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Full text of "Phytologia"

vol. 21 
1971 




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PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 21 January, 1971 NoTT 

CONTENTS 



ROBINSON, H., A revision of the moss genus, Hymenostyliella, 

with description of sporophyte 1 

ROBINSON, H., A new species of Cyclodictyon from Costa Rica 4 

REED, C. F., & ROBINSON, H., Bryophytes of Monteverde, 

Costa Rica 6 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Compositae). XXXIII. The genus Gyptis 22 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Compositae). XXXIV. A new genus, Barrosoa 26 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Compositae). XXXV. A new genus, Lourteigia 28 

MOLDENKE, H. 'i^.. Additional notes on the genus Hierobotana. I 31 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Callicarpa. XII. 32 

MORTON, C. v., Some types and range extensions in Hybanthus 

(Violaceae) 56 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 63 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 



Price of this number, $1 ; per volume, '$7.50, in a 
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Lt&HARY 

JAN 15 }: 1 ^ 



I 



A REVISION OF THE MOSS GENUS, HYMENOSTYLIELU, 
WITH DESCRIPTION OF SPOROPHYTE 



Harold Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 



Hymeno styliella is among those Pottiaceous genera having 
broadly lanceolate leaves with incurved margins and circinnate 
points ■v^en dry, similar vegetatively to Tinnniella and Hyophila . 
The leaf cells bulging adaxially in a single layer and with 
greatly thickened corners prompted Bart ram (1939) to establish a 
new genus even without fruiting material . 

Until the present, the genus has been known only from Luzon 
Island in the Philippines, but a series of specimens has recently 
been obtained from around a sulfur spring in the Kumaon District 
of northern Uttar Pradesh, India, This material bears sporo- 
phytes lAich are lateral from small axillary perichaetia. 
Slight peculiarities of the upper surface of the costa recall a 
brazilian species, Timm-iella alata Herz., and I also place that 
species in Hymeno styliella . The following descriptions and key 
are intended to help in further understanding the genus. 

Hymeno styliella Bartram, Philippine Joum. Sci. 68: 108. 1939- 

Stems densely foliate, erect, with central strand. Leaves 
oblong lanceolate, strongly incurved when dry with inrolled 
margins, widely spreading when moist; costa per current or 
excurrent in short mucro, in section with two stereid bands, 
adaxial surface with row ridges or distinct wings; upper leaf 
cells isodiametric, unistratose, flat abaxially, highly convex 
adaxially; basal cells oblong, more lax. Perichaetia in lateral 
buds. Setae elongate, smooth; urn erect, smooth; peristome 
lacking; opercvilum very long rostrate, longer than urn; calyptra 
not seen. 

Key to the species of Hymeno styliella 

1 . Adaxial surface of costa with only low serrulate ridges 

H. llanosii 
1. Adaxial surface of costa with 2 large wings H. alata 

The following synony^^y■ and descriptions have been compiled 
from the literature and from the collections of H. llanosii 
from India. 

1 



2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

^^m^ostjldj^J^ 12a£osii (Broth.) H.Robinson, comb. nov. 

Barbula llano sii CMiill., Gen. Muse. Frond. 445. 1900. 

nom. nud. 
TiTmniella llanosil [C.Miill.] Broth., Nat. Pfl. 1(3): 396. 

1902. 
Barbula pseudo-tortella CMiill. in Broth., Nat. Pfl. 1(3): 

396. 1902. nom. nud. 
Hymeno stylium involutum Card. & Th6r., Bull. Soc. Bot. 

Gen§ve 26: 82. 1936. 
Hymeno styliella involuta (Card. & Th4r.) Bartr., Philippine 

Journ. Sci. 68: 108. 1939. 

Rather robust plants with stems 2-3 cm "high, stems sparsely 
branching, rather densely tufted, densely foliate vdLth leaves 
often in interrupted tufts, radiculose throughout. Leaves 
narrowly linear elliptical, sharply acute, 4-5 mm long, 0.5 mm 
wide, canaliculate-concave, margins inflexed and slightly repand 
in upper half, erect and entire below; base not or scarcely 
narrower; costa stout, to 120 p, wide at base, percurrent; adaxial 
cells of upper costa usually in 3 rather prominent rows, short 
with distal ends projecting, rows viewed from side as very low 
serrulate ridge; upper cells of lamina rather large, 10-12 p, 
wide, 10-15 iJ, long, lumens angular vdth prominent thickened 
corners, abaxial surface flattened with a very thick wall, 
adaxial surface strongly mamillose with very fine striations on 
surface; basal cells colorless, not enlarged, quadrate to short 
rectangular, 10-12 y, wide, 8-20 ^i long with rather irregularly 
thickened walls, a few cells at the margin very narrow. 
Dioicoi^s. Perigonal numerous on male plants in axils of leaves, 
minute, to 0.5-0.6 mm long; bracts broadly ovate with short 
sharp acumination; costa slender, 20-25 iJ. wide; cells smooth, 
median and basal thin walled. Perichaetia ca. 2.0 mm long; 
inner leaves with colorless bases to 0.5 mm long, slender green 
tips 0.2 mm wide, costa to 50 |j, wide at base; upper cells except 
marginal rather mamillose adaxially, with thickened angles. 
Sporophjrte reddish-brown; setae ca. 4 nun long, urn 1.0 x 0.5 mm, 
smooth and shining castaneous, few stomates at the base, exo- 
thecial cells mostly ca. 25 \i wide, 25-50 |j, long, near mouth 
3-4 rows quadrate 10-15 xl5 \x', operculum erect, dark throughout, 
to 1.5 mm long. Spores 10-12 p, in diam., very minutely 
papillose. 

Philippine Islands. Luzon: Bulacan Prov.; near the town of 
Calvunpit, Llanos s.n . Rizal Prov.; Montalban, Bartlett 14375 . 

India. Uttar Pradesh: W. Himalayas; Dehra Dim, Sulphur 
Springs, moist rocky cliffs and moist rocks, 768 m elev., J\me 
1968, G.B.Pant Pes (l) PS 9/1968 , Pes (2) PS IO/I968 , Pes (3) 

PS 11/1968^ 

The new collections represent a 3000 mile extension of the 



1971 Robinson, Revision of Hymenos tyliella 3 

known range of the species. The species may be more common than 
the collections indicate, but it must fruit rarely. 

The fact that Brotherus validated Miiller's epithet seems to 
have been overlooked by later authors. The simple descriptive 
statement in german by Brotherus (1902) was sufficient for 
Vcilidation at that time. 

Hjmeno stjliella alat a (Herz.) H.Robinson, comb. nov. 

T-iimti-iella alata Herz., Arch. Bot. Est. S. Pa\ilo 1(2): 61. 
1925. 

Stems to 1.5 cm high, sparsely branched, rigid, densely 
foliate. Leaves narrowly oblong-lanceolate, acute, 2.5 mm long, 
0.3 mm wide, canalicvilate-concave, cucullate, sometimes mucro- 
nate, all but basal margins broadly involute; base scarcely 
broader than blade, short elliptical; nerve percurrent, bearing 
2 prominent wings adaxially; wings ca. 12 cells high, i cell 
thick; cells of upper lamina small, mamillose adaxially; basal 
cells rectangular, yellowish, subpellucid. Dioicous? Sporophyte 
unknown. 

Brazil, without definite locality, IXitzelburg s.n . 

Material has not been seen, but the combination of leaf 
characters and especially the adaxial surface of the costa 
indicates close relationship to Hymenostyliella llano sii (Broth.) 
H.Robinson. Chen (1941) mentioned Herzog's species in his 
discussion of Hymeno styliella but apparently did not notice the 
slight ridging on the costa of H. llanosii . Additional material 
of H. alata should be sought and examined to confirm the 
postion of the perichaetia. 

Literature Cited 

Bartram, E. B. 1939. Mosses of the Philippines. Philippine 
Joum. Sci. 68: 1-A37. 

Brotherus, V. F. 1902. Pottiaceae. Die Natiirlichen Pflanzen- 
f ami lien i(3): 214: 385-432. 

Chen, P. 1941. Studien uber die ostasiatischen Arten der 
Pottiaceae. I, II. Hedwigia 80: 1-76, 141-322. 



A NEW SPECIES OF CYCLODICTYON FROM COSTA RICA 



Harold Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D . C . 20560 



The rain forests of Central Costa Rica have been noted for 
many distinctive and apparently endemic species. To these may 
now be added the following previously vtndescribed species of 
Cyclodictyon . 

^^^lodixtj^n Ja^esii H.Robinson, sp. nov. (Fig. 1-3) 

Planta dioica?, robustiuscula, pallide virens, fragilis, in 
cortice putrido repens. Caules prostrati elongati, irregulariter 
dense ramosi. Folia laxe imbricata, ad 2.0 mm longa, 0.8 mm 
lata, oblonga vel late ovata, Integra, in partibus superioribus 
constrictr., apice distincte anguste apiculata; nervis binis 
divergentibus, prope constrictionem evanescentibus; cellulis 
nervorum uniseriatis; cellulis laminarum magnis laevibus, prope 
basin oblongis, 30 p, latis, ad 80 p, longis, superioribus 
rotundatis, ad 40 p, diam., in superficiebus abaxialibus saepe 
valde convexis, marginalibus in seriebus unicis elongatis. 
Cetera ignota. 

Costa Rica. Puntarenas: Near Monteverde, forests, 4,300 ft. 
W. James 1969-44 (US, holotype; HERB. REED, isotype) . 

The species shows an unusually laxly leaved appearance for 
the genus, but the best distinguishing feature is the flat rather 
expanded apical part of the leaves. The leaf apices are rather 
fragile and undoubtedly serve as propagules. The single row of 
narrower marginal cells is most evident near the apex. The 
protiniding cells on the back of the leaf are not always very 
noticeable . 



1971 



Robinson, A new species of Cyclodictyon 




Figures 1-3. Cyclodictyon jamesii. 
shovdjig back in profile. 2. Leaf apex, 
costa. 



1. Leaf at constriction 
3 . Leaf showing double 



BRYOPHYTES OF MONTEVERDE, COSTA RICA 

BY 

Clyde F, Reed and Harold Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution 



Several collections of bryophytes from Monteverde, Costa Rica 
(Puntarenas Prov,), have been collected by Mr, Walter James, his wife, 
Mary and their son, Jerry over the past eight years. In addition, 
they have collected a large number of ferns and fern-allies from the 

mountainous REGIONS ABOUT MoNTEVERDE HAVE HAVE SENT THEM TO THE ReED 

Herbarium. These will appear in another paper. Monteverde is a set- 
tlement ON THE western slope of Costa Rica, and northwest of San Jose, 
Most of the specimens were collected from elevations ranging from 2500 
to 4500 FT, The habitats vary from deep forests, along streams and 
rivers to epiphytic and lithophytic situations along roads, in fields 
and in jungles, 

A FEW OTHER collections OF BRYOPHYTES FROM CoSTA RiCA ARE ALSO 

INCLUDED, They include a small collection of bryophytes from Clarence 
K, Horich, who also has collected many ferns and fern-allies for the 
Reed Herbarium; a small collection from Luis D, Gomez P, of San Jose; 
AND several collections BY Paul H, Allen, Paul Standley and J, Valerio, 
These collections are from various other areas of Costa Rica, 

The bryophytes reported here are represented by 112 species of 
mosses and 77 SPECIES of liverworts. Several new species have been 

DESCRIBED FROM THESE COLLECTIONS, AlL SPECIMENS ARE REPRESENTED IN THE 

Reed Herbarium (R), Baltimore, Maryland, and in the United States Nat- 
ional Herbarium where indicated (US), 

MUSCI 
SPHAGNACEAE 
Sphagnum capillaceum (Weiss) Schrank - Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 3000- 

3150 M ELEV., EPIPHYTIC. I969, GoMEZ 2124 (R), 

Sphagnum recurvum P.Beauv, - Cerro Asuncion, 31^5 m, elev, , rain paramo. 
1969, Gomez 2'\^^■ (R), 

POLYTRICHACEAE 

POGONATUM ROBUSTUM MiTT, - TrEELESS WINDY MOUNTAIN TOP, PAN AMERICAN 

Highway, near highest point, March 1963* W.James (R;US). 

POLYTRI CHADELPHUS COSTARI CENS I S BarTR. - PaN AMERICAN HIGHWAY, S OF 

Cartago. May 14, I96I. W. James 104 (R); Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 
3000-3150 M, epiphytic, 1969. Gomez 2118 (R), 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 7 

POLYTRICHACEAE 

POLVTRICHUM JUNI PERINUM HeDW. - MONTEVERDE, WOODS. OcT. 22, 1962. W. 

James (R); on rotten wood, '^onteverde. Jan. 9i 1965. M.James 3 TR); 

TREELESS WINDY MOUNTAIN TOP, PaN AMERICAN HIGHWAY, NEAR HIGHEST POINT. 

Mar. 1963. W. James (R); below Volcano Poas, alt. 8000 ft. Mar. 11, 
1951. Wanda Ponder 4352 (R); Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 3000-3150 m 
ELCV., EPIPHYTIC. 1969. Gomez 2108 (R). 

FISSIDENTACEAE 

Fl SS I DENS PRI ONOOES MoNT. - MoNTEVERDE, ON ROCK IN TRAIL TO SPRING. Mar, 

IO-I7, 1965. W.&M. James 104B (R). 

F| SS I DENS REPANDUS WilS. - MoNTEVERDE, RIVER WOODS. May I966. M.J AMES 
(R); ON TREES ALONG GuAC I MAL RiVER, MoNTEVERDE. JaN. I968. W.J AMES 

68-21 (R). 

GRIMMIACEAE 

Rhacomitrium crispipilum (Tayl.) Jaeg. - Treeless windy mountain top, 
Pan American Highway near highest point. Mar. I963. W.James (R;US), 

FUNARIACEAE 

Entosthodon bonplandi i (Brid. ) Mitt. - Paramo de Madreselva, 3OOO m 
ELEV., epiphytic. 1969. Gomez 2107 (R). 

DICRANACEAE 

AtRACT YLOCARPUS COSTAR I CENS I S (C.MuLL.) WiLLIAMS - MoNTEVERDE, WOODS. 

Feb. 1963. W.James 63B12 (R). 

Campylopus arctocarpus (Hornsch, ) Mitt. - Monteverde, woods. Feb. 1963» 
W.James 63M9B (R). 

Campylopus chri smari i (C.MOll.) Mitt. - Treeless windy mountain top. 
Pan American Highway near highest point. Mar. 1963« W.James (R;US), 

Campylopus concolor (Hook.) Brid, - Monteverde, woods along Guacimal 
River. Jan. V968, W. James 68-26 (R); forests, 4300 ft. elev. , near 
Monteverde. Feb. 1969. W.James 1969-30 (US). 

Campylopus filifolius (Hornsch. ) Mitt. - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-I6 (US). 

Campylopus flexuosus (Hedw. ) Brid. - Monteverde, pasture woods, Mar. 
10-17, 1965. W.&.'m. James 96; woods. Feb. I963. W.James 63B38 (R) 

and 63B17B (rt; 

Campylopus introflexus (Hedw. ) Brid. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 22, 1963» 
W.James (R); pastures on trees and logs. Jan. 9» 1965* M.James 12 
(R); jungle forest. June I962. W. James (R). 

Campylopus savannarum (C.MOll.) Mitt. - Monteverde, jungle forest. 
June 1962. W. James (R). 

DiCRANELLA rufescens (Smith) Schimp. - Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 3000- 
3150 M ELEV., epiphytic. 1969. Gomez 2112C (R). 



8 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

D I CRANACEAE 

D I CRANELLA VAG I NATA (HoOK. ) CaRD. - CeRRO BuV I S , RAIN PARAMO, 3000- 

3150 M ELEV,, EPIPHYTIC. 1 969^ GoMEz 21 1 2A (R); Paramo de Madreselva, 

3000 M FEUEV., EPIPHYTIC. 1969. GOMEZ 2110 (R). 
DiCRANODONTIUM MERI D I ONALE BaRTR. - FoRESTS NEAR MoNTEVERDE , 4300 FT, 

ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1 969-23 (US); Prov, Heredia, Cerros de 
ZuRQUi, NE OF San Isidrio, alt. 2000-2400 m. Mar. 3, I926. Paul C . 
Standley 50336 (R). 

DiCRANOLOMA BRITTONI AE BarTR. - MoNTEVERDE , FORESTS, 4300 FT. ELEV. 

Feb. 1969. W. James I969-II (US). 

HOLOMITRIUM ARBOREUM MiTT. - MoNTEVERDE, WOODS. FeB. 1963. W.J AMES 

63B31 (R). 

LeUCOLOMA SERRULATUM BrID, - MONTEVERDE, PASTURE WOODS AND ALONG PATH 

TO SPRING. Mar. IO-I7, 1965. W.&M. James 37, 56, IO7, (R); pastures 
ON trees AND LOGS. Jan 9» ^9^5* M.James 22 (R); woods near Monte- 
VERDE. Feb. 1963. W. James 63B17a. (R); on trees in forest near 
MoTAS, MonteverdEo Apr. 4, 1969. W. James I969-IOI (R); forests along 
South Line, Monteverde. Mar. 16, I969. W. James I969-76 (US). 

Pilopogon gracilis (Hook.) Brid. - Treeless windy mountain top. Pan 

American Highway, near highest point. Mar. I963. W.James (R); Cerro 

BUVIS, RAIN paramo, 3OOO-3I5O M ELEV,, EPIPHYTIC. 1969. GoMEZ 2113 

(R); Cerro Asuncion, 31^5 m elev. , rain paramo. I969. Gomez 2119 (R). 

LEUCOBRYACEAE 

Leucobryum antillarum Schimp. ex Besch. - Monteverde, river bank. Mar. 
10, 1965. W. James 4 (R); jungle forest, June I962. W.James (R); 
woods, Oct. 22, I963. W. James (R); Feb, I963, W.James 63B4 (R); 
ON TREES, La Estrella, Prov. de Cartago, Mar. 26, 1924. P. C. Standley 
39245 (R); woods along Guacimal River, Monteverde. Jan I968. W.James 
68-22 (R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev, Feb. I969. W.James 
1969-6 (R). 

Leucobryum giganteum C.Mull, - Monteverde, forests, Oct. I967, W.James 
(R); Forests, 4300 ft. elev. Feb, I969. W. James 1969-21 (USTj 
Oct, 22, I963. W. James (R). 

CALYMPERACEAE 

Syrrhopodon I ncompletus Schwaegr. - Monteverde, on path to spring. Mar. 
10-17, 1965, W,& mTJames 17 (R), 

POTT I ACEAE 

Leptodontium excelsum (SuLL.) Britt. (L. ulocalyx (C.MOll. ) Mitt.) - 
Monteverde, along river bank. Mar. IO-I7, 1965o W, & M.James 12 (R); 
HEIGHTS of La Carpentera, VIC, Tres Rios, I3OO-2OOO M ELEV. Dec. 
1937. P.H.Allen (R), 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 

BRYACEAE 

Ac I DOOONTIUM MCGALOCARPUM (HooK.) Ren, ET CarD. - MONTEVERDE, ON RE- 
CENT CLEARING. Jan. 9. 1965. W. James 6 (R). 

Anomobryum riLiFORME (Dicks.) Solms in Rabenh. - Treeless windy moun- 
tain TOP, Pan American Highway near highest point. Mar, 1963* 
W. James (R). 

Bryum capillare Hedw. - Monteverde, woods. Feb. 1963» W. James 63BI6 
WITH Atractylocarpus costaricensi s . (R); W.James 63B20 (R;US). 

Bryum truncorum (Brio.) Brid. - Monteverde, jungle forest. June I962. 
W.James (R). 

PoHLi a flexuosa Hook. - Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 3000-3150 m elev. , 
epiphytic. 1969. Gomez 2111 (R). 

MNIACEAE 

Mni um rostratum Schrad. , var. li gulatum Herz. - Monteverde, jungle 

FOREST. June I962. W.James (R); epiphytic on lichens. La Carpentera, 
VIC Tres Rios, 1300-2000 M ELEV. Dec. 1937. P.H.Allen (R); Monte- 
verde, recent clearing. Jan. 9» 1965* W. James 9 and 39 (R); along 

BANK OF RIVER, MoNTEVERDE, Mar. 10, 1965. W. & M.JamES 9 (R). 

RH I ZOGON I ACEAE 

Rhi zogonium spi ni forme (Hedw. ) Bruch - Monteverde, along river bank. 
Mar. 10, 1965. W.James 1 and 8 (R); Monteverde, on path to spring. 
Mar, 17» 1965» M.James 78 (R); Monteverde, pasture woods. Mar, 17, 

1965. W. James 27A with Porotri chum longi rostre . (R); on trees, up 
LOWER logging trail, Monteverde. Dec^ I962. wTjames (R); jungle 
FOREST near Monteverde, June I962, W. James (R); woods near Monte- 
verde. Feb. 1963* W.James 63BI5 and 03BI7C (R); woods along Guacimal 

River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W.James 68-27 (R); Monteverde, forests, 
4300 FT. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-IO (R). 

BARTRAMIACEAE 

Bartrami A poTosiCA Mont. - Treeless windy mountain top. Pan American 
Highway near highest point. Mar, I963. W.James (R). 

Breuteli a deflexifoli a Card. - Treeless windy mountain top. Ran Ameri- 
can Highway near highest point. Mar. 1963« W.James (R;US). 

Breuteli a jamai censi s (Mitt.) Jaeg, - Monteverde, river woods. May 

1966. M.James (R); treeless windy mountain top. Pan American High- 
way NEAR highest point, Mar, 1963. W.James (R;US). 

Breuteli A subarcuata (C.Mull,) Schimp, - Treeless windy mountain top. 
Pan American Highway near highest point. Mar. 1963» W.James (R;US), 

Breutel I A TOMENTOSA (Brid. ) ScHiMP, - Treeless windy mountain top. 
Pan American Highway near highest point. Mar. 1963» W.James (R); 
Paramo de Madreselva, 3OOO m elev,, epiphytic, 1969« Gomez 2109 (r). 



10 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

BARTRAMIACEAE 
Philonotis long I seta (Michx.) E.G.Britt. - Cerro Buvis, rain paramo, 

3000-3150 M ELEV., EPIPHYTIC. 1969. GoMEZ 2115 (R). 

ORTHOTRICHACEAE 

Macromi tri tiM c I rrhosum (Hedw. ) Brid. - MoNTEVERDE, WOODS. Feb. 1963« 
W.James 63B^ (R); woods, Oct. 22, I963. W.James (R); pasture, on 
TREES. Jan. 15, 1965* W.James 36 (R); on trees along Guacimal River, 
MoNTEVERDE, Jan. I968. W. James 68-2 (R); Monteverde, forests along 
South Line. Mar. 16, I969. W. James 1 969-79 (R) and 1 969-85 (US). 

Macromi tri um fusco-aureum Bartr. - Monteverde, Checo Trail near Aqono 
Clearing. Aug. 3, I968. W.James (R;US). 

Macromitrium longifolium (Hook.) Brid. - Monteverde, jungle forest. 
June I962. W. James (R). 

Macromi tri um subci rrhosum C.MOll. - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W.James I969-39 (US). 

Grout I ella api culata (Hook.) Crum & Steere - Prov. Cartago, on trees, 
1400 M ELEV., DULCE NOMBRE. Feb. 24, 1924. P.C.Standlev (R). 

Grout I ella wagneri ana (C.MOll.) Crum & Steere - Monteverde, pastures, 
on trees. Jan. 17, 1965« M.James 37 (R); woods near Monteverde. 
Feb. 1963. W. James 63B36 (R); Monteverde, forest along South Line, 
Mar. 16, 1969. W. James I969-78 (R). 

RHACOPILACEAE 

Rhacopilum tomentosum (Hedw.) Brid. - Monteverde, recent clearing. 
Jan. 9» 1965* W.James I5B, 19B, 20 (R); on rocks, Monteverde. Mar. 
IO-I7, 1965. W. & M.James 1 04A (R); woods near Monteverde. Feb. 
1963» W. James 2, with Macrolejeunea lanci foli a (St.) Herz. (R). 

PRIONODONTACEAE 

Prionodon census (Hedw. ) C.MOll. - Monteverde, on rocks in trail to 
spring. Mar. IO-I7, 1965» W. & M.James 103 (R); jungle forest, near 
Monteverde. June I962, W.James (R); woods near Monteverde. Feb. 
1963. W.James 63B5, with Squamidium nigrescens . (R). 

Pri onodon di chotomus Hampe - Monteverde, on rocks by water. June 10, 
1966. M.James 13 (R). 

PTEROBRYACEAE 

Pi reella mari ae (Card.) Card. - Monteverde, deep woods. Jan. 10, 1965* 
M.James 24a; along path to spring, Monteverde. Mar. 10-17, 1965« 
W. & M.James 48, 57> 63 and 82 (R); jungle forest near Monteverde. 
June 1962. W.James 3 (R); pasture woods, Monteverde. Mar. I7, 1965. 
W. James 23, 24 and 25 (R). 



1971 Reed L Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 11 

PTEROBRYACEAE 

Pterobrvon densum Hornsch. - Monteverde, woods, Oct. 22, 1963. W. 
James (R); Monteverde, deep woods. Jan. 10, 1965* M.James 24 CR); 
Monteverde, pasture woods along along path to spring. Mar. 17» 1965» 
W. & M.James 28 and 59 (R); jungle forest near Monteverde. June 

1962. W.James 1 (R); woods near Monteverde. Feb. 1963« W.James 63B3 
(R). 

METEOR I ACEAE 

Meteor I OPS IS recurvi folia (Hornsch.) Broth. - On trees, vie. Jalaca 
Farm, Golfo Dulce Area, 100 ft. elev. , Prov, Puntarenas. Mar. 25, 
1949. Paul H. Allen (R). 

Meteor I ops is remoti folia (C.Mull.) Broth. - Monteverde, pasture woods 

AND ALONG PATH TO SPRING. MaR. 10-17» ^9^5' W. & M.JamES 18 AND 64. 

(R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev. Feb. 1969. W.James 1969-5. 
(R). 

Papillari A DEpPEi (C.MOll.) Jaeg. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 22, 1963« 
W.James (R); Tn pastures, on trees and logs. Jan. 8, 1965. M.James 
8 (R); IN WOODS. Feb. I963. W.James 63B6 (R); jungle forest near 
Monteverde. June I962. W.James 7 (R)» 

Pap I llari a imponderosa (Tayl. ) Broth. - Cloud forests of Montana del 
Cedral, S of San Antonio de Escazu. Jan. I96O, elev. 2400 m. C.K . 

HORI CH (R); WOODS ALONG GuAC I MAL RiVER, MoNTEVERDE, Jan. I968. 

W.James 68-25 (R); Atlantic rain forest at Tarpante, dense jungles 
AT base of northern Cordillera de Talamanca along upper headwaters 
area of Rio Reventazon, Rio Macho, S of Orosi , elev. 1100-1200 m. , 
epiphytic on fern fronds, Dec. 1959-Jan. I96O. C.K.Horich (R), 

PiLOTRI CHELLA FLEX I L I S (Hedw, ) AoNGSTR. - MoNTEVERDE, WOODS, OCT. 22, 

1963. W."james (R); Jan. 10, I968, along path to spring. M.James 
31 B (R); Dec. 1964-Jan. I965. W.James (R); Jan. 15, I965. W.James 
41B (on orange and grapefruit leaves). (R); along river bank near 
Monteverde. Mar. IO-I7, 1965« W.James 7 (R); pastures on trees and 
LOGS, Jan, 9» 1965« M.James 1, 2 and I7 (R); woods near Monteverde, 
Feb. 1963, W.James 63BI9 (R); 63B25 (R;US); jungle forest near 
Monteverde, June I962, W.James 9. H and 14 (R); Monteverde along 
South Line. Mar. 16, I969. W.James 1969-75 (R); Cedral Crest, 2400 

M ELEV,, ON LEAVES OF FERNS, ApR,-JuNE I960. C.K.HORI CH (R); HEIGHTS 

OF La Carpentiera, vic. Tres Rios, 1300-2000 m elev. Dec 1937. 
P.H.Allen (R); cloud forest between Cerro Zurqui and Casajal, and 
between San Geronimo de Moravia and the Continental Divide of El 
Alto de La Palma, epiphytic, elev. 1400-1550 m, Nov, 1958- Jan. 
i960, C.K.Horich (R); cloud forest of Montana del Cedral, S of San 
Antonio de Escazu. Jan. I96O, elev. 2000-2440 m. C.K.Horich (R); 
ON TREE, Verba Buena, N of San Isidoro, Prov, Heredia, 2000 m elev, 
Feb, 22-28, 1926, Stanoley & Valeric (R); on tree, Cerro de las 
Caricias, N of San Iridro, Prov, Hederia, elev, 2000-2400 m. Mar. 
11, 1926. Standley & Valerio (R), 



12 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

METEOR I ACEAE 

PiLOTRICHELLA PENTAST I CHA (BriD.) W|JK & MaRG. - MoNTEVERDE, DeC, 1964- 

Jan. 1965* W.James (R); Oct. ^^(>J). W.James (R); along path to spring 
and in pasture woods, Monteverde. Mar, 10-17) 1965. W.James 31 » ^9) 
58 and 60 (R); pastures on trees and logs, Monteverde. Jan. 9» 1965» 
M, James 11 (R); Monteverde, forests. Oct. 196?. W.James (R); Monte- 
verde, forests along South Line. Mar. 16, 1969« W.James 1969-72 (R). 

Squamidium nigricans (Hook.) Broth. - Monteverde, woods. Feb. I963. 
W.James 63B5, with Pri onodon densus (R); jungle forest near Monte- 
verde. June I962. W. James (rTI 

PHYLLOGON I ACEAE 

Phyllogonium fulgens (Hedw. ) Brid, - Monteverde, along path to spring. 
Mar. 10-17, 1965. W. & M.James 79 (R); jungle forest near Monteverde, 
June I962, W.- James 12 (R); on trees along Guacimal River, Monte- 
verde, Jan, 1968. W.James 68-18 (R); Monteverde, forests along South 
Line, Mar, 16, I969. W.James I969-IO3 (R). 

Phyllogonium viscosum (P.Beauv.) Mitt. - Monteverde, pasture woods. 
Mar. 10-17, 1965. W. & M.James 36 (R); woods near Monteverde. Feb. 
1962. W. James 63B7 (R); jungle forests near Monteverde. June I962. 
W. James 8 (R). 

NECKERACEAE 

Calyptothecium turgescens Broth, & Ther. - Monteverde, jungle forest. 
June 1962. W. James 5 and 16 (R), 

HoMALiA glabella (Hedw. ) B.S.G. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 22, I963. 
W.James (R); jungle forest. June I962. W.James (R); along river 
BANK near Monteverde, Mar, 10, 1965. W.James 9 (R); same loc. , Mar. 
17» 1965, W.James 5 (R); along path to spring. Mar. 10, I965. W. 
James 61 and '^S (R); on rock by spring. Mar, 11, 1965* M.James 
16A (R); woods along Guacimal River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W, 
James 68-28 (R). 

Porotri chum cobanense C.MOll. - Monteverde, on rock by spring. Mar. 
11, 1965* M.James 16 and 101 (R); epiphytic on ferns, shore area of 
Rio Virilla, near La Uruca, a suburb of San Jose, elev. 1000 m. 
Jan. 1950. C.K.HoRi ch (R); Atlantic rain forest of Tapanti, dense 
jungles at base of northern Cordillera de Tacamanca, along upper 

HEADWATER AREA OF RiO ReVENTAZON AND RiO MaCHO, S OF OrOS I , ELEV, 
1100-1200 M, EPIPHYTIC ON FERN FRONDS. DeC. 1959-'JaN. I960. C.K. 
HORICH (R), 

Porotri CHUM longirostre (Hook.) Mitt. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 22, 
1963, W.'James (R); along path to spring, Monteverde, Jan, 1, I965. 
M, James 32B (R); pasture woods, Monteverde. Mar. IO-I7, I965. W. & 
M.James 29, 32, .33, ^A, 81, 99 and 27B (R); jungle forest near 
Monteverde, June I962, W.James (R); along river bank, Monteverde, 
Mar. 17, 1965. W. & M. James 15 (R). 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 13 

NECKERACEAE 

POROTRICHUM NECKERAEFORME (HaMPE ) Ml TT, - MoNTEVERDE, ON TREES IN 
FOREST NEAR MOTAS. ApR. ij-, 1 969. W.J AMES 1969-90 (US). 

PILOTRICHACEAE 

PiLOTRICHUM ASPERIFOLIUM MiTT. - MoNTEVERDE, DEEP WOODS, ALONG PATH 

TO SPRING. Jan. 10, I965. M.James 35 (R); on rocks on trail to 
SPRING. Mar. 10-11, 1965» W. & M.James 83 and 97 (R); woods near 

MoNTEVERDE. Feb. 1963* W.JamES 63B18, WITH OmPHALANTHUS F I L I FOR - 

Mi s and 63B21 (R); jungle forest near Monteverde. June I962. W. 
James 19 (R). 

Pi lotri chum ramosi ss imum Mitt. - Monteverde, on trees in forest near 
Motas. Apr, k, 1969. W.James 1969-93 (US). 

HYPOPTERYGIACEAE 

HVPOPTERYGI UM TAMAR I SCI NUM (Hedw.) BriD. - MONTEVERDE, WOODS. OcT, 

22, 1963. W.James (R); woods, Monteverde. Feb. 1963* W.James 

63343 (R); Monteverde, along path to spring. Mar, 10, I965. W. & 

M. James 62 (R); river woods near Monteverde. May I966. M.James (R). 

LESKEACEAE ( THU I D I ACEAE ) 

Thui di um ant I llarum Besch. - Monteverde, recent clearing* Jan, 9» 
1965. W. James 23B, 15^, 21 and I9A (R); along river bank, Monte- 
verde. Mar. 10-1 7, 1965. W. & M.James 10 and 13 (R); along path 
to spring, Monteverde. Mar. 10-1?, I965, W. & M.James 65, kj, 41 

AND 86 (R); WOODS NEAR MoNTEVERDE, Feb, 1963. W.J AMES 63B20 (R); 

woods along Guacimal River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. wTJames 68-24. 
Thui DI um e rectum Dub. - Montverde, woods. Feb. 1963» W.James 63B40, 

63B39 AND 63B37 (R); jungle forest NEAR MONTEVERDE. JUNE 1962. 

W.James (R); treeless windy mountain top. Pan American Highway 
NEAR highest part. Mar. 1963* W.J AMES (R); woods along Guacimal 
River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W.James 68-23 (R). 

As indicated in Index Muscorum (W.M.&F., I969) the combination 
T. delicatulum (Hedw.) Mitt, is invalid, being a later homonym 

OF T. DELI CATULUM (L.) B.S.G. (= J, RECOGN I TUM HeDW. ). ThE TAXON 
WARRANTS MORE THAN THE VARIETAL STATUS UNDER 1^. RECOGN I TUM GIVEN 

IN THE Index, A search indicates Thuidium erectum Dub, ( 1 878 ) as 

THE OLDEST AVAILABLE NAME. ThERE IS A SLIGHT CHANCE AN OLDER NAME 

will be found that is not presently recognized as a synonym, 

Thuidium minutulum (Hedw,) B.S.G. - Monteverde, pasture woods. Mar, 
17> 1965. W.James 20 (R); cloud forests of Montana del Cerdal, 
S OF San Antonio de Escazu, elev. 2000-2400 m elev, Jan. I96O, 

C.K.HORICH (R); ON TREES ALONG GuAC I MAL RiVER, MoNTEVERDE. JaN, 

1968. W. James 68-1 7 (R), 



11* PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

LESKEACEAE (THUl 01 ACEAE) 

ThUI DIUM PHILI BERTI 1 LiMPR. - MONTEVERDE, WOODS. OcT. 22, 1963 W. 

James (R); treeless windy mountain top. Pan American Highway, 

NEAR highest POINT. MaR. 1 963« W.J AMES (R). 

BRACHYTHEC I ACEAE 

Brachythecium flexi ventrosum (C.MOll.) Jaeg. - Treeless windy moun- 
tain TOP, Pan American Highway, near highest point. Mar. 1963» 
W. James (R;US). 

Homalotheci um leskeoides (Hook,) H, Robinson. (Syn.: Palamocladi um 

LESKEOIDES (HooK.) E.G.BriTT.) - MoNTEVERDE, WOODS. FeB. 1963. 

W. James ^3B26 (R). 

Rhynchostegi um serrulatum (Hedw, ) Jaeg. - Monteverde, woods along path 
TO SPRING, Mar, 10, 1965* W. James 46B, with Meteor i opsi s remot i - 
folia. (R). 

PLAGIOTHECIACEAE 

PlAGI OTHECI UM DENT I CULATUM (Hedw.) B.S.G. - TrEELESS windy MOUNTAIN 

TOP, Pan American Highway, near highest part. Mar. I963. W. James (R). 

HOOKER I ACEAE 

Adelothecium bogotensis (Hampe) Mitt. - Monteverde, pasiTURe woods. 
Mar. 17, 1965. W. &~M. James 30 (R). 

CaLLI COSTELLA PALLIDA (HorNSCH.) JaEG. - MoNTEVERDE, ALONG PATH TO 

SPRING. Mar. 10, 1965, W. & M.James 53 and 68 (R). 
Crossomitrium patrisiae (Brid.) C.MOll, - Monteverde, on fronds of 

BOLBI Tl S ALIEN I A VAR. , ALONG RIVER BANKS. JaN. 12, 1 968. W.J AMES 

(R). 

Cyclodi ctyon alb I cans (Hedw.) O.Kuntze - Monteverde, on rocks in 
TRAIL to spring. Mar. 11, 1 965« M. James 102 (R); on trees along 
GuACiMAL River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W. James 68-6 (R). 

Cyclodictyon JAMES I I H.Robinson - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev. 
Feb. 1969. W.James 1969-^ (R;US). 

Hem I RAGi s aurea (Brid.) Besch. (Syn.: Harpophyllum aureum (P.Beauv.) 
Spruce). - Monteverde, jungle forest. June I962. W.James I7 (R). 

HooKERiA acutifolia Hook. et Grev. - Monteverde, Checo Trail near 
Adono Clearing. Aug. 3, I968. W. James (R;US). 

HOOKERIOPSIS CRISPA (C.MOlL.) JaEG. - MoNTEVERDE , ChECO TraIL NEAR 

Adono Clearing. Aug. 3» I968. W. James (R); Cerro Vueltas, 3000 
M elev. , RAi n paramo, epilithic. 1969. Gomez 21 18 (R). 

HooKERi ops I s falcata (Hook.) Jaeg. - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft, 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1 969-26 (US). 



1971 Reed &. Robinson, Bryophytea of Uonteverde l5 

HOOKER I ACEAE 

HOOKERIOPSIS SUBFALCATA (HaMPE ) JaEG, - MONTEVERDE, FORESTS, ^300 FT, 

ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-18a (US). 

ISODREPANIUM LENTULUM (WlLS.) E.G.BriTT. - MoNTEVERDE, ALONG PATH TO 

SPRING. Mar. 10, 1965. W. & M.James 5^ (R); Monteverde, along 
RIVER BANK. Mar. 17, 1965. W. & M.James 3 and 11 (R); woods near 
Monteverde. Feb. I963. W. James 63B33 TR); Cerro Buvis, rain pa- 
ramo, 3000-3150 M ELEV., epiphytic. 1 969. GoMEZ 2112B (R). 

Lepi dopili dium portori cense (C.MOll.) Crum et Steere - Monteverde, 
forest along South Line. Mar, 16, I969, W.James I969-8O (US). 

Lepi dopi lum breviceps Mitt. - Monteverde, on rocks by water, June 10, 
1966. M. James 18 and 20 (R). 

Lepi dopi lum haploci li atum (C.MOll.) Par. - Monteverde, on rocks by 
water. June 10, I966. M.James 15 (R). 

Lepi dopi lum radi cale Mitt. - Monteverde, on trail to Firarola's. Mar, 
10, 1965. W. & M.James 92 (R); woods, Monteverde. Oct. 22, 1963. 
W. James 16 (R). 

Neohypnella pi versifoli a (Mitt.) Welch et Crum - Monteverde, forests 
along South Line. Mar. 16, I969. W.James I969-IO8 (R). 

Rhynchosteg I ops i s flexuosa (Sull,) C.MOll. - Monteverde, on trees 

ALONG GuACIMAL RiVER. JaN, I968, W. JaMES 68-? AND 68-11 (R). 

SEMATOPHYLLACEAE 

Glossadelphus trunculatus (C.MOll.) Fleisch, (Syn.: Hypnella jamesi i 
H. Robinson, Bryologist, 68: 333. f. 10-12, I965). - Monteverde, 

DEEP WOODS ALONG PATH TO SPRING. Jan. 10, 1965* M.JamES 32C (HoLO- 

TYPE OF Hypnella jamesi i H.Robinson in US; i sotype in R). 

Sematophyllum caespitosum (Hedw, ) Mitt. - Monteverde, along path to 
spring. Mar. lO, 1965. W. James 45 (R); jungle forest near Monte- 
verde. June I962, W. James (R). 

Sematophyllum cuspi datum Mitt. (May prove to be S. affi ne (Hornsch, ) 
Mitt,, which is the older name. - Monteverde, on rocks by water. 
June 10, I966, M.James 1? (R). 

Sematophyllum insularum (Sull.) Bartr, - Monteverde, forests, 4300 
ft. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-24 (R). 

Sematophyllum li ndi gi i (Hampe) Mitt. - Monteverde, woods. Feb, 1963* 
W. James ^3B1 , 63B9 and 63B34 (R), 

Sematophyllum sericifolium Mitt. - Monteverde, jungle forest. June 

1962. W. James (R). 

Taxithelium planum (Brid, ) Mitt. - Monteverde, pasture woods. Mar. 
IO-I7, 1965. W. & M.James 34A (R); jungle forest near Monteverde. 
June I962. W. James (R), 



16 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

HYPNACEAE 

Ctenidium malacodes Mitt.-Bri llante, on fern rhizome. July 25, I966. 
W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, ^300 ft. elev. Feb. 1969. W. 
James 1969-2? (R;US). 

ECTROPOTHECIUM AP I CULATUM (HoRNSCH.) MiTT. - MONTEVERDE, RECENT 

CLEARING. Jan. 9, 1965. W. James 13 and 16 (R); on rocks in pas- 
ture, Monteverde. Mar. 10, I965. W. & M.James 98 (R). 

Hypnum amabile (Mitt.) Hampe - Cloud forest of Montana del Cedral, 
S OF San Antonio de Escazu, elev. 2000-2^00 m. Jan. I96O. C.K . 
HORICH (R). 

HvpNUM Ml rabile Bartr. - Monteverde, pastures, on trees and logs. 
Jan. 9, 1965. M. James 5 (R). 

Hypnum polypterum (Mitt.) Broth. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 22, I963. 
W. James (R); pasture woods. Mar. 1?, I965. W. & M.James 95 (R); 
treeless windy mountain top. Pan American Highway, near highest 
point. Mar. I963. W« James (R;US); Monteverde, forest along South 
Line. Mar. 16, I969. W. James I969-86 (US) and 1969-71 (US). 

Isopterygium diminutivum Bartr. - Monteverde, on trees along Guaci- 
MAL River. Jan. 1 968. W. James 68-19 (R). 

Mittenothamnium diminutivum (Hampe) E.G.Britt. - Brillante. July 25, 
1966. W. James , with Lophocolea columbica Gott. (?). (R); Monte- 
verde, jungle forest. June I962. W. James (R); woods near Monte- 
verde. Feb. 1963. W. James (R); cloud forests of Montana del 
Cedral, S of San Antonio de Escazu, elev. 2000-2400 m. Jan. 
i960. C.K.HoRiCH (R). 

Mittenothamnium langsdorffii (Hook.) Card. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 
"22, 1963. W. James (R); Feb. I963. W. James 63B41 (R); treeless 
windy mountain top. Pan American Highway, near highest point. 
Mar. 1963. W. James (R;US). 

Mittenothamnium lehmanni i (Besch.) Card. - Monteverde, on rocks by 
WATER. June 10. 1966. M.James 21 (R); on trees and rocks along 
Guacimal River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W. James 68-1 and 68-8 (R). 

Mittenothamnium mi nusculi folium (C.MOll.) Card. - Monteverde, woods 
along path to spring. Mar. IO-I7, I965. W. & M.James 2, 6, 14, 19, 
22, 39, ^1B, 50c, 52, 55, 53B, 73, 7^ and 87A. (R); on trees 
ALONG Guacimal River, Monteverde. Jan. I968. W. James 68-20 (R). 

Mittenothamnium reptans (Hedw. ) Card. - Monteverde, mountain top 
ALONG TRAIL. Dec. 29, 1964. Jerry James 28 (R); DEEP woods along 
PATH TO SPRING. Jan. 10, I965. M. James 32A and 34 (R); recent 
clearing, Monteverde. Jan. 9, 1965. W. James 18 and 23A (R). 

Puiggariella aurifolia (Mitt.) Broth. - Monteverde, pastures, on 
TREES and logs. Jan. 9, 1965. M. J AMES 12 (R); same loc, Dec. 
1964. W. James 4 (R). 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 17 

HEPATICAE 

ANTHOCEROTACEAE 

Dendroceros cristatus (Hook.) Nees - Monteverde, on tree in yard, 
June 1^, 1966, M~James 3 (R)« Det. Proskauer. 

HERBERTACEAE 

Herberta pensili s (T.Taylor) Spruce - Monteverde, Checo Trail near 
Adono Clearing. Aug. 3» 1968. W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, 
4300 ft. elev. Feb. I969. W. James 1969-1^ (US). 

LEPICOLEACEAE 

Lepi colea pruinosa (T.Taylor) Spruce - Monteverde, Checo Trail near 
Adono Clearing. Aug. 3» 1968. W. James (R). 

TRICHOCOLEACEAE 

Trichocolea flaccida (Spruce) Jack et Steph. - Monteverde, forests, 
4300 FT. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-1 (R). 

Tri chocolea tomentosa (Swartz) Gottsche - Monteverde, Checo Trail 
near Adono Clearing. Aug. 3> I968, W. James (R); Monteverde, for- 
est along South Line. Mar. I6, 1969. W. James 1969-109 (R). 

LEPIDOZIACEAE 

Bazzania breuteliana (Lindens, et Gott. ) Trevis. - Monteverde, moun- 
tain top along trail. Dec. 29, 1964. Jerry James 27 (R); Monte- 
verde, forests, 4300 FT. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-28 (R). 

Bazzania denticulata (Lindenb. et Gott.) Trevis.- Monteverde, for- 
ests, 4300 ft. ELEV. Feb. I969. W. James 1969-33B and 1969-34 (R). 

Bazzania hookeri (Lindenb.) Trevis.- Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-32 (US). 

Bazzania roraimensi s (Steph.) Fulford - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft, 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-29 (R). 

Bazzania stolonifera (Swartz) Trevis.- Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1 969-8 and 1969-25 (R), 

Lepi doz i a armata Steph, - Monteverde, Checo Trail near Adono Clearing, 
Aug, 3, 1968. W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev. 
Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-31 and I969-IO7 (R); Cerro Vueltas, 3000 
m elev., rain paramo, epilithic. 1969. gomez 21 1? (r), 

Lepi dozi a brasiliensi s Steph, - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft, elev, 
Feb, 1969, W. James I969-33A (US). 

Lepi doz i a patens Lindenb. - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev. Feb. 

1969. W. James 1969-12 (US). 



18 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 1 

ACROBOLACEAE 

TVLIMANTHUS JAMA I PENS I S StEPH, - MoNTEVERDE, FORESTS, 4300 FT. ELEV. 

Feb. 1969. W. James I969-36 (US). 

LOPHOCOLEACEAE 

Chiloscyphus combinatus (Nees) Nees - Monteverde, Checo Trail near 
Adono Clearing. Aug. 3, 1968. W. James (R;US). 

Leptoscyphus liebmanni anus (Lindenb. et Gott.) Mitt. - Monteverde, 
forest along South Line. Mar. 16, 1969« W. James I969-II (R); 
Brillante, on fern rhizome. July 25, I966. W. James (R). 

LOPHOCOLEA COLUMBICA GOTTSCHE - BriLLANTE. JuLY 25, 1966. W. JamES (R). 
LOPHOCOLEA MARTI ANA NeES - MoNTEVERDE. MaR. 10-17, 1965» W. & M. JaMES 

76, 77, 878 (R). 

LOPHOCOLEA muricata (Lehm. ) Nees - Monteverde. Mar. 10-17> 1965« 
W. & M. James 50B (R). 

SCAPANIACEAE 

Scapani A portori oensi s Hampe et Gottsche - Brillante. July 25, I966. 
W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. ELEV. Feb. I969. W. 
James 1969-7 (US). 

CEPHALOZIACEAE 

CepHALOZI A CARI BBEANI A FuLFORD - MoNTEVERDE, FORESTS, 4300 FT. ELEV. 

Feb. 1969. W. James I969-2 (US). 

Odontoschi sma longi florum (Taylor) Steph, - Monteverde, forests, 
4300 FT. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-I9A (US). 

PLAG I OCH I LACEAE 

Plagiochila acanthoda Lindens, et Gottsche - Monteverde, Mar. 10-17» 
1965. W. & M. James 7O (R). 

Plagiochila burs at a (Desv. ) Lindens. - Brillante, on fern rhizomes. 
July 25, I966. W. James (R); Monteverde, Checo Trail near Adono 
Clearing. Aug. 3, 1968. W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 
FT. ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-22 (R). 

Plagi ochila chinantlana Gottsche - Monteverde, on rocks by water. 
June 10, I966. M.James 14 (R). 

Plagiochila contingens Gottsche - Monteverde, Checo Trail near Adono 
Clearing. Aug. 3, I968. W. James (R); Monteverde, on trees in 

FOREST NEAR MOTAS. ApR. 4, 1 969. W. JamES 1969-94 (mALE , US) 
AND 1969-89 (female, US). 

Plagiochila cristata (Sw. ) Dum. - Monteverde, Mar. IO-I7, I965. 
W. & M. James 26 and 35 (R); Monteverde, Checo Trail near Adono 
Clearing. Aug. 3, I968. W. James (R); Monteverde, forests along 
South Line. Mar. 16, I969. W. James 1969-110 (R). 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 1? 

FLAG I OCH I LACEAE 

Flag I ochi la demi ssa Gottsche - Monteverde. Mar, 10-17» 1965» W. & 
M. James 42A (R). 

Flag I OCH I la ludovici ana Sull. - Monteverde. Mar. IO-I7, 1965. W. & 
M. James 38, 40B and 89 (with Radula complanata ) (R). 

Flag I ochi la ores i tropha Spruce - Monteverde, river woods. May I966, 
M. James (R), 

Flag I ochi la ruti lans Lindenb, - Monteverde, Mar, IO-I7, 1965» W, & 
M. James 80 (R); Monteverde, forests, ^300 ft. elev. Feb, I969. 
W. James 1969-4 (R). 

Flag I ochi la standleyi Herz. - Monteverde, river woods. May I966, 
M. James (R), 

Flag I ochi la verruculosa Schuster - Monteverde, forests, ^4-300 ft, 
elev. Feb. I969, W. James I969-I8B and I969-9 (R;US), 

RAOULACEAE 

Radula complanata (L.) Dum. - Monteverde, pastures, on trees and 

logs. Jan. 9, I965. M James 7 (R); Monteverde. Mar. IO-I7, I965. 
W, & M. James 4'7, 77 (with Lophocolea marti ana ), 89 (R). 

Radula elegans Steph, - Monteverde, forests, Oct, 1967. W, James 

FORELLACEAE 

FORELLA LIEBMANNI ANA (LiNDENB. ET GoTTSCHE ) TrEVIS, - MoNTEVERDE, 

Mar. 10-17, 1965. W. & M. James 7I (R). 

PORELLA SWARTZ I ANA (Web.) Trevis,- Monteverde. Mar. 10-17, 1965» 

W. & M. James ^2B and 72 (R); Monteverde, forest along South Line. 
Mar. 16, 1969. W. James 1969-83 (R). 

FRULLANIACEAE 

Frullani a arecae (Spreng. ) Spruce - Monteverde. Oct. 1963. W. James 
14 (R); Monteverde, forests. Mar. IO-I7, I965. W. & M. James 88, 
105, with Euosmolejeunea duriuscula . (R). 

Frullani a atrata Nees - Monteverde. Oct. 1963. W. James 17 (R)« 

Frullani a brasi liensi s Raddi - Monteverde. Oct, 1963* W. James 15 (R)» 
Frullani a cucullata Lindens, et Gottsche - Monteverde, forests, 4300 
ft. elev, Feb. I969. W. James I969-I7 (R). 

Frullani A mirabilis Jack et Steph. - Monteverde. Mar. IO-I7, 1965» 
W. & M. James IO6 (R). 

Frullani a osculati ana DeNot. - Monteverde, on trees, forest near 
MoTAs. Apr. 4, I969. W. James I969-9I (R;US). 



20 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

LEJEUNEACEAE 

ArCHI LEJEUNEA LEPRIEURII (MonT.) SpRUCE - MoNTEVERDE. MaR. 10-17, 

1965. W. & M. James 100 (R). 

Brvopteri s fruti colosa Tayl. - Monteverde, mountain top along trail. 
Dec, 29, 196^* Jerry James 28 (R) and 33 (US); Monteverde, woods. 
Feb. 1963. W. James (US). 

Bryopteri s tri ni tens I s (Lehm. & Lindens.) Lehm, et Lindenb. - Monte- 
verde, ON rocks by water. June 10, I966. M. James 16 (R). 

Ceratolejeunea maritima (Spruce) Steph, - Monteverde, forests, 4300 
FT, ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-I3 (R). 

Ceratolejeunea cornuta (Lindenb.) Schiffn, - Monteverde, on leaves 

OF ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT. JaN. 15j 1965. W. JamES 40E (R); ALONG 
PATH TO SPRING, MoNTEVERDE. Jan. 10, 1965. M. JaMES 31A (R). 

COLOLEJEUNEA SCABRI FLORA GoTTSCHE EX StEPH. - MoNTEVERDE, ON LEAVES 
OF ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT. JaN. 15» 1965. W. JamES 41 A (R). 

CoLURA TENUI CORN I S (EVANs) StEPH. - MoNTEVERDE, ON LEAVES OF ORANGE 
AND GRAPEFRUIT, JaN. 15» ^9^5' W. JamES 40F (R). 

D| PLAS I OLE JEUNEA BRACHYCLADA EVANS - MoNTEVERDE, ON LEAVES OF ORANGE 

AND GRAPEFRUIT. Jan. 15, 1965.- W, James 40C, 40H, 41 C (R). 

Prep ANCLE JEUNEA Bl OCELLATA EVANS - MONTEVERDE, ON LEAVES OF ORANGE 
AND GRAPEFRUIT. JaN. 15) 1 965« W. JaMES 40 I AND 41 A (R). 

EUOSMOLEJEUNEA CLAUSA (NeES ET MoNT.) EVANS - MoNTEVERDE, ON LEAVES 
OF ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT. JaN, 15) 1965. W. JaMES 41 D (R); MONTE- 
VERDE, FORESTS ALONG SoUTH LiNE, MaR. 16, 1969« W. JamES 1969" 

102 (R). 

EuOSMOLEJEUNEA DURIUSCULA (NeEs) EvANS - MoNTEVERDE. Mar. 10-17, 

1965. W. & M. James 105, with Frullania arecae (R). 

HyGROLE JEUNEA CERINA (LehM. ET LlNDENB.) StEPH. - MoNTEVERDE, PASTURES, 
ON TREES AND LOGS, JaN, 9) "^9^5' W. JaMES 10 (R). 

Hygrolejeunea punctata Herz, - Monteverde. Mar. 10-1 7, 1965. W. & M , 
James 76, w i t h Lophocolea marti ana ( R ) . 

Leucolejeunea xanthocarpa (Lehm, et Lindenb,) Evans - Monteverde, 
Oct. 1963, W. James 13 (R). 

Macrolejeunea lanci foli a (Steph,) Herz, - Monteverde, pastures, on 

TREES and logs, JaN, 9) 1965. M. J AMES 14 (R). 
NOWELLI A REED I I H.RoBINSON - MoNTEVERDE, FORESTS, 4300 FT. ELEV. 

Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-42 (Holotvpus: US; isotvpus: Reed). 
Odontolejeunea lunulata (Web.) Schiffn, - Monteverde, on leaves of 

ORANGE AND GRAPEFRUIT, JaN, 15) 1965. W. JaMES 40A (R), 

Omphalanthus fi lifqrmi s (Sw. ) Nees - Monteverde, forest along South 
Line, Mar. 16, 1969. W. James I969-67 and I969-73 (R); Monteverde, 
mountain top along trail. Dec. 29, 1964. Jerry James 30 (R); 
Monteverde. Oct. I963, W. James 9 (R), 



1971 Reed & Robinson, Bryophytes of Uonteverde 21 

LEJEUNEACEAE 

Peltolejeunea oval I s (Lindenb. et Gottsche) Spruce - Monteverde, on 
LEAVES of orange and grapefruit, Jan. 15» 1965* W. James ^D (R), 

PRIONOLEJEUNEA MUCRONATA ( LaC. ) StEPH. - MoNTEVERDE. MaR, 10-17, 1965. 

W. & M. James 34B, 50A, 69, 108 (on Pi lotri chella imbricata ) (R); 

ALONG PATH TO SPRING, MoNTEVERDE, JaN, 10, 1 965« M- JamES 3^ (R). 

Rectolejeunea maxoni i Evans - Monteverde, on leaves of orange and 

GRAPEFRUIT. Jan. 15, 1 965. W. JaMES 41 B( I ), 41 A AND 41 E (R). 

Sti ctolejeunea kunzeana (Gottsche) Schiffn, - Monteverde, forest 
along South Line. Mar. 16, I969, W. James I969-66 (US). 

Sti ctolejeunea squamata (Willd.) Schiffn. - Monteverde, woods. Oct. 
1967. W. jTmes (R;US). 

Tax I LEJEUNEA obtusangula (Spruce) Evans - Monteverde, on leaves of 
orange and grapefruit. Jan. I5, 1965* W. James 40G and 41A (R). 
Tax I LEJEUNEA pterogoni a (Lehm. et Lindenb. ) Steph. - Monteverde, 

UNDER EAVES of GREENHOUSE, Jan. 11, 1965* M. JamES 2S) (R); MONTE- 
VERDE, forest ALONG SoUTH LiNE. MaR, l6, 1969. W. J AMES 1969-70. 

Trachylejeunea i nflexa (Hampe) Steph. - Monteverde, on trees in for- 
est NEAR MoTAS. Apr. 4, 1969. W. James I969-IOO (R). 

DILAENACEAE 

Symphvogyna brongniartii Mont. - Monteverde, road bank. May 29, I966, 
W. James 27 (R). 

METZGER I ACEAE 

MeTZGERI A CONJUGATA LiNDENB. - MoNTEVERDE. OCT. 1963* W. JaMES 7 (R); 

Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. elev, Feb. 1969. W. James 1 969-1 5« 

MeTZGERI A FRUTI CULOSA (DiCKS.) EVANS - MoNTEVERDE, ON LEAVES OF ORANGE 
AND GRAPEFRUIT. JaN. 15, 1965, W. J AMES 40B(2) (R), 

MeTZGERI A HAMATA LiNDB. - MoNTEVERDE, ChECO TrAIL NEAR AdONO CLEAR- 
ING. Aug. 3, 1968. W. James (R); Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft. 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James I969-I9B (R). 

ANEURACEAE 

Riccardia multifida (L.) S.F.Gray - Monteverde, forests, 4300 ft, 
ELEV. Feb. 1969. W. James 1969-3 (R), 

MONOCLEACEAE 

MoNOCLEA gottsche I Lindb, - Monteverde, on tree, river woods. June 
7, 1966. M. James 9 (R). 

MARCHANTl ACEAE 
DuMORiiERA hirsuta (Sw.) Nees - Monteverde, Eatons Path, river cliff, 
4500 FT. ELEV, Mar. 9, 1969. W. James 1969-88 (R). 

Marchant i a chenopoda L. - Monteverde, road bank. May 29, I966. W. 
James 23, 24, 25, 26 (R); on ground along river, woods, Monte- 
verde. June 7, I966. M. James 7 (R); on pasture log, Monteverde. 
June 13, I966. M. James 2 (R). 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (COMPOSITAE) . XXXIII. 
THE GENUS GflPTIS 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



Gsrptis of Cassini is the oldest name for a group of plants 
which have often mistakenly been placed in the genus Conoclinium . 
These plants >*iich occur in Brazil and adjacent areas have flat 
receptacles, 4-26 flowers per head, thick densely setose achenes, 
very prominent papillae on the inside and outside surface of the 
corolla lobes and many hairs on the outside surface of the 
corolla lobes . The plaints with their rather long scapose inflor- 
escences, compact clusters of heads and often bluish or lavender 
flowers do resemble Conoclinitm (King & Robinson, 1970) and the 
related Brazilian genus, Barrosoa (King & Robinson, 1971a) . 
These three genera along with Lourteigia (1971b) of the northern 
Andes, share papillose outer surfaces of the corolla and highly 
ornamented walls of the anther collar cells. There is every 
reason to place them together in a group which we would refer to 
as Gyptoid. Only striking differences in pappus structure and 
slight differences in carpopodium structure separate the related 
group which we refer to as Ageratoid. 

One feature of the achene of Gyptis may be more the result 
of its shape than of relationship. The achenes are very broad 
and the minute pimctations on the lateral surfaces are usually 
arranged in prominent transverse rows. Similar rows of pimcta- 
tions have been observed in other groups such as Disynaphia 
which are not considered closely related. 

In G. art emisif olia , we have seen a few papillae on the 
base of the style which might suggest some relationship to the 
Eupatorioids . Distinctions between the groups are clear, 
however. One species often associated with Gyptis , Eupatorium 
oblong if oli\im Sch.-Bip. ex Baker is definitely a Stomatanthes 
(Robinson, 1970) in the Eupatorioid series having non-papillose 
corolla lobes and occasional stomates. 



Gyptis (Cassini) Cassini, Diet. Sci. Nat. 16: 10. 1820. 

Perennial herbs usually with tuberous tap roots. Stems 
erect, sparingly branched. Leaves opposite often becoming 
alternate above, ovate to bipinnatifid, serrulate to deeply 
cleft. Inflorescence usually densely corymbose or cymose. 
Involucre of 16-25 lanceolate to linear truncate scales in 2-3 
series; receptacle flat, glabrous. Head with 4-26 flowers, 
corollas narrowly funnelform, strongly papillose on both sur- 
faces of lobes, hairs and often glands on outer surface of lobes, 

22 



1971 King & Robinson, The genus Gyptis 23 

cells of tube narrow vd.th sinuous walls; anther collar with 
mostly quadrate or short rectangular cells below, walls with 
transverse or oblique thickened bands. Anther appendages 
elongate with rather large cells; style base not enlarged, style 
appendages with distinct usually pointed papillae, appendages 
sometimes slightly enlarged; achenes prismatic, 5-costate, costae 
and lateral surfaces densely setiferous, minute punctations in 
rather regular transverse bands. Carpopodia very short, of very 
quadrate rather thin-walled cells. Pappus of many setae, apical 
cells of setae usually subacute or pointed. 

lype species: Gyptis pinnatifida Cassini 

Chromosome number not determined. 

Key to species of Gyptis 

1. Style branches with rather broad short-papillose appendages 

G. commersonii 
1. Style branches slender with pointed long papillae, 
2. Leaves pinnately-bipinnately dissected. 
3. Plants with few or no branches above the base, inflores- 
cence usually of one or a few rather dense corymbs or 
cymes G. pinnatifida 

3. Plants with many axillary branches, inflorescence rather 

diffuse G. artemisifolia 

2. Leaves ovate with crenate or serrate margins. 
h. Phyllaries with unmodified tips G. inomata 

A. Phyllaries with densely pubescent and often much broadened 
tips. 
5. Leaves nearly glabrous, with some short hairs near the 

margin G. altemifolia 

5 . Leaves densely pubescent . 
6. Leaves with short pubescence, blades elliptical- 
lanceolate G. vemoniopsis 
6. Leaves coarsely long-pubescent, blades often rhomboid- 
ovate G. lanigera 



Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
seven species. 

Gyptis alJbernifolia ( S chult z-Bip . ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Robin- 
s on,' "c omETT riov . Eupatoriixm altemifolium Schult z-Bip. ex 
Baker in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 333. 1876. Argentina, 
Brazil, Paraguay. 

G^tis artend^if oliji (Griseb. in Goett.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comET^nov. Eupatorium artemisifoliiim Griseb. in Goett. 
Abh. 24: 171. 1879. Argentina. 

Gyptis commersonii Cassini, Diet. Sci. Nat. 20: 178. 1821. 



2h PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Eupatorium bacleanum A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5: 157. I836. 
Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay. 

^^gtis inomata R.M.King & H.Robinson, sp. nov. 

G. lanigerae Hook. & Am. af finis sed involucri squamae 
inomatae 

Brazil, Parana: Jaguariahyva, Dusen 14938 Holotype US! 
Dusen 11679 US 

The simple narrowly acute involucral bracts are very distinct 
from all the other species of the genus. In other characters, 
the species is very close to the forms of G. lanigera having 
narrowly oblong ovate leaf blades and rather spreading violet 
colored cymose to corymbose inf loresences . 



9l$^ 



t i£ lanigera (Hook. & Am.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
lupatorium lanigerium Hook . & Am . in Hook ., Comp . Bot . Mag . 
1: 242. I835. Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay. 



Gyptis pinnatifida Cassini, Diet. Sc. Nat. 20: 178. 1821. 

Eupatorium ceratophyllvun Hook. & Am. in Hook., Comp. Bot. 
Mag. 1: 240. 1835 . Eupatorixxm tanacetifolium Gill, ex Hook. 
& Am. in Hook., Comp. Bot. Mag. 1: 242. 1835. Eupatorium 
erodiifolivim A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5: 158. I836. Gyptis 
peucedanifolia Schultz-Bip. ex Baker, in Mart., Fl. Bras. 
6(2): 333. 1876. Argentina, Brazil, Uruguay. 

^^piy^ vemonio£si£ (Schultz-Bip. ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
coa£. lioTrr ^upatorium vemoniopsis Schultz-Bip. ex Baker in 
Mart ., Fl . Bras. 6(2): 334 . 1876 . Eupatorium aureoviride 
Chod., in Bull. Herb. Boiss. Ser. II (2): 309. 1902. 
Argentina, Brazil, Paraguay, Uruguay. 



Species excluded 

Gyptis baccharoides Schultz-Bip. ex Baker = Symphyopappus 
viscosus Schultz -Bip. ex Baker. 

Gyptis oblongifolia Schultz-Bip. ex Baker = Stomatanthes 
oblong ifolius (Schultz-Bip. ex Baker) H.Robinson. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foimdation Grant GB - 20502 to the senior author. 



1971 King & Robinson, The genus Gyptis 25 

Literature Cited 

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1970. Studies in the Eupatorieae 
(Compositae) . XIII. The genus Conocliniim . Phytologia 
19: 299-300 

& , 1971a. Studies in the Eupatorieae 

TCompositae) . XXXIV. A new genus, Barrosoa . Phytologia 



21: 26-27. 



1971b. Studies in the Eupatorieae 



TCompositae) . XXXV. A new genus, Lourteigia . Phytologia 
21: 28-30. 

Robinson, H. 1970. South American species of Stomatanthes 
(Eupatorieae, Compositae). Phytologia 20: 33A-338. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (COMPOSITAE) . XXXIV 
A NEW GENUS, BARROSOA 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 

Among the species that can be roughly sorted into the Gyptoid 
group in Brazil, there are two very distinctive groups. One, hav- 
ing very broad achenes with many setae and indistinct carpopodia 
and highly papillose style branches, is true Gyptis . The other 
group, having more slender achenes with few or no setae, very 
distinct carpopodia of large cells and rather smooth style 
branches, is here named as the new genus Barrosoa . The con^alex 
has been related to Conoclinixxm of North America. Barrosoa does 
have conical receptacles such as are fo\ind in Conoclinium , but 
Gyptis has only flat receptacles. 

Barrosoa differs from Conoclinium by the acute tips on its 
pappus setae, the very prominent carpopodia with large cells, 
the hairs on the outside of the corolla lobes and the nearly 
smooth style branches. 

The genus is also related to Lourteigia of the northern 
Andes and one species B. morichalana (Aristeguieta) R.M.King & 
H.Robinson occurs in both Venezexila and Colombia. This is, how- 
ever, a plant of low elevations, occuring in llanos in the 
Orinoco region. Lourteigia is a genus of strictly higher elev- 
ations. Lourteigia also differs in the smaller cells of its 
carpopodiiaa, the less differentiated cells on the inner surface 
of its corolla lobes and its always flat receptacles. 

We take great pleasure in naming this new genus in honor of 
Dr. Graziela Maciel Barroso, the leading authority on Brazilian 
Compo sitae. 

Barrosoa R.M.King and H.Robinson, genus novum Compositarum 
( Eup at o rie ae)' . Plantae suffrutescentes pauce ramosae minute 
pubescentes. Folia opposita vel supeme altema lanceolata 
serrata vel crenulata distincte breviter petiolata. Inflores- 
centiae dense corymbosae. Involucri squamae ca 15-25 subaequi- 
longae 2-seriatae anguste lanceolatae subimbricatae; receptacula 
convexa vel conica glabra. Flores 20-55 in capitulo; corollae 
infundibulares, tubis laevibus, cellulis angustis, parietibus 
sinuosis, lobis utrinque valde papillosis extus setiferis et 
glanduliferis, cellulis interioribus brevibus ab inferioribus 
valde distinctis; f i 1 amenta antherarum in parte superiors elong- 
ata, cellulis plerumque breviter rectangularibus brevioribus, 
parietibus dense transverse vel oblique omatis, cellulis 
exothecialibus plerumque subquadratis vel brevioribus, appendici- 
bus antherarum late ovatis oblongis; styli infeme non nodulosi 
glabri, appendicibus tenuibus sublaevibus; achaenia prismatica 

26 



1971 King &: Robinson, A new genus, Barrosoa 27 

5-costata glandulifera supeme vix ccnstricta; carpopodia 
distincta magna, cellulis subquadratis inflatis; pappi seti- 
formes, uniseriati, setis 25-30 gracilibus scabris persistentibus. 
cellulis apicalibus acutis vel subacutis. 

Species typica: Eupatorium candolleanum Hook. & Am. 

Our studies indicate that the genus contains the follovdng 
six species. 

Ba rrosoa _betonicaeformis (A.P.Decandolle) R.M.King and H.Robinson, 
co5!bT~no V . Conoc 1 inium betonicaeforme A. P. Decandolle, 
Prodr. 5: 135. I836. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Uruguay. 

Barrosoa cab rerae (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
l!{rpatorium Cabrerae B.L.Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 90: 21. 
1930. Argentina, Uruguay? 

Ba rrosoa candolleana (Hook. & Am.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov .^ ^ATpatorrum candolleanim Hook & Am. in Hook., Conqj. Bot. 
Mag. 1: 2A3. 1835. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay, 
Uiniguay . 

Barrosoa mo richalana (Aristeguieta) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium morichalanum Aristeguieta, Mem. New York 
Bot. Gard. 9: 36?. 1957. Colombia, Venezeiola. 

Barrosoa ramboi( Cabrera) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 

Eupatorium ramboi Cabrera, Sellovd.a 15: 20?. 1963. Brazil. 

Barrosoa viridiflora (Baker) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Conoclinixjim viridiflorum Baker, in Mart., Fl. Bras. 6(2): 
309. 1876. Brazil. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
FoTindation Grant GB - 20502 to the senior author. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (COMPOSITAE) . XXXV, 
A NEW GENUS, LOURTEIGIA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. 

Six species from the northern Andes are here recognized as 
a new genus related to Gyptis (King & Robinson, 1971a) , Cono- 
clinium (King & Robinson, 1970b), Barrosoa (King & Robinson, 
197lb), and shovd.ng some microscopic resemblance to Fleischmannia 
(King & Robinson, 1970a) . Some of the species have been referred 
to the section Conoclinium but they lack the conical receptacle 
of that group. The most distinctive features of the genus 
Loiirteigia are the rather consistent presence of 20 flowers per 
head, the distinct carpopodium of small firm-walled cells and 
the extreme constriction of the achene vinder the pappus. In this 
latter feature, the achene is narrowed to a third or less of its 
normal width and the pappus which is easily broken off, has a 
flat or even concave xmdersurf ace . 

Some resemblance has been noted between Lourteigia and 
Fleischmannia . Actual close relationship is doubted. The cells 
on the inner surface of the corolla lobes of Lourteigia do not 
have the projecting upper ends that are so distinctive in 
Fleischmannia . In fact, the corolla lobes can hardly be called 
papillose on the inside though they have recessed walls between 
the cells. The cells on the insides of the corolla lobes are 
not markedly distinct from those of the corolla tube as they are 
in the genus Barrosoa . The cells at the base of the anther 
collars in Lourteigia are obviously short and some have oblique- 
ly or vertically oriented thickenings. The anther collars of 
Fleischmannia have only transverse thickenings and any short 
cells are not obvious. 

lourteigia R.M.King & H.Robinson, genus novum Compositarum 
( Eupatorieae) .' Plant ae perennes herbaceae repentes vel frutes- 
centes pauce vel dense ramosae. Paginae caulixnn et paginae 
abaxiales foliorum saepe mollissime albo-tomentosae. Folia 
opposita ovata vel anguste elliptica crenvilata vel serrata, 
petiolo brevi. Inf lores centiae dense corymbosae. Involucri 
squamae ca. 20-25 inaequilongae 3-4-seriatae lanceolatae; recept- 
acula plana glabra vel minute pubescentia. Flores 20 in cap- 
itulo; corollae infundibvilares intus nonpapillosae glabrae, 
cellulis angustis, parietibus sinuosis, lobis extus dense seti- 
feris et ad apicem valde papillosis; filamenta antherarxua in 
parte superiore tenuia, cellulis plertmique breviter rectangular- 
ibus inferioribus brevioribus, parietibus dense tranverse vel 
oblique omatis, cellulis exothecialibus plerumque subquadratis 
vel brevioribus, appendicibus antheramim late ovatis vel oblongis; 

28 



1971 King & Robinson, A new genus, Lourteigia 29 

styli infeme non nodulosi glabri, appendicibus valde antrorse 
papillatisj achaenia prismatica 5-costata pauce setifera vel 
subglabra superne valde constricta; carpopodia distincta plerum- 
que asymmetrica obturaculiformia, cellulis quadratis paullo 
parvis, parietibus inter cellulas incrassatis dense moniliform- 
ibus; pappus saepe in monadis deciduus, setis ca. 30 gracilibus 
persistent ibus, cellulis apicalibus acutis. 

Species typica: Eupatorium stoechadifolium L. f . 

Chromosome number determined as n = 10 (Powell & King, 1969) . 

It is with great pleasure that we name this new genus in 
honor of Dr. Alicia Lourteig of the Laboratoire de Phan^rogamie, 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris. Her work has 
contributed greatly to the taxonomy of South American plants. 

Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
six species. 

l£urtei£ia dixhroa (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium dichroum B.L.Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 
73: 10. 1924. Colombia. 

Lourteigia humilis (Benth.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 

ConocliniiMi huTnile Benth., PI. Hartw. 199. 1845. Colombia. 

Lourteigi^ laiiul^t^ (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatoriimi lanulatum B.L.Robinson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
54: 249. 1918. Colombia. 

l51i£i5iSi£ Si££°E?lZii£ (^•^•) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorium microphyllum L.f ., Suppl. 355. 1781. Colombia. 

l£H£i5i£i2: £Sifiii£^ (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatorium omatilobum B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. 80: 27. 1928. Colombia. 

Lourteigia stoechadifolia (L.f .) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Bupat^riASrstoechadifoliiim L.f., Suppl. 355. 1781. 
Colombia, Venezuela. 

Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant GB-20502 to the senior author. 



30 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Literature Cited 

King, R. M. & H. Robinson. 1970a. Studies in the Eupatorieae 
(Compositae) . XVIII. New combinations in Fleischmannia . 
Phytologia 19: 201-20?. 

& . 1970b. Studies in the Eupatorieae 

^Compositae) . XIII. The genus Conoclinium . Phytologia 



19: 299-300, 



1971a. Studies in the Eupatorieae 



TCompositae) . XXXIII. The genus Gyptis . Phytologia 
21: 22-25. 

1971b. Studies in the Eupatorieae 



(Compositae). XXXIV. A new genus, Barrosoa . Phytologia 
21: 26-27. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THiJ GENUS HIBIOBOTANA . I 
Harold N. Moldenke 



HIEROBOTANA Briq. 

Additional & emended bibliography: H.B.K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. PI., 
ed. folio, 2: 221, pi. 13$ (I8l7), ed. quart., 2: pi. 135 (l8l7), 
and ed. quart., 273— 27U. I8l8; Steud., Norn. Hot., ed. 1, 873. 
1821; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 2: 7U9. I825i Steud. 
Norn. Bot., ed. 2, 2: 750. I8ia; D. Dietr., Syn. PI. 3'- 60I4. 18U3; 
Narnhart, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 500. 1902; Hayek in Engl., 
Bot. Jahrb. U2: 161;. I9O8; M. Kunz, Ana torn. Untersuch. Verb. 33. 
1911 ; Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dicot. 10 31, 1032, & lOUO. 1950; 
Angely, Cat. Estat. Gen. Bot. Fam. 17: h. 1956; J. F. Llacbr., 
Field lius. Publ. Bot. 13 (5): [Fl. Perji] 6IO. I96O; Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 7: 300— 3OI4. I960: Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 36: 719. 1961; 
Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. k.hi 22U. 1962; lioldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 7: 
8. 1963; Moldenke, Phytologia 9: 31 (1963) and 9: 397. 1961^; F. A. 
Barkley, List Ord. Fam. Anthoph. 75 & 173. 1965; Moldenke, Phyto- 
logia 12: 6. 1965; Airy Shaw in Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 7, 
5U5. 1966; Anon., Torrey Bot. Club Ind. Am. Bot. Lit. 3: 309- 1969. 

HIEROBOTANA INFUTA (H.B.K.) Briq. 

Additional & amended synonymy: Verbena inflata Himib. & Bonpl. 
ex Steud., Norn. Bot., ed. 1, 873- 1821. Verbena inflata Humb. ex 
Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 2: 7U9. 1825. Verbena inflata 
Humb. & Kunth ex Benth., PI. Hartweg. 2U5. I81i6. Hierobotana in- 
flate (Kiinth) Briq. ex Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 2: 9, in syn. 19^0. 
Hierobotana inflata (H,B.K,) Hieron. ex Moldenke, R5sum6 Suppl. 7: 
8, in syn. 19^ 

Qnended illustrations: H.B.K., Nov. Gen. & Sp. PI., ed. folio, 
2: pi. 135 [in color] (l8l7) and ed. quart., 2: pi. 135. 1817. 

Recent collectors describe this plant as a low woody herb, for- 
ming spreading mats, the roots large, and the calyx green, tipped 
purple . Barclay L Juajibioy 8216 is said to have had the corollas 
"lavender to almost white, deeper color in throat of tube, with 
hairs". The plant has been found growing in dry desery climates, 
in sandy soil, on rocky hillsides and dry slopes, in open deserts 
and open grassy paramos, along disturbed roadsides, and among 
sparse grasses and low plants in dry open flat apeas with sotae sand 
dunes, at altitudes of 1200 — 3700 meters, flowering and fruiting 
in March, April, July, September, and November. 

Material has been misidentified and distributed in herbaria as 
Verbena microphylla H.B.K. 

Additional citetions: ECUADOR: Chimborazo; Barclay & Juajibioy 
8216 (N); Fagerlind Sc Wibcm s.n. [Guamote, X.1952] (Mi); F. £. Leh- 
mann 17U (Bm); Rlmbach 176 (W— l5Ui7l6); Rose & Rose 22UOO (W— 
10220^, 23906 (V/— 1023216); Sparre 18533 (S) . Cotopaxi: Barclay 
& Juajibio779^5 (N); Sparre 15689 (S), l581i5 (S) . 

31 



ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TOWARD A MONOGRAOH OF THE GOJUS 
CALLICARPA . XII 

Harold N. Moldenke 



CALLICARPA CANDICANS (Bum. f .) Hochr. 

Prain (1903) tells us that this species is "often cultivated} 
occasionally naturalised in C[entral] Bengal, A large shrub j 
native of the Malay peninsula", called "arusha" in Bengal. Uphof 
(1968) reports that in Hindu medicine a decoction is made of the 
roota, leaves, and bark and that this is used in the treatment of 
skin diseases, parts of the plant are employed as an arrow-poison, 
and in the Philippines a decoction of the leaves is used as a 
fish-poison. 

Vidal y Soler (1885) cites Cuming 1283 from the Philippine Is- 
lands, while Chang (19^1) cites C_. I^ Lei 731 , as well as nos. 
139 , 315, 373, 1026 , 3379 , U0li9 , U837 . |97|, 26OO9, 27239, 33351 , 
61557 , 6I93I , 61i567 , 65228 , 665ia, 71U32 , & 72U32 of collectors 
and/or herbaria whose names, unfortunately, he gives only in 
Chinese characters. For some reason unknown to me, Chajig in- 
cludes C, americana Lour, in the synonymy of what is now known as 
C. kochisma Mak., but most authorities, including myself, regard 
it as conspecific with C. camdicans (Burm. f.) Hochr. 

The H. H. Bartlett lli711 and Kjellberg 96, distributed and in 
the case of the latter also cited by me as C_. candicans , are actu- 
ally Cj, bicolor A. L. Juss., H, H. Bartlett lU698a and Quezon 1 
[Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 30258] are £. erioclona Schau., and 
B.C. Stone 3931 is C_. erioclona var. paucinervia (Merr.) Moldenke. 

CALLICARPA CAITOICANS var. SUMATRANA (Miq.) Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
308. I95I; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 12: U23 & k2k, 1967} Moldenke, 
Phytologia 15: 20. 1967} Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. k?'- U199. 1968. 

CALLICARPA CATHAYANA Chang 

Additional & emended bibliography: H.-T, Chang, Act. Phytotax, 
Sin. 1: 300, 305, Sc 312, 1951} Moldenke, Phytologia li^: lliO, I966, 

Chang (1951) describes this species as follows: "Frutex circ, 
1.5 m altus. Hamuli graciles teretes pallide cinerei, homotini 
sparse stellato-lepidoti vel glabrescentes, annotini glabri sparse 
lenticellati. Folia menbranacea ovato-lanceolata, U — 7 cm longa, 
1.5 — 2.5 cm lata, basin versus abrupte longe attenuata, apice 
acimiinata, in parte 3/li susperiore densissime serrulata, supra 
viridia sparsissime puberula et nibro-punctata, subtus paulo pal- 
lidiora glabra dense rubro-punctata} nervi utrinsecus 5 — 7 supra 
conspicui subtus elevati fere recti ascendentes prope marginem 
arcuato-anastomosantes} petioli 2 — h ram longi. Flores violaceo- 
pvirpurei in cymis gracilibus ter dichotomis paucifloris 1.5 cm 

32 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of CalHcarpa 33 

latis, stellato-lepidotis, pedvinculis 5 — 7 cm longis, pedicellis 
2 mm longis aggregatij calyx 0.8 mm longus, truncatus, ut corolla 
et antherae rubro-punctatus, lobis inconspicuisj corolla 2 mm 
longa, lobis 0.5 mm longis j stamina paulo exserta, filamentis 
tubum corollae subaequantibus, antheris circ. 1.5 mm longis poro 
apicali dehiscentibusj ovari'om glabrum, sitylo stamina superante. 
Fnictus purpureus 1.5 mm diametro." 

The species is beised on S_. iU Chun 2171 from Canton, Kwangtung, 
China, deposited in the herbarium of the Botanical Institute, 
Sunyatsen University, Canton. Chang (1951) cites also H.-T. 
Chang 3560 . £. 1^ Gilchrist 76 & 205, Hj. Yj. Liang 61398 , W^ T. 
Tsang 213U6 , T. M. Tsui U50 & 601, and C. Wang 301U5 from Kwang- 
tung, S_. K. Lee 81099 from Kwangsi, S^ K. l£a Ut;09 and IT. K. Mo 
20966 from Kiangsi, and W. C. Cheng 1027 and Y. C^ Keng 2382 frcan 
Kiangsu. He states that the species is related to C. bodinieri 
var. giraldii (Hesse) Rehd., C_. dichotcma (Lour.) K. Koch, and C. 
japonica var. angustata Rehd., with which taxa he compares it. 

CALLICARPA CAUDATA Maxim. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 363. I968. 

Sayers describes this plant as an er«ct shrub, found in regrowth 
at the sites of old village gardens in New Guinea, producing 
deep-mauve fruit. The corollas are described as "lavender" on H. 
H. Bartlett 13211 and as "pale-mauve" on Sayers N.G.F .211^99 . The 
E. D. Merrill " 7115 ". cited in Phytologia 15: 20 (I967), is an 
error in transcription for E^ D, Merrill 8117 . The Meams 8c 
Hutchinson s.n, [May I906], distributed as C. caudata, is actual- 
ly C, merrillii Moldenke. 

Callicarpa merrillii may be distinguished readily from C. 
caudata by the simple hairs on the lower leaf-surfaces, but the 
two taxa are obviously closely related. 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS: PHILIPPINE IS- 
LANDS: Bohol: M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Ii3310] (W— 
1292598) . Luzon: H. H^ Bartlett 13211 (Mi) . MEUNESU: NEW 
GUINEA: Northeastern New Guinea: Sayers N.G.F .211^99 (Mi). 

CALLICARPA COLLINA Diels 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
299, 301—303, & 312. 195li Moldenke, Phytologia Ih: m7— lli8 
(1966) and 16: U53. 1968. 

Chang (1951) cites only the type collection of this taxon, can- 
paring it with C_, rubella Lindl. and C_. brevipes (Benth.) Hance. 
He maintains C_. brevipes f . yingtakensis P'ei as a valid taxon, 
citing the type collection and also nos. Ilt5 S: 52981 of collectors 
and/or herbaria whose names he gives only in Chinese characters. 

CALLICARPA DENTICUUTA Merr. 

Additional bibliography: Quisxirabing, Sjnnpos . Ecol. Res. Htmiid 
Trop. Veg. 35. 1965; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 363 & 373. 1968. 



3U PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

CALLICARPA DICHOTOMA (Lour.) K. Koch 

Emended synonymy: Callicarpa dlchotcaia K. Koch ex H.-T. Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 271, 288, & 307. 1951. 

Additional & emended bibliography; Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agr. 
Tokyo Imp, Univ. 2 [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] 269, pl. 10, fig. 9. 
1895,* L6v1. in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. 12: 182. 1913; Kanehira, 
Formos. Trees, ed. 2, 6U2--61i3 & 716. 1936; T. H. Everett, Cat. 
Hardy Trees & Shrubs 16. 19U2; H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, PI. Life 2: 
83. 19148; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, ed. 5 167. 19^0; H.-T. Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 270, 271, 280, 288, 29U— 295, 305, 307, 
310, & 311. 1951; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, [ed. 6,, pr. 1], I67. 
1952; Core, PI. Tax. U02. 1955; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, [ed. 6, 
pr. 2], 167 (1958) and [pr. 3], 167. 1959; E. L. D. Seymour, Wise 
Gard. Encycl., ed. 6, 211. 1963; J. Bush-Brown, Shrubs & Trees 
Home Landsc. 72 & [205]. 1963; Radford, Ahles, & Bell, Guide 
Vase. PI. Carol. 282 & 283. 196U; Ohni, Fl. Jap. 76>-76ii. 1965; 
Thomberiy, U. S. Dept. Agr. Agric. Handb. 165: li78. I966; 
Tingle, Check List Hong Kong PI. 37. 1967; Omduff, Reg. Veg. 50: 
86 & 12li. 1967; Glasau. Scmmergr. Ziergeh. 6U. 1967; E. Lawrence, 
South. Gard., ed. 2, 186. 1967; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 11: 205. 
1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 363—361;, 377, 378, & U5l. 1968; 
Moldenke, R6sum5 Suppl. 16: 17 & 19 (1968) and 17: 7. 1968. 

Additional & emended illustrations: Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agr. 
Tokyo Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap, Laubh. Winterzust.] pl. 10, fig. 9. 
1895; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, ed. 5, 167 (1950), [ed. 6, pr. 1], 
167 (1952), [ed. 6, pr. 2], 167 (1958), and [ed. 6, pr. 3], 167. 
1959. 

Chang (1951) cites the K. Koch reference in the literature of 
this species as "2: 336" and he regards C. taquetii L6vl. as a 
synonym of C_. dichotoma , whereas I classify it as £. japonic a var. 
taquetii (L^veilll) Nakai. 

Sj^ces describes the corollas of C_. dichotoma as "mauve" and 
the fruit as ^'purple, globose, shining", questioning whether his 
no. 202/66 is the "?same plant as no. 156^3". Santamour (I967) 
gives its chromosome number as n = 18. 

Tatnall (I9I4.7) notes that the species was "escaped and well 
established in a swampy thicket along Les's River, Wilmington. 
Locality long since destroyed". Radford, Ahles, & Bell (I96U) 
aver that it is "rare in bogs" in Henderson County, North Caroli- 
na, flowering there from July to frost and fruiting from Septem- 
ber to frost. Additional vernacular names for the plant are 
"ko-shikibu" and "purple pearl", the former recorded from Japan, 
the latter from Hongkong. Ohwi (1965) gives its distribution as 
"Honshiu, Shikoku, Hyushu, Korea, Ryukyus, Formosa". 

Thomberry (19o6) implies that the follovdng fungi are known 
to (or may) attack this species: Atractilina callicarpae Dearn. 
& Barth . , Botryosphaeria callicarpae Cke . , Cercospora callicarpae 
Cke., Coniothyrivm callicarpae Cke., Meliola cookeana Soeg., Nec- 
tria cinnabarlna Tode, and Physalospora obtusa (Schw.) Cke., al- 
though it seems most probable to me that most, if not all, of 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Gallic arpa 35 

these records apply to the native C_. americana L. 

Ohwi (1965) records the name "murasaki-shikibu zoku" for the 
genus Callicarpa as a whole and keys out the Japanese species 
known to him as follows: [nomenclature brought up to date] 
1. Plants glabrous or thinly pubescent; calyx glabrous, with very 
short teeth. 

2. Leaf -blades caudate, glsindular-dotted on both surfaces 

C. japonic a var. luxuriana 
2a. Leaf -blades acimiinate to acute at the apex, glandular- 
dotted on the underside only. 

3. Cymes supra-axiilaryj anthers broadly ellipsoidal 

C. dichotcma 
3^, Cymes axillary, 
ii. Corolla 1 mm. long, not glandular-do ttedj branches 

slightly U-angledj leaf -blades with 12 — Ih pairs of 

secondaries G_. takakumensis 

ksL, Corolla 3 — 5 n™» long, glandular-do ttedj bramches ter- 
ete ; leaf -blades with only 5 — 9 pairs of secondaries . . 

C. japonica 
la. Plants densely soft-pubescent to villous; calyx pubescent, U- 
fid. 
5. Leaves 5 — 10 cm. long, rounded to obtuse at the base; 

branches and leaves with whitish stellate hairs less than 
1 mm. long; calyx-iobes lanceolate; flowers h — $ nun. long, 

about 10 in a cyme; anthers 1.5 — 2 mm. long C. mollis 

5a. Leaves 15 — 30 cm. long, gradually narrowed at the base; 

branches and petioles with pinnately branched hairs 1.5 — 3 
mm. long; calyx-lobes linear; flowers about 1.5 nun. long, 

very many in a cyme; anthers about 0.7 nun. long 

C. kochiana 

Chang (1951) cites Courtois 5693, £. M^ Gilchrist 107 . T^ Hai 
281 , Matthew U85U, McClure 20556 , and T^ M. Tsui 395 & 666, as 
well as nos. 112 . 251, 589, 682, 815, 1197 , 12li3 , 1791 . 2U91 . 22^98. 
27U9, 2766, h012, U521, U5Ul, U5U6, 5127, 5201, 639U , 7217, 7260 , 
7778 , 8269, 9709, 9882 , 10653 , 13532 , 20U07, 20751 , 21075 . 219II , 
22939, 23862 , 2l;679 , 29682 . 30621, 31ii61; . 32U87. U2071 , U;032 , 
52729 , 53808, 67086, 67139, 67155 . 7U855 , 836U2 , 8U702, 96330, 
105193 , & I3OOU5 of collectors and/or herbaria whose names, unfor- 
tunately, he gives only in Chinese characters. 

The E. D. Merrill 11112 , Onashi & Sohma 10018 [Herb. Univ. 
Tokyo 11023], and Tsang 213U6, distributed as C. dichotana, are 
all actually C, Japonica var. angustata Rehd., while Chiao 2617 
is C. japonica var. rhombifolia H. J. Lam and C. Ford s .n. is C . 
nudi flora Hook. & Am. Tsui 601 appears to be a mixture of C. 
dichotoma and C_. japonica var. angustata . 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: JAPAN: Honshu: 
Okamoto s.n. [Sept. 9, 19id] (Ws); Sj, Suzuki s.n. [Oct. 2, 1951] 
(Se— 11a1360); Togasi 38O (Se— lli722U) . CULTIVATED: Japan: Togas i 



36 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

1667 (Se— 202650). Maryland: Cowgill 96O [F. H. B. 76216] (Mi). 
New Jersey: A. L. Moldenke s.n. [August lli, I968] (Ps — 167) . New 
Zealand: W. R. Sykes 202/66 (Nz— 171138, Rf ) . 

CALLICARPA DOLICHOPHYLU Merr. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
293. 195li Moldenke, Phytologia 15 : 21. I967. 

CALLICARPA ELBGAKS Hayek 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 36U. 1968. 

The Ramos & EdaKo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Ii6955], dis- 
tributed as C. elegans, is actually C. foimosana var. angustata 
Moldenke. On the other hand, material of C. elegans has been 
misidentified and distributed in herbaria as C_, micrantha Vid. 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS: PHILIPPINE IS- 
LANDS: Luzon: Ramos & Edafio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. U5611;] 
(B, Ca— 309261, Z). 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Schau. 

Additional bibliography: Vidal y Soler, Phan. Cximing. Philip. 
13U. 1885; Gibbs, Contrib. Phytogeog. & Fl. Arfak Mts. 218. 1917; 
Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 6: li55. 1963» Moldenke, Pi^ologia 16: 
361;, 381, & 388. 1968. 

Quezon describes this plant as attaining a height of U m., 
growing in open cultivated areas, and used as a fish-poison in 
Mindanao. Gibbs (1917) states that it is common at the edges of 
forests and in clearings, flowering and fruiting in January. He 
cites Gibbs 6205 and Lesson s.n. from New Guinea and Teijsmann 
s.n. from Mansinama Island. He says "This plant is distinguish- 
ed from C_. cana L. by the large, more lanceolate, irregularly 
serrate leaves, with very white pubescence underneath, and white 
flowers with longer exserted stamens. C_. repanda K. Sch. & Warb. 
is possibly a synonym of this plant." 

The Elmer I8086 , distributed as C_. erioclona , is actually C. 
bicolor A. L. Juss. 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: PHILIPPINE IS- 
UNDS: Luzon: H. H. Bartlett lUi53 (Mi), lli629 (Mi), ll|698a (Mi). 
Mindanao: Quezon 1 [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 30258] (S) . 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA var. PAUCINERVIA (Merr.) Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16; 361;. I968. 
Recent collectors describe this plant as shrubby or as a shrub 
2 to 3 1/2 feet tall, with woody stems, growing on low limestone 
cliffs or at the edges of such cliffs, flowering in March and 
November, and fruiting in March. The corollas are described as 
"mauve" and the fruit as black on Henty & Frodln N.G.F .27280 and 
the fruit as purplish on B, C. Stone 3931. 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: MARIANA ISLANDS: 
G\iam: B. C. Stone 3931 (W— 2la0l;20) . PALAU ISLANDS: Peleliu: 



1971 tJoldenke, L'onograph of Callicarpa 37 

Hayne s.n. [1 Nov. 19h5] (Mi). MELANESIA: BISMARK ARCHIPELAGO: 
New Britain: Henty & Frodin N.G.F. 27280 (N) . 

CALLICARPA ERYTHROSTICTA Merr. & Chun 

Additional bibliography: H.-T, Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
280, 29U, & 311. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia U;: 18U. 1966. 

Chang (1951) cites the type collection of this species and a 
no. 71998, -with the name of the collector or herbariiim given only 
in Chinese characters, and gives its relationship as being with 
C. dichotoma (Lour.) K. Koch. 

CALLICARPA FERRUGINEA Sw. 

Additional & emended bibliography: J. F. Gmel. in L., Syst, 
Nat., ed. 13, pr. 1, 2: 2U6 (1789) and pr. 2, 2: 2U6. 1796} Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 15: 2U. 1967 j Moldenke, Biol. Abstr, U95 1325. 
1968. 

Recent collectors have found this plant growing in woods and 
in montane rainforests, at 5000 feet altitude, and describe it 
as a shrub, the corollas white, the filaments and anthers pxirple, 
flowering in June . 

Additional citations: CUBA: Oriente: Alain & Cl6nent 877 (W — 
2288006) . JAl'AICA: G. R. Proctor 6802 (W— 2588117) . 

CALLICARPA FORIIOSANA Rolfe 

Additional & emended bibliography: Matsuda, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 
27: 273— 27U. 1913; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, U3. 1921; 
Kanehira, Formos. Trees, ed. 2, 6U3— 6Ul & 716, fig. 599. 1936; 
Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 1], 56 — 58, 62, 
71, 86, & 87 (I9U2) and [ed. 2], 130, 131, 133—135, HiO, 157, & 
177. 19^9; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 270, 282, 283, 
286, 287, & 310. I95I; Sonohara, Tawada, & Amano, ed. E. H. Wal- 
ker, Fl. Okin. 131. 1952; Masam., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. h'- 
[Enum. Tracheophyt. Ryukyu Isls. 7:] U6. 1955; Prain, Ind. Kew, 
Suppl. 5, pr. 2, Ii3. I96O; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 12: Ii2U & 
U25. 1967; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. U9: 1325, 2290, ic 1^99. 1968; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 361;— 366 L hhl . I968; lloldenke, R6sum6 
Suppl. 16: 11. 1968. 

Emended illustrations: Kanehira, Formos. Trees, ed. 2, 6I4.3, 
fig. $99. 1936. 

Recent collectors have found this plant growing in open woods 
and report the vernacular variant "h6rai-murasaki" . 

Additional citations: ^WESTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: RYUKYU ISLAND 
ARCHIPELAGO: OKIf^WAN ISUNDS: Okinawa: Amano 7803 (Ta)j Kana- 
shiro U (Ta) . FORMOSA: Degener & Degener 28978 (N) . PHILIP- 
PINE ISLANDS: Luzon: Kienholz s.n. [Los Bafios, Nov. 1922] (Mi, 
Mi). 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA f . ANGUSTATA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365. I968. 

Additional citations: ^JflSSTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: PHILIPPINE IS- 
LANDS: Luzon: Ramos & EdaBo s.n. [Herb, Philip. Bur. Sci. U6955] 



38 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

(Ca— 309I192) . 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA var. CHINENSIS P'ei 

Additional synonynQr: Callicarpa peii Chang, Act. Phjrtotax. 
Sin, 1: 282 — 283. 1951. Callicarpa integerrima sensu P'ei apud 
Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 282, in syn. 19^1 [not £, integer- 
rima Champ., 18^3, nor Lindl., 1936]. 

Additional bibliography; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
282—283. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia 1$: 26. 1967. 

Chang (1951) elevates Pel's variety to specific rank, assigns 
to it a new epithet, C_. peii , and designates a new type, L_. Teng 
118 , from Canton, Kwangtung, China, deposited in the herbarium of 
the BotanicsQ. Institute, Sunyatsen University, Canton. However, 
it seems to me that under the present edition of the Internati- 
onal Rules of Botanical Nomenclature, the type of the taxon re- 
mains the same as was originally designated by P'ei, viz., W, Y« 
Chun 5828 . Chang (1951) gives the following emended and ampli- 
fied description of the taxon: "Frutex erectus vel scandens. 
Hamuli teretes torti, homotini pilis fulvo-stellato-farinosis 
obtecti, annotini punctati vel glabrescentesj intemodia 5 — 8 cm 
longa. Folia subcoriacea elliptica vel late elliptica, 7 — 15 cm 
longa I4. — 8.5 cm lata, apice acuta, basi late acuta vel obtusa, 
Integra, supra asprella nitida atro-viridia vel ad costam nervos- 
que laterales utrinsecus 6 — 9 subtus elevates brevissime steUa- 
to-puberula, subtus fulvo-stellato-pubescentia et minutissime 
aureo-glandulosaj petioli 1,5 — 2.5 cm longi, pilis fulvo-stellatis 
farinosis obtecti . Cymae supra-axillares sexies dichotomae 5 — 8 
cm diametroj pedunculi 3 — 5 cm longi, indxanento eo petiolorum 
similiter obtectij pedicelli 1 mm longi glabri, sicut calyces 
minutissime aureo-glandulosij bracteolae lineares 2 mm longaej 
calycis campanula tis 1 mm longis, tubus truncatus glaber, lobi 
inconspicuij corollae purpureo-rosae, tubus 2 mm longvis, lobi 0.5 
mm longi glabri j stamina longe exserta 5 nmi longa, antheris ova- 
tis 0.6 ram longis, longi tudinaliter dehiscentibxis; ovarium glab- 
rum, stylis 7 — 8 mm longis. Fructus puipureo-roseus 2 mm dia- 
metI^^." 

Chang cites R. C_. Ching 6993, Z_. S. Chung 8U897, Kwangsi Mus - 
eum 291, and W, T^ Tsang 228lli from Kwangsi, S_. K. Lau U05li from 
Kiangsi, and W. Y. Chun 5828 , S. K. Lau 25309 & 26152 , and L. 
Teng 118 from Kwangtung. He compares the plsmt with C_^ integer - 
rima Champ . and C . pedunculata R . Br . The C_. chinensis Hort . 
which he mentions is actually a synonym of £, candicans var.su- 
matrana (Miq.) Moldenke. 

CALLICARPA FOHMOSANA var. LONGIFOLIA Suzuki 

Additional synonymy: Callicarpa pedunculata var. longifolia 
(Suzuki) Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 287. 1951. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
279, 287, ^ 311. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 26. I967. 

Chang (1951) cites the original publication of this variety as 



1971 



Moldenke, Monograph of Gallic arpa 39 



page "131" in Suzuki's work (1933). ^e cites the type collection 
and also a no. )|n33 of a collector or herbarium whose name he 
gives only in Chinese characters, 

CALLICARPA FORMOSAN/l f . PARVIFOLIA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 12: k2$ . 
1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365. 1968} Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 
k9: 2290. I968. 

CALUCARPA FULVA A. Rich. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365, U5l, Sc 

U52. 1968. 

CALLICARPA FULVOHIRSUTA Uerr. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365. I968, 
Van Steenis (1967) states that this plant is related to C. 
barbata Ridl., C_. havilandii (King & Gamble) H. J. Lam, C_. in- 
volucrata Kerr., C. saccata Steen., and C. superposita Llerr, 

CALLICARPA GLABRA Koidz. 

Additional bibliography; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365 & U52. 
1968; Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 12. 1968; Tuyama, PI. Bonin 
Isls. 98. 1968. 

A very interesting letter from my friend and colleague. Dr. 
E. H. Walker, dated July 26, I968, contains a paragraph which is 
well worth quoting in full here: "In I966 you verified Field & 
Lowe 6m as Callicarpa glabra Koidz . and in 1952 Walker £t Tawada 
6507 as the same. Both are cited in Phytol. lU: 236. 1967 . In 
general they match your description. Field & Lowe 6m has flowers,. 
You describe the corollas as 'resinous punctate on the outside* 
the anthers 'resinous punctate on both sides'. I do not find 
such glands on the corolla, only on the anthers. In this speci- 
men the calyx has a single row of relatively large distinctive 
peltate scales just below the rim. The other specimen, 6507 , is 
in fruit. The calyx lacks the distinctive scales, the fmits 
are glandular, the leaves distinctly narrower, and the branchlets 
gi^y, probably simply having matured beyond the early 'dark 
purplish or black' condition described. Perhkps these discrepein- 
cies are not significant. I have adjusted my description, 
based in part on yours (since you have seen more specimens than 
I have), to the variations in these two specimens, except for 
the peltate scales, which are ignored." 

CALLICARPA GRACILIPES Rehd. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T, Chang, Act, Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
279, 285—236, & 311. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia Hi: 237—238, 
1967. 

Chang (1951) cites only the type collection of this species, 

CALLICARPA HAVILANDII (King & Gamble) H. J. Lam 

Additional Sc emended bibliography: Van Steenis, Blumea 15: 



1^0 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

lii7— 1U9, fig. 2 k. 1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 365—366. 1968; 
B. L. Burtt, Notes Roy, Bot. Gard. Edinb. 29: lUl~l55. 1969; 
Brentzel, Biol. Abstr. SH 1571. 1970. 

Van Steenis (1967) says that this plant is related to C. bar- 
bate Ridl., C_. fulvohirsuta Merr., C_, involucrata Merr., C_. sacca- 
ta Steen., and C, superposita Merr. 

GALLICARPA HITCHCOCKII Millsp. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 26. 1967. 

Byrne calls this plant "boarhog bush" and describes it as 2 m. 
tall "not very common, only 2 individuals seen; upper surface of 
leaves dark-green when fresh; used in local medicine as a tonic". 
Popenoe found it in flower and fruit in October. 

Additional citations: BAHAMA ISLANDS: Cat: Byrne 279 (Ws) . 
Eleuthera: J_, Popenoe s.n. [October 1966] (Ft — 2357) . 

CALUCAHPA HIPOLEUCOPHYLU Lin & Wang, Bull. Acad. Sin. 8: 18U— 
187 & 189, iig. 1, 2, & 5. 1967. 

Bibliography: Lin & Wang, Bull. Acad. Sin. 8: 18U— 187 & I89, 
fig. 1, 2, & 5. 1967. 

Illustrations: Lin & Wang, Bull. Acad, Sin, 8: 187 & I89, fig. 

1, 2, & 5. 1967. 

This species, of which the authors give a fine description and 
splendid illustrations, is based on J_. L. Wang 5U03, collected 
at Nanfengshan, at an altitude of 1000 — 1200 m,, Formosa, in Feb- 
ruary, 1965, deposited in the herbarium of the National Taiwan 
University. The authors cite also two other (unnumbered) collec- 
tions: Matsuda s.n. [Tashulin, Jan, 1937] and Simizu s.n. [Chin- 
suiyin, July 1937] in the same herbarium. 

GALLICARPA INTBGERRIMA Champ. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T, Chang, Act, Phytotax. Sin, 1: 
270, 278, 281—282, & 311. I95I; Tingle, Check List Hong Kbng PI. 
37. 1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 36U. 366, 381, & 388. I968, 

Chang (1951) cites nos. 310 , 902, 2106, 50O5, 803U . 21107, 
21650 , 21799, 25UA , & li275l of collectors and/or herbaria whose 
names he gives only in Chinese characters . 

GALLICARPA INVOLUCRATA Merr. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 366. I968. 

Van Steenis (1967) states that this species is related to C. 
barbata Ridl., C_. fulvohirsuta Merr., C_. havilandii (King & 
Gamble) H. J. Lam, C_, saccata Steen., and £, superposita Merr. 
The Clemenses describe it as a "recimbent shrub, 6 feet tall, 
fruits cauline, bright red", growing at the wet mouth of a rivu- 
let, fruiting in November, and labeled their collection "CeJ-li- 
carpa new?" 

Additional citations: INDONESIA: GREATER SUNDA ISUNDS: Sabah: 
Clemens & Clemens 50237 (N) . 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa ill 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA Thunb. 

Additional &. emended bibliography: J. F. Gmel, in L., Syst. 
Nat., ed. 13, pr. 1, 2: 2U6 (1789) and pr. 2, 2: 2U6. 1796; Max- 
im,, Bull. Acad. Sci. St. P^tersb. 31: 77. l886j Tasiro, Bot. Mag. 
Tokyo 8: 109. I89lt; Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agr. Tokyo Lnp. Univ. 
2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] 269, pl. 10, fig. 10. 1395: Kuroiwa, 
Bot, Mag. Tokyo lU: 126. 1900j Kawag., Bull. Kag . 1: 12U & 170. 
1915} Simada, Trans. Nat. Hist, Soc . Fomos . 31: 12. 1917; E. H, 
Wils., Journ, Arnold Arb. 1: 186. 1920; Sakaguchi, Gen. Ind. Fl. 
Okin. 18. 192li} Hottes, Book of Shrubs, ed. 1, lli7 & liiS. 1928 j 
Sasaki, List PI. Formos. 350. 1928 j Mak. & Nemoto, Fl. Jap. 
Suppl. 622. 1936; T. H. Everett, Cat. Hardy Trees & Shrubs 16. 
19U2; Hatus., Journ. Jap. Bot. 2li: 81. 19li9; Hottes, Book of 
Shrubs, ed. 5, 168. 1950; Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dicot. 103U, 
fig. 2U7 G. 1950; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: [269], 270, 
272, 296, 299, 303—308, & 310—312. 1951; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, 
[ed. 6, pr. 1], 168. 1952; Masan., Sci. Rep. Kanaza-wa Univ. Ii: 
U6. 1955; Hottes, Book of Shrubs, [ed. 6, pr. 2], 168 (1953) and 
[pr. 3], 163. 1959; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A.U: 332 (1962) and 
A.6: 92. 1963; E. L. D, Seymour, Wise Gard. Encycl., ed. 6, 211. 
1963; Ohwi, Fl. Jap, 763~76U. 1965; Santamour, Morris Arb. Biai. 
16: 51—52. 1965; Hirata, Host Range & Geogr. Distrib, Powd. 
Mild. 276. 1966; Griffith & Inland, U. S. Dept. Agr. PI. Inven- 
tory 161;: 197 & 229. 1966; Hyland, U. S. Dept, Agr. PI. Inventory 
168: IU6 & Hi?. 1967; Glasau, Sommergr. Ziergeh. 6U. 1967; E. Law- 
rence, South. Gard., ed. 2, 186. 1967; Ornduff, Reg. Veg. 50: 86 
& 121;. 1967; de Wit, PI. World High. PI. 2: 185. 1967; Hocking, 
Excerpt. Bot. A.ll: 205 & 503 (1967), A.12: U2li (1967), and A.13: 
569. 1968; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 36O, 366—378, kh9, &■ U5l. 
1968; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. h?'- 1325 & la99. 1968; Moldenke, R4- 
sum6 Suppl. 16: 11, 12, 17, 18, & 25 (1968) and 17: 7 & 8. I968; 
Kitagawa, Nat. Sci. & Mus. 36: 12U. I969; Saito & Tachibana, Eco- 
log. Rev, 17: 135. 1969; Hyland, U. S. Dept, Agr. Fl . Inventory 
173: 60 (1969) and 17U: 276. I969; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (20): 
BJV^.I.C. S,30, 1970; "L, R. F.", Biol. Abstr. 51: llli32. 1970; 
Inaizumi, Jap. Journ. Appl. Entoraol, Zool. 11;: 29 — 38. 1970, 

Additional & emended illustrations: Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agr. 
Tokyo Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] pl. 10, fig. 10. 
1395; Metcalfe & Chalk, Anat. Dicot. IO3I1, fig. 2U7 G. 1950. 

It is worth mentioning here that Masamune (1955) regards the 
"C^ japonica Thunb." of Maximowicz (1886), Matsumura (1899 & 1912, 
insofar as Ryukyu specimens are concerned), Kuroiwa [1900, "p.p. 
(sic mollis )"], Kawagoe (1915), Simada (1917), Wilson (1920), 
Sakaguchi (I92U), and Kakino & Nemoto (1936, insofar as Ryukyu 
specimens are concerned) as applying to C. japonica var. luxurians 
Rehd. That of Tasiro (l89li) he thinks may actually refer to C. 
mollis Sieb. L Zucc. Sykes refers to his two collections cited 
below as havinc had "mauve" corollas, the fruit "becoming mauve", 
and fruiting in March. Recent collectors describe the plant as a 
deciduous shrub, to 1.5 m. tall. They have found it growing in 



U2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

littoral scrub on Ishigaki Island, while on Miyako Island it is 
said to be "occasional in Pandanus scinib on limestone", forming a 
low bush 0.6 m. tall. The corollas on F. R. Fosberg 383I2 are 
said to have been "lilac". Hyland (1969! describes the fruit as 
"purplish". Lawrence (I967) points out that the "deep purple" 
fruits, which he erroneously refers to as "berries", begin to 
color in August and drop off by October in the southern United 
States . Santamour recoiris the chromosome count as n = 18 . An 
additional vernacular variant recorded for the species ia the 
Japanese "ohmurasaQci-shikibu" . Hirata (I966) records the powdery 
mildew fungus, Microsphaera alni , as attacking this plant. Ohwi 
(1965) describes the plaint as common and variable on the islands 
of Hokkaido, Honshu, Kyushu, and Shikoku. He includes C_. japoni- 
ca f , angustifolia Miq. in its synonymy, but I regard Miquel's 
name as a synonym of C . japonica var . angustata Rehd . 

Ohwi (1965) keys out the Japanese forms of the genus as recog- 
nized by him as follows [with the ncoienclature brought up to 
date] : 

1. Plants glabrous or thinly pubescent^ calyx glabrous, with 
very short teeth. 

2. Leaf -blades caudate, glandular-dotted on both surfaces 

C. japonica var. Itucurians 
2a. Leaf -blades acuminate to acute at the apex, glandular- 
dotted on the underside only. 

3. Cymes supra-axillary j anthers broadly ellipsoidal 

C. dichotoma 
3a. Cymes axillary. 

U. Corolla 1 mm. long, not glandular-dotted; branches 

slightly U-angled; leaves with 12 — li; pairs of secon- 
daries C. takakumensis 

Ua. Corolla 3 — 5 ™i. long, glandular-dotted; branches ter- 
ete; leaf -blades with 5 — 9 pairs of secondaries 

C. japonica 
la. Plants densely soft-pubescent to villous; calyx pubescent, h- 
fid. 
$. Leaves 5 — 10 cm. long, rounded to obtuse at the base; 

branches and leaves with whitish stellate hairs less than 
1 mm. long; calyx-lobes lanceolate; flowers k — 5 nim. long, 

about 10 in a cyme; anthers 1.^ — 2 mm. long C. mollis 

5a. Leaves 15 — 30 cm. long, gradually narrowed at the ^se; 

branches and petioles with pinnatoly branched hairs 1.5 — 3 
mm. long; calyx-lobes linear; flowers about 1.5 mm. long, 
very many in a cyme; anthers about 0,7 mm. long.C_. kochiana 
Chang (1951) regards C_. longi folia var. subglabrata Schau. as, 
in part, a synonym of C. japonica, but I feel that this trinomial 
belongs only in the synonymy of typical C_. longifolia Lam. He 
cites A. N. Steward 57 and nos. I63I , 2617 , 3303, & 10051; of col- 
lectors and/or herbaria whose names he gives only in Chinese 
characters. 

Hyland (1967, 1969) cites U. S^ Dept. Agr. 26623U, 266329 , &. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calliceirpa U3 

3OU936 a3 cultivated in Maryland from seed obtained in Jajjan and 
K.U95 from seed obtained in Korea. Inaizumi (1970) reports that 
C, japonica is attacked by an as yet unidentified species of the 
insect genus Aphis . 

Material of C. japonica has been mis identified amd distributed 
in herbaria as xC. shirasawana Mak. On the other hand, the Mura- 
ta 2711;6 and Tsui 6OI, distributed as C. japonica , are actually 
C. japonica var. angustata Rehd., P^ C_^ Hutchinson s.n. [Herb. 
Univ. Calif. Ace, 38.533-Sl] is C_. japonica var. luxurians Rehd., 
Chiao 2617 is £. japonica var. rhombifolia H. J. Lam, Oldham 621 
is C, mollis Sieb. & Zucc, and Gressitt $32 & |63 are C_. oshl - 
mensis var. iriomotensis (Masam.) Hatus. 

Additional citations: WESTERN PACIFIC ISUIIDS: JAPAN: Honshu: 
Murata 19185 (Au— 27lil82, N, W~2U99907); S. Suzuki s.n. [Jun. 5, 
1951] (Se— 1807U$). RYUKYU ISLAND ARCHIPELAGO: OKINAWAN ISLANDS: 
Kurema: Okuhara & Sunagawa ll^O (Rf) . Okinawa: Nakamine 27$ (Ry, 
Ry). SAKISHIMA ISLANDS: Iriomote: Masamune & Nakamura 3280 (Tw) . 
Ishigaki: Hatusima 2UOIU (Ar)j Masamune ^ Suzuki s.n. [Jvme 30, 
193$] (Tw). Miyako: F. R. Fosberg 38312 (Rf). CULTIVATED: Dis- 
trict of Columbia: T. R. Dudley s.n. [Herb. Nat. Arb. I$ii32; PI. 
Introd. 26623U] (Se--228379) . New Zealand: W. R. Sylces V65: 
[Herb. Bot. Div. D.S.IJl. 1$6006] (Ac, Rf), ^2/^$ [Herb. Bot. 
Div. D.S.I.R. 156008] (Ac). 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA f . ALBIBACCA Hara 

Additionsil bibliography: Moldenke, R6suin6 Suppl. 16 J 17. 1968; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 368. I968. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA f . ALBIFLORA Moldenke 

Additional & emended bibliography: Hocking, ExceiTpt. Bot, A. 11: 
503. 1967i Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. k9i U199. 1968; Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 16: 368. 1968. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. ANGUSTATA Rehd. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin, 1: 
[269], 299, 30U~307, 310, & 312, 1951; Hocking, Excerpt, Bot. 
A. 13: 569. 1968 J Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 368, 371, & Ui9. 1968; 
Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. h?: 132$. 1968. 

Recent collectors describe this plant as a woody climber, 3 — 
5 feet tall, with a stem diameter of 1 inch, and black fruit, 
fruiting also in June [in addition to the months previously re- 
ported] . Tsang reports it as fairly common in dry sandy soil of 
roadside thickets. Chang (1951) cites a no. 51357 of a collector 
or herbarium whose name he gives only in Chinese characters . He 
compares it with typical C_. japonica Thunb., C_. bodinieri var. 
giraldii (Hesse) Rehd., and C_, kyangtungensis Chun. Llaterial has 
been misidentified and distributed in herbaria as C . bodinieri 
var. giraldii (Hesse) Rehd. 

Additional citations: CHINA: Kwangtung: E. D, Merrill 11112 



liU PHYTOLOGIl Vol. 21, no. 1 

(Ca— 301088) j W. T. Tsang 213U6 (Ca— 10112 7li) ; Tsui 601 (Ca— 
6l2li27, N). WESTERN PACIFIC ISLANDS: JAPAN: Honshu: Murata 271^ 
(W~2l;09882) . Tsushima: Ohashi & Sohma 10018 [Herb. Univ. Tokyo 
11023] (W— 259ia71). 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. GLABRA Nakai 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
270 & 310. 1951} Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 369. 1968. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA f . HIRUNINSULARIS Masam. 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
299, 30li~305, & 312. 19$!', Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 16: 17. 1968} 
Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 370. 1968. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. LUXURIANS Rehd. 

Additional synonymy: Callicarpa yakusimensis Koidz., Bot. Mag. 
Tokyo 28: l5l. 191ii. Callicarpa yakushimensis Koidz. ex Molden- 
ke, Phytologia $: 100, sphalm. 195U. Callicarpa japonica luxuri- 
ans Rehd. ex Moldenke, R^sumS Suppl. 16: 17, in syn. 1968. 

Additior^al & emended bibliography: Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. 
Sci. St. P^tersb. 31: 77 & 80. 1886; Maxim., Mil. Biol. 12: 513. 
1886} Forbes & Hemsl., Joum. Linn. Soc. Lond, Bot. 26: 257. 
1890} Mak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 6: 51;. 1892} J. Matsum., Bot, Mag. 
Tokyo 13: 115. 1899} Kuroiwa, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 11^: 126. 1900} 
Mak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 18: U6. 190U} Koidz., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 28: 
151. 191U} Kawag., Bull. Kag. 1: 121; & 175. 1915} Simada, Trans. 
Nat. Hist. Soc, Formos . 31 *• 12. 1917} E. H. Wils., Joum. Arnold 
Arb. 1: 186. 1920} Sakag., Gen. Ind. Fl. Okin. 18. 192ii} Nakai, 
Trees & Shrubs, ed. 2, U63, fig. 220. 1927} J. Masam., Prel. Rep. 
Veg. Yak. 115. 1929} Mak. & Nemoto, Fl. Jap., ed. 2, 99U & 996. 
1931} Mak. & Nemoto, Fl. Jap. Suppl. 622 & 623. 1936} Takenouchi, 
Joum. Nat. Hist. Fukuoka 2: 15. 1936} Kanehira, Formos. Trees, 
ed. 2, 6kh & 716, fig. 600. 1936} Nakai in Shirasawa, Icon, Es- 
senc. Forest. Jap. 2: [TerasakL, Zoku Nipp. Syokubutzuhu] fig. 
2U81 & 2li85. 1938} Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 1: l81i & 186. 19U8} 
Moldenke, Knovm Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], 133, 131;, HiO, 
157, 177, & 178. 19U9} H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 270, 
280, 295—296, 299, 30U, & 310—312. 1951} Sonohara, Tawada, Sc 
Amano, ed. E. H. Walker, Fl. Okin. 131. 1952} Naito, Sci. Rep, 
Kag. 2: 60. 1953} Ohwi. Fl. Jap. 89. 1953} Masam., Sci. Rep, 
Kanazawa Univ. k'- i;6 — U8. 1955} Oka, Hokuriku Joum. Bot. Us 83. 
1955} Griffith & Hyland, U. S. Dept. Agr. PI. Inventory 16U: 197 
& 229. 1966} Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 36O, 367, 370—375, & 377. 
1968} Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 16: 11, 12, 17, 18, & 25 (1968) 
and 17: 8. I968. 

In his 19 h9 work, Hatusima regards the name, C. japonica var. 
kotoensis (Hayata) Masam., as the correct designation for the 
taxon here being discussed, but Rehder's varietal epithet was 
validly published 2U years earlier I 

Masamune (1955), Ohwi (I965), and Chang (1951) regard C. aus- 
tralis Koidz. as a synonym of C. japonica var. luxurians and in 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa U5 

this opinion they may well be correct. Uasamune regards the "C. 
japonica Thiinb." of Haximowicz (1886), L:ats\imura (1899 ^ 1912, 
insofar as Ryukyu specimens are concerned), Kuroiwa [I9OO "p.p. 
(sic mollis )"], Kawagoe (1915), Simada (1917), Wilson (1920), 
Sakaguchi (192U), and Llakino & Nemoto (1936, insofar as Ryukyu 
specimens are concerned) as actually referring to this same var- 
iety. Kanehira (1936) and Chang (1951) regard C_. kotoensis Hay- 
ata as a valid species, with C. antaoensis Hayata as a synonym. 
I regard C . antaoensis as a synonym of C . longifolia Lam . 

Matsumxira (1955) cites the Maximowicz work (1886) as "1887" 
and Hara's 19li8 work as "19U9". 

Recent collectors describe C. japonica var. luxurians as a 
shrub to 15 feet tall, growing among other shrubs on open slopes, 
in hedges along roadsides (on Okinavra) , and common in secondary 
thickets (on Yonakuni Island), at 100 — 150 m. altitude, flowering 
in September, and fruiting in August (in addition to the months 
previously reported). The corollas on E. K. Walker 81^52 are de- 
scribed as having been "pale lavender" and the anthers yellow. 
Additional vernacular names and variant orthographies recorded 
for the plant are "omurasakisikibu", "tosamurasaki", "tosa- 
murasaki", "yakushima-ko-murasaki", "yakusima-komurasaki", and 
"yakusima-ko^nurasaki" . 

Ohwi (1965) says "July — Sept. Wanner districts; Shikoku, 
Kyushu" for what he regards as C_. shikokiana Mak. and "July — 
Aug. Lowlands near the sea; Honshu, Shikoku, Kyushu; rather 
common" for what he regards as the true C. japonica vac luxurians. 
For the latter Lasamune (1955) gives the overall distribution as 
"Yakusina, Shikoku, Kyushu, Itukusima, Syodosina", but other 
authors record it also from Tanegasima, Kutinoerabu, Takesima, 
Nakanosima, Suwanose, Takarazima, Amani-osima, Okati, Iheyazima, 
Okinawa, llinami-daitozima, Miyako, Isigaki, Iriomote, Sirahama, 
and Komi, 

The P_^ C. Hutchinson s.n. [Herb. Univ. Calif. Ace. 38.533-Si], 
cited below, ifras cultivated in California from seeds collected 
in Poland, v/hile the U_. S_. Dept» PI. Invent. 235U98 was cultiva- 
ted in Maryland from the seeds of J. L. Creech 508 collected in 
Japan . 

The Hatusima 2U0lU and Nak amine 275 , distributed as C_. japoni - 
ca var. luxurians , are actually merely vigorous specimens of typ- 
ical Cjj^ japonica Thunb . 

Additional citations: '/TESTSRN PACIFIC ISLAimS: RYUKYU ISLAND 
ARCHIPELAGO: SATSUNAII ISUNDS: Yakushima: Tagawa 'k Konta 75 (N, 
W— 2U99831) . OKINAWAN ISLANDS: Kunigami: Elliott h Nakanine 658 
(W) . Okinawa: Kimura & Hurusawa 61 (W— 2126227) ; R. L'oran 5076 
(W— 2186572); E. H. Walker 3U52 (W) . SAKISHU^ ISUNDS: Iriomote: 
Fiikuyama s.n. [Herb. Univ. Imp. Taihok. 7326] (Tw); Yamaaaki s.n. 
[Dec. 26, 1963] (Tk) . Ishigaki: Masanune & Suzuki s.n. [Jul. 1, 
1935] (Tw). Yonakuni: Hatusima 2h532 (Ar) . CULTIVATED: Califor- 
nia: P. C. Hutchinson s.n. [Herb. Univ. Calif. Ace. 38.533-Si] (N). 



h6 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. RHOMBIFOLIA H. J. Lara 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, R^sumS Suppl, 16: 11. 1968 j 
Koldenke, Phytologia 16: 368 & 376—378. 1968. 

Recent collectors describe this plant as a shrub, $ — 1$ feet 
tall, growing in thickets and on rocky slopes along roadsides. 
The corollas are described as "white" on Chiao 2617 and the 
fruits as purple on E, H^ Wilson 8109 . 

Material of this variety has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in herbaria as C . oshimensis Hayata . On the other hand, the 
J. F. Rock 2523 , distributed as this variety, is actually G. 
bodinieri L6veill6. 

Additional citations; WESTERN PACIFIC ISUNDS: JAPAN: Honshu: 
Okamoto s.n. [July 17, 192li] (Ws) . RYUKYU ISUND ARCHIPELAGO: 
OKINAWAN ISLANDS: Okinawa: E. H. Wilson 8109 (W— 13709l;2) . 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. TAQUETII (L6veill6) Nakai 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib, Ver- 

benac, [ed. 1], 57 & 87 (19U2) and [ed. 2], 133 & 178. 19U9} H.- 

T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 295. 1951} Moldenke, Phytologia 

16: 378. 1968. 

Chang (1951) regards C_, taquetii L^veill6 as a synonym of C. 

dichotona (Lour.) K. Koch. 

CALLICARPA KINABALUENSIS Bakh. S: Heine 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 378 — 331. 
1968; Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 16: 17. 1968. 

Additional citations: INDONESIA: GREATER SUITOA ISLANDS: Sabah: 
Clemens & Clemens 319OO (N) . 

CALLICARPA KINABALUENSIS var. ENDERTI Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 38O — 381, 
1968; Moldenke, R6suml Suppl. 16: 17. I968. 

CALLICARPA KINABALUENSIS var. TONSA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 381. 1968; 
Moldenke, R^sura6 Suppl. 16: 17. 1968. 

CALLICARPA KOCHIANA Mak. 

Additional synonymy: Gallic sir pa lour ei id var. laxiflora Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 276 — 277. 1951. Callicarpa roxburghii 
P'ei apud H. T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 276, in syn. 1951. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Nakai in Nakai & Koidz., 
Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 2 1: I458— U59, fig. 218. 1927; 
Kanehira, Formos . Trees, ed. 2, 6U5 & 716. fig. 6OI. 1936; Met- 
calfe & Chalk, Anat.' Dicot. IO36, fig. 2U8 F. 1950; H.-T. Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 270, 271, 27U, 276—277, 310, & 311. 1951; 
Tingle, Check List Hong Kong PI. 37. 1967; Moldenke, R6sum6 
Suppl. 16: 10—13, 17, & 18. 1968; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. U9: 
7688. 1968; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: hhl--UhQ ^ U5U. 1968. 

Emended illustrations: Kanehira, Formos. Trees, ed, 2, 6I4.5, 
fig. 601. 1936. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of CalHcarpa U7 

Ohwl (1951) keys out the Japanese species of this genus knoim 
to him and his key (modified to bring the nomenclature UF>-to-date) 
is reproduced on page U2 of the present installment of notes. 

Chang (1951), for some reason unknown to me, places C. america- 
na Lour, in the synonymy of C. kochiana, but it seens to me that 
previous authors are correct in placing Loureiro's name in the 
synonymy of C, candicana (Burm. f.) Hochr. Chang cites T. li. 
Tsui ii8 as well as nos . Ih6, 168, 262, 315, 317, h3h, 609, 658, 
815 . 939 , 1059 , 1507 . 1622, 1639, 2350 . 2987, 317I4, 1^020, U1^56 . 
1;993. 5870 . 9999 , IO78O . IIOI49 . 16581 . 20106, 21167 . 21573 , 21889 , 
25392, 25807 . 31600 , 32l;3li . U0U88 , U1202, 50QU9 , 60083 , 60333 , t 
86212 of collectors and/or herbaria whose nanes, unfortunately, he 
gives only in Chinese cjiaracters. He describes his vslt. laxiflora 
as follows: "A typo recedit foliis angustioribus oblong-lanceola- 
tis 11 — 15 cm longis, 3^5 — U-5 cm latis, nervis paucioribus, utrin- 
secus 6 — 8, cymis laxis paulo diffusis, pedunculis brevioribus 5 
mm longis, pedicellis longioribus 2 mm longis". The variety ap- 
pears to be based on H, Fting 20[tOU from Hainan Island, collected 
in 1932, and deposited in the herbarium of the Botanical Insti- 
tute of Sunyatsen University, Canton, China. 

Additional citations: HONGKONG: Taam 1507 (N) . 

CALLICARPA KWANGTUNGENSIS Chun 

Synonymy: Callicarpa brevipes sensu Hand,-4iazz. apud H.-T. 
Chang, Act, Phytotax. Sin. 1: 306, in syn. 1951 [not C_. brevipes 
(Benth.) Hance, 1866, nor Hance, I886] . 

Additional bibliography: Hand.-Mazz., Symb, Sin, ?: 901. 1936; 
Rehd. in Sarg., PI. Wils . 3: 369. 1936; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. 
Sin. 1: 300, 306—307, & 312. I95I; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: UU8— 
Uh9. 1968. 

Chang (1951) includes in the synonymy of this species a " Calli- 
carpa Japonica var. angustata Rehd. in Sarg., PI. Wils. 3: 369. 
1936, pro parte", but I see no justification for including this 
trinomial here since it applies to a perfectly valid and accepted 
vai-iety of C. japonica , substantiated by the type collection. 
Chang cites the type collection of C. kwangtungensis as well as 
A. Henry 6679 and nos. 268, m23 . 2II96 , 2775 . 1;593 , U703 . UTOU, 
101^7^0797, 2273^ 7 30702 . 30715 ." t^3U7tli669 7 TU7^9r8375g 7 ^ 
90519 of collectors and/or herbaria whose names, unfortunately, 
he gives only in Chinese characters. 

CALLICARPA LINGII Merr. 

Additional bibliography: H,-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
271, 299, 303, & 312. I95I; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: U52— U53. 
1968. 

Chang (1951) cites only the original collection of this species. 

CALLICARPA LOBO-APICULATA Mete. 

Additional synonymy: Callicarpa loboapiculata Mete, ex H.-T, 



hS PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: [269]. 1951. 

Additional bibliography; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
[269], 271;, 277, 278, 308, 309, & 311. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia 
16: 153— U5U. 1968 J Moldenke, R^suml Suppl. 16: 10. 1968; Molden- 
ke, Biol. Abstr. 1x9'- 7688. I968. 

Chang (1951) cites Tse Hai U35 as well as nos. 728 , 752, 2673, 
2997 , 5519, 5667, 6371 , IOI89 , 21307 , 22393 , 22610, 22779 , i;OU27 , 
73173 , 75377, & 9633U of collectors and/or herbaria whose names 
he gives only in Chinese characters. 

CALLICARPA LONGIBRACTEATA Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 277—278. 

1951. 

Bibliography: n.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 271, 27U, 
277—278, & 311. 1951; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 21. I966} 
Moldenke, Rfisum^ Suppl. 16: 10. I968. 

Because of the extreme rarity of this journal in libraries, 
Chcing's original (1951) description of this taxon is repeated 
herewith: "Frutex 3 m altus. Hamuli teretes homotini dense ful- 
vo-tomentosi; annotini glabrescentes cinereo-nigrescentes lenti- 
cellati. Folia oblonga vel elliptica 15 — 20 cm longa, 5.5 — 8 cm 
lata, apice acuminata, basi rotundata vel obtusa simul paulo ob- 
liqua, margine supra medium remorissime denticulata, supra costis 
nervisque exceptis glabra in sicco nigrescentia, subtus tomentoso- 
incanaj costa supra plana subtus elevata, nervis lateralibus u- 
trinsecus 13 — 16 supra conspicuis subtus elevatisj petioli crassi 
1.5 — 2.5 cm longi tomentosi. Cymae diffusae sexies dichotomae 6 — 
9 cm latae tomentosae, pedunculis 3 — 5 cm longis; bracteae folia- 
ceae lanceolatae 3 — U cm longae, 8 — 12 mm latae, pilis atque iis 
foliorum similiter obtectae, nervis utrinsecus 8 — 10, stipitibus 
8 — 10 mm longis suffultaej bracteolae subulatae; calycis stellato- 
pubescentis vel puberulis, tubus 1.5 mm longus, lobi U-dentati, 
dentibus subulatis 1 mm longis j corollae stellato-pubescentes, 
tubus 1.5 nm longus, lobi 0.5 nun longi; stamina exserta, fila- 
mentis I4. — 5 nrni longis, antheris 0.5 nun longis longitudinaliter 
dehiscentibus; ovarium glabrum, stylo 6 — 7 mm longo, stignatibus 
dilatatis . Fructus 1.5 mm diametro." 

The type and apparently only known collection of this species 
is W. Y. Chun 5121, collected in Hongkong in 1926 and deposited 
in the herbarivim of the Botanical Institute of Sunyatsen Univer- 
sity, Canton, China. The author compares it (in Chinese) with C. 
kochiana Mak., C. lobo-apiculata Mete, and C_. macrophylla Vahl, 

CALLICARPA LONGIFOLIA Lam., Encycl. M6th. 1: 563. 1785 [not C. 
longifolia Auct., 1965, nor Benth., 1962, nor Diels, 191^, 
nor Hance, I89O, nor Hemsl., I9I6, nor Hook., 1932, nor L., 
1820, nor Roxb., 1827, nor "sensi Hensl.", 19l;9, nor "sensu 
L.", 1966, nor "sensu Mori", 1962]. 
Synonymy: Mamanira alba Rumph,, Herb. Amboin. U: 12li., pi. 2|9. 
1750. Hedyotis arborescens Noronha, Verb. Batav. Genootsch. 5, 
ed. 1, art. ll;: 17. 1790. Callicarpa foliis lato-lanceolatis 
utrinque glabids, supeme serratis Vahl ex V/illd., Sp. PL, li 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa U9 

621, in syn, 1797. Callicarpa ( longifolia ) foliis longis lanceo - 
latis subdentatis utrinque viridibus, corymbis parvls axillaribus 
Lam. ex Willd., Sp. PI. 1: 621, in syn. 1797. Callicarpa lanceo - 
laria Hort. ex Link, Enian. PI. Berol. Alt. 1: 12U, hyponym. 1321 
[not C. lanceolaria Roxb., iSlii] . Amictonis japonica (Thunb. 
auct.) Raf., Sylv. Tellur. 161. I838. Callicarpa japonica 
"Thunb. auct." ex Raf., Sylv. Tellur. I6I, in syn. I838 [not C. 
japonica Hort. ex Pritzel, I866, nor Hort. ex I'oldenke, 1936, nor 
L. f ., 1966, nor Matsum., 1923, nor Miq., 1927, nor Thunb., 178U]. 
C alii carpus longifolia Vahl apud Hassk,, Cat. PI. Hort. Bogor. 
Cult. Alt. 136. ISUU. Callicarpus longifolia Blume apud Hassk., 
Cat. PI. Hort. Bogor. Cult. Alt. I36, in syn. l8Uli. Callicarpa 
blunei Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. Verz. Zoll. 53. I8i;5-I81;6. Calli- 
carpa longifolia C^ subglabrata Schau. in A. DC., Prodr, 11: 6ii5. 
18U7. Callicarpa lanata fi uberior Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 887. 
1856. Callicarpa purpurea Hort. ex Lem., 111. Hort, 6: pi. 202, 
in part. 1859 [not C. purpurea Hort. ex Moldenke, I9UI, nor A. L. 
Juss., 1806, nor Nakai, 1923, nor Van Houtte, 1932]. Callicarpa 
cana Wall, (in part) apud Bocq., Adansonia 2'- 192. 1863 [not C. 
cana Dais. & Gibs., 1919, nor Gamble, I88I, nor L., 1771, nor 
Spreng., I966, nor Vahl, 1866]. Callicarpa longifolia var. sub- 
glabrata Schau. apud Vidal y Soler, Phan. Cuming, Philip, I3U. 
1885. Callicarpa longifolia var. pubinervis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. 
PI . 2 : 503 . 1891 . Amictonis japonica Raf . apud Jackfe . in Hook . 
f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 106, in syn. 1893. Callicarpa 
dentata Wall, apud Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 
1: 386, in syn. 1893 [not C. dentata Pav., 1936, nor Roth, I8I8, 
nor Roxb,, I83I, nor Sess5 & Moc, I9U0] . Callicarpa longifolia 
subglabrata Schau. ex Beissner, Schelle, & Zabel, Handb. Laubh. 
U25, in syn, I903. Callicarpa longifolia var. subglabra Schau. ex 
E. D. Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci . Bot. 7: 3^0. 1912. Callicarpa 
attenuifolia Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot, 8: 2870. 1915. Callicarpa 
antaoensis Hayata, Ic. PI. Fonnos, 6: 35» 1916. Callicarpa javan - 
ica Zipp. ex H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 87 & 88, in syn, 
1919. Callicarpa longifolia var. uberior Miq. ex H, J, Lam, Ver- 
benac, Malay. Arch. 87, in syn. 1919. Callicarpa virens Reinw. 
ex H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 88, in syn. 1919- Callicarpa 
longifolia var. areola ta H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 90. 
1919. Callicarpa cuspidata Hassk. apud Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., B\all. 
Jard, Bot, Buitenz., s^r. 3, 3: 26. 1921 [not C. cuspidata Bakh,, 
1932, nor Roxb,, 1811;] , Callicarpa longifolia f , subglabrata 
Schau, ex Bakh, in Lani & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., s5r. 3, 
3: 26. 1921. Callicarpa longifolia Blume apud Moldenke in Fedde, 
Report. Spec. Nov, UO: 96, in syn, 1936. Callicarpa americana 
Hort. ex Moldenke in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. UO, 96, in syn. 
1936 [not C_, americana Blanco, l881i, nor L,, 1753, nor Lam,, I966, 



$0 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

nor Lour., 179U, nor Roxb., 19ii5, nor Sess6 &:Uoc., 1893, nor 
Thunb., 1926, nor Willd., 1820]. Callicarpa longifolia Vahl ex 
Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 11, in syn. I9U0. 
Callicarpus longifolia Lam. ex Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List In- 
valid Names 13, in syn. I9U0. Callicarpa longifolia var. sub- 
globrata Schau. ex Kanehira & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo $6: 113, 
sphalm, I9I12. Callicarpa logifolia Lam. ex P'ei, Bot. Bull. A- 
cad. Sin. 1: 3, sphalm. 19U7. Amictonis japonica (Thunb.) Raf . 
ex Moldenke, R^suml 23U, in syn. 1959* Callicarpa tomentosa 
Thunb. ex Moldenke, R6sum6 2U7, in syn. 1959 [not '£, tomentosa 
Bakh., 1932, nor Hook. & Am., 1918, nor Konig, 1893, nor L., 
1959, nor L. ex Spreng., 182^, nor L. ex Willd., 1966, nor (L.) 
Murr., 1771;, nor (L.) Santapau, 1965, nor Lam., 1783, nor Murr., 
I77U, nor Vahl, 1791;, nor Willd., I8O8, nor "sensu Matsum.", 
I96UJ . Callicarpa lanata var. uberior Miq. ex Moldenke, R6sum6 
2UI;, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa antaoensis Hayata apud Li, Woody 
PI. Taiwan 821 — 822, in syn. I963. Callicarpa blumei Zoll. ex 
Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. lU: 6, in syn. I966. Callicarpa attenu- 
atifolia Elm. ex Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 1$: 16, in syn. I967. 
Callicarpa longifolia var. acuminatissima Ploem ex Moldenke, R6- 
s\m6 Suppl. 16: 17, in syn. I968. Callicarpa longifolia var. 
glabrata Schau. ex Moldenke, R6sum5 Suppl. 16: 17, in syn. I968. 

Bibliography: Rumph., Herb. Amboin. U^ 121;, pl. 1;9. 1750; 
Lam., Encycl. Mith. 1: 563. 1785j Noronha, Verh. Batav. Genoot- 
sch. 5, ed. 1, art. ll;: 17. 1790 j Lam., Tabl. Encycl. M^th. [II- 
lustr. Gen.] 1: 293, pl. 69, fig. 2. 1791; Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 
l>-ll;. 1791;; Raeusch., Norn. Bot. 37. 1797; Willd., Sp. Pl. 1: 
621. 1797; Pers., Syn. Pl. 1: 133. 1805; Roxb., Hort. Beng. [10] 
& [83]. I8II;; Roem. & Schult. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nova, 3: 
96. 1818; Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: 
1;09. 1820; Steud.. Nom. Bot., ed. 1, 137. 1821; Link. Enum. Pl. 
Berol. Alt. 1: 12U. 1821; Lindl., Bot. Reg. 10: pl. 861;. 1825; W. 
J. Hook., Exot. Fl. 2: pl. 133. 1825; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., 
ed. 16, 1: 1;20. 1825; Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. ll;: 8l7~8l8. 
1826; J. A. & J. H. Schult., Mant. 3: 53 & 51+. 1827; Spreng. in 
L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 1; (2): la (1827) and 5: 126. 1828; Wall., 
Numer. List 50. 1829; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 2 [Carey], 1: 395. 
1832; Raf., Sylv. Tellur. I6I. I838; D. Dietr., Syn. Pl. 1: 1;29. 
1839; Steud., Nan. Bot., ed. 2, 257. 181;0; Pers., Sp. Pl. 1: 3l;3. 
181;2; Hassk., Cat. Pl. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Cult. Alt. I36. iQhh; 
Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. h'- 129. I8i;5; Zoll. & Moritzi, Syst. 
Vera. Zoll. 53. I8i;5-l81;6; Jacques & H^rincq, Fl. Jard. Eur. Man. 
G6n. Pl. Arb. 3: 503. 181;5-1862; Lindl., Veg. Kingd. 663. 181;6; 
Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 11: 6i;5. 181;7; Champ. & Benth. in Hook., 
Journ. Bot. & Kew Gard. Misc. 5: 136. 1853; Lindl. & Paxt. in 
Paxt., Flow. Gard. 2: 165—166. 1853; Miq., Fl. Ned. Ind. 2: 887- 
888. 1856; Lem., 111. Hort. 6: pl. 202. 1859; Mason, Bumah, ed. 
2, 792. i860; Bocq., Adansonia 3: 192. 1863; Pritzel, Icon. Bot. 
Ind. 1: 188. 1866; Hance, Ann. Soc. Nat., ser. 5, 5: 233. 1866; 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 51 

Benth. & F. liuell., Fl. Austral. $'. 56—58. 1870; Roxb., Fl. Ind., 
ed. 3 [C. B. Clarke], 132. l87Ui Brandis, For. Fl. NW. & Cent. 
India 3: 369. I87lij S. Kurz, Jo\im. Asiat. Soc. Beng. \S'. 105 — 
l6ii. 1876; S. Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 275 ^ 589. 1877; 
Gamble, Man, Ind. Timb., ed. 1, 282. 1881; F. Muell., First Cen- 
sus 103. 1882; F. M. Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. 377. 1883; C B. 
Clarke in Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind. U: 570. 1885; Uaxim., LI^l. 
Biol. 12: 507--508. 1886; Vidal y Soler, Phan. Cuming. Philip. 
I3I;. 1885; Vidal y Soler, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 208. 1886; F. 
Muell., Second Census 173. I889; F. M. Bailey, Rep. Gov. Sci. Exp. 
Bell.-Ker. 52. 1889; Watt, Diet. Eeonom. Prod. India 2: 27. I889; 
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N. E. Br. in Johnson, Card. Diet. Suppl. 157. I89O; F. M. Bailey, 
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52 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Bot. 89 (6); 1109. 1928 j S. Sasaki, List PI. Formos. 3h9 & 3^0. 
1923; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 1: 526. 1929} L. H. & E. Z. Bailey, Hor- 
tus 111, 1930J P. Dop, Bull. Soc. Hist. Nat. Toulouse 6I4: §00, 
501, 503, & 508—512. 1932} P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): 
[Verbenac. China] 30—31. 1932; Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
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Upsal. k- 81 & 83. I93U} Moldenke in Fedde. Repert. Spec. Nov. 
39: 299 & 306 (1936) and UO: 56, 73— 7ii, 88, 89, 71—93, 96—99, 
102, 120, 122—125, 127, & 130. 1936} Beer & Lam, Blumea 2: 221— 
222. 1936} Kanehira, Formos. Trees, ed. 2, 6UU— 61^5 & 715. 1936} 
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1938: ia2 & Ulii— lil5. 1938} A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 9: U5 & 
k6, 1938} Moldenke, Alph. List Common Vem. Names 2k, 28, & 30. 
1939} Moldenke, Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. 36. 1939} Moldenke, An- 
not, & Ciasslf. List 108. 1939} Moldenke, Suppl. List Common 
Vem. Names 3, 5, 6, 8, 10, 11, Ih, l5, & 20—21;. I9UO} Moldenke, 
Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 5, 9 — 13, 26, & 32. 19liO} Mol- 
denke, Suppl. List Invalid Names 2. I9UI} Kanehira & Hatus., Bot, 
Mag. Tokyo $6: 113. 19U2} Moldenke. Knovm Geogr, Distrib. Verben- 
ac, [ed. 1], 5U— 71, 86, & 87. I9ii2} Moldenke, Alph. List Inval- 
id Names h, 8—11, 25, & 33. 19U2} Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 9U. 
19U5} Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 1: 89, 100, 120, I60, 192, 220, & 
28Ii. I9U6} P'ei, Bot. Bull. Acad. Sin. 1: 3. 19k7i Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 2: 3U3. I9I4.7} Moldenke, Alph, List Invalid Names Suppl, 
1: 3. 19U7} H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, PI. Life 2: 50. 19^8} Molden- 
ke, Castanaa 13i 121. I9I48} Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 2: 359, 
392, UOU, ii09, i;32, li33, U62, U70, 562, 565, 566, 580, 621, 63U, & 
61i3 (19li8), 3: 659, 718, 728, 7U2, 813, 827, 8iiO, 90U, 936, & 971 
(I9U9), and U: 987, 1018, 1095, 1100, 1102, llOU, 1105, 1119, 1128, 
1139, 11U8, 1181, 120ii, 1205, 1232, 1235, 1259. & 1260, 19U9} Mol- 
denke, Knovm Geogr, Distrib, Verbenac, [ed, 2], 12U, 125, 128, 
129, 131, 133, 135, 137— lUO, 1U3— II18 150, 152, 155, 157, 176, & 
177. 19U9} Rehd., Bibl, Cult, Trees 58ii. 19U9} E. D, Merr,, Ind, 
Raf . 20li, 19U9} Moldenke, Phytologia 3'- 286, 29U, & 380, 1950} W, 
J, Bean in Chittenden, Roy, Hort, Soc, Diet, Gard, 1: 359, 1951} 
H,-T, Chang, Act, Phytotax, Sin. 1: 271, 276, 280, 285, 290—293, 
300, 303, 310, & 311. I95I} Anon., N. Y. Bot. Gard. Seed Exchange 
List 1952 p. 2. 1951} Moldenke, Phytologia U: 83 & 121— 12U. 1952} 
Moldenke, Journ. Calif. Hort. Soc 15^ 85. 195ii} Moldenke, Inform. 
Mold. Set 51 Spec 2. 1956} Moldenke in Humbert, Fl. Madag. 17U: 
U5, U6, & hB. 1956} Moldenke, Phytologia 6: 215 (1958) and 7: 77. 
1959} Moldenke, R6sum5 82, 155, 159, I60, 165, 166, I68, 172, 17l|, 
175, 177, 179, 182, 186, 187, 139, 191—198, 200, 202, 203, 208, 
211, 213, 23U, 2UI— 2U8, 298, 319, Ul3, & iM. 1959} Moldenke, R6- 
sum6 Suppl. 1: 13, 16, & 21;. 1959} Anon., Kew Biill. Gen. Index 
1929-1956, 59. 1959} Puri, Indian Forest Ecol. 2: 5l6. I96O} J. F. 
Macbr., Field Mus . Publ. Bot. 13 (5): 701. I960} Moldenke, Biol. 
Abstr. 35: I687. 1960; Rehman, Curr. Sci. 31: 302—303. 1962} 
Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A.U: 592. 1962} Nair fit Rehman, Bull. Nat. 
Bot. Gard. Lucknow 76: ll;. 1962} Thothathri, Bull. Bot. Surv. In- 
dia U: 295. 1962} Moldenke, R6sum5 Suppl. 3'- 20, 21, & 23 (1962) 
and 7: 6. 1963} Prain, Bengal PI., ed. 2, 2: 617 & 6I8. 1963} Li, 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 53 

Woody PI. Taiwan 3l8, 821—322, & 9Uh, 1963j Maheshwari, Fl. Del- 
hi 281. 1963} Van Campo & Planchais, Pollen & Sp. 5: U71. 1963; 
Anon., Biol. Abstr. U3 (3): B.l?. 1963j Santapau Excerpt. Bot. 
A. 7: 18. I96U; Moldenke, R6stim6 Suppl. 8: 3 (196U) and 12: 8. 
196^; Chopra, Badhwar, & Ghosh, Poison. PI. India 2: 695—696, 
fig. 175. 1965 j Backer & Bakh., Fl. Java 2: 6OI. 1965; Neal, In 
Gard. Hawaii, new rev. ed., 726. 1965; Majeshwari Px Singh, Diet. 
Econ. PI. India 30. 1965; Moldenke, Rlsum6 Suppl. 13: 6 (I966) 
and Hi: 3, 6, & 7. I966; Rao & Rabha, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: 
301. 1966; Matthew, Biai. Bot. Surv. India 8: 161;. I966; Panigra- 
hi & Joseph, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: lU3 & l5l. 1966; Moldenke, 
Phytologia 13: U27, U39, U75, U99, S: 502 (I966), H;: 37, 38, 53— 
SS, 58, 59, 62, 99, 101, 102, 107, 108, 111, llli, 118, 125—127, 
1U3, 156, 167, 171, 172, & 191 (1966), Hi: 220, 222, 223, 230, 237, 
2iili, 2ii5, 2li9, & 255 (1967), and 15: 15, 19, 27, 28, & 37—39. 
1967; Tingle, Check List Hong Kong PI. 37. 1967; Moldenke, Rlsum6 
Suppl. 15: 8—13, 16, & 17. 1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 36I, 
361i— 366, 368, 371, 373, 377, 381, & 388. I969; Deb, Sengupta, & 
Malick, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 22: 17ii £: 199. 1968; Uphof, Diet. 
Econ. PI., ed. 2, 96. I968; Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 8 — 13, 
15, 17, & 18. 1968; M. A. Rau, Bot. Surv. India 10, Suppl. 2: 61. 
1969. 

Illustrations: Lam., Tabl. Encycl. M^th. [Illustr. Gen.] 1: 
pi. 69, fig. 2. 1791; Lindl., Veg. Kingd. 663. I81i6; Koord. & Val- 
et., Atlas Baumart. Java 5 J pl. 275. 191ii. 

Small slender bush or shrub, 0.6 — 5 m. tall, erect, woody, 
glabrate, sometimes rather straggling, rarely becoming a small 
slender tree to 10 m. tall or even a climber [e.g., K. Lars en 
10267 ] , the youngest parts sometimes slightly stellate-tomentose 
or glabrate throughout; stems to 6 inches in circumference and 1 — 
10 cm. in diameter at breast height, smooth except for a few scat- 
tered pustules; branches comparatively slender, more or less tet- 
ragonal, mostly weak and spreading, usually glabrous; branchlets 
mediiim to slender, obtusely tetragonal, subglabrescent; each node 
of both the branches and branchlets usually marked by a circumfer- 
ential ridge or scar resembling a stipule-scar, most conspicuous 
on glabrous branches; principal internodes 1.5 — 6 cm. long; leaves 
decussate-opposite; petioles rather slender, h — 21 mm, long, sub- 
glabrescent; leaf -blades very thin-chartaceous or membranous, 
varying from yellowish-green or light-green on both surfaces to 
rather dark-green on both surfaces or lighter beneath, lanceolate 
or broadly lanceolate to oblong-lanceolate or oblong, 6 — 18 cm. 
long, 2 — 6.5 cm. wide, long-acuminate and often somewhat caudate 
at the apex, more or less irregularly and very shortly dentate to 
serrulate or minutely denticulate-serrulate along the margins (ex- 
cept at the base), rarely subentire, attenuate into a more or 
less acuminate base, usually glabrate or obscurely strigillose 
above (glabrous or subglabrous when mature), glabrous or subgla- 
brate beneath or thinly pubescent with simple or stellate hairs 
(the hairs usually simple on the lamina and stellate on the larger 
venation), marked with numerous, tiny, closely appressed, circular 
or elliptic, concave, golden-yellow scales; midrib slender, often 



$k PHYTOLOGIA ^ol. 21, no. 1 

more or less furfuraceous beneath; secondaries slender, 7 — 10 per 
side, prominent beneath, arcuate-ascending, but often only very 
slightly arcuate, usually rather obscurely anastomosing at the 
margins; vein and veinlet reticulation delicate; inflorescence 
axillary or supra-axillary; cymes opposite, solitary, short- or 
rather long-pedunculate, 1.5 — 7 cm, long, 1 — 6.$ cm. wide, many- 
flowered, dense or slender and lax, several times dichotomous, 
often extremely loose-spreading Ydth the angle of the primary fur- 
cations about 90° » bracteolate, very much shorter than the sub- 
tending leaves, subglabrescent; peduncles veiy slender, 6 — 17 mm. 
long; pedicels very slender, 0.5 — 2 mm. long; bractlets linear, 
1 — 3 mm. long; prophylla minute, setaceous, pubescent or subglab- 
■ rate; calyx campanulate. 1 — 1.3 mm. long, about 1.1 mm. wide, 
rather inconspicuously U-costate, glabrous or subglabrate, its 
rim subtnincate, very shortly U- toothed; corolla infiondibular or 
hypocrateriform, purple, violet, rose-purple, or lavender to pink, 
pale-mauve, blue, whitish, or white, its tube broadly cylindric, 
about 1.3 mm. long, ampliate above, often somewhat grantilose on 
the outer surface, scarcely pubescent, its limb U-parted, the 
lobes erect or incurved, oblong-lingulate, rounded at the apex, 
usually somewhat granulose on the outer surface; stamens h, in- 
serted at the very base of the corolla-tube, exserted, pink or 
yellow; filaments filiform, about 3.1 mm. long, glabrous; anth- 
ers broadly oblong, about 0.5 mm. long and wide, the thecae 
light-yellow; pollen yellow; pistil long-exserted and surpassing 
the stamens (in ^); style capillary, about U.7 mm. long, pink, 
glabrous, ampliate above into the stigma; stigma depressed- 
capitate or peltate, white, about 0.5 mm. vrLde; ovary subglobose, 
about 0.5 mm. long and wide, densely granulose or glandular, not 
hairy, U-celled; fruiting-calyx light, shallowly cupuliform or 
patelliform, about 2 mm. wide, mostly subglabrate, its rim sub- 
truncate, frequently irregularly split; friiit globose or subglo- 
bose, small, mostly white when mature, rarely dark-pink, green 
when immature, 2.1 — 2.5 mm. long and wide, glabrous, U-seeded. 

This extremely variable and much misunderstood species occxirs, 
in its typical form from eastern Pakistan and India through trop- 
ical southeast Asia, north to southern China and Hainan Island, 
and east to Indochina, Malaya, the Philippines, the Moluccas, New 
Guinea, New Ireland, and Queensland. It is widely cultivated and 
has been introduced in Peru and Madagascar. The type was collec- 
ted by Pierre Sonnerat in the vicinity of Malacca before 1783 and 
is deposited in the Lamarck Herbarium at the Mus^vmi National d' 
Histoire Naturelle at Paris . Because of the abundant confusion 
and misinterpretation of this taxon, Lamarck's original descrip- 
tion is worth repeating here: "Callicarpe a feuilles longues . 
Callicarpa longifolia . Callicarpa foliis longis lanceolatis sub- 
dentatis, utrinque viridibus, corjonbis parvis axillaribus. N. 
C'est une espece bien remarquable par la forme de ses feuilles, &. 
qui est presqu'entierement glabre dans toutes ses parties. Ses 
feuilles sont oppos^es, p^tiol^es, longues-lanc6ol6es, pointeus, 
a peine denticul^es en leurs bords, minces, molles, vertes des 
deux c8tes, £c presque tout-a-fait glabres, except^ dans leur jein- 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 55 

esse. Elles ont sept a huit pouces de longueur, sue une largeur 
d'un pouce & demi. Les fleurs sont petites, disposiSes conme dans 
les pr5c6dentes; elles ont un calice court, presque tronqu^ ou i 
quatre dents peu sensibles; une corolle infundibuliforme (S: quadri- 
fide; quatre ^tamines une fois plus longues que le corolle; & un 
ovaire sup6rieur, dont le style aussi long que les ^tamines, est 
termini par un stigmate en t8te tronquSe. Cette plante cix)lt 
dJins les environs de Malac, S: nous a 6t6 coramuniqu^e par M. Son- 
nerat." In his 1791 work he says of it "C. foliis longis lanceo- 
latis subdentatis utirLnque viridibus, cymis axillaribus laxiuscu- 
lis . Circa urbem Malacam.l^ Fol, 8-pollicaria . PI. distinctiss. 
a CalUri , japonica Thunbergii." 

The species has been found grovring in forests, high forests, 
and rainforests, dense or evergreen forests, fairly wet open tall 
secondary or virgin forests, clearings, secondgrowth, rainforest 
regroirth, secondary scrub, small openings in rainforests, and open 
slightly shaded spots in primary forests, on level land or river 
gravel, hills and grassy hillsides, and slopes, along lanes and 
streams, and at abandoned campsites and scrub-edge, from sealevel 
to 2000 meters altitude, flowering and fruiting in every month of 
the year. 

Lei describes it as "abundant scattered shrubs in sandy soil on 
dry level land along roadsides" on Hainan Island. Ridley (1909) 
avers that it is "Common in the low country" of Malaya. Hoogland 
reports it as "fairly conunon in low regrowth" in Papua, while Brass 
says that it is "plentiful in rainforest regrowths" and "common in 
rainforests" in the same land. Kanohira L Hatusima found it to be 
"fairly common at the edge of rainforests" in neighboring New Gui- 
nea and give its general distribution as "India through lialaya to 
New Guinea, northward to Formosa", In Thailand it is said t^ 
Smitinand to be "conmon along paths in evergreen jungle", Thaworn 
says "common in lowland evergreen forests",- and Boonchuai, Bunnak, 
and Suvarnakoses all refer to it as "scattered in evergreen 
jungles". Lau tells us that on Hainan it is "fairly common in 
moist level land and clay soil of meadows". Panigrahi &, Joseph 
(1966) says that the species is scarce in Nefa and cites his no. 
lIt97U . Matthew (I966) records it from West Bengal. Deb. Gupta, & 
Malick (1968) tell us that in Bhutan it is found on the "outskirts 
of forests". 

Watt (I889) says of it "A shrub of the Malaya Peninsula, Penang, 
and Nicobar Islands"; Ridley (1923) says "Tropical Asia", Bakhuizen 
van den Brink (192li) "southeast Asia and tropical Australia", and 
DoDjdn "from Malacca through Malaya to northeast Queensland" . Hooker 
& Mueller (I87O) regarded it as native and "widely spread over the 
Indian Archipelago, extending into India to Khasia and East Bengal", 
P'ei (I9U7) records it from Szechuan, China, while Prain (1903) re- 
cords- it from "C[entral] Bengal; Tippera; Chittagong" . Several 
authors record it from "Prince of Wales Island", but it is not cer- 
tain if they are referring to the island of this name in Penang or 
the one in Torres Strait near Australia. 



Some Types and Range Extensions in Hybanthus (Violaceae) 
C. V. Morton 



In 1944, I published a paper "The Genus Hybanthus in Continental 
North America" (Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 74-82. 1944). Since that 
time two significant papers have been published on Hybanthus , one by 
L. B. Smith and A. Fernandez -Perez , on the Colombian species (Caldasia 
6: 124-136. 1954) and one, by Standley and Williams, on the Guatemalan 
species (Fieldiana, Bot. 24 (7, no. 1): 72-76. 1961). At the time of 
my publication I had not seen some of the essential types. Since then 
I have studied the specimens in various European herbaria, especially 
those in London and Paris. These studies did not reveal any mis- 
interpretations in the paper, but two of the dubious species can now 
be placed, leaving only two still dubious -- lonidium lasiocarpum Presl 
and I^. lobelioides Schlecht. My notes on types and some range ex- 
tensions are here brought together, with comments also on three new 
species recently described from Central America by others. 

HYBANTHUS ATTENUATUS (Humb. & Bonpl.) G. K. Schulze, Notizbl. Bot 
Gart. Berlin 12: 114. 1934. 

lonidium attenuatum Humb. 6cBonpl. ex Roem. & Schult. in L. Syst. Veg. 
ed. nov. 5: 402. 1819. TYPE: Cited merely as "in America 
meridionali"; the subsequent publication of the nomenclaturally 
synonymous name lonidium riparium H. B. K. gave the type 
locality as Angostura de Carare, on the banks of the Rio 
Magdalena, Colombia, Humboldt and Bonpland . The holotype is 
presumably in the Willdenow Herbarium, Berlin. 

lonidium riparium H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 378. 1823. This is 
a superfluous change of name of I^. attenuatum , which is cited 
as a synonym. The description is much amplified from the brief 
one given by Roemer and Schultes, and a definite locality is 
cited. The specimen that served for the description is in the 
Humboldt Herbarium, Paris (no. 1643, from Angostura, Rio 
Magdalena, Colombia); there is a duplicate from the Bonpland 
Herbarium in the general herbarium in Paris. In my 1944 paper 
I did not cite any type from H. attenuatus . The Paris specimens 
show that the species was correctly interpreted. 

lonidium calceolarium Ging. in DC. Prodr. 1: 311. 1824. TYPE: 
Mexico, Sessg 6e Mocino . Gingins saw only a drawing. I have 
now seen a Sesse and Mociiio specimen at Kew named Viola 
calceolaria which agrees with Gingins' description and with 
Sesse and Mocifto's own later published description of their 
Viola calceolaria . This Kew specimen is here designated 
lectotype. It is a synonym of Hybanthus attenuatus , and has 
nothing at all to do with Viola calceolaria L. 



56 



1971 Morton, Hyfaanthus 57 

Viola calceolaria S essg & Mocino, Plant. Nov. Hisp. ed. 2, 141. 
1893, non L. , 1763. Described from a garden in Mazatlan, 
Mexico. To be lectotypif ied as above by a specimen so named 
at Kew. The name was presumably published in the first 
edition which I have not seen. 

lonidium botterii Turcz. Bull. Soc. Nat. Moscou 36(1): 556. 

1863. TYPE: Orizaba, Veracruz, Mexico, Botteri s.n. This 
species has never been placed. I have not seen the type, but 
a collection of Botteri 319 in the British Museum is from 
Orizaba and agrees fairly well with the original description, 
except that the upper flowers are not subsessile. It is 
likely that this does represent I^. botterii , which is then 
identical with H. attenuatus , which is well known from 
Orizaba and adjoining regions. 

Calceolaria mocinoana Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Pi. 1: 41. 1891. A new 
name for lonidium calceolarium Ging. 

HYBANTHUS BREVIS (Dowell) Standi, in Standi. & Calderon, List. Prel. 
PI. Salvador 152. 1925. 

Calceolaria brevis Dowell, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 33: 552. 1906. 

TYPE: Volc5n Jumaytepeque, Santa Rosa, Guatemala, Heyde 6e Lux 
3943 1 (US). 

Ihis species, which I reduced to H. elatus in my revision, 
appears sufficiently distinct in foliage characters. The leaves 
are small, not more than 8 cm. long, and merely acute whereas 
those of H. elatus are generally 13--15 cm. long, and long-attenuate 
at tip; the midribs and veins beneath are minutely but obviously 
puberulous in H. brevis and glabrous in H. elatus . The range is 
Chiapas (Sumidero of Yochib, Koltol Te ' , Breed love 6231; Moel Ch'en, 
above Tenejapa, Breed love 10902) and Guatemala (Coban, Alta Verapaz, 
Tuerckheim II 1354; Volcan Jumaytepeque, Santa Rosa, Heyde & Lux 
4435; Rio Frio, between Tactic and Santa Cruz, Alta Verapaz, Molina & 
Molina 12248; Cerro Pixpix, Huehuetenango, Steyermark 50590). As 
may be noted, the departments of Guatemala in which H. brevis occurs 
are all different from those where H. elatus has been found, which 
may indicate some ecological preferences. 

HYBANTHUS CALCEOLARIA (L.) G. K. Schulze, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. 
Berlin 12: 114. 1934. 
In 1944 I knew this distinctive species in North America from 
only a single collection from British Honduras, and suspected that 
it might be an introduction. This is evidently not true, for the 
species is now known from several collections from British Honduras 
and also from Veracruz and Oaxaca , Mexico, viz.: Mexico: East of 
Alvarado, Veracruz, Miranda 8513; northeast of MinatitlSn, Veracruz, 
King 1051; northwest of Zanatepec, Oaxaca, King 483; east of 

By a typographical error cited as 2943 in my 1944 paper. 



58 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Niltepec, King 1809; British Honduras: Jenkins Creek, Stann Creek 
District, Hunt 363; San Luis Road, El Cayo District, Augustine, 
Hunt 225; Cow Pen, Toledo District, Gentle 4076. 

HYBANTHUS CHIAPENSIS Lundell, Wrightia 4: 36. 1968. 

TYPE: Carelas, Chiapas, Mexico, Matuda 5514. 

I have seen no material. This is the fifth shrubby species known 
from Mexico, It can be distinguished from the others by its 
solitary flowers, small, congested leaves, and large capsules ca. 
1 cm. long. 

HYBANTHUS ELATUS (Turcz.) Morton, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 80. 
1944. 
In my revision I placed Hybanthus brevis (Dowell) Standi, as a 
synonym, but a reexamination of the type and other material indi- 
cates that it can stand as distinct. The true H. elatus is repre- 
sented by specimens from Veracruz ( Botteri 895, L. C. Smith 1840), 
Mexico (Tequezquinahuac , Cerro de Azompan, Matuda 31181, US), 
Ghiesbreght 47 (perhaps from Chiapas ?), and Guatemala (Finca 
Verge i, San Marcos, Stand ley 68921; Aldea Fraternidad, San Marcos, 
Williams et al . 26024; Volcin Fuego, Chimaltenango, Steyermark 
52056; Volcin Santa Clara, Suchitep^quez , Steyermark 46627; between 
Finca Pirineos and Patzulln, Quezaltenango, Stand ley 87076; between 
Santa Maria de Jesus and Palin, Escuintla, S tand ley 61293. The 
specimen that I cited from Oaxaca ( Conzatti & Cancino 2432) proves 
on further study to represent H. verbenaceus (H. B. K. ) Loesen. 
I still have not seen the type of H. elatus, which is presumably 
in Leningrad, and so it is placed from the description only. 

HYBANTHUS GALEOTTII (Turcz.) Morton ex Williams, Fieldiana Bot. 
29: 358. 1961. 

lonidium galeottii Turcz, Bull. Soc. Nat, Moscou 27(2): 339. 
1854. TYPE: Jalapa, Veracruz, Mexico, Galeotti 7085, 

Hybanthus occultus (Polak,) Standi. Field Mus . Publ. Bot. 18: 
714. 1937. 

In 1944, I adopted the name H. occultus and regarded lonidium 
galeottii as a dubious species. However, I have now seen a photo- 
graph (Field Museum no. 24006) of an isotjrpe of 1. galeottii from 
the herbarium in Geneva, and this shows that the species is 
identical with Purpus 13012, from Zacuapan, Veracruz, Mexico, the 
type of Hybanthus purpus ii Standi., which I consider the same as 
the Costa Rican H, occultus (Polak,) Standi. Since lonidium 
galeottii (1854) has priority over I^. occultum Polak. (1877), 
the new combination H. galeottii was necessary. 

Although I treated this plant among the herbaceous species of 
the genus, it is actually usually a shrub. According to the data 
on Skutch 2413, it is: "A shrub 2 m. high, with slender, wiry stems; 
flowers white, with a yellow spot at base of the large petal." 
According to Austin-Smith H796: "Open diffuse shrub with stems 



1971 Morton, I^ybanthus 59 

over 1 m. long; bark pale brown; leaves thin, faintly scabrous; 
lower lip petal large, pure white." Steyermark 49639 says 
"Shrub 3 feet tall; petals lilac -white; leaves membranous, 
rich green above, pale green beneath." These quotations show 
that there may be some variability in the flower color, 

HYBANTHUS MEXICANUS Ging. in DC. Prodr. 1: 312. 1824. 

TYPE: Mexico, Sess6 6e Mociflo (not seen; no exact locality cited) 
Key to the Subspecies 
Leaves obviously pilose on the surfaces of both sides. Yucatan. 

subsp. pilosus 
Leaves glabrous on the surfaces. 

Leaf midrib above with rather few, largest spreading hairs. San 
Luis PotosI subsp. mexicarfus 

Leaf midrib above puberulous, the hairs minute, numerous, 

curved. Sonora, Sinaloa, Baja California. .. subsp. occidentalis 

Subsp. MEXICANUS 

Restricted to San Luis Potosi apparently ( Pr ingle 3063, syntype 
of Alsodeia parvifolia S. Watson), 4019 (syntype of Alsodeia 
parvifolia S. Watson); Purpus 4897, 5455). 

Subsp. OCCIDENTALIS Morton, subsp. nov. 

Folia in superf iciebus omnino glabra, marginibus vix ciliolatis, 
costa supra minute et subdense puberula. 

Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 1,686,634, collected at 
Arroyo de Mescales, Rio Mayo, Sonora, July 21, 1936, by H. S. Gentry 
(no. 2291). Described on label as "a shrub two or three meters 
high, at the foot of a forested slope, tropical Sonoran zone." 

PARATYPES (all from Mexico): Cerro Prieta, near Culiacan, Sinaloa, 
Nov. 30, 1944, alt. 150-500 feet. Gentry 7114 (US), "spreading under- 
shrub; flowers dull white"; Western slopes of Sierra de la Laguna, 
east of Todos Santos, Baja California, Dec. 28, 1947, Carter, 
Alexander , & Kellogg 2453, "straggly tree up to 6 m. tall; flowers 
creamy white; in tall, fine-leaved leguminous forest on lower 
slopes"; Cape Region, Baja California, Nov. 4, 1902, T. S. Brandegee 
(US) (distributed as Alsodeia parvifolia ) . 

Subsp. PILOSUS Morton, subsp. nov. 

Folia utrinque evidenter pilosa. 

Type in the U. S. National Herbarium, no. 1,266,286, collected in 
Yucatan, Mexico, 1917--1921, by George F. Gaumer (no. 23,944) 
(Distributed as Hybanthus acalyphoides Standi., an unpublished name). 

PARATYPES (all from Yucatan): Buena Vista Xbac, Gaumer 1044 
(US); without specific locality, Gaumer 24, 168 (US). 

HYBANTHUS OPPOSITIFOLIUS (L.) Taubert, in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. 3(6): 333. 1895. 
lonidium longifolium Sess6 & Mocifto ex Ging. in DC. Prodr. 1: 311. 
1824. TYPE: Mexico, Sess^ & Mociflo . Gingins saw no specimens, 
There is a Sess6 and Mociflo specimen in the British Museum 
determined as Viola longifolia from "N. E.," i.e. Nueva 
Espafla (=Mexico). This agrees with Gingins' description 



60 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

and is surely authentic. It is here designated lectotype. 
My 1944 disposition of the species as a synonym of H. 
oppositifolius was correct. Mounted on the same sheet 
is another Sesse and Mocifto specimen from Mexico with the 
name " Viola linearifolia ," unpublished name; this is also 
a poor specimen of H. oppositifolius . 
lonidium parietariifolium DC. Prodr. 1: 308. 1824. 
lonidium parietariifolium var. houstonii DC. Prodr. 1: 308. 1824. 
lonidium par ie tar iif o 1 ium var. berterii DC. Prodr. 1: 308. 1824. 
The species 1. parietariifolium was originally divided into two 
varieties a houstonii and P berterii . It is evident that var. a 
is to be considered as the typical variety. It was based on a 
collection from Veracruz in the Banks Herbarium (British Museum) 
and on a specimen in the Lambert Herbarium from Peru collected by 
Ruiz and Pavon. I designate the specimen in the British Museum as 
lectotype; it bears the notation "Viola americana annua erecta 
par ie tar iae folio flore oblongo" and was evidently from the Miller 
Herbarium and collected by Houston. It represents typical Hybanthus 
attenuatus (Humb. & Bonpl.) G. K. Schulze. The var. berterii was 
described from "in Sanctae Marthae", evidently the Santa Marta 
Mountains, Colombia, collected by Bertero. I have seen an isotype 
in Paris labelled "Ins. S. Marthe, de M. Balbis cuilli par M. 
Bertero, no. 35." The "Ins.," i.e. "insula" is evidently an error 
for "in," since Santa Marta is not an island. This specimen 
probably represents H. attenuatus also, but it is dwarf and atjrpical. 
Although a perennial, H. oppositifolius sometimes flowers the first 
year from seed and therefore appears annual. Annual plants can be 
distinguished from the strictly annual H. attenuatus by the 
essentially glabrous stems, those of H. attenuatus being strongly 
pilose in broad lines. This may now be reported also from British 
Honduras (Mountain Pine Ridge, El Cayo District, Lundell 6661; 
Augustine, El Cayo District, Hunt 117) and Honduras (El Zamorano, 
Morazan, Stand ley 19009). 

HYBANTHUS PROCTORI Lundell, Wright ia 4: 37. 1968. 

TYPE: Between Pulay and San Juan Cotzal, El Quiche, Guatemala, 
Proctor 25009. 

I have not seen the type, but there is a paratype in the National 
Herbarium: Neba j , El Quiche, Contreras 5032. This is an herbaceous 
species that will run to H. verbenaceus in my key, to which it is 
not perhaps closely allied. It has much larger, differently shaped 
leaves, and elongate pedicels. 

HYBANTHUS PRUNIFOLIUS (Humb. & Bonpl.) G. K. Schulze, Notizbl. 
Bot. Gart. Berlin 12: 114. 1934, 
Viola prunifolia Humb. & Bonpl. ex Roem. & Schult. in L. Syst, 

Veg. ed. nov. 5: 391. 1819. TYPE: Presumably in the Willdenow 
Herbarium, Berlin, collected by Humboldt and Bonpland. No 
locality other than "America meridionalis" was cited, but 



1971 Morton, I^banthus 61 

the specific locality was given by H. B. K. under nomen- 
claturally the synonymous lonidium anomalum as "in sylvis 
(Bosque del Zapote) juxta Turbaco, 190 hex. Regno Novo- 
Granatensi," [i.e., near Turbaco, Department of Bolivar, 
Colombia] . 
lonidium anomalum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 381, t. 500 . 1823. 
A superfluous change of epithet for Viola prunifolia Humb. & 
Bonpl., cited as a synonym. The description is much amplified 
from that given by Roemer and Schultes. I have seen the 
isotype in the Humboldt Herbarium, Paris, and another in the 
general Herbarium, Paris, no. 1454 from the Bonpland Herbarium, 
noted as from Turbaco. 

HYBANTHUS SERRULATUS Standi. Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 17: 312. 
1927. 
In 1944 this species was known only from the type from Michoac^n 
or Guerrero, Langlasse 558. Mr. George Hinton turned up three 
additional collections in his extensive explorations of western 
Mexico: OcatitlSn, State of Mexico, Hinton 8587; Puerto Zarzamora, 
Michoacdn, Hinton 12716, and Vallecitos, Guerrero, Hinton 11654. 

HYBANTHUS SYLVICOLA Standi. & Steyerm. Field Mus . Publ. Bot. 23: 
176. 1944. 

TYPE: Finca Los Alpes, Pila-pec, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala, 
Wilson 329. 

I have not seen the type. A specimen identified by Lundell as 
probably this is Seamay, Peten, Guatemala, Contreras 6656, and from 
the description it does appear to be the same. This is the sixth 
shrubby species known from Central America. It does not appear to 
be closely allied to the others, differing in its large, glabrous, 
lanceolate, entire leaves, and its small, fasciculate flowers on 
slender pedicels. 

HYBANTHUS THIEMEI (Donn. Smith) Morton, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 
81. 1944. 
This species has been previously known in Mexico only from Campeche. 
It may now be reported also from Yucatan, Gaumer in 1895, no. 855 
(BM), without specific locality (originally distributed as lonidium 
brevicaule Mart.). It may also be reported from Costa Rica for the 
first time: Vicinity of El General, Prov. San Jos6, Skutch 3960, 
3975 (both US). 

HYBANTHUS VERBENACEUS (H. B. K.) Loesen. Bull. Herb. Boiss. II, 3: 
215. 1903. 

lonidium verbenaceum H. B. K. Nov. Gen. & Sp. 5: 379, t. 497 . 1823. 

In my 1944 paper I did not cite a type for this species. It was 
described from "in Horto Mexicano," i.e. in a Mexican garden. Since 
this species is by no means ornamental and has no known uses, it may 
be assumed that the original plant was naturally occurring in the 
garden rather than cultivated. I have now seen the holotype in the 



62 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

Humboldt Herbarium in Paris (no. 4024, marked "Hort. Mexican." 
It shows that the species was correctly interpreted in my paper. 
The t3rpe is a small perennial, with the acute leaves cuneate at 
base, ca. 2 cm. long and 1,5 cm. broad, bluntly toothed, with 
about eight teeth on either side; the calyx lobes are slender 
and pubescent and the labellum not villous; there are no capsules 
present. It is similar to a specimen in Paris collected by 
Brother Nicolas (s.n.), at Guadelupe, Puebla, Mexico, June 15, 
1910. 

HYBANTHUS VERTICILIATUS (Ortega) Baill. Hist. Pi. 4: 345. 1873 
lonidium linear e Torr. Ann. Lye. New York 2: 168. 1828. TYPE: 

Red River, Ark. , James . 
Hybanthus linearis (Torr.) Shinners, Field & Lab. 19: 126. 1951. 
Shinners has adopted the name H. linearis for the common Texas 
form of this species, which has most of the leaves alternate rather 
than opposite or verticillate . However, the position of the leaves 
appears to be variable and perhaps not significant. Plants with 
alternate leaves are also commonly found in Mexico, and one such 
is lonidium gracile Sesse & Mociilio ex Ging. in DC. Prodr. 1: 309. 
1824. If plants with alternate leaves are to be segregated then 
the epithet gracile has priority over linearis . 



BOOK REVIEV^S 
Alma L. Moldenke 



"THE BOLETI OF NORTHEASTERN NORTH AMERICA" by \7alter H. Snell L 
Esther A. Dick, xLi & 115 pp., 8? plates. J. Cramer, Lehre, 
Germany, or Stechert-IIafner Agency, Darien, Connecticut 
06826. 1970. DM 200, i 29, IBs, or ^55.00. 

Such a beautiful, valuable work that it will be desired by 
manyl Such an expensive book that it may have to be bypassed by 
many lovers of fungi generally and mushrooms specifically, of col- 
lections of artistic plates, and of exotically attractive books I 
For those who can garner the marks, pounds, or dollars there is 
a wonderful treat in store. Basically following Singer's classi- 
fication, 138 species and subspecies in 1$ genera of the Strobilo - 
mycetaceae and the Boletaceae are effectively keyed, described 
and given both geographic and ecologic distribution. Their edi- 
bility is considered. There are 16 plates with outline drawings 
of spores, cystidia (mostly cheilocystidia) and basidia. There is 
a good bibliography and index. Then there are those 72 truly mag- 
nificent, natural size, natural color plates with over UOO p>aint- 
ings by the senior author on them. 

This work represents the only modem publication in this area 
and a professional lifetime of skilled effort. It is regretted 
that the still commonly used scientific synonyms and common names 
are not included since this book will surely appeal to many more 
than the professional and student mycologists. It is a must for 
colleges, universities, botanical and related institutions and 
all better libraries both public and private. 

"INTRODUCTION TO NATURAL SCIENCE, Part Two: THE LIFE SCIENCES" by 
V. Lawrence Parsegian, Paul R. Shilling, Floyd V. Monaghan L 
Abraham S. Luchins, xv & 727 pp., illus.. Academic Press, 
London and New York, New York 10003. 1970. $10.95. 

"TEACHER'S GUIDE to Introduction to Natural Science, Part Two: THE 
LIFE SCIENCES" by V. Lawrence Parsegian, ix & 101 pp.. Aca- 
demic Press, London & New York, New York 10003. 1970. $.75 
paperback . 

"LABORATORY SUPPLEMENT to Introduction to Natural Science, Part 
Two: THE LIFE SCIENCES" by V. Lawrence Parsegian, Paul R. 
Shilling & Floyd V. Monaghan, vii & 105 PP., illus.. Academic 
Press, London & New York, New York 10003 . 1970. §2.95 
paperback . 

This well coordinated set of books represents a great deal of 
careful planning for a semester, course at the beginning college 

63 



6U PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1 

level for majors and non-najors who have had a preliminary semes- 
ter of training in the physical sciences. Actually the material 
is carefully enough explained not to be dependent upon that course. 

As part of the trend of this day the content is primariDy bio- 
chemistry and human nexiral physiology. Of course, much of value 
can be learned from this orientation, but there is almost nothing 
of a holistic approach to the world of living plants and animals 
until the next to the last chapter which is devoted to ecology. 
There is no mention of any part of biosystematics . The book is 
modestly illustrated. Page 1^1 shows three good black/white 
photographs of the stele of root, stem and leaf but with no iden- 
tification of the plant(s) involved j many texts tend to be careless 
in this way. Questions at the ends of the chapters are often in- 
telligent. The realistically short bibliographies there are also 
good, but references to several common important works were 
missed, such as to Ehrlich's work in the ecology chapter. 

The "Teacher's Guide" should be particularly helpful to begin- 
ning instructors . 

The "Laboratory Supplement" is well organized and suggests 
some interesting activities. It supplements the text well, 

"ELSEVIER »S DICTIONARY OF HORTICULTURE in Nine Languages — Eng- 
lish, French, Dutch, German, Danish, Swedish, Spamish, Ital- 
ian, Latin" edited by J. Nijdam, xvi & ^61 pp., Elsevier 
Publishing Company, Box 211, Amsterdam; Barking, Englandj 
New York, New York 1001?. 1970. $26.00. 

Compiled under the auspices of the Ministry of Agriculture and 
Fisheries at the Hague, this useful dictionary offers one more 
language - Italian - than the 8-language "Horticultural Diction- 
ary" of 1961 - and now out of print - from the Dutch State Publish- 
ing Company. There are li2l;0 numbered entries with English as the 
lead language followed by separate listings of each of the other 
languages. Continued use of the same numbers throughout all nine 
lists provides for handy cross-referencing. There is a UO percent 
increase of terms in this dictionary edition. 

Of the terms selected for listing the editor and collaborators 
claim "all those in any way concerned with [general] hcrticulture 
on an international basis will find this publication an indis- 
pensable tool." True, indeedl 



PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 21 March, 1971 'No. 2 



CONTENTS 

ADAMS, CD., Miscellaneous additions and revisions to the flowering 

plants of Jamaica II 65 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Scaevola kilaueae var. powersii Deg. & Deg. 72 

SMITH, L. B., Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXII 73 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Natural history of the Bonin Islands 97 

DEGENER, 0., Book review 99 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of 

the genus Callicarpa. XIII 101 

WURDACK, J. J., Certamen Melastomataceis XVI 115 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 131 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number, $1; per volume, $7.50, in advance, 
or $8, at close of volume 



MAR. 8 1971 

r 



MISCELLANBCXJS AHJITIONS AND REVISIONS TO THE TLCmMLm PLANTS 
OP JAMAICA n 
C. D. Adams 



ANTHDHIUM (ARACEAE) 

ANTHURIUM MAIOJNIENSE C. D. Adams, sp. nov, 

A, venosi Griseb. affine sed foliorum lamlnls majorlbus 
plerumque cordatis sinibus latis vel truncatis et virldilDius 
Impo litis; spatha riglde erecta spadicem plus minusve aequanton 
differt, 

HeAa terrestris vel rupestris perennls glabra; rfaizoma 
crassa erecta denuun i>arce ramosa radicis crassiusculis adve&titiis* 
Prophylla elongato-ovata cazlnata apicibus apiculatis vol axiatatis 
usque ad 20 cm longa et 9 cm lata ubi conplanata. Petioli solldl 
adaxLale planl vel parum eulcati abaxiale rotundati 12-30 cm longl. 
Foliorum laminae ovatae vel lanceolatae, basi cordatae sinibus 
latis vel truncatae, apice acutae vel obtusae apiculatae, nervis e 
basi palmatis in paribus duobus tribusve et e costa pinnatis 
utroque circa sex, coriaciae, virides impolitae subtus leviter 
pallidiores, 25-57 cm longae, 13-38 cm latae* Scs^nas robustus 
teres, 9-20 csn longus. Spatha oblongo-ovata apice navicularis 
riglde erecta, initio rubella postea olivacea vel vlxldls, 6-16 on 
longa usque ad 8 cm lata« Spadlx oblongus plus minusve decrescens 
fumosus, 7-16 on longa« Perianthium 2 nra lorkgum, 2-2«5 im latum. 
Tilamenta oblanceolata* ?ructus baccatus succulentus oblongus 
pzx}ximale albus distale puxpureus, 7-8 mm longus, ca« 4 nn latus, 
ubi perfectus 2-seminalis in pulpa mucilagina, e perianthio 
extrusus et ad maturitatem carpophoro filiformi pendulus. Semina 
plano-convexa, i»^5 i»n longa, 2,5-3 nm lata, ochracea. 

Type Collection: Tfai. Harris 8833 (holotype UCWl), growing in 
crevices of precipitous honey-combed rocks, near Troy, Trelawny 
Parish, Jamaica, elev. ca, 2000 feet, 6 December 190if. 

Paratypes: G. R. Proctor 9952 (U unlcate) , on partly shaded 
limestone ledge. Tyre District, 2 miles north of Troy, Trelawny 
Parish, Jamaica, elev. ca. 1750 feet, l/f March 1955; C. D. Adams 
6095 (UCWI unlcate), on limestone cliff in forest, Oxford Caves to 
Balaclava junction, Manchester Peirlsh, Jamaica, elev. 700 feet, 7 
Januaiy I96O; G. R. Proctor 22975 (u) , shaded limestone cliff, 
vicinity of AuchtembeddLe, Manchester Pariah, Jamaica, elev. ca, 
1750 feet, 1 December 1962; C. D. Adams 12Mf3 (UCWl), on steep 
cliff. Cockpit, ca. 5 miles north-^rest of Troy, Trelawny Parish, 
Jamaica, elev. 1750 feet, 4 April I963. 

Specimens of this species were earlier determined as A. 
grandifollum (Jacq. ) Ktinth and later as A» venosum Griseb. ; it 

65 



66 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

differs from both these in the rigid erect hoat-shaped spathe 
which is about as long as the spadix. It is restricted in its 
present knc^m distribution to a soiall area near ydiere the bound- 
aries of the parishes Trelawny, Manchester and St. Elizabeth meet. 

DENTROPANAX (ARALIACEAE) 

DENDROPANAX 07ALIP0LHJS (Fawcett & Rendle) C, D» Adams, comb. nov. 

G-ilibeirtia ovalifolia Pawcett & Rendle in Joum. Bot. 64: 
158. 1926. TIPE: Harris 9188 . Lapland, near Catadupa, 
St. James, Jeanaice« 

This new combination is the result of re-appraissJ. of the 
value of the character of the articulation of the peduncle. 'When 
given greater weight this feature relates D. elongatus Britton and 
D. ovalifolius closely to P. pendulus (Sw. ) Decne7 & Planch. The 
number of flowers in an umbel is regairded as a feature greatly 
affected by the age of the plant so that D. elongatus goes into 
the synonymy of D. pendulus irtiile D. ovalifolius can be separated 
on the basis of leaf -shape. 

UEKDRCPANAX NUTANS (Sw. ) Docne. & Planch, var. OBTIISIFOLIA C. D. 
Adams, veir. nov. 

7olla apice plerumque obtusa vel rottmdata vel raro subacuta. 

Type Collection: C. D. Adams 10693 (holotype UCWI ; iso-tgrpe 
ai) , Blue Mountain Peak, St. Thomas Parish, Jamaica, elev. 6800 
feet, 18 February 1962; "Tree 20 feet -with crooked thick twigs." 

Although the type specimen of this variety was made frco a 
gnarled tree with clustered rather anall leaves and shojrt inflor- 
escences, the fact that the obtuse-leafed variant occurs also in 
company with var. nutans in several parts of the range suggests 
that it is not merely an ecad of exposed situations. There is 
sane pi.irpose in establishing a name for this variety, but in view 
of the lack of knowledge of causes of variation in the genus and 
the close affinities of most of the Jamaican species, it might be 
misleading to cite paratype and other specimens. 

FiMBHlSTILIS (OTPERACEAE) 

PUfflRESTYLIS HARKESII (Britton) C. D. Adams, comb, nov. 

Stenophyllus harrisii Britton, Torreya 20: 83. 1920. 

TITPE: Harris 12590 . Old England Falls, Blue Mountains, 
Portland, Jamaica. 

This rare and local plant is characterized by its dense 
tufted grovrth consisting mainly of numerous slender scapes subt- 
ended by reduced leaves. Inflorescences eure snail of few spike- 
lets aM nearly always viviparous. Besides the type loceuLity, it 
is "kaomi from exposed hillsides on serpentine in the area of Am- 
tully, St. Thccias parish ( Adams 12224 . M, Mo, UCWl) in associat- 
ion with a number of other veiy rare plants in Jamaica including 



1971 Adams, Flowering plants of Jamaica 6? 

Rhynchoapora lindeniana Griseb. , Phoradendron ancepa (Spreng. ) Krug 
& Urb. and Folystichum tridens (Moore/ Pee. There are many species 
in conroon with Cuha and Kispaniola in this local flora and Pimbri - 
stylis harrisii may not be different from Bulboatylis subefimbriata 
Ktikenth, VTilliam Harris collected further specimens of this species 
from the type locality on 3 March 1?19; some of the duplicates of 
thJs gathering which were distributed to other herbaria were 
numbered 12098; the specimen in herb. UOTI is numbered 12908 and 
this is likely to be correct assuming chronological numbering as 
the type (12890) was collected on 4 September 1918. 

LOBELIA (CAMPANULACEAE) 

LOBELIA CALEDONIANA C. D. Adams, sp. nov. 

L. assurgentia L. ai'finis sed foliorum mai^nibus proxLmalibus 
integris distalibus crenatis, capsulls non nutantibus; a L. fawc - 
ettii Urb. corolla pubescent! differt. 

Prutex caule flexili usque ad 1.5 m altus; latex copioaus 
albus erubescens. Polia oblanceolata basi anguste cuneata integra- 
que apice acuminata crenataque raembranacea tenuiter pubescentia 
usqvae ad. 28 an longa et 7,^ cm lata, distincte petiolata. Inflores- 
centia subtennlnalis subscaposa unilateralis pubescens scape 5-7 cm 
longo pedicellis numerosis ca. 18 mm longis rectis, bracteis linear- 
ibus ca 1 cm longis, bracteolis linearibus ca. 5-7 mm longis. 
Ovarium turbinatum 6-7 mm locgum. Sepala linearia minute remoteque 
dentata ca* 13 mm longa* Corolla initio curvata longe secedens 
4-4.5 cm longa pallide virldls. Staminvan filamenta et tubus ca. 28 
ram longa albido-viridia, antherae inaequales curvatae barbatae 8-11 
nm longae. Stylus staminibus longior. Capsula cyathiformis dia- 
phragmate apioaJi dehiscenti ca. 7-9 ran lata* Semina pallida pyri- 
foimia 0.7-O«8 mm longa. 

Type Collection: C. D. Adams 12547 (holotype UCV7I ; isotypes 
Wl, GH) , on limestone iX)cks in montane woodland. Mount Caledonia, 
Portland Parish, Jamaica, elev. 4600 feet, 19 May I963 (plant in 
flower) • 

Paratypes: C. D. Adams II629 (UCWI unicate) , type locality as 
above, 5 September 1962 (plant in fruit) ; W. R« Anderson & D. C. 
StembeiT; 3295 (lUKE, UCWl), type locality as above, 26 July I966 
(plant in fruit). 

This new species falls close to L. assurgens L» from which it 
differs in having the proxlmaQ. mai^ins of the leaves entire rather 
than furnished with filiform appendages; the stem is not winged by 
decurrent leaf -bases; the pedicels are not recurved in fruit. It 
also resembles L. fawcettii Urt. but the corolla is pubescent. 



68 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

PALTCOOREA (HJECACEAE) 

FALICOOHEA WILE5II C. D. Adams, sp. nov. 

P. pulchrae Griseb. af finis sed corolla "brevioro pallidiore- 
que et P. crooeae (Sw. ) Schult. sed foliis plerumque glabris et 
corolla, longiore nunquam rubra vel aurantiaca. 

Frutez 1*2-4 m vel arbor usque ad 3 in aJ.ta plerumque glabra. 
Folia late lanceolata basi cuneata apice acuminata extz^emum acuta, 
8-22 cm longa, 3-7»5 c™ lata nervis lateralibus utroque latere S-lif. 
PetiolL 1-2 cm longi. Stipulae subpersistentes in situ marcescentes 
dentibus binatis distantibus subulato-lanceolatis 3-5 ™» longis. 
Inf lorescentia minute puberula ramis msQ-vinis jjurpurascentibusve 
raro flavidis; bracteae aubulatae. Calycis tubus 1 mm longus 
segnenta deltata 0.4-0.5 am longa. Corolla omnino 11-19 mn longa 
lobis 2-3 mm longis alba malvina magenteave. Pructus laevis niger 
5-6 mn longus latusque in sicco bilobatus. 

T^e Collection: J. Wiles (holol^'pe M). 

Paratypes: Win. Hairis 5203 (31, UCWl) , Claverty Cottage. 
Portland Parish, Jamaica, 6 June 1894: lin. Harris 3180 (UCWI), 
Whitfield Hall. St. TOiomas Pariah, Jamaica, 2 June 1894; ^fa. Harris 
6312 (M, TJCWI), Whitfield Hall, St. Thomas Parish, Jamaica, elev. 
2000 feet, 20 May I896; W. R. Magon 8678 (m) , on rocky forest 
slope, Flamstead, St. Andrew Parish, Jamaica, elev. 1000-1100 m, 3I 
May 1926; G. L. Webster A K. A. Wilson 3I39 (M, U), John Crow Mts. 
Portland Parish, Jamaica, elev, IOOO-I5OO feet, 6 August 1954; 
C« D. Adams 7475 (Hi, DDKE, UCWl), in woodland, Greenwich Bridle 
road, St, Andrew Parish, Jamaica, elev. 3700 feet, 6 July I96O; eilso 
C. D. Adams 7hB6 (M, UCWI), 7910 (M, UCWI), 9383 (UCWl), 11926 (M, 
UCWI). 13237 (TJCWI); M. duQuesnay 324 CucWiTT j* K« New" 7uCWl); 
G. R. Proctor 8076 (U) . 23278 (IJ). 

This species is rather common in sulMiontane woodlands on shale 
or limestone in eastern Jamaica. Palicourea pulchra Griseb., also 
endemic, is its vicariant in central and western parishes. The 
affinity of both these sfpecies is with the the widespread P. crocea 
(Sw. ) Schult. from which they differ in having larger corollas never 
orange or red. P. crocea is almost always quite markedly hairy in 
Jamaica although towards the southern part of its range it becomes 
glabrous; S. Moore in Pawcett & Rendle, Flora of Jamaica, Vol. 7 
referred the plant now being described as P» wilesii to P» riparia 
Benth. but that is generally regarded as representing the southerly 
veolants of P» croceeu 

The collector, James Wiles, accompanied Capt. Bligh on his 
second trip to the Pacific as a gardener. On returning to the West 
Indies Wiles was charged with the duty of establishing the bread- 
fruit plants first in St. Vincent and then in Jamaica which he did 
successfully. 



1971 Adams, Flowering plants of Jamaica 6? 

PSTCHOTHIA (HJBIACEAE) 

PSyCHOTRIA DaiAILATA C. D. Adams, sp. nov, 

P» corymbosae Sw. all quantum simile sod foliis elliptic! s baed 
late cuneatis et coiolla alba. 

Prutez jjuberulus 2-2,5 "> altus vel eurbor usque ad 6 m alta. 
Polia obovato-elliptica vel elliptica basi late cuneata apice 
bi^eviter acriminata 4-17 cm longa 2-7 cm lata nervis late rail bus 
utroque latere 7-11 subtus axillis c ae spite so-pi lo sis pailldiora 
nervo medio rubello. Petioll usque ad 3 cm longi. Stipulae sub- 
persistentes in situ marcescentes dentibus binatis deltatis 2 nm 
longis. Inflorescentia puberula pedunculo viridi vel rubiginoso 2- 
9. 5 cm longo; biracteae bracteolaeque lanceolato-subulatae. Calycls 
segnenta ovata 0»6 ram longa ciliata. Corollae tubus 3-4 mm longus 
toiaentosus ebumeus. Pructus dripaceus atro-pu3rpureus in si coo 
bilobatus 5 ™n longus et 6 ram latus» 

Type Collection: C. D» Adams 9375 (holotype UCWI, unicate), 
in wet forest on limestone, Ecclesdown, Poirtland Parish, Jamaica, 
elev. 1750 feet, 29 March I96I (plant in flower), 

Paxatypes: H, A, Osmaston 5175 (Ht, UCWl), in dense mossy 
thicket, uppermost peart of Big River, above Spring Valley Estate, 
Portland Pariah, Jamaica, elev. 3000 feet, 6 August I967 (plant in 
flower) ; also R. A, Howard. G. R, Proctor & %i. T. Steam l!f757 
and G. R, Proctor IO464, 

This new species resembles Pqychotria corymbosa Sw, but haa 
elliptical leaf -blades broadly cimeate at the base. Although the 
inflorescence sometimes is tinged reddish, it does not have the 
characteristic bright mauve or purple coloration of P. corymbosa 
and the corolla is white, 

PSYCHOTRIA PEEUTJCULATA Sw, var. CAUUATA C, D, Adams, var, nov. 

Folia apice caudato-acuminata. Inf lorescentiae pedunculus 
rami calyx corollaque pubescens. 

Type Collection: C. D. Adams 7296 (holotype UCWI; isotypes 
EM, GH), Aenon Town to McKoy, Clarendon Parish, Jamaica, elev. 
2000 feet, 26 June I96O; "Tree I5 feet; corolla yellow except 
inside of lobes white. " 

Paratypes: C, D, Adams 9454 (UCWl), Union Hill, Moneague, St, 
Ann Parish, elev, l'fOO-1500 feet, 25 J\jne I96I; ''Small tree to 20 
feet; corolla very pale yellow; flower-buds yellow."; H, A. 
Oaaaston 5017 (3^, UCWl), steep forested cockpit sides, Jericho- 
Garlands road, Msiroon Town, St. James PaLrish, Jamaica, elev, I8OO 
feet, 12 July 1967; "^nderatorey shrub 2 m high; corolla white." 
M. duQuesnoy 312 (UCWl), woodland max^n, Aenon Town to McKoy, 
Clarendon Parish, Jamaica, elev. 2000-2500 feet, 28 April 1970; 
"Tree 15-20 feet; corolla white; buds pink-brown. " 

This new variety differs from typical Psychotria pedunculata 



70 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

in having the Tirhole inflorescence including the corollas pubescent; 
the tips of the leaves have a rather, long axuamen. 

RANDEA (HJBIACSAE) 

RANDIA ACOLEATA L. var. JAMAIG5NSIS (Spreng. ) C. D. Adams, comb, et 
stat. nov. 
Gardenia jamaicensis Spreng. , Syst. Veg. ed. 16, 1: 761. 182V. 

HaTidia jaroaicensis (Spreng, ) Kxug & Urb. in Urb, , Symb. Ant. 
1: 426. 1399. 

rtandia aculeata in Jamaica is extreme Hy variable in leaif-size, 
hairiness and the presence of spines. This taxon acconmodates 
those variants iwhich have the young vegetative parts and corollas 
hairy; they do not seam to differ in any other rray and thus do not 
warrant more than varietal rank. 

RHINCHOSPORA (CTIPERACSAE) 

RH7NCH0SP0RA MIMJTIPLORA (Rich, ex Spreng. ) C, D. Adams, comb. nov. 

Sclera a minutiflora Rich, er Spreng., Syst. Veg, ed. 16, 3' 
831. 1826. 

Rbynchospora mici'antha Vahl, Baum, PI. 2: 23I. I8O5. nom. 
illegit. 

Vahl described Rbynchospora micrantha -with Schoenus rariflorus 
Michx. in sjmonymy. Besides being nomenclaturally superfluous at 
the time, R. micrantha Vahl refers to a distinct taxon next descr- 
ibed by Richard as Scleria minutiflora. I am grateful to Mr. J. E. 
Dandy for pointing this out. 

RONDELETIA (RETBIACEAE) 

RONDELEEIA BSACHUHnijA G. R. Proctor ex C. D. Adams, sp. nov. 

R. hirtae Sw. edTinis sed foliis minoribus sessilibus vel sub- 
sessilibus basi cordatis differt. 

Prutex rami 3 gracilibus hiirtis usque ad 3 m altus vel sirbor 
parva. Folia late ovata basi cordata apice breviter acuminata 
extiremura acutissima 2-9 cm longa 1.5^4.5 cm lata; lamina adaxiale 
nenro medio hirsute excepto glabrescens abaxiale venis pilis appr- 
essis. PetioH 0-3 (-4) nm longi. Stipulae deltato-acuminatae ca. 
5 mm longae pilis appiressis. Pedunculus usque ad 4 cm longas; 
pedicelli 0.5-^ nin longi; bracteae subulatae. Calycis tubus 
ovoideus 2 mm longus hirsutus segpaenta lanceolato-subulata 4 nm 
longa tenuiter pilosa« Corolla* tubus 12 mm longus tenuiter pil- 
osus coccineus vel viridis lobi orbiculaores 4 mm longi distale 
glabri fulvi. Stylus exsertus vel inclusus. Capsula bisulcata 5 
nin longa 6 nm lata tenuiter pilosa. 

Type Collection: C. D. Adams 12139 (holotype TJCTJI; isotypes 



1971 Adams, Flowering plants of Jamaica 71 

ai, duke), on serpentina rocks, Amtully, 3t, Thomas Parish, 
Jamaica, elev. 2900-5000 feet, 24 January I963 (plant in flower 
and fruit). 

Paratypes: C. D. Adams 13236 (ai, UCWl), iype locality blb 
above, 16 July I970 (plant in flower) ; also G. 5, Proctor 23304 
(IJ). 

This new species resonbles Rondeletia hirta Sw, but is dist- 
inguished by the leaves being smaller, sessile or subsessile and 
cordate at the base. Like many of the Jamaican species of 
Rondeletia , this plant has a strong tendency to develop crimson 
coloration in the vegetative parts, especially on the petioles and 
the xxndersurfaces of the leaves. The habit of branching is much 
ajffected by the physical situation; in the open coppice regrowth 
develops erect shoots with large leaves; in the shade the branches 
are straggly and the leaves snaller with often relatively longer 
petioles. 

HTTIDOPHrLUJM (GISI,1SIACEAE) 

HmDOPnniDli GHANDE (Sw. ) Mart, ex G. Don var, LAEITEGAIUM C. D. 
Adams, var. nov. 

Foliorum superficies laevigata* 

Type Collection: CD. Adams 6786 (holotype UCTC; isotype 
IM), collected on open rocks, near Burnt Kill, Trelawny Parish, 
Jamaica, elev. I3OO feet, 8 April I960; "Shrubby to 8 feet; leaves 
mostly distaJ., lemon-scented; buds sticky; corolla yellow." 

Paratype: M. duQuesnay 17 (UCWl) , collected in thicket, south 
of Ramgoat Cave, Trelawny Parish, Jamaica, elev. I5OO feet, 10 
December I968; "Slender tree 11 feet; leaves dark; stems reddish; 
flowers lemon yellow. " 

This variety is distinguished fron var. grande by the smooth 
leaves and the usually somewhat less branched inflorescence. Other 
specimens, e.g. G. R. Proctor 16645. R. A, Howard & G. R. Proctor 
I44I8 and R, A. Howard. G. R. Proctor <£: ffa. T. Steam 14656 in 
herbaria Hu, GH and I J exist but are not available to the author at 
this time; they originated from the same locality and also extend 
the range into the pariah of St, James. 



SCAEVOLA KILAUEAE VAR. POWERSII Deg. & Deg. 
Otto & Isa Degener, Volcano, Hawaii 



Degener Nos. 21,762 and 21,763, collected at "Keauohana Forest 
Reserve, near Pahoa, Hawaii. Among scrub; spreading 2 ft. high 
bush. Feb. 2, 1952.", comprised such a curious taxon "with robust 
leaves," that the collector suspected it to be a new variety of 
Scaevola kilaueae Deg. Yet fearing the specimens might, after all, 
simply represent plants of the species £.s^», especially robust be- 
cause growing under conditions of exceptional rainfall and rich 
soil, he left the many sheets lying fallow for nearly twenty years 
in the herbarium of the " Museum botanicum Berolinense " in Dahlem. 

Interest in the above was revived when Dr. Howard A. Powers, 
geologist stationed on the brink of Kilauea Grater, Island of Ha- 
waii and a keen amateur botanist, drew the attention of the writers 
to a curious naupaka he had discovered. A few twigs were collected 
and labeled as follows t "Degener & Degener No. 32,^1. X Scaevola 
kilaueae X S. chamissoniana var. bracteosa Hillebr. Old look out at 
Pauahi Grater, Haw. Vole. Nat. Park, Hawaii. In scrub at 3»200 
feet within 1 meter of S. k. (D, & D. 32,442) & 1 km. of S. c. b. 
on Puu Huluhulu. Discovered by Dr. Howard Powers. (Gollected by 
Degeners) July 22, 1970." 

Because of the resemblance between Nos. 21,762, 21,763 and 
32,441, we believe the former two plants represent not a simple 
hybrid like probably No. 32,441, but rather a more or less con- 
stant variety of early hybrid origin. We surmise a plant like No. 
32,441 with its limited gene pool, if isolated for a hundred gener- 
ations or so by surrounding veneers of lava in a kipuka (lava 
oasis), would de novo evolve into a taxon resembling the new var- 
iety described below; 

SCAEVOLA KILAUEAE var. POWERSII Deg. & Deg. Frutex 7 dm. altus, 
ramis ramulisque divaricatus . Folia rigida coriacea, ^ - 8^ mm . 
longa , 12-20 mm. lata, margine 6-1^ serrato-dentata . Corolla 
flava. This variety, represented by the type Deg. & Deg. No. 
21,763 mentioned above and returned to Berlin for deposit, is in- 
termediate between S^. chamissoniana var. bracteosa Hillebr., and S. 
kilaueae Deg., with features of the latter predominating. For in- 
§tance, it is a shorter, more spreading shrub than the former taxon. 
Its leaf size is almost of the former, yet the texture is leathery, 
with only midrib showing on both surfaces and ribs showing faintly 
on lower surface. The few serrate-dentate teeth end almost columnar 
as does the apex of the leaf itself. S. c_. var. bracteosa , on the 
contrary, has subcoriaceous leaves in which ribs and veins are 
prominent on both surfaces, and the teeth are more numerous and 
more extensively distributed. The inflorescence in length approach- 
es that of the former; though the flowers are less in number, about 
25 mm. long, narrow-lobed, and dull yellowish. 

72 



NOTES ON BROMELIACEAE, XXXII 
Lyman B. Smith 



KEY TO GU2MANIA AND SIMULATORS 

This revision follows the same plan as that of Tlllandsia In 
my Notes on Bromeliaceae, XXXI, in Phytologia 20: 121. 19T0. It 
completes preliminary revisions of the major genera of the Til- 
landsioideae for my monograph, Vrlesea having appeared in XXIII 
in Phytologia I3: 84. 1966, and Catopsie in XXVII in Phytologia 
16: &*. 1968. Mezobromelia and Glomeropitcairnia with 2 species 
eax:h are too small to need preliminary treatment, but there is a 
strong probability that good corolla material will show the 
necessity of transferring species now in Quzmania to Mezobromelia 

Several species of Tlllandsia and Vrlesea and both of Mezobro - 
melia have the flowers polystichous or in more than 2 ranks and 
can not be distinguished from Quzmania with certainty without 
good corollas. They are Included in this key on the same basis 
as that of the simulators in the revision of Tlllandsia . 

Guzman la has groups of species that at first glance appear to 
be distinct but there are too many intermediates to permit any 
satisfactory division into subgenera. 

1. Sepals exserted, not wholly covered by the floral or primary 
bracts. 
2. Sepals high -connate into a slenderly cyllndric tube, the free 
lobes often conspicuously dilated ( Sodlroa ) . 

3. Inflorescence very laxly compound. Pern G. dudleyi 

3. Inflorescence simple, lax to dense. 
h. Plants stemless. 
5. Inflorescence elongate, lax. . 
6. Leaf -blades llgulate . . .Colombia G. spruce 1 

6. Leaf -blades gramlnlform. Costa Rica to Colombia. 

G. dlSBltiflora 
5. Inflorescence globose or subglobose, dense. 
T. Leaf -blades llgulate, usiially cross -lined. Panama, 

Colombia G. musalca 

7. Leaf -blades gramlnlform, concolorous. Colombia, Peru. 

G. globosa 
k. Plants slenderly long -caulescent; leaf -blades gramlnlform. 
8. Leaf -sheaths nearly concolorous with the blades. 
9. Sepals not more than 25 mm long; Inflorescence 4-8- 

flowered. Colombia, Ecuador G. graminlfolia 

9. Sepals 40-55 nm long; Inflorescence 10-12 -flowered. 

Colombia G. carle if olia 

8. Leaf -sheaths dark castaneous. 

10. Scape exceeding the leaves, less than 1 mm thick; scape- 

bracts mostly shorter than the internodes; Inflores- 
cence slenderly ellipsoid and dense before anthesis, 

becoming lax. Colombia G. kalbreyerl 

73 



7U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

10. Scape Bhorter than the leaves, over 1 ram thick; scape- . 
bracts always imbricate; inflorescence always dense. 
11. Sepals acute; inflorescence 2- rarely ^-flowered. 

Colombia, Ecuador G. pearcei 

11. Sepals obtuse; inflorescence 4-6-f lowered. 
12. Upper scape -bracts with foliaceous blades exceeding 
the base of the inflorescence; sepals about h cm 
long with free lobes 15-20 mm long. Costa Rica, 

Colombia G. obtus iloba 

12. Upper scape-bracts with short colored blades that do 
not attain the inflorescence; sepals 7 cm long with 

free lobes 35 n™ long. Colombia G. sneidernii 

2. Sepals not more than about l/2 connate and then not forming a 
Blender tube. 
13. Spikes lax, at least toward base; flowers and floral bracts 
divergent to spreading at anthesis; flowers not 
fasciculate. 
l4. Inflorescence 3-pinnate or more at least at base. 
15. Sepals 17-40 mm long. 
16. Floral bracts cucullate; sepals acute, to I8 mm long. 

Lesser Antilles, Venezuela G. pl\jmierl 

16. Floi'al bracts nearly straight; sepals obtuse. 

17. Sepals 35 -if ram long. Ecuador G. ecuadorensis 

17. Sepals 17-20 mm long. Colombia, Ecuador G. baker i 

15. Sepals 8-l4 mm long. 
18. Leaf -blades broadly or rounded, apiculate. 
19- Pedicels slender, equaling or exceeding the floral 

bracts . Colombia, Venezuela G. pennellii 

19. Pedicels stout, shorter than the floral bracts. 

Colombia G. candelabrum 

18. Leaf -blades with an attenuate apex. 

20. Inflorescence amply pyramidal, lax. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. diffusa 
20. Inflorescence thyrsoid, dense. Costa Rica. 

G. condensata 
ih. Inflorescence not more than bipinnate. 
21. Leaf -blades narrowly triangular or gramlniforra, 7-15 ™d 
wide. 
22. Inflorescence simple, lax at base only. Brazil. 

V. (63) flammea 
22. Inflorescence compound. Colombia. 
23. Pedicels distinct, 6-8 mra long; sepals 16 mm long. 

G. delicatula 
23. Pedicels obscure, the flowers subsessile; sepals 8-11 
ram long . 
2^. Leaves 20-25 cm long, the blades graminiform. 

G. bicolor 
2k. Leaves I3-I6 cm long, the blades narrowly triangular. 

G. Kracilior 
21. Leaf -blades linear to ligulate, acuminate to rounded and 
apiculate, 20-110 mm wide. 
25. Sepals acute, 15-40 mm long. 



1971 Smith, Notes on Dromeliaceae 75 

.26. Leaf -blades broadly euiute and apiculate; flowers mostly 
secund . 
27. Sepals 40 mm long; branch-axes shorter than the flowers. 

Colombia G. lehmannlana 

27. Sepals 18 mm longj branch-axes miich longer than the 

flowers. Lesser Antilles, Venezuela G. plumleri 

26. Leaf -blades atteniiate. 

28. Branches several times longer than the lower primary bracts 

or the inflorescence simple. Amazonian Brazil, Colombia, 

Venezuela G. brasilieneis 

28. Branches not more than twice as long as the lower primary 
bracts. 
29. Spikes spreading to decurved. 
30. Floral bracts lanceolate, acute; sepals 32 mm long. 

Jeimaica G. fawcettii 

30. Floral bracts broadly elliirtlc; sepals 21 mm long. 

Colombia (?) G. straminea 

29. Spikes suberect. 

31. Leaf -blades plicate; sepals I7 mm long. Colombia. 

G. Btricta 
31. Leaf -blades not plicate; sepals 24-30 mm long. 
32. Spikes to 3 cm long, largely covered by the ample 

primary bracts . Hispaniola G. ekmanii 

32. Spikes to 8 cm long, almost fully exposed by the long 

but very narrow primary bracts . Colombia. . .G. pungens 
25. Sepals narrowly subobtuse to broadly rounded. 
33- Branches 2-4-flc3wered; sepals free, coriaceous, even. Costa 

Rica Vriesea spp . 

33 • Branches more than 4-f lowered or else the sepals more or 
less connate or nerved or both. 
34. Sterile base of at least the terminal branch bracteate or 
the inflorescence simple. 
35* Inflorescence compound with all the branches with long 
sterile bracteate bases much exceeding the primary 
bracts. 
36. Sepals 16-18 mm long; sterile base of branch as long as 
fertile part, 3 -4 -bracteate. Guiana, Peru, Bolivia. 

G. roezlii 
36. Sepals 10 mm long; sterile base of branch much shorter 
than fertile part, 1-2 -bracteate. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. rhonhofiana 
35. Inflorescence simple or comjxjund with only the terminal 

branch with long sterile bracteate base. Costa Rica to 

Ecuador and Amazonian Brazil G. patula 

34. Sterile bases of all the branches naked and shorter than 
the primary br£u:ts. 
37- Sepals not over 10 mm long; spikes few -flowered . 
38. Primary biracts exceeding the lower branches; sepals 
nerved; spikes wholly lax. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. multiflora 
38. Primary bracts much shorter than all the branches; 

sepals nearly or quite even; spikes lax only at base. 



76 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

Venezuela, Peru G. venamensls 

37. SepalB 16-3I mm long. 
39* Branches only 3 cm long, densely flowered except at base, 
suberect; pedicels stout, 3-6 mm long. Hlspanlola. 

G. ekmanll 
39. Branches ^^-23 cm long. 
ho. Floral bracts orbicular with a triangular aplculus. 

Venezuela G. steyermarkii 

^0. Floral bracts with narrower base and broader apex. 

4l. Primary bracts all distinctly shorter than the branches 

k2. Sepals free to 3 nmi connate, nerved. 

^3' Pedicels stout, 5-IO mm long; branches ascending, I3- 

23 cm long. Costa Rica, Colombia.. G. costaricensis 

^3- Pedicels slender, 3 mm long; branches spreading, 6 cm 

long . Venezuela G. nubigena 

^2. Sepals 5~10 mm connate, even or nearly so. 
kk. Sepals glabrous. Central America, Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. scherzeriana 
hk. Sepals densely lepidote. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. hitchcockiana 
^1. Primary bracts equaling or exceeding at least the lower 
branches. 
45. Sei)als but slightly exceeding the floral bracts; pri- 
mary bracts not contracted between base and apex. 

Colombia, Bcxiador G. bakeri 

^5- Sepals much exceeding the floral bracts; lower primary 
bracts contracted from a broadly ovate base into a 
long very narrowly triangular apex. 
k6. Sepals evenly coriaceous, broadly acute, 21 mm long. 

Colombia (?) G. straminea 

k6. Sepals nerved with membranaceous crisped margins, 

obt\ise, 31 rani long. Colombia G. radiata 

13. Spikes dense throughout. 
^7* Floral bracts nearly or quite even or else irregizlarly 
rugose when dry as if fleshy and even in life. 
k8. Floral bracts irregularly rugose when dry; sepals 19-25 mm 
long. 
U9. Leaf -blades broadly rounded and aplculate; lower primary 

bracts suborbicular, apiculate. Ecuador. .. .G. teuscheri 
^9« Leaf -blades acuminate; lower primary bracts long -acuminate 
from a broadly ovate base. 
50. Inflorescence wholly lax; floral bracts ovate, I5-2O mm 

long . Venezuela G. virescens 

50. Inflorescence dense at least toward apex; floral bracts 
broadly elliptic, 10 mm long. Ecuador, Peru. 

G. weberbaueri 
^8. Floral bMicts not at all rugose. 
51. Inflorescence densely digitate or subglobose, bipinnate. 
52. Leaves and scape -bracts irregularly nodose -septate. 

Ecuador G. septa ta 

52. Leaves and scape-bracts even excejyt for the nerves. 



1971 Smith, Notes on Bromellaceae 77 

53. Sepals acute; leaf-eheaths usually finely purple -s tr iped. . 

Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia G. subcorymbosa 

53. Sepals obtuse; leaf -sheaths not striped. 
5^. Floral bracts and sepals pale; sepals connate for 3 mn; 
leaves usually with dark cross -bands. Amazonian 

Colombia, and Brazil G. vittata 

54. Floral bracts and sepals dark; sepals about half -connate; 
leaves concolorous except extreme base. Colombia. 

G. confusa 
51. Inflorescence elongate and lax at least at base, or simple. 
55. Sepals 32 ran long. 
56. Inflorescence compound . Venezuela G. hedvchioides 

56. Inflorescence simple. Mexico Vrieeea (217) malzinei 

55. Sepals 11-18 vara long. 

57. Terminal branch with a long sterile brae tea te base or the 

inflorescence simple. 
58. Scape-bracts imbricate. Panama G. filiorum 

58. Scape -bracts shorter than the upper intemodes at least. 

Costa Rica to Ecuador and Amazonian Brazil.... G. patula 
57. Terminal branch with a short naked sterile base like the 
lateral ones, inflorescence bipinnate. 

59. Sepals 18 mm long; leaf -blades densely lepidote through- 

out. Ecuador G. lepidota 

59. Sepals 11-13 nan long. Colombia, Venezuela. 

G. sphaeroidea 
H7. Floral bracts strongly and regularly nerved. 
60. Inflorescence simple; leaf -blades narrowly triangular. 
61. Leaf -blades densely cinereous -lepidote on both sides. 
Bolivia, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina. 

Tillandsia ixioides 

61. Leaf -blades much more densely and conspicuously lepidote 

beneath. Brazil Vriesea (63) flannea 

60. Inflorescence compound or if rarely simple then the leaf- 
blades ligulate. 

62. Sepals 30-^+0 mm long. 

63. Sepals acute, free. Lesser Antilles G. megastachya 

63. Sepals obtuse, ca I/3 connate. Colombia G. andreana 

62. Sepals 8-20 mm long. 
6*+. Leaf -blades attenuate. 
65. Sepals eicute, barely exserted. 
66. Branches 2-6 cm long, fusiform or ellipsoid; floral 
br6u:ts ovate. Panama, Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. calamifolia 

66. Branches 10 cm long, cyllndric; floral bracts truncate. 

Colombia G. stricta 

65. Sepals rounded; from I/3 to over l/2 exserted. 

67. Sepals 8 mm long. Venezuela G. acorifolia 

67. Sepals 16-18 mm long. Costa Rica, Panama. 

68. Branches 2-3-flowered; floral bracts ecarinate. 

G. donnellsnithii 
68. Branches 5 -12 -flowered; floral bracts carina te. 

G. zahnii 



78 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

6^. Leaf -blades broadly acute or rounded, apiculate. 
69. Inflorescence densely digitate. 
70. Sepals broadly obtuse; primary bracts much exceeding the 
lower spikes . Nicaragua to Panama G. compacta 

70. Sepals acute; primary bracts about equaling the lower 

spikes . Colombia G. goudotiana 

69- Inflorescence elongate. 

71. Floral bracts 15-20 mm long. 

72. Floral bracts lepidote, very broadly elliptic, rounded. 
Venezuela G. nubicola 

72. Floral bracts glabrous, oblong -lanceolate, broadly 

acute . Colombia Mezobromelia bicolor 

71. Floral bracts to 9 nim long; glabrous. 

73. Spikes globose or thick-ovoid, 25-3O mm long. 

Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador G. mitis 

73 . Spikes subcylindric . Colombia G. vanvolxemll 

1. Sepals wholly covered by the floral bracts or sometimes by the 
primary bracts or upper scape -bracts when the flowers are 
fascicled. 
7^^. Flowers spicate or racemose, not fasciculate. 
75. Inflorescence compound. 
76. Axis distinct; inflorescence pinnate. 
77. Branches laxly flowered at least at base; floral bracts 
nerved . 
78. Sepals 8 mm long; inflorescence tfiplnnate. Peru. 

G. paniculata 
78. Sepals 15-25 mm long; Inflorescence rarely more than 
bipinnate. 
79. Leaf -blades very narrowly triangular, 10 mm wide. 

Brazil Vriesea (61) corcovadensis 

79. Leaf -blades ligulate, 35-90 mm wide. 
80. Branches suberect or ascending; flowers suberect, 
regularly polyst ichous ; sepals acute. 
81. Leaf -blade 90 mm wide, its apex thickened and pun- 
gent; sepals narrowly lanceolate. Colombia. 

G. pungens 

81. Leaf -blade 35-5O mm wide, its apex not notably 

thickened; sepals obovate. Ecuador. 

G. xan thobrac tea 
80. Branches spreading; flowers becoming decurved -secund ; 
sepals obtuse. 

82. Primary bracts about eqtiallng the lower branches. 

Colombia, Ecuador G. baker ii 

82. Primary bracts much shorter than all the branches. 

Ecuador Mezobromelia fulgens 

77. Branches densely flowered throughout. 
83. Sepals 30-35 mm long. 
dh. Primary bracts ample, covering much of each branch. 

Lesser Antilles G. megastachya 

&h. Primary bracts inconspicuous, covering very little of 
each branch. 
85. Floral bracts broadly elliptic, remaining extended. 



1971 Smith, Notes on Brcmellaceae 79 

Venezuela G. hedychloidee 

85. Floral bracts oblong -elliptic, each becoming convolute 

about its axillary flower. Colombia G. amplectene 

83. Sepals 12-2^ mm long. 
86. Floral bracts membranaceous, prominently nerved; leaf -blades 
linear, long -attenuate, 5-25 nmi wide. 
87. Primary bracts lance -ovate, much exceeding the lower 
spikes; spikes broadly ovoid. Costa Rica. 

G. plicatifolia 
87. Primary bracts broadly ovate, mostly equaling or shorter 
than the lower spikes. 
88. Inflorescence lax, spikes fuBiform or ellixrtic. Panama to 

Ecuador G. calamifolia 

88. Inflorescence dense, spikes globose or stout -ellipsoid. 

Colombia G. goudotiana 

86. Floral bracts firm, faintly nerved to even. 
89. Sepals acute to acuminate. 
90. Spikes slenderly fusiform, attenuate; leaf -blades I5 mm 

wide. Ecuador G. asplundii 

90. Spikes broad, obtuse; leaf -blades ^+0-80 mm wide. 
91. Floral bracts acute; spikes sessile, globose. 
92. Inflorescence dense throxaghout; floral bracts nerved. 

Colombia G. densiflora 

92. Inflorescence sublax except the extreme apex; floral 

bracts even or slightly rugulose. Peru..G. xipholepis 
91. Floral bracts obtuse to broadly rovinded and apiculate; 
spikes (at least the lower) distinctly stlpitate, 
longer than wide. 
93* Leaves and primary bracts variegated; leaf -blades 5O-8O 
mm wide. 
9^. Marking of fine dark green wavy cross -lines; inflores- 
cence tripinnate at base. Peru G. lindenii 

9^. Marking of fine red regular stripes; inflorescence 

bipinnate. Peru, Bolivia G. killipiana 

93. Leaves and primary bracts not variegated; leaf -blades 

40-50 mm wide. 
95- Floral bracts even except near apex. Colombia to 

Suriname and Ecuador G. pie lost icha 

95' Jloral bracts strongly and regularly nerved throughout. 

Peru G. tarapotina 

89. Sepals obtuse to broadly rounded. 
96. Scape-bracts much shorter than the upper internodes. Peru 

G. brevispatha 
96. Scape-bracts all imbricate. 
97- Floral bracts strongly carinate toward apex; sepals 20-24 
mm long. Costa Rica to Trinidad and Guiana. 

Vriesea (l84) splitgerberl 
97- Floral bracts convex and ecarlnate throughout. 
98. Scape -bracts castaneovis or striped. 
99- Scape -bracts castaneous; spikes broadly ovoid, nearly 

as wide as long . Colombia G. cuatrecasasii 

99. Scape-bracts striped. Ecuador. 



80 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

100. Lateral spikes much shorter than the terminal. 

G. striata 
100. Lateral spikes ahout equal to the terminal. 

G. aequatorialis 
98. Scape-bracts green, concolorous. 
101. Floral bracts to 27 mm long, densely punctulate-lepidote 

inflorescence wholly lax. Venezuela G. ventricosa 

101. Flor«l bracts to I5 mm long, soon glabrous; inflores- 
cence dense toward apex. Costa Rica, Panama. 

G. polycephala 
76. Axis very short; inflorescence densely digitate. 
102. Sepals 30 mm long; floral bracts recurving. Ecuador. 

G. osyana 
102. Sepals 12-26 mm long; floral bracts erect. 
103. Primary and floral bracts uniformly deep red, drying dark 

brown. Ecuador, Peru G. morreniana 

103. Primary and" floral bracts paler, gr«en or bicolorous. 
10*4^. Floral bracts acute. 
105. Leaves septate; floral bracts corieuieous, even. 

Ecuador G. septa ta 

105. Leaves not septate; floral bracts nerved at least 
toward apex. 
106. Scape -bracts barely imbricate and exposing much of the 
upper internodes; sepals 12-I5 mm long. Colombia. 

G. goudotiana 
106. Scape-bracts all densely imbricate and wholly conceal- 
ing the scape; sepals 16-22 mm long. Panama, 

Colombia G. glomerata 

16k. Floral bracts broadly rounded, obtuse or apiculate. 
107. Primary bract inconspicuous, the 2 spikes cylindric, 

18-27 cm long . Ecuador, Peru G. bipartita 

107. Primary bracts equaling or exceeding, the axillary 
spikes; spikes 3-8 cm long. 
108. Floral bracts coriaceous, even. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. ac\3minata 

108. Floral bracts thin, nerved. Colombia G. eduardii 

75- Inflorescence simple. 
109. Leaf -blades narrowly triangular or finely subulate, 
regularly long -attenuate. 
110. PT.oral bracts firm, coriaceous or subcoriaceous. 

Tillandsia spp . 
110. Floral bracts thin, membranaceous or papyraceous. 
111. Leaf -scales asymmetric with large divergent to spreading 

basal lobes Tillandsia spp . 

111. Leaf -scales symmetric, appressed or the margin raised 
slightly all around. 
112. Sheaths inconspicuous; blades triangular or crescenti- 

fonn in cross-section, 5-13 inm wide. .. . Tillandsia spp . 
112. Sheaths conspicuous, ample, abruptly contracted Into the 
flat blades. 

113. Sepals lepidote, 25-35 nmi long Tillandsia spp . 

113. Sepals glabrous. 



1971 smith, Notes on Brcmellaceae 81 

11^. Leaf-BheathB dark castaneouB, contrasting with the blades 

Vrleeea spp . 
llU. Leaf-BheathB concolorouB with the hlades. 
115* Plant BtemleBB or nearly bo; posterior sepals cartnate. 

Mexico, Central America Tillandsia brachycaulos 

115. Plant caulescent; 8ex>als all convex and ecarinate. 

Nicaragua to Ecuador G . angustifolla 

109- Leaf -blades linear or ligulate, acuminate to rounded and 
retuse . 
116. Floral brsuits firm, coriaceous or subcorlaceouB. 
117. Sepals 20-35 nnn long. 
118. Inflorescence polysticho\is -flowered only at base, above 
distichous -flowered . Cuba . 

Vriesea (l25h) platynema var. wrightii 
118. Inflorescence polys tlchous -flowered throughout. 

119. Floral bracts all acute. Ecuador, Peru G. con if era 

119. Floral bracts, or at least the upper ones, rounded. 
120. Inflorescence globose or broadly ellipsoid; sepals 

acute . Venezuela G. mucronata 

120. Inflorescence cylindrlc; sepals obtuse. 
121. Sepals dark castaneous, even, liistrous. Peru. 

G. blpartlta 
121. Sepals stramineous, nerved. Colombia, Venezuela. 

G. cylindrlca 
117. Sepals 11-16 mm long. 
122. Floral bracts brown, red, or castaneous at least basally. 
123. Leaves retuse; floral bracts orbicular. Colombia, 

Venezuela, Bolivia G. retiisa 

123. Leaves not retuse; floral bracts narrower. 
12U. Floral bracts with a narrowly triangular strongly 

nerved green apex. Colombia G. triangularis 

I2U. Floral bracts uniform. 
125. Floral bracts only slightly exceeding the sepals. 

Costa Rica to Venezuela and Ecuador.. G. coriostachya 
125. Floral bracts about twice as long as the sepals. 

Bcxiador, Peru G. devansayana 

122. Floral bracts wholly green or strsunineous. 
126. Scape-bracts shorter theui the intemodes; floral bracts 

acute . Colombia G. pallida 

126. Scape-bracts imbricate; at least the upper floral bracts 
rounded and apiculate. 
127. Leaf -blades roxinded and apiculate, covered with pale 
appressed scales; flowers about 3 -ranked. Panama. 

G. fillorum 

127. Leaf -blades acuminate; flowers much more than 3-ranked. 

128. Sheaths dark castaneous toward base; plant propagating 

by short erect stolons. Ecxiador G. fosteriema 

128. Sheaths green with faint stripes; plant without 

stolons . Peru G . strobilantha 

116. Floral bracts thin, chartaceovis or membranaceous. 
129. Inflorescence fertile throughout. 



82 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

130. Floral bracts with divergent apices, to ^5 mm long; 
sepals to 27 mm long. Costa Rica. 

Vriesea (IO5) heliconioides var. polystlcha 
130. Floral bracts wholly erect and imbricate. 
131. Sepals acTjminate; floral bracts dark-lepidote. Colombia 

to Bolivia G. calothyrsus 

131. Sepals broadly rounded; floral bracts not dark-lepidote. 
132. Sepals 15 mm long. Colombia to Bolivia and Amazonian 

Brazil G. melinonis 

132. Sepals 20-25 nm long. 
133* Upper floral bracts acute or narrowly obtuse. Ecuador 

G. bracteosa 
133. Upper floral bracts broadly rounded. 
13^. Sepals coriaceous, dark castaneous; lower floral 
bracts obtuse; leaf -blades subglabrous. Panama, 

Greater Antilles G. erythrolepis 

13^. Sepals membranaceous; lower floral bracts broadly 
acute; leaf -blades densely pale -lepidote beneath. 

Mexico, Central America G. nicaraguensis 

129. Inflorescence sterile toward apex. 
135 • Leaf -blades broadly roupded and apiculate. 
136. Sepals 25 mm long, subcoriswieous. Ec\xador..G. fusispica 

136. Sepals 12 mm long; membranaceous. Peru G. apiculata 

135 • Leaf -blades acute or acvmiinate. 
137* Sepals firm, coriaceous or subcorisiceous. 
138. Bracts of the inflorescence dimorphic, the apical uni- 
formly red, the others pale with dark stripes; sepals 
to 18 mm long. Southern Florida, West Indies and 
Nicaragxia to northern Brazil and Peru. .G. monostachia 
138. Bracts of the inflorescence all alike. 
139« Sepals 22 mm long; flowers to 60 mm long, exceeding 
the floral bracts. Panama, Republica Dominicana, 

Puerto Rico G. berteronlana 

139. Sepals 12 mm long; flowers 22 mm long, not exceeding 

the floral bracts. Ecuador. .. I . .G. fuerstenbergiana 
137« Sepals thin, membranaceous or chartaceous. 
l^^O. Leaf-blsuieB densely pale -lepidote beneath. Venezuela. 

G. membranacea 
1^0. Leaf -blades subglabrous or obscxirely lepidote. 
1^1. Flowers about 3 -ranked, barely imbricate. Costa Rica. 

G. stenostachya 
1^1. Flowers about 6-ranked, densely imbricate. Ecuador. 

G. remyi 
7^. Flowers fasciculate. 
1^2. Inflorescence compound, the flowers deep in the axils of 
the large primary bracts. 
1^3. Sepals Uo-60 mm long. 
ikk. Fascicles many -flowered. Lesser Antilles.. G. megastachya 
l^U. Fascicles few -flowered. 
145. Floral brsicts ovate, acute, 5O-6O mm long; petals violet 
Ecuador - G. poortmanii 



1971 Smith, Notes on Bromellaceae 83 

1^5' Floral "bractB oblong with membranoxifl dilated aplcee, 
60-80 mm long; petals white. Colombia, Ecuador. 

G. wlttmackll 
1^3. Sepals 8-33 mn long. 
1^6. Leaf -blades narrowly triangular or subtrlangular, long- 
attenuate; sepals 8-l8 ran long. 
1^7- Flowering shoot 20 cm high; leaf -blades l6 mm wide, soon 
glabrous above; plant caulescent. Colombia. 

G. kraenzllniana 
1^7- Flowering shoot 35"'55 cm high; leaf-bleuies conspicuously 
c Inereous -lepldote above . 
l48. Sepals from slightly to half exserted above the lanceo- 
late floral bracts; leaf -blades densely lepldote on 

both sides. Colombia, Ecuador G. mosquerae 

lU8. Sepals more than half exserted above the suborbicular 
floral bracts; leaf -blades soon glabrous beneath. 

Colombia, Venezuela G. confinls 

ihS. Leaf -blades ligulate. 
1^9 • Flowers not more than 2 in each axillary fascicle; sepals 

coriaceous, ecarlnate Vriesea spp . 

1^9 • Flowers more than 2 In at least the lower axillary 
fascicles. 
150. Sepals corleweous, even or at most marginally or apically 
nerved. 
151. Fascicles 10-15 -flowered. 
152. Pedicels slender, I2-I5 mm long. Lesser Antilles. 

G. dussli 

152. Pedicels short and stout. Greater Antilles to Colombia 

Trinidad and Pei-u Vriesea (186) capltuligera 

151. Fascicles few-flowered. 
153- Sepals broadly elli'ptic to suborbicular. . . . Vriesea spp . 

153. Sepals lanceolate, their apical third subchartaceous. 

Colombia G. verecunda 

150. Sepals uniformly thin and nerved. 
154. Primary bracts conspicuously lepldote on at least one 
side. 
155- Lower primary bracts overtopping the center of the in- 
florescence; scape-bracts white -lepldote on both 
sides; sepals 18-20 mm long. Colombia to Guyana and 

Peru G. squarrosa 

155' Lower primary bracts well exceeded by the center of the 
inflorescence. 
156. Inflorescence subglobose; fascicles 2-5 -flowered; 

sepals 20 mn long. Colombia G. palustrls 

156. Inflorescence elongate; fascicles about 10-f lowered. 
157. Flowers subsessile; sepals 23 mo long. Venezuela to 

Ecuador G. lychnis 

157. FT-Owers slenderly pedicellate; sepals 33 mm long. 

Colombia G. danielli 

15^+. Primary bracts glabrotis or obscvirely lepldote. 
158. Sepals 22-30 mm long, free or nearly so; fascicles 
memy-f lowered . 



8U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

159. Inflorescence dense; primary tracts suberect. 

Colombia, Ecuador G. gloriosa 

159* Inflorescence lax; primary bracts spreading. Ecuador, 

Peru G. variegata 

158. Sepals 12-l4 mm long, high-connate; fascicles few- 
flowered . Colombia . 

160. Sepal -blades acute; inflorescence sublax; leaf -blades 

15 mm wide G. longipetala 

160. Sepal -blades suborbicular; inflorescence dense; leaf- 

blades 20-35 nni wide G. sibundoyorum 

1^2. Inflorescence simple, its outer bracts forming a cyathiform 
involucre 6 cm or longer that exceeds and conceals the 
large flowers. 
161. Scape evident; flowers not over ^5 inm long; sepals free. 
British Hondiiras and West Indies to Bolivia and Brazil. 

G. lingulata 
161. Scape Isuiking; flowers to TO mm long; sepals connate for h 
mm. Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad, Tobago, 
and Ecuador G. sanguinea 

GUZMANIA 

Relative td Mez in Engler, Pflanzenreich IV. Fam. 32. 1935 . 

(Synonymy in separate list following) 

ACORIFOLIA (Griseb.) Mez; Pflr. 63I. 

ACUMINATA L. B. Smith, Phytologia k: 359. 1953. 

AEQUATORIALIS L. B. Smith, Phytologia 6: k^^. 1959- 

AMPLECTENS L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 292. 19^9- 

ANDREANA (E. Morr.) Mez; Pflr. 626. 

ANGUSTTFOLIA (Baker) Wittm.; Pflr. 6II. 

Var. ANGUSTIFOLIA. Floral bracts dark red, sometimes with 
dark apices. 

Var. NTVEA L. B. Staith, Phytologia 5: 178. 1955- Floral 
bracts pvire white. 

APICULATA L. B. Smith; Pflr. 6l2. 

ASPLUNDII L. B. Smith, Phytologia 6: k^6. 1959- 

BAKERI (Wittm.) Mez; Pflr. 625. 

BERTERONIANA (Schult. f.) Mez; Pflr. 6II. 

BICOLOR L. B. Smith, Phytologia I3: ^57. 1966. 

BIPARTITA L. B. Snith, Phytologia 6: ^37. 1959. 

BRACTEOSA (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 6lk. 

BRASILIENSIS Ule; Pflr. 633. 

BREVISPATHA Mez; Pflr. 622. 

CALAMIFOLIA Andre' ex Mez; Pflr. 622. 

CALOOSYRSUS Mez; Pflr. 615. No parenthetical authority 
because Beer's name is invalid. 

CANDELABRUM (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 625. 

CARICIFOLIA (Andre ex Baker) L. B. Staith, Contr. Gray Herb. 
16k: jh. 193U. 

CCMPACTA Mez; Pflr. 632. 

CONDENSATA Mez & Werckle; Pflr. 635. 

CONFINIS L. B. Staith, Fieldiana Bot. 28: 1^3. 195I. 



1971 Snith, Notes on Bromellaceae 85 

CONFUSA L. B. Ehilth, sp. nov- A G. vlttata Mart, ex Schult. . 
f.) Mez, cui afflnlB, bractelB florlgerlB sepalleque atrlB, Bepa- 
11b circa medio connatlB, folllB "baBl Ima excepta concolorlbuB 
dlffert. 

PLANT BtemleBB, to nearly 6 dm high. LEAVES over 10 In a fxui- 
nelform roBette, straight, 5 dm long, castaneous at extreme base, 
otherwise green and concolorous; BheathB broad, 8-10 cm long; 
blades llgulate, acuminate, 3 cm wide. SCAPE erect, slender; 
Bcape -bracts tightly Imbricate, the lower follaceous, the upper 
lanceolate, acuminate. INFLORESCENCE densely digitate from a few 
spikes; primary bracts triangular -ovate, attentoate, shorter than 
the spikes; spikes sessile, broadly ellipsoid, dense, 3 cm long. 
FLORAL BRACTS Buborblcular, shorter than the sepals, coriaceous, 
even, dark castaneous, obscurely punctulate; flowers subsesslle. 
SEPALS elliptic, obtuse, 11 mm long, like the floral bracts, 
about half connate, the posterior carlnate. PI. I, fig. 1: In- 
florescence; fig. 2: Sepals. 

COLOIBIA: VALLE: Cordillera Occidental, western slope: woods, 
left bank of Rfo Sanqulnlnl, La Laguna, 1250-l400 m alt, 10-20 
December 19^3, Cuatrecasas 15^^96 ( VALLE, type; US, photo). 

CONIFERA (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 615. 

CORIOSTACHYA (Orlseb.) Mez; Pflr. 618. 

COSTARICENSIS Mez & WerckleJ Pflr. 635. 

CUATRECASASII L. B. Stalth, sp. nov. A G. aequatorlale L. B. 
Smith, cul af finis, scapl bractels supremls aplce excepto atro- 
castanels, sepalls subllberls, aplce obtuse cuspldatls dlffeirt. 

PLANT known from only the upper scape and fruiting Inflores- 
cence. LEAVES presumably with llgulate blades Judging from the 
form of the scape -bracts. SCAPE straight, ca 6 mm In diameter; 
Bcape -bracts densely and tightly Imbricate, broadly ovate, dark 
castaneous except for the short pale apex. INFLORESCENCE densely 
biplnnate, Bubglobose, 8 cm long; primary bracts like the upper 
scape -bracts, slightly shorter than the axillary branches; spikes 
broadly ellipsoid, 3 cm long, strobllate. FLORAL BRACTS broadly 
ovate, obtusely cuspidate, slightly shorter than the sepals In 
fmlt, coriaceous, even, dark castaneous; flowers subsesslle. 
SEPALS broadly elliptic, I5 mm long, coriaceous, obtusely 
cuspidate, Bubfree, dark castaneous. PI. I, fig. 3= Inflores- 
cence; fig. h: Floral bract and sepals. 

COLCMBIA: CAQUET^: open forest, Cajon de Pulldo, gorge of the 
R^o Hacha, eastern slope of the Cordillera Oriental. 1700 m alt, 
26 March 19^0, Cuatrecasas 8762 (f, type; US, photo). 

CYLINDRICA L. B. an 1th, Phytologla 5: 282. 1955- 

DANIELII L. B. Sbilth, Phytologla k: 36O. 1953- 

DELICA1ULA L. B. Smith, Phytologla 6: ^33- 1959- 

DENSIFLORA Mez; Pflr. 622. 

DEVANSAYANA E. Morr. : Pflr. 615. 

DIFFUSA L. B. Smith. Caldasla 5: 2. 19'^8. 

DISSITIFLORA (Andre) L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. lOU: -jk. 
193^. 

D0NNELL34ITHII Mez ex Donnell Smith; Pflr. 63I. 

DUDLEYI L. B. Smith, sp. nov. A G. sprue el (Andre) L. B. 



86 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

Smith atque G. dlesittflora (Andre) L. B. Smith, cuihus affinis, 
inflorescentia ramosa, sepalis hracteae florigeras valde Buperan- 
tibuB, pedicellis conspicuie differt. 

PLANT evidently stemless, flowering to 2 m high. LEAVES 
spreading, 8 dm long, obscurely lepidote throughout; sheaths el- 
liptic, 2 dm long; blades ligulate, acute and apiculate, flat, 65 
mm wide, dark green above, red -purple beneath. SCAPE erect, gla- 
brous; scape-bracts erect, the lower subfoliaceous and imbricate, 
the upper ovate, acuminate, shorter than the internodes. INFLO- 
RESCENCE very laxly bipinnate, glabrous; axes red; primary bracts 
like the upper scape -bracts, shorter than the long sterile bases 
of the branches; racemes spreading, laxly few -flowered. FLORAL 
BRACTS obovate, about eqiialing the pedicels, yellow; pedicels 
slender, to 13 nim long. SEPALS 35 n™ long, more than 2/3 connate 
in a slender tube, the blades broadly obovate, 9 mtn long; petals 
always (?) included. PI. I, fig. 5: Lateral raceme; fig. 6: 
Calyx laid open. 

PERU: HUANUCO: common terrestrial plant at Camp 3 (Laguna), 
in dense cloud forest, southwestern slope of the R^o LlullaPichis 
watershed, on the ascent of Cerro del Sira, 9° 26' S, T^° ^5' W, 
1290 m alt, 22 J\ily I969, Dudley 130T6 (US, type; NA, isotype); 
IT J^^ly I969, Wolfe in Dudley 123^7 (US. NA) . 

DUSSII Mez; Skn. & Pitt., Jo\irn. Wash. Acad. Sci. U3: 402. 1953 

ECUADORENSIS Gilmartin, Phytologia I6: I66. I968. 

EDUARDII Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 632. 

EKMANII (Harms) Harms ex Mez; Pflr. 626. 

ERYTHROLEPIS Brongn. ex Planch.; Pflr. 6l^. 

FAWCETTII Mez; Pflr. 636. 

FILIORUM L. B. Smith, Phytologia 19: 28^^. 1970. 

FOSTERIANA L. B. Smith, Phytologia 7: IO7. 196O. 

FUERSTENBERGIANA (Kirchh. & Wittm.) Wittm.; Pflr. 6I3. 

RJSISPICA Mez & Sodiro; Pflr. 6l2. 

GLOBOSA L. B. Smith, Phytologia i^: 362. 1953- 

GLOffiRATA Mez & Werckle; Pflr. 623. 

GLORIOSA (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Sm. & Pitt. Journ. Wash. Acad. 
Sci. i^3: ^02. 1953- 

GOUDOTIANA Mez; Pflr. 63O. 

GRACILIOR (Andre) Mez; Pflr. 627. 

GRAMINIFOLIA (Andre ex Baker) L. B. Staith, Contr. Gray Herb. 
lOU: 7^. 193it. 

HEDYCHIOIDES L. B. Smith, Bromel. Soc. Bull. 5: 69. 1955- 

HITCHCOCKIANA L, B. Smith, Proc. Am. Acad. (Contr. Gray Herb. 
106:) 70: 1^8. 1935- 

KALBREYERI (Baker) L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. lOU: 7^. 

193^. 

KILLIPIANA L. B. Snith; Pflr. 62^. 

KRAENZLINIANA Wittm.; Eta. & Pitt., Jovirn. Wash. Acad. Sci. ^3: 
402. 1953. 

Var. KRAENZLINIANA. Sepals 8 mm long; petals 19 mm long. 

Var. MACRANTHA L. B. Smith, Phytologia 5: 397- 1956. Sepals 
18 mm long; petals over 60 mm long. 

LEHMANNIANA (Wittm.) Mez; Pflr. 625. 



1971 Smith, Notes on Bromeliaceae 8? 

LEPIDOTA (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 63O. 

LINDENII (Andre) Mez; Pflr. 623. 

LINGULATA (L.) Mez; Pflr. 6O8. 

Var. LINGULATA. Plants large. Leaves concolorous; blades 
more than 25 ram wide. Inflorescence with outer bracts erect, red 
or pink. Floral bracts strongly cucullate; flowers numerous. 

Var. SPLENDENS (Planch.) Mez; Pflr. 609. Plants large. 
Leaves marked with deep purple longitudinal stripes; blades more 
than 25 mm wide. Inflorescence with outer brsicts erect, red or 
pink. Floral bracts strongly cucullate; flowers numerous. 

Var. CARDINALIS (Andre) Andre ex Mez, DC. Mon. Phan. 9: 9OO. 
1896. Leaf -blades 30-^0 mm wide. Inflorescence with outer 
bracts spreading, bright scarlet. Floral bracts strongly cucul- 
late ; flowers numerous . 

Var. MINOR (Mez) Sm. & Pitt., Phytologia 7= IO5. I960. Plants 
small. Leaf -blades usually not over 25 mm wide, concolorous with 
the sheaths. Inflorescence with outer bracts erect, red. Floral 
bracts weakly cucullate; flowers few. 

Var. FLAMMEA (L. B. Smith) L. B. Smith, Phytologia 7: IO5. 
i960. Leaves 24-3^ cm long, exceeding the inflorescence; sheaths 
castaneous; blades IO-I7 mm wide. Inflorescence with outer 
bracts erect, bright scarlet. Floral bracts weakly cucullate. 

LONGIPETALA (Baker) Mez; Sm. & Pitt., Jo\irn. Wash. Acad. Sci. 

ky. U02. 1953. 

LYCHNIS L. B. Smith, Phytologia k: 363. 1953- 

MEGASTACHYA (Baker) Mez; Pflr. 620. 

MELINONIS Kegel; Pflr. 6l^. 

MIMBRANACEA L. B. Smith & Steyermark, Acta Bot. Venez . nos. 5, 
6, 7 & 8: 380. 1968. 

MITIS L. B. Staith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 31. 1932. 

MONOSTACHIA (L. ) Rusby ex Mez; Pflr. 6l2. 

Var. MONOSTACHIA. Leaf -blades concolorous. Fertile floral 
bracts pale with dark brown longitudinal stripes. 

Var. VARIEGATA hort. ex Nash in L. H. Bailey, Standard Cyclop. 
Hortic. 2: l4l9. 1935, nomen illeg.; Foster, Bromel. Soc . Bull. 
3: 30. 1953. Leaf -blades longitudinally green- and white-striped 
Bracts as in the typical variety. 

Var. ALBA Ariza -Julia, Bromel. Soc. Bull. 9: 38. 1959. Leaves 
concolorous. Floral biracts wholly green, the upper sterile ones 
pure white. 

MORRENIANA (Linden Hortus) Mez; Pflr. 623. 

MOSQUERAE (Wittm.) Mez; Sm. & Pitt., Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
U3: U02. 1953. 

MUCRONATA (Griseb.) Mez; Pflr. 616. 

MULTIFLORA (Andre') Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 628. 

MUSAICA (Linden & Andre') Mez; Pflr. 6O7. 

Var. MUSAICA. Leaves marked with fine dark irregular trans- 
verse lines . 

Var. ZEBRINA Cutak, Mo. Bot. Card. Bull. 38: 77, 78. 1950. 
Leaves marked with broad solid bands of color. 

Var. CONCOLOR L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 293- 
19^9' Leaves concolorous. 



88 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

NICARAGUENSIS Mez & C. F. Baker; Pflr. 6l4. 

NUBICOLA L. B. Snith, Mem. N. Y. Bot. Card. 9: 3l6. 1957- 

MUBIGERA L. B. Smith, Phytologia k: 355. 1953. 

OBTUSILOBA L. B. Snith, Contr. Gray Herb. 104: jk. 193U. 

OSYANA (E. Morr.) Mez; Pflr. 618. 

PALLIDA L. B. Smith; Pflr. 6IT. 

PALUSTRIS (Wittm.) Mez; Sta. & Pitt., JoTirn. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
i^3: ^03. 1953. 

PANICULATA Mez; Pflr. 633- 

PATULA Mez & Werckle'; Pflr. 628. 

PEARCEI (Baker) L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 104: -jk. 193!^. 

PENMELLII L. B. Eknith, Contr. Gray Herb. 98: 30. 1932. 

PLEIOSTICHA (Griseb.) Mez; Pflr. 621. 

PLICATIFOLIA L. B. Stalth; Pflr. 622. 

PEUMIERI (Griseb.) Mez; Pflr. 635. 

POLYCEPHALA Mez & Werckle; Pflr. 621. 

POORTMANII (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Sm. & Pitt., Joum. Wash. 
Acad. Sci. ^3: ^^03. 1953. 

PUNGENS L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 293- 19^9. 

RADIATA L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Ifet. Herb. 29: 29^. 191^9. 

RIMYI L. B. Smith, Phytologia 19: 285. 19T0. 

RETOSA L. B. Smith, Fieldlana Bot. 28, no. 1: IU3, 195I. 

RHONHOFIANA Harms. Notizblatt l4: 329. 1939- 

ROEZLII (E. Morr.) Mez; Pflr. 633- 

SANGUINEA (Andre) Andreex Mez; Pflr. 6O9. 

Var. SANGUIHEA. Leaves to 4 dm long; blades to 55 mm wide. 
Floral bracts rounded and apiculate, flat. Petal -blades white. 

Var. BREVIPEDICELLATA Gilmartin, Phytologia I6: 16^+. I968. 
Leaves mostly not over 20 cm long; blades to 25 mm wide. Floral 
bracts acute, to 22 mm long, subcucullate; pedicels short. 

SCHERZERIAHA Mez; Pflr. 635. 

SEPTATA L. B. Staith, Phytologia 6: ^T- 1959- 

SIBUNDOYORUM L. B. Smith, Phytologia h: 36k. 1953. 

SHEIDERNII L. B. Siaith, Contr. Gray Herb. 117: 9- 1937- 

SPHAEROIDEA (Andre) Andre' ex Mez; Pflr. 63O. 

SPRUCEI (Andre) L. B. Eknith, Contr. Gray Herb. 10^+: 75- 193^- 

SQUARROSA (Mez & Sodiro) Sm. & Pitt., Journ. Wash. Acad. Sci. 
1+3: ^03. 1953. 

STENOSTACHYA L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 117 : 9- 1937. 

STEYERMARKII L. B. Staith, Phytologia 7: 1^19. 196I. 

STRAMINEA (K. Koch) Mez; Pflr. 626. 

STRIATA L. B. Staith, Phytologia 6: ^38. 1959- 

STRICTA L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 29: 297- 19^9- 

STROBILANTHA (R. & P.) Mez; Pflr. 616. 

SUBCORYMBOSA L. B. Snith, Contr. Gray Herb. 117: 10. 1937- 

TARAPOTINA Ule; Pflr. 625. 

TEUSCHERI L. B. Smith, Bromel. Soc . Bull. 9: 86. I96O. 

TRIANGULARIS L. B. Smith, Phytologia k: 36k. 1953. 

VANVOLXEMII (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 628. 

VARIEGATA L. B. Smith, Phytologia 7: IO8. 196O. 

VENAMENSIS L. B. Smith, sp. nov. A G. multiflora (Andre) 
Andj^ ex Mez, cui af finis, brewteis primariis quam ramis multo 



1971 Smith, Motes on Bromellaceae 89 

brevlorlbuB, spiels baee solum laxls, sepal Is laevlbus vel 
sublaevlbuB dlffert. 

PLANT stemlesB, flowering to 9 dm high. LEA VIS numerous, 5-6 
dm long, sparsely and finely lepldote; sheaths elliptic, large, 
castaneous toward base; blades llgulate, broeuily acute and aplcu- 
late, flat, ca 25 no wide, concolorous. SCAPE erect, slender, 
red-violet, sparsely pale -lepldote, soon glabrous; scape-bracts 
erect, the lower subfollaceous and Imbricate, the upper ovate, 
acuminate, mostly shorter than the Intemodes. INFLORESCENCE bl- 
plnnate, lax, 8-lT cm long, sparsely pale -lepldote; primary 
bracts like the upper scape-bracts, all much shorter than the 
axillary branches but exceeding their naked sterile bases; spikes 
spreading, ovoid or ellipsoid, 25-40 mm long, dense except at 
base. FLORAL BRACTS broadly ovate, obtuse, much shorter than the 
sepals, nearly or quite even; flowers subsesslle. SEPALS free or 
nearly so, elliptic, obtuse, to 10 mm long, the posterior carl- 
nate; petals greenish -yellow, the blades spreading, elliptic, 6 
mm long, barely exceeding the sts«nens. PI. I, fig. 7: Inflores- 
cence; fig. 8: Floral bract and flower. 

VENEZUELA: BOLfVAR: mossy dwarf mountain forest, crest of 
sandstone cliff, southwestern Cerro Venamo near Guyana line, 
lUOO-1450 m alt, 1 January I96U, Steyermark & Dunstervllle 92522 
(us, type; VEN, Isotype); forested slopes of Cerro Venamo, south- 
east of km 125, 1200 m alt, ik April I96O, Steyermark & Nllsson 
108 (us, VEN); rainforest, km 13^, El Dorado to La Gran Sabana, 
1200 m alt, 19 February I968, Bunting 2977 (US). 

PERU: CUZCO: Convene Ion: epiphyte, dense cloud forest near 
Camp 2, ca 10 km walking distance northeast of Hacienda Lulslana 
and r{o Apurlmac, lh60 m alt, 28 June I968, Dudley IO56I (NA). 

VENTRICOSA (Grlseb.) Mez; Pflr. 620. 

VERECUNDA L. B. Smith, Phytologla h: 366. 1953- 

VIRESCENS (Hook.) Mez; Pflr. 63 0. 

VITTATA (Mart, ex Schult. f.) Mez; Pflr. 632. 

WEBERBAUERI Mez; ^Pflr. 628. 

WIT1MACKII (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Sm. & Pitt. Joum. Wash. 
Acad. Scl. 43: U03. 1953. 

XANTHOBRACTEA Gllmartln, Phytologla I6: I65. I968. 

XIPHOLEPIS L. B. Smith, Phytologla 9: 248. I963. 

ZAHNII (Hook, f.) Mez; Pflr. 629. 

SYNONYMS AND EXCLUDED NAMES 

altsonll L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 89: 7- 1930 - PLEIO- 
STICHA. 

balanophora Mez; Pflr. 4l4 - VRIESEA B. 
beleana ^dre) Andre; Pflr. 63I - VIRESCENS. 
brachycephala (Baker) Mez; Pflr. 6II - STROBILANTHA. 
capltulata Mez & Werckle; Pflr. 632 - CCMPACTA. 
capltullgera (Grlseb.) Mez; Pflr. 6l9 - VIRESEA C. 
cardinal Is (Andre) Mez; Pflr. 609 - LINGULATA var. C. 
eolumnarls Mez & Sodlro; Pflr. 619 - GLORIOSA. 
comuaultll (Andre) Andre ex Mez; Pflr. 423 - TILLANDSIA 



90 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

TURNERI var. TURNERI. 

crater if lora Mez & Werckle; Pflr. 6lO - SANGUINEA. 

cryptantha L. B. Smith, Caldaeia [l]. No. 5: 6. 19^2 - 
SQUARROSA. 

Var. pauciflora L. B. Snith, Phytologia h: 2lU. 1953 - SQUAR- 
ROSA sens lat. 

dielBii Hanne, Notizblatt 12: 538. 1935 - WEBERBAUERI. 

drevii L. B. Smith, Contr. U. S. Hat. Herh. 29: 526. 195^+ - 
BAKERI. 

elongata Mez & Sodiro; Pflr. 627 - BAKERI. 

seniculata L. B. Smith, Jo\irn. Wash. Acad. Sci. h2: 282. 1952 
- SPHAEROIDEA. 

guatemalensiB L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herh. 11?: 8. 1937 - 
SCHERZERIANA. 

harrisii Mez; Pflr. 619 - VRIESEA CAPITULIGERA . 

herthae HarmB, Notizhlatt lU: 329. 1939 - SCHERZERIANA. 

laxa Mez & Sodiro; Pflr. 617 - MONOSTACHIA. 

michelii Mez; Pflr. 618 - CORIOSTACHYA . 

minor Mez; Pflr. _^6lO - LINGULATA var. MINOR. 

nigresce nB (Andre) Mez; Pflr. 6l7 - CORIOSTACHYA. 

parviflora Ule; Pflr. 617 - STROBILANTHA. 

platysepala Mez & C. F. Baker; Pflr. 613 - MONOSTACHIA var. 
MONOSTACHIA. 

rosea L. B. Smith; Pflr. 6l^ - SPRUCEI. 

sanguinea var. erecta (Andre) Mez; Pflr. 6IO - \m identifiable, 
but certainly not in this species. 

sodiroana Mez; Pflr. 620 - VIRESEA CAPIIULIGERA . 

splitgerberi Mez; Pflr. 621 - VRIESEA SPLITGERBERI . 

strobilifera Mez & Weixkle'; Pflr. 618 - CORIOSTACHYA. 

Buperba Suesseng., Bot. Jahrb. 72: 29O. 19U2 - SCHERZERIANA. 

vrightii L. B. Smith, Contr. Gray Herb. 117: 11. 1937 - 
VRIESEA PLATYNIMA var. WRIGHTII. 

Sodiroa - GUZMANIA 

andreana Wittm.; Pflr. 6OO - GUZMANIA OBTUSILOBA L. B. Sknith, 
Contr. Gray Herb. 10^+: 7^. 193^- 

caricifolia Andre; Pflr. 602 - GUZMANIA CARICIFOLIA. 
dissitiflora Andre; Pflr. 602 - GUZMANIA DISSITIFLORA. 
graminiflora Andre'; Pflr. 600 - GUZMANIA GRAMINIFOLIA. 
kalbreyeri Baker; Pflr. 602 - GUZMANIA KALBREYERI. 
pearcei Baker; Pflr. 6OO - GUZMANIA PEARCEI. 
sprue ei Andre, Pflr. 602 - GUZMANIA SPRUCEI. 
trianae Mez; Pflr. 602 - GUZMANIA GRAMINIFOLIA. 

MISCELLANEOUS NOTES 

DYCKIA HEBDINGII L. B. Sknith, sp. nov. A D. maritima Baker, 
cui af finis, foliorum lamlniB utrinque dense lepidotis, stamini- 
bus inclusis, seminis ala apice acuta differt. 

PLANT flowering over 1 m high. LEAVES numerous in a dense 
spreading rosette, ca I5 cm long; blades narrowly triangular. 



1971 Smith, Notes on Bromellaceae 91 

over 15 nan wide at "baee, covered with appreBsed clnereoriB Bcalee 
on both Bides, subdensely serrate with spreading slender spines. 
SCAPE erect, slender, about 3 times as long as the leaves; scape- 
bracts exceeding the Intemodes but divergent, very narrowly tri- 
angular and wholly exposing the scai)e, serrxilate, red. INFLORES- 
CENCE laxly subtrlplnnate with branches to 30 cm long, densely 
c InereouB -leptdote ; primary bracts Inconspicuous; spikes many- 
flowered, subdense to lax. FLORAL BRACTS broadly ovate, aplcu- 
late, 5 ran long, much exceeded by the sepals; flowers short- 
pedicellate, suberect to spreading and sometimes slightly second. 
SEPALS ovate, broadly subacute, ^.5 nm long; petals spatula te, 
obtuse, 7 ram long, yellow; stamens included, free above the 1 mm 
tube with the petals; style slender, elongate. Capsule 8 mm 
long; seed with a narrow apically pointed wing. PI. II, fig. 1: 
Habit; fig. 2: Leaf; fig. "3: Branchlet; fig. k: Flower; fig. 5: 
Sepal; fig. 6: Petal and stamens; fig. 7: Seed. 

BRAZIL: RIO GRANDE DO SUL: on rocks, Municlplo Guayoro, Porto 
Alegre, Crolzat seed no. 22.^95 . cultivated and flowered in Jar- 
din Botanique "Les Cedres", September 1970, Hebding in HortuB 
Marnier-Lapostolle s n (US, type). 

PITCAIRNIA BIFARIA L. B. Stalth, sp. nov. Ab omnibus speciebus 
folilB blfariis petlolatls integerrimis, inflorescentia simpli- 
clBsima, bracteis florlgeris superiorlbuB quam pedicellis brevio- 
rlbus, sei)alis obtusis, ovulls alatis differt. 

PLANT short -caulescent, flowering h dm high. LEAVES uniform, 
blfariouB (distichous), strongly petiolate, entire, very sparsely 
and inconspicuously lepldote; sheaths narrowly triangular, incon- 
spicuous; blades elliptic, acuminate, cuneate at base, to 30 cm 
long, 6 cm wide, flat. SCAPE erect, slender; scape-bracts nar- 
rowly triangular, long -attenuate , much exceeding the intemodes. 
INFLORESCENCE simple, 13 cm long, lax, secund -flowered, white- 
lepidote. FLORAL BRACTS from narrowly triangular and exceeding 
the lower pedicels to ovate and shorter than the upper; pedicels 
divergent to spreading, slender, to 15 mm long. SEPALS lance- 
oblong, obtuse, IT mm long, ecarlnate; petals over 25 ram long, 
deep pink (Dudley), bearing a semiorbicular scale at base; sta- 
mens (immature) probably Inc luded ; ovary more than ^ inferior; 
ovules alate. PI. Ill, fig. 1: Leaf; fig. 2: Inflorescence; fig. 
3: Sepal. , 

PERU: HUANUCO: epiphytic in dense and damp cloud forest half 
way between Camp 3 (Laguna) and Camp h (Peligroso), southwestern 
slope of the Rfo LlullaPichis watershed, on the ascent of Cerro 
del Slra, 9° 26' S, 7^° ^+5' W, lUOO m alt, 22 July I969, Dudley 
13087 (NA, type). 

PITCAIRNIA WOLFEI L. B. Smith, sp. nov. A P. alborubra Baker, 
cui valde af finis, pedicellis sepalisque multo minoribuB, ovarto 
fere omnino infero differt. 

PLANT flowering 6 dm high. LEAVES rosulate, to 1 m long, en- 
tire, sparsely pale -lepldote on both sides; sheaths triangular, 
inconspicuous; blades linear-lanceolate, attenuate, 35 nm wide, 
prominently nerved and channeled. SCAPE erect. Blender, pale- 
lepldote; scape -bracts erect, the lower large and foliaceous, the 



92 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

upper small, broadly ovate, much shorter than the internodes. 
INFLORESCENCE laxly racemose, 8 -13 cm long, sparsely white -lepi- 
dote. FLORAL BRACTS broadly ovate, acute, 7 mm long, about half 
as long as the p edicels at an thesis; pedicels spreading, slen- 
der, to 12 mm long in fruit. SEPALS narrowly triangular, broadly 
obtxise, 13 ram long, green; petals obtuse, 35 nnn long, greenish 
white tipped with purple, obscurely and irregularly appendaged; 
stamens included; ovsury ellipsoid, red, almost wholly inferior. 
FRUIT indehiscent; seeds very narrowly winged. PI. Ill, fig. k: 
Inflorescence; fig. 5: Sepal. 

PERU: HUAnUCO: terrestrial, in very dark, wet rainforest on 
the steep sides and bottom of valley Just below Camp U (Peligro- 
so), southwestern slope of the Rfo LlullaPichis watershed, on the 
ascent of Cerro del Sira, 9° 25' S, T^° H' W, I535 m alt, 28 
July 1969, Frank Wolfe in T. R. Dudley 124oU (nA, type); same, 
shallow valley Just beyond Camp h (Peligroso), 15^0 m alt, 25 
July 1969, Dudley 13293 (NA, US) . 

RONKBERGIA EXPLODENS L. B. Smith, sp. nov. A R. maidifolia 
Mez, cui affinis, foliis serrulatis, vaginis amplis, inflorescen- 
tia sublaxa differt. 

PLANT stolonif erouB . LEAVES few, fasciculate, to T dm long, 
much exceeding the inflorescence, serrulate throughout, pale- 
lepidote beneath; sheaths ovate, ample; blades linear-lanceolate, 
acuminate, subpetiolate, 7 cm wide, thin, channeled. SCAPE erect 
slender, white -lepidote; scape -bracts erect and exceeding the in- 
ternodes, the upper ones linear, attenuate, entire. INFLORES- 
CENCE simple, sublax, 9-11 cm long, white -lepidote. FLORAL 
BRACTS suborbicular, apiculate, 5 mm long, green; flowers spread- 
ing. SEPALS 6.5 ram long with a large suborbicular wing overtop- 
ping the raucronulate apex, connate for h mm. FRUIT globose, 10 
ram long, "upon slightest touch explodes releasing large quan- 
tities of mucilaginous seeds." PI. Ill, fig. 6: Inflorescence; 
fig. 7: Sepal. 

PERU: HuXnUCO: epiphytic (but not more than 1 m above groiind) 
and terrestrial, in dense cloud forest at Camp 3 (Laguna), south- 
western slope of the Rjfo LlullaPichis watershed on the ascent of 
Cerro del Sira, 9° 26' S, 7^° ^5' W, I29O m alt, 21 July 1969, 
Dudley I3O63 (US, type; NA, isotype); same, 19 July I969, 13052 
fNA); same, about halfway between Camp 3 (laguna) and Camp 4 
(Peligroso), 1^+50 m alt, 23 July I969, 13176 (NA). 

Tillandsia atroviridipetala Matuda, Cact. y Sucul. Mex. 2: 53, 
fig. ho. 1957 - PLUMOSA Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 13- I888. Synony- 
my omitted in Key to Tillandsia, Phytologia 20: 17^^. 1970. 

Because of its filiform -attenuate tomentose -lepidote leaves 
Tillandsia atroviridipetala belongs in the synonymy of T. plvimosa 
and not in that of T. mauryana (cf . Phytologia 7: I73. i960) 
which has stouter leaf -blades with broad scales. 

TILLANDSIA NANA Baker, Handb. Bromel. 172. I889, emend. L. B. 
Smith, inflorescentia ramosa vel simplici, spicis distiche 2-3- 
floris, ccMnplanatis. T. calocephala Wittm. Meded. Rijks Herb. 
Leiden 29: 90. 1916. 

PERU: INDEFINITE: Ga^ s n (P, type; GH, photo). AYACUCHO: 



1971 Staith, Notes on Bromeliaceae 93 

Aucara, 20 Feb 1967, Chlnchay "i&^l (uS, U34) . CUZCO: Urubamba, 
Weberbauer 255^ (b, F photo II5IT); Calcal, Urubamba Valley, Aug 
1926. Herrera 11^6 (US); Uno, Galea, Jan 193T, Vargas 238 (GH, 
LIL); Ollalnta, Urubamba Valley, 1 ^tey 195^+, Rauh & Hirech P-IO89 
(U); Paucartambo, 8 May 195^+, Rauh & Hirach P-1100 (US); Galea. 
29 Dec 1962, litis & Ugent 957 (US. WIS). 

BOLIVIA: LA PAZ: Murlllo, La Paz, I5 Dec 1920, SieTJard 23^ 
(GH, us). GOGHABAMBA: Chapare (?): Rfo Montehuaiko, June 1911, 
HerzQg 2300 (L, type of T. calocephala Wlttm.; F photo 11^8^). 

Reexamination of the type of Tillandsia nana discloses that 
the spikes are distichous -flowered and that the species is in no 
way different from the later T. calocephala . In my key to the 
genus in Phytologia 20: 121. I97O, T. nana should be deleted on 
page 1^6 and should replace T. calocephala on page I25. 

TILLANDSIA STENOURA var. TRIPIMATA (L. B. Smith) L. B. Smith, 
comb. nov. T. deppeana var. tripinnata L. B. Ebiith, Phytologia 
■5: 49. 195^. T. stenoiu-a var. gonzalezii Gilmartin, Phytologia 
16: 155. 1968. T. fendleri var. fendleri sensu L. B. Smith, 
Phytologia 20: 175-^1970. 

EGUADOR: LOJA: paramos west of Saraguro, about 5O km north of 
Loja, 3 05' S, 29° 1^+' W, 2500 m alt, 10 March 19^+7, Espinosa 
£-1^12 (GH, type of T. stenoura var. gonzalezii Gilmartin). 

PERU: SAN MARTfN: San Roque, Jan -Feb 1930, L. Williams 7199 



(F, GH); 7610 (F, GH). HuXnuGO: Yanano, I8OO m alt, May 1923, 
Macbride 3766 (F, GH); Huacachi, Muna, May 20 - June 1, 1923,, 
Macbride ^il92 (f, GH); subtropical forest, below Garpish, Huanuco 



to Tingo Maria, 2300-2^00 m alt, 23 June 1953, Ferreyra 9^10 (US, 
type; USM, isotype). 

My original description of this variety overlooked the charac- 
ter of beaked floral bracts, while the tripinnate nature of the 
inflorescence proved less important. 

VRIESEA GITRINA (Baker) L. B. Smith, comb. nov. Tillandsia 
citrina Baker. Handb. Bromel. 22U, l889- Vriesea citrina E. 
Morr. ex Baker, Handb. Bromel. 22U. I889, nomen in synon.; ibid. 
(?), hort. Rev. Hort. 77: 127. 19O5, nomen. Vriesea minarum L. 
B. Staith, Arquiv. Bot. Est. S. Paulo II. 1: II8, pi. 126. 19^3- 

BRAZIL: MINAS GERAIS: Serra da Piedade, I5OO-I55O m alt. Warm - 
ing 2176 (G, type); 10 July 19^0, Foster 56^ (GH, tyie of Vriesea 
minarum L. B. Smith; US); 27 Mar 1957, E. Pereira 2678 & G. Pabst 
351^ (RB); Serra do Gxirral, Nova Lima, 1 Mar 193^4^. Mello Barreto 
2097 (BHMG). INDEFINITE: Sellow 70 (P). 

VRIESEA SPLENDENS var. FORMOSA Suringar ex Witte, Semperv. I8: 
[361]. 1889. Tillandsia longibracteata Baker, Journ. Bot. 26: 
81. 1888. Vriesea splendens var. longibracteata (Baker) L. B. 
Smith, Smithsonian Misc. Goll. 126: 36. 1955; Phytologia I3: II6. 
1966. 

The name "formosa" is the oldest in the varietal category and 
thus should have been xised in my revision of Vriesea in 
Phytologia. 

Eknithsonian Institution 
Washington, D. G., U. S. A. 



9U 



PHITOLOGIA 
Plate I 



Vol. 21, no. 2 




Fig. 1-2: Guzmania confusa; 3-^: G. cuatrecaeaBil; 
5-6: G. dudleyi; T-8: G. venamensiB. 



1971 



Smith, Notes on Bromeliaceae 
Plate II 



9$ 




Fig. 1-7: Dyckla he"bdlngll. 



96 



PHTTOLOGIA 
Plate III 



Vol. 21, no. 2 




Fig. 1-3: Pltcalrnla bifarlaj h-^: P. wolfei; 
6-1: Ronnbergla explodens. 



NATURAL HISTORY' OF THE BONIN ISLAKDS 
Otto & Isa Degener 



The two volume work quaintly entitled "The Nature of the Benin 
Islands" and "Compiled by Takasi Tuyama and Shigeo Asami* arrived 
as a Christmas gift from Dr. Tuyama Professor of Botany, Ochano- 
mizu University, Tokyo. Dr. Tuyama, and Dr. Charles Lamoureux of 
the University of Hawaii, had visited at our home on the north 
shore of Oahu some months before with a package of Benin herbari- 
um specimens for comparison with Hawaiian taxa. A chain-smoker, 
after our study in the wind-free house, we entertained our for- 
eign guest out of doors, enthralled by his description of his plant 
exploration in his chosen archipelago, known to the Japanese as 
Ogasawara-jima, Due to our bombarding the group in August 19^3 f we 
may remember that the fifteen or so "larger" islands with a total 
area of forty square miles, are of i^olcanic origin and part of 
Micronesia, They are not low, coral atolls with a monotonous biota. 

We have prepared the present review for our peers as neither we, 
nor you (we surmise) are versed in the Japanese language. The vol- 
umes are in board covers, about 7 l/2 inches wide and 10 l/2 inches 
high, and have an excellent quality of filled paper. The number of 
pages, shown in Arabic, for Volume I comes to 271; but about a 
score more unnumbered pages occur with maps showing often on grids 
elevations, soils, rainfall, etc. The frontispiece is a colored 
plate of a beautiful aerial scene of the rugged coastline, while 
following it is a Pacific blue and leaf green two-page spread of 
the entire archipelago in relief. Nearer the middle of the book 
and beyond are four colored plates , one depicting nine gaudy ma- 
rine organisms, s^ch as bryozoons and sea urchins, and the remain- 
der displaying an assortment of 56 typical marine mollusks. Be- 
side a good sprinkling of black and white half-tones of geologic 
and other diagrams, of photos of plants (some not too clear), of 
prints of birds, this volume contains JZ full-page additional 
plates in black and white. These are a melange of scenes showing 
the typical vegetation from an understory of Marattia to a shore 
predominantly of Pandanus ; from close-ups of the most interesting 
Flowering Plants to "land shells," insects, crustaceans and dia- 
grams of the commoner sea birds in flight; and human interest, 
such as showing Drs. Tuyama and Asami with student assistants, of 
village scenes, of outrigger canoes, of some World War II ship and 
•plane wreckage and, at the very end a monument in good taste fly- 
ing the Japanese and American flags side by side to the tragic 
victims of a conflict stimulated by population pressure. 

For us, specializing in the Hawaiian flora, Volvime I is useful 
as the scientific names of the Ferns and Flowering Plants (as are 
those of the animals as well) are given in English, though the des- 
criptions in Japanese are beyond our understanding. We can thus see 
how closely the two floras approach each other. This hardly per- 
tains to species, excepting for some ferns and some ocean dissemi- 
nated halophytes like Colubrina asiatica ; but certainly to genera. 

97 



98 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

For the non-specialist, for those unacquainted with the Japanese 
language, and for those for whom the Bonin Islands are little more 
than a name, we do not recommend investing in this book. 

Volume II is decidedly a "horse of another color." It is truly 
outstanding! There is no text at all; instead, there are 228 mag- 
nificently executed colored plates comprising about ^75 separate 
photographs. Among the first are important views of Chichi- jima, 
Futami Bay, andesite and marine cliffs, green olivine sand called 
uguisizuma , agate. Tertiary rocks, semi-fossil snail shells, "Oni- 
iwa, an ogreish stack," northernmost Haha-jima, pinnacled islets of 
Harino-iwa, etc. All this is the groundwork for understanding the 
environment for the Bonin Island biota. Then follow plates ^3 "to 
130 comprising 213 exquisite color photographs of mostly native 
plants, many so easy to recognize as they or their relatives are 
likewise found in the better-known Hawaiian Islands. Some of the 
identical species, for example, appear to be Ipomoea pes-caprae var. 
emarginata , Cassytha filiformis, Calophyllum inophyllum , Psilotum 
nudum and Neottopteris nidus . Personally prejudiced in noting the 
occurrence of the same, uninteresting, horribly beautiful ornamen- 
tals of gardens the world around threatening a fascinating native 
flora, we regret Drs. Tuyama and Asami's wasted film on the south- 
east Asian Melia azedarach , the American Leucaena " glauca" now 
fovind to be actually leucocephala , the American Psidi\im jguaiava, 
the American Cassia (or as we "splitters" prefer, Ditremexa ) oc- 
cidentalis , the African Thunbergia alata and its Indian relative 
T. laurifolia, the American Schinus terebinthif olius , the American 
Nicotiana tabacum beloved by Dr. Tuyama, an atypical African Hi - 
biscus schizopetalus with Asiatic admixture, the more southern 
Codiaeum variegatum hort., the American Allamanda cathartica , the 
American Poinsettia pulcherrima hort., the East ? Indian Bryophyl - 
Itun pinna tum , the American Agave americana and a variety of the 
American Passiflora foetida. We should have so much preferred en- 
demics or even natives instead. But that, of course, is a matter 
of taste as the old lady maintained when she kissed the cow. 

Plates 131 - 1"^ show magnificently black fruit bats, not un- 
like the larger brown flying foxes gampled broiled in Fiji by one 
of the reviewers; the diminutive deer Cervus mariannus (note double 
"n"), fleeing feral goats; and an example of erosion described as 
"Patches of grassland, result of cattle-bite." The nine plates fol- 
lowing of birds will delight the viewer whether he be ornithologist 
or not. Another plate shows the toad Bufo marianus (note single 
"n"), not to be confused with the Cuban toad B, marinus naturaliz- 
ed in the Ifewaiian Islands. Four plates are devoted to colorful 
insects; about 25 to intricate corals, overlapping somewhat with 
about as many plates devoted to fishes and marine invertebrates. 
The last dozen or so are of human interest 1 scenes of a model vil- 
lage, a meteorological station, a Christian (l) church, a school, 
shipping of specimens and ships, a scene of the Metropolitan Gover- 
nor giving an address, and very appropriately at the very last a 
solemn "Monument of the war dead, Iso-jima." One question, however, 
bothers us. Where are the native Micronesians? Did all fall victims 
to the horrors of war, or were they evacuated never to return? 



1971 0. & I. Degener, Bonln Islands 99 

Pictiires are well nigh a universal language; and Volume II con- 
sists only of these, each with captions in Japanese and English. 
This book we highly recommend to the geologist, to the profession- 
al botanist specializing in plants of the Pacific, to the general 
botanist interested in the plant world as a whole, to zoologists 
of various disciplines, to the armchair traveler, and to the Veter- 
ans of World War II who now can show their families and friends 
the type of islands they defended with devastation and how Nature 
in about thirty years healed the scars of human conflict. 

From the Japanese blurb we cannot tell the price of the work, 
nor whether sets can be broken. Due to the excellence of Volume II, 
we hope the Hirokawa Publishing Company, 2? - I'J-, Hongo - 3, 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan, will soon publish an English translation 
of Volume I for the sake of reaching a wider reading public. 



BOOK REVIEIf 
Otto Degener 

A Russian book in the field of Taxonomy is now available to us 
English readers through the authorized translation by C. Jeffrey, 
Senior Scientific Officer, Kew, England, of a work by Armen Takhta- 
jan, Botanical Institute of the Academy of Sciences, Leningrad. 

Dr. Takhtajan's "Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal" was 
published by Oliver k Boyd, Edinburgh, in 1969. and sells for i 
2.50. It comprises 3IO pages of which 3I are devoted to the Biblio- 
graphy ("Scottsberg" should read "Skottsberg") and 26 to the Index. 
Though this leaves but 253 po-ges for text, this is packed with in- 
formation illustrated with I3 plates and 32 figures. 

Chapter 3 begins with long established convictions held by many 
of us that "The identity of the ancestors of the flowering plants 
is a most difficult problem - - -.", and that "In spite of their 
great diversity, all seed plants have so much in common that their 
origin from more than one ancestral group seems unlikely." Takhta- 
jan then concludes, in agreement with many other workers, that the 
angiosperms arose from some very ancient group of gymnosperms hav- 
ing primitive secondary xylem of scalariform tracheids and primi- 
tive bisexual strobili. These last must have been large; terminal; 
and with an elongate axis bearing spirally arranged leafy bracts 
and leaf-like, pinnate sporophylls. The micros porangia and ovules 
were numerous; the microsporangia free and the ovules without a 
micro pyle. The strobili in most cases were cross-pollinated by in- 
sects such as beetles. The carpel may have evolved as an organ of 
great survival value, protecting the large ovule from being eaten 
and in general enabling it to become reduced in size. 



100 



PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 



The mysterious absence of fossil remains of the earliest flower- 
ing plants is explained as probably due to such groups having e- 
volved rapidly in montane regions where conditions for fossiliza- 
tion were far less favorable than in the lowlands where sediments 
tended to accumulate. 

Chapter 6, the longest, builds the first flowering plants via a 
hypothetical reconstruction. Then follow "Living Fossils." These, 
according to the author, are the Magnoliales , comprising the Win- 
teraceae , Magnoliaceae , Degeneriaceae , Himantandraceae , Eupomati - 
aceae , Annonaceae, Canellaceae and Myristicaceae .Next are charac- 
terized various families, somewhat reminiscent to us English read- 
ers of Arthur J. Eames' "Morphology of the Angios perms," published 
seven years after Takhatajan's "Origin of Angiospermous Plants" 
and the same year as the latter' s second editiono 

Authentic angiosperm fossils are found only from the Early Cre- 
taceous onward. Their center of distribution was somewhere between 
Eastern India and "Polynesia," perhaps more accurately expressed as 
"Melanesia." Aft^r discussing the differentiation of floras, he 
deals with the evolution of the Tertiary flora of the Northern 
Hemisphere. The Appendix, explains his ideas regarding the classi- 
fication of the flowering plants; figure 31, a dendrogram of his 
9^ accepted, living orders, gives a bird's eye view. 

Prof. Takhtajan's "Flowering Plants, Origin and Dispersal" is a 
quicker book to read and to absorb than is the almost contemporary 
text book by Prof. Eames, Both books are especially suited for the 
professional botanist and for the more advanced college student. 



ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TO'.YARD A MONOCfflAPH OF THE GENUS 
CALLICARPA . XIII 

Harold N, Moldenke 



CALLICARPA LONGIFOLIA Lain. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., 
ed. 1 [Carey & WallJ , 1: U09 & U8l. I820j E. D. Merr., Philip. 
Journ. Sci. 30: li26. 1926; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U90 (1971) 
and 21: U2, U5, & U3— 55. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Rumph., Herb. Amb. h'- pl. 59. 17U3. 

Maheshwari (1963) says that this plant is "grown as a hedge 
plant in gardens" at Delhi. The corollas are described as 
"purple" on Bxrnnak 280 , Chien 602lt , Cuadra A .1007 , Evangelista 

923 , and R. Ferreyra 89II , "pinkish-purple" on Suvarnakoses 8iJ. , 
"rose-purple" on Chand 7677, "purplish-red" on Steward & Chao li5l , 
"rose-purple to lavender" on Chand 627U , "red" on Lau 177, "pink" 
on Gressitt 96U , "pinkish" on Lars en , Santisuk , & Wamcke 3UIO , 
"violet" on K. Lars en 10267 , "pale-violet" on Villamil lUU , "laven- 
der" on M. K. Clemens 10125 and F. A, McClure 3195, "bluish-white" 
on Fryar 3981i, "pinlcish-white" on Boonchuai 1125 , '*white to pale- 
pink" on Hoogland 5006, and "white" on Brass 3969, 27278, & 293U8 , 
Lam 20U9, Roy en 3OOU , and Thomsen 66U . Liang 66029 represents a 
very narrow-leaved form, 

Sprengel, in his 1825 work, regards C. lanceolaria Roxb. as a 
distinct species and places C . japonica Thunb . in the synonymy of 
C. longifolia , but in his 1828 work correctly regards Thunberg's 
plant as a distinct and valid species. Beissner, Schelle, & Za- 
bel (1903), on the other hand, place C_. longifolia in synonymy 
under C_. japonica 1 Schauer (I8[i7) reduced C_^ japonica to synonymy 
under C . longifolia . Li (1963) gives a "C_. pilocalyx Clark" as a 
synon3mi of C . longifolia , but by this he unquestionably means C . 
psilocalyx C. B. Clarke, which is a distinct and valid species. 
The Callicarpa acuminata Roxb. cited as a synonym of C. longifolia 
by Schauer (18U7) is actually C. nudl flora Hook. & Am., while the 
C. adenanthera R. Br., also cited by him, is C. candicans (Burm. 
fT) Hochr. 

Kanehira & Hatusima (19li2) feel that C_. formosana Rolfe "does 
not seem to be distinct from this polymorphous and widely distrib- 
uted species [ C. longifolia ]", but with this concept I cannot agree. 
Dop (1932) regards C_. dentata V/all. and C_. virens Reinw., each only 
"in part", as synonyms of C_. longifolia . Bean (1951) regards C. 
longifolia as a synonym of C. japonica var. angustata Rehd., but it 
is only in "sensu Hemsl." that this is true. The Gallic arpus ob- 
longifolia ^ acuminatissima Hassk, is C. pedunculata R. Br. 

101 



102 PEYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

Li (1963) reduces C. kotoensls Hayata and C. japonica var, 
kotoensis (Hayata) Masamune to synonymy under C_. longifolia , say- 
ing "Hayata says of his £. kotoensis as 'near C_. pilocalyx Clark 
and C. longifolia Lamk., but differs from both by the larger 
flowers and less hairy leaves' When compared with large series 
of C. longifolia specimens frcan all over tropical Asia, the Lanyu 
plant cannot be specifically separated" . I regard both names as 
synonymous with C_. japonica var. luxurians Rehd. Kanehira (1936) 
regards C^ antaoensis Hayata as a synonym of what he calls C. 
kotoensis . 

The C . albida Blume , C . attenuata Wall . , C . lanceolaria Roxb . , 
C. longifolia Auct., C_. longifolia L., £^ longifolia Roxb., C. 
longifolia var . lanceolaria C . B . Clarke , C_. longifolia var . lan - 
ceolaria (Roxb.) C. B. Clarke, C_. oblongifolia Eassk., £. rox- 
burghiana Roem. & Schult., C. roxbvirghiana Schult., and Callicar - 
pus oblongifolia Hassk., included in the synonymy of the typical 
form of C. longifolia Lam. by various previous authors (including 
myself), are now regarded by me as representing f. floccosa Schau., 
which see. 

It should be noted here that the C. americana accredited to 
Blanco and referred to in the synonymy of C . lon gifolia is actual- 
ly a synonym of C. formosana Rolfs, that accredited to Lamarck, 
to Roxburgh, and to Willdenow belongs in the synonymy of C_. ameri - 
cana L. (a valid species), that ascribed to Loureiro is C. cajidi - 
cans (Burm. f.) Hochr., that ascribed to Sess^ & Mocifio is C . 
pringlei Briq., and that ascribed to Thunberg is C. japonica 
Thunb.; the C. cana accredited to Dalzell & Gibson is actually C. 
tomentosa (L.) Murr., that credited to Gamble is C . macrophylla 
Vahl, that of Linnaeus, of Sprengel, and of Vahl is C. candicans 
(Burm. f .) Hochr., and that ascribed to Wallich is in part C. 
longifolia and in part C. pedunculata R. Br.; the C. cuspidata of 
Roxburgh is C. pedunculata R. Br., while that ascribed to Bakhui- 
zen van den Brink is in part C . longipes Dunn and in part C . ru- 
bella Lindl.; the C. dentata credited to Pavon and the Sess5 Sc Mo- 
ciRo is Comutia grandifolia (Schlecht. & Cham.) Schau., that of 
Roth is C. pedunculata R. Br., and that of Ro:dDurgh is C. candi - 
cans (Burm. f.) Hochr.; the C. japonica ascribed to the younger 
Linnaeus is C. japonica Thtmb., that ascribed to Matsumura and to 
Mi quel is C. japonica var. luxurians Rehd., that credited to "Eort. 
ex Pritzel" is C. rubella Lindl., while that ascribed to "Hort. ex 
Moldenke" is in part C. japonica and in part C. rubella ; the C. 
longifolia accredited to Bentham, to Hance, and to "sensu Mori" is 
really C_. longissima (Hemsl.) Merr., that ascribed to Diels is C. 
bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse) Rehd,, that ascribed to Hooker is 
C, brevipes (Benth.) Hance, that credited to "sensu Hemsley" is C. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 103 

japonica var. angxistata Rehd. and "sensu Li" is C^^ japonica var. 
luxurians Rehd., that ascribed to "Auct.", to Linnaeus, and to 
Roxburgh is C. longifolia f . floccosa Schau., while that credit- 
ed to Hemsley is in part C. bodinieri var. giraldii and in part 
C . japonica var . angustata . 

Similarly, the C. purpurea ascribed to "Hort. ex Moldenke" and 
to Van Houtte is a synonym of C. rubella Lindl., that of A. L. 
Jussieu is C. dichotoma (Lour.) K. Koch, and that of Nakai is C^ 
japonica Thunb., and the C. tcanentosa credited to Hooker & Arnott, 
to Willdenoir, and to "sensu Matsumura" is C_. kochiana Male., that 
ascribed to Konig is C. macrophylla Vahl, that accredited to La- 
mark and to Linnaeus "ex Sprengel" is C . candicans (Burrn. f .) 
Hochr., that ascribed simply to Linnaeus is C_. erioclona Schau., 
that ascribed to Linnaeus "ex Willdenow", to Murray, and to "(L.) 
Santapau" is C. tomentosa (L.) Murr. [a valid species], that of 
Vahl is as yet unidentified, while that credited to Bakhuizen van 
den Brink is in part C, arborea Roxb. and in part C_. integerrima 
Champ . 

Vernacular names recorded for C_. longifolia are "antao-murasakiy 
"av6ravi", "bagiha", "bebetih kinana" , "bSbStik kinana", "b§ning- 
bening", "cadlicarpa a longues feuil", "chapal", "chapal kechil", 
"chukin", "dama besoi", "gambiran", "kajoe modang attarasa", 
"kajoe siran", "kapieriet", "karat bSsi", "katoempang" , "Icatoen- 
pang bener", "katumpang", "keling-kahan" , "kemeniran", "khow tok'J 
"khu-kwai-lek^, "kikatumpang", "ki toempang", "koamoora", "lang- 
blattrige Schonbeere", "lo kop ngan", "longleaf beautyberry", 
"long-leaved callicarpa", "meniran oetan", "meniran sapi", 
"moeniran", "nagaba-m\irasaki" , "nasi-nasi", "papalain", "phlu 
yaun bai lek", "sekudara", "setampo", "simadgimbadjon", "si se", 
"songka", "songka kampong", "sulap", "tama", "tampah bSsi", 
"tampal b^si", "tampang besi", "tampang besi puteh", "tampoh 
besi", "tampoh besih", "tampong bSsi", "tapah bSsi", "tibabisi", 
"tlgau", "tobaybSsi", "tulang besi", and "white-fruited tampang 
besi" . The names "meniran oetan" and "tampal besi" are applied 
also to C_. candicams (Burm. f .) Hochr. 

It is worth noting her« that Lamarck's original description of 
C_. longifolia (1785) is often incorrectly dated "1783". 

Because of the great importance of Schauer's treatment of this 
taxon and the various interpretations which have been accorded it 
since that time, it is worthwhile to repeat his discussion here: 
"C . longifolia (Lam. diet. 1 p. ^62), undique glandule so-punctata 
ceteirmique ver^ pube stellate magis minusve farinoso-tomentosa 
aut subglabrata, foliis membranaceis lanceolato-oblongis lanceola- 
tisve utrinque attenuatis brevipetiolatis longe acuminatis 
serrato-denticulatis, cymis multifloris divaricato-dichotomis 
confertiusculis convexis pedunculo petiolum subaequante folio 
multoties brevioribus, calyce brevi Ii-costato ore truncate brev- 
issime U-mucronulato . ^ In IndiS orientali usque in Japoniam. 
Folia 6 poll. circ. longa, 2 poll, lata, penninervia, venosa. 



lOU P H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 2 

plana, supra viridia vix nltidula, subtus pallidiora, utrinque 
subtus vero magis punctis resinosis flavis dense consita. Calyx 
semilineam longus. Cor. calyce jam duplo jam vero non nisi di- 
midio longior. Stam. exserta, antherarum conneotivo et sulco 
faciali dense glanduloso-punctatis (v. s. in h. DC., Nees, Lucae 
aliorq.) 

"(^ subglabrata , ramulis cum inflorescentiae ramulis folior- 

umque reti utrinque pube stellatS fairinosis interdum subglabratis 
calyce foliorumque adultorum paginis glabris. — In Indid orient, 
e. gr. prov. Silhet Cffall.'. cat. no. 1829), in JavS (Bl.l Jungh.I 
Zolling.! pi. jav. no. 156 1 et 2231), in Philippinis (Cuming. I n, 
1330), in JaponiS (Zolling. I pi. jap. n. 3U9) . £. longifolia Lam. 
1. c. et ill. t. 69 f. 2, Bot. reg. t. 86Ii] Hook. exot. fl. 1 p. 
1331 C. Japonica Thunb. fl. jap. p. 60- C. lanceolaria Ro:d3.l 
fl. ind. 1 p. 395." 

Miquel's original description of his C_. lanata ^ uberior 
(1856) is "foliis e basi cuneata elliptic o-oblongis, acumine baud 

abrupte terminatis, semi pedalibus Sumatra." 

Merrill (1912) comments that the Cvmiing 1330 collection from 
the Philippines, cited by Schauer in the above quotation, certainr- 
ly does not agree well with the original description of C_. longi - 
folia and "to me does not appear to be closely allied to Lamarck's 
species". He therefore makes it the type collection of C. doli- 
chophylla Merr., and with this disposition I fully agree. 

When Schauer' s two named forms were regarded as separate from 
the typical fonn of the species, the following key was proposed 
and used in the annotation of a considerable number of herbarivnn 
specimens in many widespread herbaria: 
1. Leaf -blades glabrous beneath or practically so, no stellate 

hairs on the lamina of the lower surface; hairs, if present, 

simple, or stellate only on the midrib C_. longifolia, 

la. Leaf -blades more or less stellate-floccose beneath, 

2. Leaf -blades very sparsely stellate on the lower surface, 

chiefly on the midrib and larger venation 

C. longifolia f, subglabrata . 
2a. Leaf -blades more densely stellate on the lower surface, on 

the lamina as well as on the venation 

C. longifolia f . floccosa. 

This separation, however, has not proved to be practical and I 
now regard Schauer 's f . subglabrata to be equivalent to the typi- 
cal form of the species, as, indeed, it was originally proposed 
by him. His f . floccosa , then, is the only one of his two forms 
now accepted as worthy of being maintained. It was Kochreutiner 
(I93U) who first pointed out that Schauer 's form " subglabrata " 
was actually "Varietas typica speciei" and not a separate taxon. 

The Hainan material cited below has, in general, the leaf- 
blades completely glabrous . Other material is merely subglab- 
rous on the lower surface, with no stellate hairs on the actual 
lamina, the hairs (when present) being mostly simple, or the 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 105 

stellate hairs are confined to the midrib, 

Callicairpa longifolia is employed as a hedge plant in parts of 
India, and is also used as a fish-poison. Its bark is used by the 
Japanese on the Johnstone River, in Queensland, as a substitute 
for the betel lead when chewing the Areca nuts with lime. Lam 
(192h) reports that it is also used to check dysmenorrhea. Heyne 
(1917) has this to say: "Rxmphius geeft den naam sanka. . . .opvoor 

zijn Mamanira alba , welke nog niet met zekerheid is geiden- 

tificeerd en beschrijft dien als een struik, niet boven een man 
hoog, wassende op magere velden, in het kreupelbosch en in verla- 
ten tuinen. Van de wortels koken soranigen een drank tegen buik- 
loop. De bladeren dienen als kraamzuiverend raiddel en, fijnge- 
wreven met rijst en wat djinten in azijn gekookt, ter bevochtig- 
ing van omslagen voor - of tot het verdrijven van - harde ye- 
zwellen. Het gebruik van de bladeren van C. longifolia , dat nij 
te Buitenzorg werd opgegeven, kcmt hiermede overeen: zij zouden 
ra. 1. de medicijn wezen voor wonden en zwellingen, die maar niet 
beter willen worden. Ook de toepassing door Ridley. .. .vermeld, 
dat de bladeren worden gebizigt tegen koliek, vindt men bij 
Rumphius terug in het gebmik van de 'wortels . 

"Nog twee niijner aianteekeningen maken melding van inwendig ge- 
bniik als geneesmiddel (een van een afkooksel en een van een koud 
aftreksel van de gewreven bladeren), zoodat het verwondering 
baart, dat deze plant zoo giftig is voor visschen als volgen moet 
uit Indische Vergiftrapporten No. 201, indien tenminste de opge- 
geven wetenschappeli jke naam juist is . lien leest daar, dat op 
Siaoe de bladeren van den tama worden gebizigd om de visschen te 
dooden, die bij eb in het rif zijn achtergebleven . Daartoe worden 
de bladeren of fijngestampt in het water geworpen, of aam de 
steenen van het rif gekneusd, zoodat het sap zich met het zeewa- 
ter vermengt. De visschen zouden onmiddellijk bedwelmd geraken 
en zich gemakkelijk la ten vangen. Iletzelfde geval doet zich ech- 
ter voor bij een andere (nog niey herkende) Callicarpasoort, door 
Rumphius (IV, bl, 12U) onder den naam van Frutex ceramicus be- 
schreven als een heester, op Ambon onbekend, doch op Banda als 
kajoe ceram in de hoven geplant als vischbedwelmend middel. Hij 
zegt, dat men de bladeren stampt in een korf je doet en afgedekt 
een nacht laat staan. i'an gaat daarmede naar plaatsen, waar bij 
afloopend getij water is blijven staan en strooit het, al wrij- 
vend totdat het schuimt, op hot water; de visschen komen daardoor 
dood boven drijven. Voor de menschen en overige wezens is echter, 
zegt Rumphius, deze plant onschadelijk, want de wortel wordt als 
medicijn inwendig gebruikt, de bladeren worden door bokken en 
schapen afgegraasd en spreeuwen en andere vogels eten de vruchten'i 

Panmel, on the authority of Greshoff , also records this species 
as a fish-poison. Uphof (I968) says that it is "Used for poultic- 
ing in fever and colic among the Malays" . 

It should be noted here that the type collection of C. javanica 
is Zippelius s .n. from Java and that of C_. attenuifolia is Elmer 
13536 from Mindanao, Philippine Islands. The ffallich 183$ .1, ci- 



106 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

ted below, and collected in 1822 on Penang Island, is a cotype of 
C. attenuata Yfall,, the other cotypes being an Ahern and a Jack 
collection not seen by me. The basis of C. tomentosa Thunb. is 
the Thiinberg s.n. specimen cited below and deposited in the her- 
barium of the Naturhistoriska Riksmuseum in Stockholm, while that 
of C. longifolia var. acuminatiss ima is Ploem s .n. from Java de- 
posited in the Buitenzorg herbarium. 

Kuntze (I89I) says of his C^ longifolia var. pubinervis: "Fo- 
lia subtus in nervis pubescentia ceterum glabra, sed glandiilis 
punctiformibus munita. Java, verbreitet. Der Beschreibung nach 
gehb'rt auch var. lanceolaria Clarke hierher, aber lanceolaria 
Roxb. wird leaves very hoary underneath beschrieben. Unter var. 
subglabrata verstand Schauer noch var. japonic a OK. (Thbg. I78U), 
foliis glaberrimis." I am designating Kuntze $166 in the Britton 
Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden as lectotype of this 
variety because this is the only one of the five specimens in 
Kuntze 's herbariian labeled as this variety by him which has the 
Latin description placed by him after the name; it was collected 
at Ngalindung, Java, at an altitude of 3000 feet, on June 23, 
1875. 

Lindley & Paxton (1853) also comment on the error made by 
Schauer (18U7) in uniting £. japonica Thunb. with C_. longifolia , 
and point out some of the obvious differences between the two 
taxa, stating that in C. longifolia the cymes are smaller, the 
calyx is firm and fleshy, and the calyx- teeth more conspicuous, 
and that it is "a southern plant, much more tender" than C. ja- 
ponica. 

Chopra, Badhwar, & Ghosh (1965) report C. longifolia from the 
Nicobar Islands. They claim that var. lanceolaria (Roxb.) C. B. 
Clarke differs only in having the leaves narroiver and thinner, 
"glabrate and densely minutely gland-dotted beneath when nature'] 
This, however, is a misinterpretation of that taxon, for, as 
Kuntze pointed out, Roxburgh's original description calls for 
the leaf -blades to be "very hoary underneath" . In my opinion, 
it belongs in the synonymy of f . floccosa Schau. The "var. 
lanceolaria " in the interpretation of Chopra, Badhwar, & Ghosh 
is said by then to occur plentifully in central Bengal and in 
the Khasi Hills up to an altitude of about 3000 feet and that 
"it likely possesses fish-poison properties" . These same 
authors describe the mature leaves of C. longifolia as "beneath 
so closely fulvous stellate- villous that few of the glands are 
visible", but obviously this applies not to the typical form of 
the species but to f . floccosa only. It would seem, therefore, 
that what they regard as typical C_. longifolia is really f , floc- 
cosa , while what they regard as var. lanceolstria is actually the 
typical C. longifolia . They refer to the fruit as a "berry", 
but it is actually a drupe. 

Maheshwari (I963) reports that at Delhi the species blooms 



1971 Moldenke, Ponograph of Callicarpa 107 

from September to November and finiits frora January to Llarch. He 
cites tlaheshwari 663 , taken from cviltivated material grovring in 
the TaUcatora Gardens of Delhi . 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) describes C_. longifolia as "A 
slender shrub, branchlets, cymes and petioles almost glabrescent; 
leaves lanceolate, minutely denticulate-serrulate to almost en- 
tire, upper side glabrous when aldult, lower side almost glabrous, 
except on the nerves; cymes slender, lax, rather long petioled; 
calyx scarcely hairy or glabrous; corolla rose or whitish, 
scarcely pubescent outside; ovary densely glandular, not hairy." 
He comments about the f . subglabrata and f . floccosa ; "It is not 
possible to distinguish distinctly the numerous varieties, which 
exist between the above-mentioned two extreme forms." 

Domin (1928) describes, but does not name, a "forma inflores- 
centia valde laxa, divaricata, iteratim dichotoma excellens" from 
Queensland, based on his unnumbered collection from "bei Yarraba 
in den die Bachufer begleitenden Regenwalder bis 550 m empor- 
steigend", collected in January, 1910. A note by C. T. Vftiite on 
Brass 3969 from Papua says "almost the same as much Queenslaind 
material under C. longifolia " . Koorders (1912) tells us that C. 
longifolia is found over "Ganz Java: Von — 1700 m. ii. M. ira 
lichten RegenvTald gemein aber zerstreut" . 

Junell (I93li) notes that "Auch bei C. longifolia habe ich 
einigemale beobachtet, dass die Teiliing des Zentralkerns von 
Bildung einer Quenirand begleitet ist". Dop (1932), in speaking 
of C . bracteata Dop, says: "Cette espece est voisine du G. longi - 
folia Lam. Elle s'en distingue ais&nent par les p^doncules des 
cymes beaucoup plus longs, les bract^es foliac^es. La longueur 
du p^doncules la rapprocherait du C , longipes Dunn de Chine et 
de Hongkong; mais les feuilles longueraent attenu^es, la calice a 
dents tres petites , 1 ' eloignent nettement du C . longipes a feuil- 
les arrondies ou cord^es a la base et a calice divisS jusqu'au 
milieu." 

A wood sample accompanies R^ S_. TTilliams 2116 • The Teijsmann 
s.n. [Boeroe Kajeli] specimen, cited below, is interesting be- 
cause it consists only of complete leaf-skeletons! The R, Fer- 
reyra U076 collection from Lima, Peru, is doubtfully placed here 
since the collector avers that its fruits were red and that it 
grew in a stony habitat, with no hint that it represents culti- 
vated material . 

Vidal y Soler (1885) cites Cuming I33O from the Philippine Is- 
lands, but this number is the type collection of C. dolichophylla 
Merr., as has been pointed out previously. 

Domin (1923) cites Domin s.n. [Harvey's Creek, XII. 1909] & s_. 
n. [Yarraba, 1,1910] from Queensland. Bentham & iMueller (1870) 
cite only a Dallachy s.n. [Rockingham Bay] from Qu3ensland. Ap- 
parently this was the only Australian specimen of this species 

known to them. They describe it as "leaves green and nearly 

glabrous or sprinkled with very short hairs above, more copiously 



108 PKYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

tomentose and glandular underneath but usually green or very 
slightly rusty or whitish." This description definitely points 
to f . floccosa Schau. rather than to the typical form of the spe- 
cies. 

Koorders (1912) cites Pulle 3119 from Java. Bakhuizen van den 
Brink (192ii) cites Atasrip hh, Lam 20U9 , and Thomsen 66U from New 
Guinea. Lam (19lU) cites Elbert 3000 & 306U from Celebes, Elbert 
18 6U from Lombok, and Grundler Ul83 & Ul99 from Sumbawa, while in 
his I92U work he cites Ledermann 6597, 6336 , 9226, & ll$U7a and 
Schlechter llj.303 from Northeastern New Guinea and Kraemer s.n. 
[1909] from New Ireland. King & Gamble (I908) cite the following 
material from Malaya: Johore: G. King s.n. Langkawi Island: Cur - 
tis 213li . Malacca: Griffith 6039 , Maingay 1191. Penang: King & 
Stoliczka s.n. , Wallich 1335 » Peral:: King's Collector [Kunstler] 
80 & 239 , Stortechini 1211| . Selangor: Curtis s.n. Singapore: 
Cantley 120, Hullett s.n. , Lobb s.n. , Schomburgk 5U , G. Thomson 
hhf Walker 207. Ciiltivated, Singapore: Deschamps s.n. 

Chang (1951) cites C. I. Lei llU , McClure 8O36 , and nos . 25599, 
35399, 35683, ii35U3, 60928 , 6l20ii , 6l311t , 61385, 61MS, 665U2, & 
72820 of collectors and/or herbaria whose names he gives only in 
Chinese characters . 

Material of C. longifolia has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in herbaria as C_. acuminata H.B.K., C_. angusta Schau., C. 
cana L., C. caudata Maxim., C. dichottma (Lour.) K. Koch, C. lon - 
gifolia var. floccosa Schau., C. macrophyl la Vahl, C. pedvinculata 
R . Br . , and C. psilocalyx C . B . Clarke . 

On the other hand, the Ahern's Collector s.n. [Herb. Philip. 
Forest Bur. 1888], distributed as C . longifolia , is actually C. 
angusta Schau. j Teijsmann 3525 H.B. is £. arborea Roxb.; Bulock 
s.n. is C. bodinieri L6vl.j Giraldi s.n. [Monte Kin-qua-san, 10. 
VII .1897] and Henry 7312 are C_. bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse) 
Rehd., the former probably being the type collection; Liang 62267 
and C. Wright s.n. [Hong Kong] are C_. brevipes (Benth.) Hance; 
Sindhipongse 76 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 6020] is C. candicans 
var. sximatrana (Miq.) Moldenkej Me arns & Hutchinson It 755 is C. 
caudata Maxim.; Cuming 1330 is the type collection of C. dolicho- 
phylla Merr.; Ramos L Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 28513] 
is C_^ formosana var. glabra sc ens Moldenkej H, H. Bartlett 6936 & 
8603 , Bartlett & La Rue 109, Boeea 6508 , 901^9 , 9396 , & 9$h9 , 
Clemens & Clemens 3029 & 3U8l, Mrs . D. £. Collins 2365 , Gebruik 
81, Hamel & Toroes 1165 , M. R. Henderson I9633 & 20^91 , Herb. 
Hort. Dot. Eogor. XV.KA.U5.3 , Loeb 91, F. A. McClure 3195 [Herb. 
Canton Chr. Coll. 97U3], Native Collector 273 , Nur 18835 & 32651 , 
G. E. Perry 5228 , Ramos & Edaflo s.n. [Herb, Philip. Bur. Sci. 
kh06h & 14*326] , Saimoendt 20, U. Singh 81, Toroes I6U & 3002 , D. 



1971 Holdenke, I'onograph of Callicarpa IO9 

D. Wood 785, and H. S. Yates 653, lli86 , & I60U are all C_. longi - 
folia f . floccosa Schau.; Liou 881; is C. longipes Dunnj R. C. 
Ching 7738 , H_. H. Chung 2U77 , and Nevin s.n. [China] are C_. long - 
issima (Hemsl.) Kerr.; La Rue s.n. [Citrus Exp. Sta., Riverside] 
is C. pacrophylla Vahlj W. W, Clark s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest 
Bur, 253U] and llearns & Hutchinson s.n. [May I9O6] are C. merril- 
lii Moldenkej Wilkes s .n. [Sulu Archipelago] is C. nigrescens 
Merr.} A_. Forbes 21 and Kort. Huber 725 are C_^ pedunculata R. Br.j 
7/ . Kaudem 313 is C_. pilosissima Maxim , ; Schlagintweit U83 is C . 
rubella Lindl.; and D. D. Wood 1227 is C_. supearposita Merr. 

The Hamel & Toroes 1165 , Hollrung 817 , Hoogland 3653, Native 
Collector 273 , and D_. D. Wood 785, cited below, are placed here 
tentatively. Some specimens of these collections are also cited 
under C. longifolia f. floccosa . These specimens were mostly an- 
notated by me a considerable number of years ago, before my pres- 
ent concepts of the delimitations of these taxa had crystallized. 
The specimens need to be re-examined. 

The Clemens & Clemens 3029 & 21090 , Krukoff U035, Mondi 23, G. 

E. Perry 5228, Toroes I6U, C. Wang 35683 , and R. £. Williams 2116 
previously regarded by me as representing typical C. longifolia, 
and so annotated by me in some herbaria, seem actually to repre- 
sent f . floccosa instead. 

The Elmer 20102 &. 20lt02 collections, cited below, actually 
show some of the lovfer leaf-surfaces more or less sparsely stel- 
late, but this is usually only on the youngest leaves; the adult 
leaves are glabrate beneath, so I an retaining those two collec- 
tions here under the typical form of the species. The Elmer 
15336 and Lei 111; also seem to exhibit intermediate characters. 

In all, 38Ii herbarium specimens, including type material of 
several of the nanies involved, and 5 moiinted photographs have 
been examined by me. 

Additional citations: PERU: Lima: R^ Ferreyra U076. MADAGASCAR: 
Belanger s.n, (P) . PAKISTAN: East Dengal: King's Collector I6 
(W— 369327), 173 (Bz~l8039). INDIA: Assam: Belcher & Juan $k 
(W— 2212892); Chand 2198 (Mi), 2^89 (Mi), 627U (Mi), 633i;a (Mi), 
7677 (Mi) J Jenkins s,n. (B2~l8036)j Koelz 2U215 (Mi), 27375 (Mi), 
27378 (Ca~13li3036, Mi)j Prazer s.n. [I89O] (Bz— 18035). Delhi: 
Herb. Delhi Univ. 270 (Gg~Ul3ii6U) . Khasi States : C. B^ Clarke 
lh9hh [599] (W— 802505), lU9li8 [599] (W~802505), 1782UC [600] 
(W~802663)j Hooker & Thomson s.n. [Mont. Khasia] (N, S) . Uttar 
Pradesh: Mani s.n. [15-10-U9] TnTT U. Singh 81 (Bz~l80U5, La, N) . 
State undetermined: Thunberg s.n, (S, S); Wallich s.n. [Ind. or.] 
(T). BURMA: Tenasserim: Falconer 50U (Bz~l30U0, Bz~l80U2); Hei - 
fer 6038 (S, T). State undetermined: Meebold II1O76 (S), 17002 (S) . 
ANDAi'AN ISIAUDS: South Andaman: Heinig s.n. [1398] (Bz~l80Ul)j 
Praln's Collector 27 (Na~19553). MERGUI ARCHIPELAGO: J. Anderson 



110 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

3.n. [Mergui Archipelago, 1882] (¥—261237). CHINA: Kwangsi: 
Ching 639U (Ca— ii099li9)i Steward & Cheo Ugl (S); Tsang 2l|001 (N) . 
Kwangtung: F. A. McClure 3195 [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 97li3] (Ph) . 
Szechuan: Chien 602U (Ca— 1322^52) . CHIIIESE COASTAL ISLAIIDS: 
Hainan: Gressitt 96U (I) ; Plerb, Canton Chr. Coll. 8O36 (Gg — 
127985); Fi C. Hew 72U65 (Bz— l80Ui)j Lau 177 (B, Ca— 52513U, Mi, 
N, W— l6292Ui)i Lei nl, in part (B, Ba, Ca— 612175, N); Liang 
62267 (N), 66029 (Go, N); F. A, UcClure s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr. 
Coll. 8036] (Bi, Ca— 366333); Tak 100 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 15599] 
(Ca— 315700); C. Wang 329UO (H), 3335U (N), 3UI6I (N), y:>^^^ (N), 
36332 (N). THAILAND: Boonchuai 1125 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 
26399] (S); Bunnak 280 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 96U9] (Ss); Mrs. 
D. J. Collins 1667 (W— 1701359); Kasin y)$ (Bz— 72835); K. Larsen 
10267 (Lw); Larsen , Santisuk , & Vfarncke 3^10 (Ac); Smitinand I387 
[Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 7307] (Z); Suvarnakoses SUl [Herb. Roy. 
Forest Dept. 12939] (Sm); Thaworn U23 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 
1U5U8] (Gg). INDOCHINA: Cambodia: Thorel s.n. [Paklai, Mekong] 
(Ca— 38110) . Tonkin: Balansa 38O8 (W— 2U967^); P^telot 8 700 
(N); Roth^ 25 (B) . State undetermined: G. W^ Groff 5783 (Ca— 
300192, Gg— 31991); P^telot 1036 [Phy Ho] (Ca— 227713) • MAUIA: 
Penang: Wallich 1835 «1 (M) . Singapore: N. J. Andersson s .n. [28 
Jan. 1853] (S); Herb. Schles . Bot. Tauschver. 25 (B) . WESTERN 
PACIFIC ISLANDS: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Batan: H^ H. Bartlett l5Ui9 
(Mi), 15502 (Mi). Cebu: M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
11078] (Cm). Luzon: Ramos & Edafio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
28513] (v;— 129ia95) ; Rivera & Duyag s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
75008] (Ca— 359U50); Wbhler 76 (S) . Mindanao: Elmer 13536 , in 
part (Bi, N, Ut— 33518) . Negros: Elmer 10375 (Vt) . Tawitawi: S^ 
Olsen 833 (Cp). IMDOIESIA: GPJDATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Borneo: Amdjah 
253 (Bz— 17697), 553 (Bz— 17685, Bz— 17686), 619 (Bz— 17687), 639 
(Bz— 17688); Boden KLoss 19112 (Bz— I769I, Ca— 3l;6l5h); Buwalda 
7895 (Bz— 72860); Endert 1U61 (Bz— 72570), 1751 (Bz— 72713), 5261 
(Bz— 72709); Haviland & Hose 5620 (V— U05); Jaheri 1893 (Bz— 
17693, Bz— 1769li, Bz— 17695); Rutten 571 (Ut— Uo83li), 617 (Ut— 
UIO59); Soloh & Main 21812 (Bz— 72985) . Celebes: Bloembergfen 
I1O93 (Bz— 18061), U228 (Bz— 13702), 1;259 (Bz— 18062); Kjellberg 
397 (S), 725 (S); Rachmat 588 (Bz— 179U6). Java: Altmann la5 
(Bz— 17719); Arain 19508 (Bz— 17835), 19663 (Bz— 17833, Bz— 
1783U); Backer 173 (Bz— 1781iO, Bz— 178ia), 572 (Bz— 17721), 1058 
(Bz— 17806, Bz— 17807), 2036 (Bz— 17721, Bz— 17722, Bz— 25I17I), 
7261; (Bz— 17823), 9939 (Bz— 1'?^21, Bz— 17822), 12317 (Bz— 17771, 
Bz— 17772), 12836 (Bz— 17812, Bz— 17813, Bz— 178lli), 1)|)|1)| (Bz— 
17810, Bz— 17811), 12^986 (Bz— 17720), 16201 (Bz— 17838, Bz— 



1971 Uoldenke, Llonograph of Callicarpa 111 

17839), 17261 (Bz— 17315, Bz— 17816, Bz— 17817), 18810 (Bz— 
1781^3), 23337 (Bz~17309), 2U0l6 (Bz— 1782ii), 32673 (Bz~1772U, 
Bz— 17725), 32677 (Bz— 1777li), 32631; (Bz~17735, Bz— 17736, Bz— 
17737), 32685 (Bz— 17733, Bz— 1773U)i Backer , Overeem, & Slooten 
35169 (Bz— 177Wi); Bakhuizen van den Brink 28 U (Bz— 17789), 1157 
(Bz— I80li9), 2157 (Ut— 2U880a), 261i3 (Bz— 17776), 3170 (Bz— 
17732); Berger 5U8 (Bz— 17728), s.n. [5-6-17] (Bz— 17782); Beum^e 
726 (Bz— 17858), 1897 (Bz— 1781i5), 19U6 (Bz— 17357), 3606 (Bz— 
1781;6), 5297 (Bz— 178U7); Bruggeman 669 (Bz— 17729); Burck & Mon- 
chy s.n. [Depot] (Bz— 17780, Bz— 17781); Buwalda 2761 (Bz— 73012); 
E. Christophersen 53 (Bi); Collector undesignated IO9 (Bz — 17751 
Bz— 17752), s.n. (Bz— 1781i8); Danser 6789 (Bz— 17726); Docters 
van Leeuffen-Rei jnvaan 730 (Bz — 178U9), s.n. [21 Januari I9II] 
(Bz— 17739); Edeling s.n. (Bz— 17336); Forbes 7ii8 (Bz— 17869, Bz- 
17870); Franck IOI9 (W— 2126077); H^ Hallier 115 (Bz— I782O), 
ll5a (Bz— 17818, Bz— 17819, Ca— 265965), 1^77 (Bz— 177U9, Bz— 
17750), s.n. [2U.VIII.I896] (Bz— 177U5, Bz— 177U6, Ut— 53165); 
Hochreutiner 723 (Ca— lai75); Koorders 9705b [36I*] (Bz— 17387), 
11075 [55^^] (Bz— 17906), 12l5Ub (Bz— 17897), lU926b [129*] (Bz— 
17896), l52Ulb [178*] (Bz— 1789U, Bz— 17895), 20653b [106I*] 
(Bz— 17886), 26277b [310*] (Bz— 17398), 2710lib [2la*] (Bz— 17903, 
Bz— 25U75), 30033b [17l;9*] (Bz— 17382, Bz— 17833), 30239b (Bz— 
1788U, Bz— 17885), 33957b [76*] (Bz— 17905), 3h0iilb [270^^] (Bz— 
1790U), 3U35ln [3875*] (Bz— 17893), hhhn [U52->] (Bz— 18055); 
Kramer 333 (Bz— 17353); Kuntze l6Sk (N), U763 (U), 5166 (N) , 
5971 (N, N); llonchy 11 (Bz— 17329), 56 (Bz— 17828); Ploea s.n. 
(Bz— 17830, Bz— 17831); Pulle 3119 (Ut— 2li29, Ut— 2U3O); Rant 
78 (Ut— 30080); Sapiin s.n. [Poentjak] (Bz— 17837); Schcffer s. 
n. [Batavia, 5 Oct. 18 70] (Bz— 17300), s.n. [Buitenzorg] (Bz— 
17798, Bz— 17799), s.n. [Preanger] (Bz— 17731;, Bz— 17786), s.n. 
[Tjibodas] (Bz— 17805); Soegandiredjo 60 (Bz— 17791, Bz— 17795), 
78 (Bz— 17755), 191; (Bz— 1775U), 200 (Bz— 17753), 256 (Bz— 
ri7756); Teijsmann 1338 H.B. (Bz-^TH031); Ult^e 8 "(Bz— 17876), 35 
(Bz— 17731); Van Steenis 1855 (Bz— I8O6I;), 1926 (Bz— 13063), 69U3 
(Bz— 17718); Yates 3025 "(Ca— 3U3878, La, N) ; Zippelius U3 (3z— 
17865), s.n. [Java] (Ca— 918U86); Zollinger 223 (S), 318I (S) . 
Kangean: Backer 27li36 (Bz— 17907, Bz— 17908), 27925 (Bz— 17909, 
Bz— 17910, Bz— 17911); Eegxiin "U" (Bz— 17913, Bz— 1791U, Bz— 
17915, Bz— 17916); Dommers 86 (Bz— 17912). Karimand jaroa : Karta 
392 (Bz— 17918). Madura: Backer 19939 (Bz— 17919). Riouw: 
Biinnemeijer 582U (Bz— I8OI8) . Sabah: i^ K. Clemens 10125 (Ph); 
Cuadra A .1007 (W— 22108 3U); Elmer 20102 (Bi, Br, Bz— 17689, Ca— 
22900, Du— 168073, I, Ka~6722U, N, S, Um— 90, Ut— 8268U) , 20U02 



112 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

(Bi, Br, Bz— 17705, Ca— 312126, Du— l65U61i, N, S, Ut--8U755)j B. 
Evangellsta 923 (N)j Villamil ihh (Ph); D. D. Wood 855 [field no. 
160] (Ph), 2529 (Ca— 320252). Sarawak: Clemens & Clemens 21090 
[field no. 5lii3] (Bz— 17702, Bz— 17703, N)j Native collector 273 
(Bz— 17692), 1672 (Ca~211i279), 138U (BZ--I769O), s.n. [Kt. Pol, 
30.10.27] (Ca— 3572iUi) . Singkep: Biinnemeijer 7230 (Bz— 13013) . 
Sumatra: Boeea 10109 (Ca— 190626, N)^ Biinnemeijer 8O63 (Bz— 
17976, Bz— 58351)} Buvralda 666I (Bz— 72568); Collector undesigna- 
ted s.n. (Bz— 17979); Diepenliorst 1338 II .B. (Ut— 53395); Gusdorf 
251 (Bz— 17990); Hamel & Toroes 1165 (Bi); Iboet 150 (Bz— 1796U)i 
Liitjeharms 38I4I (Bz— I8OO9), U262 (Bz— I8OO9); Voogd 187 (Bz— 
17975); Yates IO66 (Bz— 17963) • LESSER SUNDA. ISLANDS: Bali: Sa- 
rip IjO (Bz— 17920, Bz— 17921). Sumbawa: Rensch 563 (Bz— 17922) . 
MOLUCCA ISLANDS: Bum: Teijsmann s.n. [Boeroe Kajeli] (Bz — 
17933). Timor Laoet: Bmralda U316 (Bz— 72566) . MELANESIA: NEVf 
GUINEA: Dutch New Guinea: Kanehira & Hatusima 11U56 (Bz — l8057)j 
Royen 3OOI1. (Ng— 20213) . Fergusson Island: Brass 27278 (N) . 
Northeastern New Guinea: Floyd 7288 (Ng — I689U); Fryar 3981t (Bi, 
Bz— 72701, Ng— 16852, Ng— 16870); Hollrung 817 (Mb); Hoogland 
5006 (Ng— 8323); F. R. R. Schlechter 16U53 (S) . Papua: Brass 
3969 (Bz— 15058, N, W— 19l;2992), 293U8 (N, Vf— 2390939) . Province 
undetermined: Clemens & Clemens IUI6 (Br, Br) . BISJiARK ARCHIPEL- 
AGO: Mussau: K;^ie & Olsen 16 70 (Cp) . New Hanover: Pissing , K^ie , 
& Olsen 1908 (Ac, Cp) . AUSTRALIAN REGION: AUSTRALIA: Queensland: 
C^ T, White 8979 (N, N, N) . CULTIVATED: Australia: Camfield s.n. 
[Port Jackson District, II.I896] (Po— 6)4816) . Belgium: Herb. 
Hort. Thenensis II .691 (Br), II .80 5 (Br). California: Walther s_. 
n. [Howard & Smith's Nursery, July 1921] (Gg — 31992). France: 
Herb. Hort. Huber 798 (lo— 30258) . India: Herb. Hort. Bot. Cal- 
cutt. s.n. (Br, Bz— l303li, Bz— I8038, Ed, Ed, Mu— 9U2, Mu— 967, 
Mu — 1160, N — photo, N — photo, T, X, X, Z — photo, Z — photo); Herb. 
Liebciann s.n. [h. Calcutt.] (Cp); Wallich 763 (Cp) . Java: Bak - 
huizen van den Brink s.n. [Kort. Bot. Bogor.] (Bz — 251i79); Brug- 
geman 53 (Bz— 13065); Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor . l61i (77—650966), 
s.n. (Bz— 17713, Bz— 18032); Herb. Tjibodas "U" (Bz— 17710) . 
Massachusetts: C. K. Schneider s.n. [Chenault 6622] (Ar — 19788). 
New York: Teuscher s.n. [Boyce Thompson Arb.] (N). Peru: R. 
Ferreyra 89II (Z) . LOCALITY OF COLLECTION UNDETERMIIffiD : Condes 
21 (Bz — 17351); Jameson s.n. (Ed, Ed); Monchy 11 [Kerawang] (Bz- 
17829), 56 [Kerawang] (Bz— 17328). 

CALLICARPA LONGIFOLIA f . FLOCCOSA Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 11: 
6ii5, as C. longif olia p floccosa] . 181|.7; Bakh. in Lam & 



1971 Uoldenke, l!onocraph of Callicarpa 113 

Baldi., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitonz., ser. 3, 3: 26. 1921. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa lanceolaria Roxb., Hort. Beng. [10], hy- 
ponym. I3lli; ■.Vail, in koxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & V^all.], 1: 
U09. 1820 [not C_. lanceolaria Hort., 1821] . Callicarpa longifolia 
L. ex ".Yall. in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & \7all.], 1: UO?, in 
syn. 1820 [not C. longifolia Benth., 1966, nor Dials, 1916, nor 
Hance, 1932, nor Ke.-nsl., 1916, nor Hook., 1932, nor Lam., 1785, 
nor "sensu Hemsl.", 1939, nor "sensu L.", 1966, nor "sensu Llori", 
1962]. Callicarpa albida Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. Ih: 8l8. 
1826. Callicarpa longifolia Roxb. apud J. A. & J. H. Schxilt., 
Mant. 3: 53, in syn. 1827. Callicarpa roxburghiana Schult. in J. 
A, Sf. J. H. Schxilt., i:ant. 3: 5U. 1827. Callicarpa attenuata 
Wall., Niomer. List [50], hyponyra. 1829. C alii carpus oblongifolia 
Hassk., Cat. PI. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Cult. Alt. 136. iQhh. Calli - 
carpa roxburghiana Roem. & Schult. ex Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 
11: 6U5, in syn. I31i7. Callicarpa oblongifolia Hassk. ex Schau. 
in A. DC., Prodr. 11: 6U5, in syn. 18U7. Callicarpa longifolia 
var. lanceolaria (Roxb.) C. B, Clarke in Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind. 
U: 570. 1885- Callicarpa longifolia var. floccosa Schau. ex 
Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 503. 1891. Callicarpa longifolia var. 
lanceolaria C. B. Clarke apud H. J. Lam, Verbenac, I>:alay. Arch. 
87, in sjTi. 1919} Chopra, 3adh\mr, £: Ghosh, Poison. PI. India 2: 
696, fig. 175. 1965. Callicarpa longifolia Auct. ex Backer £c 
Bakh., Fl. Java 2: 6OI, in syn. 1965. 

Bibliography: Roxb., Hort. Beng. [10]. I8II;} '.7all. in Roxb., 
Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & V.'all.], 1: U09 <Sc I48I. 1320; Blume, Bijdr. 
Fl, Nederl. Ind. lU: 8l3. l826j J. A. £: J. H. Schult., Lant. 3: 
53— 5U. I827j V('all., Numer. List [50] . 1829} Hassk., Cat. PI. 
Hort. Bot. Bogor. Cult. Alt. I36. iQUh; Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 
11: 6U5. l8U7j Benth. ?c F. Luell., Fl. Austral. 5: 57. 1870; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. k'- 570. 1885; Vfatt, Diet. Eco- 
nom. Prof. India 2: 27- 1339; Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 503- 1891} 
Prain, Bengal PI., pr. 1. 827. 1903} King Sc Gamble, Joum. Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. Bengal 7U (2), extra no. 807— B08. 1908; H. J. Lam, 
I'eded. Rijksherb. Leiden 37: 32. 191a} H. J. Lam, Verbenac. tal- 
ay. Arch. 71, 87, [361], & 362. 1919} Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. 
Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 26 — 27. 1921; H. J. Lam in Lau- 
terb., Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 59: 90. 192U; A. V/. Hill, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 9: U5. 1938; A. L. & H. N. Moldenke, PI. Life 2: 79. 19U8} 
H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 280, 291, & 311. 1951} Mol- 
denke, Phytologia U: 121— 12U. 1952} Moldenke, Infomi. Hold. Set 
51 Spec. 2. 1956} I>!oldenke, R&s\m6 17U, 175, 177, 179, 132, I86, 
187, 139, 191— 19U, 196—198, 200, 202 213, 2U5, & Uhh. 1959} 
Koldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 3: 20, 23, & 2U. 1962: Chopra, Badhyrar, & 
Ghosh, Poison. PI. India 2: 696, fig. 175* 1965} Baclrcr & Bakh., 
Fl. Java 2: 601. 1965} Rao & Rabha, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: 301. 
1966} Tingle, Check List Hong Kong PI. 37. 1967} L'oldenke, R^sum^ 
Suppl. 15: 10—13. 1967} L:olden>:e, Phytologia 15: 15 (1967) and 



IIU PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

16: 371, 373, & 388. 1968j Deb, Sengupta, & Malick, Bull, Bot. 
Soc. Bengal 22: 199. 1963j Moldenke, Resum6 Suppl. 16: 17 & 18. 
1968; Steam, Notes & Rec. Roy. Soc. Lond. 21;: 81i. 1969j ^. A. 
Rau, Bot. Surv. India 10, 3uppl. 2: 61. 1969; Moldenke, Phytolo- 
gia 21: U8 & 1;9. 1971. 

Illustrations: Chopra, Badhwar, &. Ghosh, Poison. PI. India 2: 
fig. 175. 1965. 

This fom differs from the typicsQ. form of the species in hav- 
ing the branches and branchlets more or less densely flacescent- 
or canescent-tomentose or canescent-furfuraceous with branched 
hairs, the petioles densely toraentose or fiirfuraceous, the leaf- 
blades more or less densely stellate-furfuraceous or hoary be- 
neath, the peduncles and pedicels densely canescent-furfuraceous 
or flavescent-tomentose, the bractlets pubescent, the calyx more 
or loss densely pubescent or granxxlose-puberulent, the ovary 
densely granular-pulvemlent, and the fruiting- calyx varying 
from densely puberulent to lightly pulverulent. 

Schauer's original (18U7) description of this taxon is as fol- 
lows: "^ . floccosa , ramulis cum inflorescentiae ramis calyce 
foliorumque reti floccoso-tomentosis, foliis adultis superS pa- 
ginS glabratis inferS vero floccis stellaribus sparsis nunc rari- 
oribus nunc crebrioribus indutis quin subcinereo-tomentosis . — 
In IndiS orientali, in insulS Prince of V/ales (Roxb. V/all.!), ad 
Singapoor (Gaud.l), in JavS (Thunb.! Blume! Jungh.l), in ilanillS 
(Gaudich.l), in N. Hollandit tropicS (R. Br.). G. longifolia 
Roxb.l flor. ind. 1 p. 39U, et C. acuminata Roxb. ibid, ex descr. 
C, Roxburghiana Roem. et S. syst. mant. p. 5U. C. attenuata 
Wall. cat. 18351 C. adenanthera R. Br. prodr. fl. nov. hoU. 1 
p. 369 (ex diagnosi) . C. oblongifolia Hassk. hort. bogor. p. 
136. C. albida Blxime! bijdr. p. 313 (forma fol. lanceolatis an- 
gustioribus) . Haec forma, priori continuS serie varietatum in- 
dumenti connexa, ceterun ab ill9 nee habitu nee characteribus 
differt." 

The C. acuminata Roxb., which Schauer includes in ths synonymy 
of this form, is actually a synonym of £. nudiflora Hook. &l Am,, 
while the C. adenanthera R, Br., vfhich he also includes here, is 
a synonym of C. candicans (Burm. f.) Kochr. His Australian record 
must therefore be discounted and the R, Brown collection removed 
from the list of cotype collections which typify the trinomial. 

Recent collectors describe the plant as a bush, subshrub, or 
small to tall shrub, 1 — 5 m. tall, or rarely a small tree, 8 — 1$ 
m. tall, the trunk usually only about 2 cm. in diameter, but some- 
times attaining a girth of 12.8 cm., the leaves dark-green above, 
pale-green beneath, the flovj^ers pubescent, buds green, anthers 
yellow, and the fruit green when young, white when mature [or 
"purple" on Y/ang 36335 , probably an error in transcription] . It 
h-)3 been found in forests, dense or open forests, primary or sec- 
ondary forests, evergreen forests or light woods, forests near 
boulder creeks, secondgrowth jungles, thickets, open thickets, etc. 



CERTAMEN MELASTCMATACEIS XVT. 

John J. Wurdack 
U. S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution 



The current melastome notes are mostly a continuation of 
information gathered in European herbaria \ander the auspices of 
the Smithsonian Research Foxmdation (Phytologia 20: 369-389 • 
1970). Loans of critical material from -sane of the museums 
visited (TSt^., BR, C, FT, K, M, OXF, P, W), as well as The New York 
Botanical Garden and the Instituto Botanico (Caracas, Venezuela), 
are gratefully acknowledged. 

ERNESTIA CONFERTIFLORA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

E. minori Gleason, E. pullei Gleason, et E. blackii Brade & 
Maxkgraf af finis, floribus subumbelliforme capitellatis differt. 

Suffrutex 0.2-0.^ m altus; ramuli subalato-quadrangulati 
sicut folia inflorescentia hypanthiaque densiuscule glandulosi- 
piloBuli pilis gracilibuB erectis 0.3-l(-1.3) mm longis. Petioli 
0.3-1 cm longi; lamina (l.2-)2-3 X (0.5-)0.8-2 cm elliptica vel 
obovato-elliptica apice late eicuto vel rotundato basi acuta, 
firme membranacea et distanter appresso-serrulata, trinervata. 
Inflorescentia terminalis capitellata (3-)6-15-flora, bracteis 
ca. 0.8-1 cm longis subtenta; f lores i+-meri breviter (ca. 1 mm) 
pedicellatl, bracteolis 2-3 X 0.6-1 mm oblongis persietentibus . 
Hypanthi\jm (ad torum) 4-4.5 ™n longum; calycis lobi 2 X l.h ma 
oblongo-ovati intus apicem versus sparse glEmduloso-setiiloBi. 
Petala 6-7 X k-k.^ mm elliptic o-rhomboidea apice late acuta vel 
rotundata setula iinica glandulifera O.3-O.7 mm longa terminata. 
Stamina dimorphica glabra; filamenta 5.2-5.7 vel 4-5 mm longa; 
antherarum thecae 5-5.5 vel 4-4.2 X 0.4 mm subulatae, poro 
ventraliter inclinato; connectivum usque ad filamenti inserti- 
onem 1.2-1.8 vel 0.6-0. 7 nm prolongatum in staminibus maioribus 
ad basim dorsaliter tuberculatum, appendicibus duabus ventralibus 
aristiformibus 3 vel 2.3-3.5 mm longis in staminibus maioribus 
basim versus ca. 0.6 mm inflatis. Stigma punctiforme; stylus 
glaber 11-12 X 0.2-0. 3 ram; ovarium 3-loc\ilare glabrum; semina 
0.7-0.8 X 0.6 ram manifeste (ca. 0.1 mm) mxiriculata. 

Type Collection: W. A. Egler 47644 (holotype US 2400281; 
isotype NY), collected in soil-filled depression on large 
granitic outcrop at Roche Mon Pere, 3° 33' N, 52° 5' W, Rio 
Oiapoque, Terr. Amapa, Brazil, I7 Aug. I96O. "Subflhrub; leaves 
glutinous; flowers pink." 

Paratypes (all Amapa, Brazil): Th. v. Luetzelburg 20273 
(m) and 20398 (m), both from "Roche Monpere"; Pires . Rodriguee & 
Irvine 5O98O and 51l43 (NY), both from rocks below Porto Platon, 
Rio Araguari; Pires & Westra 48819. from granitic outcrop near 
Mt. Carupina, Rio Oiapoque. 

Ernestia minor has cordulate 5-nerved leaf blades, laa few- 

115 



116 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

flovered infloreBcences, and flowers with linear-lane eate sepals 
(3 X 0.6-0.8 mm) and non -inflated ventral appendages on the 
stamens; E. pullei has 5-nerved leaf blades with rounded "bases, 
well-developed panicles, and oblong -subulate calyx lobes; and E. 
blackii (ex char.) has flowers in foliose panicles, connectives 
long-produced in the large stamens, and styles glandular -pilose. 
All three stiggested relatives share with E. confertiflora the 
featui^ of glabrous 3 "celled ovaries; the other two species of 
Emestia having this ovarial feature, E. glandulosa Gleason and 
E. cordifolia Berg ex Triana, are more distantly related. 

TIBOUCHINA RIGIEULA (Naud.) Wurdack, comb. nov. 

Lasiandra rigidula Naud.. Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. 13: 
150. 1850. 

Cogniaux evidently followed Triana's lead in synonymizing 
Naudin's species under T. aemula (DC.) Cogn.; the latter is 
quite a different species vegetatively and in floral structure. 
Naudin's remarks about the affinities with Lasiandra fontanesiana 
(Bonpl.) DC. are quite true. The species may be characterized by 
the finely strigtolose upper leaf surfaces (not at all bullate), 
roT;ighened erect hairs on the lower leaf surfaces, slightly 
rovighened hypanthial hairs, moderately villose -lanate (the hairs 
caducously gland -tipped) filaments, and the nearly glabroxis 
style; probably the best placement in Cogniaux' monograph would 
be (ex char.) near T. formosa Cogn. The type locality for T. 
rigldula, "Villa Principe", is equivalent to present-day Serro 
in Mlnas Gerais between Itabira and Diamantina; a recent collec- 
tion from the same region is Irwin. Maxwell . & Wasshau^en 20331 
(Serra do Clpo, km 132 ca. I53 km north of Belo Horizonte). 
Macbride photograph 361^9 is of the holotype of Lasiandra 
rigidula . the collection without ninnber; a duplicate (P) has the 
St. Hilaire number B^ 996 . 

Incidentally, I am exceedingly skeptical that T. aemula . 
T. valtheri Cogn., and T. adamantlnensis Brade can be distin- 
guished from one another; indeed, one Vauthier collection cited 
by Cogniaux as T. aemula ( Vauthier s.n . , P) comes from the type 
locality, Marianna (m. Gerais) of T. valtheri; at Paris I noted 
that Mexia 5T03 and 5T88 are good matches for the type collection 
of T. valtheri . Unfortxinately no detailed notes were taken at 
Munich on the holotype (Macbride photograph 63^7) of T. aemula . 

TIBOUCHINA VIMmEA (D. Don) Cogn. 

The only Don -annotated material seen is a specimen in the 
Fielding Herbarium at Oxford, also annotated by Joseph Hooker; 
the locality data are "Brazil" and "Liverpool "(?) , with no 
collector indicated. At Munich are two sheets of cultivated 
material ( Pre si Herb , s.n . and Hort . Monac. s.n . ). both showing 
somewhat more robust plants than the Oxford collection. A wild 
collection which is an excellent match for the Fielding Herbarium 
specimen is L. B. Snith 1532 (Soberbo-Guapy, Organ Mountains, 
Rio de Janeiro) . 



1971 Vi'virdack, Certamen L'elastomataceis 117 

MONOCHAETOM MAGDALMENSE Wurdack, Bp. nov. 

Sect. Grlschofvia . M. merldensi (Karat.) Naud. in floritufl 
affinlB, trlchomati'buB "barbellatls follis 7-9-pllnervatlB 
hypanthilB glabrls dlffert. M. laxlfollo Gleason in trlcho- 
matibus af finis, foliiB maiorlbus hypanthiiB glabris BtaminibuB 
mlnoribuB sterilibxis differt. 

FiTutex 1.5-3 m; rami robusti acute tetragoni Bicut petioll 
foliaque speirBe vel modice Btrigulosi (ramis deraum glabratia) 
piliB pleinmque O.5-I mm longiB basim versufl modice barbellatiB 
(basi ipse subatellata) apicem verBufl laevibus; ramorum infloreB- 
centiarumque nodi dense setoBi pilie gracilibuB 2-U mm longis. 
Petioli 1.5-3.5 cm longi; lamina 6-12 X 3-5.5 cm elliptic o-ovata 
apice acuto basi obtusa vel rotimdata, Integra et firme chartacea, 
breviter 7-9-plinervata pari interiore 0.5-I cm supra basin 
divergenti. Panlcvila 10-28 cm longa multiflora, ramis princi- 
palibuB tetra^onis nodis exceptis subglabris, ramulia glabris, 
bracteis 1-2. 5 cm longis ellipticis mox caducis, bracteolis 0.4- 
0.8 X 0.2-0.35 cm mox caducis ciliolatis alioqvii glabris, 
pedicellis 0.3-0.4 cm longis glabris. Hypanthixm 8-9 X 3 mm 
glabrxmi; calycis lobi 7-7*^ X 3-4 mm lanceati vel ovato -lane eat i 
breviter modiceque ciliolati alioqui glabri; torus extus 
plerumque in quoque sinu calycino pilis 1-2 gracilibus O.5-I mm 
longis armatuB. Petala 12-15 X 12 ram obovata, apice late obtuflo 
et setula unica O.5-O.7 mm longa mox cadxica armato. Stamina 
dimorphica glabra. Stamina maiora: filamenta 5 '2-9 mm longa; 
thecae 11. 5-12 X 1 mm, connectivo ca. 1 mm prolongate, appendice 
dorsali 3-3.5 X 0.6 X 0.8 mm. Stamina minora: filamenta 9-IO 
mm longa; thecae 5~5«3 X O.25 mm steriles, appendice dorsali 
1.4-2.2 X 0.2-0.4 X 0.7-1 mm complanata. Stigma punctiforme; 
stylus glaber I9.5-2O X 0.6-0. 7 mm; ovarium apicem versus 
densiuscule strigosian pilis gracilibus barbellatis usque ad 1.8 
mm longis. 

Type Collection: S. Pfaz Piedrahita I65 (holotype 
US 258269OA; isotype COL), from cloud forest, "Sierra Nevada de 
Santa Marta, Parque Nacional de Santa Marta, Cuchilla de San 
Lorenzo, alrededores del Centro Forestal, " Depto. Magdalena, 
Colombia, elev. 23OO m, 19 June I969. "PetaloB lila; filamentOB 
blancos; estambres amarillos; pistilo roja; caliz purpura. 
Hojas verde limon." 

Pai^types (all topotypical) : Gonzalo Aguirre-S . 6OI (US, 
COL); Gustavo Lozano-C . 997 (US, COL); W. Seifriz 102 Tus). 

Monochaetum meridense shows stamen dimorphism similar to 
that in M. magdalenense, but has smooth trlchomes, 5~Plinerved 
leaves, and sparsely strigulose hypanthia. Monochaetum 
laxifolium has barbellate pubescence, but much smaller leaf 
blades, sparsely strigulose hypanthia, eciliate sepals, and 
subisomorphic stamens which are all fertile. Monochaetum 
uberrimum Sandwith, the holotype of which (k) has been examined, 
differs frcxn M. magdalenense in the smooth hairs, smaller 5- 
plinerved leaves (but perhaps immature on the holotype), spej-sely 
strigulose hypanthia, relatively longer appendages on the large 
stamen connectives, and at least semifertile small stamens. 



118 PIIYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

Directly involved with M. uberrimum are two recent Magdalena 
collections ( Romero Castaneda 85^, from San Sebastian de Rabago; 
Cuatrecasas & Romero Castaneda 2k'J06, from Cancurua), with 
smooth pubescence, large leaves, glabrous hypanthia, and semi- 
sterile anthers in the smaller stamens; further study seems 
stymied until topotypical collections of M. uherrimxan appear. 
For the present, the strongly rovighened pubescence of M. 
magdalenense distinguishes it from all other taxa with deciduous 
sepals treated by Gleason (and also M. gleasonianim Wurdack) 
except M. laxifoliian (Am. Jotir. Bot. 16: 519-522. I929). 

GRAFFENRIEDA URIBEI Wurdack, sp. nov. 

G. tamanae Wurdack affinis, foliorum laminis ad basim in 
petiolos decurrentibus subtus pilis simplicibus sparse armatis 
floribus sessilibus differt. 

Rami robust 1 sicut folia inflorescentia hypanthiaque modice 
appresso-squamulosi glabrati. Petioli 2.5-3 cm longi robusti ob 
laminas decurrentes apicem versus anguste alati; lamina 14-^5 X 
8-3^ cm elliptica vel elliptic o-ovata apice acuto vel obtuso 
basi late acuta vel obtusa, siibcoriacea et Integra, supra demum 
glabrata, snbtus in superficie densiuscule resinoso-glandulosa 
et sparse pilis laevibus 0.7-1.3(-2) mm longis induta, breviter 
(1-2 cm) 5-plinervata (pari exteriore debili inframarginali 
neglecto) nervis secundariis 0,5-1 cm inter se distantibus 
venvilis subtus laxe obscureque retic\ilatis (areolis 2-5 mm 
latis). Panicula usque ad 5I cm longa multiflora e basi furcata 
vel longe pedunculata; f lores 4-ineri sessiles, bracteolis ca. 
1.5 mm longis ovato -oblong is mox caducis. Hypanthium (ad torum) 
3 mm longTom indistincte 8-coBtatum; calyx in alabastris clausus 
conicuB tenuis demum in lobis (3-)^ ovatis 1-1. 5 nan longis 
persistentibuB dehiscens. Petala glabra 3-3.6 X 2-2.2 mm 
oblongo-obovata, apice obtuso vel rotvindato et inconspicTie 
mucronato. Stamina isomorphica glabra; filamenta 2-2.2 mm 
longa; thecae 3«3-3'^ X 0.8 mm, poro 0.3 mm diam. ventraliter 
inclinato; connectivum non prolongattmi, dente dorsali subvilato 
acuto 0.7-0.8 mm longo. Stigma punctiforme; stylus 7-6-8 X 
0.4-0.15 mm glaber; ovarium 4-loculare, apice rotundato et 
pa\ilo (0.2 ram) einarginato. 

Type Collection: Lorenzo Uribe Uribe 5638 (holotype 
US 2574327A, 257U328A), collected in dark damp forest ca. k km 
northeast of Arcabuco, Depto. Boyaca, Colombia, elev. 27OO m, 
8 June 1966. "Arbusto hasta de 4.5 m de altura. Cada rama es 
vertical y sencilla; o hay ramificacion hacia la mi tad con ramas 
de nueva verticales. Flores con petalos blancos y estambres de 
color amarillo claro." 

Graff enrieda tamana has leaf blades which are basally 
nerved and not decurrent on the petioles, as well as pedicellate 
flowers; the other close relative, G. emarginata (r. & P.) 
Triana has basally cordulate leaf blades and defined granulose- 
pinoid pubescence. From both species, G. uribei differs in the 
sparse simple pubescence on the lower leaf surfaces. Arcabuco 
evidently is a pocket of species endemic ity (see also Monochaetun 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 119 

xirlbel subsp. arcabxicense Wurdack) which Padre Uribe is sampling 
admirably. 

MICONIA AMACURENSIS Wurdack 

Wachenheim 100 (P), from Crique Jacques, French Guiana, 
eigrees with Venezuelan and Brazilian collections of M. amacuraiBlB 
in all essential features, differing only in the shallowly and 
distantly undiilate -denticulate leaf margins. This collection 
gives M. amacurensis a more continuous known distribution along 
the northeastern coast of South America (Phytologia l8: I5O. 
1969). 

MICONIA IMAEQUALIFOLIA Triana 

!I5ie holotype (k) is comparable with several recent Colomblfln 
(Schvates & Cabrera I6685 and I9825. both from Jinogoje, Rfo 
Apaporis, Amazonas-Vaupes, fruiting) and Brazilian (Krukoff 8936. 
from Sao Paulo de 01iven9a, Amazonas, in bud) collections. The 
Brazilian material was mentioned by Gleason in the original 
description of M. filamentosa Gleason and indeed that species 
may well be only a minor variant of M. inaequalifolia with leaf 
blades 3 "Served and tapering to a narrowly rotund base. No 
floral differences are evident between the species, the ovaries 
of both being predominantly 3-celled despite Gleason 's descrip- 
tion (Bull. Torrey Club 65: 579- 1938). Itie Colombian collec- 
tions of M. inaequalifolia had earlier been cited by me under 
M. filamentosa (Rhodora 65: 19. I963). Another variant in this 
complex (with slightly larger flowers, more prominent external 
calyx teeth, and slightly different connective appendages on 
the large stamens, but foliage as in M. filamentosa ) has twice 
been collected in subandean Colombia X^^o Ortequaza, Caqueta, 
Cuatrecasas & Soderstrom 271^6 ; Solano, Putumayo, Little & Little 
97^2 ) and should perhaps also be compared (ex char . ) with 
M. sprue ei Triana. 

MICCNIA IBAGUENSIS (Bonpl.) Triana 

Clidemia virgata Pittier. Bol. Soc . Ven. Cienc. Nat. 11: 
2k. I9I+7. 

Strangely enoxigh, both sheets (US, VEN) examined of Pittier 
13020 had been correctly determined by Pittier in Miconla . the 
description in Clidemia thus an apparent lapsus; the Caracas 
specimen shows yo\ing lateral growth overtopping the morpho- 
logically truly terminal inflorescence. As is to be noted in 
detail elsewhere, the Bonpland holotype of M. ibajgiensis was 
actually collected in Bio. Sucre, Venezuela, rather than 
Colombia. 

MJCONIA MACDANIELII Wurdack, sp. nov. 

Ut videtur M. decipienti Cogn. in pubescentiae fonna 
af finis, foliis non plinervatis manifestius petiolatis differt. 

Hamuli primum sulcato-q\iadrangulati demum teretes sicut 
petioli foliorum subtus venae primariae inflorescentia hypan- 
thiaque dense stellato-puberuli pilis sessilibus ca. O.25 mm 



120 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

diam. Petioli ^-5.5 cm long! robust! j lamina 25-3O X 10-14 cm, 
rigide membranacea et Integra, stellato-cillata, oiblongo- 
elliptica apice "brevlter (I-I.5 cm) gradatim angasteque acumi- 
nato basi late acuta, supra glabra (in nervis primariis caduce 
stellato-puberula), subtus densixiscule persistenterque stellato- 
puberula pllis ca. 0.8 mm diam., 5"Qe^':'^'^'ta nervis secundariis 
ca. 5-T mm inter se distant ibus nervis tertiariis subtus paulo 
eleyatis nervulis planis areolis ca. 0.6-0.8 ram latis. Panicula 
mxiltiflora lT-25 X 20 cm, ramis primariis oppositis ramnilis 
sparse glanduloso-setulosis (setulis glandiiliferis O.5-O.8 mm 
longis, danum caducis?), bracteis ovato-ellipticis 8-12 mm 
longis valde caducis, Tsracteolis ca. h-^ X 1 mm valde caducis; 
flores 5-meri ad ramulorum apices plenunque terni, pedicellis 
crassis O.5-I mm longis. Hypanthium (ad torum) ca. 3»T mm 
longum; calycis tubus O.3-O.U mm altus, lob is interioribus O.U- 
0.5 mm longis trismgularibus, dentibus exterioribus adnatis non 
eminent ibus. Petala 2-2.2 X l.i)— 1.8 mm obovata (apice rotundato) 
glabra vel apicem versus ad margines obscure stellxilato- 
ciliolata. Stamina in forma isomorphica in dimensionib\is 
paulo dimorphica glabra; filamenta 5-5.5 vel 3.2-3.5 mm longa; 
antherarum thecae k vel 3.3-3.6 X 0.4 mm paulo subxilatae et 
cxirvatae, poro unico minuto; connectivum non prolongat\jm 
ventraliter per O.5-O.6 mm thecae basibus coalitum. Stigma 
paulo expansum 0.6 mm diam.; stylus glaber 10 X O.k mm in 
ovarii apicem 0.3-0.4 mm immersus; ovarium 3-loculare, ^ interum, 
apice setulis sparsis glandiLLiferis 0.1-0. 3 mm longis amato. 

Type Collection: Sidney tfc Daniel 10833 (holotype 
US 25&681), collected in non -inundated river bank forest at 
Intuto, Rfo Tigre, Depto. Loreto, Peru, elev. I60 m, 9 Aug. 
1968. "Shrub to 5 m; corolla white." 

Paratype (topotypical) : Mc Daniel IOT8O (fruiting), 
k Aug. 1968. 

Miconia decipiens. endemic to Colombia (Antioquia), has 
5-plinerTed leaf blades vith short (ca. 1 cm long) petioles, as 
well as glabrous ovary apices. Ihe general vegetative aspect 
and stamens of M. macdanielii are rather like those in M. 
stelligera Cogn. sens, lat., which has rather smaller leaf 
blades with sparser lower surface pubescence, a somewhat 
different inflorescence pattern, petals moderately stellulate- 
puberulous outside, and moderately stelliilate -puberulous ovary 
apices; also there is a different size distribution of vegeta- 
tive pubescence, even considering the variants earlier discussed 
by me (Phytologia 9: 4l7. 1964). Vegetatively, especially in 
leaf venulation (but not in reproductive features), M. dispar 
Benth. (with however denser foliar pubescence) resembles M. 
macdanielii . In the Flora of Peru, M. macdanielii woiild 
perhaps key to near M. zubenetana Macbride, which really is not 
closely related, having leaf blades essentially glabrous except 
for the very fine stellulate hairs on the primary veins beneath, 
smaller flowers, and basally prolonged anther connectives. The 
taxonomic importance of the glandular inflorescence hairs is 
perhaps minimal, such hairs being almost completely absent in 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 121 

the fruiting paratype. 

MICCHIA SHAnUCKII Standley 

Long considered endemic to Barro Colorado Island, Panama 
(a recent topotype "being Ebinger I98 ). M. shattuckii is now 
recorded for Colombia ( Haught ^T. from TurlDO, Antioquia, elev. 
200 m). Hae recent collections have provided floral details: 
hypanthium 2-2.3 nm long, sparsely puberulous vith pinoid hairs 
0.1-0.2 mm long; calyx ttibe O.5 nm long, the broadly ovate 
interior lobes 0.2 mm high, the minute external teeth infra- 
marginal; torus within sparsely glandulgir-puberulous; petals 
4.2-4.3 X 2.3 ram, obovate -oblong with rovinded apex, glabrous; 
stamens isomorphic, glabrous; filaments 3 nnn long; thecae I.9- 
2 X 0.6 X 0.5 nm, oblong, with a minute dorsally tipped pore; 
connective neither prolonged nor appendaged; stigma truncate, 
not expanded; style 5.3 X 0.4 nm, sparsely glandular -puberulous 
(the hairs ca. 0.2 ram long) at the base; ovary 5-celled, 3/4 
inferior, with a sparsely glandular -puberulous apex. The 
flexuous ca\iline hairs are sparsely barbel 1 ate and very rainutely 
and cad\icously gland -tipped. Obviously M. shattuckii should be 
placed in Sect. Amblyarrhena and in Cogniaux' Monograph would 
key to ca. species 36I-363, differing from all these in vegeta- 
tive and floral details. 

MICCHinA CBSCURA (Bonpl.) DC. 

Miconia trichrona Macbride, Field Mus. Piibl. Bot. 4: 183. 

1929. 

The type (Bonpland ex herb. Adri«i Jussieu, P) and isotype 
(P) of M. obscxxra. not annotated by Naudin, Triana, or Cogniaux, 
have been corapared with an isotype (US) of M. trichrona . 
Weberbauer 6309 (Cajamarca, Peru) and Maguire & Maguire 44362 
(Zamora, Ecuador) match the isotype of M. obscura. "Die species 
is very closely related to M. capitellata Cogn., which has 
sparsely barbellate (rather than essentially smooth) cauline 
pubescence, obtusely based plinerved (rather than ro\anded and 
basally nerved) leaf blades vith somewhat finer pubescence on 
the upper siirfaces, and larger flowers (anthers 2.1-2.3 an long, 
dry, rather than I.2-I.5 [-I.7] mm; p*tals 2-2.1 mm wide rather 
than 1,5-1.8 mm; stigma 1 mn diam., rather than O.5-O.7 mm). A 
good match for the type of M. capitellata (P) is Jameson s. n . 
(us). In both species, the style is loose -strigulose, the fila- 
ments glabrous or very sparsely glandular -puberuloxis on the 
adaxial side, and the ovary apex moderately setulose. The 
hierarchal resolutions of other parts of this complex, including 
M. aggreRata Gleason and M. hamata Cogn., are still pending. 
The species problem had been discussed in Mem. N. Y. Bot. Card. 
16(1): 20-21. 1967. 

CLIDaOA CAPITELLATA (Bonpl.) D. Don 

Clidemia neglecta D. Don, Mem. Wem. Soc . 4: 307. I823. 

Clidemia capitellata (Bonpl.) D. Don var. neglecta (Don) L. 
Wms., Fieldiana Bot. 29: 556. I963. 



122 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

After considera'ble meandering throxigh the Isirge specimen 
welter in this complex, supplemented by examination of Bonpland's 
(p) and Don's (mA, OXf) type collections, I cannot see any real 
differences in the two taxa. As mentioned hy Williams, C. 
neglecta is intermediate between C. capitellata and C. dependens 
Don, but his key characters of inflorescence branching and 
under leaf pubescence do not obtain for the type collectiooB. 
For C. catiitellata in the Flora de Venezuela, only the typical 
variety, var. dependens (Don) Macbride, and var. leyelii Wurdack 
will be recognized. Among modern collections, the best matches 
(all us) for the types are: C. capitellata var. capitellata. 
Uribe 3727 . from Guaduas (old trail to Hwida, the type locality^ 
Cundinamarca, Colombia; C. neglecta. Buchtien 11^9 . ffepiri 
region, Bolivia; C. dependens . Tonduz~^56l. Boruca. Costa Rica 
and Prance. Rodrigues . Ramos, & Farias 8857. Mutumparana, 
Rondonia, Brazil. Some collections from over a wide geographic 
range have smaller flowers in very well branched inflorescences 
and perhaps will require further inf raspec if ic recognition. 
For the present, Naudin's comments (Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. 
17: 317 • 1852) are echoable : "quod tamen posteris solvendum 
relinquimuB . " 

The location of the Pavon holotypes of the melastomes 
described by David Don remains problematic . At both the British 
Museum (Natural History) and Oxford (Fielding Herbarium) are 
specimens annotated with Don's binomials and "D. Don in Wern. 
Trans."; the minute handwriting is not that of David Don and has 
not been immediately identifiable (personal correspondence) by 
Mrs. Hortense Miller from her research on the Lambert Herbarium 
(Taxon 19: ^89-553. I970) . Thvis the current references to Don's 
type collections are to presvmied isotypes. Don's personal 
herbarium went to the Linnean Society in London but subsequently 
was purchased by von Martius (Lot 25^, Catal. Nat. Hist. Colls, 
sold by the Linnean Society through J. C. Stevens) on Nov. 10, 
1863. However, none of the critical melastome specimens were 
found at either Brussels or Munich during my European trip in 
1969-70, so perhaps Don did not incorporate such materials into 
his personal collection from his tenure as curator of the 
Lambert Herbarium. On one of the two Fielding Herbari\xm iso- 
types of Clidemia neglecta was penciled (by Mrs. Clokie?) 
"Herb. Prescott"; Mrs. Miller is inclined to believe (because 
of the date of Prescott 's death) that this sheet probably did 
not come originally from Don or LaTiibert. Investigation into 
the melastome facet of the Lambert -Don history is being 
continued by Mrs. Miller. 

CLIDEMIA STRIGILLOSA (Sw.) DC. 

Clidemia umbonata DC., Prodr. 3: I58. 1828. 

From the pubescence, well -developed interior calyx lobes 
and external teeth, non-prolonged anther connectives, and 
glandular -settilose ovary apices, the Martius type (m) of C. 
tmibonata seems to represent a form of C. strigillosa with lax 
fruiting inflorescences. The type collection is from Nogueira, 



1971 iiTTirdack, Certanen Kelastonataceis 123 

the Macbride photograph (6^39) being of another gathering. 
Some of the central Brazilian material cited by Cogniaux as 
C. iiTTihonatA refiLLly represents a dodecandrous relative of 
C.. bullosa DC. (sensu Wurdack); a phytogeographic aberrancy of 
this undescribed taxon has also been collected in Venezuela (El 
Paito, Carabobo, B. TrvLmio ^8^5 -Herb. Maracay) . Because of 
complications with C. biserrata DC. (the current Brazilian 
specimens, including collections cited by Cogniaux, shoving 
stamen ntmibers of IO-I5 and ovaxy apices sparsely glandular - 
setvilose as well as stellulate-puberulous) and C. btillosa 
(pleiostemtMious, with orary apices lacking glandular setulae), 
this taxon (including Braga lOhQ from Parana, Pohl 1172 from 
Minas Gerais, and Macedo l^hg from Goias in Brazil; Ro.jas 36^9 
and Krapoylckas . Cristobal . & Ahvimada 1^257 from Paraguay; 
Tru.lillo ^835. vide supra) has not been further evaluated. 

CLIDIMIA URCEOLATA DC. 

As already indicated, C. neglecta D. Don is part of the 
C. capitellata complex. However, the species treated by 
Cogniaux as C. "neglecta" is distinct and well typified by the 
MartixiB collection (m) of C. urceolata from Rio de Janeiro, 
Brazil. The Raddl collections (FI) cited (Mem. Mod. 20: 16I. 
1829) as Leandra strigillosa (Sw.) Raddi are actually C. 
virceolata. rather than (as cited by Cogniaux in synonymy) 
C. xmbonata DC. In typical form, the species is known from 
Honduras (Molina 328 . IOO96. 1^^133 ; Williams & Molina 23255 ; 
Meyer 9920 ). British Honduras ( Bartlett II3OO; Lundell 687O ; 



Hunt 210) . Panama (Ebinger h2k) , Cuba, Venezuela (Carabobo, 
Nueva Esparta, Bolfvar), Trinidad, Colombia, and most of 
southeastern Brazil. Upland Guayana Highland (Venezuela) and 
Santander (Colanbia) collections are aberrant (and probably 
InfraspecificEilly distinct), having upper leaf surfaces 
moderately stellulate-puberulous and very sparsely glandular - 
setulose, lower leaf surfaces and hypanthia very densely 
stellate -puberulous, and ovary apices very inconspicuously 
glandular -setulose. The species is distinguishable from the 
forms of C. capitellata with much-branched inflorescences by 
the inconspicuous subulate to narrowly oblong inflorescence 
bracteoles and denser glandvilar pubescence. 

ClilDBOA PUSTOLATA DC. 

For the Flora de Venezuela, Cogniaux' interpretation of 
C. pustulata is being followed, although I have seen no recent 
Brazilian (or other) collections exactly comparable to the 
holotype (m); Martius' specimen shows hypanthia very densely 
glandular-setulose (ca. 1 mm), external calyx teeth projecting 
ca. 1 mm, corolla spajrsely gland\il£ir -setulose (0.2-0. 3 mm) 
externally, stamens (perhaps malformed in the one flower 
examined) with connective barely (0.2-0. 3 mm) prolonged, euid 
5 -celled ovary 2/3 inferior and moderately glandular-setulose 
(0.5-0.6 nm) apically. The Cogniaux concept encompasses 
material from Costa Rica (Skutch kO^; Pittier IO56I. 12001 ). 



12li P H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 2 

Panaaia ( Burch. 01±ver. &. Robertson l^^O; Allen 2509 ) . ColomlDla 
( Urlbe 4961 ) . Venezuela (Bolfvar) , Tirinidadr, Tobago, Guyana, 
and Brazil (Roralma) . Probably C.. "pustulata sensu Cogniaux Is 
only varietally distinct from C. urceolata. differing in the 
short even cauline and foliar pubescence and slightly smaller 
flowers with short external calyx teeth; decisive naming of 
specimens between the two taxa is often difficult. Both C. 
urceolata and C. pustulata have a yellow pigment (from the 
glandular hair tips?) often staining newsprint and herbarivmi 
sheets, a feature not seen in related species. 

ClilDMIA NOVIMKERVIA (DC.) Triana var. AFFINIS (Uaud.) Wurdack, 
comb. nov. 

Staphidium affine Naud., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. IJ: 
313. 1852. 

Clidemia aff inis (DC.) Cogn., Mart. Fl. Bras. l4(4): 1^93, 
pi. 104, fig. 1. 1888. 

Gleason (Brittonia 1: l6j. 1932) treated both C. 
novemnervia and C. aff inis as synonyms of C . umbonata (vide 
supra sub £. strigillosa ); however both taxa are characterized 
by the stamen connectives prolonged O.7-I.2 mm (but not append- 
aged) and the ovary apices stellulate-puberulous but without 
prominent glandular setulae, thus differing from both C. 
strigillosa (Sw.) DC. and C. urceolata DC.-C. pustulata DC. 
[Die holotype of C. novemnervia (P) was collected by Ferreira 
in Brazil and is well matched by Schultes & Cabrera 1271^ 
(Soratama, r£o Apaporis, Amazonas-Vaupes, Colombia) . The 
typical variety is characterized by the essentially sessile 
flowers with the hypanthivmi ca. 3 mm long, the interior calyx 
lobes 1.2-2 mm long and the external teeth projecting I.3-2 mm, 
the ovary apex with an abrupt densely stellulate-puberulous 
collar 0.4-0.5 mm long; var. aff inis has the flowers usually on 
evident slender pedicels, the hypanthium ca. 2.5 ram long, the 
interior calyx lobes 0.4-0.7 mm long and the external teeth 
projecting O.3-O.8 ram, the conic ovary apex with a scarcely 
differentiated sparsely stellulate-puberulous collar 0.3 ram 
high. Some intermediates exist between the varieties, which 
however are generally well-marked. Cogniaujc' C. aff inis var. 
angustifolia does not merit recognition. The typical variety 
of £. novemnervia has a disjunct range: British Hondxiras, 
Colombia (Santander, Vaupes, Amazonas), Venezuela (Amazonas, 
Bolfvar), Brazil (Roraima, Amazonas, Rondonia). The Central 
American population (C. reticulata Gleason, Brittonia 3: 110. 
1939) (also including Nicaragua fide Williams, the Standley 
collection not seen by me) was treated in the Flora of 
Guatemala (see also Fieldiana Bot. 29: 56O. I963) as a synonym 
of C. strigillosa ; the latter is known to me from much of 
Central America (Guatemala, British Honduras, Honduras, 
Nicaragua, Panama). 

CLTDEMIA EPIBATERIOM DC. 

The original description cited obtuse petals and auricled 



1971 Wvirdack, Certamen Melastomataceia 12$ 

anther basee; examination of the holotype (m) and the Geneva 
fragments (G-DC, with separate open flower) shows, howerer: 
petals oblong -lane eate, ixHinded at the apex, 2.5 X 0.6 nan, 
externally sparsely setulose on the carina, with 8m external 
Infra -apical setulose mucro O.J-l mm long; anther connectlyes 
not appendaged, not or barely (O.l mm) prolonged. Recent 
Venezuelan T stevermark 75^62. Bernard 1 2662. Steyermark 90258. 
all Bdo. Bolfvar), Colombian ( Mc Daniel 11^20. Depto. Amazonas) 
and Peruvian (Killlp & Snith 29885. Loreto) collectlwiB agree 
with the MartluB collection from "Porto dos Miranhas, Rio Negro 
in regtone Japvirensi." Cognlaux thought that C. eplbaterlum DC. 
var. parvlfolia Cogn. might prove to be a distinct species 
rather than a foliar variant; however an Isotype (Spruce 22^9. 
NY) shows flowers exactly like those of Steyermeirk 75362 . 
Placement of this species in CI idem la is perhaps problematic 
and Oeseiea duckeana Hoehne is probably synonymous; similar 
petals also are found in Osseiea boliyienBla (Cogn.) Gleeison, 
as well as Leandra axlstlgera (Navid.) Cogn. Certainly Magulre 
23228. distributed as 0. duckeana. is conspecific with C. 
epibaterixm. the US sheet of this Kaieteur Plateau collection 
however having larger leaves and inflorescences than ujaual. 

CUDIMIA GLOBOLIFLORA (Cogn.) L. Wns. 

C. reflexa Gleason, Brittonla 3: II9. I939. 

CLIDEMIA SPBCTABILIS Gleason 

Maleta setoBlsslma Suessenguth, Bot. Jahrb. 72(2): 277. 
19^+2. 

As previously alluded (Phytologla 19: 19^- 1969), the 
correct synonymy for the two Costa Rican species of Clldemla 
requires adjustment. I have since seen the holotypes of both 
Cognlaux' and Suessenguth' s species (Pittier 207 -BR and Kupper 
772 ^. respectively) and have confirmed that the reshuffling 
above cited is correct and not that suggested earlier (Fieldiana 
Bot. 29: 556. 1963). Also examined for C. globuliflora were 
two specimens of Pittier ^ (G-BOISS), which have the same 
locality and collection date as Pittier 207 and are probably 
the same gathering (see DC. Mon. Hian. J: 1192. I89I; Macbrlde 
photograph 368^7). 

CLIDHtIA JAPORENSIS DC. var. HETERQBASIS (DC.) Wurdack, comb, 
nov. 

Clldemla heterobasis DC., Prodr. 3: l61^. I828. 

Oxymerls heterobaeis (DC.) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. Bot. 
28: 95. 1871- 

Leandra heterobasis (DC.) Cogn., Mart. Fl. Bras. l4(U): 
193- T^^. 

Clldemla naevula (Raud.) Triana p. p. 

!I5ie original material seen by de Candolle was a mixtvire 
(as was his description), Cognlaux later recognizing Leandra 
solenlfera Cogn. for the element with 6-merouB secund flowers; 
the leaf In the Prodroraus herbarium is of L. solenlfera. (Hie 



126 P H Y T L G I A Vol. a, no. 2 

residual element (Martlus s. n » , M- Macbride photograph 61+16; a 
separate leaf apparently from this collection is on the holotype 
sheet of Clidemia inaeaualifolia DC, a liistinct species now 
placed in Leandra) in Clidemia heterohasis is actually the same 
as C. naevula (Naud.) Triana sensu Cogniaux and Gleason 
(Brittonia 1: 165. 1932), having a dense cauline pubescence of 
only gland -tipped hairs less than 1 mm long. One syntype 
(Ferreira s. n .. P, Macbride photograph 363^7, cited by Naudin 
as collected by Bonpland) conforms to the Cogniaiix -Gleason 
criteria for C. naevula ; however, another syntype, Schomburgk 
4i/T2 (p), showing a Naudin dissection sketch, has the longer 
eglandular hairs characteristic of typical C. .japurensis . I 
doubt that typical C. .japxirensis was collected on the Rio Japura, 
the Martius specimen (despite the holotype label) probably 
being from the lowermost Amazon. 'Hie typical variety is known 
by majiy collections only from eastern Venezuela and Brazil 
(Para), var. heterobasis from Amazonian Colombia and Pern to 
British Guiana (also in Nicaragua and Costa Rica). A note on 
these complexities was published earlier in Mem. N. Y. Bot. 
Card. 10(5): 182. 1964. 

CLIDEMIA HETEROHERVIS (Naudin) Wurdack, comb. nov. 

Sagraea heteronervis Naudin, Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. 
18: 98. 1852. 

Ossaea heteronervis (Naudin) Triana, Trans. Linn. Soc. 
Bot. 28TU6. 1871. 

Examination of the holotype (Gay s. n . , P; Macbride photo- 
graph 36318) has shown Isince -oblong petals with a rounded apex 
and a single infra -apical setula O.5 mm long. In both vegeta- 
tive and reproductive features, the relations are with C. 
bernardii Wurdack and its allies (ihytologia I9: I96-I9T. 
1969) . Of these relatives, the closest seems to be C. 
piperifolia Gleason, the Peruvian species differing in the 
bulla setulae of the upper leaf surfaces 0.8-1 mm long (rather 
than 0.2 mm), the cauline and petiolar hairs ca. 1.8 mm long 
(rather than 0.6-1 mm), and the ovary apex glabrous (rather than 
moderately fine-setulose). As in Leandra aristigera (Naud.) 
Cogn., Gay's specimen surely did not come from "environs de 
Lima", but probably Depto. Cuzco. 

HENRTETTELLA SEEMANNH Naudin 

H. hispidula Cogn., Bot. Jahrb. 8: 30. 1887. 

Examination of the holotype (P) and isosyntypes (us) of 
both species revealed no differences, the slight leaf shape gap 
easily -bridged in recent Central American collections. Ihe 
typical element of the species ranges from Costa Rica and 
Panama to Colombia (Antioquia, El Valle, Cauca), collections 
from elsewhere in Colombia and Ecuador being at least sub- 
specifically distinct. Henriettella goudotiana Naud. is closely 
related to H. seemannii but differs in the more obvious stellate 
bases of the foliar hairs, shorter (aversiging 0.4-0.6 mm rather 
than ca. I.3 mm) simple tips of the stellate -based hypanthial 



1971 V/urdack, Certamen Melastoniataceis 127 

hairs, and shorter (ca. 2 mm long dry, rather than ca. 2.5 ram) 
anthers with broader (equalling the anther width) pores; the 
petals of both species are puberulent externally. Recent 
collections of H. goudotiana comparable with the holotype (P) 
and isotype ^FlT are Garcia -Beirriga 1170^ (Cvindinamarca) and 
Little 7^13 (Huila). 

HENRXEnELLA 0VATA Cogn. 

H. longistyla Ule, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 6: 366. 

1915- 

H. micrantha Gleason, Bull. Torrey Club 58: klk. 193I. 

None of Ule's criteria for distinction are applicable, as 
may be seen in the ample series from both north and south of 
the Amazon (the latter chiefly collected by Irwin and his 
colleagues). Gleason had already published the synonymization 
of H. micrantha (Mem. N. Y. Bot. Gard. 8: 1^3. 1953). The 
species ranges from eastern Colombia (Jteta, Vichada) and 
Venezuela (Bolfvar, Amazonas) to Brazil (Roraima, Para, 
Maranhao, Goias, and Mato Grosso) . It is closely related to 
H. patrisiana (DC.) Naud. (which has calyx lobes strigulose 
within, shorter hypanthial pubescence, and rostrate anthers) 
and H. seemannii Navid. (with 3 -nerved rather than 5 -nerved leaf 
blades, generally less appreesed cauline pubescence, and rather 
persistent foliar hairs). 

OSSAEA MAVACANA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

In systemate Cogniauxii 0. angtu3tifoliae (DC.) Triana 
af finis, foliis 5-plinervatis ramorum inflorescentiarum pilis 
caduce glanduliferis ovario 6-loculari differt. 

Hamuli teretes sicut petioli foliorum venae primariae 
supra et subtus densiuscule setulosi (pilis gracilibus laevibus 
ca. 1-1.5 inm longis caduce glanduliferis) et modice glanduloso- 
puberuli pilis 0.1 -O.i*- mm longis. Petioli 1-1.6 cm longi; 
lamina 6-10(-l6) X 3-5 (-7. 5) cm elliptica apice subgradatim 
(per 1-1.5 cm) acuminato basi acuta, membranacea et Integra vel 
obsc\ire undulato-serrulata, ciliata, supra sparBi\iBcule setulosa 
pilis ca. 1 mm longis, subtus modice setulosa pilis ca. 1 mm 
longis pro parte cad\ice glanduliferis, breviter (O.5-I.2 cm) 
5-plinervata nervis sec\andaxiis ca. ^-5 mm inter se distantibus 
nervulis subtus planis areolis 0.3-0.4 ram latis. Flores in 
foliorum superiorum axillls plerumque bini sessiles 6-meri 
bracteis h persistentibus anguste ovatis glanduloso-setulosis 
(pari exteriore 6x3 mm, pari interiore 5 X 2.5 mm) involucrati. 
Hypanthium (ad torum) 4 mm longum dense subsericeo-strigosum 
pilis 2-2.5 nnn longis gracilibus caduce glanduliferis; calycis 
limbus 0.8 ram altus non vel vix und\ilatus graciliter ciliolatus, 
dentibus exterioribiis subulatis 2.7-3 nnn eminentibus dense 
setulosis. Petala 3 X 1.2 ram glabra oblongo-lanceata anguste 
acuta extuB dente subapicali O.3 ram eminenti armata. Stamina 
isomorphica glabra; filamenta 2 ram longa; antherarum thecae 
2 X 0.6 X 0.3 ram ventraliter O.k ram infra filamenti insertionem 
prolongatae, connectivo simplici. Stigma truncatum non 



128 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

expemsum; stylus glaber 6.3 X 0.3-0.4 mm; OTBurium 6-loculare 
omnino Inferum apice glabro styll rostro ca. O.^i^ mm alto. 

Type Collection: J. Lizot I66 (US 25T6226Aj Isotype YES), 
collected at the r£o Maraca, Terr. Amazonas, Venezuela, December 

1969. 

Oesaea anfaiBtJ,folia. endemic to southeastern Brazil, has 
eglandular pubescence, narrower" 3"PliiierTed leaf blades, 
interior calyx lobes 0.3 imn long, and 4-celled ovaries. Cer- 
tainly 0. mayaeana is an anomalous species, disparate within a 
heterogenoTiB "genvis" and with no ohvioiis close relative. Bie 
glandular tips on the trichomes are tiny and inconspicuous, 
much smaller than those in Clidemia involucrata DC. (which 
somewhat resembles 0. mavacana in vegetative aspect, hut not in 
floral structure). 

OSSAEA QmNQUENERVIA.(Mill.) Cogn. 

Melastoma gulncruenervia Mill., Card. Diet. ed. 8, sp. I5. 
1768. 

Melastoma diversifolia Bonpl.. Melast. I38, pi. 59. I816. 

Clidemia? diversifolia (Bonpl.) DC., Prodr. 3: I59. I828. 

Staphidium diversifolium (Bonpl.) Naud., Ann. Sci. Nat. 
ser. 3 Bot. IT: 322. I852. 

Clidemia? decurrens Beurl., Act. Holm 127. 185^. 

Oetopleura quinquenervia (Bonpl.) Triana, Trans. Linn. 
Soc. Bot. 28: 1U5. 1871. 

Octopleura diversifolia (Bonpl.) Triana, Trans. Linn . Soc. 
Bot. 28: IJ+5. 1871. 

Ihe holotype of tfelastoma quinquenervia (BM; Bailey 
Hortorium photograph 5I92) is quite compatible with more recent 
collections of 0. diversifolia. a good match (except for the 
somewhat larger leaves) heing H. H. Smith k (Santa Marta, 
Colombia) . The Miller type shows upper leaf surf sice hairs 
rather sparse and ca. I.5 mm long, hypanthia furfuraceous "but 
not setulose, and calyx lohes with a few setulae. Ihe commonly 
applied binomial for this species, 0. diversifolia . is thus a 
synonym. Frran some herbarium notes of E. P. Killip, it seems 
perhaps doubtful that Clidemia cyanocarpa Benth. should be 
inclvided in the synonymy of 0. quinquenervia and that conpsirison 
is needed with C. purpurea D. Don (and probably C. haughtii 
Wurdack); however, the Barclay type has not been examined by me. 

BLAKEA QUADRASGULAEIS Triana 

B. sphaerica Gleason, Phytologia 3: 358. 195O. 

Ihe holotype (Triana ^110. BM) from Antioquia represents a 
yotuag sharply quadrate branchlet with intact peduncle; the 
separate young fruit in the packet show the large bracts (outer 
22 X 22 mm; inner 23 X 10 ram) and nearly truncate (the sepalar 
apiculums to 2 mm long) calyx limb. Most recent material does 
not show elongated internodes, the very young branchlet s being 
quadrate but becoming indistinctly quadrang\ilar with age. 
Evidently Lehmann 7223' (Macbride photograph I7297), distributed 
under an unpublished Cogniaux name, is also B. quadrangularis ; 



■XQjl Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 129 

also there are several additional recent collecticmfl from 
Antloquia. 

Blakea quadrangularls vajB one of Triana's "lost" species, 
known to Cogniaxix and GleasoD only from the original descrip- 
tion. Triana's personal herharium of 8,000 specimens was sold 
hy his widow to the British ^fu8e^m (Natural History), the 
purchase for 2^0 povmds heing authorized on Feb. 26, I89I; thus 
Cogniaux appaj-ently never saw this collection. Through the 
courtesy of Mr. Marshall and Mr. Cannon, a xerox copy of the 
melastoines entered in Triana's herbarium hook was obtained. 
Triana evidently did not give field numbers to his specimens, 
but later arranged them in Endlic her -genus order and then 
assigned collection numbers; thus the Melastomataceae are in 
Endlicher genera 6169-626I, the specimens numbered 38^7 -4ll4 
(with 4099-4llU a postscript miscellany). Triana's notes also 
Include the species name, locality and elevation of collection, 
and nimiber of duplicates. Unfortunately the Endlicher n\imbers 
alone are often cited as Triana's collection numbers. Triana 
also numbered his collections within each genus, staxting with 
1; thus the collection number of Topobea subscaberula covild be 
cited as hO&A- or 6261.5 ; Cuatrecasas has done such citation 
from the Bogota set of Triana specimens. For the Melastomata- 
ceae, the London specimens of Triana's collections have been 
regarded by me as the holotypes for those species described by 
Triana from his own gatherings (but not necessarily for Triana 
species based on material of other collectors); many specimens 
not found in other herbaria (cOL, K, P, w) are in this set. 

TOPCBEA MORTONIARA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

De affinitate intima mihi incognita, sed ob folia crassa 
cordata subsessilia f lores multifasciculatos bene distincta. 

Ramuli teretes primum setis robustis incurvis 1-2.5 mm 
longis eirmati mox glabrati; nodi dense setosi, pllis robustis 
3-5 mm longis et basim versus 0.2-0. 5 mm diam. Folia iso- 
raorphica subsessilia, petiolis 0.5-I cm longis robustis; lamina 
11-20 X T-13 cm ovata vel oblongo-ovata aptce late acuto vel 
obtuso interdum breviter (O.3-O.U cm) mvicronulato-acvminato 
basi 1-2 cm cordata, rigida et Integra, glabra, 5-nervata (pari 
exteriore inframarginali neglecto) nervis secundariis laxis ca. 
5 mm inter se distantibus. Flores 6-meri plerumque in nodis 
infra folia miatifascicTilati (l6-)24-30(-60) in quoque nodo, 
pedicellis ad anthesim I.5-2.5 cm longis gracilibus sparse 
caduceque pinoideo-furfuraceis; bracteae usque ad basim liberae 
Buborbiculares calyci breviores, exteriores 3*2 X 5 nnn basim 
versus extus sparse caduceque appresso-setulosaa, interiores 
U.3-4.5 X U.6-^.8 mm apicem versus sparsissime caduceque 
pinoideo-furfuraceae . Hypanthiimi (ad torum) h mm longum, extus 
sparse caduceque stellulato-furfuracexnn; calyx in alabastris 
truncatus extus inconsplcue 6-dentatus, ad emthesim in lobis 
3.2 X 2.7 mm ovato-oblongis usque ad ca. 1 mm supra torum 
dehiscens. Petala glabra 9 X 5.6-6.3 mm oblongo-obovata apice 
rotundato. Stamina isomorphic a glabra; filamenta 6 mm longa; 



130 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 2 

antherae inter se cohaerentes 3«8~^«1 nun longae apicem versus 
gracillter subxilatae ad 'basiin ca. I.3 ram latae, poris duobus 
dorsaliter inclinatis, connectivo ad basim dente 0.3 um longo 
armato. Stigma non expansimi; styl\is 7 X 0.2 ram glater; 
ovaritnn ^-loc\ilare 1/3 inferum, apice conico 2.8 mm alto 
glatro truncato sine cello. 

Type Collection : Bassett Maguire & Celia K. Maguire 6l8h6 
(holotype NY, 2 sheets; isotype US), collected in wet Gioud 
forest T Ism north of Altaquer along road to Barhacoas, Depto. 
Narino, Colombia, elev. I25O m, IT Oct. I969. "Scandent shnib 
to 10 m, cauliflorous; petals 6, white." 

Of the described species of Topohea . T. brenesii Standi., 
T. cordata Gleason, and T. elliptic a Gleason (all from Central 
America) have sessile leaves, but differ otherwise widely. 
Certainly T. mortoniana is not closely related to T. sessilifWi-fa- 
Triana, the holotype (BM) of -(rtiich has sharply quadrangular 
branches, lance-oblong leaves 4-6 cm wide with secondary nerves 
only 1 mm apart, and solitary (fide Triana) flowers on peduncles 
4-6 cm long with capitellate stigmas. Topobea setosa Triana 
has leaf blades of about the same shape as those of T. 
mortoniana . with secondeiry veins wide -spaced, but shows well- 
developed petioles, leaf blades discolorous-puberulous beneath, 
and much larger solitaxy or few -fasciculate flowers with stout - 
setose bracts and calyx lobes. C. V. Morton for a decade has 
amiably monitored and adjusted my descriptions, nomenclature, 
and bibliographic problems in neotropical research; two 
generations of tropical students have benefited from his own 
extensive publications and anonymous courtesy. Thus it is 
appropriate that a current botanist follow Standley's 193^ 
example (Clidemia mortoniana ) in the Melastomataceae. 



BOOK REVIEirS 
Alma L. Moldenke 



"THE PLANT HUNTERS" - Being a History of the Horticultural Pio- 
neers, their Quests and their Discoveries from the Renais- 
sance to the Twentieth Century by Alice li. Coats, UOO pp., 
illus., McGraw-Hill Book Compare, New York, N. Y. IOO36. 
1970 (in U.SJi.; I969 in London by Studio Vista Ltd.). 
♦10.95. 

In the foreword Miss Coats describes the "average" horticul- 
tural collector as one well schooled and skilled in botany, 
gardening and some other sciences such as medicine, surveying, 
etc. "He had to be adaptable and able to get on Tdth natives, 
and his life often depended on his being a good shot and fisher- 
man. He had also to have great tenacity and endurance, the con- 
ditions of travel being often such that only curiosity, the 
greatest human motive-power next to love and hunger, could enable 
him to support them. It follows that the successfvil collectors 
were very remarkable men, and their lives and characters well 
worth recording." And they are recorded welll 

This fascinating book describes these collectors, their col- 
lections and their itineraries in chronological order in each of 
different areas of the globe in the order in which they were ex- 
plored — the Mediterranean and Hear East, northern Europe, Asia, 
the Antipodes, Africa, North America and finally South America. 
It is almost unfair to single out a few of these hunters for 
special mention, as, for instance, Forsyth who went disguised as an 
Oriental in China, Wilson who did not do so but always had a sedan 
chair toted as an essential for prestige even if dismantled, and 
Hove who found himself being presented to an Indian rajah following 
a night during which rats with no tonsorial skill chewed off much 
of his pomaded hair. 

There are other assets in this book such as neat print except 
for two letter inversions on p. 1$$, several fine photographs of 
explorers and maps, a carefiilly prepared bibliography, a list of 
the illustrations, indices of collectors and of almost a thouseind 
plants mentioned, and an epilogue evaluating the future of plant 
collecting, 

"BIOLOGY OF ACETABUIARIA" edited by Jean Brachet £c Silvano Bonotto, 
XV & 300 pp., illus., Academic Press, New York, N. Y. 10003 St 
London. 1970. $10.00. 

This volume represents the proceedings of the First Internation- 
al Symposium on Ace tabular ia organized jointly by the University 
Libre de Bruxelles and the Centre d' Etude de I'Energie lJucl6aire in 
Mol and held in both cities of Belgium, June 13 — 20, I969. Exclu- 

131 



132 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

ding the printed introductory pages, the book is produced by a 
photo-offset process which permits more prompt publication. Even 
an useful index is included, although with the "F" references out 
of place. All the papers are in English which is often expressed 
awkwardly and too often misspelled, as, for instance, indepen- 
dence on p. xii, aging on p. 27, apparent on p. lliT, attended on 
p. 289, etc. A careful proof-reading was obviously not done. 
Some diagrams are far from helpful; several electron micrographs 
in different articles are quite well reproduced and valuable as 
new material. 

Besides an introduction and a concluding remarks paper by 
Brachet there are 16 papers that deal with the nucleo-cytoplasmic 
relationships in growth and differentiation, biochemistry, ultra- 
structures, circadian clocks, light and radiation effects, photo- 
synthesis^ and autonomy of mitochondria and of chloroplasts as 
carried on by the fascinating umbrella-shaped giant chlorophyte 
growing in shallow warm coastal waters . 

This work will surely have appeal to almost all biologists, 
biology students and biology teachers on all levels . 

"A MANUAL OF PLANT NAMES" by C. Chicheley Plowden, 260 pp., il- 
lus. Philosophical Library, New York, N. Y. 10016. 1970. 
$10.00. 

This book succeeds in its well known horticulturist-writer's 
aim of collating in handbook size a treasure-house of infonna- 
tion for gardeners, horticulturists, botanists and plantsmen. 

After an introduction to the history of the naming of plants 
and to the nature of the Botanical Code, there are introductory 
explanations to each of the following: generic and specific 
names with translations from the Latin, common names of horticul- 
tural and other economic plants ';rith botanical equivalents, bo- 
tanical terms defined, illustrated flower and leaf gross struc- 
ture, and the "plant system" with notes on families and genera of 
special importance or interest. At the end there is an index of 
botanical and common family names. 

On p. 2U7 the Verbenaceae is limited to 65 genera and 7^0 spe- 
cies, when actually in its most restricted sense it contains 7li 
genera and about 3U31 valid species and scientifically named sub- 
specific taxa. Tectona, a genus of considerable economic impor- 
tance, is not mentioned. Clerodendrxmi is correctly spelled on 
this page, but not so on p. Ul. 

"PLANT PATHOLOGY" by George N. Agrios, xiv & 629 pp., illus.. 

Academic Press, New York, N. Y. 10003 & London. I969. |lU. 

This is the best textbook in this field that I have perused: 
best because of its careful and readily comprehensible explana- 
tions of scientific principles involved in all of the host- 
parasite or pathogenic plant-environment situations, best beoause 
of many illustrations of high educational value. 



1971 Moldenke, Book reviews 133 

The author's preface describes well the contents of this text: 
"The first part of the book deals with general considerations of 
disease, the disease cycle, parasitism and pathogenicity, and the 
variability in pathogens. This is followed by a presentation of 
the mechanisms by irtiich pathogens cause disease and the mechan- 
isms by which plants resist disease. Considerable space is devo- 
ted to a biochemical discussion of the effects of pathogen- 
produced enzymes, toxins, growth regulators, and polysaccharides 
on the structural organization and on the basic physiological 
processes of photosynthesis, translocation, and respiration, as 
well as to a biochemical discussion of the defense mechanisms of 
the plant. Finally, discussions are included on the genetics of 
host-parasite interaction, effects of envirorinent on disease de- 
velopment and control. 

"The second part of the book deals with the infectious diseases 
caused by fungi, bacteria, parasitic higher plants, viruses, and 
neipatodes and with the noninfectious diseases caused by environ- 
mental factors. The diseases cavised by each type of pathogen are 
discxissed comprehensively as a group ajid are subsequently discussed 
individually in detail. Diagrams of cycles for each disease are 
included to help the student create visual images for the better 
and longer-lasting understajiding of the disease." 

Perhaps many interested readers, students, teachers and 
scholars from the broader fields of botany and biology are not a- 
ware of how common a phenomenon parasitism of cultivated crops is . 
"In North America, for example, some 8,000 species of fungi cause 
approximately 80,000 diseases, and at least 180 species of bac- 
teria, more than 500 different viruses, and over 500 species of 
nematodes attack crops." 

The print makes reading facile even though the letters in 
"haustorium" are jumbled on p. 591 but correctly given in the text 
and index. 

Selected bibliographies accompany the chapters. 

Glossary definitions should have been limited to such terms 
"as used in this text" because terms like "spicule", "ostiole", 
etc. have additional biidogical meanings. 

"INSECT AND HOST PLANT", Proceedings of the 2nd International 
Symposixim, edited by J. De Wilde & L. U. Schoonhoven, 3hO 
pp., ill us., North-Holland Publishing Co., Amsterdam & Lon- 
don. 1969. $15.00. 

This conference was held at Wageningen, Netherlands, 2 — 5 June 
1969 on an invitational basis in order to review "knowledge of 
the factors leading to an interaction between two oinganisms which 
are so diverse as insects: and plants" and so to find "more subtle 
methods than merely using insecticides" to control "insect pests 
in food crops". Besides the opening address by the editors, 28 
valuable paqsers are presented by recognized research workers from 
all over the world in this separate reprinting from ENTC&IOLOGIA 
EXPERDffiNTALIS ET APPLICATA, vol, 12, pp, li 71—810, 1969. 



13U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

Most of the papers are in English; summaries are given in an- 
other language. Each author provides a bibliography, but lamen- 
tably there is no general index. 

The modem work on the nature of the chemo-electro-physiologi- 
oral and behavioral mechanisms used by phytophagous insects to 
recognize secondary substances and the nutrients in their host 
plants is particularly well developed and needed. 

This book will be important not only for entomologists, but al- 
so for ecologists, botanists, certain ethologists, certain physio- 
logists and biology students. 

The print is clear and easily readable. On p. 735 the specific 
epithet gativus is misspelled. 

"PRINCIPLES OF SCIENTIFIC BOTAIW or Botany as an Inductive Science 
by Mathias Jacob Schleiden. translated by Edwin Lankester, 
facsimile of the London I8u9 edition, xxxv, viii t 6l6 pp., 
illus., The Sources of Science, no. fiO, Johnson Reprint Cor- 
poration, New York, N. Y. 10003. 1969- $27.^0. 

This book has been and remains an important influential "land 
mark" in the development of botany. Therefore it is good, in- 
deed, to have it available again for school, iiniversity and per- 
sonal libraries, even if at a fantastically high price. It is an 
abbreviation of the important "Ginindzuge der wissenschaftlichen 
Botanik" . 

The work is definitely enhanced by an analytical introduction 
by Dr. Jacob Lorch of the Hebrew University in Jerusalem. He gives 
biographic material concerning this brilliant and often offensively 
egotistical author, as well as appraisals of the famous flower 
embryo studies, of the botanical end of the cell theory, and of 
the epoch-making "Grundzuge" made so by "the novel emphasis, as 
well as the fluent and very readable language which exuded a tru- 
ly contaminating enthusiasm for the scientia amabilis His 

profound influence on botanical research as well as on the teach- 
ing of botany is felt to this day, when studies of the cell enjoy 
a new peak of interest which was inaugurated by Schleiden, with 
rare insight, more than 120 years ago." 

Unlike texts of today, the same illustrations are repeated 
for different illustrative needs. 

"THE NATURE OF LIFE" ~ Earth, Plants, Animals, Man and Their Ef- 
fect on Each Other by Lorus &c Margery Milne, 320 pp., illus,. 
Chanticleer Press Edition, Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 
N. Y. 10016. 1970. $17.50. 

What a beautiful, interesting and valuable book I It is par- 
ticularly pertinent because of today's growing interest in the 
natixre and preservation of our ecosphere. It is the work of two 
"seasoned" biologist-naturalists who have written often and well. 
It is embellished by 208 exquisite illustrations, 82 in full 
color, the work of many well known nature photographers including 



1971 lioldenke, Book reviews 135 

the authors themselves . 

After a description -of our dynamic earth, its evolution and of. 
its mobile diversified life, the authors give living portraits of 
the main biogeographical areas searching for historical patterns 
that have been building for at least 300 million years. So much 
material is presented about so many different living creatures 
without producing the feeling of cramming but needing the not 
quite ccmplete index of plants and animals with over 1600 entries. 
The last chapter entitled "The Spread of the Cultured Primate" is 
an impressive appraisal of man's effect upon his environment. 

There is no bibliography.probably because the book is directed 
to general readership and because if complete it would have to be 
immense . 

The Chanticleer Press is to be congratxilated upon producing 
this excellent work. Even so a few tiny errors slipped through, 
as, for instance, the misspelling of Spidendrxm on p. 79 and the 
use of "most unique" on p. 167. 

"READINGS IN BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE" edited by Irving William Koiob- 
loch, 2nd edition, ix fi: U91 pp., Appleton-Century-Crofts, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. 10016. I967. $3.95, paperback. 

The intention of the editor to offer enrichment, more detailed 
explanations and inspirational reading to replace some stultify- 
ing laboratory exercises is admirable, but the goal is ac^deved 
with about only a ha]_f of the selections. Llany are just "text 
book" or insignificant. The excerpts from the following authors 
particularly' pleased this reviewer: Darwin, Percival, litis, 
Beadle, Dobzhansky, Becker, Hardin, and Hamburgh. 

Several words were carelessly misspelled in the text, as lu- 
ciferin on p. 51, avcirage on p. 69, photosynthesis on p. 87, 
known on p. Ii4.3, schistosomiasis on p. 210, experimental, on p. 
291, and Cretaceous on p. U36. 

Many different journals and books were used as soiirce mater- 
ial. 

"ARBOLES EXOTICOS" - Los Arboles Cultivados en Gran Canaria I by 
Giinther Kunkel, 2li2 pp., illus., Ediciones del Excmo. Cabil- 
do Insular de Gran Canaria . I969 • 300 ptas . 

This is a very attractive and valuable start to what is hoped 
will become a complete survey of the island. Herein 72 genera in 
I42 founilies have their cultivated species described with common 
names, etymology, geographic distribution, literature references 
and propagation notes added. On the facing page for each species 
there are beautiful and accurate drawings executed by the talented 
wife of the author. 

What is called Cit}iare:xylum quadrangulsire is better identified 
as C . spinosum . 



136 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 2 

"NilTIVE AND MTURALIZED PLANTS OF NANTUCKET" hy Frank C. MacKee- 
ver, edited by Harry E. Ahles, xxviii &. 132 pp., University 
of Massachusetts Press, Amherst, Mass. 01003. 1968. $6,50. 

Nantucket island, off the Rhode Island coast, iras to the 
author a vacation and a botanical paradise isle which he visited 
19 times, collecting a herbarium there of 1,089 specimens with 
610 species and subspecific units in 100 f ami lies , with Ulh of 
them native and 196 introduced, and with several as new records . 

The editor in his foreword writes: "With much research, he 
[MacKeever] also bi-ought together the material presented by pre- 
vious workers, correlating their nomenclature with that of the 
present day. At the time of his death, he had all but completed 

his work It is my hope that this catalogue, which represents 

a significant contribution to botanical science, may also prove a 
fitting memorial to a fine botanist." Through the efforts of 
both the author and the editor it certainly is I 

This catalogue is enriched with interesting comments, copious 
cross references and a full index. 

"AN INTRODUCTION TO PLANT DISEASES" l?y B. E. J. Wheeler, ix & 37k 
pp., illus., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., London, Sydney, Toron- 
to & New York, N. Y. 10016. I969. $12.75. 

This very carefully prepared text is planned for a beginning 
course in plant pathology by sm author- teacher of considerable re- 
nown, especiatlly in the British Isles. The chapters cover the 
following topics: concepts of plant pathology, damping-off and 
seedling blights, root and foot rots, wilts, downy and powdery 
mildews, rusts, smuts, blight, anthracnose, leaf spots and cvirl, 
witches' broom and club-root, galls, cankers and scab, mosaics 
and yellows, postharvest diseases, disease assessment, and 
disease control methods . The work is well illustrated, well ex- 
plained and well documented with literature references . 

This book will inevitably be compared with the new Agrios' 
text (and vice versa) produced in the United States. Each is 
highly meritorious, with the Agrios' text having greater empha- 
sis on biological principles and having more attractive fornat 
and reading style. 



PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 21 AprU, 1971 No. 3 

LIBRARY 

APR 16 1971 
CONTENTS 

BOTANICAL GARDEN 

STEARN, W. T., A list of Jamaican species of Cymnchum 

(Asclepiadaceae) 137 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Rumex of Hawaii 139 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Petitia. Ill 146 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of the 

genus Callicarpa. XIV 149 

MORTON, C. v., The genus Columnea (Gesneriaceae) in Panama 165 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 196 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number, $1 ; per volume, $7.50, in advance, 
or $8, at close of volume 



-f 



A LIST OP JAMAICAN 3PECI ilS OP CYNANCHUM ( ASCLE^IADACEAE) 

William T. 3tearn British Museiim (Natural History) 

iince its establishment by Linnaeus in the opecies 
Plantarum 1:212 1753> Genera Plantarum, 5th ed. 101. 
17Sl\., the genus Cynanchum has been variously defined. 
Linnaeus included v/i thin it five species, of v/hich two, 
i.e. C. acutum and the apparently conspecific C. monspel - 
iacum , have been retained in Cynanchum by all subsequent 
authors; two, i.e. C. suberosum and G . h i r turn , have been 
transferred to Gonolobus and one, i.e. C. erectum , to 
Marsdenia . Cynanchum acutum, a European species, can 
thus be reasonably accepted as the lectotype and was so 
designated by Britton and Brown, Illustr. PI. N.U.S. 
2nd ed, 35 36* 1913 and by Hitchcock and Green in Nom, 
Prop. Brit. Bot. I36. 1929. In 19i|l, when surveying 
the North American genera of Asclepiadaceae , V/oodson in 
Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 28: 205-215. 19i4.1 redefined 
Cynanchiim so as to include in it many groups which on 
mostly rather subtle differences had hitherto been 
maintained as separate genera, among them Ampelamus , 
Decastelma , Mellichampia , Metalepis, Rouliniella , 
Tainionema and Tylodontia . The last general survey of 
the West Indian species of this group was by Schlechter 
in Urban' 3 Symbolae Antillanae 1: 236-290. l899. 
'v^oodson's view of generic delimitation here being 
now generally accepted, it seems desirable to publish a 
list of the Jamaican species to be included in volvime 6 
of Pawcett and Rendle's Plora of Jamaica. 

1. CYNANCHUM JAMAICSI^JoS (Griseb.) Woodson in Ann. 
Missouri Bot. Gard. 28:210. 191+1. 

Snslenia jamaicansis Griseb., PI. Brit. V/. Ind. 
Isl. i|10. Iti62. 

Rouliniella iamaicensis (Griseb.) Rendle in J. 
Bot. (London) 71;: 314.0. 1936. 
Described from Jamaica ( Wilson s.n ) 

2. CYNANCHUM HARRI3II (Schlechter) 3tearn, comb, nova 

Met altelma harrisii Schlechter in Urban, Symb. 
Ant. 1: 2^6. l899. 
Described from Jamaica (St. Andrew, Harris 514-91 ) 

3. CYI-! ANCHUM ^RIORII (Rendle) Stearn, comb, nova 

Metastelma o riorii Rendle in J. Bot. (London) 
7i|: 339. 1936. 
Described from Jsimaica { 3>z,, Ann, Prior ). 

137 



138 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no, 3 

1|. CYNANGHUM ALBIPLORUM (Griseb.) Steam, comb, nova 

Metaltelma albiflorxim Griseb., Fl. Brit. W. Ind. 

Isl, I|.17 . 1062; Schlechter in Urban, Symb . Ant. 

5: 1^68. 1908. 

Metastelma hartii Schlechter in Urban, Symb, 

Ant. 1: 256. 1899. 
Both described from Jamaica ( M. albiflorum based 
on March s.m.. Hart 895 ) • 

5. GY1NFANCHUM R aNDLSI Stearn, nomen novxun 

Metastelma jamaicensis Schlechter in Urban, 

Symb. Ant. 5:ij^69. 1908; non 

Cynanch\Hn jamaicense (Griseb.) Woodson. 19i|.l. 
Described from Jamaica TSt. Andrew and Kingston, 
Harris 8866 ) . Renamed in honour of Dr. Alfred Barton 
Rendle (1065-1938), from 1906 to 1930. Keeper of 
the Department of Botany, British Museum (Natural 
History), London, joint author with William Pawcett 
(1851-1926) of the flora of Jamaica. 

6. CYTJANGHUM FAWGETTII (Schlechter) Stearn, comb, nova 

Metastelma fawcettii Schlechter in Urban, Symb. 
Ant. 1: 260. 1899. 
Described from : Jamaica (St. Andrew, Harris 7i|-0ll- ) * 

7. CYMANGHITM LEPTOGLADUM (Dene.) Jimenez in Rhodora 
62: 230. 1950; 

Vincetoxic-gm leptocladmn Dene, in DG., Prodr. 

0:526. lOiii;. 

Amphistelma leptocladon (Dene.) Griseb., PI. 

Brit. W. Ind. Isl. i|10. l862. 

Metastelma leptocladon (Dene.) Schlechter in 

Urban, Symb. Ant. 1:261. l899. 

Gynanchum sauyallei Alain in Mem. Soc. Gubana Hist. 

Nat. 22:120. 1955- 
V. leptocladum described from Haiti (Nectoux), 
A. f iliforme ~rom Jamaica ( Prior , McNab , March , 
Wullschlagel ) . 

8. GYNANGHUM ATRORUBgNS (Schlechter) Alain in Mem. Soc. 
Gubana Hist. Nat. 22:120. 1955. 

Metastelma atrorubens Schlechter in Urban, Symb. 
Ant. 1:263. 1099. 
Described from Jamaica (St. Andrew, Harris 6921). 



RUMEX OF HAWAII 
Otto Se Isa Degener 



In 1811 appeared the second edition of William Townsend Alton's 
••Hortus Kewensis; or, A Catalogue of The Plants Cultivated in The 
Royal Botanic Garden at Kew." Alton, as the title page mentions, 
was "GARDENER TO HIS MAJESTY." On page 323 he describes, as new, 
Rumex giganteus , calling it "Tall Dock," He adds that it was na- 
tive "of the Sandwich Islands. Mr. David Nelson ." Furthermore, 
the next line states that it had been introduced in "1796, by Ar- 
chibald Menzies, Esq." 

David Nelson was Captain James Cook's botanist, while Archi- 
bald Menzies was Captain George Vancouver's. Automatically, with- 
out much thought, we would have considered a Nelson sheet deposited 
at the British Museum (Natural History) as the lectotype for the 
species s.s. We maintain, however, that the lectotype should be a 
sheet at""Kew labelled "R. giganteus Ait. H. Kew. Rumex ^0 feet 
high. Climber, Sandwich Isles, A.M., C68." The initials evidently 
refer to Archibald Menzies. As Alton was listing and describing 
the plants growing in the gardens of Kew, he evidently grew the 
giant Rumex from seed introduced by Menzies about fifteen years 
before the catalogue went to press. 

According to Skottsberg in Acta Horti Gotob, 2:225. 1926, speci- 
men C68 "has leaves with margin and veins pilose, and so is the 
stem." 

In conclusion, after receiving bibliographic and herbarium aid 
from Messrs, Peter Green, Edgar Milne -Redhead, John F. Reed, Georg 
M. Schultze and William T. Steam, we believe at least two main 
taxa of Rumex giganteus grew (and still survive) in the rainforest 
mauka of the Kealakekua area. Island of Hawaii, a rainforest that 
has retreated inland during the past 200 years' attack by Caucasian 
and Oriental animal and plant invaders 1 

1. R. giganteus Ait. var. giganteus . A somewhat pilose plant. Typet 
C68 in herb. British Museum. Though the endemic flora is being rap- 
idly exterminated, we are gratified to haye found a liana approach- 
ing the type. It is Degeners & L.W. Bryan 32,^57 » Kahuamoa, South 
Kona. Hawaii. Rainforest at 3,250 feet. May 29, 1969. 

2. R. giganteus Ait. var. nelsonii Deg. & Deg., var. nov. Planta 
glabra . Unlike the previous variety, this one is glabrous. The 
type we consider to be the specimen deposited in the British Muse- 
um under the legend "Rumex giganteus, 'Sandwich Islands, Dav. Nel- 
son.'" During the past two years we have collected this variety, 
the less rare of the two, in the rainforest from Kulani around the 
southwestern slope of Mauna Loa to Hualalai. If the historical Nel- 
son plant for any reason cannot be the type, the lectotype would be 



11*0 PHTTOLOaiA Vol. 21, no. 3 

"Degeners & Piccos 32,456. Mauna Loa Boys* School, Hawaii. Sprawl- 
ing tangle in clearing at 5,700 feet. Aug. 10, I968." A rooted 
sheet of this liana (renumbered 32,i^43 and harvested July 26, 1970.) 

was planted in the writers* garden at Volcano, Hawaii, next to B. 
skottsbergii , as described below. Degeners & Piccos 32»458 collect- 
ed Aug. 15, 1970 "at 2,500 feet, Punaluu mauka, Kau, Hawaii.*, is 
not particularly outstanding because it has a faint tendency to be- 
ing glabrate; but because it completely fills with its scrambling, 
overlapping branches, to the exclusion of other plants, a small 
gulch. Cranwell, Selling & Skottsberg 3,108 is an Island of Hawaii 
specimen with typical inflorescence, but otherwise a bit strange. 
It is from the ancient, deeply eroded and somewhat isolated "Ko- 
hala Mts., Upper Hamakua ditch trail. 9/17/38." 

It is disconcerting, as Skottsberg has indicated for the local 
taxa of the genus on pages 223-228 and elsewhere, that our species 
are not clear-cut Linnean ones. Depending on the limited informa- 
tion available to us, we recognize also: 

3. R. giganteus var. nelsonii forma annectens Deg. & Deg. Frutex 
circa 12 dm. altus . This form maintains the same diffuse, red in- 
florescence; but approaches R. skottsbergii in its low, erect hab- 
it. 

Type Locality: "Otto Degener, Isa Degener & L.W. Bryan 32»'+55» 
West side of Hualalai, Hawaii. Scrub vegetation at 5»000 feet. 
July 27, 1967." Type at N.Y., as are all our novelties unless ex- 
tenuating circumstances make it impracticable to deposit them there. 
Local Range: Beside the type collection, Degeners & Amy Greenwell 
32,454, from Hualalai, "At 7.000 feet; old aa flow. July 9» 1967»"» 
belongs here. 

4. RUMEX SKOTTSBERGII Deg. & Deg. 
SKOTTSBERG DOCK; PAWALE 

Rumex giganteus sensu Hillebr. Fl. Haw. Isl. 377. 1888. (in part.) 
Rumex giganteus sensu Skottsberg in Acta Horti Gotob. 2:223. 1926. 
(in part.) The novelty is named for Dr. Carl Skottsberg, who here 
gave results of his study of local Rimex taxa. 
Rumex gipafiteus sensu Degener, Plants Haw. Nat. Park 152. 1930? 
ibid. 19451 

Rumex gi^nteus sensu Fagerlund & Mitchell in Nat. Hist. Bull. 
(Haw. Nat. Park) 9:35. 1944. 

Rumex giganteus sensu Hubbard & Bender, Trailside Plants Haw. Nat. 
Park 4:7. 1950. 

Rumex giganteus sensu Fosberg in Doty & Mueller-Dombois, Atlas Bio- 
ec. Stud. 187. 1966. 

Not Rumex giganteus Ait, Hort. Kew. ed. 2:323. I8II. (Rainforest up to 
about 15 meter long lianas with loose, horizontal to drooping in- 
florescences brilliantly red but drying castaneous. This complex is 
represented by an important sheet - R^. £. var. nelsonii - collected 
by David Nelson and deposited in the British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 
and by one - R. g, var. £. - annotated "Rumex 40 feet high - - - 



1971 



Degener, RoBex of Hawaii 



lU 




Humex Rlganteus var. nelsonll Deg. & Deg« 

David Nelson's historic plant. 

Cotirtesy British Museum (Nat. Hist.) 



1U2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

C68.") 

Rumex skottsbersii sp, nov. Frutex erectus , 2 ~ 10 §^' alius ; folia 
ampla elliptica ; inflorescentia f lavo-viridls . (We believe an il- 
lustration is more an "international language" than Latin and should 
■He permitted to substitute for » '^-■^•'n diagnosis.) 

Erect 7 - 10 dm. tall entirely glabrous shrub with many stiffly 
erect slightly zigzag twiggy longitudinally grooved stems arising from 
compact rootstalk bearing thick yellowish taproots. Leaves pale 
green fading yellow: most blades 10 X 4.5 cm., oval with acute apex 
but toward inflorescence gradually smaller and more ovate- to ob- 
ovate-elliptic with somewhat cuspidate apex, thick, entire or near- 
ly so and never crisped, with acute to acuminate base; petioles 
slender, somewhat shorter than lower blades and often longer than 
upper blades; ocrea thin, castaneous. Flowers extremely numerous, 
yellowish green, imperfectly dioecious with staminate and pistil- 
late flowers at times in same fascicle, subtended by minute per- 
sistent scarious ocreaej pedicels J - 5 nim. long, filiform except 
for thickened top, persistent in fruit; inflorescence stiffly e- 
rect, compact, enlarging in fruit to become usually broad-conical 
and 10 - 20 cm. wide. Pistillate flower: outer sepals concave, oval- 
cuneate to ubovate, with obtuse apex, faintly nerved, almost 1.5 nun» 
long, spreading at anthesis; inner sepals longitudinally recurved 
to facilitate lateral extrusion of the longer stigmatic branches, 
ovate with subtruncate base and usually retuse apex, 3 ^^' long and 
almost 2 mm. wide, erect at anthesis, with veins and especially 
midrib prominent. Ovary 1 mm. long, ellipsoid-trigonous with sharp 
angles, short-stipitate; styles filiform, each acutely widening in- 
to white-translucent broadly fan-shaped stigma irregularly twice 
and thrice fringed to form about ^0 ultimate flat branches. Stam- 
inate flower: sepals concave, obovate with obtuse apex, faintly 
nerved, grading from about 1 mm. long for outermost to 2 mm. long 
for innermost, suberect; filaments filiform; anthers pale yellow, 
exserted, obovoid, 1.5 mm. long, emarginate at base and deeply nar- 
rowly cordate at apex; aborted ovary 0.5 mm. long, with spreading 
flat truncate stigmas each half as long. Fruit yellowish green rip- 
ening castaneous; outer sepals reflexed, marcescent, not enlarged; 
inner sepals erect to closely invest nutlet, ip - 6 mm, long, un- 
dulate to somewhat erose -dentate, obtuse to retuse at apex, broadly 
cordate at base, conspicuously net-veined except for open margin, 
with midrib prominent without but sulcate within; nutlet shiny, ob- 
ovoid, deeply trigonous, 2.5 mm. long, obtuse to a minute truncate 
stalk at base, somewhat beaked. 

Type Locality: D^geners & Pieces 32,453. On 190? Lava Flow, Kau, 
Hawaii. On lava rubble at 1,600 feet. July 26, I968. Type at NY, co- 
types widely distributed. 

Local Range I At present we know this species complex is native to 
Hawaii, where it is common on the ash and aa flows from about Kilau- 
ea and Kilauea Iki Craters through th e aalii , ohia lehua and ukiuki 
pahoehoe flows of the Kau Desert up the Southwest Rift Zone of Mauna 
Loa and thence northward into Kona until stopped by forests. It 
grows from about 2,000 to 7,000 feet elevation. It is strictly a 



1971 Degener, Rumex of Hawaii 11*3 

pioneer, springing up like a weed in bulldozed eta lava. The roots of 
the seedling apparently rush during the rainy season to reach moist 
depths for the plant's establishment before advent of the dry sea- 
son. This common erect xerophyte has been mistaken for the gigantic 
liana R. giganteus with loose, brilliantly red inflorescence first 
collected by Nelson, presumably mauka of Kealakekua in the rain- 
forest. After growing the erect shrub (like Degeners & Piccos 
32,il53) and the liana (Deg. & Deg. 32,^3» Degeners & Piccos 32,^56) 
next to each other for several years at 3,800 feet elevation in our 
Volcano, Hawaii, garden and noting that both taxa retained their spe- 
cific characters over several years, we confidently consider R. 
skottsbergii specifically distinct. In addition to the Island of 
Hawaii, we suspect this species in several inferior taxa, to be on 
Maui and Nihoa as explained belowo 

"Rumex of Hawaii" concentrates on the genus as it occurs on the 
"Big Island." We here add some of our observations of, and surmises 
about, Rumex on the smaller islands as wello 

Few readers realize that the Hawaiian Archipelago is close to 
2,000 miles long, extending from the northwestern Kure and Midway 
Islands via such reefs, shoals and islets as Hermes, Laysan and 
Necker to massive Maui and Hawaii o The northwestern islands, first 
formed, were once of considerable size and elevation, and have since 
been mostly peneplaned to ocean level. When the island primordia be- 
gan forming on the ocean floor is debatable. But an indication of 
how old such islands may be is shown by the find of fossils of Mio- 
cene Age - roughly 25,000,000 years ago - in core samples from Mid- 
way. These islands were certainly covered with jungle vegetation - 
now gone - when high enough to form and intercept rainclouds. The 
southeastern islands are generally younger, still of considerable 
sl?e and elevation, and clothed with endemics until present inter- 
ference by mano 

As the crow flies, the Island of Hawaii is less than thirty 
miles distant from the Island of Maui, separated by the 6,000 foot 
deep Alenuihaha Channel, The possibility that these two islands have 
ever been connected by a land bridge is extremely unlikely. Yet we 
find that on Maui occur at least two taxa resembling the R. gigante - 
us and R. skottsbergii complexes .The former is more or less repre- 
sented by two sheets, namely 1.) Forbes 1050M, "Keaenae QCeanae} Gap, 
Halehaku. Crater of Haleakala," East Maui, Aug. 3. 1919o It bears a 
typical diffuse inflorescence. The area, as we know personally, is a 
dense, rainy jungle. 2.) G.R. Ewart III & G.C. Munro 63. "W. Maui, 
Honokowai valley, Amalu branch, valley bottom, alt. 25OO ft. Dec. 21, 
1928." This bears a typical diffuse inflorescence. 

On the other hand, the members of the R. skottsbergii complex are 
1.) C.N. Forbes IO67M. Crater of Haleakala, Maui. Aug. 6, 1919. It 
bears a compact, erect inflorescence, 2.) James Henrickson 3878. 
Haleakala Crater. In cindery soil, base of sliding sands, July 15. 
1969, It has a compact inflorescence: but the plant is said to be a 



llOt PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

seven foot high shrub, which is several feet taller than typical R. 
skottsberfiii as we know it in and about Kilauea on the Island of Ha- 
waii. It appears to have red flowers a feature, if true, being more 
typical of R. giganteus . 

Even without special adaptaions for flotation or for transport by 
animals, these native species of Rumex evidently traversed Alenuihaha 

Channel separating Hawaii and Maui, if they did not come from some 
third island such as Nihoa. 

Maui, Kahoolawe, Lanai and Molokai in past ages were once a single 
island, before that time and after having been variously separated by 
narrow channels. These now have an average depth of not more than 
about 600 feeto Here Rumex need not have crossed any water to reach, 
for instance, from Maui to Molokai from which latter island Hille- 
brand reported "R. giganteus." Hfe further states that the native name 
on Hawaii is pa wale and on Molokai, uhauhako « 

Uninhabited. Nihoa, ^4-00 to 5OO miles west of Maui where some taxa 
of R. skottsbergii grow, has 895 foot high Miller's Peak and 852 foot 
high Tanager Peak. These two are the opposite rims of a large eroded 
crater. What plants clothed this high land in ages past? Was one of 
them a Rumex ? In what we call the Marie C. Neal Herbarium of the Ber- 
nice Pauahi Museum are three sheets. They certainly belong, with 
their erect, compact, apparently green inflorescences, to the R. 
skottsbergii complex. Due to their condition, however, we are not pre- 
pared to state to which inferior taxon they may belong. They are 1.) 
E.L. Caum 71. Alt. 300. Height ±30 cm. "Shelves & holes in cliff n.w, 
near summit peak." June 18, 1923 2.) E. Christophersen. "Nihoa, 
cliff under Miller's Peak, N. side, el. 25O - 3OO meters." July 10, 
192^. 3.) D. Yen 1015 . "Devil's Slide, near Miller Peak. 6OO ft. alt. 
May 1969."* 

It is intriguing to speculate whether the Nihoa Rumex is not a mem- 
ber of a very small relict flora, representing the genus which gradu- 
ally disseminated eastward from the old, eroded islands to the new, 
now major, islands of the Hawaiian chain. 

This is not all. We must yet consider Rumex on the islands of Oahu 
and Kaxiai. Oahu is separated from Molokai by the 2,300 foot deep and 
30 mile wide Kaiwi Channel, and from Kauai by the 6,000 foot deep and 
80 mile wide Kaieie Waho Channel. Formerly, Oahu consisted of two sep- 
arate islands, the eastern one now dominated by the Koolau Range and 
the western one dominated by the Waianae Range. We know the Koolaus 
are more recent as well borings have shown that their lava flows over- 
lie those of the Waianaes. No one has ever reported a native Rumex 
from the Koolaus, but along the precipitous sunny summit cliffs, 
ledges and slopes of the Waianaes grows the 5-8 cm. tall R. al - 
bescens Hillebr. It is an herb, rather than a shrub, with leaves 
crisped and erose-denticulate. Skottsberg, perhaps depending too 
much on herbarium material, had some difficulty in distinguishing 
this species from Hawaii plants; while our observations in the field 



1971 



Degener, Rmex of Hawaii 



lli5 




Rumex skottsberRJl Deg. & Deg 



IhS PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

convince us of the correctness of "Hillebrand's findingo Though not 
known from the Koolau Range of Oahu, this taxon, perhaps in several 
varieties and forms, appears on the Island of Kauail It is signifi- 
cant that Skottsberg, mentioning Chromosome Numbers in Hawaiian 
Flowering Plants (Ark. f. Boto, Stockholm) 6^. 1953, lists 36 as 
the 2N for a Kauai plant and 5^ or 56 for plant 6,828 from Hawain . 

The more we become familiar with native taxa, the more do we real- 
ize how complicated the flora of the Hawaiian Islands is; Rumex is 
just one example. Although one of us has observed and collected the 
native taxa since 1922, we have solved just a few puzzles and drawn 
attention to many, many more. The new generation of botanists should 
concentrate on collecting more and better material, growing seeds 
under controlled conditions, making additional chromosome counts, and 
using newer and preciser methods unknown to workers of the past. The 
present fad to engage in a wealth of costly ecological experiments 
and studies without first untangling the taxonomy of our flora is 
placing the cart before the horse. 



ADDmONAL NOTES ON THE GENUS PETITIA . Ill 



Harold N. lioldenke 



PETITIA Jacq. 

Additions^. & emended bibliography: Scop., Introd. Hist. Nat. 
197. 1777J Schreb. in L., Gen. PI., ed. 8 [9], 1: 72. 1789J J. F. 
Gmel. in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13. pr. 1, 2: 2U5 & 9U3. 1789} 
Schreb. in L., Gen. PI., ed. 8 [9]. 2: 863. 1791; Haenke in L., 
Gen. PI., ed. 8 [10], 1: lOU (1791; and 2: 803. 1791} J. F. Gmel. 
in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, pr. 2, 2: 2k$ Sc 9U3. 1796} H.B.K., Nov. 
Gen. & Sp. PI., ed. folio, 2: 201 (1817) and ed. quart., 2: 2li8. 
1818} Pers., Sp. PI. 3: 3^. 1819} Bischoff, Handb. Bot. Term. Is 
Erk. Taf. 32, pi. liO, fig. 17l8a. I83O} Bischoff, Organ. Syst. 
Art. Regist. 13. 18U9} Schnitzl., Icon. Fam. Nat. Reg. Veg. 137. 
1856} Barnhart, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 29: 590. 1902} Metcalfe & 
Chalk, Anat. Dicot. 1035, 1037, & lOla. 1950} Kribs, Conm. For. 
Woods, ed. 1, lU3, fig. 331 (1950) and ed. 2, 160—161, fig. 331. 
1959} Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 6: 533. 1963} F. A. Barkley, List 
Ord. Fam. Anthoph. 76 & I96. 1965} Airy Shaw in Willis, Diet. 
Flow. PI., ed. 7, 856 & 1021. I966} Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 236— 
2U0. 1967} Anon., Biol. Abstr. U8 (23): BJi,S,l,C. S.132. 1967} 
Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. U8: 10560. 1967} Dandy, Reg. Veg. 51 s 
[Ind. Gen. Vase. PI.] 71 & 121. 1967} Uphof, Diet. Econ. PI., ed. 

2, 398 & 5U1. 1968} Moldenke, Rfisum^ Suppl. 17: 2. I968} Hocking, 
Excerpt. Bot. A.13: 569 — 570. I968} Kribs, Comm. For. Woods, ed. 

3, 160 — 161, fig. 331. 1968} Steam, Htmib. Bonpl. Kunth Trop. Am. 
Bot. 16. 1968} Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 50: 69U8. 1969} Anon., 
Torrey Bot. Club Ind. Am. Bot. Lit. 3'- 306 & 308. 1969jf Moldenke, 
Phytologia 18: 509. 1969} A. L. Moldenke, Phytologia 18: 121*-- 



1971 Moldenke, Notes on Petltia lli7 

125. 1969. 

It should be noted here that t:;e Hvonboldt, Bonpland, & Kunth 
references given in the above bibliography have been authentica- 
ted by Barnhart (1902) as to exact date of publication. 

Airy Shaw (1966) places the genus Sclerobn Benth. in the syno- 
nyniy of Petitia, but it belongs, instead, in the synonymy of 
Citharexylum B, Juss, 

PETITIA DOMIICENSIS Jacq. 

Qnended synorQany: Cithare:<ylum melanocardium Sw, ex J. F. 
Gmel. in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, pr. 1, 2: 9U3. 1789. 

Additional bibliography: J. F. Gmel. in L.. Syst. Nat., ed, 
13, pr. 1, 2: 2U5 & 9U3 (1789) and pr. 2, 2: 2ii5 & 9h3. 1796; 
Bischoff, Handb. Bot, Term. 1: Erk. Taf. 32, pi. liO, fig. 17l8a. 
I830j Bischoff, Organ. Syst. Art. Regist. 13. l8U9i Garman, l^yco- 
logia 7: 333. 1915 J J. C Arth., Mycologia 9: 62. 1917i Kribs, 
Comm, For. Woods, ed. 1, lii3, fig. 331 (1950) and ed. 2, 160—161, 
fig. 331. 1959} Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 236--2UO. 1967; Kribs, 
Coram. For, Woods, ed. 3, 160 — l6l, fig. 331. I968; Moldenke, R6- 
sum6 Suppl. 17: 2. I968; Uphof, Diet. Econ. PI., ed. 2, 398. 
1968; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A, 13: 570. 1968; A, L. Koldenke, Phy- 
tologia 18: 12li--125. 1969. 

Additional illustrations: Bischoff, Handb. Bot. Term. 1: pi. 
UO, fig. 1718a. I83O; Kribs, Comm. For. Woods, ed. 1, fig. 331 
(1950), ed. 2, fig. 331 (1959), and ed, 3, fig. 331. I968. 

Uphof (1968) retains P, poeppigii Schau. as a distinct spe- 
cies (surely it deserves no more than varietal or form status'.) 
and accredits it to "Scheuer". He records the vernacular vari- 
ant name "capa blsinco" for the species and tells us that its wood 
is light-brown to medium-brown, often variegated, with fine 
straight to somewhat wavy grain, meditm to high luster, very 
hard, heavy, tough, and strong, it air-seasons rapidly, is easy 
to work, moderately resistant to diy-wood termites, fairly durable 
when in contact with the soil, and is reconmended for furniture, 
cabinet-malcing, turned articles, novelty items, interior paneling, 
rollers in coffee -hulling mills, carts, posts, poles, piling, and 
props . Of what he calls P. poeppigii he says "Tree . West Indies . 
Wood strong, palisander [^ Dalbergia ] -colored; used for navy con- 
struction" . Kribs (1968) records the additional vernacular names 
"f iddlewood" , "guayo prieto", "roble guayo", "capa de sabanna", 
"bois d' sortie", "chene calle bassie", and "capa wood" — the last 
being its commercial name . He describes the wood in detail as 
"Color light yellowish brown with darker brown streaks and satiny 
luster; appears waxy. Odor and taste not distinct. Hard and 
heavy, sp. gr. 0.95 (air dry); weight, 59 lbs. per cu. ft. Grain 
straight to wavy or roey. Texture fine. Easly to turn and carve 
and takes a lustrous finish. Growth rings fairly distinct due to 
color zones and an increase in fiber density. Vessels barely 
visible without lens; nvmieix)us, evenly distributed to zonate, 
solitary and in radial groups of 2 — U; tang, dian . 70u to 21 5u, 
av., I56u; lumina with tyloses; pits alternate, diam. 7u to lOu. 



US PKYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

Fibers septate in part with simple pits. Parenchyma not distinct 
with lens J para tracheal scanty to vasicentric tiniseriate. Rays 
barely visible without lens on the cross section; inconsplciwus 
on the radial, heterogeneous type III, 1 — 3, mostly 2 — 3 cells 
wide and 10 — 20 cells highj lumina with very small ciystals; ray- 
vessel pits oval to elongate, simple to half -bordered. Ripple 
marks absent. Gum ducts absent. Uses and source of supply fur- 
niture and cabinets, interior finish, millwork, flooring, tool 
and knife handles, rollers, posts, and turnery. West Indies." 

Arthur (1917) describes the fungus, Olivea petitiae Arth., 
while Garman (1915) describes Septoria petitiae Garman from this 
species . 

Stimson found the plant in pastures with extensive secondary 
growth and in dry scrub forests on motmtainsides, describing it 
as a small tree, with red fruit in Jxily, and called "capi 
bianco", growing to be 20 or 30 feet tall, with a stem diameter of 
6 inches at breast height. Little says that the fruits are red. 
Gooding, Loveless, &■ Proctor (196^) tell us that Maycock recorded 
the species from the Barbados islands, but that there has been 
"no modern record of it" from there . Gillis 6Qk3 ''as taken from 
plants that bad escaped from cultivation. 

Additional citations; FLORIDA: Dade Co.: Gillis 68U3 (Ft— 
3011). BAHAMA ISLANDS: Grand Bahama: Gillis 7791 (Go). New Prov- 
idence: J. Popenoe s.n. [Sept. 2^, I963] (Ft— 22oi, Ft). CUBA: 
Oriente: Le6n 120l45b (W— 2289328) . PUERTO RICO: E. L. Little 
13080 (N)j Stimson 3181 (N), 3279 Wi Woodbury & Stimson 1313 
(W— 25l2la9) . 

PETITIA DOMINGENSIS var. EKUANI Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1$: 2J4O. I967. 

Liogier describes this plant as a shrub or tree, 2 — 8 m. tall, 
the branches spreading, and the flowers greenish, growing in open 
places on rocks above cliffs and in coastal thickets on dogtooth 
limestone or "uncommon in thickets near seashore on dogtooth lime- 
stone", at altitudes of 10 — 20 m., flowering in February. 

Additional citations: HtSPANIOLA: Dominican Republic: Liogier 
13759 (Ac, N), 13918 (N, Z). 

PETITIA URBANII Ekm. 

Additional bibliography: Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 6: 533. 1963} 
Moldenke. Phytologia 15: 2liO. 1967; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. AJ.3: 
570. 1968. 



ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TOMRD A MONOGRAPH OF THE GHTDS 
CALLICARPA . XIV 

Harold N. Uoldenke 



CAILICARPA L. 

Additional & aaended bibliography: L., Syst. Nat., ©d. 7, 87 & 
[227]. 17U8; L., Gen. PI., ed. U, Ul5~Ul6 & [Ui6] . 1752i L., 
Syst. Nat., ed. 8, 9h & [231] (1756) and ed. 10, 2: 883, 885, 89U, 
& 897. 1759; L., Gen. Pi., ed. 6, 55 & [585]. 1761ij Retz., Obs. 
5: 1 — 2. 17o9i Roem, & Schult. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3: 
93—98. 1818: Wall, in Ro:db., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: 
U05~Ull & U8I. 1820; Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. lii: 817—819. 
I326j Sieb. &. Zucc, Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2: 15U— 156. I8U6} Hasak., 
PI. Jav, Rar. U90 — U9I. I8U8; Jacques & Hfirincq, Man. G4n. PI. 
Arb. & Arbust. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: U05 & 502—501*. 1851; Van 
Houtte, Fl. des Serres 30 [ser. 2, 13]: 127—128, pi. 1359. 1858; 
W, B. Hemal. in Godman & Salvin, Biol. Cent .-Am. Bot. 2: 538. 
1882; W, B. Hemal. in Thomson & Murray, Rep, Scient. Res. Voy. 
Challenger 3, Bot. 1: 110, 128b, & 176. 1885; K. Schum. & Hollr., 
Fl. Kaiser Wilh. -land 118—119. 1889; Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Ag- 
ric. Tokyo Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laub. Winterzust.] 269, pl. lU 
[Tafel 10], fig. 8—10. 1895; Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., 
ed. 1, U: 106—108 & xii (1917) and ed. 2, 1311—1312. 1927; J. 
M. Cowan, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 12: 29—31, hi, U8, 50, 65, & 68. 
1929; Bor, Indian Forest Rec. 3: 152 — 195. 19U2; Plouvier, Chem. 
Abstr. Ii5: 52i4i. 1951; E, J. Salisb,, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: UO. 
1953; Masam., Sci. Rep, Kanazawa Univ. k [Enum. Trachy. Jap. 7]: 
U6— U7. 1955; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 27. 1959; Martin & 
Barkley, Seed Ident.Man. 115 & 195, pl. 132, fig. 261 & 792. 
1961; Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 763— 761* & 997—998. 1965; Carrick & al., 
Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 16: 2U36— 2lUil. 1968; Maiti, Bull. Bot. 
Surv. India 10: 111 — 112. I968; Farnsworth, Blonster, Quimby, & 
Schermerhom, Lynn Index 6: 261 & 262. I969; K. C. Sahni, Indian 
Forest. 95 J 333, 335, & 3li6, I969; Chan & Teo, Chem. Pharm, Bull, 
Tokyo 17: 128U— 1286. I969; Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man. 
Vase. Pl, Tex, [Contrib, Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6:] 1259, 1313, 
1339, 1805, 1808, 1809, 1827, 1828. 18U6, 1870, & 1875. 1970; 
Farnsworth. Pharmacog. Titles 5 (U): ill & items 3982. Iillii, & 
UII5 (1970), 5 (9): ii & item IOOO8 (1970), and 5 (11): iii & 
item DilliO. 1970; Willaman & Li. Lloydia Suppl. 33 (3a): 220. 
1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: Ii82— U99, 50U, 505, 507, 508, 511, 
& 512 (1971) and 21: 32—55 & 101— III4. 1971. 

Wallich's work (1820) is sometimes innacurately cited as "1: 
3911", that of Siebold & Zuccarini (I8U6) as "(1): 526. l8Uli'», 
and that of Masamune (1955) as "6 (1): U6". 

Cuscuta coryli , a parasitic flowering plant, often attacks 
members of the genus Callicarpa , 

Hi? 



150 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 3 

CALLICARPA ACUMINATA H.B.K. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Hassk., Cat. PI. Bot. Bogor. 
Alt. 136. l8Ui; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 3: 37. 1933; J. F, 
Macbr., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 13 (5): [Fl. Peru] 701. 1960; Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 20: U87— U89 (1971) and 21: 101, 108, & Hi*. 
1971. 

Additional citations: MEXICO: Hidalgo: H, E. Moore 3392 (Ca— 
919330, N). San Luis Potosl: J. Rzedotfski 10689a (Mi). YacatAn! 
Arrington & ^L_. s.n. [27. IX .1961;] (Ip) . 

CALLICARPA AMERICANA L. 

Additional & emended bibliography; L., Syst, Nat., ed. 10, 2: 
89U. 1759} Retz., Obs. $i 2. 1789; Roem. & Schvat. in L., Syst, 
Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3: 93' I8l8j Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 
Carey &Wall.], 1: U07 Sc lv8l. 1820; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 
16, 1: U19. 1825; Jacques & Hfirincq, Man. G6n. PI. Arb. & Arbust. 
[Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3! 502. 1851; Martin & Barkley, Seed Ident. Man. 
115 & 195, pl. 132, fig. 261 & 792. 1961; Famsworth, Blomster, 
Quimby, & Schermerhom, Lynn Index 6: 262. 1969; Blair & Epps, U. 
S. Forest Serv. Res. Paper S0.51: 1, [3], 9—11, Ih, & 16—22. 
1969; Blair & EJsps, Biol. Abstr. 51: Il51i6. 1970; Moldenke in 
Correll & Johnston, Man. Vase. PI. Tex. [Contrib. Tex. Res. 
Found. Bot. 6:] 1339, 1805, I808, I809, 1827, 1828, 1870, & 1875. 
1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U90— U93 (1971) and 21: 35, U9, 
50, & 102. 1971. 

Ekended illustrations: Martin & Barkley, Seed Ident. Man. 195, 
pl. 132, fig. 261 &. 792. I96I; Blair & Epps, U. S. Forest Serv. 
Res. P^er SO .51: [3]. 1969 • 

Blair & Epps (I969) list this species as one of seven broirse 
species in Louisiana and state that it is "abundant in pine- 
hardwood stands iriiich have a relatively high canopy. It often 
dominates the loner cover in a forest clearing." Traverse de- 
scidbes the plant as a shrub, 2—3 m. tall, with a base trunk 
diameter of k cm., arching and sprawling, some weakly upright, 
the stems brittle, the bark "with small warts and tubercles", 
light-brown, the "berries" [drupes] green [when immature], grow- 
ing in open woods above a backswamp, in dark-brown much-cracked 
silty soil, in the dominant complex of Fraxinus-Gleditsia- 
Liqtddajdbar-Pinus taeda formation. 

Additional citations: TEXAS: Chambers Co.: Traverse 823 (Go). 

CALLICARPA AMERICANA var. LACTEA F. J. Muller 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man. 
Vase. Pl. Tex. [Contrib. Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6:] 1339 & I809. 
1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U92— li93. 1971. 

CALLICARPA ANGUSTA Schau. 

Additional & emended bibliography: MaxLm., Bull. Acad. Imp. 
Sci. St. P5tersb. 31: 75. 1886; Maxim., m61. Biol. 12: 506. 1886; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 1;93 (1971) and 21: IO8. 1971. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 1^1 

CALLICARPA ARBOREA Roxb. 

Additional & emended bibliography: T^all, in Roxb., Fl. Ind,, 
ed, 1 [Carey &Wall.], 1: U05— ii06 & U8l. 1820; Jacques L H^rincq, 
Man. G6n. PI. Arb. & Arbust. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: ^03. 18^1; K. 
Schum. & Hollr., Fl. Kaiser Vfilh.-land 119. 1889; Prain, Joum. 
Asiat. Soc. Eeng. 62: 50, 51, 55, & ih. 1893; K. Schum. & Lauterb., 
Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Siidsee 521. 1900; Heyne, Nutt. Plant. 
Nederl. Ind., ed. 1, 107. 1917; J. M. Cowan, Rec. Bot. Svirv. 
India 12: 29—31, U7, U8, 50, 65, & 68. 1929; Bor, Indian Forest 
Rec. 3: 152—195. 19li2; K. C. Sahni, Indian Forest. 95: 333, 335, 
& 3I46. 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U93— U95 (1971) and 21: 50, 
103, & 108. 1971. 

Prain (1893) records this species from Barren and Narcodam 
islands in the Andamans group, while Sahni (I969) records it from 
Nefa, India. 

CALLICARPA GANDICANS (Burm. f.) Hochr. 

Additional synonymy: Callicarpa euchlora Schau. ex K. Schum. & 
Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sudsee 522, nom. nud. I9OO. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Retz., Obs. $: 1—2. 1789; 
Roem. & Schtdt. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nov., 9U, 96, & 98. 
1818; Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: U06— 
U07 & U8l. 1820; Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. Hi: 817 & 8I9. 
1826; Hassk., Cat. PI. Bogor. Alt. I36. iSlUii Jacques & Hlrincq, 
Man. G^n. PI. Arb. & Arbust. [PI. Jard. Eur. J 3: 502. l85l; W. B. 
Hemsl. in Thomson k Murray, Rep, Scient. Res. Voy. Challenger 3, 
Bot. 1: no & 176. 1885; Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 1, 
k'- 107. 1917; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: U26. 1926; 
Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 2, 1311. 1927; Moldenke, 
Phytologia 20: U95 & U99 (1971) and 21: 32, 36, 38, Ii7, U9, 50, 
101—103, 108, & llii. 1971. 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) suggests that C_. lanata Zipp., 
of Timor, may be conspecific with what he calls "C_. cana ", but I 
place it in the synonymy of Cj. pedunculata R. Br. Sprengel 
(1825) regarded C_. tomentosa Willd. as a synonym of C_. cajia L., 
but I regard it as £_. kochiana Mak., not C_. nudiflora Hook. & 
Arn. as previously stated. 

Schumann & Lauterbach (I9OO) aver that £. candicans "ist im 
Sildasien verbreitet bis zu den Philippinen und Australien. — 
Burkill vennuthet, das C. euchlora Schauer mit ihr zusammen- 
fallt." Probably this binomial is a lapsiis calami for C. erio - 
clona Schau., but since it is here first published as a possible 
synonym of C_. candicans I am so regarding it — at least until I 
succeed in locating the original Burkill reference. 

The R. Parkinson s.n. [1901] and C_. T. White 898I, distributed 
as C^ candicans, are actually C_. pedunculata R, Br. 

CALLICARPA CANDICANS var. SUMATRANA (Miq.) Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 
1, h' 107 (1917) and ed. 2, 1311. 1927; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 



152 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

32, 38, & 108. 1971. 

This plant has been found growing in thickets or open places, 
with inunatxire fruit in February. 

CALLICARPA DICHOTOMA (Lour.) K. Koch 

Additional & emended bibliography: Roes. & Schult. in L., 
Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3s 97. I8l8; Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., 
ed, 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: UlO — Ull & USl. 1820; Jacques & H^rincq, 
Man, G6n. PI. Arb. & Arbust. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: 503. l85l; Van 
Houtte, Fl. des Serres 30 [ser. 2, 13]: 127—128, pi. 1359- 1858} 
Regel, Gartenfl. 9: 56. i860; Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agric. Tokyo 
Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] 269, pi. 1h [Tafel 10], 
fig. 9. 1895; Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 763— 76U, 997, & 998. 1965; Fams- 
worth, Blomster, Quiniby, & Schermerhom, I<ynn Index 6: 262. 1969; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U91 (1971) and 21: 3U— 37, U2, U6, ii9, 
103, & 108. 1971. 

Emended illustrations: Shirasawa, Bull. Coll, Agric. Tokyo 
Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] pi. Ik [Tafel 10], fig. 
9. 1895. 

The "C^ purpurea " illustrated in Van Houtte, Fl. des Serres 
30 [ser. 2, 13]: 127 & 128, pi. 1359 (1858), Lem. & Verschaf ., 
must, Hort. 6: pi. 202 (1859), and Regel, Gartenfl. 9'- 56 
(i860) and often cited for £, dichotoma , is actually C. rubella 
Lindl. 

The Togas i 1667 , distributed as typical £. dichotoma , is ac- 
tually the type collection of f . albifructa Moldenke. 

CALLICARPA ELBGANS Hayek 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 36. 1971. 

The Ramos & Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Ii9011], dis- 
tributed and previously cited by me as C. elegans , actually 
proves to be C_, phanerophlebia Merr. 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA Schau. 

Qnended synonymy: Callicarpa repanda K. Schum. & Warb. apud K. 
Schum. Sc Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. Sitdsee 522. 1900. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U95 (1971) 
and 21: 36—37, 50, & 103. 1971. 

It is very probable that the C_, euchlora Schau. of Schumann & 
Lauterbach (1900) is only a misspelling of £. erioclona Schau. 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLONA var. PAUCINERVIA (Merr.) Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 36 — 37. 

1971. 

Koidzumi (1918) avers that this taxon is remotely related to 

C. nishimurae Koidz. 

CALLICARPA FERRUGINEA Sw. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Roem. & Schult. in L., 
Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3s 95. I8l8; Jacques & H^rincq, Man. G^n. 
PI. Arb. & Arbust. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: 503. 1851; Moldenke, Phy- 



1971 Moldenke, Konograph of Callicarpa 153 

tologia 21: 37. 1971. 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe 

Additional & emended bibliography: E, D, Merr., Philip. Joum. 
Sci. Bot. lii: i;52. 1919; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 38. 
19U7; V/illaman & Li, Lloydia Suppl. 33 (3a): 220. 1970; Moldenke, 
Phytologla 21: 36—39, U9, 101, & 102. 1971. 

Merrill (1919) states that this species and C_. obtusifolia 
Merr. are "manifestly" related, the latter differing by its ellip- 
tic to oblong-elliptic, usually rounded or obtuse, never acumin- 
ate lesif -blades . Chang (1951) reduces C. formosana Rolfe and C. 
aspera Hand.-llazz. to synonymy under C_. p ed\mculata R. Br., thus 
following the disposition of Bakhulzen van den Brink (1921). 

CALLICARPA FORUOSANA var. CHINENSIS P'ei 

Additional bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act, Phytotax. Sin. 1; 
271, 273, 278, 282—283, & 3n, fig. 1 & 2. 1951; G. Taylor, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 13: 21. 1966; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 38. 1971. 

Illustrations: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 273, fig. 1 
& 2. 1951. 

CALUCARPA HETEROTRICHA Merr. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Joum. Arnold Arb. 23: 192—193. 
19U2; R. J. Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: UO. 1953. 

Merrill ^19U2) describes this taxon as follows: "Arbor 7—8 m. 
alta, ramulis ultimis ii — 5 mm. diametro, densissime implicato- 
pubescentibua , pilis brevioribus numerosissimis substellatis, 
paucioribus intermixtis elongatis, depauperato-plumosis, subflac- 
cidis, ad 3 mm. longis, indumento subferrugineo; foliis chartace- 
is, integris, obovatis vel oblongo-obovatis, acutis vel breviter 
acuninatis, basi acutis vel leviter decurrenti-acurainatis, 15 — 20 
cm. longis, 6,5 — 10 cm. latis, supra olivaceis, ad costam nervos- 
que dense pubescentibus, indumento ut in raraulis junioribus, 
parenchymate pilis sparsis brevibus stellatis vel depauperato- 
pltmiosis insp>erso, subtus pallidioribus sed haud albidis, ad 
costam nervosque densissime, in parenchymate manifesto sed haud 
dense stellato-pubescentibus, pilis superficiem haud occultan- 
tibus; nervis primariis utrinque 9 — 11, utrinque perspicuis, sub- 
tus elevatis, curvatis, ad marginen arcuato-anastomosantibus, 
reticulis primariis subparallelisj petiolo 1.5 — 2.5 cm. longo, 
indumento ut in ramulis junioribus; inflorescentiis multifloris, 
cymosis, pedunculatis, 8 — 12 cm. longis dense villosis, pilis 
stellatis et depauperato plumosis intermixtis; cadycibus ob- 
ovoideis, subtruncatis vel obscurissime 5-dentatis, extus dense 
pallide pubescentibus, circiter 1 mm, longis; corolla 3 mm. lon- 
ga, sursura ampliata, tubo 2 nm. longo, lobis Ii, suborbiculari- 
obovatis, late rotundatis, 1 mm. longis; stacinibus Ii, filamen- 
tia gracilibus, glabris, longe exsertis, 6 mm. longis; antheris 
ellipsoideis, 1 mm. longis; ovario globoso, glabro, stylo quam 
filamentis paullo longiore." 

The type of the species was collected by Paul Alfred P4telot 
( no. 2608 ) in humid forests, at an altitude of about 600 m., on 



15U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

Mount Bavi, Sontoy Province, Tonkin, Indochina, on July 2, 19U0, 
and is deposited in the herbarium of the Arnold Arboretum at 
Jamaica Plain, Massachusetts. Merrill (19U2) comments that "In 
Dr. Dop's key this falls with Gallicarpa arborea Roxb. as inter- 
preted by him, yet it differs from Ro:d)ui^h's species in so many 
striking characters, and for that matter all other Chinese and 
Indo-Ualaysian species known to me, that I am constrained to de- 
scribe it as new. The very dense indumentum on the branchlets, 
parts of the inflorescences, petioles, and on the midribs and 
lateral nerves on both surfaces of the leaves is made up of short 
crowded stellate hairs and much longer subplumose ones, the lat- 
ter often 3 ran. in length, and usually with very few, short, lat- 
eral branchlets, these lateral branchlets scarcely stellate in 
arrangement. The shorter stellate hairs on the paurenchyma on the 
lower surface by no means conceal the latter, the more or less 
scattered stellate hairs on other than the midrib and lateral 
nerves scarcely touching each other." 

GALLICARPA JAPONICA Thunb. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Roem. & Schult. in L., Syst. 
Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3: 96 & 97. I8l8j Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agric. 
Tokyo Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] 269, pl. Hi [Tafel 
10], fig. 10. 1895} E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: U26. 
1926; Pluvier, Chem. Abstr. U5: S2hh. 195lj Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 763-— 
76U, 997, & 998. 1965 j Farnsworth, Blomster, Quimby, & Schemerhom, 
Lynn Index 6: 262 & 263. 1969 J Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U91 & 
1^95__Ii97 (1971) and 21: 33—35, U0~50, 101— lOU, & 106. 1971. 

Emended illustrations: Shirasawa, Bull. Coll. Agric. Tokyo 
Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] pl. lii [Tafel 10], fig. 
10. 1895. 

Pluvier (1950) reports the presence of a fatty oil, a reducing 
sxigar, and pectin in the fruit of this species. 

The Lindquist s.n. [25/9/1959], distributed as typical C. ja- 
ponica , is actually better placed as var. angustata Rehd. 

Additional citations: JAPAN: Honshu: Jimbo s.n. [6/11/1927] 
(Go)j Kobayashi 16253 (Go), 16U83 (Go). 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. ANGUSTATA Rehd. 

Additional bibliography: Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 76U & 997. 1965i Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 21: 33, 3S, kZ—lh, U7, ii8, 101, 103, & 113. 
1971. 

Additional citations: JAPAN: Honshu: Lindquist s.n> [25/9/1959] 
(Go). 

CALLICARPA KOCKEANA Mak. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Roem. & Schult. in L., Syst. 
Veg., ed. 15 nov., 3» 93 & 95. I8l8j A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
8: 37. 1933; Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 76k & 998. 1965; Moldenke, Phytologia 
21: 32, 35, U2, li6— U7, 50, & 103. 1971. 

The Kobayashi 15903, distributed as C. kochiana , is actually 

G. mollis Sieb. & Zucc. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 15$ 

CALLICARPA LONGIFOLIA Lam. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Jacques & HSrincq, Man, Gfin. 
PI, Arb. & Arbiist. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: 503. 1851; W. B. Hemsl. in 
Thomson &. Murray, Rep, Sclent. Res, Voy. Challenger 3, Bot. 1: 
no. I835i K. Schum. & Hollr., Fl. Kaiser Wilh,-land 119. 1889; 
K. Schm. & Lauterb,, Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. SUdsee 522. 1900; 
Heyne, Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 1, 107—108 (1917) and ed. 
2, 1311—1312. 1927; Chan & Teo, Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 17: 
I28U— 1286. 1969; Farnsworth, Pharmacog. Titles 5 (U): iii &■ item 
UllU. I97O; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 101— llU. 1971. 

Blume (1826) describes the following tiro unnamed varieties: 
•♦Variet a. foliis longitor acuminatis, serraturis distinctioribua, 
cymis laxLs petiolo longioribus. Crescit in terris argilloso- 
calcareis, Variet b, foliis minute seirulatis glabriusculis . 
Crescit in fruticetis montanis Seribu circa Rompieu." This refer- 
ence is sometimes inaccurately cited as "p. 808" instead of p. 
818 . An additional recorded vernacular name for the species is 
"kajoe si marsioe-sioe" . 

The Wang 35683, distributed as typical £, longifolia, appears 
to be f , floccosa Schau. instead. 

Additional citations: GREATER SUMDA ISLANDS: Sumatra: Boeea 
1086U (N). 

CALUCARPA LONGIFOLIA f . FLOCCOSA Schau. 

Qaended synonymy: Callicarpa oblong ifolia Hassk., PI. Jav, Rar. 
U90. I81i8. 

Additional bibliography: Spreng, in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 1: 
U20. 1825; Hassk., PI. Jav. Rar. U90~Ii91. I81i8; Heyne, Nutt. 
Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 2, 1311—1312. 1927; Moldenke, Phytolo- 
gia 21: 101— lOU, 106—109, & 112— Uii. 1971. 

Recent collectors have found this plant growing in shrub thick- 
ets, secondary scrub, open hush coxmtry, often in red soil, on 
level land or strand, on slopes of grassy hillsides, along trails, 
near rivers, in the half-shade of rubber plantations, and at the 
edge of forests or thickets, at altitudes from sealevel to lliOO 
meters, flowering from October to August and fruiting from Novem- 
ber to September. Thawom refers to it as "scattex^d in ever- 
green jungles" in Thailand, while Phloenchit also avers that it 
is "not ccaranon in evergreen jungles" in that land. The Clemenoes 
tell xia that it is a "common shrub in forests or thickets" in 
Sarawak. On Anambas Island it is said by Henderson to be a cosh- 
mon shrub or small tree. Main found it "scattered in forests" in 
Dutch New Guinea, 

The corollas are described as "blue" on Goklln 788 and on Han - 
sen Sc Smitinand 12028 , "violet" on Lars en , Smitinand , & Warncke 
IjSU & 79Z ^^^ Villamil 217 , "lavender" on Clemens & Clemens 21090 
and Yates 1601; , "purple" on Phloenchit U75 , Thawom 282, and Yates 
IU86 , niight-purple" on Phloenchit U98, "pale-mauve" on Purse- 
glove P.5167 . "pink" on Chun & Tso U35U3, Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
Ui326 , and Nur 18835 , "purplish^rhite" on North Borneo Forest. 



1$6 PHYTOLOGIA. Vol. 21, no. 3 

Dept. A.22li8 , "yellow'' on Araat 1158, "green^ on North Borneo 
ForestTPept-, A .57U , "light-green" on North Borneo Forest. Dept. 
A .658 , "whitish" on H. H. Bartlett 8603 , "white tinged with laven- 
der" on Yates 6^3, and "white" on Clemens & Clemens 21 78$ , Hoog- 
land 3653, H. G. Keith 1166 , Kornassi 773 . Kmkoff U035, North 
Borneo Forest. Dept, A. 1558 & A. 2010 , and Pleyte 667 . 

The Sumatran specimens are in general more hairy than those 
from most other localities, with the pubescence less distinctly 
stellate. A wood collection accon5)anies H. H. Bartlett 6936 at 
the University of Michigan and R. £. Williams 2116 at the New 
York Botanical Garden. The leaves are insect-galled on Bakhnizen 
van den Brink 1903, while the fruits are galled on the same col- 
lector' s no. 186 . Bunnemeijer 3783 has very tomentose stems and 
bears a striking likeness to the genus Geunsia . Lam 20li9 is 
placed here tentatively, since it comprises only unattached 
fruit. 

The C^ lanceolaria ascribed to "Hort." belongs in the synoryny 

of typical C. longifolla Lam. H. J. Lam (1911;, 1919) includes C, 
alblda Blime in the synonymy of his C_. cana var. sumatrana (Miq.) 
H. J. Lam, a taxon now known as C. candicans var. sumatrana (Miq.) 
Moldenke. Backer & Bakhuizen van den Brink (1965), however, re- 
gard C. albida Blume as a valid species, with £. blumei Zoll. & 
Moritzi and "C_. longifolia Auct. non Lamk." as synonyms. From 
this supposed synonymy and from their description it would appear 
that they are adopting this name for both what I regard as typi- 
cal C. longifolia Lam, and its f . floccosa Schau. Their con?>osite 
description reads as follows: "ffild-g rowing . Drupe white; cymes 
on 1/2 — 1 1/U cm long peduncles, stellate-haiiy, 3 — 7 cm across; 
calyx shortly dentate, glabrous or stellate-hairy, 1 1/U — 1 3A 
mm high; corolla lilac, 2 1/2 — 3 mm high, shortly lobedj lobes 
rounded, outside glabrous or stellate-hairy; stamens lilac, 3 — 5 
mn; style h — 7 mm. Yoiing branches densely to thinly stellate- 
hairy; leaves oblong-lsuiceolate, acuminate, acute, finely serrate- 
dentate, gland-dotted beneath or sometimes on both surfaces, •vrtien 
adult thinly stellate-hairy or glabrous on the upper siu-face (of- 
ten with the exception of the large nerves), stellate-hairy or 
glabrous on the lower surface, 7 — ^18 cm by 2 1/2 — 6 1/2 cm; 
petiole 3/U — 2 cm. Shrub or small tree. 1.50 — 6.00; I — XII; 
W.C.E., Mad.} 1—1700; brushwood, light forest, village-groves. 
Variablel (C_, blumei Z. & M., — C_. longifolia Auct. non Lamk.)." 

Singh tells us that the plant is native to eastern Bengal and 
the Khasi Kills. Rao & Rabha (I966) record it from Assam, while 
Deb, Sengupta, & Malick (I968) found it in Bhutan, citing Sen- 
gupta 896. 

Chang (1951) maintains both C_. longifolia f . floccosa aiKi var. 
lanceolaria as valid taxa . For the former he cites nos. 28677 , 
66799, & 68796 and for the latter nos. 100 , 3282, 27118 , 3335U , 
36332, 62267 , 66029 , St 71071 of collectors and/or herbaria irtiose 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 1$7 

names, iznfortunately, he gives only in Chinese characters. 

Conmon and vernacular names recorded for C_. longifolla f , floo - 
cosa are "bagiha", "balah balah", "betoe-betoe", "betoe-betoe 
balab", "conmon callicarpa", "dotdrot", "kajoe bebetik", "kajoe 
sioe-sioe", "kapasan", "katoempang soend", "ki katoempang tanar", 
"leloya", "marbasi", "mumuni", "nasi-nasi", "paroeh", "saring 
nudat", "aasad", "si marsioe-sioe", and "sioe-sioe" . 

Roxburgh (1820) describes Ids C_. lanceolaria as "Shrubby, 
haiiy. Leaves lanceolar, serrulate, acuminate. Panicles axil- 
lary, short-peduncled, sub-globular. Berries i»hlte. H. Koamoora, 
A pretty, shrubby species, with narrower leaves than any of the 
other species I have yet met in India, they taper most toward the 
base, are nearly smooth on the upper surface, but very hoary un- 
derneath j as are all the other tender parts. Flowers numerous, 
minute, purple. A native of the forests of Silhet, where it is in 
flower most part of the year." He describes " C. longifolia Linn, 
sp. pi. ed. Willd. i. 621", on the other hand, as "Shrubby with 
erect weak branches. Leaves rather long-petioled, broad-lanceo- 
late, semilate, smooth above, downy underneath. Panicles axil- 
lary, dichotomous, length of the pedicels. Berries white, A na- 
tive of Prince of Wales Island, where it blossoms in June, July 
and August." It would appear from his statement that the leaf- 
blades are "downy underneath" here also, that his plant was also 
f . floccosa rather than the typical £. longifolia Lam., although 
I woTild have ejqpected C, pedunculata R, Br. at that locality. 
The specimen on which this record is based should be re-examined. 
Watt (1889) claims that what he calls C. longifolia var. lanceo - 
laria is native to eastern Bengal, the Khasi Hills, Chittagong, 
and Burma. 

The statement by Bentham & Uueller (1870) that the C. longi- 
folia of Australia has its "corolla densely pubescent" causes me 
to wonder if f . floccosa may not also be involved here, although 
the statement in the same sentence that the leaves are "green on 
both sides" points to the typical form and I have thus far seen 
only specimens of the typical form from that continent. 

Bakhulzen van den Brink (1921) describes this form as "Forma ^ 
floccosa Schau, in DC. Prod. Syst. Nat. H (18U7) p. 61^5. — A 
stout shrub or small tree; branchlets, cymes, and petioles dense- 
ly floccose-hairy; leaves oblong or broadly lanceolate, distinct- 
ly serrulate-denticvilate, upper side sparsely stellate-hairy when 
adult, or glabrescent, except on the neirves, lower side rather 
densely floccosej cymes stout, globose, usually rather short- 
petioled; calyx densely and floccosely stellate-hairy; corolla 
purple or rose, densely woolly outside." 

The Clemens & Clemens 3029 & 21090 , Krukoff U053, Mondi 23, G. 
E. Perry |228, Toroes 161; . C_^ Wang 35683, and R. S^ Williams 2116, 
cited below, were previously regarded by me as representing typi- 
cal C^ longifolia and were so annotated by me in some herbaria. I 
feel now, however, that they are better placed in f . floccosa . 
The Elmer 20102 & 20U02, cited by me \inder typical C. longifolia. 



1$8 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

actixally show the lower surface of the younger leaf-blades some- 
what floccose, hut the mature leaves seem to be glabrate beneath, 
80 1 am retaining these collections under the typical form of the 
species , T^nift-p 1^336 and Lei Ilk also seem to exhibit intermedi- 
ate characters, sane specimens more dosaly approaching the typi" 
cal form, while others approach f . floccosa . 

The Hamel & Toroes 116$ , HoUrung 817 , Hoogland 3653 . Native 
Collector 273 , and D. D. Wood 78$ 1 cited below, are placed here 
tentatively. Seme specimens of these collections are also cited 
by me under typical £. longif olia . These specimens were mostly 
annotated by me a considerable number of years ago, before my 
present concepts of the delimitation of these taxa has crystal- 
lized. They need to be re-examined, 

H. J. Lam (192U) cites Schlechter I38I8 & 161;53 from North- 
eastern New Guinea and Peekel 62 from New Ireland. The second 
of the Schlechter collections, however, is cited by me as typical 
C. longif olia . 

Material of £, longifolia f . floccosa has been mis identified 
and distributed in herbaria under the names C_. angusta Schau., C. 
attenuatifolia Elm., C^ attenaifolia Elm,, £, longifolia Lam., C. 
longifolia var. subglabra Schau., and C. rabella Lindl. 

In all, U08 herbaiTLum specimens andll mounted photographs of 

C. longifolia f . floccosa have been examined by me. 
Citations: CHINESE COASTAL ISLANDS: Hainan: Chun & Tso U35U3 

(N)j F. C^ How 72820 (Bi); Lei Ulq , in part (Bi, Bz~l5oli3); Li- 
ang SUhSS (N), 66^k2 (N)j F. A. McClure 319$ [Herb. Canton Chr. 
Coll. 97U3] (Ca— 2U8685, Ca~366339)i C. Wang 35399 (N, W— 
16705U6), 35683 (Go, N), 36336 (N, W— 16 70667) . THAILAND: Mrs. 

D. J. Collins 2365 (W~170l690) } Hansen & Smitinand 12028 (Cp, Rf )j 
Larsen, Smitinand , & Wamcke U8U (Ac, Rf), 799 (Ac, Rf); Phloan - 
chit U75 [Herb. Roy. Forest. Dept. 8985] (Z), li98 [Herb. Roy. For- 
est. Dept. 10023] (Ss); Thaworn 282 [Herb, Roy. Forest. Dept. 
12359] (Sm) . INDOCHINA: Annam: Clemens & Clemens 3029 (Ca— 3iiOU55, 
Gg— 156760, N), 3U81 (Ca— 3li0208). Cochinchina: Poilane UO8I6 (B) . 
State undetermined: G. E.. Periy 5228 [Pulo Condot] (N, S) . MALAIA: 
Johore: Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor . 1307U (Bz)j Herb. Hort. Bot. Singap. 
8.n. [Aug. 1938] (Bz— 72763); Holttum 9237 (Bz— 72768), 10921; (Bz-- 
72769) . Kelantan: M. R. Henderson 19633 (Bz— 72767, Ca~3U2711i), 
Malacca: Griffith s.n. [Malacca] (Bz — 18033). Pahang: Kiah bin 
Hadji & Strugnell 23959 (N)j Nur 11102 (Bz~l8037), 18835 (Bz— 
72766), 32651 (Ca— 3259). Perak: Spare 3ii553 (Bz— 72761;). MALAYAN 
ISUNDS: Palau Tioman: Nur 18835 (Ca— 318639). PHILIPPINE ISUNDS: 
Catanduanes: M. Ramos s.n. [Herb, Philip. Bur. Sci. 30328] (N, N, 
W— I29I4I93). Luzon: Finlx s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 280ii8] 
(W— 1375173); Ramos & Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 29116] 
(W— I376O38), s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 33905] (W— 12635U3) . 



1971 Moldanke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 1$9 

Mindanao: Elmer 13536 , in part (Bz— 179U2)j E. D. Merrill 80$7 
(B2--179la, W— 901898); E. S. Willi.ama 2116 (It, N, W— 707821). 
Tawitawi: Ramos & Edafio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Uii06l] (Ga— 
257637), sai. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Uii06U] (N), s.n. [Hert). 
Philip. BTir. Sci. Wli326] (Ca--257636, N) . GREATER SUNDA ISIANDS: 
Anambaa: M, R, Henderson 20U91 (Ca) . Banka: Amand s.n» (Ut — 
Ii9888, Ut--U9889); Anta s.n. [Kostermana 1167-1161;] (Bz--73013)i 
Berkhout 300 (Bz--17995), 506 (Bz— 17992, Bz— 17993); Bxinnemeijer 
1521 (Bz— 18000), I881i (BZ--18001), 2357 (Bz--l8052), 2390 (Bz— 
17999, Bz—251;70); Kobus s.n. (Bz— 1799U); Teijsmann 3251; H.B. 
(Bz — 17996), s.n. [Muntak] (Bz — 17997). Billiton: Teijsmann s.n. 
[Billiton] (Bz— I8OO6); Vordermann s.n. [Billiton] (Bz— l8005Tt 
Bintan: Biinnemeijer 6211; (Bz— I8OI6), 6U98 (Bz— 18021), 65lli (Bz— 
13020). Borneo: Bianehi U8 (Bz — 1770li); Danselman 161 (Bz — 
17699); Endert 3251i (Bz— 72706); Enoh 267 (Bz— 72988), 398 (Bz— 
72987); H. Hallier B.309 (Bz— I80li6); I].aim 1722 (Bz— 72986); Ja- 
herl lla7 (Bz— 17696); Mondl 23 (Bz— 17700, Bz— 251i72, N, Dt— 
3li060a); Polak 659 (Bz— 72989); Rutten 263 (Ut— 22677), i59 (Bz— 
17698, Ut— 2267^ 762 (Ut— 1^061); Winkler 211i2 (Bz— 17707). 
Celebes: Bunnemeijer 106U3 (Bz— 17950), llOHi (Bz— 17951), 11707 
(Bz— 17952), 12580 (Bz— 179li9); Kjellberg 397 (Bz— 179Wi), 725 
(Bz— 179U3); Koorders 19l;86b [3360] (Bz— 17953, Bz— 25U73), 
19ti89b [2952] (Bz— 1795W; Racbmat 621; (Bz— 179l;5); isl:.Ll Rle- 
del s.n. [Gorontalo] (Bz — 179U7, Bz — 179U8) . Java: Backer 57 
(Bz— 1781i2), 9liO (Bz— 17769), 5890 (Bz— 17773), 9099 (Bz— 17770), 
13935 (Bz— 17825), 17127 (Bz— 17738), l8U51i (Bz— 17859, Bz— 
17860), 2IOU9 (Bz— 17808), 2250U (Bz— 177li3), 227U6 (Bz— 177U2), 
30ta8 (Bz— 17871); Bakhuizen van den Brink 186 (Bz— 17763, Ut— 
2ii877a), 807 (Bz— 17761), 901 (Bz— 17778, Bz— 17779), 1U93 (Bz- 
17758), 17^ (Bz— 17757, Ut— 80687), 1811 (Bz— 17762, Ut— 2U879a), 
1903 (Bz— 17759, Bz— 17760), I4662 (Bz— 17777), U8li, [563] (Bz— 
17790), 7210 (Bz— 17730); Bem6e 2320 (Bz— 17856), 2l;33 (Bz— 
17872), 2^6 (Bz— 17873), 3820 (Bz— 17855), 5572 (Bz— 1785U), 
A. 303 (Bz— 17787); Blume s.n. [Java] (N, N); Bmralda 7528 (Bz— 
72898); Forbes 1;08 (Bz— 17867, Bz— 17868); Garoet & Burck 36 
(Bz— 17832); Gebniik 81 (Ga— 792211;); H. Hallier 81 (Ca— 9I8388), 
270 (Bz— 177l;7, Bz— 177l;8), s.n. [ 28 .VIII .I896] (Bz— 177l;0, Bz— 
1771a); Herb. Bogoriense IjQO^Bz), I7866 (Bz); Karta 392 (Bz— 
17917); Koens s.n. [Mei 1912] (Bz— 17871;); KoUman s^n. [Java, 
1838] (M, M); Koorders 9701^ [2225f] (Bz— 17878, Ut— 802l;0), 
22108b [109*] (Bz— 17901, Bz— 17902), 22985b [50»] (Bz— I788I, 
Bz— 251;7l;), 23130b [3033*] (Bz— 17877), 26857 [312*] (Bz— 17899, 
Bz— 17900), 29l;60b [506»] (Bz— 17879, Bz— 17880), 30239b (Ut— 
53167), 30750b [76l«] (Bz— 17888), 31279b [15143*] (Bz— 17889, 
Bz— 17890) . l;l;036b [32*] (Bz- I789I, Bz— 17892); Kuntze s.n. 



160 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

[1875] (N); Lorzing 381 (Bz— 17850); Mousset 10U8 (Bz— 17875); 
Saimoendt 20 (Bz— 17727, Ca— 308072); Scheffer s.n. [29/5/1871] 
(BZ--17785), s.n. [3/10/71] (Bz~17783), 3.n. [10/10/1871] (Bz— 
17801), s.n. [23/6/1872] (Bz--17803), a.n. (Bz— 17802); Soegan- 
diredja 36 (Bz— 17796, Bz— 17797), 285 (Bz— 17792, Bz— 17793); 
Teijsmann UO (Bz— 17826, Bz— 17827) ;' Thorenaar 171 (Bz— 17861, 
Bz— 17862), 35U (Bz— 17863, Bz— 1786U); Van Steenis lOS (Bz— 
I80li7), 567U (Bz— 178Ui); Vordermann "YY" (Bz— 17852); Winckel 8 
(Ui^58388), 181 (Ut— 53166), I8lb (Bz— 17761i), li62b (Bz— 17791)", 
727b (Bz— 17775), 861ib (Bz— 17765, Bz— 17766), 872b (Bz— 17767, 
Bz— 17768), 1636b (Bz— 17788), s.n. [9 Aug. '17] (Bz— 180U0), s. 
n. [20/1/1918] (Ut— 53169). Kambangan: Collector Indlg. 116 
(Ut— 21052) . Lingga: Bunnemeijer 6772 (Bz— 18011) . Oedjan; 
Bvumemeijer 61;5U (Bz— 18017). Pageh: Loeb ^ (Ca— 29ii993) . Pa- 
pan; Bunnmeljer 7795 (Bz — 18015) . Riouw: Teijsmann s.n. [Rioir] 
(Bz — l802li). Sabah: Arsat 1158 (N); Cuadra s.n. [North Borneo 
Forest. Dept. A.22l|8] (W— 2210675); Goklin 788 (N); Kadir s.n. 
[North Borneo Forest. Dept. A.57U] (W— 2187085), s.n. [North Bor- 
neo Forest. Dept. A. 658] (W— 2210792) , s.n. [North Borneo Forest. 
Dept. A.2010] (W— 2187121] (W— 2187121); H. G. Keith 1166 (N, W— 
167U530); Tangualon bin Tiluan s.n. [North Borneo Forest. Dept. 
A. 1558] (W— 2187117); Villamil 217 (Ph, W— 137681iO); D. D. Wood 
785 (Ca— 2151U2, W— 1291621). Salajar: Bunnemeijer 6550 (Bz— 
18012), 7U06 (Bz— 18010) . Sarawak: W. M. A. Brooke 9011 (¥— 
2319758); Clemens & Clemens 20193 [field no. 7162] (Bz— 17701, 
N), 21090 [field no. 11x3] (N), 21785 [field no. 5655] (N); Fox- 
worthy 281 (W— 713261); Native Collector 273 (Ca— 213855, W— 
11739U2), 521 (W— II7398I1), 1077 (W— 117U089); Purseglove P. 
5167 (N). Siantan: Van Steenis 850 (Bz— 18022, Bz— 18023). Si- 
berut: Boden-KLoss llih6h (Bz— 18053, Ca— 2868U8); Iboet I38 (Bz— 
1805U). Simalur: Achmad k (Bz— 18026, Bz— 18027), 182 (Bz— 
18025, Ut— 53168). Sumatra: Ajoub 299 (Bz— 17986); Bangham & 
Bangham 6I4O (N), 987 (N); H. H. Bartlett 6936 (Mi, N, W— 1551888), 
8603 (Mi, N, W— 1552910); Bartlett & La Rue 109 (Ca— 2U3881i, W— 
105U007); Boeea 6508 (Mi), 8125 (Mi, W— 1682U58), 90U9 (Mi, N), 
9396 (Mi, N), 95U9 (Mi, N); Bruinier I89 (Bz— 17958); Bunnemeijer 
136 (Bz— 1798I), 263 (Bz— 17982), 506 (Bz— 1798U), 1100 (Bz— 
17983), 3783 (Bz— 17977, Bz— 17978, Bz— 25U76, Ut— 58352); Burck 
s.n. [I883] (Bz— 17991); Daalen 39li (Bz— 17985); Doctors van Lee- 
uwen-Reijnvaan 3288 (Bz— 17966); Galoenji 111 (Bz— 1797li)} Gus- 
dorf k3 (Bz— 17989); Hamel & Toroes 1165 (Mi, S); Koorders 10602b 
[lli6] (Bz— 17998); Krukoff U035 (Br, Bz— 17955, N, W— 1750502); 
Lorzing 1001 (Bz— 17972), 3137 (Bz— 17970), 38O6 (Bz— 17971), 
U6O9 (Bz— 17967. Bz— 17968775763 (Bz— 17969775858 (Bz— 17957), 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 161 

9161 (Bz— 1796$); Lorzlng & Jochems 7572 (Bz— 17956); Ouirehand 
2hh (Bz— 17987, Bz— 17988); Rutten-Kooistra 9 (Bz— 17959); Salao- 
endt 38 [Posthimua 9U9] (Bz— 17962, Ut— 9683^); Toroes 16U (Mi, N, 
S), 3002 (Ca--530971, Mi, N, W— 1861277), UO69 (W— 10807U5), 1*293 
(N) ,"119^2 (N, W— 1681078); Van Steenis 3653 (Bz--18050), 5755 
(Bz— 17973), 5769 (BZ--I796O), 5926 (Bz— 17961); H. S. Yates 653 
(Ca— 23ii089, Mi), IO66 (Mi), 1U86 (Bz— 18051, Ca— 263963, Mi, N), 
160U (Ca— 263963, Mi). Tello: Raap 36 (Bz— 18002), l^ (Bz— I8OO3), 
57 (Bz— l800li). Toedjoeh: Bunnemeijer 5958 (Bz— I8OI9). LESSER 
SUNDA ISLANDS: Timor: Teijsmann 8922 (Bz— 17923) . MOLUCCA IS- 
LANDS: Buru: Boerlage 553 (Bz— 17930, Bz — ^17931); Teijsmann s.n, 
[Boeroe Kajeli] (Bz— 17932) . Ceram: Buwalda 58U6 (Bz— 729U8); 
Kornassi 62i6 (Bz— 17927), 773 (Bz— 17928, Ut— 80197); Rutten 356 
(Bz— 17926, Ut— 802ia), 2122 (Bz— 17921*, Bz— 17925) . Sanana: 
Atje 3 (Bz— I793I1, Bz— 17935). AROE ISLANDS: Kobroor: Buwalda 
5103 (Bz— 72573, Ng, Ng— I693U). NEW GUINEA: Dutch New Guinea: 
Aet 106 (Bz— 72569); Atasrip Ui (Bz— 179U0); Djamhari 3U2 (Bz— 
7289U); Lam 20U9 (Bz— 25U78); Main lOl (Bz— 72861, Ng, Ng— 16950); 
Meijer Drees 61*3 (Bz— 72972); Pleyte 667 (Bz— 72862, Ng— 16958); 
Sawyer 228 (Ac) ; F^ R. R. Schlechter I38I8 (Bz— 17938) , 11*303 
(Bz— 17937); Thorns en 661* (Bz— 17939, Ut— 3l*0laa) . Territory of 
New Guinea: M. S. Clemens hl066 (Mi); Hollrung 817 (Bz— 17936). 
Papua: Brass 1015 (Bz— I8O6O), 11*15 (Bz— 18059); £. E. Carr 15872 
(N); Chalmers s.n. (Mb); Hoogland 3653 (Ng, Ng— 16835, W— 
22136 3I*) . Province undetermined: M^ S. Clemens 8280b (B). CUL- 
TIVATED: India: Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcutt . s.n. (Uu, N— photo, N— 
photo, Z— photo, Z — photo); U. Singh 81 (Ca — 361002). Java: 
Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor. XV. J .A. XXIX .1* (Bz, Bz, Bz, Bz— 2636O, 
Bz— 26361), XV.JJl.XnX.l*a (Bz, Bz, Bz, Bz— 26362, Bz— 26363), 
XV.JJ^,XXX.5 (Bz— 17709), XV.JJl. XXX.5a (Bz— 17708), XV.J>A.XLV. 
3 (Bz— I77O6, Bz— 251*69, Ca— 301567), s^ (Bz— 17711, Bz— 17712, 
Bz— 17711*. Bz— 17715, Bz— 17716, Bz— 17717, Bz— 18028, Bz— 18029, 
Bz— I803O) . LOCALITY OF COLLPCTION UNDETEElilNED: Teijsmann s.n, 
"Blitoeng] (Bz— 18007). 

CALLICARPA LONGIFOLIA var. HORSFIELDII (Turcz.) Moldenke, Phyto- 
logia 7: 77. 1959. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa horafieldii Turcz., Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. 
Mosc. 36 (2): 217. 1863. Callicarpus longifolia var. horafieldii 
(Turcz.) Moldenke apud Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A.l*: 592, sphalm. 
1962. 

Bibliography: Turcz., Bull. Soc, Imp. Nat. Mosc. 36 (2): 217. 
1863; Jacks, in Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 386. 
1393; Koord. & Valet., Bijdr. Kenn. Boomsoirt. Java 7: 175. 1900; 
Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 3'- 131*. 1912; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. 
MaLay. Arch. 51, 91, & 362. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. 



162 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

J[ard, Bot, Buitenz., ser, 3, 3: 27. 1921; Moldenke, Known Geogr, 
Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 61; & 87. l9U2j Jacks, in Hook. f. & 
Jacks., Ind. Kefw., pr. 2, 1: 386. 19U6} H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, 
PI, Life 2: 65. 19li8: Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib, Verbenac, 
ed. 2, IM & 177. 19119; Moldenke RSsumI 189 & UUi. 19$9i Molden- 
ke, R6sum6 Suppl. 1: 13, 16, & 2U. 19^9} Moldenke, Phytologia 7: 
77. 1959; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks,, Ind, Kew., pr, 3, 1: 386. 
I960; Moldenke Biol. Abstr, 3$: 1687—1688. I960; Hocking, Ex- 
cerpt. Bot. k,h'- 592. 1962; Moldenke, R5sum^ Suppl. 13: 6 & 8. 
1966. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having its petioles, leaf -venation, and inflorescence densely 
pubescent, the leaf-blades distinctly rhomboid-ovate, the margins 
very coarsely callose-seirrate except at the acuminate apex and 
long cuneate-acuminate base, and the calyx-rim 5-toothed. 

The type of the variety was collected by Thomas Horsf ield — 
in whose honor it is named — somewhere in Java and is deposited 
in the herbarium of the Botanical Garden at Kharkov State Univer- 
sity in Kharkov, Russia. 

Turczaninow's original description of this taxon is "C. ramis 
tetragonis simplicibus cum petiolis, nervis follorum, atque in- 
florescentia dense pubescentibus; foliis rhombeo-ovatis utrinque 
longe attenuatis, a medio ad apicem grosse et callose serratis, 
in utraque pagina pilis raris conspersis et resinoso-punctatis; 
cymis brevibus petioles parum excedentibus; calycis dentibus 5 
triangularibus majusculis, corollae tubo fere duplo brevioribus; 
staminibus h, pyrenis U apice barbatis, in statu maturo liberis. 
In Java legit Horsf ield. A duabus species, ad & 1 in prodrcmio 
Candollii relatas jam differt dentibus calycinis quinque." Lam 
(1919) describes it as "A shrub, branchlets, petioles and cymes 
densely hairy; branchlets tetragonous; leaves ovate-rhomboid, 
both sides long attenuate, upper half coarsely serrate, sparse- 
ly pubescent on both sides, glandular, densier on nerves; cymes 
small, as long as or somewhat longer than petioles; calyx 5- 
toothed; teeth deltoid, rather large; corolla-tube twice as long 
as the teeth of the calyx; stamens hi ovary hairy at the top. 
Distribution: Java. This very imperfectly described species, of 
which we did not see any specimen, seems to be somewhat doubtful, 
as regards the 5-toothed calyx, of which the teeth are large- 
deltoid." Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) avers that "TJiis 
doubtful species perhaps is to be considered as an abnoimal fom 
of C_. longifolla Lam ^ floccosa Schau." 

Only two photographs of the type collection have been ex- 
amined by me. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Java: Horsfield s.n. (Z — 
photo of type, Z — photo of isotype). 

CALLICARPA LONGIPES Dunn, Journ, Linn, Soc. Lond, Bot, 38: 363. 
1908. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa panduriformis L6veill5 in Fedde, Repert, 
Spec. Nov, 9: li55. 1911. Callicarpa cuspidata Bakh, (in part) 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 163 

apud P'ei, Mem, Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): 17, in syn. 1932 [not C^ 
cuspidata Haask., 1921, nor Ro3d)., l8lli] , Calllcarpa cuspidata 
Lam 4 Bakh. apud Chang, Act, Phytotax. Sin. 1: 27li, in syn. 19$1. 

Bibliography: Dunn, Joum. Linn, Soc. Lond. Bot. 38: 363. 1908j 
L§veill5 in Fedde, Rapert. Spec. Nov. 9: U55. 1911; Prain, Ind, 
Kew. Suppl. k, pr. 1, 3U. 1913; Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. Geaamt- 
verz. $h, 191hi Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, U3. 1921; Bakh. 
in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard, Bot. Buitenz., ser, 3, 3'- 23. 1921; 
Chung, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (1): 226. 192Uj P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. 
China 1 (3): [Verbenac. China] 15, 17—13, 3o, UO, & lH, pl. 1. 
1932; P. Dop, Bull. Soc, Hist. Nat, Toulouse 6U: 508, 1932; Mol- 
denke, Prelim. Aiph. List Invalid Names 10. 19U0; Worsdell, Ind, 
Lond. Suppl. 1: 160. 19iil; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names 8. 
19U2i Moldenke, Known Geogr, Distrib, Verbenac, ed. 1, 56 & 87 
(19U2) and ed, 2, 131 & 177. 19U9} Moldenke, Phytologia 3: 139. 
I9li9; Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: [269], 27li— 275, 309, & 311. 
1951; Moldenke, Phytologia U: 121. 1952; Prain, Ind. Koir. Suppl. 
h, pr. 2, 3h. 1958; Moldenke, R6sum5 168, 21a2, 2li5, & hhh. 1959} 
Prain, Ind. Kew, Suppl. 5, pr. 2, U3. 19o0; Moldenke, Phytologia 
8: 273. 1962; Moldenke, R^stun* Suppl. 1^: 8. 1962; Hocking, Ex- 
cerpt. Bot. A.6: 535. 1963; Moldenke, Phytologia lU: 59, 99, & 
lii2 (1966), 16: 365 (1968), and 21: U9, 5U, 102, 107, & 109. 1971. 

Illustrations: P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. 
China] pl. 1. 1932. 

Perennial heit) or shrub, about 1 m. tall, softly villous 
throughout except for the flowers, usually with simple hairs; 
leaves sessile or subsessile to short-petiolate; petiole (irtien 
present) to 5 nnn. long; leaf -blades jjapyraceous or chartaceous, 
obovate or oblong, k — 13 cm. long, 1.5 — 5.5 cm. wide, acuminate 
at the apex, coarsely mucronate-dentate along the upper margins, 
gradually narrowed from the middle to the rounded or subcordate 
to cordate base, softly villous; secondaries about 7 per side; 
pedxincles slender, 1.2 — 3.5 cm. long, villous-pubescent; cymes 
small, axillary, dense; pedicels to 2 mm. long; calyx 2 mm. 
long, villous-pubescent and glandulose outside, glabrous within, 
the rim U- toothed or -lobed, the lobes or teeth lanceolate, 1,3 
or more mm. long, acute or acuminate at the apex, extending to 
the middle of the calyx; corolla pinkish or red to light-puiple 
or purple, about ii mm, long, puberulent or pubescent outside, 
glabrous within, the tube 3«5 inni. long, slightly oblique, grad- 
ually ampliate above, the limb U-lobed, the lobes 1 mm, long, 
obtuse at the apex; stamens U, inserted near the base of the 
corolla- tube, exserted, 8 — 9 mm. long; anthers oblong, 1.5 mm, 
long, glandulose on the connective; style filiform, surpassing 
the stamens, ampliate at the apex; ovary glandulose; fz*uit 
pale- or deep-lilac. 

This species was based by Dunn on Hongkong Herb. 3390 , col- 
lected in natural woods near Yenpinfe, Fukien, China, in 1905. 
Calllcarpa panduriformis is based on Chaffanjon 23U1 from Kwei- 
chow, China. For a time I considered this taxon to be synony- 
mous with C_. rubella var, hemsleyana Diels, but I now regard it 



16U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

as conspeclfic with £. longipes. Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) 
regards Cj^ longipes as a synonym of C_, cuspidata Roxb., which, 
however, is actually Cj. pediinculata R. Br. The C_. cuspidata ac- 
credited to Hasskarl is C_. longifolia Lam., while that accredited 
to Bsdchuizen van den Brink is in part C_. rubella Lindl, and in 
part C_. longipes. 

Recent collectoi^ have found C. longipes growing in forests, 
mixed woods, and thickets, at altitudes of 700 to 820 meters, 
flowering in June and fruiting in December. They record the ver- 
nacular name '*sai ip un mat". The specific epithet is uppercased 
by some writei^, for no valid reason. The corolla is described 
as "pinkish" on Ching 3230 , "red" on Peng , Tak , & Kin 561, "red- 
dishHThite" on Sin 10020 , "light-purple" on Tsiang 10159, and 
"purple" on H. H. Chung 3370 . 

P'ei (1932y comments that "The Fukien plant, Chung 3370 , has 
coursely dentate leaves which are larger than those of the type 
and of Peng , Tak and Kin 561. The floral characteristics are the 
same in all the specimens cited. This species, as the leaf char- 
acters, concerned closely resembles Gallicarpa Dielsii P'ei dif- 
fereing from it by its long acimiinate calyx lobes and denser pub- 
escence on both sxirfaces of the leaves." He cites a Ching 3230 
from Anhwei and Chun 5689 & 5777 from Kwangtung, dovibtless depos- 
ited in the Arnold Arboretvm herbarium, and an isotype ( Hongkong 
Herb. 3390) in the same herbarium. He notes under what he calls 
C. dielsii that "It appears to me to be closely related to Calli- 
carpa longipes Dunn, the difference being the truncate calyx of 
Callicarpa Dielsii (L6vl.) P'ei irtiile that of C_. longipes Dunn, 
is toothed." We now regard his C. dielsii as a variety of C. 
irubella Lindl,, namely, C, rubella var. dielsii (L5veill6) Li. 

Dop (1932), in describing C. bracteata Dop, says "Cette es- 
pece est voisine du C. longifolia Lam. EUe s'en distingue 
ais&nent par les pSdoncules des cymes beaucoup plus longs, les 
bractfies foliac6es. La longueur du p6doncules la rapprocherait 
du Cj, longipes Dunn de Chine et de Hongkongj mais les feuilles 
longuement attenu6es, la calice a dents tres petites, I'eloign- 
ent nettement du C_. longipes i feuilles arrondies on cordSes a 
la base et a calice divis^ jusqu'au milieu." 

Chang (1951) cites Tse Hai 5U7 and nos. 95, 962, 3370 . 3927 , 
U729, 5689, 5777, |§8U, 7059 , 8666 , 12008 . 21185 , 21320 . 25l5l , 
25319, 31621 , & U3IO3 of collectors and/or herbaria for which he 
gives the names, unfortunately, only in Chinese characters. 

Material of C_. longipes has been misidentified and distributed 
in herbaria under the names C. formosana Rolfe, C. giraldiana 
Pamp., C. longifolia Lam., and C. rubella var, hemsleyana Diels. 

In all. Hi herbarium specimens aind 3 moimted photographs, in- 
cluding type material of both names involved, have been examined 
by me. 



THE GENUS COLUMNEA ( GES NERIACEAE ) IN PANAMA 
C. V. Morton 



I have been working from time to time on Columnea in Panama and 
Costa Rica for many years. My treatment of the Costa Rican species 
was published in Standley's "Flora of Costa Rica" in 1938, but I hav( 
not published a key to the Panamanian species, which are even more 
numerous than the Costa Rican perhaps, although there are several 
Costa Rican species as yet undescribed. It seems that almost every 
new collection from virgin forests in Central America and Colombia 
yields undescribed species. When forests are cleared it appears 
that Columneas are completely exterminated and do not come back in 
secondary growth, which explains why several of the species have 
been found only once, and may never be found again. 

The division of Columnea into sections by Hanstein, Bentham and 
Hooker, and by Fritsch is not wholly satisfactory. The matter needs 
to be considered in depth. Very recently, William T. Stearn 
published a beautifully prepared and documented paper "The Jamaica 
Species of Columnea and Alloplectus (Gesneriaceae)" (Bull. Brit. 
Mus. Nat. Hist. 4 (5): 181-236, t. 14-21 . 1969) in which he pro- 
posed a new alignment of the species. Columnea is restricted to 
the section Columnea itself, in which pollination is by humming 
birds, so far as known, and which is distinguished morphologically 
by having the four anterior corolla lobes united into a galea and 
the posterior lobe narrower and spreading or deflexed. The stamens 
are exserted and the anthers are initially connate. The section 
Cryptocolumnea would obviously belong here also, although Stearn 
does not mention it, for it has exactly the same kind of corolla 
and stamens, and differs only in having the leaves of a pair 
strongly unequal. Stearn refers all the other species to Alloplectu! 
tentatively, but it does not discuss them in detail. 

This is a radical viewpoint, and it does not solve the problems 
by any means, for it leaves Alloplectus very heterogeneous indeed, 
including plants with the corollas erect in the calyx or horizontal, 
bilabiate or regular, contracted in the throat or not; the fruits 
fleshy berries or capsule-like; the disk composed of five glands 
or reduced to one. Most importantly, there is no overall resemblance 
between these " Alloplectus " species, such as ought to characterize 
a genus regardless of individual characters. Moreover, the method 
of pollination of most species of Alloplectus remains to be determin* 
and some may indeed be pollinated by humming birds. For these reasoi 
I am not following Stearn in his definitions. It may be remarked 
that the anthers offer some useful characters, particularly as 
regards the distinction between Alloplectus and Drymonia . 

The chromosome number is n = 9 in those Panamanian species so 
far investigated, namely C. consanguinea , C. hirta , C. nicaraguensis 
C. warscewicz iana , C. sanguinolenta , C. illepida , and C. moorei 

165 



166 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

(cf. Cytogenetic Studies in the Genus Columnea L.. by Lawrence 
Carl Sherk) (MS Thesis, Cornell University, 1960). It should be 
mentioned also that although I have described the stigmas of the 
various species as either stomatomorphic or bilobed the distinction 
is by no means always clear from dried material. This character 
needs to be studied by itself and in more detail, especially from 
fresh specimens. 

The type of Alloplectus Mart, is conserved as A. sparsif lorus 
Mart. That this may not be the best choice will be discussed in a 
future paper by Mr. Hans Wiehler, who has made some valuable contri- 
butions to our knowledge of the relationships of the genera of the 
Tribe Columneae (Cornell University Thesis, 1970, unpublished.) 

Key to the Species of Columnea in Panama 
Corollas regular or if slightly bilabiate the two upper lobes 
erect, only partially connate, the other 3 free, spreading, 
the tube contracted in the throat. 
Leaves of a pair equal or subequal. Corolla ventricose, con- 
tracted in throat sect. I. Stygnanthe 

Leaves of a pair strongly unequal, the smaller less than half 
as long as the larger, sometimes minute and stipule- like . 
Corollas yellow or orange, nearly regular, the lobes subequal; 
flowers usually fasciculate, crowded, subsessile or very 
short-pedicellate, erect, bracteate; terrestrial or 

epiphytic shrubs sect. II. Collandra 

Corollas red, the limb slightly irregular, sometimes with linear 

appendages between the lobes; flowers solitary or paired, 

mostly long-pedunculate; epiphytic, often pendent shrubs. 

CaljTX lobes pectinate-f imbriate; leaf-blades glabrous above. 

sect. III. Stenanthus 
Calyx lobes entire, serrate, or with a few subulate teeth; 

leaf-blades hirsute above..... sect. IV. Ortholoma 

Corollas strongly bilabiate, the four upper lobeff united into a galea, 
this trilobed, the lateral lobes short and spreading, the central 
lobe (composed of the connate uppermost lobes) entire or merely 
emarginate, the lower lobe free, spreading or deflexed, the tube 
not contracted in throat. 
Leaves of a pair equal or subequal. 

Corolla-tube mostly cylindric, not strongly curved, the lower 

lobe deflexed; leaf-blades not more than 5 cm. long, usually 

less (except in C. nicaraguensis ) sect. V. Columnea 

Corolla-tube curved, ventricose, the ' lower lobe spreading; 

leaf-blades 5-12 cm. long sect. VI. Pentadenia 

Leaves of a pair strongly unequal, the smaller less than half 

the size of the larger sect. VII. Crypt ocolumnea 

Sect. I. Stygnanthe 
Disk-glands 5; corolla yellow; peduncles 2-2.5 cm. long, erect. 
Leaf-blades ovate to rhombic, 3.2-6.7 cm. wide; calyx lobes 
s tr ongly serrate 1 . C . rubida 



1971 Morton, The genus Colvcinea in Panama 16? 

Disk reduced to a solitary posterior gland; corollas red or red with 
the three lower lobes yellow; peduncles 3-5 cm. long, pendent. 
Calyx-lobes pectinately incised, with 4-6 pairs of linear lateral 
lobes; leaf-blades broadly elliptic, 10-12 nm. wide; corollas 
with the galea red and the 3 lower lobes yellow. Corolla with 

minute appendages between the lobes 2. C. moorei 

Calyx-lobes subentire; leaf-blades lanceolate, 26-32 mm. wide; 

corollas entirely red 3, C. pendula 

Sect. II. COLLANDRA 
Corolla 40-50 mm. long, about twice as long as the calyx. Leaf- 
blades hirsute on both sides. 
Longest leaf of a pair up to 5 cm. long, glandular-pilose; corollas 
orange, the tube pilose, the lobes yellow, unspotted. 

4. C. trans lucens 
Longest leaf of a pair up to 16 cm. long, hirsute but not glandular; 
corolla yellow, the lobes red-spotted at base. 
Corolla-tube pilose; leaves green on both sides, not red-spotted 

beneath 5 . C . silvarum 

Corolla-tube entirely glabrous; leaves red beneath at apex or 

sometimes all over 6. £, perpulchra 

Corollas only slightly or not at all exserted from the calyx. 

Leaf blades pilose or hirsute on the upper surface. Calyx- lobes 
f imbriate -pectinate ; leaves toothed. 
Leaves with red tips beneath; calyx- lobes about 15 mm. long; 

corollas about 17 mm. long /. c. pectinata 

Leaves not red-spotted beneath; calyx-iobes and corollas about 

30 mm. long 8. C. purpura ta 

Leaf blades glabrous on the upper surface, or only sparingly and 
deciduously strigillose, entire. 
Leaves not red beneath. Calyx- lobes serrate. 9. c. darienensis 
Leaves red-spotted beneath below apex. ~ 

Calyx-lobes deeply pectinate -fimbriate. 10. C. florida 

Caljoc-lobes entire or serrate. ~ 

Stems hirsute; calyx-lobes hirsute; leaf-blades thick. 

11. C. crassa 
Stems strigose; calyx-lobes substrigose; leaf-blades 
chartaceous . 

Corollas densely sericeous 12. C. consanguinea 

Corollas sparsely glandular-pilose 13. C. conferta 

Sect. III. STEMNTHUS 
Leaves glandular-denticulate, often red-spotted beneath; stems 

strigose 14, C. sanguinolenta 

Leaves acutely serrate, not red-spotted; stems villous. 

15 . £. serrata 

Sect. IV. ORTHOLOMA 
Corollas with linear appendages between the lobes. 



168 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

Corolla-tube sparingly pilose, with most of the surface visible, 
the tube upwardly with dark lines descending from the sinuses, 
and the lobes dark margined; calyx- lobes ca. 17 mm. long, 
green; leaves rose beneath 16. C. illepida 

Corolla-tube densely tomentose, the surface not visible; calyx- 
lobes 25-30 mm. long; leaves green beneath. ... 17. C. dissimilis 
Corollas lacking appendages between the lobes. 

Leaf -blades ob lanceolate , green beneath; peduncles 15-45 mm. long; 
corollas 40-55 mm. long 18. C. warscewicziana 

Leaf -blades lanceolate, purple beneath; peduncles very short; 

corollas 37-40 mm. long 19. £. ochroleuca 

Sect. V, COLUMNEA 
Corollas densely sericeous externally, the tube not much exceeding 
the cal3rx; leaf-blades 7-12 cm. long, minutely strigillose on 
the upper surface; filaments puberulous . . . . 20. C. nicaraguensis 
Corollas sparsely pilose externally, the tube mostly ranch exceeding 
the calyx; leaf-blades 2-5 cm. long; filaments glabrous (except 
in C. pa na mens is and C. mortonii ) . 
Leaf -blades hairy on the upper surface. 

Calyx-lobes ovate- lanceolate, broadest near the base, deeply 
toothed. 
Corollas 40-45 mm. long; leaf-blades densely tomentose. 

21. £, tomentulosa 
Corollas 50-60 mm. long; leaf-blades sparingly strigose. 

22. C. flaccida 
Calyx-lobes narrowed toward base, entire or with 1 or~2 short 
teeth on each side; corollas (50)65-85 mm. long. 
Stems strigose; calyx-lobes entire. Filaments pilosulous; 
leaf-blades densely strigose-pilose on both sides. 

23. C^. panamensis 
Stems spreading pilose or villous; calyx lobes toothed (except 
in C . localis ) . 
Calyx- lobes linear- lanceolate or narrowly elongate-triangular. 
Calyx- lobes with 2 pairs of prominent teeth, ca . 15 mm. 
long; filaments nearly glabrous; corollas ca . 70 mm. 
long; peduncle-bracts linear; leaf-blades oblong, more 

than twice as long as broad 24. C. hirta 

Calyx- lobes with 1 pair of inconspicuous teeth, 10-12 mm. 
long; filaments strongly glandular-pilose; corollas 
80-85 mm. long; peduncle-bracts deltoid, leaf-blades 
ovate, less than twice as long as broad. 25. C. mortonii 

Calyx-lobes broadly obovate 26. C. localis 

Leaf-blades glabrous on the upper surface. 
Stems stiffly hispid. 

Calyx green, 20-23 mm. long, the lobes with 3 or 4 teeth on 

each side; corollas 70 mm. long; leaf -blades thin, the veins 
prominent beneath 27. C. consimilis 



1971 Morton, The gen\is Colxmnea in Panama I69 

Calyx red, 15 mm. long, the lobes with 5 or 6 teeth on each 

side; corollas 45-60 mm. long; leaf-blades thick, the veins 

obscure on both s ides 28 . C . arguta 

Stems strigose. 

Ovary glabrous, except at apex; corollas 40-45 mm. long, 
slender, 5-7 mm. wide in throat. 
Calyx- lobes red, toothed in the lower part, prominently 

pilose on midribs and margins; leaf-blades sharp-pointed, 

red beneath 29. C. billbergiana 

Calyx-lobes green, inconspicuously glandular-denticulate, 
only sparsely pilosulous; leaf-blades merely acutish, 

green 30. C. percrassa 

Ovary densely sericeous or tomentose throughout; corollas 
(50)60-80 mm. long, 7-15 mm. side in throat. 
Calyx-lobes toothed, the teeth short, broad-based. 

Leaf-blades ovate, obtuse or acutish, 10-16 mm. long. 

31. C. oerstediana 
Leaf -blades lanceolate or ova te - lanceo la te , acuminate, 

20-33 mm. long 32. C. tenuis 

Calyx-lobes entire. 

Calyx-lobes 12-18 mm. long, about 6 mm. wide; lower lobe 

of the corolla 14-17 mm. long 33. C. obliqua 

Calyx- lobes 22-30 mm. long, about 10 mm. wide; lower 

lobe of the corolla 27-30 mm. long 34. C. allenii 

Sect. VI. PENTADENIA 
Leaf -blades densely tomentose above, deep violet beneath; corollas 

4 cm. long; disk-glands 5 35. C. nervosa 

Leaf-blades glabrous or sparingly appressed-pilose above, green or 
reddish beneath; corollas 6-7 cm. long; disk-gland 1. 
Ca^yx- lobes hirsute, ovate- lanceolate , about 5 mm. wide at base. 

36. C. magnif ica 

Calyx- lobes cilia te, otherwise glabrous, ovate, about 15 mm. wide 

near base 37 . C . incarnata 

Sect. VII. CRYPTOCOLUMNEA 
Leaf -blades more or less hairy on the upper surface. 

Corollas yellow, conspicuously purple-spotted within limb. Calyx- 
lobes ovate-lanceolate, deeply laciniate-toothed ; filaments 

pilosulous upwardly 38. C. maculata 

Corollas red, unspotted, the throat sometimes yellow within. 
Corolla-tube densely white-sericeous ; calyx- lobes lanceolate 

or ovate- lanceolate, 7-9 mm. wide, white-sericeous, especiall; 
on the midrib; leaf-blades minutely strigillose above. 

20. C. nicaraguensis 
Corolla-tube sparsely pilose; calyx-lobes linear, about 2.5 mm. 
wide, red -hirsute; leaf -blades densely hirsute above. 

39. C. hirsutissima 
Leaf-blades glabrous on the upper surface. Corollas yellow, or 
yellow lined with rose; filaments glabrous. 



170 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

Calyx-lobes greenish-yellow, ovate-lanceolate, 30-45 mm. long 
and 12-14 mm. wide; leaf -blades 20-27 cm. long. 

46, C. citrina 
Calyx-lobes red, linear-lanceolate, 19 mm. long, 5 mm. wide 
glandular-serrate; leaf-blades up to 14 cm. long. 

41. £. rubra 

1. Columnea rubida (Morton) Morton, Baileya 7: 58. 1959. 

Alloplectus rubidus Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 24: 204. 1937. 

Plants sublignose, the stems ascending, unbranched, about 6 mm. 
in diameter, pilose near apex; leaves clustered near apex, those of 
a pair subequal, petiolate; petioles up to 1.7 cm. long, densely 
pilose; leaf-blades ovate or subrhombic, up to 16 cm. long, 3.2-6.7 
cm. wide, membranous, acute or acuminate, decurrent into the petiole, 
reddish on both sides, obviously serrate-denticulate, pilose above, 
the hairs reddish, flaccid, multicellular, pilose beneath on the veins, 
substrigose on the surface, the hairs rigid, 2-celled, the basal cell 
short, reddish, the terminal cell white, large, acuminate, the lateral 
veins 8 or 9 pairs; flowers solitary; peduncles 2-2.5 cm. long, 
pilose, ebracteate; calyx red, about 15 mm. long, the lobes equal, 
erect, lanceolate, about 5 mm. wide at base, subulate-acuminate, 
long-pilose externally, pilosulous within, obviously serrate, the 
teeth about 5 on each side, subulate; corollas yellow, erect, 33-38 
mm. long, not spurred at base, about 5.5 mm. in diameter above base, 
ventricose at the middle and about 10 mm. wide, contracted in throat, 
here about 7 mm. wide, strigose externally, pilosulous within at 
base, glabrous upwardly, the limb a little oblique, slightly irregular, 
the two upper lobes connate throughout into a galea 2.5 mm. long and 
8 mm. wide, this truncate, lightly undulate, the lateral lobes rounded, 
free, semiorbicular , about 2.5 mm. long and 4 mm. wide at base, erect, 
the lower lobe erect, semiorbicular, mucronate at apex; filaments 
sparsely pilosulous; anthers free, 2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide; ovary 
long-pilose; style glabrous; disk glands 5. 

TYPE: Valley of Upper Rio Chiriqui Viejo, in the vacinity of Monte 
Lirio, Seibert 141. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 1300-1900 meters. 
CHIRIQUI: Southwestern slopes of Volcin Baru, in cloud forest 
at 1,500 m. , Summer, 1968, Butcher . 

This is one of the species that does not fit comfortably into either 
Alloplectus or Columnea . I do not believe that any Alloplectus 
species have five disk glands, but there are some Columneas that 
do, and consequently the closer alliance may be with Columnea , which 
is shown also by the erect, unspurred corollas. A species from 
Chiapas, still undescribed, appears allied. 

2. Columnea moorei Morton, Baileya 7: 55, f . 15 . . 1959. 

Trichantha moorei (Morton) Morton, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 38: 
10. 1963. 
Stems succulent, scandent, at least 30 cm. long and probably much 
more, unbranched (except probably at base), probably not radicant at 
the nodes, the internodes very short, about 1 cm. long, fleshy. 



1971 Morton, The genus Colvmnea in Panana I7I 

minutely strigillose with sharp-pointed, 2-celled, appressed hairs 
and also with a few multicellular hairs toward the apex, glabrescent, 
bearing 2 pairs of conspicuous glands (these often coalescent in 
pairs) at each node between the leaves and just below a "stipular" 
line; leaves thick-fleshy, dark green and shining above, light green 
beneath, obviously decussate, those of a pair equal, short-petiolate ; 
petioles 3 mm. long, 1 mm. thick, glabrate; leaf-blades broadly 
elliptic, very uniform in size, 14-16 mm. long, 10-12 mm. wide, 
obtuse at base and apex, almost entire but with one or two low, 
broad, inconspicuous crenations on each side, almost glabrous, 
bearing a few, minute, appressed hairs beneath especially on the 
midrib, the margins obviously ciliolate with several-celled hairs; 
flowers solitary in an axil, bibracteate, the bracts minute, linear, 
1-2 mm. long, deciduous, pilosulous; peduncles arching, curved at 
apex, 30-45 mm. long, slender, 1 mm. thick at base, becoming enlarged 
and 2-3 mm. thick at apex, red, conspicuously long-setose-pilose, the 
hairs red, 2-3 mm. long, many-celled, spreading at right angles; 
calyx green, 5-parted, the lobes erect, equal, 12-15 mm. long, 8-11 
mm. wide including the teeth, conspicuously and deeply pectinately 
parted, the central portion of the lobe lanceolate, about 3 nm. wide, 
the teeth 4-6 pairs, linear, spreading horizontally, the basal ones 
about 3-4 mm. long, the uppermost about 2 mm. long, all 0.8-1 mm. 
wide just above the base, conspicuously red-gland-tipped, the body 
and teeth externally conspicuously long-red-hirsute, the hairs 2-4 
mm. long, many-celled, sharp-pointed, and also with a few, appressed, 
white, sharp-pointed, 2-celled hairs, within nearly glabrous but 
with a few stiff red hairs and also slightly glandular; corolla 
suberect in calyx, red (except the lobes), 50-55 mm. long, gibbous 
at the posterior base, the gibbosity 3 mm. wide, the tube 3-4 mm. 
wide just above base, gradually enlarged upwardly but only slightly 
ventricose, 10-11 mm. wide near apex, sparsely but conspicuously 
hirsute externally, the hairs 4-6 mm. long, red, many-celled, sharp- 
pointed, horizontally spreading, and also with minute, spreading 
hairs, glabrous within except toward throat, where conspicuously 
glandular-pilosulous , the throat only slightly contracted, the limb 
slightly bilabiate, the two upper lobes erect, red with narrow yellow 
margins, rounded, 4 mm. long, connate for about 2 mm., sparsely 
ciliolate, glabrous within at apex but strongly capitate-glandular 
lower down, the three lateral lobes clear yellow, not red-margined, 
slightly plicate at the angles between the lobes, erect, subequal, 
subdeltoid, about 5-6 mm. wide at the base and 5 mm. long, sparsely 
hirsute externally, more or less ciliate, glabrous within and not 
capitate-glandular, the appendages in the sinuses between the lobes 
yellow, small and hardly discernible in dried specimens; stamens 
attached to the corolla at the very base, the filaments pale yellow- 
ish white, connate at base for 4-5 mm., free upwardly, somewhat 
curved but not contorted, glabrous, the anthers slightly exserted 
from the corolla tube, all four permanently connate, subquadrate, 
about 1 mm. long and wide, the cells oblong, fully dehiscent 



172 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

longitudinally, glabrous; staminodium none; ovary oblong in outline, 
4-4.5 mm. long, densely white-sericeous; style white, straight, 
5-5.5 cm. long, exserted, pilosulous; stigma bilobed; disk reduced, 
to a solitary posterior gland, this white, thick, fleshy, not 
bilobed, ca . 1-1.5 mm. wide, 1.5-2 mm. long. 

TYPE: Panama, cultivated at Bailey Hortorium, Moore in 1958 (US). 

RANGE: Known only from the original material, of unknown origin. 

3. Columnea pendula (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 397. 1865. 

Ortholoma pendulum Klotzsch. ex Oerst. Centra lamer. Gesner. 
52. 1858. 

Stems pilose at apex; leaves of a pair subequal, subsessile, 
leaf -blades obliquely lanceolate, 7.5-10 cm. long, 2.6-3.2 cm. wide, 
acuminate, rounded at base, subentire, strigose-hirtous above, 
pubescent beneath, sometimes reddish beneath; flowers solitary (?); 
peduncles 5 cm. long or more, pendulous, puberulous; calyx about 
16 mm. long, the lobes linear-lanceolate, long-acuminate, subentire, 
pubescent; corolla red, about 50 mm. long, the tube about 6 mm. in 
diameter at base, ventricose, becoming 14-16 mm. in diameter, con- 
tracted in throat and there 10-12 mm. wide, nearly glabrous, the 
limb only a little irregular, 18 mm. wide, the two upper lobes yellow, 
partly connate, erect, rounded, the three other lobes subequal, 
spreading, rounded; ovary pilose; disk reduced to a single posterior 
gland. 

TYPE: Veraguas , Panama, Warscewicz . The holotype in Berlin was 
destroyed. 

RANGE: Known only from the type. This species can be fully known 
only if new material is discovered. 

4. Columnea translucens Raymond, Bot. Notis. 114: 351, f. 4,5 . 1961. 
Epiphytic subshrub, the branches subrigid, horizontal, short, 

stout, 3-4 mm. thick, densely covered with glandular hairs and orange- 
red, multicellular hairs; leaves of a pair unequal, petiolate; petioles 
4-5 mm. long, densely hirsute and glandular; larger leaf-blades 
elliptic-oblong, up to 5 cm. long, 2-3 cm. wide, acuminate, strongly 
oblique at base, the margins incurved, the smaller similar but only 
1.2-2 cm. long and 1 cm. wide; flowers 1-3 in an axil, pedunculate; 
peduncles 2-4 cm. long, hirsute and glandular; calyx green, the lobes 
free, subequal, irregular, remotely toothed, the margins incurved, 
outside hirsute and glandular; corollas orange, translucent, oblique 
in calyx, much exceeding calyx, 40-50 mm. long, tubular, the base 
slightly gibbous, the tube becoming 9-11 mm. wide, the limb sub- 
regular, the 5 lobes lemon-yellow, triangular, 5 mm. long, incurved; 
filaments slender, glabrous, shortly united at base; anthers orbicular; 
ovary white-pilose; stigma bilobed; disk reduced to a single posterior 
gland. [Description adapted from Raymond] 

TYPE: Panama, ex Mrs. M. Cogswell, cultivated in the Montreal 
Botanical Garden, no. 2940-59, Raymond (MTJB, not seen). 

RANGE: Known from the original material only, of unknown origin. 



1971 Morton, The genus Colxmnea in Panama 173 

5. Columnea silvarum Morton, Ann, Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 53. 1942. 
Stems 0.6-3.6 meters long, thick, densely red-hispid; leaves of 

a pair unequal, the larger subsessile; petioles thick, about 2 mm. 
long; leaf-blades oblong, up to 16 cm. long and 5.5 cm. wide, 
abruptly short-acuminate, strongly unequal and oblique at base, not 
amplexicaul, glandular-denticulate, green and pilosulous above, 
green beneath and hirsute on the veins, the lateral veins about 10 
pairs, prominulous; smaller leaf of a pair stipule- like , lanceolate, 
sessile, about 1 cm. long and 4 mm. wide, acuminate, oblique at base, 
green; inflorescences 2-or 3-f lowered, bracteate, the bracts linear- 
subulate, about 8 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, entire; peduncles 15-25 mm. 
long, slender, densely red-hirsute; calyx 20-25 mm. long, the lobes 
linear-subulate, subequal, about 3 mm. wide at base, long-acuminate, 
remotely laciniate, the teeth about 3 on each side, 2 mm. long, red- 
hirsute on both sides; corollas yellow, the lobes purple at base, 
40-45 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 4 nun. in diameter 
above base, enlarged upwardly and a little ventricose, becoming 10 
mm. wide, a little contracted in throat, this 7 mm. wide, sparsely 
pilose externally, pilosulous within at base, the limb subregular, 
about 1 cm. wide, the lobes spreading, suborbicular , about 3 mn. long, 
rounded, the two upper slightly connate, glabrous within; filaments 
glabrous; anthers exserted, coherent, about 2 mm. long and wide; 
ovary sericeous; style glabrous; stigma shortly bilobed, sparsely 
glandular-pilosulous . 

TYPE: Cafta-Cuasi Trail, Chepigana District, Darien, Panama, 
Terry 1566. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 600 to 1500 meters. 
DARIEN: Catta-Cuasi Trail, Chepigana District, Terry 1499. 

6. Columnea perpulchra Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 51. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems unbranched, about 7 mm. in diameter 

toward base, becoming 2.5 mm. in diameter upwardly, densely brown- 
hirsute, the hairs often 6 mm. long; leaves of a pair strongly un- 
equal, the larger subsessile; petioles scarcely 2 mm. long; leaf- 
blades oblong-ob lanceolate , up to 16 cm. long and 4.7 cm. wide, 
abruptly short-acuminate, strongly oblique at base but not auriculate 
or amplexicaul, serrulate, green and pilose above, hirsute beneath 
and red at apex, or red or red-spotted throughout, the lateral veins 
about 11 pairs, prominulous beneath; smaller leaf of a pair stipule- 
like, sessile, ovate, up to 2 cm. long and 1 cm. wide, sharply long- 
acuminate, strongly oblique at base and auriculate and subamplexicaul 
on the lower side, hirsute on both sides, red beneath at apex; 
flowers paired, bracteate, the bracts lance-subulate, about 7 mm. 
long, entire, acuminate, green, hirsute; peduncles slender, about 
20 mm. long, hirsute; calyx pale green, about 20 mm. long, the lobes 
lanceolate, 3 mm. wide (excluding teeth), acuminate, pilose externally, 
glabrous within, laciniate, the teeth subulate, up to 3 mm. long, 
about 6 on each side; corollas yellow, the lobes scarlet at base, 
about 40 mm. long, spurred at base, the tube 3.5 mm. in diameter above 
base, abruptly deflexed and ventricose, becoming 8 mm. wide, glabrous 



17U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

on both sides, a little contracted in throat, this 7 mm. wide, 
the limb subregular, the lobes reflexed, sparsely strigose externally, 
the 2 upper connate for about 2 mm., the others free, suborbicular , 
rounded, all about 5 mm. long, glabrous within; filaments glabrous; 
anthers included, connate, about 2 mm. long and wide; ovary nearly 
glabrous; style glabrous; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: El Valle de Anton, Code, Panama, Allen 2305. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 40 to 1000 meters. 
COLON: Rio Fato Valley, Pittier 4209. 

7. Columnea pectinata Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 50. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems pendent, 1 meter long, about 8 mm. in 

diameter, gray-hirsute when young; leaves of a pair unequal, the 
larger subsessile; petioles scarcely 2 mm. long, hirsute; leaf -blades 
oblong-falcate, up to 13 cm. long and 5 cm. wide, abruptly acuminate, 
strongly oblique at base, subauriculate on the lower side, succulent, 
sharply serrate toward apex, green and hirsute above, paler beneath 
and scarlet tinged toward apex, densely hirsute, the lateral veins 
8-10 pairs; smaller leaves of a pair stipule-like, sessile, lanceolate, 
about 1.7 cm. long, auriculate at lower side, hirsute; inflorescence 
several-flowered; peduncles about 5 mm. long, densely hirsute; calyx 
red, about 15 mm. long, the lobes subequal, about 3 mm. wide, 
pectinate-toothed, the teeth 5 or 6 on each side, subulate, up to 
4 mm. long, densely hirsute on both sides, the hairs hyaline, multi- 
cellular, capitate-glandular; corolla orange, only slightly exserted 
from calyx, about 17 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 
about 4.5 mm. in diameter above base, a little ventricose upwardly 
and becoming 6.5 mm. wide, contracted and 5 mm. wide in throat, 
white-pilose externally, the limb regular, 7 mm. wide, glabrous 
within, the lobes spreading, suborbicular, about 3 mm. long, rounded; 
filaments glabrous; anthers included, coherent in pairs, 1.5 mm. 
long, 2 mm. wide; ovary white-sericeous; style glabrous; stigma 
stomatomorphic. 

TYPE: El Valle de Anton, Code, Panama, Allen 2394. 

RANGE: Known only from the type locality. 

COCLE: El Valle de Anton, Allen 1787,2177,2919,2944,4479. 

8. Columnea purpurata Hanst. Linnaea 34: 386. 1865. 

Plants epiphytic or terrestrial, 1.2-1.8 m. long, the stems woody, 
unbranched, 6-10 mm. in diameter, densely yellowish-hirsute; leaves 
clustered at apex of stem, those of a pair strongly unequal, the 
larger short-petiolate; petioles 10-15 mm. long, densely hirsute; 
leaf-blades oblanceolate, 13-30 cm. long, 4-10 cm. wide, long- 
acuminate, cuneate and strongly unequal at base, serrulate, the 
teeth 40 to a side or more, pilose on both sides, not red or red- 
spotted beneath, the lateral veins 9-11 pairs; smaller leaf of a 
pair sessile, ovate, oblique, up to 3 cm. long and 10 mm. wide, 
long-acuminate, deeply toothed, hirsute; flowers fasciculate in 
upper axils, peduncles very short, bracteate, the bracts scarlet, 
elliptic or lanceolate, about 30 mm. long and 15 mm. wide, long- 
pilose externally, strigose within, spinulose-toothed, the teeth 



1971 Morton, The genus Coluninea in Panama 17$ 

subulate, elongate, 4 or 5 to a side; bractlets similar but smaller; 
calyx scarlet, 30 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate, 5 mm. wide near 
base, long-acuminate, long-pilose externally, strigose within, 
spinulose-toothed, the teeth long-red-pilose, 3 or 4 on each side; 
corollas yellow, 30 mm. long, the tube 4 mm. wide above base, slightly 
ventricose and becoming 7 mm. in diameter, contracted toward throat, 
densely brown-sericeous externally, glabrous within, the limb narrow, 
regular, about 6 mm. wide, the lobes subequal erect, 4 mm. long, 3 mm. 
wide, sericeous externally, glabrous within; filaments glabrous at 
base, pilosulous upwardly; anthers connate, 2 mm. long and wide; 
ovary long-pilose; style glabrous. 

SYNTYPES : Costa Rica, Wend land 548, Warscewicz 242, Valentini, s.n. 
RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 50-1500 meters. 

CANAL ZONE: Barro Colorado Island, Stand ley 31393. 

DARIEN: Cafta, Stern et al . 466; Paca, near Cafta , Williams 802; 
between Pinogana and Yavisa, Allen 285. 

PANAMA: Hayes 955. 

9. Columnea darienensis Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 46. 1942. 
Shrub 1.5-4.5 m. high, the stems scarcely branched, about 3 mm. in 

diameter toward apex, densely strigose; leaves of a pair strongly 
unequal, the larger petiolate; petioles 10-14 mm. long, strigose; 
leaf-blades ob lanceolate , 16-23 cm. long, 4-5.5 cm. wide, acuminate, 
oblique and broadly cuneate at base, not amplexicaul, entire, green 
and glabrous above, paler beneath, not red-spotted, strigose, especially 
on the veins, the lateral veins 7 pairs, obscure above; smaller leaf 
of a pair stipule-like, minute, lanceolate, 1-1.5 cm. long, 3-5 mm. 
wide, acuminate, glabrous above, strigose beneath, soon deciduous; 
inflorescence few-flowered, the bracts ovate, about 17 mm. long, 
acuminate, entire, probably red; peduncles about 5 mm. long, thick, 
strigose; calyx probably red, ca. 17 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate, 
5 mm. wide near base, acuminate, glandular-serrulate, the teeth about 
7 on each side, strigose externally on the midrib and margins, 
glabrous within; corollas orange-scarlet, 24 mm. long, the tube 3 
nm. wide above base, upwardly a little ventricose, and becoming 5 
mm. in diameter, a little contracted in the throat and here 4.5 mm. 
wide, densely yellowish strigose externally, the limb small, scarcely 
irregular, about 5 mm. wide, the lobes erect, suborbicular , rounded, 
the three lower about 1 mm. long, the two upper 2 mm. long, partly 
connate; filaments glabrous; anthers 1.5 mm. long and wide; ovary 
strigose at apex; style glabrous. 

TYPE: Cerro de Garagar^ Sanbu Basin, Darien, Panama, Pittier 5660. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 500 to 1650 meters. 
DARIEN: Cafta-Cuasi Trail, Chepigana District, Terry 1547. 

10. Columnea florida Morton, Journ. Washington Acad. Sci. 27: 310. 1937. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems thick, about 1 cm. in diameter, the young 

ones hirsute, the hairs flaccid, multicellular; leaves of a pair 
strongly unequal, the larger short-petiolate ; petioles thick, about 
1 cm. long, densely hiruste; leaf-blades ob lanceolate , up to 35.5 cm. 
long and 10.5 cm. wide, sharply short-acuminate, obtuse and oblique 
at base, entire, glabrous above or with a few hairs toward base. 



176 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

appressed-pilose beneath, the costa hirsute at base, paler beneath, 
conspicuously red-spotted toward apex, the lateral veins about 12 
pairs; smaller leaf o£ a pair subsessile, narrowly elliptic, about 
3 cm. long, 6-7 mm. wide, long-acuminate, glabrous above, densely 
pilose beneath, the veins obscure; flowers fasciculate, few to many; 
peduncles thick, up to 10 mm. long, densely hirsute, bracteate at 
middle, the bracts small, lanceolate, densely hirsute; calyx 23 nm. 
long, the lobes ovate, ca. 10 mm. wide near base, densely hirsute on 
both sides, pectinate-incised, the teeth numerous, narrowly linear, 
green, green-hirsute; corollas yellow, thick, ca. 25 mm. long, the 
tube 5.5 mm. wide at base, not constricted above base, ventricose, 
becoming 9 mm. wide, densely brown-hirsute externally, sparsely 
puberulous within, a little contracted in throat, this scarcely 5 mm. 
wide, the limb nearly regular, about 5 mm. wide, the lobes small, 
erect, suborbicular , about 2.5 ran. long and 3 mm. wide, glabrate; 
filaments pilosulous; anthers connate in pairs, oblong, 3 mm. long, 
1.3 mm. wide; ovary densely pilose; style pilosulous; stigma slightly 
bilobed. 

TYPE: El General, Prov. San Jose, Costa Rica, 915 m. , Skutch 2436. 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 500 to 1100 meters. 
DARIEN: Cerro de Garagard, Sambu Basin, Pittier 5664. 

11. Columnea crassa Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 29: 45. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems ca, 0.75 m. long, about 10 mm. in 

diameter, densely hirsute, the hairs brown, thin, multicellular; 
leaves of a pair unequal, the larger petiolate; petioles about 8 mm. 
long, very thick, densely hirsute; leaf -blades narrowly ob lanceolate, 
subfalcate, 13-21 cm. long, 3-5 cm. wide, long-acuminate, strongly 
oblique at base, succulent, entire, green and glabrous above, densely 
yellow-strigose beneath, bearing one or two red spots about 5.5 cm. 
below apex, the primary veins about 8 pairs; smaller leaf of a pair 
stipule-like, sessile, narrowly lanceolate, about 2.5 cm. long and 
8 mm. wide, auricula te at lower base and amplexicaul, green, glabrous 
above, strigose beneath; flowers solitary (?), subsessile; calyx 
16-20 mm. long, the lobes subequal, 4-7 mm. wide, acuminate, glandular- 
serrate, the teeth many, appressed-hirsute externally, subglabrous 
within except the hirsute midrib; corollas unknown. 

TYPE: Cerro Campana, Prov. Panama, Panama, 1000 m. , Allen 2423. 

RANGE: Known only from the type. 

12. Columnea consanguinea Hanst. Linnaea 34: 383. 1865. 

Plants terrestrial or epiphytic, the stems unbranched, 0.9-1.2 
meters long, 3-5 mm. in diameter, closely sericeous-strigose; leaves 
of a pair unequal, the larger short-petiolate; petioles ca. 1 cm. 
long, sericeous; leaf -blades narrowly oblanceolate, 9-25 cm. long, 
3.5-6 cm. wide, short -acuminate , oblique at base, rounded at lower 
base, cuneate at upper, entire, green and glabrous above, strigose 
and red-spotted beneath, the spots often large and elongate, the 
lateral veins 6 or 7 pairs; smaller leaf of a pair stipule-like, 
linear- lanceolate, 1.5-2.5 cm. long, 5-7 mm. wide, long-acuminate, 
entire; flowers several in an axil, bracteate, the bracts persistent. 



1971 Morton, The genus Columnea in Panama 177 

yellowish, ovate- lanceolate, 1.5-2 cm. long, 6-8 ram. wide, entire, 
glabrous above, strigose beneath; peduncles erect, short, ca . 5 mm. 
long; calyx ca. 16-20 mm. long, green, the lobes equal, lanceolate, 
acuminate, narrowed toward base, 2.5-4.5 mm. wide near middle, entire 
or a little serrulate, the teeth few, minute, strigose externally, 
nearly glabrous within; corollas yellow, 23 mm. long, the tube 5 mm. 
wide near base, not enlarged upwardly, slightly contracted in throat 
and here 4 mm. wide, densely sericeous externally, minutely glandular- 
pilosulous within, the limb regular, 4.5 mm. wide, the lobes erect, 
equal, 1.8 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide, sericeous externally, glabrous 
within; filaments glabrous; anthers 1.5 mm, long and wide; ovary 
pilose; style glabrous; stigma stomatomorphic . 
TYPE: Turrialba, Cof^ta Rica, Wend land 509. 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 1200 to 2100 meters. 
BOCAS DEL TORO: Robalo Trail, northern slopes of Cerro de la 
Horqueta, Allen 4924. 

CHIRIQUI: Bajo Chorro, Woodson & Schery 651, Davidson 57 ; Bajo 
Mono, Allen 4788. 

It is somewhat doubtful if these Panamanian specimens are properly 
referable to C. consanguinea , for they have the pubescence of the 
leaves appressed, whereas the typical Costa Rican specimens have a 
spreading type of pubescence. 
13. Columnea conferta Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 44. 1942. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems 0.6-1.2 m. long, not branched, about 
7 mm. in diameter, strigose, soon glabrous; leaves crowded at apex 
of stem, those of a pair strongly unequal; petioles up to 4 mm. long, 
strigose; larger leaf-blades ob lanceolate, subfalcate, 28-32 cm. long, 
6.5-7 cm. wide, short-acuminate, strongly oblique at base, remotely 
serrulate, green and glabrous above, sparsely strigose beneath, bearing 
two red spots about 7 cm. below apex, the lateral veins 10-12 pairs; 
smaller leaf of a pair stipule-like, deciduous; inflorescence few- 
flowered, bracteate, the bracts linear, about 2.5 cm. long and 8 mm. 
wide, long-acuminate, short-petiolate, entire, green; peduncles ca. 
9 ran. long, densely strigose; calyx ca. 23 mm. long, the lobes pale, 
subequal, ovate, about 10 mm. wide near base, sharply long-acuminate, 
substrigose externally, nearly glabrous within, glandular-serrate, the 
teeth minute, about 10 on each side; corollas yellow, lined withm 
with red posteriorly, ca . 40 mm. long, a little saccate at base, the 
tube about 3 mm. in diameter above base, enlarged but not ventricose 
upwardly, becoming 9 ran. wide, sparsely glandular-pilose externally, 
glabrous within, scarcely contracted in throat, the limb oblique, 
probably slightly bilabiate, the lobes subequal, about 6 mm. long, 
glabrous within; filaments glabrous; anthers not exserted, coherent, 
about 1.8 mm. long and wide; ovary sparsely pilose; style glabrous; 
stigma stomatomorphic, glabrous. 

TYPE: Cafta-Cuasi Trail, Chepigana District, Darien, 1650 m. , 
Terry 1554. 

RANGE: Known only from the type. 



178 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 21, no. 3 

14. Columnea sanguinolenta (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 389. 1865. 

S tenanthus sanguinolentus Kiotzsch ex Oerst. Dansk. Vid. Selsk. 

Skrivt. V. 5: 123. 1861. 
Stenanthus squarrosus Klotzsch ex Oerst. loc. cit . (type from 

Veraguas , Panama , Warscewicz ) . 
Co lumnea costaricensis Kuntze, Rev. Gen. Plant, 2: 471. 1891. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems unbranched, about 3 mm. in diameter, 
densely strigose near apex; leaves of a pair strongly unequal, the 
larger short-petiolate ; petioles about 4 mm. long, strigose; leaf- 
blades oblanceolate, up to 12 cm. long and 2.5-3.5 cm. wide, acuminate, 
rounded and oblique at base, remotely glandular -denticulate, glabrous 
above, strigose beneath on veins and surface, often red-spotted beneath 
(2-6 spots 1.5-3 cm. below apex), the lateral veins 5-7 pairs; smaller 
leaf of a pair stipule-like, subsessile, lanceolate, 5-22 mm. long, 
2.5-6 mm. wide, acuminate, glabrous above, strigose beneath, green, 
subentire; flowers solitary or paired; peduncles 15-45 ran. long, 
long-hirsute, the hairs reddish, multicellular, bracteate at base, 
the bracts sessile, lanceolate, acuminate, glabrous above, strigose 
beneath, green; calyx green or red, 25-30 mm. long, the lobes ovate 
in outline, 22-26 mm. wide (including teeth), the central portion 
4.5-5 nmi. wide, hirsute externally, glabrous within, deeply pectinate- 
lac iniate, the teeth 8-10 on each side, linear-subulate 8-10 mm. long, 
0.8-1 mm. wide at base, long-hirsute, the hairs reddish, multicellular; 
corollas scarlet, ca. 40 mm. long, the tube 4 mm. wide near base, 
strongly ventricose, becoming 13 mm. wide, contracted toward throat, 
this 8 mm. wide, sparsely long-pilose externally, glabrous within, 
the limb subregular, 10-12 mm. wide, the lobes slightly unequal, about 
5 mm. long, 3.5-4 mm. wide, glabrous within, the two upper partly 
connate, erect, the three lower spreading; filaments minutely and 
sparingly capitate-glandular; anthers included, connate, 2 mm. long 
and wide; ovary short -sericeous ; style glabrous below, glandular up- 
wardly; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: Veraguas, Panama, Warscewicz (photograph US). 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from sea level to 700 
meters. 

BOCAS DEL TORO: Water Valley, von Wedel 942; Fish Creek Mountains, 
vicinity of Chiriqui Lagoon, von Wedel 2310, 2325; Chiriqui Lagoon, 
von Wedel 1032; Seibert 1562; Changuinola Valley, Dun lap 449. 

In the "Flora of Costa Rica," I listed Columnea costaricensis 
Kuntze i n Alloplectus , as a doubtful species. The type in the New 
York Botanical Garden shows that this species is actually merely a 
variant of C. sanguinolenta . 

15. Columnea serrata (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 390. 1865. 

S tenanthus serratus Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer, Gesner. 
49. 1858. 
Stems hirsute at apex; leaves of a pair unequal; larger leaf-blades 
obovate- oblong, 7.5 cm. long, narrowly acuminate, acute or obtusish 
at base, acutely serrate, not red-spotted, glabrous above, hirtous 
beneath; smaller leaf of a pair about 3 cm. long, obtuse at base; 



1971 Morton, The genus Columnea in Panama 179 

peduncles equalling corollas, villous; calyx more than half as long 
as corolla, the lobes subequal, linear, long-acuminate from a broad 
base, strongly villous externally, cristate-f imbriate , the teeth 
long-villous ; corollas purple, more than 25 mm. long, gibbous at 
posterior base, pilose; ovary pilose. 

TYPE: Veraguas, Panama, Warscewicz (presumably destroyed in Berlin) 

RANGE: Known definitely only from the type. 
16. Columnea illepida Moore, Baileya 8: 56, f . 19 . 1960. 

Trichantha illepida (Moore) Morton, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 
38: 12. 1963. 

Stems stout, probably not radicant at the nodes, the internodes 
short, 1-2.5 cm. long, very stout, the upper ones ca. 3 mm. thick, 
somewhat zigzag, strongly ridged when dry, hirsute, the hairs spreading, 
yellow, multicellular, eglandular, 2-3 mm. long, borne on tubercles; 
leaves subdistichous , those of a pair strongly unequal , short -petiolate; 
petioles 0.3-2 cm. long, hirsute; larger leaf-blades ovate-lanceolate 
to ob lanceolate, up to 13 cm. long and 5 cm. wide, acuminate or sub- 
cuspidate, broadly cuneate and strongly oblique at base, minutely 
and remotely denticulate, above green, not bullate, hirsute, the hairs 
hyaline, several-celled, 1.5-2 nm. long, beneath green with conspicuous 
red blotches or else red all over, septate-hirsute all over, with also 
a few, appressed, sharp-pointed, 2-celled hairs, the lateral veins 5 
or 6 (or 9?) pairs, slightly elevated on both sides; smaller leaves 
of a pair early deciduous, like the larger but subsessile, not more 
than 2.5 cm. long; flowers several in an axil, bracteate, the bracts 
minute, ca. 4 x 0.75 mm., hirsute and also with sessile yellow glands; 
peduncles red, slender, 1 mm. thick or less, hirsute; calyx green, 
herbaceous, 15-20 mm. long, the lobes free, slightly unequal, the 
posterior shorter and narrower, the central portion 2.5-3.5 mm. wide, 
strongly pectinate-toothed, the teeth 4 or 5 (6) on each side, linear, 
the larger 2 mm. long and 0.5 mm. wide, hirsutulous on both sides 
with hyaline hairs, some of these elongate and many-celled, some 
short and 2-celled, both surfaces also with sessile, yellow, globular 
glands; corollas ca. 50 mm. long, slightly oblique in calyx, slightly 
spurred at posterior base, the tube dull, clear yellow conspicuously 
striped with maroon from just below the middle to the bases of the 
sinuses between the lobes, the stripes 0.5-1 mm. wide, the tube 
7.5-10 mm. wide at middle, slightly contracted in throat, externally 
sparsely hirsute and provided also with some small, spreading, l-celle< 
hairs, within glabrous except for the glandular-pilosulous throat, 
the limb somewhat bilabiate, ca, 15 mm. wide, the galea 5.5-6 mm. 
high, bilobed, conspicuously spotted with maroon, the two lateral 
lobes deltoid, ca. 5 mm. long, 5-6 mm. wide at base, margined with 
maroon, the anterior lobe ca. 4.5 mm. long and 4 mm. wide at base, 
margined with maroon, all the lobes hirsute externally and with short, 
white, thick-based 1-celled hairs also, the appendages between 
the corolla lobes yellow, inconspicuous when dry and not over 1 mm. 
long; stamens included; anthers quadrate ly connate; ovary green, 
pilose; style puberulous; stigma bilobed; disk reduced to a whitish, 
bilobed posterior gland. 



180 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

TYPE: Cultivated in the Bailey Hortorium, Moore (BH, not seen). 

RANGE: Known only from the type and a specimen cultivated in 
Fantastic Gardens, South Miami, Florida, Feb. 25, 1954, R. G. Wilson . 

At the time I published on Trichantha in 1963 the native habitat 
of this species was unknown. It had been variously reported to be 
from Ecuador, from Tingo Maria, Peru, or from the Panama Canal Zone. 
Mr. Henry Butcher, of Chiriqui, Panama, has since written me that he 
was the original collector, and that the species is a native of the 
Chiriqui region of Panama. There is no reason to doubt this. A 
possibly allied species (still undescribed because of inadequate 
material) so far as flowers go has turned up in the same area. 

17. Columnea dissimilis Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 47. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, sparingly branched at base, the branches up to 

1 m. long, hispid, the hairs red, spreading, multicellular; leaves 
of a pair unequal, the larger petiolate; petioles 5-9 mm. long, 
hispid; leaf-blades elliptic-oblong, up to 7 cm. long and 3 cm. wide, 
acuminate, strongly oblique at base (rounded on the lower side, 
cuneate on the upper), entire, green on both sides, pilosulous above, 
red-hirsute beneath, especially on the veins, the lateral veins about 
5 pairs; smaller leaf of a pair mostly subsessile, ovate or sub- 
orbicular, up to 3 cm. long and 1.8 cm. wide, acute or obtuse, 
rounded at base; flowers mostly 3 in an axil; peduncles 10-17 mm. 
long, densely long-red -hirsute ; calyx red, 25-30 mm. long, the lobes 
equal, lanceolate, narrowed toward base, about 6 mm. wide above 
base, acuminate, remotely glandular-denticulate, red -hirsute on 
both sides; corollas red tipped with yellow, a little oblique in 
calyx, 35-40 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube about 
4 mm. wide above base, slightly ampliate upwardly, densely red- 
sericeous externally, glabrous within, not contracted in throat, 
this 8 mm. wide, the limb regular, the lobes white, equal, incurved, 
ovate, about 4.5 mm. long, thick, scarcely acute, glabrous within, 
the sinuses between each lobe bearing a subulate, densely hirsute, 
yellow appendage, this 1-7 mm. long; filaments glabrous; anthers 
about 2 mm. long and wide; ovary white-pilose; style glabrous; 
stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: El Valle de Anton, Code, Panama, Allen 2483. 

BIANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations of 600 to 1000 meters. 
COCLE: El Valle de Anton, Allen 2164, 2191. 
PANAMA: Hills above Campana, Allen 1875. 

The peculiar appendages of the corolla vary greatly in length and 
are often hidden under the dense pubescence. 

18. Columnea warscewicziana (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 392. 1865. 

Ortholoma warscewiczianum Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer. 

Gesner. 51. 1858. 
Ortholoma vestitum Klotzsch ex Oerst. loc. cit. (Type from 
Veraguas , Panama , Warscewicz ) . 
Plants epiphytic, the stems pendent, branched, 0.6-1.2 m. long, 
yellowish-or reddish-villous at apex, the hairs about 2 mm. long, 
multicellular; leaves of a pair strongly unequal, the larger subsessile; 



1971 Morton, The genua Colxmnea in Panama IBI 

petioles 1-3 mm. long, thick, densely hirsute; lea f-b lades oblanceolate , 
9-12 cm. long, 2-3,5 cm. wide, acuminate, rounded and strongly oblique 
at base] remotely serrulate, hirsute on both sides (the hairs multi- 
cellular), not red-spotted beneath, the lateral veins 10 or 11 pairs; 
smaller leaf of a pair stipule-like, 7-16 mm. long, 4-7 mm. wide, 
acuminate, oblique at base, sessile, hirsute; flowers solitary; 
peduncles 25-45 mm. long, pendent, red-villous, the basal bracts 
minute, 4-5 mm. long, linear, hirsute, green; calyx green, 10-12 mm. 
long, the lobes lanceolate, 3 mm. wide near base, long-acuminate, 
villous on both sides, entire or with 1 or 2 subulate teeth on each 
side; corollas scarlet, 40-55 mm. long, gibbous at posterior base, 
the tube 5 mm. in diameter above base, strongly ventricose upwardly, 
becoming 19 mm. wide, contracted in throat, this 10 mm. wide, sparingly 
pilose externally i glabrous within, the limb subregular, 13-21 mm. 
wide, the lobes about 5 mm. long, the two upper partly connate, erect, 
the three lower spreading; filaments pilosulous; anthers 2 mm. long 
and wide; ovary sericeous; style glabrous; stigma stomatomorphic. 
TYPE: Veraguas , Panama, Warscewicz . 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 1200-2400 meters. 
CHIRIQUI: El Boquete, Maxon 5703; Cerro de la Horqueta, Pittier 
3215; Bajo Chorro, Rio Caldera, Davidson 406, Butcher ; Bajo Mono, 
Allen 4833. 
19. Columnea ochroleuca (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 393. Ibb^ . 

Ortholoma ochroleucum Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer. Gesner. 
51. 1858. 
Stems slender, strongly yellowish-villous ; leaves of a pair strongly 
unequal; larger leaf-blades lanceolate, subsessile, 5-7.5 cm. long, 
broadest at middle, 1.4-2 cm. wide, attenuate tc a long acuminate apex, 
attenuate to base, serrulate, hispid-pilose above, long-villous beneath, 
deep purple beneath; smaller leaf of a pair stipule- like , 1/5 as long 
as the larger; peduncles short, villous; calyx 8-10 mm. long, the lobes 
erect, linear- lanceolate, narrowly long-acuminate, bearing a few long 
subulate teeth; corollas scarlet, about 36-40 mm. long, the tube 
ventricose, becoming 8 mm. wide, a little narrowed in throat, pilose, 
the limb slightly irregular, the two upper lobes erect, partly connate, 
obtuse, the lower lobes spreading, lanceolate; anthers exserted. 
TYPE: Veraguas, Panama, Warscewicz (not seen). 
RANGE: Known only from the type. 

The description has been taken from the original, for no specimens 
referable to this species have been seen. 
20. Columnea nicaraguensis Oerst. Centralamer. Gesner. 62. 1858. 

Plants epiphytic, vinelike, the stems sparingly branched, up to 1 m. 
long, 6-8 mm. in diameter below, about 2.5 mm. in diameter toward apex 
constricted at nodes, the epidermis sometimes peeling off in scales, 
densely appressed-white-pilose when young; leaves of a pair unequal, 
the larger short-petiolate ; petioles up to 3 mm. long, white-villous ; 
leaf-blades leathery, lanceolate, 7-12 cm. long, 2.2-4.5 cm. wide, 
sharply acuminate, rounded and strongly oblique at base, entire, 
dark green and thinly strigillose above, light green or dull reddish 



182 I' H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 3 

beneath (when dry), densely long-strigose on the veins, thinly 
strigose on the surface, the lateral veins 7-9 pairs, obliquely 
ascending, obscure above, prominent beneath; smaller leaf of a pair 
similar to the larger but only 2-2.5 cm. long, 7-10 mm. wide, or 
rarely larger; flcwers solitary; peduncles 7-15 mm. long, densely 
appressed -white-pilose, bracteate at base, the bracts broadly 
lanceolate, 7-9 mni. long, about 3 mm. wide, acuminate, hairy on 
both surfaces; ca]yx variable, 17-35 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, 7-9 mm. wide, broadest near base, long-acuminate, 
appressed-white-pi lose on both sides, especially on the midrib, re- 
motely short-tootled below middle, the teeth mostly 2 on each side, 
sometimes minute cr obsolete, glandular at apex; corollas dark red, 
marked with yellov within throat, 60-80 mm. long, the tube about 5 
mm. in diameter near base, gradually enlarged upwardly, not ventricose, 
becoming 9-10 mm. wide in throat, densely white-sericeous externally, 
glabrous within, the limb strongly bilabiate, the galea 35 mm. long, 
20 mm. wide, deeply emarginate, densely white-pilose externally, 
thinly pilose within, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the 
free parts narrow, the upper free margin 11-15 mm. long, the lower 
lobes spreading, linear, 25-30 mm. long, 4-5 mm. wide, acuminate, 
densely white-sericeous externally in a broad central line; filaments 
pilose upwardly; anthers yellow, exserted, connate, 2,5 mm. long, 
1.5 mm. wide; ovary sericeous; style densely pilosulous upwardly. 

TYPE: San Juan, Nicaragua, Oersted . 

RANGE: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, at elevations from sea 
level to 300 meters. 

BOCAS DEL TORO: Carle ton 256; Water Valley, von Wedel 734, 839; 
Fish Creek Mountaz.ns, von Wedel 2252; Little Bocas , near Chiriqui 
Lagoon, von Wedel 2522; Chiriqui Lagoon, Hart 142, Changuinola Valley, 
Dunlap 419, 456; 'Salamanca Valley, Carleton 133. 

21. Columnea tomeutulosa Morton, Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 18: 1169. 1938. 
Columnea tonentosa Oerst. Centralamer. Gesner. 64. 1858, not Rccdj. 

Plants epiphytii., 0.2-0.4 m. long, the stems branched, 2-4 mm. in 
diameter, tomento;.e; leaves of a pair subequal, short-petiolate ; 
petioles 2 mm. lo.ig, tomentose; leaf -blades oval, up to 2.5 cm. long, 
9-12 mm. wide, obtuse, broadly cuneate and equal at base, entire, soft- 
tomentose on both sides, the lateral veins 2 or 3 pairs; flowers 
solitary; peduncles 7-9 mm. long, white-tomentose, the bracts lanoedate, 
minute, 4-6 mm. long, 1-2 mm. wide; calyx 7-10 mm. long, the lobes 
ovate- lanceolate, 5-5.5 mm. wide near base (including teeth) , acuminate , 
deeply subulate- toothed, the teeth 2 or 3 to a side, up to 2.5 mm. 
long, pilose externally, glabrous within at base, sericeous toward 
apex; corollas scarlet, the limb margined with yellow, 40-45 mm. 
long, gibbous at base, the tube 1.5 mm. in diameter above base, en- 
larged to throat (this 6 mn. wide), pilose externally, glabrous within, 
the limb bilabiate, the galea oblong, 15 ran. long, 7 mm. wide, obtuse, 
entire, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts 
3.5 mm. long, the lower lobe reflexed, linear, 8.5 mm. long, 2.5 mm. 
wide; filaments glabrous; anthers exserted, oblong, 1.5 ran. long. 



1971 Morton, The genus Columnea in Panama lfl3 

0.7 mm. wide; ovary puberulous; style glabrous at base, long- 
pilosulous upwardly; stigma bilobed. 
TYPE: San Juan, Nicaragua, Oersted . 

RANGE: Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, at elevations from sea 
level to 100 meters. 

BOCAS DEL TORO: Rio Cricamola, Woodson , Allen & Seibert 187b, 
Cooper 206; Valley of Biarra River, Seibert 1538. 
22, Columnea flaccida Seem. Hot. Voy. Herald 186. 1854. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems slender, up to 2 m. long, 2.5-3.5 mm. 
in diameter, strigose, soon glabrate; leaves of a pair subequal, very 
short-petiolate; petioles 1-2 nm. long, strigose; leaf-blades oblong- 
lanceolate, 2.5-3 cm. long, ca. 1 cm. wide, long -acuminate, rounded 
at base, entire, succulent, green and sparingly strigose on both sides, 
the lateral veins about 5 pairs, obscure above; flowers solitary, 
borne on leafless stems; peduncles about 5 mm. long, hirsute; calyx 
red, 12-15 nm. long, the lobes linear-lanceolate , 10-14 mm. wide near 
base (including teeth), long-acuminate, deeply 1 ancinate- toothed , 
the teeth 3 or 4 on each side, up to 5 mm. long and 0.8 mm. wide, 
red-hirsute externally, glabrous within except i ear apex; corollas 
rose-red with yellow markings, 50-60 mm. long, g:-bbous at base, the 
tube 3 mm. wide above base, gradually enlarged tpwardly, becoming 
7-9 mm wide in throat, pilose externally, glabious within, the 
limb bilabiate, the galea 20-24 mm. long, 12-13 mm. wide, minutely 
apiculate, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts 
7-9 mm. long, the lower lobe lanceolate about IC mm. long, 2.5 mm. 
wide; filaments glabrous; anthers connate, oblong, 2.5 mm. long, 1 
mm. wide; ovary sericeous; style glabrous at base, pilosulous toward 
apex; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: Gualaca, Chiriqul, Panama, Seemann (not seen). 
RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 80 to 600 meters. 
CHIRIQUI: Mula, April 23, 1961, Butcher . 
23. Columnea panamensis Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 26: 312. 1939. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems sparsely branched, up to 1 m. high, 
5-8 mm. in diameter, the branchlets about 3 mm. in diameter, sparsely 
strigose, short, densely antrorsely strigose, the nodes constricted; 
leaves of a pair equal, short-petiolate; petioles ca. 4 mm. long, 
strigose-hirtellous; leaf -blades elliptic or narrowly elliptic, 4-4.5 
cm. long, 1.5-1.9 cm. wide, scarcely acute, cuneate at base, entire, 
densely strigose-pilose on both sides, unspotted, the lateral veins 
4 pairs; flowers solitary, ascending; peduncles 15 mm. long, densely 
white-tomentose; calyx 15 mm. long, the lobes linear -oblong, acute, 
narrowed toward base, about 4 mm. wide above base, entire, pilose 
on both sides; corollas scarlet, 65-70 mm. long, gibbous at posterior 
base, the tube 4 mm. in diameter above base, ampliate upwardly but 
not ventricose, not contracted in throat (this 10-11 mm. wide), 
pilose externally, the limb strongly bilabiate, the galea 30-35 mm. 
long, 14 mm. wide, entire, the lateral lobes long-connate with fealea, 
the free parts 9-10 mm. long, the lower lobe spreading, linear- 
oblong, 15-17 nm. long; filaments pilosulous; anthers connate. 



18U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

2.6 mm. long, 1.5-2 mm. wide; ovary densely white-villous ; style 
pilosulous; stigma stomatomorphic. 

TYPE: Casita Alta, Volcdn de Chiriqul, Prov. Chiriqui, Panama, 
Woodson , Allen , & Seibert 860, 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 1500 to 2100 
meters . 

CHIRIQUI: Finca Lerida, Woodson & Schery 235, Allen 4763. 
24. Columnea hirta Kl. & Hanst. Linnaea 34: 403. 1865. 

Epiphytic, branched, the branches pendent, terete, 2-2.5 mm. thick 
(3.5 mm. when fresh), strongly red -hirsute; leaves of a pair subequal; 
petioles nearly equal, 4-5 mm. long (to 10 mm. when fresh); larger 
leaf -blades oblong, 3-4.2 cm. long (to 5.3 cm. fresh), 1.3-1.7 cm. 
wide (2.5 cm. when fresh), rounded at base, obtuse at apex, sparingly 
toothed, the teeth 3-5 pairs, not prominent in dried specimens, 
densely pilose on both sides; peduncles 6-7 mm. long (8-9 mm. when 
fresh), recurved, basally bibracteate, the bracts linear, ca. 3.5 mm. 
long (4.5 X 1 mm. fresh), pilose externally, glabrous at base within 
but glandular with sessile globular, shining glands; calyx green, 
erect, the lobes nearly free, united at base for 1 mm., lanceolate, 
12-15 mm. long, narrowed to 2.5 ram. wide at base, 4-5 mm. wide up- 
wardly, long-attenuate to a slender tip, strongly toothed, the teeth 
normally 2 pairs, 0.5-1 mm. long and 0.5-0.75 mm. wide, densely 
white-hirsute externally, subglabrous within except toward apex, 
the basal part with sessile, minute glands; corollas orange-scarlet, 
not spotted or lined, 70-75 mm. long, the tube gibbous at posterior 
base, here 3.3-5.5 mm. wide, narrowed above base to 3-4 mm., 35-45 
mm. long, not contracted in throat, densely red-pilose externally and 
also bearing minute, spreading, hyaline hairs but these not prominent, 
the limb 25-30 mm. long, the throat 11-12 mm. wide, pilosulous within, 
the galea 16 mm. wide (fresh), cuspidate at the truncate apex, the 
cusp or appendage bearing several elongate, red, septate hairs, the 
lateral lobes 13 mm. long and 6 mm. wide at base, the posterior lobe 
spreading, 18 mm. long and 6 mm. wide, with appendages borne in the 
sinuses between the lateral lobes and the posterior, these rather 
prominent, especially in bud, consisting of a protuberance from the 
tube, this more or less tuberculate at apex, each of the several 
(up to 10) tubercles surmounted by an elongate red septate hair, 
with appendages present also between the lateral lobes and the galea 
but these quite inconspicuous, especially in dried material; filaments 
connate at base into a sheath 3 mm. long laterally, 5 mm. long 
anteriorly, roughened below, very sparsely and minutely pilosulous 
upwardly; anthers quadrately connate, 3-3.5 mm. long and 1.7-2 mm. 
wide; ovary green, small, 3 mm. long, densely hirsute; style glabrous 
at base, pilosulous upwardly, scarcely curved at apex; disk reduced 
to a solitary posterior gland, this 1.5 mm. long and wide, white, 
glabrous, emarginate. 

TYPE: Veraguas, Panama, Warscewicz (presumably destroyed in Berlin). 



1971 Morton, The genus Columnea in Panama 185 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 600 to 1400 
meters. 

For an illustration see Morton, Baileya 11: 26. 1963. 

25. Columnea mortonii Raymond, Bot. Notis. 114: 346, f. 1-3 . 1961. 
Epiphyte, the stems short, 10-30 cm. long, rigid, fleshy, ca. 4-6 

mm. in diameter, brown, densely long-pilose with soft, yellowish, 
multicellular, glandular, spreading hairs 2-2.5 mm. long, bulbuous 
at base; leaves numerous, crowded; petioles 3-4 mm. long, thick, 
pilose with soft white hairs; leaf-blades of a pair equal, broadly 
ovate to suborbicular , 2-2.75 cm. long, 1.2-2 cm. wide, obtuse to 
rounded at apex, rounded at base, fleshy (ca. 3 mm. thick when fresh) 
entire, green above, paler beneath, white-pilose on both sides (more 
sparingly so above), the hairs spreading, soft, the lateral veins 2 
or 3 pairs; flowers axillary, solitary; peduncles 3-8 ram. long, 
glandular-pilose (the hairs white, spreading, red-based), bracteate, 
the bracts 2, deltoid, minute, ca. 1 mm. long and wide, acute, red- 
pilose on both sides; calyx-lobes green, linear -oblong, 10-12 mm. 
long when fresh, 3.5-4 mm. wide, narrowed to base, this ca . 2 mm. 
wide, long-acuminate, bearing 1 pair of teeth above the middle, 
glandular-pilose, the hairs spreading, white with red bases; corolla 
erect in calyx, brilliant red, not spotted, 80-85 mm. long strongly 
bilabiate, gibbous at posterior base (the gibbosity ca . 3 mm. long), 
narrowed above base to 5 mm., 7-8 mm. wide at middle, gradually 
widened to throat, this 12 mm. broad, the tube 45 mm. long, glandular- 
red-hirsute externally, the galea 20-28 mm. long, 17.5 nm. wide, 
rounded at apex and submucronate, sulcate on the back, the lateral 
lobes triangular, 10-15 mm. long, the labellum horizontal, 16-17.5 
mm. long, ca. 7 mm. wide, replicate, the limb pubescent within; 
filaments exserted, united at base for 2 mm., strongly glandular- 
pilose; anthers oblong, 2.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide, the cells distinct; 
ovary densely white-pilose; style glabrous at base, pilosulous up- 
wardly; stigma yellowish green, papillose, bilobed; disk reduced to 
a posterior gland, this low, fleshy, white, ca. 1 mm. long; berry 
depressed-globose, fleshy, 15 mm. in diameter, white-pilose. 

TYPE: Panama, cultivated in the Montreal Botanical Garden from 
material received from the Fairchild Tropical Garden, Raymond 1820- 
56 (holotype MTBG, not seen; isotype US). 

RANGE: Probably local in Panama, perhaps from the Chiriqui region, 
but not known definitely in the wild. 

This species is very floriferous and beautiful in cultivation in 
the Longwood Gardens. It is like C. hirta in many ways, but the 
leaves are shorter petiolate, the blades broader, the bracts minute 
and deltoid, the calyx hairs red-based, the calyx-lobes less toothed, 
and the filaments glandular-pilose. 

26. Columnea localis Morton, Field Mus . Publ. Bot. 18: 1165. 1938. 

Columnea microcalyx var. macrophylla Donn. Smith, Bot. Gaz . 
31: 118. 1901, not C. macrophylla Kuntze. 



186 PHITOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 3 

Plants epiphytic, the stems yellowish, slender, branched, about 
1.5 mm. wide, white-pilose; leaves of a pair subequal, short-petiolate; 
petioles 1.5 ran. long, densely white-pilose; leaf-blades oblong- 
elliptic, 2-5 cm. long, 1.1-1.7 cm. wide, acute or obtuse, rounded 
at base, thin, slightly toothed, soft-pilose on both sides, the 
lateral veins 3 pairs, obscure above; flowers solitary, ebracteate; 
peduncles 15-25 mm. long, pilose; calyx green, 12 mm. long, the lobes 
ob lanceolate, acute, narrowed at base, here 1.3 mm. wide, broadest 
near middle, here 3-5.5 nm. wide, acute, entire, pilose on both 
sides; corollas rose-pink, 70 mm. long, gibbous at base, the tube 
3 mm. wide above base, ampliate upwardly, 11-12 mm. wide in throat, 
thinly pilose externally, the limb bilabiate, glandular-pilosulous 
within, the galea 30-45 mm. long, ca. 20 mm. wide, rounded, the 
lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts broad, 10-12 
mm. long, the lower lobe deflexed, linear, ca. 22-30 mm. long, 5 mm. 
wide; filaments glabrous; anthers connate, 3.5 mm. long, 2 mm. wide; 
ovary white-villous ; style pilosulous throughout; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: Tucurrique , Costa Rica, Tonduz 12932. 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 500 to 2500 meters. 
CHIRIQUI: Cerro Punta to headwaters of Rio Caldera, Allen 1428; 
Bajo Chorro, Davidson 76; Cerro de la Horqueta, von Hagen 2162. 
DARIEN: Cerro de Garagara, Sambu Basin, Pittier 5625. 
VERAGUAS: Cerro Tute, near Santa Fe, Allen 4381. 
27. Columnea consimilis Morton, Proc. Biol. Soc. Wash. 69: 194. 1956. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems 0.5 m. long or more, apparently un- 
branched, yellowish, about 1.5 mm. in diameter, setose-hispid, the 
hairs reddish, several-celled, stiffly spreading; leaves borne in 
two's or three's, those of a whorl equal, short-petiolate; petioles 
2-2.5 mm. long, reddish-hispid; leaf -blades rather thin, ovate- 
lanceolate, 1.6-2.8 cm. long, 6-12 mm. wide, sharply acuminate, 
rounded and subequal at base, entire, green and glabrous above, 
pale beneath, very sparingly strigillose, the lateral veins 2 pairs, 
prominent beneath; flowers solitary (?); peduncles ca. 10 mm. long, 
coarsely red-setose; calyx green, 20-23 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate 
in outline, about 8 mm. wide (including teeth), long-acuminate, the 
teeth 3 or 4 on each side, linear- lanceolate, up to 4.5 mm. long and 
1.5 mm. wide at base, glandular at apex; corollas scarlet with pale 
yellow stripes within, ca. 70 mm. long, the tube 3.5 mm. in diameter 
near base, gradually enlarged upwardly, becoming 10 mm. wide in 
throat, sparingly pilose externally, glabrous within, the limb 
strongly bilabiate, the galea 33 mm. long, 23 mm. wide, emarginate, 
the lateral lobes partly connate with galea, the free parts about 
15 mm. wide at base, the upper margin about 16 mm. long, the lower 
lobe reflexed, oblong, about 20 mm. long, 11 mm. wide; filaments 
•glabrous; anthers connate, oblong 3 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide; ovary 
pilosulous above middle; style pilosulous throughout; stigma deeply 
bilobed. 



1971 Morton, The genus Columnea in Panama 187 

TYPE: Cerro Tute, near Santa F€, Prov. of Veraguas, Panama, 750 m. , 
Allen 4380. 

RANGE: Known only from the type. 

28. Columnea arguta Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 43. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems pendent, elongate, ca. 1,5 mm. in 

diameter, rigidly red-pilose when young; leaves of a pair equal; 
petioles hispid, about 1 mm, long; leaf-blades lanceolate, 1.6-2 cm. 
long, 6-7 mm. wide, long-acuminate, rounded at base, a little oblique, 
thick, entire, ciliate, glabrous on both surfaces, green above, 
reddish beneath, the lateral veins one or two parts, obscure; 
peduncles 7-9 mm. long, hispid; calyx ca. 15 mm. long, the lobes 
subequal, 9 mm. wide at base, hirsute on both sides, strongly toothed 
at base, the teeth 5 or 6 on each side, elongate, up to 3 mm. long 
and 1 mm. wide; corollas red, the throat lined with yellow, 45-60 
am. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 4 mm. in diameter above 
base, 7-10 mm. broad in throat, sparsely pilose externally, glandular 
within at base, the limb bilabiate, glabrous within, the galea 20 mn. 
long and 13-27 mm. wide, emarginate at apex, the lateral lobes long- 
connate with galea, the upper free margin 8-13 mm. long, the lower 
lobe elliptic, reflexed, 9-20 mm. long and 7.5-11 mm. wide; filaments 
glandular below, glabrous upwardly; ovary sericeous, especially 
toward apex; style sparsely pilosulous; stigma truncate. 

TYPE: El Valle de Ant6n, Prov. of Cocl6, Panama, ca. 1000 m. , 
Allen 2336. 

RANGE: Known only from El Valle de Ant6n. 
COCLE: El Valle de Ant6n, Allen 3718. 

29. Columnea billbergiana Beurl. Svensk. Vet. Handl. 1854: 135. 1854. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems brown, branched, 2-4 mm. in diameter, 

sparsely strigose when young; leaves of a pair subequal; petioles 
2.5-5 mm. long, strigose; leaf-blades ovate- lanceolate, 2-3 cm. long, 
8-11 mm. wide, acute, broadly cuneate at base, entire, glabrous above, 
pale beneath, strigose on veins and surface, the lateral veins 3 pairs; 
flowers solitary; peduncles 5-10 mm. long, densely long white or 
pink-pilose, the bracts minute, linear-lanceolate, 5-7 mm. long, 
1.5-2 mm. wide, acuminate, entire, glabrous above, strigose beneath; 
calyx red, 9-12 mm. long, the lobes ovate- lanceolate, 5-8 mm. wide 
near base, sharply and abruptly long-acuminate , white-sericeous 
externally, glabrous within, dentate, the teeth 1-4 on each side, 
broad-based, glandular, sometimes minute; corollas scarlet, 40-50 mm. 
long, the tube 1.5-2.5 mm. in diameter near base, only a little en- 
larged upwardly, becoming 5-6 m. wide in throat, sparsely glandular- 
pilose externally, sparsely glandular within near base, the limb 
strongly bilabiate, the galea about 20 mn. long and 6-7 mm. wide, 
apiculate, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts 
about 4 mm. long, the lower lobes deflexed, linear or lanceolate, 
about 12-18 mm. long and 1.5-3 mm. wide; filamerts glabrous; anthers 
exserted, oblong, 2 mm. long, 1-1.2 mm. wide; ovary glabrous except 
for the sparsely white-pilose apex; style glandular-pilosulous ; 
stigma bilobed. 



188 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

TYPE: Portobello, Col6n, Panama, Be ur ling . 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from sea level to 
1000 meters. 

CANA.L ZONE: Lake shore only Gatun River, Pittier 6516; Frijoles, 
Max on 6553. 

COCLE: El Valle de Anton, Allen 1651, 2149, 2353, 3412, Hunter & 
Allen 303, 564. 

PANAMA: Cerro Campana, Allen 2428, 2432. 
30. Columnea percrassa Morton, Baileya 7: 59. 1959. 

Stems olive green, fleshy, terete, unbranched (at least upwardly), 
3 mm. thick, becoming only 2 mm. thick upwardly, sparsely and minutely 
strigillose, the internodes about 2 cm. long; paired glands present 
between the leaves; leaves of a pair subequal, short-petiolate; 
petioles 5-7 mm. long, minutely strigillose; leaf-blades thick and 
fleshy, dark green and glossy above, pale green beneath, elliptic, 
narrowly elliptic, or subrhombic, 2.5-3.5 cm. long, 1.1-1.5 cm. wide 
slightly rounded or acutish at apex, broadly cuneate at base, entire, 
glabrous above, beneath minutely puberulous on the midribs, sparsely 
strigillose on the surfaces, weakly ciliolate, the primary veins 3 
pairs; flowers solitary, axillary; peduncles green, recurved, 15-20 
mm. long, terete, ca. 1 mm. thick, thickened toward apex, rather 
strongly white-pilosulous, especially toward the apex; calyx green, 
10-12 mm. long, the lobes free, equal, broadly subdeltoid, broadest 
at base, here 5-6 mm. wide, truncate at base, the margins recurved 
and lying flat against the adjacent lobes to make a 5-angled, 5- 
winged calyx, sharply long-acuminate at apex, inconspicuously glandular- 
denticulate, the glands ca. 4 on each side, inconspicuously strigillose 
externally, sparsely white-pilosulous on the midrib, laxly ciliolate, 
glabrous within; corollas scarlet, tube orange and red within and with 
a yellow line from the throat, 55-60 mm. long, slightly oblique in 
caljnc, gibbous at posterior base, the gibbosity ca. 3 mm. long, the 
tube ca. 3 mm. wide just above base, narrow, gradually enlarged up- 
wardly but not ventricose or curved, becoming ca. 6 mm. wide in 
throat, sparsely red-pilosulous externally, the hairs several-celled, 
horizontally spreading, gland-tipped, the limb strongly bilabiate, 
the galea ca. 27 mm. long and 9 mm. wide (spread out), slightly 
acutish at apex, the 2 upper lobes completely united, the two lateral 
lobes almost completely connate with the upper lobes, the free parts 
triangular, minute, ca. 3 mm. long, recurved, the lower lobe erect 
at base but arching toward the apex or reflexed, ca. 17 mm. long, 
3mm. wide at base; filaments inserted in the very base of the corolla 
tube, connate for ca. 2.5 mm., whitish below, reddish above; anthers 
exserted from the corolla tube, persistently connate, subquadrate, 
ca. 1.2 mm. long and wide, glabrous; ovary green, ovoid, glabrous 
below, pilose toward the apex; style pilosulous toward the apex; 
stigma bilobed, exserted; disk reduced to a thick fleshy, white, 
bidentate, posterior gland 1.5 mm. long and 2 mm. wide. 

TYPE: Cerra Campana, Province of Panama, 1000 m. alt., Apr. 21, 
1941, Allen (US). 



1971 Morton, The genus Colmmea in Panama 189 

RANGE: Known only from the type locality and from cultivated 
material. 

PANAMA: Cerro Campana, 400 m. , Hutchison & Dressier 2952, cult 
UCBG, no, 63.2742. 

WITHOUT LOCALITY: Cultivated BH, from material received from 
Mrs. M. Cogswell, possibly originally from Henry Butcher ( Moore 
7557 bis). 

31. Columnea oerstediana Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer, Gesner. 

61. t. 8 . 1858. 

Plants epiphytic, pendulous, 0.6-1.2 m. long, the stems branched, 
2-3 mm. in diameter near apex, sparingly strigose, glabrescent; 
leaves of a pair equal, short-petiolate ; petioles ca. 2-3 mm. long, 
strigose; leaf-blades ovate, 1-1.6 cm. long, 6-10 mm. wide, succulent, 
obtuse or acutish, rounded at base, entire or slightly toothed at 
base, green, glabrous above, thinly strigose beneath, the lateral 
veins 3 pairs, obscure above; flowers solitary, ebracteate; peduncles 
8-10 mm. long, thinly strigose; calyx green 14-16 mm. long, the lobes 
ovate, 6-8 mm. wide above base, sharply long-acuminate, sparsely 
strigillose externally, glabrous within, dentate toward base, the 
teeth 3 or 4 to a side, glandular, less than 1 mm. long; corollas 
scarlet, 60-70 mm. long, the tube about 4 mm. in diameter near base, 
gradually enlarged upwardly, becoming 8-9 mm. wide in throat, 
sparsely pilose externally, glabrous within, the limb strongly 
bilabiate, the galea 25-35 mm. long, 13-15 mm. wide, truncate, the 
lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts about 8 nm. 
long, the lower lobe deflexed, linear- lanceolate, 12-18 mm. long, 
3-5 mm. wide; filaments glabrous; anthers connate, oblong, 2 mm. 
long, 1 mm. wide; ovary white-sericeous; style glabrous below, 
short-puberulous toward apex; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: Naranjo, Costa Rica, Oersted . 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 900-2200 meters. 
VERAGUAS: Cerro Tute, near Santa F6 , Allen 4 335. 

32. Columnea tenuis Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer. Gesner. 63. 1858. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems whitish, branched, 2-3 mm. in diameter, 

sparingly strigose when young; leaves of a pair subequal, short- 
petiolate; petioles 1-1.5 mm. long, strigose; leaf-blades lanceolate 
or ovate-lanceolate, 2-3.3 cm. long, 5-12 mm. wide, long-acuminate, 
the base a little oblique, broadly cuneate to rounded, entire, 
glabrous above, pale beneath, strigose on the veins, sparingly 
strigillose on the surface, the lateral veins 3 pairs; flowers 
solitary; peduncles 6-9 nm. long, white-strigose , the bracts minute, 
about 6 mm. long, 1 mm. wide, acuminate, entire, glabrous above, 
strigose beneath; calyx reddish, 11-16 mm. long, the lobes ovate- 
lanceolate in outline, 5-9 mm. wide near base, long-acuminate, 
sparingly strigose externally, glabrous within, deeply toothed, 
the teeth deltoid, mostly 1-3 to a side, broad-based, up to 2.5 mm. 
long and 2 mm. wide at base; corollas scarlet, 60-70 mm. long, the 
tube about 4 nm. in diameter above base, gradually enlarged upwardly, 
becoming 11 nm. wide in throat, sparingly pilose externally, glabrous 



190 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

within, the limb strongly bilabiate, glabrous within, the galea ca. 
30 mm. long, 15 mm. wide, truncate, the lateral lobes long-connate 
with galea, the free parts about 11 mm. long, the lower lobe reflexed, 
lanceolate, 13-17 mm. long, 4-6 mm. wide; filaments glabrous; anthers 
connate, 2.5-3 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide; ovary white-tomentose ; style 
glabrous below, pilosulous above; stigma bilobed 

TYPE: Veraguas, Panama, Warscewicz (not seen). 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevations from 1200 to 2100 
meters . 

CHIRIQUI: El Boquete, Maxon 5573, Maurice 855; Cerro de la Hcrqueta . 
Eittier 3186, Maxon 5407, von Hagen 2132, 2163; Bajo Chorro, Rio CaWeca, 
Davidson 257, Butcher ; Bajo Mono, Allen 4820. 
BOCAS DEL TORO: Allen 4935. 

33. Columnea obliqua Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 49. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems unbranched, elongate, pendulous, about 

2.5 mm. in diameter, sparsely yellow-strigose, soon glabrous; leaves 
of a pair equal, subsessile; leaf -blades lanceolate, up to 3.5 cm. lorg 
and 1.2 cm. wide, long-acuminate, rounded and strongly oblique atbase, 
entire, succulent, green and glabrous above, paler and reddish 
beneath, strigose on the margins and veins; flowers solitary; 
peduncles 7-15 mm. long, 1 mm. thick, substrigose; calyx green, 
12-18 mm. long, the lobes equal, ovate, ca. 6 mm. wide at base, 
abruptly narrowed and sharply long-acuminate, entire, sparsely 
strigose externally, glabrous within except for the pilosulous base; 
corollas orange, 65-80 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 
3.7 mm. in diameter above base, enlarged upwardly but not ventricose, 
becoming 12 ran. wide in throat, sparsely pilosulous externally, 
glabrous within, the limb strongly oblique, bilabiate, the galea 
33-38 mm. long, entire, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, 
the free parts 13 mm. long, the lower lobe reflexed, linear -oblong, 
14-17 mm. long; filaments glabrous; anthers connate in pairs, 1.6 
mm. long, 1 mm. wide; ovary white-sericeous; style sparsely 
pilosulous; stigma bilobed; posterior disk gland large, emarginate, 
the anterior small linear-subulate. 

TYPE: Bajo Chorro, Prov. of Chiriqui, Panama, Woodson & Schery 607. 

RANGE: Known only from the Province of Chiriqui, Panama, at 
elevations of 1800-2100 meters. 

CHIRIQUI: Bajo Chorro, Woodson & Schery 677; Cerro de la 
Horqueta, Allen 4971. 

34. Columnea allenii Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard . 29: 42. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, pendulous, the stems scarcely branched, sparsely 

strigose, about 1.5 mm. in diameter; leaves of a pair equal; petioles 
red-strigose, ca. 3 mm. long; leaf-blades oblong-elliptic, succulent, 
up to 2 cm. long and 1.1 cm. broad, short-acuminate, rounded at base, 
not oblique, entire, glabrous on both sides, the veins obscure; 
flowers solitary, ebracteate; peduncles 17-20 mm. long, red-strigose, 
the hairs multicellular, flaccid; calyx red-tinged, 22-30 nun. long, 
the lobes ca. 10 mm. broad at base, a little unequal, entire, sharply 
long-acuminate, slightly strigillose outside, ciliate, long-hirsute 



1971 Morton, The genus Colonnea in Panama 191 

within at base; corollas scarlet, 68-75 mm. long, subcalcarate 
at base, the tube equalling the calyx, 4 ran. in diameter above base, 
enlarged upwardly, 15 ran. wide in the throat, sparsely pilose 
externally, the limb strongly bilabiate, the galea 40-45 mm. long, 
about 25 mm. wide, truncate at apex, the lateral lobes long-connate 
with galea, the free parts about 14 ran. long, the lower lobe re- 
flexed, oblong-lanceolate, 27-30 mm. long, 7-8 mm. wide; filaments 
glabrous; anthers exserted, connate in pairs, oblong, about 3 mm. 
long and 1 mm. wide; ovary white-pilose; style pilosulous; stigma 
bilobed . 

TYPE: El Valle de Anton, Cocl6, Panama, Allen 2179. 

RANGE: Known only from El Valle de Ant6n, Panama, at about 1000 
meters elevation. 

COCLE: El Valle de Anton, Allen 3554; Cultivated BH, Moore 7545. 

35. Columnea nervosa (Klotzsch) Hanst. Linnaea 34: 401. 1865. 

Pendadenia nervosa Klotzsch ex Oerst. Centralamer. Gesner. 
57. 1858. 

Stems short-tomentose at apex; leaves of a pair subequal, short- 
petiolate; leaf-blades oval-elliptic, a few inches long, acute, 
obtuse at base (?), lightly serrulate, densely tomentose above, 
villous-pubescent and deep violet beneath; peduncles hirsute, 
shorter than the flowers; calyx ca. 13 mm. long, the lobes lanceolate, 
long-acuminate, incised-dentate , tomentose; corollas red (?), 40 mm. 
long, the tube 4 mm. in diameter at base, s igmoid -curved , ventricose, 
becoming 10-12 mm. in diameter, contracted in throat and there 7 ran. 
wide, the limb bilabiate, oblique, the galea erect, about 12 mm. 
long, emarginate, the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, broad, 
obtuse, the lower lobe lanceolate-oblong, porrect; anthers exserted; 
ovary villous; disk glands 5, the 2 posterior connate. 

TYPE: Veraguas , Panama, Warscewicz (not seen). 

RANGE: Known only from the type. 

The above description is adapted from the original and from 
Hanstein. 

36. Columnea magnifica Klotzsch & Hanst. ex Oerst. Centralamer. 

Gesner. 60. 1858. 

Columnea wendlandiana Hanst. Linnaea 34: 402. 1865. 

Columnea oblanceolata Sprague , Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1908: 
449. 1908. 
Plants epiphytic, 0.3-1.2 m. long, the stems erect, sparingly 
branched, the branches 3-5 mm. in diameter, hirsute; leaves of a pair 
subequal; petioles 6-15 mm. long, hirsute; leaf-blades oblanceolate 
or elliptic-ob lanceolate, 5-11 cm. long, 1.3-3.5 cm. wide, acute or 
very short-acuminate, cuneate to subrounded at base, oblique or 
nearly equal at base, entire or nearly so, above dark green, appressed- 
pilose or nearly glabrous, beneath pale green or reddish but lacking 
definite red spots, stiffly appressed-pilose on the veins, strigillose 
on the leaf surface, the primary veins 5-7 pairs, impressed above, 
prorainulous beneath; flowers 1-3 in an axil; peduncles 10-20 mm. long, 
hirsute; calyx reddish, 13-15 mm. long, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, 



192 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 3 

ca. 5 mm. wide near base, sharply long-acuminate, hirsute externally, 
nearly glabrous within except near apex, coarsely glandular -toothed, 
the teeth 4 or 5 on each side; corollas scarlet, the lower lobes 
yellow within, 60-70 mm. long, the tube ca. 4 mm. in diameter near 
base, strongly ventricose upwardly, becoming 12-15 mm. in diameter, 
not contracted in throat, pilose externally, minutely pilosulous 
within, the limb very large, strongly bilabiate, the galea 33-40 mm. 
long, 22-28 mm. wide, rounded and entire, pilosulous within, the 
lateral lobes partly connate with galea, the free parts 12-14 mm. 
long, the lower lobe spreading, lanceolate, 25-28 mm. long; filaments 
densely pilosulous throughout; anthers oblong, about 3 mm. long and 

2 mm. wide; ovary pilose; style pilosulous; stigma deeply bilobed; 
disk reduced to a deeply bilobed posterior gland. 

TYPE: Veraguas , Panama, Warscewicz (not seen). 

RANGE: Costa Rica and Panama, at elevations from 1500-2700 meters. 
No Panama specimens have been seen, but the species is a con- 
spicuous and abundant plant in the mountains of Costa Rica. 

37. Columnea incarnata Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 48. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems scarcely branched, sulcate, about 

3 mm. in diameter, yellow-strigose , finally glabrous; leaves of a 
pair subequal; petioles 1.3-2.3 cm. long, strigose; leaf-blades 

ob lanceolate, 7-12 cm. long, 2.3-4 cm. wide, long-acuminate, cuneate 
and not oblique at base, entire, a little succulent, green and 
glabrous above, paler beneath and not red-spotted, strigose on margins 
and veins, the lateral veins 4 or 5 pairs, obscure above; flowers 
solitary or paired, bracteate, the bracts linear -subulate, ca. 7 mm. 
long, 1.5 mm. wide at' base, acuminate, entire, strigose externally, 
glabrous within; peduncles nodding, 30-40 mm. long, densely yellow- 
strigose; calyx 33-35 mm. long, the lobes green, ovate, ca . 15 mm. 
wide near base, sharply long -acuminate, remotely glandular-denticulate 
glabrous on both surfaces, sparsely ciliate; corollas pink, 65-70 mm. 
long, a little saccate at base, the tube 5 mm. in diameter above base, 
abruptly ventricose, ca. 20 mm. long, not exceeding the calyx, 
puberulous externally, glandular within, the limb bilabiate, curved, 
strongly oblique, pilose externally, glabrous within, the galea 
ca. 50 mm. long, 35 mm. wide, truncate, the lateral lobes long-connate 
with the galea, the free parts ca. 23 mm. long, 13 mm. wide, rounded, 
the lower lobe spreading, ca. 30 mm. long and 11 mm. wide; filaments 
densely glandular-puberulous ; anthers exserted, coherent, oblong, 
3 mm. long and 1 mm. wide; ovary white-sericeous, pilose at apex; 
style glabrous; stigma bilobed. 

TYPE: Bajo Chorro, Prov. of ChiriquI, Panama, Woodson & Schery 608. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, at elevation from 1800-2100 meters. 
BOCAS DEL TORO: Northern slopes of Cerro de la Horqueta, Allen 
4948. 

38. Columnea maculata Morton, Proc. Biol. Soc. Washington 69: 194. 1956. 
Shrub, the stems apparently unbranched, thick, 12 ran. in diameter 

below, 5 mm. in diameter near apex, coarsely hispid, the hairs 
yellowish, multicellular, borne at the apex of bulbous tubercles; 



1971 Morton, The gemia Columnea in Panaraa 193 

leaves of a pair strongly unequal, the larger subsessile; petioles 
1-2 mm. long, hispid, thick; leaf-blades coriaceous, narrowly oblong, 
15-23 cm. long, 6-7 cm. wide, acutish, the base oblique, rounded on 
the lower side, broadly cuneate on the upper, entire, slightly 
revolute-margined , green and sparsely pilose above, paler beneath 
and red at tip, sparsely pilose throughout, the lateral veins 6 or 
7 pairs, obscure above, prominent beneath; smaller leaf of a pair 
deciduous, not seen; flowers apparently solitary in the axils, sub- 
sessile; peduncles thick, 1-2 mm. long, densely hispid; calyx ca. 
19 mm. long, the lobes ovate-lanceolate, 10-12 mm . wide (including 
teeth), long-acuminate, broadest near base, densely yellowish-hirsute 
on both sides, laciniately toothed, the teeth 8-10 on each side, 
linear- lanceolate, the larger 4 mm. long, 1 mm. wide at base, glandular 
at apex; corollas yellow, the galea conspicuously spotted with purpie 
within, the other lobes with broad purple lines, 75 mm. long, the tube 
saccate at posterior base, 4 mm. in diameter above base, not ventricose, 
gradually enlarged to throat, this about 7 mm. wide, densely white- 
pilose externally, the limb strongly bilabiate, the galea 32 mm. 
long, 14 mm. wide, rounded, pilose within, the lateral lobes long- 
connate with galea, the upper free margin about 13 mm. long, the 
lower lobe deflexed, lanceolate, 20 mm. long, 5 mm. wide, acuminate; 
filaments densely pilosulous upwardly; anthers exserted, connate, 
3 mm. long, 1.2 mm. wide; ovary sericeous; style glabrous at base, 
pilosulous upwardly. 

TYPE: Fish Creek Mountains, Prov. of Bocas del Toro, Panama, 
von Wedel 2280. 

RANGE: Known only from the type. 
39. Columnea hirsutissima Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 29: 47. 1942. 

Plants epiphytic, the stems unbranched, 0.13-0.3 m. long, strongly 
red-hirsute, the hairs multicellular, about 5 mm. long; leaves of a 
pair strongly unequal, the larger subsessile; petioles thick, 1-2 mm. 
long, hirsute; leaf-blades oblong or narrowly oblong, 6-10 cm. long, 
1.7-3.5 cm. wide, acute, rounded or subcordate at base, not oblique, 
a little crenulate or serrulate, green and densely hirsute on both 
sides, the hairs reddish, multicellular, the lateral veins 7-9 pairs; 
smaller leaf of a pair sessile, ovate, about 1 cm. long, densely 
hirsute; calyx 17-18 mm. long, the lobes subequal, linear, about 2.5 
mm. wide near base, long-acuminate, remotely glandular -denticulate , 
the teeth 2 or 3 on each side, red-hirsute on both sides; corollas 
red, 60-75 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 4 mm. in 
diameter above base, gradually enlarged upwardly, sparsely eglandular- 
pilose externally, glandular within, the throat 8-9 mm. wide, the 
limb strongly bilabiate, pilosulous within, the galea 23-25 mm. long, 
14 mm. wide, truncate at apex, the lateral lobes long-connate with 
galea, the free parts 6 mm. long, the lower lobe reflexed, linear- 
oblong, ca. 13 mm. long and 3 mm. wide; filaments glandular near 
base, glabrous upwardly; anthers connate, exserted, about 2 mm. long 
and 1 mm. wide; ovary white-pilose; style densely glandular- 
pilosulous; stigma bilobed. 



19U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

TYPE: La Valle de Ant6n, Prov, of Cocl6, Panama, Allen 2288. 

RANGE: Known only from the province of Cocl6, Panama, at elevations 
from 400 to 1000 meters. 

COCLE: El Valle de Anton, Allen 2279, 2311, 2348, 2882; Dressier 
(cult. BH, no. G886, MTJB, no. 2203-65), La Pintad.a, Hunter & Allen 553. 

40. Columnea citrina Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 29: 44. 1942. 
Plants terrestrial, the stems ca. 0.6 m. long, not branched, about 

9 mm. in diameter at base, 3 mm. in diameter at apex, strigose toward 
apex; leaves of a pair strongly unequal; larger leaf-blades oblong- 
linear, falcate, sessile, auriculate at lower base and semiamplexicaul, 
20-25 cm. long, 5 cm. wide, long -acuminate, succulent, green and 
glabrous above, paler and substrigose beneath, bearing a red spot 
8 mm long about 6 cm. below apex, the lateral veins 8-10 pairs; 
smaller leaf of a pair stipule-like, sessile, linear- lanceolate, 
about 2 cm. long and 5 mm. wide, long-acuminate, strongly oblique 
at base, flowers geminate, bracteate, the bracts yellow, linear- 
lanceolate, about 1.5 cm. long and 5 mn. wide, long-acuminate, 
strigose without, glabrous within; peduncles thick, 1-1.5 cm. long, 
densely strigose; calyx pale greenish-yellow, 30-45 mm. long in 
flower, the lobes equal, ovate- lanceolate , ca. 12 mm. wide, sharply 
long-acuminate, coarsely dentate, substrigose externally, glabrous 
within except on the midrib; corollas bright yellow, lined within 
with red-brown, 47-60 mm. long, a little spurred at base, the tube 
5-6 mm. in diameter above base, ventricose upwardly, not contracted 
in throat, strongly hirsute externally or glabrate, the limb strongly 
bilabiate, glabrous within, the galea 25-35 mm. long, strongly bilobed 
(7 mm.), the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts 
about 12 mn. long, the lower lobe reflexed, linear -oblong, 18 mm. 
long and 5 mm. wide; filaments glabrous; anthers exserted, 3 mm. 
long and 2.5 mm. wide; staminodium subulate, 3 mm. long; ovary 
densely white-sericeous ; style glabrous; stigma stomatomorphic. 

TYPE: Cerro Campana, Prov. of Panama, Panama, ca. 1000 m. , 
Allen 2404. 

RANGE: Known only from Panama, on rocks at elevations of about 
1000 meters. 

COCLE: Hills north of El Valle de Anton, Dressier 2950. 

41. Columnea rubra Morton, Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 29: 52. 1942. 
Plants epiphytic, the stems scarcely branched, strigose, soon 

glabrous; leaves of a pair unequal, the larger short-petiolate ; 
petioles about 2 mm. long, very thick, about 4 mm. in diameter; 
leaf -blades narrowly oblong or ob lanceolate, up to 14 cm. long and 
4.7 cm. wide, acute, rounded and subequal at base, succulent, 
entire, pale green and glabrous above, strigose and red all over 
beneath, the midrib strongly thickened, the lateral veins about 
8 pairs; smaller leaf of a pair soon deciduous, not seen; flowers 
paired, bracteate, the bracts 1 inear- lance o la te , about 5 mm. long, 
entire, red-strigose externally; peduncles ca. 10 mm. long, 
densely red-strigose; calyx red, ca. 19 mn. long and lobes equal, 
linear- lanceolate, ca. 5 mm. wide near base, sharply long-acuminate, 



1971 Mojrton, The genus Columnea in Panama 195 

densely red-strigose on both sides, remotely glandular-serrate, 
the teeth about 4 on each side; corollas yellow, 60-65 mm. long, 
a little spurred at base, the tube 2 mm. wide above base, gradually 
enlarged upwardly but not ventricose, becoming 7 nm. wide in throat, 
pilose externally, the hairs few-celled, capitate-glandular, the 
limb bilabiate, the galea 25 mm. long, 7 ran. wide, entire, apiculate, 
the lateral lobes long-connate with galea, the free parts 7 ran. long, 
the lower lobe reflexed, linear, 14 mm. long, 4 mm. wide, all lobes 
glandular-pilosulous on both sides; filaments glabrous; anthers 
connate, oblong, 2.2 mm. long, 1.6 ran. wide; ovary cylindric, 
sericeous; style glandular-pilosulous; stigma bilobed, glandular- 
pilosulous . 

TYPE: El Valle de Anton, Prov. of Cocl6, Panama, Allen 2469. 

RANGE: Known only from El Valle de Ant6n, at elevations of about 
1000 meters. 

COCLE: El Valle de Ant6n, Allen 3411, 4183. 



BOOK REVIENS 
Alma L* Moldenke 



"MANUAL OF THE VASCUUR PUNTS OF TEXAS" b7 Donovan S. Corell and 
Uarshall C* Johnston and collaborators, xv & 1881 pp., lllus^ 
Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas 75079. 1970. $30. 

Built uppn a fine start in Lundell's "Flora of Texas" and con- 
tinued in the same careful vein, this excellent systematic study 
will prove exceedingly \iseful. Ever^hing about Texas is huge 
and so is this book. Illustrations are limited to county and 
vegetational state maps and a colored frontispiece of the state 
flower, the bluebonnet of Texas. Limitations set by the single 
volume size preclude aisy geographic distribution maps and floral 
drawings; the information is there in print. Space has been 
found for a good glossary, list of abbreviations including 
authors' names, and index. 

"HERBAIS — THEIR ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION" A Chapter in the Histoiy 
of Botany 1U70 — 1670. by Agnes Arber, xxLv & 326 pp., illus., 
facsimile of the 1938 second edition, Hafner Publishing Co., 
Darien, Connecticut 06820 & New York, N. Y. 10022. 1970. 
112.95. 

The first edition of 1912 was a gem; the second edition of 26 
years later is a bigger and brighter gem. This offset copy 
makes possible the needed restocking of library shelves with a 
book which, like a gem, does not lose its value in aging. 

The history of the printed herbals got its start somehow "in 
the thoughts of ancient Greece .and it can be followed lin- 
eally to our own day." Throughout it has been shown "that botany- 
rose from being a mere handmaid of medicine to a position of com- 
parative independence." 

The book is very caref\illy indexed and has 131 clear and very 
interesting figures or plates. 

"SINCE SILENT SPRING" by Frank Graham, Jr., xvi & 333 pp., Hough- 
ton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 02107. 1970. $6.9$. 

Eight years have passed since Rachel Carson's carefully docu- 
mented stoiy of the effects of uncontrolled, nondegradable, 
general pesticide pollution on our environment was offered to the 
public and since the vitriolic attacks upon it made mainly by the 
agrico-chemical industries. Without the compelling readability 
of this talented author but with the fvill appreciation of her ef- 
forts and kindred ones of others this conservationist-author 
shows how Miss Carson has been completely vindicated, how snidely 
much of her opposition i^acted, what small progress has been made, 
and what a great deal more — even with our present knowledge — 

196 



1971 Moldenke, Book reviefws 197 

can be made. 

Important appendices add much to this worthwUle book. The 
first includes an article from the Audubon's "Atlantic Naturalist" 
entitled "Safer Pesticides for Home and Gaurden" by Shirley A, 
Briggs. The second, by Harold G. Alford, gives the "Federal Reg- 
istration Requirements for Pesticide Products". The third, "In 
Kemoriam", tells of the Rachel Carson Tmst for the Living Envi- 
roiment in Washington, D. C, of the Rachel Carson Memorial Fund 
administered by the National Audubon Society, of how we may help 
through them, and of how Rachel Carson left legacies to the 
Sierra Club and to the Natxire Conservancy, establishing the 
Rachel Cairson Seacoast Fund for the preservation of natural 
areas along the New England coast. 

"THEORIES ON THE NATURE OF LIFE" by Giovanni Blandino, S. J., 

xiii & 37U pp., illus.. Philosophical Library, New Yoric, N, 
Y. 10016. 1969. $6.00. 

This book is the English translation by 0. C. Olsoufieff of 
the emended first Italian edition. In it the author expounds and 
evaluates the following theories: determinism and anti-casxialism, 
mechanism, vitalism, dialectical materialism, cybernetics, mnemo- 
nism, emergentism, holism and panpsychlsm. He presents these 
concepts mainly through quotations from the major proponents of 
each, such as Claude Bernard, Ludwig von Bertalanffy, Hans 
Dreisch, John S. Haldane, Julian S. Huxley, Jacques Loeb, Joseph 
Needham, Aleksandr I. Ceparin and George G. Simpson. 

After elaborating upon what he and/or biologists generally 
consider inadequacies and errors in these concepts, the author 
presents his own ideas. He accepts the principle of invariable- 
ness of probabilities and the principle of iupossibility , Ap- 
plied to the "average chance universe the formation of a highly 
ireguilar structure is possible, though greatly improbable. .. .and 
the realization of a living bo<fy is simply impossible, ... .the 
existence of every living body requires preferential laws: pre- 
ferential laws are the fundamental causes of life, [and] there- 
fore also of evolution." After elaborating upon the Harcfy- 
Weinberg law, he concludes that "probably the principal direc- 
tional factor of evolution has been the differential vitality or 
selection." Each is a different possible modality of the orien- 
ted causes . "My position is therefore essentially anti-causal- 
istic, not anti-selectionistic. In my opinion the 'formiila' of 
the causes of evolution is not chance and selection, but prefeiv 
ential laws and selection." 

English is probably not the "first" language of the transla- 
tor. 

"OUR PRECARIOUS HABITAT" by Uelvina A. Benarde, 362 pp., illus., 
W. W. Norton & Co., New York, N. Y. IOOO3. 1970. $2.95 
paper bound. 

This book is an outgrowth of a course in environmental health 



198 ? H Y T L G I A Vol. 21, no. 3 

problems taioght hs' "the author for non-biologists. It will well 
serve a wider audience of interested citizenry itho wish to be well 
infonned on this very important topic. 

The author fort.ifies with practical information amd reasoning 
his belief that optimum solutions to community pollution problems 
must be developed throTigh an integrated or systems approach. He 
considers food diseases, insecticides, zoonoses, sewage, water and 
air pollution, accidents and occupational hazards, noise, ionizing 
radiation, biologi.cal and chemical warfare, and finally the poli- 
tics of pollution,, He does not seem to be concerned especially 
with the problem of the numerically expanding human population. 

The author's intent "will have been achieved if the presenta- 
tion enables the i.ntelligent reader to evaluate these problems 
from a basis of knowledge and understanding, rather than of emo- 
tional fervor founded on ignorance, superstition, and prejudice." 
This reviewer wishes him mary readers for the sake of "our pre- 
carious habitat", 

Bibliogi^phic material is arranged according to the chapter 
topics . 

There is a useful index. 

"THE TRANSPOET OF PUNT HORMONES" — Proceedings of the NATO/Ege 
University Summer Institute, October 1967 — edited by Y. 
Vardar, viii & U57 pp., illus., North-Holland Publishing 
Co., Amsterdam & John Wiley & Sons, Inc. as their Western 
Hemisphere distributor. New York, N. Y. 10016. I968. $23.00 

The 26 papers and their valuable discussions present what is 
known today and outline the research and re-evaluations needed 
tomoiTOW, Kaldewtjy's opening address analyzes polau: transporta- 
tion in terms of "density", "velocity" and "intensity" rate 
rather tham just "rate". Other authors deal with the movement of 
l)|g -marked IndolyL acetic acldj auxin and kinin relationship with 
senescence; acropjtal moveissnt of axixln and agents modifying its 
longitudinal transport; effects of photosynthesis, tropisms, sym- 
biosis, flowering and bud dormancy. Alleweldt considers "the an- 
nual cyclic pattern of growth and dormancy as the result of a 
complex competition of operators controlled by external condi- 
tions in combination with an endogenous mechanism of plant devel- 
opment, that is, a hormonal influence on the mechanisms by irtiich 
the information contained in the genetic code of DNA. is trans- 
ferred to the corresponding mRNA, this giving rise to the synthe- 
sis of specific enzymes," 

Some proofreader was lax because oxidation is spelled two ways 
on p. l5U, while continuum on p. 366, German on p. U, Cichori'um 
Intybus on p. Iil5 are also misspelled. 

The index is scanty, omitting all plant names. 

This Is a valuable book, but also an unreasonably expensive 
one* 



1971 Moldenke, Book revienre 199 

"AUSTRALIAN NATIVE ORCHIDS IN COLOUR" by Leo Cady & E. R. Rothei>- 
ham, 112 pp., illus., Charles E. Tuttle Co., Rutland, Ver- 
mont 0^701 Sc Tokyo, Japan. 1971. $6.75. 

This book is a little beauty at a veiy ireasoiable price con- 
sidering the inclviaion of over 100 beautiful color photographic 
prints. The text by the first author, who has l:>een specializing 
in orchids for over a score of years, consists cf interesting 
succinct descriptions, pollination information so fascinating in 
this family, habitat and geographic distribution notes, scientific 
and common names with their dertvations, and typie specimen records. 
The illustrations by the second author, who is a jrenowned natural 
history photographer, combine very effectively correct represen- 
tation, eocquisite detail and artistic grace. 

The following itans are only of minor signif i.cance : lithophytes 
are confused with lithophiles (p. 7), dependence is misspelled (p* 
7), " Geodonm " is derived from "being near the earth" [that is, 
the flower] instead of "gift of the earth" (p. 92), and magnifi- 
cations are not given with the illustrations. 

Anyone interested in orchids, anyone interested in Australia — 
in fact, Just anyone at all — should enjoy this bookl 

"THE LINN INDEX — A BIBLIOGRAPHY FOR PHYTOCHailSTRT" Monograph 
VI, Order Tubiflorae , edited by Norman R. Famsworth, Ralph 
B. Blomster, Maynard W. Quimby & John W, Schermerhom, 27U 
pp., published privately by Dr. N. R, Famsworth, Dept, of 
Pharmacognosy & Pharmacology, University of Illinois, Chi- 
cago, Illinois 60612. 1969. tS paperback. 

A valuable service has been rendered by these scientists for 
taxonomic botanists, pharmaceutical workers and students, and 
many others in collating all this material. The first five mono- 
graphs were edited by the last two individuals nentioned above 
and were published \^ the Massachusetts College of Pharmacy. All 
are built on Dr. F.ldln V, Lynn's file of triple entries kept by 
him for many years (generic, author, chemical) and have been 
added to constantly. 

Material is az*ranged by related and briefly desczlbed plant 
families and alphabetically by genera and the species within 
them. After each species the comnon names, common synon3riny, and 
the chemicals involved are listed. Numbers after each chemical 
refer to the bibliography given at the end of each plant family. 

"THE BIOLOGY OF FUNGI, BACTERU AND VIRUSES", 2nd edition, by 
Greta B. Stevenson, xLii & 202 pp., illua., American Else- 
vier Publishing Company, New York, N. Y. 10017. 1970. $9.00 

"Intended for students in the early parts of their University 
courses in Botany and Biology and also for sixth-form pupils", 
this book may serve well as a library reference for students in 
the United States irather than as a text because there are avail- 



200 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 3 

able more "attractive" woiics for our students. Part I deals with 
cell organization, metabolism, growth and development. Part II 
discxisses habitatal interrelations and such economic microbiolog- 
ical processes as are used in the fermentation industries, anti- 
biotic production, etc. Part III develops the diversity o£ fungi 
in relation to their environments in systematic order. 

There is an appendix irlth classification, a useful biblio- 
graphy and an index. 

"THE BIOLOGY OF LICHENS" by Mason E. Hale, Jr., viii & 176 pp., 
illus., American Elsevier Publishing Co., New York, N. T. 
10017. 1970. $7.50. 

This excellent highly readable work was first published by Ed- 
ward Arnold, Ltd., of London in 1967. It makes a fine companion 
volume to the author's "Lichen Handbook" of 1961, thus supplemen- 
ting this field guide with basic modem biological theory and in- 
formation. It belongs in the libraries of all kinds of biolo- 
gists, all schools and scientifically interested general readers. 

It covers the following topics: morphology of the thallus and 
its asconcrcete or basidiomycete reproductive structvires and vege- 
tative diaspores, physiology smd nutrition, symbiosis and synthe- 
sis, growth and longevity, succession in ecologically different 
conmunities, intra- and extra-cellular chemistry and biochemical 
systematics, classificatioij and taxonon^y, and finally economic 
importance. This thin book has 289 important bibliographic ref- 
erences, a useful index, and excellent photos and drawings. 

How does the author delimit lichens? "Lichens are undeniably 
more than a sum of their [fxingal and algal] parts, for licheni- 
zation is accompanied by structural modifications (e.g., thalloid 
exciple, soredia) new to the plant kingdom and physiological 
activities (production of lichen acids) different from those of 
either component.'' 

"FLORA ANALITICA E FITOGEOGRAPHICA DO ESTADO DO SAO PAULO" Volume 
2 by JoSo Angely, xix — xliii & 2U1 — kS6 & 17 pp., illus., 
EdicoSs Phyton, C.P. 5271, SSo Paulo, Brazil. 1970. 

Welcome to tiiis new volume in a very carefully executed serial 
publication from a most prodigious botanical workerl It covers 
31 families from the Leguminosae through the Vitaceae "iTith 2liO 
genera and 13U5 species and their subvmits. For each taxon is 
given the source of its scientific name, a brief description, 
blocaning times, ccsmnon names, synonymy, and geographic distribu- 
tion. 

There are 399 distribution maps covering the range of the re- 
corded plants throughout the Western Hanisphere. There are sever- 
al valuable indexes. The offset printing is very neat; only the 
generic name Rhabdocaulon on p. xxxiv was noticed as misspelled. 



^ PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 21 April, 1971 No. 4 



CONTENTS 

KORF. R. P., Some new discomycete names 201 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of 

the genus Callicarpa. XV 208 

MILLER, H. A., An overview of the Hookeriales 243 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Five more novelties in the Verbenaceae 253 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 255 

WINDLER, D. R., New North American unifoliolate Crotalaria taxa .... 257 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the Eriocaulaceae. XXXVI . ... 267 

THOMPSON, H. J., & Roberts, J., Observations on Mentzelia in 

Southern California 279 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

I ^T^ f^ ^P^S^^ number, $1 ; per volume, $7.50, in advance, 
i ».J !>. /^ SV T or $8, at close of volume 

MAY 24 197) 



lklr-tA# v/i-sr-ki^ 



SOME NEW DISCOMYCETE NAMES 

RICHARD P. KORF 
Plant Pathology Herbazn.ion 
Cornell University ^ Ithaoa, New York 

Preparation of keys to the Discomycete genera (Korf, 1971) has 
led to several revisions by the author and his students, most of 
which are being reported elsewhere. This brief article involves 
vsilidation of three new genera euid forty-three new combinations in 
various Discomycete groups not cvirrently being monographed by us. 

NEV GENERA 

CALLORINA Korf, gen. nov. 

Apothecia subgelatinosa^ erumpentia, denique patelliformiaj 
oamea vel aurantiaaay hymenio oonoolore; exaipulim ex textura 
angulari formation^ parietibus tenuibuSy subhyalinibus; asai J-; 
asoosporae elliptioae-oylindricae y 1- vel 3-septataey hyalinae; 
paraphyses filifoimeSy apiae tumido. (Helotiales, Dermateaceae , 
Naevieae.) Species typica: Peziza fusarioides Berk. 

(= Calloria Fr. sensu Tul. et Tul. , non Fries.) 



DENCOELIOPSIS Korf, gen. nov. 

Apothecia ooriaoeay erumpentiay aupulatay breviter stipitatay 
rufo-fusoa, pulverulenta vel furfuraoeay hymenio flavidoy in siooo 
nigresaente; excipulum eotale exterius ex aellulis globosis inoo- 
haerentibus et hyphis oapilliforwnibus mixtis formation; excipulwn 
eotale interius ex textwca porrecta formatujriy parietibus luteis 
vel brunneiSy granulatis; asai J-h; asoosporae fusiformaey 1-sep- 
tataey hyalinae; paraphyses filiformes. (Helotiales, Leotiaceae, 
Encoelioideae. ) Species typica: Peziza johnstonii Berk. 

(= Enooeliopsis Nannf. sensu Dennis, non Nannfeldt.) 

VELUTARINA Korf, gen. nov. 

Apothecia ooriaoeay sessiliay cupulatay ferrugineo-brurmeay pul- 
verulentay hymenio viridulo vel nigro; cellulae vesioulosae pigmen- 
tum viridulum in excipulo disperse continentes; asai J+; asoosporae 
ellipticaey non septataey hyalinae vel pallide brunneaey 1- vel 
2-guttulatae; paraphyses aylindricaey apice olavato pigmentum oli- 
vaoeum continente. (Helotiales, Leotiaceae, Encoelioideae.) 
Species typica: Peziza rufo-olivacea Alb. et Schw. ex Pers, 

[= Velutarina Korf, Mycologia 45: Ut6. 1953, not validly pub- 
lished (Int. Code Botan. Nomencl. 1966, Art. 36).] 

201 



202 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

NEW COMBINATIONS 

Aparaphysaria aparaphysata (Speg. ) Korf, oomb. nov. 

= Geopyxis aparaphysata Speg., Anales Mus. Nac. Buenos Aires 6: 

302. 1898. 
= Aparaphysaria doelloi Speg. 1922. 



Ascocoryne cylichnium (Tul. ) Korf, oomb. nov. 

= Peziza oyliohnivon Tul., Ann. Sci. Nat., Bot. Ill 20: Yjh. I853. 

= Coryne aylichnium (Tul.) Boud. 19OT. 
= Coryne umalis (Nyl. ) Sacc. 1875- 



Ascocoryne microspora (Ellis et Everh. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Coryne miorospora Ellis et Everh., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 24: 
282. 1897. 



Ascocoryne turficola (Boud. ) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Coryne turficola Boud., Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 21: 71. 1905 . 



Blumeriella kerriae (Stewart) Korf, oomb. nov. 
= Coooomyoes kerriae Stevart, Phytopathology 7: k03. 1917. 
= Higginsia kerriae (Stewart) Nannf. 1932. 

Boedijnopeziza colensoi (Berk. ) Korf et Erb, comb. nov. 
= Peziza colensoi Berk, in Hooker, Botany Antarctic Voyage 2(2): 
200. 1855. 
= Cookeina colensoi (Berk.) Seaver 1913. 

Byssonectria aggregata (Berk, et Br. ) Rogerson et Korf, oomb. 

nov. 
= Peziza aggregata Berk, et Br., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. Ill 18: 123. 
1866. 

= Ootospora aggregata (Berk, et Br.) Eckblad 1968. 

= Inermisia aggregata (Berk, et Br.) Svrffek 1969. 

Byssonectria fusispora (Berk. ) Rogerson et Korf, comb. nov. 
= Peziza fusispora Berk., Lond. J. Botany 5: 5. I8U6. 

= Ootospora fusispora (Berk.) Brumm. 1967. 

= Inermisia fusispora (Berk.) Rifai 1968. 



Byssonectria tetraspora (Fuckel) Korf, comb. nov. 
- Asoobolus tetrasporus Fuckel, Hedwigia 5; U. 1866. 
= Ootospora tetraspora (Fuckel) Korf 1955. 



1971 Korf , Nsir Dlscomyc^ta nainaa 203 

Callorina fusarioides (Berk. ) Korf, aomh. nov. 
= Peziza fusarioides Berk.., Mag. Zool. Bot. 1: U6. l83T. 
= Calloria fusarioides (Berk.) Fr. l8U9. 

Ciboria peckiana (Cooke) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Helotium macrosporum Peck, Ann. Rept. N. Y. S. Mus. 26: 82. 

187 1+, non Peziza maarospora Wallr. 1833, nee Ciboria maaro- 
spora (Sacc.) Sacc. I883. 
= Peziza peckiana Cooke, B\ill. Buff. Soc. Nat. Sci. 2: 29U. 

1875, nom. nov. 
= Rutstroemia maarospora (Peck) Ksmouse in Wehmeyer 19^0. 



Ciboria peckiana forma gigaspora (Korf) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Rutstroemia maarospora (Peck) Kanouse in Wehm. f . gigaspora 
Korf, Bull. Nat. Sci. Mus. (Tokyo) 4: 396. 1959- 



Cordierites frondosa (Kobayasi) Korf, comb. nov. 
H Bulgaria frondosa Kobayasi, Bot. Mag. (Tokyo) 53: I58. 1939. 
E lonomidotis frondosa (Kobayasi) Kobayasi et Korf in Korf' 
1958. 



Cyathicula cyathoidea (Bull, ex M^rat) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Peziza cyathoidea Bull, ex M^rat , Nouv. Flore Envir. Paris, ed. 
2, 1: 23. 1821. : Fr. l822. 

E Phialea cyathoidea (Bull, ex M^rat) Gill. 188I. 

E Cyathicula vulgaris de Not, 1861* , nom. nov. super f. 

Cyathicula helios (Penzig et Sacc. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
E Davincia helios Penzig et Sacc, Malpighia IS: 215. 1902; Icones 
Fung. Javan. p. 8I. I90U. 



Cyathicula sublicoides (Karst. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
E Peziza sublicoides Karst., Not. Sailsk. Fauna Flora Fenn. 10: 
1U8. 1869. 
= Allophylaria sublicoides (Karst.) Nannf. 1932. 

Dencoeliopsis johnstonii (Berk. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
E Peziza johnstonii Berk., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. I 12: 356. I8UU. 
E Enaoeliopsie johnstonii (Berk.) Dennis 1956. 



Fimaria ripensis (E. C. Hansen) Korf, comb. nov. 
E Peziza ripensis E. C. Hansen, Hedwigia 15: 97. I876; Vidensk. 
Meddel. Naturh. Foren. KJObenh. 1876: 267. I876. 



20U P H I T L G I.A.. Vol. 21, no, k 

Grovesiella ericae (Fr. ) Korf, aomb. nov. 
= Cenangium erioae Fr., Syst. Myc. 2: l88. 1822. 
= Enaoeliopsis ericae (Fr.) Groves 1969. 



Grovesiella ledi (Alb, et Schw. ex Pers. ) Korf, aomb. nov. 
= Peziza ledi Alb. et Schw. ex Pers., l^c. Eur. 1: 3,2'k. l822. 
Fr. 1822. 
= Enaoeliopsis ledi (Alb. et Schw. ex Pers.) Groves 1969. 



Laetinaevia caulophylli (Ellis et Everh. ) Korf, aomb. nov. 
= Orbilia caulophylli Ellis et Everh., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci., 
Philadel. 1892: IU5. 1893. 



Melastiza flavorubens (Rehm in Rabenh. ) Pfister et Korf, 

aomb. nov. 
= Himajna flavorubens Rehm in Rabenh. , Kryptogamen-Flora Deutschl. 

Oesterr. Schweiz II 2(3) [1+2]: 96O. I89I+. 
= Melastiza greletii Le Gal 1958. 



Neocudoniella albiceps (Peck) Korf, aomb. nov. 
= Ombrophila dlbiaeps Peck, Ann. Rept. N. Y. S. Mus. 42: 130. 
1889. 
= Leotia albiaeps (Peck) Mains 1956. 
= Neocudoniella jezoensis Imai 191+1. 



Neolecta irregularis (Peck) Korf et J. K. Rogers, comb. nov. 
= Geoglossum irregrulare Peck, Ann. Rept. N. Y. S. Mus. 32: U5. 
1879. 
= Mitrula vitellina (Bres.) Sacc. in Sacc. et Bres. subsp. 

irregularis (Peck) Sacc. 1889. 
= Mitrula irregularis (Peck) Durand 1908. 
= Asaocoryneum irregulare (Peck) Ito et Imai in Imai 193U. 
= Spragueola irregularis (Peck) Nannf. 19^+2 . 
= Spragueola americana Massee 1896. 



Neolecta vitellina (Bres. ) Korf et J. K. Rogers, aomb. nov. 
= Geoglossum vitellinum Bres., Rev. Viycol. 4: 212. I882. 

= Mitrula vitellina (Bres.) Sacc. in Sacc. et Bres. 1885. 

= Asaocoryneum vitellinum (Bres.) Ito et Imai in Imai 1931+ . 

= Spragueola vitellina (Bres.) Nannf. 19I+2. 



1971 Korf, New Diaconcrcete names 20^ 

Pezoloma ciliifera (Karst. ) Korf, aomb. nov, 
= Peziza ciliifera Karst., Not. Sailsk. Fauna Flora Fenn. 10: 
153. 1869. 

= Sphagnioola ciliifera (Karst.) Vel. 193*+. 

E Pseudodiecinella ciliifera (Karst.) Dennis 1956. 
= Laahnea ailiata Vel. 1922, monotype of genus Ciliatula Vel. 

1922. 



Pezoloma fergussonii (Sacc. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
E Helotium melleum Berk, et Br., Ann. Mag. Nat. Hist. IV 25: 38. 
1875, non H. melleum Berk, et Br. l873. 
= Helotium fergussonii Sacc, Syll. Fung. 8: 223- I889, nom. 

nov. 
= Sphagnicola fergussonii (Sacc.) Dennis 196U. 

Pezoloma iodocyanescens (Dennis et Korf) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Sphagnicola iodocyanescens Dennis et Korf, Kew Bull. 2958: I8I. 
1958. 

Pezoloma laricina (Ellis et Everh. ) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Pseudohelotium laricinum Ellis et Everh., Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. 
Philadel. 1894: 3^+9 • l89^. 

= Sphagnicola laricina (Ellis et Everh.) Dennis 1961*. 



Pezoloma obstricta (Karst. ) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Peziza obstricta Karst., Not. Sailsk. Fauna Flora Fenn. 10: 151. 
1869. 

= Pseudodiscinella obstricta (Karst.) Dennis 1956. 

E Sphagnicola obstricta (Karst.) Dennis et Korf 1958. 

Phaeosclerotinia phaeospora (Hori) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Sclerotinia phaeospora Hori, Engei no Tomo 8: 953. 1912. 

E Phaeosclerotinia nipponica Hori in Sasaki ( "Phaeoscherotin- 

ia"), Nippon Engei Zasshi 25: 38. [15- Mar.] 1913; 

(Phaeosclerotinia) Engei no Tomo 9: 351- [5 Apr.] 1913, 

nom. nov. super f. 



Pulparia persoonii (Crouan et Crouan) Korf, Pfister et Rogers, 

comb. nov. 
= Ascobolus persoonii Crouan et Crouan, Fl. Finest&re p. 56. I867, 
(lectotypified by Brummelen 1967). 

= Marcelleina persoonii (Crouan et Crousm) Briomm. 1967- 



206 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

Pulparia planchonis (Dun. ex Boud. ) Korf, Pfister et Rogers, 

oomb. nov. 
= Plioaria planchonis (Dun.) ex Boud., Bull. See. Mycol. France 3. 

92. 1887. 
= Maroelleina atvoviolaoea Brtumn. ISGl . 

= Peziza atvoviolaoea Delile ex de Seynes I886, non Peziza 
atvoviolaoea Bres. 1882. 



Pulparia planchonis forma ovalispora (Grelet) Korf, Pfister et 

Rogers, oomb. nov. 
= Plioaria ■planchonis (Dun.) ex Boud. var. ovalispora Grelet, 
Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 42: 203. 1927- 



Sarcoleotia globosa (Sommerf. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Mitrula globosa Sommerf., Suppl. Fl. Lappl. p. 287. I826. 
= Corynetes globosus (Sonmierf . ) Durand 1908. 



Sowerbyella imperialis (Peck) Korf, comb. nov. 

= Peziza imperialis Peck, Ann. Rept. N. Y. S. Mus. 29: 5^. I878, 

non P. imperialis Beck I88U. 
= Aleuria unioolor Gill., Champ. Fr. , Discom. p. 38. I88O. 

= Sowerbyella unicolor (Gill.) Nannf. 1938. 

E Pseudotis unioolor (Gill.) Heim 1962. 



Tarzetta bronca (Peck) Korf et J. K. Rogers, oomb. nov. 
= Peziza bronoa Peck, Ann. Rept. N. Y. S. Mus. 29: 5^+. I878. 

= Pustularia bronoa (Peck) Kanouse 1950. 

= Pustulina bronca (Peck) Korf et Berthet in Berthet et Korf 
1969. 



Tarzetta catinus (Holmskj. ex Pers. ) Korf et J. K. Rogers, 

comb. nov. 
= Peziza catinus Holmskj. ex Pers., Myc. Eur. 1: 231. l822. : Fr. 
1822. 
= Pustularia catinus (Holmskj. ex Pers.) Fuckel I87O. 
= Pustulina catinus (Holmskj. ex Pers.) Eckblad 1968. 
= Peziza tarzetta Cooke, Nfycographia p. 166. 1877; nomenclat viral 
type of Peziza subgen. Tarzetta Cooke, Mycographia p. 251. 
1879 (Int. Code Botan. Nomencl. I966, Art. 22), hence also 
the nomenclatural type of Tarzetta ( Cooke) Lambotte 1887). 



Tarzetta gaillardiana (Boud. ) Korf et J. K. Rogers, comb. nov. 
= Pustularia gaillardiana Boud., Bull. Soc. Mycol. France 18: l^il. 
1902. 
= Pustulina gaillardiana (Boud.) Pant et Tewari 1971. 



1971 Korf , Nsw DlsconQrcete names 207 

Tarzetta insignis (Berthet et Riousset) Korf et J. K. Rogers, 

comb. nov. 
B Puatutaria inaignie Berthet et Riousset, Bull. Soc. Mycol. 
France 79: 392, 397. 1963. 
= Pustulina insignia (Berthet et Riousset) Korf et Berthet in 
Berthet et Korf 1969- 



Unguiculariopsis hysterigena (Berk, et Br. ) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Peziza hyaterigena Berk, et Br., J. Linn. Soc. (London) 14: 106. 

18T3. 
= Feziza rccoenetii Berk, et Ciirtis in Berk. l875. 

= Enooelielta ravenelii (Berk, et Curtis in Berk.) H(5hn. 1910. 



Unguiculariopsis infundibuliformis (Durand) Korf, comb. nov. 
= Midotia infundibuliformia Durand, Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci, 
59: 7. 1923. 



Velutarina rufo-olivacea (Alb. et Schw. ex Pers. ) Korf, conib. 

nov. 
= Peziza rufo-olivacea Alb. et Schw. ex Pers., Myc. Eur. 1: 251. 
1822. : Fr. 1822. 
= Velutazn^ rufo-olivacea (Alb. et Schw. ex Pers.) Fuckel I87O. 
[= Velutarina rufo-olivacea (Alb. et Schw. ex Pers.) Korf 1953, 
not validly published (int. Code Botan. Nomencl. I966, 
Art. 1*3).] 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

This work has been supported by NationeLL Science Foundation Grant 
GB-85I+8, "Monographic and Floriatic Studiea of the Diacomycetea . " 
The able technical assistance of Mrs. Patricia Fazio allowed these 
studies to be completed. Most of all I owe a very deep debt to my 
many students, present and past, whose unfailing and friendly help, 
criticism, and forbearance can never be repaid. Throughout much of 
the work, a motto coined by one of my students (Joanne K. Rogers, 
in litt.) has helped me through some of the more difficxilt times: 
"Ho name change today can eradicate the oonfuaion of the poet!" 



LITERATURE CITED 

Korf, R. P. (1971). Discomycetes and Tuberales. In "The Fungi: 
An Advanced Treatise," (G. C. Ainsworth, A. S. Sussman and F. K. 
Sparrow, eda.). Volume IV. Academic Press, New York & London. 



ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS 
CALLICARPA . XV 

Harold N. Moldenke 



CALLICARPA LONGIPES Dunn 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 162~16U. 1971. 

Additional citations: CHINA: Fukien: Ching 6668 (N); H. H. 
Chung 3370 (Ca— 288la5, Ca— U20338, V—ta6U; Hongkong Herb. 3390 
(N — photo of isotype) . Kiangsi: Tsiang 101|9 (N) . Kwangsi: 
Ching 7189 (N); Wing ^681 (N) . Kwangtung: Liou 88U (N) j Peng , 
Tak , & Kin |6l [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 12560] (Ca— 27li993, W— 
12U8186); Sin 10020 (N); Tsang 20762 (N), 21319 (N); Tso 20752 
(N). Kweichoir: Chaffanjon 23lil (N — photo, N— photo) . 

CALLICARPA LONGIPES var. UUI Moldenke Phytologia 8: 273. 1962. 

Bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 8: 273. 1962} Moldenke, R6- 
sum6 Suppl. Ii: 8. 1962j Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 39: 6lii. 1962; 
Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A.6: 535. 1963. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having its pubescence on the petioles, leaf -blades, branches, pe- 
duncles, inflorescence-branches, pedicels, and calyx hirsute, e- 
longate, divergent at right angles to the base, and gland-tipped. 

The type of the variety was collected by S, K. Lau ( no. 3927 ) — 
in whose honor it is named — at Sai Hang Cheung, near Tung Lei 
village, Kiennan District, Kiangsi, China, between July 28 and 30, 
193U, and is deposited in the United States National Herbarium at 
Washington. 

In all, 3 herbarium specimens, including the type, have been 
examined by me . 

Citations: CHINA: Kiangsi: Lau 3927 (W— 1752680— type), I4729 
(W— 1753357, Z). 

CALLICARPA LONGIPETIOUTA Merr., Philip. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 
29: U7. 1905. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa tomentosa var. longipetiolata (Merr.) 
Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 22. 1921. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Gov. Lab. Bur. Bull. 29: 
U7— U8 & 58. 1905i Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 3: 32. 1908j H. J. 
Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. i;9, 75—76, & 362. 1919; Bakh. in 
Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz,, ser. 3, 3: 21, 22, & 221. 
1921 ; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. PI. 3: 386. 1923; Moldenke, 
Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 13. 19U0; Moldenke, Alph. List 
Invalid Names 11. 19U2; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 1, 62 &87. 19ii2; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 
1: 3. 19U7; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac,, ed. 2, liiO 
& 177. 19U9; Moldenke, Alph. List Cit, h'. 1085, 1236, & 1260. 
19U9; Moldenke, Biol, Abstr. 26: li;71. 1952; Moldenke, Phytologia 
U: 77, 1952; Moldenke, R6sum4 182, 2ii5, 2U7, & UUU, 1959; Molden- 

208 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 209 

ke, Phytologia 13: U99. 1966; Moldenke, R4sum6 Suppl. 16: 18. 
1968. 

Tree, to 15 m. tall; trunk to 31 cm. in diameter j branchlets 
sub tetragonal, ferniginous-tomentose or -subtomentoae; leaves de- 
cussate-opposite; petioles 1.7 — 2.6 cm. long, ferruginous-tomen- 
tose or -subtomentose; leaf -blades coriaceous or thick-chartace- 
ous, ovate or oblong-ovate, h — 10 cm. long, 1.5 — U.5 cm. iride, 
acute or acuminate at the apex, entire, somewhat rounded to sub- 
acute or acute at the base, stellate-hairy above wtien young but 
glabrous when adult, densely yellow-brown-tomentose beneath or 
subpersistently flavid-puberulent when dried; secondaries 7 — 9 
pairs; cymes small to medium or large, in the axils of the upper 
leaves, 7 — 10 cm. long, 5.5 — 10 cm. wide, ferruginous-tomentose 
or -subtomentose; peduncles h — 5.5 cm. long, 2 — 3 times as long 
as the subtending petiole; flowers subsessile; calyx 1 mm, long, 
densely pilose with yellowish stellate-furfuraceous hairs, glandu- 
lose, the rim U-toothed; corolla 3 inm. long, with U lines of 
dense simple (?) hairs, glandulose, or very densely sublanate- 
tomentose on the outside and on the back of the lobes, the lobes 
glabrous within; stamens 3.5 — U.5 nm. long; anthers glandulose; 
style h mm. long; stigma capitate; ovary densely villous and 
glandular-pxmctate . 

The type of this species was collected by Adolph Daniel Ed- 
ward Elmer ( no. 6266 ) on Mount Santo Tomas, in the province of 
Benguet, Luzon, Philippine Islands, in May of 190li, and was de- 
posited in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science at Manila, but 
is now destroyed. Collectors have found this species in bloom 
from February to June. A black fungus is on specimens of M, S, 
Clemens 5882. The Vanoverbergh 1376, distributed as £, longi- 
petiolata , is actually the type collection of its var, glabrescena 
Moldenke. 

In all, 19 herbarium specimens, including type material of 
both names involved, and 2 mounted photographs have been examined 
by me. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Luzon: M. S. Clemens 5882 (Ca— 
252509, Z), 9185 (Bi); Elmer 6266 (Bz— I868I— isotype, N— isotype, 
N~photo of isotype, Z— photo of isotype), li;280 (Bi, Bz— 13682, 
Du— 176387, N, Ut— 33520, Vi, W~1051131a); E. D. Merrill 873 (Ut— 
23202, W— 1133077); Sandkuhl s.n, [Herb, Philip. Forest Bur, 
20U28] (W— 900688); J. K_^ Santos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci, 
31935] (Ca— 2mo50, N, W— 1262967); J, V. Santos 5810 (W— 22U6767) . 

GALLICARPA LONGIPETIOUTA var. GUBRESCENS Moldenke, Phytologia U: 
U3. 1952. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa longipetala Merr. ex Moldenke, Alph. List 
Invalid Names Suppl. 1: 3, in syn. 19U7. 

Bibliography: Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 1: 3» 
19U7; Moldenke, Phytologia h: U3 & 77. 1952; Moldenke, Biol. Abatr. 
26: Hi 71. 1952; Moldenke, R6svaa6 182 & Wi. 1959; Moldenke, Phyto- 
logia 13: U99. 1966; Moldenke, R«sum6 Suppl. 16: 18, I968. 



210 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having its lower leaf-stirfaces decidedly silvery, but only very 
sparsely furfuraceous on the larger venation irtien mature. 

The type of the variety was collected hy Father Morice Frans 
Jules Pieter Maria Vanoverbergh ( no. 1376 ) in Bontoc Subprovince, 
Luzon, Philippine Islands, on June 30, I9II1, and is deposited in 
the herbaidum of the Botanisch Uuse\im at Uti*echt. This same col- 
lection is also the type of Merrill's C. longipetala , which I 
formerly (19U7) regarded as typical C_. longipe tiolata . The plant 
has been collected in anthesis so far only in June. Material has 
been misidentified and distributed in herbaria as £. angusta Schau. 
and as typical C_. longipetiolata Merr, 

In all, 6 herbarium specimens, including type material of both 
names involved, and 3 mounted photoglyphs have been examined by me, 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISUNDS: Luzon: Loher 12^89 (Ca--2U306l) j 
Vanoverbergh 1376 (Go — isotype. Mi — photo of isotype, N — isotype, 
N — ^photo of type, S~isotype, Ut — 53633 — type, Vi — isotype, Z — 
photo of type), 

CALLICARPA LONGISSIMA. (Hemsl.) Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 12: 
108. 1917. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa longifolia var. ^ longisslma Hensl. in 

Forbes & Hemal., Joum, Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 26: 253--25U. I89O, 
Callicarpa longifolia Hance ex Hemsl. in Forbes & Hemsl., Jouni. 
Linn. Soc. Lond, Bot. 26: 2$3, in syn. I89O [not £. longifolia 
Auct., 1965, nor Blume, 1936, nor Diels, I9I6, nor Hemsl., I9I6, 
nor Hook., 1932, nor L., 1820, nor Lam., 1783, nor Roxb., 1827, 
nor Vahl, 1936, nor "sensu Hemsl.", 19U9] . Callicarpa longifolia 
var, longissima Hemsl. apud J. Matsumxira, Ind, PI. Jap. 2 (2): 
529 • 1912. Callicarpa longissima Merr. apud Chung, Mem. Sci. Soc. 
China 1 (1): 226. 192U. Callicarpa longifolia longissima Hemsl, 
apud Stapf, Ind. Lond. 1: ^26. 1929* Callicarpa longissima f . 
subglabra P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3)? 50. 1932. Callicarpa 
taiwaniana Suzuki, Trans, Nat, Hist. Soc. Formosa 20: 130 — 131. 
1935. Callicarpa longifolia Benth. ex Moldenke, RisumS Suppl. 3s 
30, in syn. I962. Callicarpa longifolia sensu Mori apud Li, Woody 
Fl. Taiwan 823, in syn. I963. 

Bibliography: Hance, Ann. Soc, Nat,, ser. 5, Si 233. 1866; Max- 
im., M61, Biol. 12: 507. 1386; Forbes & Hemsl., Joum. Linn. Soc, 
Lond. Bot. 26: 253--25U. I89O; J. Matsumura, Ind. PI. Jap. 2 (2): 
529. 1912; Hayata, Ic. PI. Formos. 2: 125, pl. 36. 1912; Rehd. in 
Sarg., PI. Wils. 3: 369. 1916; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 
Bot. 12: 108. 1917; Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 36: 23. 1922; Chung, 
Mem. Sci, Soc. China 1 (1): 226. 1921;; A, W. Hill, Ind. Kew, Suppl. 
6: 3li. 1926; T. It8, Taiwan Shokubutu Dzusetu [Illustr. Formos, 
PI.] 60I;. 1927; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 1: 526. 1929; P'ei, Sinensia 
2: 68. 1932; P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. China] 
17, U9 — 50, & 55, pl. 6. 1932; Suzuki, Trans. Nat. Hist. Soc. For- 
mos. 25: 130 — 131. 1935; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. Indo-Chine U: 802. 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 211 

1935; Moldenke.in Fedde, Ropert. Spec. Nov. kO: 98. 1936j Kanehl- 
ra, Fomos, Tre«», ed. 2, 6U2, 6ldi~-6hS, & 716. 1936; Maaamuna, 
Short Fl, Fomios. 179. 1936; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kenr. Suppl. 9: I46. 
1938; Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 11 & 12. 19liO; 
Woradell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: I6O. I9UI; Moldenke, Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Varbenac, ed. 1. 56, 58, & 87. 19^2; Moldenke, Alph. 
List Invalid Names 10. 19U2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 68 & 91. 
19U5; Moldenke, Castane* 13: 120. I9U8; Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 
2: 63U (19U8), 3: 657, 666, 727, & 770 (19li9), and U: 1010, 1011, 
& 1228. 19li9; Moldenke, Knoirn Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 
131, 133, 135, & 177. 19U9; Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 280, 
285, 293, 308, 310, & 311. I95I; Moldenke, R«sum6 168, 171, 17U, 
2hh, 2li5, & hhh. 1959; Liu, niustr. Nat. & Introd. Lign. PI. Tai- 
wan 2: 1207, pi. 1015. 1962: Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 3 s 18 & 36. 
1962; Li, Woody Fl. Taiwan §19, 823, & 9Ui. 1963; Moldenke, R6su- 
m6 Suppl. 8: 3 (I96U) and lU: 7. 19o6; Moldenke, Phytologia Ih'- 
55, 58, 99, 102, lOU, & 171—172 (I966), 15: 38 (1967), 16: 371 & 
373 (1968), 20: 1^90 (1971), and 21: U8, 102, 109, & 113. 1971. 

Illustrations: Hayata, Ic. PI. Formos. 2: pi. 36. 1912; T. ItS, 
Taiwan Shokubutu Dzusetu [Illustr. Formos. PI.] 60U. 1927; 
P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. China] pi. 6. 1932; 
Liu, nixistr. Nat. & Introd. Lign. PI. Taiwan 2: pi. 1015. 1962. 

Woody herb or erect bush, densely bushy shrub, or small tree, 
1 — 10 m. tall, glabrous and shiny almost throughout; trunk to 7.5 
cm, in diameter; bark gray; branches green, often with a ring of 
long villous hairs at the nodes; leaves decussate-opposite; peti- 
oles 0.7 — 1.5 cm. long; leaf -blades chartaceous, somber-green 
above, lighter beneath, ovate-lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate 
to lanceolate or conspicuously and narrowly elongate-lanceolate, 
12 — 23 cm. long, 2 — 5.5 cm. wide, entire or crenately serrate, 
glabrous or subglabrous to pubescent with stellate hairs above 
(especially along the venation), sparsely golden-pulverulent and 
with a few large glands beneath or glabrous; secondaries 13 or lU 
per side; cymes distinctly pedunculate, the peduncles about 2 cm. 
long; flowers minute; calyx 1 mm. long, sparsely glandulose on 
the outer surface, glabrous within, its rim truncate, with U rudi- 
mentary teeth; corolla red or pink to purple, sometimes yellowish- 
white or white, sparsely pubescent and glandulose outside, its 
tube about 1 mm. long, glabrous, the limb li-lobed, the lobes 
sparsely pubescent within; stamens exserted; filaments nearly 3 
times as long as the corolla-tube; style surpassing the stamens; 
ovary glandulose; friiit subglobose, about 2 mm. in diameter, green 
when inmature, Wiite when ripe, glandulose. 

Menall (1917) comnents that "The type of Hemsley's variety was 
from near Canton, and is the form intejrpreted by Hance and by Max- 
iraowicz as Callicarpa longifolia Lam. Lanarck's type was from 
Malacca, and Callicarpa longifolia Lam. is a species entirely dis- 
tinct from this Chinese form; Hemsley states that his var. longis- 
sima stands out very distinctly from all others (i.e., other forms 
of Callicarpa longifolia Lam.) and should perhaps be raised to be 
specific rank. It is distinguished from Lamarck's species by its 



212 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

narrow, elongated, nearly glabrous, entire or but very minutely 
toothed leaves, its smaller flowers, and other characters. In 
some respects it approaches the Philippine Callicarpa dolichophyl- 
la Merr., from which it is distinguished by its vegetative char- 
acters." 

The C. longifolia accredited to "Auct.", to Blume, to Linnaeiis, 
to Roxbtirgh, and to Vahl in the synonymy given above is £. longi- 
folia Lam., a valid species, that accredited to Die la is £. bodin- 
ieri var. giraldli (Hesse) Rehd., that accredited to Hooker is C. 
brevipes (Benth.) Hance, that accredited to "sensu Hamsl," is C. 
Japonica var. angustata Rehd., while that attributed to Hemsley 
is in part £, bodinieri var. giraldii and in part C_, japonica var, 
angustata . 

According to P'ei (1932) "Hemsley' s original description is as 
follows: 'Fere undique glabra mitidaque, foliis valde longatis 
anguste lanceolatis usc[ue 9 poll, longis, subtus pallidioribus 
parce avireo-pulveinilentis ceterum glabris, cymis distincte pedun- 
culatis, floribus minutis. — C. longifolia Hance in Ann, So. Nat, 
$me s^rie, v. p. 233 et Maxim, in M61. Biol. XII. p. 507. VIX lam, 
Kwangtung: near Canton ( Hance eli956 l) Mus. Brit. Herb, Kew. 
Variable as £. longifolia is as limited here and in the "Flora of 
British India", the present form stands out very distinctly fron 
all the others and shovild perhaps be raised to specific rank,'" He 
cites Chang U5U; , Chung 21x71 & 2800 , Ging 7212 , 729U, & 15778 . and 
Po It20li9 from Fukien, McClure 3li5U from Kiangsi, Ching 7738 from 
Kwangsi, Chun 6922 from Kwangt\uig, Tsang 810 fi-om Hainan Island, 
and Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 238 and E. D. Merrill 9986 from Honam 
Island. He says further " Callicarpa longis a ima (Hamsl.) Merr. has 
nearly glabrous leaves except for the long villose hairs along the 
veins on the upper surface, and a ring of long hairs at each node 
of the branchlets. It is related to Callicarpa longifolia Lam. 
and C. brevipes Hance differing from the former by its leaves being 
glabrous beneath, and pubescent above only along the veins; from 
the later by its attenuate leaf-base; and from both by its long 
narrow leaves." His C^ longis s ima f . subglabra is described by 
him as follows: "A typo differt foliis subglabris, ovato-lanceola- 
tis ad elliptico-lanceolatis, 12.5 to 20 cm. longis 3 to U.7 cm. 
latis, nodis band barbatis. Kwangtung: Lungtau Mt., near lu, 
Peng (To), Tak (Ts'ang) and Kin (Ts'ang) 296l, May 192U, 'Shrub h 
feet tall, flowers white and yellow'; same locality, Peng (To), 
Tak (Ts'ang) and Kiji (Ts'ang) 5571, June 192li, 'Flowers yellowish 
white'; North River, near Fungwanhu, Peng (To), TaJc (Ts'ang) and 
Kin (Ts'ang) 8261, July 1921;, 'Flowers white'. This differs from 
the type by its leaves being glabrous above and subglabrous be- 
neath. There is no ring of long hairs at the nodes of the branch- 
lets ." 

The type of £, taiwaniana was collected by Sigetaka Suzuki ( no, 
59U5) at Sankyaku and Suigen, Formosa, and is deppsited in the her- 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa ZL3 

barium of the National Taiwan University, 

Chang (1951) maintains £. longissima , C, longissljia f . subgla- 
bra , and C. taiwaniana as three distinct and valid taxa, althoiigh 
he seems not to be entirely certain about the last-named of these. 
For C. longissima in what he regards as its typical form he cites 
H. Green 8,n. and nos. 1|, 60, 61, lU3, 365, 810, 1785 , 1752 , 5826, 
^22, 6996, 7680, 7738, 9903, 99^2 , 13591 , I6309 , 22350 , 23063 . 
2^2, 271877^23^ 7 ^20U , 37772 , & 72815 of collectors and/or 
herbaria whose names, unfortunately, he gives only in Chinese 
characters. He compares it with C_. dolichophylla llerr. 

For irtiat he regards as £. longissima f . sub glabra Chang cites 
nos. 77I4 , 1801, U08U . 20015, 22628 . 2l;001 , 26827 , 29033 , 309U6 , 
55338, 72li65 , 8U765, & 81i99lt of collectors and/or herbaria whose 
names, again, he gives only in Chinese characters. 

Recent collectors have found C_. longissljoa growing on hillsides, 
wooded hillsides, low slopes, and dry land, in forests, wooded 
places, thickets, and dry places by the sides of houses, and at 
pondsides, at altitudes of 10 to 1600 meters, flowering from May 
to August and in October, and fruiting from September to March, 
Ching describes it as "common" in Kwangsij Lau found it to be 
"fairly conmon on dry steep slope in sandy soil of rocky forest" 
on Hainan Islandj and Tsang describes it as "fairly conmon in 
village commons in dry sandy soil and silt" in Kwangsi. E^ D, 
Merrill 9986 is said to be a topotype, 

Verfaacular names for the plant appear to be "bok wat tan", 
"fat fung shu", "long-leaved beauty-berry", and "taai tsin mi 
fung". The corolla is described as "red" on W, T. Tsang 22628 , 
"pink" on H. H. Chung 2800 and F. C. How 72815 , "purple" on R. C. 
Ching 7738, "green" on H^ H. Chung 2U77 , "irtiite and yellow" on 
Peng , Tak, & Kin 296, "yellowish-white" on Peng , Tak , & Kin 557 , 
and "white" on Peng , Tak , & Kin 826 , 

Calllcarpa longissima closely resembles £. brevipes f , serrula- 
ta P*el, but the latter has serrate or serrulate leaf -blades, 
whereas in C_. longissima the leaf -blades are entire or subentire. 
Some specimens (e,g,, R. £• Ching 6996 ) also greatly resemble the 
M, Ramos 2037 collection which is regarded by m© as representing 
C. dolichophylla Merr, Li (1963) cites H. H. Bartlett 6082, 
Nakahara s,n. , Sasaki s.n, , Suzuki 59U5 , and E. H. Wilson 9821 & 
10108 from Formosa. 

Material of this species has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in herbaria as C_. brevipes (Benth.) Hance, C. longifolia Lam,, 
and Clerodendron sp. On the other hand, the ti^ H_. Bartlett 6082 , 
cited by Li and distributed as C_. longissima , is actually £, ran - 
daiensis Hayata. It is pi:x»bable that the other Formosan material 
cited by Li also represents that species. 

In all, 38 herbarixm specimens and one mounted photograph have 
been examined by me. 



21l4 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

Citations: CHINA: FukLen: T. C. Chang k^hh (Ca— 303271); H. H. 
Chnng 2U77 (Ca--23306ii), 2800 (Ca— 2U3756); Ging 7212 (Ca— 322261), 
729U (Ca— 322357), 15778 (Ca— 3U2l88)j Po 1201^9 (Ca— 325897). Ki- 
angsi: F. A. McClure 3k5h [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 15316] (Ca— 319928). 
Kwangsi: R. £. Ching 6996 (N), 7738 (Ca— lil0281i, N, W— 12U8679)i 
W. T. Tsang 22628 (S) . Kwangtung: Peng , Tak, & KiJ! i2i [Herb. 
Canton Chr. Coll. 12295] (W— 12U76U8), 557 [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 
12556] (Ca— 275009, W— 12l;8l82), 826 [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 
12825] (W — 12U8035) . Province vmdetermined: Nevin s.n. [China] 
(Du— 90911) . CHINESE COASTAL ISLANDS: Hainan: F. C_. How 72815 
(Bi, S); Lau 3282 (Bi, S); ]7. T. Tsang 810 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 
16309] (Ca— 326101, N, S, W— 1214981a). Honam: Dahlstrob U86 (S); 
£. 0. Levine s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 238] (lo, W— 778597); 
E, D, Merrill 9986 (Ca— 992U56, Gg— 31976, N— photo, Ph). FCRMOSA: 
E. H. Wilson 10108 (W— 1052933, W— 105293U). CULTIVATED: China: 
Chun 6922 (Bz— I8O69, Bz— I807O, N); Horn A.35I4 (N). 

CALLICARPA LUTEOPUNCTATA Chang, Acta Phytotax. Sin. 1: 292. 1951. 

Bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Acta Phytotax Sin. 1: 272, 280, 292, 
310, & 311. I95I; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 21. I966; Mol- 
denke, R^simi6 Suppl. lU: 3. 1966. 

Chang (1951) describes this species as follows: "Frutex circ. 2 
m altus. Hamuli hornotini teretes fulvo-brunnei faurinoso-stellato- 
lepidoti, annotini bninnei lenticellati glabri. Folia membranacea 
oblonga, 7—12 cm longa 2 — h cm lata, apice acuta vel breviter a- 
cuminata, basi in petiolum longissime attenuata, utrinque glabra 
lucide a\ireo-glandulosa, in sicco supra brunneo-viridia, subtus 
fulvo-virLdia ad costam nervosque laterales parcissime farinoso- 
stellato-puberula, margine in parte 3/h superiore irregulariter 
seiTulata; neirvi laterales utirlnsecus 8 — 11 supra plani subtus 
elevati; petioli 1 — 1.5 cm longi, Cymae axLllares graciles 2 cm 
longae, 2 — 3 can latae, quinquies dichotomae, pedvinculis U — 7 mm 
longis, pedicellis 1 — 1.5 nmi longis; bracteae subulatae 2 mm lon- 
gae; calyx 0.7 nm longus truncatus farinosus et glandulosus, lob- 
is inconspicuis ; corolla violaceo-purpurea glabra, tubo 1 mn Ion- 
go, lobis O.li mm longis; stamina longe exseirta, filamentis 3 mm 
longis, antheris ovalibxis O.U mm longis longi tudinaliter dehis- 
centibus; ovarium punctatum glabrum, stylo stamina subaequante. 
Fructiis 1 mm diametro piuictatus." 

The species is based on W. P^ Fang 17252 from Szechuan, depos- 
ited in the herbarium of the Botaniccil Institute of Sunyatsen Uni- 
versity, Canton, China, From the same province is cited W. P. 
Fang 17200, while from Yunnan Chang cites E. E. Maire 3k and lU T_. 
Tsai 51132 . He compares the species with C_^ bodinieri var. giral - 
dii (Hesse) Rehd. and C_. longifolia Lam., but in Chinese. 

CALLICARPA MACROPHYLLA Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 13, pi. 53. 179ii. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa tomentosa Konig ex Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3s 13, 
in syn. [" Callicarpae tomentosae "] . 179ii; Jacks, in Hook. f. & 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of CalHcarpa 21^ 

Jacks., Ind. Kerw., pr. 1, 1: 386, in syn, 1893 [not C^ tomentosa 
Auct,, 1962, nor Bakh., 1932, nor Hook, & Arn., 1918, nor "L. ex 
Moldenke", 1959, nor "L. ex Spreng.", 1825, nor "L. ex Willd.", 
1966, nor (L.) Ifurr., 177U, nor (L.) Santapau, 1965, nor Lam., 
1783, nor L'urr., 1393, nor Thunb., 1959, nor Willd., I8O9, nor 
"sensu auct. Japon.", 1965, nor "sensu llatsum,", 1961i, nor "senau 
Matsvam. & Hayata", I963] . CalHcarpa foliis lanceola to-elliptic 13 
crenatia attenuatis, supra rugosls subtus rauaisque tomentoso- 
incaois Vahl ex Willd., Linn. Sp. PI. 1: 620, in syn. 1797. Cal- 
Hcarpa incana Roxb., Hort. Beng. [10], hyponym. I8lli; Wall, in 
Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: U07— U08. 1320 [not £. 
incana (Turcz.) Moldenke, I93ii, nor (F.) Moldenke, 1953]. CalH- 
carpa roxburghii Wall., Numer, List [50] (as "h9") » 1829 [not C_. 
roxburghii H. J. Lam, I9U8, nor Schau., 1390, nor •'Wall, ex 
Schau.", 1963, nor "Wall, ex Walp.", I968] . Callicarpa cana 
Gamble ex C. B. Clarke in Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind. U: 568, in syn, 
1885 [not C. cana Dalz. & Gibs., 1919, nor L., 1771, nor Spreng., 
1966, nor Vahl, I866, nor Wall., I863] . Callicarpa macrophylla 
var. incana RoA. ex Kuntze, Rev. Gen, PI, 2: 503. 1391. Calli- 
carpa dunniana L^veillfi in Fedde, Repert, Spec. Nov. 9: U56. 1911. 
Callicarpa macrophylla var. kouytchensis L6veill<, Fl. Ko\;iy- 
Tch^ou UUO, hyponym. 1915. Callicarpa tomentosa Vahl apud H. J. 
Lam, Verbenac. Malay, Arch. [371]. 1919. Callicarpha macrophylla 
Vahl ex L'oldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 1: 3, in syn, 
I9U7. Callicarpa camea Hort. ex Moldenke, RfisumS 2U2, in syn. 
1959. Callicarpa macrophylla Roxb. ex Moldenke, Rfisumfi 2li5, in 
syn. 19^9"^ Callicarpa macrophylla Wall, ex Moldenke, R6sum6 2U5, 
in syn. 1959. Callicarpa tomentosa VKoen. ex Vahl" apud Balak- 
rishnan. Bull. Bot, Surv. India 6: 31 &: 87. I96U. 

Bibliography: Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: 13, pl. 53. 179li; Willd,, 
Linn, Sp. PI. 1: 620. 1797i W. T. Ait., Hort, Kew., ed. 2, 1: 2U7. 
1810; Roxb,, Hort. Beng. [10]. iSllij H.B.K., Nov. Gen, & Sp. PI,, 
ed. folio, 2: 205 (I3l7) and ed. quart., 2: 253, 1313; Roem, Sc 
Schult. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 15 nov., 9ii--95. I8l3; Wall, in 
Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Cafey & Wall,], 1: 1407— U08 & U81. 1320; 
Steud., Nom, Bot., ed. 1, 137. 1321; Kunth, Syn. PI. Aequinoct. 
2: 15. 1823; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 1: U20. 1825; J. 
A. & J. H. Schultes, Mant. 3: 51 & 53. 1327; Spreng. in L., Syst. 
Veg., ed. 16, 5: 126. 1323; Wall., Numer. Ust [50] (as "Ii9"). 
1829; Roxb., Fl. Ind,, ed, 2 [Carey], 1: 393—3914. 1332s Royle, 
111. Bot. Himal. 299- I836; Bojer, Hort. Maurit. 253. l837; D. 
Dietr., Syn. PI. 1: l423 & 129. 1839; Dilliiyn, Rev. Ref. Hort, 
Malab. I9. 1839; Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 137. I8UO; Walp., 
Repert. Bot. Syst. k: 126 & 127. 13U5; Schau. in A. DC,, Prodr, 
11: 6Ui. I3h7; Jacques & Hfirincq, Man. G^n. PI. Arb. & Arbust, 
[Fl. Jard. Eur,] 3: 503. 1851; Champ. & Hook, in Hook., Journ, 
Bot. & Kew Card. Misc. 5: 135. 1853; Mason, Burmah, ed, 2, 792, 
1860; Benth., Fl. Hongk, 270. 1361; Rosenth,, Syn. PI. Diaph. II30. 



216 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

l862j Bocq., Adansonia 3: 192. 1863; Bocq., R6t. Verbenac. 192. 
I863j Pritz., Ic. Bot. Ind. 1: 188. 1866; Hassk., Hort. Malab. 
Rheed. Clav. 38. 1867; Brandis, For. Fl. M. & Cent. India 3: 368. 
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Fl. Kouy-Teh<ou UUO..I9I6; Gerth van Wijk, Diet. Plantnames 2: 
153U. 1916; Basu, Ind. Medic. FL. 3: 3, pl. 73ii. 1918; R. N. Pai^ 
ker. For. Fl. 397. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay, Arch. 57, 
58, & 65. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 11 & 23. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, U3. 
I92I; Haines, Bot. Bihar & Orissa U: 709 & 710. 1922; Chung, Mem. 
Sci. Soc, China 1 (1): 226, 192U; J. M. Cowan, Rec. Bot. Surv. 
India 12; 68. 1929; Stapf, Ind. Lond, 1: 526, 1929; P'ei, Mem, 
Sci, Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. China] 15, 18, 19, 23—25, li2, 
«t U3. 1932; P'ei, Sinensia 2: 66. 1932; P. Dop, Bull. Soc. Hist. 
Nat. Toulouse 6U: 500, 505, 506, 511, & 512, 1932; Rehd., Joum. 
Arnold Arb, 15: 320 & 321. 1931;; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. U: 81 
& 82, fig. 128-— 132. I93U; E. D. Merr., Trans. Am. Philos. Soc, 
new ser., 2U: 332 — 333. 1935: Moldenke in Fedde, Repert. Spec. 
Nov. 39: 303 (1936) and UO: Ul, IOU--IO6, IO8, 113, llU, 120, 
12U, 125, 127, 128, & 130. 1936; K. V. 0. Dahlgren, Svensk. Bot. 
Tidsk. 32: 231. 1938; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1933: 1x12 & 
l^lli. 1938; A. W. Hill, Ind, Kew. Suppl. 9'- 16* 1938; Moldenke, 
Alph. List COTmon Verh. Names 6, 21, 30, & 31. 1939; Moldenke, 
Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. 36. 1939; Moldenke, Suppl. List Common 
Vem. Names 3, 7, lU, 17, & 20—22. I9UO; Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. 
List Invalid Names 9 — 13. 19U0; Biswas, Indian Forest Rec. Bot., 
new ser., 3: Ul. 19U.; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac., 
ed. 1, 53—56, 58, 67, 71, & 87. 19li2; Moldenke, Alph. List In- 
valid Names 8, 10, & 11. 19U2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 82 & 9U. 
19U5; E. D. Merr., Trans. Am, Philos, Soc,, new ser,, 21; (2): 



1971 lioldenke. Monograph of Calllcarpa 217 

[Comm. Lour.] 332 — 333. 1916', Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks.. Ind. 
Kew., pr. 2, 1: 386. 19U6; Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 1: U8, 119, 
2U8, 28U, & 288. 19U6j Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 
1: 3. 19li7; Neal, In Gard. Hawaii, ed. 1, 6U0. 19ii8; H. N. & A. 
L. Moldenke, PI. Life 2: 5? & 62. l9U8j Moldenke, Alph. Ust Cit. 
2: 355, 359, li08, U32~U3U, U87, 53U, 562, 563, 565, 580, 61h, & 
63li (19li8), 3: 708, 77l4, 798, 828, 878, 936, 971, & 978 (19U9), 
and I;: 1018, 1096, 1102, 1103, & 1251. 19U9j Moldenke, Known Ge- 
ogr. Distrib. Verbenac., ed. 2, 123—125, 128, 131, 135, lli8, 157, 
!c 177. 19U9} Moldenke, Phytologia 3: 139 (19U9) and 3: 29U. 1950; 
H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 277—279, 28>-28U, 308, & 
311. 1951; Moldenke, Phytologia U: 121 & 12U (1952) and U: 268. 
1953; Moldenke, Journ, Calif. Hort. Soc. 15: 85. 195U; Moldenke 
in Humbert, Fl. Madag. 17U: li5 & U8. 1956; T. A. Rao, Bull. Bot. 
Surv. India 1: llU. 1959; Moldenke, R6sum« 155, 157—160, 165, 
168, 171^, 177, 200, 213, 2li2, 2U3, 2li5, 2ii7, 2U8, & IM. 1959; 
Anon., Kew Bull. Gen. Index 1929-1956, p. 59. 1959; Kikamura, 
Fauna & Fl. Nepal 208--209. 1959; Puri, Indian Forest Ecol. 1: 
215 & 228 (I960) and 2: 670. I96O; Prain, Ind. Keir. Suppl. 5, pr. 
2. Ii3. I96O; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 3, 1: 
386. I96O; Nath, Bot. Sui-v. South. Shan States lUU. I960; Deb, 
Bull. Bot. Surv. India 3' 31h. 1961; Nair & Rehraan, Bull. Nat. 
Bot. Gard. Lucknow 76: 13. 1962; Moldenke, R63\mi6 Suppl. 3: 16 & 
28. 1962; Sharma & Mukhopadhyay, Joum. Genet. 58: 369, 371, 375, 
& 38U, pi. 12, fig. h9 & 50. 1963; Uaheshwari, Fl. Delhi 280 & 
281. 1963; Prain, Bengal PI., ed. 2, 2: 617 & 6I8. I963; Cave, 
Ind. PI. Chi*omo3ome Numb. 2: 330. I961i; Panigrahi, Chowdhury, 
Raju, & Deka, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 6: 255. 196U; Padmanabhan, 
Phytcmorph. lU: Ui9. 196U; T. A. Rao, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 6: 
U7. I96U; Balakrishnan, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 6: 81, 82, & 86— 
87. 1961i; Dakshini, Joum. Indian Bot. Soc. UU: UI8 & Ul9. 1965; 
Backer & Bakh., Fl. Java 2: 600—601. 1965; Datta, Handb. Syst, 
Bot. 181. 1965; Sen & Naskar, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 7: 38. 1965; 
P. K. K. Nair, Pollen Gr. West. Himal. pi. 35 & 89, pl. 12. fig. 
15U. 1965; Moldenke, Phytologia 13: U37 & 502 (I966) and Ih: 37, 
38, 107, 111, llii, 115, 11;2, lii3, 11^9, & 150. I966; Panigrahi & 
Joseph, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: lli3 & l5l. 1966; Thothathri, 
Shetty, & Hazra, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 8: 133 & I38 . I966; Yama- 
zaki in Hara, Fl. East. Himal. 268. I966; Moldenke, R^sum^ 
Suppl. Hi: 6 & 7 (1966) and 15: 8. 1967; R. K. Gupta, Season. Fl. 
Ind. Sum. Resorts Moos. 132, 15U, &; 2Ul. 1967; Tingle, Check 
List Hong Kong PI. 37. 1967; R. R. Stewart, Pakistan Joxim. For- 
est. 17: 515. 1967; Moldenke, Phytologia Hx: 225 & 2Uii— 2U6 
(1967), 15: 30 (1967), and 16: 360, 362, 36U, 380—382, 38U— 388, 
hhl, & U5U. 1968; Uniyal, Indian Forest. 9I1: la5. 1968; S. P. & 
R. N. Banerjee, Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10: 187. 1968; Moldenke, 
R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 8, 9, 13, & 18. I968; M. A. Rau, Bull. Bot, 
Surv. India 10, Suppl. 2: 61. 1969; Kapoor, Singh, Kapoor, & 
Srivastava, Lloydia 32: 303. 1969; Farnsworth, Pharmacog. Titles 
5 (11): iii & item IhllxO. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U95 
(1971) and 21: h9, 50, 102, 103, 108, & 109. 1971. 

Illustrations: Vahl, Symb. Bot. 3: pl. 53. 179U; Basu, Ind. 



213 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

Med. PI. 3: pl. 73U. 1918; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. U: 82. fig. 
128 — 132. 193lij Sharma & Mukhopadhyay, Joum. Genet. 58: 381i, pl. 
12, fig. k9 & 50. 1963i P. K. K. Nair, Pollen Gr. West. Himal. Pl. 
89, pl. 12, fig. 15U. 1965. 

Bush, undershrub, or large, robust, bushy, maixy-stemmed shrub, 
1 — 6 m. tall, or tree, 7 m, tallj trunk 2 cm. in diameter; 
branches stout, subterete, tonentose or densely canescent-tomen- 
tose at the tips, becoming glabra te in age, with scattered ellip- 
tic and prominently elevated lenticels, often bearing many old 
fruiting cymes at the nodes j branchlets stout, obtusely tetragon- 
al or subterete, extremely densely matted-tomentose Tdth canescent 
and many-branched hairs j principal internodes variable in length, 
1.1 — 8 cm. long J leaves decxissate-oppositej petioles very stout, 
6 — 20 mm. long, canaliculate above, densely matted-tomentose like 
the branchlets; leaf -blades chartaceovis, rather dark-green or 
pale-green and velvety above, tawi^r and densely stellate-woolly 
or whitish beneath, oblong or oblong-ovate, 6—23 cm. long, 2.5 — 
9.7 cm. wide, acute or acuminate at the apex, rather xmiformly 
and more or less shallowly serrate with rather sharp teeth along 
the margins (except at the base), acute or somewhat cuneate at 
the base, roughened-pilose above with minute hairs or tomentose 
when very immature, occasionally somewhat areolate, very densely 
grayish- or sordid-tomentose with matted many-branched hairs be- 
neath; midrib stout, somewhat tomentose above (especially at the 
base), very densely tomentose and prominent beneath; secondaries 
slender, 7 — 15 or more per side, arcuate-ascending, prominent be- 
neath, often slightly prominulent above; vein and veinlet reticu- 
lation fine, conspicuous; inflorescence axillary, large; cymes de- 
cussate, solitary, often very numeix)us, large or very large and 
spreading, h — 20 cm. long, 7 — 17 cm. wide, usually densely many- 
flowered, very spreading-dichotoraous (often 8 times furcatel), 
very angulate, often forming a dense mass arovind the branchlets 
by the spreading and more or less reflexed dichotomies, bracteo- 
late; peduncles stout (often inci^ssate in frviit), 1.3--2.6 cm. 
long, densely matted-tomentose like the branchlets, becoming mere- 
ly furfuraceous in age; pedicels essentially obsolete or exceed- 
ingly short; bractlets linear or broadly linear, 3 — 10 mm. long, 
densely sordid-tomentose; prophylla minute, setaceous; flowers 
conspicuous, fragrant; calyx oblong-campanula te, 1.3 — 1.6 inn. long, 
1 — 1.3 mm. wide, loosely pubescent and granular-pulverulent, its 
rim conspicuously U-toothed; corolla hypocraterif orm, purple or 
lilac, glabrous outside or with some hairs, its tube narrow- 
cylindric, 1 — 2 mm. long, its limb U-parted, the lobes ovate- 
lingiilate, about 0.9 mm. long and 0.8 mm. wide, subacute at the 
apex; stamens U, inserted at the very base of the corolla- tube, 
exserted; filaments filiform, about 3.6 mm. liang, glabrous; anth- 
ers broadly oblong, about 0.5 nun. long and O.U mm. wide; pollen- 
grains spheroidal, 3-zoncolpate, siobprolate, 32 x 25 1^ or "diam- 
eter 35 p, range 32 — 39 f*, the exine l.l^i/ thick, the ectine sui^ 
face slightly reticulate .(iravy) or areola-oe with faint areoles; 
pistil exserted and surpassing the stamens (in ^; style capillary, 
about 6 mm. long, glabrous, anpliate above into the stigna; stigma 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 219 

depressed-capitate, about 0.2 mm. wide; ovary sTibrotund, about 
0.7 nan. long and wide, densely granulcse-pulverulent, Ii-celledj 
frui ting-calyx very shallowly cupuliform or practically patelli- 
fonn, about 2 mm. wide, loosely pubescent, its rim U-toothedj 
fruit small, subglobose, iriiite when ripe, about 2 nm. long and 
wide, pulverulent or glabrate, conspicuously It-seeded; chromo- 
some nvmiber: 2n = 3U* 

This species is native from China southward into Nepal, Bhutan, 
India, Burma, and Hongkong, and east to New Guinea. It has been 
introduced in Reunion and Lladagascar and is also widely cultiva- 
ted elseirtiere. The corolla is described as "pink" on Pradham &. 
Ihapa Uli97 and T. A, Rao 7201 , "red" on Steward & Cheo 876 , "pur- 
ple" on A, Henry 9262 , "purplish-pink" on Winit 1152 , "blue" on 
Tsiang 6371 , "red and purple" on G_, W. Groff 10 , and "violet" on 
Lars en , Santlsuk , & Warncke 277U « As usual, one wonders if the 
color of the corolla really varies so much or if it is merely a 
matter of interpretation and definition of color by the collector. 

Collectors have found the species growing on hillsides, in 
sandy riverbeds, ricefielda, forests, deep forests, and valley 
forests, in thick jungles, bamboo shrubbery, thickets, open scrub, 
and waste places about villages, and on open slopes, from sealevel 
to 2000 meters altitude, flowering from May to October, cis well as 
from January to March, and fruiting from October to February and 
in August. Rao (1959; refers to the species as "a large herb" 
with the flowers "in dense spikes" [which is obviously an errorl] 
and cites Rao 7201 . Dakshini (1965) reports this plant as one of 
the major constituents of the "poor shrubbery layer", the "shrub 
story on slopes", and "in moist soil of swamps" in the Dehra Dun 
region of India, where he says that the species is common. Juan 
reports it as "rare" in Upper Burma and Ching calls it "rare" in 
Kwangsi. Panigrahi &; Joseph (1966) aver that it is abundant in 
thick evergreen forests in Nefa and cite their no. 16728 , while 
Thothathri and his associates (1966) report it as common near 
plantations in Bihar and cite Shetty 180 . 

The Banerjees (1968) also record C_. macrophyi 1 a from Bihar, 
while Gupta (1967) and Uniyal (I968) found it growing in Uttar Pra- 
desh. Yamazaki (I966) gives its overall distribution as "Himalaya 
(Kashmir to Assam), Bengal, Buima, Indo-China, and S. China". Ma- 
heshwari (1963) tells us that it is "Cultivated as a hedge plant in 
gardens" in the Delhi region and cites £. K. Maheshwari 218 . He 
describes the plant as "An erect shrub up to 3 m. tall. Bi*anches, 
lower surface of leaves and inflorescences densely stellate-wooUy. 
Leaves up to 22 x 7 cm,, ovate, elliptic or ovate-lanceolate , 
coarsely crenate-serrate. Flowers rose-colovired, crowded in dense, 
dichotomous cymes. Drupes white," flowering from June to Septem- 
ber. Gupta (1967) describes the corollas as "pink". Prain (1903) 
calls the plant "A shrub 3~8 feet high", growing "In all the pro- 
vinces" of Bengal. Uniyal (I968) calls it a "small drooping shrub 
with purple flowers growing conmonly in shade at 9OO m." He cites 
Uniyal 38 00 and notes that "a very small quantity is collected and 



220 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

consumed locally, the seed-paste being used for mouth xilcers" in 
Uttar Pradesh. In the same state Puri (I960) tells us that C. 
■acrophylla grows in the third story in edaphic Gangetic tropical 
moist deciduous river rainforests in the sub-Himalayan tract iinder 
a canopy of Bombax malabaricum and Gmelina arborea , and also that 
it inhabits riverbeds and grows along streams in swamp-edaphic 
forests on clay beds with 100 inches of annual rainfall which goes 
underground and then oozes out, making small streams. These are 
mixed forests mainly consisting of Bischofia javanica . ^ also 
tells us that the species is considered to be good fodder in the 
states of Punjab, Pepsu, Delhi, Uttar Pradesh, Himalchal Pradesh, 
Jammu, and Kashmir in northern India. 

Because of the considerable misinterpretation of this species 
in the past, it is perhaps worthwhile to reproduce here the orig- 
inal description and certain other relevant descriptions. Vahl 
(179ii) first described this taxon as follows; " Callicarpa foliis 
lanceolato-ellipticis crenatis attenuatis, supra rugosis subtus 
ramisque tcmentoso-incanis . Tab. LIII. Habitat in India orien- 
tali Kbnig . 1} Rami obscure tetragoni, uti petioli & peduiiculi, 
tomento denso sublanato tecti, ut in Call, lanata . Folia petio- 
lata, opposita, spithamaea & ultra, saepe uncias tres lata, cre- 
nata, inferne versus integerrima, apice attenuata, basi obtusa, 
supra nervosa: nervis canescentibus, venoso rugosa, villis raris- 
simis minutis adspersa, subtus tomentosa, incana, tomento ten\iiore 
quam in ramis, nervis elevatis venisque simplicibus obliquis inter 
nervos: huniora utrinque cana. Petiolus pollicaris. Paniculae 
axillares, dichotome-ramisissimae, oppositae, bipollicares ; ramis 
divaricatis. Pedunculus univeirsalis longitudine petiolorum. 
Bracteae ad ramificationes oppositae, lineares. Calyx minutus, 
quadridentatus , incanus. Corollae laciniae oblongo-subcuneatae, 
glabrae. Stamina & pisti^A flore longiora. Sub nomine Callicar- 
pae tomentosae misit Konigius, differt vero, ut ex descriptione 
patet, foliis lanceolato-ellipticis crenatis, nee ovatis integer- 
rimis denticulatisque." 

Roxburgh (1820) modified Vahl's description as follows: " C. 
macrophylla . Vahl. Symbol, iii. 13. t. 53* Shrubby, downy. 
Leaves opposite, ovate-lanceolate, serrulate, reticulate, hoary 
underneath. Corymbs axillary, dichotomous, rather longer than the 
petiols. Berry minute, white. Native of Silhet and Chittagong. 
A shrub from four to eight feet in length. Trunk scarcely any, 
but several, round, erect branches, covered with irtiite down. 
Leaves opposite, petioled, lanceolate, or oblong lanceolate, fine- 
pointed, finely serrate, wrinkled, above soft and a little downy, 
below covered with much whitish soft down, from six to nine inches 
long, and two or three broad. Stipules none. Petiols about an 
inch long, downy. Corymbs axillary, peduncled, two-forked nearly 
globular, downy, many times shorter than the leaves. — Peduncles 
as long as the petiols, round and downy. — Bractes lanceolate, 
one under each division of the coiTmb. — Flowers very numerous, 
small, rose-coloured. — Calyx woolly the foiir divisions distinct 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Calliciurpa 221 

and acute." The fruit, of course, is a drupe, not a berry, and 
the inflorescence is a cyme, not a corymb. 

Ro:dD\irgh's C. incana is described (1820) as follows by him: 
"C. incana R. Shrubby, young shoots hoaiy. Leaves lanceolate, 
obtusely serrulate, fine and entire-pointed, hoary underneath. 
Uashandari Asiat, Res, Iv, 233. Beng. Uuttura, Muttrunja. A 
stout shrub, with all the tender parts and the \inder surface of 
the leaves densely clothed with long, soft, white, stellate pubes- 
cence j cannon in the vicinity of Calcutta, where it is in flower 
and seed nearly the irtiole year. I long considered this to be 
Vahl's macrophylla , but on rearing what I also took for the same 
species from Silhet and Chittagong, in the Botanic Garden, I could 
plainly observe a striking difference when growing near each other, 
and as the Chittagong and Silhet sort agrees much better with 
Vahl's figure ajad description I mxist consider it to be his macro- 
phylla . In the Calcutta plant, which I now call incana , the leaves 
are never so broad in proportion to their length, more roxmd at 
the basej much more pointed, with the long taper-points entire; 
all the rest of the margin, except irtiat may be called the base, 
obtusely-serrulate. In macrophylla , the leaves are crenate, more, 
obtuse, and the margins cut to the very apex; the two are however' 
very nearly allied, though I think sufficiently distinct to auth- 
orize their being considered as different." Kuntze (I89I) re- 
duced this to varietal rank under C_, macrophylla , adthough he ac- 
credited the variety to Roxburgh, and describes it as "Folia an- 
gustiora (1: 3 — 5). Bengalen, Sikkim." In this disposition he 
may be correct although as yet I have been imable to separate the 
two forms satisfactoidly. 

L6veill5's original description (1911) of C. dxuinlana is "Habi- 
tu et aspectu af finis £. macrophyllae Vahl a quo differt: serra- 
tuiris foliorum tenuioribus; foliis supra viridibus nee rubescenti- 
bus, tcmento camdido nee cinereo aut flavido, antheris eglandulo- 
sis et inflorescentia axillari, foliosa nee divaricato-corymbosa 
et terminali. Kouy-Tch^ou: Environs de Hoong-Ko-Chou, valine de 
Pa-Lin-Kiao (Tchen-Lin) . Arbuste a fleur d'un violet-pourpre, 20 
Juin 1898 (D. S^guin. 2li3a ) ; Long-chan, juin I906, fleurs rouges 
( Jas. Esquirol , 869)." 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) describes C_, macrophyT i q as fol- 
lows: "A shrub, 3 — 5 U. high; breinchlets, cymes, petioles densely 
mealy or woolly; leaves rather large, coriaceous, oblong or sub- 
lanceolate, base obtuse or rounded, often subcordate, apex rather 
long acuminate, margins crenate vel obtusely serrate, except at 
the base and the top, upper side, when adult, densely hairy, the 
stellate hairs often stubbily broken, lower side softly white or 
greyish tomentose; pairs of nerves 10 — 15; 10 — 35 c.M. long, 3 — 
18 c.k, broad; petioles 1 — 2 cJi.; cymes rather small, globose, 
3 — 5 c.M. long, 3 — 10 C.M. in diam.j peduncles short, 1 — 2 c.M. 
long; calyx cupuliformous, densely floccose outside, 0.10 — 0.15 
c Ji. long; shortly ii-toothed. teeth subincurved, 0.01 — 0.015 c.M, 
long; corolla exsert 0.3 — 0.1t5 cU., tube glabrous, 1 1/2 — 2 



222 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

times as long as the calyx, lobes k, ovate, 0.1 — 0.12 c.M. long, 
0.15 — 0.20 c.M. broad, glabrous or with some hsiirs outside; sta- 
mens 0.5 — 0.6 C.M.J anthers glandular, 0.0? — 0.10 c.M.j style 0.6— 
0.7 c.M., vrith subpeltate or obscurely U-lobed stigmaj ovary 
glabrous, glandiilar; drupe glabrous, white when mature, ii.-seeded. 
Distribution: Brit.-Indial Malabar! Himalayal Nepal] Assaml Sil- 
. hetl Bengali Biirmal Hainan! Hongkongl China! N. -Guinea (Warb.l 
Lauterb,!)l — Mascarenes (Schau.)l Reunion (Cordem)!" 

Gamble (1881), under the name G. cana L., describes C_. macro- 
phylla as "A shrub. Bark thin, grey-brown. Wood white, soft. 
Annvial idngs marked by a line of closer pores. Pores moderate- 
sized, sometimes subdivided. Medxillary rays moderately broad, the 
distance between them greater than the transverse dianeter of the 
pores. Bengal. Common in forests and along roadsides in the 
Terai and DiSars, extending probably southwsuxis to the Ganges. It 
has pretty pink flowers." 

Backer Sc Bakhuizen van den Brink (1965) describe C_. macrophyl- 
la from Java as follows: "Petiole 10~25 mm longj leaves oblong 
or lanceolate, from a cuneate, obtuse, rounded, or subcordate 
base, with an acuminate or tapering base, rather acute, crenate- 
serrate, at first on the upper surface densely covered with stel- 
late hairs, afterwards with very numerous stubble-like rests of 
these, 10 — 35 cm by 2 — 18 cm. Cymes on 1 — 2 cm long peduncles, 
densely stellate-hairy, 3 — 10 cm across; pedicels gland-dotted; 
calyx minutely denticulate, with numerous yellow, glandular dots, 
basally coarsely stellate-hairy, 1 — 1 1/2 mm long; corolla vio- 
let, outside thinly hairy or glabrous, with yellow glandular 
dots, 3 — h 1/2 mm high; stamens $—6 ram; drupe white. Shrub, 
3.00—5.00; I— HI; native to SE. Asia; in Java, 10—600, culti- 
vated as an ornamental." 

Champion & Hooker (1853) state that £, macrophylla is related 
to £. integeiTJ wa Chanqj., which is easily distingiiished by its 
broad entire leaves and dense golden tonentum. Rosenthal (1862) 
3a.j3 " Callicarpa Rheedil Kost. soil Rheedes Tondi-Teregam (IV .60) 
sein, wohin Dennstedt f ragweise Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl . . 
zieht." Lam (1919) says of his C. pedunculata var. glabriuscula 
"This variety has an affinity with C_. macrophylla , with which 
some authors confound the species, by the form of its leaves, es- 
pecially in regard to the base." 

A memorandum by C. E. C. Fischer and T. A. Sprague, preserved 
in the Britton Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden, and 
dated August 18, 1931, states: "(1) The name Callicarpa Roxburghii 
was published hy Wallich, Cat. nb. 1833 (1828 — 29) as a new name 
for C. incana Roxb., non C_. cana L. It was effectively published 
since it is associable with the description of C, incana Roxb., 
but is an illegitimate name because it was superfluous. (2) Wal- 
pers. Rep. iv. 127 (l314i — U8) published a description of £. Rox- 
burghii apparently based on Wall. Cat. n. 1833, specimen . A much 
better description of Callicarpa Roxburghii Wall. Cat, n. 1833, 
specimen, was published by Schauer in DC. Prodr. xi. 61^0 (18U7). 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 223 

This mentions the setaceous calyx-lobes [and is now known as C. 
kochiana Mak.] . (3) C. B. Clarke (F, B. I. iv. 568) and Lam 
(Bull. Jard. Bot. B\iitenz. aer. 3, iii. 23) reduce C_. incana Roxb. 
to C_. macrophylla Vahl, apparently correctly. (U) Callicarpa 
Rojcburghii Wall. (1828 — 29) is accordingly a taxonomic synonym of 
C. macrophylla Vahl. (5) The specimen of Callicarpa Roxburghil 
Wall. Cat. n. 1833 described by Walpers (?) and Schauer belongs, 
however, to a different species, namely the South Chinese Calli - 
carpa included in Index Fl. Sin. ii. 255 (1890) as C_^ toroentosa 
Willd. It has the characteristic calyx-lobes of this South Chin- 
ese plant" [which is now kno-/m as C, kochiana IZak.] 

Kuntze (I89I) regarded C. roxburghii Wall, as distinct fron C. 
macrophylla and listed "C. tomentosa W. non L." as a synonym of C. 
roxburghii . This confusion was due to the situation explained by 
Fischer and Sprague in the above-quoted memorandum. Vfe regard C. 
tomentosa 7/illd . as a synonym of C . kochiana and C . tomentosa L . 
as a synonym of C_. tomentosa (L.) Murr. Sprengel (1828) regarded 
C. incana Roxb, as a vadid species, but in his 1825 work he placed 
it in the synonymy of what he called "C. lanata " ["C. tomentosa ] . 

It should perhaps be pointed out here that the C . tomentosa 
accredited to Thunberg in the synonyncr given above is a synonym 
of C_^ longifolia Lam., that accredited to Bakhuizen van den Brink 
ia In part C_. arborea Roxb. and in part C_. integerrima Champ., 
that accredited to Lamarck and to "L. ex Spreng," is C. candicans 
(Burm. f .) Hochr., that ascribed to "L, ex Moldenke" is C. erio- 
clona Schau., that ascribed to "Auct.", to Hooker & Arnott, to 
Willdenow, to "sensu auct, Japon,", to "sensu Matsum,", and to 
"senau Matsura. & Hayata" is C. kochiana Mak., while that accred- 
ited to Murray, to •♦L. ex Willd.", and to "(L.) Santapau" is the 
true C. tomentosa (L.) Murr. 

The C^ cana ascribed to Dalzell & Gibson is a synonym of C. 
tomentosa (L.) L'urr., that ascribed to Linnaeus, to Sprengel, and 
to Vahl is C^ candicans (Burm. f .) Hochr., and that ascribed to 
Wallich is in part C. longifolia Lam. and in part C. pedunculata 
R, Br. The £. incana (Turcz.) Moldenke, also ascribed to "(F.) 
Moldenke" by certain authors, is actually C, cubensis Urb. The 
C. ro3d)urghli ascribed to H. J. Lao, to Schauer, to "T^all. ex 
Schau.", to "Wall, ex Vfalp,", and to "sensu H. J. Lam" is C_. 
kochiana Mak. The C_. macrophylla var. sinensis C. B. Clarke is a 
synonym of C, nudiflora Kook. fit Am, 

Watt (18^) tells us that C. macrophylla is "A tall shrub of 
Northern and lias tern India, found as far north as HazAra, and as- 
cending the Himalaya to 6000 feet, and abundant in Bengal.... In 
Hazdra the heated leaves are applied to rheumatic joints (whence 
the name bi-pattra, from b4, rheumatism)," This Watt reference is 
cited by Prain (I963) as "E, D, c, 133" — 133 being a paragraph 
numberl Groff also tells us that the species is "used in the pre- 



22li PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

paration of a medicine used for injuries" in Kwangsi, China. 
Datta (1965) states that the plant is found in village shrubberies 
in India; Prain (1903) asserts categorically that it is found "In 
all the provinces" of Bengal — presumably both Indian and Pakis- 
tani Bengal. BalakrLshnan (I96U) affirms that it grows natxirally 
from Kashmir to Assam in northern India and to Pegu in Bunna, as- 
cending to 2000 meters altitude, its white fruit rendering it 
quite distinct from £. arborea Roxb., with its purplish-black 
fruit, and from C. tocaentosa (L.) Mxirr. Maheshwari (I963) distin- 
guishes it from C. longifolia Lam. by pointing out that in C_. lon- 
gifolia the leaves are "thinly stellate-pubescentj corolla more or 
less pubescent outside", while in C_. macrophylla the leaves are 
"densely stellate-woolly beneath} corolla glabrous outside or with 
some hairs." 

Bojer (1837) records C_. macrophylla as cultivated in Mauritius 
and Humbert insists that the Madagascar record for the species is 
also based on cultivated material. It is therefore probable that 
the Reunion record given below is also from cultivated material, 
although the label of the specimen does not indicate this to be 
the case. I assume that the Brazilian record is also taken from 
cultivated material, even though, again, the label does not in- 
dicate such a fact. 

Dahlgren (I938), for some reason unknown to me, places this 
genus and species in the Lamiaceae l 

Common and vernacular names recorded for C_, macrophylla in- 
clude "bannu", "bd-pattra", "b ' a-pattra" , "bauna^, "budhi ghasit", 
"budhi-ghasit", "daii", "daidogoro", "daya", "dea", "den", 
"denthur?;,. "druss", "drtSss", "grossblattrige Schbnbeere", 
"mashandari", "mathara", "mattranja", "muttranja", "muttrunja", 
"muttTira", "oon awn", "pattharman" , "poko kwat tin", "shiwali", 
"sigye", "sumali", "stSmAli", "thar", "tondi-teregam", "umfruit 
beautyberry" , and "um-fruit tree". It should be noted that the 
name "shiwEdi" is also applied to C_. arborea Roxb. 

Alleged references to this species in Baden Powell, "Pb. Pr. 
571", "Asiat. Res. 55: 233", and "Kanjilal For. Fl. 263" have not 
yet been verified by me. 

Panigrahi and his associates (I96U) record the species as com- 
mon in Orissaj Rao (I96U) records it from Uttar Pradesh; Stewart 
(1967) records it from Swat. Deb (I96I) cites Deb 15U from Mani- 
pur. Santapau, in a letter to me dated February 16, 19li8, says 
that this species "occurs in the Deccan, fide Clarke. The plant 
seems to be common in N. and E. India, «nly occasionally else- 
irtiere; I have seen no specimens from Bombay Presidency". Kita- 
mura (1959) cites his collections from Halchok, altitude 1500 
meters, July 31, 1953, and from Ar\ighat Bazar, altitude 621* me- 
ters, December 10, 1952, in Nepal, and gives the overall distri- 
bution of the species as "Himalaya, India, Burma, China: Yunnan, 
Szechuan, Kwangtung, Hainan; Siam, Indo-China, New-Guinea, Mas- 
carenes. Reunion". Kapoor and his associates (I969) report the 
isolation of ein alkaloid from £. macrophylla . Gillis 857U iwas 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 225 

grown from seed secured in northern India via "Fla, Fed. Gard, 
Clubs 328". 

Chang (1951) cites G. Forrest 9190 and nos. U736, 5717 , 637u , 
9511 , 9576 , 53291, 60639 , 90752 , 90986 , 96332 . & l559li8 of col- 
lectors and/or herbaria whose names, unfortunately, he gives only 
in Chinese characters. 

Material of Callicarpa macrophylla has been mis identified and 
distributed in herbaria under the names £. arborea Roxb., C. cana 
L., C_. dentata Rojcb., C. longifolia Vahl, C_^ nudiflora Hook. & 
Am., C_. reevesii Wall., and £^ vestita Wadl. 

On the other hand, the Herb. Mus. Paris. s.n« [Coromandel] , 
distributed as C_. macrophylla , is actually C_, arborea Roxb., Koor- 
ders 19li98b [hh^] is C_. caudata Maxim,, C_. Wright s.n. [Hong Kong] 
is £. integerri ma var. serrulata Li, R. C^ Ching 2009 is £. kochi - 
ana Uak., Ford s.n. [Hongkong] is the type collection of C. lobo- 
apiculata Mete, Herb. Univ. Delhi 270 is C. longifolia Lam., 
Nevin s.n. [Canton] is £, nudiflora Hook. & Arn., F. A. McClure 
3038 [Herb. Canton Chr. CoLL. 9591] is a cotype collection of £. 
rubella f . robusta P'ei, Fraser 122 and Simons 5699 are C. tomen- 
tosa (L.) Murr., and Koelz 13302 is Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) 
Rolf e . 

In all, lli7 herbarium specimens and 6 mounted illustrations, 
including 2 photocotypes, have been examined by me. 

Additional citations: PAKISTAN: East Bengal: W, Griffith 6OOO 
(T), 6OUO (S) . NEPAL: Bis Ram 570 (N)} Pradham & Ihapa Ul;97 (W— 
258lii88)| Wallich s.n. [e Nepalia] (S) . BHUTAN: R. Lister 28 
(BZ--I8O8U). SIKKIM: Kuntze 7208 (N) . INDIA: Assam: Jenkins s.n. 
[Assam] (Bz— I8O8O, Bz— l808l)j Koelz 26987 (Mi); Masters 696 
(Bz— -18077), s.n. [Assam] (Bz—l8076, Bz— l8085)i Simons s.n. [As- 
sam] (Bz — I8078)i Wallich l832g (S) . East Punjab: J. R. Drummond 
26703 (Ca— 2Uii961i) , 26706 (Ca— 2Ui965) . Kashmir: Meebold I6I (S)} 
R. R. Stewart 2725 (N) , 3725 (S) . Khasi States : W. Griffith s.n. 
[Khasia hills] (Bz— 18082). Madras: Yeshoda U88 (N) . Uttar Pra- 
desh: Afzal s.n. [9th Nov. 1929] (N), s.n. [I6th Aug, 1930] (N)j 
Ali 23 [Bot. Coll. 102] (N)i Duthie 22liii5 (Ca— 269792, Gg— 127010); 
Gairola 80 (W— 131^7717) J Goel s.n. [22nd Sept. 1929] (W— 1716613); 
Kalaky s.n. [28th December 1930] (W— 1719637), s.n. [8th August 
1931] (W— 1719637); Kharyal s.n. [Gola Tappar, January 1929] (S), 
s.n. [Lachiwala, August 1929] (S); Poovaiah s.n. [1^-8-30] (N), s.n. 
[15-8-31] (N); Raizada 126 (N); U. Singh 375"T^— 30709, La, N,~§yi 
R. R. Stewart m)|8 (N); Vaid s.n, [20,6.149] (N) . West Bengal: 
Biswas s.n. [Goke, 23AII/1937] (N); Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcutt. s.n, 
[Goke, 23/XII/I937] (W— 1759055), s.n. [Goke] (Bz— 18075); King 's 
Collector 126 (Na— I6I9O); Kuntze ZI^ (N, N); Kurz s.n. [19/9/68] 
(Bz— 18086), s.n. [Chandernagore, 7/71] (W— 603879); T. Thomson 3. 
n. [Plan. Ganget. Sup.] (Ca~19288Ii, S). State undetermined: H. 



226 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

Falconer 7U8 (S)j Kimtze 36OO [Turong Anambai] (N); Nath 76 [Bvin- 
danala] (Ca— 30U517). BURMA: Upper Buma: Huk ^8 (Bz--l8088), s_. 
ru [July I89I] (W— 369328)1 Juan 6U6 (W— 2213155) i iL: Li 2^ Rock 
828 (W — 117lli92) . Province undetermined: McLelland s.n. [Burmah] 
'(BZ--I8O87) . CHINA: Kwangsi: Ching $717 (N), 637U (N)} G. W. 
Groff 10 [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. U050] (Ph) ; Stewart & Cheo 876 
(Bz— I7I185, S) . Kweichow: Esquirol 869 (N— -photo)^ S^guin 2U3a 
(N— photo) J Tsiang 6371 (N, S, W— 15750U0). Yunnan: A. Henry 
9262 (N), 9262a (N), 9262b (7f— U56891) . THAILAIJD: Hansen & Smit- 
inand 1197U (Cp)j Lars en , Santisuk, & Yfamcke 277U (Ac); Winit 
Wanandom ll52 (Bk) . NEW GUINEA: Papua: C_. E. Carr 11317 (N) . 
CULTIVATED: Belgium: M. Martens s.n. [h. b. lov. I8U.] (Br). Bra- 
zil: Campos Novaes 11278 [Herb. Com. Geog. & Geol. S. Paulo 581i2] 
(Mi — photo, Sp — 11278). California: La Rue s.n. [Citrus Exp. 
Sta., Riverside] (Ar — 19789). Cuba: Ferras 20U65 (Es) . Florida: 
Gillis 857U [Fairchild Trop. Card. FG-58-719] (Z) . France: Herb. 
Hort. Paris . s.n; [1820] (V)j Herb. Schiragrichen s.n. (Mu — 11+35). 
Germany: Herb. Kummer s.n. [hort. Monac. I8U6] (Mu — liA37, Mu — 
lli38, N~photo, Z—photo), s.n. [hort. Monac. 1865] (Mu— IU36), 
s.n. [hort. Monac] (Mu — DiJili, Mu — 1)|li5) . Hawaiian Islands: Deg- 
ener & Degener 28l4lt8 (N)j A. F. Judd 158 (Bi)j Judd, Bryan , & 
Neal s.n. [June 6, 1932] (Bi)} Meebold s.n. [January 19liO] (Bi). 
India: Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcutt. s.n. (Bz--18079, Bz~l8083, E— 
photo, Ed, M, Mu— 96U, Mu— 1000, Mu— 1159, N— photo, X, Z—photo)} 
Herb. Hort. Seramp. s.n. (Cp); Herb. Roxburgh a.n. (K); Jamison 
s.n. [Serampore] (Ed); Roxburgh 159 (Br), s.n. (K); Strachey & 
Winterbottom 1 (K), s.n. (Os); Voigt s.n. [H. B. Seramp.] (Cp, Cp, 
Cp)i Wallich 1832/g (Mu— lii3U), 18 32 A (K). Java: Bakhuizen van 
den Brink 765 (Bz— I807U, N) j Herb. Hort. Bot. Bog or. XI.G.91 
(Bz), n.G.91a (Bz— 25795, Bz— 26525, Bz, N), XI.G.92 (N), XI .G. 
92 & a (Bz— 18073), XV.F.3I (Bz— 263l;0, Bz, N), XV .F. 31a (Bz— 
2631+7), XV.JJ^.XXX.3 (Bz— 263^5, Bz— 26366), XV.J.A.XXX.3a (Bz— 
26367, Bz), XV.JJl.XXX.U (Bz— 26368, N), s.n. (Bz— 263i;8) . Mada- 
gascar: Herb. Direct . Agric. 90 (P) . Maryland: |\ G. Meyer hill 
[U. S. Dept. Agr. PI. Introd. 21+0796] (Bv) . Mauritius: Bojer II. 
88 (V). Reunion: L'Isle 21+3 (P, W— 210572) . LOCALITY OF COLLEC- 
TION UNDETERMINED: Blackburn s.n. (T)j Herb. Mas. Bot. Stockholm 
87 (S), s.n. (S). 

CALLICARPA MACROPHlfLU var. GRIFFITHII C. B. Clarke in Hook, f ., 
Fl. Brit. Ind. 1+: 568. 1885. 

Bibliography: C. B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 1+: 568. 
1885; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 1: 3. 191+7; Mol- 
denke, R6sum6 2i+5. 1959; Moldenke, R^suml Suppl. 16: 9 & 18. I968. 

This variety differs from the typical foim of the species in 



1971 Holdenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 227 

being much branched and having leaves which are much smaller, 
fuscous-woolly, obscurely stellate beneath, and ultimately glab- 
rate, according to Clarke (1885). 

The type of the variety was collected by William Griffith ( no. 
60Ul ) in Bhutan, where it appears to be endemic . Clarke says 
that it "Differs a good deal in habit from C_. macrophylla , but 
connected by E. Nef)al specimens collected by Sir J. D. H.Cooker]*. 
The taxon is known to me only from the literature, 

CALLICARPA MADAGASCAR! ENSIS Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 77: 
391—392. 1950. 

Bibliography: Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 77: 391 — 392. 
1950; Moldenke, Revist, Sudam. Bot. 8: 169. 1950 j E. J. Salisb., 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: UO. 1953} Moldenke in Humbert, Fl. Madag. 
nhi U5— U7, fig. VI 1 & 2. 1956; Moldenke, R6aum6 155 & UiU. 
1959. 

Illustrations: Moldenke in Humbert, Fl. Madag. 17U: fig. VI 1 
& 2. 1956. 

Shriib, about 2 m. tall; branchlets and twigs very slender, gray- 
ish, very obtusely tetragonal or subterete, very densely short- 
pubescent with flavidous hairs when young, glabrescent in age; 
nodes not annulate; principal intemodes often much abbreviated 
on twigs, 1 — 8 mm. long, or elongate to 3 cm. on branchlets; leaf- 
scars comparatively large and elevated, with prominent corky mar- 
gins; leaves decussate-opposite, crowded at the tips of the twigs j 
petioles slender, 3 — 9 nim, long, very densely flavidous-pubescentj 
leaf-blades thin-chartaceous, dark-green above, lighter beneath, 
lanceolate or narrowly elliptic, 1.5 — 5*5 cm. long and 1 — 1,6 cm. 
wide during anthesis, acute or shortly ac\aminate at the apex, ob- 
tuse or rounded at the base, entire, densely short-pubescent or 
subvelutinous above, densely tomentellous with canescent-flavidu- 
lous hairs beneath; midrib slender, flat above, prominxiloua be- 
neath; 8econdaa*ies slender, about 5 per side, arc\iate-asc ending, 
flat or obscure above, very slightly prominulous beneath; vein and 
veinlet reticulation indiscernible above, mostly obscure beneath; 
inflorescence axillary and terminal, snail, cymose, 1 — 1.5 cm, 
long and wide, the axillary cymes usually concentrated in the up- 
per axils and appearing as though constituting part of a terminal 
one, few-flowered, densely short-pubescent with flavidous hairs 
throughout; peduncles very slender, 2 — h mm. long, flavidous- 
pubescent; pedicels filiform, 1 mm. long or less, flavidous- 
pubescent; bractlats linear, 1 — 2 mm, long, densely flavidous- 
pubescent; calyx campanulate, about 2.5 mm, long and wide, appres- 
sed-pubescent amd more or less resinous-granular on the outside, 
U-ribbed, its rim shoiiily U-dentate; corolla hypocrateriform, its 
tube about U mm. long, lightly puberulent and resinous-granular on 
the outside above the calyx, its lobes 3 — h mm. long, resinous- 
granular on the back, lightly pilosulous on the margin and in a 
median band on the inside; stamens amd pistil exserted; fruiting- 
calyx and fmit not known. 

The type of this endemic species was collected by Andr^ Seyrig 



228 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

( no. 782) at an altitude of 750 meters, north of Ampandrandava, 
between Bakily and Tsivory, Madagascar, in December, 19U3, and is 
deposited in the herbarivm of the Museum National d'Histoire Nat- 
\irelle at Paris. The species is knovm only from the original 
collection. In all, 3 herbarium specimens, including the tsrpe, 
and 3 mounted photographs have been examined by me. 

Citations: MADAGASCAR: Seyrig 782 (F— photo of type, N— iso- 
type, N — photo of type, P — type, P— isotype, Z — photo of type) . 

CALLICARPA MAGNIFOLIA Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 20: U37. 
1922. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 20: U37. 
1922} E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. PI. 3: 386. 1923; Quisumb. k 
Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 37: I96. 1928} A. W. Hill, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 7: 37. 1929} Moldenke, Alph. List Common Vem. Names 
[1]. 1939} Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 62 & 
87. 19U2} Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95* 19U5} Moldenke, Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, Ha & 177. 19U9j Moldenke, R«3um6 182 
k IM. 1959. 

Shrub or small tree} branches terete or somevrtiat compressed at 
the nodes, pale- grayish, glabrous, about 6 mm. in diameter; 
branchlets reddish-brown, densely fulvous-tomentose with rather 
soft plumose and stellate hairs} leaves decussate-opposite} peti- 
oles about 5 cm. long, densely tomentose} leaf -blades subcoria- 
oeous, broadly elliptic-ovate, 22—27 cm. long, 17—20 cm. wide, 
shortly and broadly acuminate at the apex, entire along the mar- 
gins or very obscurely and remotely denticulate near the apex, 
broadly rounded or sometimes subacute at the base, olivaceous, 
glabrous and shiny above, paler and densely fulvous-tomentose 
with rather soft pliimose and stellate hairs beneath, not at all 
glandulose} secondaries about 10 per side, veiy prominent} terti- 
aries subparallel, distinct} cymes in the axils of the fallen 
leaves, about 6 cm. long and to 9 cm. wide in fruit} bractlets 
linear, 3 — 5 nun. lorig» pubescent} flowers not known} fruiting- 
calyx membranous, cupuliform, about 3 cm. long, the rim shortly 
U-lobed} fruit globose, about 3 mm. in diameter, glabrous, nearly 
surrounded by the densely fulvous-tomentose greatly enlarged disk 
which is subglobose and to 10 mm. in diameter. 

The type of this remarkable species vras collected by Maximo 
Ramos and Gregorio E. Edaflo [ Herb. Philip . Bur. Sci. 37563 ] in 
forests at an altitude of about 1200 meters on llount Masingit, in 
Kalinga Subprovince, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on February 17, 
1920, and was deposited in the herbarium of the Bureau of Science 
at Manila, but is now destroyed. The native vernacular name of 
"agnai" is recorded for the plant. 

Merrill (1922) says that "This species is remarkable for its 
greatly enlarged, densely fulvous-tomentose disk which surroxinds 
and nearly incloses the fruit, a character that is unknown to me 
for any other described species of the genus . It is further re- 
markable for its unusually large leaves which are eglandular and 
densely tomentose on the lower surface," Quisumbing & Merrill 



1971 Moldenke, Ponograph of Callicarpa 229 

(1928) comment that the species is appau-ently related to and very- 
similar to C. pachyclada Quisumb. & Merr. 

Callicarpa magnifolia is known to me only from the literatiire 
referred to above. 

CALLICARPA MAINGAYI King & Gamble, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. I9O8: IO6. 
1908. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa maingaya King & Gamble apxid Elm., Leafl, 
Philip. Bot. 3: 866, sphalm. I9IO. Callicarpa maingay^ King 4 
Gamble apud Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., B\ill. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 
3, 3: 21, in syn. 1921. 

Bibliography: S. Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 27li & 589. 
1877 i King & Gamble, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. I9O8: IO6. 1908j King & 
Gamble, Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 7U (2), extra no.: 802 & 
80li. 1908 J King & Gamble, Mat. Fl. Malay Penins. 21: 1012 & lOUi. 
1909; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 866. 1910j Prain, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. U, pr. 1, 3U. 1913j E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 
12: 298. 1917; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch, hi, U9, 63, & 
362. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 
3, 3: 21. I92I; H. N. Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2: 6lli & 61^. 1923; 
Calder, Narayanaswami, & Ramaswarai, Rec. Bot. Surv. India 11: 2li. 
1926; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: Ull Sc U13. 1938; Mol- 
denke, Suppl. List Common Vern. Names 2, 6, Ik, 21, & 23. 19U0; 
Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, $9 — 61 &; 87. 
19U2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95. 19U5; H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, 
PI. Life 2: 71. 19U8; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 2, 137—139 St. 177. 19h9; Moldenke, Phytologia k'- 76 (1952) and 
6: 215. 1958; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. h, pr. 2, 3h. 1958; Anon., 
Kew Bull. Gen. Index 1929-1956, p. 59. 1959; Moldenke, R6sum^ 177, 
179, & hhh. 1959; Moldenke, Phytologia lit: 37. 1966; Moldenke, R5- 
8um6 Suppl. li^: 7. 1966. 

Shrub, small or medium-sized tree, or climber; branches minute- 
ly golden-brown stellate-tomentose when young or covered with a 
yellowish scaly scxirf; branchlets stout, obtusely tetragonal; 
leaves decussate-opposite, often inequilateral; petioles stout, U- 
5 cm. long, canaliculate above; leaf-blades coriaceous or thin- 
coriaceous, elliptic to elliptic-obovate or obovate, 15 — 30 cm. 
long, 7.5 — 15 cm. wide, rounded and very shortly acute or acxmiin- 
ate at the apex, entire or subentire to undulate along the margins 
with minute denticulations at the ends of the larger veins, nar- 
rowed or rounded and then somewhat cuneate at the base, glossy- 
green and glabrous on the upper surface except for the midrib and 
secondaries on yoving leaves, ashy-gray beneath and minutely 
golden-brown stellate-tomentose or rugose and very minutely ap- 
pressed stellate-pubescent, the venation on all impressed above 
and strongly elevated beneath; midrib stout; secondaries 10 — 12 
pairs, issuing at an angle of about 75° from the midrib, antrorse- 
ly curvate, anastomosing near the margins; tertiaries fairly reg- 
ular, transversely joining the secondaries; veinlet reticulation 
connecting the tertiaries; inflorescence minutely golden-broim 
stellate-tomentose; cymes 8 — 9 cm. long ana to 15 cm. wide or only 



230 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

$ — 3 cm. long and wide, compound, widely dichotomous, many- 
flowered j peduncles stout, short, flattened, 2.5 — h cm. long; 
cyme-branches also flattened when dry; bractlets linear-subulate, 
very small; pedicels slender, 1 — 2.5 mm. long; calyx hemispheric, 
1 — 1.5 ran. long, tawny stellate-tomentose outside, glabrous with- 
in, the rim denticulate with U minute teeth; corolla white to 
yelloYfish or greenish-yellow, scurfy, its tube subcylindric, 1— 
1.5 mm. long, very densely stellate-tomentose outside, glabres- 
cent within, the lobes short, about 1 mm, long, rounded at the a- 
pex, villous within; stamens inserted near the base of the 
corolla- tube; filaments U.5 mm. long; anthers glandular-punctate 
on the back; style slender; stigma capitate; ovary villous; drupes 
small, globose, black, to 1,5 mm. in diameter. 

This species was based by King and Gamble on H. N. Ridley 2787 
from Selangor and on Perry 1005 and Maingay 1192 — in vrtiose honor 
it was named — from Malacca, as cotypes. These authors aay in 
their original description (1908) "In Kew Herbarium, Maingay 's 
specimen has been placed under C_. arborea , but the species differs 

in many respects. The venation of the leaves is very different, 
as is the tomentum of much smaller stellate hairs; the leaves are 
nearly blunt; the tube of the corolla much longer, and its lobes 
much shorter; smd we have no hesitation in describing it as a new 
species." In their key they distinguish the two species about as 
follows : 

1. Leaf-blades long-acuminate at the apex, the tomentum thick; 
cymes dense; corolla- tube only about .075 inch long, merely 

puberulous C_. arborea Roxb . 

la. Leaf-blades obtuse or very shortly acuminate at the apex, the 
tomentum thin; cymes spreading; corolla-tube .1 inch long, 

stellate-pubescent C. maingayi King & Gamble . 

Lam (1919) distinguishes the present taxon from £, subalbida 
Elm, as follows: 
1. Corolla densely stellate-hairy outside, the lobes pubescent 

trithin C . maingayi . 

la. Corolla glabrous outside, the lobes glabrous withinTT , 

C, subalbida . 
Ridley (1923) differentiates it from two closely related Malay- 
an species as follows: 

1, Leaf-blades densely tomentose beneath; corolla violet 

C. arborea . 

la . Leaf -blades thinly tomentose beneath; corolla greenish 

C, maingiyi . 

lb . Leaf -blades irtiite beneath with brown-scurfy veins 

C. furfuracea Ridl. 
He cites a Perry s.n. from Hulu Chembong and a Cant ley s.n, from 
Selangor, and says "Selangor, Sempang Track, Semangkok Pass; Ulu 
Gombak Road; Langat. Native names: Poko chulak; tuto putih. Use: 
wood for making fiddles." Other ccsnmon names recorded for the 
plant are "balek angin laut", "chulak", "hu khawi khao", "mendapor}' 
"tampang besi, "tulo", "tutok puteh", and "tutor". 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 231 

The species has been found scattered in evergreen jungles at 
100 meters altitude, flovrering in April, May, and November. The 
corollas are described as "white" on Bunkirxl 8^ and Singapore 
Field No. l605l and as "yellowish" on Snan 210 j Ridley calls them 
"greenish" . 

It is worth noting that Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) regard- 
ed C. maingayl as a synonym of C_, tomentosa (L.) Murr., while 
Fletcher (1938) regarded C_. tomentosa var. typica Bakh. as a syn- 
onym of C_. maingayi . 

In all, 7 herbarium specimens of C_. maingayi and 2 mounted 
photographs have been examined by me. 

Citations:' THAIUND: Bunkird Q$ [Herb. Roy. Forest. Dept. 328U] 
(Sm)j Snan 210 [Herb. Roy. Forest. Dept. 12090] (Z); Winit Wanan- 
dorn 6021 (N) . MALAYA: Pahang: Holttum 21803 (Bz— 18097, Bz— 
18098, N, N— photo, Z— photo) J Singapore Field No. 16001 (Ca— 
255309) . 

CALLICARPA iffiGAUNTHA Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 10: 71—72. 

1915. 

Bibliography: E, D. Merr., Philip. Jovirn. Sci. Bot. 10: 71— 
72. 1915; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. U8, 50, 75, & 362. 
1919i Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
13. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, U3. 1921; E. D. 
Merr., Enum. Philip. PI. 3: 386. 1923; Moldenke, Alph. List Com- 
mon Vern. Names 23. 1939; Moldenke, Known Geogr, Distrib. Ver- 
benac, ed. 1, 62 & 87. 19U2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95. 19U5; 
Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib, Verbenac, ed. 2, lijl fie 177. 
19i;9; Moldenke, R6sum5 182 &. Idih. 1959; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
5, pr. 2, U3. I960. 

Tree, about 10 m, tall, most of its parts (except the upper 
surface of the adult leaves) more or less yellow-glandvilar and 
stellate-plumose-pubescent, the indumentum dark-brown or dark 
grayish-brown in color; branches terete, the younger ones more 
or less compressed, yellow-glandulose, the younger parts densely 
stellate-plumose-pubescent; branchlets brown or gray, stellate- 
hairy, densely glandulose; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles 
2 — 2.5 cm. long, very densely stellate-pubescent with brown or 
gray hair, densely glandulose; leaf-blades subcoriaceous, oblong 
to oblong-ovate, 12 — 16 cm. long, 5 — 6 cm. wide, about equally 
narrowed to the acuminate apex and the acute base, entire along 
the margins, more or less stellate-pubescent above when young, 
becoming glabrous or nearly glabrous in age, brownish-olivaceous 
and slightly shiny above, paler and with nvmierous scattered 
pale-yellow shiny glands beneath and also stellate-pubescent, 
more densely so on the midrib and secondaries and with only scat- 
tered stellate hail's on the lamina j secondaries about 9 per side, 
upwardly curvate, anastomosing, prominent beneath; inflorescence 
cyraose, in the upper leaf-axils, solitary, 7 — 8 cm. in diameter, 
densely many-flowered, dichotomously branched; peduncles stout, 
about 8 cm. long, these along with the bracts, bractlets, and 



232 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

calyxes densely stellate-plumose-pubescent, the indumentum almost 
obscuring the scattered shiny pale-yellow glands j bracts oblance- 
olate-spatulate, 6 — 8 mm. long; bractlets similar but much small- 
er; calyx somewhat infundibular, about 3 mm. long, its rim equal- 
ly ii-toothed or -lobed, the lobes short and acute; corolla white, 
6—7 mm. long, sparingly glandulose outside with small yellow 
shiny glands, the lobes It, subequal, oblong-ovate, 3 — 3.5 mm. 
long, broadly rounded at the apex, sparingly stellate-piibescent 
in lines and glandulose externally on the median portion; fila- 
ments 7 — 8 mm. long; anthers ovoid, about 1.2 ran. long, somevrtiat 
glandulose on the back; ovary ovoid, very densely covered with 
small shiny pale-yellow glands. 

The type of this species was collected by Richard Crittenden 
McGregor [ Philip. Bur. Sci. 19687] on Llount Polls, in Ifugao Sub- 
province, Luzon, Philippine Islands, and was deposited in the 
herbarivmi of the Bureau of Science at Manila, but is now destroy- 
ed. Merrill (1915) comments that the species is "Probably most 
closely allied to Gallicarpa subglandulosa Elm., but differing 
from that species in many charactei^. Gallicarpa megalantha is 
remarkable for its co^^)aratively large flowers which are indica- 
ted by the collector as being white, a color otherwise unknown or 
at least very rare in the genus, its long-peduncled cymes, and 
its dark-brown or dark grayish-brown indumentvmi." 

The species appears to be endemic to Luzon. Lam (1919) also 
avers that "Its affinity is with G. subglandulosa [now known as 
Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr,]; it has, however, leaves with 
an attenuate base, irtiilst C. subglandulosa has leaves with a 
somewhat rounded base." A common name recorded for it is 
"palayan" . It has been fo\ihd blooming in February and September, 
and firuiting in September, 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) reduces the species to synonymy 
under what he calls G. pentandra var. typiea f . hexandra Bakh. 
[" Geunsia hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Kooixi.] . MateirLal has been 
misidentified and distributed in herbaria under that name. In 
all, 5 herbarium specimens have been examined by me. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISIANDS: Luzon: Quisimibing s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Bur. Sci. 8U6U1] (N); Ramos Sc Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. 
Bur. Sci. 37718] (Bz— 18555, W— 126oIIo5), s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. U0363] (Bz~l855i;, W— 126li;5U) . 

GALLICARPA MEMBRANAGEA Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 306. 1951. 

Bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 300, 306, & 
312. I95I; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. I3: 21. I966; Moldenke, 
R63um6 Suppl. Iht 3. 1966. 

Chang (1951) describes this species as follows: "Frutex circ. 
1 m altus. Ramili pallidi lenticellati glabrescentes . Folia 
membranacea anguste oblonga, 10 — 15 cm longa, 3 — U.5 cm lata, 
utrinque glabra, supra viridia subtus pallidiora sparse punctata, 
apice longe acuminata vel subcaudata, basi cuneata vel acuta, 
margine in parte 3/U superiore serrata, serraturis in utroque 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 233 

latere 16 — 2U inter se 3 — 7 nm distantib\isj nervi laterales utrin- 
sec\is 8 — 11 subtua elevatij petioli circ. 5 nm long! glabri, 
Cymae axillares bis diahotonae, 1.5 cm diametro, circ. lii-florae, 
glabrae vel sparsissime stellato-puberulae; pedunculi 5~8 nnn 
longi gracilea; bracteae et bracteolae subulatae glabrae; calyx 
1 — 1.5 mn longois truncatus glaber vel sparsissime stellato-puberu- 
lus, lobis inconspicuisj corolla glabra, tubo 3 nun longo, lobis 1 
mm longisj stamina exserta, filamentis 3 — U mm longis, antheris 
1.3 ram longis, poro apicali dehiscentibusj ovarium punctatum, 
stylo staminibus longi ore, stigmate paulo bifido. Fructus roseus 
3 mm diametro." 

The species is based on R, £. Ching 6130 , collected in 1928 in 
Kwangsi, China, and deposited in the herbarium of the Botanical 
Institute of Sunyatsen University, Canton, China, Chang cites 
also S. H. Chun 2800 from Hunan and compares the species (in Chin- 
ese) with C. brevipes (Benth.) Hance. 

CALLICARPA MERRILLII Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 60: 55. 1932. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa lancifolia Merr., Philip. Joum, Sci. Bot. 
10: 70—71. 1915 [not C. lancifolia Millsp., 1906, nor. Pav., 1936, 
nor Sess^ & Moc, 19liO] . Callicarpa caudata var. simplicipuberula 
H, J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 61. 1919. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 10: 70 — 71. 
1915 i H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. U6, 5U--55, 61, & 362. 
1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. B\iitenz., ser. 3, 3'- 
23. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, U3. 1921; E. D. Merr., 
Enum. Philip. PI. 3: 385- 1923; Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
60: 55. 1932; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 9: U6. 1938; Moldenke, 
Alph, List Common Vem. Names 17, 23. &; 30. 1939; Moldenke, Pre- 
lim. Alph. List Invalid Names 11. 19uO; Moldenke, Carnegie Inst. 
Wash. Publ. 522: 199. 19U0: Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib, Ver- 
benac, ed. 1, 62 & 87. 19u2; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names 
9. 191^2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95. 19li5; H. N. & A. L. Molden- 
ke, PI. Life 2: 72. 19U8; Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 2: ii62 (19U8) 
and 3: 723 & SUl, 19U9; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac., 
ed. 2, llil & 177. 19U9; Moldenke, R«8um^:i82, 2hhf & Uhh. 1959; 
Prain, Ind. Kew, Suppl. U, pr, 2, U3. I960; Moldenke, Phytologia 
13: li31 & U33 (1966) and Ui: 11*2 & lli3. 1966; Moldenke, R6sum6 
Suppl. lii: 6 (1966) and 15: 11, 1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 20 
(1967) and 16: U5l & U52. 1968; Moldenke, Rfisum^ Suppl. 16: 12, 
1968; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 33 & 109. 1971. 

Shrub, 1 — k m, tall; branches terete, slender, subglabrous or 
more or less ferruginous-stellate-pubescent, the younger ones and 
branchlets densely stellate-pubescent and with scattered longer 
sparingly plumose-branched hairs intermixed; leaves decussate- 
opposite; petioles 5 — 8 mm. long, densely stellate-tomentose; leaf- 
blades chaa*taceous, lanceolate to narrowly oblong-lanceolate, 15— 
20 cm. long, 3 — 5 cm. wide, nari*owed above to the long and sleiider 
often subfalcate caudate-acuminate apex, seirate-dentate with dis- 
tinct gland-tipped teeth along the margins, narrowed below to the 
obtuse and usually slightly inequilateral base, usually olivaceous 



23U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

above when dry and eglandular with scattered short simple hairs, 
usually somewhat paler and sparingly stellate- tomentose beneath 
and minutely glandular or usually only with simple hairs beneathj 
secondaries 10 or 11 per side, distinct, arcuate-ascending, anas- 
tomosing; inflorescence cymose, the cymes axillary, solitary, 2 — 
U cm. long, pedunculate, dichotomous, rather lax and open, many- 
flowered, the branches divaricate, rather densely pubescent with 
simple and stellate hairs intermixed, sometimes with plumose 
hairs; bractlets small, linear, pubescent; calyx about 1 mm. long, 
sparingly hirsute-pubescent with short straight simple hairs, the 
rim obscurely or scarcely and subequally U-toothed; corolla pink 
or lilac, glabrous, the tube about 2 mm. long, glabrous, the lobes 
U, orbicular-ovate, about 1 mm. long, rounded at the apex; sta- 
mens little exserted; filaments U mm, long; anthers 0.5 nm. long; 
style slender, 5.5 mm. long, slightly thickened into the stigma 
at the apex; fruit irtiite or dark-pink. 

The type of this species was collected by Maximo Ramos ( Herb. 
Philip. Bur. Sci. 11078 ) on the island of Cebu, Philippine Islands, 
in March, 1912, and was deposited in the herbarium of the Philip- 
pine Bureau of Science at Manila, but is now destroyed. The co- 
rolla is described as "pink" on R. S_. Williams 2306 and as "yel- 
low" [probably an error] on Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Ui601 . E, D. 
Merrill 8115 has extra large leaf -blades . 

Merrill (1915) notes that "The species has been confused with 
Callicarpa caudata Maxim., and £, longifolia Lam,, and is mani- 
festly allied to the former, differing in its very different in- 
dumentum. It is apparently more closely allied to C, stenophylla 
Merr., than to C_. caudata , but is distinguished from the former by 
its broader leaves. Among the extra-Philippine forms it is ap- 
parently most closely allied to Callicarpa longifolia Lam., dif- 
fering in its indumentum, shape of its leaves, and in details of 
its flowers." He cites as typical material of £. merrillii the 
following collections: Basilan: DeVore & Hoover I4I, Hallier s.n. 
Mindanao: Mrs. Clemens s.n. [Camp Keithley] , F6nix s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Bur. Sci. 15802], E. D. Merrill 8115, C. B. Robinson s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 11802], R. S. Williams 2307 . Mindoro: E. 
D. MerriTT 5556 . Ticao: W, W. Clark s,n. [Herb. Philip. Forest 

Bur. 253I1]. 

In my opinion, the species is most closely related to C_. caudata 

Maxim. Lam (1919) agrees, saying "Its affinity is with C_. caudata, 
from which it differs, however, by the obtuse base of the leaves, 
and in some other points." Actually, the simple hairs on the lower 
leaf-surface, seen very plainly on Elmer 10375 aJ^d on Herb, Philip. 
Bur, Sci. 37388 , 38816 , & lUi601 , constitute the quickest and easi- 
est way to distinguish C. merrillii from C_. caudata. In the iatter 
species the pubescence is stellate everywhere, Callicarpa merril- 
lii — named in honor of Elmer Drew Merrill (1876—1956), who first 
recognized it — is also related to C. stenophylla Merr. and, more 



1971 lioldenke. Monograph of Calllcarpa 235 

distantly, to C. longifolia Lam, It has been found growing adong 
small brooks in forests at low altitudes, flowering from April to 
June and August to December, and fruiting in February, April, 
June, and August to December. Vernacular names recorded for it 
are "katonal", "palis", and "tigau". Bakhuizen van den Brink 
(1921) reduces it to synonymy under what he calls C. cuspidata 
Roxb. and cites the Ramos & Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
UI46OI] collection. I regard C_. cuspidata Roxb. as cosjjecific 
with C. pedunculata R. Br. 

It should be noted here that the C. lancifolia of Millspaugh, 
referred to in the synonyny above, is a valid West Indian species, 
while that of Pavon and of Sess6 & Mocifio is £, ac\jminata H.B.K. 

Lam (1919) based his C. caudata var. simplic ipuberula on " Uer- 
rill 10375 " fron Dumaguete in the Cuemos Mountains on eastern 
Negros, Philippine Islands, collected in June, I9O8, but this is 
certainly an error in transcription for ^mft'^ 10375 • He describes 
the variety as "folia vix denticulata, subtus pilis simplicibus 
vestita", with yoxmg fruits in June. 

Material of C. merrillii has been misidentified and distributed 
in herbaria under the names C_. caudata Maxim., C. cuspidata Roxb., 
and C_. longifolia Lam. On the other hand, the 7/_. W^ Clark s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Forest Bur. 253U] , McClure 15899 , Mearns & Hutchin - 
son U755 , M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci, U3310] , Ramos & 
Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. U9295] » Ramos & Pas gas io s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 3U775], and R. S^ Williams 2307, distrib- 
uted as C. merrillii , are actually G. caudata Maxim, 

In all, 19 herbarium specimens, including type material of one 
of the names involved, have been examined by me. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Basilan: DeVore & Hoover U. (W- 
I4i495l3). Luzon: F. Manuel s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest Bur. 23U89] 
(W~13760Ul); Ramos & Edaflo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. U1a601] 
(B, Bz— 17515, Ca— 257638, N). Mindanao: F6nix s.n. [Herb. Phil- 
ip. Bur. Sci. 15802] (W— 900327); Mearns & Hutchinson s.n, [May 
1906] (N); £. D. Merrill 8115 (7^—901911); Ramos & Edaflo s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 37338] (Bz~17522, W~1260271) ; £: B_. 
Robinson s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. Il802] (W— 71M76); R^ S. 
Williams 2307 (W— 707892) . Mindoro: LI. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip, 
Bur. Sci. 388I6] (Dz~17521), s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 39816] 
(W— 1261106). Negros: Elmer 10375 (Bz— 1752U, N, W— 705853) . Ti- 
cao: W. W. Clark s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur, Sci. 253U] (W— 626216) . 

CALUCARPA laCEAmm Vidal, Phan. Cuming. Philip. 13U & 187—188. 
1385. 
Bibliography: Vidal y Soler, Phan, Cuming, Philip, 13U St 187 — 
138. 1885; Vidal y Soler, Rev. PI. Vase. Filip. 208. 1836; Jacks. 
in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 386. 1893; H. J. Lam, 
Verbenac. Malay. Arch. U7, 59, & 362. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., 



236 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3'- 23. 1921 j E, D. Merr., Envm. 
Philip. PI. 3: 386. 1923j Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrlb. Veiten- 
ac, ed. 1, 62 & 87. 19U2; Jacks, in Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew,, 
pr. 2, 1: 386. 19li6; Moldenke, Kncwn Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac., 
ed. 2, lla & 177. 19U9i Moldenke, R6svim5 183 & Wi. 1959; Jacks, 
in Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 3, 1: 386. I960: Moldenke, 
Phytologia li^: 11^2 (1966), Hi: 225, 228, & 230 (1967), 15: 21 
(1967), and 21: 36. 1971. 

Shrub, 3 m, tallj tnuik 10 cm. in diameter; branchlets slender, 
round, stellately farinose or tomentosej leaves decussate-oppo- 
site; petioles k mm. long; leaf -blades chartaceous, ovate- 
lanceolate or lanceolate, 6 cm. long, 2 cm. wide, acutely acmin^ 
ate at the apex, serrate along the margins except near the base, 
acute at the base, more or less densely pubescent with simple 
hairs above, stellate-tomentose and glandulose beneath; secon- 
daries 6—8 pairs; inflorescence stellate- farinose or -tomentose^ 
the cymes small, 2 cm. long; peduncles 5—10 mm. long; calyx 1 — 
1.5 mm. long, somewhat stellate-pubescent and glandulose, its rim 
with k svibacute deltoid teeth; corolla white or violet-pink, y.vm, 
long, sparsely pubescent, with k lines of glands along the tube 
and on the lobes, the lobes 1 — 1.5 mm. long; stamens yellow, ex- 
serted, h — h»S mm. long; anthers ellipsoid, densely glandulose on 
both sides; style 5*5 nn. long; stigna capitate; ovary densely 
glandular on the upper half, glabrous on the lower half; frui ting- 
calyx and fruit not known. 

The type of this species was collected by Hugh Cuming ( no. 
1165 ) in the province of Albay, Luzon, Philippine Islands. This 
is the only collection cited by Vidal y Soler on page 13U of his 
work (1885), where he designated the binomial as "n. sp." On 
pages 187—188 he adds "Herb. Prop. l6la Prov. Abra". Lam (1919) 
cites a Cuming s.n. from Luzon, deposited as sheet ntanber 908. 
158 — 383 in the Rijksherbarivmi at Leiden, as well as a "Com. d, 
1. fl. for. d. Fil. no. I6UI, Abra". He also cites, with a 
question, a "Teysmann, H. Bog. no. 89U2" from Tanini, Timor, and 
notes "The doubtful specimen: Korthals in H. L.-B. sub no. 908. 
265 — 958, gives no locality". 

Bakhuizen van den Brink (1921) reduces this species to syno- 
nymy under what he calls C^j^ cuspidata Roxb. I regard Roxburgh's 
name as belonging in the synonymy of C. pedunculata R. Br, 

It is not at all certain that £, micrantha may not prove, after 
all, when type material is available for study, to be conspecific 
with some other taxon. The Ramos & Edafio s.n. [Herb, Philip. Bur. 
Sci. I;56lU], distributed as C, micrantha , matches perfectly the 
type collection of £. elegans Hayek and therefore is regarded by 
me as representing the latter species, irtiile Ramos & Edaflo 3.n, 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. h69$$] is C, foimosana f, angustata 
Moldenke. Callicarpa micrantha actually is a taxon known to me 
only from the literature listed above. It represents only one 
of the many problems that- still must be solved before a formal 
monograph of the genus, with a key to accepted taxa, can be pub- 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 237 

llshed, 

CALLICARPA MOLLIS Sieb. & Zucc, Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 526. iBliU 

[not £. mollis Koord., 1966, nor Matsumura, 1922, nor Req., 
1839, nor Shirasaim, 19li9, nor Wi lid., iSliO] . 

Qaended synonyncr: Calllcarpa zoHingeriana Schau. in A. DC., 
Prodr. 11: 6U0. 18U7. Cal 1 icarpa farlnosa Sieb, ex Miq,, Ann. 
Uu3, Lugd.-Bat. 2: 99, in syn. 1865 [not C. farinosa Ro^d)., 1885]. 
Callicaurpa farinosa Sieb . & Zucc . , in herb . Calllcarpa moHis 
var. mollis Mizuahima, in herb. 

Bibliography: D. Dietr.. Syn. PI. 1: U28..l839i Sieb. & Zucc, 
Fl. Jap. Fam. .Nat. 526. l8Iiii; Sieb. & Zucc, Abhand, Math.-phys. 
01. Kbnigl. Baier. Akad. Wiss. Miinch. h (3): 155—156. l8U6i 
Sieb. & Zucc, Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2: 155—156. l8U6j Schau. in 
A. DC., Prodr. 11: 6U0. 181^7} Walp., Ann. Bot. Syst. 3: 237. 
1852; A. Gray in M. C. Perry, Narr. Eaqped. China Seas & Japan 2: 
316. 1856; Uiq., Ann. Mus. Lugd.-Bat. 2: 99. 1865; Miq., Prol. 
Fl. Jap. 31. I866j Miq., Cat. Mus. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 70. 1870; 
Franch. & Savat., Enum. PI. Jap. 1: 359. 1875; Lauche, Deutsche 
Dendrol., ed. 2, l5l. 1883; Maxim., M6l. Biol. 12: 50ii~505. 
1886; Forbes & Hemsl., Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 26 [Ind. Fl. 
Sin. 21: 25U. I89O; Jacks, in Hook, f, & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 
1, 1: 386. 1893; Tasiro, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 8: IO9. I89I4; Shirasawa, 
Bull. Coll. Agric Tokyo Imp. Univ. 2: [Jap. Laubh. Winterzust.] 
269, pl. Ill [Tafel 10], fig. 8. 1895; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 1, h (3a): 166. 1895; Koord., Meded. Lands 
Plant- tviin Buitenz. 19: 558. 1893; J. Matsum., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 
13: llli. 1699; Kuroiwa, Bot. Mag. Tokyo lU: 126. I9OO; V/. P. 
Wright in Cassell, Diet. Pract. Card., ed. 1, 1: 156. 1902; Beis- 
sner, Schelle, & Zabel, Handb. Laubh. U25. 1903; Rehd. in L. H. 
Bailey, Cycl. Amer. Hort. 1: 217. 1906; W. P. Wright in Cassell, 
Diet. Pract. Card., ed. 2, 1: 156. 1907; Shirasaira, Nippon Shin- 
rin Jumoku Dzufu [Ic Ess. Forest. Jap. J 2: pl. 70. I9O8; Nakai, 
Fl. Kor. 2: I3U. 1909; Mak., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 21^: 28—29. 1910; C. 
K. Schneid., 111. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 587, 591, & 593, fig. 382 
g— i & 385 b— g. I9II; J. Matsum., Ind. Pl. Jap. 2 (2): 529- 
1912; Rehd. in L. H. Bailsy, Stand. Cycl. Hort. 2: 629. I9IU; Na- 
kai, Fl. Quelp. Isls. 76. 1915; W. Trelease, Wint. Bot., ed. 1, 
331. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac Malay. Arch. 51, 92, & 362. 1919; 
E. H. Wils., Joum. Arnold Arb. 1: I83. 1920; Bakh. in Lam & 
Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11 & 2U. 1921; Nakai, 
Bot. Mag. Tokyo 36: 22. 1922; Nakai, Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., 
9d. 1, 338. 1922; Nakai, Fl. Sylv. Kor. li;: 31—33 & 133, pl. 9. 
1923; Mak., 111. Fl. Jap. [89U] . 192U; Sakaguchi, Gen. Ind. Fl. 
Okin. 18. I92U; W. Trelease, Wint. Bot., ed. 2, 333. 1925; Rehd., 
Man. Cult. Trees, ed. 1, 776. 1927; Nakai in Nakai & Koidz., 
Trees 4 Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 2, 1: U56— U58, fig. [217]. 1927; 
Masam., Prol. Rep. Veg. Yak. 115. 1929; Stapf, Icon. Bot. Ind. 
Lond. 1: 526. 1929; Mak. k Nemoto, Fl . Jap., ed. 2, 99U. 1931; 
Mak., Gensyoku Yagai-shokubutu [Nature-Col. Wild PL] U: 281. 
1933; Terasaki, Nippon Shokubutsu Zufu [Jap. Bot. Illustr. Albxm] 



238 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

1593. 1933} Crevost & P6telot, Bull. Econ. Indo-Chine 37: 1290. 
193Uj Masam., Fl. 2c Geo. Yakua. 387. 193liJ Moldenke in Fedde. Re- 
pert. Spec. Nov. 39: 295, 297, & 298 (1936) and UO: 38, UO, U3, 
86, 115—116, 120, & 125. 1936) Nemoto, Fl. Jap. Suppl. 622. 1936; 
Moldenke, Alph. List Coamon Vern. Names 16, 22, & 33. 1939; Mol- 
denke, Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. 36. 1939; llak.. 111. Fl. Nippon 
fig. 562. 19U0; Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 10. 12, 
4 13. 19liO; Moldenke, Carnegie Inst. Wash. Publ. 522: 199. 19U0; 
Rehd., Man. Cult. Trees, ed. 2, pr. 1, 803, 80U, Sc 932, I9UO; 
iflTorsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 160. I9UI; Moldenke, Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 57, 58, 71, & 87. 19U2; T. H. Everett, 
Cat, Hardy Trees & Shrubs 16. 19U2; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid 
Names 9—11. 19U2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95. 19U5; Jacks, in 
Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. pr. 2, 1: 386, 19U6; Moldenke, Bol. 
Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 11: U9. 19U7; Hara, Enum. Sperm, Jap. 1: 
185. 19h8i H. N. & A. L. Moldenke. PI. Life 2: 90. 19l;8; Moldenke, 
Alph. List Cit. 2: U90 & 577 (19U8) and U: 98U, IO8I, llh5, 122U, 
& 1289. 19U9; Rehd., Bibliog. Cult. Trees 581i. 19U9; Moldenke, 
Knoim Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 133, 13U, 157, & 177. 
19li9; Moldenke, Phytologia 3: 139 (19U9) and 3: 380. 1950; H. N. 
& A. L. Moldenke, Anal. Inst. Biol. Mex. 20: U. 1950; W. J. Bean, 
Trees & Shrubs Hardy Brit. Isles, ed. 7, 1: 33U. 1950; W. J. Bean 
in Chittenden, Roy. Hort. Soc. Diet. Gard. 1: 358 & 359. 1951; 
Moldenke, Phytologia U: 75. 1952; Masam., Sci, Rep. Kanazawa 
Univ. k [Enum. Trachy. Jap. 7]: U6. 1955; Hara, Distrib. Maps 
Flow. PI. Jap. 51. 1958; Moldenke, Am. Midi. Nat. 59: 335. 1958; 
Kriissmann, Handb. Laubgeh. 1: 25U & 255. 1959; Hara, Outline 
Phytogeog. Japan i & 3h» 1959; Moldenke, R^sunS 171, 172, 21h, 
2li3, 2ii5, 2ii8, ii27, & khh. 1959; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Jnd. 
Kew., pr, 3. 1: 386, I96O; KiKissnann in aicke, Pareys Blunengartn,, 
ed, 2, 2: iJiS. I96O; Kitanura & Okamoto, Col, Illustr, Trees k 
Shrubs Japan 220, I96O; Rehd., Man. Cult. Trees, ed. 2, pr, 9, 
803, 801;, & 932, I960; Moldenke, R6sum6 Suppl, 3: 18 (1962) and h'- 
8. 1962; Li, Morris Arb, Bull. lU:, 3, h, & 7. 1963; Ohvd, Fl. Jap. 
76U & 998. 1965; Griffith £t Hyland, U.S. Dept. Agr. PI. Inventory 
I61i: 197 & 229. 1966; Moldenke, Phytologia 13: ii31 & U33 (1966), 
Hi: 53, lUO, & li;2 (1966), U;: 25U (1967), and 15: 30. 1967; Hy- 
land, U. S. Dept, Agr, PI. Inventory 168: li9, 1967; Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 16: 377 & 386, 1968; Moldenke, R^sumS Suppl, 16: 17 & 13 
(1968) and 17: 8, I968; K, Sugawara, Ecolog, Rev, 17: 213, 1969; 
Hyland, U. S, Dept, Agr, Pi. Inventory 173: 60. 1969; Moldenke, 
Phytologia 21: 35, Ul, U2, I;5, & 15U. 1971. 

Illustrations: Lauche, Deutsche Dendrol., ed, 2, l5l. 1883; C, 
K, Schneid., 111. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 587 & 593, fig. 382 g— i & 
385 b— g. I9II; Nakai, Fl. Sylv. Kor. li^: pi. 9. 1923; Mak., 111. 
Fl. Jap. [89U] (in color). 192it; Nakai in Na^ai & Koidz., Trees & 
Shrubs Indig. Jap,, ed, 2, 1: li57, fig, [217], 1927; Terasaki, 
Nippon Shokubutsu Zufu [Jap, Bot, Illustr, Album] 1593. 1933; Mak,, 
Gensyoku Yagai-shokubutu [Natvire-Col. Wild PI.] h: 281. 1933; Mak., 
111. Fl. Nippon fig. 562. I9UO; Kitamura & Okamoto, Col. Illustr, 
Trees & Shrubs Japan 220. I96O; Li, Morris Arb. Bull. lU: U, fig. 
1—6. 1963. 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 239 

Shrxib or ^tnaii tree, 2 — 5 m* "tail; stems to 5 cm. in diameter; 
branches slender, spreading in horizontal fashion, subterete or 
very obsoletely tetragonal, occasionally slightly flattened at 
the nodes, glabrous, with gray bark; branchlets very slender, te- 
rete, grayish-brown or dark-purple, densely furfuraceoiis-pubea- 
cent or short- tome ntose with sordid many-branched hairs; inter- 
nodes usually abbreviated, 1 — 3.5 cm. long, occasionally to 6.5 
cm. long; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles slender, 3 — 7 mm, 
long, densely pubescent or tomentose; leaf-blades membranous or 
chartaceous, herbaceous, often somen^t darker green above than 
beneath, varying fron lanceolate to oblong or elliptic, h*S — 12 
cm. long, 1.6 — 5*3 cm. wide, long-acuiiinate or caudate at the a- 
pex, rather shaurply and irregularly serrate along the margins ex- 
cept on the acumination and at the base, rotinded to a very obtuse 
or truncate (or rarely acute) base, densely short-pubescent or 
pilose above, densely farinaceous-pubescent with soirdid and more 
or less stellate hairs beneath; midrib slender, prominent beneath; 
secondaries very slender, 5 — 7 per side, ascending, not very ar- 
cuate, usually obscure above, hardly at all or but very slightly 
prominulent beneath; vein and veinlet reticulation fine and deli- 
cate, usually obscure; inflorescence axillary; cymes usually soli- 
tary, rcirely paiired, opposite, 1 — 2 cm, long and wide, rather 
few-flowei^d, often only once furcate, not branched, conspicuously 
bracteolate; peduncles very slender, U — 9 om. long, pubescent or 
pilose; pedicels very slender, 1 — 3 nmi. long, pubescent or pilose; 
bractlets linear, to 10 mm. long and 2 mm. wide; flower-buds 
dark-purple; flowers fragrant; calyx extraordinarily large, 
spreading campanulate-infundibular, 5 — 7.3 nun. long in all, 5 or 
more mm. wide, densely tomentose with irregularly branched hairs, 
its rim very deeply U-fid, the divisions lanceolate, about 3*2 ran. 
long, sharply acute at the apex; corolla hypocrateriform, purple 
or orchid-purple to mallow-pink, its tube broadly cylindric, 3.9 — 
U.7 mm. long, very much ampliate above, the limb ii-parted, the 
lobes ovate-lingulate, about 2.6 mm, long and 1,9 nm, wide, bl\mt 
at the apex, venose; stamens h, inserted at the base of the 
corolla- tube, exserted; filaments filiform, h — 5.3 nim. long, gla- 
brous; anthers large, oblong, about 2,1 mm. long and 1.1 mm, 
wide; pistil exserted and surpassing the stamens; style capillary, 
about 8.3 ram. long, glabrous, ampliate above into the stigma; 
stigma depressed-capitate, about 0.8 mm, wide; ovary subglobose, 
about 0.8 mm. long and wide, granulose-pulverulent, Ii-celled; 
fruit purple or purplish-lilac to orchid-purple, pxirplish even 
when young, glossy. 

The type of this species was collected by Philipp Franz von 
Siebold in Japan, not by "K. Th. E. von Siebold and J. G. Zuccai^ 
ini" as erroneously stated in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. liO: 116 
(1936) . Some recent collectors i*efer to the leaves as "opaque 
above" or "opaque on both sides", but what is meant by these state- 
ments is not clear to me. The corollas are described as "purple" 
on Charette 1738 and S^ Suzuki SI .55 , "mallow-pink" on Yamozaki 
3h t and "orchid-purple" on Charette 156 1| . 



2liO PHYTOIOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

The species has been found growing in forests, summer-green 
forests, and deciduous broad-leaved forests, copses and thickets, 
damp woods, open borders and roadsides, and in humus in half- 
shade on mountainsides, at the base of and borders of ravines, 
and on open forested banks, at altitudes of 20 to 1000 meters, 
flowering from May to August and in November, fruiting in June, 
August, October, and November. Vernacular and common names re- 
corded for it are "chobsalnam" , "kaipinam", •♦ko isi wara", 
"kottsabinam" , "namainoki", "weichhaarige Schonf rucht" , "yabu- 
murasaki", "y^bumurasaki" , "yabu-murasakishukibu" , "yahimurasaki", 
and "Vania-murasaki" . 

Suzuki tells us that the species is occasional in the shrub 
layer in sunny, moderately humid, windy, loam soil, with human 
disturbance, in deciduous oak forests. Wilson reports it "conmon" 
on Quelpart Island, Yamozaki says that it is "used as a garden 
tree" on Shikoku. Bean (1951) avers that it was introduced into 
cultivation [in England] in 1863. Li (1963) says that "It was 
first introduced by Richard Oldham in 1861—63 to Kew. It is 
still raised at Kew in a sheltered spot but is not as hardy nor as 
handsome as £. Bodinieri var. Giraldii . It is not certain whether 

the plant at present is in cultivation in America." The Herb. 
Bogor . 18099 collection, cited below, bears no indication on its 
label that it came from cultivated material, but this seems most 
probable . 

A hybrid between £. molll s Sieb. & Zucc. and C_. japonica Thunb. 
is known as xC. shirasawana Mak, This and its synonyms, C. mol - 
lis Shirasawa and C_, mollis x japonica Schneid., are often placed 
in the synonymy of C_. mollis (as, for example, by Bakhuizen van 
den Brink in 1921 and by me in my earlier publications), but are 
discussed separately herein. The illustration given by Shirasawa 
(1895) as £. mollis represents the hybrid instead. 

It is worth noting here that the Miquel (1865) reference given 
in the synonymy and bibliography above is dated "1866" by Bakhui- 
zen van den Brink (1921), that of Masamune (1955) is often cited 
as volume "6", and that of Siebold & Zuccarini (18U6) as "(1): 
526. lQhh"f Trtiich is definitely not correct, the "526" being the 
species number and not the page number, and l8Ui is the date for 
part 1 of this work. The C_, mollis of Koorders, referred to in 
the same synonyny above, is a synor^mi of C. caudata Maxim., that 
of Matsumvira is C_, oshimensis var. okinawensis (Nakai) Hat us,, 
that of Shirasawa is xC. shirasawana Mak., while that of Requien 
and of Willdenow is £. acuminata H.B.K., and the £^ farinosa of 
Roxburgh is C^ tomentosa (L.) Murr. 

The desciription of C^ mollis by Siebold & Zuccarini (I8ii6) is 
worth repeating here because it is not available in many libraries 
in the original: "ramis teretibus novellis canescentibus, foliis 
petiolatis e basi rotundata vel rarius attenxiata ovato-oblongis 
vel oblongo longe acuminatis, basi et in acumine integerrimis 
cetervm Inaequaliter serratis, superne pi lis simplicibus mo] liter 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa g||l 

villosis subtus pilis stellatis vlllosis, glanduloso-punctatis, 
cynis petioliim triple superantibus cano-villosis 7 — ll-floris 
calycibus cylindricis profunde quadrifidis laciniis lanceolatis 
acutis corollis extus villosis, staminibus exsertis, antheris ob- 
longis, obtusis rima dehiscentibus in connective glandulosis, 
stigmate capitate incrassato. Rami jvmieres pilis stellatis fur- 
f uraceo-canescentes . Folia petiolate petiolis circiter 8" longis, 
e basi retundata rare attenuata ovata-oblonga, vel superiera non- 
numquam oblonge-lanceolata longe acvminata, 1 1/2 — U" longa, 6— 
8»" lata, inaeqiialiter serrata, superne pilis simplicibus subtus 
stellatis villoso-canescentia, utrinque glandulis pellucidis punc- 
tata. Cymae axillares vel superaaxi Hares strictae vix quartan 
felii partem aeqxxantes, pilis stellatis dense villosae. Calyx 
cylindricus laciniis tubim fere superantibus lineari-lanceolatis 
acutis. Antherae pix) ratione magnae basi bifidae, dorso, glaiidu- 
sae. Stylus cylindricus stamina pairum superans, stigmate incras- 
sato tiruncato. Variat florlbus pentameris pentandris." 

Nakai (1923) describes the plant as "Fnitex 3 — $ raetralis ra- 
mosus. Ramus juvenilis viridis stellulate-subvelutino-tementosus. 
Petioli 3 — 10 mm. lengi stellulate tomentosi. Lamina ovata v. 
obovata v. elliptica raucronato v. argute breveque serrata apice 
caudato-attenuata supra erecto-pilosa infra erecto-stellatopilosa 
utrinque resinose-punctata, Inflorescentia supra axillaris dense 
stelliilata eligantha. Calyx alte U-fidus, lobis lanceolatis 
stellato-tomentosis . Corolla dilute purpurea extus pubescens. 
Antherae ellipticae glandulosae. Fructus dilute purpureus dia- 
metre $ ima." 

Li (1963) describes it as a "Shinib, 2 — 5 m, tall, much- 
branched, the branchlets densely stellate-tonentose. Leaves obo- 
vate-clliptic to oblong-lanceolate, the apex acuminate, the base 
rounded, the margins serrulate, sparsely tonentose above, stel- 
late- tomentose beneath, glandular on both sxirfacesj petioles 3 — 
10 nan. long. Cymes axillary, short-peduncled or nearly sessile, 
densely flowered, the peduncles as long as the petiole, stellate- 
tonentose; calyx deeply ii-lobed, stellate-tomentose; corolla 
lilac-pink, glandular outside; stanens not exceeding the corolla 
lobes. Fruit globose, dull purple, about 5nini. across." 

Knissmann (I960) says "Alinlich 6^ bodinieri , aber Zweige raehr 
halbstrauchig, ganz dicht weich behaart. Blatter elliptisch bis 
langlich-lanzettlich, lang zugespitzt, 5 — 10 cm lang, oberseits 
stumpfgriin, \mterseits dick sternhaarig, gezahnt. Bluten rosa. 
Staubblatter so lang vfie die Kronabschnitte . Friichte trublila, — 
1863. N.T. 1: 57; N.K. llxi t. 9. Kaum ausreichend winterhart, 
auffallend durch die starke Behaammg." 

It should be noted that the name, Callicarpa mollis , is not 
precluded for this taxen under the present International Rules of 
Botanic Nomenclature because the C_. mollis of Willdenow, effect- 
ively published h years earlier, was published in synonymy only 
and is therefore not regaixied as having been published validly. 

liasamune (1955) includes in the synonymy of C. mollis the name 
" Callicarpa Japonica Thunb." of Tasiro (I89U), but with a question. 



2U2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

He also regards the "C_. mollis " of Matsumura (I899 & 1912, inso- 
far as Ryuky\i specimens are concerned), Kuroiwa (1900, in part), 
Wilson (1920), and Sakaguchi (192U) as referring to C_. oshlmensis 
var. okinawensis ♦ 

Sugawara (I969) tells us that the true £, mollis grows in the 
shrub layer in plantations of Cryptomeria Japonica . Ohwi (196$) 
provides us with a key to the Japanese species of the genus, for 
which see under C, dichotoma in the present series of notes. 

As to the natural geographic distribution of Cj, mollis , Nakai 
(1923) says "Hondo, Shikoku et Kiusiu", Li (1963) says •♦This spe- 
cies is native to Japan and Korea", Masamune (19^5) says "Tangge- 
simaj Kurosima; Yakusima; Iriomotej Honsyuj Sikokuf Kyusyuj Tai- 
wan; Corea", and Ohwi (196$) says "Honshu (Rikuchu Prov. and 
southw.), Shikoku, Kyushu. — Korea". Hara (1958) unites var. 
microphylla tiieb, & Zucc . with the typical fonn of the species 
and gives the combined distribution as "Japan, Korea, Ryukyu, and 
Formosa" . 

Actually, I have found no specimens among those examined by me 
that were really collected in the Ryukyu Islands. The so-called 
records from these islands as given by Matsumura and Masamune are 
probably based on misidentifications of material that will prove 
to have been C_. oshimensis Hayata and/or £, oshlmensis var. irio- 
motensis (Masam.) Hatus. and C. oshlmensis var. okinawensis (Na- 
kai) Hatus. 

Miquel (187O) cites Burger $ [specimens?], Siebold k [speci- 
mens?], Textor 3 [specimens?], Maximowicz 1 [specimen?], Oldham 1 
[specimen?], Mohnike 1 [specimen?], and C. V/right 1 [specimen?]. 

Material of C. mollis has been misidentified and distributed 
in herbaria under the names C_. cuspidata Roxb., C_. japonica Thunb., 
C. kochiana Mak . , and Elaeagnus glabra Thiinb . On the other hand, 
the Oldham 620, distributed as £. mollis , is actually C. japonica 
Thunb., Albrecht s.n. [I86I] and Hort. Tjibodasensis P. are C. 
japofaica var. rhombifolia H.J. Lam, and J_. Matsumura s.n. is C. 
oshimensis var. okinawensis (Nakai) Hatus. 

The U. S^ Dept. Agric. PI. Inventory 2351i99 , 2636^2, & 30li937 , 
cited by Griffith & Hyland (I966) and by Hyland (I967, 1968), were 
all grown in Maryland from seed collected in Japan, the first- 
mentioned being the seed of J_. L_^ Creech $09 . 

In all, 115 herbarium specimens and 3 movinted photographs of G. 
mollis have been examined by me. 

Citations: KOREA: Witford s.n. (T) . KOREAN COASTAL ISUNPS: 
Quelpart: Faurie 1892 (Du— 1U019, V— 127)j Kitamura s.n. [19 Jul. 
1930] (Mi)j E. H. Wilson 9^25 (W— 105I|201) . JAPAN: Hiradoshima: 
Weiss 1138 (B2~18101) . Honshu: Charette 1S$S (Ca~77252, Dt, S, 
W~22U7697), 156U (Ca~77UiO, W— 22U7702), 1738 (Ca— 77U69, Dt, S, 
W~22li7797)j Collector xindetermined 362 (W— 998l)j Furuse s.n. [11 
July 1955] (S), s.n. [18 July 1955] (S) . To be continued. 



An overview of the Hookeriales 

Harvey A. Miller 

University of Illinois 

Urbana, Illinois^ 



The Hookeriales have been considered to be one of the 
more homogeneous orders of mosses. Suborders Ephemeropsidineae 
(= Nematacineae) and Hookeriineae have been distinguished 
for many years on the basis of the gametophyte being reduced 
to a protonema bearing sexual buds in the first and a normal 
leafy gametophyte in the second. The common bond within the 
order is based almost entirely on the usually small, often 
roughened, sporophyte with a double peristome, the conical 
to mi triform, often fringed, calyptra, a comparatively lax 
areolation and an absence of alar cells. The "hookeriaceous" 
peristome is usually characterized by a lamellate exostome 
somewhat taller than the endostome with its low to medium 
basal membrane and simple processes which are only rarely 
separated by a single cilium. As Crosby (1969) correctly 
observed of the Hookeriaceae as defined by Brotherus (1925), 
"one finds no character or group of characters that unite 
the group." However, one can find an aggregate of features 
among groups of genera which can be aligned to show a common 
heritage even though not all are present in any single genus 
or group of allied genera. Welch (1966, 1969) has considered 
the Hookeriaceae in the broad sense. 

The acknowledged heterogeneity of the Hookeriaceae as 
defined by Brotherus can be better understood if we recognize 
that his description and arrangement is essentially an 
abridgement of Fleischer's system presented in 1908. The 
success of Fleischer's system for the mosses is due to his 
acceptance of the concepts of evolution, as known at that 
time, and their application to develop an arrangement on 
something other than an artificial basis. Bessey's "dicta" 
presented in 1915 indicating the importance of reduction as 
one aspect of evolutionary advancement had not yet appeared 
in a refined form, so we find that, for the most part, the 
taxa have been placed in a simple to complex order. Further, 

^Now at Florida Technological University, Orlando, Florida 
32816 



2U3 



2hh PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. U 

great stress was placed on the structure of the peristome 
and the morphology of the gametophyte was considered to be 
of somewhat lesser importance. If both sporophytic and 
gametophytic structures are taken into account, and if we 
allow reduction as an indication of advancement, the 
Hookeriaceae can be rearranged into several comparatively 
homogeneous groups with a common heritage. 

Because the reorganization proposed differs considerably 
in some ways from the Fleischer-Brotherus system, my 
principles of classification are listed below. In utilizing 
the principles the following general premises, derived in 
the main from Hutchinson (1959), must be taken into account: 
1) evolution is both upwards and downwards, the latter 
involving degradation and degeneration; 2) evolution does 
not involve all organs, or both generations, at the same time 
and both elaboration and degeneration may be occurring at 
the same time; and 3) evolution has generally been consistent 
with a particular tendency potentially being carried to the 
extreme of elaboration or reduction although the extremes 
may not be present in extant groups. 



Some Principles for Moss Systematics 

N.B. The principles are arranged from general to 
specific features, but no relative importance is to be 
implied from the order. 

1. Within any group, the larger mosses are generally 
more primitive than smaller ones. 

2. Closely attached forms with all stems leafy are more 
primitive than stoloniferous forms. 

3. Perennial mosses are more primitive than the annual 
or ephemeral species including those with a 
persistent protonema. 

4. Both completely aquatic and xerophytic forms are 
derived from an aerial, but almost constantly moist, 
ancestor. 

5. A central strand in the stem is a primitive feature. 



1971 Miller, Hookeriales 2U5 

6. Stems with a several -layered cortex comprised of 
thick-walled or stereid cells are more primitive 
than stems with a unistratose or undifferentiated 
cortex. 

7. Leaf gaps are a primitive feature. 

8. Radial leaf arrangement is more primitive than 
distichous arrangement with the complanate 
condition probably intermediate. 

9. A strong costa is more primitive than a weak one 
with the ecostate condition most derived. 

10. An excurrent costa is an advanced characteristic 
sometimes associated with blade reduction. 

11. Well developed alar cells may be an advanced 
condition. 

12. Smooth leaf cells may be primitive with papillate"' 
cells the derived condition. 

13. Extremely thin-walled or thick-walled cells are 
derived. 

14. Specialized vegetative reproduction by brood-bodies 
is more advanced than vegetative propagation by 
simple fragmentation and regeneration. 

15. Monoicous sexuality is more primitive than the 
dioicous condition. 

16. Numerous gametangia and paraphyses are more primitive 
than few archegonia or antheridia per inflorescence. 

17. Sexual dimorphism, expressed in the extreme by the 
formation of dwarf males and the heterosporous 
tendency, as in some species of Macromi tri um and 
Homalothecium , is advanced. 

18. An elongate seta bearing an exposed capsule is more 
primitive than a short seta with an immersed capsule. 

19. A capsule wall with stomata, especially when associated 
with air chambers, represents a more primitive 
condition than the capsule lacking stomata. 



2U6 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

20. Cleistocarpy is probably a derived condition in 
the Bryidae. 

21. A reduced endostome lacking processes on the basal 
membrane is advanced over one with processes and a 
high basal membrane; the presence of cilia may also 
be advanced. 

22. A peristome which is wery much reduced or absent 
is derived from a normal peristome. 

23. Retention of the operculum or a portion of it on 
the columella is an advanced condition. 

Several taxonomically useful morphological variants are 
not included above because I have been unable to divine the 
relative conditions of such things as leaf borders, lamellae, 
cell shapes, paraphyllia, plane vs. keeled structures, single 
vs. double peristomes, acrocarpy vs. pleurocarpy (there is 
good evidence both ways), calyptra type, and a multitude of 
structural features of the peristome such as median lines, 
surface, striations, and accessory ornamentation. Surely 
the list may be substantially revised, but if it serves to 
stimulate development of a better classification and 
critical morphological research, the purpose will have been 
well served. 

As defined until Crosby's (1969) Pilotrichum revision 
appeared, the Hookeriineae was comprised of the Pilotrichaceae, 
Hookeriaceae, and the Hypopterygiaceae. Because he found 
little difference between Pilotrichum and Helicoblepharum 
or among Thamniopsis , Pilotrichidium and Diploneuron , Crosby 
merged the Pilotrichaceae with the Hookeriaceae. He apparently 
was correct in his evaluation of the generic relationships 
of Pilotrichum with members of the Hookeriaceae as defined 
at that time. If we consider the position of Pilotrichum 
and its allied species within the order, it is among the more 
primitive types and quite distinct from all but a few genera 
customarily included in the Hookeriaceae-Hypnelloideae. In 
such a case it seems best to set this group apart as the 
family Pilotrichaceae and to arrange the genera within it in 
as natural a sequence as possible. 

From some Pilotrichaceous type, one may derive the 
Hookeriaceae-Hookeriopsidoideae with a long double costa, 
elongate seta, complanate foliage, and a pinnate habit. This, 
in turn, mainly by reduction of the costa and seta along with 



1971 Miller, Hookerlales 2U7 

the develop.nent of comparatively lax areolation, leads to 
the Hookeriaceae-Hookerioideae. 

The Hookerioideae, perhaps through a common ancestor 
to Eriopus , link to the Distichophyllaceae characterized 
by the asymmetric, bordered, once costate, parenchymatous 
more or less isodiametrically areolate leaves and the cross- 
striate peristome. Miiller suggested that this group be 
recognized as the family Mniadelphaceae nearly 100 years 
ago but no description was included so his name cannot 
stand. 

The Daltoniaceae resemble the Distichophyllaceae in 
the bordered leaves with a single costa and isodiametric 
cells but differ in their smaller size, radial symmetry, 
uniform leaves, upright habit and their selection of 
ephemeral habitats as twigs, leaves, and even the backs of 
large weevils in the cloud forests of New Guinea. The 
peristome differs from others in the order in that both 
ranks are strongly papillose and well-developed with the 
exostome lacking striae. 

It is quite likely that Dal ton i a and Ephemeropsis have 
a common origin but the separation, as evidenced by the 
striate rather than papillose peristome, is great and doubt- 
less of long standing. Fossils of Ephemeropsis have been 
found in middle Eocene deposits from Germany suggesting that 
it was once more widely distributed than just to Malesia and 
New Zealand as at present. Continued recognition of the 
family in a separate suborder seems quite proper. 

Although Fleischer and Brotherus placed the Symphyodontaceae 
and Leucomiaceae in the Hookeriales, Dixon (1932) assigned 
them to the Hypnales (assuming that "Symphvsodontaceae" is 
a mis-print or lapsus for Symphyodontaceae). The morphology 
of the gametophyte is suggestive of Vesicularia and allied 
Hypnaceous genera but the evidence is not clear. Unfortunately, 
Dixon did not give any explanation for the shift which has not 
been taken up by Bartram (1939, 1949), Crum and Bartram 
(1958), or Crum and Steere (1957), for example. The leaves 
of Symphyodon have a few alar cells but the erect, spiny, 
purple, capsule with simple papillose exostome teeth and a 
reduced endostome is quite unlike that characteristic of the 
Hypnaceae. Leucomium has a Hookeria- like peristome and shares 
the very large thin-walled cells characteristic of Hookeria 
as well. Until some evidence can be offered to substantiate 
Dixon's opinion, I am satisfied that these families can be 
reasonably considered among the Hookeriales. 



2U8 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 21, no, U 



A specialized derivative, probably from the Distichophyllaceae, 
is the Hypopterygiineae comprised of the Hypopterygiaceae and 
the Cyathophoraceae. The complanate habit is carried to the 
extreme with the development of markedly different obliquely in- 
serted, wide-spreading, lateral leaves and reduced, transverse, 
erect, amphigastrial leaves. A stipe with widely spaced, often 
scale-like, leaves or a prostrate stoloniferous stem is 
developed. The very short to absent costa, regular alignment 
of the amphigastria, and very short seta serve to set off the 
Cyathophoraceae from the Hypopterygiaceae. 

In the following revision I have arranged the taxa so far 
as possible according to the principles listed above. As the 
positions of the genera are subject to various interpretations 
depending upon the importance placed on one feature or another, 
I have not attempted to further justify the sequence of genera 
as presented. Some groups remain heterogenous and may be 
defined ultimately in somewhat different ways. 



ORDER HOOKERIALES 

Suborder Hookeriineae 

Pilotrichaceae 



1. 


Hemiragis 


9. 


2. 
3. 
4. 


Thamniopsis 

Stenodictyon 

Pilotrichidium 


10. 
11. 
12. 


5. 
6. 
7. 
8. 


Diploneuron 
Callicostellopsis 
Helicoblepharum 
Pilotrichum 


13. 
14. 
15. 

Hookeriaceae 



Hypnella 

Neohypnel 1 a 

Acronypnella 

Chaetomitriopsis 

Chaetomitrium 

Orontobryum 

Dimorphocladon 



Hookeriopsidoideae, subfam. nov. Folium cum costa 
duplici ad vel supra medium folium soluta; cellulae laeves 
vel unipapillatae. Exostomium cum dentibus hyalinis et 
papillosis aut rubris vel brunneolis et cruciatistriatis; 
endostomium plerumque flavidum, cum membrana basal i processus 
subulatos papillosos carinatos ferens. Typus: Hookeriopsis 
(Besch.) Jaeg. 



1971 



Miller, Hookeriales 2li9 



Leaves with a double costa usually extending to mid-leaf 
or beyond, narrowly bordered to unbordered; cells smooth to 
unipapillate over the lumen. Peristome double; exostome 
pale to hyaline and papillose or red to brown and cross- 
striate; endostome pale yellow to brownish, basal membrane 
bearing keeled papillose processes with no, or rarely 
rudimentary, intercalated cilia. 

1. Amblytropis 5. Actinodontium 

2. Cyclodictyoh 6. Lepidopilum 

3. ArchboldieTTa 7. Hookeriopsis 

4. Lepidopilidium 8. Callicostella 

Hookerioideae 

1. Hookeria 4. Crossomitrium 

2. Tetrastichium 5. Eriopus 

3. Schimperobryum (= Lamprophyllum ) 



Distichophyllaceae, fam. nov. 

Caulis diversifolius; foliis plerumque asymmetricis et 
limbatis; costa singulari, infra apicem soluta sed interdum 
percurrens; cellulae hexagonae vel rhombi formes cum pari eti bus 
tenuibus et laevibus, aut rotundae cum parietibus incrassatis 
et interdum papillosis. Typus: Distichophyllum Dozy et 
Molkenb. 

Leaves of varying size and shape on the same stem, 
usually asymmetrical and generally bordered; costa single 
usually ending below the apex but sometimes percurrent; 
cells generally thin-walled and hexagonal above, but some- 
times rhombi d, or thick-walled and ronded, smooth or (in 
Adelothecium ) papillate over the lumen. Peristome double 
with the exostome well developed and the endostome with a 
high basal membrane and long processes or a low membrane and 
reduced teeth or absent. 

1. Pterygophyllum 4. Leskeodon 

2. Distichophyllum 5. Leskeodon'topsis 

3. Distichophyllidium 6. ? Adelothecium 



250 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

The position of Adelothecium in this family is question- 
able although the peristome is very similar to the others and 
the leaves have a single costa. It differs in the leaves 
being unbordered with incrassate, strongly truncate- 
papillate cells. If another alliance cannot be found for 
the genus it should probably be placed in a separate subfamily. 

Daltoniaceae , fam. nov. 

Plantae gregariae vel caespitosae, plerumque parvae, 
epiphyticae, leviter nitidae, dilute vi rides vel aureae 
sunt. Folia aequabiles, erectiuscula vel erecto-patentia; 
margine limbato et integro; costa singula et infra apice 
soluta; cellulis rhombis vel rotundis, laevibus. Peristomium 
duplex, exterius et interius pariter longus. Typus: 
Daltonia Hook. & Tayl . 

Gregarious to turf-forming, usually small and little 
branched, epiphytic, faintly shiny plants. Leaves uniform, 
symmetrical, and erect-spreading; margin bordered and 
mostly entire; costa single, ending below or in the apex; 
cells rhomboid to rounded and smooth. Peristome double 
with the exostome the same length as the endostome and 
papillose (except Belli a) ; endostome usually with a low 
basal membrane bearing keeled, subulate, papillose 
processes. 

2. Daltonia 

Symphyodontaceae 



Leucomiaceae 

5. Pulvinella 

6. Stenodesmus 

7. Rhynchostegiopsis 



Suborder Ephemeropsidineae (Nematacineae) 
Ephemeropsidaceae (Nemataceae) 
1. Ephemeropsis (including Archephemeropsis ) 



1. 
1. 


Bellia 
Symphyodon 


1. 


Vesiculariopsis 


2. 


Philophyllum 


3. 

4. 


Sauloma 
Leucomium 



1971 Miller, Hookerlaceae 251 

Suborder Hypopterygiineae, subord. nov. 

Rami cum foliis in stipite ex caule rhizomate errigens. 
Folia dimorpha, amphigastriis comparate parvis et transverse 
affixis autem foliis lateralibus oblique insert! s. Typus: 
Hypopterygiaceae. 

Leafy branches stipitate from a rhizome- like stem and 
usually dendroid or pinnately branched; central strand 
strong. Leaves of two types; lateral leaves obliquely to 
nearly longitudinally inserted, usually plane and oblong; 
ventral leaves transverse or nearly so, erect, often 
lanceolate to subulate, and smaller than lateral leaves, 
being true amphigastria. Peristome double or the exostome 
lacking; endostome with a plicate basal membrane and 
keeled processes. 

Hypopterygiaceae 

1. Lopidium 3. Catharomnium 

2. Hypopterygium 

Cyathophoraceae, fam. nov. 

Plantae gregariae, arboricolae aut in saxo humido, cum 
caulibus foliosis simplicibus et stipitibus brevibus. Folia 
dimorpha, amphigastriis imbricatis et in specie singulari, 
foliis lateralibus distichis; cellulis tenuiparietibus, 
hexagonis. Fructus in axillis amphigastriorum; seta 
brevi ; capsula globosa vel cylindrica; peristomium duplex, 
exterius cum dentibus 16 lanceolatis et interius cum 
dentibus 16 lanceolatis in membrana basal i alta; operculum 
conicum rostratum. Calyptra conica et parva. 

Usually large, gregarious plants rising from a brown, 
densely tomentose rhizome attached to moist, shaded, tree 
trunks, logs, or damp rocks, with the simple leafy branches 
usually horizontal and stipitate below. Leaves dimorphic, 
the imbricate amphigastria in a single row, lateral leaves 
distant, obliquely inserted on either side of the stem and 
somewhat asymmetric; cells thin-walled, isodiametric to 
elongate-hexagonal, smooth, and punctulate. Dioicous with 
sexual buds in axils of the amphigastria. Seta short, 
smooth, with an erect, globose to cylindrical, thick-necked 
capsule; annul us broad; peristome double; exostome with 16 
lanceolate teeth; endostome with a high basal membrane bear- 
ing lanceolate processes; operculum conic and beaked. 
Calyptra conic and small. 

1. Cyathophorum 2. Cyathophorella 



2^2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

Literature Cited 



Bartram, E.B. 1939. Mosses of the Philippines. Philippine 
J. Sci. 68: 1-437. 

. 1949. Mosses of Guatemala. Fieldiana Sot. 

25: 1-442. 

Bessey, C.E. 1915. The phylogenetic taxonomy of flowering 
plants. Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 2: 109-164. 

Brotherus, V.F. 1925. Musci (Laubmoose) 2. Halfte. In 
Engler, A. & K. Prantl. Die Natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien. 
Aufl. 2. 11: 1-542. 

Crosby, M.R. 1969. A revision of the tropical American 
moss genus Pilotrichum . Bryologist 72: 275-343. 

Crum, H.A. & E.B. Bartram. 1958. A survey of the moss 
flora of Jamaica. Bull. Inst. Jamaica Sci. 8: 1-90. 

& W.C. Steere. 1957. The mosses of Porto Rico 



and the Virgin Islands. Sci. Surv. Porto Rico 
7: 395-599. 

Dixon, H.N. 1932. Classification of mosses. In Verdoorn, 
F. Manual of bryology, pp. 397-412. Nijhoff. The 
Hague. 

Fleischer, M. 1904-1923. Die Musci der Flora von Buitenzorg. 
Flore de Buitenzorg 5, 1: i-xxxi & 1-379 (1904); 
2: i-xvii & 381-643 (1904); 3: i-xxiv & 645-1103 (1908); 
4: i-xxxi & 1105-1729 (1923). 

Hutchinson, J. 1959. The families of flowering plants, ed. 
2. 2 vol. Oxford University Press. 

Welch, Winona H. 1966. The Hookeriaceae of Mexico. 
Bryologist 69: 1-68. 

. 1969. The Hookeriaceae of Cuba. Bryologist 
72: 93-136. 



FIVE IK)RE NOVELTIES IN THE VERBENACEAE 



Harold N. Idoldenke 



JUNELLIA TONINII (Kuntze) Moldenke, comb. nov. 

Verbena tonlnll Kuntze, Rev. Gen. PI. 3 (2): 258. I898. 

LIPPIA EUPATORIUM var. ANDUSTIFOLIA Moldenke, var. nov. 

Haec varietas a fonna typica specie! foliis angustioribus et 
pediinculis brevioribus differt. 

This variety differs from the typical foim of the species in 
its leaf-blades being nairrower, about 3 cm. long and 5 — 8 mm. 
wide, and the peduncles shorter, 2 — U,5 cm. long. 

The type of the variety was collected by JoSo Murga Pires, Nile 
Tomaz da Silva, and R. Souza ( no. 9652) in the cerrado between 
Brasilia and Niqueltndia, Distrito Federal, Brazil, on May 16, 
1963, and is deposited in my personal herbarium at Plainfield, 
New Jersey, The collectors describe the plant as a shrub, with 
the bracts "esverdeadas", and the corollas cream-color. 

PREMNA GUILLAUMINII Moldenke, sp. nov. 

Finitex; ramis ramulisque glaberirLmis gracillimisj foliis par- 
vissimis petiolatis, laminis 0.5 — 1.5 cm. longis et latis rotun- 
dis vel rotundato-ellipticis utrinque glaberrimis, ad apicem ob- 
tusis vel subacutis, ad basin plerumque rot\indatis; inflorescen- 
tiis parvissimis paucifloris terrainalibus . 

Small shrub, to 1 m. tall; branches and branchlets slender, 
smooth J leaves decussate-opposite, numerous, very small, petio- 
latej petioles extremely slender; leaf-blades chartaceous, uni- 
formly green on both surfaces, round or rounded-elliptic, 0.5 — 1.5 
cm. long and wide, glabrous on both surfaces, shiny, rounded or 
obtuse to subacute at the apex, entire along the margins, mostly 
rounded at the base, inconspicuously venosej inflorescence termin- 
al, very small, few-flowered, cymose, about 1,5 cm. long and 1 cm. 
wide, its branches minutely puberiilentj calyx cupuliform, about 2 
mm. long and wide, light-colored, pulverulent on the outside, its 
rim plainly 5-toothed. 

The type of this distinctive species was collected by AndrS 
Guillaumin and M. G, Baumann-Bodenheim ( no. 9615) on serpentine 
at the foot of Mount Kaf6at6, New Caledonia, on December 22, 1950, 
and is deposited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York Botani- 
cal Garden. 

PREMNA GUILUUMINII f . SERRATA Moldenke, f , nov. 

Haec forma a forma typica speciei laminis foliorum grosse den- 
tatis recedit. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing its leaif -blades coarsely dentate. 

The type of the form was collected by Li, G. Baumann-Bodenheim 

253 



25U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

( no. 6U76 ) in calcareous soil at the foot of Ouen Toro near Noum6a, 
New Caledonia, on October 3, 19^0, and is deposited in the Brit- 
ton Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden, The collector 
describes the plant as a bush, 30 cm. tall, and avers that it is 
merely a juvenile form of what he calls P. intqg rif olia L. [now 
known as P. obtusifolia R. Br.]. This seems highly unlikely be- 
caule the latter has been collected in literally hundreds of 
widely scattered localities throughout the Pacific area, often 
with large series of specimens representing each collection, with 
never such a juvenile form foundl 

STACHYPARPHETA IRWINH Moldenke, sp. nov. 

Frutex; ramis raraulisque dense adpresso-strigillosisj foliia 
oppositis vel alternato-approximatis sessilibus subcoriaceia fir- 
mis utrinque pallide flavido-viridibus ellipticis 3 — 5 cm. longis 
1,5 — 2.0 cm. latis acutis vel rotundatis, ad basin cimeatis, supra 
subglabratis subtus dense puberulentibus; inflorescentiis spicatis 
densissimis 3,5 — 6 cm, longis. 

Small shinib, about 1 m. tall; apparently with numerous erect 
stems or branches i branches and branchlets slender, brownish, 
densely appressed-strigillose with antrorse hairs; leaves opposite 
or subopposite to approximate-alternate, numerous, sessile, subcor- 
iaceous, firm, light yellow-green on both surfaces, elliptic or 
slightly subobovate, 3 — 5 en. long, 1.5 — 2.5 cm. wide, rounded 
to subacute or acute at the apex, long-cuneate at the base, ser- 
rate-dentate from below the widest part to the apex, subglabrate 
above, densely puberulent beneath, more or less conspicuously 
reticulate-veined on both siirfacesj inflorescence spicate, very 
dense, >«5— 6 cm. long during anthesis} calyx tubular, about 1 
cm. long, slightly widened above, conspicuously 5-ribbed, densely 
puberulent on the outside, its rim shortly 5-toothed with deltoid- 
triangular teeth about 0.5 mm. long; corolla hypocrateriform, 
metallic-blue, its tube slightly surpassing the calyx, the limb 
about 7 nan. wide, densely white-strigillose in the throat. 

The type of this species was collected by H. S. Irwin, S. F. 
da FonsSca, R, Souza, R, Reis dos Santos, and J. Ramos ( no, 28208 ) 
on outcrops in an area of campo, cerrado on outcrops, and wooded 
valleys, at an elevation of 1200 meters, about 3 km, north of 
SSo JoSo Chapada, in the Serra do Espinhago, liinas Gerais, Bra- 
zil, on March 2li, 1970, and is deposited in my personal herbarium 
at Plainfield, New Jersey, it is named in honor of the senior 
collector, who has done such noteworthy work on the flora of G\xy- 
ana, Surinam, and Brazil and to whose labors we owe so much of 
our present knowledge of the flora of these areas. 



BOOK REVIEWS 
Alma L. Iioldenke 



"MORPHOGENESIS IN PLAIITS — A CONTEMPORARY STUDY", 2nd edition, 
by C. V^. V/ardlaw, kSl pp., illus., Llethuen Sc Conpany, Ltd., 
London E.C.U, or Barnes &: Noble, Inc., New York, N. Y. 10003 
as U.SJL. distributors. 1968. ^lli.50. 

This complete revision and fuller development of the first edi- 
tion of 1952 is a valuable contribution from the author who has 
spent his whole professional life developing this field. It is a 
well written, well developed and well illustrated treatment for 
each part and for the plant as a whole. "That plants exemplify 
the phenomenon of continued enbryology cannot be denied: it is 
there as an evident fact of observation (the great ascending 
trunk of a giant Califomian redwood may be the result of 3,000 
years of apical growth or continued embryologyl ) " 

The book is very neat, yet AHJum is misspelled on p. 308 and 
induction on p. 313. 

I like the author's outlook:''The fruits of molecular biology, 
which are already remarkable and are growing with increasing ac- 
celeration, are of vital importance. But they can never be self- 
sufficient, for the growing plant has organizational characteris- 
tics not only at the molecular level, but also at the several 
higher levels — cell, tissue, organ — which we see in the har- 
moniously developed whole organism, as well as in its several 
specialized organs. For the same reason, there can never be a 
progressive botanical science based on a single branch of inqui- 
ry, be it morphology, physiology, genetics, ecology, etc. 
Botany — the science of plants — has a heritage from all its 
branches ... .Let us constantly seek new facts, liberating ideas, 
validating experiments and inferences of wide generality." 

"CONSERVATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES", Uth edition, edited by Guy- 
Harold Smith, xiii & 685 pp., illus,, John Wiley & Sons, 
Inc., New York, N. Y. 10016, London, Toronto, &: Sydney. 
1971. $11.95. 

Each edition of this standard valuable work has been somewhat 
updated and freshly and richly illustrated. The twenty- two 
authors of this edition are well recognized in their respective 
fields of specialization. The book is well organized and dupli- 
cations, gaps, contradictions, and divergent styles of writing 
are all avoided. This is a i^al credit to the experienced edi- 
tor, who also authors five articles. 

The book is divided into eight parts carefully covering these 
topics: conservation in the United States with the concomitant 
economics, water use and abuse, mineral resources and fuels, grass- 

255 



256 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

land and forest resources, wild life including fish, recreation- 
al resources, urban and national planning, and the conservation 
of man himself. The illustrations on flooding and the United 
States soil maps and classifications are highlights of this 
edition. The format is attractive to and easy on the eyes. Just 
one slight printing error was noticed — the misspelling of vol- 
caniE on p. 72. 

This text will continue to have considerable use throughout 
our can^juses that are at all rurally aware or oriented. It may 
be bypassed by urban-limited schools to the gi^at loss of the 
students whose lives have been limited by asphsdt, concrete, 
brick and canned food. 

••PHOTOBIOLOGY" by Jerome J. Wolken, xiii & 113 pp., illus.. Van 
Nostrand-Reinhold, Inc., New York, N. Y. 10022. I969. 
$2,25 paper-back. 

This twelfth in the "Selected Topics in Modem Biology" series 
clearly discusses the world's sunlight as part of the electromag- 
netic spectrum, light-sensitive pigments, photosynthesis, chloro- 
plasts, photomotion, vision with simple and compound eyes, and 
vitamin A. It is written at the level of the beginning college 
student needing additional clarification, of the high school 
biology student seeking enrichment and of the general reader. It 
is well illustrated and indexed. 

"FLORIDA LANDSCAPE PLAOTS — Native and Exotic", by John V. Wat- 
kins, 368 pp., illus.. University of Florida Press, Gaines- 
ville, Florida 32601. I969. -$7.50. 

The author, who has been teaching landscape gardening at the 
University of Flortda for years, planned this excellent and at- 
tractive book for the home owner, the student and professional 
nurseryman, the to\irist, etc. In it he updates material for over 
350 of Florida's best landscape plants from "Yo\ir Guide to Florida 
Landscape Plants" (I96I) and from the ccanpanion volume on tropical 
exotics (1963). Each plant is illustrated with simple line draw- 
ings. The descriptive text for each is constructed after this 
outline: conmon and scientific names, family, type, identifying 
features, growth habit, foliage, flowers, fruits, landscape uses, 
habitat, light and soil requirements, salt tolerance, sources, 
cultTire, propagation and pests. There is a glossary and index. 



NEW NORTH AMERICAN UNIFOLIOLATE CROTALARIA TAXA 

(LEGUMINOSAE) 

Donald R. Windier* 

Over the last several years I have been engaged in studies 
of the North American species of Crotalaria related to 
Crotalaria sagittalis L. During these studies it became 
evident that some of the plants examined represented new taxa. 
In the text which follows, three species and two varieties are 
described for the first time. A third variety is transferred 
to a different species from the one under which it was origin- 
ally recognized. Dr. Robert H. Mohlenbrock, Southern Illinois 
University, has translated the descriptions into Latin and Mrs, 
Miriam Wysong Meyer has prepared illustrations for each of the 
new species, 

CROTALARIA BREVIPEDUNCULATA Windier, sp. nov, 

Frutex vel herba suffrutescens. Radix ignota. Caules 
ultra 3 dm longi, 3.5 mm crassi, internodium longissimum 1.2 cm 
longum, trichomis densis brevibus patentibus 0.6-0.7 mm longis. 
Stipulae nullae. Folia elliptica vel elliptico-oblonga, 2.1- 
4.U cm longa, 5-13.5 mm lata, ad basim cuneata vel acuta late, 
ad apicem acuminata, trichomis laxe adpressis 0.5-0.9 mm longis; 
petioli 1,6-2.1 mm longi. 

Inf lorescentia terminal et etiam foliis opposita, pedunculo 
1.2-6.1 cm longo. Bracteae sessiles lineares vel anguste 
lanceolatae, 4-4.4 mm longae, 0,3-0,6 mm latae; pedicellus 3.8- 
4.2 mm longus ; calyx 10.5-11 mm longus, tubo 2.5 mm longo, 
trichomis patentibus 0.5-0.7 mm longis; bracteolae lineares, 
3.5 mm longae, 0,2-0.3 mm latae. Corolla lutea, vexillum 
10,5-11 mm longa, aequans lobis superis calycis; antherae 
elongatae 1.6-2 mm longae, antherae breves 0.3-0.4 mm longae; 
stylus 6.4 mm longus. Fructus et semina ignoti. Chromosome 
number: not known. Flowering date: December 20. Habitat: 
shady canyon slope with oaks and palms, elevation 3,500 feet. 
Range: Mexico; Durango, Sinaloa, Figure 1, 

Holotype: Gentry 5311 (GH) 

Type locality: Sierra Tres Picos, Durango, infrequent, 
scattered. 



*Department of Biology, Towson State College, Baltimore, 
Maryland 21204 

257 



258 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 21, no. k 




1971 Windier, North American Cro talari a 2$9 

Crotalaria brevipedunculata is characterized by its lack 
of stipules, short terminal inflorescences and small flowers. 
It most nearly resembles C_. nitens , but differs from it in 
smaller flower size and shorter peduncles. 

In addition to the holotype only one other collection of 
this species has been observed: 

MEXICO. —Sinaloa: Puerto a Tamiapa, Gentry 5815 (MICH, NY). 

CROTALARIA MEXICANA Windier, sp. nov. 

Crotalaria sagittalis var. fruticosa (Miller) Fawcett and 
Rendle, 1920, Vol. '*, p. 10, pro parte, sensu Senn, 
non sensu typus. 

Herba annua erecta radice palari tenui usque 0.3 cm crassa. 
Caulis solitarius, 1.2-2.3 dm longus, 1.6-2.4 mm crassus, 
internodium longissiraum 1.0-1.5 cm longum, trichomis densis 
adpressis 1.2-2.5 mm longis, Stipulae nullae. Folia anguste 
elliptica, lineari-lanceolata, vel linearia, 2.2-4.6 cm longa, 
U-8 mm lata, ad basim rotundata vel cuneata, ad apicem rotun- 
data, acuta vel acuminata, trichomis laxe adpressis 1.1-2.1 mm 
longis; petioli 0.5-0.6 mm longi. 

Inflorescentia foliis opposita, pedunculo 0.8-2 cm longo. 
Bracteae lanceolatae, 3.3-3.6 mm longae, 0.7-0.8 mm latae; 
pedicellus 2.5-U mm longus; calyx 10.5-11.5 mm longus, tube 
2-2.5 mm longo, trichomis 0.8-2 mm longis, laxe adpressis et 
patentibus; bracteola lineari-lanceolata, 4-U.5 mm longa 0.5- 
0.6 mm lata. Corolla lutea, vexillum 10-10.5 mm longum aequans 
vel 0,5 mm brevior lobis superis calycis; antherae elongatae 
1,5-1.7 mm longae, antherae breves 0.5-0.6 mm longae; stylus 
'^.8-5.3 mm longus. Fructus 2.1-2.5 cm longi, 0.8-1 cm lati; 
numerus seminum per legumen ignotus; semina brunnea, 1.8-2 mm 
longa. Chromosome number: not known. Flowering time: 
September - October. Habitat: dry slopes of mountains, 
elevation ca. 6,000 ft. Range: Mexico; Jalisco. Figure 2. 

Holotype: Mexico; Jalisco, mountainside above Etzatlan, 
Pringle 8855 (GH). Isotypes at TEX and US. 

Crotalaria mexicana is a new species, the representatives 
of which were referred by Senn (1939) to C. sagittalis var. 
fruticosa (here treated as C. sagittalis var. sagittalis ) . 
Crotalaria mexicana is most similar to C. sagittalis and C. 
quercetorum . It differs from C. sagittalis in its lack of 
stipules and absence of spreading pubescence and from C. 
quercetorum in its short thick peduncles and in its dense 
pubescence. 



Figure 1. Crotalaria brevipedunculata . A. Habit. B. Stem. 



260 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 21, no. h 




1971 Windier, North American Crotalaria 261 

Crotalaria mexicana is characterized by its erect habit, 
dense, appressed pubescence, lack of stipules, and extremely 
short, leaf-opposed peduncles. 

Representative specimens: 

MEXICO. — Jalisco: near Etzatlan, Pringle 8855 (=type), 
Pringle 11807 (GH, US), Rose & Painter 7571 (US); near 
Guadalajara, Rose & Painter 7^69 (US). 

CROTALARIA NAYARITENSIS Windier, sp, nov. 

Herba annua vel perennis radice polari usque 1.5 cm crassa. 
Caules 1-multi, 6-12 dm longi, 1.5-2.5 mm crassa, internodium 
longissimum 3,8-10 cm long, trichomis densis adpressis, 0.2- 
0,7 mm longis, Stipulae decurrentes per longitudinem internodii, 
0,15-1,1 cm latae ad apicem, decrescentes ad vel trans nodum 
subtentem, lobi stipulares paralleli ad caulem vel patentes, 
0,1-1,3 cm longi. Folia ovalia elliptica ovata, anguste ovata, 
oblonga vel lanceolata, 3,5-7,8 cm longa, 7-26 mm lata, ad 
basim obtusa vel cuneata, ad apicem obtusa, mucronata, acuminata, 
vel acuta, trichomis 0.3-0,8 mm longis, adpressis vel laxe ad- 
pressis; petioli 1.2-2.5 mm longi. 

Inflorescentia foliis opposita, pedunculo 3.2-16 cm longo. 
Bracteae sessiles, lineares vel elliptico-lanceolatae, 3-^1.5 nm 
longae, 0,2-0.5 mm latae; pedicellus 2.8-3,8 mm longus; calyx 
7,5-12 mm longus, tubo 2-3.2 mm longo, trichomis 0.1-0.5 mm 
longis adpressis; bracteola linearis vel anguste lanceolata, 
1,5-3 mm longa, 0.2-0.3 mm lata. Corolla lutea, vexillum 7-12,5 
mm longum, 2 mm brevior usque 1 mm longior lobis superis calycis; 
antherae elongatae 1,3-2,1 mm longae, antherae breves 0.4-0.5 mm 
longae; stylus 5-6 mm longus. Fructus 1.3-2.3 cm longi, 0.5-0,8 
cm lati; semina 30-35 per legumen, 1.6-2,'+ mm longa, olivacea^ 
brunnea, vel rubiginosa. Chromosome number: n=16. Flowering 
time: August - February. Habitat: steep moist slopes and 
pine woods, elevation 2,500 - 6,600 feet. Range: Mexico; 
Jalisco, Nayarit. Figure 3. 

Holotype: D. R. Windier & B. K. Windier 2902 (NCU) 

Type locality: Mexico: Nayarit, North of Compostella 
(near Km. 24), about 7 miles southwest of Tepic, along road 
between Tepic and Compostella. Road-cut through mountain on 
■toist steep slope, 

Crotalaria nayaritensis is a new species named for the 
Mexican state from which the holotype was collected. It is 
characterized by its spreading or diffuse habit, leaf-opposed 
inflorescences, small flower size, and appressed pubescence. 



Figure 2. Crotalaria mexicana . A. Habit and leaf varia- 
tion, B, Stem. C, Leaf pubescence. 



262 




1971 Windier, North Anerican Cro talari a 263 

Of the Mexican species it most nearly resembles C. bupleurifolia , 
but differs from it in having a smaller flower, appressed 
pubescence, and usually narrower stipules. 

Representative specimens: 

MEXICO. — Jalisco: 13 mi. SW of Autlan, 1,000 m, McVaugh 
19886 (MICH); Llano Verde, municipio de Tecalitlan, 1,600 m, 
Rzedowski 17417 (MICH); 3 mi. S of Mazamitla, 2,100-2,200 m, 
McVaugh 12997 (MICH, US); San Sebastian, W to Mascota, l,'+25 m, 
Mexia 1U08 (US); Tepic, Palmer 1869 (NY, US); Nayarit: 10 mi. 
SE of Ahuacatlan, 1,100 - 1,300 m, Fedema 287 (MICH); N of 
Compostella, 3,000 ft., Windier & Windier 2902 (NCU); Mina 
Esp>eranza Rosa Morada, Ortega 6682 (US); 2 mi. N of Tepic, 
3,000 ft.. Windier & Windier 2897 (NCU). 

CROTALARIA NITENS HBK. 1824, Vol. 6, p. 399. 

In North America Crotalaria nitens variety nitens is known 
only from the Mexican states of Chiapas, Oaxaca, and Veracruz. 
The plants of the species tend to be shrubby, have terminal 
inflorescences, lack decurrent stipules, and have relatively 
large flowers. Variety gracilis may be separated from variety 
nitens in the following way: 

Peduncles stout, 1-2 mm thick; bracts 7.5-14 mm long, 
1.2-3 mm wide C. nitens var. nitens 

Peduncles slender, 0.5-0.6 mm thick, bracts 4-5 mm long, 
0.6-0.8 mm wide C. nitens var. gracilis 

CROTALARIA NITENS HBK var. GRACILIS Windier, var. nov. 

Differt a var. nitenti pedunculis tenuibus (0.5-0.6 mm 
crassis) et bracteis parvis (4.5 mm longis, 0.6-0.8 mm latis). 

Holotype: McVaugh & Koelz 1188 (MICH). 

Type locality: Mexico: Jalisco; Sierra de Halo, logging 
road 7 miles south southwest of Tecalitlan and extending south- 
east toward San Isidaro, 13-16 miles from highway. 

CROTALARIA ROTUNDIFOLIA [walt^ Gmelin, 1792, Tome II, p. 1095. 

The plants which I have ascribed to this species were 
treated by Senn (1939) under two specific names: Crotalaria 
angulata and C. maritima . Senn listed the epithet rotundifolia 
as a synonym for C. angulata Miller. Fernald and Schubert ( 1948) 
in publishing discussions of American types in British herbaria, 
indicated that the name C. rotundifolia actually applied to the 
plants Senn had treated as C. maritima. 



Figure 3. Crotalaria nayaritensis . A, Habit and leaf 
variation. B. Stem. 



261i PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

During the present study, the two taxa were judged to be 
cospecific. The earliest name which appeared to apply to the 
species was C. angulata , a name Miller had based on a plant 
grown from seed from Campeche. 

The application of this epithet is in question for several 
reasons, 

1, Britten and Baker (1897) indicate the type does not 

differ from C. biflora L., an Asian plant. This 
observation has been confirmed by Dr. Robson of the 
British Museum (Personal communication, Nov, 1968, 
in a letter to S. W. Leonard), 

2, No plants referrable to C. angulata of Senn have 

been observed from the vicinity of Campeche, 

3, Miller's description of C, angulata does not match 

the application of Senn or the available type in 
the Miller Herbarium, 

Since these points seem to indicate one or possibly more 
errors, I feel that the name should be rejected as a source of 
confusion (ICBN Articles 69 & 70). 

After rejection of Crotalaria angulata , the earliest 
name which applies to the plants of the species is C. rotundi - 
folia jWaltJ Gmelin, Two varieties, based on Senn's species, 
C. angulata and C, maritime , are recognized. Crotalaria 
rotund if olia variety rotundifolia is the plant with appressed 
pubescence referred to C. maritima by Senn. The other variety 
is designated in the following way: 

CROTALARIA ROTUNDIFOLIA var. VULGARIS Windier, var. nov, 

Crotalaria angulata Miller, 1768, sensu Senn, 1939, 
(See discussion above,) 

Differt a C, rotundifolia var, rotundifolia pubescentia 
patenti in caule, foliis, pedunculo, et calyce. 

Holotype: D. R , Windier and B. K, Windier 2769 (NCU) 

Type locality: South Carolina; Hampton County, about three 
miles northwest of Yemassee on South Carolina Highway 68, 
Sandhill. 23 July 1967, 

Crotalaria rotundifolia var. vulgaris is distinguished by 
its spreading pubescence. Over most of its range var. vulgaris 
is also characterized by round to oval leaves, but in northern 
Florida and southern Georgia it intergrades with the usually 
narrower leaved var, rotundifolia. 



1971 V/indler, Ilorth American Crotalaria 265 

CROTALARIA BUPLEURIFOLIA Schlechtendal & Chamisso, 1830, Vol. 
5, p. 575. 

Crotalaria heldiana A. DC. in A. & A. P. DC., 18U1. Vol. 

9, p. 97. (Type: Grovm from seed of unknown source 
in the garden at Carlsruhe. GI) 

Crotalaria bupleurifolia is characterized by its large size, 
unusual stipules and large habit and flowers. The two varieties 
may be distinguished in the following way: 

Stipules present only at the base of peduncles, decurrent 

for only a single internode 

C. bupleurifolia var. bupleurifolia 

Stipules present at the base of most leaves, frequently 

decurrent for more than one internode 

C. bupleurifolia var. robusta 

CROTALARIA BUPLEURIFOLIA var. ROBUSTA (Senn) Windier, 
Stat, nov, 

Crotalaria pilosa var. robusta Senn, 1939, Vol. ^+1, p. 331. 

Type locality: Temascaltepec, Cumbre de Tejupilco. 

(Holotype: Hinton 2686 USD 

This variety was originally described by Senn under 
Crotalaria pilosa because of its stipules which wing the stem 
for more than one internode. However, the variety lacks the 
terminal inflorescence and small flower size of C. pilosa . 
Variety robusta 's overall similarity to C. bupleurifolia var. 
bupleurifolia in habit, inflorescence, and flower structure 
were used to place the variety into C. bupleurifolia . 

Representative specimens: 

MEXICO. --Jalisco: 10 Km al N de La Cuesta, sobre el camino 
a Talpa, 1,100 m, Rzedowski 1513t» (MEXU); Mexico: Plaza de 
Gallos, 1,200 m, Hinton U595 (GH, ^fY) ; Sinaloa: Km 1206 on 
Mexico Hwy. UO, ca. 30 mi. E of Mazatlan-Guadala jara Junction, 
2,700 ft.. Windier & Windier 2869 (NCU). 

Literature Cited 
Britten, J. and E. G. Baker 

1897. Houstoun's Central American Leguminose. Journal of 
Botany , 35:225-234. 
Candolle, A. P., and A. de 

18^*1. Memo ires de la Societe de Physique et d'Histoire 
Naturelle de Geneve , 9:97. 
Fawcett, W. and A. Rendle 

1920. Flora Jamaica. 5 Volumes, incomplete. London. 



266 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

Fernald, M. and B. Schubert 

19U8. Studies of American types in British Herbaria, IV. 

Some species of Thomas Walter. Rhodora . 50:190-208. 
Gmelin, J. 

1792. in Caroli Linne . . . . Systema Naturae . Tomus II . 
7 volumes in 3 Tomes. Leipzig. 
Humboldt, F., A. Bonpland, and C. Kunth. 

1824. Voyage aux Regions Equinoctiales de Nouveau Continent 
....Nova Genera et Species Plantarum . 7 volumes, 
Paris. 
Miller, P. 

1768. The Gardeners Dictionary . Edition 8. London. 
Schlechtendal, D. and A. Chamisso 

1830. Plantarum Mexicanarum. Linnaea , Volume 5. 756 pages. 
Berlin. 
Senn, H. 

1939. The North American species of Crotalaria . Rhodora , 
41:317-366. 
Windier, D. 

1970. Systematic studies in Crotalaria sagittalis and related 
species. Unpublished dissertation. University of 
North Carolina at Chapel Hill. 258 pages. 



ADDinONAL NOTES ON THE ERIOCAULACEAE . XXXVI 
Harold N. Moldenke 



HUOCAULACEAE Lindl. 

Additional & emended bibliography: L., Gen. PI. ed. 2, 35 & 
[536] (17U2), ed. 3 ["2"], 29 & [U21] (17U3), ed. h, 29 & [U50] 
(1752), and ed. 6, UO & [589] and Ord. Nat. P.p.5.I.Bur. 176U; J. 
Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 9S* — 99*, pl. 66 [some copies]. 1769; Hope, 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc . Lond. 59: 2Ul— 2U6, pl. 12. 1770; Druce, 
Brit. Pl. List, ed. 2, 118. 1928; Druce, Conital Fl. 320. 1932; 
Schipp, 1933— 3U Pricelist 57. 193U; Hausraan, Begin, "uide Wild 
Fls. h. 19U8; Ohwi, Joum. Jap. Bot. 33: 211. 1958; Eden, McGill 
Univ. Savanna Res. Ser. 1: 135 — 137 & lUh. 196U; Llajumdar, Bull. 
Bot. Soc. Bengal 19: 15. 1965; Brurmitt, Ind. Europ. Tax. Lit. 
1965: 80. 1966; Datta St L'ajundar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 20: 18 Sc 
38—39. 1966; Rzedowski t LIcVaugh, Contrib. Univ. Uich. Herb. 9'- 
76 «c 89. 1966; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. U7: 75U (1966) and U8: xxii, 
10097, & 10099. 1967; J. Sc A. Raynal, Adansonia, nouv. s6r., 7: 
302 & 329. 1967; Adam, Adansonia, nouv. s^r., 8: hhS» 1968; Ti- 
wari, Indian Forest. 9U: 579- 1968; Dandy, Watsonia 7: 168— I7I1, 
fig. 1—5. 1969; Duke, Ann. ilo. Bot. Card. 56: 128 & 129. 1969; 
Santapau & Shah, Joum. Bombay Nat. Hist. Soc. 66: UhO, 1969; 
Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5587, 9023, 9629, & 11903 . 1970; A- 
non., Biol. Abstr. $1 (10): BJl.S.I.C. S.2li, S.32, S.lUi, S.70, & 
3.71 (1970), 51 (16): B.A.S.I.C. S.25, S.U6, S.7U, & S.126 (1970), 

51 (17): BJI.S.I.C. S.72 (1970), 51 (19): BJV,.S.I.C. S.75 (1970), 
and 51 (21): BJI.S.I.C. S.25. S."^, & S.122. 1970; Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 20: 339—368 & UOU— U25. 1970; Lasser, Act. Bot. Venez. U: 
35. I97O; Ehrendorfer, Taxon 19: 6OO. 1970; Anon., Assoc. Etud. 
Tax. Fl. Afr. Trop. Index I969: 26. 1970; Rogerson, Rickett, & 
Becker, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 97: 233. 1970; Amaratunga, Phyto- 
logia 20: U63. 1970; D. P. Young, Biol. Abstr. 51: 10775. 1970; 
ftoldenke in Correll t Johnston. Uan. Vase. Pl. Taxi [Lundell, Con- 
trib. Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6: J 20, 352— 35U, I8O6, 182U, I838, & 
1856. I97O; Obenrinkler, Pterid. t Spem. Venez. 7 & 9. 1970; 
Lowden, Taxon 19: 8U5. 1970; Angely, Fl. Anal. Fitogeogr. Est. S. 
Paulo 2: xxxii, xxxiii, & xxxv. 1970; Adam, Bull. Inst. Fond. Afr. 
Noire A. 32: 1003. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 50U— 510. 1971; 
Woldenke Biol. Abstr. 52: 132, 7lLi, 719, & 1913. 1971; Anon., Biol. 
Abstr. 52 (1): BJI.S.I.C. S.m7 & S.175 (1971), 52 (2): B.A.S.I.C. 
S.80, S.I33, & S.251 (1971), 52 (3): S.73 £c S.I29 (1971), and 52 
(U): BJL.S.I.C. S.26, S.3i>, S.77, & S.165. 1971. 

BUSTOCAULON Ruhl. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3liO, U22, &. Ii23. 
I97O; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5537, 9023, i 11903. 1970; Anon., 
Biol. Abstr. 51 (10): B.A.S.I.C. S.2li, S.32, & S,lih (1970), 51 (16): 
BJI.S.I.C. S.25, S.U6, & S.7ii (1970) 51 (21): B.A.S.I,C. S.25 (1970), 

52 (2): BJI.S.I.C. S.27 & S.37 (I97I), and 52 (U) : BJI.S.I.C. S.26, 

267 



268 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. U 

S.3$, & S.77. 1971; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: ^OU. 1971? Moldenke, 
Biol. Abstr. ^2: 719 & 1918. 1971. 

BUSTOCAULON RUPESTRE (Gardn.) Ruhl. 

Additional bibliography: Anon., Biol. Abstr. $1 (16): B.A.S.I. 
C. S,25. 1970j Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3U0, 1970j Moldenke, Biol. 
Abstr. ^1: 9023. 1970. 

Mexia describes this plant as abundant, forming colonies, with 
white flowers in May. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Mexia ^779 (Go). 

• CARPTOTEPAU Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Anon., Biol, Abstr. ^1 (10): BJ^.S.I. 
C. S.2U, S.32, & S.lUi. 1970; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. ^1: 5587. 
1970; Oberwinkler, Pterid. & Sperm. Venez. 9 & 52. 1970; Moldenke, 
Phytologia 20: 3U0— 3Ul (1970) and 20: 505. 1971; Moldenke, Biol. 
Abstr. 52: 719 & I9I8. 1971; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 52 (2): BJI.S.I. 
S.25, S.37, S.50, & S.80 (1971) and 52 (U): BJL.S.I.C. S.26, S.35, 
S.77, Sc S.165. 1971. 

CARPTOTEPAU JENMANI (Gleason) Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3lA. 1970; 
Oberwinkler, Pterid. & Sperm. Venez. 9 & 52. 1970. 

COkANTHERA L. B. Sm. 

Additional bibliography: Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (10): BJ^.S.I. 
C. S.2U, S.32, & §.ljl (1970) and 51 (16): BJl.S.I.C. S.ii6. 1970; 
Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5587. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 
2U6 (1970) and 20: 505. 1971; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 52: 719. 
1971; Anon.. Biol. Abstr. 52 (2): B.A.S.I.C. S.27, S.37, S.50, 

S.80, & s.iii5. 1971. 

ERIOCADLON Gron. 

Additional sjmonyny: Eriocaulan Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51 5 
5587, sphalm. 1970. Eriocaulon (Veil.) L. B. Sm., in herb. 

Additional k emended bibliography: L., Gen. PI., ed. 2, 35 & 
[536] (17l|2), ed. 3 ["2"], 29 & [U21] (17U3), ed. h, 29 & [150] 
(1752), & ed. 6, UO & [589] and Ord. Nat. P.p.5.I.Bur. 176U; J. 
Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 96-»i — 99*, pl. 66 [some copies]. 1769; Hope, 
Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. 59: 2Ul--2li6. 1770; Dinice, Brit. PI. 
List, ed. 2, 113. 1928; Druce, Comital Fl. 320. 1932; Schipp, 
193>-3U Pricelist 57. 193U; Hausman, Begin. Guide Wild Fls. h. 
I9U8; Ohwi, Joum. Jap. Bot. 33: 211. 1958; Eden, McGill Univ. 
Savanna Res. Ser. 1: liiii. I96U; Majumdar, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 
19: 15. 1965; Rzedowski L McVaugh, Gontrib. Univ. Mich. Herb. 9: 
76 & 89. 1966; J. &. A. Raynal, Adansonia, nouv. s6r., 7: 302 & 
329. 1967; Tiwari, Indian Forest. 9li: 579. I968; Dandy, Watsonia 
7: 168 — 17li, fig. 1 — 5. 1969; Santapau & Shah, JgUrn. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 66: UUO. 1969; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5587, 9023, 
9629, & 11903. 1970 ; Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man, Vase. 
PI. Tex. [Lundell, Gontrib. Tex. Res. Found, Bot. 6:] 353 — 35U, 



1971 Uoldenke, Notes on Erlocaulaceae 269 

182U, «c 1806. 1970; Oberwinkler, Pterid. k Sperm. Venez. 7, 9, & 
52. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: BU— 351, 356, 357, 36U, UOU— 
UlB, U20, & U22— U25. 1970i Lowden, Taxon 19: 836. 1970j Angely, 
Fl. Anal. Fitogeogr, Eat. S. Paulo 2: xxrli. 1970 j D. P. Young, 
Biol. Abstr. 51: 10775. 1970; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 5l (10): BJl^. 
I.e. S.70 & S.71 (1970), 51 (16): Ba^.I.C. S.25, S.7U, & S.126 
(1970), 51 (17): BJl^.I.C. S.72 (1970), 51 (19): BJL.S.I.C. S.75 
(1970), 51 (21): B.A.S.I.C. S.75 (1970), 52 (2): BJI.S.I.C. S.37, 
S.50, 5.30, & S.lii5 (1971), and 52 (U): BJI.S.I.C. S.26, S.35, 
S.77, & S.165. 1971; Moldenke, Biol. Ansfcr. 52: 719 & 1918. 1971; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 506 & 508 . 1971. 

The Degelius s.n. [U/Vl/1958], distributed as Eriocaulon sp., 
i3 actually Paepalanthua lamarckii Kunth. 

ERIOCAULON AQUATICUU (J. Hill) Druce 

Qnended synonymy: Eriocaulon septangulare L. ex Uart., Nov. 
Act. Physico-raed. Acad. Caes. Leopold .-Carol . Nat, Cur. 17 (1): 
11. 1835. 

Additional & emended bibliography: J. Hill, Herb. Brit. 1: 
96« — 99*, pi. 66 [seme copies]. 1769; Hope, Phil. Trans. Roy. Soc. 
Lond. 59: 2Ul— 2U6, pi. 12. 1770; liart., Nov. Act. Physico-med. 
Acad. Caes. Leopold .-Carol. Nat. Cur. 17 (1): 11, 22, 38, & 58, 
pi. 2, fig. 2. 1835; Kbrn. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3 (1): 280, U89, 4 
502—505. 1893; Druce, Brit. PI. List, ed. 2, II8. 1928; Solciaon, 
Joum. Indian Bot. Soc. 10: 139 — lhh» 1931; Druce, Comital Fl. 
320. 1932; R. M. Adam, New Fl. & Silv. 6, no. 1. 1933; Muenscher. 
Aquat. PI. U. S. 192—195 & 367, fig. 8U H— J ^: 85 A «c B, map 208. 
19Uhi Hare, Jo\irn. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 53: U22 — IM, fig. 6 — UO, 
pi. 22. I95O; Tomlinson, Jpum. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 59: 169 L 
173. I96U; Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, Anat. Monocot. 3: [lli6], 
1k9, 15U, 155, 159—163, 168—172, 175—177, 186, I89, 190, & 192, 
fig. 32 G— I & K, 35 J, & 36 L. 1969; Dandy, Watsonia 7: I68— 17U, 
fig. 1—5. 1969; R. G. West in Walker & West, Stud. Veg. Hist. 
Brit. Isles 9. 1970; Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5587 ic 9023. 1970} 
Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 19—20, Ul, & 82. 1970; Mohlenbrock, 111- 
ust. Fl. 111. Flow. PI. Flow. Rush 2U9. 1970; D. P. Young, Biol. 
Abstr. 51: 10775. 1970; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (19): B.A.S.I.C. 
S.75. 1970; Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man. Vase. PI. Tex'. 
[Lundell, Contrib. Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6:] 353, 35U, & l82li. 1970. 

Additional & emended illustrations: Mart., Nov. Act. Physico- 
med. Acad. Caes. Leopold. -Carol. Nat. Cur. 17 (1): pi. 2. fig. 2. 
1835; Hare, Joum. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 53: [U29, U32, li35], U37, 
UiO, & hh2, fig. 6— UO, pi. 22. I95O; Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, 
Anat. Monocot. 3: l$k, I68, & 176, fig. 32 G— I it K, 35 J, & 36 L. 
1969; Dandy, Watsonia 7: 170, fig. 1. I969. 

The Martius (1835) reference cited above is often cited as 
"1833", the date of its submission for piiblication, but Dr. J. H. 
Barnhart says "I can find no evidence that this paper was publish- 
ed until 1835". 

This species has been regarded as properly named E. septangu- 
lare With, up to the present in my publications. I have referred 
from time to time in the past to the name Cespa aquatica J. Hill, 



270 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 1; 

but was vinable to find incontrovertible evidence that it had been 
published validly under the present rules of botanic nonenclattire . 
Now, however, the matter has been investigated thoroughly by Dandy 
(1969) and his extremely important discussion of the matter: is re- 
produced here for the benefit of readers who may not have the 
journal in which he published his results available in their lib- 
rary: 

"In 1909 G. C. Druce drew attention to the existence in his 
copy of Hill's Herbarium Britannicim (vol. 1: I769) of an addi- 
tional plate 66 illustrating, with dissections, a genus Gespa 
with the single species C. aquatica ('Water Turffwort' ) . The spe- 
cies depicted was Eriocaulon septangulcire , described under that 
name by Withering in 1776, and so Druce on grounds of priority 
published the new combination E. aquaticum (Hill) Druce. For some 
reason Druce in his later works did not persist in the use of the 
name E. aquaticvun ; thus in his British plant list ed. 2, II8 
(I928T7 ^® retained the name E. septangulare (with E^ aquaticum 
cited as a synonym), and in his Comital Flora , 320 (1932), he used 
the name E. septangulare without mention of E, aquaticum . Possibly 
he now thought his combination E^ aquaticum to be invalidated by 
E. aquaticum Sagot ['Mss. in Herb, Sagot,'] ex Koem. in Mart., 
Fl. Brasil . 3 (1), U89 (I863); but this name was published only as 
a synonym of E^ melanocephalvun Kunth and so cannot invalidate E« 
aquatictun (Hill) Druce, 

"The additional plate 66 present in Druce' s copy of the Herbar - 
ium Britannicvan does not appear in all copies of the work; but at 
the Bjritish Museum, Bloonsbury, and at the Linnean Society of 
London there are copies which contain not only this additional 
plate but also four additional pages of text (numbered 96* — 99*) 
in which Gespa aquatica is described at length. These extra pages 
and plate were presumably not issued soon enough for inclu- 
sion in all copies of the Horbaritmi Britannicum . According to 
Hill's statement on p. 96* the plant concerned had been collected 
in the previous year ('mense Septenb. anni elapsi') on the island 
of Skye by James Robertson, and had been comiuiicated to Hill, 
with an illustration and description, by John Hope of Edinbiirgh. 
Hope himself published an account of it in Phil. Trans. Lond. 59, 
2Ul — 2li6, t. 12 (1770), in which he stated that it had been found 
by Robertson in September 1768. Thus Hill's 'anni elapsi' was 
1768, so that his additional pages and plate were issued, or at 
least printed, in I769. Hill in any case died in 1775, before 
Tfithering's publication of 'Ej_ septangulare in 1776. 

"Hope correctly placed the plant in Eriocaulon, but misidenti- 
fied it with E. decangulare L., a species confined to North Amer- 
ica. Hill, on the other hand, treated it as forming a new genxis, 
Gespa , irtiich, according to his footnote on p. 98*, he considered 
to differ from Eriocaulon in having the corolla 'depetala', Erio - 
caulon being 'tripetalum' . Hope mentioned the plant's vegetative 
resemblance to 'Galamaria Dill. Muse. Tab. 80' (Isoetes L.) in 



1971 Lloldenke, Ilotes on 2riocaulaceae 271 

irtiich, however, a flowering stem Tias unknown; Hill's footnote on 
p. 96* makes the sane point." 

All the discussion, therefore, given by ne in these notes 
previous to the present date under E. septangulare , including 
bibliography, list of illustrations, and citations, should he 
transferred to E. aquaticum . 

Additional citations: EIRE: Gal way Co.: Anderberg 3 .n. [1/18/ 
1933] (Go). 

ERIOCAULON AQUATILE K'dm. 

Additional bibliography: L'oldenke, Phytologia 20: 3U3. 1970, 
Irwin and Soderstron describe this plant as an "aquatic herb, 
in rushing water; heads gray, erect, emerging from water, infre- 
quent", and found it at altitudes of 700—1000 if.etors . 

Additional citations: BRA.ZIL: Distrito Federal: Irwin & Soder- 
strom $822 (N). 

ERIOCAULON BIFISTULOSUt Van Heurck & KIuell.-Arg, 

Additional bibliography: J. &: A. Raynal, Adansonia, nouv. s4r., 
7: 302. 1967; Uoldenke, Phytologia 20: 3hh. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON BILOEATUli Morong 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 7. 1970. 

Breedlove found this plant growing in flat areas with forests 
of Pinus, Quercus, and Arbutus and many small ponds, at 7500 
feet altitude, flowering and fruiting in November, 

Additional citations: I.EXICO: Durango: Breedlove iQQhh {?S) . 

ERIOCAULO^J BOICEMSE Engl, L Ruhl. 

Additional L emended bibliography: J, £c A, Raynal, Adansonia, 
nouv. s6r., 7: 302 L 329. 1967; I'oldenke, Phytologia 19: 326. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON CAPITULATLi: Uoldenke 

Additional bibliography: Uoldenke, Phytologia 20: 3ii6. 1970. 

The species has been found growing on steep moist slopes with 
Pinus , Quercus, and Arbutus, at 7900 feet altitude, flowering and 
fruiting in November. 

Additional citations: ISXICO: Durango: Breedlove I878O (Z) . 

ERIOCAULON CIKEREUl'. R, Br, 

Additional bibliography: llajumdar. Bull, Bot. Soc. Bengal 19: 
15. 1965; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3li6— 3U7. 1970. 

Rogerson found this plant growing in moist rice-paddiee, flow- 
ering and fruiting in October. 

Additional citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Luzon: Rogerson 
1099 (N). 

ERIOCAULON COLLINULI Hook. f. 

Additional bibliography: Koldenke, Phytologia 20: 31^7. 1970. 

Koyama fit Herat found this plant growing on the wet margins of 
narrow streams in the bottom of swampy depressions in black Pat- 



272 PHYTOLOGIl Vol. 21, no. h 

ana grasslands in Ceylon, in association with Fimbristylis monti- 
cola and Carex arnottiana , at 7200 feet altitude, flowering and 
fruiting in May. 

Additional citations: CETLON: Koyama & Herat 136U. (N) . 

ERIOCAULON COMPRESSUM Lam. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke in Correll & Johnston. Man. 
Vase. PI. Tex. [Contrib. Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6:] 353, 35u, & 
I82li. 1970j Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3U7. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON CRISTATUM Mart. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3li8. 1970. 

The species has been found growing in bogs, flowering and 
fruiting in July. 

Additional citations: INDIA: Khasi States: Kingdon-Ward 18695 
(N). 

ERIOCAULON DALZELLII Kom. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3U8. 1970. 

Koyama reports this species as occasional in wet depressions 
in black Patana grasslands, in association with Gentianella , at 
7000 feet altitude, flowering and fruiting in March. 

Additional citations: CEYLON: Koyama 13516 (N). 

ERIOCAULON DECANGULARE L. 

Additional bibliography: Hausman, Begin. Guide Wild Fls. k» 
19li8j Dandy, Watsonia 7: 169. 1969i Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 3U8— 
3U9, UOU, & I|17. 1970; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (16): B.A.S.I.C. 
S.7U. 1970; Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man. Vase. PI. Tex. 
[Contrib. Tex. Res. Found. Bot. 6:] 353 & 182U. 1970. 

Henderson reports finding this plant growing in swampy road- 
sides . 

Additional citations: FLORIDA: Wakulla Co.: N. C. Henderson 
6U-2U5 (Go). 

ERIOCAULON DECANGULARE f . PARVICEPS Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: UOU. 1970j 
Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (16): BJ^.S.I.C. S.7li. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON DIANAE Fyson 

Additional bibliography: Santapau & Shah, Joum. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 66: UiO. I969; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: ii05. 1970. 

Santapau & Shah (1969) record this species from Salsette Is- 
land, India. 

ERIOCAULON DIANAE var. LONGIBRACTEATUM pyson 

Additional bibliography: Santapau Sc Shah, Jo\im. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 66: UiO. I969; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U05. 1970. 

Santapau & Shah (I969) record this variety from Salsette Is- 
land, India. 



1971 Holdenke, Notes on Eriocaiilaceae 273 

ERIOCAULON ELENORAE Fyson 

Additional bibliographj: Santapau t Shah, Joum. Bombay Nat. 
Hist. Soc. 66: hhO, 1969: Uoldenke, Phytologia 19: 335—336. 1970. 

Santapau & Shah (I969) record this species from Salsette Is- 
land, India* 

ERIOCAULON GIBBOSUM Korn. 

Additional bibliography: Uoldenke, Phytologia 20: li07~U08. 
1970. 

Inrin and his associates describe the flowering-heads of this 
plant as "gray" and encountered the plant growing in periodically 
flooded campos at UOO meters altitude. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Irwin , Souza, Grear , 
& Reis dos Santos I698I (Rf ) . 

ERIOCAULCN GIBBOSUM var. LONGIFOLIUli Korn. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: li08. 1970. 

Irwin & Soderstrom describe the flowering-heads of this plant 
as "grayish" and found it to be common in muddy soil of periodic- 
ally flooded meadows, flowering and fruiting in September. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Irwin L Soder- 
strom 6I3U (N). 

ERIOCAULON HERZOGII Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U-O. 1970; 
Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (10): BJl.S.I.C. S.2h & S.71. 197Cto Uol- 
denke, Biol. Abstr. 51: 5587. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON HEUDELOTII N. E. Br. 

Additional bibliography: J. L A. Raynal, Adansonia, nouv. s6r., 
7: 302. 1967i Moldenke, Phytologia 20: UlO. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON HOOEERIANUM Stapf 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: Ull. 1970. 

The Clemenses found this species growing by pools in the open. 

Additional citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Sarawak: Clemens 
L Clemens 2009U (N) . 

ERIOCAULON HUMBOLDHI Kunth 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: Ull. 1970j 
Oberwinkler, Pterid. & Sperm. Venez. 9 & 52. 1970. 

Irwin and his associates describe the inflorescences of this 
plant as attaining a hei^t of 1 meter, the heads being white, and 
the plant growing in wet campos at 850 meters altitude, flowering 
and fruiting in April. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Bahia: Irwin , Grear , Souza , & 
Reis dos Santos ll;7U2 (Rf ) . 

ERIOCAULON INFIRMUM Steud. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 112. 1970; 
Anon., Biol. Abstr. $1 (16): B.A.S.I.C. S.7U. 1970. 



27U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

ERIOCAULON INFIRMUM var. KURZII (Fyson) Koldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: J4I2. 1970j 
Anon., Biol. Abstr. $1 (16): BJl.S.I.C, S.7ii. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON KORNICKIANUM Van Heurck & Muell.-Arg. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: I4I3. 1970^ 
Moldenke in Correll & Johnston, Man. Vase, PI. Tex, [Contrib. 
Tex, Res. Found, Bot, 6:] 3^3 & 132U, 1970. 

ERIOCAULON KUNTHII Korn. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: hl3» 1970. 
Additional citations: BRAZIL: Parand: Eatschbach 22965 (N) , 

ERIOCAULON USIOLEPIS Ruhl. 

Emended synonynQr: Lasiolepis brevifolia BOck,, Flora 56: 90 — 

91. 1873. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Bock,, Flora 56: 90 — 91. 
1873 J Moldenlce, Phytologia 18: 253, I969. 

This species is said to be endemic to Malacca. Jackson (I89U) 
credits it to "Ind, or," 

EPJOCAULOr LATIFOLIUM J, Sm, 

Additional bibliogi.'.phy: Hocking, Excerpt, Bot, A. 6: U55. 
I963J Tomlinson in C, R. Metcalfe, Anat, Monocot, 3: I6I, 172, &. 
189 . 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 13, 25, 29, 268, & 281, 1970. 

Graca Espirito Santo describes this plant as "erva aquatica 
anual, tufosa no lei to pedregoso e cascalhento das linhas de 
ilgua corrente", says that it has white flowers, reports the com- 
mon names "orl" smd "futafula", and collected it in anthesis in 
January, 

The synonymous designation, E_. rivulare G. Don, was based on 
a G. Don s.n. collection from a rivulet near Freetown, Sierra Le- 
one, deposited in the herbarium of the Royal Horticultural Soci- 
ety in London. 

Additional citations: REPUBLIC OF GUINEA: Graca Espirito Santo 
2861; (N) . 

ERIOCAULON LAHFOUUM Korn. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Korn., Linnaea 27: 600. 
1856; Korn. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3 (1): 290, U9U, & 506, 1863; 
Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks,, Ind, Kew,, pr, 1, 2: U02 (I89U), pr, 
2, 2: U02 (19l;6), and pr, 3, 2: U02. I960; Moldenke, Phytologia 
19: 73. 1969. 

ERIOCAULDN LEUCOGENES Ridl, 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 66 tc 73 — 7U. 

1969, 

Hoogland reports this species as "common in treefem grassland", 
describes the flower-heads as white, and found the plant in anthe- 
sis in July, 

Additional citations: NEIV GUINEA: Territory of New Guinea: 
Hoogland 9398 (N) . 



1971 Moldenke, Notes on Eriocaulaceae 275 

ERIOCAULON LIGULATUM (Veil.) L. B. Sm. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Malme, Bih. Svensk. Vet, 
Akad. Kandl. 27 (3), no. 11: 32. 1901; Rambo, Sellowia 7: 2U8 & 
283. 1956; lloldenke, Phytologia 20: 13— lU. 1970. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: ParanA: Hatschbach 22267 (N, 
Rf), 22557 (Ac). 

ERIOCAULON LINEARE Small 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: lU & U2. 
1970. 

Additional citations: FLORIDA: Leon Co.: 2j_« C_» Henderson 6U- 
237 (Go). 

ERIOCAULON LINEARIFOLIUM Korn. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Korn., Linnaea 27s 601. 

1856; Korn. in Hart., Fl. Bras. 3 (1): 293, U98, & 507. 1863; 

Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 3^2. 1970. 

This plant has been found in flower and fniit in August, 
Additional citations: BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Hatschbach & Gul - 

marSes 2U560 (Rf ) . 

ERIOCAULON LONGICUSPE Hook, f . 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 75 (I969) 
and 19: U8I. 1970. 

aUOCAULON LONGIPEDUNCULATUM H. Lecomte 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 37U (19li7) 
and 19: 75 & 93. 1969; Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, Anat. Mono- 
cot. 3: 171—173, 186, & 189. 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 19: U.7, 
1970. 

ERIOCAULON LONGIROSTRUM Alv. Silv. & Ruhl, 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: U9li (19li8) 
and 18: 271. 1969 . 

ERIOCAULOri LUTCHUENSE Koidz, 

Additional bibliography: Koyana in Ohiri, Fl. Jap. 268. 1965; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 18: 271—272 (1969) and 19: 250. 1970. 

Koyama (1965) records the vernacular variant name for this 
plant, "okinawa-hoshi-lcusa" , and tells us that the plant differs 
from E. sikokianum Maxim, only in "Receptacle quite glabrous; 
floral bracts and calyces also not bearded; othervrise almost as 
in the typical variety" . 

ERIOCAULON LUZUUEFOLIUM Mart. 

Additional bibliography: Santapau, Excerpt. Bot. A.ll: 176. 
1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: Ih. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MACROBOUX Mart. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Korn., Linnaea 27: 599. 
1856; Kbm. in Mart., Fl. Bras. 3 (1): WU— U85, 502, &. 507, pi. 
62, fig. 3. 1863; Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 76—77. 1969, 



276 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. k 

ERIOCAULON MAGNIFICUU Ruhl, 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. $0: 129 U8. 
1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 77. 1969. 

The Ule collection cited below was originally identified by 
Ruhland as C_. ulaei Ruhl. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Santa Catarina: Ule 1689 (Hg — 
isotype) . 

ERIOCAULON MAGNIFICUU var. GOYAZENSE Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Biol. Abstr. 50: 129U8. 
1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 3U3. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MAGNUM Abbiatti 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 37U, 375, & 
377 (19U7) and 19: 77. 1969. 

ERIOCAULON MALAISSEI Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 321^ & 3ii3-- 
3li6, pi. 1. 1970; Anon., Biol. Abstr. $1 (16): B.A.S.I.C. S.7U. 
1970. 

Illustrations: Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 3hh, pl. 1. 19 70. 

ERIOCAULON MALAISSEI f . VIVIPARUM Moldenke 

Bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 16 (1969) and 19: 3h$ — 
3U6. 1970; Anon., Biol. Abstr. $1 (16): BJI.S.I.C. S.7U. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MATOPENSE Rendle 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 3: ll;3 (19U9), 
18: 256 k 279 (1969), and 19: hS9. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MELANOCSPHALUM Kunth 

Qnended synonymy: Lasiolepis aquatica Bock., Flora 56: 91 — 92. 
1873. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Bock., Flora 56: 91 — 92. 
1873; Beauverd, Bull. Herb. Boiss., s^r. 2, 8: 28U--287, fig. 9 
B 28. 1908; H. Hess, Bericht. Schweiz. Bot. Ges. 67: 87—89. 1957; 
Stauffler, Excerpt. Bot. A. 2: 81i. I960; Tomlinson in C. R. Met- 
calfe, Anat. Monocot. 3: 166, 180, l8l. 18U, 186, 187, & 191, 
fig. 38 K. 1969; Dandy, Watsonia 7: 168. 1969; Moldenke, Phytolo- 
gia 20: Hi. 1970. 

Additional illustrations: Beauverd, Bull. Herb. Boiss., s6r. 2, 
8: 285, fig. 9 B 28. I9O8; Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, Anat. 
Monocot. 3: I80, fig. 38 K. I969. 

Meikle believes that E, melanoc ephal um should be reduced to 
synonymy under E. setaceum L. — thus differing from Hess who 
maintain^ it as the proper name for what is usually called E, bi- 
fistulosum Van Heurck & Muell.-Arg. 

Hoint & Ramos describe E^ melanocephalum as an "aquatic herb 
rooted in mud in slow-moving or still water of pond, flower-heads 
black, but 6 filaments white", flowering and fruiting in June.. 
Meikle identified their collection as E. setaceimi L. Philcox & 



1971 Moldenke, Notes on Erlocaulaceae 277 

Freanan call the plant a "floating aquatic; heads blue-black", 
and found it flowering and fruiting in March. 

Additional citations: BRAZIL: Uato Grosso: Hunt t Ramos 5909 
(M)i Philcox h Freeman U639 (N). 

ERIOCAULON MELANOCEPHALUM var. LONGIPES Griseb. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1:319, 
351, & 363 (1939) and 18: 301. 1969; Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, 
Anat. Monocot. 3: 191. 1969. 

ERIOCAULON MELANOCEPHALUM sap. USTERIANUU Beauverd 

Additional & emended bibliography: Beauveixi, Bull. Herb. Boiss., 

s6r. 2, 8: 23U—287, fig. 9 B 15—27. 1908; Moldenke, Phytologia 

19: 78. 1969. 

Einended illustrations: Beauverd, Bull, Herb. Boiss., s6r. 2, 

8: 285, fig. 9 B 15—27. 1908. 

ERIOCAULON MERRILLII Ruhl. 

Additional bibliography: K. U. Kramer, Excerpt. Bot. A. 6: 33. 
1963; Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 3U6, U20, U77, t U73 (1970) and 
20: 31. 1970. 

A vernacular name recorded for this plant in Sumatra is "si 
landit tano" . 

Additional citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Sumatra: Boeea 
103U3 (N). 

ERIOCAULON tIESANTHEUOIDES Ruhl. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 375 (19U7), 
19: 3li6 & U37 (1970), and 20: 20U. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MEHCANUM Moldenke 

Additional & emended bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1: 
319—320, 350, & 360. 1939; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A.13: 510. 
1968; Moldenke, Phytologia I9: 3U7. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MICROCEPHALUM H.B.K. 

Additional bibliography: J. F. Macbr., Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 
13 (363): U89— U90. 1936; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: lU, ii2U, &Ii25. 
1970. 

Sparre found this plant growing in marshland in the transition 
zone to quebrada vegetation. litis & Ugent found it in wet 
springy areas with huge hard cushions of Distichia nuscoides, 
Scirpus, and Gentiana , at U250 meters altitude, 

Macbride (1936) cites £. W. Pennell 1336 It , Raimondi s.n. , and 
Weberbauer 2269 from Peru. 

Additional citations: MEXICO: Mexico: Pringle 13228 (Mi). EC- 
UADOR: Carchi: Sparre IU26O (S) . PERU: Cuzco: litis & Ugent 1257 
(W— 25U2293) . 

ERIOCAULON MIKAWAIOJM Satake t Koyama 

Additional synonymy: Eriocaulon sikokianum var. mlkawan\m (Sa- 



278 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no, h 

take & Koyama) Koyama in Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 26?. 1965. 

Additional bibliography: Koyama in Ohwi, Fl. Jap, 269, 1965 J 
Moldenke, Phytologia 18: 307—308, I969. 

Koyama (1965) records the vernacular variant Japanese name 
"mikawa-inu-no-hige" for this plant and affirms that the plant is 
known only from Tsukude Moor in Uikawa Province on Honshu Island. 

ERIOCAULCN MINUSCULm Uoldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 18: 309. 1969} 
G, Taylor, Ind, Kew. Suppl. ll;: 5U. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MINUTISSIMUM Ruhl. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1: 320, 
351, & 355. 1939: Moldenke, Alph, List Git, 1: 187. 191*6; Molden- 
ke, Phytologia 18: 309. 1969. 

ERIOCAULON MIQUELIANUM Korn. 

Additional synonymy: Eriocaulon miquellanum var. miquellanum 
Koyama in Ohwi, Fl, Jap. 269. 1965. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: U9U (19^8) 
and 3: llth. 19U9i Koyama in Ohwi, Fl. Jap. 266, 268, & 269. 1965} 
Tomlinson in C. R. Metcalfe, Anat. Monocot. 3: 171 & 173. 1969} 
Moldenke, Phytologia 19: 3U7, 3U8, la6, li5U, & U56 (1970) and 20: 

101. 1970. 

Koyama (1965) records the vernacular variant "inu-no-hige" for 
this species, 

ERIOCAULON MIQUELIANUM var. ATROSEPALUM Satake 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 3: llUi. 19l;9} 

Koyama in Ohwi, Fl. Jap, 269, 1965} Moldenke, Phytologia 13: 311. 

1969. 

Koyama (1965) records the vernacular variant name for this 

plant, "takayo-inu-no-hige", states that the taxon differs from. 

typical E, miquellanum only in having the "heads few-flowered, 

receptacle pilose, and pistillate calyxes blackish", and that it 

occurs only in Uzen Province on Honshu Island, 

ERIOCAULON MISERRIMUM Ruhl, 

Additional & emended bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1: 320, 
351, & 355. 1939} Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 1: 92 & 186, 19U9} 
Moldenke, Phytologia 18: 312. I969. 

ERIOCAULON MISERUM Korn, 

Additional & emended bibliography: Korn,, Linnaea 27: 579, 58U, 
& 607—608 . 1856} Korn. in Mart., Fl, Bras, 3 (1): 293 & 503. 
1863} Santapau, Excerpt, Bot. A.ll: 176, 1967} Moldenke, Phytolo- 
gia 19: 3li7. 1970. 

ERIOCAULON MISSIONUM Gas tell. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 375 & 378 
(19li7) and 18: 313. 1969. 

To be continued 



OBSERVATIONS ON MENTZELIA IN SOUTHERN CALIFORNIA 

H. J. Thompson and Joyce Roberts 

Department of Botanical Sciences, 

University of California, Los Angeles 

Our work on Mentzella section Trachyphytum 
(Loasaceae) has disclosed a number of new species 
and Indicated the necessity for several nomenclatural 
changes. Some of these are presented here so that 
they may be Included In our contribution of the 
Loasaceae In the new Manual of Southern California 
Botany being prepared by Philip Munz. In addition, 
some new chromosome numbers In Mentzella are report- 
ed In the cited specimens. All chromosome analyses 
are from mlcrosporocytes, and at least two Indivi- 
duals from each population were counted. 

MENTZELIA CALIFORNICA Thompson & Roberts, sp. nov. 

Herba erecta; folia rosulae Irregularlter 
lobata lobls longls acutls, superlores ovato- 
lanceolatae; petala 5t lutea basl macula crocea, 
ovata, 6-11 mm longa; stamina 5-6 mm longa; stylus 
5-6 mm longus ; capsulae recurvae, 1.5-3 •5 cm longae; 
semlna Irregularlter angulata, levlter tessellata, 
paplllls rotundatls vel subacutls. 

Plant erect, branching habit spreading, stems 
stout, 2-4 dm tall; leaves linear-lanceolate, rosette 
leaves Irregularly lobed with long, pointed lobes, 
upper leaves ovate -lanceolate, fewer lobed or rarely 
entire; flowers solitary In the axils and terminal, 
opening In the morning; bracts entire, ovate- 
lanceolate, not white at base; calyx lobes 4—6 mm 
long, petals 5t 6-11 mm long, yellow with an orange 
spot at base, ovate, apex acute or rounded; stamens 
5-6 mm long; style 5-6 mm long; capsules narrowed at 
the base, recurved to 180°, 1.5-3*5 cm long, about 
1,5 mm wide; seeds Irregularly angled, slightly 
tessellate, the surface with medium, rounded to 
slightly pointed papillae; n=27. Holotype: 
California, San Bernardino Co., 6,3 ml. south of 
Salt Wells, Thompson 1644 (US; Isotype LA). 

Mentzella callfornlca can occur In mixed colo- 
nies with M. alblcaulls (n=36), M. veatchlana (n=27), 
M, mojavensls (n=:27). and M. obscura (n=m)T~ This 

1, Publications cuid collections prior to 1970 as 
Joyce Zavortlnk, 

279 



280 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

species hybridizes with M. mojavensls , but the 
hybrids show reduced fer'Elllty with an average of 
S2% good pollen. Hybrids between M. callfornlca and 
M. veatchleina are completely sterlTe. Mentzella 
callfornlca has usually been Identified In herbaria 
as M. alblcaulls and has not been recognized as a 
distinct species. Although It Is similar to M. 
alblcaulls . M, callfornlca differs In having Targer 
flowers, M. alblcaulls has petals 2-6 mm long; longer 
styles, those of M. alblcaulls are 3-5 nun long; much 
less pronounced papillae on the seed surface; ovate- 
lanceolate bracts, while M. alblcaulls has bracts 
that are linear or lanceolate. Mentzella callfornlca 
Is also somewhat similar to M. Jonesll (n=;18) but the 
two species do not occur together; M. callfornlca has 
a more northern distribution while M. Jonesll occurs 
In the more southern portions of th'e Mojave Desert, 
the Colorado Desert, and north along the Colorado 
River. Mentzella callfornlca Is found on desert 
plains and roadside embankments with Larrea, Dalea , 
and Lyclum , below 3000 ft. , In the northern Mojave 
Desert, eastward Into Nevada. Flowering period Is 
March tnrough April. 

CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., 1.1 ml. east of Salsbury Pass, 
Thompson 3164 , chromosome voucher, n=r27 (LA); 4.3 ml. 
east of Salsbury Pass, Thompson 3156 , chromosome 
voucher, n=27 (LA) ; Homewood Canyon, Zavortlnk 2812 , 
chromosome voucher, n=27 (LA); 1.2 ml. west of 
Salsbury Pass, Zavortlnk 2479 t chromosome voucher, 
n=27 (LA); 1 ml. east of Salsbury Pass, Zavortlnk 
2482 . chromosome voucher, n=27 (LA). Kern Co., 
corner of Inyokern Rd. and Kay Ave., Zavortlnk 2475 * 
chromosome voucher, ns=27 (LA) ; Searles Station, 
Wheeler & Richardson In 1930 (LA). San Bernardino 
Co., 1.5 ml. south of Red Mt., Thompson l601 , 
chromosome voucher, n=27 (LA); along U.S. 395 at Red 
Mt, Road, Zavortlnk 2541 , chromosome voucher, n=27 
(LA). NEVADA: Lincoln Co., 1 ml. east of Panaca, 
Thompson 3Z77 » chromosome voucher, n=27 (LA). 

MENTZELIA DESERTORUM (Davidson) Thompson & Roberts, 
comb. nov. 

Acrolasla desertorum Davidson. Bull, So. Calif. 
Acad. Scl. 5: 16. 1906. Holotype: Signal Mts., 
Colorado Desert near boundary, 30 Mar. 1901, T. G . 
Brand egee (LAM!; Isotype UC!). 

Mentzella desertorum occurs on fine, sandy 
desert flats below 2000 ft. with Larrea, Encelia, and 
Abronla. It Is common throughout the Sonoran Desert 
northward sporadically to extreme southern Inyo Co. 
It Is very similar to M. obscura , described below. 



1971 Thompson & Roberts, Observations on Mentzella 



281 



and often occurs In mixed colonies with M. alblcaulls 
(n=36) and M. obscura (n=l8). Mentzella desertorum 
can easily be distinguished from M. alblcaulls by 
seed characters; M. obscura has smooth seeds, not 
tessellate, while seeds of M. alblcaulls are very 
papillose and tessellate, VOien growing with M. 
obscura. It can most easily be differentiated by Its 
very short, rounded leaf lobes, which are long and 
pointed In M. obscura . Also, where the two species 
grow together, M. o'^cura always has larger flowers 
than M. desertorum" We have counted eighteen popula- 
tlons''and are here reporting the chromosome number as 
n=9* Voucher specimens are In the US and LA herbaria; 
representative specimens of which are: 
CALIFOPINIA: San Bernardino Co., 2.8 ml. west of 
Cronlse Valley along U.S. 466-91, Thompson 31^3 . 
chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA). Riverside Co. , along 
U.S. 60, 20.1 ml. east of Desert Center, Zavortlnk 
2672 , chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA); along the road 
to Willis Palms, 3,k ml. east of U.S. 99 t Thompson 
3014 . chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA). San Diego Co., 
Just east of Ocotlllo Wells, Raven 1 6 89 I t chromosome 
voucher, n=9 (LA). Imperial Co., at Ogllby, 
Zavortlnk 2682 , chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA). 
ARIZONA: Mohave Co., 5.2 ml. east of Topock along 
U.S. 66, Zavortlnk 2721 , chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA)* 

MENTZELIA EREMOPHILA (Jepson) Thompson & Roberts, 
comb. nov. 

Mentzella llndleyl Torrey & Gray veir. eremophlla 
Jepson. Man. Fl. Pi. Calif. 65O. 1925. Lectotype: 
Kern Co., Randsburg, Hall & Chandler 6880 (JEPS!). 
The type specimen cited by Jepson Is "Hall & Chandler 
6680", but this specimen Is a Sclrpus , not a Mentzella. 
There Is a Hall jc Chandler 6880 from Randsburg which 
fits the description given by Jepson, and we are 
assuming the specimen number originally cited by 
Jepson Is probably a typographlced. error. 

Mentzella eremophlla Is very common along canyon 
slopes of the eastern margins of Kern Co. and the 
northwestern corner of San Bernardino Co., In associa- 
tion with Larrea , Yucca brevlfolla , and Dalea , mostly 
below 4000 ft. Although It has not previously been 
recognized as a distinct species. It Is nonetheless 
readily distinguished from all other species of 
Mentzella . It has large flowers with petals over 
1.5 cm In length, a long style over 1 cm, and very 
deeply and sharply lobed leaves, which has caused It 
to be Identified In many herbaria as M. llndleyl . 
However, Its entire bracts and recurved capsules, 
together with Its distinctive seeds (rounded with a 
pronounced hllum) are very different from the lobed 



282 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

bracts and erect capsules of M. lindleyl . Also, M. 
llndleyl occurs only on serpentine slopes of *" 
Foothill Wd. communities, while M. eremophila is 
strictly a desert species. Chromosome numbers have 
been ascertained from eight populations, with voucher 
specimens in the US and LA herbaria, and the number 
is reported here as n=9. Representative specimens 
are: 

CALIFORNIA: Kern Co., 5.? mi. northeast of U.S. 6 
on road to Randsburg, Thompson 1599 t chromosome 
voucher, n=9 (LA); 1 mi. north of Atolia, Lewis in 
1950» chromosome voucher, n=9 (LA); Last Chance 
Canyon, Zavortink 2652 , chromosome voucher, n=9 
(LA); Red Rock Canyon, ZavortinJc 2653 1 chromosome 
voucher, n=9 (LA); Mesquite Canyon, Zavortink 2656 , 
n=9 (LA). 

MENTZELIA JONESII (Urban & Gilg) Thompson & Roberts, 
comb. nov. 

Mentzelia albicaulis (Hooker) Torrey & Gray var. 
Jonesii Urban & Gilg. Nova Acta Akad. Leop. -Carol. 
76: 2^. 1900. Lectotype: Yucca, Arizona, Jones 
3900 (POM!). Mentzelia albicaulis (Hooker) Torrey 
& Gray var. spectabilis Jones. Contr. West. Bot. 
12: 16, 19'58l No type cited with original descri- 
ption. Mentzelia nitens Greene var. Jonesii (Urban 
& Gilg) Darlington. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 21: 
198. 193'+« Mentzelia nitens Greene var. leptocaulis 
darlington. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 21: 199. 
193^. Type: Williams Fork, Arizona, Palmer 157 (M). 

Mentzelia jonesii is found in rather coarse 
soil on desert plains and slopes with Larrea , Yucca 
brevlfolia, Coleogyne , and Opuntia , often growing up 
through desert shrubs, below 4000 ft., from south- 
central Inyo Co. south throughout the Mojave Desert 
and eastward to southern Nevada sind western Arizona 
along the Colorado River. This species often occurs 
In mixed populations with M. obscura (n=l8) and M. 
albicaulis (n=36), but is easily distinguished by 
its larger flowers and longer styles ; M. Jonesii 
has petals longer than 8 mm, those of M. albicaulis 
and M. obscura are less than 8 mm; the styles of M. 
Jonesii are 6-10 mm while those of M. albicaulis and 
M. obscura are 3-5 mm long. It differs from M. 
obscura also in that the seeds of M. obscura are 
smaller, not tessellate, and have small pointed 
papillae, while those of M. Jonesii are tessellate 
and have moderately sized papillae. Chromosome 
numbers have been determined from eight populations 
and the number is reported here as n=l8. Although 
artificial hybrids have been made in the laboratory 
between M. Jonesii and M. obscura , also n=l8, they 



1971 Thcmpson L Roberts, Observations on tientzella 283 

are sterile with less than 2% good pollen. Voucher 
specimens are In the US and LA herbaria; representa- 
tive specimens are: 

CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Sheppard Canyon, Zavortlnk 
2800 . chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). San Bernardino 
Co., along the road to Excelsior Mine, 19.^ ml. north 
of Interstate 10, Zavortlnk 2776 , chromosome voucher, 
n=l8 (LA). ARIZONA: Mohave Co., 11.1 ml. south of 
Hoover Dam along U.S. ^66-93. Thompson 3050 . chromo- 
some voucher, n=l8 (LA). 

MENTZELIA MOJAVENSIS Thompson & Roberts, sp. nov. 

Herba erecta; folia rosulae rhache normale et 
lobls brevlbus rotundatls, superlores late ovato- 
lanceolate, lobata; bracteae late ovatae, Integrae 
vel 3-5 lobatae, raro base macula dilute albldae; 
petala 5. 6-8 mm longa, lutea basl macula crocea, 
obovata vel ovata, aplce acuto vel rotundato, raro 
retuse; stamina 4-5 nun longa; stylus 4-5 mm longus ; 
capsulae erectae vel recurvae, 1.2-2.5 cm longae; 
semina parce tessellata, paplllls allquantum acutls. 

Plant erect, the branching pattern moderately 
spreeuilng, the stems stout, 2-4 dm tall; rosette 
leaves linear-lanceolate, medium In width, with short 
to medium, rounded lobes, upper leaves broadly ovate- 
lanceolate and rather sharply lobed, sometimes 
slightly clasping at base; flowers solitary In the 
euclls and terminal, opening In the morning; bracts 
broadly ovate, entire or 3-5 lobed, rarely with a 
faint white area at base; calyx lobes 2-5 mm long; 
petals 5. 6-8 mm long, yellow with an orange spot at 
the base, obovate or broadly ovate, apex acute or 
rounded, rarely retuse; stamens 4-5 mm long; style 4- 
5 mm long; capsules narrowed at base, erect or re- 
curved to 90°, 1.2-2.5 cm long, about 2-3 mm wide; 
seeds Irregularly angled, slightly or moderately 
tessellate, the surface with somewhat pointed 
papillae; n=27. Holotype: California, Los Angeles 
Co., 15 ml, east of Lancaster on East Ave. J, 
Zavortlnk 2520 , chromosome voucher, n=27 (US; Isotype 

laTI 

Mentzella mojavensls occurs on desert plains and 
roadside embankments along the western margins of the 
Mojave Desert In Los Angeles and Kern counties, below 
3500 ft., with Larrea and Yucca brevlfolla . It Is 
often found In mixed populations with M. veatchlema 
(n=27), M. callfornlca (n=27), M. obscura (n=18), 
and M. alblcaulls (n^6). Hybrids between M. 
mojavensls and M. callfornlca do occur, although the 
hybrids show lessened pollen fertility of around $"}% 
good pollen. Hybrids between M. mojavensls cuid M. 



28U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

veatchlana are completely sterile with less than 3% 
good pollen. Hybrids between M. callfornlca and M. 
veatchlana produced In the laboratory are very " 
similar morphologically to M. mojavensis , and it Is 
conceivable that M. mojavengis has arisen from 
hybridization between M. calif ornica and M. 
veatchlana. Hybrid swarms are very common where M. 
mojavensis occurs with M. callfornlca and M. " 
veatchlana . Flowering period is March through April. 

CALIFORNIA: Kern Co., 2.7 mi. west of U.S. 14 on the 
Walker Pass Road, Zavortink 2552 , chromosome voucher, 
n=27 (LA) ; north of Rosamond, Zavortink 2555 t chromo- 
some voucher, n=27 (LA); 1 mi. west of Randsburg, 
Thompson 1727 (LA). Los Angeles Co., 1.2 ml. south 
of Hi Vista, Zavortink 2526 , chromosome voucher, n=27 
(LA); 3 mi. east of Palmdale, corner of Palmdale Blvd. 
and 4oth St. E, Thompson 1596 (LA). San Bernardino 
Co., along U.S. 395 at Red Mountain, Zavortink 2543 . 
chromosome voucher, n=27 (LA). 

MENTZELIA OBSCURA Thompson & Roberts, sp. nov. 

Herba ramosissima; folia rosulae lobis longis 
acutis, superiores ovata vel ovato-lanceolata, 
plerumque Integra; bracteae ovatae integraeque; 
petala 5t 4-8 mm longa, lutea basl macula crocea, 
ovata vel obovata, apice acuto; stamina 3-6 mm longa; 
stylus 3-6 mm longus; capsulae recurvae, 1.3-3 cm 
longae; semina parva, rotundata, non tessellata, 
papillis parvis acutis. 

Plant erect or spreading, many branched from 
base, often compact and rounded; rosette leaves 
linear-lanceolate with long, pointed lobes, irregu- 
larly lobed, the upper leaves ovate-lanceolate, 
usually entire; flowers solitary in the axils and 
terminal, opening in the morning; bracts entire, 
often appressed or cupped, ovate or ovate-lanceolate, 
not white at base; calyx lobes 2-5 nim long; petals 5t 
4-8 mm long, yellow with an orange spot at base, 
ovate or occasionally obovate, the apex rounded or 
acute; stamens 3-6 mm long; style 3-6 mm long; cap- 
sules recurved to 180°, narrowed at base, 1.3-3 cm 
long, about 1.5 mm wide; seeds more or less rounded, 
light tan, not tessellate, the surface with very 
slight, pointed papillae; n=l8. Holotype: 
California, Kern Co., 5*7 mi. northeast of U.S. 6 on 
road to Randsburg, Thompson l600 , chromosome voucher, 
n=l8 (US I Isotype LA). 

Mentzelia obscura is widely distributed through- 
out the Mojave and Sonoran Deserts from northcentral 



1971 Thompaon & Roberts, Observations on Lentzella 285 

Inyo Co. south Into Baja Calif., eastward into 
western Arizona and Nevada, locally in Utah, in 
disturbed areas along roadside embanianents and desert 
plains with Larrea , Encelia , Yucca brevifolia , and 
Dalea . It commonly occurs in mixed populations with 
M. albicaulis (n=36), M. calif ornica (n=27), M. 
yeatchiana (n=27), M. mojayensis (n=27), M. Jonesii 
(n=18), M. desertorum {n=9) , M. nitens (n=9) and 
M. eremophila (n=9). Hybrids between M. obscura and 
species of different ploidy level are very difficult 
to obtain even in the laboratory and are completely 
sterile. As previously mentioned, artificial hybrids 
between M, obscura and M. Jonesii , also n=l8, are 
also sterile, and no naturally occuring hybrids have 
ever been found. Flowering period late Feb. - April. 

CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., 2 mi. west of Panamint 
Springs, Thompson 3l60 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 
(LA); Mesquite Springs, Wiggins 11550 (RSA). 
Kern Co., 2.9 mi. east of China Lake, Thompson 1640 , 
chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA); Last Chance Canyon, 
Zavortink 2651 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA) ; Red 
Rock Canyon, Zavortink 2460 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 
(LA). San Bernardino Co., Sheephole Summit, Raven 
11875 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA); 2.8 mi. west of 
Cronese Valley, Thompson 3138 , chromosome voucher, n= 
18 (LA); 1.8 mi. south of Ivanpah, Zavortink 2^75 , 
chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA); 12.7 mi. east of Yermo 
on road to Mt. Afton, Zavortink 2468 , chromosome 
voucher, n=l8 (LA). Riverside Co., Fried Liver Wash, 
Joshua Tree National Monument, Zavortink 2458 , 
chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA) ; Corn Spring, Zavortink 
2457 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). Imperial Co., 
along Rt. 78, 8.3 mi. south of the county line, 
Zavortink 2676 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). 
NEVADA: Nye Co., Frenchman Flat, Raven I888I , 
chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). Clark Co. , 13*1 mi. 
northwest of Indian Springs on road to Lathrop, 
Raven 12049 . chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). UTAH: 
Tooele Co., Wendover, Mosquin 4332 , chromosome 
voucher, n=l8 (LA). ARIZONA: Mohave Co., Willow 
Wash near Yucca, Zavortink 2727 , chromosome voucher, 
n=l8 (LA); 5*8 mi. south of Hoover Dam, Thompson 
3032 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA). Yuma Co., Just 
south of Parker Dam, Zavortink 2715 , chromosome 
voucher, n=l8 (LA). MEXICO: BaJa California, I5.5 
mi. south of San Luis Gonzaga, Daniels 39 # chromosome 
voucher, n=l8 (LA). 

MENTZELIA RAVENII Thompson & Roberts, sp. nov. 

Herba erecta, ramis e basi pluribus; folia 
rosulae lobis brevibus rotundatis, rhache lata; 



286 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. k 

bracteae late 3-5 lobatae basi albidae, appressae; 
petala 5» lutea basi macula crocea, obovata, aplce 
retuso, 5-10 mm longa; stamina 3-7 nuQ longa; stylus 
4-7 mm longus; capsulae erectae, 1.4-2.3 cm longae; 
semina Irregularlter angulata, parce tessellata, 
papillis rotundatis. 

Plant erect, branching pattern spreading, stems 
stout, several branched from base, 2-4 dm tall; 
rosette leaves linear-lanceolate but broad, with 
short rounded lobes, upper leaves more ovate-lanceo- 
late with fewer, sharp pointed lobes, broad at base; 
flowers solitary in the axils and terminal, opening 
in the morning; bracts broadly 3-5 lobed with a white 
area at the base, usually broader than long; petals 
5, 5-10 mm long, yellow with an orange spot at base, 
obovate, the apex retuse; stamens 3-7 nmi long; style 
4-7 mm long; capsules erect, narrowed at base, 0.9- 
2,3 cm long, about 3 inm wide; seeds irregularly 
angled, slightly to moderately tessellate, the 
surface with rounded papillae; n=l8, Holotype: 
California, Los Angeles Co., San Gabriel Mts., 4.3 
mi. south of Pearblossom, Raven 11959 (US). This 
species has been named in honor of Professor Peter 
H. Raven, Stanford University, in recognition of his 
many collections of specimens and cytological 
material of Trachyphytum species in general and his 
collections of this species in particular which have 
aided the authors in determining the species limits. 

Mentzelia ravenii occurs along roadside embank- 
ment s""an3~"canyon~sTopes associated with Larrea and 
Yucca brevifolia, in desert margin areas in Los 
Angeles County and western Riverside County. This 
species is rare both in nature and in herbaria. Most 
herbaria specimens have been variously referred to M. 
gracilenta , M. veatchlana , or M. montana. Mentzelia 
raveni i occurs commonly with mT veatchiana (n=27) and 
though similar to the latter species, can be differ- 
entiated on the basis of the following; M. ravenii has 
yellow petals while the desert populations of M. 
veatchiana are usually deep orange; M. ravenii has a 
spreading branching habit in contrast to the strict 
pattern of M. veatchiana ; the bracts of M. ravenii 
are much broader and often somewhat clasping, while 
those of M. veatchiana are narrow and not clasping. 
Flowering period is March through April. 

CALIFORNIA: Los Angeles Co., 3.9 mi. southeast of 
Pearblossom on road to Valyermo, Thompson 30^^ t 
chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA) ; Big Rock Creek Road to 
Los Angeles County Playground, Craig 1039 (UC) ; 
along the Pearblossom Road near marker #2.87» 



1971 Thonqpson & Roberts, Observations on Mentzella 28? 

Zavortlnk 2^6 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA.); 1 ml. 
south of Pearblossom on rosui to Little Rock Deun, 
Zavortlnk 24'45 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 (LA); 
Soledad Canyon, Zavortlnk 2558 » chromosome voucher, 
n=l8 (LA). Riverside Co., Y.ti ml. north of 
Alberhlll, Thompson l6l3 , chromosome voucher, n=l8 
(LA). 

MENTZELIA TRIDENTATA (Davidson) Thompson & Roberts, 
comb. nov. 

Acrolasla trldentata Davidson. Bull. So. Calif. 
9: 7TI 1910. Type: California, Inyo Co., banks 
of Halwee Reservoir, Hasse & Davidson 2460 , Apr. 
26, 1910 (LAM!). Mentzella tricuspls Gray var. 
brevlcornuta Johnston. Univ. Calif. Publ. Bot. 7: 
444. 1922. Type: T. S. Brandegee , Barstow, 
California, May 14, I903 (UC). 

Acrolasla trldentata Davidson has been recog- 
nized by previous monographers (as In Darlington, 
1934) as a synonym of M. tricuspls var. brevlcornuta 
Johnston, and identified in herbaria as this species 
or as M. Involucrata . Mentzella trldentata differs 
from M. Involucrata In that it does not have white 
bracts, and in that respect it is similar to M. 
tricuspls . However, the lateral cusps of the stamens 
are much shorter than the central cusp in M. 
trldentata , while the lateral cusps are longer than 
the central cusp in M. tricuspls . The seeds of M. 
trldentata are more similar to those of M. involucrata 
than they are to M. tricuspls ; they are rounded 
and broadest at the middle, constricted on both 
faces above and below the middle, while the seeds of 
M. tricuspls are ovate, broadest at the top, and 
constricted at the middle. The plants of M. 
trldentata are usually much smaller in general than 
M. tricuspls , less than 1 dm. Mentzella trldentata 
is quite restricted in range to buttes around the 
Barstow-Daggett area of San Bernardino County and 
the type locality in Inyo County. Flowering period 
is March through April. The chromosome number has 
been determined for several individuals from one 
population and is reported here as n=10. 
CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino Co., buttes north of 
Daggett, Thompson 3566 , chromosome voucher, n=10 
(LA). 

MENTZELIA TRICUSPIS Gray. Chromosome number for 
this species is reported here also for the first 
time as n=:10. 

CALIFORNIA: San Bernardino Co., 1 ml. west of 
Havasu Landing, Thompson 3590 i chromosome voucher, 
n=10 (LA). Nevada! Clark Co. , along Lone Mt. road. 



288 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. h 

5.3 mi. west of U.S. 95* Thompson 3573 t chromosome 
voucher, n=10 (LA). 

MENTZELIA REFLEXA Covllle. Chromosome number is also 
reported here for the first time as n=10. 
CALIFORNIA: Inyo Co., Death Valley north of 
Furnace Creek, Thompson 3157 t chromosome voucher, 
n=10 (LA); Panamint Springs, Thompson 3l6l , 
chromosome voucher, n=10 (LA). 

References Cited 

Darlington, Josephine. 193^. Ann. Missouri Bot. 
Card. 21: 20^. 193^. 



J \:>j 



t<' PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 

Vol. 21 June, 1971 NoTT 

ROBINSON, H., A revised classification for the orders and families 

of mosses 289 

KING. R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XXXVI. A new genus, Neobartlettia 294 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XXXVII. The genus Hebeclinium 298 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XXXIX. A new genus, Guayania 302 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XL. The genus, Urolepis 304 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XLI. The genus, Eupatoriastrum 306 

FEDDEMA, C, Re-establishment of the genus Aldama (Compositae- 

Heliantheae) 308 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Some Aleurites taxa in Hawaii and a note 

regarding Argemone 315 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Hierobotana. II .... 319 

DEGENER, O. & I., Pritchardia and Cocos in the Hawaiian Islands .... 320 

RUDD, V. E., Studies in the Sophoreae (Leguminosae) I 327 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of the 

genus Callicarpa. XVI 328 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 349 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Two new varieties of pipewort 352 

5^ Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

>» 

303 Parkside Road 
Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 
c U.S.A. 

? 

Price of this number, $1 ; per volume. $7.50, in advance, 

tJititAMT o"" $8' 3t close of volume ^ 

'■W YORB ^ 

>OTANlCAA 



A REVISED CLASSIFICATION FOR THE ORDERS 
AND FAMILIES OF MOSSES 



Harold Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 



The present paper is partly in response to many requests 
by non-bryologists for a listing of higher categories of mosses, 
but also, it seems advantageous to have a listing that can be 
used in conjunction with the recent list of orders and families 
of hepaticae by Schuster (1966) . Thus, I take the opportunity 
to provide the following version that incorporates some recent 
evolutionary evidence and some personal opinion. 

The general history of moss classification is given by 
Dixon (1932) and there are some more recent comments by 
Schaffner (1938) and Steere (1958) . The history shows the early 
use of three orders, Sphagnales, Andreaeales and Bryales. Later, 
additional orders were recognized by Fleischer, Brotherus and 
Dixon cind in the last author's work the Bryales were divided 
into Tetraphidales, Calomniales, Schistostegales, Buxbauminales, 
Polytrichales, Fissidentales, Grimmiales, Dicranales, Syrrhopo- 
dontales, Pottiales, Encalyptales, Orthotrichales, Funariales, 
Eubryales, Isobryales, Hookeriales, and Hypnobryales . My own 
views fall between these extremes and are rather conservative. 

Regarding the higher categories, I recognize a single 
Division, Bryophyta, >Aich I consider a natural group. Aside 
from the lack of vascular tissue, I would distinguish this 
natural group by the unbranched sporophyte which I consider to 
be derived from branched sporophytes of a non-bryophyte ancestor. 
For the basic subdivision between the hepatics and the mosses I 
recognize two prime characters, (l) the elongation in the base 
of the apically mature sporophyte in the former group versus the 
strictly apical growth in the latter, and (2) the tendency for 
fusion in gametophyte tissues (perianths, leaves, etc.) in the 
former versus strict separation of vegetative parts in the 
latter. 

At lower levels of classification I accept Sphagnum and its 
fossil relatives as distinct at the subclass level. The most 
useful distinction of the group seems to be the difference in 
the ultimate divisions of the leaf cells. The five orders I 
recognize in the subclass Bryidae reflect a reduction in the 
conqjarative status of the Andreaeales vAiich I do not consider 
more distinct than the Tetraphidales . These two orders I view 
as rather primitive, and the fact that they and Sphagnum all 
have thalloid or other non-filamentous aspects to their proto- 
nemata seems significant. What has been called Bryales I recog- 

289 



290 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

nize as four orders. The previous major subdivisions of the 
Bryales con^jare as follows: Nematodonteae becoming two orders, 
Tetraphidales and Polytrichales, and Arthrodonteae becoming two 
orders, Dicranales (=Haplolepideae) and Bryales ■(=Diplolepideae) . 
In this arrangement I would place the Polytrichales much closer 
to the Dicranales and there is no one character that will 
distinguish all the genera of these two orders. I find the 
peristome of the Polytrichaceae to be completely different in 
origin from that of other mosses and probably a more recent 
developnent. The Dawsoniaceae -vdiich are in the same oixier 
retain a peristome of a more primitive type. 

At the family level I have adopted some changes proposed by 
Andrews for the Leucobryaceae (1947) and Rhytidiaceae (1954) • I 
retain the Leptostomataceae vdiich Andrews (1951) placed in the 
Bryaceae. The following arrangement of the families allows for 
certain similarities that may or may not indicate relationships. 
I have placed the Schistostegaceae with the Mitteniaceae on the 
basis of observations of the protonemata of Mittenia by Stone 
(1961, 1962) . Two personal opinions are represented in my 
placement of the Fissidentaceae and the Hookeriaceae . As I 
intend to indicate elsewhere, I regard the leaf form of the 
Fissidentaceae as the product of a rather simple evolutionary 
process, and I place the family close to the Dicranaceae. I 
place the Hookeriaceae with other families, many members of 
Tirfiich share such characters as a median fvirrow on the outer 
surface of the peristome, short or double costae, and almost 
\mdifferentiated alar cells. This Hookeroid-Hypnoid conqjlex I 
consider quite distinct from either the strongly costate 
Leskeoid-Brachjrthecioid complex or the Pterobryoid-Neckeroid 
conqjlex that often shows preperistome development. 

Division Bryophyta 
Class Bryatae 

Subclass Sphagnidae 
Order Protosphagnales 

Family Protosphagnaceae (fossil) 
Family Intiaceae (fossil) 
Order Sphagnales 
Family Sphagnaceae 
Subclass Bryidae 
Order Andreaeales 

Family Andjreaeaceae 
Order Tetraphidales 

Family Tetraphidaceae (=Georgiaceae) 
Order Polytrichales 
Family Polytrichaceae 
Family Dawsoniaceae 
Order Dicranales 
Family Archidiaceae 
Family Ditrichaceae 



1971 Robinson, Revised classification of mosses 291 

Family Bryoxiphiaceae 

Family Seligeriaceae 

Family Grimmiaceae (including Ptychomitriaceae) 

Family Fissidentaceae (including Archifissidentaceae) 

Family Dicranaceae (including part of Leucobryaceae) 

Family Dicnemonaceae 

Family Pleurophascaceae 

Family Calyiqseraceae (including part of Leucobryaceae) 

Family Pottiaceae (including Trichostomaceae, 

Cinclidotaceae, Splachnobryum ) 
Family Bryobartramiaceae 
Family Encalyptaceae 
Family Buxbaumiaceae 
Family Diphysciaceae 
Order Bryales 

Family Rhacitheciaceae 
Family Erpodiaceae 
Family Helicophyllaceae 
Family Orthotrichaceae 

Family Gigaspermaceae 
Family Disceliaceae 
Family Ephemeraceae 
Family Funariaceae 
Family Splachnaceae 

Faadly Schistostegaceae 
Family Mitteniaceae 
Family Drepanophyllaceae 
Family Calomniaceae 

Family Euatichiaceae 
Family Sorapillaceae 

Family Timmiaceae 

Family Bryaceae 
Family Leptostomataceae 
Family Mniaceae 
Family Avilacomniaceae 
Family Meeseaceae 
Family Catoscopiaceae 
Family Bartramiaceae 

Family Rhizogoniaceae 
Family Spiridentaceae 
Family Hypnodendraceae 
Family Hypopterygiaceae 
Family Rhacopllaceae 



292 PHITOLOGIA Vol. a, no. $ 

Family Fontinalaceae 

Family Wardiaceae 
Family Hedwigiaceae 
Family Cryphaeaceae 
Family Leucodontaceae 
Family Cyrtopodaceae 
Family Prionodontaceae 
Family Lepyrodontaceae 
Family Rutenbergiaceae 
Family Trachypodaceae 
Family Myuriaceae 
Family Pterobryaceae 
Family Meteoriaceae 
Family Phyllogoniaceae 
Family Neckeraceae 
Family Lembophyllaceae 

Family Climaciaceae 
Family Plexiroziopsidaceae 

Fnmily Echinodiaceae 

Family Fabroniaceae 

F amily Leskeaceae (including Theliaceae, Thuidiaceae) 

Family Amblystegiaceae 

Family Brachytheciaceae (including Rigodium ) 

Family Entodontaceae 
Faaiily Plagiotheciaceae 

Family Ephaaeropsidaceae (=Nemataceae) 

Family Hookeriaceae (including Pilotrichaceae) 

Family Ptychomniaceae 

Family Synqjhyodontaceae 

Family Leucomiaceae 

Family Sematophyllaceae 

Family Ifypnaceae (including Rhytidiaceae) 

Family Hylocomiaoeae 

Family Hydropogonaceae 

Literature Cited 

Andrews, A. Leroy 1947. Taxonomic notes VI. The Leucobiyaceae . 
The Bryologist 50: 319-326. 

. 1951. Taxonomic notes X. The family Leptostomaceae . 



The Bryologist 54: 217-223. 



1971 Robinson, Revised classification of mosses 293 

Andrews, A. Leroy 195A. Taxonomic notes XII. The families 

Rhytidiaceae and Hylocomiaceae . The Bryologist 57: 251-261. 

Dixon, H. N. 1932. Chapter XIV. Classification of mosses. 

397-/fl2. in Fr. Verdoom ed. Manual of Bryology. 486 pp. 
Martius Nijhoff, The Hague. 

Schaffner, J. H. 1938. The natural orders of the true mosses. 
The Bryologist 1^1: 57-63. 

Schuster, R. M. I966. The Hepaticae and Anthoceixjtae of North 
America — East of the Hundredth Meridian. Vol. 1. 822 pp. 
Columbia University Press, New York. 

Steere, W. C. 1958. Evolution and speciation in mosses. 
The Amer. Natur. 92: 5-20. 

Stone, lima G. I96I. The gametophyte and sporophyte of Mittenia 
plumula (Mitt.) Lindb. Aust. Joum. of Bot. 9(2): 12A-151, 
pi. 1-A. 

. 1962. The highly refractive protonema of Mittenia 

plvunula (Mitt.) Lindb. (Mitteniaceae) . Proc. Roy. Soc. Vict. 
74: 119-124. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XXXVI, 
A NEW GENUS, NEOBARTLETTIA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 



Among the Critonioid genera of the Eupatorieae, there are 
three that are notable for often having hairs on the surface of 
the receptacle. Two of these, Hebeclinium (King & Robinson, 
1971) and Decachaeta (King & Robinson, I969) have been recog- 
nized in part since Decandolle (IS36), The third genus, 
Neobartlettia , occurring primarily in the lowlands of Central 
America, is named as new here. 

The new genus shows a nijmber of trends which help in the 
recognition of most of the species. These include the usually 
long slender petioles of the leaves, the usually numerous hairs 
on the backs of the corolla lobes, the usually more papillose 
style branches, and the usually slender inornate anther collars. 
The characters that prove most diagnostic in the accurate 
delimitation of the genus are the Aill sized anther appendages 
without recurved margins, the convex or short conical receptacle, 
the short broad lobes of the corolla and the distinctive slightly 
swollen carpopodium. Though the carpopodia show differences 
between the various species, there is a basic uniformity of 
design. In its most- frequent form the lower tapering part is 
made up of shorter rather thin-walled, sometimes enlarged cells 
which are only slightly differentiated from the upper more 
elongate cells, and the upper cells form a swollen area around 
the base of the achene and upward along the bases of the ribs. 
In a few species such as N. ehrenbergii , N. pinabetensis and 
N. paezense the carpopodium is a narrower rim but with cells 
still not differentiated from those at the bases of the ribs . 

Neobartlettia proves to include most of the species that 
have been placed in the genus Hebeclinium during the second half 
of the 19th century. The genera are rather closely related 
though they can be told very easily by the shape of the 
receptacle. The receptacle of Hebecliniim is distinctly hemi- 
spherical. 

We have placed another group of related species in a 
separate genus, Guayania . This latter genus is distinguished 
primarily by its very asymmetric carpopodia and its usually 
cymose inflorescences. 

Neobartlettia R.M.King and H.Robinson, genus novum Asterace- 
amm rEupatorieaeT- Plantae frutescentes vel subarborescentes 
laxe ramosae. Folia opposita plerumque longe petiolata, laminis 
ellipticis vel late ovatis. Inflorescentiae plerumque laxae 

29li 



1971 King & Robinson, The genua Keobartlettla 29$ 

corymbosae. Involucri squamae 20-50 inaequilongae 3-A-seriatae 
anguste lanceolatae vel oblongae; receptacula plana vel convexa 
pauce vel dense pubescentia. Flores 20-150 in capitulo, corollae 
violaceae vel albae infundibulares, cellulis plerumcpae angustis, 
parietibus sinuosis, lobis aequilateraliter tricingularibus, intus 
glabris extus plei'umque dense setiferis saepe glanduliferis; 
f 1 1 amenta antherarum in parte superiore longissima, cellulis 
quadratis vel rectangularibus, parietibus inomatis, cellulis 
exothecialibus plerumque subquadratis vel brevioribus, appendi- 
cibus antherarum longe triangularibus vel late ovatis; styli 
infeme non-nodulosi glabri, appendicibus tenuibus vel anguste 
clavatis sublaevibus vel breviter papillosis; achaenia prismatica 
5-co3tata glabra vel pauce setifera raro glandulifera, costae in 
parte inferiore et carpopodia pauce vel valde inflata, cellvilis 
carp)opodiorum infeme quadratis supeme elongatis, parietibus 
tenuibus J pappus setiformi vmiseriatus, setis 30-40 gracilibus 
scabris persistentibus, cellulis apicalibus acutis. 

Species typica: Eupatorium tuerckhe-irnii Klatt. 

Chromosome number determined as 2n = 20 (Holmgren, 1919; 
N. sordlda, reported as Eupatorium ianthinum ) « 

We take great pleasure in naming this new genus of very 
sho>*y plants in honor of Harley Harris Bartlett. The senior 
author vras fortunate to have known this great botanist person- 
ally for a brief period. The life and works of Bartlett have 
been suannarized by Voss (I96I) . 

Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
nineteen species . 

fteobartlettia brevigetiolata (Schultz-Bip. ex Klatt) R.M.King & 
H.Robinson, comb. nov. Hebeclinium brevipetiolatum Schultz- 
Bip. ex Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 90. 188A. Mexico. 

Neobartlettia constJj)atiflora (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 

comb, nov^ Eupatorium constipatiflorum Klatt, Ann. Naturh. 
Hofmus. Wien 9: 355. 1894. Mexico. 

Neobartlettia ehrenberg^ii (Hemsl.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium ehrenbergii Hemsl., Biol. Centr. Am. Bot. 
2: 94. 1881. Guatemala, Mexico. 

Weobai-tlettia hastifera (Standi. & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Robin- 
son, comb. nov. Eupatoirium hastiferum Standi. & Steyerm., 
Field Mus. Publ. Bot. 22: 303. 1940. Guatemala. 

Neobartlettia hylobia (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 

comb, nov . ^upatorixun hylobium B.L.Robinson, Proc. Bost. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. 31: 249. 1904. Mexico. 



296 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 5 

Neobartl^tjj.a^^ karyjjskiajxa (A.P.Decandolle) R.M.King & H.Robin- 
son, comb." noV. Supatorium karwinskianvim A.P.Decandolle, 
Prodr. 5: 163. 1836. Mexico. 

Neobjurt l^t t ia j-Ujcii (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
novl Supatcritun ItixLi B.L.Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 361 
4fl0. 1901. Guatemala. 

!feobartlettia majcojili (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium maxnnii B.L.Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 5A! 
251. I9I8. Panama. 

Neobartlet^^^ mexiae (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium mexiae B.L.Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 104s 
20. 1934. Brazil. 

Nepbartlettija oresbia (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium oresbivim B.L.Robinson, Proc. Amer. Acad. 
35: 337. 1900. Mexico. 

Neobartlettia oj^e^bi^ides (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatoriiat oresbioides B.L.Robinson, Pix)C. Amer. 
Acad. 44: 618. 1909 . Guatemala, Mexico. 

NeobjoHblett^ia X)aezen3e (Hieron.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. 

nov. Eupatorium paezense Hieron., Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 28: 574* 
1901. Colombia. 

Neobartlettia gansamalensis (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatorium pansamalense B.L.Robinson, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 36: 482. I90I. Guatemala, Mexico. 

Neobartlettia ginabetensis (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson^ 
comb. nov. Eupatorium pinabetense B.L.Robijison, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 36: 482. I9OI. Guatemala, Mexico. 

NeobartletjULa platTphylla (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatorivm platyphyllvim B.L.Robinson, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 35 i 339. I900. Costa Rica, Guatemala, Mexico, 
Panama. 

Neobartlettia pijlonoph/U-a (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatorium prionophyllum B.L.Robinson, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 361 484. 1901. Costa Rica, Guatemala. 

Neobjurtlejjbia ruae (Standi.) R.M.Klng & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorium ruae Standi., Ceiba 1: 49. 1950. Honduras. 

Neobartlettia sordida (Less.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorium sordidiim Leas., Linnaea 4: 403. 1831. Mexico. 



1971 King & Robinson, The genua Neobartlettia 297 

N^eobajHblettia tujerckheiwilj. (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Robinson, coaib. 

nov. Eupatoriujn tuerckhejjul i Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 95- 188A. 
Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant - 20502 to the senior author. 



References 

Decandolle, A. P. 1836. Ordo. CII. Compositae. Prodr. Syst. Nat. 

5: 4-695. 

Holmgren, J. 1919. K. Svenska Vetensk.-Akad. Handl. 59, No. 7. 

King, R.M. & H.Robinson 1969. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Coapo- 
sitae) . XVI. A monograph of the genus Decachaeta DC. 
Brittonia 21: 275-284, 397. 

and . 1971. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) . 



XXXVII. The genus Hebeclinium . Phytologia 21: 298-301. 

Voss, E.G. 1961. Harley Hari-is Bartlett. Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
88(1): 47-56. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XXJVII. 
THE GENUS HEBECLINIUM 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Sittithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



The Eupatorian species with hair or chaff on the receptacles 
have often been segregated into a separate genus or section, 
Hebeclinium . Like many other segregates previously recognized 
in the Eupatorieae, this concept of Hebeclinium is some'what 
artificial. Some species such as Poly ant hina nemorosa (1970) 
and Urolepis hecatantha (1971) have no close relationship. Also, 
hairs are found occasionally on receptacles of many species in 
such genera as Fleischmannia and Critonia . Still, most species 
of Eupatorieae with prominent hairs on the receptacles belong to 
a related group of three genera, Decachaeta (I969), Hebeclinium , 
and Neobartlettia (1971) . 

This related group of three genera may be considered 
Critonioid in the broad sense having smooth surfaced corolla 
lobes and simple style bases . The three genera are rather 
distinct, however, in having usually slender anther collars with 
mostly inornate cells, and usually having many distinct hairs on 
the outer surfaces of the corolla lobes. Decachaeta is distinct 
by the short anther appendages with recurved margins, and all 
but one species of Decachaeta have alternate leaves. Decachaeta 
is entirely Mexican and Central American in distribution. 
Neobartlettia is most obviously distinct from Hebeclinium in its 
less convex, conical or even flat receptacles . Neobartlettia 
occurs primarily in Mexico and Central America with some South 
American species. 

In seeking a more concise understanding of Hebeclinium and 
its relatives, we have taken vertical sections through the 
receptacles of a niomber of species. In almost all the species 
of Hebeclinium the very highly convex receptacle is composed 
internally almost entirely of sclereids. The massive outer 
layer is many cells thick and breaks off rather easily. Only 
one species, H. guevarae , has been seen with considerable 
parenchyma in the receptacle and the outer layer of sclereids 
only one or two cells thick. The receptacles of both Decachaeta 
and Neobartlettia characteristically have a large cor« of 
parenchyma . 

Hebeclinivun A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5: 136. I836. 

Plants erect, sparsely branched, herbs or subshrubs. Leaves 
always opposite, distinctly petioled, blades broadly ovate to 
deltoid, often serrate. Inflorescence a corymbose panicle. In- 

298 



1971 King & Robinson, The genus Kebeclinixm 299 

volucre of 25-AO lanceolate phyllaries; in 3-5 series; receptacle 
hemispherical, barely to densely hairy; 20-80 flowers per 
head; corollas narrowly tubxilar, 5-lobed, outer surface of cor- 
olla glabrous below, lobes usually longer than wide, usually 
with prominent multicellular uniseriate hairs and a few glands; 
inner surface of four species with numerous multiseptate hairs; 
stomates absent; anther collar often slender composed of rather 
thin walled inornate cells, many quadrate cells in lower part. 
Anther appendage rather large with large cells; style base with- 
out enlarged node, glabrous. Stylar appendage very narrow 
throughout, only slightly mamillose. Achenes prismatic, A-5 
ribbed, setae sometimes present, carpopodia scarcely distinct, 
only a few rows of short cells at edge, area of longer upper cells 
merging with sides of achene and extending up ribs, pappus of ca 
30-^0 scabrous setae, apical cells pointed. Chromosome number 
determined as X = 10 (Powell and King, 1969) . 
Type species: Eupatorium macrophyllum L. 

Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
eleven species. 

Hebeclinium bullatissimum (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb, nov . Supat^roum bullatissJTmiTn B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. n.s. 73:6. 1924. Ecuador. 

Hej>ylinium cuatrecasasii (R.M.King & H.Robinson) R.M.King & H. 
Robinson, comb. nov. Eupatorium cuatrecasasii R.M.King & 
H.Robinson, Sida 3- 32A. 1969. Colombia. 

Hebeclinium eri^clinlum (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H. Robinson, 

comb. nov. Eupatorium erioclinium B.L.Robinson, Proc. Amer. 
Acad. 5A: 2^3. 1918. Colombia. 

Hebeclinium gujijaulense (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorium guapulense Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 90. 188i+. 
Colombia, Ecuador. 

Hebecljijiium guevarae (R.M.King & H.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robin- 
son, comb. nov. Eupatorium guevarae R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
Sida 3: 322. 1969. Colombia. 

Hebeclinium hy^rohylaeum(B .L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. novT Rapato^ium hygrohylaexim B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. n.s. 17: 19. 1926. Costa Rica. 

Hebeclinium Jajoense (Aristeguieta) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov ." "Kupat o rium .ja.joense Aristeguieta, Fl. Venez. 10: 200. 
196/t. Venezeula. 



300 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

Hebeclinium macrophyllum (L.) A.P.Deceindolle, Prodr. 5: 136. 

183?r Eupatoriummacrophyllum L. Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1175. 1763. 
Mexico, Central America, West Indies, South America (Col- 
ombia-Argentina) . 

Hebeclinium phoenicticum (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb. nov. Eupatorixjm phoenicticum B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. n.s. 60: 26. 1919. Colombia. 

Hebeclinium seijLceum (H.B.K.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorium sericeum H.B.K., Nov. Gen. et Sp. U' 110. ed. 
fol. 1818. Colombia. 

Hebeclinium t oiy ndojense ( Badillo ) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium torondoyense Badillo, Bol. Soc. Venez. 
Cienc. Nat. 9: 189. 19hU. Colombia, Venezeula. 



Species excluded 

H. atrorubens Lem. = Neobartlettia sordida 

H. brevipetiolata Schultz-Bip. ex Klatt = 

Neobartlettia brevipetiolata 

H. ehrenbergil Schultz-Bip. ex Hemsl. = Neobartlettia ehrenbergii 

H. hecatanthxm A.P.Decandolle = Urolepis hecatantha 

H. ianthinium Hook. = Neobartlettia sordida 

H. liebmanniae Schultz-Bip. ex Hemsl. = Decachaeta peromata 

H. macrocephalxuB Benth. = Neobartlettia ehi^enbergii 

H. megalophyllum Lem. = Neobartlettia ? 

H. panamense Carr. = Neobart le 1 1 ia sordida 

H. gordidum Schultz-Bip. ex Koster = Neobartlettia sordida 

H. tepican\im Hook. & Am. = Critonia hebebotrya 

H. tetragonum Benth. = Fleischmannia microstemon 

H. urolepis A.P.Decandolle = Urolepis hecatantha 

H. vitifolium Schultz-Bip. ex Klatt = Eupatoriaatrum triangulare 



1971 King & Robinson, The genus Hebeclinlum 301 

Note on the genus Decachaeta . The following species is to 
be added to those in the recent monograph of the genus (King & 
Robinson, I969) . The species is similar to D. thieleana but is 
distinct by its opposite leaves and less numerous glands. 

Decachaeta perornata (Klatt) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
"" lATpatorium peromatum Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 90. 188A. 
Mexico . 

Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant GB - 20502 to the senior author. 



References 

King, R.M. & H.Robinson 1969. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Con5)os- 
itae). XVI. A monograph of the genus Decachaeta DC. 
Brittonia 21: 275-28^, 397. 

1970. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Conqpositae) . XXXI. 



A new genus Polyanthina . Phytologia 20: 213-21A. 

1971. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae) . 



XXXVI. A new genus Neobartlettia . Phytologia 21: 294-297. 

& 1971. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Asteraceae). 

XL. A new genus Urolepis . Phytologia 21: 304-305- 

Powell, A.M. & R.M.King I969. Chiximosome numbers in the Con^os- 
itae. Colombian species. Amer. J. Bot. 56(l): 116-121. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XXXIX. 
A NEW GENUS, GUAYANIA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D . C . 20560 . 



The present new genus is established for four species of the 
Guayana Highland Region that appear very different from each 
other vegetatively, but vAiich show great \miformity in most 
other characters. The convex to conical receptacles, corolla 
lobes densely hairy outside, anther collars slender with inornate 
cells, style branches with distinct short papillae and the style 
bases being plain, mark the group as related to Neobartlettia 
(King & Robinson, 1971) • The four species treated here are 
distinguished from Neobartlettia by their very asymmetrical 
carpopodia which have their foramens completely to one side. The 
species of Guayania have fewer flowers per head than most species 
of Neobart let t ia , but some of the latter genus such as N. 
hast if era (Standi . & Steyerm.) R.M.King & H.Roblnson, fall within 
the range. A distinguishing character for at least two species 
of Guayania is the distinctly cymose inflorescence. The 
inflorescence of a third species, G. penninervata . has been 
described as a panicle (Wurdack, 1953) and the underdeveloped 
specimen we have seen shows only tendencies to be cymose. The 
fourth species, G. yaviana , is described as densely corymbose 
and we have not seen any material. 

The type species, G. roupalifolia, is widely distributed on 
the tepuis of the eastern and central Guayana Highlands Region 
and has very distinctive elliptical to obovate leaves with blunt- 
ly acute apices and tapering bases. This species has been 
considered closely related to G. yaviana which is also from 
higher elevations in the central highlands . Still, relationship 
to G. cerasifolia of lower elevations to the west seems as close. 
Guayania penninervata , also of lower elevations, is not known 
from enough collections for careful evaluation. 

The new genus is the only one in the Eupatorieae that is 
endemic to or centered in the Guayana Highlands. 



Guaj^ma R.M.King & H.Robinson, genus noviim Asteracearum 
(EupatorieaeX. Plantae frutescentes laxe ramosae. Folia oppo- 
sita breve vel longe petiolata, laminis ellipticis vel late 
ovatis valde penninervatis herbaceis. Inf lores cent iae 
aliquantum vel valde cymosae. Involucri squamae 12-25 inaequi- 
longae 3-4-seriatae lanceolatae vel oblongae; receptacula conica 
glabra. Flores 5-25 in capitulo; corollae violaceae vel albae 
infundibulares, cellulis pleinunque angustis, parietibus sinu- 

302 



1971 King & Robinson, The genua Guayanla 303 

osis, lobis aequilateraliter triangularibus intus glabris extus 
dense setiferis non-glandulif eris ; filamenta antherarum in parte 
superiore longissima, cellulis quadratis vel rectangularibus, 
parietibus inomatis, cellialis exx)thecialibus plerumque subquad- 
ratis vel brevioribus, appendicibus antheranjin longe triangular- 
ibus vel late ovatis; styli infeme non-nodulosi glabri, append- 
icibus tenuibus breviter papillosis; achaenia pri fanatic a 5-cost- 
ata pauce setifera; carpopodia valde asymmetrica, cellulis 
infeme quadratis supeme elongatis, parietibus tenuibus; pappus 
setiformi imiseriatus, setis 30-40 gracilibus scabris persistent- 
ibus, cellulis apicalibus acutis. 

Species typica: Eupatorium roupcilifoliinn B.L.Robinson. 



Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
four species. 

Guayania cerasj-folia (Schultz-Bip. ex Baker) R.M.King & H.Robin- 
son, comb. nov. Eupatorium cerasifolium Schultz-Bip. ex 
Baker, Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(2): 308. 1876. Brazil, Colombia, 
Venezeula. 

Gu^ania pennineryata (Wurdack) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Eupatorivim penninervatum Wurdack, Mem. N.T. Bot . Gard. 8(2): 
145. 1953. Venezeula. 

Guayania roupaljLlolia(B . L . Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov .~ ^pat^rium~roupalif olium B.L.Robinson, Proc. Am. Acad. 
55: 30. 1919. Eupatorium tepuianum Steyerm., Fieldiana, Bot. 
28: 638. 1953. British Guiana, Venezeula. 

Guayania yayiana (Lasser & Maguire) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov. Eupatorium yavianum (Lasser & Maguire) Lasser & Mag- 
uire, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 15: IO6. 1954- Eupatorium 
angulicaule Lasser & Maguire, Brittonia 7: 88. 1950, non 
Eupatorimn angulicaule Schultz-Bip, ex Baker. Venezeula. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant - 20502 to the senior author. 

Reference 

King, R.M. & H.Robinson 1971. Studies in the Eupatorieae (Aster- 
aceae) . XXXVI. A new genus, Neobartlettia . Phytologia 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XL. 
THE GENUS, UROLEPIS . 



R. M. Kjjng and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2056O. 

The name Urolepis is here raised to generic rank to accomo- 
date the single species, U. hecatantha . The most distinctive 
featvire of the genus is the greatly enlarged pubescent receptacle. 
Nearly as distinctive are the stylar appendages with long dense- 
ly imbricate papillae. The carpopodium with its enlarged thin- 
walled cells and swollen upper part is also usefxil as a character, 
along with the enlarged blunt tipped apical cells of the pappus 
setae. The combination of characters given is more than adequ- 
ate to set this genus apart from others. 

The genus, Urolepis , is not easily placed among others in 
the Eupatorieae. The glabrous unenlarged style base and smooth 
corolla lobes might be Critonioid but the style branches and 
highly annulated anther collars would be unusual for that group. 
The species has been placed in Hebeclinium tdiich is a Critonioid 
genus, but the latter has a smaller receptacle, cells of the 
anther collars without annular thickenings, corolla lobes with 
hairs on the back, style branches smooth, and pappus setae conqp- 
letely different. The style branches of Urolepis are like those 
of Ayapana and the numerous flowers on a hairy receptacle are 
reminiscent of the Ayapana related Polyanthina . Nevertheless, 
these Camploclinioid genera have enlarged style bases and very 
distinct carpopodia and do not seem closely related. The closest 
relatives of Urolepis are undoubtedly among the as yet unassigned 
species of southern Brazil and adjacent areas. A species placed 
in section Urolepis by Baker, Eupatorium trichobasis has a prom- 
inent pubescent receptacle, annulated anther collars, and the 
same type of enlarged blunt apical cells on the pappus setae. 
The achene is also rather similar but the carpopodium much less 
distinct. This latter species is very different, however, in the 
papillose inner surfaces and margins of the corolla lobes and 
the shorter more erect papillae of the style branches, and the 
relationships seem distinctly Gyptoid. It hairdly seems necessary 
to indicate that the genus Eupatorium is only remotely related 
being distinguished by hairs on the base of the style among other 
things. It is only the crudest kind of taxonomy that Urolepis 
has resided under the name Eupatorivim for so long. 

Urolepis (A.P.Decandolle) R.M.King H.Robinson, new status. 
' HeBeclinivmi section Urolepis A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5' 136. 
1836. 

30U 



1971 King & Robinson, The genua Urolepla 305 

Eupatorixan section Drolepis [ A.P.Decandolle] Baker in Mart. 
Fl. Bras. 6(2): 364. 1876. 



Coarse herbs or subshrubs, sparingly branched. Leaves op- 
posite, distinctly long petioled, blades broadly deltoid, dent- 
ate or denticxilate . Inflorescence a corymbose panicle. Inrol- 
ucre of ca 50 long appendaged phyllaries in 3-A series; recept- 
acles subglobose, densely short pubescent; 100-150 flovrers per 
head; corollas narrowly tubiilar, 5-lobed, outer surface of cor- 
olla glabrous below, lobes slightly longer than wide with a few 
short stalked glands externally; stomates absent; extrene tips 
of lobes papillose; inner surface of corolla glabrous; cells of 
corollas slender with very sinuous walls. Anther collar slender, 
coaposed of Bjostly rectangular cells with numerous transverse 
thickenings. Anther appendage rather large with large cells. 
Style base without enlarged node, glabrous. Stylar appendage 
narrow throughout, with very long slender imbricated papillae. 
Achenes prismatic, 4-5 ribbed, with occasional short stalked 
glands, carpopodia very distinct, tapering, coB?)osed of elongate 
mostly thin walled cells, upper cells of carpopodium and lower 
cells of ribs much enlarged. Pappus of ca 20 scabrous setae, 
enlarged near the tips, apical cells very blunt. 

Type species: Hebeclinlum hecatanthun A.P.Decandolle. 

Urolepls hec at antha (A.P.Decandolle) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov . Tie^^ecllnrum hecatanthxm A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5: 136. 
1836. Hebeclinlum urolepls A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 5: 136. 
1836. Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Paraguay. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant - 20502 to the senior author. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) , XLI. 
THE GEHUS, EUPATORIASTRIM . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 2056O. 

A critical review of EupatoirLastrtm reveals a natiiral group 
of three species characterized by large many flowered heads with 
interspersed paleae, by some>Aiat shortened anther appendages, 
and by broadly triangular to nearly orbicular leaves vdiich are 
larger and sometimes deeply cleft nearer the base of the plant. 
The diversity between the three species in size, form of leaves, 
corolla pubescence, anther appendages, and details of the pappus 
and carpopodium indicates thoroughly distinct lines of develop- 
ment. Corolla structure and the short sometimes grooved anther 
appendages suggest closest relationship to the large genus Koan- 
ophyton . 



Eupatoriastrum Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. 39: 93. 1903. 

Shrubs or subshrubs, few branched. Leaves opposite, petio- 
led, blades deltoid or ovate, basal leaves sometimes deeply 
lobed, margins serrate. Inflorescence a very loose panicle. 
Involucre of ca. 50 phyllaries in 3-5 series; receptacle highly; 
100-300 flowers per head, 100-300 pales per head. Corollas tub- 
lilar, 5-lobed, outer svirface of corolla glabrous below, lobes 
about as long as wide with short stalked glands, with or without 
setae, tips slightly papillose; stoaates absent; inner siurface 
of corolla tube glabrous. Anther collar slender coi^osed mostly 
of rectangular cells with numerous transverse thickenings; anther 
appendages short, coinposed of rather large cells. Style base 
without enlarged node, glabrous; stylar appendage some>diat en- 
larged especially near the tip, mammillose. Achenes prismatic, 
4-5 ribbed with nimemDus setae, carpopodia distinct, of quadrate 
cells with thin or slightly thickened walls. Pappus of 15-35 
scabrous setae, apical cells acute. 

Type species: Eupatoriastrum nelsonii Greenm. 

Chromosome number not determined. 



Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
three species. 

Eupatoriastrum angulif olixm (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
"coni* . nov . Eupatorium angulifolium B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. n.s. 65: 46. 1922. Guatemala, Mexico. 

306 



1971 King & Robinson, The gemia Eupatoriaatrum 307 

Eupatoriastrum nelsonli Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. 39: 93. 1903. 
El Salvador, Mexico. 

Eupat r last r-um triaAgulare (A.P.Decandolle) B.L.Robinson, Contr. 
Gray Herb. n.s. 68: 34. 1923. Bulbostylis triangxaaris A. P. 
Decandolle, Prodr. 7: 268. 1838. Eupatorixm vitifolium 
Schultz-Bip. ex Klatt, Leopoldina 20: 90. 1884. Mexico. 



A cknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant - 20502 to the senior author. 



RE-ESTABLISHMENT OF THE GENUS ALDAMA 
(COMPOSITAE-HELIANTHEAE) 

Charles Feddema 

Forest Service Herbarium 



ALDAMA and A. dentata were described as new by La Llave 
and Lexarza (1824) from plants collected near Cdrdoba In 
Veracruz, Mexico. Lesslng (1830, 1834) assigned a Schlede 
collection from near Jalapa ( 225 ) to Aldama dentata and In 
the earlier paper Included a description of the genus and 
species and drawings of floral and Inflorescence details. 
He described A. dentata as erect while noting that La Llave 
had described It as procumbent. DeCandolle (1836) trans- 
ferred A. dentata to his new Gymnopsls , a broadly conceived 
genus In which he Included species now assigned to various 
other genera. DeCandolle also described as new, G. 
schledeana , referring to the Schlede collection. He de- 
scribed £. dentata as erect and having a conical receptacle 
but G. schledeana as procumbent and having a convex recep- 
tacle. Bentham and Hooker (1860) accepted both of these 
species but considered them best assigned to Sclerocarpus , 
and Hemsley (1881) made the new combinations. Since that 
time Aldama has been Included In Sclerocarpus by most 
authors although application of the binomials has varied 
widely . 

The two genera, Sclerocarpus , as typified by £. af rlcanus , 
and Aldama , as tjrplf led by A. dentata, are superficially 
similar. Both have neutral ray flowers with yellow llgules 
and perfect tubular disk flowers. In both genera the re- 
ceptacular bract completely surrounds the mature marginal 
disk achene and becomes somewhat thickened and sculptured. 
The bract In Aldama , however, remains relatively thin and 
pithy and Is easily removed from about the achene while the 
bract In Sclerocarpus becomes thick and hard and difficult 
to remove. There are a number of other significant differ- 
ences between Aldama and Sclerocarpus suggesting strongly 
that they be considered distinct. These are indicated in 
the following table. 



308 



1971 Feddema, The Genus Aldama 309 

Major Characters Differentiating Aldama from Sclerocarpus 



Aldama 



Sclerocarpus 



Leaf blade lanceolate; margin 
entire or minutely denticulate. 
Petiole short. 

Involucre biseriate; bracts 
dark or brownish, appressed 
to the flowers. 

Receptacle convex. 

Ray flowers with short tube 
and linear-oblong ligules. 

Ray achenes loculate, thin- 
walled, flattened when dry. 



Disk flowers with definite 
short tube, 10-nerved; 
lobes short, deltoid, 
unbearded . 



Blade ovate-trullate or deltoid; 
margin coarsely toothed or 
dissected. Petiole long. 

Involucre uniseriate or rarely 
biseriate; bracts green, 
spreading or reflexed. 

Receptacle ovoid or conical. 

Ray flowers with long tube, 
the ligules ovate to orbicular. 

Ray achenes usually fleshy 
throughout, often twisted when 
dry. 

Disk flowers without definite 
tube, mostly 5-nerved; lobes 
long-lanceolate, often dark 
bearded within. 



Anthers brownish, exserted 
at anthesis; connective 
short, deltoid. 

Style short, the branches 
flattened, broadest Just 
below the apex. 

Mature marginal disk achenes 
often radially compressed- 
trigonous. 

Mature marginal receptacular 
bracts thin, chartaceous- 
pithy, corrugate, wrinkled or 
pitted, sometimes with 2 
prominent lateral ribs. 



Chromosome number, N ■ 17. 



Anthers yellow, usually retained 
in the corolla; connective long- 
lanceolate. 

Style long, the branches terete, 
attenuate. 



Mature marginal disk achenes 
usually subterete or somewhat 
laterally compressed. 

Mature marginal receptacular 
bracts thick and sclerified, 
rarely tough and fibrous, 
usually with raised tubercles, 
occasionally with low long- 
itudinal ribs. 

Chromosome numbers, N - 11, 12, 
14, 18. 



310 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

Study of a duplicate of Schlede 225 indicates that it is 
assignable to Aldama dentata . La Llave's description of A. 
dentata as procumbent may be explained by the condition of 
plants which may survive well beyond the normal growing sea- 
son. A. dentata was described as flowering in March. At 
this time of the year in C6rdoba, where the type was col- 
lected, plants of the previous year may occasionally be 
found with the apex having died back or having been grazed 
and with only one or a few procumbent basal branches remain- 
ing. These sometimes root at basal nodes leaving little ev- 
idence of the original stem and roots. DeCandolle's de- 
scription of the receptacle of Gymnopsis (Aldama ) dentata as 
conical and that of £. schiedeana as convex is probably due 
to the different appearance of the receptacle when young and 
after maturity. While the flowers are maturing, the recep- 
tacle is convex. After the achenes and receptacular bracts 
are shed, the drying receptacle constricts marginally, forc- 
ing the center of the disk higher. Plants from northern 
South America, usually identified as Sclerocarpus coffeacola 
Klatt are also assignable to Aldama dentata although speci- 
mens from this region tend to be smaller and have smaller 
heads than those from Mexico and Central America. All the 
specimens of Aldama examined can be assigned to the single 
species, Aldama dentata . 

SYSTEMATIC TREATMENT 

ALDAMA La Llave & Lexarza, Nov. Veg. Descr. 14. 1824. 
Type species: Aldama dentata La Llave & Lexarza. 
Gymnopsis DC, Prodr. 5:461. 1836. (In part). 
Sclerocarpus . (Of authors, in part). 

Erect herbaceous annals, strigose-hispidulous ; branching 
opposite below, alternate above; leaves lanceolate, short- 
petiolate, blade shallow-toothed or subentire; heads numer- 
ous, radiate, often long pedunculate; receptacle chaffy, 
convex or drying conoid; involucre campanulate, biseriate; 
involucral bracts subf oliaceous , appressed to the disk flow- 
ers; ray flowers neutral, sterile, the achenes thin-walled, 
locular, flattened when dry; disk flowers perfect, fertile, 
the corolla tubular, 10-nerved, with definite tube and limb; 
stigmas somewhat flattened, broadest below apex; mature re- 
ceptacular bracts enclosing the achenes and shed with them; 
mature marginal receptacular bracts radially or laterally 
compressed, thick, pithy, the surface prominently pitted 
and ridged; achenes black, pappus a low crown of basally 
fused bristles, a low ridge or absent. 



1971 Feddema, The Genus Aldama 311 

ALDAMA DENTATA La Llave & Lexarza, Nov. Veg. Descr. 14. 1824. 
Type: MEXICO: VERACRUZ: C6rdoba: "...in inundatis rivuli 
Huehueyapa S. Joseph! del Corral." (Holotype not seen, 
possibly not extant). 

Gymnopsis dentata (La Llave & Lexarza) DC, Prodr. 5:561. 
1836. 

Gymnopsis schiedeana DC, Prodr. 5:561. Type: MEXICO: 
VERACRUZ: "...inter segetes ad margines dumetorum 
Jalappam, Jun," C Schiede 225 (Holotype probably at 
HAL, isotype MOl). 

Sclerocarpus dentatus (La Llave & Lexarza) Benth. & Hook, 
f. ex Hemsl. Biol. Cent. Am. Bot. 2:164. 1881. 

Sclerocarpus schiedeanus (DC) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Hemsl. 
Biol. Cent. Am. Bot. 2:164. 1881. 

Sclerocarpus kerberi Fourn., Bull. Bot. Soc. Fr. 20:183. 
1883. Type: MEXICO: VERACRUZ: Cordoba, 31 Jul 1882. 
E. Kerber 19 (Holotype M; isotype Kl ; type fragment Fl). 

Sclerocarpus coffeaecolus Klatt., Ann. Naturh. Hofmus. 
Wein. 9:360. 1895. Syntypes: COLUMBIA (VENEZUELA): 
Valle de Aragua, Hacienda Palmar de San Matthes, _E. 
Otto 811 (?) (Holotype probably at W, not seen, 
isotype GHl ; type fragment USi); Moritz 25 , no date or 
locality (Holotype probably at W, not seen); Grosourdy 
1862, without collection number or locality (Holotype 
probably at W, not seen). (Isotype of E. Otto 811 (?) 
here designated Lectotype: GHl). 

Sclerocarpus schiedeanus var. elongatus Greenm. , Proc. 
Am. Acad. 32:309. 1897. Syntypes: MEXICO: VERACRUZ: 
Wartenburg, near Tantoyuca, 1895, L. C Ervendberg 98 , 
99 (GHl); MORELOS: fields around Cuernavaca, 31 Oct 
1896, C G. Pr ingle 6606 (GHl MICHl MO! NYl US! VTl). 
(Isotype of Pringle 6606 here designated Lectotype: 
MOl). 

Gymnolomia acuminata Blake ex Robinson., Proc. Am. Acad. 
49:505. 1913. Type: MEXICO: TAMAULIPAS: "prope 
G6me2 Farias," 13-21 Apr 1907, E. Palmer 582 (Holotype 
GHl; isotypes Fl NYl USi). 



312 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

Sclerocarpus elongatus (Greenm.) Greenm. & Thompson., 
Ann. Mo. Bot. Gard. 1:412. 1915. 

Erect annuals, sometimes long-lived, (0.3) 0.7-1.5 (2.5) 
m. tall, mostly strigose-hispidulous; leaves opposite below, 
alternate above, (1) A-8 (14) cm. long; petioles 2-15 mm. 
long; blades linear-lanceolate to narrowly ovate, scabrous 
to substrigose above, strigose-hispidulous beneath, mostly 
minutely few-toothed, apex acute-acuminate, rarely obtuse, 
base cuneate or rounded; heads numberous, (3) 6-10 (13) mm. 
high, solitary, terminating the branches or 2-3 together, 
the terminal one sometimes with peduncles 7-13 cm. long; 
involucre biseriate, campanulate, mostly 5-9 mm. high; outer 
involucral bracts elliptic-lanceolate to ovate, scabrous to 
strigose, ciliate, apex acute to obtuse, sometimes squarrose, 
often dark veined; inner involucral bracts mostly equaling 
in number and subtending the rays, usually longer and broader 
than the outer bracts, the apex often obtuse or rounded; ray 
flowers 5-7 (11), ligules linear-oblong (2.5) 8-13 (18) mm. 
long, mostly shallow- toothed, ray achenes epappose or with 
minute scales on the angles; disk flowers (8) 20-70, the 
corolla (2.5) 4-6 mm. long, yellow-orange, the lobes some- 
times reddish; mature receptacular bracts 2.4-3.5 mm. long, 
brownish, purple or mottled, laterally compressed or the 
marginal ones radially compressed-trigonous with thickened 
lateral ribs, the surface mostly glabrous, shallowly wrinkled 
or with deep pits and prominent irregular ridges; bracts of 
the central disk to 8 mm. long, tubular or laterally com- 
pressed with an apical tooth surpassing the corollas; achenes 
of the marginal disk flowers 2-3.5 mm. long, obovoid-fusiform, 
trigonous or laterally compressed and narrowly and obliquely 
obovoid, pappus mostly minute or absent, rarely a short scale 
or tooth. 

Two varieties of Aldama dentata are distinguishable. In 
addition to the typical variety, three collections from west- 
ern Michoac5n and southeastern Jalisco represent a previously 
undescribed variety. These varieties may be distinguished by 
means of the following key. 

KEY TO THE VARIETIES OF ALDAMA DENTATA 

Outer involucral bracts conspicuously shorter than the 
inner; apex of the inner bracts mostly obtuse or rounded; 
peduncles mostly strigose-pilose with appressed or spread- 
ing hairs mostly less than 1.5 mm. long 

1. var. dentata 



1971 Foddena, The Genus jLldama 313 

Outer involucral bracts subequal to the Inner; apex of 
the inner bracts narrowly acute or strongly acuminate; 
peduncles with coarse spreading hairs mostly more than 
1.5 mm. long 2. var. zamorenais 

1. ALDAMA DENTATA La Llave & Lexarza var. DENTATA. 

This variety is variable and widespread. It is soaewfaat 
weedy in habit and sometimes is a dominant species in fallow 
grain fields. It is usually shorter than the following va- 
riety often not exceeding one-half meter in height. 

Distribution: Eastern Mexico including southern Tamaullpas 
and Veracruz; central Mexico, including Quer^taro, Mexico and 
Morelos; western Mexico, including Nayarit, Jalisco, CollHa, 
and Michoac^n; southern Mexico including Puebla, Oaxaca and 
Chiapas; British Honduras, Honduras, Guatemala and Northern 
Venezuela. 

Chromosome number : N - 17 ( Feddema 1541 , 1556 , MICH) . 

2. ALDAMA DENTATA La Llave & Lexarza var. ZAMORENSIS Feddeaa, 

var. nov. 

Var. hirsuta, pills plerximque 1-3 mm. longis; Involucrl 
bracteae interiores anguste acutae vel forte acuminatae; 
receptaculum plerumque ovatum; marginis disci paleae matureae, 
purpureae, laevigatae, vel leviter aspero-corrugatae; radiorua 
achaenia epapposa vel pappus vix 0.1 mm. longus. 

Type: MEXICO: MICHOACAN: 27 km SE of Zamora, 16 Aug 1961, 
Feddema 1724 (Holotype MICH) . 

Pubescence of the younger portions of the stem, branches 
and peduncles mostly hirsute with stiff, spreading hairs 
1.5-3.0 mm. long with prominent, yellowish bases; receptacle 
low-convex or ovoid-conoid when living, becoming strongly 
ovoid-conoid after the fall of the achenes; inner involucral 
bracts only slightly longer than the outer, the apex nar- 
rowly acute or strongly acuminate; exposed adaxlal surface 
of the involucral bracts with mostly suberect, yellowish 
hairs mostly more than 1.4 nn. long; ray achenes epappose 
or with a pappus only suggested by low irregularities 
apically on the angles; mature marginal receptacular bracts 
mostly laterally compressed, rarely a few radially com- 
pressed, the surface mostly slightly Irregularly wrinkled, 
usually without prominent, wing-like ribs laterally; mar- 
ginal disk achenes epappose or with the pappus reduced to a 
low collar or irregular rla. 

Chromosome number: N - 17 (Feddema 1724 MICH) . 



311* PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

Other specimens examined: MEXICO: JALISCO: 1 ml. W. of 
Ayo el Chlco, 23 Aug 1958, R. McVaugh 17208 (MICH); 
MICHOACAN: 2 ml. E. of Zamora, 6 Aug 1960, R. M. King 36A5 
(MICH, NY, TEX, US). 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

I wish to express appreciation to Dr. Rogers McVaugh for 
assistance given during the course of this study, and to 
Dr. F. J. Hermann and Dr. Tod F. Stuessy who read the manu- 
script. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Bentham, G. and J. D. Hooker. 1865. Genera Plantarum. 
2:364. 

Candolle, A. P. de. 1836. Prodromus Systematls Naturalls 
Regnl Vegetabllls. 5:566. 

Hemsley, W. B. In: Godman and Savin. 1881. Blologla 
Centrall-Amerlcana. Botany. 1:364. 

La Llave, P. and J. Lexarza. 1824. Novorum Vegetablllum 
Descrlptlones. 1:14. 

Lesslng, F. C. 1830. Synanthereae. In: Schlechtendal , 
D. de and A. de Chamlsso., Plantarum Mexlcanarum a eel, 
virls Schlede et Deppe collectarum. (Contlnuatlo 
prima.) Llnnaea 5:128-164; table II. 

1834. Composltae. In: Schlechtendal, D. de.. 



De Plantls Mexlcanls a G. Schlede M. Dre. collectls 
nuntlam adfert a D. F. L. De Schlechtendal. (Con- 
tlnuatlo.) Llnnaea 9:263-272. 



SOME AIEURITES TAXA IN HAWAII 
AND 
A NOTE REGARDING AROEMONE 

Otto & Isa Degenar 



Due to Dr. B.C. Stone's wanderlust and resulting peregrina- 
tions from the Uhiversity of Hawaii to the Smithsonian, then 
to the College of Guam, and nov to the IMlversity of Malaya at 
Kuala Lunqjur, our plana, agreeable to us three by letter to 
Jointly describe a "mango-leaved" taxon of Aletirites . wont a- 
wry. In fact, even the small specimen we had mailed him on 
loan as type and cotypes is presumably stored in some forgot- 
ten herbarium cabinet in one of the above institutions and 
presently beyond roach. 

Now we two find the new taxon named in Pacific Science as a 
noM . nud. As agreed by past correspondence (much pertaining to 
plants has been dejx)sited in the Hunt Botanical Library in 
Pittsburgh), we three validly name this novelty as follows: 

AIEURTTES MOLUCCANA var. KATOI Degeners & Stone. A var. moluc- 

cana folia lane eo lata differt , 
KATO KUKUI, MANGO-IEAVED KUKUI 

Aleurites molnccana var. katol Degeners & Stone nom. nud .. ex 
Stone in Pac. Sci. 21:553. 1967. 

The variety katol differs mainly from the var. moluccana in 
bearing lanceolate leaves occasionally widened by two obscure 
lobes near base of blade. 

As stated on page 553» the taxon "is named for Mr. Tadayuki 
Kato of Kauai Hi^ School, >*io has been very helpful to me and 
to other visiting botanists. The holotype sjjecimon, taken from 
the tree on the grounds of Kauai Hi^ School in lihue, is at 
the Bishop Museum (Stone 3^7, collected on 15 April 1960)." 
That "A further specimen collected by Dr. Degener is also a- 
vallable" is not strictly correct. Otto & Isa Degener 23,956 
was collected by Mr. Hans W. Hansen from a cultivated tree on 
Kauai on Sept. 24, 1955. Whether Degeners 23,956 of 1955 and 
Stone (collected with Kato according to herbarium sheet label) 
3,427 of i960 are from the sasie tree, wo do not know. Accord- 
ing to Mr. Hansen, his plant was a cultivated one and was said 
to be native to Samoa. 

In Hawaiian and most other Polynesian dialects, typical 
Aleurites ■oluccana is known as "kukui" or some variant of 
this spelling. In Diglish it is often called the "candlenut 
tree," referring to its former use as a source of light. The 

315 



316 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

Kato kukui, with its unusual "mango leaves," is conspicuous 
and attractive. So by this time it may be seen cultivated here 
and there about residences and in parks. 



AIEURTTES MOLUCCAMA var. REMfl (Sherff ) Stone, the Remy kukui, 
is a reduction made in the same publication by Stone of A* remyi 
Sherff in Field Mus. Bot. Ser. 17:558. 1939. We early followed 
Dr. Sherff, printing an illustrated description of this taxon 
in our Flora Hawaliensis . After studying a large series of 
sheets of Aleurites recently, we noted that both the remyi and 
the katoi tendencies occur in various islands of the South Pa- 
cific. We now tend to the belief that Stone's interpretation 
may be the superior one* 

The first paragraph of Stone's page 552 is obviously gar- 
bled: The "mango-leaved" kukui (var. katoi ) with practically 
no lobes is obviovisly not the same as the "Kona" kukui (var. 
rengri) with very narrow lobes. 

AIZURITES MOLUCCANA var. AUIANII Deg. & Deg. vm^. nov. Arbor 

seaanibua circa 23 nm. latis . 
ADLANI KUKUI, SMALL-SEEDED KUKUI 

This hitherto undescribed variety has seeds about 23 nm. 
wide, 15 mm. thick and 20 mm. high; while the ubiquitous var. 
moluccana has them conmonly 30 mm. wide, 23 mm. thick and 30 
mm. hi^. The type is Deg. & Deg. 32,Zf81. Collected in Kukui- 
haele, Hawaii, by Stanley and Atilani Loo, March 28, 1971> and 
deposited in NY. 

The botanical recognition of this taxon was fortuitous. 
Foixed by a broken tooth into Dr. Robert N. Ogawa's dental 
chair in Hilo, Hawaii, the kane patient learned that Mrs. 
Ogawa was an amateur botanist, the daughter a professional 
botanist with the liiiversity of Michigan, and Dr. Ogawa him- ' 
self an ardent maker of seed lei or necklaces as a hobby. In 
the case of the kukui "nut," turned ebony black by burial in 
a taro patch. Dr. Ogawa explained his perfected method of pre- 
paring the seeds. The ccMnversation then changed to the preva- 
lent rumor of a small-seeded kukui growing in isolated Waiplo 
Valley, District of Kohala. Apparently only one tree remains 
in this once heavily popiilated valley, badly mauled by careless 
collectors of its prised seeds. The dentist was a bit evasive. 

Returning for further treatment days later, the patient was 
surprised and delighted to receive from Dr. & Mrs. Ogawa a 
truly regal lei for Mrs. Degener consisting of 25 matched, 
dwarf kukui seeds originally collected in Waipio Valley and 
neighboring Kukuihaele. " Kukuihaele , " contrary to oTir hope, 
does not refer to this rare kukui variety. The coiiq)lex word 



1971 



Degener & Degener, Sane Aleurltea taxa 



317 



iMans "iftovlng kukvil tree," probably in allusion to the action 
on the trees of the strong trade vdnds fxmneled between the 
heists of Mauna Kea and Kohala. 

As one sxirprise deserres another, the writers named this 
new taxon proyisionally r&r. ogawae, mailing a copy of the 
manuscript to Mrs. Ogawa with the plea she furnish good flower- 
ing and fruiting material from a chosen tree as type and co- 
type specimens. 




After B.C. Stone 



The third surprise was an answering 'phone call from Mrs. 0- 
gawa: The couple had not collected the mateidal at all. The col- 
lector had been Mr. Stanley *Kolomona Loo, a resident of Hono- 
kaa of Chinese-Hawaiian ancestry, and his son Aulani. The family 
knows of two trees growing on such precipito\i» tonkin that 
the father mist help his son Aulani to and from the trees with 
aid of a rope. As these tr^es are such a rarity and might be 
injured by Tandals or careless Tisitors, we feel it wise not to 
diTulge their location. Because of Mrs. Ogawa *8 insistance and 
Mr. Loo* 8 knowledge and advice, we here name the plant in his 
son's honor Aleurites moluccana rar. aulanii . The name "Au- 
lani" is particularly appropriate for the ktikiii or candlonut 
as it means "Light of HeaTen" in Hawaiian. 

The unspoiled native Hawaiian forests (some have escaped 
lumbering, or bulldozing for other cooaercial interests) teem 



♦As the Hawaiian alphabet lacks the letter "S", "K" is substi- 
tuted for it. 



318 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

with endemic birds and endemic insects, all nicely adjusted 
to one another over eons of time. On the contrary, as we have 
mentioned elsewhere, our kukui forests are conspicuously si- 
lent except for the occasional thud of a heavy kukui fruit 
striking the ground; nor are they teeming with insects. Fur- 
theremore, thus far no one has unearthed kukui pollen among 
other fossil pollens in old, undisturbed layei^ of earth. 
These observations and the fact that the kukui is so valuable 
to the Polynesians for light, food, medicine, native jewelry, 
tapa dye, gum and for tanning fishnets moves us to the belief 
that the tree is of aboriginal introduction from the South. 
Birds and insects, dxiring the couple thousand years of its 
possible introduction, simply have not yet had time to be- 
come adjusted to the plant or to evolve with the plant as 
they have done to the unquestionable endemic ones in the Ha- 
waiian flora. 

Whether the ruraor is true regarding tha an'lTal at least 
of one tree of variety katoi coming from Tahiti or Samoa pre- 
sumably since the landing of Captain Cook in 1778> we are al- 
most certain that varieties remyi and ualanii were here be- 
fore that date. Did such taxa develop de novo in the Hawaiian 
Islands, or are they relics of taxa the Polynesians had 
brought with them from the South? If the latter is true, a 
careful comparison in museums of taxa in the Hawaiian Archi- 
pelago with those in the South Seas should add evidence as 
to the migrations and island stop-overs made before these 
vikings of the sunrise settled in Hawaii Nei to intermarry, 
multiply and become amalgamated into a distinct race recog- 
nizable by their distinctive features as the true kamaaina . 

Should the pricklepoppy once so comnon on Oahu be Ar- 
gemone glauca L., A. glauca Pope, A. glauca (Prain) Degener 
or A. glauca (Prain) Deg. & Deg.? Regarding Dr. Stone's as- 
STimptions about the Argemone binomial, appearing in the same 
article on page 550, the kane writer had the single explana- 
tion had he been asked for it. He enrolled at the Ifriiversity 
of Hawaii for the 1922-23 school year, frequently taking the 
Honolrilu trolley to the end of the Kaimuki line. There he 
botanized in the red 'dobe soil and dust, collecting such 
xerophytes as Wgltheria, Sida, Lipochaeta , Jacquemontia and 
Argemone , plants now replaced by houses and watered lawns 
with bordering cultigens. A New Yorker, he retiimed to his 
home, enrolling for an advanced degree at Colvmibia Uiiversity, 
though spending most of his time critically identifying his 
Hawaiian collections at the affiliate, the New York Botanical 
Garden, There he identified the Argemone . judging its correct 
name to be Argemone glauca (Prain) Degener and thus noting it 
in his manuscript for a " Flora Hawaiiensis " he hoped eventual- 
ly to publish. In fact, he printed the name " Argemone glauca " 
in 1930 in his "Plants Hawaii National Park." 



1971 Degener L Degener, Seme Aleurites taxa 319 

While he was at his home on Vancouver Highway, later re- 
named University Avenue, Honolulu, Dr. Willis Pope, first 
President of the College of Hawaii in fact but not in name 
and later prominent horticulturist of the government experi- 
ment station in Makiki Valley, came to visit him with the 
bulky manuscript of his "Manxial Wayside Plants Hawaii." He 
left it with the writer, who spent the better part of a week 
sometimes with Dr. Pope but mostly alone, revising it. One 
of the first deletions he recomnended which, however, was not 
followed, were marine algae t Among one of the many corrections 
he made was changing Pope's name of Ar^emone mexLcana to A. 
glauca (Prain) Degener. Whether Dr. Pope or more likely some 
later reviser of the same manuscript altered the authority to 
" Argemone glauca L.", wissen nur die Gutter . As the Degeners 
have been in fi^equent correspondence for decades with Dr. 
Stone mainly concerning the genus Pelea, a sinple inquiry 
about Argemone would have saved the making of unnecessary ass- 
umptions o 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GENDS HIEROBOTANA . II 
Harold N. Uoldenke 



HIEROBOTANA Briq. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 31. 1971. 

HIEROBOTANA INFLATA (H^.K.) Briq. 

Additional citations: ECUADOR: Imbabura: Firmin 366 (W — 
1M20S92) . Pichincha: Benoist 2091 (S)j Herb« Inst. Cienc. Nat. 
Univ. Cent. Quito 11 (Ac); Prescott 302 (Du— 37762Ji, N) . Tun- 
guragtia: A. S^ Hitchcock 21737 (W— 1196U91) ; Pachano lU (W~ 
10liU625) , 156 (W— 10UU637) . Province undetermined: L. Fraser 
s.n. (Bm). PERU: lea: Hrdlicka s.n. [March 1913] (W— 602736). 
Department vindeterriined: Barclay 2363 (On). 



PRITCHARDIA AND COCOS IN THE HAWAIIAN ISLANDS 
Otto & Isa Degener 



>nien the Hawaiian Islands were rediscovered by Captain 
James Pace Cook in 177d, only two genera of palms grew in 
the archipelago. The one was Pritchardia . consisting of 
many taxa of fan-leaved or palmate palms; the other, Cocos. 
consisting of a single species of feather-leaved or plumose 
palm. Odoardo Beccari and Joseph F. Rock in 1921 published 
their beautifully illustrated work entitled ♦A Mwiographic 
Study of the Genus Pritchardia, 1-77. It is the last, au- 
thoritative work on the group. Thou^ we know it conceals er- 
rors, we do not yet know enou^ to correct them. The species 
are native mostly to Micronesia and Polynesia, attaining 
their major development in the Hawaiian Archipelago. They 
grow from sea level to about 5,000 feet elevation; from de- 
sert to dense rainforest. According to Beccari & Rock's 
findings, there are about 25 species and five varieties ex- 
tending from the Island of Hawaii westward to distant Nihoa. 
Since 1921 additional taxa have been described, some of 
questionable validity. 

Beccari & Rock describe as new, single individual palm 
trees growing in hot, lowland gardens, and not known any- 
where in the wild. Could not such individual palms be the 
offspring of seeds collected in the rainy moxmtains of our 
islands? Do they merely look new because they are growing 
under greatly change conditions? Ve do not presently know. 

One of our local botanists. Dr. Harold St. John, collected 
specimens fr>om a single palm in the mountains near Punaluu, 
Oahu and, using the monograFdi, keyed it to a certain species. 
At a different season he visited the identical palm, collect- 
ed additional material and, using the same key, came to an en- 
tirely different speciest Obviously, something is wrong soms- 
where. 

While botanizing for five months in 1928 on Molokai, the 
kane writer searched for Pritchardia. known to Hawaiians as 
loultt, and noted some growing cultivated near the coast in 
the garden of an elderly Hawaiian kno^ci to him as Levi. From 
his part-Hawaiian assistant, in whcna Levi had confided, he 
learned that Rock had heard about loulu palms growing in 
some Molokai fastness. He offered Levi pay to fetch him speci- 
mens. As Rock refused the price Levi wanted, Levi resolved to 
have his cake and eat it too. So he agreed to Rock»s more mod- 
est offer but, instead of clintoing the mountain range to get 
specimens of the elusive palm, he merely substituted material 
from one of the trees in his yard. Levi thou^t it a great 

«Mem. B.P. Bish. Mus. 8(1). 

320 



1971 Degener & Degener, Prltcbardla and Cocoa 321 

Joke, and chuckled while telling the writer's assistant abooi 
the deception. Erldently sons Molokai taxxxi is listed erro- 
neously in the monograph as to habitat. 

We see no waj of greatly rerising Beccarl & Rock's work, «»• 
cellent for the tine and conditions under which it was produc- 
ed, without concentrating on collecting herbariun speciBens 
fi*om all colonies still extant, a task easily facilitated by 
airplane spotting of these conspicuous trees. Seeds fron each 
colony, preferably from the sane pain fron which voucher nater- 
ial had been preserved, should then be planted \mder \mifom 
conditions with sinilarly procured seeds from other colonies. 
Such cultivated plants nust then be compared with one another 
when they finally flower and fruit, as well as against the 
vouchers collected fron the p>arent plants nany years before. 
The difficulty of such a project is the gathering of material 
so often growing in almost inaccessible Jungles and on cliffs, 
the acreage needed for the tests, the length of time before a 
seedling finally matxires to produce diagnostic characters of 
flower and fruit, and the pathetic fact that so nany of such 
distinctive colonies already have succumbed to the bulldozing 
"progress" of so-called civilised man. The investigator wtill 
will not be sure if the old, historical specinens collected by 
Reck and others had not come from such colonies that are now 
extinct. Even though the task of getting order out of chaoe 
seems hopeless, Foster Botanical Garden under Director Paul 
R. Weiss ich has made a good beginning. 

If the above preanble is correct, it is obvious that many 
kinds of loulu are endemic to the Hawaiian Islands, even 
thou^ no one yet knows how many species and varieties exist- 
ed here in 1778. It is also plain that this genus must have 
been in the Hawaiian Islands for eons - certainly before the 
arrival of the Polynesians - to enable it to speciate to such 
an extent. 

The fossil record certainly proves the antiquity of the lo- 
ulu . Uhtil recent bulldozing on Oahu destroyed then, erect 
Bkolds of the tininks were observable on the noi^h side of the 
road leading mauka to the U.S. Army Tripler General Hospital. 
Such palms were thriving until the lower parts of their smooth 
trunks were buried by the rain of ash that fell during the ex- 
plosions that formed Salt lake Crater. 

On the Island of Hawaii at KailiUi, near Wahaula within 
Hawaii Volcanoes National Park, a few impressions of pros- 
trate trxmks can be seen on a prehistoric though not very 
old pahoehoe lava flow. Beyond the southwestern boundary of 
the National Park, between the main road and the ocean, at 
*Kawaa, lies an expanse of prehistoric, smoot h p ahoehoe. ^ 

♦Incorrectly spelled "Kawa" on some Government maps. 



322 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 21, no. 5 



Armed with camera, broom, ^ihlskbz'oom and trowel, the writers 
and Mr. & Mrs. Theodore L. Piceo fanned oyer the area. Here 
the pahoehoe had gently flowed through a palm grove, the wet 
trunks biimlng slowly throu^ the base so that the trees 
fell helter skelter upon the cooling lava. Several score im- 
pressions were carefully examined, all showing the i*elative-* 
ly smooth, unbranched outline of a side of the palm trunk 
(Fig. a). Many also showed rectangular checks formed as the 
lava oozed into the charring wood (Figures b, c). One im- 
pression even showed the base of a fan-like blade (Fig. d). 




Figures a,b,c. Trough-like Fritchardia tree molds, 
c at left showing imoressions of checked charcoal. 




1971 



Degener & Degener, Prltchardla and Coco 3 



323 



resembling that of a modem Prltchardla (Fig. e) now growing 
at nearby Punaluu. Not a single trunk impreBsion exhibited 
leaf scars. No palm fruits nor seeds were observed. 




Fossil (Fig. d) and modem (Fig. e) leaf blades. 

"According to tradition, at least the large-fniited type 
of coconut known as niupolapola was brou^t to the Hawaiian 
Islands by the early Polynesian imnigrants from Bolabola, an 
island not far from Tahiti. Before Captain Cook's coming the 
Hawaiians knew also a few other kinds, such as the niuhiwa 
with dark-colored fniit and the niulelo with yellowish 
fruit."* The fruit was both food and drink for the Polynesi- 
an voyagers, and certainly the most necessary and efficient 
supply of a potable liqviid in transportable form for a long 
ocean voyage. We surmise some coconuts escap>ed being consum- 
ed, and wex^ planted in the newly discovered islands. 

Between Kawaa Bay and the boundary of the National Park 
is the coastal village of Punaluu. Just back of the black 
sand beach is a mixed grove of loulu ( Pritchai^ia affinls 
Beccarl) and niu or coconut ( Cocos nucif era L. ) palms . The 



^Degener, 0., Plants Haw. Nat. Park, 72. 1930. 



32li 



PHYTOLOGIl 



VoJ.. ZL, no. 5 



former, a fan palm, bears erect, slender trunks hardly 
thickened at base and without prominent leaf scar*. The lat- 
ter, a feather palm, bears a curving trunk thickened at base 
and someDhat constricted at the prominent leaf scars. The 
contrast is well shovm in figures f and g . with these dif- 
ferences in mind, the reader shoxild conpare the photographs 
of the living trees with those of the fossils. 




Figures f and g showing two coconut palm trunks with 
prominent leaf scars and several Pritchardia trunks 
with obscure leaf scars. 



In conclusiwi, the writers are convinced that the loulu 
reached the Hawaiian Islands some eons ago, and may have 
even mor« or less encircled many stretches of the Islands 
with extensive gix)ves, particvilarly before the Polynesians 
brought the pig and, perhaps as stowaway, the seed-eating 
Polynesian rat. The fossil impressions at Kaillili and above 
all at Kawaa are irrefutable prxx>f of this fact. These beau- 
tiful palms may well have extended along the shore of Hawa- 
ii Volcanoes National Park, and hence deserve replacement. 
Regarding the coconut, however, we consider it a newcomer 
to the Hawaiian Islands until irrefutable evidence to the 
contrary appears. Tradition bolsters this belief as well as 
the fact that no fossil imprints of a coconut palm have ever 



1971 D^ener L Degoner, Prltchardla and Cocoa 325 

been aeen, not even at Kawaa Bay where conditions wer« Idaal 
for Its growth and fossilisatlon. 

Many hare been eonfotinded bj the lonln growing in such Iso- 
lated localities. It Is of course possible that those trees 
perched on cliffs reached there as fruits falling or washing 
down from the plateau for«st abore. Or a grore aay hare ex- 
isted for ages aa a plateau before this was slowly eroded Into 
gulches and finally into cliff -flanked canyons. The grore of 
pains sinply continued to grow in the saaie spot froB genera- 
tion to generation, fiirst on gulch sides and finally on the 
resi;iltant cliffs. All this is possible, but is it pirobable? 
On the Island of Hawaii llTes the natlTe crow a la la (Corvua 
tropicus Gnelin). To be sure all crows are black; but this 
one, as the kane writer observed in 1927 in the Kona Jungle, 
is unique in keeping its bill agape to exhibit to its Bate 
the beaiitiful akala-berry-r«d surface within. Evidently the 
ancestors of such a species, now so distinctive, miat have 
come to the Archipelago eons ago. Today the species is on 
the verge of extinction, perhaps less than a dozen Individ^ 
uals persisting on the Island of Hawaii. In I89I4 however, 
when the ornithologist George C. Munro surveyed this island 

for birds "the alala was numerous. They were in flocks ," 

Perhaps crows andor other large, seed eating birds were nvf- 
merous also on some of the remaining Islands and aided in 
the early distiribution of the loulu . If "civiliied" man could 
Just about exterminate the crow on the Island of Hawaii from 
flocks to perhaps less than a doten individuals in eighty 
yearfl, what could not the natives have accomplished during 
the past few thousand? We know "The Hawailans snared the crow 
and used the black feathers for kahilis and for dressing 
idols." 

There is hope for the preservation of the Pritchardia 
molds because these and the archaeological features of the 
general area can be of value to the lucrative tourist in- 
dustiy. Besides having these easily accessible and clear, 
prostrate tree molds, the Kawaa region is flanked to the 
northeast by the ruins of the massive Keeku helau or temple. 
This must have catered to a large nel^boring population 
attracted by the beach and the nearby freshwater springs. 
Unfortunately the many house sites have been washed flat by 
the tsunami of 1868; but llllli, or smooth water-worn peN- 
bles from the beach and from the flooring of the huts, are 
scattered everywhere. One even finds evidence of ancient 
pleasures and industry. Here and there, pecked into flat, 
smooth lava are the depressions of the papamu, or checker- 
board (Fig. h), upon which the Hawailans played konane 
with white coral pebbles against black lava ones; and a- 
long the rocky coast are cup-like depressions ("baitcups") 
in which the natives pounded their chumoilng material used 



326 



PHITOLOGIA 



Vol, 21, no. 5 




Fig. h> a papamu . 



for luring fish. A few stone "aalt pans" in which seawater 
was evaporated to gain salt for bairber with upland residents 
are also there. Such an area rich in Hawaiiana and fossils 
may well escape destructions 

We are grateful to Mr. & Mrs. Picco for helping us sweep 
and for taking the photographs. 



STUDIES IN THE SOPHOREAE (LEGUMINOSAE) I. 



Velva E. Rudd 



In connection with studies in the tribe Sophoreae for North 
American Flora and Flora Neotropica it has been found that the 
following new combinations and taxa are necessary: 

1. SOPHORA L. section AIGIALODES Rudd, sect. nov. 

Frutices, interdum subscandentes; foliola subcoriacea; stipu- 
lae lineari-deltoideae aut nullae; inflorescentia racemosa, ter- 
minalis; calyx truncatus vel subtruncatus; corolla alba vel avir- 
ea, petalis carinalis pleirumque connatis; fructus torulosue. 

Type species: Sophor^ tomentosa L. The name Aigialodes 1b from 
the Gj-eek, meaning a dweller by the sea. 

2. SOPHORA L. section ORESBIOS Rudd, sect. nov. 

Arbores; foliola coriacea; inflorescentia racemosa, axillaris; 
calyx truncatus; corolla violacea, petalis carinalis dlscretls; 
fructus ignotus. 

Type species: Sophora conzattii Standi. The name Oresblos is 
from the Greek, meaning a dweller on the mountain. 

3. SOPHORA L. section CALIA (Berlandier) Rudd, comb. nov. 

Calia Berlandier in Mier Teran, Mem. Comision Limites 13 . 1832 
Type species: Sophora secundiflora (Gomez Ortega) Lag. ex DC. 

k. CLADRASTIS KENTOCKEA (Dum . -Cours . ) Rudd, comb. nov. 

Sophora kentuckea Dum. -Cours. Bot. Cult. ed. 2, 6: 56. I81I. 
Virgil la lutea F, Michx. Hist. Arb. For, Amer. Sept. 3: 266, 

pi. 3. 1813. 
Vlrgilla alba Raf. Kentucky Gaz. l822, fide Raf. Cincinnati 

Lit. Gaz. 1: 60. l824. 
Cladrastls fragrans Raf. Cincinnati Lit. Gaz. 1: 60. I82U. 
CladrastlB tine tor la Raf. Neogen. 1: I825. 
Vlrgilla kentuckea (Pum . -Cours . ) ex Raf. Neogen. 1. I825, as 

" kentuckensis . " 
CladrastlB a lb i flora Raf. New Fl. Amer. 3: 83. I836. 
Cladrastls lutea (f7 Michx.) K. Koch, Dendrol. 1: 6. I869. 
Cladrastls kentuckea (Dum . -Cours . ) Raf. ex B. D. Jackson, 

Index Kew. 1: 552. I895, as "kentuckensis", as synonym. 
Unless proof can be found that the title-page date of I81I for 
Dumont de Courset, Le botanlste cultivateur, ed. 2, vol. 6 is in- 
correct, the epithet kentuckea has priority over lutea. 



327 



ADDinONAL MATERIALS TCWAED A MONCKHiAPH OF THE GENUS 
CALUCARPA , IVI 

Harold N. Uoldenke 



CALLICABPA L. 

Additional synonomor: Tometax L. apud Raizada, Indian Forest. 
92: 30U, in syn. I966. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Rheede & Uunnicks, Hort, Ind< 
Malab. U: 123— 12U, pi. 60. 1683; Ray, Hist. PI. 2: 1787—1788. 
1693; Dassaw, Nov. Gen. PI. Zeyl. U— 5 & [15]. 17U7; L., Fl. Zeyl., 
ed. 1, 2k & [250] (17l;7) and ed. 2, Zk & [200]. 17U8; Dassow in 
L., Amoen. Acad. 1: 389. 17U9; L., Sp. PI., ed. 2, 1: 161 & 172. 
1762; J. A. Mutt, in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 12, 2: 125. 1767; L., 
Mant. PI. Alt. I98, 331, & [576]. 1771; J. A. Murr. in L., Syst. 
Veg., ed. 12 ['•13"J, 130 & 831. 177U; Lam., Diet. Encycl. M6th. 1: 
5U— 55. 1783; Poir. in Lam., Encycl. M6th. Bot. 7: 697. 1806; 
Dennst., Schlttss. Hort. Malab. 16, 30, & 31. I818; Ainslie, Mat. 
Ind. 2: 180—182. 1826; O'Shaughnessy, Beng. Disp. U56. I8UI; 
Sleb. k Zucc, Abh. Akad. Muench. U (3) [Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2]: 
30, 115, & 155—156. 18U6; R. Wight, niustr. Ind. Bot. 2: 217, 
pi. 173 bis, fig. 5. 1850; Benth. in Hook., Joum. Bot. & Kew 
Card. Misc. 5: 135—136. 1853; Gamble, Man. Indian Tlmb., ed. 1, 
282—283 & 503. 1881; Dymock, Veg. Mat. Med. W. Ind. 716 & 7U5. 
188U; Maingay, Keir Bull. Misc. Inf. 1390: 127. I89O; Briq., Bull. 
Herb, Boiss., s6r. 1, U: 3li5— 3li6 & 92U. I896; H. N. Ridl., 
Joum. Straits Med. Assoc. 5: 127. 1897; H. N. Ridl., Joum. Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. Straits Br. 30: 79. 1897; H. N. Ridl., Agric. Bull. 
Straits & Fed, Malay States 1: 218. 1902; Gamble, Man. Indian 
Tlmb., ed. 2, pr. 1, 525 & 770. 1902; Ahmad, Agric. Bull. Straits 
& Fed. Malay States 6: 162. 1907; Merr. & Merritt, Philip. Joum. 
Sci. Bot. 5: 380—381 & 55U. 1910; Perrot & Vogt, Trav. Lab. Mai. 
M6d. Paris 9: 215 & 223. 1913; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, 
pr. 2, 525 & 770. 1922; H. N. Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2: 611i— 
617. 1923; Kalaw & Sacay, Philip. Agriculturist lli: li27. 1925; 
Janson., Mikrogr. Holzes Java U: 77U. 1928; Gimlett & Burkill, 
Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 6: 3$k, 387, 388, & 39U. 1930; Bur- 
kill & Haniff, Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 6: 233. 1930; ViUado- 
lid & Sulit, Philip. Agriculturist 21: 30. 1932; L., Sp. PI., ed. 
1, pr. 2, 1: 111 & 118. 193li; Makins, Ident. Trees & Shrubs 7U & 
258, fig. 62 G. 1936; Masam., Trans. Nat, Hist. Soc. Formos. 30: 
63 — 65. I9UO; Greene & Blomquist, Fls. South 109. 1953; T, H, 
Everett, Read, Dig. Compl. Book Gard, U20 & 605. 1966; Burkill, 
Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1: U07 — U09 & 1085. 1966; C. L, 
Rodgers, Castanea 3ki 390. 1969; Elliotson, Complete Gard. Book 
South. Hemisph., ed. 6, 16 & I63. 1970; Vidal k Lemoine, Joum. 
Agr. Trop, & Bot. Appl. 17: 28 — 29. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 
21: 1U9— 16U & 208— 2U2. 1971. 

Greene & Blomquist (1953) give "beau-ty-berries" as the comnon 

328 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarp* 329 

naas for neabars of this gezxaa. Burklll (1966) tails us that 
Calllcarpa Is "A genus of shrubs and trses ... .found in the Kaiaer 
parts of Asia, to Australia and the Pacific, and agaiin in Axerioa. 
The plants are sub-aromatic, and often bitter in taste. Through- 
out the East they are used medicinally: some internally, others 
for poulticing. Several species of Aaerica are actire diuretics 
and purgatires. The wood is of little use. The Malayan species 
are nuch of one type, and 'tampang besi' is the name applied to 
the fii^t three mentioned below [£. candicans , C. long if oH a , C, 
maingayi ] , and to C_j_ anguatifolia . King and Gamble . Whether C. 
tonentosa differs sufficiently in medicinal uses that it should 
bear a distinguishing name, is not clearly demonstrated yet. The 
cosmon noun 'tampemg', to which attention has Just been called, 
indicates that the plants are used for making plasters. 'Taapal* 
is a Tariant of it, and other variants may be recognized.... JLs 
far to the eastward, also, as the Philippine Islands, species of 
Callioarpa obtain such names; and there can be no doubt that con- 
siderable reliance has been put on them as simples, from end to 
end of Ualasia. Three species are \ised as fish-poisons in the 

Philippine Islands The active substance is a saponin. It is 

interesting that the twigs of two of them, dried until the leaves 
have fallen, should be used as a bait for prawns • C, reeves ii . 
Wall., of Southern China, and several others are in cultivation 
in the Botanic Gardens, Singapore; for they are omaaantal plants f 

CALLICASPA ACnmNATA H,BJ[. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21» 1^0, 233, 
235, & 2U0. 1971. 

CALLIOARPA AlflDO-TOMERTELLA Merr. 

Additional & flaended bibliography: E* D. Merr., Philip. Joom* 
Scl, Bot. 12: 300—301 & 382. 1917; Moldenke, Phytologia 13: U38. 
1966. 

CAII.ICAJ3>A AMERICANA L. 

Additional & emended bibliography: L., Sp. Fl., ed. 1, pr. 1, 
1: 111. 1753; L., Syst. Nat., ed. 10, 2: 89U. 1759; J. A. Murr. 
InL., Syst. Veg., ed. 12 ["13*], 130. 177U; Ainslie, Mat. Ind. 
2: 181. 1826; L., Sp. PI., ed. 1, pr. 2, 1: 111. 193U; Makina, 
Ident. Trees & Shrubs 258. 1936; Greene L Blcmcpilst, Fls. South 
109. 1953; Hodgors St Shake, Castanea 30: 163. 1965; T. H. Everett, 
Read. Dig. Compl. Book Gard. U20 & 605. 1966; C. L. Rodgers, Cas- 
tanea 3hi 390. 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 150. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Greene Sc Blomquist, Fls. South 109* 
1953. 

CALLICARPA AMOOSTA Schau. 

Additional & eaended bibliography i E. D. Merr., Philip. Joom. 
Sci. Bot. 12: 299, 301, 4 382. 1917; Moldenke, Ptoytologla 21i 150, 
158, 4 210. 1971. 

Merrill (1917) states that £. subintegra Merr. resembles £. 



330 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

anguata , ''from irtiich it is readily distinguished by its denser 
indumenttm, its entire or but slightly toothed leaves, fewer 
nerves, and longer petioles". 

The Foarorthy s.n, [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci, 660], previoiisly 
cited by me as £. angusta, is actually the type collection of C. 
rivularis Merr. 

CALLICARPA ANGUSTIFOLU King & Gaaible 

Additional bibliography: BorkiU, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay 
Penins. 1: U07. 1966| Moldenke, Phytologia 20: h93» 1971. 

GALLICAEPA AEBOR£A Roxb. 

Additional & enended bibliography: E. D« Merr., Philip. Joum. 
Sci. Bot. 12: 298 & 382. 1917; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Hot. 10: 
3860. 1939; D«b, Sengupta, & Malick, Bull. Bot. Soc. Bengal 22: 
199. 1968; Comer & Watanabe, Illustr. Guide Trop. PI. 752. 1969} 
Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 151, l51i, 215, 223—225, & 230. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Comer & Watanabe, Illustr. Guide 
Trop. PI. 752. 1969. 

Deb & his associates (1968) reduce £. arborea Roxb. to syno- 
nymy under C. tonentosa (L.) Murr. 

The Kuntte 66U9 , distributed as C^ arborea , is actually C. 
vestita Wall. 

CALLICAHPA ARBOREA var. PSILOCALU (H. J. Lam) Moldenke 

Additional synonymy: Callicarpa magna lilac ina Elm., Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 10: 386O. 1939. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 
3: 1133. 1911; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 12: 298 St 
382. 1917; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 9: 3222 & 3223 (193U) and 
10: 3860. 1939; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U95. 1971. 

CALLICARPA BASILANENSIS Merr. 

Additional bibliography: £. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: 
86. 1926; Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 16. I967. 

Merrill (1926) was of the opinion that this species probably 
belongs in the "general groiq> with C. woodii Merr." 

CALLICARPA BASITRUNCATA Merr. 

Additioiua bibliography: G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 27. 
1959; Moldenke, Phytologia 15: 16. I967. 

CALLICARPA BAVIENSIS Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: E. J. Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: 
liO. 1953; Moldenke, Phytologia Hi : 1*6. I966. 

CALLICARPA BICOLOR A. L. Juss. 

Additional bibliography: Root. & Schult. in L., Syst. Veg., 
ed. 15 nov., 3: 97. 1818; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: 
U26. 1926; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3798 & 3860. 1939; Md- 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 331 

denke, Phytologia 20: Ji95— U96 (1971) and 21: 36. 1971. 

CALLICARPA BODIKIERI L6veill« 

Additional & emended bibliography: Prain, Ind, Kew. Suppl. $, 
pr. 1, U3 (1921) and pr. 2, U3. I960: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: 
li96— li98 (1971) and 21: 33, l43, 1^6, U8, 102, 103, 108, 210, 212, 
21U, 2U0, & 2U1. 1971. 

CALLICARPA BODINIERI var. GIEALDII (Hesse) Rehd. 

Additional bibliography: Makins, Ident. Trees 4 Shrubs 258. 
1936; Famsworth, Blonster, Quijnby, & Schermerhom, Lynn Index 6: 
262. 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U96 & U97 (1971) and 21: 33, 
U3, U8, 102, 103, 108, 113, l6Ii, 210, 212, 211i, t 2U0. 1971. 

The Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 12560, distributed as £, bodinieri 
var. giraldii , is actually £. rubella var. hamsleyana Diels. 

CALLICAREA BORNErlUSIS Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 27. 
1959; Moldenke, Phytologia lU: 63-— 61i. 1966, 

CALLICARPA BRACTEATA Dop 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: I498 (1971) 
and 21: 107 & I6I4. 1971. 

CALLICARPA BREVIPES (Benth.) Hance 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U98— U99 
(1971) and 21: 33, li7, U8, 102, IO8, 113, 210, 212, a3, & 233. 
1971. 

Dop (1932) states that C. petelotii Dop resenbles C. dichot - 

c»a (Lour.) K. Koch and C. brevipes in its glabrous ovary, glab- 
rous branches and leaves, and densely punctate leaf-blades, and 
that it may represent a natural hybrid between C_. longifolia Lan. 
and C_. dichotoma and/or £. brevipes . 

CALLICARPA CANDICAMS (Bum. f.) Hochr. 

i^dditlonal synonyiiQr: Callicarpa nana L. ex Elm., Leafl. Philip. 
Bot. 10: 3798 & 3860, in obs. 1939. Callicarpa candicans Bum. f. 
ex Comer & Watanabe, Illustr. Guide Trop. Pi. 751. 1969. 

Additional bibliography: Dymock, Veg. Mat. Med. W. Ind. 716 i 
7U5. I881i; Perrot & Vogt, Trav. Lab. Mai. M6d. Paris 9: 215 & 223. 
1913; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 6: 208Ii & 2085. 1913; Burkill & 
Haniff, Gard. Bull. Straits Settl. 6: 233. 1930; Elm,, Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay 
Penins. 1: U07. 1966; Comer & Watanabe, Illustr, Guide Trop. PI. 
751. 1969; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: I5l~l52, 156, 215, 222, 223, 
!c 225. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Comer L Watanabe, Illustr. Guide 
Trop. PI. 751. 1969. 

Burkill (I966) discusses this plant by first listing and ex^ 
plaining sane of its vernacular names: "tampaiig bSsi", "tampah 



332 PHTTOLOGIA Vol, a, no. 5 

besl", "tajDOpacg b^si merah" (-red-fruited tanpaog b^sl), "tanpong 
b^si puteh", "kuping besi" (kuping is the crust or scab iihlch 
foras over a healing sore), "hatl-hatl ketan" (means as being used 
like Coleua ) ; in Java »^eniran bSsar", "meniran kasar", "mSniran 
kebo", "mfiniran utan", "songka utan"; in Sundanese "apu-apu", 
"katumpang budak" , ''kutvinpang kayui*; in Sumatra "setampo bSsi, 
"tampal besi", "tampa besi". He continues: "The tender leaves are 
boiled and the decoction is drunk for abdominal troubles . , . .In 
Java a decoction is used for bringing on the menses, and the 
leaves are used for poulticing irounds and boils .,, .Under the name 
•puchuk ring-ring', the shoots of the plant have been recorded as 

entering into arrow-poisons It is one of the species ... .used 

in the Philippine Islands for stupifying fish; yet, after drying, 
it is also a bait for prawns." 

The Kondo 1)U, distributed as C, candicans , is actually C, sub- 
pubescens Hook. & Am,, irtille Tsao-Fel 7 is C, tslangli Moldenke. 

CALLICARPA CAUDATA llaxijn. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Maxim,, Bull. Acad. Imp. 
Sci. St. Pltersb, 31: 75 & 76, 1886; Merr. & Merritt, Philip. 
Joum. Sci, Bot, $: 38I & 55U. 1910; Elm., Leafl, Philip. Bot, 
10: 3860. 1939; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 33, 108, 225, 233—235, 
& 2l|0. 1971, 

Merrill (1910) says that C. eaudata is closely allied to C, 
stenoplqrlla Merr., which differs "in its less dense and simply 
stellate, not plumose-stellate indumentum". 

The R. S. Williams 1158 , cited by me in Phytologia l^: llt3 
(1966), is actually C_. formosana f . angustata Moldenke. 

CALLICARPA CAULIFLORA Merr. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 363 & 366. 
1968, 

Additional citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Leyte: M, Ramos s,n, 
[Herb, Philip, Bur, Sci, la5U0] (N), 

CALUCAEPA CIEMENSORmi Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: G, Taylor. Ind, Kew, Suppl, 12: 27. 
1959} Moldenke, Phytologia 11^: IU6— 111?. 1966. 

CALLICARPA CDBEHSIS lirb. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 16: 363 (1968) 
and 2I1 215 4 233. 1971. 

Additional citations: CUBA: Havana: Sagra 8.n. (N — isotype). 

CALLICARPA CUBENSIS var. PARVIFLORA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia ll*: 15U— 155. 
1966. 

This variety has been collected near brooks, flowering in 
March, and fruiting in Noveaiber, 

The Ouesta 1017 [as "Anesta"] and Bcman 11909 & 17930 . cited 
below, were previously cited by me (I9U0) as anomalous specimens 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 333 

of C. shaferl Britton & P. Wils., which I now feel that thej are 
not. 

Additional citations: CUBl: Pinar del Rloi Acnfla & Rol^ 1676$ 

(Ha—iaotype, N—iaotype); Cueata 1017 (N) j Kkman 17930 (B, N, N- 
photo, S, Z— photo). ISIA DE PINOS: Skaan 11909 (B, S, Z — photo). 

CALLICARPA DICHOTOMY (Lour.) K. Koch 

Additional synonyny: Callicarpa dLchotona Juss., in herb. 

Additional bibliography: T. fi. Everett, Read. Dig. CoKpl. Book 
Card. U20. 1966; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 1$2 & 21^2. 1971. 

Dop (1932) states that Cj^ petelotii Dop reeembles C. dichotoaa 
and £. brevipes (Benth.) Hance in its glabrous ovary, its glab- 
rous branches and leaves, and the very nuserous glands on the 
leaf-blades and that it nay possible represent a natural hybrid 
between C_. longifolia Las. and/or C_. dichotoaa and C. brevipes . 

The £. 0. Levine s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr, Coll. 7U3], distribu- 
ted as C. dichotoaa , is actually C. randaiensis Hayata. 

CALLICARPA DICHOTOMA f . ALBIFRUCTA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia Ih'- 170 (1966) 
and 21: 1$2. 1971. 

Additional citations: CULTIVATED: Japan: Togasi 1667 (Go— iso- 
tgrpe). 

CALLICARPA DOLICHOPHILIA Merr. 

Additional sjnonyny: Canicarpa caudata var. y H. J. Laai, Ver- 
benac. Malay. Arch. 61. 1919* 

Additional &. enended bibliography: £. D* Merr., Philip. Joum. 
Sci. Bot. 12: 108, 301, 4 382. 1917; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 36, 
lOli, 107, 108, 212, & 213. 1971. 

CALLICARPA ERIOCLOSA Schaa. 

Additional bibliography: Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 
1939; Kaoeh. & Hatus., Bot. Mag. Tokyo $6: 113. 19U2} Moldenke, 
Phytologia 21: l5l, 1$2, 215, & 223. 1971 

CALLICARPA ERWHROSTICTA Merr, i Chun 

Additional bibliography: E. J. Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. lit 
UO. 1953; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 37. 1971 

CALLICARPA FERRIEINEA Sw. 

AddiUonal bibliography: Ainslie, Mat. Ind. 2: 181. 1826; Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 21: 1$2— 1$3. 1971. 

CALLICARPA FDiaiOSANA Rolfe 

Additional & emended bibliography: EIjb., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 6: 
1926 & 2090. 1913; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 12: 382. 
1917; T. Itfi, Taiwan Shohubutu Dzuaetu [Illustr. Formos. PI.] 603. 
1927; ElB., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 9: 3135 (193U) and 10: 3860. 1939; 
Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 153, l61i, & 236. 1971. 



33li PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

Qnended illustrations: T. 1X6, Taiwan Shokiibatu Dztisetu [111- 
ustr. Fomos. PI.] 603. 1927. 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA f . ANGUSTATA Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 36, 37, & 
236. 1971. 

The R. S. Williams 11^8 collection, cited beloir, was errone- 
oiialy cited by me in Phytologia U^: 11^3 (1966) as C. caudata 
Itaxlm. 

Additional citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Lxizon: R. S. Willi - 
ams 1158 (N). 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA var. GLABRESCENS Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 1^: 26 (1967) and 
21: 108. 1971. 

The Ramos & Edafto s.n. [Herb, Philip. Bur. Sci. U9Q11], so 
listed by me in a previous publication, proves actually to be C. 
phanerophlebia Merr., irtiile W. T_. Tsang 850 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 
I63U9] is a cotype collection of C. rubella f , rebus ta P'ei. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA Thunb. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Makins, Ident. Trees & 
Shrubs 7k & 258, fig. 62 G. 1936; Kara, Enon. Sperm, Jap. 1: I83 
& 185. 19U8} Li, Morris Arb. Bull. Ik'' U— 7, fig. 1—6. 1963} T. 
H. Everett, Read. Dig. Ccmpl. Book Card. U20. 1966; Moldenke, 
Phytologia 21: l51i, 210, a2, & 2U0— 2U2. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Makins, Ident. Trees & Shrubs Ik, 
fig. 62 G. 1936. 

CALLICARPA JAPONICA var. LDIURIANS Rehd. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Nakai in Nakai & Koidz., 
Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 2, 1: U5U--U55, U63, & I46U, fig. 
215 & 220. 1927; Hatus.. Joum. Jap. Bot. 26: 372. 1951; Ohwi, 
Fl. Jap. 763, 76U, & 990. 1965; Moldenke, Phytologia 20: U95 
(1971) and 21: 35, U., Ui— U5, U9, 102, & 103. 1971. 

Additional & enended illustrations: Nakai in Nakai & Koidz., 
Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 2, 1: kSk, fig. 215 & 220. 1927; 
Nakai in Shirasawa, Icon. Essenc. Forest. Jap. 2: [Terasaki, 
Zoku Nipp. Syokubutzhu] fig. 2U81. 1938. 

CALLICARPA LINGII Merr. 

Additional bibliography: A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 8: 37. 
1933; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: hi. 1971. 

CALLICARPA LONQIFOLIA Lam. 

Additional synonymy: Callioarpa longi folia var. subglobrata 
Schau. ex Kaneh. & Hatiis., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 56: 113, sphalm. 19^2* 

Additional & emended bibliography: Benth. in Hook., Joura. 
Bot. & Kew Card. Misc. $i I36. 1853; H. N. Ridl., Joum. Straits 
Med. Assoc. $: 127. 1897; Ahuad, Agric. Bull. Straits & Fed. Ma- 
lay States 6: 162. 1907; E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 33$ 

12: 108 & 382. 1917; Nakal Bet. liag. Tokyo 36: 23. 1922; Janaon., 
Mikrogr. Holzes Java U: 77U. 1928; Burkill & Haniff, Gard. Bull. 
Straits Settl. 6: 233. 1930; Gimlette Sc Burkill, Gard. Bull. 
Straita Settl. 6: 3$U, 387, 388, i 39U. 1930; Elm. Leafl. Philip. 
Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; Hatus., Joum. Jap. Bot. 2U: ol. 191a9; Bur- 
kill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penina. 1: U07--U08. 1966; Comer k 
Watanabe, Illuatr. Guide Trop. PI. 7^2. 1969; Vidal & Lemoiae, 
Joum. Agr. Trop. 4 Bot. Appl. 17: 28—29. 1970; Moldenke, Phyto- 
logia 21: 155—162, l61i, 210—215, 223—225, 23U, & 235. 1971. 

Additional illustrations: Comer k Watanabe, Illuatr. Guide 
Trop. PI. 752. 1969. 

Vidal 4 Lemoine (1970) record the coBmon name "ntoo peeb lab 
soob" for this plant, cite Lemoine 2U & 106 frcm Laos, and com- 
Bient that it is an "Arbre de for8t claire ou de forSt secondalre 
4 fruita chamua violets, non comestibles. Lea feuillea sont 
appliqu6es sur les blessurea". 

Burkill (1966) lists the following vernacular naaea for thia 
plant: "tampang besi" ("tulang besi" is an error for thia), 
"tampang besi puteh" (-white-fruited tampang besi), "tampong 
besi", "tanpoh bSsi", "tampah Wfsi", "tampal bd'si", "tapah bSsi", 
"aulap", "karat besi", "chapal", "chapul kSchil", "nasi-nasi"; 
in Java "oeniran utan", "mSniran sapi", "gambiran", "songka", 
"aongka kampong"; in Sundaneae "katumpang"; in Sumatra "setampo", 
"bebStih kinana"; in Bangka "nasi-nasi"; in Thailand "khow tok". 
He notes, further, that the plant is "A shrub foxind throughout 
Malaysia and to Australia; in the Peninsula it is ccnmon. It is 
one of the chief plants used for poulticing by the Malays, and 
is also administered internally. For colic a decoction of the 

leaves is drunk This use extends to Java and through to the 

Moluccas. A similar decoction is given after childbirth, and for 

fever. For syphilis an infusion of the root is used and 

Rumpf aaya a decoction of the roots is useful for diarrhoea. The 

'Medical Book of Malayan Medicine' seema to put this into the 

first place as a means of treating aprue, prescribing, as a 
draught, an infusion of the root, a gargle prepared by infusion 
of the leaves, and a mouth-wash prepared by infusing the bark. A 
decoction of the root of aooe species of Callicarga, auch aa thia, 
ia prescribed,,,.., for distension of the stomach, the treataent 
conpriaing bathing the body by a decoction of the leavea . The 
leaves are uaed by the Malaya for poulticing in fever, and for 
irubbing over the body and are applied to swellinga . A lotion con- 
taining the juice of the root ia uaed for nasal caries . . . .The 

leaves are said to atupefy fiah The wood buma ateadily and 

thoroughly, whence the cocinon Javanese name; it will not make 
charcoal. Jansonnius has described the minute structure...." 

Dop (1932) states that C. longifolia is similar to C^ petelotii 
Dop in the form of its leavea and the dimensions and disposition 
of the cymes auid that the latter may possibly represent a natural 
hybrid between C. longifolia and C_. dichotoma (Lour.) K. Koch and/ 
or C. brevipea ^enth.) Hance. 



336 PHYTOtOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

CALUCARPX LONQIPETIOUTA Merr. 

Additional bibliography: E. D. Marr., Philip. Jo\im. Sci. Bot. 
12: 299—300. 1917 J Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 208—210. 1971. 

Merrill (1917) states that £. subintegra Merr. is allied to C. 
longipetiolata "from irhich it is at once distinguished by its 
differently shaped, narrow, caudate-acuminate leaves". 

CALLICARPA LONGISSIMA (Hemsl.) Merr. 

Additional & emended bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. 
Sci. Bot. 12: 108 & 382. 1917; Hatus., Joum. Jap. Bot. 2U: 81. 
19U9i Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 210--21U. 1971. 

CALLICAHPA MACROPHILLA VaKL 

Additional & emended bibliography: Demist., Schluss. Hort. Ma- 
lab. 16 & 30. 1818; Ainslie, Mat. Ind. 2: 181. 1826; Benth. in 
Hook., Joum. Bot. Sc. Kew Gard. Misc. $: 135. 1853; Bodding, Mem. 
Asiat. Soc. Beng. 10: 2Ji5. 1927; Jain & Tarafder, Econ. Bot. 2U: 
2U7. 1970; Famsworth, Pharmacog. Titles 6 (1): ill & item 1370. 
1971; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 2Ui— 227. 1971. 

GALLICAEPA MAJNGAU King & Gamble 

Additional synonyiiQr: Callicarpa lanata Ridl. ex BurkiU, Diet. 
Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1: U08, in syn. 1966 [not C. lanata 
Gamble, 1393, nor Hoss^ua, 1912, nor "L. sensu Gable", 1971, nor 
L., 1767, nor H. J. Lam, 19U0. nor Lam., 1821, nor Rozb., I966, 
nor Schau., 1870, nor Vahl, 18U7, nor Wall., I883, nor Walp., 1921, 
nor Zipp., l81il]. 

Additional bibliography: H. N. Ridl., Joum. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits Br. 30: 79. 1897; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 
1939; Burkill, Diet. Been. Prod. Malay Penins. 1: UO8. I966; Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 21: 229—231. 1971. 

The £. lanata accredited to Gamble, referred to in the synony- 
my above, is actually a synonym of C. vestita Wall., that credit- 
ed to Hossdus is C. arborea Ro:d>., ^Eat credited to H. J, Lam is 
C. arborea var. psilocalyx (H. J. Lam) Moldenke, that credited to 
Lamarck is Pranna tomenfcosa Willd., that credited to Schauer, to 
Vahl, to Walpers, and to Zippelius is C^ pedunculata R. Br., and 
that credited to Linnaeus, to "Linnaeus sensu Gamble", to Wallich, 
and to Ro3d3urgh belongs in the synonymy of C. tomenbosa (L.) Uurr. 

Burkill (1966) refers to C. maingayl as foUows: "A tree, con- 
fined to the Malay Peninsula, in Pahang, Selangor, and Malacca. 
Alvlns says that the wood can be used for making fiddles, adding 
that there are two kjnds of it, one with red and one with white 
bark. The bark on the younger branches is rusty red. Alvlns says 
that the bark is used as a substitute for betel." He lists the 
common names "tampang besi". "mendapor", "tutok puteh" ["tulo" and 
"tutor" are errors for this], "chulak", "balek angin laut" [in 
reference to the irtilte color of the lower leaf -surface] . 

CALLICARPA MERBULII Moldenke 

Additional bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 337 

87. 1926j Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 233—235. 1971. 

CALLICARPA ICLIIS Sieb. & Zucc., Abh. Akad. Maench. U (3) [Fl. 
Jap. Pan. Nat. 2]: 155—156. I81j6. 

Additional & eaended bibliograpfaj: Sieb. & Zucc, Abh. Akad. 
Muench. h (3) [Fl. Jap. Fa«. Nat. 2]: 155—156. l8U6i Hakai, Journ. 
jap. Bot. lU: 6la. 1938; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 237—2142. 1971. 

This binomial is sometimes erronaouslj' cited to "Sieb. & Zucc., 
PI. Jap. Faa. Nat. 526. iSUi" — •'526» ia the species (not page) 
noaber in this work. 

Additional ciUtionst JAPAN: Honahut Foruae s.n. [13 Oct. 1957] 

(S) J Herb. Mus. Bot. Stockhola e^. [Musaai, 1/10^911] (S, S)} 
Hiroe 718U (Ca--939530)i Huruaaara 3U (W— 2073730); Inoktma n 
(Bi), 68 (Bi)j linaahi B.n. [Kyoto, 8.VIJ.921] (Mi); Kitamura s^ 
n. [Hondo, 28 .VI .1931] (Ml, Mi); lobayaahi 13617 (S), 13938 (S), 
15903 (Oo); Marayaaa & Okaaoto I6l7 (Oo, M, S, S«— 199277, W— 
2335110, Ws); T. Matamura I669 (N). U951 (H), ^73 (N); Mwdjio- 
wici s.n. [Tokohama, 1862] (Bi— I8IOO, S, T, W— 997U, W— 21*96751); 
MiiuahljMi 2927 (S), 3121 (S), 17169 (S); Mctrata 16U28 (»— 
21409699); Okanoto 37 (Ws); S. Sngukl SI .55 (W--221i49Ul) , UC.93 
[Herb. Suiuki 369002] (Ca--793587), PC.75U [Herb. Suaukl li37010] 
(Ca~930U79), PC.78U [Herb. Suiuki Uii0027] (Ca— 930516), UC.990 
[Herb. Suxuki li63017] (Ca--95386l), s.n. [Jun. 26, 1951] (Se— 
138339), s.n. [Jul. 10, 1951] (Se— 138257), e^n. [Oct. 27, 1951] 
(Se— m96U0); Tagawa 195 (Ws); Thorn 25 (Go); Togas! 379 (Ca— 
955797, Go, Mg, Mi, N, S, S, Sii=^na223, Vi, ¥— 22ii21^, 1255 
(B, Ca— 87159, Go, Mg, N, S, Se— 17780U, ¥—2276612, Ws, 'WaTTh. 
Pno i8Uli8 (Ba), 18U50 (N); Yaaada s.n. [Ise, 20 juin I9IO] (W— 
1178282). Kyushu: Herb. Sci. Coll. Imp, Univ. s.n, [July] (Vt); 
Huruaaani 3lib (W— 2073731); Kanehira s.n. [Mt. Seburi, Jun. 9, 
1929] (W— 1529231); Masamme s.n. [Sateuaa, May 20, 1923] (H); 
Maxiaowict s.n. [Nagasaki, I863] (C); Oldhaa 620 (M, T), 621 (S){ 
S. Smuki 791 (Ws); Takenouchi sai. [Ru»en, 7JC.1933] (Gg — 
267590). MlyaJlM: Hiroe 12036 (Ca— Ii038U), 19038 (Ca— U0399). 
Shlkoku: Collector undeteradjwd e.n. [Nanokasa, Tosa, June 21, 
1892] (W— 206169); Murata k Shiaiiu 1170 (Ws); Tagawa a.n. [Aug. 
9, 1930] (Ws); Uyeki 7U (Vi); Watanabe 8.n. [Takayaahlki, June 
13, 1887] (Ca— 363663); Yanotaki 3U (W— 2073857). SugaahiMi II- 
tarora s.n. [11 Nor. 1951] (Mi) , TsuahiMt Ohaahi i Sohaa 10017 
(W— 259la72); Wilford s.n. [1859] (S). Island uadeterained: Herb. 
LeRoy s.n. (N) ; Herb. Lugd. Batar. s.n. (S) ; Herb. tM>ach 22313 
[Kogaahiyaaa] (Ws); Siebold s^. (M); Slmada s.n. [Japan] (W— 9961t, 
W— 9973); C. Wright s.n. [Sl«oda] (N— photo, I— photo, Oa, T, Z— 
photo); Zollinger 350 (S). CTJLTTVATKD: Jara: Herb. Bogor. 1B099 
(Bm). 



338 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 5 

CALLICAfiPA MOLLIS var. VICROPHILU Sieb. & Zucc, Abh. Math.-phys. 
Kl. Kongl. Baierisch, Akad. Wiss. Ifaench. k (3): 156 [as "A? 
mlcrophylla' ']. 18U6. ^ 

SynonyBqr; Cajllcarpa japonlea var, alcrophylla Sieb, & Zucc. 
ex Moldenke, R^stmd 172 & Wi. 1959. 

Bibliography: Sieb. !t Zucc*. Abh. Uath.-phys. El. Kongl. Baier- 
isch. Akad. Wiss. Ifaench. h (3) [Fl' Jap. Fam. Nat. 2]: 156. I8I46; 
Sieb. & Zucc, Fl. Jap. Fam. Nat. Alt. 156. I8I46; lUq., Ann. Uus. 
Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 2: 99* 1865; Miq., Cat. Mas. Bot. Lugd.-Bat. 70. 
1870; Nakai, Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 1, 338. 1922; Nakai, 
Fl. SylT. Kor. lU: 32—33 & 133. 1923; Nakai in Nakai & Koidz., 
Trees & Shrubs Indig. Japan, ed. 2, 1: U58. 1927; Masam., Prel. 
Rep. Veg. lak. 115. 1929; Masam., Fl. & Geo. lakus. 387. 193ii; 
Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 12. 191^0) Hara, Earn, 
Sperm. Jap. 1: 185. 19U8; Moldenke, Phytologia 3t 295. 1950; Ma- 
sam., Sci. Rep. Kamazawa Univ. U: U6. 1955; Kara. Distrib. Mape 
Flow. PI. Jap. 51. 1958; Moldenke, R*sun« 172 & Uili. 1959; Molden- 
ke, R<8um6 Suppl. 15: 11 (1967) and 16: 17. 1968; Moldenke, Phy- 
tologia 21: 2U2. 1971. 

The original description (l81i6) of this variety is "foliis lan- 
ceolatis vel ovato-lanceolatis actiminatis basi rotundatis dense 
et aequaliter serrulatis pollicaribus vel bipoUicaribus . Die 
Eehaaining und allgemeine Form der Blatter stiimt mit der mollis 
Qberein, nor sind dieselben viel kleiner und am Rande mit Aus- 
nahme der Basis yxad Spitze gleichmassig f einsagezahnig . Die 
Bluthen sind an unseren Exemplaren nicht vollstandig entwickelt." 
Nakai (1923) describes it as "Frutex 1 — 1.5 metralis ramosissimus . 
Folia 1—3 cm. longa. Nom. Jap. Kobano-yabumurasaki. Hab. in 
insula Hokitsuto. Distrib. Kiusiu." Masamune (1929, 1955) re- 
cords it from Honshu and Kyushu, Japan, as nell as from Yakushima 
in the Ryukiu Islands, and records the vernacular name 
**bagabayabu-murasaki" . 

According to Hara (19U8) the "£, mollis var. microphylla Sieb. 
& Zucc." of Nakai (1922, 1923) is really £. mollis var. ramosis- 
slma Nakai. 

It should be noted that Siebold it Zuccarini's reprint publica- 
tion (18U6) is often cited as Tl. Jap. Fam. Nat. 2: l56" and 
Masamune' s 193U publication as "Masam. Fl. 387". Miquel (I87O) 
cites Siebold 3 [specimens?], Keiske 1 [specimen?], and Mohnike 
1 [specimen?]. 

In sone of my previous publications I did not accept the 
validity of this variety and reduced it to synonyaQr under typical 
C. mollis Sieb. & Zucc. However, recent Japanese workers, with 
field e3q>erience, regard it as a valid taxon and so I bow to 
their Judgement. As yet I have seen no herbarium material of it. 

CAIUCARPA MDIJJS var. RAMOSISSIMA Nakai in Nakai & Koids., Trewi 
& Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 2, 1: U58. 1927. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa japoniea var. raaosissima Nakai ex Mol- 
denke, IL6avn6 172 Jc UI4I;. 1959. 

Bibliography: Nakai, Trees & Shrubs Indig. Jap., ed. 1, 338. 



1971 Itoldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 339 

1922; Nakai, Fl. Sylv. Kor. lii: 32. 1923; Nakai in Nakai & Koida., 
Trees & Shrubs Indlg. Jap., ed. 2, 1: U$o. 1927; Maaam., Prel. 
Rep. Veg. Yak. 11$. 1929; Masam., Fl. & Geo. Jakua. 387. 193ii; 
Hara, Emm, Spera. Jap. 1: 185. 19U8} Moldenke, PhTtclogia }'. 295. 
1950; Uasam.. Sci. Rep. Kanazaira Univ. h'- U6. 1955; Moldenke, R^ 
mm6 172 & Wi* 1959; Moldenke, R^sm^ Suppl. 15: U (1967) and 
16: 17. 1968. 

According to Hara (1918) this taxon iiaa erroneously reported 
as C. mollis var. aicrophylla Sieb. & Zucc. by Nakai in 1922 and 
1923. He cites an illustration ["f. 2Ja83 (1938)"], but unfor- 
tunately gives the nane of the publication and its author only in 
Japanese characters. 

Masamune (1955) records var. ramosissiaa fron Honshu, lyuahu, 
and Sikoku, Japan, as well as from Yakuahima in the Ryukiu Is- 
lands, and gives the vernacular name "kobano-yabumurasaki" , 

▲s yet I have seen no herbaz*iuo material of this taxon. 

CALLICARPA NIGRESCENS Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: li25— U26. 
1926. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. 30: U25— U26. 
1926; A. W. Hin, Ind. Keir. Suppl. 8: 37. 1933; Moldenke, Known 
Geogr. Distrib. Varbenac., [ed. 1], 62 & 87 (19U2) and [ed. 2], 
Ua & 177. 19U9; Moldenke, Phytologia h'- 12li. 1952; Moldenke, 
R^sum* 183, 198, & hhh. 1959; Moldenke, R6s\im^ Suppl. 15: H. 
1967; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 109. 1971. 

Merrill (1926) describes this plant as follows: "A shrub a- 
bout 2 ffl high, the branches terete, older ones glabrous, the 
branchlets slender, densely and minutely stellate-furfuraceous 
or stellate-sublepidote, the indumentum brown or pale. Leaves 
opposite, membranaceous or subchartaceous, oblong to broadly 
oblong-lanceolate, 6 to 15 cm long, 3 to 6 cm wide, slenderly 
and sharply almost caudate-acuminate, base acute or decur rent- 
acuminate, margins crenate or crenate-dentate, the upper surface 
dark brown to black and shining nhen dry, entirely glabrous or 
with scattered stellate hairs when immature, the lower surface 
paler than the upper, minutely and rather densely pitted and 
with numerous shining glands, the indxmentxim of short, pale, 
stellate, scattered hairs, for the most part confined to the mid- 
rib and lateral nerves; lateral nerves about 7 on each side of 
the midrib, slender, curved-ascending, distinct; petioles 1 to 3 
cm long, minutely and rather densely stellate-pubescent. Cymes 
axillary, mostly densely flowered, about as long as the peti- 
oles, the peduncles, branches, and calyces densely and minutely 
stellate-pubescent with pale or brownish hairs, the pedicels a- 
bout 1,5 ■!!> long, the bractooles linear, 0.5 ■■ long. Calyx 
truncate, about 2 mm long, 1,5 ■» in diameter, narrowed below to 
the c\ineate base. Corolla txibe 2 m long, glabrous, the lobes 
U, oblong-elliptic, rounded, glabroxis or very slightly pubescent 
above, about 1,5 tm long. Filaments glabrous, U to U.5 nn long; 
anthers oblong, 1,3 mi long. Style exserted, glabrous, 7 nin 
long. Fruit globose, glabrous, black when dry, about 2 mn in 



3kO PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

di^peter." 

The type of the species iras collected by Ifaximo Ramos and Gx*e- 
gorio E. Bdaflo [ Philip. Bur. Scl. kh297 ] in secondary forests at 
low altitudes on Tawltawi, Stilu Archipelago, Philippine Islands, 
in August, 192li, and iias deposited in the herbarlTjm of the Philip- 
pine Bureau of Science at Manila, now unfortxuiately destroyed. 
Merrill cites also Philip. Bur. Scl. liiiL?^ , gathered by the same 
collector at the type locality in July of 19 2U. He c cements that 
this is "A species rather well characterized within the genus by 
its very short indumentum, irtiich is dense on the branchlets and 
inflorescences, and wanting or very sparse on the vegetative 
parts. The leaves are characteristically black or dark colored 
on the upper surface when dry, as in Cal 11 carpa cana Linn, and G. 
bicolor Juss., and the species is apparently allied to these in 
spite of the difference in indumentum. According to Bakhiiizenis 
arrangement of the species, it would apparently fall near or with 
CallicaiT)a japonica Thuhb. and £, longifolla Lam,, to neither of 
which can it be properly referred. I doubt very much if any of 
the Philippine or Malaysian material is properly referable to 
Thunberg's species." 

Recent collectors describe this plant as 2 m. tall, the stems 
3 cm. in diameter, the corolJas bluish-pink, stamens yellow, and 
fruit green (in August), growing in secondary forests at low al- 
titudes • 

In all, 7 herbarium specimens, including material of the type 
collection, have been examined by me. 

Citations: PmLIPPINE BIANDS: Siilu: Wilkes £xped. s.n. [Sulu 
Archipelago] (W— li0650). Tawltawi: Ramos & Edafio s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Bur. Scl. Ua98] (B, Bz— 17292, Ca~257331, N), s.n. 
[HeA. Philip. Bur. Scl. hh297] (N— isotype). MOLUCCA ISIANDS: 
Sanana: Bloambergen U336 (Bz — 180^6). 

CALnCARPA NIPENSIS Britton & P. Wils, in N. L. Brltton, Mem. 
Torrey Bot. Cliib 16: 98. 1920. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa nlpense Brltton & P. Wils. ex Moldenke, 
Alph. List Cit. 1: 187, sphaOm. 19U6. 

Bibliography: N. L. Britton, Mem. Torrey Bot. Club 16: 98. 
1920; J. A. Clark, Card Ind. Gen. Sp. PI. 1920; A. W. Hill, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 6s 3k* 1926; Moldenke in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. 
39: 298 (1936) and UO: ^, 73—80, 119, 123, & 129. 1936; Molden- 
ke, Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. $» 1939; Moldenke, Known Geo gr. Dis- 
trlb. Verbenac., [ed. 1], 2U & 87. 19U2; Moldenke, Alph. List 
Cit. 1: 187 & 312 (19U6) and 3t 929. 19U9; Moldenke, Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], U2 & 177. 191*9; Alain in Le6n 4 A- 
lain, n. Cuba hi 305 4 307. 1957; Moldenke, R6s\bi6 50 & UJi. 
1959; Moldenke, Phytologla U*: 155. 1966. 

The Alain 4 Lopez Figuelras U8U8, distributed as £. nipensia , 
is actually £, cuneifolla Britton & P. Wils. 

In all, 5 herbarium specimens, inclvidlng the type, and 5 moun- 
ted photographs of this species have been examined by me. 



1971 Uoldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 3lll 

Eiuended citations: CUBA.: Orlente: Shafer 3026 (F— 286168 — 
isotype) . 

CALLICARPA NUDIFLORA Hook. & Am., Bot. Beech. Voy. 206, pi. Ii6. 
1836. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa acuminata Roxb., Hort. Beng. [10], hypo- 
nym. iQUi; Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: U08— li09. 1820 [not 
C. acuminata Humb., 1825, nor Humb. & Bonpl., 1821, nor H.B.K., 
1817, nor Humb. & Kunth, 1839, nor Kunth, I81i7] . Callicarpa 
reeves ii Wall., Numer. List 50, hyponym. 1829. Callicarpa nudi- 
flora Hook, ex Pritz., Icon, Bot. Ind. 1: 188. 1866. Callicarpa 
macrophylla var. sinensis C. B. Clarke in Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind, 
U: 568. 1885. Callicarpa reenrvesii Wall, ex Briq. in Engi. & 
Prantl, Nat, Pflanzenfam., ed. 1, h (3a): 166, sphalm. 1895. Cal - 
licarpa reveeaii Wall, apud Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot, 
Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 22, sphalm. 1921. Callicarpa acuminata var. 
angustifolia Mete, Lingn. Sci. Joum. 11: U07. 1932. Callicarpa 
revesii Wall, apud P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. 
China] 19, sphalm. 1932, Callicarpa reveesi Wall, ex Moldenke, 
Risumfi 2li6, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa macrophylla var. acuminata 
(Roxb.) Bakh,, in herb. Callicarpa reversii Wall., in herb. 

Bibliography: Roxb., Hort, Beng. [10]. l8lU; Wall, in Roxb,, 
Fi. Ind,, ed. 1 [Carey & Wall.], 1: U08— U09 & U8l. I620j Spreng. 
in L., Syst. Vag., ed. 16, 1: li20. 1825; J. A. & J, H. Schultes, 
Mant. 3: 53. 1827; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg,, ed. 16, 5: 126. 
1828; Wall., Numer. List 50. 1829; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 2 [Carey], 
1: 39U & 395. 1832; Hook. & Am. Bot. Beech. Voy. 206, pi. Ii6. 
1836; Boj., Hort. Maurit. 258. 1837; D. Dietr., Syn. PI. 1: U28. 
1839; Steud., Norn, Bot,, ed. 2, 1: 257. 18U0; Walp., Nov. Act. 
Nat. Cur. 19, Suppl. 1: 381. I81i3; Walp., Repert. Bot, Syst, Uj 
125—126. l8U5i Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 11: 61a & 61i2. 18U7; 
Benth, in Hook., Joum. Bot, & Kew Card, Misc, $: 135. 1853; Miq., 
Fl, Ned, Ind. 2: 888. 1856; Benth., Fl. Hongk. 270, 1861; Prit»., 
Icon, Bot, Ind. 1: 188. 1866; Ro3d)., Fl. Ind., ed. 3 [C. B. 
Clarite], 132, 187U; C B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. U: 
568. 1885; Maxim., Bull, Acad, Sci, St, P^tersb, 31: 75. 1886; 
Maxim,, ii6l. Biol. 12: 50U & 505. 1886; Forbes & Hemsl., Joum. 
Linn. Soc, Lond. Bot. 26: 25U— 255. I89O; Jacks, in Hook. f. & 
Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 386. 1893; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, 
Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 1, h (3a): 166. 1395; H. N. Ridl., Joum. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc, Straits 33: [Fl. Singap,] 122. 1900; King & 
Gamble, Joum. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 7U (2), extra no., 802 & 
80? — ^306. 1908; King & Gamble, Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins. 21: 1012 & 
1015—1016. 1909; Dunn & Tutcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. Addit. Ser. 
10: 202. 1912; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. U8, 65, & 89. 
1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
10 & 22. I92I; H. N. Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2: 617. 1923; Chung, 
Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (1): 226. 192U; E. D. Merr., Lingn. Sci. 
Joum. 5: 157. 1927; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 1: 526. 1929; Moldenke, 



3U2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. $ 

Bull, Torrey Bot. Club 60: 55 — 56. 1932} P. Dop, Bull. Soc. Hist. 
Nat. Toulouse 6U: 500, 503, 511, & 512. 1932; Mete, Lingn. Sci. 
Joum. 11: U07. 1932; P'ei. Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. 
China] Hi, 16, 19, & h2—hh. 1932; H. F. MacMillan, Trop. Plant. 
& Gard., ed. U, lOU. 1935; L. H. Bailey, List Florists Handl. 
Verbenac. mss. 1935; Moldenke in Fedde, Report , Spec. Nov. 39 J 
302 (1936) and UO: 39, lA, 106, 113—115, 120—122, 12U, 127, & 
128. 1936; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 9: U5. 1938; Moldenke, 
Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. 36. 1939; Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List 
Invalid Names 9 & 12. 19U0: Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Ver- 
benac, [ed. 1], 51i— 56, 58, 59, 61 71, & 87. 19U2; Moldenke, 
Alph. List Invalid Names 8 & 10. 19U2: H. F. MacMillan, Trop. 
Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, pr. 1, lOU. 19u3; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 
85 & 95. 19li5; Jacks, in Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 2, 1: 
386. 19U6; H. F. MacMillan, Trop. Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, pr. 2, 
lOli. 19U6; Moldenke, Alph. Ust Git. 1: 21, 89, 91, IO8, 271, & 
298. I9U6; Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names Suppl. 1: 3. 19U7} 
H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, PI. Life 2: 78. 19U8; H. F. MacMillan, 
Trop. Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, pr. 3, lOli. 19U8; Moldenke, Alph. 
List Cit. 2: 359, U02, UOU, UO, U32, 580, 6U3, & 6Uli (19U8), 3'- 
657, 658, 666, 770, 775, & 85U (19U9), and k'. 1011, 1105, 1228, 
123ii, 4 1297. 19U9; Moldenke, Phytologia 3: 139. 19U9; Moldenke, 
Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], 12U, 125, 128, 129, 131, 
13ii— 136, 139, 157. & 177. 19U9; H. F. MacMillan, Trop. Plant. & 
Gard., ed. 5, pr. h, lOli. 19U9; Moldenke, Revist. Sudam, Bot. 8: 
172. I95O; H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 270, 279, 283, 307, 
308, & 311. I95I; H. F. MacMillan, Trop. Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, 
pr. 5, lOU. 1952; Moldenke, Phytologia U: 12U (1952) and U: 268. 
1953; H. F. MacMillan, Trop. Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, pr. 6, lOU 
(195U) and pr. 7, lOU. 1956; Moldenke, R6sm6 159, 160, 165, I66, 
168, 173—175, 179, 211i, 2hl, 2U5, 2U6, & Uiili. 1959; Jacks, in 
Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 3, 1: 386. I96O; H. F. MacMil- 
lan, Trop. Plant. & Gard., ed. 5, pr. 8, lOU. 1962; Sen & Naskar, 
Bull. Bot. Surv. India 7: 38. 1965; Moldenke, Phjrtologia 13: 1;31 
& k33 (1966) and U^: 38, 112, llii, 121, & 11+2. I966; Buridll, 
Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1: 1^07. 1966; Moldenke, RfisumS 
Suppl. lU: 3 & I4 (1966) and 15: 16. 1967; Tingle, Check List Hong 
Kong PI. 38. 1967; Moldenlie, Phytologia Hi: 219 & 225 (1967) and 
16: 38li & Ui7. 1968; Chan & Teo, Chem. Pharm. Bull. Tokyo 17: 
128U — 1286. 1969; Famsworth, Pharmacog. Titles 5 (li): iii & item 
UII5. 1970; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 35, 101, llU, l5l, 223, &■ 225. 
1971. 

Illustrations: Hook, & Arn., Bot. Beech. Voy. pi. U6. 1336. 

As has been pointed out by me in 1932, the Asiatic plant for 
so long a time known as C. acuminata Ro^d). must take on another 
name. While this binomial was actually first proposed by Ro^dmrgh 
in l3lli, it was not accon^janied by any description. It was, 
therefore, a mere hyponym, and is not considered to have been va- 
lidly published at that tine. A full description, validating the 
name, was not published by him until 1820. In the meantime, Hum- 
boldt, Bonpland, & Kunth published their C. acxaainata in quite va- 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 3ll3 

lid form for a Mexican, Central and South American species in 
1817 with a full description. The Asiatic and American plants are 
similar in appearance, but are not corispecific. The American 
plant, therefore, must retain the name C_. acxxminata H.B.K. and 
the Asiatic plant must take on a new name. 

The second oldest name for the Asiatic plant is C_. reevesii 
Wall., proposed in 1829, but also as a hyponym. It was not vaOid- 
ly published until by Walpers in 13U5. In 1336, however. Hooker 
& Amott published £. nudi flora , accompanied by a good descrip- 
tion and illustration. It seems obvious, therefore, that the 
Asiatic plant first known as £. acuminata Roxb., then as C_. 
reevesii Wall., must now be known as £, nudi flora Hook. & Am. It 
has been collected rather extensively in southern China, Canton, 
Kwangtung, Hainan Island, Macao, and Lappas Island, and occurs 
also in Silhet, Tenasserlm, and Singapore. 

Roxburgh's original (1820) description of his C_. acuminata is 
"Shrubby, tender parts hoary with a stellate pubescence. Leaves 
broad-lanceolar, acuminate, remotely repand, denticulate. Panicles 
axillary, long p>eduncled, dichotomous, shorter than the leaves. 
A native of Silhet, flowers in May. In this species the panicles 
are elevated on longer peduncles than in the other species [of 
India] , the leaves and young parts very hairy, except the upper 
surface of the former irhen fully expanded, which is then naked 
and reticulate; from four to five inches long by nearly two broad," 

King & Gamble (1908) amplified this description as follows: "A 
shrub, the branches, petioles, the under surface of leaves, and 
inflorescence covered with a soft, whitish-grey or pale tawror, 
mealy tomentum of branched or stellate hairs. Leaves coriaceous; 
lanceolate or elliptic-lanceolate, long acute at apex, attenuate 
at base and often slightly unequal, not decurrent; upper surface 
dark when dry, glabrous except the neinres, lower tonentose; mar- 
gins entire for the lower third, above that shortly dentate ser- 
rate; ^ to 8 in. long, 2 to 3 in. broad; midrib stout; main nerves 
13 to 15 pairs, nearly regular, starting at an angle of U5° to 60° 
with the midrib and curving gently to the margin, each pair joined 
by rather obscure transverse nervelets, all slightly impressed a- 
bove; petiole .75 in. long. Cymes axillary, rounded, many-flower- 
ed, widely dichotomous, reaching U in. long and about 3 in. broad; 
peduncles 1.5 to 2 in. long; bracts linear subulate, 1 in. long; 
pedicels short, slender, nearly glabrous, .05 to .1 in. long; 
flowers purple? Calyx very short, nearly glabrous but with a few 
stellate hairs and minutely glandular-punctate, very shortly li- 
toothed. Corolla twice as long as calyx .1 in.; lobes rounded, 
sparsely stellate-pubescent and glandular-punctate. Stamens long 
axsert; filaments slender; anthers small; the connective glandular- 
punctate. Ovary rounded, veiy glandular; style very long, twisted; 
stigma peltate, lajrge. Dnipe purple, small, .075 to .1 in. in di- 

am., nearly globose; pyrenes U Singapore: near the Botanic 

Gardens, Murton 87; Ridley 688 U cultl Distrib. Tenasserim (?) 
(Falconer); Southern China." 



3Ui PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. S 

Bakhulzen van den Erink (1921) gives the distribution of this 
species as "S.-Chinal Cantonl Lappas-Isl.l KwantungJ Hongkongl 
Hainanl Macaol Silheti ? Tenasseriml? Singaporel** 

Recent collectors describe the plant as a low woody shrub, 1~3 
m. tall, or sometimes a small to large tree, to 9 m. tall, erect, 
the stems 1^ — 2^ cm, in diameter, bark brown and flaky, branches 
pale furfuraceous, becoming gray-gr«en, the leaves "yellow-gr«en" 
or green, pale- or deep>-green above, pale-green or grayish mealy- 
tomentose beneath (or "light-green above, tawny beneath"), "with 
prominent glaucous vein" beneath, the flowers fragrant or ill- 
smelling, the stamens pxirple, the immature fruit green, maturing 
to red ( Chun & Tso WUh, Tsang s.n. , Wang 3$Uh6 ) , lilac ( Chun 
68U6), purple-red ( Liang 632^U ) , purple, or blue; "green to 
white" on Liang 66369 and "brown" on Chun UoU22 &. I^i 125 . The 
corolla is described as being "red" on W. T^ Tsang 29, "pink" on 
Fung 20276 , Liang 62117 , and Taam 1^60 , "rose" on Bodinier 798, 
"pale pink-purple" on Clemens & Clemens 311i8 , "peach- red" on Lei 
9IU, "purple-pink" on Clemens & Clanens 3936, "violet" on Chun 
315$ , "purple" on Chun 2108 , Tsang & Fung 1^61 , and Wang 32788 , 
and »hrhiten on Ying 872 . 

Collectors have found the pl£uit growing in loam soil or sand, 
in open thickets, mixed woods, forests, and gardens, on level 
land, slopes, open hillsides, rocky mountains, and forest mar- 
gins, along open roadsides and streamsides, suid in partial shade 
at the sides of ravines, at sCtitudes of 1200 feet, flowering in 
February and from April to September, fruiting from August to 
Febiruary. Tsang describes it as "abundant scattered shrubs in 
dry sandy soil", Lau says "fairly cojanon, dry cliffs, sandy soil',' 
and Lei reports "rare in loam of dry level land", "scattered 
shrubs in village greens", and "in roadside gardens". Bodinier 
reports it as "rare dans I'lle" on Hongkong, while Chun found it 
to be "common" on Hainan Island. 

It should be noted that Sprengel (182^) places Roxburgh's C. 
acuminata in the synonymy of C. heynii Roth [now known as C. 
camdicans (Burm. f.) Hochr,], The Hooker & Amott I836 reference 
in the bibliography of £. nudiflora is dated "I8I4I" by Bakhuizen 
van den Brink (1921), Stapf (1929), and P'ei (1932), but actually 
was published in 18 36 [see the dates of publication of the various 
pages of this work, as well as of the plates, under £. kochiana 
in these notes]. The TiVallich 1829 reference is cited eis "1828" 
by Bakhuizen van den Brink, who also cites the 18U5 Walpers refer- 
ence by the title-page date of "iSliU — l8Ii8". The King & Gamble 
publications, referred to above, are both often cited as "I909" 
and the pages reversed or the serial citation given as "7U (U)"* 
Dr. Lam (1919) reduces Roxburgh's C. acuminata to synonymy under 
C. longifolia f . floccosa Schau, 

The Gallic arpa acuminata var. angusti folia of Metcalf (1932) 
seems to be merely a new name for G. nudiflora Hook. & Am. as 
distinguished by him from C. acuminata Roxb. and C. reevesii Wall. 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 3h5 

He cites for it a Ford s.n. , originally detennined as C_. purpurea 
A. L, Juas. in the Arnold Arboretum herbairium. Calllcarpa macro - 
phylla var. sinensis C. B. Clarke is described by Clarke (1885) 
as having "Leaves oblong-lanceolate, closely denticulate, pediin- 
cles longer than the petioles, anthers oblong, larger. — Canamj 
Gibson , Calcutta; Distrib. China. Braixjhes upwards dense with 
leaves . Teeth of the leaves with minute black glandular spots . 
Cadyx in flower stellately tomentose, soon nearly glabratej teeth 
elongate, often somewhat longer than the tube. Probably a culti- 
vated plant: it seems as near to C_. Reevesii as to C. macrophylla l 
Chang (1951) compares it with £, nudiflora Hook. & Am. arkd with 
C. lobo-apiculata Uetc . Vy good friend. Dr. Santapau, in a letter 
to me dated Febrriary 16, I9U8, says " Call, macrophylla var. sin - 
ensis is given as a Bombay plant on the word of Gibson, who found 
it in Kanara; unless we are told which Kanara is meant, we cannot 
draw any definite conclusion, although I aun inclined to think it 
was the North Kanara [Bombay Pres.], in irtiich Gibson did botanlse 
extensively." 

The Griffith 60l;0/l , cited below, was apparently taken from a 
cultivated plant in India, the seeds of which were "ex China". 
Sen Sc Naskar (1965) record the species as cultivated in India, 
Bojer (1837) says that it is cultivated in Mauritius. Bailey 
(1935) reports that it was offered to the horticultural trade at 
that time by the Singapore Botanical Garden, UacMillan (19li3) 
includes it among the species cultivated in the tropics, calling 
it a "Large straggling sh.[njb] or small tree. L, [eaves] large, 
tomentose. Fls . pink, in large cymes. S, China." 

Vernacular names reported for the species are "pan ko fa" 
"sal yeung paan kaau fa", and "tai chung lo kop muk". 

Chang (1951) cites Fenzel 16, H. Green s.n. , £. 1, Lie 12U & 
911 . and nos_. 29, 100, 1161, Ii99, 872, 1178 , 1560, 1720, 1835 , 
1929 . 3155 , 5287, 68U8, 6958, 96U9, 16596 , 20276, 218U2 . 23679 , 
270J43, 277U8, 31232, 38863 , laU22 , hhnh , 62117 , 62173 , 63251i , 
63303 , 66369 , 67201, 69122, 69899 , 7013li , 7281U , & 729li7 of col- 
lectors and/or herbaria whose names, unfortunately, he gives only 
In Chinese characters. 

Under Genua I36, Calllcarpa , in the Linnean Herbarium in London, 
sheet no. 2 is inscribed "tomentosa" in Linnaeus' handwriting and 
"cana* in Solander^s writing. The specimen is neither £, ton>ento - 
sa (L.) Murr. nor £, candicans (Burm. f .) Hochr. [the taxon which 
used to be called C^ cana L.], but is plainly typical £. nudiflora 
Hook. & Am. I Sheet no, 3 in the same folder, unidentified, is 
actually C_. candicans . 

Hatezdal of C_, nudiflora has been misldentified and distributed 
In herbaria under the names £. macrophylla Vahl, Cj_ purpvtrea A. L. 
Juss., C. tcnentosa Willd., and Premna arborea Roth. On the other 
hand, the R. C, Ching 7291 , distributed as C^. nudiflora , is actu- 



3l|6 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

ally C. arborea Roadb., Barthe s.n. [1857] is C_. candicans (Burm, 
f .) Hochr., Gaudlchaud s.n. [Chine, jiiillet 1839] is C. fonaosana 
Rolfe, some of the Herb. Hort, Bot. Calcutt . s.n. distribution is 
C. pedxmculata R. Br., and C. 0_. Levine s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr. 
Coll. lUk9] is C. rubella Lindl. 

In all, 131 herbarium specimens and h mounted photographs of C. 
nudiflora have been examined by me. 

Additional citations: INDIA: State undetermined: Herb. Falcon - 
er s.n. (K) . CHIM: Kwangsi: Steward & Cheo 876 (N); W. T. Tsang 
218U2 (S). Kwangtung: Chun 31$5 (N), 68U6 (N), l;OU22 (N, N); C. 
0. Levine 3li9 (lo), s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 3U9] (W— 
778666); Nevin s.n. [Canton] (Du--90912)} I. K. Wang U99 (Ca— 
3li739U), 183$ (Bz--172liU, Ca— 37laJi3); Ying 872 (Ca— 35900li) . 
Province undetermined: N, J, Anders son s.n. [China] (S)} Henalow 
s.n. [1833] (K). CHINESE COASTAL ISIANDS: Hainan: W. I. Chun 
2108 [Herb. Univ. Nanking 7089] (Ca— 2U3565), 570li (Ca— 21*3565); 
Chun & Tso hhllk (B, N, W— 1675137); C. Ford s.n. [27.7.93] (W— 
ii56056), s.n. (N, N); H. Fung 20276 (B, Bz— 18103, Ca— 11531, N, 
W— 1751091); How 728lli (Bz— 18596); Kataumada 21951 (Ca— 322li99); 
Lau 1929 (N); Lei 125 (B, Ba, Bi, Bz— 18102, Ca— 612188, N), 911; 
(B, Ba, N); Liang 62117 (N), 62U73 (La, N), 6325U (N), 63303 (Go, 
N), 66369 (N, W— 1671535); T^ 29 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 15528] 
(Ca— 315768); W. T. Tsang 29 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 15528] (N, S, 
W— 12li88l46) ; Tsang & Fung ij6l [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 17995] (N); C_. 
Wang 32788 (N), 3li262 (N, S), 35l4i;6 (Go, N) . Honam: C. 0. Levine 
s.n. [Herb. Canton Chr. Coll. 1125] (Ka— 62836, W— 87U850, W— 
877U.8, W— 1010300). Lantau: Taam 1720 (Ca— 82283, N, W— 2072583); 
Tak 107 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 16596] (Ca— 3la928); W. T_r Tsang 
16596 (S), s.n. [Herb. Lingnan Univ. 16596] (N, W— 12U9639) . 
HONGKONG: Bodinier 798 (W— 2li96755) ; W. Y. Chun 681j6 (Ca— 37U071); 
Fortune 86 (S); H^ 28 [Herb. Lingnan Univ. I8h53] (N); Taam 1560 
(Ca— 82728, N, W— 2063769); C. Wright s.n. [Hong Kong] (T, W— 
l4li906]. MACAO: Gaudichaud 83 (W— 2U967lIoy. INDOCHINA: Annam: 
Clemens & Clemens 31ii8 (Ca— 3U0791, N), 3936 (Ca— 339371, Mi, N, 
Ut— 309a, W— lli277U6) . Tonkin: P^telot 105 (N, W— I7I6988) . BO- 
NIN ISLANDS: Island undetermined: C_, Wright s.n. [Bonin Islands] 
(W— 9976) . CULTIVATED: Brazil: Bailgy & Bailey 791 (Bi); £. Sai> - 
toro s.n. [Herb. Inst. Agron. Est. S. Paulo 9292] (Be— 37206, Ca— 
li0306) . India: Griffith 60iiO/l (T); Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcutt. s. 
n, (Bz— 18095, Ed, Mu— 989). Java: Backer 33U33 (Bz— I809O, Bz— 
18091), 33U3i; (Bz— I8O92, Bz— 18093); Bakhtdzen van den Brink s.n. 
(Bz— 25U80) ; Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor. II.G.25 (Bz— 25717, Bz— 
25718, Bz— 26516, Bz, Bz, N), 25a (Bz, Bz, Bz), 26 (Bz— 25719, 



1971 Mold«nke, Uonograph of Calllcarpa 3U7 

Bz— 25720, Bz— 26517, Bz— 26591, Bz, N) , 26a (Bz--25721), s.n. 
(Bz--l809li)j Pljl 637 (Bz— 18089). LOCALITY OF COLLECTION UNDE- 
THIIMINED: Herb. Llnnaeua G.136, S.2 (La, Mi—photo, N— photo, N— 
photo, Z — photo); Jameson 8.n« (Ed). 

CALLICARPA OBLANCEOLA.TA Urb. in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov, 18: 119. 
1922. 
Synonyuy: Callicarpa inopina Moldenke, Geogr, Distrib, Avicenn, 

5, nom. nud. 1939. 

Bibliography: Urb. in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Not, 18: 119. 1922; 
J. A. Clark, Card Ind. Gen. Sp. PI. 1922; Urb. in Fedde, Repert. 
Soec. Nov. 20: 3U5. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 37. 
1929; Uoldenke in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. 39: 301 (1936) and 
\^Q: 76 — 77, 119, & 123. 1936; Uoldenke, Geogr. Distrib. Avicenn. 
5. 1939; Uoldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 11. I9UO; 
Uoldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 1], 2U & 87. 
19U2; Uoldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names 9. 19U2; Uoldenke. Alph. 
List Cit. 1: 75, 76, & 185 (19U6), 2: 569 & 61*9—651 (19li8), and 
hi 1079, 1080, I09U, 1157, 1158, & 1206. 19li9i Uoldenke, Knotrn 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], Ii2 & 177. 19^9; Alain in Le6n 
& Alain, Fl. Cuba U: 305 & 308, fig. 131. 1957; Uoldenke R6sum6 
50, 2li3, & IM. 1959; Uoldenke, Phytologia 13: U97 (1966) and lU: 
U2. 1966. 

Illustrations J Alain in Le6n & Alain, Fl. Cuba U: fig. 131. 

1957. 

Recent collectors refer to this plant as a shrub, 2 — U feet 
tall, growing in woods, open pine woods, and cutover scrubby pine- 
land on serpentine-limonite plateaus, as well as on wet savannas, 
at 800 m. altitude, flowering in April, July, November, and Decem- 
ber, and fruiting in April, July, and December. Webster calls it 
"a rare shrub with pxirple berries"; actually the fruits are drupes. 
Marie-Vic tor in and his associates tell us that it grows with Anas- 
traphia victorinii and in Pinus cubensis woods . The corollas are 
described as having been "pink" on R, A. Howard 5900, "pale, al- 
Bost white" on Mrs. G. C. Bucher lOObb tc lOOv , "purple" on Mrs. G. 
C. Bucher lOOq , lOOu , lOOw, ft lOOy , "pale lavender" on Mrs. G_. £. 
Bucher 100 L, and "brighter lavender, almost purple" on her lOQn . 

Urs. Bucher has provided me with a large series of specimens 
from the Moa region of Oriente, Cuba. For a time I was of the o- 
pinion that her no. 16, at least, was worthy of specific designa- 
tion as C_. inopina Uoldenke, but her series of no. 100 ' s contains 
examples of so many variations and intergradations that it seems 
to me now that all her collections had better be included in Ur- 
ban's C. oblanceolata . A modified description, based on her no, 
16, is as follows: "Shrub; branches slender, gray, densely farina- 
ceous with gray or whitish furf , very much less so in age, obscure- 
ly tetragonal, somewhat flattened and ampliate at the nodes; nodes 
not annulate; principal intemodes 1 — 3 cm. long or the uppermost 
Bore abbreviated; leaves decussate-opposite, abundant; petioles 
slender, 5 — H nm* long, grayish-farinaceous, obscurely and shal- 



3U8 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

lowly canallcxilate above, keeled beneath; leaf -blades coriaceous, 
gray-green above -when mature, brunnescent above in drying when 
immature, sordid-grayish or -yellowish beneath both when immature 
and matujre, narrowly elliptic, 2 — U.7 cm, long, 8 — 17 mm. wide, 
blxmt or subacute at the apex, entire and slightly revolute along 
the margins (occasionally strongly revolute toward the base on 
older leaves), minutely white-stellate above when iimiature, glab- 
rescent and shiny in age, often sparsely impressed black-punctate 
toward the base above, acute at the base, very densely stellate- 
t<Mnentellous or -farinaceous with very closely appressed whitish 
or" yellowish furf beneath; midrib slender, impressed above, prom- 
inent beneath; secondaries very short, about 7 per side, ascending, 
arvuate toward the margins and there rather obscurely anastomosing 
beneath; veinlet reticTilation sparse, indiscernible above, only 
the largest portions discernible beneath; inflorescence supra- 
axillary; cymes usually one pair at the termination of the year's 
growth, 2,5 — 3.5 cm, long, 1.5 — 2.5 cm. wide, many-flowered, sev- 
eral times dichotomous, densely yellowish-furfuraceous throughout; 
peduncles slender, about 1 cm. long, flattened; pedicels minute 
or obsolete; bractlets 1 mm. long or less, subulate, densely yel- 
lowish-furfuraceous; prophylla obsolete; calyx cacpanulate, firm, 
sub tetragonal, about 2,5 nmi, long and 2 mm. wide, sparsely granu- 
lar-pulverulent outside, its rim sub truncate, minutely li-apiculate; 
corolla small, hypocrateriform, its tube broadly infundibular, 
cylindric at the base, about 2 mn. long, broadly ampliate above, 
glabrous (or very sparsely granular-pulverulent at the apex out>- 
side), its limb U-parted, the lobes broadly elliptic-Ungulate, a- 
bout 1.2 mm. long and wide, obtuse at the apex, sparsely granular- 
pulverulent outside; stamens U, inserted about 0.5 bib. above the 
base of the corolla-tube; filaments filiform, to 3.5 mm, long, 
glabrous, one sometimes much shorter; anthers oblong, to 1.2 mm, 
long and 0,7 nm. wide, opening by longitudinal slits, 

Mrs. Bucher's nos. 100a , 100b , lOOe, & lOOh have the leaf- 
blades decidedly pale beneath, lOOi & lOOJ have them pale and 
with curled edges, lOOm has them extra wide, IQOk has them wide 
and also pale, lOOq has them long and slender, lOOy has all the 
edges of the leaf -blades revolute, 100s exhibits both large and 
small leaves on the same branches (it was collected in November, 
the rainy season), lOOv has wide leaves said by the collector to 
be '^rery tan xmderneath, not gray", lOOw has its leaf -blades sparse- 
ly dentate toward the apex and is said by the collector to have had 
•hiider leaves and scattered flowers", lOOr also shows the leaves 
decidedly toothed at the apex and of it the collector notes "These 
certainly look different — wavy edges — smaller flowers in more 
delicate arrangement" , concerning 100c & lOOd she says "All these 
leaves look different, more veined, rougher and wider", and con- 
cerning lOOg she asks "and what of this leaf, xinder [side] not 
clean tan?" Clement UL22 has its leaf -blades all sharp-pointed at 
the apex, while Le6n & Cl&nent 23128 [July 19h9] has relatively 
huge leaves and certainly does not look like C_. oblanceolata at alll 

[to be continued] 



BOOK REviars 
AIju L. Moldenke 



■BEFORE NATURE DIES" by Jean Dorst, translated by Constance D. 

Shenaan, 352 pp.. lllus., Houghton Mifflin Co., Boston, Mass. 
02107. 1970. $6.95. 

These well expressed thoughts about this most important topic 
first appeared in Switzerland in 1965 under the title of "Avant 
que Nature Meure" . The translator has rendered a faithful and 
smooth language switch such as she previously provided in the 
author's earlier "Migration of Birds" and has also brought statis- 
tical materials up to date. The book is well illustrated with 
colored and black-and-irtiite photographs and line drawings, well 
indexed, and well documented with bibliography. 

Contrasting the minor effects of the smaller number of pre- 
industrial hunans on their environment with that of the burgeoning 
populations of today that are destroying the land, water, air and 
energy sources, the author provides valid, concrete and convincing 
suggestions of how modem man can live as one with nature aixl so 
provide for his oim survival. 

The printing is neat and easily legible. Only two small ezrors 
were noted: on p. 257 the letter "v" is inverted in "have" and on 
p. 323 the "f" is oaiitted in "four". On p. 187 "hrtieat smut" ia 
equated with Lychnis [ AgroataBpa ] githago . 

■MAN AND THE NATURAL IDHID -- An Introdaction to Life ScieiKe" by 
Coleman J. & Olive B. Goin, x & 6Ii3 pp., illus.. The Macmil- 
lan Caapary, Riverside, New Jersey 08075. 1970. $9.95. 

In the preface to this attractive text the authors state that 
they "believe that the general student, to be a well-informed 
citizen, should not only have an understanding of his own body, 
his own reproductive process, and his own inheritance, but should 
also have a sufficient biological background to con^rehend the 
prtjbleiii of population control, the genetic effects of radiation, 
the implications of jxjUution, and the basic concepts of behavior 
[and they] do not feel that such technical details as the ana tony 
of the clam or the whole series of reactions involved in the tri- 
carbo^grlic acid cycle are a necessary part of the core of know- 
ledge of a banker, lawyer, merchant, or housewife." This esp^iaais 
is logical and the approach is simple: in fact, so simple tiiat it 
does not go much beyond the better of the new high school biology 
texts . But the use of this text is far wiser for the non-biology 
major than those texts so burdened in their opening chapters with 
detailed microbiology and biochemistry that the students are not 
"turned on" by this wonderful field of learning. 

Many of the diagrams are ver>' helpful but the one on p. 125 

3U9 



3^0 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

adds nothing but errors. 

The references given after each chapter are usually easily ac> 
cessible and easily readable, but no references are given to such 
a popular scientific work as Dr. Paiil Ehrlich's "Population Bomb" 
and other writings , 

On p. l6l apparently is misspelled and on p. 126 an infinitive 
is split. 

"INTBODOCTION TO THE FINE STRUCTURE OF PLANT CF.T.T.S" by l^yron C. 
Ledbetter Sc Keith R, Porter, ix & 188 pp., illus., Springer- 
Verlag, Heidelberg, Berlin, New York, N. Y. 10010. 1970. 
^1U.80. 

With 51 exquisite oversized full plates and 8 text figures, 
with matching and provocative text, and with related literatuire 
references for each, the authors have presented a work of art and 
science to viewers. These should be many, many more than just 
the amateur, st^ldent, teaching and professional cytologlsts and 
electron microscopists . What a pleasure and orienter this col- 
lection of electron micrographs could be for all beginning and 
stumbling biology students first at their microscopes'. All schools 
should have a few copies of this book on their library shelves, 
especially since the price is so reasonable. 

This atlas includes general and fine cell structure, dividing 
cells, cell walls and plasmodesmata, vascular tissues, sc(h)leren- 
chjrma and coUenchyma, epidermal cells and variants, photosynthet- 
ic cells and apparatus, cells with special inclusions, and germin- 
ative cells , 

The printing and paper are of high quality. On p. 3U Allium 
is misspelled; on p. 121 the genus and species names are run to- 
gether. 

"THE VEGETATION OF THE NEIf JERSEY PINE-BARRENS — An Ecologic 

Investigation" by John W. Harshberger, xi 4: 329 pp., illxJS., 
map, unabridged republication of the 1916 edition. Dover 
Publications Co., New York, N. Y. lOOlU. 1970. $3,50 
paperback. 

Especially because of the increasing interest in ecology on the 
I>aLrt of the general public as well as that of the scientists and 
because of airfield construction threats, many scientists and 
aroused citizens will be interested in studying and preserving 
this distinctive area in New Jersey. This sturdy paperback book 
will provide valuable and interesting information. It is so good 
to have it freshly available now. It is hoped that the companion 
volume by Witmer Stone, "The Plants of Southern New Jersey, with 
Especial Reference to the Flora of the Pine-Barrens and the Geo- 
graphic Distribution of the Species", may also be made similarly 
available soon. 

Harshberger deals nith the following topics: physiography and 
geography, man's cocnercial effects, various phytogeographical 



1971 Moldenke, Book reviews 3$1 

formations, plants of each area, cone production, insect galls, 
and finally pine-barren plants from an evolutionary viewpoint. The 
many photographs add considerably to the text and in some cases 
show 'hibat was" under a present farn or housing development. 
Nat\irally the plant nomenclature is that of 60 years ago and the 
index is still far from coc9)lete. 

"PROGRESS IN PHYTOCHOflSTRY*, Volume 2 edited by L. Reinhold & I. 
LiwBchitz, ix & 512 pp., illvis., Interscience Publishers of 
John Wiley & Sons, London, Now York, N, Y. 10016, Sydney L 
Toronto. 1970. $27.50. 

This series performs effectively a necessary sei-vice for both 
the "initiated and the uninitiated* who wish to keep abreast of the 
rapid developments in phytochemistry. The eight papers are well 
written, well printed (accessory is misspelled on p. 150), well 
illustrated and well documented with full and recent biblio- 
graphies. All is indexed. 

The topics are: 1 - biochemistry of pollen, 2 - Ci|-<iicarbo3cylic 
acid pathway in photosynthesis affecting different chloroplasts 
and conditions than the Calvin cycles, 3 - fraction-1 protein and 
photosynthetic C02-fixation in chloroplasts, li - mutual and antag- 
onistic relations among certain plants, their insect visitors and 
avoiders, their isoprenoids, and the role and development of 
specialized insect hormones in plants, 5 - non-protein amino acids 
in plants and their finti metabolite actions, 6 - prenyl phytoquin- 
ones including the role polyprenyl quinones as redox carriers in 
electron transplant and coupling agents from it to phosphoryla- 
tion in mitochondria and chloroplasts, 7 - ethylene with its 
abscissic and fruit ripening actions, and 8 - limonoids limited 
to the Meliaceae and the Rutaceae and quassinoids limited to the 
Slnaroubaceae . 

■THE INDUCTION OF FLCMERIMG — Some Case Histories" edited by L. 
T. Evans, U88 pp., illus., Cornell University Press, Ithaca, 
N. I. IhQSO, 1969. $18.50. 

Between the covers of this book is well gathered and carefully 
evaluated a vast amount of valuable material in a most convenient 
form. The case histories by different authors are of Xanthium 
strumarim. Glycine max , Pharbitis nil . Per ilia, Chenopodium ru- 
brua , Lemna perpusilla . Cannabis sativa, Kalanchoe bios sfeldi ana , 
Fragaria , Chrysanthemum morifolivp , Arabidopsis thaliana, Sinapis 
alba, Loliim tanulentum , Silene araeria , Brassica campestris , Ana- 
gallis arvensis, Pisum sativum , Lycopersicon esculentum, Gestmm 
noctumxm and Bryophyllum . Each is discussed with reference to 
experimental work according to the following topics: history, 
growth and growing techniques, inflorescence structure, effects of 
aging, vernalization, photoperiod response, spectral dependence, 
endogenous rhythms, fractional induction, photoperiodic inhibition 



352 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 5 

and dual responses, effects of tenperatiire and mineral nutrition 
and gas composition, translocation of the floral stimulus, graft- 
ing, growth promoters and retardants, florigenlc extracts, in- 
duction of excised apices, and chemical and ultras true txiral 
changes at induction. 

The final chapter is an excellent summary by the editor. "In- 
ductive photoperiodic conditions lead to the export from leaves of 
flor^ stimuli i»hich may differ between plants. Non-inductive 
conditions can lead to the export of inhibitors of flower evoca- 
tion, whose production is also under photopeidodic control. 
Besides these primary photoperiodic stimuli there may also be pro- 
duced a more stable, and possibly more universal, graft- 
transmissible flower hormone. This can be generated, indepen- 
dently of floral evocation, by extended photoperiodic induction 
of leaves ( Perilla ) , or by secondary induction of young leaves 
( lanthium ) or defoliated leaves ( Silene ) , or simply with increas- 
ing age ( Pisum ) . There is thiis a multiplicity of floral stimuli, 
and what is a positive stimulus to floral evocation in one plant 
or condition may be inhibitory to it in another, as are the 
gibberellins and abscisin.** 

Each paper is well printed and has its own detailed biblio- 
graphy, adding so much to all the valuable data given. 

The price is more astronomical than botanicall 



TWO NEST VARIETIES OF PIPEWDRT 
Harold N. Uoldehke 



LEIOTHRIX DUBIA var. VILLOSA Moldenke, var. nov, 

Haec varietas a forma -typica speciei pedunculis densissime albo- 
villosis pilis antrorsis recedit. This variety differs from the 
typical form of the species in having its peduncles very densely 
white-villous with antrorse hairs. 

The type of the variety was collected by H. S. Irwin, H. Maxwell, 
and D. C. Wasshausen ( no. 20U81 ) in a wet campo in an area of caznpo 
slopes and sandstone outcrops in the Serra do Cip6, at km. 115 about 
11(0 km. north of Belo Hoz*izonte, kinas Gerais, Brazil, on February 
19, 1968, and is deposited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York 
Botanical Garden. 

SYNGONANTHUS DENSIFLORUS var. GLABRESCEM5 Moldenke, var, nov, 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei foliis vaginisque ^abris 
vel subglabratis recedit. 

The type of the variety was collected by H. S. Irwin, R. Souza, 
J. W. Grear, and R. Reis dos Santos (no. 17022 ) on a periodically 
flooded campo, l^OO m. alt,, ca, 30 km. S. of Xavantina, Mato Grosso, 
Brazil, on June 12, I966, and is deposited in my personal herbarium 
at Plainfield, New Jersey, 



Ir PHYTOLOGIA 

Designed to expedite botanical publication 

Vol. 21 7uly, 1971 No.T 

CONTENTS 

WURDACK, J. J., Certamen Melastomataceis XVII 353 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Review and comments about a thing 369 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of the 

genus Callicarpa. XVII 375 

ROBINSON, H., Four new species of mosses from Peru 389 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XXXVIII. A new genus, Peteravenia 394 

KING, R. M., &. ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XLII. A new genus, Eupatorina 396 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XLIII A new genus, Antillia 398 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). XLIV. The genus, Radlkoferotoma 400 

KING, R. M., &. ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). LXV. A new genus, Fleischmanniopsis 402 

ADAMS, C. D., Miscellaneous additions and revisions to the flowering 

plants of Jamaica III 405 

DEGENER, 0. & I., Sophora in Hawaii 411 

MOLDENKE, H. N., More new pipeworts from Brazil, a chastetree 

from Ceylon, and new names in Premna 417 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 420 

HALE, M. E., Jr., Parmelia permaculata, a new lichen from Alabama 

and Mexico 425 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the Eriocaulaceae. XXXVII ... 426 
' 

Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number, $1 ; per volume, $7.50, in advance, 
or $8. at close of volume \^ 

AUG 5 1971 



CERTAMEN MESLASTCMATACEIS XVII. 

John J. Wurdack 
U. S. National Herbarium, anlthsonlan Institution 



The present melastome miscellany continues the notes on 
neotropical species based on data from my European trip vinder 
the auspices of the Ebithsonian Research Foimdatlon and subse- 
quent loans (Phytologia 20: 369-389- 1970; Phytologia 21: II5- 
130. 1971)' Included also is the beginning of publication on 
the numerous collections assembled by J. Terborgh, T. R. Dudley, 
J. Knox, M. T. Madison, and F. Wolfe from the region of the 
northern outlier of the Cordillera Vilcabamba; this Peruvian 
material was gathered under the auspices of the National 
Geographic Society and National Science Foundation (Grant GB- 
12378)' Of course too, no melastome article would be complete 
without some inclusion of the taxonomic problems continually 
uncovered by Julian Steyermark and others in Venezuela. 

MERIANIA VTLCABAMBENSIS Wurdack, sp. nov. 

M. bollvlensl Cogn. affinls, foliorum subtus venis prlmarllB 
pills pilulisque non plnoidels hypanthiis non appreeso-setulosis 
calycls dentlbus exterlorlbus non vel paullulo (usque ad 1 mm) 
eminentlbus dlffert. 

Ramuli obscure quadrangulati demum teretes sicut foliorum 
venae prlmarlae subtus inflore scent la hypanthiaque modlce vel 
sparse caduceque granuloso-furfuracel, nodis linea elevata 
interpetlolarl notatls. Petioll 1-2 cm longl; lamina IO-I7 X 
3.5-6.5 cm .paulo obovato-elliptlca aplce brevlter gradatlmque 
acximlnato basi acuta, membranacea et obsc\ire undulato-serrulata, 
ublque in superficie glabra, subtus in venis prlmariis spar- 
sissime caduceque setulosa pills gracillbus laevlbus O.3-O.8 mm 
longis Inconsplcue caduceque glanduliferis, 5(-7)-plinervata 
(pari interiore 1-2. 5 cm supra baslm divergent!) nervis secund- 
ariis ca. 0.5 cm inter se distantlbus nervulls subtus planis laxe 
reticulatlB (areolis ca. 1 mm latis). Panicula laxa pauciflora, 
ca. 10 cm longa; flores 5-merl \imbelllforme aggregati, pedicel- 
llB 0.9-1.3 cm longis. Hypanthlum (ad tonom) 6 X 6-7 mm teretum 
sparse nlgro-tuberculatum; calycls tubus ca. 3 mm longus, lobis 
Interlorlbus ca. 5 X 4,5-4.8 mm oblongls aplce rotundato, dent- 
lbus exterlorlbus ca. 1 mm liber is crass is ad antheslm non 
eminentlbus. Petala I6-I7.5 X I2-I3 mm obovata aplce rotundato. 
Stamina paulo dlmorphica glabra; filamenta 11. 5 vel 10. 5 mm 
longa; antherarum thecae 9.5 vel 9Xl.lXl.5mm subulatae 
declinatae, poro dorsaliter inclinato O.5 mm dlam.; connectlvum 
usque ad filamentl insert ionem non prolongatum, dente basall 
hebetl-acuto 4 X 1 X 0.6 mm vel 2.6 X 0.8 X 2.3 mm, appendice 
ascendenti hebeti 3 X 0.6 X 0.5 mm vel 2 X 0.2 X 0.6-0. 3 mm. 
Stigma punctlforme; stylus 10 X 1-0.4 mm glaber; ovarium 

353 



35U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

5-loculare glalsrum, apice 5-lo'bato lobis hebetibus ca. O.5 mm 
altis . 

Type Collection: T. R. Dudley 10595 (holotype NA; isotype 
us), collected in dense montane rainforest on steep damp banks 
bordering Knox's Cascade, ca. 1^^ km NE from Hacienda Luisiana 
and Rio Apurimac, Cordillera Vilcabamba, Prov. Convene ion, 
Depto. Cuzco, Peru, 73° 35' W, 12° 35' N, elev. 1T30 m, 28 June 
1968. "Small tree I5-25 ft., 2-6 in. diam.; branches stiffly 
ascending; Ivs. dark green, glossy; fl. in terminal inflores- 
cence, deep pink; anther horns deep purple." 

I^ratype (topotypical) : T. R. Dudley IO583 (NA, US) . 

Meriania boliviensis has relatively broader and basally 
less attenuate leaf blades, with distinctly stellulate -pinoid 
primary vein hairs on the lower surface (a few simple caducous 
setulae intermixed); the hypanthia are densely covered with 
stellulate -pinoid hairs (some hairs with protracted setuliform 
tips) and the densely pinoid -puberulent external calyx teeth 
project ca. 3 mm beyond the interior lobes. Both species have 
the basal connective spur on the small stamens much flattened 
and broadened. Cogniaux' anther dimensions for M. boliviensis 
apparently are from a bud, as mature anthers ( Bang 288 ) are 9 or 
6 mm long (dry), with the dorsal ascending appendage somewhat 
smaller than in M. vilcabambensis . Another relative (ex char.) 
of M. vilcabambensis , the Colombian M. tuberculata Triana, 
differs at least in the (essentiallyT basally T-nerved leaf 
blades with rounded bases, somewhat costate hypanthia, and 
shorter calyx lobes, as well as (if my determinations of several 
recent Antioquia collections are correct: Daniel 1712; Core 767 ; 
Scolnik & Barkley 19Anl97 ; Johnson & Barkley l8c835 ) the stellu- 
late -pinoid trichomes. Both of the recently described Cuzco 
species, M. cuzcoana Wurdack and M. vargasii Wurdack, are quite 
different vegetatively from M. vilcabambensis ; the latter of the 
two has somewhat the same leaf shape, but abundant foliar and 
hypanthial pubescence and much longer external calyx teeth. 

SALPINGA PERUVIANA (Cogn.) Wurdack, comb. nov. 

Macrocentrum fasciculatum (Rich . ) Triana var . peruvianxm 
Cogn., Bot. Jahrb. k2: I38. I908. 

Macrocentrum peruvianum (Cogn.) Macbride, Field Mus. Publ. 
Bot. h: 177. 1929. 

The phytogeography and fruit leave no doubts as to the pro- 
per generic disposition of Cogniaux' variety; Macbride was 
correct in his I929 remarks about the distinctness from M. 
fasciculatum . To S. peruviana . I have referred F. Wolfe 12319 
(NA, us), from the slopes of the Cerros del Sira, ^southwestern 
slope of the Rio Llullapichi watershed, Depto. Huanuco, Peru, 
elev. 1290 m ("Ascending herb; fl. white"); the Huanuco material 
has somewhat smaller (to 1.9 X I.3 cm) leaf blades than in the 
Weberbauer collection. Salpinga peruviana differs from S. 
maranonensis Wurdack in the smaller leaf blades with shorter 
(0.5-1 mm long) and less persistent hairs on the upper s\irfaces, 
as well as the smaller flowers and fruit (petals U-5 mm long and 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen Uelastomataceis 355 

white, rather than l6-19 mm long and pink; frnilting body 4-5 mm 
shorter). The Colombian S. dimorpha (Gleason) Wurdack and the 
Peruvian S. ciliata Pilger differ at least in the larger and 
more prominently toothed leaf blades and larger flowers. 

LEANDRA STEYERMARKII Wurdack, sp. nov. 

L. arlstlgerae (Naud.) Cogn. et L. laalopetalae Cogn. 
af finis, habltu et foliis mlnoribus dlffert. 

Ramull radlcantes slcut petloli follor\jm venae prtmarlae 
subtus Inflorescentla hypanthlaque densluscule pills patentlbus 
glandullferis graclllbus laevlbus plerumque ca. 0.6-1 mm longls 
densluscule indutl et pills stellulatls ca. O.O5 mm latls modlce 
puberull. Folia in quoque par in dimensionibus paulo dlmorphica 
(ca. 1:1.5-2); petloli 0.6-1.2 cm long!; lamina (acumine excluso) 
3-7.5 X 1.5-'+ cm, elliptic o-oblonga aplce per 1-1. 5 cm eub- 
abrupte acumlnato basi paulo (0.2-0. 3 cm) cordata, membranaxiea 
et obscure undulato-sermlata, supra in superficle sparse 
appresBo-setulosa pills O.5-I mm longls glandullferis demxm 
caducis in venls primariis sparse pills pinoidels 0.2-0. 3 mm 
longls setulosa, subtxis sparsiuscule pills erectis caduce 
glandullferis laevlbus ca. 1 mm longls induta, 5-nervata nervls 
secundariis plerumque O.U-O.5 cm inter se distantibus nervulls 
subtus paullulo elevato-reticulatis (areolls ca. O.5-I mm latls). 
Panlcxila terminalis paiiciflora 2.5-4 cm longa, ramis dlvari- 
catls; flores 5-meri, pedlcellls supra bracteolas ca. O.3-O.5 
mm longls, bracteolis inconsplcuis 0.3-0.4 mm longls glandu- 
loBo-setulosis perslstentlbus. Hypanthium (ad torum) 2 mm 
longum; calycis tubus 0.2 mm altus, lobis Interlorlbus ca. O.5 
mm altis ovatis, dentibus exterioribus glanduloso-setulosis 
0.6-0. 7 nun eminentibus; torus sparse glanduloso-setulosus (O.l- 
0.15 mm). Petala 2.8 X 1 mm lanceolato-oblonga granulosa (apice 
hebeti-acuto) extus per costam sparse glanduloso-setulosa et 
dente glanduloso-setuloso O.5-O.6 ram longo et ca. 0.3-0.4 mm 
eminente armata. Stamina isomorphlca glabra; filamenta 1.6 mm 
longa; antherarum thecae lanceatae 2.2-2.3 X O.3 ram, connectlvo 
basaliter paulo (0.2 mm) prolongato non append iculato. Stigma 
truncatum; stylus glaber, 4 X O.25 mm, in ovarii collo O.3 mm 
Immersus; ovariiom (unum dissectum) 4-loculare 0.6 Inferum, apice 
conico 0.6 mm alto granuloso sjiarse setuloso (setulis ca. 10, 
0.1-0.15 mm longls). 

Type Collection: J. A. Steyermark & G. S. Bunting 102757 
(holotype US 2585847A; isotype YEN), collected near the airport 
at San Carlos de Rfo Negro, Terr. Amazonas, Venezuela, elev. 
125 m, 17-18 April 1970- "Vinlng; stem slender; leaves membra- 
no\iB, rich green above, pale green below with raised nerves; 
petioles green, with brownish hairs; inflorescence branches pale 
green; calyx pale green; petals white." 

Both suggested relatives are erect shrubs with leaf blades 
about 2-3 times as large as in L. eteyermarkll and stamen connec- 
tives not at all prolonged. Leandra arlstigera has longer 
external calyx teeth and longer corolla mucros, while L. 
lasiopoda has shortly pseudo-pllnerved leaf blades with broadly 



356 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

acute bases. Despite my recent perplexity with this complex 
(Phytologia 20: 3TT-3T8. 1970), L. steyermarkii seems specifi- 
cally distinct. In vegetative pubescence, the San Carlos 
species resembles Clidemia stellipilis (Gleason) Wurdack and 
in habit, Clidemia epibaterium DC. 

MICCWIA DUDLEYI Wurdack, sp. nov. 

M. phlebodi Wurdack affinis, foliorum laminis ad basim 
acutis venularum subtus areolis latioribus hypanthiorum pubes- 
centia stellulata petalis ovariisque glabris antherajrum thee is 
late porosis differt. 

Frutex vel arbor 3-9 m; ramuli plusminusve ancipiti, slcut 
foliorum venae primariae secundariaeque subtus inflorescentia 
hypanthiaque pilis pinoideo-stellulatis O.I-O.I5 mm longis 
latisque modice vel dense induti; ramorum inflorescentiarumque 
nodi pilis barbellatis usque ad 0. 5 mm longis densiuscvile 
caduceque armati. Petioli 2.5-U.5 cm longi; lamina I5-33 X 
6-15 cm oblongo-elliptica apice subabrupte breviterque (usque 
ad 2 cm) acuminato basi acuta, membranacea et undulato-serru- 
lata, supra glabra, subtus in venulis sparse stellulato- 
furfuracea in superficie glabra, 5-nervata (pari inframarginall 
tenui inclaso) nervis secimdariis ca. 1 cm inter se distantibus 
sicut tertiariis subtus paulo elevatis nervulis planis areolis 
ca. 0.5 mm latis. Panicula ca. I5-2O cm longa multiflora ramis 
primariis in quoque nodo plerumque h^ bracteis 3-5 X 0.2-0. 5 mm 
valde caducis, bracteolis non visisj flores 5-ffleri sessiles in 
ramulis interrupto-glomerati. Hypanthium (ad torum) 2.3-2.5 mm 
longum; calycis tubus O.5-O.7 mm altus limbo paulo (0.1-0.2 mm) 
undulato-denticulato, dentibus exterioribus minutis non eminent- 
ibus. Petala glabra 2.5-2.9 X 1.2-l.ii- mm obovato-oblonga apice 
paulo emarginato. Stamina paulo dimorphica glabra; filamenta 
2.5-3 mm longa; antherarum thecae 2-2.3 X O.25 X O.k mm vel 
1.2-1.9 X 0.2 X 0.25 mm oblongae, poro lato; connectivum non 
prolongatum dorsaliter ad basim dente hebeti descendente 0.2 mm 
vel 0.1 mm armatiim. Stigma paulo expansum O.U mm diam.; stylus 
glaber T-T'5 X 0.2 mm; ovarixim 3 ( -^ ) -loculare 0.8 inferum apice 
glabro 0.2 mm alto. 

Type Collection: T. R. Dudley 11^89 (holotype US 258T599A; 
isotype NA), collected in rainforest at edge of nio Mapitvinuari 
ca. ij- km NE from Hacienda ^Luisiana and Rio Apurimac, 12° 30' S, 
■Jl^.o 20' w, Prov. Convencion, Depto. Cuzco, Peru, elev. ca. 67O m, 
31 July 1968. "Heavy robust many-stemmed clump-forming shrub 
15-20 ft. tall; Ivs. dark green and glossy above, yellowish and 
glossy below, up to 2.5 ft. long; fl. white; mature fruit brown- 
ish purple. " 

Paratypes: Dudley 115 09 (fruiting) and M. T. Madison IOOU5 
(young bud), both topotypical; Killip & Smith 2589I (US) . from 
Porvenir, Pichis Trail, Depto. JunTn/ Pein, elev. I5OO-I9OO m. 

Miconia phlebodes has obtuse- to truncate -based leaf blades 
with finer ven\ile areoles, hypanthia granulose-furf\iraceous, 
petals granulose externally, anthers with narrower pores and 
bilobed connective bases, and granulose ovary apices. Miconia 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen Uelastomataceis 357 

herrerae Gleason has elmilar foliage but larger trichomes, 
smaller InfloreBcences with pleiostemonoue flowers glomerulate 
only at the branchlet ende^ broader hypanthia^ and relatively 
wider petals (2.5 X 1.6-1.9 nnn); although several recent collec- 
tions have been attributed to M. herrerae . the only one truly 
comparable with the holotype is Vargas l8?S9 (Macchupicchu, 
Cuzco), the other material so identified actually being related 
(undescribed?) to M. eriocalyx Cogn., M. falcata Cogn., and 
M. dipsacea Naud. None of the other Miconia species with gross 
facies similar to M. dudleyi (m. zubenetana Macbride, M. e^ensis 
Cogn.) seems closely related in floral features. The Junin 
collection of M. dudleyi was mistakenly distributed as M. 
scorpioides (S. & C.) Naud.; that widespread species (correctly 
M. trinervia [Sw.] Don ex Loud.) has plinerved leaf blades and 
flowers unilateral on the inflorescence branchlets. 

MICONIA SPENWEROSTACHYA Naud. 

Miconia pa\ic Iglandulosa Naud . , Ann . Sc i . Nat . ser . 3 Bot . 
16: 183. 1851. 

All of the Poeppig collections (w) cited by Cogniaux show 
nectaries adaxially on the petiole apices or leaf blade bases 
and flowers secund on the ultimate inflorescence branchlets; the 
buds of Mathews 1305 (FI) have anther connectives basally with 
glands. Gleason (Bull. Torrey Club 58: 237. 1931) and Macbride 
(Field Mus. Publ. Bot. I3, U: \'^h. 19^1) had earlier (and 
correctly) synonymized M. aspiazui Macbride and M. nee tar ia 
Macbride under M. spennerpstachya . The leaf shape and degree 
of plinervation are quite variable; M. aspiazui conforms to 
M. spennerostachya var. angustifolia Cogn. Among the available 
collections, the amount of plinervation and also nectary develop- 
ment is least in Klug: 2620. Despite the previous descriptions, 
all material of M. spennerostachya has the petals gi-anulose, the 
styles sparsely to moderately beset with clavate glands basally, 
the ovary apices moderately beset with minute glands, and the 
ovaries predominantly ^-5-celled. Undoubtedly the closest rela- 
tive of M. spennerostachya is M. venulosa Wurdack, with no 
foliar nectary development and eglandular anther connectives; 
recent collections of M. venulosa include Asplund 18898 (Napo- 
Pastaza, Ecuador), Prieto ChuP-10 (Santiago-Zamora, Ecuador), 
and Woytkowski 7539 (Loreto, Peru; distributed as M. prasina ). 

MICONIA BUMTNGII Wurdack, sp. nov. 

M. tetragonae Cogn. af finis, ramulis teretibus ramulorum 
inflorescentiarum hypanthiorumque trichomatibus maioribus pinoid- 
eis stigmate non expanso differt. 

Ramuli subteretes sicut petloli foliorum venae primariae 
subtuB inflorescentiaque dense pilis pinoideis 0.1-0. I5 mm diam. 
longisque induti; lineae interpetiolares non evolutae. Petioli 
1-2 cm longi; lamina (acumine excluso) 5-1^ X 3-6.5 cm, elllptim 
apice subabrupte angusteque acuminato (I-I.8 cm) basi late acuta, 
membranacea et Integra, ubique primum sparse pinoideo-puberula, 
supra glabra ta, 5-nervata nervis secundariis ca. 0.4-0.5 cm 



358 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

inter se distantibuB nervulls subtus inconspiculs planis laxe 
reticulatis (areolis ca. 0.7-I mm latis). Panicula ca. 10 cm 
longa lataque multiflora^ ramis primarlls Beciindariisque in 
quoque nodo plerumque h; f lores 5~™sri alabastris matiiris solum 
cognitis, bracteolis 0.2-0. 3 mm longis mox caducis ad hypanthi- 
orum bases insertis^ pedicellis O.h-0.6 mm longis. Hypanthium 
(ad torum) 1.2-l.U mm longum extus modice pinoideo-puberuliom; 
calyx ca. 0.2 mm longus paiillulo (O.O5-O.I mm) 5 -undulatus , 
dentibus exterioribus minutis non eminent ibu£. Petala 1.2 X 
1 mm suborbicularia paulo granulosa. Stamina vix dimorphica 
glabra; thecae O.3 X O.I5-O.2 mm; connectivum 0.6 mm vel 0.4 mm 
prolongatum dorsaliter infra filamenti insert ionem 0.4 mm vel 
0.1 ram prolongatum. Stigma non expansum; stylus glaber in 
ovarii apicem ca. 0.3 mm immersus; ovarium 3~loculare 5- inferum 
apice conico paullulo lobulato vix granuloso. 

Type Collection: J. A. Steyermark & G. S. Bunting 102930 
(holotype US 2585825A; isotype VEN), collected in rainforest 
T-9 km from Yavita on the way to PimichjCn, Terr. Amazonas, 
Venezuela, elev. I25 m, 22 April 1970. "Tree 8 m; leaves 
membranous, dull green above, d\ill green below with dull yellow 
nerves and midrib . " 

Miconia tetragona has sharply tetragonal young branchlets 
with substellulate hairs ca. O.O5 mm diam., hypanthia resinous- 
granulose outside, small anthers not appendaged, and a sub- 
peltate stigma ca. O.7 mm diam. Miconia perturbata Wurdack has 
firmer very shortly blunt -acuminate leaf blades glabrous on the 
lower siarface, larger flowers, and definite triangular calyx 
lobes 0.2-0.3 mm long. Other Miconia species with vegetative 
and inflorescence aspect rather similar to M. biontingii include 
M. regelii Cogn. (inflorescence branches opposite; anthers 
longer), M. tetrasperma Gleason and M. tetraspermoides Wurdack 
(firmer leaf blades, acute petals, long anther thecae), and 
M. pilgeriana Ule (firmer and somewhat larger leaf blades, 
basally exappendiculate anther connectives, and rimose anther 
thecae rounded at the apex). The anther dehiscence in M. 
buntingii was not ascertainable from the mature flower buds. 
MicCTiia eugenioides Triana grows in the same region as M. 
buntingii . but is distinguishable by the finer pubescence, 
firmer leaf blades glabrous on the lower surface, much longer 
acutish petals, lanceate anther thecae with cordulate connec- 
tive appendages, and truncate ovary apices. 

MICONIA MALATESTAE Macbride 

Collected thrice recently at Carpish, Huanuco, Peru 
( Asplund 13118 ; Ferreyra 2295 ; Hutchison . Wright . & Straw 59^0 ) , 
the species is distinguishable by the large firm finely serru- 
late leaf blades with stout petioles and the well -developed 
cauline nodal flaps. Macbride had placed M. malatestae in Sect. 
Miconia ; however, I believe that it is a dioecious species of 
Sect. CremanlTjm, known still only from female collections and 
best placed near M. coelestis (Don) Naud. The type material of 
M. coelestis (FI, OXF) shows similar but smaller flowers (also 



1971 V^urdack, Certamsn iielaatanataceia 359 

female, with abortive anthers) and branchlet nodes without 
developed flaps (the ohscxire interpetiolsir lines marked by 
roughened setvilae O.3-O.5 mm long). 

MICONIA TABAYENSIS Wurdack, nom. nov. 

Miconia micrantha Pittier, Bol. Soc . Venez. Cienc . Nat. 11: 
27. 19^7, nee M. micrantha Cogn. (Bull. Torrey Club 23: I6. 
1896) nee M. micrantha Pllger (Verh. Bot. Ver. Brand. h-J: I73. 
1905; M. wittii Ule, nom. nov., Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berl. 6: 

367. 1915). 

Pittier published a nomen nudum (Cat. Fl. Venez. 2: 236. 
I9I4.7) based upon Gehriger 595 and in the same year the des- 
cription for M. micrantha based on the same collection; the 
Instituto Botanic o material has a third (but unpublished) 
binomial indicated on their specimens. Aristeguieta and 
Steyermark both have indicated (in correspondence) that the 
relative dates of publication in 19^7 cannot be established. 
Miconia tabayensis is distinctive in its lower leaf s\irfaces 
sparsely to moderately setulose with apically irregularly 
branched or barbellate hairs 0.2-0. 7 mm long. Another collec- 
tion (topotypical) of M. tabayensis is Gehriger 382 (distrib- 
uted as M. resimoides Cogn.), with male flowers; Gehriger 595 
is female. Miconia laetevirens Uribe is superficially rather 
like M. tabayensis . but has shorter less barbellate pubescence, 
3-nerved leaf blades, and perfect flowers. Miconia purulensis 
Donn. Smith has pubescence of clavate apically roughened but 
basally smooth hairs and relatively narrower anther thecae 
(1 X 0.3 mm), but is also dioecious. Miconia boliviensis Cogn. 
has shorter (ca. 0.2 ram) clavate-pinoid hairs on the primary 
veins of the lower leaf surfaces, rather densely robust- 
ciliolate leaf margins, and considerably larger flowers. 
Miconia acanthocoryne Wurdack has thicker 3-nerved caudate - 
ac\janinate leaf blades and perfect flowers; the original stamen 
dimensions given (Phytologia 5: 128) were erroneously magnified 
by a factor of 3- 

MICONIA LATIFOLIA (D. Don) Naud. 

Chiloporus andinus Na\id., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. h: 57, 
pi. 3, fig. 7. 18^+5"^ 

Miccxiia andina (Naud.) Naud., Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. 
16: 236. 1851. 

Miconia epiphytic a Cogn., DC. Mon. Phan. 7= 93^- 1891- 

The type collections (OXF, P) of all the taxa have been 
examined; Cognia\ix evidently never saw the Pavon type of M. 
latif olia . which is best matched in modern collections by Tovar 
k080 (UST from Huancavelica, Peru. The degree of setula develop- 
ment on stems and lower leaf surfaces is quite variable, but the 
floral featvires (especially the short anthers) seem constant. 
Both M. alpina Cogn. and M. fruticulosa Cogn. (material not at 
hand) must be evaluated in connection with M. latif olia . Miconia 
griffisii Macbride (isotype US) has hypanthia more -or -less setu- 
lose and branchlets densely setulose, but does not seem to 



360 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 6 

differ in internal floral featxires from M. latifolia ; it is 
perhaps infraspecifically distinct. Macbride described M. 
ottikeri as with 5-lobed fruiting calyces; however the US 
isotype has definitely U -me rous fruit. In M. ottikeri (but 
with no real conviction as to the specific distinctness from 
M. latifolia ) . I have placed two recent collections (both with 
larger leaf blades than the type; style and filaments glabrous): 
Wurdack 1688 and Sanchez 357 . both from the Cerros de Calla- 
Calla, Amazonas, Peru. 

MICONIA THYRSIFLORA (Don) Naud. 

Miconia integrifolia Cogn., DC. Mon. Phan. J: 936. I89I. 

Both types (G-BOISS, OXF) actually are identical, probably 
parts of the same collection. The species differs from M. 
latifolia in the densely pinoid-puberulous branchlets, entire 
leaf blades, slightly smaller flowers, densely (rather than 
sparsely) glandular -puberulous styles, and galeate (rather than 
capitellate) stigmas. The original publication by Don was as 
Cremanium thyrsiflorum ; the chain of misspellings (as 
" thyrsoidea ") was started by De Candolle (Prodromus 3: 19I. 
1828) and followed by Naudin, Cogniaux, and Macbride but not 
Triana; Naudin, rather than Triana, should be regarded as the 
combining author (having cited De Candolle who in turn cited 
Don), despite his spelling of the epithet. Macbride 's note 
about the affinities with £4. flavescens Cogn. was a perceptive 
remark; actually both M. flavescens and M. mandonii Cogn. have 
^-merous flowers and the latter species also has galeate stig- 
mas. As alluded by Macbride in the Flora of Peru, his photo- 
graph (17179) and that of Gleason (7-2) from the Berlin herb- 
arium are actually of M. nitida (Don) Naud., rather than M. 
thyrsiflora . Another Pa von specimen mixup is with M. laurina 
(Don) Naud.; the Pavon collections (OXF, US, the latter ex 
Herb. Lambert) represent a form of M. media (Don) Naud. with 
essentially entire -margined leaf blades. Probably M. laurina 
should be regarded as a subspecies of M. media . but more 
collections are needed (cf. Fhytologia 9: 421. 196^). 

ALLONEURON Pilger 

Among New World melastomes, two characters rarely occur, 
haplostemony and capsular fruit developing from an inferior 
ovary. The conjunction of these features appears only in 
Alloneuron Pilger, Cyphostyla Gleason, and Allomaieta Gleason. 
Other genera with haplostemony (no trace of the antepetalous 
stamens or staminodia) include Poteranthera Bongard (one of the 
two species), Siphanthera Pohl ex DC. (a few species), Monochae - 
t\im Naud. (a few species), and Miconia R. & P. (one species, M. 
tetrandra [Sw. ] Naud.), all except Miconia with superior ovaries 
and capsular fruits. Diplostemonous genera with inferior 
ovaries followed by capsular fruit ai^ Tateanthus Gleason and 
(ex descr.) Merianthera Kuhlm. Pittier (Journ. Wash. Acad. 
Sci. 19: I8U. 1929) ascribed leathery capsules to Anaectocalyx 
latifolia Cogn.; the ciirrently available collections of 



1971 



Wurdack. Certamen Melastomataceis 361 



Anaectocalyx are Insufficient to affirm or deny this featvire. 
Cyphostyla and Allomaieta were segregated by Gleason into a 
separate tribe, Cyphostyleae ; both genera have simple smooth 
trichomes and relatively large flowers with exappendiculate 
anthers and 5 -celled ovaries. Hie present collections of the 
Cyphostyleae are quite inadequate for further generic elucida- 
tion; however, Cyphostyla hirsuta Gleason is currently being 
evaluated by Charles Schnell in connection with Conostegia 
myriasporoides Triana. 

While Macbride was studying the synonvmy of Meiandra Mgf . 
under Alloneuron (Trop. Woods IT: 13 . 1929), the branchlet wood 
structure was found by Record to conform with that of the 
Miconieae rather than Memecyleae ; further study of the anatomy 
of mature wood is needed, a recent sample having been collected 
with Cuatrecasas 15764 (USw 33129) . In superficial vegetative 
facies, the two species of Alloneurcm from lowland Amazoniaji 
Peru and Colombia resemble Gesneriaceae ; both species have 
stellulate as well as simple smooth hairs and pedicellate 
flowers unilaterally arranged on the inflorescence branchlets. 
The four species now being described differ from the original 
two in the pinoid to squamate trichomes (in the inflorescences 
microscopically and very caduco\isly gland -tipped) and nearly 
sessile glomerulate flowers (the glomerules perhaps actually 
with unilateral flowers borne on a much shortened axis, but 
this feature not really evaluable superficially in pressed 
specimens); nonetheless, in internal floral features, all six 
species are much alike. 

While Pilger described A. ulei Pilger as with 2-celled 
ovaries (followed by Macbride in the Flora of Peru), Markgraf's 
diagnoses for both species of Meiandra cited 3-celled ovaries; 
I believe that Markgraf's description of this feature is the 
correct one for the genus. The capsular dehiscence is at first 
central through the hypanthium wall, at length extending to the 
capsule apex; the seeds are pyramidate and smooth. As to 
flower -mery, A. ulei was cited as 4-nierous, but the synonymous 
Meiandra minor Mgf. was described as 5-merous; in the only 
available collection of A. ulei ( Cuatrecasas 88^7. from 
Florencia, Caqueta, Colombia), agreeing perfectly otherwise 
with the descriptions and type photograph (Macbride 17396), 
five petals are visible on each of three flowers and the ovary 
is definitely 3-locular. An isotype (NY) of A. maius (Mgf.) 
Mgf. ex Macbr. has been examined. The three EL Valle (Colombia) 
collections of Alloneiu-on have been generic irritations for me 
during the last I5 years; the Ayacucho (Peru) specimens, with 
both flowers and fruit, provided the correlative spark. 
The species of Alloneuron may be keyed as follows: 
1. Leaf blades eqxially pinnate -veined thro\ighout; cauline 
internodal pubescence stipitate -stellulate (strongly 
barbellate at the apex) or stellulate. 

2. Tree 30 m; leaf blades 5.5-9 cm wide A. maius 

2. Shrub to 1 m; leaf blades I.5-3 cm wide A. ulei 

1. Leaf blades with 5-7 strongly developed primary lateral 



362 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

veins from below the lower I/3 of the blade; cauline inter- 
nodal pubescence pinoid-squamate or squamate, the trichoma 
bases protracted. 
3. Leaf blades strongly plinerved, the inner pair of primary 
veins diverging 2-k cm above the blade base. 
k. Leaf blades subrigid, gradually acute at the apex; 

pubescence of lower leaf surface ven\iles pinoid 

A . cuatrecasasii 

h. Leaf blades membranaceous, caudate -acvuninate at the apex; 

pubescence of lower leaf surface venules squamulose 

A . dudleyi 

3. Leaf blades inconspicuously plinerved, the inner pair of 
primary veins diverging 0.3-I cm above the blade base. 
5. Leaf blades coriaceous, bvillate above, broadly acute at 

the apex; panicle many -flowered, 13-17 cm long 

A. bullatijm 

5. Leaf blades membranaceous, plane above, acvmiinate at the 

apex; panicle few-flowered, 2.5-^.5 cm long 

A . subglabrum 

ALLONEURON CUATRECASASII Wurdack, sp. nov. 

A. bullato Wurdack affinis, foliis distinctius plinervatis 
basi acutis supra non bullatis differt. 

Frutex; ramuli obscure rotundato-tetragoni sicut petioli 
foliorum venae primariae subtus pilis crassis paulo compressis 
0.2-0.7 mm longis appressis inconspicue asperis ad basim paulo 
protractis persi stent ibus sparse vel modice armati. Petioli 
1-1.5 cm longi; lamina 12-20 X ^.5-7-5 cm elliptica apice 
gradatim angusteque acuto basi anguste acuta, subrigida et 
Integra, supra glabra, subtus si)arsiuscule puberula pilis 
pinoideis erectis O.O5-O.I mm longis, 5(-7)-plinervata pari 
interiore 2.5-4 cm supra basim subalternatim divergenti nervis 
secundariis 0.2-0. 3 cm inter se distantibus subtus prominenter 
elevatis nervulis supra indistincte et subtus paulo elevatis 
(areolis ca. 1 mm latis). Paniciila multiflora 11-12 X 9-10 cm 
modice appresso-setulosa pilis robustis usque ad 0.5 mm longis 
dense inconspicue que barbellatis; f lores ignoti. Hypanthium 
fructiferum paulo (0.5 mm) pedicellatum ca. 2.5 mm longum extus 
sparsiuscule pilis pinoideis 0.1-0.2 mm longis praeditum; 
capsula infera 3-locularis; semina O.7-O.8 X 0.2-0.25 n™ 
pyramidata laevia. 

Type Collection: J. Cuatrecasas I5565 (holotype F 1295I78; 
isotypes NY, US), collected on the western slopes of the 
Cordillera Occidental, "hoya del rio Sanquinini, lado izquierdo, 
La Lagtina, bosques," Depto. EL Valle, Colombia, elev. I25O- 
l400 m, 10-20 Dec. 19^3. 

Of the examinable (iindehisced) fruits, two showed five 
external calyx teeth (stout, barbellate, non -projecting, ca. 
0.3 mm long) and one had six calyx teeth. 

ALLONEURON BULLA1UM Wurdack, sp. nov. 

A. dudleyi Wurdack affinis, foliis supra bullatis paulo 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 363 

plinervatis ad baBim obtusiB vel rot\indatiB differt. 

Hamuli rotundato-quadrangulati sicut petioli foliorxun 
subtuB venae primariae inflorescentlaque densiuBcule appresso- 
setulosi pills 0.5-l(-1.3) mm longiB robuBtis ad basim paulo 
protractiB paulo complanatis Bub lente obscure muriculatis. 
Petioli 1.5-3 cm longi; lamina 9-1'+ X 5-9.5 cm late elliptica 
apice late obtuseque acuto basi obtusa vel rotundata, coriacea 
et essentialiter Integra, supra primim sxjarse bullato-setulosa 
(setula ca. 0.2 mm longa mox caduca) demum glabra et retlculato- 
rugoBa, subtus in nervis secundariis nervulis superficieque 
sparse setulosa pilis pinoideis plerumque O.O5-O.2 mm longis 
persiBtentibus, breviter 5-plinervata (pari exteriore infra- 
marginali neglecto) pari interiore 0.4-1 cm supra basim diver- 
genti nervis secundariis 0.2-0. 3 cm inter se distantibuB sicut 
nervis primariis tertiariisque supra impressis subtus promi- 
nenter elevatis areolis subtus ca. 1-1.5 nm latis. Panicula 
multiflora 13 -IT X 9-17 cm; sepalorum limbus plerumque 5- 
dentatuB, dentibus setiformibus ca. 0.6 mm longis; f lores 
ignoti. Hypanthium fructiferum vix (0.2-0. 5 mm) pedicellatum 
modice appresso-setulosum pilis pinoideis 0.1-0.6 mm longis; 
capsula 3-valvata, valvis ca. 2.5 mm longis; semina numerosa 
1 X 0.2-0.3 mm pyramidata laevia. 

Type Collection: J. Cuatrecasas 22^75 (holotype F I3O2175; 
iBotypes F, NY, US), collected in "Cordillera Occidental, filo 
de la Cordillera, cerro sobre el Alto de Mlra (entre Tabor y 
Carrizales)," Depto. El Valle, Colombia, elev. 2IOO-235O m, 
23 Oct. 19^6. "Arbol. Hoja coriacea, concava, rugosa, ruda, 
verde oscura, mate en la haz, grisacea, verde clara enves." 
Vern . name : "Nigiiito . " 

ALLONEURON DUDLEYI Wurdack, sp. nov. 

A. cuatrecasasii Wurdack af finis, foliis tenuioribus 
plerumque angustioribus ad apicem caudato-acuminatis foliorum 
subtus venarum secundariarum pilis sqimmulosis compressis 
differt. 

Frutex vel arbor 3-5 (-8) m; rarauli sicut inflorescentiae 
axis foliorum subtus venae primariae secundariaeque sparse vel 
modice squamis 0.2-0. 5 (-l) mm longis ovatis vel lanceatis sub 
lente papillosis armati. Petioli O.7-3 cm longi; lamina 
(acumine excluso) 7-19 X 2-4.5(-6.5) cm elliptica vel oblongo- 
elliptica apice longiuscule (1-2 cm) angusteque acuminate basi 
acuta, membranacea et Integra, supra costa excepta glabra, 
Bubtus in venulis sparse squamuloso-strigulosa (pilis ca. 0.1- 
0.15 X 0.05-0.07 mm) et in venarum primariarum exteriorum 
axillis sparse obscureque robuBto -setulosa (pilis ca. O.5-I X 
0.1 mm), 7-pllnervata pari exteriore tenuiore inframarginali 
pari interiore 2-4 cm supra basim divergenti venulis subtus 
planiB densiuscule reticulatis (areolis ca. O.3 mm latis). 
Panicula 9-IO cm longa multiflora; f lores haplostemoni 5-6- 
meri sessiles in ramulorum brevium extremitatibus multiglomer- 
ati, bracteolis non visis, alabastrls maturis fructibusque 
solum cognitis. Hypanthium (ad torum) ca. 2.4 mm longum extus 



36U PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

dense setullB appressis O.U-O.T mm longis teretibus minute 
barbellatis induttm; caljoc in alabastris ca. 0.6 mm altuB 
clauBUB (apice dentibuB exterioribus Betuliformibus armato) 
demum ca. 0.1 mm supra torum dehiscens. Petala glabra ca. 
1.3 X 0.9 nmi ovata apice hebeti-acuto. Filamenta ca. 0.6 mm 
longa glabra; antherarum thecae 0.9 X 0. 5 X 0. 5 mm late 
oblongae, appendice dorsali 0.3 X O.3 mm descendente hebeti- 
acuta. Stigma punctiforme; stylus glaber; ovarium 3-loculare 
omnino infenan apice glabro 6-coBtato. Capsula trivalvis; 
semina numerosa O.7 X O.3-O.35 mm pyramidata laevia. 

Type Collection: M. T. Madison 10101 (holotype US 
25855TTAJ isotype M), collected in "cloud forest in full sun 
at Camp 2|- on the east side of the Rio Apurimax; across from 
the Hacienda Luisiana, " 73° 38' V, 12° 38' S, Cordillera 
Vilcabamba, Prov. Convene ion^ Depto. Cuzco, Peru, elev. 1T30 m, 
20 June 19T0. "Tree to ^-5 m tall, erect then spreading, with 
flat crown; leaves glossy green, midrib scurfy; calyx light 
green with white hairs . " 

Paratypes : T. R. Dudley IO385 . 10389 and Madison IOI81 . 
all topotypical and sterile; Dudley 11927 (fruiting) and Madison 
10259 (sterile), from between H\ianh\iachayo and Punccho, ca. 
30 km SW of Hacienda Luisiana, eastern massif of Cordillera 
Central opposite Cordillera Vilcabamba, Prov. La Mar, Depto. 
Ayacucho, Peru, 21 Aug. I968. 

Of the six buds dissected (all with 3-celled ovaries), four 
were 6-merouB and two were 5~merous. The petal and filament 
dimensions are surely somewhat greater in flowers at anthesis. 

ALLONEURON SUBGLABRUM Wurdack, sp. nov. 

A. dudleyi Wurdack in trichomatum forma af finis, foliis 
subsessilibus minus plinervatis paniculis paucifloris differt. 

Hamuli terete s sicut petioli laminarum venae primariae 
supra et subtus inflorescentiaque sparse vel sparsissime (in 
nodis modice) strigulosi pilis 0.1-0. 6(-l) mm longis paulo com- 
pressis crassiB sub lente basim versus imperspicue papillosis 
ad basim paullulo protractis. Petioli 0.2-O.U cm longi; lamina 
5'5~9(-12) X 2.5-5 cm oblongo-ovata apice gradatim obtuseque 
acuminate basi rotundata et inconspicue auric ulata, integra et 
distanter appresso-ciliolata, ubique in superficie glabra, 
subtuB secuB venas primarias sparsiBsime setulosa pilis ca. 
0.7-1 X 0.15-0.2 mm robustis laevibus et secus venulas spar- 
Bissime caduceque pilis pinoideis O.O3-O.O5 mm longis armata, 
breviter 5~Pliiiervata pari interiore O.3-O.5 cm supra basim 
divergenti nervis secvindariis O.3-O.5 cm inter se distantibus 
nervulis subtus planis areolis ca. O.3-O.5 mm latis. Panicula 
pauciflora 2.5-4.5 cm longa, ramulis ultimis l-3-floris; f lores 
haplostemoni 4-5-meri, pedicellis O.5 mm longis. Hypanthium 
(ad torum) I.3 mm longian extuB sparse strigulos\am pilis ad 
basim densiuscule asperis; calycis vestigium ad anthesim sub- 
trtincatum ca. 0.2-0. 3 mm longum. Petala ca. 2 X O.7 mm oblongo- 
lanceata acuta extus sparse granulosa. Antherarum thecae O.5- 
0.6 X O.U-O.5 mm, minute \miporosae; appendix dorsalis 0.3 X 



1971 Wurdacdc, Certamen UeLastomataceis 365 

0.3 ram hebeti -acuta. Stigma punctiforme; stylus glaber; 
ovarium 3-lcx;ulaj:e omnino inferum glabrum. Capsula (2-)3- 
locularis, valvis ca. 2 ram longis; semina 0.6-0. 7 X O.25 mm 
pyramidata laevia. 

Type Collection: J. Cuatrecasas 15T6^ (holotype US 
233863OJ isotypes F, NyT, collected at "Costa del Pacifico; 
rlo Yurumguf: veneral, bosques," Depto. EL Valle, Colombia, 
elev. 5-50 m, 29 Jan. 19^^. "Arbol mediano. Hoja cartaceo- 
herbacea, color verde grisaceo medio. Corteza delgada, 
ocraceo-palida. Madera amarillo-ocracea, dura." Vem. name: 
"Mora." 

CLIDEMIA RUBRA (Aubl.) Mart, and allies 

As is evident from the comments and classifications of 
previous workers in the melastomes, the complex of species 
arovind spp. ^0-^6 of Cogniaux' monograph is a taxonomically 
recalcitrant group; both Naudin (Ann. Sci. Nat. ser. 3 Bot. 17: 
331-332. 1852) and Gleason (Brittonia 3: I32. 1939) discussed 
the vegetative and floral variability. The floral details 
(especially the hypanthial, toral, and ovarial pubescence) 
recently have been examined by me on several hundreds of collec- 
tions, with only a few useful features adduced. Omitted from 
the present discussion are C. ulei Pilger and C. uribei Wurdack 
(which are reasonably distinct \inits) and C. aphanantha Sagot, 
C. micrantha Sagot, and C. francavillana C ogn . ( i nade quat e ly 
known, with few or no topotypical recent collections). Also 
not considered is C. microthyrsa R. 0. Williams (with longish- 
pedicellate larger flowers ) ; Irwin et al 5^^96 and '5'51'52 from 
Suriname, as well as Krukoff 11822 from Maranhao, Brazil, are 
tentatively referred here. The C. rubra complex in Venezuela 
may be keyed as follows : 
1. Petals each with an external infra -apic ally inserted gland- 

\ilar setula 0.4-0.8 mm long; ovary apex glabrous 

C . monantha 

1. Petals glabrous; ovary apex usually setulose. 
2. Petioles less than 1 cm long. 

3. Hypanthial hairs in part gland -tipped; ovarial hairs 

sparse, 0.1-0.2(-0.3) mm long C. rubra 

3. Hypanthial hairs eglandular; ovary usually densely setu- 
lose with hairs O.5-I mm long C. sericea 

2. Petioles (l.5-)2-6 cm long. 

h. Leaf blades attenuate to the base, distinctly plinerved.. 

C . attenuata 

k. Leaf blades rounded to cordulate at the base, basally 
nerved or indistinctly (to O.5 cm) pseudoplinerved. 
5. Inflorescence axis not or scarcely (less than O.5 cm) 

evolved C . debilis 

5. Inflorescence axis distinct, 1-6 cm long 

C. fendleri 

CLIDQ4IA MONANTHA L. Wms. 

This recently described species is well characterized by 



366 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 21, no, 6 

the distinctly petlolate leaves (with rounded blade bases and 
basal primary veins), petals each with a subapical gland -tipped 
setula, and glabrous ovaries. Most of the Venezuelan specimens 
and one Costa Rican collection have some of the hypanthial hairs 
gland -tipped, but otherwise C. monantha is quite \iniform. The 
species ranges from Mexico (Cerro San Martin, Vera Cruz, Salle 
an.. BM), Honduras (Cortes, Molina 11^31 ] Olancho, Molina 
84^), Nicaragua, Costa Rica (Guanacaste, Schnell 3Tl J San 
Ramon, Tonduz 1TW2 . Brenes 1^296 and 1^300 ) . Panama ^Panama, 
Cerro Azul, Duke 93.35 ). and Venezuela (Carabobo, Falcon, Lara, 
Miranda, Yaracuy) . 

CLIDMIA RUBRA (Aubl.) Mart. 

The Aublet type (bm) shows the largest leaves with petioles 
ca. 0.5 cm long and narrowly ovate blades 8 X h.^ cm (ro\inded at 
the base, not or scarcely plinerved), as well as hypanthial 
hairs in part gland -tipped; reasonably good vegetative matches 
(also with gland -tipped hypanthial hairs) are Tut in 6l9 (BM) and 
Schomburgk 95(98) (BM, P, W) . Of the synonyms cited by Cogniaux, 
Me la stoma sessiliflora Vahl (c), C. heteromalla D. Don (OXF), 
and Sagi^ea c ognata Steud. (w) agree with the Aublet concept; 
to this synonymy should be added C. platyphylla (Naud.) Cogn., 
the Ferrei:.''a holotype (P) of which is well matched by Schomburgk 
6^8 (P) . As thus restricted, the species is known by recent 
collections from eastern Colombia (Amazonas, Schultes & Lopez 
l6kkl and 164^3 ; Meta, Hermann 11203 ). Venezuela (Amazonas), 
Guyana (de la Cruz 1T58 . 2^70 7 3987 ; Graham 233 ; Hitchcock 
171^9 ) . Suriname ( Maguire & Stahel 25039 ). French Guiana 
( Broadway l6l ) . Brazil (Amazonas, Fromm 1420 . Santos 1^68 . Sota 
13063 ; Para. Spruce 776 ). Peru (Loreto, Martin & Lau-Cam 1197 . 
Ferreyra 7847 , Killip & Smith 29213 . Dodson 2817 ) , and Bolivia 
(Mapiri region, Buchtien 989 . 990 . I716 ) . but not Central 
America. 

CLIDEMIA SERICEA D. Don 

Among the Cogniaux -cited synonyms not here placed under 
C. rubra (vide supra), Don's binomial is the oldest available 
one. Here belongs also Saj^raea c olumnaef olia DC. (holotype M) . 
The varieties described by Naudin, Cogniaux, S. Moore,. and 
Hoehne iinder C. rubra are for a monographer to evaluate and 
transfer. As defined here, a vegetatively extraordinary welter 
remains; a few of the collections ( Oersted 283I and Schnell 
500. from Costa Rica; Stern, Eyde . & Ayensu 195^ and Davidson 
676 . from Chiriqu:!!^, Panama; Haught 5278 , from Cauca, Colombia; 
Delgado 250. from Cerro Avila, Venezuela) have nearly or quite 
glabrous ovary apices, but vegetatively fall within C. sericea 
sens. lat. From notes made in London, the holotype (BM) of 
Melastoma verticillata Miller is well matched by Philipson 237I 
and Linden 1155 ; the use of Miller's epithet is preempted in 
Clidemia . 

CLIDEMIA ATTENUATA (Naud.) Cogn. 



1971 Wurdack, Certamen kelaatomataceis 367 

Because of the basally attenuate distinctly pllnerved 
leaf blades with distinct petioles and non-glandvaar hypanthlal 
hairs, £. attenuata has been maintained as a species, (but with 
no real conviction), good matches for the Finlay type (P) being 
Covan & Wurdack S15^^ (Amazonas, Venezuela) and A. C. Smith 3.306 
(Kanuku Movintains, Gviyana); Webster & Miller 995.3. froea 
Trinidad, perhaps also belongs here. Urban (Symb. Ant. 3= ^1- 
48. 1902) noted that the Finlay collections at Paris, pur- 
portedly from "St. Ihomas", were probably collected in Trinidad. 
In the Flora of Trinidad & Tobago, R. 0. Williams synonymized 
C. attenuata vmder C. rubra . In Central America, a vegeta- 
tlvely rather similar population occurs (the petioles somewhat 
shorter, the blades usually smaller), but the ovaries are 
glabrous (Mexico, Reko 3583 ; Honduras, Williams & WllliamB 
I83M1. Molina & Molina 1^1129. Molina 10095 . Meyer 9923 ; Costa 
Rica, Skutch 2260 ; Panama, Blum & Godfrey 1736. Correa & 
Dressier 465 ) • 

CLIDMIA DEBILIS Crueg. 

As Indicated in the Flora of Trinidad St Tobago, £. 
bonplandll (Naud.) Cogn. is synonymous with C. deb ills . Die 
species is known from Trinidad, Venezuela (D. Federal, Bolfvar), 
and Brazil (Ceara, Pemambuco, Bahia). Because of the distinct- 
ly pllnerved leaf blades and glandvilar-Betulose hypanthia in 
C. aphanantha Sagot, I still have reservations about following 
R. 0. Williams with a further synonym under C. deb ills . 

CLIDIMIA FEtTOLERI Cogn. 

Clldemla gualcalpurana Plttier, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc . 
Nat. 11: 21. 1947- 

Clldemla rubella Plttier, Bol. Soc. Venez. Cienc. Nat. 11: 
22. 1947. 

? Clldemia rarlflora (Bonpl.) Cogn., DC. Mon. Phan. J: 
1017. 1891 (non C. rarlflora Benth., Hook. Journ. Bot. 2: 308. 
1840) . 

The type collection of C. fendlerl (BR, K, NY) has egland- 
ular or very sparsely gland-tipped hypanthlal hairs, but more 
recent collections have varying proportions of s\ich glandular 
trlchomes. The holotype (P) of C. rarlflora (Bonpl.) Cogn. has 
short (0.3-0.5 mm) caullne pubescence, nearly glabrous (except 
for the minute glands) upper leaf surfaces, and lower leaf 
surfaces with the setulae mostly confined to the primary axid 
secondary veins; however, in other features (pubescence quality, 
fine leaf venulatlon, glandular -setulose hypanthia, inflores- 
cence form), it conforms at least specifically to C. fendlerl . 
Until topotyplcal material is collected to fix the variability 
limits, no subspecific recognition seems warranted for the 
"Cumana" plant*. Despite Cogniaxix' monograph separation, 
C. fendlerl is certainly very close to C. debllls. differing 
in the more evolved Inflorescences. 

CLIDIMIA SALTUENSIS Wurdack, sp. nov. 



368 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

Sect. Sagraea. C. amplae Cogn. af finis, foliis angustiori- 
tuB floribus bene pedicellatis petalis stamlnibuBque paulo 
minoribuB calycis dentibus exterioribus longioribus dlffert. 

Ramull primum obtuse quadrangulati demtun teretes sicut 
petioli folionim venae primariae secundariaeque subtus inflo- 
rescentla hypanthiaque densiuscule puberuli pilis stelliilato- 
pinoideis O.I-O.I5 mm longis. Petioli (l-)2-4 cm longi; lamina 
(T-)12-1T X (2.5-)5-T.5 cm anguste ovato-elliptica apice 
gradatim acuminato basi obtusa, firme membranacea et Integra, 
distanter obscureque appresso-ciliolata, supra primum sparse 
appresso-arachnoidea demum glabrata, subtus in venulis resinoso- 
granulosa in superficie glabra, 5~nervata nervis secundariis 
plerumque 3-U mm inter se distantibus venulis subtus planis 
dense reticulatis (areolis 0.2-0. 3 mm latis). Inflorescentiae 
pauciflorae in foliorum superiorum axillis oppositis plerumque 
Bolitariae, axe plerumque 2-k cm longo, bracteolis minutis ad 
pedicellorum bases insertis, pedicellis ca. ^ mm longis gracil- 
ibus; f lores 4-meri. Hypanthivmi (ad torum) 2.2 mm longum teres 
sparse pilis simplicibus gracilibus laevibus 0.2-0. 3 ram longis 
setulosum et sparse verruculosum; calyx O.3 mm longus paullulo 
(0.1 mm) ^-lobatus, dentibus exterioribus subTxLatis ca. O.7 mm 
eminentibus; torus sparsiuscule glanduloso-puberulus (O.l mm). 
Petala 1-1.2 X O.7-O.8 mm oblonga glabra (apice late obtuso), 
extus mucrone \inico ca. 0.2-0.3 mm longo infra-apicali ornato. 
Stamina glabra; filamenta (paulo immatura) 1.1 ram longa; 
antherarum thecae I.5-I.6 X O.3 X O.3 mm anguste oblongae, 
poro minuto dorsaliter inclinato; connectivum ca. O.U mm 
prolongatxm exappendiculatum. Stigma punctiforme; stylus 
glaber h X O.3-O.I5 ram in ovarii collo 0.3 mm immersus; ovarium 
4-loculare et 2/3 inferum, apice lobulato setulis ca. 10 gra- 
cilibus 0.15-0.3 ram longis ornato. 

Type Collection: J. A. Steyermark 9^4o4 (holotype US 
2571+14-43; isotypes US, VEN), collected in virgin wet forest 
between Colonia Tovar-Junquito road and Hacienda El Limon 10- 
15 km below junction of Junquito -Colonia Tovar road, Distrito 
Federal, Venezuela, elev. I3OO-I5OO m, 12 Oct. I965. "Shrub 
2.5 m; leaves dark green above, yellow -green below with biiff- 
tawny elevated nerves; flowers on old wood as well as young 
leafy stems; hypanthium greenish -gray; petals, filaments, and 
style white; fruit globose, purple, 4-5 nm diam. " 

Clidemia ampla has longer (ca. 0.5 mm) cauline pubescence, 
leaf blades ca. 2/3-3/4 as wide as long (12-20 cm wide), sessile 
flowers, petals 2 mm long, anther thecae ca. 2 mm long, external 
calyx teeth barely (0.2 mm) projecting, and stigmas slightly 
expanded. The general aspect (but not the floral details) of 
C. saltuensis is rather like that of the West Indian species 
groups around C. divaricata (Criseb.) Cogn.-C. trichotoma 
Griseb. (both with smaller and firmer leaf blades) and C. 
Ruadelupensis (DC.) Griseb. (with sharply tetragonal branchlets 
and plinerved leaf blades). 



REVIEW AND COMMENTS ABOUT A THING 
Otto & Isa Degener 



Between August 2 and 3I, 196?, with the help of a $5,000 grant 
from the National Park Service, The Nature Conservancy sponsored a 
scientific expedition into Kipahulu Valley, Island of Maui, Hawai- 
ian Islands. Dr. Richard E. Warner, Foundation of Environmental Bi- 
ology, Berkeley, California, was leader of about twenty scientists 
of various biological disciplines and a variable number of guides, 
* paniola and porters. The specialists in the main volunteered 
their services or their institutions lent these men for the expedi- 

tiOHo 

The Conservancy copyrighted the result of the study in I968 
under the title "Scientific Report of the KIPAHULU VALLEY EXPEDI- 
TION, Sponsored BY: THE NATURE CONSERVANCY. Edited By: Richard E. 
Warner, Ph. D, Expedition Leader." The 18^ loose-leaf pages, meas- 
uring 8 1/2 by 11 inches, are bound in a Manilla cover. There is a 
panoramic photograph of the valley itself, eight of expedition mem- 
bers, about ^9 showing beautifully the type of vegetation, three 
about the endemic "picture-winged" fruit flies, and four of close- 
ups of birds. In addition there are full-page maps of Kipahulu Val- 
ley showing expedition trails and locations of the three base 
camps; of soils; a topographic vegetation profile; and of vegetation 
respectively of the lower, the central, and the upper part of the 
valley* 

Kipahulu Valley extends from sea level to 7,350 feet, more or 
less in a northwesterly direction, joinitig Haleakala National Park 
at its eastern end hundreds of feet above Paliku Cabin. The two mile 
wide valley funnels the trade winds. Its eight mile length is con- 
fined by two very steep ridges clothed largely with tapestry for- 
ests, here and there broken by shrubby ledges and some clif"fs. The 
floor consists largely of two nearly parallel, sloping flats, the 
one about 700 feet higher than the other, especially toward the mid- 
dle -makai end. This unusual geologic structure is explained by the 
formation eons ago of a deeply eroded valley on Haleakala Volcano's 
flank followed by a period of filling by lava flows. During quies- 
cence of volcanic activity, one side of the partly filled valley was 
then badly eroded by the forerunner of Kaukauai Stream. With a 
fresh period of activity, this new valley within Kipahulu was part- 
ly filled with veneers of lava. Thus the higher flat, contrary to 
expectation, is much older than the lower one. 

The lower reaches of the valley from a biotic standpoint are not 
too interesting, being pasture overgrown with lemon guava and other 

*As Spaniards were the first cowboys in the Hawaiian Islands, paniola 
became the vernacular name for a man of this profession. 

369 



370 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

exotics. Nevertheless, geologically the area is locally interesting 
and delightful with the stream forming a series of pools - seven 
were "sacred" to the Hawaiians - of considerable fame but too pro- 
fane for discussion in a botanical review. 

The rest of the valley to the inversion layer at about 7,000 
feet is a dense rainforest. Below a transition band between 3,000 
and '4-, 000 feet, koa (Acacia) is the predominant tree; above, ohia 
lehua ( Metrosideros ) predoTiinaies, giviiis way mauka as the terrain 
becomes increasingly dry to such sclerophyllous shrubs as Dodonaea, 
Railliardia , Styphelia and Vaccinium . The summit slope is crowned^ 
with windy flats of the endemic bunchgrass ( Peschampsia havraiiensis 
f. haleakalensis (Skottsb.) St. John (incorrectly identified as D, 
nubigena ) inter'spersed here and there with endemic bracken ( Pterid - 
ium aquilinum var. decompositum (Gaud.) Tryon, Pellaea ternifolia 
(Cav.) Link native to the Hawaiian Islands as well as to the Andes, 
and the endemic Neurophyllodes tridens (Hillebr.) Deg. & Greenw. 

Though terrestrial shrubs and herbs as well as lianes and epi- 
phytes abound between 3f000 and 6,000 feet, the warm rainfall of 
perhaps 200 inches annually, augmented by abundant fog drip, stimu- 
lates bacterial decay and dissolution. As a result, the water-dren- 
ched soil is practically devoid of litter and except :.ona]]y poor in 
saprophytic fungi. Above 6,000 feet, with less rainfall and cooler 
weather, the layer of litter can be two inches thick overlying 
three inches of humus. Saprophytic fungi are abundant, having avail- 
able sustenance o 

The Report contributes 13 pages to Ecological Conditions; 3I "to 
Vascular Plants and Botanical Potential; 25 to Phytogeography; 3 
to Climatology; 1 to Some Observations of the Biotic Factor under 
headings of pigs, rats, owls and birds Qjhy "owls" are not includ- 
ed in the same category with "birds" is strange indeecfl ; 5 "to Ge- 
netics, Evolution and Drosophila Ecology; 7 to other branches of En- 
tomology; 15 to Mosses; 1 to Lakes of Eastern Haleakala; 3 to Mam- 
mals; and 16 to Birds, including the rediscovery of one considered 
extinct o 

According to the bibliography given on page 86, the writers (ex- 
cept Mr. William J. Ho) followed some of the archaic plant determi- 
nations made by Dr. F.R. Fosberg (incorrectly spelled "Forsberg") 
for Island of Hawaii plants in Doty, MoS., & Mueller-Dombois, D., 
Atlas Bioec. Stud. Haw. Vole. Nat. Park. I966. As one of the review- 
ers had been Ranger-Naturalist for Hawaii National Park (including 
Haleakala) in 1929 and both reviewers have lived in and about Hale- 
akala - the kane in 1927 at the grassy head of Kipahulu would have 
dropped into a crevice of consolidated ash had he not instinctively 
stuck out his arms akimbo - to study and publish about its flora, 
they herewith add their opinions regarding the taxonomy given in 
the Report. Obvious typographical errors, superficially noticed. 



1971 0, & I. Degener, Rerview & ccmments 371 

needing correction are: Freycinetia , Liparis , Sadleria, Pterido - 
phy ta , AsDlenium continuum , Labordia, Lysimachia hillebrandii , Metro - 
sideros , Cheirodendron trigynum , Grimmia haleakalae, Molkenboer, 
Monachus schauinslandi , Lasiurus and Plasithmysus . 

PAGE REPORT'S VERSION DEGENERS* VERSION 

15 "Dubautia sp." Mainly Railliardia sp, 
"Pelea clusiaefolia" P. clusiifolia A. Gray 
(Recommendation 73G (c) of the Code.J 

16 " Lycopodium cernuun" L. c, var. crassifolium Spr. 
" Anoectoohilus s." Odontochilus sandwicensis 

(Lindl.) Benth. 4 Hooko 
" Trematolobelia macrostachys " T. sandwicensis Deg 
" Dicranopteris linearis " D. _!• var. maxima Deg. & 

Deg. 
" Erechtltes valerianaefolia " E. valerianifolia (Wolf) DC. 

19 " Nertera depressa " N. granadensis var. insu - 

laris Skottsb. 

20 " Vaccinium berberidifolium" V_. berberifoliiim (A. Gray) 

Skottsb. 
(As V. penduliflorum var. berberifolium A. Gray was raised by 
Skottsberg to a species, we see no reason to change the ortho- 
graphy to " berberidifolium .") 
" Hypochaeris radicata " Hypochoeris r. 

25 " Psilotu'n complanatum " P. c. var. oahuensis (Muel- 

lerj Deg. & Deg. 
" Psilotum nudum " P. n. forma fosbergii Deg. & 

Deg. 
2d " Ophioglossum pendulum ssp. Ophioderma falcatum (Presl) 
falcatum" Deg. 

27 " Callistopteris baldwinii " Macroglena toppingii Deg. 

& Deg. 
" Vandenboschia draytoniana " Crepidopteris draytonianum 

(Brack.) Deg. & Deg. 

28 " Sphenomeris chinensis" S. chusana (L.) Copel. 

29 " Cyclosorus goggilodus " C. gongylodes (Schkuhr) 

Link 

(That Schkuhr' s orthography in text and index is " goggilodus " and 
on his plate " goggylodus " indicates carelessness by author or 
printer. Both spellings are meaningless, unintentional errors. 
Following the Code, we consider correction of the errors to 
" gongylodes ," an authentic Latin adjective meaning "roundish," 
proper.) 

" Cyrtomium boyd iae " 2 boydiae 

(Because of venation, this fern hardly belongs in the genus C.) 

"Dryopteris keraudreniana " Toppingia keraudreniana XCaud.) 

Deg., Deg. & A.R. Smith 

30 " Slaphopclossum alatum var. E. parvisquameum Skottsb, 

parvisquameum 
36 " Ppperomia ligustrina var. P. _1. var. oopuolana Yuncker 

copuolana ~ 



372 

PAGE 



37 
38 
39 

42 



46 
47 



48 



53 

107 



PHYTOLOGIA 

REPORT'S VERSION 

" Peperomia lilifolja var. 
nudilimba" 



Vol. 21, no. 6 

DEGENERS' VERSION 
P. liliifolia var, n» 



(Recommendation 73^ (c) of the Code.) 

"Phytolacca sandwicensis Endl." P. brachy.cjtachys Moq, 

(Endlicher's binomial is a nom. nud.) 



F. c. var. sandwicensis 
(Decaisne) Dego & Deg. 
Neurophyllodes arboreum 
(a. Gray) Deg. 
Neurophyllodes ovatifoli- 
um (A. Gray) Deg. & Greenw, 
P. clusiifolia A. Gray 



Syzyeium sandwicense (A, 

Gr ~ 

Jo s. var. ligustrifolia 



Gray) Ndz" 



" ^Fragaria chiloensis " 

" Geranium arboreum " 

" Geranium multiflorum var, 

ovatifolium " 
" Pelea clusiaefolia" 
"Eugenia sandwicensis" 

" Jussiaea suffruticosa var.- 

lingustraefolia " 
" Myrsine lessertiana" 

" Myrsine sandwicensis var. 

mauiensis 
" Alyxia olivaeformis " 

" Gouldia hillebrandii P'orsberg Ipic] .. ■.^....-.^.^....^^ 

(Since 1937 » the year of Dr. Fosberg's monograph (Bull, 3ish. 
Mus. 147:1-82.), the genus Gouldia has been extensively revis- 
ed by Skottsberg, Wilbur and the Degeners. The identification 
of the Kipahulu collection cannot be made with the 1937 key.) 

C_» g. (probably) var. 1yd - 
gatei Rock 

Neowimmeria grayana (E. 
Wimrao) Deg. & Deg, 
" Lobelia hypoleuca "? 



ThBK) Griseb. 

Rapanea lessertiana (A, 

DC.) Deg. & Kosaka 

Rapanea _s. var. m. (L*v,) 

Deg. & Deg. 

A. oliviformis Gaud. 

var. hillebrandii" 



" Cyanea grimesiana var, 2" 
"Lobelia grayana " 



" Dubautia demissifolia" 
" Dubautia montana var. robust ior " 
" Dubautia thyrsiflora " 
" Erechtites valerianaefolia" 



Neowimmeria hypoleuca ? 
(Hillebr.) Deg. & Deg. 
Railliardia demissifolia 
Sherff 

Railliardia montana var, 
robustio r Sherff 
Railliardia thyrsiflora 
Sherff 

E. valerianifolia (Wolf ) 

DC. 
(We wish to emphasize that Trematolobelia macrostachys of 
Kauai does not occur on Maui; the plant is T, sandwicensis 
or a close relative,) 
"Gampylopus boswelli" Campylopus boswellji (C. 

Mueller) Paris 
"Racomitrium" Rhacomitrium 

(It is true that Bridel spelled originally his new genus "Ra- 
comitrium" as Mr, Hoe gives it. We consider this an ortho~ 



1971 0, & I, Degener, Review & comnents 373 

PACE graphic error for which the Code under Recommendation 73A 

requires correction. The proper spelling is " Rhaconitriujn " in 
keeping with such generic names as Rhacocarpus , Rhacopilujn , etc.) 

123 (The kane reviewer deposited about 192? in some herbarium Viola 
mauiensls H. Mann from the edge of a bog-like pond. It is 
strange it was not collected by the Expedition.) 

126 (Pigs: When Astelia species are terrestrial, feral pigs feed on 

the rhizomes and young leaves, often destroying the colonies. 
They also penetrate the higher stretches of cinder-covered ter- 
rain where the endemic bracken can survive with its under- 
ground rhizomes to the exclusion of other vascular plants. 
Pigs, with great ease, root out the rhizomes from the friable 
ash, pumice and cinders for food©) 

(Rats: Though certainly not in the Islands previous to the com- 
ing of the Polynesians in their huge double canoes, the Poly- 
nesian rat ( Rattus exulans var. hawaiiensis Ellerman) in the 
eating of the orange, fleshy bracts and later of the sticky, 
ripe inflorescences of the Freycinetia have certainly aided the 
endemic crow (Ccrvus tropicus Gmelin) - now extinct except for 
one bird in captivity and perhaps a dozen wild on the Island of 
Hawaii - pollinate and later disseminate this liane.) 
129 (The rediscovery of the Maui nukupuu bird ( Hemignathus lucidus 
var. aff inis Rothschild) and the sighting of the Maui parrot- 
bill ( Pseudonestor xanthophrys Rothschild) is not only of im- 
portance ornithologically, but of major importance botanicallyo 
The first bird was last seen in I896; and the second probably 
in 1928, if we can believe the report of a sighting in neigh- 
boring Kaupo Gap by a surveying party. Many drepaniid birds, 
all endemic to the Archipelago, have evolved bills beautifully 
''.urved to penetrate the curves of mints, lobelias of many gen- 
era, and Camphusia for nectar. According to W.E. Banko (Condor 
73:121. 1971.), a member of the Expedition, "Preservation of 
the ecological integrity of Haleakala's windward forest is 
thus of paramount importance to the survival of at least three, 
and possibly as many as six, Hawaiian birds." 

One of the main objectives of the expedition was "to prepare a re- 
port of the findings for the Nature Conservancy and the U.S. Depart- 
ment of Interior, including recommendations for acquisition, use, and 
longterm conservation cf the area." The part about birds and picture- 
winged Pros o phi la , we believe, will be arguments for politicians and 
intelligent laymen alike to conserve the area urider the wing of the 
National Park Service. These are precisely the individuals who, with 
contacts and funds, can best implement a project to a successful con- 
clusion. But the botanical part of the report is sorely disappoint- 
ing and not of much help. No striking plant, like a striking bird, 
was noted as threatened with extinction even though many, many kinds 
belong in this categoryl It took Dr. St. John only until April 1970 
to describe and illustrate over a dozen novelties from the area (See 
Pac. Sci. 25:39-79. 19710) such as: Panicum lamiatile , Panicum lus - 
triale , Peperomia kipahuluensis , Pelea anapanapaensi s , Pelea clusii - 



37li PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

folia var. minor, Pelea c. var. m. t . stenophylla . Pelea kipahuJu - 
ensis, Lysimachia spathulata . Clermont ia rosacea , Cyanea bicolor, 
^Xinea haleakalaensis. Arf^yroxiphium forbesii, Argyroxiphium vires - 
cens var. paludosa. Lagcenophora viridis and Railliardia demissi - 
folia var. dolichophylla . Further botanical exploration wii: un- 
doubtedly uncover many more plants new to Science. 

Had the importance of plants been stressed as much as of birds and 

insects, vfould not the report have been more effective'' According to 
a local newspaper article dated April 3, 1971» " - - - the Nat'ore Con- 
servancy in three years raised $1.2 million to buy '4-, 000 acres in 
Kipahulu Valley to add to Haleakala National Park on the promise the 
State would add 5»000 acres to it. So far, the land has not been 
signed over by Gov. John A. Burns. And the lack of action is holding 
up a further fund-raising effort which the Nature Conservancy hopes 
will add 'lOO more acres to the park." Nero played on his Stradivari- 
us while Rome biorned to destruction. Will History repeat itself, and 
Kipahulu be destroyed? 

The present reviewers are confused as to what they have reviewed. 
The 184 illustrated and bound pages have been copyrighted (not patent- 
ed nor registered), are available in some local libraries, and have 
been distributed to various interested individuals. Some, not all, 
copies bear an an insertion claiming that the Report is not a publica- 
tion! Being neither fish, flesh, fowl nor good red herring, what is 
this thing? 



ADDITIONAL MATERIALS TOWARD A MONOGRAPH OF THE GENUS 
CALLICARPA . XVII 

Harold N. Moldenke 



CALLICARPA L. 

Additional & emended bibliography: Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., 
ed. 1, xxvii, 281—283, & 503. 1881; Trijnen Joum. Ceylon Br. Roy. 
Asiat. Soc. 9: [Syst. Cat. Flow. PI. Ceylon] 68. 1885: C. K. 
Schneid., Hlustr. Handb. Laubholzk. 2: 58? & 591— $9U, fig. 38U c- 
i & 385 b~l. 1911; J. C. Willis, Rev. Cat. Indig. Flow. PI. Cey- 
lon 69. 1911; E. D. Merr., PhiUp. Journ. Sci. Bot. 12: 108, 298— 
301, & 382. 1917; W. H. Br., Merr., & Yates, Philip. Joum. Sci. 
Bot. 12: 2U0. 1917; T. It8, Taiwan . Shokubutu Dzusetu [Illustr. 
Fonnos. PI.], ed. 1, 603— 606 (1927) and ed. 2 603—606. 1928; 
Yamamoto, Joixrn. Soc. Trop. Agr. Fonnos. 6: 55u — 555. 193li; Kos- 
tem., Reinwardtia 1: 86 & 106. 1951; T. U. Simpson, Gard. South. 
Afr. 189. I96U: Garibaldi Accati, Atti Giom. Stud. Prop. Spec. 
Legn. Pisa 196V1965: 11^5— l51i. 1966; Anon. Hortic. Abstr. 36: 
805. 1966; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 323— 3ii8. 1971. 

CALLICARPA AMERICANA L. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 329. 1971. 

Additional citations: VIRGINIA: Fort Monroe: Chickering s.n. 
[Sept. 20, 1879] (W— 2605969). TEXAS: Dallas Co.: J. Reverchon 
3.n. [Dallas, May- June I876] (W— 2607188). 

CALLICARPA ANGUSTIFOLU King & Gamble 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 329 & 330. 

1971. 

The species has been collected in fruit in November, 
Additional citations: MALAYA: Selangor: Hur 3U369 (W— 2608337) . 

CALLICARPA ARBOREA Roxb. 

Additional 4 emended bibliography: Wall., Numer. List "ii9" 
[-50]. 1829; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 1, xxvii, 282, & 503. 
1881; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 330, 336, & 3ii6. 1971. 

Jackson (1893) credits a " Callicarpa arborea Wall." to "'^^fall. 
Cat. n. 1826, partim" and reduces it to synonymy under C^ vestita 
Wall. Actually, Wallich proposed no such homonym. In the refer- 
ence cited he plainly accredits C. arborea to Roxburgh, citing 7 
specimens for what he regarded as the typical form of the species, 
and then proposes a variety which he designated " t vestita " . It 
is certainly the latter taxon to which Jackson refers. 

CALLICARPA FORMOSANA Rolfe 

Additional & emended bibliography: W. H. Br., Merr., &; Yates, 
Philip. Joxirn. Sci. Dot. 12: 2U0. 1917; T. It8, Taiwan Shokubutu 
Dzusetu [Illustr. Formos . PI.], ed. 1, 6O3 (1927) and ed. 2, 603 . 

375 



376 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

1928 > Moldenke, Phytologia 21; 332—331 & 3U6. 1971. 

Emended illustrations: T. rt3, Taiwan Shokubutu Dzusetu [IllTis- 
tr. Fomos. PI.], ed. 1, 603 (1927) and ed. 2, 603. 1928. 

Brown, Merrill, & Yates (1917) record this species from Volcano 
Island in the Philippines. 

CALUCARPA LONGIFOLIA Lam. 

Additional & emended bibliograph/: Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., 
ed. 1, 282 & ^03. 1831} T. ItS Taiwan Shokubutu Dzusetu [Illustr. 
Fomos. PI.], ed. 1, 60U (1927) and ed. 2, 60U. 1928} Moldenke, 
Phytologia 21: 329—331, 333—335, 3U0, & 3hh. 1971. 

Dop (1932) that his 6. tonkinensis is closely related to C. 
longifolia , but differs in the shape of its leaf -blades (elliptic 
or slightly obovate), the vrhitish tomentum on the lower leaf- 
surface, the always glabrous corollas, the stamens not as long- 
exserted, and the drupes being only 1.5 mm. wide. 

CALLIGARPA LONGIFOLIA f . FLOCCOSA Schau. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 155 — 162 & 
3Ui. 1971. 

Additional citations: MALAYA: Pahang: Nur 32651 (W— 26O836I) . 

CALLIGARPA LONGISSIMA (Hemsl.) Merr. 

Additional & emended bibliography: T. It8, Taiwan Shokubutu 
Dzusetu [Illustr. Formos. PI.], ed. 1, 60U (1927) and ed. 2, 60U. 
1928; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 336. 1971. 

Emended illustrations: T. ItS, Taiwan Shokubutu Dzusetu [Il- 
lustr. Formos. PI.], ed. 1, 60li (1927) and ed. 2, 60li. 1928. 

CALLIGARPA MACROPHILU Vahl 

Additional & emended bibliography: Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., 
ed. 1, 282, 283, & 503. 1881; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 336, 3la, & 
3l;5. 1971. 

CALLIGARPA OBUNCEOLATA Urb. 

Additional bibliography: Moldenke, Pl:^ologia 21: 3U7 — 3U8. 
1971. 

The G_. C^ Eucher 102U and Herb. Roig 760I1 , distributed as £. 
oblanceolata , are actually C. areola ta Urb. 

In all, llU herbariun specimens, including the type, and k 
mounted photographs of C. oblanceolata have been examined by me. 

Additional citations: CUBA: Oriente: Acufla I269I (Es, W — 
I88l2li7), 12692 (Es, N, W— I88l2li8), 12693 (Es, Es, N, ¥— 
I88l2li9), 1269U (Es, N, W— I88I250), 12695 (Es, W— 1881251), 
12696 (Es, Ml, N, W— I88I252), 13323 (Es, N), I332U (Es, N), 
13325 (Es, N), 13328 (Es, N), s.n. [Herb. Roig 8751l] (Rg), s.n. 
[Herb. Roig 8766] (Rg), s.n. [April I6, 19U5] (Ml)} Alain 3220 
(Z) } Alain , Clement, & Chrysogone A .1029 (N) } Mrs. G. C_. Bucher 
100 (N), 100a (K), lOOaa (N) , 100b (N), lOObb (N), 100c (N), 
lOOd (N), lOOe (N), lOOf (N), lOOg (N), lOOh (N), lOOi (N), lOOj 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 377 

(N), 100k (N), 100 L (N), 100m (N), lOOn (H), lOOp (N), lOOq (H) , 
lOOr (N), 1003 (N), loot (IJ), lOOu (N), lOOv (N), lOOtr (N), lOOx 
(N), 1002 (N), lOOz (N), lliO [Herb. Roig 8l51i] (N, Rg, Rg, Rg), 
11051 (Es, Es), llhS9 (Es), s,n. [Uoa, 1939] (Ha)i Client 3583 
(Ha, N, Vi), itl22 (Ka)^ Cl&nent & Alain 3919 (Ha, N) ; Cl&nent , 
Alain , & Chrysogone 3919 (Vi), 3925 (Vi); Cl6nent £: Le6n 5U62 (N)j 
Banan 3837 (N); R. A_. Howard 5900 (N, N) j Le6n 20103 (N), 20196 
(N), 21155 (Ha, N), 21301 (Ha, N)} Le6n & Cl&nent 20103 (Ha, Ha), 
20196 (Ha, N), 23055 (N), 23128 [July 19U9] (N), 231ii7 (N), 23298 
(N), 23300 (K); Le6n , C16nent , & Alain 3925 [Cl6ment & Alain 3925] 
(Ha, N); Le6n, Clement , &_ Nestor 5U02 (Ha), 5502 (Ha), 5593 (Ha); 
Le6n & Victorin 20691 (Ha, N), 209Ulb (Ha); Le6n, Victorin , & 
Clfaient L. 20691 (Es); Marie-Victorin & Cl&nent 21729 (Um— 25253), 
21731 (Um— 25252, Um— 2527U); Marie-Victorin , Clement , & Alain 
2l561i (Um— 25265); Victorin . Alain, & Cl&nent 2156U (Ka); G_. L. 
Webster 3763 (Mi) . 

CALLICARPA OBTUSIFOLIA Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. lii: U5l— 

U52. 1919. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. ll^: U51-- 
U52. 1919; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. PI. 3: 387. 1923; A. W. 
Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 3h. 1926; Moldenke, Alph. List Common 
Vern. Names 3. 1939; Moldenke, Knoym Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
[ed. 1], 62 & 87. 19^2; Moldenke, Phytologia 2: 95. 19U5; Molden- 
ke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], Uil & 177. 19l;9; 
Moldenke, R4sum6 I83 ?c hhh. 1959; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 153. 
1971. 

Merrill's original (1919) description of this species is as 
follows: "A shrub, the branchlets, petioles, inflorescences, and 
lower surface of the leaves densely and uniformly cinereous- 
stellate-pubescent, the indumentum covering the entire surface. 
Branches terete, pale brownish, glabro\is . Leaves elliptic to ob- 
long-elliptic, subcoriaceous, 5 to 8 cm long, 2 .5 to k cm wide, 
the apex rounded, obtuse, or sometimes subacute, base usually ob- 
tuse, margins entire below, in the upper part distinctly denticu- 
late, the upper surface brownish-olivaceous, glabrous or when 
young stellate-pubescent along the midrib; lateral nerves 5 to 7 
on each side of the midrib, curved, distinct as are the primary 
reticulations; petioles 5 to 10 mm long. Cymes axillary, pe- 
duncled, dichotomous, up to 2.5 cm wide, the peduncles about 1.5 
cm long; bracts linear-lanceolate, acuminate, 2 to 2.5 mm long; 
pedicels 0.5 mm long or less. Flowers rather crowded, pink. 
Calyx cup-shaped to obconic, about 1,6 nm long, densely stellate- 
pubescent, the teeth U, short. Corolla glabrous, 2.5 mm long, 
the lobes equal, orbioular-ovate, rounded, nearly 1 mm in diam- 
eter. Filaments and style 5 to 6 nm long. Fruit globose, dark- 
brown and rugose when dry, about 2 mm in diameter." 

The type was collected by Maximo Ramos [ Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 
32921] at Burgos, in Ilcos Norte Province, Luzon, Philippine Is- 



378 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

lands, on July 27, 1918, growing in dry thickets at low altitudes, 
and was deposited in the herbarium of the Philippine Bureau of 
Science at Manila, now lamentably destroyed, Merrill (1919) re- 
cords the vernacular name "anayop" and notes that "The alliance 
of this species is manifestly with Callicarpa blsuicoi Rolfe, from 
irtiich it is especially distinguished by its elliptic to oblong- 
elliptic, usually rounded or obtuse, never acuminate leaves." 

The species is known thus far only from the original collec- 
tion. 

CALLICARPA OLIGANTHA Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci. Bot. 13: 155—156. 
1918. 

Bibliography: E. D. Merr., Philip, Journ. Sci. Bot. 13: 155 — 
156. 1918 J Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 
3, 3: 25 & 26. 1921; Chung, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (1): 226. 
192ki A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 3li. 1926; P'ei, Mem. Sci. 
Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. China] 16 & Ui;— U5, pl. 3. 1932; 
Worsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 160. I9lil; Moldenke, Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 1], 56 & 8? il9h2) and [ed. 2], 131 & 
177. 19U9; Moldenke, Alph- List Cit. 3: 727. 19li9; H.-T. Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 307 & 312. 1951; Moldenke, R^sumS 168 & 
hhk. 1959; Moldenke, Phytologia Hi: 255 (1967) and 15: 39. 1967. 

Illustrations: P'ei, Mem. Sci. Soc. China 1 (3): [Verbenac. 
China] pl. 3. 1932. 

Merrill's original (1918) description of this species is: 
"Frutex ad 3 m. altus, subglaber, raraulis junioribus parcissime 
et decidue stellato-pubescentibus; foliis brevissime petiolatis, 
anguste lanceolatis, usque ad 12 cm. longis et 1.5 cm. latis, 
chartaceis, utrinque subaequaliter auigustatis, acuminatis, basi 
cuneatis, margine in 3/U superiore parte distincte serrulatis, 
supra glabris, subtus glandulosis, glabris, vel junioribus par- 
cissime stellato-pubescentibus, nervis utrinque 7 ad 9, curvato- 
adscendentibus, tentiibus; cymis axillaribus depauperatis, 2- vel 
3-floris, brevissime pedunculatis, pedicellis glabris, circiter 
k mm. longis; fructibus globosis, 3 ad 3.5 mni. diametro, glabris, 
calycis persistentibus, glabris, truncatis . A slender shrub, 2 
to 3 m. high, in age glabrous or nearly so, the young branchlets 
sparingly stellate-pubescent. Branches slender, terete, smooth, 
glabrous, grayish. Leaves narrowly lanceolate, chartaceous, 6 
to 12 cm. long, 0.8 to 1.5 cm. wide, narrowed at both ends, the 
upper surface glabrous, smooth, eglandular, brownish-olivaceous, 
shining, the lower surface slightly paler, distinctly pitted- 
glandiolar, glabrous, or when young sparingly stellate-pubescent 
near the midrib, the base cuneate, the apex rather slenderly but 
bluntly acuminate, the margins on the upper two- thirds distinct- 
ly serrulate; lateral nerves 7 to 9 on each side of the midrib, 
slender, curved-ascending, anastomosing, the reticulations slen- 
der, not prominent; petioles 2 mm. long or less. Cymes axillary, 
few, subsessile or shortly peduncled, depauperate, 2- or 3- 
riowered, the pedvincles 2 mm. long or less, the pedicels not ex- 
ceeding U mm. in length, glabrous. Fruit globose or subglobose, 
dark-brown when dry, 3 to 3.5 nan. in diameter, glabrous, the per- 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of CalLLcarpa 379 

aiatent calyx trvmcate, glabrous." 

The type of the species was collected by Rimer Drew Merrill 
( no. 11060 ) in thickets along small streams, at an altitude of a- 
bout 900 meters, Loh Fau Mountain (Lofaushan), Kwangtung, China, 
on August 23, 1917, and was deposited in the herbarium of the 
Philippine Bureau of Science at Manila, now destroyed. The col- 
lector notes that the species is "rare, but a single plant seen. 
The alliance of this species is manifestly with the form common- 
ly known as Callicarpa purpurea Juss., but which should be known 
as C_. dichotcma (Lour.) Raeusch. It differs in its relatively 
much narrower leaves, and depauperate, subsessile, very few- 
flowered cymes," 

Iimnature green fruit was collected in August. Bakhuizen van 
den Brink (1921) reduces the species to synonymy under what he 
calls C^ japonica var. dichotoma (Lour.) Bakh. Chang (1951) 
cites only the original collection and compares it with both C. 
dichotoma (Lour.) K. Koch smd with C. brevipes (Benth.) Hance. 

The Tsang 213U6 , distributed as C. oligantha , is actually C. 
japonica var. angustata Rehd. 

In all, 2 herbarium specimens, including the type, and 2 moun- 
ted photographs of C . oligantha have been examined by me . 

Citations: CHINA7~Kwangtung : E^, D. Merrill IIO6O (N — isotype, 
N — photo of type, Ph — type, Z — photo of type) . 

CALLICARPA OSHIMENSIS Hayata, Journ. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30 
(1): 221. 1911. 

Synonymy: C^llicaipa oshimensis var. oshimensis Hatus., Bull. 
Arts & Sci. Div. Ryukyu Univ. (Math. & Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 1959. 
Callicarpa ohshimensis Hayata ex Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. 16: 18, 
in syn. I968. 

Bibliography: Hayata, Joum. Coll. Sci. Univ. Tokyo 30 (1): 
[Mater. Fl. Formos.] 221. 1911 j J. Matsum., Ind. PI. Jap. 2 (2): 
529. 1912; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 1, ii3. 1921; Sakaguchi, 
Gen. Ind. Fl. Okin. 18. I92h; S. Sasaki, Cat. Govt. Herb. Formosa 
Ii33. I93O; Mak. & Nemoto, Fl. Jap., ed. 2, 995. 1931; Nemoto, Fl. 
Jap. Suppl. 622. 1936; Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib, Verbenac, 
[ed. 1], 57 & 87. 19U2; Hara, Enum. Sperm. Jap. 1: 185. IPUS; 
Moldenke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], 133 & 177. 
19U9; Naito, Sci. Rep. Kag. 2: 60. 1953; Moldenke, Phytologia 5: 
28. 195ii; Masamune, Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. U: [Enum. Tracheo- 
phyt. Ryukyu 70 U6 S: hi. 1955; Hatus., Bull. Arts & Sci. Div. 
Ryukyu Univ. (Math. <Sc Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 1959; Moldenke, R6sum6 
172, 181, & khh. 1959; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, pr. 2, li3. 
I96O; Hatus., Mem. South. Indust. Sci. Inst. Kagoshiraa Univ. 3 
(1): 31. 1962; Moldenke, R^susifi'Suppl. 3: 20 (1962), 5: 6 (1962), 
and lit: U. 1966; Moldenke, Phytologia li^: 2U8— 2U9. 1967; Molden- 
ke, R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 11, 17, & 18 (1968) and 17: 8. I968; Mol- 
denke, Phytologia 21: U6, 2U0, & 2U2. 1971. 

Previous to receiving good material of this taxon and of the 
so-called C. iriomotensis Masam. and C. okinawensis Nakai from my 



380 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. ZL, no. 6 

esteemed friend and colleague. Dr. E. H. Walker, I had tentative- 
ly regarded them as 3 distinct and valid species. Now, however, 
I feel that Hatusitna (1959) is amply justified in reducing them 
to a single species with two varieties. He says "Above three 
forms of C. oshimensis which are distinguished as the following 
analytical key are not different in their essential characters, 
such as size of cymes, flowers and fruits, and the indumentum of 
branchlets and leaves, though size of leaves and cymes as well as 
the serration of leaves are considerably variable. Therefore, it 
seems advisable to reduce the above two forms from Okinawa and 
Yaeyama to the varietal rank, as the distinguishing characters 
mentioned above are very variable as in the other species of C al- 
ii carpa ." He distinguishes the 3 taxa as follows: 
1. Leaf -blades regularly rhombic-ovate, 2 — 7 cm. long, acuminate 
at the apex, sharply and regularly coarse-serrate along the 

margins, cuneate at the basej cymes 1 — 3 cm. long 

C. oshimensis « 
la. Leaf -blades rarely rhombic-ovate, often with shorter acumens 
and smaller, denser, and irregular serration. 
2. Leaf-blades ovate to ovate-lanceolate, 2 — U.5 cm. long, with 
smaller and denser serration; cymes usually less than 1 cm. 

long C . oshimensis var . okinawensis . 

2a. Leaf -blades ovate to ovate-oblong or rarely obovate-oblong, 
3 — 10 cm. long, with larger and coarser serration; cymes 

usually more than 1 cm. long 

C. oshimensis var. iriomotensis . 
Masamune (19^5) records the vernacular name "osimamurasaki" 
for C. oshimensis and gives its distribution as "Amarai-osima (leg. 
Igoma) et (leg. Tasiro in G. Herb. Formos . n. 27877); Okinawa: 
Kunigani; Iheyazima; Iriomote? . Distr. Endonic." Hatusima (19^9) 
gives the distribution of the t:^'pical form as only Amaini-oshima 
and Tokunoshima Islands in the Ryukyu Archipelago. 

Wilson found the plant fruiting in February. Llaterial has 
been misidentif ied and distributed in herbaria as C_, shikokiana 
Mak. On the other hand, the Gressitt 532 & 563 , ItS s.n. [23. V. 
1936], and Kawagoe s.n. [July 27, 1919], distributed as typical 
C. oshimensis , are actually var, iriomotensis (Masam.) Hatus. 

In all, 3 herbarium specimens and 2 mounted photographs of the 
type collection of G. oshimensis have been examined by me. 

Citations: JAPAN: Kyushu: E^ H. vaison 6050 (W~777757, W— 
777758). AMAMI ISLANDS: Amamioshima: Kawagoe s.n. [July 17, 1919] 
(W~207133h); Uchiyama s.n. [December 8, 1900] (W— photo of type, 
W — photo of isotype) . 

CALLICARPA OSHIMENSIS var. IRIOMOTENSIS (Masam.) Hatus., Bull. 
Arts & Sci. Div. Ryukyu Univ. (Math. & Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 
1959. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa iriomotensis Masam., Trans. Nat. Hist. 

Soc. Formos. 25: 25U. 1935. Callicarpa oshimensis var. iriano- 



1971 lioldenke, Lonograph of Callicarpa 381 

tensis Hatus . ex Koldenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 18, in syn. 1968. 
Callicarpa ohshimensis var. iriomotensis (liasam.) Hatus. ex Mol- 
denke, R^sural Suppl. 16: 13, in syn. 1968. Callicarpa ohshimen- 
sis var. iriomotensis (iiasam.) Uasajn. ex lioldenke, it^sum^ Suppl. 
167 18, in syn. 1968. 

Bibliography: Kasam., Trans. Nat, Hist. Soc . Formes. 2$: 25U. 
1935i A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 9: U5. 1938; Sonohara, Tawada, 
& Amano, ed. E. H. Walker, Fl. Okin. 131. 1952; I'.asam., Sci. Rep. 
Kanazawa Univ. U [Enura. Tracheophyt. Ryukyu 7]: li6. 1955; Hatus., 
Bull. Arts & Sci. Div. Ryukyu Univ. (Math. & Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 
1959; Moldenke, R^sum^ l8l & Uiii. 1959; iioldenke, Phytologia lli: 
2ii8— 2U9. 1967; Moidenke, R6sum6 Suppl. 16: 11, 12, 17, & 18. 
1968; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 2U2. 1971. 

For a statement on how this variety differs from the typical 
form of the species, see xinder C. oshimensis in this seiries of 
notes. Recent collectors describe the plant as a bush or shrub, 
1.8 — 6 m. tall, the stems 1.5 — 2 cm. in diameter, the branches 
spreading horizontally, and the (immature) fruit green or pale- 
green and moderately small. The corollas are described as "pink" 
on Hatus ima I86OO . 

The vsiriety has been collected in the shade of large trees, 
in forests, at the edges of fringing forests, and in Yfet gulch 
bottoms in dense low scrubby forests, at altitudes of 12 — 200 m., 
flowering in May and June, and frtiiting in June, August, and No- 
vember. Fosberg says that it is "occasional in undergrowth on 
broad or high densely wooded ridges", while Hatusima refers to it 
as a "common shrub" on Iriomote. Masamune (1955) says that it is 
endemic to Isjigaki, Iriomote, and Yonaguni in the Sakashlma 
group of the Ryukyu Island Archipelago and records the vernacular 
name "Irionote-murasaki-sikibu" . hatusima (1959) lists it only 
from Iriomote and IshigaJci, 

Material of this taxon has been misidentified and distributed 
in herbaria under the names C_. japonica Thunb., C_. okinawensis 
Nakai, and C, oshimensis Hayata. On the other hand, the Hatusima 
13577 & 2li357 , distributed as var. iriomotensis , are actually var, 
okinawensis (Nakai) Hatus. 

In all, 13 herbariimi specimens of var. iriomotensis have been 
examined by me . 

Citations: RYUKYU ISUND ARCHIPELAGO: Iriomote: Gressitt 532 
(N, S), 563 (N); Hatusima I86OO (W— 22U3550); Kawagoe s.n. [July 
27, 1919] (W— 2071333, Z); Koidzumi s.n. [1— 20.VII .1923] (W— 
2070985); Masamune & Suzuki s.n. [June 28, 1935] (Tw); Tedodake 
s.n. [Herb. Univ. Imp. Taihok. 3307] (Tw); Walker & Tawada 66^ 
(N, W~2093919). Ishigaki: F. R. Fosberg 37191 (zT, 38OO8 (Rf), 
3805U (Ac); Hatusima 22899 (Ar) , 23006 (Ar); Masamune & Suzuki s_. 
ru [June 30, 1935] (Tw) . Uchibanare: It8 s.n. [23.V.1936] (Tk) . 

CALLICARPA OSHIMENSIS var. OKINAV/ENSIS (Nakai) Hatus., Bull. Arts 
& Sci. Div. Ryukyu Univ. (Math. & Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 1959. 



382 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

Synonymy: CalHcarpa okinawenals Nakai, Bot, Mag. Tokyo 36: 22. 
1922. Callicarpa mollis Matsvmi. ex Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 36: 22, 
in syn, 1922 [not £, mollis Koord., 1966, nor Req., 1839, nor 
Shirasaiia, 19149, nor Sieb. & Zucc, iQUh, nor Willd., I8ii0] . Cal- 
licarpa mollis (non Sieb. & Zucc.) Matsum., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa 
Univ. U [Enum. Tracheophyt. Ryukyu 7]: U6, in syn. 19$5« Calli- 
carpa okinawaensis Nakai apud Masara., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. k 
[Enum. Tracheophyt. Ryukyu 7]: Ii6. 1955* Callicarpa ohshimensis 
var. okinawensis (Nakai) Hatus. ex Moldenke, R5s\m6 Suppl. 16: 
18, in syn. I968. 

Bibliography: J. Matsum., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 13: llli. 1899; Kuro- 
iwa, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 11;: 126. 1900j J. Matsxim., Ind. PI. Jap. 2 
(2): 529. 1912J E. H. Wils., Joum. Arnold Arb. 1: I83. 1920; 
Nakai, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 36: 22 — 23. 1922j Sakaguchi. Gen. Ind. Fl. 
Okin. 18. I92UJ A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 37. 1929," Mak. &. 
Nemoto, Fl. Jap., ed. 2, 99$' 1931; Nemoto, Fl. Jap. Suppl. 622. 
1936; Moldenke, Prelim. Alph. List Invalid Names 12. 19^0; Mol- 
denke, Known Geogr, Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 1], 61 & 87. 19il2; 
Moldenke, Alph. List Invalid Names 10. 19U2; Moldenke, Known 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac., [ed. 2], lliO & 177. 19li9; Sonohara, 
Tawada, & Amano, ed. E. H. Walker, Fl. Okin. I3I. 1952j Naito, 
Sci. Rep. Kag. 2: 60. 1953; Masam., Sci. Rep. Kanazawa Univ. k 
[Enum. Tracheophyt. Ryukyu 7]: U6— U7. 1955; Hatus., Bull. Arts & 
Sci. Div. Ryukyu Univ. (Math. & Nat. Sci.) 3: 107. 1959; Molden- 
ke, R6s\im5 181, 2U5, & hhh» 1959; Moldenke, R6sum5 Suppl. U: 8 & 
11 (1962) and 5: 6. 1962; Moldenke, Phytologia 13: i;31 & U33 
(1966) and Hi: 1U2. I966; Moldenke, R5sum« Suppl. 16: 11, 12, & 
18 (1968) and 17: 8. I968; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 2U0 & 2U2. 
1971. 

The characters by which this variety is distinguished from C. 
oshimensis Hayata and C. oshimensis var. iriomotensis (Masaim,) 
Hatus. are enumerated in my discussion of C. oshimensis in this 
present series of notes. Nakai (1928), Masamune (1955) , and 
Hatusima (1959) all agree that the variety is endemic to Okinawa. 
Masamune records the vernacular name "kogomemurasaki" and cites 
Masamxine & Siniabukuro s.n. [Yonawadake, Aug. 6, 193li] • He says 
that the " C. mollis Sieb. & Zucc." of Matsumura (1899), Kuroiwa 
(1900), E. H. Wilson (1920), Matsumura (1912), and Sakaguchi 
(192li), insofar as they refer to Ryukyxi Islands specimens, is ac- 
tually C. oshimensis var. okinawensis . The C. mollis accredited 
to Koorders and referred to in the synonymy above, is actually a 
synonym of C. caudata Maxim., that credited to Shirasaira is 3cC. 
shirasawana Mak., and that of Requien and of V^illdenow is C. 
acuminata H.B.K., while that of Siebold & Zuccarini is a valid 
species . 

Recent collectors describe this plant as a shrub, 2 m. tall, 
growing in the shade of trees, along forest paths, in small 
clearings, and at the edges of low spinnies, at 100 — 200 m. alti- 
tude, flowering in May, and fruiting in July. On Yonakuni Island 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Callicarpa 383 

it is said by Hatusima to be "frequent in mountain thickets", but 
on Iriomote he reports it as "a rare shrub" . The corollas are 
described as "pink" on Hatusima l80Ul » 

Material of this variety has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in herbaria under the names C. oshimensis Kayata, C. oshimen - 
sis var. iriomotensis (Masam.) Hatvis., and C. ohshimensis var. 
irioraotensis (llasam.) Katus . On the other liand, the Koidzxmi s, 
n, [1 — 20 .VII. 1923] , distributed as var. okinawensis , is actually 
a mixture with var. iriomotensis . 

In all, 16 herbarium specimens and 1 mounted photograph of var. 
okinawenais have been examined by me. 

Citations : RYUKYU ISLAl^D ARCHIPELAGO: Iricmote: Hatusima 18$77 
(Tk, W— 22ii35U7); Koidzumi s.n. [1—20 .VII .1923] (Kl, Z) . Okinawa: 
Hatusima I80UI (W~22U3U07); Koidzumi s.n. [27.V— 3.VI.1923] (W— 
2070986), s.n. [1—20 .VII. 1923] (W— 2070985, Z)j Masamune & Sima- 
bukuro 1770 (T»r)j J_. l^atsumura s.n. (Tk) } Sonohara , Tawada , & Am- 
ano 6332 (N, N, W— 20936$U)} Tashiro 2 (W— photo); E. H. Walker 
825U (Z); Yamazaki s.n. [Jan. 9, I96U] (Tk) . lonakuni: Hatusima 
211357 (Ar) . 

CALLICARPA PACHYCLADA Quisumb. &. Merr., Philip. Joum. Sci . Bot. 
37: 195—196. 1928. 

Synonymy: Caillicarpa pachyclada Merr, & Qjiisumb. ex Moldenke, 
Risum* Suppl, 3: 30, in syn, 1962. 

Bibliography: Quisumb, & Merr., Philip. Joum, Sci. Bot. 37s 
195—196. 1928; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 8: 37. 1933; Molden- 
ke, Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 1], 62 & 87 (I9l|2) and 
[ed. 2], lUl & 177. 19U9: Moldenke, Phytologia 5: 28 & 29. 195h; 
Moldenke, RSsum^ I83, 19u, & hhh* 1959; Moldenke, RSeumS Suppl. 
3: 30. 1962; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 229. 1971. 

The original description of this species (1928) reads as fol- 
lows in the English version: "A shnib about 3 m high; the thicken- 
ed branchlets and the lower surface of the leaves densely fulvo- 
tomentose with rather soft plumose and stellate hairs; branches 
terete or somewhat compressed at the nodes, pale grayish. Leaves 
chartaceous to subcoriaceous, broadly oblong-elliptic, 27 to 39 cm 
long, lU to 21 cm wide, undiilate-dentate, apex acutely acuminate, 
base acute, the upper surface olivaceous, glabrous, smooth, shin- 
ing, the lower surface pale, somewhat yellowish, not at all glan- 
dular, very densely stellate-plumose-pubescent; lateral nerves a- 
bout 10 on each side of the midrib, very prominent, the reticula- 
tions distinct; petioles densely tomentose, somewhat angled, U to 
6 cm long. Cymes axillary, many-flowered, dichotomous, very 
densely tomentose, pedunculate, 6 to 8 cm long, 5 to 10 cm wide. 
Flowers crowded, their pedicels 0.5 to 1 mm long; calyx membrana- 
ceous, cup-shaped, shortly U-lobed, tomentose, about 1.75 nm long; 
corolla U-lobed, 3 to 3.5 mm long, 2.5 to 3 mm in diameter, the 
lobes 1.25 to 1.5 mm long, about 1 mm wide, oblong -ovate, obtuse. 
Stamens ii, exserted, the filaments U to U.5 nm long; anthers ob- 



38Ii PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no, 6 

long, 1.2^ to l.li mm long. Fruit globose, glabrous, 2 to 2,5 mm 
in diameter, surrounded at the base by the densely fulvo-tonentose 
calyx; bracts densely fulvo-tomentose, linear, up to 15 mm long, 
the bracteoles much shorter." 

The type of the species was collected by Llaximo Ramos ajid Gre- 
gorio E. Edaflo [ Herb, Philip. Bur, Sci, k$Shp ] on forested slopes 
at an altitude of about 1600 meters on Mount Alzapan, in Nueva 
Vizcaya Province, Luzon, Philippine Islands, on May 2k, 1925, and 
was deposited in the herbarium of the Philippine Bureau of Sci- 
ence but is now destroyed. 

Quisumbing & Merrill comment that this is "A species most 
closely allied to Callicarpa magnifolia Merrill, but with broadly 
oblong-elliptic, somewjiat larger leaves, the margins undulate- 
dentate and the base acute," 

Recent collectors describe the plant as 3 m. tall, the stems 
10 cm, in diameter, the (immature) fruit green, flowering and 
fruiting in May, growing in mossy forests at an altitude of 1600 
meters. The corollas on the type collection are described as 
"violet", but those on Kjellberg 1763 are said to have been 
iriiite. 

Material of this species has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in herbaria under the names G, pentandra var, cumingiana f . 
pentamera (H. J, Lam) Bakh,, C_. pentandra f . pubescens Bakh., and 
C, pentandra var, typica f , hexandra Bakh. 

In all, 9 herbarium specimens, including the type collection, 
and 2 mounted photographs of C . pachyclada have been examined by 
me. 

Citations: PHILIPPIKE ISLANDS: Luzon: Ramos & Edafio s,n, [Herb, 
Philip, Bur, Sci. li56U0] (B — isotype, Bz — 1810U — isotype, Ca — 
329895 — isotype, N — isotype, N — photo of isotype, Z — photo of iso- 
type) . GREATER SUIIDA ISLAJJDS: Celebes: Barhi 76 [Boschproefst, 
bb,2ia01] (Bz— I8568)i Kjellberg 1763 (Bz— 13233, Z); Rachnat 61i0 
(Bz— 18561;, Bz— 18565). 

CALLICARPA PARVIFOLIA Hook, & Am., Bot. Beech. Voy, 305. 1838. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa nishimurae Koidz,, Bot. Mag. Tokyo 32: 

136—137. 1918. 

Bibliography: Hook. & Am., Bot. Beech, Voy, 305. I838; Walp., 
Repert. Bot, Syst. U: 129. l8U5i Schau. in A. DC,, Prodr. 11: 
61i6. I81i7} W. B. Hemsl. in Godman & Salvin, Biol. Cent.-Am. Bot. 
2: 538. 1882; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 
386. 1893; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenf am . , ed. 1, U 
(3a): 166. 1895 j Koidz., Bot. Mag. Tokyo 32: 136—137. 1918 j P. C. 
Standi., Contrib. U. S. Nat. Herb. 23: 1253. 192Ui A. W. Hill, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 3U. 1926; Hosokawa, Journ. Soc. Trop. Agr. 
Taiwan 6: 205. 193U; Moldenke in Fedde, Repert. Spec. Nov. 39: 
300 (1936) and UO: U6~U8, 120, & 121. 1936; Moldenke, Geogr. Dis- 
tiib. Avicenn, 13. 1939; Moldenke, Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 
1], 16, 61, & 87. 19U2; Jacks, in Hook, f . & Jacks., Ind. Kew., 
pr. 2, 1: 386. I9U6; Moldenke, Alph. List Cit. 1: 36. 19U6; Hara, 
Enum. Sperm. Jap. 1: 185. 19li8; H. N. & A. L. Moldenke, PI. Life 



1971 koldenke, lionograph of Calllcarpa 385 

2: 7U. 19li8j Uoldenke, Known Geogr, Distrib. Verbenac, [ed. 2], 
28, liiO, & 177. 19li9i H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. i: 29U. 
1951 i Moldenke, R6sum6 3U, 182, & UJi;. 1959; Jacks, in Hook, f . & 
Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 3, 1: 386. I960; Moldenke, Phytologia 21: 
152. 1971. 

Hooker (ScAmott's original (I838) description of this sjsecies 
is "foliis coriaceis obovatis obtusissimis breve petiolatis laev- 
iter crenatis supra adxiltis glabris subtus dense cano-tomentosis 
reticulatim venosis, pedunculis petiolian aequantibxis, floribus 
capitato-cymosis. Leaves an inch and a half long; the younger 
ones inclining to rust^-colour beneath. The peduncles and peti- 
oles are densely stellato-tomentose, like the under side of the 
foliage." 

Standley (1921;) keys out the species of Callicarpa known to him 
from Mexico as follows: 

1. Leaf-blades obovate, very obtuse at the apex....C. parvifolia . 
la. Leaf-blades lanceolate to ovate, acute or acuminate at the 
apex. 
2. Leaves persistently but minutely stellate-piibescent on the 

upper surface C_. acuminata . 

2a. Leaves glabrous on the upper surface except when very young. 

3. Leaves densely stellate-tomentose beneath C. pringlei . 

3a . Leaves sparsely stellate-tomentose beneath 

C. subpubescens . 

It should be noted, however, that Cj^ subpubescens Hook. & Am. 
has since Standley 's work been proved not to grow at all in Mexi- 
co, but to be endemic to the Benin Islands instead. Now it aj>- 
pears that C. parvifolia does not occur in Mexico either. Dr. 
S. Hatusima, in a letter to me dated January I8, 1971, states "I 
am now studying the real status of Caillicarpa parvifolia Hook. & 
Arn. described as from hiexico and [am] inclined to believe from 
the original description of this species and the following answer 
from Dr. R. M. Harley of the Royal Botanic Garden, Kew, to whom I 
sent a leaf of C. nishimtirae Koidz.irom the Bonins for comparison 
with the type of G. parvifolia Hook, et Arn. that C. parvifolia 
Hook, et Arn. is not from Mexico but from the Bonins. 'I have now 
examined the leaf of Callicarpa nishimurae Koidz . with those of 
the type of C_. parvifolia Hook, et Arn. The similarity between 
the two is very striking, and the texture of the indumentxmi on 
the leaf undersurface appears identical, when viewed under a dis- 
secting microscope. There thus seems little doubt that, as you 
suggest, the type was collected in the Bonins, and not in Mexico. 
In our indetermined cover, we had a sterile specimen of C_. parvi - 
folia collected in the 1930s from the Bonins, and this also agreed 
closely with the type....'" 

The original description of C. nishimurae by Koidzumi (I9I8) 
is as follows: "Ad C. paucinervia Merrill remote af finis, foliis 
crassioribus coriaceis ellipticis utrinque rotundatis supra pilis 
diutixis persistentibus subtus indumento luteo-brunneo; calycis 
dentibus longis acutisque differt. Arbuscula? ramis vetustiori- 



386 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

bus atro-b runnels vel nigrescentibus, ramulis homotinis inflores- 
centiis foliis subtusque indtmento sordido vel lutescente densis- 
sime stellato-pubescentibus . Folia late elliptica crasse coriacea 
supra in siccitate nigra albo-stellato-pilosa et glandulosa utrin- 
que rotundata, margine crenato-denticulata versus basin Integra, 
costis secundariis utrinque h — 5 supra planis subtus leviter ele- 
vatis, lamina 2 — 5 cm. longa, 1,3 — 3,0 cm. lata; petiolis camosis 
ad 8 mm. longis tomentosis. Cyma axillaris parva tcmentosa, flor- 
ibus brevissime pedicellatis . Calyx glaber acute Ii-denticulatus 
glandulosus circ . 1,8 mm. altus. Worn. Jap. Urajiro-koinurasaki. 
Distr. Bonini insl. Chichishima (leg. S. Nishimural no. 72 , Aug. 
15, 1917. This species is named in compliment to Mr. S. Nishimura 
who collected the plant." 

Hara (19U8) cites as an illustration of this species a "f. 
2l|88 (1938)", but unfortunately gives the name of the publication 
and its author only in Japanese characters . 

It appears, thus, that all previous ivriters, including myself, 
have been in error in ascribing G_. parvifolia to Mexico. The orig- 
inal inscription to this effect on the type sheet at Kew was ap- 
parently an error in transcription, as it was in the case of C. 
subpubescens . Since Standley did his work on the trees and shmbs 
of Mexico, then, Mexico has "lost" two species of beautyberry, 
but it has also gained one he did not know about — C. americana 
L., which occurs in Coahuila. 

In all, 3 herbarium specimens, including the type, and 2 moun- 
ted photographs of C. parvifolia have been examined by me. 

Additional & emended citations: BONIN ISLANDS: Chichi jima: 
Beechey s.n. ["Tepic"] (K — type, k — isotype, Mi — photo of type, 
N — isotype, Z — photo of type) . 

CALLICARPA PAUCIFLORA Chun ex H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
275. 19^1. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa pauciflora "Chun ex Chang" apud Chang, 

Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 309. 1901. 

Bibliography: H.-T. Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: [269], 27U, 
275, 309, & 311. 19^1; 0. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 21. 1966; 
Moldenke, R^sum^ Suppl. lU: 3. 1966. 

The original description of this species by Chang (1951) is as 
follows: "Frutex circ. 60 cm altus. Ranfuli teretes plus minusve 
lenticellati, hornotini stellato-pubescentes, annotini glabri 
pallidi. Folia ovato-elliptica vel elliptica 6 — 10 cm longa, 2.5— 
k cm lata, apice ac\iminata vel breviter acuminata, basi late acu- 
ta, quadrante inferiore et apice excepto crenato-s errata, supra 
viridia sparse stellato-puberula, subtus pallidiora stellato- 
pubescentia, nervis utrinsecus 7 — 9, supra conspicuis subtus ele- 
vatisj petioli U — 6 nm longi, stellato-pubescentes. Cynae parvae, 
pauciflorae (floribus circ. 3 — 7), bis dichotomae, 1 cm latae, 
stellato-pubescentes, pedunculis U — 6 mm longis, pedicellis 1 — 
1.5 mm longis J bracteae lineari-lanceolatae 8 mm longae, 1 mm 
lataej bracteolae subulatae 1.5 mm longae; calyx ad medium loba- 
tu3 2.2 mm longus stellato-pubescens, lob is acutis lanceolatis 



1971 Moldenke, Monograph of Calllcarpa 38? 

circ. 1 ran longis; corolla rosea 3.5 nun longa parcissime puberula, 
lobis ovatis; stamina exserta, filamentis h — 5 mm longis, anther- 
is 1 nun longis longitudinaliter dehiscentibus; ovarium sparse 
pubescens, stylo circ. 6 mm longo. Fructus ignotus." 

The type and apparently only known collection of this taxon is 
S^ P. Ko 52908, collected in I9O3 in Canton, Kwangtung, China, 
and deposited in the herbarium of the Botanical Institute of Sun- 
yatsen University in Canton. Chang (1951) compares it with C. 
longipes Dunn. 

CALLICARPA PEDUNCULATA R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Koll. 1: 513. I8IO. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa cuspidata Roxb,, Hort. Beng, [83], hypo- 
nyn. iSlUj '"Vail, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & V/all.], 1: 
U09. 1820 [not C. cuspidata Eakh., 1932, nor Ilassk., 1921, nor 
Lam & Bakh., 1951] • Gallicarpus dentata Roth ex Roem. £c Schult. 
in L., Syst. Veg., ed, 15 nova, 3- 98. I8l3. Callicarpa dentata 
Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. 81—82. 1821 [not C. dentata Pav., 1936, nor 
Roxb., 1831, nor Sess6 & Moc, I9U0] . Callicarpa lanata Zipp. ex 
Span., Linnaea 15 : 330. I8UI [not C. lanata Gamble, 1893, nor 
Hossfius, 1912, nor L., 1771, nor H. J. Lam, I9U0, nor Lam., 1821]. 
Callicarpus cuspidata Roxb. ex Hassk., Cat. PI. Hort. Bot. Bogor. 
Cult. Alt. 136. I81ili. Callicarpus oblongifolia ^ acuninatissima 
Hassk., Cat. PI. Bot. Bogor. Cult. Alt. I36. I8UU. Callicarpa 
lanata Vahl ex Schau. in A. DC., Prodr. 11: 6U;. l3i|7. Callicarpa 
oblongifolia var. acuminatissima Hassk. apud Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 
[Fl. Ned, Ind.] 2: 387, in syn. 1856. Callicarpa cana Wall, (in 
part) apud Bocq., Adansonia 3: 192. 1863 [not £. cana Dalz. & 
Gibs., 1919, nor Gamble, 1389, norL., 1771, nor Spreng., I866, 
nor Vahl, 1866]. Callicarpa lanata Schau. apud Benth. & F. Muell., 
Fl. Austral. 5: 57, in syn. I87O. Callicarpa tiliaefolia Tiejsm. 
t Binn. ex C. B. Clarke in Hook, f ., Fl. Brit. Ind. U: 569, in 
syn. 1885. Callicarpa pedunculata var. typica H. J. Lara, Verben- 
ac. Mai. Arch. 56 — 57. 1919. Callicarpa lanata V/alp. apud Bakh, 
in Lara ^ Bakh., Bull, Jard, Bot. Bioitenz., s^r. 3, 3: 2li, in syn. 
1921. Callicarpa pendunculata R, Br. ex Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., 
Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., s6r. 3, 3: 2U, sphalm. 1921. Calli - 
carpa pedunculata Roth ex Schwenke, Zytol. Untersuch. Verbenac. 
27 & 28. 1931. Callicarpus cuspidata Hassk. ex Moldenke, Prelim, 
Alph, List Invalid Names 13, in syn. 19liO. Callicarpus oblongi - 
folia var. acuminatissima Hassk. ex I'oldenke, Prelim. Alph. List 
Invalid Names lii, in syn. 19 UO. 

Bibliography: Rumph,, Herb. Amb. U: 12U, pi. 59. nh3; Vahl, 
Symb. Bot. 3- 13. 179^; R. Br., Prodr. Fl. Nov. Holl. 1: 513. 1810} 
Poir. in Lam., Encycl. K§th. Suppl. 2: 3h. I8II; Roxb., Hort. Beng. 
[83]. iSliij Hoem. & Schult. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. I5 nova, 3: 98. 
1813; Wall, in Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1 [Carey & V^all.], 1: 39U, UO9, 
4 U81. 1820; Roth, Nov. PI. Sp. 31—33. 1821; Steud., Nora. Bot., 
ed. 1, 137. 1821; Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 1: U20. 1325; 



388 PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Nederl. Ind. 2h.t 3l8. 1326; J, A. & J. H. Schul- 
tes., Mant. 3: 52—55. 1827,' Spreng. in L., Syst. Veg., ed. 16, 
5: 126. 1828; Wall., Numer. List "U9" [=50]. 1828 j Roxb., Fl. 
Ind., ed. 2 [Carey], 1: 39U & 395. 1832; D. Dietr., Syn. PI. 1: 
U28— li29. 1839; Steud., Nom. Bot., ed. 2, 257. 18U0; Span., Lin- 
naea 15: 330. l8Ul; Hassk., Cat. PI. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Cult. Alt. 
136. I8I4I;; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. h'- 128. l8U5i Schau. in A. 
DC., Prodr. 11: Shh. 18U7; Hassk., PI. Jav. Rar. U91. I8U8; Jac- 
ques & H^rincq, Man. G^n. PI. Arb. & Arbust. [Fl. Jard. Eur.] 3: 
503. 1851; Benth. in Hook., Joum. Bot. & Kew Card. Uisc. 5: 135. 
1853; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. [Fl. Ned. Ind.] 2: 886—387. 1856; Miq., 
Fl. Ind, Bat. [Fl. Ned. Ind.] Suppl. 1: 2^3. i860; Regel, Garten- 
fl. 9: 56. i860; Sieb. L de Vriese, Ann. Hort. Bot. Pays-Bas [Fl. 
Jard.] U: 97. 1361; Rosenthal, Syn. PI. Diaphor. U30. 1862; Regel, 
Gartenfl. 12: 101. 1863; Bocq., Adansonia 3: 192. 1863; E. Pritz., 
Icon. Bot, Ind. 2: 55. I866; F. Muell. in Landsb., Explor. Austr. 
119. 1866; Benth. & F, Muell., Fl. Austral. 5: 57. 1870; Ro:dD., 
Fl. Ind., ed. 3 [C. B. Clarke], 132. I875j F. Vill., Nov. App. 
158. 1880; F. liuell.. First Census I03. 1882; F. M. Bailey, Syn, 
Quennsl. Fl. 377. 1383; F. M. Bailey, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queenal. 1: 
70. 1881a; C, B, Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit, Ind. h'- 569. I885j 
W, B, Hemsl. in Thomson & Murray, Rep. Scient. Res. Voy. Chal- 
lenger 3, Bot. 1: no. 1885; Forbes, Wander. Naturf . Mai. Arch, 
2: 226. 1886; F. Muell., Second Census 173. 1839; K. Schum. & 
HoUr., Fl. Kaiser Wilk. -land 119. 1889; F, M, Bailey, Cat, PI, 
Queensl. 35. I89O; N, E. Br. in Johnson, Card. Diet. 157. I89O; 
Warb. in Engl., Bot. Jahrb. 13: U26. I89I; Jacks, in Hook. f. & 
Jacks., Ind. Kew., pr. 1, 1: 386. 1893; Moore & Betche, Handb. 
Fl. N. S. Wales 356. 1393; K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. 
Schutzgeb. Siidsee 522. 1900; Britten in Banks & Soland., Illustr. 
Austral. PI. [Bot. Cook's Voy. 2:] 7U, pl. 237. 1901; F, M. 
Bailey, Queensl. Fl. h'- 117ii. 1901; W. P. Wright in Cassell, 
Diet. Pract. Card., ed. 1, 1: 156. 1902; F. M. Bailey in Meston, 
Exp. Bell.-Ker (Parliam. Rep.) H. I90U; Rehd. in L, H. Bailey & 
Mill., Cycl. Am. Hort. 1: 217. 1906; W. P. Vfright in Cassell, 
Diet. Pract. Card., ed. 2. 1: 156. 1907; King & Gamble, Joum. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc. Bengal 7U (2), extra no., 803 & 307—308. I9O8; 
King & Gamble, Mat. Fl. Malay. Penins . 21: 1013 & 1017—1018. 
1909; Koord., Exkursionsfl. Java 3: 13li. 1912; F. M. Bailey, Com- 
preh. Cat. Queensl. PI. 382. I913j Rehd. in L. H. Bailey, Stand. 
Cycl. Hort. 2: 629. 1911i; H. J. Lam in H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks 
Herb. Leid. 37: 33 — 3U. I9IU; E. D. Merr., Interpret. Rumph. Herb. 
Amboin. UU3— Ui9, 526, & 559. 1917; H. J. Lam, Verbenac . Malay. 
Arch. i;6, 5U— 58, & 65. 1919; Bakh. in Lam S: Bakh., Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Buitenz., s6r. 3, 3: 11 & 23—27. 1921; H. N. Ridl., Fl. 
Malay Penins. 2: 617. 1923; E. D. Merr., Enura. Philip. Flow. PI. 
3: 338. 1923; H. J. Lam in Engl., Bot, Jahrb. 59: 88. 192ii; Heyne, 
Nutt. Plant. Nederl. Ind., ed. 1, I3II. 1927; Domin, Bibl. Bot. 
22 [89 (6)]: 1108, 1928; Stapf, Ind. Lend, 1: 525 & 526. 1929; 
Schwenke, Zytol, Untersuch, Verbenac. 27 & 28, 1931; Mete, Lign» 
Sci. JoTim, 11: U05— U03, 1932; P, Dop, Bull, Soc. Hist. Nat. 
Toulouse 6U: 505 & 5o6. 1932. [to be continued] 



FOUR NEW SPECIES OF MOSSES FROM PERU 



Harold Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560 



A number of undescribed species have been found in various 
small collections of Peruvian biyophytes sent for determination 
by A. Sagastegui and F. Ayala of Trujillo, and Dana Griffin III 
of Florida. Three of these species are described here and a 
fourth is described from misdetermined material obtained on loan 
from New York. These species all reflect the need for further 
work with the bryoph3rtes of Peru. I have come to believe that 
Peru has more undescribed species and more unrecognized range 
extensions at this time than any other country in South America. 
I have already added two new species to the flora in recent 
years (Robinson, 196?), and one species has been described by 
Crum (1967) . The new species are from various parts of Peru, 
but a number, including Barbula malagana Crum, are from the 
coastal region which I intend to dicuss more fully in another 
paper. It is sufficient to point out here that this coastal 
area and the "lomas" found there seem to have an unusually high 
percentage of endemic bryophyte species. 

Trixhostomum maj^inatum H.Robinson, sp. nov. (Fig. l-i!+) . 

Planta dioica?, dense caespitosa pallide viridis, infeme 
sordida. Caules ca. 1 cm longi simplices vel parce ramosi. 
Folia caulina erecta laxe disposita, siccitate supeme valde 
circinata, linearia ca. 3 mm longa, in apicibus cylindricis 
attenuata, margine Integra vel minute subcrenulata erecta 
bi- tristratosa; nervis prope basin 80|i latis, ad extremum 
subulatis indistincte; cellulis basilaribus angustis elongatis 
8-lO^i latis ad 70|i longis laevibus pellucidis, mediis et 
superioribus quadratis vel transverse elongatis 13|i longis 
7-13p, longis minute multi-papillosis . Folia perichaetialia 
arete convoluta. Calyptrae cucullatae. Setae erectae ca. 2 cm 
longae nafescentes. Capsulae erectae anguste ovales inopercul- 
atae I.5 mm longae laevissimae rufescentes; operculis longe 
conicis 0.7-1.0 mm longis; dentibus pallidis uniseriatis fili- 
formibus erectis dense papillosis ad 300|j, longis. Sporae 
ovales 10-12)j, diam. asperulae. 

Peru. Dept. Huanuco: Mufta, on shaded bank about 7000 ft., 
George S. Bryan 507a (NY, holotype) . 

The species is distinguished from others of the genus 
Trichostomxm by the thickened margin. The margins of the leaves 
are actually erect to incurved but might seem slightly recurved 
because of the thickening. For this reason the species might be 

389 



390 



PHITOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 



compared with Trichostomopsis (Robinson, 1970) >*hich, however, 
has only one stereid band in the costa. The type specimen of 
Trichostofflum Tparginatum was originally determined as a member of 
the genus Barbula subgenus Asteriscium (= Trichostomopsis ) . 

Tortula yletoi H.Robinson, sp. nov. (Fig. 5-7). 

Planta dioica?, laxe caespitosa pallide viridis. Caules 
2-5 mm longi simplices vel parce ramosi. Folia caulina erecto- 
patentia, siccitate valde contorta, oblonga 2.0-3.5 mm longa ad 
1.0 mm lata late acuta saepe breve apiculata, margine argute 
serrulata erecta unistratosaj nervis prope besin ca. SOij, latis 
percurrentis5 cellulis basilaribus elongatis ca. 25g. latis 
50-100)j, longis laevis pellucidis, margine 5-6 seriebus angust- 
issimisj cellulis mediis et superioribus quadratis vel sexangul- 
ciribus 15-20p, diam. multipapillosis; cellvilis marginalibus fere 
usque ad apicem in 1-2 seriebus linearibus 5-10|j, latis 50-lOOp, 
longis. Folia perichaetialia vix differentia aliquantum 
convoluta. Calyptrae cucullatae. Setae erectae 10-12 mm longae 
flavae vel rufescentes. Capsulae erectae cylindricae, 3.0-3.5 
mm longae sine opercvilis, lae"VBs rufescentes; operculis longe 
conicis ca. 1.5 mm longis; dentibus filiformibus spiralibus ad 
1.5 mm longis, infeme coalitis. Sporae ovales 8-10|j, diam. 

Peru. Dept. Lima: Prov. Canta, Huascoy, alt. 2800 m, 
Borde de terrene de cultivo, Cesar Acleto I468 (IB, holotype) . 

The new species seems very close to Tortula denticulata 
(Wils.) Mitt., but the latter is distinct by the lack of papillae 
on the leaf cells and by minor differences in the serrulation. 
Few other species in the genus have a serrulate margin with 
elongate cells. 

Sjrrh^pod^n ^ri£fiMi H.Rob inson_, sp. nov. (Fig. 8). 

Planta dioica parva luteo-viridis dense caespitosa 
arenicola. Caules ca. 0.5 cm alti subsimplices . Folia 2.0-2.7 
mm longa ad 0.35 nm lata, siccitate erecto-patentia vel aliquant- 
um contorta, madida erecto-patentia, lingulata breve acuta, basi 
vix latiora, fere ad apicem per cellulas elongatas limbata, 
supeme serrata, medio utrinque 5-8 ciliataj ciliis singulis vel 
raro binisj nervis subpercurrentibus utrinque spinoso-papillosis, 
apice saepe propagulif eris ; cellulis nediis et superioribus 
subquadratis 6-8^ latis 6-10 (raro 12)u longis, humi liter 
bi- vel multifido-papillosis; apicibus cancellinainm plerumque 
acutis, cellulis cancellinarum ad 25p, latis et 60|i, longis. 
Cetera ignota. 

Peru. Dept. Loreto: cerca de Zungara Cocha a 25 kms. al 
oeste de Iquitos, ocurriendo en suelo arenoso, Dana Griffin III 
and Nancy Griffin , 14 July I965 (US, holotype; LAF, isotype) . 



1971 



Robinson, Uoases frcn Peru 



391 




Figs. 1-12. Peruvian mosses. 1-4. Trichostomum marginatum . 
1. Leaf, X 25. 2. Leaf cross-section, x 375. 3- Basal leaf cells, 
X 250. 4. Leaf tip, x 250. 5-7. Torbula acletoi. 5. Leaf, x 25. 
6. Leaf tip, x 250. 7. Cells of leaf margin, x 250. 8. Syrrhopo - 
don griffinii . leaf, x 25. 9-12. Macromitrium lomasense . 9. 
Calyptra, x 12. 10. Basal leaf cells, x 250. 11. Cells of upper 
leaf margin, x 250. 12. Leaf, x 20. 



392 PHTTOLOGIA Vol. 21, no. 6 

The new species is very close to the recently described 
Syrrhopodon brevisetus Florsch. of Suriname. Most characters 
such as the occasional paired marginal cilia, cancellinae acute 
above, and both surfaces of the costa strongly spinose-papillose, 
are found in both species. Still, there is a distinct difference 
in the upper leaf cells vdiich are subquadrate and 6-8|^ in diam- 
eter in S. griffinii versus elongate and ISxlOp, in S. brevisetus . 



Macromitrium lomasense H.Robinson, sp. nov. (Fig. 9-12). 

Planta dioica mediocris terricola et epiphytica laxe lateque 
caespitosa fuscoviridis . Caules prostrati dense ramosi; ramis 
erectis ad 1 cm longis. Folia sat densa, siccitate adpressa, 
aliquantvun hamata, valde carinata, in spira curvata, madida 
patula, anguste oblonga vel linearia 2.0-3.0 mm longa 0.5-0.6 mm 
lata breviter acuta vel breve apiculata, margine Integra vel 
minute crenulata; nervis laevibus percurrentibus, infeme ca. 
40]j, latisj cellulis basilaribus ca. 8p, latis 15-30|j, longis 
interdum unipapillosis in superficie adaxiali; parietibus 
longitudinalibus sat incrassatis, cellulis marginalibus infeme 
in seriebus unicis laxis, mediis et superioribus rotundatis 
mamillosis 6-12p, diam. non papillosis. Folia perichaetialia 
vlx differentia vel breviora. Calyptrae mitratae ca. 15-lobatae 
sparse hirsutae. Setae erectae ca. 5 nm longae laeves stramin- 
eae vel infeme rufescentes. Capsulae erectae subglobosae 
infuscatae 2 mm longae sine operculis laeves vel obscure cost- 
atae; operculis recte aciculari-rostratis; dentibus exterioribus 
et interioribus inter se subconcretis obtusis luride flavidis 
dense papillosis. Sporae sphaericae dense papillosae 25-30^ 
diam. 

Peru. Dept. La Libertad: Prov. Trujillo, Cerro Chiputur, 
650 m, saxicola, F. Ayala 7124 c. fr. (US, holotype; HUT, 
isotype) . 

Additional collections: 

Dept. La Libertad: Prov. Trujillo, Cerro Chiputur, on rock 
and soil, F. Ayala 706l c. fr., 7063a , 7064 ; alt. 780 m, Ayala 
7114 ? Lomas de Virti, on trees and rocks, alt. 540-720 m, Ayala 
7007 , 7010 , 7011 , 7012 , 7012, 7016, 7017 , 7018 , 7020, 7021 . 
7023 , 7034 . 7078, 7079 , 7080 . 

Dept. Lima: Prov. Chancay, Lachay, km 88 carretera al 
norte, alt. 520 m, in Lomas, Fintma Cerrate 882 c. fr.; alt. 440 
m, Lomas pedregosas, Cerrate 884 £. fr . 

The new species resembles some of the common members of 
Macromitriiun , but it is rather distinct in the slightly more 
robust habit and the slightly but distinctly hairy calyptra. The 
basal leaf cells never seem to have as many papillae though this 
character is variable in some related species. The habit and 
most of the described features of M. lomasense are like the 
common M. pimctatum (Hook. & Grev.7 Brid., but the latter has 



1971 Robinson, Mosses from Peru 393 

longer basal leaf cells. A number of species such as M. atro - 
viride Williams, M. cylindricum Mitt, and M, sublaeve Mitt, seem 
similar to M, lomasense on the basis of descriptions, but they 
are smaller plants with either more glabrous or more prominently 
hairy calyptrae. 

The species is apparently widely distributed in the Lomas 
along the coast of Peru. 

Literature Cited 

Crxim, H. 196? . Barbula malagana , a new species from Peru. 
Bryologist 70: 235-237. 

Robinson, H. 1967. Six new bryophytes from South America. 
Bryologist 70: 317-321. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XXXVIII. 
A NEW GENUS, PETERAVENIA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. 20560. 



Five Eupatorian species from Mexico and Central America 
represent a distinctive previously unnamed genus having decid- 
uous pappus setae, discolored phyllaries, and cordate leaves. 
The pappus setae alone are sufficient to distinguish the genus, 
being very narrow at the base and noncontiguous but enlarged 
at the tip. The genus is Critonioid in its smooth corolla 
lobes and its usuai^ simple style base. One feature that is 
more reminiscent of Ageratina , however, is the usually high 
placement of the embryo in the achene. 

We take great pleasure in naming this new genus in honor 
of our good friend and colleague, Dr. Peter H. Raven of Stanford 
University. Although the Asteraceae is not his main speciality, 
his contributions to our knowledge of the family are very 
significant . 



Peteravenia R.M.King & H.Robinson, genus nov\im Asteracearum. 
Plantae grossae herbaceae vel frutescentes erectae usque ad 
4 m. altae, pauce ramosae. Folia opposita longe petiolata, 
laminis corHatis plerumque serratis. Inflorescentiae laxe 
paniculatae. Involucri squamae ca. 25 plerumque oblongae 
inaequilongae 3-4-seriatae; receptacula valde convexa glabra. 
Flores 18-35 in capitulo; corollae anguste infimdibiilares 
5-lobatae, extus glabrae, celliilis oblongis vel linearibus, 
parietibus plerumque sinuosis, lobis aequilateraliter triangu- 
laribus vel longioribus ad apicem induratis minute scabris, 
stomatibus nullis; filamenta antherarum in parte superiore 
angustata, cellulis rectangularibus vel infeme quadratis, 
parietibus anntilate vel intricate omatis, cellulis exothecial- 
ibus pleiTimque subquadratis, appendicibus antherarum late 
triangularibus obtusis vel truncatis; styli infeme glabri 
non vel leniter nodulosi, appendicibus linearibus vel anguste 
clavatis minute papillosis vel sublaevibus. Achaenia prismatica 
4-5-costata setifera, infeme plerumque angustiora; carpopodia 
aliquantiom distincta, cellulis quadratis parietibus tenuibus; 
pappus setiformis uniseriatus, setis ca. 30 scabris facile 
deciduis, infeme angustis non vel vrx contiguis, supeme 
anguste clavatis, cellulis apicibus acutis. Embryones 
supeme dispositi. 

39k 



1971 King & Robinaon, A netir genua, Peteravenia 395 

Plants erect, few branched, coarse herbs or shrubs to U 
meters tall. Leaves opposite, distinctly long petioled, blades 
cordate, usually serrate. Inflorescence a rather loose panicle. 
Involucre of ca. 25 unequal, oblong phyllaries; in 3-U series; 
receptacle highly convex, glabrous, 18-35 flowers per head; 
corollas narrowly funnelform, 5-lobed, outer surface of corolla 
glabrous, lobes equilaterally triangular or longer than wide, 
usually with a cap of short papillae on the tips of the lobes; 
inner surface glabrous; stomates absent; vascular traces to tips 
of lobes, anther collar usually slender, composed of rather thin 
walled rectangular cells with beaded thickenings. Anther 
appendages with large cells; style base without enlarged node, 
glabrous. Stylar appendage only slightly enlarged, mamillose, 
lower part of style branches short papillose. Achenes prismatic, 
U-5 ribbed, narrowed below, setiferous, carpopodia distinct, 
asjnaetrical, composed of one to several tiers of thin walled 
cells, embryo high in the achene, pappus of ca. 30 ? rather 
deciduous scabrous setae which are narrow below and broadened at 
tips, apical cells acute, chromosome number determined as N = 
10 (Raven, unpublished) . 

Type species: Eupatorium schultzii Schnittspaln 



Our studies indicate that the genus contains the following 
five species. 

Peterayenia grisea (Coult.) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb. nov. 
Supatorium griseum Co\ilt., Bot. Gaz. 20:i+3. 1895. Guate- 
mala, Honduras, Nicaragua. 

Peteravenia Boalvaefblia (A.P.Decandolle) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
comb, ndv^" ^pator ium malvaefolium A.P.Decandolle, Prodr. 
5: 160. 1836 . Guatemala, Mexico. 

PeJ^r^venia ghoenlcol^e^gis (B.L.Robinson) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
^ombV nov'.'^ ^Arp^orlum phoenicolepis B.L.Robinson, Proc. 
Amer. Acad. 35: 338. 1900. El Salvador, Guatemala, 
Mexico. 

Peteravenia rhodochlamydea (A.Gray) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
nov^ Ilupat o r imn rhodochlamydeum A.Gray, Proc. Am. Acad. 
15: 26. 1880. Mexico. 

Peteravenia schultzii (Schnittspahn) R.M.King & H.Robinson, 
combT^novT~ Eupatorium schultzii Schnittspahn, Zeitschr. 
Gartenb. Darmst. 6. 1857. Costa Rica, El Salvador, 
Guatemala, HonduraSj Mexico . 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XIII. 
A NEW GENUS, EUPATORINA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington, B.C. 20560. 



The genus Eupatorina is distinguished from most other genera 
of the Eupatorieae by the greatly dissected opposite leaves. 
The single known species is calcicolous and endemic to the island 
of Hispaniola. The nonpapillose corolla, inornate style base and 
the rather clavate stylar appendages indicate that the genus is 
Critonioid. The closest relative seems to be the monotypic genus 
Ant ill ia (King & Robinson, 1971) of Cuba. The latter genus has 
oblanceolate undissected leaves, scapose inflorescence, and a 
short pappus of deeply laciniate scales, Eupatorina seems very 
reduced in certain features such as the venation of the corolla 
■which does not extend into the lobes. Such a condition is found 
in very few other species of Eupatorieae. 



Eupatorina R.M.King & H.Robinson, genus novum Asteracearum 
(EupatorieaeTT' Plantae herbaceae perennes, usque ad 0.5 m altae, 
pauce ramosae. Folia opposita, laminis profunde bipinnatifidis. 
Inflorescentiae paniculatae. Involucri squamae ca. 12 inaequil- 
ongae 2-3-seriatae; receptaciila plana vel leniter convexa glabra. 
Floras 13-20 in capitulo; corollae anguste infundibulares infeme 
dilatatae extus supeme et in medio glanduliferae et pauce seti- 
ferae, cellulis exterioribus oblongis parietibus leniter sinuo- 
sis, lobis 5 aequilateraliter triangularibus intus glabris, 
stomatibus nullisj filamenta antherarum in parte superiore ang- 
ustata, cellulis quadrat is vel rectangularibus, parietibus parum 
omatis, cellulis exothecialibus plerumque subquadratis, append- 
icibus antherarum late triangularibus truncatis; styli infeme 
non nodiilosi glabri, appendicibus anguste clavatis mamillatisj 
achaenia prismatica 4-5-costata setifera, carpopodia distincta, 
cellulis quadratis, psirietibus teniiibus vel crassiusculisj pappus 
setiformis uniseriatus, setis ca. 40 scabris persistentibus, 
cellulis apicalibus subacutis. 

Species typica: Eupatorium sophiaefolium Linnaeus 



Perennial herbs to 1/2 meter tall, few branched. Leaves 
opposite, blades deeply bipinnatef id . Inflorescence a panicle. 
Involucre of ca. 12 rather narrowly oblong subequal phyllaries 
in 2 series. Receptacle flat to slightly convex, glabrous. 

396 



1971 King & Robinson. A new genus Eupatorina 397 

13-20 flowers per head; corollas narrowly funnel-form, 5 lobed, 
outer surface of corolla with numerous short stalked glands 
especially on the backs of the lobes and above vAiere the corolla 
is constricted, stomates absent, lobes about as wide as long, 
inner surface of corollas glabrous, vascular strands of corolla 
ending at bases of lobes; anther collar narrow, coispoaed mostly 
of elongate cells, quadrate cells below, slightly ornate walls j 
anther appendage large, truncate, composed of rather large 
elongate cells; style base without enlarged node, glabrous; 
stylar appendages rather enlarged near the tips, mamillose. 
Achenes prismatic A-5 ribbed, setiferous, carpopodia distinct; 
pappus of ca. 40 scabrous setae, persistant, apical cells of 
pappus setae acute. Chromosome number not determined. 



The genus is monotypic. 

Eujjatorina sophiaef olia (Linnaeus) R.M.King & H.Robinson, comb, 
novT lAipat o r ium sophiaefolium Linnaeus, Sp. PI. ed. 2, 1175. 
1762-1763. Hispaniola. 



Acknowledgement 

This study was supported in part by the National Science 
Foundation Grant - 20502 to the senior author. 



Reference 

King, R.M. & H.Robinson 1971. Studies in the Eupatorieae 
(Asteraceae) . XLIII. A new genus Antillia . Phytologia 21: 
398-399. 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . XLIII. 
A NEW GENUS, ANTILLIA . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington^ D.C. 20560. 



The present monotypic genus represents one of the most 
distinct endemic Eupatorian elements in the West Indies. The 
habit is very reminiscent of the Eupatorian genus Ciceronia or 
even the Mutisian genus Chaptalia with clustered oblanceolate 
leaves and long scapose inflorescences. Ciceronia clearly 
differs from Antillia by the reduced anther appendages, the 
campanulate corollas, the setose pappus and the lack of minute 
punctations in the walls of the achene. The closest relative 
of Antillia sterns to be the monotypic genus, Eupatorina (King 
& Robinson, 1971) of the Dominican Republic . Eupatorina 
differs most obviously by the setose pappus, the non scapose 
habit, the bipinnately dissected leaves, and the lower insertion 
of the anther filaments. Antillia and Eupatorina are most alike 
in the structure of their achenes including the carpopodia but 
have many subtle differences in the shape and pubescence of the 
corolla and form of the anther. The relationship might not be 
appreciated but for the geographic proximity. 

In view of the structxire of the pappus in Antillia , it is 
remarkable that B.L.Robinson placed the species in Eupatorium . 
It indicates that as early as 1916, B.L.Robinson had obtained 
considerable contempt for the genus concepts in the Eupatorieae. 



Antillia R.M.King and H.Robinson, genus novum Asteraceanam 
(EupatorieaeT. Plantae herbaceae perennes, usque ad 0.2 m 
altae, pauce ramosae. Folia opposita, laminis oblanceolatis ad 
marginem crenato-lobatis . Inflorescentiae scaposae laxae 
perpauce ramosae. Involucri squamae ca. 25 plerumque oblongae, 
inaequilongae 2-3-seriatae; receptacula leniter convexa, glabra. 
Flores 40-50 in capitulo; corollae infundibulares 5-lobatae 
extus supeme et aliquantum in medio glanduliferae pauce setif- 
erae, cellulis exterioribus oblongis parietibus leniter sinu- 
osis, lobis aequilateraliter triangularibus intus glabris, 
stomatibus nullis, fills vascularibus in lobis prolongatis; 
f i 1 amenta antherarum in parte superiore angustata, cellulis 
rectangularibus vel infeme quadratis, parietibus leniter 
nodvilosis, cellulis exothecialibus plerumque subquadratis, a 
appendicibus antherarum late triangxilaribus truncatisj styli 
infeme non nodulosi glabri, appendicibus anguste clavatis 

398 



1971 King L Robinson, A new genxia, Antillia 399 

mannnillatis ad apicem laevibus; achaenia prismatica 7-8-costata, 
setifera; carpopodia distincta, cellulis quadratis, parietibus 
tenuibus vel crassiusciilis; pappis squamae profunde lacinatae 
persistens, cellulis marginalibus acutis. 



Perennial herbs with few short branches bearing clusters of 
leaves. Leaves opposite, blades oblanceolate, margins crenate- 
lobate. Inflorescence scapose, very few branched. Involucre of 
ca. 25 oblong phyllaries unequal in 2-3 series. Receptacle 
slightly convex, glabrous, /+0-50 flowers per headj corollas 
funnel form, 5-lobed, outer surface of corolla with numerous 
short stalked glands mostly on backs of lobes and nixmerous hairs j 
outer corolla cells oblong with scarcely sinuose walls, backs 
of lobes not papillose, lobes about as long as wide, stomates 
absent, inner surface of corolla glabrous, smooth; vascular 
traces reaching beyond middle of lobes . Filament