
ftiff Clay ; but if it be lax and fandy, fo me times Springs are 
found in it ; yet fo weak, that they will fcarcely ferve the Ufet 
of the fmalleft Family. And fometimes they meet with thofe 
Beds lying next, under a loofe, black Mould, (which, by 
their Defcription, I judged to be a fort of oazy, or to have 
the Refemblance of an ancient, rufhy Ground,) and in that 
Cafe the Water is always naught, and (links. And laftly. 
Another fort of Bed they find in Effex, in the Clayie-Lands, 
particularly that part cailed the Rollings, which yields Plenty 
of fweet Water, and that is a Bed of white Earth, as tho* 
made of Chalk and white Sand. This they find, after they 
hav* dug thro' forty, or more Feet of Clay j and it is fo 
tender and moid, that it will not lie upon the Spade, but they 
are forced to throw it* into their Bucket with their Hands, or 
with Bowls ; but when it comes up into the Air,, it foon be- 
comes an hard white Stone. 

66 Of the Strata of Book III. 

the repofiting thefe watery Beds is, that they fhould 
be difperfed all the World over, into all Countries, 
and almoft all Trafts of Land : That they fhould 
fo entirely, or for the moft Part, confift of lax, in- 
cohering Earth, and be fo feldom blended with other 
impervious Moulds, or if they are fo, it is common- 
ly but accidentally; and that they are interpofcd 
between the other impervious BedJ, and fo are as a 
Prop and Pillar to guard them off, and to prevent 
their finking in and (hutting up the Paffages of the 

The Time when thofe Strata were laid, was doubt- 
lefs at the Creation, when God /aid (Gen. i. 9.) Let 
the Wattrs under the Heaven be gathered together unto 
oye Place, and let the dry Land appear \ or elfe at the 
Deluge, if,, with fome fagacious Naturalifts^ . we 
fuppofe the Globe of Earth to have been difiplvec^ 
by the Flood (e). At that Time (whatever it vras) 
t*f hen the Terraqueous Globe was in a Chaoticlg 
State, and the earthy Particles fubfided, then thofe 
feveral Beds were, in all Probability, repofited in the 
Earth, in that commodious Order in which they now 
are found -, and that, as is afferted, according to the 
Laws (/) of Gravity, 

Thus much for the Variety of Beds wherein the Waters are 
found. That it is in thefe Beds only or chiefly the Springs 
run, is farther manifeft from the forcible Eruption of the. 
Waters fometimes out of thofe watery Beds. Of which fee 
Cfrap. ±. Note [&). This Eruption fhews that the Waters, 
come, from fome Eminence or other, lying at a Diftance, and. 
being clofcly pent up within the ivatery Stratum, by the Clayie 
Strata, the Waters with force mount up, when the Strata- 
afyove are opened. s 

(*) Fide Dr. IFa.odzuarfs Effiy, Part 2. Stino's Prodr. fc?*., 
(/) Id ib.p. 28, and 74. But Dr. Leigh, in his Naf. Hi/lory' 
of Laneajhire % (peaking of the Coal-Pits, denies the Strata 
to lie according to the Liws of Gravitation, faying, the Strata 
ate a Bed of marle % afterwards Free-Stone, next bon-Stone* 
then Coal, or Kennel- Mine, then fome, other Strata, and 
again Coal, &c% 


Chap. III. the Earth. 67 

But upon a ftrifter Enquiry into the Matter, finding I had 
Tcafon to fufpeft that few, if any, actually had tried the Ex- 
periment, I was minded to bring the Thing to the Teft of 
Experiment, myfelf ; and having an Opportunity, on April 1 1 . 
1 71 2. I caufed divers Placet to be bored, laying the fe vera! 
Strata by themfelves ; which afterwards I weighed with all 
Striclnefs, firft in Air, then in Water, taking Care that no Air- 
bubbles, &c. might obftruft the Accuracy of the Experiment. 
The Reful t was, that in my Yard, the Strata were gradually 
fpecifically heavier and heavier, the lower and lower they 
went ; and the upper, which was Clay, was confiderably fpe- 
cifically lighter than the lower Stratum j which was firft a . 
loofe Sand, then a Gravel. In which Stratum principally the 
Springs run that fupply my Well. 

But in my Fields, where three Places were bored, (to nor 
great Depth) I found below the upper (fuperficial Stratum) 
a deep Bed> of Sand only, which was of different Colours and 
Confidence, which I weighed as before, together with the 
Virgin-Mould ; but they were all of the fame, or nearly the 
fame fpecifick Gravity, both out of the fame Hole, and out 
ef different Holes, altho' the Sand was at laft fo gravelly, that 
it hinder'd our boring any deeper. 

Upon this, fearing left fome Error might be in the former 
Experiments, I try'd them over again ; and that with the fame 

After this I made feme Experiments in fome deep Chalk- 
Pits, with the Flints, Chalk, &*. above and below i but the 
Soccefs was not fo uniform as before. 

Acquainting our juftly Renowned Royal Society with thefe 
Experiments, they ordered their Operator to experiment the 
Strata of a Coal-Pit ; the Suceeft whereof may be feen in 
PbiUf. Tranf. N° 336. 


Of the Subterraneous Caverns, and the Vulcano'sl 

I Shall take Notice of the fubterraneous Caverns, 
Grotto's and Vulcano's, becaufe they are made 
an Objection (a) againft rjie prefent Contrivance and 


(a) Nemo dixcrit t err am pulchriorem ejje quod cavemofa fiet % 
fmd debt/cat in mult is locit, quid difrupta eanjeis & J}t*tiii warn* 

F 2 ln\ 

68 tfbe Caverns andVulcano's. Book III. 

Structure of the Globe. But, if well confidered, 
they will be found to be wife Contrivances of the 
Creator, ferving to great Ufes of the Globe, and 
Ends of God's Government. Befides many fecret, 
grand Functions and Operations of Nature in the 
Bowels of the Earth, that in all Probability thefe 
Things may minifter unto, they are of great Ufe to 
the Countries where they are \b). To Inftance in 
the very worft of the Things named, viz. the 
Vulcano's and ignivomous Mountains; although 
they are fome of the moft terrible Shocks of the 
Globe, and dreadful Scourges of the finful Inhabi- 
tants thereof, and may ferve them as Emblems, and 
Prefages of Hell itfelf ; yet even thefe have their 
great Ufes too, being as Spiracles or Tunnels (r) to 
the Countries where they are, to vent the Fire and 
Vapours that would make difmal Havock, and of- 
tentimes adtually do fo, by dreadful Succuffionsand 
Convulfions of the Earth. Nay, if the Hypothefis 
of a central Fire and Waters be true, thefe Out- 

bus : ii/que nulla ordine difpofetis, nulla forma : nee qua aliud 
contineant quam tenebras & fordes ; uude graves & peflifera txba* 
lationes, terra mo tus, &c. Burnet ubi i'upra, c. 7. 

(b) The Zircbnitxer Sea in Garneola, is of great Ufe to the 
Inhabitants of that Country, by affording them Fifh, Fowls, 
> Fodder, Seeds, Deer, Swine, and other Beaits, Carriage for 
their Qonds, fcfr. Vide PbiL Tranf. K° 191, £?r. or Lrwtb. 
Ahridg. Vol. 2. p. 306, &c. where you have put together in 
one View, what isdifperfed in* divers of the Tranfaclions. 
This Sea or Lake proceeds Trom fome fub terraneous Grotto, 
or Lake, as is made highly probable by Mr. Vafoafir % Ibid, 
' The Grotto Podpetjcbio may be another fnitance, that the 
very fubterraneous Lakes may be of Ufe, even to the Inha- 
bitants of the Surface above : Of which fee Loiutb. ubi 

fup. ^..317. Stufmius aifo may be confuhed here in his Phikf. 
EcleS. Exerqt. 11. de Terra mot. particularly in Chap. 3. fome. 
of the rno^ eminent Specus's are enumerated, and fome of 
their Ufes; " 
^{c). QreJ>& fpecvj ..[remedium] Jtrjcbent. Pracouceptum tuiw- 

fpiritum- exbalant : quod in cert is notalur oppidis, qua minus 
aWativntur, erebris ad eluvitm funiculi* cavata. Plin. HiiL 

Nat. I z, c, 82. . - 



Ch ap. III. The Caverns, and Fulcano's. 6 9 

lets feem to be of greeted Ufe to the Peace and 
Quiet of the Terraqueous Globe, in venting the 
iubterrapeous Heat and Vapours; which, if pent up, 
would make dreadful and dangerous Commotions of 
the Earth and Waters. 

It may be then accounted as a fpecial Favour of 
the divine Providence, as is obferved by the Author 
before praifed (J), " That there are fcarcely any 
" Countries, that are much annoyed with Earth- 
<c quakes, that have not one of thefe fiery Vents. 
44 And thefe (faith he) are conftantly all in Flames 
44 whenever any Earthquake happens, they difgor- 
" ging that Fire, which whilft underneath, was the 
u Caufe of the Difafter. Indeed, (faith he,) were 
" it not for thefe Diverticula^ whereby it thus gain- 
44 eth an Exit, 'twould rage in the Bowels of the 
44 Earth much more furiouQy, and make greater 
41 Havock than now it doth. So that, tho* thofe 
44 Countries, where there are fuch Vulcano's, are 
44 ufually more or lefs troubled with Earthquakes ; 
44 yet, were thefe Vulcano* s wanting, they would be 
44 much more annoyed with them than now they 
41 are ; yea, in all Probability to that Degree, as to 
44 render the Earth, for a vaft Space around them* 
€| perfe&ly uninhabitable. In one Word, (faith he) 
44 lb beneficial are thefe to the Territories where 
c< they are, that there do not want Inftances of fome 
€i which have been refcued, and wholly delivered 
" from Earthquakes by the breaking forth of a new 
" Vulcano there ; this continually difcharging that 
4C Matter, which being till then barricaded up, and 
" imprifoned in the Bowels of the Earth, was the 
44 Occafion of very great and frequent Calamities." 
Thus far that ingenious Author. 

{</) Woodward 's Hflay, Par. 3. Confea. 13. 

F 3 CHK^, 

[70 3 


Of the Mountains and Valleys. 

TH E laft Thing I (hall take Notice of relating to 
the Earth, (hall be the Hills and Valleys. Thefe 
the eloquent Tbearift owns to " contain fomewhat 
" auguft and (lately in the beholding of them, that 
" infpireth the Mind with great Thoughts and Paf- 
4C lions, that we naturally on fuch Occafions think 

V of God and his Greatnefs." But then, at the 
feme Time, he faith, " The Hills are the greateft 
" Examples of Ruin and Confufion ; that they hzvc 
" neither Form nor Beauty, nor Shape, nor Order, 
• c any more than the Clouds in the Air ; that they 

V confift not of any Proportion of Parts* referable 
" to any Defigm, nor have the lead Fcotfteps of 
" Art or Counlel.". Confequently one grand Part 
of this lower Creation, even the whole prefent Face 
of our Terraqueous Globe, according to this. inge- 
nious Author, is a Work of mere Chance, a Structure 
in which, the Creator did npt concern himfelf. 

Part of this Charge I have already briefly anfwered, 
and my Survey now leads me to fhew, that the Moun- 
tains are fo far from being a Blunder of Chance, a 
Work without Defign, that they area noble, ufeful, 
yea, a neceflary Part of our Globe (a). 


(a) T&o y there are feme that think Mountains to be a De- 
formity to the Earth* 5cc. jet if well confident, they will he 
fdund as much to conduce to the Beauty and Convtmency of the 
Uni<verfe 9 as any of the other Parts, Nature (faith Piiuj) fur- 
fofely framed them for many excellent Ufes ; partly to tame the 
Violence of greater Rivers* to- firengthen. certain Joints within- 
the Veins and Bowels of the Earth, to break the Force of the 
Sea's Inundation, and for the Safety of the Earth's Inhabitants, 
nvhether Beafts or Men. That they make much for the Pro* 
teStion of Beafts, the Pfalmift teftifies, The higheft Kills arc a 
■Refuge for the wild Goats, and the Rocks /or Conies. The 


Chap. IV. The Mountains, &c.' 71 

And in the firft Place, as to the Bufinefs of Or- 
nament, Beauty, and Pleafure, I may appeal to all 
Men's Senfes, whether the grateful Variety of Hills 
and Dales, be not more pleafmg then the largeft 
continued Planes. Let thofe who make it their Bu- 
finefs to vifit the Globe, to divert their Sight with 
the various Profpe&s of the Earth -, let thefe, I fay, 
judge whether the far diftant Parts of the Earth 
would be fo well worth vifiting, if the Earth was 
every where of an even, level, globous Surface, or 
one large Plane of many 1000 Miles ; and not ra- 
ther, as now it is, whether it be not far more plea- 
fing to the Eye* to view from the Tops of the 
Mountains the fubjacent Vales and Streams, and 
the far diftant Hills; and again from the Vales to 
behold the furrounding Mountains. The elegant 
Strains and lofty Flights, both of the antient and 
modern Poets on thefe Occafions, are Teftimonies 
oftheSehfe of Mankind on this Configuration, of 
the Earth. 

But be the Cafe as it will as to Beauty, which is 
the leaft valuable Confederation, we fhall find as to 
Convenience* this Configuration of the Earth far the 
moft Commodious on feverai Accounts. 

1. As it is the moft falubrious, of great Ufe to 
the Prefervation or Reftoration of the Health of 
Man. Some Conftitutions are indeed of fo happy 
a Strength, and fo confirmed an Health, as to be 


Kingly Prophet bad likewife learnt the Safety of thofe by bis own 
Experience, when be alfo nJbdsfain to make a Mountain bis Refuge 
front the Fujy of bis Mafter Saul, who profecuted him in the Wil- 
dernefs. True indeed, fucb Places as thefe keep their Neighbours 
poor, as being moft barren, but yet they preferve themfafe, as being 
moft flrongi witne/s our Unconfuered Wales and Scotland. 
Wherefore a good Author doth rightly call them Nature's Bulwarks, 
caft up at God Almighty's" Charges, the Scorns and Curbs of 
vic7orious Armies; which made the Barbarians in Curtius, fo 
confident of their- own' Safety, &c. Biftiop Wilkinf% World in 
the Moon, p. 114. 

F 4 Vft^f* 

72 Tie Mountains Book III. 

indifferent to almoft any Place or Temperature of 
the Air : But then others are fo weakly and feeble, 
as not to be able to bear one, but can live comfort- 
ably in another Place. With fome, the finer and 
more fubtile Air of the Hills doth beft agree, who 
are languilhing and dying in the feculent and groffer 
Air of great Towns, or even the warmer, and vapo- 
rous Air of the Valleys and Waters : But contrary- 
wife others languifh on the Hills, and grow lufty 
and ftrong in the warmer Air of the Valleys. 

So that this Opportunity of fhifting our Abode 
from the warmer and more vaporous Air of the Val- 
leys, to the colder and more fubtile Air of the Hills, 
or from the Hills to the Vales, is an admirable Eafe- 
menr, Refrefhment, and great Benefit to the vale- 
tudinarian, feeble Part of Mankind, affording thofc 
an eafy and comfortable Life, who would otherwife 
live miferably, languifh, and pine away. 

2. To this falutary Conformation of the Earth, 
we may add another great Convenience of the Hills, 
and that is in affording commodious Places for Ha- 
bitation : " Serving (as an eminent Author {b) 
wordeth it) Ci as Skreens to keep off the cold and 
" nipping Blafts of the Northerly and Eafterly 
" Winds, and reflefting the benign and cherifhing 
" Sun~Beams, and fo rendering our Habitations 
u both more comfortable and more chearly in 
<c Winter •, and promoting, the Growth of Herbs 
" and Fruit- Trees, and the Maturation of the 
■* Fruits in Summer. 

3. Another Benefit of the Hills is, that they fcrve 
for the Production of great Varieties of Herbs and 
Trees (c). And as there was not a better Judge of 


{b) Ray'j 1/Pifdorn of God, Uc. /. 251. Ditfolution of the 

1) Vmpbraflus having reckoned op the Trees thtt delight 
till the Hills, and others in the Valleys, obferveth, "A«w~ 

Chap. IV. and Valleys. 73 

thofe Matters, fo I cannot give & better Account 
of this Convenience, than in the Words of the laft 
cited famous Author, the late mod eminent and 
learned Mr. Ray (</), (who hath fo fully difcufled 
this Subjedt I am upon, that it is fcarce poflible to 
tread out of his Steps therein.) His Obfervation is, 
" That the Mountains do especially abound with 
" different Species of Vegetables, becaufe of the 
" great Diverfity of Soils that are found there, eve- 
" ry Vertex, or Eminence almoft, affording new 
" Kinds. Now thefe Plants (faith he,) ferve partly 
" for the Food and Suftenance of fuch Animals as 
" are proper to the Mountains, partly for medicinal 
" Ufes ; the chief Phyfick, Herbs and Roots, and 
" the beft in their Kinds growing there : It being 
" remarkable, that the greateft and moft luxurious 
" Species in moft Genera of Plants are natives of the 
" Mountains. 

4. Another Convenience which my laft named 
learned Friend obferves (e) is, u That the Moun- 
u tains ferve for the Harbour, Entertainment, and 
" Maintenance of various Animals, Birds, Beafts 
u and Infedti, that breed, feed, and frequent there. 
" For, (faith he,) the higheft Tops and Pikes of 
" the Alpes themfelves are not deftitute of their In- 
" habitants, the Ibex or Stein-buck, the Rubicapra 
4< or Chamois \ among Quadrupeds ; the Lagepus a- 
" mong Birds- And I my feif (faith he) have, pb- 
" ferved beautiful Papilio*s^ and Store of other In- 
" fcd& upon the Tops of fome of the Alpine Moun- 
" tains. Nay, the higheft Ridges of many of thefe 

" Moun- 

Ta ^i oca Xoir« rZ* o^ur xat runt wtHw 9 pti£v /xw kol) irattAv ry o\J. e i 
ra it to*V fri^ioK yUirai' k^iittw ~2t ryrt XZ**' 1 T " v i^Jian Kx * tv* 
*ap*w, rd o§iw». Tbeofb. Hift. PL /. 3. f. 4. *Awa»T« £* » to?; ©i- 
*tioKToir«K *aXXi*> yinrai t xx) f-taXXor \va%au. ■ Ta par yao pfai » 
Ui i$6XpH Hal ixJ&K.— — Ta St 9 r&i ivVKiftTs net) hriXiyq. 16. 
/.4- C. I. 

(J) m/dm of God, p. 25a. 

W Vbijufra. 

(J) ^JUtey 

74 ¥b* Mountains Book III. 

" Mountains, ftrve for the Maintenance of Cat- 
" tie, for the Service of the Inhabitants of the 
" Valley*. 

5. Another Thing he obferves is, <c That thofe 
" long Ridges and Chains of lofty and topping 
" Mountains, which run through whole Continents 
c< Eaft and Weft (f) 9 ferve to (top the Evagation of 
cc the Vapours to the North and South in hot Coun- 
" tries, condenfing them like Aletnbick-Heads into 
Cfc Water, and fo (according to his Opinion) by a 
" kind of external Diftillation giving Original to 
" Springs and Rivers -, and likewife by amafling, 
" cooling and conftipating of them, turn them into 
" Rain, by thofe Means rendring the fervid Regi- 
*' ons of the torrid Zone habitable. 

To thefe might be added fome other Ufes arid 
Conveniences^)* as that the Hills ferve to the 

• Genera- 

(f) Many have taken Notice, that fome of the greatefl E- 
minencies of the World run generally Eaft and Weft, of which, 
take' the fate ingenious and learned Dr. Nichols's Account, 
[Confer. 'With a Thdft, Part 2. p. 191.] To go no farther than 
our onxn Country, alt our great Ridges of Hills iri England run 
Eaft and Weft ; fo do the Alps in Italy, and in fame Meafuri the 
Pyrenees; fo do the Mountains of the Moon in Afrkk, and fa A 
Mount Taurus and Cnucafus. This (he faith) is a woife Com* 
trvvanee to prevent the Vapours, which ivould all run Northwards, 
and leavi m Rains in the Mediterranean Countries. 

(g) That the Generation of many of the Clouds is owing 
to the Hills; appears from the Obfervations of the ingenioni 
and learned Dr. Job. Jam. Scheuchzer of Zurich, and Mr. foach. 
Trid. Creithvius cited by Kim. They obferv'd at Sun-rifiog, 
divers Clouds detacrTd by the Heat of the Sun, from fome of 
the Tops of the Alps, &c. upon ail tfhich th'elf OMeWaTtenT, 
the Conclofion is, Mirati fummam Creator is fapientiam 9 fui & 
id quod paulo ante nulli nobis ufui effe midebatur, niaximis rebus 
deft'tnawerat, adeoqtee ex illo tempore dubitare cccpi, nuns Nubes 
iffent futur<t y fi ijiiufmodi Mantes fcf Petra non darentur. fyf** 
tbtfi bdejlante, elucefceret permagna utilitas, imo neceffitas, quam 
Helviticae Alpes non nobis tantum accolis fed & vicinis aliis region 
nibus prtzflant, difpenfando, quas gignunt Nubes, Ventos, Aquas. 
Schtuch. Iter. Alpin. 2. p. 20. 

W Let 

Chap. IV. and Valleys. 7$ 

Generation of Minerals and Metals (&), and that in 
them principally are the moil ufeful Fofiles found * 
or if not found and generated only in them, yet at 
lead all thefe fubterraneousTreafuresare moft eafily 
come at in them : Alfo their Ufe to feveral Nations 
of the Earth, in being Boundaries and Bulwarks to 
them. But there is only one Ufe more that I (hall 
infill: on ; and that is, 

6. And laftly, That it is to the Hills that the 
Fountains owe their Rife, and the Rivers their Con- 
reyance. As it is not proper, fo neither fhatt I here 
enter into any Difpute about the Origin of Springs, 
Commonly affign'd by curious and learned Philolb- 
phers. But whether their Origin be from condenfed 
Vapours, as fonae chink (*')-, or from Rains falling, 
as others ; or whether they are derived from the Sea 
by way of Attraction, Percolation, or Diftillation ; 
or whether all thefe Carries concur, or only fome, 
ftilt the Hills are the grand Agent in this prodigi- 
ous Benefit to all the Earth : Thofe vaft Mates and 
Ridges of Earth ferving as fo many huge Akmbicks 
or GoJa in this noble Work of Nature. 
. But be the Modus, or the Method Nature takes in 
this great Work as it will, it is fufficicnt to my Pur* 
pofe, that the Hills are a grand Agent in this fo no- 
ble and neceffary a Work : And confequently, that 
thofe vaft Maffcs, and lofty Piles, are not, as they are 
charged, fuch rude and ufelefs Excrefcences of our 
Hl-formed Globe -, but the admirable Tools of Na- 

[b) Let us take here OL Mag. Obfervation of his Northern 
Mountains ; Mentis exceifi funt, fed pro majm parte fieri Its, & 
mridi ; in quibus fete nil aliud fro incolarum commoditate tf con- 
Jgrmntiom gignitur, qnam inexbaufla pretioforum Metallorum uber- 
tas % qua jatu opulently fertilefque funt in omnibus *vit<e necejfariis. 
forfitOH ($ fuperfluis aliunde fe libet conquirendis, unammique ro- 
bpre, ae virions, ubi mis contra bac nature dona intentata J'uerit, 
defendendis. Acre enim genus bominum eji % &c. Ol. Mag. Hill. 1. 6. 
Prsef. Sec alfo Sir Robert Sibbatfs Prodr. Nat. Hill. Scot. p. 47. 

(i) See Book I, Cbaf. 3. Note (*). 

3 \k\ Mon " 

j 6 T&e Mountains » Book III. 

ture, contrived and ordered by the infinite Creator, 
to do one of its moft ufeful Works, and to difpenfe 
this great Blefiing to all Parts of the Earth ; without 
which neither Animals could live, nor Vegetables 
fcarcely grow, nor perhaps Minerals, Metals, or Fof- 
files receive any Increafe. For was the Surface of 
the Earth even and level, and the middle Parts of 
its Iflands and Continents, not mountainous and 
high (as now it is) it is moft certain there could be 
no Ddcent for the Rivers, no Conveyance for the 
Waters v but inftead of gliding along thofe gentle 
Declivities which the higher Lands now afford them 
quite down to the Sea, they would ftagnate, and 
perhaps ftink, and alio drown large Tra&s of Land. 
But indeed , without Hills, as there could be no 
Rivers, fo neither could there be any Fountains, or 
Springs about the Earth ; becaufe, if we could fup- 
pofe a Land could be well watered (which I think 
not poffible) without the higher Lands, the Waters 
could find no Defcent, no Paflage through any com- 
modious Out-lets, by Virtue of their own Gravity ; 
and therefore could not break out into thofe com-, 
modious Paflages and Currents, which we every 
where almoft find in, or near the Hills, and feldom^ 
or never, in large and fpacious Plains ; and when we 
do find them in them, it is generally at great and 
inconvenient Depths of the Earth ; nay, thofe very 
fubterraneous Waters, that are any where met with 
by digging in thefe Plains, are in all Probability qw- 
in? to the Hills, either near or far diftant : As among 
other Inftances may be made out,-from the forcible Ir- 
ruption of the fubterraneous Waters in digging Wells, 
in the Lower Aufiria^ and the Territories of Modena y 
and Bologna in Italy ^ mentioned by my fore-named lear- 
ned Friend Mr. Ray (k). Or if there be any fuch Place 


(l) Monfifur BlundeJ, related to the Parifian Academy, <wbmt 
DrvUe tb* Inhabitants of tbt Lower Auflria, ('which it tnctm- 

Chap. IV. and Vallep. yy 

found throughout the Earth, that is devoid of 
Mountains, and yet well watered, as perhaps fome 
fmall Iflands may ; yet in this very Cafe, that whole 
Mafs of Land is no other than as one Mountain de- 
fending (though unperceivedly) gently down from 
the Mid-land Parts to the Sea, as moft other Lands 
do ; as is rfiariifeft from the Defcent of their Rivers, 
the Principal of which in moft Countries have ge- 
nerally their Rife in the more lofty Midland 

And now confidering what hath been faid con- 
cerning this laft Ufe of the Hills, there are two or 
three Afts of the Divine Providence obfervable 
therein. One is* that all Countries throughout the 
whole World, Ihould enjoy this great Benefit of 
Mountains, placed here and there, at due and pro- 
per Diftances, to afford thefe feveral Nations this 
excellent and moft neceflary Element the Waters. 


faffed with the Mountains of Stiria) are wont to ufe to fill their 
Wells with Water. They dig in the . Earth to the Depth of 15 and 
20 Feet 9 till they come to an Argilla [clammy Earth] ■ w hich 
they bore through fo deep, till the Waters break forcibly out ; which 
Water, it is probable, comes from the neighbouring Mountains in fnb- 
tirraneous Channels. And Caffinus obferued, That in many Pla- 
ces of the Territory of Modena and Bologna in Italy, they make 
thmfchxs Wells by the like Artifice, &c. By this Means the fame 
Scig. Caffini made a Fountain at the Caftle of Urbin, that taft 
up the Water 5 Foot high above the Level of the Ground. Ray's 
Difc pag. 40. ubi plura. 

; Upon Enquiry of fome fkilful Workmen, whofe Bufinefs it 
is to dig Wells, &V. whether they had ever met with the like 
Cafe, as thefe in this Note ; they told me they had met with 
it in EJfex, where after they had dug to 50 Feet Depth, the 
Man in the Well obferved the clayie Bottom to fvvell and be- 
gin to fend out Water, and (lamping with his Foot to flop the 
Water, he made Way for fo fudden and forcible a Flux of 
Water, that before he could get into his Bucket, he was above 
his Wafte in Water ; which foon afcended to 1 7 Feet height, 
and there flayed : And although they often, with great La- 
bour endeavoured to empty the Well, in order to ftnifh their 
Work, yet they could never do it, bat were forced to leave it 
as it was. 

j 8 The Mountains Book III. 

For, according to Nature's Tendency, when the 
Earth and Waters were feparated, and order'd to 
their feveral Places, the Earth muft have been of an 
even Surface, or nearly fo. The feveral component 
Parts of the Earth tpuft have fubfided according to 
their feveral fpecifick Gravities, and at laft have 
ended in a large, even fpherical Surface, every where 
equidiftant from the Centre of the Globe. But that 
inftead of this Form, fo incommodious for the Con- 
veyance of the Waters, it fliould be jetted out every 
where into Hills and Dales, fo neceffary for that 
Furpofe, is a majrifeft Sign of an efpecial Providence 
of the wife Creator. 

So another plain Sign of the fame efpecial Provi- 
dence of God, in this Matter, is, that generally 
throughout the whole World, the Earth is fo dil- 
pos'd, fo order'd, fo well-laid ; I may fay, that the 
Mid-land Parts, or Parts fartheft from the Sea, are 
commonly the higheft : Which is manifeft, I have 
&id, from the Delcent of the Rivers. Now this is 
3n admirable Provifion the wife Creator hath made 
for the commodious Paflages of the Rivers, and for 
draining the feveral Countries, and carrying off the 
fqperfluous Waters from the whole Earth, which 
would be as great an Annoyance, as now they are a 

Another providential Benefit of the Hills fupply- 
ing the Earth with Water, is, that they are not only. 
inftrumental thereby, to the Fertility of the Valleys, 
but to their own alfo (/) ; to the Verdure of the 
Vegetables without, and to the Increment and Vi- 
gour of the Treafures within them. * 


(/) As the Hills being higher, are naturally difpofed to be 
drier than the Valleys; fo kind Nature hath provided the 
reater Supplies of Moifture for them, fuch at lcaft of them a* 
OOt afcend above the Clouds and Vapours. For, befides the 
ntains continually watering them, they have more Dews 


?hap. IV. and Valleys. 79 

Thus haying vindicated the prefent Form and Fa- 
trick of the Earth, as diftributed into Mountains 
.nd Valleys, and thereby {hewn in fome Meafurc 
he Ufe thereof, particularly of the Mountains, 
vhich are chiefly found Fault with : I have, I hope, 
nade it in fome Meafure evident, that God was no 
die Spe&ator (w), nor unconcerned in the ordering 
if the Terraqueous Globe, as the former bold Char- 
ges againft it do infer ; that he did not fuffer fo 
gr^nd a Work, as the Earth, to go unfinifh'd out of 
his Almighty Hand ; or leave it to be ordered by 
Chance, by natural Gravity, by cafual Earthquakes, 
ISc. but that the noble Strokes, and plain Remains 
of Wifdom and Power therein, do manifeft it to be 
his Work. That particularly the Hills and Vales, 
tjiough to a peevifti weary Traveller, they may feem 
incommodious and troublefome; yet are a noble 
Work of the great Creator, and wifely appointed 
by him for the Good of our fublunary World. 

And fo for all the other Parts of the Terraqueous 
Globe, that are prefumed to be found Fault with by 
fome, as if carelefly order'd, and made without any 
Defign or End ; particularly the Diftribution of the 


and Rains commonly than the Valleys. They are more fre- 
quently covered with Fogs ; and by retarding, flopping, or 
compreffing the Clouds, or by their greater Colds condenfing 
them, they have larger Quantities of Rain fall upon them. 
As I have found by actual Experience, in comparing my Obfer- 
vations with thofe of my late very curious and ingenious Cor- 
refpondent, Richard Towntey, Efq. of Lancajbire, and fome 
others, to be met with before, Chap. 2. Note (a). From which 
it appears, that above double the Quantity of Rain falleth in 
Lanca/bire, than doth at Vpminfter : The Reafon of which is, 
becaufe Lancajbire hath more, and much higher Hills than 
J5#*hath. SecBmEII. Chap. 5. ^Note (e). 

(m) Accufandi fane mea fententia hie font Sopbifi*, qui cum 
smdum iwvenire, neque exponere opera Nature queant, earn tame* 

inertia at que infeitid condemnant, &c. Galen, de Uf. Part I. 

i 10. c. 9. 

80 The Mountains Book III.* 

dry Land and Waters ; the laying the feveral Strata, 
or Beds of Earth, Stone, and other Layers before 
Jpoken of; the Creation of noxious Animals, and 
poifonous Subftances, the boifterous Winds ; the 
Vulcano's, and many other Things which fome are 
angry with, and will pretend to amend : I have be- 
fore fhewn, that an infinitely wife Providence, an 
Almighty Hand was concerned even in them ; that 
they all have their admirable Ends and Ufes, and are 
highly instrumental and beneficial to the Being, or 
Well-being of this our Globe, or to the Creatures 
refiding thereon. 

So alfo for human Bodies, it hath been an ancient 
(ft), as well as modern Complaint, that our Bodies 
are not as big as thofe of other Animals ; that we. 
cannot run as fwift as Deer, fly like Birds, and that 
we are out-done by many Creatures in the Accuracy 
of the Senfes, with more to the fame Purpofe. But 
thefe Objections are well anfwered by Seneca (o) % and 
will receive a fuller Solution from what I (hall ob- 
ferve of Animal Bodies hereafter. 

But indeed, after all, it is only for want of our 
knowing thefe Things better, that we do not 


(n) Vide quam iniquifent d'winorum munerum aftimatorts etiam 
quidam projejji fapientiam. £>ueruntur quod non magnitudine cor- 
poris aquemus Elepbantes % <velocitatc Cer-vos, levitate Aves % imfetu 
Tauros -, quod folidior Jit cutis Belluis, decentior Damis, denjior 
Urjss, mollior Fibris ; quod fa^acitate nos narium Canes vincant, 
quod acie luminum Aquil<r y fpatio detatis Corvi, mull* Animalia 
nandi facilitate. Et cum qua dam fie coire quidem in idem Natura 
patiatur, ut njelocitatem corporis & vires pares animalibus babes- 
mus ; ex diverfis £ff dijjidentibus bonis Hominem non ejfe compofi- 
turn, injuriam vocant ; & in neglhentes nojlri Deos querimmuam 

jaciunt, quod non bona vafttudo, & ntitiis inexpugnabilis dais 

Jit, quod non futuri fcientia. Vix Jibi temper ant quin eoujqut 
impudent i* prc<vebantur y ut Naturam oderint, quod infra Uet) 

fumus y quod non in *quo Mis Jtetimus. Seneca de Benef. lib. 2. 

cap. 29. 

(0) Quanto fatius eji ad contemplationem tot tantorumqut be- 

Mtficiorum rtverti % & agere gratias, quod nos in hoc pukherti- 

' mo 


Chap. IV. The Conclufion. Si 

admire (p) them enough ; it is our own Ignorance, 
Dulnefs, or Prejudice, that makes us charge thofe 
noble Works of the Almighty, as Defedts or Blun- 
ders, as ill-contrived, or ill-made. 

It is therefore fitter for fuch finite, weak, igno- 
rant Beings as we, to be humble and meek, and 
confeious of our Ignorance, and jealous of our own 
Judgment, when it thus confronteth infinite Wif- 
dom. Let us remember how few Things we know, 
how many we err about, and how many we are 
ignorant of : And thofe, many of them, the mod: 
familiar, obvious Things : Things that we fee and 
handle at Pleafure ; yea, our own very Bodies, and 
that very Part of us whereby we underftand at all, 
our Soul. And fhould we therefore pretend to cen- 
fure what God doth ! Should we pretend to amend 
his Work ! Or to advife infinite Wifdom ! Or to 
know the Ends and Purpofes of his infinite Will, as 
if we were of his Council! No, let us bear in Mind, 
that thefe Objeftions are the Produdls, not of Rea- 
fon, but of Peevilhnefs. They have been incom- 
moded by Storms and Tempefts ; they have been 
terrify'd with the burning Mountains, and Earth- 
quakes ; they have been annoy'd by the noxious 
Animals, and fatigued by the Hills •, and therefore 
are angry, and will pretend to amend thefe Works 
of the Almighty. But in the Words of St. Paul (q), 
we may fay, Nay, but Man, who art thou that 


m domicilio voluerunt [Dii] fecundos/ortiri, quod terrenis prafe* 
cerunt. Then having reckoned up many of the Privileges 
and Benefits, which the Gods, he faith, have conferred upon 
us, he concludes, Jta eft : carijftmos nos hahuerunt Dii immor- 
tales, babentque. Et qui maximus tribui honos potuit, ab ipfit 
pr$ximos collocavcrunt. Magna accepimus, majora mn ccpimus* 
Senec. ibid. 

(p) Naturam maxim} admiraberis, Ji omnia ejus opera per/u- 
ftraris. Galen, de Uf. Part. Lit. conclaf. 

{q) Rom. ix. 20,21. 

G \f\ Neither 

8 2 The Conclufion. Book III. 

replicft againfi God? Shall the Thing formed fay to 
him that formed it, Why baft thou made me thus f 
Hath not the Potter power over the Clay, of the fame 
Lump, to make one Vefjel to Honour, and another to 
Dijhonour ? If the Almighty Lord of the World had, 
for his own Pleafure, made this our World more in- 
convenient for Man, it would better become us to 
fit (till, and be quiet •, to lament our own grearfo- 
firmities and Failings, which deferve a woiie Place, 
a more incommodious Habitation, than we meet 
with in this elegant, this well contrived, well formed 
World •, in which we find every Thing neceflary 
for the Suftentation, Ufe, and Pleafure, both of 
Man, and every other Creature here below 5 as well 
as fohie Whips, fome Rods to fcourge us for our 
Sins (r). But yet fo admirably well tempered is 
our State, fuch an Accord, fuch an Harmony is 
there throughout the Creation, that if we will but 
purfue the Ways of Piety and Virtue, which God 
hath appointed 5 if we will form our Lives accord- 
ing to the Creator's Laws, we may efcape the Evils 
of this our frail State, and find fufficient Means to 
make us happy whilft we are in the Body. The 
natural Force and Tendency of our Virtue, will 


(r) Neither are they [noxious Creatures] of left Ufe to amend 
our Minds ; by teaching us Care and Diligence, and more Wit, And 
fo much the more, the nuorfe the Things are *we fee, and Jboul& 
4tvoid. Weezel's, Kites, and other mifchievous Animals, endue* 
us to a Watchfulnefs : Thirties and Moles to good Husbandry ; 
Lice oblige us to Cleanlintfs in our Bodies ; Spiders in our Houfes ; 
and the Moth in our Clothes, The Deformity and Klthinefs if 
Swine, make them the Beauty-Spot of the Animal -Creation, and 

the Emblems of all Vice -The Truth is, Things are hurtful 

to us only by Accident ; that is, not of Neceffity, but through our 
awn Negligence or Miftake. Houfes decay, Corn is blajled, and 
the Weexel breeds in Malt, fooneft towards the South, Be it Jo, 
it is then our own Fault, if ive ufe not the Means which Nature 
and Art have provided againfi thefe Inconveniences. Grew 1 / 
Cofmol. Ch. 2. Sett. 49, 50. 

Chap. IV. < Tbe Conclufwn. 83 

prevent many of the Harms (j), and the watchful 
Providence of our Almighty Benefa&or, will be a 
Guard againft others ; and then nothing is wanting 
to make us happy, as long as we are in this World, 
there being abundantly enough to entertain the 
Minds of the mod Contemplative * Glories enough 
to pleafc the Eye of the moft Curious and Inquifi- 
^th«"5 "Harmonies and Conforts of Nature's own, as 
well as Man's making, fufficient to delight the Ear 
of the moft Harmonious and Mufical ; all forts of 
pleafant Gufto's to gratify the Tafte and Appetite, 
even of die moft Luxurious 5 and fragrant Odours 
to pleafe the niceft and tendered Smell : And, in a 
word, enough to make us love and delight in this 
World, rather too much, than too little, confider- 
ing how nearly we are ally'd to another World, as 
well as this. 

(j) Non eft gemendus, nee gravi urgendus nice, 
Vhrtnte quifquis alfiutit fatis iter. 

Senec. Hercul. Oet. Aft. 5. Car. i8$> 
Nuuquam Stjgias fertur ad umbras 
Inclyta virtus, Id. Ibid. Car. 1982. 


[ *4 ] • 

-»- A A A •- A. A A. A •- A. A A A A A. ■♦■ A. A. A + A + A. A A A A A. A « » t t AAAAA * A, 

B O O K IV. 

Of Animals in General. " w 

| N the laft Book, having furvey'd the 
Earth itfelf in Particular, I {hall next 
take a View of the Inhabitants thereof; 

or the feveral Kinds of Creatures (a), 

that havetheir Habitation, Growth, or Subfiftence 

Thefe Creatures are either Senfitive, or Infenfitive 

In fpeaking of thofe endow'd with Senfe, I fhall 
confider : 

I. Some Things common to them all. 

II. Things peculiar to their Tribes. 

1. The Things in common, which I intend to 
take Notice of, are thefe Ten : 

i. The five Senfes, and their Organs. 

2. The great Inftrument of Vitality, Refpiration. 

3. The Motion, or Loco-motive Faculty of A- 

4. The 

(a) Principio caelum, ac terras, t'ampofque liquentes, 
Lucent em que globum Luna, Titaniaque afira 
Spiritus intus alit, totamque infufa per artus 
Mens agitat violent, fcf magna fe corpon mifcet. 
Inde bominum, pecudumque genus, <vit*que *volantum 9 
Et qua marmoreo fert monfirafub aquore pontus, < 

Igneus eft Wis vigor, (ft cctleflis origo * 


Virg. iEncid. L. 6. Carm. 724; 

Chap. I. Survey of Animals 85 

4. The Place, in which they live and aft, 

5. The Balance of their Numbers. 

6. Their Food. 

7. Their Chatting. 

8. Their Houfes, Nefts or Habitations. 

9. Their Methods of Self- Prefervat ion. 

10. Their Generation and Confervation of their 
Sppcies by that Means. 


Of the Five Senfes in General. 

flp HE firft Thing to be confider'd, in common 
1 to all the Senfitive Creatures, is, their Faculty 
ciSeeing, Hearing, Smelling, Tufting, and Feelitjg ; 
and the Organs miniftri'ng to thefe five Senfes, toge- 
ther with the exaft Accommodation of thofe Senfes, 
and their Organs, to the State and Make of every 
Tribe of Animals (a). The Confideration of which 
Particulars alone, were there no other Demonftra- 
tions of God, is abundantly fufficient to evince the 
infinite Wifdom, Power and Goodnefs, of the great 
Creator, For, who can but ftand amazed at the 
Glories of thefe Works ! At the admirable Artifice 
of them ! And at their noble Ufe and Performances! 
For fuppofe an Animal, as fuch, had Breath and 
Life, and could move itfelf hither and thither ; 
yet how could it know whither to go, what it was 
about, where to find its Food, how to avoid thou- 


{a ) Ex fenfibus ante cetera Homini Tatius, deindt Guftatus : 
ttliquis fuferatur a mult is, Aquiltt clarius cernunt : Vultures 
Jagacius oiorantur, liquidius audiunt Talp<£ abruta terra, torn 
denfo a!qu furfe. natura element o. Plin. Nat. Hi ft. 1. ip. c. 69. 

G J \$\ SuVr 

86 Senfes of Animals. Book IV. 

fands of Dangers (b) without Sight ! How could 
Man, particularly, view the Glories of the Heavens, 
furvey the Beauties of the Fields, and enjoy the 
Pleafure of beholding the noble Variety of diverting 
Obje&s, that do, above us in the Heavens, and here 
in this lower World, prefent themfelves to our View i 
every where ; how enjoy this, I fay, without that J 
admirable Senfe of Sight (c) ! How could aHbslhfi** 
Animal, without Smell and Tafte y diftinguifhitsFood, 
and difcern between wholfome and unwholfotne; 
befides the Pleafures of delightful Odours, and re- 
lifhing Gufto's ! How, without that other Senfe of 
Hearing, could it difcern many Dangers that are at 
a Diftance, underftand the Mind of others, per- 
ceive the harmonious Sounds of Mufick, and be 
delighted with the Melodies of the winged Choir, 
and all the reft of the Harmonies the Creator hath 
provided for the Delight and Pleafure of his Crea- 
tures ! And laftly, How could Man, or any other 
Creature,diftinguifh Pleafure from Pain,Health from 
Sicknefs, and confequently be able to keep their 
Body found and entire, without the Senfe of peeling ! 
Here, therefore, we have a glorious OEconomy ia 
every Animal, that commandeth Admiration, and. 
deferveth our Contemplation : As will better appear 
by coming to Particulars, and diftinftly confiderins 
the Provifion which the Creator hath made for eachi 
of thefe Senfes. 

(£) Subjactnt Oculi % pars corporis pretiofijjima, fcf qui lucis u/st 
vitam diftinguant a morte. Phn. Nat. Hilt. 1 1 1. C 37. 

(e) Teeming aliqme Megarenfes folis oculis difcernere <vakl**t 
inter Q*ua qua ex Gallina nigra, & qua ex alba nata funt, w 
is what is affirmed (how truly I know not) by Grimald. h J^ 
Lumin, &f Color. Pr. 43. Se&. 6a 



[«7 1 


Of the Eye. 

tOR dur clearer Proceeding in the Confideratiop 
-of this noble Part {a\ and underftanding ife 
conomy, I (hall confider : 
i. The Form of the Eye. 
2. Its Situation in the Body. 
£• Its Motions. 

4. Its Size. 

5. Its Number. 

6. Its Parts. 

7. The Guard and Security Nature hath provided 
for this fo ufeful a Part. 

As this eminent Part hath not been pretermitted 
>y Authors, that have made it their particular De- 
ign and Bufinefs to fpeak of the Works of God ; 
b divers of the aforefaid Particulars have been 
ouched upon by them. And therefore I fhall take 
n as little as poffible of what they have faid, and 
16 near as I can, mention chiefly what they have 
>mitted. And, 

1. For 

(a) In Dij/e&ienibvs anatomicis vix aliquid admirahilius, out 
xrtificiofius firuffurd Oculi huwani, meo quidem judicio, occurrit : 
tt vterito, per excellentiam, Creatoris appelletur Miraculum. Gal. 
?abr. Hildan. Cent. 2. Obferv. 1. 

80 likewife that accurate Surveyor of the Eye, Dr. Sriggt M 
vhofe Ophthalmography I have met with fince my penning . tjiis 
?art of my Survey. His Character of this curious Piece of 
Sod's Work is, Inter pracipuas corporis auimati partes, qua magnf 
Zonditorii npftri fap'tentiam oftendunt, nulla fane reperitur, qua? 
najori potnpd elucet quam ipfe Q cuius, aut qua elegantiort formd 
oncinnatur. Deum enim alia partes <vd minor i fat ellitio fiipautur % 
ml in tantarn venufldtem hand affurgunt ; Ocelli peeuliarem hono- 
-em & decus a Jupremo Numine tfflatum referunt % £sf nunqnam 
wu ftupend* fuse Fotenti* cbara&eres repraj enfant. Nulla fani 
iars tarn divino artificio tff or dine, &V. Cap. 1. Sect. 1. 

G4 v^w. 

88 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

i. For the Form of the Eye; which is for the 
moft part Globous, or fomewhat of the fphaeroidal 
Form, which is far the more commodious optical 
Form, as being fitted to contain the Humours with- 
in, and to receive the Images of Obje&s from with- 
out (£). Was it a Cube, or of any multangular Form, 
fome of its Parts would lie too far off (*), and 
fome too nigh thofe lenticular Humours, which by v 
their Refraftions caufe Vifion. But by means of the 
Form before-mentioned, the Humours of the Eye are 
commodioufly laid together, to perform their Office 
of Refra&ion ; and the Retina^ and every other Part 
of that little darken'd Cell, is neatly adapted regu- 
larly to receive the Images from without, and to con- 
vey them accordingly to the common Senfory in the 
Brain. To 

(b) It is a good Reafon Friar Bacon affigns for the Sphaeri- 
city of the Rye : Namf ejfet plana ftgura, fptcies ret mnjoris 
ocuio non pojet cadere perpendicular iter fuper eum Cmm ergm 
O cuius *videt magna corpora, ut fere quartern cceli un§ aj}eelm 9 
manifeflum eft, quod non poteft effe plana figura, nee alicujus uifi 
fpharica, quoniam fuper fpharam parvam poffunt cadere perpen- 
dicular es infinita, qua a magno corpore weniunt, & tendmnt in 
centrum Spbara : Etjtc magnum corpus poteft ab oculo par<u9 'aider i. 
For the Demonftration of which he hath given us a Figure. 
Rog. Bacon. PerfpecJ. Diftincl. 4. Cap. 4. 

Dr. Briggs faith, Pars antica, (Jive Cornea,) con<vexior eft 
fofticd : hdc enim ratione radii melius in pupillam detorquentur, 
& Oculi fundus ex altera parte in major em (propter imagines re- 
rum ibidem delineandos) expanditur. Ibid. Sedt 2. 

{c) Suppofe the Eye had the Retina, or back part, flat for 
the Reception of the Images, as in Fig. 1. ABA : it is mani- 
feft, that if the Extremes of the Image A A were at a due focal 
Diftance, the middle B would be too nigh the Cryftalline, 
and confequently appear confufed and dim; but all Parts of 
the Retina lying at a due focal Diftance from the Cryftalline, 
as at ACA, therefore the Image painted thereon is feen diftinft 
and clear. Thus in a dark Room, with a Lens at a Hole in 
the Window, (which Sturmius calls his Artificial Eye, in his 
Exercitat. Acad, one of which he had made for his Pupils, to 
run any where on Wheels): In this Room, 1 fay, if the Paper 
that receives the Images be too nigh, or too far off the Lens, j 
the Image will be confufed and dim ; but in the Focus of the j 
GJaft, diftinft, clear, and a pleafant Sight. > 

(</) &*»• 1 

Chap. II. Of the Eye. 89 

To this we may add the Aptitude of this Figure 
to the Motion of the Eye, for it is neceffary for 
the Eye to move this way, and that way, in order 
to adjuft itfelf to the Objefts it would view ; fo by 
this Figure it is well prepared for fuch Motions, fo 
that it can with great Facility and Dexterity dired 
itfelf as Occafion requires. 
.. And as the Figure, fo no lefs commodious is, 

2. The Situation of the Eye ; namely, in the 
Head (</), the mod eredl, eminent Part of the 
Body, near the moft fenfible, vital Part, the Brain. 
By its Eminence in the Body, it m prepaid to take 
in the more (e) Obje&s. And by its Situation in 
the Head, befides its Proximity to the Brain, it is 
in the moft convenient Place for Defence and Secu- 
rity. In the Hands, it might indeed (in Man J be 
rendered more eminent than the Head, and be turn- 
ed about here and there at Pleafure : But then it 
would be expofed to many Injuries in that a&ive 
Part, and the Hands (/) render'd a lefs a&ive and 
ufeful Part. And the like may be faid to its Sight, 
in any other Part of the Body, but where if is. 
But in the Head, both of Man, and other Ani- 
mals, it is placed in a Part that feiems to be contri- 
ved and made, chiefly for the Adtion of the princi- 
pal Senfes. 

Another Thing obfervable in the Sight of the 
Eye, is the Manner of its Situation in the Head, in 


(d) Blemmyis traduntur capita abejje. Ore & Oculis feQort 
affixts. Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 5. c. 8. Occident em versus quo/dam 
fine fer*vice Oculos in bumeris babentes. lb. /. 7. c. 2. From 
tbefe, and other fiich like Fables, in this laft cited Chapter 
of Pfiny, no doubt our famous Romancer Sir J. Mandevile^ 
had his Romantick Stories related in his Travels. 

(#) See Book V. Cbetp. 2. Note (e). 

(f) Galen defer ves to be here consulted, who in his Book 
De JJfu Partium, from many Considerations of the Hand, fuch 
as what is here mentioned, as alfo its Structure, Site and Ufe, 
largely proves and reflects upon the Wifdom and Providence 
of the Contriver and Maker of that Part 

to ^ 

90 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

the Fore-part, or Side-part thereof, according to the 
particular Occafions of particular Animals. In Man, 
and fome other Creatures, it is placed to look di- 
rectly forward chiefly ; but withal it is fo order'd, as 
to take in near the Hemifphcre before it. In Birds, 
and fome other Creatures, the Byes are fo fcated, 
as to take in near a whole Sphere, thq£ they may 
the better feck their Food, and eicape Dangers, A^ 
in fome Creatures they are feated fo as to fee beft 
behind them (g) 9 or on each Side, whereby they are 
enabled to fee their Enemy that purfues them that 
Way, and fo make their Efcape. 

Aqd for the Afliftance of the Eyes, and fome of 
the other Senfes in their A&ions, the Head is gene* 
rally taade to turn here and there, and move as Oc- 
cafion requires. Which leads me to the 

3. Thing to be remarked upon, the Motion* of 
the Eye itfdtf. And this is generally upwards, down- 
wards, backwards, forwards, and every Way (b) 9 
for the better, more eafy, and diftindt Reception of 
the vifual Rays. 

But where Nature any way deviateth from this 
Method, either by denying Motion to the Eyes, or 
the Head (/), it is a very wonderful Provifion flie 


(g) Thus in Hares and Conies, their Eyes are very protu- 
berant, and placed fo much towards the Sides of their Head, 
that their two Eyes take in nearly a whole Sphere : Whereas 
in Dogs (that purfue them) the Eyes are fet more forward in 
the Head, to look that Way more than backward. 

(h) SedluhricosOculos fecit [Natura] & mobiles* ut & deck- 
nartnt Jtquid noceret ; & afpeclum, quo vellent, facile comt/erte* 
rent. Cicer. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 57. ^ r 

(i ) The Eyes of Spiders, (in fome four, in fome fix, and in 
fome eight) are placed all in the Fore-front of their Head, 
{which is round* and without any Neck) ail diaphanous and 
trartfparent, like a Locket of 'Diamonds, Sec. neither wonder why 
Providence Jhould he fo anomalous in this Animal, more than in 
any other we know of For, 1 . Since they wanting a Neck, 
cannot move their Head, it Is re qui fete that Deje& Jhould h$ 


Chap. II. Of the Uye. $i 

hath made in the Cafe. Thus for a Remedy of 
this Inconvenience, in fomc Creatures their Eyes 
are fet out at a Diftance (k) from the Head, to be 
circumvolved here and there 5 or, one this, the other 
that Way, at Pleafure. And in Creatures, whofe 
Eyes are without Motion, as in divers Infeits *, in 
this Cafe, cither they have more than two Eyes, or 
their Eyes are nearly two protuberant Hemifpheres, 
and each Hemifphere often confiding of a prodigi- 
ous Number of other little Segments of a Sphere (/). 
By which Means thofe Creatures are fo far from be- 
ing deny'd any Benefit of that noble and moft ne- 
ceflary Senfe of Sight, that they have probably 


fupplied by the Multiplicity of Eyts. 2. Since they were to live hy 
catching fo nimble a Prey as a Fly is, they ought to fee her every 
Way, and to take her per faltum (as they do) without any Mo- 
tion of the Head to dif cover her : Which Motion would have feared 
awayfo timorous an Infecl. PowerV Microf. Obfcrv. p. 1 1 . 

The Eyes of the Cameleon refemble a Lens, or Convex-Glaft 9 
fet in a v erf at He globular Socket, which fie turneth backward, or 
any way, without moving her Head ; and ordinarily the one a con- 
trary, or quite different way from the other. Dr. Goddard in Phil. 
Tranf. N° 137. 

But what is more extraordinary in this Motion [of the Came- 
Icon's Eye] is to fee-one of the Eyes move, whilfl the other remain* 
immoveable ; and the one to turn forward, at the fame Time that 
the. other looktth behind-, the one to look up to the Sky, when tbe 
other is fixed on the Ground. And thefe Motions to be fo extreme, 
that they do carry the Pupilla under the Crefi which makes the 
Eye -brow, and fo far into the Canthi, or Corners of the Eyes, that 
the Sight can difcern whatever is done juft behind it, and direcllf 
before, without turning the Head, which isfaftened to the Shoul- 
ders* Mem. for a Nat Hill, in Anatom. DifTeft. at PariC DHL 
of -Qunel. pag. 22. 

. ' (J) Snails lend out their Eyes at a Diftance, they being con- 
tained in their four Horns, like atramentous Spots, fitted to tbe 
End of their Horns, or rather to the Ends of thofe black Filaments 
or Optick Nerves, which are Jheathed in her Horns, at Dr. Tower 
nvordcth it. Qhfi 31. pag. 36. So the ingenious Dr. Ufler r 
Exercit, Anat. Cochl. fcf Limac. 
" (/) Fid. /. 8. c. 3. Note (a). 

gz Of the Eye. Book IV. 

more of it than other Creatures, anfwerable to the 
Rapidity of their Flight, and brifk Motion ; and to 
their Inquefts after Food, Habitation, or Repofito- 
ries of Generation, or fuch other Neceffity of the 

4. Another admirable Provifion in the Eye, is, its 
Size; in fome Animals large, in fome little. It 
would be endlefs here to enumerate ParticulaJsj aj 
thofe of Quadrupeds, Birds, In feds, and other terre- 
strial Animals. And as for Fifties, they will fall un- 
der another Part of my Survey. 

I fhall therefore only take Notice of its Size in 
one Creature, the Mole (m). As the Habitation of 


(m) Severinus is of Ariftotlf*, Plinfs, and Alb. Magamfs 
Opinion, that the Mole hath no Sight ; <?. Seger denies any 
Humour to be therein, but thinks they may probably fee, be- 
caufe Nature made nothing in vain. But Borricbius faith, their 
Eyes have appendicular* nerwam in cerebrum euntem, cujus bene- 
fcio- globuli Mi [the little Eyes] extra pell em facile poteraut cx- 
jfirt, retrahique pro arbitrio In Mis oculorutn globulis bumor* 
aqueus copiose fatis natabat ; caterorum nan nifi tenue wfiigiunu 
Blaf.Anat. Anim. c. 3 c. 

Et quantum Natura hoc vita? genus ipfi deftinavit, etiam per* 
fuam exiguos Oculo s dedit eo concilio, ut ii, pretiofij/tm* 

corp$ris pars, a terra? pufoere ne affligerentur. It infuper pilis 
teBiy &V. Humores iflis ocu/is infunt, & tunica nigra, uvea, Je 
prodit. Ad has traptite alio nertnts venit. Schneider in BlaC 

Some time fince I made divers accurate Diflections of the 
Eyes of Moles, with the Help of Microfcopes, having a doubt 
whether what we take to be Eyes, were fuch or no. And 
apon a ftricl Scrutiny I plainly could diftinguifh the Vitreous 
and Cryfiattine Humours, yea, the Ligamentum Ciliare, am) 
the attramentaceous Mucus. The Pupil I could manifeftly 
difcern to be round, and the Cornea copped, or conical : 
The Eye is at a great fiiftance from the Brain, the Optick 
Nerve very (lender and long, reaching from the Eye through 
the intermediate Flew, and fo pafleth to the Brain, along 
with the pair of Nerves reaching to the Nofe, which are 
much the largeft that are in all the Animal. Thefe Crea* 
tares, I imagine, have the Faculty of withdrawing their Eyes, 

3 if 

Chap. II. Of the Eye. 9$ 

that uncouth Animal is wholly fubterraneous, its 
Lodging* its Food, its Exercifes, nay, even ail its 
Paftimes and Pleafures, are in thofe fubterraneous 
Recefles and Paffages, which its own Induftry hath 
made for itfelf ; fo ,it is an admirable Provifion 
made in the Size of the Eye that little Creature, 
to anfwer all its Occafions, and at the fame Time 
to prevent Inconveniences. For as a little Light 
will fuffice an Animal living always under Ground ; 
fo the fmalleft Eye will abundantly fupply that Oc- 
cafion. And as a large protuberant Eye, like that 
of other Animals, would much annoy this Creature 
In its principal Bufinefs, of digging for its Food 
and Paflage ; fo it is endowed with a very fmall 
one, commodioufly feated in the Head, and well 
fenced and guarded againft the Annoyances of the 

5. Another Thing remarkable in this noble Part 
of Animals, is, its Numbers ; no lefs than two (») 
in any Inftance that I know of; and in fome Ani- 
mals more, as I have already hinted (0). 

Now this is an admirable Provifion; firft, for 
the Convenience of taking in the larger Angle, or 
Space : And in the next Place, the Animal is by 
this Provifion, in fome Meafure, prepared for the 


if not quite into the Head, [as Snails) yet more or lefs with- 
in the Hair, as they have more or lefs Occafion to ufe or 
guard their Eyes. 

Galtn faith, Moles have Eyes, the Cbryflaliine and Vitreous 
Humours, encom patted with tunicks. De Uf. Part. I. 14. c. 6. 
So accurate an Anatomift was he for his Time. 
'■ (») Pliny tells us, of a Sort of Heron with but one Eye, 
but it was only by Hear- fay. Inter Aves Ardeolarum genere, 
fuos Leucos vocant, altero oculo carere tradunt, Nat. Hift. 1. 1 1 . 
c 37. So the King of the Nigr* that hath but one Eye, and 
that in his Forehead. /. 6. c. 30. Which Fables I take No- 
tice of more for the Reader's Diversion, than any Truth in 

(#) Supra, Note (/'). 

94 Qf the Eye. Book IV. 

Misfortune of the Lofs of one of thefe noble, and 
neceflary Organs of its Body. 

But then befides all this, there is another Thing 
confiderable in this raukiplicate Number of the 
Eye ; and that is, that the Objed feen is not mul- 
tiplied as well as the Organ, and appears but one, 
though feen with two or more Eyes (p). \ mani- 

{p\ The moft celebrated Anatomtfts differ greatly about the 
Reaibn, why we fee not double with two Eyes. This GaJtn, 
and others after him, generally thought to be from a Coali- 
tion or Decuflation of the Optick Nerves, behind the Os 
Spbenndes. But whether they decuflate, coalcfce, or only 
touch one another, they do not well agree. The BartbUma 
exprefly aflert, they are united, Nonper fimplicem contaclum <uel 
interfe8ionem in bomine, fed totalem fubftanti* ccnfufionem. 
Anat. 1. 3. c 2. And whereas Vefaliu$ % and fome others, had 
found fome Inftances of their being disunited ; they fay, Sid 
in pleri/que ordinarie conjknditur interior fubfiantia, ut accuratd 
difqmfitione deprebendu 

But our Learned Dr. Gib/on, [Anat. /. 3. c. 10.) faith, they 
art united by tbe clofefi Conjunfiion, but not Confufion of tbeir 

But others think the Reafon is not from any Coalescence, 
Contact, or eroding of the Optick Nerves, but from a Sym- 
pathy between them. ' Thus Monfieur Cartes is of Opinion, 
That the Fibrillar, conftituting the medullary Part of thofe 
Nerves, being fpread in the Retina of each Eye, have each 
of them correfponding Parts in the Brain ; fo that when any 
of thofe Fibrillar arc ftruck by any Part of an J mage, the cor- 
refponding Parts of the*Brainare thereby affecled, and the 
Soul thereby informed, &c. But fee more hereafter under 
Note (oo) s from Cartes himfelf. 

Somewhat like this is the Notion of our judicious Dr. 
Briggs, who thinks the Optick Nerves of each Eye, confift of 
Homologous Fibres, having their Rife in the Thalamus Nervo- 
rum Opticorum, and thence continued to both the Retina, 
which are made of them : And farther, that thofe Fibrilla 
have the fame Parallelifm, Tenfion, &c. in both Eyes ; and 
confequently, when an Image is painted on the fame corre- 
fponding, fympathizing Parts of each Retina y the fame Ef- 
fects are produced, the fame Notice or Information is car- 
ried to the Thalamus, and fo imparted to the Soul, or judg- 
ing Faculty. That there is fuch an 'OpoMcftux between the 
3> Retina 

Chap, II. Of the Eye. 9 5 

nifeft Sign of the infinite Skill of the Contriver of 
this fo noble a Part, and of the exquifite Art he 
employed in the Formation thereof. But the Defiga 
and Skill of the infinite Workman, will beft be tet 
forth by, 

6. Surveying the Parts and Mechanifm of this ad- 
mirable Organ, the Eye. And here indeed we can- 
iiot but ftand amazed, when we view its admira- 
ble Fabrick, and confider the prodigious Exadtnefs, 
and the exquifite Skill employed in every Part mi- 
niftring to this noble and neceffary Senfe. To pafs 
by its Arteries and Veins, and fuch other Parts 
common to the reft of the Body, let us call our 
Eye on its Mufcles. Thefe we fhall find exa&ly and 
neatly placed for every Motion of the Eye. Let us 
view its Tunicks, and thefe we (hall find fo admira- 
bly feated, fo well adapted, and of fo firm a Tex- 
ture, as to fit every Place, to anfwer every Occa- 
fion, and to be Proof againft all common Inconve- 

Retin<r, Sec. he makes very probable, from the enfuing of doa- 
ble Vifion upon the Interruption of the Parallelifm of the 
Eyes ; as when one Eye is deprefled with the Finger, or their 
Symphony interrupted by Difeafe, Drunkennefs, &c. And 
laftly, That fimple Vifion is not made in the former Way, viz. 
by a Decufiation or Conjunction of the Optick Nerves, he 
proves, becaufe thofe Nerves are but in few Subjects decuffat- 
ed, and in none conjoined otherwife^ than by a bare Contact, 
which is particularly manifeft in Fifties ; and in fome Inflances 
it hath been found, that they have been feparated without 
any double Vifion enfuing thereupon. Vide Brig. Ophthalmogr. 
cap. 11. £^5. and Nov. Vif. Theor. Pajfim. 

What the Opinion of our juftly eminent Sir 1/aac Newton 
is, may be (een in his Optic ks, Qu. 1 5. Are not the Species of Ob* 
jeSs feen with both Eyes, united where the Optick Nerves meet be* 
fore they come into the Brain, the Fibrei on the right Side of both 
Nerves uniting there, &c. For the Optick Nerves of fuch Animals 
as look the fame Way with both Eyet, [as of Men, Dogs, Sheep, 
Oxen, Sec.) meet before they come into the Brain ; but the Optick 
Nerves of fuch Animals as do not look the fame Way with both 
Eyes, [as of Fijhes, and of the Cameleon) do not meet, if I am 
rightly informed, Newt. OpU Q^IS- 

$6 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

Inconveniences and Annoyances. Let us examine 
its three Humours^ and thefe we fhall find all of ex- 
quifite Clearnefs and Transparency, for an eafy Ad- 
miffion of the Rays ; wen placed for the refrafting 
* of them, and formed (particularly the Gyjlalline 
Humour) by the niceft Laws of Opticks, to col- 
lect the wandring Rays into a Point. And to name 
no more, let us look into its darkned Cell, where 
fhofe curious Humours lie, and into which the Glo- 
ries of the Heavens and the Earth are brought, and 
exquifitely pictured ; and this Cell we (hall find, 
without, well prepared by Means of its Texture, 
Aperture, and Colour, to fence off all the ufelefs 
or noxious Rays ; and within, as well coated with 
a dark Tegument, that it may not refleft, difii- 
pate, or any way confufe or difturb the beneficial 
Kays (q). 

But to defcend to Particulars, although it would 
be a great Demonftration of the Glory of God, yet 
it would take up too much Time, and hath been in 
fome Meafure done by others that have written of 
God's Works. Paffingover therefore what they have 
obferved, I (hall under each principal Part take a 
tranfient Notice of fome Things they have omitted, 
or but (lightly fpoken of. 

And my firft Remark fhall be concerning the 
Mufcles of the Eye and their Equilibration. No- 
thing can be more manifeftly an Aft of Contrivance 
and Defign, than the Mufcles of the Eye, admira- 
bly adapted to move it any, and every way \ up- 
wards, downwards, to this Side or that, or how- 


(?) Nigra eft [Uvea] ut radios (ab Oculi fundo ad anteriorem 
ejus partem reflexos) obumbret ; ne hi (ut ait c/ar. Cartefius) ai 
Oculi fundum retorti ibidem confufam vifionem efficerent. AUafw* 
fan ratio bujus nigredinis ftatuatur, quod radii in *vifane fuperflui, 
fui ab objects iateralibus prweniunt hoc ritu abforbeantur. ha 
enim * loco obfeuro interdiu objeela optime intuemur, qui radii 
tunc temporis circumfufo hmine nm diluuntur. Brigg's Ophth&L 
Ch. 5. Se&. 5. 

Vj\ Aim- 

Chap. II. Of the Eye. 97 

focver we pleafe, or there is Occafion for, fo as to 
always keep that Parallelifm of the Eye, which is 
neceffary to true Vifion. For the Performance of 
which Service, the Form, the Pofition, and the 
due Strength of each Miifcle is admirable. And 
here I might inftance the peculiar and artificial 
Stru6fcure of the Trocblearis, and the Augmentation 
of its Power by the Trochlea (r); the Magnitude 
and Strength of the Atiolknt Mufcle, fomewhat ex- 
ceeding that of its Antagonift ; the peculiar Mufcle, 
called the Seventh^ or Sufpenfory Mufcle (j), given 
Co Brutes, by reafon of the prone Pofture of their 


(r) Admirandum Dei artificium ex di*verforum animalium com- 
paratione indies evadit manifejlius. Mirantur omnes Trochlearem 
mm oculis Hominum & Quadrupedum, & quidem jure : fed admi- 
ration cm omnem fuperat, quod fine Trochlea oculum movens in A*vi- 
Jm$ novum genus Trochlea longe artificiofius Niflitandi Membrane 
Jederit. BJaf. Anat. Animal, p. 2. c. 4. ex Stenon. 

[Mufculum Trochlearem] per intermedium trochleam tra- 
tfuflum, nunquam intueor, quin admirabundus mecum. "O ®eU, 
mxelamem % cv (aqvov tltl yevpeTp?, «M* xa) cLii fir)%atxrai. I. C 
Sturmii Exercit. Acad. 9. de Vif Org, fcf Rat. c. 3. feSl. 4. 
p. 446. 

(/) Obfermare eft quod Quadtupedes, qui oculos in t err am pro- 
wns, ac pendulos gerunt, Mufculum peculiar em habent, quo Oculi 
globus fufpenditur — Hoc Mufculo, Bes, Equus, 0>vis, Lepus, Porcus, 
bfc. praditi funt : hoc etiam Canis inflruitur, fed alio modo con- 
formatum habet. Willis de An. Brut. p. 1. c. 15. 

Of this Opinion alfo was Bar tboline, Anat. /. 3. c. 8. and 
divers other eminent Anatomifts. 

Bat Dr. Briggs is of Opinion that the Adnata, and the other 
tyufcles fufliciently anfwer all thofe Ends afcribed to that 
Mufcle by former Anatomifts, and thinks Probabilius itaque 
mffe hunc Mufculum newi Optici actionem (per vices) confirmare, 
me a prono Brutorum inceffu £sf copiofo ajfluxu humorum debilitetur. 
Ophthal. c. 2. feci. z. 

The Mufculus Sufpenforius being in the Porpefs, as well as 
Brutes, Dr. Tyfon thinks the Ufe of it is not to fufpend the 
Bulk of the Eye, but rather by its equal Contraction of the 
Sclerotis, to render the Ball of the Eye more or lefs Sphe- 
rical, and fo fitter for Vifion. Tyfon's Anat. of the Porpefs, 

/• 39- 

H tftMtf- 

g 8 Of the Eye* Book IV. 

Bodies, and frequent Occafions to hang down their . 
Heads : And I might fpeak alfo of the peculiar 
Origin and Infertion of the lower Oblique MufcU (/), 
which is very notable, and many other Things re- 
lating to thefe Parts ; but it would be tedious to de- 
fcend too much to thofc admirable Particulars. And 
therefore to clofe up thefe Remarks, all I (hail far* 
Cher take Notice of, (hall be only the exquifite Equi- 
libration of all thefe Oppqfite and Antagonifi Mufcles^, 
affe&ed partly by the Equality of the Strength w 
which is the Cafe of the Adducent and Abducent 
Mufcles \ partly by their peculiar Origin, or tbc^ 
Addition of the Trochlea, which is the Cafe of the^ 
Oblique Mufcles (u) ; and partly by the natural Po — 
fture of the Body, and the Eye, which is the Caf<^ 
of the Attollent and Detriment Mufcles. By this fc^ 
curious and exadt a Libration, not only unfeeml^^ 
Contortions, and incommodious Vagations. of th^s 

(t) Mufculus obliquus inferior oritur a peculiari quodam f& 
r amine in latere Orbitte ocularis faclo, (contra quam in c*t^ 
ris, &c.) quo fit ut ex una parte a Mufculo trochlear: 9 ex «V 
terd 'verb ab hujus Mufculi commodiffima pofitione, O cuius Mi 
aquilibrio quo dam con ft i tutus y irretorto obtutu merfus objeda f£> 
ratur, nee plus jufto accedat <verfus internum externum** cam- 
tbum\ qua quidem Libratio omnino nulla fuifet, abfque bnjus 
Mufculi peculiari origination [cujus ratio omnes hucufqut Ams- 
tomicos latuit.) And fo this curious Anatomift goes on to 
flicw farther the ftupendous Artifice of the great Creator fa 
this Pofition of the Oblique Mufcles. Brigg's Nova Vif Their* 
/>. 1 1 . meo libro. 

(u) Befides thofe particular Motions which the Eye rccefos , 
from the Oblique Mufcles, and I may add its Libration alfo in 
forae Meafure, fome Anatomifts afcribe another no left CMt- 
fiderable ufe to them; namely, to lengthen and wortea ike 
Eye (by fqueezing and compreifing it) to make it correfpead 
to the Diftances of all Obje&s, according as they are nigh or 
far off. Thus the ingenious Dr. Keil; The Aqueous Humor 
being the thinneft and ntojl liquid, eafily cbangeth its Figure, when 
either the , Ligamentum Ciliare contrads, or both the Oblique 
Mufcles Jqueeze the Middle of the Ball of thi Eye, to render k 0*- 
long when Obye&s are too near us. KeilVAnat. Chap. 4. Seg. 
f. See Note {y). 

■ t 


Chap. II. Of the Eye. 99 

Eye arc prevented, but alfo it is able with great 
Readinefs and Exa&nefs to apply itfelf to every 

As to the Munich of the Eye, many Things 
might be taken notice of, the prodigious Finenefs 
of the AracbnoideS) the acute Senfe of the Relina 9 
the delicate Tranfparency of the Cornea (w\ and 
the firm and ftrong Texture of that and the Sclerotica 
too ; and each of them, in thefe and every other 
refpedt, in the moil accurate Manner adapted to the 
Place in which it is, and the Bufinefs it is there to 
perform. But for a Sample, I fhall only take No- 
tice of that Part of the Uvea which makes the 
PupiL It hath been obferved by others, particular- 
ly by our Honourable Founder (*}, That as we 
are forced to ufe various Apertures to our Optick 
Glafles, fo Nature hath made a far more complete 
Provifion in the Eyes of Animals, to (hut out too 
much, and to admit fuflicient Light, by the Dila- 
tation and Contradtion of the Pupil (y). But it de- 
ferveth our efpecial Remark, that thefe Pupils are 
in divers Animals of divers Forms, according to their 


(w) Quis vero opiflx prater Naturam % qua nihil pot eft ejfe 
callidtiit, t ant am Jolertiam perfequi potuiffet in Senjibus ? qua 
primum Ocu fas membranis tenuij/imis tveftwit, £sf Jepiit ; quas 
primam perlucidas fecit, ut per eas cerni pojfet : firmas autem, ut 
cmtinerentur. Cic. deNat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 57. 
(x) Beyle of Final Caufes. 

(y) It is eafy to be obferved, that the Pupil openeth in 
dark Places; as alfo when we look at far diftant Objects, but 
contracts by an Increafe of Light, and when the Objects are 
nigh. This Motion of the Pupil fome fay, is effected by the 
circular and (trait Fibres of the Uvea, and fome attribute it to 
the Ligamentum Qiliare. Yet I have no great doubt but that 
they both concur in that Action, and that the Ligamentum 
Ciliare doch, at the fame Time the Pupil opens or (huts, dilate 
or comprefs the Cryftalline, and bring it nigher unto, or carry 
it farther oft the Retina. For the Structure of the Ligamentum 
Ciliare, and its two Sorts of Fibres, drawn with the Help of a 
Microfcope, I Jhall refer to Mr. Cowpers Anat, T. u. 

H 2 'to In 


■ioo Of the Eye. Book IV. 

peculiar Occafions. In fome (particularly in Man) 
it is round ; that being the moft proper Figure for 
the Pofition of our Eyes, and the Ufe we make of 
them both by Day and Night. In fome other 
Animals it is of a longifti Form ; in fome tranf- 
verfe (z), with its Aperture large, which is an 
admirable Provifion for fuch Creatures to fee the 
better laterally, and thereby avoid Inconveniences, 
as well as help them to gather their Food on the 
Ground, both by Day and Night. In other Ani- 
mals the Fiffure of the Pupil is ered (aa) 9 and alfo 
capable of opening wide, and fliutting up clofe. 
The latter of which ferves to exclude the brighter 
Light of the Day, and the former to take in the 
more faint: Rays of the Night, thereby enabling 
thofe Nofturnai Animals (in whom generally this 
eredt Form of the Pupil is) to catch their Prey 
with the greater Facility in the Dark (bb)> to fee 
upwards and downwards, to climb, &V . Thus much 
for the Tunicks. 


(z) In Bove, Capra, Equo, 0*ve, fcf quibvfdam aliis elliptic* 
eft [Pupilla] ut eo magis in hifce for fan animalibus, qua prom in* 
cejfu <vi3um in agrjs qua r it ant, radios later ales ad mala & incm- 
moda utrinque de<vitanda admit tat. Briggs'sOphthal. c. 7. fe£t6. 

Homini eretto, aliifque, &c. caput erigere, & quafuaverfas 
circumfpicere /otitis, plurima Jlmul objefta, turn fupra turn *infr*t 

turn e latere utroque <vifu excipiuntur ; quapropter Oculi Pupilk 

rotunda effe dibet.-r—Attamen bo e vi 9 &c. caput fere femper pra* 

tium gerentibus % tantumque coram, £ff paulo a latere ob^er/a*' 

tur> intuitu opus eft; quapropter Pupilla- oblonga eft, fcfo 

Willis de Anim. Brut. p. 1. c. 15. 

(aa) Thus Cats (their Pupils being ereft, and the fhuttiog 
of their Eye-lids tranfverfe thereunto) can fo clofe their -Pu- 
pil, as to admit of, as it were, only one fingle Ray of Light) 
and by throwing all open, they can take in all the fainteft 
Rays. Which is an incomparable Provifion for thefe Animals, 
that have occafion to watch and way -lay their Prey both by 
Day and Night. 

(bb) There is befides this large opening of the Pupil, in 
tome Nocturnal Animals, another admirable Provifion, enabling 


2hap. II. Of the Eye. j i 

The next Thing I fhall take Notice of, will re- 
ate to the Humours of the Eye, and that only con- 
:erning the Mechanifm of the Cryftalline Humour ; 
iot its incomparable Tranfparency ; nor its exadt 
enticular Form •, nor its curious araneous Mem- 
vane (cc) 9 that conftringeth and dilateth it, and 


hem to catch their Prey in the Dirk ; and that is a Radiation 
if the Eyes : Of which Dr. Willis thus ; Hujus ufus eft Oculi 
^npillam, quafi jubare fafito, illuminare, ut res noclu, & in te- 
tehris fofitas con/p'cere valeat : quare in Fele plurimum illuftris eft : 
it Hemini, Avibus & Pifcibus deeft. This lllumin ition he fpeaks 
>f f is from the Tapetum, in the Bottom of the Eye, or the fhin- 
og of the Retina, round the Optic Nerve. 

Befides which, he faith, the Iris hath a Faculty alfo, in 
ome, of darting out Rays of Light, fo as to enable them to 
ee in the dark: Of which he tells this Story; Novi quendam 
erebro calidiori praditum, qui foft uberiorem *vini generofi potum 
n no3e at rat a five tenebris profundis, liter as diftinSe legere potuit. 
jujus ratio widetur ejfe, quod fpiritus animales *uelut acceirft, ade- 
qme ab bde Iride irradiantes, jubare infito Medium illuminabant \ 
Wilis ibid. 

Such another Thing, Pliny tells us, ( was reported of Tiberius 
Safari Ferunt Tib. Caf. nee alii genitot urn mortalium, fuiffe na- 
uram, ut expergefadus no flu paulifper, baud alio modo quam luce 
'lard, contueretur omnia. Nat. Hiit. I. n. c. 37. 

So Dr. Briggs ; Virumfane call dee indolis novi in Comitatu Bed- 

fardienfi degentem, qui oculi s felineis donatus eft : adeo ut 

tpiftolam*—mire admodum in loco obfeuro [ubi eadem mibi <vix 
apparuit) perhgit. Hujus verb Oculi (nifi qwd Pupillas inftgnhres 
tbtimtere) ab aleorum formatione neBtiquam difcrepabant. Ophthal. 
C 5. fed*, it. 

{cc) The Tunica Aranea is taken Notice of by Friar Bacon % 
Who calls it. Tela Aranea, and faith, in hdc continetur—— 
glaciate vel Cryftalliitum. Rog. Bacon'j Perfped. DiftincJ. 2. 
c. 3. The wrinkling of this, and the Cornea, (as the Skin is of 
old Perfons) he thinks is the Caufe of the Obfcurity of the 
Sight in fuch Perfons. Bacon ib. par. 2. cap. 2. But this 7"«- 
trici fome deny, and others allow of: Dr. A. Ml ef Trinity- 
College, Dublin, (in his Relat. of Anat. Obfr in the Eyes of 
Animals, in a Letter to Mr. Boyle, Ann. 1682, annexed to his 
Anat. Account of the Elephant burnt in Dublin, p. 57.) affirms, 
the Tunica Aranea, and faith, / have often feen. it before 'twas? 
txfofed to the Air one Minute, notivithftauding what Dr< Brigga 
faith n the contrary, kc. But Dr. Briggs hieOpmioftia, Hu- 
ff 3 *nor 

io2 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

fo varieth its Foots, (if any fuch Variation there be, 
as fome affirm with great Probability,) nor laft- 

mor Cryflallinus, nifi aeri diuttus expofitus, vel linker eoQus 
(inftar laffis) cuticulam non acquirit : qtue vera improprie, Tunica 
Aranea dici'w-, cumfi (ant urn adventitial ut in Ocuio Bovis recent 
exmBo apparent. Brigg's Opt halm. c. 3. 

The Cryfiailint Humour being of a doable SubftaMe, out- 
wardly like a Jelly, towards the Center as confident as hard 
Suet, upon occasion whereof its Figure may be varied ; which 
Variation may be made by the Ligamtntum Ciliare ; Or. Grew 
doth, upon thefe Accounts, not doubt to afcribe to the Liga* 
mtntum Ciliare, a Power of making the Crsfialline more Con- 
vex, as well as of moving it to or from the Retina. See 
Grew' j Cofmolog. Saer. /. 1. e. 4. Now it is certain by the 
Laws of Optics, that (omewhat of this is absolutely necenary 
to diftincl Vifion, inafmuch as the Rays proceeding from nigh 
Objects do more diverge, and thofe from diftant Object* lets: 
Which requires either that the Cry flatting Humour mould be 
made more convex, or more flat ; or elfe an Elongation, er 
fhortening of the Eye, or of the Diliance between the Cryfiallm 
Humour and the Retina. 

But alt ho' Dr. Briggs (fo good a Judge) denies the Tu- 
nica Cryftallina, contrary to the Opinion of moil former Ana- 
toraifts; yet there is great Reafon to conclude he was in a 
Miftake, in my Opinion, from the Obfervations of the Fren<b 
Anatomifls 9 of the Gryftalline of the Eye, of the Gemf or Cha- 
mois, who fay, The Membrana Arachno'iJes was very thick 
and bard, fo that it was eafily feparated from the Cryflallium. 
P. 145. 

The fame Anatomifts alfo favour the Surmife of Dr. Grew, 
This [Contraction of the Fibres of the Ligamtntum Ciliare on 
one fide, and Dilatation on the other] would male us tbutk the! 
thefe Fibres of the Ligamentum Ciliare are capable of ContraBion, 
and voluntary Dilatation, like that of the Fibres of the Mufclts\ 
and that this A3 ion may augment or diminifl? the Convexity of At 
Cryftallinus, according as the Need which the Diflante of the Oh- 
jecls may make it to have on the Eye % to fee more clearly anddiflmS* 
ly. Anat. Defcript. of a Bear, p. 49 

Since my penning the foregoing Notes, having as critically 
as I could, diiTected many Eyes of Birds, Beafts, and Fifes, 
I manifedly found the Membrana Arachnoides, and will an* 
dertake to (hew it any one, with great Eafe and Certainty. 
It is indeed fo tranfparent, as not to be feea diftinct from the 
Crjflailime. But if the Cornea and Uvea be taken off before. 

Chap. II. Of the Eye. 103 

ly, its admirable Approach to or from the Retina t 
by the help of the Ciliar Ligament (dd), according as 


or the vitreous Humour behind it, and the Outfide of the Cry- 
Jtallint be gently cut, the Arachnoides may be feen to open, and 
the Qyftalline will eafily leap out, and part from the Liga- 
mentum Ciliar e ; which otherwife it would not do : For it is 
by the Arachnoides braced to the Ligamentum Ciliar e. This 
Membrane or Tunick, in the Ox, is fo fubftantial and flrong, 
tho' thin, that it yields to, or fink* under the (harpeft Lancet, 
and requires (for fo thim and weak a Membrane in Appearance) 
a ftrong Preffure to pierce it. 

(dd) As Birds and Fifties are in divers Things conformable, 
fo in foxne fort tbey are in their Bye ; to enable it to corre- 
fpond to all the Convergences, and Divergences of the Rays, 
which the Variations of each of the Mediums may produce. 
For this Service the Tunica Cboroeides (in Fifties) hath a muf* 
Cftkus Subliance at the Bottom of it, lying round the Optick 
Nerve, at a fraall Diftance from it ; by which means I ima- 
gine they are able to eontraat, and dilate the Cboroeides, and 
thereby to lengthen and fhorten the Eye : For the helping in 
which Service, I imagine it is that the Cboroeides, and Sclerotica^ 
are in a great meafure parted, that the Cboroeides may have 
the greater Liberty of acting upon the Humours within. 

But in Birds, I have myfelf found, that ahho' the Cbo. 
roeides be parted from the Sclerotica, yet the Cboroeides hath no 
Mufde, but inHead thereof, a curious pectinated Work, feated 
on the Optick Nerve, reprefented in Tig. 2. In which c. a. e. 
b. d. reprefentes the Cboroeides and Sclerotica ; a. b. the Part of 
the Optick Nerve that is within the Eye 5 v. v. v. the vitreous 
Humour ; a.fg. h. the Peften ; h. i. the Cryftalline. For the 
Reception of this PeStn, the Optick Nerve comes farther with- 
in the Eye, than in other Creatures. The Structure of this 
PeSen is very like that of the Ligamentum Ciliare ; and in the 
By* of a Magpye, and fome others, I could perceive it to be 
mufcttlous towards the Bottom. This Peden is fo firmly fixed 
unto, or embodied in the vitreous Humour, that the vitreous 
Humour hangs firmly to it, and is not fo eafily parted from it. 
By which means all the Motions of the Peclen are eafily com- 
municated to the vitreous Humour, and indeed to all contained 
in the Cboroeides. And foraftnuch as the Cryftalline is connected 
to the vitreous Humour; therefore alfo the Alterations in the 
vitreous Humour affect alfo the Cryftalline ; and the Cryftallint 
» hereby brought nearer unto,, or farther from the Retina, as 
Gccafion is. 

H 4 Befide* 

IC4 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

Obje&s arc Far off or near, becaufe thefe Things 
are what are ufually taken notice of ; but that which 
I fliall obferve is, the prodigious Art and Finery 
of its conftituent Parts, it being, according to 
fome late nice Microfcopical Obfervations (ee) 9 com- 

Befides all which Obfervables in the Cboroeides, and inner 
Eye, I have alfo found this farther remarkable in the Sclero- 
tica t and outer part of the Eye of Birds, viz. That the fore- 
part of the Sclerotica is horny and hard, the middle-part thin 
and flexible, and Braces intervene between the fore and hind- 
part, running between the Cboroeides and Sclerotica ; by which 
means the Cornea, and back- part of the Eye, are brought to 
the fame Conformity, that the reft of the Eye hath. 

The great End and Defign of this fingular and carious 
apparatus in the Eyes, both of Birds and Fifties, I take to be, 
i. To enable thofe Creatures to fee at all Diftances, far off/ 
or nigh ; which (efpecially in the Waters) requireth a diffe- 
rent Conformation of the Eye. In Birds alfo, this is of great 
Ufe, to enable them to fee their Food at their Brit's End, or 
to reach the utmoft Diftances their high Flights enable them 
to view ; as to fee over great Tracts of Se,a or Land, whither 
they have Occafion to fly ; or to fee their Food or Prey, even 
fmalf Fifties in the Water:, and Birds, Worms, &c. on the 
Earth, when they (it upon Trees, high Rocks, or are hovering ' 
high in the Air. 2. To enable thole Animals to adapt their 
Eye to all the various Refractions of their Medium. Even 
the Air itfelf varies the Refractions, according as it is rarer 
or denfer, more or lefs compreflfed ; as is manifeft from the 
learned- and ingenious Mr. Lo*wtborp y % Experiment in Pbilof. 
Tranf. N° 257. and fome other Experiments fince of the 
before- commended Mr. Hanukjbee, both in natural, rarify'd, 
and compreffed Air ; in each of which, the Refractions con- 
ftantly varied in exact Proportion to the Rarity or Denftty of 
the Air. Fide Hawk/bee's Exp. p. 175, cifr, 

Befides this Conformity in general, between the Eyes of 
Birds and Fifties, Du Hamel tells us of a fingular Conformity 
in the Cormorant's Eye, and that is, that the Cryfialttm is 
globous, as in Fifties, to enable it to fee and purfue its Prey 
unde;- Water: Which J, Faber, in Mr. Willoughby % faith, 
they do with wonderful S^iftnefs, aud for a long Time. Will. 
Ornithol. p. 329. 

(ee) The Cryftalline Humour, when dry'd, ' doth manifeftly 
enough appear to be made up of many very thin fpherical 


Chap. II. Of the Eye. ' 10$ 

pofed of divers thin Scales, and thefe made up of 
one fingle minuteft Thread or Fibre, wound round 
and round, fo as not to crofs one another in any one 
Place, and yet to meet, fome in two, and fome in 
more different Centres ; a Web not to be woven, an 
Optick Lens^ not to be wrought by any Art lefs than 
infinite Wifdom. 

Laftfy, To conclude the Parts of this admirable 
Organ, I (hall only make one Remark more, and 
that is about its Nerves. And here, among othcr^ 
the admirable Make of the Optick Nerves might 
deferve to be taken Notice of in the firft Place, thair 
Medullary Part (Jf) terminating in the Brain itfeif, 
the Teguments propagated from the Meninges, and 
terminating in the Coats of the Eye, and their com* 
modious Infertions into the Ball of the Eye, in fome 
direftly oppofite to the Pupil of the Eye, in others 


Lamina, or Scales lying one upon another. Mr. Lewenb*tk 
reckons there may be two thoufand of them in one Cbryftalline 9 
from the outermoft to the Centre. Every one of thefe Scales, 
he faith, he hath difcovered to be made up of one fingle Fi- 
bre, or fined Thread wound, in a moft it upend ous Manner, this 
Way, and that Way, fo as to run feveral Courfes, and meet im 
as many Centres, and yet not to interfere, or crofs one another, 
in any one Place. In Oxen, Sheep, Hogs, Dogs, and Cats, the 
Thread fpreads into three feveral Courfes, and makes as raanjr - 
Centres : In Whales five; but in Hare s and Rabbets only twau 
In the whole Surface of an Oat's Cryftalline, he reckons there 
are more than twelve thoufand Fibres j uxtapofited. For tke 
right and clear Underftanding of the Manner of which admi- 
rable Piece of Mechanifm, T (hall refer to his Cuts and De*' 
fcriptibns in Pbilof. Tranf. N°. 165, and 193. The Truth here- 
of I have heard fome ingenious Men quelHon ; but it is what 
I myfelf have feen, and can fhew to any Body, with the Help 
of a good Microfcope. 

(Jf) S.'Malpigbi obferved the Middle of the Optick Nerve 
of the Snvord-Fijb, to be nothing elfe but a large Membrane, 
folded according to its Length in many Doubles, almoft like 
a Pan, and invelted by the Dura Mater ; whereas in Land-Ani- 
mals i} is a Bundle of Fibres. Fide Pbilof Tranf. N° 27. 


io6 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

obliquely towards one Side (gg )• But mod of theft 
Things have been treated of, and the Convenience 
hereof fet forth, by others that have written of 
God's Works, I (hall therefore take Notice only of 
one wife Provifion the Creator hath made about the 
Motion oi the Eye, by uniting it into one of the Third 
Pair of Nerves, called the Motory Nerves (bb\ each 
of which fending its Branches into each Mufcle of 
each Eye, would caufe a Diftortion in the Eyes ; but 
being united into one, near their Infertion into the 
Brain, do thereby caufe both Eyes to have the fame 
Motion ; fo that when one Eye is moved this Way 
and that Way, to this and that Objeft, the other 
Eye is turned the feme Way aiie>. 

Thus from this tranfient and flight View (I may 
call it) of the Parts of the Eye, it appears what an 
admirable Artift was the Contriver thereof. And 
now in the 

Seventh and laft Place, let us confider what Pro- 
vifion this admirable Artift hath made for the Guard 
and Security of this fo well forrn'd Organ («). And 


[gg) Certiffimmm fft> quod in omnibus O oiks b'umanis (auot 
fatum mibi difecare contigit) Nervus opticus PupilU a diamttro 
epp$nitur % &c. Brigg's Ophthal. Cap. 3. Sett. 15. ita Willi* it 
Jwm* dt Brut. p. 1. c. 15. 

Nervi Optki in nobis, ittmin Cane, Fife (&P in ceteris fir fan 
ammalibus caUdis) adfundum Oeuti detaii Pupilla region* profpici- 
mut, dunt interim in atiis Quadrupedibus, uti etiam in Pi/cibus & 
Volucribus, oblique Jemper Tunka Sc/erotidi infer untur. Una\ 
Willis lb. Cap. 7. Sea. 11. 

(hh) This Pair is united at its Rife ; whence is commonly drawn 
« Rtafon why one Eye being mo*v y d towards an Qbjo& 9 the other is 
eSreSed alfe to the Jam. Gibfon's Anat. Boob 111. Chap. 11. 
So Bartholine Anat. Libellus 3. Cap. 2. 

(») Anon all the other Security the Eye hath, we nay 
reckon the Reparation of the Aeneous Humour ; by which 
Means the Eye when wounded, and that in all Appearance very 
dangeroufly too,, doth often recover its Sight: Of which Lerm. 
Forzafcha gives divers Examples ancient and modern. One is 
from Galen, of a Boy fo wounded, that the Cornea feD, and 


Chap. II. Of the Eye. 107 

here we (hall find the Guard equivalent to the Ufe 
and Excellency of the Part. The whole Organ for- 
tified and fenced with ftrong, compaft Bones, lodg- 
ed in a ftrong, well made Socket, and the Eye it 
felf guarded with a nice made Cover (kk). Its Hu- 
mours, and its inward Tunicks, are indeed tender, 


became flaccid, hut yet recovered hi* Sight. Other fach like 
Inftances alio he gives from Realdus, Columbus, Rbodius, and 
Tulpius ; and one that he cured himfetf in theie Words ; Ego 
in NobiVffimi <v:ri filial a fimilem cafum obfervwui : hare duns, lew* 
bus de caufis cum fratre alter caret, ifte iracundid percitus cuUei* 
lum Serif Lorium apprehendit, t$ fororis oculo «vuinus hrjligit, iude 
humor aqueus effluxit. Vocaius pr a f intern, Chirurgum juffi. /efueis 
collyrium anodynum &f exficcans tepide fapiits admwtu. Jjfc aq • 
Plantag. Jiv. Rofar. Sanicul. Eupbraf. ana Trocbifc. *Jk Maf. 
cum Opio 9lj. Tutia? pp. 9j. Croci orient. 9& M. Hoc Goflfri- 
um iuflammationem compe/cuit, *vulnus ficcccvit & fanavir. Hine 
poft aliquot menfes Humor aqueus fucerewt. Nam vifus, fed debt* 
liar, cumfummo parentum gaudio rediwit. B. Vcrzafchs? Obferr. 
Medkae. Obf. 14. 

Another Cure of this Kind, was experimented by Dr. Daniel 
Major, upon a Goofe, Ann. 1670. the Aqueous Humour of 
both whofe Eyes they let oat, fo that the Eye* fell, and the 
Goofe became quite Blind : But without the Ufe of any Medi- 
cine, in about two Days Time, Nature repaired the water/ 
Humour again, the Eyes returned to their former Turgeney, 
and the Goofe was in a Week after produced Seeing before 
twenty eight or thirty Spectators. Ephem. Germ. 7. 1. Add. 
ad Ob/. 117. 

From the fame Caufe, I doubt not, it was that the Eye of* 
Gentleman's Daughter, and thefe of a Cock, when wounded, 
fo that the Cornea funk, were reffored by a Lithuanian Chymift, 
that palTed for a Conjurer, by the Ufe of a Liquor found lie 
May, in the Veficulae of Elm. Of which fee Mr. Rafs Cataf m 
Cantab, in Ulmus from Henr. ab Heers. 

(£4) Palpebral, qua? Junt tegumenta Oculorum, molBjftm. ta£tu\ 
ne laderent act em, aptiffima* fa&a?, & ad claudendar PupiNar, at 
quid incideret y feP ad aperiendas ; idque providit, ut idenfidem fieri 
foffet Aim maxima celeritate. Munitaque Junt Palpebral tanquam 
vallo filorum : qui bus faP afertis Oculis, fi quid inetderet 9 repette- 
rttur, bf/omno conuiwntibas, cum Oculis ad cemendum won egg- 
rimus, ut qui* tanquam mvo/uti, quiefcerent. Latent praterei 
utiUttr, £ff excel/is undique fartibus fepiuntur* Primum cnim Jk- 
3 fcriar* 

io8 Of the Eye. Book IV. 

proportionate to their tender, curious Ufes ; but 
the Coats without, are context and callous, firm 
and ftrong. And in fome Animals, particularly 


feriora Super ci His obduSia fudorem a capite, fcf fronte defluentem 
tepellunt. Gen* deinde ah inferiore parte tuantur fubjefite, /evi- 
terque eminent es. Ciccr. dc Nat. Deor. h 2. c. £7. 

Tully, in the Perfon of a Stoick, having (o well accounted 
for the Ufe of the Eye-lids , 1 fhall for a further Manifefta- 
tion of the Creator's Contrivance and Structure of them, take 
Notice of two or three Things : 1. They confift of a thin and 
flexible, but ftrong Skin, by which Means they the better 
wipe, clean, and guard the Cornea. 2. Their Edges are forti- 
fied with a foft Cartilage, by which Means they are not only 
enabled the better to do their Office, but alfo to clofe and 
fhut the better. 3. Out of thefe Cartilages grow a Pallifade 
of ftiff Hairs, of great Ufe to warn the Eye of the Invanon 
of Dangers, to keep off Motes, and to (hut out too exceffive 
Light, &c. and at the fame time to admit of (through their 
Intervals) a fufficient Paflage for Objects to approach ihe Eye. 
And it is remarkable, That thefe Hairs grow but to a certain, 
commodious Length, and need no Cutting, as many other. 
Hairs of the Body do : Alfo, That their Points ftand out of 
the Way, and in the Upper lid bend upwards, as they do 
downwards in the Lower-lid, whereby they are well adapted 
to their Ufe. From which laft Obfervables, we may learn 
how critical and nice the great Author of Nature hath been, 
in even the leaf* and moil trivial Conveniences belonging to 
Animal Bodies ; for which Reafon I have added it to 7ully% 
Remarks. And more might have been added too, as particu- 
larly concerning the curious Structure and Lodgment of the 
Right Mufcle, which opens the Eye lids ; and the Orbicularis, 
Or Circular one, that (huts them ; the nice apparatus of 
Glands that keep the Eye moift, and ferve for Tears : together 
with the Reafon why Man alone, who is a Social Animal, 
doth exhibit his Social Affections by fuch outward Tokens as 
Tears 5 and Nerves alfo, and other Organs acting in this Mi- 
nifty.. I might alfo fpeak of the Paflages for discharging the 
fuperfluous Moifture of the Eyes through the Noftrils, and 
much more of the like Kind. But it would take up too much 
Room in thefe .Notes ; and therefore it fhall fuffice to give 
only fuch Hints as may create a Sufpicion of a noble OEcono- 
my and Contrivance in this (I had almoft (aid) leaft confide- 
rable Part of the Eye. But for Particular* 1 fhall refer to the 


Chap. II. Of the Eye. 109 

Birds (7/), fome Part of thofe Tunicles have the Na- 
ture and Hardnefs of Bone or Horn. 

But for Creatures, whofe Eyes, like the reft of 
their Body, are tender, and without the Guard of 
Bones ; there Nature hath provided for this'necefla. 
ry and tender Senfe, a wonderful kind of Guard, 
by endowing the Creature with a Faculty of with- 

Anatomifts; and for fome of thefe Things, particularly to 
Dr. WilliSs Cereb. Anat. and de Anim. Brut, and Mr. Cowp£r*& 
Elegant Cuts in the nth Tab. of his Anatomy. 

To the Eye lids we may add another Guard afforded the 
Eyes of moil Quadrupeds, Birds, and Fifties, by the Nictita- 
ting -Membrane, which Dr. Willis gives this Account of, Plu- 
rimus [Animalibus] qui bus Muf cuius fuj pen/onus adejl (which 
Limitation he needed not to have added) etiam alter Mem- 
brane/us conccditur, qui juxta inter tor em oculi cant bum fetus, 
quando elevator, Oculi globttm fere to turn obtegit. Httjus ufus 
ejfe *videtur, ut turn Befits inter g~amina, &c. capita fua propter 
<ui&um captjfendum demergunt, hie Mu/culus Oculi Pupil/am, n} 
a Jlipularum incur fu feriatur* oculit muni t que. De Anim. Brut. 
p. 1. c. 15. 

This Membrane Man hath not, he having little Occafion 
to thruft his Head into fuch Places of Annoyance, as Beafts, 
and other Animals ; or if he hath, he can defend his Eyes 
with his Hands. But Birds (who frequent Trees and Bufhes) 
and Quadrupeds, (Hedges, and long Grafs) and who have no 
Part ready, like the Hand, to fence off Annoyances ; thefe, I 
fay, have this incomparable Provifion made for the Safety of 
their Eyes. And for Fifties, as they are deflitute of Eye- 
Lids, becaufe in the Waters there is no Occafion for a De- 
fenfative againft Dud and Motes, offend ve to the Eyes of 
Land- Animals, nor to moiften and wipe the Eyes, as the 
Eye-Lids do, fo the Ni8itating- Membrane is an abundant Pro- 
vifion for all their Occafions, without the Addition of the Eye- 

And now, if we reflect, are thefe the Works of any Thing 
bat a wife and indulgent Agent ? 

(//) Although the Hardnefs and Firmnefs of the Adnata, or 
Sclerotica in Birds, is a good Guard to their Eyes, yet I do not 
think it is made thus, fo much for a Defence, as to minifter 
to the lengthning and fhortning the Eye, mentioned before in 
N*ti[cc). % 

Vrnrn^ Cock- 

lid Of the Eye. t Book IV. 

drawing its Eyes into ks Head (»w), and lodging 
them in the fame Safety with the Body. 

Thus have I furvey'd this firft Senfe of Animals, 
I may fay in a curfory, not accurate, drift Manner, 
confldering the prodigious Workmanfhip thereof ; 
but To, as abundantly to demonftrate it to be the 
Contrivance, the Work of no lefs a Being than the 
infinite, wife, potent and indulgent Oeator inn). 
For none lefs could compofc fo admirable an Or- 
gan, fo adapt all iu Parts, fo adjuft it to all Occa- 
fions, fo nicely provide for every Ufe, and for every 
Emergency : In a Word, none lefs than God could, 
I fay, thus contrive, order, and provide an Organ, 
as magnificent and curious as the Senfe is ufef ul *, a 
Senfe without which, as all the Animal World would 
be in perpetual Darknefs, fo it would labour under 
perpetual Inconveniencies, be expofed to perpetual 
Harms, and fuffer perpetual Wants and Diftreffes. 
But now by this admirable Senfe, the great God, 
who hath placed us in this World, hath as well pro- 
vided for our comfortable Refidence in it ; enabled 
us to fee and chufe wholfome, yea, delicate Food ; 
to provide ourfelves ufcful, yea, gaudy Cloathing, 
and commodious Places of Habitation and Retreat. 
We can now difpatch our Affairs with Alacrity and 


{mm) Cochltis oculorum vicem Cornicula bina pr/stentu imfltnt, 
Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 1 1. c. 37. See more of the Eyes of Snails 
before In Note (I) ; and in Note (I) I faid that I fufpecled 
Moles alio might thruft out, or withdraw their Eyes more or 
lefs within the Hair or Skin. 

(nn) The diligent Sturmius was fully perfuaded there could 
not be any fpeculative Atheifm in any one that ihovld well 
furvey the Eye. Nobis, faith he # fuit ptrfua/ffimum', Atbcif- 
mum, quern vacant fpeeulati<vum % b. e. obfirmatam de DeitaU in 
Univer/o nulla per/uajionem, habere locum out inveniri non foffe in 
€9 bmine, qui vel unius corporis organici, & fpeciatim Qculifabri- 
cam attento ammo afpexerit. Sturm. Exerc. Acad. o. dc V& 
Organ. & Rat. in Epilogo. 

(jo\ The 

Chap. II. Of the Eye. in 

Pleafure, go here and there as our Occafion calls us. 
We can, if Need be, ranfack the whole Globe, pe- 
netrate into the Bowels of the Earth, defcend to 
the Bottom of the Deep, travel to the fartheft Re- 
gions of this World, to acquire Wealth, toencreale 
our Knowledge, or even only to pleafe our Eye and 
Fancy. We can now look about us, difcern and 
fhun the Precipices and Dangers which every where 
enclofe us, and would deftroy us. And thofe glo- 
rious Obje&s which fill the Heavens and the Earth, 
thofe admirable Works of G o d which every where 
furround us, and which would be as nothing to us, 
without being feen, do by Means of this noble Senfe 
prefent their Glories to us (n), and fill us with Ad- 
miration and Pleafure. But I need not expatiate on 


(oo) The glorious Land&ips, and other Obje&s that p*e- 
fent themfelves to the Eye, are manifeftly painted on the Re- 
tina, and that not ere&, bat inverted as the Laws of Opttcks 
require ; and is manifeft to the Eye from Monfieur Carta & 
Experiment, of laying bare the vitreous Humour on the Sack- 
part of the Eye, and dapping over it a Bit of white Paper, 
or the Skin of an Egg ; and then placing the Fore-part of the 
Eye to the Hole of the Window of a darkned Room. By 
which Means we have a pretty Landfkip of the Obje&s abroad 
inveitedly painted on the Paper, on the Back of the Eye. But 
now the Qucftion is, How in this Cafe the Eye comes to fee 
the Obje&s cre& ? Monfieur Cartes' s Anfwer is, Notitia illius 
ex nulla imagine pendet, nee ex mild a&ione ah ohjetlis veviente, 
fed ex /olefin exiguarum partium cerebri, i qmibus Nervi expul- 
lulant. ■ ■ S. g. cogitandum in Oculo fi tum tapillamenti 

nervi optici—refpmiere (g mlium ameudmm partis cerebri—- 
quifacit nt Anima fingula Uca eognofcat, auajacent in re&d, ami 
quafi reQa lined ; nt ita mirari nan debeamus corpora in naturali 
fitu vidtri, quamvis imago in ocuio delineata contrarium habeat. 
Dioptr. c 6. But our mod ingenious Mr. Molyneux anfwereth 
thus ; 7be Eye it only the Organ or lnfirument, it is the Soul that 
fees by Means of the Eye. To enquire then bow tht Soul perceives 
the ObjeSt ere3 9 by an inverted Image, is to enquire into the Soul's 
Facultie s ' ■■ But ereel and inverted are only Terms of Relation 
to up and dovjn ; or farther from, or nigher to the Centre of the 

Earth, in Parts of the fame Thing, But the Eye % or vifive 


ii2 Of the Eye. Book W. 

the Ufcfulnefs and Praifes of this Senfe, which we 
receive the Benefit of every Moment, and the Want, 
or any Defeft of which, we lament among our great- 
eft Misfortunes. 

Leaving then this Senfe, I lhall proceed to the 
other four, but more briefly treat of them, by Rea- 
fon we have fo ample a Sample of the Divine Art in 
the laft, and may prefume that the fame is exerted 
in all as well as one. For a Demonftration of which, 
let us in the next Place carry our Scrutiny to the 
Senfe of Hearing. 

Faculty takes no Notice of the internal Pofiure of its van Parts, 
hmt ufcth them as an Instrument only, contrived by Nature for the 

Exercife of fuch+a Faculty. Let us imagine \ that the Eye (on 

its lower Part) receives an lmpulfe [by a Ray from the upper Part 
of the Objeft] muft not the vifove Faculty be ntceffarily direded 
hereby to confider this Stroke, as coming from the Top rather than 
the Bottom [of the Object] and confequently be direcled to conclude 
it the Representation of the Top ? Hereof <we may be fatisfied by 
Juppofinga Man ft an ding on his Head. For here, tho % the upper 
Parts of Qbjeds are pointed on the upper Parts of the Eye, yet the 
Objefls are judged to be Erecl. What is faid of Erefi and Re- 
nterfe, may be under ft ood of Sinifter and Dexter. Molyneax's 
Dioptr. Nov. Part J. Prop. 28. 


[ "3 1 


Of the Senfe of Hearing. 

Concerning the Senfe of Hearing, I fhalUake 
Notice of two Things, the Organ, the Ear ; 
and its Objeft, Sound. 

I. For the Organ, the Ear ; I (hall oafs by its 
convenient Number of being double, which (as in 
the laft Senfe) ferves for the commodious Hearing 
every Way round us; as alio a wife Provifion for 
the utter Lofs or Injury (a) of one of the Ears. But 
t (hall a little infift upon its Situation, and its ad- 
mirable IJabrick and Pares. 

i. It 

(a) I prcfume it will not be ungrateful to take Notice here 
of the admirable, as well as ufeful Sagacity of fame deaf 
Perfons, that have learn'd to fapply their want of Hearing by 
underlining what is faid by the Motion of the Lips. My 
▼ery ingenious Friend Mr. Waller, R. S. Seer, gives this Ac- 
count : There live now, and home from, their Birth, in our Town, 
a Man and bis Sifter, each about fifty Tears old, neither of which 

have the leaft Senfe of Hearing, yet both of thefe know, by 

the Motion ef the Lips only, whatever is faid to them, and will 
anfiwer pertinently to the ^ueftion propofed to them ■■ ■ The Mo- 
ther told me they could bear very well, and fpeak when they were 
Children, hut both loft that Senfe afterwards, which makes them 
retain their Speech ; " though that, /• Perfons not ufed to them, 
is a little uncouth and odd, but intelligible enough. Philofoph. 
Tranfaa. N*3i2. 

Such another Inftance is that of Mr. Goddy, Minifter of 
St. Gervais in Geneva, his Daughter. She is now about fixteen 
Years old. Her Nurfe bad an extraordinary Thicknefs of Hear- 
ing ; at a Yeaf old, the Child fpake all thofe little Words that 
Children begin to fpeak at that Age.— At two Years old, they 
perceived Jbe had loft to* Hearing, and was fo Deaf , that ever 
puce, though Jhe bears great Noifes y yet Jbe bears nothing that 

one tan fpeak to her. But by obferving the Motions of the 

Mouth and Lips of others, Jbe hath acquired fo many Words* 
that out ef theft Jbe hath formed a Sort of Jargon, in which 

I jl» 

1 14 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

1. It is fituatcd in the moft convenient Part of 
the Body, (like as I faid the Eye is) in a Part 
near the common Senfory in the Brain, to give the 
more fpeedy Information -, in a Part where it can 
be belt guarded, and where it is moft free from 
Annoyances and Harms itfelf, and where it gives 
the lead Annoyance and Hindrance to the Exer- 
cifes of any other Part ; in a Part appropriated to 
the peculiar Ufe of the principal Senfes, in the moft 
lofty, eminent Part of the Body, where it can per- 
ceive the moft Objefts, and receive the greateft 
Information : And laftly, in a Part in the Neigh- 
bourhood of its Sifter Senfe the Eye, with whom 
it hath peculiar and admirable Communication by 
its Nerves, as I intend to (hew in its proper Place. 
In refpcft then of its Situation and Place in the 
Body, this Senfe is well defigned and contrived, 
and may fo far be accounted the Work of fome ad- 
mirable Artift. But, 

2. If we furvey its Fabrick and Parts, it will ap- 
pear to be an admirable Piece of the Divine Wif- 
dom, Art, and Power. For the Manifeftation of 
which, let us diftin&ly furvey the outward and the 
inward Part of its curious Organ. 

i. For the outward Ear : If we obferve its Stru- 
cture in all Kinds of Animals, it muft needs be ac- 
knowledged to be admirably Artificial, it being fo 


Jhe can hold Conveffation whole Days with thofe that cam J^tak 
htr own Language, I could under [land fome of her Words, hut 
could not comprehend a Period, for it feemed to he hut a confufid 
Noife. She knows nothing that is faid to her, unlefs Jhe feetb tbt 
Motion of their Mouths that fpeak to her ; fo that in the Night; 
when it is ncceffary to fpeak to her, they muft light a Candle. 
Only one thing appeared the ft range ft Part of the whole Narration: 
She hath a Sifter, with whom Jhe hath prafiifed her Language 
more than with any other : And in the Night, by laying her Hand 
on her Sifter's Mouth, Jhe can perceive by that what Jbe faith, and 
fo can difcourfe with her in the Night, Bifhop Burnet* * Let. 4. 

Chap. III. Of the Ear. 115 

nicely prepared, and adjufted to the peculiar Occa- 
fions of each refpe&ive Animal. In Man (b\ it is 
of a Form proper for the eredt Pofture of his Body. 
In Birds, of a Form proper for Flight; not protu- 
berant, becaufe that would obftruft their Progrefs, 
but clofe and covered, to afford the eafier Paffagc 
thro' the Air. In Quadrupeds, its Form is agreeable 
to the Pofture, and flower Motion of their Bodies ; 
and in thefe too, various according to thfeir vari- 
ous Occafions. In fome large, ere6l, and open, to 
hear the leaft Approaches of Dangers (*), in others 
covered, to keep out noxious Bodies. In the Sub- 


(b) I cannot but admire that oar moft eminent modern 
Anatomifts would not agree, whether there be any Mufcles 
in the outward Ear of Man or not. Dr. Keil faith there are 
two ; Dr. Drake the fame Number ; and Dr. Gib/an makes 
them to be four. So alfo doth Monfieur Dionis, and fo did 
the antient Ana torn ills : But Dr. Scbelbammer exprcfsly de- 
nies there are any, and faith, Seduxit out em reliquos Erutorum 
Auatonu, in quorum plerifque tales Mufculi f lures iwveniuntur ; 
futdrunt autem fortajjis ignominiofum Homini 9 fi non & bis 
iufiruBus effet, 6f minus inde per fe Hum animal fore. Schel. 
de Auditu, p. i . c. i . fed. 7. But Falfalisa, who wrote very 
lately, and is very accurate in his Survey of the Bar, faith, 
Mufculi auricula p oft er tores quandoque quatuor, quandoque duo ; 
fed ui plurimum tres adnotantur ; fcf quando folum duofe mani- 
f eft ant, tunc unus ex illis duplicate tendine versus Concbam de- 
ferri filet. Herum mufculorum in numero varietatem non folum 
in di*uerfis ; *verum etiam in eodem fubjeclo quandoque i/id: 
Ex quibus differ entiis fuborta funt AuSorum aifcrepantia in horum 

Mufculorum numero, &f pofitu : quod non evenijfet^ ft pluries 

in efcuerfis Corporibus iidem Mufculi quaf/i ejfent. Ant. Mar. 
Valfalva de Aur. Human, c. 1. feft. 6. Eut Dr. DraJui thinks 
fome of Valfalva! % Mufcles the Product of Fancy. Mr. Cowper 
makes them to be three, one Attollent, and two Retrabent 
Mufcles. See Anat. Tab. 12. 

(a) Inter cater a [animal ia aurita] maxime admirabilis eft 
auris leporina fabrica, quod cum timidijjimum animal fit, 6f 
prorfus inerme t natura id turn auditu acutiffimo, tanquam boftium 
txploratore ad perfentienda pericula, turn pedibus ecu armis ad 
currendum aptis muniffe videtur. A. Kirchef j Pbonurg. L. 1. 
Seft. 7. Technaf. 2. 

I 2 U\ Mole* 

n6 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

terraneous Quadrupeds, who are forced to mine and 
dig for their Food and Habitation, as a protu- 
berant Ear, like that of other Quadrupeds, would 
obftrudt their Labours, and be apt to be torn and in- 
jured * fo they have the contrary (</), their Ears 
ihort, lodged deep and backward in their Head, and 


(d) Moles have no protuberant Ear, but only a round Hole 
between the Neck and .Shoulder ; which Situation of it, tb- 

f ether with the thick, ihort Fur that covers it, is a fufficierft 
>efenfative againft external Annoyances. The Meatus Au- 
ditorius is long, round, and cartilaginous, reaching to the tin- 
tier part of the Skull. Round the Infide runs a little Ridge, 
refembling two Threads of a Skrew j at the Bottom whereof 
is a pretty Inlet leading to the Drum, made, on one fide, 
wich the aforefaid cochfeous Ridge, and on the other, with 
a fmall Cartilage. I obferved there was Cerumen in the 

As to the inner Ear % it is fomewhat lingular, and different 
from that of the other Quadrupeds, and much more from 
Birds; altho' I have met with fome Authors that make it 
agreeing with that of Birds. There are three fmall Bones 
only (all hollow) by which the Drum (to ufe the old Appel- 
lation) or the Memhrana Tympani (as others call it) acteth 
upon the Auditory Nerve. The £rft is the Malleus, which 
hath two Proceffes nearly of equal Length ; the longer of 
which is braced to the Membrana Tympani; the ihorter to the 
fide of the Drum or Os Petrofum ; the back part of it refenr* 
bles the Head and Stalk of a fmall Mu/broom, fuch as are 
pickled. On the back of the Malleus lies the next fmall 
Bone, which may be called the Incus, long, and without any 
Procefs, having fomewhat the Form of the fhort Scoop 
wherewith Watermen throw the Water out of their Wherries, 
To the end of this the third and laft fmall Bone is tacked 
by a ?ery tender Brace. This little Bone bears the Office of 
the Stapes, but is only forked without any Bafe. One of 
thefe Forks is at one Feneftra, or Foramen, the other at ano- 
ther ; in which Fentflra? I apprehend the Forks' are tacked to 
the Auditory Nerve, Thefe Feneftr* (equivalent to the Fe* 
neftra Ovalis, and .Rotunda in others) are the Inlets into the 
Cochlea and Canales Semicirculares, in which the Auditory Nem* 
lieth. The Semicircular Canales lie at a diftance from the 
Brum, and are not lodged (as in other Animals) in a ftron& 
thick Body of Bone, but axe ti\x\& out, within the Skull, 

3 TO&H*^ 

Chap. HI. Of the Ear. uy 

palling to the under Part thereof, and all fufficiently 
fenced and guarded. And as for Infefts, Reptiles, 
and the Inhabitants of the Waters, if they enjoy 
this Senfe, (as there is great Reafon to think they 
do), it may probabfy be lodged commodioufly un- 
der the fame Security and Guard, as the Smelling, 
or fome other Senfe is. 

^ And moreover, as the Form of this Organ is va- 
rious in various Animals, fo in each of thefn its 
Strudture is very curious and obfervable, being in 
all admirably contrived to colled the wandering, 
circumambient Impreffions and Undulations of 
Sound, and to convey them to the Senfory within. 
If I fhould run over the feveral Genera of Animals, 
we might find a notable Profpeft of fhe Handy- work 
of God (e) 9 even in this fo inconfiderable a Part of 
Animals. But I fhall only carry my Survey to 


making an Antrum, with an hand fome Arch leading into it, 
into which a part of the Brain enters. 

One Leg of the Malleus being faften'd to the Membrana 
Tympani, and the Incus to the back of the Malleus, and the 
top of that to the top of the Stapes, and the Forks or Branches 
of the Stapes to the Auditory Nerve, I obferved $hat when- 
ever I moved the Membrane, all the little Bones were at the 
feme time moved, and confequently the Auditory Nerve there- 
by aficfted alfo. 

I hope the Reader will excufe me for being fo particular in 
this Organ only of the Mole, a defpifed Creature, but as. 
notable an Example of God's Work, as its Life is different 
from that of other Quadrupeds \ for which Reafon it partly 
is that I have enlarged on this part differing from that of others, 
and which no body that I know of, hath taken much notice 
of, and which is not difcoverable without great Patience 
and Application ; and partly becaufe by comparing thefe Oh- 
feryations with Book VII. Chap. 2. Note (d), we may judge 
I how the Senfe of Hearing is performed. 

I [e) Among many Varieties, both in the inner and outer 
\ lor, thefe which appear in the Pajfage into the Rock Bone, are 
A remarkable. For in an Owl, that perches on a Tree or Beam* 
t\ 1*4 hearkens after the Prey beneath her, it is produced farther 
g/ ng iboye than it is below, for the better Reception of the Icafk 


1 1 8 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

that of Man. And here the firft Thing that offer- 
eth itfelf to our View, is the Helix, with its tor- 
tuous Cavities, made to Hop, and colled the fono- 
rous Undulations, to give them a gentle Circulation, 
and Retradtion, and fo convey them to the Concha, 
or larger and more capacious round Cell at the En- 
trance of the Ear. And to bridle the Evagation of 
the Sound, when arrived fo far, but withal not to 
make a Confufion thereof, by any difagreeable Rc- 
percuflions, we may take Notice of a very curious 
Provifion in thofe little Protuberances, called the 
Tragus, and Antitragus of the outward Ear, of a 
commodious Form and Texture (/), and conveni- 
ently lodged for this Ufe. The great Convenience 
and Benefit of this Form and Contrivance of the 
outward Ear, is fufficiently manifeft by the Want 
thereof, which caufeth a Corfu/ion in the Hearing, 
with a certain Murmur, or Swooing, like the Fall of 
Waters (g). 


Sound, But in a Fox, that fcoutetb underneath the Prey at 
Rooft, it is for the fame Reafon produced farther out below. In 
a Pole- Cat, tuhich hearkens fir ait forward, it is produced behind, 
for the taking of a forvjard Sound. Whereas in a Hare, which 
is very quick of Hearing, and thinks of nothing but being purfued, 
it is fvpplied vAth a bony Tube, which, as a natural Otocoufiick, 
isfo direcled backward, as to receive the fmalUft and moft aijlant 
Sound that comes behind her. Grew's Cofmolog. Sacr. lib. i. 
c. 5. f& 6. 

(f) The Texture of the Tragus and Antitragus, is foftcr 
than that of the Helix, which ferveth gently to blunt, not 
forcibly to repel, the Sound in the Concha. 

(g) Dr. G'tbfon% Anatomy, Chap. zz. Book III. 

Thofe vjhofe Ears are cut off, have but a confufed *wmy tf 
Hearing, and are obliged either to form a Cavity round the Ear 
ivitb their own Hands, or elfe to make ufe of a Horn, and apply 
the End of it to the inner Cavity of the Ear, in order to receive 
the agitated Air. 'Tis likevjife obferved, that thofe zvhofe Ears 
jut out, hear better than fiat-eared Perfcns. Monfieur Dioniss 
Anat. Demonft. 8. 

[h) Gib* 

Chap. III. Of the Ear. 119 

Another wife Provifion of the Creator, is in the 
Subftance of the outward Ear, which is cartila- 
ginous, the fitteft for this Place. For (as an in- 
genious Anatomift (b) obferves,) <c If it had been 
" Bone, it would have been troublefome, and might 
" by many Accidents, have been broken off: If 
" Flefh, it wpuld have been fubjedt to Contufion." 
But indeed a worfe Confequence than this would 
have enfued fuch a Softnefs as that of Flefh, and 
that is, it would neither have remained expanded, 
neither would it fo kindly receive and circulate the 
Sounds, but abforb, retard, or blunt their Progrefs 
into the inward Organ. But being hard, and cu- 
rioufly fmooth and tortuous, Sounds find an eafy 
Paflage, with a regular Volutation and Refraftion : 
As in a well-built Arch, Grotto, or mufical In- 
ftrument, which magnify and meliorate Sounds; 
and fome of which convey even a Whifper to a 
large Diftance (i): But from the outward, let us 
carry our Survey. 

2. To 

{h) Gib/on ibid. 

(*) It would naufeate the Reader to reckon up the Places 
famed for the Conveyance of Whifpers, fuch as the Prifon 
of Diouyfhu at Syracu/e, which is faid to increafe a Whifper 
to a Noife j the clapping one/s Hands to the Sound of a Can- 
non, &r. Nor the Aquadufts of Claudius* which carry a 
Voice fixteen Miles, and many others both Antrent and Mo- 
dern. If the Reader hath a mind to be entertained in this 
way, he may find enough in Kircbers Pbonurgia. But it may 
not be irkfome to mention one or two of our own in Eng- 
land. Among which, one of the mod famed is the Whifpet- 
ing Place in Gloucefter -Cathedral, which is no other than a 
Gallery above the EaftEnd of the Choir, leading from one 
Side thereof to the other. It confide th (If I mi (lake not) 
of five Angles, and fix Sides, the middlemoft of which is a 
naked, uncovered Window, looking into a Chapel behind it. 
I guefs the two Whifperers Hand at about twenty five Yard 3 
Diftance from one another. But the Dome of St. Paul's, 
London, is a more confiderable Whifpering-Place, where the 
ticking of a Watch (when no Noiie is in the Streets) may 

I 4 \* 

120 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

2. To this inward Part of this admirable Organ* 
And here we find the moft curious and artful Pro- 
vifion for every Emergency and Occafion. The 
Auditory Paffage, in the firft Place, curioufly tun- 
nelled, and artfully turned, to give Sounds aneafy 
Paflage, as well as a gentle Circulation and Re- 
fraction •, but withal, To as to prevent their too 
furious rufhing in, and affaulting the more tender 
Parts within. 

And forafmuch as it is neceflary that this Paflage 
fhould be always open to be upon the Watch (k) ; 
therefore to prevent the Invafion of noxious In- 
fers, or other Animals, (who are apt to make 
their Retreat in every little Hole,) Nature hath 
fecured this Paflage (/), with a bitter naufeoife 


be heard from Side to Side ; yea, a Whifper may be fent all 
round the Dome. And not only in the Gallery below, bat 
above, upon the Scaffold, I tried, and found that a Whifper 
would be carried over one's Head round the Top of the -Arch, 
notwithftanding there is a large Opening in the Middle of it, 
into the upper Part of the Dome. 

(jf ) Auditus autetn femper patet : ejus enim fenfu etiam dor* 
mientes egemus : A quo cum /onus eft accept us, etiam e fomno ex- 
citamur. Flexuofum iter babet, ne quid intrare poJfit t fi /implex, 
& direSum pater et: pronrifum etiam, ut fiqua minima befiiofa 
conaretur irrumpere 9 in fordibus aurium, tanquam in vifco, inb*- 
refceret. Cic. de. Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 57. 

It defer ves a particuler Remark here, that in Infants in the 
Womb, and newly Born, the Meatus Auditorius is Abut up .very 
clofely, partly by the Conftriftion of the Paflage, and partly 
by a glutinous Subftance, whereby the tympanum is guarded 
againft the Water in the Secundine, aid againft the Injuries of 
the Air as foon as the Infant is born. 

(I) It is remarkable, that in mod, if not all Animals, whole 
Ears are tunnelled, or where the Meatus Auditorius is long 
enough to afford Harbour to Ear-wigs, or other Infedts ; that, 
I fay, in the Ears of fuch, Earnvax is conftantly to be found. 
But in Birds, wbofe Ears are covered with Feathers, and 
where the Tympanum lies but a little Way within the Skull, 
no Ear 'wax is found, becaufe none is neceflary to the JEars fo 
well guarded, and fo little tunnelled, 

W Til? 

Chap. III. Of the Ear. \z\ 

Excrement (01), afforded from the Glands (») ap- 
pointed for that Purpofe. 

From hence let us approach the moft inward 
Parts, in which we fhall fee Strokes of the moft 
exquifite Art. To pafs over the innate Air, that 
moft Authors talk of (0), (becaufe there is no fuch) 


(») The Ear Wax was thought, by the old Anatomifts, to 
be an Excrement of the Brain : Humor bihofus a cerebri expng- 
natus, the Bartbolines fey of it, /. 3. c. 9. But as Scbelbam- 
tner well obferves, Nil abfurdius, quam cerebri excrementum bee 
ftatuere. Nam &T ratio nulla fuadet, ut in cerebro fieri excre- 
mentum tale credamus : — — neque <vi<s patent per quas ab eg 
feclufum in meatum auditorium poffit inde j&netrare. As to its 
Tafte, Cajferius gives Instances of its being fweet in fome Crea- 
tures. But Scbelbammer fays. Ego <uero femper $ cum amaritit 
aliquid dukedinis in ilk deprebendi. Vide Schel. de Audit. /. k 
r. 2. feci, 10. But I could never diflinguifh any Sweetnefs in 
it ; but think it infipid mixed with a Bitternefc. 

(») Cerumina amara Arterioles exudautia. Willis de Anim. 

Brut. far. 1. c. 14. In the Skin are little Glands, ivbicb 

furnijb a yellow and bitter Humour. Monfieur Dionis's Dem. 1 8. 
An handfome Cut of thofe Glandular Cerumino/a is in Dr. Drabe 9 
from Falfafoa. 

Pliny attributes a great Virtue to the Ear Wax ; Morfus fo- 
ments inter afperrimos numeratur : medentur fordes ex auribus-z 
esc ne quis miretur, etiam Scorpionum iclibus Serfentiumfue ftatim 
impofit*. Plin. Nat. Hift. /. 28. c. 4. And that it hath a* 
healing Quality, and may be accounted a good Balfam, I my- 
felf have experienced. 

(o) That there is fuch a Thing as the innate Air, (talkel 
of much by moft Authors on this Subject) Scbelbammer very 
juftly, I think, denies ; by Reafon there is a Paflage into the 
inner Ear from the Throat, through which the innate Air 
may pafs out, and the outward Air enter in. Fide Par. Alt* 
p. 2. c.i. fed. 10. When by flopping our Breath, and drain- 
ing, we force the external Air into the Ear, it may be heard 
rowing in ; and if much be forced in, it may be felt alfo to 
beat againft the Tympanum. When the Paflage to the Throat 
is by any Means flopped, as by a Cold in the Head, tic. the 
Hearing thereby becomes dull and blunt 1 by Reafon the 
Communication between the outward and inward Air is ob- 
ftro&ed: But when by ftrong Swallowing, or fuch like Mo* 
(ion of the Throat, the Paflage is opened, we perceive it by a 



12 2 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

the Paflage to the Palate (/>), and their Ufes, with 
divers other curious Thing* tfciat might be named \ 
let us ftop a little at the Part containing the reft, 
namely, the Bone (q). The particular Texture and 
Hardnefs of which, above other Bones of the Body, 
is very remarkable : whereby it ferves not only as a 
fubftantial Guard to the Senfory, but alfo to oppofe 
the Impulfes of the aetherial Matter, that there may 
be no Lofs nor Confufion in the Sound ; but that k 
may be convey'd regularly, and intirely to the audi- 
tory Nerves. 

The next Part I fhall take Notice of may be 
that fine Membrane, called the Tympanum, or Mem- 


fudden Smack or Crack, atod we immediately bear very dear* 
]y ; the Load of feculent Air being at that Time difcharged 
fiom the inner Ear. 

It is a wife Provifion, that the Paflage for the Air into the 
Ear, is from the Throat ; Ut non ftatim quivis aer exterxas j>- 
rumpere queat (as Scbelhammer faith, Par. ult. Cb. 4, St8. 8.) 
fed nonnihil immutatus, ac temper at us, calore ex medio ventre 
ix/pirante ; imo fortajfis non facile alius, nifi ex pmfounibus. 

( p) Valfalva hath given us a more accurate Defcription of 
the Tuba Euftacbiana, or Paffage to the Palate, than any other 
Author ; to whom I therefore refer, De Aur. Human. Chap. 2. 
Se&. 16, &c. 

The chief Ufe hereof, he thinks, is to give way to the in- 
ner Air, upon every Motion of the Membrana Tympani, the 
Mai leu t, Incus, and Stapes. This Paflage, if it be (hut up, 
Dcafnefs enfues: Of which he gives two Inftances: One a 
Gentleman, who loft his Hearing by a Polypus in the Nofe 
reaching to the Uvula; the other a Yeoman, labouring with 
an Ulcer above the left Side of the Uvula ; which when he 
ftopt with a Tent dipped in Medicine, he loft his Hearing in 
rhe left Ear, and recovered it, as foon as the Tent was out* 
Ibid. Ch. <j. Sea. 10. 

(?) Os [petrofum] ex quo interior es [Labyrinthi] cavitaium 
parietes conflati funt 9 album, durijjimum, necnon maxime corn- 
pa St urn. Id autem a Naturd it a comparatum effe videtur, mt 
materia atherea Sonorum objefiorum imprefjionibus onufta, dum 
pr<edi8is impingitur Parietibus, nihil aut faltem fere nihil matmt 
j'ui amittat, at que adeo ilium qualem ab ObjtBis fonoris aceepit, 
talent communicet fpiritui animali coniento intra txpanfiones ram 
mollioris Nervorum aws's. Dr. Raym. VieuJJens of Montpellier % 
' Phil'. Tranf. N* 258. (r) The 

Chap. IIL Of the Ear. 123 

brana Tympani (r\ with its inner Membrane is) * 
together with the four little appendent Bones (t\ 
and the three inner Mufcles to move them, and 
adjuft the whole dompages to the feveral Purpofes 


(r) The Tympanum of the Ear, or, as Valfaboa and the Mo- 
derns, the Membrana Tympani % was taken Notice of as early as 
Hippocrates** Time. In Birds, it is ftrained towards the out- 
ward Parts ; in other Animals towards the Brain, or inner Parts. 
Monfieur Dioms faith, It is not equally faftened to the whole 
Circumference of the homy Circle % in which it is inchafed\ for on 
the upper Side it hath a free dij engaged Part, by which fome can 
gi<ue vent to the Smoak in their Mouth. Demonftr. 8. That there 
is fome Pafikge I doubt not, but I queftion whether Monfieur 
Dionis ever faw the difengaged Part he mentions. I have myfelf 
carefully fearched divers Subjects, and do not remember to 
have feen any fuch Paffage ; and I perceive it efcaped the dili- 
gent Schelbammer's Eye. Vajfafoa alfo, by injecting in through 
the Tuba Euftacbiana, could not force any Liquor into the 
Meatus Auditerius\ but yet he imagines he found the Paflage" 
out in another Place of the Drum, in fome morbid, and one 
found Head Valfalv. de Aur. Hum. Ch. 2. Se'a. 8. Mr. 
Cvwper alfo affirms, there is a Pafiage by the upper Part of the' 
Membrane, Anat. Ap. Fig. 8. 

(s) Dr. Vieuffens, before-named, discovered r Membrane, 
teuuijjimie raraque admodum textur* intra cawitatem Tympani ; 
as he describes it. Whofe ufe he faith is, i. Occlude us Laby- 
rinth januam impedit ne naturalis purijfimus ac fubtiliffimus Aer 
intra comitates m.communicationem h a beat cum acre crajffi. 
2. Lahyrinthibafin calefacit, Sec ubifupra. Probably this dou- 
ble Membrane may be fuch, or after the fame Manner as it is in 
the Tympanum of Birds : Of which fee my Obfervations in Book 
VII. Chap. 2. Note[d). 

(/) The four little Bones being treated of by all that have 
concerned tbemfelves about this Senfe of Hearing, face their 
Difcovery, I Hull take Notice of only two Things concerning. 
them. i. The Difcovery of them is owing wholly to the 
Diligence and Sagacity of the latter Ages; of which Sclcl- 
bammer gives this Account from FalUpius; Hac OJJtcula anti- 
quis Auatomicis—ignota fuere; primufque qui in lucem pro- 
duxit [Malleum & Incum] fuit Jac. Carpenfit ; primus quoque 
procul omni flubio Anatomica artis, quam Vefatius pofiea perfecit % 
refiaurator. Tertium [Stapedem] imxnit ac promulgavit pri- 
mus Job. Phil: ah lngrajjia t Siculus, Pbilofopbus, ac Medicus a'oc- 



124' °f the ^ r - BooK IV: 

of Hearing, to hear all Manner of Sounds, loud or 
languid, harlh or grateful (»j. 


tiffimus. Quartum, Tbomd Bartholin, tefte, viro long} cele- 
berfimo, Fran. Sjtvio debetur Scbcl. ubifupra, Cap. 3. Seel. 9.' 
t. Their Difference in Animals : In Man, and Quadrupeds, they 
arc four, curioufly inarticuiated with one another; with an 
external and internal Mafcle to draw, or work them, in ex-' 
tending, or relaxing the Drum ; but in Fowls the Cafe is yery 
different : His unum Officulum folum largita eft Natttra, quad 
mobilis, qu<e in Tympanum videtur terminari. Id. lb. Se&. 8. 
Collumellam forte appellaveris : teres enim eft &T fttbtiliffimum, > 
baft imtitens latiori, rotunda*. Huic adnexa eft cartilago valde, 
A the Ears of all the Fowl that I could examine, I never found 
any more than one Bone, and a Cartilage, making a Jeynt with 
it, that was eafily moveable. The Cartilage bad generally am 
Ipiphyfe, or two, one on each Side.— The Bone twos very bard 
and f mall t having at the End of it abroad Plate, of the fame Sub* 
fiance, very thin, upon which it refted, as on its Bafts. Dr. jfi\ 
tfoulen m Phil. Tranf. N°. 100. 

Thefe are the moft material Things I find obferved by o- 
thers, concerning the Ears of Fowls, and fome of them 
hardly, I believe, obferved before. To which I fhall fubjoin. 
fome other Things I have myfelf difcovered, that I prefnme 
cfcaped the Eyes of thofe moft curious aud inquifitive Anatomiftsv 
Of which the laft cited Book VII. Chap. 2. Note (d). 

(u) Videtur quod Tympanum Auditionis inftrumentum fneli- 
minare, t$ quafi praparatorium fuerh, quod Soni impreffionem^ 
ftve /pedes fenfibiles primo fufcipiens, eas in debitd proportion^ 
& afta conformitate, versus Senforium, quod adbuc interim ft- 
turn eft, dirigat : fimili officio fungitur refpcBu Judith, ac tm- 
nica Oculi Pupillam confiituentes, refpeSu Visus ; utraque Mem- 
bran* Species fenfibiles refringunt & quafi emolliunt, eafqut 
Sen/brio non nifi proportionatas tradunt, cui nudo ft advtniamt, 
ten trior em ejus crafin facile ladant, aut obruant. Reverb Tym- 
panum non audit, fed meliori tutiorique Auditioni confert. Si 
bac pars defiruatur, Senfio adbuc aliquamiiu, reds Hch modo, 
feragi poffit ; quippe experiment olim in Cane facJo, (*tc> 
Janitoris officio ut Tympanum re8e defungs poffit, expamfmn. 
ejus pro data occafionefirrngi, aut relaxari debet, veluti nimirum 
Oculi Pupillar——-Quaprbpter huic Auris Tympano, non ficnf 
ac bellico, machine five t*ni<e quadam npponunfur, quar/uperft- ' 
eiem ejus modo tenfiorem, modb iaxiorem reddant: hoc enim effici- 
unt tria Officula, cum Mnfculo, &Y. Willis de Anim. Brut 
Cap. H- 


Chap. III. Of the Ear, 125 

From this Region of the Tympanum, I might 


For this Opinion of Dr. Willis, Dr. Scbelbammer is very fevere 
upon him, deriding the Refractions he fpeaks of; and there- 
fore ferioufly proves that they are the Humours, not Tunicks of 
the Eye, chat refracl the Rays of Light ; and then jeeringly 
demandeth, whether the fonorous Rays are refra&ed by paf- 
fing through a different Medium ? Whether the Convexity or 
Concavity of the Drum collects thofe Rays into a focal Point, 
or fcatters them, &c. And then faith, Ob has rat tones a clariffi 
Viri % at dt re Medico, fr adore meriti, fententid non pojfumus nom 
Mjffe alieniores: in quo uti iugenium admiror, quoties medicamen- 
torum wires, out morborum caufas explicat, fie ubi forum fuum 
cgreflus, Pbilofopbum agit, ac <vel Partium a/urn, vel Cby mica- 
rum re rum naturam ferutetur, ejus baud femel non modo judi- 
cium defidero, <verum aliquando etiam /idem. This is fo fever© 
and unjuft a Cenfure of our truly famous Countryman, (a 
Man of known Probity) that might deferve a better Anfwer ; 
bat I have only Time to fay, that although Dr. Scbelbammer 
hath out-done all that wrote before him, in his Book de 
Audita, and (hewed himfelfa Man of Learning and Induftry; 
yet as our Countryman wrote more than he, (though per- 
haps not frte from Errors too) fo he hath manifefted hinV 
fclf to have been as curious and fagacious an Anatomift, as 
peat a Philofopher, and as learned and fkilful a Phyfician, as 
any of his Cenfuxers, and his Reputation for Veracity and 
Integrity, was no lefs than any of theirs too. But after 
all this terrible Clamour, Dr. Scbelbammer prejudicately mifta- 
keth Dr. Willis's Meaning, to fay no worfe. For by utr<eque Mem- 
brante refringunt, Dr. Willis plainly enough, 1 think, means 
no.more than a Reftri&ion of the Ingrefs of too many Rays ; 
at his following explicatory Words manifeft, wa. refrim- 
gmmt, faf quafi tmolliunt, eafque Senforio non nifi proportionate tra- 
June. But indeed Dr. Scbelbammer hath fhewn himfelf a too 
rigid Cenfor, by making Dr. Willis fay, the Ear Drum hath 
fach like Braces as the War-Drum. vi«. Quodporro de macbi- 
uis feu tteniis Tympani bellici adducit, dicitque idem in Tymba- 
no audit orio confpici, id prorfus falfijfimum eft. I wonder Dr. 
Scbelbammer did not alfo charge Dr. Willis with making it a 
Porter, fince he hath in the fame Paragraph, Janitoris officio, 13 c. 
But Dr. Willis's Meaning is plain enough, that the little Bones 
and Mufcles of the Ear-Drum do the fame Office in draining 
and relaxing it, as the Braces of the War- Drum do in that. 
And confidering how curious and folemn an Apparatus there 
H of Bones, Mufcles, and Joynts, all adapted to a ready Mo- 
tion, J a» clearl/ of Dr. Willis's Opinion, that oat ^tew. 


126 Of the Ear. Book IV. 

Ufe of the Ear-Drum is for the proportioning Sounds, and 
that by its Extenfion and Retraction, it correfponds to all 
Sounds, loud or languid, as the Pupil of the Eye doth to feve- 
ral Degrees of Light: And that they are no other than fecon- 
dary Ufes affign'd by Dr. Scbelbammer, as the principal or fofe 
Ufes of keeping out the external colder Air, Daft, and other 
Annoyances; but efpecially that, Ob folius aeris interns potiffi- 
mum irrumpentis trim, bunc motum Tympani ac Mallei tjfe con- 
ditum, ut cedert primurn, deindeftbi reftitui queat ; as his Words 
are. P.ult. C. 6. Sea. 13. 

It was no improbable Thought of Robault, Not atttutospra- 
lere f nil aliud eft, nifi Tympanum, uhi ita opus eft fa8o> conten- 
dere ant laxare, &T operant dare ut illud in eapofitione intentnm flet, 
in qua tremulum aeris externi motum commodijfime excipere poJSt. 
Ron. Phyf. p. i.e. 26. fed. 48. 

The Hearing of deaf Perfons more eafily by Means of loud 
Noifes, is another Argument of the Ufe of the Straining or 
Relaxation of the Tympanum in Hearing. Thus Dr. Willis 
(ubri fupra) Accept ohm a virojide digno, fe mulierem ncvijft, an* 
licet furda fuerit, quoufque tamen intra conclave Tympanum put- 
faretur % 'verba q&tvis clare audiebat : "quart Maritus ejus Tympm- 
niftam pro fer<vo domefiico conducebat, ut illius ope, colLoqusa inter' 
dum cum Uxorefud iaberet. Etiam de alio Surdaftro mibi mar* 
ratum eft, qui prope Campanile degens, quotiet una plures Cam* 
pan* refonarent, <voccm quamvis facile audire, & non alias, p+> 

Abfciffo Mu/culo [Procerus majoris Mallei] in recenti astro, 
relaxatur [Tympani Membrana.] Falfalv. de Aur. Hum. c 2. 
fed. 5. 

Upon confidering the great Difference in Authors Opini- 
ons, about the Ufe of the Parts, and Manner how Hearing is 
performed, as alfo what a curious Provifion there is made is 
the Ear, by the four little Bones, the Mufcles, Membranes, 
£sfa. I was minded (fince I penned this Note) to make En- 
quiry myfelf into this Part, and not to rely upon Authority. 
And after a diligent Search of various Subjects, I find we 
may give as rational and eafy an Account of Hearing, as of See- 
ing, or any other Senfe ; as I have (hewn in my laft cited 
Note (d), Book VII. Cbap. 2. with Relation to Birds. And as 
to Men and Beafts, the Cafe is the fame, but the Apparatus 
more complex and magnificent. For whereas in Birds, the 
auditory Nerve is affected by the Impreffions made on the 
Membrane, by only the Intermediacy of the Collumellai in 
Man, it is done by the Intervention of the four little Bones, 
with the Mufcles acting upon them ; his Hearing being to be 
adjufted to all Kinds of Sounds, or Impreffions made upon the 
Membrana Tympani. Which Impreffions are imparted to the 

'rtory Nerve, in this Manner, viz. Firft they ad upon the 

Vane and Malleus, the Malleus upon the Incus, and the 

z fwtifc 

Chap. HI. Of the Eye. 127 

pafs to that of the Labyrinth («;), and therein furvey 
the curious and admirable Stru&ure of the VeRibu- 
luw 9 the Semicircular Canals (#) f and Cochlea ; parti- 
cularly the artificial Gyrations, and other lingular 
Curiofities bbfervable in the two latter. 

But 1 fhall not expatiate on thefc reclufe Parts ; 
only there is one fpecial Contrivance of the Nerves 
miniftring to this Senfe of Hearing, which muft 


Incus upon the Os Orbiculare and Stapes ; and the Staffs upon 
the auditory Ner<vt: For the Bafe of the Stapes (the fame as 
the Operculum in Birds) not only covers the Feneflra 0valis 9 
wi:hin which the auditory Nerve lieth, but hath a Part of the 
auditory Nerve fpread upon it too. It is manifeft that this is 
the true Procefs of Hearing ; becaufe if the Membrane be mov'd, 
you may fee all the Bone3 move at the fame Time, and work 
the Bafe of the Stapes up and down in the Feniflra Ova/is, as I 
ihewed in this Chapter, Note (d) t concerning the Mole ; and as 
it may be feen in other Ears carefully opened, if the Parts re- 
main in fetu. 

(iv) I do not confine the Labyrinth to the Canales S emi cir- 
cular es, or any other Part, as the elder Anatomifts feem to have 
done, who by their erroneous and blind Defcriptions feem not 
well to have underftood thefe Parts ; but with thofe much more 
curious and accurate Anatomifts, Monfieur de Fernay, and Dr. 
Valfal<va ; under the Labyrinth I comprehend the Canales Semi- 
circulares y and the Cochlea, together with the intermediate Cavity, 
called by them the Veftibulum. 

(x) In the fern icircular Canals, two Things deferve to be 
noted, i. That the three Canals are of three different Sizes, 
Major* Minor, and Minimus. 2. Although in different Sub- 
jecls, they are frequently different ; yet in the fame Subject 
they are conttantly the fame. The Reafon of all which, to- 
gether with the IJ^ca, Valfalva ingenioafly thinks is, that as a 
Part of the tender auditory Nerve is lodged in thefe Canals, (o 
they are of three Sizes, the better to fuit all the Variety 'of 
Tones; fome of the Canals fuiting fome, and others, other 
Tones. And although theie be fame Difference as to the 
Length and Size of thefe Canals, in different Perfons; yet, left 
there fhould be any Difcord in the auditory Organs of one and 
the fame Man, thofe Canals are always in exaft Conformity to 
one another in one and the fame Man. V, Fal/aL ubifupr. Ch. 
3. Sea. 7. and Ch. 6. Sea. 4, 9. 

T2& Of the Ear. Book IV. 

not be paffed by 5 and that is, the Branches of one 
of the auditory Nerves (y) 9 fpread partly to theMuf- 
cles of the Ear, partly to the Eye, partly to the 
Tongue and Inftruments of Speech, and inofculated 
with the Nerves to go to the Heart and Breaft. By 
which Means there is an admirable and ufeful Con- 
fent between thefc Parts of the Body ; it being jia* 
Cural for moil Animals, upon the hearing any un- 
couth Sound, to eredt their Ears, and prepare them 
to catch every Sound ; to open their Eyes (thofe con- 
ftant faithful CentinelsJ to ftand upon their Watch; 
and to be ready with the Mouth to call out, or ut- 
ter what the prefent Occafion {hall di&ate. And 
accordingly it is very ufeful for moft Animals, when 
furpriz'd, and terrify'd with any Noife, prefcntly to 
lhnck and cry out. 

But there is bcfides this, in Man, another great 
Ufe of this nervous Commerce between the Ear and 
Mouth; and that is, (as one of the beft Authors 
on this Subject expreffeth it) (2), " That the Voice 
C4 may correfpond with the Hearing, and be a kind 
€C of Echo thereof, that what is Beard with one of 
€t the two Nerves, may be readily expreffed with the 
" Voice, by the Help of the other." 



(j) Hie pofterior Nervus extra cranium delatus, in tns 
dividitur, qui otnnes motibus patheticis ■ ■ l i nferviunf. Prima 
' " mufcuiis Juris impenditur. Proculdubio bujus afiione effiei- 
tur y nt animalia qu*vis> a fubito font impulju, awes quafi /$• 
mm nimis eito tranfeuntem captaturas erigant. Ramus alter— 
verfus utrumque oculi angulutn furcules emittit: qui mufcuiis pal- 
pebrarum attollentibus ittferuntur ; quorum cert} munus eft ad fu- 
bitutn font appulfum oculos confeftim aperire, eofque vekt ad Ex- 
eubias vocare — Tertius——— ramus verfus lingua* radicem 
defcendens, mufcuiis ejus fef ojfis Hyoideos diftribuitur, adiifu* 
crgana quadam ntocis edenda afiuat, 6f c. Willis's Cercb. An&t. 
Cap. 17. 

(z) Hujufmodi Nervorum eonformatio in Homing vfum afym 
fraftat, nempt ut Vqx % &c» Willis ibid. 

{mm\ A- 

Chap. Ill* Of Sound, tz$ 

Thus much (hall fuffice to have fpoken concern* 
ing the Organ. Let us, 

II. Take Notice of the Qbje8 of this admirable 
Senfe, namely, Sound; and fo conclude this Chap- 
ter. J fhall not here enquire into the Nature and 
.Properties of Sound, which is in a great meafure 
intricate, and hath puzzelled the beft Naturalifts : 
Neither will I fhew how this admirable Effedl of 
the divine Contrivance, may be improved to divers 
Vfes (aa) and Purpofes in human Life * but my 
Bufinefs will be to (hew that this Thing, of fo ad* 
mirable Ufe in the animal World, is the Work of 



(aa) Among the Ufes to which the Wit of Man hath em- 
ploy 'd Sounds* we may reckon the Inftruments ufeful in con* 
locating AfTemblies, managing Armies, and many other Oc* 
cafions, wherein Bells, Trumpets, Drums, Horns, and other 
founding Inftruments are ufed; the Particularities of which 
it would be tedious to recount : As that the bisgeft Bell in 
Europe is reckoned to be at Erfurt in Germany, which they fay 
may be heard twenty-four Miles ; with much more to the 
fame Purpofe. I fhall therefore only for a Sample take No- 
dee of the Speaking Trumpet ; the Invention of which is com- 
monly afcribed to our eminent Sir-Samuel Morland; but was 
more probably Atb. Kircber's ; at lead he had contrived fuch 
an Inftrument, before Sir Samuel hit upon his. J&rcber in his 
Tbonurg. faith, The Tromba publifhed laft Year in England, ha 
had invented twenty-four Years before, and publifhed in his 
Mi/urgia; that Jac. Albanus Gbibbefius, and Fr. B/cbinardus. 
afcribe it to him ; and that G. Scbottus teftifieth he had fuch 
an Infirument in his Chamber in the Roman College, with which 
he could call to, and receive Anfwers from the Porter* And 
confidering hdw famed Alexander tbe Great's Tube was, which 
is laid might be heard 100 Stadia, it is fomewhat ftrange that 
too body fooner hit upon the Invention. Of this Stentoropbonick 
Horn of Alexander, there is a Figure preferved in the Vatican, 
Which, for Curiofity fake, I have from JGrcber reprefented in 
Jig. 3. He faith its Diameter was five Cubits, and that it was 
, fufpended on a Supporter. 

For the Make of the Speaking Trumpet, and the Reafon, 
Why it magnifies Sounds, I fhall refer to Kircber, efpecially 
to Sir Samuel Mor land's Tuba Stenfmpbonica, publifhed in 

XL Kircfcer 

*3° Of Sound. Book IV. 

God. And this will appear, let the Subjeft Mat- 
ter of Sounds be what it will \ either the Atmo- 
sphere {bit) in Grofs, or the aetherial Part thereof, 
or foniferous- Particles of Bodies, as feme fancy, or 


Kircber faith, he took one of thefe Trumpets of fifteeo 
Palms length, along with him to the Mans Euftacbianus h whet*, 
he convocated 2200 Perfons to Prayers, by means of the 
unufual Sound, at two, three, four, and Arc Italia* Mile* 

With thefe Btllo*iving»Trttmpets, I (hall join fome Belbwheg* 
Caves for the Reader's Diverfion. OL Magnus defcribes 1 
Cave in Finland, near Viburg, called Snellen, into which, if a 
Dog, or. other living Creature be call, it fends forth {o dread-^ 
ful a Sound, that knocks down every one near it. For which' 
Reafon they have guarded the Cave with high Walls, to pre- 
vent the Mifchiefs of its Noife. Fide OL Magn. Eift. 1. iu 
c. 4. Such another Peter Martyr faith is in BifpauioU, which* 
with a fmall Weight caft into it, endangers Deafneis at five 
Miles Diftance. And in Switzerland, Kircber faith, in the 
Cucumer Mountain is a Pit that fends out both a dreadful 
Noife and a great Wind therewith ; and that there is a Well in 
his Country 3000 Palms deep, whofe Sound is equal to that of a 
great Gun. Vide Kircb. Pbonurg. 

OL Magnus fpeaking of the vaft high Mountains of a Nor- 
thern Province, call'd Angermannia, faith, Ubi bafes eorum in. 
frofundiffimo gurgite ft antes, cafu aliquo,, <vel propofiio Nautm. 
accefferint, tantum berrorem ex aha fluSuum collifiont perci- 
piunt, ui nifi pnecipiti remigio, out <valido vento evoferint, fik 
pavore ferh examines fiant, mukoque dierum curricula, ab capim 
tit turbatianem, friftin* mentis, & fanitatis competes vix eva* 
dant. Habent bafes illorum montium in fluBuum ingreffm & 
rtgrejh tortuofas rimas, fimefcijfuras, fatis/mpenda nature opifich 
fabricator, in quibus longd varagine formidabilis ilk Soniius quafi ' 
fubterraneum tomtrugeneratur. OL Mago. L 2. c 4. See alb f 
Cbaf. 12. * 

(bb) That the Air is the Subjeft, or Medium of Sound, is ~ 
manifeft from the Experiments in rarefied and condenftd 
Air. In an unexhaufted Receiver, a fmall Bell may be heard 
at the Diftance of fome Paces ; but when exhaufted, it can 
fcarce be heard at the neareft Diftance : And if the Air be 
comprcfled, the Sound will be louder, proportionably to the 
Compreffion or Quantity of Air crouded in, as I have often 
tried myfelf, and may be feen in Mr. Ha<wkfiee\ curious 
Experiments, p. 97. Alfo his Experiments in Pbil. Tramf. 


CuAfr. HI* Of Sound* 131 

whatever elfe the Philofophefs rriay think it. For 
who but an intelligent Being* what lefs than an 


Neither doth this fucceed only in forced Rarefa&ions and 
Cdfldenfations of the Air, but in fuch alfo as are natural ; aft 
is evident from David Fretdlicbius in Vartnius, upon the. 
higheft Eminences of Carpatbus, near Kefmarcht in Hungary. 
The Story of tradlicbius is this, Ego menfe'Jnnii 161 5. tuns 
mdekfeens, fublimitatem borum montium, cum duobtts comitibu* 
Stbedaribus, expert ft volens, ubi f cum in prim* tufts vertice 9 
magm labor e 9 me fummum terminum affecntum eye putarem, 
demmn fefe obtulit alia multo alitor c antes, ubi pervafia eaqut 
vacillanHa faxa (quorum unum, fi loco a viatore dimovetur 
■ ■ ■ aliquot centena* ■ ■■ rapit, & quidem Unto cum 
fragore, ut illi metuendum fit ne totus Moris corruat, eumqui 
obrumt) ehixus effem y ittrum alia fublimior prodiit, &c. donee 
fiemm vita? fericulo ad fupremum cacumen penetraverim. Eat 

ieclsvioribus montibus cum in fubje&os valles, nil nifi 

tbfeuram nodem, out cetruleum quid, inftar profundi atris, quod 
v*l$ fudum cesium appellator, obfervare potui tkibique widebaf, 
fi de nunte coder em, tton in terram, fed reel} in folum me pro* 
lapfitrum. Nimia eninf decUvitate, fpeeies vifibiles extenuate & 
hebetatttfuerunt. Cum verb altiorem montem peter em, qnafi ifttrW 
nebulas denfiffimas barebam — — Et cum non proem A fumrno 
vertice effens defublimi quiefcens profpexi & animadvetti Hs in lo- 
cis, ubi mibi antea videbaf intra nebulas bafijfs, compa&as atqu4 
albas fefe movers mtbes, fupra qu*s t per aliquot milliaria, iff nitres 
termini* Sepufi eommoaus mibi profpecJus pat kit. Alias tamem 
ttiam nubes alt tores, alias item bumiliores, necnon quafdani arena* 
liter a terrd diftantes vidi. Atque bine tria intellexi, t . Me turn 
trsmfiviffe printipsum media Aeris regionis. 2. Difiantiam nubiuni 
b terra, non effe *qualem.—$. Difiantiam *ubium**>mm Jz MitL 
Ger. ut quidam—fed tantum dimidiatum Mill. Ger. In Jim- 
mum mentis verticem cum perveniffem, adeb tranquil /mm fcf fub- 
Mem aerem ibi offend* , ut n} pili quidem metum fentirem 9 cum 
tnmen in depreffieribus ventum vebementem expertus fim: umh 
. tollegi fummum cacumen iftius montis Carpatbiei ad Mill. Germ. 
J « ramcibus fins imis exfurgere, W ad fupremam ufqne aeris 
" regienem, ad quam Fenti non afcendunt, pertrngert. Explofi 
. ' in edfummitate Sclppetum : quod non major em font turn primi prof 
J fe ttslit, quam fi Ugillum vel bad Hum confregiffem ; poft inttt~ 
' Vallum out em temporis murmur prolixum invaluit, inferior efquS 
*soutis partes, convaUes & fylvus opplevit. Defietsdendo per 
nhtes eumofas intra eonvallet, cum iterum Sclopetum estonera- 
* fern, major &f borribilior fragor % quam ex tormtnto cafacxffim* 
• K i indt 

132 Of Sound. Book IV. 

omnipotent and infinitely wife God could contrive, 
and make fuch a fine Body, fuch a Medium, fo 
fufceptible of every Impreffion, that the Senfe of 
Hearing hath Occafion for, to empower all Animals 
to exprefs their Senfe and Meaning to others ; td 
make known their Fears, their Wants, their Pains, 


inde exoriebatur: bine veretar ni totus mons coneuffus mtcum 
cornier et : duravitque hie /onus per femiquadrantem borat ufquoi 
dum abjlrufijjimas cmvernas penetrdj/et, ad quas air mndtqng ml— 
tiplicatus refi/iit.—l* bis ctlfis mantibus, plerumque ningit gran^- 
dinatve media aflate, quotits nempe in fubje&d tsf vicind plamitioW 
fluff, uii ,boe ipfum expertus fum. Nives diver forum annorum t**& 
colore & cortice dwiore digno/ci pojfunt. Varcn. Geogr. Gen. 1 — 

1. c. 19. prop. ult. 

The Story being diverting, and containing divert Things 
remarkable, I have chofen to note the whok of it (although* 
fomewhat lone) rather than (ingle out the Paffages only whidfc"3 
relate to the diminifhing the Sound of his Piftol, by the R arit y* 
of the Air at that great Afcent into the Atmofphere ; and th^es 
magnifying the Sound by the Polyphonifms or Repercuffions o> ^ 
the Rocks, Caverns, and other Phonocamptick Obje&a belo^W 
in the Mount. 

But 'tis not the Air alone that is capable of the Impreffioras 
of Sound, but the Water alfo, as is manifeft by linking a Bc-Il 
under Water, the Sound of which may plainly enough be heard, ' 
but it is much duller, and not fo loud ; and it is alfo 1 fourcJi 
deeper, by the Ear of fome great Judges in Mufical Notes, who . 
gave me their Judgments in the Matter. But Mer/enne fakir, 
a Sound made under Water, is of the fame Tone or Note, if /< 
heard under Water 1 as are alfo Sounds made in the Air, when 1 
heard under Water. Vide Merftn. Hydraul. * 

Having mentioned the hearing of Sounds under Water, :& 
there is another Curiofity worth mentioning, that alfo far* A 
ther proves Water to be fufceptible of the .Imprenlons of j* 
Sound, viz. Divers at the Bottom of the Sea, can hear the j& 
Noifes made above, only confufedly. But, on the contrary, 
thofe above cannot hear the Divers below. Of which an Ex- 
periment was made, that had like to have been fatal : One 
of the Divers blew an Horn in his Diving Bell, at the Bot- 
tom of the Sea; the Sound whereof (in that comprefied AW 
was fo very loud and irkfome, that ftunned the Diver, and 
made him fo giddy, that he had like to have dropt out of his 
Bell, and to have been drowned. Vide Sturmii Colleg. Cur. Vol 

2. Tentam. i. 



Chap. III. Of Sound. 133 

and Sorrows in melancholick Tones; their Joys 
and Pleafures in more harmonious Notes * to fend 
their Minds at great Diftances (cc\ in a fhort 
Time (dd) 9 in loud Boations ; or to exprefs their 
Thoughts near at hand with a gentle Voice, or in 
fecret Whifpers ! And to fay no more, who lefs 
than the fame moft wife and indulgent Creator, 


{cc) As to the Diftance to which Sound may be lent, 
having fame doubt, whether there was any Difference be- 
tween the Northern and Southern Parts, by the Favour of 
my learned and illuftrious Friend Sir Henry Newton, her late 
Majefty's Envoy at Florence, I procured fome Experiments 
to be made for me in haty. His moft Serene Highnefs the 
Great Duke was pleafed to order great Guns to be hYd for this 
purpofe at Florence, and Perfons were appointed on purpofe 
to obferve them at Leghorne, which they compute is no lefs 
than 55 Miles in a (trait Line. But notwithftanding the Coun- 
try between being fomewhat hilly and woody, and the Wind 
alfo was not favouring, only very calm and ftill, yet the 
Sound was plainly enough heard. And they tell me, that 
the Leghorn? Guns are often heard 66 Miles off, at Pprio Fer* 
retro ; that when the French bombarded Genoa, they heard it 
sear Leghorne, 90 Miles diftant; and in the Mejfina Infur- 
reBion, the Guns were heard from thence as far as Augufta and 
Sjracu/e, about 100 Italian Miles. Thefe Diftances being fo 
confiderable, give me teafon to fufpeft, that Sounds fly as far, 
or nearly as far, in the Southern, as in the Northern Parts of 
the World, notwithftanding we have a few Inftances of Sounds 
reaching farther Diftances. As Dr. Hearn tells us of Guns 
fired at Stockholm in 1685, that were heard 180 FngHJb Miles. 
And in the Dutch War, 1672, the Guns were heard above 
100 Miles. Vide Phil. Tranf. N° 113. Alfo there is this 
farther Reafon of Sufpicion, that the Mercury in the Baro- 
meter rifeth higher without than within the Tropicks, and the 
more Northerly, (till the higher, which may increafe the 
Strength of Sounds, by Note (bb). 

(da) As to the Velocity of Sounds, by reafon the moft 
celebrated Authors differ about it, I made divers nice Expe- 
riments myfelf, with good Inftruments ; by which I found, 
1. That there is fome, altho* a fmall Difference, in the 
Velocity of Sounds, with or again ft the Wind: which alfo is, 
%. Augmented or diminifhed by the Strength or Weaknefs of 
the Wind. But that nothing elfe doth accelerate, or xttax&u, 

K 3 w* 

134 Qf Sound. Book IV, 

could form fuch ao OEconomy, as that of Melody 
and Mufick is; That the Medium fhould (as I faid) 
fo readily receive every Impreflion of Sound, and 
convey the melodious Vibration of every mufical 
String, the harmonious Pulfes of every animal 
Voice, and of every mufical Pipe ; and the Ear bo 
as well adapted, and ready to receive all thefe Im- 

{)reffions, as the Medium to convey them : And laft- 
y, that by Means of the curious Lodgment, and 
iWculation of the Auditory Nerves before-men- 
tioned, the Orgafms of the Spirits fhould be allay'd 
and Perturbations of the Mind, in a great Meafure 
quieted and ftilled (ee): Or, exprefs it in the 


not the Differences of Day or Night, Heat or Cold, Summer 
or Winter, Cloudy or Clear, Barometer high or low, &c - 
3. That all kinds of Sounds have the fame Motion, whether* 5 
they be loud or languid, of Bells, Guns, great or fatal], or"? 
any other fonorpus Body. 4. That they fly equal Spaces intf 
equal Times. Fifthly and laftly, That the Mean of theirs 
Flight is at the rate of a Mile in 9 half Seconds and a quarters 
or 1 142 Feet in one Second of Time. Fide Phil. Iran/. lfod^ 

(ee) Timothy a Mufician could excite Alexander the Great tod 
Arms with the Phrygian Sound, and allay his Fury with ano- 
ther Tone, and excite him to merriment. So Ericus King or: 
penmark, by a certain Mufician, could be driven to fuch a Foxy - 
as to kill fome of his bell and mod trufty Servants. More o^ 
(his Power of Mufick over the Affedtions, may be feen in AtJ^^ 
Kirch. Pbonur*. lib. 2. (eft. 1. Alfo in # Vofiius dc PoematvrB* 
cantUy y Rytbmi *viribus. 

And not only upon the AfFedtions, but alfo on the Parts c*f 
the Body, Mufick is able to exert its Force, as appears front 
the Gafcoigne Knight, Cut Pbormingis fono audita Vefica fiatim 
ad Vrinam reddendum vellieabatur. Such another we have in 
A° 1. Ephem. Nat. Curio/. Obferv. 134. Alfo Morbof it , 
Scyph, vitr. per. cert, human, wci* fonum fraQo : where there 
is not only the Account of the Dutchman at Apt ft er dam, one 
Nich. Peter, that brajce Romer-Glafles with the Sound of hit 
Voice ; but alfo divers other Inftances of the Powers and Ef- ' 
feds of Sound. But to (he Story of the Gafcoigne Knight, 
Mr. Boyle, from Sca/iger, adds a pleafant Pafikge, That one 
he had difobliged, to be even with him, caufed at a Feaft, 
3 Bag pipe to be played, when he ^as hemmed in with the, 


Cbap. M. OfSmnd. 135 

Company j which made the Knight be-pifs himfelf, to the 

freat Diversion of the Company, as well as Confufion of 
imfelf. Boyle's Efay of the EfiB of Lang, Motion. In the 
lane Book are other Matters chat may be noted here. One . 
whoie Arm was cut off, was exceedingly tormented with die 
Discharge of the great Guns at Sea, although he was at a 
great Diftance on Land. And a great Ship- Commander ob- 
served his wounded Men, with broken Limbs, foSered in 
like manner at the Enemies Difcharges. An ingenious Do- 
meftick at bis own would have bis Gums bleed at the 
tearing of Brown-Paper. And an ingenious Gentleman of 
Mr. Boyle' % Acquaintance confeiTed to him, that he was in- 
clined to the Knight of Gofcoigne^s Diftemper, upon hearing 
the Noife of a Tap running. The dancing to certain Tunes, 
of Perfons bit with the Tarantula, he was attired of by an 
ingenious Acquaintance at Tarentum, who few feveral, among 
the reft a Phyiician, affected with that Diftemper. And ma- 
ny other Accounts of this kind, feemingly credible, are re- 
lated in Morhoff, Kircher, and many others ; although Dr. Cor- 
nttio queftions the Matters of Fad relating to the Cure of the 
Tarantula Bite* in Pbilof. Tranf. N° 83. Mr. Boyle alfo faith, 
a fober Mufician told him, he could make a certain Woman 
weep, by playing one Tone, which others would be little 
•adeemed at. And he faith, that he himfelf had a kind of 
ibivering at the repeating two Verfes in Lucan. And I add, , 
*hat I very well know one to have a fort of Chill about his 
Pr*cordia and Head, upon reading or hearing the 53d Chapter 
of Ifedmb ; as alfo David's Lamentations for Saul and Jona- 
than, 1 Sam. i. 

Neither are our own Minds and Bodies only afFelted with 
'Sounds, but inanimate Bodies are 4b alio. Of which many 
Stories may be met with in Kircber, particularly a large Stone 
that would tremble at the Sound of one particular Organ- 
Pipe.; in Morbaff alfo, who among many other Relations hath 
this, Memitii cum ipfi [clarif. IVtllifio] de experiment Vitri per 
vocemfracli narrarem, ex eo audivife, quod in adibus Muficis fibi 
vicinis aliquoties eollapfum pawimentum fuerit ; quod ipfe Jonis 
coutinuit ad f crib ere non dubita<uit. Morhoff. cap. 1 2. Merfenne 
alfo, among many Relations in his Harmon, and other Books, 
tells a far more probable Story, of a particular Part of a 
Pavement, that would make, as if the Earth would open, 
when the Organs played, than what he relates about Antipa- 
thy, in his Quceft. Comment, in Genef viz. That the Sound of 
a Drum made of a Wolfs Skin, will break another made of 
Sheep's Skin : That Hens will fly at the Sound of an Harp 
fining with Fox-Gut-Strings, and more to the fame purpofe. 
Mr. Boyle alfo, in his laft cited Book tells us, Seats will trem- 
ble at the Sound of Organs ; and that he hath felt his Hat fo too under his Hand, at certain Notes both of Or- 

K 4 ^T«, 


I36 Of Sound. Book IV, 

Words of the laft-cited famous Author {ff) y " That 
" Mufick (hould not only affed the Fancy with 
" Delight, but alfo give Relief to the Grief and 
w Sadnefs of the Heart ; yea, appeafe all thofe tur- 
" bulent Paffions, which are excited in the Breaft 
<€ by an immoderate Ferment, and Flu&yation of the 
V Blood." 

And now, who can reflect upon all this curious 
Apparatus of the Senfe of Hearing, and not give the 
great Creator his due Praife ! Who can fqrvcy all 
this admirable Work* and not as readily own it to 
be the Work of an omnipotent, and infinitely wife 
and good God (gg), as the moft artful Melodies 
we hear, are tjie Voice or Performance* of a living 
Creature ! 

tans, and in Difcoarfe, that he tried an Arch that would an- 
swer to C-fa-ut, and had done fo an 100 Yean; and that an 
experienced Builder told him any well-built Vault will anfwer 
fomc determinate Note. And at Eajibury-Houfe near JUrthm^ 
I myfelf difcovered the Porch, (having firm Brick -Walls,) 
not only to found when (truck on the Bottom, but alfo to give 
aim oil as loud a Sound, when I founded the fame Note with 
way Voice. 

(ff) Wl/is, ubi fupra. 

(gZ) Mb &*** *fl~- f** «•* calamo tout km cantare, Cff 

*l re ft e * **¥** inconditum carmen ad aliquam tantum obltSatio- 
nem modulari docuit, fid tot artes, t§t <uoc*m varittates, tot fonoi % 
alios fpiritu noftro % alios extern* <**t*i efituros commeutm ejt\ 
§cnec. de Benef. 1. 4. c. 6. 


[ l 37 1 

C H A P. IV. 

Of the Senfe, of Smelling. 

THIS Senfe I (hall difpatch in lefs Compafi 
than the two laft, becaufe its Apparatus (al- 
.though fufficiently grand and admirable, yet) is not 
fo multiplicious as of the Eye and Ear ; it being 
fufficient in this Senfe, that the odoriferous Effluvia 
of Bodies (*)can have an eafy, free Paflage to the 
©lfadtory Nerves, without the Formalities of Rc^ 
fraftions, and other Preparations neceflary to 1 the 
Perfedtion of the two former Senfes. Accordingly, 
the all-wife Creator hath made fufficient Provifiort 
for the Reception of Smells, by the Aperture of 
the Noftrils (b) -, made not of Flefti, or Bone, but 
cartilaginous, the better to be kept open, and withal, 
to be dilated or contra&ed, as there is Occafion : 
For which Service it hath feveral proper and curious 
Mufclcs (*)• 


(*) h Piece of Ambergrtaft fafpended in a Pair of Scales 
that woald turn with a very fmall Fart of a Grain, loft no- 
thing of its Weight in three Days and a half; neither did' 
AJfafcttida in five Days and a half: But an Ounce of Nutmegs 
loft five Grains and a half in fix Days ; and Govts feven Grains 
and four fifths. BoylS* Subtil of Ejpuv. c. 5. 

(b) Nans, eo quod omni^Odor ad fuftriora fertur, rt&i fur* 
fum funt : Et quod Cibi {jf Potionis judicium magnum tarum tfi 9 
nonfine causd vicinitatem Oris fecuta funt. Cic. de Nat. Dtor. 
/. 2. c. 56. 

(c) Had not the Contriver of Animal Bodies been minded 
that his Work fhould have all the Signatures of Accuracy, 
this Senfe might have been performed with a bare Aperture of 
the Nofe ; but that nothing might go impeded out of his 
Hand, he hath made a Part of the Nofe cafily moveable, and 
given a Set of Mufcles to lift up, and open and (hut the Nof- 
(rils ; and fo adjuft it to every Occafion of this Senfe. 

138 Of the Smell. Book IV. 

And forafmuch as it is by Breathing GQ, that 
the odorant Particles are drawn in, and convey'd 
to the Senfory ; therefore there is a very wife Pro- 
vifion majle in the Laming with which the upper 
Part of the Nofe is barricaded, which ferve to two 
excellent Ufes : Partly, to fence out any noxious 
Subftances from entering the breathing Faflages in 
our Sleep, or when we cannot be aware (?) ; and 
partly to receive the Divarications of the olfaBory 
Nerves* which are here thick fpread, and which do 
by thefe Means meet the Smells entering with the 
Breath, and (hiking upon them. 

And accordingly, the more accurate this Senfeis 
in any Animal, the longer we may obferve thofe 
Lamina are ; and more of them in Number folded 
up, and crouded together, to contain the more 
nervous Filaments, and to detain and fetter the 
odoriferous Particles in their Windings and Turn- 

And ad' admirable Provision this is, which the 
great Creator hath made for the Good of brute 
Creatures (/) j the chief A£ts of many of whole 
JLiyps &re perform'd by the Minjftry or this Sehfe. 


{d) Odgrem won aiiud, quart imfi&um Jerm, intelligi pojfi. Plin. 
Nat. Hift. I 9. c. 7. 

(*) For a farther Guard againft the Ingrefe of noxious 
Things, the Vibriffi, or Hairs placed at the Entrance of the 
Noftrils fcrve, which, in fome Meafure flop the Entrance of 
Things improper, or, however, give Warning of them ; bnt 
4t the fame Time allow an eafy Paflkge to the Breath and 

(f) Multb fraclarius emlcat \Olfa8u$\ in brut is animalibtu, 
quant in bomine: ifia manque hoc fok indict, berbarum, ali- 
•rumque corfgrum prists ignotorum nrirtutts certiffime" dignofcu*t t 
quin & *ti&um fuum abfentevt, vel in abftrufi pofihsm, Odo~ 
ratu <oinmntur y ac facillime iwvefiigant. Quod autem minus fa- 
faces funt bominum narts % Mud non facultatis bujus abufui 
(print .mnnulli *voJunt) afcribi debet \ iterum in causa eft iffius 
Organs defeftus : he tuim circa viffis bsssnam criteria {ubi ra- 

f I 

Chap. IV. Of tbi Smell 13 9 

In Infefts, and many other Creatures, it is of great 
Ufe in -the Propagation of their Kind ; as particu- 
larly in helping them to fafe and convenient Places 
for the Incubatiptt of their Eggs, and breeding up 
their Young. Others are by the Accuracy of this 
Senfe, of Ufe to Mankind, which would be other- 
wife of little or no Ufe (g). And moft of the ir- 
rational Animals, Birds, Beads, and creeping 
Things,. do p by their Smell, find out their Food; 
fome at great Diftaocts, and fome at Hand. Witk 
what Sagacity do fome difcover their Food in the 
IVIidft of Mud *>nd Pirt(i) ? With what Curiofity 
do the herbaceous Kind pick and chufe fuch Plants 
£S afford them wjiolfome Food, or fometimes fuch 
as are Medicinal (i) 9 and refufe fuch as would hurt 
and deftroy them ? And all by the Help principally* 
if not only, of the Smell, affifted by its near Ally 
the Tafte. Of which i fliall in the next Place fpeafc 
very briefly. 

tio, & intelle8usHtfuni) non ita accuratum requiritur: Profiti- 
ng enim inferiores potenti* in homine % a nahtrd miniu perfeQa 
$xiftunt 9 ut fuperiorum cultui & cxercitio relinqueretur locus. 
Willis deAnim. Brut. <ap. 13. 

[g) Thus the chief Ufe of Hounds is to hunt; and other 
Dogs, to be a Watch and Guard to our Houfes by Night. For 
ybich Services (particularly in Hounds) their QlfaBary Nerves 
are not only remarkably larger (like as they are in other 
Prates,) but their Branches and Filaments are, in the Lamina 
pf the Noftril?, both more and larger than I have feen in any 
other Creature whatfoever. Alfo tnere are more Convulfioni 
pf the Lamina tl)an I ever remember to have found in any 
other Animal. 

The Sagacity of Hounds is prodigious ; of which fee an In- 
ftance in Book IV. Chap. n. Note (bhb). 
\ {b) See Book VII. Chap. z. Note (e). 

\i) Fide Plin. Hift. Nat. j. 8. cap. 27. %u<* animalia qua* 
Mas ofteuderunt. 




[ 14© ] 


Of the tafte {a). 



N this, as in the laft Senfe, we have an Appara- 

tus abundantly fufficicnt to the Senfe ; Nerves 

curioufly divaricated about the Tongue (£), and 
Mouth, to receive the Imprcflions of every Gufto; 
and thefe Nerves guarded with a firm and proper 
Tegument to defend them from Harms ; but with- 
al, fo perforated in the papillary Eminences, as to 
give a free Admiffion to Taftes. 


(a) T» }\ ttfo j oif xtfXw, See. Saforum genera, ■ dulcis, 
finguis, aufterusy acerbus, acris, falfus, amaruj, acidus. TheQr 
phr. de Cauf. Plant. /. 6. c. i. What may be the Caafe of the 
Difference of Taftes, he faith, is hard to affign, voTsgov yd^tcZ; 
fr«0icri, Sec. Vtrum affeclionibus Senfuum—an fguris 9 qui- 
busfinguli conftant, ut Democritus cenfet, id. ib. A«jf*o*f»T«f i\, 
&C. Democritu s dulcem effe faporem qui rotund** i acer- 
bum quifigura magna ; a/per urn qui mult is angulis, &C. id; ib* 
Sec. But of the Diverfities and Caufes of Taftes, fee Dr. Grru^ 
Le8. 6. and Dr. Wallis de Anim. Brut. c. 12. 

[b) Intellects Saforum eft ceteris in prima lingua: Homim, 
fcf inpalato. Plin. 1. 11. c. 37. 

The Opinions of the Anatomifts concerning the Organ of 
fafte, are various. Baubin. T. Bartholin. Bartbo/ette, Vejlinge % 
Deufinge t Sec. place it in the laxer, ftefhy Parts of the Tongue. 
Our famous Wharton, in the Gland at the Root of the Tongue : 
Laurentius in the thin Tunick covering the Tongue ; but the 
learned Malpigbi with great Probability concludes, becauft 
the outward Cover of the Tongue is perforated, under which 
lie papillary Parts, (of which Mr. Cvwper hath very good 
Cuts in his Anat. Tab. 13 ) -that in thefe the Tafte lieth. MaJ- 
pigbfs Words are, £>uare cum diclis meatibus infignibus occur- 
rant fapillaria corpora, probabilius eft in bis ultimo, ex fubiu- 
tranti fapido humore titillationem, & mordicationem quondam 
fyri, qua Guftum efficiat. Malpig. Op, Tom. 2, De Lingua, 

Chap. V. Of the Tajtel 141 

But I fliall fay no more of this Senfe ; only a 
Word or two of its Confent with the Smell, and 
the Situation of them both : Their Situation is in 
the moft convenient Place imaginable, for the Dif- 
charge of their Offices ; at the firft Entrance {c) % 
in the Way to the grand Receptacle of our Food 
and Nourifhment ; to furvey what is to be ad- 
mitted therein ; to judge between what is wholfome, 
and fit for Nourifhment, and what is unfavoury 
and pernicious. And for this End, the all-wife 
Creator feems to have eftablifhed a great Confent 
between the Eye, the Nofe, and Tongue, by or- 
dering the Branches of the fame Nerves (d) 9 to each 
of thofe three Parts 5 asalfo indeed, to divers other 
Parts of the Body, which I may have Occafion to 
mention in a more proper Place (*). By which 


Pracipuum ac fere /alum Guftatus organon eft Lingua ; cut ali- 
quatenus fubobfcure tamen Palatum, & fuf trior Gula pars con* 
fentiunt : in omnibus vero fibne nemnfat immediata fenfionis inftru- 
mentafunt. Square obfervare eft, Linguam pra alia qudvis parte 
infignittr fibrofam effe, etiam texturd <valde porosd conftare, in cum 
riemfifinem, ut particular reifapid* copiofius ac penitiiis intra Sen* 
for ii meatus aimittantur ■ ■ Nervi autem quifibris Lingua* den* 
fiffin£ intertcXtis famulantur, ac faporum impreffiones rS n^tSru 
airinrifiv communicant, funt—Nervi e paribus turn quinto, 
turn nono ; & ubique cum densd propaginum ferie per to tarn ejus 
compagem diftributi* Willis ibid. 

(a) Guftatus, qui /entire eorum quibus <ve/cimur genera debet, 
habitat in ed parte Oris, qud e/culentis fef poculentis iter natura 
patefecit. Cic. de Nat. Dcor. 1. 2. c. 56. Vide quoque fupra, 
Note(£). Chap. 4. 

00 Malta foujus [qainti Paris] Nerwi propagines Mafticatio- 
ms operi deftinantur ; ideoque quoniam alimenta ingerenda nm 
modo Guftus, aft etiam 0lfa36s & Visus examenjubire detent, ab 
fdem Nervo, cujus rami ad Palatum &f Fauces miffi, Manduca- 
tionis negotiant peragunt, propagines alia, melut exploratrices 9 ad 
Hares ef Oculos feruntur, nempe ut iftbac aliorum fen/uum or* 
gema, etiam ad objeSa Guftus melius digno/cenda probationum 
auxiliis quibufdam inftruantur. Willis Ncrv. Defcrip. Sc Ufus, 

i i &* «• 

(r) Sec Book V. Chap. 8. 
1 \<\U*U 

14* Of the Tafte. Book: tV< 

Means, there is alio the Guard that Can be, againft 
pernicious Food ; fbrafmucb, as before it is taken 
into the Stomach, it is to undergo the Trial of 
three of the Senfes ; the Scrutiny of the Eye, tho 
ftrid Surveyor of its outward Appearance y and 
the Probation of the Smell and- Tafte, the two 
fevereft Judges of its natural Confutation and Com* 


Of the Senfe of Feeling {a). 

HAV I NG fycM fo much Time upon the other 
Senfes, and therein given fuch ample proofs 
of the infinite Creator's Wifclom r I" fhall but briefly 
take Notice of two Things relating to this laft 


{a) Matpighi is of this Opinion, that as Taft* is performed 
by the Papilla in the Tongue, fo is Feeling by fuch like Papill* 
under the Skin. From feveral Directions, and other Obfer* 
vations, he thus concludes. Ex bis &f fimilibus tndebaiur ani- 
mus abundi certiof reJdifus, earundem Papillarum fyramida- 
Hum ctpiam, quas aliis in Lingua de/cripfi, in Ucis prareiput 
acquifitiori Ta&ui dicatii rtperiri, eedem progigni uervofe & 
cuticulari corpore, fimuique circunevoboi reticulari imnlucra, {jf 
txtimam cutuulam % <vetuti ultimum terminum attingere, " » 
lAicrofcopio quilibet in manus dorfie pro fudore orificia q uad am miro 
etdine dijper/a intuit i pot eft, circa qua frequtntia quadam capituJal 
ajfurgunt ; bac vtrofunt Papillarum fines \ dam a cute affurgtutes 
interpofitum fuperant rett, fimuique txtimam cuticulam. Hac re- 
petitis feBiombus dtprebeudi ; ex qui bus nou improbability deducaut, 
ficuti ex elatieribu s ' p apillis—in Littgud, Guftus Organon 

elicitur,—ita ex copiosd barum Papillarum conger it /* #r- 

ganis, ubi maxims animalia Tafius motions afficiuntur 9 ■ ■ ■■ ■ 


Chap. VI. Of Fietm$. 14$ 

One is its Organ, and Nerves, For a* all' Senfa- 
tion is oeiforAed by the Nerves (b\ and ipdeed the 
other &nfes (performed by Nerves) are a Kind of 
Feeling ; fe is this Senfe rf Feeling performed by 
Nerves ttkewtfe, fpread in the mod incomparable,, 
curious Manner throughout the whole Body. But 
to defcribe their Origin in the Brain* and Spinal- 
Marrow, their Ramifications to all the Parts ; their 
Inofculations with one another; and other Matters ; 
whereby not only the Senfe of feeling is performed, 
but alfo animal Motion, and admirable Conientand 
Harmony of all the Parts of the Body is effedted : 
(To defcribe, I fay, thefe Things,) would take up 
too much Time, and I have already, and fliall, as I 
go along, give fome Hints thereof. 

The other Thing I (hall take Notice of, is, the 
Difperfion of this Senfe throughout the Body, both 
without and within. The other Senfes, I have ob- 
ferv'd, are feated in the very bell Place for the Re- 
lief and Comfort, the Guard and Benefit of the 
Animal. And forafmuch as it is necefiary to the 
Being, and Well-being of the Body, that every. Part 
ftiould be fenfible of Things fafe, or Things preju- 
dicial to itfelf 5 therefore, it is an admirable Con- 
trivance of the great Creator, to difperfe this Senfe 


adctquatum TaBus organum fufficienter haberi. Malpig. de ex- 
tern. Ta&. Org. p. 26. Com/ml: mvtque ejufd. Fit. p. 28. 

Thefe Observations of Mmlpighi, oar late curious and dili- 
gent Mr. Confer hath confirmed and given us very elegant 
Cots both of the Skin, and the Papill*, and the Nerves, 
Glands, &c. under it, from Microfeopical Obfervations. Vide 
Qnvpers An At. Introd. and Tab. 4. 

(b) Although the Eye be the ufual Judge of Colours, yet 
fome have been able to diftinguifli them by their Feeling. 
Sfutdamfuit qui venit md M. Due. Hetruriae aulam, qui eolores per 
1q8um eognofcebat. Pro experiment* velum fericum, umformiter 
textum, &f pluribus celoribus tinSlum, offer ebatur, faf veraciter de 
alore infingulis partibus judicabat. Grinuld. de Lum. & Col. 
prop. 43. lea. 59. 1 

144 Of Jfr#ȣ B 60 * IV - 

of Feeling throughout every Part (r) ; to diftinguifh 
between Pleafure arid Pain * Things falutary, and 
Things hurtful to the Body. 

Thus in the five Senfes of Animals, we have an 
OEconomy worthy of the Creator, and manifeftly 
demonftrating his Power, Wifdom, and Indulgence. 
For whether we confider the Meehanifm of the Or- 
gans, or the great Ufe and Convenience of each 
Senfe, we find it noble and grand, curious and ar- 
tificial \ and every Way worthy of its infinite Ma- 
ker, and beyond the Wit and Power of any Thing 
but a God : And therefore we muft even deny our 
Senfes, by denying them to be God's Handywork. 

And now from thofe chief Machines of animal 
Performances and Enjoyments, the five Senfes 5 let 
US pafs to another Thing in common to all the fen- 
fitive Creatures, which is Refpiration. 

(c) Tathu autem toto corpore equabiliter fufus eft, ut onnus 
i&us, omnefque nimios & fri^orts 6f caloris appulfus, f entire pof- 
fimus. Cic. ubi Jupra. 

Ta&us fin/us omnibus eft, etiam qui bus nullus alius ; nam iff 
Oftreis, & terreftribus Fermibus quoque. Exiftimaverim omnibus 
fan/um isf Guftatus ejfe. Cur enim alios alia fapores appetunt f 
in quo ml fr*cipua Nature arthiuQio. Flin. Nat Hilt. 1. 10, 




Of Refpiration, 

OF all the Aits of Animal Life, this is one of 
the chief, and moft neceffary. For whatfo- 
cver hath Animal Life, hath alfo the Faculty of Re- 
spiration, of fomewhat equivalent thereto {a). In- 

(a) The Ufes affigiTd to Refpiration by all the Anatomift* 
before Malpigh?* Difcoveries of the Strudure of the Langs, 
are fo various, and many of them fo improbable, that it would 
be frivolous to recount them. But the more eminent modern 
Anatomifts affign thefe Ufes. Willis thus fums up his Opinion, 
Prarcipua Pulmonum fun Bio, £«f ufus funt y fanguinem &f air em 
fer totas partium compages, intimofque recejjus, at que ducJus quof* 
fue minutjjjimoi traducere y &f ubique invicem committere ; in earn 
nempe finem* ut fanguis <venofus a circuit u redox, & cbymo recent I 
dilutus " turn perfeSius mifceatur fcf txlut fubigatur, tune ft* 
tijfimum ut fecundum omnts fuas partes ah aire nitrofo de novo ac- 
cendatur. Pharmaceut. P. 2. Se&. 1. C. 2. S. 2. Mayow faith 
rightly, that one grand Ufe of Expiration is, Ut cum aire «r- 
fulfoy etiam vapores e /anguine exhalantes, fimul txfufflentur. 
And as for Infpiration, that it conveyeth a nitro-aerial Ferment 
to the Blood, to which the Animal Spirits are owing, and all 
Mufcular- Motion. Mayoiv dt Refpir. p. 22, &e. mea Edit. 

Somewhat of the Opinion of thefe two laft cited, if I mi- 
Hake not (it being long fince I read their Trails, and have 
them not now at hand,) were Ent 9 Sylvius, S<wammerdam 9 Dh- 
merbroek, and my Friend Mr. Ray, in an unpublHh'd Tract of 
his, and his Letters now in my Hands. 

But our Dr. Tburfton % for good Reafons, rejects thefe from 
being principal Ufes of Refpiration, and thinks, with great 
Reaion, the principal Ufes to be, to move, or pafs the Blood 
from the right to the left Ventricle of the Heart. Upon 
which account Perfons hanged, drowned, or ftrangled by 
Catarrhs, fo fuddenly die, namely, becaufe the Circulation 
of their Blood is (lopped. For the fame Reafon alfo it is, 
that Animals die fo foon in the Air Pump. Among other Proofs 
he inflanceth in an Experiment of Dr. Croon, Profeff. Grejb. 
which he made before our R. S. by ftrangling a Pullet, fo 

L *fcfc 

146 Of Refpiration. Book IV. 

deed fo congenial is this with Life, that Breath 
and Life are in Scripture Phrafe and Common 


that not the lead Sign of Life appeared ; but by blowing 
Wind into the Lungs through the Trachea, and fo fetting the 
Longs a playing, he brought Che Bird to Life again. Another 
Experiment was once tried by Dr. Walter Keedbam, before 
Mr. BtjU, and others at Oxford, by hanging a Dog, fo that 
the Heart ceafed moving. But hjftily opening the Dog, and 
blowing Wind into the DuSus Peequttianus, he pnt the Blood 
m Motion, and by that means the Heart, and fo recovered 
the Dog to Life again. Fid. Tburfton de Refpir. Uf. p. 60, and 
63. me a Edit. 

Such an Experiment as Dr. Croons, my Friend the late juflly 
renowned Dr. Hook fhewed alfo our Rsjal Society. He cat away 
the Ribs, Diaphragm, and Pericardium, of a Dog; alfo the 
Top of the Wind -pipe, that he might tie it on to the Nofo 
of a Fair of Bellows 5 and by blowing into the Lungs, he re- 
flored the Dog to Life ; and then ceafing blowing, the Dog 
would foon fall into dying Fits ; but by blowing again, he 
recovered ; and fo alternately wonld die, and recover, for a 
considerable Time, as long and often as they pleafed. Philtf. 
Trauf. N # a8. \ 

For the farther Confirmation of Dr. Thar/tot's Opinion, the 
ingenious Dr. Ma/grave cut off, and dofe flopped op the 
Wind-pipe of a Dog with a Cork, and then threw open the 
Thorax i where he found the Blood ftagmtting in the Lungs, 
the Arteria Puhnonaris, the Right Ventricle and Auricle of £0 
Heart, and the two great Trunks of the Cava, diftended.with 
Blood to an immenfe Degree ; but at the fame Time, the Vena. 1 
Pulmonarii, the Left Ventricle and Auricle of the Heart in a 
manner empty, hardly a fpoonful of Blood therein. Pbihf. 
Tranf N° 240. Or both the Experiments may be together j 
met with in Lvwth Ahridg. Vol. 3. /. 66, 67. 

This Opinion of our learned Thurfion, the late learned Et* 
mullerus eipoufed, who being Particular in reckoning np the 
Ufes of Refpiration, I (hall therefore the more largely cite ■ 
him. Refpiration, faith he, ferves, t. Ad Olfaclum. 2. Ad : 
Screatum £j? Sputationem. 3. Ad Ofcitationem, Tuffim, Ster- 
mutationem, EmuncJionemque. 4. Ad liquidorum S orbit ionem, 
Su^ionemve. 5. Ad Loquelam, Cantum, Clamor em, Rifum, . 
Fietrnn, Flatum, &c. 6. Ad fa cum Ahi, Urine, Feetus Mo- \ 
lave, necnon Secundinatum expuljionem. 7. Ad promoveudi * 
Ventriculi, lntcflinorum, La3,orumque vafirum, &c. contentu. \ 
U. Ad balitus aqueos Sanguinis e pulmonibus, air is ape, expor- I 
1 tandos, I 

tAF. Vit Of Refpiration, ttf 

:ech taken as fynonymous Things, or at lcaft, 
reflary Concomitants of one another. Mo- 


os. 9. Ad Diapnoen* 10. Ad exaftiorem Cby!i> Lynpft** 
ntcnon Sanguinis— —mifcelam. 1.1. Ad condliandum fan» 
1 — coccineam rubedinem, &c. 12. Nee morose* negabi-\ 

at rem . pulmonis, tf fangninem Was traufcurrsutem, 

4 calida tedder e, ££r. 13. Quid demoue air fangpiuifi*; 

Re/pirationibus aliquant ilia fui parte 9 admix t us % pancijjmai 
% iam in Jpiritunm animalium elaboratione particulas fimul 
ihuat. All thefe Ufes, altho* of great Confequence. yet 
thinks rather conduce to the Weil Being, than the Beun 
he Animal ; becaufe without any of them, the Animal 
Id not fo fpeedily die, as it doth by Strangling, or in the 
Pump. He therefore affigns a 14th, and the principal 
of Refpiration to be, for the puffing of the Blood through 
Lungs, that is thrown into them by the Heart. Etmuil. 
•rt. 2. cap. 10. felt. 1, and 16. 

at the late Dr. Drake, with great Ingenuity and Addreft* 
\ a Pcrfon fo confiderable for his Years, as he was in his 
«,) not only eftablifh'd this Notion of Refpiration, bat 
carries it farther, making it the true Caufe of the Diafioli 
le Heart ; which neither Borelli 9 Lower, or Cowper, much 
any before thofe great Men, have well accounted for. 
t the Heart it a Mufde, is made evident beyond all doubt 
h\ Lower. And that the Motion of all Mafcles confifts in 
ItridUon, is not to be doubted alfo. By which means the* 
le is eafily accounted for. But forafmuch as the Heart 
no Autagouifi'MufcU, the Diaftolo hath puzzled the 
teft Wits. But Dr. Drake with great Judgment, and much 
lability of Reafon, maketh the Weight of the Incumbent 
ofphere to be the true Antagonift to all the Mufcles, which 
; both for ordinary Infpiration, and the Conftri&ion of 

Heart. The Particulars of his Opinion may be feen in 
inatomy. I. 2. c. 7. And in Philof. Tranf. N« 281. 
nd I remember when I was at the Univerfity, my moft 
nious and learned Tutor Dr. Wills, when he read Ana- 
Y to us, was of Opinion, That the Lungs were blown up 
:he Weight of the incumbent Air, and reprefcnted the 
ner of Refpiration in this manner, <w&. He put a Bladder 

a Pair of Bellows, turning back the Neck of the Blad- 

and tying it faft, fo that no Air might enter In between 
Bladder and Bellows. This being done, when the Bel- 
1 were opened, the Bladder would be blown up by the 
ght of the incumbent Air; and when (but, the Air 
id be thereby preffed forcibly out of the Bladder, fo as to 
L 1 >&ss* 

I4 8 Of Rtfpiration. Book IV. 

Jes (b) cxprcffcth Animal-Life, by [the Breath of Life.'] 
Saithhe, Gen. vii. ai« 22. AUFlefh that move tb on the 
Earthy Fowl, Cattle* Beaft, creeping Things, and Man ; 
all in whole Nqftrils was the Breath of Life in the dry 
Land died. So the Pfalmift, Pfal civ. 29. Thoutahft 
away their Breath, they die. So grand an Aft there- 
fore in common to all Animals, may juftly deferve a 
Place in this Survey of the Works of God in the 
Animal- Kingdom. 

And here I might launch out into an ample De- 
scription of all the Parts miniftring to this neceffary 
Aft, and (hew the curious Contrivance, and artifi- 
cial Structure of them ; but a tranfient View fhall 
fufficc I might begin with the outward Guards, 
the Nofe and Mouth -, but thefe have been already 
touched upon. But the exquifite Mechanifm of the 
Larynx, its Variety of Mufcles, its Cartilages, all 
fo exquifitely made for the Purpofe of Refpiration, 
and forming the Voice (c), are very admirable : And 


blow the Fire. This Experiment I take Notice of here, be- 
caufe (befides the Illuftration it gives to Refpiration) that 
great Genius feems to have, had a truer Notion of this Pheno- 
menon, than was very common then, <vi%. about the Year 1677, 
or 78 } as aifo» becaufe I have in Come Authors met with the 
f ime Experiment, without mention of Dr. Wills, whofe I take 
it to have been. 

Another Ufe of great Confideration, the already commended 
Dr. Cbeyne affigns ; namely, to Form the elaftick Globules of 
which the Blood principally confifts, without which there 
would be a general Obftruction in all the capillary Arteries. 
Cbeyne s Pbilofofbical Principles of Natural Religion ; or Harris's 
Lex. Tech. in Lungs. 

(6) Gen. ii. 7. — vi. 17. and vii. 15. 

(r) Becaufe it would be endlefs to fpecify the curious Me- 
chanifm of all the Parts, concurring to the Formation of the 
Voice ; I (hall therefore for a Sample note only two Things : 

1. There are thirteen Mufcles provided for the Motion of the 
five Cartilages of the Larynx. Gib/. Anat. L 2. c. 14. a Sign of 
the careful and elaborate Provifion that is made for the Voice. 

2. It is a prodigious Faculty of the Glottis, in con trading and 
dilating itfclf with fuch Exquifitencfc, as to Form all Notes. 

$ For 

Ch ap. VII. Of Refpiration. 149, 

no lefs fo is the Tongue (d), which minifters to 
that, and many other Ufes too. 

■Next, the Fabrick of the (e) Trachea dcferves 
efpecial Remark. Its Valve, the Epiglottis on the 


For (as the ingenious Dr. Keil faith,) fuppofing the great eft Di<\ 
fiance of the two Sides of the Glottis, to be one tenth Part of an 
Imjb in founding twelve Notes, {to which the Voice eafily reaches ;) 
this Line mufi be divided into twelve Parts, each of which gives 
the aperture requifite for fuch a Note, with a certain Strength. 
But if we confider the Sub-divifton of Notes, into which the Voice 
enn run, the Motion of the Sides of the Glottis is ft ill vaftly nicer* 
For if two Chords founding exaclly Unifons, one be Jhortened one. 
two tboufandtb Part of its Length, a juft Ear will perceive the 
Dif agreement, and a good Voice will found the Difference, which if 
one one hundred and ninety fixth Part of a Note. But fuppofe the 
Voice can divide a Note into a hundred Parts, it follows that the 
different Apertures of the Glottis aSually divide the tenth Fart of 
an Inch into twelve hundred Parts, the EffeQ of each of which pro- 
duces afenfible Alteration upon a good Ear. 6ut becaufe each Side 
of the Glottis moves juft equally, therefore the Divifions arc juft 
double ; or the Sides of the Glottis, by their Motion, do aSually 
divide one-tenth Part of an Inch into twotboufand four-hundred 
Parts. Rett's Anat. cap. 3. feci. 7. 

{d) Among the Inftruments of Speech, the Tongue is a ne- 
ceflary one ; and fo neceflary, that it is generally thought no 
Speech can be without it. But in the third Tome of the Ephem. 
Germ, is Pabliihed, Jac. Rolands Agloffoftomographia, five De- 
fcriptio Oris fine Lingua quod perfecle loquitur, & reUquas fuas 
funcliones naturaliter exercet. The Perfon defcribed is one Pet. 
Durand, a French Boy of eight or nine Years old, who at five or 
fix loft his Tongue by a Gangrene, occafion'd by the Small-Pox : 
.Notwithstanding which, he could (as the Title (kith) fpeak 
perfectly, as alio tafte, fpit, fwallow, and chew his Food ; but 
this latter he could do only on that Side he put it into, not 
being able to turn it to the other Side of his Mouth. 

In the fame Traft, Chap. 6. is this Obfervation of Ventrih- 
quous Perfons 5 Memini me a quodam fat celebri Anatomico audi- 
viffe, dim de duplicaturd Mediaftini ageret, fi Membrana ifta du- 
plex naturaliter unita in duas partes dwidatur, loquelatn quafi ex 
peclore procedere, ut cir cum ft antes credant Damoniacum mute, ant 

[e) The Variation of the Windpipe is ebfervable in every Crea- 
ture, according at it is neceffary for that of the Voice. In an 
Urchin, which hath a very fmall Voice, it is hardly more than 
mwhanout : And im a Pigeon, which hoik a l*wi and f*fi 

L 3 Nott* 

i 5° Of Refpiration. Book IV. 

Top, to fence againft all Annoyances ; its cartilagU 
nous Rings (f) nearly environing it, with its mem- 
branous Part next the Gullet, to give the freer Paf- 
fage to the Defcent of the Food. And laftly, Its 
inner Tegument, of exquifiteSenfe, to be readily af- 
fe&ed with, and to make Efforts againft every thing 
that is hurtful or offenfive ♦, thefe, I fay, doalljuftly 
deferve our Admiration. 

And no lefs prodigious are the Parts farther with- 
in * the Browto^ the Veficul* {g) % with their muf* 


Note, it is partly cartilaginous, and partly membranous. In an 
Owl, nuhich batb a good audible Note* it is mure cartilaginous ; 
but that of a Jay batb bard Bones in fiead of Cartilages ; and Ji 
of a Linnet : Whereby tbey have both of them a louder and firouger 
Note, ice. 

The Rings of tbe Wind-pipe are fitted for tbe Modulation $ 
the Voice : For in Dogs and Cats, which in tbe Expreffsom of 
divers PaJJions ufe a great mam Notes y [as Men do,) tbey an 
open and flexible, as in Man. Whereby ally or any of them, art 
dilated or contratled, more or lefs, as is convenient for a higher 
or deeper Note, &c, whereas in fome other Animals, as in the 

) r a pan- Peacock, which ufeth hardly more than one Jingle Note^ 
hey are entire, 4c. Grew's Cofmolbg. Sacr. Book I. Chap. j. 
Sea. 9, io. 

(/) It is a farther manifeft Indication of lingular Defign in, 
the cartilaginous Rings of the Afpera Arteria 9 that all (he 
Way where they are contiguous to the Oefophagus, they are 
membranous, to afford an eafy Paffagc to the Food ; hut after 
that, in the Bronchi \ they are, fome completely angular, fome 
triangular, £s*f And another obfervable is, the lower Par? 
of the fuperior Cartilages, receive the upper Parts of the in- 
ferior in the Bronchi ; whereas in the Afpera Arteria, the Car- 
tilages run and remain Parallel to one another ; which is a 
noble Difference or Mechanifm in ibis (in a Manner) one an4 
the fame Part, enabling the Lungs, and Bronchi, to contrad 
themfelves in Expiration, and to extend and dilate themfelves 
jn Infpiration. 

(g) I (hall not here intrench fo much upon the Anatomic 
Province, to give a Defcription of the Lungs, altho' it be a 
curious Piece of God's Workmanfhip ; but refer to Signior 
Malpighi, the firft Difcovererof their Pejicula? in 1660, in his 
jwp Letters to Botelli de Pulmott. Alfo. to Dr. Willi?* Pbam. 


€hap. VII. Of Refpirattm. 151 

Jar Fibres (£)» as fome aflert they have, together 
with the Arteries and Veins, which every where ac- 
company the airy Paflages, for the Blood to receive 
there its Impregnations from the Air, 


rat. Pag. 2. Sea. 1. Cap. i. de Re/fir. Orig. &T Uf. who as he 
wrote after Malpigbi, fo hath more accurately described thofe 
Parts ; and to Mr. Cvwfer's Anat. Tab. 24, 25. And if the 
Reader hath a mind to fee what Oppofition Signior MalpigbVs 
Difcoveries met with at Home and Abroad, and what Contro- 
verfies he had on that Account ; as alfo his Cenfurcs of Dr. Wil- 
lises Defcription and Figures, he may confult Malpigbi 's Life 
written by himfelf, Pag. 4. to 2 1 . 

That the Lungs confiil of Veficula, or Lobuli of Veficul* 
admitting of Air from the Bronchi, is vifible, becaufe they 
may be blown up, cleanfed of Blood, and fo dried. But 
Mr. Coivper faith, he could never part the Labuli, (fo as to 
make Dr. Willis's Fig. 1. Tab. 3. & 4.) fo that probably the 
Veftcul* are contiguous to one another throughout each Lobe 
of the Lungs. And not only Air, but D'umerbroeck proves, 
That the Veficula admit of Dull alfo, from two Aflhmatick 
Perfons he opened ; one a Stone-cutter's Man, the Veficula of 
whofe Lungs were fo fluffed with Dull, that in cutting, his 
Knife went as if through an Heap of Sand ; the other was a 
Feather- driver, who had thefe Bladders filled with the fine 
Dull or Down of Feathers. 

(b) There is a confiderable Difference between Dr. Willis, 

and Etmuller, <viz. Whether the VeficuUe of the Lungs have 

any mufcular Fibres, or not ? EtmulUr exprefly faith, Nullas 

fibras mufculofas, multo minus rubicundam Musculorum compa- 

gem (funt enim Veficula albidae & fere diaphana) in ipfis reperiri. 

Ubi fupra, cap. 6. feci. 2. And afterwards, feci. 3. Pulmones 

tjfe molles fiexilefque mufculofis fibris ceu propria explications or- 

ganis deftttutos. But Dr. Willis as exprefly afferts, they have 

mufculous Fibres, and affigns an excellent Ufe of them ; Cel- 

luUe ift<e veficulares, ut nixus pro expiratione contraSivos edant, 

etiam fibras, uti per Mierofcpium plane confpicere eft, mu/culares 

obtinent. Ubi fupra, feci. 16. And in the next Sedlion, Utpro 

data occafione major em a'eris copiam exfufflent, aut materiam ex- 

tujpendam ejicianf, fibris mufcularibus donate, fefe arclius contra- 

hunt, contentaque fua pent t us exterminant. Et enim ordinaria 

.ftQoris Syftola, quas musculorum relaxations ex parte tjficiunt, 

airm for/an totuns a Trachea £ff Broncbiis, baud tamen a Veficu- 

/fj, qudque wee ejiciunt : propter has (quoties cpus erit) inanien- 

i**% C3* totius Pecloris cavitas plurfmum anguftatur % £«f cellula ipfee 

veficulares a propriis fibris conftrUlis coardantur. 

L 4 y\ Grt* 

^52 Of Refpiration. Book IV. 

From hence I might proceed to the commodious 
Form of the Ribs (i\ the curious Mechanifm of 
the Intercoftal-Mufcles (*), the Diaphragm, and 
all the other Mufcles (/), miniftring both to the 
ordinary, and extraordinary Offices of Refpiration. 


(i) Ctrca bos mot us [fit I. PecJorh dilationem, fete.] ivoini 
Conditoris mccbanicen, ad regulas Mathematicas flan} adaptam, 
fatis admirari non pojfunsus ; fiquidem nulla olid in re manife- 
fiius, *0 0io? ytupuTpn <videtur. Quippe cum pe Boris, turn am- 
pliatio, turn coarclatio a quibufdam Mufculis [quorum mums 
unicum eft contrabere) perfici debeat ; res ita irtfiituitur, ut Cefle 
qua tboracis % *velut paralltlogrammi oblongi *vtr/us cjlindrum »- 
curvati, later a ejformant, in fguram modo quads at tm, cum an* 
gulis red is, pro' pectoris ampliation ; modo in rbomboeidem, cum 
anjrulh acutis pro ejufdem contrafiione, ducantur, &c. Willis, 
ubi fupra, fed. 28. 

Galen having fpoken of the Parts miniftring to Refpiration, 
coccludcth, Nihil ufquam a Naturd ullo paclo per incurs am, 
fxiffe prateritum, qua cum omnia prafentiret (ff pravideret, ft* 
funt neceffaria ilia, qua cavfa alicujus extiterunt, confeeutura, 
omnibus inftaurationes par are occupanjit, cuius apparatus ccpioja fa- 
cult as admirabilem Sapient iam tejiantur. De Ui. Part. 1. 5. c. 15. 
See alfo /. 6. c. 1 . 

(k) For the Structure of the Intercoftals, Midriff, &c. I (hall 
refer to Dr. Willis, and other Anatomifts. But Dr. Drake tax- 
cth Dr. Willi i with an Error, in fancying there is an Opposition 
in the Office of the Inter coftals, by reafon that the Fibres of 
the external and internal Intercoftals decuflate ; that therefore 
the external ferve to raife the Ribs, the internal to draw them 
down. But Dr. Drake is of Steno's, and Dr. Majow's Opinion, 
That notwithHanding the DecufTation of their Fibres, the 
Power they exert upon, and the Motion they effect in the Ribs, 
is one and the fame. Drake's Anat. /. 2. c. 7. and /. 4. c. j. 
Mayoiv de Refpir. c. 7. 

(/) Altho' Dr. Drake, and fome others, deny th« Inter- 
eoftals being Antagonift-Mufcles, as in the preceding Note; 
yet they, and mo/1 other Anatomifts that I have met with, 
attribute a confiderable Power to them in the Aft of Refpira- 
tion, as they do alfo to the Subclavian and Triangular- 
Mufcles 1 but the learned Etmuller denies it for thefe three 
Reafons, 1. Quia re/pirando nullam in illis contraclionem feutio. 

%. Quia fin invieem non adducuntur, t$c. 3. Qui* 

Cofia omnts ab aliis modi enarratis mtfiulis movent ur, idqnt 

Chap. VII. Of Refpiration. i$£ 

But paffing them by, I fhall flop at one prodigious 
Work of Nature, and manifeft Contrivance of the 
Almighty Creator, which although taken Notice of 
by others (»), yet cannot be eafily paffed by in the 
Subject I am upon ; and that is the Circulation of 
the Blood in the Foetus in the rVomb r fo different 
from the Method thereof after it is Born. In the 
Womb, whilft it is as one Body with the Mother, 
and there is no Occafion, nor Place for Refpiration, 
there are two Paflages (») on Purpofe for the Tranf- 
miflion of the Blood without paffing it through the 


fsmul, tsV. Inter coft ales it a que, necnon Subclavios Mufculos Cof 
tis t farietum inftar, ad complenda inttrftitia int er coft alia t peclufque 
iutegrandum, ac Coftas conneelendas, intertedos effe, probabiliter 
concludo ; quo munere triangulares etiam-— fungi, rations con- 
fentaneum eft. Etmul. Diflert. 2. cap. 4. fe&. 6. 

Bat as to the Ufe of the Triangular-Mu/cle in Refpiration, 
we may judge of it, from its remarkable Size, and Ufe in a. 
Dog ; of which Dr. Willis gives this Account from Fallopius : 
In Nomine parvus adeo & fubtilis ifte [Mufculus] eft, ut vix pro 
Mufculo accipi queat : in Cane per totum os pedoris protenditur, & 
cartilagines omnes, etiam werarum Coftarum fterno inofculatas, oc- 
cupat : Cujus di/criminis ratio druinam circa Animalism fabric as 
Pronndentiam plane indigitat. £&ippc cum hoc animal \ ad curfus 
velociffimos & diu continuandos natum, quo fanguis, dum intenftus 
agitatur, rite accendatur eventilcturque, a'erem celerrime fcf Jortiter 
uti hs/pirare, ita etiam exfpirare debet— idcirco propter hunc ac- 
tum ftrmiks obeunduns (cujus in Hmine baud magnus eft ufus) 
mufculus caninus molcm ingentem {ff tanto operi parens fortitur. 
Willis, ubi fupra, fed. 32. 

(jw) RayV Wifdom of God in the Creation. Pag. 343. 

(») Mr. Cbefelden, an ingenious and mod accurate Anato- 
mift, having fomewhat Particular in his Obfervations about 
the Circulation of the Blood through the Heart of the Far* 
tus 9 I mall prefent the Reader with fome of his Obfervati- 
ons, which he favoured me with the Sight of. The Blood 
(faith he) "which is brought to the Heart by the afcending Cava, 
faffes out of the Right Auricle into the Left, through a Paffage 
tolled Foramen Ovale, in the Sceptum [common to them 
both] without paffing through the right Ventricle (as after the 
firth) while the Blood from the defanding Cava pajfetb through 


.1^4 Of Refpiration. Book. IV. 

Lungs. But as foon as the Fatus is born, and be- 
come thereby a perfe&ly diftind Being, and breathes 
for itfelf, then tkefe two Pafiages are fhut up ; one 
nearly obliterated, the other becomes only a Liga- 
ment, except in fome Creatures that are Amphibi- 
ous, or are forced to lie long under Water, in whom 
thefe Paflages probably remain open (o). 

And now what Adion of any rational Creature, 
what is there in a Man's Life, that doth more 


the "Right AuriiU and Ventricle into the Pulmonary Artery, and 
tbtnee into the Aorta through the Dud, betwixt that and the Pul- 
monary Artery, called Duclns Arteriofas, wbilft a /mall Portion 
of the Blood, thrown into the Pulmonary Artery fajfetb through 
the Langs, no more than is fufficient to keep open the Pulmonary 
Veffels. Thus both Ventricles are employed in driving the Bleed 
thro* the Aorta to all Parts of the Foetus, and to the Mother 
too. But after the Birth, the Blood being to be driven from the 
Aorta thro* the Foetus alone, and not the Mother too, one Ven- 
tricle becomes fufficient, wbilft the other is employed in driving 
the Blood thro" the Lungs, the Dud us Arteriofas being Jbut up by 
means of the Alteration of its Pofitien, which happens to it from 
the raifing of the Aorta by the Lungs, when they become inflated. 
After that the Blood is thus driven into the Lungs, in its Return it 
Jbuts the Valve of the Foramen Ovale againfi the Foramen it 
felf, to whofe Sides it foon adheres, and fo fops up the Pajfage. 
The Du&us Arteriofus, or Ductus Arteriosus in Ligamentum 
verfus, isfeldom to be difcemed in adult Bodies, but the Figure of 
the Foramen Ovale is never obliterated. 

(o) It hath been generally thought to be not improbable, 
but that on fome Occafion the Foramen Ovule may remain 
open in Man. In a Girl of four or five Years of Age, Dr. Connor 
found it but half clofed, and in the Form of a Crefcent. 
And he thinks fomewhat of this Kind might be in the 
Perfon whofe Skeleton was found to have no Joints in the 
Back Bone, Ribs, &c. Of which a Defcription, with Cuts, 
may be found in Phil. Tranf. N° 21 5. And more largely in his 
Dijfert. Med. Phyf. de ftupendo OJJium coalitu, where he adds 
to the Girl, in whom the For. Ov. was not ihut, a like Ob- 
fervation of another Girl he opened at Oxford of three Years 
Old ; In qua Foramen Ovale fere erat occlufum, in medio ta- 
men, exi/i foramine, per quod Tutundam facile tranfmifi, erat 


Chap. VII. Of Refpiration. 155 

plainly fhew Defign, Reafbn, and Contrivance, 
than this very Ad: of Nature doth the Contrivance 


ferwium, p. 30. So Mr. Cowper (than whom none more accu- 
rate and better Judge) faith, / bave often found the Foramen 
Ovale optn in the Adult. Anat. Append. Fig. 3. ' But Mr. Cbef- 
elden is of a different Opinion, of which in the following 

From fomewhat of this Caufe, I am apt to think it was 
that the Tronningbolm Gardiner efcaped drowning, and fome 
others mentioned by Pecblin. His Stories are, Hortulanus 
fTronningbolmenfis etiamnum *vi<vens, annos natus 65 pro ilia 
eetate fatis adhuc salens if <vegetus 9 cum ante 1 3 annos, alii in 
aquas delapfo of em ferre ntellet, forte fortund (f ipfe per glaciem 
incautius procedens, aquas incidit 18 ulnas profundus: ubi ille 9 
corpore ereSo quafi ad perpend/ cu/um, pedibus fundo adbafit. 
Conflitit fie per 16 boras, antequam produceretur in auras. 
Dixit autem, fimul ac infra aquarum fuperficiem fuit denser- 
/us, ftatim obriguiffe totum, if, fi quern turn habuit motum if 
fenfum, amifijfe, ntfi quod fonantes Stockohnii campanas etiam 
fub aquis obfeurius percipere fibi fit vifus. Senfit etiam, ftatim 
fefe melut weficulam ori applicaffe, adeo ut aqua nulla os pent* 
traverit, in aures *vero tranfitum, etiam fentiente illo, babue- 
fit 1 atque inde auditum fuum debilitatum aliquandiu effe. Hoc 
fiatu dum 1 6 boras permanfit Jruftrd quafitus tandem repertum 9 
(onto in caput infixo, cujus etiam fenfum fe babuijje dixit, fun- 
do extraxerunt, fperantes ex more aut perfuafione gentis re*ui- 
Qurum effe. Itaque pamis lint eif que produclum oovolvunt, ne 
mere admit ti pojfit perniciofus futurus fubito illapfu: cuftoditum 
fie fatis ab aire fenfim fenfimque tepidiori loco admovent mox 
caltdis adoriuntur fafciis, fricant, radunt, if fufflaminatum 
tot boris fanguinis corporifque motum negotiosd ilia opera redu- 
cunt: denique antapoplefiicis if genialibus liquoribus wit* red' 
dtutt if priftin* mobilitati. Retulit is atque oftendit fe etiam- 
num in capite cir cum ferre tteftigia violent i& a conto Matte, if 
cephalalgias mexari grarviflimis. Et propter bunc ipfum cafum 9 
religiose a popularibus, if bujufce rei teflibus probatum, Sere- 
nijftm* Regintt matris munificent id £«f annuo fiipendio eft dona- 

tus K3 Serenif Principi oblatus vivusfui teftis 9 

Confignatam manu babes Hiftoriam D. Tilafii, Bibliotb. Reg. 
Prafeeli, qui t eft at us eft fe pntno*uifie muliercm, qua tres ipjos 
dies fub oquis bafit, if fimilem in modum, quo Hortulanus ille 9 
refiefcitata, adbuc dum mcis plena fruit ur ufurd. Accedit Nob. 
Bur man » i ■ ■ fi des, qui confeffus eft, ■■■ f e in pago Bonefs 

f arocfei« 

1 5 6 Of Refpiratnn. Book IV. 

and Defign of the great God of Nature ? What it 
Thought and Contrivance, if this be not ? Namely, 
That there (hould be a temporary Part in the Body, 
made juft for the prefent Exigence ; to continue 
■whilft there is Occafion for it, and to ceafe when 
there is none •, in fome Creatures to remain always, 
by Reafon of their amphibious Way of Living, and 
in Land- Animals (purely fuch) to ceafe. 

Another excellent Contrivance, a-kin to the laft, 
is, for the Prefervation of fuch Creatures whofe Oc- 


farocbiee Pit ho vise concionem frequent affe funebrem, in qua, dam 
acla receufcret Praco Sen is cujufdam feptuagenarii Laur. Jonap 
—audiierit ex ore Concionatoris, <ui<uum eum, adoltfcentem 17 
annorum, aquis fubmerfum, 7 demum bebdomadd (rtm prodigiofam /) 
extraclum adfe rediiffe <vi<vum tf incolumen. Pechlin. de Aer. 
& Alira. def. c. 10. 

Shall we to this Caufe, or to the Offification, or more than 
ordinary Strength of the Wind-Pipe, attribute the Recovery 
to Life of Penoos hanged ? Of which Pechlin gives an In- 
fiance that fell under his own Knowledge, of a Woman hanged, 
and in all Appearance dead, but recovered by a Phyfician ac- 
cidentally coming in, with a plentiful Adminiftration of tyir, 
Sal. Arman. Pechl. ib. c. 7. And the Story of Anne Great, 
executed at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1650, is ilill well remember' d a- 
mong the Seniors there. She was tanged by the Neck near half 
an Hour, fome of her Friends in the mean lime thumping her on 
the Breaft, others banging with all their Weight upon her Legs, 
fome times lifivg her up, and then pulling her down again with a 
fudden J irk, thereby tie fooner to dif patch her out of her Pain ; 
as her printed Account wordeth it. After {he was in her 
Coffin, being obferved to breathe, a lufty Fellow ftamped with 
all his Force on her Breaft and Stomach, to put her out of her 
Pain. But by the Affiftance of Dr. Peity, Dr. Willis, Dr. Bar 
thurfi, and Dr. Clark, (he was again brought to Life. I my- 
felf faw her many Years after, after that flie had (I heard) bora 
divers Children. The Particulars of her Crime, Execution, and 
Refutation, fee in a little Pamphlet, called News from the 
Pead, written, as I have been informed, by Dr. Bathurfi, 
(afterwards the mofl vigilant and learned Prefident of Trinity 
College, Oxon,) and publiihed in 1651, with Verfes upon the 

<*\ The 

Chap. VII. Of Refpiration. t$y 

cafions frequently necefiitate them to live without, 
or with but little Refpiration : Fifties might be 
named here, whofe Habitation is always in the 
Waters ; but thefe belong to an Element which I 
cannot at prefent engage in. But there are many 
Animals of pur own Element, or partly fo, whofe 
Organs of Refpiration, whofe Blood, whofe Heart, 
and other Inftruments of Life, are admirably ac- 
commodated to their Method of Living: Thus ma- 
ny amphibious Creatures (/>), who live in Water 
as well as Air •, many Quadrupeds, Birds, Infedts, 
and other Animals who can live fome Hours, Days, 
yea, whole Winters, with little or no Refpiration, 
in a Torpitude,. or fort of Sleep, or middle State 
between Life and Death: The Provifion made for 
thefe peculiar Occafions of Life, in the Fabrick of 
the Lungs, the Heart, and other Parts of fuch 


{f) The Sea-Calf h*ih the Foramen Ovale, by which Means 
it is enabled to ftay long under the Water, as the Pari/. Ana- 
tmifls. Of which fee in Book VI. Chap. 5. Note (c). 

But the fore-commended Mr. Cbefelden, thinks the Foramen 
Ovale is neither open in amphibious Creatures, nor any adnlt 
Land- Animals. When 1 firft (faith he) applied my/elf to the 
Diffedion of human Bodies, I bad no Diftruft of the frequent Ac* 
counts of the Foramen Ovale being open in Adults ; but I find 
finee, tbatlmiftook the O ilium Venarum Coronariarum/ir the 
Foramen. The like I fuppofe Authors have done, tvho ajfert that 
it is always open in amphibious Animals ; for vje have made dili- 
gent Enquiry into thofe Animals, and never found it open. Neither 
would that {as they imagine) ferve thefe Creatures to live under 
Water, as the Foetus doth in Utero, unlefs the Ductus Arteriofut 
nvas open alfo. 

This Opinion of Mr. Chefelden hath this to render it pro- 
bable, That the Ofium Venarum Coronariarum is fo near th^ 
Foramen Ovale, that without due Regard, ic may be eafily 
miftaken for it. Such therefore as have Opportunity of ex- 
amining this Part in amphibious Animals, or any other Subject, 
onght to feek for the Oflium, whenever they fufpect they have 
atet with the Foramen. 


wi <* 

158 Of Rejpiration* Book TV. 

Creatures (g) 9 is manifeftly the Work of him, who, 
as St* Paul faith (r\ Givctb to all Breathy and Life, 
and all Things. 

(g) Of the Angular Conformation of the Heart and Lungs of 
the Tertoife, which is an amphibious Animal. See Book VI, 
C&p. 5. Nite (b). 

(r) J#s xvii. 25. 



Of the Motion of Animals. 

TWT E X T to the two Grand A&s of Animal Life, 
x\ their Senfe or Refpiration, I fhall confider 
their Motion, or Locomotive Faculty, whereby they 
convey themfelves from Place to Place, according 
to their Occafions, and Way of Life: And the ad- 
mirable Apparatus to this Purpofe, is a plain De- 
monftration of God's particular Forefight, Care, 
and efpecial Providence towards all the Animal 

And here I might view, in the firfl: Place, the 
Mufcles, their curious Strudture (a), the nice tack- 
ing them to every Joint, to pull it this Way, and 
that Way, and the other Way, according to the 
fbecial Purpofe, Defign, and Office of every fuch 
Joint : Alfo their various Size and Strength ; fome 


(a) That the Mufcles are compounded of Fibres, is vifibfe 
enough. Which Fibres, the curious and ingenious Borelli faith, 
are cylindraceous ; not hollow, but filled with a fpongy, pithy . 
Subftance, after the Manner of Elder, as he discovered by his 
Micrafcofces. Bore/, de Mot. Animal. Part 1 . 


Chap. VIII. Me Motion, &c. 159 

large and corpulent, others lefs, and fome fcarce 
vifible to the naked Eye ; all exa£Uy fitted to every- 
place, and every Ufe of the Body. And laftly, I 
might take Notice of the mufcular Motions, both 
involuntary and fpontaneous (£). 

Next, I might furvey the fpecial Fabrick of the 
Bones (c) % miniftring to Animal Motion. Next, I 


Thefe Fibres, he faith, are naturally white ; but derive their 
Rednefs only from the Blood in them. 

Thefe Fibres do in every Mufcle (in the Belly at leaft of 
the Mufcle) run parallel to one another, in a neat, orderly 
Form. But they do not at all tend the fame Way, but fome 
run aflant, fome long- ways, &V. according to the Action or 
Pofition of each refpective Mufcle* The Particulars of which, 
and of divers other Obfervables in the Mufcles, would, befides 
Figures, take up too much Room in thefe Notes ; and there- 
fore I mull refer to the Anatomifts, particularly Steno, Borelli, 
Cowier, &c. 

(0) The infinite Creator hath generally exerted his Art and 
Care, in the Provifion made by proper Mufcles and Nerves, 
for all the different Motions in Animal Bodies, both involun- 
tary, and voluntary. It is a noble Providence, that moil of 
the vital Motions, fuch as of the Heart, Stomach, Guts, &c. 
are involuntary, the Mufcles acting whether we deep or wake, 
whether we will or no. And it is no lefs providential that 
fome, even of the vital Motions, are partly voluntary, partly 
involuntary, as that, for Inftance, of Breathing, which is per- 
formed both fleeping and waking ; but can be intermitted for 
a fhort Time on Occafion, as for accurate Hearing any Thing, 
&V. or can be increafed by a ftronger Blaft, to make the 
greater Difcharges of the Blood from the Lungs, when that 
any Thine overcharges them. And as for the other Motions 
of the Body, as of the Limbs, and fuch as are voluntary, it 
is no lefs Providence, that they are abfolutely under the 
Power of the Will ; fo as that the Animal hath it in his 
Power to command the Mufcles and Spirits, or any Part of 
its Body, to perform fuch Motious and Actions as it hath Occa- 
fion for. 

(c) f^uid dicam deOJ/tbus? qtue fubjefia corpori mirabilei com- 
trdjfuras habent, tif ad flab Hit at em apt as, & ad art us jiniendos ac- 
comtnodatas, & ad ma turn, & ad omnem corporis aflientm. Cicer. 
de Nat. Deor. 1. a. c. 55. 

160 7%e Motion Book IV. 

By Reafon it wootd be endlefs to mention all the Cnriofitics 
©bfervable in the Bones, I (hall for a Sample, Jingle out only an 
lnftance or two, to manifeft that Defign was ufed in the Stru&ure 
of thefe Parts in Man. 

The firft (hall be in the Back-Bone, which (among many 
others) hath thefe two Things remarkable. 1. Its different 
Articulations from the other Joints of the Body. For here 
moft of the Joints are flat, and withal guarded with Afperi- 
ties and Hollows, made for catching and holding; fo as 
firmly to lock and keep the Joints from Luxations, but withal 
to afford them fuch a Motion, as is neceffary for the Incurva- 
tions of the Body. z. The Difference of its own Joints in the 
Neck, Back, and Loins. In the Neck, the Atlas, or upper 
Vertebra* as alfo the Dent at a, are curioufly made, and jointed 
(differently from the reft) for the commodious and eafy bend- 
ing and turning the Head every Way. In the Thorax, or Back, 
the Joints are more clofe and firm ; and in the Loins, more 
lax and pliant; as alfo the Spines are different, and the Knobs 
and Sockets turned the quite contrary Way, to anfwer the Oc- 
cafions the Body hath to bend more there, than higher in the 
Back. I (hall clofe this Remark with the ingenious Dr. KeJtt 

The Struclure of the Spine // the very heft that eon hi cm* 
t rived; fir had it been all Bone, we could have had no Moth* ir 
our Backs ; had it heen of two or three Bones articulated fir Mo- 
tion, the Medulla Spinalis muft have been neceffarily hruifed at 
every jingle or Joint ; befides, the whole would not have been fo 
pliable for the feveral Poftures we have Occafion to put ourfelves 
in. If it bad been made of feveral Bones ; without intervening 
Cartilages, we Jhould have had no more Ufe for it, than if it had 
heen but one Bone. If each Vertebra had had its own diftinQ 
Cartilages, it might have been eafily diflocated. And lafily, 
The oblique Proceffes of each fuperior and inferior Vertebra, keep 
the middle one, that it can neither be thrujt backwards nor fir- 
wards to comprejs the Medulla Spinalis. Keil's Anat. Cap. 5. 
Sea. 8. 

Compare here what Galen faith of the Articulations, Liga- 
ments, Perforation, &V. of the Spine, to prove the Wifdom and 
Providence of the Maker of Animal Bodies, againit fuch as 
found Fault with Nature's Works; among which he names 
Diagoras, Anaxagoras, Afclepiades and Epicurus. Vid. Galen de 
Vf. Part. I. 12. init. and Chap. 11, tjfe. alfo/. 13. init. 

2. The next lnftance (hall be in one or two Things, where- 
in the Skeletons of Sexes differ. Thus the Pelvis made in 
the Belly by the Ilium, Offa Coxendicis and Pubis, h larger 
in a Female than Male Skeleton, that there may be more 
Room for the lying of the Vifcera and Foetus. So the Car- 
tilage bracing together the two Offa Pubis, or Sharebones, 
JBartkeliue faith, is twice thicker and laxer in Women than 


Chap. VIII. of Animals. 161 

might take Notice of the Joints (d) 9 their com- 
pleat Form adjufted to the Place, and Office they 
are employed in ; their Bandage, keeping them 
from Luxations j the oily Matter (e) to lubricate 


Men * As alfo is the Cartilage that tieth the Os Sacrum to its 
Vertebra ; and all to give Way to the Paflage of the Foetus. 

Another confiderable Difference is in the cartilaginous Pro- 
duction ofthefeven long Ribs, whereby they are braced to the 
Breaft-Bone. Thefe are harder and firmer in Women than in 
Men ; the better to fupport the Weight of the Breads, the fuck- 
ing Infant, £sfr. "* 
(d) It is remarkable in the Joints, and a manifeft A£t of 
Caution and Defign : i . That altho' the Motion of the Limbs 
be circular, yet the Center of that Motion is not in a Point, 
but an ample Superficies. In a Point, the Bones would wear 
and penetrate one another ; the Joints would be exceedingly 
weak, (sfc. but the Joints confiding of two large Superficies, 
Concave, and Convex, fome furrowed and ridged, fome like 
a Ball and Socket, and all lubricated with an oily Subftance, 
they are incomparably prepared both for Motion and Strength. 
2. That the Bones next the Joint are not fpongy, as their Extre- 
mities commonly are, nor hard and brittle, but capped with a 
ftrong, tough, fmooth, cartilaginous Subftance, ferving both to 
* Strength and Motion. 

But let ns here take Notice of what Galen mentions on this 
Subject. Articulorum unufquifque Eminentiam Cavitati immif- 
Jam habit : Veruntamen hoc fort ajfe non adeo mirabile eft : Sedft» 
conjuleraid omnium totius corf oris ojjtum mutud connexione, Emi- 
nentias cavitatibus fufcipientibus /equates femper iwveneris : Hoc 
mirabile. Si enim jufto amplior effet Cavitas, laxus fane £sf i n- 
firmus fieret Articulus ; ft ftri£tior % mot us difficult erfteret, ut qui 
nullam werfionem haberet ; ac fericulum effet non parvum, eminen- 
tias offium arftatas frangi : fed borum neutrum faclum eft. 
Sed quoniam ex tarn four a conftruclione fericulum erat 9 ne «•• 
Hones difficilius fterent, &f eminent i a cjfium extererentur, duplex 

rurfus auxilium in id Natura molita eft. I . Cartilagine os utrum- 

fue fubungensy atque oblinens : alterum, ipfis CartHaginibus ku» 
morem unc7uofum f velut oleum , fuf erf undent ; per quern facili mo- 

bilisy {jf attritu contumax omnis articulatio Offium faQa eft. 

Vt undique diligent er Articulus omnis cuftodiretur t Ligamenta qu*- 

i*m ex utroque offe prcduxit Natura. Galen de Uf. Part. 1. i. 

C ic. 
(r) For the affording this oily or mucilaginous Matter. 

there are Glanduke very commodioufly placed near the Joints 

M * fe 

i6z ^be Motion Book IV. 

them, and their own Smoothnefs to facilitate their 

And laftly, I might trace the various Nerves 
throughout the Body, fent about to minifter to its 
various Motions (/). I might confider their Ori- 
gin (g) 9 their Ramifications to the feveral Parts, 
and their Inofculations with one another, according 
to the Harmony and Accord of one Part with an- 
other, neceflary for the Benefit of the Animal. But 
fome of thofe Things 1 have given fome Touches 


fo as not to fuffer too great Compreffion by the Motion of the 
neighbouring Bones, and yet to receive a due Preffiire, fo as to 
caute a fufncient Emiffion of the Mucilage into the Joints. 
Alfo, another Thing confiderable is, that the excretory Dads 
of the Mucilaginous Glands have fome Length in their Paflage 
from the Glands to their Mouths ; which is a good Contrivance, 
to prevent their Mouths being opprefied by the Mucilage, as 
alfo to hinder the too plentiful EfFufion thereof, but yet to afford 
a due Exprefliire of it at all Times, and on all Occasions, as par- 
ticularly in violent and long-continued Motions of the Joints, 
when there is a greater than ordinary Expence of it. See Gw- 
per*s An at. Tab. 79. 

(/) There is no Doubt to be made, but that the Mofdes 
receive their Motion from the Nerves. For if a Nerve be out* 
or ftreightly bound, that goes to any Mufcle, that Mufcle 
fhall immediately lofe its Motion. Which is doubtlefi the 
Cafe of Paraly ticks ; whofe Nerves are fome of them by Ob- 
ilru&ions, or fuch like Means, reduced to the fame Sate as if 
cut or bound. 

And this alfo is the Caufe of that Numbnefs or Sleepinefs we 
find oftentimes, by long fitting or lying on any Part. 

Neither is this a modern Notion only ; for Galen faith, Prist* 
erbium Nervorum omnium Cerebrum eft, &T ffinalis Medulla. - 
Et Ner*vi a Cerebro animalem virtutem accipiunt — Nervorum uiiH* 
tas\eft facultatem Sens us £ff Motus a prineipio in partes diduceri. 
And this he intimates to have been the Opinion of Hippocrates 
and Plato, de Uf. Part I. 1. c. 16. & pafiim. 

(g) Dr. Willis thinks, that in the Brain the Spirits ara 
elaborated that minifter to voluntary Motion; but in the. 
Cerebellum, fuch as affeft involuntary, or natural Motions;) 
fuch. as that of the Heart, the Lungs, &<*• Cerebri Just. 
c. 15. 

(b) See 

Chap. VIII. of Animals. 163 

upon already, and more I (hall mention hereafter 
{b\ and it would be tedious here to infift upon 
them all. 

I fhall therefore only fpeak diftin6tly to the Loco- 
motive Aft itfelf, or what dire&ly relates to it. 

And here it is admirable to cjonfider the various 
Methods of Nature (*'), fuited to the Occafions of 
various Animals. In fome their Motion is fwif t, in 
others flow j in fome performed with two, four, or 
more Legs ; in fome with two, or four Wings ; in 
fome with neither (k). 

And firft for fwift or flow Motions. This we find 
is proportional ta the Occafions of each refpedtive 
Animal. Reptiles, whofe Food, Habitation, and 
Nefts, lie in the next Clod, Plant, Tree, or Hole, 
or can bear long Hunger and Hardfhip, they need 
neither Legs nor Wings for their Tranfportation ; 


(b) See Book V. Chaf. 8. 

(i) To the foregoing, I fhall briefly add fome Examples of 
the fpecial Provifion made for the Motion of fome Animals by 
Temporary Parts. Frogs and Toads, in their Tadpole flati, have 
Tails, which fall off when their Legs are grown out. The 
Lacerta Ajkaiica % or Water Newt, when young, hath four neat 
ramified Fins, two on a Side, growing out a little above its 
Fore-legs, to poife and keep its .Body upright, (which gives 
it the Refemblance of a young Fifh,) which fall off when the 
Legs are grown. And the Nympbee and Aureli<e> of all or moft 
of the Infe&s bred in the Waters, as they have particular 
Forms, different from the Infedts they produce; fo have alfo 
, peculiar Parts afforded them for their Motion in the Waters : 
Oars, Tails, and every Part adapted to the Waters, which are 

- utterly varied in the Infe&s themfelves, in their mature State in 
•- the Air. 

'. (J) 7 af * verb alia animalia gradiendo, alia ferpendo, ad 
^t tajlmm accedttnt y alia wolando, alia nando* Cic. de Nat. Deor. 

\ L 2. c. 47. 
= '_ Compare alfo what Galen excellently obferves concerning 
^*. the Number of Feet in Mart, and in other Animals; and the? 

- V wife Provifion thereby made for the TJfe and Benefit of the re- 
*= * fpe&hre Animals. De Uf* Par* in the Beginning of the third 

"■ Book. 
Sr Ma Vft ** 

164 ft* Motion Book IV. 

but their vermicular or finuous Motion (performed 
with no lefs Art, and as curioufly provided for as 
the Legs or Wings of other Creatures : This, I fey t ) 
is fufficient for their Conveyance. 

Man and Beafts, whofe Occafions require a large 
Room, have accordingly a fwifter Motion, with 
proper Engines for that Service ; anfwerablc to their 
Range for Food, their Occupation of Bufine&, or 
their Want of Armature, and to fecure them againft 
Harms (/)• 

. But for the winged Creatures (Birds and Infe&s,) 
as they are to traverfe large Trafts of Land and 
Water for their Food, for their commodious Habi- 
tation, or Breeding their Young, to find Places of 
Retreat and Security from Mifchiefs ; fo they have 
accordingly the Faculty of flying in the Air * and 
that fwiftly or (lowly, a long or a fhort Time, ac- 
cording to their Occafions and Way of Life. And 
accordingly their Wings, and whole Body, are cu- 
rioufly prepared for fuch a Motions as I intend to 
fliew in a proper Place (*»). 

Another remarkable Thing in the motive Faculty 
of all Creatures, is the neat, geometrical Perfor- 
mance of it. The moft accurate Mathematician, 
the moft fkilful in mechanic Motions, cannot pre- 
fcribe a nicer Motion (than what they perform) to 
the Legs and Wings of thofe that walk or fly (»), 


(/) As I (hall hereafter ihew, That the indulgent Creator 
hath abundantly provided for the Safety of Animals by their 
Cloathing, Habitations, Sagacity, and infiruments of Defence; 
fo there appears to be a Contemperament of their Motion with 
thefe Provifions. They that are well armed and guarded, hare 
commonly a flower Motion ; whereat they that are deftitute 
thereof, are fwifter. So alfo timid helplefs Animals are com- 
monly fwift; thus Deer and Hares: But Animals endowed 
with Courage, Craft, Arms, faV. commonly have a flower 

(») See Book VII. Chap. 1. ^ 

(«) See Book VII. Chap, u the End. 

2hap. VIII. of Animals. 165 

>r to the Bodies of thofc that creep (0). Neither 
:an the Body be more compleatly poifed for the 
Motion it is tp have in every Creature, than it al- 
ready adhially is. From the largeft Elephant to the 
tnalleft Mite, we find the Body artfully balanced (p). 
The Head not too heavy, nor too light for the reft 
rf the Body, nor the reft of the Body for it (j ). 
The Vifcera are not let loofe, or fo placed as to fwag, 
3ver-balance, orover-fettheBody; but well-braced, , 
md diftributed to maintain the iEquipoife of the Bo- 
dy. The motive Parts alfo are admirably well fixed 
in refoett to the Center of Gravity ; placed in th* 
very Point, fitteft to fupport and convey the Body. 
Every Leg beareth his true Share of the Body's 
Weight. And the Wings fo nicely are fet to the 
Center of Gravity, as even in that fluid Medium, the 
Air, the Body is as truly balanced, as we could have 
balanced it with the niceft Scales. 

But among all Creatures, none more elegant 
than the filing the Body of Man, the gauging his 
Body fo nicely, as to be able to Hand ere6t, to 


{*) See Book IX. Chap. i. Note (c). 

(p) Siquis unquam alius Opife*, aqualitatis & proportion's mag- 
nam babuit frwidtntiam, cerih Nmtura bibuit in animalium corpo* 
ribmt conformandu % undt Hippocrates earn reSijffimtjuftam nominate 
Galea de Uf. Part. 1. *. c. 16. 

(?) The Make of the Bodies of Come Water-Fowl, feems 
to contradid what I here fay, the Heads and long Necks of 
fome, as of Swans, Ducks, andGeefe; and the hinder Parts of 
others, as of the Doucker and Moor-hen, and fome other Kinds, 
teeming to be too heavy for the reft of their Body. But in- 
stead of being an Argument againft, it is a notable Inftance of, 
the divine Art and Providence, thefe Things being nice Accom- 
modations to their Way of Life. Of fach as have long Necks, 
fee Emk VII. Chap. 2. Note (/). 

And at for fach whofe hinder Parts feem to over-balance 
their foremoft Parts, whereby they fly with their Bodies in a 
maimer eieCt, this alio is an excellent Accom m odation to thew 
Way of Life, which is Diviag rather than Flyunu Fids Book 
\ll Oaf. +. N#, (I). 

166 Of the Place Boos IV. 

ftoop, to fit, and indeed to mpvc any Way, only 
with the Help of fo fm^H a Stay as the Feet (r) : 
whofe Mechanifm of Bones, Tendons, and Mufcles 
to this Purpofe, is very curious and admirable. 

(r) See Book V. Chap. z. Not* (A). 


Of the Place allotted to the fever al tribes of 

HAying difpatched the Motion of Animals, let 
us in the next Place confider the Place which 
the infinitely wife Creator hath appointed- them to 
move and a£t, and perform, the Offices of the Cre- 
ation in. And here we find every Particular well 
ordered. All Parts of our Terraqueous Globe fit 
for an Animal to live and aft in, are fufficiently. 
ftocked with proper Inhabitants : The watery JEJe- 
ment (unfit, one would think, for Refpiration and 
life) abounding with Creatures fitted for it ; its 
Bowels abundantly ftored, and its Surface well be- 1 
fpread. The Earth alfo is plentifully ftocked in all ; 
its Parts, where Animals can be of any Ufe ; not \ 
probably the deepeft Bowels thereof indeed, being j 
Parts in all likelihood unfit for Habitation anaf 
A&ion, and where a living Creature would be ufe- [ 
lefs in the World j but the Surface every where abiuw{ 
dantly ftored. j 

But that which is moft confiderable in this Mat*] 
ter, and plainly fheweth the Divine Management] 
in the Cafe, is, that thofe Creatures, are maniifeftipl 
<fcfigned for the Place in which they are, and thd 
l/feand Service* they perform therein. If all thd 
3 **S 

Chap. IX. Of Animals. 187 

Animals of our Globe had been made by Chance, 
or placed by Chance, or without the divine Provi- 
dence, their Organs would have been otherwife 
than they are, and their Place and Refidence con- 
fufed and jumbled. Their Organs (for Inftance) 
of Rcfpiration, of Vifibn, and of Motion, would 
have fitted any Medium, or have needed none; 
their Stomachs would have ferved any Food, and 
their Blood, and Covering of their Bodies been 
made for any Clime, or only one Clime. Confc- 
quently all the Animal World would have been in a 
confufed, inconvenient, and diforderly Commixture. 
One Animal would have wanted Food, another Ha- 
bitation, and moft of them Safety. They would 
have all flocked to one, or a few Places, taken up 
their Reft in the Temperate Zones only, and co- 
veted one Food, theeafieftto be come at, and moft 
foecious in fhew, and fo would have poifoned, 
ftarved, or greatly incommoded one another. But 
as the Matter is now ordered, the Globe is equally 
befpread, fo that no Place wanteth proper Inhabi- 
tants, nor any Creature is deftitute of a proper Place', 
and all Things neceflary to its Life, Health, and 
Pleafure. As the Surface of the Terraqueous Globe 
is covered with different Soils, with Hills and Valcsi 
with Seas, Rivers, Lakes, and Ponds, with divers 
Trees and Plants, in the feveral Places ; fo all thefe r 
have their Animal Inhabitants, whofe Organs of 
Life and A&ion are manifeftly adapted to fuch and 
fuch Places and Things; whofe Food and Phy- 
fick, and every other Convenience of Life, is to be* 
met with in that very Place appointed it. The" 
watery, the amphibious (<?), the airy Inhabitants, 


(4) Eft etiam admiratiei noknulJa in beftiis afnatilibus ib % 
ft* gignitntur in terra: nieluH Crscodili, fiiwiatilefque Tifln- 
' finer, quadamque Serfenhs orfd? extra dquam> Jtmul ac fri- 
m&m niti fojfunt, tgnam pirfequuntur* Quin ttitm Anatum 

M 4 rwa 

1 68 Of the Numbers Book Vf} 

and thofc on the dry Land Surface, and the Sub- 
terraneous under it, they all live, and aft with Plea- 
fure, they are gay, and flourifh in their proper Ele- • 
ment and allotted Place, they want neither for Food, 
Cloathing, or Retreat-, which would dwindle and 
die, deftroy, or poifon one another, if all coveted 
the fame Element, Place, or Food. 

Nay, and as the Matter is admirably well or- 
dered, yet confidering the World's Increafe, there 
would not be fufficient Room, Food, and other 
Neceffaries for all the living Creatures, without 
another grand Adt of the Divine Wifdom and 
Providence, which is, the Balancing the Number *f i 
Individuals of each. Species of Creatures, in that 
Place appointed thereto: Of which in the next 1 


Of the Balance of Animals, or the due Proportion 
in which the World is Jlocked with them. 

TH E whole Surface of our Globe can afford 
Room and Support only to fuch a Number of 
all Sorts of Creatures ; and if by their doubling, 
trebling, or any other Multiplication of their 
Kind, they fhould increafe to double or treble that 
Number, they muft ftarve, or devour one another- 
The keeping therefore the Balance even, is mani- 
feftly a Work of the Divine Wifdom and Provi- 
dence. To which End, the great Author of Life 


wa Gallinis fafi /upfommus^ [Pulli] deinde gas [mattes] 

^Un^uunt — £sT efugiunt, turn primum afuam, ptafi Ma- 
fur alem domum, vidtrc potuerunt. Cic. de Nat. Deor. t 2. 
c. 48. 

^a\ Btni$n* 

Chap. X. Of Animals. 169 

hath determined the life of all Creatures to fuch a 
Length, and their Increafe to fuch a Number, pro- 
portional to their Ufe in the World. The Life of 
fome Creatures is long, and their Increafe but fmall 
and by that Means they do notover-ftock the World. 
And the fame Benefit is effected, where the Increafe 
is great, by the Brevity of fuch Creatures Lives, by 
their great Ufe, and the frequent Occafions there 
are of them for Food to Man, or other Animals. 
It is a very remarkable Aft of the Divine Provi- 
dence, that ufeful Creatures are produced in great 
Plenty (<?)• and others in lefs. The prodigious and 
frequent Increafe of Infefts, both in and ,out of 
the Waters, may exemplify the one ; and 'tis ob- 
fervable in the other, that Creatures lefs ufeful, or 
by their Voracity pernicious, have commonly fewer 
Young, or do feldomer bring forth: Or which 
many Inftances may be given in the voracious 
Beans and Birds. But there is one fo peculiar an 
Animal, as if made for a particular Inftance in our 
prefent Cafe, and that is the Cuntur of Peru (b) : A 
Fowl of that Magnitude, Strength and Appetite, as 
to feize not only on the Sheep, and lefler Cattle, but 
even the larger Beafts, yea, the very Children too. 
Now thefe, as they are the moft pernicious of Birds, 


[a) Benigna circa hoc Natura, inoccua & efculenta animalia 
fofcunda generavit. Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 8. c. 55. 

(h) Captain J. Strong govt me this Account, together with a 
Quill Feather of the Cuntur [or Condor] of Peru. On the Coafi 
#/ Chili, they met with this Bird in about 33 S. Lot. not far 
from Mocha, an IJland in the South Sea— —they Jbot it fitting 
on a Cliff, by the Sea fide ; that it was 16 Feet from Wing to 
Wing extended ; that the Spantth Inhabitants told them they were 
afraid of thefe Birds, left they Jhould prey upon their Children. 
And the Feather he gave me (kith the Doftor) is 2 Feet 4 Inches 
long ; the Quill-part 5 Inches three Quarters long, and 1 Inch and 
half about in the largeft Part. It weighed $dr. 17 gr. and half 
and it of a dark-brown Colour. Dr. Shane in Philof. TranC 

*f° Of the Numbers EkxtaL tfi 

fo are they the moft rare, being feldorii feeri* tit 
only one, or a few in large Countries ; enough to 
keep up the Species, but not to over-chafg<i the 

Thus the Balance of the Animal Wdrld, », 
throughout all Ages, keptevdrr; *hd by a curious 
Harmony, and juft Proportion between the Inefaafe 
of all Animals, and the Length of their Lives, the 
World is through all Ages well, but not OVer- 
flored : One Generation paffetb away* and another Ge- 
neration cometb (c) ; fo equally in its Room*, to Ba- 
lance the Stock of the Terraqueous Globe in all 
Ages, and Places, and among all Creatures ; that it 
is an adtual Demonftration of our Saviour's Afierti- 
on, Mat. x. 29. that the moft inconfiderable, com* 
mon Creature, Even a Sparrow {two of which are fold 
fir a Farthing) doth not fall on the Ground without our 
beavenfy Father. 


To this Account, the Doctor, (in a Letter to Mr. Ray, 
March 31, 1694, with other Papers' of Mr. Rafs 9 in my 
Hands,) adds the Teftimony of Jof. Acvfia, I. 4. c. 7. and 
Garcilajf. de la Vega t who, /. 8. c. 19. faith. Then are othir 
Fowls, call'd Cuntur, and by the Spaniards corruptly Condor. 
Many of thefe Fowls having been kiWd by the Spaniards, bad their 
Proportion taken, and from End to End of their Wings meafured 

15 or 16 Feet Nature, to temper and allay their' Fiertetafs; 

denyd them the Talons which are given to the Eagle ; their Feet 
being tipfd with Claws Hie a Hen : Hdwever, their Beak is firing 
enough to tear off the Hide, and rip up the Bowels of an Ox: Twee 
of them will attempt a Cow or Bull, and devour him: And it 
hath often happened, that one of them alone bath affaulted Boys of 
ten or twelve Years of Age, and eaten tktnt. Their Colour is 
black and white, like a Magpie. // is well there are hut few of 
them ; for if there were many, they would very Much defiroy the 
Cattle. They have on the Forepart of their Heads, a Comh, nbt 
pointed like that of a Cock ; but rather even\ in the Form of a 
Razor. When they come to alight from the Air, they make futha 
bumming Noife, with the fluttering of their Wings, as is enough 
to aftonijh, or make a Man deaf. 
(0 Ecdef i. 4, 

W The 


Chap, X. Of Animals. 171 

This Providence of God is remarkable in every 
Species of living Creatures : But that efpecial Ma- 
nagement of the Recruits and Decays ot Mankind, 
fo equally all the World over, deferves our efpe- 
cial Observation. In the Beginning of the World, 
and fo after Noah's Flood, the Longevity of Men, 
as it was of abfolute Ncceflity to the more fpeedy 
Peopling of the new World ; fo is a fpecial In- 
ftance of the Divine Providence in this Matter (d). 
And the fame Providence appears in the following 
Ages, when the World was pretty well peopled, 
in reducing the common Age of Man then to 120 
Years, (Gen. vi. 3.) in Proportion to the Occafions 
of the World at that Time. And laftly, when the 
World was fully peopled after the Flood, (as it 
was in the Age otMo/es, and fo down to our pre- 


{i) The Divine Providence doth not only appear in the 
Longevity of Man, immediately after the Creation and 
Flood ; but alfo in their different Longevity at thofe two 
Times. Immediately after the Creation, when the- World was 
to be peopled by one Man, and one Woman, the Age of the 
greateft Part of thofe on Record, was 900 Years, and up- 
wards. But after the Flood, when there were three Perfons 
by whom the World was to be peopled, none of thofe Patri- 
archs, except Sbem, arriv'd to the Age of coo ; and only the 
three firft of Sbem's Line, viz. Arfbcxad, Salab, and Eber, came 
near that Age ; which was in the firft Century after the Flood. 
But in the fecond Century, we do not find any reached the 
Age of 240. And in the third Century, (about the latter 
End of which Abraham was born) none, except Terab, ar- 
rival to 200 Years : By which Time the World was fo well, 
peopled, (that Part of it at leaft where Abraham dwelt, ) that 
they had built Cities, and began to be cantoned into diftinft 
Nations and Societies, under their refpe&ive Kings ; fo that 
they were able to wage War, four. Kings againft five, Gen. xiv. 
Nay, if the Accounts of Anion ', Berotbus, Manetbo, and others, 
yea, Africanus, be to be credited ; the World was fo well 
peopled, even before the Times we fpeak of, as to afford fuffi- 
cient Numbers for the great Kingdoms of Ajffyria, Egypt, Rerfia, 
#c. But learned Men generally, with great Reaion, rejecY 
thtfe as legendary Account*. 

1 7 2 Of the Numbers Book IV. 

fent Time) the leflening the common Age of Man, 
to 70 or 80 Years (e), . (the Age mention'd by Mo- 
Jesj Pfal. xc. 10. this, I fay,) is manifeftly an Ap- 
pointment of the fame infinite Lord that ruleth the 
World : For, by this Means, the peopled World 
is kept at a convenient Stay -, neither too full, nor 
too empty. For if Men (the Generality of them, 
I mean) were to live now to Metbufelaifs Age of 
969 Years, or only to Abraham% long after the 
Flood, of 1 75 Years, the World would be too much 
over-run -, or if the Age of Man was limited to that 
of divers other Animals, to ten, twenty, or thirty 
Years only •, the Decays then of Mankind would be 
too fad : But at the middle Rate mentioned, the 
Balance is nearly even, and Life and Death keep an 
equal Pace. Which Equality is fo great and Har- 
monious, and fo manifest an Inftance of the divine^ 
Management, that I fhall fpend fome Remarks up- 
on it. 
It appears from our beft Accounts of thefe Mat- 

If the Reader hath a Mind to fee a Computation of the 
Jhcreafe of Mankind, in the three firft Centuries after the 
Flood, he 1 may find two different Ones of the moft learned 
Archbifhop U/ber, and Petavius ; together with a Refutation 
of the fo early Beginning of the Jjfyrian Monarchy ; as alfo 
Reafons for placing Abraham near 1000 Years after the Flood, 
in our moft learned Bifhop Stillingfieet\ Orig. Sacr. Book III. 
Chap 4. Sea. 9. 

(e) That the common Age of Man hath been the fame in 
all Ages fince the World was peopled, is manifeft from pro- 
phane, as well as facred Hiftory. To pafs by others : Pl*to 
Jived to the Age of 81, and was accounted an old Man. And 
thofe which Pliny reckons up, /. 7. c . 48. as rare Examples of 
Jong Life, may for the moft Part be matched by our modem 
Hiftories ; efpecially foch as Pliny himfelf gave Credit unto. 
Dr. Plot hath given us divers [nuances in his Hiftory of Ox- 
fordjbire, e. 2. fiff. 3. and c. S./e#. 54. and Hiftory of Stafford- 
Jbire, c 8. y*#. 91, fcfr. Among others, one is of twelve T«* 
nants of Mr. Bidduty/s, that together made jooo Years of 

Chap. X. Of Animals* 173 

Age. Bat the mod confiderable Examples of aged Perfons a- 
mong us, is of old Parre of Sbropjbire, who lived 152 Years 
9 Months, according to the learned Dr. Harvey 's Account ; 
and Henry Jenkins of Yor}Jbire, who lived 1 69 Years, accord- 
ing to the Account of my learned and ingenious Friend 
Dr. Tancred Robinfon ; of both which, with others, fee Lovctb. 
Abridg. Phil. Tranf. F. 3. /. 306. The great Age of Parre of 
Sbropjbire, minds me of an Observation of the Reverend *Mr. 
Plaxton, that in his two Parifhes of Kinardfty and Donington 
in Shropjbire, every fixth Soul was fixty Years of Age, or up- 
wards. Phil. Tranf. N° 310. 

And if we ftep farther North into Scotland, we (hall find 
divers recorded for their great Age : Of which I (hall prefent 
the Reader with only one modern Example of one Laurence, 
who married a Wife after he was 100 Years of Age, and 
would go out to Sea a Fifhing in his little Boat, when he was 
140 Years old ; and is lately dead of no other Di Item per but 
mere old Age, faith Sir Rob. Sibbald, Prodr. Hifi. Nat. Scot, 
p. 44. and / j. p. 4. 

As for Foreigners, the Examples would be endlefs ; and 
therefore that of Job. Ottele (hall fuffice, who was as famous 
for his Beard, as tor being 1 1 5 Years of Age. He was but 
two Brabant Ells £• high ; and his long grey Beard was one 
Ell \ long. His Picture and Account may be feen in Ephem. 
Germ. T. 3. Obf. 163. 

As for the Story Roger Bacon tells, of one that lived 900 
Years by the Help of a certain Medicine, and many other 
fuch Stories, I look upon them as fabulous. And no better 
is that of the Wandring Jew, named Job. Buttadeus, faid to 
have been prefent at our Saviour's Crucifixion ; although very 
ferious Stories are told of his being feen at Antwerp, and in 
France, about the middle of the lad Century but one ; and 
before in Ann. 1 542, converfed with by Paul of Et/en, Bifhop 
of Sle/kvick; and before that, viz. in 1228, feen and convers'd 
with by an Armenian Archbijhofs Gentleman ; and by others at 
other Times. 

If the Reader hath a Mind to fee more Examples, he may 
meet with fome of all Ages, in the learned Hakenvilfs Apol. 
p. 181. where he will alfo find that learned Author's Opinion 
of the Caufes of the Brevity and Length of human Life. 
The Brevity thereof he attributeth to a too tender Education, 
fucking ftrange Nurfes, too hafty Marriages; but above all, 
to Luxury, high Sauces, ftrong Liquors, &c. The Longe- 
vity of the Ancients he afcribes to Temperance In Meat and 
Drink, anointing the Body, the Ufe of Saffron and Honey, 
warm Clothes, Lefler Doors and Windows, lefs Phyfick, and 
more Exercife. 

174 Of dc Numbers Book IV* 

ters, that in our European Parts (f) and I believe 
the fame is throughout the World ; that, I fay, 
there is a certain Rate and Proportion in the Pro- 
pagation of Mankind i Such a Number marry (g) 9 

(J) The Proportions which Marriages bear to Mirths 9 and 
Birth to Burials, in divers Parts of Europe may be feen at art 
eafy View in this TABLE : 

Names of the Places. 

to Births : As 

Birtns to 
Burials : As 

England m General. 

1 to 4*63 


to 1 


1 to 4« 


to I 4 I 

Hantjhire % from 1^09. to 1 0(8. 

1 to 4* 


to I 

Tiverton in Devon. 1560, to 1649. 

1 co V7 


to I 

Cranbrook in Kent. 1 560, to 1649. 

1 to Vq 


f 6 ■■■', 

Aynbo in Nor tbampton/b. tor 1 1 8 V ears . 

1 ro 

i 4 6 

to 1 

Leeds in Yorkjbire 1 22 Vears. 

1 to V7 


to I 

Harnvood in Yarkjbire 57 Vears. 

1 to 3*4 


to 1 

Vpminfter in jE^** i 00 Years. 

1 to 4*6 


to 1 

Frankfort on the itfi/xr in 1695. 

, to 37 

l 4 2 

to I 

Old middle and lower Marck in 1 698. 

1 to 3*7 


to 1 

Domin. of the K. of Pruffia in 1 098. 

1 to 3*7 

" - S 

to I 

Brejlanv in $//•/&* from 1 687, to 1 69 1 . 


to r 

Paris in 1 670, 1 67 1 ♦ 1 072 . 

1 to 4 «7 


to I '6 

Which Table I made from Major Graunfs Obfervations on 
the Bills of Mortality ; Mr. King's Obfervations in the firft of 
Dr. Davenanf* E flays ; and what I find put together by my in- 
genious Friend Mr. Lovurborp, in his Abridgment, Vol. yf. 668. 
and my own Regiftcr of Vpminfter. That from Jfynbe's Regi- 
fler in Northampton/hire, J had from the prefent Rector, the 
learned and ingenious Mr. Waffe : And I was promifed fome 
Accounts from the North, and divers ether Parts of this King- 
dom ; but have not yet rcceiv'd them : Only thofe of Leeds 
and Harwood in York/hire, from my curious and ingenious Friend 
Mr. Tboresly. 

(g) The preceding Table (hews, that Marriages, one with 
another, do each o\ them produce about four Births ; not only 
in England, but in other Parts of Europe Mo. 

And by Mr. Aw/s Kit i mate, (the beft Computations I ima- 
gine of any, being derived from the belt Accounts ; fuch at 


Chap. X. Of Animals. 175 

fo many are born, fuch a Nurnber die •, in Propor- 
tion to the Number of Perfons in every Nation, 
County, or Pfcrifh. And as to Births, two Things 
are very confiderable: One is the Proportion of 
Mgles and Females (£), not in a wide Proportion, 
not an uncertain, accidental Number at all Adven- 
tures \ but nearly equal. Another Thing is, that a 
few more are born than appear to die, in any cer- 

the Marriage, Birth, Burial-Alt, the Poll- Books, &c by hi* 
Eftimate, 1 fay,) about 1 in 104 marry. For he judgeth the 
Number of the People in England to be about five Millions 
and a half; of which about 41000 annually marry. As to 
wha,t might be farther remarked concerning Marriages, in re- 
gard of the Rights and Cqftoms of feveral Nations, the Age 
to uffeich divers Nations limited Marriages, &V. it would be 
endlels, and too much out of the Way to mention them : I 
(hall only therefore, for the Reader's Diverfion, take Notice 
<rf Ac Jeer of La&antius, Quart apud Poetas falacijjimus Jupi- 
ter defiit liber os toller t ? Utrum fexagenarius fad us 9 iff ei Lex 
Papia fibular* impofuit ? La&ant. Inftit. 1. 1 . c. 16. By which 
I<* Papia, Meq were prohibited to marry after 60, and Wo- 
men after 50 Years of Age, 

($1 Major Graunt, (whofe ConcluGons feem to be well- 
groo/ided,) and Mr. King, difagree in the Proportions they 
affign to Males and Females : This latter makes in London % 
10 Males to be to 13 Females ; in other Cities and Market- 
Towns, 8 to 9 ; and in the Villages and Hamlets, 100 Males 
to 99 Females. But Major Graunt % both from the London 
4od Country Bills, faith, there are 14 Males to 13 Females : 
From whence he juftly infers, That Chriftian Religion, prohibit- 
ing Polygamy, is more agreeable to the Law of Nature than 
, Mahumetiftn, and others that allow it, Chap. 8. 

This Proportion of 14 to 13, I imagine is nearly juft, it 
being agreeable to the Bills I have met with, as well as thofe 
in Mr. Graunt. In the 1 00 Years, for Example, of my own 
Parifh-Regifter, although the Burials of Males and Females 
were nearly equal, being 636 Males and 623 Females, in all 
that Time; yet there were baptized 709 Males, and but 67$ 
Females, which is 13 Females to 13*7 Males. Which Ine- 
quality (hews, not only, that one Man ought to have bat 
one. Wife ; but alfo that every Woman may, without Poly- 
\ pay, have an Hujband, if (he doth not bar herfelf by the 
; Want of Virtue, by Denial, fcfe. Alfo this Surplulage of 

176 Of the Numbers Book IV. 

tain Place (*). Which is an admirable Provifion 
for the extraordinary Emergencies and Occafions 
of the World ; to fupply unhealthful Places, where 
Death out-runs Life ; to make up the Ravages of 
great Plagues, and Difeafes, and the Depredations 
of War, and the Seas ; and to afford a fufficient 
Number for Colonies in the unpeopled Parts of 
the Earth. Or on the other Hand, we may fay, 
that fometimes thofe extraordinary Expences of 
Mankind, may be not only a juft Puniuiment of 
the Sins of Men ; but alfo a wife Means to keep 
the Balance of Mankind even ; as one would be 
ready to conclude, by confideringthe Afiatick, and 
other the more fertile Countries, where prodigious 
Multitudes are yearly fwept away with great Plagues, 
and fometimes War ; and yet thofe Countries are 
fo far from being wafted, that they remain full of 


Males is very ufeful for the Supplies of War, the Seas, and 
other fuch Expences of the Men above the Women. 

That this is a Work of the Divine Providence, and not a 
Matter of Chance, is well made out by the very Laws of 
Chance, by a Perfon able to do it, the ingenious and learned 
Dr. Arhuthnot. He fuppofeth Thomas to lay againft JJju, 
that for eighty two Years running, more Males (hall be bora 
than Females ; and giving all Allowances in the Computation 
to Thomas's Side, he makes the Odds againft Thomas, that it 
doth not happen fo, to be near five Millions of Millions, of 
Millions, of Millions to one; but for Ages of Ages (accord- 
ing to the World's Age) to be near an infinite Number to 
one againft Thomas. Vide Phil. Tranf. N° 338. 

(/} The foregoing Table fhews, that in England in gene- 
ral, fewer die than are born, there being but 1 Death to 
1 to J Births. But in London more die than are born. So by 
Dr. Davenanfs Table, the Cities likewife and Market-Towns 
bury i TO J to one Birth. But in Paris they out-do London, 
their Deaths being 1 -J to one Birth : The Reafon of which I 
conceive is, becaufe their Houfes are more crowded than in 
London. But in the Villages of England, there are fewer die 
than are born, there being but 1 Death to 1 T ££ Births. And 
yet Major Graunt, and Dr. Davenant, both obferve, that 


Chap. X. of Animals. iyy 

And now, upon the whole Matter, What is all 
this but admirable and plain Management ? What 
can the maintaining, throughout all Ages and 
Places, thefe Proportions of Mankind, and all other 
Creatures; this Harmony in the Generations of 
Men be, but the Work of one that ruleth the 
World ? Is it poffible that every Species of Ani- 
mals fhould fo evenly be preferved, proportionate 
to the Occafions of the World ? That they fhould 
be fo well balanced in all Ages and Places, without 
the Help of Almighty Wifdom and Power ? How 
is it poffible, by the bare Rules, and blind A£h of 
Nature, that there fhould be any tolerable Pro- 
portion ; for Inftance, between Males and Females, 
either of Mankind, or of any other Creature (£); 
efpecially fuch as are of a ferine, not of a domef- 
tick Nature, and confequently out of the Com- 
mand and Management of Man ? How could Life 
and Death keep fuch an even Pace through all the 
Animal World ? If we fhould take it for granted, 
that, according to the Scripture Hiftory, the 
World had a Beginning, (as who can deny it (/) ? 


there are more Breeders in London, and the Cities and Market- 
Towns, than are in the Country, notwithstanding the London- 
Births are fewer than the Country ; the Reafon of which fee 
fa Grawnt, Chap. 7. and Davenant, nbifupra, p. 21. 

The laft Remark I (hall make from the foregoing Table, 
flail be, that we may from thence judge of the Healthfulncfs 
of the Places there mentioned. If the Year 1698, was the 
mean Account of the three March, thofe Places bid the faireft 
for being mod Healthful ; and next to them, jfynbo and Cran- 
Vrmk for Englijb Towns. 

(i) Quid loquar, quanta rath in befiiis ad prpituam co*fer- 
nationem earum generis afpanai f Nam prinuim alia? Martt ¥ 
aBof Farming funt, quod perpeiuitatis tausd maehinata natura eft. 
Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 51. 

(/) Alcho' Ariflotle held the Eternity of the World, yet he 
feems to have retraced that Opinion, or to have had a dif- 
ferent Opinion when he wrote his Metapbvfich -, for in ht» 
* N firft 

i 7 & Of the Food ficofe IV. 

or if we ftiould fuppdfe the tJeftru&ioft thereof by 
Noah's Flood : How is it poftible, after the World 
was replcniftied,) that in a certain Number of 
Years, by thfe greater Incrcafes and Doublings of 
each Species of Animals* that, I fay, this Rate of 
Doubling (m) ftiould ceafe ; or, that it fhould be 
compenfated by fome other Means? That the 
World ftiQuld oe as well, or better ftodted than 
now it is, in 1&56 Years, (the Time between thfc 
Creation and the Flood * this) we will fuppofe may 
be done by the natural Method ot each Specie* 
Doubling or Increafe: Btit in double that Number 
of Years, or at this Diftance from the Flood, of 
4000 Years, that the World fhould not be over- 
ftocked, can never be made out, without allowing 
an infinite Providence. 


firft Book he affirms, that God is the Caufe and beginning $f nil - 
Things ; and in his Book de Muncto he faith, There is no ZWf, 
'but God is the Maker and Conservator of all Things in the WorH. 
And the Stoick's Opinion is well known, who itrenuoufly con- 4 
tended, That the Contrivance and Beauty of the Heavens and '', 
Earth, and all Creatures, was owing to a wife, intelligent 
Agent. Of which Tully gives a large Account in his fecond 
Book de Nat. Dear, in the Perfon of Balbus. 

(») I have before in Note (g), obferved, That the ordiaaqr 
Rate of the Doubling or Increafe of Mankind is, that evdjr 
Marriage, one with another, produces about four Births J bit 
fome have much exceeded that. Sato, Earl of Abenfterg, 'bad 
thirty two Sons, and eight Daughters 5 and being invited to 
Hunt with the Emperor Henry II. and bring but few Servants, 
brought only one Servant, and his thirty-two Sons. To thefe 
many others might be added ; but one of the moft remark- 
able Inftances I have any where met with, is that of Mrs. Ibnj- 
nvood t mentioned by Hakewill, Camden, and other Authors ; 
but having now before me the Names, with fome Remarks, 
(which I received from a pious neighbouring Defcendast 
of the fame Mrs. Honywood) I fhall give a more particu- 
lar Account than they. Mrs. Mary Honywood was Daugh- 
ter, and one of the Co-hetrefles of Robert Afiwaters, Eft}* , 
of Lenhant in Kent. She was Born in 1527, Married inlfr- j 
htuary 1543, at fixteen Years of Age, to her only Hofband J 


Chap. VIIL of jinimaL 179 

I conclude then this Obfervatlon with the Pfal- 
mift's Words, Pfal. civ. 29, 30. Thou bidefi thy Faee 9 
all Creatures are troubled ; thou takeji away their Breath* 
they die, and return to their Dufi. Thou fendeft forth 
thy Spirit j they are created * and thou renewal the Face 
of the Earth. 

Of the Food of Animals* 

TH E preceding Reflection of the Pfatmifi> 
mindcth me or another Thing in common to 
Animals, that pertinently falleth next under Con- 
sideration, which is, the Appointment of Food, men- 

JUberi Bauywoed, of Charing in Kent, Efqj She died in the 
ninety-ttiird Year of her Age, in May 1620. She had nxteen 
Children of her own Body, feven Sons and nine Daughters ; 
of which one had no J flue, three died young, and the 
pouifeft was (lain at Jfaqtfrf-Jlattle, Jurte z6, 1600. Her 
Grandchildren in the fccoqd Generation, were one- hundred 
and fourteen ; in the third, two hundred and twenty-eight ; 
and nine in the fourth Generation. So that (he could fay tho 
fiune that the Diftich doth, made of one.of the Dalburg's Pa- 

« l % 4 ■ 

Mater alt Nat*, die Nat*, Jtfia Natam 

5 6 

Ut moneat, Nat*, flangere Ttlielam. 

\ t 3 4 

JUfi uf Daughter, and g* t$ tbj Daughter, fir bet Daughter's 

Paugbter bath a Daughter. Mrs. Honywood was a very pious 
! tyman, afflicted, in her declining Age, with Defpair, in fome 
Jjeafure; concerning which, fome Divines once difcourfing 
vkh her, (he in a Paffion faid, Sbe was as certainly damned as 
! tisGlafi is token, (throwing a Venice Glafs againft the Ground, 
• ihfch Jhe had then in her Hand.) But the Glafs efcaped break- 
4 kg, m credible Witncfti attefted. 

180 Of the Food Book IV, 

tioned in Verfe 27, 28, of the laft cited Pfal. civ, 
Tbefe [Creatures] wait all upon thee, that tbou mayeji 
give them their Meat in due Sea/on. That tbou give} 
them, they gather ; tbou openejl thy Handy they arefikt 
with Good. The fame is again afferted in Pfal. cxhr. 
15, 16. The Eyes of all wait upon thee % and tbougiv^ 
them their Meat in due Seafon. Zhou openeft thy Hand^ 
andfatisfieft the Defire of everf living Thing. 

What the Pfalmift here aflerts, affords us a glo- 
rious Scene of the Divine Providence and Manage- 
ment. Which, (as I have (hewed it to Concern 
itfelf in other leffer Things ; fo) we may prefurac 
doth exert itfelf particularly in fo Grand an Affair 
as that of Food, whereby the animal World fub- 
fifts : And this will be manifefted, and the P/alm/Pi 
Obfervations exemplified, from thefe fix following 

I. From the fubfifting and maintaining flicha 
large Number of Animals, throughout all Parts of 
the World. 

II. From the proportionate Quantity of Food to 
the Eaters. 

III. From the Variety of Food fuited to the Va- 
riety of Animals : Or, the Delight which various 
Animals have in different Food. 

IV. From the peculiar Food which peculiar Places 
afford to the Creatures fuited to thofe Places. 

V. From the admirable and curious Apparatus 
made for the Gathering, Preparing, and Digeftion 
of the Food. And, 

VI. and Laftty, From the great Sagacity of all 
Animals, in finding out and providing their Food. 

I. It is a great Aft of the Divine Power and 
Wifdom, as well as Goodnefs, to provide Food foe 
fuch a World of Animals (*), as every where po£ 

(a) Pafium animantibus iargi & copios} naturm eum, qui ml* 
que apttu erat t xmpara<uit. Cic. de Nat. Deor. I. 2. c. 47. 
11 le Deus efti— qui per tot urn orbem anient* dime/ft, f** j 
gibus wtique pajjim <vogantibus f abulia* (rajtou $tt£C« de Ba 
L 4. c. 6. ^* 

Ch ap. XI. of Animals. 1 8 1 

fefs the Terraqueous Globe ; on the dry Land ; and 
in the Sea and Waters ; in the Torrid and Frozen 
Zones, as well as the Temperate. That the tempe- 
rate Climates, or at lead the fertile Valleys, and rich 
and plentiful Regions of the Earth, (hould afford 
Subnftence to many Animals, may appear lefs won- 
derful perhaps : But that in all other the moft likely 
Places for Supplies, fufficient Food (hould be afforded 
to fuch a prodigious Number, and fo great Variety 
of Beafts, Birds, Fifhes, and Infefts ; is owing to 
that Being, who hath as wifely adapted their Bodies 
to their Place and Food, as well as carefully pro- 
vided Food for their Subfiftence there. 

But I fhall leave this Confideration, becaufe it 
will be illuftrated under the following Points ; and 

II. To confider the Adjuftment of the Quantity 
of Food, in Proportion to the Eaters. In all Places 
there is generally enough ; nay, fuch a fufficien- 
cy, as may be (tiled a Plenty ; but not fuch a Su- 
perfluity, as to wafte and corrupt, and thereby an- 
noy the World. But that which is particularly 
remarkable here, is, that among the great Variety 
of Foods, the moft ufeful is the moft plentiful, moft 
univerfal, eafieft propagated, and moft patient of 
Weather, and other Injuries. As the herbaceous 
Eaters (for Inftance) are many, and devour much ; 
Jo the Dry-Land Surface we find every where almoft 
naturally carpeted over with Grafs, and other agree- 
able wholfome Plants ; propagating themfclves in a 
.manner every where, and fcarcely deftroyable by the 
[ Weather, the Plough, or any Art. So likewife for 
Irain, especially fuch as is moft ufeful, how eafily 

I it cultivated, and what a large Increafe doth it 
luce ? Pliny's Example of Wheat (£), is a fuffici- 

(*) Tritk* nihil eft fertilius: hoc ei mmtmr* tribuit, quoniam 
I msximi */a$ bominem i utp*U cum i modio t fi jit aftur» 
# 3. Jok"* 

iSz Of the Foot Book IV. 

ent Inftancc in this Matter; which fas that curious 
Heathen obferves) being principally ufeful to the 
Support of Man, is cafily propagated, and in great 
Plenty : And an happy Faculty that is of it, that k 
can bear either Extreams of Heat or Cold, (o at 
fcarce to refufe any Clime. 

III. Another wife Provifion the Creator hath 
made relating to the Food of Animals, is, that va- 
rious Animals delight in various Food (f)s fome m 
Grafs and Herbs ; fome in Grab and Seeds ; fome 
inFlcfli; fome in Infefts ; fome in this (d) ; fome in 
that * fome more delicate and nice; fome voracious 
and catching at any thing. If all delighted in, or 
fubfifted only with one Sort of Food, there would 
not be fufiicient for all ; but every Variety chufing 
various Food, and perhaps abhorring that which 
others like, is a great and wife Means that every 
Kind hath enough, and oftentimes fomewhst to 

It deferves to be reckoned as an Adfc of the di* 
vine Appointment, that what is wholefome Food 


filum 150 modii reddantnr. Mifit D. Augufto procurator 

i% uno grano {<vix credibile difiu) 400 paucis minus germina. 
Mifit fsf Neroni fimiliter 34Q fiipulas ex una gram. Plin. Nat. 
Hift. 1. 18. c. 10. 

(c) Sed ilia quanta benignitas Natura, quod tarn multa ad ■ 
Tftfcendum, tarn waria, tarn jucunda gignit ; neque ea umo tempore 
anni, ut femper fcf noyitate deleft emur & coptf. Cic. dc Nit. 
Deor. 1. 2. c. 53. 

(d) Swammerdam obferves of the Bpbemer on Worms, that \ 
their Food is Clay, and that they make their Ceils of the j 
fame. Upon which Occafion he faith of Moths, that eat ! 
Wool and Fur, There are two Things wry confiderabli, 1. That V 
the Cells they make to themfehues, wherein they live, and with J 
which (as their Houfe y Tartoife like) they move from Place ta I 
Place, they make of the Matter next at hand. 2. That they feed f_ 
alfo on the fame, therefore when you find their Cells, or rather 
Coats or Cafes, to be made of fellow, green, blue, or black Goth, 
you will alfo find their Dung of the fame Colour. Swam. Ephem. 
yita, publifced by Dr. Tyfin, Chap. 3. 



Chap. IX. Of 4mmah. \%^ 

to one, is naufcous, and as 3 Poifon Cq another \ 
what is ft fweet and delicate Smell $qd Tafte to 
one, is foetid and loathfome to another : By which 
Means ajl the Provifions the Globe affords are well 
difppfed of. Not only every Creature is w$U pro- 
vided for, but a due Confumption i$ fpade of thpfe 
Things that otherwife would encumber the World, 
lie in the Way, corrupt, rot, ftink, and annoy, in- 
ftead of cherifhing and refreihing it. For our mod 
vfeful Plants, Grain, gnd Fruits, would mould and, 
jot* thofe Beafts, Fowls, and Fifties, which are 
reckoned among the greateft Dainties, would turn 
to Carrion, and poifon us: Nay. thofe Animals 
which are become Carrion, and many other Things 
that are. noifome, both on the Dry-Land, and in 
the Waters, would be great Annoyances, and breed 
Difeafes, was it not fpr the Provifion which the in- 
finite Orderer of the World hath made, by caufing 
thefe Things to be fweet, pleafant, and wholefome 
pood to fpme Creature or other, in the Place where 
thofp Things fall : To Dogs, Ravens, and other 
yoracioqs Animals, forlnftance, on the Earth; and 
to rapacious Fifties, and other Creatures inhabiting 
the Waters. 

Thus is the World, in fome meafure, kept fweet 
and clean, and at the fame time, divers Species of 
Animals fupplyM with convenient Food. Which 
Province of God, particularly in the Supplies 
afforded the Ravens^ is divers times taken Notice 
of in the Scriptures (e) •, but whether for the Rea- 
fons now hinted, or any other fpecial Reafons, I 
{hall not inquire. Thus our Saviour, Luke xii. 24. 
Conftder the Ravens ; for they neither fow nor reap, 
which neither have Storeboufe, nor Barn % and God 


(«) Job xxxviii. 41. Pfal. cxlvii, 9. 

N 4 (f) Arifiou 

1 84 Of the Food Book IV. 

fcedetb them. It is a mantfeft Argument of the Di- 
vine Care and Providence, in fupplying the World 
with Food and Neceflaries, that the Ravens, ac- 
counted as unclean, and little regarded by Man, 
deftitute of Stores, and that live by Accidents, by 
what falleth here and there ; that fuch a Bird, I fay, 
fhould be provided with fufficient Food ; efpecially 
if that be true which Ariftotk (/), Pliny (g), and 
JElian (b) report, of their unnatural AfFedtion and 
Cruelty to their Yoqng: u That they expel them 
" their Ncfts as foon as they can fly, and then drive 
" them out of the Country ." . 

Thus having confidered the wife Appointment of 
the Creator, in fuiting the Variety of i^ood, to Va- 
riety of Animals ; Let us in the 

IV. Place, Take a View of the peculiar Food, 
which particular Places afford to the Creatures inha* 
biting therein, 

It hath been already obferved (*), That every 
Place on the Surface of the Terraqueous Globe, is 
Hocked with proper Animals, whofe Organs of 
Life and A6tion are curioufiy adapted to each re* 
fpeftive Place. Now it is an admirable A& of the 
Pivine Providence, That every Place affords * 
proper Food to all the living Creatures therein. 
All the various Regions of the World, the different 
Climates (£), (he various Soils, the Seas, the 


(f) Afifiot. 1. g. C. 31. Hifi. Animal 

(g) Pliny affirms this of the Crow as well as Raven : Cetera 
pmnee [i. e. Cornices] ex eodem genere felkmt nidis paths, mt 
volar e cogunt % ficut & Coryi, om—- f rob/iv fuos foetus Agajtt 
longius. Nat. Hift. }. ip. c. i*. 

(b) Far. Hifi. 

(*) Chap. 9. 

\k) Admiranda tiatur* difpenfatio ifi 9 ut aBter, diofut 
ptodo, tempore, fcf induftria colatur terra feptentrtonalis, aliter 
jEthiofia, &c. Quoad Aquilonares^ bee (trim $, in flerif- 

Chap. XI. Of Animals. 185 

Waters, nay our very Putrefa&ions, and mod nafty 
Places about the Globe, as they are inhabited by 
lbffle or other Animal, fo they produce fome proper 
Food or other, affording a comfortable Subfiftence 
to the Creatures living there. I might, for Inftan- 
ces (J) of this, bring the great Variety of Herbs, 
Fruits and Grains on the Earth, the large Swarms 
of Infefts in the Air, with every other Food of 
the Creatures refiding in the Earth, or Hying in the 
Air. But I Ihall flop at the Waters* becaufe the 
Pfalm\fi % in the fore-cited civ th Pfalm, fpeaks with 
relation to the efpecial Provifion for the Inhabi- 
tants of the Waters ; and alfo by Reafon that many 
Land- Animals have their chief Maintenance from 


jue agrii Vefirogotborum, parte Objefia Meridionall flag*, Her* 
deum Jbatio 36 Dierum a fimine prejeQo matnrum eo/Iigi, b* 
efit a fine Junii ufque medium Augufii, aliquando celerius. Ea 
tuanmu maturitas ex file naturd, aerijque dementia, ae humeri 
Ipfilbrum frvente radices, Soleque torrente, necejfario provenit, mi 
it* nafiatur, ae maturetur, talefque Jpic* /ex erdines in numere 
arifia babent. Ol. Mag. Hift. 1. 15. c. 8. Prat a & pafcua 
tantd luxuriant graminum ubertate ac diver fit ate, ut neceffum 
fit Me arcere jumenta, ne nimio berbarum efu crepent, &c. Id* 
ib. 1. 19. c. 36. 

(/) Among the many noble Contrivances for Food, lean- 
not but attribute that univerfal Aliment, Bread, to the Reve- 
lation, or at leaft the Infpiration of the Creator and Confer- 
vatorof Mankind ; not only becaufe it is a Food nfed in all, 
or moft Farts of the World ; but efpecially becaufe it is of 
incomparable Ufe in the great Work of Digeftion* greatly, 
affifting the Ferment, or whatever cades the Digeftion of 
the Stomach. Of which take this Example from the noble 
Mr. Beyle. '< He extracted a Menfiruum from Bread alone, 
" that would work on Bodies more compact than many hard 
f • Minerals, nay even on Glafs it felf, and do many Things 
" that Aqua-fortis could not d o ■ Yet by no means was 
91 this fo corrofive a Liquor as Aq. fort, or as the other acid 
" Menfiruum. " Fid. the ingenious and learned Dr. Harris** 
lex. lech, verb* Menfir***}, where the Way of preparing it 
jnajr be met witbt 

1 8 6 Of the Food Book TV. 

Now one would think, that the Waters were a 
very unlikely Element to produce Food for fo great 
a Number of Creatures, as have their Subfiftcnce 
from thence. But yet how rich a Promptuary is 
it, not only to large Multitudes of Fifties, but alio 
to many amphibious Quadrupeds, Infe&s, Reptiles, 
and Birds ! From the largeft Leviathan* which the 
Pfahnift faith {m) playetb in the Seas* to the fmal- 
left Mite in the Lakes and Ponds, all are plentiful- 
ly provided for ; as is manifeft from the Fatnefs of 
their Bodies, and the Gaiety of their Afped and 

And the Provifion which the Creator hath made 
for this Service in the Waters is very obfervable ; 
not only by the Germination of divers aquatick 
Plants there, but particularly by appointing the 
"Waters to be the Matrix of many Animals, par- 
ticularly of many of the Infeft-Kind, not only of 
Aich as are peculiar to the Waters, but alfo of ma- 
ny appertaining to the Air and the Land, who, by 
their near Alliance to the Waters, delight to be 
about them, and by that Means become a Prey, 
and plentiful Food to the Inhabitants of the Wa- 
ters. And befides thefe, what prodigious Shoals 
do we find of minute Animals even fometimes dif- 
cplouring the Waters {n) ! Of thefe (not only in 
the Water, but in the Air and on Land J I have 
always thought there was fome more than ordi- 

(m) Tfal. civ. 26. 

(») The Infefts that for the moft part difcolour the Wa* 
tcrs, are the fmall Infe&s of the Sbrimp-khtd, called by Swam- 
merdam % Pulex etquaticus aiboref certs. Thefe I have often 
feen lo numerous in ftagnating Waters in the Summer- 
Months, that they have changed the Colour of the Waters 
to a pale or deep Red, fometimes a Yellow, according to 
" Colour they were of. Of this Swammerdam hath a pret- 
f told him by Dr. Florence Sebuyl, vis. Se aHauanik 
intent urn, magna quodam ZJ borrifco rumare f*w* tur ' 
I h*hta t 

to a pa 

T 5 

Chap.XI. Of Animals. 187 

nary Ufe intended by the All-wife Creator. And 
having bent many of my Obfervations that Way, I 
have evidently found it accordingly to be. For be 
they never fonumberlefs or minute, thofe Animals 
ferve for Food to fome Creatures or other. Even 
thofe Animalcules in the Waters, difcoverablc only 
with good Microfcopes, are a Repaft to others 
there, as I have often with no lefs Admiration than 
Pleafure feen (0). 


latum, & fimul ad caufam ejus inquirendum excitatum ; <?*• 
rumfe vix eum infinem furrexijfe, cum Ancilla ejus feene ex~ 
animis adcurreret, iff multo cum fingultu referret, omnem lMg*> 
duns [Batavorum] aquam ejfe mutatam in fanguinem. The 
Caufe of which, upon Examination, he found to be only from 
the numerous Swarms of thofe Pulices. V. Swamm. Hilt Infect. 
p. 70. 

The Caufe of this great Concourfe and Appearance of 
thofe little Infects, I have frequently obferved to be to per- 
form their Coit ; which is commonly about the latter End of 
May* and in June. At that Time they are very venerous, 
fruiting and catching at one another ; and many of them con- 
joined Tail to Tail, with their Bellies inclined one towards an- 

At this Time alfo they change their Skin or SI&ugB; which I 
conceive .their rubbing againft one another mightily promoteth. 
And what if at this Time they change their Quarters? Fid. Boek 
VIII. Chap. 4. Note (/). 

Thefe fmall Infects, as they are very numerous, fo are Food 
to many Water- Animals. I have feen not only Ducks (hovel 
them up as they fwim alone the Waters, but divers Infects alfo 
devour them, particularly fome of the middle-fized Squill* aqua* 
tic** which are very voracious Infects. 

(9) Befides the Pulices laft mentioned, there are in the Waters 
other Animalcules very numerous, which are fcarce vifible with- 
out a Microfcope, In May, and the Summer Months, the green 
Scnm on the Top of ftagnating Waters, is nothing elfe but 
prodigious Numbers of thefe Animalcules ; So is likewife the 
green Colour in them, when all the Water feems green. Which 
Animalcules, in all Probability, ferve for Food to the Puttees 
Jquatici, and other the minuter Animals of the Waters. Of 
which I gave a pregnant Inftance in one of the Nympba of Gnats, 
to* my Friend the late admirable Mr. Ray, which he was pleafed 
to publifl) in the laft Edition of his ffifdom of God in the Creation. 
P. 430. 

188 Of the Feod Book IV. 

But now the ufual Obicdtion is, that Ncceffity 
maketh Ufe (p). Animals muft be fed, and they 
make ufe of what they find : In the defolate Regi- 
ons, and in the Waters, for Inftance, they feed upon 
what they can come at ; but, when in greater Plenty, 
they pick and chufe. 

But this Objeftion hath been already in fome 
Meafure anfwered by what hath been laid j which 


(/>) Nil adeo quantum natunfft in Corpore, ututi 
Pojemut, fedquod natumfi, id proereat ufum. 

And afterwards, 
Propterea capitur Cibut, ut fuffulciat artut, 
Et recreet <vireis interdatut, at que patent em 
Per membra ae vena* at amorem obturet edendi. 
And after the fame Manner he difcourfeth of Thiril, and di- 
vers other Things. Fid. Lucre*. /. 4. v. 831, &c. 

Againft this Opinion of the epicureans, Galen ingenionfly 
argues in his Difcourfe about the Hand. Nan enim Manus 
ipfar (faith he) bominem artes docuerunt,' fed Ratio. Mama 
autem ipfar funt artium organa ; ficut Lyra mufic i ■ Lyra 

tnuficam non, docuit, fed eft ipfius artifex per earn, qua pneditus 
eft, Rationem: agere autem non poteft ex arte abfque organit, 
ita & una qu&libet anima facultatet quafdam a fud ipfius fit- 
ftantid obtinet, Quod autem corporis particular animam men 
intpellunt,—~manifefte wider e licet \ ft animaUa ncent nata 
confident, qua? quidem priut agere conantur, quam perfc&as 
babeant particulate Ego namque Bonis witulum comitut fetere 
conantem farpenumero *uidi t antequam ei nata effent comua ; Et 
fullum Equi calcitrantem, &c. Omne enim animal feue ipfiut 
Anima facultates, ac in quot ufut partet fuat polleant maxime, 
nullo doclore, prafentit—— %ud igitur ratione did poteft, ani* 
malia partium ufut a pattibut doceri, cum & antequam Mat 
babeant, boc cognofcere <videantur? Si igitur 0<va tria acceperis, 
unum Aquil*, alter urn An at is, reliquum Serpent is, (& colore 
modico f o<verit, animaliaque exc/ufeHt; ilia quidem alit *volare 
conantia, antequam *volare poffint ; boc autem revoltn vi debit, fcf 
ferpere affedant, quawvis molle adhuc Eff invalidum fuerit. ft ft, 
dum perfecla erunt, in una eademque domo nutrwerit, deinde ad 
locum fubdialem duda emijerit, Aquila quidem ad fub/ime; Anas 
autem in paludem ;— Serpent *oerofub terra irrepet—AnimaJia qui- 
dem mibi "uidentur Naturd magit quam Ratione artem alijuant 
[t«x»** art ificiofa] exercere: Apetfingere aheolos, &c, Galen, 
de ufu Part. c. 3. 

1 (a\ Mi* 

Chap. XI. Of Animals. 189 

plainly argues Defign, and a fuper-intending Wif- 
dom, Power and Providence in this fpecial Bufinefs 
of Food. Particularly the different Delight of di- 
vers Animals in different Food, fo that what is 
naufeous to one, fhould be Dainties to another, 
is a manifeft Argument, that the Allotment of 
Food is not a Matter of mere Chance, but en- 
tailed to the very Conftitution and Nature of Ani- 
mals; that they chufe this, and refufe that, not 
by Accident, or Neccflity, but becaufe the one is 
a proper Food, agreeable to their Conftitution, and 
fo appointed by the infinite Contriver of their Bo* 
dies ; and the other is difagreeable and injurious to 

But all this Objedtion will be found frivolous, and 
the Wifdom and Defign of the great Creator will de- 
monftratively appear, if we take a Survey, 

V. Of the admirable and curious Apparatus in 
all Animals, made for the Gathering, Preparing, 
and Digeftion of their Food. From the very firft 
Entrance, to the utmoft Exit of the Food, we find 
every Thing contrived, made and difpofed with 
the utmoft Dexterity and Art, and curioufly adapted 
to the Place the Animal liveth in, and the Food it 
is to be nourifhed with. 

Let us begin with the Mouth. And this we find, 
in every Species of Animals, nicely conformable 
to the Ufe of fudh a Part 5 neatly fized and fhaped 
for the catching of Prey, for the gathering or re- 
ceiving Food (j), for the Formation of Speech, 


(?) Alia dentibus pradantur, alia unguibus, alia rofiriadunci- 
tatt carpunty alia latitudine [ejufdem] ruunt 9 alia acumine exca- 
vant, aliafuguut, alia lambunt, Jorbent, mandunt, <uorant. Nee 
minor varietas in pedum minifterio> ut rapiant % diftrabant, teneant % 
premant, pendeant % tellurm fcabere non cefent. Plin. Nat. Hift. 
1. 10. €.71. 


190 Of Animals Mouths. Book IV. 

and every other fuch like Ufe (r). In fome Crea- 
tures it is wide and large, in fome little and nar- 
row •, in fome with a deep Incifure up into the 
Head (j), for the better catching and holding of 
Prey, and more eafy Comminution of hard, large 
and troublefome Food ; in others with a much 
dorter Incifure, for the gathering and holding of 
herbaceous Food. 

In lnfefts it is very notable. In fome forcipa- 
ted, to catch hold and tear their Prey (/): In fome 


(r) Becaufe it would be tedious to reckon up the Bones, 
Glands, Mufcles, and other Parts belonging to the Mouth, it 
(halliuffice to obfcrve, that, for the various Services of Man's 
Month, befides the Mofcles in common with other Parts, there 
are five Pair, and one (ingle one proper to the Lips only, as Dr. 
G'tbfen reckons them : But jmy moft diligent and carious Friend 
the late Mr. Confer, difcovered a fixth Pair. And accordingly 
Dr. Dmie reckons fix Pair, and one fingle one proper to the 
Lips. /. 3. r. 13. 

\j) Gakn deierves to be here confnlted, who excellently 
argues againft the cafual ConcouHe of the Atoms of EficM- 
rus and Jfclepiades, from the provident and wife Formation 
of the Mouths of Animals, and their Teeth anfwerable 
thereto. In Man, his Mouth without a deep Incifure, with 
only one canine Tooth on a Side, and flat Nails, becaufe, 
faith he, Etc Natura certo fciebat, ft animal manjkitum, ac 
civile ejingere, cut robur & vires efftnt ex fapientia, noh $x 
corporis fortitudine. But for Lions, Wolfs, and Dogs, and all 
fuch as are called K«px"f^" TS ?> ( or having (harp, ferrated 
Teeth) their Months are large, and deep cot ; Teeth ftrong and 
fharp, andsheir Nails (harp, large, firong, and round, accom- 
modated to holding and tearing. Fid. Galen, de Uf. Pari. 1. 1 1. 

(/) Among Infects, the Sjuilla aquatic*, as they are very 
rapacious, To are accordingly provided for it: Particularly 
the Squilla aquatica maxima recurva (as I call it) who hath 
fomewhat terrible in its very Afpeft, and in its Pofture in the 
Water, efpecially its Mouth, which is armed with long, 
(harp Hooks, with which it boldly, and greedily catcheth 
any Thing in the Waters, even one's Fingers. When they 
have feized their Prey, they will fo fenacioofly hold it with 
their forcipated Mouth, that they will not part therewith, 


Chap* XI. Of jtnirnah Mouths, igi 

aculeated, to pierce and wound Animals (ft), and 
fuck their Blood. And in others ftrongly rigged 
with Jaws and Teeth, to gnaw and fcrape out their 
Food, to carry Burdens {w) % to perforate the Earth, 
yea, the hardeft Wood, yea, even Stones themfelves, 



even when they are taken out of the Waters, and jumbled about 
in one's Hand. I have admired at their peculiar Way of taking 
in their Food ; which is done by piercing their Prey with their 
Ftreipes (which are hollow) and fucking the Juice thereof thro* 

The Squilla here mentioned, is the firft and fecond in Minjpfs 
7 beat. lnfeB. /. 2. r. 37. 

(») For an Inftance of Infe&s endued with a Spear, I Hall, 
for its Peculiarity, pitch upon one of the fmalleft, if not 
the very fmafleft, of all the G*zz?-kind, which I call, tahx 
minimus nigricans matulaius fanguifisga. Among us in EJ*? 9 
they are called Nidiots; by Mwffet, Midges. It is about one 
tenth of an Inch, or fomewhat more, long, with fhort Anten- 
na, plain in the Female, in the Male feathered, fomewhat 
.like a Bottle-Brufli. It is fpotted with . blackifti Spots, espe- 
cially on the Wings, which extend a little beyond the Body. It 
comes from a little (lender Eel -like Worm, of a dirty white 
Colour, fwimming in liagnating Waters by a wriggling Motion j 
as in Fig. 5. 

Its Aurelia is fmall, with a black Hea4, little fhort Horns, 
a fpotted, (lender, rough Belly. Fid. Fig. 6. It lies quietly 
on the Top of the Water, now and then gently wagging itfelf 
this Way and that. 

Thefe Goofs are greedy Blood-Suckers, and very trouble- 
tome, where numerous ; as they are in fome Places near the 
Shames, particularly in the Breach- Waters, that have lately 
befallen near us, in the Parifh of Dagenham ; where I found 
then fo vexatious, that I was glad to get out of thofe Marines. 
Yea, I have feen Horfes fo dung with them, that they have had 
Drops of Blood all Over their Bodies, where they were wounded, 
by them. 

I have given a Figure (in Fig. 7 ) and more particular De- 
fcription of the Gnats, becaufe, although it be common, it is no 
where taken Notice of by any Author 1 know, except Monfet, 
who, I fuppofe, means thefe Gnats, which he calls Midges, c. 
13. p. 82. 

(<w) Hornets and Waffs have (hong Jaws, toothed, wherewith 
they can dig into Fruits, for their Food ; as alfognaw and fcrape 
Wood, whole Mouthfuls of which they carry away to make their 
Combs. Videinfr. Chap. 13. Note {fy 

192 Of Animals Mouths. Book IV, 

for Houfes (#) to themfelves, and Nells for their 

And laftly, in Birds it is no lefs remarkable. In 
the firft Place, it is neatly (haped for piercing the 
Air, and making Way for the Body thro* the airy 
Regions. In the next Place, it is hard and horny, 
which is a good Supplement for the want of Teeth, 
and caufeth the Bill to have the Ufe and Service of 
the Hand. Its hooked Form is of great Ufe to 
the rapacious Kind (y) 9 in catching and holding 
their Prey, and in the Comminution thereof bj 
tearing * to others it is no lefs ferviceable to their 
Climbing, as well as neat and nice Comminution 
of their Food (2). Its extraordinary Length and 
Slendernefs is very ufeful to fome, to fearch and 
grope for their Food in moorilh Places (aa)- 9 as 
its Length and Breadth is to others to hunt and 


(*) Monficur de la Voye tells t» of an ancient Wall of Free* 
Stone in the BenedeQines- Abbey at Caen in Normandy, (o eaten 
with Worms, that one may run one's Hand into moft of the 
Cavities : That thefe Worms are fmall and black, lodging in a 
greyifh Shell ; that they have large flattifti Heads, a large Month, 
with four black Jaws, &c. Phil. Tranf. N°. 18. 

(y) Pro its [Labris] cornea & acuta FolucriBus Rojlrg. 
Eadem rapto vwentibus adunea: colle8t>, reSa: berbas mentibus 
limumque lata, ut Suum ge fieri. Jumtntit vice mattus ad colligeuJa 
pabula : ora apertiora laniatu wwenttbus. Piin. Nat. Hrft. L II. 
c. 37. 

(z) Parrots have their Bills nicely adapted to thefe Service*, 
being hooked, for climbing and reaching what they have Oca- 
fion tor ; and the lower Jaw being compleatly fitted to the Hooks 
of the upper, they can as minutely break their Food, at other 
Animals do with their Teeth. 

(ad) Thus in Woodcocks, Snipes, &c. who hunt for Worms in 
moorifh Ground, and, as Mr. Willugbby faith, live alfo 011 the 
fatty ondtuous Humour they fuck out of the Earth. So alfo the 
Bills of Curlews, and many other Sea Fowl, are very long f to 
enable them to hunt for the Wormf, &c. in the Sands on the/ 
gea-fhore, which they frequent. . 

(hb) Dmh 

Chap. XL Of Ammah Mouth. 193 

fearch in muddy Places (U): And the contrary 
Form, namely, a thick, fhort, and fharp-edged 
Bill, is as ufeful to other Birds, who have Occafion 
to huflc and flay the Grains they fwallow. But 
it would be endlefs, and tedious, to reckon up all 
the various Shapes, and commodious Mechanifm 
of all ; the Sharpnefs and Strength of thofe who 
have occafion to perforate Wood and Shells (cc) ; 
the Slendernefs and Neatnefs of fuch as pickup 
fmall Infedts -, the Crofs-Form of fuch as break up 
Fruits (dd); the comprefled Form of others (ee) f 
with many other curious and artificial Forms, all 
fuited to the Way of Living, and peculiar Occa^ 
fions of the feveral Species of Birds. Thus much 
for the Mouth. 
Let us next take a ftiort View of the Teeth (ff). 


(U) Ducks, Geefe 9 and divers others, have fuch long broad 
Bills, to quafFer and hunt in Water and Mud ; to which we 
mav reckon the uncouth Bill of the Spun-Bill: But that which 
deferves particular Obfervation in the Birds named in thefe two 
laft Notes is, the Nerves going to the End of their Bills, en- 
abling them to difcover their Food out of Sight ; of which fee 
Book VII. Chap. 2. Note (*). 

{cc) The Picus Viridis, or Green Wobdftite, and all the Wood- 
Peckers, have Bills curioufly made for digging Wood, ftrong, 
bard, and (harp. A neat Ridge runs along the Top of the 
green Wood-Pecker's Bill, as if an Artift had defigned it for 
Strength and Neatnefs. 

(dd) The Loxia, or Crofs*Bill, whofe Bill is thick and ftrong, 
With the Tips crofling one another, with great Read inefs breaks 
open Fir-cones, Apples, and other Fruit, to come at their Ker- 
nels, which are its Food, as if the crofling of the Bill was de- 
figned for this Service. 

(#») The Sea-Pie hath a long, (harp, narrow Bill, comprefled 

We-ways, and twery way fo well adapted to the railing Limpets 

from the Rocks (which are its chief, if not only Food) that Na- 

tare (or rather the Author of Nature) feems to have framed it 

i purely for that Ufe. 

» (&) Thofe Animals which have Teeth on both Jaws, havjt 
fcf one Stomach ; but moft of thofe which have no upper Teeth, 
<r mm at all, have three Stomachs ; as in Beafi$ % tit Paunchy 

O lbs 

194 Of Akimals Mtmtbs. Book IV, 

In which their peculiar Hardneft (gg) is remarka- 
ble, their Growth (bb) alfo, their firft Infertion 
and Bandage in the Gums and Jaws, and their va- 
rious Shape and Strength, fuited to their various 
Occafion and Ufe {it): the foremoft weak and 
fartheft from the Center, as being only Preparer* 
to the reft ; the others being to grind and mince, 
art accordingly made ftronger, and placed nearer 


the Read, and the Feek; and in ati grawuorons Birds, the Crop, 
the Echinus y and the Giscard. For at chewing is to an emfy Di- 
gefiion, fo is /wallowing whole to that which is more laborious. Dr. 
Grew's Cofmol. Sacr. c. 5. fedt. 24. 

Igg) J, Peyer faith, the Teeth are made of convolved Skim 
Hardened; and if we view the Grinders of Deer, Herfes, Sheep, 
&e. we (hall find great Reafon to be of his Mind. His Obser- 
vations are, Mirum am tern eos (i. e. Dentes) citm primum i pelU* 
cults imbricatim convolutis iff muco vifcido eonfiarent, in tamtam 
dirigefcere foliditatem, qua offa cunBa fuperet '. Idem ft etiam in 
Officulis Cerafimm, &c. ■ S eparafione fa8a % per membra- 

nas conditur Magna locelUs, quosformant lamina teuus, ac duriuf* 
cula ad D cutis Jigur am anted divinitus compofit*. J . Peyer Mery- 
col. 1. 2. c. 8. 

(bb) Quiantem (i.e. Dentes) renafcuntur, minime tredendi fiud 
afacultate aliqud plafiicd Brut or urn denuoformari, fed latenies tan- 
tmmmodo in cohfpcclum producuntur augmento molts ex effiuente facet* 
Id. ibid. 

(it) From thefe, and other like Considerations of the 
Teeth, Galen infers, That they mud needs be the Work of 
fome wife, provident Being; not Chance, nor a fortuitous 
Concourfe of Atoms. For the Confirmation of which he 

Sots the Cafe, That fuppofe the Order of the Teeth mould 
avebeen inverted, the Grinders fet in the room of the iv* 
eifors, &c (which might as well have been, had not the 
Teeth been placed by a wife Agent) in this Cafe, What Ufe 
would the Teeth have been of? What Confufion by fuch a 
flight Error in their Difpofal only? Upon which he argues, 
At fi quis choream hominum 32 (the Number of the Teeth) 
ardine difpofuit, eum ut hominem induftrium laudarenms: cam 
vero Dentium choream Natura tarn belle exorndrit % no/me iffam 
quoque laudabimus? And then he goes on with the At* 
•jjument, from the Sockets of the Teeth, and their nice fit- 
ting in them, which being no lefs accurately done, than 
what is done by a Carpenter, or Stone- Cutter, in fitting a 
1 Tenon 

Chap. XL Of Animals Mouths. I95 

the Center of Motion and Strength. Likewife 
their various Form (kk) in various Animals, is con* 
fiderable, being all curioufly adapted to the pecu- 
liar Food (//), and Occafions of the feveral Species 
of Animals (mm). And laftly, the temporary De* 
fed of thQtn («»), is no lefs obfervable in Children, 


Tenon into a Mortice, doth as well infer the Art and Aft of 
the wife Maker of Animal Bodies, as the other doth the Aft 
and Art of Man., And fo he goes on with other Arguments to 
die fame Effeft. Galen de Vf. Fart, 1. 1 1. c. 8. 

(M) A curious Account of this may be found in an Extra& 
efa Letter concerning the Teeth of divers Animals. Printed at 
Paris, in J/. Vaug&uC* Compleat Body of Chirurg. Oper. 
Chap. 53. 

(II) A* it hath been taken Notice of, that various Animals 
delight in various Pood 3 fo it conftantly falls out, that their 
Teeth are accordingly fitted to their Food ; the Rapacious to 
catching, holding, and, tearing their. Prey; the Herbaceous to 
Gathering and Comminution of Vegetables : And fuch as 
have no Teeth, as Birds, their Bill, Craw, and Gizard, are 
afified with Stones, to fupply the Defect of Teeth. But the 
moft confiderable Example of this Kind is in fome Families 
of the Iaied-Tribes, as the Fapillio-Kind, t$c. who have 
Teeth, and are voracious, and live on tender Vegetables in 
their Nympba, or Caterpillar State, when they can only creep; 
bat in their mature Patilio State, they have no Teeth, but a 
tfbofcis, or Trunk, to fuck up Honey, &c. their Parts for ga- 
thering Food, as well as their Food, being changed, as foon as 
they Save Wings, to enable them to fly to it. 

(/mm) It is remarkable in the Teeth of Filhes, thtt in fomt 
they are flurp, as alfo jointed, fo as to fall back, the better to 
catch and hold their Prey, and to facilitate its Paflage into the 
Stomach : So in others they are broad and fiat, made to break 
the Shells of Snails and Shell- Fifh devoured by them. Thefe 
Tsetbt or Breakers, are placed, in fome, in the Month ; in fome, 
o. the Throat ; and in Uhfiers, &f. in the Stomach itfelf ; in 
the Bottom of whofe Stomachs are three of thofe Grinders, with 
peculiar M ufcles to move them. 

(ami) What is there in the World can be called an A& of 
Providence and Defign, if this temporary Defect of Teeth 
be. not fuch? That Children, for Inftance, fliould have none 
vhilft they are not able to ufe them, bu,t to hurt themfelves, 
Br the Mother ; and that at the very Age when they can take 

O 2 Va. 

196 Of Animals Month. Book IV* 

and fuch young Creatures, where there is no Occa- 
fion for them 5 but they would be rather an Annoy- 
ance to the tender Nipples and Breads. 

From the Teeth, the grand Instruments of Mafti* 
cation, let us proceed to the other minifterial 
Parts. And here the Parotid^ Sublingual* and max- 
illary Glands^ together with thofe of the Cheeks and 
Lips, aire considerable ; all lodged in the moft con- 
venient Places about the Mouth ?nd Throat, to 
afford that noble digeftive falival Liquor, to be 
mixed with the Food in Maftication, and to moiften 
and lubricate the Paffages, to give an eafy defcent 
to the Food. The commodious Form alfo of the 
Jaws, deferves our Notice ; together with the 
ftrong Articulation of the lowermoft, and its Mo- 
tion. And laftly, the curious Form, the great 
Strength, the convenient Lodgment and Situation 
,of the feveral Mufcles and Tendons (oo)> all mi- 
niftring to this fo neceffary an Ad of Life, as 
Maftication is; they are fuch Contrivances,' fuch 
Works, as plainly fet forth the infinite Workman's 
Care and Skill. 

Next to the Mouth, the Gullet prefenteth itfelf 5 
in every Creature well-fized to the Food it hath 
occafion to fwallow, in fome but narrow, in others 

in more fubftantial Food, and live without theBrcaft, and begin 
to need Teeth, for the &ke of Speech ; that then, I fay, their 
Teeth (hould begin to appear, and gradually grow, as they more 
and more ftand in need of them. 

(00) It would be endlefs to particularize here, and therefore 
I (hall reftr to the Anatomifts $ among the reft, particularly to 
Galen, for the fake of his Defcant upon this Subject. For hav- 
ing defcrtbed the great Accuracy of the Contrivance and Make 
of thefe Parts, he faith, Hand fiio an bomimm fit fobriontm ad 
Fortunate efajicem id revocare : alioqui quid tandem erit t quod am 
Procidentia at que Arte effieitur ? Omnino enim hoc i* eontrarittm 
effe debet, quod cafu acjortuitofit. Galen, dc Uf. Part. 1. 1 1. c. 
7. nbi plunu 

(ft) fht 

Chap, XI. of Animals Throats. 197 

as large and extenfive {pp)\ in all exceedingly 
remarkable for the curious Mechanifm of its Mufcles, 
and the artificial Decuffation and Pofition of their Fi- 
bres (qq). 

And now we are arrived to the grand Recep- 
tacle of the Food, the Stomach \ for the mod part 
as various as the Food to be conveyed therein. 
And here I might defcribe the admirable Mecha- 
nifm of its Tunicks, Mufcles, Glands, the Nerves, 
Arteries, and Veins (rr)\ all manifefting the fu- 
per- eminent Contrivance and Art of the infinite 


. typ) The Bore of the Gullet is not in all Creatures alike anfwera- 
hle to the Body or Stomach, As in the Fox, which both feeds on. 
Bowes, and /wallows whole, or with little chewing ; add next in a 
Dog, and other offiiiorous Quadrupeds, 'tis very large, viz. to pre- 
vent a Contufion therein. Next in a Horfe, which tbo* be feeds on 
Grafs, yet /wallows much at once, and Jo requires a more open Paf- 
fage. But in a Sheep, Rabbit, or Ox, which bite Jhort, and 
/wallow lets at once, 'tisfmaller. And in a Squirrel, ftill leffer % 
both becaufe he eats fine, and to keep him from dif gorging his Meat 
nfon his defcending Leaps. Andfo in Rats and Mice, which often 
run along Walls, with their Heads downwards. Dr. Grew's 
Comp. Anat. of Stom. and Gats, Chap. 5. 

(qq) Qf this fee Dr. Willis's Pbarm. Rat. Part I. feci. 1. c. 2. 
Steno alfo, and Peyer. Mery. 1. 2. 

The Defcription thefe give of the mufcular Part of the 
Gullet, the late ingenious and learned Dr. D> ake faith, is very 
exa& in Ruminants, but not in Men. In Men, this Goat (the 
ftcond of the Gullet) confifis of two flejby Lamella, like two 
k/tiufi Mufcles. The outward being compo/ed of ftrait hngitudi* 
m Fibres. The inner Order of Fibres is annular, with* 

j m any obfervable Angles. The XJfe of this Coat, and thefe 

i Orders of Fibres, is to promote Deglutition; of which the Longitm- 
£mmJ 9 ■ J borten the Oefophagus, and fo make its Capacity 
larger, to admit of the Matter to be /wallowed. The Annular, on 
the contrary, control the Capacity, and chfing behind the defcend^ 
Img Aliment, prefs it downwards. Drake's Anat. Vol. 1, 1. i. 

(rr) See Willis, ibid. Covspefs Anat. Tab. 35. and many 
*bcr Authors. 

Q j (fs) from* 

19$ Qf Animals Stomachs. Book I\T. 

Workmajv(jj) ; they being all nicely adjufted to 
their refpcftive Place, Qccafion, and Service. I 
might alfo infift upon that moft neceffary Office of 
Digeftion ; and here confider that wonderful Faculty 
of the Stomachs of all Creatures, todiflblvc (//) all 
the feveral Sorts of Food appropriated to their Spe- 
cies-, even fometimes Things of that Confiftency as 
jeem infoluble {uu) ; efpecially by fuch feemingly 
fUnple and weak Menjtnmms as we find in their 
Stomachs : But I lhall only give thefe Things a 
bare Mention* and take more peculiar Notice of 
the fpecial Provifion made in the particular Species 
of Animals, for the Digeftion of that fpecial Food 

appointed them. 


(si) Promptuarium autem hoc, alimentum unvverfnm extipim, 
am Divinum, uon Bumanum fit opificium. Galen, de Uf. Put 
J. 4. c. 1. 

(//) How great a Comprehenfion §f the Nature of Things, did it 
require, to make a Mcnftruum, thatjhould corrode all Sorts ef 
Fle/b coming into the Stomach, and yet not the Stomach it/elf, 
•which is alfo FUJh ? Dr. Grenv'& Cofmol. Sacr. c. 4. { 

(uu) The Food of the Cafior being oftentimes, if not al- 
ways, dry Things, and hard of Digeftion, fuch as the Roots 
and Bark of Trees, 'tis a wonderful Provifion made in that 
Creature's Stomach, by the digeftivc Juice lodged in the ca- 
rious little Cells there. A Defcription of whofe admirable 
Structure and Order may be found in Blafius from Wepfir: 
concerning which he faith, In qui bus Mucus recouditus, now 

/ecus ac Mel in Fa<vis. Nimirum quia Cafioris airmen- 

turn exfuccum, fcf coclu difficillimum eft, fapientijjimus ftf fumml , 
admirandus in Juis operibus rerum Condi tor, D.O. M. ipfi /■/• 
cberrimd ifd IS ajabt } /acid Jfruclurd bettignijjtm} projpexit, ut 
wmquam deeffet Fermentum, quod ad fohendm, & comminuend** * 
alimentum durum & a/perum par foret. Vide Blaf. Anat. H 
Animal, c. 10. Confer etiam Adt. Erud. Lipf. Ann. 1684. ' 
p. 360. |s 

Moft of our modern Anatomifts and Phyficians attribute 
Digeftion to a diflblving Menftruum-, but Dr. Drake takes it > 
to be rather from fermentative, diflblving Principles in the ■ 
Aliment itfelf, with the Concurrence of the Air and Heat of *■ 
the Body ; as in Dr. PafWt Digefler. V\dt Dr. Anat. Vol. 1. 
f> *4- « 

Chap. XI. Of Ammah Stomachs, r<pf 

And in the firft Place ic is obfervable, that, to 
every Species of Animals, the Strength and Size 
of their Stomach (ww) is conformable to their 
Food. Such whofe Food is more delicate, tender , 
and nutritive, have commonly this Part thinner, 
weaker, and lefs bulky *, whereas fuch whofe Ali- 
ment, is lefs nutritive, or whofe Bodies require larger 
Supplies to anfwer their Bulk, their Labours, and 
wafte of ftrength and Spirits, in them it is large 
and ftrong. 

Another very remarkable Thing in this Part, is, 
the Number of Ventricles in divers Creatures. In 
many but one; in fome two or more (*#)• ' n 
fuch as make a fufficient Comminution of the Food 
in the Mouth, one fuffices. But where Teeth are 
wanting, and the Food dry and hard, (as in 
granivorous Birds), there the Defeft is abundant* 
ly fupply'd by one thin membranaceous Ventri* 
cle, to receive and moiften the Food, and ano- 
ther thick, ftrong, mufcular one, to grind and 
tearQry) it. But in fuch Birds, and other Creatures, 


(<ww) All carnivorous Quadrupeds have tbe fmaUeft Ventri- 
tles, Fle/h going fartbefl. Tbofe that feed on Fruits, and Roots, 
hmre them of a middle Size. Yet the Mole, becaufe it feeds un- 
ckan, bath a 'very great one. Sheep and Oxen, which feed on 
Grafs, home tbe great eft. Yet the Horfe {and for the fame Rea- 
fom tbe Coney and Hare) the? Graminivorous, yet compara- 
ti'oely bath but little ones. For that a Horfe is made for Labour, 
and both this, and the Hare, for quick and continued Motion ; for 
which, tbe. mofl eafy Refpi ration, and Jo the free ft Motion of the 
Diaphragm, is very requifite ; which yet could not be, Jhould the 
Stomach lie big and cumberfome upon it, as in Sheep and Oxen 
it doth. Grew ib. Chap. 6. 

(xx) The Dromedary hath four Stomachs, one whereof is 
peculiarly endowed with about twenty Cavities, like Sacks, 
in all Probability for tbe holding of Water. Concerning 
wtich, fee Book VI. Chat. 4. Note (a). 

(yy) To afM in which Office, they fwallow fmall angular 
Stones, which are to be met with in the Gizards of all gra- 

O 4 DNiatw& 

too Of Animals Stomachs. Book IVJ 

whofc Food is not Grain, but Flefli, Fruits, In- 
fers, or partly one, partly the other, there their 
Stomachs are accordingly conformable to their 
Food (zz), ftronger or weaker, membranaceous or 

But as remarkable a Thing as any in this Part of 
Animals, is, the curious Contrivance and Fabrick 
of the feveral Ventricles of ruminating Creatures. 
The very Aft itfelf of Rumination, is an excellent 
Provifion for the complete Maftication of the Food, 
at the Refting, leifure Times of the Animal. But 
the Apparatus for this Service, of divers Ven- 
tricles for its various Ufes and Purpofes, together 
with their curious Mechanifm, deferves great Ad- 
miration (aaa). 

Having thus far purfued the Food to the Place, 
where, by its Reduction into Chyle, it becomes 
a proper Aliment for the Body ; I might next trace 
it through the feveral Mseanders of the Guts, the 
Lafiteals, and fo into the Blood (kbb\ and after* 


nivorous Birds ; but in the Gizard of the lynx, or Wryneck, 
which was full only of Ants, I found not one Stone. So in 
that of the Green-Wood Pecker, (full of Ants and Tree-Maggqts) 
there were but few Stones. 

(zz) In mofl carnivorous Birds, the third Ventricle is Mew 
branous ; nubert the Meat is concocled, as in a Man : Or feme* 
nvbat Tendinous, as in an Owl ; as if it were made indifferent- 
ly for Fle/b, or other Meat, as be could meet with either : Or 
tnoft thick and tendinous, called the Gizard; nuherein the 
Meat, as on a Mill, is ground to Pieces. Grew, ubi fupra, 
Chap. 9. 

(aaa) It would be much too long a Talk to infift upon it 
here as it deferves, and therefore concerning the whole Bufi- 
nefs of Rumination, 1 (hall refer to J. Conr. Peyeri Merycolog. 
feu de Ruminantibus & Ruminatione Comvtentar. where be 
largely treateth of the feveral Ruminating Animals, of the 
Parts miniftring to this Ad, and the great Ufe and Benefit 
thereof unto them. 

(bbb) There are too many Particulars to be infilled on, ob- 
servable in the Paflages of the Chyle, from the Guts to the 
! W 

Chaf. XI. Of Animals Stomachs. 20 1 

wards into the very Habit of the Body: I might; 
alfo take Notice of the Separation made in the 
Intcftines, of what is nutritive, (which is received,) 
and what is feculent, (being ejected ;) and the Im- 
pregnations there from the Pancreas and the Gall ; 
and after it hath been ftrained through thofe cu- 
rious Colanders, the laHtal Veins> I might alfo 
obferve its Impregnations from the Glands and Lym- 
pba?dufts\ and, to name no more, I might far- 
ther view the exquifite Structure of the Parts mi r 


Left Subclavian Fein, where it enters into the Blood ; and there- 
fore I (hall only, for a Sample of this admirable (Economy, 
take Notice of fome of the main and more general Matters. 

1. After the Food is become Chyle, and gotten into the 
Gats, it is an excellent Provifion made, not only for its Paflag© 
through the Guts, but alfo for its Protrufion into the Lafieals, 
by the Perijlaltick Motion, and V afoul* Conniventes of the 
Guts. z. It is an admirable Provifion, that the Mouths of 
the LacJeals, and indeed the Lafieals primi generis themfelves, 
are fmall and fine, not wider than the Capillary Arteries are, 
left by admitting Particles of the Nourifhment grofler than the 
Capillaries, dangerous Obftructions might be thereby produ- 
ced. 3. After the Reception of the Aliment into the LaQeals 
primi generis, it is a noble Provifion for the Advancement of 
its Motion, that in the Mefenterick Glands, it meets with fome 
of the Lympba?- Duels, and receives the Impregnation of the 
Lympba. And palling on from thence, it is no lefs an Advantage, 
4. That the Lacleals, and Lympba Duels meet in the Recepta- 
culum Cbyliy where the Aliment meeting with more of the 
Lympba, is made of a due Confidence and Temperament, for 
its farther Advancement through the Tboracic Duel, and fo 
into the Left Subclavian Fein and Blood, Laftly, This Thora- 
cic DuB itfelf is a Part of great Confideration. For (as Mr. 
Cmtper faith) If we confider in tbis Duel its feveral Divifans and 
Inofculations, its numerous Valves looking from below upwards, its 
advantageous Situation between the great Artery and Vertebrae of 
the Back, together with tbe Duds difcbarging their refluent Lym- 
phayVtf** tbe Lungs ; and other neighbouring Parts , we Jball find 
all conduce to demonfrate tbe utmoft Art of Nature vfed in fur- 
therinv the feep and perpendicular Afcent of the ChyU. Anat. 

to* Of Animals Sagacity Book IV. 

iiiftring to all thcfc delicate Offices of Nature ; par- 
ticularly the artificial Conformation of the InteAines 
might deferve a fpecial Enquiry, their Tunicks, 
Glands, Fibres traverfing one another {(cc\ and 
periftaltick Motion in all Creatures; and their 
cochieous Paflage {ddd) to retard the Motion of the 
Chyle, and to make amends for the Shortnefs of 
the Inteftines, in fuch Creatures who have but one 
Gut ; together with many other Accommodations 
of Nature in particular Animals that might be men- 
tioned. But it fhall fuffice to have given only a ge- 
neral Hint of thofe curious and admirable Works 
of God. From whence it is abundantly manifeft, 
how little Weight there is in the former atheiftical 
Obje&ion. Which will receive a further Confuta- 
tion from the 

VI. and laft Thing relating to Food, that I (hall 
(peak of, namely, The great Sagacity of all Aaimah % 
in finding out and providing their Food. In Man, 
perhaps, we may not find any Thing very admira- 
ble, or remarkable in this Kind, by Means of his 
Reafon and Underftanding, and his Supremacy over 
the inferior Creatures; which anfwereth all his 
Occalions relating to this Bufinefs : But then even 
here the Creator hath fhewed his Skill, ia not 


(ccc) Thefe, although noble Contrivances and Works of 
God, are too many to be in fitted on, and therefore I (hall re- 
fer to the Anatoxnifts, particularly Dr. Willis Pkarmaceut. Dr. 
Coh % in Phil. Iran/. N° 125. and Mr. Cowper's elegant Cut in 
Anat. Tab. 34, 35. and Append. Fig. 39, 40. 

(ddd) In the Thornback, and fome other Fifties, it is a very 
curious Provifion that is made to fupply the Paucity and Bre- 
vity of the Guts ; by the Perforation of their fingle Gut, go- 
ing out ftrait along, but round like a Pair of Winding- Stairs; 
fo that their Gut, which feems to be but a few Inches Jong, 
hath really a Bore of many Inches. But of thefe, and many 
other noble Curiofities and Difcoveries in Anatomy, the Rea- 
der will, I hope, have a better and larger Account from the 
curious and ingenious Dr. Dowglas, who is labouring in thofe 
* ('" } ^j»- 

Chap. XL to get Food. 203 

over-doing the Matter : in not providing Man with 
an unneceflary Apparatus, to effeft over and over 
again what is feanble, by the Reach of his Under- 
ftanding, and the Power of his Authority. 

But for the inferior Creatures, who want Rea- 
fon, the Power of that natural Inftinft. that Sa- 
gacity (eee) which the Creator hath imprinted up- 
on them, do amply compenfate that Defeft. And 
here we ihall find a glorious Scene of the Divine 
Wifdom, Power, Providence and Care, if we view 
the various Inftinfts of Beafts, great and fmall, of 
Birds, Infefts, and Reptiles (fff). For among e- 
very Species of them, we may find notable Ads of 
Sagacity, or Inftinft, proportional to their Occa- 
fions for Food. Even among thofc whofe Food is 
near at Hand, and eafily come at ; as Grafs and 
Herbs \ and confequently have no great Need of 
Art to difcover it % yet that Faculty of their ac- 
curate Smell and Tafte, fo ready at every Turn, to 
diftinguitti between what is falutary, ana what per- 
nicious (ggg)* doth juftly deferve Praife. But for 


{at) S^uihus beftiis erat is cibus, ut alius generis beftiis <uefce- 
rentur, out vires natura dedit t out eeleritatem : data eft quibuf- 
dam etiam macbinatio quadam % atque fotertia, &c. Cic. de Nat, 
Dtor. 1. 2. c 48. 

(fff) Among Reptiles that have a ftrange Faculty to (hift 
for Food, &e. may be reckoned Eels, which, although be- 
longing to the Waters, can creep on the Land from Pond to 
Pond, t£c. Mr. Mofely of Mo/eh, faw them creep over the 
Meadows, like fo many Snakes from Ditch to Ditch ; which 
he thought, was not only for bettering their Habitation, but 
alfo to catch Snails in the Grafs. Plat's Hiftory of Stafford/bite, 
c. 7. fett. 32. 

And as early as the Year 1 1 25, the Froft was fo very intenfe, 
that the Eels were forced to leave the Waters, and were frozen 
to Death in the Meadows. Vide HakewilPs Jpal. 1. 2. chap. 7. 
fe&. 2. 

(ggg) Enumerate foffum, ad pafium capejjfendum cemficiendum- 
que, qua Jit in figuris animanthtm & quam filers, fubtilifque de- 
fy 'iptto fart turn, quamque admirabilis Jabrica membrorum. Om- 

204 Of Animals Sagacity Book IV. 

fuch Animals, whofc Food is not fo eafily come at, 
a Variety of wonderful Inftind may be met with, 
fufficient to entertain the mod curious Obfenrer. 
With what entertaining Power and Artifice do 
fome Creatures hunt {bbb\ and purfue their Game 
and Prey ! And others watch and way-lay theirs 
(iiij\ With what prodigious Sagacity do others grope 

nia enim qtut tutus inclufa funt, ita nata, atoue ita locata funt, 
ut nihil eorum fupervacaueum fit, nihil ad <vitam rttiuendam n§n 
necejfarium. Dedit autem eadem Natura htlluis faf fenfiem, & 
appetitum t ut alttro conatum haherent ad naturaltt paftus capeffen- 
du ; altero ftcernertnt peftifera afalutaribus. Cic. dc Nat Deoiv 
/. 2. c. 37. Sec Book IV. Chap. 4. 

(hhh) It would be endlefs to give Instances of my own and 
others Obfervations, of the prodigious Sagacity of divers Ani- 
mals in Hunting, particularly Hounds, Setting. Dogs, &l. one 
therefore (hall fuffice, of Mr. Boyle's, vi*. A Per/on of Quality 
to make a Tryal, whether a young Blood-Hound was wejf 

inftrucled, cau/ed one of his Servants-— to wait to a Town 

four Miles off, and then to a Market -lawn three Miles from 
thence.— >$ "he Dog, without feeing the Man he was to purfke,- 
follow* d him by the Scent to the abeve -mentioned Places, notnvitb- 
fianding the Multitude of Market- People that went along in the 
fame tray, and of Travellers that had Occafion to crofi it. - Awf" 
when the Blood-Hound came to the chief Market-Town, be pajfed 
thro % the Streets, without taking Notice of any of the People there, 
and left not till he had gone to the Houfe, where the Man he fought 
refted himfelf and found bim in an upper Room, to the Wonder of 
thoft that followed him. Boyl. determ. Nat. of Effluv. Cbap.^. 

(Hi) There arc many Stories told of the Craft of the Fox, to 
compafs his Prey : Of which 01. Magnus hath many fuch, as 
feigning the Barking of a Dog, to catch Prey near the Houiesj 
feigning himfelf dead, to catch fuch Animals as come to feed 
upon him ; laying his Tail on a Wafp-Neft, and then rubbing 
it hard againft a Tree, and then eating the Wafps fo killed ; 
Kidding himfelf of Fleas, by gradually going into the Water, 
with a Lock of Wool in his Mouth, and fo driving the Fleas 
up into it, and then leaving it in the Water : By catching Crab* 
Fi(h with his Tail, which he faith he himfelf was an Eye* 
witnefs of; Vidi iff ego in Scopulis Norvegi* Vulpem, inter rape, 
immiffa cauda in aquas, plures educere Cancros, ac dtmum deyo* 
rare. 01. Mag. Hilt. /. 18. c. 39, 40. 


Chap. XI. to get Food. ±6$ 

for it under Ground, out of Sight, in moorifli Pla- 
ces, in Mud and Dirt (kkk) ; and others dig and 
delve for it, both above(///), and under the Sur- 
face of the drier Lands (mmm) ! And how curious 
and well-defign'd a Provifiohis it of particular large 
Nerves in fuch Creatures, adapted to that efpecial 
Service ! 

What an admirable Faculty is that of many A- 
nimals, to difcover their Prey at vaft Diftances ; 
fome by their Smell fome Miles off (nnn) ; and 
fome by their fharp and piercing Sight, aloft in 


But Plinfz fabulous Story of the Hyama outdoes thefe Re- 
lations of the Fox, Sermon em humanum inter paftorum ftabula 
affimulare, nomenque alicujus addifcere, quern evocatum foras la* 
cent. Item Vomit ion em hominis imitari ad follicitandos Canes 
quos invadat. Plin. Nat. Hid. 1. 8. c. 30. 

Mk This do Ducks, Woodcocks, and many other Fowls, which 
feck their Food in dirty, moorifh Places. For which Service 
they have very remarkable Nerves reaching to the End of their 
Bills. Ofwhich fee Book Vlf . Chap, 2. Note. (e). 

(Ill) Swine, and other Animals that dig, have their Nofes 
made more tendinous, callous, and ftrong for this Service, than 
Others that do not dig. They are alio edged with a proper, 
tough Border, for penetrating and lifting up the Earth ; and 
their Noftrils are placed well, and their Smell is very accurate, 
to difcover whatfoever they purfue by Digging. 

(mmm) The Mole, as its Habitation is different from that of 
other Animals, fo hath its Organs in every Refpett carioufly 
adapted to that Way of Life ; particularly its Nofe made 
(harp, and (lender, but withal tendinous and ftrong, &c. But 
what is very remarkable, it hath fuch Nerves reaching to the 
End of its Nofe and Lips, as Ducks, tjfc have, mentioned 
above in Note (kkk). Which Pair of Nerves I obferved to be 
much larger in this Animal than any other Nerves proceeding 
bat of its Brain. 

(nnn) Predacious Creatures, as Wolfs, Foxes, cifr. Will dif- 
cover Prey at great Diftances ; fo will Dogs and Ravens difco- 
ver Carrion a great Way off by their Smell. And if (as the 
Superftitious imagine) the Latter flying over and haunting 
Houfes be a Sign of Death, it is no Doubt from fome cadave- 
rous Smell, thofe Ravens difcover in the Air by their accu- 
rate Smell, which is emitted from thofe difeafed Bodies, which 
have in them the Principles of a fpeedy Death. 

206 Of Animals Sagacity -Book IV* 

the Air, or at other great Diftances (ooo)\ An In* 
ftance of the Latter of which God himfelf gtveth, 
(Job xxxix. 27, 28, 29.) in the Inftindt of the Eagle ; 
Both the Eagle mount up at thy Command* and make 
her Heft on High? She dwelletb and abidith on the 
Rock 9 upon the Crag of the Rock, and the throng 
Place (ppp). From thence Jbe feeketb her Prey % and 
her Eyes behold afar off. What a commodious Pro- 
vifion hath the Contriver of Nature made for Ani- 
mals, that are neceffitated to climb for their Food ; 
not only in the Strufture of their Legs and Feet) 
and in the Strength of their Tendons and Mufcles, 
a&ing in that particular Office (qqq) ; but alfo in 
the peculiar Strudture of the principal Parts, A6£ 
ing in the Acqueft of their Food {rrr) ! What a 


(000) Thus Hawks and Kites on Land, and Gulls, and other 
Birds, that prey upon the Waters, can at a great Height in the 
Air fee Mice, little Birds and Infe&s on the Earth, and finaD 
Fifties, Shrimps, tjfe. in the Waters, which they will dart down 
upon, and take. 

(ppp) Mr. Ray gives a good Account of the Nidiiication of 
the Chryfditos, Cauda annulo alio ciuSa. Hujus Nidus Ann. 1 668. 
in Jy ho/is prope Demventiam, &c. inventus eft e bacillis feu virgis 
ligneis grandiorihus compofitus, quorum altera extremitas rupis cu- 

ju/dam eminent i*> altera duabus Betulis innitebatur, Erat JW* 

dus quadra tus, duas ulnas latus 9 —In eo pullus unicus, adjactn- 
tibus cadaveribus unius agr.i, unius leporis, & trium Grygallomm 
pullorum. Synopf. Method. Avium, p. 6. And not only Lambs, 
Hares, and Grygalli, but Sir Robert Sibbald tells us, they will 
feize Kids and Fauns ; yea, and Children too : Of which he 
hath this Story of an Eagle in one of the Or cades Iflands. §lgm 
lnfantulum unius anni pannis involutum arripuit (quern Mater 
teffellas ufiibiles pro igne allatura momenta temporis, depofutrat in 
toco Ho u ton- Head ditto) eumque deport affe per 4 milliaria pajfuum 
ad Hoiam ; qua re ex matris ejulatibus cognitd, quatuor viri illuc 
in navieuld profecli funt 9 & fcientes ubi Nidus ejfet, infantulunt 
illafum fef intatlum deprehenderunt. Prod, Nat. Hift Scot /. 3. 
part. 2. p. 14. 

(qqq) See in Book VII. Chap. 1. Note (I), the Charaaerif- 
ticks of the Woodpecker kind. 

(rrr) Tbe Contrivance of the Legs, Feet, and Nails [of the 
Opuflum] ferns very advantageous to this Animal in climbing Trees 


Chap. XL to get Food. 207 

Provifion alio is that in nodurnal Birds and Beads, 
in the peculiar Stru&ure of their Eye (sss) 9 (and we 
may perhaps add the Accuracy of their Smell too) 
whereby they are enabled to difcover their Food in 
the Dark ? But among all the Inftances, we have of 
natural Inftindfc, thole Inftinds, and efpecial Pro- 
vifions made to fupply the Ncceflities of Helplefe 
Animals, do in a particular Manner demonftrate 
the great Creator's Care. Of which 1 fhall give 
two Inftances. 

1. The Provifion made for young Creatures. 
That Iropyii, that natural Affe&ion, fo connatural 
to all, or moft Creatures towards their Young (w), 
what an admirable noble Principle is it, implan- 

(which it doth very nimbly) for preying upon Birds. But . that 
which is moft lingular in this Animal, is the Structure of its 
Tail, to enable it to hang on Boughs. The Spines, or Hooks— ~ 
in the middle of the under Side of the Vertebrae of the Tail, mrt a 
wonderful Piece of Nature's Mechanifm. The firft three Vertebras 
had none oftheje Spines, but in all the reft they were to he abfermed. 
■■ ■* 'They were placed jufi at the Articulation of each Joynt, and 

in the Middle from the Sides; For the performing this Office 

[of hanging by the Tail] nothing, I think, could he more advan- 
tetgeoufiy contrived. For "when the Tail is twirled or wound about a 
SHci, this Hook of the Spinss eafity fuflains the Weight, and there 
is but little Labour of the Mu/cles required, only enough for bowing 
or crooking the Tail. This, and more to the fame Purpofe, fee 
in Dr. Tyjbu* Anatomy of the Opojfum, in Philo/ophical TranfaS. 
N°. 239. 

(as) See before Chap. 2. Note (*), (aa) 9 (bb). 

(ttt) Quid dicam quantus amor befiiarum fit in educandis cufio- 

Heudtffut Us, qua procreaverint, ufque ad turn finem, dim poffint 

feipfa defenders ? And having inftanced in fome Animals, where 

this Care is not neceflary, and accordingly is not employed, he 

goes on, Jam Gallimr, avefque reliqua, (f quietum requirunt ad 

pariendum locum* &f cubiliafibi, uidofqut conftruunt, eofque quam 

poffunt mollijpmc fubfternunt, ut quam facillime ova Jer-uentufr, 

Ex quibus pullos cum excluferint, ita tuentur, ut iff pennis fove- 

unt, nef rigor e l<edantur, &fi eft calor, a folefe opponant. CiC 

dcNat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 51, 52. 


2 o 8 6f Animals Care Sook IV. 

ted in them by the wife Creator ? By Means of 
which, with wnat Alacrity do they tranfadt their 
parental Miniftry ? With what Care do they nurfe 
tip their Young ; think no Pains too great to be 
taken for them, no Dangers (uuu) too great to 
be ventured upon for their Guard and Security ? 
How carefully will they lead them about in Pla- 
ces of Safety, carry them into Places of Retreat 
and Security ; yea, fome of them admit them in* 
to their own Bowels (www)l How will they ca- 


To ttiis natural Care of Parent- Animals to their Young, V9t 
may add the Returns made by the Young of fome towards 
the old Ones. Pliny faith of Rats, Gentian* fuos fejfos feneBe^ 
alunt inftgni pet ate. Nat. Hift. 1. 8. c. 57. So Cranes, he 
faith, Genitricum feneclam iwvicem educant. L. 10. C 23, 

This St. Ambrofe takes Notice of in his Hexamer$n % an<T OL 
Magnus after him, DefoJSti fatns artus, per longmntm fene^utis 
plumis nudatos cireumftans foboles pennis propriis fovet ^ >■ 

collatitio cibo fafcit, quando ctiam iff a natura reparat dijpendia 9 nt 
bine inde Jenem fubhvantes, fulcro alarum fuarum ad ifolandm 
exerceant, & in prifiinos ufus drjueta membrana r educant. For 
which Reafon this Bird is denominated Pia. Fid. OL Mag. 
Hift. I. 19. e. 14. 

Hereto may be added alfo the conjugal Zrogyij of the little 
green ^Ethiopian Parrot, which Mr. Ray defcribes from Clufius. 
Fame lie* fenefcentes (quod *ualde notabile) <vix edere <volebaMt, 
nifi ci bum jam a mare carptum, &f aliquandiu in prolobp retention, 
6f quafi coQum roftro fuo exciperent, ut Columbarum pulli } 
mat re ali folent. Synopf. Meth. A v. p. 32. 

(uuu) The mod timid Animals, that at other Times ab- 
fcond, or haftily fly from the Face of Man, Dogs, &c. will, 
for the Sake of their Young, expofe themfelves. Thus among 
Fowls, Hens will affault, inftead of fly from fuch as meddle 
with their Brood. So Partridges, before their Young can fly, 
will drop frequently down, iirit at lefler, and then at greater 
Diftances, to dodge and draw off Dogs from purfuing their 

(www) The Opoffum hath a curious Bag on purpofe for the 
fecuring and carrying about her Young. There are belonging 
to this Bag two Bones (not to be met with in any other 
Skeleton) and four pair of Mufcles ; and fome fay the Teats 
lie therein alfo. Dr. Ty/on. Anat. of the Opojl in Phil 


Chap. XI. ef their Ybung. %o$ 

refs them with their affe&ionate Notes, lull, and 
quiet them with their tender parental Voice, put 
Food into their Mouths, fuckle them, cherifh and 
keep them warm, teach them to pick, and eat, and 
gather Food for thcmfelves ; and, in a Word, per- 
form the whole Part, of fo many Nurfes, deputed 
by the Sovereign Lord and Preferver of the World, 
to help fuch young and fhiftlefs Creatures, till they 
are come to that Maturity, as to be able to fhiftfor 
thcmfelves ? 

And as for other Animals, (particularly Infers, 
whofe Sire is partly the Sun, and whofe numerous 
Offspring would be too great for their Parent- Ani- 
mals Care and Provifion) thefe are fo generated, as 
to need none of their Care, by Reafon they arrive 
immediately to their c Hx*xi«, their perfeft, adult 
State, and are able to fhift for themfelves. But 
yet, thus far their parental Inftindt (equivalent to 
the rnoft rational Care and Forefight) doth ex- 
tend, that the old ones do not wildly drop their 
Eggs and Sperm any where, at all Adventures, but 
fo cautioufly repofit it in fuch commodious Places, 
(fome in the Waters, fome on Flefli, fome on Plants) 
proper and agreeable to their Species (xxx) j and 
fome (hut up agreeable Food in their Nefts, partly 
for Incubation, partly for Food (yyy), that their 
Young in their Jurelia, or Nympba State, may find 
fufficient and agreeable Food to bring them up, till 
they arrive to their Maturity. 

Thus far the Parental Inftinft and Care. 


Vraaf. N<* 239. where he alio, from Offian t mentions the 
Dtg Fijh, that upon any Storm or Danger, receives the young 
ones into her Belly, which come out again when the Fright is 
over. So alfo the Squat ina and Glaucus, the fame Author 
faith, have the fame Care for their Young, but receive them 
into different Receptacles. 

(***) See Book VIII. Chap. 6- 

(JET) See C*,/. 13. «w M- '_. 

i \ o Of Animah Care Book IV. 

Next we may obferve no lefs in the Young 
themfelves, efpecially in thofe of the irrational A- 
nimals. Forafmuch as the Parent- Animal is not 
able to bear them about, to cloath them, and to 
dandle them, as Man doth •,. how admirably hath 
the Creator contrived their State, that thoic poor 
young Creatures can foon walk about, and with 
the little Helps of their Dam, fliift for, and help' 
themfelves ? How naturally do they hunt for their 
Teat, fuck, pick (zzz) 9 and take in their proper 
Food ? 

But for the Young of Man, their Parents Re* 
fon joined with natural AflFedtion, being fufficient 
to help to nurfe, to feed, and to cloath them; 
therefore they are born helplefs, and are more ab* 
folutely, than other Creatures* caft upon their Pa- 
rents Care (aaaa). A manifeft A6t and Defignatioft 
of the Divine Providence. 

2. The other Inftance I promifed, is the Pro vi- 
lion made for the Prefervation of fuch Animals a9 
are fometimes deftitute of Food, or in Danger of 
being fo. The Winter is a very inconvenient, im- 
proper Seafon, to afford either Food or 1 Exercife 
to Infe&s, and many other Animals^ When the 


(zzz) There is manifeftly a fuperintending Providence fa 
this Cafe, that fame Animals are able to fuck as foon as ever 
they are born, and that they will naturally hunt for thf 
Teat before they are quite gotten out of the Secundine*,. and 
parted from the Navel- String, as I have feen. But for Chickens, 
and other young Birds, they not being able immediately 
to pick till they are ilronger, have a notable Provision made 
for fuch a Time, by a part of the Yolk of the Egg being 
inclofed in their Belly, a little before their Exclufion or 
Hatching, which ferves for their Nourifliment, till they are 
grown ftrong enough to pick up Meat. Vide Book VII. Chap. 4. 
Note (a). 

(aaaa) ^ui [rnfantes] de ope noflra ac de di<vina m'-fericoriia 
plus merentur> qui in primo ftatim nativitatis fua ortu plorantes 
ac flentes % nil aliud faciunt quam deprecautur. Cypr. Ep. ad 

[bbbb] I 

.Chap. XI. of their Toung. 211 

flowery Fields are divefted of their Gaiety -, when 
the fertile Trees and Plants are ftrippM of their 
Fruits, and the Air, inftead of being warmed with 
the cherifhing Beams of the Sun, is chilled with 
rigid Froft 5 What would become of fuch Animals 
as are impatient of Cold ? What Food could" be 
found by fuch as arefubfifted by the Summer- Fruits ? 
fiut to obviate all this Evil, to ftave off the De- 
foliation and Extirpation of divers Species of Ani- 
mals, the infinitely wife Preferver of the World hath 
as wifely ordered the Matter ; that, in the firft 
Place, fuch as are impatient of Cold, fhould have 
fuch a fpecial Stru&ure of their Body, particularly 
of their Hearts, and Circulation of their Blood (bbbb), 
as during that Seafon, not to fuffer any Wafte of 
their Body, and confequently not to need any Re- 
cruits ; but, that they fhould be able to live in a 
kind of fleepy, middle State, in their Places of fafe 
Retreat, until the warm Sun revives both them and 
their Food together. 

The next Provifion is for fuch as can bear the 
Cold, but would want Food then ; and that is in 
fome by a long Patience of Hunger (cccfy in others 


I might name here fome of the Species of Birds, 
the whole Tribe almoft of Infe&s, and fome among other 
Tribes, that, are able to fubhft for many Months without 
Pood, and fome without Refpiration too, or very little: 
Bat it may fuffice to inftance only in the Land-Tortoife, of 
the Structure of whofe Heart and Lungs, fee Book VI. Chap, c. 


(cccc) Intdiam iiutijjtme tolerat Lupus, ut & alia omnia car- 
tfrvora t licet *voraciffima ; magna utique natunt procidentia ; 
fMtmam efca non femper in promptu eft. Ray's Synopf. Quadr. 

Ta the long Abftinence mentioned of Brute Animals, I 
hope the Reader will excufe me, if I add one or two Inftances 
of extraordinary Abftinence among Men. One Martha Tay- 
l$r 9 born in Derby/hire, by a Blow on the Back fell into fuch 
a Proftration of Appetite, that {he took little Suftehancc, 

P a \»fc 

212 Prefervatttm of Animals > &c. Book IV. 

by their notable Inftindfc in laying up Food before- 
hand againft the approaching Winter (dddd). Of 
this many entertaining Examples may be given; 
particularly we may, at the proper Seafon, obfervc 
not only the little Treafures and Holes well-ftocked 
with timely Provifions, but large Fields (nee) here . 
and there throughout befpread with confiderablc 


but fome Drops with a Feather, from CJbriftmas, 1667, for 
thirteen Months, and flept bat little too all the Time. See Dr. 
Sampfon\ Account thereof, in- Epbem. Germ. T. 3. Obf 173. 

To this we may add the Cafe of S. Chilton, of Tin/bury, near 
Both, who, in the Years 1693, 1696, and 97, flept divers 
Weeks together. And altho' he would fometimes, in a v*rj odd 
manner, take Suftenance, yet would lie a long Time without 
any, or with very little, and all without any considerable Decay. 
See Phil.TranfN 304. 

(dddd) They are admirable Inftincts which the Sieur de Beau- 
flau relates of his own Knowledge, of the little Animals called 
Bohaques in Ukraine. They make Burroughs like Rabbets and in 
O&ober Jbut tbemfehves up, and do not come out again till April. 
■ They fpend all the Winter under Ground, eating 'what they 

laid up in Summer.*— —Thofe that are lazy among them, they 
lay on their Back, then lay a great Handful of dry Herbage upon 
their Bodies, &c. then others drag thofe Drones to the Mouths of 
their Burroughs, andfo thofe Creatures ferve in/lead of Barrows, 
&C / have often feen them pradice this, and have had the Curio- 

fay to obferve them whole Days together. Their Holes are parted 

like Chambers -, fome ferve for Store houfes, others for Burying- 
places, &c. Their Government is nothing inferior to that Of Bees, 
&c. They never go abroad without pofting a Centinel upon fome 
high Ground, to give Notice to the others vjbilft they are feeding. 
As foon as the Centinel fees any Body, it /lands upon his Hind-Legs 
and vihifiles. BeauplauV Defer iption y* Ukraine, in Vol. I. of th 
Collection of Voyages, &c . 

A like Inftance of the Northern Galls Sjfaeflres, fee in Chap. 
13. Note{g). 

As for the Scriptural Inftance of the Ant, fee hereafter Book 
VIII. Chap. 5. Note [a). 

(eeee) I have in Autumn, not without Pleafure,* obferved, 
not only the great Sagacity and Diligence of Swine, in hunt- 
ing out the Stores of the Field Mice; but the wonderful Pre- *, 
caution alfo of thofe little Animals, in hiding their Food j 


Chap, XI. *Tbe Conclufion. 213 

Numbers of the Fruits of the neighbouring Trees, 
laid carefully up in the Earth, and covered fafe, by 
the provident little Animals inhabiting thereabouts. 
And not without Pleafure, have I feen and admired 
the Sagacity of other Animals, hunting out thofe 
fubterraneous Fruits, and pillaging the Treafures of 
thofe little provident Creatures. 

And now, from this bare tranfient View of this 
Branch of the Great Creator's Providence and Go- 
vernment, relating to the Food of his Creatures, we 
can conclude no lefs, than that fince this Grand 
Affair hath fuch manifeft Strokes of admirable and 
wife Management, that fince this is demonftrated 
throughout all Ages and Places, that therefore it 
is God's Handy- Work. For how is it poffible that 
fo vaft a World of Animals fhould be fupported, 
fuch a great Variety equally and well fupplied with 
proper Food, in every Place fit for Habitation, 
without an efpeciai Superintendency and Manage- 
ment, equal to, at leaft, that of the moft prudent 
Steward and Houfholder ? How fhoqld the Crea- 
tures be able to find out their Food when laid up 
in (ecret Places ? And how (hould they be able to 
gather even a great deal of the common Food, and 
at laft to macerate and digeft it, without peculiar 
Organs adapted to the Service ? And what lefs than 
an infinitely Wife God could form fuch a Set of 
curious Organs, as we find every Species endowed 
with, for this very Ufe ? Organs fo artficially made, 
fo exquifitely fitted up, that the more ftridtly we 
furvey them, the more accurately we view them, 


beforehand againft Winter. In the Time of Acorns falling-, 
I have, by means of the Hogs, difcovered, that the Mice had, 
all over the neighbouring Fields, treafured up fingle Acorns. 
ID little Holes they had fcratched, and in which they had 
. emfaily covered up the Acorn. Thefe the Uo$s vyoujd, Day 
ifiei J^ay, hunt out by their Smell. 

f 3 to C«r 

a 14 Of Animals Cloathing. Book IV; 

(even in the mteaneft of them with our beft Glafles) 
the lefs Fault we find in them, and the more we 
admire them ; Whereas the beft polifhed, and moft 
exquifite Works, made by human Art, appear thro* 
our Glafles, as rude and bungling, deformed and 
monftrous -, and yet we admire them, and coll them 
Works of Art and Reafon, And laftly, What lefr 
than Rational and Wife, could endow irrational 
Animals with various Inftin&s, equivalent, in their 
foecial Way, to Reafon itfelf ? Infomuch that fome 
from thence have abfolutely concluded, that thofe 
Creatures had fome Glimmerings of Reafon. Buf 
it is manifeftly Inftinft, not Reafon, they aft by, be* 
caufe we find no varying, but that every Species 
doth naturally purfue at all Times the lame Me- 
thods and Way, without any Tutorage or Learning; 
Whereas Reafon, without Inftru&ion, would often 
vary, and do that by many Methods, which Irfftintt 
doth by one alone. But of this more hereafter. 


Of the Cloathing of Animals, 

HAVING in the foregoing Chapter, fomewhat 
largely taken a View of the Infinite Crea- 
tor's Wifdom and Goodnefs towards his Creatures, 
in ordering their Food, I fhall be more brief in this 
Chapter, in my View of their Cloathing (a) ; ano- 

(a) Concerning the C/oatbing of Animals, Jriftotle obferves, 
That/uch Animals have Hair as go on Feet, and are viviparous ; 
and that fucb are covered with a Shell, as go on Feet, and art 
oviparous. Hift. Anim. 1. 3. c. 10. 

' ' * " " (ft c+ 

Chap. XII. Of Anitnah Cloathing. 215 

ther necefiary Appendage of Life, and in which we 
have plain Tokens of the Creator's Art, manifested 
in thefe two Particulars ; the Suitableness of Animals 
Ooatbing to their Place and Occafions\ and the Garni- 
ture md Beauty thereof. 

I. The Cloathing of Animals is fuited to their 
Place of Abode, and Occafions there •, a manifeft 
A& of Defign and Skill. For if there was a Pofli- 
bility, that Animals could have been accoutred 
any other Way, than by God that made them, it 
muft needs have come to pafs, that their Cloathing 
would have been at all Adventures, or all made the 
fame Mode and Way, or fome of it, at leaft, in- 
convenient and unfuitable. But, on the contrary, 
we find all is curious and complete, nothing too 
much, nothing too little, nothing bungling, nothing 
but what will bear the Scrutiny of the moft exqui- 
lite Artift ; yea, and fo tar out-do his beft Skill, 
that his moft exquifite Imitations, even of the 
meaneft Hair, Feather, Scale, or Shell, will be found 
only as fo many ugly, ill-made Blunders and Botches, 
when ftridtly brought to the Teft of good Glaffes. 
But we fhall find an Example remarkable enough in 
the prefent Cafe, if we only compare the beft of 
Cloathing which Man makes for himfelf, with that 
given by the Creator for the Covering of the irra- 
tional Creatures. Of which it may be faid, as our 
Saviour doth of the Flowers of the Field, Mat. vi. 
39. That even Solomon, in all bis Glory, was not arrayed 
like one of thefe. 

But let us come to Particulars, and confider the 
Suitablenefs of the different Method the Creator 
hath taken in the Cloathing of Man, and of the 
irrational Animals. This Pliny (b) pathetically la- 


(b) Cujus [Hominis] causa <videtur eunfia alia genuiffe Na» 
#r#, magna & fava mcrcede contra t\anta fka munera : ut 

P 4 notv 

J 1 6 Of Animals Chatting. Book IV. 

jnents, and fays, It is bard M judge, whether Na- 
ture bath been a kinder Parent, or mare cruel Step* 
Mother to Mm. For, fays be, Of all Creatures* be 
alone is covered with others Riches ; whereas Nature 
bath given various Cloatbing to other Jnimais, Shells, 
Hides, Prickles, Shag, Brifiles, Hair, Down, Quills, 
Scales, Fleeces -, and Trees Jbe bath fenced with a Bark 
or two againfi the Injuries of Cold and Heat. Onfy poor 
naked Man, fays he, is in the Day of bis Birth caji into 
the wide World, to immediate crying and /quailing \ and 
none of all Creatures beJides,fo foon to Tears in the very 
Beginning of their Life. 

But here We have a manifeft Demonftration of 
the Care and Wifdom of God towards his Crea- 
tures ; that fuch fhould come into the World with 
their Bodies ready furnifhed and accommodated, 
who had neither Reafon nor Forecaft to contrive, 
nor Parts adapted to the Artifices and Workman- 
ship of Cloathing; but for Man, he being en* 
dowed with the tranfcending Faculty of Reafon, 
and thereby made 4ble to help himfclf, by having 


non Jit fatis aftimare. Parent melior hontini, an triftior A#- 
verca fuerit. Ante omnia unum Animantium cunBorum alienis 
welat optbut : ceteris njarie tegument a tribuit, t eft as, cortices, coria, 
fpinas, <villos, /etas, pi/os, p/umam, pennas, fquamas* *uellera. 
Vruncos etiam arborefque eortiee, inter dum gemino, a frigoribus, 
fcf cahre tutata eft. Hominem tantum nudum > & in nudd btuna, 
natali die abjicit ad vagitus ftatim £ff ploratum, nullumque tot 
animalium aliud <?d lacrymas, &f has protinus *vit* principle. 
Plin. Nat. Hiit. J, 7. Procem. 

Let Seneca anfwer this Complaint of Pliny, alt ho' per- 
haps what he faith might be more properly noted in another 
Place : Quifquis es iniquus animator jbrtis human*, cogita 
quint a nobis tribuerit Par em nofter, quanta wulentiora anima- 
ha fub jugum miferimus, quanto velociora ajfequamur, quam 
nihil fit mortale non fub iftu noftro pofitum. Tot wirtutes acct- 
pimus, tot artes f animum denique cui nihil non eodem quo inten* 
dit momento pervium eft, Sirferibus velociorem, &e. Senec. de 
jknef. 1. 2. c. 39, 

(c\ Mirath 

Ch ap. XII. Of Animals Cloatbing. %\y 

Thoughts to contrive, and withal Hands to effe&, 
and fufficient Materials (c) afforded him from the 
Skins and Fleeces of Animals*, and from various 
Trees and Plants: Man, I lay, having all this 
Provifion made for him, therefore the Creator 


(c) Mir ant ur tlurimi quomodo tute 9 & fan} e vi e vant homines in 
borrendis frigoribus plaga Septentrionalis : bancque le*uem queftio- 
nem ultra 30 annos auHeram in Italia ', prafertim ab JBtbhpibuSi 
tff Indij, quibus onerojus mdetur vefiitus fnb Zona torridd. ■■ 

Quibui refyondetur t Gaudct Indus multiplici plumarum genere % 

magis for/an pro tegumento, quam neceffitate : rurfus Scytba <vil- 
lo/o vefiitu. J t a fub polo ArQico adversus ajperrimas byemes—- 
opportuna remedia faciliter adminiftrat [Natura,] Ligna videlicet 
in maxima copid, iff Uvijjtmo pretio, & demum P tiles diverfirum 
etnimalium, tarn fybvefirium quam domefticorum. Then he gives ■ 
a Catalogue of them, and faith, Quarum omnium experti pelli- 
fices ita ingeniose nwerunt mixturas componere y ut pulcberrimunt 
decorem oftendat varietas, £jf calidijjimum f omentum adjuudm mot* 
tities. OK Mag. Httt 1. 6. c. 20. 

To this Guard againft the Cold, namely, , of Fire and 
Cloathing, I hope the Reader will excufe me, if I t<be this 
Opportunity of adding fome other Defenfatives, Nature (or 
rather the great Author of Nature) hath afforded thefe Nor* 
thern Regions: Such are their high Mountains, abounding, 
as Ol. Magnus faith, through all Parts ; alfo, their numerous 
Woods, which, bcfides their Fire, do, with the Mountains, 
ferve as excellent Screens againft the Cold, piercing Air, and 
Winds. Their prodigious Quantities of Minerals, and Me- 
tals, alfo afford Heat, and warm Vapours, Miner* fepteutrio* 
nalium regionum fatis mult a % magna, diver fa \ {$ opulent* funt, 
faith the fame curious, and (for his Time) learned Archbifhop, 
/. 6. c. 1. and in other Places. And for the Warmth they af- 
ford, the Volcano's of thofe Parts are an Evidence ; as are alfo 
their terrible Thunder and Lightning, which are obferv'd to 
be the molt fevere and mifchievous in their metalline Moun- 
tains, in which large Herds of Cattle are fometimes deftroy'd ; 
the Rocks fo rent and (hatter'd, that new Veins of Silver are 
thereby difcover'd ; and a troublefome kind of Quinfie it 
produced in their Throats, by the Stench, and poifonous Na- 
ture of the fulphureous Vapours, which they diflblve, by 
drinking- warm Beer and Butter together, as Qlaus tells us in 
the fame Book, Chap. 1 1 . 

To all which Defenfatives, I (hall in the laft Place add, 
&e warn) Vapours of their Lakes, (fome pf which are prodi- 

ft 1 8 Of Animals Cloatbtkg. Book IV, 

bach wifely made him naked, and left him to ftiift 
for himfelf, being fo well able to Help himfelf. 

And a notable J^k. this is of the Wifdom of 
God, not only as the mere fetting forth his Care 
and Kindnefs to them that moil needed his Help* 
the helplefs irrational Animals, and in his not over- 
doing his Work ; but alfo as it is moil agreeable to 
the Nature and State of Man (i), both on natural 
and political Accounts. That Man fhould cloath 
himfelf, is moil agreeable to his Nature, particularly 


frioufly large, of 1 30 Italian Miles in Length, and not much 
efs in Breadth ;) alfo of their Rivers, efpecially the Vapours 
which arife from the Sea. Of which Guard againft fevere 
Cold, we have lately had a convincing Proof in the Great 
Frofi, in 1708, wherein, when England, Germany, France, 
1 Denmark, yea, the more Southerly Regions of Italy, Switzer- 
land, and other Parts, fuffer'd feverely, Ireland and Scotland 
fclt very little of it, hardly more than in other Winters ; of 
the Particulars of which, having given an Account in the 
Fbilof Tranf N° 324. I (hall thither refer the Reader. But 
it feems, this is what doth ordinarily befal thofe Northern 
Parts ; particularly the IJlands of Orkney, of which the learned 
Dr. Wallace gives this Account : Here the Winters are generally 
inorefubjecl to Rain than Snow ; nor doth the Frojl and Snow con- 
tinue fo long here as in other Parts of Scotland ; hut the Wind 
in the mean time will often blow very hoifteroujly ; and it Rains 
fometimes not by Drops, hut hy Spouts of Water, at if whole 
Clouds fell down at once. In the Tear 1680, in the Month of 
June, after great Thunder, there fell Flakes of Ice near a Foot 
thick Wail. Account of Orkney, Cb. 1. ^.4. From which laii 
PafTage I obfcrve, That altho' in thofe Parts, the Atmofphere 
near the Earth be warm, it is exceffively Cold above, fo as to 
freeze fome of thofe Spouts of Water in their Defcent, into 
fuch great, and almoft incredible, Maffes of Hail. And whence 
can this Warmth proceed, but from the Earth, or Sea, emit- 
ting Heat fufficient to ftave off the Cold above? Confult 
Book 17. Chap. 5. Note (c). 

(d) Sicut enim Ji innata fihi [i. e. Homini] aliqua haheret 
arma, ilia ei fola femper adejfenty it a cif (i art em aliquam Natura 
fortitus effet, reliquas fane non haheret, £>uia <verb ei melius erat 
omnibus armis, omnibufque artibus uti, neutrum eorum a natura 
ipfi propterea datum ejl % Galen de Uf. Part, 1. I. c. 4. 

(•) Con- 

Chat. XII. Of Animals Chatbing. 419 

(among other Things,) as being moft falutary,, and 
moft fuhable to his Affajri. For by this Me&ns, 
Man can adapt his Cloathing to all Seafons, to all 
Climates, to this, or to any Bufinefs. He can here- 
by keep himfelf fweet and clean, fence off many In- 
juries ; but above all, by this Method of Cloathing, 
with the natural Texture of his Skin adapted to it ? 
it is that grand Means of Health, namely, infenftble 
Perfpiration (e), is performed, at leaft greatly pro- 
moted, without which an human Body would be 
foon over-run with Difeafc. 

In the next Place, there are good political Rea- 
fons for Man's Cloathing himfelf, inafmuch as his 
Induftry is hereby employed in the Exercifes of his 
Art and Ingenuity; his Diligence and Care are 
exerted in keeping himfelf fweet, cleanly, and neat; 
many Callings and Ways of Life arife from thence, 
and, (to name no more,) the Ranks and Degrees 
of Men are hereby, in fome Meafure, rendered vifible 
to others, in the feveral Nations of the Earth. 

Thus it is manifeftly beft for Man, that he fhould 
cloath himfelf. 


{p) Concerning Infenfible Perforation, Sanfforius obferves, 
that it much exceeds all the Seniible pttt together. De Stat. 
Med. Apb. 4. That as mtxch is evacuated by infenfible Per* 
fpiration in one Day, as is by Stool in fourteen Days : Particu- 
larly, That, in a Night's Time, about fixteen Ounces is com- 
monly fent out by Urine, four Ounces by Stool; but above 
forty Ounces by infenfible Perfpiration. Aphor. 59, 60. That 
if a Man eats and drinks eight Pounds in a Day, five Pounds 
Of it is f pent in infenfible Perfpiration. Se&. I. Aph. 6. And 
as to the Times, he faith, Ab ajfutnpto cibo 5 Boris 1 /. eirciter 

ferfpirabilis exhalare folet, a 5 a ad nam 3/. eirciter; a 

\za ad 1 Cam *vix felibram. Aph. 56. 

And as to the wonderful Benefits of infenfible Perforation, 
they are abundantly demon ft rated by the fame learned Perfon, 
pbi/upra; as alfo by Borelli in his fecond Part, De Mot. Ani- 
mal. Prop. 168. who faith, Necrfaria eft infenfibilit Tranfpi- 
ratio, ta vita Animalis con/eruetur. 

1 0)AA. 

22 o Of Jnimah Chatting. Book IV. 

But for the poor (hiftlefs Irrationals, it is a 
prodigious Aft of the great Creator's Indulgence, 
that they are all ready furniihed with fuch Cioath- 
ing, as is proper to their Place and Bufinefs (f). 
Some covered with Hair (g)> fome with Fea- 

(f) Animantium vero quanta varietas eft P Quanta ad tarn 
rem wis, ut in fue quaqut gtnere fermantant f Quorum alia 
cor Us tec! a funt, alia villis weflita, alia fpinis bir/uia : plumd. 
alias, alias fquama vidimus ohduSas, alias effe cornibus ar- 
matas, alias habere effugia pennarum. Cic# de Nat, Deor. 

1. 2. C. 47. 

(r) From Malpigbi'% carious Obfervations of the Hair, I 
fluff note three Things: 1. Their Stru&ure is fi&ulous, or 
tubular ; which hath long been a Doubt among; the Curious. 
Tiftuhfum [effe PilumJ demenftrant luftratio ptlorum a caudd 

bf alio E quorum, &e. pracipue fetarum Apri, qua patents 

•rem ex fiftulis compojitionem exbibent. Eft autem diclus Aprs* 
films Qlindricum corpus quafi diaphanum—fiftularum aggert 
conflatum, (ffjpeciem columna ftriata pra ft fert. Components 
fiftula in gyrum fituata in apice patent tore s redduntur ; nam 
bans pi/us in geminas di<viditur partes, {ff emponentes minima 
fftula ■ Itleriores reddita manifeftantur, ita ut enumerati 

fojfunt i bas autem 20, & ultra numerairi.* <■ Expofita 

fftula tubuhfa funt, 13 frequent ibus tunicis tran/verfa- 

liter fttuatis, <veluti vafoulis follent. Ex quoniam Spina, in Eri- 
nacets pracifui, fcfr. nil aliud funt, quam duri & rigidi pili, 
ideo, &c. And then he defcribes the Hedgehog's Spines, in 
which thofe Tubes manifeftly appear; together with medul- 
lary Valves and Cells ; not inelegant, which he hath figured 
in Tab. 16. at the End of his Works. 

That which this fagacious, and not enough to be com- 
mended Obferver, took notice of in the Structure of Hair, 
and its Parity to the Spines, J have rayfelf obferved in fome 
meafure to be true, in the Hair of Cats, Rats, Mice, and di- 
vers other Animals; which look very prettily when view'd 
with a good Microfcope. The Hair of a Moufe, (the moft 
tranfparent of any I have view'd,) feems to be one (ingle 
tranfparent Tube, with a Pith made up of a fibrous Subftance, 
running in dark Lines ; in fome Hairs tranfverfly, in others 
fpiralJy, as in Fig. 14, ic, 16, 17. Thefe darker medullary 
Parts, or I ines, 1 have obferv'd, are no other than fmall Fi- 
bres convolved round, and lying clofer together than in other 
Parts of the Hair. They iun from the Bottom to the Top 


Ch AP. XH. Of Animals Chatting. 195 

thers (b\ fome with Scales, fome with Shells (i), 
fome only Skin, and fome with firm and (tout Ar- 
mature ; all nicely accommodated to the Element 
in which the Creature liveth, and its Occafions 
there (k). To Quadrupeds Hair is a commodious 
Cloathing •, which, together with the apt Texture of 
their Skin, fitteth them for all Weathers, to lie on 
the Ground, and to do the Offices of Man ; and 
the thick and warm Furs and Fleeces of others, are 
not only a good Defehfative againft the Cold and 
Wet •, but alfo a foft Bed to repofe themfelves in ; 
and to many of them, a comfortable Covering, to 
nurfe and cherifh their tender Young. 

And as Hair to Quadrupeds, fo Feathers are as 
commodious aDrefs to fuch as fly in the Air, to 
Birds, and fome Infefts ; not only a good Guard 
againft Wet and Cold, and a comfortable Cover* 


of the Hair ; and, I imagine, ferve to the gentle Evacuation 
of fome Humour out of the Body ; perhaps, the Hair ferves 
as well for the infenfible Perforation of hairy Animals, as to 
fence againft Cold and Wet. In Fig. 14, 16. is reprefented 
the Hair of a Moufe, as it appears thro" a fmall Magnifier ; 
and in Fig. 15, 17. as it appears when view'd with a larger 

• Upon another Review, I imagine, that altho' in Fig. 14, 1 ?. 
the dark Parts of the Pith feem to be tranfverfe, that they, 
as well as in the two other Figures, run round in a fcrew* 
like Fafhion. 

(h) See Book VII. Chap. 1. Note (d), (e). 
(/) See Chap. 14. Note (c). 

(i) It is a Sign fome wife Artift was a Contriver of the 
Cloathing of Animals, not only as their Cloathing varies, as 
their Way of Living doth ; but alfo becaufe every Part of 
their Bodies is furniflied with proper fuitable Cloathing. 
Thus divers Animals, that have their Bodies covered for the 
raoft Part with fhort, fmooth Hair, have fome Parts left 
naked, where Hair would be an Annoyance ; and fome Parts 
befet with long Hair, as the Mane and Tail; and 'fome 
wkh ftiff, ftrong Briftles, as about the Nofe ; and fome- 
times within the Noftrils, to guard off, or give Warning of 

222 Of Animals Cloatbing* Book IV. 

ing to fuch as hatch and brood their Young *, but 
alio moft commodious for their Flight. To which 
Purpofc they are nicely and neatly placed every 
where on the Body, to give them an eafy Paflage 
through the Air (/), and to affift in the wafting 
then Body thro' that thin Medium. For which 
Service, how curious is their Texture for Light* 
nds, and withal for Strength? Hollow and thin 
for Lightnefs, but withal context and firm for 
Strength. And where it is neceflary they fhould 
be filled, what a light and ftrong, medullary Sub* 
ftance is it they are filled with ? By which curious 
Contrivances, even the very heavieft Parts made for 
S rength, are fo far from being a Load to the Body, 
that they rather affift in making it light and buoy- 
ant, and capacitate it for Flight. But for the Vanes, 
the lighteft Part of the Feather, how curioufly are 
they wrought with capillary Filaments, neatly in- 
terwoven together (*»), whereby they are not only 
light, but alfo fufficiently clofe and ftrong, to keep 
the Body warm, and guard itagainft the injuries of 
Weather, and withal, to impower the Wings, like 
fo many Sails, to make ftrong Impulfes upon the 
Air in their Flight (»). Thus curious, thus artifi- 

(/) The Feathers being placed from the Head towards the 
Tail, in clofe and neat Order, and withal preened and 
drefled by the Contents of the Oil-Bag, afford as eafy a Paf- 
fage thro' the Air, as a Boat new cleaned and drafted finds 
in its Pafiage thro 1 the Waters. Whereas, were the Feathers 
placed the contrary, or any other Way, (as they would have 
been, had they been placed by Chance, or without Art) they 
would then have gathered Air, and been a great Encumbrance 
to the Paffage of the Body thro* the Air. See Book VII. 
Chap i. Note (b). 

[m) In Book VII. Chap. i. Nott (t) y there is a particular 
Account of the Mechanifm of their Vanes, from fome nice 
Microfcopical Observations, and therefore I ihall take no far* 
ther Notice of it here. 

(n) Vide Borell. de Mot. Animal. Prop. 182. Vol. I. 

Chap, XII. QJ Animals Chathing. a a j 

rial, thus commodious i& the Cloathiwg of Iteafts 
and Birds : Concerning which, more in proper 

And no lefe might I (hew that of Reptiles and 
Fifties (o) to be, if it was convenient to enlarge up- 
on this Branch of the Creator's Works. How well 
adapted are the Annuli oi fame Reptiles* and the 
Contortions of the Skin of others, not only to fane* 
the Body fufficiently againft outward Injuries, but 
to enable them to creep, to perforate the Earth if) % 
and in a Word, to perform all the Offices of theiu 
Reptile State, much better that* any other Tegu r 
ment of the Body would do ? And the fame might 
be faid of the Covering of the Inhabitants of - the 
Waters, particularly the Shells, of fome, which arq 
a ftrong Guard to the tender Body that is wkhin, 
and confident enpugh with their flower Motion ; 
and the Scales and Skins of others, affording them 
an eafy and fwift Paffage thro 5 the Waters. But 

{o) See Book IX. 

(p) For a Sample of this Branch of my Survey, let us chufe 
Ac. Tegument of. Eartb-Worms, . which we fhall find conv 
ple'tely adapted to their Way of Life and Motion, being made 
in the moil complete Manner poffibie* for terebrating the 
Earth, and creeping where their Occafions lead them : For 
their Body is made throughout of fmall Rings, and thefe 
Kings have a curious Apparatus of Mufcles, .enabling thofe 
Creatures with great Strength to dilate, extend, or contract 
their Annuli, and whole Body ; thofe Annuli alfo are each o/ 
them armed with fmall, ftifF, (harp Beards, or Prickles, which 
they can open, to lay hold on, or (hut up clofe to their Body ; 
And laftly, under the Skin there lies zjlimy Juice, that they 
«mit, as Occafion is, at certain Perforations between the. An- 
nuli, to lubricate the Body, and facilitate their Pafiage. into 
the Earth. By all which Means they are enabled, with great 
Speed, Eafe, and Safely, to thruft and wedge them (elves into 
the Earth ; which they could not do, had their Bodies been 
covered with Hair, Feathers, • Scales, pr fuch like Qoathing 
of the other Creatures. See more concerning this Animal, 
Book IX. Cbap.x. Note (a). 

Vft Art- 

224 Of ^^ Ckatbing. Book IV. 

it may be fufficicnt to give only a Hint of thofe 
Things, which more property belong to another 

Thus hath the indulgent Creator finilhed the 
whole Animal World with convenient, fuitable 

II. Let us, in the next Place, take a fhort View 
of the Garniture (jj) 9 and Beauty thereof. And here 
we fliall thus far, at leaft, defcry it to be beautiful ; 
that it is compleat and Workman-like. Even the 
Cloathing of the moft fordid Animals, thofe that 
are the leaft beautified with Colours, or rather 
whofe Cloathing may regrate the Eye (r) ; yet when 
we come ftriftly to view them, and lerioufly confider 
the nice Mechanifm of one Part, the admirable 
Texture of another, and the exaft Symmetry of the 
Whole ; we difcern fuch Strokes of inimitable Skill, 
fuch incomparable Curiofity, that we may fay with 
Solomon, Eccl. Hi. u. [God] bath made everything 
beautiful in his Time. 

But for a farther Demonftration of the fuper* 
eminent Dexterity of his Almighty Hand, he hath 
been pleafed, as it were on Purpofe, to give fur- 
prizing Beauties to divers Kinds of Animals. What 
radiant Colours are many of them, particularly 
fome Birds and Infedts (j), bedeck'd with ! What a 


(q) Ariftotle* in his Hift. Anim. /. 3. f. 12. names feveral Rt. 
Vers, that by being drank of, change the Colour of the Hair. 

(r) For an Example, Let us take the Cloathing of the Tor- 
Uife and Viper ; becaufe, by an incurious View, it rather re- 
grateth, than pleafeth the Eye : But yet, by an accurate Sur- 
vey, we find the Shells of the Former, and the Scales of the 
Latter, to be a curious Piece of Mechanifm, neatly made, and 
fo completely, and well put and tacked together, as to ex- 
ceed any human Compofures : Of the Latter, fee more in 
Book IX. Chap. 1. Note[c). 

(s) It would be endlefs to enter into the Particulars of the 
beautiful Birds and Infers of our European Parts ; but cfpe- 
tially thofe inhabiting the Countries between the Tropicks, 


Chap. XII. Of Animals Chatting. £2g 

prodigious Combination is there often of thefe, yea f 
now nice an Air frequently of meaner Colours (t) $ 
as to captivate the Eye of all Beholders, and exceed 
the Dexterity of the moft exquifite Pencil to copy ? 
And now, when we thus find a whole World of 
Animals, cloathed in the wifeft Manner, the moft 
fuitable to the Element in which they live, the 
Place in which they refide, and their State and Oo 
cafions there 5 when thofe that* are able to fhift for 
themfelves, are left to their own Difcretion and Di- 
ligence, but the Helplefs well accouter'd and pro- 
vided for ; when fuch incomparable Strokes of Art 
and Workmanfhip appear in all, and fuch inimita- 
ble Glories and Beauties in the Cloathing of others ; 
who can, without the greateft Obftinacy and Pre- 
judice, deny this to be God's Handy- work? The 
gaudy, or even the meaneft Apparel, which Man 
provideth for himfelf, we readily enough own to be 
the Contrivance, the Work of Man : And fhall we 
deny the Cloathing of all the Animal World befides 
(which infinitely furpaffeth all the Robes of earthly 
Majefty ; fhall we, dare we, deny that) to be the 
Work of any Thing lefs than of an infinite, intelli- 
gent Being, whofe Art and Power are equal to fuch 
glorious Work! 

which are obferved as much to exceed our Birds in their Co- 
lours, as ours do theirs in their Singing. 

(/) The Wryneck, at a Diftance, is a Bird of mean Colour j 
neither are indeed its Colours radiant, or beautiful, fmgly con* 
fider'd : Bat when it is in the Hand, we fee its light and darker 
Colours fo curioufly mix'd together, as to give the Bird a fur- 
prizing Beauty. The fame is alfo obfervable in many Infers, 
particularly of the Pbalami'Kmd. 


CH K*. 

f 226 3 


Of the Houfes and Habitation of Jnimals. 

HAVING in the laft Chapter, as briefly as 
well I could, furveyed the Ooathing of Ani* 
mals, I ihall in this take a View of their Houfes, 
Neftsy their Cells and Habitations, another Thing no 
lefs neceflary to their Well-being than the laft ; and 
in which the Great Creator hath likewife fignaliaed 
his Care and Skill, by giving Animals an Architc&o- 
nick Faculty, to build themfelves convenient Place* 
of Retirement, in which to repofe and fecure them- 
felves, and to nurfe up their Young. 

And here, as before, we may confider the Cafe 
of Man, and that of the irrational Animals. Mao 
having (as I laid) the Gift of Reafon and 'Under- 
ftanding, is able to fhift for himfelf, to contrive 
and build, as his Pleafure leads him, and his Abi- 
lities will admit of. From the meaneft Huts and 
Cottages, he can eredt himfelf (lately Buildings* be- 
deck them with exquifite Arts of Architedfcure, 
Painting, and other Garniture ; ennoble them, and 
render them delightful with pleafant Gardens, Foun- 
tains, Avenues, and what not ? For Man therefore 
the Creator hath abundantly provided in this Re- \ 
ipeft, by giving him an Ability to Help himfelf. 
And a wife Provifion this is, inafmuch as it is an 
excellent Exercife of the Wit, the Ingenuity, the In- 
duftry, and Care of Man. 

But fince Ingenuity, without Materials, would 
be fruitlefs, the Materials therefore which the Cre- 
ator hath provided the World with, for this very 
ice of Building, deferves our Notice. The 


3tf AJ>. XIII. OfAnimak Hatntations* 227 

jreat Varieties of Trees (a), Earth, Stones, and 
Plants, anfwering every Occafion and Purpofe .of 
tfan for this Ufe, in all Ages and Places all the 
World over, is a great Adfc of th^ Creator's Good- 
\d& ; as ij&anifefting, that fince he has left Man to 
hifc for liimfelf, it Should not be without fufficient 
-Jflp to enable him to do fo, if he would but make 
Jfe of them, and the Senfe andKeafon which God 
lath given him. 

Tfru? Sufficient Provifion is made far the Habita* 
ion.-of Man. 

And no lefs fhall we find is made for the reft of 
he Creatures ; who, altho 5 they want the Power 
f Reafon to vary their Methods, and cannot add 
o 9 or diminifli from, or any way make Improve- 
Dents upon their natural Way, yet we find that 
tatural Inftinft, which the Creator's infinite Un- 
lerftanding hath imprinted in them, to be abunr 
Igntly fufficient, nay, in all Probability, the very 
left or only Method they can take, or that can he 
averted, tor the refpe&ive Ufe and Purpofe of each 
>eculiar Species of Animals (£). If Jom,e Crea* 
urea make their Nefts in Houfes, fome in Trees, 


.(*) ■ . . , t >Dant utile lignum 

Navigiis Pittos, domibus Cwdrefqut, Cupreffofyut : 
Hinc radios triyere Rotis, hinc tympana pUuftris 
4gricola y 1$ pandas ratibus pofuere carinas. 
y$uumbus Salices fareund*, frondibus Ultyi} 
At Myrtus valiMs baftilibus, & bona bello 
Qrn*s > Jtyr&os faxi torguantur in arcus. 
Ntc Tilt* {eves, out torno rafile Buxum, 
Non formam accipiunt, ferroque cavantpr atHto t 
Ntcfiou & tortrtntum undam levis innatat Almu 
Miffa Pado : necnon &f apes exatnina condant 
Carticibufque carvis, vitiofieqpu Uicis alyt*. 

Virg. Georg. 1. 2. arm. 44*. 

{*) See Chap. 1 5 . and Book VIII. Chap, 6< 

Q^a (r) Many 

% 2 8 Of Animals Habitations. Book IV. 

fome in Shrubs, fome in the Earth (0, fome in 
Stone, fome in the Waters, fome here, and fome 
there, or have none at all ; yet we find, that that 
Place, that Method of Nidification, doth abundant- 
. ly anfwer the Creatures Ufe and Occafions. They 
can there fufficiently and well repofe, and fecure 
themfelves, lay, and breed up their Young. We 
are fo far from difcovering any Inconvenience in 
any of their refpeftive Ways, from perceiving any 
Lofs befal the Species, any Decay, any perifliing 
of their Young ; that, in all Probability, on the 


(c) Many of the Vcfp* Ichneumones are remarkable enough 
for their Nidification and Provifion for their Young. Thofe 
that build in Earth (who commonly have golden and black 
/ Rings round their Al<vi) having lined the little Cells, they 
have perforated, lay therein their Eggs, and then carry into 
them Maggots from the Leaves of Trees, and feal them op 
dofe and nedtly. And another Ichneumon, more of the Fejfa 
than Mufca Ichneumon Kind, (having a little Sting in its Tail, 
of a black Colour) gave me the Pleaftire, one Summer, of 
feeing it build its Neft in a little Hole in my Study-Window. 
This Cell was coated about with an odoriferous, refinous Goo, 
collected, I fuppofe, from fome Fir-Trees near ; after which 
it laid two Eggs (I think the Number was,) and then carried 
fn divers Maggots, fome bigger than itfelf. Thefe it vert 
fagaciouily fealed clofe up into the Nell, leaving them there, 
doubtlefs, partly to affift the Incubation ; and efpecially for 
Food to the future Young, when hatched. 

Of this Artifice of thefe Ichneumons, Ariflotle himfelf takes 
Notice, (but I believe he was fcarce aware of the Eggs fealed 
up with the Spiders.) *0» & Spijxi? Ixnvpons saAqacMi, &c. 
As to the Vefpac, called Ichneumones, {lefs than others) they kill 
Spiders, and carry them into their Holes, and halving fealed them 
up with Dirt, they therein hatch, and produce thofe of the fame 
Kind. Hid: Anim. 1. 5. c. 20. 

To what hath been faid about thefe Ichneumon Wafts, I 
(hall add one Obfervation more* concerning the providential 
Structure of their Mouth in every of their Tribes, nrix. their 
Jaws are not only very llrong, but nicely fized, curved, and 
placed for gnawing and fcraping thofe complete little Holes 
they perforate in Earth, Wood, yea, in Stone itfelf. 


Chap. XIII. Of Animals Habitations. 229 

contrary, in that particular Way they better thrive, 
are more fecure, and better able to fhift for, and 
help themfelves. If, for Inftance, fome Beafts make 
to themfelves no Habitation, but lie abroad in the 
open Air, and there produce their Young •, in this 
Ckfe we find there is no Need it fhould be other- 
wife, by Reafon they are either taken Care of by 
Man (</), or in no Danger, as other Creatures, 
from Abroad. If others repofite their Young in 
Holes (e) and Dens, and fecure themfelves alfo 
therein, it is, becaufe fuch Guard, fuch Security, is 
wanting, their Lives being fought either by the 
Hoftility of Man, or to fatisfy the Appetite of ra- 
pacious Creatures (/). If among Birds, fome build 
their Nefts clofe, fome open, fome with this, fome 
with another Material, fome in Houfes, fome in 
Trees, fome on the Ground (j), fome on Rocks 
and Crags on high, (of which God himfelf hath 


(sty Tally having fpoken of the Care of fome Animals to- 
wards their Young, by which' they are nurfed and brought up, 
faith, Accedit etiam 9 ad nonnullorum animantiim, iff earunt 
rerum quas terra gignit, confervationem, £ff falutem, bominum 
etiam Jolertia & diligent ia. Nam mult a 1$ pecudes, (sf fiirpes 
fun/, qua fine procuration bominum fakva ejfe non poffunt. Cic. 
de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 5.2. 

(#)' Prov. xxx. 26. Tbe Conies are but a feeble Folk, yet make, 
they their Houfes in tbe Rocks. 
' (f) See Note (I). 

(g) Ic is a notable Inftindl which 01. Magnus tells of the 
Galls Syfoeftres, in his Northern Country, to fecure them- 
. felves againil the Colt) and Storms of the Winter. Qum 
i wves inftar collium terra fuperficiem ubique cooperiunt, ramojque 
Orborum diutius deprimunt 6f condenfant, certos fruclus Be tula 
I arboris ■ — in forma longi Piperis vorant, fcf glutiunt /*- . 

idigeftos ; idque tantd aviditate, ac quant it ate, ut re pie turn 
kgtittur toto corppre ma jus ap tar eat. Deinde par tit is agminibus 
Me inttr medios nivium colics immergunt, prafertim in Jan. 
iFebr. Martio, quando nives ut turbines, typbones, *vel tempe/ia- 
> $*! gravijpm* e nub: bus ^efcendunt. Cumque cooper t a funt t — 

0.3 f^r 

Sjtf Of Animals Habitations. Bbo« IV, 

given an Inftance in the Eagle, Job xtfxix. 27, 28.) 
And fo among the Infe6t and Reptile Kinds* if forte 
repofite their Eggs or Young in the Earth, ibme m- 
Wood, fome in Stone, fome on one Kind of PlaAt, 
fome on another, fome in warm and dry Places, 
fome in the Water, and moid: Places, and fotat ky 
their own Bodies only, as fhall be fliewn in preper 
Place 5 in all thefe Cafes it is, in all Probability, the 
belt or only Method the Animal can take for th6 
Hatching and Production of its Young, for their 
Supplies, Safety, or fome other main Point of their 
Being or Well-being. This is manifeft enough in 
many Cafes, and therefore probable in all. Iti» 
manifeft that fuch Animals, for Inftance, as breed 
in the Waters (as not only Filh, but divers In- 
fedts, and other Land- Animals do) that their Young 
cannot be hatched, fed, or nurfed up in any other 
Element. It is manifeft alfo, That Infers, which 
Jay their Eggs on this, and. that, and the other 
agreeable Tree, or Plant, or in Flefli, 6fc. that it is 
by that Means their Young are fed and nurfed up, 
And it is little to be doubted alfo, but that thefe 
Matrixes may much conduce to the Maturation and 
Produ&ion of the Young. And fo in all other the 
like Cafes of Nidification, of Heat or Cold, Wet 
or Dry, Expofed or Open, in all Probability this is 
the beft Method for the Animal's Good, moft fa- 
lutary and agreeable to its Nature, moft for its Fe- 
cundity, and the Continuance and Increafc of its 
Species ; to which every Species of Animals is na- 
turally prompt and inclined. 
Thus admirable is the natural Sagacity and In* 


f ertis hebdomadis cibo in gutture colleSo, egefto, t$ refumpto iritmut 

Venatorum canibus non produntur. £>uod fi pr&fcntiunt ni- 

*vem imminere tnajorem, pnedido frufiu t iterum devorato, aliui 
domicilium captant, in eoque tnanent ufqae ad finem Martii, &c. 
Rl. Mag. Hift. 1. 19. c. 33. 

ft ft 

CflTAP, XIII. OfJmmals Habitations. 231 

ftiod (h) of the irrational Animals in the Conve- 
nience and Method of their Habitations. And no 
lefs is it in the Fabrick of them. Their, architefto- 
nick Skill, exerted in the Curiofity and Dexteri- 
ty of their Works, and exceeding the Skill- of Man 
to imitate ; this, I fay, defer ves as much or more 
Admiration and Praife,. than that of the moft ex- 
quifite Arcift among Men. For with what inimita<- 
ble Art* (/) do thefe poor untaught Creatures lay 
a parcel of rude and ugly. Sticks and Straws, Mofs 
and Dirt together, and form them into commo- 
dious Nefts! With what Curiofity do they line 
them within, wind and place every Hair, Feather, 
6v Lock of Wodl, ro guard the tender Bodies of 
themfelves, and their Young, and to keep them 
warm ? And with what Art and Craft do many 
of them thatch over, and coat their Nefts- with- 
out, to dodge aed deceive the Eye of Spe&ators, 
as well as to guard and fence againft the Injuries of 
Weather (k) ? With what prodigious Subtilty do 

j fome 

[b) It is a very odd Story (which I rather mention for 
the Reader's Diverfion, than for its Truth) which Dr. Lud. 
de Beaufort relates : Vir fide digitus narravit mibi, quod c'Hm 
ftmel, animi gratia, nidum aviculte ligno obturdjet, feque 
tccultdjjet,. cupidus- videndi, quid in tali occafione prafiaret j ilia 
cum frufira ftepih tentdjjet rofiro illud auferre, casus admo- 
dum impatient, abiit, & poft aliquod temporis fpatium re<verfa 
eft, rofiro gerens plantulam, qua obturamento app/icatd, paula 
poft, illud veluti telum eripuit tantd <vi t ut difperfa impetu ker- 
bula, ac occafionem ipfi, ab aviculd ejus *virtutem difcendi, pra- 
ripuerit. Cofmog. Divina, Sedl. 5. Chap. 1. Had he told us 
what the Plant was, we might have given better Credit to 
this Story. 

(*) Of the Subtilty of Birds in Nidification, fee Plin. Nat. 
fiift. 1. 10. c. 33. 

(i) Among many Inftances that might be given of this 
Subtilty of Birds, and other Creatures, that of the long tailed 

Slitmoufe deferves Obfervation, who with great Art builds 
her Neft with Moffes, Hair, and the Webs of .Spiders, caft 
i 0.4 out 

%^t Of Animals Habitations. Book I V* 

fome foreign Birds (/), not only plat and weave the 
fibrous Parts of Vegetables together, and curioufly 
tunnel them, and commodioufly form them into 
Nefts, but alfo artificially fufpend them on the ten- 
der Twigs of Trees, to keep them out of the Reach 
of rapacious Animals ? 

And fo for InfeBs> thofe little, weak, thole ten- 
der Creatures •, yet, what admirable Artifts arc they 
in this Bufinefs of Nidification ! With what great 
Diligence doth the little Bte gather its Combs 
from various Trees (m) and Flowers, the IVafp^ 


cut from them when they take their Flight : See Book Vllfr 
Chap. 4. Note (e), with which the other Materials are ftrongly 
tied together. Having neatly built, and covered her Neft 
with thefe Materials without, (he thatcheth it on the Top 
with the Mufcm arboreus ramofus, or fuch like broad, whitifh 
Mofs, to k^ep out Rain, and to dodge the Spectator's Eye ; 
and within fhe lineth it with a great Number of foft Feathers, 
fo many, that I confefs I could not but admire how fo fmall 
a Room could hold them, efpecially that they could be laid 
fo clofe and handfomely together, to afford fufficient Room 
for a Bird with fo long a Tail, and fo numerous an Jflue as 
this Bird commonly hath, which Mr. Ray faith, {Synoff. Me- 
thod. Avium, (p. 74.) 0*va inter omnes aviculas numerofijjima 
fonit. See more of t|ie Neft of this Bird, from Aldrwani. 
in Willugh. Ornith. p. 243. . 

(/) The Neft of the Guira tangeitna, the Ifterus minor, and 
the Jupujuba, or whatever other Name the American Hang* 
NeJIs may be called by, are of this Kind. Of which fee WiU 
lughhfs Ornith. Lib. 2. Chap. 5. Sett. 12, 13. Alfo Dr. Grewi 
Mufeum Reg. Soc. Part 1 . Sea. 4. Chop. 4. Thefe Nefts I have 
divers Times feen, particularly in great Perfection in our R. S. 
|le petitory, and in the noble and well-furnifhed Mufeum of 
my often commended Friend Sir Ham Shane ; and at the fame 
Tjme I could not but admire at the neat Mechanifm of them, 
and the Sagacity of the Bird, in hanging them on the Twigs 
Qf Trees,, to fecure their Eggs and Young from the Apes. 

(m) I mention Trees, becaufe I have feen Bees gather the 
Gum of Fir-Trees, which at the fame Time gave me the 
Pleafure of feeing their Way of loading their Thighs there- 
with, performed with great Art and Dexterity. 

Chap. XlII. OfAmmah Habitations. 233 

from folid (») Timber ! And with what prodigi- 
ous geometrical Subtilty do thofe little Animals 
work their deep hexagonal Cells, the only prQper 
Figure that the beft Mathematician could chufe for 
fuch a Combination of Houfes {0) ! With what 
Accuracy do other Infers perforate the Earth (p), 
"Wood, yea, Stone itfelf (q) 1 For which Service, 
the compleat Apparatus of their Mouths (r), and 
Feet (i), deferves particular Obfervation, as hath 


(*) Wa/ps, at their firft Coming, may be obferv'd to fre* 
quent Polls, Boards, and other Wood that is dry and found ; 
but never any that is rotten. Thefe they may be heard to 
fcrape and gnaw ; and what they fo gnaw off, they heap clofe 
together between their Chin and Fore- Legs, until they have 
gotten enough for a Burden-, which they then carry away in 
their Mouths, and make their Cells with. 

(fi) Circular Cells would have been the mod capacious j 
but this would by no Means have been a convenient Figure, 
by Reafon much of the Room would have been taken up by 
Vacancies between the Circles ; therefore, it was neceflary Co 
make Ufe of fome of the rectilinear Figures. Among which 
only three could be of Ufa; of which Pappus Alexandrine 
thus difcourfeth : Cum igitur tres figura funt, qua per feipfas* 
locum circa idem pun&um confiftentem replere pojjunt, Triangulum, 
fcil. Quadrat urn & Hexagonum, Apes Mam, qua ex pluribus 
angulis c on ft at ^ fapienter de/egerunt, utpote fufpicantes earn plus 
me His caper e quam utram vis reliquarum. At apes quidem illud 
tantum quod ipfis utile eft coguofcunt, viz. Hexagonum Quadrato 
faf Triangulo effe majus & plus Mellis capere poft'e nimirum equals 
materia in confiru&ionem uniufcujufque cotrjumpta. Nos <uero 
qui plus fapientia quam Apes habere prcfitemur, aliquid etiam 
tnagis infigne in<ueftigabimus. Collect. Math. 1. 5. 

(p) See before Note (c). 

(q) See Chap. n. Note (x). 

(r) See Chap. ii. Nte(y). 

(i) Among many Examples, the Legs and Feet of the 
Mole Cricket (Gryllotalpa,) are very remarkable. The Fore- 
Legs are very brawny and itrong ; and the Feet armed each 
with four flat ftrong Claws, together with a fmall Lamina, 
with two larger Claws, and a third with two little Claws : 
Which Lamina is jointed to the Bottom of the Foot, to be 
extended, to make the Foot wider, or withdrawn within the 
foot. Thefe Feet are placed to fcratch fpmewhat fideways, 

' ' ' ' ' " ^ 

434 Of dni**!* Habitations. Book YT. 

been* and will be hereafter obferv'd. And fur- 
ther yet ; With what? Care and Neatnefs do moft 
gf thofe little fagacious Animals line thofc their 
Houfes within, and feal them up, add fence them 
without (/)! How artificially will others fold up 
the Leaves of Trees and Plants (u) ; others houfe 
themfelves in Sticks and Straws ; others glue light 
and floating Bodies together (w) 9 and by that Ar- 
tifice make themfelves floating Houfes in, the Wa- 

as well ay downward, after the Manner of Moles Feet ; and 
^ey afe very like them alfo in Figure. 

Somewhat of this Nature, Swammerdam obferves of the 
Worms of the Epbemeron. To this Purpofe, [to dig their 
Cells] the wife Creator hath furntflfd them, (faith he) with 
ft Members. For, befides that their two Fore-legs are formed 
fomewhat like thofe of the ordinary Moles, or Gryllotalpa ; he 
Bath alfo furnijb'd mem with two toothy Cheeks, fomewhat like 
the Sheers of Lobfters, which ferve them more readily to bar* 
the Gay. Swammerdanl's Ephem. Vit. Published by Dr. Ty- 
fin, Chap. 3. 

(0 Sec the before-cited Note (e). 

\u) They are for the moft Part, fome of the PbataniA- 
Tribe, which inhabit the tunnelled, convolved Leaves, that 
we meet with on Vegetables in the Spring and Summer. And 
it is a fomewhat wonderful Artifice, how fo fmall and weak a 
Creature, as one of thofe newly-hatch'd Maggots, (for 
doubtlefs it is they, nor the Parent- Animal, becaufe (he emits 
rio Web, nor hath any redlrine Art,) can be able to convolve 
the ftubborn Leaf, and then bind it in that neat round Form, 
with the Thread or Web it weaves from its own Body ; with 
which it commonly lines the convolved Leaf, and flops up the 
two Ends, to prevent its own falling out; and Earwigs, and 
other noxious Animals getting in. 

(w) The feveral Sorts of Phryganea, or Cadews, in their 
Nympba, or Maggot ft ate, thus / houfe themfelves ; one Sort 
jh Straws, call'd from thence Straw-Worms-, others in two or 
more Sticks, kid parallel to one another, creeping at the Bot- 
tom of Brooks ; others with a fmall Bundle of Pieces of 
Ruflies, Duck- weed, Sticks, cifr. glu'd together, wherewith they 
float on the Top, and can row themfelves therein about the 
Waters, with the Help of their Feet: Both thefe are calTd 
Cob-bait. Divers other Sorts there are, which the Reader 
jnay fee a Summary of, from Mr. Willughby % in Raii Method* 

GttAt. Xtll. OfAmtmh Uabitatttm. . &$$ 

Iters, to ttanfobrt themfelves at Pleasure aftetf their 
Food, or otntr neceflar? Occafions af Life ! And? 
for a Cfofe, let us take the fcripturai frifltartce of 
the Spider, fr&o. xxx. 28. whicft is one of the four 
little Things, which, v. 24. ^7^r fays, is exceeding 
Wife: Tbt Spider taketh bold tvifb bet Hands ', aniii 
in Kings Palaces (*)■. I will not dfapute the Trothf 
6f our £»£#/& Tranflation- of this Test, but fuppo- 
fing the Amtnal mentiort'd to be that which if 
meant •, it is manifeft that the* Art of that Species 
of Creatures, in fpinning their various Webs, and 
the Furniture their Bodies afford to that Purpofty 
are an excellent Inftind, and Provifion of Nature, 
fetting forth its glorious Author. 


JnfiH. p. 12. together with a good, tfco' very brief Defcrip* 
tion of the Papilionaceous Fly, that comes from the Cob-bat* 
CaJ+w. It is a notable arehiteclonick Faculty, which all the 
Variety of thefe Animals have, to gather fuch Bodies as- are? 
fitted tor their Purpofe, and then to glue them together * font* 
to be heavier than Water, that the Animal may remain at the 
Bottom, where its Food is-; (for which Pufpofe they ufc* 
Stones, together with Sticks, Rulhes, &c.) and fome to be 
lighter than Water, to float on the Top, and gather its Food) 
from thence. Thefe little Houfes look coarfe, and (hew ntf 
great Artifice outwardly; but are well tunnelled, and made 
within with a hard tough Parte ; into which the hinder Part 
of the Maggot is fo fix'd, that it can draw its Cell after it atay 
where, without Danger of leaving it behind ; as alfo thruft its- 
Body out, to reach what it wanteth; or withdraw it into itsf 
Cell, to guard it againft Harms. 

(*) Having mentioned the Spider, I (hall take this.Occafion, 
(although it be out of the Way) to give an Inftance of the 
Poifon of fome of them. Scaliger, Exerc. 186. relates, That 
in Gafcony, his Country, there are Spiders of that Viruleney, 
that if a Man treads upon tbem, to crujb them, their Poifon <toitt 
pafs through the very Soles of bis Shoe. Boyl. Subtil, of EfHuv. 
c. 4. 

Mr. Leenvenboei put a Frog and a Spider together into * 
Glafs, and having made the Spider fling the Frog diver* Times,, 
the Frog cyd in about an Hour's Time. Phil. Tranf. N° 27a. 

In the fame TranfaSion, is a curious Account of the Man* 
ner fcpw Sfiders lav, an4 guard their Egg*t <?'*• they emit 

236 Of % Animals Habitations. Book IV. 
And now from this fhort and tranfient View o£ 
the archite&onick Faculty of Animals, efpecially 
the Irrationals ; we may eafily perceive fome fupe- 
rior and wife Being was certainly concern'd in 
their Creation or Original. For, how is it poffi- 
ble that an irrational Creature fhould, with ordinary 
and coarfe, or indeed any Materials, be ever able 
to perform fuch Works, as exceed even the Imi- 
tation of a rational Creature ? How could the Bo- 
dies of many of them, (particularly the laft men- 
tion^; be furnifli'-d with archite&ive Materials? 

them not out of the hlndermoft Part of the Body, but under 
the upper Part of her Belly, near the Hind-Legs, &c . Alfo 
there is an Account of the Parts from which they emit their 
Webs, and divers other Things worth Obfervation, with Cuts 
illuilrating the Whole. 

- But in Phil. Tranf. N°*22.Dr. Natb. Fairfax, from S. Redi, 
and his own Obfervations, thinks Spiders not venomous; fe- 
veral Perfons, as well as Birds, fwallowing them without 
Hurt : Which I myfelf have known in a Perfon of Learning, 
who was advis'd to take them medicinally at firft, and 
would at any Time fwallow them, affirming them to be 
fweet, and well tailed: And not only innocuous, but they 
are very falutiferous too, in fome of the moft ftubborn Difea- 
fes, if the pleafant Story in Mouffet be true ; of a rich London 
Matron, cured of a defperate Tympany, by a certain Debau- 
chee, that hearing of her Cafe, and that (he was given over 
by the Doftcrs, went to her, pretending to be a Phyfician, 
and confidently affirmed he would cure her ; which fhe being 
willing to believe, agrees with him for fo much Money, one 
half to be paid down, the other upen Cure. Upon which he 
gives her a Spider, promifwg her Cure in three Days. Where- 
upon, (no; doubting but that he had poifonM her, and 
fearing he might be call'd to Account for it,) he gets out of 
Town as fait as he could. But inllead of being poifon'd, fhe 
foon recovered. After fome Months, the Quack gets privately 
to Town, when he thought the Buttle might be over; and 
enquiring* how his Patient did, was informed of her Cure ; and 
thereupon vifiting her, and making an Excufe for his Abfence, 
he receiv'd h»s Pay with great Applaufe and Thanks. Moujf. 
Infe8. I. 2 c. 15. 

Having faid fo much of Spiders, I might here add their 
plight: But of this, fee Book VI II. Chap. 4. Note (e). 


Ch a f. XIII. Of Animals Habitations. 237 

How could they ever difcover them to be in their 
Bodies, or know what Ufe to N make of them? 
We muft therefore neceffarily conclude, That the Ir- 
rationals either have Reafon and Judgment, not 
only Glimmerings thereof, but fome of its fupe- 
rior Afts, asWifdom and Forefight, Difcretion, 
Art and Care; orelfe, that they are only paffive in 
the Cafe, and aft by Inftindt, or by the Reafon of 
fome fuperior Being imprinted in their Nature, or 
fome Way or other, (be it how it will) congenial 
with them. That they are Rational, or excel 
Man in Art and Wifdom, none furely will be fo 
foolilh as to fay : And therefore we muft conclude, 
That thofe excellent Ends they purfue, and that 
admirable Art they exert, is none of their own, 
but owing to that infinitely- wife and excellent Be- 
ing, of whom it may be laid, with Reference to 
the irrational, as well as rational Creatures, as it is, 
Prov. ii. 6. The Lord give tb Wifdom \ out. of his Mouth 
cometh Knowledge and Underftanding* 


I *3* 1 


Of Animals <Self-Preferv&i(m. 

HAving thus confide^d the Food, Cloathing, 
and.Houfes of Animals 5 iet us in this Chap- 
iter trice a Glance of another excellent Provifiqn, 
die wife Creator bath made for the Good of the 
animal World ; and that is, the Methods which all 
Animals naturally take for their Self-Prefervatm 
and $afety. And here it is remarkable, (as in the 
Cafes before,) that Man, who is endow'd with Rea- 
fon, is born without Armature, and is deftitute of 
many Powers, which irrational Creatures have in a 
much higher Degree than he, by Reafon he can 
make himielf Arms to defend himfelf, can contrive 
Methods for his own Guard and Safety, can many 
Ways annoy his Enemy, and ftaVe off the Harms of 
noxious Creatures. 

But for others, who are deftitute of this fuper- 
eminent Faculty ; they are fome Way or other pro- 
vided with fufficient Guard (*), proportionate to 
their Place of Abode, the Dangers they are like to 
incur there (h) ; and in a Word, to their greateft 


(a) Calient in hoc cunfta animalia, fciuntque non fua modi 
cotnmoda, verum iff hoftium adverfa ; norunt fua tela, norunt 
cccafiones, parte/que difjidtntium imbelles. In ventre mollis eft 
tenuifque cutis Crocodilo : ideoque fe 9 ut territi, mergent Del* 
pbini, fubeuntefque ahum ilia fecant fpind. Plin. Nat. Hift. 
1. 8. c. 25. 

(b) Omnibus aptum eft Corpus Animte moribus iff facultatU 
bus : Equo fortibus ungulis iff jubd eft ornatum (etenim veloX 
iff fuperbum iff genemfum eft animal. ) Leoni autem, utpote a~ 
nimofo iff feroci, dentibus iff unguibus *validum. lta autem iff 
Tauro iff Jpro ; illi enim Cornua, buic exert i Dent ex. » 
Ctrvo autem iff Lepori [timida enim funt animalia) <veUx cor* 


CtLAaXN.XjfAmnuJs Self-Prtfervatm. 239 
Occafions and Need of Security. Accordingly, 
fome are fufficiently guarded ^gainft all common 
Dangers, by their natural Clpathing ; by their Ar- 
mature of Shells, or fuch like hard, and impregna- 
ble Covering of their Body (*). Others deftitute of 
this Guard, are armed, fome with Horns (d), fome 
with iharp Quills and Prickles (V), fome with 


pus, fed inerme. Ttnddis -emm vehcitas, arma audacibus con- 

*veniebant Homini autem (fqpiens enim eft ) tnanus 

dedit, inftrumentum ad emus artts neceffarium, fact nan mi- 
nus quom bello idoneum, Non igitur in^iguit Corn* fibi in- 
nato cum meliora Cornibus arma manibus, quandocunque <vo- 
Ut, pojjit accipert : Etenim Enfis (S Haft a major a funt Arma, 
IS ad incidendum promptiora Neque Cornu, neque Unga- 

te. quicquam nifi cominus agere poffunt\ Hominum verb arma e- 
miniis juxta ac cominus agunt : telum quidem &f fagkta magis 
auam cornua.< Non igitur eft nudus, neque inermis. - 

fed ipjt eft Iborax ferreus, quandocunque Zibet, omnibus Coriis 
difficilius fauciatu organum.< Nee 1 'borax folum fed IS 

Domus, (S Murus, tS Turrit 9 fcfr. Galen, dc Uf. Part. 1. i. 
c. 2. 

(c) Shells deferve a Place in this Survey, upon the Ac- 
count of their great Variety ; the curious and uncouth Make 
of fome, and the beautiful Colours, and pretty Ornaments 
of others ; but it would be endlefs to defcend to Particu- 
lars. Omitting others, I fhall therefore only take Notice of 
the Tortoife-.Sbel/t by Reafon a great deal of Dexterity ap- 
pears, even in the Simplicity of that Animal's Skeleton. For, 
befides that, the Shell is a ftout Guard to the Body, and af- 
fords a fafe Retreat to the Head, Legs, and Tail, which it 
withdraws within the Shell upon any Danger ; befides this, I 
fey, the Shell fupplieth the Place of all the Bones in the Body, 
except thofe of the^ extreme Parts, the Head and Neck, 
and the four Legs and Tail. So that at firft Sight, it is fome- 
what furprizing to fee a compleat Skeleton confiding of fo 
fmall a Number of Bones, and they abundantly fufficient for 
the Creatures TJfe. 

{d) Dente timentur jfpri : defendant cornua Tauros : 
Imbelles Dam* quid nip prada fumm ? 

Martial. I. 13. Epigr.94. 

(*) The Hedgehog being an helplefs, flow, and patient Ani- 

mtl, is accordingly guarded with Prickles, and a Power of 

rolling itfelf up in them. Cfavis terebrari fibi pedes, IS,' dif 

I cindi 

'240 Of Animals Self-Prefervation. Book IV # 

Claws, fome with Stings (/) ; fome can fhift and 
change their Colours (£) ; fome can make their 
Efcape by the Help of their Wings, and others bj 


cindi vi/cera patient ijfime ferebat, onfries cultri i8us Jin* gemstu 
flufquam Spar tana nobilitate concoquem. Barrichius in Blaf. de 
Echino. Panniculum carnofum amplexabatur Mufculus pine «*•• 
cularis, admiranda fabric*, lacinias fuas ad pedes, caudam, 
caput, <uarie exporrigens, cujus minijhrio Echinus fe adarbitrum 
in orb em contrahit. A&. Dan. in filafio. 

Ifie licet digit ot tefludine pungat acuta , 

Cortice depofito mollis Echinus erit. Mart. 1. 1 3. Epig. £6. 

(/) The Sting of a Wafp, or Bee, &c. is fo pretty a Piece 
of Work, that it is worth taking Notice of, fo far as I have 
not found others to have fpoken of it. Others have obferv'd 
the Sting to be an hollow Tube, with a Bag of fharp pene- 
trating Juices, (its Poifon,) joined to the End of it, within 
the Body of the Wafp % which is, in Stinging, injefted into the 
Flcih through the Tube. But there are, befides this, two final!, 
(harp, bearded Spears, lying within this Tube, or Sting, as in 
a Sheath. In a Waff* Sting, I counted eight Beards on the 
Side of each Spear, fomewhat like the Beards of Fifh-hooks. 
Thefe Spears in the Sting, or Sheath, lie one with its Point 
a little before that of the other ; as is re pre fen ted in Fig. 21, 
to be ready (I conceive) to be firft darted into the Fleih ; 
which being once fix'd, by Means of its foremoft Beard, the 
other then llrikes in too, and fo they alternately pierce deep- 
er and deeper, their Beards taking more and more hold in the 
Flefh ; after which the Sheath or Sting follows, to convey 
the Poifon into the Wound. Which, that it may pierce the 
better, it is drawn into a Point, with a fmall Slit a little below 
that Point for the two Spears to come out at. By Means of 
this pretty Mechanifm in the Sting, it is, that the Sting when 
out of the Body, and parted from it, is able to pierce and 
ding us : And by Means of the Beards being lodged deep in 
the Flefh, it comes to pafs that Bees leave their Stings behind 
them, when they are difturbed before they have Time to 
withdraw their Spears into their Scabbard. In Fig. 21, is re- 
prefented the two'Spears as they lie in the Sting. In Fig. 22, 
the two Spears are reprefented when fqueez'd out of the Sting, 
or the Scabbard ; in which Latter, Fig. Acb, is the Sting, cd 9 
and b e, the two bearded Spears thruft out. 

(g) The Camelion is Sufficiently fam'd on this Account. 
Befides which, Pliny tells Us of a Beaft as big as an Ox, cal- 
led the Tarandus, that when he pleafeih, a flumes the Colour 


Chap.XIV. Of Animals Self Prefervation. 241 
the Swiftncfs of their Feet ; fome can fcreen them- 
felves by diving in the Waters, others by tinging 
and disordering the Waters (&), can make their 
Efcape •, and fome can guard their Bodies even in 
the very Flames, by the Eje&ions of the Juice of 
their Bodies (i) \ and fome by their accurate Smell, 
Sight, or Hearing, can forefee Dangers (k) \ others 


of an Afs > and Colorem omnium fruticum, arbor urn y florum, lo- 
coruntque reddit, in quibus latet metuens % ideoque rato capitur* 
Plin. 1. 8. c. 34. 

How true this is, there may be fome Reafon to doubt ; 
but if any Truth be in the Story, it may be from the Ani- 
mal'3 chufing fuch Company, or Places, as are agreeable to 
its Colour : As I have feen in divers Caterpillars, and other 
Infe&s, who I believe were not able to change their Colour, 
from one Colour to another ; yet I have conitantly obferved, 
do fix themfelves to fuch Things as are of the fame Colour ; 
by which Means they dodge the Spectator's Eye. Thus the 
Caterpillar that feeds on Elder, I have more than once feen, 
fo cunningly adhering to the fmall Branches of the fame Co- 
lour, that it might be eafily miftaken for a fmall Stick, even 
by a careful View. So a large green Caterpillar, that feeds 
on Buckthorn, and divers others. To which I may add, the 
prodigious Sagacity of the Ichneumon Flies, that make the 
Kermes, (for of that Tribe all the Kermes I ever few was ;) 
how artificially they not only inclofe their Eggs within that 
gummy Skin, or Shell, but alfo fo well humour the Colour 
of the Wood they adhere to, by various Streaks and Co- 
lours, that it is not eafy to diftinguifh them from the Wood 

[h) Contra tnetum £«f <vim, fuis ft amis quaque defendiK 
Cormhns Tauri, Apri dent i bus, mor/u Leones, alia fuga fe, alia 
itcultafione tutantur: atramenti effufione Sepia, torpore Torpe- 
tines. Mult a etiam infed antes odor is intolerabili fceditate de^ 
fdlunt. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 50. 

(/) A Knight, call'd Comnni, at Rome, caft a Salamander 
into the Fire, which prefently fwell'd, and then vomited Store 
• of thick (limy Matter, which put out the Coals ; to which 
the Salamander prefently retired, putting them out again in 
the fame Manner, as foon as they re-kindled, and by this 
Means faved itfelf from the Force of the Fire, for the Space 
of two Hours i after which it lived nine Months. Vide Pbilef. 
franf. N° 21. in Lowth. Ahrig. Vol. 2. p. 816. 
*"(*) Plinj gives an Inftance in each, /. 10. (,69, AemiU 

R sforuU 

'242 Of Animals Self-Prefervation. Book IV. 

by their natural Craft, can prevent or efcape 
them (/) ; others by their uncouth Noife (m) ; 
by the horrid Afpeft, and ugly Gefticulations of 
their Body (n) ; and fome even by the Power of 
their Excrements, and their Stink (0), can annoy 


clarius cernunt [quam homines] ; Vultures fcgaeiits odorantur : 
liquidius audiunt y Talpa? obruta? terra, tarn denfo atque furdo na- 
ture element 0. 

(I) The Doublings of the Hare, before Ihe goes to Form, 
thereby to dodge and deceive the Dogs, ahho' a vulgar 
Observation, is a notable Inftinft for an Animal, Iefs famed 
for Cunning than the Fox, and fome others. 

(m) It is natural for many Quadrupeds, Birds, and Serpents, 
not only to put on a torvous angry Afpecl, when in Danger, 
but alfo to fnarl, hits, or by fome other Noife deter their 

(») The ljnx t or Wryneck, altho' a Bird of very beautiful 
Feathers, and confequently far enough off from being any 
way terrible ; yet, being in Danger, hath fuch odd Contor- 
tions of its Neck, and Motions of its Head, that I remember 
have fcar'd me, when I was a Boy, from taking their Nells, 
or touching the Bird, daring no more to venture my Hand into 
their Holes, than if a Serpent had lodged in it. 

{0) Bonafus tuetur fe calcibus & ftercore, quid ab fe quateruis 
fajfibus [trium jugerum longitudine. Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 8. c. 15. J 
ejaculatur s quod f ape comburit adeo ut deglabrentur canes. Ray's 
Sjnopf Quadr. p. 71. 

Ca-nelus Peruvianus Clam a didus neminem offtndit, fed mir$ 
admodum ingenio fe ab illatd vindicat injuria, nimirum vomit* 
*vel cibi, wel bumoris in <v ex ant em retrorfum cum impetu ejaculate, 
eb pro ten/am colli longitudinem. Id. ib. p. 146. 

Tzquiepatl, (Anglice Squnck, Praef. and one that I faw they 
calPd a Stonck,) Gm quis earn infeclatur, Jundit cum veneris, 
crepitu kalitum foetidijpmum : quin ipfa tota teterrimum exbalat 
cdoi em> iff urina ftercufque eft Jaetidijfimum, atque adeo pe ft ileus, 
ut nihil fit rt peri re in no pro or be, cui in bde re poffit comparari: 
quo fit % ut in periculo conftituta, urinam & feces ad 8 fluriunm 
faffuum intervallum ejiciat, hoc tnodo fe ab omnibus vi/rdicans 
itijuriis, ac veftes inficiens maculis luteis indelebilibus, fcf nun* 
quam fatis perfpirante odore : alias innoxium Animal eduleqju t 
bde fold ratione borrendi/Jtmum. Id. ib. p. 182. 

Si Aecipiter Ardeam in fublimi molefiat, ft tr core immijfo m fn* 
nas ejus, eas putrefcere facit : uti Solinus fcribit de. Bonafo, &k 
Ita & Lupus urinam ffargit in ftrfequentem\ 01. Mag. Hit 
I. IQ. C. 14* 

Chap. XIV. Of Animals Self-Prefervation. 243 

their Enemy, and fecure themfelves ; and againft 
fome (p) f the Divine Providence itfelf hath pro- 
vided a Guard. 

By fuch Shifts and Means as thefe, a fufficient 
Guard is miniftred to every Species of Animals, in 
its proper refpe£tive Place •, abundantly enough to 
fecure the Species from Deftru&ion, and to keep 
up that Balance, which, 1 have formerly fhew'd, is 
in the World, among every, and all the Species of 
Animals j but yet not enough to fecure Individuals, 
from becoming a Prey to Man, or to other Crea- 
tures, as their Neceffities of Life require. To 
which Purpofe, the natural Sagacity and Craft of 
the one intrapping (q) 9 and captivating, being in 
fome Meafure equivalent to that of the other in 
evading, is as excellent a Means for the maintaining 
the one, as preferving the other j and, if well confi- 
der'd, argues the Contrivance of the infinitely wife 
Creator and Preferver of the World. 

(p) Thus againft the Crocodile, which can catch its Prey 
only before it, not on one Side. So the Shark, of which take 
my often-recommended Friend Sir Hans Shane's Obfervation ; 
// bath this particular to it, with fome others of its own Tribe, 
that the Mouth is in its under Part, fo that it muft turn the 
Belly upwards to Prey. And was it not for that Time it is in 
turning, in which the purfued Fifbes efcape, there would be no- 
thing that could avoid it ; for it is very quick in Swimming, 
and hath a vaft Strength, with the large ft Swallow of any Fijb p 
find is very devouring. Sloane's Voyage to Jamaica, p. 23. 

ty) Sec Chap. u. Note [Hi). 


R* CHK?, 

[ 244 1 

Of the Generation of Animals. 

THcre remains now only one Thing more of the 
ten Things in common to Animals, and that 
is what relates to their Generation (a), and Confer- 


[a) Spontaneous Generation, is a Do&rine fo generally ex* 
ploded, that I (hall not undertake the Difproof of it. It is 
evident, that all Animals, yea, Vegetables too, owe their 
Produ&ion to Parent-Animals and Vegetables ; that I have 
often admir'd at the Sloth and Prejudices of the antient Phi* 
lofophers, in fo eafily taking upon Truft the Ariftoteliam, or 
rather, the Egyptian Doctrine of Equivocal Generation ; that 
when they faw Flies, Frogs, and Lice] for Inftancc, to be Male 
and Female, and accordingly to ingender, lay Eggs, &c. they 
could ever imagine any of thefe Creatures fhould be fponta- 
neoufly produced, efpecially in fo Romantick a Manner, as in 
the Clouds ; as they particularly thought Frogs were, and that 
they dropped down in Showers of Rain. For an Anfwcr to 
this Cafe of Frogs, I {hall refer to a Relation of my own, 
which my late moil ingenious and learned Friend, the great 
Mr. Ray, requefted of me, and was pleas'd to publifh in his 
lail Edition of his Wifdom of God manifefted, &c. p. 365. 

But fdme will yet affert the Raining of Frogs ; among 
which the curious Dr. Plot is fomewhat of this Opinion ; tell- 
ing us of Frogs found on the Leads of the Lord AJlons Gate- 
houfe, at Tixal in Staffordjhire, which he thinks by fome fuch 
Means came there ; as alfo on the Bowling Green, frequently 
after a Shower of Rain. Plot's Hift. Staff, c. 1. jeB. 47. 

But we may take a Judgment of this, and an Hundred fuch 
like Reports, to be met with in coafiderable Authors, from 
other the like Reports that have been better inquired into. 
In a Scarcity in Siljia, a mighty. Rumour was fpread of its 
raining Millet Seed; but the Master being enquired into, 'twas 
found to be only the Seeds of the Ivy- leaved Speedwell, or 
/mall Henbit, growing in the Place in great Plenty. Eph. 
Germ. An. 3. Obf. 40. So in the Archipelago, it was thought 
Ames were ra;n'd, Ships being cover'd therewith at a hiin- i 
dred Leagues Dillance ; but in all Probability, it was from an I 
Eruption of Vefwius, that then happened. About Warminfter ' 
in Wilts, 'twas reported it reirid Wheat ; but a curious Ob- 




Chap, XV. The Generation of Animals. 24.$ 

fervcr, Mr. Cole, found it to be only Ivy Berries, blown thither 
in a confiderable Quantity by a Tempeft. In the Year 1696, 
at Cranftead near Wrotham in Kent, a Pafture- Field was over- 
fpread with little young Whitings, fuppofed to fall from the 
Clouds, in a Tempeft of Thunder and Rain ; but doubtlefs 
they were brought thither with Waters from the Sea by the 
Tempeft. See the before-commended Mr. Lowth. Abridg. Phil. 
Tranf. Vol. 2. p. 143, 144. 

Neither needeth it feem ftrange, that AJhes, Ivy- Berries, 
fmall Fijhes, or young Frogs, (which yet may have fome other 
Conveyance,) mould be thus tranfported by tempeftuous Winds, 
confidering to what Diftance, and in what Quantities, the Sea- 
Waters were carry'd by the Great Storm, Novemb. 26, 1703, of 
which an ingenious Friend fent me thefe Accounts from Lewes 
in Suffix, viz. That a Phyfician travelling foon after the Storm, 
to Tifehurft, twenty Miles from the Sea, as be rode along pluck? d 
fome Tops of Hedges \ and" chewing them, found them Salt : That 
fome Grapes banging on' the Vines at Lewes, > were fo too : That 
Mr. Williamfon, ReSlor of Ripe, found the Twigs in bis Garden. 
Salt the Monday after the Storm ; and others obferved the fame 
a Week after. That the Grafs of the Downs about Lewes, was 
fo Salt, that the Sheep would not feed till Hunger compelled them : 
And that the Miller of Berwick, [three Miles from the Sea,) 
attempting with his Man to fecure his Mill, werefo wajbedwitb 
Tlajhes of Sea Water, like the Breakings of Waves againft the 
Rocks, that they were almofi fir angled therewith, and forced to 
give over their Attempt. 

I cali'd this Doftrine of Equivocal Generation, an Egyptian 
DocJrine, becaufe probably it had its Rife in Egypt, to falve 
xhe Hypothecs of the Production of Men, and other Animals, 
out of the Earth, by the Help of the Sun's Heat. To prove 
which, the Egyptians (as Diod. Sicul. faith) produce this Ob- 
fervation. That about Thebes, when the Earth is moiftened by the 
Nile, by the Intenfe Heat of the Sun, an innumerable Number of 
Mice do fpring out. From whence he infers, That all Kinds 
of Animals, might as well at firft come likewife out of the 
Earth. And from thefe the learned Bifhop Stillingfieet thinks 
other Writers, as Ovid, Mela, Pliny, &c. have, without ex- 
amining its Truth, taken up the fame Hypothecs. Vide Stil* 
lingfleefs Orig. Sacr. Part 2. Book I. Chap. 1. 

The before commended Dr. Harris, from the Obfervations 
of Dr. Harvey, S. Malpighi, Dr. De Graaf, and Mr. Leewen- 
heeck, infers three Things concerning Generation, as highly 
probable. 1. That Animals are ex Animalculo. 2. That tht 
Animalcules are originally in femine Marium, & non in Fcemi- 
ais. 3. That they can never come forward, or be formed into 
Animals of the refpeclive Kind, without the Ova in Fceminis. 
His Proofs . and Illuftration, fee under the Word Generation, 
in his Lex. Tecbn. Vol. z. 

246 *fbe Generation Book IV. 

vation of their Species (£), by that Means. It 
would not be feemly to advance far in this admi- 
rable Work of God ; neither fliall I at all infift up- 
on that of Man, for the fame Reafon. And as tor 
the Irrationals (f), I fhall confine myfelf to thefe 
five Matters. 

I. Their natural Sagacity in chufing the fitted 
Places to repofite their Eggs and Young. 

II. The fitted Times and Seafons they make ufe 
of for their Generation. 

III. The due and dated Number of their Young. 

IV. Their Diligence and earned Concern in their 
Breeding up. 

V. Their Faculty of Feeding them, and their 
Art and Sagacity exerted therein. 

I. The natural Sagacity of irrational Animals, in 
chufing the fitted Places to repofite their Eggs and 
Young. Of this I have given larger Hints already 
than I needed to have done, when I fpake of the 
Architefture (d) of Animals, intending then to have 
wholly pafs'd by this Bufinefs of Generation : I fliall 
therefore now only fuperadd a few other Indances, 
the more to illudrate this Matter. 

It hath been already fhewn, and will hereafter (e) 
farther appear, that the Places in which the fe- 
veral Species of Animals lay up their Eggs, and 


(b) At certe Natura, fi fieri potuijfet, maxime optdffet fuum 
cpiftcium ejfe immortale : quod cum per materiam non lictrtt 
{nam quo d ■ ex came eft compofttum, incorrupt ibi I e ejfe non 
poteft) fubfidium quod potuit ipfe ad immortalitatem eft fabri r 
cat a, Japientis cujufdam urbis conditoris exemplo, &c. Nam 
mirabilem quondam rationem invenit, quomodo in demortui a- 
nimalis locum, novum aliud Jufficiat. Galen, de Ufa Part, 
1. 14. c. 22. 

(c ) Animantia Brut a Obftetricibus non indigent in edendo Partu t 
ctim inditd Nature <vi Umbilicus feipfum occludat. OJ. Rudbcck 
in filaiii Anat. Fel is. 

(d) Chap. 13. 

(#) Book VIN. Chap. 6, 

/ (/) The 

Chap. XV, cf Animals. 247 

Young, are the beft for that Purpofe ; Waters (f) 
for one ; FJefh for another ; Holes in Wood (g) 9 
Earth, or Stone (&), for others; and Nefts tor 
others; and we lhall find, that fo ardent is the 
Propenfity of all Animals, even of the meaneft In- 
feds, to get a fit Place for the Propagation of their 
Young, that, as will hereafter appear, there is fcarce 
any Thing that efcapeth the Inqueft of thofe little 
fubtile Creatures. But befides all this, there are 
two or three Things more obfervable, which plain- 
ly argue the Inftindt of fome fuperior rational 
Being. As, 

1. The complete and neat Order which many 
Creatures obferve in laying up their Seed, cr Fggs, 
in proper Repertories : Of which I lhall fpeak in 
another Place (/). 

2. The 

[/) The Ephemeron, as it is an unufual and fpecial Inttance 
of the Brevity of Life, fo I take it to be a wonderful Inftance 
of the fpecial Care and Providence of God, in the Conlerva- 
tion of the Species of that Animal. For, i. As an Animal, 
whofe Life is determin'd in about five or fix Hours Time, 
(viz. from about Six in the Evening, till about Eleven o' Clock 
at Night) needs no Food ; fo neither doth the Ephemeron eat, 
after it is become a Ely. 2. As to its Generation; in thofe 
five Hours of its Life, it performs that, and all other neceffary 
Offices of Life : For in the Beginning of its Life, it fheds its 
Coat ; and that being done, and the poor little Animal there- 
by rendered light and agile, it fpends the reft of its fhort Time 
in frifking over the Waters, and at the fame Time the Fe- 
male droppeth her Eggs on the Waters, and the Male his 
Sperm on them, to impregnate them. Thefe Eggs are fpread 
about by the Waters ; deicend to the Bottom by their own 
Gravity ; and are hatch'd by the Warmth of the Sun, into 
little Worms, which make themfelves Cafes in the Clay, and 
feed on the fame without any heed of parental Care. Vide 
Epbem. <vita t tranflated by Dr. Tyfon from Swammerdam* See 
alfo £wi VIII. Cbap.6. Note{r). 

(r) See Chap. 13. Note (r), and Book VIN. Chap. 6. 

if) The Worms' in Chap. 11. Note (x) breed in the Holes 
they gnaw in Stone, as is manifett from their Eggs found 

(*) Sec Book VIII. Chap. 6. Note (?). 

R 4 f J) Many; 

248 The Generation Book IV. 

2. The fuitable Apparatus in every Creature's 
Body, for the laying up its Eggs, Seed, or YoUng, 
in their proper Place. It would be as endlefs as 
ncedlefs to name all Particulars, and therefore an 
Inftance or two of the Infedt-Tribej may ferve for 
a Specimen in this Place, till I come to other Par- 
ticulars. Thus Infedts, who have neither Feet a- 
dapted to fcratch, nor Nofes to dig, nor can make 
artificial Nefts to lay up their Young -, yet what 
abundant Amends is there made them, in the Power 
they have either to extend the Abdomen (k)> and 


(i) Many* if not moil Plies, especially thofe of the Fhjb- 
Ffy-kind, have a Faculty of extending their Uropygia, and 
thereby are enabled to thruft their Eggs into convenient Holes, 
* and Receptacles for their Young, in Flefh, and whatever 
elfe tbey Fly-blow; bat none more remarkable than the 
Hfirfe-Flj> called by Pennitu in Mouffet, (p. 62.) ZxoXutgof, 
i» e. Curvicauda, and the Wbatne, or Burrel-Ffy, which is vex- 
atious to Horfes in Summer, not by flinging them, but only 
by their bombylious Noife, or tickling them in flicking their 
Nits, or Eggs on the Hair ; which they do in a very dex- 
terous Manner, by thrufting put their Uropygia, bending them 
up, and by gentle, flight Touches, flicking the Eggs to the 
Hair of the Legs, Shoulders, and Necks, commonly of 
Horfes; fo that Horfes which go abroad, and are feldom 
. drafted, are fomewhat di (coloured by the numerous Nits ad- 
hering to their Hair. 

Having mentioned fo much of the Generation of this In- 
fed*, altho' it be a little out of the Way, I hope I frail 
be excufed for taking Notice of the long- tailed Maggot, 
which is the Product of thefe Nits or Eggs, called by Dr. Plot, 
Mruca Glabra, [or rather Eula Scabra, it fhould be] Camdata 
Aquatico-arborta, it being found by him in the Water of an 
liollow Tree ; but I have found it in Ditches, Saw-Pits, Holes 
of Water in the High-way, and fuch-like Places where the' 
Waters are molt ft ill and foul. This Maggot I mention, as 
being a Angular and remarkable Work of God, not fo much 
for its being fo utterly unlike as it is to its Parent 2ta-like- 
Fly, as for the wife Provifion made for it by its long Tail ; 
which is fo jointed at certain Diflances from the Body, as 
that it can be withdrawn, or (heathed, one Part within ano- 
ther, to what Length the Maggot pleafcth, fo as to enable it 


Chap. XV. of Animals] 249 

thereby reach the commodious Places they could 
not other wife come at; or elfe they have fome acu- 
leous Part or Inftrument to terebrate, and make 
Way for their Eggs into the Root (7J, Trunk (*»), 


to reach the Bottom of very fliallow, or deeper Waters, as it 
hath Occafion, for the gathering of Food. At the End of 
this tapering is a Ramification of Fibrillar, or fmall Hairs, re- 
prefenting, when fpread, a Star; with the Help of which, 
ipread oat on the Top of the Waters, it is enabled to hang, 
making, by that Means, a fmall Depreffion or Concavity on 
the Surface of the Water. In the midfl of this Star, I ima- 
gine the Maggot takes in Air, there being a Perforation, 
which with a Microfcope I could perceive to be open, and 
by the Star to be guarded againft the Incurfion of the 

(/) The Excrefcences on the Root of Cabbages, Tameps, and 
divers other Plants, have always a Maggot in them ; but what 
the Animal is that thus makes its Way to the Root under 
Ground, whether Ichneumon, Phalana, Scarab, or Scohpendra 9 
I could never difcover, being not able to bring them to an/ 
Thing in Boxes. 

(m) I prefume there are only of the Ichneumon-Fly kind, that 
nave their Generation in the Trunks of Vegetables. In Mai- 
pigbi de Gal/is, Fig. 61. is a good Cut of the gouty Excrefcen- 
ces, or rather Tumours, of the Briar-Stalk : From which pro- 
ceeds a fmall black Ichneumon- Fly, with red Legs; black, 
fmooth jointed Antenna ; pretty large Thorax ; and ihort, round 
Belly, of the Shape of an Heart. It leapeth as a Flea. The 
Male, (as, in other Infects,) is letter than the Female, and very 
venerous, in fpite of Danger, getting upon the Female, whom 
they beat and tickle with their Breeches and Horns, to excite 
them to a Co'it. 

Another Example of the Generation in the Trunks of Ve- 
getables, (hall be from the Papers of my often -commended 
Friend Mr. Ray, which are in my Hands, and that is an Ob- 
fervation of the ingenious Dr. Nathaniel Wood: I have (faid 
he) lately obferved many Eggs in the common Rujh ; one Sort are 
little tr an/far ent Eggs, in Shape fomrwbat like a Fear, or Re- 
tort, lying within the Skin, upon, or in the Medulla, juft a- 
gainft a brownijb Spot on the out-fide of the Ru/h ; which is ap- 
parently the Creatrix of the Wound made by the Fly, when -fie 
puts her Eggs there. Another Kind is much longer, and not fa 
tranfparent, of a ling Oval, or rather cylindrical Form; fix, 



*the Generation Book IV. 

y Fruit (»), Leaves (0), and the tender Buds of Ve- 
getables (p\ or fome other fuch curious and fecure 
Method they are never deftitute of. To which we 
may add, 

3. The natural Poifon (q), (or what can I call 
it?) which many, or moft of the Creatures, laft 
intended, have, to caufe the Germination of fuch 


tight \ or more, lie commonly together 9 aerofs the Rti/h t parallel to 
each other, like the Teeth of a Comb, and are as long as the Breadth 
of the Rujb. Letter from Kilkenny in Ireland, April the 28th, 
(n) See Book VIII. Chap. 6. Note{d). 
\o) I have in Chap. 13. Note («), and Book VIII. Chap. 64 
Note (e), (f), taken Notice of the Nidification and Genera- 
tion of fome Infe&s, on the Leaves of Vegetables, and (hall 
therefore, for the Illuftration of this Place, chnfe an uncom- 
mon Example out of the Scarab-kind (the Generation of which 
Tribe hath not been as yet mentioned) and that is, of a (mail 
Scarab bred in the very Tips of Elm- Leaves. Thefe Leaves, 
in Summer, may be obferv'd to be, many of them, dry and 
dead, 'as alfo turgid ; in which liech a dirty, whitiih, rough 
Maggot. From which proceeds a Beetle of the fmalleft Kind, 
of a light, Weejle Colour, that leapeth like a Grajhopper, al- 
though its Legs arc but ihort. Its Eyes are blackifh, Elytra 
thin, and prettily furrowed, with many Concavities in them ; 
fmall club-headed Antennae, and a long Rofirum like a Pro- 

The fame, or much like this, I have met with on Tips of 
Oaken and Holly-Leaves. How the Scarab lays its Eggs in the 
Leaf 9 whether by terebrating the Leaf, or whether the Mag- 
got, when hatch'd, doth it, I could never fee. Bat with 
great Dexterity, it makes its way between the upper and un- 
der Membranes of the Leaf, feeding upon the parenchymous 
Fart thereof. Its Head is flenderer and (harper than moft of 
Maggots, as if made on Purpofe for this Work ; but yet I 
Jiave often wondered at their Artifice, in fo nicely feparating 
the Membranes of the Elm-Leaf without breaking them* 
and endangering their own tumbling out of *em, confidering 
how thin, and very tender, the Skins of that Leaf (particu- 
larly) are. 

ip) SeeJWVHI. Chap. 6. Note (z). 

(?) See Book VIII. Chap. 8, to Note [bb), &c. - 


Chap. XV. of Animals. 251 

Balls, Cafes, and other commodious Repertories* 
as are an admirable Lodgment to the Eggs and 
Young -, that particularly affift in the Incubation 
and Hatching the Young, and then afford them 
fufficient Food and Nourifliment ip all their Nym- 
pha-State^ in which they need Food; and are af- 
terwards commodious Houfes and Beds for them in 
their Aurelia-State^ till they are able to break Pri- 
fog, fly abroad, and fhift for thcmfelves. But this 
fhall be taken Notice of, when I come to treat of 

II. As irrational Animals chufe the fitteft Place, 
fo alfo the fitteft Times and feafons for their Ge- 
neration. Some indeed are indifferent to all Times, 
but others make ufe of peculiar Scafons (r). Thofe, 
for Inftance, whofe Provifions are ready at all Sea- 
fons, or who are under the Tuition of Man, pro- 
duce their Young without any great Regard to Heat 
or Cold, Wet or dry, Summer of Winter. But 
others, whofe Provifions are peculiar, and only to 
be met with at certain Seafons of the Year ; or who* 
by their Migration, and Change of Place, are tied 
up to certain Seafons ; thefe (as if endowed with a 
natural Care and Forefight of what (hall happen) 
do accordingly lay, hatch, and nurfe up their Young 
in the moft proper Seafons of all the Year for their 
Purpofe ; as in Spring, or Summer, the Times of 
Plenty of provifions, the Times of Warmth for In- 
cubation, and the moft proper Seafons to breed up 
their Young, till they are ableto fhift for themfelves, 
and can range about for Food, and feek Places of 
Retreat and Safety, by flying long Flights as well as 
their Progenitors,, and palling into far diftant Regi- 

(r) Tlofacc St Koti it^oq lxT(>o(pai$ ta/f rtfCfOf tfTo;£« foment* wo»i*r- 
T«» to* avvhua-fAGv if rjj aVagT»f»ojj «?ga. Artift. Hilt. An. J. 5* 

c, 8. ubi plura. 


252 He Generation Book IV. 

ons, which (when others fail) afford thofe helplefs 
Creatures the Neceflaries of Life. 

III. To the fpecial Seafons, I may add the pe- 
culiar Number of Young produced by the irrational 
Creatures. Of which 1 have already taken fome 
Notice, when I fpake of the Balance of Animals (j). 
Now, if there was not a great deal more than 
Chance in this Matter, even a wife Government of 
the Creation, it could never happen that every Spe- 
cies of Animals £hould be tied up to a certain 
Rate and Proportion of its lncreafe ; the moft ufe- 
ful would not be the moft fruitful, and the moft 
pernicious produce the feweft Young, as I have ob- 
served it commonly is. Neither would every Spe- 
cies produce fuch a certain Rote as it is only able 
to breed up : But all would be in a confufed, hud- 
dled State. Inftead of which, on the contrary, we 
find every Thing in compleat Order ; the Balance 
of Genera, Species and Individuals always propor- 
tionate and even ; the Balance of Sexes the fame ; 
moft Creatures tied up to their due Stint and Num- 
ber of Young, without their own power and 
Choice, and others (particularly of the winged (/) 
Kind) producing their due Number at Choice and 

Pleafure 5 

(/) See Chap. 10. 

(/) Mr. Raj alledges good Reafon to conclude, That al- 
though Birds have not an exact Power of numbering, yet, that 
they have of diftinguifhing many from few, and knowing 
when they come near to a certain Number ; and that they 
have it in their Power to lay many or few Eggs. All which 
he manifefteth from Hens, and other domeltick Fowls, lay- 
ing many more Eggs when they are withdrawn, than when 
not. Which holds in wild as well as domeftick Birds, as ap- 
pears from Dr. Lifter's Experiment in withdrawing a $uW- 
dvw's Egg, which by that Means laid nineteen Eggs fuccet 
lively before (he gave over. Vide Ray'/ Wifdm of God, &c. 

(») ? alums 

Chap. XV. of Animals. 253 

Pleafure; fomc large Numbers, but not more than 
they can cover, feed and fofter ; others fewer, but 
as many as they can well nurfe and breed up. Which 
minds me, 

IV. Of the Diligence and earned Concern which 
irrational Animals have of the Produ&ion and Breed- 
ing up their Young. And here I have already ta- 
ken Notice of their Srojyii, or natural Affe&i- 1 
on, and with what Zeal they, feed and defend 
their Young. To which may be added thefe two 
Things : 

1. The wonderful Inftinft of Incubation. It is 
utterly impoffible, that ever unthinking, untaught 
Animals fhould take to that only Method of hatch- 
ing their Young, was it not implanted in their 
Nature by the infinitely wife Creator. But fo ar- 
dent is their Defire, fo unwearied is their Patience 
when they are ingaged in that Bufinefs, that they 
will abide their Nefts for feveral Weeks, deny 
themfelves the Pleafures, and even the Neceflaries 
of Life -, fome of them even ftarving themfelves 
almoft, rather than hazard their Eggs to get 
Food 5 and others either performing the Office by 
Turns («), or elfe the one kindly feeking out, and 
carrying Food to the other (w), engaged in the 


(«) Palumbes ineubat fctmina pojt meridiana in matutinum, 
cetera mas. Colombo? incubant ambo, inter diu Mas, noBu lamina. 
Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 10. c. 58. 

(w) Of the common Crow, Mr. Willugbby faith, *Ibt Fe- 
males only Jit, and tbat diligently, the Males in the mean Tim* 
bring them Viftuals ; as Ariftotlc faith. In mofi other Birds, 
which pair together, the Male and Female fit by 7 urns. Orni- 
thol. lib. 2. fed. 1. cap. 2. feci. 2. And I have obferved the 
Female-Crows to be much fatter than the Males, in the Time 
. of Incubation ; by Reafon the Male, out of his conjugal Af- 
feaion, almoft ftarves himfelf, to fupply the Female with 


2 54 T^be. Generation Book IV. 

Office of Incubation. But of thefe Matters in a 
more proper Place (x). 

2. When the young Ones are produced, not only 
with what Care do they feed and nurfe them ; but 
with what furprizing Courage do all or moft Crea- 
tures defend them ! It is fomewhat ftrange to fee 
timid Creatures (y) 9 who at other Times are cow- 
ardly, to be full of Courage, and undaunted at that 
Time ; to fee them furioufly and boldly encounter 
their Enemy, inftead of flying from him; and ex- 
pofe themfelvesto every Danger, rather than hazard 
and forfake their Young. 

With this earneft Concern of the irrational Ani- 
mals for their Young, we may join in the 

V. And lafl: Place, Their Faculty and Sagacity of 
feeding them. About which I fhall take Notice of 
three Things: 

i. The Faculty of Suckling the Young, is an ex-* 
cellent Provifion the Creator hath made for ihofc 
helplefs Creatures. And here the Agreeablenefs and 
Suitablenefs of that Food to young Creatures, de- 
fences particular Obfervation ; as alfo their Delight 
in it, and Defire and Endeavours after it, even as 
foon as born (2), together with the Willingnefs of 


(*) See Book Vir. Chap. 4. 

Ky) Volucribus nctura no<vam quandam, Pulhs edueandi, ra- 
tioned excogitavit : ipjis enim pracipuum quendam amoretn in ea 
qua procrearent, ingenercwit ', quo impulfu be Hum pro pullis cum 
ferocibus animalibus, qua ante declinarunt, intrepid} fufcipiunt, 
vifiumque ipfis convenient em fuppeditant. Galen, de Uf. Part. 
1. 14. c. 4. 

(z) In its animantibus qua lade aluntur, omnis fere cibus ma* 
trum la fief cere incipit : eaque, qua paulo ante nata funt, fine ma- 
giftro, duce natura, mammas appetunt, earumque ubertate fatu* 
rantur. Atque ut intelligamus nihil horum effe fortuitum % t$ bat 
omnia ejfe prwida, folertifque natura, qua multiplies foetus prq+ 
creant, ut Sues, ut Canes, his Mammarum data eft multitude \ 

?uas eafdem paucas habent ea beftia, quapauca gignunt, Cic. da 
fat Deor. 1. 2. c. 5 1. Confule quoque Galen de U£ Part. 1. 14, 

Chap. XV. of Animals. 25$ 

all, even the moft favage and fierce Animals, to 
part with it, and to adminifter it to their Young, 
yea, to teach and inftitute them in the Art of ta- 
king it. 

And laftly, to name no more, the curious Appa • 
ratus which is made for this Service in the divers 
Species of Animals, by a due Number of Breafts, 
proportionable to the Occafions of each Animal, by 
curious Glands in thofe Breafts, to feparate that nu- 
tritive Juice, the Milk, by Arteries and Veins to 
convey it to them, and proper Rivulets and Cha- 
nels to convey it from them, with Dugs and Nip-p 
ples, placed in the moft convenient Part of the 
Body (aa) of each Animal, to adminifter it to 
their Young; all thefe Things, I fay, do mani- 
feftly proclaim the Care and Wifdom of the great 

2. As for fuch Animals as do in another Manner 
breed up their Young, by finding out Food, and 
putting it into their Mouth, the Provifion made in 
them for this Service, to ftrike, catch, to j?ouch 


[ad) Animalia folidipeda, & ruminantia, *vel comigera, inter 
femora Mammas babent, quorum Foetus ftatim a parte pedi* 
bus infiflunt, quid mat res inter laSandum non decumbant, ut 
Equa> Afina, &c. Animalia digit a iff multipara in medio 
ventre, fell, /patio ab inguine ad pedus (in Cuniculo ufque ad 
jugulum) duplieem mammarum feriem fortita funt, qu* omnia 
decumbent ia ubtra foetibus admcuent, ut Urfa f Le*na\ tffc. Si 
wero hxc in folo inguine Mammas gererent, propria eur* inter 
decumbendum foetus acce/fum ad mammas mnnihil frtepedi* 
rent. Mulieribus Mammae bin* funt, ut iff Papilla?, nimirum 
kt latus lateri conformiter respondeat, fcf ut alternatim infant 
a latere in latus inter fugendum trans feratur t ne corpus ejus 
uni lateri nimis affuefcens quoaue modo incur vetur. Simia, 
homo Syfoeflris, i$c. Blaf. Anat. Animal. Part i. Cap. 6. 
ie Cane ex Wbartono. See here what Pliny hath alfQ iaidj Lib. 1 1, 

2 56 < Tbe Generation Book IV. 

and convey their Prey and Food to their Young ( hb\ 
is very confiderable. And fo is alfo their Sagacity 
in equally diftributing it among them, that among 
many, all fhall be duly, equally, and in good Or- 
der, fed. 

3. There is yet another Inftinft remaining, of 
fuch Animals as can neither adminifter Suck to their 
Young, neither lay them in Places affording Food, 
nor can convey and bring them Food, but do with 


In the Elephant, the Nipples are near the Bread, by Reafon 
the old One is forced to fuck herfelf, and by the Help of her 
Trunk conveys the Milk into the Mouth of her Young. Fide 
Phi/. <Franf. ISC 336. 

{fib) For an Exemplification, I might name many Animals, 
particularly Birds, whofe Parts are compleatly fuited to this 
Service. They are Chara&erifticks of rapacious Birds, to 
lave aduncous Bills and Talons' to hold and tear; and ftrong 
Brawny Thighs to ftrike and carry their Prey ; as well as a 
ftarp piercing Sight to efpy it afar off. Rati Synopf. Method, 
jfv. p. i. The Pelican alfo might be here named, for its 
prodigious Bag under its Bill and Throat, big enough to con- 
tain thirty Pints, Id. ibid. p. 122. And, to name no more, the 
common Heron hath its mod remarkable Parts adapted to this 
Service ; long Legs for wading ; and a long Neck anfwerablg 
thereto to reach Prey ; a wide extenfive Throat to pouch it ; 
long Toes, with ftrong hooked Talons, (one of which is re- 
markably ferrate on the Edge) the better to hold their Prey ; 
along (harp Bill to ftrike their Prey, and ferrate towards the 
Point, with (harp hooked Beards Handing backward, to hold 
their Prey faft when (truck ; and laftly, large, broad, concave 
Wings (in Appearance much too large, heavy, and cumber- 
fome for fo fmall a Body, but) of greateft Ufe to enable them 
to carry the greater Load to their Neds, at feveral Miles pi- 
ttance ; as I nave feen them do from feveral Miles beyond me, 
to a large Heronry above three Mile3 diitant from me. In 
which I haye feen P/ai/e, and other Fifh, fome Inches long, 
tying under {he high Trees in which they build; and the cu- 
rious and ingenious Owner thereof, D'Jcre Barret, Efq; hath 
feen a large Eel convey'd by them, notwithftanding the great 
Annoyance it gave them in their Flight, lpy its twilling this 
Way and that Way about their Bodies. 


(«) Thii 

Chap. XVI. Of Animalu 257 

their Eggs, lay up Provifions for their future Young. 
Somewhat of this is reported of fome Birds {cc)\ 
but I have myfelf, with Pleafure, frequently feen 
fome of the Species of Infe&s to carry ample Pro* 
vifions into their dry and barren Cells, where they 
have fealed them carefully and cautioufly up with 
their. Eggs, partly, it is like, for Incubation-fake, 
and partly, as an eafy Bed to lodge their Young \ 
but chiefly, for future Provifion for their Young, in 
their Nympba- State, when they ftand in Need of 
Food (dd). 

{cc) This is reported of the American Oftricb, mentioned 
by Acarette, in Pbilof. Tram/. N* 89. Of which fee Book VII. 
Cbap.4.. Note(e). 

(dd) Hornets, Wafts, and all the Kinds of Bees provide Ho- 
ney ; and many of the Pfeudojpbec*, and Ichneumon Wafps and 
Flies, carry Maggots, Spiders, isfc. into their Neds ; of which 
fee above, Cbaf. 13. Note (c). 


The Conclujion, 

IHUS I have, as briefly as well I Could, (and 
much more briefly than the Matters defer ved) 
tch'd the Decad of Things I propofed in com- 
mon to the fenfitive Creatures. And now let us 
paufe a little, and refled. And upon the whole 
Matter, what lefs can be concluded, than that there 
is a Being infinitely Wife, Potent, and Kind, who 
is able to contrive and make this glorious Scene of 
Things, which I have thus given only a Glance of? 
For what lefs than Infinite could Stock fo vaft a 
Globe with fuch a noble Set of Animals ? All fo 
contrived, as to minifter to one another's Help fome 

S Way 

2 j 8 The Cenclufwn. Book IV. 

Way or other, and mod of them ferviceable to 
Man peculiarly, the Top of this lower World, and 
who was made, as it were, on Purpofe to obferve, 
and furvey* And fet forth die Glory of the infinite 
Creator ■, manifested in his Works! Who! What, 
but the Great God, could fo admirably provide for 
the whole Animal World, wery Thing ferviceable to 
it, or that can be wifhed for* either to conferve its 
Species, or to minifter to the Being or Well-being of 
Individuals! Particularly, who could Feedfoipz- 
cious a World, who could pleafe fo large a Nunaoer 
of Palates, or fuit fo many Palates to fo great a Va- 
riety of Food, but the infinite Confervator of the 
World! And who but the fame Great HE, could 
provide fuch commodious Clodtbing for every Ani- 
mal; fuch proper Houfes, Nefts, and Habitations; 
fuch fuitable Armature and Weapons \ fuch Subtilfa 
Artifice* and Sagacity, as every Creature is more or 
lefs armed andfurnifhed with, to fence off the Inju- 
ries of the Weather, to refcue itfelf from Dangers, 
to preferve itfelf from the Annoyances of its Ene- 
mies ; and, in a Word, to conferve itfelf, and its 
Species! What but an infinite fuperintending 
Power could fo equally Balance the feveral Species 
of Animals, and conferve the Numbers of the Indi- 
viduals of every Species fo even, as not to Over or 
Under- People the Terraqueous Globe! Who, bqt 
the infinite-wife Lord of the World, could allot 
every Creature its moft fuitable Place to live in, the 
moft fuitable Element to Breathy and Move, and AS 
in. And who but H E, could make fo admirable a 
Set of Organs, as thofe of Refpiration are, both in 
Land and Water-Animals ! Who could contrive fo 
curious a Set of Limbs, Joints, Bones, Mufcles, and 
Nerves, to give to every Animal the moft commo- 
dious Motion to its State and Occafions ! And, to 
name no more, What Anatomift, Mathematician^ 
Workman, yea, Angel, could contrive and make fo 
curious, fo commodious, and every Way foexqui- 


Chap. XVL ^e Chnctufion. 2^9 

fite a Set of Sehfes, as the five Senfes of Animals 
are; whofe Organs are fo dexteroufly contrived* 
fo conveniently placed in the Body, fo neatly ad- 
jufted, fo firmly guarded, and fo completely fuited 
to every Occafion, that they plainly fet forth the 
Agency of the infinite Creator and Cortfervator of 
the World. 

So that here, upon a tranfient View of the Ani- 
mal World in General only, we have fuch a Throng 
of Glories, fuch an enravifhing Scene of Things, as 
may excite us to Admire, Praife, and Adore the in- 
finitely Wife, Powerful, and Kind C reator; to 
condemn all Atheiftical Principles * and with Holy 
David, Pfal. xiv. 1. to conclude, That he is iagood. 
EarncftaF^ that dares to fay, there it fo GOD* 
when we are every where furrounded with fuch ma- 
nifeft Charafters, and plain Demonftrations of that 
Infinite Being. 

But in the nest Bo o* wr flwll ftill find greater 
Tokens, if poffible* wiciilcometot^kea View o|f 
Animals in Particular* \ 

t m 

5 a C n A ti 

[ 260 ] 


Of the Particular 

Tribes of Animals. 

N the foregoing Book, having taken 
a View of the Things in common to 
Animals, my Bufinefs in the next, will 
be to infpedt the particular Tribes, in 

L __ w order to give further Manifeftations of 

the Infinite Creator's Wifdom, Power, and Goodnefs 
towards the Animal World. 

BOOK V. " 

A SURVEY of Man. 

HEfirft Genus of Animals that I fliall 
take Notice of, fhall be Man, who may 
juftly claim the Precedence in our Dii- 
mm w*^* courfe, inafmuch as GOD hath given him 
the Superiority in the Animal World, Gen. i. 26. 
And God /aid, Let us make M<w in our Image, after 

Chap. I. Of Man's Soul. 261 

our Likenefst and let them have Dominion over the Fifb 
of the Sea, and over the Fowl of the Air y and over the 
Cattle, and over all the Earthy and over every creeping 
Thing that creepetb upon the Earth. 

And as to Man, we have fo excellent a Piece of 
Workmanfhip, fuch a Microcofm, fuch an Abridg- 
ment of the Creator's Art in him, as is alone fuffi- 
cient to demonftrate the Being and AttriButes of 
God. Which will appear, by considering the Soul 
and the Body of Man. 

C H A P. I. . 

Of the Sou! of Man. 

MY Survey of man, I (hall begin with the Soul 
of Man, by reafon it is his raoft Noble 
j) y the Copy of the Divine Image in us (£), 
in which we have enough to fill us with Admira- 
tion of the Munificence, Power, andWifdomofthe 


[a) yam *vero Animum ipfum, Mentemque bominis, Rationem r 
Confitium, Prudentiam, qui non dinnna curd perfeSa ejfe perjpicit, 
is bis ipfis rebus mibi videtur carere. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. 

C 59- 

\p) Siufum a Ceelefii demiffum traximus aree, 

Cujus egtnt prona, fef terrain JptSantia : mundi 
Principio indulfit communis Condi tor, Hits 
Tantum Animas ; nobis Animum quoque. 

Juven. Sat. xv. V. 144. 
Et cum non aliter poffent mortaliafingi. 
Adjunxit geminas, ilia cum corpore lap fa 
lutertunt : b*c fola mamet, buftoque fuperfta 

Claud, de 4 Coafitf, Hon. 

S3" [c) Nam 

*6 a Of Marts Soul Boo* V, 

Infinite Creator (r), when we contemplate the no- 
ble Faculties of this our fuperior Part, the vafl 
Reach and Cottipafs of its Underftanding^ the prodi- 
gious Quicknefs and Fiercingnefs of its Thought^ the 
admirable Subtilty of its Invention^ the commanding 
Power of its Wifdotn y the great Depth of its Afe- 
fnory (</), a Word, its Vivine TNqturt add Ope* 

But I fhall not dwell on this, tho' the fuperior 
^art of Man, becaufe it is the leaft known. Only 


(c) Nam fiquis nulli fe8<se addiBus, fed liber & fententid rerum 
tonfiderationem intent, con/picatus in tantd carnium ae fuccorum 
collwvie t ant am mentem babitmre ; con/picatus item &P cujufvu 
animalis conftruBidnem {omnia enim declarant Opificis Supien- 
tiani) Mentis, awe bomini ineft, excellentiam intelUget, turn opus 
dkpartium utiHtate, quod prims exiguum ejfe fibi i4debatm% per* 
feaiJKnue Theologize verum principium conflituet : , qu<e T&joJotiM 
mnlth eft major atque prafiantlor tot a Meaicind. Galen &t Uft 
Fart.1. 17. c. 1. 

(d) Among many Examples that I could give of Perfons fa- 
mous for Memory, Seneca's Account of himfelf may be one : 
Hanc \Memoriam\ aliquando in me fiorui£e, ut non t ant urn ai 
ufum fiifficeret, Jed in miraculum ufque procederet, non nego. 
Nam & 2000 nominum recitata, quo or dine erant dicla, redde- 
bam : £ff ab his qui ad audiendum praceptorem noftrum convene' 
runt, fingulos verfus a Jingulis datos, cum plures quam 200 iffice- 
tentur\ ab ultimo incipiens ufque ad primum recitabam. After 
which, mention is made of the great Memory of Latro Porcius, 
[cbariffimi mihi fodalis, Seneca calls him) who retained in his 
Memory all the Declamations he had ever fpoken, and never 
Jiad his Memory fail him, not fo much as in one (ingle Word. 
Alio, he takes Notice of Gyneas, Ambaffador to the Romans t 
from King Pyrrbus, who in one Day had fo well learn'd the 
Names of his Spectators, that poftero die nwus homo &f Sena- 
turn, & omnem urbanam tircumfufam Senatui plebem, nominibus 
fuis perfalutavit. Senec. con trover f. 1. 1. init. Vid. quoque 
Plin. 1. 7. c. 24. where he alfo adds other Examples, vise. Cy- 
rus rex omnibus in exercitufuo militibus nomina reddidit ; L\ Scipio 
populo Rom, Mi tbri dates zz gentium rex, tot idem Unguis jura de- 
dit, pro condone fingulas fine interprete affatus. Charmidas (feu 
fotius Carneades)—qu* quis exegerat iiolumina in bibliotbecis, 
fegentis modo reprafentanit. ' ' 

Chap, L Of Mat? s Inclinations. 263 

there are two Things I cannot eafily pafs by, be- 
caufe they manifeft the efpecial Concurrence and 
Defign of the infinitely wife Creator, as having a 
particular and nece0ary Tendency to the Manage* 
ment and good Order ot the World's Affair. Th$ 

Ift. Of which is the various Genii, or Inclination* 
of Marts Minds to this, and that, and the other Bq- 
finefs (e). We fee how naturally Men betake then** 
felves to this and that Employment ; Some: delight 
moft in Learning and Books, fome in Divinity, fome 
in Phyfick, Anatomy, and Botany, fome ia Critical 
Learning* and Philology, fome in Mathematicks, 
fome in Metaphyficks, and deep Refearches-, and 
fome have their Delight chiefly in Mechanicks, Ar- 
chitecture, War, Navigation, Commerce,, Agricul- 
ture ; and fome have their Inclinations lie even to 
the fervile Offices of the World, and $n hundred 
Things befides. 

Now all this is an admirably wife, as well as moft 
neceflary Pro vi (ion, for the eafy and fure tranfa&ing 
the World's Affairs ; to anfwer every End and Oc-i 
eafion of Man, yea, to make Man helpful to the 
poor helplefs Beads, as far as his Help is needful 
to them ; and all, without any .great Trouble, Fa- 
tigue, or great Inconvenience to Man ; rather as a 


[e) Divtrfis etrnim gaudet natura tniniflris 9 
Ut fieri diver/a quean t ornantia terras. 
Nee patitur cunftos ad tandem eurrere metam 9 
$ed varias jubet ire via*, variofque labor es 
Sufctpere* ut varib cultufit fulcbrior erbis. 

Paling, in Scorp. 

'Av£gacru> &c. It a non omnibus hominibus fua dona dot Deus 9 
neque bonam indolent y neque prudentiam, nee eloquentiam: alius 
namque vultum habet deformem ; fed Dens formam eloquentid or- 
nat, &c. Horn. Odyf. 8. The like alfo in Iliad. 1. 1 3. 

S 4 (f) Al- 

164 Of Man's Invention. Book V. 

Pleafure and Diverfion to him. For fo far it is 
from being a Toil, -that the greateft Labours (/), 
Cares, yea, and Dangers too, become plcafantto 
him who is purfuing his Genius, and whofe Ardour 
of Inclination eggs him forward, and buoys him 
up under all Oppofition, and carrieth him through 
every Obftacle, to the End of his Defigns and De? 

II. The next is, The inventive Power of the 
Soul (g). Under which I might fpeak of many 
Things ; but I fhall take Notice only of Two, be- 
caufe they manifeft the particular Concern and Agen- 
cy of the infinitely wife Creator. The 

1. Is, That Man's Invention fhould reach to fucb 
a great Variety of Matters *, that it fhould hit upon 
every thing that may be of any Ufe, either to him- 
felf, or to human Society, or that may any ways 
promote (what in him lies), the Benefit of this lower 
rart of the Creation. 

For the Illuftration of this, I might take a View 
of all the Arts and Sciences, the Trades, yea, the 
very Tools they perform their Labours, and Con- 
trivances with, as numerous as their Occafions and 
Contrivances are various. Indeed, What is there 


(f) Altho' Solomon declares, Ecclef. xii. 12. That much 
f>tudj is a Wearinefs to the Flejh ; yet we fee with what Plea- 
fure and Affiduity many apply tfremfeives to it. Thus Cicero 
tells qf Cato, whom he cafually found in Luatllus** Library ; 
ikf. Catonem <vidi in Bibliothtcd fedentem, multis circumfufum 
Stoicarum lib r is. Erat enim, ut fcis, in eo inexhaufia aznditat 
legendi, nee fatiari pot erat : quippe ne reprebenfionem quidem 
fvulgi inanem reforntidans, in ipsa curia filer et legerefiepe, dim 

fenatus cogeretur ut fieluo librorum—videbatur. Cicer. 

de firjib. 1. 3. c. 2. 

(g) Mentem hominis, quanwis earn non videets, u( Deum ntn 
vides, tarn en ut Deum agnofcis ex operibus ejus* fie ex memoriq, 
rerum, t$ Inventions &f celeritate mot us y omnique pulcbritur 
dine virtutis vim divinam mentis agnofcito. Cicer. Tufc* Quaeft. 
1. 1. c. 29. " "■ 

Ch ap. I. Of Man's Invention. 26$ 

that falleth under the Reach of Man's Senfes, that 
he doth not employ to fome Ufe and Purpofe, for 
the World's Good? The celeftial Bodies, the Sun, 
the Moon, with the other planets, and the nx'd 
Stars, he employs to the noble Ufes of Aftronomy, 
Navigation and Geography. And, what a noble 
Acumen, what a vaft Reach muft the Soul be en- 
dow'd with, to invent thofe curious Sciences of 
Geometry and Arithmctick, both Specious, and in 
Numbers * and thofe nice and various Inftruments, 
made ufe of by the Geometrician, Aftronomer, Ge- 
ographer and Sailor ? And laftly, what a wonder- 
ful Sagacity is (hewn in the Bufinefs of Opticks, and 
particularly in the late Invention of the Telefcope ; 
wherewith new Wonders are difcover'd among God's 
Works, in the Heavens, as there are here on Earth, 
with the Microfcope, and other Glafles. 

And as for this lower World, what Material is 
there to be found •, what kind of Earth, or Stone, 
or Metal ; what Animal, Tree, or Plant, yea even 
the very Shrubs of the Field ; in a Word, what of 
all the excellent Variety, the Creator has furnilh'd 
the World with, for all its Ufes and Occafions, 
in all Ages •, what, I fay, that Man's Contrivance 
dotk not extend unto, and make fome Way or 
other advantageous to himfelf, and ufeful for Build- 
ing, Cloathing, Food, Phyfick, or for Tools or 
Utenfils, or for even only Pleafure and Piverfion ? 

But now confidering the great Power and Ex- 
tent of human Invention, 

2. There is another Thing, that doth farther de- 
monftrate the Superintendence of the great Crea- 
tor and Confervator of the World -, and that is, 
That Things of great, and abfolutely neceffary Ufe* 
have foon, and eafily occurr'd to the Invention of 
Man ; but Things of little Ufe, or very dangerous 
Ufe, are rarely and (lowly difcover'd, or ftill utter- 
ly undifcover'd. We have as early as the Mofaick 
Jrfiftory, an Account of the Inventions of the more 

s66 Of Man's Invention. Book V; 

iifeful Crafts and Occupations: Thus Gen. m. 23. 
Adam was fent forth from the Garden of Eden, if 
God bimfelf to till the Ground. And in the next 
Chapter, his two Sons Cain and Abel\ the one was 
6f the fame Occupation, a Tiller of the Ground, 
the other a Keeper of Sheep (b). And the Pofteri- 
ty of thefe, are in the latter End. of Gen. iv. recor- 
ded, Jabal, to have been the Father of fucb as dwell in 
Tents (r) ; i . e. He was the Inventor of Tents, and 

J)itching thofe moveable Houfes in the Fields, for 
ooking after, and depafturing their Cartel in the 
Defcrts, and uncultivated World. Tubal-Cain was 
an InJlruSlor of every Artificer in Brafs andiron (*), or 
the Firft that found out the Art of melting, and 
malleating (/) Metals, and making them uferul for 
Tools, and other neceflary Implements. And his 
$ifter Naamab, whofe Name is only mention'd, is 
by fome thought to have been the Inventor of Spin- 
ning and Cloatbihg. Yea, the very Art of Mufich 
is thus early afcribed to Jubal(m) \ fo indulgent was 
the Creator, to find a Means to divert Melancho- 
ly, to cheer the Spirits, and to entertain and pleafe 
Mankind. But for Things of no Ufe, or but little 
Ufe, or of pernicious Confcquence, either they have 
been much later thought of, and with great Diffi- 
culty, and perhaps Danger too, brought to pafs, 
or elfe they ftill are, and perhaps will always remain 
Exercifes of the Wit and Invention of Men. 

Of this we might give divers Inftances : In Ma- 
thematicks, about fquaring the Circle (»); inMe- 


(b) Gen. iv. 2. 

(1) Ver. 20. 

(k) Ver. 22. 

{/) Z<pv^xQiroq 9 the LXX call him, /. e. A Worker with ail 

(m) Ver. 21. 

(«) Although the Quadrature of the Circle, hath in forme! 
Ages exercisM fome of the ^rt&teft mathematical Wits ; yet 

Chap. L Of Marts Invention. 267 

chanicks (o) 9 about the Art of Flying; and in 
Navigation, about finding the Longitude. Thefe 
Things, although fome of them in Appearance in- 
riocent, yea, perhaps very ufeful, yet remain for 
the moft Part fecret * not becaufe the Difcovery of 


nothing has been done in that Way fo confiderable, as in 
and face the Middle of the laft Century ; when in the Year 
1657, thofe very ingenious and great Men, Mr. William Neile, 
and my Lord Brounker, and Sir Chriftopber Wren afterwards, 
in the fame Year, geometrically demon (tra ted the Equality of 
fome Curves to a ftrait Line. Soon after which, others at 
Home, and Abroad, did the like in other Curves. And not 
long afterwards, this was brought under an analytical Calcu- 
lus; The firft Specimen whereof, that was ever publi(h'd 
Mr. Mercator gave in 1688, in a Detaonftration of my Lord 
Brounker* Quadrature of the Hyperbola, by Dr. Wallis\ Re- 
duction of a Fraction, into an infinite Series by Diviiion* 
But the penetrating Genius of Sir lfaac Newton, had difco- 
ver'd a Way of attaining the Quantity of all quadrible Carves 
analytically, by his Method or Fluxions, fome Time before 
fhe Year 1668, as I find very probable from an hiftorical Ac- 
count, in a long Letter of Mr. Collins, written in his own 
Hand, and fent io^ Richard Townley, Efq; of Lancajbire, whofe 
Papers are in my Hands. In that Letter, Mr. Collins faith, 
That in September 1668, Mr, Mercator publiflfd bis Loga* 
rithmotechnia, one of which be foon fent to Dr. Barrow, who 
f hereupon fent him up fome Papers of Mr. Newton* j [now Sir 
lfaac \\ by which, and former Communications made thereof by 
the Author, to the Doctor, it appears, that the faid Method was 
invented fome Tears be fare by the faid Mr. Newton, and gene- 
rally apply* d. And then he goes on to give fome Account of 
the Method : what it performs in the Circle, &c. what Mr. 
Gregory had done in that kind, who intended to fublijb fome- 
what in Latin about it, but would not anticipate Mr. Newton, 
the firft Inventor thereof', with much more of this Nature. 
The Defign, I find, of that indefatigable Promoter of Ma- 
thematicks, Mr. Collins, was to acquaint Mr. Townley, in his 
Letter, with what had been done; and to get the Affiftance 
of that ingenious Gentleman, towards the compleating a Body 
fjf Algebra, 

(0) I do not mention here the perpetual Motion, which hath 
pxercis'd the mechanical Wits for many Ages ; becaufe it is a 
Thing impoffible, if not a Contradiction : As the before* 
fpmmended Dr. Clark aflerts in Rohaul. Pbxf. p. \^. 

a 6 8 Of Man's Invention. Book V, 

moft of them is more impoffible, or difficult than of 
many other Things, which have met with aDif- 
covery ; nor is it for want of Man's Diligence there- 
in, or his careful Purfuit and Enquiry after them, 
(for perhaps, nothing already difcover*d hath been 
more eagerly fought after \) but with much better 
Reafon, (I am fure with greater Humility and Mo- 
defty,) we may conclude it is, becaufe the infinite- 
ly wife Creator, and Ruler of the World, hath been 
pleas'd to lock up thefe Things from Man's Under- 
standing and Invention, for fome Reafons beft known 
to himfelf, or becaufe they might be of ill Confc- 
quence, and dangerous amongft Men. 

As in all Probability the Art of Flying would 
particularly be : An Art which in fome Cafes might 
be of good Ufe, as to the Geographer and Philofo- 
phcr-, but in other Refpe&s, might prove of dan- 
gerous and fatal Confequence: As for Inftance, By 
putting it in Man's Power to difcover the Secrets 
of Nations and Families more than is confident 
with the Peace of the World, for Man to know; 
by giving ill Men greater Opportunities to do Mif- 
chief, which it would not lie in the Power of others 
to prevent ; and, as one (/>) obferves, by making 
Men lefs fociable : " For upon every true or falfe 
** Ground of Fear, or Difcontent, and other Occa- 
" fions, he would have been fluttering away to 
•* fome other Place ; and Mankind, infteadofco- 
" habiting in Cities, would, like the Eagle, have 
" built their Nefts upon Rocks. 

That this is the true Reafon of thefe Matters, is 
manifeft enough from Holy Scripture ; and Rea- 
fon (q) alfo gives its Suffrage thereto. The Scrip- 
ture exprefly tells us, That every good Gift> and every 


{p) Grew'/ CofmoL Sacr. /. i. r. 5. fia. 25. 
(q) Nemo igitur <vir magnus fine aliquo affiatu divint unqtum 
fuit. Cic. dc Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c 66, 

Chap. I. Of Man's Invention. 269 

perfeff Gift, is from above, and cometb down from the 
Father of Lights, St. James i. 17. Solomon, Prov. ii. 6. 
faith, The Lordgivetb Wifdom •, out of bis Mouth com- 
etb Knowledge and Under/landing. And Elibu is 
very exprefs, Job xxxiL 8. But there is a Spirit in 
Man, and the Infpiration of the Almighty givetb them 
Under/} anding, TLvori ttocvtokooctopo; 2ov i Mmtouta, as 
the LXX render it, The Infpiratus, the Afflatus of 
the Almighty, is their Injlrufifor, Miftrefs, or Teacher. 
And in Scripture, not only the more noble, fuperi- 
or Afts of Wifdom or Science, but much inferi- 
or alfo, bear the Name of Wifdom, Knowledge 
and Understanding, and are afcrib'd unto GOD. 
*Tis well known that Solomon's Wifdom is wholly 
afcrib'd unto GOD; and the Wifdom and Under- 
ftanding which GOD is faid to have given him, 
1 Kings rv. 29. is particularly fet forth in the fol- 
lowing Verfes, by his great Skill in moral and natural 
Philosophy, in Poetry, and probably in Aftronomy, 
Geometry, and fuch other of the politer Sciences, 
for which Mgypt, and the Eaftern Nations were ce- 
lebrated of Old (r) : And Solomon's Wifdom excelled 
the Wifdom of all the Children of the Eajt Country, 
and all the Wifdom of jEgypt. For he was wifer 
than all Men* than Ethan, &c. And be fpake 3000 
Proverbs: And bis Songs were 1005. And be fpake 
of Trees, from the Cedar to the Hyjfop of the Wall, 
(i.e. of all Sorts of Plants-,) *#& of Beafis, Fowl, 
creeping Things, and Fijhes. So likewife the Wif- 
dom of Daniel, and his three Companions, is af- 
fcrib'd unto GOD, Dan. i. 17. As for tbefefour 


(r) AZgypt, and fome of the Eaflern Nations, are celebrat- 
ed for their Skill in polite Literature ; both in Scripture and 
profane Story : Job was of thofe Parts ; fo were the XqQqI 
and Mccyoi, the Bracbmans and Gjmnojopbifts. Mofes and Da- 
niel had their Education in thefe Parts : And Pythagoras,' De- 
mocritusy and others, travelled into thefe Parts for the Sake of 
• their Learning. 

470 Of Man's Invention. Book V* 

Children God gave them Knowledge, and Skill in all 
Learning and Wifdom *, and Daniel bad Under/ton* 
ding in all Vifions and Dreams. And accordingly ia 
the next Chapter, ZXwhV/ acknowledged! and prai- 
feth God, ver.20, 21. Daniel anfwered and /aid* 
Blejfed be the Name of God for ever and ever i fot 

Wifdom and Might are bis. He givetb Wifdom 

unto the Wife* and Knowledge to them that know U** 
derftanding. But not only Skill in fuperiotf 
Arts and Sciences, but even in the more inferior 
mechanick Art, is called by the fame Names, and 
afcrib'd unto GOD: Thus for the Workrnanfliip 
of the Tabernacle, Exod. xxxi. 2. to ver. 6. See 9 I 
bahe called Bezaleel ; and I have filled bim with tit 
Spirit of God, in Wifdom, and inllnderftanding^ and in 
all Manner of Workrnanfhip : To devife cunning Works, 
to work in Gold, Silver and Brafs •, and in cutting of 
Stones, to fet them ; and in carving of Timber, to 
work in all Manner of Workrnanfhip. So the Spin* 
fters, Weavers, and other Crafts-people, are call'd 
wife-hearted, Exod. xxxi v. 10, 25, and other Pla* 
ces. And in Exod. xxxvi. 1, &c. the LORD i$ 
faid to have put this Wifdom in them, and Under- 
ftanding to know how to work all thefe Manner 
of Works, for the Service of the San6tuary. And 
laftly, to name no more Inftances, Hiram the chief 
Architect of Solomon's Temple, is in 1 Kings vii. 14. 
and ,2 Cbron. ii. 14. calPd a cunning Man, filed with 
Wifdom and Under/landing, to work in Gold, Silver f 
Brafs, Iron, Stone, Timber, Purple, Blue, fine Linnen, 
and Crimfon ; aljo to grave, and find out every Device 
which (hould be put to him. 

Thus doth the Word of Gcd afcribe the Contri- 
vances and Crafts of Men, to the Agency, or Influ- 
ence of the Spirit of God, upon that of Man. And 
there is the fame Reafon for the Variety of Genii, or 
Inclinations of Men alfo ; which from the fame Scrip- 
tures may be concluded to be a Defignation, and 
Tranfa&ion of the fame Almighty Govcrnour of the 
1 World's 

Chap. I. Of Mari *s Invention. zji 

World's Affairs. And who indeed but HE, could 
make fuch a divine Subftance, endow'd with thofe 
admirable Faculties and Powers, as the rational Soul 
hath ; a Being to bear the great Creator's Vicegerent 
cy in this lower World ; to employ the feveral Crea- 
tures ; to make Ufe of the various Materials * to ma- 
nage the grand Bufinefles ; and to furvey the Glories 
of all the vifible Works of God ? A Creature, with- 
out which this lower World would have been a dull, 
uncouth, and defolate kind of Globe. Who, I fay, 
or what lefs than the Infinite GO 'Z), could make fuch 
a rational Creature, fuch a divine Subftance as the 
Soul ! For if we fhould allow the Atheift any of his 
nonfenfical Schemes, the Epicurean his fortuitous 
Concourfe of Atoms, or the Cartefian (s) his crea- 
ted Matter put in Motion ; yet with what tolerable 
Senfe could he, in his Way, produce fuch a di- 
vine, thinking, fpeaking, contriving Subftance as 
the Soul is* endow'd exaftly with fuch Faculties, 
Power, and Difpofitions as the various Neceflities 
and Occafions of the World require from fuch a 
Creature ? Why fhould not rather all the Ads, the 
Difpofitions and Contrivances of fuch a Creature as 
Man, if made in a mechanical Way, and not con- 


(j) As we arc not to accufe any fal/Iy, fo far be it from 
me to detract from fo great a Man as Monfieur Cartes was ; 
whofe Principles, although many have perverted to atheifti- 
cal Purpofes, and whofe Notions have, fome of them, but an 
ill Afpeft, yet I am unwilling to believe he was an Atheift ; 
fince in his Prineipia Pbilofofhite, and other of his Works, he 
vindicates himfelf from this Charge; and frequently {hews 
feemingly a great Refpeft for Religion : Befidcs that, many 
of his fufpicious Opinions are capable of a favourable Inter- 
pretation, which will make them appear in a better Form : 
Thus when he difcardeth final Cau/es from his Philofophy, it 
is not a Denial of them ; but only excluding the Confidera- 
' tion of them, for the Sake of free philofophifing ; it being 
the Bufinefs of a Divine, rather than a Philofopher, to treat 
of them. 

(/} For 

2 7 2 Of Maris Invention. Boo k V. 

triv'd by God, have been the fame ? Particularly, 
Why fhould he not have hit upon all' Contrivances 
of equal Ufe, early, as well as many Ages fincc? 
Why not that Man have effedted, as well as 
this fome thoufands of Years after ? Why alfo 
lhould not all Nations, and all Ages (/)» improve 


(/) For Ages of Learning and Ignorance, we may compare 
the prefect, and fome of the Ages before the Reformation. 
The laft Century, and the few Years of this, have had the 
Happinefs to be able to vie with any Age for the Number of 
learned Men of all Profefiions, and the Improvement made 
in all Arts and Sciences ; too many, and too well known to 
need a Specification. 

But for Ignorance, we may take the ninth Age r and fo 
down to the Reformation ; even as low as Queen Elizabeth, 
although Learning began to flourifh ; yet we may guefs how 
Matters flood, even among the Clergy, by her 53 InjtmS. 
N° 1 5 59- Such as are but mean Readers, Jbould perufe over before, 
once or twice, the Chapters and Homilies, to the Intent they moy 
read to the letter Under/landing of the People, the more Ructu- 
ragement ofGodlinefs. Spar. Col left. p. 82. But this is nothing, 
in com pa ri fen to the Ages before, when the Monk faid, Gra- 
tarn non eft legi 1 or as Efpencaus more elegantly hath it, 
Grace nqffe fufpe&um, Hebraice prope Hareticum. Which Sttf- 
picion, ((aid the learned Hakewill,) Rhemigius, furely was not 
guilty of, in commenting upon dijfamatus, 1 The/1 i. 8. who 
faith, that St. Paul fome what improperly put that for divul- 
gates, not being aware that St. Paul wrote in Greek, and not 
in Latin. Nay, fo great was their Ignorance, not only of 
Greek, but of Latin too, that a Prieft baptiz'd in nomine Pa* 
tria, £ff Filia, Spiritua fan 8a > Another fuing his Parifluoners 
for not paving his Church, prov'd it from Jer. xvii. 18. /V- 
veant UJi, non paveam ego. Some Divines in Erafmus\ Time, 
undertook to prove Hereticks ought to be burnt, becauie the 
Apoftle faid, Htreticum devita. Two Fryars disputing about 
a Plurality of Worlds, one prov'd it from Annon decern f**t 
faQi mundi ? The other reply'd, Sed ubi funt nvvtm t And 
notwithstanding their Service was read in Latin, yet fo little 
was that underftood, that an old Pried in Hen. VIIPs time, 
read Mumpfimus Domine for Sutnpfmus : And being admoniuYd 
of it, he faid, he had done fo for thirty Years, and would 
not leave Kis old Mumpfimus for their new Sumpfimns. Vid. 
Haktw. Jpol. I. 3. c. 7. feci. 2. 

1 [u) Then 

Chap. I. Of Maris Invention. 273 

in every Thing, as well as this, or that Age, or 
Nation («) only? Why (hould the Greeks , the 
Arabians* the Perfians* or the Egyptians of old, fo 
far exceed thofe of thfe fame Nations now ? Why 
the Africans and Americans fo generally ignorant 
and barbarous, and the European j, for the moft 
part, polite and cultivated, addifted to Arts and 
Learning ? How could it come to pafs, that the 


(*) There is (it feems) in Wits and Arts, as in all Things 
befide, a kind of circular Progrefs : They have their Birth, 
their Growth, their flow ijbing, their Failing, their Fading ; and 
Kvitbin a 'while after, their Referred ion, and RefoUriJhing 
again. The Arts fourijhed for a long Time among the Perfians, 
the Chaldasans, the Egyptians But afterwards the Gre- 
cians got the Start of them, and are now become as barba- 
rous themfelves, as formerly they efteemed all befide them- 
felves to be. About the Birth of Chrift, Learning began to 
flonrim in Italy, and fpread all over Chriftendm, till the 
G§tbs, Huns, and Vandals, ranfacked the Libraries," and de- 
faced almoft all the Monuments of Antiquity : So that the 
Lamp of Learning fcemed to be put out, for near the Space 
of 1000 Years, till the firft Manfor, King of Africa and Spain, 
raifed up, and fpurred forward the Arabian Wits, by great 
Rewards and Encouragements. Afterwards Petrarch opened 
fuch Libraries as were undemolifhed. He was-feconded by 
Boccace, and John of Ravenna, and foon after by Aretine, 
Pbilelphus, Valla, &c. And thofe were followed t by jEneas 
Sylvius, Angelas Politianus, Hermolaus Barbarus, Marfilius 
Ficinus, and Job. Picus of Mirandula. Thefe were backed 
by Rud. Agricola, Reucline, MelanQhon, Joach. Camerarius, 
Wolphlaxius, Beat. Rbtnanus, Almaines : By Erafmus of Rot- 
terdam ; Fives, a Spaniard ; Bern bus, Sadoletus, Eugubinus, Ita- 
lians : Turnehus, Muretus, Ramus, Pithaus, Budaus, Amiot, 
ScaJsger, Frenchmen ; Sir The More, and Linaker, Englifhmen. 
And about this Time, even thofe Northern Nations yiclde4 
their great Men ; Denmark yielded Olaus Magnus, Holfter, 
Tycho Srahe, and Hemingius ; and Poland, Hojius, Frixius, and 
Cnmerus. But to name the Worthies that followed thefe,, 
down to the prefent Time, would be endlefs, and next; 
to impoffible. See therefore HakevjilPs Afolog. 1. 3. c. 6. 
fed. 2. v 

274 Of Man's Invention. Book V. 

Ufe of the Magnet (w), Printing (*), Clocks {y\ 


(w) Dr. Gilbert* the mod learned and accurate Writer on 
the Magnet, (hews, That its Attrciclive Virue was known 
as early as Plato and Ariftotle ; but its Direiiion was a Difco- 
very of later Ages. He faith, Superior i <e*uo 300 aut 4C0 
labentibus annis % Motus Magtieticus in Boream iff Aufirum 
repertus, aut ab bominibus rurfus recognitus fuit. De Mag. 
1. 1. c. 1. But who the happy Jnventer of this lucky Dif- 
covery was, is not known. There is fome, not in considera- 
ble, Reafon, to think, our famous Countryman, Rog. Bacon, 
either difcovered, or at leaft knew of it. But for its Ufe in 
Navigation, Dr. Gilbert faith. In regno Neapolitan* Melpbitani 
omnium primi (uti fuerunt) pyxidem infiruebant nauticam ■ 

edoQi a rive quodam Jol. Goia, A. D. 1300. ibid. If the 
Reader hath a mind to fee the Arguments for the Invention, 
being as old as Solomon's or Plautus's Time, or of much 
younger Date, he may confult Hakenvill, ib. c. 1 o. fe3. 4. or 
Purcbas Pilgr. /. 1. r. 1. fe8. 1. 

As to the Magnetick Variation, Dr. Gilbert attributes the 
Difcovery of it to Sebafiian Cabot t. And the Inclination, 
of Dipping of the Needle was the Difcovery of our inge- 
nious Rob. Norman. And laftly, The Variation of the Va- 
riation, was firft found out by the ingenious Mr. H. tielli- 
brand, Aftr. Prof, of Grejb. Coll. about 1634. VideGellibr. 
Difc. Matb. on tbe Variation of tbe Mag. Needle, and its Fariat. 
Anno 1635. 

But fince that, the before commended Dr. Halley, having 
formerly, in Pbilof. Tranf. N° 148, and icj$, given a pro- 
bable Hypothefis of the Variation of the Compafs, did, in 
the Year 1 700, undertake a long and hazardous Voyage, as 
far as the Ice near the South Pole, in order to examine his 
faid Hypothefis, and to make a Syitem of the Magnetical Va- 
riations: Which being foon after published, has been fince 
abundantly confirmed by the Frencb, as may be feen in feveral 
of the late Memoires de Pbyfique fcf de Matbematipte, publifiYd 
by the French Academic da Sciences. 

To thefe Difcoveries, I hope the Reader will excufe me, 
if I add one of my own, which I deduced fome Years ago, 
from fome Magnetical Experiments and Obfervations I made; 
which Difcovery I alfo acquainted our Royal Society with, 
v,me Time fince, w«. That as the common, horizontal 
"\Vc"!'e '■• continually varying up and down, towards theB. 
•~\ jo »i the Dipping-Needle varying up and down, to- 

Chap. I. Of Man's Invention. 275 

Telefcopcs (z\ and an hundred Things bcfidcs, 
Ihould efcape the Difcovery of Archimedes > Anaxi- 


wards or from wards the Zenith, with its Magnetick Ten- 
dency, defcribing a Circle round the Pole of the World, as 
I conceive, or fome other Point. So that if we could pro- 
cure a Needle fo nicely made, as to point exactly according to 
its Magnetick Di reel ion, it would, in fome certain Number 
of Years, defcribe a Circle, of about 1 3 gr. Radius round 
the Magnetick Poles Northerly and Southerly. This I have 
for feveral Years (ufpe&ed, and have had fome Reafon for it 
too, which I mentioned three or four Years ago, at a Meeting 
>f our Royal Society ; but I have not yet bten fo happy to 
procure a tolerable good Dipping- Needle, or other proper one 
x> my Mind, to bring the Thing to fufficient Teft of Expe- 
rience, as in a fhort Time I hope to do, having lately hie 
jpon a Contrivance that may do the Thing. 

(x) It is uncertain who was the Inventer of the Art of 
Printing, every Hiftorian afcribing the Honour thereof to his 
)wn City or Country. Accordingly, fome afcribe the Inven- 
tion of it to John Guttenburg, a Knight of Argentine, about 
1440, and fay, that Tauftus was only his Afliitant. Bertius 
ifcribes it to Laurence John, of Haerlem, and faith, Fuft or 
fauft, ftole from him both his Art and Tools. And, to name 
110 more, fome attribute it to John Fuft or Fauft, and Peter 
Scboeffer, (called by Fuft, in fome of his Imprimaturs, Pet. de 
Gerne/hem puer mens.) But there is now to be feen at Haerlem t 
a Book or two printed by Lau. Kofier, before any of thefe, 
vix. in 1430, and in 1432. (See Mr. Ellis' j Letter to 
Dr. Tyfon, in Phil. Tranf. N # 286.) But be the firft In- 
renter who it will, there is however great Reafon to believe, 
the Art received great Improvements from Fauft, and his 
Son-i n-Law Scboeffer, the latter being the Inventer of metal- 
line Types, which were cut in Wood before, firft in whole 
Blocks, and afterwards in fingle Types or Letters. See my 
learned Friend Mr. Wanley\ Observations, in Pbilof Tranf. 
N° 288, and 310. 

(y) Concerning the Antiquity and Invention of docks and 
Clock Work, I refer the Reader to a little Book, called, The 
Artificial Clock-maker, Chap. 6. where there is fome Account 
of the Antients Inventions in Clock -Work, as Archimedes'* % 
Sphere, Crefibius's Clock, Sec. 

(as) The Invention of Tele/copes, Hieron. Syrturus gives 
(Us Account- of, Prodiit Anno 1609, feu Qtnius, feu alter 
: > T z w 

276 Of Maris Invention. Book V# 

mar?der y Anaximenes* Pqfidomus> or other great Vir- 
tuofo's of the early Ages, whofe Contrivances of 
various Engines, Spheres, Clepfydrag, and other 
curious Inftruments, are recordecji (aa) ? And why 


Vtr adbuc ineognitus, Holland} fpecie, qui Middleburgi in Zt- 
tandia convent Job, Lipptrfein—Juf/it perfpicilla plura tarn 
cava quam convexa, confici. Conditio die rediit, abfilutum opus 
cupiens, atque ut fiatim babuit pr<e manibus, bin a fufcipiens, 
cavum fciL & convexum, unum if alterum oculo admovebat t 
&fenfim dimovebat five ut punBum concur sus, five ut artificis 
opus probaret, pofiea abiit. Artifex, ingtnii minime expert, & 
novitatis curio/us caefit idem facer e & imitari, &c. Vid. Mttf. 
Worm. 1. 4. c. 7. 

(aa) Among the curious Inventions of the Antients, Ar* 
chytds's Dove was much famed ; of which Jul. Gel/ius gives 
this Account : Scrip ferunt Simulacbrum Columb* e ligno oh 
Archytd ratione quadam dfciplindque mechanic a fa£um, w- 
laffe ; It a erat fcilicet libramentis fufptnfum, & aura fpiritus 
inclusd of que occulta concitum. Nodt. Attic. 1. 19. c. 12. The 
fame eminent Pythagorean Philofopher (as Tavonnus in Gel- 
lius calls him) is by Horace accounted a noble Geometrician 
too, Te maris fcf terra numeroque carentis arena Menforem 
Archyta. Among the reft of his Inventions, Children's Rattles 
are afcribed to him. Arifotle calls them 'A^vta TrXar*yi», 
polit. 8. i. e. Arcbytas's Rattle. And Dioginianus % the Gram- 
marian, gives the Reafon of his Invention, 'A^t/ra v\»?*yi 
ton tw>, &c. That ArchytasV Rattle <was to quiet Children*, 
for he having Children, contrived the Rattle, vihich he gave them 
to prevent their tumbling [ha,a*>*vou<ri i '] other Things about 
the Houfe. 

To thefe Contrivances of Archytas, we may add Regimen- 
tanus's Wooden Eagle, which flevj forth of the City, aloft in tht 
Air, met the Emperor a good Way off, coming towards it, and 
having fainted him, return d again, waiting dn him to the City- 
Gates. Alfo his Iron Fly, which at a Featt/*w forth of bis 
Hands, and taking a Round, returned thither again. Vide 
Hatevuill, ubi fupra, c. 10. feet. r. 

As to other Inventions of the Antients, fuch as of Let- 
ters, Brick, and Tiles, and building Houfes, with the Saw, 
Rules, and Plumber, the Lath, Augre, Glue, &c. alfo the 
snaking Brais, Gold, and other Metals ; the Ufe of Shields, 
§words 9 Bows and Arrows, Boots, and other IniUameBts 
'-..••.•' ■■■■ of 

Chap. I. Of Man's Invention. 277 

cannot the prcfent or paft Age, (6 eminent for 
polite Literature, for Difcoveries and Improve- 
ments in all curious Arts and Bufineffes, (perhaps 
beyond any known Age of the World •, Why cannot 
it, I fay) difcovcr thofe hidden ^uafita^ which may 
probably be referved for the Difcovery of future 
and lefs learned Generations ? 

Of thefe Matters, no fatisfaftory Account dan 
be given by any mechanical Hypothefis, or any 
other Way, without taking in the Superintendence 
of the great Creator and Ruler of the World ; 


of War ; the Pipe, Harp, and other Mufical Jnftruinents ; 
the building of Ships, and Navigation, and many other 
Things befides ; the In venters of thefe, (as reported by, an- 
tient Heathen Authors) may be plentifully met with in Pliny 9 
Nat. Hift. /. 7. e. 56. 

But in this Account of Pliny, we may observe whence the 
Antients (even the Romans themfelves in fome meafurej had 
their Accounts of thele Matters, <viz. from the fabulous Greeks, 
who were fond of afcribing every Thing to themfelves. The 
Truth is, (faith the moil learned Biftiop Siilliwjieet) there is 
nothing in the World ufeful or beneficial to Mankind y but they 
bawe made ajhift to find the author of it among them/rives. If 
nve enquire after the Original of Agriculture \ <we are told of Ceres 
and Triptotemus ; if of Pafturage, nve are told of an Arcadian 
Pan ; if of Wine, we prefently hear of a Liber Pater ; if of 
Iron Inftrununts, then who but Vulcan ; if of Mufick, none like 
to Apollo. If woe prefs them then with the Hiftary of other Na- 
tions, they are as well provided here ; if <we enquire an Account 
r/^Eurgpe, tfiz, or Libya; for thefirft, we are told^a Ane.Story 
of Cadmus"/ Sifter ; for the fecond, of Prometheus'/ Mother of 
that Name ; and for the third, of a Daughter of Epaphos. And 
fo the learned Author goes on with other particular Nations, 
which they boafted themfelves to be the Founders of. Only 
the grave Athenians thought Scorn to hante any Father affigned 
them, their only Ambition was to be accounted Aborigines & ge- 
jialni Terras. But the Ignorance and Vanity of the Greek Hif- 
tary, that learned Author hath fufficiently refuted. Fide 
Stilling. Orig. Sacr. Part 1. B.i. C. 4. 

T 3 [U) Whe- 

278 Of Man 9 s Invention. Book V. 

w ho oftentimes doth manifeft himfelf in fome of 
the mod confiderable of thofe Works of Men, by 
forne^ remarkable Tranfaftions of his Providence, 
or by fome great Revolution or other happening 
in the World thereupon. Of this I might in- 
stance in the Invention of Printing (Wj, Succeeded 
firft by a Train of Learned Men, and the Re- 
vival of Learning, and foon after that by the Re- 
formation, and the much greater Improvements 
of Learning at this Day. But the moft confi- 
derable Inftance I can give is, the Progrefs of 
Chriftianity, by means of the civilized Difpofition, 
and large Extent of the Roman Empire. The latter 
of which, as it made way for human Power, fo 
the former made way for our moft excellent Re- 
ligion into the Minds of Men. And fo I hope, 
and earneftly pray, That the Omnipotent and All- 
wife Ruler of the World will tranfadb the Affairs 
of our moft Holy Religion, e'er it be long, in the 
Heathen World; that the great Improvements 
made in the laft, and prefent Age, in Arts and 
Sciences, in Navigation and Commerce, may be 
a Means to tranfport our Religion, as well as 
Name, through all the Nations of the Earth. For 
we find that our Culture of the more polite and 
curious Sciences, and our great Improvements in 
even the Mechanick Arts, have already made a 
Way for us into fome of the largeft and fartheft 


(bb) Whether Printing was invented in 1440, as many 
imagine/ or was fooner praftifed, in 1430, or 1432, as 
Mr. Ellis's Account of the Dutch Inscription, in Phil, Tranf. 
N° 286. doth import; it is however manifeft:, how great 
an Influence (as it was natural) this Invention had in the 
promoting of Learning foon afterwards, mentioned before 
in Note (*). A Aer which followed the Reformation, about 
the Year 1517. 

(<*) The 

Chap, I. Of Man's Invention. 279 

diftant Nations of the. Earth ; particularly into the 
great Empire of China (cc). 

And now, before I quit this Subject, I cannot 
but make one Remark, by way of practical Infe- 
rence, from what has been laft faid •, and that is, 
Since it appears, that the Souls of Men are or- 
dered, difpofed, and adtuated by God, even in fe- 
cular, as well as fpiritual Chriftian A£ts, a Duty 
arifeth thence on every Man, to purfue the Ends, 
and anfwer all the Defigns of the Divine Provi- 
dence, in beftowing his Gifts and Graces upon 
him. Men are ready to imagine their Wit, Learn- 
ing, Genius, Riches, Authority/ and fuch like, to 
be Works of Nature, Things of Courfe, or owing 
to their own Diligence, Subtiky, or fome Se- 
condary Caufes ; that they are Mafters of them, 
and at Liberty to life them as they pleafe, to gra« 
tify their Luft or Humour, and fatisfy their de- 
praved Appetites. But it is evident, That thefe 
Things are the Gifts of God, they are fo many 
Talents entrufted with us by the infinite Lord of 


[tc) The Cbinefe being much addidted to Judicial Aftro- 
logy, are great Obfervers of the Heavens, and the Appear- 
ances in them. For which Purpofe they have an Obferwatory 
at Pekin, and five Mathematicians appointed to watch every 
Night ; four towards the four Quarters of the World, and 
one towards the Zenith, that nothing may efcape their Ob- 
fervation : Which Obfervations are the next Morning brought 
to an Office to be regifter'd. But notwithitanding this their 
Diligence for many Ages, and that the Emperor hath kept 
in his Service above 100 Perfons, to regulate the Kalendar, 
yet are they fuch mean Aftronomers, that they owe the Re- 
gulation of their Kalendar, the Exaclnefs in calculating E- 
clipfes, &fr. to the Europeans; which renders the European 
Mathematicians fo acceptable to the Emperor, that Father 
Verbieft, and divers others, were not only made Principals in 
the Obfervatory, but put into Places of great Truft in the Em- 
pire, and had the greateft Honours paid them at their Deaths. 
Vide La Comte Mem, of China, Letter 2, £f c' 

T 4 (dd\ 1 Tim. 

a8o Of Mori's Invention. Book V f 

the World, a Stewardlhip, a Truft repofcd in us; 
for which we muft give an Account at the Day 
when our Lord fhaU call •, according to the para- 
bolical Reprefentation of this Matter by our Blefled 
Saviour, Matt. xxv. 14. 

Our Duty then is not to abufe thefe Gifts of 
God, not to negleSt the Gift that is in us, not to 
bide our Talent in the Earth ; but, as St. Paul ex- 
horteth Ttmotby, 2 Tim. u 6. we muft fHr up the 
Gift of God which is in us, and not let it lie idle, 
concealed, or dead-, but we muft aW^nruff~v ri %i- 
* toy**, blow it up, and enkindle it, as the Original 
imports ; we muft improve and employ our Gift 
to the Glory of the (jiver; or in that Miniftra- 
tion, that Ufe and Service of the World, for which 
he gave it. Our Stewardfhip, our Craft, our 
Calling, be it that of Ambaffadors of Heaven, com- 
mitted to us, as 'twas to Timothy (dd), by the lay- 
ing on of Hands *, or be it the morefecular Bufinefs 
of the Gentleman, Tradefman, Mechanick, or only 
Servant •, nay, our good Genius, our Propenfity to 
any Good, as fuppofe to Hiftory, Mathematicks, 
Botany, Natural Philofophy, Mechanicks, fcfr. I 
fay, all thefe Occupations, in which the Providence 
of God hath engaged Men, all the Inclinations to 
which his Spirit hath difpofed them, ought to be 
difcharged with that Diligence, that Care and Fi- 
delity, that our great Lord and Mafter may not 
fay to us, as was faid to the unfaithfnl Steward, 
Luke xvi. 2. Give an Account of thy Stewardfhip, 
for thou mayeft be no longer Steward ; but that he 
may fay, as 'tis in the Parable before- cited, Mattb. 
xxv. 21. Well done thou good and faithful Ser- 
vant, thou baft been faithful over a few Things, I 
will make the Ruler over many Things, enter then 


{dd) 1 Tim. iv. 14. 2 Tim. i. 6. 

(et) BHhop 

Chap. II. * Of Man's Pofture. 2 8-1 

into the Joy of thy Lord. Since now the Cafe is thus, 
let us be perfuaded to follow Solomon's Advice, Ec- 
clef. ix. 10. Whatfoever thy Handfindetb to do, do it 
with thy Might (ee) : <c Lay hoid on every Occafion 
" that prefents itfelf, and improve it with the ut- 
4< moft Diligence •, becaufe now is the Time of 
cc Action, both in the Employments of the Body, 
" and of the Mind -, now is the Seafon of ftudy- 
" ing either Arts and Sciences, or Wiidom and 
€C Virtue, for which thou wilt have no Opportuni- 
<c ties in the Place whither thou art going in the 
€C other World. For there is no Work, nor Device, nor 
<c Knowledge* nor Wijdom in the Grave whither thou 
<c goeft. 

(ee) Bifhop Patrick in loc. 

Of Man's Body, particularly its Pofture. 

TT Aving thus, as briefly as well I could, furvey- 
Xj[ ed the Soul, let us next take a View of Man's 
Body. Now here we have fuch a Multiplicity of 
the moft exquifite Workmanfhip, and of the beft 
Contrivance, that if we Ihould ftri&ly furvey the 
Body from Head to Foot, and fearch only into the 
known Parts, (and many more lie undifcovcred) we 
fliould find too large and tedious a Task to be dif- 
patched. I fhall therefore have Time only to take 
atranfient and general kind of View of this admi- 
rable Machine, and that fomewhat briefly too, 
being prevented by others, particularly two excel- 

282 Of Man's Po/lure. Book V. 

lent Authors of our own (0), who have done it on 
the fame Account as myfelf. And the 

I. Thing that prefents itfelfto our View, is the 
Ereft Pofture (b) of Man's Body ; which is far the 
moft, if not the only commodious Pofture for a 
rational Creature, for him that hath Dominion 
over the other Creatures, for one that can invent 
ufeful Things, and pra&ife curious Arts. For 
without this ereft Pofture, "iie^could not have 
readily turned himfelf to every gufinefs, and on 
every Occafion. His Hand (^jJarticularly could 


(<*) Mr. Ray, in hif Wifdom of God manifefted in the Works of 
Creation t Part 2. And Dr. CockburnV Effays on Faith, Parti. 
Effay 5. 

(h) Ad banc provident tarn Nature tarn diligent um [of which he 
had been before fpeaking] tamque folertem adjungi multa pof- 
funt, e quihus intelligatur, quanta res hominibus a Deo, quamqtte 
eximia tribute funt : qui primum eos humo excitatos, cel/os fjT erec- 
tos conftituit, ut Deorum cognitionem, caelum intuentes, caper e pof- 
funt. Sunt enim e terra homines non ut incola, atque habitatores f 
fed quafi fpeclatores fuperarum rerum, atque caeleftium, quarum 
fpeQaculum ad nullum aliud genus antmantium pertinet. Cic. de 
Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 56. 

(c) Ut autem fapientiffimum animalium eft Homo, Jic & Manus 
funt organa fapienti animali convenientia. Nam enim quia Manus 
hahuit, propter ea eft fapientiffimum, ut Anaxagoras dictbat ; fed 
quia fapientiffimum erat, propter hoc Manus hahuit \ ut recliffime 
cenfuit Ariftoteles. Nou enim Manus ipfa hominem artes docue- 
runty fed Ratio. Manus autem ipfa funt artium organum, &c. 
Galen, de Uf. Part 1. 1. c. 3. After which, in the reft of this 
firft Book, and Part of the fecond, he confiders the Particulars 
of the Hand, in order to enquire, as he faith, Ch. 5. Num 
earn omnino Conftitutionem habeat [manus] quia meliorem alium 
habere non pot u it. 

Of this Part, (and indeed of the other Parts of human 
Bodies) he gives fo good an Account, that I confefs I could 
not but admire the Skill of that ingenious and famed Hea- 
then. For an Example, (becaufe it is a little out of the 
Way,) I (hall pitch upon his Account of the different Length 
of the Fingers. Lib. 1. Cap. 24. The Reafon of this Mecha- 


Chap. II. Of Man's Pojiure. 2 83 

not have been in fo great a Readinefs to execute 
the Commands, of the Will, and Di&ates of the 
Soul. His Eyes would have been the moft prone, 
and incommodioufly fituated of all Animals; but 
by this Situation, he can caft his Eyes upwards, 
downwards, and round about him ; he hath a 
glorious Hemifphere of the Heavens (</), and an 
ample .Horizon on Earth (*)* to entertain his 


nifm, he, faith, is, That the Tops of the Fingers may come 
to an Equality, Cum magna s alt qua s moles in circuitu compre- 
bendunt, £sf cum in feipfis humidum <uel parimm corpus conti- 
nere conantur. ■ Apparent <uero in unam circuli circumfe- 

rentiam convenire Digiti quinque in aSl'ionibus hujufmodi maxi- 
me quando exquifite jpbaricum corpus comprehendunt. And this 
Evennefs of the Fingers Ends, in grafping fphaerical, and 
other round Bodies, he truly enough faith, makes the Hold 
the firmer. And it feems a noble and pious Detign he had in 
fo ftri&ly furveying the Parts of Man's Body, which take in 
his own tranflated Words, Cum multa namque effet apud veteres, 
tarn Medicos, quam Pbilpfopbos de utilitate particuiarum diffinfio 
(quidam enim corpora nqflra nullius gratia ejfe facia exifiimant, 
nulldque emnino arte ; alii autem dff alicujus gratia, £? artifi* 

ciose, ) primum quidem tant<e hujus d'tffenfionis *p»ri»p*ojr 

invenire fiudui : deinde vero & unam aliquam uni'uerfalem 
metbodum con fti titer e, qua fingularum fartium corporis, & 
eorum qua illis accidunt utilitatem invsnire pojfemus* Ibid, 
cap. 8. 

(d) Pronaque cum fpeclant animalia actera terram, 
Os Homini fublime dedit, caelumque tueri 
J*jjit> & credos adfidera t oiler e vultus. 

Ovid. Metam. 1. 1. car. 84. 

(/) If any mould be fo curious, to defire to know how 
far a Man's Profpe& reacheth, by Means of the Height of 
his Eye, fuppofing the Earth was an uninterrupted Globe ; 
the Method is a common Cafe of right-angled plain Trian- 
gles, where two Sides, and an oppofite Angle are given: 
Thus in Fig. 4. AHB is the Surface, or a great Circle of 
the terraqueous Globe; C the Center, HC its Semidiame- 
ter, E the Height of the Eye; and forafmuch as HE is a 
Tangent, therefore the Angle at H is a right Angle: So 
that there are given HC 398, 386 Miles, or 21034781 Eng- 


a$4 Of Man's Poflure. Book V. 

UJb Feet, (according to book IJ. C&tf. 2. Ms* (0 ;> C £ the 
fame Length with toe Height of the Eye, on the Maft of a 
Ship, or at only a Man's Height, fcfr. added to it ; and 
EHC the oppofite right Angle. By which three Parts 
given, it is eafy to find all the other Parts of the Triable. 
And firft, The Angle at C, in order to find the Side HE, 
the Proportion is, as the Side C 2?, to the Angle at H ; (o 
the Side HC, to the Angle at E, which being fubrtractcd oat 
of 90 gr. the Remainder is the Angle at C. And tben> as 
the Angle at E, is to its oppofite Side H C, or elfe as the 
Angle at H is to its oppofite Side CE; fo the Angle it 
C, to its oppofite Side EH, the vifible Horizon. Or the 
Labour may be fhorten'd, by adding together the Logarithm 
of the Sum of the two given Sides, and the Logarithm of 
their Difference ; the Hal! of which two Logarithms, is the 
Logarithm of the Side requir'd, nearly. For an Example, 
We will take the two Sides in Yards. By Reafort fcarce 
any Table of Logarithms will ferve ns farther. The Se- 
midiameter of the Earth is 70 11 594 Yards; the Height 
of the Eye is two Yards more, the Sam of both Sides, is 
1 4023 1 90. 

Logar. of which Sum is, - - 7,146846ft 
Logar. of two Yards (the Difference) is, 0,3010300 

Sum of both Logar. - 7,4478768 

The half Sum, - - -• . 3,7239384 

is the Logarithm of 5296 Yards == three Miles, which is the 
Length of the Line EH, or Diftance the Eye can reach at bx 
Feet Height. 

This would be the Diftance, on a perfect Globe, did the 
vifual Rays come to the Eye in a ftrait Line ; but by Means 
of the Rarefradtions of the Atmofphere, diftant Objects on the 
Horizon, appear higher than really they are, and may be feen 
at a greater Diftance, efpecially on the Sea ; which is a Mat- 
ter of great Ufc, efpecially to difcover at Sea the Land, Rocks, 
&f. and it is a great Act of the Divine Providence, in the 
Contrivance and Convenience of the Atmofphere, which by 
this Means enlargeth the vifible Horizon, and is all one, as if 
the Terraqueous Globe was much larger than really it is. As 
Xo the Height of the Apparent above the true Level ; or, how 
much diftant Objects are raifed by the Refractions, the inge- 
nious and accurate Gentlemen of the French Academy Royal, 
have given as a Table in their Mea/urts of the Earth, Art. 1 2. 

(/) See 

Phap. JI. Of Man's Pofiure. a$$ 

And as this Erection of Man's Body is the moft 
complete Pofture for him * fo if we furvey the Pro- 
yifion made for it, we find all done with manifeft 
Defign, the utmoft Art and Skill being employed 
therein. To pafs by the particular Conformation 
of many of the Parts, the Ligaments and Faftnings 
to anfwer this Pofture », as the Faftnings, for In- 
stance, of the Pericardium to the Diaphragm, (which 
is peculiar to Man (f) ; I fay, paffing by a deal of 
this Nature, manifesting this Pofture to be an Aft 
of Defign,) let 7 us ftop a little at the curious Fa- 
brick of the Bones, thofe Pillars of the Body. 
And how artificially do we find them made, how 
curioufly placM from the Head to the Foot ! The Ver- 
tebra of the Neck and Back-bone (£), made fhort 
and complanated, and firmly braced with Mufcles 
and Tendons, for eafy Incurvations of the Body ; 
but withal for greater Strength, to fupport the Bo- 
dy's own Weight, together with other additional 
Weights it may have Occafion to bear. The Thigh- 
bones and Legs long, and ftrong, and every Way 
well fitted for the Motion of the Bod v. , The Feet ac- 
commodated with a great Number ofBones* curioufly 
and firmly tack'd together, (to which muft be added 
the MinUtry of the Mufcles (A), to anfwer all the 


(f) See Book VI. Chap. 5. Note (g). 

(g) See Book IV. Chap. 8. Note (c). 

(J) The Mechanifm of the Foot would appear to be 
wonderful, if I fhould defcend to a Defcription of all its 
Parts ; but that would be too long for theie Notes ; there- 
fore a brief Account, (moft of which I owe to the before- 
commended Mr. Cbefelden,) may ferve for a Sample : In the 
firft Place, it is neceffary the Foot mould be concave, to 
enable, us to Hand firm, and that the Nerves and Blood - 
VefTels may be free from Compreffion, when wc ftand or 
walk. In order hereunto, the long Flexors of the Toes 


286 Of Man's Pofiure. ' Book V. 

Motions of the Legs and Thighs, and at the fame 
Time to keep the Body upright, and prevent its fal- 
ling, by readily affifling againft every Vacillation 
thereof, and with eafy and ready Touches keeping 
the lift* of Inflexion, and Centre of Gravity, indue 
Place and Pofture (*' ). 

And as the Bones are admirably adapted to prop ; 
fo all the Parts of the Body are as incomparably 
plac'd to poife it. Not one Side too heavy for the 
Other; but all in nice ^Equipoife:. The Shoulders, 
Arms, and Side ^equilibrated on one Part ; on the 
other Part of the Vifcera of the Belly counterpois'd 
with the Weight of the fcapular Part, and that ufe- 
ful Cufhion of Flefh behind. 

And laftly, to all this we may add the wonder- 
ful Concurrence, and Miniftry, of the prodigious 
Number and Variety of Mufcles, plac'd through- 
out the Body for this Service ; that they fhould 
fo readily anfwer to every Pofture, and comply 
with every Motion thereof, without any previous 


crofs one another at the Bottom of the Foot, in the Form of a 
St. Andrew's Crofs, to incline the leflfer Toes towards the great 
One, and the great One towards the leffer. The Jbort Flexors 
are chiefly concern'd in drawing the Toes towards the Heel. 
The tranfaerfalis Pedis draws the Outfides of the Foot towards 
each other ; and by being inferted into one of the fe/amoid 
Bones of the great Toe, diverts the Power of the abdu8or 
Mufcle, falfly fo called, and makes it become a flexor. -And 
laftly, The peronaus Longus runs round the outer Ankle, and 
obliquely forwards crofs the Bottom of the Foot, and at once 
helps to extend the 7arfus, to conftridl the Foot, and to di- 
rect the Power of the other Exten/ors towards the Ball of the 
great Toe : Hence tfye Lofs of the great Toe, is more than 
of all the other Toes. See alfo Mr. Coffer's Anat. Tab. 28, 


(/) It is very well worth while to compare here what Borelli 
faith, de mot u Animal. Par. 1. cap. 18. De ftatione Animal. 
Prop. 132, &V. To which I refer the Reader, it being tOQ 
long to recite here. 

i!) Borcl, 

Chap. III. Of Man's Figure. 287 

Thought or Reflex Aft, fo that as the excellent Bo- 
relli (k) faith, " It is worthy of Admiration, that 
" in fo great a Variety of Motions, as Running, 
Ci Leaping, and Dancing, Nature's Laws of JEquz- 
c< libration fhould always be obferved ; and when 
€< negledted* or wilfully tranfgreffed, that the Body 
" muft neceflarily and immediately tumble down. 

{&) Borel. ibid. Prop. 142. 



Of the Figure and Shape of Man's Body, 

THE Figure and Shape of Man's Body, is the 
moft commodious that could poflibly be in- 
vented for fuch an Animal ; the molt agreeable to 
his Motion, to his Labours, and all his Occafions. 
For had he been a. rational Reptile, he could not 
have moved from Place to Place faft enough for his 
Bufinefs, nor indeed have done any almoft. Had he 
been a rational Quadrupede, among other Things, 
he had loft the Benefit of his Hands, thofe noble 
Inftruments of the mod ufeful Performances of the 
Body. Had he been made a Bird, befides many 
other great Inconveniencies, thofe before -mentioned 
of his Flying would have been fomfe. In a Word, 
any other Shape of Body, but that which the All- 
wife Creator hath given Man, Would have been as 
incommodious, as any Pofture but that of eredt ; it 
would have rendered him more helplefs, or have 
put it in his Power to have been more pernicious, 
or depriv'd him of Ten-thoufand Benefits, or Plea- 

a 8 ft Of Man's Stature. Book V. 

fures, or Conveniences, which his prefent Figure ca- 
pacitates him for. 


Of the Stature and Size of Man's Body. 

AS in the Figure, fo in the Stature and Size of 
Man's Body, we have another manifeft Indi- 
cation of excellent Defign. Not too Pygmean (0}, 
nor too Gigantick (£), either of which Sizes would 
in fome Particular or other, have been incommo- 
dious to himfelf, or to his Bufinefs, or to the reft of 
his Fellow-Creatures. Too Pygmean would have 
rendered him too puny a Lord of the Creation; too 
impotent, and unfit to manage the inferior Crea- 
tures; would have expofed him to the Affaultsof 
the weakeft Animals, to the ravening Appetite of 
voracious Birds, and have put him in the Way, and 
endangered his being trodden in the Dirt by the 
larger Animals. He would have been alfo too weak 
for his Bufinefs, unable to carry Burdens; and, in a 
"Word, to tranfadfc the greater Part of his Labours 
and Concerns. 

And on the other hand, had Man's Body been 
made too monftroufly ftrong, too enormoufly Gi- 

(a) What is here urged about the Size of Man's Body, may 
anfwer one of Lucretius" $ Reafons, why Nil ex nihilo gignttuf. 
His Argument is, 

Denique cur Homines tantos natura far are 
Non potuit, fedibus qui fontum per <vadt poj/btt 
Tranfire, £sf magnos manibus divellere monteis t 

Lucret. 1. 1. carm.209. 

(b) Hand facile Jit ut quifquam £ff ingentes corporis vires, 6f 
ifigenium fubtile babeat. Diodor. Sic. 1. 1 7. 

(c) Althq' 

Chap. IV* Of Man's Stature. 289 

gantick (*)» it would have rendered him a dange- 

ii ■ m ■ Hi* 11 1 ■■ » ■ 11 i w 1 H i 11— ^b— mimm «■«*«§ 

(c) Altho* we read of Giants before jMnuI's Flood, Gen. 
vi. 4. and more plainly afterwards in Afoȣ. xiii. 33. Yet 
there is great Reaion to' think the Size of Man was always 
the fame from the Creation. For as to the Nepbilim, or Giants, 
in Gen. vi. the Antients vary about them ; fome taking them 
for great Atheifts, and Monfters of Impiety, Rapine, Tyranny, 
and all Wickednefs, as well as of monftrous Stature, according 
as indeed the Hebrew Signification allows. 

And as for the Nepbilim* in Numb. xiii. which were evi- 
dently Men of a Gigantick Size, it moil be confidered, that it 
b very probable, the Fears and Discontentments of the Spies 
might add fomewhat thereunto. 

But be the Matter as it will, it is very manifeft* that in both 
thefe Places, Giants are fpoken of as Rarities and Wonders 
of the Age, not of the common Suture. And fuch Inftancea 
we have had in all Ages; excepting fome fabulous Rela- 
tions; fach as I take to be that of Tbeutoboccbus, who is (aid 
to have been dug up, Anno 1613, and to have been higher 
than the Trophies, and 26 Feet long ; and no better I fuppofe 
the Giants to have been that OL Magnus gives an Account of, 
in his 5th Book, fuch as Hartben, and Starcbater, among the 
Men ; and among the Women, Reperta $fi (faith he) puella— 
in capite nmlnerata, ac mortua, induta eblamjde purpurea, longU 
tudinis cubitorum 50, fatitudinis inter bumeros ouatuor. OL Mag. 
flift. 1. 5. c. 2. 

But as for the more credible Relations of Gtotiatb, (wbo/i 
Height mas 6 Cubits and a Span, 1 Sam. xvii. 4. which, accord- 
ing to the late curious and learned Lord Bifhop of Peterbo- 
rough, is fomewhat above 1 1 Feet Englijb, via*. Bifhop Cum- 
berland of Jrwi/b Weights and Meafures,) of Maximns the 
Emperor, who was 9 Feet high, and others in Auguftus, and 
other Reigns, of about the fame Height: To which we 
nay add, the Dimenfions of a Skeleton, dug up lately in the 
Place of a Reman Camp near St. Albans, by an Urn, in- 
icribed. Marcus Antoninus •, of which an Account is given by 
Mr. Qbefelien, who judgeth by the Dimenfions of the Bones^ 
that the Perfon was 8 Feet high. Fide Pbilof. Trauf. N* 3334 
Thefe antique Examples and Relations, I fay, we can match, 
yea, out-do, with modern Example*; of which we havd 
divers in J. Ludolpb* Comment, in Hift. Mthiop. /. 1. c. 2. 
j*B. 22. Magus, Conringius, Dr. Hakewill, and others. Which 
Jitter relates from Nannez, of Porters and Archers belong- 

U in* 

290 Of Man's Stature. Book V. 

ing to' the Emperor of China, of 15 Feet high; and others 
from Purchas, of 10 and 12 Feet high, and more. See the 
learned Author's Apolog. p. 208. 

Thefc indeed exceed what I have feen in England \ bat 
in 1684, I myfelf meafured an Irijb Youth, faid to be no? 
19 Years old, who was 7 Feet near 8 Inches ; and in 1697, a 
Woman who was 7 Feet 3 Inches in Height. 

But for the ordinary Size of Mankind, in all Probability, 
it was always (as I laid) the fame, as may appear from 
the Monuments, Mummies, and other antient Evidences to 
be feen at this Day. The moft antient Monument at this 
Day, I prefume, is that of Chops, in the firft and faireft 
Pyramid of Egypt -, which was, no doubt, made of Capacity 
every way fufficient to hold the Body of fo great a Perfon 
as was intended to be laid offcia it: But this we find, 
by the nice Mcafures of our curious Mr. Greaves, hardly to 
exceed our common Coffins. The hollow Part within (faith 
he) is in Length only 6,488 Feet, and in Breadth but 2,218 
Feet: The Depth 2,860 Feet. A narrow Space, jet large 
enough to contain a mofi potent and dreadful Monarch, heing 
dead\ to whom living, all Egypt was too freight and marrow 
a Circuit, By theft Dimenfions, and by fuch other, Obfervatious, 
as have heen taken by me from feveral embalmed Bodies H 
Egypt, we may conclude there is no Decay in Nature, (tbf 
the Queftion is as old as Homer,) but that the Men of this 
Age are the fame Stature they were near 3000 Tears age* 
Vide Greaves of the Pyram. in 1638, in Ra/s Colled*. ofTrav. 
Tom. 1. p. 11 8. 

To this more antient, we may add others of a later Date; 
Of which take thefe, among others, from the curious and 
learned HakewilL The Tombs at Pifa, that are fome tho» 
fand Years old, are not longer than ours ; fo is Atbelflane's in 
Malmefburj Church ; fo Sebba's in St. PauTs, of the Year 693 i 
fo Etheldreds, £c. Apol. 216, fcfr. 

The fame Evidence we have alfo from the Armour, Shields 
VeiTels, and other Utcnfils dug up at this Day. The Brae 
Helmet dug up at Metaurum, which was not doubted to have 
been left there at the Overthrow of Afdrubal, will fit one of 
our Men at this Day. 

Nay, befides all this, probably we have fome more cer- 
tain Evidence. Auguftus was 5 Feet 9 Inches high, which 
was the juft Meafure of our famous Queen Elizabeth, who 
exceeded his Height 2 Inches, if proper Allowance be made 
for the Difference between the Roman and oar Foot. Ftk 
Hakew. it. /. 215. 


Chap. IV. Of Man's Stature. 291 

rous Tyrant in the World, too ftrong (d)^ in fomc 
Refpedts, even for his own Kind, as well as the 
other Creatures. Locks and Doors might per- 

(d) To the Stature of Men in the foregoing Note, we 
snay add fome Remarks about their unufual Strength. That 
of Samp/on (who is not faid to have exceeded other Men in 
Stature, as he did in Strength) is well known. So of old, 
HeQor, Diomedes, Hercules, and Ajax, are famed ; and fince 
them many others; for which J (hall feek no farther than 
the before- commended HaUwitt, who by his great and en* 
xious Learning, hath often mod of the Examples that are to 
be met with, on all his Subjects he undertakes. Of the After- 
Ages he names C. Marius, Maximinw, Aurelian, Scander- 
bergy Bardefin, Tamerlane, Sijka, and Hunniades. Anno 1529, 
Ktunber, Provoft of the great Church at Mifnia, carried a 
Pipe of Wine out of the Cellar, and laid it in the Cart. 
Mayolus faw one hold a Marble Pillar in his Hand 3 Feet 
long, and 1 Foot diameter, which he tofs'd up in the Air, 
and catch'd again, as if it were a Ball. Another of Mantua, 
and a little Man, named Rodamas, could break a Cable, (sfc. 
Ernando Burg fetched up Stairs an Afs laden with Wood, 
and threw both into the Fire. At Conftantinople, Anno 1582, 
One lifted a Piece of Wood, that twelve Men could fcarce 
ftrife ; then lying along, he bare a Stone that ten Men could 
but juft roll to him. G. of Fronjberge, Baron Mindlehtint, 
could raife a Man off his Seat, with only his middle Finger ; 
fiop an Horfe in his full Career; and fhove a Canon out 
Of its Place. Cardan faw a Man dance with two Men in his 
Arms, two on his Shoulders, and one on his Neck. Patacoua, 
Captain of the Coffach, could tear an Horfe (hoe ; (and, if 
I miflake not, the fame is reported of the prefent King 
Jnguflusof Poland.) A Gigantick Woman of the Netherlands 
tenia lift a Barrel of Hamburg Beer. Mr. Carenv had a 
Tenant that could carry a Butt's Length, 6 Bufhels of Wheaten 
^ Meal (of 1 5 Gallons Meafure) with the Lubber the Miller, 
\J of 24 Years of Age, on the Top of it. And J. Roman, of 
fc - the fame County, could carry the Carcafe of an Ox. Vidi 
*j; Hakewill, ih. p. 238. 

~ Viros aliquot modema memoria tarn a mineralibus, quam aliu 
$eutbi<* tff Gothic provineiis adducere eongruit, tantd JbrtitfuUnt 
fneditos, ut qui/que eorum in humeros fublevaium Equum, *vel 
BoSHtn maximum, mo *vas ferri 600, 860, out 1600 lihrarum 
/: U**l* & aliqu* Puell* levare poffunt f ) ad plura ftadia portaret. 
Ol. Mag. ubi fupra. 

U t if\ Gw«'% 

292 Of Maris Stature. Book V. 

haps have been made of fufficient Strength to have 
barricaded our Houfes ; and Walls, and Ramparts 
might perhaps have been made ftrong enough to 
have fenced our Cities. But thefe Things could 
not have been without a great and inconvenient 
Expence of Room, Materials, and fuch Necefla : 
ries, as fuch vaft Structures and Ufes would have 
©ccafioned ; more perhaps than the World could 
have afforded to all Ages and Places. But let us 
take the Defcant of a good Naturalift and Phyfi- 
cian on the Cafe (e). " Had Man been a Dwarf, 
" (faid he) he had fcarce bten a reafonable Crau 
€< ture : For he muft then have had a Jolt Head: 
" fo there would not have been Body and Blood 
<€ enough to fupply his Brain with Spirits ; or he 
" muft have had a fmall Head, anfwerable to his 
" Body, and fo there would not have been Brain 
" enough for his Bufinefs. — Or had the Species of 
" Mankind been Gigantick, he could not have 
** been fo commodioufly fupplied with Food : For 
€C there would not have been Flelh enough of the 
<c beft edible Beads, to ferve his Turn. And if 
*' Beafts had been made anfwerably bigger, there 
c< would not have been Grafs enough. And fo he 
goeth on. And a little after, " There would not 
•' have been the fame Ufe and Difcovery of his 
" Reafon; in that he would have done many 
u Things by mere Strength, for which he is now 
€ft put to invent innumerable Engines. — Neither 
* l could he have ufed an Horfe, nor divers other 
<€ Creatures. But being of a middle Bulk, he is 
" fitted to manage and ufe them all. For (faith 1 
" he) no other Caufe can be afligned, why a Matt J 
" was not made five or ten times bigger, but hU 1 
" Relation to the reft of the Univerfe. " Thus fair F 
our curious Author, f 1 

(*) Grew's Crfml. Sacr. B. 1. Cb. 5. fgff. 25. 


1 *93 1 



; Of the StruSure of the Farts of Man's Body. 

HAving thus taken a View of the Pofture, 
Shape, and Siq? of Man's Body, let us in 
this Chapter furvcy the Stru&ure of its Parts. 
But here we have fo large a Profpcft, that it 
would be endlefs to proceed upon Particulars. It 
muft fuffice therefore to take Notice, in general 
only, ho* artificially every Part of our Body is 
made. No Botch, no Blunder, no unnecefiary Ap- 
paratus, (or in other Words) no Signs of Chance (<*); 
but every Thing curious, wderly, and performed 
in the fhorteft and bed Method, and adapted to 
the moft compendious Ufc What one Part is 
there throughout the whole Body, but what is 
compofed of the fitteft Matter for that Part; 


(a) It is manifeftly an Argument of Defign, That in the 
Bodies of different Animals, there is an Agreement of the 
Farts, fo far as the Occafions and Offices agree ; but a Diffe- 
rence of thofe, where there is a Difference of thefe. In an 
Human Body are many Parts agreeing with thofe of a Dog, 
for Inftance; but in his Forehead, Fingers, Hand, Inftru- 
nents of Speech, and many other Parts, there are Mufcles, 
and other Members which are not in a Dog. And fo con- 
traxiwife in a Dog, which is not in a Man. If the Reader 
is minded to fee what particular Mufcles are in a Man, that 
are not in a Dog ; or in a Dog, that are not in an Human 
Body, let him confult the curious and accurate Anatomh% 

294 Of tbe Strufturt BookV, 

made of the moft proper Strength and Texture ; 
fliaped in the compleatcft Form ; and, in a Word, 
accouterM with every Thing neceffary for its Mo- 
tion, Office, Nourilhment, Guard, and what not \ 
What fo commodious a Structure and Texture 
could have been given to the Bones, for Inftance, 
to make them firm and ftrong, and withal light, 
as that which every Bone in the Body hath ? Who 
could have fhaped them fo nicely to every Ufe, 
and adapted them to every Part, made them of 
{bch juft lengths, given them fuch due Sizes and 
Shapes, channelled, hollowed, headed, Jpbricatcd, 
and every other Thing miniftring, in the beft and 
mod compendious Manner to their feveral Places 
and Ufes? What a gloripqs Collcftion and Combi* 
nation have we ?lfo of the moft ejpquifife Workman* 
lhip and Contrivance in the Eye, in the Ear, in die 
Hand (£), in the Foot (c\ in the Lungs, and other 
Parts already mention'd? What an Abridgment of 


(b) Galtn having defcribed the Mufcles, Tendons, and 
other Parts of the Fingers, and their Motions, cries out, G*. 
fidera igitur etiam hie mirabilem Criatoris fapientiaml 
DeUf. Part. 1. 1. c. 18. 

(c) Anfl nop only in fne Hand, bat in jus Account of the 
Foot [/ 3.) he freguently takes Notice of what he calls, 
Art em, Providentiam 13 Sapient i am Condi tor is. As Ch. 13. An 
igitur non aquum eft hie quo que admirari Prowideutiam G#jm£- 
toris, qui ad utrumque ufum, etji eerie eontrarium % exm&e an- 
ntenientes iff eonfentitntes invicem fabricates eft totius mewbri 
[tibiae] particulas? And at the End of the Chap. S>ubd fi 
omnia qua ipfarum /tint part turn mente immutaverimus, neque 
jnvenerimut fofitionem aliam meliorem ed quam nunc fortite 
funt, neque jSguram, neque magnitudinem, neque connexinem, 
neque (ut paucis omnia eompleclar) aliud quidquam earum, qu* 
eorporibus necejfar'ib infunt y perfeeUffimam pronuneiare oportet, 6? 
undique re8e eonftitutam prafentem ejus eonftruSionem. The 
like aJfo concludes, Ch. 15. 



Chap.V. of Man's Body. 2g$ 

Art, what a Variety of Ufes (d), hath Nature laid 
upon that one Member the Tongue, the grand 
Inftrumcnt of Tafte, the faithful Judge, the Centi- 
nel, the Watchman of all our Nourilhment, the art* 
ful Modulator of our Voice, the neceffary Servant 
of Maftication, Swallowing, Sucking, and a great 
deal befides ? But I muft defift from proceeding 
upon Particulars, finding I am fallen upon what I 
propofed to avoid. . 

. And therefore, for a Clofe of this Chapter, I 
fliall only add Part of a Letter I received from the 
before-commended very curious and ingenious Phy* 
fician Dr. Tancred Robinfon : What (faith he) can 
pojfibly be better contrived for animal Motion and Life, 
than the quick Circulation of the Blood and Fluids, 
which run out of Sight in capillary Veffels, and very 
minute Duils, without Impediment, {except in foms 
Difeafes,) being all direfted to their peculiar Glands and 
Channels ', for the different Secretion, fenftble and infenfible 5 
whereof the laft is far the greatejl in Quantity a#4 
Effects, as to Health and Sicknefs, acute Diftempers 
frequently arifing from a Diminution of Tranfpiration f 
through fbe cutaneous Chimneys, andfome chronical Ones, 
from an Augmentation : Whereas, Obftruftions in the 
Liver, Pancreas, and other Glands, may only caufea 
Schirrus, a Jaundice, an Ague, a Dropjy, or other flow 
Difeafes. So an Increafe of that Secretion may accompany 
the general Colliquations, as in Fluxes, beSlick Sweats 
and Coughs, Diabetes, and other Consumptions, What 
a mighty Contrivance is there topreferve thefe due Se- 
cretions from the Blood, (on which Life fomucb de- 
pends,) by frequent Attritions, and Communications of 
the Fluids in their Paffage through the Heart, the Lungs \ 

and the whole Syftem of the Mufcles? What Maan^ 

! ■ ■ 1 ' . ■ ' , , ji i i. ii 

(d) At enim Opificis ifiduftrii maximum eft indicium (quem- 
admodum ante fapenumero jam diximus) iis qua ad alium ufum 
futrunt comparata, ad s alias quoque utilitates a butt, neque labo* 
raff ft Jiugulis utilitatibus fingulas faciat propria* farticu/as. 
Qdlen obi fupra, 1. 9. c. 5. 

V 4 ten 

Htf OftbeSirti&ure, kc. ItocncVj 

iters and Contortions of Veffels, in the Organs of Sepa* 
ration f And, fVbat a Concottrjfe of Elaftick Bodies from 
the Air, tofuppfy the Springs, and continual Motion of 
fome Parts, not only in Sleep; and Reft ; but in long 
violent Exercifes of the Mufcles f Whofe Force drive tie 
Fluids round in a wonderful rapid Circulation through 
the minuteft Tubes, afftfled by the conftant Pabuhm of 
fbe Atmofpbere, and their own Elajtick Fibres, which 
imprefs that Velocity on the Fluids. 

Novo I have mentioned fome Ufes of the Air, in tar* 
tying on fever al Functions in animal Bodies ; / may add 
the Share it bath in all the Digeftions of the folid and 
fluid Parts. For when this Syftem of Air comes, by Di* 
vine Permittance, to be corrupted with poifoncus, acri- 
wamotis Steams, either from the JjLartb, from Mercban- 
dife, or infeSied Bodies, What Havock is made in all the 
Operations of living Creatures ? fbe Parts gangrene % 
and mortify under Carbuncles, and other Tokens : Indeed, 
the whole Animal Oeconomy is ruined \ offucb Impor- 
tance is the Air to all the Parts of it. Thqsniy 
jp^rncd FriencJ. *" 


I *97 1 

C H A P. VI. 

Of the Placing the Parts ef Man's Body. 

IN this Chapter 1 propofe to conlider the Lodg- 
ment of the curious Parts of Man's Body, 
which is no leis admirable than the Parts them- 
felves, all fet in the moft convenient Places of the 
Body, to minifter to their own feveral Ufes and 
Purpofcs, and aflift* and mutually to help one ano- 
ther. Where could thofe faithful Watchmen the 
Eye, the Ear, the Tongue, be fo commodioufly 
placed, as in the upper Part of the Building? 
Where could we, throughout the Body, find fo 
proper a Part to lodge four of the five Senfes, as 
in the Head (*), near the Brain (£), the common 
Senfory, a Place well guarded, and of little other 
Ufe than to be a Seat to thofe Senfcs ? And, How 
could we lodge the fifth Senfe, that of Touching, 
otherwife (<:)> than to difperfc it to all Parts of the 


[a) Sen/us* interprets ae nuntii rerum, in capite, tanquam in 
arc€ y mirifice ad ujus necejjarios & fa3i y & collocati funt. Nam 
pculi tanquam Jpeculatores, altiffimum locum ebtinent ; ex quo plu- 
tima eonfpicientes, fungantur fuo munere. Et aures cum fonum 
fecipere Meant, qui naturd in f Mime fertur ; reQe in illis corpo- 
turn part ibus collocate funt. Cicer. de Nat. Deor. 1.2. c. 56. 
ybi plura de casteris SenGbus. 

{b) Galen well obferves, That the Nerves miniftring to M«* 
tion, are hard and firm, to be lefs fubjett to Injury ; but thofe 
miniftring to Senfe, are foft and tender ; and that for this Rea- 
fon it is, that four of the five 'Senfes are lodged fo near the 
Brain, *vix. partly to partake of the Brain's Softnefs and Ten- 
flernefs, and partly for the Sake of the ftrong Guard of the 
Skull. Fid Gal. de Uf. Part. I 8. e. J, 6. 

{c) See £t#* IV. Chaf. 6. tfote [c). 

298 Of the Placing of the Book V. 

Body ? Where could we plant the Hand (d) 9 but 
juft where it is, to be ready at every Turn, on all 
Occafions of Hek> and Defence, of Motion, Ac- 
tion, and every or its ufeful Services? Where could 
we fet the Legs and Feet, but where they are, to 
bear up, and handfomely to carry about the Body? 
Where could we lodge the Heart, to labour about 
the whole Mafs of Blood, but in, or near the 
Centre of the Body (*)? Where could we find 
Room for that noble Engine to play freely in? 
Where could we fo well guard it againft external 
Harms, as it is in that very Place in which it is 
lodg'd and fecur'd ? Where could we more comma- 
dioufly place, than in the Thorax and Belly, the 
ufeful Vifcera of thofe Parts, fo as not to fwag, and 
jog, and over-fet the Body, and yet to minifter fo 
harmonioufly, as they do, to all the feveral Ufes of 
Conco&ion, Sanguification, the Separation of vari- 
ous Ferments from the Blood, for the great Ufes of 
Nature, and to make Difcharges of what is ufelefs, 
or would be bgrthenfome or pernicious to the Bo- 
dy (/) ? How could we plant the curious and great 
Variety of Bones, and of Mufcles, of all Sorts and 
Sizes, neceffary, as I have faid, to the Support, and 
every Motion of the Body ? Where could we lodge 
all the Arteries and Veins, to convey Nourifhment ; 
and the Nerves, Senfation throughout the Body? 
Where, I fay, could we lodge all thefe Implements 


(d) Quam verb apt as, quamque muff arum artiurn mlniftras 
Manus natura bomini dedit ? The Particulars of which, enume- 
rated by him, fee in Cic. ubi Supra, c. 60. 

(e) See Book VI. Chap. 5. 

(f) U* ** edifieiis Architect avertunt ab oculis £sf naribus do- 
mi no rum ea, qua profluentia necejjartb tttri ejfent aliquid babitura 5 

fie natura res fimiles {fcil. exerementa) procul amandavit a fen: 
Jjbus. Cicer. de h|a.t. Deor. 1. 2. c. 56. 

(£) Coav, 

Ch ap. VI. Parts of Man's Body. 299 

of the Body, to perform their feveral Offices ? How 
could we fecure and guard them fo well, as in the 
very Places, and in the felf-fame Manner in which 
they are already plac'd in the Body ? And laftly, to 
name no more, What Covering, what Fence could 
we find out for the whole Body, better than that of 
Nature's own providing, the Skin? (g) How could 
we fhape it to, or brace it about every Part better, 
either for Convenience or Ornament ? What better 
Texture could we give it, which although lefs obdu- 
rate and firm, than that of fome other Animals -, yet 
is fo much the more fenfiblc of every Touch, and 
more compliant with every Motion ? And being eafily 
defenfible by the Power of Man's Reafon and Art, 
is therefore much thppropereft Tegument for a rea- 
fonable Creature, 

(g) Compare here Galen's Obfervations de Uf. Part. /. n. 
C. 1 5. Alio /. 2. c. 6. See alio Cvwper. Anat, where in Tab. 4: 
are very elegant Cpts of the Skin in divers Parts of the Body, 
drawn from microfcopical Views ; as alfo of the papilla Pyra- 
pnidahs, the fudoriftrous Glands and Vefleli, the Hairs, &c. 

CB. k^. 

t 3°° J 


Of the Provifion in Maris Body againji Evils. 

HAving taken a tranfient View of the Stru&ure, 
and Lodgment of the Parts of human Bodies; 
let us next confider the admirable Provifion that is 
made throughout Man's Body, to Have off Evils, 
and todifcharge (a) them when befallen. For the 
Prevention of Evils, we may take the Inftances al- 
ready given, of the Situation of thofe faithful Sen- 
tinels, the Eye, the Ear, and Tongue, in the fupc- 
rior Part of the Body, the better todcfcry Dan- 
gers at a Diftance, and to call out prefently for 
Help. And how well fituated is the Hand to be a 
fure and ready Guard to the Body, as well as the 
faithful Performer of moft of its Services? The 
Brain, the Nerves, the Arteries, the Heart (£), the 

Lungs •, 

(a) One of Nature's mod conftant Methods here, is by the 
Glands, and the Secretions made by them -, the Particulars of 
which being too long for thefe Notes, I fhall refer to the mo- 
dern Anatomifts, who have written on thefe Subjects; and in- 
deed, who are the only Men that have done it tolerably : Par- 
ticularly, our learned Doctors Cockburn, Keil t Morland, and 
others at Home and Abroad : An Abridgment of whofe Opi- 
nions and Obfervations, for the Reader's Eafe, may be met 
With in Dr. Harris's Lex. <£ecb. Vol. 2. under the Words Glands, 
and Animal Secretion. 

(b) In Man, and moft other Animals, the Heart hath the 
Guard of Bones ; but in the Lamprey, which hath no Bones, 
(no not fo much as a Back-bone,) the Heart is <very firangely 

fecwed y and lies immur'd, or capfulated in a Cartilage >, or grijly 
Sub fiance, <wbicb includes tbe Heart, and its Auricle, as tbe Skull 
» dotb tbe Brain in other Animals. Power's Microf. Obf. 22. 

Chap. VII. Provijtons againft Evil. 301 

Lungs; and in a Word, all the principal Parts, 
bow well are they barricaded, either with ftrong 
Bones, or deep Lodgments in the Flefh, or fome 
fuch the wifeft and fitted: Method, mod agreeable to 
the Office and A&ion of the Parts ? Befides which, 
for greater Precaution, and a farther Security, what 
an incomparable Provifion hath the infinite Contri- 
ver of Man's Body made for the Lofs of, or any 
Defe£fc in, fome of the Parts we can lead fpare, by- 
doubling them ? By giving us two Eyes, two Ears, 
two Hands, two Kidneys, two Lobes of the Lungs, 
Pairs of the Nerves, and many Ramifications of the 
Arteries and Veins in the flefhy Parts, that there 
may not be a Defeat of Nourifhment of the Parts, 
in Cafes of Amputation, or Wounds, or Ruptures 
of any of the Veffels. 

And as Man's Body is admirably contriv'd, and 
made to prevent Evils •, fo no lefs Art and Cau- 
tion hath been ufed to get rid of them, when they 
do happen. When by any Misfortune, Wounds 
or Hurts do befal j or, when by our own wicked 
Fooleries and Vices, we pull down Difeafes and 
Mifchiefs upon ourfelves, what Emunftories (c) 9 
what admirable Paffages (a) % are difpers'd through- 

(c) Here [from the Paftules he obferv'd in Monomotapa] 
we re Grounds to admire the Contrivance of our Blood, which on 
fome Occafions, fo foon as any Thin? deftruclive to the Confiitution 
of it, comes into it, immediately by an inteftine Commotion, endea- 
vour eth to thruft it forth, and is not only freed from the new Gueft ; 

but fometimes what likewife may have lain lurking therein 

for a great while. And from hence it comes to fafs, That mofi 
Part of Medicines, when duly adminifired, are not only fent out of 
the Body them/elves; hut likewife great Quantities ofmorhifick 
Matter : As in Salivation, &c. Dr. Sloane's Voy. to Jamaica, 
p. 25. 

(d) Falfalva difcover'd fome Paflages into the Region of 
the Eardrum, of mighty Uk, (among others,) to make Dis- 
charges of Bruifes, Jmpofthumes, or any purulent, or mor- 

l bifick 

302 Provifims againji Evils. Book V* 

out the Body ; what incomparable Methods doth 
Nature take (e) ; what vigorous Efforts is fhe en* 


bifick Matter from the Brain, and Parts of the Head. Of 
which he gives two Examples : One a Perfon, who from a Blow 
on his Head, had difmal Pains therein, grew fpeechlefi, and 
lay under an abfolate Suppreffion and Decay of his Strength ; 
but found certain Relief, whenever he had a Flux of Blood; 
or purulent Matter out of his Ear i which after his Death FaU 
falva difcover'd, was through thofe Pafiages. 

The other was an AfopUBkal Cafe, wherein he found a large 
Quantity of extravafated Blood, making Way from the Ven- 
tricles of the Brain, through thofe fame Pafiages. Valfal. de 
Aure bum. c. 2. ft 8. 14. and c. $.fe8. &< 

(e) Hippocrates Lib. ie Alimntit. takes Notice of the Saga* 
city of Nature, in finding out Methqds and Pafiages for, the 
difcharging Things offenfive to the Body, of which the late 
learned and ingenious Bifhop of Clogber, ifl Ireland, (Boyle,) 
gave this remarkable Inftance, to my very curious and inge- 
nious Neighbour and Friend, TTAcre Barret, Efif; vix. That 
in the Plague Year, a Gentleman at the Univerfity had a 
large Plague- Sore gathered under his Arm, which, tthen they 
expe&ed it would have broken, discharged itfelf by a more 
than ordinary large and foetid Stool ; the Sore having no o- 
ther Vent for it, and immediately becoming found and weS 

Like to which, is the Story of Jof. Lazohius, of a Soldier 
of thirty-five Years of Age, who had a Swelling in his right 
Hip, accompany'd with great Pain, &e. By the Ufe of emoU 
lient Medicines, having ripened the Sore, the Surgeon intend- 
ed the next Day to have opened it ; but about Midnight, the 
Patient having great Provocations to Stool, difburthen'd him- 
felf three Times; immediately upon which, both the Tumour 
and Pain ceafed, and thereby difappointed the Surgeon's In- 
tentions. Ephetn. Germ. Anno 1690. Obf 49. More fuch In- 
fiances we find of Mr. Tanges, in Pbilofopb. Tranf. ^323. 
But indeed there are fo many Examples of this Nature in our 
Pbilofopb. Tranf. in Epbem. German. 7bo. Bartboline, Rbo- 
dim, Sennertus, Hildanus, &c. that it would be endlefs to re- 
count them. Some have fwallow'd Knives, Bodkins, Needles 
and Pins, Bullets, Pebbles, and twenty other fuch Things as 
could not find a Paflage the ordinary Way, but have met with 
an Exit through the Bladder, or fome other Way of Nature's 
own providing. But palling over many Particulars, I (hall 
only give one Inftance more, becaufe it may be a jjood Cau- 
1 tion 

Chap. VII. Prwifions agdinfi Evils. 303 

bled to make, to difcharge the peccant Humours, 
Jocorred the morbifick Matter* and, in a Word, 
to fet all Things right again ? But here we had bed 
take the Advice ofa learned Phyfician in the Cafe: 
* c The Body, (faith lie) is fo contrived, as to be 
" well enough fecured againft the Mutations in the 
" Air, and the leffer Errors we daily run upon ; 
" did we not in the Excefles of Eating, Drinking, 
<€ Thinking, Loving, Hating, or fome other Folly 
€€ let in the Enemy, or lay violent Hands upon our 
<c felves. Nor is the Body fitted only to prevent, 
cc but alfo to cure, or mitigate Difeafes, when by 
<c thefe Follies brought upon us. In moft Wounds, 
<c if kept clean, and from the Air, the Flefh 

cc will glew together with its own native Balm. 
€< Broken Bones are cemented with the Callus, which 
<ft themfelves help to make". And fo he goes on 
with ample Inftances in this Matter,, too many to 
be here foecify'd (/). Among which he inftanceth 
in the Diftempers of our Bodies, (hewing, That 
even many of them are highly ferviceable to the 
Difcharge of malignant Humours, and preventing 
greater Evils. 

And no lefs Kind than Admirable is this Con* 
trivance of Man's Body, that even its Diftempers 


tion to fome Perfons, that thefe Papers may probably fall in* 
to the Hands of; and that is, the Danger of rwallowing 
Plumb -ft ones, Prune- ft ones, &c. Sir Francis Butltr** Lady had 
many Prune- ft ones that made way through an Abfcefs near her 
Navel. Philofoph. Traitf. N° 265, where are other fuch like 
Examples. More alfo may be found in N° 282, 304, £sV. 
And at this Day, a young Man, living not far off me, labour,. 
eth under very troublefome and dangerous Symptoms, from 
the Stones of Sloes and Bullace % which he fwallow'd eight or 
ten Years ago. 

(f) Grcws Co/moL $c&. 28, 29. 

(i) N* 

304 Provifims againfi Evils. Book V. 

fliould many Times be its Cure (g) ; that when the 
Enemy lies lurking within to deftroy us, thenc 
fhould be fuch a Reluftancy, and all Nature exci- 
ted with its utmofl Vigour to expel him thence. 
To which Purpofe, even Fain it felf is of great 
and excellent Ufe, not only in giving us Notice of 
the Prefencc of the Enemy, but by exciting us to 
ufe our utmoft Diligence and Skill to root out fo 
troublefome and deftru&ive a Companion. 

(g) AT"* are Difeafes them/elves ufele/s: For the Blood in a A- 
wr, if well governed, like Wine upon the Fret, difebargeth it/elf 
of all heterogeneous Mixtures ; and Nature, the Difeafe, and Re- 
medies, clean all the Rooms of the Houfe ; whereby that which 
threatens Death, tends, in CoucJufiou, to the prolonging of Life, 
Grew, ubi fupr. fed. 52. 

And as Difeafes minifter fomctimes to Health : fo to othe* 
good Ufes in the Body, fuch as quickning the Senfes : Of 
which take thefc Jnftances relating to the Hearing and Sight. 

A very ingenious Fhyfician falling into an old Kind of Fever, 
had bis Senfe of Hearing thereby made fo very nice and tender, 
■that he very plainly heard foft JVbifters, that were made at a con* 
fiderable Diftance off, and which were not in the lea ft perceived by 
the By ftanders, nor would have been by him before his Sichuefs. 

A Gentleman of eminent Farts and Note, during a Difiemper hi 
had in his Byes, had bis Organs of Sight brought to be fo tender, 
' that both his Friends, and himfelf have affurd me, 7hat when he 
wak'd in the Night, he could for a while plainly fee and diftinguijb 
Colours, as well as other ObjeSs, difcemable by the Eye, as wot 
more than once trfd. Boyl. deter, nat. of Effluv. ch. 4. 

Daniel Frafer— continu 'd Deaf and Dumb from his Birth, 
till the 1 yth Tear of his Ag e ■ After his Recovery from a Fe» 
ver, he perceiv'd a Motion in his Brain, which was very uneafy 
to him ; and afterwards he began to hear, and in Procefs of Time t 
to under/land Speech, &c. Vid. Philof. Tranf. N° 312. 




Of the Confent between the Parts of Man's Body. 

IT is an admirable Provifion the merciful Crea-. 
tor hath made for the Good of Man's Body, 
by the Confent and Harmony between the Parts 
thereof: Of which let us take St. Paul's Defcrip- 
tion, in 1 Cor. xii. 8. But now hath God fet the, 
Member s, every one of them in the Body, as it hath, 
pleafd him. And ver. 21. The Eye cannot fay unto 
the' Hand, I have no need of thee : Nor again, the Head 
to the Feet, I have no need of you. But fuch is the 
Confent of all the Parts, or, as the Apoftle wordeth 
it, God hath fo tempered the Body together, that the 
Members Jhould have the fame Care one for another, 
■ver. 25. So that whether one Member fuffer, all the 
Members fuffer with it ; or one Member be honoured, (or 
affe&ed with any Good,) all the Members rejoice, [and 
fympathize] with it, ver. 26. 

This mutual Accord, Confent, and Sympathy of 
the Members, there is no Reafon to doubt (a), is 
made by the Commerce of the Nerves (b), and 


(a) See Book IV. Chap. 8. 

{b) 7ria propofita ipfi Natura in Nervorum diftributione fue- 
runt. 1. Ut J en/or it's inftrumentis S enfant imperii ret. z, Ut 
motoriis Motum. 3. Ut omnibus aliis \_partibus] daret ut qua 
Ji. dolor em adferrent 9 dignnfcerent. And afterwards. Si quit in 
diffeilionibus fpeSlavit, con/id<ravitque jufttne. an /ecus Natura 
Ner'vos non eddem menfurd omnibus part thus d/firibuerit, fed aliis 
quid em liber alius y aliis verb parcius, eadem cum Hippocrate 9 
<veht nolit f de Natura omnino pronunciabit, quod ea fcilicet fagax % 
jufta, artificio/a, animaliumque prowida eft. Galen de (J Id 
fart. 1. 5. c. 9. 

3 o 6 Confent of the Parts. Book V. 

their artificial Pofitions, and curious Ramificati- 
ons throughout the whole Body, which is admr* 
rable and incomparable, and might deferve a Place 
in this Survey, as greatly, and manifeftly fetting 
forth the Wifdom and Benignity of the great Cre- 
ator; but that to give a Deicription thereof from 
the Origin of the Nerves, in the Brain, the Cere- 
bellum and Spine % and fo through every Part of 
the Body, would be tedious, and intrench too 
much upon the Anatomift's Province : And there- 
fore one Inftance fhall fuffice for a Sample of the 
Whole; and that fhall be, (what was pfomifed 
before) (f), the great Sympathy occafiori'd by the 
fifth Pair of Nerves ; which I chufe to inftance 
in, rather than the Tar vagum, or any other of 
the Nerves ; becaufe altho' we may have lefs Va- 
riety of noble Contrivance and Art, than in that 
Pair ; yet we fhall find enough for our Purpofe, 
and which may be difpatch'd in fewer Words. 
Now this fifth Conjugation of Nerves is branched 
to the Ball, the Mufcles, and Glands of the Eye; 
to the Ear ; to the Jaws, the Gums, and Teeth ; 
to the Mufcles of the Lips (d) ; to the Tonfils, 
the Palate, the Tongue, and the Parts of the 
Mouth; to the Pracordia alfo, in forhe Meafure, 
by inofculating with one of its Nerves; and laftly, 


(c) Book IV. Chap. 5. 

(d) Dr. Willis gives the Reafon, Cur tnutua Amajiorum 
efcula labiis impreffa, turn freecordia, turn genitalia ajficiendo, 
amor em ac libidinem tarn facile irritant, to be from the Con- 
fent of thofe Parts, by the Branches of this fifth Pair. Nerv. 
Difcr. c. zz. 

And Dr. Sachs judges it to be from the Confent of the La- 
bia Oris cum Labiis Uteri, that in April 1669, a certain breed- 
ing Lady, being affrighted with feeing one that had fcabby 
Lips, which they told her were occafion'd by a peftilential 
Fever, had fach like Puftules brake out in the Labia Uteri. 
Mpbem. Germ. T. 1. Obf. 20. 

(e) Con- 

Chap. VIII. Confent of the Tarts. 307 

to the Mufcles of the Face, particularly the Cheeks, 
*Whofe fanguiferous Veflels it twifts about. 

From hence it comes to pafs, that there is a 
great Confent and Sympathy (e) between thefe 
Parts ; fo that a guftable Thing feen or fmelt, ex- 
cites the Appetite, and affe&s the Glands and 
Parts of the Mouth •, that a Thing feen or heard, 
that is (hameful, affe&s the Cheeks with modeft 
Blufhes; but on the contrary, if it pleafes and 
tickles the Fancy, that it affe&s the Pracordia^ 
and Mufcles of the Mouth and Face with Laugh- 
ter ; but a Thing caufing Sadnefs and Melancholy, 
doth accordingly exert itfelf upon the Pracordia % 
and demonftrate itfelf by cauling the Glands of 
the Eyes to emit Tears (/), and the Mufcles of 
the Face to put on the forrowful Afpeft of Cry- 
ing. Hence alfo that torvous four Look produced 
by Anger and Hatred : And that gay and pleafing 
Countenance accompanying Love and Hope. And 
in (hort, it is by Means of this Communication of 
the Nerves, that whatever affe&s the Soul, is de- 
monftrated, (whether we will or no,) by a con- 
fentaneous Difpofition of the Pracordia within, and 
a lpitable Configuration of the Mufcles and Parts 
of the Face without. And an admirable Contri- 
vance of the great G o d of Nature this is •, That 
as a Face is given to Man, and as Pliny faith (£), 
to Man alone of all Creatures ; fo it (hould be, (as 
he obferves J the Index of Sorrow and Cbearfulnefs y 

. (e) Confult Willis ubifupra. 

(f) Tears fcrve not only to moiften the Eye, to clean and 
brighten the Cornea, and to exprefs o*r Grief; but alfo to 
alleviate it, according to that of Uljjfes to Andromache, in 
Seneca's Troas, ver. 762. 

Tetnpus moramqut fabimus, arbitrio tuo 
Imflere lacrymis : Fletus arumnas lavat. 
[fr) Plin. I^at. Hiil. J.11.C. 37. 

X 2; tft WM 

3 o 8 Confent of tlx Parts. Book V. 

of Compajfion and Severity. In its a fc ending Part is tbt 
Brow, and therein a Part of the Mind too. Therewith 
we deny* therewith we confent. With this it is we /hew 
our Pride y which bath its Source in another Place ; but 
here its Seat : In the Heart it bath its Birth ; but here 
it abides and dwells \ and that becaufe it could find no 
other Part throughout the Body higher y or more craggy (&), 
where it might refide alone. 

Thus I have difpatch'd what I fhall remark con- 
cerning the Soul and Body of Man, There are 
divers other Things, which well deferve a Place in 
this Survey ; and thefc that I have taken Notice of, 
deferved to have been enlarged upon: But what 
hath been (aid, may fuffice for a Tafte and Sample 
of this admirable Piece of God's Handy-work ; at 
lead ferve as a Supplement to what others have faid 
before me. For which Reafon I have endeavour'd to 
fay as little wittingly as .1 could, of what they have 
taken Notice of, except where the Thread of my 
Difcourfe laid a Neceflity upon me. 

(b) Nihil altiusfimul abruptiu/que iwven'it. 

B/w+ tr+ /r* fw> f*'*' (** fT\( r \('\CZ' 9 \Ct% *** "£ /r * *** (** {*"*(*"* ' r * (•** /r ' (*" (** (** "* (** (**(** 


Of the Variety of Mens Faces, Voices, and 

HE R E I would have put an End to my Ob- 
fervations relating to Man; but that there 
are three Things fo exprefsly declaring the Divine 
Management and Concurrence, that I fhall juft 
mention them, although taken Notice of more 
amply by others j and that is, The great Varie- 

Ch ap. IX. Tie Variety of Men's Faces , &c. 309 

ty throughout the World, of Men's Faces (a\ 
Voices (£), and Hand- Writing. Had Man's Bo- 
dy been made according to any of the atheiftical 
Schemes, or any other Method than that of the 
infinite Lord of the World, this wife Variety 
would never have been : But Men's Faces would 
have been caft in the fame, or not a very different 
Mould •, their Organs of Speech would have found- 
ed the fame, or not fo great a Variety of Notes ; 
and the fame Strufture of Mufcles and Nerves, 
would have given the Hand the fame Direction 
in Writing. And in this Cafe, what Confufion, 
what Difturbance, what Mifchiefs, would the 
World eternally have lain under ? No Security 
could have been to our Perfons ; no Certainty, no 
Enjoyment of our Pofieflions (c) j no Juftice be- 

{a) If the Reader hath a Mind to fee Examples of Men's 
Likenefs, jie may confult Valer. Maximus, L 9. c. 14. con- 
cerning the Likenefs of Pompey the Great, and Vihius, and 
PMicius Lihtrtinus; as alio of Pompey the Father, who got 
the Name of Coquus, he being like Menogenes the Cook ; with 
divers others. 

(b) As the Difference of Tone m«kes a Difference between 
every Man's Voice, of the fame Country, yea, Family, fo 
a different Dialed and Pronunciation, differs Perfons of di- 
vers Countries, yea, Perfons of one and the fame Country, 
f peaking the ftme Language : Thus in Greece, there were the 
Jonick, Dorick, Attick, and jEolick Dialers. So in Great Bri- 
tain, befides the grand Di verfity of Englijh and Scotch, the 
different counties vary very much in their Pronunciation, 
Accent, and Tone, altho' all one and the fame Language. 
And the Way of the Gileadites proving the Epbraimites, Judg* 
xii. 6. by the Pronunciation of Shibboleth, with a Schin, or 
Sibboletb with a Samech, is well known. So a Lapide faith, 
the Flemings prove whether a Man be a frenchman or not, 
by bidding him pronounce Acht en tachtentickt ; which they 
pronounce, Ad en taclentic, by reafon they can't pronounce 
the Afpirate h. 

(c) Regs Antiocho unus ex aqualibus ■ nomine Artemon, 

perquam fimilis fuijfe traditur. Quern Lao dice, uxor Antiochi. 
mterfeclo viro, dijjimulandi fcehris gratia, $n UcIuIq jertWe 

X 3 <{*«& 

3 to The Variety of Men's Faces , &c. Book V. 

tween Man and Man; no Diftindtion between 
Good and Bad, between Friends and Foes, between 
Father and Child, Hufband and Wife, Male or Fe- 
male ; but all would have been turn'd topfey-turvey, 
by being expof^d to the Malice of the Envious and 
Ill-natured, to the Fraud and Violence of Knaves 
and Robbers, to t^e Forgeries of the crafty Cheat, 
to the Lufts of the Effeminate and Debauch'd, and 
what not! Our Courts of Juftice (d) can abun- 
dantly tcftify the dire Effe&s of miftaking Men's 
Faces, of counterfeiting their Hands, and forging 
Writings. But now, as the infinitely wife Creator 
and Ruler hath order'd the Matter, every Man's 
Face can diftinguifh him in the Light, and his 
Voice in the Dark ; his Hand-writing can fpeak for 
him tho* abfcnt, and be his Witnefs, and fecuFe his 
Contrafts in future Generations. A manifeft, as well 
as admirable Indication of the divine Superinten- 
dence and Management (e ). 

quafi ipfum Regem agrum colloca*vit. AdmiJJumque univer/um 
populum, & fermone ejus & njultu conjimili fefellit : crediderunt- 
que homines ab Antiocbo moriente Laodicen & natos ejus Jibi com- 
mendari. Valer. Max. ib. 

(d) ^uid Trebellius Calca ! quam affeveranter fefe Ciodium 
tulit / £sf quid cm dum de bonis ejus contendit % in centumvirale 

judicium adeofavorabifis defcendit, ut vixjuftis &f aquis fententiis 
conjlernatio populi uilum relinqueret locum. In ilia tamen quajlione 
neque c alumni a pet it oris, neque violent i a plebis judicantium religio 
ce£it. Val. Max. ib. c. 15. 

(e) To the foregoing Inftances of Divine Management, 
with relation to the political State of Man, I fhall add ano- 
ther Thing, that I confefs hath always feem'd to me fome- 
what odd, but very providential ; and that is, the Value 
that Mankind, at lead the civilized Part of them, have in all 
Ages put upon Gems, and the purer finer Metals, Gold and 
Silver ; fo as to think them equivalent unto, and exchange 
them for Things of the greateft Ufe for Food, Cloathing, 
and all other Neceffaries and Conveniences of Life. Where- 
as thofe Things themfelves are of very little, if any, Ufe in 
Phyfick, Food, Building, or Cloathing, otherwife than for 
Ornament, or to minifter to Luxury; as Suetonius tells us 

h " cf 

Ch ap.IX. 7%e Variety of Men's Faces, Sec. 311 

of Nero, who fifli'd with a Net gilt with Gold, and fliod his 
Mules with Silver; but his Wife Poppaa fhod her Horfes 
with Gold. Fit. Ner. e. 30. PHn. N. H. J.&. c. 11. So the 
fame Suetonius tells us, Jul. Cafar lay in a Bed of Gold, and 
rode in a Silver Chariot. But Heliogabalus rode in one of 
Gold, and had his Clofe-ftool-Pans of the fame Metal. And 
Pliny faith, Vafa Coquinaria ex argento Calvus Orator fieri 
queritur. Ibid. Neither are thole precious 1 hings of 
greater Ufe to the making of VefTels, and Utenflls, (unkfs 
fome little Niceties and Curiofities,) by means of their 
Beauty, Imperdibility, and Dudlility. Of which lait, the 
great Mr. Boyle hath, among others, thefe two Intiances, in 
his EJJay about the Subtilty of Effluvium? , Chap. 2. Silver \ 
whofe Duftility, and Traclili y, are very much inferior to thofe 
ofGoid, <zvas f by my procuring, drawn out to fojlender a Wire % 

that a fingle Grain of it amounted to t<wenty-fe*uen Feet.- 

As to Gold, he demonttrates it. poffible to extend an Ounce 
thereof, to reach to 777600 Feet, or 155 Miles and an half, 
yea, to an incredibly greater Length. 

And as to Gems, the very Stories that are told of their pro- 
digious Virtues, are an Argument, that they have very little, 
or none, more than other hard Stones. That a Diamond mould 
difcover whether a Woman he true or falfe to her Husband's 
Bed ; caufe Love between Man and Wife ; iecure againft 
Witchcraft, Plague, andPoifonsj that the Ruby fhould difpofe 
to Cheerfulnefs, caufe pleafant Dreams, change its Colour 
againft a Misfortune befalling, &V. that the Sapphire fhould 
grow foul, and lofe its Beauty, when worn by one that is 
Leacherous ; that the Emerald fhould fly to pieces, if it touch 
the Skin of any unchafte Perfon in the Aft of tJndeannefs : 
that the Cbryfolite fhould lofe its Colour, if Poifon be on 
the Table, and recover it again when the Poifon is off; and, 
to name no more, that the Turcoife (and the fame is faid of a 
Gold Ring,) fhould fir ike the Hour when hung over a drink- 
ing Glaifs, and much more to the fame Purpofe : All thefe, 
arid many other fuch fabulous Stories, I fay, of Gems, aie 
great Arguments, that their Virtue is equivalent to their 
Value. Of thefe, and other Virtues, confult Worm in his 
Mufeum, /. i.feB. 2. c. 17, &c. 

But as to Gems changing their Colour, there may be fome? 
what of Truth in that, particularly in the Turcoife lad men- 
tioned. Mr. Boyle obferv'd the Spots in a Turcoife, to fhift 
their Place from one Part to another, by gentle Degrees. 
SO did the Cloud in an ^£4f*-Handle of a Knife. A Diamond 
he wore on his Finger, he obferv'd to be more illuftrious 
at fome times than others ; which a curious Lady told him 
(he had alfo obferv'd in hers. So like wife a rich Ruby did 
the fame. Boylt of AbfoL Reft in Bodies. 

X 4 CHr\?V 

[ 3 I2 ] 


tfhe Condition of the Survey of Man. 

AN D now having taken a View of Matty and 
finding every Part of him, every Thing re- 
lating to him contrived, and made in the very beft 
Manner •, his Body fitted up with the utmoft Fore- 
fight, Art, and Care ; and this Body, (to the great 
Honour, Privilege, and Benefit of Man,) poffefs'd 
by a Divine Part, the Soul y a Subftance made as 
it were on Purpofe to contemplate the Works of 
God, and glorify the great Creator •, and fince this 
Soul can difcern, think, reafon, and fpeak ; What 
can we conclude upon the whole Matter, but that 
we lie under all the Obligations of Duty and Gra- 
titude, to be thankful and obedient to, and to fet 
forth the Glories of our great Creator, and noble 
Benefa&or ! And what ungrateful Wretches are we, 
how much worfe than the poor Irrationals, if we 
do not employ the utmoft Power of our Tongue, 
and all our Members, and all the Faculties of our 
Souls, in the Praifes of God! But above all, 
fhould we, who have the Benefit of thofe glorious 
Afts and Contrivances of the Creator, be fuch 
wicked, fuch bafe, fuch worfe than brutal Fools, 
to deny the Creator (a), in fome of his' nobleft 


(a) It was a pious, as well as juft Conclufion, the ingeni- 
ous Laurence Bellini makes of his Opufculum de Motu Cordis, 
in thefe Words : De Motu Cordis ifthac, Qua equidem omnia y 
fi a rudi intelligent id Hominis tantum confilii, tan turn ratioci- 
niiy tantum feritia mi lie rerum, tantum Jcientiarum exigunt 9 
ad hoc, ut inveniantur > feu ad hoc, ut percifiantur foftquam 
fafiajunt ; ilium, cujus opera, fabrefada Junt b<tc Jmgula, tarn 

Chap. X. The Conclufwn. 313 

Works ? Should we fo abufe our Reafon, yea, 
our very Senfts ; fhould we,.be fo bcfotted by the 
Devil, and blinded by*our Lufts, as^lo attribute 
one of the beft contriv'd Pieces of Workmanfliip 
to blind Chance, or uneuided Matter and Moti- 
on, or any other fuch iottifh, wretched, atheifti- 
cal Stuff; which we never faw, nor ever heard 
made any one Being (b) in any Age fince the Cre- 
ation? No, No! But like wife and unprejudic'd 
Men, let us with David fay, Pfalm cxxxix. 14. 

■ se 

warn erimus at que inanes, ut exiftimemus effe confilii impotem, 
rationis expertem, imp er it urn, aut ignarum omnium rerum ? Quan- 
tum ad me attinet, nolim effe Rationis compos > ft tantum infudan- 
dum mibi effet ad corfequendum intelligent iam earum rerum, quas 
fabrefaceret nefcio qua Vis, qua nihil iatelligiret eorum qua fabrc- 
faceret ; mibi etenim wider er effe wile quiddam, at que ridiculum, 
qui *uellem totam atatem meow, funitatem, & qui c quid iumanum 
eft deter ere, curare quicquid eft jucunditatum, qui c quid lati- 
tiarum, quicquid commodorum\ non diviiias, non dignitatis: non 
paenas etiam, & vitam ipfam, ut gloriari poffem ptfiremo inweniffe 
unum y aut alt e rum, & fortaffe me inveniffe quidtm ex iis innume- 
ris % qua produxi/jet* nefcio quis Hie, qui fine labor e, fine curd, 
nihil cogitanSy nihil cognofcens % non unam aut alteram tern, ne- 
que dubie, fed certo produxiffet innumeras innumtr abilit at es rerum 
in hoc tarn immenfo f patio corporum, ex quihus totus Mundus com- 
pingitur. Ah Deum immor talent ! Video prafens numen tuum in 
bifce tarn prodigiofts Gene rationis initiis, & in altiffima eorum con- 
templation drftxus, nefcio quo aftro admirationis conciter, £5* que ft 
divine fur ens cohiberi me minime poffum quin exclamem. 

Magnus Dominus / Magnus Fabricator Uominum Deus f Mag- 
nus atque Admit abilis! Conditor rerum Deus quant Magnus es f 
Bellin. de Mot. Cord. fin. 

(b) Hoc [i. e. inundum effici ornatiflimum, & pulcherrimum 
CX concurfione fortuita] qui exiftimat fieri potuffe, non intelligo 
cur non idem putet, fi innumerabiks unius, & viginti forma lite- 
rarum, vel aurea, *vel quahftibet^ aliquo corjiciantur, poffe ex bis in 
terram excvffis annals s Ennli ut deinceps legi pofjint, effici, &c. ■ ■ 
Quod ft Mundum eficere potefl concurfus Atomorum, cur porticum, 
cur templum, cur domum, cur urbem non potefl ? Qua funt minus 
operofa, {jf mulio quidem faciiiora. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. 
c. }T . 


jj 1 4 c tbe Conckfion. Book V. 

(with which I conclude,) J will praife thte % for lam 
fearfully and wonderfully made\ marvellous are thy 
JPbrks, an&4kft my Soul knowtib right well. 

Having thus made what (considering the Copi- 
Oufoefs and Excellence of the Subject,) may be cal- 
led a very brief Survey of Man y and feen fuch ad- 
mirable Marks of the Divine Defign and Art ; let 
us next take a tranfient View of the other inferior 
Creatures; and begin with Quadrupeds. 




A A A A A A A A A A A ,j» 


A SURVEY of Quadrupeds. 


0/* /&/r Prone Pofture. 

[N taking a View of this Part of the 
Animal World , fo far as the Structure of 
their Bodies is conformable to that of 
Man, I ftiall pafs them by, and onJ^ 
take Notice of fome Peculiarities in 
them, which are plain Indications of Defign, and, 
the Divine Super- intendence and Management. And 
i. The mod vifible apparent Variation is the Prone 
Pofture of their Body : Concerning which, 1 ftiall 
take Noticeonly of two Things, the Parts miniftring 
thereto, and the Ufe and Benefit thereof. 

I. As for the Parts, it is obfervable, That in all 
thefe Creatures, the Legs are made exadtly confor- 
mable to this Pofture, as thofe in Man are to his 
ere£t Pofture : And what is farther obfervable alfo, 
is, that the Legs and Feet are always admirably 
fuited to the Motion and Exercifes of each Ani- 
mal : In fome they are made for Strength only, to 


3 16 The Pofture of Quadrupeds. Book VI. 
fupport a vaft, unwieldy Body ; (a) ; in others they 
are made ijpc Agility and Swiftnefs {b), in fomc 
they are maac for only Walking and Running, in 
others for that, and Swimming too (c) •, in others 
for Walking and Digging (d) •, and in others for 
Walking and Flying (*) : In fome they arc made 
more lask and weak, for the plainer Lands ; in o- 
thers rigid, ftiff, and lefs flexible (/), for traver- 


(a) The Elephant being a Creature of prodigious Weight, 
the largeit of all Animals, Pliny faith, hath its Legs accor- 
dingly made of an immenfe Strength, like Pillars, rather than 

(b) Deer, Hares, and other Creatures, remarkable for Swift- 
nefs, have their Legs accordingly Header, but withal lirong, 
and every Way adapted to their Swiftnefs. 

(c) Thus the Feet of the Otter are made, the Toes being 
all conjoined with Membrances, as the Feet of Geefe and 
Ducks are. And in Swimming, it is obfervable, That when 
the Foot goes forward in the Water, the Toes are cloft; 
but when backward, they are fpread our, whereby they 
more forcibly itrike the Water, and drive themfelves for- 
ward. The fame may be obferved alfo in Ducks and 
Geefe, &c. 

Of the Caflor or Beaver, the French Academifts fay, Ibt 
StruSure of the Feet was very extraordinary, and fuficient/y de- 
mon ft rated, that Nature bath defegnd this Animal to live in the 
Water, as well as upon Land. For although it had four Feet, Hit 
Terr eft rial Animals, yet the hindmrfi feemed more proper tofwim 
than walk with, the Jive Toes of vjhich they ivere composed, being 
joined together like thofe of a Goofe by a Membrane, which femes 
this Animal to fwim with. But the fore Ones ivere made other- 
wife ; for there was no Membrane which held thofe Toes joined to- 
gether : And this was requi/ite, for the Convenit-ncy of this Animal, 
which ufeth them as Hands like a S quit re I, when he eats. Me- 
moirs for a natural Hiltory of Animals, pag. 84. 

(d) The Mole's Feet are a remarkable Jnftance. 

(e) The Wings of the Bat aire a prodigious Deviation from 
Nature's ordinary Way. So it is in the Virginian Squirrel, 
whofe Skin is extended between the Fore-legs and its Body. 

(/) Of the Legs of the Elk, the French Academifts fay, AU 
though fome Authors report , That there are Elks in Mufcovia, whofe 


Chap. I. He Pofture of Quadrupeds. 317 

fing the Ice, and dangerous Precipices of tl* high 
Mountains (g ) ; in fome they ar# fliod with rough 
and hard Hoofs, fome whole, fome cleft ; in others 
with only a callous Skin. In which latter, it is ob- 
fervable that the Feet are compos' d of Toes, fome 
fhort for bare- going ; fome longtofupply the Place 
of a Hand (b) -, fome armed with long and ftrong 
Talons to catch, hold, and tare the Prey; fome fen- 
ced only with fliort Nails, to conBrm the Steps in 
Running and Walking. 

II. As the Pofture of Man's Body is the fittefl: 
for a Rational Animal, fo is the Pfbne Pofture of 
Quadrupeds the moft ufeful and beneficial to them- 
felves, as alfo moft ferviceable to Man. For they 
are hereby better made for their gathering, their 
Food, to purfue their Prey, to leap, to climb, to 
fwim, to guard themfelves againft their Enemies ; 
and, in a Word, to do whatever may be of principal 
Ufe to themfelves •, as alfo they are hereby rendered 
more ufeful and ferviceable to Man, for carrying his 
Burdens, for tilling his Ground •, yea, even for his 
Sports and Diverfionsl 


Legs are joint lefs ; there is great Probability, that this Opinion is 
founded on what is reported of thofe Elks of Mufcovia, as well as 
^Csefar'j Alee, and Pliny's Machlis, that they have Legs fo fljjf 
and inflexible, that they do run on lee without flipping ; which is a 
Way that Js reported that they have to fave them/ 'elves from the 
Wolves, &c. Ibid. p. 108. 

(g) The common tame Goat (whofc Habitation is generally 
on Mountains and Rocks, and who delighteth to walk on the 
Tops of Pales, Houfes, 6fc. and to take great and feemingly 
dangerous Leaps) I have obferv'd, hath the Joints of the Legs 
very ftiff and ftrong, the Hoof hollow underneath, and its 
Edges (harp. The like, I doubt not, is to be found in the 
Wild Goat, confidering what Dr. Scheuehzer hath faid of its 
climbing the moft dangerous Craggs of the Alps, and the Man- 
ser of their hunting it. Vid. Iter. Alpin. $.p. 9. 

(h) Thus in Apes and Monkeys, in the Beaver before, and 
divers others. 

$ i § The PqJIure of Quadrupeds. Book VI. 

Anff «ow I might here add a Survey of the excel- 
lent Contrivances of the Parts miniftring to this 
Pofture of the four-footed Animals, the admirable 
Structure of the Bones (/), the Joints and Mufcles, 
their various Sizes and Strength ; their commodious 
Lodgment and Situation, the nice ^Equipoife of the 
Body, with a great deal more to the fame Purpofe. 
But I fhould be tedious to infift minutely upon fuch 
Particulars ; and befides, I have given a Touch up- 
on thefe Kinds of Things, when I fpake of Man. 

Paffing by therefore many Things of this Kind, 
that might deferve Remark, I Ihall only confider 
fome of the Parts of the Quadrupeds ^ differing from 
what is found in Man (£), and which are manifeft 
Works of Defign. 

(/) It is a lingular Provision Nature hath made for the 
Strength of the Lion, if that be true, which Galen faith is re- 
ported of its Bones being not hollow (as in other Animals) 
but folid : Which Report he thus far confirms, that moll of 
the Bones are fo ; and that thofe in the Legs, and fome other 
Parts, have only a fmall and obfeure Cavity in them. Fid. 
Galen, de Uf Part. 1. 1 I. c. 1 8. 

(it) Thefe Sorts cf Differences in the Mechanifm of Animals, 
mfn the Score of the Pofition of their Bodies, occur fo often, that 

i t would he no mean Service to Anatomy if any one would give 

Mia Hiflory of thofe Variations of the Parts of Animals, which 
firing from the different Pofures of their Bodies. Drake Anat. 
V.i. B.i. C. 17. 


Of the Heads of Quadrupeds. 

[T is remarkable that in Man, the Head is of 
one lingular Form -, in the four-footed Race, as 
arious as their Species. In fome, fquare and large, 
ultable to their flow Motion, Food, and Abode ; in 
fchers lefs, (lender and fliarp, agreeable to their 
wifter Motion, or to make their Way to theif Food 
a), or Habitation under Ground (b). But palling 
>y a great many Obfervations that might be made 
>f this Kind, I fhall flop a little at the Brain, as 
be moft confidcrable Part of this Part of the Body, 
>eing the great Inftrument of Life and Motion in 
Quadrupeds, as it is in Man of that, as alfo in all 
Probability the chief Seat of his immortal Scud.' 
\nd accordingly it is a remarkable Difference, tni't 
n Man the Brain is large, affording Subftance, and 
loom for fo noble a (iuefi:; whereas in Quadrupeds, 
t is but fmall. And another Thing, no left remark- 
able, is the Situation of the Cerebrum and Cerebellum, 
>r the greater or leffer Brain, which I fhall give in 


(a) Thus Swine, for Inftance, who dig in the Earth for 
Hoots, and other Food, have their Neck, and all Parts of their 
ftead very well adapted to that Service. Their Neck fliort, 
>rawny, and ftrongj their Eyes fet pretty high out of the 
Way ; their Snout long ; their Nofe callous and ftrong ; and 
:heir Senfe of Smelling very accurate, to hunt out and diftin- 
guifh their Food in Mud, under Ground, and other the like 
Places where it lies concealed. 

(b) What hath been faid of Swine is no lefs, rather more 
remarkable in the Mole, whofe Neck, Nofe, Eyes and Ears 
ire all fitted, in the niceft Manner, to its fubterraneous Way of 

'320 The Heads of Quadrupeds. Book VI. 

the Words of one of the moft exaft Anatomifts we J 
have of that Part (c\i " Since, faith he, G«»d hath 
M given to Wan a lofty Countenance, to behold the 
" Heavens, and hath alfo feated an immortal Soul 
" in the Brain, capable of the Contemplation of 
" heavenly Thing?-, therefore, as his Face is eredt, 
" lb the Brain is fet in an higher Place, namely, 
" above the Cerebellum, and all the Senfories. But 
" in Brutes, whofe Face is prone towards the 
4C Earth, and whofe Brain is capable of Speculation, 
•* the Cerebellum, (whofe Bufinefs it is to minifter to 
" the Adtions and Funftions of the Pr<ecordia, the 
'• principal Office in thofe Creatures) in them is fi- 
<6 tuafed in the higher place, and the Cerebrum 
iC lower. Alfo fome of the Organs of Senfe, as the 
c< Ears and Eyes, are placed, if not above the Gere- S 
•* brum, yet at leaft equal thereto. 

Another Convenience in this Pofition of the Ce- 
rebrum and Cerebellum, the laft ingenious Anato- 
mift (J) tells us is this, " In the Head of Man, 
" /aith he, the Bafe of the Brain and Cerebell, yea, 
<c of the whole Skull, is fet parallel to the Hori- 
cc zon •, by which Means there is the lefs Danger 
" of the two Brains joggling, or flipping out of 
<c their Place. But in Quadrupeds, whofe Head 
" hangs down, the Bafe of the Skull makes a right 
cc Angle with the Horizon, by which Means the 
cc Brain is undermoft, and the Cerebell uppermoft ; 
c< fo that one would be apt to imagine the Cere- 
<c bell (hould not be fteady, but joggle out of its 
" Place." To remedy which Inconvenience, he 
tells us, " And left the frequent Concuflions of 
cc the Cerebell fhould caufe a Fainting, or diforder- 

4C ]y 

(c) Willis Ctrcb. Anat. cap. 6. Cumque huh Deus os fublint 
dedcrit, &e. 

id) Jd. paulo poft. In capite humano Cerebri £<f Cerebelli, &c. 

(e) See 

Chap. II. ffle Heads of Quadrupeds. 3 2 1 

" ly Motion of the Spirits about the Pracordii^ 
c< therefoflfrby the Artifice of Nature, fufficfent Fro- 
* 6 vifion is madein. all, by the Vura Aieninx clofely 
c< encompafling the Cerebellum \ befides which, it is 
cc (in fome) guarded with a ftrong bony Fence ; 
<c and in others, as the Hare, the Coney, and fuch 
€i leffer Quadrupeds, a Part of the Cerebe His ori each 
cc Side fenced with the Os Petrofum : So that by 
c< this double Stay, its whole Mafs is firmly con- 
€C tained within the Skull. 

Befides thefe Peculiarities, I might take notice 
of divers other Things no lefs remarkable, as the 
fiiSitating Membrane of the Eye (<?), the different 
Paflages of the Carotid Arteries (/) through the 


(f) Sec Book IV. Chap. 2. Note (M). 

(f) Arteria Carotis Aliquanto pofterius in homlne quam in 
alio quovis animal:, Calvariam ingreditur, foil, juxta Mud fo- 
ramen, per quod finus lateralis in Venom jugular em defitnrus 
cranio elabitur ; nam in cateris bac arteria fub ext remit ate, feu 
procejfu acuto offis petrofi, inter cranium emergit : *verum in ea- 
fiii humano, eadem, ambage longiori circumduBa (nt fmnguinis 
torrens, priufquam ad cerebri oram appellit, fraelo impetu y li- 
mits & placidius ftuat) prope fpecum ab ingreffu finus lateralis 
fa£hm\ Catoari* bafin attingit ; < & in major em cautelatri, 

turned in/uper a/cititid era [pore inveftitur. And To he goes on 
to (hew the Conveniency of this Guard the Artery hath, and 
its Paflage to the Brain, and then faith, Si hujufmodi confor- 
mationis ratio inquiritur, facile occurrit, in capite humano, ubi t 
generofi affeSus hi magni animorum impetus ac ardores excitan- 
tnr, fanguinis in Cerebri oras appulfum debere effe liberum £sf 
expeditum, &c. Atque boc quidetn refpe&u differt Homo k pie* 
rifque Bruiis, quibus, Arteria in mi lie furculos divifa, ne fan- 
gmnem pleniore alveo, aut citariore, quam par eft, curfu, ad 
cerebrum eve bat, Plexus Retiformes conflituit, quibus nempe effi- 
citmr, ut fanguis tarda admodum, lenique & aquabili fere ftil- 
licidioy in cerebrum illabatur. And then he goes on to give 
a farther Account of this Artery, and the Rete mirabile, in 
divers Creatures. Willis, ibid. c. 8. 

Y {£) Gate* 

3 22 7%e Necks of Quadrupeds. Book Vt 

Skulls their Branching into the Rete MkaHU(g\ 
the (liferent ^Magnitude of the Nates^miA fome 
other Parts of the Brain in Beads, quite different 
from what it is in Man : But the Touches already 

given, may be Inftances fufficient to prevent my 
eing tedious in inlarging upon thefe admirable 
Works of God. 

* »..i ■ > 

(g) Galen thinks the Rete Mirabile if for concoding and 
elaborating the Animal Spirits, as the Epididymides, [the 
Convolutions, «»fxroi»£?? iX»xo<] are for elaborating the Seed, 
De Uf. Part. /. 9. c. 4. This Rete is much more confpicnoas 
In Beafb than Man; and, as Dr. Wilis well judges, ferns, 
1. To bridle the too rapid Incorfionsof the Blood into the 
Brain Of thofe Creatures,* whofe Heads hang down much. 
£. To feparate fome of the fuperfluous ferous Parts of the 
Blood, and fend them to the Salival Glands, before the Blood 
enters the Brain of thofe Animals, whofe Blood is naturally 
of a watery Conftitution. 3. To obviate any Obftru&ions 
that may happen in the Arteries, by giving a free Paflage 
thro 1 other Veflels, when fome are flopped. 

In Quadrupeds, as the Carotid Arteries are branched into 
the Rete Mirabile, for the bridling the too rapid Current of 
Blood into the Brain; fo the Vertebral Arteries arc, near 
their Entrance into the Skull, bent into an acuter Angle 
than in Man, which is a Wife Provifion for the fame Purpofc. 


Of the Necks of Quadrupeds. j 

EROM the Head pafs we to the Neck, no 
principal Part of the Body* but yet a good 
mce of the Creator's Wifdom and Defign, ifr 
afmuch as in Man it is fhort, agreeable to the 
Ere&ion of his Body, but in the Four-footed 
Tribe it is long, anfwerable to the Length of the 




CHAP. HI. the Necis of Quadrupeds: 3 2 3 

Legs (a), and in fome of thefe long, and lefs ftrong 
ferving to carry the Mouth to the Ground ; in 
others fhorter, brawny, and ftrong, ferving to dig, 
and heave up great Burdens (b). 

But that which deferves efpecial Remark is, that 
peculiar Provifion made in the Necks of all, or mod 
granivorous ^tfadrupeds^ for the perpetual holding 
down their Head in gathering their Food, by that 
ftrong, tendinous, and infennble Aponeurofis^ or Li* 
gament (r), braced from the Head to the Middle 
of the Back. By which means the Head, altho' 
heavy, pay be long held down without any La- 
bour, Pain, or Uneafinefs to the Mufcles of the 


(0) It is very remarkable, that in all the Specks of £>ua- 
Jrupeds, this Equality holds, except only the Elephant j and 
that there fhould be a fufficient ipecial Provifion made for/ 
that Creature, by its Probofcis or Trunk. A Member fo ad- 
mirably contrived, fo curioufly wrought, and with fo great 
.Agility and Readiaeft applied by that unweildy Creature to 
all its feveral Occasions, that I take it to be a manifeft In- 
stance of the Creator's Workmanfhip. See its Anatomy m 
Dr. J. Mou ten's Anat. of the Elephant, p. 33. As alfo in 
Mr. Blair s Account in Phil, Tranf. N° 326. 

Aliorum ea eft bumilUas ut cibum terrefirent roftris feci!} con- 
Hngant. Qtut autem altiora/unt, ut Anferes t ut Xjygni, ut Grues i 
ut Camels, adjwvantur proceritate collorum. Manus etiam data 
Elepbentis, qui propter tnagnitudinem corporis difficile* aditus ba± 
bebant ad paftum. Cic. de Nat. Deor. 1. 2. c. 47. 

Quod iis animaUbus qua pedes babent Jtffbs in digit os, Collum 
breams fit fa3um 9 quam ut fir ip/um Cibum ori admovere que- 
mat : iis *vtro qua umgulaS babent folidas % ami bifida*, longius g 
mi prona atque inclinantia pafci quean*. Qui id etiatn opus nan 
fa Artificis utilitatii memoris t Ad bac quod Grues me Ciconi* % 
crura babereut Jongiora, ob tarn caufam Roftrum etiam 

aaaguum, tf Coition tougiuj babsttrint. Pipes autem tuque 
Cmimm pttdtus babuere 9 utpoto qui aequo Crura babent. Quo 

rOo non id etiam eft admirandumt Galen dt Ufa Pact. 
II. C 8. 

{b) As in Moles and S*tvine i in Chap. 2. Note (a). 
(c) Called the WhiteUatbor, Pack wax, Taxwax, aad Fix/ax. 

324 %fo Stomachs of Quadrupeds. Book VI. 
Neck, that would otherwife be wearied by being 
fo long putnjpon the Stretch. ' 


Of the -Stomachs of Quadrupeds. 

FROM the. Neck, let us defcend to the Sto- 
mach, a Part as of abfolute Neceflity to the 
Being and Well-being of Animals, fo is in the fe- 
veral Species of Quadrupeds, fized, contrived, and 
made with the utmoft Variety and Art. (a) What 
Artift, what Being, but the infinite Confervator 
of the World, could fo well adapt every Food to 
all the feveral Kinds of thofe grand Devourers of 
it! Who could fo well fuit their Stomachs to the 
Reception and Digeftion thereof; one kind of Sto- 
mach to the Carnivorous, another to the Herba- 
ceous Animals ; one fitted to digeft by bare Mafti- 
cation-, and a whole Set of Stomachs in others, 
to digeft with the Help of Rumination! Which 
laft Aft, together with the Apparatus for that Ser- 
vice, is fo peculiar, and withal fo curious an Arti- 
fice of Nature, that it might juftly deferve a more 


fa) The peculiar Contrivance and Make of the Dromedary 1 * 
or Camel's Stomach, is very remarkable, which I will give 
from the Panfian Anatotnifts : At the Top of the Second [of the 
4 Ventricles] there were feveral fquare Holes, which were th 
Orifices of about 30 Cavities, made like Sacks placed between 
the two Membranes, which do compofe the Subftance of this Ven- 
tricle, The View of thefe Sacks made us to think that they might 
well be the Refervatorics, where, Pliny faith, that Camels Is* 
long Time keep the Water, which they drink in great AbundaXt 

* to fupply the Wants thereof in the dry Deferts, &c. Vid. 

Memoirs, tjfe. Anat. of Dromedary, p. 39. See alio Ftp* 
ftferycol, 1. 2. c. 3. 1 



Chap . V. Tie Hearts of Quadrupeds. 3 25 

particular Enquiry ; but haying formerly mentioned 
it (£), and left; I Should be too tedious, I fhallpafs 
it by. 


' OH A P. V. 

Of the Hearts of Quadrupeds. 

IN this Part there is a notable Difference found 
between the Heart of Man and that of Beafts, 
Concerning the latter of which I might take No- 
tice of the remarkable Conformation of the Hearts 
.of Amphibious Quadrupeds, and their Difference 
from thofe of Land-Animals, fome having but one 
Ventricle («), fome three {b\ and fome but two, 
(like Land-Animals) but then the Foramen Ovale 
therewith (r). All which may be juftly efteemed 


(*) Frogs are generally thought to have but one Ventricle 
in their Hearts. 

{b) The Tortoife hath three Ventricles, as the Parijian Jca- 
innifts in their Memoirs affirm. Befides thefe two Ventricles 
[before fpoken of] which n#er§ in the binder Part of the Heart, 
which facetb the Spine, there was, fay they, a third in the Fore 
- **fart 9 inclining a little towards the Right -fide \ &c. Memoirs, 13 c . 
p. 259. But Mr. BuJJiere charges this as a Miftake in thofe 
ingenious Gentlemen, and after ts there is but one Ventricle in 
the Tortoife** Heart, See his Defcription of the Heart of the 
Land Tort of e t in Philof. Tranf, N° 328. 

{c ) The Sea Calf is faid by the French Academifts, to have 

this Provifion, and their Account of it is this : Its Heart was 

1 nund and flat . Its Ventricles appeared very large, and its Au- 

1 fides fmall. ■ Underneath the great Jpcrture. through 

%vbicb the Trunk of the Vena Cava conveyed the Bind into 

tb$ right Ventricle of the Heart \ there was another jwbich fe- 

Y 3 netrate* 

326 The Hearts of Quadrupeds. Book *V£ 

as wonderful, as they are excellent Provifions for 
the Manner of thofe Animals living. But I fKall 
content myfelf with bare Hints of thefe Things, 
and fpeak only of two Peculiars more, and that but 

One is, the Situation of the Heart, which in Beafts 
is near the Middle of the whole Body 5 in Man, 
nearer the Head (d). The Reafons of which. I 
ihall give from one of the moft curious Anatomifts 
of that Part (e). " Seeing, faith he, the Trajec- 
*' tion and Diftribution of the Blood depends who]* 
u ly on the Syftole of the Heart, and that its Li- 
w quor is not driven of its own Nature fo readily 
* into the upper Parts as into Vefiels even with tt» 
*' or downwards into thofe under it: If the Situa- 
<c tion of the Heart had been farther from the Head, 
* c it' rouft needs either have been made ftronger to 
* c caft out its Liquor with greater Force > or elfe 
** the Head fcould want its due Proportion dt 
" Blood. But in Animals that have a longer Neck, 
c< and which is extended towards their Food as it 
<c were, the Heart is feated as far from the other 
* 6 Parts •, and they find no Inconvenience from it, 
" becaufe they feed with their Head for the moft 
f ' part hanging down *, and fo the Blood, as it hath 
" farther to go to their Head than in others, fo it 
<c goes a plainer and often a fteep Way (/). 


• . 1 i l l" 1 'Vlil i' 

net rated into the Arteria Venofa, and from thence into the left 
Ventricle, and afterwards into the Aorta. This Hole, coiled m 
Foramen Oyale in the Foetus, makes the Anaftomofts, by the 
Meant of which, the B/sod goes from the Cava inf9 the AoM, 
without paffing thro 1 the Lungs. French Anatomifts, p 124. 

(d) Tit Ti K.x$iav iregl to ptaov ir>siv if *A»0fflfay 9 &C. Aijk 
Hift. ir. 1. f. c 17. 

(e) Dr. Lower de Corde, C. I. 

(f) I might have mentioned another wife Provifion from 
the fame Author, which take in his own Words : In Pittfo 
y Equis, into plerique aliis animal thus major ihus 9 non folas frh 

pagines a Nervo fexti paris ut in Homne, fed etiam plttrimas 4 
$$r*UQ inttrcofiali % ubi refta cor ttanfit t cor jtccedere, inib in ft* 


Chap. V. Tie Hearts of Quadrupeds. 327 

The other peculiar Matter is, the fattening (t for- 
merly mentioned which the Cone of the Pericardium 
hath in Man to the Diaphragm (£), whereas in all 
Quadrupeds it is loofe. By which Means the Mo- 
tion of the Midriff \ in that neceflary A6t of Refpi- 
ration, is affifted both in the upright Pofture of Man, 
as alfo in the prone Pofture of Quadrupeds (by, which 
would be hinder'd, or render'd more Difficult, if the 
Cafe was otherwife : " Which muft needs be the 
• c Effed of Wifdom and Defign, and that Man was 
" intended by Nature to walk ere&, and not upon 
" all-four, as Quadrupeds do :" To exprefs it in the 
Words of a great Judge in fuch Matters (*). 

rmebyma ejus dimitti; iff b$c idee a Natura piafi fubfidium Bru- 
tis comparatum, tie capita qmr terram prone j)e8ant 9 nan fatit 
facile out copiose Spirit us Animates impertirent. Blafii Anat. AnU 
mal. Par. i . c. 4. ex Lowero, de Corde* 

(g) Diapbragmatis circulo nerveo firmiier adb<tret fPericar* 
diom] quod Homini fingulare ; nam ab eo in Canibtu ht Simiis 
iifial y item in aliis animalibus omnibus. Barthplm. Anat. 1. 2. 
t. c. 

(b) Tinalem caufam quod attinet, dm ereSus fit Hominis 
incejfus atque figura, eoque facilius abdominis vifcera fuo fonder* 
descendant f minore Diapbragmatis uixn atque Syflole ad Infpiratio- 
nem op*s eft ; porri, cum in Exfptratione pariter necejfarium fit 
Diapbragma rclaxari y —cum capfula cordis omnino connecJen* 
dumfuit y in Homine, ne fort}, quamdiu ereclus incedit, ab Hepa- 
U3j alierumqu* vifcerum appen/orum pondere deor/um ads* deprim** 
retur, ut neque Pulmofatis concidere, neque Ex/piratio debit modo 
feragi patuerit. S>uocirca in <%uadrupedibus 9 ubi abdominis 'vifcera 
in ipfum Diapbragma incumbunt, ipjumque in peQoris cavitatem 
/m* pondere impellunt y ifta partinm accretio Ex/pirationi quidem in- 
ntilis, Inftirationi antem debit am Diapbragmatis ttnfionem impe* 
e&ondo, frorfus incommoda fuiffit . Lower, ib. p. 8. 

(1) Dr. Tyfon'j Anatomy of tbe Orang-Outang, in RayV 
Wifdom of God, p. 26s. 

Y 4 CHAP. 

[ 3*8 ] 


Of the Difference between Man and Quadrupeds 
in the Nervous Kind. 

THERE is only one Difference more between 
Man and Quadrupeds that I fball take Notice 
of, and that is the Nervous Kind : And becaufe it 
would be tedious to infift upon many Particulars (a) 
J fliall, for a Sample, infift chiefly upon one, and 
that is, of Nature's prodigious Care for a due Com- 
munication apd Correfpondence between the Head 
and Heart of Man, more than what is in the four- 
footed Tribe. For this Purpofe, befides the Cor- 
refpondence thofe Parts have by Means of the 
Nerves of the Par Vagum, (common both to Man 
and Bead) there is a farther and more fpecial Com- 
munication and Correfpondence occafioned by the 
Branches (&) of the Intercoftal Pair, fent from the 
Cervical Plexus to the Heart, and Pracordia. By 
which Means the Heart and Brain of Man have a 


(a) Amcngft thefe, J might name the Site of the Nerves 
proceeding from the Medulla Spinalis, which Or. Lower takes 
notice of. Tn Beafts, whofe °pine is above the reft of the 
pody, the Ntryes tend directly downwards ; but in Man, it 
being erett; the Nerves fpring out of the Spine, not at Right, 
but in Oblique Angles downwards, and pafs alfo in the Body 
the fame Way. Ibid. p. 1 6. 

(b) In plerif^ue Brut is t ant urn h&c *vid (i. e. by the Pdr vagum) 
&? <vix cmnino per u/los Paris Intercoftalis Ner<vos, aditus ad cor out 
jfppendicem ejus patefcit. Verum in Homine, Nervus Inter cofialis, 
prater officiu ejus in into ventre huic cum cater is r.nimalibus com- 
muni a, etiam antt. pi & 'oris clauftra internuncii fpecial is loco efl, 
etui Cerebri £ff Cordis fen/a mutua ultra cttraque refert. Willi* 
Nervor. Defer. & Ufus, c. 26. 


Chap. VI. Difference between Man % Sec, 329 

mutual and very intimate Correfpondence andXton- 
cern with each other, more than is in other Crea- 
tures ; or as orte of the mod curious Anatomifts 
and Obfervers of thefe Things faith (c) : Brutes 
" are as it were Machines made with a Ampler 
" and lefs operofe Apparatus^ and endowed there- 
" fore with only one and the fame Kind of Mo- 
Cc tion, are determined to do the fame Thing: 
" Whereas in Man, there is a great Variety of 
" Motions and Aftions. For by the Commerce 
<c of the aforefaid Cervical Plexus (d) he faith, The 
cc Conceptions of the Brain prefently affeft the 
" Heart, and agitate its Veflels and whole Ap- 
<c pendage, together with the Diaphragm. From 
" whence the Alteration in the Motion of the 
tc Blood, the Pulfe, and Refpiration. Soalfo, on 
cC the contrary, when any Thing affe&s* or alters 
" the Heart, thofe Impreflions are not only re- 
<c torted to the Brain by the fame Duft of the 
<c Nerves, but alfo the Blood itfelf (its Courfe 
c< being once changed^ flies to the Brain with a 
* 5 different and unufual Courfe, and there agita- 
** ting the animal Spirits with divers Impulfes, 
c< produceth various Conceptions and Thoughts 
" in the Mind." And he tells us, "That hence it 
cc was that the ancient Divines and Philofophers 
** too, made the Heart the Seat of Wifdom 5 and, 

u certainly 

(c) Id. lb. Dum banc utriufque fpeeiei differ entiam perfendk 
fuccurrit ammo. Brut a effe *velut machinas, &c. 

(d) That our great Man was not miftaken, there is great 
Reafon to imagine, from what he obferv'd in differing a Fool. 
Be fide% the Brain being but fmall, he faith, Pracipua autem 
difcriminis not a quam inter illim &f wW cordati partes advertimis, 
btecce erat ; nempe quod pradUius Ner*vi lntercpfialis Plexus, 
quern Cerebri £ff Cordii internunciam fcf Hominis proprium diximus, 
in Stulto hoc <valdc exilis, fcf minor i nervorum fattlliti* Jlijatus 

fieri*, Ibid. 

<rt U. 

330 fk Nervous Kind, &c. Book VII* 

<c certainly (fays he) the Works of Wifdom and 
" Virtue do very much depend upon this Com- 
" merce which is between the Heart and Brain :" 
And fo he goeth on with more to the fame Pur* 
pofe. Upon the Account of this Intercojtal Com. 
merce with the Heart, being wanting in Brutes, 
there is another Angularly careful and wife Provifion 
the infinite Creator hath made in them, and that 
is, That by Reafon both the Par Vagum, and the 
Intercojtal too, do not fend their Branches to the 
Hearts, and its Appendage in Brutes ; therefore, left 
their Heart fliou'd want a due Proportion of Ner- 
vous Veflels, the Par Vagum fends more Branches 
to their Heart than to that of Man. This, as it is 
a remarkable Difference between rational and ir- 
rational Creatures j fo it is as remarkable an Ar- 
gument of the Creator's Art and Care; who al- 
though he hath denied Brute* Animals Reafon, and 
the Nerves miniftring thereto, yet hath another 
"Way fupplied what is neceflary to their Life and 
State. But let us hear the fame great Author's 
Defcant upon the Point (e) ; 4C Inafmuch, faith he, 
44 as Beafts are void of Difcretion, and but little 
44 fubjedt to various and different Paffions, therefore 
44 there was no Need that the Spirits, that were to 
44 be convey'd from the Brain to thcPr*cordia 9 fhould 
iC pafs two different Ways, namely, one for the Ser- 
44 vice of the vital Functions, and another for the 
44 reciprocal Impreflions of the Affedtions ; but it 
" was fufficient that all their Spirits, whatever 
44 Ufe they were defign'd for, fhou'd be convey'd 
44 one and the fame Way. 

(#) Id. ib. cap 29. In quantum Befiia frudentid carent, £sf 
partis di<verfifque fajfionibus, l$c< 


CftAP.Vfl. tbi OmcJuJkn. 331 

Here now in the Nervous Kind we have manifeft 
Ads of the Creator's Dcfign and WifdOm, in this 
fo manifeft and diftinft a Provifion for rational and 
irrational Creatures \ and that Man was evidently 
intended to be the one, aa the Genus of Quadrufeds 
was the other. 

< tbe Conckfon. 

AN D now it is time to paufe a while, and re- 
flect upon the whole. And as from the Con- 
fiderations in the preceding Book, we have efpeci- 
%\ Reafon to be thankful to our infinitely merciful 
Maker, for his no lefs Kind than Wonderful Con* 
trivances of our Body ; fo we have Reafon, from 
this brief View I have taken of this laft Tribe of 
the Creation, to acknowledge and admire the fame 
Creator's Work aod Contrivances in them. For we 
have here a large Family of Animals, in every par- 
ticular Refpe&, curioufly contrived and made, for 
that efpecial Pofture, Place, Food, and Office or 
Bufinefs which they obtain in the World. So that 
if we confider their own particular Happinefs and 
Good, or Man's Ufe ana Service; or if we view 
them throughout, and confider the Parts wherein 
they agree with Man, or thofe efpecially wherein 
they differ ; we {hall find all to be fo far from be«> 
ing Things fortuitous, undefigned, or any Way ac- 
cidental, that every Thing is done for the beft ; 
all wifely contrived, and incomparably fitted up, 
and every Way WQrthy of the great Creator. And 


33 2 5& Conclufion. Book VI« 

he that will (hut his Eyes, and not fee God (a) in 
thefe his Works, even of the poor Beads of the 
Earth, that will not fay (as Elibu hath it, Job 
xxxv. 10, ii.) Where is God my Maker ^ who teacbetb 
us more than the Beaft* of the Earthy andmaketb as 
wifer than the Fowls of the Heaven ? Of fuch an one 
we may ufethePfalmift'sExpreflion, Pfal. xlix. 12. 
That be is like the Bdafis (b) tbatperifb. 

[a) Deum namque ire per dmnes 

% err afque tr a8uf que Maris; Carlumque prffunduM. . 
Hinc PecudeSy Atmentavms, genus omnt Ferarum. 

Virgil. Georg. 1. 4. 

(b) Illos qui nullam omnino Deum effe dixerunt, mm modo non 
Philofophos, fed ne homines quidem fuiffe dixerim ; qui, mutts ft- 
millimiy ex fob corpon confiiterunt % nihil wdtntet animo. La&ant. 
1 7. c.9. 


I 333 1 



A SURVEY^/ Birds. 

jAVING briefly, as well as I could, 
difpatch'd the Tribe of Quadrupeds ; I 
fliall next take a brief and tranfient View 
of the feathered Tribe. 
And here we have another large Province to ex- 
patiate in, if we fhould defcend to every Thing 
wherein the Workmanfhip of the Almighty appears. 
But I muft contradt my Survey as much as may be ; 
and fhall therefore give only fuch Hints and 
Touches upon this curious Family of Animals, as 
may ferve for Samples of the reft of what might be 


Of the Motion of Birds, and the Parts mU 
nijlring thereto. 

A S this- Tribe hath a different Motion from that 
J^ of other Animals, and an amphibious Way of 
Life ; partly in the Air, and partly on the Land and 
Waters ; fo is their Body accordingly fhap'd, and all 
their Parts incomparably fitted for that Way of Life 
and Motion ; as will be found by a curfory View of 
fome of the Particulars. And the 

334 Motion and Parts of Birds. Book VII. 

I. And moft vifible Thing, is the Shape and Make 
of their Body, not thick and dumfy, but incompa- 
rably adapted to their Flight : Sharp before, to pierce 
and make Way through the Air, and then by gentle 
Degrees rifing to its full Bulk. To which we may 

II. The next Pofition of the Feathers throughout 
the Body ; not ruffled, or difcompofed, or placed 
fome this, fome a contrary Way, according to the 
Method of Chance \ but all artificially plac'd (0), 
for facilitating the Motion of the Body, and its Se- 
curity at the fame Time, by way of Cloathing : 
And for that End, moft of the Feathers tead bade-, 
ward, and are laid over one another in exaft and 
regular Method, armed with warm and (oft Down 
next the Body, and more ftrongly made, and curi- 
oufly clos'd next die Air and Weather, to fence 
off the Injuries thereof. To which Purpofe, as 
alfo for the more eafy and nimble gliding of the . 
Body through the Air, the Provifion Nature hath 
made, and the Inftinft of thefe Animals to preen 
and drefs their Feathers, is admirable ; both in Rc- 
fpeft of their Art and Curiofity in doing it, and the 
Oil-bag (£), Glands, and whole Apparaifus for that 

III. And 

(a) See before Book IV. Chap. 12. Note {I). 

(t>) Mr. Willugbby faith, there are two Glands for the Se- 
cretion of the unctuous Matter in the Oil-Sag. And fo thejr 
appear to be in Geefe. But upon Examination, I find, that in 
mod other Birds (fuch at lead as I have enquired into,) there 
is only one Gland ; in which are divers little Cells, ending in 
two or three larger Cells, lying under the Nipple of the OdJ-Seg. 
This Nipple is perforated, and being prefled, or drawn by the 
Bird's Bill, or Head, emits the liquid Oil, as it is in fame 
Birds, or thicker unctuous Greafe, as it is in others. The 
whole Oil bag is in its Structure fomewhat conformable to the 
Breads of fuch Animals as afford Milk. 

{<) In 

Chap. L the Wings of Birds. 33$ 

III. And now having faid thus much relating to 
the Body's Motion, let us furvey the grand Inftru- 
ment thereof, the tVings. Whifch as they are prin- 
cipal Parts, fo are made with great Skill, and pla- 
ced in the mod commodious Point of the Body (c) 9 
to give it an exadt Equipoife in that fubtile Medium, 
the Air. 

And here it is obfervable, with what incompa- 
rable Curiofity every Feather is made; the Shaft 
exceeding ftrong, but hollow below, for Strength 
and Lightnefs Sake; and above, not much lefs 
ftrong, and filPd with a Parentbyma or Pith, both 
ftrong and light too. The Vanes as nicely gaug'd 
on each Side as made ; broad on one Side, and nar- 
rower on the other ; both which incomparably mi» 
nifter to the progreffive Motion of the Bird, as alfo 
to the Union and Clofencfs of the Wing (d). 


{c) In all Birds that fly much, or that have the moft Occa- 
fion for their Wings, ic is manifest that their Wings are plac'd 
in the very beft Part, to balance their Body in the Air, and to 
give as fwift a Progreffion, as their Wings and Body are capa- 
ble of: For otherwife we mould perceive them to reel, and 
fly unfteadily ; as we fee them to do, if we alter their i£qui- 
poife, by catting the End of one of the Wings, or hanging a 
Weight at any of the extreme Parts of the Body. But as for 
fuch Birds as have as much Occaiion for Swimming as Flying, 
and whofe Wings are therefore Pet a little out of the Center of 
the Body's Gravity, fee Book IV. Ch*p. 8. Na/t (?), and for 
foch as have more Occafion for Diving than Flying, and 
whofe Legs are, for that Reafon, fet more backward, and 
their Wings more forward, Chap. 4. Note (k) of this Book. 

(d) The wife Author of Nature hath afforded an Ex- 
ample of the great Nicety in the Formation of Birds, by the 
Nicety obferved in a Part no more confiderable than the 
Vanes of the Flag-feathers of the Wing. Among others, 
thefc two Things are obfervable -. 1. The Edges of the ex- 
terior or narrow Vanes bend downwards, but of the inte- 
rior wider Vanes upwards ; by which Means they catch, hold, 
and lie clofe to one another, when the Wing is fprcad; fo 
that not one Feather may mifs its full Force and Iropulfe 

336 "the Wings of £irds. Book VIL 

And no lcfs inquifitivc is the textrinc Art of the 
Plumage (e) alfo j which is fo curioufly wrought 5 


upon the Air. 2. A yet lefler Nicety is obferv'd, and that is, 
in the very doping the Tips of the Flag-Feathers : The inte- 
rior Vanes being neatly flop'd away to a Point, towards the 
outward Part of the Wing; and the exterior Vanes flop'd 
towards the Body, at leaft in many Birds ; and in the Middle 
of the Wing, the Vanes being equal, are but little flop'd. 
So that the Wing, whether extended or {hut, is as neatly 
flop'd and form'd, as if con dandy trimm'd with a Pair of 

(e) Since no exact Account, that I know of, hath been gi- 
ven of the Mechanifm of the Panes, or Webs of the Feathers, 
sny Obfervation may not be unacceptable. The Vane confifts 
not of one continu'd Membrane, becaufe if one be broken, it 
would hardly be reparable ; but of many Laminar, which arc 
thin, ftifF, and fo me what of the Nature of a thin Quill 
Towards the Shaft of the Feather, (efpecially in the Flag- 
feathers of the Wing,) thofe Lamina are broad, &c. of a 
femicircular Form ; which ferve for Strength, and for the 
dofer (hutting of the Lamina to one another, when Impulfes 
are made upon the Air. Towards the outward Part of the 
Vane, thefe Lamina grow (lender and taper : On their under 
Side they are thin and fmooth, but their upper- outer Edge 
is parted into two hairy Edges, each Side having a different 
Sort of Hairs, laminated or broad at Bottom, and (lender and 
bearded above the other half. I have, as well as I could, 
reprefented the uppermoft Edge of one of thefe Lamina in 
Fig. 18. with fome of the Hairs on each Side, magnifyM 
with a Microfcope. Thefe bearded bridles, or Hairs, on one 
Side the Lamina, have (trait Beards, as in Fig. 19. thofe on 
the other Side, have hook'd Beards on one Side the (lender 
Part of the Briflle, and (trait ones on the other, as 'in Fig. 20. 
Both thefe Sorts of Bridles magnify'd, (only fcattering, and 
not clofe,) are reprefented as they grow upon the upper Edge 
of the Lamina / /. in Fig. 18. And in the Vane, the hook'd 
Beards of one Lamina, always lie next the (trait Beards of 
the next Lamina ; and by that Means lock and hold each o- 
ther ; and by a pretty Mechanifm, brace the Lamina clofe to 
one another. And if at any Time the Vane happens to be 
ruffled and difcompos'd, it can by this pretty eafy Mechanifm, 
be redue'd and repaired. Fid. Book IV. Chap, 12. Note («.} 

(/) Peat 

Chap, I. Tie Tails of Birds. 337 

and fo artificially interwoven, that it cannot be 
viewed without Admiration, efpecially when the 
Eye is aflifted with Glaffes. 

And as curioufly made, fo no lefs curioufly are 
the Feathers placed m the Wing, exactly accord- 
ing to their feveral Lengths and Strength : The 
Principals fet for Stay and Strength, and thefe again 
well lined, faced, and guarded with the Covers and 
Secondary Feathers, to keep the Air from pafling 
through, whereby the ftronger Impulfes are made 

And laftly, to fay no more of this Part, that 
deferves more to be faid of it, what an admirable 
Apparatus is there of Bones, very ftrong, but withal 
light and incomparably wrought ? of Joints, which 
open, fliut, and every way move, according to the 
Occafions either of extending it in Flight, or with- 
drawing the Wing again to the Body ? And of va- 
rious Mufcles \ among which the peculiar Strength 
of the PeStoral Mufcles deferves efpecial Remark* 
by Reafon they are much ftronger (/) in Birds 
than in Man, or any other Animal, not made for 

IV. Next the Wings, the Tail is in Flight con- 
fiderable ; greatly affifting in all Afcents and De- 


(f) Pedorales Mufculi Hominis fleScntes burner ot 9 p*t<vi & 
partem carnofi funt; non <e quant $oam aut yoam partem omnium 
Mm/culorum Hominis. E contra in A*vibus t Perforates Mufculi 
*oaftiJJimi funt, & aquant, imb excedunt, tff magis pendent, quam 
reliaui omnes Mufculi ejufdem Avis Jimul fumpti. Borell. de 
Mot. Animal. Vol. I. Prop. 184. 

Mr. Willughby having made the like Obfervation, hath this 
Reflection on it, Whence* if it be poffible for Man to fly, it if 
thought by them who have curioufly weighed and considered the 
Matter, that he that would attempt fueh a thing with Hopes of 
Suecefs, mufl fo contrive and adapt his Wings, that he may make 
life of his Legs, and not his Arms, in managing them: (becaufe 
the Mufcles of the Legs are ftronger* as he obferves.) Wiljugh. 
Ornith. 1. 1. c.i. feft. 19. 

Z. V&Vtau 

338. The Tails vf Birds. Book VIL 

fcents in the Air* as alfo ferving to fteady (g) 
Flight, by keeping the Body upright in that fubrile 
and yielding Medium, by its readily turning and an- 
fwering every Vacillation of the Body. . 

And now to the Parts ferving to Flight, let us add 
the nice and com pleat Manner of its Performance ; 
all done according to the ftridteft Rules of Mecha- 
nifm (*). What Rower on the Waters, what Ar* 
tift on the Land, what acuteft Mathematician could 
give a more agreeable and exa& Motion to the 
Wings, than thefe untaught flying Artiftsdo theirs I 
Serving not only to bear their Bodies up in the Air, 
but alfo to waft them along therein, with a fpeedy 
progreflive Motion, as alfo to deer and turn them 
this Way and that Way, up and down, faftcr or 
flower, as their Occafions require, or their Pleafbrc 
leads them. 

V. Next to the Parts for Flight, * let us view the 
Feet and Legs miniftring to their other Motion: 
Both made light, for eafier Transportation through 
the Air ; and the former fpread, fome with Mem- 
branes for Swimming (*'), fome without, for fteady 


{g) Mr. Willugbby, Ray y and many others, imagine the 
principal Ufe of the Tail to be to fleer and turn the Body in 
the Air, as a Rudder. But Bore Hi hath put it beyond all 
Doubt, that this is the lead Ufe of it, and that it is chiefly 
to affift the Bird in its Afcents and De fcents in the Air, and 
to obviate the Vacillations of the Body and Wings. For as 
for turning to this or that Side, it is performed by the Wings 
and Inclination of the Body, and but very little by the help 
of the Tail. 

(b) See Borelti ubi fupra, Prop. 182, &c. 

(/') It is coniiderable in all Water- Fowl, how exactly their 
Legs and Feet correfpond to that Way of Life. For either 
their Legs are long, to enable them to wade in the Waters : 
In which cafe, their Legs are bar? of Feathers a good way 
above the Knees, the more conveniently for this Purpofe. 
Their Toes alfo are all abroad; and in fach as bear the 


Ch ap. I. Tie Legs of Birds. 339 

Going, for Perching, for Catching and Holding 
of Prey (k), or for Hanging by the Heels to ga- 
ther their Food (/), or to fix themfelves in their 
Places of Retreat and Safety. And the latter, name- 
ly, the Legs, all curved for their eafy Perching, 
Roofting, and Reft, as alfo to help them upon 
their Wings in taking their Flight, and to be 
therein commodioufly tucked up to the Body, fo 
as not to obftrudb their Flight. In fome long, for 
Wading and Searching the Waters •, in fome of a 
moderate Length, anfwerable to their vulgar Oc- 
cafions ; and in others as remarkably fhort, to an- 
fwer their efpecial Occafions and Manner of Life (m). 
To all thefe let us add the placing thefe laft men- 

Name of Mudfuckers, two of the Toes are fomewhat joined, 
that they may not eafily fink in walking upon boggy Places. 
And as for fuch as are whole-footed, or whofe Toes are 
webbed together, (excepting fome few) their Legs are gene- 
rally fhort, which is the moft convenient Size for Swimming. 
And 'tis pretty enough to fee how artificially they gather up 
their Toes and Feet when they withdraw their Legs, or go 
to take their Stroke ; and as artificially again txtend or open 
their whole Foot, when they prefs upon, or drive themfelves 
forward in the Waters. 

(i) Some of the Charadlerifticks of Rapacious Birds, are, 
to have hooked, ftrong, and Jharp pointed Beaks and Talons, fitted 
for Raphe, and tearing of Flejb ; and ftrong and brawny Thighs •, 
forftriking down their Prey. Willughby Ornith. 1. 2. c. 1. Raii 
Synopf. Av. Method, p. 1. 

(/) Such Birds as climb, particularly thofe of the Wood pecker - 
Kind, have for this Purpofe, (as Mr. Willughby obferves, 1. 2. 
c 4.) 1. Strong and mufculous Thighs. 2. Short Legs and 
very ftrong. 3. Toes ftanding two forwards and two back- 
wards. Their Toes alfo are clofe joined together, that they 
may more ftrongly and firmly lay' hold on the Tree they climb 

upon. 4. All of them rhave a hard ftiff Tail, bending 

ftlfo downwards, on which they lean, and fo bear up them- 
felves in climbing. 

(m) Swifts and Swallows have remarkably fhort Legs, 
efpecially the former, and their Toes grafp any thing vary 

Z 2 flrODgly. 

340 *fbe Heads of Birds. Book VII. 

tioned Parts in the Body. In all fomewhat outo£ 
the Center of the Body's Gravity (n) f but in fuch 
as fwim, more than in others, for the better rowing 
their Bodies through the Waters, or to help them in 
that Diving (p) too. 

ftrongly. All which is ufeful to them in building their Nefts, 
and other fu<;h Occafions as neceffitate them to hang fre- 
qaently by their Heels. But there is far greater Ufe of this 
Structure of their Legs and Feet, if the Reports be true of 
their hanging by the Heels in great Clutters (after the man- 
ner of Bees) in Mines and Grotto's, and on the Rocks by the 
Sea, all the Winter. Of which latter, I remember the late 
learned Dr. Fry told this Story at the Univerfity, and confirmed 
it to me fince, viz. That an antient Fifterman, accounted an 
honeft Man, being near fome Rocks on the Coaft of Cornwall, 
faw at a very low Ebb, a black Lift of fomething adhering to 
the Rock, which when he came to examine, he found ic was a 

freat number of Swallows, and, if I mifremember not, of 
wifts alfo, hanging by the Feet to one another, as Bees do ; 
which were covered commonly by the Sea- Waters, but revived 
in his warm Hand, and by the Fire. All this the Fifherman 
himfelf aflured the Doctor of. Of this, fee more Chap, 3. 
Note (d) of this Book. 

(«) In the Birds that frequent not the Waters, the Wings 
are in the Center of Gravity, when the Bird lies along, 
as ki Flying; but when it (lands or walks, the Eredion 
of the Body throws the Center of Gravity upon the Thighs 
and Feet. 

(•) See Chap. 4. Note (k). 

Of the Heady Stomach, and other Parts of Birds. 

THUS having difpatched the Parts principally 
concerned in the Motion of the FeatberH 
Tribe, let us proeeed to fome other Parts not yet 


Chap. IL the Heads of Birds. 3 4 1 

animadverted upon. And we will begin with the 
Head, concerning which I have already taken no- 
tice of its Shape for making way through the Air ; 
of the Make of the Bill y for gathering Food, and 
other Ufes ; the commodious Situation of the Eye ; 
and I might add that of the Ear too, which would 
be in the Way, and obftruft Flight, if 'twas like 
that of moft other Animals : Alfo I might fay a 
great deal of the Conformation of the Brain, and 
of the Parts therein wanting, and of others added, 
like to what is obfervable. in Fiflies -, whofe Pofture 
in the Waters refembles that of Birds in the Air (a) 9 
and both very different from Man and Beafts: 
and laftly, to hint at no more, I might furvey 
the peculiar Stru&ure of the Larynx (£), the 


{a) Cerebra Hominum fcf Quadrupedum in plerifque fimi- 
is a exijlunt .———Capitibui Vo lucrum &f Pifcium con tent a, 
ab utrifque prioribus longe diverfa, tamen inter fe, quoad pr*- 
cipuas kyxttpate partes Symbol a reperiuntur. The Particulars 
wherein the Brains of Birds and Fifties agree with one ano- 
ther, and wherein they differ from the Brain of Man and 
Beafts, fee in the fame juftly famous Author, Willis Cereb. 
Anat. c. 5. 

(b) Circa bifurcationtm Afpera Arteria^ elegans Artiftcis It* 
here agentis indicium detegttur ex Avium comparatione cum 
ghtadrupedibus : cum Vocis gratia in diverfis Avibus diver fam 
musculorum fabric am bifurcationi Afpera Arteria dedtrit* quorum 
nullum vefiigium extat in Homint cjf 2>uadrupedibus mibi vi- 
fis 9 ubi omnti vocis mufculos capiti Aiteri* junxit. In Aqui- 
/pj&c.fupra bifurcationem,&c. Steno in Blaf. Anat. Animal. 
p. 2> c. 4. 

The A/per a Arteria is very remarkable in the Swan, which 
is thus described by T. Bartholin, viz. Afpera Arteria admi- 
rand<z fatis ftruQur*. Nam pro Colli longitudine deorfum Oe- 
fopbagi comes protenditur donee ad ft er mm perveniat, in cujus 
capfulam fe incurvo flexu infinuat & rccondit, velut in tuto 
toco & thecd y moxque ad fundum ejufdem cavitatis deldta fur* 
fssm refleelitur, egrediturque angufiias Sterni, fcf Claviculis me- 
diis concenfisy quibus ut fulcro nititur 9 ad Tboracem fe fleQit 
■ j . . Miranda herclt modls omnibus conflitutio & Refpirationt' 

2 3 i*(<ruii 

3 4 a *&* Heads of Birds. Book Vll. 

Tongue (c\ the inner Ear (d) 9 and many Matters 


infervit 6f Foci. Nam cum in Jiagnorum funio edulia fro 
<vi<3u qua rat, longijpmo indiguit collo ne longa mora fuffocati- 
ouis incurred periculum. Et certe dum dimidiam fere boram 
tots Capite & Collo promt *vado immergiter, pedibus in altum 
ela/is cctloqut okverfis, ex ed Arteria qua peQoris difiae vagina 
reclufa eft pott tone, tanquam ex con do promo fpiritum baurit. 
Blaf. ib. c. 10. 

[c ) The Structure of the Tonoue of the Woodpecker is very 
lingular and remarkable, whether we look at its great Length, 
its »Bones and Mufcles, its encompaffing Part of the Neck 
and Head, the better to exert itfelf in Length ; and again, 
to retract it into its Cell ; and laftly, whether we look at 
its (harp, horny, bearded Point, and the glewy Matter at 
(he End of it, the better to ttab, to ftick unto, and draw 
out little M-ggots out of Wood. Utilis enim Picis (faith 
Cotter) ad Vermiculos, Formicas, aliaque Infeda venanda ta- 
in Lingua foret. Siquidem Picus, innata fud fagacitate cum 
depreUndit alibi in arbor ibus, *vel carie, <vel alia de causa ca- 
vatis, Vermes infeftaque delitefcere, ad Was volitat, fefequi 
digit is, ungulifque pofterioribus robuftijjimis, fcf Cauda pennis 
rigid' Jfimis fuftentat, donee *valido ac peracuto Roftro arborem 
pertundat : ai bo*e pertusd % foramini roftrum immittit, ac quo 
animalcula ftridore excitet percellatque, magnam in arbor is ca*vo 
emit tit <voctm, inftda wafer at ione bde concitata buc illucque 
repunt ; Picus v. linguam fuam exerit, atque aculeis, bamifque 
animalia infigit, infixa attrabit £ff devorat. Vide filaiii ubi 
fupra, p. 2. c. 24. 

(d) I have before in Book IV. Cbap. 3. Note (*), taken 
notice of what others have obferve'd concerning the inner 
Ear of Birds, referving my own Obfervations for this Place : 
Which I hope may be acceptable, not only for being fome 
of them new, but alfo (hewing the Mechanifm of Hearing 
in General. 

In this Organ of Birds, I (hall take notice only of three 
Parts, the Membranes and Cartilages ; the Columella ; and 
the Conclave: The Drum, as fome call it, or Membrana 
Vympani, as others, confifts of two Membranes, the Outer, 
which covers the whole Meatus, Bafon, or Drum, (as fome 
call it) and the inner Membrane. To fupport, diftend, and 
relax the outermoft, there is one fingle Cartilage, reaching 
from the Side of the Meatus, to near the Middle of the 
Membrane. On the Top of the Co/umilla is another Card- 
lage, confining of three Branches, a. b. c. in Fig. 23. The 


Chap. II. 7%e Heads of Birds. 343 

longeft middle Branch a. is joined to the Top of the {ingle 
upper Cartilage before fpoken of, and affifts it to bear up 
the upper outer Membrane : The two Branches, b. e. are 
joined to the Os Petty/km, at fome Diftance from the outer 
Membrane: Upon this inner Cartilage, is the inner Mem- 
brane fixed, the two outer Sides of which, a. b. and *. a, 
are joined to the outer Membrane, and make a kind of 
three- fquare Bag. The Defign of the two Branches or Legs 
of the Cartilage, b. c . are, I conceive, to keep the Cartilage 
and Columella from wavering Side- ways, and to hinder them 
from flying too much back : There is a very fine {lender 
Ligament extended from the oppofite Side, quite crofs the 
Meatus or Bafon, to the Bottom of the Cartilage, near its 
joining to the Columella. Thus much for the Membrana 
Tympani, and their Cartilages. 

The next Part is the Columella (as Schelhammer calls it.) 
This is a very fine, thin, light, bony Tube i the Bottom of 
which fpreads about, and gives it the Refemblance of a 
wooden Pot-lid, fuch as I have feen in Country- Ho ufes. It 
exactly (huts into, and covers a Foramen of the Conclave, to 
which it is braced all round, with a fine fubtile Membrane, 
compofed of the tender Auditory Nerve. This Bottom or 
Bafe of the Columella, I call the Operculum. 

The laft Part, which fome call the Labyrinth and Cochlea, 
confining of Branches more like the Can a Us Semicircular es 
in Man, than the Cochlea, I call the Conclave Audit us. It is 
(as in mod other Animals) made of hard context Bone. 
In mod of the Birds I have opened, there are circular Canals, 
fome larger, fome lefTer, crofling one another at right An* 
gles, which open into the Conclave. But in the Goo/e it is 
otherwife, there being cochleous Canals, but not like thofg 
of other Birds. In the Conclave, at the Side oppofite to 
the Operculum, the tender Part of the Auditory Nerve enters, 
and lineth all thofe inner retired Parts, viz. the Conclave 
and Canals. 

As to the Parages, Columns, and other Parts obfervable in 
the Ear of Birds, I fhall pafs them by, it being fufficient to 
my Purpofe, to have defcribed the Parts principally con- 
cerned in the Aft of Hearing. And as the Ear is in Birds the 
moft fimple and incomplex of any Animals Ear ; fo we may 
from it make an eafy and rational Judgment, how Hearing is 
performed, viz. Sound being a Tremor or Undulation in the 
Air, caufed by the Collifion of Bodies, doth, as it moves 
along, ftrike upon the Drum, or Membrana Tympani, of the 
Ear : Which Motion, whether ftrong or languid, fhrill or foft, 
tuneful or not, is at the fame Inftant imprefled upon the 
Cartilages, Columella, and Operculum, and fo communicated to 
fhc Auditory Nerve in the Conclave. 

Z 4 A^ 

344 *k H eads °f Bir &- Bo °* VI *- 

befides : but for a Sample, I (ball only infift upon 
the wqnderful Provifion in the Bill for the judging 
of the Food, and that is by peculiar Nerves lodged 
therein for that Purpofe ; fmall and left numerous 
in fuch as have the Affiftance of another Senfe, the 
Eye ; but large, more numerous, and thickly branched 
about, to the very End of the Beajc, in fuch as hunt 
for their Food out of Sight in the Waters, in Mud, 
or under Ground (e). 


And now if we compare the Organ and ACL of Hearing 
with thofe of Sight, we fhall find that the Conclave is to 
Hearing, as the Retina is to Sight ; that fonoroos Bodies make 
their Jmpreffions thereby on the Brain, as vifible Obje&s do. 
by the Retina. Alfo, that as there is an Apparatus in the Eye, 
by the opening and (hutting of the Pupil, to make it corre- 
fpond to all the Degrees of Light, fo there is in the Ear, tq 
make it conformable to all the Degrees of Sound, a noble 
Train of little' Bones and Mufcles in Man, &r. to (brain and 
relax the Membrane, and at the fame Time to open and (hat 
the Bo/is of the Stapes (the fame as what I call the Operculum 
in Birds :) Bat in Birds there is a more fimple, but fofficient 
apparatus for this Purpofe, tender Cartilages, inftead of Bones 
and Joiots, to correfpond to the various ImprefGons of Sounds, 
and to open and (hut the Operculum. Befides which, I fufpeft 
the Ligament I mentioned, is only the Tendon of a Muicle, 
reaching to the inner Membrana Tympani, and joined thereto, 
(as I iind by a fir idler Scrutiny) and not to the Cartilage, as 
I imagined. By this Mufcle, the inner Membrane, and by 
Means of that the Outer alfo, can be di /tended or relaxed, as 
it is in Man, by the Malleus and its Mufcle, (ffc. 

(e) Flat-hilt d Birds, that grope for their Meat, have thrtt 
Fair of Nerves, that come into their Bills, whereby they have 
that Accuracy to diftinguijh what is proper for Food, and 'what 
to be rejected by their Tafe, when they do not fee it. This 
was mofi evident in a Duck's Bill and Head; Ducks having 
larger Nerves that come into their Bills than Geefe, or any 
other Bird that I have feen ; and therefore quaff er and grope 
out their Meat the moft,. But then 1 discovered ' none of tbefe 
Nerves in, round -bilPd Birds, But face, in my Anatomies in 
the Country, in a Rook, 1 frft obferved two Nerves that came. 
Jjwn betwixt the Eyes into the upper Bill, but confiderably 

fmall tr 

Chap. II. "The Stomach of Birds. 345 

And now from the Head and Mouth, pafs we to 
its near Ally, the Stomach, another no lefs notable 
than ufeful Part ; whether we confider the Elegancy 
of its Fibres and Mufcles, or its Multiplicity * one 
to foften and macerate, another to digeft 5 or its 
Variety, fuited to various Foods, fomc membra- 
nous, agreeable to the frugivorous, or carnivorous 
Kind ; fome mufculous and ftrong (/), fuited to 
the Comminution, and grinding ot Corn and Grain, 
and fo to fupply the Defed of Teeth. 

And now to this Specimen of the Parts, I 
might add many other Things, no lefs curioufly 
contrived, made, and fuited to theOccafions of thefe 
Volatiles j as particularly the Structure and Lodg- 

fmaller than any of the three Pair of Nerves in the Bills of 
Ducks, but larger than the Nerves in any other round-bill* d Birds. 
And it is remarkable that thefe Birds, more than any other round- 
biltd Birds, feem to grope for their Meat in Cow-dung, &c* 
Mr. J. Clayton, in Philof. Tranf. N* 206. 

1 obferved three Pair of Nerves in all the broad bilTd Birds 
that I could meet *with, and in all fuch as feel for their food out 
pf Sight, as Snipes, Woodcocks, Curlews, Geefe, Ducks, Teals, 
Widgeons, &c. Thefe Nerves are very large, equalling almofi 
the Optic Nerve in Ibicknefs.—Tvjo are diftributed nigh the 
End of the upper Bill, and are there very much expanded, faffing 
thro* the Bone into the Membrane, lining the Roof of the Mouth, 
Dr. A. Moulen, ibid. N° 199. Or both in Mr. I&wthorfs 
Abridg. Vol. II. p. 861,862. 

(/) The Gizzard is not only made very ftrong, efpecially 
in the Granivorous ; but hath alfo a Faculty of Grinding what 
is therein : For which Purpofe, the Bird fwalloweth rough 
Stones down, which when grown fmooth, are rejected and 
caft out of the Stomach, as ufelefs. This Grinding may be 
heard in Falcons, Eagles, &c. by laying the Ear dofe to them, 
when their Stomachs are empty, as the famous Dr. Harvey 
faith, De Generat. Exer. 7. 

* As to the Strength of the Gizzard, and Ufe of Stones to 
the Digeftion of Fowls, divers curious Experiments mar be 
met with, try'd by Signeur Redi, with Glafs Bubbles, folid 
jplafs, Diamonds, and other har4 Bodies. See his Exp. Nat. 

346 The Lungs of Birds. Book VJI, 

menc of the Lungs (g): the Configuration of the 
Breajt> and its Bone, made like a Keel, for commo- 
dious PafTage through the Air, to bear the large 
and ftrong Mufcles, which move the Wings, and to 
counterpoife the Body, and fopport and reft it upon 
at Rooft. The Neck alfo might deferve our Notice, 
always either exadtly proportion^ to the Length of 
the Legs, or elfe longer, to hunt out Food, to fearch 
in the Waters (b) ; as alfo to counterpoife the Body 
in Flight (/). And laftly, I might here take Notice 


(g) It is no lefs remarkable in Birds, that their Lungs ad- 
here to the Thorax, and have bat little Play, than that in 
other Animals they are loofe, and play much, which is a good 
Proviso* for their fteady Flight. Alfo they want the Di+ 
fhragm, and inftead thereof, have divers large Bladders made 
of thin tranfparent Membranes, with pretty large Holes oat of 
one into the other. Thefe Membranes feem to me to ferve 
for Ligaments, or Braces to the Fifcera, as well as to contain 
Air. Towards the upper Part, each Lobe of the Lungs is per- 
forated in two Places, with large Perforations \ whereof one 
is towards the outer, the other towards the inner Part of the 
Lobe. Thro' thefe Perforations, the Air hath a PafTage into 
the Belly, (as in Book I. Chap. i. Note (h) ;) that is, into the 
foremention'd Bladders ; fo that by blowing into the After a 
jfrteria, the Lungs will be a little raifed, and the whole Belly 
blown up, fo as to be very turgid. Which doubtlefs is a Means 
to make their Bodies more or lefs buoyant, according as they 
take in more or lefs Air, to facilitate thereby their Afcents, 
and Defcents ; like as it is in the Air Bladders of Fifties, in the 
laft cited Place, Note (/). 

(h) Such Birds as have long Legs, have alfo a long Neck ; for 
that otheruuife they could not commodioufly gather up their Food, 
either on Land, or in the Water. But on the other Side, thofe 
which have long Necks, have not always long Legs, as in Swans 
wbofe Necks ferve them to reach to the Bottom of Rivers, &c. 
Willughby's Ornithol. 1. i. c. i. feft. 7. 

(1) We have fufficient Inftances of this in Geefe, Ducks, &c. 
whofe Wings (their Bodies being made for the Convenience 
of Swimming) are placed out of the Center of Gravity, 
nearer the Head. But the extending the Neck and Head in 
Flight, caufeth a due ^quipoife and Libration of the Bodf 
upon the Wings ; which is another excellent Ufe of the long 


Chap. III. Migration of Birds. 3 47 

of the Dcfcft of the Diaphragm, fo necefikry in 
other Animals to Refpiration * and alfo of divers 
other Parts redundant, defe&ive, or varying from 
other Animals. But it would be tedious to infill 
upon all ; and therefore to the Examples already 
given, I would rather recommend a nice Infpe&ion 
(*) of thofe curious Works of God, which would 
be manifeft Demonftrations of the admirable Con- 
trivance and Oeconomy of the Bodies of thofe Crea- 

From the Fabrick therefore of their Bodies, I 
(hall pafs to a Glance of one or two Things, re- 
lating to their State ; and fo conclude this Genus of 
the Animal World. 

Necks of thefe Birds, betides that of reaching and fearching 
in the Waters for their Food. 

But in the Heron, whofe Head and long Neck (altho* 
tuck'd up in Flight,) over-balance the hinder Part of the 
Body ; the long Legs are extended in Flight, to counterpoife 
the Body, as well as to fupply what h wanting in the Tail, 
from the Shortnefs of it. 

{&) Steno thus concludes his Myology of the Eagle, Imper- 
fecta b*e Mufculorum defcriptio % non minus arida eft Legentibus, 
quam Infpefiantibus fuerit jucundm eorundem praparatio. Elegan- 
ftffima enim Mechunices artificia, creberrim} in Wis $bvia 9 <oerbis 
non nifi obfcurt) exprimuntur, carnium autem dufiu, ttndinum co- 
lore, inftrtionum proportion, &f trochlearum diflributhm oculis 
expofita omnem fuperant admirationem. Steno in Blaf. Anat. 
Animal, p. 2. c. 4. 


Of the Migration of Birds. 

Concerning the State of this Tribe of Animals* 
the firft Thing I (hall fpeak of, (by Reafon 
God himfelf inftanceth in it,) fhall be their Mi- 
gration, mention'd Jer. viii. 7. lea, the Stork in the 
Heaven knowetb her appointed Times, and the Turtle, 


348 Migration of Birds. Book VII. 

and the Crane, and the Swallow obferve the time of their 
Coming ; but my People, &c. 

In which Aft of Migration, there are two Things 
to me exceedingly notable. One is what the Text 
fpeaks of, their knowing their proper Times for 
tneir Pajfage, when to come (a), when to go 5 as 
alfo that fome fhould come, when others go; and 
fome others go, when thefecome. There is no doubt 
but the Temperature of the Air, as to Heat and 
Cold, and their natural Propenfity to breed their 
Young, may be great Incentives to thofe Creatures 
to change their Habitation : But yet it is a very 
odd Inftinlt, that they fhould at all fhift their Ha- 
bitation ; that fome certain Place is not to be found 
in all the Terraqueous Globe, affording them con- 
venient Food and Habitation all the Year, either in 
the colder Climes, for fuch as delight in the colder 
Regions-, or the hotter, for fuch Birds ofPajfage as 
fly to us in Summer. 

Alfo It is fomewhat ftrange, that thofe untaught, 
unthinking Creatures, fhould fo exadbly know the 
beft and only proper Seafons to go and come. This 
gives us good Reafon to interpret the mjJIQ ap- 
pointed Times(b) in the Text, to be fuch Times as 
the Creator hath appointed thofe Animals, and hath 
accordingly, for this End, imprinted upon their Na- 
tures fuch an Inftindt, as exciteth and moveth them 


(a) Cur i of a res eft, fcire, quam exacle hoc genus avium [Gruum] 
quotannis obfervet tempora Jut reditds ad not. Anno 1 667, prima 
Grues comparuerunt in campeftribus Pif<e 20 Feb. &fr. F. Rcdi 
Exp. Nat. p. 100. ubi plura. 

(b) From *1JJ* indixit, conftituit, fcil. locum, vel tempus, ubi 
vet quando ahquid fieri debet. Buxt. in verb. 

De voluntas e fad certiorem reddidit. Con. Kircher Concor- 
dant. Pars 1 . Col. 1 846. *iy*)£ Generahter pro re aliqua cer- 
ta, at t eft at a > & definita accipitur. 1. Pro tempore eerto tf 
conftituto. %. Deinde pro fefio feu Solennifate, qua cert 9 IS 
Jiaio tempore cekbratur* 3. Pro loco certo conftituto^ !(}. ibid. 
Col. 1847. 

Chap. III. Migration of Birds. 349 

thus, at proper Times, to fly from a Place that 
would obftrudt their Generation, or not afford con- 
venient Food for them, and their Young, and betake 
themfelves to another Place, affording all that is 
wanting for Food or Incubation. 

And this leads me to another Thing remarkable 
in this A£t of Migration ; and that is, That thofe 
unthinking Creatures Ihould know what Way to 
fteer their Courfe (c), and whither to go. What, 
but the Great Creator's Inftinft, Ihould ever move 
a poor foolifh Bird, to venture over vaft Tradts of 
Land, but efpecially over large Seas ? If it ihould 
be faid, That by their high Afcents up into the Air, 
they can fee crofs the Seas -, yet what fhould teach 
or perfuade them, that that Land is more proper 
for their Purpofe, than this? That Britain (for 
Inftance,) fhould afford them better Accommoda- 
tions than Egypt (d)> than the Canaries > than Spain* 


(c) Quis non cum admiration* videat ordinem & politiam pen* 
grinantium Avium, in itinere, turmatim volantium, per longos ter- 
rarum &f maris traBus abfque Acu marina ? Quis eas cer- 
ium iter in a'eris mutabili regione docuit f Quis prater it a figna, &f 
future via indicia ? Quis eas duett, nutrit, & vita neceffaria mi- 
uiftrat t Sluts infulas & bofpitia ilia, in quibus vidum reperiant, 
indicavit ; modumque ejufmodi /oca in peregrinationibus fuis inveni- 
tndi? Hac fane fuperant bominum captum & induftriam, qui non 
nifi longis experientiis, multis itinerariis, cbartis geograpbicis,— 

& ac£s magnetica beneficio, ejufmodi marium fsf terrarum 

tragus conficere tentant & audent. Lud. de Beaufort. Co f mop. 
Divina, feci. 5. cap. 1. 

(d) I inftance particularly in Egypt, bccaufc Mr. Willugkby 
thinks Suoailovjs fly thither, and into Ethiopia, &c. and that 
they do not lurk in Holes, or under Water, as Olaus Magnus 
reports. Vide Omitb. lib. 2. cap. 3. But Etmuller puts the 
Matter out of Doubt, who faith, Memini me plurts, quam 
quas Medimnus caper it, Hirundines arcle coacervatas intra Pif- 
tina camtas, fub glacie prorfus ad fenfum exanimes pulfantes 
somen, r4periiffe. Etmuller Diflert. 2. cap. 10. feci. 5. This, 
as it is like what 01. Magnus faith, fo is a Confirmation of it^ 
The Archbifhop's Account is, In Septentriona/ibus aquis fa. 
fists cafu Pijcatoris extrahuntur Hirundinss, in modum conglo- 
1 merat«c 

3 5© Migratim of Birds. Book VII. 

or any of thofe many intermediate Places over 
which fome of them probably fly. 

And laftly, to all this, let us briefly add the Ac- 
commodations thefe Birds ofPafage have, to enable 
them to take fuch long Flights, viz. the Length of 
their Wings, or their more than ordinary Strength 
(0 for Plight. 

meratt* mafie, ftut ore ad os, & old ad atom, &f pede ad fedm 
foft principium autnmni fefe inter catenas defcenfur* colligarunt. 

—MeJJa amtem ilia per imperils adolefcentts extraSa, 

atfue in aftnaria portata, caloris acceffk Hir undines refolut*, 'vo- 
lar e quidem incipiunt, fed exiguo tempore durante Ol. Mag. Hift. 
1. 19. c. 20. 

Since my penning this Note, we had, at a Meeting of the 
Royal Society, Feb. 12, 171-J, a farther Confirmation of Sw *L 
lews retiring under Water in Winter, from Dr. Colas, a Perfj • 
very curious in thefe Matters ; who fpeaking of their Way of 
FHhing in the Northern Parts, by breaking Holes, and draw- 
ing their Nets under the Ice, faith, That he faw fix teen 
Swallows fo drawn out of the Lake of Samrodt, and about 
thirty out of the King's great Pond in Rofeneilen ; and that at 
Scblebitten, near an Houfe of the Earl of Dobna, he faw two 
Swallows jufl come out of the Waters, that could fcarce ftand, 
being very wet and weak, with their Wings hanging on the 
Ground ; and that he hath obferv'd the Swallows to be often 
weak for fome Days after their Appearance. 

(e) As Swallows are well accommodated for long Flights, 
by their long Wings, fo are Quails by the Strength of their 
peroral Mufcles % by the Breadth of their Wings, &c. For 
Quails have but fhort Wings for the Weight of their Body ; 
and yet they fly from us into warmer Parts again ft Winter, 
and to us in Spring, crofling our Seas. So divers Travellers 
tell us, they crofs the Mediterranean twice a Year, flying from 
Europe to Africa, and back again : Thus Bellonius, in Mr. Wil- 
lugbby, faith, When we faild from Rhodes to Alexandria of 
Egypt, many Quails flying from the North towards the South, 
were taken in our Ship ; whence I am verily perfuaded, that tbef 
Jbift Places: For formerly alfo, when J failed out of the 1JU if 
Zant to Morea, or Negropont, in the Spring Time, I bad oh- 
fewd Quails flying the contrary Way, from South to North, that 
they might abide there all Summer. At which Time alfo, tbert 
were a great many taken in our Ship. Ornith. p. 1 70. 





Of the Incubation of Birds. 

ANother Thing relating to the State of this 
Tribe of Animals, is their Incubatitm. 
And firft, the Egg itfelf deferves our Notice. Its 
Parts within, and its crufty Coat without, are ad- 
mirably well fitted for the Bufinefs of Incubation* 
That there (hould be one Part provided for the'For- 
mation of the Body (a\ before its Exit into the 
World, and another for its Nourifhment, after it is 
come into the World, till the Bird is able to fhift 
for, and help itfelf; and that thefe Parts (hould be 
fo accurately braced, and kept in due Place {b\ is 
certainly a defign'd, as well as curious Piece of 


(a) The Chicken is fornid out of and nouriJFd by the Whit* 
alone, till it he grown Great. The Yolk ferves for the Chicken's 
sSouriJbment, after it is well grown, and partly alfo after it is 
hatched. For a good Part of the Yolk remains after Exclufion, hi' 
ing received into the Chicken's Belly ; and being there referred, as 
in a Store-houfe, is by the [Appendicula, or Ductus Inteftinalis,] 
ms by a Funnel, conveyed into the Guts, and ferves in/lead of 
Milk, &c. Willughby's Ornith. 1. i. c. 3. Ipfum animal 
ex albo liquore Ovi corporatur % Qbus ejus in luteo eft, Plin. 
lib. 10. cap. 53 f 

Ariftotle faith, The long Jbarp Eggs bring Females ; the round 
ones, with a larger Compafs at the /harper End, Males. Hiit. 
An. 1. 6. c. 2. After which, he tells of a Sot at Syracufe* 
that fate Drinking fo long, till Eggs were hatch'd ; as alfo of 
Che Cuftom of Egypt, of hatching Eggs in Dunghills. 

(b) As the Shell and Skin keep the Yolk and two Whites 
together; fo each of the Parts, (the Yolk and inner Whire 
at leaft,) are fepa rated by Membranes, involving them. At 
each End of the Egg is a Treddle, fo call'd, becaufe it was 


352 Incubation of Birds. Book VII. 

And then as to the A6fc itfelf of Incubation* What 
a prodigious Inftinft is it in all, or almoft all the 
feveral Species of Birds, that they, and only they, 
of all Creatures, fhould betake themfelves to this 
very Way of Generation? How (hould they be 
aware that their Eggs contain their Young, and that 
their Production is in their Power (c) ? What 
fliould move them to betake themfelves to their Nefts, 
and there with Delight and Patience to abide the 
due Number of Days ? And when their Young are 
gotten into the World, I have already (hewn how 
admirable their Art, their Care, and Erogyn is in 
bringing them up until, and only until, they are 
able to fhift for themfelves. 


formerly thought to be the Sperm of the Cock. But the 
life of thefe, (faith Dr. Harvey, in WiUugh. Omitb. c 3.) is 
U be as 'twere, the Poles of this Micveofm, and tbe Connexions 
•f all tbe Membranes t<wifted and knit together t by nvbicb the 
Liquors are not only conferred, each in its Place, but do alfi 
retain their due Pofition one to another. This, altho' in a 
great Meafure true, yet doth not come up to what I have 
myfelf obferved ; for I find, that thefe Cbala&e, or Treddles, 
fcrvc not barely to keep the Liquors in their Place, and Po- 
fition to one another; but alfo to keep one and the fame 
Part of the Yolk uppermoft, let the Egg be turn'd nearly 
which way it will ; which is done by this Mechanifm : The 
Gbalaz* are fpecifically lighter than the Whites, in which 
they fwim ; and being braced to the Membrane of the Yolk, 
not exactly in the Axis of the Yolk, but fomewhat out of it, 
caufeth one Side of the Yolk to be heavier than the other; 
fo that the Yolk being by the Cbalaza * made buoyant, 
and kept fwimming in the Midft of two Whites, is by its 
own heavy Side kept with the fame Side always uppermoft; 
which uppermoft Side, I have fome Reafon to think, is that 
on which the Cicatrieula lies ; that being commonly upper- 
moft in the Shell, efpecially in fome Species of Eggs more, 1 
think, than others. 

(f) AH Birds lay a certain Number of Eggs, or nearly that 
Number, and then betake themfelves to their Incubation j 
but if their Eggs be , withdrawn, they will lay more. Of 
which, fee Mr. Ray\ Wifd. of God, p. 1 37. 

(d) Tb 

Chap. IV. incubation of Birds. 353 

And laftly, when almoft the whole Tribe of 
Birds do thus, by Incubation, produce their Young, 
it is a wonderful Deviation, that fome few Fami- 
lies only, fhould do it in a more novercal Way (d) 9 
without any Care or Trouble at all, only by lay- 
ing their 'Eggs in the Sand, expofed to the Heat 
and Incubation of the Sun. Of this the Holy 
Scripture itfelf gives us an Inftance in the Oftrich : 
Of which we have an Hint, Lam. iv. 3. The 
Daughter of my People is become cruel, like the Of- 
tricbes in the fVildernefs. This is more plainly ex- 
prefled in Job xxxix. 14, 15, 16, 17. [The Of- 
trich] leaveth her Eggs in the Earth, and warmeth 
them in the Daft* and forgetlh that the Foot may 
crufh them, or that the wild Beaft may break them. 
She is hardened againft her Young ones, as though they 
were not hers : Her Labour is in vain, without Fear. 
Becaufe GOD hath deprived her of Wifdom, neither 
bath he imparted unto her Under/landing. In which 
Words I fhall take Notice of three Things: 1. Of 
this anomalous Way of Generation. It is not 
very ftrange, that no other Incubation but that of 


(d) The Tabon is a Bird no bigger thnn a Chicken, but is 
faid to lay an Egg larger than a Goofe's Egg, and bigger than 
the Bird itfelf. Thefe they lay a Yard deep in the Sand, 
where they are hatch'd by the Warmth of the Sun ; after 
which they creep out, and get to Sea for Provifions. Navarette'a 
Account of China* in Collecl. of Voyages, Vol. i. This Account 
is, in all Probability, borrow' d from Nuremberg, or Hernandez, 
(that copy'd from him,) who call this Bird by the Name of 
Daie, and its Eggs Tapun, not the Bird itfelf, as Nawarettt 
doth. Bat my Friend Mr. Ray faith of it, Hiftoria ifihac pro- 
culdubio fabulofa & fatfa eft. Quanwis enim A*ves nonnulla 
maxima ova pariunt, ut *v. g. Alkae, Lomwiae, Anates, Ar&i- 
cae, hz. ybujufmodi tamen unum duntaxat, non plura, o*va ponunt 
antequam incubent : nee ullam in reruns naturd a<vem dari exifti- 
mo cujus ova albumine car cant. Cum Albumen praecipua ovi pars 
Jit, quodque primum fcttui aliment urn fubminiftrat. Raii Synop. 
Av. Meth. p. 155. 

A a (e\ ft* 

354 Incubation of Birds. Book VII. 

the Sun, fhould produce their Young ; but it is ve- 
ry odd and wonderful that any one Species fhould 
vary from all the reft of the Tribe. But above all, 
%. The Angular Care of the Creator, in this Cafe, 
is very remarkable, in fupplying fome other Way 
the Want of the Parent-Animals Care and Srofyi 
(*), fothat the Young fhould, notwithftanding, be 
bred up in thofe large and barren Deferts of Ara» 
bia and Africa, and fuch like Places where thofe 
Birds dwell, the mod unlikely and unfitting (in all 
human Opinion) to afford Suftenance to young help- 
lefs Creatures ; but the fitted therefore to give De- 
monftrationsof the Wifdom, Care, and efpecial Pro- 
vidence of the infinite Creator and Conservator of 
the World. 3. The laft Thing I fliall Remark is, 
That the Inftin&s of Irrational Animals, at lead of 
this fpecified in the Text, is attributed to G o d. 
For the Reafon the Text gives why the Ofiricb is 
hardened againft her Young Ones, as though they wen 
not hers, is, Becaufe GOD bath deprived her of 
Wifdom, and not imparted Underftanding to her ; i. e. 
he hath denied her that Wifdom, he hath not im- 
parted that Underftanding, that 2™^, that natu- 
ral Inftindl to provide for, and nurfe up her Young, 
that moft other Creatures of the fame, and other 
Tribes, are endowed with. 


(e) The Eggs of the Ojhich Being buried in the Sand, are cht. 
ri/hed only by the Heat of the Sun, till the Young be excluded: 
For the Writers of 'Natural Htjlory do generally agree, that tbi 
old Birds \ after tbe\ have laid and covered their Eggs in the Sand, 
forfake them, and take no more Care of them. Wiilugh. Ornith. 
1.2. c. 8. feft. 1. 

But there is another Of rich [of America] which Acaret tells 
us of, that takes more Care of her Young, by carrying four 
of her Eggs, a little before (he hatcheth, to four Parts of 
her Neft, there to breed Worms for Food for her Young. 
Acaret\ Difc. in Philof IranJ. N° 89. 

3 (/) See 

Chap. IV. Nidification, &c. of Birds. ^55 
Thus I have difpatch'd what I intended to infift 
upon concerning the State of this Set of Animals; 
of which, as alio of their admirable Inftinfts, a great 
deal more might deferve our efpecial Obfervation -, 
particularly the admirable Curiofity, Art, and Va- 
riety of Nidification (/), ufed among the various 
Species of Birds-, the great Sagacity, and many 
Artifices ufed by them in the Inveftigation and Cap- 
ture of their Prey (£), the due Proportion of the 
more and lefs ufeful, the Scarcity or the Voracious 
and Pernicious, ^nd the Plenty of the Manfuete and 
Ufeful (b). Alfo the Variety of their Motion and 
Flight might deferve Confederation, the Swiftnefs 
of fuch whofe Food is to be fought in far diftant 
Places, and different Seafons (i) ; the flower Mo- 
tion, and fhort Flights, of others more Domeftick ; 
and even the Aukwardnefs of fome others to Flight, 
whofe Food is near at hand, and to be gotten with- 
qut any great Occafion of Flight (k). Thefe, and 
divers other fuch like ThfogB as thefe, I fay, I might 
have fpoken more largely unto ; but I (hall p*fs them 
by with only a bare Mention, having already taken 
Notice of them in the Company of other Matters 
of the like Nature, and manirefted them to be Adts 
of excellent Defign, Wifdom, and Providence, in 
tl\e great Creator. 

(f) See Book IV. Cbap. 13. 

(g) See Book IV. Chap. 11, and 14. 

\h) See Book IV. the Beginning of Cbap. 10. 

(/ ) See Book IV. Cbap. 8. 

(i) The Colymbi, or Douckcrs, having their Food near at 
3iand in the Waters, are remarkably made for Diving therein. 
Their Heads are fmall, Bills (harp-pointed, Wings fmall, 
Legs flat and broad, and placed backward, and nearer the 
Tail than in other Birds ; and laflly, their Feet, fome are 
whole-footed, fome cloven-footed, but withal fin- toed. Vide 
Willugb. Ornitb. L 3. fia. 5. 

A a 2 CHAP. 

[ 356 1 ' 



c Tbe Conclujion. 

AN D now, if we refleft upon the whole Mat- 
ter, we (hall here find another large Tribe of 
the Creation, abundantly fetting forth the Wifdotn 
and Glory of their great Creator. We praife the 
Ingenuity and Invention of Man, for the Contri- 
vance of various pneumatick Engines ; we think them 
witty, even for their unfuccefsful Attempts to fwim 
in, and fail thro* that fubtle Element the Air ; and 
the curious Mechanifm of that Artift is had in Re- 
membrance, and praife to this Day, who made a 
Dove, or an Eagle (a) to fly but a fhort Space. And 
is not therefore all imaginable Honour and Praife 
due to that infinite Artift, that hath fo admirably 
contrived and made all the noble Variety of Birds; 
that hath with fuch incomparable Curiofity and Art, 
formed their Bodies from Head to Tail, without 
and within, that not fo much as any Mufcle, or 
Bone, no, not even a Feather (b) is unartificially 
made, mifplaced, redundant, or defective, in all 
the feveral Families of this large Tribe ? But every 
Thing is fo incomparably performed, fo nicely fitted 
up for Flight, as to furpafs even the Imitation of 
themoft ingenious Artificer among mortal rational 

{a) Vide Book V. Chap. I. Note (aa). 

(£) Deus non folum Angelum, & Hominem, fed nee exigui & 
contempt ibilis animantis <vifccra y nee Avis p ennui am, nee Herba 
fiofcu/um, nee Arboris folium, fine fuarum partium convenient^ 
etereliquit. Auguftin. de Civ. Dei, I. 5. en. 


[ 357 J 


Of Insects and Reptiles. 


Of InfeSis in General. 

AVING difpatch'd that Part of the 
Animal World, which ufed to be ac- 
counted the more perfe£t,thofe Animals 
ftiled lefs perfect, or impcrfeft, will next 
deferve a Place in our Survey, becaufe 
when ftri£Uy enquired into, we (hall find them to 
be fo far from deferving to be accounted mean 
and defpicable Parts of the Creation, owing their 
Original and Produ&ion to Putrefadtions, &?r. 
as fome have thought, that we (hall find them, 
J fay, noble, and moil admirable Works of God. 
For, as , the famous Natural Hiftorian, Pliny (a), 
prefaceth his Treatife of In/efts, to prevent the 
Reproach of condefcending (as might be thought) 
to to mean a Subjedt : In great Bodies, faith he, Na- 
ture had a large and eafy Shop to work upon cbfequi- 
ous Matter ; whereas, in thefe fo fmall, audasitwere 
no Bodies > what Footfteps ofReafon, what Power, what 


(a) In magnii Jtquidem corporibus, £sV. Plin. Nat. Hid. 

1. 1 1 . C. 2. 

A a 3 

<fl mi 

3 5 8 Oflrife&s. Book VIII. 

great Perfection is there? Of this having given 
an Inftance or two of the efcquifite Serifes, and 
curious Make of fome Infe&s (£), he then goes 
on, We admire, faith he, the turrigerous Shoulders of 
Elephants, the lofty Necks and Crefis of other s\ but, 
faith he, the Nature of Things is never more com- 
pleat than in the leafi Things. For which keafon 
he intreats his .Readers (as I do mine) that be- 
caufe they flighted many if the Things tbemfehes which 
be took Notice of, they would not therefore difdain- 
fulfy condemn bis Accounts of them % fince^ faith he, 
in the Contemplation of Nature, nothing ought to feem 

Thus that eminent itfaturalift hath made his 
own, and my Excufe too : the Force and Verity 
whereof will farther appear, by What I (hall fay of 
thefe Animals, which (as defpicable as rfiey have 
beef), or £6rhaps may be thought) we (hall find as 
exquifitely contrived, and curioufly made for thtt 
Place and Station they bear in the World, as any 
other Part of the Animal World. For if we confi- 
der the innumerable Variety of their Species, the 
prodigious Numbers of Individuals, the Shape and 
Make of their little Bodies, and every Part thereof, 

(£) Vbi tbt fevfus eo//oca<vit in Culice ? Et funt alia diftu 
minora. Sed ubi Vifum in to pr&tendit : Vbi Guftatum *af- 
flicatiit ? Ubi Odoratum inftruit ? Ubi vero truculent am Mam 
Cff port zone maximam <uocem ingeneravit ? Qua fubtilitate Pen- 
nas adnexuit ? prar/ongavit Pedum crura ? Difpojitit jejuna* 
"Ca<ueam 9 uti Alvum P Aindam Sanguinis, & potijfimum humanly 
jitim* accendit * Telum *vero perfodiendo tergori, quo fpiculavtt 
ingenio? Atque ut in capaei eitm cerni tton pojjit exi/itas, ita 
reciprocd geminamit arte^ ut.fodiendo acuminatum pariter Jbrben- 
doque Jiftulofum ej/et. Quos Teredini ad perforanda Rob or a cum 
fono tffte denfes affixit ? Pottfflmumque e tigno cibatam fecit ■: 
tied turrigeros Elepbantorum miramur bumeros, Tauro turnout 
cot la, fef truces in fublime ja3us t Tigrium rapinas, Leonum 
jubas, cum rerum nature nufquam magis quant in minimis, tota 
Jit. Pha. ibid. 


Chap. II. "The Shape of lnfetfs. 3 59 

their Motion, their Inftin&s, their regular Genera- 
tion and Produftion; and, to name no more, the 
incomparable Beauty and Luftre of the Colours of 
many of them, what more admirable and more 
manifeft Demonftration of the infinite Creator, 
than even this little contemned Branch of the Ani- 
mal World? But let us take a fhort View of 


Of the Shape and Structure of Infe&s. 

LE T us begin with the Shape and Fabrick of 
their Bodies: Which altho* it be fomewhat 
different from that of Birds, being particularly, for 
the moft Part, not fo (harp before, to cut and make 
way thrt>* the Air, yet it is better adapted to their 
Manner of Life. For confidering that there is little 
Neceffity of long Flights, and that the Strength and 
A&ivity of their Wings doth much furpafs. the Re- 
fiftance their Bodies meet with from the Air, there 
was no great Occafion their Bodies fhould be fo 
fliarpened before. But the Condition of their Food/ 
and the Manner of gathering it, together with the 
great Neceffity of accurate Vifion, by that admira- 
ble Provifion made for them by the reticulated Cor- 
nea of their Eyes; thefe Things, I fay, as they re* 
quired a larger Room, fo were a good Occafion for 
the Largenefs of the Head, and its Amplitude be- 
fore. But for the reft of their Body, all is well 
made, and nicely poifcd for their Flight, and every 
other of their Occafions. 

A a 4 And 

360 "The Shape of Infetfs. Book VIII. 

And as. their Shape, fo the Fabrick and Make of 
their Bodies is no lefs accurate, admirable, and An- 
gular •, not built throughout with Bones, and cover'd 
with Flefli and Skin, as in raoft other Animals 4 
but cover'd with a curious Mail of a middle Na- 
ture {a ), ferving both as Skin and BonQ too, for the 
Shape, as well as Strength and Guard, of the Bo- 
dy ; and as it were on Purpofe to (hew, that the 
great Contriver of Nature is not bound up to one 
Way only. 

(a) Infecla non widentur Nervos habere, nee Ojfa, nee, Spinas, 
nee Cartilaginem, nee Pinguia, nee Comes, nee Crptftam quidem 
fragilem, ut qua dam marina, nee qmt jure dicatur Cutis : fed 
media cujufdam inter omnia bac nature corpus, &e, Plin. Nat. 
Hid. 1. 11. c. 4. ' 


Of the Eyes and Antenna of Infeffs. 

TO this laft-mention'd Guard, we may add, 
that farther Guard provided in the Eyes and 
Antenna. The Structure of the Eye, is, in all 
Creatures, an admirable Piece of Mechanifm ; but 
that obfervable in the Eyes of Infefts fo peculiar, 
that it muft needs excite our Admiration : Fenced 
with its own Hardnefs, yea, even its own accurate 
Vifion, is a good Guard againft external Injuries ; 
and its Cornea, or outward Coat, all over befet 
with curious, tranfparent, lenticular (a) Inlets, en- 

(a) The Cornea of Flics, Wafps, &c. are fo common an 

Entertainment with the Microfcope, that every body knows 

it is a curious Piece of Lattice.- work. In which this is re- 

3 markablc, 

Ch Ap^IIir Eyes and Antenna of Infeffs. 361 

abling thofe Creatures to fee (no doubt) very ac- 
curately every Way, without any Interval of Time 
or Trouble to move the Eye towards Obje&s. 

And as for the other Part, the Antenna or 
Feelers^ whatever their Ufe may be in cleaning 
the Eyes, or other fuch like Ufe ; they $re, in 
all Probability, a good Guard to the Eyes and 
Head, in their Walk and Flight, enabling them, 
by the Senfe of Feeling, to difcover fuch Annoy- 
ances, which by their Proximity may perhaps 
efcape the Reach of the Eyes and Sight (£). Be- 


markable, that every Foramen is of a lenticular Nature ; fo 
that we fee Objects through them topfey-turvey, as. through 
fo many convex Glafles : Yea, they become a fmall Telefcope, 
when there is a due focal Diflance between . them and the 
Lens of the Microfcope. 

This lenticular Power of the Cornea, fupplies (as I ima- 
gine) the Place of the Cryftalline, if not of the Vitreous 
Humour too, there being neither of thofe Humours that I 
could ever find, (altho' for Truth fake, I confefs I have not 
been fo diligent as I might in this Enquiry ;) but inftead of 
Humours, and Tunic&s, I imagine that every Lens of the Cornea 
hath a diftinct Branch of the Optic Nerve mini firing to it, and 
rendring it as fo many diftinct Eyes. So that as moft Animals 
are binocular, Spiders for the moft Part octonocular, and 
fome, (as Mr. Willughhy thought, Rail Hi ft. Infe8. p. 12.) 
fenocular ; fo Flies, &c. are multocular, having as many Eyes 
as there are Perforations in their Cornea. By which Means, 
as other Creatures are obliged to turn their Eyes to Objects, 
thefe have fome' or other of their Eyes ready placed towards 
Objects, nearly all round them : Thus particularly it is in the 
Dragon -Fly, (Libella,) the greateft Part of whofe Heads is pof- 
fefs'd by its Eyes . Which is of excellent Ufe to that preda- 
tious Infect, for the ready feeing and darting at fmall Flies all 
round it, on which it preys. 

(£) It is manifeft, that Infects, clean their Eyes with their 
Fore- legs, as well as Jntenn*. And confidering, that as they 
walk along, they are perpetually feeling, and fearching be- 
fore them, with their Feelers, or Antenna; therefore I am 
apt to think, that befides wiping and cleaning the Eyes, the 
Ufes here named may be admitted. For as 'their Eyes are 


362 Eyes and Antenna of Infers. Book VIII 

fides which, they are a curious Piece of "Workman- 
fhip, and in many, a very beautiful Piece of (c) Gar- 
niture to the Body. 

immoveable, fo that no Time is required for the turning their 
Eyes to Objects ; fo there is no Neceffiry of the Retina y or 
Optic Nerve being brought nigher onto, or fet farther off from 
the Comes, (which would require Time,)' as it is in other 
Animals : Bat their Cornea and Of tic Nerve, being always at 
one and the fame Diftance, are fitted only to fee diftantial 
Obje&s, but not fuch as are very nigh : Which Inconvenience 
the Feelers obviate, left it mould be prejudicial, in occafionicg 
the In feft to run its Head again ft any thing. 

And that this, rather than the wiping the Eyes, is the chief 
Ufe of the Feelers, is farther manifeft from the Antenna of 
the Fiejb-Fij, and many other Infedb, which are fhort, and 
ftrait, and incapable of being bent unto, or extended over 
. the Eyes : As alfo from others enormoufly long, fuch as thofe 
of the Capricorni, or Goat chafers, the Cadcw Fly, and divers 
others, both Beetles and Flies. 

(r) The lamellated Antenna of fome, the clavellated of 
others, the neatly articulated of others, the FeatfierM and 
divers other Forms of others, of the Scarab, Papilionaceous 
Gnat % and other Kinds, are furprizingly Beautiful, wbca 
viewed through a Microfcope. And in fome, thofe Antenna 
diftinguifli the Sexes : As in the Gnat kind, all thofe with 
Tufts, Feathers, and Brufh-horns, are Males j thofe with 
fhort, fingle-fliafted Antenna, are Females. 


Of the Farts and Motion of InfeSis. 

FROM the Head, pafs we to the Members* 
concerned in their Motion. And here we 
have a copious Subject, if I was minded to expa- 
tiate. I might take Notice of the admirable Me- 
chanifm in thofe that creep ; the curious Oars in 


Chap. I V, Parts and Motion of Infetfs. 363 

thofe amphibious Infe&s that fwim and walk (a) ; 
the incomparable Provifion made in the Feet of 
fuch as walk, or hang upon fmooth Surfaces (b) ; 
the great Strength and Spring in the Legs of fuch 
a£ leap (c) ; the ftrong and welL-made Feet and 
Talons of fuch as dig (d) : And, to name no more, 
the admirable Faculty of fuch as cannot fly, to 
convey themfelves with Speed and Safety, by the 
Help of their Webs (*), or fome other Artifice, to 


(a) All the Families of Hydrocantbari, Not one Hi, &c. have 
their hindmbft Legs made very nicely, with commodious 
Joints flat, and BrifUes on each Side towards the End, ferving 
tor Oars to Swim; and then, nearer the Body, are two ftifF 
Spikes, to enable them to walk, when Occafion is. 

(b) I might here name divers Flies, and other Infects, who, 
befides their {harp hook'd Nails, have alfo skinny Palms to 
their Feet, to enable them to flick on Glafs, and other fmooth 
Bodies, by Means of the Preflure of the Atmofphere. But 
becaufe the Example will illultrate another Work of Nature, 
as well as this, I (hall chufe a fingular Piece of Mechanifm, 
in one of the largeft Sorts of Hydrocantbari. Of thefe large 
ones there are two Sorts, one largeft, all black, with Antenn* 
hahdfomely embofs'dat the Ends. The other fomewhat leffer, 
hardly fo black, with capillary Antenn*\ the Forehead, 
Edges of the Vagina and two Rings on the Thorax, of a 
tawny Colour. The Female hath Fagin<*> prettily furrow'd, 
the Male fmooth. But that which is moft to our Porpofe in 
this Male, is a Flap, or hollowifh Cap near the middle Joint 
of the Fore legs, which, when clap'd on the Shoulders of the 
Female in Coitm, fticks firmly thereon : After the Manner as I 
have feen Boys carry heavy Stones, with only a wet Piece of 
Leather clap'd on the Top of the Stone. 

(c) Thus Grajbofpers and Crickets have brawny ftrong Thighs, 
with long, flender, but ftrong Legs, which enable them to leap 
with great Agility and Strength. 

(d) I have wonder'd to fee with what great Quicknefs, 
Art, and Strength, many Vefpa- Ichneumons, Wild-Bees, and 
Beetles, perforate the Earth, yea, even Wood itfelf: But 
the moft remarkable Animal in this Way, is the Mole-Cricket 
in Book IV. Chap. 13. Note (/). 

(#) I have with Pleafure often feen Spiders dart out their 
Webs, and fail away by the Help thereof. For the Manner 


364 Tarts and Motion of Infers. Book VIII. 
make their Bodies lighter than the Air (f) : Thefc, 
and a Multitude of other fuch like Things as thefc, I 


of which, fee Mr. Lvwthorp's Abridg. Fil. 2. p. 794, f*° m 
Dr. Lifttr and Dr. Hulfe, who both claim'd the Difcovery 
thereof. And both do feem to have hit thereupon, with- 
out any Foreknowledge of what each other hath difcover'd, 
as is faid in the lad cited Place, and as I more particularly 
find by Mr. Rafs Pbiiof. Letters, Printed Anno 171 8, p. 95, &c 
By which alfo I find, the two ingenious Doctors were very 
modeft in their Claims, and very amicable in the Matter. In 
one of Dr. Lifter's to Mr. Ray, he thinks there is a fair Hint 
of the Darting of Spiders in Ariftot. Hift. An. /. 9. c. 39. 
And in Pliny, i. 11. e. 24. But for their Sailing, that the 
vAntients are filent of, and he thinks it was feen firfl by him. 
And in another Letter, Jan. 20. 1670. fpeaking of the 
Height Spiders are able to fly, he faith, Ike laft October, &c. 
1 took Notice that the Air vjas very full of Webs y 1 forthwith 
mounted to tbe Top of the highefi Steeple on tbe Minfier, [in 
York,] and could thence difcern them yet exceeding high above me* 
Some that fell, and were entangled upon tbe Pinnacles, 1 took, 
and found them to be Lupi ; which Kind feldom or never enter 
Houfes. and cannot be fuppofed to have taken their Flight from 
tbe Steeple. 

(f) There are (I imagine,) divers Animals, as well as 
Spidtrs, that have fome Way of Conveyance, as little known 
to us, as that of Spiders formerly was. Thus the SquilluU, 
Pulices Arbor if centes, and microfcopical Animalcules of the ftag- 
nating Waters, fo numerous in them, as to difcolour fome- 
times the Water, and make them look as if they were tinged 
Red, Yellow, or Green, or covered with a thick green 
Scum ; all which is nothing but Animalcules of that Colour. 
That thefe Creatures have fome Way of Conveyance, I 
conclude, becaufe moft fhgnating Waters are ftock'd with 
them, new Pits and Ponds, yea, Holes and Gutters on the 
Tops of Houfes and Steeples. That they are not bred there 
by equivocal Generation, every ingenious, confidering Phi- 
lofopher will grant ; that they have not Legs for travelling 
fo far, is manifefl from Infpe&ion : And therefore I am apt 
to think, that they have fome Faculty of inflating their Bo- 
dies, or darting out Webs, and making their Bodies buoyant, 
and lighter than Air; or their Bodies, when dry, may be 
lighter than Air, and fo they can fwim from Place to Place ; 
or the Eggs of fuch as are oviparous, may be light enongb to 
float in the Air. But then the Viviparous, (as my late inge- 


Chap. IV. Parts and Motion of InfeSts* 365 

might, I fay,* take Notice of, as great* Evidences 
of the infinite Creator's Wifdom : But left I fhould 
be too tedious, I will confine my Obfervations to 
the Legs and Wings only. And thefe, at firft 
View, we find to be incomparably fitted up for 
their intended Service, not to over-load the Body, 
nor in the leaft to retard it ; but to give it the moft 
proper and convenient Motion. What, for Example, 
can be better contrived, and made for this Service, 
than the Wings ? Diftended and ftrengthened by the 
fineft Bones, and thefe covered with the fineft and 
lighted Membranes, fome of them adorned with 
neat and beautiful Feathers (g) ; and many of them 
provided with the fineft Articulations, and Foldings, 
for the Wings to be withdrawn, and neatly laid up 
in their Vagina* and Cafes, and again readily ex- 
tended for Flight (by 


nious Friend, Mr. Charles King, fliew'd me the PuUces Aquat. 
Arbor ef. are; thefe, I fay,) can't be this Way accounted for. 
The Caufe of thefe latter Sufpicions was, that in the Summer 
Months, I have feen the Pulices Arbor ef. and the green Scum 
on the Waters, (nothing but Animalcules, as J faid,) lie in a 
manner dry on the Surface of the Waters ; at which Time, 
(as I have (hewn in Book IV. Chap. n. Note (»),) thofe Ani- 
malcules copulate ; and perhaps, they may at the fame Time 
change their Quarters, and feek oat new Habitations for their 
numerous Offspring, as well as themfelves. 

(g) It is well known to all Perfons any way converfant in 
microfcopical Obfervations, that thefe elegant Colours of 
Moths, and Butterflies, are owing to neat and well made Fea- 
thers, fet with great Curioftty and Exa&nefs in Rows, and 
good Order. 

(b) All that have Elytra, Scarabs, (who have whole Ely- 
tra, or reaching to the Podex, or the 'Hpixa^owTt^, fuch 
as Earwigs, and Stapbilini of all Sorts,) do, by a very curi- 
ous Mechanifm, extend and withdraw their membranaceous 
Wings, (wherewith they chiefly fly ;) and it is very pretty 
to , fee them prepare themfelves for Flight, by thruiting out, 
and unfolding their Wings, and again withdraw thofe Joints, 
and neatly fold in t£c Membranes, to be laid up fafely in 


366 Parts and Motion oflnfeSls. Book VIII. 

And then for the Poifing of the Body, and keep- 
ing it upright, and fteady in Flight, it is an admi- 
rable Artifice and Provifion for this Purpofe 5 in 
fome, by four Wings (1) ; and in fuch as have but 
two, by Pointels, and Poifes placed under the 
Wings, on each Side the Body. 

And laftly, It is an amazing Thing to refleft 
upon the furprizing Minutenefs, Art, and Curio- 
fity of the (k) Joints, the Mufcles, the Tendons, 
the Nerves, neceffary to perform all the Motions 
of the Legs, the Wings, and every other Part. I 
have already mention'd this in the larger Animals ; 
but to confider, that all thefe Things concur in 
minute Animals, even in the fmalleft Mite ; yea, 


their Elytra or Cafes. For which Service the Bones are 
well placed, and the Joints miniftring thereunto are accurate- 
ly contrived, for the moll compendious, and commodious 
folding up the Wings. 

(/} For the keeping the Body Heady and upright in Flight, 
it generally holds true, (if I miHake not,) that all bipennated 
Inieds have Poifes joined to the Body, under the hinder Part 
of their Wings; but fuch as have four Wings, or Wing! 
with Elytra, none. If one of the Poifes, -or one of the lefler 
auxiliary Wings be cut off, the Infect will fly as if one Side 
overbalanced the other, until it falleth on the Ground j fo if 
both be cut off, they will fly aukwardly, and unfteadily, mi- 
ni felling the Defect of fome very neceffary Part. Thefe 
Poifes, or Pcititels, are, for the mod part, little Balls, fet at 
the Top of a (lender Sialic, which they can move eytry Way 
at Pleafure. In fome they (land alone, in others, (as in the 
whole FUfoPly Tribe,) they have little Covers or Shields, 
under which they lie and move. The Ufe, no doubt, of 
thefe Poifes, and fecondary leflcr Wings, is to poife the Body, 
and to obviate all the Vacillations thereof in Flight ; ferving 
to the Infect, as the long Pule, laden at the Ends with Lead, 
doth the Pope-dancer, 

{k) As all the Parts of Animals are moved by the Help of 
thefe ; fo there is no doubt but the minuteft Animals have 
fuch like Parts : But the Mufcles and Tendons of fome of 
the larger Infects, and fome of the leffer too, maybe feen with 
a Microfcope. 

(/) The 

Chap. IV. Parts and Motion of Infers. 367 

the Animalcules, that, (without good Microfcopes,) 
efcape our Sight-, to confider, I fay, that thofe 
minuteft Animals have all the Joints, Bones, Muf- 
cles, Tendons, and Nerves, neceffary to that brisk 
and fwift Motion that many of them have, is fo 
ftupendious a Piece of curious Art (/), as plainly 
manifefteth the Power and Wifdom of the infinite 
Contriver of thofe inimitable Fineries. But having 
named thofe minute Animals, Why Ihould I men- 
tion only any one Part of their Bodies, when we 
have, in that little Compafs, a whole and complete 
Body, as exquifitely form'd, and (as far as our 
Scrutiny can poffibly reach,) as neatly adorn'd, as 
the largeft Animal? Let us confider, that there 
we have Eyes, a Brain, a Mouth, a Stomach, En- 

(/) The minute Curiofitjes, and inimitable Fineries, ob- 
fervable in thofe letter Animals, in which oar belt Microfcopes 
difcover no Botch, no rude ill-made Work, (contrary to what 
is in all artificial Works of Man,) Dq they not far more de- 
fence our Admiration, than thofe celebrated Pieces of human 
Art? Such as the Cup made of a Pepper-Corn, by Ofwald 
Ner linger, that held 1 200 Ivory Cups, all gilt on the Edges, 
and having each of them a Foot, and yet affording Room for 
400 more, in the Epbem. Germ. T. 1. Addend, ad Obf. 13. 
Such alfo was Phaeton in a Ring, which Galen thus reflects 
upon, when he fpeaks of the Art and Wifdom of the Maker 
of Animals, particularly fuch as are fmall : £>uanto, faith he, 
ipfnm minus fuerit, tanto major em admirationem tibi excitabit ; 
quod declarant Opifices cum in corporibus parvis aliquid infculpant t 
cujus generis eft quod nuper quidam in Amiulo P has font a qua- 
tu9r equis iwveclum fculpfit. Omnes enim equi franum % os, & 
denies anterior es babebant, &e. And then having taken No- 
tice, that the Legs were no bigger than thofe of a Gnat, he 
ihews that their Make did not come up to thofe of the Gnat ; 
as alfo, faith he, Major adbuc alia qmedam effe *videtur artis 
ejus, qui pulicem condidit, Vis at que Sapientia, quod, &c . Cum 
igitur Ars tanta in tarn abjeSis antmalibus appareat 9 —quan- 
tam ejus Vim ac Sapient tarn in praftantioribus inejje putabimus f 
Galen, de Uf. Part. 1. 17. c. 1. hxi. 

368 Parts and Motion of InfeSls. Book VIII; 

trials, and every other Part of an animal Body, as 
well as Legs and Feet ; and that all thofe Parts 
have each of them their neceffary Apparatus of 
Nerves, of various Mufcles, and every other Part 
that other Infe&s have; and that all is covered 
and guarded with a well- made Tegument, befet 
with Bridles, adorn'd with neat Imbrications, and 
many other Fineries. And laftly, Let us confider in 
how little Compafs all Art and Cujriofity may lie, 
even in a Body many times lefs than a fmall Grain 
of Sand (m) ; fo that the leaft Drop of Water can 
contain many of them, and afford them alfo fuffici- 
cnt Room to dance and frisk about in (n). 

Having furvey'd as many of the Parts of Infefls 
as I care to take Notice of ; I (hall in the next 
Place fay fomewhat of their State, and Circum- 
fiances of Life. And here I (hall take Notice only 
of two Things, which have been only hinted at 
before ; but will deferve more particular Confi- 
deration here, as being Afts of a wonderful In- 
flinft; namely, Their Security of themfelvesagainft 
Winter 5 and their fpecial Care of preferving their 

(m) It will in fome Meafure appear, how wonderfully mi- 
Hate Tome microfcopical Animalcules are, by what follows in 
the next Note. But becaufe more particular Examples would 
be endlefs, I (hall refer to the Obfervations of Mr. Lewwtu- 
boeck 9 and others, in the Fhilof. Tranf. and elfewhere. 

(*) It is almoft impoflible, by Reafon of their perpetual 
Motion, and changing Places, to count the Number of the 
Animalcules, in only a Drop of the green Scum upon Water ; 
but I guefs I have fometirnes feen not fewer than 100 frifking 
about in a Drop no bigger than a Pin's Head. But in fuch 
a Drop of Pepper- water, a far greater Number ; thefe being 
much lefs than xhofe. 


[ 369 1 


The Sagacity of InfeSts to fecure themfehes 
againft Winter. 

IT is an extraordinary A& of Inftinft and Saga- 
city, obfervable in the Generality of the Infcdt- 
Tribe, that they all take Care to fecure themfelves* 
and provide againft theNeceflities of Winter : That 
when the Diftrefles of Cold and Wet force them, 
they fhould retire to warm and dry Places of Safety, 
is not ftrange ; but it is a prodigious Aft of the 
infinite Confervator's Care, to enable fome to live 
in a different Kind of InfeA-State ; others to live, 
as without A&ion, fo without Food ; and others 
that aft and eat, to lay up in Summer fufficient 
Provifions againft the approaching Winter. Some, 
I fay, live irf a different State \ for having fuffici- 
ently fed, nourifhed, and bred up themfelves to the 
Perfection of their Vermicular* Nympha-State, in the 
Summer-Months, they then retire to Places of Safe- 
ty, and there throw off their Nympba, and put on 
their Aurelia, or Cbryfalis-State 9 for* all the Winter, 
in which there are no Occafions for Food. This 
is the conftant Method of many Families of the 
Infcdt-Tribc (a)« 


(a) It would be endlefs to enter into Particulars here, be- 
Caufe all the Papilionaceous, fltjh, and Ichneumon-fly Tribes j 
and all others that undergo the Nympba and Aurelia State, 
between that of the Egg and Mature State, (which are very 
numerous) appertain to this Note. For a Sample therefore 
only, I (hall take what fome may think a mean one, but if 
flton&leredj deferves our Admiration, and that is, the Saga- 

Bb wj 

3 7 o Infetts Security againft Winter. Book VIII. 

But there are others, and fome of them in their 
moft perfed State too, that are able to fubfift in a 
kind of Torpitude, or Sleeping-State, without any 
Food at all ; by Reafon as there is no A6tion, fo no 
Wafte of Body, no Expence of Spirits, and therefore 
no need of Food (b). 

But for others that move and aft, and need 
Food, it is a prodigious Inftin& and Forefight the 
Creator hath imprinted on them, to lay up fuffici- 
cnt Food in Summer for the Winter's (c) Neceffi- 


city of the White Butter-fly Caterpillar, which having fed it- 
fclf its doe Time, then retires to Places of Security. ' I have 
fccn great Trains of them creeping up the Walls and Pons 
of the next Houfes, where, with the Help of fome Cobweb, 
like Filaments* they hang themfelves to the Ciehngs, aid 
other commodious Places, and then become Aureli* ; in which 
State and Places they hang fecure from the Wet and Cold, 
till the Spring, and warmer Months, when they are tranfmuted 
into Butter-flies. 

(b) I (hall not name any of the particular Species of In- 
feels which live in this State, becaufe they are very nume- 
rous, but only remark two Things obfervable in their Saga- 
city in this Matter : i . That they are not driven by Strefs of 
Weather to their Retirement, but feem as naturally to betake 
themfelves thereto, as other Animals do to Reft and Sleep. 
For before the Approach of cold Weather, towards the End 
of Summer, we may fee fome Kinds of them flocking toge- 
ther, in great Numbers, within Doors, (as Swallows do a Tit- 
tle before they leave us) as if they were making ready for 
their Winter's Reft. 2. That every Species betakes itfeif 
to a proper convenient Receptacle ; fome under the Wa- 
ters to the Bottoms of Ponds; fome under the Earth, be- 
low the Frofts ; fome under Timber, Stone, &c. lying on the 
Ground ; fome into hollow Trees, or under the Bark, or in 
the Wood ; fome into warm and dry Places ; and fome into 
dry alone. 

(c) There are not many Kinds that thus provide their 
Food before-hand. The moft remarkable, are the Ant and 
the Bee; concerning the firft of which, Origen hath this Re- 
mark, *viz. De folertid Formicarum, Centura hyemi mature fn- 
fpicitntium, flbique invicem fub one re fejjts fuccurrcntium j quii- 

CHAP.V. Infedls Security againft Winter. 371 

ties and Occafions. And it is very pretty to fee 
with what unwearied Diligence all Hands are at 
Work for that Purpofe, all the Warmer Months. 
Of this the Holy Scripture itfelf gives us an In- 
ftance in the Ant> calling that little Animal ex- 
ceeding wife, Prov. xxk. 24. And the Reafon is, 
ver. 25, The Ants are a People notjirongy yet they pre- 
pare their Meat in the Summer* And therefore Solo- 
mon fends the Sluggard to this little contemptible 
Creature, to learn Wifdom, Forefight, Care, and 
Diligence, Prov. vi. 6, 7, 8. Go to the Ant, thou 
Sluggard, confider her Ways, and be wife : which ha- 
ving no Guide, Overfeer, or Ruler, provideth her 
Meat in the Summer, and gatheretb her Food in the 

To this Scriptural Example, give me leave to 
anticipate, and fubjoin an Obfervation of the far- 
ther great Wifdom of this little Creature; and 
that is their unparallclled Iro^yn, their Tendernefs* 
Sagacity, and Diligence, about their Young (d). 


que fruges arrofas condunt, ne rurfus enafcantur, fed per annum 
alimento fint y non ratiocinationtm Formic arum in causa debemus 
credere, fed almam mat rem Naturam brut a quoqut fie ornan- 
rem, ut etiam minimis addat fua quadam ingenia. Orig. cont. 
Cclf. 1. 4. 

Bat as for Wafps, Hornets, Humble Bees, and other Wild- 
Bees, Vefp* Ichneumons, and divers others that carry in Mate- 
rials for Neils and Food ; this is only for the Service of their 
Generation, for hatching their Eggs, and nouriihing their 
Young, not for Supplies in Winter ; for they all forfake their 
Neds towards Winter, and retire to other Quarters, living 
(I conceive) without Food all that Time. 

(d) Hos vermiculos [Formicarum Ova vulgd vocatos] incre- 
dibili ETopyi} & curd Formica educant, fummamque dant ope* 
ram, ne *vel t ant ilium t quod fpeclet eorum vermiculorum edu- 
cationem at que nutritionem, omit t ant : quern in finem fere femper 
eofdem ore circumportant fecum, ne ulla eos ladit injuria* In 
mufeo met nonnullas iftius generis for micas, vitro terra rtpleto, 

B b 2 com- 

372 InfeSts Security againjt Winter. Book VIII; 

'Tis very diverting, as well as admirable to fee, 
with what Affe&ion and Care they carry about 
their Young in their Mouths, how they expofe 
themfelves to the greateft Dangers, rather than 
leave their Yotmg expofed or forfaken ; how they 
remove them from Place to Place in their little 
Hills, fometimes to this Part, fometimes to that, 
for the Benefit of convenient Warmth, and proper 
Moifture ; and then again withdraw, and guard 
them againft Rain and Cold. Now that this great 
Wifdom which the Scriptures attribute unto, and is 
difcernible in this little Animal, is owing only to 
the Inftinft, or Infufions of the great Conferva- 
? tor 

eonclufas cum Fcrmiculis iftis adfervabam : ibi non fine juam- 
ditate fpedabam, quo terra fieret in fuperficie ficcior 9 §9 prof mi- 
dius Formicas cum feetibus J'uis prorepere : cum verb aquam ad* 
f under em, vifu mirificum erat> quanta affeftu, quanta folicitu- 
dine 9 quanta ETogyi} omnem in eo collocarent operant, ut fatus 
fuos Jicciore & tuto loco reponerent. S&piiis <vidi, cum aliquot 
diebus aqua caruiffent, atque cum affufo tantillo aquae t err am 
Warn humefiarem, } vefligio a Formicis foetus fuos eo loci Juiffe 
allatos, quos ibi diftincle confpiciebam moveri atque fugere humor em. 
Multoties fui conatus, ut eos Vermiculos ipfe educarem, at fern- 
per conatum fefellit event us : neque ipfas For mica rum Nympbas 
alimenti jam non indigas unquam fine ipfis Formicis potui potts 
artificiali excluder e. J. Swammerd. Epilog, ad Hill. Infeft. 
p. 153. 

Sir Edward King, who was very curious in examining the 
Generation of Ants, obferves their great Care and Diligence, 
1. About their Sperm, or true Eggs, which is a fine white 
Subftance, like Sugar, which they diligently gather together 
into a Heap, when fcattercd, and on which they lie in Mul- 
titudes, (I fuppofe, by way of Incubation.) 2. I have ob- 
ferved, faith he, in Summer, that in the Morning they bring 
up thofe of their Young (calPd Ant-Eggs) towards the Top 
of the Bank : So that you may from 10 in the Morning, until 

5 or 6 Afternoon, find them near the Top for the moil 

Part on the South fide the Bank. But towards 7 or 8 at Night, 
if it be cool, or likely to rain, you may dig a Foot deep be- 
fore you can find them. Pbilofi Tranf. N° 23. or Mr. 2*w- 
thorp*% Abridg. Vol. 2. p. j 9 and 9. 

(a) The 

Chap. VI. Infers Care of their Tbung. 373 

tor of the World, is evident, becaufe either this 
Wifdom, Thought, and Forecaft, is an Aft of the 
Animal itfelf, or of fome other Being that hath 
Wifdom. But the Animal being irrational, 'tis im- 
pofiible it can be its own Aft, but muft be derived, 
or received from fome wife Being. And who ? What 
can that be, but the infinite Lord, Confervator, ancj 
Governor of all the World ? 

C H A P. VI. 
Of the Care of InfeSls about their Toung. 

THE other notable Inftindt I am to treat of, is 
the peculiar Art and Care of the Infed-Tribe, 
about the Prefervation of their Species. Here I 
might fpeak of many Things, but I have occafional- 
ly mentioned divers of them before, under fome or 
other of the General Heads, and therefore ftiall fix 
only upon two Things relating to their fpecial Art 
and Care about the Production (a) of their Young, 
which have not been fo particularly fpoken to as 
they deferve. 

One Thing is their Angular Providence for their 
Young, in making or finding out fuch proper Re- 
ceptacles and Places for their Eggs and Seed, as 
that they may receive the Advantage of a fuffici- 


(a) The Dodlrine of ^Equivocal Generation, is at this Day 
fo fufficiently exploded by all learned Philosophers, that £ 
fiiall not enter the Difpute, but take it for granted, that all 
Amfcials fpring from other Parent- Animals. If the Reader 
hath any Doubt about it, I refer him to Seigneur Redi de Gen. 
Infefi. and Mr. Pay's Wifdom of God, &c. p. 344. Sec alfq 
before, Book IV. Chap. 15. Note (a). 

Pb 3 Vjft\\ 

374 fofe&s Care of their Young. Book VIII. 
cnt Incubation, and that the Young, whenl pro- 
duced, may have the Benefit of proper and iuffi- 
cient Food for their Nurture and Education, till 
they are able to fliift for themfelves. It is admira- 
ble to lee with what Diligence and Care the feve- 
ral Species of Infe&s lay up their Eggs, or Sperm, 
in their feveral proper Places ; not all in the Wa* 
ters, in Wood, or on Vegetables ; but thofe whofe 
Subfiftence is in the Waters {b\ in the Water; 
thofe to whom Flefli is a proper Food, in Flefh (c) 5 


(b) It would be endlefs to fpecify the various Species of 
Infeds, that have their Generation in the Waters : And there- 
fore I (hall only obferve of them, 1 . That their Eggs are al- 
ways laid up with great Care, and in good Order. And alfo, 
2. Where proper and fufficient Food is. 3. That in their 
Nympba-Stztt in the Waters, they have Parts proper for Food 
and Motion 5 and in many, or mod of them, very different 
from what they have in their Mature- State ; a manifeft Ar- 
gument of the Creator's Wifdom and Providence. For an 
Infhnce, fee Note (r). 

(c) As Seigneur Redi was one of the firft that made it his 
Bufmefs to difcard Anomalous Generation, fo he tried more 
Experiments relating to the Vermination of Serpents, Flefh, 
Fifh, putrified Vegetables ; and, in (hort, whatever was com- 
monly known to be the Nufery of Maggots, more, I fay, 
probably, than any one hath done fmce. And in all his Ob- 
servations, he conftandy found the Maggots to turn to Jureli<e t 
and thefe into Flies. But then, faith he, Dubitare ccepi % utrum 
omne hoc vermium in came genus, ex Jolo Mufcarum femine, an 
ex ipfis putrefafiis carnibus oriretur, tanUque magis confirmabar 
in hoc meo dubio, quanto in omnibus generationibus fapius 
videram, in carnibus, antequam verminare inciperent, refedtffe 
ejufdm fpeciei M'ufcas y cujus propago pofiea nafcebatur. Upon 
this he tells us, he put Fiih, Flefh, &c. into Pots which he 
covered clofe from the Flies wkh Paper, and afterwards (for 
the free Air- fake) with Lawn, whilft other Pots were left 
open, with fuch like Flefh, tsfr. in them ; that the Flies were 
very eager to get into the covered Pots ; and that they pro- 
duced not one Maggot, when the open ones had many. 
Fr. Redi de Ger. Jn/ea. 

Chap. VI. InfeSis Care of their Young. 3 75 
thofe to whom the Fruits (d) or Leaves of Vege- 


. Among the Infe&s that come from the Maggots he men- 
tions, he names Cu/ices. Now from the moil critical Ob- 
servations I haTe made, I never obferved any Sort of Gnat to 
come from putriiied Flefti, Vegetables, or any other Thing 
he taxeth them with. So that either he means by Culex, 
fome Fly that we call not by the Name of Gnat ; or elfe their 
Gnats in Italy vary in their Generation from oars in England. 
For among above thirty, near forty, diftinft Species of Gnats 
that I have obferved about the Place where J live, I never 
found any to lay their Eggs in Flefli, Fifti, cjV. but the 
largeft Sort, called by Aldrovand, Culices max: mi, by Snvam- 
tfierdam, Tifula terreftres, lay their Eggs in Meadows, ciff. 
under the Grafs ; one of the larger middle Sort, in dead Beer f 
Yeaft, &c. lying on the Tops, or in the Leaks of Beer-Bar- 
rels, &c. and all the reft (as far as ever I have obferved) lay 
and hatch in the Waters, as in Not* (r). 

The Generation of the Second of thefe being akin to fome 
of the foregoing Inftances, and a little out of the Way, may 
deferve a Place here. This Gnat lays its Eggs commonly in 
dead Beer, &c. as I faid, and probably in Vinegar, and other 
fuch Liquors. Some Time after which, the Maggots are fo 
numerous, that the whole Liquor ftirreth as if it was alive ; 
being full of Maggots, fome larger, fome fmaller ; the larger 
are the Offspring of our Gnat, the fmaller, of a fmall dark- 
coloured Fly, tending to reddifh, frequent in Cellars, and 
fuch obfeure Places. All thefe Maggots turn to Aurelia, the 
larger of which, of a Tan-Colour, turn to bur Gnat. This 
Gnat is of the unarmed Kind, having no Spear in its Mouth : 
Its Head is larger than of the common Gnats, a longer Neck, 
fhort-jointed Antenna, spotted Wings, reaching beyond its 
(lender Al'vus ; it is throughout of a brown Colour, tending to 
red, efpecially in the Female : The chief Difference between 
the Male and Female is, (as in other Gnats, yea, moll Infe&s) 
the Male is lefs than the Female, and hath a flenderer Belly, 
and its Podex not fo {harp as the Female's is. 

(d) The Infe&s that mfeft Fruits, are either of the Ichneu- 
mon-Fly Kind, or Fhalana. Plumbs, Peafe, Nuts, &c. produce 
fome or otlier Ichneumon Fly. That generated in the Plumb is 
black, of a middle Size, its Body near three-tenths of an Inch 
long, its Tail not much lefs, confiding of three Bridles, 
where w''th it conveys its Eggs into Fruits: Its Antenna, or 
Horns } long, (lender, recurved; its Belly longifti, tapering, 
• B b 4 fmall 

3 7 6 Infers Care of their Taung. Book VIIl, 

tables are Food, are accordingly repofited, fome in 
this Fruit, fome on this Tree (*), fome on that 
Plant (/), fome on another, and another ; but con- 

(mall towards the Thorax ; Legs reddifo ; Wings membrana- 
ceous, thin, and tranfparent, in Numb. 4. which is one Cha- 
racteriftick of the Ichneumon-Fly. 

The Peafe Ichneumon- Fly is very final!, Wings large, reach- 
ing beyond the Poaex; Antennae long; Alvus fhort, fhaped 
like an Heart, with the Point towards the Amu ; it walketh 
and flicth flpwly : No Tail appears as in tfye former ; but 
they have one lieth hidden tinder the Belly, which they can 
at Pleafure bend back to pierce Peafe when they are young 
and tender, and other Things alfo, as I have Reafon to 
fufpedt, having met with this (as indeed the former two) in 
divers Vegetables. 

Pears and Apples I coald never difcover any Thing to breed 
in, bat only the le(Ter Phatana, about four-tenths of an Inch 
long, whitift underneath, greyifh brown above, (dappled 
with brown Spots, inclining to a dirty Red) all but about a 
third Part at tne End of the Wings, which is not grey, but 
brown, elegantly ftriped with wavey Lines, of a Gold Colour, 
as if gilt ; its Head is fmall, with a Tuft of whitifh-brown 
in the Forehead; Antenna fmooth, moderately long. The 
Aurelia of this Moth is fmall, of a yellowifh brown. I 
know not what Time they require for their Generation out of 
Boxes ; but thofe I laid up in Augufl, did not become Moths 
before June following. 

(e) There are many of the Phalange, and Ichneumon-Fly 
Tribes, that have their Generation on the Leaves, or other 
Parts of Trees and Shrubs, too many to be here reckoned up. 
The Oak hath many very beautiful Phalana, bred in its con- 
volved Leaves, white, green, yellow, brown fpotted prettily, 
and neatly dappled, and many more befides ; and its Buds 
afford a Place for Cafes, and Balls of various Sorts, as fhall be 
fhevvn hereafter ; its Leaves expanded, minuter to the Germi- 
nation df globular, and other fphaeroidal Balls, and flat Thee*, 
fome like Hats, fome like Buttons excavated in the Middle; 
and divers other fuch like Repofitories, all belonging to the! 
Ichneumon-Fly Kind. And not only the Oak, but the Maple 
alfo, the Wbite-Tborn, the Brier, Privet, and indeed aimoft 
every Tree and Shrub. 

(/) And as Trees and Shrubs, fo Plants have their pecn- 
liar Infects. The White Butterfly lays its voracious Off- 


Chap. VI. Infe&s Care of their Young. 377 

ftantly the fame Family on the fame Tree or Plant, 
the moft agreeable to that Family. And as for 
others that require a conftant and greater Degree 
of Warmth, they arc accordingly provided by the 
Parent- Animal with fome Place in pr about the 
Body of other Animals ; fome in the Feathers of 
Birds (£)•, fome in the Hair of Beafts(A); fome 


• fpring on Cabbage- Leaves ; a very beautiful reddifli ocellated 
one, its no lefs voracious black Offspring, of an horrid Afpedt, 
on the Leaves of Nettles ; as alfo doth a very beautiful, fmall 
green ifh Ichneumon-Fly \ in Cafes on the Leaves of the fame 
Plant : And to name no more, (becaufe it would be endlefs) 
the beautiful Ragwort Moth, whofe upper Wings are brown, 
elegantly fpotted with red, and under Wings edged with 
brown ; thefe, J (ay, provide for their golden ringed Eruc<e 
ppon the Ragwort Plant. 

. (g) Many, if not moft Sorts of Birds, are infefted with a 
Jiitind Kind of Lice, very different from one another in 
Shape, Size, £ffr. For Figures and Defcriptions of them, I 
(hall refer to Seigneur Redi of lnfefls. See alfo Moufet, I. 2. 
c. 23. Thefe Lice lay their Nits among the Feathers of the 
refpedive Birds, where they are hatched and nourifhed ; and 
as Anjlotle faith, would deftroy the Birds, particularly Pbea- 
fants, if they did notduft their Feathers. Loco infra citat. 

(b) And as Birds, fo the feveral Sorts of Beads have their 
peculiar Sorts of Lice ; all diflinft from the two Sorts infeft- 
i$g Man : Only the Afs % they fay, is free, beciufe our Saviour 
rode upon one, as fome think 5 but I prefume it is rather 
from the PafTage in Pliny, I. n. c. 33. or rather Arifi. Hi ft. 
Animal. 1. 3. c, 31. who faith, Quibus pi /us eft, non carent 
Godem [Pediculo] exc/pto Aft no, qui non Pediculo tantum, *ve- 
rbm etiam Redi*vio immunis eft. And a little before, fpeaking 
of thofe in Men, he mews what Conftitutions are moft fubjeel 
to them, and inftanceth in Ale man the Poet and Pberecydes 
fyrius, that died of the Pthiriafis, or Lowfy Difeafe. For 
which foul Difteiriper, if Medicines are defired, Moufet de 
InfeB. p. 262. may be confulted. Who in the fame Page 

])ath this Obfervation, Animadverterunt noftrates ubi 

Afore s infulas a tergo reliquerint, Pediculos confeftim omnei 
tybefcere : at que ubi eas reviferint, iterum innumeros alios f ubi to 
oriri. Which Obfervation is confirmed by Dr. Stubs. Vide 
Lowth. Abridge Vol. 3 p. 558. And many Seamen have told 
mf the fame. 

fl FLOv^ 

378 lnfeBs Care of their Toting. Book VIII. 

in the very Scales of Fifties (i)\ fome in the 
Nofe(£); fome in the Flefh (/); yea, fome in 


(?) Fifties, one would think, fhould be free from Lice, 
by reafon they live in the Waters, and are perpetually moving 
in, and brufhing through them ; but yet they have their Sorts 

Befides which, I have frequently found great Numbers 
of long (lender Worms in the Stomachs, and other Parts of 
Fifh, particularly CcJfiJb, efpecially foch as are poor ; which 
Worms have work'd themfelves deeply into the Coats and 
Flefh, fo that they could not eafily be gotten oat : So 
Ariftotle faith of fome Fifties, Ballero & TiJIom Lmmbrkus 
itmafcitur, qui de&iktat, &c. Chaltis <vitfo infeftatur dirt, ut 
Pedtculi/uh BroMibiis innati quam multi interimant. Hift. An. 
LS. c. 20. 

(i) Of Infects bred in the Nofe of Animals, thofe in the 
Noitrils of Sheep are remarkable. I have myfelf taken oat 
not fewer at a Time than twenty or thirty rough Maggots, 
lying among the Lamina of the Noftrils. But I could never 
hatch any of them, and fo know not what Animal they pro- 
ceed from : But I have no great doubt, they are of the lib- 
ueumon-Fly Kind ; and not improbably of that with a long Tail, 
call'd Trijfeta, whofe three Briitles feem very commodious for 
conveying its Eggs into deep Places. 

I have alio feen a rough whitifh Maggot, above two Inches 
within the Inttfiinum Red urn of Horfes, firmly adhering 
thereto, that the hard Dung did not rub off. I never could 
bring them to Perfection, but fufpect the Side-Fty proceeds 
from it. 

(/) In the Backs of Cows, in the Summer-Months, there are 
Maggots generated, which in EJJfiex we call Wornils ; which 
are firft only a fmall Knot in the Skin ; and, I fuppofe, no 
other than an Egg laid there by fome Infect. By Degrees thefe 
Knots grow bigger, and contain in them a Maggot lying in a 
purulent Matter : They grow to be as large as the End of one's 
Finger, and may be fqueez'd out at a Hole they have always 
open : They are round and rough, and of a dirty White. With 
my utmoft Endeavour and Vigilance, I could never difcover 
the Animal they turn into 5 but as they are fomewhat like, fo 
may be the fame as thofe in the Note before. 

In Perfia there are very long (lender Worms, bred in the 
Legs, and other Parts of Men's Bodies, 6 or 7 Yards long. 


Chap. VX InfeSls Care of their Young. 3 79 

the very Bowels (*»), and in moft Receffes of 


In Pbilof Tranf Mr. Dent, and Mr. Lewis, relate divers Ex- 
amples of Worms taken out of the Tongue, Gums, Nofe, and 
other Parts, by a Woman at Leicefter, which they were Eye- 
witnefies of. Thefc, and divers others mentioned in the 
Tranfa&ions, may be feen together in Mr. Low thorp* $ Ahridg. 
Vol. 3. /. 132. 

Narrat mihi vir fide digitus ■ Ca#. Wendlandt f e 

in Polonid, puero cuidam ruftico duorum annorum % Vermiculum 
album e palpebra extraxiffe, ■ ■ magnitudinis Eructse. ■■ 

Similmfere buic cafum mibi [Schulzio] £ff D. Segero narrannt 
hoc, Anno 1676, chirurgus nefler Ant, St at lender, qui cuidam 
fuero, ex dure, extraxit Vermiculum talent, qualis in nucibus 
a<ve Hants perforates latitare filet, fed paulo major em, coloris al- 
bij/tmi ; alteri minor es 5 eju/dem generis fimiliter ex Aure : Om- 

nes aliquot boras fupervixerunt ■ Vermiculos adhuc <ui*ventes 

uculis noflris vidimus. Ephem. Germ. T. 2. Obf. 24. ubi Ver* 
nriculi Icon., Many other Inftanccs may be met with in the 
fame Tome. Obf. 147, 148, 154. 

The Worms in Deer are mentioned often among antient 
Writers. Arifiotle faith, Txukixuc uJrro% wdrti* f%80-ir 9 i» tjJ 
jke^oA? £vvr*{ 9 &c. They [Deer] all have live Worms in their 
Heads, bred under tbe Tongue, in a Cavity near tbe Vertebra 
on which tbe Head is plated ; their Sixe not lefs than of tbe largeft 
Maggots ; they are bred all together, in number about twenty* 
Ariftot. Hill. Animal. 1. 2. c. 15. > 

To thefe Examples may be added the Generation of the 
Ichneumon-Fly in the Bodies of Caterpillars, and other Nym- 
ph* of Infeds. In many of which, that I have laid up to 
be hatch'd in Boxes, in (lead of Papillos, &c. as I expelled, 
1 have found a great Number of fmall Ichneumon-Flies, whofe 
Parent- Animal had wounded thofe Nymph*, and darted its 
Eggs into them, and fo made them the Fofter- Mother of its 
Young. More Particulars of this Way of Generation may 
be feen in the great Mr. Willughbys Obfervations in Pbilof 
Tranf N° 76. But concerning the farther Generation of this 
Infed, I have taken Notice of other Particulars in other Places 
of thefe Notes. 

(m) The Animals ordinarily bred in the Stomach and 
Guts, are the three Sorts of Worms call'd Lati, Teretes, and 
Afcarides ; concerning which, it would be irkfome to fpeak 
in Particular, and therefore I (hall refer to Moufet, I. 2. 
c 3 1 , 3 2, 3 3 . Dr. Tyfon's Anatomy of them in Mr. Low thorp's 
Ahridg. Vol. 3. p. 121. Seigneur Red?* Obf and others that 
have written of them. 

3 80 Infers Care of their Tcung. Book VIII. 

the Bodies of Man and other Creatures (»): 
And as for others to whom none of thefe Methods 


And not only Worms, but other Creatures alfo are faid to 
be found in the Stomach ; Inftances of which are fo innume- 
rable, that I (hall only fele& a few related by Perfons of the 
bed Credit. And firft of all, by fome of our own Country- 
men. Dr. Lifter, (whofe Credit and Judgment will hardly 
be queftion'd,) gives an Account of true Caterpillars* vomited 
up by a Boy of nine Years old ; and another odd Animal 
by a poor Man. Mr. Jejfop, (another very judicious, curious 
and ingenious Gentleman,) faw Hexapods vomited up by a 
Girl ; which Hexapods lived and fed for Ave Weeks. See 
Lowtb. ib. p. 135. 

And to Foreigners, it is a very ft range Story (hot attefted 
by Perfons of great Repute,) of Catkarina G:iltria, that died 
in Feb. 1662. in the Hofpital of Altenburg, in Germany, who 
for twenty Years voided by Vomit and Stool, Toads and 
Lizards, ic. Epbemer. Germ. T. 1. Ob/. 103. See alfo the 
1 09th Obfervation of a Kitten bred in the Stomach, and vo- 
mited up ; of Whelps alfo, and other Animals, bred in like 
Manner. But I fear a Stretch of Fancy might help in fome 
of thofe laft Inftances, in thofe Days when fpontaneous Ge- 
neration was held, when the Philofophers feem to have more 
flightly examined fuch Appearances than now they do. Bat 
for the breeding of Frogs or Toads, or Lacerta Aquatic* in the 
Stomach, when their Spawn happeneth to be drank, there is 
a Story in the fecond Tome of the Epbem. Germ. Obf. 56. 
that favours it, viz. In the Tear 1 667, a Butcher'/ Man going 
to buy fome Lambs in the Spring, being thirfty, drank greedily of 
jome ftanding Water \ which a while after, caufed great Pains in 
bis Stomach, which grew worfe and worfe, and ended in dangerous 
Symptoms. At laft he thought fome what was alive in bis Sto- 
mach, and after that, vomited up three live Toads ; andfo recover d 
his former Health. 

Such another Story Dr. Sorbait tells, and avoucheth it 
feen with his own Eyes, of one that had a Toad that came 
out of an Abfcefs, which came upon drinking foul Water. 
Obf 103. 

(n) Not only in the Guts, and in the Flefti, but in ma- 
ny other Parts of the Body, Worms have been difcover'd. 
One was voided by Urine, by Mr. Mat. Milford, fuppofed 
to have come from the Kidneys. Lowtb. ib. p. 135. More 
fuch Examples Moufet tells of. Ibid. So the Vermes Cucur- 


Ch a p . VI. Infests Care of their Young. 3 8 x 

are proper, but make themfelves Ncfts by Perfo- 
rations in the Earth, in Wood, or Combs they 
build, or fuch like Ways; 'tis admirable to fee 
with what Labour and Care they carry in, and 


bitini are very common in the Veffels in Sheeps Livers : And 
Dr. Lifter tells of them, found in the Kidney of a Dog, and 
thinks that the Snakes and Toads, &c. faid to be found in 
Animals Bodies, may be nothing elfe. Lonvtb. ib. p. i 20. 
Nay, more than all this : In Dr. Bern. Ferza/cba's forth Ob- 
fervation, there are divers Inftances of Worms bred in the 
Brain of Man. One, a Patient of his, troubled with a vio- 
lent Head-ach, and an Itching about the Noftrils, and fre- 
quent Sneezing; who, with the Ufe of a Sneezing Powder, 
voided a Worm, with a great deal of Snot from his Nofe. 
A like Inftance he gives from Bart holine, of a Worm voided 
from the Nofe of O. W. which he guefleth was the famous 
Olaus Wormius : Another, from a Country-Woman of Deit- 
tnarjb ; and others in Tulpius, F. HiUanus, Scbenckius, &c. 
Thefe Worms he thinks are undoubtedly bred in the Brain : 
But what way they can come from thence, I can't tell. 
Wherefore I rather think, they are fuch Worms as are 
mentioned in Note (k) y and even that Worm that was actually 
found in the Brain of the Paris Girl (when opened) I guefs 
might be laid in the Lamina of the Noftrils, by fome of 
the Ichneumon, or other In fed- Kind, and might gnaw its way 
into the Brain, thro' the Os Cribifirme. Of this he tells us 
from Bartboline 9 Tandem cum tabida obiiffet, ftatim aperto cranio 
fra/entes Medici tot am cerebelli /ubftantiam, qua ad dexterum 
wergit, a reliquo corpore /ejunclam, nigrdque twticd involutam 
deprebenderunt : h*c tunica rupta, latentem Vermem <vi<uum t £ff 
pilofum, duobus pun Bis fplendidis loco oculorum prodidit, ejufdem 
/ere molis cum reliqud Cerebri portione, qui duarum borarum /patio 
fupervixit. B. Verzaf. Obf. Medicae, p. 16. 

Hildanus tells us fuch another Story, viz. Filius Theod. auft 
der Route n, Auunculi met, diuturno vexabatur dolor e capitis.-— 
Deinde febriculd fcf fternutatione exortd, ruptus eft Ab/ceffu* 

circa os cribrofum £sf Vermis prorepjtt. By his Figure of it, 

the Maggot was an Inch long, and full of Bridles. Fabri 
Hi I dan. Cent, 1. Obf. 

Galenus Wierus y (Phyfician to the Princ. Jul. & Cle*ve,) he 
faith, told him, that he had, at divers Times, found Worms 
in the Gall-Bladder in Pcrfons he had opened at Dujeldorp. 
U. ib, Ob/. 60.. 

(0) See 

382 InfeBsCare of their Toung. BookVIEL 

feal up Provifions, that ferve both for Production 
of their Young, as alfo for their Food and Nurture 
when produced (0). 

The other Piece of remarkable Art and Care 
about the Production of their Young, is their Cu- 
riofity and Neatnds in reporting their Eggs, and 
in their Nidification. 

As to the firft of which, we may obfcrve, that 

Sp-eat Curiofity and nice Order is generally ob- 
erved by them in this Matter. You (hall always 
fee their Eggs laid carefully and commodioufly 
up (p). When upon the Leaves of Vegetables, 
or other Material on Land, always glued thereon 
with Care, with one certain End lowermoft, and 
with handfom Juxta-Pofitions (q). Or if in the 
Waters, in neat and beautiful Rows oftentimes, in 
that fpermatick, gelatine Matter, in which they 
are repofited, and that Matter carefully tied and 
faften'd in the Waters, to prevent its Dissipation (r), 


(9) See before, Book IV. Chap. 13. Note (c). 

(p) Some Infe&s lay up their Eggs in Clutters, sis in Holes 
of Flem, and fuch Places, where it is ncccflary they mould 
be crouded together ; which, no queftion, prevents their 
being too much dried up in dry Places, and promotes their 
hatching. But, 

(0) As for fuch as are not to be cluttered up, great Order 
is ufed. I have feen upon the Potts and Sides of Windows, 
little round Eggs, refembling fmall Pearl, which produced 
fmall hairy Caterpillars, that were very neatly and orderly 
laid. And, to name no more, the White Butterfly lays its 
neat Eggs on the Cabbage- Leaves in good Order, always 
gluing one certain End of the Egg to the Leaf. I call them 
neat Eggs, becaufe if we view them in a Microfcope, we 
(ball find them very curioufly furrowed, and handfomely made 
and adorned. 

(r) By reafon it would be endlefs to fpecify the various 
Generation of Infedts in the Water, I {hall therefore (becaufe 
it is little obferved) take P/r°»v's Inftance of the Gnat, a mean 
and contemned Animal, but a notable Inftance of Nature's 
Work, as he faith. 1 


Chap. IV* NiSJkation cflnfefis. 383 

or if made to float, fo carefully fpread and poifed 
as to fwim about with all poffible Artifice. 

And as to their other Faculty, that of Nidifica- 
tion, whether it be exerted by boring the Earth 


The firft Thing confiderable in the Generation of this In- 
fed! is (for the Size of the Animal) its vaft Spawn, being fome 
of them above an Inch long, and half a quarter Diameter ; 
made to float in the Waters, and tied to fome Stick, Stone, 
or other fix'd Thing in the Waters, by a fmall Stem, or Stalk* 
In this gelatine, tranfparent Spawn, the Eggs are neatly laid ; 
in fome Spawns in a Angle, in fome in a double fpiral Line, 
running round from End to End, as in Fig. 9, and 10 j and in 
fome tranfrerfly, as Fig. 8. 

When the Eggs are by the Heat of. the Sun, and Warmth 
of the Seafon,. hatched into (mall Maggots, thefe Maggots 
defcend to the Bottom, and by means of fome of the gelatine 
Matter of the Spawn (which they take along with them) 
they (tick to Stones, and other Bodies at the Bottom, and 
there make themfelves little Cafes or Cells, which they creep 
into and out at Pleafure, until they are arrived to a more 
mature Nxmpba -State, and can fwim about here and there, 
to feek for what Food they have occafion ; at which Time, 
they are a kind of Red-worms, above half an Inch long, as 
in Fig. 11. 

Thus far this mean Infccl is a good Inftance of the Divine 
Providence towards it. But if we farther confider, and com- 
pare the three States it undergoes after it is hatched, we fhali 
find yet greater Signals of the Creator's Management, even in 
thefe meaneft of Creatures. The three States I mean, are its 
Njmpba-Vtrmicular State, its Aurelia* and Mature State, all 
as different as to Shape and Accoutrements, as if the Infed 
was three different Animals. In its Vermicular State, it is a 
Red-Maggot, as I faid, and hath a Mouth and other Parts 
accommodated to Food : In its Amelia State, it hath no fud* 
Parts, becaufe it then fubiifts without Food ; but in its Ma- 
ture, Gnat -State, it hath a curious well made Spear, to 
wound and fuck the Blood of other Animals. In its Fermi- 
cular- State, it hath a long Worm-like Body, and fomething 
analogous to Fins or Feathers, {landing erecV near its Tail, 
and running parallel with the Body, by means of which 
refilling the Waters, it is enabled to fwim about by Cur- 
vations, or flapping its Body fide- ways, this way and that, 
as in Fig. 12. 


384 Nidification of InfeSlu Book VIII, 

or Wood, or building themfclves Cells (j), or 
fpinning and weaving themfelves Cafes and Webs, 
it is all a wonderful Faculty of thofe poor little 
Animals, whether we confider their Parts where- 
with they work, or their Work it felf. Thus 
thofe who perforate the Earth, Wood, or fuch 
like, they have their Legs, Feet, Mouth, yea, 
and whole Body accommodated to that Service; 
their Mouth exadlly formed to gnaw thofe hand- 
fome round Holes, their Feet as well made to 
fcratch and bore (/), and their Body handfome- 
ly turned and fitted to follow. But for fuch as 
build or fpin themfelves Nefts, their Art juftly 
bids Defiance to the mod ingenious Artift among 
Men, fo much as* tolerably to copy the nice Geo- 
metrical Combs of fome (»), the Earthen Cells 
of others, or the Webs, Nets, and Cafes (w) wo- 

But in its Jurelia-State, it hath a quite different Body, 
with a Club Head, (in which the Head, Thorax, and Wings of 
the Gnat are inclofed) a flender Ahus, and a neat finny Tail, 
ftanding at right Angles with the Body, quite contrary to 
what it was before; by which means, inftead ofeafy flapping 
fide-ways, it fwims by rapid, brisk Jirks, the quite contrary 
Way; as is in fome Meafure repreiented in Fig. 13. Bat 
when it becomes a Gnat, no finny Tail, no Club-Head, but 
all is made in the mod accurate. Manner for Flight and Mo- 
tion in the Air, as before it was for* the Waters. 

(s) See Book IV. Chap. 13. Notes (n), (•). 

(/) Thus the Mouths and other Parts of the Ichneumon- 
Wafp in Book IV. Chap. 13. Note (c). So the Feet of the 
Gryllotalpa, ibid. Note [s.) 

(*) See the laft cited Places. Note (0). 

(w) Of the textrine Art of the Spider, and its Parts fertring 
to that Purpofe, fee the laft cited Place, Note (*). 

Betides thefe, Caterpillars, and divers other Infects, can emit 
Threads, or Webs, for their Ufe. In this their Nympha-State, 
they fecure themfelves from falling, and let themfelves down 
from the Boughs of Trees, and other high Places, with one 
of thefe Threads. And in the Cafes they weave, they fecur* 
themfelves in their Aurelia-State. 


Ch AP. VI. Nidification of InfeSis. 3 85 

ven by others. And here that natural .Glue (x) 
which their Bodies afford fome of them to conso- 
lidate their Work, and combine its Materials to- 
gether, and which in others can be darted out 
at Pleafure, and fpun and woven by them into 
filken Balls (y) or Webs : I fay, this fo peculiar, fo 


And not only the Offspring of the Pba/ana-Tribe, but there 
are fome of the Ichneumon-Fly Kind alfo, endowed with this 
textrine Art. Of thefe I have met with two Softs ; one that 
fpun a Milk-white, long, round, filken Web, & big sts the 
Top of one's Finger, not hollow within, as many are, but 
filled throughout with filk. Thefe are woven round Bents, 
Stalks of Ribwort, &c. in Meadows. The other is a Lump 
of many yellow, filken Cafes, flicking confufedly together on 
Pofts, under Coleworts, £ffr. Thefe Webs contain in them, 
fmall, whitifli Maggots ; which turn to a fmall, black Ichneu- 
mon-Fly, with long, capillary Antenna ; Tan-coloured Legs j 
long Wings reaching beyond their Body, with a black Spot 
near the Middle ; the Alvus like an Heart ; and in fome, a 
fmall fetaceous Tail. Some of thefe Flies were of a fhining, 
beautiful green Colour. 1 could not perceive any Difference, 
at leaft not fpecifical, between the Flies coming from thofe 
two Productions. 

(x) I have often admired how Wafps, Hornets, Ichneumon- 
Wafps, and other Infeds that gather dry Materials for build- 
ing their Neils, have found a proper Matter to cement and 
glue their Combs, and line their Cells; which we find al- 
ways fufficiently context and firm. But in all Probability, 
this ufeful Material is in their own Bodies; as 'tis in the 
Tinea Veftwora, the Cadew-Worm, and divers others. Geodart 
obferves of his Eruca, Num. xx. 6. that fed upon Sallow 
Leaves, that it made its Cell of the comminuted Leaves, glued 
together with its own Spittle, Hac pul*veris aut arena infiar 
tomminuit, ac pituitofo quodam fui corporis fucco ita macera- 
vit, ut inde accommodatum fubeunda? mutations infianti locuft 
fibi exftruxerit. Domuncula h*c a communi Salicum ligno nihil 
differre <videbatur y nifi quod long} effet durior, adeo ut cultro *vix 
difrumpi pojfet. 

(y) An ingenious Gentlewoman of my .Acquaintance, Wife 
to a learned Phyfician, taking much Pleafure to keep SUA* 
Worms, bad once the Curiojity to draw out one of the oval 

C c Cafes, 

386 Nidification of Infetfs. Book VIII. 

ferviceable a Material, together with the curious 
Structure of all Parts miniftring to this textrine 
Power, as mean a Bufmefs as it may feem, is fuch 
as may juftly be accounted among the noble Dcfigns 
and Works of the infinite Creator and Confervator 
of the World. 

In the laft Place, there is another prodigious 
Faculty, Art, Cunning, or what (hall I call it? 
that others of thofe little Animals have, to make 
even Nature itfelf ferviceable to their Purpofe; 
and that is, the making the Vegetation and Growth 
of Trees and Plants, the very Means of the build- 
ing of their little Nefts and Cells (z)> fuch as are 


Cafes, which the Silk Worm fpins into all the SiHtn Wirt 

it was made *p of y which, to the great Wonder as well of her 
Hujband, as herfelf, — —appeared to he % hy Meafure, a great dul 
above 300 Yards % end yet weighed tat two Grains and ate half. 
Boyle Subtil, of Effluv. Ch. 2. 

(z) Since my penning this, I hare met with the moft fa- 
gacious Ma/pighPs Account of Galls, &c. and find his De- 
scriptions to be exceedingly accurate and true, having traced 
myfelf many of the Productions he hath mentioned. Bat 
I find Italy and Sicily (his Book de Gallis being pnbfifted 
long after he was made ProfefTor of "Meffina) more luxu- 
riant in fuch Productions than England, at leaft than the 
Parts about Upminfter (where I live) are. For many, if not 
moft of thofe about us, are taken Notice of by htm, and 
feveral others betides that I never met with ; altfco' I 
have for many Years as critically obferved all the Ei- 
crefcences, and other morbid Tumors of Vegetables, as is 
ftlmoft pofixble, and do believe that few of them have efcaped 

As to the Method how thofe Galls and Balk are pro- 
duced, the moft Ample, and confequcntly the moil etfy 
to be accounted for, is that in the Gems of Oak, which 
may be called Squamous Oak Cones, Capitula Sqttamata, in 
Idalpighi: Whofe Dcfcription not exa&Iy anfwering Otf 
itigliJb-Conei in divers Refpe&s, I fhall therefore pais to 
by, and (hew only what I have obferved myfelf concerning 

"■> Tneft 

Ch AP. VI. Nidification of InfeEts. 387 

the Galls and Balls found on the Leaves and 
Branches of divers Vegetables, fuch as the Oak, 
the Willow (aa), the Briar, and fome others. 


Thefe Canes are, in outward Appearance, perfectly like 
the Gems, only vaftly bigger; and indeed they are no other 
than the Gems, increafed in Bignefs, which naturally ought 
to be puttied out in Length ; The Caufe of which Obftruc- 
tion of the Vegetation is this ; Into the very Heart of the 
young tender Gem or Bud (which begins to be turgid in 
Jutu, and to (hoot towards the latter End of that Month, 
or Beginning of the next; into this, I fay,) the Parent In- 
fe& thrufts one or more Eggs, and not perhaps without 
tome venomous Ichor therewith. This Egg foon becomes 
* Maggot, which eats itfeif a'little Cell in the very Heart 
or Pith of the Gem, which is the Rudiment of the Branch, 
together with its Leaves and Fruit, as (hall be hereafter 
(hewn. The Branch being thus wholly deftroyed, or at leaft 
its Vegetation being obftru&ed, the Sap that was to nourifh 
it, U diverted (to the remaining .Parts of the Bud, which 
are only the'fcaly Teguments ; which by thefe Means grow 
large and flourifhing, and become a Covering to the Infeft- 
Cafe, as before they were to the tender Branch and its Ap- 

The Cafi lying within this Cone, is at fii& but fmall, ar 
the Maggot included in it is, but by degrees, as the Maggot 
increafeth, fo it grows bigger, to about the Size of a large 
.white Pea, long and round, refembling the Shape of a finall 

The InftQ itfeif, is (according to the modern Infe&olo- 
gers) of the Ichneumon Fsy Kind ; with four membrana- 
ceous Wings, reaching a little beyond the Body, articulated 
Horns, a large Thorax, bigger than the Belly ; the Belly (hort 
and conical, much like the Heart of Animals ; the Legs 
partly whitmV partly black. The Ltngtb of the Body from 
Head to Tail, about T a 5 of an Inch ; its Colour, a very 
beautiful mining Green, in fome tending to a dark Copper- 
Colour. Figures both of the Cones, Cafes, and Infe&s, 
nay be feen among Afalpigbi's Cuts of Galls, Tab. 13. and 
Tab. 20. Fig. 72. which Fig. 72. exhibits well enough fome 
Others of the Gall- Infers, but its Thorax is fomewhat too 
■tat for ours. 

(aa) Not only the Willow, and fome other Trees, but 
'Mines alio, aa NsttUs, Ground- Ivy, Sic. have Cafes pro- 

C c .a 4>ced 

388 Nidif cation of InfeSts. Book VIII. 

Now this is fo peculiar an Artifice, and fo far 
out of the Reach of any mortal Underftanding, 
Wit, or Power, that if we confider the Matter, 
with fome of its Circumftances, we mull needs 
perceive manifeft Defigri, and that there is the 
Concurrence of fome great and wife Being, that 
hath, from the Beginning, taken Care of, and pro- 
vided for the Animal's Good : For which Reafon, 
as mean as the Inftance may feem, I might be ex- 
cufed, if I ihould enlarge upon its Particulars. But 
two or three Hints fhall fuffice. 

In the firft Place, 'tis certain that the Forma- 
tion of thofe Cafes and Balls quite exceeds the 
Cunning of the Animal itfelf ; but it is the Ad 
partly of the Vegetable, and partly of fome 
Virulency (or what fhall I call it i) in the Juice, 
or Egg, or both, repofited on the Vegetable 
by the Parent Animal ( bb ). And as this Viru- 
lency is various, according to the Difference 


duced on their Leaves, by the Injeftion of the Eggs of an 
Ichneumon Fly. I have obferved thofe Cafes always to grow 
in, or adjoining to fome Rib of the Leaf, and their Pro- 
duction I conceive to be thus, viz. The Parent Jnfe&, with 
its ftiff fetaceous Tail, terebrates the Rib of the Leaf, when 
tender, and makes Way for its Egg into the very Pith or 
Heart thereof, and probably lays in therewith, fome proper 
Juice of its Body, to pervert the regular Vegetation of it 
From this Wound arifes a fmall Excrefcence, which (when the 
Egg is hatched into a Maggot) grows bigger and bigger, at 
the Maggot increafes, fwelling on each Side the Leaf between 
the two Membranes, and extending itfelf into the parenchy- 
mous Part thereof, until it is grown as big as two Grains of 
Wheat. In this Cafe lies a fmall, white, rough Maggot, 
which turns to an Aurelia, and afterwards to a very beautiful 
green, fmall Ichneumon-Fly, 

{bb) What I fufpeded myfelf, I find confirmed by Mai 
fight , who in his exaft and true Defcription of the Fly bred 
in the Oaken Galls, faith, Non fat fuit nature tarn miro arti- 
ficio Terebram feu Limam condidiffe ; fed uifliQo imlnere* W 
ixcitato foramm infundendum exinde liquor em intra Terebram 



Chap. VI. Nidification oflnfeffs; 389 

of its Animal, fo is the Form and Texture of 
the Cafes and Balls excited thereby;, fome be- 
ing hard Shells (cc) > fome tender Balls (dd), 


condidit : quare fracla per tranfvtrfam mufcarum terebrd fre- 
cuentijfime, vivente animali % . gutter aliquot diaphani humoris 
effluunt. And a little after, he confirms, by ocular Obferva- 
tion, what he imagin'd before, viz. Seme/ profe Jurni finem 
*vidi Mufcam % qualem fuperius delitieavi, inftdentem quercinlet 
gemma % adbuc germinanti ; harebat etenim foliolo fiabili ab 
apice biantis gemma erumpenti ; &f convulfo in arcum corpore, 
terebram evaginabat, ipfamque ten/am immittebat ; &f tume- 
faclo ventre circa terebra radicem tumorem excitabat, jquem 
interpolate s vicibus remittebat. In folio igitur 9 avuha Mu/cd, 
minima & diapbana reperi ejecla ova, JSmillima iis, qua adbuc 
in tubis fupererant. Non licuit iterum idem admirari Jpec7a~ 

Somewhat like this, which Malpigbi faw, I had the good 
Fortune to fee myfelf once, fome Years ago : And that was, 
the beautiful, fhining Oak-Ball Icbnenmon ftrike its Terebra 
into an Oak- Apple divers Times, no doubt to lay its Eggs 
therein. And hence I apprehend we fee many Vermicules 
towards the Outfide of many of the Oak- Apples, which I 
guefs were not what the Primitive Infects laid up in the 
Gem, from which the Oak- Apple had its Rife, but fome other 
fupervenient, additional Infects, laid in after the Apple was 
grown, and whilft it was tender and foft. 

(cc) The Aleppo-Galls, wherewith we make Ink, may be 
reckoned of this Number, being hard, and no other than 
Cafes of Infects which are bred in them ; who when come 
to Maturity, gnaw their Way out of them ; which is the 
Caufe of thofe little Holes obfervable in them. Of the In- 
feds bred in them, fee Philof. TranfacJ. N p 245. Of this 
Number alfo are thofe little fmooth Cafes, as big as large 
Pepper- Corns, growing clofe to the Ribs under Oaken- Leaves, 
globous, but flattim; at firft touched with a bluJhing red, 
afterwards growing brown, hollow within, and an hard thin 
Shell without. In this lieth commonly a rough, white Mag- 
got, which becomes a little long-winged, black Ichneumon- 
Ffy, that eats a little Hole in the Side of the Gall, and fo 
gets out. 

(dd) For a Sample of the tender Balls, I {hall chufe the 
globous Ball, as round, and fome as big as fmall Muflcet- 
fluUcts, growing clofe to the Ribs, under Qakcn- Leaves, 

Cc 3 of 

39<> Nidif cation ef Infeps. Book VIII. 

fotne Scaly (ee\ fome Smooth (//"), fotne Hai- 
ry (jg), fome Long, fome Round* fome Co- 

of a greenifh yellowifh Colour, with a blufh of red ; their 
Skin tmooth, with frequent RiAngs therein. Inwardly they 
are rtry foft and fpungy j and in the very Center is a Cafe 
with a white Maggot therein, which becomes an Ichneumon- 
fly y net much unlike the laft. As to this Gall, there is one 
Thing I have obferved fotnewhat peculiar, and I may fay 
providential, and that is, that the Fly lies all the Winter in 
thefe Balls in its Infantile* State, and comes not to its Matu- 
rity till the following Spring. In the Autumn, and Winter, 
thefe Balls fall down with their Leaves to the Ground, and 
the Infect inclofed in them is there fenced againft the Winter 
Frofts, partly by other Leaves falling pretty thick upon them, 
and officially by the thick, parenchymous, ipongy Walls, 
afforded by the Galls themfelves. 

Another Sample (hall be the large Oak Balls, called Oai- 
Jffhty growing in the Place of the Buds, whofe Generation, 
Vegetation, and Figure, may be Feen in Malpig. di Gal lis, p. 24. 
and T*l. 10. Fig. 33, &c Out of thefe Galls, he faith va- 
rious Species of Flies come, but he names only two, and they 
are the only two I ever faw come out of them : Frequenter 
{&ith he) fubnigree funt mufca brews munit* terebrd. Inter has 
mtiquie ebfervantttr aure<*> levi wiriiis ttn£ur£ fuffiffie, oblongd 
follentes Urtbra. Thofe two differently-coloured Flies, I take 
to be no other than Male and Female of the fame Species. 
I have not obferved Tails (which are their Terebret) in all, 
as Metfpigbi feems to intimate: Perhaps they were hid in 
their Tbeae, and I could not difcover them : But I rather 
think there Were none, and that thofe were the Males : Bat 
in othete, I have obferved long, recurvous Tails, longer than 
their whole Bodies. And thefe I take to be the Females. 
And in the Oak Apples themfelves, I have feen the Jurelia, 
Tome with, fome without Tails. And I malt confefs, 'twas 
not without Admiration, as well as Plea lore, that I have 
feen with what exa& Neatnefs and Artifice, the Tail hath 
"been wrapt about the Amelia, whereby it is fccured from either 
annoying the Infect, or being hurt itfelf* 

tee) See before, #*< (*). 

iff) As in the preceding Note. 

(ft) Of the rough or hahry Excrefcences, thofe on the 
Brier, or Ddg-l&fe, are a good Inflance. Thefe Spomgid* 
WUfie, as Mr. X«y, GalU $m*$f*> as Dr. Mtdpigbi calls them, 


Chap. VI. Nidificdfion of Infe&s. 391 

nical, &c. (bb). And in the laft Place, let us 
add, That thofe Species of Infe&s are all en- 
dowed with peculiar and exactly made Parts for 

arc thus accounted for by the latter ; Ex copiofis rtliBis wis 
ita turbatur affluent [Rubi] fuccus, ut ftrumofa fiant com- 
plura tubercula Jimul c$wfitst congefia, qn* ntriculorum feriebus, 
l& fibrarnm implication context a, ramofas propagines germi- 
nanty ita ut minima quafi fyl*va appareqt. ^ualibct propago 
ramos, him inde <vUUfos e4ti* Hinc inde pelt pariter erum- 
pnnt % &c. 

Thofe Balk are a fafe Repertory to the Infect all the 
Winter ia its Vermicular-State. For the Eggs laid up, and 
hatched the Summer before, do not come to mature Infects 
until the Spring following, as Mr. Ray rightly obferves in 
Cat. Cantab. 

As to the Infers themfelvea, they are manifeftly Ichneumon- 
Fjie*> having four Wings, their Afotts, thick and large towards 
the Tail ; and tapering up till it is fraall and (lender at its 
letting on to the Thorax. But the Abut, or Bellies,* are not 
alike in all, tho' coloured alike. In fame they are as is now 
defcribed, and longer, without Terebrm, or Tails; in fome 
fhorter, with Tails ; and is fome yet fhorter, and thick, like 
the Belly of the Ant, or the Heart of Animals, as in thofe 
before, Note (x). But for a farther Defcription of them, I 
(hall refer to Mr. Ray* Cat. Plant, circa Cantab, under Rofa 


(hb) It being an Internee fomewhat out of the Way, I (hall 
pitch upon it for an Example here, *wz. The vouty Swellings 
in the Body, and the Branches of the Blackberry Bnfh ; <ff 
which Malpighi hath given us two good Cuts in Tab. 17.- 
Fig. 62. The Caufe of thefe is manifeftly from the Eggs of 
Infects laid in (whilft the Shoot is young and tender) as far 
as the Pith, and in fome Places not fo deep : Which, for the 
Reafons before-mentioned, makes the young Shoots tumefy, 
and grow knotty and gouty. 

The Infect that comes from hence is of the former Tribe, 
afmall, wining black Ichneumon-Fly, about a tenth of an Inch 

. long, with jointed, red, capillary Horns, four long Wings, 
reaching beyond the Body, Su large Thorax, red Legs, and a 
(hort heart-like Belly. They hop like Fleas. The Males are 
lefs than the Females ; are vtry venerous, endeavouring a 
Ce'it in the very Box in which they are hatch's 1 ; getting up 
on the Females, and tickling and thumping them with their 
Breeches and Horns, to excite them to Venery. 

C C 4 \fc5fc 

39* ffie Conclufion. Book VIII, 

this Service to bore and pierce the Vegetable, and 
to reach and injeft their Eggs and Juice into the 
tender Parts thereof. 

Tlbe Conclufion. 

AN D now, thefe Things, being ferioufly confi- 
dered, what lefs,can be concluded, than that 
there is manifeft Defign and Forccaft in this Cafe, 
and that there muft needs be fome wife Artift, fome 
careful, prudent Confervator, that from the very 
Beginning of the Exiftence of this Species of Ani- 
mals, hath with great Dexterity and Forecaft, pro- 
vided for its Prefervation and Good? For what 
elfe could contrive and ipake fuch a Set of curious 
Parts, exa&ly fitted up for that fpecial Purpofe : 
And withal implant in the Body fuch peculiar Im- 
pregnations, as fliould have fuch a ftrange uncouth 
Power, on a quite different Rank of Creatures? 
And laflly, wJbat fhould make the Infe<St aware of 
tthis its ftrange Faculty and Power, and teach it fo 
cunningly and dextroufly to employ it for its own 
% ryice and Good ? 

fcO OK 

£ 393 I 

♦♦ »» ♦ » »♦ » ♦♦ » ♦♦♦» »» ♦» » ♦♦» » ♦♦♦♦»■ > » » » » ♦»» » » » 

B O O K IX. 

Of Reptiles, and the Inhabitants 
of the Waters. 

C H A P. I. 

Of Reptiles. 

[AVING difpatchM the Infed-Tribe, 
there is but one Genus of the Land- 
Animals remaining to be furvey'd, and 

that is, that of Reptiles (a). Which I 

fhall difpatch in a little Compafs, by Reafon I have 
fbmewhat amply treated of others, and many of 


(a) Notwithstanding I have before, in Book TV. Chop, ill 
Noti(p), taken Notice of the Eartb-wonpj yet it being a good 
Example of the Creator's wife and carious Workmanship, ia 
even this meaneft Branch of the Creation, I matt fuperadd a 
few farther Remarks from Drs. Willis and Tjfon . Saith Willis, 
fftMricus ttrrtftris, li()t *vilt IS contartftihiU babetur, Organa 


394 °f Rtft'fo* Book IX. 

the Things may be applied here. But there are 
fome Things in which this Tribe is fomewhat 
lingular, which I (hall therefore take Notice of 
briefly in this Place. One it their Motion, which 
I have in another Place (3) taken Notice of to be 
not lef$ curious, than it is different from that of 
other Animals, whether we confider the Manner 
of it, as vermicular, or finuoos (r)» or like that of 


%/italia, menon 13 aha vi/cera, &P membra divino artificio ad- 
mirabiliter fabrefada /erietmr ; totiu* fprporis compages mu/culo- 
r*wi annularium catena eft, quorum fJbr* orbicular e$ contraBa 
quemque annulum, prius amplum, & dilatum, anguftiorem & 
longiorem reddunt. [This Mufde in Earth -Worms I find is 
fpiyal, as in a good Meafore is their Motto* Kfcewife ; fa thm) 

ttbis Means they can, (like the Worm of an Augre,) the better 
e their Paffage into the Earth. Their Reptile Motion a/fe, 
may be exploited by a Wire wound on a Cylinder, which when 
fitpfd off, and one End extended and held fa ft, will bring the other 
nearer it. So the Earth-Worm, having Jhot out, or extended its 
Body, (which is with a Wreathing,) it takes hold by thofe /mall 
Feet it hath, and fo contract the hinder fart of its Body. Thus 
the curious and learn'd Dr. Ty/on, Philof. Tranf. N° 147] 
Nam proinde cum portio corporis fuperior elongata, & exporreSa, 
ad /barium aherius extenditur, ibidenmue piano affigttur, ad if/urn 
quafi ad antrum portio corporis inferior relax at a, £sf abbreviate* 
facile perfrahitur. Pedunculi firie quadruplici, per totanoiengi- 
tudmeno Lmtbrhci di/ponuntur ; his quafi totidem uncos, partem 
modi bane, mo& if am, piano affigit, dum alteram exporrigk, 
out poft fo duett. Supra oris hiatum% Probo/cide^ qua t err am 
porforat & elevat, aonatur. And then he goes on with the 
other Parts that fall under View, the Brains the Gullet, the 
JSeart, the Spermatid Ve/feU* the Stomach and Inteftines, the 
Foramina on the Top of the Back, adjoining to each Ring, 
iaaplyiag tha Plat* of Lungv mi- Qikat Parts. Wiiiu- do. 
Jnim. Brut. P. i. c. 3. 

ib) Iil&ftUV. Chap. 9. 

{c) There is a great deal of Geometrical Neatnefr and 
Nicety, in the finuous * Motion of Snakes, and other Serpents. 
For the aflBUnjj ia which Aftion* the annular Scales under 
their Body are very remarkable, Jjang srofs the Belly, con- 
trary to what thafe in the Back, and the reft of the Body do; 


Chap. I. Of Rcptiki. 39$ 

the Snail (d) 9 or the Caterpillar (1), or the Multi- 


alfo as the Edges of the foremoft Scales lie over the Edges dtf 
their following Scales, from Head to tail* fo thofe Edges 
itm out a little beyond, or over their following Scales ; fo as 
that when each Scale is drawn back, or fet a little upright, 
by its Mufcle, the outer Edge thereof, (or Foot it may be 
call'd,) is rais'd alfo a little from the Body, to lay hold on 
the Earth, and fo promote and facilitate the Serpent's Motion. 
This is what may be eafily feen in the Slough, or Belly of 
the Serpent-Kind. But there is another admirable Piece of 
Mechanifm, that my Antipathy to thofe Animals hath pre- 
vented my prying into ; and that is, that every Scale hath a 
diftincl Mufcle, one End of which is tack'd to the Middle of 
its Scale ; the other, to the upper Edge of its following Scale. 
This Dr. Tyfou found in the Rattle Snake, and I doubt not is 
in the whole Tribe. 

(</) The wife Author of Nature, having denied Feet and 
Claws to enable Snails to creep and climb, hath made then 
Amends in a way more commodious for their State of Life, 
by the broad Skin along each Side of the Belly, and the un- 
dulating Motion obfervable there. By this latter it is they 
creep ; by the former, affiftcd with the- glutinous Slime emit- 
ted from the Snail*3 Body, thty adhere firmly and (ecurely to 
all Kinds of Superficies, partly by the Tenacity of their Slime, 
and partly by the Preffure of the Atmofphere. Concerning 
this Part, {which he calls the Snairs-Fttt,) and their Undula- 
tion, fee Dr. LtfttriBxircit: Attat. i. feSt, i. & 37. 

(e) The motive Parts, and Motion of Caterpillars, are ufe- 
4U, not only to their Progreffion and Conveyance from Place 
to Place $ but alfo to their more certain, eafy, and commodi- 
ous gathering of Food : For having Feet before and behind, 
they are not only enabled to go by a kind of Steps made by 
their fore and hind -Parts ; but alfo to climb up Vegetables* 
and to reach from their Boughs and Stalks for Food at a Di- 
Hance ; for which Services, their Feet are very nicely made 
both before and behind. Behind, they have broad Palms for 
slicking too, and thefe befet almoft round with fmall (harp 
Nails, to hold and grafp what they- are apon : Before, their 
Feet are (harp and hook'd, to draw Leaves, &c. to them, and 
to hold the fere-part of the Body, whilft the hinder-parts are 
brought up thereto. Bat nothing is more remarkable in thefe 
Reptiles, than that thefe Parts and Motion are only temporary, 
smd incomparably adapted only to their prefent Nfmpba-Statu 

396 Of Reptiles. Book IX. 

pedous (f)> or any other Way ; or the Parts mir 
niftring to it, particularly the Spine (g) 9 and the 
Mufcles co-operating with the Spine, in fuch as 
have Bone, and the annular, and other Mufcles, in 
fuch as have none, all incomparably made for 
thofe curious, and I may fay, geometrical Wind- 
ings and Turnings, Undulations, and all the va- 

whereas in their Aurelia State, they have neither Feet nor 
Motion, only a little in their Hinder-Parts: And in their 
Mature-State, they have the Parts and Motion of a flying 
Infedt, made for Flight. 

(J) It is a wonderful pretty Mechanifm, obfervable in the 
going of Multipedes, as the Juli, Scohpendr*, &c. that on 
each Side the Body, every Leg hath its Motion, one very 
regularly following the other from one End of the Body to 
the other, in a Way not eafy to be defcribed in Words ; fo 
that their Legs in going, make a kind of Undulation, and 
give the Body a fwifter Progreffion than one would imagine 
it ftiould have, where fo many Feet are to take fo many 
fliort Steps. 

(ff) Vertebrarum Apopbyfes hreviores funt, pracipue juxts 
caput, cujus pr opt ere a flexus in aver/urn, £sf later a, facilis Vi- 
peris eft : feeus Leonibus, &c. Incumbit bis Offibus ingens 

Mufculorum mmuiorum prafidium, turn Spinas tendinum exiuum 
magno apparatu diducentium, turn vertebras potijfimum in di* 
verfa fleclentium, atque eri gentium. Adeoque Mam corporis mi* 
ram agilitatem, non tantum (ut Ariftot.) en tvxa.pve7<; x.a.1 y^r- 
tydhts o» cirfaSv'KM, quoniam faciles ad ffexum, & cartilmgineas 
produxit vertebras, fed quia etiam multiplicia mot us localis in- 
ftrumenta mufculas fabrefecit provida rerum Parens Natura, 
confecuta fuit. Blaf. Anat. Anim. P. 1. c. 39. de Vipera e 

That which is mofi remarkable in the Vertebrae [of the RaJtlo- 
Snake, befides the other carious Articulations,] is, that the 
round Ball in the lower Part of the upper Vertebra, enters a 
Socket of the upper Part of the lower Vertebra, lik§ as the Head 
of the Os Femoris doth the Acetabulum of the Qs Ifchii ; by 
which Contrivance, as alfo the Articulation with one another, they 
have that free Motion of winding their Bodies a,ny way. Dr. Ty? 
fon's Anat. of the Rattle-Snake in Philof. Tranf. N°- 144. 
What is here obferv'd of the Vertebra of this Snake, is conv 
man to this whole Genus of Reptiles. 

(*) My 

Chap. L Of Reptiles. $97 

rious Motions to be met with in the Reptile 
Kind. ' - 

Another Thing that will deferve our Notice, is, 
the Poifon (b) that many of this Tribe are ftock'd 
with. Which I the rather mention, becaufe fome 
make it an Objedtion againft the Divine Super- 
intendence and Providence, as being a Thing fo 
far from ufeful, (they think,) that 'tis rather mif- 
chievous and deftru&ive of (iod's Creatures. But 
the Anfwer is eafy, viz. That as to Man, thofe 
Creatures are not without their great . Ufes, parti- 
cularly in the Cure of (/) fome of the moft ftub- 


(h) My ingenious and learned Friend, Dr. Mead f examined 
with his Microfcope, the Texture of a Viper's Poi/on, and 
found therein at firft only a Far eel of /mall Salts nimbly float- 
ing in the Liquor; but in a Jbort Time the Appearance was 
changed, and tbefe /aline Particles were /hot out into Cryftals^ 

of an incredible Tenuity and Sharpne/s, with fometbing like Knots 
here and there, from which they feenid to proceed-, /o that the 
whole Texture did in a Manner repre/ent a Spider's Weh 9 the? 
infinitely finer. Mead of Poifons, p. 9. 

As to the Nature and Operation .of this Poifon, fee the fame 

.ingenious Author's Hypothecs, in his following Pages. 

This Poifon of the Viper lieth in a Bag in the Gums, at the 

.Upper-End of the Teeth. It is feparated from the Blood 

. by a conglomerated Gland, lying in the anterior lateral Part of 
the Os Sincipitis, juft behind the Orbit of the Eye: From 

■ which Gland lieth a Dudt, that conveys the Poifon to the Bags 
at the Teeth. 

The Teeth are tubulated, for the Conveyance, or Emiffion 
4>f the Poifon into the Wound the Teeth make* but their 
Hollownefs doth not reach to the Apex, or Top of the Tooth, 
(that being folid and (harp, the better to pierce ;) but it ends 
in a long Slit below the Point, out of which the Poifon is 

: emitted. Theie Perforations of the Teeth, Galen faith, the 
Mountebanks ufed to (lop with fome kind of Pafte, before 

-they fuiFer'd the Vipers to bite them before their Spectators. 
Cuts of thefe Parts, &c. may be feen in the laft cited Book 
of Dr. Mead. Alfo Dr. Ty/orit Anat. 0/ the Rattle Snake, in 
Phil. Tranf. N° 144. 

(i) That Vipers have their great Ufes in Phyfick, is mani- 

feft from their bearing a great Share in fome of our beft 

3 Antidotes, 

398 Of 'Reptiles. Book IX. 

bom Difeafes; however, if they were not, there 
would be no Injuftice for God to make a Set of 
fuch noxious Creatures, as Rods and Scourges, to 
execute the Divine Chaftifements upon ungrateful 


Antidotes, fuch at Tberiaca Jndrotnacbi, and others ; alio la 
the Cure of the Elepbantiafis, and other the like ftubbern Ma- 
ladies, lor which 1 (hall refer to the medical Writers. Sot 
there is fe lingular a Cafe in the carious Colle&ioa of Dr. 01 
Worm, related from Kircher, that I (ball entertain the Reader 
with it. Near the Village of Sofa, about eight Miles from 
the City Bracciano in Italy, faith he, Specus feu cavema (<vuIgo 
ha Grotta del Serfi) duorum hominum cap ax, fijulofis quibuf* 
dam foraminibus in formam cribri perforata eernitur, ex quibut 
wmgitu quadam, priueipio veris, drverfkoUrum Serpmtum, mitt 
tameu^ ut dicitur, fingulari veutni qualitatt imbutormm profanes 
matamis pullulate filet. In bdc Jpeluucd Elepbantiacos, Lapr&t, 
Paralytieos, Artbriticos* Podagricos, (sfc. nuehs exponere fib*, 
<qw' m$x bahtnum fubterraneorum colore in fudortm refeJatu 
Serpentum propullulantium f Mum carpus infirm imp Jua n ti um, 
fudu UnHuqut ita omni vitiofo virulenfofue bumore priware diem- 
tur> ut repetito hoc per aliquod tempos medic amento, tandem pev- 
feci* fanitati reftituantur. This Cave Kircher vifited him- 
felf, found it warm, and every way agreeable to the Defcrip- 
tion he had of it ; he faw their Holes, heard a murmuring 
hiffing Noife in them ; but altho' he miffed feeing the Ser- 
pents, (it being not the Seafon of their creeping out) yet be 
ihw great Numbers of their Exuviat, or SUugbs, and an £hn 
growing hard by, laden with them. 

The Difcovery of this Cave, was by the Cure of a in- 
going from Rome to fome Baths near this Place ; who lofing 
his Way, and being benighted, happened upon this Cave ; 
and finding it very warm, pull'd off his Clothes, and being 
weary aifd neepy, had the good Fortune not to feel the Ser- 
pents about him till they had wrought his Cure. Vid* Mufam 
Worm. 1. 3. c. 9. 

The before-commended Dr. Mead, thinks our Phyfidaas 
deal too cautiouiry and fparingly, in their prefcrsbing only 
fmall Quantities of the Viper's Flefh, &V. in the Elepba*- 
tiafis, and ftubborn Leprofies : But he recommended rather the 
Gelly or Broth of Vipers ; or, as the antient Maimer was, to 
boil Vipers, and eat them like FUh; or at leaft to drink 
Wine, in which they have been long infufed. Vide Mead, 
abifapra, p. 34. 

(k) That 

Chap. I. Of Reptiles. 399 

and finful Men. And I am apt to think that the 
Nations which know not God, are the moft annoy'd 
with thofe noxious Reptiles, and other pernicious 
Creatures. As to the Animals themfelves, their 
Poifon is, no doubt, of fome great and efpecial Ufe 
to themfelves, ferving to the more eafy Conqueft, and 
fure Capture of their Prey, which might otherwife 
be too refty and ftrong, and if once efcap'd would 
hardly be again recotfer'd by reafon of their fwifter 
Motion, and the Help of their Legs ; befides all 
which, this their Poifon may probably be of very 
great Ufe to the Digeftiop or their Food. 

And as to the innocuous Part of the Reptile- 
Kind, they as well deferve our Notice for their 
Harmlefnefs, as the others did for their Poifon. For 
as thofe are endowed with Poifon, becaufe they arc 
predaceous-, fo thefe need it not, becaufe their Food 
is near at hand, and may be obtained without 
Strife and Conteft, the next Earth (*) affording 
Food to fuch as can terebrate, and make Way into 
it by their Vermicular Faculty 5 and the next Ve- 
getable being Food to others that can climb and s 
reach (/)t or but crawl to it. 

(J) That Earth-Worm lire upon Earth, is manifeft from 
the little curled Heaps of their Dang eje&ed out of their 
Holes. But in Pbilof. Tranf. N° 291. I have faid, it is in all 
Probability Earth made of rotted Roots and Plants, and fuch 
like nutritive Things, not pure Earth. And there is farther 
Reafon for it, becaufe Worms will drag the Leaves of Trees 
into their Holes. 

(/) Snmils might be in Danger of wanting Food, if they 
were to live only upon fuch tender Plants as are near the 
Ground, within their Reach only ; to impower tbem there- 
fore to extend their Purfuits farther, they are enabled by the 
Means mentioned in Note (d) f to flick unto, and creep up 
Walls and Vegetables at their Pleafure. 


[ 400 ] 


Of the Inhabitants of the Waters. 

I Have now gone through that Part of the Animal 
World, which I propofed to furvey, the Animals 
inhabiting the Land. 

As to the other Part of the Terraqueous Globe, 
the Waters, and the Inhabitants thereof, not ha- 
ving Time to finifli what I have begun on that 
large Subjeft, I (hall be forced to quit it for the 
prefent, altho* we have there as ample and glori- 
ous a Scene of the Infinite Creator's Power and 
Art, as hath been already fet forth on the dry 
Land. For the Waters themfelves are an admira- 
ble Work of God (a), and of infinite Ufe (b) to 


(a) Befides their abfolute Neceffity, and great Ufe ta the 
World, there are feveral Topics, frqm whence the Waters 

.maybe demonftrated to be God's Work; as, the creating fo 
yaft a Part of our Globe; the placing it commodioufly there- 
in, and giving it Bounds ; the Methods of keeping it fwect 
and clean, by its Saltnefs, by the Tides, and Agitations by 
the Winds ; the making the Waters ufeful to the Vegetation 
of Plants, and for Food to Animals, by the noble Methods of 
fweetning them ; and many other Things befides, which are 
infifted on in that Part of my Survey. 

(b) Pliny having named divers Mirabilia Aqmrum % to (hew 
their Power ; then proceeds to their Ufes, viz. Ecedem ca* 
dtntes omnium terra nafcentium caufa funt x prorfus mirabtli 
naturd, Jiquis welit reputare, ut fruges gignantur % arbor es fruti- 
cefqtte wi'uant, in caelum migrare aquas , animamque etiam berbis 
yitalem inde deferre : juftd confejjione, omnes terra quoque vires 
aquarum ejje benejicii. Quapropter ante omnia ipfarum fotentl* 
exempla ponemus : CunSlas enim quis mortalium enumerare queat t 
And then he goes on with an Enumeration of fome Waters 
iamed for being Medicinal, or fome other unufual Quality. 
' Piin. /. 3 1 . c . i . & 2. 

Chap. IL The Watery Inhabitants. . 40 r 

that Part of the Globe already furvey'd ; and the 
prodigious Variety (c ) f and Multitudes of curious 
and wonderful Things obfervable in its Inhabitants 
of all Sorts, are an inexhauftible Scene of the Cre- 
ator's Wifdom and Power. The vaft Bulk of 
fome (d)> and prodigious Minutenefs of others (e) 9 
together with* the incomparable Contrivance and 
Strudtureof the Bodies (f) of all; the Provifions 
and Supplies of Food afforded to fuch an innume- 
rable Company of Eaters, and that in an Element* 
unlikely, one would think, to afford any great Store 
of Supplies (f); the Bufinefs of Refpiration per- 

(r) Pliny reckons 176 Kinds in the Waters, whofe Names 
may be met with in his /. 32. c. 11. but heisfliort in his 

(d) PH»y* L 9. c. 3. faith, That in the Indian Sea there are 
Balena quatemum jugerum (1. e, 960 Feet) Priftis 200 cubitorum 
{i. t. 300 Feet.) And /. 32. c. 1. he mentions Whales 6oo 
Foot long, and 360 broad, that came into a River of Arabia. 
If the Reader hath a Mind, he may fee his Rcafon why the 
largeft Animals are bred in the Sea, l.g.c.z. 

(e) As the largeit, fo the mod minute Animals are bred in 
the Waters, as thofe in Pepper-water ; and fuch as make the 
green Scum on the Waters, or make them feem as if green, 
and many others. See Book IV. Chap. 1 1 . Note (»), (*). . 

(/) It might be here (hewn, that the Bodies of ail the fe- 
veral Inhabitants of the Waters, are the beft contrived and 
fuited to that Place and Bufinefs in the Waters, which is pro- 
per for them ; that particularly, their Bodies are cloathcd and 
guarded, in the bed Manner, with Scales, or Shells, &c fuit- 
able to the Place they are to refide in, the Dangers they may 
there be expofed unto, and the Motion and Bufinefs they aie 
there to perform : That the Center of Gravity (of great Con- 
fideration in that fluid Element,) is always placed in the fitted 
Part of the Body : That the Shape of their Bodies, (efpecially 
the more fwift,) is the rood commodious for making Way 
thro* the Waters, and moll agreeable to geometrical Rules ; 
and many other Matters befides, would deferve a Place here, 
were they not too long for Notes, and that I (hall anticipate 
wh^t waU be more proper for another Place, and more accu* 
rately treated of there. 

(r) See before Book IV, Chap. 11. 

Dd (f) Gate* 

402 tfbe Watery Inhabitants. Book. IX. 

form'd in a Way fo different from, but equivalent 
to what is in Land Animals (b) % the Adjuftment 
of the Organs of Vifion (t) to that Element in 
which the Animal liveth ; the Poife (*), the Sup- 
port (/), the Motion of the Body (»), forwards 


{h) Galtu was aware of the Refpi ration of Fifhes by their 
Bronchia. For having faid, that Fifhes have no Occafion of 
a Voice, neither refpire thro* the Mouth as Land Animals do, 
he foith, Sed earum, quae Branchial nuncupamus, conftruBio % 
ipfis vice Pulmonis eft. Cum enim crebris ac tenuibus foramini- 
bus fint Branchiae ha intercept*, aeri qui Jem & vapors perviis, 
Jabtilioribus tanun quant pro mole aqua ; banc quidem extra re- 
pellunt, ilia autem prompt} intromittunt. Galen de UC Fart. 
1. 6. c. 9. So alfo Pliny held, That Fifhes refpired by their 
Gills ; but he faith Ariftotle was of a different Opinion. Pliu* 
/. 9. c. 7. And fo Arifiotle feems to be in his Hiftorj of Animals, 
/. 8. c.t. and in other Places. And I may add our famous 
Dr. Nadham. So his De Form. Faetu, Chap. 6. and Anfwer H 

(/) A protuberant Eye would have been inconvenient for 
Fifhes, by hindring their Motion in fo denfe a Medium as 
Water is ; or el(e their brufhing through fo thick a Medium 
would have been apt to wear, and prejudice their Eyes; 
therefore their Cornea is flat. To make Amends for which, 
as alfo for the Refraction of Water, different from that of 
the Air, the wife Contriver of the Eye, hath made the Cryfial- 
line fpherical in Fifhe3, which in Animals, living in the Air, 
is lenticular, and more flat. 

(k) As I have fhewed before, that the Bodies of Birds are 
nicely pois'd to fwim in the Air, fo are thole of Fifhes for 
the Water, every Part of the Body being duly balanced, and 
the Center of Gravity, as I faid in Note (f), accurately hVd. 
And to prevent Vacillation, fome of the Fins ferve, particu- 
larly thofc of the Belly ; as Borelli prov'd, by cutting off the 
Belly-fins, which caus'd the Fifh to reel to the right and left 
Hand, and rendered it unable to Hand fteadily in an upright 

(/) To enable the Fifh to abide at the Top, or Bottom, or 
any other Part of the Waters, the Air- Bladder is given to moft 
Fifhes, which, as it is more full or empty, makes the Body 
more or lefs .buoyant. 

(m) The 7 ail is the grand Inftrument of the Motion of the 
Body; not the Fins, as fome imagine. For which Reafon, 

- - Fifhci 

Chap. II. The Jffaery Inhabitants. 403 

with great Swiftnefs, and upwards and downwards 
with great Readinefs and Agility, and all without 
Feet and Hands, and ten-thoufand Things befides ; 
all thefe Things, I fay, do lay before Us fo various, 
fo glorious, and withal fo inexhauflible a Scene of 
the Divine Power, Wifdom, and Gopdnefs, that it 
would be in vain to engage myfelf info large a 
Province, without allotting as much Time and 
Pains to it, as the preceding Survey hath coft me. 
Pafling by therefore that Part of our Globe, I fhall 
only fay fomewhat very briefly concerning the infen- 
Jitive Creatures, particularly thofe of the Vegetable 
Kingdom^ and fo conclude this Survey. 

Fifties are more mufculous and ftrong in that Part, than in 
all tfhe reft of their Body, according as it is in the motive 
Parts of all Animals, in the pectoral Mufcles of Birds, the 
Thighs of Man, &c. 

If the Reader hath a Mind to fee the admirable Method, 
how Fifties row themfelves by their Tail, and other Curiofuies 
relating to their Swimming ; I fhall refer him to Borelli Je 
Mot. Animal. Part i. Chap. 2$. particularly to Prop. 213. 

Dd 2 BOO 

t 404 ] 

>♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦ ♦ ♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦♦ ♦♦♦•♦♦♦♦ ♦ 



]HE Vegetable Kingdom, although an 
inferior Branch of the Creation, exhi- 
bits to us fuch an ample Scene of the 
Creator's Contrivance, Curiofity, and 
Art, that I much rather chufe to fhcw 
what might be faid, than engage too far in Par- 
ticulars. I might infill upon the great Variety 
there is, both of Trees and Plants provided for 
all Ages, and for every Ufe and Occafion of the 
World (a); fome for Building, for Tools and Uren- 
filsof every kind ; fome hard, fome foft 5 fome tough 
and ftrong, fome brittle 5 fome long and tall, fome 
ihort and low ; fome thick and large, fome fmall and 
(lender 5 fome for Phyfick (£), fome for Food, fome 


(a) The fifth Book of Ibtopbraftufs Hi/lory of Plants may 
be here confulted 1 where he gives ample Inltances of the va- 
rious Conllitutions and Ufes of Trees, in various Works, fcfr. 
See alfo before, Book IV. Chap. 13. Note{m). 

(b) Invifis quoque herbit inferuit [Natura] remedia: quippt 
turn medicinal dederit etiam acufeatis—~>—in quibus ipfis provi* 
dentiatn Natura fatis admirari ampleBique non eft fade ex- 
cogitavit aliquas afpeQu bijpidas, taftu truces, ut tantum nan 
moeem ipfius fin gent is i//as 9 rationemque reddentis exaudire ntidea- 
mur 9 ne fe def a/cat avida Sfuadrupes, ne procaces manus rapt ant, 
ne negleSa veftigia obterant 9 ne infidens Ales infringat : bis mm- 
niendo Aculeis 9 telifque armando 9 remediis ut tuta ac fal<oa Jint* 
Ita hoe quoque quod in Us odimus, bominum causa excogitatum. 

vPlin.Nat.HiiU. 22. c. 6. 


Book X. dnatomy of Vegetables. 405 

for Pleafure ; yea, the moft abjeft (c) Shrubs, and 
the very Bufhes and Brambles themfelves, the Hut 
bandman can teftify the Ufe of. 

I might alfo Survey here the curious. Anatomy 
and Structure of their Bodies (</), and (hew the 


Are fome of the Spirits of Nature noxious? They are alfo 
ufeful. Doth a Nettie fting ? It is tofecure fo good a Medi- 

cine from the Rapes of Children and Cattle. Doth the Bramble 
cumber a Garden ? It makes the better Hedge , where if it 
chancetb to prick the Owner, it will tear the Thief Grew's Cof- 
molog. lib. 3. cap. 2. fed. 47. 

(r) Tiiat the moft abjett Vegetables, fcTr. have their Ufe, 
and are beneficial to the World, may in fome Meafure ap- 
pear from the Ufe the Northern People put roc ten Wood, &c. 
unto. Satis ingeniofum modum habent populi feptentrionales in 
uemoribus noBurno tempore pertranfeuntes, imo & diurno 9 quan- 
do in. remotioribus Aquilonis partibus ante, iff poft Solftitium 
hyemale continue mQes babeutur. Quique his retnediis indi- 
gent, Cortices quercinos inquirunt putres t eafque collocant certo 
interftitio itineris infiitui, ut eorum JpUndore, quo vo/uerint, per- 
f riant iter. Necfilum hoc pratfiat Cortex \ fed & Tr uncus pu- 
erefatlus, ac fungus ipfe Agaric us appellatus, &e. Ol, Mag. 
Hift. 1. 2. c. 16. 

To this we may add Thifiles in. making Glafe, whofe A foes, 
Dr. Merret faith, are the bed, vix. the Ames of the Com* 
men-way Thiftle, tho' all Thifiles ferve to this Purpofe. 
Next to Thifiles are Hop-ftrings, cut after the Flowers are 
gathered. Plants that are Thorny and Prickly, feem to 
afford the heft and moft Salt. Merret' s Olfervntiens on Antan % 
#/r. p. ^65. 

Quid majorafequar? Salices, humtlefque Genifia, 
AutiUa? pecorifrondem, out pafioribus umbrans 
Sujfiriunt, Sepemque fatis, & pabula melli. 

Virg. Georg. 1. 2. ver. 434. 

[d) Dr. Beal (who was vtry curious, and tried many Ex- 
periments upon Vegetables) gives fome good Reafons to 
imagine, that there is a direct Communication between the 
Parts of the Tree and the Fruit, fo that the fame Fibres 
which conftitute the Root, Trunk, and Boughs, are extended 
pto the very Fruit. And in old Horn-beans, 1 have ob- 

D d 3 terved 

406 Anatomy of Vegetables. Book 3C 

admirable Provifion made for the Conveyance of 
the lymphatick and efiential Juices, for communi- 
cating the Air, as neceffary to Vegetable, as Ani- 
mal Life (e) : I might alfo fpeak of even the very 
Covering they are provided with, becaufe it is a 
curious Work in Reality, altho' lefs fo in Ap- 
pearance : And much more therefore might I furvey 

...... t ^ 

ferved fomething very like this.; in many of which, there 
are divers great and fmail Rib* (almoft like Ivy, only 
united to the Body) running from the Root up along the Oat* 
fide of the Body, and terminating in one fingle r or a few 
Boughs : Which Bough or Boughs fpread. again into Branches, 
Leaves, and Fruit. See what Dr. Beal hath in Lvwtb. Abridr. 
Vol. 2. p. 710. 

But as to the particular Canals, and other Parts relating to 
the Anatomy of Vegetables, it is too long a Subject for this 
Place, and therefore I (hall refer to Seign. MaJpdgkTi and 
Dr. Grews Labours in this Kind. 

(e) Tanta eft Refpiratimis neceffitas, & ufus, ut Nostra in 
ftngulis e vi t veutium ordinibus <varia, fed analoga, paraverit inftru- 
meuta, qua Pulmonis njocamus [and fo he goes on with ob- 
serving the Apparatus made in the various Genera of Ani- 
mals, and then faith,] In Plant is <verb, qua infimum anima- 
lism attingunt trdinem, tantam Tr ache arum copiam fcf produQit- 
nem extare par eft, ut bis minima Vegetantium partes prater 

corticem irrigentur. Planta igitur (ut conjefiari fas eft) 

cum fint viventia, vifceribus infix a terra, ab bac 9 feu fotius ab 
aqua & acre, commixtis & percolatis a terra, Refpirationis 
fua materiam recipiunt, ipfarumque Trachea ab balitu terra, 
extremas radices fubingrefjo, rephntur. Malpig. Op. Anat. 
Plant, p. 15. 

Thefe Trachea, or Air-Veffels y are vifible, and appear very 
pretty in the Leaf of Scabious, or the Vine, by pulling afunder 
fome of its principal Ribs, or great Fibres ; between which, 
may be feen the Spiral AirVeffels (like Threads of Cobweb) 
a little uncoiled : A Figure whereof, Dr. Grew hath given us 
in his Anat. Plant. Tab. 51, 52. 

As to the curious Coiling, and other Things relating to the 
Structure of thofe Air FeJJels, I refer to Malpig. p. 14. and 
Dr. Grew, ib. I. 3. c. 3. fed. 16, &c. and /. 4. c. 4. fed. 19. 
of Mr. Ray, from them fuccin&ly. Hi ft. Plant. /. 1 . c. 4. 

(f) Con- 

BookX. Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. 407 

the neat Variety and Texture of their Leaves (/> 
the admirable Finery, Gaiety, and Fragrancy of 
their Flowers (£). I might alfo inquire into the 


(f) Concerning the Leaves, I (hall Note only two or three 
Things : i . As to the Fibres of the Leaf, they lland not in the 
Stalk y in an even Line, bat always in an Angular, or Circular 
Pofture, and ihek. vafcular Fibres or Threads are 3, 5, or 7. 
The Reafon of their Pofition thus, is for the more erect Growth 
and greater Strength of the Leaf, as alfo for the Security of 
its Sap. Of all which fee Dr. Grenv, /. 1. c . 4 fe.l. -.. ■!. ■■*.-. 
and /. 4. par. 1. c. 3. alfo Tab. 4. Fig. 2, to 11. A:v^ ■ '■ :j. 
fervable in the Fibres of the Leaf, is their orderly To:- 'ion, 
fo as to take in an eighth fart of a Circle, as in Mallows ; 
in fome a tenth, but in moft a twelfth, as in Holy -Oak -, or a 
fixth, as in Syringa. Id. sb. Tab. 46, 47. 

2. The Art in Folding up the Leaves before their Eruption 
out of their Gems, tjfe. is incomparable, both for its Elegancy 
and Security, viz. In taking up [fo as their Forms will bear) 
the leafi Room ; and in being fo conveniently couched as to be capa- 
ble of receiving Protection from other Parts, or of giving it to one 
another, t. g. firft, there is the Bow-lap, where the Leaves are 
all laid fomewhai convexly one over another, but not plaite d 
but where the Leaves are not fo thick fet, as to ft and in the Bow- 
lap, there we have the Plicature, or the Flat lap ; as in Rofe- 
trees, &C And fo that curious Obferver goes on (hewing 
the various Foldings, to which he gives the Names of the Du- 
plicate e> Multiplicature, the Fore-rowl, Back t owl, and Tre-rowl 9 
or Treble rowl. Grew, ib. /. 1. c. 4. feci. 14, &V. To thefe he 
adds fome others, L. 4. P. 1. c. i. fa. 9. Confult alfo Malpig. 
de Gemmis, p. 22, tffe. 

To thefe curious Foldings, we may add another noble 
Guard by the Interpofition of Films, &V. of which Dr. Grew 
faith, there are about fix Ways viz. Leaves, Surf oils, Inter- 
foils, Stalks, Hoods, and Mautlings. Grew, ib. and Tab. 41, 42. 
Malpig. ibid.. 

{g) In the Flower may be confidered the Fmpalemcnt, as 
Dr. Grew, the Calix, or Perianthium, as Mr. Ray, and others, 
call it, dcligned to be a Security, and Bands to th;* other Parts 
of the Flower. Floris velut bajis & fulamentum eft. Ray Hill. 
Li. c. 10. Flowers, whofe Petala are ftrong (as Tulip*) have 
no Calix. Carnations, whofe Petala are long and (lender, have 
an Empalemenc of one Piece : And others, fuch as the Knap- 
to d 4 weeds 1 

4© 8 Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. Boost X* 

wonderful Generation and Make of the Seed (A), 
and the great Ufefulnefs of their Fruit : I might 
fhew that the Rudiments and Lineaments of the 
Parent- Vegetable, tho* never fo large and fpa- 
cious, is locked up in the little Compafs of their 
Fruit or Seed, tho* Tome of thefc Seedsare fcarce 
yifible to the naked Eye (i). Apd fpraimuch as 

% ' 4 the 

weeds, have it confiding of feveral Pieces, and in divers 
Rounds, and all with a counterchangeabfe Refpeft to each 
other, for the greater Strength and Security' of themfelves, 
and the Betala, &c. they include. 

The next is the Foliation as Dr, Grew, the Retala, or Folia, 
as fMr Ray, and others. In thefe* not only the admirable 
Beauty, and luxuriant Colours are, obfervable,, but alfo rheir 
curious Foldings in the Calix, before their Expanfion, Of which 
Dr. Grew hath thete Varieties, vis;. The Clofe -Couch, as in 
Rofes; the Concave -Couch, as in Blotter ia fiort alio; the 
Single-Plait, as in Peafe Blojoms; the Double- Plait, as in Blue- 
Potties * &c. the Couch and Plait together, as in Marigolds, &c, 
the RovjI, as in Ladies -Bower \ the Spire, as ip' Mallows ; and 
laftly, the Plait and Spire together, as in Convolvulus Doronici 
folio. Lib. I cap, $,fe&. 6. and tab. 54. 

As to the Stamina with their Apices, and the Stylus, (called 
the Attire, by Dr. Grew,) they are admirable, whether we con- 
fider their Colours, or Make, efpecially their TJfe, if it be as 
Dr. Grew, Mr. Ray, and others imagine, namely, as a Mah 
Sperm, to impregnate and fructify the Seed. Which Opinion 
is corroborated by the ingenious Obfervations of Mr. Samuel 
Morland, in Philpf. Tranf N° 287. 

Reliqua usus alimentique gratia genuit [Natura] ideooue fecula 
annofque tribuit its. Flores verb odor //que in diem gignit ": magna 
(ut palam eft) admonitione hominum, qu<t fpe8atijjtme fhreani, 
celerrime marcefcere. ' Plin. Nat. Hift. 1. 2 i.e. 1. 

(h) As to the curious and gradual Procefs of Nature in the 
Formation of the Seed or Fruit of Vegetables, Cub being 
heceffary, I mail refer to Dr. Grevj 9 p. 45. and 209.' and 

(i) yetus eft EmpedocHs dogma, Plant arum femina Ova eje % 

ah iifdem decidua-—— Lie ft in eo [Ovo vel Semitic] veha 

in cicatrice, non fola viventis carina, fed cum minime trunco 
agurgetttes partes, Gemma fcilicet, isf infignis radicis Conns, tyc\ 

•■' r • 

Book X. Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. 409 

the Perpetuity and Safety of the Species depends 
upon the Safety of the Seed and Fruit in a great 
Meafure, I might therefore take Notice of the pe- 
culiar Care the great God of Nature hath taken 
for the Confervation and Safety hereof: As parti- 
cularly in fuch as dare to fhew their Heads all the 


Malptg. ib. 81. Vid. plura in traft. de Seminum veget. p. 14. 
& paffim. 

In Malpigbfa Life, a Debate may be feen between him and 
Seign. Triumpbetti, the Provoft of the Garden at Rome, whe- 
ther the whole Plant be actually in the Seed. The Affirma- 
tive is maintained by Malpighi, with cogent Arguments ; a- 
mong which, this is one : Non pr/eoccupata mente, oculis micro- 
fcopio armatis, luftret quafo Pbafeolorum, feminalem plantulam 
nondum fat am, in qui folia ftabilia, bacque amp/a evident er 
obfervalit ; in eddem fariter gemmam, nodos, feu implantations 
nrarias foliorum caulis deprebendet. Caul em infignem Jib r is lig- 
neis, (& utriculorum ftriebus conftantem confpicme attinget. And 
yvhereas S. Triumpbetti had objected, that Vegetatione, meta~ 
ntorpbofi, inedia plantas in alias degenerare, ut'exemplo phirium 

(con ft at] pracipue tritici in folium, & lolii in trittcum <uerf. 
n Anfwer to this, (which is one of the ftrongeft Arguments 
againft Malpighi s AiTerdon,) Malpighi replies, ffondum cer- 
turn eft de integritate, fcf fucceffu experiments , nam facienti mibi % 
£jf amicis, tritici tnttamorpbofis non eejjit. Admifja tamen me- 
tmmorpbofi, quoniam bac neglecla cultura, out *vitio Jbli, aut 
aeris contingit—ideo ex morbofo £sP monftrwfo affeclu non licet 
infer re permanent em ftatum a Naturd intentum. Obfervo plantas 
jyl'ueftrts cultura *varias reddi, &c. I have more largely taken 
Notice pf Malpigbfs Anfwer, becaufe he therein thews his 
Opinion about the Tranfmutation pf Vegetables. Vide 
Malpig. Fit. p. 67 

So Mr.' Lewenboeci, after his nice Obfervations of an Orange- 
Kernel, which he made to germinate in his Pocket, &c. con- 
eludes, Thus ive fee, bo*w /mall a Particle, no bigger tban a 
comrfe Sand, (as the Plant is reprefented) is increafed, Sec. A 
plain Demonftration, tbat tbe Plant, and all belonging to it, was 

f&uallj in tbe Seed, in tbe young Plant, its fioay, Root, &c. 
'hilofT Tranf. N° 287. See alfo Raii Cat. Cant, in Acer 
putj. from Dr. ffigbmore. Ifut in all the Seeds which I have 
viewed, except the Maple, the Plant appears the plaineft to 
the naked* Eye, and alfo -very elegant, * in the Nux Vomica. 
*• Natura 

410 Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. Book X. 

Year, how fecurely their Flower, Seed or Fruit 
is locked up all the Winter, together with their 
Leaves and Branches, in their Gems (£), and well 


Natura non obfervat magmtudiuis proportieutm inter fauna 
fef plantas ab iifdem ortas, ita ut majus fewun major em femfer 
froducat plantam, minus miner em. Sunt enim in genere berba- 
rnm non pane a, fuarum fernina arborum nouuullarum feminibus 
mm dico aqualia font, fed multo major a. Sic V. g. Sesmna 
Fab a, &c. fernina Vim, &e. multis vicious magnitudint fife- 
rant. Raii ubi fnpra, 1. i. c. 13. 

FiRcem reliqnafque Cafillares herbas Semne carer e Veterei 
flerique — - froMdere ; quae etiam feeuti fimt ) Recent ioribus 
nonnulliy Dodonaus, &c. ■ Alii e contri, Baubinus, &e. 

Filices &f congeneres fpermatophoras ejjfe contend*** ; Partitn quia 
Hifloria Creatioms, Gcnef. ii. is, Sec. — Hone fententiam 
verijjtmam effe —— autopfia convincit. Fredericks Cafius, he 
faith, was the firft that d if covered thefe Seeds with the Help 
of a Microfcope. And (race him, Mr. W. C. hath more criti- 
cally obferved them. Among other Things obferved by that 
ingenious Gentleman, are thefe, Pixidula feu capful* fernina 
continentes in plerifque hoc genus plantis perquam exili grannlo 
arena vulgaris cinerea plus duplo minores funt ; imo in non- 
nullis fpeciebus mix tertiam quartamve arenula partem magni* 
tudine ce quant, veficularum quarundam annulis out fafciolis 
vermiformibus obvolutarum fpeciem exbibentes. Nonnulla ex bis 
vejiculis 100 circiter fernina continere deprebendebantu r 
adeo eximid parvitate ut nudo oculo prorfus effent invijtbilia, 
nee nifi microfcopii interventu detegi poffent. ■ ■ Ofmunda 
Regalis, qua aliis omnibus Filicis fpeciebus mole antecel- 

lit-—vafcula feminalia obtinet aque cum reliquis congeneric 
bus magnitudinis ■ quorum immenfa cif vi/um fugiens par* 

'vitas cum magnitudine plant a collata — adeo nullum gerere 
froportionem invenietur, ut tantam plantam e tantillo femine fr§» 
dud attentum obfervatorem meritb in admirationem rapiat. 
Kay, ibid. 1. 3. p. 132. This W. C. was Mr. Will. Colt, as lie 
owneth in a letter I have now in my Hands of his to Mr. Ray, 
Of Oclob. 18. 1684. 

[i) Vegetantium genus, ut debitam magnitudinem fbrtiatur, 
Iff fua mortalitatis j a Slur am fuccejjivd prolis eduQione report/, 
fiatis temporibus novas promit partes, ut tandem emergentu 
•Uteri, recentes edant Soboles. E man antes igitur a caule, con- 
dice, ramis, & radicibus novella bujufmodi partes, non HBco 
laxata exteuduntur, fed compendio quodam coagmentata intra 

f /'Hi 

BookX. Fkwers and Seed of Vegetables. 411 

fenced and covered there with neat and clofe Tu- 
nicks. And for fuch as dare not fo to expofe them- 
felves, with what Safety are they preferved under 
the Coverture of the Earth, in their Root (/), 
Seed (m), or Fruit, till invited out by the kindly 


folii axillam cubantes, non parum fubfiftunt, Gemma af-peUan- 
tur, &c. And then that great Man goes on to (hew the ad- 
mirable various Methods of Nature, in reporting in that 
little Compafs, fo large a Part of a Tree or Plant, the curious 
Stru&ure of the Gems, the admirable Guard afforded them, 
and the Leaves, Flowers, and Seed contained in them, 13c 
Of which having taken Notice before, I pafs over it now, 
and only refer to our Author Malpigbi, and Dr. Grew, in the 
Places cited in Note (/") and (g). 

(I) Of Bulbous, and a great many more, probably of the 
far greater Number of Perennial Roots of Herbs, as Arum, 
Rape-Crowfoot y &c. it is very obfervable, that their Root is 
annuajly renewed, or repaired out of the Trunk or Stalk it- 
felf ; that is to fay, the Bafis of the Stalk continually, and 
by infenfible Degrees descending below the Surface of the 
Earth, and hiding itfelf therein, is thus both in Nature, 
Place, and Office, changed into a true Root.- So in Brown- 
won, the Bafis of the Stalk linking down by Degrees, till it 
lies under Ground, becomes the upper Part of the Root; 
and continuing ftill to (ink, the next Year becomes the lower 
Part: And the next after that, rots away; a new Addition 
being ftill yearly made out of the Stalk, as the elder Parts 
yearly rot away. Grew, ibid. /. 2. p. 59. ubi plwa <vid. 

(m) How fafe and agreeable a Confervatory the Earth is. 
to Vegetables, more than any other, is manifeft from their 
, rotting, drying, or being rendered infecund in the Waters, or 
the Air; but in the Earth their Vigour is loi.g preferved. 
Thus Seeds particularly, Mr. Ray thinks, fome may proba- 
bly retain their Fecundity for ten Years, and others lofe it in 
five; but, faith he, In terra gremio latitantia, quamvis tot 
culortSy frigoris, humoris & ficcitatis <varietatibus ibidem oh- 
noxim, diutius tamen (ut puto) fertilitatem fuam tuentur quant 
ah botninibus diligentijfime cufiodita ; nam & ego W alii ante 
me multi obfervarunt Sinapeos <vim magnam enatam in agge- 
ribus fiffarum recent faQis inque areis gramineis effojjts, ubi 
poft bominum memoriam nulla unquam Sinapeos feges fuecreve- 
r4t. $uam tamen non fponte or tarn fufpicor, fed e feminibus 
in ttrrd per tot annos refiduis etiam prolificis. Ray. Hift. PI. 
I 1. c. 13. 

V^ Plan. 

412 Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. Book X. 

Warmth of the Spring! And when the whole Ve- 
getable Race is thus called out, it is very pretty to 
obferve the Methods of Nature in guarding thole 
infenfitive Creatures againft Harms and Inconve- 
niencies, by making fome (for Inftance) to lie down 
proftrate, and others, to clofc themfelves up (n) 
upon the Touch of Animals, and the moft to tout 

}ip their Flowers, their Down (o) y or other their 
ike Guard, upon the Clofe and Cool of the Even- 
ing, by Means of Rain, or other Matters that may 
be prejudicial to the tender Seed. 

And now to thefe Confiderations relating to the 
Seed, I might add the various Ways of Nature in 
diffipating and fowingit, fome being* for this End, 
winged with light Down, or Wings, to be con- 
veyed about by the Winds -, others being laid in 


(n) Plant* nonnull* Mfchynomen* Veteribus diclar, Recen- 
tiorihus Viva, & Senfitw/e,- £ff Mirmfa, baud obfcura fensus 
indicia produnt\ feqnidem folia earum manu out bacuio tafia, 
far faululum comprej/a, fleno etiam meridie, fplendente Sole, illico 
Je contrahunt; in nonnullis etiam fpcciebus caulicufi teneriores 
concidunt £ff wlut mar ctf cunt \ quod idem ah acre frigidiore 
admiffa fatiuntur. Ray Hill. PI, T. i. L. 18. App. S. 2. 
c. 2. p. 978. 

{0) I have obferved that many, if not moil Vegetables, do 
expand their Flowers, Down, &c. in warm, Sun (hiny Wea- 
ther, and again clofe them towards Evening, or in Rain, tffc. 
efpecially at the Beginning of Flowering, when the Seed is 
young and tender ; as is manifeft in the Down of Dandelion, 
and other Downs ; and eminently in the Flowers of Pimpernel; 
the opening and (hutting of which, are the Countryman's 
Weather-wifer ; whereby, Gerard faith, he foretelleth what 
Weather (hall follow the next Day ; for, faith he, If tbe 
Flowers be clofe Jbut up, it betokenelb Rain and foul Weather ; 
contraryvuife, if they be Jpread abroad, fair Weather, Ger. Herb. 
B. 2 c. 183. 

Eft & alia [arbor in Tylis] femili$ % foliofior tamen f rofeipe 
forts ; quern noclu comprmeus, aperire incipit Solis exortu, me- 
ridie expandit. hcofa dormire 4am dicunt. Plin. Nat. Hid 
]. 12. c. 11. 

BookX. Fbwers and Seed of Vegetables'. 413 

elaftick, fpringy Cafes, that when they burftand 
crack, dart their Seed at convenient Diftances, 
performing thereby the Part' of a good Husband- 
man (p) ; others by their agreeable Tafte and 


(p) So foon as the Seed is ripe, Nature taketh fever al Me- 
thods for its being duly Sown ; not only in the opening of the 
Uterus, but alfo in the Make of the Seed itfelf. For, firft, The 
Seeds of many Plants, which off eel a peculiar Soil or Seat, at of 
Arum, Poppy, &c. are heavy and fmafl enough, without far- 
ther Care, to fall direclly down into the Groun d >BuJ if they 
are fo large and light, as to be expofed to the Wind, they are 
often furnijbed with one or more Hooks, to flay them from fraying 
too far from their proper Place 'So thg Seeds ofAvens have 
one Jingle Hook ; tbofe of Agrimony and Goofegrafs, many ; 
both the former lowing a warm Bank ; the latter, an Hedge far 
its Support. On the contrary, many Seeds are furnijbed with 
Wings or Feathers ; partly with the Help of Wind to carry 
them, when ripe, from off the Plant, as of A(h, &c.» ■ and 
partly to enable them to make their Flight more or left abroad* 
that fo they may not, by falling together, come up too thick; and 
that if one fhould mifs a good Soil or Bed, another may hit. So 

the Kernels of Pine have Wings yetjbort — :— J whereby 

they fly not into the Air, but only flutter upon the Ground. But 

tbofe of Typha, Dandelion, and m*ft of the papfous Kind 

have long numerous Feathers, by which they are wafted every 
Way. - ■ Again, there are Seeds which are fcatter* d not by 

flying abroad, but bv bring either fpirted or flung away. The 
firft of tbofe are Wood-forrel, v.hicb having a running Boot, 
Nature fees ft to fow the Seeds at fome Diftance. The d ing 
of which is effected by a white Jlurdy Cover, of a tendinous or 
fpringy Nature. * ■ ■ This Cover, fo foon as it begins to dry. 
bur/is open on one Side, in an Infant, and is violently turned 
Jnfide outwar d- . » ■ ■ « and Jo Jmartly throws off the Seed. The 
Seeds of Harts-tongue is flung or /hot away * — —-by the 

curious Contrivance of the Seed-cafe, as * in Codded Afmart, 
only there the Spring moves and curls inward, but here outward, 
viz. Every Seed -caf e ■ is of afpherick Figure, and girded 

about with a Jlurdy Spring.* ■■ ■ The Surface of the Spring 

refembles a fine Skrew. - So Joon as— — this Spring is be- 

come ftark enough, it Juddenly breaks the Cafe into two Halves, 
Hie two little Cups, and fo flings the Seed. Grew, ib. p. 19Q. 
and in Tab. 72. all thefe admirable Artifices are handfomely 


414 Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. Book X. 

Smell, and fklutary Nature, inviting themfelves to 
be fwallowed, and carried about by the Birds, and 
thereby alio fertilized by palling through their Bo- 

£>uin Ji quantitas modica feminum (Filicis Phyllitidis quo- 
qae) a foliis in fubjedam chart a mun dar 1 ■ f chedam decu- 
tiatur, detergaturve, £s? deinde in acervum conwerratur, *veficu- 
/arum Jeminalium f/urimii una diffilieutibus, (ff fibi invicem 
allifis, acerwdus *varie moveri per partis *videbitur 9 no* /ecus 
ac Ji Syrenibut aut ifiiujmodi oeftiolis repletus ejfet — quiu 
Ji locus tranquillus Jit, aure proxime admotd, crepitantium in- 
ter rumpendum *vafculorum fonitus — percipietur 1 & Ji mi- 
cro/copio char tarn oculis oberres, Jemina per earn undique Jparfa, 
& ad notabilem ab acermo difiantiam projeSa comperies. Ray 
ibid. p. 132. 

The admirable Contrivance of Nature, in this Plant, is mofi 
plain: For tbe Seed-Vejfels being the befi Preserver of the Seed, 
*tis there kept from the Injuries of Mr and Earth, till it be 
rainy, when it is a proper Time for it to grow, and then it is 
thrown round the Earth, as Grain by a Jkilful Sower.* 
When any Wet touches the End of the Seed-Vejfels, with a f mart 
Noife and Judden Leap it opens itfelf, and with a Spring fcatters 
its Seed to a pretty Diftance round it, where it grows. Dr. Sloane 
Voy. to Jamaica, p. 150. of the Gentianella fore cceruleo, &c. 
Or Spirit- Leaf. 

The Plants of the Cardamine-Family, and many others, may 
be added here, whofe Cods fly open, and dart out their Seed, 
upon a fmall Touch of the Hand. But the mod remarkable 
Initance is in the Card amine impatiens, Cujus Silt qua: (faith 
Mr. Ray) *vel leviter ta£ia, acluium ejaculantur [Semina] into 
quod longe mirabilius videtur, ctfi Jiliquas non tetigeris, ft tamen 
manum <velut tafturus proxime admoweas, femina in appropin- 
quantem evibrabunt ; quod turn Mori/onus fe fapius expertum 
fcribit, turn Johnftonus apud Gerardum <verum ejfe affirmat. Hifi. 
Plant. 1. 16. c. 20. 

Neither is this Provifion made only for Land- Vegetables, 
but for fuch alfo as grow in the Sea. Of which I (hall gire 
an Inftance from my before-commended Friend, Dr. Sloans: 
As to the Fuci, their Seed hath been diJco*vtrd, [and Jbew'd 
me frft,) by the Induftry of the ingenious Herbanjl, Mr. Sam. 
Doody, who found on many of this Kind, folid Tubercles, er 
Rifings, in fomt Seajons, wherein were lodged federal round 
Seeds, as big as Muftard-Seed, which, when ripe, the out- 
ward Membrane of the Tubercle breaking, leave tb the Seed to 
~\at up and down i;itb tbe Waves. The Seed coming near 


BookX. Flowers and Seed of Vegetables* 415 

dies (q) ; and others not thus taken Care of, do 
many of them by their Ufefulhefs in human Life, 
invite the Husbandman and Gardiner carefully to 
low and nurfe them up. 


Stones, or any folid Foundation, by means of a Mucilage it car- 
ries <witb it, flicks to them, andjhoots forth Ligulae with Branches, 
and in Time comes to its Perfection and Magnitude. Sloan Voy. 
Jamaica, p. 60. 

But altho' Mr. Docdy had hinted, and conjectured at the 
Thing, yet the firft that discovered the Seeds in Fuci % was 
the before-commended Dr. Tancred Robin/on; as may befeen 
by comparing what Mr. Ray faith in his Synopf. Stirp Brit. p. 6. 
with his Append* tiifl.p. 1849. Beiides which Fuci, the Dr. 
tells me, he obferved VeiTels and Seed in Caralloid Shrubs, as 
alfo in feveral Fungi, not only in the Species of Crepitus Lupi 9 
but alfo between the Lamella: of other Species, and in that 
fubterraneous Kind call'd Truffles, whofe Seed and Veflels 
open in the Cortex, at fome Sea Tons he faith, like that of 
Mallows in Shape. 

As to the Crepitus Lufi, I have more than once examined 
their Powder, with thofe excellent Microfcopes of Mr. Wil- 
fon\ Make : But the moft fatisfaclory View Mr. Wilfon him- 
felf gave me ; by which I found the Seeds to be fo many 
exceeding fmall Puff-Balls, with round Heads, and longer 
than ordinary (harp- pointed Stalks, as if made on purpofe to 
prick eafily into the Ground. Thefe Seeds are intermixed 
with much dufty Matter, and become hurtful to the Eyes, 
probably by their fharp Stalks pricking and wounding that 
tender Organ. 

[a) The antient Naturalifts do generally agree, that Mif 
feltoe is propagated by its Seeds carried about by, and pafBng 
through the Body of Birds. Thus Thcophraftus de Cau/l 
Plant. L 2. e. 24. To it dvl ci<; igrfOw, &c. lnitium <vero 

a paftu avium : —Quippe Vifco detraBo confeBoque in al- 

*veis, quod frigidiffimum eft, femen cum excrement purum di- 
mittitur, & facia mutatione alt qua in arbor e Stercoris causa 
pullulat, crumpitqiu, &c. So alfo P/iny faith, viz. Omtiino 

ant em fatum [Vifcum] nullo modo nafcitur, nee nifi per al- 
*uum Avium redditum, maxime Palumbis ac Turdi. Hac e/f 
natura, ut nifi maturatum in ventre Avium, non proveniat. 
Plin. N. H. 1. 16. c. 44. Whether what Tbeopbraftus and 
Pliny affirm, be conducive to the better fertilizing the Seeds 
of Miffeltoe, I know not; but ,that it is not of abfolute Ne- 
ceflity, I can affirm upon mine own Experience, having feen 

416 FhweriandSixdofVegetahks.BiKfcX. 

To this fo fingolar a Care about the Propaga- 
tion and Confcrvation of the Species of Vegeta- 
bles, I might add the nice Provifion that is made 
for their Support and Aid, in (landing and grow- 
ing, that they may keep their Heads above Ground, 
and not be rotted and fpoiled in the Earth them- 
felves, nor thereby annoy us ; but, on the contrary, 


the Seeds germinate, even in the Bark of Oak. Bat altho* 
they (hot above an Inch, and feem'd to root in the Tree, jet 
they came to nothing, whether deftroy'd by Ants, &c. which 
I fnfpe&ed, or whether difagreeing with the Oak, I know not. 
But I fince find the Matter pot out of doubt by Mr. Dooay; 
which fee in Mr. Ray's Hi/I. Plant. Apt. p. 191 8. 

Nutmegs are faid to be fertilized after the fame Manner, at 
Tavermer (kith was confirmed to him by Perfons that lived 
many Years in thofe Parts ; whofe Relation was : The Nut- 
meg being ripe, feveral Birds come from the Iflands toward 
the South, and devour it whole, but are forced to throw it 
up again, before it be digeiled : And that the Nutmeg, then 
beimear'd with a vifcoos Matter, falling to the Ground, takes 
Root, and produces a Tree, which would never thrive, was 
it planted. Tavern, of the Commod. of the G. Mogul. And 
Monfieur Tbevenot, in his Travels to the Indies, gives this 
Account : The Tree is produced after this Manner 5 there is a 
Kind of Birds in the Ifland, that having pick'd off the green 
Hufk, f wallow the Nuts, which having been fome Time in 
their Stomach, they void by the ordinary Way ; and they fail 
not to take rooting in the Place where they fall, and in Time 
grow up to a Tree. This Bird is fhaped like a Cucbow ; and 
the Dutch prohibit their Subje&s, under Pain of Death, to kill 
any of them. Vide Sir ST. Pope-Blunt's Nat. Hift. 

But [Mr. Ray gives a fomewhat different Account : Hun: 
fruQum [Nucem Mofchatam] wart a quidem ames depafcuntur, 
fed maxime Columba genus album Is parvum, qua debifceute 
nucamentOy illecJ<e fuavitate Maris, bunc cum Nuce eripiumt & 
devorant, nee nifi rep/eta inglwvie capacijfima faginam deferunt. 
Nof rates ibi tnercatores Columbis ijlis Nut-eaters five Nuei*voris 
nomen inpofuerunU Quas out em vorant Nuces, pofi integral 
fer alnmm reddunt. Reddita citius deinde germinant utfete 
pramacerata fer*vore Ventriculi. Arbor es inde not* ceu praee- 
ciores, facile funt corruptions obnoxue fruftumque ferunt ceteris 
msslto viliorem, &f hdc causa neglehum incolis contemtumeue, 
prater Mac in, quern ad adulterandum meliorem adbibent. Ray 
Hi&. PI. 1. 27. c. 4. 

4 ( r ) Arbo* 

Bo o k X. Flowers and Seed of Vegetables. 4 1 7 

minifter to all their Ends, and our Ufes ; to afford 
us Houfes, Utenfils, Food (r), Phyfick, Cloathing, 
yea, Diverfion too, by the Beauty of their Looks, 
by the Fragrancy of their Smell, by* creating us 
pleafant Shades againft the fcorching Beams of Sum- 
mer, and flcreening us againft the piercing Winds, 
and Cold of Winter (j). 

And it is very obfervable what admirable Pro- 
vifions are made for this Purpofe of their Support 
and Standing, both in fuch as ftand by their own 
Strength, and fuch as need the Help of others. 
In fuch as ftand by their own Strength, it is by 


(r) Arbor es blandioribus fruge fuccis bomir.em mitiga*vere. Ex 
Us recreant membra Olei liquor \ virefque potus Vini ; tot dent- 
que fafores annul fponte *venientes : & menfa? depugnetur licet 
earum caufa cum feris, &f pafti naufragorum corporibus pifces 
expetantur, etiamnum tamen fecund*, l/iille praterea funt ufus 
earum, fine quibus vita degi non poffit. Arbore fulcamus ma- 
ria t terrafque admovemus, arbore exadificamus te8a. Plin. Nat. 
Hift. 1. iz. c. 1. 

(/) Plant arum Ufus latifpme patet 9 &f in ornni wit* parte 
occur r it. Sine Hit's lauti, fine Wis commod} non *vivitur, at nee 
nnvitur omnino : $£ua?cunque ad <vi8um necejfmria funt f qutecunqut 
ad delicias faciunty } Ucupht'tjftmo fuo penu abundi fubminiftrant. 
S£uanto ex its menfa innocentior* mundior, falubrior quam ex 
Ammalium cade & lamina ? Homo cert} naturd Animal . car- 
ntvorum non eft ; nullis ad pradam & rapt nam armis in- 
firuSum, non dentibus exert is fcf ferrath, non unguibus aduncis* 
Manut ad f rutins colli gendos y dentes ad mandendos comparati. 
Non legimus ei ante Diluvium carnes ad efum conceffas. At non 
vicJum tan turn nobis fuppeditant, fed &f Feftitum, & Medici- 
nam fef Domicilia aliaque ardificia, & Navigia, fcf SstpellecJilem, 
£*f Focum, £sf ObleSamenta Senfuum Animique : Ex bis nari- 
bus odor amenta £sf fuffumigia parantur. Horum fioris inenar- 
rabili colorum &f Schema turn varietate, & elegantia, oculos 
ex hilar ant, fuaviffima odorum quos expirant fragrantia fpiritus re- 
creant. Horum frucJus gala? illecebra? menfa s fecundas inftruunt, 
llf langutntem appetitum excitant. Taceo virorum amaenijjimum 
oculis ami cum t quern per prata pafcua agros, fylvas fpatiantibus 
ebjiciunt, & umbras quas contra aft urn & folis ardores prabent. 
Ray. ib. 1. 1. c. 24. p. 46. 

E c (t\ All 

4 1 8 Flower and Seed of Vegetables. Book X. 

Means of the ftronger and more ligneous Parts, 
(equivalent to the Bones in Animals,) being made 
not inflexible, as Bones ; becaufe they would then 
be apt to break; but of a yielding elaftick Nature, 
toefcape and dodge the Violence of the Winds; 
and by Means alfo of the Branches fpreading hand- 
fomely and commodiouQy about, at an Angle of 
about 45 gr. by which Means they equally fill up, 
and at the fame Time make an ^Equilibration of 
the Top (/> 

And as for fuch Vegetables as are weak, and 
not able to fupport themfelves, 'tis a wonderful 
Faculty they have, fo readily and naturally to make 
Ufe of the Help of their Neighbours, embracing 
and climbing up upon them (»), and ufing them 


(/) All Vegetables of a tall and fpreading Growth, feem to 
have a natural Tendency to a hemifpherical Dilation, bat ge- 
nerally confine their Spreading within an Angle of 90 gr. as 
being the moll becoming and ufeful Difpofuion of its Parts 
and Branches. Now the fhorteft Way to give a moil graceful 
and ufeful filling to that Space of dilating and fpreading out, 
is to proceed in ltrait Lines, and to cifpofe of thofe Lines, in 
a Variety of Parallels, cifr. And to do that in a quadrantal 
Space, &V. there appears but one Way poffible, and that is, 
to form all the Intensions, which the Shoots and Branches 
make, with Angles of 45 gr. only. And I dare appeal to all, 
if it be not in this Maimer, almoit to a Nicety obferved by 
Nature, &e . A vifible Argument that the plaftick Capacities 
of Matter are governed and difpofed by an All- wife and 
Infinite Agent, the native StriclnefTes and Regularities of them, 
plainly fhewing from whofe Hand they come. Account of the 
Origine and Format* of I off. Shells , &c. Print Lond. 1705. 

p. 3^4'- 

(n) In Hederd, "furculi & rami bine inde cfavicufos, quafi 
radicular emittunt, qute parietibus, <vel occurrentibus arbsribus 
*veluti d/gitis firmantur, tjf in ahum fufpenduntur. Hujufm%£ 
radiculi fubrotund/e funt % &* pi/is cooperiitntur ; & quod mi- 
rum eft, glutinojum Jundunt bumorem, feu Terebintbinam, qui 
arcle lapidibus wcluntur & agglutinantur .—-Non minori in* 
duftiid Na/wa utitur in ViU Canadcn/s, cifc. The admirable 
3 and 

Bo ok X. 9ibe Support of Vegetables. 4 1 9 

as Crutches to their feeble Bodies : Some by their 
odd convolving Faculty, by twitting themfelves, like 
a Screw about others ; fome advancing themfelves, 
by catching and holding with their curious Clafpers 
and fendrels, equivalent to the Hands; fome by 
ftriking in their rooty Feet ; and others by the 
Emiffion of a natural Glue, clofely and firmly ad- 
hering to fomething or other that adminifters fuffi* 
cient Support unto them. All which various Me- 
thods being fo nicely accommodated to the Indigen- 
cies of thofe helplefs Vegetables, and not to be met 
with in any befides, is a manifeft Indication of 
their being the Contrivance and Work of the Cre- 
ator, and that his infinite Wifdom and Care conde- 
fcends, . even to the Service, and well-being of the 
meaneft, moft weak, and helplefs infenfitive Parts 
of the Creation. 


and curious Make of whofe Tendrels and their Feet, fee in the 
illuftrious Author, Ma/fig. de Capreolis, &c. p. 48. 

Clafpers are of a Compound Nature, between that of a 
Root and a Trunk. Their Ufa is foraetimes for Support only ; 
as in the Clafpers of Vines, Briony fefr. whofe Branches be- 
ing long, flender, and fragile, would fall by their own Weight, 
and that of their Fruit; but thefe Clafpers taking hold of 
.any thing that is at hand ; which they do by a natural Cir- 
cumvolution which they have ; (thofe of Briony have a re- 
trograde Motion about every third Circle, in the Form of a 
double Clafp ; fo that if they mifs one Way, they may catch 
the other.) Sometimes the Ufe of Clafpers is alfo for a 
Supply, as in the Trunk, Roots of Ivy ; which being a Plant 
that mounts very high, and being of a clofer and more com- 
pact Subftance than that of Vines, the Sap would not be fuffi- 
ciently fupplied to the upper Sprouts, unlefs thefe aflifted the 
•Mother Root; but thefe ferve alfo for Support too. Some- 
times alfo they ferve for Stabiliment, Propagation, and Shade ; 
for die firft of thefe ferve the Clafpers of Cucumbers ; for the 
fecond, thofe, or rather the Trunk-Roots of Cbmmomil ; and 
for all three the Trunk.Roots of Strawberries. Harris lex. 
T*c&. in litrb* Clafpers* 

£e 2 

(w) Ve^e 

420 Vegetables peculiarly VfefuL Book X. 

In the laft Place, to the Ufes already hinted 
at, I might add a large Catalogue of fuch among 
Vegetables, as are of peculiar Ufe and Service to 
the World, and feem to be defign'd as 'twere on 
Purpofe, by the mod merciful Creator, for the 
Good of Man, or other Creatures (w). Among 
Grain y I might name the great Fertility (x) of 
fuch as ferves for Bread, the eafy Culture and Pro- 
pagation thereof, and the Agreement of every Soil 
and Climate to it. Among Trees, and Plants, I 
might inftance in fome that feem to be defign'd, 
as 'twere, on Purpofe, for almoft every Ufe (y) % 


(w) Vegetables afford not only Food to Irrationals, but 
•Ifo PhyficK, if it be true which Arifl$tle faith, and after him 
Pliny ; which latter, in his 8th Book, Chap. 27. fpecifies divers 
Plants made ufe of as Specificks, by divers, both Beafts and 
Biids : As Dittany by wounded Detr; Celandine by S*wall*ws, 
to cure the fore Eyes of their Young, &c. And if the 
Reader hath a Mind to fee more Inftances of this Nature, 
(many of them fanciful enough,) he may confult Mcrfenne 
in Gene/, p. 9 33 . "££' 

(x) See before, Book IV. Chap u. Note (b). ' *- '., 

\y) Plant a btec unica [Aloe Americana] inquit Fr. Hernan- 
dez, quicquid *vit# ejfe pot eft nee e{far turn pr a flare facile *foteft $ Ji 
effet rebus bumanis modus. Tot a enim ilia lignorwn 'Jepiendo- 
rumque agrorum ufum prafiat, catties tignorum, folia n.ero 
ted a tegendi imbricum, lancium : eorundem nemmli* & fibres 
eundem babent ufum ad linteamina % calceos, £ff veftimenta con- 
ficienda quern apud nos Linum, Cannabis, Grffipium, ciJV. E 
mucronibus fiunt cla<vi % aculei, fibular, quibus perjorandis au- 
ribus* macerandi corporis gratia* Indis uti mos erat cum Da- 
monum *vacartnt cultui \ item aciculee t acus, tribuli mil i tar a 
Cif raftilla idonea piclendis fublegminibus. Prater ea e fucce 
mananti, enjus cuulfis germinibus internis foliifve tenerioribus 
cult is [Yztlinifc] in mediant cavitatem, Jlillat plant a % unica ad 
50 inter dum amp boras (qu*d diQu eft mi r a bile) Vina Mel t A- 
cetum ac Saccbarum par ant ur [The Methods of which he 
tells.] Idem fuccus menfes ciet, alimm lenity TJrinam evocat, 
Penes & Veftcam emundat. E quoque Reftes fiunt fir- 1 
miffim*. CraJJiores foliorum partes* truncufque,' decoila Jub f; 


terra, edtndo funt apt a, fapiuntque Citrea frufla faccharo 
condita: quin & mulneta recent ia mire con glut inant.— Folia 
3 quoque 



Book X. Vegetables peculiarly Ufeful. 421 

and Convenience; fome to heal the moft ftubborn 
and dangerous Diftempers (2), to alleviate and eafe 
the Pains (aa) of our poor infirm Bodies, all the 
World over : And fome defigned for the peculiar 
Service and Good of particular Places, either to 
cure fuch Diftempers as are peculiar to them, by 


quoque ajja & affefto loco impofita commlfionem eurant, ac dok- 
rts leniunt (pneciput fi fuccus ipft calens bibatur) quamvis ab 
lndicd proficifcantur lue, fenfum bebetant, atque torforem inducunt. 
Radicis fuccus Luem V there am curat apud Indos, ut Dr. Palmer. 
Ray. ibid. 1. at. c. 7. Sec alfo Dr. Shane's Voyage to Ja~ 
ma tea, p. 247. 

There are alfo two Sorts of Aloe befides, mentioned by the 
fame Dr. Shane, one of which is made ufe of for Fifliing- 
Lines, Bow-firings, Stockings, and Hammocks. Another hath 
Leaves that hold Rain- water, to which Travellers, &c. re- 
fort to quench their Thirft, in Scarcity of Wells, or Waters, 
in thofe dry Countries. Ibid p. 249. 

(«) For Inftance here, I (hall name the Cortex Perwvianus, 
which Dr. Morton calls Antidotes in levamen arumnarum wit* 
human* plurimarum di<uinitus conceffa. De Febr. Exer. V. C. 3. 
In Sanitatem Gentium proculdubio a Deo O. M. conditus. Cujut 
gratia, Arbor *vit<e t fiqua alia, jure merit appellari poteft. Id. 
lb. c. 7. Rbm! quot convitiis Hercu/ea cif divina bac Amtidotui 
jafiabatur? Jb.d. 

. To this (if we may believe the Ephemer. German. Ann.iz. 
Obfer. 74. and fome other Author*) we may add Trifolium 
Paludo/um, which is become the Panacea of the German and 
Northern Nations. 

(aa) Pro doloribus quibufcunque fedand'is praftantifpmi femper 
ttfus Opium babetur ; quamobrtm merit Nepenthe appellari folet, 
& remeiium <vere divinum exiftit. Et quidem fatis mirari *vix 
pojjumus, quomodo urgent e vifeeris aut membri cujufpiam tortura 
i*fig»ii & intolerabili cruciatu, pkarmacum boc, incautamenti 
inflar, Icvamen & d**\ywat fubitam, imnio inter dum abfoui 
fomno, aut fait em prius quam advtnerit, concedit. Porro adbuc 
magis ftupendum eft, quod donee particular Opitiaat operari, & 
potentiam fuam narcoticam exerere continuant, hnmo etiam 
aliquamdiu po ft quam fomnus finitur, fumma alle*uatie> & indo*> 
lentia in parte affe8d perfifti. Wills, Phar. Rat. Par. I. S. 7. 
Cap. 1. fe&. 15. 

E t 3 <*t\ Taiiv 

422 Vegetables peculiarly ufefuh BodK X. 

growing more plentifully there than elfewhere (bb) ; 
or elfe to obviate fome Inconvenience there, or to 
fupply fome conftant Neceflity, or Occaifion, not 
poffible, or at leaft not eafy, to be fupplied any 
other Way (cc). It is, for Inftance, an admira- 
ble Proyifion made for fome Countries fubjeft to 


(bb) Tales Plantarum faciei in quacunque regione a Dee ere* 
tantur quale* bominibus (ff animalibus ibidem tiatis maxime cm- 
nseniunt ; into ex plant arum nafcentium frequent id fe fere animad- 
vert ere pojfe qui bus morbis [endemiif] qualibet regie fahjeSd fit, 
fcribit Selenander. Sic apod Danos, Frifios, Holla*dos % qui bus t 
Scorbutus frtquens y Cockle aria copiose prove nit. Ray. Hifh PL 
lib. 1 6. c. 3. 

To this may be added, Elfner*s Obfervations concerning 
the Virtues of divers Things in his Obfervations -de Vincetexice 
Scropbularum remedio. F. Germ. T. 1. Obf. 57. 

John Betsorvvinus, a Phyfician of Dort, may be here con- 
ful red, who wrote a Book on Purpofe to (hew, that every 
Country hath every Thing ferving to its Occafions, and parti- 
cularly Remedies afforded to all the Diftempers it is fubjeft 
unto. See Benor. 'Avtcc£Zh<z. Batav.five lntrod. ad Medic, in- 

(cc) The Defcription Dr % Shane gives of the Wild Pine is, 
That its Leaves are chanelled, fit to catch and convey Water 
down into their Refervatories : that thefe Refervatories are fo 
made as to hold much Water, and clofe at Top when full, 
to hinder its Evaporation ; that thefe Plants grow on the Arms 
of the Trees in the Woods every where [in thofe Parts] as 
alfo on the Barks of their Trunks. And one Contrivance of 
Nature in this Vegetable, (he faith,) is very admirable. The 
Seed hath long and many Threads of Tomentum, not only that 

it may be carried every where by the Wind but alfo, 

that it may by thofe Threads, when driven through the 
Boughs, be held faft, and flick to the Arms, and extant Parts 
of the Barks of Trees. So foon as it Sprouts or Germinates, 

altho' it be on the under Part of a Bough its Leaves 

and Stalk rife perpendicular, or ftrait up, becaufe if it had 
any other Pofition, the Ciftern (before-mentioned, by which it 

is chiefly nourifhed - — -) made of the hollow Leaves, could 

not hold Water, which is neceffary for the Noorifhment and 

Life of the Plant. In Scarcity of Water, this Refervatory 

is neceffary and fufficient, not only for the Plant itfelf, but 
likewife is very ufeful to Men, Birds, ami all Sorts of Infers, 


Book X. Vegetables peculiarly ufeful. 423 

Drought, that when the Waters every where 
fail, there are Vegetables which contain not only 
Moifture enough to fupply their own Vegetation 
and Wants, but afford Drink alfo both to Man and 
other Creatures, in their great Extremities (dd) 9 

whither they com* in Troops, and fcldom go away without 
Refrefhraent. p. i88 and Phil. Tranf. N° 251. where 
a Figure is of this notable Plant, as alfo in Lvwtborp's Abridg. 
Vol. 2. p. £6 9 . 

- The Wild Pine, fo called, bfc. hath Leaves that will hold 
a Pint and a half, or Quart of Rain Water ; and this Water 
refremes the Leaves, and nourifbes the Root. When we 
find thefe Pines, we flick our Knives into, the Leaves, ju ft 
above the Root, and that lets out the Water, which we catch 
in our Hats, as I have done many Times to my great Relief. 
Dumpier s Voy. to Campeachy % Cb. 2. p. 56. 

[dd) Navarette tells us of a Tree called the Bejuco, which 
twines about other Trees, with its End hanging downwards ; 
and that Travellers cut the Nib off it, and prdently a Spout 
of Water runs out from it, as clear as Cryftal, enough, and 
to fpare, for fix or eight Men. I drank (faith he,) to my Sa- 
tisfaction of it, found it cool and fweet, and would drink it 
as often as I found it in my Way. It is a Juice and natural 
Water. It is the common Relief ef the Hcrdfmen on the 
Mountains ; when they are thirfty, they lay hold on the Be- 
juco t and drink their Fill. Colled, of Voy. undTrav. Vol. 1. in 
tbeSvppl. to Navar«tte'» Account of China, p. 355. 

The Waterwith of Jamaica hah the fame Uies, concerning 
which, my be fore commended Friend, Dr. Sloane; favoured 
me with this Account from his Original Papers. Thh Vim 
growing on dry Hills, in the Woods* ivbere no Water is to be met 
with, its Trunk , if cut into Pieces tivo or three Yards long, and 
held by either End to the Mouth, affords fo plentifully a limpid, 
innocent, and refrejbing Water* or Sap, as gvves nerw Life to the 
droughty Traveller* or Hunter. Whence this is 'very much celt* 
brated by all the Inhabitants of thefe Jflands, as an immediate Gift 
of Providence to their diflreffed Condition. 

To this we may add what Mr. Ray takes Notice of con- 
cerning the Birch Tree. In iniiiis Ve> is antequam folia prodiere f 
<vulnerata dulcem fuccum copiose effundit* quern fiti preffi Paftores 
in Jylvis fepenumerb pot are folent. Nos etiam non femel eo li* 
quore recreati fumus, citm berbarum gratia vaflas peragranti- 
puts fyl'vas, inquit Tragus. Raii Cat. Plant, circa Cantab. 
in Beiula. 

Ee4 and 

424 Of Vegetables. Book XT. 

and a great deal more might be inftanced in of a 
like Nature, and Things that bear fuch plain Im- 
prefles of the Divine Wifdom and Care, that they 
manifeft the Super-intendence of the Infinite Cre- 

Thus I have given a Sketch of another Branch 
of the Creation, which (altho* one of the meaneft, 
yet) if it was accurately viewed, would abundantly 
manifeft itfelf to be the Work of God. But be- 
caufe I have been fo long upon the other Parts, al- 
tho* left than they deferve, I muft therefore con- 
tent my (elf withthofe general Hints I have given; 
which may however ferve as Specimens of what 
might have befcn more largely laid about this infe- 
rior Part of the animated Creation. 

As to the Inanimate Party fuch as Stones, Mine- 
rals, Earth, and fuch-like, that which I have alrea- 
dy laid in the Beginning (hall fuffice. 


[ 425 1 


PraSiical Inferences from the fore- 
going Survey. 

AVING in the preceding Books car- 
ried my Survey as far as I care at pre- 
fent to engage my {elf, all' that remain- 
eth, is to draw fome Inferences from the 
foregoing Scene of. the Great Creator's 

Works, and fo conclude this Part, of my intended 


C H A P. I. 

That God's Works are Great and Excellent. 

TH E firft Inference I fhall make, fliall be by way 
of Confirmation of the Text, That the Works 
of the hard are great (a). And this is neceffary to 
be observed, not againft the Atheift only, but all 
other carelefs, incurious Obfervers of God's Works. 


(a) Efuidem ne laudare quidtm /aits fro merit o foffnm ejus Sa- 
fitntiam ac Potentiam* qui animalia fabricatus eji. Nam ejuf- 
modi opera non Laudibus modb, <verum ttiam Hymnis funt major a, 
fute friufquam infpexijfemus, fitri non fojjfe perfuafum babeamus % 
toufficati vert, fal/os not of intone fuijji comperimus. Galen, de 
UfuPart. 1.7. c. ic. 

V5>\ ^** 

426 Gats IVerks are Great. Book XI. 

many of our ufcful Labours, and fome of our bcft 
modern Books lhall be condemned with only this 
Note of Reproach, That they art abort trivial Mat- 
ters (£), wben in Truth they are ingenious and no- 
ble Discoveries of the Works of Go d. And how 
often will many own the World in General to be a 
Manifestation of the Infinite Creator, but look up- 
on the feveral Parts thereof as only Toys and Tri- 
fle*, fcarce deferving their Regard ? But in the fore- 
going (I may call it) tranfient View I have given of 
this lower, and -moft flighted Part of the Creation, I 
have, I hope, abundantly made out, that all the 
Works of tfhcLofcD, from the moft regarded, ad- 
mired, and praifed* to the roraneft and moft flighted* 
ai<€ great and glorious Works, incomparably con- 
trived, and *s admirably made, fitted up, and placed 
iff the Worldi ; Set far then are any of the Works of 
the L o r d; (even thofe efteemed the meane ftj from 
defer ving to be difregarded, or contemned by us(r)* 
that on the contrary they deferve (as (hall be (hewn 
iltUhe next Chapter) to be fought out, enquired after, 
and curioufly y and diligently fried into by us •, as I have 
(hewed the Word in the Text implies. 

(b) No* tamin pigere debet Le8ores y ea inte ffigere, quemadmo- 
d*m nt Sat arum jmdem figuir ea reipsd ejficere. Galen, ibid. 
Ii ii. tin. 

(.■) »4n igitur 9ti*mji qttrmadmcdum Na'mra h*c, fcf ejufmtdi, 
fh «■■«?./ rati in* etc provident i J <*g*re p~J*it t ita & net iatitari 
4 ffUmaJo p-jfiatiu P Egj trrj exijHno tr.ulth mfirum ne id qui' 
A* f*f** *q** trim etrttm Nehtr* exfynutrt: Eo enim modo 
mWw raw *imir4rixtur % Jin mit^J, earn /ahem n$* tri/mperareMt. 
t»ulci. ibid. 1. io. c. $. 


[ 4*7 3 

C H A P. II. 

'That God's Works ought to be enquired info, and 
that fuch Enquiries are commendable. 

TH E Creator doubtlefs did not beftow fo much 
Curiofity,and exquifite Workfrianfhipand Skill 
upon his Creatures, to be looked upon with a care- 
left, incurious Eye, efpecialiy to have thefti flighted 
or contemned \ but to be admired by the rational 
Part of the World, to magnify his own Power, Wif- 
dom and Goodnefs, throughout all the World, and 
the Ages thereof. Arid therefore we rtiay look upoA 
it as a great Error, not to anfwer thofe Ends of the 
infinite Creator, but rather to oppofe and affront 
them. On the contrary, my Text comtatnds God's 
Works, not only for being Great, but alfo approves 
of thofe curious and ingenious Enquiries, that 7^* 
them out, or pry into them. And the more we pry in- 
to, and difcover of them, the greater and more glo- 
rious we find them to be, the more wotthy of, and 
the more etfprefly to proclaim their great Creator. 

Commendable then are the Refearches, which 
many amongft us have, of late Years, made into 
the Works of Nature, more than hath been done in 
fome Ages before. And therefore when we are 
asked, Cut Bono ? To what Purpofe fuch Enquiries, 
fuch Pains, fuch Expence ? The Anfwer is eafy, It 
is to anfwer the Ends for which God beftowed fo 
much Art,, Wifdcaii and Power about them, a9 well 
as given us Senfesro view and furvey them ; and ap 
Underftanding and Curiofity to fearch into them : 
It is to follow and trace him, when and whither he 


428 God's Works are manifeft. Book XI. 

leads us, that wc may fee and admire his Handy- 
work ourfelves, and let it forth to others, that they 
may fee, admire, and praifeit alfo. 1 (hall then con- 
clude this Inference with what Elibu recommends, 
Job xxxvi. 24, 25. Remember that thou magnify bis 
Worki which Men behold. Every Man may fee it \ Men 
&ay behold it afar off. 


That God's Works are manifeft to all: Whence 
the Unreafonablenefs of Infidelity. 

TH E concluding Words of the preceding Chap- 
ter fuggefts a third Inference, that the Works 
of God are fo vifible to all the World, and 
withal fuch manifeft Indications of the Being and 
Attributes of the Infinite Creator, that they plainly 
argue the Vilenefs and Perverfenefs of the Atheift, 
and leave him inexcu fable. For it is a Sign a Man 
is a wilful, perverfe Atheift; that will impute fo 
glorious a Work, as the Creation is, to fcny Thing, 
yea, a mere Nothings (as Chance is) rather than to 
God (a). It is a Sign the Man is wilfully blind, 


{a) Galen having taken Notice of the neat Diftribution of 
the Nerves to the MufcleS, and other Parts of the Face, cries 
out, Hare enim fortunes funt opera ! Cater urn turn omnibus [parti- 
bus] immittj, tantofque ejfe fingulos [nervos] magnitudine, quanta 
pariicula erat weejfe ; baud /do an bominum Jit fob riorum ad For* 
tunam opificem id revocare. ^Itoqui quid tandem erit, quod cum 
Procidentia £ff Arte efficitur ? Omnino enim hoc ei contrarium ejfe 
debet, quod Cafu ac Fortuito fit. And afterwards, Hac quidem 
at que ejufmodi Artis fciL ac Sapientia opera ejfe dicemus, fi mode 


Chap. III. God's Worh are manifefi. 429 

that he is under the Power of the Devil, under the 
Government of Prejudice, Luft, and Paflion, not 
right Reafon, that will not difcern what every one 
can fee , what every Man may behold afar off ^ even the 
Exiftenceand Attributes of the Creator from his 
Works. For as there is no Speech or Language where 
their Voice is not beard, their Line is gone out through all 
the Eartb y and their Words to the End of the World : 
So all, even the barbarous Nations, that never 
heard of G o d, have from thefe his Works inferred 
the Exiftence of a Deity, and paid their Homages 
to fome Deity, altho' they have been under great 
Miftakes in their Notions and Conclufions about 
Him. But however, this (hews how naturally and 
univerfally all Mankind agree, in deducing their Be- 
lief of a God from the Contemplation of his Works, 
or as even Epicurus himfelf, in Tully (b) faith, from 
a Notion that Nature itfelf bath imprinted upon the 
Minds of Men. For, faith he, what Nation is there f 
cf what kind of Men, that without any leaching or 
Infltuftions, have not a kind of Anticipation , or pre- 
conceived Notion of a Deity? 

An Atheift therefore (if ever there was any fuch) 
may juftly be efteemed a Monfter among rational 
Beings*, a Thing hard to be met with in the 


Fortuna tribuenda funt qu<r funt contraria ; fie t que jam quod 
in f rover bits ■ Flwvii furfum fluent ; Ji opera qua nullum , 

babent neque ornamentum neque rationem, neque modum Artis 
ejfe ; contraria *vero Fortune duxerimus, (sfc. Galen, ubi fupra, 
1. 11. c. 7. 

(b) Prim um ejfe Deos, quod in omnium animis % £jfr. And a 
little after, Cilm en'im non inftituto aliquo, aut more, aut lege Jit 
opinio eonftituta % maneatque ad unum omnium firma confenfio, in- 
telligi neeejjk eft, effe Deos, quoniam infitas eorum, <vel pot i us inna- 
tas eognitiones, habemus. De quo autem omnium Natura confeniit, 
id verum effe necejfe eft. Ejfe igitur Deos confitendum eft. Cicer. 
deNat. Dcor. 1. i. c. 16, 17. 

{c) The 

43 o God's Works are manifejt. Boo k XI. 

whole Tribe of Mankind ; an Oppofer of all the 
World (c) ; a Rebel againft human Nature and 
Reafon, as well as againft his God. 

But above all, monftrous is this, or would be, in 
fuch as have heard of Go*>, who have had the Be- 
nefit of the clear Gofpel- Revelation. And ftill more 
monftrous this would be, in one Born and Baptized 
in the Chriftian Church, that hath ftudied Nature, 
and pried farther than others into God's Works. 
For fuch an one (if it be poffible for fuch to be) to 
<teny the Existence, or any of the Attributes of 
God, would be a great Argument of the infinite 
Inconvenience of thofe Skis of Intemperance, Luft, 
and Riot, that have made the Man abandon his 
Reafon, his Senfes, yea, J had almoft faid his very 
human Nature (d), to engage him thus to deny 
the Being of G o d. 

So alfo it is much the fame monftrous Infidelity, 
at leaft betrays the fame Atheiftical Mind, to deny 
God's Providence, Care, and Government of the 
World, or (which is a Spawn of the fame Epicurean 
Principles) to deny Final Caufes (e) in God's Works 
of Creation ; or with the Profane, in Pfal. lxxiii. 1 1. 
to fay, How doth God know ? And is there Knowledge 


{c) The Atheift in denying a God, doth, a? Plutarch faith, 

endeavour Immobilia movere, & be Hum inferrt no* tan- 

tum longo temper?, fed & mult is bominibur, gentibus, & fatniliis, 
$uas reiigicfus Dear urn cult us, quafi divino furore correftas, teuuit. 
PJutar. de Ifide. 

(//) Sec before, Note (b). 

(e) Galen having fubftantially refuted the Epicurean Prin- 
ciples of Jjfde' r iades, by (hewing his Ignorance in Anatomy 
snd Phiiofophy, and by demonitrating all the Caufes to be 
evidently in the Works of Nature, viz. Final, Efficient, Infiru- 
mental. Material, and Formal Caufes, concludes thus againft 
his fortuitous Atoms, Ex quibus intclligi potefi : Cenditorem no- 
flrum in formandis particulis unum hunc fequi fcopum, nempe ut 
quod melius eft eligat. Galen, de Ufa Part. 1. 6. C. 1 3. 


Ch ap .IV '. Fear and Obedience Gods Due. 431 

in the moft High? For, as the witty and eloquent 
Salvian faith (/), Tbey that affirm nothing is feen by 
GOD, will, in all Probability, take away the Sub<- 

fiance, as well as Sight of God, But what fo great 

Madnefs, faith he, as that when a Man doth not deny 
GOD to be the Creator of all Things, beftxmU deny him 
to be the Governor of them ? Or when he confejfeth him 
to he the Maker, be fihouldfay, GOD neghSetb what 
he hath jo made? 

I. . ■ m i " I ■ ■ W il l i ■ I ■ I I » 

(f) De Gubcm. Dei, 1. 4. p. x 24. meo Libre ; alfo /. 7. c. 14. 


tfbat God's Works ought to excite us to Fear and 
Obedience to God. 

Since the Works of the Creation are all of them 
fo many Demonftrations of the infinite Wifdom 
and Power of God, they may ferve to us as fo many 
Arguments exciting us to the conftant Fear of God % 
and to a fteady, hearty Obedience to all his Laws. 
And thus we may make thefe Works as ferviceable 
to our fpiritual Intereft, as they all are to our Life, 
and temporal Intereft. For if whenever we fee them, 
we would confider that thefe are the Works of our 
infinite Lord and Majier, to whom we are to be ac- 
countable for all our Thoughts, Words, and Works, 
and that in thefe we may fee his infinite Power and 
Wifdom •, this would check us in Sinning, and ex- 
cite us to ferve and pleafe him who is above all Con- 
troul, and who hath our Life and whole Happinefs 
in his Power. After this Manner God himfelf ar- 
gues with his own foolifh People, and without Undtr- 
Jtanding, who had Eyes, and faw not, and bad Ears, and 


432 Tlanifulnefs is God's Due. Book XI. 
heard not ', Jer. v. 21, 22. Fear ye not me ? faith the 
Lord : will ye not tremble at my Pre fence, which have 
placed the Sand for the Bound of the Sea, by a perpetual 
Decree* that it cannot pafs it ; and though the Waves 
thereof tofs themf elves, yet can they not prevail * though 
they roar, yet can they not pafs over it ? 

This was an Argument that the mod ignorant, 
ftupid Wretches could not but apprehend ; that a 
Being that had fo vaft and unruly an Element, as the 
Sea, abfolutely at his Command, ought to be feared 
and obeyed, and that he ought to be confidercd as 
the Sovereign Lord of the World, on whom the 
World's Profperity and Happinefs did wholly de- 
pend 5 ver. 24. Neither fay they in their Heart, let us 
now fear the Lord our Gcd, that givetb Rain, both the 
former and the latter in his Seafon: He referveth unto 
us the appointed Weeks of the Harveji. 


That God's Works ought to excite us to 

AS the Demonftrations which God hath given 
of his infinite Power and Wifdom fhould excite 
us to Fear and Obedience ; fo I (hall (hew in this 
Chapter, that the Demonftrations which he hath 
gjven of his infinite Goodnefs in his Works, may ex- 
cite us to due Thankfulnefs and Praife. It appears 
throughout the foregoing Survey, what Kindnefs 
God hath fhewn to his Creatures in providing every 
Thing conducing to their Life, Profperity, and Hap- 
pinefs {a) ; how they are all contrived and made in 


[a) Si pauca qua t'tbi donajfet jugera % accefije te diceret 
bencfcium : immthfa t err arum latt fatentium, fpatia niga* 


Chap. V. Tbankfulnefs is God's Due. 433 

the bed Manner, placed in the fitteft Places of the 
World for their Habitation and Comfort ; accouter'd 
in the beft Manner, and accommodated with every, 
even all the minuteft Things that may minifter to 
their Health, Happinefs, Office, Occafions, and Bu- 
finefs in the World. 

Upon which Account, Thankfulnefs and Praife is 
fo reafonable, fo juft a Debt to the Creator, that the 
Pfalmift calleth upon all the Creatures to praife God, 
in Pfahn cxlviii. Praife him all bis Angels, Praife him 
alibis Hofts\ Sun, Moon,, Stars of Light, Heavens of 
Heavens, and Heaters above the Heavens. TheReafon 
given for which is, ver. 5, 6. For be commanded, and 
they were created', be hath alfo eftablifhed them for ever 
and ever ; be bath made a Decree which they /hall not 
pafs. And not thefe Celeftials alone, but the Crea- 
tures of the Earth and Waters too, even the Me- 
teors, Fire and Hail, Snow and Vapour s, fiormy Winds 
fulfilling bis Word. Yea, the very Mountains and Hills % 
Trees, Beafts, and all Cattle, creeping things, and flying 
Fowl. But in a particular Manner, all the Ranks 
and Orders, all the Ages and Sexes of Mankind are 
charged with this Duty ; Let them praife the Name of 
the Lord, for bis Name alone is excellent ; bis Gkry is 
above the Earth and Heavens, ver. 13. 


iff* btntficium f Si fecuniam tibi aliquis donaverit \—beneficium 
vocabis: tot metalla defbdit, tot fiumina emifit in ata t fuper qu* 
decurrunt fola aurum ntehentia : argenti, aris 9 ferri immane psndut 
omnibus loch obrutum % cujus inwftigandi tibi facultatem dedit, — — 
negas tt accepiffe beneficium ? St domus tibi donetur, iff qua mar* 
maris alt quid refphndeat, &c. Num mediocre munus vocabis ? 
lugens tibi domicilium, fine ullo incendii 9 aut ruin* metu ftruxit 9 
in quo vides non tenues cruftae-——ftd integras lapidis pretiofijfimi 
modes, &c. negas te ullum munus accepiffe ? Et cum ifta qu<t 
babes magno aftimes> quod eft ingrati hominh* nulli debere te ju- 
die as ? Unde tibi iftum quern trabis fpiritum f Unde ifiam, per 
quam duftus vita tu<e dijponis at que ordinas, lucem t &c. Sepec. 
tie Bentf, 1, 4. c 6. 

Ff (*) Tern. 

4 3 + Homage and Worjhip God's Due. Book XL 
And great Reafon there is we fhould be excited 
to true and unfeigned Thankfulnefs and PtaUe (b) 
to this our great Benefa&or, if we refleft upon what 
hath been (hewn in the preceding Survey, that the 
Creator hath done for Man alone, without any Re- 
gard to the reft of the Creatures, which fomc have 
held were made for the Sake of Man. Let us but 
refledt upon the Excellence and Immortality of our 
Soul ; the incomparable Contrivance, and curious 
Structure of our Body -, and the Care and Caution 
taken for the Security and Happinefs of our State! 
and we fhall find, that among the whole Race of 
Beings, Man hath efpecial Reafon to magnify the 
Creator's Goodnefs, and with fuitable ardent Affec- 
tions to be thankful unto him. 

(b) Tempeftkmm tibi jam /merit, qui in hifce librit verfaris eon- 
ftdtrare, in mtram Familiam rtcipi matis, PUtonicainne ac Hip- 
pocraticam, & aliorum virorum, qui Natura opera miranturi 
an eorum qui ea infeRantur, quod non per Pedes naiura conftihdt 
effluere Excrement a. Of which having told a Story of an Ac- 
quaintance of his, that blamed Nature on this Account, he 
then goes on, At *vero ft de bujufmodi pecudibus phura verba fecere, 
meliorii mentis homines merito mibi forte fuccen/eant, dicantque me 
folluere facrum fermonem, quern ego COND1TORJS noftri w- 
rum Hymnum compono, exiftimoque in eo nteram ejfe pietatem,—— 
. nt fi newer im ipfe primus, deinde & aliis expofuerim, quanamfit 
ipfius Sapientia, qua Virtus, qua Bonitas. Quod enim cultu con- 
venient e exornaverit omnia, nutlique bona iwoiderit, id perficli/ftma 
. Bo nit at is Jpecimen effe ftatuo ; & hac quidem ratione ejus Bonitas 
Hymnit nobis eft celebranda. Hoc autem omne inveniffe quo paQ* 
omnia pot i (ft mum adornarentur, fumma Sapientia eft : effeeiffe in- 
tern omnia, qua voluit, Virtutis eft imiiQa. Galen, de Ufa flirt, 
]. 3. C. 10. 


CHAP, 'c 




Ifbat we ought to pay God all due Homage* and 
tVorJhip^ particularly that of the Lord's Day. 

T">ORa Conclufion of th^fe Le&ures, the laft 
1/ Thing I (hall infer, from the foregoing Demon* 
ftrationof the Being and Attributes of God, fhall 
be, that we ought to pay God all that Homage and 
tForJbip which his Right of Creation and Dominion 
entitle him unto, and his great Mercies call for from 
us. And forafmuch as the Creator appointed, from 
the very Creation, one Day in feven to his Service, 
it will not therefore be improper to fay fomething 
upon that Subjcdt : And if I infift fomewhat parti- 
cularly and largely thereon, the Congruity thereof 
to the Defign of thefe Le&ures, and the foregoing 
Demonftration, together with the too great Inadver- 
tency about, and Negleft of this antient, univerfal, 
and moft reafonable and neceflary Duty, will, I 
hope, plead my Excufe. But that I may fay no 
more than is neceflary on this Point, I fhall confine 
myfelf to two Things-, the Time God hath taken, 
and the Bufinefs then to be performed. 

I. The Time is one Day in feven, and one of the 
antienteft: Appointments it is, which God gave to 
the World. For as foon as God had finifhed 
his fix Days Works of Creation, it is laid, Gen. ii. 
T 2, 3. He reftedon the feventb Day from all his Work 
which be had made. And GOD bleffed the feventb 
Day, and fanffified it, becaufe that in it be bad refted 
from all his Work. This San&ification (*), and 

(a) tg^p Ufibus divinis accommodauit \ a communi &f frofano 
ufufegregavit, in ufum facrum ad cultum Dei dejiinaint. Kirch. 
Concord, p. 1336. Dtflinari ad aliquid, Sacrari, 6fc. Buxtorf. 
in Vcrbo. +> 

F f 2 bV^V 

436 Antiquity of the Sabbath. Book XI. 

blefling the Seventh Day, was fetring it apart, as a 
Day ot Diftindtion from the reft of the Week- 
Days, and appropriating it to Holy Ufes and Pur- 
poses, namely, the Commemoration of that Great 
•Work of the Creation, and paying Homage and 
Worfhip to that Infinite Being* who was the Ef- 
f eftor of it. 

This Day, thus confecrated from the Beginning, 
for the Celebration of the t3 xcV/a* j^vanov, the 
Worlds Birth-Day, as ' Pbilo calls it, was probably 
in fome Meafure forgotten in the following wicked 
Ages, which God complains of, Gen. vi. 5. and fo 
after the Flood likewife. But after the Return out 
of Egypt, when God fettled the Jewijh Polity, he 
was pleafed to renew this Day, and to eftablifli it 
for a perpetual Handing Law. And accordingly it 
was obferved down to our Bleffed Saviour's 
Time, countenanced, and ftriftly obferved, by our 
Great Lord and Mailer himlelf, and his Apo- 
ftles and Difciples, in and after his Time; and 
altho' for good Reafons the Day was changed 
by them, yet a feventh Day hath been conftantly 
obferved in all Ages of Chriftianity, down to our 
prefent Time. 

Thus we have a Day appointed by G o d himfelf, 
and obferved throughout all Ages, except fome few 
perhaps, which defer ve not to be brought into 

And a wife Defignation of Time this is, well 
becoming the Divine Care and Precaution ; ferving 
for the recruiting our Bodies, and difpatching our 
Affairs, and at the fame Time to keep up a Spiri- 
tual Temper of Mind. For by allowing fix Days 
to Labour, the Poor hath Time to earn his Bread, 
the Man of Bufinefs Time to difpatch his Affairs, 
and every Man Time for the Work of his refpec- 
tive Calling. But had there been more, or all our 
Time allotted to Labour and Bufinefs, and none to 


Ch. VI. Afeventh Bay a wife Appointment. 437 

reft and recrujt, our Bodies and Spirits would have 
been too much fatigued and wafted, and our Minds 
have been too long engaged about worldly Matters* 
fo as to have forgotten Divine Things. But the in-, 
finitely wife Ruler of the World, having taken the 
fcventh Part of our Time to his own Service hath 

{>revented thefe Jnconveniencies ; hath given a Re- 
axation to ourfelves; and Eafe and Refreftunent 
to our wearied Beads, to poor fatigued Slaves, and 
foch as are under the Bondages of avaritious, cruel 
Matters. And this is one Reafon Mofes gives of the 
Refervation and Reft on the Seventh Day, Deut. v. 
13, 14, 15. Six Days Jbalt tkcu labour, and do all thy 
Work •, but the Seventh is the Sabbath of the LORD 
thy GOD ; in it thou Jbalt not do any Work, thou, nor 
thy Children, Servants, Cattel, or Stranger, that 
shy Man-Servant, and Maid-Servant may refl as well 
as thou. And remember, that thou waft a Servant, &c. 
therefore the LORD thy GOD commanded thee to- 
hep the Salbath-Day. That carnal,, greedy People, 
fo bent upon Gain, without fuch a Precept, would 
have fcarce favoured their own Bodies, much lefs 
have had Mercy upon their poor Bondfmen and 
Beafts •, but by this wife Provifion, this great Burden 
was taken off. But on the other hand, as a longer 
Liberty would too much have robbed the Matter's 
Time, and bred Idlenefs, fo by this wife Provifion, 
of only one Day of Reft, to fix of Labour, that In- 
• convenience was alfo prevented. 

Thus the wife Governour of the World, hath ta- 
ken Care for the Difpatch of Bufinefs. But then as 
too long Engagement about worldly Matters, would 
take off Mens Minds from God and Divine Mat- 
ters, fo by this Refervation of every Seventh Day> 
that great Inconvenience is prevented alfo •, all bc- 
ipg then bound to Worfhip their Great Lord and 
Mafter, to pay their Homages and Acknowledg- 
ments to their infinitely kind Benef adbor 5 and, in- a 
Ft 3 Word^ 

4.38 Lor is Day muji be remember' d. BookXI. 

Wordy to exereife themfelves* in divine, religious 
Bufinefs, and fo keep up that fpiritual Temper of 
Mind, that a perpetual, or too long Application to 
the World would deflroy. 

This, as it was a good Reafon for the Order of 
a Sabbath to the Jews ; fo is as good a Reafon for 
our Saviour's Continuance of the like Time in the 
Chriftian Church. 

And a Law this is, becoming the infinitely wife 
Creator and Confervator of the World ; a Law, not 
only of great Ufe to the Perpetuating the Remem- 
brance of thofe greateft of God's Mercies then 
commemorated, but alfo exaftly adapted to the 
Life, Occafions, and State of Man; of Man 
living in this, and a-kin to another World: A 
Law well calculated to the Difpatch of our Af- 
fairs, without hurting our Bodies or Minds. And 
fmce the Law is fo wife and good, we have great 
Reafon then to pra&ife carefully the Duties incum- 
bent upon us ; which will fall under the Confidera- 
tion of the 

II. Thing I propofed, the Bufinefs of the Day, 
which God hath referved to himfelf. And there are 
two Things enjoined in the Commandment, a Ceffa- 
tion from Labour and worldly Bufinefs ; and that we 
remember to keep the Day Holy. 

1. There muft be a Ceflation from worldly Bu- 
finefs, or a Reft from Labour, as the Word Sab- 
bath (b) fignifies, Six Days thou jbalt do all thy 
Work, but the Seventh is the Sabbath of the Lord thy 
GOD, (not thy Day, but his,) in which neither thou, 
nor any belonging to thee, /hall do any Work* In which 
Injunction it is obfervable, how exprefs and particu- 
lar this Commandment is, more than others, in or- 
dering all Sorts of Perfons to ceafe from Work, 

$) ITQW Cefaiio, Requies. 

?. Wf. 

Chap. VI. Lor is Day muft be remembered. 43 9 

2. We muft remember to keep the Day Holy. 
Which Remembrance is another Thing alfo in this, 
more than in the other Commandments, and im- 

iff 9 That there is great Danger of our forgetting, 
negle&ing, or being hindered from keeping the Day 
Holy, either by the Infirmity and Carnality of our 
own Nature, or from the Avocations of the 

2fy f That the keeping it Holy, is a Duty of more 
than ordinary Gonfequence and Neceflity. Add of 
greateft Confequence this is, 

Firfty To perpetuate the Remembrance of thofe 
grand Works of God commemorated on that 
Day - v in the firft Ages of the World, the