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Full text of "Phytologia"

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i PHYTOLOGIA 

' A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 50 December 1981 No. 1 



JAN 4 1982 



CONTENTS BOTANICAL GARDEN 

fELSON, C, MOLINA, A., & STANDLEY, P. C, A new Psychotria 
I (Rubiaceae) from Nicaragua and Honduras 1 

(OLMES, W. C, & McDANIEL, S., Studies on Mikania (Compositae) -VII .3 

lOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on new and noteworthy plants. CLIII 12 

OOTE, M., The vascular plants of Hackensack River area 15 

[OLDENKE, H. N., Notes on the genus Geunsia (Verbenaceae) 46 

OMEZ, P., L. D., & GOMEZ-L., J., Plantae mesoamericanae novae. I . . 69 

lOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 71 



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A NEW PSYCHOTRIA (HUBlACliAE) FliOM NICAHAGUA AND HONDURAS 
Cirilo Nelson, Antonio Molina & Paul C. Standley 

Molina in his Enumeracion de las plantas de Honduras (1975), 
cites the species Psychotria .j inotenensis Standi. & L. Wms. as 
existing in Honduras. Continuous investigations and talks with 
Molina took us to the conclusion that Psychotria .1 inotegensis 
Standi. & L. Wms. was a nomen nudum , according to the Hules of 
the International Code of Botanical Nomenclature. 

In the herbaria at the Escuela Agricola Panamericana in Hon- 
duras, and Field Museum in Chicago, there are several specimens of 
Psychotria .1 inotegensis Standley and L. Wms. annotated as such by 
Standley, but the name was never validly published, since it is not 
registered in Index Kewensis. Standley's notes and the annotated 
specimens that he left have helped us in the preparation of this 
manuscript in orden to validate the species Psychotria .i inotegen - 
sis , but with different authorities from the ones mentioned by 
Molina ( loc . cit . ) . 

Psychotria j inotegensis Nelson, Molina & Standley, s£. nov . 

Psychotria .1 inotegensis Standi. & L. Wms., nomen nudum . 
Ceiba 19 (l): 108. 1975. 

Frutex 1-4 metralis, ramosus, ramis subteretibus , internodis 
brevissimis, densissime pilis brevibus patentibus ferrugineis pi- 
losis; folia breviter petiolata, herbacea, petioloca. 1 cm longo, 
dense hispidulo; lamina angustissime oblongo-lanceolata, 9-14 cm 
long^, 2-3 cm lata, acuta vel subotusa, basin versus attenuata, 
supra sparse puberula vel brevissime hispidula, serius glabrata, 
costa nervisque insigniter impressis, subtus aliquanto ferruginea, 
ubique, ad nervos densius, pilosula, pilis mollibus, patentibus, 
costa tenui, elevata, nervis lateralibus utroque latere ca. 12, 
prominentibus , angulo semierecto adscendentibus , fere rectis, 
juxta marginem obscure conjunctis, venis obsoletis; stipulae de- 
ciduae, tenues, ferrugineae, ovali-ovatae , 1 cm longae, cuspi- 
datae hirsutae; inf lorescentiae terminales, floribus sessili- 
bus vel brevissime pedicellatis , dense aggregatis, capitulis 
cymoso-paniculatis , sessiles vel breviter pedunculatae , 1.5- 

-2 cm longae, usque 3 cm latae, multiflorae, ramis dense ferru- 

1 



2 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

gineo-pilosis , bracteis deciduis; hypanthium obovoideum, 2. mm 
longum, densissime f errugineo-pilosum, sepalis suberectis, lan- 
ceolato-linearibus , usque 3 mm longis, apicibus saepe excurvis, 
acutis vel subobtusis, pilosulis; corolla non visa; fructus ellip- 
soideus, in sicco usque ad 8 mm longus et 5 mm crassus, pilosus, 
pyrenis dorso grosse costatis. 

Holotypus: NICAJiAGUA: DPTO. DE JINOTKGA: dense low forest, 
shrub 1-1.5 m, frequent, region of La Montanita and Las Mesitas, 
in sierra W of Jinotega, about 1100-1400 m, 29 June 1947, Standley 
10314 (KAP). Isotype (F). 

Paratypi: HONDURAS: EL PARAISO: Guinope, 1430 m alt., Va- 
lerio 1841 (EAP). Matorrales humedos a las m^rgenes del rfo Li- 
zapa entre Guinope y Las Casitas, 1300 m alt., Molina 3349, 3357 
(Sc 5046 (EAP) . Bosque mixto de quebrada Tapahuasca, 1300 m alt., 
Molina 14630 & 14653 (EAP). FRANCISCO MORAZAN: Thicket along rio 
Hancho Quemado , SE of Tegucigalpa, 2025 Km road to Sabana Grande, 
1300 m alt., Molina 18648 (EAP). Mixed forest at Quebrada Quemada, 
Km 21 vicinity of Cerro de Hule, 1300 m alt., Molina 25424 (EAP). 
Barranco y quebrada de Zambrano y La Pirimide, 1500 m alt., Molina 
14251 (EAP). Woodland near Zambrano, Lauvert & Barkley 39552 (UNAH). 
INTIBUCA: bosque orilla de La Pozona, 2 Km de La Esperanza, Mar - 
tinez & Be.iarano 236 (UNAH). NICARAGUA: JINOTEGA: Sierra W of Ji- 
notega, along trail to Cerro de la Cruz, 1050-1350 m, chiefly in 
dense vet mixed low forest, Standley 10214 (EAP, F). 

Psychotria .i inotegensis Nelson, Molina & Standley resembles 
Psychotria erythrocarpa Schlecht., from which it differs by its 
leaves more elliptically narrow and long, and the venation marked- 
ly impressed above. 

RESUMEN 

Se valida el nombre de la especie Psychotria i inotegeasia 
que hasta ahora era un nomen nudum . 

SUM>URY 

The name Psychotria j inotegensis is validated since, up to 
now, it was a nomen nudum . 

Literature cited 
Index Kewensis. 1951-1980. London. 

Lanjouw, J. et al. 1966. International Code of Botanical Nomencla- 
ture. 402 pp. Utrecht. 

Molina, Antonio. 1975. Enumeraci6n de las plantas de Honduras. Ceiba 
19 (1): 108. 



STUDIES ON MIKANIA (Compositae) -VII 

V7alter C. Holmes 
Institute for Botanical Exploration 
and 
Dept . Biological Sciences, Northwestern State 
University of Louisiana, Natchitoches, Louisiana 

and 

Sidney McDaniel 
Institute for Botanical Exploration 
Mississippi State, Mississippi 
and 
Dept. Biological Sciences, Mississippi State University 
Mississippi State, Mississippi 



Continued studies in the genus Mikania (Compositae- 
Eupatorieae) have resulted in the following new species 
and notes on distribution and synonymy of others. This 
series is preliminary to a monograph of the genus. The 
title of this series has been changed from "Notes on 
Mikania " to that cited above, which we feel better reflects 
content . 

MIKANIA ASCHERSONI I Hieron., Bot . Jahrb. Syst. 28: 577. 
1901. Type: Colombia, Cauca, western slopes of the 
Andes of Popayan, Lehmann 59 79 (B, holotype, not seen; 
F, isotype) . 

Mikania aschersonii var. indula Robinson, Contr. Gray 
Herb. 77: 47. 1926. Type: Peru, Junin, La Merced, 
Hacienda Schunke, Aug. 22-Sept. 1, 1924, J. F. Macbride 
5777 (F, holotype; GH, isotype) . 

Mikania eupatorioides Blake, Journ. Wash. Acad. 28: 
481. 1938. Type: Costa Rica, San Juan, vie. of El 
General, 1525 m, December 1936, A. F. Skutch 3041 
(US, holotype, not seen; GH, isotype). 

Until now, Mikania aschersonii was known only from 
Colombia and Peru, at elevations from 500-2000 m. Robinson 
(1926) , in first citing the plant outside of Colombia 
expected it to be recorded from Ecuador, but as of this 
date no specimens have been seen from there. The plant 
is, in appearance, suggestive of the genus Eupatorium . The 
involucral scales are oblong and slightly enlarged at the 



4 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, l^o. 1 

at the base. The corolla tube is very short in compari- 
son to the abruptly expanded turbinate throat. Corolla 
teeth are also short. The inflorescence is thyrsiform, 
but the heads are ultimately arranged in somewhat dense 
corymbs. Leaves are very distinctive, green on both 
sides and with attenuated, normally falcate, tips and 
cuneate bases. Two pairs of secondary veins originate 
within 1-2 cm of the base. The tertiary veinlets are 
very conspicuous, exserted, and prominently reticulate- 
areolate. Leaf margins are entire to obscurely and 
remotely denticulate. Much of the plant is covered with 
darkened, globular, sessile glands. Type and amount of 
pubescence varies. 

Blake (1938) proposed the name Mikania eupa tor io ides , 
which, based on description alone, appeared to be synonomous 
with M. aschersonii . Examination of isotypes of both 
names showed the two to be essentially identical, with 
nothing but distribution separating them. On another 
specimen from Costa Rica [ Standley & Valeric 51135 (GH) ] , 
also essentially identical with M. aschersonii , is 
written apparently by B. L. Robinson, Mikania "aschersonii ? " . 
Certainly Robinson noted the similarity of this plant with 
M. aschersonii , but was apparently reluctant to call it 
that due to geographical separation. Interestingly, Blake, 
in the same work cited above, proposed another species 
from Ecuador, M. napensis , which he noted as having close 
affinities to M. aschersonii , yet he failed to recognize 
the conspicif icity of M. eupatorioides and M. aschersonii . 

The addition of Mikania aschersonii to the flora of 
Central America is a distribution of a most unusual nature, 
the species being present in Colombia and Peru, and now 
Costa Rica. Other species of Mikania having a similar 
distribution include M. bogotensis Benth. of Colombia and 
Costa Rica (Robinson, 1922) and M, vitifolia DC, a well 
known species of northern South America, apparently absent 
from Panama (King and Robinson, 1976) , but known from 
Costa Rica to Mexico. 

Specimens Examined: Costa Rica: El Muneco, on the Rio 
Navarro, Cartago, 1400-1500 m, March 6, 7, 1926, P. C. 
Standley & J. Valeric 51135 (GH) ; Colombia: Antioquia, 
Monte de Diablo (La Ceja) , July 21, 1944, Bro, Daniel 
3278 (US); Cundinamarca, c. 24 km ne of Fusagasuga, 
2500-2600 m, E. Cordillera, June 19, 1965, R. M. King & 
A. E. Guevarra 5672 (US) . 

Peruvian specimens are cited in Flora of Peru. 



1981 Holmes & McDaniel, Studies on Mikania 5 

MIKANIA COREI Holmes & McDaniel, sp. nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis; foliis ovatis, ad 15 cm longis 
at 7 cm latis, apice acuminate, basi breve angustata, 
marginibus integris, stipulae cauli adnatae , ca 1.0 cm 
longis et 1.7 cm latis; inf lorescentiis paniculatis 
capitulis in spicas vel racemis; capitulis ca 5-6 mm 
longis; corollis ca 4 mm longis, dentibus limbi lanceo- 
lato-ovatis, ca 0.8 mm longis, achaenis ca 1.5 mm longis; 
pappi setis ca 35, ca 3 mm longis, scabridis. 

Climbing semi-woody liana; stems terete, somewhat 
sulcate (after drying), glabrous, internodes to 20 cm 
or more long, nodes provided with very prominent stipular- 
like enations, to 1.7 cm wide and 1.0 cm long, margins 
entire to undulate-dentate. Leaves ovate, semi-coriaceous, 
to 15 cm or more long and 7 cm wide, apices long attenuate, 
m.argins entire, bases rounded to a slightly cuneate base, 
pinnately nerved, with two pairs of secondary veins 
originating within 2 cm of the base, arching toward the 
apex, more or less parallel to the margin, above glabrous, 
major veins raised, tertiary veins somewhat prominent, 
reticulate, below glabrous, veins raised, prominently 
reticulate, petiole to 2.5 cm long, glabrate, grooved 
above. Inflorescence paniculate, to ca 12 cm long and 9 
cm wide, branchlets irregularly pedicellate, ultimately 
arranged in spikes or very shortly pedicellate in racemes 
to 3 cm long. Heads ca 5-6 mm long. Exterior bract 
linear-subulate, borne at the base of the pedicel. Invo- 
lucral scales ovate to ovate-oblong, ca 3 mm long, apices 
rounded, ciliolate, margins ciliolate, revolute in age. 
Corolla white, ca 4 mm long, tube pilose^ ca 1.5 mm long, 
throat funnelform, ca 2.5 mm long, pilose, teeth lance- 
ovate, ca 0.8 mm long, pilose. Achene ca 1.5 mm long, 
dark olivaceous, ribs lighter in color, glabrate. Pappus 
bristles white, ca 35, ca 3 mm long, scabrid, slightly 
thickened at the tips. 

Holotype: Colombia: Antioquia. Alto de Portachuelo, head 
of Rio Musinga, in partially cut-over forest, 2100 m, 
March 26, 1944, Earl L. Core 493 (US). 

Mikania corei is a beautifully distinct semi-woody 
species climbing to about nine meters. The most useful 
distinguishing character is the large stipule-like 
enations ca 1 cm long and 1.7 cm wide on the nodes. This 



6 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

seems to be the only species of Mikania without a corym- 
bose inflorescence with such structures. Oher diagnostic 
characters include the uniformly pilose coroEa, spicate 
to racemose inflorescence with linear-subulate exterior 
bracts borne at the base of the pedicel (if present) . 
Leaves are ovate, with long attenuate apices (drip tips), 
semi-coriaceous, pinnately nerved and very prominently 
reticulate . 

The leaves and inflorescence of Mikania corei greatly 
resemble those of M. simpsonii Holmes & McDaniel of Colombia 
and Peru, the latter species however with whorled leaves 
and lacking the pilose corolla and large stipule-like 
structures of the former. 

It is a pleasure to name this plant after Dr. Earl L. 
Core of West Virginia University, student of the Appa- 
lachian flora and founder of the botanical journal Castanea . 

MIKANIA GRACILIS Sch.-Bip. ex Miq . , Stirp. Surinam Sel. 
187. 1850. Type: Surinam: Hostmann & Kappler 1017 
(G, holotype, not seen; MO, isotype) . 

Robinson (1934), in his treatment of Mikania vitifolia 
DC. and M. hookeriana DC, referred M. gracilis to M. 
hookeriana , a plant characterized by sessile heads and 
involucral scales with swollen bases. The heads are 
arranged in dense spicate panicles. The isotype of 
M. gracilis seen has pedicellate heads and involucral 
bracts without swollen bases. The inflorescence is 
an open panicle. Both the involucral scales and leaves 
have dark glandular punctations. These are all characteris- 
tics of M. vitifolia , of which M. gracilis must be con- 
sidered a synonym. No explanation, other than clerical 
error, can be offered for why Robinson failed to correctly 
place this name. The two species involved are certainly 
very easily distinguishable. 

MIKANIA MATHEWSII B. L. Robinson, Contr. Gray Herb. 61: 
18. 1920. Type: Peru, in the Andes, without further 
location, Mathews 1368 (GH, holotype, F, photo & fragm. ; 
NY, isotype) . 

This plant of the eastern Andean region, previously 
unknown outside of Peru, has been confirmed as occurring 
in Venezuela. Determination was made by comparison 
with numerous Peruvian specimens and type material. The 
species is characterized by the paniculate inflorescence 



1981 Holmes & McDaniel, Studies on Mikania 7 

with the heads in somewhat corymbif orm clusters at the 
tips of the branchlets. It appears likely that the 
continued collection of northwestern South America may 
place this species in similar locations in Colombia and 
possibly Ecuador. 

Venezuela: Bolivar, Rio Chicanan, Cerro Uroi, 700-800 m, 
Rio Uroi, north facing escarpment, vine to 5 m, September 
13, 1962, Bassett Maquire , Julian Steyermark & Celia 
Maguire 53764 (US) . 

Peruvian specimens are cited in Flora of Peru . 

MIKANIA MAZARUNIENSIS Holmes & McDaniel, sp . nov. 

Suffrutex volubilis, caule tomento-sericea ; foliis 
ovatis, ca 8 cm longis et 4 cm latis, apice acuto ad 
attenuate, basi obtusa, marginibus integris; inflorescen- 
tiis paniculatis, ad 25 cm longis et 30 cm vel pluris 
latis; capitulis in racemis ca 8 cm longis; corollis ca 
4.4 mm longis, dentibus limbi ovatis, ca 2 mm longis; 
achaenis ca 3.5 mm longis; pappi setis ca 35, ca 5 mm 
longis, scabridis. 

Vine; stems terete, woolly-sericeous, internodes to 
ca 11 cm long. Leaves medium green, ovate, ca 8 cm long 
and 4 cm wide, apices acute to attenuate, bases obtuse, 
margins entire, pinnately nerved with two pairs of secondari* 
nerves originating within the basal 1/3 to 1/2 of the 
leaf, more or less paralleling the margins and arching 
toward the apex, above scabrid, the veins raised, some- 
what obscure, below paler, sericeous, veins raised, prom- 
inent; petioles woolly-sericeous to glabrate in age, ca 
1-1.5 cm long. Inflorescence a panicle, to 25 cm long 
and 30 cm or more wide, the branches more or less opposite, 
to 15 cm long, gradually reduced in length upward; bracts 
similar to cauline leaves, though smaller. Heads ulti- 
mately in racemes in the lower part of the inflorescence, 
the racemes tending to be congested (corymbose) upward. 
Pedicels 3-5 mm long, sericeous. Exterior bract narrowly 
ovate, borne slightly beneath the capitulum, glabrate, 
apices acute, pilose. Heads ca 8 mm long. Involucral 
scales oblong, ca 4.5 mm long, very sparingly pilose-pub- 
erulent, nervate, apices rounded, puberulent. Corolla 
ca 4.4 mm long, tube ca 2.5 mm long, throat broadly cam- 
panulate, throat ca 0.4 mm long, teeth ca 2 mm long, 
ovate with attenuate apices. Achene ca 3.5 mm long, light 



8 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 1 

green-olivaceous, broadest near the middle, sparingly 
pilose-puberulent , the summit much more so, the angles 
white. Pappus bristles ca 35, ca 5 mm long, scabrid, 
slightly thickened at the tips. 

Holotype: Guyana: Upper Mazaruni River Basin, Kamarana River 
base of Utschi Falls, 640 m, October 22, 1960, S. S. 
Tillet & C. L. Tillet 45747 (F) . 

Mikania mazuruniensis has a terete stem covered with 
woolly-sericeous pubescence. Leaves are scabrid above 
and sericeous below. The inflorescence is paniculate, 
the heads ultimately in racemes, those toward the summit 
tending to be shortened (congested) and somewhat corymbiform 
The exterior bracts are borne slightly beneath the invo- 
lucre. Corolla throats are broadly campanulate, the un- 
divided part very short and the corolla teeth ovate and ca 
2 mm long with attenuate apices. The achenes are broadest 
near the middle and light green-olivaceous in color. 
Pappus bristles are slightly thickened at the tips. 

The densely pubescent stems suggest Mikania banisteriae 
DC. However, that species has a corolla throat with teeth 
and undivided portion about the same length. 

MIKANIA TRIMERIA Holmes & McDaniel, sp . nov. 

Herba volubilis; foliis verticillatis, lanceolatis, 
ad 3.5 cm longis et 0.8 cm latis, apice acuminate, basi 
attenuata, marginibus integris; inf lorescentiis corymbosis 
umbellis; capitulis ca 7-9 mm longis, corollis ca 4 mm 
longis, dentibus limbi lanceolatis, ca 1,8 mm longis; 
achaenis ca 2.8 mm longis; pappi setis ca 40-45, scabridis. 

Herbaceous liana; stems terete, striate, glabrate, 
sparsely puberulent at the nodes and younger parts of the 
stems; internodes to ca 5 cm long. Leaves verticillate 
(3 per node) , lanceolate, to ca 3.5 cm long and 0.8 cm 
wide, gradually reduced upward, apices acuminate, bases 
attenuate, margins entire, pinnately nerved, above glabrate, 
nerves obscure, below densely puberulent, nerves raised; 
petioles ca 3-4 mm long, puberulent. Inflorescence um- 
bellate, ca 3.5 cm long and 4.5 cm in diameter. Heads ca 
7-9 mm long, sessile, ternately arranged, borne on a pe- 
duncle ca 1.5-2 cm long. Exterior bracts narrowly ovate 
to ovate, ca 4 mm long, apices acute, the outer surfaces 
puberulent, inner surfaces glabrate. Involucral scales 
lanceolate, ca 6 mm long, the outer pair puberulent. 



1981 Holmes & McDaniel, Studies on Mikania 9 

nervate, apices attenuate, puberulent, the inner nervate, 
glabrate, apices narrowed to a rounded puberulent tip. 
Corolla ca 4 mm long, tube ca 1.2 mm long, gradually ex- 
panding into a turbinate throat ca 2.8 mm long, undivided 
portion ca 1.0 mm in length, teeth lanceolate, ca 1.8 mm 
long, stigmatic surfaces hirsute. Achene (slightly imma- 
ture) ca 2.8 mm long, puberulent. Pappus bristles white, 
ca 40-45, ca 5-6 mm long, scabrid. 

Holotype: Colombia: Amazonas-Vaupes . Rio Apaporis: Raudal 
Yayacopi (La Playa) and vicinity, quartzite base, 800 ft., 
0°5' S, 70°30' W, April 15, 1952, Richard E. Schultes & 
Isidoro Cabrera 16221 (US) . 

Mikania trimeria, known only from the type, is a very 
distinctive species characterized by whorled (three per 
node) lanceolate leaves with puberulent undersurf aces . 
The inflorescence is somewhat umbellate with the heads 
sessile and ternately arranged. Exterior bracts are ovate 
to obovate with puberulent outer surfaces. The corolla 
throat is turbinate with lanceolate teeth about 2X the 
length of the undivided portion. Stigmatic surfaces are 
hirsute . 

The characteristics of the inflorescence and flowers 
suggest affinity with the Mikania parvif lora (Aubl.) Karst. 
M. guaco H. & B. group, all of which have sessile ter- 
nately arranged heads and hirsute stigmatic surfaces. 
Since the new species the corolla teeth are twice the lengtl 
of the undivided portion, relationship is probably with 
M. speciosa DC, M. trinitaria DC, and M. allartii B. L. 
Robinson. These latter mentioned species have opposite, 
ovate leaves. I 

MIKANIA VAUPESENSIS Holmes & McDaniel, sp. nov. j 

Suffrutex volubilis; foliis lanceolatis vel lanceo- 
lato-ovatis, ad 9 cm longis et 3.5 cm latis, apice acumi- 
nato, basi obtusa vel acuta, marginibus integris; 
inf lorescentiis corymbosis; capitulis ca 9-10 mm longis, 
sessilibus, ternatis; corollis ca 4.5 mm longis, dentibus 
limbi lanceolatis, ca 2 mm longis; achaenis ca 5 mm longis; 
pappi setis ca 50-60, ca 5 mm longis, scabridis. 

Twining liana; stems somewhat hexagonal, the ribs 
obscurely winged, glabrate, interndoes to 13 cm long. 
Leaves lanceolate to lance-ovate, to ca 9 cm long and 
3.5 cm wide, apices acuminate, margins entire, bases obtuse 
to acute, cuneate at point of insertion of petiole, above 



10 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, IJo. 1 

glabrate, pinnately veined, with 2 pairs of secondary 
veins originating within the basal one-fifth of the leaf, 
primary and secondary nerves visible, the other obscure, 
below densely puberulent, often glandular, veins promi- 
nent, reticulate, exserted, puberulent, petiole ca 1 cm 
long. Inflorescence a corymb, terminal and lateral, to ca 
6 cm long and 7 cm wide, peduncle to ca 4-5 cm long, 
branchlets ternately branching, puberulent. Heads sessile, 
borne in groups of 3's at the tips of the branchlets, 
sessile or shortly pedicellate, ca 9-10 mm long. Exterior 
bract lance-ovate, less than one-half the length of the 
involucre, apices acute, puberulent. Involucral scales 
oblong oblong to narrowly ovate, ca 4-4.5 mm long, puberu- 
lent, apices rounded, puberulent. Corolla pinkish, gland- 
ular, ca 4.5 mm long, tube ca 1.5 mm long, somewhat abruptly 
expanded into the narrowly campanulate throat ca 3.0 mm long, 
teeth lanceolate ca 2 mm long ( ca 2-3X the undivided 
portion of throat) . Achene light green, ca 5 mm long, 
puberulent. Pappus bristles 50-60, ca 5 mm long, white, 
scabrid, slighty connate at the base. Stigmatic surfaces 
hirsute . 

Holotype: Colombia: Vaupes. Rio Vaupes, near Mitu, Novem- 
ber 13, 1952, Richard Evans Schultes & Isidore Cabrera 
18422 (GH) . 

The new species is characterized by ternately arranged, 
sessile heads. The pink corolla has teeth 2-3 times the 
length of the undivided portion. Leaves are lanceolate 
to lance-ovate and densely puberulent below. 

The inflorescence suggests affinities to the Mikania 
parvif lora (Aubl . ) Karst.-M. guaco H. & B. complex"! The 
proportional length of the corolla teeth place it near 
M. allartii B. L. Robinson, M. trinitaria DC, or M. 
speciosa DC, all with similar corollas. These three species 
have much broader leaves, normally ovate to oval. Mikania 
trinitaria and M. speciosa also have a tendency for the 
leaf bases to be cuneately decurrent upon the petiole. 
Mikania allartii is described as having scabrid-setulose 
leaves. None of the above characters are found in M. 
vaupesensis . ~ 

Also with ternately arranged, sessile heads is Mikania 
stygia B. L. Robinson, of Peru and Bolivia, with lanceo- 
late leaves. However, the lower leaf surfaces are glabrous 
and the corolla teeth much shorter than the undivided por- 
tion of the tube. It also turns black upon drying. 



1981 



Holmes & tlcDaniel, Studies on Mikania 



11 



Paratype: Colombia: Amazonas-Vaupes . Rio Apaporis, Raudal 
Yayacopi (La Playa) and vicinity, 800 ft. above msl, 
quartzite base, August 18, 1952, Richard Evans Schultes 
& Isidore Cabrera 16957 (GH) . 

LITERATURE CITED 



Blake, S. F. 1938. Eleven new American Asteraceae. Jour. 
Wash. Acad. 28: 478-492. 

King, R. M. and H. Robinson. 1976. Flora of Panama: 

Compositae. II. Eupatorieae. Ann. Mo. Bot . Card. 62: 
888-1004. 

Robinson, B. L. 1922. The Mikanias of Northern and Western 
South America. Contr. Gray Herb. 64: 21-116. 

. 1926. Records Preliminary to a General 
Treatment of the Eupatorieae-VI . Contr. Gray Herb. 77: 
1-66. 

. 1934. The Variability of Two Wide-Ranging 



Species of Mikania . Contr. Gray Herb. 104: 49-55, 



NOTES ON NEW AND NOTEWORTHY PLA1^ITS. CLIII 
Harold N. Iloldenke 



AEGIPHILA CORDATA var. BREVIPILOSA Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica specie! recedit pilis ramulorum 
petiolorumque inf lorescentiisque perspicue brevioribus nee hirsu- 
tis non villosis. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the densely matted ochraceous pubescence on its younger 
branches, branchlets, petioles, leaf-surface, peduncles, rachis, 
and total inflorescence conspicuously much shorter, more appressed 
and matted, not at all stiffly hirsute or villous-spreading. 

The variety is based on Jose Cuatrecasas 13993 from woods at 
Puerto Merizalde, 5 — 20 m. altitude, Rio Naya, on the Pacific 
Coast of Valle, Colombia, collected on February 20, 1943, and de- 
posited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden. 
The collectors notes "Bejuco; hojas verde muy claro; ramas 
sepia verdoso claro; cdliz verde claro; corola bianco amarillenta. 

CITHAREXYLUM ANDINUM var . BECKII Mold . , var . nov . 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei laminis foliorum margin- 
aliter serrulata differt. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the margins of its leaf-blades serrulate above the middle. 

The variety is based on Stephan G. Beck 886 from shrubby 
woods at Quillacolla, 22 km. from Oruro on the asphalt road, at 
2480 m. altitude, in the province of Quillacolla, Cochabamba, 
Bolivia, collected on March 31, 1979, and deposited in my personal 
herbarium. The collector, in whose honor it is named, asserts 
that it is a shrub 40 cm. tall, spiny, with red fruit. 

LANTANA JALISCANA Mold., sp. nov. 

Frutex gracilis, ramis ramulisque gracilibus inerraibus glabris 
vel glabrescentibus, novellis minutissime puberulis, internodiis 
plerumque brevibus, foliis decussato-oppositis, petiolis filiform- 
ibus 5 — 15 mm. longis glabris, laminis foliorum membranaceis in 
sicco brunnescentibus vel nigrescentibus oblongis vel subovatis 
3 — 6 cm. longis 1.5 — 3 cm. latis apicaliter acutis marginaliter 
grosse serratis basaliter breviter acuminatis utrinque glabris vel 
subtus sub lente minutissime puberulis et obscure punctulatis; 
inflorescentiis capitulatis parvifloris; bracteis anguste oblongis 
vel spathulatis ca. 9 mm. longis 1 — 1.5 nmi. latis subglabris vel 
obscure rainutissimeque puberulis. 

A small much-branched shrub, about 1 ra. tall; branches and 
branchlets very slender, short, gray, unarmed, glabrous or glabres- 
cent, only the youngest parts very minutely puberulent under a 
hand-lens; principal internodes on the branchlets and twigs very 
much abbreviated, to 6 cm. long on older branches; leaves decus- 
sate-opposite, most numerous on the young twigs; petioles filiform, 

12 



1981 Iloldenke, Nexj & noteworthy plants 13 

5 — 15 mm. long, ^^aBrous; leaf-blades very thinly membranous and 
fragile, brunnescent or nigrescent in drying, somewhat lighter 
beneath, oblong or rather obscurely subovate, 3 — 6 cm. long, 1.5 — 
3 cm. wide, apically rather abruptly acute, marginally coarsely 
serrate with spreading somewhat antrorse acutish teeth from almost 
the base to the apex, basally shortly acuminate, glabrous on both 
surfaces or under a hand-lens very sparsely and minutely puberu- 
lous along the larger venation and punctulate on the lamina; in- 
florescence capitulate, rather few-flowered; peduncles subfili- 
form, 3 — 5.5 cm. long, subgalbrous; heads small, usually 1 — 2 cm. 
wide when in full anthesis; bracts narrowly oblong or spatulate, 
to 9 mm. long, 1 — 1.5 mm. \J±de, subglabrous or obscurely and very 
minutely puberulent when viewed under a hand-lens; corolla v;hite. 

This species is based on J. Arturo S Magallanes 356 from the 
Estacio'n de Investigacidh, Experimentacio'n y Difusion Chamela, 
UNAl-1, municipality of La Huerta, Jalisco, Mexico, collected on 
December 13, 1976, and deposited in my personal herbarium. The 
serration of the leaf-blades reminds one much of that seen in L. 
urticoides Hayek. 

LANTANA MICRANTHA var. BECKII Hold., var . nov. 

Ilaec varietas a forma typica special recedit laminis foliorum 
lanceolatis vel anguste ovatis marginaliter antrorse arguteque 
serratis apicaliter attenuato-acutis, inf lorescentiis cylindrico- 
spicatis usque ad 2 cm. longis 7 — 3 mm. latis. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
its leaf-blades being decidedly narrow-lanceolate or narrowly 
ovate, 3 — 6 cm. long, 1 — 2.5 cm. \;ide, marginally sharply and 
antrorsely serrate, and apically narrowed-acute, the inf lores- 
cense when in full bloom cylindric-spicate, about 2 cm. long and 
7 — 3 mm. wide, rather few-flowered, the corolla pale purplish- 
white. 

Tlie variety is based on Stephan G. Beck 5339 from a wet savan- 
na at the margin of Espiritu island, at 200 m. altitude, in the 
province of Ballivian, El Beni, Bolivia, collected on April 12, 
1981, and deposited in my personal herbarium. The collector de- 
scribes the plant as a subshrub, 1.2 m. tall. 

LIPPIA GRAVEOLENS f. MICROPHYLLA Hold., f. nov. 

Ilaec forma a forma typica specie! laminis foliorum plerumque 
maturitate usque ad 10 vel 15 mm. longis 5 — 9 mm. latis recedit. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in 
having its mature leaf-blades mostly not exceeding 10 or 15 mm. 
in length and 5 to 9 mm. in width. 

The form is based on Smith, Peterson, & Tejeda 3977 from fre- 
quently calcareous rock outcrops in primary thorn-scrub-cactus 
cover with evidence of former oak forest at higher elevations in 
the Zapotitlan Valley along the road from Chazumba (Oaxaca) to 
Acarapec, in Puebla, Mexico, at about 1200 — 2000 ra. altitude, 
collected on July 20, 1961, and deposited in the Herbario Nacio- 
nal of the Institute de Biologia in Mexico City. It is probably 



lA P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 1 

the plant which Schauer called Lippia berlandieri Schau. 

LIPPIA MYRIOCEPHALA var . TOMENTOSA Mold., var . nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica specie! recedit laminis foliorum 
subtus densissime f lavidulo-tomentosis. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the lower leaf-surfaces very densely yellowish-tomentose 
and the young branchlets, petioles, and peduncles very densely 
hirsutulous-pubescent . 

The variety is based on J. R. Bruff 1521 from somewhere in 
Puebla, Ilexico, collected in February, 19A3, and deposited in the 
Herbario Nacional of the Instituto de Biologi^a in Mexico City. 
The pubescence is very reminiscent of that seen in L. gentry! 
Standi., but the fruiting inflorescences are those of L. myrio- 
cephala Schlecht. u Cham.. It may represent a natural hybrid be- 
tween these two taxa. 

VERBENA MINUTIFLORA var. PERUVIANA Hold., var. nov. 

llaec varietas a forma typica speciei recedit statura multo 
humiliori et inf lorescentiis distincte ubique puberulis. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
its much lower stature, apparently less than 15 cm. tall, with 
more or less at least basally decumbent branches, and the entire 
inflorescence very plainly scattered-puberulent . 

The variety is based on A. Sagdstegui A., J. Cabanillos S., & 
O. Dios C. 8385 from cultivated ground, at 2900 m. altitude on 
the Pampa de la Culebra between Cajamarca and La Encanada, in 
the province of Cajamarca, Cajamarca, Peru, collected on May 
18, 1976, and deposited in my personal herbarium. The collectors 
describe the plant as a perennial herb with whitish corollas, and 
list the local vernacular name of "verbena". 



THE VASCULAR PLANTS OF HACKENSACK RIVER AREA 

MaryAnn Foote 

Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey 

Ecology Program 

New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 



Abstract 

The upper Hackensack River-Estuary is located in 
Bergen County, New Jersey. It includes residential, 
commercial and industrial areas. An annotated list of 
vascular plants was produced from collections made by the 
author from June, 1980 to October, 1981, herbarium records 
and literature sources. Three hundred-sixty-two (362) 
taxa are found along the Hackensack River from the 
Hackensack Meadowlands to the Oradell Reservoir Dam. 

Introduction 

The Hackensack River, lying approximately 10km west of 
Manhattan Island, begins in Haverstraw, New York (Rockland 
County) and extends south to Newark Bay (Essex County, New 
Jersey) , a linear distance of about 45km. 

The Hackensack River-Estuary can be divided into five 
associations: wetlands, industrial, disturbed, parks and 
native. The wetlands category includes permanent brackish 
and freshwater marsh areas and banks covered only by 
spring and storm tides. Phragmites communis Trin. is by 
far the most noticed plant. Other species found include 
Typha spp. (cat-tails) , Aster subulatus Michx. (salt 
marsh aster) , Pulchea purpurascens (SW) DC, (salt marsh 
fleabane) and a number of species recorded by Britton 
(1889) . 

Many segments of the study are industrial regions and 
asphalt roads and parking lots terminate only a few feet 
from the river, leaving a bare stretch of gravel which is 
periodically washed by the tides. A few plants such as 
Cicuta ma^culata L. (cowbane) or grasses are able to 



15 



16 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

spring from crevices. Usually, however, heavy traffic, 
vehicular and human, has eliminated all foliage. Other 
species found include Typha spp. (cat-tails) , Aster 
subulatus Michx. (salt marsh aster) , Pulchea purpurascens 
(SW) DC, (salt marsh f leabane) . 

The Hackensack River-Estuary is located in a 
densely-populated area and virtually the entire length of 
the river has been disturbed by the construction of 
apartment complexes, businesses, schools or private homes. 
These disturbed areas harbor a plethora of species, 
especially introduced species and ones that have escaped 
cultivation. The narrow strip of land left between the 
black asphalt parking lot of Fairleigh Dickinson 
University and the river showed the most diverse flora: 
Melilotus alba Desr. (sweet clover) , M^ officinalis (L.) 
Lam. (yellow sweet clover) , Taraxacum officinalis Weber 
(common dandelion) , Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (ragweed) , 
Lychnis alba L. (campion) , Convolvulus sepium L. 
(bindweed) , Narcissus pseudonarcissus L. (wild daffodil) 
and Cornus stolonifera Michx. (red-osier dogwood) are but 
a few of the species found here. 

The Von Steuben House, Borough of River Edge, and 
Johnson and Foschini Parks, City of Hackensack, are 
examples of the park-type of plant association. Most of 
the vegetation in these areas was consciously planted and 
landscaped but often native species are protected and 
allowed to thrive, such as P_^ communis Trin. and 
Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) at the Von 
Steuben House. Private lands of homeowners and companies, 
such as the Hackensack Water Company, would be included in 
this category but they were not sampled. 

PrJ-or to 1610, northern New Jersey was inhabited by 
the Leni-Lenape Indians, an independent tribe of 
Algonquin-speaking people. It is well known that the 
Indians disturbed the native vegetation by periodic and/or 
accidental burnings (Baird, 1956; VanVechter and Buell, 
1959) . The Indians destroyed the forests by clearing for 
villages, cutting firewood, and agricultural clearing. 
They also commonly set fires to the forest to drive game, 
increase visibility, decrease insect and reptile 
populations, increase the amount of seeds and berries used 
for food and as defensive and offensive actions in war 
(Day, 1953) . At one time, the Hackensack River vicinity 
was a mixed deciduous growth with oak predominant 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 17 

(Vermeule, 1895) . A few tracts claimed to be the original 
forest were noted in the Hackensack Valley in 1894; all 
of these tracts were oak (Vermeule, 1894) . 

The early European settlers felled immense numbers of 
trees in this area which were use by New York City 
residents for fuel and building materials (Uminski, 1965). 
The remaining vegetation was destroyed by urbanization. 
Possibly the last vestige of native forest is Borg Woods, 
City of Hackensack, near the Coles Brook tributary, and 
some areas owned by the Hackensack Water Company. In 
1980, a Pinus banksiana Lamb, a P^ sylvestris L. and a 
Populus deltoides marsh with circumferences of 3'3", 17'8" 
and 17 '10" respectively, the largest of their species in 
New Jersey, were found on property owned by the Hackensack 
Water Company (Porcella, 1980) . 

Previous Studies of the Flora of the Hackensack 
River-Estuary 

No flora concerning the vascular plants has been 
published. Britton (1889) mentions a number of species 
associated with the Hackensack River, its marshes or 
meadows. It is hoped that this present paper will provide 
both a stimulus and a basis for further study of this 
area. 

Taxonomy and Arrangement of the Flora 

The taxonomy and arrangement of the families is based 
on that of Fernald (1950) unless noted otherwise. 
Information concerning known rare or endangered plants is 
also given. The genera and species are alphabetized 
within each family. If no reference is given, the species 
was collected by the author who maintains them in her 
herbarium. Specimens in the Chrysler Herbarium, Rutgers 
University, are designated by "CHRU". 

Acknowledgements 

The author gratefully acknowledges the assistance of 
Jane Di Cosimo, who prepared the taxonomic section of this 
manuscript on the DEC-20, Ellen J. Vastola, who helped 
with the herbarium search and Mrs. Rita Foote, who 
proofread the taxonomic section. 



18 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. I 

The work on which this report is based was supported 
in part by funds provided by the Office of Water Research 
and Technology, Department of the Interior, as authorized 
under the Water Research and Development Act of 1978. 



Flora Of The Hackensack River-Estuary 



Equisetaceae Horsetail Family 

Equisetum arvense L. (common horsetail) 
moist areas (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 
Equisetum f luviatile L. (water horsetail) 
marshes (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 



Lycopodiaceae Club Moss Family 

Lycopodium L. (club moss) 

area of city of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Lycopodium inundatum L. (bog club moss) 

damp areas, 1942 (CHRU) 

Lycopodium selago var. appressum Desv. (bog club moss) 

meadows (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 



Selaginellaceae Spikemoss Family 

Selaginella apoda (L.) Fern, (meadow spikemoss) 
meadows (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 



Isoetaceae Quillwort Family 

Isoetes engelmanni A.Br. (Engelmann's quillwort) 
river banks, swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 



Ophioglossaceae Adder's Tongue Family 

Botrychium dissectum Spreng. (moonwort, grapefern) 
Bergern Point, 1868 (CHRU) ; wooded areas (Chrysler and 
Edwards, 1947) 
Botrychium dissectum forma obliquum (Muhl.) Fern. 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 19 

wooded areas (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

fiotrychium lanceolatum var. angustisegmentum Pease and 

Moore 

mois*-. woods, hummocks in swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 

1947) 

Botrychium multif idum (Gmel.) Rupr . (leathery grape fern) 

Bergen Point, 1967 (CHRU) 

Botrychium virginianum (L.) Sw. (rattlesnake fern) 

moist, rich areas (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Onoclea sensibilis L. (sensitive fern) 

area of city of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Ophioglossum vulgatum L. (adder's tongue) 

abundant on Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 

Osmundaceae Flowering Fern Family 

Osmunda claytoniana L. (interrupted fern) 

moist woods, swamp margins (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947); 

wooded area, 1969 (CHRU) 

Osmunda cinnamomea L. (cinnamon fern, fiddle heads) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; swamps and 

stream banks (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Osmunda regalis L. (flowering fern, royal fern) 

swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 



Polypodiaceae Fern Family 

Ad i an turn pedatum L. (maidenhair fern) 

moist woods, along stream (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Asplenium platyneuron (L.) Oakes (ebony spleenwort) 

woods and stream banks (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Athyrium f ilix-femina (L.) Roth (lady fern) 

moist woods, meadows (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Athyrium f ilix-femina var. aspleniioides (Michx.) Farw. 

moist woods, 1917 and 1945, along streams, 1948 (CHRU) 

Athyrium thelypter ioides (Michx.) Desv. (silvery 

spleenwort) 

moist woods (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris cristata (L.) Gray (crested shield fern) 

marshes (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris cristata var. clintoniana (D.C. Eat.) Underw. 

(Clinton's fern) 

swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) ; swamps along 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 

Dryopteris marginalis (L.) Gray (evergreen or marginal 

shield fern) 



20 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

woods (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris simulata Davenp. (Massachusetf s fern) 

moist woods (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris spinulosa (O.F. Mueller) Watt (spinulose 

woodf ern) 

swamps, damp woods (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris spinulosa var. intermedia (Muhl.) Underw. 

(American shield fern, fancy fern) 

woods, hummocks in swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris spinulosa X boottii (Tuckerm.) Underw. (Boott's 

fern) 

swamps (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Dryopteris thelypteris (L.) Gray (marsh fern) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Dryopteris thelypteris var. pubescens (Lawson) Nakai 

(marsh-, meadow-, or snuff-box fern) 

bog and swamp areas, 1862 and 1948 (CHRU) 

Matteuccia struthiopteris (L.) Todara (ostrich fern) 

wooded flood plains (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Pteridium aquilinum var. latiusculum (Desv.) Underw. 

(bracken, brake) 

woods (Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) 

Polystichum acrostichoides (Michx.) Schott (dagger- or 

Christmas fern) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Woodwardia areolata (L.) Moore (netted chainfern) 

swamps, 1887 (CHRU) 

Woodwardia virginica (L.) Sm. (chain fern) 

abundant on Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) ; swamps 

(Chrysler and Edwards, 1947) ; island on Hackensack River, 

1945 (CHRU) 



Pinaceae Pine Family 

Chamaecyparis thyoides (L.) BSP (Atlantic white cedar) 

swamp areas, 1948 and 1949 (CHRU); area of City of 

Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Juniperus communis L. (common juniper) 

woods, 1963 (CHRU) 

Pinus banksiana Lamb, (jack pine) 

Hackensack Water Company property; largest of its species 

in state (Porcella, 1980) 

Pinus strobus L. (eastern white pine) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Pinus sylvestr is L. (Scotch pine) 

Hackensack Water Company property; largest of its species 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 21 

in state (Porcella, 1980) 

Tsuga canadensis (L.) Carr. (eastern hemlock) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Typhaceae Cat-Tail Family 

Typha angustifolia L. (narrow-leaved cat-tail) 
remarkably luxoriant and abundant in the Hackensack River 
(Britton, 1889) ; 

marsh areas of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; 
Borough of New Milford region of river 
Typha latifolia L. (common cat-tail, broad-leaved 
cat-tail) 

marsh areas of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; 
Borough of New Milford region of river 



Zosteraceae Pondweed Family 

Potamogeton amplifolius Tuckerm. (large-leaved pond weed) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 

Potamogeto n gramineus L. (grass-like pondweed) 

waters of the Hackensack (Britton, 1889) 

Potamogeton pectinatus L. (sago pondweed) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 

Potamogeton perfoliatus L. 

Hackensack River, 1963 (CHRU) 

Potamogeton robbinsii Oakes (pondweed) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 

Potamogeton virginica (L.) Schott and Endl. 

(crimped-leafed pondweed) 

marsh area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Potamogeton zoster iformis Fern, (flat stem pondweed) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 



Alismataceae Water Plantain Family 

Sagittar ia calycina Engelm. (arrowhead) 

designated a subspecies by Gleason and Cronquist, 1963; 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 

Sagittaria natans Michx. (arrowhead) 

Hackensack streams (Britton, 1889) 



Gramineae Grass Family 



22 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Agrostis hyemalis (Walt.) BSP. (tickle grass, hairgrass) 

swamp region, 1948 (CHRU) 

Agrostis perennans (Walt.) Tuckern. (upland bent grass) 

disturbed areas 

Alopecurus aequalis Sobol. (foxtail) 

edges of streams, 1867 (CHRU) ; state endangered (Snyder 

and Vivian, 1981) 

Andropogon scoparius Michx. (beard grass) 

disturbed areas 

Dactylis glomerata L. (orchard grass) 

disturbed areas 

Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop, (crabgrass) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas 

Elymus canadensis L. (wild rye) 

Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Panicum dichotomum L. (panic grass) 

wet ground, 1866 (CHRU) 

Phragmites communis Trin. (reed grass, foxtails, bulrush) 

abundant from Overpeck Creek to Oradell, this species is 

the "trademark" of the entire river and meadowlands 

Sorgum halepense (L.) Pers. (Johnson grass) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Spartina cynosuroides (L.) Roth (cord grass, marsh grass) 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 

Spartina pectinata Link, (freshwater cordgrass, 

sloughgrass) 

Hackensack marshes, 1948 (CHRU) 

Zizania aquatica L. (wild rice, Indian rice) 

Hackensack marshes, 1864 (CHRU); very abundant on 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) ; swamp area, 1948 

(CHRU) 



Cyperaceae Sedge Family 

Carex bromoides Schkuhr 
swamps, 1866 (CHRU) 
Carex buxaumii Wahl. (sedge) 

Hackensack meadows, 1885 (CHRU) ; Hackensack marshes 
(Britton, 1889) 
Carex canescens L. 
Hackensack swamps, 1884 (CHRU) 
Carex comosa Boott. 
bogs, 1864 (CHRU) 
Carex crinita Lam. 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack Pviver area 23 

Hackensack swamps, 1869 (CHRU) 

Carex disperma Dew. 

Hackensack swamps, 1861 (CHRU) 

Carex f iliformis Nutt (sedge) 

Hackensack meadows, 1866 (CHRU) ; Hackensack meadows 

(Britton, 1889) 
Carex gracillima Schwein. 
wet meadows, 1861 and 1864 (CHRU) 
Carex granularis Muhl. 
Little Ferry, 1887 (CHRU) 

Carex lupulina var. polystachya Schw. and Torr. (sedge) 
Hackensack flats, in woods (Britton, 1889) 
Carex merritt-fernaldii MacKenz. 
Hackensack swamps, 1868 and 1884 (CHRU) 
Carex platyphylla Carey 
Hackensack meadows, 18 78 (CHRU) 
Carex tetanica Schkuhr. 
Little Ferry, 1887 (CHRU) 
Cyperus strigosus L. (sedge) 
disturbed area in Borough of Bogota 
Eleocharis olivacea Torr. (spike rush) 
abundant in Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 
Eleocharis parvula (R. and S.) Link, (dwarf spike rush) 
marsh area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Eleocharis rostellata Torr. (spike rush) 
abundant in Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 
Scirpus americanus Pers. (three-square bulrush) 
marsh areas of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Scirpus olneyi Gray (bulrush) 
Hackensack meadows, frequent (Britton, 1889) ; ponds, 1958 

(CHRU) 

Scirpus smithii Gray 

pond, 1944 (CHRU) 



Araceae Arum Family 

Arisaema atrorubens (Ait.) Blume ( jack-in-the-pulpit, 

Indian turnip) 

woods 

Calla palustris L. (water arum) 

frequent in deep swamps in Hackensack marshes (Britton, 

1889) 

Peltandra virginica (L.) Schott. and Endl. (arrow arum, 

tuckahoe) 

marsh area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; in 

water under Route 4 bridge; in water at VonSteuben House 



24 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 

Symplocarpus foetidus (L.) Nutt. (skunk cabbage) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Lemnaceae Duckweed Family 

Lemna minor L. (duckweed) 

marsh areas of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Xyridaceae Yellow-Eyed Grass Family 

Xyris f lexuosa Muhl. (yellow-eyed grass) 

Moonachie, 1945 (CHRU) ; state endangered (Snyder and 

Vivian, 1981) 



Eriocaulaceae Pipewort Family 

Er iocaulon septangulare With, (white buttons, duckgrass) 
pond, 1938 (CHRU) 



Commelinaceae Spiderwort Family 

Commelina communis L. (dayflower) 

disturbed areas 

Tradescantia virginica L. (spiderwort) 

edge of Phragmites communis marsh at VonSteuben House 



Ponteder iaceae Pickleweed Family 

Heteranthera graminea (Michx.) Vahl. (water strawgrass) 
common along Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 
Heteranthera reniformis R. and P. (mud plantain) 
common aong Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 



Liliaceae Lily Family 

Allium vineale L. (onion, field-garlic, scallion) 
disturbed areas 

Hemerocallis fulva L. (common orange day lily) 
occasional along the river banks, especially at Fairleigh 
Dickinson University, the VonSteuben House and in the 
Borough of New Milford 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 25 

Lilium superbum L. (Turk's cap lily) 

conunon on Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Ornithogalum umbel la turn L. (star of Bethlehem, 

nap-at-noon) 

edge of river at the VonSteuben House 

Scilla nonscripta (L.) Hoffm. and Link (English bluebell, 

harebell) 

cultivated species which probably escaped; edge of 

Phragmites marsh at the VonSteuben House 

Smilax pseudo-china L. (catbrier) 

disturbed areas 



Amaryllidaceae Amaryllis Family 

Narcissus pseudo-narcissus L. (wild daffodil) 
edge of Phragmites marshes at VonSteuben House and 
Fairleigh Dickinson University 



Iridaceae Iris Family 

Iris pr ismatica Pursh (slender blue flag) 

abundant on Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Iris pseudocarus L. (yellow iris, yellow flag, water flag) 

common on river banks at Fairleigh Dickinson University 

and at the VonSteuben House 

Iris versicolor L. (blue flag) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Salicaceae Willow Family 

Salix babylonica L. (weeping willow) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Salix nigra Marsh, (black willow) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Populus deltoides Matsh. (cotton wood, Carolina poplar, 

poplar) 

Hackensack Water Company property; largest of its species 

in state (Porcella, 1980) 

Populus tremuloides Michx. (quaking aspen) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Juglandaceae Walnut Family 



26 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Carya glabra (Mill.) Sweet (pignut) 
woods, 1861 (CHRU) 



Corylaceae Hazel Family 

Alnus serrulata (Ait.) Willd. (common alder) 
swampy area, 1969 (CHRU) 

Betula nigra L. (river birch, red birch) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Betula populifolia Marsh, (gray birch) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979); woods, 1968 
(CHRU) 

Carpinus caroliniana Walt. (American hornbeam) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; wooded area, 
1968 (CHRU) 



Fagaceae Beech Family 

Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (American beech) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979); woods, 1968 
(CHRU) 

Quercus alba L. (white oak) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; woods, 1861 
and 1968 (CHRU) 

Quercus bicolor Willd. (swamp-white oak) 
not common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 
Quercus cocci nea Muenchh. (scarlet oak) 
wooded area near Oradell Dam; woods, ca. 1860 (CHRU) 
Quercus ilicifolia Wang, (bear-oak, scrub oak) 
woods, ca. 1860 and woods, 1878 (CHRU) 
Quercus palustris Muenchh. (pin oak) 

not common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) ; area of City of 
Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; banks of river in Borough of 
New Milford 

Quercus pr inus L. (chestnut oak, swamp white oak) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; Snyder and 
Vivian (1981) categorize this species as "rare, local, 
declining in numbers"; woods, 1968 (CHRU) 
Quercus rubra L. (red oak) 

woods, ca. 1860 (CHRU) ; area of City of Hackensack 
(BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Quercus stellata Wang, (post-oak) 
woods, 1861 (CHRU) 
Quercus velutina Lam. (black oak, yellow-barked oak) 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 27 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Ulmaceae Elm family 

Celtis occidentalis L. (nettle tree, hackberry, 

sugarberry) 

woods, 1861 (CHRU) 

Ulmus americana L. (American elm, white elm) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Ulmus rubra Muhl. (slippery elm, red elm) 

woods, 1883 (CHRU) 

Moraceae Mulberry Family 

Morus rubra L. (red mulberry) 
woods, 1861 (CHRU) 

Cannabinaceae Hemp Family 

Cannabis sativa L. (marijuana) 
ballast pile, 1879 (CHRU) 
Humulus lupulus L. (common hop) 
waste area, 1861 (CHRU) 

Urticaceae Nettle Family 

Boehmeria cylindrica (L.) Sw. (bog hemp) 

rare in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Laportea canadensis (L.) Wedd. (wood nettle) 

woods, 1861 (CHRU) 

Pilea pumila (L.) Gray (richweed, clear weed, coalwort) 

not common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Urtica gracilis Ait. (nettle) 

Hackensack, ca. 1880 (CHRU) 

Polygonaceae Buckwheat Family 

Polygonum arifolium L. (halbred-leaved tearthumb) 

swamps, 1948 (CHRU) 

Polygonum careyi Olney (knotweed) 

Hackensack swamps (Britton, 1889) 

Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. and Zucc. (Japanese knotweed) 



28 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

disturbed areas 

Polygonum pennsylvanicum L. (pinkweed) 

disturbed areas 

Polygonum punctatum Ell. (water smartweed) 

bordering creeks, very common and most abundant, 1948 

(CHRU) 

Polygonum scandens L. (climbing false buckwheat) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Rumex crispus L. (yellow-dock, sorrel) 

disturbed areas 

Rumex orbiculatus Gray (waterduck) 

cedar bog, 1865; Carlstadt, 1869; Secaucus , 1871; old 

cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 



Chenopodiaceae Goosefoot Family 

Atr iplex patula var. hastata (L.) Gray (orach) 
old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Chenopodiu m album L. (lamb's quarters, white goosefoot, 
pigweed) 

Hackensack, 1968 (CHRU) ; area of City of Hackensack 
(BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed areas 



Amaranthaceae Amaranth Family 

Amaranthus lividus L. (amaranth) 
cultivated fields, 1916 (CHRU) 



Phytolaccaceae Pokeweed Family 

Phytolacca americana L. (pokeweed) 

disturbed areas, 1968 (CHRU) ; area of City of Hackensack 
(BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; edge of Phragmites marsh at the 
VonSteuben House 



Portulacaceae Purslane Family 

Claytonia virginica L. (spring beauty) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; high banks ir 

wooded areas 



Caryophyllaceae Pink Family 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 29 

Cerastium nutans Raf. (mouse-ear chickweed) 

woods, 1861 (CHRU) 

Cerastium vulgatum L. (common mouse-ear chickweed) 

Schraalenburgh, 1861 (CHRU) 

Lychnis alba Mill, (white capion, white cockle, evening 

lychnis) 

disturbed areas 

Paronychia canadensis (L.) Wood, (forked chickweed) 

along Hackensack River, ca. 1860 (CHRU) 

Sagina procumbens L. (birdseye) 

swampy areas, 1861 (CHRU) 

Saponaria vaccaria L. (cow herb, cow-cockle) 

waste area, 1880 (CHRU) 

Silene cucubalus Wibel (bladder capion, maiden's tears) 

disturbed areas 

Stellaria graminea L. (common stichwort) 

Little Ferry, 1887 (CHRU) 

Stellaria long i folia Muhl. (starwort) 

disturbed areas 



Nymphaeceae Water Lily Family 

Brasenia schreberi Gmel. (purple wen-dock) 

slow-moving areas of Hackensack River, 1854 (CHRU) 

Nuphar microphyllum (Pers.) Fern, (small yellow waterlily) 

Hackensack River, 1864 (CHRU) ; common on Hackensack River 

(Britton, 1889); Snyder and Vivian (1981) report this 

species is declining in numbers and was last reported in 

Bergen County before 1900 

Nymphaea L. (fragrant water-lily, pond lily) 

wet meadows, 1915 (CHRU) 



Ranunculaceae Crowfoot Family 

Actaea pachypoda Ell. (white baneberry, doll's eyes) 

woods, 1878 (CHRU) 

Anemone quinquefolia L. (wood anemone) 

swamp area, 1861 (CHRU) 

Coptis groenlandica (Oeder) Fern, (goldthread) 

swamps along Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 

Ranunculus acris L. (common buttercup, tall buttercup) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas 

Ranunculus pusillus Poir. 



30 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 30, No. 1 

swamp area, 1861 (CHRU) ; declining in number in New Jersey 
(Snyder and Vivian, 1981) 
Ranunculus recurvatus Poir. 
Hackensack, 1896 (CHRU) 

Ranunculus reptans L. (creeping spearwort) 
banks of Hackensack River, 1875 (CHRU) 
Ranunculus sceleratus L. (cursed crowfoot) 
marshes, 1879 and not common in area bordering old cedar 
bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Ranunculus subr igidus W.B. Drew (stiff white 
water crowfoot) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) ; categorized as "rare" by 
Snyder and Vivian (1981) 

Thalictrum polygamum Muhl. (tall meadowrue, muskrat weed, 
King-of-t he-Meadow) 

banks near French Creek; cedar bog marsh, 1948 (CHRU) 
Trollius laxus Salisb. (spreading globe-flower) 
Hackensack meadows, 1872 (CHRU) 



Berberidaceae Barberry Family 

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.) Michx. (papoose-root) 
woods, ca. 18 60 (CHRU) 



Magnoliaceae Magnolia Family 

Liriodendron tulipifera L. (tulip tree, tulip poplar) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Lauraceae Laurel Family 

Lindera benzoin (L.) Blume (spicebush, Benjamin-bush) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979); moist woods, 

1960 (CHRU) 

Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees (white sassafras) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; banks of 

river in Borough of Bogota 



Papaveraceae Poppy Family 

Corydalis sempervirens (L.) Pers. (rock-harlequin, pale 

corydalis) 

Hackensack, 1896 (CHRU) 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 31 

Dicentra eximia (Ker) Torr. (turkey-corn, staggerweed) 
woods, 1875 (CHRU) 

Glaucium flavum Crantz (horn-poppy, sea-poppy) 
ballast piles, 1880 (CHRU) 



Cruciferae Mustard Family 

Alyssum alyssoides L. 
ballast piles, 1879 (CHRU) 

Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh. (mouse-ear cress) 
roadsides, 1864 (CHRU) 

Barbarea vulgaris R.Br, (common winter-cress, yellow 
rocket) 

disturbed areas 

Brassica kaber (DC.) L.C. Wheeler (charlock) 
disturbed areas 

Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic, (shepard's purse) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Cardamine pensylvanica Muhl. (bitter cress) 
old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 
Cardamine pratensis L. (cuckoo flower) 
Hackensack swamps (Britton, 1889) ; cedar swamp, 1861 
(CHRU) 

Dentaria diphylla Michx. (toothwort, pepperwort) 
woods, 1870 (CHRU) ; rare (Snyder and Vivian, 1981) 
Dentaria laciniata Muhl. 
swampy areas, 1887 (CHRU) 
Diplotaxis muralis (L.) DC. 
ballast piles, 1878 and 1879 (CHRU) 
Erysimum cheiranthoides L. (worm-seed mustard) 
banks of the Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 
Lepidium campestre (L.) R.Br, (cow-cress) 
Hackensack, 1896 (CHRU) 

Lepidium ruderale L. (pepperwort, peppergrass, 
tonguegrass) 

ballast pile, 1870 (CHRU) 

Lepidium virginicum L. (peppergrass, poorman's pepper) 
disturbed areas 

Rorippa islandica (Oeder) Borbas (yellow cress) 
Hackensack, ca. 1860; old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 



Saxifragaceae Saxifrage Family 

Chrysosplenium americanum Schwein. (water-mat, water 
carpet) 



32 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

wet areas, ca. 1860 (CHRU) 

Heuchera amer icana L. (rock-geranium) 

woods, 1866 (CHRU) 

Saxifraga pensylvanica L. (swamp saxifrage, wild beet) 

cedar swamps, 1864 (CHRU) 

Saxifraga virginiensis Michx. (early saxifrage) 

woods, ca. 1860 (CHRU) 



Hamamelidaceae Witch Hazel Family 

Hamamelis virginiana L. (witch hazel) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Liquidambar styracif lua L. (sweetgum) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



Platanaceae Plane Tree Family 

Platanus occidentalis L. (sycamore, button-wood) 
woods, 19 68 (CHRU) 



Rosaceae Rose Family 

Agr imonia parvif lora Ait. (agrimony, cocklebur, harvest 

lice) 

damp areas, 1883 (CHRU) 

Amelanchier canadensis (L.) Medic, (shadbush) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Aronia arbut ifolia L. (red chokeberry) 

woods, 1875 (CHRU) 

Aronia melanocarpus (Michx.) Willd. (black chokeberry) 

Hackensack meadows, 1865 (CHRU) 

Crataegus crus-galli L. (cockspur-thorn, hawthorn) 

disturbed areas 

Potentilla anserina L. (silverweed) 

disturbed areas 

Potentilla argentea L. (silvery cinquefoil) 

disturbed areas 

Prunus virginiana L. (choke cherry) 

edge of river; disturbed areas 

Rosa Carolina L. 

woods, 1887 (CHRU) 

Rosa eglanter ia L. (sweet brier) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Rosa multif lora Thunb. (multiflora rose) 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 33 

edge of Phragmites marsh at the VonSteuben House 

Rubus allegheniensis Porter (common blackberry, sow-teat 

bramble) 

disturbed areas in Borough of New Milford 

Rubus hispidus L. (dewberry) 

swampy area, ca. 1861 (CHRU) 

Rubus pubescens Raf. (dwarf raspberry) 

swampy area, 1868 (CHRU) 



Leguminosae Pulse Family 

Anthyllis vulneraria L. (lady's fingers) 

ballast area, 1880 (CHRU) 

Apios americana Medic, (groundnut, wild bean, potato-bean) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Astragalus glycyphyllos L. (fitsroot) 

ballast area, 1880 (CHRU) 

Baptisia tinctoria (L.) R. Br. (yellow wild indigo, rattle 

weed, horsefly weed) 

disturbed areas 

Cercis canadensis L. (redbud) 

woods, 1887 (CHRU) 

Coronilla varia L. (crown vetch, axseed) 

marsh area of Township of Teaneck 

Lathyrus palustris L. (vetchling) 

swamps, 1861 and 1862 (CHRU) 

Lathyrus palustris var. myritifolius (Muhl. ) Gray (gray 

vetchling) 

Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Medicago laciniata Mill. 

ballast area, 1880 (CHRU) 

Melilotus alba Desr. (sweet clover, white clover) 

disturbed areas 

Melilotus indica (L.) All. 

ballast area, 1880 (CHRU) 

Melilotus officinalis (L.) Lam. (yellow sweet clover) 

disturbed areas; ballast area, 1878 and 1880 (CHRU) 

Robinia pseudo-acacia L. (black locust, false acacia) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas in Borough of Bogota 

Trifolium pratense L. (red clover) 

area of City of Hackenack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas 

Trifolium procumbens L. (low hop clover) 

disturbed and marsh areas 

Trifolium repens L. (white clover) 



34 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Vicia sativa L. (spring vetch) 
marsh areas in Township of Teaneck 
Vicia sepium L. 
disturbed areas 



Oxalidaceae Wood Sorrel Family 

Oxalis europaea Jord. (sourgrass, wood sorrel) 

disturbed areas 

Oxalis stricta L. (yellow wood sorrel) 

disturbed areas 

Oxalis violacea L. (violet wood sorrel) 

along Hackensack River, 1864 (CHRU) 



Geraniaceae Geranium Family 

Geranium macula tum L. (wild cranesbill) 
Hackensack marshes, 1821 (CHRU) 
Geranium robertianum L. (herb-robert) 



woods, 1869 (CHRU) 



Rutaceae Rue Family 



Xanthoxylum americanum Mill, (northern prickly ash, 

toothache tree) 

along Hackensack River, ca. 1860 (CHRU) 



Simarubaceae Quassia Family 

Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle (tree-of-heaven) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 
areas at Fairleigh Dickinson University 



Polygalaceae Milkwort Family 

Polygala cruciata L. (milkwort) 
Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 



Callitrichaceae Water Starwort Family 



1981 



Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 35 



Callitriche heterophylla var. linearis (Pursh.) Austin 
(water starwort) 

inunersed and forming large floating masses in the 
Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) 



Limnanthaceae False Mermaid Family 

Floerkea prose rpinacoides Willd. (false mermaid) 
river banks, 1881 and 1946 (CHRU) 



Anac^ardiaceae Cashew Family 

Rhus radicans L. (poison ivy) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Rhus typhina L. (staghorn sumac) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Aquifoliaceae Holly Family 

Ilex verticillata (L.) Gray (black alder, winterberry) 
old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Aceraceae Maple Family 

Acer negundo L. (box elder) 

banks of Hackensack River, 1871 (CHRU) 

Acer platanoides L. (Norway maple) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Acer pseudo-platanus L. (American sycamore, sycamore 

maple) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Acer rubrum L. (swamp maple, red maple, scarlet maple, 

soft maple) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; common in old 

cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Acer saccharum Marsh, (sugar maple) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; woods, 1868 

(CHRU) 

Balsaminaceae Touch-Me-Not-Family 

Impatiens capensis Meerb. (spotted jewelweed, snap weed, 



36 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 50, Ho. 1 

touch-me-not) 

edge of Phragmites marsh at the VonSteuben House; 

disturbed areas and stream banks, 1968 (CHRU) 



Rhamnaceae Buckthorn Family 

Rhamnus f rangula L. (alder-buckthorn) 

thicket on island on Hackensack River, 1945 and common in 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 



Vitaceae Vine Family 

Parthenocissus quinquefolia (L.) Planch, (woodvine) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Vitis L. (grape) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Vitis labrusca L. (fox-grape) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 



Mulvaceae Mallow Family 

Hibiscus moscheutos L. (swamp rose, mallow-rose) 
abundant on marshes, 1948 (CHRU) 

Kosteletzkya virginica (L.) Presl. (seashore mallow) 
Hackensack marshes, 1884 (CHRU) 



Guttiferae St. John's-Wort Family 

Hypericum perforatum L. (common St. John's-wort) 
bulldozed area, 1968 (CHRU) 



Cistaceae Rockrose Family 

Helianthemum canadense (L.) Michx. (frostweed) 
disturbed areas 



Violaceae Violet Family 

Viola pallens (Banks) Brainerd (pale violet) 

rare in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Viola papilionaceae Pursh (meadow violet, common blue 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 37 

violet, butterfly violet) 

occasional in wooded areas of the Hackensack River 

Viola rotundifolia Michx. (round-leaved or early yellow 

violet) 

springy places, 1914 (CHRU) 

Lythraceae Loosestrife Family 

Amman i a ramosior L. 

not listed in Fernald (1950); Hackensack meadows (Britton, 

1889) 

Lythrum lineare L. (loosestrife) 

brackish Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889); area of City 

of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; marsh area near the 

VonSteuben House; Hackensack swamp, 1868 (CHRU) 

Lythrum salicaria L. (purple loosestrife, spiked 

loosestrife) 

marsh areas of the City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; 

marsh at the VonSteuben House 

Nyssaceae Sour Gum Family 

Nyssa sylvatica Marsh, (blackgum) 

not common in old cedar bog, 1948 and woods, 1968 (CHRU) 

Onagraceae Evening-Primrose Family 

Circaea quadrisulcata (Maxim.) Franch. and Sav. 
(enchanter's nightshade) 
woods, 19 68 (CHRU) 

Umbelliferae Parsley Family 

Cicuta bulbifera L. (water hemlock) 

stagnant sections of the Hackensack River, 1868 (CHRU) 

Cicuta maculata L. (cowbane, spotted water hemlock, beaver 

poison) 

edge of river under Route 4 bridge; common in old cedar 

bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Caucus carota L. (wild carrot. Queen Anne's lace) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas 

Pastinaca sativa L. (parsnip) 



38 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Hackensack meadows, 1864 (CHRU) 

Ptilimnium capillaceum (Michx.) Raf. (mock bishop's weed) 

island on Hackensack River, 1945 and very abundant in old 

cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Sium suave Walt, (water-parsnip) 

Hackensack River, 1870 (CHRU) 



Cornaceae Dogwood Family 

Cornus alternifolia L. (pagoda dogwood, green osier) 
wooded area in Borough of New Milford section of river 
Cornus canadensis L. (dwarf cornel, bunchberry, 
puddingberry) 

swamps, 1861 (CHRU) ; rare (Snyder and Vivian, 1981) 
Cornus f lorida L. (flowering dogwood) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979); woods, 1968 
(CHRU) 

Cornus stolonifera Michx. (red-osier dogwood) 
edge of river at Fairleigh Dickinson University 



Clethraceae White Alder Family 

Clethra alnifolia L. (sweet pepperbush) 
common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 



Ericaceae Heath Family 

Gaultheria hispidula (L.) Bigel. (creeping snowberry) 

cedar swamps, ca. 1860 (CHRU) ; state endangered (Snyder 

and Vivian, 1981) 

Gaylussacia f rondosa (L.) T.G. (dangleberry , bluetangle) 

swamp, 1870 and not abundant in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Leucothoe racemosa (L.) Gray (fetter bush) 

abundant on marshes (Britton, 1889) ; rare in old cedar 

bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Rhododendron maximum L. (great laurel, rosebay) 

swamps, 1862 (CHRU) 

Rhododendron viscosum (L.) Torr. (swamp honeysuckle, 

clammy azalea) 

swamp, 1884 and common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Vaccinium atrococcum (Gray) Heller (black 

highbush-blueberry) 

common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Vaccinium corymbosum L. (highbush-blueberry) 



39 



j^981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 

swamp, 1870, conunon in old cedar bog, 1948 and edge of 
Oradell Reservoir, 1955 (CHRU) 



Primulaceae Primrose Family 

Lysimachia thyrsiflora L. (tufted loosestrife) 
Hackensack marshes near Borough of Little Ferry (Britton, 
1889); swamps, 1861 and 1862 and not common at edge of old 
cedar bog, in freshwater, 1948 (CHRU) 

Oleaceae Olive Family 

Forsythia viridissima Lindl. (forsythia, goldenbell) 

probably escaped from culture at the VonSteuben House 

Fraxinus americana L. (white ash) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 

Ligustrum vulgare L. (privet) 

near swamp, 1860 (CHRU) 



Gentianceae Gentian Family 

Gentiana clausa Raf. (closed gentian, blind gentian, 

bottle gentian) 

meadows, 1916 (CHRU) 

Gentiana saponaria L. (soapwort gentian) 

sparingly on Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 

Menyanthes trifoliata L. (buckbean) 

abundant in Hackensack marshes and Borough of Little Ferry 

near Overpeck Creek (Britton, 1889) 

Sabatia dodecandra (L.) BSP. (American centaury, large 

marsh pink, sea pink) 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889); swamps and meadows, 

1883 (CHRU) ; declining in numbers in recent years, rare 

(Snyder and Vivian, 1981) 

Asclepiadaceae Milkweed Family 

Asclepias exaltat a L. 

near swamps, 1879 (CHRU) 

Asclepias incarnata L. (swamp milkweeed) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Asclepias syr iaca L. (common milkweed) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 



40 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Convolvulaceae Convolvulus Family 

Convolvulus arvensis L. (field bindweed) 

disturbed areas 

Convolvulu s sepium L. (hedge bindweed) 

disturbed areas; old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Cuscuta gronovi i Willd. (dodder) 

entwined in Phragmites and other plants; Hackensack 

marshes, 1880, Hackensack River, 1881; on Typha in old 

cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Polemoniaceae Phlox Family 

Phlox paniculata L. (garden phlox, fall phlox, perennial 

phlox) 

edge of Phramites marsh at the VonSteuben House 

Boraginaceae Borage Family 

Myosotis laxa Lehm. (forget-me-not) 
swampy areas, 1913 (CHRU) 

Verbenaceae Vervain Family 

Verbena hastata L. (blue vervain, simpler's joy) 
disturbed areas; in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Labiatae Mint Family 

Glechom a hederacea L. (run-away-robin, 

gill-over-the-g round) 

disturbed areas 

Prunella vulgaris L. (heal-all, carpenterweed) 

bulldozed area, 1968 (CHRU) 

Pycananthemum virginianum (L.) Durand and Jackson 

(mountain mint, basil) 

Hackensack meadows, 1884 (CHRU) 

Scutellaria epilobi ifolia A. Hamilton (common skullcap) 

few in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Solanaceae Nightshade Family 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 41 

Solanum dulcamara L. (bittersweet, deadly nightshade) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 
areas, wooded areas and edges of marshes 



Scrophulariaceae Figwort Family 

Limosella subulata Ives (mudwort) 

Hackensack River (Britton, 1889) ; state endangered but 

seen in Bergen County fairly recently (Snyder and Vivian, 

1981) 

Linaria vulgaris Hill ( butter-and-eggs, toadflax) 

disturbed areas 

Pedicular is lanceolata Michx. (lousewort, wood-betony) 

meadows, 1883 (CHRU) 

Verbascum blatteria L. (moth mullein, common mullein) 

disturbed areas 

Veronica arvensis L. (corn speedwell) 

abundant in dried-out portion of the river and reservoir 

during drought of 1980 

Bignoniaceae Trumpet Creeper Family 

Catalpa bignonioides Walt, (common catalpa, Indian bean, 

catawba) 

large specimen on the edge of the river at the VonSteuben 

House; marsh area at Fairleigh Dickinson University 

Lentibulariaceae Bladderwort Family 

Utricularia intermedia Hayne (bladderwort) 
Hackensack swamps (Britton, 1889) 

Plantaginaceae Plantain Family 

Plantago lanceolata L. (narrow- leaved plantain, English 

plantain, ribgrass, ribwort, ripple grass) 

disturbed areas 

Plantago rugelli Decne. (redstem plantain) 

disturbed areas 

Capr ifoliaceae Honeysuckle Family 



42 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Lonicera japonica Thumb. (Japanese honeysuckle) 
disturbed areas 

Sambucus canadensis L. (elderberry) 
edge of river at Fairleigh Dickinson University 
Viburnum acerifolium L. (maple-leaf viburnum, arrow wood) 
area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) 
Viburnum nudum L. (arrow wood) 

Hackensack swamps (Britton, 1889) ; Hackensack swamps, 1874 
(CHRU) 



Cucurbitaceae Gourd Family 

Sicyos angulatus L. (bur-cucumber) 
common in disturbed areas 



Compos itae Composite Family 

Achillea millefolium L. (common yarrow) 

disturbed areas 

Ambrosia artemisi ifolia L. (common ragweed) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; disturbed 

areas; Hackensack, 1896 (CHRU) 

Antennaria plantag in ifolia (L.) Hook (ladies' tobacco, 

pussy-toes) 

Hackensack, 1896 (CHRU) 

Aster ontar ionis Wieg. (aster) 

Hackensack meadows, 1869 (CHRU) 

Aster subulatus Michx. (salt marsh aster) 

edge of water at the VonSteuben House 

Bidens laevis (L.) BSP. (bur-marigold, cuckold) 

Hackensack maedows, 1869 (CHRU) 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. (ox-eye daisy, marguerite, 

white daisy) 

disturbed areas 

Cichor ium intybus L. (common chickory, blue sailors) 

disturbed areas 

Cirsium arvense (L.) Seap. (Canada thistle) 

disturbed area, 1968 (CHRU) 

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Tenore 

disturbed areas 

Conzya canadensis (L.) Cronq. (horseweed) 

taxonomy after Gleason and Cronquist, 1963; disturbed 

areas, 1968 (CHRU); disturbed areas 

Coreopsis tr ichosperma Michx. (tickseed) 

not listed in Fernald (1950); Hackensack meadows (Britton, 



3^981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 



43 



1889) 

Eriqeron annuus (L.) Pers. (daisy fleabane, sweet 

scabious, white top) 

disturbed areas 

Eupatorium f istulosum Barratt (Joe Pye weed, trumpet weed) 

disturbed areas 

Eupatorium maculatum L. (Joe Pye weed) 

disturbed areas, 1968 (CHRU) 

Eupatorium perfoliatum L. (thoroughwor t) 

roadsides, 1948, swampy ground, 1920, and disturbed areas, 

1968 (CHRU) 

Eupatorium purpureum L. (sweet or green-stemmed Joe Pye 

weed) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L. (catfoot) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Helianthus annuus L. (common sunflower) 

disturbed area, 1968 (CHRU) 

Helinathus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) 

abundant in Phragmites marsh at the VonSteuben House 

Hieracium pratense Tausch (field hawkweed, yellow 

hawkweed, King Devil) 

disturbed areas 

Lactuca canadensis L. (wild lettuce) 

disturbed areas 

Liatris spicata (L.) Willd. (button snake root, blazing 

star) 

Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Mikania scadens (L.) Willd. (climbing hempweed) 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Pulchea purpurascens (S.W.) DC. (salt marsh fleabane) 

edge of the river at the VonSteuben House; old cedar bog, 

1948 (CHRU) 

Prenanthes racemosa Michx. (rattle snake root) 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889); marshes, 1861 (CHRU); 

endangered but reported to have been seen fairly recently 

in Bergen County (Snyder and Vivian, 1981) 

Prenanthes racemosa var. pinnatif ida Gray (rattle snake 

root) 

Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Prenanthes trifoliata (Cass.) Fern, (gall-of-the-earth) 

thickets, Little Ferry, 1916 (CHRU) 

Senecio viscosus L. (groundsel, ragwort, squaw weed, 

butterweed) 

disturbed areas 

Solidago altissima L. 

Hackensack meadows, 1864 (CHRU) 



AA PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

Solidago elliottii T and G. (goldenrod) 

Hackensack meadows (Britton, 1889) 

Solidago f istulosa Mill. 

border of swamps, 1870 (CHRU) 

Solidago qraminifolia (L.) Salibs. (grass-leaved 

goldenrod) 

roadsides and construction sites, 1968 (CHRU) 

Solidago juncea Ait. 

roadsides, 1968 (CHRU) 

Solidago patula Muhl. 

swampy areas, 1862 (CHRU) 

Solidago rugosa Ait. 

old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Solidago sempervirens L. (seaside goldenrod) 

common in old cedar bog, 1948 (CHRU) 

Solidago ulig inosa Nutt. 

Hackensack marshes (Britton, 1889) 

Sonchus asper (L.) Hill (spiny- leaved sow thistle) 

Hackensack meadows, 1862 (CHRU) 

Taraxacum officinale Weber (common dandelion) 

area of City of Hackensack (BCCAPEAT, 1979) ; ubiquitous 



Reference 



3aird, J. 1956. The ecology of the Watchung Reservation, Union 
bounty. New Jersey. The Department of Botany, Rutgers, the State 
Jniversity of New Jersey. New Brunswick, N.J. 83 pp 

3ergen County Community Action Program, Environmental Assessment 
ream (BCCAPEAT) . 1979. Environmental Resources Inventory, 
rity of Hackensack. Bergen County Action Program, Inc. 263 pp 

Jritton, N.L. 1889. Catalogue of Plants Found in New Jersey, 
rinal Report of The State Geologist. The John L. Murphy 
Publishing Co. Trenton, N.J. 642 pp 

:hrysler, M.A. and J.L. Edwards. 1947. The Ferns of New 
Jersey. Rutgers University Press. New Brunswick, 
^.J. 201 pp 

Day, G.M. 1953. The Indian as an ecological factor in the 
lortheastern forest. Ecol. 34:329-346 



1981 Foote, Plants of Hackensack River area 45 

Fernald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. Edition 8, 
Corrected Edition, 1970. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company. 
New York. 1632 pp 

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of Northeastern 
United States and Adjacent Canada. D. Van Nostrand Company. 
810 pp 

Porcella, S. 1980. List of New Jersey's biggest trees. 
New Jersey Outdoors. March/April 8(2), 1980 

Synder, D.B. and V.E. Vivian. 1981. Rare and Endangered Vascula 
Plant Species in New Jersey. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service. 
U.S. Govt. Printing Office 701-080/421. 98 pp 

Uminski, S.H. 1965. The History of River Edge. Borough of 
River Edge, N.J. 149 pp 

VanVechten III, G.W. and M.F. Buell. 1959. The floodplain 
Vegetation of the Millstone River, New Jersey. Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 86:219-27 

Vermeule, C.C. 1894. Report on Water Supply. Final Report 
of The State Geologist. John L. Murphy Publishing Co. 
Trenton, N.J. 345 pp 

, 1895. Report on Forestry in New Jersey. Annual 

Report of The State Geologist. John L. Murphy Publishing 
Co. Trenton, N.J. 198 pp 



NOTES ON THE GENUS GEUNSIA (VERBENACBAE) 
Harold N. Moldenke 



Lack of time, this late in life, now prevents the preparation, 
of the detailed monograph of this genus originally planned and 
announced, but it seems worthwhile to place on record for future 
workers the bibliographic and herbarium notes on the genus as- 
sembled by my wife. Alma L. Moldenke, and myself over the past 52 
years. This is the 74th genus to be treated by us in this con- 
tinuing series of papers. The herbarium acronyms employed are 
the same as have been used by us in all previous installments in 
this and certain other journals since 1933 and have been most re- 
cently been explained in Phytologia Memoirs 2: 463 — 469 (1980). 

GEUNSIA Blume, Cat. Gewas. Buitenz . , imp. 1, 11 — 12 & 48 (1823), 

Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14: 819. 1826 [not Geunsia Moc. & Sesse, 
1828, nor Neck., 1838, nor DC, 1904, nor Raf., 1966, nor 
Gevnsia Neck., 1790, nor Geunzia Neck., 1790]. 
Synonymy: Callicarpe Roxb. ex W. Griff., Notul. PI. Asiat. 4: 
173. 1854 [not Callicarpa L. , 1741, nor Willd., 1824]. Geinsia 
S. Moore ex Wangerin, Justs Bot. Jahresber. 51 (1): 555, sphalm. 
1923. Guensia Rolfe ex Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 10, 
in syn. 1947. Geunsis Merr. ex Mold., Fifth Suram. 2: 520, in 
syn. 1971. 

Bibliography: Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 331—332 (1790), 2: 440 
(1790), and 3: 403. 1790; Roxb., Hort. Beng., imp. 1, [83]. 1814; 
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Gewas. Buitenz., imp. 1, 11 — 12 & 48. 1823; Blume & Nees , Flora 8: 
107 & 109—110. 1825; Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. Ind. 14: 819. 1826; 
P. DC, Prodr. 3: 358—359. 1828; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 2, 1: 391 
& 395. 1832; Endl., Gen. PI. 1: 638. 1838; Raf., Fl. Tellur., 
imp. 1, 4: 61. 1838; Meisn., PI. Vase. Gen. Coram. 2: 200. 1840; 
Spach, Hist. Nat. Vdg. Phan. 9: 228. 1840; Endl., Enchirid. Bot. 
312. 1841; Reichenb., Repert. Herb. Nom. 108. 1841; D. Dietr., Syn. 
PI. 3: 372 & 619. 1843; Hassk. , Cat. PI. Hort. Bot. Bogor. Cult. 
Alt. 136. 1844; Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc. 465 & 473. 1845; Walp., 
Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 116 & 131. 1845; Lindl., Veg. Klngd., ed. 1, 
664. 1846; Nees in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 136. 1847; Schau. in A. DC, 
Prodr. 11: 640 & 644—646. 1847; A. L. Juss. in Orbigny, Diet. 
Univ. Hist. Nat. 13: 185. 1849; W. Griff., Notul PI. Asiat. 4: 173 
& 747. 1854; W. Griff., Icon. PI. Asiat. 4: pi. 447, fig. 2, & 448. 
1854; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 884—885, & 887. 1856; Schnitzl., 
Icon. Fam. Nat. Reg. Veg. 137 Verbenac: [2] & [3]. 1856; Buek, Gen. 
Spec. Syn. Candoll. 3: 73 & 198. 1858; Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 884— 
885. 1858; Lemaire & Verschaf felt, Illustr. Hort. 6: pi. 202. 
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ser. 1, 3: 8. 1862; Bocq., Adansonla, ser. 1, 2: [Rev. Verbenac] 
83, 115, 121, 124, 127, 130, 140, 141, 144, 154, & 159—161 (1862) 
and 3: 178, 182, 185—186, 192, & 263, pi. 8, fig. 1—7. 1862; 
Bocq. in Baill., Rec. Obs. Bot. 3: 178 & 182. 1863; Teijsm. & Binn., 

46 



1981 Iloldenke, Notes on Geunsia 47 

Natuurk. Tijdschr. Ned. Ind. 25: 409— AlO. 1863; Pfeiffer, Nom. 
Bot. 1 (1): 535 & 536 (1873), 1 (2): 1442 (1874), and 2 (1): 25. 
1874; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 3, 132. 1874; Benth. in Benth. & 
Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1135 & 1150. 1876; Fern.-Villar in 
Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4: Nov. App. 158. 1880; Vidal, Sin. 
Fam. Gen. PI. Len. Filip. [Introd. Fl. For. Filip.] 1: 202. 
1883; Rolfe, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 21: 315, 1884; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. Ind. 4: 561, 566, & 568. 1885; Vi- 
dal y Soler, Phan. Cuming. Philip. 65, 133, & 134. 1885; Durand, 
Ind. Gen. Phan. 321. 1888; K. Schum. & Hollr. , Fl. Kais. Wil- 
helmsl. 119. 1889; .Baill. , Hist. PI. 11: 88 & 119. 1891; Warb., 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 13: 426. 1891; Baill., Hist. PI. 11: 490. 
1892; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 1, 1:386 & 
1026. 1893; Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. 12: [Plantkund, Woor- 
denb.] 89 & 144. 1894; Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot., ser. 

2, 4: 88, 119, & 215, 1894; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflan- 
zenfam., ed. 1, 4 (3a): 136—142, 164, & 165, fig. 54 C & 62 A. 
1895; Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot., ser. 2, 4: 527. 1896; 
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177. 1900; K. Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. SUdsee 
521. 1900; Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 1, 182. 
1902; E. D. Merr., Bull. Philip. Forest. Bur. 1: 50. 1903; Dalla 
Torre & Harms, Gen. Siphonog. , imp. 1, 432. 1904; Post & Kuntze, 
Lexicon 248 & 688. 1904; Thiselt.-Dyer, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 2: 81. 
1904; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1: 336—337 (1908) and 2: 513— 
514. 1908; King & Gamble, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1908: 105. 1908; 
Gamble in King & Gamble, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 74 (2 extra): 
794 & 800—802. 1908; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 861—866. 
1910; M. C. Muller, Jungh. Gedenkb. 188. 1910; Gilg in Engl., 
Syllab. Pflanzenfam., ed. 7, 314, fig. 413 B. 1912; Koord., Ex- 
cursionsfl. 3: 132, 134, & 413. 1912; E. D. Merr,, Philip. Journ. 
Sci. Bot. 7: 342—343. 1912; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 4, imp. 1, 
34, 43, & 97. 1913; Koord. & Valet,, Atlas Baumart, Java 2: 6, 
pi. 275 & 279. 1914; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8: 2871—2873. 
1915; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 40 (2): 335. 1915; 
E. D. Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 11: 309. 1916; Heyne, 
Nutt. Plant. Ned. Ind., ed. 1, 4: 106—107. 1917; H. Hallier, 
Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 23—32. 1918; Gilg in Engl., Syl- 
lab. Pflanzenfam., ed. 8, 318, fig. 413 B. 1919; H. J. Lam, Ver- 
benac. Malay. Arch. 4, 28—45, 49, 53, 73, 78—80, [361], 362, & 
365. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull, Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 

3, 3: 9, 11—18, 106, 107, 111, iv, vi, & xi— xii. 1921; E. D. 
Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511 & 512. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 43, & 113. 1921; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. 
Jahresber. 44: 254. 1922; Blume, Cat. Gewass. Buitenz., imp. 2, 
11 & 48. 1923; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 382—388. 
1923; S. Moore, Journ. Bot. Lond. 61: App. 39. 1923; Ridl., Fl. 
Malay Penins. 2: 611 & 613—614. 1923; Wangerin, Justs Bot. Jah- 
resber. 51 (1): 555. 1923; Bakh. in Bakh. & Lam, Nov. Guin. 14, 



48 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Uo. 1 

Bot. 1: 167. 1924; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pflanzenfam. , ed. 9 & 
10, 339, fig. 418 B. 1924; H. J. Lam in Lauterb., Engl. Bot. 
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pua 136. 1925; S. Moore. Journ. Bot. Lond. 63: Suppl. 80. 1925; 
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Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Janssonius, Mikrogr. Holz. 754, 
757—758, 763, & 766, fig. 291. 1926; E. D. Merr., Disc. Bibl. 
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(1): 717. 1926; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 44: 1383 
& 1425 (1927) and 47 (2): 244. 1927; T-Jhite & Francis, Trans. Roy. 
Soc. Queensl. 38: 257. 1927; Bakh. , Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: [69]. 
1929; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 46 (2): 606 (1929) 
and 47 (2): 244 & 326. 1929; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 102. 
1929; Ridl., Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1929: 260. 1929; C. T. White, 
Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: 263. 1929; Burkill & Haniff, Card. Bull. 
Straits Settl. 6: 233. 1930; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 279. 1930; 
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Upsal. 1 (4): 79—80 & 200, pi. 6, fig. 1. 1934; Mold., Brittonia 
1: 260. 1934; Beer & Lam, Blumea 2: 222. 1936; Diels in Engl., 
Syllab. Pflanzenfam., ed. 11, 339, fig. 432 B. 1936; Fedde, Justs 
Bot. Jahresber. 57 (2): 401 & 785. 1938; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. 
Inf. 1938: 404, 407, 409, & 415. 1938; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 9: 46. 1938; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3808 & 3860. 
1939; Mold., Alph. List Comm. Names 10, 13, 18—20, 22, 27, & 28. 
1939; Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 9—12 & 26. 1940; Du- 
rand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 2, 182. 1941; Fedde & 
Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 569, 572, & 573. 1941; 
Wangerin & Krause, Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (1): 703. 1941; Mold., 
Alph. List Inv. Names 8—11, 24, & 25. 1942; Mold., Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 60—68, 86, 87, & 92—93. 1942; Lam & 
Meeuse, Blumea 5: 236. 1945; Mold., Am. Journ. Bot. 32: 612. 
1945; Mold., Phytologia 2: 93 & 103. 1945; Blume, Cat. Gewass. 
Buitenz., imp. 2, 11—12 & 48. 1946; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., 
Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 386 & 1026. 1946; Raf., Fl. Tellur. , imp. 2, 
4: 61. 1946; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 99. 1947; Mold., 
Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 3, 9, & 10. 1947; H. N. & A. L. 
Mold., PI. Life 2: 77. 1948; Mold., Alph. List Git. 2: 462 (1948) 
and 3: 841. 1949; Den Berger, Determinat. Houts. Mai. Fam. 72. 
1949; E. D. Merr., Ind. Raf. 223. 1949; Mold., Known Geogr. Dis- 
trib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 127, 137—141, 143—150, 160, 176, 177, & 
185. 1949; Phillips, Cat. PI. Fairchild Trop. Card. 24. 1949; Met- 
calfe & Chalk, Anat. Dicot. 2: 1035, 1036, & 1041. 1950; Chang, 
Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 271 & 310. 1951; Lawrence, Taxon. Vase. Pl.j 
imp. 1, 686 & 794. 1951; Comer, Wayside Trees, ed. 2, 697 & 698. 
1952; Janssonius, Key Javan Woods 55 & 212, fig. 291. 1952; E. J. 
Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: 100. 1953; Mold., Phytologia 5: 8, 
10, 28, & 30. 1954; Angely, Cat. Estat. Gen. Bot. Fan. 12: 4. 
1956; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 29: 3283 & 3628, item 29492. 1957; A- 
non., U. S. Dept. Agr. Bot. Sub j . Index 15: 14354. 1958; Prain, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 4, imp. 2, 34, 43, & 97. 1958; Anon., Kew Bull. 
Gen. Ind. 1929-1956, 132. 1959; Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 49 

1, imp. 3, 182. 1959; Mold., R^sum^ 108, 163, 178, 180, 184, 185, 
187, 188, 190, 192—195, 197, 199, 201, 204, 218, 241—243, 245— 
247, 295, 297, 408, & 455—456. 1959; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
12: 63. 1959; Emberger in Chadefaud & Emberger, Trait. Bot. 2: 
827 & 830, fig. 1173e. 1960; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. 
Kew., imp. 3, 1: 386 & 1026. 1960; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 

2, 43 & 113. 1960; Hansford, Sydowia Ann. Myc, ser. 2, Beih. 2: 
685. 1961; Runner, Rep. Groff. Coll. 362. 1961; Mold., Resume 
Suppl. 3: 18, 20, & 23 (1962) and 4: 7 & 9. 1962; Dalla Torre & 
Harms, Gen. Siphonog. , imp. 2, 432. 1963; Mold., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 
23: 90. 1963; Hegnauer, Chemotax. Pfl. 3: 39. 1964; Melchior in 
Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 12, 2: 435 & 436, fig. 184 B & D. 
1964; Mold., Re'sum^ Suppl. 8: 3 (1964) and 12: 8. 1965; Backer & 
Bakh., Fl. Java 2: 595 & 600. 1965; F. A. Barkley, List Ord. Fam. 
Anthoph. 76 & 168. 1965; Dalla Torre & Harms, Gen. Siphonog., imp. 
2, 432. 1965; Airy Sha\; in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 7, 
476. 1966; Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod. Malay Penins. 1: 1085—1086. 
1966; Mold., Resum^ Suppl. 13: 6. 1966; Takhtadzhian, Sist. Filog. 
Tsvet. 448. 1966; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 60. 1966; Whit- 
more, Guide Forests Brit. Solomon Isls. 170. 1966; Mitra, Elem. 
Syst. Bot. Angiosp., ed. 2 abrdg. , 139. 1967; Mold., Resume Suppl. 
15: 16 & 17. 1967; Rendle, Classif. Flow. PI., ed. 2, 2: 502 & 
503. 1967; Van Steenis, Blumea 15: 149 & 151. 1967; Meijer, Bot. 
Bull. Herb. Forest Dept. Sandakan 10: 27, 223, & opp. 224. 1968; 
Mold., Rdsum^ Suppl. 16: 22 (1968) and 17: 13. 1968; Van Steenis, 
Biol. Abstr. 49: 4205. 1968; Burtt, Notes Roy. Bot. Card. Edinb. 
29: 149—152, fig. 5 A. 1969; J. Hutchins., Evol. Phylog. Flow. 
PI. Dicot. 465, 473, & 685. 1969; Anon., Biol. Abstr. 51 (3): B. 
A.S.I.C. S.30. 1970; Brentzel, Biol. Abstr. 51: 1571. 1970; Rou- 
leau, Guide Ind. Kew. 80, 212, 230, 327, 331, & 352. 1970; Bal- 
gooy, Blumea Suppl. 6: [PI. Geogr. Pacif.] 200. 1971; Lawrence, 
Taxon. Vase. PI., imp. 2, 686 & 794. 1971; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 
276, 289, 296, 305, 316, 317, 324, 330, 332, 336, 338—340, 363, 
403, 404, 407—409, 415, 416, & 418 (1971) and 2: 519, 520, 525, 
610, 757, 878—879, 969, & 971. 1971; Mold., Phytologia 20: 487 & 
507 (1971), 21: 156, 225, 232, 384, 458, 460, 469, 470, & 506 
(1971), and 22: 20, 23, 25, 191, & 508. 1971; Mukhopadhyay , Pollen 
Morph. Verb, [thesis]. 1971; Townsend, Excerpt. Bot. A. 18: 365. 
1971; Foreman, Bot. Bull. Div. Bot. Dep. For. N. Guin. 5: 63. 
1972; Airy Shaw in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 8, 487. 
1973; Altsehul, Drugs Foods 245. 1973; Mold., Phytologia 25: 234, 
240, & 507 (1973) and 26: 368 & 504. 1973; Hartley, Dunstone, 
Fitzg., Johns., & Lamberton, Lloydia 36: 293. 1973; Thanikaimoni , 
Inst. Franc. Pond. Trav. Sect. Seient. Techn. 12 (2): 57. 1973; 
Famsworth, Pharmacog. Titles 9 (1): xii. 1974; Heslop-Harrison, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 15: 24. 1974; Mold., Phytologia 28: 454, 457, & 
508. 1974; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1, imp. 2, 1: 409. 1975; Mold., 
Phytologia 33: 272, 376. 391, 392, 481, 482, 489, & 509 (1976) 

and 34: 153, 267, 272, & 504. 1976; Thanikaimoni, Inst. Franc. 
Pond. Sect. Seient. Techn. 13: 102 & 328. 1976; Mold., Phytologia 
36: 38 & 506. 1977; Mukherjee & Chanda, Trans. Bose Res. Inst. 
41: 40, 41, 44, & 47. 1978; Mold., Phytologia 40: 425 & 507 (1978) 



50 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, .»Io. 1 

and 44: 473 & 508. 1979; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 262, 273, 279, 
286, 296, 307, 315, 319, 320, 322, 326—330, 353, 354, 377, 378, 
405, & 548. 1980; Roxb., Hort. Beng. , imp. 2, [83]. 1980; Mold., 
Phytologia 49: 430, 474, & 508. 1981. 

Mostly pubescent trees or large, erect shrubs, rarely scandent 
or epiphytic, the pubescence usually more or less tomentose, far- 
inose, stellate, or lanate, from scattered to very dense and fur- 
furaceous; stems and branches tetragonal; leaves often large, 
mostly plainly anisophyllous, scattered or partly opposite and 
partly solitary between each of the pairs, or alternate by the 
separation of the members of a pair, sometimes apparently ter- 
nate or quaternate, simple, exstipulate, the leaf -blades mostly 
thick-textures or even coriaceous, usually distinctly petiolate 
and marginally entire, rarely serrulate, mostly densely pubescent 
at least on the lower surface; inflorescence determinate, cen- 
trifugal, cymose, axillary or supra- axillary , the cymes dichoto- 
mous, usually ample, corymbose, many- flowered, pedunculate, usu- 
ally borne in the upper leaf-axils; lower bracts linear-subulate, 
upper ones minute; flowers small, hypogynous, much like those of 
Callicarpa but usually somewhat larger and 4 — 7- [usually 5-] 
merous and resinous-punctate; caiyx inferior, gamosepalous, usu- 
ally short-camp.^inulate or turbinate, slightly ampliate after an- 
thesis, the rim sinuately 4 — 8- (usually 5- or 6-) dentate, the 
teeth small, distant; corolla gamopetalous , subactlnomorphic or 
actinomorphic, infundibular or subhypocrateriform, usually 
white or lavender to purple, violet, or red, the tube cylindric. 
antrorsely somewhat ampliate, surpassing the calyx, the limb 
spreading during anthesis, the segments as many as the calyx- 
teeth, usually 5 or 6, sometimes 4 or 7, equal or subequal, im- 
bricate in bud, finally reflexed or involute; stamens epipetal- 
ous, inserted at or near the base of the corolla-tube, of the 
same number as the corolla-lobes, usually 5 or 6, isometrous, 
exserted; filaments filiform, elongate; anthers oblong, basi- 
or dorsifixed, often quite elongate, often glandulose, 2-celled, 
the thecae parallel, oblong to linear-lanceolate, 2 — 5 times as 
long as wide, in bud apparently dehiscing by means of a longitud- 
inal slit, but in full anthesis by means or an apical and sub- 
obliquely gaping opening often simulating a terminal pore; pis- 
til solitary, compound, usually 5 (rarely 4-) merous; style 
slender or stout, terminal, exserted; stigma broad, subpeltate, 
3 — 6- (mostly 5-) lobed, the lobes equal, short, broadly cune- 
ate and obtuse; ovary superior, bicarpellary , imperfectly 3 — 5- 
(mostly 5-) celled, each cell 2-ovulate, the placentae parietal; 
ovules 4 — 10 (mostly 10), laterally attached above the middle; 
fruiting-calyx unchanged or slightly ampliate; fruit small, dru- 
paceous, globose or oblate-globose, mostly red or pink when ma- 
ture, situated in the persistent fruiting-calyx, the exocarp 
thin or fleshy and juicy, the mesocarp granular, the endocarp 
hard, breaking up into 5 — 10 (mostly 10) 1-seeded pyrenes; 
seeds usually equal to the number of ovules, oblong or oblong- 
ovoid, the testa membranaceous and thin, exalbumlnous; coty- 
ledons 2, fleshy, radicle inferior. 



1981 lloldenke. Notes on Geunsia 51 

Type species: Geunsia farinosa Blume. 

This is a small genus of about 27 recognized specific and 
infraspecif ic taxa whose natural distribution extends from India 
and Burma, north into southern China, and eastward through Thai- 
land and Malaya to the Philippine Islands, Indonesia, and New 
Guinea. It is named in honor of Steven Jan van Geuns (1767 — 
1795). a Dutch writer on Belgian plants. 

Interestingly, Baillon (1862) considered the genus to consist 
of only 2 or 3 species from the Malay Archipelago; Briquet (1895) 
gave 4 as the number, also from only the Malay Archipelago. 
Bentham (1876), Gamble (1908), and Ridley (1923) also give 3 or 
4 as the nxjmber, but from both the Malay Archipelago and Malay 
Peninsula. Lam (1919 recognized 13 species and 6 varieties, 
while Angely (1956) gives it 23 species. 

The genus Geunsia, being as closely related to Callicarpa as 
it obviously is, it is not at all surprising that authors have 
differed on its validity. Schauer (1847), Jussieu (1849), and 
Van Steenis (1967) combine it with Callicarpa, but it has been 
kept distinct by Blume (1826), Bentham (1876), Vidal (1883), 
Baillon (1891-1892), Gamble (1908), Hallier (1918), Lam (1919), 
Merrill (1921), Ridley (1923), Junell (1934), Fletcher (1938), 
Backer & Bakhuizen (1965) , Airy Shaw (1966) , and Takhtadzhian 
(1966). Post & Kuntze (1904) classify it in the "Chloantheae" 
[=Chloanthaceae] . The Callicarpe [sic] of Griffith (1854) ap- 
pears to belong to Geunsia since the plate to which it refers 
shows pentamerous flowers; only in the text is the generic name 
misspelled. 

Lam (1919), a careful worker with much experience in this 
family of plants, meticulously enumerates the differences which 
he saw between Geunsia and Callicarpa : "This genus is closely al- 
lied to Callicarpa and this is the cause, that so many authors 
have confounded the species of one genus with that of the other. 
Yet the two genera are, examining them exactly, very easily 
separable, though there are a number of features, which would 
confuse a superficial examinator. We have tried to separate 
distinctly the two genera, taking as a criterion the following 
characteristics for Geunsia: (1) Beside the opposite leaves, 
there are always alternate ones; this sometimes gives rise to 
the presence of (pseudo)-temate or -quaternate leaves. (2) The 
petioles of the opposite leaves are always joined by a charac- 
teristic interpetiolar margin of hairs. (3) The anther-cells 
open by a typical widening of the upper part of the parallel 
fissures; (it is not a mere apical hole, as many authors pre- 
tend). (4) The ovary is (3-) 5-celled; the cells are 2-seeded. 

"Callicarpa: (1) Only opposite leaves are present. (2) such 
a line is either absent or not conspicuous. (3) The anther-cells 
open by a long fissure, from the apex to the base. (4) The ovary 
is 4-celled, the cells are 1-seeded. 

"This, and some other, less easily definable features, deter- 
mine the general habit, which is typical for each genus, and 
which enable us, to separate the two genera, even then, when, as 
occurs, we meet with specimina, which are 4-merous and 5-merous, 



52 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, IIo. 1 

and have the same habit. The latter characteristic, taken before 
as the criterion for separating for separating the two genera, is 
not sufficient for this purpose, since we discovered 4-merous 
specimina, which without any doubt belong to Geunsia, and 5-inerous 
ones, which belong to Callicarpa. Many species of Geunsia show a 
close affinity with certain species of Callicarpa. This may in- 
dicate the phylogenetic relation between them, and may give rise 
to the supposition that the CaJJicarpa-species are developing from 
the Geunsia-species, which may just be a period of active mutation." 
He goes on the suggest that Callicarpa longifolia Lam. may have de- 
veloped from Geunsia pentandra or C acuminatissima , C. longifolia 
f. floccosa from G. farinosa Blume, C. tomentosa (L.) Murr. and G. 
hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord. may have had a common origin, 
and C. basilanensis Merr. may have developed from G. cumingiana 
var. tetramera H. J. Lam. 

"The 6 — 7-merous Geunsia-species may be another branch of phy- 
logenetic development, arising from an original 5-merous form." 

The Geunsia and Gevnsia, accredited to Necker in the synonymy 
(above), are synonyms of Hypocstes Soland. in the Acanthaceae, 
while his Geunzia is a synonym of Samyda Jacq. in the Flacourti- 
aceae. It is perhaps of interest to note that in the index to his 
work Necker retains the "v" used by him in the first-mentioned of 
these names and the "u" used by him in the second and third. In 
classic Latin "V" was usually substituted for "U" when a word or 
sentence was placed in what we would call upper-case letters or 
type. The Geunsia of Rafinesque is a synonym of Geum L. in the 
Rosaceae, while that of Sesse' & Mocino and that accredited to De 
Candolle are synonyms of Calandrinia H.B.K. in the Portulacaceae. 
"Geunsia Raf." is said to originate in Raf . , Fl. Tellur (1838), 
but actually the name occurs there only as "Gevnsia Necker". 

Bentham (1876), while accepting the genus Geunsia as valid, 
comments that the "Genus certe habitu pluribus notis Callicarpae 
valde affinis, quacum junxit Schauer in DC. Prodromus. . .pistillo 
pleiomero praetermisso, folia tamen integerrima subcoriacea et 
corollae tubus calyce 2 — 3-plo longior in Callicarpa rarius ob- 
servandur, et numerus acutus partium floralibus constans videtur, 
genusque distinctum tam habitu quam characteribus vindicant. 
Specimina examinavimus 1, a Cumingio in ins Philippinis lecta sub 
n. 1733 a Schauero forte vix rite ad G. farinosam, Bl. relata; 
2 et 3, Callicarpae acuminatissimae et C. hexandrae^ Teijsm. et 

Binnend et 4, speciei novae Borneensis, Beccari , n. 786. 

In omnibus antherae jam in alabastro rima longitudinali dehis- 
centes vidimus, etsi rima summo apice magis apertae poros terrain- 
ales simulent." 

Van Steenis (1967) comments that "Lam cited for Geunsia 

that it would always have some alternate leaves beside the de- 
cussate ones, that the nodes show an interpolar margin of hairs, 
that the anther-cells would only open in the apical part of the 

slit, that the ovary-cells are (3-) 5 and 2-seeded. King 

on the other hand separated Geunsia from Callicarpa only by the 
5-merous flowers and 5 — 10 pyrenes. Lam discarded the merousness 
of the flowers as generic distinction. .. .describing under C. havi- 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 53 

landli a var, tetramera H. J. Lam with 4-merous flowers and fruit. 
I have examined it (Haviland 3549) , but the peculiar fact is that 
it has 8 1-seeded pyrenes exactly as in C. saccata, although both 

Lam and King cite an isomerous number The only character 

which might hold between the genera or subgenera is the isomerous 
ovary and fruit in Callicarpa and the bimerous ovary and fruit 
in Geunsia. If such a division is possible, and data are estab- 
lished for all species, one might again consider the specific af- 
finity in order to find out whether the division is natural or 
artificial. " 

Hallier (1918) comments regarding Geunsia: "Diese Gattung 
scheint Mhnlich wie Rubus, Rosa und Hieracium in zahllose beim 
ersten Blick oft kaum unterscheidbare Arten gespalten zu sein und 
bedarf einer sorgfMltigen Bearbeitung auf Grund von mHglichst 
vollstMndigem Material. Ich begnllge mich hier mit der Aufstellung 
von 7 neuen Arten, die sich sicher von den bisher beschriebenen 

unterscheiden lassen Die meisten Arten zeichnen sich 

zum mindesten an den plagiotropen Sprossen durch eine einzigartige 
Blattstellung aus. Es befinden sich nHmlich zwischen je zwei 
paren gegenstUndiger Blotter noch je zwei wechelstHndige BlHtter. 
Dabei kBnnen alle Blotter ungefMhr gleich und auch die Stengel- 
glieder ungefUhr gleichlang sein. Es kann aber auch der Blatt 
unter einem jeden Paare dicht an dasselbe heranrllcken, wodurch es 
beinahe zur Bildung von dreigliedrigen Blattwirteln kommt. Rllckt 
nun auch das Blatt Uber dem Paare bis dicht an dasselbe herab , 
dann entstehen viergliedrigc Scheinwirtel. Ausserdem ist hMufig 
das oberste dieser vier Blotter viel kleiner und anders geformt, 
wodurch eine Art ausgesprochener Anisophyllie zu Stande kommt. 
Ja in G. subternata wird dieses Blatt sogar meist vollstMndig 
unterdrUckt , sodass nur der axillUre BlBthenstrauss ohne StUtz- 
blatt Ubrig bleibt. 

"Nach Briquet soil sich Callicarpa von Geunsia durch einen 

nur zweiblMttrigen Fruchtknoten unterschieden. C. longifolia 

Lam. soil aber nach Koord. en Val 4 — 5 Steine in der Frucht 

und nach Koorders 5 — 6 Narbenlappen haben. Die beider Gat- 

tungen scheinen sich also nur durch die Blattstellung und die 
Staubbeutel, die bei Geunsia mit 2 kurzen apikalen Schlitzen, 

bei Callicarpa aber der ganzen LMnge aufspringen, scharf zu 

unterscheiden. " 

The only recorded common name for the genus as a whole is the 
French "geunse" listed by Necker (1790) . 

Junell (1934) comments that "Bei den beiden Gattungen Geunsia 
und Callicarpa kHnnen die Zahlen verhHltnisse im GynEceum grossen 
Variationen unterworfen sein. Bevor die beiden Gattungen eini- 
germassen gut bekannt waren, glaubte man, dass sie sehr gut von- 
einander unterschieden waren, da Geunsia fUnf (bisweilen vier 
Oder drei) FruchtblHtter und Callicarpa nur zwei solche hatte. 
Sp^ter fand man jedoch, dass dieses Merkmal nicht stichhaltig war. 
Nach Lam (1919) kann man jedoch die Gattungen immer noch unter- 
scheiden, wenn man auch den Baun der StaubblMtter und die Blatt- 
stellung berilcksichtigt. Lam ist der Ansicht, dass sich die Gat- 
tung Geunsia in diese periode aktiver Mutation befindet, und dasS 



54 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 50, No. 1 

man in einigen FMllen angeben kann, von welcher Geunsia-Arten 
gewissen Callicarpa-Axten abstammen. Die FUnfzMhligen Geunsia 
Arten sollen auch de Ursprung einer Artenreihe mit sechs- bis 
siebenzMhligen BlUten sein. — Dem gegenUber fasst Bakhuizen van 
den Brink (1921) die beiden Gattungen unter dem Namen Callicarpa 
zusammen. Bei der Beschreibung der GynMceumbaus behalte ich die 

beiden Gattungen bei Da bei der Gattung Geunsia die BlUten 

auch hinsichtlich des GynMceums fiinfzUhlig sein k8nnen, wird 
diese Gattung als eine der ursprlinglichsten Typen in Verbenaceae 
betrachtet; auch andere Merkmale sprechen dafUr, dass Geunsia 
einen sehr altertUmlichen Typus darstellt. Callicarpa steht 
Geunsia so nahe, dass es zweifelhaft ist, ob sich die Trennung 
der beiden Gattungen aufrecht erhalten iMsst." 

It may be worth noting that the Endlicher (1838) reference in 
the generic bibliography (above) is usually cited as "1836-1856", 
the titlepage date, but the page involved with Geunsia was actu- 
ally issued in 1838; similarly the Schnitzlein (1856) reference 
is usually cited as "1843 — 1870", the titlepage date,, but the 
part that concerns us here was issued in 1856. Durand & Jackson 
(1941) give "1894" as the date for the Briquet reference, which, 
indeed, is the date given on the wrapper-cover of the section, 
but Stafleu (1967, p. 148). avers that the entire section of pp. 
97 — 176 was not issued until February 26, 1895. Schumann & Lau- 
terbach's paper is often cited as "1901", but seems actually 
to have appeared already in late 1900. Blume's original descrip- 
tion of the genus is sometimes, apparently incorrectly, cited as 
"9. 1825". The genus is said to be mentioned in Fieldiana Bot. 
23: 90 & 27:103, but I have been unable to find any such reference 
on these pages. 

Excluded taxa: 
Geunsia DC. ex Post & Kuntze, Lexicon 248, in syn. 1904 •= Calan- 

drinia H.B.K., Portulacaceae. 
Geunsia Moc. & Sesse' ex P. DC., Prodr. 3: 358—359. 1828 = Calan- 

drinia H.B.K., Portulacaceae. 
Geunsia Neck, apud Raf., Fl. Tellur., imp. 1, 4: 61. 1838; Jacks. 

in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 1026, in syn. •= 

Hypoestes Soland., Acanthaceae. 
Geunsia beccariana Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. , ed. 

1, 4 (3a): 165. 1895 = Callicarpa havilandii (King & Gamble) 

H. J. Lam. 
Geunsia fastuosa (L.) Raf., Fl. Tellur., imp. 1, 4: 61. 1838 •= 

Hypoestes fastuosa (L.) R. Br., Acanthaceae. 
Geunsia fastuosa (R. Br.) Raf. apud Bakh. , Bull. Jard. Bot. Buit- 

enz., ser. 3, 3: 27, in syn. 1921 = Hypoestes fastuosa (L.) 

R. Br., Acanthaceae. 
Geunsia fastuosa Raf. apud Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., 

imp. 1, 1: 1026, in syn. 1893 •= Hypoestes fastuosa (L.) R. Br., 

Acanthaceae . 
Geunsia havilandii King & Gamble, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1908: 105. 

1908 •= Callicarpa havilandii (King & Gamble) H. J. Lam. 
Geunsia mollis Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3800. 1939 = Premna 

nauseosa Blanco. 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 55 

Geunsia ovata Elm. ex Mold., R^sum^ 295, in syn. 1959 = Premna 

subscandens Merr. 
Geunsia rosea Moc. & Sesse ex P. DC, Prodr. 3: 359. 1828 = 

Calandrinia caulescens H.B.K., Portulacaceae. 
Geunsia straminea Elm. ex Bakh. in Lam & Bakh. , Bull. Jard. Bot. 

Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 22, in syn. 1921 = Callicarpa arhorea 

var. psilocalyx C. B. Clarke. 
Geunzia Neck., Elem. Bot. 2: 440. 1790 = Samyda L. , Flacourtiaceae. 
Gevnsia Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 33. 1790 = Hypoestes Soland., Acan- 

thaceae. 
The Fortune 118, distributed in at least some herbaria as 
Geunsia sp. , actually is Callicarpa kochiana Mak. 

An artificial key to the species and infraspecif ic taxa of 

Geunsia 

1. A woody climber or vine G. scandens . 

la. Shrubs, treelets, or trees, rarely epiphytic. 

2. Anthers short and broad, the proportion of length to 
breadth being about 2. 
3. Lower side of adult leaf -blades subglabrous, sparsely 

puberulous, or matted-tomentellous; veinlet reticula- 
tion often very conspicuous. 
4. Leaf -blades with an apical acumen 4.5 — 6.5 cm. 

long G . acuminatissip'a . 

4a. Leaf-blades with a much shorter acumen, 

5. Lower mature leaf-blade surface glabrous or subglab- 
rous. 

6. Lower leaf -blade surface silvery G. ramosi . 

6a. Lower leaf-blade surface not silvery. 

7. Corolla glabrous, not glandulose. . . .G. pentandra. 

7a. Corolla-lobes glandulose G. apoensis. 

5a. Lower mature leaf -blade surface appressed- and mat- 
ted-tomentellous, arachnoid, or stellate. 

8 . Leaf-blades marginally serrate 

G. paloensis var. serrata. 

3a. Leaf-blades marginally entire. 

9. Leaf-blades with 7 — 9 pairs of secondary veins; 

corolla-lobes externally villous at the center... 

G. pullei . 

ya. Leaf -blades with 9 — 12 pairs of secondary veins. 
10. Lower leaf -surf ace merely arachnoid and silvery. 

G. paloensis var. celebica. 

10a. Lower leaf-surface not arachnoid-silvery. 

11. Lower leaf-surface more or less furfuraceous, 
often yellowish; leaf-base gradually atten- 
uate G. paloensis. 

11a. Lower leaf-surface white with matted tomen- 
tellous hairs; leaf-base abruptly attenuate.. 

G. pentandra var. albidella. 

3a. Lower surface of adult leaf-blades densely yellow- or 
brown-tomentose . 



56 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ao. 1 

12. Corolla-lobes and stamens 4 or 5. 

13. Leaf-blades to 18 cm. long and 7.5 cm. wide, usually 

sparsely puberulous beneath, the base attenuate; peti- 
oles to 4 cm. long; corolla-lobes villous in the cen- 
ter outside G. pullei. 

13a. Leaf-blades to 28 cm. long and 14 cm. wide, densely 

tomentose beneath, the base often more or less cordate; 
corolla-lobes not at all or only minutely puberulous. 

14 . Leaf-blades marginally serrate 

G. cumingiana var. dentata . 

14a. Leaf-blades marginally entire G. cumingiana. 

12a. Corolla-lobes and stamens mostly 6 or 7 . 
15. Breadth of leaf -blades 2.5—7.5 cm. 

16. Leaf-blades 4.5 — 5.5 cm. wide, basally subrotundate; 

petioles 1.5 — 2 cm. long; corolla 5- or 6-merous; 
filaments glandulose below; peduncles 2.5 cm. 

long G. grandiflora. 

16a. Leaf-blades 2.5 — 5 cm. wide, basally more or less ob- 
tuse or acute; petioles to 2.5 cm. long; corolla 6- 
or 7-nerous; filaments glabrous; peduncles 3 — 5 cm. 

long G. flavida. 

15a. Ureadth of leaf-blades 5 — 11 cm., length 11 — 24 cm.; 

calyx 3 mm. long; corolla 7 mm. long, softly pubescent, 

6- or 7-merous. 

17. Leaf-blades marginally entire G. hexandra . 

17a. Leaf-blades marginally serrulate 

G, hexandra f. serrulata . 

2a. /Withers long and narrow, the proportion of length to breadth 
about 4 or 5. 
18. Corolla 7- or 8-merous; inflorescence caulif lorous, forming 

a stout cylindric cone 

18a. Corolla 4 — 6-merous; inflorescence not caulif lorous nor 
conic. 

19 . Corolla 7-merous G. flavida . 

19a. Corolla 4 — 6-merous. 

20. Corolla 5- or 6-iuerous; leaves subternate, rusty-pubes- 
cent beneath, 11 — 17 cm. long, 4.5 — 7.5 cm. wide; petioles 
1.5 — 2 cm. long; corolla minutely rugose, hardly glandulose; 

calyx 2.5 mm. long G. grandiflora. 

20a. Corolla 4- or 5-merous. 

21. Leaf-blades appressed- and matted-tomentellous beneath, 
flavidous or silvery in age, more or less furfurace- 
ous when young. 

22. Leaves plainly anisophyllous; corolla pentamerous, 
red G. furfuracea . 

22a. Leaves not anisophyllous; corolla tetramerous, 

violet or blue G. homoeophylla. 

21a. Leaf-blades yellow- or f erruginous-stellate-tomentose 
beneath, not appressed- or matted-tomentellous. 

23. The tomentum ferruginous; calyx 3 mm. long; corolla- 

tube 4 — 5 mm. long, glandulose; leaf-blades coria- 
ceous G . cinnamomea . 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 57 

23a. Tomentum yellow or yellowish-brovm; calyx 1.5 — 2 mm. long; 

24. Leaves subquaternate, G. quaterni folia. 

24a. Leaves opposite, alternate, or subternate. 
25. Corolla-tube 5 — 6 mm. long. 

26. Flowers tetramerous. .(7. farinosa var. callicarpoides. 
26a. Flowers pentamerous. 

27. i^eaf -blades marginally entire G. farinosa. 

27a. Leaf-blades apically serrulate 

G. farinosa f. serrulate. 

25a. Corolla-tube 3 — 3.5 ram. long. 

28. Ovary glabrous G. homoeophylla . 

28a. Ovary glandulosa. 

29. Leaf-blades apically serrulate G. serrulata. 

29a. Leaf-blades marginally entire 

G. serrulata f. anisopbylla . 

GEUNSIA ACUMINATISSIMA (Teijsm. & Binn.) H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Ma- 
lay. Arch. 32. 1919. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa acuminatissima Teijsm. & Binn., Matuurk. 
Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 25: 409 — 410. 1863 [not C. acuminatissima 
Liu & Tseng, 1957]. Geunsia leprosa Teijsm. ex Mold., Resume 295, 
in syn. 1959. Geunsia acuminatissima Bold, ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 
2: 519, in syn. 1971. 

Bibliography: Teijsm. a Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Nederl. Ind. 
25: 409—410. 1863; Benth. in Benth. & Hook., Gen. PI. 2 (2): 
1150. 1876; Gamble in King & Gamble, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 74 
(2 extra): 801. 1908; il. Ilallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 23. 
1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 31—33, [361], & 365. 
1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
11, 106, 111, vi, & xi. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 
1926; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; 
Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 9. 1940; Fedde & Schust., 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 572. 1941; Hold., Alph. List Inv. 
Names 8. 1942; Mold., Known Geogr. Oistrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 67 & 
93 (1942) and ed. 2, 148, 149, i 185. 1949; Mold., Rdsumd 195, 
199, 201, 241, 295, & 455. 1959; Hold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324, 332, 
336, 338, £. 403 (1971) and 2: 519, 520, & 878. 1971; Mold., Phyto- 
logia 21: 458 6. 460. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315, 322, 326, 
328, & 548. 1980. 

A shrub or small tree, 3 — 4 m. tall; branchlets subtetragonal , 
at first stellate-floccose or ochraceous-furfuraceous, eventually 
glabrescent; petioles 2.3 — 3.5 cm. long, at first stellate-floc- 
cose, eventually glabrescent; leaf-blades membranous or subcharta- 
ceous, oblong-ovate or elliptic, 20 — 27.5 cm. long, 7.5 — 12 cm. 
V7ide, apically very long-acuminate or caudate into a narrow almost 
subulate acumen which is 4.5 — 6.5 cm. long, marginally entire, 
basally ampliate and abruptly decurrent into the petiole, some- 
times cuneate or inequilateral, sparsely stellate- and somewhat 
glandular-pilose above when young, later glabrous (except for the 
veins) and glandless, sparsely stellate-pilose beneath when young, 
glabrescent (except for the veins) and densely glandulose and some- 
what lepidote beneath; inflorescence cympse, supra-axillary, about 



58 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Ho. 1 

9.5 cm. long, 4 — 5 cm. wide, stellate-f loccose; peduncles 3.5 — 6 
cm. long; pedicels 1 — 3 ram. long; calyx cupuliform, 1 — 1.5 mm. 
long, externally more or less densely stellate-f loccose external- 
ly, glandulose and somewhat lepidote, the rim obsoletely 5- or 6- 
denticulate, the teeth deltoid; corolla infundibular, violet or 
light-violet to light-blue, 4 — 5 nm. long, externally glabrous 
and glandulose throughout, 5- or 6-lobed; stamens 5 or 6, about 1 
cm. long; anthers short and broad, ti^iice as long as wide, glandu- 
lose on both sides but especially dorsally, dehiscing by means of 
an apical widened pore-like slit; style about 8 mm. long; stigma 
capitate; ovary conic, externally densely glandulose, 4- or 5- 
celled; fruit red. 

This distinct species is based on an unnumbered Teijsmann col- 
lection from Ceram, number 908.266-853 in the Leiden herbarium. 

The Callicarpa acuminatissima of Liu & Tseng, referred to in 
the synonymy (above), is a synonym of C. pilosissima Maxim. 

Gamble (1908) unjustif iedly reduced G. acuminatissima, along 
with G. cumingiana and G. pentandra , to synonymy under G. farinosa, 
but, as clearly shown in the key herein presented, this is a 
quite erroneous concept. Bakhuizen (1921) similarly reduced it 
and practically all the other species in the genus to what he 
called Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. 

The corollas of Geunsia acuminatissima are described as having 
been "violet" in color on Kjellberg 838 and "light-blue" on De 
Bruyn 374. Collectors have found the plant growing at 50 — 750 m. 
altitude, in flov/er and fruit in March, and report the vernacular 
name, "onai". 

Geunsia leprosa is apparently based on Teijsmann 246C in the 
Leiden herbarium. Tlie BVmnemeijer 11488 & 11550 and Kjellberg 
409 collections, cited below, bear striking similarity to the 
Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci . 45741 cited hereinafter as G. paloensis 
(Elm.) H. J. Lam. 

Material of G. acuminatissima has been misidentif ied and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as Callicarpa arborea Roxb., C. farin- 
osa Roxb., C. pentandra f. glabrescens Bakh., C. pentandra var. 
typica (Schau.) Bakh., C. pentandra var. typica f. farinosa (Blume) 
Bakh., C. pentandra var. typica f. genuina Bakh., and Geunsia 
farinosa Blume. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Blinnemeijer 11488 
(Bz— 18300), 11550 (Bz~11550) ; Kjellberg 409 (Bz~18232), 838 
(Bz~18231); Reppie 354 [Boschproef st. b.b. 25011] (Bz— 18178) ; 
Van der Vlies 307 [Boschproef st. b.b. 24066] (Bz— 18230) . MOLUCCA 
ISLANDS: Amboina: DeVriese s.n. (Le— 908.267-328) ; DeVriese S 
Teijsmann s.n. (Le— 908.267-626) ; Forsten s.n. (Le— 908.267-620, 
Le— 908.267-093, Le— 908.267-894 , Z) ; Teijsmann H.B.1973 (Ut— 
11532). Ceram: Teijsmann s.n. (Le— 908 .266-853— type) . NEW 
GUINEA: V/est Irian: Gjellerup 917 (Le— 926 . 340-133, Ut— 85748) . 
NEW GUINEAN ISLANDS: Schouten: DeBruyn 374 (Bz— 18531). LOCALITY 
OF COLLECTION UNDETERMINED: Collector undetermined s.n. (Bz— 
18329); Teijsmann 37a (Le— 908.266-886) , 246C (Le— 908.266-347 , 
Le— 908.266-867), 246e (Le— 908.266-917) . 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 59 

GEUNSIA ANOMALA Ridl., Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1929: 260. 1929. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa anomala Ridl. ex Mold., Resume Suppl. 15: 
16, in syn. 1967. Callicarpa anomala (Ridl.) Burtt, Kotes Roy. 
Bot. Card. Minb. 29: 149. 1969. 

Bibliography: Ridl., Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1929: 260. 1929; A. 
W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 8: 101. 1930; Fedde & Schust., Justs 
Bot. Jahresber. 57 (2): 401. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. 
Verbenac, ed. 1, 65 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 145 & 185. 1949; A- 
non., kew Bull. Gen. Index 1929-1956, 132. 1959; ilold., Resum4 
192 & 455. 1959; Mold., Re'surae' Suppl. 15: 16. 1967; Burtt, Notes 
Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 29: 149—151, fig. 5A. 1969; Anon., Biol. 
Abstr. 51 (3): B.^i.S.I.C. S.30. 1970; Brentzel, Biol. Abstr. 51: 
1571. 1970; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 & 404 (1971) and 2: 878. 
1971; Townsend, Excerpt. Bot. A. 18: 365. 1971; Heslop-iiarrison, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 15: 24. 1974; "lold., Phytologia 33: 392, 481, & 
482. 1976; Mold., Phytol. I'lem. 2: 315 & 548. 1980. 

Illustrations: Burtt, Notes Roy. Bot. Gard. Edinb. 29: 150, 
fig. 5A. 1969. 

A densely reddish-barbate shrub; leaves opposite; petioles 
thick, about 1.5 cm. long, densely reddish-barbate; leaf-blades 
chartaceous, obovate, 15 — 17 cm. long, 7.5 — 8 cm. wide, apically 
cuspidate, marginally undulate and spinulose-denticulate, basal- 
ly acute, scabrid-hirtous above, stellate-pilose beneath; secon- 
daries 8 pairs; inflorescence caulif lorous, in compact dense 
heads; peduncles woody, issuing from below the leaves, 2 — 7 cm. 
long, finally glabrescent; bracts lanceolate, hirtous; calyx 
tubular, 5 ram. long, the rim 4-toothed, marginally hirtous; 
corolla slightly larger than the calyx, glandulose, the lobes 4, 
oblong-obovate; stamens 4; filaments short; anthers oblong, api- 
cally bifid; style elongate; ovary 4-celled, each cell 2-ovulate; 
ovules erect. 

This very anomalous species is based on Haviland 760 from 
young jungle at Pen Kulen Ampat, First Division, Sarawak, depos- 
ited in the Kew herbarium. In his original description Ridley 
cites also Beccari 2759 from Sarawak and comments that "This 
plant in its compact cauliflorous heads of flowers is unlike any- 
thing else, but it is suggested by Stapf, who has made many notes 
and drawings of structures on the specimen in the Kew Herbarium 

that this is Briquet's Geunsia Beccariana It is possible 

that this was the plant he referred to, but as there is nothing 
more than the name, it is not worth perpetuating. Merrill quotes 
the above number of Beccari 's as Callicarpa Havilandii , which it 
is not. This plant has the given characteristics of Geunsia to 
some extent, as defined by H. J, Lam, but there do not seem to 
be any characters sufficiently valid to separate the two genera; 
as this species, however, appears to have two ovules in each 
cell of the ovary it had better remain in Geunsia." 

Burtt (1969) cites Burtt s Martin B.4720, also from Sarawak, 

and comments that "The new material differs from Ridley's 

type in certain details. In the first place in its leaf indumen- 
tum, v;hich consists of simple hairs, those of the type being 
dendroid-stellate. However, in both plants the hairs are of the 



60 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

same ferrugineous harsh bristly nature and on the stem of B.4720 
the main hairs have tufts of branches arising at the base; the 
differences are probably not fundamental. Another point, that 
Ridley describes the free part of the filament as short whereas 
in our material it is long, maybe due to Ridley's misinterpreta- 
tion of Stapf's sketches on the type sheet. 

"This is a very odd little tree and one or two additions to 
Ridley's original description are worth noting, with the warning 
that they are taken from B.4720 not from the type. In the first 
place the disposition of the leaves is curious, as it often is 
in this group of plants. The internodes are alternately short 
(c. 1 cm) and long (c. 12 cm), which means that the leaves ap- 
pear to be borne in groups of four. More than that, however, the 
leaves of a group are not equal in size: one leaf of the lower 
pair is much smaller than its partner and the upper pair are both 

somewhat larger again, although still not quite equal 

Callicarpa anomala seems to belong to a group of Bornean and 
Philippine plants characterized by their harsh bristly ferrugin- 
eous indumentum (though the leaves are almost glabrous in C. in- 
volucrata Merrill). The inflorescences of these species are 
particularly interesting. The open dichotomous cyme normal for 
Callicarpa , is found in C. havilandii (King & Gamble) H. J. Lam 

these cymes being axillary on the young leafy branchlets. 

From this there are two types of specialization to cauliflory: 
in C. barbata and C. involucrata there is a thickened con- 
densed peduncle but the flowers are borne on slender well- 
developed pedicels and give the general impression of being fas- 
ciculate. In C. anomala the inflorescence is again cauliflorous 
on a stout peduncle, but this is continued as the central axis 
of the pendulous inflorescence which has numerous lateral cymules 
so congested on to one another that the whole forms a stout 
cylindrical cone up to 12 cm long. The lateral cymules are about 
8-f lowered, spread at right angles from the main axis, and are so 
well co-ordinated in their growth that the outline of the inflor- 
escence is quite even. 

"At Semengoh C. anomala is a small tree about 5 m high with a 
trunk about 5 — 7 cm in diameter. On this the very dense pendu- 
lous inflorescences are borne on short woody stalks. The whole 
structure becomes covered with mucilage as it matures, just as 
happens in the very different plant Plagiostachys (Zingiberaceae) , 
which grows nearby. Tlie flowers are tetramerous, white, with a 
cone of anthers and exserted stigma; the fruit eventually ripens 
to a bright red berry." 

It seems to me most probable that this plant will eventually 
be found to represent a new and as yet undescribed genus, probab- 
ly including the cauliflorous taxa now still in Callicarpa. 

GEUNSIA APOENSIS (Elm.) Mold., Phytologia 5: 8 [as "apo&nsis"]. 
195A. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa apoensis Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 
861 — 862. 1910. Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. apoensis 
(Elm.) Bakh. in Lara & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 61 

14. 1921. Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. apoensis Bakh. 
ex E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 382, in syn. 1923. 
Callicarpa apol^nsis Elm. ex Mold., Phytologia 2: 93. 1945. Geunsia 
apo&nsis (Elm.) Mold., Phytologia 5: 8. 1954. Callicarpa 
apao&nsis Elm. ex Mold., T"ifth Sumn. 1: 404, in syn. 1971. 
Geunsia apao^nsis (Elm.) Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 404. 1971. 

Bibliography: Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 861—862. 1910; H. 
J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 33 & [361]. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & 
Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 14, 106, £< vi. 
1921; Prain, Ind. Kew, Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 43. 1921; E. D. Merr., 
Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 382. 1923; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. 
Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 
3860. 1939; Mold., Alph. List Coram. Names 18. 1939; Mold., Prelim. 
Alph. List Inv. Names 12. 1940; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 10. 
1942; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 61, 65, & 
86. 1942; Mold., Phytologia 2: 93. 1945; Mold., Known Geogr. Dis- 
trib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 140, 146, & 176. 1949; Mold., Phytologia 
5: 8. 1954; Anon., U. S. Dept. Agr. Bot. Sub j . Index 15: 14354. 
1958; Mold., Rlsum^ 184, 193, 195, 246, ^ 455. 1959; G. Taylor, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 63. 1959; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 
43. 1960; Mold., Rdsum^ Suppl. 13: 6. 1966; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 
316, 324, 404, & 415 (1971) and 2: 878. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 
2: 307, 315, & 548. 1980. 

A fine, tall, erect tree, 2 — 13 or more m. tall; trunk to 45 
cm. in diameter at breast height; branches borne mainly toward 
the top, crookedly rebranched and forming a flattish crown; twigs 
not numerous, heavy, suberect, more or less angular, the terminal 
portion greenish and covered with a grayish-brown pulverulence; 
wood very soft, whitish, with no odor nor taste; bark yellowish- 
brown, rather firmly checked longitudinally; leaves opposite, as- 
cending or horizontal, curvately conduplicate; petioles stout, 
about 3 cm. long, finely sordid-yellowish-brown- or gray-scurfy; 
leaf-blades often folded longitudinally, oblong to subelliptic, 
10 — 20 cm. long, averaging 7.5 cm. wide, apically acute to short- 
acuminate, marginally entire, basally obtuse to cuneate, dark- 
green and glabrous above, green and glabrous beneath or "grayish- 
white with dirty-brown nerves and bright yellow glistening glands" 
beneath; midrib prominent beneath, glabrate or finely ashy-scurfy; 
secondaries oblique, 9 — 12 pairs, reticulated united at their 
tips, all yellowish when fresh, brown in drying; crosswise terti- 
aries relatively conspicuous; veinlet reticulation fine; inflor- 
escence erect, borne in the uppermost leaf-axils; peduncles stout, 
about 7.5 cm. long, strict, pulverulent, more or less covered with 
glistening glands, bearing a few bracts apically; corymbs panicu- 
late, about 10 cm. wide, all the inflorescence-branches grayish- 
tomentose, subtended by bracts, only sparsely sprinkled with 
glands; flowers 4 — 6-nerous, clustered at the ends of the ultimate 
inflorescence- branches, sessile, the fascicles subtended by un- 
equal spatulate bracteoles, the individual flowers subtended by 
circles of short straw-colored hairs; calyx cupuliform, about 1.5 
mm. long and apically almost as wide, externally stellately short- 
pubescent, the rim subtruncate or obscurely denticulate and exter- 



62 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, IJo. 1 

nally beset with numerous light-colored glands; corolla whitish, 
glabrous and eglandular (except for the lobes), 3 ram. long, the 
tube about 1.5 mm. long, the usually 5 segments of the limb 
broadly oblong or subelliptic, 1.5 mm. long, externally glandular; 
stamens inserted at the base of the corolla-tube, well exserted; 
filaments glabrous; anthers short and broad, about 1 mm. long 
and 0.5 mm. wide, ovate-ellipsoid, basifixed, bilobed; style 
equaling the stamens, glabrous, apically thickened; stigma ob- 
lique, discoid, obscurely lobed; ovary densely covered with light- 
yellow glands; fruits subglobose, red or reddish, to 3 mm. in di- 
ameter, subtended by the cyathiform fruiting-calyx, externally 
glandulose, with usually 4 achene-like seeds. 

This species is based on Elmer 11491 from moist earth in very 
deep sandstone cuts along the Seriban creek, at 5750 feet alti- 
tude, Todaya, below Baclayan (the highest campsite on the moun- 
tain). Mount Apo, in Davao district, Mindanao, Philippine Islands, 
collected in August, 1909. 

Collectors have encountered this plant in v/oods along streams, 
from sealevel to 1900 m. altitude, an flower in June. The corol- 
las are said to have been "v/hite" on Endert 3923 and "yellowish- 
white" on Kjellberg 1626. The vernacular name, "layaupan", is 
reportedly used by the Bagobos of Mindanao and the plant is said 
to be "very rare" there. Llmer (1910) says of it: "Its general 
appearance at once place[s] it near Callicarpa ^ubalbida Elm., 
but there are distinct vegetative differences besides minor char- 
acters in the flowers and fruit. 

Lam (1919) and Bakhuizen (1921) quite unjustifiably reduce 
this taxon to synonymy under Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. 
[which they call Callicarpa pentandra Roxb.] and G. paloensis 
(Elm.) H. J. Lam [which Bakhuizen calls Callicarpa pentandra var. 
paloensis Eakh. ] . Merrill (1923) cites only Elmer 11491. 

Material of Geunsia apoensis has been misidentif ied and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria aS' Callicarpa arborea Roxb. and C. pen- 
tandra var. repleta f. furfuracea Bakh. On the other hand, the 
Blinnemeijer 10869, distributed as Geunsia apoensis, actually is 
G. homoeophylla H. liallier. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Mindanao: Elmer 11491 (Bi— 
isotype, Bz — 18226 — isotype, !Ii — isotype, IJ — isotype, Z — photo of 
isotype). GREATER SUNUA ISLANDS: Celebes: BUnnemeijer 12151 (Bz— 
18240); Kjellberg 1626 (Bz~18236, S), 2004 (Bz~18237, Bz~18238, 
S); Noerkas 473 (Bz— 18245) , 499 (Bz~18246, Bz— 18247); Teijs- 
mann 13697 (Bz~18241), 13770 (Bz— 18242, Bz— 18243, Bz— 18244). 
Kalimantan: Endert 3923 (Bz~72712). 

GEUNSIA CINNAMOMEA H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 30 — 
32. 1918. 
Bibliography: H. Hallier, Ileded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 30—32. 
1918; Bakh. in Lam £■ Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
11, ill, & xi. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; 
Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 66 & 93 (1942) and 
ed. 2, 147 & 185. 1949; Mold., Rdsume^ 195 & 455. 1959; Hold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 324 (1971) and 2: 378. 1971; Mold., Phytol. ilem. 2: 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 63 

315 & 548. 1980. 

A tree; branchlets obtusely tetragonal, 3 — 5 mm. thick, dense- 
ly cinnamomeous- or ferruginous-farinaceous or subfloccose on 
the younger portions, the older portions gradually less so and 
more dark-brown; internodes marked by 2 prominent opposite and 
transverse lines or annulations, those beneath the opposite 
leaves 1 — 4 cm. long, those above 1.5 — 3 cm. long; leaves 
anisophyllous, seerainly quaternate, 2 alternate ones somewhat 
separated from the 2 opposite ones, the 3 lower ones subequal, 
the 4th (uppermost) conspicuously smaller but otherwise similar 
in form; petioles short, robust, semi-terete, 2-angled beneath, 
1 — 3 cm. long, densely cinnamomeous-farinose; leaf-blades thick, 
herbaceous-subcoriaceous or leathery, elongate ovate-lanceolate, 
apically rather long and narro\;ly caudate-acuminate, marginally 
revolute and entire or here and there obsoletely serrulate, bas- 
ally equilateral or slightly inequilateral and subrotundate, 
sordid-green or fuscous above in drying, dull, loosely and 
sparsely stellate with minute hairs above (except for the 
densely cinnamomeous- or ferruginous-tomentellous midrib), dense- 
ly ochraceous- or ferruginous-tomentellous beneath (except for 
the very densely cinnamomeous-f arinose-stellate venation) , prom- 
inently pinnate-veined with a loosely clavate reticulum, the 
larger blades to over 20 cm. long (including the acumen which is 
about 3 cm. long and basally 1 cm. wide) an d about 7 cm. wide, 
the fourth one to 13 cm. long and 5 cm. wide but usually even 
smaller; peduncles stout, rigid, obtusely tetragonal, 1.5 — 3.5 cm. 
long, longer than the petioles, densely cinnamomeous-farinose; 
corymbs small, to 4.5 cm. long, densely cinnamomeous-farinose, 
repeatedly dichotomous, with stout, obtusely tetragonal inflor- 
escence-branches; primary bracts subulate-linear, to 10 mm. long, 
not at all or only very shortly adnate to the cyme-branchlets 
which they subtend; pedicels very short, about 0.5 mm. long; 
calyx cupuliform, 2.5 — 3 mm. long, externally densely cinnamome- 
ous-f loccose, apically 5-angular, the rim conspicuously 5-dentate; 
corolla elongate-ovate, 5-merous, the tube 4 — 5 mm. long, ex- 
ternally densely and very minutely pulverulent-puberulent , 
sparsely glandular-punctulate, apically coarsely and loosely 
stellate-tomentellous, the lobes 5, ovate, apically obtuse, re- 
flexed during anthesis; stamens 5, inserted in the corolla- tube; 
filaments glabrous, exserted about 3 mm. from the corolla-nouth; 
anthers elongate, long and narrow, 4 — 5 times as long as wide, a- 
bout 2.5 ram. long, apically emarginate, dehiscing by means of 2 
rather long slits, introrse, basally shortly sagittate, dorsi- 
fixed at the apical sinus, glandular-punctulate on the connective; 
style about 8 mm. long, slightly surpassing the stamens, clavate, 
glabrous, subalate-angular ; stigma terminal, lobed; fruit drupa- 
ceous, globose, about 3 mm. long and wide, drying black or black- 
ish, externally pale and very minutely and sparsely glandular- 
punctulate, apically subumbilicate, essentially glabrous, basal- 
ly enclosed by the 3 mm. long fruiting-calyx which is 5-dentate 
and hardly split dorsally. 

This species is based on Elbert 3461 & 3486 from Mt. Sangia- 



64 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

wita, at an altitude of 600 — 900 m. , on KabaMna island, in the 
southeastern part of Celebes, on October 22, 1909, deposited in 
Leiden herbarium (with duplicates in the Buitenzorg and Sencken- 
berg herbaria) . If a lectotype is to be selected it ought to be 
no. 3461 as the other cotype collection is regarded by Meeuse as 
representing G. pentandra and by others as G. farinosa. 

Hallier (1918) cominents that "Die Bearbeitung von Elbert no. 
2690 u. 2760 von Buton, no. 3378 von Kabafoa, 2999, 3040, u. 2760 
aus S.O. -Celebes, Landschaft Rumbia, die alle aus geringeren 
MeereshHhe staramen und vielleicht nur zwei Formen einer und der- 
selben Art angehBren, muss ich H. J. Lam fUr seine unten unter 
Callicarpa erwHhnte akademische PrUfungsarbeit Uberlassen, da das 
Material beider Gattungen aus dera Reichsherbar schon seit iSngerer 
Zeit ausgeliehen ist." Lam (1919) cites Elbert 2690 & 2760 as 
Geunsia quaternifolia H. Hallier. 

Collectors have encountered G. cinnamomea at 600 — 900 m. al- 
titude, flowering in October. 

;iaterial of this species has been raisidentif led and distributed 
in some herbaria as G. pentandra (Roxb . ) Merr. and as Callicarpa 
farinosa Roxb. and C. pentandra Roxb. On the other hand, the El- 
bert 2999, distributed as G. cinnamomea , actually is G. hexandra 
(Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord . 

Citations: GREATER SUITOA ISLANDS: Celebes: Reppie 468 /'Bosch- 
proefst. Cel.II.A50] (Bz— 18581) . KabaHna: Elbert 3096 [7592] 
(Le~938. 87-455), 3461 [9217] (Le— 938.37-236~cotype) , 3461 [9219] 
(Le— 942.64-998~cotype), 3461 [9262] (Le— 942.63-2— cotype) , 3461 
[9263] (Le— 938.87-233— cotype), 3461 [9264] (Le— 938. 87-234— 
cotype), 3461 [9266] (Le— 942.64-997— cotype) , 3461 [9440] (Le— 
918.302-44— cotype, Z— cotype) , 3461 [9443] (Le— 942.64-46— cotype) , 
3461 [9444] (Le— 938.87-135— cotype) , 3461 [9556] (Le— 921. 26-55— 
cotype), 3461 [9557] (Le— 938.37-235— cotype) , 3461 [9558] (Le— 
942.64-996— cotype), 3461 [9562] (Le— 921.26-58— cotype) , 3486 (Bi— 
cotype, Le— 921.26-60— cotype, W— 2245698— cotype) , 3486 [9653] 
(Hk, Le— 968.87-106— cotype), 3486 [9654] (Le— 918. 302-23— cotype) , 
3486 [9655] (Le— 942.64-989— cotype) , 3486 [9777] (Le— 928. 87-131— 
cotype), 3486 [9779] (Le— 918.302-45— cotype) , 3486 [9782] (Le— 942. 
64-987— cotype, Le— 942 .64-988— cotype) , 3486 [9783] (N— cotype) . 

GEUNSIA CUMINGIANA (Schau.) Rolfe, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 21: 
315. 1884. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa cumingiana Schau. in A.DC. , Prodr. 11: 644. 
1847. Geunsia cumingiana Rolfe apud Vidal y Soler, Phan. Cuming. 
Philip. 133. 1885. Geunsia cumingiana var. pentamera H. J. Lam, 
Verbenac. llalay. Arch. 36. 1919. Geunsia cumingiana var. tetramera 
H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 36 — 37. 1919. Callicarpa pentan- 
dra var. cumingiana (Schau.) Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. 
Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 16. 1921. Callicarpa basilanensis Merr. ex 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 16, in 
syn. 1921. Callicarpa bastlanensis Merr. ex Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., 
Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 16 sphalm. , in syn. 1921. 
Geunsia farinosa F. Vill. ex E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 
3: 383, in syn. 1923 [not G. farinosa Blume, 1823]. Callicarpa pen- 



1981 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 65 

tandra var. cumingiana Bakh. apud E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. 
Flow. PI. 3: 383, in syn. 1923. Callicarpa pentandra var. 
cumingiana f. pentamera Bakh. ex Mold., Prelim. Alph. List. Inv. 
Names 12, in syn. 1940. Guensia cumingiana (Turcz.) Rolfe ex 
Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 10, in syn. 1947. Calli- 
carpa pentandra var. cumingiana f. genuina Bakh. ex Mold., Resume 
246, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa eucaudata Herr. & Quisumb. ex 
Mold., Re'sum^ 243, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica 
f. pubescens Bakh. ex Mold., Resum^ 246, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa 
pentandra var. pubescens Bakh. ex Mold., R^sum^ 246, in syn. 1959. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. cumingiana f. typica Bakh. ex Mold., 
Resum^ 246, in stn. 1959. Geunsia cuminghamiana Rolfe ex Mold., 
R^sumd 295, in syn. 1959. Geunsia cuminghamia Rolfe ex Mold., Re- 
sume 295, in syn. 1959. Geunsia cumingiana (Turcz.) Rolfe ex 
Mold., R^sura^ 295, in syn. 1959. Geunsia cumingiana var. 
callicarpoides. H. J. Lam in Mold., Resume 259, in syn. 1959. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. pubescens f. cumingiana (Schau.) Bakh. 
ex Mold., Fifth Sumra. 1: 416, in syn. 1971. 

Bibliography: Schau. in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 640 & 644—645. 1847; 
liiq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 384 & 887. 1856; Buek, Gen. Spec. Syn. Can- 
dol. 3: 73. 1858; Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 3: [Rev. Verbenac] 
192. 1863; Fern.-Villar in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4: Nov. App. 
158. 1880; Rolfe, Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 21: 315. 1884; C. 
E. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 566. 1885; Vidal y Solar, 
Phan. Cuming. Philip. 65, 133, u 134. 1885; Vidal, Rev. PI. Vase. 
Filip. 207. 1886; K. Schum. & Hollr. , Fl. Kais. Wilhelrasl. 119. 
1889; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 386 & 
1026. 1893; Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. Buitenz. 19: 559. 1898; 
Gamble in King & Gamble, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 74 (2 extra): 
GOl. 1908; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 864—866. 1910;E. D. Merr., 
Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 7: 342 & 343. 1912; H. Hallier, Meded. 
Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 23. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 
30, 31, 35—37, 53, & 365. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 12, 16—17, 106, 111, & vi. 1921; E. 
D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 382, 383, & 388. 1923; H. J. 
Lam in Lauterb., Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 59: [87]— 88. 1924; Lane-Poole, 
Rep. Forest Res. Terr. Papua 136. 1926; E. D. Merr., Disc. Bibl. 
Philip. Flow. PI. 100. 1926; White & Francis, Proc. Roy. Soc. 
Queensl. 38: 257. 1927; Bakh., Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: [69]. 1929; 
C. T. White, Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: 263. 1929; Fedde & Schust., 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070 — 1071. 1932; Beer & Lam, Blumea 
2: 222. 1936; !Iold., Alph. List Com. Names 10, 13, 19, 20, 22, 27, 
& 28. 1939; Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 9, 12, & 26. 
1940; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 572. 1941; 
Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 8, 10, 24, ^ 25. 1942; Mold., Kno^^m 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 62, 64, 66, 67, 86, & 93. 1942; 
Mold., Phytologia 2: 103. 1945; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. 
Kew., imp. 2, 1: 386 & 1026. 1946; Hold., Mph. List Inv. Names 
Suppl. 1: 10. 1947; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 
140, 141, 144, 146—149, 160, & 185. 1949; W. L. Phillips, Cat. 
PI. Fairchild Trop. Card. 24. 1949; Mold., Phytologia 5: 3. 1954; 
Mold., Resum^ 184, 190, 194, 195, 199, 201, 204, 218, 242, 243, 



66 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

246, 295, 297, & 455. 1959; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind . 
Kew., imp. 3, 1: 386 & 1026. 1960; Hold., R^sum^ Suppl. 4: 7 
(1962) and 8: 3. 1964; Mold., Fifth Suiran. 1: 276, 316, 324, 332, 
336, 338, 339, 363, 407, 408, 415, & 416 (1971) and 2: 519, 520, 
525, (x 878. 1971; Mold., Phytologia 20: 487 (1971), 21: 225 & 384 
(1971), 22: 23 & 25 (1971), and 34: 153 & 267. 1976; Mold., Phy- 
tol. Hem. 2: 262, 307, 315, 322, 326, 328, 329, 353, & 548. 1980; 
Mold., Phytologia 49: 474. 1981. 

A small, slender, spreading, often misshapen tree, to 20 m. 
tall, or a large shrub, 2 — 6 m. tall, branched from above the 
middle, usually stellate-pubescent or tomentose with pale-brovjn 
hairs throughout; bole often to 2 m. high, 5 — 40 cm. in diameter 
at breast height, often crooked and irregular; bark thick, pale- 
brown or brownish to brown-and-green mottled or purplish-brown, 
smooth, lenticellate and yellowish-green on the branches, flaky, 
checked, or shreddy, with many fairly shallow longitudinal fis- 
sures on the trunk; outer bark gray or light-gray to brown; inner 
bark light-brown to stramineous or dark straw-color; wood moder- 
ately soft to hard, dingy-white or cream to pinkish-straw or 
pale-brown, heavy, odorless, tasteless; branches spreading, often 
very hirsute or densely floccose; branchlets rather slender, ob- 
tusely tetragonal, densely floccose with longer ferrugineous 
hairs intermixes; twigs suberect; leaves arranged as a single 
opposite pair followed by 1 or 2 alternate ones, rarely subter- 
nate or subquaternate, chiefly held horizontally, often folded; 
petioles 1 — 3 cm. long, f loccose-villous like the adjacent 
branchlets; leaf-blades submembranous , broadly oblong to ovate or 
broadly ovate, 7 — 28 cm. long, 3.5 — 14 cm. v;ide, light- or mid- 
green and dull above, lighter and also dull beneath (becoming 
pale-brown in drying), apically subabruptly attenuate-acute to 
acuminate, sometimes caudate with the acumen 1 — 3 cm. long, rare- 
ly obtuse, marginally typically entire but often coarsely undu- 
late, basally cuneate and obtuse or rounded to subcordate and 
abruptly decurrent or narrowly acuminate into the petiole, hir- 
sute with densely intermixed simple and stellate hairs above when 
adult and somewhat scaly and glandulose-punctate, the pubescence 
varying from yellow-brown or whitish- pubescent to brownish- 
tomentose or floccose on both surfaces, often more densely and 
softly stellate-tomentose beneath and somewhat glandulose and 
scaly, ferruginous in drying; secondaries 7 — 18 per side, densely 
hairy; cymes small or ample, many- flov/e red , definitely dichotomous, 
axillary, 2 — 13 cm. long, densely ferruginous- or brownish-villous; 
flowers at times sweetly fragrant, at other times odorless; pe- 
duncles 0.5 — 6 cm. long or rarely obsolete; bracts linear, 1 mm. 
long; calyx cyathiform, 1 — 2 mm. long, externally minutely rufes- 
cent-hairy or -farinose, glandulose and somewhat scaly, rarely 
subglabrous, the rim shortly 4- or 5-toothed; corolla tubular- 
hypocrateriform, violet-blue or violet to purplish-pink or lilac, 
4 — 6 mm. long, usually about 3 times as long as the calyx, the tube 
externally glabrous and glandular-punctate, the limb 4- [or 5- in 
var. pentamera H. J. Lam] lobed, the lobes short, apically rounded, 
not at all or only minutely puberulous or dorsally sparsely farin- 



1981 Moldenke, iJotes on Geunsia 67 

ose; stamens 4 or 5, 6 — 10 mm. long, long-exserted; filaments 
pale-purple; anthers oblong, 2 — 3 mm. long, twice as long as wide, 
purple, glandulose on both sides, especially ventrally; style 8 — 
9 mm. long, pale-purple; stigma 4- or 5-lobed, v/hite; ovary conic, 
externally densely glandulose; fruiting-calyx more or less cupu- 
liform, enclosing the fruit for about half its length; fruit 
drupaceous, globose or subglobose, nedium-sized, about 3 mm. long 
and 3 — 5 mm. wide, sweet-tasting and eaten by birds, showy, at 
first green, then red or bright-red to scarlet, blue when fully 
mature (Streiman s Kairo 21107) or finally black {Brass 21799) 
or sometimes "white, turning rose when ripe" (Floyd 6477). 

i^rodin describes the bark as "white, more or less rough but not 
fissured or lenticular > blaze cream, v;ood cream, exudate and odor 
absent". 

This species is based on Cuming 1707 from the Philippine Is- 
lands, deposited in the DeCandolle Herbarium at Geneva. Lam (1919) 
separates a var. pentamera for the pentamerous specimens and var. 
tetramera for the tetramerous ones, the former based on "Com. J. 
I. Fl . for. no. G44" from the Philippine Islands and Nyman 52 & 
Weinland s.n. from New Guinea, and the latter (the typical form) 
based on Cuming 1707 . Elswehere he cites for var. pentamera 
Gjellerup 416a, 416b, & 416c and Weinland 1891 and for var. tetra- 
mera Elmer 13551, Robinson Herb. Lugd.Jat. 913306-92, and many New 
Guinea collections. He freely admits, however, that "There are 
many specimina which form a transition-form between these two 
varieties, possessing 4- and 5-raerous flowers on the same plant 
branch, or even inflorescence", including Gjellerup 416a, 416b, & 
416d from Nev/ Guinea. He rightly speculates that G. cumingiana 
is one of the species now in an active stage of mutation. Gamble 
(1908) reduces G. cumingiana (as well as G. pentandra and G. acum- 
inatissima) to synonymy under G. farinosa, but, as Lam (1919) has 
pointed out, this is palpably erroneous. 

The species has been found growing in primary forests on hill- 
tops, in secondary forests, secondgrowth rainforests and the edges 
of rainforests, low montane forests, open thickets, and old 
clearings, on riverbanks and on primary or secondary forested 
slopes, in "Kunaigrassland of old garden sites on flat land", 
in flat alluvial soil of garden regrowth, among shrubs and isolated 
trees, and in sandy soil, as well as along creek banks in rain- 
forests, at 3 — 1500 m. altitude, in flower and fruit throughout 
the year. Brass reports it "common" in the rainforests and forest 
regrowth of Papua. Beer & Lam (1936) report it "common in forest 
regrowth". Uomersley refers to it as "a tree of the valleys, be- 
coming common in regrowth" in New Guinea, v;here Hoogland calls it 
"a fairly common tree in fairly lowland medium-sized secondary 
forests" and "common in low regrowth in well-drained soil of brown 
loam over sand". Brass asserts that it is "common" on Goodenough 
island. Clemens found it "common" in northeastern New Guinea where 
it is said to be "host to a rust". 

The corollas are said to have been "pink" on Brass 659, 25103, & 
25946, Elmer 7368, and Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci . 49510, "pinkish" on 
Clemens 41320, "purple-pink" on Brass 5537, "lavender-pink" on 



68 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, 'Ao. 1 

Clemens 11195, "pale-purple" on tloogland 3482, "rose-purple" on 
Koelz 13302, "rose-purple or lavender" on Fennell 1570, "violet- 
purple" on Sayers 21559, "purple" on Brass 392 & 24261, Faircbild 
414, and Wenzel 2849, "lavender" on Frodin NGF. 26229, "lilac" on 
Van der Sijde BW.4049, "deep-lilac" on Carr 12824 & 14870, "violet" 
on Fontanoza 59, "nauve" on Floyd 6477, Henty s Frodin NGF. 27209, 
and Wiakabu & Simaga LAE. 70248, "blue" on Wenzel 3398, "blue and 
white" on Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 45975, "white with purplish 
tinge" on white 574, "v/hitish with deep-lilac lobes" on Barker & 
Vinas LAE. 66686, and "yellowish" on Herb. Philip. Forest Bur. 
30368. 

Common and vernacular names reported for this species are: 
"anayap", "bagiha", "bim", "danasi", "gagayug", "kai natavine", 
"kawin" , "lak", "la malala", "lelema", "lekma-rendai", "nagilak", 
"maguilac", "malatabdko", "nala-tabdko", "nanabako", "molas-in- 
taloen", "mumuni", "nago", "namaulmun" , "naumunmun", "oinga", 
"olo-lajo", "salim-batungSo" , "sarabuyut", "sobsoganbogo", 
"sobsogan bogo", and "yogom". 

The wood of this species is used by the natives of Mindanao 
for house construction, canoe poles, bolo handles, and firewood. 

llallier (1918) reports the species from Samar to Mindanao in 
the Philippine Islands; Elmer found it to be "rare" on Leyte; 
Ahern's collector reports it "not rare in the hill forests 
throughout the Philippine Islands". 

Callicarpa eucaudata is based on G. EdaiJo s.n. [Herb. Philip. 
Bur. Sci. 45975] from forested slopes in Capiz Province, Panay, 
collected in October or November, 1925. Fennell 1570 represents 
material of G. cumingiana cultivated in Florida from seed col- 
lected on Mindanao. 

The late Dr. David Fairchild has kindly supplied me with his 
original notes concerning his two collections of this plant. His 
communication reads as follows: "Copies of original notes of 
Fairchild Garden Expedition. Collections made during the cruise of 
the Cheng Ho in the Philippines and Moluccan Islands. See 'The 
Garden Islands of the Great East'. Scribners 1943. The collecting 
was done by both David Fairchild and Hugo Curran. The serial num- 
bers are all attached to the F. G. Expedition and later may be 
found in the archives of that institution. The Arnold Arboretum 
was supplied also with a copy of these notes. The hand written 
originals in special books are in my desk here in The Kampong, Co- 
conut Grove, Fla. 

"Premna sp. F.G.Ex.No. 157 . A very pretty red-fruited species 
with lavender fragrant flowers and scarlet fruits one-eighth of an 
inch across. Borne in corymbs like elderberries. The birds are 
fond of the fruits which are sweet. I think it would make a good 
bird-food bush for S. Florida and at the same time be attractive- 
looking. Ilight side of road, km 54 Cotabato to Davao, Mindanao, 
P.I. Jan. 21, '40. Photo Beckwith Black and White B.5 Colored 10. 
E. D. Merrill added his guess to this as follows: 'Callicarpa sp. ' 
Seeds were given by the Division of Foreign Plant Introduction in 

Washington No. 136643." , , , 

I to be continued] 



PLMTAE f'ESOAf^RICAI^ fJOVAE * 
.1. 

by Luis D. Gomez P. 5 Jorge G6mez-L. 
Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica 



Trichipteris pseudonanna L. D. Gomez; habitu et textura T. nanna e 
Barrington et affinibus (r. ursina, r. phalaenolepis) similis nullo 
dubio his speciebus proxima, differt venis fertilibus simplicibus, 
albescentia pag. infer, frondis, petiolis non tuberculatis. 

Truncus ?. Frondes 50-60 cm longae. Stipes ca. 20 cm longus, non 
tuberculatus , omnino paleis et pilis vestitus; paleae 8-13 mm longae, 
3-5 mm latae, bicoloratae, nitidae, margine pallido erosae. Rachis 
laeve, paleis pilisque conformes basim praedita, apice alatis. Lami- 
nae 30-35 cm longae, 12-15 cm latae, 1-pinnatae, apicem gradatim re- 
ducta. Pinnae 15-17 paribus, altemae, sessiles, 6-7 cm longae, 17- 
24 mm latae, mediales longiores, pauciter lobulatae. Pinnulae 9-10, 
rotundo-obtusae; costulae superficiales, glabrae vel sparsissime pa- 
leis minutis vestitae. Sori exindusiati; paraphyses breves, epheme- 
ras. Sporae quasi hyalinae, triletae, 30-35.5 \m. 

Holotypus: J. Folsom ^ Edwards 3370, 25 May 1977, Cerro Tuti, 
Veraguas, Panama, MO. 

Trunk unknown. Stipes densely scaly and pilose, non tuberculate, 
fronds 50-60 cm long ( lamina 30-35 cm, petiole ca. 20 cm), pinnate, 
with a white cast on undersurf ace . Fertile veins always simple, the 
sori submarginal; receptacle sparsely hirsute. 

A close ally of T. nanna which has dichotomous fertile veins , and 
of T. ursina with deeply dissected pinnae, fuscous scales crowded on 
the basal portion of the rachis, medial to supramedial sori and a pub- 
erulous receptacle. In other characters, T. pseudonanna is clearly 
intermediate and a member of the T. phalaenolepis - demissa group. 



Partially funded by grant from CONICIT, Costa Rica. 



69 



70 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 1 

Eichhornia costaricana L. D. Gomez 5 J. G6mez-L. ; E. schultesiana 
Seib. proxima. Differt vero statura maiore, lamina valde reducta, 
foliorum basi saepe cuneiform!, inflorescentia sessile, pauciflo- 
ra, non racemosa sed pseudocapitulata. 

Herba erecta, aquatica, non stolonifera; caulis brevissimus, ra- 
dices numerosissimas dense emittens. Folia pseudoraticulata, valde 
reducta, 65-70 mm longa, 9-10 mm lata, anguste elliptica, basi cunei- 
formis vel subrotundatis, apice acuta; petiolus cylindricus, spongio- 
so-aeriferus, 50-65 cm longus, 1-1.3 cm crassus, apice constrictus, 
tertio superiore vagina instructus. Inflorescentiae pseudocapitula- 
tae, sessiles, pauciflorae. Flores pallide amethystinas, ephemeras. 
Sepala 12-15 mm longa, 5-6 mm lata, rotundato-obtusa, Integra. Pe- 
tala libera 15 mm longa, 6-8 mm lata, ample elliptica, pauce undu- 
lata. Labellum liberum 15-18 mm longum, 9-10 mm latum, ad basim dis- 
ci sulphurei indigo-annulati, maculatum. Capsula ellipsoideae, 10- 
15 mm longae, 3.4-4 mm diametro, pedicello 2-6 mm longo, explodens. 

Holotypus: Quebrada Blanca, ca. 7 km N of entrance to Parque N. 
Santa Rosa, Guanacaste, 270 m, in seasonal ponds. Gomez 5 G6mez-L. 
7148, CR. Isotypus: MO. Paratypus: G6mez-L. 7182, P. 



I 
I 

I 



E. costaricana is closely related to the South American e. schul- 
tesiana Seibert which has a racemose inflorescence subtended by a 
slender peduncule, and is usually a floating, stoloniferous plant 
Similar to E. tricolor Senb., of Cuba which has wide leaves with cor- 
date bases and a long -pedunculate, laxly racemose inflorescence. 

Found growing in the seasonal ponds of the tropical dry forests 
and savannahs of Guanacaste, together with Lophotocarpus guianensis 
(H.B.K.) Smith, a new record for the country ; Limnochar is f lava , \fy - 
drocleys standleyi , Eryngium ebracteatum Lamarck, a new record for 
Costa Rica; Naias spp., and IsOetes savanna rum . 

Among the aquatics recently collected in the seasonal ponds of 
the northwestern savannahs of Guanacaste, two taxa new to the country 
are here recorded: Limnobium Spongia (Bosc) Steud., and L. stolonife- 
rum (G.F.Mey.) Griseb. (Hydrocnaritaceae) . 

Carex amicta Boott (Cyperaceae) known from the paramos of Merida 
in Venezuela aind the paramo of Cuchero in Colombia has been collected 
in a similar vegetational association in the Cerro de la Muerte, below 
Cerros Frio and Buvis, at 3350 m elevation (A. Weston 5986a, CR, NY,F) 
thus establishing its northernmost distribution. 



BOOK REVIEWS 
Alma L. Moldenke 

"NATURE DISCOVERIES WITH A HAND LENS" by Richard Headstrom, xvi 
412 & xiv pp., 99 b/w fig, Dover Publications, Hew York, ' 
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Many folks will recognize this unaltered book with pleasant 
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"REPTILES AND AMPHIBIAI^S COLORING BOOK" by Thomas C. Quirk Jr 
(drawings) & Samuel Gundy (text), 46 pp., 44 b/w enlarged 
drawings & 44 color drawings. Dover Publications, New York 
N. Y. 10014. 1981. $2.25 paperbound. 

For the "8 to 80 set" this interesting new member of the Do- 
ver Pictorial Archive Series can be an easy source of pleasure 
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name, scientific name and short text. The outlines are time 
energy and error savers and are adaptable to group and individual 
uses m many ways. 

"THE ANATOMY OF NATURE" by Andreas Feininger, 174 pp., 163 b/w 

photos. Dover Publications, New York, N. Y. 10014 Repli- 
cation Edition. 1979. $5.95 paperbound. 

This is an unabridged, slightly author-revised republication 
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photographs are clearly printed full page size, a few larger, a 
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tial galaxy, water in the process of freezing. A final "how to" 
chapter is included on "The Facts Behind the Pictures" which can 
direct a reader to equipment and skills but can only share admira- 

71 



72 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 1 

tion for Feininger's dedication and genius. The introduction 
ends with: "It is the purpose of this book to document the unity 
of natural things, their interdependence, and their similarity; 
to show the beauty of the living functional form; perhaps to 
foreshadow the ultimate findings of science - a simple universal 
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"100 FAl'IILIES OF FLOWERING PLANTS" by Michael Hickey & Clive King, 
xix & 567 pp., 130 b/w multi-fig. draw, for each fl. type & 
each fam. & 5 tab. Cambridge University Press, London & New 
York 10022. 1981. $66.00 clothbound, $19.95 paperbound. 

This book is wonderful for learning, reviewing and teaching 
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general characteristics, principal economic and ornamental plants, 
and a classification which includes the mention of some of the 
larger or more important genera together with their distribution 
and the number of species they contain. The second part is de- 
voted to the detailed description of a plant chosen as a typical 
representative gives the distribution of the plant, its vege- 
tative characteristics, floral formula, details of the flower and 
inflorescence, pollination mechanism." The excellent pen and ink 
illustrations are all made from living material from handy British 
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"AQUATIC AND WETLAND PLANTS OF THE SOUTHEASTERN UNITED STATES. 

Dicotyledons" by Robert K. Godfrey & Jean W. Wooten, ix & 933 
pp. & 399 multi-part b/w fig.. University of Georgia Press, 
Athens, Georgia 30602. 1981. $A0.00. 

Welcome to this fine companion volume to the similarly fine one 
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will be useful in university courses in taxonomy, ecology and en- 
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ers in these fields. 



% PHYTOLOGIA 

" A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 
Vol. 50 January 1982 No. 2 



CONTENTS 

KRUKOFF, B. A., Supplementary notes on the American species of 

Strychnos. XX 73 

KRUKOFF, B. A., Supplementary notes on American Menispermaceae. 

XVII. Neotropical Triclisieae and Anomospermeae 80 

KRUKOFF, B. A., Notes on the species of Erythrina. XVII 112 

LOURTEIG, A., Oxalidaceae extra-austroamericanae IV: Oxalis L. Sectio 

Articulatae Knuth 130 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Geunsia. I 143 

RIEFNER, R. E., Jr., Studies on the Maryland flora VIII: Range 

extensions of Polygonum perfoliatum L., with notes on 
introduction and dispersal in North Amefhai'. O. .A, .^^N/ .152 

MOLDENKE, A. L.,Book reviews 160 



JAN 1 8 1982 



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SUPPLEhfENTARY NOTES ON THE AMERICAN SPECIES 

OF STRYCHNOS, XX. 

B. A. Krukoff 

Consulting Botanist of Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Laboratories, 
N.J., and Honorary Curator of New York Botanical Garden. 

In Supplementary Notes on the American Species of Stry- 
chnos X^ni I stated that for routine identification of Strychnos , 
two papers are needed: , American Species of Strychnos pub- 
lished in Lloydia 35: 193-271. 1972 and the Supplement ^17 pub- 
lished in Phytologia 41: 201-238. 1979. In the present paper I 
will summarize new information from Supplements ^18, 19, and 20, 
in connection with which 262 new collections were examined. 

1) New Species and where they are expected 

Only S. davidsei was described as new. Up to date it was 
found in Venezuela (Apure) but is to be expected in Federal 
District, Lara, Sucre, and Amazonas from where we have only 
sterile material. I have nothing new to add to the description 
of regions where new species are expected to occur. 

2) Extensions of Range 

3. S. colombiensis has been collected for the first time in 
Vaupes, Colombia, 6. S^, rondeletioides in Amazonas, Venezuela, 
9. S^, araguaensis in Piauhi, Brazil, 10. S. brachiata in Barinas, 
Venezuela, 12. S^, panamensis in Jalisco, Mexico, 14. S. dlvarl - 
cans in Bahia, Brazil, 19. S, toxifera in Los Rixis, Ecuador, 
31. S^. peckll in Panama, Panama, 35. S. bredemeyerl in Apure, 
Venezuela, 36^. S^. mitscherllchii var mltscherllchii in Antio- 
quia and Bolivar, Colombia, 38, S^. darienensis in Delta Amacuro 
and Amazonas, Venezuela, 39, S_. guianensls in Apure, Venezuela 
and in Benl, Bolivia, 45, S, duckei in Acre, Brazil, 47. S. 
cogens in Benl, Bolivia, 49, S. parviflora in Mato Grosso, Brazil, 
61, S_. pachycarpa in Choco, Colombia and in Surinam, 63. S. bra - 
chistantha in Chiapas, Mexico, 65, S. mattogrossensis In Apure, 
Venezuela, 70. S. tarapotensis in Apure, Venezuela and in Mato 
Grosso, Brazil, and 71. S. schnnkel in Los Rlos, Ecuador. 

3) Corrections of range of Species 

19. S. toxifera is not found in Bahia, Brazil, 20, S. 
tomentosa not in Venezuela, 33. S^. gardnert not in Maranhao, 
Brazil, and 25. S, pseudo-qulna not in Bahia, Brazil. 

73 



74 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

4) Second Collections of Species 

17. S, krukofflana , 30, S. lobelioides (first collection of 
fruit), 38a, £. ecuadortensls (first collection of flowers), 
45, S^. duckei (first collection of fruit), 71. S^. schunkei (first 
collection of fruit), 

5) Important collections covered in Supplements ^18, 19, and 20 

There are three important collections: a, by Robin Foster 
in Madre de Dios, Peru, This has many new records and suggests 
what is to be expected in the way of Strychnos in neighboring 
Bolivia and Brazil; this region was extensively collected later 
by Al Gentry and his collectors; b, by G. Davidse in previously 
uncollected Apure, Venezuela; and c. by Al Gentry and others in 
Choco , Co lomb ia . 

6) New chemical studies by Prof. Marini-Bettolo on Samples 
supplied by B. A. Krukoff and referred to in Supple - 
ment ^1^19 . 

5. S. romeu-belenii - p, 65, 24, S_, jobertiana - p. 68, 
28. S. solimoesana - p. 69, 32, S. erichsonli - p. 69, 33. S. 
gardneri - p. 70, 46. S. hirsuta - p. 71, 53. S. fendleri - p. 
71, 55. £. rubiginosa - p. 71, 56. S^. parvtfolia - p. 72, and 
57a. S. recognita - p. 72. 

This paper is the third which is recommended for routine 
work on the genus. 

6. Strychnos rondeletioides Spruce ex Beatham, Jour. Linn. 
Soc. 1: 104. 1856. 

»eru: Loreto: Maynas, C. Diaz 436, Al. Gentry 25372 , 
26201 . 

13. Strychnos tabascana Sprague & Sandwith, Kew Bull. 1927: 
128. 1927. 

Mexico: Veracruz; Los Tuxtlas, R. Cedillo T. 00205 

24, Strychnos jobertiana Baillon, Adansonia. 12: 367, 1879, 

Venezuela: Terr. Fed, Amazonas: 4 kms NE of San Carlos 
de Rio Negro, R. L Liesner 6695 , Peru: Madre de Dios: Al. 
Gentry 26795 , 26816 , 

This is the first record of the species from Madre de 
Dios. 



1982 Krukoff, /Vmerican species of Strychnos 75 

25. Strychnos pseudo-quina A, St. Hilaire, Mem, Mus. Paris 
9: 340. 1822. 

Brazil: Dist. Fed.: Brasilia, H. S. Irwin 33248a , E. P. 
Hering^r 3013 (cerrado) , 

31. Strychnos peckii B. L. Robinson, ProC. Amer. Acad. 49: 
504, 1913. 

Peru: San Martin: Mariscal Caceres, J . Schunke V. 10013 ; 
Loreto: Maynas, Al, Gentry 25141 . 

32. Strychnos erichsonii Richard Schomburgk, Reisen 3: 1082. 
1848, nomen; ex Progel in Mart, Fl, Bras. 6(1): 274. 1868. 

Venezuela: Terr. Fed. Amazonas: R. Liesner 7000 , 7155 . 
Brazil: Maranhao: Turiacu (basin of Rio Maracagume), N. A. 
Rosa 2774 . 

This is the first record of the species from Terr, Fed. 
Amazonas, Venezuela. 

35. Strychnos bredemeyeri (Schultes) Sprague & Sandwith, Kew 
Bull, 1927: 128, 1927, 

Venezuela: Amazonas: near Casiquiare, B. Liesner 8541 , 
8904, Brazil: Amazonas: Manaus--Sab Gabriel, Lucia Alencar 
375. 

36a, Strychnos mitscherlichii Richard Schomburgk, Reisen 2: 
451. 1848, var. mitscherlichii . 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, Al, Gentry 25855 , 26089, 

38, Strychnos darienensis Seemann, Bot. Voy, Herald 166, 1854, 

Peru: G. Weiss 118 ; Loreto: Maynas, Franklin Ayala 704 , 
Al. Gentry 25786 , J, Schunke 10136 . 

39. Strychnos guianensis (Aublet) Martins, Syst. Mart. Med, 
Bras. 121. 1843. 

Venezuela: Terr. Fed Amazonas: R. L. Liesner 6474 , 
6535 , 7428 , 7467, 8636, 8805 . Brazil: J. M. Poole 1608 ; Ama- 
zonas: Manaus--Sao Gabriel, Lucia Alencar 361 , Peru: Loreto: 
Maynas, Al. Gentry 18471 , 24922 , 25114 , 26207 . M, E. Mathias 
5434 (F), Juan Revilla 1891 , C. Diaz 435. 

41, Strychnos subcordata Spruce ex Bentham, Jour, Linn. Soc. 
1: 106. 1856, 



76 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, lio. 2 

Peru: Loreto: Rio Nanay, LI. Williams 863 (F), 

43. Strychnos panurensis Sprague & Sandwith, Kew Bull, 1927: 
132. 1927. 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, R. Ramirez C, 16 ; Al. Gentry 25118 , 
25191 ; Madre de Dios: Al. Gentry 26900 . 

This is the first record of the species from Madre de Dios. 

48. Strychnos melinoniana Baillon, Bull, Soc. Linn, Paris 
1: 256. 1880, 

/' 
French Guiana: Saul, de Granville 3393 . 

53. Strychnos fendleri Sprague & Sandwith, Kew Bull. 1927: 129. 
1927. 

/Venezuela: Sucre: alt. 40-80 m, J. Steyermark 108651 ; 
Falcon: T, Ruiz Z, 2531, 

54. Strychnos atlantica Krukoff & Barneby, Mem, NY Bot. Gard. 
20(1): 61. 1969. 

Brazil: Bahia: mun, Caltete, S. Mori 13486 . 

55. Strychnos rubiginosa A. DeCandolle in DeCandolle Prodr. 
9: 16. 1845. 

Brazil: Mato Grosso: M. Macedo 540 (INPA). 

56. Strychnos parvifolia A. DeCandolle in DeCandolle Prodr. 
9: 16. 1845. 

Brazil: Maranhao: N. A. Rosa 2536 , 2958 , 

59, Strychnos brasiliensis (Sprengel) Martius, Flora 24 
tBeibl, 2): 84, 1841, 

Argentina: Misiones: Frontera, J. E, Montes 7118 (F) . 

64. Sti-ychnos nigricans Progel in Mart. Fl. Bras. 6(1): 280. 
1868. 

Brazil: Minas Geraes: W. R. Anderson 9228 . 

70. Strychnos tarapotensis Sprague 6e Sandwith, Kew Bull. 
1927: 131. 1927. 

Peru: Madre de Dios: Al. Gentry 27236 . 



1982 Krukoff, American species of Strychnos 77 

Bibliography 

(In order to conserve space, I am citing here only the papers 
which are not cited in Suppl. VII -XVIII). 

1. Krukoff, B. A., Supplementary notes on the American 
species of Strychnos . XIX. Phytologia: 46: 74, 1980. 

2. Marini-Bettolo, C. B. et al. On the Alkaloids of 
Strychnos. XXXII. The alkaloids of Strychnos fendleri 
Sprague & Sandwith. Gazetta, Chlmica ItalianallF 
81-85, 1980. 

^' " " " " " . On the Alkaloids of 

Strychnos XXXV, The occurrence of akagerine in South 
American Strychnos. Jour. Nat, Products 43- 717-720 
1980. 



78 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

List of Exslccatae 

The first list of Exsiccatae covering papers on Strychnos, 
including Supplement XI, was published in Lloydia 35 (3): 262- 
270. 1972, the second covering Supplements XTI, XIII, and XIV 
in Phytologia 33: 319-322- 1976, the third covering Supplements 
XV and XVI in Phytologia 39: 281-282. 1978, the fourth list 
covering Supplement XVII in Phytologia 41: 237-238. 1979, the 
fifth list covering Supplement XVIII in Phytologia 44: 9. 1979, 
the sixth list covering Supplement XIX in Phytologia 46: 75. 
1980. The present list covers Supplement XX. Only numbered 
collections and those of which the dates of collection are re- 
corded have been listed. Collections identified with doubt 
are not listed. If a collector gathered his collection to- 
gether with others, only his name is cited in this list. Col- 
lections with Prance's numbers are cited under Prance. 

Alencar, Lucia, 361 (39), 375 (35) 
Anderson, W. R. , 9228 (64) 
Ayala, Franklin, 704 (38) 

Cedlllo, T. R., 00205 (13) 

Diaz, C, 435 (39), 436 (6) 

Gentry, A., 18471 (39), 24922 (39), 25114 (39), 25118 (43), 

25141 (31), 25191 (43), 25372 (6), 25786 (38), 25855 (36a), 
26089 (36a), 26201 (6), 26207 (39), 26795 (24), 26816 (24), 
26900 (43), 27236 (70) 

de Granville, 3393 (48) 

Herlnger, E, P., 3013 (25) 

Irwin, H. S., 33248a (25) 

Liesner, R. L. , 6474 (39), 6535 (39), 6695 (24), 7000 (32), 
3155 (32), 7428 (39), 7467 (39), 8541 (35), 8636 (39), 
8805 (39), 8904 (35) 

Macedo, M. , 540 (55) 
Mathias, M. E. , 5434 (59) 
Montes, J. E. , 7118 (59) 
Mori, S., 13486 

Poole, J. M, , 1608 (39) 

/■ 

Ramirez, R. C. , 16 (43) 

Revllla, Juan, 1891 (39) 

Rosa, N. A., 2536 (56), 2774 (32), 2958 (56) 

Ruir, Z. Thiraa, 2531 (53) 



1982 Krukoff, American species of Strychnos 79 

Schunke, Jose, 10013 (31), 10136 (38) 
Steyermark, J,, 108651 (53) 

Weiss, G. , 118 (38) 
Williams, L. L. , 863 (41) 



SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES ON AMERICAN MENISPERMACEAE XVII 

NEOTROPICAL TRICLISIEAE AND ANOMOSPERMEAE 

B. A. Krukoff 

Consulting Botanist of Merck Sharp & Dohme Research Labora- 
tories, N.J. and Honorary Curator of New York Botanical Garden. 

In Supplementary Notes #14 (16) I stated "Plants of Menis- 
permaceae are among the most unsatisfactory creations of 
nature from the taxonomist's point of view. Flowers are very 
small and dioecious, and some genera can be told apart only on 
fruit and seed characters." 

1. Work since 1937 to 1951 (incl.) 

In collaboration with H. N. Moldenke, I started to work 
on this family in 1937. Previous to this, L. Diel's monograph 
published in 1910 (19) was the only compact treatment of the 
entire family. The progress of our studies can be seen from 
Table #1. 



Number of species known in: 

Abuta 

Anomospermum 
Chondrodendron 
Sciadotenia 

Telitoxicum 

34 49 76 

Our main task in that period was getting fertile specimens 
collected and match up flowering material of the two sexes. 
As Rupert Bameby stated, the two tribes were in the state of 
a house kept in smart repair above ground but with neglected 
foundations. 

2. Work of Rupert Bameby on Generic Segregation in 1970 

The Supplementary Notes #8 (10) rectified this omission 
and started a new era after Bameby made a systematic generic 
survey stressing characters of the drupe and embryo, and we 
made keys, whenever possible one for each sex, to the species 
of each genus. 

80 



Table #1 






I in: 1910 


1938 


1970 


14 


17 


23 


5 


6 


14 


5 


8 


8 


10 


12 


16 


— 


6 


6 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 81 

3. Data accumulated since 1971 to 1981 (incl.) 

Since 1971, 896 new collections were examined (enormous 
amounts from the two tribes) , 90 extensions of range were 
reported, 2 new genera, and 1 species were described, and many 
fruits and flowers (staminate and pistillate) became known. 
The purpose of this paper is to bring together in a single 
place the information scattered in Supplementary Notes #9 to 
17 (inclusive) (11-18). 

4. Extensions of Range 

Under each species new ranges were compiled. 

In addition, since 1963, whenever possible, I have worked 
a few days annually in each of many major herbaria in the 
U.S.A., Europe, and South America. As a result, there are 
practically no specimens that have not been annotated. I have 
deposited with the New York Herbarium two card files, one 
arranged by species, the other by collectors, of every specimen 
seen by us. This will greatly facilitate the work of a future 
monographer. 

The discontinuous distribution, which would be rather 
unusual in another group of plants, should not distress those 
who work on the two tribes from which many examples could be 
cited; see Supplementary Notes //14 (16: 249-250). 

5. New genera and species 

Supplementary Notes #9 - Abuta fluminum Krukoff & Bameby 

" " 10 - Elephantomene Bameby & Krukoff 
(new genus) 

" " 11 - Sciadotenia peruviana Krukoff & 
Bameby 
Telitoxicum rodriguezii Krukoff 

" " 14 - Caryomene grandifolia Bameby & 

Krukoff 
Anomospermum andersonii Krukoff 
Cionomene Krukoff (new genus) 
Telitoxicum negroense (Krukoff & 

Moldenke) Krukoff (new 

combination) 

" " 17 - Abuta chocoensis Krukoff & Bameby 



82 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

6. Flowers (staminate and pistillate) and fruits 
are described for the first time 
(also important collections 
are referred to) 

Supplementary Notes #9 - Telitoxicum minutiflorum - 

staminate flowers 
Abut a brevifolia - 

staminate flowers 
Orthomene verruculosa - 

staminate flowers 
Chondrodendron microphyllum - 

fruits 
Telitoxicum peruvianum - 

fruits 

" " 11 - Curarea cuatrecasasii (two 
important collections) 

" " 12 - Anomospermum matogrossense (two 
important collections) 

•» " 13 - Reduction of " Abuta splendida " to 

the synonymy of A. rufescens 

Aublet 
" " 14 - Anomospermum reticulatum ssp. 

idroboi (important collection) 
Abuta steyermarkii - 

fruits 

7. New species and where they are expected 

Due to the extreme difficulties of collecting flowers, 
which is mentioned above, it is not surprising that we have 
accumulated specimens of ten species and four subspecies which 
are probably new but cannot be described because of insufficient 
material. In order to encourage further collections of these 
the localities are listed in Supplementary Notes #16 (18) . 

By now it is evident that tropical lowland forests of 
Venezuela, and of Amazonian Bolivia, Ecuador and Peru and the 
Choco in Colombia are very rich in Menispermaceae. New species 
are expected particularly in genera Abuta, Sciadotenia, and 
Anomospermum . 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 83 

8. Revisions of genera Clssampelos and Hyperbaena 

It is satisfactory that Cissampelos and Hyperbaena were 
finally revised, the first by D. G. Rhodes (21) and the second 
by M. Mathias and W, L. Theobald (20). 

9. Species of families other than Menispermaceae 
occasionally confused with Menispermaceae 

Among numerous specimens of Menispermaceae which we 
received since 1937 for identification, specimens of Sparat- 
tanthelium (Gyrocarpaceae) and less frequently sterile 
specimens of Dioscorea (from Brazil only - not from Mexico or 
Central America) and Cucurbitaceae were occasionally sent as 
unknown Menispermaceae . 

10, Chemical studies 

For chemical studies carried out by various workers before 
1970 see Supplementary Notes #6 (8: 4, 5, 70). Numerous 
authentic wood samples were accumulated largely in 1969 and 
1970 (from G. Prance and his collectors, also from Nilo Silva 
in Brazil, J. Schunke in Peru and others). They were given in 
1970 to Dr. Thomas H. Kinstle, at that time of Iowa State 
University. He never published anything, and failed to infotrm 
us what he did with our wood samples. Prof. Yasue Iwubushi of 
Kyoto University expressed his interest to work on woods of 
Menispermaceae and we sent him a set. His findings are quoted 
in Supplementary Notes #9 and 10 (11 and 12) and they were 
mostly negative. As is the case with T. Kinstle, the chemical 
work on woods of Menispermaceae apparently was found too 
difficult for his facilities. Most of the wood samples which 
we sent to him were returned and were given by us to Dr. Michael 
P. Cava. Papers by him and his coworkers are enumerated below 
(22, 23, 24, 25, and 26). Tertiary alkaloids of many members 
of the two tribes were found to have anti-tumor activity. 

11. Species used in the preparation of curare 
and phainnacological and clinical studies 

See Supplementary Notes #6 (8: 4-69). 

12. Studies of Wood Anatomy 

The extensive paper on the wood anatomy of the two tribes 
by A. M. W. Mennega is being rewritten to comply with the for- 
mat of the Journal of Arnold Arboretum. 



84 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 

13. Studies of Pollen 

For the study of pollen see paper by P. Thanikaimoni (27) 

and by I. K. Ferguson (28) . The study appears to be promising 

as there are several types of pollen in species of these two 
tribes . 

14. Studies of Chromosomes 

Chromosomes of only four of the 16 New World genera of 
Menispermaceae ( Calycocarpum , Menispermum , Ctfbculus , and 
Cissampelos ) have been reported. In 1977 Dr. Gerald Carr of 
the University of Hawaii expressed his interest in studying 
chromosomes at the Pacific Tropical Garden on the basis of root 
tips of seedlings. Our correspondents in South America were 
requested to send freshly collected seeds to him for germina- 
tion. It is interesting to mention that the first two batches 
of seeds were received from Dr. J. J. de Granville from French 
Guiana. They were of remarkable Elephant omene eburnea and 
Anomospermum sp. Seeds of these germinated four to five months 
after planting. I now will quote a letter from S. Lucas 
(Pacific Trop. Card.) of March 6, 1981. 

"You will be pleased to note that we have 
succeeded in germinating seeds of 800237 Abut a 
bullata Moldenke which is the first collection 
( Cremers 6191 ) of this species from French Guiana. 
The seeds were received here and planted on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1980, so it has taken fully one year 
for germination." 

Therefore, in addition to the difficulties of collecting 
seeds of members of their two files, Dr. Carr is faced with 
that of delayed germination. 

For routine identification of specimens of the two tribes, 
only two papers are needed - Supplementary Notes #8 wherein 
Barneby made generic definitions and this paper. By examining 
the present paper it is rather easy to find the Supplement in 
which more detailed information on specific subjects are 
presented. 

In connection with preparation of the present paper 88 new 
collections were examined, extensions of range were noted for 
17, and one species ( Abut a chocoensis Krukoff & Barneby) is 
described as new. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 85 

I. Chondrodendron Ruiz & Pavon, Syst. Veg. 261. 1798. 

1. Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Syst. Veg. 261. 
1798. 

Peru: Madre de Dios: Manu, R. B. Foster 5289 , 6178 , 
P. J. Barbour 5544. 

This is the first record of this species from Madre de Dios. 

Distribution 

Panama: Panama, Canal Zone, Darien. Colombia: Choco, 
Boyaca, Amazonas, Santander, Comiss. Caqueta. Ecuador: Napo- 
Pastaza, Oriente. Peru: Amazonas, Loreto, San Martin, Huanuco, 
Junin, Madre de Dios. Bolivia: La Paz, basin of Rio Beni. 
Brazil: basin of the upper Rio JuruS. 

2. Chondrodendron platiphyllum (A. de St. Hilaire) Miers, Ann. 
Mag. Nat. Hist. III. 19: 122. 1867. 

Distribution 

Well distributed in southeastern Brazil: Ceara, Rio Grande 
do Norte, Bahia, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, 
Sao Paulo. 

3. Chondrodendron microphyllum (Eichler) Moldenke in Krukoff 
& Moldenke, Brittonia 3: 11. 1938. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia. 

Fruits were described in Supplement #9. 

II. Curarea Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 
22(2): 7. 1971, 

1. Curarea toxicofera (Weddell) Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 22(2): 9. 1971. 

Ecuador: Napo: H. V. Pinkley 285 . Peru: Loreto: 
Maynas, A. Gentry 18505 , 24991 , 25126, 25952 , 25991, C. Diaz 
1187 ; San Martin: A. Gentry 25720 ; Madre de Dios: Manu, R. JB. 
Foster 2543 (F) , 6480 (F) , A, Gentry 26990 ; Oserato/Tambo: 
G. Weiss 132. 



86 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

These are the first records of the species from Ecuador 
and from Madre de Dios, Peru. 

Distribution 

Panama: Canal Zone, Darien. Colombia: Choco, Amazonas, 
VaupSs. Ecuador: Napo. Peru: Loreto, Huanuco, Madre de 
Dios. Bolivia: La Paz (Beni) . Brazil: Amazonas (basin of 
Rios Mau^s, Negro, 19a, Jurua, Jutai, Javari , and the upper 
and lower Rio SolimoSs) , Acre. 

2. Curarea candicans (L. C. Richard) Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. 
N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 12. 1971. 

French Guiana: de Granville 3622 , A. Foumet 63 , 65 , 75 . 

This is the first record of the species from French Guiana. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar. Guyana. Surinam. French Guiana. 
Brazil: Para, Amazonas. 

3. Curarea tecunarum Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 
22(2): 12. 1971. 

Brazil: Rondonia: mata do vSrzea, J_. Ubiratan Santos 218 
(f rts) . Peru: Loreto: Maynas, C. Diaz 1044 ; Madre de Dios, 
Al. Gentry 27089 . 

This is the first record of the species from Rondonia and 
Madre de Dios. 

The above cited collection from Rondonia is in fruit. In 
our Supplement #8 (Mem. N.Y. Bot, Card. 22: 14. 1971) we refer 
to Fuller 86 from Napo-Pastaza, Ecuador which has two old 
detached drupes but we had no certainty that they belong with 
the leaves. It is now certain that these fruits and descrip- 
tion belong with the specimen. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo. Ecuador: Napo-Pastaza. 
Peru: Loreto, Madre de Dios. Brazil: RondQnia, Amazonas 
(basin of the upper Rios Negro, JuruS, Purus , 19a, SolimOes). 

4. Curarea cuatrecasasii Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 22(2): 14. 1971. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 87 

Distribution 

Costa Rica: Puntarenas. Colombia: Antloquia. 

Stamlnate flowers are not yet known. 

IIA, Clonomene Krukoff, Phytologla 41: 241. 1979 

1. Clonomene javariensis Krukoff, Phytologla 41: 241. 1979. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basin of Rio Javari) . 

Fruits and pistillate flowers are not yet known. 

III. Sciadotenia Miers, Ann. Nat. Hist. 
II. 7: 43. 1851. 

1. Sciadotenia cayennensis Bentham, Jour. Linn. Soc. Bot . 
5(Suppl. 2): 51. 1861. 

Brazil: MaranhSo: basin of Rio Pindare, J[. Jangoux 407 . 
French Guiana: Moretti 843 . 

This is the first record of the species for MaranhSo. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Amazonas. The three Guianas. Brazil: 
Maranhao, territory of Amapa, Para, where found near Belem 
and in the basins of Rios Cumina, Tapajos, and Trombetas. 

2. Sciadotenia toxifera Krukoff & A. C. Smith, Bull. Torrey 
Club 66: 308. 1939. 

Peru: San Martin: Mariscal Caceres , J^. Schunke V. 10023; 
Madre de Dios: Manu, R. B. Foster 3163 (F) , 3480 (F) , 6170 (F) , 
A. Gentry 26751 , P. J. Barbour 5682 . 

This is the first record of this species for Madre de 
Dios. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Amazonas, Putumayo. Ecuador: Napo-Pastaza. 
Peru: Loreto, San Martin, Huanuco, Madre de Dios. Brazil: 
Acre, Amazonas (basin of Rios Purus, Jurua, Javari, Solimoes) . 



88 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

3. Sciadotenia solimoesana Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 27. 1938. 

Distribution 

Known from a single locality, Igarape Belem, upper Rio 
Solimoes, Amazonas, Brazil, 

Mature fruits and pistillate flowers not yet known. 

4. Sciadotenia paraensis (Eichler) Diels in Engler, Pflanzen- 
reich 4(94): 86. 1910. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Territory of Amapa, Territory of Rondonia, Para 
(Bragan^a, Obidos, basin of Rios Guama, Capim, Tapajos), Amazo- 
nas (basin of Rios Jamunda, Maues , and the lower Rio Negro). 

5. Sciadotenia sagotiana (Eichler) Diels in Engler, Pflanzen- 
reich 4(94): 86. 1910. 

Distribution 

Guyana. French Guiana. Brazil: Territory of Amapa, Para, 
Amazonas (basin of Rio Negro, Urubu) . 

6. Sciadotenia eichleriana Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 28. 1938. 

Distribution 

French Guiana. Brazil: Para, Amazonas (basin of Rios 
Negro, Solimoes), Mato Grosso (basin of Rio Madeira). Peru: 
San Martin, Loreto, Huanuco. 

6a. Sciadotenia peruviana Krukoff & Bameby, Phytologia 39: 
284. 1978. 

Distribution 

Peru: Amazonas. 

Staminate inflorescences and flowers not yet known. 

7. Sciadotenia sprucei Diels in Engler, Pf lanzenreich 4(94): 
84. 1910. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 89 

Distribution 

Brazil: Mato Grosso, Amazonas (basin of Rios Icja, 
Negro), Para (basin of Rio Tapajos). 

8. Sciadotenia mathiasiana Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Hot. 
Card. 20(2): 46. 1970. 

Distribution 

Known only from the type collection from Loreto, Peru. 

Staminate flowers not yet known. 

9. Sciadotenia brachypoda Diels in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 
(94): 84. 1910. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Amazonas. Brazil: Acre, Territory of Ron- 
donia. Para, Amazonas (basin of Rios Purus, Jurua, Negro, I^a, 
SolimSes) . 

Pistillate inflorescences not seen. 

10. Sciadotenia ramiflora Eichler, Flora 47: 395. 1864. 

Distribution 

Panama: Darien. Colombia: Santander, Meta. Ecuador: 
Napo. Peru: Loreto. Brazil: Amazonas. 

11. Sciadotenia nitida (Riley) Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 22(2): 22. 1971. 

Distribution 

Panama: Canal Zone, Darien. Colombia: Antioquia, 
Santander. 

12. Sciadotenia amazonica Eichler, Flora 47: 395. 1864 & in 
Martius, Fl. Bras. 13(1): 201, tab. 47, fig. 3. 1864. 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, A. Gentry 25271 , C^. Diaz 467 . 

Distribution 

Peru: Loreto. Brazil: Amazonas. 



90 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 2 

13. Sciadotenia duckei Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 30. 1938. 

Distribution 

French Guiana. Brazil: Amazonas (lower Rio Negro). 

14. Sciadotenia pachnococca Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 22(2): 24. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (upper Rio Negro). 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

15. Sciadotenia javariensis Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 78: 260. 1951. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (Rio Javari) . 

Fruits are not yet known. 

16. Sciadotenia pubistaminea (K. Schumann) Dials in Engler, 
Pflanzenreich 4(94): 85. 1910. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Bahia, Minas Gerais. 

Fruits are not yet known. 

17. Sciadotenia acutifolia Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 20(2): 45. 1970. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Esplrito Santo. 

Fruits are not yet known. 

V. Telitoxicum Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke 
Brittonia 3: 42. 1938 

1. Telitoxicum minutif lorum (Diels) Moldenke in Krukoff & 
Moldenke, Brittonia 3: 49. 1938. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 91 

Distribution 

Peru: Loreto, San Martin. Brazil: Territories of Amapa 
and Rondonia, Para (Rio Xingu) , Amazonas (basin of the upper 
Solimoes , Rio Negro), Acre. 

2. Telitoxicum duckei (Diels) Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 47. 1938. 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, C. Diaz 1027, 1040 , 1100 . 

Distribution 

Colombia: Vaupes. Peru: Loreto. French Guiana. 
Brazil: Para (Rio Mapuera) , Amazonas (upper Rio Negro). 

3. Telitoxicum krukovii Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, Brit- 
tonia 3: 44. 1938. 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, A. Gentry 27969 . 

Distribution 

Surinam. Peru: Loreto, San Martin, Huanuco. Brazil: 
Amazonas (basin of Rios Madeira, Jurua, Negro and Igarape 
Comitian) , Para (basin of Rio Tocantins) . 

4. Telitoxicum glaziovii Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 47. 1938. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Ceara, Para (basin of Rios Tapajos, Amazonas 
proper, Jari and other regions). 

5. Telitoxicum inopinatum Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 46. 1938. 

Distribution 

Guiana (basins of Courantyne, Berbice, Essequibo and 
Demerara Rivers) . Surinam. French Guiana. 

6. Telitoxicum peruvianum Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, 
Brittonia 3: 45. 1938. 

Distribution 

Known only from the type collection in staminate flower 
from the basin of Rio Putumayo, Loreto, Peru. 



92 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

7. Telitoxicum negroense (Krukoff & Moldenke) Krukoff , 
Phytologia 25: 37. 1972. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basin of Rio Negro) . 

Known only in sterile condition. 

8. Telitoxicum rodriguesii Krukoff, Phytologia 33: 329. 1976. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basin of Rio Negro). 

Flowers are not yet known. 

VI. Abut a Barrere ex Aublet , PI. Guian. 
1: 618. pi. 250. 1775. 

1. Abuta rufescens Aublet, Hist. PI. Guian. 1: 618. pi. 250. 
1775. 

Peru: Loreto: 
Maynas, Ramon Ramirez 93 ; Huinuco : Leoncio Prado, Jose Schunke 
V. 10202. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Tachira, Amazonas, Apure. Surinam. French 
Guiana. Colombia: Amazonas. Ecuador: Napo. Peru: Loreto, 
Huanuco. Brazil: Territory of Amapa, Amazonas 
(basins of Rios Negro, Solimoes, Japura, Jurua) . 

3. Abuta convexa (Velloso) Diels in Engler, Pflanzenreich 4 
(94): 193. 1910. 

Distribution 

Confined to southeastern Brazil: Minas Gerais , Esplrito 
Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Guanabara. 

For description of fruits see Supplement #10. 

4. Abuta grisebachii Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 
17: 47. 1862. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 93 

Distribution 

Colombia: Vaupes. Peru: San Martin, Loreto. Brazil: 
Mato Grosso, Amazonas (basins of Rios Solimoes, Negro, Igarape 
Camitian) , Para (basin of Rios Xingu and upper Tapajos). 

5. Abut a candollei Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 17: 
47. 1862. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar. The three Guianas. Brazil: Terri- 
tories of Amapa and Roraima, Para, Amazonas. 

6. Abut a aristeguietae Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 
20(2): 21. 1970. 

Distribution 

Costa Rica: Alajuela, Guanacaste. Venezuela: Maracay, 
Miranda, Federal District. Ecuador: Azuay. Peru: Junin. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

7. Abuta steyermarkii (Standley) Standley, Field Mus. Publ. 
Bot. 23: 156. 1944. 

Distribution 

Mexico: Chiapas. Belize. Guatemala: Alto Verapaz, 
Izabal. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

8. Abuta antioquiana Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 
20(2): 24. 1970. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Antioquia. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

9. Abuta pahni (Martius) Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Gard. 22(2): 43. 1971. 

Peru: Loreto: Maynas, M. J[. Balick 1006 (ECON) , C. Diaz 
1033; Amazonas: Felix Dominguez Pena 119 . 



94 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Merida, Trujillo, Amazonas. Ecuador: Napo- 
Pastaza. Peru: Loreto, Huanuco, Junin. Brazil: Acre, Mato 
Grosso, Amazonas (basin of Rios Madeira, Jurua, Japura, upper 
Solimoes and upper Negro) . 

10. Abut a fluminum Krukoff & Barneby, Phytologia 25: 38. 
1972. 

Distribution 

Ecuador: Los Rios. Peru: San Martin. 

11. Abuta barbata Miers, Contr. Bot. 3: 83. 1871. 
French Guiana: M. ¥_. Prevost 900 . 

Distribution 
The three Guianas. Brazil: Para (basin of Rio Tocantins). 

12. Abuta mycetandra Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 
22(2): 45. 1971. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar. Peru: Loreto. 

Fruits are not yet known. 

13. Abuta imene (Martins) Eichler, Flora 47: 389. 1864. 

French Guiana: A. Foumet 70 . Venezuela: Amazonas: 
Atures, Otto Huber 1462 (VEN) . Brazil: Mato Grosso: Aripuana, 
M. Gomes 109 (INPA) ; Rondonia: J. L. Zarucchi 2813 , M. G. 
Vieira 979 . Peru: Madre de Dios: P. J. Barbour 5531 . 

Specimens from Rondonia and Madre de Dios and also from 
French Guiana are new records for this species. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Amazonas (Vaupes). Bolivia: La Paz. Surinam. 
French Guiana. Brazil: Mato Grosso, Amazonas (upper Rio Jurua), 
Para (basins of Rios Trombetas and Tapajos). 

14. Abuta selloana Eichler, Flora 47: 389. 1864. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Araerican Menispermaceae 95 

Distribution 

Appears to be confined to central and southeastern Brazil: 
Ceara, Minas Gerais, Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo, Parana, Santa 
Catarina. 

15. Abuta panurensis Eichler, Flora 47: 390. 1864. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basins of Rios Negro, Maues , Tocantins, 
19a). Peru: San Martin. 

16. Abuta solimoesensis Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 20(2): 18. 1970. 

French Guiana: A. Foumet 61 . Peru: Loreto: Rio 
Itaya, A. Gentry 18511 . 

The specimen from French Guiana is a new record for this 
species. 

Distribution 

French Guiana. Peru: Huanuco, Loreto. Brazil: Para 
(Ipean, Rio Jari , near Santarem) , Amazonas (Igarape Camitian) . 

17. Abuta velutina Gleason, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 58: 361. 
1931. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar, basin of Rio Orinoco. Brazil: 
Amazonas (basins of Rios Negro, Solimoes) , Rondonia. Peru: 
Huanuco, San Martin. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

18. Abuta obovata Diels, Notizbl. Bot. Gart. Berlin 13: 29. 
1936. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar, Amazonas. Guiana. French Guiana. 
Brazil: Territory of Amapa, Acre, Amazonas (basins of Rios 
Negro, Solimoes, Urubu) . 

Fruits were described in Supplement //8. 



96 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

19. Abuta vaupesensis Krukoff & Barneby , Mem. N.Y. Bot . Gard. 
20(2): 19. 1970. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Vaupes. 
Fruits are not yet known. 

20. Abuta brevifolia Krukoff & Moldenke, Bull. Torrey Bot. 
Club 69(2): 160. 1942. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Para (near Belem, basins of Rios Jarx, Mapuera, 
Tapajos) , Amazonas (basins of Rios Negro, Acre). Venezuela: 
Amazonas. 

21. Abuta sandwithiana Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Gard. 20(2): 18. 1970. 

Brazil: Mato Grosso: Aripuana, M. G^. Silva 4773 . 

Distribution 

Surinam. French Guiana. Brazil: Territory of Amapa, 
Para (Rio Tapajos), Amazonas (basins of Rios Maues, Madeira, 
upper Jurua) , Acre, Mato Grosso, Territory of Rondonia. 
Bolivia. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

21a. Abuta chocoensis Krukoff & Barneby, sp. nov. , inter 

affines meso-Americanas foliorum lamina facie superior! 
venis primariis secundariisque alte impressis insigniter 
bullata, facie inferior! inter venas impressa, necnon 
drupa dense velutino-tomentella insignis. 

Woody vine with stem diam. 3" x 1"; branchlets rusty- 
tomentulose; petioles rather stout, 20-40 mm long, densely 
velutinous-tomentulose, incrassate at both ends; leaf-blades 
broadly elliptic or obovate 5-15 x 6.5-13.5 cm, rounded or 
broadly cuneate at base, emarginate, acute or acuminate at 
apex, coriaceous, prominently bullate above, prominently 
venose beneath, 3-plinerved, essentially glabrous above, 
rusty-pilosulous on primary nerves below, primary and secon- 
dary nerves deeply impressed above, very prominent below, 
the interveniura of upper face intricately reticulate, the 
larger areoles + 0.2 ram diam.; inflorescence unknown, ^ 



1982 Krul:off, Notes on American Menispermaceae 97 

from axils of contemporary leaves, the axis +2.5 cm; flower 
not seen, its pedicel in fruit less than 1 cm; drupe obovoid 
+ 3 X 2 X 1.5 cm, the exocarp densely velutino-tomentulose, the 
fibrous mesocarp +0.7 mm thick, the thinly woody endocarp + 0.5 
mm thick, deeply engraved-venulose externally. 

Type locality : Choco; carretera Panamericana (en construc- 
cion) , entre Rio San Pablo (Pueblo Nuevo) y Las Animas. 

Distribution ; (two collections); Colombia : Choco: E^. 
Forero at al. 5807 (April 24, 1979, mature frts) (NY - holotype, 
MO), A. Gentry et al. 24117 (Jan. 13, 1979) trail to Tubado, 
Quibdo-Tutunendo Road, ca 14 km E. of Quibdo, alt. 90 m, mature 
pluvial forest. 

The four species with bullate leaves can be separated by the 
following key: 

1. Leaf-blades 3-plinerved. 

2. Fruit small (+ 2 cm long, velutinous) ; Surinam, 
Brazil (Amapa, Para, Amazonas , Rondonia) , Bolivia 
A. sandwithiana 

2. Fruit large (+ 3 cm long), velutinous; Colombia 
(Choco) A. chocoensis 

1. Leaf-blades all or mostly 5-plinerved. 

3. Fruit 3-3.5 x 2-2.5 cm, velutinous; Guiana ..A. bullata 

3. Fruit 2x1 cm, subglabrous; Brazil (Para, Amazonas), 
Peru A. solimoesensis 

22. Abut a bullata Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, Brittonia 3: 
52. 1938. 

French Guiana: ENE Saul, Cremers 6191 , A. Foumet 66 . 

This is the first record of this species from French Guiana. 

Distribution 

Guiana. French Guiana. 

23. Abuta seemanni Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. IV. 17: 
50. 1862. 



98 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 30, No. 2 

Distribution 
Colombia: Choco, Valle. 
Fruits were described in Supplement #8. 

24. Abut a racemes a (Thunberg) Triana & Planchon, Ann. Sci. Nat. 
IV. 17: 48. 1862. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Santander, Tolima. 

25. Abuta panamensis (Standley) Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 20(2): 22. 1970. 

Panama: Darien: A. Gentry 28567 . 

Distribution 

From Veracruz and Chiapas, southeastern Mexico, through 
Belize, Guatemala (Huehuetenango, Quetzaltenango, Retalhuleu, 
Solola, Chimaltenango, Sacatepeques, Alta Verapaz, Izabal, 
Peten) , Honduras (Atlantida) , Nicaragua (Zelaya) , Costa Rica 
(Alajuela, Cartago, Heredia) , Panama (Canal Zone, Darien). 

26. Abuta chiapasensis Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 
20(2): 23. 1970. 

Distribution 

Mexico: Chiapas. Guatemala. 

Fruits are described in Supplement //14. 

27. Abuta grandifolia (Martins) Sandwith, Kew Bull. 1937: 397. 
1937. 

Venezuela: Terr. Fed. Amazonas, R. Llesner 8600 . French 
Guiana: near Saiil, de Granville 3149 , Cremers 6154 , A. Fournet 
31 , 73 . Brazil: ParS: Santarem, M. G. A. Lobo 74 ; Amazonas: 
Manaus-S3o Gabriel, Lucia Alencar 313 ; Mato Grosso: AripuanS, 
M. G. Silva 4768 ; Territory of Roralraa: Ilha de Maraca, N. A. 
Rosa 3052 . Ecuador: Napo: R. B. Foster 3817 (Rio Yasuni) , W. T 
Vlckers 221 (Rio Aguarico) , M. Shemluck 167 (F) (Rio Pastaza). 
Peru: Loreto: A. Gentry 18964 , M. Rimachi Y. 3020 (F) ; Madre 
de Dios: Manu, R. B. Foster 32 39 , A. Gentry 26749 . 

This Is the first record of this species from Madre de Dios. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 99 

Distribution 

The most frequently collected of American Triclisieae and 
Anomospermeae. It also has a very extensive range: Venezuela 
(Bolivar and Amazonas) , the three Guianas, Colombia (Cauca, 
Putumayo, Caqueta, Vaupes, Meta and Amazonas), Ecuador (Napo 
and Napo-Pastaza) , Peru (Loreto, San Martin, Madre de Dios , 
and Huanuco) , Bolivia (basin of Rio Beni, Larecaja, La Paz). 
It is common and very widely distributed in Brazilian 
Amazonia: Territory of Amapa (basins of Rios Oiapoque, Jari 
and Araguari) , Para (basins of Rios Amazonas proper, Tapajos, 
Tocantins, Trombetas , and many other localities), Amazonas 
(basins of Rios Solimoes, Jurua, Purus , Madeira, Tonantins, 
19a, Urubu, and Negro) ; territories of Roraima and Rondonia, 
Acre and Mato Grosso. Outside of Amazonia it has been col- 
lected in the Brazilian states of Maranhao, Ceara, and Goias. 

28. Abuta colombiana Moldenke in Krukoff & Moldenke, Brit- 
tonia 3: 58. 1938. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Choco, Valle. 

29. Abuta dwyerana Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 
20(2): 73. 1970. 

Distribution 

Costa Rica: Cartago. Panama: Colon, Panama, Darien. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

30. Abuta longa Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 
20(2): 21. 1970. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Miranda, Federal District, Delta Amacuro. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

VII. Caryomene Barneby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Gard. 22(2): 52. 1971. 

1. Caryomene prumnoides Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Gard. 22(2): 55. 1971. 



100 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, lio. 2 

Distribution 

Bolivia: basin of Rio Abuna. Brazil: Amazonas (basin 
of Rio Solimoes) . 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) are not yet known. 

2. Caryomene glaucescens (Moldenke) Barneby & Krukoff, Mem. 
N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 56. 1971. 

French Guiana: A. Foumet 86 . 

This is the first record of this species from French 
Guiana. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Para (basin of Rio Tocantins). French Guiana. 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) are not yet known. 

3. Caryomene olivascens Barneby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 22(2): 57. 1971. 

Distribution 

French Guiana. Brazil: Para (basin of Rio Jari) . 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

4. Caryomene foveolata Barneby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 22(2): 60. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Para (basin of Rio Tapajos). 

Flowers are not yet known. 

5. Caryomene grandifolia Barneby & Krukoff, Phytologia 41: 
247. 1979. 

Distribution 

Peru: Loreto. Brazil: Amazonas (basins of Rios Negro, 
Maues) . 

Pistillate flowers and fruits are not yet known. 



1982 Krukoff, ilotes on American Menispermaceae 101 

VIII. Anomospermum Miers , Ann. Nat. Hist. 
III. 14: 101. 1864. 

1. Anomospermum grandi folium Eichler, Flora 47: 388. 1864. 

Peru: Madre de Dios: Manu, R. B^. Foster 6141 , A. Gentry 
26991 , 27037 . 

This is the first record of the species from Madre de Dios. 

Distribution 

Guyana. Brazil: Para, Amazonas, Acre. Colombia: Choco. 
Ecuador: Napo-Pastaza. Peru: Madre de Dios, Loreto, Huanuco, 
San Martin. Bolivia (Pando) . It is widely distributed in 
Brazil. In the state of Para it has been collected in the basins 
of Rios Amazonas and Trombetas, in the state of Amazonas in the 
basins of Rios Solimoes (Igarapes Belem, Jandiatuba, and Comitian) , 
Negro and upper Jurua, in the state of Acre in the basins of Rios 
Jurua and Purus. 

2. Anomospermum solimoesanum (Moldenke) Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. 
N.Y. Bot. Gard. 22(2): 65. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basins of Rios Solimoes and Negro) , 
Rondonia. 

3. Anomospermum bolivianum Krukoff & Moldenke ex Moldenke, Lilloa 
5: 234. 1940. 

Brazil: Para: Rio Tocantins , M. G. Silva 3609 . 

The above cited collection was misidentified as A. reticu- 
latum (Mart.) Eichler ssp. reticulatum in Supplement #15 
(Phytologia 44: 15. 1979). 

Distribution 

Bolivia: La Paz. Peru: Huanuco. Brazil: Territory of 
Amapa, Para (basins of Rios Tapajos and Tocantins) , Mato Grosso. 

4a. Anomospermum chloranthum Diels ssp. chlo rant hum , Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Gard. 22(2): 68. 1971. 

Distribution 

French Guiana. Western Venezuela (Merida) . Brazil: 
Amazonas, Acre. Peru: Huanuco, Junin, Loreto. Bolivia: Yungas. 



102 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Ao. 2 

4b. Anomospermum chloranthum Die Is ssp. confusum Krukoff & 
Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 69. 1971. 

Peru: Madre de Dios: Manu, R. B^. Foster 6332 . French 
Guiana: de Granville 3663 , A. Foumet 79 . 

This is the first record of this species from Madre de Dios. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Amazonas. Peru: Loreto, Huanuco, Madre de Dios. 
French Guiana. Brazil: Para, Amazonas. 

4c. Anomospermum chloranthum Diels ssp. isthmicola Krukoff & 
Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 22(2): 70. 1971. 

Distribution 

Panama. Colombia: Antioquia, Choco. 

4d. Anomospermum chloranthum Diels ssp. pacificum Krukoff & 
Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 22(2): 70. 1971. 

Ecuador: Pichincha: Pacific slope W of Quito, 530 m, C^. H. 
Dodson 10353 . 

This is the first record of the species from Ecuador. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Narifio. Ecuador: Azuay, Pichincha. 

4e. Anomospermum chloranthum Diels ssp. asplundii Krukoff & 
Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard, 22(2): 71. 1971. 

Distribution 

Ecuador: Napo-Pastaza. 

4f. Anomospermum chloranthum Diels ssp. occidentale (Cuatrecasas) 
Krukoff & Bameby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Gard. 22(2): 71. 1971. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Valle. 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) not yet known. 



1982 Krukoff, IJotes on American Menispermaceae 103 

5a. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martins) Eichler ssp. reticulatum 
Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 73. 1971. 

Peru: Madre de Dios : Mann, R. B. Foster 6336 (F) . 

This is the first record of the species from Madre de 
Dios. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Amazonas , Delta Amacuro. Colombia: Amazonas. 
Peru: Madre de Dios. Brazil: widely distributed, usually on 
varzea land, through Para, Amazonas, Acre, Mato Grosso, and 
territories Roraima and Rondonia. In the state of ParS col- 
lected in the basins of Rios Amazonas proper, Xingfi, Tapajos, 
JamundS, Trombetas, Cumina-Mirlm, Tajaparu and in many other 
localities; in the state of Amazonas in the basins of the upper 
Rio SolimSes and Rios 19a, Tonantins, Japura, Negro, Igarap^ 
Jandiatuba, Jurua, and Madeira. 

5b. An omo s p e rmum reticulatum (Martins) Eichler ssp. dielsianum 
(Moldenke) Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 
74. 1971. 

Brazil: Rondonia: jJ. Ubiratan Santos 191 . 

Distribution 

Panama: Darien. Peru: Huanuco. Brazil: Acre, terri- 
tory of Rondonia, Amazonas (basins of upper Rio Negro, Rio 
SolimSes) . 

5c. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martius) Eichler ssp. glabrescens 
Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 74. 1971. 

Distribution 

Panama: Darien. Venezuela: Zulia, Tachira. 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) not yet known. 

5d. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martius) Eichler ssp. idroboi 
Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 75. 1971. 

Distribution 

Costa Rica: Alajuela. Panama: Chiriqul, Code, Col&n. 
Colombia: Meta (Cordillera La Macarena) . 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) are not yet known. 



104 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Wo. 2 

5e. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martius) Eichler ssp. nitidum 
(Miers) Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 
75. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Rio de Janeiro, Sao Paulo. 

5f. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martius) Eichler ssp. venezue- 
lense Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 76. 
1971. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Miranda, Maracuy. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

5g. Anomospermum reticulatum (Martius) Eichler ssp. allenii 
Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 77. 1971. 

Distribution 

Panama: Code. Colombia. Choco, Valle. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

6. Anomospermum steyermarkii Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Card. 20(2): 30. 1970. 

Distribution 

Venezuela: Bolivar. Brazil: Territories of Amapa and 
Roraima, Amazonas (basin of Rio Negro). 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

7. Anomospermum matogrossense Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 20: 33. 1970. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Para (Alto Tapajos) , Mate Grosso, territory of 
Rondonia. 

8. Anomospermum andersonii Krukoff, Phytologia 41: 250. 1979. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Para (basin of Rio Tapajos) , Amazonas (basin of 
Rio Solimoes) . Peru: San Martin, Loreto. 



1982 Krukoff, liotes on American Menispermaceae 105 

IX. Orthomene Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot. Card. 22(2): 79. 1971. 

1. Orthomene schomburgkli (Miers) Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. 
Bot, Card. 22(2): 80. 1971. 

Venezuela: Terr. Federal Amazonas , R. L^. Liesner 7171 . 
Colombia: Antioquia: W. S^. Al vers on 34 . Ecuador: Napo: 
R. ^. Foster 3864 . Peru: Loreto: Maynas , Christopher Davidse 
9930; Madre de Dios : Manu, A. Gentry 27141 . 

This is the first record of the species from Ecuador. 

Distribution 

The most frequently collected species of the genus and also 
the most widespread. Collected in Trinidad, Venezuela (Delta 
Amacuro, Bolivar and Amazonas), the three Guianas , Ecuador 
(Napo), Peru (Madre de Dios, Loreto, San Martin and Huanuco) , 
Colombia (Choco, Antioquia, Amazonas-Vaupes , Caqueta, and Putu- 
mayo) , Bolivia (basin of Rio Beni, La Paz), and Brazil. In 
Brazil it has been collected in the territories of Amapa and 
Rondonia, Para, Amazonas, Acre, Mato Grosso, Ceara, Pemambuco, 
Bahia, Goias, Minas Gerais, Espirito Santo and Rio de Janeiro. 

2. Orthomene verruculosa (Krukoff & Bameby) Bameby & 
Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 81. 1971. 

Distribution 

Colombia: Vaupes. 

Staminate flowers are not yet known. 

3. Orthomene hirsuta (Krukoff & Moldenke) Barneby & Krukoff, 
Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 22(2): 81. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basins of Rios Negro, Solimoes) , Para. 

4. Orthomene prancei Bameby & Krukoff, Mem. N.Y. Bot. Card. 
22(2): 81. 1971. 

Distribution 

Brazil: Amazonas (basin of Rio Urubu) . 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) are not yet known. 



106 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

X. Elephantomene Bameby & Krukoff , Lloydia 
37: 27. 1974. 

1. Elephantomene ebumea Barneby & Krukoff, Lloydia 37: 28. 1974, 

Distribution 

French Guiana. 

Flowers (staminate and pistillate) are not yet known. 



1932 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 107 

Literature Cited 

Krukoff, B. A., & Moldenke, H. N. 1938, Studies of American 

Menispermaceae, with special reference to species used 
in preparation of arrow-poisons. Brlttonia 3: 1-74. 

" " " , 1930. A new name for Cocculus 

2. toxicoferus Wedd. Brittonia 3: 338. 

" " " . 1941. Supplementary notes on 

3. American Menispermaceae . Bull. Torrey Club 68; 237-243. 

" " " . 1942. Supplementary notes on 

4. American Menispermaceae - -II. Bull. Torrey Club 69: 
156-161. 

" " " , 1943. Supplementary notes on 

5. American Menispermaceae - -III. Bull. Torrey Club 70: 
400-405. 

" " " , 1947. Supplementary notes on 

6. American Menispermaceae - -IV. Bull. Torrey Club 74: 
378-382. 

" " " . 1951. Supplementary notes on 

7. American Menispermaceae --V. Bull. Torrey Club 78: 
258-265. 

Krukoff, B. A. , & Barneby, R. C, 1970. Supplementary notes on 
American Menispermaceae - -VI. Mem. NY Bot. Garden 20 (2) 
^- 1-70. 

" " " , 1970. Supplementary notes on 

American Menispermaceae - -VII. Mem. NY Bot. Garden 
20 (2): 71-80. 

Barneby, R. C. , & Krukoff, B. A. 1971. Supplementary notes on 
.._ American Menispermaceae - -VIII. A generic survey of the 
American Trlclisiffle and Anomospermeae 22(2): 1-90, 

Krukoff, B. A., & Barneby, R, C. 1973. Supplementary notes on 

11. American Menispermaceae - -IX. Phytologia 25: 32-48. 

" " " . 1974, Supplementary notes on 

12. American Menispermacea e- -X. Lloydia 37 (1): 23-29. 

" " " . 1976, Supplementary notes on 

American Menispermaceae- -XI, Neotropical Tricllsleae & 

1 o ^ 

'■-' Anomospermeae Phytologia 33: 323-341. 



^°8 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 2 

Krukoff, B, A., & Barneby, R. C. 1977. Supplementary notes on 
, , American Menispermaceae --XIl. Neotropical Triclisieae & 

Anomospermeae Phytologia 36: 12-16. 



15. 



" " . 1978. Supplementary notes on 

American Menispermaceae --XIII. Neotropical Triclisieae 
& Anomospermeae Phytologia 39: 283-293. 



" " " , 1979. Supplementary notes on 

American Menispermaceae--XTV. Neotropical Triclisieae 

1 fi 

'■°- & Anomospermeae Phytologia 41: 239-255. 



17. 



18. 



" " , 1979. Supplementary notes on 

American Menispermaceae --XV. Neotropical Triclisieae 
& Anomospermeae Phytologia 44: 11-18. 

" " . 1980, Supplementary notes on 

American M enlspermaceae --XVI. Neotropical Triclisieae 
& Anomospermeae Phytologia 46: 78-84, 



Diels, L. , . 1910. Menlspermaceae. Engl. 

19. Pflanzenrlch 4 (94): 1-345. 

Mathias, Mildred E. , & Theobald, W. L. 1981. A revision of the 

20. genus Hyperbaena (Menlspermaceae). Brittonla 33 (1): 81- 
l04. 

Rhodes, D. G. , 1975. A revision of the genus 

71. Cissampelos Phytologia 30: 415-484. 

Cava, Michael P. , et al. 1975. Panurensine 5e Norpanu- 

22. rensine, new bisbenBylisoquinoline alkaloids from Abuta 
panurensis Jour. Org. Chem. 40: 2647-2649. 

" " " . 1975. Krukovlne, a new 

bisbenBylisoqulnollne alkaloids from Abuta splendlda . 

23. Jour. Org. Chem. 41: 317-319. ("Abuta splendida"* 
Abuta rufescens Aublet). 

" " " . 1976. Sciadenine, a new 

-/ bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid, from Sciadotenla tojcifer*. 
Meterocycles 4: 471-474. 

" " " . 1977. Grlsabine and grlsabutlne, 

-_ new bisbenEylisoquinoline alkaloids from Abuta grlsebachii . 
Jour. Org. Chem. 

" II II ^ Splendidine, a new 

-^ Oxoaporphlne alkaloid from Abuta rufescens Aublet. Can. 
Jour. Chemistry. 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 



109 



Thanikaimoni, F. . 1968. Morphologic des pollen des 

^y Menispermacees. Trav. Sect. Sci. Techn. Inst. Franc. 
Pondichery 5: 1-56, pi. 1-16. 

Ferguson, I. K. . 1975. Pollen morphology of the 

_Q tribe Triclisieae of the Menispermaceae in relation to 
its taxonomy. Kew Bull. 30 (1): 49-75, 



^-^Q P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 2 

List of Exsiccatae 

The first list of Exsiccatae covering papers on Menisper- 
maceae including Supplement VTII was published in Mem. NY Bot. 
Card. 22: 1-89, 1971, the second list covering Supplements IX, 
X, and XI in Phytologia 33: 337-340, 1976, the third covering 
Supplements XII and XIII in Phytologia 39: 292-293. 1978, the 
fourth list covering Supplement XIV in Phytologia 41: 254-255, 
1979, and the fifth list covering Supplement XV in Phytologia 
44: 17rl8'. 1979, the sixth list covering Supplement XVI in 
Phytologia 46: 86, 1980, This list covers Supplement XVII, 
Only numbered collections and those of which the dates of col- 
lection are recorded have been listed. If a collector gathered 
his collection together with others, only his name is cited in 
this list. Collections with Prance's numbers are cited under 
Prance, 

Alencar, Lucia, 313 (A-27) 
Alverson, W. S. , 34 (0-1) 

Balick, M. J. , 1006 (A-9) 

Barfour, P. J., 5531 CA-13), 5544 (CH-1), 5682 (S-2) 

Cremers, 6154 (A-27), 6191 (A-22) 

Davidson, Christopher, 9930 (0-1) 

DiaE, C, S., 467 (S-12), 1027 (T-2), 1033 (A-9), 1040 (T-2), 

1044 (CU-3), 1100 (T-2), 1187 (CU-15) 
Dodson, C. H. , 10353 (AN-4D) 
Dominguee, Pena, Felix 119 (A-9) 

Forero, E, , 5807 (A-21a) 

Foster, R. B, , 2543 (CTJ-1), 3163 (S-2), 3239 (A-27), 3480 (S-2), 
3817 (A-27), 3864 (0-1), 5289 (CH-1), 6141 (AN-1), 6170 
(S-2), 6178 (CH-1), 6332 (AN-4a), 6336 (AN-5a), 6480 (CU-1) 

Gentry, A., 18505 (CU-1), 18511 (A-16). 18964 (A-27), 24117 

(21a), 24991 (CU-1), 25126 (CU-1), 25271 (S-12), 25720 
(CU-1), 25952 (CU-1), 25991 (CU-1), 26749 (A-27), 26751 

(S-2), 26990 (CU-1), 26991 (AN-1), 27037 (AN-1), 27089 

(CU-3), 27141 (0-1), 27969 (T-3), 28567 (A-25) 

Gomes, M. , 109 (A-13) 

Granville de, 3149 (A-27). 36^2 ( CU-2), 3663 (AN-4b) 

Huber, Otto, 1462 (A-13) 

Jangoux, J., 407 (S-1) 

Llesner, R. L. , 7171 (0-1) 8600 (A-27) 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on American Menispermaceae 111 

Lobo, M. G. A., 74 (A-27) 

Plnkley, Homer V., 285 (CU-1) 

Rimachi, Y, , Manuel, 3020 (A-27) 

Ramirez 93 (A-1) 

Rosa, N. A., 3052 (A-27) 

Santos, J. U. , 218 (CU-3) 

Schunke, J.. 10023 (S-2), 10202 (A-1) 

Shemluck, M. , 167 (A-27) 

Silva, M, G. , 3609 (AN-3), 4768 (A-27), 4773 (A-21) 

Vielra, M. G. , 979 (A-13) 
Vickers, William, T. , 221 (A-27) 

Weiss, G, , 132 (CU-1) 

Zarucchi, J. L. , 2813 (A-13) 

Poumet, A., 61 (A-16), 63 (CU-2), 65 (CU-2), 66 (A-22), 70 
(A-13), 73 (A-27), 75 (CU-2), 79 (AN-4b) , 81 (A-27), 
86 (C-2) 

Moretti, 843 (S-1) 

Prevost, M. P., 900 (A-11) 

Santos, J. Ubiratan, 191 (AN-5b) 



NOTES ON THE SPECIES OF ERYTHRINA . XVII 

B.A. Krukoff 

Consulting Botanist of Merck Sharp 6e Dohme Research Laboratories, 
Rahway, New Jersey; Honorary Curator of New York Botanical Garden. 

Erythrina Symposium IV ^thirteen pnperpjwill be published in 
Allertonia eirfrly In i98? Dr.. R. Barneby and I contributed two 
papers (Supplements V^ 16 and 18). The present paper is reserved 
for information which is best published separately^ 

214 new collections are cited in this paper including 6 
extensions of range. No novelties are described. The especially 
important data are citations of specimens grown in two Botanical 
Gardens in Hawaii which will be under genetic and other studies. 
Many additional specimens of trees grown in these gardens will 
have to be cited la subsequent papers as plants are small and did 
not flower as yet. 

1. E rythrina fusca Loureiro, Fl. Cochinch. 427. 1790, based 
on Gelala aquatica Rumphius, Herb. Amb. 2:235. tab. 78. 
1750. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s99, 74s 1648b (sterile), 76s262 (sterile), 
77s625 (sterile). 

Pac. Trop . Bot . Card . ; 721001 . 740230 , 7 60947 . 

Ceylon: A .H.M . Jayasuriya 1614 .. 

2. Erythrina crista-galll L. , Mant, 99. 1767. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74p840 , 7 4s887 , s .n . ( ex. Severo's yard 
3/16-79 ). 

2ac. Trop. Bot . Card . : 740283. 

3. Erythrina falcata Bentham in Mart., Fl. Bras. 15 (1):172. 
1859. 

Pac . Trop . Bot. Card . : 750086 , 

Peru: Cuzco: A. Gentry 23398 » 

112 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 113 

4. Erythrin a dominguezii Hassler, Physis 6: 123. 1922, 

Waimea Arbo r. : 74s865 (sterile) , 74s870 (sterile) . 

Brazil : Brasilia: E. P„ Heringer 5158 , 5244; Minas Gerais 
(near Goias) : 17456 ; Goias : Belem-Brasilia, J„ M „ Fires 16147 
(derrado), E. P. Heringer 1804 9 (Luziania, cerrado) . Bolivia: 
Beni: St. G, Beck 5182 (sabana). 

This is the first record of this species from Minas Gerais. 

5. Erythrin a ulei Harms, Verb. Bot. Ver. Brand. 48: 172. 1907. 

Brazil: Mato Grosso: basin of Rio Juruena, M . G. Silva 
3267 (terra tirme) . Peru: Cuzco: 600 m, Al» Gentr y 23657 . 

This is the first record of the species from Mato Grosso. 

6. Erythrin a verna Velloso, Fl. Flum. 304. 1825. 
Brazil: Minas Gerais: Frutal, ^ Hatschbach 34560 . 

7. Erythrina poeppigiana (Walpers) 0. F. Cook, U.S. D.A. Div. 
Bot. Bull. 25: 57, 1901. 

Waimea Arbor : 76s777 (sterile) 77s457 (sterile) . 

Pac . Trop. Bot. Card.: 730712 (sterile). 

Guatemala: Such.: Chicacao. J oel Mejicanos 1 981/1 . 
Peru: Loreto: Rio Pastasa, Camilo Diaz 1318. 

8. Erythrina suberosa Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 53. nomen 1814; 
Fl. Ind. 3: 253. 1832. 

In March 1979 on a visit of India I was able to examine 
specimens at Calcutta (CAL) and am now able to give more 
complete distribution of this species: India (Punjab, Uttar 
Pradesh, Bijar, West Bengal, Sikkim, Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, 
Rajasthan, Maharastra, Tamil Nadu (=Madras) , Karnatak 
(=Mysore) ; Nepal; Bhutan; Burma; Thailand (=Siam) ; Vietnam. 

Specimens of sublobata form, formerly referred to as 
E. sublobata Roxb., were seen from Bijar and W. Bengal. 

Waimea Arbor.: 75s960 , 



114 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 

India: Pondicheri , G. Thanika imoni s.n. (Aug. 1981) ^ 

10. Erythrina strlcta Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 53, noraen 1814; 
Fl, Ind. 3: 251. 1832. 

On a visit of Calcutta (CAL) I was able to see specimens 
of this species collected in Mizoram and Orissa (India) , also 
in Bangladesh and In Thailand (Siam) which were not listed in 
any of our previous papers. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s 897 

11. Erythrina resupina ta Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 53. nomen 1814; 
PI. Coromandel 3: Ts, pi. 220. 1819. 

On a visit to Calcutta (CAL) I saw specimens of this 
species from Bijar (India) which are not mentioned in any of 
our previous papers. This species is endemic to India. 

12. Erythrina arborescens Roxburgh, Hort. Beng. 53, nomen 1814: 
PI. Coromandel 3: 14, pi. 219. 1819 > 

China : Kwangtung, K'tung 5774 . India: G. Ghase 6e Co . 
101/1981 . 

13. Erythrina subumbrans (Hasskarl) Merrill, Phillip. Sci. 
5: 113. 1910, 

Thailand: Chiang Mai, T. Kayama 15538 . Lesser Sundra 
Islands: R.E . Schmutz 4295 . 

15. Erythrina edulis Triana in M. Micheli, J.Bot. (Morot) 
6: 145. 1892. 

Columbia: Santander: La Carcova, 2380m, Reinteria 
et al . 587 (MO). Peru: Amazonas: Bagua, 5900-6120 ft., 
Philip Barbour 4125 . 

15a. Erythrina aff . edulis Triana, see Annal. Miss. Bot. Card. 
66: 428. 1979. 

While at F I examined five specimens from Ecuador annotated 
by us as E. edulis : Steyermark 52929 (from Azuay, Acosta Solis 
6732 , 6833 (from Bolivar), Acosta Solis 12949 (from Imbabura) 
and Mexia 6998 (from Tungurahua and Dwyer 9588 (U.S.) from Napo. 
All represent E. aff. edulis. Therefore in addition to the 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 115 

provinces of Chimborazo, Cotopaxi, Tungurahua, and Napo-Pastasa, 
this entity is found at high elevations in Azuay, Bolivar, and 
Imbabura . 

I5b. Erythrina megistophylla Diels,Biblioth. Bot, 116: 96, 1937. 

On a visit to F I examined specimens from Ecuador previously 
annotated by us as E, edulis , but now referred to E. megistophylla; 
Acosta Solis 12762 , 10910 from Pinchincha, and 1395 7 (from 
Chimborazo), Mathias & Taylor 5187 (US) (from CotopeXi.) , C.H. 
Dodson 8887 , and Linda Albert de Escobar 938 (from EL Oro) . 

The collection from Cotopaxi is a new record for this 
province. 

16. Erythrin a speciosa Andrews, Bot. Repos. 7: pl„ 443. 1806. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s 742 , 74s853 , 74s 85 6 , 

Foster Card. (Hawaii ) : 65-1352 , 66-557 , 71-906 . 

Pac . Trop . Bot. Card. : 730708 , 

Brazil: Rio de Janeiro: Z.A . Trinta 929 (HB) . 

20. Erythrina leptorhiza Alph. DeCandolle, Prodr, 2: 413. 
1825. 

Mexico: Durango: 2000ft., D.E . Breedlove 44056 . 

This is the new record of this species for Durango. 

22a. Erythrina herbacea L. subsp. herbacea . Erythrina herbacea 
L., Sp. Plant. 706. 1953 sens. str. 

Waimea Arbor . : 76sl87 , 

Foster Card. (Hawaii) : 71-911 , XYZ . 

22b. Erythrina herbacea L. :ssp. nigrorosea Krukoff & Barneby, 
Phytologia 25(1): 6. 1972. 

Waimea Arbor . : 75cll03 . 

Mexico: Veracruz: Actopan; A. A. Novelo 345. 



116 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

23. Erythrina standleyana Krukoff, Brittonia 3: 301. 1939. 
Waimea Arbor. ; 76c261, 76sl056 , 

Mexico: Tabasco: Huimanguillo (llOm) , M. Sousa 11657 . 
This is a new record of this species from Tabasco. 

24. Erythrina f labelliformis Kearney, Trans. New York Acad. 
Sci. 14: 32. 1894. 

Pac . Trop . Bot . Card.: 740160 (sterile) . 

25. Erythrina c oralloides Alph. DeCandolla, Prodr. 2: 413. 
1825. 

We quote Toledo (Lloydia 37: 486. 1974): 

" Erythrina coralloides A.D.C. is one of the most orna- 
mental trees in Mexico City, where it flowers from 
January to May. It is noteable that most of the 
trees growing within the city limits (ca. 997<,) fail 
to fruit. In the Botanical Garden of the University, 
a refuge for many species of hummingbirds, nearly 
all the trees of E. coralloides are highly fertile." 

While in Mexico City in Dec. 1979, I was able to 
confirm this observation. Of the many hundred trees in flower, 
only very few were seen with fruits, 

Waimea Arbor . : 75cll71 . 

Pac. Trop. Bot. Card . : 700145. 

26. Erythrina aff . coralloides Alph. DeCandolle. 
Waimea Arbor . : 74c 145 1 « 

27. Erythrina pudi ca Krukoff 6e Barneby, Phytologia 27: 114. 
1973. 

On a sheet deposited at GH ( H.E. Morton Jr. 2543) , I 
found one pod and seeds which were not seen by me previously. 

The pod is tomentulose with white hair at least on the 
extremes, slender, and the seeds are 6 X 10 mm, partly red 
and partly black without a broad black line near the hilum as 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 117 

in the case with its relatives, 

28c. Erythrina lanata subsp. calvescens Krukoff, Annal. Miss. 
Bot. Card. 66: 434 1979"^; 

While at US I examined four specimen from Oaxaca, Mexico 
previously annotated by us as E. tana t a ssp. lanat ^ but now 
referred to ssp, calvescens : Conzatti 4333 and 4537 from Dept. 
Zimallan, elev. 1100-1200m E^. Nelson 2699 and Wallace 461 . 

Only two other specimens from Oaxaca annotated by us as 
ssp. lanata ( McVaugh 22417 ) (MICH) and MacDougall s.n . ( Kr. Herb, 
15065) (seeds only) have not been reexamined recently. Under 
the circumstances ssp. calvescens is probably the only sub- 
species of E. lanata found in Oaxaca. 

Pac. Trop . Bot . Card.: 810188 , 810189 , 

Mexico: Chiapas: R. Grether 1160 (Mexico); Oaxaca: 
M. Sousa 5893 (Jamiltepec) (MEXU), 5 985 (Nochixtlan) (MeXU), 
88911 (Chichotla) (MEXU), 10585 (Cucahuatepec) (MEXU), A.C 
Magallanes 212 (Yautepec). 

This is the first record of this species from Chiapas. 

29. Erythrina goldmanii Standley, Contr. U. S. Nat. Herb. 20: 
181, 1919. 

Mexico: Oaxaca: T.B . Croat 4578 8 (Pinotepa Nacional- 
■;3xlaco), 46070 (Oaxaca-Pochutla) ; Chiapas, Tollman (1050m), 
1.4. Sousa 11829 (?) (fruits only), 

30. Erythrina caribaea Krukoff & Barneby, Phytologia 25: 9. 
1972. 

Mexico: Tabasco; Tacotalpa (125m), M. Sousa 11731 ; 
Veracruz: San Andres Tuxtla, M. Sousa 11963 (?) ; Oaxaca: 
Tuxtepec (60m), M. Sousa 11671; Campeche; John D. Shepherd 
s.n . (Kls). 

31. Erythrina folkersil Krukoff 6e Modlenke, Phytologia 1: 286. 
1938, 

Pac . Trop . Bot. Card.: 700010 . 

Mexico: Veracruz: Celso Hernandez A. 6 (>feXU) (w.ialtepec) , 



118 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, i^o , 2 

J.I . Calzada 1487 (MEXU) (San Andres Tuxtla) , 1721 (MEXU) 
(Catemaco) „ 

35. Erythrina hondurensis Standley, Field Mus . Publ. Bot. 4:309. 
1929. 

Nicaragua: Zelaya: north of Bluefields, John T. Atwood 
4199. 

36. Erythrina chiapas ana Krukoff , Brittonia 3: 304. 1939. 
Waimea Arbor . ; 74s861 , 74s876 c 

Pac. Trop . Bot . Card . : 730710 ., 

Mexico: Chiapas: Mario Sousa 11856 (Trinitaria, 1450m) , 
11882 (Comitan, 1450m), 

Guatemala: Huehuetenango: La Estancia, Joel Mejicanos 
1981/4 . 

37. Erythrina a titlanensis Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N. Y. Bot. 
Gard, 20(2): 162. 1970. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s98 . 

Pac . Trop . Bot. Gard .: 721003 , 750418 . 

Guatemala: Solola: near Lake Atitlan, Joel Mejicanos 1981/3 

40. Erythrina tajumulcensis Krukoff & Barneby, Mem. N.Y. Bot. 
Gard. 20(2): 176. 1970. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74cl448 , 

41. Erythrina chiri(tuensis Krukoff, Brittonia 3:322. 1939, 

Reference is made to Supplement #12 (Ann. Miss. Bot. Gard. 
66: 435. 1979) concerning the difficulties encountered in 
extending the range of this species from Panama to Costa Rica. 
It is found in two provinces of Panama (23 collections from 
Chiriqui, all from a single locality Cerro Punta and one 
from Dairen.) The five Nicaraguan collections from two 
localities in Province Matagalpa match fairly well those from 
Panama. We still need, however, good fruiting specimens and 
collectors' observations as to whether the calyx is broadest 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 119 

in the middle in fresh condition . 

The difficulty in Costa Rica is that there is found a 
closely related E, globocal3rx , poorly collected, mostly in the 
type locality in the village Los Nubes, Alajuela, from 
cultivated plants (possibly of a single clon) . 

In 1979 I thought that I would have the chance to see 
personally plants (including calyces) from the type locality 
of E. chiriquensls in Panama and in Matagalpa, Nicaragua. 
For various reasons, this will not likely happen and we still 
lack seeds from Magagalpa (Nicaragua) to grow in Hawaii side 
by side with plants from Panama. 

Under the circumstances, I decided to give my present 
interpretation of this species as it occurs in Costa Rica. 
In all probability, all of the specimens cited in Supplements 
#3,4,5, and 12 from provinces Cartago and Alajuela (Zarcero 
and the neighboring Alfaro Ruiz) belong to this species « 

This species should be introduced to Los Angeles as it 
is probably frost-tolerant. 

42. Erythrina macrophylla Alph. DeCandolle, Prodr. 2: 411. 
1825. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s97. 74s858 , 75sll36 . 

Pac. Trop Bot . Card . : 750420. 

43. Erythrina guatemalensis Krukoff, Amer. Jour. Bot. 
28: 688. 1941. 

In the front cover of Bull. Pac. Trop. Card.- 8 (p.4) : 
Oct. 1978 there is an excellent photograph of flowering in- 
florescens of Erythrina guatemalensis . The calices in fresh 
flowers are very characteristically broadest in the middle 
and firmly clasp petals, stamens and pistil. This is the 
only species with such calices found in Guatemala and 
Honduras. E. steyermarkii and E. globocalyx have similar 
calices but they are found in Costa Rica and Nicaragua. 

Waimea Arbor .: 74c 1453 , 74s 103 , 74s874 . 

Pac Trop . Bot. Card.: 700018, 750419. 



120 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, IJo. 2 

45. Erythrina steyermarkii Krukoff & Barneby, Meirio N.Y« Bot . 
Card. 20 (2): 175. 1970, 

Stevens 12229 lacks leaves and fruits and its identifica- 
tion would be more certain if the collector had made a note 
on the label as to whether the calyx is broadest in the middle 
in fresh condition . Only three known species have such 
calices: E. guatemalensis which is found in Guatemala and 
Honduras, the poorly collected E. globocalyx so far found only 
in Costa Rica, and E. steyermarkii found in Costa Rica and in 
three provinces of Nicaragua (Zelaya, Chontales, and Matagalpa) 
on low lands but ascending creeks to + 800M. It is interesting 
to determine the limits on the Atlantic lowlands of E. 
hondurensis and E. steyermarkii , somewhere southeast of Tela 
in Honduras or on the northern Coastlands of Nicaragua. A 
single leaflet with characteristic pubescence underneath is 
sufficient to identify E. steyermarkii . 

Waimea Arbor . : 76s891 (sterile) . 

49. Erythrina lanceolata Standley, Contr. U. S. Natl. Herb, 
17: 432. 1914. 

Waimea Arbor . : 75s2134 (sterile) , 

Nicaragua: Madriz: near border with Esteli. D.A . Neill 
N119 , N216; Jinotega: D^. Neil l 330 (MO); 1199 . 

These are new records of this species from Madriz, 
Esteli, and Jinotega. 

52. Erythrina americana Miller, Card. Dict„ ed.8, NO. 5. 1768. 

Mexico: Veracruz: Papantla, Tecolutla, Dirk Zoebl 
1981/101. 



53. Erythrina berteroana Urban, Symb, Ant. 5: 370. 1908. 

Waimea Arbor .: 74s 854 , 74s860 , 74s8 62. 74s863, 74s864, 
78s564 . 

Pac. Trop . Bot. Card . : 700044 , 720999 , 730742 , 800661 . 

Guatemala: Such.: Chicacao, F inca El Salvador, Joel 
Mejicanos 1981/2. Nicaragua: Boaco: J.T . Atwood 3466 , F.C . 
Seymour 3834 ; Chantalesi D^. Neill 7299 . Peru: Cuzco: Al. 
Gentry 23656 . (cult.) 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erytbrina 

54. Erythrina rubrineivla H.B.K., Nov. Gen. & Sp» 6: 434o 
1824. 

Pac. Trop . Bot . Card . : 711193 , 

55. Erythrina mexicana Krukoff, Brittonia 3: 309. 1939. 

/ 

Mexico: Puebla: E. P erez Silva s.n . (Apr. 18, 1979) 

(fruits only) (MEXU) . 

This is the first record of this species from Puebla. 

56. Erythrina salviif lora Krukoff & Barneby, Phytologia 25:14. 
1972. 

Waimea Arbor . : 7 4s859 , 

Pac . Trop . Bot . Card.: 721000 . 

58. Erythrina gibbosa Cufodontis, Arch. Bot. Sist. Fitog. 6e 
Genet. 10: 34. 1934. 

Nicaragua: Zelaya: 200-300m, W. Stevens 4798 (seedling 
under Stevens 4997 ) . Costa Rica: Alffjuela: Cordillera de 
Tilaran (Atlantic side of the Continental Divide, D. Neill 
5057 . 

59. Erythrina amazonica Krukoff, Brittonia 3: 270, 1939. 
W aimea Arbor . : 76s449. 

Pac . Trop . Bot. Card . : 760356 . 

Peru: Loreto: 200 m. , Camilo Diaz 1400 . 

62. Erythrina mitis Jacquin, Hort. Schoenb. 2: 47. 1797. 
Pac . Trop. Bot. Card.: 800635. 

Venezuela: Merida: A. L. Bernardi 3343 (26/6-56) 

63. Erythrina pallida Britton & Rose, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 
48: 332. 1922. 

Waimea Arbor . : 76s250 . 

Pac. Trop. Bot. Card.: 750283. 



121 



122 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 30, No. 2 

64a. Erythrina corallodendrum L. var. coral lodendrum 
Erythrina corallodendrum L. , Sp. PI. 706. 1753. 

Waimea Arbor . : 77s552 . 

69. Erythrina cubensis C. Wright, Sauv. Anal, Acad. Ci. 
Habana 5: 336. 1869. 

Erythrina acunae Borhidi, Acta Agron. Acad. Sc. Hung. 27. 
430. 1978. 

I have already cited the isotype of E. acunae ( Ac una , 
Aldin et Lopez Figueiras 5405 , as E. cubensis C. Wright 
( Liogier Alain H. 5405) (Phytologia 41: 286. 1979 ) , 

71, Erythrina caffra Thunberg, Prodr, Pi. Cap. 121. 1800, 

Waimea Arbor . ; 74cl456 (sterile), 76sl052 (sterile) 
(sa5.d to be pale form). 

Foster Card . : 64-059 , 

South Africa: E. Cape, A.Jacot Guillarmod 8502 , s.n. 
(Aug. 1981). 

72, E rythrina lysistemon Hutchinson, Bull. Misc. Inform. 1933: 
422, 1933, 

Pac , Trop , Bot , Card , : 750279, 

73, Erythrina humeana Sprengel, Syst. 3: 243. 1826. 

Waimea Arbor , : 74pl382 , 74s888 , 74sl382 (photo only) . 

Pac . Trop. Bot . Card. : 740187. 

75. Erythrina acanthocarpa E. Meyer, Comm. PI. Afr. Austr. 
1: 151. 1836. 

Foster Card . : 63-280 (sterile). 

77. Erythrina brucei Schweinfurth in Verhand. Zoo-Bot. 
Gesell. Wien 18: 653. 1868. et auct. plur., pro 
majore parte, legurainbus seminibusque exceptis; emend, 
Gillett, Kew Bull. 15: 428. 1962. 

Ethiopia: Addis Ababa, Nat. Herb , s.n . (March 30,1981). 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 123 

79. Erythrina senegalensis Alph. DeCandolle, Prodr. 2: 413. 
1825. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74sl00 . 

Nigeria: Naraguta Games Preserve, Oyayomi Ofoon 338 (MO) ^ 

I quote from Killick, Fl. PI. Africa 45 (3-4): pi. 1786. 

"In tropical West Africa, E. senegalensis is often 
planted as a hedge. The flowering time of plants 
in their natural habitat is from September to 
January (autumn to winter), while the plants cul- 
tivated in Australia and South Africa flower in 
late autumn (May and June). In West Africa, 
flowers may appear together with leaves in autumn 
or when the trees are leafless in winter," 

83. Erythrina mendesii Torre, Bol. Soc. Brot.,Ser.2 39: 212. 
1965. '' 

Waimea Arbor . : 78p567 . 

86. Erythrina livings toniana Baker, Oliver, Fl. Trop. Africa 
2: 182, 1871. 

Pac . Trop . Bot . Card.: 750282 (sterile). 

Malawi: A, Kitchin s.n. (Aug. 1981). 

87. Erythrina tholloniana Hua , Bull. Soc. Linn, (Paris j n.s. 
1: 53. 18;8. 

Pac, Trop . Bot. Card . : 810419 . 

Zaire: Kisantu: N. Nsimundele s.n . (1981). 

93. Erythrina sigmoidea Hua, Bull. Mus. Hist. Nat. (Paris) 
3: 327, 1897, 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s896 , 

94. Erythrina latissima E, Meyer, Coram. PI. Afr. Austr. 
1: 151. 1836. 

Waimea Arbor. : 74s833 (sterile). 



124 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 

P£C. Trop . Bot Qprd . ; 75 0281 . 

95 Erythrina abyssinica Lamarck, Encycl . Bot. 2: 392- 1788; 
ex Alph. DeCandolle Prodr. 2: 413. 1825, Gillett, Kew 
Bull. 15: 426. 1962. 

Malawi: A. K itch in 1, s.n . (Apr 1981), s^. (Aug 1981). 

96 Erythrina variegata L. , Herb. Amboin 10 1754; Amoen. 
Acad. 4: 122. 1759, based on Gelala alba Rumphius, Herb. 
Amboin 2: 234 tab. 77. 1750. 

On a visit to Calcutta (CAL) I saw specimens of this 
species collected in India in the following provinces: Uttar 
Pradesh, Tripura, Orlssa , Madhya Pradesh, Maharestra, Kerala, 
Lakshadweep Islands, Nicobar Islands, and Anvindivi Islands. 
These were not listed in any of our previous papers. 

Waimea Arbor . : 76cl83 , 74s877 , 74sl249 , 74sl766 (white 
form), 74sl768 , 75sl706 (sterile)^ 76s996 (sterile), 

Pac . Trop . Bot . 3ard . : 720494 , 740436, 740472 . 760746 , 
760860 , 770139 , 770572. 

Micronesia: Neuru lids. F.R . Fosberg 58737a . Lesser 
Sundra Islands: Fr. E. Schmutz 4294 . Celebes: Dr . 
Kpuderns 401 . Hav;aii: cult. K. Nagata ?'^18 , ?319 . 

97. Erythrina tahltensis Nadeau, Enum. PI. Tahiti 80. 1873. 
Hawaii: Glen Spence s.n . (July 17 1978). 

Substantial progress is made toward eventual obtain- 
ing of good flowering and fruiting material of this, for 
comparison with the same entity from Ha^'sii. 

Seeds were obtained recently with the help of guide, 
Hanri Jai, TahitiiMapura + 2000 ft., steep slope W side of 
Tahiti. These were germinated and eventually we will 
grow this side by side with the same entity from Hawaii. 

The specimen unfortunately is with young leaves 
only. 

Hanri Jai claims that he knows several trees of this 
also on steep slopes on the east side of the island. My 
suggestion in the paper entitled "Notes on Asiatic- 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Ergthrina 125 

Polynesian-Australian Species of Erythrina, II" published 
in the Journal of Arnold Arboretum, January 1972 was proved 
to be correct-- 

"It was suggested that the plant is probably 
extinct in Tahiti. However, taking into account 
its habitat, this seems to be most unlikely 
The type collection is from "precipicie. de 
Tautana, 800 m. " 

For those who have correspondents in Tahiti, it is now 
possible to obtain a specimen provided they will get in 
touch with this guide. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s837 (sterile)^ 74s866 (sterile), 
74s892 (white form), 77s50 (sterile), 77s393 (sterile from 
Tahiti) . 

Pac . Trop . Bot . Card.: 770442 (fertile from Tahiti). 

98 Erythrina euodiphylla Hasskarl. Hort , Bogor 178. 1858. 

Pac Trop . Bot . ^ard . : 7902^6 (sterile) 

99. Erythrina vespertilio Bentham in Mich. Jour. Trop. 
Austr. 718. 1848. 

Waimea Arbor . : 7 4s894 ("biloba" form), 76s1057 
("biloba"form). 

Foster Oard . ; 64-1961 (typical form). 

Pac. Trop. Bot ^ard . : 7?1345 . 

Australia: Northern Territory: J . R Maconochie 2501 ; 
New South Wales: R. C oveny 9932 (typical form). 

102. Erythrina velutina Willdenow in ^es. Nat. Freunde 
Berlin Neue, Schriften 3: 426. I80i. 

Waimea Arbor.: 74el457 (sterile), 74s 1647 (sterile), 
74s 1648 (sterile). 

Pac. Trop Bot . Gard . : 72049? (sterile), 740435 
(sterile), 750451 (sterile). 



3^26 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 30, No. 2 

Brazil: Bahia: E. Pereira 1009? (HB) . 

102a. Erythrina velutina Willdeno;/), f . aurantiaca (Ridley) 
Krukoff, Brittonia 3: 329. 1939. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74sl650 (sterile). 

Pac . Trop . Bot . Card.: 74045^ (sterile). 

104. Erythrina burttii Baker f . , Jour. Bot 70: 254. 193?. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s887 (sterile) . 

Pac . Trop Bot Card . ; 740195 (sterile). 

105 Erythrina burana R. Chiovenda , Att. R. Accad. Ital., 
Mem, Sc. Fis. M: 27. 1940. 

Waimea Arbor : 74s884 (sterile), 74sl649 (sterile). 

Pac Trop Bot . Card . : 740280 . 

106. Erythrina perrieri R. Viguier, Not. Syst. 14: 175. 1952. 

Waimea Arbor . : 74s857 . 

Pa c ■ Trop . Bot . Card.: 730781 , 760904 (sterile). 

1 Erythrina x bidwillii Lindley, Bot. Reg. 3'': pi. 9. 
1849, 

Foster Card . : 64-2035 . 

x7. Erythrina x sykesii Barneby & Krukoff, Lloydia 37: 447. 
1974. 

Waime? Arbor. : 75cll73 , 76p864 , 76p94? (sterile). 

Foster Card . : 65-135 3, F1-669 . 

Australia: Ne'-' South Wales: R. Coveny 7658 (L) , 
7753 (L). 



1982 



Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 
List of Exsicc^tae 



127 



The first list of Exsiccatae was published in 
Supplement #13 (Phytologia 41: 256-300. 1979)' it covers all 
papers up to and including Supplement #11* the second list 
in Supplement #14 (Phytologia 44: ?8-3?. 1979 and it 
covers Supplements #12 and 13; the third list in Supplement 
#15 (Phytologia 46: 92-93. 1980) and it covers Supplement 
#15. The present list covers the present paper. 

The first figure in Exsiccatae after the collector's 
name is the collection number of the specimen , and the 
figure in parenthesis is the number of species as they are 
arranged in conspectus of the species of the genus Erythrina 
(Lloydia 37 (3): 332-459. 1974 and the Supplements VII- 
XVIII. 

Only numbered collections and those of which the dates 
of collections are recorded have been listed. If a 
collector gathered his collection together with others, only 
his is cited in this list. Collections with Dr. Prance's 
numbers are cited under Prance. 



Waimea Arbor. , 74ci448 (40), 74cl451 (26), 74c1453 (43), 

74cl456 (71), 74cl457 (102), 75c1103 (22b), 
75c1171 (25), 75cn73 (x7) , 76cl83 (96), 
76c25l (23), 74p840 (2), 76p864 (x7), 
76p942 (x7), 78p567 (83), 74pi382 (73), 
74s97 (42), 74s98 (37), 74s99 (1), 74sl00 (79) 
74s103 (43), 74s742 (16), 74s837 (97), 
74s838 (94), 74s853 (16), 74s854 (53), 
74s856 (16), 74s858 (42), 74s859 (56)', 
74s860 (53), 74s86l (36), 74s862 (53), 
74s863 (53), 74s864 (53), 74s865 (4), 
74s866 (97), 74s870 (4), 74s874 (43), 
74s876 (36), 74s877 (96), 74s882 (104), 
74s884 (105), 74p887 (2), 74s888 (73), 
74s89'' (97), 74s894 (99), 74s896 (93), 
74s897 (10), 74s1W9 (96), 74s1382 (73), 
74sT647 (102), 74sl648 (102), 74si649 (105), 
74s1650 (102a), 74sl766 (96), 74sl768A (96), 
74s1768B (1), 75s960 (8), 75sn36 (42), 
75S1706 (96), 75s2T34 (49), 76s187 (22a), 
76s250 (63), 76s262 (i), 76s449 (59), 
76s777 (7), 76s891 (45), 76s996 (96), 
76s1052 (71), 76sl056 (23), 76s1057 (99), 



128 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 30, No 2 



77s50 (97), 77s393 (97), 77s457 (7), 
77s552 (64a). 77s625 (1), 78s564 (53), 
s.n.(ex Severo's yard 3/16-79) (2)^ 

Foster Card., 63-280 (75), 64-059 (71), 64-1961 (99), 

64-2035 (x-1), 65-1352 (16), 65-135'^ (x7) , 
66-557 (16), 71-906 (16), 71-9U (22a), 
A (96), FL669 (x7), (XYZ) (22a). 

Pac Trop. Bot Gard., 70001 (31), 700018 (43), 700044 (53), 
700145 (25), 711193 (54), 7Z0492 (102), 
720494 (96), 720999 (53), 721000 (56), 
721001 (1), 771003 (37), 721345 (99), 730708 (16), 
730710 (36), 730712 (7), 730742 (53), 
730781 (106), 740160 (24), 740187 (73), 
740195 (104), 740230 (1), 740280 (105), 
740283 (2), 740435 (102), 740436 (96) 740452 (107a) 
740472 (96), 750086 (3), 750279 (72), 750281 (94), 
750282 (86), 750283 (63), 750418 (37), 750419 (43), 
750420 (42), 750451 (102), 760^56 (59), 
760746 (96), 760860 (96), 760904 (106), 
760947 (1), 770139 (96), 770442 (97), 770572 (96), 
790216 (98), 800635 (62), 800661 (53), 
810188 (78c), 810189 (28c), 810236 (47), 
810419 (87). 

AtT.'ood. J.T., -^466 (53), 4199 (35). 

Barbour, Philip, 4125 (15). 

Beck, St. G., 5182 (4). 

Bernardi, A L. , 3343 (6/26-56) (6?). 

Calzada, Juan Ismael, 1487 (31), 1721 (31). 

Coveny, R. , 7658 (x7> , 775*^ (x7) , 9932 (99). 

Croat, T. B. 45788 (29), 46070 (29V 

DAly, D. C, D.32] (59). 

Diaz, Camillo 1318 (7), 1400 (59). 

Fosberg F. R. , 58737a (96). 

23398 (3), 23656 (53), 23657 (5). 
G., 101 (12). 



Gentry . A. , 
Ghose & Co. 
Grether, R. 
Guillarmod, 
Hatschbach 



, 1160 (28c). 
A. Jacot, 8502 (71) 
G. 34560 (6). 
Herbarium Nat. Addis Ababa s.n. 
Heringer, E T. , 5158 (4), 5244 (4), 17456 (4) 
Hernandez, A. Celso, 6 (31). 
Kauderns, 401 (96) , 
Kitchin, A., 1 (95),* s.n. (Apr 

s n. (Aug. 1981) (95) , 
Koyama. T. , 15538 (13). 
K'tung 78 5774 ( 1 2) , 



(Aug. 1981) (71). 

(March 30, 1981) (77). 

18049 (4) 



1981) (95), s.n. (Aug. 1981) (86)^ 



1982 Krukoff, Notes on Erythrina 129 

Maconochic, JR., 2501 (99). 
Magallanes, A. C , ?12 (28c). 
Mejicanos, Joel, 1981/1 (7), 1981/2 (5"^) ^ 1981/3 (37), 

1981/4 (-^6), 
Nagata, Kenneth M, , 2318 (96), 2319 (96), 
Neill, David A. N119 (49), N2i6 (49), 330 (49), 1199 (49), 

5057 (58), 7299 (53). 
Novelo, A. A., 345 (?2b) . 
Ofoon, Oyayomi, ^38 (79). 
Pereira, E , 10093 (10?) . 
Pires J. M. , 16147 (4). 
Reinterla, 587 (15) , 

Schmutz. Fr. E., 4294 (96), 4295 (13). 
Seymour, F. C, 3834 (53).- 
Shepherd, John D. , s,n. (30), 
Silva, M. n_ ^ 3?67 (5). 
Sousa, M. , 5893 (28c), 5985 (28c), 8891 (28c), 10585 (28c), 

11671 (30), 11697 ('>3), 117-^1 (30), 11829 (29?), 

11856 (36), 11882 (36), 11963 (30?). 
Stevens, W. 4798 (58). 
Thanikaimoni, G. , s.n. (Aug. 1981) (8). 
Trinta, 929 (16). 
Yayasuriya. A.H.M. , 1614 (1). 
Zoebl, Dirk, 1981/101 (52). 



DXALIDACEAE EXTRA-AUSTROAMERICANAE 

IV: Oxalis L» Sectio Articulatae Knuth 

Alicia Lourteig 

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, Paris 

Abstract . Oxalis L, Sectio Articulatae Knuth is defined. A key to the 
4 species, 2 subspecies and 1 forma retained is given. Geographical 
distribution is indicated and the specimens revised are cited. The new 
combinations: 0^. articulata Savigny ssp. rubra (St. Hil.) , 0^. f Lori- 
bunda Lehmann ssp. Qstenii (Arech.) and 0^„ articulata ssp. rubra forma 
crassipes (Urban) are established, 

KNUTH describifi esta SecciiSn en 1914, incluyendo Oxalis cathari- 
nensis N, E. Brown que pertenece a la Seccifin Pseudobuibosae Norlind, 
y en 1930, la redescribe ampliSndola e incluyendo las especies 331 
hasta 371 de su monografla. La subdivide en 6 subsecciones : 1. Aphyl- 
la con 4 especies de las cuales 1 debe eliminarse; 2. Globiferae con 2 
especies de las cuales 1 debe eliminarse; 3, Cymosae con 11 especies 
de las cuales s61o 5 corresponden a esta Seccifin; 4, Oxypterae que es 
sinfinimo de Pseudobuibosae Norlind (1921); 5, Grandiflorae con 3 espe- 
cies de las cuales 1 no pertenece a la 5ecci6n; 6. Articulatae que con- 
tiene 0^. articulata Savigny tipo de la Seccifin ademSs de 2 especies que 
pertenecen a dos secciones distintas. Agrega un grupo "Species, quarum 
positio in clavi incertae " con especies de Argentina, Bolivia y Uru - 
guay de las cuales dos pertenecen a otra Seccifin. 

Si bien en 1914 (clave p. 228) diferencia : "Es ist stets ein 
Grundstock vorhanden: Articulatae ", es decir plantas con partes subte- 
rrSneas engrosadas, de : "Zwiebelgewachse : lonoxalis ", es decir 
plantas con bulbos, cuando monograffa el gSnero en 1930,adiciona a es- 
ta Seccifin (p. 195-196) especies de otras secciones, aun de lonoxalis , 
Esto es diflcil de explicar : el matetial no posefa las partes sub- 

terrSneas, lo que no ha ocurrido siempre por lo que he podido observar 

130 



1982 Lourteig, Oxalidaceae extra-austroamericanae 131 
revisando los materialeB que 61 vifi; o perdio el pensamiento original 
al construir la nueva clave; o no supo distinguir esos tipos de 6rganos 
en el material de herbario . As£ originfi una confusifin total en la in- 
terpretacifin de nuchas especies. 

De CANDQLLE, Prodr. 695-696, cita £, articulata en Sectio Caprina 
incluyendo en ella especies 55 a 79 de su sistema; el tipo es Oxalis 
caprina L. A excepcifin de 0^, articulata Savigny, 0^. virqosa Savigny y 
0^. meqalorhiza Jacquin que tienen ra£ces tuberosas o muy engrosadas, 
profundas, pero no pertenecen todas a la misma seccifin, todas las otras 
son bulbosas. 

Sectio Articulatae Knuth 

Knuth, Bot. Jahrb. 50. Suppl. 223« 1914 excl. 0^. catharinensis ; Pf Ireicb 
45 (clave); 195-196 p.p. 193D. 

Plantas aparentemente acaules o subacaules. Rafces generalmente 
profundas con engrosamientos tuberoses, ramificadaa. Rizomas (h,3 cm 
diim. ) conservando las estfpulas soldadas a las bases de los peclolos 
de las hojas pasadas, ordenadas transversal y espiraladamente. A vo- 
ces se notan zonas contraldas que sugieren una correspondencia con la 
periodicidad vegetativa. Hojas reunidas en el Spice en cada per£odo 
de floracifin. Pubescencia generalmente adpresa. Calli anaranjados en 
los folfolos y en los Ipices de los s^palos (a excepcifin de 1 especie). 
Cimas laxas o umbeli formes, muitifloras, Corolas rosadas a violetas, 
muy raro blancas (mutaciones) , pubescentes en las zonas descubiertas 
enel botSn. CSpsulas cillndricas. Semillas ovoideo-apiculadas, asi- 
rofitricas, longitudinalmente costatas y con foveas entre las costillas. 

Tipo : 0^. articulata Savigny 

Estas plantas florecen al comienzo de la primavera y por lo ge- 
neral ofrecen dos floraciones, la otra "hibernal" en otoRo o en in- 
vierno. 

Es un grupo de origen sudamericano cuya 5rea de distribuci6n es- 
t& limitada al extreme sur de Brasil, Uruguay, mesopotamia argentina 
y Provincia de Buenos Aires, 



132 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Jo. 2 

Debido a la belleza de sus inflorescencias y follaje, cstas espe- 
cies han sido recogidas por botanicas extranjeros que las han difundi - 
do por el cultivo en los Jardines Bot5nicos europeos desde el comienzo 
del siglo pasado. Diversos nombres e ilustraciones, muchas en colores, 
han sido publicados en revistas clSsicas de Horticultura originando u- 
na sinonimia dificil de tipificar a causa del carScter "horticola" de 
las descripciones, la falta de analisis y sobre todo de las partes sub- 
terraneas de estas plantas. 

De esa pl^yade de nombres he retenido s6lo 4 binomios con dos sub- 
especies y una forma. 

Los nombres floribunda , rubra y aun violacea empleados en las flo- 
ras americanas y europeas carecen de rigor taxonfimico; pueden referirse 
a distintas especies de esta 5ecci6n o de lonoxalis . 

Las descripciones, sinonimias e ilustraciones correspondientes es- 
t5n en prensa en la Flora Ilustrada Catarinense (Itajaf, Brasil). 

Dos especies no han sido halladas aun fuera de SudamSrica, pero no 
seria imposible que aparecieran en otro continente. 

Clave de las especies 

Ao Plantas con calli en las hojas y en el Spice de los sfipalos 

a. Plantas pubescentes. Follolos apenas incisos,2/5. 
Calli anaranjados esparcidos en los follolos. 56- 
palos pubescentes con 2-4 calli . 

b. Pubescencia adpresa, recta. S^palos generalmen- 
te con 2 calli . 

c, Pubescencia densa ± larga. Sfipalos lineares, 
calli lineares o 2-furcados. Pfitalos con pu- 
bescencia recta en las zonas descubiertas en 

el botfin 1 .0. articulata ssp . 

articulata 

cT Pubescencia corta, escasa. SSpalos el£pticos 
con calli pequeRos , oblongos o puntiformes. 
Pitalos con poca pubescencia, 

d, Flores rosadas. 56palo8 con 2 calli peque - 

Ros la .0. articulata ssp . 

rubra 



1982 Lourteig, Oxalidaceae extra-austroaraericanae 133 

dT Flores blancas. 56palos 2-4-5 calli peque- 

nos a veces soldados lb .D. articulata ssp . 

rubra f . crassipes 

h' Pubescencia fina, lanosa,± totnentosa. SSpalos 
con 3-4 (raro 2 6 5) calli lineares, a veces 
2-furcados. P^talos con zonas finamente lano- 

sas 2 .D« f loribunda ssp . 

floribunda 

Mismos caracteres, ademSs pubescencia glandu- 
losa. Plantas frecuentemente Sfilas durante 

su f loracifin 2a .0. floribunda ssp . 

Ustenii 

at Planta casi glabra. Follolos incisos 1/2 hasta 
partidos, divergentes. En general calli gruesos 
anaranjados. Sfipalos glabros o rqros pelos ad- 
presos, 2 calli lineares u oblongos 3.0^. lasiopetala 

B. Plantas sin calli 4.0^. monticola 

1. Dxalis articulata Savigny 

Savigny in Lamarck, Encycl. 4_: 686-687.1797, Young, Watsonia 4_: 60-61, 
f. 2A.195B. Lourteig, An. Miss. Bot. Gard. 67: 836-837.1981. 

Tipo: Uruguay, Montevideo, in pascuis, leg. Commerson V 1767. Holfitipo 
JUS5-P. Isfitipo P. 

En la hoja del herbario Jussieu se ban fijjado, por descuido, una 
inflorescencia suelta, separada y algunas hojas que se ban colocado 
por medio de un alfiler en el Spice de un iallo, que no corresponden a 
esta especie. Esto no molesta en absolute a la tipificaciSn de la espe- 
ciB Oxalis articulata Savigny cuyo epf teto aludiendo a la ralz y la 
descripcifin de la pubescencia de los folfolos : "poils couches luisana" 
muestran bien el material que el autor vifi, que fu<! el finico. Saint HI— • 
LAIRE hizo ya esta interpretacifin cuando describifi la especie Oxalis 
lasiophylla St. Hil. et Naudin (= 0. floribunda Lehmann) de Brasil, dis- 
tinta de fista, a la cual pertenecen los fragmentos mencionados. 
Distribuci6n qeoqrSfica . Especie abundante en Uruguay que vive en la 
Provincia de Buenos Aires y es muy rara en Entre Rfos y en Santa Fe 
(Argentina) as£ como en Rfo Grande do Sul (Brasil). 



134 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Wo. 2 

Material estudiado . 

Sudam^rica. 

ARGENTINA. Fuera del 5rea de la especie: ^endoza , leg. Gillies a. 1B25 

C6E. TucumSn, Chicligasta, ConcRpcion, 400 m, A^. Fernandez 12 , 25 IX 

1942 LIL. Cfirdoba, Parque de La» Heras, Stuckert 3431 , 24 X 1897 CORD, 

P. La Pampa, General Pico, Raqonese 6701 , 8 XII 1952 BAB. 

CHILE. Santiago, Veneqas a. 1950 P. 

ECUADOR. Tunqurahua .De Ambato a Huachi, 2650 - 2700 m, Acosta Soils 

8849, 29 X 1944 F. 

PANAMA. Chiriqui . Bambito, escaped fr. cultivated, roadside, Croat 

15882, 20 VII 1971 MO. 

VENEZUELA. Araqua . Colonia Tovar, 1900 m, Trujillo 5264 . 5 VIII 1962 

MY. 

Centro-amSrica . 

BERMUDAS, Paget, grave yard, L. Manuel 644 , 2 V 1964 A. 

Norte-smSrica . 

ESTADOS UNIDDS. Arizona . Tempe, parking, Parfitt &■ Harriman 2136 , 4 IV 

1977. California . Stanislau Co., Turlock, 30 m, Fosberq 24270 . 24269, 

20 IV 1946 US. Napa Co., Santa Helena, ca. 300 ft., Raven 2832 , 6 V 

1951 CAS, K. Sonoma Co., Vallejos home, A^. Eastwood 7 V 1933 CAS. Oran 

ge Co., Laguna Beach, residential planting, MacClintock 1 X 1973 NAo 

Santa BSrbara Co., Patio of San Marcus Building, Anaparnu, H.M. Pollard 

6 V 1958 CAS. San Francisco, Waldo Schmidt 1913 US. lb., Stewart St. 

and Embarcadero, Howell 15 VII 1956 ENCB. Sacramento, William Lan Park, 

Byrne 23 III 1941 NA. Louisiana . Guachita Parish, Monroe, C.D. Berkley 

37406 ,2 VI 1967 GH. Maryland . Glenn Dale, 10041 Worrell Ave., Dudley , 

1 1970 NA. New York . Ithaca, Cornell Univ., Bailoy Hortorium, Dudley , 4 
-5 III 1965 A. South Carolina . Charleston, Nursery Magnolia Gard. , Maz- 
zeo L Dudley 1902 . 27 IV 1967 NA, Richland Co., Rosewood Drive Gard., 
[_.G. Meyer 12593 , 28 XI 1969 NA. Penn«ylvania . Berks Co., Foz Gardens, 
Ontelaunee Township, Brumbach 7194 , 3 VI 1970 K, NA. Texas . Bowie Co., 

2 Km N of New Boston, Correll 37135, 30 IV 1969 ENCB, GH,NA, Virginia . 
Princess Ann Co., Indian River Rd. at Pungo, F.G. Meyer 9199 , 27 VU965 



1982 Lourteig, Oxalidaceae extra-austroamericanae 135 
NA. Washington . Seattle, U.S. fiowernment Locks Park, Bail ey 5321, 7 Mil 
1954 A. Wisconsin . Cult. Green Bay, J.H. 5chue.tte IX 1888 US. 
turopa. 

CHYPRE.Dist. Limossol, S slope of Mt., Troidos, Platoes, 4000 ft., Par- 
lides, 14 V 1955 K. 

DINAMARCA. Copenhague, Cult. Hort. Bot. Hauniense 6056/ 2 , 27 XI 1930 
C. 

ESPANA. Barcelona a Bt. Genis, dScombres, Sennen .IV 1917 P. 
FRANCIA. Ex Herb. Buchet . P. Ex "erb, Rothkegel (orig. Br«sil) Cult. P. 
Alpes Maritimes . Grasse, Gevelle , M. Finisterre . Brignogan, N Leoneven, 
Leuze et Doppelbaur , 17 VIII 1962 M. Morbihan, Groix, H_, Uujntelier 399 
17 V 1972 GENT. Hautes- Pyrenees . Argelfes, R. Dull . IV 1965 JE. Loire- 
Atlantique . Nantes, Gadeceau , 24 IV 1893 BM. lb., leg. ipse 26 VI 1913 
BM.Manche. Montfarville, 5 m, McKee 30125 . 31 VII 1975 K,P. Pyrenees 
Atlantiques . Biarritz, sentier aux Acanthes, de Ste. Eug<lnie a la Pla- 
ce de I'Atalaye, Jnyet , 27 IX 1965 P. Biarritz au dela de Beaurivage, 
falaise dSgagfie, leg. ipse 12 XII 1965 P. Biarritz, I'Atalaye, leg. ip- 
se 1975 P. Lac Marion, rive de la blanchisserie, leg. ipse 19 IX 1965 
P. Biarritz, Laboratoire du Musfie, leg, ipse 1 X 1965 P. CimetiSre de 
Mendionde, £. Jovet et Casaubon , 28 VII 1981 P. St. Martin d'Ustabat,£. 
Jo vet . 28 VI 1981 P. Var . San Salvadour, Gouqerot-Nicot , P. Vaucluse . 
VilleneuvB-lez-Avignon, pr. Tour Philippi le Bel, B. Lizet .IV 1980 P. 
INGLATERRA. Cult. Hort. Cantab., Fynch Walk 19 VII 1957 CGE. Hort. Can- 
tab., Genetics Dep. , Marks. 18 III 1956 CGE. Cult. Hort. Kew, , 27 IV 
1880 K. Garden of E. Leeds V 1876 K. Kent . Ramsgate. 12 Cannon Rd., 
Pledge 11 IX 1961 K. Sussex . Kingston-by-Sea, Young 5078 . 30 V 1954 K. 
E Worthing, near W. Rd., B.T. Lowne 327 . 23 VII 1946 K. SW Hants. .Mil- 
ford, 20 ft., Wyatt 179 . 23 V 1935 K. Fenby, the Esplanade, C.C. Town- 
send 45 , 16 VIII 1954 K, Between Barmouth and Llanaber Marioneth, Brit- 
ton 2874, 9 VII 1926 K. Christy Gard., Teddington, R.S. Hill . 1842 BN. 
Cult. Hort. Kew,, Cape House V 1890 K. Longford Bridge, Gardens of Leeds 
V 1876 K. Cult. Ex Munby Herb. 1,7,J.,12, IV 1876 K; 20 V 1875 K.Bec- 
kenham, Hortus Charles Darwin, Don 3 V 1875 , 22 IV 1879 K. 



136 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, .io, 2 

IRLANDA. Co. Wicklow, Wegrand in Ashford, Leuze &. Doppelbaur . 5 IX 1964 

M. Sherkin Island, Polunin & Newbold 66, 26 VII 1949 K. Hortus Eblana 

(= Dublin), Tweedie . 1B40 (Bot. Mag. Km. 393B) K. Cult. Hort. Glasne- 

vin, Tweedie . K. 

ISRAEL. Beith-Dagan, in garden, sandy soil, £.£. Heyn . IV 1976 P. 

ITALIA. Roma, Albano-gebirgen bei ^'arino, leg. Konniger , 27 IV 1927 W. 

Alban Hill, ob., Lake Albano outskirt of Castel Gandolfo, Osborne &. 

Sinnott 1174 , 7 VI 1969 K. 

PORTUGAL. Ponte Nova, pr. Ovar, na estrada para Espinho, A^. et £. Fer- 

nandes et Matoa 9351 , 22 IV 1965 COI. Vilarinho da Lousa, Soito, A - 

guas de Alto, Matos et Cardoso 7461 , 24 III 1961 COI. Louza, *ilarinho, 

MatoB .30 VIII 1958 COI. Malveira, Mafra, Matos, 17 III 1967 COI. 

SUIZA. Cult, h Genfeve, Ayasse, Ex herb. Deaeqlisse VIII 1879 BM. 

Asia. 

IRAK. Baghdad, Sahira 633, 20 XI 1971 K. lb., Tepan 20 IV 1971 K. 

JAPON. Cult. Kyoto Takeda Herbal Garden, Toqashi . IB XI 1967 GH. 

Islas AtlSnticas. 

AJ'-ORES. Sao Miguel, Ponta Delgada, 50 m, Gonpalves 46B3 . 20 VIII 1972 

BM. Corro, Vila, 50 m, ipse 2664 , 9 VI 1971 BM. 

TENLRIFFE. Tacoronte, G.V. P^rez , 15 III 1915 K. 

Africa. 

CAMERQUN. Dschang. Centre Climatique, cult., Dang 342 , 13 III 1970 P. 

5UDAFRICA, Johannesburg, Dunkeld Wat, 16 N Rd., S. Eliovson , 1964 K. 

Oceania. 

AUSTRALIA. New South Wales . Lisarow, 15 m, Coveny 6470 fi. Powell 10 VI 

1975 K. Coogee, Coveny 259 & Shanker 20 X 1975 K. lb., ipsi 7259 20 X 

1975 GH. Noura, Rodway 519 . 15 IX 1931 K. South Australia . Blackwood, 

Wittunga, garden of Keith Ashby, Eichler 20784 , 18 X 1970 AD, P. Adelai 

de, Mt., Gambler aerodfoma, Wilson 668 , 17 XI 1966 AD. Tasmania . Bass 

Strait, Furneaux Group, E Kangaroo Isl., Whinray 372 , 7 X 1972 AD. 

NUEVA ZELANDIA. South Canterbury, Pleasant Point, Healy 289 . 13 IV 

1966 CHR. Tb Puke, River Rd., Bowman . 2 I 1976 CHR, Engmont Coast, Oha 

we Beach, W of Havern, Druce. VIII 1973 CHR. Bluff among grass and 



1982 Lourteig, Oxalidaceae extra-austroamericanae 137 

weeds on foreshore, Ilkin , 21 IV 1959 Po 5 Westland Okarito, Fryer , 7 

XI 1968 CHR. Paekakarihi, £otov, 1 IV 1944 CHR. Leg. Healy , 16 X 1945 
CHR. Dunedin, Roslyn, Mason 857 , 22 XI 1951 CHR. Auckland . Manku, gar- 
den weed, 200 ft., Woods 72. IV 1962 K. Leg. Healy 424 , 8 XII 1952 CHR. 
Stephen Island , Cook Strait garden around lighthouse, Raven Si. Enqelwan 
25066 , 20 IX 1969 CHR. Chatham Island , Waitangi, Madden , 9 III 1953 CHR. 

la. Dxalis articulata Sav, ssp. rubra (St. Hil.) Lourt. n.c. 

0. rubra Saint Hilaire, Fl, Bras. Her. 1^: 124. 1825, Bates, Hortus 
Third 806. 1977. 

Tipo: Brasil, inveni ad ripas rivulorum prope pagulum Freguesia Nova, 
in parte australi Provinciae S. Pauli quam dicunt Campos GerSes. Flo- 
ret Martio, St. Hilaire C 1587 , Voyage 1816-21 Holtftipo P. Is(5tipo P. 
Distribucidn qeoqrSfica . ""ive en lugares hfimedos abundando en la Pro- 
vincia de Buenos Aires, rara en el Sur de Uruguay y de Brasil. Ha si- 
do introducida por el cultivo en el Hemisferio Norte y en pocas loca- 
lidades de Argentina. 
Material estudiado . 
Sudamffrica. 
ARGENTINA. TucumSn. FamaillS, Villa Nougufes, 1000 m, Venturi 1758. 28 

XII 1921 GHjUS. San Juqn , Chacra Experimental, s. col. ^, 6 XII 1907 
BAB, Mendoza . Dep, San Martfn, Rufz Leal y Roiq 20667 , 4 XI 1959 RL. 
Cfirdoba. Capital, Quinta Molino Ducasse, Stuckert 11953 . 6 XI 1902 CORD 
P,S. ParquB Sarmiento, Hunziker 10929 ,8 IV 1955 CORD.P, ^1 Duraano, Bo - 
netti .II 1944 LIL. Ischilln, Quilino, VjHafaRe 54 , 16 XII 1946 LIL, 
Norte— amfirica. 

ESTADOS UNID05. California . University Grounds, Berkeley, A. Eastwood 

VIII 1915 CAS. Georgia . Mc Intosh Co., Crescent, H.H. Smith 2240 . 6 VI 

1909 G, Pennsylvania . Longwood Gardens, D.G. Hutleston 2435 , 20 IX 1974 

NA. 

t-uropa. 

ALEMANIA. Hortus tlot. Berlin-Dahlem, Schlechter 16 ,1 VI 1923 B. Hortus 

Bot. Monac. 15 VI 1868 M p.p. lb,, Ex herb. Kummer 15 VI 1867 M. 



138 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 2 

AUSTRIA, Culta Hortus Vienn., Ex herb. Haynal 6D5B BP. 

ESPANA, Barcelona, Tarrassa, roseraie en marge d'un canal d 'arrossage, 

Sennen 73B7 , 10 V 1930 P. 

FRANCIA, Bouches-du~Phone . Aix en Provence, quartier de la Torse, Rey- 

nier {Herb, Arenes 5274) VI 1907 P. b,l., Coraze (Ex herb. Arenes 5275) 

VI 1908 P. Puy-de-DSme . Jardin Botanique St. Andrfi, Gaston 20, VIII 

1910 US, VaT.tnv/irons de Hyferes, Gouqerot~Nicot , IV 1925 P. 

INGLATERRA. Scilly Islands, Bryher, L gusley 235 . 29 V 1938 K. Culta 

Hort. Kew., 1945 K, 

IRLANDA. Hortus Eblana {= Dublin) Moore, 1840 (Ex herb. Tweedie), (Hot. 

Mag. I5m, 3932)K. 

SUECIA. Lund . Hortus Bot. (fr. Copenhague), O.R. Holmberq 15 VI 1910 LD. 

Africa. 

EGIPTO. Alexandria , Jardin du Consulat G^n^ral d'Anqleterre, Gaillar- 

dot 21 VII 1868 JE. 

lb. Oxalis articulata Sav, ssp. rubra (St. Hil,) Lourt. 
forma crassipes (Urban) Lourt. n.c. 
0^, crassipes Urban in Hildebrand, Lebensverh. Oxal, 26, 1884 in Obs.; 
in feichler, Jahrb, Berl. 2^ 242. 1884) Bot. Jahrb. 6^. Beibl, Lit, 1885. 
Knuth, Pflreich. 202-203,1930. Bates edit,, Hortus Third 805. 1977, 
_? 0^. floribunda Lehmann var. alba Hort., Ph. de Wilmorin, ^ull. Soc. 
Bot. France 51: 111, 1906, 
2 £. rubra St. Hil, va. cv. " alba ". Bates edit., l,c, 806. 

Tipo: "SudamSrica", culta Hort. Berol. B. Destrufdo, Negtipo ; Culta 
Hort. Bergianus, Ex Hort. Bot. Hauniens, a. 1915 , IV 1916 S. 

Esta forma de floras blancas quizSs corresponda a una mutacifin 
que se ha perpetuado por el cultivo, Sfilo se conocen especlmenes cul- 
tivados con una distribucifin geogrSfica incoherente,coino que se tra*a 
de plantas que han sido probablemente transmitidas desde jardines eu- 
ropeos por la Horticulture, Una coleccitfn es microstilea, las otras 
mesostfleas. 
DBS. Algunas mutaciones blancas parciales se observan en inflorescen- 



1982 Lourteig, Oxalidaceae extra-austroaraericanae 139 

cias de otras especies, pero conservan sus caracteres especlficos ade- 
m^s de una mayorla de flores rosadaa. 
Material estudiado. 

ARGENTINA. Mendoza. Dep. San Martin, Ru?zLeal y Roiq 20668 , 4 XI 1959 
P, RL. 

FRANCIA. Pyrenfies Atlantiques . Lac Marion, Base de la haie-hallier du 
passage a niveau, P_. Jovet ,27 VI 1981 Pi conservfi en culture). Osta- 
bat, jarflin Casaubon, £, et S^. Jovet,28 VI 1981 P(conserv6 en culture) . 
INGLATERRA. 5.1., culta, Team . VIII 1931 CGE. 

ISRAEL. Beith-Dagan, sandy soil, in garden, C.C. Heyn , IV 1976 HLI5,P, 
ESTADOS UNID05. California . Santa Cruz Co., Glenwond, H_. Davis , 1914 
CAS, Marin Co., San Rafael, Dominican Coll., J.T. Howell , 6 V 1945 CAS. 
Univ. Calif. Bot. Gard., H^. Walker , 23 IV 1914 NA. Marylan d. Montgome- 
ry Co., Takoma Park, in garden, F.G. Meyer 12421 , 12 V 1970 NA,P. Mis- 
BJssippi . Forrest Co., Hattesburg, J<. Rogers 9133 . 13 IV 1973 NA. Penn- 
sylvania, Longwood Gardens, Exp. greenhouse, Huttleston 2436 ,20 IX 
1974 NA. lb,, Peterson 2263 . IB II 1975 NA. 

JAVA, Leg. Brijsman 150 . V 1916 K. lb., leg. ipse ^, III 1914 K. 
NUEVA ZELANDIAo Wellington, flotton St., cemetery, B.G. Hamlin 6 XI 
1951 CHR. 

2. Oxalis f loribunda Lehmann ssp. f loribunda 

Lehmann, Ind. Sem. Hort. Bot. Hamburg. 17. 1826; Ind. scholar. Hamburg. 
25-26. 1827; Nova Acta Ac.Leop. Carol. 14 (2): 813-814. 1828. Lindley, 
Bot. Reg. 13: I5m. 1123. 1B27. Link et ^tto, PI. rar. hort. reg. Berol. 
J,; 19-20, Ifim. 10. 1828. Sweet, Brit. F'low. Gard. 4: 16m. 54. 1830; 
Hortus Birtan. 3rd. ed. 123. 1839. 

Tipo. Cult. Hort. Hamburg (orig. WrasiD.leg, Lehmann 71828. Lect6t.K. 
Este especimen (probablemente derivado de una planta recogida por 
Sellow) se compone de s6lo 2 hojas y una inflorescencia lo cual no se- 
r£a suficiente para tipificar la especie . Gracias a una carta de Leh- 
mann en la cual describe la parte subterrSnea podemos asegurar la iden 
tidad de la planta y su pertenencia a esta Seccifin. Transcribe la car- 



140 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, :io. 2 

ta de Lehmann dirigida a William HOOKER desde Hamburgo el 19 de junio 
de 1828 . 

Archivo W. Hooker N" 169 (la graffa original es respetatla) : 
" Ad vocem plantes nouvelles. Vous avRZ donnfi dans votre Botani- 
cal Magazine la figure d'une vari6t6 de I'Qxalis (rosea je crois) et 
Vous citez en mSme temps la Oxalis floribunda de notre jardin, [.'est 
un erreur Monsieur, que je Vous prie de red vissrrr ([ r6viBerJ ausai- 
tot que possible. La plante dont Vous avez donnfi une figure est tout 
a fait differente de notre D. floribunda . ^i je trouve un exemplaire 
dans mon herbier je vous enverrais la plante elle mSme, mais si vous 
voulez comparer la description que je vous ai envoyfi par Mr. Hunnemann 
et que je vous envoi encore une fois, Vous vous convienderez aisement 
de la difference. La racine de notre plante est de la grandeur d'un 
tete d 'enfant; elle porte prfes de 50 scapus avec des fleures, la vo- 
tre a un tige rameux etc, etc." 



Parece que la planta que Lehmann posefa habfa desarrollado ra£- 
ces muy voluminosas. Seria interesante observar en el campo si exis- 
ten r^Ices tan engrosadas. 

Diatribucifin qeoqr^fica , Habita en lugares rocosos o entre piedras, 
raramente en cultivos del Sur de Paraguay, de la mesopotamia argenti- 
na, la Provincia de Buenos Aires, 5 de Brasil y Uruguay, Los ejempla- 
res cultivados en Europa son originarios del Sur de Brasil, 

Material estudiado , 

ARGENTINA. TucumSn, FamaillS, Wall 14 I 1946 S. 

CHILE. Casa Pangue a Puella, Pgrez Moreau 12-17 II 1945 BA. 

Europa. 

ALEMANIA. Hort. Bot. Monac. 15 VI 1866 M p.p. Ex herb, Lipsiae (fr. 

Brasil) VI 1844 BM, Culta Hort. Hamburg., Lehroann ,182 ? K, 

AUSTRIA, Hort. Vindob, , Fenzl W, Ibid., VI 1850 W. Ex Horto Bot.Vienn. 

(orig. Brasil), ex herb. Hayna l 6056 BP. Ex hort, Vindobonae, Kotschy . 

P. 



1982 Lourtelg, Oxalidaceae extra-austroainericanae 141 

DINAMARCA. Ex Hort. Hafniense C. 

FRANCIA. Hort. Paris., L. Netto R. Hort. Paris., a. 1847 P. lb., Spach , 

1848 P. Ex herb. Rich£, 1837 P. 

INGLATERRA. Edinburgh. Evans , Ex herb. 5oc. Bot. Edinensis VII 1847 P 

p.p. Ex Hort. Kew, , ex herb. Wartindale NA. Ex herb. Munbey , C.Culta 

ex Hort. Soc. (semillas de ^ehtnann) 1827 CGE. 

RUSIA. Hort. Petrop., A. de Bunqe .1833 P. 

SUIZAi Ex herb. Basel, K. 

ESTADOS UNIDOS. New York. Long Island, Prince's Garden, ex herb. Sch- 

weinitz PH. 

2a. Dxalis floribunda Lehrr.ann ssp. Ostenii (Arech.) Lourt. n.c. 

Oxalis Ostenii Arechavaleta, An. Mus. Nac. Montevideo 2: 228-229. 1900; 
Flora druguaya 1 : 228-229. 190D 

Tipo: Uruguay, Soriano, Vera, Osten 3194 X X 1895 MVN. 

Esta Bspecie produce dos floraciones por aRo, en primavera y en 
otono o invierno. En general, en su primera floracifin las f lores pre— 
ceden al follaje, en la segunda las hojas ya desarrolladas coexisten, 
Este comportamiento tambiSn parece producirse en la subespecie flori- 
bunda que es mucho m5s abundante. EstS poco representada en los herba— 
rios y hall* un solo especimen procedente de cultivo. 

Distribucifin qeogr3fica . Vive en Paraguay, mssopotamia argentina, ex- 
cepcionalmente en la Provincia de Buenos Aires; hallada una vez en 
Santa Catarina (Btqail). Es posible que sea m6s abundante. 
Material estudiado . 

INGLATERRA. Cult. Kew, Munby 's coll. X9 VI 1883 (Bot. Mag.lSm. 6748) 
K. 

3, Oxalis lasiopetala Zucc. 

Zuccarini, Denkschr. Ak. Muench. 9: 149. 1825; ser. 2. _1: 212. 1931. 

Tipo: Uruguay, crescit prope Montevideo, leg. Sello. Holfitipo M. Is6- 
tipo S. 

Especie muy difundiia en Argentina y en Uruguay; se halla tambiSn 



142 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, I^o. 2 

en R£o Grande do 5ul (Brasil) y fuS herborizada una vez en el 5 de Pa- 
raguay, Hasta ahora no ha sido cultivada. 

4, Qxalis monticola Arechavaleta 

Arechavaleta, An. Mus. Nac. Montevideo _3- 231-232. 1900; Flora Urugua 
ya 1.: 231-232.1900. Knuth, Pflreich. 209. 1930. Herter, Florul. Urug. 
75. 1930; II. Fl. Urug. fig. 1810. 1956. Non lonoxalis monticola Small 
1907 (= 0. oreophila Cory, 1936). 

Tipo : Uruguay, Dep. Maldonadn, entre grandes peRascos cerca de la 
cumbre del Paw de Azucar; se place a la sombra, Arechavaleta (ex herb. 
Osten 3742 ) MVN. 

Esta especie, que indudablemente corresponde a esta Seccifin, ca- 
rece de calli . Fs muy cercana a CI. articulata Savigny, mSs robusta 
que todas las del grupo, con inflorescencias grandes multifloras. En- 
dSmlca de Uruguay; vive entre piedras, Hasta ahora no ha sido cultiva- 
da. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GENUS GEUNSIA. I 
Harold N. lloldenke 



GEUNSIA CUMINGIANA (Schau.) Rolfe 

Additional bibliography: Hold., Phytologia 50: 56 & 62 — 64. 
1981. 

Continuing with Dr. David Fairchild's notes regarding his col- 
lections of this species: "F. G. Ex 414. Undetermined tree or 
shrub C'Callicarpa" E. D. ll[errill]). In a bunch of flo^^7ers that 
a native woman of the Kampong of Arangkaa, Karakelong Island, 
brought me, I saw this pretty flower with brilliant tiny fruits. 
The flowers are individually very small, 1/8 inch long, borne in 
cymes, flat topped and 4 to 6 inches across. The five parted 
flowers are purplish and the long filaments of the stamens are a 
deeper purple. These stamens are longer than the corolla tubes 
and extruded. The effect is very delicate and pretty and I think 
something new. These flowers are followed by small, coral red 
berries, in flat cymes and sho^^. Fruits not over 3/16 of an 
inch across, globular, with 2 or 3 oblong, yellow seeds and a 
small amount of pulp. Leaves 8 by 2 1/2 inches, ovate pointed, 
petiole 3/4 inch, leaves and leaf stem covered with dense, stel- 
late, bro^^m pubescence, like that of the common mullen leaf. 
Karakelong Island, Talaud Islands D.E.I. 6/12/40. Photo. Perhaps 
one of the flowers D.F. No. 24029, 11 or 12 is this species. 
Regarding this last remark I have examined carefully these prints 
and find they are of Ixoras. I have just done this. D. F." 

To these remarks I may add that I have personally examined 
a number of his collections of Verbenaceae and find that the 
following are their identities: 421 is Premna obtusifolia R. Br., 
185 is Premna subglabra Merr., 196 is Premna nitida K. Schum. , 
317 is Clerodendrum rumphianum DeVriese & Teijsm., 3425 is Geunsia 
farinosa Blume, and 3459 is Clerodendrum minahassae Teijsm. & 
Binn. 

Elmer describes his collection of Geunsia cumingiana as fol- 
lows: "erect shrub-like tree in gravelly soil of wooded creek 
banks; alt. 750 ft.; wood moderately soft or hard, heavy, odor- 
less and tasteless, dingy-tJhite; bark thick, brownish on the 
checked or shredded surface, smooth and yellowish-green on the 
branches; stem 3 inches thick, 25 feet tall or less, branched 
from above the middle, crooked and irregular; twigs suberect, 
dirty yellowish hairy; leaves submembranous, chiefly horizontal, 
usually folded on the upper slightly deeper-green surface, mar- 
gins coarsely wavy; inflorescence stalks yellowish green; fruit 
subglobose, 1/8 in. diam. , light-purple; inflorescence also erect, 
violet to lilac, odorless, even the buds colored." 

Bakhuizen (1929), speaking of Brass 659, from Papua, says: 
"A slender tree, 20 feet high, with very soft wood, sweet-scented, 
pink flox^ers and red fruit. The specimen [is] marked by the 
soft pubescent upper side and tomentose under side of the leaves 

143 



144 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

and the large cymes with subglabrous, 4 — 5-merous flowers [and] 
shows the same form as those collected by Gjellerup at Hollandia 
Bivak, in Dutch New Guinea (no. 67b, April 1910 and no. 416b, 
Dec. 31, 1910) and is not different from that of Lane-Poole no. 167, 

cited as Geunsia farinosa by Lane-Poole (1925) and by White 

& Francis (1927)." He gives the distribution as "Philip- 
pines, Celebes, Moluccas, New Guinea". It should be noted that 
Bakhuizen's Callicarpa pentandra var. cumingiana f. surigaensis 
is a synonym of C. surigaensis llerr. In his 1921 work, curi- 
ously, he reduces Callicarpa cumingiana ^chau. to what he 
calls C. pentandra var. cumingiana f. typica Bakh., but Geunsia 
cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe to Callicarpa pentandra var. cumingiana 
f. pentamera (H. J. Lam) Bakh. although both of these names are 
based on the same nomenclatural type. 

Hooker (1385) regards Callicarpa hexandra Teijsm. & Binn. as a 
synonym of Geunsia cumingiana "or very nearly so, and perhaps 
neither is distinct from Geunsia farinosa; but Cuming's n. 1773, 
reduced to G. farinosa by Schauer, is probably. .. .a good species." 

Merrill (1923) regards Callicarpa affinis Elm. as a synonym of G. 
cumingiana, but I place it in the synonymy of G. farinosa Blume. 
He cites from Polillo, Luzon, Samar. Leyte, Panay, Negros, Siar- 
gao, Bucas Grande, and Mindanao, in the Philippine Islands, the 
following collections: Cuming 1707, Cardona 23866, Danao 12444, 
Elmer 7368, 10856, 11102, & 13351, Hinolan 24043, Merrill 1691, 
Ramos 14710 & 24383, Ramos S Edano 21179 & 30998, Ramos & Pascasio 
34866 & 35071, Tarrosa & Almagro 14928, and Wenzel 1235, asserting 
that in the Philippines the species inhabits secondary forests at 
low and medium altitudes, occuring also in Celebes and the Moluc- 
ca Islands. In his 1912 work he cites Cuming 1707 from Samar, 
Danao 12444 from Negros, Elmer 7368 from Leyte, and Ahern 378 and 
Mearns S Hutchinson 4712 from Mindanao. 

Schauer (1847) and Vidal (1885) cite only the type collection, 
Cuming 1707; Bakhuizen (1921) cites only Robinson 11502 from Basi- 
lan; Beer & Lam (1936) cite Brass 5537 from Papua; Merrill (1903) 
cites Ahern 689 from Mindanao and 803 from Luzon, referring to 
this species as "endemic" to the Philippines. White (1929) cites 
Brass 659 from Papua. 

Material of Geunsia cumingiana has been misidentif led and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as G. farinosa Blume, Callicarpa affinis 
Elm., C. macrophylla Vahl, C. pentandra Roxb., C. tomentosa (L.) 
Murr., C. tomentosa var. lanata (L.) Bakh., and Leucosyke capitel- 
lata Wedd. On the other hand, the Mearns & Hutchinson s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Forest Bur. 4713], distributed as typical G. cumingiana, 
actually is its var. dentata (Bakh.) Mold., Brass 5495 is G. far- 
inosa Blume, Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor. 18544, Kanehira 2518, and 
Koorders 19495b are G. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., Ramos 
& Edarfo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 49732] is G. paloensis 
(Elm.) H. J. Lam, M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip Bur. Sci. 43349] is 
G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr., C. B. Robinson s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. 11502] is Callicarpa basilanensis Merr., Ahern 318Q is the 
type collection of C. surigaensis Merr., and Clemens 16797 is 
Premna cumingiana Schau. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 145 

Citations: INDIA: Gujarat: Koelz 13302 (Mi). PHILIPPINE IS- 
LANDS: Bucas Grande: Ramos S Pascasio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. 35071] (Ca— 212945). Leyte: Elmer 7368 (Bz— 18209, N) ; Fon- 
tanoza 59 [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 31131] (N) . Luzon: Ahern's 
Collector s.n. [Merr. Dec. Philip. Forest Fl, 112] (It, Mi, W — 
1584064). Mindanao: Elmer 13351 (Bi, Bz— 18200, Ca~272085, Le— 
914.185-139, N, Ut~33523, W— 1172236); Guerrero s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Forest. Bur. 30368] (Ca~321042, N) ; Ponce 12 [Herb. Phil- 
ip. Forest. Bur. 49510] (N, N) ; M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. 14710] (W — 714756); Ramos & Convocar s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. 83554] (Ba, Ba, Bz — 17487); Ramos & Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. 
Bur. Sci. 49510] (Bz~18208, Ca~323882, N, S); Ramos & Pascasio 
s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 34866] (Bz~18201); Wenzel 2701 
(Au, B, Bz~18197, Mu) , 2849 (Au, B, Bz~18198 , Ca— 316778, Mu, 
N), 3398 (Ca — 354914. Negros: Cardona s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest. 
Bur. 23866] (W— 1290166); Danao s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 
12444] (W— 628721); Hinolan s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 24043] 
(N). Panay: Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 45975] (B, Ca, 
W— 1551381); Ramos & Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 31179] 
(N). Samar: Cuming 1707 (Dc — type, Le — 908.266-913 — isotype, Mu — 
1401— isotype); M. Ramos 1691 (Bz— 18191, Le— 926.26-11, N) , s.n. 
[Herb, Philip. Bur. Sci. 24383] (W— 1239370). Island undetermin- 
ed: Herb. Com. Fl . Forest. 844 [Daraga] (Le — 908.266-393). GREATER 
SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Kjellberg 1763 (S) ; Rachmat 555 (Bz — 
18234), 572 (Bz— 18235). Java: Teijsmann s.n. [1868] (Mi, Mi). 
Karakalang: D. Fairchild 414 (A). Sabah: Gibot SAN. 30558 (Sn — 
40658). Sumatra: Asgar 2 [Boschproef st. b.b., 25245] (Bz— 18182) . 
MOLUCCA ISLANDS: Mangole: Bloembergen 445 [Boschproef st. b.b. 
29855] (Bz— 18177); Hulstijn 42 (Bz— 18184, Bz— 18185). Taliboe: 
Hulstijn 315 (Bz— 18186, Bz— 18187, Bz— 18188) . NEW GUINEA: Papua: 
Brass 659 (Bz— 18203) , 3925 (Bz— 18189, N) , 5537 (N) , 21799 (W— 
2495436), 24261 (Ng— 17088, W— 2496031); Carr 12824 (N) , 14870 (N) , 
15376 (Le— 936.295-121, N) ; Hoogland 3482 (Ng— 16836, Ng, W— 
2213579), 3905 (W — 2213724); New Guinea Dept. Forest. 2906 (Bz — 
72702); Lane-Poole 167 (Bz— 18206, Z) ; Schodde 2362 (Ba); C. T. 
White 574 (Bz— 18205); Wiakabu s Simaga LAE. 70248 (Mu, W— 2906418) . 
Territory of New Guinea: Armit s.n. [1895] (Mb); Chalmers s.n. 
[1885] (Mb); Clemens 11195 (Mi), 41320 (Mi); Dadswell & Smith 1677- 
(Ng — 6492, Ng); Docters van Leeuwen 11262 (Ng — 16932); Floyd 5453 
(Ng— 16975); H. O. Forbes 92 (Le— 908. 142-389) ; Gjellerup 67 (Bz— 
18207, Le— 926.340-54, Ut— 86459), 416 (Bz— 18204, Le— 926. 340-86) ; 
Herre 219 (Bz— 72636, N) ; Hollrung 8721 (Bz— 18195); Hoogland 4862 
(Ng— 3322, W— 2214113); Sayers NGF. 21559 (Mi, N) ; F. R. R. Schlech- 
ter 16454 (Le— 927 . 320-159 , S) ; Streimann s Kairo NGF. 21107 (Mu) ; 
Van der Sijde BW.4049 (Ng — 20211); Womersley 2906 (Ng — 6493). NEW 
GUINEAN ISLANDS: Fergusson: Brass 25946 (W— 2408431) . Goodenough: 
Brass 25103 (Ng— 17159, W— 2495547). BISMARK ARCHIPELAGO: Manus: 
Foreman & Katik LAE. 59187 (Mu) . New Britain: Barker & Vines LAE. 
66685 (Mu); Floyd 6477 (Bi, Ng— 16912, W— 2211025); Frodin NGF. 
26229 (N), 26641 (N) ; Henty S Frodin NGF. 27209 (N) . CULTIVATED: 
Florida: Fennell 1570 [Fairchild Exped. 157; U. S. Plant Introd. 
136643] (Ba), 1580 (Ba) ; R. E. Matthews s.n. [Fairchild Exped. 157] 



146 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

(N, -A). 

GEUNSIA CUMINGIANA var . DENTATA (Bakh.) Mold., Phytologia 5: 8. 
1954. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa pentandra var. cumingiana f. dentata Bakh. 
in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot, Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 17. 1921. 

Bibliography: Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 17. 1921; Fedde & Schust. , Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 
(1): 1071. 1932; Hold., Phytologia 5: 8. 1954; Mold., Resume 184, 
188, 190, 246, & 455. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 317, 324, & 415 
(1971) and 2: 878.1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 307, 315, & 548. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 56. 1981. 

This pentamerous variety differs from the typical form of the 
species in having serrate leaf-blades. Bakhuizen's (1921) more 
complete description is "Ramuli obtuse quadrangulares, crassius- 
culi; foliorum oppositorum paria singula cum foliis 1 — 2 alter- 
nantia, lato-ovata vel oblonga, aut lanceolata vel obovata, basi 
obtusa vel rotundata, raro subcordata vel subacuta, apice abrupte 
caudato-attenuata, acuta, grosse vel minutissime depando-dentata, 
adulta supra dense subrugosa, ferrugineo-hirsuta, subtus rugosa, 
sparse pilis stellatis subtomentosa, siccando rava vel subferru- 
ginea, 10 — 20 c.M. longa, 3 — 12 c.ll. lata, nervis lateralibus 
utrinque 10 — 15; petiolus 1.5 — 3.5 c.M. longus; cyrai mediocres, 
5 — 7 c.M. longi; pedunculus 3 — 5 c.II. longus* calyx 5-dentatus, 
extus dense farinosus, 0.15 — 0.20 c.M. altus; corolla 5-laciniata, 
extus subglabra, vel a dorso laciniis sparse pilosa; semina 5." 

The variety is based on Backer 4611 from Noesa Kembangan, 
Java, and Teijsmann 4284 [erroneously cited by Bakhuizen as 
"42844"] from Larapong, Tarabangi, Sumatra, deposited in the 
Buitenzorg herbarium. ^akhuizen cites only these two collec- 
tions. 

Collectors have found this plant in anthesis in May. f^terial 
has been distributed in some herbaria as typical G. cumingiana 
(Schau.) Rolfe, G. farinosa Blume, Callicarpa acuminatissiwa 
Teijsm. & Binn. , C. longifolia var. subglabra Schau., C. pentan- 
dra Koxb., and C. pentandra f. pubescens Bakh. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Iiindanao: Ahem 378 (W~ 
445706); Mearns <S Hutchinson s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 
4713] (Br, Bz— 18199, 'A, W~708928) ; Quadras 341 (W— 1584678) . 
GREATER SUNDA ISLAl'^DS: Java: Backer 4611 (Bz— 18192— cotype, Bz~ 
18193 — cotype, Z — cotype). Sumatra: Teijsmann 4284 H.B. (Bz — 
18194~cotype). 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA Blume, Cat. Gewass. Buitenz., imp. 1, 48. 1823 
[not G. farinosa F. Villar, 1923]. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa affinis Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 865. 
1910. Geunsia farimosa Blume apud E. D. Iferr., Philip. Journ. 
Scl. Bot. 7: 343, sphalm. 1912. Geunsia farinosa var. typica 
H. J. Lara, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 42 — 43. 1919. Geunsia farinosa 
var. albida H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 43. 1919. Calli- 
carpa pentandra var. typica f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh. in Lam & 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 147 

Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 13. 1921. Callicarpa 
pentandra f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh. in Bakh. & Lam, Nov. Guin. 14, 

Bot. 1: 167. 1924. Callicarpa forinosa Corner, Wayside Trees, ed. 
2, 697, sphalm. 1952 [not C. farinosa Roxh . , 1831, nor Sieb., 1865, 
nor Sieb. u Zncc . , 1971]. Geunsia subalternifolia H. Hallier ex 
Mold., Re'surae 295, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa pentandra farinosa 
(Blume) Bakh. ex Mold., Resume Suppl. 15: 17, in syn. 1967. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. agrica f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh. ex Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 415, in syn. 1971. 

Bibliography: Blume, Cat. Gewass. Buitenz., imp. 1, 11, 12, & 
48. 1823; Nees, Flora 8: 109—110. 1825; Blume, Bijdr. Fl. Ned. 
Ind. 14: 819. 1826; Meisn., PI. Vase. Gen. Coram. 2: 200. 1840; D. 
Dietr., Syn. PI. 3: 619. 1843; Ilassk. , Cat. PI. liort. Bot. Bogor. 
Cult. Alt. 136. 1844; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 116. 1845; 
Schau. in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 646. 1847; lliq. , Fl, Ind. Bat. 2: 885. 
1856; Buek, Gen. Spec. Syn. Candol. 3: 198. 1858; Baill., Adanson- 
ia, ser. 1, 3: 8. 1862; Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 2: [Rev. Verben- 
ac] 83 & 115 (1862) and 3: 186 & 263, pi. 3, fig. 1—7. 1862; 
Benth. in Benth. & Hook., Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1150. 1876; Fern.-Villar 
in Blanco, Fl. Filip., ed. 3, 4: Nov. App. 158. 1880; C. R. Clarke 
in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 566. 1885; Vidal y Soler, Phan. 
Cuming. Philip. 68 & 134. 1885; K. Sebum. & Hollr., Fl. Kais. 
Wilhelmsl. 119. 1889; Warb., Engl. Bot. Jahrs. 13: 426. 1891; 
Jacks, in Hook. f. ci Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 386. 1893; 
Stapf, Trans. Linn. Soe. Lond. Bot., ser. 2, 4: 88, 119, u 215. 
1894; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 
136—142, 164, & 165, fig. 54C & 62A. 1895; Stapf, Trand. Linn. 
Soe. Lond. Bot., ser. 2, 4: 527. 1896; Koord. & Valet., Meded. 
Lands Plant. Bat. 42 [Bijdr. Booms. Java 7]: 173—174. 1900; K. 
Schum. & Lauterb., Fl. Deutsch. Schutzgeb. SUdsee 521. 1900; E. D, 
Merr., Bull. Philip. Forest. Bur. 1: 50. 1903; Gamble in King & 
Gamble, Journ. Asiat. Soe. Beng. 74 (2 extra): 800—802. 1908; 
Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 864—866. 1910; M. C. Muller, Jungh. 
Gedenkb. 188. 1910; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pflanzenfam., ed. 7, 
314, fig. 413 B. 1912; Koord., Excursionsf 1. 3: 134 & 413. 1912; 
E. D. !Ierr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 7: 342 & 343. 1912; Prain, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 4, imp. 1, 43. 1913; Koord. & Valet., Atlas 
Baumart. Java 2: 6, pi. 279. 1914; Heyne, Nutt. PI. Ned. Ind., ed. 
1, 4: 106—107. 1917; H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 23, 
24, & 31. 1918; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pflanzenfam., ed. 8, 318, 
fig. 413 B. 1919; H. J. Lam, Verbenae. !Ialay. Arch. 30—32, 34, 
35, 42—43, 80, & 365. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. 
Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 13, 107, 111, vi, ii xi. 1921; E. D. 
Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511. 1921; Praia, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
5, imp. 1, 43. 1921; E. U. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 383. 
1923; Ridl., Fl. Malay Penins. 2: 614. 1923; Bakh. in Bakh. & Lam, 
Nov. Guin. 14, Bot. 1: 167. 1924; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pflanzen- 
fam., ed. 9 & 10, 339, fig. 418 B. 1924; H. J. Lam in Lauterb., 
Engl. Bot. Jahrb. 59: 88. 1924; Lane-Poole, Rep. Forest Res. Terr. 
Papua 136. 1925; S. Moore, Journ. Bot. Lond. 63: Suppl. 80. 1925; 
Janssonius, Mikrogr. Holz. 754, 757—758, 763, & 766—774, fig. 



148 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 2 

291. 1926; Uliite & Francis, Proc. Roy. Soc. Queensl. 38: 257. 
1927; Bakh., Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: [69]. 1929; Burkill & Haniff, 
Card. Bull. Straits Settl. 6: 233. 1930; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 279. 
1930; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; 
Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 4: 30, pi. 6, fig. 1. 1934; Diels in 
Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 11, 339, fig. 432 B. 1936; 
Fletcher, Kew Bull. Ilisc. Inf. 1938: 415. 1938; Elm., Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahres- 
ber. 60 (2): 573. 1941; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 8 & 25. 1942; 
Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac. , ed. 1, 60, 61, 63 — 66, 68, 
& 93. 1942; Blume, Cat. Gewass. Buitenz., imp. 2, 11, 12, & 48. 
1946; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 1026. 
1946; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 3 & 9. 1947; Mold., 
Ki\o\m Geogr. Distrib, Verbenac, ed. 2, 138, 139, 141, 143—150, 
& 185. 1949; Corner, Uayside Trees, ed. 2, 697 & 698. 1952; Jan- 
ssonius. Key Javan Woods 55 & 212, fig. 291. 1952; Anon., U. S. 
Dept. Agr. Bot. Sub j . Index 15: 14354. 1958; Prain, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 43. 1958; Anon., Kew Bull. Gen. Index 1929- 
1956, 132. 1959; Mold., Re'sumi 180, 184, 187, 188, 190, 192, 193, 
195, 197, 199, 201, 204, 241, 246, 295, & 455. 1959; Emberger in 
Chadefaud & Emberger, Trait. Bot. 2: 827, fig. 1173e. 1960; Jacks, 
in Hook. f. o. Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 1: 1026. 1960; Mold., 
Resum^ Suppl. 3: 18, 20, & 23 (1962) and 4: 9. 1962; Mold., Dansk 
Bot. Arkiv 23: 90. 1963; Melchior in Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , 
ed. 12, 2: 436, fig. 184 B & D. 1964; Mold., R^sum^ Suppl. 12: 3. 
1965; Burkill, Diet. Econ. Prod, flalay Penins. 1: 1085—1086. 
1966; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 60. 1966; Mold., Re'sume 
Suppl. 15: 17. 1967; Meijer, Bot. Bull. Herb. Forest Dept. Sanda- 
kan 10: 27. 1968; Mold., Fifth Suram. 1: 289, 296, 305, 317, 324, 
330, 332, 336, 339, 340, 404, 415, & 416 (1971) and 2: 520 & 878. 
1971; Mold., Phytologia 22: 25 (1971), 25: 234 (1973), 26: 368 
(1973), 34: 272 (1976), and 44: 473. 1979; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 
279, 286, 296, 307, 315, 320, 322, 326, 329, 330, 353, 378, 6< 548. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 49: 474 (1981) and 50: 52, 57, 58, 64, & 
67. 1981. 

Illustrations: Baill., Adansonia, ser. 1, 3: 8. 1862; Bocq. , 
Sdansonia, ser. 1, 3: [Rev. Verbenac] pi. 8, fig. 1 — 7. 1863; 
Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 136 & 
165, fig. 54C & 62A. 1895; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 
7, 314, fig. 413 B. 1912; Koord. & Valet., Atlas Baumart. Java pi. 
279. 1914; Gilg in Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 8, 318, fig. 
413 B (1919) and ed. 9 & 10, 339, fig. 418 B. 1924; Janssonius, 
Mikrogr. Holz. 769, fig. 291. 1926; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 
pi. 6, fig. 1. 1934; Diels in Engl., Syllab. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 11, 
339, fig. 432 B. 1936; Janssonius, Key Javan Woods 212, fig. 291. 
1952; Emberger in Chadefaud & Emberger, Trait. Bot. 2: 827, fig. 
1173e. 1960; Mold., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 23: 90. 1963; Melchior in 
Engl., Syllab. Pflanzenfam. , ed. 12, 436, fig. 184 B & D. 1964. 

A shrub, 2 — 8 m. tall, or a small, attractive, slender tree, 5 — 
26 m. tall, mostly pubescent with pale-brown stellate hairs through- 
out, wide-branching; clear bole straight, often 2 m. high, the 
trunk 15—75 cm. in girth, 20—45 ["SO" according to Koorders; "90" 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 149 

according to Heyne] cm. in diameter at breast height; outer bark 
white or gray to grayish-brown, light-brown, brownish, or brownish- 
red, smooth or scaly, fissured; inner bark soft, white ("but 3 
minutes after cutting it and the cambium turn yellowish") or whit- 
ish to yellow, greenish, or brot^mish (or, according to Abas, 
"pale-orange changing to chocolate"), the cambium brown or purple; 
sapwood white or yellowish-white to pale-yellovj, yellowish, or 
red (according to Abas "pale-yellow becoming purple") , the exudate 
red; branches and branchlets stellate-farinose with a yellowish- 
brox'm tomentum; leaves both opposite and alternate, with 2 alter- 
nate and then 2 opposite, often pseudo-ternate, especially toward 
the ends of the branches; petioles 2 — 3.5 cm. long, stellate- 
farinose with yellowish-brown tomentum; leaf-blades chartaceous 
to subcoriaceous or coriaceous, ovate-oblong to oblong or ellip- 
tic, 12.5 — 22 cm. long, 6 — 11 cm. vzide, apically acute or sub- 
abruptly acuminate to cuspidate, marginally entire, basally ab- 
ruptly acute or rounded, rather densely stellate-hairy or mealy- 
tomentose above when young, but glabrous, shiny, dark-green, and 
eglandulose above when mature or sometimes somewhat hairy on the 
larger venation, light-green and permanently densely and minutely 
mealy- or stellate-tomentose with yellowish-bro^^m or silvery- 
white (var. albida H. J. Lam) hairs and densely glandulose be- 
neath; secondaries 9 — 12 pairs, prominent beneath; cymes axillary, 
dichotomous, divaricate, rounded or flat-topped, densely many- 
flowered, 7 — 10 cm. long, 6 — 8 cm. wide, stellate-farinose with 
yellowish-brown hairs throughout, borne in the axils of both the 
opposite and alternate leaves; peduncles 2.5 — 6 cm. long, mealy; 
flower-buds green or greenish to pale-mauve; flowers small, 
fragrant, \;ith a cucurbitaceous odor; calyx cupuliform, about 1.5 
mm. long, externally stellate-hairy or mealy, glandulose, the rim 
5-toothed; corolla hypocrateriform, pink or red to violet, lilac, 
or purple, sometimes white, 5-merous, externally glandulose, 
otherwise glabrous, the tube 5 — 6 mm. long, the 5 lobes narrow, a- 
bout 1.5 mm. wide, reflexed or recurved; stamens 5, about 8 mm. 
long, exserted; anthers yellow, long and narrow, about 3 mm. long, 
about 5 times as long as wide, the connective glandular-punctate 
on both sides, especially dorsally; style about 11 mm. long; stig- 
ma capitate, somewhat 5-lobulate; ovary glandulose, especially 
apically; fruit drupaceous, subglobose or globose, 5 — 12 mm. long 
and wide, at first green or light-green, later pinkish-green or 
yellowish-red, to bright-red, scarlet, or a "beautiful lacquer- 
red", black when fully ripe, fleshy, externally somewhat glandu- 
lose, 10- (or less by abortion) seeded. 

Collectors have found this plant growing in brown or reddish- 
brown sandy or mostly silty soil in primary and secondary forests, 
peat forests, the secondary growth in older or younger disturbed 
forests, at forest margins, along roadsides, among scrub vegeta- 
tion, on flat land or steep hillsides and mountainsides, in low 
land and on hilltops, in disturbed areas on open floodplains, and 
even on coral limestone, "abundant in secondaty bush " , from sea- 
level to 1300 m. altitude, in flower during every month of the 
year, and in fruit in March, April, June to August, and October to 



150 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 50, Uo. 2 

January, i.e. , also virtually throughout the year. Sijde refers 
to it as a "connnon scattered shrub" in New Guinea. Curran com- 
ments that it "iiight be attractive to birds, very beautiful as a 
specimen tree (Photo Beck B & W.E,19 Col. 35 [3, 36 (11)])." 

The corollas are said to have been "red-lilac" on Lauterbach 3 
& 1417, "purplish-v/hite" on N. Born. For. Dept. A. 2294, "deep-pink" 
on .7. Born. For. Dept. A. 1274, "pink" on McKee 1933, Native Coll. 
2528, and N. Born. For. Dept. A. 1238, "pink to purplish" on SAN. 
71163, "dark-red" on SAN. 36123, "pinkish" on SAN. 33151, "old-rose- 
pink" on Gillis 11414, "purple" on A'^ie & Olsen 1237 and Native 
Coll. 2789, "pale-purple" on Aban & Petrus SAN. 90689, "mauve" on 
Purseglove 5408, "violet" on Larsen 8676, "lilac" on Balgooy 2269, 
"chocolate" on SAN. 32630, "bro\^n" on Wood 2649, "yellow-green" on 
SAN. 23770, "greenish-^^hite" on N. Born. For. Dept. A. 2588, "green" 
on Sales 3726 & SAN. 30933, and "white" on Agullana 3875, Ebalo 
1131, N. Born. For. Dept. A. 3082, and SAN. 32658. 

It should be noted that the Koorders 9733b, cited below, ex- 
hibits a few leaves like those of G. pullei H. J. Lam. 

Callicarpa affinis is based on Elmer 10856 and 11102 from 
Mindanao, Philippines. The leaves of the latter collection are 
remarkably ovate for Geunsia farinosa. Geunsia subaltern! folia is 
based on Beccari 786 from Borneo. The Callicarpa farinosa Roxb., 
referred to in the synonymy (above) is a synonym of C. tomentosa 
(L.) Murr., v;hile the homonymous binomials accredited to Siebold 
and to Siebold & Zuccarini are C. mollis Sieb. a Zucc. Geunsia 
farinosa Fern.-Villar is a synonym of G. cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe. 

Janssonius (1952) describes the wood of Geunsia farinosa as: 
"The uni-seriate medullary rays are very rare. The number of the 
vessels to the mm of the transverse section usually much larger. 
Wood fine-textured, flexible, tough; specific gravity 0,60 to 
0,70." In his 1926 work he describes it in much greater detail. 

Burkill (1966) describes G. farinosa as "A small tree found 
throughout Malaysia; in the [Malay] Peninsula it is not uncommon 
in most parts. Owing to its great similarity to species of Calli- 
carpa, it is called ' tampang besi', but unlike the common species 
of Callicarpa it is rarely recorded as medicinal. Burkill & Han- 

iff( 1930 ) say that it is used for vertigo; K. Heyne 

(....1918 ) says that the ground bark is used in Sumatra for 

swellings, but the statement does not reappear in his edition of 
1927. The wood is white, light, and of little use, but recorded 
by Alvins as employed for rafters." 

Lam (1919) divides the species into two varieties: var. typica 
H. J. Lam with "tomentum, foliorum subtus, ramulorum cymorumque 
luteo-brunneo-stellatum" and var. albida H. J. Lam, based on Havi- 
land s Hose 3653E from Sarawak, with "tomentum foliorum subtus ramu- 
lorum cymorumque argento-albo-stellatum." He comments that "We 
discovered specimina, which are a transition-form to G. hexandra 
by their greater leaves and their somewhat hairy corolla. In con- 
nexion with our [previous] remarks it might be supposed, that 

G. hexandra is developing from G. farinosa There are indications 
that 4-nerous specimina occur, but we did not see such. They 



1982 Tloldenke, i-iotes on Geunsia 151 

should form a var. V" pentamera." 

Callicarpa acuminatissima Teijsm. & Binn. & C. hexandra Teijsm. 
& Binn. are often cited as synonyms of Geunsia farinosa, but in- 
correctly so. Because of this unjustified reduction, and others 
like it, most of the descriptions purporting to be of G. farinosa 
in earlier works (after Blume) are misleading since they are apt 
to include the characters of other taxa. 

Koorders (1912) refers to g. farinosa as a tree to 26 m. tall, 
the trunk to 80 cm. in diameter, with a "pretty rose-coloured 
fruit", native to middle and western Java from sealevel to 1300 m. 
altitude, "scattered and not rare in open rainforests". Corner 
(l'>52) describes it as "A tree lil.e C [allicarpa] tomentosa but:- 
Twigs, inflorescences and undersides of the leaves brown-scurfy. 
Leaf-blades 3.5 — 9 x 1.5 — 4", the leaves on the horizontal or in- 
clined twigs alternately paired and unpaired, the paired leaves 
being in the horizontal plane, the unpaired leaf on the upper side 
of the twig being much smaller than the corresponding unpaired 
leaf on the lower side: stalk 0. — 1.5" long. Inflorescence 1.5 — 
3.5" wide. Berries 0.1 — 0.15" wide, ripening bright red. W. Malay- 
sia to the Philippines and Celebes: common from Johore to Penang, 
especially in lowlying, swampy jungle. The arrangement of the 
leaves on the branches of this tree is most peculiar: the effect 
is to avoid shading of the leaf on the underside of the twig by 
that on the upperside." He calls the species the "Red-berried 
Malayan Lilac". 

Fernandez-Villar reduces Callicarpa pentandra to this species, 
citing Cuming 1773 from the Philippines, clearly a case of mis- 
identification — Geunsia pentandra, as Merrill has pointed out, is 
quite distinct from G. farinosa. Schauer (1847) accepts Callicarpa 
pentandra as a valid species, reducing Geunsia farinosa Blume to 
its synonymy, also citing Cuming 1773 as well as unnumbered Blume 
and Kollmann collections from Java. Fletcher (1938) and Meeuse al- 
so reduce G. farinosa to synonymy under G. pentandra. 

Hooker (1885) reduces both Callicarpa pentandra and Callicarpa 
acuminatissima Teijsm. u Binn. to Geunsia farinosa, commenting that 

"C. hexandra Teijsm. & Binn is C. cumingiana Schau or very 

nearly so, and perhaps neither is distinct from Geunsia farinosa; 
but Cuming's n. 1773, reduced to G. farinosa by Schauer, is probab- 
ly, as stated in Gen. PI. 2, p. 1150, a good species." Heyne 
(1917) and Warburg (1891) also include Callicarpa pentandra in 
their concept of Geunsia farinosa, the latter author citing an un- 
numbered Hollrung collection. 

Junell (1934), working with unnumbered Ridley and Zollinger col- 
lections, reports that "Obwohl ich nur von einigen wenigen Frucht- 
knoten Querschnittreihen herstellte, erhielt ish PrHparate von 

fUnf-, vier- und dreizKhligen GynMceen. Bocquillon fUhrt ein 

Diagramm des BlUtenbaus bei dieser Art an, in dem man deutlich die 
Stellung der fUnf FruchtblMtter und die Lokalisierung der Samen- 
anlagen auf den FruchtblHttern sehen kann. Ein Querschnitt eines 
fUnf zHhligen GynHceums wird in Taf. VI. . . .wiedergegeben. Durch Ver- 
wachsung der nach innen gekrUmmten Telle der FruchtblMtter werden 
fUnf Plazenten gebildet." [to be continued] 



STUDIES ON THE MARYLAND FLORA VIII: 

RANGE EXTENSIONS OF POLYGONUM PERFOLIATUM L. , 

WITH NOTES ON INTRODUCTION AND DISPERSAL IN NORTH AMERICA 

Richard E. Riefner, Jr. 

20832 Skinner Lane 

Huntington Beach, California 92646 

Polygonum perf o 1 iatum L. , an herb native to eastern Asia, 
was reported for Maryland as locally established in Baltimore, 
Carroll and Harford Cos. by Reed (1979), and by Riefner and 
Windier (1979) from theses counties with additional records from 
Cecil and Howard Cos., and Anne Arundel Co. by site report. The 
species, even at that time, was spreading rapidly and was 
becoming such a troublesome weed as to warrant note as a 
potential problem in the United States by Reed (1977). Without 
question, P. perfol iatum is the most important and noxious weedy 
species to invade the Central Atlantic States in recent decades. 
In southeastern Pennsylvania, and northeastern and central 
Maryland, the plant has spread so rapidly that within the span 
of a few years P. perfol iatum has become as common a weed as 
Japanese honeysuckle ( Lonicera japonica L. ) . In Maryland, the 
species has extended its range to the west to Frederick Co., and 
as far south as Charles Co., to include eleven counties and 
Baltimore City. The plant has also reached northeastern 
Washington D.C. and will likely spread to the banks of the 
Potomac River, where dispersal into Virginia can be expected, 
perhaps within the next year. Since it is often difficult to 
establish the origins of and to trace the dispersal of exotic 
weeds, it seems appropriate to assemble the available data to 
provide as accurate as possible, historical documentation of the 
introduction and dispersal of P. perfoliatum in the 
Mid-Atlantic region before dispersal into the southeastern 
states ensues. 

Polygonum pe rfol iatum is a glaucous, branching, vine-like 
perennial herb. Its slender flexuous stems, usually growing 
several meters in length, are found rambling, climbing, or more 
often, reclining on other plants. It grows from a base that may 
be herbaceous or one becoming woody with age. The angles of its 
stems, petioles, and the principle veins on the undersurface of 
its leaves are armed with recurved prickles. The distinctive 
leaves, usually 1-8 cm. in size, are deltoid, basally truncate, 
and peltate, with the apices and basal lobes acute to rather 
obtuse and about as long as wide. They are light green, often 
redish when young and usually minutely retorsely scabrous on the 
margins. Its petioles are divaricate and slightly longer than 
the blade. The ocrea are expanded into circular, amplexicaul, 
non-setose blades, 5-30 mm. in diameter, that are significantly 

152 



1982 Riefner, ;iaryland flora 153 

larger than the stem. Anthesis is brief and inconspicuous, and 
is first noted in June. The 3-3.5 mm. apetalous flowers are 
borne in axillary or terminal fascicles that are well concealed 
among upper leaves. The perianth is pale greenish-white to 
rarely pink, the segments broadly elliptic and baccate after 
anthesis. The spikes are 1-3 cm. long and are subtended by an 
orbicular bract much like the perfoliate ocrea. The fruits are 
subglobose, fleshy and berry-like, ^-6 mm. in diameter and 
metallic blue in color. The solitary achene is spherical, ca. 
3.5 mm., and is lustrous black. The fruits are abundantly 
produced throughout the summer and fall until early November. Of 
our common eastern United States species, P. pe rfoliatum most 
closely resembles, and may be keyed to P. sagittatum L. and P. 
arifolium L. , a comparative illustration has been provided by 
Riefner and Windier (1979). Glaucous stems and deltoid leaves, 
perfoliate ocrea, and peltate leaf attachment will distinguish 
P. perf ol iatum from these taxa. 

The first appearance of P. perf ol iatum in the United States 
is recorded by a specimen collected from ballast in Portland, 
Oregon in the 1890's by Suksdorf 1607 (GH). This population was 
evidently short-lived in the Pacific States as shown by its 
absence from the treatments of the Polygonaceae by Abrams 
(1944), Hitchcock et al. (1964), and Munz (1968). According to 
Moul (1948), P. perfoliatum reappeared around the mid-1930's in 
a nursery owned by Mr. Joseph B. Gable at Stewartstown , York 
County, Pennsylvania. Apparently the species sprouted in an area 
planted with holly seed sent from Japan. The owner, interested 
in the beauty of the plant, allowed it to reproduce. However, 
the plant soon became a pest and efforts to eradicate it failed; 
subsequently, the plant spread to neighboring farms. Moul also 
states that in 1937, Dr. Joseph Ewan of the U.S.D.A., reported 
P. perf ol iatum from the Glenn Dale Introduction Garden in 
Beltsville, Maryland, from a site planted with Mel iosa seed from 
China. This population, however, was eradicated by the usual 
weeding of the gardens. Reed (1979) speculates that the plant 
was spread with Rhododendron to the Gable Nursery from the Glenn 
Dale infestation. The plant was also reported by Hickman and 
Hickman (1978) as established on the campus of Swarthmore 
College in southeastern Pennsylvania. Since populations they 
observed were somewhat associated with Rhododendr on , they 
suggested that the plant was being spread by fragments attached 
to Rhododendron purchased from the Gable Nursery. In their 
opinion, and evidently unaware of Moul ' s paper, the introduction 
of the species into North America was unresolved. 

In light of the available data, it seems likely that P. 
perfoliatum was introduced into North America at several 
localities in the United States as a weed seed, becoming 
established only in the Gable Nursery in Pensylvania. Wide* 
spread and common in eastern Asia (Kasahara, 1954; Steward, 
1930), seed of the species could likely be introduced with seed 



154 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Wo. 2 

of similar size, as Ilex species (Bailey, 1949), imported from 
Asia. It also seems apparent that dispersal of the plant by 
Rhododendron hybrids sold by the Gable Nursery is insignificant. 
Dispersal of the plant from the nursery infestation into the 
Pennsylvania countryside may be attributable to birds and to 
water along streams (where Hickman and Hickman first 
encountered the plant). 

Polygonum perf ol iatum is commonly encountered in flood- 
plains or along stream edges where seed has been brought by 
water. Ohwi (1965), and Backer and Van Den Brink (1963) list the 
Asian habitat of the species as water-sides and wet thickets. 
Ridley (1930) states that important adaptations for dispersal by 
water include persistent and accrescent sepals, and extended 
buoyancy potential. It seems that the sepals of the species, 
baccate after anthesis, form a buoyant, berry-like fruit that is 
well adapted for long-distance dispersal by water. The rapid, 
southern spread of the plant may be principally attributed to 
water dispersal. The plant has spread from southeastern 
Pennsylvania via the numerous water systems draining the region. 
The Deer Creek and Gunpowder River systems are the primary 
dispersal routes by which the plant invaded Maryland. Subsequent 
dispersal has followed these systems, and adjacent drainage 
basins (Fig. 1) via stream capture to include the Susquehanna, 
and the Monocacy and Patapsco Rivers, to the east and west 
respectively, and the Patuxent River into southern Maryland. 
Rapidly spreading seed will likely be carried to the Potomac 
River via the Anacostia River, or by the Monocacy and Patuxent 
Rivers, and thus into Virginia to be dispersed by similar 
drainage patterns therein. The plant has also entered the 
estuaries of the upper Chesapeake Bay where it flourishes along 
beaches and marsh strands. It will be interesting to note the 
extent to which it is carried by tides to the Eastern Shore of 
Maryland as well as intolerance, if any, to increasing saline 
cond it ions . 

Polygonum perfoliatum is also making dramatic invasions 
into upland habitats. It appears that upland dispersal is most 
likely attributable to birds. Generally, the prickly foliage of 
the species has not attracted foraging herbivores, whereas the 
easily accessible and abundant fruits have been observed to be 
ingested by birds. The fruits are adapted for dispersal by birds 
based on criteria for bird dissemination by Ridley (1930) and 
Dorst (1974). They are small and are sufficiently bright and 
conspicuously colored to be attractive from a distance. 
Dispersal by birds has, perhaps, effected the unusually rapid 
spread of this exotic species in the Mid-Atlantic region. 
Indeed, a relationship has developed that scatters the species 
to the east or west across geologic drainage barriers. Hence, 
the species can be expected in Delaware and West Virginia in 
future years. 



1932 



Riefner, Ilaryland flora 



155 




156 P n Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 2 

Presencly eradication programs have not been initiated in 

Pennsylvania or Maryland to control the spread of this noxious 

pest. It seems that the plant has become so well established, 

that hope of ever completely wiping it out has passed. 

Potentially useful herbicides for local control are Roundup 

(Glyphosf ate) , for non-selective eradication , and Ranvel 
(Dicamba), which selectively kills Polygonum species. 



COLLECTION DATA 

MARYLAND-ANNE ARUNDEL CO.:Banks of the Patapsco River near 
Rt . 695 bridge, 9-5-78, Riefner 78-166 ; thickets along South 
River near Rt . 50, 8-2-80, Riefner 80-296 ; low ground and 
thickets along Rt . 3 W of St. Stephens Church Rd . , 10-9-81, 
Riefner 81-736 ; disturbed areas along roadsides and creek 
f loodplain on Rt . 170 near Rt . 295,, 10-9-81, Riefner 81-737 ; in 
honeysuckle along Rt . 295, 10-9-81, Riefner 81-738. 



BALTIMORE CITY: Overtaking planting of Coronilla 
varia on shoulder of Rt . 83 near Northern Parkway, 10-9-81, 
Riefner 81-730 ; wayside of Coldspring La. W of Rt . 83, 10-9-81, 
Riefner 81-731 ; thickets and gullies along Jones Falls Creek 
near southern city limit, Mt . Washington, 10-9-81, Riefner 
81-732 ; thickets along Rt . 83 near city limit, Mt . Washington, 
10-9-81, Riefner 81-735 . 

BALTIMORE CO.: Shrub swamp along Falls Rd. near 
Big Gunpowder River, 7-2-76, Riefner 76- 10; high climbing vines 
in Robinia - Lonicera waste place along Evna Rd. powerline 
right-of-way, 7-8-76, Riefner 76- 26; field edge among Rubus 
thickets. Falls Rd. at Parkton, 7-T2-76, Riefner 76-31 ; wooded 
floodplain with P. sagit tatum and P. arifolium along the Little 
Gunpowder River at Harford Rd. crossing, 9-12-76, Riefner 
76-436 ; woodland borders at the Loch Raven Dam, 9-20-76, 
Riefner 76-440 ; thickets edge of powerline right-of-way E from 
Loch Raven Dr. along Cromwell Bdg. Rd. , 9-20-76, Riefner 
76-440a ; rambling along sandy depressions and gullies along 
Harford Rd. at Factory Rd. , 9-21-76, Riefner 76-448 ; roadsides 
and woodland margins over Rubus- Lonicera thickets along Notch 
Cliff Rd. , 9-22-76, Riefner 76^452 ; extensive growth in flood- 
plain along Big Gunpowder Falls near Big Falls Rd . , 4-13-77, 
Riefner 77-88; along banks of Little Falls near Graystone Rd., 
7-16-77, Riefner 77-677 ; extensive growth in alluvial Jugl ans 
bottomland near Big Gunpowder Falls and Bunker Hill Rd., 
8-29-77, Riefner 77-794 ; along creek at Upper Beckley Rd. , 
9-5-77, Riefner 77-802 ; roadsides of Martin Blvd. near Eastern 
Ave., 6-3-79, Riefner 79-147; low ground along Grace's Ouater 
Rd., 6-29-70, Riefner 79-232 ; beaches at Hammerman Area of 
Gunpowder Park, 6-29-79, Riefner 79-245 ; low ground at Dundee 
Creek, 8-4-79, Riefner 79-306 ; wayside Rt. 95 near White Marsh, 
6-28-80, Riefner 79-306 ; wayside Rt . 132 near Green Spring Rd. 



1982 



Riefner, Maryland flora 1^7 



exit, 7-4-80, Riefner 80-174 ; alon^ Rt . 695 at York Rd. exit, 
7-4-80, Riefner 80-185; alon^ stream floodplain and thickets at 
Bonita RdT, Owing s Mills, 8-9-80, Riefner 80-334 ; along Rt . 1, 
Rubus thickets, Kingsville, 9-5-80, Riefner 80-369 ; thickets 
along Rt. 83, Ruxton, 10-18-80, Riefner 81-800 ; in hedges along 
Stevenson La., 10-18-81, Riefner 81-802 ; thickets along Liberty 
Reservoir at Nicodemus Rd. , 10-18-81, Riefner 81-803 ; eroded 
banks at Bare Hills, 10-18-81, Riefner 81-805 ; extensive colony 
along Reistertown Rd. near Rt . 695, 10-20-81, Riefner 81-806 ; 
along Rt . 25 at Butler, 10-20-81, Riefner 81-807 . 

CALVERT CO.: Floodplain along the Patuxent River, 
near Lyons Creek, 10-9-81, Riefner 81-739 . 

CARROLL CO.: Edge of pond at Backwoods Rd. and 
Deep Run, 8-1-78, Riefner 81-144 ; along Pipe Creek near Rt . 27, 
Manchester, 8-1-78, Riefner 78-145 ; along banks of Silver Run 
and along Rt . 140, 8-27-79, Riefner 79-354 ; along Rt . 84 near 
Uniontown, overtaking Lonicera , 10-2-79, Riefner 79-557 ; along 
Middle Run near Rt . 91, 9-5-80, Riefner 80-360 ; banks of South 
Branch Patapsco River, Sykesville, 9-5-80, Riefner 80-362 ; along 
Rt. 26 at Eldersburg, 10-11-81, Riefner 81-755 ; Rt . 26 at 
Uniontown, 10-11-81, Riefner 81-756 ; along Liberty Lake 
Reservoir near Nicodemus Rd., 10-18-81, Riefner 81-808 . 

CECIL CO.: Wet thickets along the Susquehanna 
River, Port Deposit, 10-7-77, Riefner 77-856 ; dithes with 
Microstegium vimineum and woodland thickets N along the 
Susquehanna River ca. 1 mi. from Rt . 1 crossing, 8-22-80, 
Riefner 80-367; along Rt . 95 near rest station E of Susquehanna 
River, 10-18-81, Riefner 81-809 . 

CHARLES CO.: Weak plant along Patuxent River wash, 
Benedict, 10-9-81, Riefner 81-740 . 

FREDERICK CO.: Stream Floodplain and thickets 
along Rt. 70 near Rt . 75 crossing, 8-9-80, Riefner 80-323. 

HARFORD CO.: Sandy river wash along Deer Creek 
downstream from Telegraph Rd. , 7-20-75, Riefner 75-101 ; roadside 
Rt . 1 near Susquehanna River, 10-7-77, Riefner 77-855 ; along 
Deer Creek near the Rocks Park, 9-5-81, Riefner 78-165 ; 
extensive growth around old beaver pond near Eden Mill Rd. , 
6-18-79, Riefner 79-194; weak plants in mesic woods along the 
Little Gunpowder River and sandy riverwash E from Rt . 1, 
7-20-80, Riefner 80-249 ; wayside thickets of Rt. 1 N of Little 
Gunpowder River, 8-18-80, Riefner 80-358 ; thickets along Old 
Joppa Rd. , 8-22-80, Riefner 80-360 ; along stream banks near Lake 
Fanny Rd. , 8-22-80, Riefner 80-364 ; woodland margins of Sandy 
Hook Rd., 10-4-80, Riefner 80-499 ; roadside thickets along 
Shures Ldg. Rd. , 10-4-80, Riefner 80-502 ; banks of Little 
Gunpowder River near Green Rd. , 10-5-80, Riefner 80-513. 



158 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 2 

HOWARD CO.: Low ground alone Patapsco River on 
properties of Calvert Distilleries, 7-7-78, Rief ner 78-137 ; 
sandy wash of Patapsco River near Rt . 40, 10-2-79, Rief ner 
79-550 ; along Rt . 70 near Howard Co. Fair-grounds, 7-13-80, 
Rie fner 80-231 ; thickets at Triadelphia Reservoir, 8-9-80, 
Riefner 80-312 ; thickets at Rocky Gorge Reservoir, 8-9-80, 
Riefner 80-319 . 

MONTGOMERY CO.: Thickets at Triadelphia Reservoir, 

8-9-80, Riefner 80-324 ; low ground at Rocky Gorge Reservoir, 

8-9-80, "Riefner 80-325 j along Rt . 193 at Wheaton, 10-15-81, 
Riefner 81-789 . 

PRINCE GEORGES CO.: In shrubs, NW side of Health 
Center along roadside, Univ. Md. at College Park, 7-17-80, 
Hill 9343; along Rt . 301 near Oueen Anne Rd. , 10-13-81, Riefner 
81-780 ; thickets along Rt . 301 near Peerless Ave., 10-15-81, 
Riefner 81-781 ; thickets along Rt . 95 near Rt . 495 junction, 
10-15-81, Riefner 81-785 ; disturbed ground at U.S.D.A. complex, 
Beltsville, 10-15-81, Riefner 81-786 ; along Rt . 295 near 
Bladensburg, 10-15-81, Riefner 81-788 . 

WASHINGTON D.C. Low ground Polygonum sagi ttatum 
thickets, S of Rt . 295 along Anacostia River, 10-25-81, 
Riefner 81-815 . 

Voucher specimens have been deposited at the University of 
Maryland at College Park (MARY). 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



I would like to express my appreciation to Drs. Steven Hill 
and Allen Skorepa for their helpful comments; Dr. Ronald Ridder 
for his recommendations of potentially usefull herbicides, and 
Dr. David Lee of the North Carolina State Museum for permission 
to use the Maryland map. 

LITERATURE CITED 



Abrams, Leroy, 1944. Illustrated flora of the Pacific States. 
Stanford University Press. 

Backer, C.A. And Bakhuizen Van Den Brink, Jr. 1963. Flora of 
Java, Vol. 1, N.V.P. Noordhof f-Groningen, The Netherlands. 

Bailey, L.H. 1949. Manual of cultivated plants. MacMillan Co., 
New York, New York. 



1982 Riefner, Maryland flora 159 

Dorst, J. 1974. The life of birds, Vol. 1. Columbia University 
Press New York, New York. 

Hickman, J.C. and C.S. Hickman. 1978. Polygonum perf ol latum : A 
recent Asiatic adventive. Bartonia 45:18-23. 

Hitchcock, Leo C, A. Cronquist, M. Ownbey, J.W. Thompson. 1964. 
Vascular plants of the Pacific Northwest. University of 
Washington Press. 

Kasahara, Y. 1954. Studies on the weeds of arable land in Japan, 
with special reference to kinds of harmful weeds, their 
geographic distribution, abundance, life-length, origin and 
history. Ber. Ohara Inst. 10 (2): 72-109. 

Moul , E.T. 1948. A dangerous weedy Polygonum in Pennsylvania. 
Rhodora 50: 64-66. 

Munz, P. A. 1968. A California flora. Cambridge University Press; 
University of California Press. 

Ohwi , Jisaburo. 1965. Flora of Japan. Smithsonian Institution, 
Washington D.C. 

Ridley, H.R. 1930. The dispersal of plants throughout the world. 
L. Reeve and Co. 

Riefner, R.E., Jr. and D.R. Windier. 1979. Polygonum perf ol latum 
L. established in Maryland. Castanea 44: 91-93. 

Reed, C.F. 1977. Economically Important foreign weeds, potential 
problems in the United States. U.S.D.A. Agri Handb. No. 
498. 

Reed, C.F. 1979. Tracaulon perfol latum (L.) Greene In Maryland. 
Phytologla 43: 219-221. 

Reed, C.F. 1979. Additional notes regarding Tracaulon perfol lata 
(L.) Greene. Phytologla 43: 293. 

Steward, A.N. 1930. The Polygoneae of Eastern Asia. Contrib. 
Gray Herb., No. LXXXVIII. 



SOOK REVIE\^;S 
Alma L, Moldenke 



"THE VICTA LAWN BOOK" by Pax Lindsay, 96 pp., 40 color & 30 b/w . 
photos, 12 fig. & 2 tab. A. H. & A. W. Reed, Sydney, IJel- 
lington, London & distributed in U.S.A. by Charles R. Tuttle 
Company, Rutland, Vermont 05701. 1977., $2.95 paperbound. 

Since lawn grasses are so often uniform introduced ones and 
since lawn enemies their fellow-travelers, the advice in this 
book is useful almost all over this globe. Its directions are in 
simple, clearcut language about all needed topics and its illus- 
trations are very helpful to individual home owners as well as to 
horticulture and groundskeepers schools and workers. 



"THE MULTILINGUAL COMPUTER DICTIONARY" edited by Alan Isaacs, 11 
& 332 pp., Facts on File Inc., New York, N. Y. 10016. 1981. 
$19.95. 

There is no Introduction, but the dust jacket tells it all. 
"It provides the equivalents of the 1,600 most Important compu- 
ter terms in six languages: English (and American where distinct), 
French, German, Italian, Portuguese and Spanish. Each term is 
listed six times - under each language, v/ith five foreign equi- 
valents." I did not notice any computer-language terras as 
fortran, etc. This lexicon will prove a great help almost 
worldwide to people engaged in pertinent business, university, 
mathematical and scientific work and training. 



"AN ILLUSTRATED GUIDE TO POLLEN ANALYSIS" by P. D. Moore and J. 

A. Webb, vil & 133 pp., illus., John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 

Publishers, .'lew York, N. Y. 10016. 1980. $19.95 paper- 
bound . 

The publisher has informed me that the hard-covered '78 edition 
reviewed favorably a while back In this journal is now "replaced 
by a paper edition" through Kalsted Press, one of their sub- 
sidiaries. 



160 



S^ PHYTOLOGIA 

O A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 



Vol. 50 February 1982 No. 3 

CONTENTS 

LIOGIER, A. H., Novitates antillanae. IX 161 

LOVE, A., Some new combinations in the Icelandic flora 171 

THOMAS, R. D., & CARROLL, A. N., Significant collections of 

Louisiana plants. VII. Sabine Parish 173 

THOMAS, R. D., & McCOY, J. W., Significant collections of Louisiana 

plants. VIII. East Carroll Parish 175 

SCHUSTER, R. M., & ENGEL, J. J., Austral Hepaticae XVII. 

Pachyschistochila Schust. et Engel, gen. nov 177 

OCHOA, C, A new variety of the Bolivian tuber-bearing Solanum 

capsicibaccatum 181 

RUDD, V. E., Dalbergia darienensis (Leguminosae), a new species 

from Panama 183 

WINDLER, D. R., & SKINNER, S. G., New taxa and new combinations 

in the American crotalarias (Fabaceae) 185 

RIEFNER, R. E., Jr., Studies on the Maryland flora IX: Cakile maritima 

Scop, naturalized in the Chesapeake Bay region 207 

BECKNER, J., Lupinus aridorum J. B. McFarlin ex Beckner (Fabaceae), 

a new species from central Florida 209 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Recordia. Ill 212 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on new and noteworthy plants. CLIV 214 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Geunsia. II 216 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 227 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

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Price of this number $3.00; for this volume $12.00 in advance or $13.00 after 

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NOVITATES ANTILLANAE. IX 

Alain H. Liogier 
Botanic Garden, University of Puerto Rico 
Rio Piedras, Puerto Rico 

Continuing stixlies in the Floras both of Hispaniola and of 
Puerto Rico have yielded some new records, some new combinations and 
some species new to science. The following notes bring up to date 
the known flora of both islands, so far. Both field work and herba- 
rium studies bring to our attention some observations on the plants 
under study. The projected publication first of a Check-list of thS 
Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands, and later of a modern Flo- 
ra of Puerto Rico, altogether with the preparation of the Flora of 
Hispaniola, having already published the first volume last January, 
will put together all the information on the Floras of these two is- 
lands. 

POLYPODIACEAE 



Pteris cretica L. 



PUERTO RICO: Cultivated and escaped: Rio Grande, A. & P. Liogier 
320A3 , 32066 . Tropics and subtropics. New to Puerto Rico. 

LORANTHACEAE 

Phoradendron mucronatum (DC.) Krug & Urban 

PUERTO RICO: In thickets on hill, Guanica, A. H. Liogier 2792A 
(UPR). Lesser Antilles, Yucatan, Venezuela, Brazil. New to Puerto 
Rico. 

AMARANTHACEAE 

Alternanthera dentata (Moench) Stuchlich 

PUERTO RICO: Cultivated and escaped, common on the island. Typi- 
cal collections: On roadside, Parafso, Fajardo, A. & P. Liogier, L . 
Martorell 30387 (UPR); on roadside, Aibonito, A. & P. Liogier, L. 
Martorell 31228 (UPR). West Indies, South A^^erica. The form most 
cultivated and escaped, both in Puerto Rico and in Hispaniola is cv 
' Rubiginosa ' , with reddish to purple leaves, as stated in Hortus III 
(1976! 63). 

Alternanthera ramosissima (Mart.) Chodat 

The plant cited by Britton & Wilson (1924: 281) as Achyranthes 
ramosissima (Mart.) Standley, seems to be Gomphrena decumbens Jacq ♦ 
(G_. dispersa Standi.). I have no evidence of A. ramosissima growing 
in our area. I have seen a specimen from San Juan ( J.A.Stevenson 
2391 ), identified at the New York ^otanical Garden; this plant is G, 
decumbens Jacq.; it was misidentified. 

In a recent paper, Mears (1977) gives a key to some of the wide-^ 
spread species of Alternanthera ; neither A. dentata nor A. ramosissi- 
ma are mentioned; I have observed no equivalent of A. brasiliana in 
the Flora of Puerto Rico. 

161 



162 P H Y T L G I A VqI. 50, Ho. 3 

LAURACEAE 

After studying the family, both for the Flora of Hispaniola and 
the Flora of Puerto Rico, in the preparation of its publication, and 
in view of recent papers, mainly the one by R. A. Howard (1981), I 
shall propose the following new combinations: 

Cinnamomum Schaeffer has been considered by Kostermans (1961) as 
the generic name including Phoebe Nees. After considering the cha- 
racteristics of these two genera, it is obvious that the thin diffe- 
rences are inconsistent and do not justify keening the two genera 
separate. The following combination is made necessary: 

Cinnamomum alainii (C.K. Allen) Alain, comb. nov. 

Phoebe alainii C. K. Allen, Mem, N. Y. Bot, Card. 21 (2): 109. 
1971. 

This species is endemic to the mountains of the Dominican Repu- 
blic, in the Jarabacoa-Constanza area, and grows in the cloud forest 
at altitudes 1000-1500 m. 

Ocotea Aublet 

The merging of Nectandra and Ocotea greatly simplifies the nomen- 
clature, although some species are readily recognized in the field 
as belonging either to Nectandra or to Ocotea , and an empyrical 
classification is sometimes possible; nevertheless, the only consis- 
tent differential characteristic cited in the litterature seems to 
be the position of the anther sacs, and this is not always reliable. 
In view of this, and following R. Howard's position, it is better to 
consider a single genus, though the writing of the analytic keys is 
somewhat complicated by the number of species involved . The follow- 
ing new combinations are proposed : 

Ocotea Cauda to-acuminata (0. C. Schmidt) Alain, comb. nov. 

Nectandra caudato-acuminata 0. C. Schm., Repert. Spec. Nov. 27: 
162. l'^19. 
Collected at Les Roseaux, Haiti (Type: Ekman 10148 ), known only 
from the type specimen. Characterized by its long-acuminate leaves 
and by its relatively large flowers. The fruit is still xinknown. 

Ocotea oligoneura (Urban) Alain, comb. nov. 

Nectandra oligoneura Urban, Repert. Spec. Nov, 15: 170. 1918. 
The ty-e specimen is Taylor 190 , from Consuelo, San Pedro de Maco- 
ris, Dominican Republic; it has been collected both in the mountains 
(Cnnstanza, Pico Diego de Ocampo) , and at lower elevations in the Do- 
minican Republic, and only once in Haiti, near Anse a Pitre in the 
southern region, near the border with the Dominican Republic. Ende- 
mic to Hispaniola. 

Ocotea patens (Sw.) Alain, comb. nov. 

Laurus patens Sw., Prodr. 65. 1788. 

Nectandra patens (Sw.) Griseb., Fl. Br. W. I. 280. 1860. 
In his treatment of this species for Jamaica, Adams (1972:284) has 
a discussion showing some incertainty as to the application of this 
binomial. The material from Puerto Rico and from Hispaniola is quite 
different from 0. coriacea (Sw.) Britton. Although this species has 



1932 Liogicr, IJovitates antillanae 163 

been cited from Martininue by Stehle' and Quentin (19A9: 118) and by 
Schmidt (1929: 160), Howard does not mention it in his paper (1981). 
The type specimen is fron Jamaica. 

Ocotea pulchra (Ekman & Schmidt) Alain, comb. nov. 

Nfectandra pulchra Ekman & Schmidt, Repert. Spec. Nov. 27: 162. 
Collected at Morne Rochelois, Miragoane, Haiti (Type: Eknan 861A ), 
known from the type specimen only. This is characterized by its obo- 
vate to orbicular, subacuminate, bullate leaves and elliptic fruit, 
2 cm long, 1 cm broad; it is considered by C. K. Allen as belonging 
to the same group as £. caudato-acuminata (0. C. Schm.) Alain. 

Ocotea reticularis (Britton & Wilson) Alain, comb. nov. 

Nectandra reticularis Britt. & Wils., Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 50: 
38. 1923. 
This species is endemic to Cuba; the original description was com- 
pleted by Schmidt (Repert. Spec. Nov. 27: 101. 1929); it has been 
collected in Sierra Maestra and Sierra de Nipe, though Roig and Acuna 
(1951) do not consider the Sierra de Nipe locality in their treatment 
of the family in Leon & Alain's Flora de Cuba, Vol. 2. 

Ocotea sintenisii (Mez) Alain, comb. nov. 

Nectandra sintenisii Mez, Jahrb. Bot. Gart . Berlin 5: 419. 1889. 
Collected in Puerto Rico, rare in forests; cited by Schmidt (1929: 
159} 1931: 13) from Anse a Pitre, Haiti ( Ekman 6919 ) and from Constan- 
za ( Ekman 13945 ); I have collected this plant in the Dominican Repu- 
blic at Diego de Ocampo, Santiago, 1000 m alt. ( A. Liogier 12687 ), 
at Isabel de Torres, Puerto Plata, 750 m alt. ( A. Liogier 23668 ) and 
at Maimon, alt. 250 m ( A. Liogier 26683 ). This species is distingul* 
shed from £. membranacea (Sw.) Howard by its larger flowers, its 
fruits ellipsoid, not globose. It grows in wet forest, at lower to 
middle elevations. 

The problem of the identity of Nectandra ear lei Britton ex Roig 
& Acuna from Cuba, remains to be solved, as stated by Howard (1981: 
54). Without access to the field or to the Herbaria in Cuba, it 
wouXd be difficult to decide on the right name for this plant. 

LEGUMIN0SAE-m^K)S0IDEAE 
Mimosa invisa Mart . 

PUERTO RICO: Eastern slopes. Sierra de Cayey, A. & P. Liogier, L. 
Martorell 29861 (UPR); in wet place, Humacao, A. & P. Liogier 31743 
(UPR); native of tropical America, now widespread. New to Puerto 
Rico. 

Schran]sia leptocarpa DC, Prodr. 2: 443. 1825. 

Schrankia portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 2: 267. 1900. 
Morongia portoricensis (Urban) Britton, Sci . Surv. P. R. & Virg. 

Isl. 5: 357. 1924. 
Leptoglottis portoricensis (Urban) Britton & Rose, N. Am. Fl. 23: 

140. 1928. 
The differences cited by Urban between S^. portoricensis and S. lep- 
tocarpa do not justify the maintenance of two different taxa; all 
recent authors have cited S^. leptocarpa from the Wesf Indies. Adams 



164 P H Y i L G I A Vol. 50, fio. 3 

(1972: 340) includes this species in the Flowering Plants of Jamaica, 
stating that it is widespread in the West Indies. Nevertheless, it 
is quite rare in Puerto Rico and does not occur in Hispaniola. 

LEGUMINOSAE-PAPI LIOiN'OIDEAE 
Arachis prostrata Bentham 

PUERTO RICO: Introduced and escaped in Mayagiiez, A. & P. Liogier 
31996 (UPR). Native of Brazil, planted as forage plant. New to 
Puerto Rico. 

Indigofera hirsuta L, 

PUERTO RICO: Introduced and escaped, Mayagiiez, A . & P . Liogier 
31995 (UPR) . Native of Australia, cul-rivated as forage. New to 
Puerto Rico. 

Stylosanthes guyanensis (Aubl.) Sw, 

PUERTO RICO; In Experimental Station, Corozal, planted and esca- 
ped, beconing a weed, A. & P. Liogier 31792 (UPR). Native of Central 
and South Anerica. New to Puerto Rico. 

EUPHORBIACEAE 

Alchorneopsis floribunda (Bentham) Muell. Arg. in Linnaea 34: 156. 

1865. J 

Alchorneopsis portoricensis Urban, Symb. Ant. 1: 337. 1899, I 
As stated by Urban, the differences between these two species 

are so tenuous, that it is better to consider a single taxon. In the 

West Indies, it is found both in Hispaniola and in Puerto Rico, and 

in northern ^outh America. 

RHAMNACEAE 

Auerodendron paucif lorum Alain, sp. nov. 

Frutex or arbor parva; rami hornotini glabri in sicco striati 
nigro-punctati, supra petiolorum insertionem brevissime pilosuli; sti- 
pulae ad petioli basim binae, late ovato-triangulares, 1.5 mm longae, 
1 mm latae margine ciliatae; folia opposita vel subopposita, petiolis 
ad basim articulatis 2-2.5 cm longis, lamina ovata vel ovato-ellipti- 
ca basi rotundata vel truncata, saepe inaequilatera, apice rotundata, 
acuta vel breviter acuminata, mucronata, 6-15 cm longa, 3.5-6 cm lata, 
nervo medio supra impress©, subtus prominente, nervis lateralibus u- 
troque latere 6-8, utrinque prominulis, ad marginem curvatis, non a- 
nastomosantibus, chartacea, glabra, supra obscure viridia, pellucido- 
glandulosa et glandulls nigris sparse obsita, reticulato-venosa, sub- 
tus pallidiora; flores in axillis 2-3, pedunculo 5-7 mm longo, pedi- j 
celli 6-7 mm longi, bracteolae ad pedicellorum basim, ovatae 0.5 mm M 
longae, valde ciliatae; alabastra ovoidea, 2.5 mm longa, apiculata; ' 
calycls tubus late campanulatus 2 mm longus 3 mm latus, lobi triangu- 
lari-lanceolati, ad apicem incra^sati intus carinati, carina in ter- 
tio inferiori interrupta, 2.5 mm longi, 1.4 mm latij petala sub sinu- 
bus sepalorum inserta, obovata, in sicco conduplicata, apice truncata 
emarginata, basi in unguem contracta 2 mm longa; antherae ovatae 0,75 
mm longae, longi trorsum dehiscentes in 1/3 altitudinis affixae; dis- 
cus calyci adnatus; stylus 1,5 mm longus, stigma capitate integro; 
fructus ignotus. 



\ 



1982 



Liogier, }^ovitates antillanae 



165 




Auerodendron pauciflorum Alain 



166 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, ;,^o. 3 

PUERTO RICO: Guajataca tunnel, intersection of Road 2 and Road 
113, Nov. 15, 1976, R. 0. Woodbury s.n . (Typus: UPR 9006 ; Isotypi: 
NY, US); id., May 9, 1959, R. 0. Woodbury 3651 (UPR); id., April 196A 
R. 0. Woodbury s.n. ( UPR 1893 ). 

This is the first record of this Antillean genus in Puerto Rico; 
oddly enough, no species has yet been collected in Hispaniola, only 
one in Jamaica and seven in Cuba, one of them, A. northropianum (Urb.) 
Urb. is also found in the Bahamas Islands. 

The affinities of this species are with A. jamaicense (Urb.) Urb, 
and with A. acuminatum (Griseb.) Urb. The former has glabrous and 
longer (3-3.5 mm long) stipules, the primary nerves in the leaf bla- 
des are anastomosed at the margin, the inflorescence is pilose, 3-7- 
f lowered. The latter has setaceous-acuminate stipules, the leaves 
acuminate without pellucid glands, the calyx puberulent. 

SAPINDACEAE 

About ten years ago, Frank Votava, working on his Doctorate disser- 
tation at the New York Botanical Garden, studied the genus Thouinia 
Poiteau; in view of the time elapsed, and since his dissertation has 
not been published, I need to establish the following new combina- 
tions as a result of his studies. I agree fully with his conclusions 
and give him full credit for them. 

Thouinia domingensis var. def lexa (Radlk.) Votava & Alain, comb, nov, 
Thouinia deflexa Radlk., Ark. Bot. 21 (5): 11. 1927. 
Thouinia revoluta Radlk., Ark. Bot. 21 (5): 12. 1927. 

Thouinia tomentosa var. rigidissima (Radlk. & Ekman) Votava & Alain, 
comb . nov . 
Thouinia rigidissima Radlk. & Ekman, Ark. Bot. 21 (5): 10. 1927. 

Thouinia striata var. portoricensis (Radlk.) Votava & Alain, comb, 
nov. 
Thouinia portoricensis Radlk. in E. & PI., Nat. Pfl. Fam. 3 (5): 

311. 1895. 
Thyana portoricensis (Radlk.) Britton, Sci . Surv. P. R. & Virg. 
Isl. 5: 526. 1924. 

LYTHRACEAE 

Cuphea hyssopifolia HBK . 

PUERTO RICO: On roadside, Aibonito, A. S. P. Liogier 31938 (UPR). 
A cultivated species, escaped and now part of our Flora; native of 
Mexico and Central America, New to Puerto Rico. 

MYRTACEAE 

Eugenia bahorucana Alain, ?p. nov. 

Frutex, 75 cm altus; rami hornotini brevissime pilosi, vetustiores 
cortice griseo irregulariter fisso, eglandulosi; folia 1 mm longe 
petiolata, petiolo supra canaliculato glabro; lamina elliptica vel 
ovato-el liptica, 5-12 mm longa, A-8 mm lata, basi rotundata vel obtu- 
sa, nervo medio sur^ra leviter impresso, subtus prominulo, laterali- 
bus nullis vel in folia vetustiora supra vix obviis, glandulis pellu- 
cidis obviis, subtus nigrescentibus non prominulis, in folia vetus- 
tiora glandulis non pellucidis subtus nigris, in sicco supra grisea 



1982 



Liogier, J^ovitates antillanae 



167 




Eugenia bahorucana Alain 



168 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, i^o. 3 

subtus pallidiora, coriacea utrinque niti4a glabra, margine incrassa- 
ta; flores ad foliorum axillis solitarii, alba; pedicelli filiformes 
3-6 mm longi, bracteae anguste ovatae, 0.6 mm longae ciliolatae; ala- 
bastra globosa glabra, ob sepalorum forma ut videtur 4-lobata 1 mm 
diametro; sepala 4 orbicularia glandulosa, inaequimagna; petala non 
plane visa; fructus (juvenili?) anguste ellipsoideus 5 mm longus 3 mm 
latus basi longe angustatus, apice calycis lobis coronatus, lobi ob- 
longi, apice rotundati, ciliati, 2 mm longi, 1 mm lati. 

HISPANIOU, DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: On limestone rocks, between Milo 
and Isla, Aceitillar, Pedernales, Bahoruco Mountains, 1000 m alt., 22 
jun 1977, Alain & Perfa Liogier 26856 (Holotypus: UPR; Isotypus: NY). 

A small-leaved species in the vicinity of E_. nannophylla Urban} 
this last species has glabrous twigs, the leaves are oval to ellip- 
tic, rounded at both ends, up to 5 mm long; the flowers with pedicels 
to 2 mm long, the calyx lobes 2 mm long; I cannot compare the fruits, 
unknown in E^. nannophylla . 

MELASTOMATACEAE 

Clidemia portoricensis Alain, sp. nov. 

Frutex 2 m altus; rami hornotini teretes, cum petioli setulis rec- 
tis vel curvatis usque 1 mm longis muniti, et trichomatis brevibus 
dense brunneo-furfuracei, vetustiores cortice delapso glabri, leyiter 
striati vel laevi; folia petiolis 1-6 mm longis indumento ramorum, 
lamina elliptica vel anguste ovata, basi acuta vel obtusa, apice acu- 
ta vel breve acuminata, 1-1.3 cm lonpa, 4-13 mm lata, e basi 3-nervia, 
nervis binis exterioribus a margine 1-2 mm distantibus, ad apicem 
paullatim margini approximatis, utroque facie prominulis, nervis trans- 
versalibus utroque latere 6-8, supra prominulis, subtus vix prominu- 
lis, supra glabra subtus ad nervos setis plus minus curvatis sparse 
munita, chartacea, margine integra, sparse setosa, supra in sicco obs- 
cure brunnea, subtus pallidiora; flores ^-meri in foliorum axillis 
solitarii, pedicello usque 1 mm longo, furfuraceo; bracteae ad pedi- 
celli basi binae ovatae 0.5 mm longae, furfuraceae, acutae; calycis 
tubus campanulato-turbinatus, setoso-hirsutus et furfuraceus, 1.2 mm 
longus, lobi late triangulari 0.5 mm longi acuti, apice breviter api- 
culati, extus dentati; petala roseo-alba oblonga, apice truncata vel 
rotundata, basi longe unguiculata, 1 mm Tonga glabra; staminorum fi- 
lamenta applanata apice constricta, 1 mm Tonga, antherae falcato-cur- 
vatae, 1,2 mm longae, apice porosae, connectivo non appendiculato nee 
infra loculos producto; fructus in statu juvenili (?) tantum visum, 
globosus, 2 mm diametro, setosus, furfuraceus, tuberculatus , 

PUERTO RICO: Rio Aba^o, Utuado, Jan 8, 1970, R. 0. Woodbury s.n . 
(Holotypus: UPR 2517 ); id., Apr. 9, 1960, R. 0. Woodbury 4110 (UPR). 

A small-leaved species, in the vicinity of C. pusillif lora Cogn.; 
this past species has leaves oblong to ovate-oblong, rounded at the 
apex, 2-3.5 cm long, 8-17 mm broad; the calyx lobes are obtuse, the 
tube glandular-pilose. 

LOGANIACEAE 

Polypremum procumbens L. 

PUERTO RICO: In siliceous sand, Tortuguero, Vega Baja, R. 0. Wood- 
bury s.n ., June 1970 ( UPR 2828 ); id., Sept. 1971 ( UPR 2829 ); A. & P . 



1982 



Liogier, Novitates antillanae 



169 




Clidemia portoricensis Alain 



170 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. $0, No. 3 

Liogier & al. 306A6 (UPR); Cuba, southern United States, Bahamas, Ja- 
maica, Mexico, Central America, South America, Hawaii. 

CONVQLVULACEAE 

Evolvulus alsinoides var. grisebachianus Meissn. 

PUERTO RICO: On limestone rocks, Morrillos de Cabo Rojo, A. & P 
Liogier, L. Martorell 31133 (UPR); Florida, Bahamas, West Indies, 
Central America, Guianas . New to Puerto Rico. 

GRAMINEAE 

Themeda arguens (L.) Hack. 

PUERTO RICO: On roadside, near Aibonito, A. & P. Liogier. L. Mar- 
torell 31234 (UPR); native of Asia, introduced into the West Indies. 
New to Puerto Rico. 

Urochloa mosambicensis (Hack.) Dandy 

PUERTO RICO: Fortuna Experimental Station, planted and escaped, A. 
& P. Liogier. L. Martorell 2954? (UPR). Native of tropical Africa," 
a forage plant, escaping from cultivation. New record for Puerto 
Rico. 

ORCHIDACEAE 

Epidendrum ibaguense HBK. (E. radicans Pav. ex Lindl.). 

PUERTO RICO: On roadside. El Verde, Luquillo Mountains. A. & P. 
Liofiier 31892 (UPR) . Native of Central and -^outh America, Fu^d 
in the tropics. New to Puerto Rico. 

BIBLIOCTtAPHY 

ADAMS, CD. 1972. Flowering plants of Jamaica. 848 pp. University 

of the West Indies. Mona, Jamaica. 
BRITTON, N. L. & P. WILSON. 1923-1924. Survey of Puerto Rico and the 

Virgin Islands. V. Botany. 

. 1925-1930. Id. VI. 

HOWARD, Richard A. 1981. Nomenclatural Notes on the Lauraceae in 

the Lesser Antilles. Journ. Arn. Arbor. 62 (1): 45-62. 
KOSTERMANS, A.J.G.H. 1961. The New World species of Cinnamomum Trew 

(Lauraceae). Reinwardtia 6: 17-24. 1961. 
LEON, Hermano (J. Sauget) & Alain, H. (E. Liogier). 1951. Flora de 

Cuba. II . 
LIOGIER, Alain H. 1978. La Florula de la Loma Isabel de Torres, Re- 

publica Dominicana. Moscosoa I (3): 10-48. 
HEARS, James A. 1977. The nomenclature and type collections of the 

widespread taxa of Alternanthera (Amaranthaceae). Proc. Acad. 

Nat. Sci. Philadelphia 129 (1): 1-21. 
SCHMIDT, O.C. 1929. Lauraceae cubenses et haitienses. Repert. Spec. 

Nov. 271 150-164. 
1931. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Flora Westindiens. V. 

Repert. Spec. Nov. 29 t 10-17. 
STEHLE, H. & L. oUENTIN. 1949. Catalogue des Phan^rogames et Fouge- 

res, Flore de la Guadeloupe et Ddpendances. II (3). 
URBAN, I. 1898-1900. Symbolae Antillanae. I. 



SOME NEW COMBINATIONS IN THE ICELANDIC FLORA 

Askell Love 
5780 Chandler Court, San Jose CA 95123 



Studies In connection with a revised English edition of a 
manual of the Icelandic Flora (Love, A. 1970, 1977, 1981: Islensk 
fer&aflora; 1982: Flora of Iceland. Reykjavik) strongly support a 
division of the traditionally collective genus Saxifraga into 
smaller natural genera that are separated by distinct morphology 
and cytology and also by strong barriers to crossability. The 
same is true for the collective genera Linum and Gentianella . 
Only the last observation demands a new generic name, but the 
adoption of already available epithets for the other groups 
requires some nomenclatural transfers for species and subspecies 
not previously validated in their new combinations. The same is 
true for a North Atlantic race of the genus Steris Adanson, which 
replaces the younger Viscaria Bernh. (Sourkovli, M. 1976: Novlt. 
Bot. Univ. Prag. 1973-1975:25-28.). 

STKRIS ALPIMA (L.) Sourkova ssp. BOREALIS (Bocher) A. Love, 
coab. nov. , based on Viscaria alpina (L.) D. Don ssp. borealis 
Bocher, 1963, Biol. Skr. Danske Vidensk. Selsk. 11,6:27. 

CHOHDROSEA OOTTLEDON (L.) A. Love, comb. nov. , based on 
Saxifraga cotyledon L., 1753, Spec. Plant. :398. 

CHOHDROSEA PANICDLATA (Mill.) ^. Love, comb. nov. , based on 
Saxifraga panlculata Miller, 1768, Card. Diet. ed. 8, No. 3. 

CHOHDROSEA PAHICULATA ssp. NEOGAEA (Butters) A. Love, comb, 
nov. , based on Saxifraga aizoon Jacq. var. neogaea Butters, 1944, 
Rhodora 46:61. 

HIRCULUS RAHUHCDLOIDES Haw. ssp. ALPIHA (Engler) X. Love, comb, 
nov., based on Saxifraga hirculus L. var. alpina Engler, 1872, 
Monogr. Gattung Saxifraga : 124. 

MDSCARIA CBSPITOSA (L.) Haw. ssp. LAXIDSCOLA (Engler & Irmscher) 
A. Love, comb, nov., based on Saxifraga cespitosa L. ssp. 
cespltosa f . laxiuscula Engler & Irmscher, 1916, in Engler, Das 
Pflanzenrelch IV, 117: 371. 

MDSCARIA DECIPIEHS (Ehrh.) A. Love, comb, nov., based on 
Saxifraga decipiens Ehrh, 1790, Beitr. Naturk. 5:47 (cf . 
Rauschert, S. 1977, Feddes Repert. 88:307-321. 

171 



172 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

CATHARTOLINDM CATHARTICDM (L.) Small ssp. SUECICDM (Hayek) X. 
Love, comb. nov. , based on Llnum sueclcum Hayek, 1906, Mag. Bot. 
Lap. 5:278. 

ARCTOGENTIA A. Love, gen. nov. , based on Gentlana subg. 
Gentlanella sect. Arctophlla Grlsebach, 1839, Gen. et Spec. 
Gencianearum:250. Typus generis: Arctogentla aurea (L.) A. Love. 

ARCTOGENTIA ADSEA (L.) A. Love, comb. nov. , based on Gentlana 
aurea L. , 1762, Spec, plant, ed. 2:331. 



SIGNIFICANT COLLECTIONS OF LOUISIANA PLANTS 
VII. SABINE PARISH 

R. Dale Thomas & Alfred Neil Carroll, Department of 
Biology, Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, 71209. 

A survey and study of the vascular plants of 
Sabine Parish, Louisiana was made from August, 1979 to 
June, 1981 (Carroll 1981). During this study specimens 
of 139 families, 538 genera and 1234 species or sub- 
specific taxa were collected or found to be on deposit 
in several Louisiana herbaria. 

Because of its location away from the major 
population areas of the state the flora of Sabine Parish 
was poorly known before this study. Several uncommon 
plants were collected and two species previously _ 
unreported from the state were collected. Citations for 
these two species follow: 

Hypericum perforatum L. SABINE PARISH: Roadbank of 
La. 473 one mile south of Toro, Sec. 2, T3N, R12W. 
R, Dale Thomas, Alfred Neil Carroll, and Scott 
Daniel Thomas, 71598 and 1607, 9 June 1980. This 
small population was in flower. Two other populat- 
ions were known from the state, neither of which 
has been seen in flower. OUACHITA PARISH: Along 
railroad near DeSiard and Sixth in downtown Monroe. 
R. Dale Thomas 6c Nelson Rich, 68750, 17 Oct. 1979. 
WASHINGTON PARISH: Beside railroad tracks south 
of La. 10 in Bogalusa, Sec. 14, T3S, R13E. 
R. Dale Thomas, 68961, 18 October 1979. 

Bupleurum rotundifolium L. SABINE PARISH: Along 
Kansas City Southern railroad tracks 1.5 miles north 
of Hornbeck, Sec. 8, T4N, RIOW. Alfred Neil Carroll, 
1394, 22 May 1981. This plant has been collected 
two times from Caddo Parish; only one plant was 
seen each time. CADDO PARISH: Along railroad tracks 
in Kansas City Southern yard west of La. 169 south 
of Blanchard at North Lakeshore Drive, Sec. 19, 
T19N, R14W. R. Dale Thomas, 65109, 29 May 1981. 
Both authors searched the area again on 21 May 1981 
and located only one plant (76689 & 3161) . Because 
of the persistent use of herbicides by the railroads 
at present, it is doubtful if this plant will have 
a chance to become very common in the state. 

173 



174 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

Several plants considered to be unconnnon in 
Louisiana were collected in various habitats of Sabine 
Parish. The longleaf pine woods are characteristic of 
deep sandy soil and contain several interesting species 
the most vmcommon of which are: Aureolaria pectinata , 
Croton argyranthemus , Evax Candida , LobelTa reverchonii , 
Marshallia caespitosa , Petalostemum candidum" P. dec\ynbens 
Polygonella amen can a , Selaginella arenicola var."~rTH£ 
dellii , Stylisma pickeringii var . pattersonii , Tetra- 
gonatheca ludoviciana , Tradescantia reverchonii" and 
Tragi a urens . Boggy areas contained Sarracenia alata 
in abundance and also had Burmannia capitata , Marshallia 
tenuifolia and Toef ieldia racemosa . The mixed hardwoods 
areas yielded Calycocarpum"~lyoni , Ilex longipes , Lathyrus 
venosus , Lilium michauxii , Solidago auriculata , Tragia 
cordata" , Trillium gracile and Vicia caroliniana . The 
bottomland hardwoods produced Isoetes melanopoda 
(Carroll and Thomas 1981) , Amsonia glaFirrima , Dentaria 
laciniata and Festuca paradoxa . A specimen of Ottelia 
alisoidis" is on deposit m Northwestern State University 
of Louisiana Herbarium from Toledo Bend Lake. 

The disturbed areas of roadsides, railroads, 
and cemeteries yielded several unusual species. The 
uncommon plants collected along roadsides include 
Arenaria patula , Habranthus tubispathus , Hypericum 
perforaTum , Lupinus texensis , Phacelia hirsuta , Ratibida 
columnaris , Trifolfum arvense and VefFascum blatFaria . 
Several interesting plants were collected along railroads 
including Arenaria serpyllifolia , Bromus tectorum , 
Bupleuriom rotundifolium , Camelina microcarpa , Limnodea 
arkansana, Potentilla recta, Thlaspi arvense, and 



VaccarilPpyramidata . Ammoselinum butler i , Botrychium 



lunarioides and Silene gallica were collec t ecT 
cemeteries . 

LITERATURE CITED 

Carroll, Alfred Neil. 1981. A preliminary survey of 
vascular flora of Sabine Parish, Louisiana. 
Unpublished Masters of Science Thesis, Northeast 
Louisiana University, Monroe. 146 pp. 

Carroll, Alfred Neil and R. Dale Thomas. 1981. Isoetes 
melanopoda in Sabine Parish, Louisiana. 
Phytologia 48: 274-275. 



SIGNIFICANT COLLECTIONS OF LOUISIANA PLANTS 
VIII. EAST CARROLL PARISH 

R. Dale Thomas and John William McCoy, Department of 
Biology, Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, 71209. 

A survey and study of the vascular plants of 
East Carroll Parish, Louisiana was made from September, 
1979 to June, 1981 (McCoy 1981). During this study 
specimens of 103 families, 326 genera and 592 species 
and subspecific taxa were collected or found to be on 
deposit in other Louisiana herbaria. 

The original vegetation of East Carroll Parish was 
bottomland hardwoods forest on mostly clay (gumbo) soil. 
Most of the land area has been cleared and is used for 
the cultivation of soybeans and cotton. This uniformity 
of habitat produces an unusually small number of 
taxa for the parish. 

Four plants were collected for the first time 
from Louisiana. Citations for these are: 

Anoda cristata (L.) Schlecht. EAST CARROLL PARISH: 
Along Holland Road east of La. 599 near levee south 
of Round Lake, Lake Providence, Sees. 33 & 34, 
T21N, R13E. R. Dale Thomas, John McCoy and Neil 
Carroll, 67361 and 258, 13 Sept. 1979. Dr. Elton 
Barrett, a professional cotton and soybean insect 
and disease scout and former university professor, 
brought to the authors attention the presence of 
this species as a noxious weed in the northeast 
corner of the parish. We visited the area and the 
citation is: Very agressive noxious weed in the 
edge of cotton field beside Mississippi River levee 
4.6 miles northeast of La. 491 north of Lake 
Providence, Sec. 7, T23N, R13E. R. Dale Thomas 
and John McCoy, 76794 & 941, 5 June 1981. This 
species has been considered to occur in the state 
by weed scientists but all herbariiim specimens I 
have seen have been Malachra capitata L. Both of 
these malvaceous species are noxious weeds in cotton 
fields and spread rapidly. 

Datura quercifolia H.B.K. EAST CARROLL PARISH: 
Between Gassoway Lake and Little Gassoway Lake 
east of Millikin, Sec. 23, T23N, R12E. R. Dale 
Thomas and John McCoy, 26999 & 1064, 19 June 1981. 
Two large plants with large characteristic fruits 
were collected from a pile of bulldozed stumps 
at the edge of a soybean field. No flowers were 
present . 

175 



176 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

Fuirena simplex Vahl var . aristulata (Torr.) Krai. 
EAST CARROLL PARISH: Rights-of-way between rail- 
road and U.S. 65 just south of La. 585 and Gassoway, 
Sec. 15, T23N, R12E. R. Dale Thomas and John 
McCoy, 76838 & 986, 5 June 1981. This plant was 
determined by Dr. Robert Krai of Vanderbilt and 
his kind help is appreciated. It was previously 
known from wet prairies to the northwest of 
Louisiana (Krai 1978) . A later visit and thorough 
search of the area yielded several plants but the 
habitat is small and the number of individuals 
is limited (Thomas 76986 & McCoy 1051, 19 June 1981) 

Galium pedemontanum All. EAST CARROLL PARISH: 
Herringville Baptist Church Cemetery west of La. 
577, one mile south of La. 580 north of Monticello, 
Sec. 25, T19N, RIOW. John McCoy, Nelson Rich 
and Tim Briley, 505, 14 March 1980. Two subsequent 
collections were made from the same cemetery 
(McCoy, 918, 20 May 1981 and Thomas and McCoy, 
76887 and 1035, 5 June 1981). This species is 
quite common in a small area of the cemetery. 
The possibility of this species being in Louisiana 
was predicted earlier in an article on its current 
distribution and ultimate range (Sanders 1975) . 

Other uncommon plants collected during the survey 
include: Arabidopsis tha liana , Hackelia v irginiana , 
Ipomoea turbinata , Lathyrus aphaca , Malachra capitata, 
Matricaria matricarioides , Monarda clinopodioides , 



Prosopsis juliflora var. glandulosa and Ranunculus arvensis 

LITERATURE CITED 

Krai, Robert. 1978. A synopsis of Fuirena (Cyperaceae) 
for the Americas north of South America. Sida 7: 
309-354. 

McCoy, John William. 1981. A preliminary survey of the 
vascular flora of East Carroll Parish, Louisiana. 
Unpublished Masters of Science Thesis, Northeast 
Louisiana University, Monroe. 81 pp. 

Sanders, Roger W. 1975. Distribution, history and 
probable ultimate range of Galium pedemontanum 
(Rubiaceae) in North America. Castanea 41: 7T-80. 



AUSTRAL HEPATICAE XVI I . 

PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SCHUST. ET ENGEU GEN, NOV. 

R. M. Schuster and John J. Engel 

Cryptogamic Laboratory, Hadley, Massachusetts 01035, and Donald 
Richards Associate Curator of Bryology, Department of Botany, 
Field Museum of Natural History, Roosevelt Road at Lake Shore 
Drive, Chicago, Illinois 60605 

In Schuster (1971, pp. 614, 618) Schistochila subg. Pachy - 
schistochila and Schistochila subg. Protoschistochila are de- 
scribed, taxa that share a salient group of features, i.e.: 
(1) a marked and almost universal tendency for leaves to become 
poiystratose; (2) normally fasciculate rhizoids, arising from 
underleaf and ventral lobe bases; (3) colorless rhizoids, their 
apices frequently digitately lobed, with the lobes undergoing 
extensive septation both transversely and longitudinally; (4) 
gametophyte tissue as a whole--leaves, underleaves, stem, and 
paragynoecial structures--uniformly devoid of wall pigments; 
(5) some cells in leaves and/or underleaves undergoing secondary 
septation. (These fields of very small cells appear to consti- 
tute regenerations or a peculiar type of asexual reproduction.) 
We now believe, however, that the species sharing these features 
constitute a distinct and well-defined genus, as follows: 

Pachyschistochila Schust. & Engel, gen. nov. 

Plantae virides, succulentae, sine pigmentatione secondaria 
foliorum, caulicularum, rhizoideorumve; folia polystratosa, 
transverse inserta, sine lamellis, non incisa; marginibus inte- 
gris subintegrisve, nunquam ciliatis; amphigastria mediocria, 
2(3)-lobata, marginibus integris vel parce dentatis. 

Type : Schistochila splachnophylla (Hook. f. & Tayl . ) 
Steph. £ Pachyschistochila splachnophylla (Hook. f. & Tayl.) 
Schust. & Engel . 

In contradistinction to Schistochila and Paraschistochila , 
two other genera of Schistochilaceae, this genus is exclusively 
south temperate-subantarctic in range, not one of its species 
penetrating the tropics or subtropics. Most taxa occur in alpine 
sites and/or in subantarctic moorland. The group "hangs together" 
in a phytogeographic sense. It is also unique in the entire 
Suborder Perssoniel lineae in criteria 1-5 above. All other 
Schistochilaceae and Perssoniellaceae agree in: (1) the unistra- 
tose leaves, except rarely for small areas along the keel; (2) 
rhizoids scattered over ventral and sometimes also lower portions 
of lateral merophytes, arising from scattered cortical cells; 
(3) rhizoids magenta to vinaceous, their apices unbranched or 
dendritically branched (never digitate), the dendritic branching 
often anastomosing, the irregular branches not or tardily few- 
septate; (4) gametophyte, at least locally, with wall pigments; 

177 



178 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

pigmentation rarely confined only to rhizoids, but usually also 
present in some or many leaf cells; (5) asexual reproduction 
lacking. 

We shortly anticipate revising the species of this genus, 
as regards the Australasian taxa; we already have revised those 
taxa found in South America (Schuster & Engel , 1977). 

In order to avoid proposing new combinations for New World 
taxa in a forthcoming revision of Australasian taxa of Schisto- 
chilaceae, we have compiled here the taxa that fall in Pachy- 
schistochila and give the new combinations and proper basionym 
citations. Occasion also is taken to transfer the extant de- 
scribed sections and subgenera from Schistochila to Pachyschisto- 
chila . Species 1-2, 4-6, 7b, 11, and 13 have been treated in 
Schuster & Engel (1977); in the near future the remaining taxa 
will be given a monographic treatment in which Sectio Pachyschis - 
tochila will get needed narrowing down. We do not wish at this 
time, however, to prejudge taxonomic conclusions without ade- 
quate discussion. 

PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SUBG. PROTOSCHISTQCH^LA (SCHUST.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEU COMB I NOVi Basionym: Schistochila Subg. Proto- 
schistochila Schust., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. 14: 618. 1971. 

1 • PACHYSCHISTOCHIl^ EXALATA (HERZ.) SCHUST. & ENGEU 
COMB. NOV I Basionym: Schistochila exalata Herz. 
Rev. Bryol. Lich^nol. 29: 191. 1960. (Southern 
South America) 

Pachyschistochila Subg. Pachyschistochila 

PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SECT. REFLEXISTIPULJ^ E (eNGEL S SCHUST.) 
SCHUST. & ENGEL^ COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila 
Sect. Reflexistipulae Schust. & Engel, J. Hattori 
Bot. Lab. 42: 329. 1977. 

2. PACHYSCHISTOCHIU REFLEXISTIPULA (ENGEL & SCHUST.) 
SCHUST. & ENGEU comb NOV. Basionym: Schisto - 
chila reflexistipula Engel & Schust. in Schuster 
& Engel, Phytologia 30: 245. 1975. TSouthern 
South America) 

PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SECT. VIRESCENTES (SCHUST. & ENGEL) SCHUST. & 
ENGEL^ COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila Sect. Virescen- 
tes Schust. & Engel, J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 42: 344. 1977. 

3- PACHYSCHISTOCHILA VIRESCENS ( SCHUST ■ ) SCHUST. & 
ENGELy COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila vires - 
cens Schust. in Schuster & Engel, Phytologia 30: 
248. 1975. iNew Zealand) 

Pachyschistochila Sect. Pachyschistochila 

^- PACHYSCH I STOCH I U SPLACmOPHYLLA (hOOK. F. & TAYL.) 
SCHUST. & ENGEL, COMB. NOV. Basionym: Jungerman - 
nia splachnophylla Hook. f. & Tayl . , London J. 
Bot. 3: 455. 1844. (Southern South America) 



1982 Schuster & Engel, Austral Hepaticae 179 

5. PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SUBINT^RSA (ENGEL & SCHUST.) 
SCHUST. & ENGEU COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schisto- 
chUa subimmersa Engel & Schust. vn Schuster & 
Engel, Phytologia 30: 247. 1975. (Southern 
South America) 

6- PACHYSCHISTOCHILA PACHyPHYLLA (LEHM.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEU COMB. NOV, Basionym: Jungermannia pachy- 
phylla Lehm. Nov. Minus Cogn. Stir. Pug. 6: 61. 
1834. (Tristan da Cunha) 

7- PACHYSCHISTOCHILA ALTISSIMA (hODGS.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEL J COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila altis - 
sima Hodgs. , Trans. Roy. Soc. New Zealand, Bot. 3: 
85. 1965. 

a. subsp. altissima (New Zealand) 

b. SUBSP- POLYSTIRATOSA (SCHUST. & ENGEL) 
SCHUST. & ENGEL^ COMB. NOV. Basionym: 
Schistochila altissima subsp. polystra- 
tosa Schust. & Engel, Phytologia 30: 241. 
1975. (Southern South America) 

8. PACHYSCHISTOCHILA COLENSOANA (STEPH.) SCHUST. & 
ENGELy COMB, NOV. Basionym: Schistochila colen - 
soana Steph., Spec. Hep. 4: 87^ 1909. (New 
Zealand) 

9- PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SUBHYALINA (sCHUST.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEL^ COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila sub - 
hyal ina Schust. in Schuster & Engel, Phytologia 
30: 246. 1975. "[New Zealand) 

10- PACHYSCHISTOCHILA PARVISTIPULA (rODW.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEL J COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila parvi- 
stipula Rodw. , Pap. & Proc. Roy. Soc. Tasmania 
1916: 47. 1917. (seors. 11 July 1916) (see also 
vol. 2 of Tasmanian Bryophyta p. 80. 1916). 
(Tasmania, New Zealand) 

11- PACHYSCHISTOCHII^ CARNOSA (MITT.) SCHUST. & ENGEL^ 
COMB. NOV. Basionym: (jottschea carnosa Mitt., 

J. Linn. Soc, Bot. 15: 72. 1876^ (Marion Is., 
South Georgia, Southern South America) 

PACHYSCH I STOCH I U SECT . TRISPIRALES (sCHUST.) SCHUST, & ENGEL^ 
COMB. NOV. Basionyim Schistochila Sect. Trispirales 
Schust., Bull. Natl. Sci . Mus. 14: 618. 1971. 

12. PACHYSCHISTOCHILA TRISPIRALES (SCHUST.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEL J COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila tri- 
spiralis Schust., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. 11: 28: 
f. 3 . 1968. (New Zealand) 

PACHYSCHISTOCHILA SECT. METASCHISTOCHILA (SCHUST.) SCHUST. & 

ENGELj COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila Sect. Metaschis- 
tochila Schust., Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. 14: 638. 1971. 



180 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, Ito, 3 

13. PACHYSCHISTOCHILA LEUCOPHYLLA (lEHM.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEU COMB I NOVi Basionym: Gottschea leuco- 
phylla Lehm. jji G. L. & N. , Syn. Hep. 17. 1844. 
(Southern South America) 

14. PACHYSCHISTOCHILA PAPII^IFERA (sCHUST.) SCHUST. & 
ENGEU COMB. NOV. Basionym: Schistochila papil - 
lifera Schust.. Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. 11: 27. 
1968. (New Zealand) 



References 

Schuster, R. M. 1971. Studies of antipodal Schistochilaceae 
and Scapaniaceae. Bull. Natl. Sci. Mus. 14: 609-60, figs. 
1-22. 

Schuster, R. M. and J. Engel . 1977. Austral Hepaticae, V. The 
Schistochilaceae of South America. J. Hattori Bot. Lab. 
42: 273-423, figs. 1-45. 



Addendum: Through an oversight we did not include Schisto- 
c_h_ila cunning hamii in the above list. The following nomencla- 
tural change is required: 

PAPHYSrHISTOCHILA CUNNINGHAM 1 1 (STEPH.) SCHUST. .& 
nrn rnrr r^^^^ S chistochila cunrrina- 

hamii^S:, Th. K. Svenska Vit^i^ikTlAi^d. Hand , 
26TriI, 17): 27. 1901. (Southern South America) 



1 



A NEW VARIETY OF THE BOLIVIAN 
TUBER-BEARING SOLANUM CAPSICIBACCATUM 

C. Ochoa 
Taxonomy Department. International Potato Center 
P.O. Box 5969 
Lima - Peru 

The type collection of Solanum capsicibaccatum was 
made in 1942 by the Bolivian agronomist H. Gandarillas 
under his number 60 in the basin of Rio Caine, between 
Huayra Pata and Molle Pujro, Province of Tarata in the 
Department of Cochabamba , Bolivia. This species, toge- 
ther with S. circaefolium , also from Bolivia, are group- 
ed under the series Circaefolia proposed by Hawkes . This 
series is very closely related to the series Conicibaccata 
of Bitter and needs a very thorough revision. The orig- 
inal diagnosis of S. capsicibaccatum was made by Cardenas 
in Rev. Agr . Cochabamba 2:35, 1944. An amended tran- 
scription by the same author and Hawkes was published in 
the Journ. Linn. Soc, Bot. 53:108, 1946. 

The following description belongs to a new variety 
of S. capsicibaccatum discovered by me in 1978. 

Solanum capsicibaccatum Card, var . latifoliolatum Ochoa, 
var. nov. Plantae 60-70 cm altae, caules plerumque rami- 
ficati, suberecti vel decumbentes, pigmentati vel subpig- 
mentati brunei, 2-5 mm crassi, cylindrici, pilis sparssi- 
mis obtecti . Alae ad basim perangustae difficulter dis- 
tinguibiles, vel plerumque omnino def icientibus . Stolones 
plus quam 0.60 m longi, albidi, 1.0-1.5 mm crassi; tuber- 
cula 1.0-2.5 cm, rotunda ta usque ad ovalia vel conico 
elongata, cuticula albo-f lavida. Folia imparipinnata 
8-15 X 4-7 cm pauce dissecta aliquando simplicia vel cum 

181 



182 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

1-2-juga, rarissime 3-juga, foliola interjecta nulla, 
petioli 4-6 cm longi. Foliolum terminale lateralibus 
majus 8.0 x 5.0, 8.5 x 4.5, 6.8 x 3.6 cm late elliptico- 
lanceolatum, basi svibcuneatum, subcordatum vel cordatum, 
apice acutum vel acuminatum. Foliola simplicia: 4.0 x 
2.5, 3.0 X 2.5 cm; foliola lateralia subsessilia vel pe- 
tiolulata, elliptico-lanceolata , apice acuta, basi ro- 
tundata vel paulo oblicua, foliola jugis infimis 4.3 x 
2.0 cm, 4.0 X 1.6 cm, 2.8 x 1.0 cm, 3.5 x 1.6 cm, 1.5 x 
0.6 cm. Foliola supra sparse pilosi subtus fere glabri . 
Foliola secundi jugis num adsunt, valde minora, 3.5 x 
1.5-2.0 mm, 1.2 x 0.8 mm. Inf lorescentia cymosa, 5-8 
flora, pedunculi 2-4 cm longi, graciles, pilis sparsio- 
ribus obtecti, pedicelli supra 1/2 articulati, pedicellus 
inferior subpigmentatus , superior tamquam calyx laete 
viridis. Calyx 7-8 mm longus , sparse pilosus, lobi mem- 
branacei, anguste lanceolati, acumina obtusa, usque ad 
5.5 mm longa . Corolla substellata, alba, 2.5-2.8 cm diam., 
Stella viride-flava columna antherarum cylindrico-conica , 
antherae f lavo-aurantiacae, anguste-lanceolatae, ad basim 
subcordatae 5.0-5.5 x 0.9-1.0 mm, filamenta minus quam 
1 mm longa, glabra, albido-hialina . Stylus 9 mm longus, 
exsertus 2.5-2.8 mm, usque ad 2/3 altitudinis pilis bre- 
vibus vestitus. Stigma subglobosum, fissum. Ovarium 
longum conicum. Fructus longi, conici , apice subapicula- 
ti , 3.0-3.5 cm longi, ad basim 1.5 cm crassi. 
Cromosomatum numerous 2n = 2x = 24 

Bolivia: Departamenti La Paz, Provinci Inquisive, prope 
Rio Seco, 2900 m supra mare, C. Ochoa Nl 11915 collectum 
Martius 1978. 
Holotypus: Herbarium Ochoanum. Isotypus: CIP, US. 



I 



DALBERGIA DARIMENSIS ( Leguminosae ) , a new species from Panama 

Velva E. Rudd 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D. C. 20560 and 
California State University, Northridge, Ca. 91330 

An xindetermined " Machaerium " specimen from the Province of 
Dari^n, Panama, has proved to be a hitherto undescribed species of 
Dalbergia . The leaves superficially resemble those of some species 
of Machaerium but the stamens are unmistakably dalbergiaceous . 

DALBJiKGIA DARIENENSIS Rudd, sp. nov. 

Frutex vel arbor scandens, ^. inundata af finis sed foliolis 
paucioribus latioribusque, elliptico-oblongis, acutis vel subobtusis, 
mucronulatis , subtus ramulis inflorescentiaque pubescentibus ; flori- 
bus purpureis; staminibus 10, diadelphis 9:1; legumine non visi. 

Vine; young stems fulvo-tomentulose ; stipules ovate or subovate, 
tomentulose, 6-7 mm long, 2-3 nm wide; leaves about 9-15-foliolate, 
the axis tomentulose, 7-15 cm long; leaflets elliptic-oblong, 1-5.3 
cm long, 0.7-2 cm wide, acute or slightly obtuse, mucronulate, 
rounded at the base, the upper surface puberulent along the midvein, 
otherwise glabrous, nitid, the lower surface moderately villous, the 
petiolules 1-2 mm long, tomentulose; inflorescences axillary, panicu- 
late, the axes fulvo-tomentulose; bracts ovate to oblong-ovate, tomen- 
tulose, about 3-5 nun long, 1-3 mm wide; bracteoles lanceolate-oblong, 
villous, 4-5 mm long, 1 mm wide or less; flowers about 8 mm long; 
calyx 5 mm long, the vexillar lobes acute, the laterals sublinear, 
the carinal lobe, linear, about 1 mm longer than the others; petals 
"maroon", unguiculate, the vexillum narrowly obcordate; stamens dia- 
delphous 9:1, the vexillar filament free; ovary stipitate, villous- 
ciliate, otherwise glabrous; style short, glabrous; stigma capitulate; 
mature fruit not seen. 

183 



184 P II Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

Type: J. A. Duke 9040 (2), Panama, Province of Dari^n, hills 
near Pidiaque, 28 March 1966. Holotype NY. 

Local name: Bejuco frijolillo. 

Relationship with other species is difficult to establish. 
However, the greatest similarity, especially as to flowers appears 
to be with Dalbergia inundata Spruce ex Bentham, a species chiefly 
of the Amazon basin, with smaller, more numerous leaflets, flowers 
slightly smaller, and falcate-reniform fimit. This collection from 
Panam^ lacks mature fruit and it is only a reasonable supposition 
that its fruit will likewise be somewhat falcate. Immature fruit of 
the two species appear to be similar. 



NEW TAXA AND NEW CCMBI NATIONS IN 
THE AMERICAN CROTALARIAS (FABACEAE) 



D. R. Windier and S. G. Skinner 



Biology Department 
Towson State University 
Towson, Maryland 21204 



Over the last several years we have been Involved In the 
preparation of a taxonomlc revision of the New World species of 
Crotalarla. During the course of this votk it has become evident 
that a number of species exist that have never been formally 
recognized. The purpose of this paper is to describe the new taxa 
and to propose a number of name changes for species that are already 
recognized. Additional data on these species will be presented in a 
paper on "The American Species of Crotalarla " to be published in the 
Flora Neotropica series. 

A. Nomenclatural Changes - Species Rank. 

1. Crotalarla ekmanll Windier et Skinner, nom. nov.; C^. 
anlsophylla Urban, Symb. Antlll. 9:448. 1928. Non Welw. ex Hiern. , 
1896.; C^. urbaniana Senn, Rhodora 41:348. 1939. Non Taubert, 
1889. 

This species has had two later homonyms assigned to it. When 
Senn assigned the second later homonym to this species, he commented 
on the appearance of the type, but concluded that the species should 
be recognized. We have chosen to rename it after the collector of 
the type specimen: Cuba: Oriente, Bayamo, Ekman 16197 (holotype at 
S). Although the specimen does appear to be unusual, it does not 
seem to be a monstrosity. We have only observed one additional 
specimen of the species during this study: Martinique, Balanger 54 
(P). 

2. Crotalarla grandlflora Bentham, Ann. Nat. Hist. 3:429. 
1839. Non Reinw. ex Miq. 1855.; £. acutlflora Bentham, J. Bot. 
(Hooker) 2:482. 1843. 

The name C. acutlflora has been used for this species since 
1859 when Bentham published his treatment of the genus Crotalarla 
in Martius' Flora Brasillensis. Since the rules of nomenclature as 

185 



186 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

we know them were not available at that time, the name Bentham chose 
may simply have been a matter of preference. Based on our analysis 
of the case, it appears we must use C. grandl flora Bentham for this 
species. 

3. Crotalarla micans Link, Enum. PI. Hort. Reg. Berol. , altera. 
Part 2, 228. 1822.; C^. anagyroides HBK, Nov. Gen. et Sp. PI. 
6:404. 1824. 

The fact that C^. micans has priority over C^. anagyroides became 
evident prior to the publication of the treatment of Crotalaria for 
The Flora of Panama, where this species is treated as C^. micans . 
Both species are based on Humboldt and Bonpland specimens. 

B . Nome n c la tur al Changes - Subspecific Rank 

1. Crotalaria eriocarpa var. viminalis (Rose) Windier et 
Skinner, stat. nov., C^. viminalis Rose in Contrib. U.S. Nat. 
Herbarium 8:47. 1903. 

This variety was originally described as a distinct species by 
Rose. Senn (1939) combined it with the typical C^. eriocarpa Bentham. 
Its unusually elongated inflorescences seem distinct enough to oierit 
recognition at the varietal rank. Variation studies in the local 
populations would be useful to verify its proper assignment. 

2. Crotalaria maypurensis HBK var. depauperata (Martius) 
Windier et Skinner, stat. nov., C. depauperata Martius, Fl. 
Brasiliensis 15:30. 1859. ~ 

The plants placed in this variety are similar to C^. maypurensis 
var. maypurensis in floral morphology and inflorescence structure. 
This variety differs from the typical in having reduced leaf size. 
Population variation studies of C. maypurensis are required before a 
final assessment can be made of the status of this variety. 

3. Crotalaria schiedeana Steudel var. gracilis (Windier) 
Windier et Skinner, stat. nov., C^. nitens var. gracilis Windier, 
Phytologia 21:263. 1971. ■" 

This entity was treated as a variety of C. nitens in the senior 
author's unifoliolate Crotalaria treatment in 1974. We now recognize 
C^. schiedeana as distinct from the South American C^. nitens . 

4. Crotalaria vitellina var. laeta (Martius) Windier et 
Skinner, stat. nov., C. laeta Martius, Flora Brasiliensis 15:30. 
1859. ~ 

This variety was originally described as a distinct species by 
Martius. We recognize it as a variety of C. vi tellina Ker. 
characterized by inflorescences shorter than 17.1 cm. The typical 
variety has inflorescences longer than 17.1 cm. 



1982 Windier & Skinner,, New taxa & combinations 187 

New Species 

1. Crotalaria bahlaensls Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 1. 

Frutex vel suffrutex. Caules usque ad 1.0 m longl, fulve 
lanatl. Folia trifoliolata; petiolibus 2.5-3.0 mm crassibus; foliola 
late elliptica ad late ovata, 3.8-4.5 cm x 2.9-3.5 cm, utrlnque 
lanata. Stlpulae anguste triangulares, 2.0-3.0 mm longae, persist- 
entes. Inflorescentla foliis opposita; racemus congestus, usque ad 
16.0 cm longus, ferens usque ad 25 flores. Flores lutei, 13.0-16.0 
mm longi. Legumen 1.7-1.9 cm, ferens circa 8-10 semina, brunneum ad 
maturitatem, lanatian. Semina usque ad circa 3.0 mm longa, brunnea. 

Shrub or subshrub . Stems to about 1.0 m long, terete, brown 
wooly"^ Leaves trifoliolate; petioles 2.5-3.0 mm thick, 15.0-40.0 mm 
long; the leaflets widely elliptic to widely ovate, 3.8-4.5 cm x 
2.9-3.5 cm, the apex rounded or obtuse, the base broadly cuneate or 
rounded, above and beneath brown wooly. Stipules present, narrowly 
triangular, 2.0-3.0 mm long, persistent. Inflorescences leaf- 
opposed, about 25-flowered racemes; bracts narrowly triangular, 4.0- 
6.0 mm X 1.0-1.5 mm, wooly, usually persistent; pedicels 3.0-5.0 mm 
long; bracteoles on the base of the calyx, linear-triangular, 2.0 mm 
long, wooly, early deciduous. Flowers yellow, 13.0-16.0 mm long; 
calyx 10.0-12.0 mm long, the tube campanulate, 5.0-5.5 mm long, 
wooly, the longest lobes about 2.0-2.2 times as long as the tube, 
triangular. Vexillum yellow, 10.0-10.5 mm x 12.0-14.0 mm, the adax- 
ial surface pilose along the midvein; wing petals oblong, 10.0-11.0 
mm X 5. 0-5. 5mm, the claws 3.5-4.0 mm long; carina 13.0-14.0 mm x 6.0- 

7.0 mm, as long as the wing petals, dorsal margin rounded, the non- 
twisted beak short, the claw 3.0-4.0 mm long, the margins ciliate; 
stamens dimorphic, the elongate anthers 2.0-2.2 mm long, the short 
anthers 0.9-1.0 mm long; ovary stipitate, oblong, pubescent; ovules 
about 8-10; style curved, geniculate, 9.0-9.5 mm long, terminated by 
a pubescent stigma. Legume stipitate, 1.7-1.9 cm long, brcwn at 
maturity, lanate. Seed ca 3 mm long, smooth, dark brown. 

TYPE. Brazil: Bahia, Serra Acurua, Blanchet 2827 (holotype: 
F!, isotypes: BM! , BR!, G! , P!, W!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species is known only from a few specimens 
from the area of western Bahia. BRAZIL: Bahia: 1.5 km S of Sao 
Inacio on Gentio do Ouro road, Harley 19004 (K); 3 km S of Sao Inacio 
on Gentio do Ouro road, Harley 19156 (K). 

Crotalaria bahiaensis is named for the state from which the type 
was collected. It appears to be closely related to C^. holosericea 
and was included in that species by Bentham. Crotalaria bahiaensis 
differs from C^. holosericea by having a more dense pubescence, thicker 
petioles, broader, thicker leaflets, and more crowded inflorescences. 



188 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, Ho. 3 



r^ 


1 


& 


"V 


<t| 


1 


s 


ill 


^ 


1 


* 


F ' 


Tyf<- 


if 


p 


10 cm 1 


TYPE 








*(.!. ' 


•»«»■ : «» ii FnMM* . rv.. J, n*., ; 


aa».c>'««> 



Figure 1. Type of Crotalaria bahlaensis . 



1982 Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 189 

The type specimen, Blanche t 2827 , is often regarded as the type 
of C. holosericea, but it is not the specimen cited by Nees and 
Martius. 

2. Crotalaria barretoensis Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 2. 

Frutex. Caules usque ad 2.0 m longi, puberuli. Folia unifo- 
liolata; foliola elliptica-oblonga, 2.5-5.4 cm x 0.7-1.7 cm, supra 
strigulosa, subtus pallida, strlgulosa vel puberulosa. Stipulae 
nullae. Racemus terminalis, ad 15.0 cm longus, ferens 10-20 flores; 
bracteae ovatae ad trullatae, 4.0-7.0 mm x 2.0-3.0 mm. Flores lutei, 
usque ad 13 mm longi. Legumen 3.5-4.5 cm longum, nlgrescens, glabrum. 
Semina usque ad 3.5 mm longa, brunnea. 

Shrub. Stems to 2.0 m long, terete, puberulous. Leaves unifo- 
liolate; petioles 1.0-2.0 mm long; the leaflets elliptic or elliptic- 
oblong, 2.5-5.4 cm x 0.7-1.7 cm, the apex rounded, the base rounded or 
broadly cuneate, strlgulose above, lighter in color and strlgulose or 
puberulous beneath. Stipules absent. Inflorescences terminal, 10-20 
flowered racemes, to 15 cm long; bracts ovate to trullate, 4.0-7.0 mm 
X 2.0-3.0 mm, persistent; pedicels to 7.0 mm long; bracteoles on the 
base of the calyx, ovate, 5.0-6.0 mm long. Flowers yellcw, 13.0 mm 
long; calyx 11.5 mm long, the tube campanulate, 2.5 mm long, strl- 
gulose to densely strlgulose, the longest lobes about 3.6 times as 
long as the tube, triangular. Vexillum yellow, 11.0 mm x 12.0 mm, the 
adaxial surface glabrous; wing petals oblong-elliptic, + 9.0 mm x 5.0 
mm, the claws 2.0 mm long, carina shorter than the wing petals, 13.0 
mm X 6.0 mm, dorsal margin rounded, the beak twisted, the claw 1.0 mm 
long, the upper margins ciliate; stamens dimorphic, the elongate 
anthers 3.0 mm long, the short anthers 0.8 mm long; ovary sessile, 
oblong, glabrous; style sharply geniculate, 9.0 mm long, terminated by 
a pubescent stigma. Legume 35.0-45.0 mm long, black at maturity, 
glabrous. Seed to 3.5 mm long, smooth, brown. 

TYPE. Brazil: Minas Gerais, Serra do Cipo, estrada de 
Conceicao, Municipio Conceicao, Barreto 8602 (holotype F!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species is restricted to the state of Minas 
Gerais where it grows in forest margins and on roadsides at 
elevations of 700 to 1,500 meters (estimated from map). BRAZIL: 
Minas Gerais: Sitio de Manuel Joaquim - perto de Capivari, Serro, 
Magalhaes 1789 (IAN). 

This species is named after the Brazilian botanist who either 
collected or identified all of the observed collections. Crotalaria 
barretoensis is characterized by its shrubby habit, terminal 
inflorescences, and ovate to trullate bracts. It is similar to some 
specimens of the Mexican and Central American species C^. schiediana , 
but differs from it by bract shape and pubescence. It is also 
similar to the Brazilian species £. martiana , but lacks its 
pubescence. 

3. Crotalaria bellil Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 3. 



190 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 3 




Figure 2. Type of Crotalarla barretoensls . 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



191 




Figure 3. Type of Crotalaria bellii . 



192 PHYTOLOGIA Vol, 50, No. 3 

Frutex vel suffruteix. Caules usque ad 3 m longi, puberuli ad 
strigulosi. Folia unifoliolata; follola elliptica, 3.3-6.0 cm x 1.4- 
2.8 cm, utrinque strigulosa ad strlgosa, subtus pallidore. Stipulae 
nullae. Inflorescentia termlnalis, 2.5-13.0 m longa, minlme extensa 
trans folia terminalia, ferens 4 ad 11 flores. Flores lutei, 14.0- 
19.5 mm longi. Legumen 2.5-3.5 cm longum, nigrescens ad maturitatem, 
ferens circum 30 semina. Semina 4.0-5.0 mm longa, brunnea. 

Shrub or sub shrub . Stems 1.0-3.0 m long, terete, puberulous to 
strlgulose. Leaves unifoliolate; petioles 1.0-3.0 mm long; the 
leaflets elliptic, 3.3-6.0 cm x 1.4-2.8 cm, the apex acute, rounded, 
or mucronulate, the base rounded to cuneate, above and beneath 
strlgulose to strlgose, the lower surface lighter. Stipules absent. 
Inflorescences terminal, 4-11 flowered racemes only weakly exerted 
beyond the terminal leaves; bracts lanceolate, 4.0-8.0 mm x 1.0-3.0 
mm, usually persistent; pedicels 5.0-9.0 mm long; bracteoles on the 
base of the calyx, lanceolate, 4.0-8.0 mm long. Flowers yellow, 
14.0-19.5 mm long; calyx 14.0-17.0 mm long, the tube campanulate, 
3.5-4.0 mm long, strlgulose to sparsely sericeous, the longest lobes 
about 3.4-3.7 times as long as the tube, triangular. Vexillum 
yellow, 10.0-16.0 mm x 11.5-14.0 mm, the adaxial surface sparsely 
pubescent along the midvein; wing petals oblong-elliptic, 10.0-13.0 
mm X 4.0-5.0 mm, the claws 1.5-1.7 mm long; carina 12.0-14.0 mm x 
6.0-7.5 mm, projecting equal to or shorter than the wing petals, 
dorsal margin rounded, the twisted beak only moderately prolonged, 
the claw 1.0-1.5 mm long, the margins ciliate; stamens dimorphic, the 
elongate anthers 2.2-3.0 mm long, the short anthers 0.5-0.8 mm long; 
ovary sessile, oblong, glabrous; ovules about 30; style sharply 
geniculate, 10.0-10.3 mm long, terminated by a pubescent stigma. 
Legume 2.5-3.5 cm long, black at maturity, glabrous. Seed 4.0-5.0 mm 
long, smooth, brown. 

TYPE. BRAZIL: Goias: Ca. 30 km NW of Veadeiros, Irwin et al . 
12,951 (holotype, US!; isotypes, K! , MO!, NY!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species is restricted to the Chapada dos 
Veadeiros where it grows in fields, gallery forests, rocky slopes, 
and creek margins at elevations of about 1,000 meters. BRAZIL; 
Goias: Chapada dos Veadeiros, ca. 15 km W of Veadeiros, Irwin et al« 
12673 (US); 12 km S of Alto do Paraiso (formerly Veadeiros) elev. 
1,000 m, Irwin et al. 24,882 (MO, NY, US). 

This species is named after Dr. C. Ritchie Bell, taxonomist at 
the University of North Carolina. Crotalaria bellii is characterized 
by a shrubby habit, lack of stipules, leaflets which are lighter on 
the lower surface, inflorescences which are only weakly exserted 
beyond the leaves, and short fruits. It is somewhat similar to C^. 
nitens and C. schiedeana , but differs in inflorescence type, fruit 
size and distribution. Specimens included have been previously 
identified as C^. foliosa Benth. , C. acutiflora Benth. , and £. 
divaricata Benth. 

4. Crotalaria boliviensls Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 4. 



1982 Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 193 










Figure 4. Type of Crotalaria boliviensis . 



194 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

Herba, decumbens vel ascendens, perennls. Caules usque ad 3.2 
dm longi, strigulosl vel dense strigulosi. Folia unifoliolata; 
follola elliptica, 2.1-2.7 cm x 0.6-1.1 cm, supra glabra, subtus 
strlgulosa. Stipulae nullae. Inflorescentla follis opposlta; 
racemus non congestus, usque ad 10.5 cm longus, ferens 2-4 floras. 
Flores lutei, 10.0-12.5 mm longi. Legumen 2.0-2.5 cm longum, ferens 
+ 24 semina, brunneum ad maturitatem, glabrum. Semina circa 2 mm 
longa, brunnea. 

Herb , decumbent, or ascending, perennial. Stems to 3.2 dm long, 
terete, strlgulose to densely strlgulose. Leaves unifoliolate; 
petioles 1.0 mm long; the leaflets elliptic, 2.1-2.7 cm x 0.6-1.1 cm, 
the apex mucronulate, the base rounded to cuneate, glabrous above and 
strlgulose beneath. Stipules absent. Inflorescences leaf-opposed, 
2-4 flowered racemes; rachis including peduncles 2.0-10.5 cm long, 
bracts lanceolate, 3.0-4.0 mm x 0.5-0.6 mm; pedicels 3.0-7.0 mm long; 
bracteoles on the base of the calyx, lanceolate 3.0-4.0 mm long. 
Flowers yellow, 10.0-12.5 mm long; calyx 10.0-12.0 mm long, the tube 
campanulate, 2.2-3.0 mm long, strlgulose, the longest lobes about 
3.0-3.2 times as long as the tube, triangular. Vexillum yellow, 
8.0-10.5 mm x 8.0-11.0 mm, the adaxial surface glabrous, wing petals 
oblong-cordate, about 8.0-8.5 mm x 3.5-4.0 mm, the claws 1.0-1.3 mm 
long; carina, 9.5-11.0 mm x 4.0-5.0 mm, equaling the wing petals, 
dorsal margin rounded, the twisted beak moderately prolonged, claw 1.0 
mm, the margins ciliate; stamens dimorphic, the elongate anthers 
1.5-2.3 mm long, the short anthers 0.4-0.5 mm long; ovary sessile, 
oblong, glabrous; style sharply geniculate, 11.0-11.5 mm long, 
terminated by a pubescent stigma. Legume sessile, inflated, 2.0-2.5 
cm long, brown at maturity, glabrous. Seed 2 mm long, smooth, brown. 

TYPE. Bolivia: Cochabamba, Falda del cerro de Incachaca, 
Steinbach 5006 (holotype F!; Isotype MO!, NY!, US!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species has been collected from the depart- 
ments of Cochabamba, Santa Cruz, and Tarija at elevations from 2,000 
to 3,100 meters. BOLIVIA: Cochabamba: Choro, near Altamachi, Brooke 
6030 (BM); Totora, a 145 km de Cochabamba, 3060 m, Bro. Adolfo 235g 
(US). Santa Cruz: Santa Cruz, km 109 C.B., Badcock 726 (K). Tarija: 
Toldos bei Bermejo, Fiebrig 2264 (BM, G, K); Villa Montes, Bajada de 
Cuesta de Pinos, 2000 msm, 82 km E de Tarija, Krapovickas , Mroginski 
et Fernandez 18989 (CTES) . 

Crotalaria bollviensis is endemic to Bolivia and is character^ 
ized by a low growth form, lack of stipules, short pedicels, and 
appressed pubescence. Crotalaria bollviensis appears similar to the 
Mexican C^. po ly phyl la , but differs in its leaf-opposed inflorescences. 

5. Crotalaria brasiliensis Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 5. 

Suffrutex. Caules usque ad 1.5 m longi, strigulosi. Folia 
unifoliolata; foliola elliptica, 6.5-10.5 cm x 2.0-3.5 cm, utrinque 
strlgulosa, subtus pallida. Stipulae nullae. Inflorescentla foliis 
opposita; racemus usque ad 10.0 cm longus, ferens 2-4 flores. Flores 
lutei, ad 25.0 mm longi. Legumen 3.1-4.2 cm longum, brunneum ad 
maturitatem, glabrum. Semina matura ignota. 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



195 




Cretalarlft •eutiriora Benth. 
!>«t. u. ir»aln Jrroyo, 1971 
subahrub ca. 1.5 «. tail. Cor. 
y«llo«. 5«ll"nr "larnln. caoho 
Plrlplrlpau, ca. 



Oftllery i 
oil. 



jBH^^gS 



Figure 5. Type of Crotalaria brasiliensis . 



196 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

Subshrub • Erect, perennial. Stems about 1.5 m long, terete, 
strlgulose. Leaves unlfoliolate; petiole 1.5-2.5 mm long; the leaf- 
lets oblancelate or elliptic, 6.5-10.5 cm x 2.0-3.5 cm, the apex acute 
or mucronulate, the base rounded or cuneate, strigulose above and 
beneath, light green beneath. Stipules absent. Inflorescences leaf- 
opposed, occasionally appearing terminal, subsessile, few-flowered 
raceme; rachis including peduncles 3.0-10.0 cm long, bearing 2-6 
flowers, bracts lanceolate, 3.0-6.0 mm x 0.4-1.5 mm, usually persis- 
tent; pedicels 5.0-10.00 mm long; bracteoles at the top of the pedi- 
cel, lanceolate or linear-triangular, 4.0-7.0 mm long. Flowers yellow, 
23.0-26.0 mm long; calyx 21.0-25.0 mm long, the tube campanulate, 4.0- 
5.0 mm long, strigulose, the longest lobes about 4.2-6.2 times as long 
as the tube, triangular. Vexillum yellow, 19.0-22.0 mm x 18.0-20.0 mm, 
the adaxial surface glabrous or pubescent on the mid-vein; wing petals 
oblong-ovate, 17.0-20.0 mm x 8.5-9.0 mm, the claws 2.0-3.0 mm long; 
carina shorter than or equalling the wing petals, 17.0-21.0 mm x 
10.0-11.0 mm, dorsal margin rounded, the twisted beak moderately 
prolonged, the claw 2.0-3.0 mm long, the margins ciliate; stamens 
dimorphic, the elongate anthers 3.0-3.7 mm long, the short anthers 
0.8-0.9 mm long; ovary sessile, oblong, glabrous, ovules 18-30; style 
sharply geniculate, 11.5-15.0 mm long, terminated by a pubescent 
stigma. Legume 3.1-4.2 cm long, brown at maturity, glabrous. Mature 
seed lacking. 

TYPE. Brazil: Dist. Federal, Cachoeira Piripirlpau, ca. 15 km 
S of Planaltina, gallery and adjacent cerrado. Sandy soil. Irwin , 
Fonseca , Souza , Reis dos Santos et Ramos 26425 (holotype MO!; 
i so type : IAN! ) . 

DISTRIBUTION. This species is known only from the type collec- 
tions and from one other Brazilian specimen which, however, lacks 
collection data [i.e. Burchell 6612 (P)] . 

Crotalaria brasiliensis is characterized by its shrubby habit, 
elliptic leaves, lack of stipules, leaf-opposed inflorescences, and 
large flowers. The type was originally determined as C. acutiflora, 
but differs from it in having inflorescences leaf-opposed rather than 
terminal on short axillary branches. 

6. Crotalaria golasensis Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 6. 

Frutex. Caules 2.CH- m longi, strlgulosi. Folia unifoliolata; 
foliola elliptica, 8.5-11.3 cm x 1.5-3.7 cm, supra glabra vel 
glabrescentes, subtus sparslm sericea. Stipulae nullae. Racemus 
terminalis, 4.5-15.0 cm longus, ferens 2-7 flores. Flores lutei, 
16.0-18.5 mm longi. Legumen 2.8-4.0 cm longum, nlgrescens, glabrum. 
Semina 3.0-3.5 mm longa, laevia, brunnea. 

Shrub . Stems 2.0 m or more long, terete, strigulose, with some 
spreading trichomes. Leaves unifoliate; petioles 1.0-4.0 mm long; 
the leaflets elliptic, 8.5-11.3 cm x 1.5-3.7 cm, the apex acute, 
obtuse, or mucronulate, the base cuneate, glabrous or glabrescent 
above, sparsely sericeous beneath. Stipules absent. Inflorescences 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



197 




Figure 6. Type of Crotalaria golasensis. 



198 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

terminal on main stems as vrell as lateral branches, a several-flowered 
raceme, 4.5-15.0 cm long, bearing 2-7 flowers, bracts lanceolate, 5.0- 
10.0 mm X 1.5-3.0 mm, usually persistent; pedicels 6.0-10.0 mm long; 
bracteoles on the base of the calyx, lanceolate, 0.5-0.8 cm long. 
Flowers yellow, 16.0-18.5 mm long, calyx 14.0-16.0 mm long, the tube 
campanulate, 2.5-2.8 mm long, strlgose to sparsely sericeous, the 
longest lobes about 4.7-5.6 times as long as the tube, triangular. 
Vexillum yellow, 13.0-15.5 mm x 12.5-16.0 mm, the adaxial surface 
pubescent along the midvein; wing petals oblong-obcordate, 11.0-12.0 
mm X 5.5-6.5 mm, the claws 2.0-2.5 mm long; carina equaling the length 
of the wing petals, 12.0-15.0 mm x 6.5-8.0 mm, dorsal margin rounded, 
the twisted beak moderately prolonged, the claw 1.7-2.0 mm long, the 
margins ciliate; stamens dimorphic, the elongate anthers 2.0-2.5 mm 
long, the short anthers 0.6-0.8 mm long; ovary sessile, oblong, 
glabrous, ovules about 20, style sharply geniculate, 9.0-10.0 mm long, 
terminated by a pubescent stigma. Legume 2.8-4.0 cm long, black at 
maturity, glabrous. Seed 3.0-3.5 mm long, smooth, brown. 

TYre. Brazil: Goias, 20 km NW of Corumba de Goias near Pico 
dos Pirineus, Irwin , Maxwe 1 1 , et Wasshausen 19213 (holotype NY!, 
isotypes BALT! , MO!, US!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species has only been collected from the 
state of Goias and the Federal District \^ere it grows in gallery 
forests and forest margins at elevations from 975 to 1,250 meters. 
BRAZIL: Distrito Federal: Fazenda Vargem Benita, ca. 10 km S of 
Brasilia, Irwin et al . 12275 (MO, US). Goias: Serra dos Pirineus, 
20 km NW of Corumba de Goias near Pico dos Pirineus, Irwin et al . 
19213 (BALT, MO, US); 21 km E of Pirenopolis, Irwin et al . 34009 
(US); Pirineus, Corumba de Goias, Macedo 4317 (IAN, US). 

Crotalaria goiasensis is characterized by a shrubby habit, lack 
of stipules, leaves which are nearly glabrous above, short pedicels 
(less than 9.0 mm), and sessile fruits. This species is mostly 
closely related to C^. paulina , but differs from it in pedicel length, 
fruit stipe, and bract size. The available specimens of this species 
show numerous secondary branches produced on the terminal 50 centi- 
meters of the main axis. 

7. Crotalaria harleyi Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 7. 

Frutex vel suffrutex. Caules usque ad 0.3 m longi, glaucogriseo- 
lanati. Folia trifoliolata; foliola elliptica ad late ovata, 1.1-3.6 
cm X 0.8-2.4 cm, apicibus mucronatibus, utrinque griseolanata. Stip- 
ulae anguste triangulares, 2.0-3.0 mm longae. Inflorescentia follis 
opposita; racemus 3.0-6.5 cm longus, ferens 10-13 flores. Flores 
lutel, triste auranticentes, 11.0-13.0 mm longi. Legumen 1.3-1.4 cm 
longum, lanate tomentosum, brunneum ad maturitatem. Semina 2.0 mm 
longa, laevia, brunnea. 

Herb , erect. Stems to about 0.3 m long, terete, lanate. Leaves 
trifoliolate; petioles 1.0 mm thick, 2.0-8.0 mm long; the leaflets 
elliptic to widely ovate, 1.0-2.4 cm x 0.8-1.3 cm, the apex mucronate. 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 199 



f « 







BRAZIL^ EST ADO DA BAHIA 



\ 




Figure 7. Type of Crotalaria harleyi . 



200 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

the base broadly rounded, above and beneath, gray wooly, veins faint, 
3-5 on each side of the midvein or obscure. Stipules present, nar- 
rowly triangular, 2.0-3.0 mm long, persistent. Inf 1 oresc ences leaf- 
opposed, subsessile, few to many flowered racemes; rachis including 
peduncles 3.0-6.5 cm long, bearing 7-10 flowers, bracts narrowly 
triangular, 2.5-5.5 mm x 0.5-0.9 mm, wooly, usually persistent; 
pedicels 3.0-5.0 mm long; bracteoles near the top of the pedicel, 
linear-triangular, about 2.0 mm long, wooly, persistent. Flowers 
yellow fading to dull orange, 11.0-13.0 mm long, calyx 8.0-9.5 mm 
long, the tube campanulate, 4.0-4.7 mm long, wooly, the longest lobes 
about 2.0 times as long as the tube, attenuate triangular. Vexillum 
yellow fading to orange, 7.0-11.0 mm x 9.0-12.0 mm, the adaxial 
surface wooly along the midvein, the base portion of the blade 
bearing two lamelliform appendages; wing petals oblong, 8.5-10.5 mm x 
3.7-4.0 mm, the claws 3.5-4.0 mm long, carina 11.0 mm long, slightly 
shorter than the wing petals, 11.0-13.0 mm x 3.8-4.0 mm, dorsal 
margin rounded, the non-twisted beak short, the claw 2.0-2.5 mm long, 
the margins glabrous; stamens dimorphic, the elongate anthers 1.9-2.0 
mm long, the short anthers 0.8-0.9 mm long; ovary stipitate, oblong, 
pubescent, ovules about 7-9; style curved, geniculate, 7.5-9.0 mm 
long, terminated by a pubescent stigma. Legume 1.3-1.6 cm long, 
wooly-tomentose, brown at maturity. Seeds about 2.0 mm long, smooth, 
dark, brown. 

TYPE. Brazil: Bahia, 18 km WNW along road from Vila do Rio de 
Contas to the Pico das Almas. Closed cerrado and adjoining grasslands 
and marsh. Alt. ca. 1300m. Harley 19796 (holotype: sheet 2K!, 
isotype: sheet 1 K!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species is known only from the state of Bahia 
in Brazil at elevations of 950 to 1,300 meters where it grows in 
cerrado and adjacent grasslands. Brazil: Bahia: 16 km NW of 
Lagoinha on side road to Minas do Mimoso, Harley 16669 (K); Caatinga 
bei Remanso, Ule 7200 (G). 

This species is named for R. M. Harley, British botanist and 
specialist on the flora of Bahia. Harley 16669 appears to be a 
specimen from dry rocky situations. It shows the dense pubescense 
and short petioles characteristic of plants from that habitat. The 
species is characterized by its low habit, mucronate leaves and 
general pubescense. Crotalaria harleyi seems most closely related 
to C^. brachycarpa Benth. differing from it in having a larger 
flower, more densely pubescent fruit, much shorter petioles and 
mucronate leaf apices. 

8. Crotalaria hatschbachtl Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 8. 

Frutex. Caules 1.2-2.0 m longi, lanati. Folia unifoliolata; 
foliola elliptica ad anguste obovata, 7.0-12.5 cm x 3.4-4.3 cm, 
untrinque lanata. Stipulae nullae. Inf 1 oresc entia foliis opposita; 
racemus 5.0-11.5 cm longus, ferens 7-14 flores. Flores lutei, 
20.0-22.0 mm longi. Legumen immaturum, 2.8 cm longum, bubalinum, 
glabrum. Semina ignota. 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



201 




10 cm , i 






■Js«^ 



Prebttiit* Munklptr rf« CMKbi 



Jll««ta^!»>^ fltt HMSSftL 



Figure 8. Type of Crotalarla hatschbachil. 



202 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Uo. 3 

Shrub . Stems 1.2-2.0 m long, terete, wooly. Leaves unlfollo- 
late; petioles 2.0-5.0 mm long, the leaflets elliptic to narrowly 
obovate, 7.0-12.5 cm x 3.4-4.3 cm, the apex rounded, mucronulate, or 
acute, the base broadly cuneate, above and beneath, wooly. Stipules 
absent. Inflorescence a leaf-opposed, 7-14 flowered raceme, 5.0-11.5 
cm long; bracts lanceolate, 12.0 mm x 3.0 mm, glabrous above, wooly 
beneath, usually persistent; pedicels 13.0 mm long; bracteoles at the 
top of the pedicel, lanceolate, to 13.0 mm long, glabrous above, 
wooly beneath. Flowers yellow, 20.0-27.0 mm long, calyx 20.0-27.0 mm 
long, the tube campanulate, 3.5-5.0 mm long, wooly, the longest lobes 
about 4.4-5.1 times as long as the tube, attenuate- triangular. 
Vexillum yellow, 18.0-20.0 mm x 12.0-14.0 mm, the adaxial surface 
pubescent along the midvein; wing petals oblong-obovate, 16.0-19.0 mm x 
6.5-7.0 mm, the claws 2.0-2.4 mm long; carina slightly longer than 
the wing petals, 21.0-22.0 mm x 9.0-10.0 mm, dorsal margin rounded, 
the twisted beak prolonged, the claw 2.0-2.1 mm long, the margins 
ciliate; stamens dimorphic, the elongate anthers 4.0-4.5 mm long, the 
short anthers 1.0-1.1 mm long; ovary sessile, oblong, glabrous; style 
sharply geniculate, 14.0-15.0 mm long, terminated by a pubescent 
stigma. Immattire legume 2.8 cm long, tan, glabrous. Seed unknown. 

TYPE. Brazil: Mato Grosso, Serra da Petrolina, Rondonopolls, 
Hatschbach 34139 (holotype; NY!; isotype: SALT!). 

DISTRIBUTION. This species grows in Goias and Mato Grosso on 
rocky slopes at elevations of about 650 meters. BRAZIL: Mato 
Grosso: Rondonopolls, Serra da Petrolina, rocky slopes above BR364, 
Anderson 11380 (BALT) . 

This new species is named after the well-known Brazilian botanist, 
G. Hatschbach, who participated in gathering the only two collections 
the authors have seen. 

This species is characterized by its shrubby habit, lack of 
stipules, wooly pubescence, and leaf-opposed inflorescences. It looks 
vaguely like Crotalaria mohlenbrockil and C^. bahiaensis . It differs ■ 
from the first in having inflorescences leaf-opposed rather than ' 

terminal, and from the second in having unifoliolate leaves rather than 
trifoliolate. 

8a. Crotalaria hatschbachii var. sericea Windier et Skinner, 
var. nov. Figure 9. 

Frutex. Caules usque ad 3 m longi. Folia unifoliolata, late 
elllptica, 6.5-7.4 cm x 4.4-4.9 cm, utrinque sericea. 

Shrub . Stems to 3 m long, sericeous. Leaves unifoliolate, the 
leaflets broadly elliptic, 6.5-7.4 cm x 4.4-4.9 cm, sericeous above 
and beneath. 

TYPE. Brazil: Goias, Estrada Alto Paraiso/Campo Belo Km 41. 
Shepherd , Klnoshita , Andrado et Tamashiro 3735 (holotype: NY!). 

This new variety is named after the beautiful shiny pubescence 
which covers the plant. It is known only from the type specimen. 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



203 




10 cm 



gc9t>lfEl« 



r^ ••«»"»«;: "*^'**' '•'•*■*»*■ 



».T.»»«»«"»» • »'" 



Figure 9. Type of Crotalaria hatschbachil var. serlcea . 



204 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

9. Crotalarla Irwlnll Windier et Skinner, sp. nov. Figure 10. 

Herba, erecta, perennis. Caules usque ad 1.5 m longi, sparse 
strlgulosi. Folia unifoliolata; foliola elliptica vel obovata, 5.5- 
9.5 cm X 3.1-5.8 cm, supra glabrescentia, subtus strigulosa. Stipulae 
ellipticae, decurrentes ad articulis ramorum et axis principalis, supra 
8.0 mm latae, curvatae ad 25.0 mm prope centros; lobi brevisslmi, lobi 
nodales incurvati, 6.0 mm longi, persistentes. Inflorescentia 
terminalis, usque ad 50 cm longa valde supra folia, ferens circa 10 
f lores. Flores lutei, 2.5-2.7 cm longi; calyx dense strlgulosus. 
Immaturum legumen stipetatum, glabrum. Maturum legumen et semen 
ignotum. 

Herb , erect, perennial. Stems to 1.5 m long, terete, sparsely 
strigulose. Leaves unifoliolate; petioles 3.0-6.0 mm long; the 
leaflets elliptic or obovate, 5.5-9.5 cm x 3.1-5.8 cm, the apex 
rounded to mucronuclate, the base rounded, glabrescent above, 
strigulose beneath. Stipules present, the lobes very short and 
the stipules elliptic decurrent at the junction of the branches and 
the main axis, 8.0 mm broad at the top, curving to 25.0 mm near the 
center, the stipule nodal lobes incurved, 6.0 mm long, persistent. 
Inflorescences appearing terminal, 8-10 flowered racemes; rachis 
including peduncles up to 50.0 cm long; bracts lanceolate 5.0 mm x 
1.0 mm, densely strigulose, usually persistent; pedicels slender, 
10.0-13.0 mm long; bracteoles at the base of the calyx, lanceolate, 
to 6.0 mm long, strigulose. Flowers yellow, 2.5-2.7 cm long; calyx | 

2.2-2.5 cm long, the tube campanulate, 5.0-6.0 mm long, densely 
strigulose, the longest lobes about 3.1-3.4 times as long as the 
tube, attentuate-trlangular, never reflexed. Vexlllum yellow, 
2.4-2.7 cm x 2.3-2.6 cm, with the adaxial surface glabrous, becoming 
rust-red with age; wing petals obovate, 1.8-2.1 cm x 1.1-1.2 cm, 
the claws 1.0-2.0 mm long; carina 2.1-2.2 cm x 1.1-1.2 cm, shorter 
than the wing petals, dorsal naargin rounded, the twisted beak not 
prolonged, the claw 1.0-2.0 mm long, the margins dilate; s,tamens 
dimorphic, the elongate anthers 4.5-5.0 mm long, the short anthers 
1.0-1.1 mm long; ovary stipltate, oblong, glabrous, ovules about 20, J 
style sharply geniculate, 2.1-2.2 cm long, terminated by a pubescent 
stigma. Immature Legume stipltate, glabrous, seed unknown. 

TYre. Brazil: Golas, Outcrops and rocky slopes, ca. 24 km S of 
Paraiso. Elevation ca 600 m, Irwin , Maxwe 1 1 , et Wasshausen 21747 
(holotype, NY!; isotypes, BALT! , K!). 

DISTRIBUTION: This species is known only from the Northern I 

Golas. It Is named after Dr. H. Irwin of the New York Botanical 
Garden, Brazilian plant collector and legume specialist, who 
originally suggested the revision of the American Crotalarias to the 
senior author. Crotalarla irwlnll is characterized by its erect 
habit, unusual stlpular appendages, terminal Inflorescences, large 
flowers with densely strigulose calyces, and stipltate fruits. It 
appears to be most closely related to C. vespertllio , differing from 
1 1 In pedicel length, pubescence, and structure of the stlpular 
appendages. 



1982 



Windier & Skinner, New taxa & combinations 



205 




Figure 10. Type of Crotalaria irwlnii. 



206 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, iJo. 3 

Ackn owl ed geme n t s 



The authors are Indebted to the curators of the herbaria from 
which the specimens used in these studies were borrowed. The follow- 
ing are thanked for their individual contributions: Mr. Haven Kolb, 
Research Associate, Herbarium, Towson State University, for his 
assistance with the Latin descriptions; Mr. Peter Alunans, Research 
Associate, Herbarium, Towson State University, for preparation of 
the type photographs and criticism of the manuscript; Dr. Robert 
DeFillpps, Botany Department, Smithsonian Institution, for review of 
the manuscript; and to Mrs. Margaret Prince, Word Processing Center, 
Towson State University, for her aid in transcribing the various 
versions of this paper. The support of the Towson State University 
Faculty Research Fund is acknowledged. 



Literature Cited 



Bentham, George (1859) in C.F.P. Von Martius, Flora Brasiliensls 
15:17-32. 

Senn, Harold (1939) North American Species of Crotalaria , Rhodora 
41:317-370. 

Windier, Donald R. (1974) A systematic treatment of the native 

unifoliolate Crotalarias of North America (Leguminosae) Rhodora 
76:151-204. 



STUDIES ON THE MARYLAND FLORA IX: 

CAKILE MARITIMA SCOP. NATURALIZED IN 

THE CHESAPEAKE BAY REGION 

Richard E. Riefner, Jr. 

20832 Skinner Lane 

Huntington Beach, California 92646 

Cakile marititna Scop, is a fleshy, spreading annual native 
to the coasts of Europe (Tutin et al., 1964). According to 
herbarium records, this species has been known from eastern 
North America as a ballast plant as early as 1877 from 
Philadelphia, Martindale s.n. (NY, US). The plant has since been 
collected as an occasional adventive on maritime garbage from 
numerous Atlantic seaports (Gleason and Cronquist, 1963; Small, 
1972). Most records of this species represent short-lived 
populations of ballast heaps, with the exception of more recent 
collections from California where it is naturalized on the 
coastal strand (Munz, 1974). 

Recently I have found this plant growing in large, well 
established colonies on beaches, and along marsh at high tide 
limit on the Chesapeake Bay in Anne Arundel and Queen Anne's 
Counties. Apparently pods of the species have been carried by 
tide from the Port of Baltimore, perhaps where it was introduced 
with ballast in past decades. Cakile maritima was not included 
in the treatment of Anne Arundel County flora by Stieber (1971), 
or in treatments of the vascular flora of the Chesapeake Bay 
region by Krauss et al. (1971), Sipple (1978) or Wass (1972). 
Although not appearing to be spreading rapidly in this region, 
additional populations of C_^ maritima are likely to grow in 
other counties along the extensive shoreline of the Bay. Cakile 
maritima should be considered a permanent element of the 
Maryland flora. The species occupies much the same niche of the 
coastal strand as C. edentula, but is not easily confused with 
it. Deeply pinnatifid leaves and pods having two triangular 
protuberances at the lower joint clearly separate it from the 
common sea rocket, C. edentula. 

Collection data-ANNE ARUNDEL CO.: Sandy beach N of Pine 
Hurst, 8-10-58, Baltars 2199 (US); same locality, 6-15-81, 
Riefner 81-152 (MARY) ; beaches, marsh and jetty rock crevices, at 
Sandy Point State Park, 6-2-80, Riefner 80-88 (MARY) . QUEEN 
ANNE'S CO.: Beaches at Matapeake State Park, 9-20-80, Riefner 
80-390(MARY). 



LITERATURE CITED 

Gleason, H.A. and A. Cronquist. 1963. Manual of the vascular 
plants of northeastern United States and adjacent Canada. 
Van Nostrand Reinhold Co., New York. 

207 



208 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

Krauss, R.W. , R.G. Brown, R.D. Rappleye, A.B. Owens, C. Shearer, 
E. Hsiao and J.L. Reveal. 1971. Checklist of plant species 
of the Chesapeake Bay occuring within the hightide limits 
of the Bay and its tributaries. Univ. of Maryland at 
College Park, Tech. Bull. 2002: 1-33. 

Munz , P. A. 1974. A flora of southern California. University of 
California Press. 

Sipple, W.S. 1978. An atlas of vascular plant species 
distribution maps for tidewater Maryland. Wetland Publica- 
tion No. 1. Wetland Permit Section, Water Resources Adm. , 
Dept. of Natural Resources, Annap., MD. 

Small, J.K. 1972. Manual of the southeastern flora, Part one. 
Hafner Publishing Co., New York. 

Stieber, M.T. 1971. The vascular flora of Anne Arundel County, 
MD. An annotated checklist. Castanea 36:263-312. 

Tutin, T.G,, V.H. Heywood, N.A. Burges, D.H. Valentine, S.M. 
Walters and D.A. Webb. 1964. Flora Europaea. Cambridge 
University Press. 

Wass, M.L. (ed.). 1972. A check-list of the biota of lower 
Chesapeake Bay with inclusions from the upper bay and the 
Virginia Sea. Virginia Inst. Marine Sci. Spec. Rept. 
65:1-290. 



LUPINUS ARIDORUM J. B. MCFARLIN EX BECKNER (FABACEAE), 
A NEW SPECIES FROM CENTRAL FLORIDA 

John Beckner 
736 Myrtle Way South, St. Petersburg, FL 33705 

The following is the first of several papers which will 
discuss the leguminous genus Lupinus L. in Florida and 
adjacent regions. The new species described below is apparent- 
ly so local and rare that it was never seen by J. K. Small or 
the numerous other botanical collectors who have explored the 
Florida peninsula. The late James B. McFarlin found a few 
plants at several locations in Polk County. He also learned 
of a colony found by S. F. Poole in Orange County. McFarlin 
named and gave a short account of this species on page 119 of 
his unpublished "Flora of the Central Portion of the Lake 
Region of Florida" (1935). The late Dr. Henry Conard tracked 
down and made available a copy of this important manuscript. 
In 1970, John and Pat Hall led me to a few locations in Orange 
County and we also searched unsuccessfully some areas in 
adjacent Lake County. In 1981, I showed these colonies to Dr. 
Richard P. Wunderlin and we found two more Orange County 
Locations. Unless there are unidentified or misidentif ied 
collections of this species in some of the northern herbaria, 
perhaps filed under L. dif fusus Nutt. or L. villosus Willd., 
it would appear that the above named six persons are the only 
ones to observe this very rare plant in nature. 

Lupinus aridorum J. B. McFarlin ex Beckner, new species 

Biennis erecto, foliis concavo valdis et estipulatis, 
floribus carneus, vexillabus centriis nigribus, 
leguminibus ellipticis et parvus. 

Monocarpic plant (presumed to be biennial, but rarely with 
a few weak inflorescences a year after normal flowering, 
followed by a rapid demise of the plant). Plant with a soft- 
woody erect main stem bearing sjmipodial ascending branches from 
the upper half, in total about 1/2 meter tall. Conspicuously 
silvery pubescent (more so than L. cumulicola Small, about 
equal to L. dif fusus Nutt. and L. westianus Small, less shaggy 
than L. villosus Willd.). Leaves scattered on upper parts of 
branches (not as densely arranged as in most plants of the 
allied species) . Mature petioles without stipules (or rarely 
a few very rudimentary stipules), 2 cm long (Polk County and 
Ocoee) to 4.0-4.5 cm long (Plymouth). Mature leaf blades from 
4-6 cm long by 2-3 cm wide (Polk County) to 6-7 cm long by 3-4 
cm wide (Orange County), obovate-elliptic , apex mucronate, both 
base and apex rounded, upper surface deeply concave in life, 
similar in color above and below. Peduncles 4-5 cm long 
(mostly Polk County) to 7-13 cm long (Orange County), bearing 

209 



210 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

several sterile and abortive bracts below the first flower, or 
rarely one or a few flowers scattered among these bracts, well 
below the main body of the inflorescence. Inflorescence 4-12 
cm long (Polk County) to 12-15 cm long (Orange County), 
densely flowered, with a few adnate bractlets (only on the low- 
est flowers) . Calyx 2-lipped, the upper lip 9-10 mm long, 
lanceolate, the apex short-acuminate, the lower lip 10-14 mm 
long, lanceolate, the 3-lobed apex abruptly-acuminate, the 
calyx-tube about 2 mm long. Corolla pale flesh-pink (said to 
be "white" in McFarlin 1086, but the specimens show traces of 
pigment), the standard with a prominent central area (extending 
to the apex) of black, surrounded by a maroon-red area that 
fades off on the sides to the pale flesh-pink color. Standard 
about 15 mm long overall, the blade 10-12 mm long by 7-9 mm 
wide, ovate, the apex apiculate, the sides folded upwards 
strongly from the mid-vein, which is almost horizontal over 
the keel and wing petals. Wing petals 14 mm long by 5 mm wide, 
obliquely oblong, the apex rounded. Keel upcurved, acuminate, 
12 mm long. Fruit 2.0-2.5 cm long, elliptic, with an oblique 
acuminate apex and rounded base, woolly-pubescent. Seeds 1 to 
few per fruit, orbicular, flattened, 3.5 mm in diameter, pale 
gray, spotted with darker color. 

HOLOTYPE: Bank of drainage canal, in back of factories, 
in scrub, just south of US 441, on FLA 437, Plymouth, Orange 
County, Florida, 13 Apr. 1970, J. Beckner (with John & Pat 
Hall) 2375 FLAS 112612. 

ISOTYPES: Specimens consisting of branches from the same 
clone include FLAS 112611, plus duplicates to be distributed to 
FSU, NY, GH, USF, and NCU. 

The type plant was in flower at the time of collection. 
This site has more recently been destroyed by industrial 
developement . 

Other collections: Orange Co.: near Plymouth, 13 Apr. 
1970, Beckner . Hall , & Hall 2377 (FLAS, FSU); Ocoee , (fr.) 15 
June 1970, Beckner 2404 (FLAS); near Little Lake Bryan, 10 
Apr. 1981, Beckner 2462 (USF) ; near Palm Lake, 20 Mar. 1981, 
Wunderlin & Beckner 8948 (USF). Polk Co.: near Eagle Lake, 9 
May 1937, McFarlin 10933 (FLAS); Inwood Scrub, 9 Mar. 1928, 
McFarlin 1086 (FLAS). 

McFarlin stated that S. F. Poole had found this species in 
scrub west of Orlando and that he himself had found it at Lake 
Alfred (7341). He intended to cite his 4422, from the Inwood 
Scrub, as the type. I have not seen this collection and do not 
know its fate or condition. As is apparent from the above 
description, some differences in dimensions have been found 



1982 Beckner, Lupinus aridorum 211 

between the Polk and Orange County plants. The available 
specimens are too few to justify giving this any importance at 
present. However, if future studies should indicate that these 
differences are significant, perhaps a varietal name honoring 
Jim McFarlin would be appropriate for the Inwood population. 

This beautiful and distinctive Florida endemic is nearly 
extinct, in part due to the clearing and disturbance of its 
habitat. However, many areas of seemingly appropriate ecology 
do remain within the vicinity of the few known colonies, yet 
careful search has failed to find the plants. The known colonies 
have consisted of only one to about a dozen clones each and seed 
production per plant is minimal. It does not grow with any of 
the allied species and presumably is not of hybrid origin. 
Lupinus aridorum is a member of the small group of unifoliate 
leaved lupines. Several other species occur in Florida, with 
two of these extending into states to the north. The remaining 
species occur in southern Brazil. 

I wish to thank Dr. Richard P. Wunderlin, University of 
South Florida, Tampa, for his very considerable encouragement, 
patience, and assistance. He and I plan further studies of this 
rare lupine. I also wish to thank Dr. Daniel B. Ward of the 
University of Florida, John M. Hall III of Costa Rica, and Pat 
Hall of Lake Jem, Florida, each of whom was indispensable to the 
field work and study of this new species. The late Dr. Henry 
Conard and the late James B. McFarlin were friends who can no 
longer be thanked in person, but who played the central roles 
in making me aware of this previously undescribed species. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GENUS RECORDIA. Ill 
Harold N. lloldenke 



RECORDIA Mold. 

Additionil bibliography: Lemee", Diet. Descrip. Syn. Gen. PI. 
Phan. 8b: 995 & 1084. 19A3; H. N. & A. L. Mold., PI. Life 2: 31 & 
78. 1948; Rouleau, Guide Ind. Kew. 160 & 353. 1970; Mukherjee & 
Chanda, Trans. Bose Res. Inst. 41: 40 & 47. 1978; Mold., Phytolo- 
gia 43: 301—302 & 509 (1979) and 45: 40 & 510. 1980; Mold., 
Phytol. Hem. 2: 5, 175, ^ 573. 1980; Uogerson, Becker, Long, 
Prince & Zanoni, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 107: 99. 1980. 

RECORDIA BOLIVIAN A Mold. 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 43: 301--302. 1979; 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2 : 175 & 573. 1980. 

RECORDIA PEREDOI Mold. 

Frutex scandens; foliis decussato-oppositis petiolatis decid- 
uis; petiolis gracilibus ca. 1 cm. longis puberulis; laminis 
foliorum ellipticis vel obovato-ellipticis chartaceis 6 — 11 cm. 
longis 4 — 5.5 cm latis apicaliter acuminatis integris basaliter 
acutis supra glabratis subtus minute puberulis; inf lorescentiis 
axillaribus racemiformibus, racemis 4 — 9 cm. longis paucifloris 
ubique dense puberulis; floribus remotis pedicellatis leviter 
zygomorphis. 

A climbing vine; branches and branchlets obtusely or subacute- 
ly tetragonal, grayish, the youngest ones densely puberulent, the 
older ones glabrous and conspicuously lenticellate; leaves de- 
cussately opposite, clustered on the smallest twigs, short-petio- 
late; petioles slender, about 1 cm. long, conspicuously flatten- 
ed and puberulent above; leaf-blades chartaceous, somewhat lighter 
beneath, elliptic or obovate-elliptic, 6 — 11 cm. long, 4 — 5.5 cm. 
wide, apically acuminate, marginally entire, basally acute, glab- 
rate above, minutely but rather uniformly puberulent beneath; mid- 
rib very slender, very slightly prominulous beneath; secondaries 
very slender, 4 — 6 per side, ascending, rather straight and close 
together, arcuate only near the margins, rather inconspicuous a- 
bove, slightly prominulous beneath; inflorescence axillary, racem- 
iform, pedunculate, densely puberulent throughout; peduncles 1 — 2 
cm. long, densely puberulent; racemes 4 — 9 cm. long, many-flowered 
but the flowers so distant as to give a few-flowered appearance 
compared to the type species, the sympodia slender, 5 — 8 mm. long, 
densely puberulent; calyx cupuliform, slightly zygomorphic, ex- 
ternally puberulent, about 4 mm. long and wide, the rim rather 
regularly 5-toothed, the teeth broadly ovate and apically acumin- 
ate-apiculate, or sinuate; corolla white, slightly zygomorphic, 
externally densely puberulent, internally inconspicuously so, the 
tube broad, about 8 mm. long, apically ampliate, the limb 5-lobed; 
stamens 4 or 5, affixed slightly less than half way up the corolla- 

212 



1982 



Moldenke, Notes on Recordia 



213 




214 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

tube in a band of fine hairs; anthers 2-celled, the thecae widely 
divergent in anthesis; pistil usually 1 (rarely 3), inserted on a 
definite basal nectar-disk, bicarpellary; style single, terminal, 
about 5 mm. long, glabrous; stigma bilobed, the lobes slender and 
recurved during anthesis; ovary conic, glabrous, 2-celled; ovules 
anatropous. 

The type of this interesting species was collected by Ismael 
Peredo (no. 430) — in whose honor it is named — at Cabezas 
(Cordillera), Santa Cruz, Bolivia, on March 15, 1945, and is de- 
posited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden. 
Explanation of illustration (courtesy of A. H. M. Jayasuriya) : 
A — Habit x 1 with leaf on the left showing the upper surface and 
that on the right showing the lower surface; B — Side view of 
flower; C — Calyx and part of pistil; D — Corolla spread open; 
E — Anomalous flower with 3 pistils; F — Pistil; G — Cross- 
section of ovary. 

Citations: BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: Peredo 334 (N) , 430 (N-type) . 



NOTES ON NEW AND NOTEWORTHY PLANTS. CLIV 
Harold N. Moldenke 



LANTANA ARIDA var. PORTORICENSIS Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei recedit laminis foliorum 
basaliter perspicue acutis. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
the leaf-blades being conspicuously acute at the base; they are 
also more regularly narrow-elliptic, with finer marginal serra- 
tions. 

The type of the variety was collected by Paul Ernst Emil Sin- 
tenis (no. 2379) at "Campilo", Cayey, Puerto Rico, on October 3, 
1885, and is deposited in the United States National Herbarium 
at Washington. 

LANTANA ARIDA var. SARGENTII Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei pilis glandulosis rece- 
dit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having its pubescence on the branchlets, petioles, and leaf- 
blades plainly gland-tipped. 

The type of the variety was collected by Francis Hahn Sargent 
(no. 137) on a barren hillside at Parguera, Puerto Rico, on Feb- 
ruary 24, 1935, and is deposited in the United States National 
Herbarium at Washington. The collector notes that the corollas 
were orange in color when fresh. 

LIPPIA BROMLEYANA var. HATSCHBACHII Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei laminis foliorum subtus 
dense puberulis et bracteis involucri dense puberulo-pilosellis 



1982 Moldenke, New & noteworthy plants 215 

margine ciliolatis recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the lower surface of its leaf-blades densely puberulent 
throughout and its involucral bracts densely puberulent- 
pilosulous, with the margins ciliolate. 

The type of this variety was collected by Gert Hatschbach — 
in whose honor it is named — and Kasper (no. 41663) in fields 
in the vicinity of Francisco Sa, Minas Gerais, Brazil, on October 
23, 1978, and is deposited in my personal herbarium. The collec- 
tors describe the plant as a shrub, 2 m. tall, the corollas 
lilac in color when fresh. 

STACHYTARPHETA ACUMINATA f. PUBESCENS Mold., f. nov. 

Haec forma a forma typica speciei recedit laminis foliorum 
uniforme angustioribus 1 — 2.5 cm. latis subtus densiore pubes- 
centibus. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in its 
more uniformly narrower leaf-blades, these being 1 — 2.5 cm. wide 
and much more densely pubescent on the under surface. 

The form is based on an unnumbered Jose Garcia P. collection 
from small-leaf matorral 4 km. east of Meztitlan, Hunicipio de 
Meztitl^n, at 1300 m. altitude, Hidalgo, Mexico, collected on 
July 11, 1976, and deposited in the Herbario Nacional in Mexico 
City. The collector describes the plant as an herb about 1 m. 
tall, with purple corollas. 

STACHYTARPHETA MINIACEA f . PARVIFOLIA Mold . , f . nov . 

Haec forma a forma typica speciei foliis maturis parvioribus 
2 — 4 cm. longis 0.5 — 2 cm latis recedit. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing the mature leaves uniformly much smaller, usually only 2 — 4 cm. 
long and 0.5 — 2 cm. wide. 

The type of the form was collected by C. Tellez & E. Cabrera 
(no. 1147) 4 km. north of the entrance to Puerto Morelos in peri- 
odically inundated land in association with Haematoxylon, Pseudo- 
phoenix, and Manilkara zapota and 85% rockiness, Quintana Roo, 
Mexico, on January 8, 1980, and is deposited in the Herbario Na- 
cional in Mexico City. The collectors describe the plant as a 
shrub 1 m. tall, with red corollas. 

SYNGONANTHUS CURRALENSIS var. PAUCIFOLIUS Hold., var . nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei foliis paucis supra mediam 
longissime attenuatis divergentibus recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
its less numerous leaves which are reflexed-appressed only for 
about half their length and then very long- and slender-attenuate 
and more or less divergent-spreading. 

The type of this variety was collected by S. A. Mori & B. M. 
Boom (no. 14548) in dry sand of campo rupestre in the Municipality 
of Morro do Chapeu, BR052, 4 — 6 km. east of Tlorro do Chapeu, at 
1000 m. altitude, Bahia, Brazil, on June 19, 1981, and is deposi- 
ted in my personal herbarium. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GENUS GEUNSIA. II 
Harold N. lloldenke 



GEUNSIA Blume 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 46 — 68 (1981) 
and 50: 143—151. 1982. 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA Blume 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 143, 144, & 
146—151. 1982. 

Fernandez -Villar (1880) reduces Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. to 
the synonymy of Geunsia farinosa, citing Cuming 1773 from the 
Philippine Islands, but this reduction is incorrect. The two 
taxa are quite distinct. 

Schauer (1847) accepts Callicarpa pentandra as a valid species, 
reducing Geunsia farinosa Blume to its synonymy, also citing 
Cuming 1773 as well as unnumbered Blume and Kollmann collections 
from Java. Fletcher (1938) and Meeuse also regard the two taxa 
as conspecific, using G. pentandra as the valid name. 

Hooker (1885) reduces both Callicarpa pentandra and Callicar- 
pa acuminatissima Teijsm. & Binn. to Geunsia farinosa, commenting 

thaf'C. hexandra Teijsm. & Binn is C. cumingiana Schau....or 

very nearly so, and perhaps neither is distinct from Geunsia 
farinosa; but Cuming's n. 1773, reduced to G. farinosa by Schauer, 
is probably, as stated in Gen. PI. 2, p. 1150, a good species." 

Heyne (1917) and Warburg (1891) also include Callicarpa pen- 
tandra in tneir concept of Geunsia farinosa, the latter citing an 
unnumbered Hollrung collection. 

Junell (1934) studied the gynoecium morphology of Geunsia 
farinosa as typical of the genus and says, on the basis of an un- 
numbered Ridley and an unnumbered Zollinger collection: "Obwohl 
ich nur von einigen wenigen Fruchtknoten Querschnittreihen her- 
stellte, erhielt ich Praparate von fijnf-, vier- und dreizahligen 

Gynaceen. Bocquillon fuhrt ein Diagramm des Blutenbaus bei 

dieser Art an, in dem man deutlich die Stellung der fiinf Frucht- 
blatter und die Lokalisierung der Samenanlagen auf den Frucht- 
blattern sehen kann. Ein Querschnitt eines funfzahligen Gynace- 
ums wird in Taf. VI, Fig. 1 wiedergegeben. Durch Verwachsung der 
nach innen gekrilmmten Telle der Fruchtblatter werden fiinf Plazen- 
ten gebildet. Die Fruchtblattrander verwachsen nicht miteinander, 
und die Samenanlagen sitzen wie bei Chloanthoideae an der Innen- 
seite der Fruchtblatter in einiger Entfernung vom eigentlichen 
Fruchtblattrande. Die mittleren Partien der Fruchtblatter sind 
etwas verdickt und enthalten wie gewohnlich ein Leitbundel. Bei 
Fruchtknoten mit nur vier Plazenten kann wann bisweilen Reste 
des flinften Fruchtblatts sehen. Die Fruchtwand kann namlich 
zwischen benachtbarten Plazenten an zwei Stellen verdickt sein, 
welche Ausbauchungen dann je ein Gefassbiindel enthalten. Diese 

216 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 217 

ausgebauchten Partien entsprechen offenbar den Mitten zweier 
Fruchtblatter. Die in alien Quirlen fijnfzahlige, aktinomorphe 
Geunsia-Blilte wird im allgemeinen als ein sehr ursprilnglicher 
Blutentypus betrachtet, dessen Vorkommen dafur spricht, dass 
Verbenaceae eine der altesten und ursprunglichsten Sympetalen 
Familien ist. Dies kann wirklich der Fall sein, aber es ist an- 
dererseits auch nicht undenkbar, dass das Gyna'ceum zweizahlig ge- 
worden war, bevor noch die verschiedenen Sympetalen-Familien dif- 
ferenziert worden waren. In diesem Falle ware dann die Geunsia- 
Blute als ein abgeleiteter, sekundarer Typus zu betrachten. Der 
Umstand, dass man bei den vierzahligen Gyn'Sceen Reste eines 
fQnften Fruchtblatts finden kann, spricht jedoch meines Erachtens 
dafiir, dass die filnfzahlige Typus ursprilnglich ist. Auch der 
Umstand, dass Geunsia ausser gegenstandigen Slattern auch wechsel- 
standige hat, scheint dafur zu sprechen, dass diese Gattung sehr 
ursprilnglich ist." 

Vernacular and common names recorded for the species include 
"aid", "ambong" [^having soft pith-like wood], "bayoboh", "eoea", 
"hafo", "hai", "hahomboe oei", "ioea". "kajoe hakomboe", "kajoe 
kakomboe", "kametoe", "kata k?ra", "ki-hoeoe", "kilhoeoet", "ki- 
hoeoet", "ligoran", "limagao", "m^mbatu puteh" ["mSmbatu" is ap- 
plied to several small unrelated trees], "netepoeng", "netepoeng 
eoea", "ngoltoep", "piat" [applied also to Premna spp.], "poko 
amban", "red-berried Malayan lilac", "selepoeng", "tambong", 
"tambourg", "tampang besi" [applied also to Callicarpa spp.], 
"tampang besih", "tapong", "tilam", "tombung", and "umpang". 

It should be noted that the Blume (1826) reference in the bib- 
liography (above) is sometimes cited as "1825", but incorrectly 
so. 

Schumann & Lauterbach (1900) cite from New Guinea: Hellwig 377 
& 486, Hollrung 872, Lauterbach 3, 972, 1241, 1417, & 2027, and 
Warburg Bander 11.14 and give its natural distribution as Singa- 
pore to Papua. Schumann & Hollrung (1889) aptly remark that 
"Entweder ist G. farinosa Bl. eine beziiglich der Behaarung unge- 
wohnlich variable Pflanze oder es sind in der Art mehrere andere 
verborgen. Die Behaarung raeiner Exemplare ist ausserordentlich 
stark filzig, von langeren steifen Haaren uberragt, die Farbe ist 
gelbgrun; die Pflanze kommt etwa mit den Exemplaren uberein, 
welche Wallich von Singapore vertheilt hat. Die Cuming 'sche n. 
1773 soil nach Hooker und Clarke davon verschieden sein. Ich habe 
aber Blume 'sche Originale gesehen, die durchaus mit jener zusammen- 
f alien. Was die Gattungsmerkmale von Geunsia anbetrifft, so 
scheinen mir diese auf sehr schwachen Fussen zu stehen, denn ich 
habe nicht bios gelegentlich tetramere BlQthen gefunden, sondern 
die G. Cumingiana Rolfe hat an dem Exemplare des Berliner Herbars 
meist solche. Einen Unterschied von Callicarpa im Habitus kann 
ich kaum erkennen." 

Bakhuizen & Lam (1924) cite DeBruyn 374 from Schouten island. 
They give its distribution as Malay Archipelago and Philippine Is- 
lands. Ridley (1923) describes it as common in open country and 
the edges of woods, citing unnumbered collections of Curtis, Kloss, 
Kunstler, Machado, and Wallich from Singapore, Pahang, Selangor, 



218 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

Perak, and Lankawi, listing it also from "Siam, Java to Philip- 
pines". Lam (192A) gives its distribution as Singapore, llalay 
Archipelago, Philippine Islands, and New Mecklenburg, citing 
Peekel 682 from New Ireland. Lam (1919) cites Amdjah 973, Korth- 
als s.n. [Herb. Lugd.-Bat 908.267-655 & 905.265-1121, 1122, & 
1123], and Winkler 2141 from Borneo, Elbert 2690 & 2760 from Bu- 
ton, Forsten 12 from Celebes, Elbert 3378 from Kabaena, Elmer 
10856 & 11102 from Mindanao, and Peekel 682 from New Ireland. 
Moldenke (1963) gives its overall distribution as Thailand, Mala- 
ya, Philippine Islands, Simalur Islands, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, 
Celebes, Lesser Sunda Islands, Molucca Islands, New Guinea, and 
Bismark Archipelago, citing Larsen 8676 from Thailand. 

Gillis 11414 represents material cultivated in Florida grown 
from seeds introduced from Indonesia; Walsingbam P.I. 136643 was 
cultivated in Cuba from seed introduced from the Philippines. 

Material of G. farinosa has been misidentif ied and distributed 
in some herbaria as G. acuminatissima (Teijsra. & Binn.) H. J. 
Lam, G. hexandra Koord., G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr., Callicarpa 
cumingiana Schau., C. pedunculata R. Br., C. "pendandra" Roxb., 
C. pentandra Roxb., C. pentandra f. floccosa Bakh., C. reevesii 
Wall., C. tomentosa Willd., C. tomentosa var. lanata (L.) Bakh., 
C. sp. , Premna pentandra Roxb., P. "petandra" Roxb., and Wormia 
suffruticosa Griff. 

On the other hand, the Asdat 2, Herb. Bogor . 1862a, and 
Yates 629, distributed as Geunsia farinosa, actually are Calli- 
carpa arborea Roxb., while Ahem 318 is C. surigaensis Merr., 
Wiakabu S Simaga LAE. 70218 is Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe, 
Ahem 378 and Quadras 341 are G. cumingiana var. dentata (Bakh.) 
Mold., Evangelista 935, Kadir s.n. [Herb. N. Born. Forest. Dept. 
A. 2100] and Native Collector 277, 533, 5016, & 5122 are G. fur- 
furacea (Bakh.) Mold., Krukoff 4351 and Toroes 5104 are G. 
grandiflora H. Hallier, Herb. Lugd.-Bat. 908.266-876 is G. hex- 
andra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., Ramos & Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. 
Bur. Sci. 49732] is G. paloensis (Elm.) H. J. Lam, and Blume s.n., 
Chai SAN. 21640 & 34099, Kollmann s.n. [1838], Ramos & Edano s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 44362], C. B. Robinson 1861, Sinclair 
9257, Waterhouse 114, and Zwickey 117 are G. pentandra (Roxb.) 
Merr. 

Citations: CHINA: Kwangsi: Ching 7291 (Ca~409967). THAILAND: 
K. Larsen 8676 (S) ; Rock 1589 (Ca — 264454). MALAYA: Johore: M. R. 
Henderson 36783 (Bz~21043); Nur & Kirk 7731 (Bz~18513). Selan- 
gor: Balgooy 2269 (N) ; Burkill 9040 (Bz — 18512); Kloss s.n. [For- 
est Reserve, 12.8.1914] (W~2318002); Nur 34011 (S). PHILIPPINE 
ISLANDS: Mindanao: Ebalo 1131 (Mi); Elmer 10856 (Bi, Bz~18559, 
Le~911. 160-426, N) , 11102 (Bi, Bz~19560, Le~911. 160-425, N, 
W — 779462); Tarrosa & Almagro s.n. [Herb. Philip. Forest. Bur. 
14928] (W~900103). GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Curran 3425 
(A); Elbert 2999 [7331] (Le— 942.64-993) , 2999 [7332] (Le~938.87- 
456), 3040 (N); Kaudern 417 (S) ; Kjellberg s.n. [1929] (S, S) . 
Enggano: Llitjeharms 4562 (Bi, Bz — 18183). Kalimantan: Beccari 
786 (S); Korthals s.n. [Banka marsing] (Le~908. 265-1122) . Kara- 
kalang: D. Fairchild 414 (W— 1941405, W— 2185012); H. J. Lam 2523 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 219 

(BZ--18489, Bz— 18490, N) , 2866 (B, Bz— 18491, Bz— 18492, N, Ut— 
2374A). Java: Backer 16278 (Bz— 18338), 22748 (Bz~18336, Bz— 
18337, Bz— 25481); Bakhuizen 766 (Bz— 18462, Bz— 18463), 889 (Bz— 
18467), 1559 (Bz— 18343, Ut— 58420), 2249 (Bz— 18466), 2790 (Bz— 
183447); Blume s.n. [Java] (Le— 944.201-393, N) ; Herb. Hort. Bot. 
Bogor. XI.G.85 (Bz— 25793, Bz— 26524, Bz, Bz), 85a (Bz, N) , s.n. 
(Pd); Kallmann s.n. [Java, 1838] (M) ; Koorders 9727b (Bz — 18475, 
Bz— 25578), 9728b (Bz— 18474), 9728b (Pd), 9729b (Bz— 18471) , 
9730b (Bz— 18469, Bz— 18470, Bz— 25586), 9731b [278*] (Bz— 18217), 
9732b [279*] (Bz— 18218, Bz— 18219), 9733b [280*] (Bz— 18220) , 
11154b (Bz— 18215), 13286b [2257a] (Bz— 18472, Bz— 18473) , 15204b 
[2373a] (Bz— 18468, Bz— 59419), 33770b [161*] (Bz— 18221, Bz— 
18222); Ploem s.n. (Le— 909.26-76) ; J. J. Smith 860 (Bz— 18459, 
Ca— 236813); Winckel 145 (Ut— 63769, Ut— 63770), 145b (Bz— 18344, 
Bz— 18345, Bz— 18346, Ut— 63769, Ut— 63770), 241b (Bz— 18464, Bz— 
18465, Ca— 265966), 247b (Bz— 18460), 731b (Bz— 18461) , 1402 (Ca— 
301564), 1402b (Bz— 18214, Ut— 80264); Zollinger 786 (S) . Moena: 
Herb. Neth. Ind. For. Serv. b.b. 21756 (N) . Sabah: Aban S Petrus 
SAN. 90689 (Ld); Abas SAN. 86018 (Ld); Agullana 3875 [field no. 429] 
(Ca — 347209, Pd); Ampuria SAN. 32630 (Ld) , SAN. 32658 (Ld); Brand 
SAN. 30933 (Z) ; Clemens & Clemens 34036 (Mi, II); Cockburn SAN. 65605 
(Ld); Cuadra s.n. [N. Born. For. Dept. A. 1238] (N, W— 2210719), 
s.n. [Herb. N. Born. For. Uept. A. 1274] (W— 2210730), s.n. [Herb. 
N. Born. For. Dept. A. 2294] (W— 2210678), s.n. [Herb. N. Born. 
For. Dept. A. 3082] (W— 2317184); Dewol, Leopold, s Shea SAN. 71163 
(Sn— 40650); Kadir s.n. [Herb. N. Born. For. Dept. A. 2588] (W— 
2210693); Kokawa s Hotta 208 (Sn — 100681); Lajangah SAN. 36123 
[Herb. U. Born. For. Dept. 40642] (Ld); Madani SAN. 33151 (Ld) ; 
Meijer SAN. 23770 (Ld); Sales 3726 (Bz— 18335, Ca— 347013); Sam A. 
1721 (Kl); Sam & Sisiron SAN. 19219 (N, W— 2413568); Sundaling 
SAN. 80243 (Sn— 49970); D. D. Wood 2649 [Mail 299] (Ca— 320315). 
Sarawak: Native Collector 281 (W— 1173945) , 2528 (Ph) , 2789 (Ph) ; 
Purseglove P. 5408 (N) . Simalur: Achmad 106 (Bz — 18510, Bz — 18511). 
Sumatra: Boeea 7457 (Mi, S, S, W— 1682126), 7879 (Mi, S, W— 
1682265); Forbes 2764 (Le— 908.141-194, Le— 908.266-5, Le— 908. 
266-10); Gusdorf 124 (Bz— 18507, Bz— 18508) ; Hamel 1045 (Ca— 
91913); Idris 75 [Boschproefst. b.b. 2995] (Bz— 18495, Bz— 18496); 
Lbrzing 4278 (Bz— 18509), 6405 (Bz— 18506); Ltitjeharms 4562 (N, 
W— 1681102); Mehpeh 31 [Boschproefst. b.b. 4879] (Bz— 18502), 45 
[Boschproefst. b.b. 4893] (Bz— 18503); Posthumus 648 (Bz— 18500, 
Bz — 18501); Rutten-Korriston 8 (Bz — 18493); Teijsmann s.n. (Le — 
908.266-904); Toroes 5010 (Ca— 531046, N, N, W— 1681102); Van 
Steenis 3254 (Bz— 18497, Bz— 18498); Voogd 195 (Bz— 18494, Cb). 
LESSER SUNDA ISLANDS: Buton: Elbert 2760 [6535] (Le— 938.87-454) . 
MOLUCCA ISLANDS: Ceram: Buwalda 531 [Boschproefst. b.b. 25876] (Bz- 
18175); Kornassi 571 (Bz— 18478, Ut— 80238); Rutten 1839 (Bz— 
18480, Ut— 80263). Halmahera: seguin 1859 (Bz— 18476); Teijsmann 
7458 (Le— 908.266-914). Soelabesi: Atje 339 (Bz— 18481, Bz— 
18482, Bz— 18483). NEW GUINEA: Papua: Brass 3675 (N) , 5495 (N) , 
21799 (Ng — 17095). Territory of New Guinea: Weinland s.n. [Kai- 
ser Wilhelmsland, 1889-91] (Mu— 3941). West Irian: Gjellerup 917 
(Bz— 18385); Hollrung 525 (Mb); McKee 1775 (Ng— 16875) , 1933 (Ng— 



220 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

16878); Sijde BW.4049 (S); Van Leeuwen 9163 (Bz— 72660) , 11262 
(Bz— 72662); Van Royen 4975 (Ca— 90505). BISIIARK ARCHIPELAGO: 
llussau: Kfiie & Olsen 1108 (Ac, Cp) , 1237 (Ac, Cp) , 1344 (Cp) , 
1390 (Ac, Cp) . New Hanover: Dissing, Kfiie, S Olsen 1916 (Ac, Cp) . 
CULTIVATED: Cuba: Walsingham P.I.136643 [P. I. G. 10309] (Ba) . 
Florida: Gillis 11414 [M. 13048] (Ld). LOCALITY OF COLLECTION UN- 
DETERMINED: Binnendijk s.n. (Bz — 18477); Collector undetermined 
s.n(Le— 908.265-320), s.n. (Le— 908.266-846 in part, Pd); DeLbonby 
6 (Bz— 18339); Massarip 99 [Boschproefst. b.b.4097] (Bz~18499). 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA var. CALLICARPOIDES H. J. Lam ex Mold., R^sura^ 

295, in syn. 1959; Phytologia 50: 57, hyponym. 1981; var. nov. 

Bibliography: Mold., Re'sumd 295. 1959; Mold., Phytologia 50: 
57. 1981. 

Haec varietas a forma typica specie! floribus tetrameris re- 
cedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having tetramerous flowers. It is based on Collector undetermined 
1343 from Kalimantan, Borneo, represented by sheet number 908.266- 
865 in the Leiden herbarium. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Kalimantan: Collector unde- 
termined 1343 (Le— 908.266-865~type). Java: Koorders 39149b 
[35*1 (Bz— 18216). 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA f. SERRATULA Mold., Phytologia 44: 473. 1979. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 44: 473 (1979) and 50: 57. 
1981. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing its leaf-blades marginally very distinctly, although irregu- 
larly, serrulate, especially on the distal half. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Sabah: Y. Fox SAN. 57700 (Z — 
type). 

GEUNSIA FLAVIDA (Elm.) H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 39. 
1919. 
Synonymy: Callicarpa flavida Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 863 — 
864. 1910. Callicarpa epiphytica Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 8: 
2871. 1915. Geunsia epiphytica (Elm.) H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. 
Arch. 38 — 39. 1919. Geunsia epiphytica var. typica H. J. Lam, 
Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 39. 1919. Geunsia epiphytica var. apicu- 
lata H. J. Lam, Verbenac. I-Ialay. Arch. 39. 1919. Callicarpa 
pentandra var. typica f. flavida (Elm.) Bakh., Bull. 'Jard. Bot. 
Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 15 — 16. 1921. Geunsia epiphytica H. Lam a- 
pud E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 384, in syn. 1923. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. flavida Bakh., in herb. 

Ribliography: Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 3: 863—864 (1910) 
and 8: 2871—2873. 1915; H. J. Lara, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 38—39. 
1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
15—16, 106, 107, 111, vi, xi, & xii. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 43. 1921; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 
3: 384—385. 1923; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Fedde 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 221 

& Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; Elm., Leafl. 
Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 
12 & 26. 1940; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 573. 
1941; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 9, 10, & 25. 1942; Mold., 
Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 62 & 93. 1942; Mold., 
Phytologia 2: 103. 1945; Mold., ICnown Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 2, 141 & 185. 1949; Anon., U. S. Dept. Agr. Bot. Sub j . Index 
15: 14354. 1958; Mold., Resume 184, 242, 243, 246, 295, & 455. 
1959; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 43. 1960; Mold., Fifth 
Summ. 1: 317, 407, 408, & 416 (1971) and 2: 520 & 878. 1971; 
Mold., Phytologia 25: 240. 1973; Mukherjee & Chanda, Trans. Bose 
Res. Inst. 41: 40. 1978; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 307, 405, & 548. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 56. 1981. 

A treelike shrub, sometimes epiphytic and to 3 m. long on the 
mossy limbs of large trees; main stems about 15 cm. in diameter at 
breast height, crookedly branched; wood soft or rather hard, 
white or whitish, light in weight, odorless, tasteless or a trifle 
sweetish; bark gray or yellowish, finely or minutely checked and 
scaling off, testaceous (except the epidermis); top branches wide- 
spreading; branchlets ascending to horizontal to descending, 
somewhat tetragonal or subterete, rather slender, minutely ferru- 
gineous- or bro\^mish-tomentose with stellate hairs; twigs ascen- 
ding, yellowish-brown; leaves arranged as an opposite pair fol- 
lowed by 1 or 2 alternate ones, often subternate or quaternate, 
mostly horizontally spreading; petioles 1.5 — 2.5 cm. long, minute- 
ly ferrugineous- or brownish-tomentose with stellate hairs; leaf- 
blades chartaceous or subcoriaceous, oblong or lanceolate-oblong 
to almost lanceolate, 7 — 17.5 cm. long, 2.5 — 5.5 cm. wide, apical- 
ly gradually acute or long-acuminate to subcaudate with the tips 
recurved (var. apiculata H. J. Lam), marginally entire, basally 
cuneate or subacute to acute, rarely subtruncate, flat or often 
shallowly conduplicate on the upper deep-green surface, stellate- 
hairy above when young, glabrous except for the ferruginous- 
pubescent larger veins when adult, very densely stellate-tomentose 
or furfuraceous with yellowish-brown or ferruginous hairs and sub- 
rugose to beautifully yellowish- tawny or yellowish-brown-lepidose 
beneath, drying yellowish or honey-color; secondaries 5 — 10 pairs; 
inflorescence ascending; cjnues axillary, small or medium in size, 
5 — 7 cm. long, 4.5 — 5.5 cm. wide, minutely ferruginous- or brown- 
ish tomentose with stellate hairs; peduncles 3 — 5 cm. long, yellow- 
ish-brown; bracts linear, greenish, about 7 mm. long, covered with 
a dirty-brown puberulence; flowers 6- or 7-merous; calyx greenish, 
2.5 — 3 mm. long and wide, externally densely stellate-tomentose 
or furfuraceous to dirty-brown-puberulent, glandulose, the rim 
with 6 — 8 minute teeth; corolla pale-blue or blue to whitish, its 
tube 3 — 5 mm. long, basally glabrous, externally apically stellate- 
hairy or furfuraceous-tomentose and densely glandulose, the limb 
6 — 8-lobed, the lobes imbricate, about 3 mm. long, marginally 
glabrous, centrally dorsally stellate-hairy; stamens 6 or 7, pale- 
blue, 6 — 9 mm. long, long-exserted; anthers oblong or lanceolate, 
2.5 — 3.5 mm. long, about twice as long as wide, glandulose on 
both sides, more densely so dorsally; style pale-blue, 7 — 9 mm. 



222 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

long; stigma subpeltate, pale-blue; ovary yellow, apically narrow- 
ed, stellate-hairy and glandulose; fruiting-calyx cupuliform, 
double or triple its former size, almost completely enclosing the 
fruit; fruit drupaceous, globose, rather large, 4 — 5 mm. long and 
wide, glandulose, somewhat ferruginous-stellate-hairy, red or 
bright-red when mature, 6- or 7-celled, the cells bipartite, each 
cell 1-seeded; seeds 6 — 14. 

The type of G. flavida is Elmer 11851 from fertile soil of 
dense woods on a steep slope of the Sibulan River, at 4000 feet 
altitude, Todaya [Mount Apo] , Davao, on Mindanao island, Philip- 
pines, collected in September, 1909. The type of G. epiphytica 
[and its var. typica] is Elmer 13822 from above Danao lagoon, 
Cabadbaran [Mount Urdaneta] , Agusan, Mindanao, collected in Sep- 
tember, 1912; that of G. epiphytica var. apiculata is Elmer 13861 
from the same locality and collected on the same date. 

Lam (1919) distinguishes Elmer's two species as follows: 

Corolla 6-nerous G. epiphytica . 

Corolla 7-merous G. flavida . 

His two varieties of G. epiphytica he separates as follows: 
Leaf-blades oblong, basally acute or truncate, 7 — 13 cm. long, 

2.5 — 5 cm. wide, apically acute and short-acuminate, the acumen 
absent or to 1.5 cm. long; petioles 1.5 — 2.5 cm. long; secon- 
dary veins 5 — 7 per side var . typica . 

Leaf-blades lanceolate to lanceolate-oblong, 7.5 — 16 cm. long, 
2.5 — 4.8 cm. wide, basally cuneate or subtruncate, apically 
long-acuminate, the acumen 2 — 3.5 cm. long; petioles 1.7 — 2.5 

cm. long; secondary veins 7 — 10 per side var. apiculata . 

He cites only the type collection for each of these taxa and this 
is true also for Bakhuizen's (1921) work in which he unites G. 
flavida and G. epiphytica as a form of what he calls Callicarpa 
pentandra var. typica. 

Merrill (1923) asserts that G. flavida is endemic to primary 
forests on Dinagat island and on mountains in Mindanao from 1200 — 
1500 m. altitude. He cites Elmer 11851, 13822, & 13861 and Ramos 
& Pascasio 35185. 

Vernacular names recorded for the species are "lai-au-pan", 
"layaupan", "madolau", "panangoe", and "pananagok". 

Elmer erroneously refers to the fruits as "berries". Actual- 
ly they are true drupes. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Dinagat: Ramos & Pascasio s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 35185] (Bz~18258, Le~920. 348-369, N). 
Mindanao: Elmer 11851 (Bi — isotype, Bz — 18257 — isotype, Le — 911. 
160-424~isotype, N~isotype), 13822 (Bi, Bz— 18259, Du~174894, 
Le— 914.220-71, Mi, N, Ut— 33522, Vi) , 13861 (Bi, Bz— 18260, Du— 
174893, Le— 914.220-70, Mi, N, N, Ut— 33519, Vi, W— 894514). 

GEUNSIA FURFURACEA (Bakh.) Mold., Am. Journ. Bot. 32: 612. 1945. 

Synonymy: Geunsia subternata H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. 
Leid. 37: 25 — 26. 1918. Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. 
furfuracea Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 
3: 15. 1921. Callicarpa pentandra f. furfuracea E. J. Salisb., 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: 100, in syn. 1953. Callicarpa pentandra var. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 223 

repleta f. furfuracea Bakh. ex Mold., Resume 246, in syn. 1959. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Ileded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 23 & 
25—26. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. llalay. Arch. 42 & 365. 1919; 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bet. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 15. 
1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Fedde & Schust., 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; Mold., Am. Journ. Bot. 
32: 612. 1945; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 3. 1947; 
Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 143, 146, 147, 150, 
& 185. 1949; E. J. Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 11: 100. 1953; Mold., 
Rd"sumd 188, 192, 193, 195, 197, 204, 246, 295, & 455. 1959; Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 324, 333, 339, 340, 415, & 416 (1971) and 2: 520 
& 878. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315, 320, 329, 330, & 548. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 49: 474 (1981) and 50: 56 & 62. 1981. 

Small tree, 2 — 11 m. tall, or shrub, to 6.5 m. tall; trunk 
30 — 90 cm. in girth, with a clear bole to 2.5 m. high and a crown 
of 3 m; outer bark brown or light-brown, lenticellate, smooth, 
sometimes fissured; inner bark green-yellow; branchlets rather 
slender, obscurely tetragonal or subterete; leaves arranged as 
one opposite pair followed by 1 or 2 usually smaller alternate 
ones, or subternate or even subquaternate, rarely all decussate- 
opposite; petioles 1.5 — 3 cm. long; leaf-blades oblong or lanceo- 
late, 7 — 25 cm. long, 1.3 — 10 cm. wide, apically shortly and 
acutely acuminate, marginally entire, basally cuneate to obtuse 
or rounded, often subcordate, when adult glabrescent (except for 
the veins) above, subrugose and furfuraceous or farinose beneath 
or often subappressedly and very densely tomentose or white- 
lanate, with the veins stellate-ferruginous-pilose, in drying 
becoming cinnamon-color or tawny, often whitish; secondaries 7 — 
12 per side; cymes medium-size or small, 3 — 10 cm. long; peduncles 
1.5 — 6 cm. long; flower-buds violet; calyx green, 1 — 2 mm. long, 
externally very densely furfuraceous; corolla blue or violet to 
purple or red, sometimes white, 3 — 6 ram. long, 5-lobed, external- 
ly densely and minutely farinose-tomentose; stamens 5, 6 — 10 mm. 
long, long-exserted, deep-violet; anthers lanceolate or sublinear, 
2 — 3.5 mm. long; style violet; stigma white; fruiting-calyx cupu- 
liform, 2 — 3 times as long as before, enclosing the fruit almost 
to its apex; fruit drupaceous, subdepressed-globose, at first 
green, red when ripe, finally brownish, medium-sized, 5-celled, 
the cells bipartite, each section 1-seeded; seeds usually 10, 
rarely 5 

Collectors have found this species growing in forests and rain- 
forests, in young or old jungles, in thin brushy vegetation ap- 
pearing after fires, in the understory of primary forests, on 
hillsides and low land, in brown or yellow sandy-clay loam or 
limestone soil, at 15 — 200 m. altitude, in flower in January, 
March, June, September, and October, and in fruit in March and 
from September to November. 

The corollas are said to have been "violet" in color when fresh 
on Chai & al. s.n. and Kjellberg 838, "purple" on Clemens & Clem- 
ens 21786, Jacobs 5469, and Kostermans 21434, "pink" on Jantan 
s.n. & Native Collector 5122, "red" on Kjellberg 409, "greenish- 
yellow" on Kadir s.n., "green" on Native Collector 5016 and SAN. 



224 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

33306, and "white" on SAN. 7 5611. 

Vernacular names reported for the soecies are "belau", 
"ibobok", "kaompoet", "kimberi", "kira-perri", "quoi-esa", 
"setepoeng", "talampoeng", and "tapong tapong" . 

Geunsia subternata is based on Amdjah 937 ["973"] from Sungei 
Tikung, at about 17 — 50 m. altitude, 1-Calimantan, Borneo, deposited 
in the Buitenzorg herbariumm. In describing his Callicarpa pen- 
tandra var. paloensis f. furfuracea Bakhuizen (1921) cites the 
following collections, none of which is specifically designated 
as the nomenclatural type: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Noerkas 
Exped. Vuuren 425, Racbmat Exp. Vuuren 839, Teijsmann 12529. 
Kalantan: Jaheri Exp. Nieuwenh. 1232, Labohm 1152. Sumatra En- 
dert 36. LESSER SUNDA ISLANDS: Banka: Teijsmann s.n. [Berkh. 
1005]. He himself, however, later annotated Rachmat 839 as 
Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. genuina (?)", so it 
should be excluded from the list of candidates for logotype. I am 
citing it hereinafter under Geunsia paloensis (Elm.) H. J. Lam. 

Material of Geunsia furfuracea has been misidentif ied and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as G. farinosa Blume, Callicarpa arborea 
Roxb. , C. farinosa var. typica H. J. Lam, C. longifolia Lam., C. 
pedunculata R. Br., C. pentandra Roxb., C. pentandra var. paloen- 
sis f. genuina Bakh., and "Callicarpa sp." 

On the other hand, the H. Hallier 348, distributed as G. fur- 
furacea, actually is the type collection of G. homoeophylla H. 
liallier and Kajewski 2340, 2485, & 2540 are G. pentandra var. 
albidella Mold. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Bloembergen 4040 
[146] (Bz— 18701); Boscgproefst. S.B.il429(Ca— 345695) , C.C. 11429 
(B); Kjellberg 409 (F — photo, N, U — photo, S, Sg — photo, Z — photo), 
838 (S, S); Noerkas 425 (Bz — 18302~cotype, Bz — 18305 — cotype) ; 
Teijsmann 12529 (Bz— 18227~cotype, Bz— 18228— cotype, Bz— 18229— 
cotype). Kalimantan: Abor bin Adon 26 [Z.O.B.4004; Boschproefst. 
B.B. 13597] (Bz— 18263); Amdjah 973 (Bz— 18264, Bz— 18265, Le— 191. 
329-17, Le— 918.302-18); Atmosoewarno 28 [Z.O.B,3259; Boschproef- 
st. B.B. 10179] (Bz— 18278); Boschwezen 1152 (Bz— 18288) , 1900 (Bz— 
18283), 2349 (Bz— 18282, Hk) ; Dachlan 103 [Z.O.B.2122] (Bz— 18279); 
DeVriese s.n. (Bz — 18289); Endert 2300 (Bz — 72572); Hallier s.n. 
(Le— 918.302-40); Holinka 64 [Boschproefst. B.B. 23451] (Bz— 18173); 
Jaheri 1232 (Bz— 18284); Korthals s.n. [Borneo] (Le— 908.267-655, 
Le— 908.267-656, Le— 908.267-657, Le— 908. 367-658, Le— 908. 267- 
659, Z), s.n. [Martapoewe] (Le— 908.267-767, Le— 908.267-788, Le— 
908.267-789), s.n. [Sakoembang] (Le— 908.267-768, Le— 908.267-769) , 
s.n. (Le— 908.265-1121, Le— 908.265-1123) ; Kostermans 21434 (Ba, 
N); Neth. Ind. For. Serv. B.B. 23451 (N) ; Pangkeij 54 [Boschproefst. 
25144] (Bz— 18172); Ramali s.n. [26 Sept. 1941] (Bz— 18169); Ras- 
jid 14 [Z.O.B.2452] (Bz— 18281); Slooten 2279 (Bz— 18290, Bz— 
18291, Bz— 18292, Le— 933.282-60, Ut— 2375a); Teijsmann 8503 (Bz— 
18286, Bz— 18287); Van Steenis 1935 [Boschproefst. B.B. 18871] (Le— 
938.115-208); Verhoef 103 (Bz— 18277, Bz— 18278); Winkler 2141 
(Bz— 18285, Le— 910.133-1279); Zwaan 883 [Boschproefst. B.B. 18871] 
(Bz— 18171), 885 [Boschproefst. B.B. 18873] (Bz— 18170). Sabah: 
Ampuria SAN. 33306 (Z); Evangelists 935 (N) ; Kadir s.n. [Herb. N. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 225 

Born, Forest, Dept. A. 2100] (W— 231713A) ;5hea SAN. 75611 (Sn~ 
40663), Sarawak: Chai S al. s.n. [Herb. Sarawak Forest, Dept. S. 
33198] (Ld, Mi); Clemens & Clemens 20613 (Bz--18262, N) , 21447 
(Bz— 18261, H), 21786 (Bi, Bz— 18268, E— 987931, N, N) ; M. Jacobs 
5469 (W— 2377640); Jantan s.n. [Mt. Pol, 11.27] (Ca— 357469); 
Native Collector 277 (N, N — photo, Ph, Z — photo), 533 (Bz — 18280, 
Ca— 214215, Le— 923,150-1041, W~1173989), 5016 (Ca— 357598, N), 
5122 (Bz— 18190, Ca— 357598, Le— 936.7-41 in part. Mi, N) . 
Sumatra: Endert 36 (Bz — 18306 — cotype) ; Thorenaar 62 [Boschproef- 
st. 62.A.T.113] (Bz— 18504, Bz— 18505). LESSER SUNDA ISLANDS: 
Banka: Anta 626 (Bz — 72663); Berkbout 1005 (Bz — 18310 — cotype, 
Bz — 18311 — cotype); Teijsmann s.n. [Kliangka] (Bz — 18312 — cotype), 
s.n. [P. Pinang] (Bz— 18313— cotype, Bz— 18314— cotype) , s.n. 
[Soengei Slan] (Bz— 18307— cotype, Bz— 18308— cotype, Bz— 18309— 
cotype), BISMARK ARCHIPELAGO: New Britain: Herre 179 (Le— 936, 
7-41 in part). 

GEUNSIA GRANDIFLORA H. Hallier , Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 24. 
1918. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Ileded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 24, 
1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 32, 38, & 365, 1919; 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard, Bot, Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 
13, 111, & xii. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; 
Fedde & Schust,, Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 1932; Hold., 
Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 66 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 
147 & 185. 1949; Mold., Rdsum^ 108, 195, & 455. 1959; Mold., 
Fifth Summ, 1: 324 (1971) and 2: 878. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 
2: 315 & 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 56. 1981. 

A small tree, to 5 m. tall; branches 3 — 5 mm. thick; branch- 
lets apically obsoletely angular, otherwise terete, densely 
stellate-tomentose with ferruginous hairs; leaves anisophyllous, 
subternate, 1 borne slightly below the other 2 opposite ones, a 
fourth more distantly above the opposite pair, all 4 similar in 
size and shape; petiole medium-thick or subrobust, 1.5 — 2 cm. 
long, dorsally flattened between 2 marginal angles, ventrally 2- 
angled; leaf-blades herbaceous, ovate-lanceolate, 11 — 17 cm. 
long, 4.5 — 7.5 cm. wide, apically rather long-acute or acuminate, 
basally unequally subrotund, glabrous and sordid-green above ex- 
cept for the f erruginous-tomentose midrib, sharply reticulate- 
venose under a hand-lens, densely stellate-f erruginous-tomentose 
beneath, because of the tomentum less conspicuously pinnate- 
and clathrate-venose; inflorescence corymbose; peduncles 2.5 cm. 
long; corymbs paired in the axils of the opposite pair of leaves, 
repeatedly dichotomous; bracts and bractlets linear-lanceolate, 
the former 2, situated on the elevated branches of the primary 
dichotomy, 1 — 1.5 cm. long; pedicels very short; calyx cupuli- 
form, almost 2.5 ram. long, shortly and acutely 5- or 6-denticu- 
late, externally densely f erruginous-tomentose; corolla "pink to 
brownish", long-ovoid in bud, about 5 mm. long, externally gray- 
ish and minutely but densely pulverulent-puberulent and only 
slightly glandulose, apically slightly stellate-tomentellous. 



226 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

the tube half again as long as the calyx, the 5 or 6 lobes ob- 
ovate; stamens 5 or 6, adnate to the interior of the corolla- tube, 
slightly exserted; filaments basally minutely glandulose; anthers 
oblong, basally and apically emarginate, dor sally slightly glan- 
dulose along the connective as in G. farinosa, introrsely 2-cleft; 
style manifestly surpassing the stamens, clavate; stigma capitate, 
lobed. 

This species is based on Elbert 3204 from Baula, altitude — 
150 m. , in the Mengkoka District, southeastern Celebes, collected 
on September 26, 1909, and deposited in the Leiden herbarium. It 
is closely related to G. farinosa Blume, but differs in its coarser 
indument which is ferruginous and stellate-tomentose, in the lar- 
ger, shorter-petiolate, subternate leaves, basally unequally 
rounded, its larger flowers, the densely f erruginous-tomentose ca- 
lyx, and the corollas externally pulverulent-puberulent and 
slightly glandulose. 

Collectors have encountered this plant in red soil along road- 
sides and in secondary forests, in anthesis in July, September, 
and October. Bakhuizen (1921) reduces it to synonymy under his 
Callicarpa pentandra var. typica f. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) 
Bakh. along with five other unrelated taxa. 

Material of G. grandiflora has been misidentif ied and distribu- 
ted in some herbaria as Callicarpa pentandra Roxb., C. pentandra 
f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh., C. pentandra f. pubescens Bakh., C. 
pentandra var. typica f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh., C. pentandra var. 
typica f. hexandra Bakh., and C. pentandra farinosa (Blume) Bakh. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Elbert 3204 [7928] 
(Le~938.87-5;3— type, Z~isotype); Rachmat 620 (Bz— 18566). 
Sumatra: Boeea 7879 (Ca— 1014721) ; Krukoff 4351 (Br, Bz~ 18223, 
W— 1750728); Posthumus 648 (Ut— 96837); Toroes 5104 (Ca~531396, 
N, S, W~1681573). Sabah: Joseph & Kuntil SAN. 92478 (Z) . 

GEUNSIA HEXANDRA (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 
19: 558, hyponym. 1898; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 37. 
1919. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa hexandra Teijsm. & Binn., Tijdschr. Ned. 
Ind. 25: 40. 1863. Callicarpa bezandra T. & B. ex Koord. & Val., 
Meded. Lands Plantent. Bat. 42 [Bijdr. Booms. Java 7]: 174. 1900. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. typica f. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3:13 — 14. 
1921. Callicarpa pentandra f. floccosa Bakh. ex Mold., Rlsum5 
246, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica f. hexandra 
Bakh. ex Mold., Resum^ 246, in syn. 1959. Callicarpa hexandria 
Teijsm. & Binn. ex Mold., R^sum^ 243, in syn. 1959. 

Bibliography: Teijsm. & Binn., Natuurk. Tijdschr. Bed. Ind. 25: 
410. 1863; Benth. in Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1150. 
1876; C. B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 566. 1885; 
Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 386. 1893; 
Koord., Meded. Lands Plantent. 19: 558 & 559. 1898; Koord. & Val., 
Meded. Lands Plantent. Bat. 42 [Bijdr. Booms. Java 7]: 174. 1900; 
ThiseltrDyer. Ind. Kew. SuppL 2: 81. 1904. ^^^ ^^ continued] 



BOOK REVIEWS 

Alma L. Tloldenke 

"CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN WARld DESERTS - An Examination of Strate- 
gies and Patterns in Deserts of Argentina and the United 
States" edited by Gordon H. Orians & Otto T. Solbrig, :cv & 
333 pp., 62 b/w fig., 34 photo., 99 tab. & A maps. Dowden, 
Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa., distributed by 
Academic Press, Inc., New York, N. Y. 10003. 1977. $35.00. 

This excellently planned, executed and reported study is num- 
ber 3 in this U. S. International Biological Program series. It 
compares and contrasts the quite similar deserts in North (Silver 
Bell, Arizona) and South (Bolson de Pipenaco, Argentina) America, 
their physical environments, strategies and community patterns of 
the desert animals and plants and associated resource utilization 
systems, as of the foliage, seed, fruit and flower eaters, visi- 
tors and predators. Twenty-six scientists under the direction of 
the second-named editor report their careful field studies and 
conclude with him that "In general, our results indicate that 
plants show striking convergences in individual morphological and 
physiological traits. .._.. .At the level of community structure, 
patterns of distribution of total plant biomass, life form types, 

and spacing and density of shrubs are all remarkably similar 

Those animals most strongly affected by the physical environment, 
such as anurans, are highly convergent in terms of individual 
adaptive traits and equivalent species pairs." Ilany appendices 
list and locate the plants and animals encountered in these 
studies. 



"MESQUITE - Its Biology in Two Desert Scrub Ecosystems" edited by 
B. B. Simpson, xix & 250 pp., A4 b/w photo., 74 fig., 22 
tab. & 10 maps. Dowden. Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., distributed 
by Academic Press, Inc., Publishers, I^ew York, Mew York, 
10003. 1977. $35.50. 

"From 1971 to 1975, the Origin and Structure of Ecosystems 
Project of the International Biological Program carried out re- 
search on convergent evolution in warm desert scrub ecosystems.... 
to determine to what extent similar physical environments (climate, 
geology, topography) in widely separated geographical areas has 
led to the evolution of biota that play similar roles in the struc- 
ture and functioning of ecosystems." Twenty-two scientists in 
careful coordination studied mesquite (Prosopis spp.), a dominant 
phraetophyte small tree or shrub in the Sonoran Desert of Tucson, 
Arizona and in the Monte Desert of Andalgala, Catamarca, in Argen- 
tina, for its morphology, physiology, niche component, leaf and 
flower and fruit as resources for insects and native Indian cul- 
tures, "but has now become regarded as a serious agricultural 

227 



228 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 3 

nuisance by European settlers." i\n appendix by the editor and 
the late Arturo Burkhart provides an excellent annotated key to 
the species of Prosopis worldwide. This study, number 4 in this 
IBP Synthesis, is certainly well reported and useful for years to 
come. 



"UNIVERSE" by Don Dixon, 240 pp, 123 color photo. & paintings, 
122 b/w photo. & paintings, 17 maps, 11 diag. & 15 tab. 
Houghton Mifflin Company, Boston, llassachusetts 02107. 1981. 
$35.00. 

This impressively written and illustrated book is wonderful 
and beautiful to peruse, to read and/or to study. "Perhaps the 
greatest contribution of modern astronomy is that it has not only 
revealed a universe full of pulsating energy, ethereal beauty, 
and great mystery but has also given us a perspective on our 

ultimate origins We may be dust, but we are star dust." 

Starting with a surmised beginning "big bang" in the distant (16 
billion years) past, continuing with the inner and then the outer 
solar system and going on to the realm of the galaxies and qua- 
sars, the author ends with "the search" of outer space and 
bodies for possible cognisant life. Dixon is a fine artist and a 
knowledgeable space science aficionado. 



"AUSTRALIAN NATIVE ORCHIDS in Colour" by Leo Cady & E. R. Rother- 
ham, 112 pp., 100 color plates, 1 b/w photo & 2 fig. A. A. 
& A. W. Reed Pty. Ltd., Sydney, IJellington & London, distrib- 
uted in the U. S. by Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., Rutland, 
Vermont 05701. 1978. Reprint Edition. $11.75. 

The first edition was released in 1970 mainly for the "down 
under" world of readers. It certainly deserves wider dissemina- 
tion especially since the many beautifully printed color photo- 
graphs are of so many different types of orchid - terrestrial, 
epiphytic, rock, and underground. The descriptions accompanying 
the plates have much valuable information simply written. Notes 
on pollination are often added. The aesthetic and botanical ap- 
peal will certainly interest many folks besides the worldwide and 
growing group of orchidophiles. 



"CONVERGENT EVOLUTION IN CHILE AND CALIFORNIA, Mediterranean Cli- 
mate Ecosystems" edited by Harold A. Mooney, xii & 224 pp., 
52 b/w fig., 29 tab., 6 photo. & 11 maps, published by 
Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc., Stroudsburg, Pa., distribu- 
ted by Academic Press, New York, N. Y. 10003. 1977. $32.50. 

This outstanding study is number 5 in the U. S. International 
Biological Program Series reporting the related studies of 22 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviews 229 

scientists on the nature and degree of convergence in the Cali- 
fornian and Chilean taxonomically distinct mediterranean biota. 
They conclude "that the degree of convergence at the primary- 
producer level between the arrays of communities studied in 
southern California and central Chile is substantial. Chiefly 

responsible is the great environmental similarity of the 

two areas and the consequently strong direct linkage between 
plant morphological and functional types with climate." Of 
course, non-conforming evidence is also considered, making the 
treatment well rounded and pertinent for quite some years to come. 



"CREOSOTE BUSH - Biology and Chemistry of LARREA in the New 

World Deserts" edited by T. J. !labry, J. H. Ilunziker & D. R. 
DiFeo, Jr., xvi & 28A pp., 11 b/w photo., 69 tab., 65 fig. 
& 8 maps, printed by Dowden, Hutchinson & Ross, Inc. for 

distribution by Academic Press, Inc., Publishers, New York, 

N. Y. 10003. 1977. $40.00. 

This volume is number 6 in the U. S. series of the valuable 
International Biological Program which gave such excellent train- 
ing to selected young scientists and produced such careful fine 
studies as those reported in this book. The five species and six 
interspecific hybrids of Larrea are compared for geographic 
distribution, morphology, cytogenetics, evolution, growth, repro- 
ductive systems, as well as visiting predators, pollinators and 
herbivores in the deserts near Tucson, Arizona and Andalgala, 
Argentina. To understand the success of these creosote bushes 
as successful dominant chamaephytes in these deserts their natur- 
al products were analyzed chemically and revealed waxes, vola- 
tiles, saponins, phenolic-like flavonoid aglycones, glycosides 
and the economically important nordihydroquaiaretic acid (NDGA) 
on leaf and stem surfaces. These plants are the source of the 
native medicinal chaparral tea and of livestock feed. For years 
to come this and its kindred studies will be outstanding refer- 
ence works. 



"ANNUAL REVIET^ OF ECOLOGY AND SYSTEMATICS. Volume 12" edited by 

Richard F. Johnston with Peter W. Frank & Charles D. Michener, 
ix & 470 pp., 28 b/w fig., 21 tab. & 2 maps. Annual Reviews 
Inc., Palo Alto, California 94306. 1981. $20.00 in U.S.A. 
& $21.00 foreign. 

Because of the subject matter this has been my favorite of 
all the excellent Annual Review series. The topics are always 
well chosen and well treated year after year indicating the nature 
of the problems and principles ^ and showing growth and changes in 
emphasis. During the reading I find myself wanting to make many 
appreciative comments which, however, space limitation will not 
permit, .\mong these sixteen papers are community and ecosystem 



230 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

reviews on marine algae and their herbivores, on wetlands, on 
diversity in deep sea benthos, on algal epifaunas, behavioral 
ecology of flower and fruit abortions, of insect seasonal cycles, 
of adaptation and evolution in Heliconius, in scorpionf lies and 
in intraspecific predation. There are papers on numerical phe- 
netics among plants, mechanisms of speciation, etc., "supporting 
our [editors'] view of the fundamentally unitary structure of 
systematics and ecology". An important paper compares and con- 
trasts ecology and economics which "describes and structures the 
allocation of resources". All the papers have excellent 
bibliographic support. 



"THE WORLD OF DAHLIAS" by Keith Hamnett, viii & 132 pp., 19 

color & 61 b/w photo., 25 fig. iw II- u A. W. Reed Ltd., 
London, Sydney, u Wellington, distributed in the U.S. by 
Charles E. Tuttle Co., Inc., Rutland, Vermont 05701. 1980. 
$17.35. 

The title is well chosen because the author wanted "to write a 
book which emphasises the truly international aspect of dahlia 

growing Emphasis is placed on explaining '\7hy' certain 

operations are carried out, rather than simply describing when 

and how they should be done The garden dahlia as we know it 

(and indeed in the form it was introduced to Europe from Mexico 
at the very end of the eighteenth century) is a complex hybrid." 
Only 19 years after these singles and semi-doubles appeared in 
horticulture true doubles were produced. Now there are over 
20,000 cultivars recognized. There are enthusiastic chapters on 
dahlia gardening, exhibiting, breeding, pest control, botany and 
history. 



"THE BIOLOGY OF MOSSES" by D. H. S. Richardson, :cii & 220 pp., 
33 b/w photo., 42 fig. & 8 tab. Halsted Press of John 
Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, New York 10158. 1981. 
$29.95 paperbound. 

This publication fills invitingly the gap where "no book on 
the biology of mosses is currently in print". The price is 
outrageous for a modest sized paperback volume! But it is well 
and enthusiastically written so that it makes fine supplementary 
reading in botany survey or lower plant courses and for bryo- 
phil-uaturalists. "Included are accounts of the value of 
mosses for pollution monitoring and of the traditional uses of 
these plants by man." 



1982 lloldenke, Book reviews 231 

"FLORIDA MARINE SHELLS - A Guide for Collectors of Shells of the 
Southeastern Atlantic and Gulf Coast" by C. N. Vilas & N. R. 
Vilas, 170 pp., 12 color & 2 b/w plates, 6 fig. & 1 map. 
Charles E. Tuttle Company, Publishers, Rutland, Vermont 
05701. Second Edition. ;976. $9.50. 

The authors aimed with considerable success to design "a book 
which would instruct the amateur collector xjithout being too 
technical; aid in identification of the most common shells with- 
out creating confusion; present a conception of the living mol- 
lusk; and create a substantial interest in shell collecting by 
means of colored illustrations, concise descriptions, clear basic 
classification, and general scientific facts". The chapters de- 
scribe shell collecting along both coasts, molluscans as a phylum 
and their classes, and the shells very well illustrated on the 
plates. The glossary is helpful. I am surprised at the "e" 
inserted into "Gastropoda" and the "ne" added to the singular 
"umbo". 



"INDEX TO ILLUSTRATIONS OF LIVING THINGS OUTSIDE NORTH AMERICA - 
Where to Find Pictures of Flora and Fauna" edited by Lucile 
Thompson Munz & Medra G. Slauson, 441 pp. Archon Books of 
Shoe String Press, Inc., P. 0. Box 4327, Hamden, Connecti- 
cut 06514. 1981. $49.50. 

For over 9,000 organisms listed separately by common and by 
scientific names there are cross references to each other and to 
206 reasonably available, authoritative, well illustrated items 
of literature published from 1952 to 1979. This new publication 
becomes a companion volume to J. W. Thompson's "Index to Illus- 
trations of the Natural World: Where to Find Pictures of the 
Living Things of North America". Because of the efficient cross- 
referencing used, the book can be used in many ways by many dif- 
ferent hunters seeking information and illustrations all over 
the world, especially in schools, universities and general 
libraries. 



"THE SOUTHERN-MESIC FOREST OF SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN: Species 

Composition and Community Structure" by James B. Levenson, 
246 pp., 170 b/w tab., 7 fig., 4 maps & 1 photo. Contribu- 
tions in Biology and Geology No. 41, Milwaukee Public Museum, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233. 1981. $6.50 paperbound & 90 
cents shipping. 

In the metropolitan Milwaukee region 43 remnants of this up- 
land southern mesic forest areas were studied for land-use his- 
tory, for soil information, canopy understorey and ground vege- 
tation, for cutting, light, lightning, moisture, disease and 



232 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 3 

plant introduction effects, and for possible preservation because 
of unique or fast disappearing features and/or components. This 
information is effectively presented and should settle arguments 
and guess work about the care and use of these areas wherein Acer 
saccharum Marsh., Fagus grandifolia Ehrh. (which does not replace 
itself), Fraxinus americana L. (which is replacing the Dutch 
elm diseased Ulmus spp.) and Tilia americana L. are the dominants. 
Many other similar areas needing study could profit from use of 
this report as a model as also could forestry students and 
workers. 



"BIOLOGY OF PLANTS. Third Edition" by Peter H. Raven, Ray F. 

Evert & Helena Curtis, xvii & 686 pp., ca. 1,000 color & b/w 
photo., fig., tab. u maps. Worth Publishers, Inc., New 
York, N. Y. 10016. 1981. $23.95. 

The first and second editions of this text were outstandingly 
fine on all scores. This new edition is even better because of 
more helpful and attractive illustrations and improvement of 
those retained, detectably simpler language in places, and more 
recently accepted botanical information, interpretations and 
scientific challenges. The depth and breadth are greater than in 
most introductory texts, but they bespeak enrichment. In the 
fourth edition I hope that the editorial committee will have the 
chloroplasts realistically colored green instead of broT,m 
as on pages 15 and ZO. 1 have not seen the supplements "Pre- 
paration Guide" and "Laboratory Topics in Botany" for this third 
edition but those for the earlier works were really useful. If 
my teaching days were not over, I would be ever so pleased to 
use this splendid text. 



"TROPICAL FLOWERS OF THE WORLD" by Lynda E. Chandler, 46 pp., 
45 b/w enlarged outline drawings & 45 color drawings. 
Dover Publications, Hew York, N. Y. 10014, 1981. $2.00 
paperbound. 

Tlie outlines or "plates" are \<icll dra^^m by a botanical illus- 
trator and legended with common and scientific names, colors 
that are shown on both sides of the covers, plant type, and 
pla(;e of origin. This makes a nice souvenir for almost any 
tropical vacation spot. 



fV7 

7 PHYTOLOGIA 

' A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 



Vol. 50 February 1982 No. 4 



CONTENTS 

MOLDENKE, H. N., A sixth summary of the Verbenaceae, Avicenni- 
aceae, Stilbaceae, Oiloanthaceae, Symphoremaceae, 
Nyctanthaceae, and Eriocaulaceae of the world as to 
valid taxa, geographic distribution and synonymy. 
Supplement 1 233 

PONCE DE LEON, P., Lysurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd 

in Illinois 271 ^ " 9 

REED, C. F., Trillium virginianum (Fern.) Reed, comb, no v., in 

Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and North Carolina 279 

REED, C. P., Additional notes on Cypripedium kentuckiense Reed 286 

SOUKUP, V. G., A new form of Trillium miyabeanum (Liliaceae) 

from Hokkaido 289 

SOUKUP, V. G., New yellow-flowered forms of Trillium (Liliaceae) 

from the northwestern United States 290 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Geunsia. Ill 292 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number $3.00; for this volume $12.00 in advance or $13.00 after 

close of the volume; $4.00 extra to all foreign addresses and domestic 

dealers; 512 pages constitute a complete volume; claims for numbers lost 

in the mails must be made immediately after receipt of the next following 

number for free replacement; back volume prices apply if payment is received 

after a volume is closed. 



A SIXTH SUMMARY OF THE VERBENACEAE , AVICENNIACEAE , STILBACEAE , 
CHLOANTHACEAE , SYMPHOREMACEAE , NYCTANTHACEAE , AND ERIOCAULACEAE 
OF THE WORLD AS TO VALID TAXA, GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION AND 
SYNONYMY. SUPPLMENT 1 

Harold N. Moldenke 



Since the publication of the original edition of this compi- 
lation in PHYTOLOGIA MEMOIRS II on December 30, 1980, no less 
than 7,310 new herbarium specimens have been received and exam- 
ined by me, bringing the total annotated thus far to 254,128. 

This new material and extensive additional bibliographic re- 
search, chiefly by my wife. Alma L. Moldenke, have brought to 
light many new geographic records, as well as new taxa, new 
synonyms and other rejected names, and changes in status of 
names previously listed. These are all brought together in the 
present supplement. 

New and emended distribution records 

CANADA: 
Qu^ec: 

Verbena hastata L. [Cleveland] 
l^erJbena urticifolia L. [Maddington & Portneuf] 
Ontario: 

Eriocaulon pellucidum f. pumilum (Raf.) Mold. [Rainy River 
District] 
UNITED STATES OF AMERICA: 
New York: 

Verjbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Great Gull Island] 
Verbena hastata L. [Fire Island] 

Verbena hastata f . rosea Cheney [New York County] 
Pennsylvania : 

Verbena hastata L. [Three Mile Island] 
Maryland : 

Verbena hastata L. [Carroll County] 
Vitex agnus-castus L. [Montgomery County] 
Virginia: 

Eriocaulon pellucidum f. pumilum (Raf.) Mold. [Augusta 

County] 
Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [York County] 
Verbena hastata L. [Bedford County] 
Verbena simplex Lehm. [Appomatox County] 

V^eriiena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald [Newport 
News City] 
West Virginia: 

Verbena hastata L. [Boone, Braxton, Brooke, Calhoun, Clay, 
Doddridge, Gilmer, Grant, Greenbrier, Harrison, Jackson, 
Lewis, Lincoln, Logan, McDowell, Marion, Marshall, Mason, 

233 



234 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Mingo, Monroe, Morgan, Pendleton, Pleasants, Ritchie, Roane, 
Sxunmers, Taylor Tyler, Wayne, Wetzel, Wirt, & Wyoming Coun- 
ties] 
Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Femald [Raleigh 
County ] 
North Carolina: 

Eriocaulon decangulare var. minor Mold. [New Hanover County] 
Lachnocaulon anceps (Walt.) Morong. [Carteret County] 
Verbena simplex Lehm. [Cabarrus County] 

Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald [Yadkin 
County] 
South Carolina: 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Florence County; James Is- 
land] 
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene [Hilton Head Island] 
Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Abbeville County] 
Georgia: 

Callicarpa americana L. [Cobb & Houston Counties] 
Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze [Grady County] 
Eriocaulon cotnpressum Lam. [Lowndes County] 
Eriocaulon decangulare L. [Charlton County] 
Verbena halei Small [Houston County] 

Verbena rigida Spreng. [Beach, Houston, & Lowndes Counties] 
Verbena scahra Vahl [Hall County] 

Verbena tenuisecta Briq. [Houston & Lowndes Counties] 
Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald [Dawson 
County ] 
Florida: 

Avicennia germinans (L.) L. [Honeymoon Island] 

Callicarpa americana f. lactea (F. J. Muller) Rehd. [Osceola 

County] 
Eriocaulon compressum Lam. [Okaloosa County] 
Eriocaulon compressum var. harperi Mold. [Okaloosa & Santa 

Rosa Counties] 
Eriocaulon decangulare L. [Okaloosa County] 
Eriocaulon decangulare f . parviceps Mold. [Coffee County] 
Lachnocaulon anceps f . glabrescens Mold. [Hillsborough County] 
Lantana bahamensis var. floridana Hold. [Sanibel Island] 
Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Biscayne Key] 
Lantana depressa Small [Monroe County; Largo Key] 
Lantana involucrata L. [Torch Key] 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. [Palm Beach County] 
Lantana ovatifolia Britton [Largo, Torch, £< Virginia Keys] 
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene [Dutch, Largo, & Virginia Keys] 
Syngonanthus flavidulus (Michx.) Ruhl. [Bradford County] 
Verbena halei Small [Citrus, Hamilton, Marion, Pasco, & Volu- 
sia Counties] 
Alabama : 

Callicarpa americana L. [Dauphin Island] 
Eriocaulon decangulare L. [Dauphin Island] 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Mobile County; Dauphin Is- 
land] 



1982 Moldenke, SiKth sunnnary supplement 235 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene [Little Dauphin Island] 

Verbena bonariensis L. [Lee County] 

Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Jefferson County] 

Verbena halei Small [Lee County; Dauphin Island] 

Verbena rigida Spreng. [Lee County; Dauphin Island] 

Verbena tenuisecta Briq. [Dale & Lee Counties] 
Mississippi: 

Eriocaulon compressuw Lam. [Harrison & Pearl River Counties] 

Eriocaulon compressum var. harper i Mold. [Pearl River County] 

Eriocaulon decangulare L. [Marion County] 

Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. [Harrison County] 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Tishomingo County] 

Verbena tenuisecta Briq. [Lauderdale County] 
Ohio : 

Phyla lanceolata OUchx.) Greene [Pauling County] 

Verbena urticifolia L. [Vinton County] 
Illinois: 

Verbena bracteata Lag. 6f Rodr. [Christian & Moultrie Counties] 

Verbena simplex Lehm. [Fayette County] 
Iowa: 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Des Moines County] 

Verbena Xmoechina Mold. [Guthrie County] 
Kentucky : 

Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton [Clinton County] 

Verbena simplex Lehm. [Simpson County] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Christian County] 
Tennessee: 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Cheatham & McCracken Coun- 
ties] 

Verbena hastata L. [Montgomery County] 

Verbena simplex Lehm. [Loudon County] 

Verbena urticifolia L. [Hamblen County] 

Vert>ena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Femald [Cocke & 
Stewart Counties] 
Michigan: 

Verbena hastata var. scabra Hold. [Kalamazoo County] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Muskegon Coionty] 
Wisconsin: 

Eriocaulon pellucidum Michx. [Waushara County; Stockton Island] 

Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. [Green County] 

Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton [Dana County] 

Verbena Xdeamii Mold. [Brown County; delete "Pierce"] 

Verbena hastata L. [One Island] 

Verbena hastata var. scabra Mold. [LaCrosse & Vernon Counties] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Goose Island] 
Minnesota: 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Dakota County] 

Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald [Dakota 
County] 
North Dakota: 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Stutsman County] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Sargent County] 



236 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

South Dakota: 

Phyla cuneifolia (Torr.) Greene [Gregor County] 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Codington County] 
Kansas : 

Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. [Crawford County] 

Verbena hastata L. [Labette County] 
Missouri: 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Douglas^ Newton, Ozark, Ray, 
Saint Charles, & Texas Counties] 

Verbena bracteata Lag. " Rodr. [Webster County] 

Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Washington County] 

Verbena Xmoechina Mold. [Ozark County] 

Verbena urticifolia L. [Ballinger County] 
Arkansas : 

Callicarpa americana L. [Ouachita & Prairie Counties] 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Fulton, Independence, Marion, 
Searcy, Stone, u Van Buren Counties] 

Verbena bonariensis L. [Columbia & Lafayette Counties] 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Izard County] 

Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton [Independence, Jackson, Mont- 
gomery, Pike, & Randolph Counties] 

Verbena Xmoechina Mold. [Independence County] 

Verbena Xoklahomensis Mold. [Independence & Izard Counties] 

Verbena simplex f. eggerti (Mold.) Mold. [Fulton, Indepen- 
dence, Izard, Newton, u Sharp Counties] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Fulton County] 

Verbena urticifolia L. [Independence, Izard, u Newton Counties] 

Verbena xutha Lehm. [Howard County] 
Louisiana: 

Avicennia germinans (L.) L. [Lafourche Parish; Grand Island] 

Callicarpa americana L. [Caldwell, Claiborne, East Carroll, 
East Feliciana, Franklin, Jackson, Jefferson, Lafayette, 
Lincoln, lladison, Morehouse, Pvichland, Saint Helena, Saint 
Martin, Tensas, Tangipahoa, Terrebonne, & Winn Parishes; Cote 
Blanche Island] 

Callicarpa americana f. lactea (F. J. Muller) Rehd. [DeSoto, La 
Salle, Rapides, St. Tammany, Union, & Winn Parishes] 

Clerodendrum bungei Steud. [Ouachita & Rapides Parishes] 

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze [Saint Charles, Saint Mary, & 
Washington Parishes] 

Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br. [Acadia & Vernon Parishes] 

Eriocaulon decangulare L. [Beauregard, Grant, Rapides, Sabine, 
6i Washington Parishes] 

Eriocaulon decangulare var. minor Hold. [Sabine Parish] 

Eriocaulon decangulare f. parviceps Mold. [Grant, Washington, & 
Winn Parishes] 

Eriocaulon texense KHrn. [Sabine Parish] 

Lachnocaulon anceps (Walt.) Morong [Sabine & Washington Parishes] 

Lachnocaulon anceps f. glabrescens Mold. [Sabine Parish] 

Lantana camara L. [Saint Mary Parish] 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Bienville, Caddo, Calcasieu, 
Cameron, DeSoto, Evangeline, Jefferson, Lafayette, LaFourche, 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 237 

Ouachita, Rapides, Richland, Sabine, Saint Charles, Terre- 
bonne, & Washington Parishes] 

Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. [East Baton Rouge Parish] 

Lantana tiliaefolia Cham. [Bossier, Claiboime, Morehouse, & 
Union Parishes] 

Lantana urtlcoides Hayek [Lincoln & Saint Mary Parishes; Grand 
Isles] 

Lantana urtlcoides var. hispidula Mold. [Claiborne & Union 
Parishes] 

Phyla ^Intermedia Mold. [Acadia, Cameron, Concordia, Evange- 
line, Franklin, Iberville, Jackson, LaSalle, Orleans, Ouachita, 
Rapides, Sabine, Saint Martin, Saint Mary, Tangipahoa, Tensas, 
Terrebonne, Vernon, & Winn Parishes] 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Acadia, Ascension, Bienville, 
Bossier, Caddo, Caldwell, Claiborne, DeSoto, East Carroll, 
East Feliciana, Evangeline, Franklin, Grant, Iberia, Iber- 
ville, Jackson, LaSalle, Morehouse, Rapides, Red River, Rich- 
land, Sabine, Saint James, Saint Landry, Tensas, Union, Ver- 
non, Webster, West Baton Rouge, West Carroll, i» Winn Parishes; 
Dunbar's Island] 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene [Evangeline, LaFourche, LaSalle, & 
Saint Mary Parishes] 

Phyla nodi flora var. incisa (Small) Mold. [Acadia, Lafayette, & 
LaSalle Parishes] 

Phyla nodi flora var. longifolia Mold. [Caddo, LaSalle, & Saint 
Mary Parishes] 

Phyla nodi flora var. reptans (Spreng.) Mold. [Ouachita Parish] 

Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Mold. [Beauregard, Caddo, Calcas- 
ieu, Cameron, Grant, Jefferson, LaFourche, Madison, Orleans, 
Red River, Saint John the Baptist, Saint Landry, Saint Tammany, 
Tangipahoa, Webster, 6. Winn Parishes; Grand Island] 

Phyla strigulosa (Mart. £■ Gal.) Mold. [Bossier, DeSoto, East 
Carroll, Madison, Ouachita, & Sabine Parishes] 

Phyla strigulosa var. sericea (Kuntze) Mold. [Morehouse Parish] 

Stylodon carneus (Medic.) Mold. [Sabine Parish] 

Verbena bipinnatifida Nutt. [DeSoto Parish] 

Verbena bonariensis L. [Acadia, Caddo, Caldwell, >^atahoula, 
Claiborne, UeSoto, East Carroll, Franklin, Grant, Jackson, La 
Salle, Lincoln, Madison, Morehouse, Rapides, Red River, Rich- 
land, Sabine, Saint Charles, Tensas, West Carroll, & Winn 
Parishes] 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Claiborne, East Carroll, Madi- 
son, Morehouse, Ouachita, Richland, & West Carroll Parishes] 

Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Claiborne, East Carroll, East Fel- 
iciana, Iberville, Livingston, Madison, Morehouse, Red 
River, Richland, Sabine, Saint James, West Carroll, & Winn 
Parishes] 

Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton [Beauregard, Bienville, Cald- 
well, Catahoula, Claiborne, Concordia, DeSoto, East Carroll, 
Grant, LaSalle, Madison, Red River, Sabine, Washington, & 
West Carroll Parishes] 

Verbena halei Small [Beauregard, Catahoula, Concordia, East 



238 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Carroll, Evangeline, Grant, LaSalle, Morehouse, Richland, 
Sabine, Saint Landry, Washington, West Baton Rouge, West 
Carroll, & Winn Parishes] 

Verbena Xhybrida Voss [Ouachita P«rish] 

Verbena litoralis H.B.K. [Ouachita Parish] 

Verbena montevidensis Spreng. [Acadia, Caldwell, Catahoula, 
Grant, LaSalle, Iladison, Morehouse, Rapides, Richland, Sa- 
bine, Saint Mary, Union, & West Carroll Parishes] 

Verbena rigida Spreng. [Bienville, Bossier, Concordia, DeSoto, 
East Carroll, Jefferson, LaSalle, Lincoln, Morehouse, Rapi- 
des, Richland, Tensas, & West Carroll Parishes] 

Verbena tenuisecta Briq. [Allen, Caddo, Caldwell, Catahoula, 
OeSoto, Franklin, Grant, Lafayette, LaSalle, Morehouse, 
Richland, Union, West Feliciana, & Winn Parishes] 

Veri>ena urticifolia L. [Bienville, Caddo, Caldwell, Catahoula, 
Claiborne, DeSoto, East Carroll, Franklin, Grant, Iberville, 
LaSalle, Madison, Morehouse, Ouachita, Richland, Sabine, 
Saint Mary, Tensas, Union, Washington, West Carroll, & Winn 
Parishes] 

Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Femald [Assumption, 
Iladison, & West Carroll Parishes] 

Verbena xutha Lehm. [Acadia, Bienville, Caddo, Catahoula, Con- 
cordia, DeSoto, Lincoln, Richland, Tensas, & Washington 
Parishes] 

Vitex agnus-castus L. [Caddo, Caldwell, Concordia, Evangeline, 
Franklin, Ouachita, Richland, Saint Mary, o< Winn Parishes] 

Vitex negundo L. [Richland & Saint Mary Parishes] 
Wyoming : 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Campbell & Converse Counties] 
Utah: 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Sevier County] 
Nebraska : 

Phyla cuneifolia (Torr.) Greene [Clay County] 

Verbena hastata var. scabra Mold. [Sherman County] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Merrill County] 

Verbena urticifolia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fernald [Dawes 
County] 
Oklahoma : 

Phyla lanceolata (Mlchx.) Greene [Choctaw & Harmon Counties] 

Phyla Xintermedia Mold. [Kingfisher County] 

Phyla nodiflora var. longi folia Mold. [Marshall County] 

Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Mold. [Woods County] 

Phyla strigulosa (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. [Marshall County] 

l^erbena bonariensis L. [Bryan County] 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Major County] 

Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Bryan County] 

Verbena ciliata var. longidentata Perry [Harmon County] 

Verbena halei Small [Stephens County] 

Verbena hastata L. [Sequoyah County] 

Verbena pumila Rydb. [Throckmorton County] 

Verbena simplex Lehm. [Little River County] 

Verbena stricta Vent. [Seminole County] 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 239 

Verbena urticifolia L. [Logan County] 
Texas : 

Aloysia gratissiwa f. macrophylla Kold. [Kimble County] 

Avicennia germinans (L.) L. [Refugio County] 

Eriocaulon decangulare var. minor Mold. [Tyler County] 

Lantana camara L. [Hidalgo County] 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Galveston & Walker Coun- 
ties] 

Lantana macropoda Torr. [Terrell County] 

Lantana notha Mold. [Maverick & Val Verde Counties] 

Lantana urticoides var. hispidula Mold. [Panola, San Patricio, 
& Smith Counties] 

Lippia graveolens f. macrophylla Mold. [Hidalgo County] 

Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene [Angelina County] 

Phyla nodiflora var. incisa (Small) Mold. [Maverick County; 
South Padre Island] 

Phyla nodiflora var. longifolia Hold. [Galveston & Jefferson 
Counties] 

Phyla nodiflora var. reptans (Spreng.) Mold. [Jefferson County] 

Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Mold. [Llano County] 

Phyla strigulosa (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. [San Patricio County] 

Phyla strigulosa var. sericea (Kuntze) Mold. [Frio County] 

Verbena ^alleni Mold. [Burnet County] 

Verbena bipinnatif ida Nutt. [Real & Rockwall Counties] 

Verbena bipinnatif ida var. latilobata Perry [Cameron County] 

Verbena brasiliensis Veil. [Colorado, Galveston, Kaufman, & 
Newton Counties] 

Verbena canadensis (L.) Britton [Kerr County] 

Verbena canescens H.B.K. [Brown, Burnet, Comal, Kimble, & Tay- 
lor Counties] 

Verbena canescens var. roemeriana (Scheele) Perry [Maverick 
County ] 

Verbena ciliata Benth. [Brown County] 

Verbena ciliata var. longidentata Perry [Throckmorton County] 

Verbena cloverae Mold. [Cameron & Jim Hogg Counties] 

Verbena halei Small [Newton, Panola, & San Jacinto Counties] 

Verbena montevidensis Spreng. [Harris County] 

Verbena Xoklahomensis Mold. [Bexar County] 

Verbena plicata Greene [El Paso County] 

Verbena scabra Vahl [Tom Green County] 

Verbena tenuisecta Briq. [Bee County] 

Verbena tenuisecta f. alba (Benary) Mold. [Smith County] 

Verbena wrightii A. Gray [Hidalgo County] 

Vitex agnus-castus L. [Cameron, Llano, & Van Zandt Counties] 
New Mexico: 

Verbena bipinnatif ida var. brevispicata (Umber) Mold. [Otero 
County ] * 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Lea County] 

Verbena gooddingii Briq. [Eddy County] 
Arizona: 

Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Mold. [Cochise County] 

Verbena bonariensis L. [Maricopa County] 



240 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Verbena chiricahensis (Umber) Mold. [Cochise County]* 
Washington: 

Verbena bracteata Lag. & Rodr. [Lincoln County] 
California: 

Lantana camara L. [San Diego County] 

Verbena abramsi Mold. [Tuolumne County] 

Verbena rigida Spreng. [Marin County] 
MEXICO: 

Aegiphila monstrosa Mold. [Quintana Roo] 

Aloysia chiapensis Mold. [Oaxaca] 

Avicennia germinans (L.) L. [Quintana Roo] 

Bouchea dissecta S. Vats. [Jalisco] 

Bouchea prismatica (L.) Kuntze [Morelos] 

Bouchea prismatica var. laciniata Grenz. [Mexico] 

Bouchea prismatica var. longirostra Grenz. [Morelos & San Luis 
Potosi] 

Callicarpa acuminata var. argutedentata Mold. [Tabasco & 
Veracruz] 

Citharexylum hirtellum Standi. [Jalisco] 

Citharexylum lycioides D. Don [Quer^taro] 

Clerodendrum ligustrinum (Jacq.) R. Br. [Quintana Roo] 

Clerodendrum um2>ellatum Poir. [Tabasco] 

Cornutia grandifolia (Schlecht. & Cham.) Schau. [Quintana Roo] 

Duranta repens L. [Quintana Roo] 

Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken [Guerrero] 

Ghinia curassavica f. parvifolia Hold. [Chiapas, San Luis Po- 
tosi, Tamaulipas, & Veracruz]* 

Lantana achyranthi folia Desf. [Guanajuato & Zacatecas] 

Lantana achyranthi folia f. lilacina Mold. [Puebla] 

Lantana camara L. [Puebla] 

Lantana camara var. aculeata (L.) Mold. [Queretaro] 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Tjimaulipas] 

Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) L6pez-Palacio8 
[Oaxaca, Puebla, & Quintana Roo] 

Lantana camara var. moritziana f. albiflora Mold. [Morelos]* 

Lantana camara f. splendens (Medic.) Mold. [Quintana Roo & Ta- 
basco] 

Lantana chiapasensis var. parvifolia Mold. — delete the aster- 
isk 

Lantana frutilla var. obtusi folia Mold. [Michoacan, Morelos, & 
Veracruz] 

Lantana frutilla var. velutina Mold. [Guanajuato, Tlaxcala, & 
Veracruz] 

Lantana glandulosissima Hayek [Colima] 

Lantana glandulosissima f. acuieatissima Mold. [Distrito Feder- 
al, Guerrero, ^!exico, & Michoacan]* 

Lantana glandulosissima f. flava Mold. [Jalisco & Morelos]* 

Lantana glandulosissima f. parvifolia Mold. [Chiapas, Oaxaca, 
fit San Luis Potos:^]* 

Lantana hirta f. caerulea Mold. [Veracruz] 

Lantana hirta var. pubescens Mold. [Jalisco, Morelos, Puebla, & 



1982 Iloldenke, Sixth suinmary supplement 241 

Tamaulipas] 
Lantana hispida H.B.K. [Guanajuato] 

Lantana horrida H.B.K. [Guanajuato, Jalisco, & Puebla] 
Lantana involucrata var. odorata (L.) Mold. [Campeche] 
Lantana jaliscana Mold. [Jalisco]* 
Lantana kingi Mold. [Quer^taro] 
Lantana macropoda Torr. [Jalisco] 

Lantana microcephala A. Rich. [Campeche & Jalisco] 
Lantana montevidensis (Spreng.) Briq. [Jalisco] 
Lantana notha Mold. [Hidalgo] 
Lantana tiliaefolia Cham. [Oaxaca] 
Lantana trifolia f. oppositifolia Mold. [Chiapas] 
Lantana trifolia f. pluripedunculata Hold. [Veracruz] 
Lantana urticoides f. aculeata Mold. [Puebla]* 
Lantana urticoides f. macrophylla Mold. [Sonora]* 
Lantana velutina Mart. & Gal. [Quintana Roo] 
Lantana velutina f. flava Mold. [Chihuahua, Hidalgo, & Quer^- 

taro ] * 
Lantana velutina var. longi folia Mold. [Sinaloa] 
Lantana velutina f. macrophylla Mold. [Chiapas, Michoacrfn, 

Puebla, Quer^taro, & Sinaloa] 
Lippia callicarpaefolia H.B.K. [Puebla] 
Lippia cardiostegia Benth. [Campeche] 
Lippia graveolens f. macrophylla Mold. [Chiapas, Coahuila, 

Mexico, Michoac^n, Oaxaca, Puebla, Quer^taro, & Yucatdn] 
Lippia graveolens f. microphylla Mold. [Chihuahua, Coahuila, 

Durango, Hidalgo, Jalisco, Nuevo Leon, Oaxaca, Puebla, & 

Tamaulipas]* 
Lippia jaliscana Mold. [Michoac^n] 
Lippia myriocephala var. tomentosa Mold. [Puebla]* 
Lippia oaxacana Robinson & Greenra. [Veracruz] 
Lippia pringlei Briq. — delete the asterisk 
Lippia umbellata Cav. — delete the asterisk 
Petrea volubilis f. pubescens Mold. [Chiapas] 
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene [Baja California] 
Phyla nodiflora var. incisa (Small) Mold. [Tamaulipas] 
Phyla nodiflora var. longi folia Mold. [Tamaulipas] 
Phyla nodiflora var. reptans (Spreng.) Mold. [Guanajuato] 
Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Hold. [Guanajuato] 
Phyla scaberrima (A. L. Juss.) Mold. [Puebla & Quintana Roo] 
Phyla strigulosa var. sericea (Kuntze) Mold. [Campeche] 
Priva lappulacea f. albiflora Mold. [Nuevo Leon] 
Stachytarpheta acuminata P. DC. [Puebla] 
Stachytarpheta acuminata f. pubescens Mold. [Guerrero, Hidalgo, 

& Oaxaca]* 
Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L. C. Rich.) Vahl [Veracruz] 
Stachiitarpheta frantzii var. mollissima Mold. [Veracruz] 
Stachytarpheta guatemalensis Mold. [Puebla & San Luis Potosl] 
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [Campeche] 
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis f. atrocoerulea Mold. [Campeche, 

Oaxaca, Quintana Roo, & Tabasco] 
Stachytarpheta miniacea f . parvifolia Mold. [Quintana Roo] 



242 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Stachytarpheta purpurea Greenin. [Quintana Roo] 

Stachytarpheta tabascana Mold. [Chiapas] 

Stachytarpheta velutina Hold. [Hidalgo & Morelos] 

Tonina fluviatilis Aubl. [Tabasco] 

Verbena ambrosi folia Rydb. [Zacatecas] 

Verbena canescens H.B.K. [Coahuila] 

Verbena canescens f. albi flora Mold. [Veracruz] 

Verbena Carolina f. hirsuta (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. [Durango, 
Guanajuato, Hidalgo, Morelos, Nayarlt, Nuevo Le<^n, Oaxaca, 
& Quer^taro] 

Verbena ehrenbergiana Schau. [Guanajuato & Jalisco] 

Verbena gentryi Mold. [Guerrero, Mexico, Morelos, & Nuevo Ledn] 

Verbena halei Small [Michoac^n] 

Verbena litoralis H.B.K. [Guanajuato] 

Verbena litoralis f. albiflora Mold. [Oaxaca] 

Verbena longifolia Mart. & Gal. [Queretaro] 

Verbena longifolia var. pubescens Mold. [Sinaloa 6f Veracruz] 

Verbena macdougalii Heller [Nuevo Ledn] 

Verbena perennis Woo ton [Nuevo Ledn] 

Verbena pinetorum Mold. [Chiapas, Distrito Federal, & Guanajuato] 

Verbena polyantha (Umber) Mold. [Queretaro] 

Verbena pecta H.B.K. [Nuevo Leon] 

Verbena teucriifolia Mart. & Gal. [Coahuila] 

Verbena wrightii A. Gray [Hidalgo] 

Vitex tri folia var. subtrisecta (Kuntze) Mold. [Quintana Roo] 
YUCATAN ISLANDS: 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. [Mujeres] 
MEXICAN OCEANIC ISLANDS: 

Lantana involucrata L. — to be deleted 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. — to be deleted 

Lantana involucrata var. socorrensis Hold. [Socorro]* 
GUATEMALA: 

Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) L^pez-Palacios 
[Guatemala] 

Lantana camara f. splendens (Medic.) Mold. [Escuintla] 

Lippia controversa Mold. [Solol^] 

Lippia umbellata Cav. [El Peten] 

Verbena Carolina f. hirsuta (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. [Quezaltenango] 
BELIZE: 

Stachytarpheta miniacea f. parvifolia Mold. 
HONDURAS : 

Citharexylum caudatum L. [Gracias a Dfos] 

Lantana hirta f. caerulea Mold. — delete the asterisk 

Lantana velutina f. macrophylla Hold. [Ocotep^que] 

Lippia cardiostegia Benth. [Ocotepeque] 

Lippia controversa var. brevipedunculata Mold. [Morazdn] 

Paepalanthus lamarckii Kunth [Colon] 

Stachytarpheta frantzii var. aollissima Mold. [Tegucigalpa] 
EL SALVADOR: 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene [San Salvador & Santa Ana] 
NICARAGUA : 

Aegiphila wonstrosa Hold* [ Jinotega] 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 243 

Bouchea nelsonil Grenz. [Estelf & Matagalpa] 

Citharexylum rnucronatum Foum. & Mold. [Boaco] 

Citharexylum viride Mold. [Boaco] 

Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir. [Managua] 

Cornutia grandifolia (Schlecht. & Cham.) Schau. [Madriz] 

Cornutia lilacina var. velutina Mold. [Chontales & Estelf] 

Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) Ld'pez-Palacios 

[Masaya] 
Lantana chiapasensis var. parvifolia Mold. [Granada] 
Lantana glandulosissiwa Hayek [Jinotega & Madriz] 
Lantana hirta Grah. [Madriz] 
Lantana hispida H.B.K. [Masaya] 

Lantana trifolia f. oppositifolia Mold. [Boaco & Jinotega] 
Lantana velutina f. macrophylla Mold. [Estelf] 
Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Er. [Jinotega, Madriz, & Zelaya] 
Lippia controversa Mold. [Granada & I'lanagua] 

Phyla nodiflora var. texensis Hold. [Leo'n, Managua, & Zelaya] 
Phyla scaberrima (A. L. Juss.) Mold. [Jinotega] 
Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. [Masaya] 
Priva lappulacea f. albi flora Mold. [Estelf] 
Rehdera trineirvis (Blake) Mold. [Chontales] 
Stachytarpheta calderonii Mold. [Ledn & Managua] 
Stachytarpheta frantzii Polak. [Boaco & Matagalpa] 
Tectona grandis L. f. [Managua] 
Verbena andrieuxii Schau. [Managua] 
Verbena literal is H.B.K. [Boaco & Le<^n] 
Vitex gaumeri Greenm. [Estelf] 

COSTA RICA: 

Citharexylum donnell-smithii Greenm. [Puntarenas] 

Eriocaulon schippii Standi. [Guanacaste] 

Eriocaulon seemannii Mold. [Guanacaste] 

Lantana trifolia f. oppositifolia Mold. [Alajuela] 

Lippia graveolens f. microphylla Mold. [Guanacaste] 

Lippia pringlei Briq. [Cartago] 

Stachytarpheta mutabilis var. violacea Mold. [Guanacaste] 

Syngonanthus caulescens (Poir.) Ruhl. [San Jos^] 

PANAMA: 

Avicennia germinans f. aberrans Mold. [Psmama] 

Lantana canescens H.B.K. [Cocl^] 

Lantana hispida H.B.K. [Panam^] 

Lantana trifolia f. pluripedunculata Mold. [Colon] 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis f. atrocoerulea Mold. [Panam^] 

PEARL ISLANDS: 

Avicennia germinans f . aberrans Mold. [San Jose] 

BERMUDA ISLANDS: 

Lantana involucrata L. [Agar] 

BAHAMA ISLANDS: 

Avicennia germinans (L . ) L . [ San Salvador ] 
Lantana involucrata var. odorata (L.) Mold. [Long] 
Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene [San Salvador] 
Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [San Salvador] 



I 



244 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 



CUBA: 

Lantana camara f. parvifolia Mold. [Havana] 

Lantana glandulosissima Hayek [Oriente] 

Lantana involucrata var. odorata (L.) Mold. [Pinar del Rfo] 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. [Las Villas & Oriente] 

Lantana maxima Hayek [Havana & Oriente] 

Lantana maxima f. alba Mold. [Pinar del Rfis] 

Lantana ovati folia Britton [Oriente] 

Lantana Xperdita Mold. [Pinar del Rfo] 

Lantana reticulata f. albiflora Hold, [liatanzas] 

Lantana strigosa (Griseb.) Urb. [Havana & Oriente] 
JAMAICA: ■ 

Lantana maxima Hayek ■ 

Lantana Xperdita Mold. 
HISPANIOLA: 

Lantana urticaefolia Hill. [Dominican Republic] 
HISPANIOLAN OFFSHORE ISLANDS: 

Lantana arida Britton [Gonave & Tortue] 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. [Gonave, Mona, & Tortue] 
PUERTO RICO: 

Bouchea prismatica var. Jbrevirostra Grenz. 

Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir. 

Lantana arida var. portoricensis Mold.* 

Lantana arida var. sargentii Mold.* 

Lantana maxima Hayek 

Verbena litoralis H.B.K. 
PUERTO RICAN OFFSHORE ISLANDS: _ 

Duranta repens f. microphylla (Desf.) Mold. [Vieques] ■ 

Lantana strigosa (Griseb.) Urb. [Desecheo] "i 

VIRGIN ISLANDS: 

Lantana involucrata var. odorata (L.) Mold. [Tortola] ,_ 

Lantana strigosa (Griseb.) Urb. [St. Thomas & Tortola] ■ 

LEEWARD ISLANDS: " 

Lantana involucrata f. rubella Mold. [Barbuda] 

Lantana urticaefolia Mill. [St. Bartholomew] _ 

Stacbytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [Barbuda] ■ 

WINDWARD ISLANDS: ■ 

Lantana fucata var. antillana Mold. [Grenada] 

Lantana strigosa (Griseb.) Urb. [Barbados] 
SOUTHERN NETHERLANDS ANTILLES: 

Phyla strigulosa var. sericea (Kuntze) Mold. [Curacao] 
NORTHERN SOUTH AMERICAN ISLANDS: 

Priva lappulacea f . albiflora Mold. [San Andres] 
COLC94BIA: 

Aegiphila bogotensis (Spreng.) Mold. [Cesar] - 

Aegiphila cephalopbora Standi. [Antioquia] ■ 

Aegiphila cordata var. brevipilosa Mold. [Valle]* ' 

Aegiphila cordata var. colombiana Mold. [Chocrf] 

Aegiphila deppeana Steud. [Chocrf] 

Aegiphila hoehnei var. spectabilis Mold. [Chocd] 

Aegiphila integrifolia (Jacq.) Jacq. [Antioquia] 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 245 

Avicennia germinans var. guayaguilensis (H.B.K.) Mold. [Sala- 
manca Island] 

Clerodendrum splendens G. Don [Antioquia] 

Lantana armata Schau. [Chocd] 

Lantana armata var. velutina Mold. [Santander & Tolima] 

Lantana tri folia f. oppositi folia Mold. [Chocd] 

Paepalanthus crassicaulis K8rn. [Antioquia] 

Paepalanthus saxicola var. conicus Mold. [Guania] 

Priva lappulacea (L.) Pars. [Chocd"] 

Priva lappulacea f. albiflora Mold. [Guajira] 

Vitex calothyrsa Sandw. [Vaup^s] 

Vitex triflora Vahl [Antioquia] 
VENEZUELA: 

Aegiphila parviflora Mold. [Guirico] 

Citharexylum venezuelense Mold. [Falcdn] 

Clerodendrum philippinum £. multiplex (Sweet) Mold. [Bolfvar] 

Duranta repens var. lopez-palacii Mold. [Tachira] 

Eriocaulon aquatile K8rn. [Apure] 

Lantana hirta f. caerulea Mold. [Gu^rico] 

Leiothrix flavescens var. alpina Mold. [Amazonas] 

Lippia origanoides H.B.K. [Los Venados Islands] 

Paepalanthus auyantepuiensis Mold. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus bifidus f . brevipes Mold. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus dichotomus var. pumilus Mold. [Bolfvar] 

Paepalanthus fraternus N. E. Br. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus fraternus var. marahuacensis Mold. [Amazonas & 
Bolivar]* 

Paepalanthus fraternus var. radiatus Mold. [Amazonas]* 

Paepalanthus fraternus var. spathulatus Mold. [Bolivar]* 

Paepalanthus pauperrimus Herzog [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus perpusillus Kunth [Tachira] 

Paepalanthus polytrichoides Kunth [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus roraimensis Mold. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus savannarum Clold.) Mold. [Amazonas & Bolfvar] 

Paepalanthus savannarum var. glabrescens (Mold.) Mold. [Ama- 
zonas & Boljfvar]* 

Paepalanthus saxicola K8rn. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus scopulorum Mold. — delete the asterisk 

Paepalanthus stegolepoides Mold. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus subtilis var. hirsutus Mold. [Amazonas] 

Petrea glandulosa Plttier [Apure] 

Petrea pubescens Turcz. [Bolfvar] 

Priva lappulacea f. albiflora Mold. [Gu^rlco] 

Rondonanthus roraimae (Oliv.) Herzog [Amazonas] 

Stachytarpheta angustissima Mold. [Gu^rico] 

Syngonanthus acopanensis Mold. [Amazonas] 

Syngonanthus densifolius var. venezuelensis Mold. [Amazonas]* 

Syngonanthus fertilis var. fuscus Mold. [Amazonas & Bolfvar] 

Syngonanthus fertilis var. huberi Mold. [Amazonas]* 

Syngonanthus fertilis var. orinocensis (Mold.) Mold. [Ama- 
zonas & Bolfvar]* 

Syngonanthus humboldtii (Kunth) Ruhl. [Amazonas] 



246 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. A 



I 



Syngonanthus humboldtii var. humilis Mold. [Apure] 

Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhl. [Amazonas] 

Syngonanthus oblongus var. aequinoctialis Ruhl. [Bolivar] 

Syngonanthus savannarum Mold. — to be deleted 

Syngonanthus savannarum var. glabrescens Mold. — to be deleted 

Syngonanthus tenuis var. minor Hold. [Amazonas]* 

Vitex compressa f. angustifolia Mold. [Sucre; Arapo Island] 

Vitex orinocensis var. multiflora (Miq.) Ruber [R^ton Island] 

Vitex stahelii Mold. [T^chira] 
GUYANA: 

Aegiphila hirsutissima Mold. 

Paepalanthus auyantepuiensis Mold. 

Paepalanthus savannarum (Mold.) Mold. 

Paepalanthus scopulorum Mold. 

Stachytarpheta angustissiina Mold. 

Syngonanthus heteropeploides Herzog 

Syngonanthus savannarum Mold. — to be deleted 

Syngonanthus xeranthemoides f . brevifolius Mold. 
FRENCH GUIAl^: 

Lantana camara L. 

Vitex panshiniana Mold. 
ECUADOR: 

Aegiphila chrysantha liayek [El Oro] 

Aegiphila schimpffii Mold. [El Oro] 

Clerodendrum philippinum f. multiplex (Sweet) Mold. [El Oro] 

Lippia rondonensis Mold. [Los Rfos] 

Paepalanthus karstenii f. corei Mold. [Carchi] 

Tectona grandis L. f. [El Oro] 

Verbena hayekii Mold. [Chimborazo] 
GALAPAGOS ISLANDS: 

Avicennia germinans var. cumanensis (H.B.K.) Mold. [Santa 
Cruz & Santiago] 
PERU: 

Aegiphila cordata var. villosissima (Mold.) Mold. — to be 
deleted 

Aegiphila elegans Mold. [San Martfn] 

Aegiphila haughtii Mold. [Madre de Dfos] 

Aegiphila haughtii f. serratifolia Mold. [Madre de Dfos]* 

Aegiphila peruviana Turcz. [Junfn] 

Aegiphila smithii Mold. [Amazonas] 

Avicennia germinans var. guayaquilensis (H.B.K.) Mold. [Tum- 
bes] 

Clerodendrum tessmanni Mold. [Amazonas] 

Duranta rupestris Hayek [Apurimac] 

Lantana camara L. [Amazonas] 

Lantana cujabensis f. scabrifolia Mold. [Junfn] 

Lantana glutinosa var. rugosa Mold. [Junfn]* 

Lantana trifolia f. pluripedunculata Mold. [Loreto] 

Petrea maynensis Huber [Ucayall] 

Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. [Madre de Dfos] 

Priva lappulacea f . albi flora Mold. [San Martfn] 



I 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 247 

Stachytarpheta cayennensis (L. C. Rich.) Vahl [Amazonas] 
Stachytarpheta straminea Mold. [Amazonas, Junfn, & Loreto] 
Verbena clavata Ruiz & Pav. [Ayacucho] 
Verbena hayekii Mold. — delete the asterisk 
Verbena minutiflora var. peruviana Hold. [Cajamarca]* 
Verbena montevidensis Spreng. [San Martfn] 
Verbena parvula Hayek [Lambayeque] 
BRAZIL: 

Aegiphila cordata Poepp. [Mato Grosso & Rondonla] 
Aegiphila cordata var. villosissima (Mold.) Mold. — to be 

deleted 
Aegiphila crenata Mold. [Mato Grosso & Pari] 
Aegiphila macrantha Ducke [Roraima] 
Aegiphila racewosa Veil. [Maranhao] 
Aegiphila sellowiana Cham. [Distrito Federal] 
Amasonia hirta Benth. [Rondonia] 
Amasonia hirta var. para&nsis Hold. [Par^* 
Amasonia lasiocaulos var. raacrophylla Hold. [Acre, Amap^, 

Amazonas, & Para]* 
Avicennia germinans var. guayaquilensis (H.B.K.) Mold. 

[delete "llaranhao"] 
Blastocaulon scirpeum (Mart.) Giul. [Minas Gerais]* 
Citharexylum macrophyllum Poir. [Mato Grosso] 
Eriocaulon aquatile var. latifolium Mold. [Amapd]* 
Eriocaulon ntelanocephalum ssp. usterianum Beauverd — to be 

deleted 
Eriocaulon singulare Mold. [Minas Gerais & Parani]* 
Ghinia cardenasi Mold. [Bahia] 

Lantana armata Schau. [Distrito Federal & Pernambuco] 
Lantana balansae var. batschbachii Mold. [ Parang] * 
Lantana camara f. alba (Mold.) Mold. [Guanabara] 
Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Pari] 
Lantana camara var. moritziana (Otto & Dietr.) Ldpez-Palaclos 

[Bahia] 
Lantana chamissonis (D. Dietr.) Benth. [Distrito Federal] 
Lantana cujabensis var. para&nsis Mold. [Pari]* 
Lantana maxima f. alba Hold. — delete the asterisk 
Lantana radula Sw. [Cardoro Island] 
Lantana tiliaefolia Cham. [Amap^] 

Lantana trifolia f. oppositifolia Mold. [Rio de Janeiro] 
Lantana trifolia f . pluripedunculata Mold. [Acre] 
Lantana viscosa Pohl [Distrito Federal] 
Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. [Amapi] 
Lippia bromleyana var. batschbachii Hold. [Bahia]* 
Lippia glandulosa Schau. [Roraima] 
Lippia lupulina Cham. [Rondonla] 
Lippia rotundifolia var. bahiensis Mold. [Bahia & Distrito 

Federal]* 
Paepalanthus chloroblepharus Ruhl. [Bahia] 
Paepalanthus glaziovii Ruhl. [Distrito Federal] 
Paepalanthus macrotrichus Alv. Sllv. [Bahia] 



248 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Paepalanthus nigricans Alv. Sllv. [Goi^s] 

Paepalanthus scholiophyllus Ruhl. [Bahia] 

Paepalanthus scirpeus Mart. — to be deleted 

Paepalanthus stegolepoides Mold. [Amazonas] 

Paepalanthus subtilis var. puberulus Ruhl. [Par£] 

Petrea longifolia Mold. [Par^]* 

Petrea racemosa Nees [Mato Grosso] 

Stachytarpheta angustissima Mold. — delete the asterisk 

Stachytarpheta bicolor f. pilosula Mold. [Bahia]* 

Stachytarpheta lactea Schau. [Goi^s] 

Stachytarpheta quadrangula Nees & Mart. [Goi^s] 

Stachytarpheta sanguinea var. grisea. Mold. [Bahia]* 

Syngonanthus curralensis var. paucifolius Mold. [Bahia]* 

Syngonanthus densiflorus var. longifolius Mold. [Para] 

Syngonanthus gracilis (Bong.) Ruhl. [Maranhao] 

Syngonanthus gracilis var. hirtellus (Steud.) Ruhl. [Distrito 
Federal] 

Verbena dissecta f. capitata Mold. [Sao Paulo] 

Verbena pulchella Sweet — to be deleted 

Vitex orinocensis H.B.K. [Bahia] 

Vitex rufescens var. para&nsis Mold. [Par^]* 

Vitex triflora var. angustiloba Huber [Amap^ & AmazSnas] 

Vitex vauthieri P. DC. [Mato Grosso] 
BOLIVIA: 

Aegiphila integrifolia var. lopez-palacii Mold. [El Beni & 
Santa Cruz] 

Aloysia gratissima (Gill. & Hook.) Troncoso [Chuquisaca] 

Aloysia gratissima var. paraguariensis (Briq.) Mold. [Santa 
Cruz] 

Aloysia polystachya (Griseb.) Mold. 

Aloysia schulziana Mold. 

Aloysia scorodonioides var. detonsa (Briq.) Mold. [Chusulsaca 
& La Paz] 

Aloysia scorodonioides var. hypoleuca (Briq.) Mold. [Chuqui- 
saca] 

Aloysia triphylla (L'Her.) Britton [Potosf] 

Aloysia virgata (Ruiz & Pav.) A. L. Juss. [Chuquisaca] 

Citharexylum andinum var. beckii Mold. [Chuquisaca & Cocha- 
bainba]* 

Junellia aretioides (R. Fries) Mold. [Oruro & Potosi^] 

Lantana balansae Briq. [Chuquisaca] 

Lantana balansae f. albiflora Mold. [Chuquisaca h Santa Cruz] 

Lantana brachypoda Hayek [Chuquisaca & La Paz] 

Lantana micrantha Briq. [La Paz] 

Lantana micrantha var. beckii Itold. [El Beni]* 

Lantana reptans Hayek [La Paz] 

Lippia laxibracteata Herzog [Santa Cruz] 

Lippia rondonensis Mold. [El Beni] 

Lippia trachyphylla Briq. [Potosi] 

Paepalanthus manicatus var. pulvinatus Herzog [Santa Cruz] 

Recordia peredoi Mold. [Santa Cruz]* 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 249 

Verbena aristigera S. Moore [Tarija] 

Verbena berterii (Meisn.) Schau. [Chuquisaca] 

Verbena cabrerae Mold. [Chuquisaca] 

Verbena Xdermeni Mold. [Santa Cruz] 

Verbena dissecta Willd. [Chuquisaca] 

Verbena scrobiculata Grlseb. [Tarija] 
PARAGUAY: 

Aloysia crenata Hold. — delete the asterisk 

Aloysia pulchra (Briq.) Mold. 

Lantana balansae f . albiflora Osten & Mold. 

Lippia asperrima f. angustifolia Mold. 

Lippia turner if olia var. angust^i Kuntze — delete the asterisk 

Stachytarpheta patens Mold. 

Verbena dissecta f . capitata Mold. 

Verbena laciniata (L.) Briq. 

Verbena swiftiana Mold. 
L"RUGUAY: 

Verbena dissecta f . capitata Mold. 
CORRITI ISLAND: 

Verbena dissecta f. capitata Mold. 

Verbena pulchella Sweet — to be deleted 
CHILE: 

Acantholippia tarapacana Botta [Tarapaca]* 

Urbania pappigera R. A. Phil. — delete the asterisk 

Verbena dissecta f. capitata Hold. [Antofagasta] 

Verbena pulchella Sweet — to be deleted 
ARGENTINA: 

Acantholippia deserticola (R. A. Phil.) Mold. [San Juan] 

Aegiphila saltensis Legname [Misiones] 

Aloysia castellanosi f. magna (I-told.) Mold. [Salta, San Juan, & 
Tucum4n]* — corrected entry 

Aloysia chaco&nsis Mold. [Santa Fe] 

Aloysia chacoSnsis var. angustifolia Troncoso [Corrientes] 

Aloysia crenata Mold. [Corrientes] 

Aloysia fiebrigii (Hayek) Mold. [Salta] 

Aloysia gratissima (Gill. & Hook.) Troncoso [San Luis] 

Aloysia polystacbya (Griseb.) Mold. [Buenos Aires, Corrientes, 
San Juan, & San Luis] — delete the asterisk 

Aloysia scorodonioides (H.B.K.) Cham. [Chaco, Salta, Santiago 
del Estero, & Tucumin] 

Aloysia scorodonioides var. mathewsii (Briq.) Mold. [Jujuy, 
Salta, & Tucum^n] 

Aloysia tripbylla (L'ller.) Britton [Corrientes & Santiago del 
Estero] 

Diostea scoparia var. subulata Hold. [Mendoza]* 

Duranta vestita var. glabrescens Mold. [Corrientes] 

Lantana armata var. velutina Mold. [Buenos Aires] 

Lantana fucata Lindl. [Lindl.] (corrected spelling) 

Lantana magnibracteata Troncoso [Jujuy & Salta]* 

Lantana megapotamica (Spreng.) Troncoso [Misiones] 

Lantana tilcarensis Troncoso [Jujuy & Salta]* 

Lantana tiliaefolia Cham. [Entre R^os] 



i 



250 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Lippia all^a (Mill.) N. E. Br. [Salta] 

Lippia arecbavaletae Mold. [Corrientes] 

Lippia laoTongii Kuntze [Corrientes] 

Lippia turner if olia var. angusta Kuntze [Corrientes] 

Stachytarpheta patens Mold. — delete the asterisk 

Urbania pappigera R. A. Phil. [Salta] 

Verbena catamarcensis Mold. [Catamarca]* 

Verbena chilensis Mold. [San Luis] 

Verbena dissecta f. capitata Mold. [Buenos Aires, Entre Rfos, 
Mendoza, Santiago del Estero, & Tucuman] 

Verbena ephedroides Cham. [Corrientes] 

Verbena kuntzeana Mold. [Misiones] 

Verbena pinnatiloba (Kuntze) Mold. [Jujuy] 

Verbena pulchella Sweet — to be deleted 

Verbena swiftiana Mold. [Entre Rfos] 
BALEARIC ISLANDS: 

Vitex agnus-castus f. alba (West.) Rehd. [Majorca] 
TUNISIA: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 
SUDAN: 

Cyclocheilon kelleri Engl. 

Cyclocheilon somalense var. kelleri (Engl.) Stapf — to be 
deleted 
ETHIOPIA: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 

Cyclocheilon kelleri Engl. 

Cyclocheilon somalense Oliv. — to be deleted 
REPUBLIC OF SOMALI: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum var. decurrens Chiov. — to be de- 
leted 

Cyclocheilon kelleri Engl. 

Cyclocheilon sp. nov.? 

Lantana petitiana var. subglabrescens Mold. 
CAPE VERDE ISLANDS: 

Eriocaulon afzelianum Uikstr. [Sao Nicolau] 

Verbena officinalis L. [Sao Antao] 
BURUNDI : 

Clerodendrum buchholzii Giirke 
RWANDA: 

Lantana tiliaefolia Cham. 
UGANDA: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais 

Vitex payos var. stipitata Mold.* 
TANGANYIKA (TANZANIA): 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) liarais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 

Lippia grandifolia Hochst. 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 251 

KENYA: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) llarais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 
ANGOLA: 

Chascanum angolense Mold . — delete the asterisk 

Vitex puberula J. G. Bkker [Loanda] 
MALAWI : 

Gmelina arborea Roxb. 
ZIMBABWE : 

Chascanum angolense Mold. 
SOUTH AFRICA: 

Holmskioldia tettensis f. flava Hold. [Transvaal]* 

Verbena montevidensis Spreng. [Transvaal] 

Vitex geminata H. H. W. Pearson — to be deleted 

Vitex harveyana f. geminata (H. H. W. Pearson) Mold. [Natal]* 
AMIRANTES ISLANDS: 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [Poivre] 
ALPHONSE ISLAITO: 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl 

Stachytarpheta urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims 
COMORO ISLANDS: 

Clerodendrum glabrum var. minutiflorum (J. G. Baker) Fosberg 
[Assumption & Cosmoledo] 

Nesogenes dupontii Hemsl. — to be deleted 

Nesogenes prostratus (Benth.) Hemsl. [Aldabra, Assumption, 
Bare, Cosmoledo, Middle, South, & West] 

Premna obtusifolia R. Br. [Aldabra & Assumption] 
SEYCHELLES ISLANDS: 

Nesogenes dupontii Hemsl. — to be deleted 

Nesogenes prostratus (Benth.) Hemsl. [Astove] — delete the 
asterisk 
MADAGASCAR: 

Acharitea tenuis Benth. — to be deleted 

Nesogenes tenuis (Benth.) Marais [East & West; Marosy Island]* 
ARABIA: 

Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. [Abu Dhabi] 
SOCOTRA ISLAND: 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene 
REUNION ISLAND: 

Nesogenes orerensis (Cordem.) Marais* 
IRAQ: 

Asepalum eriantherum (Vatke) Marais 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 
PAKISTAN: 

Vitex negundo var. trifoliolata Mold. [Baluchistan] 
INDIA: 

Eriocaulon hamiltonianum Hart. [Kamataka] 

Verbena bonariensis L. [Tamil Nadu] 

Vitex negundo var. purpurascens Sivarajan & Mold. — delete 
the asterisk 

Vitex negundo var. trifoliolata Mold. [Kamataka] 



252 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 4 



CHAGOS ARCHIPELAGO: 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene [Eagle] 
BUR^IA: 

Premna obtusifolia var. angustior (C. B. Clarke) Mold. [Tenas- 
serim] 
ANDAMAN ISLANDS: 

Petrea volubilis L. [Ross] 

Vitex diversifolia Kurz [Middle Andaman] 

Vitex glabrata R. Br. [Long, Middle Andaman, & South Andaman] 

Vitex trifolia L. [Havelock] 

Vitex urceolata C. B. Clarke [Long] 
CHINA: 

Clerodendrwn leveillei Fedde — to be deleted 

Lantana camara f. flava (Medic.) Mold. [Yllnnan] 

Vitex negundo var. carmabifolia (Sleb. & Zucc.) Hand.-Kazz. 
[Kwangsi] 
HONG KONG: 

Vitex negundo f . purpurascens Sivarajan & Mold. 
THAILAND: 

Eriocaulon nigrum Lee orate 

Eriocaulon setaceum var. capillis-naiadis (Hook, f.) Mold. 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Mold. — to be deleted 

Vitex pinnata f . ptilota (Dop) Mold. 

Vitex trifolia var. bicolor (Willd.) Mold. 
CAMBODIA: 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Mold. — to be deleted 

Vitex pinnata f. ptilota (Dop) Mold. 
LAOS: 

Hymenopyramis acuminata Fletcher 
VIETNAM: 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Hold. — to be deleted 

Vitex pinnata f. ptilota (Dop) Mold. [Annam] 
MALAYA: 

Avicennia lanata Ridl. — to be deleted 

Avicennia marina var. rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. [Malacca & 
Pahang ] 

Avicennia officinalis L. [Kedah & Perils] 

Callicarpa candicans (Burm. f.) Hochr. [Perils] 

Callicarpa longifolia Lam. [Trengganu] 

Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble [Trengganu] 

Clerodendrum hispidum M. R. Henderson [Trengganu] 

Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze [Perak] 

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. [Perils] 

Clerodendrum nutans Jack [Perak & Selangor] 

Clerodendrum philippinum f. multiplex (Sweet) Mold. [Singa- 
pore] 

Clerodendrum serratum var. wallichii C. B. Clarke [Trengganu] 

Clerodendrum villosum Blume [Perils] 

Gmelina asiatica f. lobata Mold. [Singapore] 

Gmelina elliptica J. E. Sm. [Perils] 

Lantana camara f. mista (L.) Mold. [Selangor] 

Peronema canescens Jack [Perils] 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 253 

Prewna cordifolia Roxb. [Perils] 

Premna obtusifolia var. angustior (C. B. Clarke) Mold. [Singa- 
pore] 

Stachytarpheta dichotoma (Ruiz & Pav.) Vahl [Singapore] 

Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum (C. B. Clarke) Kosterm. [Treng- 
ganu] 

Vitex negundo var. intermedia (P'ei) Mold. [Singapore] 

l^itex pinnata L. [Perils] 

Vitex guinata (Lour.) F. N. Will. [Perak & Selangor] 
MALAYAN ISLANDS: 

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. [Tioman] 

Geunsia farinosa Blume [Langkawi] 

Premna obtusifolia var. angustior (C. B. Clarke) Mold. [Lang- 
kawi] 

Sphenodesme triflora Wight [Langkawi] 
KOREAN COASTAL ISLANDS: 

Vitex guinata (Lour.) F. N. Will. [Botel Tobago] 
RYUKYU ISLANDS ARCHIPELAGO: 

Eriocaulon australe R. Br. [Iheyashima] 
PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: ' 

Geunsia hookeri Merr. — to be deleted 

Vitex negundo var. heterophylla (Franch.) Rehd. [Mindanao] 

Vitex parviflora var. puberulenta Mold. [Cebu, Mindanao, 
Negros, £■ Sibuyan] 

Vitex pinnata L. [Luzon] 

Vitex turczaninowii Merr. [Batan, Leyte, Luzon, Mindanao, Mln- 
doro, & Ticao] 

Viticipremna philippinensis (Turcz.) H. J. Lam — to be deleted] 
MARIANA ISLANDS: 

Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert [Pagan] 

Premna obtusifolia R. Br. [Asuncion & Guguan] 
PALAU ISLANDS: 

Avicennia alba Blume [Koror] 

Eriocaulon sexangulare var. micronesicum Mold. [Babeldaob] 

Eriocaulon willdenovianum Mold. — to be deleted 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [Koror] 
GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: 

Clerodendrum confusum H. Hallier [Sabah] 

Clerodendrum haematolasium H. Hallier [Kalimantan] correction 

Clerodendrum indicuin (L.) Kuntze [Kalimantan] correction 

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. [Babi, Bangko, Paniki] correc- 

Clerodendrum intermedium Cham. [Sabah] correction tlon 

Eriocaulon octangulare Blume [Java]* 

Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe [Sumatra] 

Geunsia farinosa var. callicarpoides H. J. Lam [Java & Kaliman- 
tan]* 

Geunsia farinosa f. serrulata Mold. [Sabah]* 

Geunsia grandiflora H. Hallier [Sabah] 

Geunsia hexandra f. macrophylla Mold. [Sabah]* 

Geunsia scandens Mold. [Sabah]* 

Gmelina elliptica J. E. Sm. [Bohay Dulang] 

Hosea lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Ridl. — to be deleted 



25A PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. [Brunei & Sarawak]* 

Prenna obtusifolia R. Br. [Mengalon] 

Teijsmanniodendron holophyllum (J. G. Baker) Kosterm. [Sarawak] 

Teijsmanniodendron subspicatum var. acutifolium Mold. [Sabah]* 

Vitex pinnata L. [Selingan] 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Hold. — to be deleted 

Vitex pinnata f . ptilota (Dop) Mold. [Java] 

Vitex vestita f. unifoliolata Mold. [Sumatra]* 

Vitex turczaninowii Merr. [Java & Kalimantan] 

Viticipremna philippinensis (Turcz.) H. J, Lam — to be deleted 
CAROLINE ISLANDS: 

Callicarpa erioclona var. ponapensis (Fosberg) Mold. [Ponape]* 

Clerodendrum thomsonae Balf. f. [Ponape] 

Stachytarpheta Xintercedens Dans. [Ponape] 
MARSHALL ISLANDS: 

Petrea volubilis L. [Kwajalein] 

Phyla nodi flora (L.) Greene [Uliga] 
NAURU ISLAND: 

Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. 

Lantana camara var. aculeata (L.) Mold. 

Premna obtusifolia R. Br. 

Premna taitensis var. rimatarensis F. H. Br. 

Stachytarpheta urticaefolia (Salisb.) Sims 
NEW GUINEA: 

Eriocaulon batholithicola Van Royen [Papua]* 

Eriocaulon giluwense Van Royen [Papua & Territory]* 

Eriocaulon lustratum Van Royen [Papua]* 

Eriocaulon montanum Van Royen [Territory] 

Eriocaulon pioraense Van Royen [Papua & Territory]* 

Eriocaulon scorpionense Van Royen [Territory]* 

Lantana camara L. [Papua] 

Premna odorata Blanco [Papua] 

Vitex novae- pommeraniae Warb. [Papua & West Irian] 

Viticipremna novae- pommeraniae (Warb.) H. J. Lam — to be de- 
leted 
NEI-J GUINEAN ISLAM)S: 

Avicennia officinalis L. [Goodenough] 
BISMARK ARCHIPELAGO: 

Premna obtusifolia var. gaudichaudii (Schau.) Mold. [New 
Ireland] 

Vitex novae-pommeraniae Warb. [Admiralty, Bismark, New Brit- 
ain, & New Ireland] 

Viticipremna novae-pommeraniae (Warb.) H. J. Lam — to be de- 
leted 
SOL(»<ON ISLANDS: 

Ceunsia furfuracea (Bakh.) Mold. — to be deleted 
NEW HEBRIDES: 

Vitex trifolia var. bicolor (Willd.) Mold. [East Pentacost] 
AUSTRALIA: 

Verbena hispida Ruiz & Pav. [New South Wales] 
GREAT BARRIER REEF: 

Avicennia marina var. resinifera (Forst. f.) Bakh. [Dunk, Red, 



I 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth Summary supplement 255 

& Stradbroke] 
Prenina obtusifolia R. Br. [East Hope, Fife, Green, Howick, Low 

Wooded, Tlorris, Saunders, u Two Isles] 
Premna obtusifolia var. gaudichaudii (Schau.) Mold. [Ingram, 
Low, Pelican, Sinebir, Three, & Watson] 

NEW ZEALAND: 

Spartothamnella juncea (A. Cunn.) Briq. — to be deleted 
Teucridium parvifolium var. luxurians Cheesm. [South] 

HAWAIIAN ISLANDS: 

Premna calycina Haines [Oahu] 

Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl [Kapapa] 

SAMOAN ISLANDS: 

Vitex tri folia L. [Manono & Nu'utele] 

CULTIVATED: 

Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse) Rehd. [Romania] 

Callicarpa caudata Maxim. [Hawaiian Islands] 

Callicarpa dichotoma (Lour.) K. Koch [Romania] 

Callicarpa japonica Thunb. [Romania] 

Callicarpa japonica f. albibacca I'ara [Romania] 

Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl [Zimbabwe] 

Callicarpa rubella Lindl. [Zimbabwe] 

Citharexylum fruticosum L. [Zimbabwe] 

Clerodendrum fulgens Firminger [India]* 

Clerodendrum inerme f . parvifolium Hold. [Pakistan] 

Clerodendrum speciosissimum Van Geert [St. Croix & Zimbabwe] 

Clerodendrum trichotomum var. ferrugineum Nakai [Louisiana] 

Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir. [Mexico, Nauru, & New -Caledonia] 

Congea griff ithiana Munir [Assumption Island] 

Duranta repens f. alba (Masters) Mold. [Malaya] 

Duranta repens f. integrifolia (Tod.) Mold. [Hawaiian Islands] 

Duranta repens f. serrata (Mold.) Mold. [Peru] 

Eriocaulon oryzetorum Mart. [Germany] 

Gmelina arborea var. glaucescens C. B. Clarke [Guam] 

Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. [Bangladesh, Penang, Singapore, & 

Zanzibar] 
Lantana camara L. [Aldabra Island & China] 
Lantana camara f. alba (Mold.) Mold. [Cuba & Louisiana] 
Lantana camara f. mutabilis (Hook.) Mold. [Louisiana] 
Lantana camara f. nana (Mold.) Mold. [Hispaniola & Nauru] 
Lantana camara f. parvifolia Mold. [Louisiana] 
Premna calycina Haines [Hawaiian Islands] 
Premna obtusifolia var. gaudichaudii (Schau.) Mold. [Hawaiian 

Islands] 
Spartothamnella juncea (A. Cunn.) Briq. [Germany] 
Verbena rigida Spreng. [Louisiana] 
Vitex negundo L. [Louisiana] 
Vitex novae- pommeraniae Warb. 

Vitex parviflora A. L. Juss. [Guam & Zimbabwe] 
Viticipremna novae-pommeraniae (Warb.) H. J. Lam — to be de- 
leted 

SOURCE OR NATIVE COUNTRY UNDETERMINED: 



256 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Lippia medics Fenzl* 

Petrea longifolia Mold. — to be deleted 
FOSSILIZED: 

Avxcennia cfr. A. marina (Forsk.) Vierh. [Lower Miocene of 

Marshall Islands] 
Avicennia sp. [Pliocene of Guyana] 
Holmskioldia guilchenensis Mathews & Brooke — this is the 

corrected orthography 

Additions Si_ emendations to the list of rejected names , including 
misspellings and variations in accredition 

Acharitea Benth. = Nesogenes A. DC. 

Acharitea tenuis Benth. = Nesogenes tenuis (Benth.) Marais 

Aegiphila minutiflora Rusby ex Mold. = Callicarpa acuminata H.B.K. 

Aegiphila scandens Anderson *= A. macrantha Ducke 

Aegiphila villosissima Mold. = A. cordata Poepp.* 

Aegiphila violacea Anon. = Schlegelia violacea (Aubl.) Griseb., 

Bignoniaceae 
Aegiphylla hassleri Briq. = Aegiphila hassleri Briq. 
Aegiphylle Silva & Bahia ■= Aegiphila Jacq. 
Aegophila Jacq. ■= Aegiphila Jacq. 
Algiphila Mart. = Aegiphila Jacq. 
Algiphila Stahl = Aegiphila Jacq. 

Algiphila cuspidata Mart. = Aegiphila racemosa Veil. 
Algiphila glabra Stahl = Aegiphila martinicensis Jacq. 
Algiphila martinicensis Stahl •= Aegiphila martinicensis Jacq. 
Aloysa Ulrich = Aloysia Ortega 
Aloysia castellanosi var. magna Mold. = A. castellanosi f. magna 

(Mold.) Mold. 
Aloysia castellanosii Mold. = A. castellanosi Mold. 
Aloysia castellanosii var. magna Mold. = A. castellanosi f . magna 

(Mold.) Mold. 
Aloysia gratissima var. angustifolia (Troncoso) Botta = A. chaco- 

ensis var. angustifolia Troncoso 
Aloysia gratissima var. chacoensis (Mold.) Botta "A. chacoensis 

Mold. 
Aloysia gratissima var. schulziana (Mold.) Botta «• A. schulziana 

Mold. 
Aloysia gratissima var. sellowii (Briq.) Botta "A. sellowii 

(Briq.) Mold. 
Aloysia krapovickasii Mold. = A. crenata Mold. 
Aloysia lycioides var. schultzae (Standi.) Mold. = A. gratissima 

var. schulzae (Standi.) Mold. 
Aloysia polystachia (Gris.) Mold. " A. polystachya (Griseb.) Mold. 
Avicennia A. P. 'fh. = Avicennia L. 

Avicennia lanata Rldl. "A. marina var. rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. 
Avicennia marina Blune ■ A. officinalis L. 

Avicennia marina (Corst.) Veirh. ■= A. marina (Forsk.) Vierh. 
Avicennia o&pata Hamilt. = A. officinalis L. 
Avicennia officinalis Balf. f. = A. marina (Forsk.) Vierh. 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 257 

Avicennia officinalis sensu F.M.S. = A. marina (Forsk.) Vierh. 

Avicennia officinalis sensu Lam = A. alba Blume 

Avicennia officinalis var. spatbulata Kuntze •= A. marina var. 

rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. 
Avicennia officinalis var. spatbulata f . tomentosa Kuntze = A. 

marina var. rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. 
Avicennia officinalis S spatbulata Kuntze = A. marina var. 

rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. 
Avicennia officinalis S spatbulata f. tomentosa Kuntze = A. 

marina var. rumphiana (H. Hallier) Bakh. 
Avicennia spicata Volk = A. alba Blume 
Avicennia tomentosa cC cumanensis H.B.K. = ;i. germinans var. 

cumanensis (H.B.K.) Mold. 
Avicennia tomentosa ^ campechiensis H.B.K. ■= A. germinans (L.)L. 
Avicennia tomentosa y" guayaguilensis H.B.K. = A. germinans 

var. guayaguilensis (H.B.K.) Mold. 
Avicennia tomentosa cJ asiatica Walp. = A. officinalis L. 
Avicennia tomentosa t arabica Walp. = A. marina (Forsk.) Vierfe^- 
Avicennia tomentosa t, owarensis Walp. = A. africana P. Beauv. 
Avicennia tomentosa r\ australasica Walp. = A. marina var. 

resinifera (Forst. f.) Bakh. 
Avicennia tomentosus L. = A. germinans (L.) L. 
Baillonia amabilis Jacq. = B. amabilis Bocq. 

Bartsia orerensis Cordem. = Nesogenes orenensis (Cordem.) Marais 
Berbena hintoni Mold. = Verbena mentbaefolia Benth. 
Boucbea prismatica var. longirostra Gresebach = B. prismatica var. 

longirostra Grenz. 
Boucbea prismatica var. longirostra Grezebak = B. prismatica var. 

longirostra Grenz . 
Bursera Kuntze = Priva Adans. 
Callicaepa Rehd. ■• Callicarpa L. 

Callicaepa hodinieri Rehd. = Callicarpa bodinieri Leveille 
Callicaepa bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse ex Rehd.) Rehd. = 

Callicarpa bodinieri var. giraldii (Hesse) Rehd. 
Callicarpa americana var. americana [L.] = C. americana L. 
Callicarpa americanus L. = C. americana L. 

Callicarpa basilanensis Herr. = Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe 
Callicarpa bastlanensis Merr. - Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe 
Callicarpa cana var. integrifolia f. glabriuscula H. J. Lam pro 

parte = C. erioclona f. glabrescens Hold. 
Callicarpa cana var. latifolia Lam •= C. erioclona f . glabrescens 

Mold. 
Callicarpa cana var. longifolia Lam = C. erioclona f. glabrescens 

Mold. 
Callicarpa candicans var. candicans [ (Burm. f.) Hpchr.] = C. 

candicans (Burm. f.) Hochr. 
Callicarpa candicans var. integrifolia (Lam) Hochr. •= C. erio- 
clona f. glabrescens Mold. 
Callicarpa candicans var. integrifolia f. glabriuscula (H. J. Lam) 

Fosb. = C. erioclona f. glabrescens Mold. 
Callicarpa candicans var. paucinervia (Merr.) Fosb. = C. erioclona 

var. paucinervia (Merr.) Mold. 



258 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Callicarpa candicans var. ponapensis Fosb. - C. erioclona var. 

ponapensis (Fosberg) Mold. 
Callicarpa erioclona sensu Mold. = C. erioclona Schau. 
Callicarpa farinosa var. typica \\. J. Lam = Geunsia farinosa 

Blume 
Callicarpa lantana Vahl = C. pedunculata R. Br. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. apoensis Bakli. = Geunsia apoensis (Elm.) 

Mold . 
Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. flavida Bakh. = Geunsia 

flavida (Elm.) H. J. Lam 
Callicarpa rubella f. creanta P'ei = C. rubella Lindl. 
Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) Merr. = C. tomentosa (L.) Murr. 
Cariopteris divaricata Maxim. = Caryoptoris divaricata (Sieb. & 

Zucc.) Maxim. 
Caryopterys Baill. = Caryopteris Bunge 
Caryoptis La\/rence = Caryopteris Bunge 
Carypteris Bunge = Caryopteris Bunge 
Castelia (Cav.) Benth. & Hook. = Pitraea Turcz. 

Citharexylum brachuatitum Gray = C. brachyanthum (A. Gray) A.Gray 
Citharexylum cinereum Aim. = C. spinosum L. 
Citharexylum poeppigii var. margaritense Poepp. h Mold. = C. 

poeppigii var. margaritaceum Poepp. & Mold. 
Citharexylum spinosus L. = C. spinosum L. 
Citharexylum trastachyum Turcz. = C. tristachyum Turcz. 
Citharexylum Mill. = Citharexylum Mill. 

Clerodendron bethumianum Lowe = Clerodendrum bethunianum Lowe 
Clerodendron bungeii Steud. •= Clerodendrum bungei Steud. 
Clerodendron calamitosum ^ glabriusculum Ilassk. = Clerodendrum 

calamitosum L. 
Clerodendron calamitosum ^ molle Hassk. = Clerodendrum calami- 
tosum L. 
Clerodendron esguiroli L^vl. = Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) 

Sweet 
Clerodendron esquirolii L^vl. [p. 298] = Tacca chantrieri Andre, 

Taccaceae 
Clerodendron esquirolii L^vl. [p. 302] = Clerodendrum japonicum 

(Thunb . ) Sweet 
Clerodendron foetidum ^ integrifolium Hassk. = Clerodendrum 

colebrokianum Walp. 
Clerodendron leveillei Fedde = Clerodendrum japonicum (Thunb.) 

Sweet 
Clerodendron lobbiana Clarke «= Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) 

Merr.* 
Clerodendron lohbianum C. B. Clarke = Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. 

Clarke) Merr.* 
Clerodendron lobbianum [C. B. Clarke] ■■ Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. 

Clarke) Merr. 
Clerodendron lobbianum Ridl.= Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) 

Merr.* 
Clerodendron lobbii C. B. Clarke = Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. 

Clarke) Merr.* 



< 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 259 

Clerodendron malmesianuw Mol. = Tetraclea coulteri f . angusti- 

folia (Woot. & Standi.) Mold. 
Clerodendron splendens Manetti = Clerodendrum manetti Visian. 
Clerodendron sguamatum CK japonicum Ilassk. = Clerodendrum japoni- 

cum (Thunb . ) Sweet 
Clerodendrum squamatum ft indicum Hassk. = Clerodendrum specio- 

sissimum Van Geert 
Clerodendrum Schreb. = Clerodendrum Burm. 

Clerodendrum darrisii Levi. •= C. japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet 
Clerodendrum esguirolii Levi. [p. 302] = C. japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet 
Clerodendrum esguirolii Levi. [p. 298] = Tacca chantrieri Andre, 

Taccaceae 
Clerodendrum glabrum sensu Fosberg = C. glabrum var. minutiflorum 

(J. G. Baker) Fosberg 
Clerodendrum leveillei Fedde = C. japonicum (Thunb.) Sweet 
Collicarpa L. = Callicarpa L. 

Collicarpa americana L. = Callicarpa americana L. 
Cornutia grandifolia var. grandifolia [ (C. & S.) Schau] = C. 

grandifolia (Schlecht. & Cham.) Schau. 
Crodendron Flrminger = Clerodendrum Burm. 

Crodendron balfourianum Firminger ■= Clerodendrum thomsonae Balf.f. 
Crodendron fallax Firminger = Clerodendrum speciosissimum VanGeert 
Crodendron fragrans Firminger = Clerodendrum philippinum Schau. 
Crodendron fulgens Firminger = Clerodendrum kaempferi (Jacq.) 

Sieb. 
Crodendron hastatum Firminger ■= Clerodendrum hastatum (Roxb.) Wall. 
Crodendron infortunatum Firminger = Clerodendrum infortunatum L. 
Crodendron interme Firminger = Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. 
Crodendron kaempferi Firminger ■= Clerodendrum kaempferi (Jacq.) 

Sieb. 
Crodendron nutans Firminger = Clerodendrum wallichii Merr. 
Crodendron odoratum Firminger = Clerodendrum philippinum Schau. 
Crodendron phlomoides Firminger = Clerodendrum phlomidis L. f . 
Crodendron pijramidale Firminger = Clerodendrum paniculatum L. 
Crodendron serratum Firminger " Clerodendrum serratum (L.) Moon 
Crodendron siphonanthus Firminger - Clerodendrum indicum (L.) Kuntze 
Crodendron speciosum Firminger = Clerodendrum umbellatum Poir. 
Crodendron splendens Firminger = Clerodendrum splendens G. Don 
Crodendron squamatum Firminger = Clerodendrum kaempferi (Jacq.) 

Sieb. 
Crodendron thomsoni Firminger = Clerodendrum thomsonae Balf. f. 
Crodendron urticaefolium Firminger = Clerodendrum urticifolium 

(Roxb.) Walp. 
Cyclocheilon eriantherum (Vatke) Engl. = Asepalum eriantherum 

(Vatke) Marais 
Cyclocheilon eriantherum var. decurrens Chiov. = Asepalum erianther- 
um (Vatke) Marais 
Cyclocheilon minutibracteolatum Engl. = Asepalum eriantherum 

(Vatke) Marais 
Cyclocheilon somalense var. kelleri (Engl.) Stapf = C. kelleri 

Engl. 



260 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Cyclochilus Oliv. = Cyclocheilon Oliv. 

Denisia Neck. = Chascanum E. Mey. 

Dupatya scirpea Kuntze = Blastocaulon scirpeum (Mart.) Glul.* 

Dupatya scirpea (Mart.) Kuntze = Blastocaulon scirpeum (Mart.) 

Giul. 
Duranta repens var. iSpez-palacii Mold. = D. repens var. lopez- 

palacii Mold. 
Duranta repens var. repens L. = D. repens L. 
Duranta sprucei var. columbiensis Mold. = D. sprucei var. colom- 

biensis Mold. 
Durantea L. = Duranta L. 

Ericaulon buergerianum KOrn. = Eriocaulon buergerianum KHrn. 
Ericaulon wallichianum llart. = Eriocaulon sexangulare L. 
Eriocaelaceae Auct. anon. = Eriocaulaceae Llndl. 
Eriocaulon amboensis Schinz = E. amboense Schinz 
Eriocaulon caesio Gris. = E. caesium Griseb. 
Eriocaulon cinerum R. Br. = E. cinereum R. Br. 

Eriocaulon compressum var. compressum [Lam.] •= E. compressum Lam. 
Eriocaulon decangulare var. decangulare [L.] «= E. decangulare L. 
Eriocaulon decangulare var. latifolium Chapm. = E. decangulare f. 

latifolium (Chapm.) Mold. 
Eriocaulon graminifolium L. = E. quinquangulare L. 
Eriocaulon humboldtii Kuhn = E. humboldtii Kunth 
Eriocaulon melanocephalum ssp. usterianum Beauverd = E. melano- 

cephaluxn Kunth 
Eriocaulon melanocephalum var. usterianum Beauverd = E. melano- 
cephalum Kunth 
Eriocaulon scorpionensis Van Royen = E. scorpionense Van Royen 
Eriocaulon sexangulare var. micronesica Mold. = E. sexangulare 

var. micronesicum Hold. 
Eriocaulon usterianum Beauverd = E. melanocephalum Kunth 
Eublairia Kuntze = Priva Adans 
Florissantia Knowlton ■= Holmskioldia Retz. 
Geunsia anisophylla H. Hallier = G. serrulata f. anisophylla (H. 

Hallier) Mold. 
Geunsia apao&nsis (Elm.) Mold. = G. apoensis (Elm.) Mold. 
Geunsia homeophylla H. Hallier = G. homoeophylla H. Ilallier 
Geunsia bomoiophylla H. Hallier = G. homoeophylla H. Hallier 
Geunsia hooker i Merr. = G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. 
Ghinia curassavica Ilillsp. ■» G. curassavica (L.) Oken 
Ghinia fructibus quadrispinosis, foliis glabris Willd. = G. 

curassavica (L.) Oken 
Ghinia curassavica var. minor (Schlecht. & Cham.) Mold. «G. 

euphrasii folia (B. L. Robinson) Standi. 
Ghinia mutica Schreb. ■= G. spicata (Aubl.) Mold. 
Ghinia nrutica (Sw.) Willd. = G. spicata (Aubl.) Mold. 
Ghinia spinosa (Sw.) Britton = G. curassavica (L.) Oken* 
Ghinia verbenacea Sw. = G. curassavica (L.) Oken* 
Glandular ia cheitmanniana Mold. = Verbena cheitmaniana Mold. 
Glandularia goodingii (Briq.) Solbrig •= Verbena gooddingii Briq. 
Glandular ia Xoklahomensis Mold. - Verbena Xoklahomensis Mold. 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 261 

Glandularia platensis (Gill. & Hook.) Schnack & Covas •= Verbena 

platensis Spreng. 
Glandularia guandrangulata (Heller) Umber = Verbena guadrangulata 

Heller 
Glanularia Umber = Verbena [Dorst.] L. 
Glomerovitex Kuntze «= Vitex Tourn. 
Gmelina asiatica Wall. = G. elliptica J. E. Sm. 
Gmelina leichhardtii F. Muell. ex Benth. •= G. leichhardtii (F. 

Muell.) F. liuell. 
Guinea Schreb. = Ghinia Schreb. 
Guinia Millsp. = Ghinia Schreb. 
"h. hirta" Meisn. = Lippia hirta (Cham.) Meisn. 
Hastingia coccinea Wall. = Uolmskioldia sanguinea Retz. 
Hastingsia S. VJats. = Schoenolirion S. Wats., Liliaceae 
Hastingsia alba S. Wats. = Schoenolirion album Durand, Liliaceae 
Hastingsia bracteosa S. Wats. = Schoenolirion bracteosum (S. 

Wats.) Jepson, Liliaceae 
Holmskioldia mucronata Vatke = H. mucronata (Klotzsch) Vatke 
Holmskioldia guilchensis Mathewes & Brooke = H. quilchenensis 

Mathewes & Brooke 
Holmskioldia spinescens Vatke ■= H. spinescens (Klotzsch) Vatke 
Holsmkioldia Bocq. = Holmskioldia Retz. 
Rosea Ridl. ■ Hoseanthus Merr.* 
Hosea lohbiana (C. B. Clarke) Ridl. = Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. 

Clarke) Merr.* 
Hosea lohbiana Ridl. = Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. 
Hosea lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Ridl. «= Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. 

Clarke) Merr. 
Hosea lobbii Ridl. •= Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. 
Hosea lobiana Ridl. = Hoseanthus lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. 
Hoseanthus lobbii Merr. = H. lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. 
Hoseanthus lobbii (Ridl.) Merr. = H. lobbii (C. B. Clarke) Merr.* 
Itharexylum Spreng. = Citharexylum Mill. 

Itharexylum quitense Spreng. = Citharexylum gui tense Spreng. 
Junellia aretoides (R. Fries) Mold. = J. aretioides (R. Fries) 

Mold. 
Kaempfera Banks = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Kaempferia L. — in the Zingiberaceae 

Lachnocaulon engleri var. engleri [Ruhl.] = L. engleri Ruhl. 
Lagondium Kuntze = Vitex Tourn. 
Lagondium (Rumpf) Kuntze = Vitex Tourn. 
Lantana achyranti folia Desf. = L. achyranthi folia Desf. 
Lantana balansae peduncularis Briq. = L. balansae Briq. 
Lantana camara f. mista (L.) L. H. Bailey = L. camara f. mista 

(L.) Mold. 
Lantana hispida L. •■ L. hispida H.B.K. 
Lantana invulucrata L. = L. involucrata L. 
Lantana montivedensis (Spreng.) Briq. = L. montevidensis (Spreng.) 

Briq. 
Lantana oaxacana Miranda = Lippia oaxacana Robinson & Greenm. 
Lantana velutina Dodoneus «= L. velutina Mart. L Gal. 
Lantana velutiva Mart, u Gal. = L- velutina Mart. & Gal. 



262 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 4 



Lantana vertina Mart. & Gal. = L. velutina Mart. & Gal. 

Lantana verutina Mart. & Gal. = L. velutina Mart. & Gal. 

Lantana virburnoides (Forsk.) Vahl = L. vibuTnoides (Forsk.) Vahl 

Lantara camara L. = Lantana camara L. 

Lantona L. = Lantana L. 

Lantona hispida L. = Lantana hispida H.B.K. 

Leiothrix fruitans Mont. -Scan. & Mazz. •= L. fluitans (Mart.) Ruhl. 

Leucacephala Pvoxb. = Eriocaulon Gron. 

Leucacephala gramlni folia Roxb. = Eriocaulon guinguangulare L. 

Leucacephala spathacea Roxb. = Eriocaulon cinereum R. Br. 

Lippia alba (Mill.) N. E. Britton = L. alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. 

Lippia alba (Mills) N. E. Brown = L. alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. 

Lippia asperifolia H.B.K. = L. alba (Mill.) N. E. Br. 

Lippia eupatorium var. angustifolium Mold. = L. eupatorium var. 

angustifolia Mold. 
Lippia grandiflora A. Rich. = L. grandifolia Hochst. 
Lippia grandifolia A. Rich. = L. grandifolia Hochst. 
Lippia graviolens H.B.K. = L. graveolens H.B.K. 
Lippia hipoleia S. & C. = L. myriocepbala var. hypoleia (Briq.) 

Mold. 
Lippia laciniata L. = Phyla Xintermedia Mold. 
Lippia lanceolata L. = Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene 

Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene 
L. myr iocephala Schlecht. & Cham. 
= Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene 
(H.B.K.) Mold. - Phyla nodiflora 



= Aloysia polystachya (Grlseb.) Mold. 
u Schau. = L. rhodocnemis Mart. & Schau. 
= L. salzmanni Schau. 
Juss.) Mold. " Phyla scaberrima (A. L. 



Lippia modiflora (L.) Greene 
Lippia myrocephala S. & C. 
Lippia nodiflora (L.) Greene 
Lippia nodiflora var. repens 

var. reptans (Spreng.) Mold. 
Lippia planifolia Abbott = L, pauciflora Urb. 
Lippia polystachia Gris. 
Lippia rhodomensis Mart. 
Lippia salzmannii Schau. 
Lippia scaberrima (A. L. 

Juss.) Mold. 
Lippia stoechas Briq. ■= L. sericea Cham. 
Lippia verbenoides Cham. = L. vernonioides var. attenuata 

(Mart.) Mold. 
Lontona Shipiro " Lantana L. 
Mailelou (Adans.) Kuntze = Vitex Toum. 
Mailelou Kuntze = Vitex Tourn. 
Marsilea bendirei Ward = Hydrangea bendirei (Ward) Knowlton, 

Hydrangeaceae 
Monochilus F. M. •= Monochilus Fisch. & Mey. 
Naesmithia Hope ■= Eriocaulon L. 
Neospartum Gris. = Neosparton Griseb. 

Nesogenes dupontii Hemsl. = N. prostratus (Benth.) Hemsl. 
Nesogenes sp. nov. Hemsl. = N. prostratus (Benth.) Hemsl. 
Neurastlia Briq. = Nevicastelia F. Muell. 
Newcastlea F. Muell. = Newcastelia F. Muell. 
Paepacantbus Rosa & Santos - Paepalanthus Mart. 
Paepacanthus fertilis Rosa & Santos «■ Paepalanthus fertilis 

(K8m.) Ruhl. 
Paepalanthus duchromolepis Alv. Sllv. - P- dichromolepis Alv.Silv. 



4 

I 

I 

I 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 263 

Paepalanthus erigeron Mart, ex Kyrn. = P. erigeron Mart. 
Paepalanthus gracilis var. koernickeanus Ruhl. = Syngonanthus 

gracilis var. koernickeanus Ruhl. 
Paepalanthus manicatus V. A. Pouls. ex Malme = P. inanicatus V. A. 

Fouls . 
Paepalanthus pauperrimus Mold. = P. pauperrimus Uerzog 
Paepalanthus scirpeus Mart. = Blastocaulon scirpeum (Mart.) Giul. 
Paepalanthus succisus Mart, ex Koem. ■= P. succisus Mart. 
Paepalanthus tortilis Mart, ex Koem. = P. tortilis Mart. 
Petetia Jacq. = Petitia Jacq. 

Petetia domingensis Jacq. = Petitia domingensis Jacq. 
Petrea pumila Mutis = P. pubescens Turcz. 
Petrea stapelia Firminger = P. volubilis L. 

Phyla lanceloata (Mich.) Greene = P. lanceolata (Michx.) Greene 
Phyla nodi f era (L.) Greene = p. nodd flora (L.) Greene 
Phyla nodiflora Greenm. = P. nodiflora (L.) Greene 
Phyla nodiflora (HBK.) M. = P. nodiflora (L.) Greene 
Phyla nodiflora var. rosea (G. Don) Mold •= P. nodiflora var. 

rosea (D. Don) Mold. 
Phyla stoechadae folia (L.) Small = P. stoechadi folia (L.) Small 
Phyla strigillosa Thomas =P. strigulosa (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. 
Phyla strigillosa (Mart. & Gal.) Mold. ^P. strigulosa (Mart. & 

Gal.) Mold. 
Phyle Greene = Phyla Lour. 

Phyie lanceolata (Michx.) Greene = Phyla lanceolata (Michx. )Greene 
Phylla lanceolata (Michx.) Greene = Phyla lanceolata (Michx.) 

Greene 
Pityrodia atriplicifolia (F. Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth. «= P. 

atriplici folia (F. Muell.) F. Muell. 
Pityrodia exserta var. exserta [(Benth.) Munir] ^P. exserta 

(Benth.) Munir 
Pityrodia oldfieldii (F. Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth. = P. old- 

fieldii (F. Muell.) F. Muell. 
Pityrodia paniculata (F. Muell.) F. Muell. ex Benth. =P. panicu- 

lata (F. Muell.) F. Muell. 
Poeplanthus Kirkbr. = Paepalanthus Mart. 
Porana bendirei (Ward) Lesq. «= Hydrangea bendirei (Ward) Knowl- 

ton, Hydrangeaceae 
Premna alstoni var. alstoni Hold. = P. alstoni Mold. 
Premna exul Velenovsk^ = Cissophyllum exulvm (Velenovsky) Mold., 

Vitaceae 
Premna mairei Levi. «= Heliosma dilleniifolia ssp. cuneifolia var. 

maltinervia Beus., Sabiaceae* 
Premna merinoi L^vl. ■= Hydrangea aspera var. robusta (Hook. f. 

& Thoms.) McClintock, Hydrangeaceae 
Premna tomentosa var. detergibilis C. B. Clarke = P. foetida 

Reinw. 
Priva aspera L. = p. aspera H.B.K. 
Pytirodia Baill. »= Pityrodia R. Br. 
Sparthothamnus A. Cunn. = Spartothamnella Briq. 
Sparthothanmus Webb & Berth, ex Presl «= Cytisus L., Faliaceae 



264 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Spartothamnella juncea (A. Cunn. ex G. Don) Briq. = S. juncea (A. 

Cunn.) Briq. 
Spartothamnella juncea (Alum.) Briq. = S. juncea (A. Cunn.) Briq. 
Spartothamnella puberulus (F. Muell.) Maid. & Betche = S. puber- 

ula (F. lluell.) Maiden & Betche 
Spartothamnus ephedraeoides A. Cunn. = Spartothamnella juncea (A. 

Cunn.) Briq. 
Spartothamnus ephedroides A. Cunn. = Spartothamnella juncea (A. 

Cunn.) Briq. 
Spartothamnus hookeri F. Muell. = Teucridium parvifolium Hook. f. 
Spartothamnus juncea Junell = Spartothamnella juncea (A. Cunn.) 

Briq. 
Sphenodesma pentandra var. wallichiana Liu & Yu = Sphenodesme 

pentandra var. wallichiana (Schau.) Munir 
Stachytarpheia Link = Stachytarpheta Vahl 
Stachytarpheta caunnensis (Rich.) Vahl = 5. cayennensis (L. C. 

Rich.) Vahl 
Stachytarpheta cayensis (Rich.) Vahl = S. cayennensis (L. C. 

ilich.) Vahl 
Stachytarpheta cocinea Schau. = S. coccinea Schau. 
Stachytarpheta dichotoma (Baill.) A. Chev. = Ubochea dichotoma 

Baill. 
Stachytarpheta dichotoma (H.B.K.) Vahl = S. dichotoma (Ruiz & 

Pav.) Vahl 
Stachytarpheta indica sensu F.M.S. = S. jamaicensis (L.) Vahl 
Stachytarpheta mitabilis (Jacq.) Vahl = S. mutabilis (Jacq.) Vahl 
Starchytarpheta Yahl = Stachytarpheta Vahl 

Stare hytarpheta cayensis (L. Rich.) Yahl = Stachytarpheta cayen- 
nensis (L. C. Rich.) Vahl 
Syngonanthus gracilis var. aurens Ruhl. ■= S. gracilis var. 

aureus Ruhl. 
Syngonanthus gracilis var. nanus Mold. = 5. biformis (N. E. Br.) 

Gleason 
Syngonanthus humboldtii var. nanus Mold. = S. humboldtii var. 

humilis Mold. 
Syngonanthus leoni Mold. = S. leonii Mold. 
Syngonanthus savannarum Mold. = Paepalanthus savannarum (Mold.) 

Mold. 
Syngonanthus savannarum f . glabrescens Mold. = Paepalanthus 

savannarum var. glabrescens (Mold.) Mold. 
Syngonanthus savannarum var. glabrescens Mold, = Paepalanthus 

savannarum var. glabrescens (Mold.) Mold. 
Syngonanthus vernonioides Ruhl. = S. xeranthemoides var. ver- 

nonioides (Kunth) Mold. 
Tamonea curassavica (L.) Millsp. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonea curassavica Pers. •= Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonea fructibus quadrispinosis , foliis glabris Willd. " 

Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonea lappulacea Pers. = Priva lappulacea (L.) Pers. 
Tamonea mutica Gaertn. f. ■• Ghinia spicata (Aubl.) Mold. 
Tamonea scabra Schlecht. & Cham. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonea spinosa Sw. ■» Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 265 

Tamonea subhiflora Urb. a Ekm. = Ghinia subbiflora (Urb. & Ekm.) 

Mold. 
Tamonea verbenacea Schau. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken* 
Tamonea verbenacea Spreng. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonea verbenacea S\*. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tamonia scabra Schlecht. £< Cham. - Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Tectona grandis W. Hill = Gmelina leichhardtii (F. Muell.) F. 

Muell . 
Tectona indica Heringer = 2". grandis f. punctata Mold. 
Teijsmanniodendron novoguine&nse (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Kcsterm. = 

T. novo-guineense (Kaneh. & Hatus.) Kosterm. 
Teliclea Woot. & Standi. = Tetraclea A. Gray 
Teliclea angustifolia Woot. & Standi. = Tetraclea coulteri f. 

angustifolia (Woot. & Standi.) Mold. 
Teltona Diaconescu = Tectona L. f. 
Teltona grandis L. = Tectona grandis L. f. 
Tetracleis A. Gray = Tetraclea A. Gray 
Tetracleis A. Gray ex Pfeiff. = Tetraclea A. Gray 
Tetradymia coulteri Gray = Tetraclea coulteri A. Gray 
Tetrilema Turcz. = Frankenia L., Frankeniaceae 
Teucridium sphaerocarpum F. Muell. = Spartothamnella sp. 
Turnera hildebrandtii Boivin = Uolmskioldia mira var. fissa Mold. 
Urochloa Lem^e = Ubochea Baill. 

Vebenaceae Laing & Blackwell = Verbenaceae J. St.-Hil. 
Verbena backhofenii Hort. = V. liastata L. 

Verbena bipinnatifida Engelm. & Gray = V. bipinnatifida Nutt. 
Verbena bracteata Cav. ex Lag. & Rodr. = V. bracteata Lag. & Rodr. 
Verbena brasileinse Veil. ■= V. brasiliensis Veil. 
Verbena brasilense Veil. = V. brasiliensis Veil. 
Verbena brasiliensis L. = V. brasiliensis Veil. 
Verbena cameronensis L, = V. delticola Small* 
Verbena cameronensis L. I. Davis ■= V. delticola Small 
Verbena (Curassavica) , diandra, spicis longis, calicibus aristatis, 

foliis ovatis argute serratis L. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) 

Oken 
Verbena (Curassavica) diandra, spicis longis, calycibus aristatis, 

foliis ovatis, argute serratis L. «» Ghinia curassavica (L.) 

Oken 
Verbena di flora Lam. ■ V. urticifolia L. 
Verbena elegans var. aspirata Perry = ^. elegans var. asperata 

Perry 
Verbena erecta Cav. «= V- recta H.B.K. 
Verbena erecta Kunth = V. recta H.B.K. 
Verbena fruticosa Houst. = Phyla nodiflora var. reptans (Spreng.) 

Mold. & P' strigulosa (Mart. & Gal.) Mold.* 
Verbena fruticosa Hoist. & Mill. = Phyla nodiflora var. reptans 

(Spreng.) Mold. & P- strigulosa (Mart. L Gal.) Mold.* 
Verbena haleii Small = V. halei Small 
Verbena hlei Small = V. halei Small 
Verbena lithoralis H.B.K. = V. litoralis H.B.K. 
Verbena litoralis grad. amb. Benth. = V. litoralis H.B.K. 
Verbena littoralis grad. amb. Benth. = V. litoralis H.B.K. 



266 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Verbena lorentzii Niederlein = Junellia ligustrina var. lorentzii 

(Niederlein) Mold. 
Verbena pinnatifida Engelm. & Gray = V. bipinnatifida Nutt. 
Verbena plicata Greenic. = V. plicata Greene 
Verbena plicata Heller •= V. plicata Greene 
Verbena rugosa L, = V. simplex Lehm. 
Verbena rugosa Mill. = V. simplex Lehm. 

Verbena sabinia Hort. = V. laciniata var. contracta (Llndl.) Mold. 
Verbena tenuisecta L, = V. tenuisecta Brlq. 
Verbena urticifolia Sandm. = V. scabra Vahl 
Verbena urticifolium L. «= V. urticifolia L. 

Verbena urticifolium var. leiocarpa Perry & Fern. = V. urtici- 
folia var. leiocarpa Perry & Fern. 
Verbena xutha Lam. = V. xutha Lehm. 
Verbena var. hybridae Gard. = V. Xhybrida Voss 
Verbena var. Princesse Marianne Boucharlat •= V. Xhybrida Voss 
Verbena var. Souvenir de Jane Hanson Croft = V. Xhybrida Voss 
Verbina maritima Small = Verbena maritima Small 
Verbena L. = Verbena [Porst.] L. 
Verbena supina L. •= Verbena supina L. 
Veronicae similis fruticosa curassavica teucriifoliis, flore 

galericulato Herm. •= Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Veronicae similis fruticosa, curassiva, teucriifoliis, flore 

galericulato Herm. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 
Violae surrectae latioro. folio species peregrinis Pluk. ■= Ghinia 

curassavica (L.) Oken 
Violae surrectae, latiore folio, species peregrina Pluk. = Ghinia 

curassavica (L.) Oken 
Vitex agnus-castus var. albiflorus Palau-Ferrer = V. agnus- 

castus f. alba (West.) Rehd. 
Vitex alba Hort. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. alba (Carr.) 

Mold.* 
Vitex alba Lam. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. alba (Carr.) 

Mold.* 
Vitex alba var. incisa Hort. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. 

(Carr.) Mold.* 
Vitex altissima f . altissima Mold. = V, altissima L. f. 
Vitex altissima ^ macrophylla Walp. •= V. altissima L. f. 
Vitex argus-castus Rawson ■= V. agnus-castus L. 
Vitex cofassus var. pubescens 11. Hallier = V. parviflora var. 

puberulenta Hold. 
Vitex cofassus var. timorensis subvar. pubescens Hall. f.^V. 

parviflora var. puberulenta Hold.* 
Vitex eberhardhtii Dop " V. eberhardtii Dcp 
Vitex geminata H. H. W. Pearson " V. harveyana f. geminata (H. 

H. W. Pearson) Mold. 
Vitex glabrata sensu Kaneh. = V. novae-pommeraniae Warb. 
Vitex guerkeana Engl, ex Eyles = V. payos (Lour.) Merr. 
Vitex guianensis Anderson = V. tri flora Vahl 

Vitex heterophylla Zoll. & Mor. = V. quinata (Lour.) F. N. Will. 
Vitex incisa var. alba Hort. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. 

alba (Carr.) Mold. 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 267 

Vitex incisa alba Desf . = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. alba 

(Carr.) Mold. 
Vitex laciniata Hort. ex Schau. = V. negundo var. heterophylla 

(Franch.) Rehd. 
Vitex lanceifolia Liu & Yu = l^. vestita Wall. 
Vitex leucoxilon Blanco = V. negundo L. 
Vitex leucoxylon Blume = V. quinata (Lour.) F. N. Will. 
Vitex madiensis ssp. milanjiensis (Britten) F. White •= V. madi- 

ensis var. milanjiensis (Britten) Pieper 
Vitex negundo Bot. Mag. = V. negundo var. heterophylla (Franch.) 

Rehd. 
Vitex negundo var. alba Hort. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. 

alba (Carr.) Mold. 
Vitex negundo sensu Curtis = V. negundo var. heterophylla 

(Franch.) Rehd. 
Vitex negundo f. multifida Rehd. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f . 

mul tifida (Carr . ) Rehd . 
Vitex negundo cv. 'Incisa' Enari = V. negundo var. heterophylla 

(Franch.) Rehd. 
Vitex negundo alba Hort. = V. negundo var. heterophylla f. alba 

(Carr.) Mold. 
Vitex negundo heterophylla Blackburn = V. negundo var. hetero- 
phylla (Franch.) Rehd. 
Vitex negundo incisa (Bunge) Clarke = V. negundo var. heterophylla 

(Franch.) Rehd. 
Vitex peduneuJaris Das = V. peduncular is Wall. 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Mold. = V. pinnata f . ptilota (Dop) Mold. 
Vitex pinnata var. pinnata [L.] = V. pinnata L. 
Vitex pubescens var. ptilota Dop •= V. pinnata f . ptilota (Dop) 

Mold. 
Vitex schauburgkiana Schau. = V. schomburgkiana Schau. 
Vitex timoriana Walp. = V. parviflora A. L. Juss. 
Vitex trifila Vahl «= V. triflora Vahl 
Vitex tri folia Willd. «= V. tri folia L. 
Vitex tri folia var. bicolor (Lam.) Mold. = V. trifolia var. bicolor 

(Willd.) Mold. 
Vitex trifolia var. trifoliolata Naves = V. quinata (Lour.) F. N. 

Will. 
Vitex trifolia floribus per ramos sparsis Burm. = V. trifolia L. 
Vitex turczaninowii Merr. — to be deleted 
Vitex vestite Wall. = V. vestita Wall. 
Viticipremna H. J. Lam •» Vitex Toum. 
Viticipremna novaepommeraniae Foreman = Vitex novae- pommeraniae 

Warb. 
Viticipremna novae- pommeraniae (Warb.) H. J. Lam " Vitex novae-pom- 

meraniae Warb. 
Viticipremna philippinensis (Turcz.) H. J. Lam = Vitex turczanin- 
owii Merr. 
Vito Kumar = Vitex Toum. 

Volcameria inermis L. ■ Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn. 
Volkameria madoeera Roxb. = Clerodendrum madaeera (Roxb.) Voigt 



268 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Zapania (curassavica) , spicis longis, calicibus aristatis, foliis 
ovatis, argutb serratis Lam. = Ghinia curassavica (L.) Oken 

Additions to the list of herbarium acronyms employed , inadver- 
tently omitted 

Gr " University of Graz, Graz, Austria [GZU] 

Lp = Institute de Ecologia, Universldad Mayor de San Andres, La 

Paz, Bolivia [LPB] 
Ne = Northeast Louisiana University, Monroe, Louisiana [NLU] 
So = Museo Naclonal, San Jose, Costa Rica [CR] 

Additions and emendations to the list of accepted taxa 

AVICENNIACEAE Endl. 

Avicennia germinans var. venezuelensis Mold. — to be added 

Aviceimia lanata Rldl. — to be deleted 

CHLOANTHACEAE (Benth.) J. Hutchins. 

Acbaritea Benth. — to be deleted 

Acharitea tenuis Benth. — to be deleted 

CYCLOCHEILACEAE Marais — to be added (two genera) 

Asepalum Marais — to be added 

Asepalum eriantheium (Vatke) Marais — to be added 

Cyclocheilon eriantberum (Vatke) Engl. — to be deleted 

Cyclocheilon eriantherum var. decurrens Chlov. — to be deleted 

Cyclocheilon kelleri Engl. — to be added 

Cyclocheilon somalense var. kelleri (Engl.) Stapf — to be deleted 

Cyclocheilon sp. nov.? — to be added 

NESOGENACEAE Marais — to be added (one genus) 

Nesogenes dupontii Hemsl. — to be deleted 

Nesogenes orerensis (Cardem. ) Marais — to be added 

Nesogenes tenuis (Benth.) Marais — to be added 

VERBENACEAE J. St.-Hll. 

Acantholippia tarapacana Botta — to be added 

Aegiphila cordata var. brevipilosa Mold. — to be added 

Aegiphila cordata var. villosissima (Mold.) Mold. — to be deleted 

Aegiphila haughtii f . serratifolia Mold. — to be added 

Amasonia hirta var. paradnsis Mold. — to be added 

Amasonia lasiocaulos var. macrophylla Mold. — to be added 

Callicarpa erioclona var. ponapensis (Fosberg) Mold. — to be added 

Callicarpa tomentosa (L.) Murr. — corrected accredition 

Citharexylum andinum var. beckii Mold. — to be added 

Clerodendrwn fulgens Firmlnger — to be added 

Clerodendrum leveillei Fedde — to be deleted 

Diostea scoparia var. suJbuIata Hold. — to be added 

Ceunsia apoensis (Elm.) Mold. — emended orthography 

Geunsia farinosa var. callicarpoides H. J. Lam — to be added 

Ceunsia farinosa f . serrulata Mold. — to be added 

Geunsia hexandra f. macrophylla Mold. — to be added 

Geunsia hooker i Merr. — to be deleted 

Geunsia paloensis (Elm.) H. J. Lam — emended orthography 

Geunsia paloensis var. celebica (Koord.) Mold. — emended orthography 



1982 Moldenke, Sixth summary supplement 269 

Geunsia paloensis var. serrata Mold. — emended orthography 
Geunsia scandens Mold. — to be added 

Geunsia serrulata f. anisophylla (H. llallier) Mold. — to be added 
Ghinia curassavica var. (Schlecht. & Cham.) Mold. — to be 

deleted 
Ghinia curassavica f . parvifolia Mold. — to be added 
Holmskioldia quilchenensis Mathews & Brooke — corrected ortho- 
graphy 
Holmskioldia tettensis f . flava Mold. — to be added 
Hoseanthus Merr. — corrected spelling & accredition 
Hoseanthus lobhii (C. B. Clarke) Merr. — corrected spelling & 

accredition 
Junellia ligustrina var. lorentzii (Niederlein) Mold. — to be 

added 
Lantana arida var. portoricensis Mold. — to be added 
Lantana arida var. sargentii Mold. — to be added 
Lantana camara var. moritziana f . albiflora Modi. — to be added 
Lantana cujabensis var. para&nsis Mold. — to be added 
Lantana glandulosissima f . aculeatissima Mold. — to be added 
Lantana glandulosissima f . flava Mold. — to be added 
Lantana glandulosissima f. parvifolia Mold. — to be added 
Lantana involucrata var. socorrensis Mold. — to be added 
Lantana jaliscana Mold. — to be added 
Lantana magnibracteata Troncoso — to be added 
Lantana micrantha var. beckii Mold. — to be added 
Lantana tilcarensis Troncoso — to be added 
Lantana urticoides f. aculeata Mold. — to be added 
Lantana urticoides f. macrophylla Mold. — to be added 
Lantana velutina f. flava Mold. — to be added 
Lippia asperrima f . angustifolia Mold. — to be added 
Lippia bromleyana var. hatschbachii Mold. — to be added 
Lippia graveolens f. macrophylla Mold. — to be added 
Lippia graveolens f. microphylla Mold. — to be added 
Lippia medica Fenzl — to be added 

Lippia rotundifolia var. l>ahiensis Mold. — to be added 
Recordia peredoi Mold. — to be added 

Stachytarpheta acuminata f . pubescens Mold. — to be added 
Stachytarpheta bicolor f. pilosula Mold. — to be added 
Stachytarpheta miniacea f . parvifolia Mold. — to be added 
Stachytarpheta sanguinea var. grisea Mold. — to be added 
Teijsmanniodendron subspicatum var. acutifolium Mold. — to be 

added 
Verbena catamarcensis Mold. — to be added 
Verbena dissecta f . capitata Mold. — to be added 
Vitex geminata H. H. W. Pearson — to be deleted 
Vitex harveyana f . geminata (H. H. W. Pearson) Mold. — to be 

added 
Vitex menabeensis Capuron — to be added 
Vitex negundo var. trifoliolata Mold. — to be added 
Vitex novae-pommeraniae Warb. — to be added 
Vitex payos var. stipitata Mold. — to be added 



270 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Vitex pinnata var. alata Mold. — to be deleted 
Vitex pinnata f. ptilota (Dop) Mold. — to be added 
Vitex quinata var. serrata Mold. — to be added 
Vitex rufescens var. para§nsis Hold. — to be added 
Vitex turczaninowii Merr. — to be added 
Vitex vestita f. unifoliolata Mold. — to be added 
Viticipremna H. J. Lam — to be deleted 

Viticipreiana novae- pommeraniae (Warb.) H. J. Lam — to be deleted 
Viticipremna philippinensis (Turcz.) H. J. Lam — to be deleted 
ERIOCAULACEAE 

Blastocaulon scirpeum O^art.) Giul. — to be added 
Eriocaulon aquatile var. latifolium Mold. — to be added 
Eriocaulon batholithicola Van Royen — to be added 
Eriocaulon lustratum Van Royen — to be added 

Eriocaulon melanocephalum ssp. usterianum Beauverd — to be de- 
leted 
Eriocaulon octangulare Blume — to be added 
Eriocaulon pioraense Van Royen — to be added 
Eriocaulon scorpionense Van Royen — to be added 
Eriocaulon singulare Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus dichotomus var. pumilus Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus fraternus var. laarahuacensis Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus fraternus var. radiatus Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus fraternus var. spathulatus Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus pauperrimus Herzog — corrected accredltion 
Paepalanthus savannarum (Mold.) Mold. — to be added 
Paepalanthus savannarum var. glabrescens (Mold.) Mold. — to be 

added 
Paepalanthus scirpeus Mart. — to be deleted 

Syngonanthus curralensis var. paucifolius Mold. — to be added 
Syngonanthus densiflorus var. longifolius Mold. — to be added 
Syngonanthus densifolius var. venezuelensis Mold. — to be 

added 
Syngonanthus savannarum Mold. — to be deleted 
Syngonanthus savannarum var. glabrescens Mold. — to be deleted 



The Sixth Summary, of which the foregoing is the first supple- 
ment, was published in 1980 as PHYTOLOGIA MEMOIRS II (629 pp.) 
and is still available from the author for $25 plus postage and 
handling. The Fifth Summary (97A pp.), published in 1971, with 
20,753 names accounted for (mostly not repeated in the Sixth 
Summary), is also still available for $25 plus postage and 
handling — the two together offered for $40 plus postage. 
Place orders with Mrs. Alma L. Moldenke, 303 Parks ide Road, 
Plainfield, New Jersey 07060, USA. 



LYSURUS CRUCIATUS (LEPR. & MONT.) LLOYD IN ILLINOIS 

Patricio Ponce de Leon 

Associate Curator, Cryptogamic Botany 

Field Museum of Natural History 



SUMMARY 



The first collection of Lysurus cruciatus 
(Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd in Illinois is reported. 

Following the new concept of the species 
a taxonomical distinction between L. cruciatus 
and Lysurus gardneri Berkeley is established. 
This distinction is based in the position of 
the glebiferous region. 

Anthurus borealis Burt is considered a 
synonym of L. cruciatus. 



During October 1981 several fruit bodies of Lysurus 
cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd were found in the yard of 
Mrs. Cries in Morton Crove, Illinois. The fungi were 
found on a lawn under a bird feeder. There were several 
completely developed fruit bodies and many still undeveloped 
(eggs) under the surface covered by the mycelium. This 
mycelium was producing fruit bodies from the last part of 
the summer and continued through all of November. The 
specimens collected were deposited in the Herbarium of the 
Field Museum of Natural History in Chicago. 

This is the first record of this species in Illinois. 

Lysurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd had been 
considered by all the modern authors as the same as 
Lysurus gardneri Berkeley but according to Dring's (1980) 
work on the family Clathraceae it is obvious that they are 
two different species. 

271 



272 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 



L. gardneri originally from Sri Lanka, Peradenilla, 
has a mostly southern hemisphere distribution. - Asia: Sri 
Lanka, India, Indonesia. Africa: Zaire and South Africa. 

L. cruciatus originally from French Guiana, has a 
universal distribution. - South America: French Guiana, 
Brazil, North America: New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, 
Massachussetts, Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, Wisconsin (?), 
Iowa, Missouri (probably never cited). South Carolina, 
North Carolina, Florida, California, Canada and now 
Illinois. Europe: England, Germany, Netherlands, Port- 
ugal and Sweden. Western Asia: Israel. Africa: South 
Africa. Australia; Queensland. 

In North America this species is very abundant in 
the east and is occasionally found in the Middle West, 
where it is more frequently collected in Ohio Sustine 
(1906) (1911), Beardslee (1901) (1912), Lloyd (1912), 
Michigan Rea (1955) and Indiana Bechtel (1935) but never 
until now collected in Illinois. Lloyd (1904) (1905) 
gave a list of stations for Anthurus borealis . Burk 
(1980) gives all the references for the collections of all 
the species of the family Clathraceae in the United States. 

Lysurus cruciatus had been identified in America as 
Anthurus and with many specific names by several authors 
at different times. 

Lysurus cruciatus was collected first in 1845 by 
Leprieur and Montagne. Later Fischer (1900) transfered it 
to Anthurus ; Lloyd (1909) mentions this species several 
times under different names and called it Lysurus , using 
the correct name L. cruciatus for the first time. Burt 
(1894) made a very complete anatomical study of this 
species, calling it Anthurus borealis and under this name 
it has been known by many American authors but in the 
meantime several authors had described the same fungus 
under several specific names in Lysurus , Anthurus and 
Aserophallus (see list of synonyms, below). Several authors 
confused it with L. gardneri . Fetch (1920) studying fresh 
material of L. gardneri from Ceylon and L. australiensis 
Cooke & Massee ( L. cruciatus ) from Australia established 
the difference between these two species based on the 
position and the structure of the glebiferous region, 
establishing a new genus, Pharus for L. gardneri . This 



1982 Ponce de Leon, Lysurus cruciatus 273 



name was already in use in the Gramineae and was changed 
by Fetch (1926) to Mycopharus , this name today is a 
synonym of L. gardneri . The main difference between L^. 
gardneri and L. cruciatus is indeed the position of the 
glebiferous region on the columns or arms. In L. gardneri 
the gleba occupies the upper portion of the arms, leaving 
a sterile underpart; in L. cruciatus the glebiferous 
region covers entirely the length of the arms. Other 
important differences are that in L. gardneri the fertile 
glebiferous region is strongly villose and lamellate and 
the arms at the glebiferous portion are composed by a 
single thick-walled tube. In L. cruciatus there is no 
villosity nor are there lamellae and the arms are composed 
of (l)-3-5 regularly arranged tubes. 

Bring (1980) thinks that the presence of sterile 
bases in the arms in L. gardneri is reminiscent of this 
character in Colus but the position of the gleba on the 
sides of the arms and the villose glebifer distinguishes 
it from Colus . 

There is another species present in America, Lysurus 
mokusin Fries from Asia, which has been collected in 
California, Texas, Washington, D. C. and in Western Canada. 

The receptacle of this species consists of a stipe 
with four to six buttresses (columns) running its whole 
length and continues upward with orange or red arras. 

Lysurus periphragmoides (Klotzch) Bring had been 
collected in New York, Nebraska, Kansas, Maryland and 
Texas. Bring (1980) mentioned a collection in the Bahamas 
and another in the Bominican Republic. 

The genus Anthurus Kalchbrenner & MacOwan in Kalch- 
brenner & Cooke, Grevillea 9: 2. 1880 has been reduced by 
modern authors to one species, A. archeri Berkeley. Cunn- 
ingham (1942) admits also A. javanicus (Penz.) Cunningham; 
Zeller (1940) reduced Anthurus to synonym of Lysurus , 
founding his opinion in the facts that the type no longer 
exists and the original description of Anthurus could just 
as well be applied to Lysurus . Bring (1980) in his 
arrangement of the family, Clathraceae transfered all the 
species of Anthurus to Clathrus, Lysurus or Pseudocolus . 



274 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 



North American illustrations of this species are 
abundant under the names of Anthurus borealis or Lysurus 
gardneri , 

Burt, Mem. Boston Soc , Nat. Hist. 3, Tab, 49, 50. 

1894 as L. borealis . 

Coker, Mycologia 37: 782. 1945 as L. pusillus . 

Griffiths, Bull. Torrey Bot. Club 26: 628. 1899 as 

L. bo realis . 

Lloyd, Mycological Notes 30: 386. Fig. 219. 1908 

as L. borealis; Mycological Notes 31: 407. Fig. 243. 

1908 as L. gardneri ;_Synops. Known Phall, 1909. Fig. 

38a as L. gardneri ; Fig. 39 as L. aust r aliensis , 

Fig. 40 and 41 as L. borealis . Fig. 42 as L. clara - 

zianus . Fig. 44 as L. cruciatu s. Fig. 45 as 

L. woodii , Fig. 510 as L. borealis. 

Murrill, Mycologia 4 Tab. 68. Fig. 8. 1912 as 

L. borealis . 

Rea, Papers Michigan Acad. Arts. Sci. 40: Fig. 1; 

Fig. 4-7. 1955 as L. borealis . 

LYSURUS CRUCIATUS (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd 
Synops. Known Phall. 40. 1909. 

Aserophallus cruciatus Leprieur & Montagne, Ann. Sci. 

Nat. Bot. Ser. 3,4: 36. 1845. 
Anthurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Fischer, Schweiz. 

Ges. Nat. 36: 41. 1900. 
Lysurus clarazianus Muller Art., Flora 56: 526. 1873. 
Anthurus clarazianus (Mull. Art.,) Fischer, Denkschr. 

Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 36: 42. 1900. 
Anthurus woodii MacOwan in Kalchbrenner , Phall. 

Nov. 23. 1880. 
Lysurus woodii (MacOwan) Lloyd, Synops. Known Phall. 

40. 1909. 
Lysurus texensis Ellis ex Gerard, Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club 7: 30. 1880. non nud. 
Lysurus argentinus Spegazzini, An. Soc. Ci. Argent. 

24: 68. 1887. 
Mutinus sulcatus Cooke & Massee in Cooke, Grevillea 

17: 69. 1889. 
Lysurus sulcatus (Cooke & Massee) Cunningham, Proc. 

Linn. Soc. N.S.W. 56: 189. 1931. 
Lysurus australiensis Cooke & Massee in Cooke, 

Grevillea 18: 6. 1889. 



1982 Ponce de Leon, Lysurus cruciatus 275 



Anthurus australlensis (Cooke & Masses) Fischer, 

Denkschr. Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 33: 27. 1893. 
Anthurus sanctae-catharlnae Fischer in Saccardo, 

Sylloge Fungurum 7: 23. 1888. 
Aserophallus sanctae-catharinae (Fischer) 0. Kuntze, 

Rev. Gen. PI. 2: 844. 1891. 
Lysurus sanctae-catharinae (Fischer) P. Hennings, 

Hedwigia 41 Beibl: 172. 1902. 
Anthurus borealis Burt, Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 

3: 504. 1894. 
Lysurus borealis (Burt) P. Hennings, Hedwigia 41 

Beibl: 172. 1902. 
Lysurus borealis var. klitzingii P. Hennings, 

Hedwigia 41 Beibl. 173. 1902. 
Lysurus borealis var. serotinus Peck, Bull. New 

York State Museum 157: 49. 1912. 
Lysurus tenuis Bailey, Queensland Agricultural 

Journal 27: 306. 1911. 
Lysurus pusillus Coker, Mycologia 37: 781. 1945. 



Unexpanded fruit bodies (eggs) white, globose to 
obovoid, 3 to 6 cm diameter, with meridional grooves along 
the lines of insertion of the sutures, corresponding to 
the columns of the receptacle; peridium of three layers, 
the outer thin and furfuraceous, the middle one thick and 
gelatinous, the internal very thin and membranous, dehi- 
scent. Development of the fruit-body multipileate , 

Expanded plant 15 cm long; mature receptacle con- 
sisting of a stipe surmounted by several vertical columns 
or arms; stipe 10 cm long, 2 cm. diameter, white or pale 
cream below, white or pinkish above, obconical or fusiform, 
consisting of two or three layers of intercommunicating 
tubes, hollow; columns or arms four to seven, conical, 
with a very marked groove down the length of the abaxial 
surface, 4 cm. long, erect, narrowly lanceolate, trans- 
versally rugulose, palid orange, initially united at the 
tips, eventually free, tending to curve away from the 
axis of the receptacle composed of 3-5 regular arranged 
thickwalled tubes; the rugose glebiferous layer is 
continued from arm to arm around the sinus between arms; 
gleba brown, in the entire inner and lateral surface of 
the arms, leaving a free groove in the outer face, deli- 
quescing slowly; odor slightly fetid; spores ellipsoid- 
cylindric 4-4.5 x 1.5-2 um. , epispore smooth, hyaline. 



276 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

TYPE: Leprieur . 18A5. Herb. Montagne (P) , Cayenne, 
French Guiana. 

ILLINOIS: Gries, Ponce de Leon //1030, Morton Grove, 
November 20, 1981. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I want to thank Dr. Clark T. Rogerson, New York 
Botanical Garden, Dr. Paul L. Lentz, National Fungus 
Collection, Dr. Robert L. Shaffer, University of Michigan 
Herbarium, Dr. D. H. Pfister, Farlow Herbarium for their 
prompt reply to my letter asking for information regarding 
the presence of Lysurus cruciatus in Illinois and 
especially Dr. J. R. Massey for sending me the material 
from the University of North Carolina Herbarium. Also, 
I would like to express my appreciation to Dr. Rolf Singer 
who read the manuscript and offered critical suggestions 
and Mrs. E. Rada for her help in the English editing and 
typing of the manuscript and Mrs. C. Niezgoda (Herbarium 
Assistant at the Field Museum) for her excellent work 
with the Scanning Electron Microscope. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Bechtel, A. R. 1935. Rare Gasteromycetes in Indiana. 
Proc. Indiana Acad. Sci. 44: 79-80. 

Beardslee, H. C. 1901. Anthurus borealis in Northern Ohio. 
Annual Report Ohio State Acad. Sci. 9: 19. 

, 1912. An acre of Lysurus in Lloyd, Myc . Notes 



38: 515-516. 

Burk, W. R. 1980. A Bibliography of North American 

Gasteromycetes: I Phallales. Bibliotheca Mycologica 
Band 73 Cramer, Vaduz. 

Burt, E. A. 1894. A North American Anthurus , its structure 
and development. Mem. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 3: 
487-505. 

Cunningham, G. H. 1942. The Gasteromycetes of Australia 
and New Zealand. Dunedin, N.Z. Reprint 1949 Biblio- 
theca Mycologica, Band 67. Cramer, Vaduz. 



1982 Ponce de Leon, Lysurus cruciatus 277 



Dring, D. M. 1964. Towards an arrangement of Clathraceae. 
Kew Bull. 35(1): 76-79. 

Fischer, E. 1900, Denkschr. Schweiz. Ges. Nat. 36: 41. 

Lloyd, C. G. 1904. Anthurus borealis in England. Myc . 
Notes 17: 183-184 and 188. 

1905. Stations for Anthurus borealis. Myc. 



Notes 19: 219-220. 



1906. Concerning the Phalloids. Mycological 



Notes 24: 293-301. 
1907. Phalloids of Australasia. 24pp. Cincin- 



nati. 
1908. Mycological Notes 31: 407. fig. 243, 



1909. Synopsis of the Known Phalloids, 96pp. 



Cincinnati. 



1912. The umbilical plates of Clathroid 



Phalloid. Myc. Notes. 38: 512-515. 

1912. Lysurus borealis at Cincinnati. Myc. 

Notes 38: 515. 

Petch, T. 1920. Further Notes on Colus gardneri (Berk) 
Fischer. Transactions of the British Myc. Soc. 6: 
131. 

1926. Studies in Entomogenous Fungi (Note). 



Transactions of the British Myc. Soc. 10: 281. 

Rea, P.M. & Heidenhain, B. 1955. The Genus Lysurus . Pap. 
Michigan Acad. Sci. 40: 49-66. 

Sunstine, D. R. 1906. Notes on Anthurus borealis . Ohio 
Naturalist 6: 474. 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 4 




I 



Lysurus cruciatus (Lepr. & Mont.) Lloyd, Morton Grove, 
Tllinois, GrieT~& PPL 1030. Nov. 20, 1981. Above: 
Spore 14,000 x SEM. Below, left: Specimen half natural 
size. Below, right: Basidium with some spores 2,000 x. 



Trillium virginianum (Fern.) Reed, comb. nov. , 
in Maryland, Virginia, West Virginia and North Carolina 

Clyde F. Reed 

From the genesis of Trillium pusillum var. virginianum , described 
by Fernald in 1943, there have been considerable doubts that the plants 
involved were really closely related to Trillium pusillum Michaux. Fer- 
nald had said (I.e., p. 396) 'that it is neither T. lanceolatum (a name 
he had applied to it in Rhodora 42: 445. 1940) nor typical T. pusillum ' . 
In the Flora of Central Eastern United States. I am considering it a 
species . 

Trillium virginianum (Fernald) Reed, comb. nov. Based on Trillium 
pusillum var. virginianum Fernald, Rhodora 45: 397, t. 773, f. 1-2. 1943. 

Michaux (1803) had described T. pusillum as having the leaves ses- 
sile, the flowers peduncled and erect, the sepals scarcely longer than 
the pale flesh-colored petals. Fernald (1943) illustrated T. pusillum 
with a specimen of Michaux, marked '35 miles from Charleston, environs 
Gaillard Road' (I.e., pi. 772, f. 1), along with two other specimens 
from about the same locality, Pinopolis in Berkeley County, from pine- 
lands on the Coastal Plain of South Carolina. The flowers in both Mi- 
chaux 's specimen and the two from Pinopolis have long-peduncled flowers, 
with petals 1.8-2.5 cm. long and 4-9 mm. broad, about equaling or longer 
that the sepals, and the anthers 5-6 mm. long, either longer or shorter 
that their filaments (this a very weak character at the best). This 
description fits plants from western North Carolina, other areas of 
South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee. In some 
the flowers are darker pink or deep rose-colored. In western North Caro- 
lina, this species is in low areas or alluvial areas, even at 2700 ft. 
elevation. In Georgia. Alabama and Tennessee, the plants are in al- 
luvial areas at fairly high elevations of the Piedmont or Uplands, 
area in Alabama is along Paint Rock River, east of Huntsville. 

Buckley (1861) had named Trillium texanum from Panola County. Texas. 
There plants have flowers on erect peduncles 2.5-4.5 cm. long, the 
sepals longer than the petals, the petals white becoming pink or red- 
dish with age, 1.5-3 cm. long and 7-14 mm. broad, the stamens 10-14 mm. 
long and the anthers slightly longer than the filaments. However, the 
bracts have upper epidermal stomates, giving a somewhat farinose ap- 
pearance. More recently, is has been found in Cass and Houston Counties 
(Correll & Johnson, p. 408, 1970). Index Kewensis had equated T. texanum 
with T. pusillum. Correll and Johnson considered it a species. I am 
considering it as a variety. 

Trillium pusillum var. texanum (Buckl.) Reed, comb. nov. Based 
on T. texanum Buckley, Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila. 1860: 443. 1861. 

279 



280 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Palmer & Steyermark (1935) described Trillium ozarkanum from 
Missouri. These plants are somewhat taller than typical T. pusillum , 
the flowers are erect and long-peduncled , with broad sepals, and the 
petals longer and broader than those in typical T. pusillum , and lie 
flat-horizontal, spreading or arch-recurved, but not erect or arching, 
white fading to pink or rose-purple. Leaves are strongly 5-veined 
instead of being 3-veined. Besides several localities in south-cen- 
tral and southwestern Missouri , this plant is known in Arkansas and 
central to south-central Kentucky. Rafinesque (1840) had listed T. 
pusillum from West Kentucky; his west Kentucky could well have been any- 
where west of Lexington and could well have represented plants from 
Casey County, which I now have at hand. Rafinesque by referring to 'near 
last , which species had leaves sessile, was not confusing his spe- 
cimen with T. recurvatum which he had already mentioned in relation to 
T. unguiculatum Raf. (1840, p. 132) = T. recurvatum Beck (Freeman, 
1975, p. 6). Later, Steyermark (1960) considered T. ozarkanum a 
variety of T. pusillum , which arrangement is quite reasonable and I 
accept T. pusillum var. ozarkanum (Palmer & Steyermark) Steyermark. 

Trillium virginianum (Fern.) Reed is a distinct species: the 
leaves are sessile and may vary from linear to lanceolate or ovate, 
the flowers sessile or subsessile on very short pedundles (1-4 mm. 
long), the petals only 1.2-2 cm. long and 3-5 mm. broad, white, or 
white fading to pink or rose, and the anthers 3-8 mm. long, either 
longer or shorter than their filaments. It grows in swampy woods, 
rich loamy woods in damp areas or in upland thickets or open areas , 
from near sea-level on the Delmarva Peninsula in Maryland and Vir- 
ginia to piedmont areas in Virginia and eastern North Carolina to the 
eastern edge of the Appalachian Mountains. 

Many Coastal Plain species in Central Eastern United States 
hane montane localities, and vica versa. Therefore, it is not out of 
place for T. virginianum to be found on the Coastal Plain in Maryland, 
Virginia and eastern North Carolina, on the Piedmont in northeastern 
North Carolina and Virginia (along the drainage of the James River) 
and in the mountains of Virginia (Rochingham Co.) and West Virginia 
(Pendleton Co.), as reported by Gerald Roe (1978). Sarracenia pur - 
purea is mostly Coastal Plain in its distribution in Delaware, Mary- 
land, Virginia and North Carolina, yet it occurs in the Appalachians 
in West Virginia and western Maryland. Drosera rotundifolia is main- 
ly Coastal Plain, yet it occurs at Swallow Falls (Garrett Co. , Md . ) 
and elsewhere in the Piedmont and mountains. The genera Hexas tylis . 
Galax and Oxydendron have similar distributional patterns (Reed , 
1965). Many of Fernald's species and varieties of the Blue Ridge 
and Appalachian areas of Virginia have turned out to be tetraploids 
of Coastal Plain diploid species, or vica versa. Trillium pusillum 
itself has Coastal Plain localities in South Carolina and montane 
localities in western North Carolina, Alabama and elsewhere. 



1982 Reed, Trillium virginianum 281 

On the other hand, Trillium grandif lorum is a Piedmont or 
Appalachian species; yet it is found on the Coastal Plain on the Del- 
marva Peninsula. Box-huckleberry is a montane species in Pennsylvania, 
West Virginia and Kentucky, yet it has Coastal populations in Sussex 
County, Delaware and Anne Arundel County, Maryland. 

Actually, the area where T. virginianum is most common on the 
Delmarva Peninsula is one in which there is a very large Piedmont or 
montane flora, with over 100 species considered to be from those areas 
( and no where in between, sometimes 100 to 150 miles to the nearest 
population). This Piedmont-montane flora ranges from near Snow Hill 
(Worcester Co., Md.) south to Silva and near Accomac (Accomac Co.,Va.), 
an area about 35 miles long and 5-8 miles wide. I have published some 
of this flora already. 

Gerald Roe (1978) published a very fine review of the history 
of T. pus ilium var. virginianum in Virginia, and added his new finding 
of Tt in the mountains along the Virginia-West Virginia border (Rocking- 
ham Co., Va.- Pendleton Co., W.Va.). The specimens he cited are ex- 
cellent specimens of T. virginianum (Fern.) Reed, and he should be 
given full credit for having found this species in this mountain habitat. 
Evidently, more recently, Norlyn Bodkin (1981) and James Reveal (1981) 
came across the same locality and noted the plants to be a new find, 
which evidently is not the case in the light of Roe's published data 
and specimens from that locality in 1978. 

The area where Roe's specimens came from, that is, south of Rt. 
33 along the mountains to the south (headed toward Reddish Knob) is 
one of special interest to me. The country rock here is Tonoloway 
limestone of late Silurian Age with a contact with the underlying Wills 
Creek limestone. However, intrusive igneous rocks form several dikes 
in this region of Pendleton, Rockingham and Highland Counties. These 
lend for acid soils and conditions in patches. Most probably it is in 
these soils (not the limestone soils) where Roe's specimens came from. 
Harvill (1977) had indicated T. pus illum (sic) as being in Rockingham 
County, Virginia, probably based on Roe's specimens which are at 
Williams & Marys College Herbarium. However, it is of interest to 
note that Harvill did not indicate the presence of this species in 
Accomac County, Virginia on his maps (1977, Atlas). 

Very recently. Case (1981) gave an excellent concise review of 
the Trilliums in eastern North America. His remarks about T. pusillum 
and T. virginianum substantiate my treatment of the two as separate 
species. However, he considered T. ozarkanum and T. texanum as sepa- 
rate species also, leaving the possibility for their inclusion in 
T. pusillum . I consider them both as varieties of T. pusillum . 



282 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Records of T. pus ilium and varieties 

Trillium pusillum Michaux, Fl. Bor. Amer. 1: 215. 1803. 

South Carolina: Pinopolis, about 35 mi. N of Charleston, near 
Moncks Corner, near Michaux's type locality. April 1897. 
Maria P. Ravenel . (GH) ; Pinopolis. May, 1895. E. Peyre Porcher 
(GH) ; 35 mi . from Charleston, environs Gaillard Road. (Type). 
All illustrated by Femald, Rhodora 45: pi. 772. 1943. Berkeley 
County. Also known in Calhoun and Dorchester Counties (Fl. 
Carolinas, 1968). 

North Carolina: Haywood Co.: Low ground, elev. 2700 ft. May 1895. 
T.G.H. (US-959737); same loc. May 1898. T.G.H. (US-959738). 

Alabama: Madison Co.: Butler;s Bottom, along Paint Rock River, 
east of Huntville, in Upper Piedmont. Flowers peduncled. 

Also known in Georgia, Tennessee and Mississippi. 

Trillium pusillum var. ozarkanum (Palmer 5. Steyermark) Steyermark, 

Rhodora 62: 130. 1960. Based on T. ozarkanum Palmer & Steyer., 

Arkansas: Newton Co.: On cherty soil, wooded slope of oak and 
hickory, at Lost Creek (or Lost Valley), about 2 mi. SW of 
Ponca, alt. about 1200 ft. Numerous scattered plants (fls. 
white to lavender, on peduncles up to 3 cm. long). April 4, 
1964. Paul L. Redfeam^ Jr . 14356. (SABC distribution - Reed 
Herb.). (Thompson, 1977, p. 75). 

(Lost Valley, in the Boston Mountains, is part of the 
Buffalo National River Park; elevation of steep slopes within 
the ravine range from 11 — to 1800 feet; mesophytic forest 
with several Appalachian disjuncts and Ozarkian endemics; 
consists of numerous sedimentary rock outcrops and dry 
upland wooded ridges) 

Kentucky: Casey Co.: Very numerous, Pricetown, Liberty Quad- 
rangle, Osage Geological Region, elev. 1000 ft. April 29, 
1962. Gl enn W. Murphy 372. (Reed Herb.); Rafinesque No. 14. 
(petals incarnate) , West Kentucky (Autikon Bot., p. 134, No. 
976. 1840, as T. pusillum . 

Missouri: Occurs in acid soils of shallow draws in the thin 

cherty-f linty soils of oak-hickory, oak-pine or oak-chestnut 
woodlands in southern Missouri Ozarks :; Shannon Co.: West 
side of Rt. 80, 2 mi. S of Birch Tree. May 3, 1947. Stey er- 
mark 64262; same loc, 1946. Bill Bauer ; Lawrence Co.: Palmer ; 
Barry Co.: 3 mi. S of Cassville, Rt . 112 on road to Roaring 
River State Park, April 20, 1935. Steyermark 18628 (Type loc- 
MO) ; same loc. April 13, 1930. Cora Shoop . 



1982 Reed, Trillium virginianim 283 

Trillium pusillu m var. texanum (Buckl.) Reed, comb. nov. Based on 
T. texanum Buckl. , Proc. Acad. Sci. Phila. 1860: 443. 1861. 

Texas: Panola Co.: Extremely rare in low moist woods, bogs and 
stream banks. (Type loc). Also in Cass and Houston Counties. 

Trillium virginianum (Fern.) Reed 

Trillium virginianum (Fern.) Reed, comb. nov. Based on T. pusillum 
var. virginianum Fern., Rhodora 45: 397, pi. 773, f. 1-2.1943. 

Maryland: Worcester Co.: Shady woods, Carey;s Creek. April 26, 
1935. G.F.Beaven 196. (Duke; ANSP) , labeled T. pusillum Michx. 
subsp. IV, det. S.J.Smith, 1947; originally recorded as T. 
sessile ; swampy woods at bases of maples, Rt. 502, 2 mi . SE 
of Stockton. May 30, 1955. Reed 36292 (8 specimens- all fls, 
sessile); Carey's Creek, 2 mi. ENE of Pocomoke City, on hum- 
mocks in Cypress forest in Pocomoke Swamp. May 4, 1947. R. R . 
T atnall,G.R. Proctor & E.T. Wherry . (ANSP). 

Virginia: Accomac Co.: Wet woods just NW of Silva. April 14, 
1957. Reed 38636 (4 spec); same loc. April 22, 1956. Reed 
37485 ( 15 spec . ) ; low wet woods bet. Horntown and Silva. April 
22, 1956. Reed 37437 (9 spec); low swampy woods. 1 mi. S of 
Wattsville. April 22, 1956. Reed 37448 (7 spec), and 37447 (2 
dimerous spec); wet woods, 0.5 mi. W of Greenbackville . April 
22. 1956. Reed 37460 (10 spec), 37457 (1 dimerous), 37461 
(1 tetramerous ) ; wet maple swampy woods on hummocks just W of 
Silva near Mollard Mill Pond Creek. May 30, 1955. Reed 36626 
(13 specimens), 36627 (1 tetramerous); swampy woods just NW of 
Silva. April 13, 1963. Reed 61363 (2 spec). 

Norfolk Co.: Swampy woods, Rt . 165, 2 mi . W of Great Bridge. 
April 16, 1963. Reed 61551 (16 spec); Great Dismal Swamp. W 
of Wallaceton. April 24, 1926. Paul A. Warren 413. (GH). 

Nansemond Co.: Beech-maple stand and surrounding low areas. 
S of Williamson Ditch. March 5, 1975. Lytton J. Musselman 
4835. (NC State - 4 spec, fls. 3 sessile, 1 peduncle 0.6 mm. 
long) . 

James City Co.: Low woods 4 mi. NW of Williamsburg. May 5, 
1951. F.H.Sargent . (NC State - fls 2 sessile, 2 with 2 mm. 
peduncles); locally abundant in headwaters of stream. Long 

Hill Swamp. Rt. 612. April 8, 1979. Donna M.E.Ware & Douglas 
E. Blackman 7321. (Wm.& M.Coll. - 2 spec, fls. sessile); 
same loc. April 8, 1979. Donna M.E.Ware & Stewart A.Ware 7322; 
Long Hill Swamp, Powhatan Creek on Centreville Road, W of 
Williamsburg. May 3, 1931. Mrs. W.G.Guy & Dr. Sutton (GH - 
sent by Paul A. Warren); locally abundant, along edge of stream 
in headwaters of Mill Creek, E of Mt . Pleasant Church on Iron- 
bound Road, Williamsburg. April 8, 1979. Donna M.E.Ware & 
Douglas E. Blackman 7321. (UNC-CH) ; locally abundant on mixed 
deciduous wooded slopes above Long Hill Swamp, Lafayette High 
School Nature Trail, Williamsburg. May 1, 1976. Donna M.E.Ware 
6535. (UNC-CH). 



284 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. A 

Henrico Co.: N of Westwood Golf Course, Richmond. May 
8, 1931. R.F. Smart & Elmer C. Richard (U.Rich.); woodland, 
N of University Road, Westwood. May 8, 1931. Mary E. Bil - 
lings . (GH). 

Chesterfield Co.: 'Woodlands', Winterpack. April 29, 
1939. V irginia Britt & Dimples Lathum (petals maroon); April 
30, 1939. Virginia Britt (petals white); April 30, 1939. V ir- 
ginia Britt & Juliet Florence (petals pink). (U.Rich.). All 
with sessile flowers. 

Dinwiddie Co.: Rich loamy woods near stream, 5 mi. E of 

Dinwiddie Court House. May 9, 1943. Laura H. Lippitt (Type- 

(GH) 

■Rockingham Co.: In thickets and open areas, woods along 

Virginia-West Virginia State Line, on mountain, elev. 4000 ft. 

May 1975. Gerald F. Roe 1271 (Coll. Wm.& Mary- fls. sessile 

to peduncles 2 mm. long) . 

West Virginia: Pendleton Co.: In thickets and in open areas, 
along West Virginia-Virginia State line, mountains , elev. 
4000 ft. May 1975. Gerald F. Roe 1270. (Coll. Wm.& Mary - 
fls. sessile to peduncles 2 mm. long). 

North Carolina: Wake Co.: Alluvial flat, head of Yates Pond, 
about 5 mi. S of Raleigh. April 20, 1950. Wm. B. Fox and 
Dave Adams 3561 (Duke- 3 spec, fls. of peduncles 4-6 mm. long); 
Yates Pond, 5 mi. SW of Raleigh. April 21,1970. Sandra K . 
Ittenbach 83. (N.C.Stae - 5 spec., fls. peduncled to 10 mm. 
long. Eastern Piedmont 

Nash Co.: In low wet area, left side of Us. Rt . 264, about 
2 mi. E of Middlesex. March 25, 1976. Rhodes Robinson . 
(N. estate- 4 specimens, fls. all sessile) . 



References 



Baldwin, J.T., Jr., Bernice M. Speece and Bernard Mikula Chromo- 
somes of T rillium pus ilium var. virginianum Fern. Rhodora 
51: 368. 1949. 

Beaven, G.F. and H.J. Costing Pocoraoke Swamp: A Study of a Cypress 
Swamp on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
66: 367-389. 1939. (as T. se ssile ). 

Browne, E.T., Jr. Some New or Otherwise Interesting Reports of 

Liliaceae from the Southeastern States. Rhodora 63: 304-311. 
1961. 

Herbarium and Field Notes on Kentucky Plants. I. New State 

Records, Rarities and a New Form. Castanea 32: 77-84. 1967. 

Case, Frederick W. , Jr. Eastern American Trilliums. Part I. Bull. 
Amer. Rock Gard. Soc. 39: 53-67, illus. 1981; Part II, I.e., 
39: 108-122, illus. 1981. 



1982 Reed, Trillium virginianum 285 

Correll, D.S. and M.C.Johnson Manual of the Vascular Plants of 

Texas. Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 1970. 
Fernald, M.L.Virginian Botanizing Under Restrictions. The Dwarf 

Trillium of Southeastern Virginia. Rhodora 45: 364-365, 396- 

398, pi. 772-773. 1943. 
Gray's Manual of Botany. Eighth (Centennial Edition. D. Van 

Norstrand Co. (Corrected Printing, 1970). New York. 1950. 
Freeman, John D. Revision of Trillium subgenus Phy 11 an the rum 

(Liliaceae). Brittonia 27: 1-62, illus., maps. 1975. 
Harvill, A.M., Jr., Charles E. Stevens and Donna M.E.Ware Atlas 

to the Flora of Virginia, I. Pteridophy tes through Monocoty- 
ledons. 59 pp. Virginia Bot. Associates, Farmville, Va. 1977. 
Michaux, F.A. Flora Boreali-Americana , 1: 215. 1803. 
Mussellman, Lytton J,, D.J.Nickrent and G.F.Levy A Contribution 

towards a Vascular Flora of the Great Dismal Swamp. Rhodora 

79: 240-268, 2 figs. 1977. 
Norton, J.B.S. and Russell G. Brown A Catalog of the Vascular 

Plants of Maryland. Castanea 11: 1-50. 1946. (as T. pus ilium ) . 
Palmer, E.J. and J. A. Steyermark An Annotated Catalogue of the 

Flowering Plants of Missouri. Ann. Missouri Bot. Card. 22: 

375-759. 1935. 
Radford, A.L. , H.E.Ahles and C.R.Bell Manual of the Flora of the 

Carolinas. Univ. North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill. 1968. 
Redmond, P.J. A Flora of Worcester County, Maryland. Contrib. 

Biol. Lab. Catholic Univ. of Araer. , No. 11. 1932. 
Reed, Clyde F. Contributions to the Flora of Maryland, 2. The 

genus Trillium Castanea 21. 145-150. 1956. 
New County Records for Botrychium mat ricariae folium in Mary- 
land and Delaware. Amer. Fern Journ. 46: 148-151. 1956. 
The Potomac River as the natural barrier for Oxydendron , Galax 

and Hexastylis. Phytologia 12: 313-330, maps. 1965. 
Roe, Gerald, F. Additions to the range of Trillium pusil l um . 

Castanea 43: 187-191, map. 1978. 
Simmons, Chris Discovery: JMU Botanist Finds New Variety of Lily. 

Daily News-Record (Harrisonburg, Va.), p. 17, illus. Thurs . 

Aug. 6, 1981. 
Steyermark, J. A. Flora of Missouri. Iowa State Univ. Press, Ames, 

Iowa. 1963. 
Tatnall, R.R. Flora of Delaware and the Eastern Shore. 1946. 
Thompson, Ralph L. The Vascular Flora of Lost Valley, Newton County, 

Arkansas. Castanea 42: 61-94. 1977. 
Vesey, Tom Botanists Find A New Virginia Flower. The Washington 

Post - Metro, Bl, illus. Monday Aug. 3, 1981. 
Wherry, E.T. Trillium pusillum in Maryland. Bartonia 25: 71. 1949. 



Additional Notes on Cypripedium kentuckiense Reed 
Clyde F. Reed 



Since publication of Cypripedium kentuckiense Reed in July 
1981, I have received several letters of correspondence about its 
being elsewhere in Kentucky. I am surprised that someone had not 
named this orchid years ago. Over the past six months I have been 
able to mount up some of the several thousand specimens of still 
unmounted plants I had collected either while I lived in Kentucky 
(Jan. 1947 to Aug. 1950) or since that time from my many collecting 
trips during the past thirty years. In all I have amassed over 
50,000 specimens of vascular plants from Kentucky alone. 

Before going to Morehead State University (then Morehead State 
College) in September of 1947, I had taught for a short time at 
Union College at Barboursville in Knox County (Jan. to June. 1947). 
Among other courses I taught there was a botany course in which 
students collected plants about thffiir home areas. One student took 
me to her home farm (about May 28th) some distance west of Barbours- 
ville and showed me this beautiful white Cypripedium growing in an 
alluvial area at the edge of a woods. Being new to Kentucky at the 
time, I thought I would find more of this plant elsewhere. 

My next contact with this orchid was the following year in 
Morehead with the type specimen cited in my July paper, which is in 
the Reed Herbarium. It had been brought to Rowan County from Elliott 
County by Mr. Hagen, then a teacher of agriculture at Morehead, or 
one of his students, and planted in his garden. I had the good for- 
tune of seeing it flower for three years. 

Spring Flora was one of my more popular classes at Morehead, 
and for three years students of that class and to some degree those 
in the General Botany classes collected plants especially in their 
home areas for projects. On one of our botanical class trips, we 
came upon a few plants of this orchid in flower on our way to Oligo- 
nunk and Kinnikonink, in Lewis County. I did not allow students to 
take any specimens as each thought he needed one. However, I did 
return a week later by myself to get one for the record. 

The next year, another student turned in a specimen with his 
botany collection from Rowan County (cited in my July paper, and 
also in the Reed Herbarium). Meantime, I had collected a fruiting 
specimen (co-type, in Reed Herbarium) from a stand of this orchid a 
student lead me to in Carter County, He had told me about a tall 
white Lady ' s-slipper earlier that summer near his home in that county. 

286 



1982 Reed, Additional notes 287 

Various persons over the past 30 years have told me about this 
orchid in Kentucky. Some have sent me specimens. I am encouraging 
those persons who have written me recently to send me a single flower- 
ing specimen for the record with all pertinent data. In addition, 
several persons have invited me to Kentucky to visit their stand this 
spring a trip which I shall greatly enjoy. 

The description of Cypripedium kentuckiense Reed given in my July 
paper was that of the type specimen cited therein and the co-type, in 
accordance with the International Rules. As with all species, when 
more specimens are examined, some variation in size of structures, color 
of flower, height and growing habitats can be expected. Note that 
Linnaeus 's few worded descriptions of species are now expanded into 
full page descriptions. Since publication I have seen specimens in 
which the flower is somewhat larger and more yellow-white, the rather 
blunt saccate lower petal somewhat larger, and the plants a little 
taller or shorter, especially from Knox County. I am sure that as 
more plants are found and studied, additional characters of interest 
will be significant. This type of thing always happens, especially 
with a plant that has generated as much interest as this one has. 

As mentioned in my previous paper. Cypripedium kentuckiense is a 
native, and probably an endemic, to the Cumberland Plateau, being 
found sometimes in alluvial situations , sometimes near the slopes and 
bases of wooded areas in shaded situations. I can now say that it 

ranges from Lewis and Carter Counties, south to at least Knox, Rock- 
castle and Pulaski Counties in Kentucky. Quite recently. I have 
learned of a locality for this orchid in Scott County. Tennessee, 
Therefore, it should be looked for in Whitley and McCreary Counties. 

Since my article was published in July. I have received several 
lucrative offers to tell where the plant could be found. One person 
even offered to pay my way to take him to such a locality to get some 
plants. Because so many people are inquiring about where to find 
and get this orchid, I shall not disclose any more exact localities. 
Although we talk about conserving and protecting rare and endangered 
species, it is those persons who want to show-and-tell who do the 
greatest dis-service to the concept. One group has written me that 
someone has already exterminated one population of this fine orchid — 
I am sure because of their having shown it to the wrong persons, I am 
equally sure that more publicity about this orchid by this group or 
others will only lead to the early extinction of this orchid; ^s every 
wildflower grower and orchid grower will have to have one to complete 
his collection. Telling exact localities, giving exact ecological de- 
tails, showing over and over again pictures of the plant so there can 
be no doubt when someone finds the plant, are all ways of shortening 
the existence of a rare species, especially if is an orchid. 



288 P U Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 4 

Such extermination of orchid localities can be well documented. 
In 1962 Habenaria nivea was published as being abundant in a particular 
bog in New Jersey. A year later when the same locality was revisited, 
a hundred holes were found there instead, including the trowel. Nearby, 
the exact locality for the largest colony known in New Jersey for the 
Cranefly Orchis, Tipularia discolor , was published, and in 1963, again 
when revisited, every plant had been dug up and hauled away. People 
endanger species, in one way or another. 



References 



Reed, C.F. C ypripedium kentuckiense Reed, a new species of orchid in 
Kentucky, Phytologia 48: 426-428. illus. 1981. 

P. B.C. Conservation Committee More Orchid Vandalism in New Jersey. 
Bartonia, No. 33: 12-13. 1963. 



A NEW FORM or TRILLIUM MIYABEANUW ( LILIACEAE ) FROM HOKKAIDO 

Victor G. Soiikup 
Herbarium, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 



Trillium miyabeanum var . miyabeanxim Tatewaki f_, albiflorom SoukuR 
f, nov, , a f, miyabeano petalis albidis differt. 

HOLOTYPE: JAPAN: Hokkaido: I shikari, about 10 km east of Laike Shi- 
kotsu in seasonally wet, rich woods in compsmy with typical forms of 
both Trillium miyabeanum v, miyabeanum and v, atropurpvireocarpum in 
addition to the parent species, T, ape talon and T, tschonoskii . 
May 1980, Samejima and Samejima TciNC!). 

This new form with whitish flowers was found by JL and K» Samejima 
and the author dtiring his field studies in Japan in 1978. No col- 
lections were made at that time but in 1980 the Samejimas collected 
one flowering stem. The location is in an extensive tract of level, 
mostly deciduous woodland which remains quite wet in the sprin^ime 
and which contains a rich herbaceous flora. One clump of approxi- 
mately three plants growing proximately and having about ten 
flowering stems was found. Known only from the type collection. 

Trillium miyabeanum is a tetraploid hybrid of the two tetraploid 
species, T, ape talon and T, tschonoskii and occurs in two varieties 
(Samejima & Samejima, 1962), one having a greenish ovaory and the 
other a purple one. The common varieties of T, ape talon (loc cit,) 
all have small, deep maroon-pxirple sepals and no petals. Hybridi- 
sation with the smallish-flowered, cream-colored T, tschonoskii 
leads to rather small-flowered plants usually having bri^t rosy- 
purple petals. While a complete absence of petals in these hybrids 
is rare, the presence of three fully formed, perfect petals is 
almost as rare. Usually the plajits cGLrry a combination of partial 
(deformed) and perfect petals, occasionally even having one or two 
petals missing. The new white-flowered form is no exception to 
this generality and no flowers with three complete petals were 
found. 

The origin of this white-flowered form is a matter of speculation. 
It is difficult to imagine that it could arise directly from an 
apparently dominant, ptirple-f lowered T. apetalon variety, Trillium 
ape talon v. atropurpureocarpum f . album is a rare form of the 
species having yellowish-green sepals which occurs in the Ishikari 
Depression, It is possible that the new white form is a hybrid of 
this greenish-flowered (albino?) T, apetalon and T, tschonoskii , 

Samejima, J, & K, Samejima 1962, Studies on the Eastern Asiatic 
Trillium (Liliaceae), Acta Horti Gothob. 2^: 157-257. 

289 



NEW YELLOW-FLOWERED iXDHMS OT TRILLIUM ( LILIACEAE ) 
FROM THE NORTHWESTERN UNITED STATES 

Victor G, Soukup 
Herbaritun, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 



Trilli\iin kurabayashii Freeman f_, luteum Soukup, f, nov., a f« 
kurabayashio petalis staminibus carpellisque luteis vel viridi- 
luteis differt. 

HOLOTYPE: UNITED STATES: Ore^n: Cxirry Co.: In wooded border of 
pasture imder mixed hardwoods about 8,0 km southeast of Brookings 
on secondary road. March 17, 1979* Sotikup with E, Dusek and V, 
Stansell (CINC!). 

The new form differs from typical plants by the absence of purple 
pigments from all floral parts. It probably occurs in the midst of 
p\irple-f lowered plants throughout the species' range. Three yellow- 
flowered plants and three with purple-suffused yellow petals and 
purple ovaries were seen at this location. At ajiother prolific 
location about 55 km to the north near Gold Beach, no yellow-flow- 
ered plants and only two purple-suffused yellow-flowered plants 
were found. In Del Norte Co., California, along US Hwy. 101, was 
seen a plant, which while showing signs of herbicide injury, also 
seems to represent the yellow-flowered form. 

This new form has been known to a few Trillium afficiandos for 
several yeaurs and it was with the help of two such people that the 
specimens described were tracked down. Even though some time has 
passed since Freeman (1975) described Trillium kurabayashii , these 
yellow-flowered plants are still considered to be Trillium chloro- 
petalTun v. chloropetalum , nijmerous differences between the two not 
withstanding. Because the new form does show similarities to this 
latter species, it is important that it be formally recognised to 
help prevent erroneous reports of the occurence of T, chloropetalum 
V. chloropetalum in northern California and southwestern Oregon, 



Trilliiim petiolatum Pursh £, luteum Soukup, I, nov,, a f , petiolato 
petalis staminibus carpellisque luteis vel viridi-luteis differt, 

HOLOTYPE: UNITED STATES: Oregon: Grant Co.: In pasture under scat- 
tered alders in black mucky soil at edge of very small creek along 
US Hwy, 395 about 5.5 km south of Meadow Branch Pass. April3, 1978, 
Soukup (CINC!). 

The new form differs from typical Trillium petiolatum by the 
absence of purple pigments from all floral parts, Althou^ it 
probably occurs in the midst of purple-flowered plaints throughout 
the species' range, this appears to be the first collection In which 
all flower parts are described as yellow with no trace of pvirple 
pigments. At this same location were also found two plants having 

290 



1982 Soukup, Yellow- flowered forms of Trillium 291 

yellowish-green petals stained non-uniformly at their bases with 
purple and having purple connectives and gynoecia. Such plants 
have been collected before but apparently are not common either. 
At nine other locations in northeastern Oregon where the species 
was studied, only typical purple-flowered plants were seen. 

The type station was virtually destroyed in early 1981 during 
road level raising and resurfacing of US Hwy. 395. 

Freeman, J. D. 1975. Brittonia 27, No.1, 56. 



ADDITIONAL NOTES ON THE GENUS GEVNSIA . Ill 
Harold N. Moldenke 



GEVNSIA HEXANDRA (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord. 

Additional bibliography: H. Hallier, lleded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 
37: 23. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Ilalay. Arch. 30, 31, 37—38, 
362, & 365. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 11, 13—14, 107, 111, vi, & xii. 1921; Mold., Prelim. Alph. 
List Inv. Names 11. 1940; llold., .Vlph. List Inv. Names 9. 1942; Mold., 
Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 66 & 93. 1942; Jacks, in 
Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 386. 1946; Mold., Known Ge- 
ogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 147 & 185. 1949; Mold., Resume" 184, 
188, 190, 195, 197, 199, 218, 243, 246, 295, & 455. 1959; Jacks, xn 
Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 1: 386. 1960; Hegnauer, Cheraotax. 
Pfl. 3: 39. 1964; Mold., Phytologia 21: 232, 384, & 470. 1971; Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 317, 324, 330, 332, 363, 409, 415, & 416 (1971) and 2: 
520 & 878. 1971; Hold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 307, 315, 320, 322, 353, 354, 
& 548. 1980;Mold., Phytologia 49: 430 (1981), 50: 52, 56, & 64 (1981), 
and 50: 144, 150, 151, & 226. 19R2. 

A small tree, 1 — 13 m. tall, often branching from the base; trunk 
to 50 cm. in diameter at breast height; bark yellow-brown, rather 
smooth; sap not milky; branchlets tetragonal, stellate-floccose; 
leaves anisophyllous ; petioles 1 — 3 cm. long, stellate-floccose; leaf- 
blades subchartaceous , oblong-ovate, 11 — 24 cm. long, 5 — 11 cm. wide, 
apically with a 1 — 2 cm. long aciimen, marginally entire, basally 
cuneate or obtuse-rotundate, very often inequilateral, glabrous (ex- 
cept for the venation) above when adult, densely stellate-floccose 
or tomentose beneath; secondaries 7 — 9 per side; inflorescence often 
purple; cymes 5.5 — 10 cm. long, 4 — 7.5 cm. wide, stellate-floccose; 
peduncles 3 — 5.5 cm. long; calyx light-green, 3 mm. long, mostly 6- 
or 7-ribbed and -toothed (rarely 5-), glandulose, hairy, the teeth 
apically abrupt; corolla violet or purple, externally softly pubes- 
cent and glandulose, the tube 6 mm. long, the mostly 6 or 7 (rarely 
5) lobes 1 mm. long; stamens 5 — 7, 1 cm. long; anthers 3 mm. long, 
twice as long as wide, dark-purple, glandulose on both sides espec- 
ially dorsally; style 1 cm. long; stigma capitate, white; ovary 
externally glandulose, 6-celled, the cells 2-ovulate; fruit red when 
ripe, with 12 (or less by abortion) pyrenes. 

This species is based on an unnumbered Teijsmann collection from 
Minahassa in the province of Menado, Celebes, deposited in the 
Leiden herbarium as sheet number 908.266-855. Koorders' original 
(1898) publication of this name is merely: "Callicarpa bexandra T. 

et B. msc vide Geunsia hexandra n. sp Geunsia bexandra n. sp. 

— Boom. — Lomes (Rt) of Nanajoep (Rt). bij Ratahan. — Olimato (Tw) 
of Mololajoe (Tw) bij Loeboe Van deze soort staat een levende Boom 
onder den naam Callicarpa hexandra T. et B. in Hort. Bogor. Celebes 
bor. (Minahassa)." 

Lao (1919) seems to be the first person actiially to validate the 

292 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 293 

scientific name at present In use for this taxon — both Teljsmann 
& Binnendijk (1863) and Koorders (1898) failed to provide the re- 
quired description and references under the present Code. Lam 
cites Forsten s.n., Reinwardt 1528, and Riedel 5686 from Celebes, 
without designating any of them as the type. I am therefore 
designating as type the sheet in the Leiden herbarium, cited a- 
bove, which bears the original inscription of the name. 

Collectors have encountered the species along seashores and in 
rainforests from sealevel to 320 m. altitude, in flower in June, 
August, and October, and in fruit in February and June. The 
corollas are said to have been "violet" in color on Kjellberg 666 
and "purple" on Sutriano 32. Vernacular names reported for the 
plant are "donawoe molaba", "hanoe-gempa", "kapila", "lelema", 
"lomes", "mololajoe", "nanajoep", "oliraato", "ololajo pk", and 
"walo". 

Bakhuizen (1921) includes in his amazing synonymy for this 
species such remote taxa as Callicarpa ramiflora Merr., C. affinis 
Elm., C. cauliflora Merr., C. megalantha Merr., Geunsia hookeri 
Merr., and G. grandiflora H. Hallier. Of these, Callicarpa af- 
finis is actually a synonym of Geunsia farinosa Blume, Geunsia 
hookeri is a synonym of G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. and all the 
others are perfectly valid and in most cases very distinct species. 
Several are so entirely different ( e.g. , with cauliflorous in- 
florescences!) that the late Dr. Merrill once expressed to me very 
vociferously and pointedly his utter astonishment and disbelief of 
their ever having been regarded as conspecific with Geunsia hex- 
andra (and has indicated this in some pencil annotations in appro- 
priate places in what had been his personal copy of Bakhuizen' s 
work, now preserved in the New York Botanical Garden library). 

The Elbert 3040, cited below, bears a notation on its accom- 
panying label to the effect that the "leaves are anisophyllous 
and serrulate", but I fail to see any marginal teeth on the leaf- 
blades of the Leiden specimen of this number. 

Material of Geunsia hexandra has been misidentified and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as Callicarpa arborea Roxb., C. cuming- 
iana Schau. , C. farinosa var. typica H. J. Lam, C. lanata L., C. 
lanata var. typica H. J. Lam, C. magna Schau., C. pentandra var. 
typica f. farinosa Bakh. , C. tomentosa Willd., Geunsia cinnamomea 
K. Hallier, G. cuminghamia Rolfe, G. cumingiana Rolfe, G. farinosa 
Blume, and G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. On the other hand, the M. 
Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 30275], distributed as Geunsia 
hexandra actually is Callicarpa ramiflora Merr. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Mindanao: Ahern 687Q (Bz~ 
18557); H. S. Clemens 271 (Bz~18558); Kanehira 2518 (N) ; Ramos S 
Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 38748] (Bz~18561, W~1292269). 
GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Boschproefst. Cel.II.337 (Cb, Ut~ 
33412A, Z); DeVriese & Teijsmann s.n. (Le~908. 266-802 ) ; Elbert 
2999 [7332] (Le~918. 302-20) , 3040 [7460] (Le~918. 302-42) , 3040 
[7461] (Le— 942.64-994), 3096 [7594] (Le~942. 64-995); Kjellberg 
207 (Bz — 18590, F — photo, II, N — photo, S, Sg — photo, Z — photo), 
492 (Bz~18488, N, S), 666 (Bz~18572, S); Koorders 19492b [2440] 
(Bz~18582), 19493b [167] (Bz~18583), 19495b [1440[ (Bz~18584, 



294 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 4 

Bz— 18585, Bz— 18586), 19496b [1231] (Bz— 18587); Rachmat 753 (Bz— 
18567); Reppie 705 [Boschproef st. Cel. 11.450] (Bz— 18180), 795 
[Boschproefst. Cel. II. 137] (Bz— 18179); Riedel 5686 (Bz— 18592, 
Ut— 11471), s.n. [Minahassa] (Bz— 18575); Rovingpandeij 15 [Bosch- 
proefst. b.b. 17114] (Bz — 18576); Teijsmann s.n. [Minahassa, Prov. 
Menado] (Le— 908.266-855— type) , s.n. [Palankahoe] (Bz— 18574); 
Waturandang 12 [Boschproefst. b.b. 12664] (Bz— 18562, Le— 908. 267- 
725), 194 [Boschproefst. b.b.Vel.II.337] (Bz— 18569, Bz— 18570, 
Bz— 18571), 227 [Broschproef st. b.b. 21756] (Bz— 18181), s.n. 
[Boschproefst, Cel. 11.450] (Bz— 18577, Bz— 18578, Bz— 18579, Bz— 
18580, Ut— 33417a). Java: Blume s.n. (Le— 908.266-876) ; Reinwardt 
s.n. (Le— 919.329-11); Winchell 145 (Ut— 57840), 241 (Ut— 63675). 
Kabaena: Elbert 3378 [8760] (Le— 918.302-39) , 3378 [8761] (Le— 
942.64-992), 3378 [8762] (Le— 938.87-459) . Sumatra: Buwalda 6662 
(Bz— 72613). LESSER SUNDA ISLANDS: Buton: Elbert 2690 [6368] 
(Le— 918.330-2), 2690 [6369] (Le— 942.64-991) , 2690 [6370] (Le— 
938.87-107), 2760 [6536] (Le— 942.64-990) . HOLUCCA ISLANDS: Am- 
boina: DeVriese s Teijsmann s.n. (Le — 909.20-136). Halmahera: 
Teijsmann 7458 (Bz — 18551, Bz — 18552). Sanana: Bloembergen 327 
[Boschproefst. b.b. 28831] (Bz— 18176). CULTIVATED: Java: Herb. 
Hort. Bot. Bogor. XI.G.20ai'Bz) ^ XI.G.22 (Bz — 25715, Bz, Z) , 
XI. G. 22a (Bz— 26523, Bz), XI.G.22 en a (Bz — 25716, Bz, Bz), s.n. 
[C. H. 16] (Bz— 18545), s.n. (Bz— 18544, Bz— 18546, Bz— 18548, 
Bz~18549, Bz— 18550); Sutriano 32 [Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor. XI- 
G-20-A] (Ba, N) . LOCALITY OF COLLECTION UNDETERMINED: Collector 
undetermined s.n. [Archlpel. Ind.] (Bz — 18591), s.n. (Le — 908.266- 
2). 

GEUNSIA HEXANDRA var . MACROPHYLLA Mold., Phytologia 49: 430. 1981. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 49: 430. 1981. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species 
chiefly in its much larger leaf-blades, which are at least to 40 
cm. long and 15 cm. \/lde. 

It is based on Fedilis S Sumbing SAN. 89702 from near a stream 
at the side of a hill in the NBT logged area at mile 26 from 
Luasong, District Tawau, Sabah, collected on February 25, 1979, 
and deposited in my personal herbarium. The collectors note 
"Clear bole 10 ft. long, height 23 ft. Girth 6 ins. bark white 
brownish, inner bark pale greenish, sapwood whitish. Flowers 
whitish pink with brown stalk." 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Sabah: Fedilis £ Sumbing 
SAN. 89702 (Z— type). 

GEUNSIA HEXANDRA f. SERRULATA Hold., Phytologia 5: 8. 1954. 

Bibliography: Hold., Phytologia 5: 0. 1954; Mold., Resume 195, 
218, & 455. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 & 363 (1971) and 2: 
878. 1971; l«lold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315, 354, & 548. 1980; Mold., 
Phytologia 50: 56. 1981. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing its leaf-blades more or less plainly serrulate along most of 
their margins or, at least, above the middle. 

The type of the form was collected by G. H. de Vriese and J. E. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 295 

Teijsmann on Celebes and is sheet number 908.265-360 in the Leiden 
herbarium. 

Herb. Bogor. 26592 is said to represent this form, but this I 
have as yet not been able to verify. The Elbert 3040 collection 
appears to be a mixture of this form with material of the typical 
form of the species — the portion indicated by the secondary 
number 7459 exhibiting the serrulate leaves, while 7460 and 7461 
have the entire-margined leaves of the typical form. Similarly, 
Elbert's 3096 [7594] is the typical form, while 3096 [7599] is 
the serrulate form. 

Material of Geunsia hexandra f . serrulata has been misidenti- 
fied and distributed in some herbaria as Callicarpa arborea Roxb., 
C. pentandra Roxb., C. pentandra f. floccosa Bakh., C. pentandra 
var. typica f. hexandra Bakh., Geunsia cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe, 
and G. farinosa Blume. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: DeVriese S Teijsmann 
s.n. (Le~908.265-360~type); Elbert 3040 [7459] (Le~938. 87-458) , 
3096 [7599] (Le~918. 302-22) ; Forsten s.n. (Le~908. 267-731, Le— 
908.267-732); Koorders 19497b [1628] (Bz— 18588), 19533b [3045] 
(Bz~18589); Reinwardt 1528 (Le~908. 266-845, Le~908. 267-723, 
Le~908. 267-784); Teijsmann s.n. [Palenkahoe] (Bz~18573). CULTI- 
VATED: Java: Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor. XI.G.20 (Bz — 18543, Bz — 
25712, Bz~25713, Ez~25714, Bz~26522, Bz, Z) , s.n. (Bz~18547). 

GEUNSIA HOMOEOPHYLLA H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 
26—27. 1918. 

Synonymy: Geunsia homoiophylla Hall. f. apud H. J. Lam, Verben- 
ac. Malay. Arch. 32, 44, & 365. 1919. Geunsia homeophylla H. 
Hallier apud E. D. Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511. 1921. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 26—27. 
1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 32, 44, & 365. 1919; Bakh. 
in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 111, & 
xii. 1921; E. D. Merr., Bibl. Enum. Bom. PI. 511. 1921; A. W. 
Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. 
Verbenac, ed. 1, 65 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 146 & 185. 1949; Mold., 
R^sumd 193, 195, & 455. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 (1971) 
and 2: 878. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315 & 548. 1980; Mold., 
Phytologia 50: 56, 57, & 62 (1981) and 50: 224. 1982. 

A tree; branchlets 3 — 6 mm. thick, rather loosely puberulent- 
pulverulent, the younger parts minutely ochraceous- or yellowish- 
farinose, the older parts glabrescent and dark-fuscous; principal 
internodes below the leaves 2 — 7 cm. long, above them 1.5 — 3 cm. 
long; nodes marked with 2 opposite, transverse, straight or curved, 
elevated annulations; leaves not plainly anisophyllous, all sub- 
equal in form and size, in 2 sets of two each, followed by the 
next 3 ternate or subternate, the upper pair smaller in size; peti- 
oles stout, 1.5 — 3 cm. long, semi- terete, in drying longitudinally 
rugose but not plainly angled, loosely pulverulent-puberulent with 
ochraceous hairs and minutely yellowish- farinose; leaf-blades 
herbaceous or chartaceous, ovate to ovate-oblong or ovate-lanceo- 
late, 8.5 — 20 cm. long (in all) and 4 — 8 cm. wide, apically acutely 
long-acuminate (the acumen to 3 cm. long and basally 5 — 15 mm. wide), 



296 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. A 

marginally entire, basally broadly subacute or abruptly attenuate 
(but not plainly cuneately elongate), sordid-green and glabrate 
above when adult , v;hen immature here and there loosely puberu- 
lent-pulverulent with minute stellate and deciduous hairs (more 
densely so or even pubescent on the midrib and larger veins), 
opaque, densely white subochraceous-tomentellous (except for the 
pubescent midrib and larger veins) or rather loosely stellate- 
tomentose beneath; midrib loosely pulverulent-puberulent and 
ochraceous beneath; secondaries 7—12 per side, prominently pin- 
nate, ascending, antrorsely curcate; veinlet reticulation some- 
what conspicuous above, prominulently clathrate-venose and not as 
prominulent beneath; inflorescence corymbose, to 9 cm. wide; 
peduncles 1—6 cm. long, usually longer than and sometimes several 
times longer than the petioles, loosely ochraceous-puberulent- 
pulverulent; cymes rather small, 3—5 cm. long, 4—9 cm. wide, 
several times divaricate-dichotomous, loosely ochraceous- 
puberulent-pulverulent and and more or less yellowish-farinose; 
primary bracts linear, 0.3—1.7 cm. long, not at all or only very 
slightly smaller on the corymb-branches; pedicels 1—1.5 mm. long; 
calyx cupuliform, 1.5—2 mm. long, 1.5 mm. wide during anthesis, 
obtruncate, externally densely pubescent, the rim obsoletely 4- 
denticulate; corolla crimson, 5 mm. long, about 3 times as long 
as the calyx, the tube 3—3.5 mm. long, externally basally glab- 
rous, apically softly pubescent or puberulent, the limb 4-lobed, 
the lobes oblong, about 2 mm. long and 1 mm. wide, apically 
rounded, softly pubescent on their midribs; stamens 4, inserted 
in the corolla- tube; filaments slightly surpassing the corolla- 
tube, basally puberulent; anthers elongate, long and narrow, 7—9 
mm. long, 2.5—3 mm. wide, apically emarginate, basally sagittate, 
dorsifixed in the apical sinus, introrse, shortly birinose, dor- 
sally sparsely (or not at all) glandular-punctulate along the 
connective; style about 9 mm. long, slightly surpassing the sta- 
mens, glabrous; stigma terminal, capitate or clavate, lobed; 
ovary externally glabrous; (immature?) drupes depressed-globose, 
about 3 mm. wide, apically impressed-umbilicate, black when dry, 
externally subglabrous, ulightly glandular-punctulate, enclosed 
scarcely to the middle by the obtruncate cupuliform fruiting- 
calyx which is irregularly split. 

The type of this species was collected by H. Kallier {no. B. 
348) "Uber einem Ladang der Ostseite am Sattel der Insel Lombok- 
utan", western Borneo (Kalimantan), on October 5, 1893, depos- 
ited in the Leiden herbarium. 

Hallier (1918) refers to "stipular" scars on the branches, 
but the leaves in this group are exstipulate; the features refer- 
red to by him are annular rings. 

Bakhuizen sinks this species in the almost all-inclusive syno- 
nymy which he gives for what he calls Callicarpa pentandra Roxb. 
Lam (1919), accepting it as a valid species, notes that It has 
a strong affinity with G. Pullei, from N. Guinea, but is differ- 
ent in the shorter apex of the leaves, their abruptly attenuate 
(not acute) base, the 4-merous flowers, the shorter corolla-tube, 
the less hairy lobes " [to be continued] 




.' PHYTOLO ,^Y 

A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to e^i^edite botanical publication 
Vol. 50 April 1982 Al^K 1. b idU/- ^^_ 5 

CONTENT^Q-pANlCAL GARDEM 

WURDACK, J. J., Certamen Melastomataceis XXXIV 297 ^? 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on new and noteworthy plants. CLV 308 ^ 

FOOTE, M., The Algae of New Jersey (U.S.A.) I. Chrysophyta 

(Yellow-Green Algae) A. Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae 

and Prymnesiophyceae 311 -^ 

OWNBEY, G. B., A study of four species of Cirsium native to Mexico. . . 317 7 «'' 

REED, C. F., New state and county records for Hexastylis in 

Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia and Kentucky 327 

REED, C. P., Halodule beaudettei along Potomac River, new to 

Maryland 328 

GOLDING, J., Begonia nomenclature notes, 6. Begonia cucullata 

Willdenow and included species 330 

WEBER, W. A.,yl new species of Balsamorhiza (Asteraceae) from 
the Siskiyou region of southwestern Oregon and 
northwestern California 357 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional notes on the genus Geunsia. IV 360 ^ 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). CCXII. Additions to Austroeupatorium, 

Flyriella, and Teixeiranthus 379 

KING, R. M., & ROBINSON, H., Studies in the Eupatorieae 

(Asteraceae). CCXIII. A new genus, Prolobus, from Bahia . . . 385 '"''^ 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 388 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

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CERTAMEN MELASTCMATACEIS XXXTV. 

John J. Wurdack 
U. S. National Herbarium, Smithsonian Institution 



MICROLICIA CLAVILLOSA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

In systemate Cogniauxii M. selagineae Naud. et M. cupressi- 
nae D. Don affinis, foliis debiliter 1-nervatis glanduloso- 
ciliolatis calycis lobis longioribus glanduloso-ciliolatis 
dif f ert . 

Frutex O.5-I.5 m, raraulis fastigiatis internodis glabris 
nodis densiuscule inconspicueque strigulosis pilis glanduliferis 
ca 0.2-0. 3 mm longis. Folia subsessilia dense imbricata 3-3.6 X 
0.8-1 mm lanceata apice acuto et ca O.5 mm pungenti basi acuta, 
rigidiuscula et modice glanduloso-ciliolata (0.2-0.25 inm) alioqui 
glabra, debiliter 1-nervata marginibus tenuibus. Flores 5-meri 
in ramulis foliosis terminales sessiles solitarii. Hypanthium 
(ad torum) 3 nim longum glabrum; tori zona extus dense strigillosa 
pilis 0.7-1.1 mm longis glanduliferis; calycis tubus ca 0.2 mm 
longus, lobis k X 0.7-0.8 mm lanceatis acutis (apice ca 0.4 mm 
pungenti) extus glabris et non carinatis intus sparse glandulosis 
(0.1 mm) marginibus modice ciliolatis pilis O.5-O.8 mm longis 
glanduliferis. Petala 9. 9-10 X 4.4-i+.6 mm oblongo -elliptic a 
apice acuto et 0.1 ram 1-setuloso alioqui glabra. Stamina dimor- 
phica; filamenta k mm vel 3 '6 ram longa; antherarum thecae 3-3 •! X 
0.35 X 0.5 mm rostratae poro O.I5-O.2 mm ventraliter inclinato; 
connectivxm 4.1 mm vel 0.6 mm prolongatum, appendice ventrali I.7 
X 0.35 X 0.55 mm et obscure trilobulata vel O.5 X 0.2 X O.25 mm 
et hebeti. Stigma p\mctiforme; stylus 10 X 0.4 mm glaberj ovar- 
ium 3-loculare glabnjim apice paulo hebeti -lobulato. 

Type Collection: Gates & Estabrook 215 (holotype UB 61815; 
isotypes MICH, US), collected in Chapada dos Veadeiros 5 km east 
of Alto Paraiso, Goias, Brazil, l4° S, 4-7° W, elev. I5OO m, 
16 February 1979- "Woody trunk to 5 cm diam. from fibrous roots 
on rock outcrops. Extensive roots reaching into rock crevices. 
Plants from 50 cm to I50 cm tall, capped with a hemisphere of up 
to 40 cm diam. of small flowers. Petals purple; stamens purple 
with yellow knees . " 

Paratype: ^ T. S. Filgueiras 386 (IBGE, US), from Chapada dos 
Veadeiros, Goias. "Arbusto, semelhente a um cipreste em exame a 
primeira vista. Planta p\ilcherrima ob habitian, flores, et 
folhas. Corola roxa." 

Both suggested relatives have eciliolate (except rarely near 
the branchlet tips) leaves with thick nerves, as well as calyx 
lobes ca 3 nim long; M. selaginea has eciliate calyx lobes, while 
M. cupressina has sparse eglandiilar cilia on the calyx lobes. 
Frora Naudin's description, Cogniaux' inclusion of M. stenocladon 
Naud. as a synonym of M. cupressina may be erroneous; perhaps M. 
amaroi Brade, with hypanthium strigulose well below the toral 

297 



298 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

zone is a synonym of M. stenocladon . The species epithet refers 
to the growth habit of M. clavillosa . Bronwyn Gates in the field 
having dubbed the plants as the Pompon trees . 

MERIANIA PICHINCHENSIS Wurdack, sp. nov. 

M. tomentosae (Cogn.) Wurdack af finis, foliorum laminis 
tenuibus subtus in superficie glabris dichasiorum bracteis foli- 
aceis differt. 

Hamuli novelli petioli foliorum venae primariae subtus et 
costa basim versus supra pedicellique primum sparsiuscule pilis 
pinoideis 0.1-0.3( -O.7) mm longis induti mox glabrati. Petioli 
1-3 cm longi; lamina 10-13(-20) X 5 -7 (-10) cm elliptic a apice 
hebeti-acuto basi late acuta vel anguste obtusa, chartacea et 
obscure calloso-serrulata, in superficie ubique glabra in venis 
secundariis subtus sparse caduceque furfuracea, 5 ~Plifie^"vs.ta pari 
inter lore 0.8-1. 5 cm supra basim divergenti nervis secundariis 
3-6 mm inter se distantibus nervulis subtus laxe (ca 3 nm) retic- 
ulatis. Flores 5"nisri pler\mque terni, dichasiis bracteis ses- 
silibus 4.5-6 X 2.8-3.8 cm ellipticis persistentibus subtentibus, 
pedicellis 2.2-3-2 cm longis. Hypanthiura (ad torum) ca 8 mm Ion- 
gum sicut calyx modice pilis pinoideis brevibus puberulum; calyx 
in alabastro mature 10-12 mm longus (rostro ca 4-5 mm longo 
incluBo) ad anthesim in lobis paucis subpersistentibus irregu- 
lariter dehiscens. Petala glabra 22-23 X IJ-lS mm obovata apice 
rotundato-truncato. Stamina paullulo dimorphica glabra; fila- 
menta 11 mm vel I3 mm longa; thecae 10 X I.5-I.7 mm oblongae poro 
O.5-O.7 mm diam. dorsaliter inclinato; connectivum O.5 ram vel 1.2 
mm prolongatum, dente basali 2-2.2 mm longo hebeti ad basim tu- 
berculo O.5-O.7 mm longo rotundato armato. Ovarium 5"loculare 
glabr\am, apice 5"lobulato lob\ilis ca 1 mm altis oblatis. 

Type Collection: Steven E. Clemants , James L. Luteyn . & 
Henrik Balslev I698 (holotype NY; isotype US), collected in wet 
forest 6 km east of Ife.ndapi on new road from Santo Domingo de los 
Colorados, Prov. Pichincha, Ecuador, elev. 17^0 m, 23 Jan. I98I. 
"Small tree h cm DBH. Petals peach pink." 

While the pubescence density on the lower surface of the 
firm leaves in M. tomentosa varies somewhat, there is no close 
approach to the glabrous surfsice (and subglabrous veins) of those 
in M. pichinchensis . The caducous bracts subtending the umbels 
in M. tomentosa are 1.5-4 X 0.1-0.6 cm. The connective append- 
ages in the two species are alike. Vegetatively, M. pichinchensis 
rather resembles M. boliviensis Cogn., which has basally rounded 
leaf blades and smaller flowers with long -emergent external calyx 
teeth, as well as an ascending connective appendage free about 
2 mm. 

MICONIA GROSSIDENTATA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

Sect. Miconia . M. schwackei Cogn. af finis, folils minoribus 
vix caudato-acuminatis basaliter nervatis filamentis styloque 
glanduloso-puberulis differt. 

Hamuli teretes sicut petioli foliorum venae primariae subtus 
inflorescentia hypanthiaque densiuscule pilis stellatis 0.1-0.2 



198 2 Wurdack, Certamen Melastoraataceis 299 

mm longis et 0.3-O.ij- ram diam. puberuli. Petioli 0.6-1.2 cm 
longij lamina 7.5-12(-15) X 2.5-4(-5.5) cm elliptica apice grada- 
tim per ca 1 cm acuminate basi acuta, chartacea et conspicue 
hebeti-dentata (dentibus 1.5-2 mm profundis et ca 5 mm inter se 
distantibus), supra glabra, subtus in venis secundariis modice 
vel sparse stellate -puberula in veniilis ultimis superficieque 
glabra, trinervata nervis secundariis ca 5-9 mm inter se distan- 
tibus nervulis subtus planis areolis 0.5-I mm latis. Inf lores - 
centia 3-5 cm longa pauciflora subspicata (ramulis infimis ca 0.3 
cm longis) J flores 5'^nieri sessiles, bracteolis ca 1 X 0.6-0.8 mm 
ovatis persistentibus. Hypanthium (ad torum) 3 nim longum; caly- 
cis tubus 0.6 ram longus, lobis interioribus O.5 mm longis ovatis, 
dentibus exterioribus lobos interiores aequantibus vel paullulo 
(0.1 mm) superantibus j torus intus glaber. Petala 3.I-3.3 X I.5- 
1.6 mm oblongo-obovata apicaliter sparse glanduloso-ciliolata 
alioqui glabra. Stamina paulo dimorphica; filamenta ^.1 ram vel 
3. 1-3* 2 mm longa sicut stylus sparse glanduloso-setulosa (O.l ram); 
antherarum thecae oblongo-subulatae, connectivo glabro non pro- 
longate. Staraina maiora: thecae h X O.7 mm, poro O.I5 mm diam. 
ventraliter inclinato, connective ad basim dersaliter per 1 mm 
paullulo elevate ventraliter ca O.h mm bilobulato. Stamina 
minora: thecae 3 X 0.6 mm, connectivo dersaliter ad basim non 
incrassato, ventraliter 0.3 mm bilobulato. Stigma non expansum; 
stylus 8.6 X 0.35 ram in ovarii cello 0.4 mm immersus; ovariiom 3- 
leculare ca l/2 inferum, ceno sparse glandulese-puberulo. 

lype Collection: Francisco Guanchez 913 (holotype US 
2899385; isotype VEN), collected 1 km east of San Pedro de 
Cataniape (55 km SE of Puerto Ayacucho), Depto. Atures, Terr. 
Amazonas, Venezuela, elev. 90 m. "Arbusto de I.5 m de alto, 
caliz bianco crema con indumento marron clare, corela blanca, 
filamentes rosa muy palido, raquis, envez y tallos jovenes con 
cubierta harinosa marron, aislada y frecuente en el bosque medio 
ralo." 

Paratype: Steyermark . Berry , Huber , & Redmond II389I (US, 
VEN), from tall rainforest ESE of Puerto Ayacucho, IO-3O km on 
read to Gavilan, Amazenas, Venezuela, elev. 120 m, 11 June 1977 • 
"Shrub 3 m tall; fruit red; leaves dark green above, dull green 
below." 

Ihe suggested relative, known only from near Manaos, Brazil, 
has larger leaf blades abruptly caudate -aciiminate 3-5 cm at the 
apex and decurrent en the petiole (i.e. plinerved) 1-2 cm at the 
base, as well as glabrous filaments and style; both large and 
sraall anthers have ventrally inclined pores. In pubescence, 
anther shape, and ovary, the two species are alike. Micenia 
riparia Triana and M. uvida Wurdack are perhaps distantly related 
to the above two species. Among Venezuelan species, M. grossi- 
dentata resembles somewhat M. yatuensis Wurdack, which however 
has less prominently toothed plinerved leaves and ^^nerous 
flowers . 

MICONIA VILHENENSIS Wurdack, sp. nov. 

M. puberulae Cogn. et M. mattegressensi Heehne af finis. 



300 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

foliis ternatis floribus maioribus differt. 

Ramuli primum sulcato-tetragoni demum teretes prim'um (prae- 
cipue ad nodos) sicut foliorum subtus venae primariae inf lores - 
centia hypanthiaque sparse stellulato-puberuli (pills ca 0.1 mm 
diam.) glabrati. Folia plerumque ternata deflexa; petioli 0.2- 
O.U cm longi crassi; lamina plertmique h-"J X 1.5-2. 5 cm anguste 
ovata apice gradatim acuminate basi 0.2-0.3 cm cordata, rigidiu- 
scula et Integra marginibus paulo cartilagineis, ubique in super - 
ficie glabra, 3(-5) "i^ervata nervis secundariis 1.5-2 mm inter se 
distantibus supra obscuris nerArulis subtus planis laxiuscule (l- 
1.5 mm) reticulatis. Panicula ^-7 cm longa multiflora; f lores 
U-meri, pedicellis ca 1 mm longis, bracteolis O.7-O.8 X 0.2-0. 3 
mm ad hypanthii basim insertis mox deciduis. Hypajithium (ad 
torum) 1.3 mm longum; calycis tubus 0.1 ram longus, lobis interi- 
oribus 0.3 mm longis ovato-triangularibus, dentibus exterioribus 
obscuris non eminentibus. Petala 1.9-2.2 X 1.6-1.8 mm asymme- 
trice obovata obscure granulosa. Stamina essentialiter iso- 
morphica glabra; filamenta 2 mm longa; antherarum thecae I.5 X 
0.3 X 0.35 ram oblongae, poro 0.2 mm diam. ventraliter inclinato; 
connectivum ad basim 0.4-0.5 mm prolongatum dorsaliter O.I-O.I5 
mm calcaratum ventraliter non appendiculatum . Stigma non expan- 
sum; stylus 2.2-2.3 X 0.2-0. 3 mm glaber; ovari-um 3 ( • ) -loculare 
1/3-1/2 inferum glabrum. 

Type Collection: M. G. Vieira . J. L. Zarucchi . R. H. 
Petersen . J. F. Ramos . & C. D. A. Mota 626 (holotype MG 72082; 
isotypes W£, US), collected in savanna h km from Vilhena, 12° U5' 
S, 60° 10' W, T. F. Rondonia, Brazil, 25 Oct. 1979- "Erva de 
35 cm de altura; f lores brancas; calice verde." 

Paratype : Vieira, Zarucchi , Petersen , Ramos , & Mota 6II 
(MG, NY, US), topotypical, 25 Oct. 1979- "Arbusto de 2 m de 
altiira; frutos imaturos, roxas." 

Both the 4-merous relatives have paired leaves, coarser 
pubescence, and smaller flowers (petals 1.2-1.3 X O.7-O.8 mm; 
anther thecae 1-1.2 mm long). While M. puberula was described 
as 5-raerouB, the Flora Brasiliensis plate, the Spruce isosyntype 
(NY), and numerous recent collections from Amazonian Peru, 
Bolivia, and Colombia show 4-merous flowers. In M. puberula , the 
larger stamen connectives are obscvirely calcarate dorso-basally, 
the smaller ones ecalcarate; in M. mattogrossensis , both stamen 
series have ecalcarate connectives. To M. mattogrossensis . I 
have referred Kirkbride & Lleras 2792 (Km 879, Cuiaba -Santarera 
road. Para), Philcox & Fereira 3856 and 3907 . Harley 11307 . and 
Ratter et al RIIU2 (the latter four collections all from near the 
Royal Society base camp, 12° k9' -<^k' S, 51° 46' -52' W, Mato 
Grosso). I had earlier identified the Royal Society collections 
as M. minutlflora (Bonpl.) DC., which has 5-merous flowers and 
well -developed stamen connective appendages. A rare 4-merous 
species, M. fragilis Naud., with very fine pubescence but 
distinctly developed stamen connective appendages, perhaps also 
should be considered in this complex. The general aspect of M. 
vilhenenBiB is also like that of M. ligustroides (DC.) Naud. 
var. cordlfolia Cogn., which has paired leaves, 5-merous flowers. 



1982 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 301 

and more developed connective appendages in the large stamens. 

MICOKIA LUGTEYNII Wurdack, sp. nov. 

Sect. Amblyarrhena . M. nigripes Gleason affinis, pubescentia 
ubique eglandulosa foliorum laminis minoribus supra vix setosis 
subtus densissirae setulosis 5-nervatis petalis maioribus differt. 

Ramuli teretes sicut petioli laminariom subtus venae prima - 
riae inflorescentia hypanthiaque dense pilis laevibus paulo 
deflexis 1-1-5 rom longis et sparsiuscule pilis asperis ca 0.1- 
0.3 mm longis induti. Petioli 0.5-I cm longi; lamina 2-5 X I.3- 
2.3 cm anguste ovata apice acuto basi paulo (usque ad 0.3 cm) 
cordata vel rotundata, rigida et subserrulata, supra bullulata 
et in bullis minute (0.1-0.2 mm) aspero-setulosa in '/enis spar- 
sissime setulosa (O.3-O.5 mm), subtus dense setulosa pilis laevi- 
bus O.5-I mm longis et sparsiuscule aspero-setulosa pilis ca 0.1 
mm longis, 5(-7)-nervata. Inflorescentia 3 "7 cm longa pauci- 
flora; flores 5-meri, pedicellis plenmique 1-2 mm longis, bracte- 
olis 0.5 -0.8 X 0.5 mm subpersistentibus. Hypanthium (ad torum) 
2.5 mm longum; calycis tubus 0.5 mm longus, lobis interioribus 
0.9 nm longis ovatis ciliolatis, dentibus exterioribus setulosis 
ca O.3-O.5 mm eminentibus. Petala 5«^"5-5 X 5~5'6 mm obovata 
paullulo emarginata setula unica terminata alioqui glabra. 
Stamina isomorphica glabra; filamenta 2.7-3 ™ii longa; antherarum 
thecae 2-2.1 X 0.^5 X O.5 mm oblongae, poro 0.I5 mm diam. ven- 
traliter inclinato, connectivo ad basim antice exappendiculato 
postice dente hebeti descendenti 0.2-0. 25 mm longo armato. 
Stigma non expansum; stylus 5.5 X O.25-O.3 ram in ovarii collo 
O.h mm immersus basim versus sparsiuscule setulosus pilis 0.2- 
0.25 mm longis eglandulosis; ovarium 5~loculare et l/2 inferum 
apice sparsissime pilis 0.2 mm longis eglandulosis armato. 

Type Collection: James L. Luteyn . Maria Lebron -Luteyn & 
Gustavo Morales 7512 (holotype COL 206352; isotypes NY, US), 
collected in cloud forest just inside Parque Nacional Munchique, 
kms 60-65 along El Tambo-20 de Julio road, Depto. Cauca, Colombia, 
elev. 2500-2560 m, 26 April 1979. "Shrub with stems spreading 
along surface of ground to 2 dm; calyx maroon; petals white; 
stamens yellow. Stem pubescence reddish brown. 

The suggested relative has 7-9-nerved larger and relatively 
wider leaf blades moderately lax-setulose (to 1 mm) above and 
only moderately fine setose (to I.5 nm) beneath, the long foliar, 
cauline, inflorescence, and hypanthial hairs in part gland- 
tipped, and petals only 4-4. 5 mm long. In the underlying pinoid 
pubescence, petals, stamens, and ovary, the two species are 
qualitatively alike, but the style of M. nigripes is inconspic- 
uously (0.1 mm) glandular -puberulous. More distant relatives 
include M. cordifolia Wurdack (much larger 7-9-nerved leaves, 
hypanthia sparsely glandular -setulose. filaments and style 
glandiilar -puberulous, stigma expanded), also perhaps M. 
haematostemon Waud. (larger leaves, larger and less densely 
setulose hypanthia, densely glandular -puberulous filaments and 
style) and M. setosa Wurdack (larger elliptic leaf blades plane 
above and more sparsely setulose beneath, larger petals, glabrous 



302 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 5 

style), but not M. lithophila Uribe. 

MICONIA LICROPHORA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

Sect. Amblyarrhena . M. cataractae Triana af finis, ramulorum 
pilis longioribus foliis supra pilis laevibus dimorphic is modice 
strigulosis et subtus pilis longioribus indutis hypanthiis (tori 
zona excepta) esetulosis differt. 

Hamuli paullulo nodosi primum obtuse sulcato-quadrangulati 
demum teretes primum sicut inflorescentia modice setulosi pilis 
Btipitato-stellatis (stipite 1-1.5 ™n longo radiis primariis 
plerumque 2 paullulo ramulosis) dem\mi glabrati. Petioli 2-h cm 
longi; lamina 8-12 X 3"5»5 cm ovato-elliptica apice gradatim 
hebeti-acuminato basi obtusa vel rotundata, chartacea et obscure 
■undulato-serrulata ciliata (pilis laevibus 1-1.5 nim longis), 
supra strigulosa pilis sparsis laevibus robustis ca 1 mm longis 
et pilis numerosis 0.2-0. 3 mm longis laevibus, subtus sparsius- 
cule pilis stipitato-dendroideis (stipite 1-1. 5 ran longo) armata, 
3-nervata (pari debili inframarginali neglecto) nervis secun- 
dariis plerumque ^-5 mm inter se distantibus nervulis subtus laxe 
reticulatis areolis ca 2 ram latis. Panicula ca 10 cm longa sub- 
multiflora; f lores 5-meri in ramulis interrupto-aggregati vel 
terminali-aggregati, pedicellis ca 0.5 mm longis, bracteolis I.5- 
2 X 0.4-0.5 mm persistentibus. Hypanthium (ad torum) 2 mm longum 
basim versus glandulis minutis modice armatum alioqui plerumque 
glabrum; calycis tubus O.5 mm longus extus sparse setulosus, 
lobis interioribus 0.6 X O.7 mm oblongis ad basim remotis, denti- 
bus exterioribus crassis sparse setulosis non eminentibus; torus 
intus glaber. Petala glabra 2-2.2 X 1.8 mm suborbiculari- 
obovata apice paullulo emarginato. Stamina paullulo dimorphica 
glabra; filamenta 3«6-3«T mn vel 3 mm longa; antherarum thecae 
2.1 X 0.45 X 0.5 mm vel 1.8 X 0.4 X 0.6-0.7 mm oblongae apice 
minute (O.l mm) uniporosae; connectivum non prolongatijm dorsa- 
liter ad basim obscure (O.I-O.I5 mm) hebeti-dentatum. Stigma 
expansum 0.6 ram diam.; stylus 6 X O.35 ram sparse glanduloso- 
puberuluB (O.I5 mm); ovarium 5(?)-loculare ca 1/t inferum glabrum. 

lype Collection: F. R. Fosberg 19266 (holotype US 2142866), 
collected in a wet ravine in headwaters of Rio Neiva between 
Cerro Neiva and Cerro del Diablo 35 km east -south -east of Neiva, 
Depto. Huila, Colombia, elev. 23OO-236O m, 6 Dec. 1942. "Shrub 
1.5 m tall; flowers white." 

In modal populations ( Haught 6525 ; excellent match for 
Holton isotype, NY) of M. cataractae . the deciduous upper leaf 
BTarface hairs are all stipitate -stellate (stalk 0.1 ram; radii 
6-8) and the lower leaf siirface pubescence is similar (stalk 0.2- 
0.3 mm; radii 6-8); the hypanthla are evenly and moderately to 
densely puberulous with stipitate -stellate hairs (stalk O.3-O.5 
mm; radii ca 8). However M. cataractae is quite variable (F1. 
Venez. 8: 471). Perhaps another (at least in anther morphology) 
but more distant relative is M. dif fie ills Triana. 

MICONIA CLYPEATA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

In systemate Cogniauxli M. stipulari Naud. af finis, foliorum 



1982 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 303 

laminis ad basim cordatis et adaxialiter scutatis petalis 
maioribus differt. 

Ramuli alato-quadrangulares (alls 1-1. 5 niin altis) sicut 
foliorum subtus venae primariae seciindariaeque inflorescentla 
hypanthiaque priraum sparsiuscule puberuli (pills stellulato- 
lepidotis O.O5-O.I mm latis) demum glabrati; nodi linea crassa 
ca 3 mm elevata inter petiolos armati. Petioli plerumque 4-6 cm 
longi sicut lamina supra primum sparse pilis dendroideis 0.1- 0.2 
ram longis mox deciduis armati; lamina plerumque 9-13 X 5~10 cm 
ovata apice abrupte per O.5-O.7 cm hebeti-acuminato basi O.7-I cm 
cordata (lobis paulo imbricatis), rigidiuscula et calloso-denti- 
culata, supra ad basim imum appendice timiida transversa 7-8 X 3~^ 
mm armata, subtus in superficie primum sparse stellulato-lepidota 
mox glabrata, 5-nervata (pari inframarginali debili neglecto) 
nervis secundariis 2-3 mm inter se distantibus nervulis subtus 
laxe reticulatis areolis 1-1. 5 nmi latis. Panic \ila ca IO-15 cm 
longa submultiflora; f lores 5-meri, pedicellis 1-1. 5 tnm longis, 
bracteolis 3-3 '5 X 2-2.5 n^ ellipticis ante anthesim deciduis. 
Hypanthium (ad torum) 3 11™ longum; calycis tubus 0.3 mm longus, 
lobis interioribus 1.8 X 2 mm basaliter imbricatis membranaceis 
fasciculato-ciliolatis, dentibus exterioribus inframarginalibus; 
torus intus dense glanduloso-ciliolatus (0.I5 mm). Petala glabra 
5.2 X 2.4-2.5 mm oblongo-elliptica apice paulo retuso. Stamina 
isomorphica glabra; filamenta 2.8-3 ™n longa; antherariim thecae 
1.9-2 X 0.6 X 0.7 mm oblongae apice dorsaliter emarginato-poroso 
(O.3-O.35 mm); connectivum non prolongatim ventraliter exappen- 
diculatum dorsaliter dente hebeti descendenti 0.25-0.4 X 0.2 mm 
armatum. Stigma paiillulo expans\m 0.5 mm diam.; stylus 5*5 X 
0.2-0.35 mm glaber in ovarii collum O.5 mm immersus; ovariijm 3- 
loculare et I/2 infer\mi, collo modice glanduloso. 

Type Collection: James L. Luteyn . Maria Lebron-Luteyn . & 
Gustavo Morales 7325 (holotype COL 205897; isotypes NY, US), 
collected along Ansermanuevo-San Jose del Palmar road 11 km east 
of San Jose del Palmar (l km from Choco-Valle border), Depto. 
Choco, Colombia, elev. I9OO m, 20 April 1979- "Shrub 2-2.5 m 
tall, stems winged. Rachis, pedicels, and calyx purplish- 
lavender. Petals white. Stamens yellow. Locally common." 

Miconia stipularis has longer cauline pubescence, 3 -nerved 
(or very obscurely 5 -nerved) leaf blades obtuse at the base and 
without a scutum, torus glabrous within, petals only 2.5-3 ™ii 
long, and glabrous ovary. Certainly M. clypeata is not closely 
related to species 356-36O of Cogniaux' Monograph, nor M. 
andreana Cogn. (probably) and M. gibba Markgraf . In anthers but 
not in vegetative features, M. clypeata somewhat resembles M. 
fosbergii Wurdack and its relatives (Phybologia l4: 271-272. 
1967); the foliar scut\;im is similar to that seen in several 
species of Axinaea. 

MICONIA URIBEI Wurdack, sp. nov. 

Sect. Amblyarrhena . M. gibbae Markgraf af finis, foliis ad 
petiolorum apices vix bigibbosis stylo puberulo differt. 

Ramuli teretes sicut foliorum subtus venae primariae petioli 



304 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

inflorescentiaque primum densiuscule pilis pinoideis 0.1-0. 3 
(-0.5) mm longis puberuli demum glabrati. Petloli plerumque 1-2 
cm longi; lamina 8-I7 X 4. 5-8. 5 cm ovata apice breviter hebeti- 
acxminato basi O.3-O.8 cm cordata, rigidluscula et calloso-dentic ■ 
ulata, supra bullata et glabra, subtus in venis secundariis 
sparse pinoideo-puberula in superficie glabra ad basim non vel 
obscure (ca 1 mm) bicallosa, 5-nervata (pari exteriore tenui 
inframarginali neglecto) nervis secundariis ca 3 nm inter se dis- 
tantibus subtus sicut nervis tertiariis elevatis nervulis subtus 
planis areolis 0.5-I mm latis. Panicula ca 12 cm longa multi- 
flora; flores 5^tneri, pedicellis 1-1. 5 mm longis et ca 0.5 mm 
infra hypanthiim articulatis, bracteolis 1-1. 5 X 0.2-0. 3 nun mox 
deciduis. Hypanthium (ad torum) 2 mm longim sparse stellulato- 
pinoideo-furfuraceum; calycis tubus 0.1 ram longus, lobis interi- 
oribus 0.6 X O.k mm oblongis fimbriate -ciliolatis, dentibus 
exterioribus crassis non eminentibus; torus intus glaber. Petala 
glabra I.3-I.5 X 1.3-1»5 mm suborbicularia. Stamina subiso- 
morphica glabra; filamenta 2 ram longa; antherarum thecae 1.6 X 
O.k X 0.55 mm oblongae, poro 0.2 ram diam. terrainali; connectivum 
non prolongatum ad basim ventraliter 0.I5 mm bilobulatum dorsa- 
liter 0.1 ram dentatum. Stigma paullulo expansum 0.^ mm diam.; 
stylus 5.7 X 0.3-0.35 ram sparse puberulus (0.2 mm) in ovarii 
apicem O.25 mm immersus; ovariimi 3~loculare et l/4-l/3 inferum 
glaber . 

lype Collection: Lorenzo Uribe Uribe 658O (holotype COL 
206962; isotypes COL, US), collected along the road between Mocoa 
and Sibundoy, Putumayo, Colombia, elev. I6OO m, Jvine 1971 • 
"Esplendido arbusto de 1,5-2 m de altura, con hojas rauy bellas 
de enves morado-purpureo. Florecitas blancas." 

The two species are alike in pubescence, leaf venation and 
margins, and most floral details; M. gibba however has a more 
pronounced dorsal connective tooth in the large stamens, a gla- 
brous style, and a prominent bilobate corneous appendage abaxi- 
ally at the petiole apex (rather than the obscure callosities 
seen in M. uribei ) . Both M. andreana Cogn. and M. rivetii Dang. 
& Cherm. are more distantly related, having less discrete leaf 
vein and inflorescence pubescence, larger leaves with setose 
petioles, the torus glandular -puberulous within, the calyx less 
lobed, and the style glabrous. 

KILLIPIA LATIFOLIA Wirrdack, sp. nov. 

K. pedunculatae Gleason af finis, ramulis teretibus foliorum 
petiolls longioribus laminis latioribus distincte 5-nervatis 
dif f ert . 

Hamuli teretes paulo nodosi glabri. Petioli 2-3.5 cm longi; 
lamina 5-7 X 3-^.5 cm late ovata apice basique late acuto vel 
anguste obtuso, rigida et apicem versus calloso-ciliolata (0.1- 
0.2 mm), ubique glandulis mlnutis sparsis subtus exceptis glabra, 
5-nervata (pari exteriore inframarginali tenui neglecto) nervis 
secundariis ca 2 mm inter se distantibus nervulis subtus laxe 
(1.5-2 mm) reticulatis. Inflorescentia lateralis in ramulis 
infra folia plerumque oriunda 3-5 cm longa pauciflora; flores 



1982 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 305 

5-meri, pedicellis IO-I5 ram longis et paulo supra medi'um articu- 
latis, bracteolis caducis non visis. Hypanthium (ad tonam) 3 mm 
longim glabrum teres; calycis tubus ca 1 mm longus, lobis interi- 
oribus ca I.3 mm longis triangularibus ad basim remotis, dentibus 
exterioribus crassis non eminentibus. Petala extus pruinosa ca 
5-6 X 5 mm suborbicularia. Filamenta ca 2.5 mm longa glabra; 
antherarum thecae ca 2.h X O.^l- X 0.8 mm oblongae, poro ca 0.1 mm 
diam. paullulo dorsaliter inclinato; connectivxim glabrum non pro- 
longatum ad basim dorsaliter paulo tuberculatum ventraliter ca 
0.2 mm bilobulatum. Stigma paulo expans-um O.7 mm diam.; stylus 
T X 0.4 mm glaber in ovarii apicem paulo intrusus; ovarium ca 
O.k infeinjm 3~loculare cono glabro. 

lype Collection: James L. Luteyn , Maria Lebr on -Luteyn , & 
Gustavo Morales 75 0^ (holotype COL 20629^; isotype NY), collected 
in cloud forest just inside Parque Nacional Munchique, kms 6O-65 
along El Tambo-20 de Julio road, Depto. Cauca, Colombia, elev. 
2500-2560 m, 26 April 1979. "Shrub to I.5 m tall; pedicels and 
calyx red; corolla pale yellow; stamens yellow; one plant seen." 

Both K. pedunculata and K. quadrangular i s Gleason have 
sharply 4 -angled branchlets and petioles 1 cm or less long, as 
well as proportionately much narrower 3~tierved leaf blades. 

KILLIPIA ROIUWDIFOLIA Wurdack, sp. nov. 

K. latifoliae Wurdack af finis, foliorum laminis subrotundis 
apice rotundatis floribus paulo maioribus calycis lobis interi- 
oribus oblato-rotundatis lateraliter contiguis differt. 

Hamuli teretes nodosi glabri. Petioli 1-2 cm longi; lamina 
2-4 X 2-4 cm rotundata apice rotundato et obscure (ca 1 ram) 
abrupteque apiculato basi late obtusa, rigida et apicem versus 
ciliolata (0.2-0. 3 mm) ubique glandulis minutis sparsissimis 
subtus exceptis glabra, supra paulo rugosa, 5-nervata nervis 
secundariis I.5-2 mm inter se distantibus nervulis subtus laxe 
(ca 2 mm) reticulatis. Inflorescentia lateralis in ramulis 
infra folia oriunda l-3-flora, pedunculo 0.5-I cm longo; flores 
5-meri, pedicellis 7-8 mm longis et ca 2-3 mm infra hypanthium 
articulatis, bracteolis ca I.5 X 0. 3-0.4 mm ante anthesim 
deciduis. Hypanthium (ad to3rum) 3 mn] longum glabrum teres; 
calycis tubus 1 mm longus, lobis inter ioribus 2 X 2.6-3 imi rotim- 
dis lateraliter contiguis, dentibus exterioribus non eminentibus. 
Petala extus pruinosa ca 6 X 5 ram suborbicularia apice emargi- 
nato. Filamenta ca 2 mm longa; antherarum thecae ca 2.7 X O.5 X 
1 mm oblongae, poro ca 0.2 mm diam. terminali; connectivum gla- 
brum non prolongatum ad basim dorsaliter paulo tuberculatum ven- 
traliter ca 0.2 ram bilobiilatum. Stigma paulo expansum ca 0.6 mm 
diam.; stylus ca O.3 ram diam. glaber in ovarii apicem 0.2 mm 
immersus; ovarium 3-loculare et ca I/3 inferum, cono 1.7 nin alto 
glabro. 

Type Collection: Lorenzo Uribe Uribe 6559 (holotype COL 
122578; isotype US), collected in the region of "Charco azul, " 
Cordillera Occidental, Mun. El Tambo, Depto. Cauca, Colombia, 
elev. ca 2000 m, Jvine 1971. "Bella planta de hojas purpureas 
en el enves. Flores rosadas." 



306 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

The general aspect of K. rotundifolla is rather like that 
of Mic onia rhodantha Wuirdack. 

LOREYA HUBERI W-urdack, sp. nov. 

L. ovatae Cogn. affinis, foliorum lamlnis crassioribus gra- 
datim breviterque hebeti-acuminatis hypanthiis petalisque maiori- 
bus differt. 

Hamuli primum quadrangulati demum teretes prim\mi sicut folia 
novella modice rufo-strigolosi pilis graclllimis 0.1-0.2( -O.3) mm 
longis mox glabrati. Petioli (2-)3-^.5 cm longi robusti: lamina 
(l5-)l9-25 X (6-)9-12 cm ovato-elliptica apice breviter (O.5-I 
cm) gradatimque hebeti-acuminato basi late acuta vel obtusa, 
coriacea et Integra^ breviter (ca 1 cm) 3"Pliriervata (pari exter- 
iore tenui ca 1-2 mm inframarginali neglecto) nervis secundariis 
ca 8-10 ram inter se distantibus nervulis tenuibus subtus planis 
laxe (ca 2-3 mm) reticulatis. Flores 5~™eri ad nodos infra folia 
ca 2-6, pedicellis 5~7 ram longis, bracteolis basalibus 1-1. 5 ram 
longis ovatis persistentibus. Hypanthium (ad torum) 3 ram longum 
basim versus inconspicue strigulosum pilis 0.1 mm longisj calyx 
2 mm longus trvincatus intus sparse strigulosus (O.l mm). Petala 
ca 12 -12. 5 X 9 ram unguiculata (ungue ^-^.5 X ^-5 '5 ramj limbo ca 
8 X 9 ram apice hebeti-acuto) intus linea transversa paulo elevata 
notata extus inconspicue pruinoso-papillosa. Filamenta 6-7 mm 
longa; antherae 5*2 X 3 X 2 mm oblongae ventraliter ad apicem 
minute (O.l mm) biporosae. Stigma expansum ca 2.7 mm diam. 
striatvun; stylus 10 X 1-2 mm glaber; ovarium 5 ( • ) "loculare omnino 
inferum apice glabro. 

Type Collection: Otto Huber 1251 (holotype US 2891868; iso- 
type VEN), collected in savannas at base of mountain north of 
Cerro Morrocoy ca 10 km west of San Juan de Manapiare, basin of 
Rio Manapiare, 5° 19* N, 66° 6' W, Terr. Amazonas, Venezuela, 
elev. ca I75 m, IT Oct. 1977. "Arbusto ^-5 m alto, abundante 
entre rocas humedas de sabana de colina. Caliz color crema; 
corola rosado-blancuzca afuera, blanca adentro; filamento bianco; 
anteras amarillentas ; estilo y estigma blancos." 

Loreya ovata has qualitatively similar pubescence and 
flowers, but much thinner (and generally smaller) caudate -acumi- 
nate leaf blades and (along with L. minor Cogn.) considerably 
smaller flowers (hypanthium plus calyx ^-5 mm long; petals ca 
9-10 mm long; stigma 1.7-2.2 mm diam.). While both L. sprue eana 
Cogn. (hypanthium externally and calyx within densely strigulose; 
anthers 1-pored) and L. mucronata Gleason (vegetative pubescence 
much longer; hypanthium plus calyx longer) have leaf blades 
rather like those of L. huberi (albeit thinner), neither seems 
as closely related in floral features as the first-cited rela- 
tives; a recent second collection of L. muc ronata ( Steyermark & 
Bunting 102 6IO . Rio Yatua, Amazonas, Venezuela) is fruiting only, 
so the mature anther structure is still unknown. In vegetative 
facies, L. huberi rather resembles Henrlettella prance i Wurdack 
(Phytologia 48: 2U9. 1981). 

BLAKEA NODOSA Wurdack, sp. nov. 



1982 Wurdack, Certamen Melastomataceis 307 

B. .lativae Wurdack af finis, foliis 5~nervatis pedicellis 
brevioribus floribus minoribus calycis lobis oblatis imbricatis 
stylo glabro differt. 

Hamuli robusti teretes pilis gracilibus ascendenti-inciurvis 
3-5 mm longis densiuscule induti; nodi notabiliter incrassati 3~5 
mm elevati processis membranaceis acuminatis ca h-^ X 2 cm mox 
laceratis et deciduis armati. Petioli ^-5 '5 cm longi robusti 
adaxialiter sparse decidueque setulosi pilis ca 0.2 mm longis; 
lamina I5-2I X 9-12 cm elliptica apice plerumque breviter (0.5- 
1 cm) abrupteque hebeti-acuminato basi late acuta vel obtusa, 
rigida et obscure calloso-serrulata, supra glabra, subtus sicut 
ramuli densiuscule pilis asperis ca 0.1 X 0.1 mm induti, 5-ner- 
vata (pari exteriore tenui ca O.3-O.5 mm inframarginali neglecto) 
nervis secundariis ca 2 mm inter se distantibus. Floras in quo- 
que nodo 8-12, pedicellis 1-1. 5 cm longis; bracteae liberae con- 
cavae subevenosae rigidiusculae suborbiculares (apice rotundato) 
intus subamorpho-furfuraceae extus glabrae; bracteae exteriores 
15 X 12-1^ mm; bracteae inter lores 12 X 12 mm. Hypanthium (ad 
torum) 5*5 ™n longum glabrum ad basim processibus membranaceis 
aliquot ca ^ X 1-2 mm et pilis gracillimis numerosis ca 3-^ ™ti 
longis subtentum; calycis tubus O.5 ram longus, lobis ca 2.5 X 5 
ram oblatis paulo emarginatis dense ciliolatis (ca 0.2 mm) extus 
paulo carinatis et lateraliter ca O.5 mm imbricatis. Petala I8 X 
9 mm apicem versus retrorso-ciliolata (O.l mm) alioqui glabra 
oblongo-obovata apice rotundato-truncato. Filamenta 9-5 n™ 
longa glabra; antherae 6.3 X 2.7 X 1.8-1. 9 mm inter se cohae- 
rentes minute biporosae; connectivum ad basim e filamento dorsa- 
liter ca O.5 ram elevatum. Stigma non expansum; stylus 11 X O.5- 
0.8 mm glaber; ovarium 6-loculare, cono 3 mm alto glabro paulo 
costulato (collo non evoluto). 

Type Collection: J. van Rooden. B. J. H. ter Welle, & 
S. M. C. Topper 43^ (holotype US 289470^+; isotypes COL, US; wood 
sample Uw 25583), collected in lowland rain forest in the con- 
cession of Carton de Colombia near San Isidro, Mun. Buenaventura, 
Depto. Valle del Cauca, Colombia, 3° 56' N, 77° 10' W, elev. ca 
230 m, 15 Nov. -6 Dec. 1979. "Woody plant, together with tree of 
H'umiriaceae. Leaves brittle, stiff, green and somewhat shining 
above, reddish brown beneath. Calyx green with brown margins, 
petals and filaments white, anthers yellow, style dark red, top 
white . " 

Blakea .jativae has similar vegetative pubescence and large 
stipulifonn nodal processes, but leaves 7-nerved, pedicels 2-3 
cm long, bracts 19-25 mm long, hypanthium 7 mm long, calyx lobes 
ovate and 5 mm long, petals 27 X 1^-15 mm, style glandular, and 
connective tooth of the anthers more developed. In floral struc- 
ture (especially the sepals and fine hairs subtending the hypan- 
thium base), B. pilosa Gleason is very similar; that species, how- 
ever, has only cobwebby foliar pubescence and finer hairs on the 
less nodose branchlets; no stipuliform nodal membrane is evident 
in two sheets (NY, US) of Cuatrecasas 165.32 . only setae to 15 mm 
long. Several other probably undescribed taxa related to B. 
nodosa have been collected in Valle ( Hilty O-3 ). Narino (Maguire 



308 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

& Maguire 62225 ) and Choco (Forero et al 3O78 ); comparison (ex 
char . ) is needed with B. squamigera Uribe. 



NOTES ON ITEW AND NOTEWORTHY PLANTS. CLV 
Harold N. Moldenke 



ALOYSIA DODSONIORUM Hold . , sp. nov. 

Frutex herbaceus usque ad 1 ra. altus; ramulis gracillbus sub- 
teretibus hispidulls; foliis decussato-oppositis; petioiis 
gracillbus 5 — 10 mm. longis dense puberulis; laminis foliorum 
rigidis elliptlcis vel ovato-ellipticis 3 — 7.5 cm. longis 2.5 — 
4.8 cm. latis, apicaliter subacutis vel acutis marginaliter ad- 
presso-serrulatis basaliter in petiolum cuneato-attenuatis supra 
valde rugosis asperisque subtus densissime flavido-puberulis; 
inflorescentiis axillaribus solitariis spicatis longipedunculatis. 

A herbaceous shrub to 1 m. tall; branchlets apparently sub- 
terete, brownish, nore or less hispidulous, the hairs eventually 
wearing off; principal internodes rather elongate; leaves decus- 
sate-opposite; petioles slender, 5 — 10 mm. long, densely yellow- 
ish-puberulent; leaf-blades rigidly chartaceous, elliptic or 
ovate-elliptic, 3 — 7.5 cm. long, 2.5 — 4.8 cm. v/lde, apically sub- 
acute to acute, marginally appressed-serrulate to slightly below 
the widest part, basally cuneately attenuate into the petiole, 
conspicuously rugose and scabrous above, densely yellowish- 
puberulent beneath; inflorescence axillary, solitary, long-peduncu- 
late, spicate; peduncles slender, 4 — 6 cm. long, rather densely 
yellowish-puberulent; spikes cylindric, very dense, elongating 
to at least 2 cm. after anthesis, many-flowered; bracts narrow- 
lanceolate, the lowermost to almost 1 cm. long and 2 mm. wide, 
rather densely puberulent dorsally, apically acute; calyx very 
small; corolla lemon-yellow or finally v/hite, hypocrateriform, 
the tube very slender, about 5 ram. long, the limb about 2 mm. wide; 
fruit dry. 

The type of this species was collected by C. H. and P. M. Dod- 
son (no. 11224) — in whose honor it is named — on a hillside at 
Capeira, at km. 21 from Guayaquil to Daule, 20 — 200 m. altitude, 
Guayas, Ecuador, in tropical dry forest, on September 15, 1981, 
and is deposited in my personal herbarium. 

ALOYSIA TRIPHYLLA f. SERRVLATA Mold., f. nov. 

Haec forma a forma typica specie! laminis foliorum marginaliter 
argute serrulata recedit. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing the margins of its leaf-blades regularly and sharply serrulate 
except at the very apex and base. 



1982 Moldenke, New & noteworthy plants 309 

The type of this form was collected by Liberty Hyde Bailey (no. 
160) in the garden of the Cornell University Experiment Station 
at Ithaca, New York, on October 3, 1893, from material secured 
from Ernest Walker of New Albany, Indiana, and is deposited in 
the herbarium of Cornell University. 

LANTANA CAMARA f. RUBELLO-FLAVESCENS Hold., f. nov. 

Ilaec forma a forma typica speciei corollis primo rubellis senec- 
tute flavis recedit. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing its corollas at first uniformly pink and in age turning to 
yellow. 

The type of the form was collected by C. H. and P. M. Dodson 
(no. 11750) from cultivated material at Chullabamba, 10 km. north 
of Cuenca in the Cuenca Valley near the river, on the country 
estate of Marcelo Jaramillo, at 2350 m. altitude, Azuay, Ecuador, 
on October 10, 1981, and is deposited in my personal herbarium. 
The collectors describe the plant as a shrub to 2 m. tall. 

LANTANA FERREYRAE var. BREVIPEDUNCULATA Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei pedunculis sub anthesi 
ca. 5 mm. Icngus recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the peduncles during full anthesis only about 5 mm. long. 

The type of the variety was collected by C. H. and P. M. Dodson 
(no. 11954) in a marshy area between Rio Daule and the highway, 
Capeira, at km. 21 on the highway from Guayaquil to Daule, at 20 — 
200 m. altitude, Guayas, Ecuador, in a region of tropical dry 
forest, on October 25, 1981, and is deposited in my personal her- 
barium. The collectors describe the plant as a shrub to 2 m. 
tall, having pink "flowers" [corollas]. 

LANTANA OVATIFOLIA f. PARVIFOLIA Mold., f. nov. 

Haec forma a forma typica speciei laminis foliorum multo par- 
vioribus 2 — 3 cm. longis 1 — 1.5 cm. latis differt. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing its leaf -blades rather uniformly much smaller, only 2 — 3 cm. 
long and 1 — 1.5 cm. wide. 

The type of the form was collected by Anne E. Perkins (no. 
1625) near Homestead, Dade County, Florida, on March 27, 1933, 
and is deposited in the herbarium of Cornell University, Ithaca. 

VERBENA DOMINGENSIS var. CUBENSIS Mold., var. nov. 

Haec varietas a forma typica speciei lobis foliorum plerumque 
apicaliter obtusis recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species 
chiefly in having more numerous stem-leaves and in having these and 
especially the basal ones with more regularly rounded lobe-like 
marginal teeth. 

The type of the variety was collected by A. H. Curtiss (no. 677) 
at Campo Florido, Cuba, on March 13, 1905, and is deposited in the 



310 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

Britton Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden. This plant 
has hitherto been confused with the very similar European V. 
officinalis L. and the Hispaniolan V. domingensis Urb. It also 
bears striking similarity to the Texas and southeastern U.S.A. 
V. halei Small. This group of taxa is in need of more intensive 
field and herbarium study. 

VERBENA LITORALIS var. PORTORICENSIS Mold., var. nov. 

Kaec varietas a forma typica speciei laminis foliorum tnargin- 
aliter grosse dentatis recedit. 

This variety differs from the typical form of this highly vari- 
able species in having its leaves with their blades marginally 
very coarsely serrate-dentate with conspicuously antrorsely 
spreading broad-based teeth. 

The type of the variety was collected by Alain H. and Perfa 
Liogier and L. F. Martorell (no. 28417) along the Panoramic High- 
way south of Cayey, Puerto Rico, at 640 m. altitude, on March 14, 
1979, and is deposited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York 
Botanical Garden. T\\e collectors describe the plant as herbace- 
ous, erect, 60 cm. tall, and with blue corollas. 

AVICENNIA MARINA f. INTERMEDIA (W. Griff.) Mold., stat. nov. 

Avicennia intermedia W. Griff., Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 
20: 6, pi. 1. 1846. 

This small more generally obtuse leaved form of this wide- 
spread and very polymorphic species is probably worthy of nomen- 
clatural recognition, although not on the specific or varietal 
rank as previously maintained by some workers in this difficult 
genus of plants. It is a form v;hich seems to occur most often 
in the Malayan portion of the species' overall range. 



The Algae of New Jersey (U.S.A.) 
I. Chrysophyta (Yellow-Green Algae) 
Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae 



MaryAnn Foote 

Ecology Program 

Rutgers University 

New Brunswick, New Jersey O8903 



The first comprehensive list of the known species of 
algae in the state of New Jersey was Britton's Prel imi nary 
Catalogue of the Flora of New Jersey (1881) . Wol le (I88O, 
1881, 1882 and 1883) published notes on the algae of the 
United States, and eventually a book on the same subject 
(1887) and collections made in New Jersey are mentioned 
frequently. In 1889. Britton issued The Catalogue of 
PI ants Found i n New Jersey which summarized both published 
and unpublished information available to Britton. This 
work is primarily bibliographic and addresses the 
taxonomy, classification and distribution of all plant 
species, algae and fungi included, known from New Jersey. 

The present series of papers is an attempt to update 
this catalogue. Particular care has been given to 
minimizing the turmoil of taxonomy, espcially of the 
blue-green algae and the diatoms. 

Not only will such a comprehensive listing of the 
algal flora of the state be useful for other than New 
Jersey phycologists but it will also be especially helpful 
to workers here interested in both local environmental 
modifications occuring over the last century and in new 
records for the state. It is hoped that these papers will 
stimulate universal interest in phycology and will add to 
the body of knowledge of the distribution, taxonomy and 
classification of algae. 

The algal habitats of the state of New Jersey are 
numerous and diverse. New Jersey contains coastal plain, 
piedmont and highland provinces. There are numerous 
lakes, ponds, small streams, large rivers, fresh- and 
salt-water marshes, estuaries, bays and an extensive 
shoreline. The Hudson and Delaware Rivers form major 
segments of the east and west boundaries, respectively, of 
the state. Due to its latitude, the range of many 
northern species terminates in New Jersey and, conversely, 
many southern species commence their ranges here. 

311 



312 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

In the following checklists of the algae, the genera 
are arranged alphabetically. Collecting locations are 
listed chronologically within each species. If no 
citation is given, the species was noted by the author. 



D I V I S I ON CHRYSOPHYTA YELLOW-GREEN ALGAE 

Classes Xanthophyceae, Chrysophyceae and Prymnes i ophyceae 



Arachnochlor i s brevi spi nosa Pascher 

rare in Oradell Reservoir, Aug (Foote, 198I) 

Aped i nel 1 a rad i ans (Lohmann) Campbell 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Botryd i urn granul atum L . 

moist earth in Bergen Co. (Britton, I889) 

Ca 1 ycomonas grac ills Lohmann 

Barnegat Bay (Mountford, I969. 1970; northern shore 

(Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Cal ycomonas oval i s Wulff 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas bal t i ca (Buttner) Carter 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas carol i ni ana Campbel 1 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas di spersa Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas mar i na (Buttner) Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas sa 1 i na (Wislouch) Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Chroomonas vectens i s Carter 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Chrysochromul i na kappa Parke 6 Mantan 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Chrysochromul i na mi nor Parke 6 Mantan 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Chrysopyxi s bi pes Stein 

epiphytic in Pine Barrens bogs (Mou) & Buell, 1979) 

Cryptomonas acuta Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Cryptomonas erosa Ehr. 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979); Hackensack 

R i ver 

Cryptomonas i rregul ar i s Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Cryptomonas macu 1 ata Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Cryptomonas ovata Ehr. 

Delaware-Rar i tan Canal, June-Mar (Renlund, 1953); 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979); Hackensack River 

Cryptomonas pseudobal t i ca Butcher 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 



1982 Foote, Algae of New Jersey 313 

Cryptomonas testacea Campbel 1 
northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Cyclonex i s annul ar i s Stokes 

squeezings of Sphagnum moss in Helmetta pond (Moul 6 
Buell, 1979) 

Derepyxi s amphora Stokes 
Helmetta pond (Moul 6 Buell, 1979) 
Pi nobryon ser tul ar i a Ehr. 

Del aware-Rar i tan Canal, June-Apr (Renlund, 1953); 
bogs, cedar swamps, ponds and streams in the Pine 
Barrens (Moul 6 Buell, 1979) 
D i nobryon st i pi tatum Stein 

Delaware-Rar i tan Canal, June (Renlund, 1953); 
pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 
Pi stephanus speculum (Ehr.) Haeckel 
Barnegat Bay (Mountford, 1971); Little Egg Harbor, 
Barnegat Bay and Tuckerton Bay (Sugihara et 
al-, 1979); northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 
Ebr i a tr i part i ta (Schumann) Lemm. 

Barnegat Bay (Mountford, 1971); northern shore (Olsen & 
Cohn, 1979) 

Gloeochlor i s smi th i ana Pascher 
rare in Oradell Reservoir, Apr (Foote, 198I) 
Hemi selmi s rotunda Butcher 
northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 
Hemi selmi s vi rescens Proop 
northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Hi 1 1 ea mar i na Butcher 
northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 
Hymenomonas carterae (Braarud 6 Eager land) Braarud 
northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Lagynion scherffel i i Pasch. 

epiphytic in Pine Barrens ponds (Moul & Buell, 1979) 
Lagynion tr iangulare (Stokes) Pasch. 
epiphtyic in streams in central New Jersey (Moul & 
Buell, 1979) 

Mai lomonas acaroides Perty 
Hackensack River 
Ochromonas mutabi 1 i s Klebs 

occasional in plankton of Oradell Reservoir, Apr 
(Foote, 1981) 

01 i sthodi scus luteus Carter 
northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Oph iocyt i urn capi tatum Wol le 
frequent in stagnant ponds (Britton, 1889) ; 
Pel aware-Rar i tan Canal, Apr-June (Renlund, 1953); ponds 
in Pine Barrens (Moul & Buell, 1979) 
Ophiocyt i um coch 1 eare A. Br. 
frequent in stagnant ponds (Britton, I889) 
Ophiocyt ium parvulum (Perty) A. Br. 

bogs and ponds in Pine Barrens (Moul & Buell, 1979); 
Hackensack River 



31A PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

Pavlova qyrans Butcher 

nortfrern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Pavlova 1 uther i (Droop) Green 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Pav1 ova sa 1 i na (Carter) Green 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Pyrmnes i urn parvum Carter 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Rhodomonas amph ioxei a Conrad 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Rhodomonas mi nuta Skuja 

northern shore (Olsen 6 Cohn, 1979) 

Synura uvel 1 a Ehr. 

Delaware-Rar i tan Canal, July-Apr (Renlund, 1953) 5 

bogs, ponds, cedar swamps and streams in Pine 

Barrens (Moul 6 Buell, 1979); occasional in plankton 

of Oradell Reservoir, Sept-Nov (Foote, I98I); Hackensack 

River 

Tr i bonema bombyc i num (Ag.) Derb. 6 Sol. 

common and widely distributed in stagnant and 

flowing waters, spring and fall: Undercliff (Apr), 

Englewood (May) , Closter (Oct) (Hazen, 1902) 

Tr i bonema bombyc i num forma tenue Hazen 

Closter (Oct) and Hudson Heights (Hazen, 1902) 

Tr i bonema mi nus Wolle 

Undercliff in May and Dec (Hazen, 1902) 

Tr i bonema utr i culosum Kutz. 

slow or rapid streams and frequently found in 

outlets of swamps in Hudson Heights and Grantswood (Hazen, 

1902) 

Urogl ena vol vox Ehr. 

Bass Lake (Moul £ Buell, 1979) 

Urogl enops i s amer i cana (Calkins) Lemm. 

Del aware-Rar i tan Canal, June-Dec (Renlund, 1953); 

occasional in plankton Oradell Reservoir, Apr (Foote, 

1981) 

Vaucher i a d i 1 1 wyni i Ag . 

freshwater and banks of ponds and rivers 

(Britton, 1889); state (Collins, 1928) 

Vaucher i a gemi nata (Vauch.) D.C. 

ponds and pools (Britton, I889); common in quiet or 

slowly running water (Collins, I928) 

Vaucher i a geni nata var. racemosa (Vauch.) Walz. 

state (Collins, 1902) 

Vaucher i a 1 i torea (Hof'fm.) Bang. 

Atlantic City, marine on gravel (Britton, I889) ; mud 

and gravel at low water mark (Collins, 1928) 

Vaucher i a sessi 1 i s (Vauch.) D.C. 

frequent on moist earth (Britton, I889); common in 

brooks and ditches (Collins, I928) 

Vaucher i a terrestr i s Lyngb. 

on shaded, moist ground (Britton, I889) 



1982 Foote, Algae of New Jersey 315 

Vaucher i a thurett i Woronin 

state (Wolle, 188?) ; Atlantic City (Morse, 1888); on 
soil submerged by tides and muddy ditches by 
shore (Col 1 ins, 1928) 



References 

Britton, N.L. 1881. Prel imi nary Catalogue of the F lora 
of New Jersey . John L. Murphy Publishing Co., Trenton, 
N.J. 

. 1889. Catal ogue of PI ants Found i n New Jersey . 



Final Report of the State Geologist, Vol. II. John. L. 
Murphy Publishing Co., Trenton, N.J. 

Collins, F.S. 1928. Green Algae of North Amer ica . G.E. 
Stechert & Co. New York. 400 pp. 

Foote, M.A. 1981. Algae of the Oradell Reservoir, New 
Jersey (Exclusive of the Bac i 1 lar i ophyta) . Bull. N.J. 
Acad. Sci. 26:^9-51 

Hazen, T. E. 1902. The Ulothr i caceae and 
Chaetophoraceae of the United States. Memoirs of the 
Torrey Botanical Club 11:135-250 

Morse, S.R. I888. Algae from Atlantic City. Bull. 
Torrey Bot. Club 15:309-31'« 

Moul, E.T. and H.F. Buell. 1979. Algae of the Pine 
Barrens. J_N: R.T.T. Forman, Editor, Pi ne Barrens: 
Ecosystem and Landscape . Academic Press, Inc. New York. 
601 pp. 

Mountford, K. 1969- A seasonal plankton cycle in 
Barnegat Bay, New Jersey. M.S. Thesis. Rutgers 
University. New Brunswick, N.J. 

. 1971- Plankton studies in Barnegat Bay. Ph.D. 

Thesis. Rutgers University. New Brunswick, N.J. 

Olsen, P. and M. Cohn. 1979. Phytopl ankton in lower 
New York Bay and adjacent New Jersey estuarine and coastal 
waters. Bull. N.J. Acad. Sci. 2^:59-69 

Renlund, R.W. 1953- A study of the net plankton of the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal. Ph.D. Thesis. Rutgers 
University. New Brunswick, N.J. 



316 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

Sugihara, T. and C. Yearsley, J.B. Durand and N.P. 
Psuty. 1979- Comparison of Natural and Altered Estuarine 
Systems: Analysis. Center for Coastal and Environmental 
Studies. Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey. 
New Brunswick, N.J. Ik] pp 

Wolle, F. 1880. Freshwater Algae. V. Bull. Torrey 
Bot. Club 8:1-i» 

. 1881. Freshwater Algae. VI. Bull. Torrey 



Bot. Club 9:25-30 



.. 1882. Freshwater Algae. VII. Bull. Torrey 



Bot. Club 10:13-21 



. 1883. Freshwater Algae. Vli I . Bull. Torrey 



Bot. Club 11:13-17 



1887. Freshwater A 1 gae of the Uni ted States , 



Comenius Press. Bethlehem, Pa. 364 pp 



A STUDY OF FOUR SPECIES OF CIRSIUM NATIVE TO MEXICO 

Gerald B. Ownbey 

Department of Botany 

University of Minnesota 

St. Paul, MN 55108 



Abstract: Four species of the subsection Radiata Petrak are 
described and discussed. English descriptions and synonomies are provided 
in each case. The following species are treated: C. acrolepis (Petrak) G. 
Ownb., stat. nov., C^. pinetorum Greenm., and C^. subuliforme G. Ownb., 
sp. nov. Additionally, C^. acantholepis (Hemsl.) Petrak is reduced to its 
original component through the removal or reduction of two varieties 
recognized by Petrak. 



F. Petrak's (1910, 1911, 1917) monumental and imposing studies of 
North American Cirsium are the beginning point for any subsequent 
taxonomic work based upon distributional and morphological criteria. Much 
of Petrak's work, however, rested upon the study of minimal numbers of 
specimens £ind though astonishingly detailed and well executed for his time 
these studies leave much room for improvement. The following paper 
embodies a portion of my own observations on Latin American cirsiums. 



CIRSIUM ACROLEPIS (Petrak) G. Ownb., stat. nov. 



Cirsium occidentale (Nutt.) Jeps. subsp. acrolepis Petrak, Bot. 
Tidsskr. 31: 66. 1911, Type collection: Mexico: State of Guanajuato: 
Jaral, Aug., 1887, W. Schumann 163c . (HOLOTYPE: JE, not seen. 
ISOTYPE: US!). 



Coarse biennial or short-lived perennial from a thick tap root, 
monocarpic; stems 1-2.5 m tall, stout, usually one from the crown or with 
one or more basal offshoots, branched in the upper one-half or one-third; 
stem surfaces white, thinly tomentose, also crisped-pubescent under the 
tomentum, often glabrescent with age, longitudinally striate; branches 
standing at an angle of about 30° from the main stem, short and stout, 
the largest often only 1-2 dm long, terminated by 1-5 heads; all the leaves 
white-tomentose beneath, thinly tomentose £ind grayish-green above, 
densely crisped-pubescent with multicellular hairs especially along the veins 
beneath under the tomentum; rosette leaves obleinceolate, 10-45 cm long, 
4-10 cm broad, deeply lobed, the primary and secondsiry lobes spinescent; 
cauline leaves oblanceolate below, becoming elliptical to lanceolate upward, 
all of them deeply lobed, the main lobes of the middle cauline leaves 
frequently lanceolate and very strongly armed with spines to 1 cm or 

317 



318 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

more long, the secondary lobes and teeth also armed with lesser spines; 
all the leaves sessile, the middle and reduced upper ones often 
semiamplexicaiil, not decurrent; heads erect, single and terminal or crowded 
into groups of 2-5 on peduncles 1-2 cm long; principal involucres about 3- 
4 cm wide, 2.5-3 cm high, the flowers exceeding the phyllaries by about 
1 cm at anthesis; all the phyllaries except the innermost purplish, straight, 
spreading, salient, not at all reflexed, subulate, evenly tapered from the 3- 
4 mm wide base, the back rounded to definitely angular-car inate in the 
outer one-third, terminated by a stout spine 

5-10 mm long, the exposed backs of the outer and middle phyllaries 
arachnose or thinly tomentose at first, later glabrate; tips of the innermost 
phyllaries flattened, not at all expanded laterally, gradually tapered to a 
much prolonged tip terminated by a fine point, flexuous, innocuous; corolla 
lavender, 27-32 mm long (ave. 30 mm), the tube 8-12 mm long (ave. 10 
mm), the limb 17-23 mm long (ave. 19.5 mm), the throat gradually tapered 
into the tube, the junction marked only by a dark line (in dried specimens) 
where the filaments of the stamens are attached, the longest lobe 7.5- 
11.5 mm long (ave. 9 mm), the tips of the lobes acuminate; anther tips 
0.8-1.0 mm long, slender, attenuate; style included in early anthesis to 
exserted to 4 mm in late anthesis, the style above the node 3.0-4.5 mm 
long (ave. 3.8 mm); filaments pubescent; pappus tawny, the longest bristles 
17-23 mm long, little if at all thickened distaUy; seeds of uniform color, 
light brown, not streaked, 2.0-2.4 mm wide, 5.0-6.5 mm long, the distal 
band obscure. 

Chromosome number: 2n = 34 (Ownbey, 1968, p. 341). 



Petrak (1911, p. 67; 1917, p. 500), sets forth the basis for separating 
his subsp. acrolepis from the other subspecies of C. occidentale recognized 
by him. Of the reasons given, the more significant are the very prickly 
leaves, the shortened branches and the stiff, straight, distinctly keeled 
phyllaries in C. acrolepis. A careful comparison of specimens from Santa 
Barbara, Los Angeles and San Bernardino counties, California, typical of 
the original component of C. occidentale , with a long suite of specimens 
from throughout the range of C^. acrolepis in Mexico reveals other 
differences of significance. Differences in the dimensions of the corolla 
are as follows, those for C. acrolepis before C. occidentale in each case: 
total length of the corolla, 27-32 mm vs. 33-38 mm; length of the tube, 8- 
12 mm vs. 15-17 mm; length of the limb, 17-23 mm vs. 18-21 mm; length 
of the longest lobe, 7.5-11.5 mm vs 11-12 mm. Thus, it is evident that 
the flowers of C. acrolepis are shorter by several mm and that most of 
the difference is accounted for by the length of the tube which is shorter 
by 5 mm or more in C^. acrolepis. The lobes, too, are significantly shorter, 
by up to 4 or 5 mm in C. acrolepis. The longest bristles of the pappus in 
C. acrolepis are much shorter, i.e., 17-23 mm and tawny in color, while in 
C. occidentale they are usually 26-30 mm long and white in color. Other 
vegetative differences between the two not emphasized by Petrak are the 
much stiffer, more rigid phyllaries with longer, stouter terminal spines in 
C. acrolepis. All of these differences together with the wide disjunction 
between their respective ranges provide ample basis for according C. 



1982 Ovmbey, Four species of cirsiura 319 

acrolepis full specific rank. In my estimation C. occidentale s.s. bears a 
closer superficial resemblance to C. pinetorum and C. subuliforme as dealt 
with in this paper than it does to C. acrolepis. C. pinetorum (as C. 
acantholepis var. pinetorum) along with C^. acantholepis s.s. as 
circumscribed here (including both the typical variety and var. heterolepis 
Petrak) along with C^. orizabense Sch. Bip. ex Klatt and C. radians Benth. 
were assigned to the subsection Radiata by Petrak. Petrak assigned C. 
occidentale to his preceding subsection Campylophylla, series Occidentalia . 
It could be argued that C^. occidentale s.s. should be assigned to the 
subsection Radiata at least provisionally. C. subuliforme and C. acrolepis 
also belong to this subsection. 

Cirsium acrolepis is widely distributed on the lower slopes and 
foothills of the Sierra Madre Oriental in northeastern Mexico from 
Guanajuato, Quer^taro, and Hidalgo in the south to Tamaulipas and Nuevo 
Le6n in the north. Herbarium labels indicate that its altitudinal distribution 
is from 1600 to 2600 m. It is often found in dry barren terrain in the 
chaparral province, in disturbed places along roadways as well as under 
more moist situations along drainages, in canyons, etc., along with other 
native species. 

The fact that it is collected so often along roadways indicates that it 
may be a pioneer species and may spread into disturbed habitats in and 
beyond its natural range. 

Specimens examined: COAHUILA: 15 miles (24 km) south of Arteaga, 
Kenoyer & Crum 2725 (MICH); Canon de la Barrica, 27° 01' 45" N, 102° 
23' 17" W, Wendt & Lott 1379 (ASU); Rancho Agua Dulce, Sierra de San 
Manuel, Municipio de IVblzquiz, Wynd & Mueller 381 (MO, NY, US). 
GUANAJUATO: 11.8 miles (19 km) north of turnoff to San Jos^ Iturbide, 
Rte. 57, Ownbey & Johnson 3721 (MIN). HIDALGO: El Rodeo, municipio 
de Zimapfin, Gonzales Quintero 1086 (ENCB, MIN); 5 km west of Cardonal, 
King 6408 (MIN, US); ca. 30 miles (48 km) north of Ixmiquilpan, King 4207 
(MIN, NY, US, TEX); Cerro Juarez, cerca de Tasquillo, Paray 2035 (ENCB); 
11 miles (17.7 km) east of Huichapan, Ownbey & Johnson 3753 (MIN); 2 
miles (3.2 km) north of Zimapfin, Ownbey & Johnson 3782 (MIN); 
Ixmiquilpan, Rose et al. 9080 (NY, \JST. NUEVO LEON: Galeana, Chase 
7756 (MICH, MO); Cerro del Chipinque, Monterrey, Ditfz s.n. (ENCB); 5 
miles (8 km) east of Galeana on road to Linares, Ownbey & Johnson 3715 
(MIN); near Ojo de Agua above Galena, Sharp 45670 (NY). QUERETARO; 
between Cadereyta and Vizarron, Rose et al. 9733 (US). SAN LUIS POTOSl: 
Charcas, Lundell 5380 (US); Minas de San Rafael, Sierra de Guascama, 
Purpus 5135 (MO. NY" US); ca. 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Raydh, Rte. 86 
between Cd Valles and Rfo Verde, Ownbey 4166 (MIN); Santa Marfa del 
Rfo, Rzedowski 3260 (ENCB); "Flora Mexicana ex convalli San Luis Poto^", 
Schaffner 324 or 749 (MICH, NY, US). TAMAULIPAS: vicinity of San 
Jos^, La Vegonia, Bartlett 10081 (MICH. US); vicinity of San Josd", Tres 
Vetas, Bartlett 10372 (MICH. US); 19 km southeast of Miquihuana on road 
to Palmillas, Stanford et aL 850 (MO. NY). 



320 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

CIRSIUM PINETORUM Greenm. 



Cirsium pinetorum Greenm., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts 41: 267. 1905. 
Type collection: Mexico: State of Puebla: Pine forests, Honey Station, 
altitude 1765 m, 15 Sept., 1904, C. G. Pringle 8884. (HOLOTYPE: GH, 
not seen. ISOTYPES: K, not seen, color transparency at MIN!, MSU; LL!, 
MIN!, MSU!, NY!, US!). Not Carduus pinetorum Small, Fl. Southeastern 
United States, p. 1308. 1903. 

Cirsium acantholepis (Hemsl.) Petrak. var. pinetorum (Greenm) 
Petrak, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (Abt. 2): 212. 1910. 



Biennial or short-lived perennial, evidently monocarpic; stems 1-2 
m tall, single or several from the base, branched above, each branch 
terminated by a head and sometimes each main branch also with one or 
more short secondary branches, each terminated by a head; surfaces of 
the stems thickly tomentose with tawny hairs, especially when young, 
glabrate in age, also copiously crisped-hispid with flattened, septate hairs; 
rosette leaves narrowly oblanceolate, about seven times longer than broad, 
shallowly divided, the main lobes deltoid and again toothed, the teeth 
deltoid, rather prickly marginally, the largest prickles 5 mm or more long; 
largest basal leaves to 15 cm wide, 50 cm long, deeply incised to within 
about 1 cm of the midrib, the main lobes lanceolate, the major secondary 
lobes 1-3, deltoid, all the vein ending spine-tipped, the terminal spine of 
the main lobes 5-10 mm long; lower and middle cauline leaves narrower, to 
5 cm broad and 30 cm long, more shallowly lot)ed, distinctly amplexicaul 
at the broad base, not at all decurrent; uppermost leaves greatly reduced, 
about 5-10 cm long, lanceolate, the margin with deltoid teeth, the apical 
spine to 10 mm long, the marginal spines weaker; all the leaves heavily 
tomentose beneath, green above and closely hispid with crisped, septate 
hairs; heads erect when young, nodding at maturity, to about 6.5 cm broad, 
4.5 cm high, closely subtended by 5 or more marginally and apically 
spinescent foliar bracts, these intergrading imperceptibly into the outermost 
[rfiyllaries, 1-3 cm long; true phyllaries not spinescent at the margin, 
subulate, the margins straight, the midvein prominent, about 3 mm broad 
at the base, erect or spreading at first, the outermost evidently reflexed 
at maturity, a little shorter than the middle and inner phyllaries; middle 
and inner phyllaries 3-5 cm long; all of the phyllaries tipped by a slender 
spine; tips of the inner most phyllaries not at aU expanded laterally, 
innocuous, about equalling the corollas at an thesis; exposed backs of the 
phyllaries thickly arachnose but soon glabrate, purple, the margins 
persistently arachnose; receptacle convex, much broader than high; corollas 
evidently white or pale lavender, 20-24 mm long (ave. 22.5 mm), the tube 
10-13 mm long (ave. 11 mm), well differentiated from the limb, the limb 
10-13 mm long (ave. 11 mm), about equalling the tube, the longest lobe 5.5- 
7 mm long (ave. 6.4 mm); anther tips 0.7-0.9 mm long, slenderly attenuate; 
style exserted to 4-6 mm, the style above the node 3.5-4.5 mm long, 
purplish; filaments pubescent; pappus tawny, the longest bristles 18-22 mm 



1982 Ownbey, Four species of Cirsiim 321 

long (ave. 19.5 mm), some of the bristles a little thickened distally; seeds 
not seen. 



Cirsium pinetorum is undoubtedly closely allied to C. subuliforme 
G. Ownb. At this writing, I have not seen mature plants of the former in 
the field. As compared to C. subuliforme, the plants evidently are sturdier 
and, based upon herbarium studies, the stems are much more tomentose, 
the upper surfaces of the leaves more hispid and the pappus bristles 
shorter. More important, perhaps, is the difference seen in the proportions 
of the corolla. In C. pinetorum the tube and limb are sub-equal, each 
about 10-12 mm long; in C. subuliforme the tube is much longer than the 
limb, i.e., the tube 15-20 mm long (ave. 17.5 mm), the limb 10-13 mm 
long (ave. 11 mm). It may be significant that C. pinetorum grows at 
somewhat lower elevations. 

The type collection of C. pinetorum was made in "pine forests", 
but later collections indicate more open, sometimes disturbed habitats that 
may once have been partially forested. As nearly as can be ascertained 
at present the altitudinal range of the species is 1600-2200 m. 

Specimens examined: HIDALGO: 18.5 miles (29.8 km) east of 
Pachuca, on Rte. 130 to Tulancingo, Ownbey & Johnson 3756 (MIN). 
PUEBLA: 1 mile 1.6 km) south of Honey Station, Jackson 1051 (MIN); 
arriba de Huauchinango, Par ay 2097 (ENCB); along Rib Zotalapa, 
Huauchinango, alt. 6500 ft (1980 m). Sharp 441254 (NY). 

CIRSIUM SUBULIFORME G. Ownb., sp. nov. 



Herba biennis radice palari. Caulis plerumque 1, 1-2 (-3) m altus, 
simplex vel ramosus, tomentulosus sub juventute, glabratus, pilis crispis 
septatis hispidus. Rami 0-5, monocephali, elongati. Folia subtus tomentosa, 
supra sparsim sericea, crispo-pubescentia, lobata. Folia basalia 2-5 cm 
lata, 10-40 cm longa, oblanceolata. Folia superna et mediana caulina 
anguste elliptica, maximam partem 3-4.5 cm lata, spinis 
exclusis 12-20 cm longa, amplexicaulia. Folia caulina suprema lanceolata, 
multum diminuta, distantia, spinis 5-10 mm longis. Capitula sub maturitate 
nutantia. Involucrum 4-6 cm latum, 3-5 cm altum, basi depressum, bracteis 
foliaribus 3-5, 1-3 cm longis, spinescentibus margine et ad apicem arete 
subtentum. Phyllaria 2-3 mm ad basem lata, margine spinis carentibus, 
subulata, marginibus rectis, nervo medio prominenti. PhyUaria exteriora 
reflexa, 2-3 cm longa, media interioraque expansa ad erecta, 3-5 cm longa, 
apice spinescenti spinis ca. 5 mm longis. Apices phyllariorum intimorum 
innoxii, hispido-ciliati, sub anthesi corollam aequemtes vel excedentes. 
Dorsa phyllariorum exposita dense arachoidea, cito glabrata, purpurea. 
Receptaculum convexum, multum latius quam profundum. Corollae albae, 
lobis aUquando dilute lavandulaceis, 26-33 mm longae (medium 
arithmeticum 29 mm), tubo 15-20 mm longo (medium arithmeticum 17.5 



322 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Wo. 5 

mm), limbo 10.-13 mm longo (medium arithmeticum 11 mm) gradatim in 
tubum angustato, lobis coroUae 4.6-6.4 mm longis (medium arithmeticum 
5.4 mm). Apices antherarum 0.6-1.0 mm longi, attenuati. Stylus exsertus 
2-5 mm trans corollam, ramis supra nodum 3.4-4.4 mm longis. Pappus 
fulvus, setis longissimis 24-30 mm longis. Semina straminea, purpureo- 
vittata, 1.8-2.2 mm lata, 4.4-5.6 mm longa, vitta distali obscura, ca. 0.2 
mm lata. 



Type collection: Mexico: State of Morelos: 7.6 miles (12.2 km) south 
of Estdcion Parres (El Guarda), Rte. 95D from Mexico City to Cuernavaca, 
alt. ca. 9000 ft (2740 m), Ownbey & Muggli 3996. (HOLOTYPE: MIN. 
ISOTYPE: ENCB). 

Chromosome number: 2n = 34. See below for full citations. 
DISTRITO FEDERAL: Ownbey & Muggli 3997, 17 pr., 1 plant. ESTADO 
DE MEXICO: Ownbey & Muggli 3952 , 17 pr., 1 univalent, occasionally 16 
pr., 1 trivalent, 1 plant; Ownbey & Muggli 3954 , 17 pr., 5 plants. 

Biennial or short-lived perennial, usually monocarpic; stem 1-2 (-3) 
m tall, from a stout tap root, usually one from the crown, simple or with 1- 
5 branches in the upper one-third, the branches much elongated, usually 
monocephalous, the uppermost leaves distant and much reduced, the heads 
nodding except when very young; stem surfaces at first more or less silky 
or thinly tomentose with white or sordid hairs, later glabrate, also crisped- 
hispid with septate hairs; earliest seedling leaves narrowly obovate, merely 
toothed and prickly at the margin; rosette leaves elliptic-obovate to 
oblanceolate, 2-5 cm wide, 10-40 cm long, the blade divided one-third to 
one-half the way to the midrib, the lobes broadly deltoid, again toothed, 
all the veins ending in a weak prickle; lowest cauline leaves like those of 
the rosette to very narrowly elliptical; middle and upper cauline leaves 
successively more lanceolate and reduced in size, the base broad and 
definitely amplexicaul, the lanceolate lobes of the bracteate uppermost 
leaves strongly armed with spines to 10 mm long; aU the leaves tomentose 
beneath, the upper surfaces green, pubescent with numerous flattened, 
crisped, septate hairs and sometimes also very thinly silky with white 
hairs; heads nodding at maturity, the involucre 4-6 cm broad, 3-5 cm high, 
broader than high, depressed at the base, closely subtended by 3-5 foliar 
bracts, these spinescent both marginally and apically, mostly 1-3 cm long 
including the apical spine, transitional in nature to the outermost phyUaries; 
phyllaries not spinescent at the margins except possibly the very outermost 
ones, subulate, the margins straight, the midvein prominent, about 2-3 mm 
broad at the base, the outer phyllaries reflexed , 2-3 cm long, the middle 
and inner ones spreading to erect,* 3-5 cm long; outer and middle phyllaries 
tipped with a sharp spine, this to about 5 mm long, the innermost phyllaries 
innocuous, not at aU expanded laterally; inner phyllaries equal to or 
exceeding the corollas at anthesis, the tip hispid-ciliate; exposed backs of 
all the phyllaries densely arachnose but soon glabrate, purple; receptacle 
convex, much broader than deep; corollas white, the lobes sometimes tinged 
with lavender, 26-32 mm long (ave. 29 mm), the tube 15-20 mm long 



1982 Ovmbey, Four species of Cirsium 323 

(ave. 11.5 mm), the limb 10-13 mm long (ave. 11 mm), the limb gradually 
tapered into the tube and the junction indefinite, the longest lobe 4.6-6.4 
mm long (ave. 5.4 mm); anther tips 0.6-1 mm long, slender, attentuate; 
style exserted 2-5 mm, the style above the node 3.4-4.4 mm long, purplish; 
filaments pubescent; pappus tawny, the longest bristles 24-30 mm long, 
little if at all thickened distally; seeds straw-colored, streaked with purple 
or rarely purple-black, 1.8-2.2 mm wide, 4.4-5.6 mm long, the distal band 
obscure, to 0.2 mm wide. 



Recent collectors seem to have identified C. subuliforme as C. 
subcoriaceum (Less.) Schz. Bip., C. acantholepis (Hemsl.) Petrak or C. 
pinetorum Greenm. Petrak (1910, 1911) cites no specimens that can be 
placed under C. subuliforme. Differences between C. subuliforme and C. 
pinetoru m which it most closely resembles are discussed under the latter 
species. 

Cirsium subuliforme is a very common species found in open pine, 
fir and oak woods or in grassy areas at altitudes of 2400-3400 m, from 
the western part of the State of Mexico to the states of Morelos, Puebla 
and Vera Cruz. 



Specimens examined: DISTRITO FEDERAL: 2 km south-southwest 
of La Cima railroad station, Rte. 95, alt. 3050-3100 m, litis et aL 939 
(MIN, WIS); El Zarco, Sierra de las Cruces, alt. 3000m, Jimenez R. s.n. 
(ENCB, MIN); pedregal near Ajusco, alt. 2700 m, Matuda 18993 (US); 4 kin" 
al este del Ajusco, alt. 2750 m, Lopez G. 12 (MIN); C. Sta. Rosa, Contreras, 
alt. 2800 m, Matuda 18786 (NY, US); Volcan Xitle, alt. 2700 m, Matuda 
19601 (NY, US); 5 miles (8 km) south of Estacion Parres (El Guarda), Rte. 
95 D, alt. 9500 ft (2900 m), Qwnbey & Muggli 3997 (MIN); cerca del Cerro 
Ckjnejo, al ENE de Ajusco, alt. 2750 m, Rzedowski 24126 (ENCB). ESTADO 
DE MEXICO: entree du Sierra Nevado de Toluca, Octobre, 65 (i.e., 1865), 
Hahn 846 (K, not seen, color transparencies MIN!, MSC); Sn Lrfzaro (Camino 
de Toluca), Lyonnet 440 (US); C. Venacho, Amecameca, alt. 2800 m, 
Matuda 25748 (NY, US); ca. 20.5 miles (33 km) east of Zitacuaro (5 miles 
east of the state Une), Rte. 15, alt. ca. 9000 ft (2740 m), Qwnbey & 
Muggli 3952 (MIN); 22 miles (35.4 km) east of Zitacuaro (6 miles (9.7 km) 
east of the state line), Rte. 15, alt. 9000 ft (2740 m), Qwnbey & Muggli 
39534 (MIN); 6 km southwest of Rfo Frfo, km 56 on old highway 190, alt. 
3000 m. Roe et al. 1457 (MIN, WIS). HIDALGQ: Cerro de las Ventanas, 6 
km al N de Pachuca, alt. 2900 m, Garcfa 89 (ENCB,, MIN). MQRELQS: 
Toro, alt. 9800 ft (3000 m), Fisher 177 (US); 7.6 miles (12.2 km) south of 
Estficion Parres (El Guarda), Rte. 95D, alt. 9000 ft (2740 m), Qwnbey & 
Muggli 3996 (MIN). PUEBLA: near San Andre's, above Serdan, Cabacero, 
alt. 8500 ft (2590 m). Sharp 441045 (NY); between Acatzingo and El Seco, 
alt. 8000 ft (2440 m). Sharp 441320 (NY). VERA CRUZ: Cofre de Perote, 
northwest side of mountain, alt. 3400 m, Beaman 2192 (MSU). 



324 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 5 

CIRSIUM ACANTHOLEPIS (Hemsl.) Petrak, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (Abt. 
2): 211. 1910. 



Cnicus acantholepis Hemsl., Biol. Cent. Amer., Bot. 2: 251. 1881- 
1882. Type collection: Mexico: State of Mexico: Vallee de Mexico, Santa 
Fe, 17 AdQt, 1865-1866, M. Bourgeau 714. (HOLOTYPE: K, not seen; 
color transparencies of holotype, MINI, MSU). 

Carduus acantholepis (Hemsl.) Greene, Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 
1892: 363. 1893. 

Cirsium acantholepis var. heterolepis Petrak, Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 
27 (Abt. 2): 212. 1910, only as to Pringle 3237. Type collection: Mexico: 
State of Mexico: Calcareous bluffs, Flor de Marik, 31 August, 1890, C^ 
G. Pringle 3237 . (HOLOTYPE: B?, not seen. ISOTYPES: MICH!, MINI, 
MO!, MSU!, US!). Not Cirsium heterolepis Benth., Plemtae Hartwegianae, 
p. 87, 183 9-42 = Cirsium subcoriaceum (Less.) Schz. Bip.; not Carduus 
heterolepis Greene. Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Phila. 1892: 363. 1893, = Cirsium 
anartiolepis Petrak. 



Biennial or short-lived perennial, evidently monocarpic; stems 1.5 
m or more tall, from a stout tap root, simple below, with 3-5 short 
branches near the top, or in more vigorous plants, widely branched from 
nefiir the base, the primary branches monocephalous or with one or more 
short secondary branches near the outer end each of which terminates in 
a head; surfaces of the stem silky with long, appressed, white hairs, emd 
also sparingly pubescent with crisped, septate, flattened hairs; largest basal 
leaves 5-14 cm wide, 15-35 cm long, broadest just above the middle, the 
blade divided from three-fourths to nine-tenths the distance to the midrib, 
the primary lobes again divided into lanceolate or oblong-lanceolate lobes, 
the basal lobes of the blade reduced to spines; middle and upper leaves 
similarly divided, progressively reduced upward, sessile and not at aU 
amplexicaul or decurrent, the blade of the uppermost leaves very reduced, 
the primary and secondary lobes lanceolate and strongly spinescent, the 
terminal spine to 10 mm or more long; under surfaces of the leaves thickly 
tomentose; upper surfaces silky-lanate when young, glabrate, also rather 
copiously crisped-hispid with septate hairs; young heads erect; mature 
heads nodding; body of involucre (not including the prolonged phyllary 
appendages) about 3-4.5 cm wide, 2.5-3 cm high, impressed at the base; 
phyllaries consisting of an appressed, lanceolate, imbricate base terminated 
by a well-developed green appendage; exposed back of basal segment of 
aU the phyllaries obscurely but closely puberulent; appendages of the outer 
phyllaries reflexed, those of the middle phyllaries squarrose or spreading, 
the appendages of both the outer and middle phyUaries thinly arachnose, 
aceriform, mostly 2.5-3.5 cm long, including the apical spine, pectinate- 
spinulose at the mairgin with 3-5 spinules per side, the spinules 5-10 mm 
or more long; appendages of the inner phyllaries expanded laterally, 
scarious, crisped, abruptly long-attenuate at the tip, innocuous, erose at 
the margin, about 1.5-2 mm wide and 4-7 mm long, shorter than the 
corollas; receptacle only a little convex, about 5 times broader than high; 



1982 Ovmbey, Four species of Cirsium 325 

corollas at anthesis exceeding the innermost phyllaries, white or the tips 
of the lobes tinged with lavender, 20-25 mm long (ave. 22 mm), the 
junction of tube and limb definite, the tube 11-13 mm long (ave. 12 mm), 
the limb 9.5-12 mm long (ave. 10 mm), the longest lobe 3.5-5 mm long 
(ave. 4 mm); anther tips attenuate, about 0.8 mm long; style included or 
exserted 1-2 mm; style above the node 2-3 mm long, purplish; filaments 
pubescent; pappus tawny, the longest bristles 15-22 mm long (ave. 18 
mm), the apices of some of them thickened; seeds 2-2.5 mm broad, 5-5.5 
mm long, straw-colored, more or less streaked with purple, the distal band 
obscure, to 0.2 mm wide. 

Chromosome number: 2n = 34 (Ownbey et al., 1976, p. 2 99). 



An excellent color transparency of the holotype was sent to me by 
Dr. John H. Beaman. The plant shown has a single main axis terminated 
by the primary head. Below the primary head, at intervals of a few cm, 
there are five short secondary axes, each one terminated by a single head. 
Details of phyllary morphology which are of greatest value in recognizing 
this species are also visible in the photograph. 

Cirsium acantholepis var. heterolepis Petrak was proposed to 
accommodate erect plants with elongate, monocephalus branches and more 
or less nodding heads. The axes of plsmts of this description when observed 
in the field are indeed sometimes monocephalous but also are sometimes 
seen to have one or more additional heads disposed on short lateral branches 
arising a short disteince below the terminal head. The essential difference 
between the species s.s. and the variety, viz., the number and disposition 
of the heads on the axes is, therefore, manifestly one of degree and is 
related to the vigor of the plants. 

In Petrak's original diagnosis of C. acantholepis var. heterolepis two 
collections were cited, Pringle 2435 and Pringle 3237. Neither collection 
is stated to be the type collection. In a later publication, however, Petrak 
(1911, p. 65) removed Pringle 2435 to form the basis of a new species, 
C. anartiolepis. The sole remaining collection cited under var. heterolepis, 
Prii^le 3237, therefore becomes the type collection for the variety.. 

Cirsium acantholepis is found in open pine or oak woods and in 
adjacent treeless aresis of mountain slopes at altitudes of 2200-3000 m. 
DistributionaUy, so far as is known, it is confined to the Federal District 
and the State of Mexico. The majority of specimens seen have come 
from the western and northern parts of the state. 



Specimens examined: DISTRITO FEDERAL: El Desierto de los Leones 
prope La Venta, Juzepczuk 231 (LL); 3 miles (4.8 km) east of the Puerto 
de las Cruces, alt. 9000 ft (2740 m), Ownbey & Muggli 3999 (MIN). 
ESTADO DE MEXICO: Santa Marfa Tlalmimilopan, cerca de Lerma, alt. 
2800 m. Franco 66 (ENCB); Jilotepec, alt. 2200 m, Matuda 26685 (NY); 
20.5 miles (33 km) east of Zitacuaro (5 miles (8 km) east of the state 
line), Rte. 15, alt. 9000 ft (2740m), Ownbey & Muggli 3953 (MIN); 22 miles 
(35.4 km) east of Zitacuaro, alt. 9000 ft (2740 mj, Ownbey & Muggli 3955 
(MIN); 12.8 miles (20.6 km) from Toluca on the road to Nevado de Toluca, 



326 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

alt. 9000 ft (2740 km), Ownbey & MuggU 4010 (MIN); Sierra de Guadalupe 
al norte de la Ciudad de Mexico, Paray 90T TencB). 



1 wish to express my thanks to the curators of the herbaria cited 
for the use of the specimens housed at their respective institutions. 1 
am especially grateful to Dr. J. Rzedowski who made available recent 
collections at ENCB. Over the years Drs. H. H. litis and R. M. King 
have sent numerous specimens from their Mexican Cirsium collections for 
which I thank them. Nearly two decades ago Dr. J. H. Beaman sent me 
a long series of color transparencies of types and other authentic specimens 
of North American Cirsium photographed in various herbeiria in Europe 
and North America. These transparencies have since proved indispensable 
to my studies and I express my continuing indebtedness to Dr. Beaman 
for his generosity. The Latin description was prepared by Mr. P. M. Eckel. 
Costs of publication were met from the Junior F. Hayden Fund, University 
of Minnesota. 



LITERATURE CITED 

Petrak, F. 1910. Die mexikanischen und zentral-amerikanischen Arten 
der Gattung Cirsium. Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 27 (Abt. 2): 207-255. 

. 1911. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der mexikanischen und zentral- 
amerikanischen Cirsien. Bot. Tidsskr. 31: 57-72. 

. 1917. Die nordamerikanischen Arten der Gattung Cirsium. 

Beih. Bot. Centralbl. 35 (Abt. 2): 232-567. 

Ownbey, G. B. 1968. Cytotaxonomic notes on eleven species of Cirsium 
native to Mexico. Brittonia 20: 336-342. 

, P. H. Raven, and D. W. Kyhos. 1976. Chromosome numbers 

in some North American species of the genus Cirsium. III. Western 
United States, Mexico, and Guatemala. Brittonia 27: 297-304. 



New State and County Records for Hexastylis 
in Maryland, West Virginia, Virginia and Kentucky 



Clyde F, Reed 



Recently, L.L.Gaddy had the opportunity to study about 100 
of the 350 sheets of Hexastylis in the Reed Herbarium for his 
study of this genus for the Flora of Southeastern United States. 
The following records are new state or county records for Mary- 
land, West Virginia, Virginia and Kentucky. 

^- Hexastylis virginica (L.) Small 

Charles County, Maryland: Nanjemoy. Sept. 28, 1969. Cal - 
ver t R. Posey ; hardwood forest, Hancock Run Road near Blue 
Heron Rookery, S of Nanjemoy. Nov. 1, 1980. Reed 113107. 

^* Hexastylis minor (Ashe) Blomq. 

Pittsylvania County, Virginia: Piedmont woods, Rt . 777, 
N of Apex on Smith Mt. April 17, 1966. Reed 73792; oakwoods 
ravines, Va. Rt. 40, 2 mi. W of Gretna. April 17, 1966. Reed 
73816 and 73812. 

Bedford County, Virginia: On Piedmont, woods, Rt . 24, Burnt 
Chimney, deep ravine near Big Otter River. April 17, 1966. 
Reed 73824. 

3 . Hexastylis contracta B 1 omq . 

Albemarle County, Virginia: Limestone cliffs along Rivanna 
River at Rt. 29. April 26, 1959. Reed 42803 and 42795. (Det. 
by L.L.Gaddy, as first record from Virginia). 

Campbell County, Virginia: Swampy woods, Rt. 761, 2 mi . N 
of Long Island. Oct. 13, 1961. Ree£ 53556; woods, Rt . 24, 2 mi. 
NE of Rustburg. Oct. 13, 1961. Reed 53562. 

Nelson County, Virginia: Woods, E of Rt . 656, Gladstone. 
April 19, 1975. Reed 99773 and 99775. (Det by Gaddy). 

Pittsylvania County, Virginia: Deep ravines along Rt. 29, 
S of Danville. Sept. 27, 1970. Reed 87695. 

4. Hexastylis lewisii (Fern.) Blomq. & Costing 

Mecklinburg-Charlotte County line, Virginia: Woods, Rt . 
646. June 29, 1970. Reed 96577. 

Franklin County, Virginia: Damp wooded slope, Rt. 220 along 
Blackwater River, 5 mi. N of Rocky Mount. April 13, 1952. Reed 
28176. 

327 



328 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

5. Hexastylis heterophylla (Ashe) Small 

Pike County, Kentucky: Wooded slopes, Upper Pigeon, Rt . 
197. April 29, 1981. Reed 112182. (Det. by L.L.Gaddy, as 
first record for Kentucky) . 

Harlan County, Kentucky: Limestone outcrop in woods, Rt. 
522, S of Putney. April 29, 1981. Reed 112156. (Det. by 
L.L.Gaddy). 

Bell County, Kentucky: Moist springy slopes under hemlock 
and white pine, slope of Shileleh Creek, Cumberland Mt . 
Cra_n£ill 2553. (Reported in Rhodora 83: 127. 1981, as H. 
shuttleworthii ) . 

Lee and Wise Counties, Virginia: several localities along 
east side of Black Mt. and adjacent ravines to the east, 
some near Bell and Harlan County lines. Reported elsewhere. 

Webster County, West Virginia: Monongahela National Forest, 
Rt. 20, along Gauley River near Belair. June 28, 1971. Reed 
91230. Known in seven other counties in West Virginia, re- 
ported elsewhere. 

Reed Herbarium 
10105 Harford Rd. 
Baltimose, Md. 21234 

Halodule beaudettei along Potomac River, 
new to Maryland 

Clyde F. Reed 

Halodule beaudettei (den Hartog) den Hartog (1970) is a 
difficult plant to find. It is a perennial herb, submerged in 
brackish waters along coast lines, with a creeping rhizome which 
roots in alluvial sands and clay by 2-4 roots, and giving rise 
to a single short stem at each node and 1-4 linear leaves 3-20 
cm. long. Many records of H. wrightii in the literature and so 
marked on herbarium sheets are in fact H. beaudettei, and ac- 
cording to den Hartog all records from the United States are 
this species. 

H alodule beaudettei has been known from South Carolina south 
along the coasts of Florida and the Gilf States to Texas for a 
long time. More recently it has been found in North Carolina 
and is recorded in the Flora of the Carolinas. Most recently it 
has been found in Maryland, as a new state record, in the Nanjemoy 
Creek near the Potomac River, in Charles County, by Calvert R. 
Posey (1971). It is probably along the various tidal rivers of 
the Chesapeake Bay and should be sought in bays, creeks and la- 
goons . 



1982 Reed, Halodule beaudettei 329 

Neil Hotchkiss and some other researchers at Fish and Wild- 
life Refuge at Laurel, Maryland, have collected Halodule beau- 
dettei (all specimens labelled H. wrightii Aschers,) from North 
Carolina, Florida and Texas. Since I have not seen these specimens 
recorded anywhere, I shall include them below. 



Maryland: Charles Co. - Nanjemoy Creek, in brackish water. 1971. 
Calvert R. Posey . (Det. by Dr. Donald G. Hartman) . 

North Carolina: Onslow Co. - New River at Peru. April 7, 1936, 
Neil Hotchkiss 4882. (F&WL) ; abundant on clayey bottom in 1-5 
feet of brackish water. New River at Marines. Oct. 11, 1935. 
Neil Hotchkiss & C. Cottam 4780. (F&WL) . 

Carteret Co. - Core Sound, Atlantic. Oct. 1940. Clarence 
Cottam . (F&WL). 

Florida: Brevard Co. - Mosquito Lagoon, in shallow water. May 5, 
1930. Neil Hotchkiss & L.E.Ekvall 3865. (F&WL). 

Wakulla Go. - St. Marks Refuge. Aug. 16, 1935. C. Cottam . 
(F&WL); shallow water off St. Marks Lighthouse, Apalachee Bay. 
June 10, 1930. Neil Hotchkiss & L.E.Ekvall 3899. (F&WL). 

Rexas : Aransas Co. - Water off shore at pier west of La Punta 
Well. Aransas Refuge. Aug. 3, 1939. P.B.Uzzell 140. (F&WL). 



Reed Herbarium 
10105 Harford Road 
Baltimore, Maryland 
21234 



BEGONIA NOMENCLATURE NOTES. 6 * 
Begonia cucullata Willdenow and Included Species 

Jack Golding, 47 Clinton Ave. , Kearny, N.J. 07032 



The Speoies of the Begoniaoeae ^ edition 2, 
1974, by Fred A. Barkley and Jack Golding is a 
compendium o£ the published names and the pub- 
lished synonomy for the species and therefore 
continues the errors from the literature. I 
have been reviewing the literature to verify 
or correct the citations and their synonomy. 
My determinations will be published in this 
series, "Begonia Nomenclature Notes." 



Abstract 

The history of Begonia cucullata Willdenow, 
Begonia semper florens Link ^ Otto, Begonia spatulata 
Loddiges, and Begonia subcucullata C, de Candolle are 
reviewed. 

The citation and synonomy of Begonia cucullata 
Willdenow are corrected and a new variety Begonia 
cucullata var. spatulata is established. 

Introduction 

Plants from seeds labeled Begonia cucullata and 
Begonia cucullata var. hookeri have been growing in 
my gardens since 1975. The seeds originated in 
Brazil and were sent to me by J. D. Doorenbos of 
Wageningen, Netherlands. 

Those labeled Begonia cucullata have a tall 
straight stem with little or no branching; the young 
leaves are cucullate and the mature leaves obliquely 
ovate with a sharply obtu'se apex; the stipules are 
large, oblong, roiondly obtuse and dentate. These 
plants are most like the illustration of Begonia 
spatulata Loddiges, Hot. Cab. 2; pi. 107. 1818. 

330 



1982 Goldlng, Begonia nomenclature notes 331 

Those labeled Begonia ououllata var. hookeri 
have flexuose stems with many branches; the youngest 
leaves are cucullate, but soon become flat, ovate, 
subcordate with a sharply obtuse apex; the stipules 
are narrowly elliptic and sharply acute. These 
plants are most like the illustration and description 
o£ Begonia semper florensLink § Otto, Icon. PI. Rar. 
1: 9, pi. 5. (1828), and the description by Graham, 
Edinburgh New Philos. J. 180. 1829. 

These cultivate plants appeared so different 
that I thought perhaps Begonia ououllata Willdenow 
and Begonia ououllata var. hookeri Smith § Schubert 
should be considered separate species, with the latter 
being Begonia semperflorens Link § Otto. 

To determine if this could be correct, I studied 
the varied and sometimes conflicting illustrations 
and descriptions in the literature and herbarium 
specimens of Begonioa ououllata Willdenow, Begonia 
spatulata Loddiges, Begonia semperflorens Link 5 Otto, 
and Begonia subauaultata C. de Candolle. 

Last spring, I sent the results of my prelimin- 
ary study to Lyman B. Smith and, to verify the ident- 
ity of Begonia ououllata, he checked the microfiche 
photo from the Willdenow Herbarium. We were all sur- 
prised to learn that the stipules of the Willdenow 
specimen were narrow, sharply acute, the same as 
Begonia semperflorens Link ^ Otto and not broad, 
roundly obtuse, like those of Begonia spatulata 
Loddiges . 

During a later visit to the U.S. Herbarium in 
Washington, D.C., I studied the specimens in the 
Begonia ououllata folder, looking for a consistent 
distinguishing feature that might be used to separ- 
ate the specimens. The leaves and flowers, includ- 
ing the capsule wings were too similar, but I could 
use the shape of the stipules to separate them into 
these three distinct groups; 

like semperflorens, stipules small, narrow, 

sharply acute, 
like spatulata, stipules large, broad, roundly 

obtuse and dentate, 
like ououllata var. arenosicola, stipules large, 

oval, rounded and entire. 



332 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

From my studies, I conclude it is still best 
to continue the combination of these species with 
Begonia ouaullata Willdenow as determined by 
Lyman B. Smith and Bernice G. Schubert, Darwiniana 
5: 101-108 C1941), but because o£ the shape o£ 
the stipules o£ the type, it is now necessary to 
rearrange the varieties and the synonomy. 



Begonia cucullata Willdenow 

The original citation of Begonia cucullata by 
Willdenow in Species Plantarum ed. 4. 4(1): 414. 
1805. ♦s. BEGONIA cucuZZata. W. 

B. caulefcens, foliis inaequallier cordatls denticiilatisgli. 

bris cucullatis, ftipnlis riintatis, capfulae ala mavJTTn 

acutanpula reliquis parallelis. W. 
KappeDblattrige Begonie. W. 
//ai/ia^ in Braiilia. Xl- C^-/-) 

Folia inaequalitar cordata oblouga denticulata f/a- 
bra cucullata, breve prtiolata. Sti|nilae oblongae den- 
tatae maziiae -viridcs ttec menibranaceae ut in rcUqini. 
Flores rttafcuU. Petala qnaivor , duo o}>pofita majora 
fubrotunda, duo laneeolata angufta. Caplula triala'a, 
ala maxima acutatigula, binae minores aequalet utrin- 
que attetniatae. Vidi cantvm fpeciinen unieum vaidt 
iinperfectum. \V. 

Translation: 

Begonia stemmed, leaves unequally cordate, 
finely dentate, glabrous and hooded; stipules 
dentate; largest wing of the capsule sharp- 
angled, the others parallel. Willdenow 

Hooded leaf Begonia. Willdenow 

It grows in Brazil. Shrub {1 have seen it in the 
dried state) . 

Leaves, unequally cordate, oblong, denticulate, 
glabrous and hooded, shortly petiolate, stipules 
oblong dentate, large and green, not membranous 
as in the others. Male flowers with four petals, 
two opposite ones larger, almost round, the other 
two narrowly lanceolate. Capsule with three wings, 
the largest wing sharp-angled, the two smaller ones 
equal and attenuate on both sides. 

I have seen only one very imperfect specimen. 

Willdenow 



J 



1982 Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 333 

This description by Willdenow is sparse and 
there is no illustration with the citation, but I 
assume his descriptive terms are best illustrated 
by plate 1 in Linnaeus, Philosophia Botanica (1751) 
reproduced in Stearn, Botanical Latin: 315, Pig- 17. 
1966. 

cordate - fig. 10 oordatum 
oblong - fig. 5 oblongum 

Forunately, Dieter Wasshausen of the Smithson- 
ian Institution was able to obtain enlarged photo- 
graphs Cfilm No. 4289) of the type (Herbar. Willde- 
now No. 17567) from the Berlin Botanic Museum. See 
my Fig. 1 § 2. 

From the type, we can be certain of the shape 
of the stipules (Fig. 3A) and the capsule wings 
CFig. 4A) . Willdenow described the tip of the 
largest wing as sharp, but in the type some are 
rounded. 

The leaves are not in the photo and may have 
been lost but, from the description, I would expect 
them to be like Fig. SB § C. 

The subsequent descriptions of Begonia 
ououllata by Poiret, Encycl. Meth. Bot. Suppl. 1: 
605 C1811); Sprengel, Syst. Veg. 2: 625 (1825) and 
Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 211 (1843) are prac- 
tically the same as Willdenow' s and added no new 
features . 



334 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 5 
..^ /y,r. / 









^W^Cu-^V^f 



Mus. Bol. Berol. 
Film Nr. U Z X' 1 



m 







/i^. 



it/ 



EX MUSEO BOTANICO BEROLINENSI 
Begonia cucullat^ 



Hcrbar .xlldonow No. 17i>67 
TYPE 

Begonia cucullata Willdenow var. cucullata 

Fig. 1 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



335 




TYPE 

Begonia cucullata Willdenow var. cucullata 
Fig. 2 



336 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 5 





A. Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

After Type Willdenow No. 17567 



B. Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

After Link & Otto, Icon, PI. Rar. 1:9. pi. 5. 
1828. 



C. Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

After Hooker, Bot. Mag. 56. pi. 2920. 1829, 



D. Begonia cucullata var. spatulata 

After Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2. pi. 107. 1818, 



E. Begonia cucullata var. arenosicola 

After Smith & Schubert, Darwiniana 5: 106, 

pi. 12. 1941. 



Stipules of Begonia cucullata 
Fig. 3 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



337 




<^« 




A. BEGONIA CUCULLATA 
var. cucullata 

After Type, 
Willdenow No. 17567 




B. Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

After Link & Otto, 
Icon. PI. Rar. 1:9. pi. 5. 1828. 




C. Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

After Hooker, 
Bot. Mag. 56. pi. 2920. 1829. 




D. Begonia cucullata var. spatulata 

After Loddiges , 
Bot. Cab. 2. pi. 107. 1818. 



ir^ 




E. Begonia cucullata var. arenosicola 

After Isosyntype 
Hassler No. 1771. 



Capsules of Begonia cucullata 



Fig. ^ 



338 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 5 




Begonia cucullata van, cucullata 

mature leaf after Link & Otto 
Icon PI. Rar. 1:9. pi. S. 1828. 




Begonia cucullata var. spatulota, young leaf 

after Loddiges , Bot. Cab. 2. pi. 207. 1818. 



C. Begonia cucullata var. spatulata 

mature leaf original from cultivated plant 



Begonia cucullata var. arenosicola 

after Smith 6< Schubert, 
Darwiniana 5: 106 pi. IS. 1941. 




Leaves of Begonia cucullata Fig. 5 



A 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



339 



t>. 




Begonia cucullata var. cucuUata 

after Link & Otto, Icon. PI. Rar. 1:9. p^. 5. 1828, 

Fig. 6 



340 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 5 

Begonia semperflorens 

The original citation o£ Begonia semperflorens 
Link 4 Otto, Icon. PI. Rar. 1 :■ 9 pi. 5. 1828, (Fig. 6). 



5. 

BEGONIA SEMPERFLOrxENS. 

N. O. BEGONIACEAE. 
niONOECIA POLYANDRIA. 



IJ. foliis oblique cortlalis aculiusculis crcualis inter crcnas apiculatis el.i- 
bciiijiiis, vajiuis tcnuisslmc cilialis, iiifcrioribus scariosls. 
Ilabltal in Brasilia auslrali. t?- ^ 

("anlis pctl. cX (liniidium alius vix lignosus erect us ramosus. Folia 3 poll. 
luiii;a 2 poll, et iliiiiiil. lata, ubi latissima, Icvller crenala inargiiie angusto car- 
lihi^iiieo, a]»iculis minulis; vaginae 8 lin. longae 4 liii. lalac, summac lanlum 
vcgclae lenuissiinc cilialae. Tliyrsus pauci/loius. Pciigouii luasculi pliylla 2 ma- 
jora 6 lin. lotiga 8 liu. lala, 2 minora 4 lin. louga 2 liu. lata, omnia alba. Slamma 
nuilla bicvia. Flos fcmiiicus. involucri pliyllis 3 oblusis albis margine reflexis 
pcrmiiir lircviorii)us; pcrigonium fcmiueum minus ae masculum. Gcrmen alis 3 
»«rqiialibu». Slyli -i bifidi, sligmalibus tortis. 

Spcoitfs D. spalulatac proxima, difTerl colore caulis et foliorum viridi, nee 

njbctilr ut ill 11. tpatulata, ncc non vagiuis quae omncs vcgetae in B. spatulala, 

iicc iiifrriorcs fccarionae. Kiiala c-st c Icrra, in qua clar. Sello planlas c Brasi- 
lia auslrali I'oito Allegretto niiscrat. 



Dcr Stainiu ist andcrtbalb Fufs liocli, kauni holzig, nufreclil, iistig. Die 
iJlJIlcr t.iiid scbiel' licrzfonnig 3 ZoU laitg, 2 ZoU und einen halbcu breil, wo 
>ii: am brcitcslcn sind, r.eicht gckcrbt, mil cincni sclimalcn knorpligcn Rande 
ti!id t.k-iiic-u weiclien Spilzcn in den Kcrbcn. Die Sclicidcu sind 8 Linicn lang 
I. ill. bifil, iiur die oberstcii griin, die andcrn allc vcrlrocknet, am Rande milr 
Susjerjl fciiicii Iliirclicn. Dcr Bliithcnslraufs -wonigbliitliig. Die miinnliclie 
Itlumcn %ierbljllrig, die bcidcn grofsen Bliittor 6 Lin. lang, 8 Lin. breit, abge- 



1982 Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 341 

10 



stiunpft, (lie bcldcn klcincm 4 Lin. lang, 2 Lin. brcit. Staubfildcn viclc und 
kurzc. Die \vcil)lichc Blilthc hat cine drciblaltrigc lliillc; die Bliitlchcn sind 
kiirzer als der Fruclitknotcn , stumpf, an den Scitcn ziiriickgebogcn , wcifs; die 
Blumc ist klciner als die mannlichc; der Fruclitknotcn hat 3 unglcichc Fliigcl. 
Vicr 2thcili5e GnlTcl, die Narben spirairormig gcdreht. 

Eine Zicrpdanzc die oft nnd vicl bliiht, der B. spatitlaia vcnvanrll, 
abcr untcrschiedcn durch die griinc Farbc dcs Stammes und der Blatter, durch 
die untcni verwelktcn niclit griincn Schciden. Sie Tvuchs au.i der Erde auf, 
^vorLn Ilcrr Sello von Porto Alcgrctto im siidlichen Brasilien Pflanzcn geschickt 
hatte. Sie liebt einen trocknen und licUen Standort , ui;d cine Wiinne von 
12 — 15° R. Die Vcrmeln-ung geschieht Icicht und schncll durch Samcu und 
Stecklinirc. Die ErdmiscLung bcstcht aus Laub- und Walderde und Flufssand. 



Translation from the Latin: 

Begonia with obliquely cordate, slightly acute, 
completely glabrous leaves, crenate , apiculate be- 
tween the teeth; with very thinly ciliate stipules, 
the lower ones scarious. 

It grows in southern Brazil. Shrub. CC?) 

Stem 1 1/2 £t. high, scarcely woody, erect, 
branched. Leaves 3 in. long, 2 1/2 in. wide in the 
widest part, lightly crenate, margin narrowly carti- 
laginous, minutely apiculate; stipules 2/3 in. long, 
1/3 in. wide, only the upper oijes fresh, very thinly 
ciliate. Thyrse few-flowered. Male perianth with 2 
larger tepals 1/2 in. long, 2/3 in. wide, smaller 
two 1/3 in. long, 1/6 in. wide, all white. Stamens 
many, short. Female flowers with 3 obtuse bracts, 
white, with reflexed margins, shorter than the ovary; 
female perianth smaller than the male. Ovary with 3 
equal wings. Styles 4, bifid, with twisted stigmas. 

Species near to Begonia spatulatay it differs 
by the green of the stem and leaves, not reddish as 
in Begonia spatulata^ and also by the stipules which 
in Begonia spatulata axe all fresh and the lower ones 
not scarious. It grows on the ground in Porto 
Allegre, southern Brazil, from where it was sent by 
the most renowned Sellow. 



342 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

From the German: 

The stem is 1 1/2 £t. tall, hardly woody, erect, 
branched. The leaves are obliquely cordate, 3 in. 
long, 2 1/2 in. wide at widest part, shallowly crenate 
with narrow cartilaginous margin and small steep 
points in the notches. The stipules are 2/3 in. long, 
1/2 in. wide, only the topmost green, the others all 
withered, with extremely fine little hairs on the 
margin. The inflorescence few flowered. The male 
flower 4 tepaled, the two largest tepals 1/2 in. long, 
2/3 in. wide, blunt, the smaller two 1/3 in. long, 1/6 
in. wide. Filaments of the anthers many and short. 
The female flowers have 3 bracts, with blades shorter 
than the ovary, blunt, and the sides reflexed, white; 
the flower is smaller than the male. The ovary has 3 
unequal wings. Four bifid styles with the stigmas 
turned in a spiral form. 

An ornamental plant that blooms often and 
abundantly, it is similar to Begonia spatulata, but 
differs in the green color of the stems and leaves 
and in lower stipules withered, not green. It grew 
upward out of the ground in Porto Allegre, southern 
Brazil, from where Mr. Sellow sent the plant. It 
favors a dry and light location and a warmth of 60 
degrees to 70 degrees F. It is reproduced easily and 
quickly by seeds and cuttings. The composition of the 
soil mix is leaves, humus and river sand. 

Observation : 

In the Latin description the stipules are, 
"2/3 in. long, 1/3 in. wide", and in the German 
description the stipules are, "2/3 in. long, 1/2 
in. wide". I think the German description is 
wrong because in the illustration the width of 
the stipules is less than 1/2 the length. 

Also in the Latin description the "wings o£ 
the ovary equal". I think this is an error 
because of the German description and the 
illustration have unequal wings. 

In April 1829, Begonia semperflorens was illustra- 
ted by Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 15. pi. 1439 (1829), Fig. 7, 
This shows an erect plant with leaves opening out 
flat, with oblong apiculate stipules. 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



343 




Begonia cucullata van. cucullata 

after Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 15. pi. 1439. 1829 

FIG. 7 



344 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

Graham, Edinburgh New Philos. J. 180. May C1829) , 
refers to Loddiges' illustration and gives a very 
thorough description o£ a live plant grown from seed 
obtained from Otto of Berlin. 

IJi'goiiia sciiiperflorons. 

B. semperjiorens ; caule lierliaceo erecto glaliro flexuoso, fuliis subscqua- 
liter ovato-cordatis, siibacutis, cucuUatis, glabris, serratis, setaceis ; sti- 
piilis ovatis ciliacis ; capsula alls ina^qualibus, duabus acutis, tertia 
ubtusa. 
IJegoiiia semperflorens, [mIH, Bot. Cab. t. 1 439. 

IJESCRIPTIOK Stem herbaceous, succulent, erect, brancbed, flexuose, 

rcddisb or green, sliglilly marked with iiblong rod spots. Leaves ,3 
inches long, bv 24 broad) petiided, subeqnallv cordate-ovate, subacute, 
cucullate, green, glabrous and shining on both sides, dotted above, paler 
below, serrated, and serratures acute and crowded at the base, more 
sparse and lilunter above, each terminated with a bristle. Petiole (2 
inches long in the lower leaves, generally much shorter in the upper,) 
cliannelleil above, often stained bright red at its origin, and at its 
termination in the leaf, the staiji at its origin generally passing round 
the stem at the insertion of the stipula'. Slijmltc geminate, ovate, 
large, ciliated, erect and applied to the stem, submarcescent. Peduticla 
axillary and terminal, longer than the petiols, slightly compressed, erect, 
glabrous, shining, dichotomous. Flowers monoecious. Corolla spread- 
ing, white: male, large, tetrapetalous, two of the petals subrotund (7J 
lines broad), two others rather shorter, narrow, and spathulate, as 
long as the pedicel ; xlamens scarcely monadelphous : female smaller, 
with three small marcescent bracteoe at the base, tetrapetalous, petals 
subcqual ; slipmns three, each cleft to its base, and segments screw-like, 
yellow. Germen unequally winged, the largest and one of the other 
wings acute, the tliinl rounded. Biparted receptacle of the ^eeds in 
each of the three loculaments of the germen of bright green. OviJei 
very small, very numerous, and white. 
Seeds of this species were received from M. Otto at Berlin under the name 
of B. selaria. It has reached this country under other names, and with 
one of these, B.semperfnreiis, it has been published in the Botanical Ca- 
binet. Rather on this account, than because I think it the moat ajipli- 
cable, 1 ado])t it. The species, though handsome enough in the stove, 
is much less ornamental than several others which have been published 
lately. 

Later that year, W. J. Hooker, Bot. Mag. 56: 
pi. 2920 C1829) , Fig. 8, illustrated and described 
Begonia semperflorens . 

His description is somewhat different from the 
others. "Stem erect ... scarcely , if at all branched... 
large, ovato-oblong. .. stipules ... Capsule. .. three very 
unequal wings,... the third forms a large, triangular, 
very projecting and obtuse membrane." 

In the illustration, the stipules are narrowly 
elliptic and sharply actue C^ig' 3C) , and the largest 
wings of the capsules have a rounded tip (Pig. 4C) . 

Reichenbach, Icon. Bot. Exot. 3: 12. pi. 231. 
C1830), Fig. 8, illustrated the flowering summit of 
Begonia semperflorens . The young leaves are cucul- 
late and in the background is an open mature leaf. 
The stipules are narrowly ovate with an acuminate tip. 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



345 




Begonia cucullata van. cucullata 

after Hooker, Bot. Mag. 56. pi. 2920. 1829 

Fig. 8 




//„,„ ,/,/ 



Begonia cucullata var. cucullata 

after Reichenbach, Icon. Bot, Exot. 3:12. pZ. 2Z1. 1830. 

Fig. 9 



1982 Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 347 

Sweet, Hort. Brit. ed. 2: 437 (1830], separated 
Hooker's Begonia semperflorens Bot. Mag. 56: pi. 2920 
C1829) from Begonia semperflorens Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 
15: pi. 1439 C1829) , and gave it a new name, 
Begonia hookeri. 

Klotzsch, Begoniac. 28 (1855), apparently did not 
see Sweet's name and listed Begonia semperflorens 
(Bot. Mag. pi. 2920) as a synonym of his new name 
Begonia sellowi Klotzsch. 

A. de Candolle in Martius, Fl. Bras. 4 (1): 342. 
(1861) listed Begonia semperflorens Link § Otto and 
established var. hookeri for Begonia semperflorens 
(Bot. Mag. pi. 2920). He also transferred Begonia 
sellowi Klotzsch to var. sellowi. 

Lyman Smith and Bernice Schubert, Darwinia 5: 
104. (1941), transferred Begonia semperflorens var. 
hookeri A. DC. to the new combination Begonia aucullatc 
var. hookeri and illustrated it by Hooker's Bot. Mag. 

pi. 2920. 

From the above, it is clear that the features of 
Begonia semperflorens Link § Otto are the same as the 
type and agree best with typical Begonia cuaullata 
Willdenow. 

Begonia spatulata Loddiges 

The original citation of Begonia spatulata 
Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2. pi. 107 (1818), Fig. 10, has a 
very brief description stating that.... "it blossoms 
most abundantly: in fact, it is very seldom out of 
bloom during the whole year. The stem is succulent 
and heavy. ..." 

Haworth, Succ. PI. Suppl. 100 (1819), gave this 
description: 

ipaiu- B. (Spatula- leaved) foliis inasqualiter cordatis, 
lata. late obtusfeque ovalia, nudU nitidis, iitrinqueni- 

3. fescellte-^iridibll3. 

Begonia spatulata. Loddig. lot. cab. 17. 
Habitat .... 

Cult, in hort bot. Liverpool A.D. lSI3jet nanc 
viget in hort. Chels. St *j» 

Translation: 

Begonia spatulata. Begonia (spatula-leaved). 
Leaves unequally cordate, broadly obtuse and ovate, 
bare, shining, reddish green on both sides. 



3A8 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, Ho. 5 




TYPE 
Begonia cucullata var. spatulata 

after Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2: pi. 107. 1818, 

Fig. 10 



1982 Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 349 

Hornemann, Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn. 162 C1819] , 
also described Begonia spatulata. 

6. (post4^- B. spathcuta: caiilescens erects, folii? ovu- 
lis oblusissiniij basi toiui-isimc serrulatis, siipuiis 
oblongii maxiinis. capsule ala maxima acntangu- 
la, Ttliqyh minarlbus crqvalibus. 

Ha/'. 2f. C. !n:r. Jiiid. ex borto Bcrdin. srb ■ 

hoc nomine. 

Translation: 

Stemmed, erect with leaves ovate, very obtuse 
at the base, very finely serrulate, stipules oblong, 
very large, capsule with larger wing sharp angled, 
the others smaller equal. Habitat Unknown, 
perennial. 

Introduced about 1818 from the Berlin Garden 
under this name. 



Begonia spatulata was also cited by Otto § 
Dietrich, Allg. Gartenzeitung 45: 358 C1836) , and 
Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 215 (1843). 

Steudel, Norn. Bot. ed. 2, 1: 193 [1840), listed 
Begonia spatulata (' spathulata' ) Willdenow as a 
synonym of Begonia cuoullata Willdenow. This was 
the earliest citation I could find combining these 
two. 

Although there are several references in the 
literature to Begonia spathulata Willdenow, I could 
not find any description by Willdenow. 

Klotzsch, Begoniac. 27 (1855), and A. de Candolle 
in Martius, Fl. Bras. 4 (1): 342 (1861), accepted 
Steudel 's determination and with their descriptions 
of Begonia cuoullata Willdenow listed Begonia 
spatulata as a synonym. They enlarged the previous 
description of Willdenow by adding features of 
Begonia spatulata, particularly the stipules which 
they described as "large spatulate". . .or . . . " very 
large, unequal, elliptical or obovate, obtuse, 
ciliate-crenate. . ." 



350 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 5 

I do not understand how these proficient ob- 
servers could have described the stipules as spatu- 
late or obtuse when Willdenow's original description 
called them oblong and the type shows them as oblong 
with a sharply acute tip. Perhaps they did not see 
the type. 

For all these years, probably based on the 
descriptions of Klotzsch and A. de Candolle, the 
illustration of Begonia spatulata Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 
2 pi. 107 C1818) , has been considered the typical 
Begonia ouautlata Willdenow. 

But a comparison of the roundly obtuse stipules 
of Loddiges' Begonia spatulata CFig. 3D) with the 
sharply oblong stipules of the type Begonia cuoullata 
CFig. 3A) shows they are very different. 

Even though Begonia spatulata Loddiges is not 
identical to the type of Begonia cuoullata it has 
many other similar features and is best transferred 
to this new variety: 

Begonia cucullata var. spatulata (Loddiges) var. nov. 

Stipulis magnis late oblongis rotunde obtusis dentatis . 
Stipules large, broadly oblong, roundly obtuse, dentate 
TYPE: Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2: pi. 107. 1818 (Fig. 10). 



Begonia cucullata var. arenosicola Cc.dc.) smith § 

Schubert . 

Begonia subououllata was established as a new 
species by C. de Candolle, Bull. Herb. Boissier II. 
3: 404 C1903) . His description was based on speci- 
mens No. 1771 and No. 6130 CFig. HB) , collected by 
E. Hassler in Paraguay. In the same place, he named 
variety arenosicola based on Hassler specimen No. 
7884 (Fig. IIA). 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



351 



% 



^ 



^%:^ 




Er, E. Eiiiler. Flantae rarigc^iricas;: - 13C1 : 



A,, 






■/,,,,.. /^/(, >•. 



It. i, Ha35hr. P'aau: FmgTiiriicsss. ■ 1300. 



^/ J- ^ fiie-T.^.., ,» -<<fw,. //<?/. > 



FIELD MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY 
Photographic Collection 

No. 20907 



ISOTYPE 

Begonia cucullata 
var. arenosicola 

Hassler No. 7884. B, 

FIG. IIA 



Begonia cucullata 
var. arenosicola 

after Isosyntype 
Begoni-a subcuoullata 
Hassler No. 6130. B. 

FIG. IIB 



352 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50. No. 5 




^, 




Begonia cucullata var. arenosicola 

after Isosyntype Begon-la subauaultata 
Hassler No. 1771. N.Y. 



Fig. 12 



1982 



Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 



353 




Begonia cucuUata var. arenosicola 

ifter Isosyntype Begonia subououllata 
Hassler No. 6130. N.Y. 

Fig. 13 



354 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

In 1975 at the New York Botanical Garden Herbar- 
ium, I took photographs o£ Begonia subouaullata iso- 
syntypes, Hassler No. 1771 (Fig- 12) and Hassler No. 
6130 (Fig. 13). 

Lyman B. Smith and Bernice G. Schubert, Darwiniana, 
5: 106 C1941) determined that Begonia suhououllata 
C. DC. and Begonia subouauZtata var. arenosicola C. DC. 
were synonyms of Begonia ououllata and established the 
new combination. 

Begonia cuoulZata var. arenosioola CC.DC.) Smith ^ 
Schubert . 

This variety is distinguished by the narrowly 
elliptic leaves, rounded at the tip, narrow unequally 
cuneate at the base, and the larger subentire roundly 
obtuse stipules. The type of this variety is Hassler 
No. 7884 (Fig. HA), Bossier herb. Geneva. 

Bettfreund, Fl. Argentina 2. pi. 58 C1900) , 
described and illustrated a plant from Argentina 
which he considered Begonia ououllata Willdenow. 
From his description and rather poor illustrations, 
it is best placed as a synonym of Begonia ououllata 
var. arenosioola. 

Summary of Citations and Synonomy 
BEGONIA 

CUCUllata Wllldenow var. CUCUllatO 

Willdenow, Sp . PI. 4:414. 1805. Brazil 

TYPE: Willdenow 17567. B. 

semperflorens Link ^ Otto, Icon, PI. Rar. 1:9. 
pi. 5 C1828) ; Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 15: 
pi. 1439 (1829): Graham, Edinburgh, New 
Philos. J. 180 C1829); Hooker, Bot. Mag. 
56: pi. 2920 C1829); Reichenbach, Icon. Bot. 
Exot. 3: 12. pi. 231. 1830. 

setaria hort. ex Graham, Edinburgh New Philos. 
J. 180. 1829, pro. syn. 

sellovii hort. ex Hooker, Bot. Mag. 56: pi. 
2920. 1829, pro. syn. 



1982 Golding, Begonia nomenclature notes 355 

hookevi Sweet, Hort . Brit. ed. 2: 437. 1830. 

sellowii Klotzsch, Begoniac. 28. 1855. 

ououllifotia Hasskarl, Hort. Bogor. Descr. 
311. 1858. 

semperflorens var . hookeri A. DC. in Martius, 
Fl. Bras. 4(1) : 342. 1861. 

semperflorens var. sellowii A. DC. in Martius, 
Fl. Bras. 4(1) : 342. 1861. 

semperflorens forma flavesoens CDC. Bull. 
Herb. Boissier II. 3:403. 1903. 

paludioola CDC. Bull. Soc. Bot. Geneve II. 
6: 125. pi. 7. 1914. 'palludicola' . 

ououllata var. hookeri Smith ^ Schubert, Dar- 
winiana 5: 104. 1941. 

var. SpatUlata (Loddlges) Colding, Phytologia 1982 

Brazil. 
TYPE: Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2: pi. 107. 1818. 

spatulata, Loddiges, Bot. Cab. 2: pi. 107 
(1818); Haworth, Succ. PI. Suppl. 100. 
1819. 

spatulata Hornemann, Suppl. Hort. Bot. Hafn. 
162. 1819, 'spathulata' 

nervosa Hort. Par. ex Humb. Bonpl. ^ Kunth, 
Nov. Gen. Sp . 7: folio 136, quarto 177. 
1825. 

ouneata Walpers, Repert. Bot. Syst. 2: 214. 
1843. 

ououllata sensu Klotzsch, Begoniac. 27. 1855. 

ououllata sensu A. DC. in Martius, Fl. Bras. 4 
(1): 342. 1861. 

agrial Rojas, Le Mondes des Plantes 74: 24. 
1913. 

ououllata var. typioa sensu Smith ^ Schubert. 
Darwiniana 5. 101. 1941. 



356 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 5 

Var, arenOSiCOla CC.DC) smith § Schubert, Darwiniana 
5: 106. 1941. Argentina ^ Paraguay. 

TYPE: Hassler No. 7884. 

cuoullata sensu Bettfreund, Fl. Argentina 2: 
94. pi. 58. 1900. 

suhououllata CDC. Bull. Herb. Boissier II. 
3: 404. 1903. 

suhououllata var. avenosioola CDC. Bull. Herb. 
Boissier II. 3: 404. 1903. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 

I thank Lyman B, Smith, Bernice G. Schubert 
and Carrie Karegeannes for their assistance with 
the preparations for this monograph and their 
critiques of my draft manuscript. 



A NEW SPECIES OF BALSAMORHIZA (ASTERACEAE) 

FROM THE SISKIYOU REGION OF 

SOUTHWESTERN OREGON AND NORTHWESTERN CALIFORNIA 

W. A. Weber 
University of Colorado Museum, Campus Box 218, Boulder CO 80309 

Balsamorhiza is composed of two subgenera which are morpho- 
logically and ecologically quite distinct. Subgenus Artorhiza 
contains three taxa, B. sagittata , B. careyana and B^ deltoidea , 
characterized by being long-lived perennials of deep soils, with 
massive columnar roots crowned by numerous thick-cylindrical caud- 
ices. The leaves are large and triangular-cordate, and, except 
for the crenate-margined B^ deltoidea, entire. These three taxa 
are well-isolated except in the Columbia Gorge where the western 
B. deltoidea comes in contact and hybridizes locally with the Cen- 
tral Washington-Oregon Basin B. careyana and where B. sagittata 
meets B. careyana in the central Washington Columbia Basin. Ex- 
cept for relatively local introgression the three taxa are 
distinct. 

Subgenus Eubalsamorhiza, on the other hand, consists of a 
number of discrete populations scattered over western United 
States, quite isolated from each other. They are usually 
shorter-lived perennials of shallow, rocky "scabland" soils, and 
have a relatively slender erect-tuberous root surmounted with only 
a few caudices. One species at least ( B. hookeri ) is able to per- 
ennate by deep rhizomes coming off the lower portions of the main 
tap-root. The leaves are shallowly or deeply pinnatifid and each 
major population has discrete characters (if somewhat difficult to 
characterize in words), of leaf shape, texture and indument . In 
their mutual isolation, Eubalsamorhiza species do not hybridize 
with each other, but where they come in contact with taxa of Arto- 
rhiza, hybrid swarms are coimnon along the margin of contact and 
introgression can be detected far into the population of the Arto- 
rhiza parent, while the Eubalsamorhiza parent population tends to 
remain fairly uncontaminated (Ownbey & Weber 1943). 

Except for two proven and one suspected allopolyploid, the 
chromosome number n=19 is characteristic of both subgenera and the 
barriers to crossing are seasonal, spatial and ecological. Balsa- 
morhiza macrophylla is a high polyploid (Helton et al 1972). It 
has the size of an extremely large Artorhiza but the leaf form of 
a Eubalsamorhiza, and it occurs together with an Artorhiza species 
( B. sagittata ) without hybridizing. B. macrophylla is a putative 
allopolyploid having arisen from crossing of B. sagittata and B. 
hispidula . B. macrophylla var. idahoensis Is another 

357 



358 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

allopolyploid, and B. macrolepls , a nearly or quite extinct spe- 
cies from the Central California Basin and Sierra Nevada foothills 
foothills, appears to be a third. The other species of Eubalsamo- 
rhiza form hybrid swarms wherever they come in contact with Arto- 
rhiza populations. It is highly likely that the morphological 
differences between populations of Eubalsamorhiza arose partially 
from gene drift in isolation and partly from varying amounts of 
genotypic contamination in the past from ancestral contacts with 
Artorhiza. 

The phenomenon of two distinct subgenera (which could as well 
be treated as separate genera, since their morphology is so ex- 
tremely different) showing virtually no hybridization within sub- 
genera but no barriers to hybridization between subgenera, is an 
intriguing phenomenon. 

Sharp (1935) published Balsamorhlza (Eubalsamorhiza) platy- 
lepls, based on type material from Washoe County, Oregon. His 
species, unfortunately contained two markedly discordant ele- 
ments. B. platylepis is a species of the Sierra Nevada of Cali- 
fornia from Modoc and Shasta counties south to Nevada County. It is 
characterized, among other things, by having pinnatifid leaves, 
the pinnae of which are incised, and by having coarse strigose 
pubescence. 

The material which Sharp cited from Oregon under this name is 
a narrow endemic confined to serpentine and having simply pinnati- 
fid leaves, the pinnae of which are in almost all instances undi- 
vided, and by having a fine silky and lustrous appressed indu- 
ment. Because the area of its provenance is under threat of 
mining and because the taxon soon will be classified as threatened 
or endangered, a name and description is provided below in advance 
of my proposed revision of the genus. 

Balsaaorhlza serlcea, W. A. Weber, sp. nov. , caulibus ca. 4 
dm altis, infra et supra adpresso-sericeis, foliis pinnatifidis 
ca. 3.2 dm longis, segmentis sessilis decurrentibus ovato-lanceo- 
latis acutis vel obtusis ca. 4 cm longis et 1 cm latis integris 
vel raro vadoso-incisis supra efsubtus dense apresso-sericeis ni- 
tidis eglandulosis, bracteis involucri sericeis 3-4-seriatis disco 
aequantibus, exterioribus late-ovatis brevl-attenuatis 15-20 mm 
longis 7-8 mm latis. 

HOLOTYPE: Oregon. Josephine Co.: 2 miles SW of O'Brien along Lit- 
tle Rock Creek, 1,500 ft. alt., in coarse cobble of dry stream- 
side, 13 May 1953, Weber 8364 (COLO 277280). Cotype material of 
the same collection consists of six sheets, five of which ( Weber 
8364) represent mature flowering plants and a selection of 



1982 Weber, A new species of Balsamorhiza 359 

representative leaves from mature plants, and two sheets ( Weber 
8363 ) display seedling and 1-4-year-old plants with entire and 
slightly incised juvenile leaves. 

DISTRIBUTION: Siskiyou Area of California and southwestern Oregon 
(Detling 1948), restricted to serpentine soils, specifically occu- 
pying screes and dry streamsides, rooted in coarse rounded cob- 
bles. 

SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Oregon. Josephine Co.: stony bottom of South 
Fork of Illinois River SW of O'Brien, 23 June 1952 (fruiting), 
Ownbey 3325 (COLO, WS); Deer Creek near Eight Dollar Mt . , T38S R8W 
Sec9, 1500 ft. alt., 14 April 1940, Detling 4018 (WS, WTU, UC), 
26 May 1923, Sweetser s.n. (ORE); Deer Creek 4 mi from Selma, 29 
Mar 1926, Henderson 5703 (DS, RM, ORE), 13 Apr 1927, Thompson 2272 
(WTU); hillsides near Waldo, Apr 1887, T. Howell (ORE, WTU); base 
of Oregon Mt . , 2,000 ft. alt., 11 May 1934, Thompson 10282 (CAS, 
DS, WTU); on perldotite, McGrew Trail, Peridotite Range, T41S R9W 
Sec4, 1,900 ft. alt., 29 July 1949, Whittaker 272-S (WS). 

California. Siskiyou Co.: ridge just above Grouse Lake, 
5,700 ft. alt., 28 May 1950, Wiggins 12386 (UC, DS); on scree near 
highway, Scott Mountain, 31 May 1951, Vollmer & Beane 30 (DS); 
slopes, Siskiyou Mts. near O'Brien, 11 Apr 1934, Thompson 10282 
(POM); Schoolhouse Hill, Plowmans Valley (Noyes Valley), E fork of 
Scott River, 12-16 June 1948, Ferris & Lorraine 11713 (DS, RSA, 
WTU, UC). Trinity Co.: Scott Mts., N of Carrville, 25 June 1937, 
Eastwood & Howell 4996 (CAS); summit of Scott Mountain, 9 June 
1939, Cantelow 2675 (CAS). 

At the type locality, B. sericea hybridizes with B. deltoidea 
Nutt. in the classic manner (Ownbey & Weber, I.e. ), documented by 
Weber 8364b (four sheets, COLO). 

REFERENCES CITED 

Detling, LeRoy E. 1948. Concentration of environmental extremes 
as the basis for vegetation areas. Madrono 9:169-185. 

Helton, N., D. Wiens and B. Barlow. 1972. High polyploidy and 
the origin of Balsamorhiza macrophylla (Compositae) . Madrono 
21: 526-535. 

Ownbey, Marion, & William A. Weber. 1943. Natural hybridization 
in the genus Balsamorhiza . Am. J. Bot. 30:179-187. 

Sharp, Ward M. 1935. A critical study of certain epappose genera 
of the Hellantheae-Verbesininae of the natural family Compo- 
sitae. Ann. Mo. Bot. Card. 22:51-152. 



ADDITIOl^AL NOTES ON THE GENUS GEUNSIA. IV 
Harold N. Moldenke 



GEUNSIA Blume 

Additional & emended bibliography: Reichenb., Deutsch. Bot. 
[Repert. Herb. Nom.] 108. 1841; Ridl., Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. 
Straits 59: 155. 1911; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 404, 
406, 407, 409, & 415. 1938; Cronquist, Integ. Syst. Classif. 922. 
1981; Mold., Phytologia 50: 216—226, 253, 254, 258, 260, 268, 
269, & 292—296. 1982. 

GEUNSIA ACUMINATISSIMA (Teijsm. & Binn.) H. J. Lam 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 52, 55, 57 — 
58, & 67 (1981) and 50: 146, 151, 216, ii. 218. 1982. 

GEUNSIA APOENSIS (Elm.) Mold. 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 55 & 60 — 62 
(1981) and 50: 258, 260, ii 268. 1982. 

GEUNSIA CINNAMOMEA H. liallier 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 56 & 62—64 
(1981) and 50: 293. 1982. 

GEUNSIA CUMINGIANA (Schau.) Rolfe 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 143—146, 150, 
216, 218, 253, 257, 293, & 295. 1982. 

GEUNSIA CUMINGIANA var. DENTATA (Bakh.) Mold. 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 144, 146, & 
218. 1982. 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA Blume 

Additional bibliography: Ridl., Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 
59: 155. 1911; Mold., Phytologia 50: 216—220, 224, 253, 268, 293, 
& 295. 1982. 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA var. CALLICARPOIDES H. J. Lam 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 220, 253, & 268. 
1982. 

GEUNSIA FARINOSA f. SERRATULA Hold. 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 220, 253, & 268. 
1982. 

GEUNSIA FLAVIDA (Elm.) H. J. Lam 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 220—222 & 258. 
1982. 

360 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 361 

GEUNSIA FURFVRACEA (Bakh.) Mold. 

Additional bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 50: 218, 222—225, 
& 254. 1982. 

It should be pointed out that if the G. subternata of Hallier 
actually is conspecific with the taxon now passing as G. furfur- 
acea, as seems most likely, that it will have to be accepted as 
the valid name for the taxon since it was proposed in 1918, while 
the name now being used was not proposed (as a species) until 
1945. There is, however, still some doubt as to whether the two 
are actually conspecific. 

GEUNSIA HOMOEOPHYLLA H. Hallier 

Additional bibliography: Hold., Phytologia 50: 260 & 295—296. 
1982. 

Lam's (1919) statement about how this species differs from G. 
pullei, begun at the close of my previous installment of these 

notes, continues: G. homoeophylla "is different in the long 

and narrow (not short and broad) anthers, which are 0.3 (not 0.1 
cM.) long. It agrees with G. Pullei in the tomentum of the leaves, 
the pubescent corolla, and the glabrous ovary." 

Recent collectors have encountered G. homoeophylla at 280 m. 
altitude on Celebes. Material has been misidentif ied and distrib- 
uted in some herbaria as Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. 
apoensis Bakh. and C. pentandra var. paloensis f. furfuracea Bakh. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Bdnnemeijer 10869 
(Bz— 18239, Ca— 236611, Hk) . Kalimantan: Hallier B.348 (Bz— 
18270— isotype, Bz— 18271— isotype, Bz— 18272— isotype, Ca— 236937 
— isotype, Le — 918.302-24 — type, Z — isotype). 

GEUNSIA PALOENSIS (Elm.) H. J. Lam ex Mold., Resume 245, hyponym. 
1959, comb. nov. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa paloensis Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1: 
336 — 337. 1908. Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis (Elm.) Bakh., 
Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 14. 1921. Callicarpa pen- 
tandra var. paloensis f. typica Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 14. 1921. Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis Bakh. 
apud E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 387, in syn. 1923. 
Geunsia paloensis H. Lam apud E. D. Herr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 
3: 387, in syn. 1923. Callicarpa sorsogonensis Elm. ex Mold., 
Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 13, in syn. 1940. Callicarpa palo- 
ensis Elm. ex Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 62, 
65, & 87. 1949. 

Bibliography: Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 1: 336—337 (1908). 2: 
514 (1908), and 3: 864. 1910; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 4, imp. 1, 
34. 1913; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 49, 78—79, & 362. 
1919; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 50 (1): 1070. 1932; 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 14, 
107, & viii. 1921; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 3: 387. 
1923; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; Mold., Prelim. 
Alph. List Inv. Names 12 & 26. 1940; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 
10 & 11. 1940; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 62, 



362 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

65, & 87. 19A2; Mold., Alph. List Cit. 2: 462 (1948) and 3: 841. 
1949; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 141, 146, & 
177. 1949; Mold., Phytologia 5: 28 & 30. 1954; Praln, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 4, imp. 2, 34. 1958; Mold., Rdsumd 184, 195, 245—247, 295, 
& 455. 1959; Mold., Fifth Suram. 1: 317, 324, 415, 416, & 418 
(1971) and 2: 519 & 878. 1971; Altschul, Drugs Foods 245. 1973; 
Mold., Phytologia 33: 391. 1976; Mold., Phytol. Hem. 2: 307, 315, 
& 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 55 & 60—62 (1981) and 50: 
144, 218, 221, 224, 268, & 269. 1982. 

An erect tree, to 9 m. tall; trunk to 20 cm. in diameter at 
breast height; crown umbrella-shaped; branchlets rather slender, 
obtusely tetragonal, yellow-hairy or honey-color-pulverulent; 
leaves arranged in one opposite pair, followed by 1 or 2 alternate 
ones, or all opposite; petioles 1.5 — 3 cm. long, straight, canal- 
iculate above, yellow-hairy; leaf -blades coriaceous, flat, broadly 
lanceolate or lanceolate-oblong, to 20 cm. long and 6 cm. wide, 
apically gradually attenuate-acute or acuminate, marginally sub- 
undulate and entire or involute, basally gradually acuminate or 
cuneate to attenuate, stellate-hairy above \/hen young but glabres- 
cent when adult, densely stellate-hairy or subappressed-farinose 
beneath, honey-colored in drying; secondaries 9 — 11 per side, very 
prominent beneath, ascending-curvate; tertiaries quite conspicu- 
ous as crossbars between the secondaries; cymes terminal or sub- 
terminal to axillary in the axils of the upper leaves, medium in 
size, 7 — 9 cm. long, yellowish-hairy throughout; peduncles 3 — 5 
cm. long, ascending during anthesis, pubescent; inflorescence- 
branches successively shorter and thinner, each pair subtended by 
a pair of bracts; flowers glomerate, subsessile, tetramerous; 
calyx turbinate, 1 — 1.5 mm. long, apically 1 mm. wide, quite rig- 
id, externally densely stellate-pubescent or farinose, the rim 
truncate or sub truncate, 4-mucronulate; corolla campanulate, vio- 
let or lilac to pink, 2.5 mm. long, externally glabrous, the 
limb 4-lobed, the lobes about 0.75 mm. long, apically rounded, 
basally abruptly constricted; stamens 4, inserted in the throat 
of the corolla-tube; filaments somewhat exserted, flexuous, glab- 
rous; anthers oblong, about 1 mm. long and 0.5 mm. wide; pistil 
bicarpellary; style slender, somewhat exserted, flexuous, glab- 
rous, slightly surpassing the stamens; stigma flat and broadly 
expanded; ovary small, externally somewhat pilosulous; fruiting- 
calyx subscutelliform, enclosing the base of the fruit; fruit 
drupaceous, small, globose, about 2 mm. long and wide, at first 
lilac, red, or bright-pink, scarlet when ripe, 4-celled, the 
cells simple and each 1-seeded; seeds osseous, about 1.75 mm. long 
and 1 mm. wide, tapering at both ends, ventrally convex, the two 
lateral sides plane. 

The species is based on Elmer 7370 from light woods, 300 m. 
altitude, at Palo, Leyte, Philippine Islands. Lam (1919) com- 
ments that "We did not see any specimens of this species, but we 
think it is a doubtful one [in Callicarpa]; the leaves should be 
'scattered along the branchlets'; if this means: alternate, then 
the species would be a 4-merou8 Geunsia. The indication: 'Cymes 



1982 Moldenke, iJotes on Geunsia 363 

terminal of [■'or] i terminal or in the axils of the upper leaves' 
is not clear. If there are really true terminal inflorescences, 
it is evident, that this cannot be a Callicarpa. So the terms: 
'stamens inserted upon the throat of the constriction', and 
'fruit 4-celled, 4-seeded' indicate the same. Perhaps it is not 
even a Verbenacea . " 

Callicarpa sorsogonensis is based on Elmer 14513 from Irosin 
(Mt. Bulusan), Sorsogon Province, Luzon. 

Collectors describe Geunsia paloensis as a tree, 2 — 7 m. tall, 
and have encountered it on mossy forested slopes and along brooks 
in secondary forests, at 5025 feet altitude, in anthesis in May 
and August, and in fruit in October. The corollas are said to 
have been "violet" in color on Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 45741. 

The Kajewski 2540, cited by Altschul (1973) as the source of 
her information about supposed medicinal uses of this plant, ac- 
tually is G. pentandra var. albidella Mold. 

The Rachiaat 839, cited below, is cited by Bakhuizen as one of 
the cotype collections of Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. 
furfuracea Bakh., but he himself changed its designation to "f. 
genuina (?)" later, so I am excluding it from the cotypes of 
Geunsia furfuracea (Bakh.) Mold. 

Merrill (1923) cites Elmer 7370, 14510, & 16939 from Leyte and 
Luzon, where he says G. palo\snsis grows in forests at about 300 
m. altitude. He comments that it is "Very closely allied to 
C. flavida Elm. but with smaller flowers and fruits; remote from 
C. magna Schauer, where Bakhuizen places it as a synonym. Endem- 
ic." 

Material of G. paloensis has been misidentified and distribu- 
ted in some herbaria as G. farinosa Blume, Callicarpa cumingiana 
Schau., C. pentandra Roxb., C. pentandra var. paloensis f. fur- 
furacea Bakh., C. pentandra var. repleta f. furfuracea Bakh., and 
C. tomentosa var. magna (Schau.) Bakh. On the other hand, the 
Ramos & Edaiio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 44362] and Vfing A. 285, 
distributed as G. paloensis, actually are G. pentandra (Roxb.) 
Merr., while Draper s.n. is Callicarpa caudata Maxim. 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Balabac: Ramos S Edano s.n. 
[Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 49732] (Ca~359474, N) . Leyte: Elmer 
7370 (Bz~18322~isotype, N — isotype). Luzon: Elmer 14513 (Bz~ 
18683, Ca~272667, Mi, N, S, Ut~66079, W~894257), 16939 (Bz~ 
18685, Ca~272869, Du~175086, H, S, Um~85, Ut~65987, W~ 
894256); M. Ramos s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 23582] (N, W~ 
23582); Ramos S Edano s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 45741] (Ca~ 
309576, N). GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Hoorustra 47 [Bosch- 
proefst. BB. 11429] (Bz~18303, Bz~18304); Rachmat 839 (Bz~ 
18301). 

GEUNSIA PALOENSIS var. CELEBICA (Koord.) Mold., Phytologia 5: 8 & 
10. 1954. 
Synonymy: Geunsia celebica Koord. ex Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., 
Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 14, in syn. 1921. Calli- 
carpa pentandra var. paloensis f. celebica (Koord.) Bakh. in Lam 



364 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

& Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 14 — 15 & xi. 1921. 
Callicarpa pentandra var. repleta f. celebica (Koord.) Bakh. ex 
Mold., Resume 246, in syn. 1959. 

Bibliography: Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 14—15, 111, & xi. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
7: 102. 1929; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070. 
1932; Mold., Resumd 195, 246, 295, & 455. 1959; Mold., Phytologia 
22: 20. 1971; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 & 415 (1971) and 2: 519 & 
878. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315 & 548. 1980; Mold., Phyto- 
logia 50: 55 (1981) and 50: 268. 1982. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
its leaf-blades being merely arachnoid and silvery beneath, rather 
than furfuraceous and yellowish. 

Branchlets thick, obtusely tetragonal; leaves arranged as a 
single opposite pair followed by 1 or 2 alternate ones, rarely 
all opposite; petioles 2 — 3 cm. long; leaf-blades ovate or broadly 
oblong, 15 — 25 cm. long, 5 — 10 cm. wide, apically abruptly and 
acutely short-acuminate, marginally entire, basally obtuse to 
broadly rounded, glabrescent above when mature (except for the 
veins), subrugose and appressed-white-tomentellous beneath, glab- 
rous on the larger veins, appressed-lanate between them, silvery- 
white in drying; secondaries 7 — 12 per side; cymes medium-size, 
6 — 9 cm. long; peduncles 2.5 — 6 cm. long; flowers usually 5- or 
6-merous; calyx 1 — 2 mm. long, externally sparsely pilose or sub- 
glabrous, the rim shortly 5- or 6-dentate; corolla violet or red- 
violet, 4 — 5 mm. long, externally glabrous, mostly 5 — 7-lobed, 
rarely 4-lobed; stamens 5, 6 — 8 mm. long, long-exserted; anthers 
oblong or lanceolate, 1.5 — 2 mm. long; fruiting-calyx cupuliform, 
to twice as long as before, enclosing the lower half of the fruit; 
fruit drupaceous, rather large, subappressed-globose, red when 
mature, 5-celled, the cells bipartite, each part 1-seeded; seeds 
ten. 

This variety is apparently endemic to Celebes and is based on 
Koorders 19488, 19499, 19509, & 19714 from Ratahan and Loeboe, 
V7ith the type collection not designated. Bakhuizen (1921) cites 
also Riedel s.n. from Menado, near Gorontalo. ITie plant has been 
collected in flower in April. The corollas are said to have 
been "violet" in color on Koorders 19488b and "red-violet" on 
Kjellberg 1158. 

The Ramos S EdaTio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 29707], dis- 
tributed as Geunsia paloensis var. celebica , actually is Calli- 
carpa subintegra Merr. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Kjellberg 1158 (Bz~ 
18249); Koorders 19488b [2326] (Bz~18255~cotype, Bz~18256~ 

cotype), 19500b [2230] (Bz~18253~cotype, Bz~18254— cotype, Z 

cotype), 19714b (Bz — 18251 — cotype); Riedel s,n. [Gorontalo] (Bz 
—18250). 

GEUNSIA PALOENSIS var. SERRATA Mold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954; Mold., R^sum^ 195 
& 455. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 (1971) and 2: 878. 1971; 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 365 

Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315 & 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 55 
(1981) and 50: 269. 1982. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the leaves very thin-membranous in texture, broadly ellip- 
tic-ovate, and distinctly serrate-margined from near the base to 
the apex. 

The variety is based on Koorders 19499b from Loeboe, Menado, 
prov. Minahassa, Celebes, collected on March 21, 1895, and de- 
posited in the Buitenzorg herbarium. Thus far it is knoxm only 
from the original collection which has been variously annotated 
as Callicarpa magna Schau., C. pentandra var. paloensis f. cele- 
bica (Koord.) Bakh., and C. pentandra var. repleta f. celebica 
(Koord.) Bakh. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Koorders 19499b 
[2229] (Bz~18252~type). 

GEUNSIA PENTANDRA (Roxb.) Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 11: 
309. 1916. 

Synonymy: Callicarpa pentandra Roxb., Uort. Bmg., imp. 1, 
[83], nom. nud. 1814; Fl. Ind., ed. 1, imp. 1, 1: 409. 1820. 
Callicarpa lanata Roxb. ex W. Griff., Notul. PI. Asiat. 4: 173 & 
747, sphalm. 1854. Callicarpa lanata W. Griff, ex C. B. Clarke 
in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 568, in nota. 1885. Callicarpa 
subglandulosa Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2: 513. 1908. Geunsia 
hookeri Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 7: 342—343. 1912. Cal- 
licarpa pentandra Schau. ex E. D. Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 
7: 342, in syn. 1912. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica (Schau.) 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 12. 
1921. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica f . typica Bakh. in Lam & 
Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 12—13. 1921. 
Geunsia pentandra Merrill ex Anon., Kew Bull. Gen. Ind. 1929-1956: 
132. 1959. Geunsia arborea Blume ex Mold., Resum^ 295, in syn. 
1959. Premna pentandra Roxb. ex Mold., R^sum^ Suppl. 15: 22, in 
syn. 1967. Premna petandra Roxb. ex Mold., Resum^ Suppl. 15: 22, 
in syn. 1959. Callicarpa pendandra Roxb. ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 
415, in syn. 1971. Callicarpa pentandra f. glabra Bakh. ex Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 415, in syn. 1971. Callicarpa pentandra f. glab- 
rescens Bakh. ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 415, in syn. 1971. Calli- 
carpa pentandra f. pubescens Bakh. ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 416, 
in syn. 1971. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica f. genuina Bakh. 
ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 416, in syn. 1971. Geunsis pentandra 
Merr. ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 2: 520, in syn. 1971. Callicarpa 
pentandra var. typica f. geniuna Bakh. f. ex Foreman, Div. Bot. 
Dept. For. N. Guin. Bot. Bull. 5: 63, sphalm. 1972. Callicarpa 
pentandra var. pentandra (Bl.) Bakh. ex Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 378, 
in syn. 1980. Callicarpa pentandra var. typica (Schum.) Bakh. ex 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 378, in syn. 1980. 

Bibliography: Neck., Elem. Bot. 1: 331. 1790; Roxb., Hort. 
Beng., imp. 1, [83]. 1814;, Koxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1, imp. 1, 1: 409 
& 481 (1820) and ed. 2, 1: 391 & 395. 1832; Voigt, Hort. Suburb. 
Calc. 473. 1845; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 131. 1845; Schau. in 



366 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

A. UC, Prodr. 11: 646. 18A7; W. Griff., Notul. PI. Asiat. 4: 173 
& 747. 1854; W< Griff., Icon. PI. Asiat. 4: pi. 447, fig. 2. 1854; 
Buek, Gen. Spec. Syn. Candoll. 3: 73. 1858; lliq. , Fl. Ind. Bat. 
2: 384—885. 1858; Miq. , Fl. Ind. Bat. Suppl. 1: 243. 1860; Bocq., 
Adansonia, ser. 1, 3: 185—186. 1862; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 3, 132. 
1874; Benth. in Benth. & Hook., Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1150. 1876; C. B. 
Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 568. 1885; Warb., Engl. 
Bet. Jahrb. 13: 426. 1890; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , 
imp. 1, 1: 386. 1893; Koord., Meded. Lands Plant. Tuin. Buitenz. 
19: 561. 1898; Koord. & Val., Meded. Lands Plant. Bat. 42 [Bijdr. 
Booms. Java 7]: 173. 1900; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 2: 513. 1908; 
Gamble in King & Gamble, Journ. Asiat. Soc. Beng. 74 (2 extra): 
801. 1908; E. D. llerr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 7: 342—343. 1912; 
Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 40 (2): 335. 1915; E. D. 
Merr., Philip. Journ. Sci. Bot. 11: 309. 1916; Heyne, Nutt. Plant. 
Ned. Ind., ed. 1, 4: 106—107. 1917; H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. 
Leid. 37: 23. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 31, 33—35, 
362, & 365. 1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 9, 11—17, 109, 111, vii, & xii. 1921; Prain, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 113. 1921; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 
44: 254. 1922; E. D. Merr., Enum. Philip. Flow. PI. 382, 383, & 
386—388. 1923; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Fedde, 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 44: 1383 & 1425. 1927; Bakh., Journ. Arnold 
Arb. 10: [69]. 1929; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 102. 1929; 
C. T. \lhite, Journ. Arnold Arb. 10: 263. 1929; Fedde & Schust., 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1070—1071. 1932; Fletcher, Kew Bull. 
Misc. Inf. 1938: 404, 407, & 415. 1938; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 9: 46. 1938; Elm., Leafl. Philip. Bot. 10: 3860. 1939; 
Itold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 12 & 26. 1940; Fedde & 
Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 573. 1941; Mold., Alph. List 
Inv. Names 10, 11, 24, & 25. 1942; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. 
Verbenac, ed. 1, 60 — 68 & 93. 1942; Lam & Meeuse, Blumea 5: 236. 
1945; Mold., Phytologia 2: 103. 19A5; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., 
Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 386. 1946; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names Sup- 
pl. 1: 3. 1947; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 127, 
137, 139, 141, 143—150, & 185. 1949; Chang, Act. Phytotax. Sin. 1: 
271 & 310. 1951; Anon., Kew Bull. Gen. Ind. 1929-1956: 132. 1959; 
Mold., Resum^ 163, 178, 180, 184, 188, 190, 192, 193, 195, 197, 
199, 201, 204, 218, 246, 247, 295, 455, & 456. 1959; Jacks, in 
Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 1: 386. 1960; Prain, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 113. 1960; Hansford, Sydowia Ann. Myc, ser. 
2, Beih. 2: 685. 1961; Hegnauer, Chemotax. Pfl. 3: 39. 1964; Backer 
& Bakh., Fl. Java 2: 600. 1965; iNliitmore, Guide Forests Brit. Solo- 
mon Isls. 170. 1966; Van Steenis, Blumea 15: 151. 1967; Meijer, 
Bot. Bull. Kerb. Forest Dept. Sandakan 10: 24, 27, 223, & opp. 224. 
1968; Mold., Resum^ Suppl. 17: 13. 1968; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 276, 
296, 305, 317, 324, 330, 332, 336, 340, 363, 415, 416, & 418 (1971) 
and 2: 519, 520, 610, 878, 879, 969, & 971. 1971; Mold., Phytologia 
21: 232, 384, & 470 (1971) and 22: 23 & 25. 1971; Foreman, Bot. 
Bull. Div. Bot. Dept. For. N. Guinea 5: 63. 1972; Hartley, Dunstone, 
Fltzg., Johns, & Lamberton, Lloydia 36: 293. 1973; Farnsworth, 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 367 

Pharmacog. Titles 9 (1): xii. 1974; Mold., Phytologia 28: 45A. 
1974; Roxb., Fl. Ind., ed. 1, imp. 2, 1: 409. 1975; Hold., Phyto- 
logia 34: 272 (1976), 36: 38 (1977), and 40: 425. 1978; Mold., 
Phytol. Hem. 2: 262, 273, 286, 296, 307, 315, 320, 322, 326, 330, 
354, 377, 378, & 548. 1980; Roxb., Hort. Eeng., imp. 2, [83]. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 49: 474 (1981), 50: 52, 55, 58, 60—62, 
64, 65, & 67 (1981), and 50: 144, 151, 216, 218, 224, 226, 260, 
268, 293, & 295. 1982. 

Illustrations: V/. Griff., Icon. PI. Asiat. 4: pi. 447, fig. 2. 
1854; Meijer, Bot. Bull. Herb. Forest Dept. Sabah 10: opp. 224. 
1968. 

A shrub or small to medium-sized erect tree, to 22 m. tall; 
trunk with a girth to "5 feet", the clear bole to 15 m. high, 
straight or crooked, to 30 cm. in diameter, the crown tall, 
rather narrow, to 5 m. high; buttresses to 1.5 m. high, 1.8 m. 
long, and 7.5 cm. thick; outer bark soft, about 4 mm. thick, 
smooth, soft, corky, papery, slightly cracked or finely fissured, 
sometimes scaly, white or whitish to yellowish, cream, brownish, 
or brown, sometimes "dippled blackish-gray" or concolorous and 
light-brown; inner bark 2.5 — 6 mm. thick, soft, fibrous, whitish 
to yellow or yellowish, pale-yellow near the cambiiim; cambium 
yellow or yellowish; sapwood white to light-yellowish or yellow; 
slash wood hard or soft, white or yellow to light-brown; branches 
spreading, terete or the younger ones somewhat compressed, at 
first more or less stellate-pubescent with brown hair, ultimately 
glabrescent; twigs horizontal, brown-scurfy or brown-powdery; 
leaves alternately in opposite pairs and solitary, the young ones 
brown-pubescent; petioles 2 — 4 cm. long, more or less brown- 
stellate-pubescent; leaf -blades coriaceous to chartaceous, sub- 
erect, flat, dark-green and dull to slightly glossy above, pale 
or yellowish beneath, ovate to oblong-ovate, 9 — 17 cm. long, 5 — 
9 cm. wide, apically long- and slenderly subcaudate-acuminate, 
marginally entire, basally abruptly acuminate, practically uni- 
color on both surfaces and brunnescent in drying, at first slight- 
ly stellate-pubescent above with the hairs more numerous on the 
midrib and secondaries, eventually subglabrous, slightly stellate- 
pubescent with brown hairs or brown-scurfy to brown-powdery be- 
neath and there with numerous, small, yellow glands; secondaries 
about 8 per side, strongly prominent beneath; tertiary cross- 
vein reticulum subparallel and distinct, the veins and veinlets 
often decidedly yellow-brown; inflorescence more or less stel- 
late-pubescent with brown hairs or brown-scurfy throughout; 
cymes axillary, solitary, to 10 cm. long and wide, mostly dichot- 
omously branched, rather densely brown stellate-pubescent; pedun- 
cles 2 — 4 cm. long, about as long as the subtending petioles, 
green but bro\im-powdery; pedicels 1 — 2 mm. long; calyx cupuli- 
form, 2 mm. long, externally somewhat pubescent, the rim with 5 
short, rather broad-based, and apically rather sharp teeth; 
flower-buds greenish, brown-powdery; corolla pentamerous, about 
5 mm. long, externally glandulose, the tube apically somewhat am- 
pliate, the limb 5-lobed, the lobes oblong, about 2 mm. long, apic- 



368 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

ally blunt; filaments exserted, purple; anthers about 2 mm. long, 
yellow or purple, more or less glandulose; style purple; stigma 
light-purple or white; fruit drupaceous, elliptic or globose, a- 
bout 4 mm. long, 5 — 6 mm. wide, flattened at both ends, fleshy, 
green or greenish when young, later red or bright-red to scarlet, 
finally black or black-purple, drying dark-brown. 

This species is based on a specimen in the Roxburgh herbarium 
from the Molucca Islands. The original (1820) description reads: 
"10. C. pentandra R. Shrubby, tender parts mealy. Leaves opposite, 
with an alternate one between, oblong, entire and cuspidate. 
Corymbs axillary. Flowers pentandrous. Stigma from three to 
four-lobed. A native of the Moluccas." 

Merrill's Geunsia hookeri is based on Cuming 1773 from Cebu in 
the Philippine Islands. The type collection has been annotated 
by various botanists as G. farlnosa Blume and as Calllcarpa pen- 
tandra Roxb. Merrill (1912) explains that "Duplicates of the a- 
bove number were referred by Schauer to Calllcarpa pentandra Roxb. 
= Geunsia farlnosa Blume, but Sir Joseph Hooker in his 'Flora of 
British India' under Geunsia farlmosa [ sic ] Blume says 'Cuming's 
No. 1773, reduced to G. farlnosa by Schauer, is probably, as 
stated in Gen. PI. 2: 1150, a good species'. It seems to me to 
be much more distinct from Blume 's species than is Geunsia cumln- 
glana (Schauer) Rolfe, which Hooker thinks is perhaps not distinct 
from G. farlnosa Blume. In this genus, as in Calllcarpa, the a- 
mount of pubescence on different forms seems to vary considerably, 
but Geunsia hookeri ^ above described, is distinguished from the 
previously described forms especially by its very scanty pubes- 
cence, which by no means covers the lower surface of the leaf, as 
[it does] in G. farlmosa, [ sic ] and in G. cumlngiana." In 1923 
Merrill realized that his Geunsia hookeri was really the same 
taxon as Roxburgh's original Calllcarpa pentandra and so he renamed 
the species Geunsia pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. 

Lam (1919) also reduced G. hookeri to "G. pentandra Merr.", 
while Bakhuizen (1921) reduced it to Calllcarpa pentandra var. 
typlca f. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Bakh. Lam included also "C. 
pentandra Roxb. (pro parte) and C. apoensls Elm. in the synonymy 

of G. pentandra Merr., commenting that "Schauer meant, that 

Calllcarpa pentandra and Geunsia farlnosa should be identical. 
This is certainly, perhaps partly, not exact. Merrill. .. .in the 

opinion that Calllcarpa pentandra is a Geunsia ^ described it 

as G. Hookeri, which name he altered, in 1916, into G. pentandra, 
a species, which is undoubtedly quite different from Blume 's G. 
farlnosa. As Schauer, King & Gamble are in the opinion that 
Calllcarpa pentandra and Geunsia farlnosa are identical. Tlie er- 
ror of this supposition will be clear from our definitions of the 
several species." 

Hallier (1918) kept Geunsia pentandra Merr. and G. hookeri Merr. 
apart as separate species, assigning the former to the Moluccas 
and the latter to Cebu. V.'alpers (1845) remarked, for Calllcarpa 
pentandra, that "Certe non hujus generis erit." Koorders & Vale- 
ton (1900) reduced G. pentandra in the synonymy of G. farlnosa 



1982 Moldenke, llotes on Geunsia 369 

Blume. Griffith's "Callicarpe [ sic ] lanata Ro xb. " is said to be 
a native of Bhamo, in Upper Burma, and from the accompanying il- 
lustration is pentamerous, so there is not much doubt that it 
represents Geunsia pentandra; it certainly is not Callicarpa 
tomentosa (L.) Murr. (which is what is now regarded as the true 
Callicarpa lanata of Roxburgh) . 

Bakhuizen (1921), in what must be the ultimate in taxonomic 
conservatism, united in the synonymy of what he called Callicarpa 
pentandra the following: C. acuminatissima Teijsm. & Binn., C. 
affinis Elm., C. apoensis Elm., C. basilanensis Merr., C. cauli- 
flora Merr., C. cumingiana Schau., C. epipbytica Elm., C. flavida 
Elm. ,C, hexandra Teijsm. 6t Binn., C. megalantha Merr., C. paloen- 
sis Elm., C. ramlflora Merr., C. subglandulosa Elm., C. suriga- 
ensis Merr., and C. weberi Merr., Geunsia acuminatissima (Teijsm. 
& Binn.) H. J. Lam, G. anisophylla H. Hallier, G. cinnamomea H. 
Hallier, G. cumingiana (Schau.) Rolfe, G. epipbytica (Elm.) H. 
J. Lam, G. farinosa Blume, G. flavida (Elm.) H. J. Lam, G. grandi- 
flora H. Hallier, G. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., G. hookeri 
Merr., G. bomoeophylla H. Ilallier, G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr., 
G. pullei H. J. Lam, G. guaternifolia H. Hallier, G. serrulata H. 
Hallier, and G. subternata H. Hallier! 

Meijer (1968) describes Geunsia pentandra as follows: "This is 
a fastgrowing belukar tree in logged over forest on rather fer- 
tile soils [in Sabah], surviving about 10 — 15 years after logging 
and reaching girth limits up to 5 feet. It occurs from sea level 

up to about 4500 feet altitude The leaves are arranged 

in a way to avoid shading of the leaf on the underside of a twig 

by that on the upper side The tree is often confused by our 

field staff with Vernonia arborea which simulates it in its bark, 
wood and leaves but which never has opposite leaves and entirely 
different flowers and fruits. The final word about the separa- 
tion of Geunsia from Callicarpa is still not yet spoken." He er- 
roneously refers to the fruit as "berries" and uses Callicarpa 
pentandra and Geunsia pentandra as "alternate names". 

Vernacular names reported for the species are "beb^tik baboel", 
"bibati", "bilau", "feri", "guisok-magami", "haiesu", "hai'isu", 
"hoeoet", "kah<5mbu", "ki", "ki bang bara", "kilhoeoet", "la 
yaupan", "molkuro", "multi", "sor-ku-ku", "tambong", 
"tananaloep'a", and "tanana-loep'a". 

Hansford (1961) records the fungus, Asteridiella callicarpae 
(Stev. & Rold.) Hansf. [jrenina callicarpae Stev. & Rold.] from 
this host, citing "bO 12849" from Java. 

Heyne (1917), who combined G. pentandra with G. farinosa under 
the latter name, asserts that "In de Lampongsche Districten 
[Sumatra] wordt de fijngewreven wortelbast op gezwellen gesraeerd." 

Merrill (1923) cites Cuzning 1773 and Elmer 9739, 10362, & 
11491 from Cebu, Mindanao, and Negros in the Philippines, commen- 
ting that the plant inhabits forests at low and medium altitudes, 
ascending to 1700 m. He gives its extra-limital distribution, as 
known to him, as Java, Celebes, i\mboina, and New Guinea. White 
(1929) cites Brass 659 from Papua. Fletcher (1938) cites Curtis 



370 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

2532 from Langkawi and Keith s.n. from Thailand, giving the extra- 
limital distribution, as kno\m to him, as Malaya and the Philip- 
pines. He also combines G. farinosa with G. pentandra, but adopts 
the latter name. 

UTiitmore (1966) cites Brass 2625 and Naterhouse 114 from the 
Solomon Islands; Foreman (1972) cites Kajewski 1560, 1643, & 1841, 
Waterhouse 103b & 769a-b, and Waterbouse S Yale 114 from Bougain- 
ville Island. 

Hartley and his associates (1973) describe G. pentandra as a 
small tree and encountered it in the scrub in back of ocean beaches, 
citing their nos. 9648, 9729, & 11910 from New Guinea and found 
no alkaloids present in either roots, bark, or leaves. 

Elmer's Callicarpa subglandulosa is based on Elmer 9739 from 
Negros island in the Philippines and certainly belongs in the 
present species' synonymy. 

Collectors have found Geunsia pentandra growing in yellowish 
soil, along river banks, in forest margins, on flat land, hillsides, 
and ridgetops, in primary (often swampy) and well-drained secondary 
forests, in light, disturbed, and culled forests, in logged-over 
areas in general, in valley bottoms and ravines, and in shallow 
old volcano craters, at 1.2 — 1950 m. altitude, in flower from July 
to May, and in fruit in February, May, June, and August to Decem- 
ber. 

The corollas are said to have been "pure-v;hite" on Elmer 9739, 
"white" on Herb. Brit. Sol. Isls. Prot. 5977 & 6260 and Kajewski 
1643, "whitish-pink" on Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci . 44362, "pinkish" 
on SAN. 19028, 54870, & 88279, "pink" on Brass 2625, "lilac" on 
Balgooy 2269, Robinson 1860 & 1861, and Rutten 1658, "reddish" on 
SAN. 36021, "violet" on Ebalo 1189, "violet-purple" on Herb. Philip. 
Bur. Sci. 43349, "purplish" on Herb. Sarawak For. Dept. S. 35599, 
"purple" on Chai S. 34099 and SAN. 68316, "pale-red & green" on 
SAN. 39957, "greenish" on Wing A. 285, and "green" on SAN. 21640. 

The illustration in Meijer (1968) is drawn from SAN. 39957. 
Bakhuizen (1921) cites Schauer's (1847) reference as page "664" 
instead of the actual page 646. The Miquel (1858) reference, al- 
so in the bibliography (above) , is sometimes erroneously cited as 
"1856" or "1857"; similarly, the Walpers (1845) reference is often 
incorrectly cited as "1840: or "1848". Sinclair mistakenly refers 
to the fruit of this species as "berries" instead of as drupes. 

Material of G. pentandra has been misidentif led and distribu- 
ted in some herbaria as G. acuminatissima Bold., G. cinnamomea H. 
Hallier, and G. farinosa Blume, as well as Callicarpa arbor ea 
Roxb., C. cumingiana Schau., C. paloensis Elm., C. pentandra var. 
apoensis Bakh., C. pentandra f. farinosa (Blume) Bakh., C. pentandra 
var. pentandra f. farinosa ^Blume) Bakh., C. tomentosa Murr., C. 
sp., and Gmelina asiatica L. On the other hand, the Elbert 3040 
& 3486, distributed as G. pentandra, are actually C. cinnamomea H. 
Hallier, while Barker & Vinas LAE. 66686, Carr 12824, Floyd 6477, 
Frodin NGF. 26229, and Hoogland 3482 are G. cumingiana (Schau.) 
Rolfe, Ampuria SAN. 32658 & SAN. 32630, Blume s.n. [Java], Boeea 7457, 
Brand SAN. 30933, Cockburn SAN. 65605, Elbert 3040, Fox SAN. 57700, 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 371 

Herb. Neth. Ind. For. Serv. bb. 21756, Kokawa S Hotta 208, Koll- 
mann s.n. [Java, 1838], Lajangah SAN. 36123, Liltjeharms 4562, Ma- 
dani SAN. 33151, Sam A. 1721, Sam & Sisiron s.n. [Sandakan Herb. 
19291], and Toroes 5010 are G. farinosa Blxme, Ampuria SAN. 33306 
and Native Collector 5122 are C. furfuracea (Bakh.) Mold., iCru- 
koff 4351 and Toroes 5104 are G. grandiflora H. Hallier, Elbert 
2690 is G. hexandra (Teijsm. & Binn.) Koord., Bartlett 6448, Kru- 
koff 248 (x 349, are Toroes 1045 are Callicarpa arborea Roxb., and 
Robinson s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 11502] is C. basilanensis 
Merr. Herb. Blume s.n. [Herb. Lugd.-Bat. 908.266-921] is a mix- 
ture of Geunsia pentandra and Sterculia sp. 

Citations: INDIA: State undetermined: I'^allich s.n. (S). IIALAYA: 
Selangor: Balgooy 2269 (Ac). PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Bohol: M. Ramos 
s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 43349] (Bz~18532, Ca— 242450, W~ 
1292611). Cebu: Cuming 1773 (Le--908. 266-873, Z) . Jolo: Ramos & 
EdaRo s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. Sci. 44362] (B, Bz~18487, Ca~ 
257635, W~1527672). Mindanao: M. S. Clemens 271 (Mu) ; Ebalo 1189 
(Mi); Zwickey 117 (Ca~8064, lli, N) . Negros: Elmer 9739 (Bz~ 
18331, N, Vt), 10362 (Bz— 18330). GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: 
Elbert 3040 (N) , 3486 (N) ; Kaudern 417 (N); Teijsmann 14092 (Bz~ 
18534, Bz~18535). Java: Arsin 19528 (Bz~18517, Bz~18518, Bz~ 
18519); Backer 9951 (Bz~18520, Bz~18521, Bz~18522) , 25899 (Bz~ 
18514, Bz~18515, Bz~18516); Bakhuizen Jr. 32e2[3284] (Ut— 
24878A); Blume s.n. [Java] (Ca~918516, Le~908. 266-866, Le~ 
908.266-887, Le~908. 266-916, Le~908. 266-921 in part, Le~908.266- 
1357, M, N, T, Z); Collector undetermined s.n. [Salah] (Le — 908.266 
-907), s.n. [Salatz] (Le~908. 266-874) , s.n. (Le~908. 266-856, Le— 
908.266-885, Le~908. 266-905); Dakkus 66 (Bz— 18212, Bz— 18213); 
DeVriese 31 (Le— 908.265-340) ; Forbes 315 (Bz~18525, Bz— 18526), 
375 (Bz— 18524), 539c (Bz— 18523) , 602 (Bz— 18527, Bz— 18528); 
Junghuhn 11518 (Cb, Le— 908.335-798, Z); Kollmann s.n. (M, M, Mu— 
986); Koorders 24452b [920] (Bz— 18327, Bz— 18328); Korthals s.n. 
(Le— 944.234-97); Reinwardt 22a (Le— 908.266-915), s.n. (Le— 
908.266-884); Samba 12 [Boschproef st. Ja.3144] (Bz— 18174); Teijs- 
mann s.n. (Le — 908.266-875). Kalimantan: Beccari 786 (Mu— 1655); 
Slooten 2279 (B) . Sabah: Ambullah SAN. 36021 (Z); Chai SAN. 21640 
(Ld); Fedilis s Sumbing SAN. 88279 (Sn); Sinanggul SAN. 39957 [Herb. 
For. Dept. 40643] (Ld); Sinclair 9257 (W— 2946380); J. Singh SAN. 
21391 [Herb. J-or. Dept. 40629] (Ld); Talip SAN. 54870 (Ld), SAN. 
68316 (Sn— 40649); Wing A. 285 (Kl— 8425), SAN. 19028 (Sn— 40614). 
Sarawak: chai S. 34099 (W— 2801358); Ilias & Azahari s.n. [Herb. 
Sarawak For. Dept. S. 35599] (Ld) . Sumatra: Bartlett 6448 (N) ; 
Boeea 7879 (S); Collector undetermined 23 (Le— 908.266-844) , s.n. 
(Le— 908.266894, Ut— 53402); Krukoff 248 (N) , 349 (N); Toroes 1045 
(N, S). MOLUCCA ISLANDS: Amboina: C. B. Robinson 1860 (Bz— 18530, 
Le~920. 191-154, W— 775246), 1861 (N, W— 77524); Teijsmann H.B. 
1973 (Bz— 18529). Ceram: Rutten 1658 (Bz— 18479, Ca— 236612, Ut— 
802621). Temate: Beguin 689 (Bz— 18484). NEW GUINEA: West Irian: 
VanLeeuwen 10577 (Bz — 72661). SOLOMON ISLANDS: Bougainville: 
Kajewski 1560 (Bi, Bz— 18542), 1642 (Bi, Bz— 18537, Bz— 18544), 
1841 (Bi, Bz— 18538, Bz— 18540); Waterhouse 114 [Mus. Yale School 



372 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

For. 22825] (N) . New Georgia: Maenu'u s.n. [Herb. Brit. Sol. 
Isls. Prot. 5977] (W— 2578780), s.n. [Herb. Brit. Sol. Isls. Prot. 
5993] (W--2578798). San Cristoval: Brass 2625 (Bi, Bz— 18536, 
Bz— 18539); Forbes 602 (Bz— 18527, Bz— 18528). Ulawa: Teona s.n. 
[Herb. Brit. Sol. Isls. Prot. 6260] (W— 2578151). CULTIVATED: 
Java: Herb. Hort. Bot. Bogor . s.n. (Bz— 18323, Bz— 18324, Bz— 18325, 
Bz— 18326); Teijsmann s.n. (Le— 908.266-895) . LOCALITY OF COLLEC- 
TION UNDETERMINED: Collector undetermined s.n. (Le— 908.266-846, 
Le— 908.266-854, Le— 908.266-864) ; Splitgerber s.n. [Laeti, Junio] 
(Le— 944.234-14), s.n. [Salak, Decbr.] (Le— 944.234-98). 

GEUNSIA PENTANDRA var. ALBIDELLA Mold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954. 

Bibliography: Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., 
ser. 3, 3: 15. 1921; Mold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954; Mold., Re'sume 
204 & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 340 (1971) and 2: 879. 1971; 
Altschul, Drugs Foods 245. 1973; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 330 & 548. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 55 (1981) and 50: 224. 1982. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the lower leaf-surfaces more or less densely whlte-tomentel- 
lous or white-furfuraceous as well as resinous-glandulose. 

The variety is based on Kajewski 2340 from the rainforest at 
sealevel at Quoimonapu, Malaita, British Solomon Islands, collec- 
ted on December 11, 1930, and deposited in the Buitenzorg herbar- 
ium. The pubescence on the lower leaf-surface is exactly like 
that seen in G. furfuracea (Bakh.) Mold., but the flowers and fruit 
are much smaller and the anthers much shorter, exactly as in typ- 
ical G. pentandra (Roxb.) Merr. 

Kajewski describes the plant as a small tree, 10 — 15 m. tall, 
growing in rainforests from sealevel to 1200 m. altitude, the fruit 
black or purple-black when ripe, subglobose, 3 — 3.5 mm. long and 
wide (incorrectly written on some labels as "3 cm."), "with a small 
hole at the base". He records the local vernacular names, 
"kimberi", "kim-berri", and "quoi-esa", and states that the bark 
macerated in water is imbibed in the treatment of colds. He found 
the plant in fruit in April. 

Citations: SOLOMON ISLANDS: Guadalcanal: Kajewski 2485 (Bi, Bz— 
18315, Bz— 18320, Bz— 18321), 2540 (Bi, Bz— 18316, Bz— 18319, Z) . 
Malaita: Kajewski 2340 (Bi — isotype, Bz — 18317— isotype, Bz— 18318 
—type). 

GEUNSIA PULLEI H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 35. 1919. 

Bibliography: H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 31, 35, & 365. 
1919; Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 
11, 13, 111, & xii. 1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; 
Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 60 (2): 572. 1941; Mold., 
Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 67 & 93. 1942; H. N. & A. 
L. Mold., PI. Life 2: 77. 1948; Mold., Knoim Geogr. Distrib. Verben- 
ac, ed. 2, 149 & 185. 1949; Mold., R^sum^ 201 & 456. 1959; Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 336 (1971) and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 
327 & 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 55 & 56 (1981) and 50: 150 
& 296. 1982. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 373 

A shrub, 3 m. tall, the young parts whitish- to brownish- 
farinose, eventually glabrescent; petioles 2.5 — 4 cm. long, whit- 
ish- or brownish-farinose; leaf -blades oblong-lanceolate, 14 — 18 
cm. long, 5 — 7.5 cm. wide, apically long-acuminate, marginally 
entire, basally acute and long-decurrent into the petiole, at 
first stellate-puberulent above, later glabrous or (especially on 
the veins) scattered-glandulose and stellate-pilose, at first 
stellate- tomentose beneath, later subglabrescent or subtomentose 
and eglandulose, typically with the vein-reticulation minutely 
more rugose; secondaries 7 — 9 per side; cymes axillary, small, 
2.5 — 4.5 cm. long, 2 — 4 cm. vjide, whitish- or brownish-farinose; 
peduncles 2 — 2.7 cm. long; calyx densely stellate-puberulent, ex- 
ternally with scattered scale-like glands, the rim 5-dentate; 
corolla red-lilac, pentamerous, 5 — 6 mm. long, the tube narrow, 
externally softly pubescent, glandless or with scattered glands, 
the limb 5-lobed, the lobes dorsally centrally long-pilose; sta- 
mens 5, about 8 mm. long, long-exserted; anthers ellipsoid, about 
1 mm. long and 0.5 mm. wide, sparsely glandulose; style 9 ram. long; 
stigma capitate; ovary externally glabrous, eglandulose, 5-celled, 
each cell 2-ovulate; fruits red. 

This species is based on Puile 261 from near KLoofbivak in 
the former Dutch New Guinea [West Irian], collected on October 21, 
1912, and deposited in the Leiden herbarium. It Is named in honor 
of its distinguished collector, August Adriaan Pulle (1878 — 1955), 
who collected also in Argentina and Surinam and whom my wife and I 
remember with deep affection from our association with him in 
Curacao and Argentina many years ago. 

Lam (1919) cites only the type collection and comments that 
"Our species has an affinity with G. pentandra with which it is in 
conform[ity] , among other things, in the minute reticulation of 
the lower side of the leaves. Differences are the gradually, not 
abruptly decurrent base of its leaves, its less numerous nerves, 
its small cymes, its hairy corolla and its glabrous and eglandular 
ovary." 

This is one of the many, often very disparate, taxa which Bak- 
huizen (1921) unites under G. pentandra. 

Citations: NEW GUINEA: West Irian: Pulle 261 (Bz — 18486 — iso- 
type, Le~926. 340-108 — type, Z — isotype). 

GEUNSIA QUATERNIFOLIA H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 
24—25. 1918. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 24—25. 
1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 41 & 365. 1919; Bakh. in 
Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 111, & xii. 
1921; E. D. Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511. 1921; A. W. Hill, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Ver- 
benac, ed. 1, 65 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 146 & 185. 1949; Mold., 
R^sum^ 193, 195, & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 (1971) 
and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Hem. 2: 315 & 548. 1980; Mold., 
Phytologia 50: 57 & 64. 1981. 

A tree, the youngest parts densely ferruginous-tomentellous; 



374 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

nature br^nchlets terete, 4 — 6 mm. thick, dark-fuscous and ferru- 
ginous to gradually glabrescent, the oblique or plagiotropic ones 
with plainly anisophyllous leaves, marked with 2 prominent trans- 
verse annular pseudo-stipular rings between the opposite leaves: 
leaves opposite and subquaternate, anisophyllous, the lower whorls 
of leaves with somewhat larger approximately equal pairs, the up- 
per whorls with more remote larger and also several times smaller 
pairs or the whorls with 3 leaves equal and the 4th smaller; peti- 
oles semi terete, short, usually 1 — 1.7 cm. long, angular on the 
under surface, cinereous- or subochraceous-tomentellous through- 
out; leaf-blades chartaceous or membranous to herbaceous, the 
larger 3 of each whorl oblong or broadly ovate, to 20 cm. long in 
all and 10 — 10.5 cm. wide, dull dark-green, apically shortly and 
broadly acuminate to cuspidate (the cusp about 1.5 cm. long and 
basally 2 cm. wide) , the 4th one of the upper whorls 8 — 9 cm. 
long and 4 — 4.5 cm. wide, all marginally entire or somewhat obso- 
letely and minutely sinuate-denticulate, basally minutely and 
abruptly attenuate or protracted into the petiole in the manner 
of Tectona grandis, glabrous above except for the ferruginous- 
tomentellous midrib, cinereous- or subochraceous-tomentellous be- 
neath; secondaries 10 or 11 per side; venation inconspicuous a- 
bove, prominently pinnate and clathrate beneath and because of 
the tomentum only obsoletely reticulate; inflorescence corymbose, 
cinereous- or subochraceous-tomentellous, the corymbs axillary 
only to the quaternate and opposite leaves, twice dichotomous, 
7 — 10 cm. long, 7 — 7.5 cm. wide, densely flowered; peduncles 
terete, robust, 5 — 6 cm. long, several times longer than the 
subtending petioles; bracts 2, subtending the primary dichoto^ 
mies of the inflorescence, slightly elevated, lanceolate-linear, 
spirally recurved, about 5 mm. long; bractlets similar but grad- 
ually smaller; pedicels short, scarcely 1 mm. long; flowers 
pentamerous ; calyx cupuliform, 1.5 — 2 mm. long, densely fulvous- 
and stellate-tomentose, the rim shortly and acutely 5-denticu- 
late; corolla (in bud) elongate-ovoid, about 4.5 mm. long or 
2 1/2 times the length of the calyx, the tube about 4 mm. long, 
externally densely and softly cinereous-pulverulent on the upper 
part, glabrous below, not glandulose nor coarsely stellate- 
tomentose, the limb 5-lobed, the lobes oblong, 1 — 1.5 mm. long, 
apically rounded; stamens 5, inserted at the bottom of the 
corolla- tube, slightly exserted; filaments with a few scattered, 
subcapitate, and subsessile glands; anthers elongate, 3 — 3.5 
mm. long, narrow, obtuse, basally sagittate, apically shortly 
and introrsely 2-channelled, dqrsally pulverulent-puberulent, 
not conspicuously glandular-punctate; style 8 mm. long, scarce- 
ly surpassing the stamens, clavate; stigma broadly capitate, 
lobed; immature fruit drupaceous, globose, about 2.5 mm. long 
and wide, apically densely pubescent or sparsely pulverulent- 
puberulent except at the centrally umbilicate apex, closely 
invested by the cupuliform merely obsoletely dentate fruiting- 
calyx. 

This species is based on Amdjah 665 from Buklt Sungel Tuhlit, 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 375 

at about 100 m. altitude, in eastern Kalimantan, Borneo, collected 
in flower and immature fruit in September, 1912, and deposited in 
the Leiden herbarium. Lam (1919) comments that "This species has 
an affinity with G. homoiophylla , but differs from it by its broad- 
er leaves, its longer corolla-tube and its shorter lobes; also by 
its pubescent ovary; points of conformity are the softly pubescent 
corolla and the non-glandular anthers." 

Material of this species has been misidentif ied and distributed 
in some herbaria as Callicarpa pentandra var. paloensis f. furfur- 
acea Bakh. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Celebes: Rachnat 637 (Bz~ 
18563). Kalimantan: Amdjah 665 [N. Y. Bot. Card. phot. neg. E- 
4199] (Bz~18266— isotype, Bz~18267~isotype, Le~918. 302-19— 
type, Le — 919.329-15 — isotype, N — isotype, N — photo of type, N — 
photo of type, Z — photo of type)., 

GEUNSIA RAMOSI Mold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954. 

Bibliography: Hold., Phytologia 5: 10. 1954; Mold., Re'sume 184 
& 456. 1959; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 63. 1959; Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 317 (1971) and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 
2: 307 & 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 55. 1981. 

A shrub or tree; branchlets rather slender, more or less tet- 
ragonal, very obscurely pulverulent-puberulent or glabrescent; 
nodes annulate; principal internodes abbreviated, 6 — 13 mm. long; 
leaves decussate-opposite; petioles slender, 1.3 — 2 cm. long, very 
obscurely and minutely pulverulent-puberulent, sometimes also scat- 
tered-pilose toward the base, or glabrescent; leaf -blades thinly 
chartaceous, bicolored in drying, nigrescent above and silvery 
beneath, narrowly elliptic, 6 — 13.5 cm, long, 1.7 — 2.5 cm. wide, 
apically gradually narrowed to a long-attenuate or subacuminate 
tip, marginally entire, basally attenuate-acute, glabrous above, 
densely appressed-furfuraceous to form a silvery mat beneath; mid- 
rib very slender, flat above, prominulous beneath; secondaries 
very slender, 9 or 10 per side, arcuate-ascending, disappearing at 
the margins, not anastomosing; veinlet reticulation abundant, in- 
discernible above, plainly prominulous above the furf beneath; in- 
florescence axillary, cymose; cymes solitary in the upper leaf- 
axils, 2 per node, much shorter than the subtending leaves, about 
5 cm. long and wide; peduncles slender, about 2 cm. long; inflor- 
escence-branches widely dichotomous, very minutely puberulous or 
glabrate, sometimes scattered-pilose; pedicels glabrate, about 1 
mm. long; flowers not known; bractlets linear, about 3 mm. long, 
glabrate; fruiting-calyx patelliform, about 2 cm. wide, glabrate; 
fruit drupaceous, subglobose, about 3 mm. long and wide, fleshy, 
glabrous . 

This species is based on Ramos & Edatio s.n. [Herb. Philip. Bur. 
Sci. 33838], collected on Mount Bagacay in Camarines Province, 
Luzon, Philippine Islands, deposited in the Britton Herbarium at 
the New York Botanical Garden, originally misidentif ied and dis- 
tributed as Callicarpa angusta Schau. Thus far it is known only 
from the type collection. 



376 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

Citations: PHILIPPINE ISLANDS: Luzon: Ramos S Edano s.n. [Herb. 
Philip. Bur. Scl. 33838] (Bz— 18248--isotype, N— type). 

GEUNSIA SCANDENS Mold., Phytologia 49: 430. 1981. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 49: 430 (1981) and 50: 253 & 
269. 1982. 

A woody climber, attaining a height of at least 10 m. ; stems 
brownish, stout, very obtusely subtetragonal or subterete, dense- 
ly floccose-tomentose with ferruginous hairs; leaves (as far as 
observed) opposite, decidedly anisophyllous, one large and one 
small at each node; petioles very stout, 1.5 — 2.5 cm. long, flat- 
tened and canaliculate above, rounded beneath, densely floccose- 
tomentose, laterally bicostate because of the decurrent leaf-base; 
leaf -blades firmly chartaceous or even subcoriaceous, broadly 
elliptic, the smaller ones to 22 cm. long and 11 cm. wide, the 
larger ones to 40 cm. long and 22 cm. vjide, all apically short- 
acuminate, marginally entire, basally acuminate and decurrent 
into the petiole, appressed-puberulent and brunnescent above in 
drying, vety densely ochraceous- or grayish- tomentose beneath; 
midrib stout, densely tomentose beneath and somewhat so above; 
secondaries 8 or more pairs, arcuate-ascending, very prominent 
beneath and slightly so above; veinlet reticulation prominulous 
beneath and under a handlens also above; inflorescence cymose, 
axillary, pedunculate, rather small, many- flowered, dichotomous, 
densely f erruginous-toraentose throughout; peduncles about 4 cm. 
long; bracts few, linear, about 2 mm. long; corolla purplish- 
white; mature flowers and fruit not seen. 

This species is based on Aban s Petrus SAN. 90680 from a 
secondary forest on a steep slope near a road at Ulu Sg. Lokan, 
Lamag District, Sabah, collected on November 10, 1979, and de- 
posited in my personal herbarium. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Sabah: Aban S Petrus SAN. 
90680 (Z~type). 

GEUNSIA SERRULATA H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 27 — 
28. 1918. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 27— 
30. 1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 42—44 & 365. 1919; 
Bakh. in Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 
111, xi, & xii. 1921; E. D. Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511. 
1921; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Mold., Alph. 
List Inv. Names 24. 1942; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verben- 
ac, ed. 1, 65 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 146 & 185. 1949; Mold., 
R^sum^ 192, 193, 295, & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 324 
(1971) and 2: 519 & 879. 1971; t-lold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 315 & 
548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 57 (1981) and 50: 260 & 269. 
1982. 

A small or medium-sized tree, the youngest parts ochraceous- 
or almost clnnamomeous-farinose; branchlets 3 — 6 mm. thick, ob- 
soletely angular, minutely yellowish-farinose or rather loosely 
ochraceous-pulverulent or -puberulent, finally glabrescent; 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Geunsia 377 

nodes at the opposite leaves either not annulate or incompletely 
so; principal internodes beneath the opposite leaves 5 — 20 mm. 
long, above them 3 — 5 cm. long; leaves opposite and alternate, 
manifestly anisophyllous , not conspicuously subternate, the op- 
posite ones larger and subequal, the alternate ones considerably 
above the others and much smaller, all long-petiolate; petioles 
1 — 2.5 cm. long, rather loosely ochraceous-pulverulent or -puber- 
lent to minutely yellowish-farinose; leaf-blades herbaceous to 
membranous or subchartaceous , ovate or ovate-lanceolate, the 3 
larger ones to 16.5 cm. long and 8.5 cm. wide, apically acutely 
long-acuminate (the acumen 2.5 cm. long and basally 1 — 1.5 cm. 
wide), marginally conspicuously serrulate or serrate toijard the 
apex, basally more shortly acuminate or acute, the smaller ones 
ovate- lanceolate, to 9 cm. long and 6 cm. wide, basally subro- 
tund, all slightly shiny and dark-green above when fresh, dark- 
cinnamamous in drying when young and marked with deciduous 
cinnamomeous stellate hairs, on maturity glabrous except for the 
pulverulent-pub erulent midrib and sordid-green with paler and 
conspicuous close vein-reticulation, densely white- or ochrace- 
ous-tomentellous beneath or minutely yellowish-white or yellow- 
ish-brown tomentose and prominently pinnate- and rather promin- 
ulously clathrate-veined; secondaries 9 or 11 per side; cymes 
ample, several times divaricate-dichotomous, 6 — 11.5 cm. long, 
4 — 11 cm. wide, their branches rather loosely ochraceous- 
puJverulent or -puberulent to minutely yellowish-farinose; 
peduncles stout, to 6.5 cm. long, much surpassing the petioles, 
rather loosely ochraceous-pulverulent or -puberulent above, 
glabrescent and dark-fuscous below; bracts small, linear, rigid, 
short, situated at the cyme dichotomies, the primary ones 
3 — 5 mm. long and 2.5 mm. wide; pedicels scarcely 1 mm. long; 
flowers pentamerous; calyx cupuliform, 1.3 — 1.5 mm. long, 1.5 
mm. wide, externally always densely stellate-pubescent, the 
rim obsoletely 5-denticulate; corolla lilac, about 5 mm. long 
or about 4 times the length of the calyx, externally densely 
cinereous and pulverulent-puberulent and glandulose throughout 
but not coarsely stellate-tomentose, the tube about 3.5 mm. 
long, the limb 5-lobed, the lobes ovate, about 1.5 mm. long and 
1 mm. wide; stamens 5, inserted in the corolla-tube, conspicu- 
ously exserted; filaments glabrous; anthers elongate, almost 3 mm. 
long, narrow, apically emarginate and shortly introrsely fissured, 
basally shortly sagittate, dorsally sparsely glandulose-punctu- 
late on the connective but otherwise glabrous; style about 8 ram. 
long, somewhat surpassing the stamens, glabrous, angular-subulate, 
subclavate; stigma capitate, lobed; ovary externally glandular- 
dotted; immature fruit drupaceous, fuscous, depressed-globose, 
2 — 3 mm. wide, apically impressed-umbllicate, under a handlens 
vertically sparsely pale- (glandular? )-punctulate, semi-enclosed 
by the broadly cupuliform irregularly splitting fruiting- calyx. 

The species is based on Hallier B.801 from "am Ufer des Tang- 
gie oberhalb Sanggouw" in the Sambasstrom mountains of western 
Borneo, collected on October 20, 1893, and Hallier B.749 from 



378 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

"im LadanggestrUpp hinter den Dajakendorf Dawar im Geblet des 
oberen Tanggle", collected on October 27, 1893, both deposited in 
the Leiden herbarium. Lam (1919) comments that "The species has 
an affinity with G. farinosa, but differs from it by its more dis- 
tinctly serrulate leaves, its shorter corolla-tube, and its always 
densely pubescent calyx." 

Hallier (1918) regards his nos. B.1349 & B.1507 as varieties of 
or species related to G. serrulata, but I include them in the 
species as here described. He encountered them in a hill along 
with Durio zihethinus, Pangium edule, Orchipeda sumatrana, and 
Casearia sp. 

The species has been collected in flower and fruit in October 
and December. The vernacular name, "ssibur bessie", has been re- 
corded for it, and applied, it is said, because the lilac-colored 
flowers are reminiscent of those of Memecylon spp. (known as 
"kajub bessie" or ironwood). 

Material of Geunsia serrulata has been misidentif led and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as Callicarpa hexandra Teijsm. & Binn. 
and C. pentandra var. paloensis f. furfuracea Bakh. 

Citations: GREATER SUNDA ISLANDS: Kalimantan: H. Hallier B.749 
(Bz~18275~cotype), B.801 (Bz — 18296 — cotype, Bz — 18297~cotype, 
Ez~18298~cotype, Le~918. 330-l~cotype, Ut — 80196~cotype) , B. 
1349 (Bz~18269), B.1507 (Bz~18273, Bz~18274, Le~918. 302-41). 
Sarawak: Haviland s Hose 3553e (Le~908. 167-484) . 

GEUNSIA SERRULATA f. ANISOPHYLLA (H. Hallier) Mold., Stat. nov. 

Synonymy: Geunsia anisophylla H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. 
Leid. 37: 29—30. 1918. 

Bibliography: H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 29—30. 
1918; H. J. Lam, Verbenac. Malay. Arch. 43 & 365. 1919; Bakh. in 
Lam & Bakh., Bull. Jard. Bot. Buitenz., ser. 3, 3: 11, 111, & xi. 
1921; E. D. Merr., Bibl. Enum. Born. PI. 511. 1921; A. W. Hill, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 6: 91. 1926; Mold., Alph. List Inv. Names 24. 
1942; Mold., Re'surae' 295. 1959; Mold., l^ifth Summ. 2: 519. 1971; 
Mold., Phytologia 50: 57 (1981) and 50: 260 & 269. 1982. 

This form is based on H. Hallier B.2741 from "im Jungen Holz 
am unteren Teil des Aufstieges von Nanga Raun zum Liang Gagang" 
in the "Mdllergebirge" of western Borneo, collected on March 14, 
1894, and deposited in the Leiden herbarium. The collector de- 
scribes the plant in detail in his 1918 work and comments that 
it comprises "mehrere mHssiggrosse Callicarpa-flhnliche BMume.... 
BlStter oberseits schwach glHnzend dunkelgrUn, mit helleren Mit- 
tel- und Fiedernerven, unterseits matt graugrUn, mit gelbgrUnen, 
stark hervortretendem Nervennetz. FrUchte glMnzend scharlachroth, 
fleiischig, mit 10 Samen." 

In this form the nodal annulation is always complete and con- 
spicuous, the petioles are to 3 cm. long, and the leaf -blades are 
narrowly lanceolate, narginally entire, and the apical acumen is 
2 cm. long. The fleshy fruit is scarlet when ripe. 

Citations: GREATER SUimA ISLANDS: Kalimantan: H. Hallier B.2741 
(Bz— 18293— isotype, Bz— 18294— Isotype, Bz — 18295 — isotype, Le~ 
918.302-43— type, Ut— 80195— isotype, Z— Isotype). 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . CCXII. 
ADDITIONS TO AUSTROEUPATORIUM, FLYRIELLA, AND TEIXEIHANTHUS . 



R. M. King and H. Robinson 

Department of Botany 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 20560. 



Specimens of Eupatorieae seen during the last few months 
include one older type specimen of a species previously unplaced 
in the revised classification of the tribe, and material of 
undescribed species from Mexico and Brazil. The new names are 
provided here so they will be available for inclusion in a list 
of all the names in the tribe. 

TEIXEIRANTHUS POHLII (Baker) R. M. King and H. Robinson, comb. 
nov. Alomia pohlii Baker in Martius , Flora Brasiliensis 

6 (2): 190. 1876. The species shows the sessile leaves, pale- 
aceous receptacles, corollas continuous with the body of the 
achene without an intervening callus, and the filaments of the 
anthers inserted near the base of the corolla as in the 'type and 
previously only known species of the genus, T, foliosus (Gardn.) 
K.& R. The new addition to the genus differs by its more erect 
branching habit, by its linear leaves, by the somewhat less 
ornate tips on the involucral bracts and paleae, and by the 
greater tendency for the corolla to dehisce along a line at the 
base. 

AUSTROEUPATORIUM MORII R. M. King and H. Robinson, sp. nov. 

Plantae herbaceae ad 9.5 dm altae supra basem erectae vix 
vel non ramosae. Caules pallide brunnescentes sparse hirtelli 
leniter striati. Folia opposita, petiolis angustatis plerumque 
1.5-4.5 cm longis; laminae herbaceae ovatae 4-8 cm longae 2.0- 
4.5 cm latae base truncatae vel breviter acutae ad medio breviter 
acuminatae et trinervatae margine serratae apice anguste acumin- 
atae in nervis et marginis puberulae subtus dense glandulo- 
punctatae. Inflorescentiae subdiffuse ramosae in partibus 
individuis late corymbosae, ramulis ultimis 1-2 mm longis 
glandulo-punctatis et dense puberulis. Capitula campanulata ca. 

7 mm alta et 3-4 mm lata; squamae involucri ca. 18 subimbricatae 
valde inaequllongae orbiculares vel lanceolatae 0.5-4.0 mm long- 
ae et 1.0-1.5 mm latae apice rotundatae vel obtusae extus puber- 
ulae et sparse glanduliferae ad medio leniter bicostatae margine 
late scariosae. Flores 10-12 in capitulo; corollae albae 4 mm 
longae extus glabrae, tubis 1.5-1.7 mm longis cylindraceis, 
limbis anguste infundibularibus , faucibus ca. 2 mm longis, lobis 
triangularibus ca. 0.4 mm longis et 0.35 mm latis extus et intus 

379 



380 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

laevibus; filamenta in partibus superioribus ca. 0.25 mm longa; 
thecae ca. 0.9 mm longae; appendices antherarum oblongae ca. 0,25 
mm longae et 0.15 mm latae; basi stylorum hirsuti. Achaenia ca. 
2 mm longa supeme sparse glandulifera; carpopodia breviter 
cylindrica ca. 0.15 mm longa et 0.2-0.3 mm lata; setae pappi ca. 
40 plerumque 3-4 mm longae, cellulis apicalibus in setis longior- 
ibus anguste rotundatis. Grana pollinis in diametro ca. 20 fim. 

TYPE: BRASIL: Bahia: Municipality of Ilheus, road from 
01iven(ja to Una, 2 km S of Oliven^a. Restinga forest, very 
sandy soil. Elev. near sea level. Corolla and styles white. 
Locally abundant in open area. 19 April 1981. S.A.Morn-^ B.M. 
Boom (S A.M.de Carvalho 13646 (Holotype, CEPEC; isotype, US). 

Austvoeupatorium morii can be distinguished from other 
members of the genus by the slender petioles nearly as long as 
the leaf blades, and by the broad, abrupt, often truncate bases 
on the leaf blades. The short, thick carpopodia indicate that 
the species is in the typical element of the genus. Closest 
relationship is probably to A. monardaefotivm (Walp.) K.& R. , 
but the latter has petioles usually winged above, the leaf blades 
more lanceolate and three to four times as long as the petioles, 
and the undersurface of the leaves more puberulous with less 
dense glandular punctations. 

FLYRIELLA HARRIMANII R. M. King and H. Robinson, sp. nov. 

Plantae herbaceae ad 2 m altae. Caules fistulosi pallide 
brunnescentes striati glandulis stipitatis minutis dense obsiti. 
Folia opposita in axillis abbreviate ramulifera, petiolis 
elongatis 3-9 cm longis supeme anguste alatis; laminae late 
ovatae vel deltoideae 5-12 cm longae et 4-15 cm latae base trun- 
catae vel subcordatae ad medio in petiolis decurrentes margine 
crenatae vel dentatae apice breviter acutae supra pilosae subtus 
dense minute stipitato-glanduliferae in nervis densius glandul- 
iferae et sparse pilosae fere ad basem valde trinervatae. In- 
florescentiae in ramis lateralibus cymosae paucicapitatae, 
pedicellis 3-22 mm longis minute stipitato-glanduliferia. Capit- 
ula late campanulata 1.1-1.5 cm alta et lata; sqaumae involucri 
ca. 40 subaequilongae exteriores late ellipticae et herbaceae 
interne sensim anguste lanceolatae ca. 10 mm longae et 1-4 mm 
latae omnino longe acuminatae extus minute multo stipitato- 
glanduliferae. Flores ca. 75 in capitulo; corollae albae minime 
infundibulares ca. 7 mm longae in tubis et faucibus glabrae, 
tubis ca. 3 mm longis, faucibus ca. 3 mm longis, lobis oblongo- 
triangularibus ca. 0.8 mm longis et 0.5 mm latis extus perpauce 
puberulis, pilis 2-3-seriatis anguste clavatis subglandulosis; 
filamenta in partibus superioribus 0.25-0.30 mm longa; thecae 
ca. 1.8 mm longae; appendices antherarum oblongae ca. 0,35 mm 
longae et 0.3 mm latae; basi stylorum noduliferi et hirsuti. 
Achaenia ca. 4.5 mm longa inferne glabra superne sparse minute 
setulifera; carpopodia cylindrica non accentrica, cellulis 
elongatis 7-8-seriatis in parietibus non incrassatis porosis; 



1982 King & Robinson, Studies in the Eupatorieae 381 

setae pappi ca. 40 plerumque 4.5-5.5 mm longae , cellulis apical- 
ibus acutis. Grana pollinis in diametro ca. 25 pm. 

TYPE: MEXICO: Taraaulipas : On route B-5, 3 miles east of 
Gomez Farias, in Municipio Gomes Farias, across from a gravel 
pit, at 600 feet elevation. Woods on pitted limestone. Herba- 
ceous; flowers whitish; up to 6 feet tall. 31 March 1975. Neil 
A.Harriman, J. Allen, B.Harriman, R.Jansen, J . L . Kasvar , and B.Par- 
fitt 10,698 (Holotype, US). 

Flyriella harrimanii of southern Tamaulipas is the south- 
ernmost member of the genus, with other species ranging from 
northern Tamaulipas westward to Chihuahua and northward to south- 
western Texas. Vegatatively , the species resembles others of 
the genus, but is larger in size with much smaller stipitate 
glands. The inflorescence is the most distinctive feature with 
fewer larger heads and large herbaceous outer involucral bracts. 
The form of the involucre, with bracts of subequal length, is 
rather anomalous in the Alomiinae. The cylindrical rather than 
contorted form of the carpopodium indicates closest relation- 
ship to F. stanfordii K.& R. of northern Tamaulipas. 

The type specimen was generously given to the U.S. National 
Herbarium by Dr. Harriman. 



382 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 5 




^ "^ Jf) 



2!HS:Ui5 



NATIONAl HCRBitRI 






Uni.tTt. t^ t""*^"^ '"'''^^ R.M.King & H. Robinson, Isotype, 
United States National Herbarium. Photos by Victor E. Krantz 
btaff Photographer, National Museum of Natural History 



1982 



King & Robinson, Studies In the Eupatorieae 



383 




Flyriella harrimanii R.M.King & H. Robinson, Holotype. 
United States National Herbarium. 



38A 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 5 




1 I M N I i M t I t I i M I I I 1 I I M M i I M I I 

I I i M M i ( I I M M I I i M M I I I I I I I It I M 




Enlargements of heads. Top: Austroeupatorium mor*ii. 
Bottom: Flyriella hamn-manii . 



STUDIES IN THE EUPATORIEAE (ASTERACEAE) . CCXIII. 
A NEW GENUS, PROLOBUS , FROM BAHIA. 



R. M. King and H, Robinson 

Department of Botany 

Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., 20560. 



During the study of the tribe Eupatorieae by the present 
authors, inadequate material has prevented decisions regarding 
the proper placement of some of the described species previously 
placed in Eupatorium . Among the names remaining unplaced have 
been two of particular interest, E. nitiduZwn Baker and E. mori- 
tibense B.L.Robinson, both based on different specimens of 
Btanahet 3489 from Bahia, Brasil, and apparently representing the 
same species. Fragmentary material has seemed close to the genus 
Barrosoa in general aspect, but differed in at least one essenti- 
al feature, the lack of a conical receptacle. Observations 
seemed to indicate that an undescribed genus was involved, but 
further collections were needed. Recently, through the efforts 
of Dr. Scott Mori, collecting in Bahia, a new collection has 
been made of the species, and the generic distinction has been 
confirmed. The genus is named here as Pvotobus in reference to 
the distinctive structure of its corolla lobes. 

The new genus is readily recognized as a member of the sub- 
tribe Gyptidinae which is particularly diversified in Brasil. 
Prolobus has the densely annulated cell walls in the anther 
collar, a capillary pappus, simple style bases, and roughened 
style branches as in most members of the subtribe. Distinctions 
from' individual described genera are easily discovered, however. 
The new genus, as seen in the new material, is a distinctly 
shrubby plant, unlike Gyptis , Barrosoa, and many other genera of 
the typical element of the subtribe. The carpopodium of Prolobus 
is large as in Barrosoa, but the upper margin is projecting with- 
out extensions up the ribs of the achene, and the cells have 
distinctly thickened walls. These features and the nearly plane 
rather than conical receptacle indicate that Prolobus and 
Barrosoa are not particularly closely related. 

The corolla lobe structure provides a final difference 
between Prolobus and Bcarrosoa, and offers insight into the actual 
relationship of the new genus. In Barrosoa, as in Gyptis, both 
surfaces of the lobes are rather evenly covered with papillae. 
The papillae on the two surfaces differ in details, but neither 
surface extends beyond the other at the tip. In Prolobus, the 
outer surface of the corolla lobe has enlarged thicker-walled 
cells that form an umbo ending short of the apex. The inner 
surface extends beyond the outer lobe surface to form a densely 

385 



386 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 5 

papillose acuminate appendage. The lower part of the outer sur- 
face is smooth. Below inside are large bulging round cells. 

The distinctive corolla lobes of Prolobus are most closely 
approached in their structure by the lobes in Movithccnmus , a 
shrubby member of the subtribe Gyptidinae from the Rio Contas 
area of the interior of Bahia. The latter genus differs by its 
more fleshy, obovate to oblanceolate, viscous leaves, its leaves 
and corollas with prominent paired resin ducts, by the much 
larger heads with narrow involucral bracts, and by the pappus 
elements being distinctly flattened on the outer surface. The 
genus ProZobiiS occurs in coastal Bahia and has abruptly petiolate 
leaves with ovate, shiny, herbaceous leaf blades. The leaf ven- 
ation is prominulous. The two genera are considered related on 
the basis of their corolla lobe structure, but sufficiently 
distinct that they would not be recognized as close relatives by 
casual observers. The new genus is as follows. 

PROLOBUS R. M. King and H. Robinson, gen. nov. Asteracearum 
(Eupatorieae) . 

Plantae frutescentes ad 1.5 m altae mediocriter ramosae. 
Folia plerumque opposita superne alterna anguste breviter petiol- 
ata; laminae herbaceae ovatae nitidae base breviter acutae 
margine inciso-serratae vel duplo-serratae apice acutae vel 
breviter acuminatae supra et subtus sparse minute glandulo-punct- 
atae in nervis et marginis variabiliter puberulae, nervis secund- 
ariis erecto-patentiter pinnatis inferne congestioribus. Inflor- 
escentiae in ramis terminales cymosae alteime ramosae in ramis 
ascendentibus corymbosae. Capitula plerumque distincte breviter 
pedicellata; involucra mediocriter campanulata leniter subimbric- 
ata, bracteis ca. 12-15 ca. 2-seriatis subaeguilongis breviter 
acutis margine anguste scariosis extus valde bicostatis; recept- 
acula plana vel vix convexa glabra. Flores ca. 12-14 in capit- 
ulo; corollae pallide violescentes superne extus glanduliferae, 
tubis late cylindraceis , faucibus anguste infundibulares, cell- 
ulis elongatis in parietibus sinuosis, lobis vix longioribus 
quam latioribus extus in cellulis magnis firmis prominentibus 
intus breviter papillate appendiculatis; filamenta in partibus 
superioribus cylindrica, cellulis inferne subquadratis superne 
oblongis omnino in parietibus valde dense transverse annulate 
ornatis; appendices antherarum oblongae vix longioribus quam 
latioribus; basi stylorum glabri non noduliferi; appendices 
stylorum anguste lineares breviter mamillosae. Achaenia prism- 
atica 5-costata inferne paulum angustiora glabra vel superne 
1-2-setulifera; carpopodia late breviter cylindracea in marginis 
superioribus prominentis, cellulis' oblongis 2-3-seriatis in 
parietibus distincte Incrassatis multo porosis; setae pappi 25- 
30 irregulariter elongatae extus non planatae, cellulis apical- 
ibus angustis subacutis. Grana pollinis in diametro ca. 20 pm. 

Type species: Eupatoriim nitidulum Baker. 



1982 King & Robinson, Studies in the Eupatorieae 387 

The genus contains a single known species. 

PROLOBUS NITIDULUS (Baker) R. M. King and H. Robinson, comb. nov. 

Eupatorium nitidulum Baker in Martius, Flora Brasiliensis 
6 (2): 351. 1876. Syn. : Eupatoriim moritibense B.L.Robinson, 
Contrib. Gray Herb. n.s. 104: 23. 1934. Coastal Bahia, Brasil. 



BOOK REVIEWS 
Alma L. Moldenke 



"PLANT LIFE OF THE PACIFIC WORLD" by Elmer D. Merrill , xvii & 297 
pp. & 256 b/w fig., end-paper maps. Charles E. Tuttle Co. 
Publishers, Rutland, Vermont 05701. Facsimile Edition [1981] 
1982. $13.50. 

This is a welcome replication of the 1945 first edition long 
out of print to which has been added a new Foreword and a new 
Botanical Arrangement of the Species "to account for the changes 
in nomenclature which have been made" since. It provides an in- 
teresting survey as known to no other author as thoroughly as to 
the late E. D. Merrill and as indicated in some of the chapter 
headings: mangroves, caulif lores, forest types, weeds, ornamentals, 
edible plants, symbiotics with ants, etc. This book should inter- 
est botanists, ethnologists, naturalists, tourists who have visi- 
ted the area, and folks accustomed to intelligent reading who have 
spent some time in the area because of military assignment. Some 
of these folks will surely remember the author's "Emergency Food 
Plants and Poisonous Plants of the Islands of the Pacific" issued 
by the War Department and his advice in case of doubt "Eat what 
the monkeys eat". If isolated from their units and the last can 
of Spam had been consumed, their very lives would depend on such 
information. 



"PHYLOGENETICS: The Theory and Practice of Phylogenetic System- 

atics" by E. 0. Wiley, xv & 439 pp., 173 b/w fig., 19 tab. & 
6 maps. Wiley- Interscience Publication of John Wiley & Sons, 
New York, 13. Y. 10157. 1981. $37.50. 

This carefully and logically presented approach to systematics 
is "designed to estimate the pattern of phylogenetic descent that 
is needed to deduce the processes of evolution concerned with the 

origin of species and that accomplishes an ordering of organic 

diversity in such a way that our ideas concerning the inferred 
evolutionary relationships among organisms can be scientifically 
discussed and evaluated". The chapters deal with such topics as 
the biological and evolutionary species concepts and speciation, 
phylogenetic trees and cladograms, characters and reconstruction 
of phylogenies that are the only classification that "can serve as 
a general reference system for the diverse knowledge we now have 
and are gaining about the evolution of organisms." A very wide 
range of organisms and systems is scrutinized, making this book 
the best current treatment in this field. 

388 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviews 389 

"INSECT THERMOREGULATION" edited by Bernd Heinrich, xi & 328 pp., 
94 b/w fig., 5 photo, and 7 tab. Wiley- Interscience Publica- 
tion of John Wiley & Sons, Hew York, N. Y. 10158. 1981. 
$35.00. 

This interesting publication is comprised of seven emended 
papers by the editor and five other scientists from a symposium 
sponsored by the American Society of Zoologists, lleterothermy 
(intermittent or facultative endothermy) in insects is of wide 
taxonomlc occurrence and subserves a variety of functions and is 
dependent upon the flight motor and/or controlling the rate of 
heat loss through neural mechanisms. Regulation of temperature 
within the nests of social insects is either "automatic, long- 
term control over a wide range of environmental conditions through 
nest location and design and/or short-term control through behav- 
ioral and physiological responses of individual colony members 
to minute-by-minute environmental changes with the honey bee 
hive being judged the most effective. The last paper is by the 
editor on ecological (glycerol as antifreeze in poikilothermy in 
winter) and evolutionary prospectives of efficient temperature 
regulation (especially in those insects in which all major activ- 
ities - feeding, mating, dispersal and ovipositing - are associ- 
ated with flight). The concluding discussion in the form of a 
question-answer period is very interesting. 



"THE USEFUL PLANTS OF CENTRAL AMERICA" by Louis 0. Williams, 342 
pp. & 1 fig. Ceiba 42 (1-2). 1981. Available from the 
author at (1) Route 6, Pointe Clear, Rogers, Arkansas 72756 
or (2) Escuela Agricola Panamericana, Apto. 93, Tegucigalpa, 
Honduras. $14.50 postpaid to North American countries, 
$15.50 elsewhere, paperbound. 

"The purpose of this account of the useful plants of Central 
America - Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras. Nicaragua, Costa Rica 
and the Commonwealth nation of Belize - is to provide information 
on the plants that have been used for some purpose hy the people 
of our region" for food and beverages, spices and flavoring mater- 
ials, medicinal and drug sources, tobacco and true narcotics, 
fibers and tanners, forest products, rubber and latex, and orna- 
mentals and weeds. These plants are listed under their families 
alphabetically with brief notes on scientific names, common names, 
uses and origins. The author's years of field and herbarium ex- 
perience and his longtime familiarity with the pertinent litera- 
ture make this study thorough, reliable and truly valuable. An 
interesting note that the author makes is his choice of CEIBA for 
this publication because he was its main founder years ago. 



390 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 5 

"GARDEN FLOWERS COLORING BOOK" by Stefen Bernath, AA pp. & AO 

colored illus. on covers. Dover Publications, New York, N. 
Y. lOOlA. 1975. $1.35 paperbound. 

This is one of the earlier members in this part of the Dover 
Pictorial Archive Series. It does not have the quality of color- 
ing in some of the colored models on the covers as would be 
desired nor does it show as many structural details especially in 
the center of the flowers as it should, but it can still offer 
pleasant. Inexpensive pasttime to anyone who can move crayons 
or paint brushes steadyhandedly. 



"SMALL ANIMALS OF NORTH AMERICA COLORING BOOK" by Elizabeth A. 
McClelland, A8 pp., A5 b/w legended outlines & 25 colored 
plates on the covers. Dover Publications, Inc., New York, 
N. Y. lOOlA. 1981. $2.00 paperbound. 

This is one of the newer members in this part of the Dover 
Pictorial Archive Series and is a very good one. The animals are 
shown in good detail, caught in natural poses or typical actions 
with correct backgrounds. It could be well used in camps - es- 
pecially on rainy days - with shut-ins of all ages from 8 to 80 
and with Boy or Girl Scouts. It can be a valuable and pleasurable 
educational and recreational tool for individuals and/or groups. 



"AN ILLUSTRATED MANUAL OF PACIFIC COAST TREES" Second Edition by 
Howard E. McMinn & Evelyn Maino, xii & 503 pp., A15 b/w 
draw., 1 tab. & 2 maps. University of California Press, Los 
Angeles, California, New York, N. Y. 10017 & Berkeley, Cali- 
fornia 9A720. Reprint Edition. 1980. $12.95 clothbound. 
Reprint Edition. 1981 $6.95 paperbound. 

This careful study originally appeared in 1935 and has been 
much used ever since where available for the 1A6 native and about 
AOO introduced trees in the area. In the paperback edition (at 
least) the two Pacific coast maps reproduced at the end of the 
book are not clear enough to be serviceable. This is especially 
true of the one representing British Columbia, Washington and 
Oregon. Prof. H. W. Shepherd ^of landscape design) compiled the 
lists of trees recommended for various uses on the Pacific Coast. 
The keys are still readily workable, the illustrations very 
helpful and the descriptive text material still of the same 
valuable information. It is good to have this book readily a- 
vallable again. 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviews 391 

"USING WILD AND WAYSIDE PLANTS" by Nelson Coon, 284 pp., 140 b/w 
draw. & 85 geogr. distrib. maps. Dover Publications, New 
York, N. Y. 10014. Facsimile Edition. 1980. $4.00 paper- 
bound . 

This pleasant "old timer" is a corrected republication of the 
1957 "Using Wayside Plants" from the Hearthside Press. "The bib- 
liography has been greatly expanded and updated". It illustrates, 
describes, locates, gives food, beverage and craft uses for the 
common wayside plants still easily visible to the camper, hiker, 
biker and slow enough moving car driver. There are also warnings 
about poisonous plants and sensible conservation practices. 



"THE POSSIBLE AND THE ACTUAL" by Fran^^ois Jacob, viii & 71 pp.. 
University of Washington Press, Seattle, Washington 98105. 
1982. $8.95. 

Here is this season's published Jessie and John Danz Lecture 
Series presented to the University of Washington and now share- 
able with a reading public. The Noble laureate author contrasts 
the earlier all-solving myth with the more modern and more 
limited scientific method to interpreting truths. The next lec- 
ture chapter is on evolutionary tinkering. The last is on time 
and the invention of the future in reference to aging, diversity 
of living organisms, the evolution of the brain and our capacity 
for self-imagery. It is an interesting, astute, philosophical 
presentation. It is also available in a trade paperback edition 
from Pantheon Books at $3.95 a copy. 



"INVITATION TO BIOLOGY" Third Edition by Helena Curtis & N. Sue 
Barnes, xxii & 696 pp., 225 color & 350 b/w photo., 50 
boxed essays, hundreds of diag. & tab. Worth Publishing 
Company, New York, N. Y. 10016. 1981. $20.95. 

The excellent previous edition has been updated and improved: 
consequently this new edition is well written, organized, pre- 
sented and worth the price (which is a high one for students). 
The text is effectively presented, as well as copiously and 
beautifully illustrated. The short introductions to the chapters 
are helpful, as are the summaries and the sensible review ques- 
tions at their ends. I am particularly pleased with the choices 
in the realistically short annotated bibliography of biological 
gems. There is a new "Instructor's Manual" provided without cost 
for instructors who use the text, but it provides mostly answers 
to the review questions. There is also a "Study Guide to Accom- 
pany Invitation to Biology" that sells for $6.95. If I were 
still teaching I would prefer to have the students spend their 



392 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 5 

time with the beautiful text and laboratory and /or field work in- 
stead of on the Study Guide. 

"BEGONIAS: The Complete Reference Guide" by Mildred L. Thompson & 
Edward J. Thompson, xii & 356 pp., 164 color & ca. 350 b/w 
photo., 28 draw., & 27 historical pi. TIMES Books, New York, 
N. Y. 10016. 1981. $37.50 oversize. 

This publication is a 'thing of beauty', an admirable quarter- 
of-a-century summary of cultivating and studying all kinds of be- 
gonias, their botany, lore, history and bibliography — all for an 
amazingly low price for a book of this size and quality. The 
authors have done most of the exquisite photography themselves. 
They have in their greenhouses now over 1600 of the 2459 known spe- 
cies and cultivars of Begoniaceae. Seven years ago the authors 
published the three-volume looseleaf "Thompson Begonia Guide" i/hich 
is still being updated and revised. This preliminary and ongoing 
study for serious collectors has helped make this present publica- 
tion so well prepared. The text demonstrates and explains all 
steps and problems in general culture. It then treats all the 
known kinds under the following horticultural classification: 
cane-like, shrub-like, thick-stemmed, semper florens, rhizomatous. 
Rex Cultorum, and tuberous; and under each treats the botanical 
and cultivar taxonomy, considers special growing features and pro- 
vides illustrations. There are chapters on special growing en- 
vironments and hybridizing. There is a detailed annotated direc- 
tory of all known begonia names, even including pre-Linnean ones, 
a glossary and a detailed bibliography of the authors' library. 

The authors also publish from their Southampton, N. Y. 11968 ad- 
dress a catalogue of the many begonias available in their green- 
houses. 

"DYNAMIC ECOLOGY" by Boyd D. Collier, George W. Cox, Albert W. . 
Johnson & Philip G. Miller, viii & 563 pp., 131 b/w fig., 80 
tab., 3 photo. £< 10 maps. Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood 
Cliffs, New Jersey 07632. 1973. $20.95. 

This text is still pertinent for those who have studied the 
descriptive/organismal approach (which it intentionally omits) and 
need to be introduced to the "dynamics of ecological systems - the 
interrelations between structure and function. Among others, there 
are chapters on: resource relationships of species in competition, 
structure and organization of communities, trophic structure and 
dynamics of ecosystems with effectively figured biogeocheraical 
cycle figures and their suggested evolution, and integration of 
ecosystem structure and function. The conclusion is effectively 
written. 1 would like students to read it as an introduction as well. 
ITie 2 photographic illustrations of Encelia are very poor indeed. 
Many of the figures and tables are from separate research findings 
and are very helpful. 



ff PHYTOLOGIA 



A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 



Vol. 50 April 1982 No. 6 



CONTENTS 

SCOTT, A. R., & HENRY, R. D., New niinois angiosperm 

distribution records 393 

GOMEZ P., L. D., Plantae mesoamericanae novae, II 401 

FOOTE, M. A., The algae of New Jersey (U.S.A.) II. Euglenophyta 

(Euglenoids) 405 

JORDAN, J. L., JORDAN, L. S., & JORDAN, C. M., Ultra- 
cooling and metabolic intermediates on Echinochloa 
crusgalli (L.J Beauv. seeds 408 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on the genus Glossocarya (Verbenaceae) .... 413 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on the genus Hymenopyramis 

(Verbenaceae) 432 

Announcement to authors 446 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 447 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number $3.00; for this volume $12.00 in advance or $13,00 after 

close of the volume; $4.00 extra to all foreign addresses and domestic 

dealers; 512 pages constitute a complete volume; claims for numbers lost 

in the mails must be made immediately after receipt of the next following 

number for free replacement; back volume prices apply if payment is received 

after a volume is closed. 



NEW ILLINOIS MGIOSPERM DISTRIBUTION RECORDS 
Alice R. Scott-'- and R. D. Henry^ 



ABSTRACT: One hundred ninety-five new county distribution records 
for Illinois angiosperms are reported. 

The recent updating of Illinois vascular plant distribution 
by Mohlenbrock and Ladd (19T8) and Mohlenbrock (19T8, I98O, I981) 
has spurred additional collecting efforts resulting in many new 
distribution records for Illinois. These are listed primarily in 
Henry, Scott and Shildneck (19T8), Scott and Henry (l9T9), Solomon 
(1979) and Shildneck, Jones and Muhlenbach (1981). 

This report lists 195 new records for west-central Illinois 
angiosperm species. Nomenclature follows Mohlenbrock and Ladd 
(1978) and/or Mohlenbrock (1975). Following each plant are the 
county or counties from which it is being reported and the 
collection number(s). All plants were collected by the authors 
with voucher specimens deposited in the R. M. Myers Herbarium of 
Western Illinois University (MWI). 

ALPHABETICAL LIST OF SPECIES 



Ailanthus altissima (Mill. ) 
Swingle 

Henderson (18OO) 
Mercer (1386) 

Althaea rosea (L.) Cav. 
Hancock (2239-221+0) 
Henderson (1799) 
McDonough (2l68) 
Mercer (1932) 

Amaranthus graecizans L. 
Mercer (1361) 

Amaranthus retroflexus L. 
Henderson (1813) 

Amaranthus tamariscinus Nutt . 
Mercer (1I+I+8, 1^93, li+95) 
Schuyler (2003-200U) 



Amorpha fruticosa L. 
Mercer (1358, lii37) 

Antennaria neglecta Greene 
Mercer (l306) 

Armoracia lapathifolia Gilib 
Henderson (1890) 

Artemisia annua L. 
Mercer (1515) 

Asclepias purpurescens L. 
Brown (2097) 

Asclepias tuberosa L. var. 
interior (Woodson) Shinners 
Mercer (I365) 



■^Rural Route #1, Macomb, XL 61I+55 

^Department of Biological Sciences, Western Illinois University, 
Macomb, IL 61U55 

393 



394 PHYTOLOGIA 

Aster azureus Lindl. 
Mercer (li+22-lU2l+) 

Aster ontarionis Wieg. 
Mercer (l!4l+l) 

Aster puniceus L. var. 
lucidulus Gray 

McDonough (2156-2159) 

Aster sericeus Vent . 
McDonough (210U) 

Avena sativa L. 

Henderson (l93T) 
Warren (1958) 

Belamcanda chinensis ( L . ) DC . 
Mercer (1935) 

Berteroa incana (L.) DC. 
Mercer (l390) 

Betula nigra L. 
Brown (206l) 

Bidens frondosa L. 

Mercer (1UI45, lUWj) 

Bidens vulgata Greene 
McDonough (2197) 

Boehmeria cylindrica ( L . ) SW . 
Mercer (ll+l+2-ll+hl+) 

Brassica juncea (L.) Coss. 
Mercer (1315) 

Camassia scilloides (Raf . ) Cory 
Sch\iyler (2022) 

Camelina microcarpa Andrz. 
Henderson (1589) 

Carduus nutans L. 
Brown (2070) 
Peoria (22^9) 
Pike (1659) 
Warren (195U) 

Carex bicknellii Britt. 
Mercer (l9^0) 



Vol. 50, No. 6 

Carex lanuginosa M ichx. 
Mercer (19^6) 

Carex trichocarpa Muhl. 
Mercer (19^3) 

Castilleja coccinea L. 
Brown (2092) 
Schuyler (202U) 

Caulophyllum thalictroides (L.j 
Michx. 

McDonough (2128-2132) 

Cenchrus longispinus (Hack. ) 
Fern. 

Mercer (1529) 

Centaurea maculosa Lara. 
Hancock (22)47-221+8) 

Ceratophyllum demersura L. 
Mercer (1372-137^, lUBl) 

Chloris verticillata Nutt . 
Morgan (2250) 

Chrysanthemum leucanthemum L. 
Henderson (1928) 
Mercer (135^+) 

Cichorium intybus L. 
Henderson (15^2 ) 
Mercer (1352) 

Cirsium arvense (L.) Scop. var. 
horridura Wimm. & Grab. 
Warren (l99l) 

Comandra richardsiana Fern. 
Mercer (l303) 

Commelina communis L. 
Mercer (ll+lM 

Conium maculatiom L. 
Mercer (1312) 

Convolvulus arvensis 
Henderson (1585) 



1982 



Scott & Henry, New Illinois records 



395 



Coreopsis palmata Nutt . 
Brown (2066) 
Schuyler (2026) 



Elodea nuttallii (Planch. ) 
St. John 

Mercer (13T5-13TT) 



Coronilla varia L. 
Mercer (l370) 



Epilobium coloratum Muhl, 
Mercer (1U9O, 1502) 



Cycloloma atriplicifolium Spreng. 
Coult . 

McDonough (2126-212?) 

Cyperus rivularis Kunth. 
Henderson (1919) 

Cypripedium calceolus L. var. 
pubescens (Willd. ) Correll 
Fulton (2252) 

Datura stramonium L. var. 
tatula (L. ) Torr. 
Mercer (1523-152^4) 



Eragrostis frankii C . A . Mey . 
Mercer (1866) 

Erigeron strigosus Muhl . 
Schuyler (2036) 

Erysimum repandum L. 
Mercer (1339) 

Euphorbia cyparissias L. 
Mercer (13OI) 

Fraxinus pensylvanica Marsh. 
Mercer (lUol) 



Descurainia sophia ( L . ) Webb . 
Henderson (lT93, l895, 1907) 



Galium tinctorium L. 
Henderson (I863) 



Desmanthus illinoensis (Michx. ) 
MacM. 

Henderson (183U-I835) 

Digitaria ischaemum (Schreb.) 
Muhl. 

Mercer (lU02) 



Diodia teres Walt . 
Mercer ( 1^*11) 

Dipsacus laciniatus L. 
Mercer (l356) 

Dipsacus sylvestris Huds . 
Brown (2095) 

Eleocharis acicularis ( L • ) Roam . 
& Schultes 

Mercer (18U6) 

Eleocharis obtusa (Willd.) Schult. 
var. detonsa (Gray) Drap. & 
Mohlenbr. 

Brovn (208l) 



Gaura parviflora Dougl . 

Henderson (15^*0-15^+1, 1833) 

Geranium carolinianum L. 
Henderson (19II) 

Gillenia stipulata (Muhl. ) 
Baill. 

Schuyler (2027, 2030, 2031) 

Glechoma hederacea L. var. 
micrantha Moricand 
Henderson (1886) 
Mercer (l3l8) 

Helianthus tuberosus L. 
Schuyler (2017) 

Hemerocallis fulva L. (l839 has 
double flowers) 

Henderson (1550, I58O, l839) 
Mercer (1385) 



396 PHYTOLOGIA 

Heracleum maximiim Bartr. 
Brown (206U) 
Mercer (l32U) 



Vol. 50, No. 6 

Lithospermum canescens (Michx. 
Lehm. 

Mercer (1302) 



Hesperis matronal! s L. 
Mercer (l332) 



Lo"belia splcata Lam. 
Mercer (1362) 



Heuchera richardsonii R. Br. 
var. grayana Rosend. , Butt., I 
Lak. 

Mercer (133^) 

Impatiens biflora Walt . 
Mercer (15IT) 

Ipomoea hederacea (L.) Jacq. 
Mercer (1528) 
Schuyler (20l8) 

Ipomoea purpurea (L.) Roth. 
Mercer (1U18, I516) 

Iris germanica L. 
Mercer (1310) 

Juglans cinerea L. 
Mercer (1508) 

Kochia scoparia (L.) Roth. 
Henderson (1T18-1T2U) 

Lami\im amplexicaule L. 
Pike (16H1) 

Lamium purpureum L. 
Pike (1613) 

Leersia oryzoides (L.) Swart z. 
Mercer (18T8-I880) 
Schuyler (20l6) 

Lepidium campestre ( L . ) R . Br . 
Henderson (169^*, 1910) 

Lespedeza capitata Michx. 
Warren (1965) 



Lonicera xylosteum L. 

Henderson (188T, I888) 

Lotus corniculatus L. 
Henderson (1552) 
Mercer (1359) 
Schuyler (20Ul) 

Ludwigia palustris (L.) Ell. 
var. americana (PC) Fern. & 
Grisc. 

Mercer (li+56, IU60) 

Lychnis alba Mill. 

Henderson (1851-185^*) 

Lycopersicum esculentum Mill. 
McDonough (2135) 

Lysimachia ciliata L. 
Brown (2080) 

Lysimachia nummularia L. 
Mercer (l300) 

Malus pumila Mill. 
Mercer (i860 ) 

Matricaria chamomilla L. 
Brown (2096) 

Menispermum canadense L. 

Henderson (1551, 1572, I881) 

Morus alha L. 

Schuyler (2052-2053) 

Nelumbo lutea (Willd.) Pers. 
Mercer (15OO) 



Lilimn michiganense Farv. 
Br own (2079) 
Mercer (193I4) 



Ornithogalum umbellatum L. 
Henderson (1909) 
Schuyler (2021) 



1982 



Scott & Henry, New Illinois records 



397 



Panicum leibergii (Vasey) Scribn. 
Mercer (i8T2) 

Paniemn oligosanthes Schult. var. 
scribnerianum (Nash) Fern. 
Brown (2059) 

Parthenium integrifolium L. 
Schuyler (2025) 

Pedicularis canadensis L. 
Mercer (l30^) 

Phalaris arundinacea L. 
Brown (2062) 
Mercer (1360, 1522) 

Phlox divaricata L. ssp. laphamii 
(Wood) Wherry 
Mercer (l32T) 

Physostegia virginiana (L. ) Benth. 
Mercer (lU66) 

Poinsettia dentata (Michx.) Kl. & 
Garcke 

Mercer (lU05, 1525) 

Polygonum aviculare L. 
Henderson (1858) 
Mercer (l859) 

Polygonum cuspidatum Sieb. & 
Zucc. 

Henderson (I891) 

Polygonum erectiim L. 
Brown (2069) 
Henderson (1581) 
Mercer (1355) 

Polygonum lapathifolium L. 
Mercer (1I5U-II+55) 

Polygonum persicaria L. 
Mercer (1506) 

Polytaenia nuttallii DC 
Brown (2067 ) 



Populus alba L. 
Mercer (1319) 

Potamogeton crlspus L. 
Henderson (l579, I802) 

Prenanthes aspera Michx. 
Mercer (1^+6^*) 

Ptelea trifoliata L. 
Mercer (l526) 

Pyrus communis L. 
McDonough (2103) 

Quercus bicolor Willd. 
Mercer (186I-I862) 

Rorippa sylvestris (L.) Bess. 
Brown (20T3) 

Rosa Carolina L. var. villosa 
(Best. ) Rehd. 

Henderson (I582) 

Rosa mult i flora Thunb . 
Henderson (l55^) 
Mercer (1357) 

Rumex crispus 

Henderson (1539) 

Sagittaria latifolia Willd. 
Mercer (1U85) 

Sagittaria rigida Pursh 
Schuyler (20U6) 

Salsola kali L. var. tenuifolia 
Tausch. 

Henderson (l5^^) 

Sanicula gregaria Bickn. 
Mercer (1322, 1330 ) 

Scirpus americanus Pers . 
Henderson (l93l) 



398 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, Ho. 6 



Scirpus pendulus Miihl . 
Schuyler (2032, 201+2) 



Stipa spartea Trin. 
Henderson (1791+) 



Sediom ternatum Michx. 
McDonough (2150-2151) 



Thlaspi arvense L. 
Henderson (l89T) 



Sicyos angulatus L. 
Mercer (1U50) 



Tilia americana L. 
Schuyler (205^+) 



Sismybrium altissimum L. 
Henderson (1555) 



Tragopogon dub i us Scop. 
Henderson (I898) 



Sonchus arvensis L. var. 
glabrescens Guenth. , Gram. , & 
Winn. 

Henderson (I838, l8l40-l8i+2) 
Mercer (1933) 

Sonchus oleraceus L. 
Schuyler (2038) 
Warren (l990) 

Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench. 
Mercer (l86i+-l865 ) 

Sparganium eurycarpum Engelm. 
Mercer (1U86) 

Spartina pectinata L. 
Schuyler (2011-2012 ) 

Spermolepis inermis ( Nutt . ) 
Math. & Constance 

Henderson (153^, 1583) 

Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth. 
Mercer (15II) 
Schuyler (2019) 

Sporobolus heterolepis (Gray) 
Gray 

Mercer (1U21) 

Stachys palustris L. var. 
homotricha Fern. 
Warren (196O ) 



Tragopogon pratensis L. 
Mercer (15IO) 

Triplasis purpurea (Wait . ) 
Chapm . 

Mercer (18TI) 

Tripsacum dactyloides (L.) L. 
Warren (1979-1983) 

Triticijm cylindricim (Host. ) 
Ces. 

Henderson (l5^3) 

Typha angustifolia L. 
Henderson (15I16-I5I+9) 
Mercer (l857) 



Ulmus pumila L. 

Henderson (l893) 

Verbascum blattaria L. 
Henderson (1565-1566 ) 

Viburnum lentago L. 
Henderson (I901) 



Vicia villosa Roth. 
Pike (1688) 

Viola rafinesquii Greene 



qu: 



Henderson (1537 ) 

Viola triloba Schwein var. 
dilatata (Ell. ) Brainerd 
Mercer (1305) 



1982 Scott & Henry, New Illinois records 399 

Wolffia paupulifera Thompson 
Mercer {lk'J2-lh'J3) 

Zannichellia palustris L. 
Mercer (lit82-li+8i+) 

Zea mays L. 

Mercer (l51^) 
Scott (1606) 

Zizia aurea (L. ) Koch 
Henderson (19OO) 

Zosterella dubia ( Jacq. ) Small 
Henderson (1805-I8OT) 



Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers . (1712-1713) was collected from 
Pike County and would be a record according to Mohlenbrock and 
Ladd (1978). However, Mohlenbrock (1973) has a dot in Pike 
County for this species. 

The following subspecific taxa were also collected: 



Mimulus ringens L. var. 
minthodes (Greene) Grant 
McDonough (2206) 

Phalaris arundinacea L. f . 
picta (L.) Asch. & Graebn. 
Brown (2093-209^+) 

Phlox pilosa L. ssp. fulgida 
( Wherry) Wherry 
Mercer (1337) 

Verbascum blattaria L. f . erubescens 
Brugger 

McDonough (2231) 



400 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 30, No. 6 

LITERATURE CITED 

Henry, R. D., A. R. Scott and P. Shildneck. 1978. Additions to 
the distribution of Illinois vascular plants. Trans. 111. 
State Acad. Sci. 71: 51-61. 

Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1973. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: 
Grasses - PaniciJin to Danthonia . Southern Illinois University 
Press, Carbon dale. 

Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1975. A guide to the vascular flora of Illi- 
nois. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 

Mohlenbrock, R. H. 1978. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: 
Flowering Plants - Hollies to Loasas . Southern Illinois Uni- 
versity Press, Carbondale. 

Mohlenbrock, R. H. 198O. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: 
Flowering Plants - Willows to Mustards. Southern Illinois 
University Press, Carbondale. 

Mohlenbrock, R. H. I98I. The Illustrated Flora of Illinois: 

Flowering Plants - Magnolias to Pitcher Plants. Southern Illi- 
nois University Press, Carbondale. 

. and D. M. Ladd. 1978. Distribution of Illinois vascular 



plants. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale. 

Scott, A. R. and R. D. Henry. 1979- Additions to the vascular 
flora of west central Illinois. Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 
72: 52-55. 

Shildneck, P., A. G. Jones and V. Muhlenbach. I98I. Additions to 
the vouchered records of Illinois plants and a note on the 
occurrence of Rumex cristatus in North America. Phytologia 
U7(i*): 265-290. 

Solomon, J. C. 1979. An annotated list of vascular plants from 
Knox County, Illinois. Trans. 111. State Acad. Sci. 72: 9- 
29. 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 

We gratefully acknowledge the Western Illinois University In- 
stitute for Environmental Management and the Western Illinois Uni- 
versity Research Council for travel funding. 



PL/WTAE fESOAf'ERICAflAE mVAE .II.* 

by Luis D. Gomez P. 
Museo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica 



For a number of years the Costa Rican collections of Zamia L. (Cy- 
cadaceae) have been placed either under the names z. skinner i Warsz. 
or £. pseudoparasi tica Yates, but it was obvious tKat several entities 
were present and mixed up in the materials. A revision of exsiccatae 
and several years of observation in the field lead me to separate the 
following taxa for Costa Rica and Panama: 

Zamia acuminata 0rsted ex Dyer in Hemsley, Biol. Cent. Amer. Bot. 3: 
194. 1883, Described from southern Nicaragua it is rarely found 
in the tropical moist lowland and premontane forests of Costa Ri- 
ca. 

Zamia chigua Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 2:201. t.3., 1854. (z. lindleyi 
Warsz., Allg. Gartenz. 19:146. 1851; z. lindleyana Warsz. in Wend. 
Ind. Palm. 53. 1854.). A South American species undoubtedly to be 
found in the Darien and possibly other parts of Panama and of ad- 
jacent Costa Rica. 

Zamia fairchiidiana L. D. Goniez sp. nov. ( Z. pseudo-pseudoparasi tica 

Dressier, riarie Selby Bot. Gdn. Bull. 2(3). 22. nom. nud., I. pseu- 
doparasitica s. auct. in herb.). 

Truncus cylindricus 1 m et ultra altus, 10-14 cm crassus, irregu- 
lariter subannulatus. Folia numerosa, 0.9-1.80 m longa, oblongata. 
Petiolus cum rachi obscure quadrangulatus, dense aculeatus, glaber. Folio- 
la 10-30-plura, alterna vel subalterna, oblonga-lanceolata quasi vittata, 
basi gradual iter reducta apicen acuta , integra vel ad apiceni pauce den- 
ticulata, nervis 27-30, supra sulcatis subtus quasi impressis, 20-30 cm 
longa, 3-4 cm lata, chartaceo-rigida, lucida. Strobili masc. aggregati , 
cylindrici, obtusi, avel lanei-velutini . Strobili fern, ferruginei. Pelta 
hexagona. Semina ovalia, usque ad 20 mm longa ca.l5 mm diametro, rubra. 

Of the z_. chigua group from which it differs in the characters of the 
stem, armature of petiole and rachis, size of leaflets and their textu- 
re and number of veins. Flolotyi)us: Rio Claro, near Sirena, Peninsula de 
Osa, Puntarenas, 50m, L.D.Gomez 7948 (CR) . Paratypus: Isla Violin, Rio 
Sierpe, Puntarenas, G6mez-L. 5 Bermudez 2665 (USJ) . 

It is a species of the tropical rain forests seldom found above 700 m. 
Mr. Robert G. Wilson of Las Cruces Bot. Gardens has distributed liorti- 
cultural materials under the name z_. fairchildi . 

* Partially funded by grants from CONICIT, NSF and Tlie Tinker Foundation. 

401 



402 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

zamia pseudomonticola L. D. Gomez sp. nov. Truncus erectus usque ad 
30 cm altus, 5-7 cm dianietro, nudus. Petiolus inferiore parte 
glaber, inermis. Petiolus cum rachi supra obscure trigonus sub- 
tus convexus. Folia 3-10, 80-100 cm longa, 9-14-juga, basim a- 
brupte truncata. Foliola opposita, elliptico-lanceolata, acumi- 
nata, acumen rectum vel retrorsum, falcata, basi contracta, integra, 
15-22 cm longa, 3.5-4.5 cm lata, nervis in maxima latitudine 32, im- 
mersis. Strobili masc. pedunculo 4-6 cm longo, erecti , 8-9.5 cm lon- 
gi. Pelta microsporophylla hexagonal i, pyramidato-truncati . Pelta me- 
gasporophyl la subquadrangulari . Semina armeniaca, subsphaericae, 1.3- 
1.7 cm diametro. 

Related to z_. monticola Chamberlain, from which it differs in the gla- 
brous, unarmed petioles, lack of persistent leaf bases, dimensions and 
characters of the strobili. It could be confused with z_. acuminata , a 
lowland species with fewer leaflets witli almost straight upper margins 
with the acumen directed upwards, caudate apex and spiny petioles. 
Holotypus: Sitio Coton, SW slopes of Cerro Pando, 1300 m, in mixed 
Ouercus-wimmeria-Symplocos forests (CR) . Isotypi: F, ND. 
It is likely to occur in the adjacent parts of Panama. 

Zamia pseudoparasitica Yates in Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 2:202.1852- 
1857. A species of South America found also in the Panamanian 
forests and, possibly, in the mountains of SW Costa Rica. It is 
the only epiphytic zamia in the area. Cf. Dressier, Marie Selby 
Bot. Gardens Bull. 2(3): 22 -23. 

Zamia skinner i Warszewicz in Otto ^ Dietr., Allg. Gartenz. 19:146.18- 
51; Seemann, Bot. Voy. Herald 2:202,252. 1852-1857. A species 
widely distributed in the rainforests of both versants of Cen- 
tral America, it is easily identified by the deeply veined, ser- 
rate-denticulate leaflets. 



Key to the Costa Rica- Panama species of Zamia 

Plants epiphytic. Stems subglobose or contorted-cylindrical. Petioles 
unarmed or rarely with few prickles. Leaflets strap-sliaped,subfalca 
te, entire. Z^. pseudoparasi tica 



1 . - Plants terrestrial 2 

2. -Margin of leaflets serrate-denticulate, leaflets almost plicate. 
Petiole and often the rachis spiny. z_. skinneri 

2. -Margin of leaflets entire or with a few apical teeth 3 

3.- Petiole and rachis unarmed. Leaflets acuminate, the acumen straiglit 
or directed downwards. Fronds many-foliolate. z_. pseudomonticola 

3.- Petiole and rachis with prickles or spines present at least at the 
petiolar base 4 



1982 Gdmez P. , Plantae mesoamericanae novae 403 

4.- Leaflets 6-9 pairs, elliptic-lanceolate, long acuminate. Pet iolar 
base witli spines £. acuminata 

4.- Leaflets many-paired, strap-shaped, apex obtuse or acute but never 
acuminate, entire or with a few teeth. Petioles and rachises with 
spines 5 

5. -Base of the stipe inflated, - round in t.s., tomentose when young. 
Leaflets deeply sulcate above, with 18-22(25) nerves. Stem subglo- 
bose-cylindrical, rarely more than 75 cm tall. Petioles and rachis 
es densely spiny. z. chigua 

5. -Base of stipe not inflated, - trihedric in t.s., glabrous. Leaf lets 
smooth on both sides or the veins liardly perceptible, 27-30. The 
stem cylindrical, simple or rarely branched. Petioles and rachis 
spiny. Z_. fairchildiana 



Plate 1 
Representative leaflets of 2 a mi a spp., the included numbers indicate 
the highest number of veins observed in the area. A- £. chigua , B,C, 
D- Z_. pseudoparasitica , E,F- Z_. fairchildiana , G- Z_. skinner i , H- Z_. 
acuminata , I- Z. pseudomonticola . 



A04 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 6 



B JO D 




Plate 1 



The Algae of New Jersey (U.S.A.) 
II. Euglenophyta (Euglenoids) 



MaryAnn Foote 
Ecology Program 
Rutgers University 
New Brunswick, New Jersey 08903 



The following checklist is the second in a series 
concerning the presence and distribution of algae in the 
state of New Jersey (see Foote, 1982 for introductory 
remarks) . 

Again, the genera are arranged alphabetically and 
locations within them are chronological to aid the 
researcher in tracking environmental changes in 
distribution. Ecological information is given to the 
extent available and further information may be obtained 
from the original literature source. If no citation is 
given, the species was noted by the author. 



Euglenophyta Euglenoids 

Cryptoglena pigra Ehr. 

Delaware-Rar itan Canal, Feb (Renlund, 1953) 
Entosiphon sulcatum (Duj.) Stein 
Pine Barrens (Moul £. Buell, 1979) 
Euglena acus Ehr. 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, Aug (Renlund, 1953); ponds 
and streams in Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979); Hackensack 
River 

Euglena acut issima Lemm. 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, Aug (Renlund, 1953) 
Euglena deses ehr. 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Euglena ehrenbergi i Klebs 
northern shore (Olsen L Cohn, 1979) 
Euglena elongata Schwiakoff 

bog and pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 
Euglena gracilis Klebs 
Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 
Euglena mutabilis Schmitz. 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, May to Dec (Renlund, 
1953); bogs, swamps and ponds in the Pine Barrens (Moul & 
Buell, 1979); northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 
Euglena proxima Dangeard 
northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

405 



406 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

Euglena pumila Campbell 

northern shore (Olsen £ Cohn , 1979) 

Euglena soc iabilis Dangeard 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, Sept (Renlund, 1953) 

Euglena spi rogyra Ehr . 

pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Euglena tripteris (Duj.) Klebs 

northern shore Toisen & Cohn, 1979) 

Euglena vir idis Ehr. 

common in stagnant waters (Britton, 1889); northern 

shore (Olsen fi< Cohn, 1979) 

Euglena ver i f ormis Carter 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Eutrept ia lanowi i Steuer 

northern shore Toisen & Cohn, 1979) 

Eutreptia viridis Perty 

northern shore Toisen & Cohn, 1979) 

Eutreptiella marina daCanha 

northern shore (Olsen L Cohn, 1979) 

Peranema tr ichophorum (Ehr.) Stein 

Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Phacus crenulata Presc. 

pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Phacus longicauda (Ehr.) Duj. 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, June-Feb (Renlund, 

1953); bogs and pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Phacus pleuronectes (O.F. Mull.) Duj. 

ponds and streams in Pine Barrens (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Phacus pyrum (Ehr.) Stein 

ponds and streams in Pine Barrens (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Trachelomonas armata (Ehr.) Stein 

pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Trachelomonas euchlora (Ehr.) Lemm. 

Hackensack River 

Trachelomonas hispida (Perty) Stein 

Hackensack River 

Trachelomonas horr ida Palm. 

Pine Barrens (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Trachelomonas intermedia Dangeard 

northern shore (Olsen & Cohn, 1979) 

Trachelomonas lacustr is Drezepolski 

pond at Helmetta (Moul 6. Buell, 1979) 

Trachelomonas superba (Swir.) Defl. 

pond at Helmetta (Moul & Buell, 1979) 

Trachelomonas volvocina Ehr. 

Delaware-Raritan Canal, May-Mar (Renlund, 

1953); bogs and swamps in Pine Barrens (Moul & 

Buell, 1979) 



1982 Foote, Algae of New Jersey A07 

References 



Britton, N.L. 188S. Catalogue of Plants Found in New 
Jersey . Final Report of the State Geologist, Vol. II 
John L. Murphy Publishing Co., Trenton, N.J. 612 pp. 



Foote, M.A. 1982. The algae of New Jersey (U.S.A.). I. 
Chrysophyta (Yellow-Green Algae). Xanthophyceae , 
Chrysophyceae and Prymnesiophyceae . Phytologia 50:311-16 



Moul, T.E. and H.F. Buell. 1979. Algae of the Pine 
Barrens. Ijn: R.T.T. Forman, Editor, Pine Barrens ; 
Scosystem and Landscape . Academic Press, Inc. New York 
601 pp. 



Olsen, P. and M. Cohn. 1979. Phytoplankton in lower 
New York Bay and adjacent New Jersey estuarine and coastal 
waters. Bull. N.J. Acad. Sci. 24:59-69 



Renlund, R.W. 1953. A study of the net plankton of the 
Delaware and Raritan Canal. Ph.D. Thesis. Rutgers 
University. New Brunswick, N.J. 



ULTRACOOLING AND METABOLIC INTERMEDIATES ON 
ECHINOCHLOA CRUSGALLI (L.) BEAUV. SEEDS 

James L. Jordan, Lowell S. Jordan, and Catalina M. Jordan 

Department of Botany and Plant Sciences, Univerity of California 
Riverside, California 92521 



Echinochloa crusgalli (L.) Beauv. (Barnyardgrass) is an 
annual that is a principal weed of rice, sugar beets, potatoes, 
maize, and cotton. It grows best in moist soils and can grow 
partly submerged in water. 

E^. crusgalli reproduces and spreads by seeds; as many as 
40,000 seeds may be produced per plant (Holm, et al., 1977). 
When the seeds are shed, they are usually dormant; this dormancy 
may last up to 48 months. Although E^. crusgalli is considered 
the third worst weed in the world (Holm, et al. 1977), the mech- 
ansim by which its seeds remain dormant or begin to germinate is 
not well understood. Research was conducted to study possible 
physiological reasons for E. crusgalli seed dormancy and germin- 
ation. 

Mature florets of E^. crusgalli were harvested from two 
maize fields in central Iowa. The florets were stored dry in 
muslin bags at 24°C. The glumes were removed prior to use by 
rubbing the florets between hands. Debris was separated from 
the florets with a seed cleaner. 

Since ultracooling E^. crusgalli florets increases seed 
germination (Jordan, 1981; Jordan and Montecillo, 1981), E. 
crusgalli florets were ultracooled with liquid nitrogen (196°C) 
by covering the florets with 3 cm depth of liquid nitrogen. 
The liquid nitrogen level was maintained above the upper layer 
of the florets. After 4 min, the liquid nitrogen was allowed 
to evaporate and the florets were thawed for 1 h in 24°C air. 
The florets were mixed after the ice had dissipated. Repeated 
ultracooling was obtained by ultracooling and thawing the 
florets for the same time periods previously mentioned; florets 
were ultracooled up to 4 times. Alternate ultracooling and 
thawing was done on 3 groups of 5,000 florets taken from each 
collection site. Florets that floated during the ultracooling 
were discarded. After the florets were ultracooled 4 times, 
3 replications of 100 florets from each of the 3 groups of 
florets ultracooled were germinated. 

To germinate the seeds, florets were placed between 2 
pieces of Whatman No. 1 filter paper (9 cm dia) in 10 cm dia 

408 



1982 J., L., & C. Jordan, Echinochloa seeds 409 

plastic petri dishes. The filter paper was moistened with 5 ml 
distilled water. Two ml distilled water was added to each petri 
dish after 2, 4 and 6 days successively to maintain adequate 
moisture. The seeds were germinated in the dark at 35°C. Ger- 
mination was recorded daily for one week and germinated seeds 
were removed daily. A sustained level of germination was reach- 
ed in 2 days. Therefore, 2 days was the time frame used in 
subsequent germination tests. 

After either or 4 ultracooling and thawing cycles, 3 
replications of 100 seeds from each of the 3 ultracooling series 
were germinated in 10~^ metabolic intermediates (Table 1). Also, 
methylene blue and Tween 20 (0.1 percent, v/v) were used in two 
different tests. The germination conditions were the same as 
used previously; total germination was recorded after two days. 
The change in germination for each substrate was calculated by 
subtractng the number of seeds germinating in water from the 
number of seeds germinated in a substrate (or intermediate). 

To distinguish between substrate and ultracooling effects, 
T-tests were calculated for the changes in germination (from 
water standards) for each substrate added. The T-test values 
were calculated using the following formula: 

T-test value = (mn - mA)/(o^n"-'- + o^n"-'") 
" ^ 4 4 

Where: 

mQ = the difference between the germination 

means of nonultracooled seeds in substrate 
solution versus nonultracooled seeds in 
water 

m4 = the difference between the germination 
means of ultracooled seeds in substrate 
solution versus ultracooled seeds in water 

o^ = the variance of germination of nonultra- 
cooled seeds in substrate solution versus 
nonultracooled seeds in water 

a = the variance of germination of ultra- 
cooled seeds in substrate solution versus 
nonultracooled seeds in water 

ng = total number of 100-seed replicates used 
for nonultracooled seeds in either water 
or substrate (nQ = 18) 

n^ = total number of 100-seed replicates used 
for ultracooled seeds in either water or 
substrate (n^ = 18) 



410 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

T-tests are positive if a greater increase in germination 
occurred for nonultracooled seed than for ultracooled seeds; 
they are negative if a greater increase in germination occurred 
for ultracooled seeds than for nonultracooled seeds. 

In general, the addition of selected metabolic intermediates 
from glycolysis, the pentose phosphate pathway, the citric acid 
cycle, the glyoxylate cycle, and other pathways increased germin- 
ation of E. crusgalli seeds. The exceptions to this are 2- 
phosphoglycerate, 3-phosphoglycerate, and pyruvic acid, which 
occur at the latter portion of the glycolysis pathway. The 
following metabolic intermediates also resulted in negative t- 
test values: succinic acid, fumaric acid, and malic acid, which 
occur at the latter portion of the citric acid cycle. Thus, 
there is a strong possibility that E. crusgalli dormancy and 
germination are intimately associated with the glycolysis and 
citric acid cycle pathways. The precise nature of the effect of 
glycolysis and the citric acid cycle on E. crusgalli seed 
dormancy and germination is extremely difficult to determine. 

Tween 20, a surfactant, had greater affect on stimulating 
germination of nonultracooled seeds than of ultracooled seeds. 
Surfactants, such as Tween 20, have been shown to alter cellular 
ultrastructure (Sutton and Foy, 1971), change the activities 
of enzymes (Lavintman and Cardini, 1972; McDermott and Elton, 
1971), and affect metabolic pathways (Neumann and Jagendorf , 
1965; Parr and Norman, 1964). Considerable research has yet 
to be performed to determine if Tween 20 results in increased 
E. crusgalli germination by affecting the processes also 
affected by ultracooling. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Holm, L.G, D.L. Plucknett , J.V. Pancho, and J. P. Herberger . 

1972. The world's worst weeds. Distribution and biology. 
609 pp. Univ. Press of Hawaii, Honolulu. 

Jordan, J.L. 1981. Seed dormancy in Pennsylvania smartweed 

and Barnyardgrass. Ph.D. Thesis. Iowa State Univ., Ames, 
Iowa. 94 pp. 

Jordan, J.L. and C. M. Montecillo. 1981. Echinochloa crusgalli 
(L.) Beauv. seed dormancy and germination: The effect of 
ultra-freezing in liquid nitrogen to -196°C. Bot. Soc. Am. 
Conf. Proc. 160:50-51. 

Lavintman, N. and C.E. Cardini. 1972. Effect of cetyltri- 
methyl ammonium bromide on the activity of particulate 
starch synthetase from potato tuber. Plant Physiol. 50: 
205-207. 



1982 J., L., & C. Jordan, Echlnochloa seeds 411 

McDermott, E.E. and G.A.H. Elton. 1971. Effects of surfactants 
on the a~aniylase activity of wheat flour. J. Sci. Food 
Agr. 22: 131-135. 

Neumann, J. and A. Jagendorf. 1965. Uncoupling of photophos- 
phorylation by detergents. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 109: 
382-389. 

Parr, J.F. and A.G. Norman. 1964. Effects of nonionic sufac- 
tants on root growth and cation uptake. Plant Physiol. 
39:502-506. 

Sutton, D.L. and C.L. Foy. 1971. Effect of diquat and several 
surfactants on membrane permeability in red beet tissue. 
Bot. Gaz. 132:299-304. 



Table 1. Changes in the germination (from water standards)^ at 
35°C of Echinochloa crusgalli seeds ultracooled or 4 times 
with liquid nitrogen to -196°C and incubated in the presence 
of 10~^ M metabolic intermediates. The moisture content was 
6.2 + 1.8 percent for nonimbibed florets. 



Intermediate 




Change in 


germination 


T-test 






Cooli 


-ngs 


4 Coo] 


-ings 


Values 


Acetyl CoA (lithium 


salt) 


31 


+ 


4 


18 


+ 


3 


11.1 


ADP (sodium salt) 




-17 


+ 


7 


-31 


+ 


8 


5.6 


ATP (disodium salt) 




23 


+ 


6 


18 


+ 


4 


2.9 


Citric acid 




37 


+ 


5 


22 


+ 


2 


11.8 


Coenzyme A (lithium 


salt) 


29 


+ 


7 


21 


+ 


4 


4.2 


Dihydroxy acetone 


















phosphate (lithium 


salt) 


27 


+ 


3 


16 


+ 


5 


8.0 


Fructose 




19 


+ 


3 


22 


+ 


3 


-3.0 


Fructose 1,6-diphos] 


phate 
















(trisodium salt) 




36 


+ 


3 


15 


+ 


3 


21.0 


Fumaric acid 




10 


+ 


6 


14 


+ 


5 


-2.1 


Glyceraldehyde-3- 


















phosphoric acid 




32 


+ 


5 


19 


+ 


3 


9.5 


Glycine 




32 


+ 


5 


23 


+ 


4 


12.9 


Glyoxylic acid 




-22 


+ 


7 


-64 


+ 


5 


20.7 


Isocitric acid 




34 


+ 


4 


21 


+ 


3 


11.1 


Malic acid 




1 


+ 


6 


8 


+ 


5 


-3.8 


Methylene blue 




26 


+ 


4 


12 


+ 


5 


9.2 


NADH 




27 


+ 


3 


16 


+ 


5 


8.0 


Oxaloacetic acid 




24 


+ 


4 


19 


+ 


2 


4.7 


6-Phosphogluconate 


















(trisodium salt) 




32 


+ 


5 


18 


+ 


3 


10.2 



^12 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 6 

Table 1. (Cont.) 



Intermediate 


Change in 
Coolings 


germination 
4 Coolings 


T-test 
Values 


2-Phosphoglycerate 
(sodium salt) 


-20 + 5 


18 


+ 


5 


-22.8 


3-Phosphoglycerate 

(calcium salt) 
Potassium nitrate 


-47 + 4 
-8 + 7 


15 
12 


+ 
+ 


4 
4 


-46.5 
-10.5 


Pyruvic acid 
Ribose 5-phosphate 
(disodium salt) 


-23 + 4 
36 + 4 


-5 
20 


+ 
+ 


4 
3 


-13.5 
13.6 


Succinic acid 


4 + 5 


16 


+ 


5 


-7.2 


Succinyl CoA 
(sodium salt) 


30 + 4 


20 


+ 


4 


7.5 


Tween 20 


35 + 3 


-9 


+ 


3 


44.0 



^Water standards are 60 per cent for nonultracooled seeds and 
74 percent for seeds ultracooled 4 times. 



NOTES ON THE GENUS GLOSSOCARYA (VERBENACEAE) 
Harold N. Moldenke 



Time is no longer available, this late in life, to complete the 
detailed monograph which was planned and announced for all the 
genera of Verbenaceae and the families segregated therefrom, but 
it seems worthwhile to place on record, for future monographers, 
the bibliographic and herbarium notes assembled by my wife. Alma 
L. Moldenke, and myself on this genus over the past 52 years. 
This is the 75th genus thus far treated in this series of papers 
and the herbarium acronyms employed are the same as have been used 
by me in all previous parts of this continuing series in this and 
certain other journals and most recently explained in Phytologia 
Memoirs 2: 463—469 (1980) and Phytologia 50: 268 (1982). 

GLOSSOCARYA Wall., Numer. List [47], no. 1741, hyponym. 1829; W. 
Griff., Calcut. Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 366. 1843. 

Synonymy: Glossocarya "Wall, ex Griff." apud Airy Shaw in J. C. 
Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 7, 482. 1966. Glossocaryum Smitinand 
ex Mold., Phytologia 34: 274, in syn. 1976. 

Bibliography: L. f., Suppl. PI. 292. 1781; J. F. Gmel. in L. , 
Syst. Nat., ed. 13, imp. 1, 2: 961 (1789) and imp. 2, 2: 961. 1796; 
Raeusch., Nom. Bot., ed. 3, 182. 1797; Lam., Encycl. M^th. Bot. 8: 
691. 1808; Pers., Sp. PI. 3: 364. 1819; Moon, Cat. Indig. Exot. PI. 
Ceyl. 1: 46. 1824; Wall., Numer. List [47], no. 1741. 1829; Bojer, 
Hort. Maurit. 256. 1837; Endl., Gen. PI. 638. 1838; Meisn. , PI. 
Vase. Gen. Coram. 2: 197. 1840; Steud., Nom. Bot. Phan., ed. 2, 1: 
419 & 689. 1840; Spach, Hist. Nat. Veg. 9: 228. 1840; Reichenb., 
Deutsch. Bot. [Repert. Herb. Nom.] 108. 1841; W. Griff., Calcut. 
Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 366—367. 1843; Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calcut. 
464 & 474. 1845; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 133—134. 1845; 
Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 1, 664 & 862 (1846) and ed. 2, 664 & 862. 
1847; Schau. in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 624—626, 657, & 662. 1847; A. 
L. Juss. in Orbigny, Diet. Univ. Hist. Nat. 13: 185. 1849; Lindl., 
Veg. Kingd., ed. 3, 664 & 862. 1853; Miq. , Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 858 
& 903. 1856; Schnitzl., Iconogr. Fam. Nat. 2: 137 Verbenac. [3]. 
1856; Buek, Gen. Spec. Syn. Candol. 3: 200 & 503. 1858; Thwaites & 
Hook, f., Enum. PI. Zeyl., imp. 1, 243. 1861; Bocq., Adansonia, 
ser. 1, 2: 87, 111, & 130 (1862) and 3: 179, 180, & 207. 1862; 
Bocq., Rev. Verbenac. 110 & 111. 1863; F. Muell., Fragm. 6: 151—152. 
1868; Benth. & F. Muell., Fl. Austral. 5: 61. 1870; Pfeiffer, Nom. 
Bot. 1 (2): 1460. 1874; F. Muell., Fragm. 9: 5. 1875; Benth. in 
Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1136 & 1158. 1876; Kurz, Forest 
Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 252 & 257—258. 1877; Maxim., Bull. Acad. Imp. 
Sci. St. P^tersb. 23: 390. 1877; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 1, 
281, 282, & 509. 1881; F. Muell., First Census 103. 1882; F. M. 
Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. 380. 1883; C. B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. 
Brit. India 4: 561 & 598. 1885; Trlmen, Journ. Ceyl. Br. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. 9: [Syst. Cat. Ceyl. PI.] 69. 1885; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 

413 



414 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

322. 1888; F. Muell., Sec. Census 173. 1889; F. II. Bailey, Cat. 
PI. Queensl. 36. 1890; Baill., Hist. PI. 11: 87 & 115—116 (1891) 
and 11: 490. 1892; Jacks, in Hook. f. « Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 
1, 1: 1035. 1893; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 

1, 4 (3a):133, 177, & 178. 1895; Trimen, Ilandb. Fl. Ceyl. 3: 345 
& 361—362. 1895; Trimen, Hand. Fl. Ceyl. Atlas 3: pi. 73. 1895; 
Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 382. 
1897; F. M. Bailey, Queensl. Fl. 4: 1181 & 1182. 1901; Durand & 
Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 1, 184. 1902; Gamble, l-Ian. Indian 
Timb., ed. 2, imp. 1, 524 & 544—545. 1902; Dalla Torre & Harms, 
Gen. Siphonog., imp. 1, 433. 1904; Post & Kuntze, Lexicon 251 & 
688. 1904; Brandis, Indian Trees, imp. 1, 502 & 512. 1906; Craib, 
Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1911: 445. 1911; Ridl., Journ. Roy. Asiat. 
Soc. Straits 59: 157. 1911; J. C. & M. Willis, Rev. Cat. Flow. 

PI. Ceyl. [Perad. llan. Bot. 2:] 69 & 157. 1911; Craib, Contrib. 
Fl. Siam Dicot. 166. 1912; F. M. Bailey, Compreh. Cat. Queensl. 
PI. 386 & 389, fig. 365. 1913; Druce, Bot. Exch. Club Rep. 4: 615. 
1917; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 115. 1921; Craib, Kew 
Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 240. 1922; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 

2, imp. 1, 524. 1922; Ridl., Fl. Malay Renins. 2: 611 & 636—637. 
1923; Domin, Bibl. Bot. 89 (6): 1112—1113, fig. 180. 1928; Fedde, 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 47 (2): 245 & 322. 1929; A. W. Hill, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 7: 103. 1929; Ridl., Dispers. PI. World pi. 9. 1930; 
Stapf, Ind. Lond. 2: 82 (1930) and 3: 293. 1930; Fedde & Schust., 
Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1074. 1932; A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. 
Suppl. 8: 102. 1933; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 116, 119— 
120, & 204, fig. 184 & 185. 1934; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. G^n. Indo- 
Chine 4: 776, 874, & 886—888, fig. 90 (9) & 91 (1—3). 1935; 

Beer & Lam, Blumea 2: [221] & 226. 1936; L. f., Suppl. PI., imp. 2, 
292. 1936; Wangerin, Justs Bot. Jahresber. 56 (1): 668. 1936; Fed- 
de & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 56 (2): 285. 1937; Fletcher, 
Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1937: 174 (1937) and 1938: 205—206, 401, 
405—407, 409, & 437—438. 1938; E. D. Merr., Journ. Arnold Arb. 
19: 64 (1938) and 21: 385. 1940; Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. 
Names 26. 1940; Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 2, 184. 
1941; Worsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 438. 1941; Mold., Alph. List 
Inv. Names 20 & 25. 1942; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 1, 55, 56, 59, 60, 67, 69, & 93. 1942; Lem^e, Diet. Uescrlp. 
Syn. Gen. PI. Phan. 8b: 657. 1943; MacMillan, Trop. Plant. Card., 
ed. 5, 136. 1943; Savage, Cat. Linn. Herb. Lond. 110. 1945; Jacks, 
in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 1035. 1946; Hill & 
Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 100. 1947; H. N. 6. A. L. Mold., PI. 
Life 2: 23, 24, 34, £■ 69. 1948; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Ver- 
benac, ed. 2, 129, 130, 136—138, 149, 153, & 186. 1949; Angely, 
Cat. Estat. Gen. Bot. Fan. 17: 4. 1956; Iljin, Acad. Sci. Bot. 
Inst. Dept. Repr. Mat. Hist. Fl. Veg. USSR 3: 216. 1958; Abey- 
wickrama, Ceyl. Journ. Sci. Biol. 2: 218. 1959; Anon., Kew Bull. 
Gen. Ind. 1929-1956: 134. 1959; Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
1, imp. 3, 184. 1959; Mold., Phytologia 7: 81—82. 1959; Mold., 
R^sumfe 166, 167, 176, 178, 180, 201, 209, 211, 218, 264, 266, 
268, 270, 273, 296, 392, 413, 456, & 494. 1959; Mold., Resum^ Suppl. 



1982 lloldenke. Notes on Glossocarya 4^5 

1: 12 & 25. 1959; Airy Shaw in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., 
ed. 7, 482. 1960; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 3, 
1: 1035. 1960; Mold., Biol. Abstr. 35: 1688. 1960; Prain, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 115. 1960; Tliwaites & Hook, f., Enum. PI. 
Zeyl., imp. 2, 243. 1961; Willaman & Schubert, Agr. Res. Serv. U. 
S. Dept. Agr. Tech. Bull. 1234: 237. 1961; Hocking, Excerpt. Hot. 
A. 4: 592. 1962; Dalla Torre & Harms, Gen. Siphonog., imp. 2, 433. 
1963; Melchior in Engl., Syllab. Pflanzenfam. , ed. 12, 2: 437. 
1964; Thwaites & Hook, f., Enum. PI. Zeyl., imp. 2, 243. 1964; F. 
A. Barkley, List Ord. Fam. Anthoph. 76 & 168. 1965; Airy Shaw in 
J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 7, 482. 1966; G. Taylor, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 13: 61 & 149. 1966; Gunawardena, Gen. Sp. PI. Zeyl. 
148. 1968; Keng, Ord. Fam. Ilalay. Seed PI. 278. 1969; Rouleau, 
Guide Ind. Kew. 81 & 352. 1970; Brandis, Indian Trees, imp. 2, 
502 & 512. 1971; Hold., Fifth Summ. 1: 281, 283, 296, 301, 305, 
336, 346, 349, 363, 446, 449, 454, 456, & 463 (1971) and 2: 523, 
734, & 879. 1971; Mukhopadhyay, Pollen Morph. Verb, [thesis]. 
1971; Clifford & Ludlow, Keys Fam. Gen. Queensl. Flow. PI. 124 & 
202. 1972; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 2, 524 & 544— 
545. 1972; Mold., Phytologia 23: 423, 432, & 507. 1972; Airy Shaw 
in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 8, 494. 1973; Thanikaimoni , 
Inst. Franp. Pond. Trav. Sect. Scient. Teehn. 12 (2): 57. 1973: 
Mold., Phytologia 28: 448, 458, & 509 (1974), 34: 19, 264, 274, & 
504 (1976), and 35: 111. 1976; Thanikaimoni, Inst. Franc. Pond. 
Trav. Sect. Scient. Techn. 13: 104 & 328. 1976; Mold., Biol. Ab- 
str. 63: 6590 (1977) and 64: 6575. 1977; Mold., Phytologia 36: 38, 
42, 437—438, & 505 (1977) and 38: 498 & 507. 1978; Mold., Biol. 
Abstr. 66: 1277. 1978; Mukherjee & Chanda, Trans. Bose Res. Inst. 
41: 45 & 47. 1978; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 33: 87. 1979; Mold., 
Phytologia 44: 221 & 508. 1979; Hold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 268, 273, 
286, 288, 289, 293, 296, 298, 327, 336, 340, 354, 379, 387, 388, 
407, 408, 461, 462, 548, & 549. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 47: 335 & 
506 (1981), 48: 122 & 508 (1981), and 49: 442. 1981. 

Mostly pubescent or gray-tomentose, scandent or subscandent 
shrubs; leaves decussate-opposite, short-petiolate; leaf-blades 
mostly ovate or obovate to subrotund and entire; inflorescence de- 
terminate and centrifugal, cymose, the cymes dichotomous, closely 
many-flowered, usually arranged in a large, dense, terminal, 
corymbose panicle; flowers small, numerous, often sessile, complete, 
perfect, hypogynous; bracts small or minute or some of the lower- 
most sometimes foliaceous; calyx inferior, gamosepalous, campanu- 
late or tubular-campanulate , hardly at all accrescent, the rim 
spreading and 5-toothed, the teeth mostly broad-based; corolla 
gamopetalous , mostly hypocrateriform or infundibular, the tube 
narrow-cylindric, apically ampliate, the limb subbilabiate, 5-lobed 
or 5-fid, the 2 posterior lobes exterior in bud and connate for a 
slightly longer distance, the 3 anterior ones subequal and flat or 
the middle interior (lower) one slightly larger and rather concave; 
stamens 4 or rarely 5, didynamous, inserted in the corolla-throat, 
long-exserted; filaments slender and usually very long; anthers 
ovate or ovate-oblong, the 2 thecae parallel, attached above the 



A16 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 6 

middle by a rather inconspicuous connective; pistil single, com- 
pound, bicarpellary; style filiform, apically bifid, the branches 
subulate and apically stigmatif erous; ovary superior, compound, 
imperfectly 4-loculate, 4-ovulate; fruit capsular, oblong, some- 
what ampliate apically, exserted from the fruiting-calyx, A-val- 
vate, substipitate, the valves narrowly obovoid, their miargins 
inflexed or involute from above or from slightly below the middle, 
placentif erous, each holding one seed by its inflexed margin, de- 
hiscing from the base or from the middle, freeing a persistent, 
naked, central column, forming 1-seeded pyrenes which are extended 
basally into a short or linear wing; seeds oblong, erect, narrow, 
exalbuminous . 

Type species: Glossocarya mollis Wall. 

This is a small genus of about 12 specific and infraspecif ic 
taxa native from Sri Lanka, Burma, and Thailand east to Indochina 
and Malaya and south to Australia, the Great Barrier Reef, and 
New Guinea; one species is occasionally cultivated elsewhere. 

Briquet (1895) speaks of "8 staminodes", but such a character 
has not been observed by anyone else and is probably erroneous. 

The generic name is derived from the Greek, glossa , a tongue, 
and karyon , a nut, in allusion to the fruit-valves each bearing a 
single seed under an involute tongue-like margin. Schauer (1847) 
knew only a single (the type) species. Most later authors, like 
Bentham (1876), Clarke (1885), and Dalla Torre & Harms (1904), 
credited the genus with 3 species, and so did Durand (1888), 
Trimen (1895), and Dop (1936); Post & Kuntze (1904) and Ridley 
(1923) increased the number to 4, while Angely (1956 raised the 

number to 8. Reichenbach (1841) classified the genus in the 
"Aegiphilear."; Schauer (1847) placed it in the Caryopterideae. 
Bocquillon (1863) sank it in the synonymy of Caryopteris Bunge. 

Several inaccuracies in bibliographic citations occurring in 
the literature of the genus ought to be mentioned here. Domin 
(1928) cites the Bentham & Mueller (1870) reference to 
as "1865" and the Miquel (1858) reference is often cited as 
"1857". The Schnitzlein (1858) reference is often cited as 
"1843 — 1870". the titlepage date, but the page involved here was 
issued in 1858. Sumilarly, the Endlicher (1838) work is usually 
cited by its titlepage date of "1836—1856", but the part involved 
here was actually issued in 1838. The Bailey (1913) reference is 
often cited as "1909—1913", but, according to Stafleu, the entire 
work was not issued until 1913. Angely (1956) gives "1831" and 
"1876" as the dates of the original publication and of the later 
validation of the generic name, but "1829" and "1843" appear to 
be the correct dates. Pfeiffer (1874) dates Uallich's original 
publication of the genus as "1831", but "1829" is correct for the 
page involved. 

The Briquet work is often cited as "1894", the date which ap- 
pears on the section wrapped-cover, but Stafleu [Tax. Lit. 148. 
1967] insists that it was not actually issued until 1895. The 
Bentham & Hooker (1876) is usually cited to both authors, but the 
family Verbenaceae was actually authored by Bentham alone [ cfr. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 417 

"On the joint and separate work of the authors of Bentham & 
Hooker's Genera Plantarum" in Journ. Linn. Soc. Lond. Bot. 20: 
304—308. 1883]. 

Junell (1934) says that "Die Gattungen Caryopteris und Glosso- 
carya weichen eigentlich nur hinsichtlich des Fruchtbaus von 
Clerodendreae ab." llaximowicz (1877) comments that "Genus 
Glossocaryae Wall., laihi tantum ex Gl. Linnaei Thw. (sub Clero- 
dendro) florens notvun, calyce oblongo, corollae tubo gracili, 
habitu Clerodendri discrepans, a Bocquillon. . . .cum Caryopteride 
jungitur, a Benthamio autem servatur et augetur. Calyce 5-dentato 
cum Phasianuro convenlt, sed fructus ex descriptione potius 
Caryopteridis . " 

Excluded taxa: 
Glossocarya pinnatifida Steud., Nom. Bot. Phan. , ed. 2, 1: 419, in 
ins. 1840= Glossogyne pinnatifida P. DC., Carduaceae 

A tentative artificial key to the accepted taxa 

1. Seeds basally alate; gynophore present G. hemiderma. 

la. Seeds not basally alate; no gynophore present. 
2. Lower surface of leaf-blades glandular-punctate. 

3. Mature leaf-blades marginally crenate G. crenata. 

3a. Mature leaf-blades marginally entire. 

4. Inflorescence very compact; apex of leaf-blades 

rounded C. premnoides . 

4a. Inflorescence loose; apex of leaf -blades acute or 
apiculate. 
5. Leaf-blades pilose or puberulent beneath only on the 

venation, eventually glabrous G. scandens. 

5a. Leaf-blades permanently densely pubescent on the 

whole lower surface G, scandens var. pubescens. 

2a. Lower surface of leaf-blades not glandular-punctate. 
6. Mature leaf -blades usually glabrous on the lamina be- 
neath G. siamensis. 

6a. Mature leaf -blades not glabrous beneath. 

7. Leaf-blades pilose-pubescent, thinly tomentose, or sub- 
velutinous beneath. 
8. Leaf -blades merely more or less spreading pilose- 
pubescent (especially on the larger veins) beneath. 

9. Leaf-blades basally cordate. G. siamensis var. 

pubescens . 
9a. Leaf-blades basally truncate or rounded.. G. mollis 

var. maxwellii. 
8a. Leaf -blades tomentose to subvelutinous beneath. 

10. Capsules spreading gray-pilose; corolla to 10 mm. 

long. 

11. Leaf-blades to 6.5 cm. long, apically obtuse, 

densely soft-pubescent above; calyx externally 
tomentose; corolla-lobes 2.5 mm. long; Austral- 
ia G. calcicola . 

11a. Leaf -blades to 10 cm. long, apically usually a- 



418 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

cute or acuminate to mucronate, obsoletely puberu- 
lent above; corolla- lobes 4 inin. long; Burma to 

Malaya G. mollis. 

10a. Capsule merely gray-strigose; corolla to 16.5 mm. 

long G. longi flora. 

7a. Leaf -blades merely puberulent beneath G. puberula. 

GLOSSOCARYA CALCICOLA Domin, Bibl. Hot. 89: 1112—1113, fig. 180. 
1928. 

Bibliography: Domin, Bibl. Bot. 89: 1112—1113, fig. 180. 1928; 
A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 3: 102. 1933; Wangerin, Justs Bot. 
Jahresber. 56 (1): 668. 1936; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahres- 
ber. 56 (2): 285. 1937; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 1, 69 & 93. 1942; Korsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 438. 1941; 
Mold., Knovm Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 153 & 186. 1949; 
Mold., R^sum^ 209 & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 346 (1971) 
and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 336 & 548. 1980. 

Illustrations: Domin, Bibl. Bot. 89: 1113, fig. 180. 1928. 

A large scandent shrub; branches thick; branchlets canescent- 
tomentose; leaves decussate-opposite, short-petiolate, dense on 
the branchlets; petioles about 5 mm. long, tomentose-pubescent; 
leaf -blades chartaceous-coriaceous, cordate-orbicular or broadly 
cordate-ovate, 4 — 6.5 cm. long, 4 — 5.5 cm. wide, apically obtuse, 
marginally entire, basally cordate, green and shiny above but 
shortly and softly puberulent-pubescent , incanous and more dense- 
ly and softly subtomentose-pubescent beneath; principal venation 
prominulous and rather closely reticulate beneath; cymes many- 
flowered, dense, forming a large, very dense, compact, terminal, 
corymbose panicle; bracts foliaceous, subtomentose, some short- 
stalked and resembling miniature leaves, others narrow and ses- 
sile; flowers subsessile; calyx narrowly campanulate, about 3.2 
mm. long, externally incanous- tomentose, the rim 5-lobed, the 
lobes very short, apically acute; corolla- tube slender, twice (or 
somewhat more) as long as the calyx, internally glabrous, external- 
ly farinose-subtomentose except for the base, the lobes oblong, a- 
bout 2.5 mm. long, apically very obtuse, externally farinose; 
stamens very long-exserted; fruiting-calyx about 6 mm. long; cap- 
sule twice as long as the fruiting-calyx, barbate-villous above 
with long spreading hairs. 

The species is based on an unnumbered Domin collection from the 
limestone hills at Chillagoe, in northern Queensland, Australia, 
where it is said to be a widespread liana, collected on February 
9, 1910. Domin (1928) says that it is a distinct species different 
from the other Australian species, G. hemideriaa (F. Muell.) Benth., 
and closely related to the "eastern Indian" G. mollis Wall. It is 
worth noting that Hill (1933) cites page "558" as the page for 
Domin's original description, but this appears to be an error; it 
occurs on pp. 1112 — 1113 and there only. 

GLOSSOCARYA CRENATA Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 205. 1938. 
Bibliography: Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 205, 405, 409, 



1982 Moldenke, llotes on Glossocarya 419 

& 437—438. 1931; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 
60 & 93. 1942; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 100. 1947; 
Hold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 137 & 186. 1949; 
Mold., R^sum6 178 & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 (1971) 
and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Hem. 2: 286 & 548. 1980. 

A diffuse shrub; branches obtusely tetragonal, fulvous-tomen- 
tose; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles 0.5 — 1 mm. long, 
slightly canaliculate above; leaf-blades chartaceous, gray-green 
on both surfaces, ovate, 2 — 3.5 cm. long, 2 — 3 cm. wide, apical- 
ly rounded, marginally deeply crenate and glabrous or ciliate, 
basally lightly cordate, sparsely glandulose and pubescent above 
with the hairs more numerous on the midrib and secondaries, tomen- 
tose beneath and with numerous amber-colored glands; midrib con- 
spicuous above, slightly prominent beneath; secondaries 3 or 4 
pairs, parallel, conspicuous above, prominulous beneath; terti- 
aries few, irregular; inflorescence terminal, corymbose-paniculate, 
4 cm. long, basally 4 — 6 cm. wide; calyx externally conspicuously 
pubescent and glandulose, its tube 3 mm. long, internally glab- 
rous, the limb 5-lobate, the lobes 0.8 mm. long, basally 1.5 mm. 
wide, internally glabrous; corolla white, externally conspicuous- 
ly pubescent and glandulose, the tube 14 mm. long, internally 
glabrous except for a very few long hairs, the lobes 5, subequal, 
3 — 4 mm. long, 1 mm. wide; stamens 4; filaments 20 mm. long, in- 
serted about 8 ram. above the base of the corolla-tube; anthers 
purple, 1 mm. long; style 15 ram. long, apically bilobed; ovary 
globose, about 1 mm. long and wide, externally apically sericeous- 
pilose. 

This species is based on Lakshnakara 1083 from near the rail- 
way lines at Kawnken, Udawn, Thailand. The collector describes 
the plant as a shrub, the corollas white, and the anthers pink, and 
found it in anthesis in July. Fletcher (1938) says "G. premnoidi 
Rifl. foliis glanduloso-punctatis af finis, sed foliis minoribus, 
pubescentibus crenatis dlffert". 

The Smdtinand 2941, distributed as G. crenata, actually is G. 
siamensis Craib. 

Citations: THAILAND: Lakshnakara 1053 (Ed, Z). 

GLOSSOCARYA HEMIDERMA (F. Muell.) Benth. in Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. 
PI. 2: 1158. 1876. 

Synonymy: Clerodendron (Hemiderma) linnaei F. Muell. ex Benth. u 
F. Muell., Fl. Austral. 5: 61, in syn. 1870 [not C. linnaei Thwaites, 
1861]. Clerodendron hemiderma F. Muell. in Benth. & F. Muell., Fl. 
Austral. 5: 61. 1870. Glossocarya hemiderma Benth. & Hook. f. apud 
Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 1, 1:1035. 1893. 
Glossocarya hemiderma (F. v. M.) Benth. apud Junell, Symb. Bot. Up- 
sal. 1 (A): 119. 1934. Glossocarya hemiderma Benth. & Hook, apud 
Mold., Resume 296, in syn. 1959. 

Bibliography: F. Muell., Fragm. 6: 151. 1868; Benth. & F. Muell., 
Fl. Austral. 5: 61. 1870; F. Muell., Fragm. 9: 5. 1875; Benth. in 
Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1136 & 1158. 1876; Maxim., Bull. 
Acad. Sci. St. Petersb. 23: 390. 1877; F. Muell, First Census 103. 



420 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

1882; F. II. Bailey, Syn. Queensl. Fl. 380. 1883; F. Muell., Sec. 
Census 173. 1889; F. II. Bailey, Cat. PI. Queensl. 36. 1890; Jacks. 
in Hook. f. & Jacks,, Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 1035. 1893; F. II. Bai- 
ley, Queensl. Fl. 4: 1182. 1901; F. M. Bailey, Compreh. Cat. 
Queensl. PI. 386 & 389, fig. 365. 1913; Domin, Bibl. Bot. 89 (6): 
1112. 1928; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 293. 1930; Junell, Symb. Bot. 
Upsal. 1 (4): 116 & 119—120, fig, 184. 1934; Beer & Lam, Blumea 
2: 221 & 226. 1936; Hold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 
67, 69, & 93. 1942; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 
1: 1035. 1946; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 149, 
153, & 186. 1949; Mold., Resum^ 201, 209, 211, 264, 266, 296, & 
456. 1959; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 1: 1035. 
1960; Willaman & Schubert, Agr. Res. Serv. U. S. Dept. Agr, Tech. 
Bull. 1234: 237. 1961; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 336, 346, 349, 446, & 
449 (1971) and 2: 523 & 879. 1971; Mold., Phytologia 28: 448. 1974; 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 327, 336, 340, & 548. 1980. 

Illustrations: F. H, Bailey, Compreh. Cat. Queensl. PI. 389, 
fig. 365. 1913; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 119, fig. 184. 
1934, 

A straggling or scandent large shrub, 2 — 3 m. tall, tall woody 
climber, or even canopy liana ascending to the crown of large 
trees, the young parts more or less hoary-pubescent with appressed 
hairs, later glabrescent; leaves decussate-opposite, short-petio- 
late; leaf -blades chartaceous, dull dark-green above, lighter green 
beneath, broadly ovate or cordate-ovate, mostly 5 — 8 cm. long, 
flat, apically obtuse or shortly and obtusely acuminate, marginally 
entire, soon glabrous; flowers small, numerous, sweet-scented, ar- 
ranged to rather compact or very compact, trichotomous, corymbose, 
many-flowered cymes, terminal or on short twigs or leafless divar- 
icate peduncles in the upper leaf -axils, more or less hoary-pubes- 
cent; primary bracts sometimes oblong-lanceolate, basally contracted, 
and stipitate, but mostly small and narrow to linear-oblong, 1 — 2 mm. 
long; peduncles short, divaricate; calyx narrowly campanulate or 
obconic-campanulate to obovoid. about 2 — 3 mm. long, the rim minute- 
ly 5-dentate or repand-denticulate, sometimes truncate; corolla in- 
fundibular, white, about 12 mm. long, externally more or less 
sericeous, the tube slender, to 6 mm. long, apically somewhat am- 
pliate, shortly exserted, basally and internally glabrous, the 5 
oval lobes about 1.5 mm. long, almost equal, externally more or less 
silky-pubescent; stamens inserted in the corolla-tube, capillary, 
about 3 mm. long; anthers dorsifixed, oval, the thecae parallel, a- 
bout 0,5 mm. long; stigma very short, setaceous-subulate; fruiting- 
calyx thinly chartaceous, often more than 4 mm. long but remaining 
narrow, enclosing the lower half of the fruit; fruit oblong to 
ellipsoid-obconic, 6 — 8 mm. long, apically obtuse, the exserted 
portion externally pubescent to hirsute, basally bilocular but 4- 
locular in the upper part where the endocarp enfolds the seeds and 
separates into 4 narrow nuts, the lower seedless portion resembling 
a wing on each nut, the lower portion of the dissepiment remaining 
attached to the receptacle after the nuts have fallen as a cuneate- 
oblong gynophore which is 3-toothed apically and nearly as long as 
the calyx. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 421 

Mueller (1868) describes the fruit in detail: "Pericarpium 
cujusque carpidii longe trans basim serainis descendens, hlnc gla- 
brum, pellucens, fere scariosum. Carpidia etiam altero latere 
Interiore a basi ad apicem aperta. Spermatophorum 2 — 3'" altum, 
apice subulatum, placentis 2 laterali-terminalibus fere cornutun, 
basi attenuatum, omnino persistens. Semina perfecta non accepti." 

Bentham & Mueller (1870) comment that "This plant has a singu- 
lar resemblance with the Cingalese C. Linnaei, Thw. which has 
the same climbing habit, foliage, and inflorescence, but rather 
larger flowers, the outer bracts much larger, broader, and folia- 
ceous, and the fruit, although nearly similar in shape, is much 
more normal, without the flat winglike bases of the nuts or the 
persistent axis upon which F. Mueller has founded his sectional 
character of Hemiderma." Tliey cite unnumbered collections of 
Bowman, Daerael, Dallachy, and Thozet from Queensland. 

Collectors have found this plant "common" or "very common" in 
mixed softwood forests, in rainforests on limestone, and along 
roadsides, flowering in May, June, October, and November, in fruit 
in April. The corollas are said to have been "white" on all col- 
lections where the color was noted. 

It should be noted that Domin (1928) cites the Bentham & Muel- 
ler work (1870), listed in the bibliography (above), as published 
in "1865", but Stafleu, Tax. Lit. 28 (1967) avers that it was 
actually published between August and October, 1870. 

Junell (1934) notes that G. hemiderma has "verhHltnissmHssig 
grosse 'falsche' ScheidewHnde. Uiese verwachsen im unteren Teil 

des Fruchtknotens rait den ihrerseits verwachsenen Plazenten 

Auch G. hemiderma hat eine deutliche Gynobasis und einen Hhnlich- 
er FlUgel an ihren Nllsschen" [like that seen in G. mollis Vail.]. 

Beer & Lam (1936) cite Brass 5674 from Papua, New Guinea, and 
note that this is the first record of the genus and species in 
New Guinea. "The disjunct area of the genus (Ceylon, Further In- 
dia, Queensland) is, however, but little filled up by the discov- 
ery of G. hemiderma in Papua." Actually, the genus is not 
known from India, but is known from Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, 
Cambodia, Vietnam, Malaya, New Guinea, Great Barrier Reef, and 
Australia, so the distribution of the genus is hardly "disjunct". 

Domin (1928) cites Dietrich 460, 803, 876, 902, 951, & 1331 
and two unnumbered Domin collections from Queensland, where he re- 
garded the species as endemic. 

Material of this species has been mlsldentif ied and distributed 
in some herbaria as Clerodendron sp. 

Citations: NEW GUINEA: Papua: Brass 5674 (Bz~21044, Le~ 
936.190-457, N) , 8243 (Le~938. 137-370) , 21984 (Ng~17090, W~ 
2495604); Carr 11471 (Le~936. 114-220 ) ; Streimann S Kairo LAE.1567 
(Kl~17062). AUSTRALIA: Northern Australia: F. Mueller s.n. (Pd). 
Queensland: Francis s.n. [3/20] (W — 1171680); F. Mueller s.n. 
[Rockhampton] (Pd); C. T. White 12490 (Ca~937610, W~1991863); 
C. L. Wilson 709 (Dt). GREAT BARRIER REEF: Thursday: Jaheri s.n. 
[19/5/1901] (Bz~21046, N). 



422 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 6 

GLOSSOCARYA LONGIFLORA Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 205— 
206. 1938. 

Bibliography: Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 205--206, 
405, & 438. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Uistrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 
60 & 93. 1942; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 100. 1947; 
Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 137 & 186. 1949; 
Mold., Re'sum^ 178 & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 (1971) 
and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 268 & 548. 1980. 

A scandent shrub; branchlets obtusely tetragonal, at first 
lightly tomentose, later glabrous; leaves decussate-opposite; pet- 
ioles 5 — 10 mm. long, fulvous-tomentose; leaf-blades chartaceous, 
brunneous or often green-tinged above (in drying), brunneous or 
grayish-brunneous beneath, ovate or elliptic, 4 — 10 cm. long, 3.5- 
7 cm. wide, apically obtuse or obtusely apiculate and subacumin- 
ate, marginally entire, revolute, and ciliate, basally cordate, 
lightly pubescent above, tomentose and glandulose beneath with 
sessile amber-colored glands; midrib conspicuous above, prominent 
beneath; secondaries 5 or 6 pairs, conspicuous above, prominulous 
beneath; tertiaries few, irregular; inflorescence terminating 
lateral branches, 3 — 8 cm. long, basally 6 — 10 cm. wide; calyx 
externally densely tomentose, its tube 3 ram. long, basally very 
much sericeous within, otherwise internally glabrous, the rim 
sinuate; corolla white, externally tomentose, its tube 11.5 — 12 
mm. long, internally glabrous, the lobes 5, subequal, 3 — 4.5 mm. 
long, 2.5 — 3.5 mm. wide; stamens 4; filaments 18 — 20 mm. long; 
anthers 1 mm. long; style 25 mm. long, apically bilobed; ovary 
glabrous, about 1 ram. long and wide, externally apically serice- 
ous-pilose; capsule 8 — 10 mm. long, 3 mm. wide, externally gray- 
ish-strigose. 

The species is based on Lakshnakara 284 from Keng Koi, Sara- 
buri, Ayuthia, Thailand. Fletcher (1938) cites also Rnnandale 
1832 from Lower Thailand, and says: "G. molli Wall, af finis, sed 
corollae tubo majore, capsula pills griseis strigosis munita dif- 
fert; nee non G. siamensi Craib af finis, sed foliis tenulter to- 
mentosis, corollae tubo majore differt." 

GLOSSOCARYA MOLLIS Wall., Numer. List [47], no. 1741, hyponym 
1829; W. Griff., Calcut. Journ. Hat. Hist. 3: 366—367. 
1843. 

Synonymy: Caryopteris glossocarya Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 2: 
111, nom. nud. 1862. Glossocarya mollis "Wall, ex Griff." ex 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 408, in syn. 1980. 

Bibliography: Wall., Numer. List [47], no. 1741. 1829; Steud., 
Nom. Bot. Phan., ed. 2, 1: 689. 1840; W. Griff., Calcut. Journ. 
Nat. Hist. 3: 366—367. 1843; Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Gale. 474. 
1845; Valp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 134. 1845; Schau. In A. DC., 
Prodr. 11: 626. 1847; Buek, Gen. Spec. Syn. Candol. 3: 200. 1858; 
Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 2: 111 (1862) and 3: 207. 1862; Bocq., 
Rev. Verbenac. Ill & 207. 1863; Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 
257—258. 1877; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 1, 282 & 509. 
1881; C. B. Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 598. 1885; 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya ^23 

Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 1, 1: 1035. 1893; 
Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pf lanzenf am. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 178. 
1895; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 1, 545. 1902; Bran- 
dis, Indian Trees, imp. 1, 512. 1906; Craib, Kew Bull. Ilisc. Inf. 
1911: 445. 1911; Craib, Contrib. Fl. Siam Dicot. 166. 1912; Domin, 
Bibl. Hot. 89 (6): 1113. 1928; Ridl., Dispers. PI. World pi. 9. 
1930; Stapf, Ind. Lend. 2: 82. 1930; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 
(4): 116 & 119—120, fig. 185. 1934; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. 
Indo-chine 4: 886 & 888. 1935; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 
1938: 401, 405, & 437—438. 1938; Worsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 
438. 1941; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 55, 59, 
60, & 93. 1942; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 
1035. 1946; I-lold., Ijiown Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 129, 
136, 137, & 186. 1949; Hold., Re'sume 126, 176, 178, & 456. 1959; 
Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 1: 1035. 1960; G. 
Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 61. 1966; Brandis, Indian Timb., 
imp. 2, 512. 1971; Mold., Fifth Suram. 1: 283, 296, 6. 301 (1971) 
and 2: 879. 1971; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 2, 545. 
1972; Mold., Phytologia 23: 423 (1972), 35: 111 (1976), and 36: 
38 & 42. 1977; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 273, 286, 288, 293, 298, 
379, 408, & 548. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 49: 442. 1981. 

Illustrations: Ridl., Dispens. PI. World pi. 9. 1930; Junell, 
Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 119, fig. 185. 1934. 

A straggling or climbing shrub or scrambling shrublet, to 2.5 
m. tall, softly canescent-subtomentose throughout; branches tet- 
ragonal, softly pubescent or grayish-tomentose; branchlets dense- 
ly and softly gray-villous, the youngest portions grayish-tomen- 
tose; leaves decussate-opposite, short-petiolate; petioles mostly 
very short, 5 — 8 mm. long, canaliculate above, pubescent-tomentose; 
mature leaf-blades subcoriaceous or coriaceous, ovate to subcordate- 
or cordate-ovate, 6 — 10 cm. long, 5 — 6 cm. wide, apically rather 
acute or blunt and mucronate to subacute or abruptly short-acumin- 
ate, marginally entire, basally often cordate, green, shiny, and 
obsoletely puberulent above, grayish or softly incanous-pubescent 
or subvelutinous beneath; secondaries 8 — 10, distinct, prominent, 
recurved, arcuately joined in loops near the margins; tertiaries 
rather numerous; veinlet reticulation indiscernible; infloresence 
rather ample, about 30 cm. long and 15 cm. wide, puberulent to 
densely and softly gray-villous or -tomentose, corymb if orm-panicu- 
late, terminal on the branches, brachiate, composed of compound, 
softly gray-villous, many-flowered cymes 3 — 5 cm. wide, basally 
foliose; peduncles 5 — 6 cm. long; flowers small, slightly scented; 
pedicels slender, short; calyx in anthesis scarcely 3 mm. long, 
distinctly venose, externally puberulent, the rim 5-dentate, the 
teeth small, triangular, short, broad, rotund, apically short- 
acuminate; corolla greenish to cream-color or white, about ±.U mm. 
long, pubescent, the tube cylindric, 6 mm. long, the lobes 5, 4 mm. 
long, apically rounded; stamens 10 — 15 mm. long, inserted in the 
corolla-throat; style 15 mm. long; ovary externally villous; fruit- 
ing calyx campanulate, about 4 mm. long, the rim 5-toothed; cap- 
sule cylindric, 8 — 9 mm. long, about 2 mm. wide, nearly twice as 
long as the fruiting-calyx, apically dorsally sparingly spreading- 



42A PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

hirsute or villous-pilose with gray hairs, 4-valved, basally half 
included by the fruiting-calyx, externally glandular-punctate be- 
neath the hairs. 

The species is based on Wallich 1741, a number comprising two 
Burmese collections: (1) from "Segarin" [=Sagaing] and (2) from 
"versus Toung Dang", collected in 1826 and deposited in the East 
India Company Herbarium at Kew. The former of these, i.e. 1741/1, 
is designated as the lectotype by Fletcher (1938). Pfeiffer (1874) 
cites Wallich' s original publication as "1831", but the page here 
involved was actually issued in 1829. Schauer (1847) says, ap- 
parently for material he saw in the DeCandolle Herbarium, "ab ill. 
coetu mere. Ind. or. coram." and also "In Indiae or. rupibus cal- 
careis ad speluncas Demitharot editas, ad fl. Attran prov. Itoul- 
main in regno Birmanica." 

Collectors have encountered this species in old bedded dolomite 
beach forests, along riverbanks, in moist ground in sunny places, 
in scrub vegetation on sandy soil near the sea, in and along the 
edges of evergreen forests, climbing over limestone rocks, on 
rocky limestone hills and hilltops, and in open vegetation on lime- 
stone soil, from sealevel to 400 m. altitude, in anthesis in Aug- 
ust and September, and in fruit in February. Smitinand refers to 
it as "common", but Hosseus as "uncommon" in Thailand. 

The corollas are reported to have been "greenish" on Larsen S 
al. 1501, "cream-color" on Smitinand 4829, and "white" on Beusekom 
s Smitinand 2045 and Hosseus 5. A recorded vernacular name for 
the plant is "gam lang". 

Junell (1934) asserts that "Bei G. mollis sind nur die mitt- 

leren Partien der Plazenten miteinander verwachsen Bei G. 

mollis sind die ScheidewHnde in Wirklichkeit mHglicherweise 
grHsser als das Bild [fig. 185]. Sie wHren nHmlich an dem unter- 
suchten Exemplare etwas verschrumpft und beschHdigt. Bei G. mol- 
lis erfolgt wie bei Amethystea und Caryopteris divaricata eine 
Differenzierung des Gewebes im Fruchtknoten derart, dass bei 
Fruchtreife ein grosses axiales SHulchen (Gynobasis) gebildet 
wird. Der untere, an diesem SMulchen haftende Teil der Teil- 
frUchte wird als grosser, dUnner FlUgel ausgebildet, der ebenso 
lang wie das Ubrige Ndsschen wird. Die Gynobasis enthHlt of fen- 
bar eine grtlsseren Anteil des Fruchtknotenunterteils als bei Ame- 
thystea. Nach dem Abfall der NUsschen ragt die Gynobasis aud dem 
Kelche hervor." Glossocarya hemiderxaa exhibits a similar gynobase. 

Clarke (1885) cites only Griffith 6017 and Lobb s.n. from Bur- 
ma and points out that the species is closely related to G. scan- 
dens (L. f.) Moon "but generally more hairy", the branchlets and 
panicles "densely soft grey-villous", and the "Capsule rather 
larger, 1/3 in." Fletcher (1938) cites from Thailand: Bourke s. 
n., Collins 26 & 39, Hosseus 5, Kerr 3061, 4047, 4541, 8770, 
10963, & 19279, Marcan 1890, Put 996, and Robinson 6406. He re- 
cords it also from Annam [Vietnam] . 

Dop (1935) cites an unnumbered Kerr collection from Thailand, 
unnumbered collection of Hayata from Annam, Godefroy, Gourgand, 
and Pierre from Cambodia, and Evrard, Pierre, and Thorel from 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 425 

Cochlnchina. He erroneously refers to the Craib (1911) publica- 
tion as "p. 455" instead of "445". Kunz (1877) reports the spe- 
cies from Tenasserim and Ava in Burma, fruiting there in November. 
Craib (1911) cites Hosseus 5 from Thailand. 

Material of Glossocarya mollis has been misidentif ied and dis- 
tributed in some herbaria as Clerodendron sp., Premna sp., and 
Caprifoliaceae. On the other hand, the Pierre 2205, distributed 
as G. mollis, actually is the type collection of G. puberula 
Mold., while Wallich 1747/2 is Vitex pinnata L. 

Citations: BURMA: Collector undetermined 877 (Pd); Wallich 
1741/1 (Pd). THAILAM): Bradley s.n, (Ca~233683); Hosseus 5 (E~ 
118820, Mu~4196, N, V~6405); Kerr 11147 (B); Larsen, Smitinand, 
& Warncke 1501 (Ac, Ld); Maxwell s.n. [11-10-1969] (Ac); Shimizu, 
Fukuoka, <S Nalampoon T.7603 (Ac); Smitinand 4829 (Z) . KOH CHANG 
ISLAND: Beusekom & Smitinand 2045 (Ac). IIALAYAN ISLANDS: Langka- 
wi: B. C. Stone 9130 (Ac, Kl~10978). 

GLOSSOCARYA MOLLIS var. MAXWELLII Mold., Phytologia 35: 111. 1977. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 35: 111 (1977) and 36: 38. 
1977; Mold., Biol. Abstr. 63: 6590. 1977; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 
286 & 548. 1980. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the upper surface of its leaf-blades glabrous or subglab- 
rous, usually with only very widely scattered, short, whitish 
hairs, more densely pilose along the midrib, and the lower surface 
more or less densely pubescent only along the midrib and secondary 
veins, widely scattered-pubescent on the lamina itself. The calyx 
and fruitlng-calyx are densely canescent-strigose with short an- 
trorsely appressed hairs on the outer surface, while fruits are 
conspicuously hirsute with perpendicular, elongate, white hairs. 

The variety is based on J. F. Maxwell 75-889 from an open ever- 
green area on a limestone mountain, at an altitude of 50 m., at 
Khao Chong, Trang Province, Thailand, collected on August 15, 1975, 
and deposited in the Herbarium Jutlandicum at Aarhus University. 
The collector describes the plant as a woody climber, the inflores- 
cence-axes and calyx green, the corolla and filaments cream-color, 
the anthers gray, and the [immature] fruit dark-green. It has been 
misidentified and originally distributed as "Premna flavescens Ham. 
ex C. B. Clarke". 

Citations: THAILAND: Maxwell 75-889 (Ac — type, C — isotype, Z — 
photo of type). 

GLOSSOCARYA PREMNOIDES Ridl., Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 59: 
157. 1911. 
Bibliography: Ridl., Journ. Roy. Asiat. Soc. Straits 59: 157. 
1911; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 115. 1921; Ridl., Fl. I^- 
lay Penins. 2: 636—637. 1923; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahres- 
ber. 47 (2): 245. 1929; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 405— 
407, 437, & 438. 1938; Itold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 
1, 60 & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 137, 138, & 186. 1949; Mold., Re'sume 
178, 180, & 456. 1959; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 115. 1960; 



426 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 & 305 (1971) and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., 
Phytol. Hem. 2: 286, 296, & 548. 1980. 

A shrub; stems closely brown-pubescent; principal internodes 
about 12.5 mm. long; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles about 
6.2 mm. long; leaf-blades thinly coriaceous, ovate, at least 5 cm. 
long and 3.2 cm. wide, apically rounded, marginally entire, basal- 
ly cordate, glabrous above, usually pubescent on the larger vena- 
tion when immature, pubescent on the larger venation beneath; 
secondaries 4 pairs, arcuate-ascending; panicle short, dense, ses- 
sile, about 5 cm. long and 6.2 cm. wide, pubescent throughout; 
bracts minute; flowers numerous, small; calyx urceolate, about 
3.1 mm. long, externally pubescent, very obscurely 5-lobed; corol- 
la white, the tube slender, about 6.2 mm. long, pubescent, the 
limb 4-lobed, the lobes externally pubescent; stamens 4, long- 
exserted; filaments filiform, longer than the corolla; anthers 
minute, elliptic; style elongate, filiform; stigmas 2, short, 
filiform; fruit cylindric, about 6.2 mm. long, apically rounded, 
externally pubescent, dehiscing into 4 valves, each containg a 
single oblong seed; seeds dorsally rounded, ventrally angled. 

This species is based on Ridley 15149 from Besih Hangat, Per- 
ils, llalaya. Ridley records the species also from Lower Thai- 
land and comments that "Three species of Glossocarya are recor- 
ded, one from Ceylon, one from Burma, and one from Australia. 
The Perils plant has a much more compact inflorescence than the 
Ceylon species, and the leaves are not cordate". 

Fletcher (1938) describes it as "growing gregariously on in- 
undated banks of a river" and "on trees along river bank" in 
Thailand, citing Kerr 12312 and Ninit 545. 

GLOSSOCARYA PUBERULA Mold., Phytologia 7: 81—82. 1959. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 7: 81—82. 1959; Mold., Resum^ 
494. 1959; Mold., Re'sum^ Suppl. 1: 12 & 25. 1959; Mold., Biol. 
Abstr. 35: 1688. 1960; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 4: 592. 1962; G. 
Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 12: 61. 1966; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 301 
(1971) and 2: 879. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 289 & 548. 1980. 

A woody and probably climbing shrub; branchlets slender, tet- 
ragonal, very densely short-pubescent or puberulent with sordid- 
gray hairs; nodes not plainly annulate; principal internodes 2 — 
3.5 cm. long; leaf-scars comparatively large, elevated; leaves 
decussate-opposite; petioles slender, 5 — 10 mm. long, densely 
gray-puberulent; leaf -blades shortly elliptic or subrotund, thin- 
chartaceous, 3.5 — 8 cm. long, 3.5 — 6 cm. wide, apically rounded, 
marginally entire or often with a very short tooth-like projection 
at the very tip, basally conspicuously cordate, rather shiny and 
very minutely puberulent above, especially along the midrib, or 
glabrescent, densely gray-puberulent throughout beneath; midrib 
slender, flat above, prominent beneath; secondaries very slender, 
3 — 6 per side, irregular, not in opposite pairs, arcuate-ascen- 
ding, flat or obscure above, prominulous beneath; veinlet reticu- 
lation very slender, abundant, rather conspicuous but not promin- 
ent above, slightly prominulous beneath; inflorescence terminal on 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 427 

short axillary tvigs near the apex of the branches and forming a 
terminal panicle about 10 cm. long and wide, densely gray-puberu- 
lent throughout, the branches about 3 pairs, decussate-opposite; 
peduncles slender, tetragonal, 2 — 2.5 cm. long, densely gray- 
puberulent; sympodla resembling the peduncles in all respects; 
follaceous bracts present at the nodes of the sympodla and beneath 
the individual cymes, resembling the leaves in form but apically 
rounded and somewhat densely puberulent, submembranous ; bractlets 
linear-oblong, 1 — 2 mm. long, apically acute, densely puberulent 
on both surfaces; pedicels very slender, 1 mm. long or less; calyx 
cyathlform, about 2 mm. long and 1 mm. wide, externally densely 
appressed strigose-puberulent with sordid-gray hairs, the rim 5- 
toothed. 

The species is based on Pierre 1208 from an island in the 
river at Pinlysap, Cambodia, collected in anthesis in June, 1870, 
and deposited in the Britton Herbarium at the New York Botanical 
Garden. It was originally distributed as G. mollis Wall. 

Citations: CAMBODIA: Pierre 1208 (N — type). 

GLOSSOCARYA SCANDENS L. f.) Trlmen, Syst. Cat. Flow. PI. Ceyl. 
69. 1885. 

Synonymy: Volkameria scandens L. f., Suppl. PI. imp. 1, 292. 
1781. Volkameria foliis petiolatis, cordatis , ovatis, integer- 
rimis; panicula corymbosa, terminali, ramulis dichotomis L. f. ex 
Lam., Encycl. M^th. Bot. 8: 69, in syn. 180. Clerodendron linnaei 
Thwaites in Thwaites & Hook, f., Enum. PI. Ceyl. 243. 1861 [not 
C. linnaei F. liuell., 1868]. Glossocarya linnaei Benth. ex C. B. 
Clarke in Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 598. 1885; Trlmen, Handb. 
Fl. Ceyl. 3: 363, in syn. 1895. Glossocarya linnaei Benth. & 
Hook . f . apud Jacks . in Hook . f . & Jacks . , Ind . Kew . , imp . 1,1: 
1035. 1893. Glossocarya scandens Trlmen, Kandb. Fl. Ceyl. 3: 362. 
1895; Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 1, 184. 1941. 
Glossocarya scandens (L. f.) Druce, Bot. Exch. Club Rep. 4: 615. 
1917. Glossocarya scandens (L. f.) Moon ex Mold., Prelim. Alph. 
List Inv. Names 54. 1940. Clerodendrum linnaei Thw. ex Mold., 
Alph. List Inv. Names Suppl. 1: 7, in syn. 1947. Glossocarya 
linnaei (Thwaites) Benth. ex Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 523, in syn. 
1971. Glossocarya linnaei Clarke ex Mold., Phytologla 28: 458. 
1974. Glossocarya linnaei Benth. & Hook, ex Mold., Phytol. Mem. 
2: 407, in syn. 1980. Glossocarya scardens (L. f.) Trim, ex Mold., 
Phytol. Mem. 2: 408, in syn. 1980. 

Bibliography: L. f., Suppl. PI., imp. 1, 292. 1781; J. F. Gmel. 
in L., Syst. Nat., ed. 13, imp. 1, 2: 961(1789) and ed. 13, imp. 2, 
2: 961. 1796; Raeusch., Nom. Bot., ed. 3, 182. 1797; Lam., Encycl. 
Meth. Bot. 8: 691. 1808; Pers., Sp. PI. 3: 364. 1819; Moon, Cat. 
Indig. Exot. PI. Ceyl. 1: 46. 1824; Bojer, Hort, Maurlt. 256. 
1837; Schau. in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 657 & 662. 1847; Buek, Gen. 
Spec. Syn. Candol. 3: 503. 1858; Thwaites & Hook, f., Enum. PI. 
Zeyl., imp. 1, 243. 1861; F. liuell., Fragm. 6: 151—152. 1868; 
Benth. in Benth. & Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1158. 1876; Maxim., 
Bull. Acad. Imp. Sci. St. P^tersb. 23: 390. 1877: C B. Clarke in 



428 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

Hook, f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 598. 1885; Trimen, Journ. Ceyl. Br. 
Roy. Asiat. Soc. 9: [Syst. Cat. Flow. PI. Ceyl.] 69. 1885; Jacks, 
in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew. , imp. 1, 1: 1035. 1893; Trimen, 
Handb. Fl. Ceyl. 3 & 362 (1895) and Atlas 3: pi. 73. 1895; Durand 
& Jacks., Ind. Kew. Sappl. 1, imp. 1, 184. 1902; Gamble, Man. In- 
dian Timb., ed. 2, 544—545. 1902; J. C. & M. Willis, Rev. Cat. 
Flow. PI. Ceyl. [Perad. Man. Bot. 2:] 69. 1911; Druce, Bot. Exch. 
Club Rep. 4: 615. 1917; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 293. 1930; Junell, 
Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 119 & 120. 1934; L. f., Suppl. PI., imp. 
], 292. 1936; Mold., Prelim. Alph. List Inv. Names 26. 1940; 
Durand & Jacks., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 1, imp. 2, 184. 1941; Mold., 
Alph. List Inv. Names 25. 1942; Hold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Ver- 
benac, ed. 1, 56 & 93. 1942; IlacMillan, Trop. Plant. Card., ed. 
5, 136. 1943; Savage, Cat. Linn. Herb. Lond. 110. 1945; Jacks, in 
Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 1035. 1946; Mold., Known 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 130 & 186. 1949; Abeywickrama, 
Ceyl. Journ. Sci. Biol. 2: 218. 1959; Mold., Resume' 167, 218, 266, 
268, 273, 296, 392, & 456. 1959; Jacks, in -Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. 
Kew., imp. 3, 1: 1035. 1960; Thwaites & Hook, f., Enum. PI. Zeyl., 
imp. 2, 243. 1964; Gunawardena, Gen. Sp. PI. Ceyl. 148. 1968; 
Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 281, 363, 449, 450, & 463 (1971) and 2: 523, 
734, & 879. 1971; Mold., Phytologia 23: 432 (1972), 28: 458 (1974), 
36: 437 (1977), 38: 498 (1978), and 44: 221. 1979; Hocking, Ex- 
cerpt. Bot. A. 33: 87. 1979; Mold., Phytol. Hem. 2: 268, 354, 387, 
388, 407, 408, 461, 462, & 548. 1980. 

Illustrations: Trimen, Hand. Fl. Ceyl. Atlas 3: pi. 73 (in 
color). 1895. 

A straggling, often tangled, scandent or subscandent, vine- 
like shrub or woody liana; branches divaricate, to 6 or 8 m. long, 
the younger ones subterete, finely pilose-pubescent, sometimes 
converted into short, rigid, horizontal spines; bark pale, smooth; 
leaves decussate-opposite; petioles 4 — 6 mm. long; leaf-blades o- 
vate or obovate to obovate-rotund, 5 — 10 cm. long, to 4 cm. wide, 
apically acute or apiculate, marginally entire, basally subcor- 
date, pilosulous above when young, paler beneath and minutely 
glandular-punctate, pilose beneath especially on the venation, 
glabrescent when mature, the venation finely reticulate; panicles 
terminal, corymbiform, compact, foliose, to 8 cm. wide, incanous- 
pilose or gray-tomentose; peduncles rather long, axillary, divari- 
cate, stiff, pubescent; bracts elliptic or oblong, about 8 mm. 
long, apically acute, pubescent, the lower ones sometimes foliace- 
ous; flower-buds green or blue; flowers sessile or nearly so; ped- 
icels subobsolete; calyx hypocrateriform, to 3 mm. long in anthe- 
sis, extremely finely pubescent, the rim shortly 5-dentate, the 
teeth shallow or broadly triangular, apically rounded or acute; 
corolla white, externally pilose or strigose, the tube slender, 
6 — 8 mm. long, the limb about 1 cm. wide, the lobes oblong, 3 — 4 
mm. long, apically obtuse, the lower one slightly longer than the 
others; filaments greatly elongate, about 2.5 cm. long; anthers 
yellow; style a little longer than the stamens; gynobase and wings 
absent; fruit ing-calyx about 4 mm. wide; capsule clavate-oblong, 
6 — 9 mm. long, about 4 mm. wide, at first green, maturing blue, a- 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 429 

plcally very blunt, externally finely gray-strigose or tomentose; 
seeds linear-oblong. 

This species is based on Kbnig 77 from "circa flumen magnum 
Monesi-moti-I^ndel", Sri Lanka, deposited in the Linnean Herbari- 
um in London. The type is filed under genus 809, Volkameria, and 
is sheet number 6, inscribed "scandens" in the handwiting of the 
younger Linnaeus. There are also two tickets by KHnig. The 
younger Linnaeus has added the words "Konig 77" according to Jack- 
son. One of the tickets says "Volkameria Scandens. Foliis bi- 
faris, oppositis, corymbis laxis, spicatis. Monesi-IIote Kendal." 
The other ticket reads "Volkameria scandens . Habitat in vastis 
sylvis Zeylonae, super scandit arbores altissime eisque coronat 
suio floribus niveis. Konig 77" and on the reverse: "V. inermis, 
scandens, fol. ramulis tomentosis, fol. cordatis-ovatis glaberri- 
mis. Pedunculi termlnalibus: ramuli dichotomi." 

Our good friend, Magdon Jayasuriya, has written to me about his 
efforts to pinpoint the type locality: "I took a big effort to 
trace this or any similar place all along the eastern coast (prov- 
ince) using the maps and the Gazetteer; but without luck. It is 
possible these old names do not exist now." 

Collectors have found the plant growing on or about rock out- 
crops, along roadsides, in jungles, forests, and primary forest 
edges, in open scrub forests with scattered tall trees, on clay 
flats, in dry regions on the dry zone on tank bunds , and on the 
bottom of abandoned irrigation tanks , at 3 — 150 m. altitude, in 
anthesis from November to August. 

The corollas are described as "white" on Fosherg & Sachet 
52923, Kostermans 24327, Waas 598, and Wirawan 1205 and by Mac 
Millan (1947) and as "pure-white" on Jayasuriya 2038 and by Trl- 
men (1895). 

The species appears to be endemic to Sri Lanka and is there now 
rather rare in the forests of the dry region. It has been intro- 
duced into cultivation in Mauritius according to Bojer (1837). 
Fosbert & Sachet report it "locally common in low swampy ground, 
tangled in the shrubs of thickets". The only recorded vernacular 
name is "climbing volkameria", a so-called "book-name". 

Junell (1934) asserts that "Bei G. Linnaei liegt keine Gyno- 
basis und natUrlich auch keine FlUgel vor." 

Thwaites (1861) comments that "This is most probably, I think, 
Volk, scandens, Linn, f.; but, as the description of the latter 
does not quite accord with our plant, and as the name of Clerod. 
scandens has been applied by Palisot de Beavois to another species 
of the genus [Clerodendrum] , I have thought it best to call the 
plant Cler. Linnaei." He lists it as occurring in only the "Hot, 
drier parts of the island" of Sri Lanka, citing only his C. P. 1948. 
Trimen (1895) asserts that KBnig's plant collections are also 
preserved, in part, in the herbarium of the British Museum, but I 
have personally examined the type [holotype] of the species in the 
Linnean Society's herbarium. Trimen also comments that this plant 
is "A beautiful climber over large trees, which it covers with 
masses of blossoms, but capable of growing as a bush. The fruit 



430 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

first splits septicidally into two halves, then each half again 
into two. There can be no doubt of this being the plant of Linn, 
fil., but his name is not quoted in Fl. B. Ind." 

Material of G. scandens has been misidentif ied and distributed 
in some herbaria as Clerodendron sp., Clerodendrtim sp., and even 
Vitex sp. 

Citations: SRI LANKA: Collector undetermined s.n. [Anuradha- 
pura, Aug. 1885] (Pd), s.n. [Kalawewa, Feb. 1888] (Pd), s.n. 
[near Puttlam, July 1883] (Pd); Fosberg s Mueller-Dombois 50142 
(Z); Fosberg Si Sachet 52923 (N, Z) ; Gardner s.n. [Thwaites C.P. 
1948, Jaffna] (Pd), s.n. [Thwaites C.P. 1948, Puttlam] (Pd); K6nig 
77 [Herb. Linnaeus G.809, S.6] (It — photo of type, Ls — type, N — 
photo of type, S — isotype, Z — photo of type); Kostermans 24327 
(W— 2765613); Kundu & Balakrisbnan 187 (W— 2765234); Thwaites C.P. 
1948 in part [Naval Aru, llarch 1858] (Pd), 1948 in part (Br), s.n. 
(N); Waas 598 (Ld, VJ— 280344, Z); wirawan 1205 (Lc, W--2868189); 
Worthington 5297 (K) . MOUNTED ILLUSTRATIONS: Trimen, Hand. Fl. 
Ceyl. Atlas 3: pi. 73. 1895 (Z, Z) . 

GLOSSOCARYA SCANDENS f. PUBESCENS (Mold.) Mold., Phytologia 38: 
498. 1978. 

Synonymy: Clossocarya scandens var. pubescens Mold., Phytologia 
36: 437—438. 1977. 

Bibliography: Mold., Biol. Abstr. 64: 6575. 1977; Mold., Phyto- 
logia 36: 437—438 (1977) and 38: 498. 1978; Mold., Biol. Abstr. 
66: 1277. 1978; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 33: 87. 1979; Mold., Phy- 
tol. Mem. 2: 268, 408, & 549. 1980. 

This form differs from the typical form of the species in having 
the lower surface of its leaf-blades permanently densely pubescent. 

The form is based on Jayasuriya 2038 from beside rock outcrops 
south of the Komari bridge, north of Pottuvil, at a low altitude, 
Sri Lanka, collected on May 4, 1975, and deposited in the Britton 
Herbarium at the New York Botanical Garden. The collector de- 
scribes it as a very scandent shrub , the branches to 6 m. long, and 
the corollas pure-white. Tlie plant has also been encountered in 
jungles, on rock outcrops, and on woody and shrubby hillsides, at 
150 m. altitude, flowering in March and May. Jayasuriya always re- 
fers to the corollas as "pure white"; Bernardi says that the flow- 
ers are borne in "white corymbs". 

Citations: SRI LANKA: Bernardi 14182 (W — 2766471); Jayasuriya 
2031 (Ld, Pd, W— 2807759), 2038 (Ac— isotype, Ld— isotype, N— type, 
Pd— isotype, U— 2807850— isotype) , 2108 (Ac, Pd, W— 2807748); 
Thwaites C.P. 1948 in part [Negumbo, 1854] (Bz— 21045, Pd). 

GLOSSOCARYA SIAMENSIS Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 240. 1922. 

Synonymy: Clerodendron sguiresii Merr., Journ. Arnold Arb. 19: 
64. 1938. 

Bibliography: Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 240. 1922; A. W. 
Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 103. 1929; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. 
Jahresber. 53 (1): 1074. 1932; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. G^n. Indo-chine 
4: 874 & 887—888, fig. 90 (9) & 91 (1—3). 1935; Fletcher, Kew 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Glossocarya 431 

Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 405--407 & 437—438. 1938; E. D. Merr., 
Journ. Arnold Arb. 19: 64 (1938) and 21: 385. 1940; Worsdell, Ind. 
Lond. Suppl. 1: 438. 1941; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, 
ed. 1, 59, 60, & 93 . 1942; Hold., Alph. List Inv. Names 20. 1942; 
Mold., ICnoxm Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 136, 137, & 186. 
1949; Mold., Resume 176, 178, 270, & 456. 1959; Mold., Fifth Sumn. 
1: 296, 301, & 456 (1971) and 2: 879. 1971; M.old., Phytologia 34: 
19 & 264. 1976; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 286, 293, & 549. 1980. 

Illustrations: Dop in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-chine 4: 874 & 887, 
fig. 90 (9) & 91 (1—3). 1935. 

A shrub, under 5 m. tall; branches rather densely and crisped 
short-pubescent when young, finally glabrous; bark pale-brown, con- 
spicuously striate; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles 6 — 10 mm. 
long, canaliculate above; leaf-blades chartaceous, paler beneath, 
ovate or oblong, to 9 cm. long and 5.5 cm. \;ide, apically short- 
acvmiinate, marginally entire, basally cordate or broadly cordate, 
pubescent on the midrib and larger venation on both surfaces but 
more sparsely so beneath; secondaries 4 or 5, arcuately joined at 
the margins, conspicuous above, prominulent beneath; corymbs ter- 
minal and also in the upper leaf-axils and there either borne on 
leafless peduncles or terminating short twigs, subequaling the 
subtending leaves or slightly surpassing them, 3 — 7 cm. wide; 
partial peduncles to 2.5 cm. long, sometimes with small leaves at 
the base, rather densely short-pubescent; pedicels short, rather 
densely short-pubescent; flowers slightly scented; calyx obpyrami- 
dal-cupuliform, about 3 mm. long, externally puberulent, distinct- 
ly venose, the rim denticulate; corolla white; anthers blackish; 
style purple; fruit about 8 mm. long and 2.5 mm. wide, externally 
puberulent, with scattered longer hairs intermixed. 

The species is based on Kerr 4502 from along a canal at Bangkok, 
Krungtep, Thailand, at less than 5 m. altitude. Fletcher (1938) 
cites also Kerr 19530 and Put 2673 from Thailand. Merrill (1940) 
says "Although I have seen no fruiting material representing the 
species described as Clerodendron Sguiresii Merr. in 1938, I am 
now convinced that the type of the latter species represents the 
allied genus Glossocarya, and the species described in 1922 as G. 
siamensis Craib." 

Collectors have encountered G. siamensis along roadsides and 
canals, at 5 — 100 m. altitude, in anthesis in tLarch, August, and 
September and in fruit in August. Smitinand reports it "common" 
on riverbanks and the edges of swamps in Thailand. 

Material has been misidentif ied and distributed in some her- 
baria as Hymenopyramis sp. On the other hand, the Maxwell 71-487, 
distributed as G. siamensis, is the type collection of its var. 
pubescens Mold, and Pierre 1208 is the type collection of G. 
puberula Mold. 

Citations: THAILAND: Maxwell 72-389 (Ac); Smitinand 2886 
[Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 12917] (Ac, Z), 2941 (Ac, Z) . VIETNAM: 
Annam: Squires 858 (Bz — 20742, Mu, N, N — photo, S, Z — photo). Co- 
chinchina: Evrard 2764 [field no. 82] (N, S); Pierre s.n. [Bien- 
hoa, 6/165] (Ca— 54795, S), s.n. [Bien-hoa, 7/1865] (N) , s.n. (B) ; 



432 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 6 

Thorel 595 (B) . 

GLOSSOCARYA SIAMENSIS var. PUBESCENS Mold., Phytologia 34: 19. 
1976. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 34: 19 & 264. 1976; Mold., 
Phytol. Mem. 2: 286 & 549. 1980. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in 
having the pubescence throughout the inflorescences far more 
dense, conspicuous, and spreading and the lower leaf -surf aces more 
or less distinctly spreading-pilose-pubescent, especially on the 
larger venation. 

The variety is based on Maxwell 71-487 from a dense thicket 
along a trail at Howa Pie, Angthong, Thailand, collected on August 
15, 1971, and deposited in the Aarhus University herbarium. Thus 
far it is known only from the original collection. 

Citations: THAILAND: Maxwell 71-487 (Ac — type). 



NOTES ON THE GENUS HYMENOPYRAMIS (VERBENRCEAE) 
Harold N. Moldenke 



It being manifestly impractical to attempt the formal monograph 
of this genus so long planned and previously announced, only the 
bibliographic and herbaritim notes assembled by my wife. Alma L. 
Moldenke, and myself over the past 52 years are herewith placed on 
record for use by future monographers. This is the 76th genus 
thus far treated by us in this series of papers in this and certain 
other journals. The herbarium acronyms herein employed are the 
same those used in all of our previous papers in this series and 
are most recently explained in full in Phytologia Memoirs 2: 463 — 
469 (1980) and Phytologia 50: 268 (1982). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS Wall., Numer. List [25], no. 774, hyponym. 1829; W. 
Griff., Calcut. Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 365. 1843. 

Synonymy: Hymenolepis Craib ex Mold., R^sumfe Suppl. 3: 32, in 
sjm. 1962 [not Hynenolepis Cass., 1817, nor Kaulff., 1824]. 
Hymenopyramis "Wall, ex Griff." apud Airy Shaw in J. C. Willis, 
Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 7, 568. 1966. Hymenospyranis Wall, ex Mold., 
Phytologia 23: 432, in syn. 1972. Hymenofyranus Wall, ex Mold., 
Phytologia 23: 432, in syn. 1972. 

Bibliography: Wall., Numer. List [25], no. 774. 1829; Endl., 
Gen. PI. 638. 1838; Sweet, Hort. Brit., ed. 3, 764. 1839; Meisn. , 
PI. Vase. Gen. Comm. 2: 197. 1840; Spach, Hist. Nat. V^g. Phan. 9: 
228. 1840; Steud., Nom. Bot . Phan., ed. 2, 1: 784. 1840; Reichenb., 
Deutsch. Bot. [Repert. Herb. Nom.] 108. 1841; W. Griff., Calcut. 
Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 365. 1843; Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc. 464 & 
472. 1845; Walp., Repert. Bot. Syst. 4: 133. 1845; Lindl., Veg. 
Klngd., ed. 1, 664 (1846) and ed. 2, 664. 1847; Schau. in A. DC, 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis A33 

Prodr. 11: 626. 1847; A. L. Juss. in Orbigny, Diet. Univ. Hist. 
Nat, 13: 185. 1849; Lindl., Veg. Kingd., ed. 3, 664. 1853; 
Schnitzl., Iconog. Fam. Wat. Reg. Veg. 2: 137 Verbenac. [3]. 1856; 
Miq., Fl. Ind. Bat. 2: 858 & 903. 1858; Bocq., ;\dansonia, ser. 1, 
2: 87, 113, 117, 124, 126, 128, 129, 143, 144, 146, 148, & 158 
(1862) and 3: [Rev. Verbenac] 112, 179, 180, 183, 208—209, & pi. 
11, fig. 1—10. 1863; Pfeiffer, Nom. Bot. 1 (2): 1710. 1874; 
Benth. in Benth. (, Hook, f.. Gen. PI. 2 (2): 1136 & 1158. 1876; 
Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 252 & 258. 1877; Gamble, Ilan. In- 
dian Timb., ed. 1, 281, 282, & 511. 1881; C. B. Clarke in Hook, f., 
Fl. Brit. India 4: 561 & 598. 1885; Durand, Ind. Gen. Phan. 322. 
1888; Baill., Hist. PI. 11: 88 & 117 (1891) and 11: 490. 1892; 
Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 1, 1: 1189. 1893; 
Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. Pf lanzenfam. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 133, 
136—138, 176, 177, & 179, fig. 66 H & J (1895) and 4 (sa): 382. 
1897; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 1, 524 & 545. 1902; 
Dalla Torre & Harms, Gen. Siphonog., imp. 1, 433. 1904; Post & 
Kuntze, Lexicon 292 & 688. 1904; Brandis, Indian Trees, imp. 1, 
502 & 505. 1906; Craib, Kew Bull, llisc. Inf. 1911: 445 (1911) and 
1912: 154—155. 1912; Craib, Contrib. Fl. Siam Dicot. 166—167. 
1912; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 40 (2): 335. 1915; 
H. Hallier, Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 86. 1918; Prain, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 138. 1921; Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 
240—241. 1922; Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 2, 524. 
1922; Wangerin, Justs Bot. Jahresber. 46 (1): 717. 1926; A. W. 
Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 124. 1929; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 464. 
1930; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 95, 98, & 201—202, fig. 
149 & 150. 1934; Fedde & Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 
1074. 1932; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. G^n. Indo-chine 4: 776 (1935) and 
4: 887—891, fig. 91 (4—6). 1936; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 
1937: 274 (1937) and 1938: 206, 401, 405—409, & 438—439. 1938; 
Worsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 493. 1941; Mold., Known Geogr. Dis- 
trib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 54, 55, 59, 60, 73, & 93. 1942; Leme'e, 
Diet. Descrip. Syn. Gen. PI. Phan. 8b: 657. 1943; Jacks, in Hook, 
f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 1189. 1946; Hill & Salisb., 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 116. 1947; H. N. & A. L. Mold., PI. Life 2: 
23, 24, & 34. 1948; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 
2, 127, 129, 136, 138, 160, & 186. 1949;Mold., Phytologia 5: 339— 
340. 1956; Iljin, Acad. Sci. Bot. Inst. Uept. Repr. Mat. Hist. 
Fl. Veg. USSR 3: 216. 1958; Mold., R^sum^ 163, 166, 176, 178, 219, 
414, & 457. 1959; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 3, 
1: 1189. 1960; Prain, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 138. 1960; 
Turrill, Curtis Bot. liag. 173: pi. 355. 1960; Mold., Re'sume' Suppl. 
3: 19, 20, 23, & 32. 1962; Dalla Torre & Harms, Gen. Siphonog., imp. 
2, 433. 1963; Mold., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 23: 91. 1963; Airy Shaw, 
Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1965: 266 & 267. 1965; F. A. Barkley, List 
Ord. Fam. Anthoph. 76 & 174. 1965; Sen & Naskar, Bull. Bot. Surv. 
India 7: 48. 1965; Airy Shaw in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 
7, 568. 1966; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 71 & 149. 1966; 
Mold., R^sum^ Suppl. 15: 10 (1967) and 16: 23. 1968; Rouleau, Guide 
Ind. Kew. 96 & 352. 1970; Mold., Phytologia 20: 78. 1970; Brandis. 
Indian Trees, imp. 2, 502 & 505. 1971; Mold., Biol. Abstr. 52: 1316 



434 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

(1971) and 52 (3): B.A.S.I.C. S.llA. 1971; Mold., Excerpt. Bot. 
A. 18: 445. 1971; Hold., Fifth Summ. 1: 276, 283, 296, 301, £< 363 

(1971) and 2: 881. 1971; Hold., Phytologia 20: 507. 1971; Mukho- 
padhyay. Pollen Morph. Verb, [thesis]. 1971; Gamble, Man. Indian 
Timb., ed. 2, imp. 3, 524 & 545. 1972; Mold., Phytologia 23: 432. 
1972; Airy Shaw in J. C. Willis, Diet. Flow. PI., ed. 8, 582. 
1973; Mold., Phytologia 26: 355, 356, 365, £. 505. 1973; Thanikai- 
moni, Inst. Fran?. Pond. Trav. Sect. Scient. Techn. 12 (2): 65. 
1973; Heslop-Harrison, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 15: 70. 1974; Mold., Biol. 
Abstr. 57: 1898. 1974; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 25: 378. 1975; 
Mold., Phytologia 34: 274 & 505. 1976; Tlianikaimoni, Inst. Fran?. 
Pond. Trav. Sect. Scient. Techn. 13: 120 & 328. 1976;Mukherjee & 
Chanda, Trans. Bose Res. Inst. 41: 41, 45, & 47. 1978; Mold., 
Phytol. Mem. 2: 263, 273, 286, 289, 290, 293, 354, 412, & 550. 
1980; Mold., Phytologia 45: 343 & 507 (1980), 47: 335 & 507 (1981), 
48: 122 fi. 508 (1981), and 50: 252. 1982. 

Large, rambling or somewhat scandent shrubs; branches elongate, 
sub tetragonal, at least the younger parts more or less canescent 
or gray-tomentose; leaves simple, deciduous, membranous or herba- 
ceous, decussate-opposite, penninerved, exstipulate, isophyllous, 
mostly rather long-petiolate, narginally entire; inflorescence 
mostly rather large, axillary or terminal, determinate, cymose, 
pyramidal, brachiate, pedunculate, usually loose or sometimes 
dense, many-flowered; bracts very small to minute; flowers very 
small, subactinomorphic or slightly zygomorphic, 4-merous, grouped 
in mostly rather isolated glomerules axillary to the bracts; calyx 
very small, gamosepalous, cupuliform, subactinomorphic or slightly 
irregular, shortly 4-toothed or 4-fld, the teeth slightly unequal, 
the 2 anterior ones longer than the 2 posterior ones; corolla 
gamopetalous, hypocrateriform or sub infundibular, somewhat irregu- 
lar, the tube short, cylindric, usually about equaling the calyx, 
apically ampliate, the limb oblique, 4-lobed, the lobes equal to 
slightly or greatly unequal, alternate with the calyx-lobes, the 
anterior one innermost in prefloration and larger than the others, 
the posterior one shortest, the lateral ones partly interior and 
partly exterior; stamens 4, inserted in the throat or at the base 
of the corolla-tube, exserted, isometrous, didynamous, alternate 
with the petals, the anterior ones inserted lower than the poster- 
ior ones; filaments capillary, sinuous in bud; anthers erect, 
ovate, 2-celled, the thecae parallel but unequal, longitudinally 
dehiscent by means of a slit, introrse, attached above their mid- 
dle to a glandulose connective; pistil solitary, bicarpellary; 
style terminal, capillary or filiform, exserted, glabrous, sinuous 
in bud; stigma bifid, the lobes subulate, short, divergent, un- 
equal, the anterior one larger; ovary single, compound, superior, 
situated at the base of the calyx, 1-celled or incompletely 2- 
celled, globose, apically externally glandulose, with parietal 
placentae, each cell bilamellate and biovulate; ovules subterminal, 
pendent from near the apex, semi-anatropous; fruiting-calyx great- 
ly enlarged, chartaceous to membranous or hyaline, inflated, 
utriculose to saccate, reticulate-venose, broadly 4-winged, whitish 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis 435 

or greenish, apically more or less closed, the wings usually 
circular and unequal; fruit a small capsule, globular or ovoid to 
obovoid, enclosed by the fruiting-calyx, A-valved, the valves de- 
ciduous, crustaceous, oblong-ovoid or obovoid-oblong, externally 
pilose or villosulous, attached to a central, A-winged, axile, 
placental column, the inflexed margins holding the seeds, at first 
loculicidal, later septicidal; mesocarp reduced to a dry membrane, 
the A incomplete pyrenes each one-seeded; seeds more or less pen- 
dent (like the ovules), 3-angled or subtriquetrous, the testa hard; 
endosperm absent; embryo slightly curvate; cotyledons 2, ellip- 
tic; radicle inferior; chalaza superior. 

Type species: Hymenopyramis brachiata Wall. 

This is a small and distinct genus of about 8 recognized taxa, 
native to India, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam; one 
species sometimes cultivated in botanical gardens or other fine 
collections. The generic name is derived from "UPHV , a membrane, 
and irvpjjipiia pyramid. 

Walpers (18A5) recognized only the type species, which he 
credited to eastern and central India; Miquel (1858) also knevj on- 
ly this one species, which Durand (1888) ascribed to the Himalaya 
region. Bentham (1876) recognized "1 or 2?" species native to the 
Himalayas "from Kumaon to Burma". Dalla Torre & Harms (1904) re- 
cognized only a single species from "eastern India to Burma"; Briquet 
(1895) also knew only one species "in den himalayischen Bergzugen 
vorder Indiens und Birmas". Dop (1935) recognized 3 species from 
India and Indochina; Angely (1956) raised the number to 6 species. 

Baillon (1891) asserts that the genus' closest relationship is 
with the genus Callicarpa L. and Premna L. 

Bocquillon (1862-1863) says concerning the ovary: "des fausses 
cloisons ant^rieure et posterieure s'avancent des paroid de I'ovaire 
entre les placentas". Also "Le calice persistant et consid^rable- 
ment accru a la forme de quatre grandes ailes circulaire, membran- 
euses, inegales; il renferme la fruit, qui est poilu, sec, et se 
partage en quatre parties, d'abord par une dehiscence loculicide, 
puis par dehiscence septicide." 

Junell (1934) tells us. on the basis of a Hort. Buitenzord col- 
lection and Wallich 774 at Berlin, that "Die Plazenten verwachsen 
im unteren Teil des Fruchtknotens. Die FruchtblattrJInder, die im 
oberen Teil des GynUceums. . . .verhHltnism^ssig gross und mit gut 
ausgebildeten leitendem Gewebe versehen sind, werden nach unten zu 

kleiner. Im unteren Teil des Fruchtkustens sind sie so redu- 

ziert, dass die beiden zu demselben Fruchtblatt gehtirigen Samen- 
anlagen dicht an einander liegen, d.h. zwischen den Samenanlagen 

ragt keine unvollstHndige Scheidewand von der Plazenta vor 

Der mikropylare Teil der Samenanlagen ist gegen die Medianlinie des 
Fruchtknotens gekrUmmt. Die Frucht ist nur wenig kapselartig. Die 
Fruchtwand ist sehr hart und enthHlt typische Steinzellen. An der 
OberflHche der abgerundeten Frucht kann man die Grenzen zwischen 
den einzelnen Klappen kaum sehen, und es ist bei dieser Gattung 
bedeutend schwerer als bei der vorhergehenden Gattungun, die Frucht 
zum Zerfall in diese Klappen zu bringen Die FrUchte von Hymeno- 
pyramis, welche ich untersucht habe, lassen sich jedoch nur schwierig 



A36 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

in vier Telle teilen." 

The Hymenolepis Cass. (1817), referred to In the synonymy (a- 
bove), is a synonym of Athanasia L. in the Carduaceae, while 
Hymenolepis Kaulff . (1824) is Belvisia Mirbel in the Polypodiaceae. 

It is perhaps worth mentioning here that the Endlicher (1838) 
reference in the bibliography of Hymenopyramis is often cited 
as "1836 — 1856", the title-page date, but the page involved here 
was actually issued in 1838; similarly the Schnitzlein reference 
is usually cited as "1843 — 1870", but our page was issued in 1856. 
The Miquel (1858) reference is sometimes cited as "1856", the 
title-page date, or as "1857", but, again, the page herein in- 
volved was issued in 1858. Baillon's Hist. PI. 11: 88 & 117 were 
issued in 1891, not in "1892" as were the later pages. Wallich's 
original publication of the generic name was issued in 1829, not 
in "1831" as sometimes cited. 

According to Sweet (1839) the type species of Hymenopyramis was 
introduced into cultivation in England in 1832 from the "E. Indies", 
but surely it was "eastern India" that was intended. 

An artificial key to the accepted taxa: 

1. Utricle at least 2 cm. long and up to 4 cm. long when mature. 
2. Utricle almost glabrous; leaf-blades with a thick, short, ap- 
pressed tomentum beneath and with numerous, sessile, amber- 
colored glands almost completely hidden by the tomentum. 
3. Leaf-blades ovate to elliptic, to 15 cm. long.i/. vesiculosa. 
3a. Leaf-blades elliptic, only to 8 cm. long. 

4. Leaf-blades apically conspicuously acuminate. H. acuminata. 
4a. Leaf-blades apically mostly acute to obtuse, sometimes 
very shortly acuminate. 
5. Upper surface of leaf-blades densely short-pubescent.... 

H. parvi folia. 
5a. Upper surface of leaf-blades completely glabrous and 

nitid H. parvifolia var. nitida. 

2a. Utricle conspicuously pubescent; leaf-blades with a thinner 
tomentum of longer hairs beneath, the numerous, sessile, 
amber-colored glands not hidden by the tomentum. H. siamensis. 
la. Utricle at most 2 cm. long. 

6. Leaf-blades with a short tomentum of mostly bro^jnish subap- 
pressed hairs beneath. 

7. Utricle only scattered-pilosulous H. brachiata. 

7a. Utricle very densely puberulent over its entire surface... 

H. pubescens. 
6a. Leaf-blades with a thick tomentum of longer white hairs 

beneath H. cana . 

HYMENOPYRAMIS ACUMINATA Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 206. 
1938. 
Bibliography: Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 206, 401, & 
438. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 60 & 93. 
1942; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 116. 1947; Mold., Known 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 138 & 186. 1949; Mold., Rrfsum^ 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis 437 

178 & 457. 1959; Mold., Resumd Suppl. 3: 19 & 20. 1962; Hold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 296 & 301 (1971) and 2: 881. 1971; Mold., Phytol. 
Mem. 2: 286, 293, & 550. 1980; Mold., Phytologia 50: 252. 1982. 

A scandent shrub or woody climber, to 3 m. tall; branchlets 
obtusely tetragonal, gray-brown, glabrous except for a few hairs 
at the nodes, few-lenticellate; leaves decussate-opposite; peti- 
oles 1 cm. long, pubescent and slightly canaliculate above; leaf- 
blades rigidly chartaceous, olive-green and bro^^n- tinted above, 
elliptic or subobovate, 5 — 8 cm. long, 2 — 5.5 cm. wide, apically 
very acuminate, basally cuneate, marginally entire and glabrous, 
glabrous above except for the tomentose base of the midrib, whit- 
ish or gray and green-tinged beneath and glandular-tomentose, the 
tomentum short, thick, and appressed, the numerous, sessile, am- 
ber-colored glands almost completely hidden by the tomentum; 
midrib and the 4 or 5 pairs of secondaries conspicuous above; 
midrib prominent beneath; secondaries parallel, prominulous be- 
neath; tertiaries strong, numerous, parallel; panicles axillary 
or terminal, foliose, 15 — 28 cm. long, basally 15 — 24 cm. \/ide, 
the principle branches 8 — 12 cm. long; flowers fragrant; calyx 
yellow-green; corolla and filaments white; utricle inflated, 
ovoid, yellow-green, 2 — 3 cm. long, acutely 4-winged, glabrous or 
sparsely pubescent and glandulose; capsule obovoid, about 5 mm. 
long, 3 — 5 mm. wide, externally fulvous-hirsute, with numerous, 
sessile, amber-colored glands especially apically. 

This species is based on Kerr 17917 from an evergreen forest, 
under 50 m. altitude, at Krat, Kao Saming, Thailand. Fletcher 
(1938) comments that the species is related to H. siamensis Craib, 
but differs in its smaller leaves, which are apically more acumin- 
ate, with the lower surface more shortly tomentose, the glands al- 
most completely hidden, and the almost glabrous utricle. He cites 
only the type collection. 

Collectors have encountered this plant in mostly open areas in 
deciduous forests, along trails, and both in and at the margins of 
evergreen forests, as well as "scattered in dry evergreen forests 
on hillsides", at under 50 to 800 m. altitude, in flower in Febru- 
ary, June, and August, and in fruit in June, August, and December. 

Material has been misidentif ied and distributed in some herbar- 
ia as H. brachiata Wall, and as H. cana Craib. 

Citations: THAILAND: K. Larsen 9878 (Lw) ; Larsen, Larsen, Niel- 
sen, & Santisuk 31664 (Ac), 31930 (Ac, Z) ; J. F. Maxwell 74-828 
(Ac), 75-135 (Ac); Phengkhlai 585 (Cp). LAOS: Thorel 2440 (Ca~ 
54796, Z). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS BRACHIATA Wall., Numer. List [25], no. 774, hyponym. 
1829; W. Griff., Calcut. Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 365. 1843. 

Synonyms: Hymenospyranis brachiata Wall, ex Mold., Phytologia 
23: 432, in syn. 1972. Hymenopyramis brachiata "Wall, ex Kurz" ex 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 412, in syn. 1980. 

Bibliography: Wall., Numer. List [25], no. 774. 1829; Sweet, 
Hort. Brit., ed. 3, 764. 1839; Steud., Nom. Bot. Phan. , ed. 2, 1: 
784. 1840; W. Griff., Calcut. Journ. Nat. Hist. 3: 365. 1843; 
Voigt, Hort. Suburb. Calc. 472. 1845; Walp., Repert, Bot. Syst. 4: 



438 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

133, 1845; Schau. in A. DC, Prodr. 11: 626. 1847; lliq., Fl. Ned. 
Ind. 2: 903. 1858; Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 2: 113 & 129, pi. 
11, fig. 1—10. 1862; Bocq., Rev. Verbenac. 113 & 129, pi. 11, fig. 
1—10. 1863; Kurz, Forest Fl. Brit. Burma 2: 258. 1877; Gamble, 
an. Indian Timb., ed. 1, 282 & 511. 1881; C. B. Clarke in Hook, 
f., Fl. Brit. India 4: 598. 1885; Jacks, in Hook. f. & Jacks., Ind. 
Kew., imp. 1, 1: 1189. 1893; Briq. in Engl. & Prantl, Nat. 
Pflanzenfam. , ed. 1, 4 (3a): 176 & 179, fig. 66 H & J. 1895; 
Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 1, 545. 1902; Brandis, In- 
dian Trees, imp. 1, 505. 1906; Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1911: 
445. 1911; Craib, Contrib. Fl. Siam Dicot. 166. 1912; H. Hallier, 
Meded. Rijks Herb. Leid. 37: 86. 1918; Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 
1922: 240. 1922; Stapf, Ind. Lond. 3: 401. 1930; Junell, Symb. Bot. 
Upsal. 1 (4): 95 & 98, fig. 149 & 150. 1934; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. 
G^n. Indo-chine 4: 889—890. 1935; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 
1938: 401, 405, 438, & 439. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Ver- 
benac, ed. 1, 54, 55, 59, 60, 73, & 93. 1942; Jacks, in Hook. f. 
& Jacks., Ind. Kew., imp. 2, 1: 1189. 1946; Mold., Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 127, 129, 136, 138, 160, & 186. 1949; 
Mold., R^sum^ 163, 166, 176, 178, 219, & 457. 1959; Sen & Naskar, 
Bull. Bot. Surv. India 7: 48. 1965; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 
13: 71. 1966; Brandis, Indian Trees, imp. 2, 505. 1971; Mold., 
Fifth Summ. 1: 276, 283, 296, 301, & 363 (1971) and 2: 88;. 1971; 
Gamble, Man. Indian Timb., ed. 2, imp. 2, 545. 1972; Mold., Phy- 
tologia 23: 432 (1972) and 34: 274. 1976; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 
263, 273, 286, 293, 354, 412, & 550. 1980. 

Illustrations: Bocq., Adansonia, ser. 1, 2: pi. 11, fig. 1 — 10. 
1862; Bocq., Rev. Verbenac. pi. 11, fig. 1—10. 1863; Briq. in 
Engl. L Prantl, Nat. Pflanzenfam., ed. 1, 4 (3a): 176, fig. 66 H & 
J. 1895; Junell, Symb. Bot. Upsal. 1 (4): 95, fig. 149 & 150. 1934. 

A large extensively scandent or rambling, rarely creeping, de- 
ciduous shrub, about 3 m. tall, or rarely a small tree, 4 — 6 m. 
tall; trunk to 25 cm. in diameter, the blaze tan over brown; 
branches elongate, gray-tomentose; branchlets brachiate, grayish- 
velvety or -Gtrigose; leaves decussate-opposite, short-petiolate; 
petioles slender, 8 — 14 mm. long, densely puberulent; leaf -blades 
subchartaceous to membranous, ovate to ovate-lanceolate or ovate- 
oblong, 7.5 — 12.5 cm. long, 1.2 — 1.5 cm. wide, apically acuminate, 
marginally entire, basally obtuse to more or less acute or rhomboid, 
glabrous or glabrate above when mature, gray-pubescent or -tomen- 
tose beneath, the tomentum short, brownish, and rather appressed; 
inflorescence axillary or terminal, the terminal panicles pyramidal, 
large, to 30 cm. long and 20 cm. wide, lax, brachiate, basally 
leafy, gray-tomentose or -puberulent throughout, composed of small, 
many-flowered, dichotomous, often compact cymes, borne usually at 
the ends of branchlets or in the axils of the upper leaves; bract- 
lets very small; flowers small or very small; peduncles capillary, 
short during anthesis but 8 — 10 mm. long in fruit; calyx minute, a- 
bout 1 mm. long during anthesis, 4-fid; corolla obliquely campanu- 
late, white or cream-color to greenish, about 3 mm. long, the tube 
cylindric, externally pubescent, the limb obliquely 4-fid or 4-lobed; 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis 439 

stamens 4, exserted; anthers ovate, the thecae parallel; style 
filiform; stigma shortly bifid; ovary 2-celled, A-ovulate; fruit- 
ing-calyx greatly accrescent, the utricle oblong or ovoid, not 
over 2 cm. long, 8 — 13 mm. wide, ventricose, membranous or char- 
taceous, venose, externally minutely scattered-pilosulous, acutely 
4-alate, the mouth very small to minute; capsule small, obovoid 
or globular, 3 — 4 mm. long, completely encircled and included by 
the utricle, externally pilose or fulvous-hirsute to lanate, resin- 
ous-punctate, A-valvular, the valves obovoid-oblong, their margin 
inflexed and holding the seeds; seeds pendulous, triquetrous. 

This species is based on Wallich 774 from Taong Doug on the 
Irawaddy river in Upper Burma, collected in 1826. Kurz (1877) and 
Gamble (1902) record it from dry forests in the Prome area. Clarke 
(1885) cites only the Wallich type, listing the species from Pegu 
and Ava, as well as cultivated in northern and central India. Dop 
(1935) cites unnumbered Kerr and Vanpruk collections from Thailand 
and one of Pierre from Cochinchina. Hallier (1918) cites his 
C.246 from cultivated material in Sri Lanka, deposited in the Ham- 
burg herbarium. Sen & Naskar (1965) also list it as cultivated in 
India. Griffith (1843) lists it from central eastern India. 
Jackson (1893) avers that the type was from Burma. Bocquillon 
(1862) cites a Gaudin collection in the Paris and "Les" herbaria. 
Schauer (1847) asserts that he saw only a specimen in the DeCandolle 
herbarium "ab illi coetu mercat. Ind. or. comm." [probably the Wal- 
lich type]. Craib (1911) cites iCerr 2017 & 2017a and Vanpruk 178 
from Thailand. 

Fletcher (1938) cites from Thailand: Collins 248, 539, 1263, 
1525, & 1577, Kerr 2017, 2017a, 5721, 10742, 16146, 19634, & 20515, 
Lakshnakara 1040 & s.n., Marcan 363, 1364, & 2485, Noe 131, and 
Vanpruk 178, listing the species as from northern and central India, 
Burma, and Cochinchina, as well as Thailand. 

It would appear that H. brachiata is cultivated (and perhaps na- 
tive) in northern and central India and certainly native from Upper 
Burma and Thailand to Indochina, occasionally cultivated as a speci- 
men plant in Sri Lanka, Java, England, and perhaps elsewhere. Sweet 
(1839) asserts that it was introduced to English gardens in 1832 
from the "E. Indies" [apparently an error for Eastern India]. 

Collectors have encountered this species in light evergreen or 
deciduous forests, disturbed mixed deciduous and bamboo forests, in 
seaside scrub and limestone-loving scrub, and in hedgerows, from 2 — 
120 m. altitude, in flower from March to June, August, and November, 
and in fruit in January, March, October, and December. Bunpheng re- 
ports it "common in dry evergreen forests" in Thailand. 

The corollas are said to have been "white" on Geeslnk & al. 5589, 
Huk s.n., and Nafday 119 and "greenish" on Bunpheng 215. Dop (1935) 
asserts that the stamens of //. brachiata are only shortly exserted, 
while those of the related H. cana are long-exserted. 

Vernacular and common names reported for H. brachiata are 
"armed hymenopyramis", "chin-thea-lek-nway", "chintheleinevfe", 
"chintheletneve", "kongkang", "konkang", and "kua kha pua". 

The gynoecium morphology notes given under the genus as a whole 



^^0 PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, Ho. 6 



(above) were based on material apparently representing H. brachi- 
ata. 

Material of H. brachiata has been misidentif ied and distribu- 
ted in some herbaria as H. cana Craib and even as lodes sp. On 
the other hand, the Maxwell 74-828 & 75-135, distributed as H. 
brachiata, actually represents H. acuminata Fletcher, vzhile King 
5418, 5423, & 5500 and Maxwell 74-770 are H. cana Craib, Shimizu 
& al. T.8760 is H. parvifolia Mold., Maxwell 73-459 is H. pubes- 
cens Mold., Shimizu S al. T. 10706 is H. siamensis Craib, and Col- 
lins 1263 is something in the Lauraceae. 

Citations: BURMA: Huk s.n. [8-10-1890] (W~389422); Kurz 2384 
(W~389A21); Mokim 160 (Pd); Rock 927 (W~1090559). THAILAND: 
Bunpheng 215 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 8339] (Z); Collins 539 (W~ 
1700588), 1525 (W~1701259), 1577 (W— 1701287); Geesink, Phani- 
chapol, S Santisuk 5589 (Ac); Kasim bin Rajad 734 (Kl — 173A); Rock 
639 (W~1090421). VIETNAM: Cochinchina: Thorel 9440 (B) . CULTI- 
VATED: India: Herb. Harvey s.n. [h. Calcutta] (Du~166525 in part); 
Herb. Hort. Bot. Calcutt. s.n. (Bz — 21394, Mu — 1086, Mu — 1164, 
Pd, T); Koelz 10408 (Ba, llu); Nafday 119 (Ba) . Java: Herb. Hort. 
Bot. Bogor. XV.E.66 (Bz~26274, Bz~26556, N) , XF.28a (Bz~21388, 
Bz~21389, Bz— 21390, Bz~21392, Bz~21393, Bz~25590, Bz~25591), 
XI. 1. 30 (Bz, Bz, Bz, N), XJ.I.31 (Bz~25835, Bz), XI. 1.33 (Bz~ 
25836, Bz, Bz, N) , s.n. (Bz~21391). Sri Lanka: Collector unde- 
termined 125/54 (Pd), (Pd, Pd). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS CANA Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 240—241. 
1922. 

Bibliography: Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1922: 240—241. 1922; 
A. W. Hill, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 7: 124. 1929; Fedde & Schust., Jysts 
Bot. Jahresber. 53 (1): 1074. 1932; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. G^n. Indo- 
chine 4: 889—890. 1935; Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 401, 
405, 407, 438, & 439. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrlb. Verbenac, 
ed. 1, 59, 60, & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 136, 138, & 186. 1949; Mold., 
R^sumer 176, 178, & 457. 1959; Mold., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 23: 91. 1963; 
Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 & 301 (1971) and 2: 881. 1971; Mold., 
Phytol. Mem. 2: 286, 289, 290, & 550. 1980. 

An often subscandent shrub, 1 — 5 m. tall, fairly large liana, or 
small tree with long rambling branches; branchlets tetragonal, 4- 
sulcate, at first more or less appressed-crisped-pubescent, soon 
merely puberulent; bark gray-brown, with elongated lenticels more 
or less arranged in lines; leaves decussate-opposite; leaf-blades 
rigidly chartaceous or subcoriaceous, elliptic-ovate or ovate, 
rarely lanceolate or obovate, to 9 cm. long and 5.2 cm. wide, api- 
cally acutely acuminate, marginally entire, basally cuneate or 
rounded-cuneate, green when fresh but fuscescent above in drying 
and puberulent on the midrib, incanous beneath with a thick tomentum 
of long white hairs; midrib and the 5 or 6 pairs of very slender 
and straight secondaries impressed above, prominent beneath; terti- 
arles transverse, the velnlet reticulation invisible; inflorescence 
like that of H. brachiata; flowers scented like Tetracera; corolla 
white or greenish; stamens only slightly exserted; fruit ing-calyx 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis 441 

inflated, about 1 cm. long, similar to that of H. brachiata^ 
yellow-green; fruit about 4 mm. long, externally hirsute and 
glandulose. 

This species is based on iferr 4637 from on and among rocks, at 
400 m. altitude, at the Me Ping rapids, Keng Soi, Thailand. Craib 
(1922) asserts that the species differs from H. brachiata in the 
leaf-blades being white [with a longer thick tomentum] beneath. 
It is apparently native to Thailand, Cambodia, and Laos. Fletcher 
(1938) cites only Kerr 4637 and Lakshnakara 1010 from Tliailand. 
Dop (1935) cites unnumbered collections of Thorel from Laos, 
Evrard and Poilane from Annam, Poilane from Cambodia, and Kerr 
from Thailand. According to Poilane, the Indochinese natives use 
it as a "c'endres m^langees a la p5te destin^e k la confection 
des galettes". 

Collectors have found the plant growing in sandy loam of clear- 
ings in mixed evergreen forests, in rocky deciduous/evergreen 
forests, in dry and deciduous forests, and among scrub vegetation, 
at 25 — 400 m. altitude, in flower from March to August and in De- 
cember, in fruit in August, September, November, and December. 
Bunpheng records it as "common in deciduous forests" and Smiti- 
nand refers to it as "common in scrub forests". King found it to 
be "uncommon" in "open sun of ricefields with scattered shrubs 
and trees to 18 m. tall" and "in open sun of old fields consist- 
ing of spiny shrubs and small trees to 3 m. tall, the soil a gray- 
brown silty-clay". VJood vouchers accompany King 5418 & 5423. 

Vernacular names recorded for the species are "kha pia", 
"khapia", and "pa dong lians dHng". 

The corollas are described as having been "white" on most col- 
lections where the flower color is mentioned, but as "greenish" 
on King 5500. 

Material of H. cana has been misidentif led and distributed in 
some herbaria as H. brachiata Wall., Premna sp., and even as 
Combretum acuminatum. On the other hand, the Maxwell 72-224, 
distributed as H. cana, actually is H. siamensis Craib. 

Citations: THAILAND: Bunpheng 1142 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 
21155] (Gg); Charoenmayu 397 [Herb. Pvoy. Forest Dept. 11521] (Z) ; 
Charoenphol, Larsen, S Warncke 4921 (Ac); Khit 28 (S); R. M. King 
5418 (W~2435974), 5423 (Du~502252, W~2435970) , 5500 (W~ 
2435891); K. Larsen 8201 (Z); Larsen, Smitinand, a Warncke 1354 
(Ac, Ld); Maxwell 74-239 (Ac), 74-770 (Ac); Rock 471 (W~1171274), 
541 (W— 1090376); Smitinand 5795 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 24635] 
(Z). CAMBODIA: Pierre 933 (N); Poilane 22874 (N, S). LAOS: Vidal 
1838 (Sm). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS PARVIFOLIA Mold., Phytologia 5: 339—340. 1956. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 5: 339—340. 1956; Mold., R^- 
8um^ 178 & 457. 1959; G. Taylor, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 13: 71. 1966; 
Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 (1971) and 2: 881. 1971; Mold., Phytolo- 
gia 26: 355 & 356. 1973; Mold., Biol. Abstr. 57: 1898. 1974; 
Mold., Phytol. Hem. 2: 286 & 550. 1980. 

A straggling shrub, to 3 m. tall, or woody climber, to 4 m. 
tall; branches slender, obtusely tetragonal, dark, minutely puberu- 



A42 P n Y T L G I A 



Vol. 50, No. 6 



lent or glabrescent; branchlets slender, densely grayish- or 
fulvous-tomentellous throughout; principal internodes 1.3 — 5 cm. 
long; nodes not annulate; leaves decussate-opposite, small; peti- 
oles very slender, 2 — 8 nan. long, densely grayish- or fulvous- 
tomentellous like the branchlets; leaf-blades submembrahous, el- 
liptic, 2.5 — 5.5 cm. long, 1.8 — 3.4 cm. wide, varying apically 
from short-acuminate to rounded or even emarginate, marginally 
entire, basally short-acuminate, densely soft-pubescent above 
with more or less antrorsely appressed short hairs, very densely 
whitish-tomentellous beneath; midrib very slender, flat above, 
slightly prominulous beneath; secondaries very slender, about 3 
per side, ascending, slightly arcuate at the margins, flat above, 
slightly prominulous beneath; veinlet reticulation obscure or in- 
discernible on both surfaces; inflorescence axillary, solitary, 
much shorter than the subtending leaves (except at the very apex 
of the branchlets where the leaves are reduced and bract-like 
during anthesis), 1 — 1.5 cm. long and wide during an thesis, rath- 
er densely few-flowered and subcapitate, very densely villosu- 
lous; peduncles very slender, 3 — 8 mm. long, very densely whitish- 
or fulvous-villosulous; pedicels obsolete or to 1 mm. long and 
densely villosulous; bractlets few, linear, 1 — 2 mm. long, 
densely villosulous; calyx campanulate, about 1 mm. long, exter- 
nally very densely whitish-villosulous with somewhat antrorse 
hairs, its rim very minutely 4-denticulate, the teeth hidden by 
the hairs; corolla infundibular, white or whitish, about 2 mm. 
long, externally white-pubescent with more or less appressed short 
hairs, the tube very short, ampliate above into the spreading 
limb whose 4 lobes are about 0.5 mm. long and apically rounded; 
stamens 4, inserted in the corolla- tube, exserted about 3 mm. 
from the mouth; filaments filiform, glabrous; anthers oblong, a- 
bout 0.3 mm. long; style exserted about 2 mm. from the corolla- 
mouth; stigma very small, bifid; fruiting-calyx much enlarged, 
membranous, ovate or angularly conic, 4 — 4.5 cm. long, 2.8 — 3 cm. 
wide, externally glabrous, venose, apically closed over the fruit, 
at first green, maturing white or whitish. 

This species is based, on Bunpheng 519 from a deciduous for- 
est, about 300 m. altitude, at Pha Nok Khao, Chumphae, Kuawnkaen, 
in northeastern Thailand, collected on March 29, 1952, and deposi- 
ted in ray personal herbarium. The species is kno\JTi thus far only 
from Thailand. 

Collectors have found it growing on limestone mountains and in 
light deciduous forests. Bunpheng reports it "common" in decidu- 
ous and dry mixed evergreen forests. It has been encountered at 
100 — 930 m. altitude, in anthesis in March, May, and July and in 
fruit in March, July, and September. Vernacular names reported 
for it are "ka pia". "kha pia", "mhark popepeb", and "pong lorn". 



1982 Moldenke, IJotes on Hymenopyramis 443 

Material of Hymenopyramis parvifolia has been misldentlf ied and 
distributed in some herbaria as H. brachiata Wall. 

Citations: THAILAND: Bunpheng 691 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 11987] 
(Sm); Dee 443 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 7743] (Ss), 519 [Herb. Roy. 
Forest Dept. 7744] (Z — type); Kerr 20657 (Ed); Larsen s Larsen 
33757 (Ac, Z); Native Collector D1.112 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 
5912] (A); Shimizu, Hutoh, & Chaiglom T.8759 (Ac), 8760 (Ac). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS PARVIFOLIA var. NITIDA Mold., Phytologia 26: 355. 
1973. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 26: 355 & 365. 1973; Mold., Biol. 
Abstr. 57: 1898. 1974; Hocking, Excerpt. Bot. A. 25: 378. 1975; 
Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 286 & 550. 1980. 

This variety differs from the typical form of the species in hav- 
ing the upper surface of its leaf-blades completely glabrous and 
very shiny. 

The variety is based on Larsen, Larsen, Nielsen, S Santisuk 
31821 from an open deciduous dipterocarp forest, at an altitude of 
600 m., 15 km. northeast of Chaiyaphum, in eastern Thailand, col- 
lected on August 14, 1972, and deposited in the Herbarium Jutlandi- 
cum at Aarhus University. 

Collectors describe the plant as a low shrub, 2 — 3 m. tall, and 
have found it growing at 200 — 600 m. altitude, flowering in August. 

Citations: THAILAND: Larsen, Larsen, Nielsen, S Santisuk 31718 
(Ac), 31821 (Ac — type, Z — isotype). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS PUBESCENS Mold., Phytologia 20: 78. 1970. 

Bibliography: Mold., Phytologia 20: 78. 1970; Mold., Biol. Ab- 
str. 52: 1316 (1971) and 52 (3): B.A.S.I.C. S.114. 1971; Mold., 
Excerpt. Bot. A. 18: 445. 1971; Mold., Fifth Summ. 1: 296 (1971) and 
2: 881. 1971; Heslop-Harrison, Ind. Kew. Suppl. 15: 70. 1974; Mold., 
Phytol. Mem. 2: 286 & 550. 1980. 

A climbing shrub; branches and branchlets obtusely tetragonal, 
the younger portions densely appressed-puberulent, the youngest 
parts more spreading-pubescent; leaves decussate-opposite; peti- 
oles about 1 cm. long, very densely appressed-pubescent; leaf- 
blades chartaceous, obovate-elliptic, 7 — 11 cm. long, 3.5 — 7.5 cm. 
wide, apparently apically acute, marginally entire, basally acute 
when immature but rounded-truncate when mature, very densely puber- 
ulent (under a handlens) above, plainly and very densely short- 
pubescent beneath with fulvous hairs, more densely so on the larger 
venation; inflorescence axillary at the termination of the branch- 
lets, forming a leafy panicle whose branches diverge at right 
angles to the rachis, very densely appressed-pubescent with fulvous- 
cinereous hairs throughout; utricles membranous, ovate, apparently 
to 1.5 cm. long and 1 cm. vjide, externally very densely puberulent 
throughout with yellowish hairs; capsules extrenally long-villous. 

This species is based on Larsen, Santisuk, s Warncke 3409 from 
Nakhon Nayok, Sarika Falls, at an altitude of 300 m. , in central 
Thailand, collected on August 14, 1968, ans deposited in the Herbar- 
ium Jut land icum at Aarhus University. 



444 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

The species has been collected in fruit in August and October. 

Material has been misidentlf ied and distributed in some her- 
baria as H. brachiata Wall. 

Citations: THAILAM3: Larsen, Santisuk, & Warncke 3409 (Ac — 
type, Z — isotype); Maxwell 73-459 (Ac). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS SIAMENSIS Craib , Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1912: 154— 
155. 1912. 

Synonymy: Hymenolepis siamensis Craib ex Mold., Resume Suppl. 
3: 32, in syn. 1962. Hymenofyranus siamensis Wall, ex Mold., 
Phytologia 23: 432, in syn. 1972. 

Bibliography: Craib, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1912: 154—155. 
1912; Craib, Contrib. Fl. Siam Dicot. 166—167. 1912; Fedde & 
Schust., Justs Bot. Jahresber. 40 (2): 335. 1915; Prain, Ind. 
Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 1, 138. 1921; Dop in Lecomte, Fl. G^n. Indo- 
chine 4: 887 & 890—891, fig. 91 (4—6). 1935; Fletcher, Kew 
Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 205, 401, 405, 407, 408, 438, & 439. 1938; 
Worsdell, Ind. Lond. Suppl. 1: 493. 1941; Hold., Known Geogr. 
Distrib. Verbenac. , ed. 1, 59, 69, & 93 (1942) and ed. 2, 136, 
138, & 186. 1949; Mold., Resumd 176, 178, & 457. 1959; Prain, 
Ind. Kew. Suppl. 5, imp. 2, 138. 1960; Mold., R^sum^ Suppl. 3: 
32. 1962; Mold., Dansk Bot. Arkiv 23: 91. 1963; Mold., Fifth 
Summ. 1: 296 & 301 (1971) and 2: 531 & 881. 1971; Mold., Phytolo- 
gia 23: 432. 1972; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 2: 286, 289, 290, 412, & 
550. 1980. 

Illustrations: Uop in Lecomte, Fl. Gen. Indo-chine 4: 887, 
fig. 91 (4—6). 1935. 

A climbing shrub or subshrub or pyramidal treelet, 3 — 4 m. 
tall; branches striate, with alternate sides brown and pubescent, 
the other sides finely ferruginous-tomentose; branchlets stiff, 
spreading, subf erruginous-tomentellous ; lenticels in 8 regular 
lines; leaves decussate-opposite; petioles to 2.4 cm. long, 
curvate or arcuately deflexed, subf erruginous-tomentellous or 
tomentose, with a few black hairs interspersed; leaf -blades char- 
taceouE, more or less elliptic, 10 — 14 cm. long, 5 — 7.5 cm. wide, 
apically acute or acuminate, marginally entire, basally broadly 
cuneate or rounded, dark and sparsely brownish-pilosuloufi or 
pubescent above, especially on the venation, softly brown-pubes- 
cent and glandulose beneath, the tomentum of longer, stiffly e- 
rect, black hairs and thinner than in H. acuminata or H. vesic- 
ulosa and the numerous, sessile, amber-colored glands not hidden; 
midrib prominent; secondaries 12 — 16, slightly recurvate, slight- 
ly impressed above, prominent or prominulent beneath; tertiaries 
transverse, subparallel, slightly impressed above, prominulent 
beneath; veinlet reticulation indiscernible; inflorescence panic- 
ulate, terminal, 30 — 35 cm. long, 15 — 20 cm. \;ide, ferruginous- 
tomentose, its branches brachiate, the cymes many- flowered, dichoto- 
mous ; bractlets very small; flowers very small; calyx about 1 mm. 
long, externally pubescent, the rim 4-toothed; corolla white, a- 
bout 3 mm. long, externally pubescent, its tube about 2 mm. long, 
the lobes 1 mm. long, apically rounded; stamens very long-exserted. 



1982 Moldenke, Notes on Hymenopyramis 445 

inserted at the center of the corolla-tube; filaments 6 — 7 mm. 
long; style equaling the stamens; stigma bifid; ovary externally 
villous; fruiting pedicels almost 2 cm. long; utricle 4 — 6 cm. 
long, 2 — 3 cm. wide, basally cup-shaped, externally strongly pubes- 
cent throughout; fruit capsular, green or whitish, externally 
densely white-hirsute. 

This species is based on Kerr 2087 from an evergreen forest, 
30 m. altitude, at Sriracha, Nawngkaw, in the Prachinburi dis- 
trict, Thailand. The species is known thus far only from Thailand, 
Laos, and Cambodia. Craib (1912) states that it differs from H. 
brachiata Wall, by its different indument and much larger utricle. 

Collectors have found the plant growing in evergreen and sec- 
ondary evergreen forests, dense wet forests with bamboo, scrub, 
and sandy thickets, as well as along roadsides, at 24 — 650 m. al- 
titude, in flower in February, April, May, July, September, and 
December, and in fruit in February, July, and November. Bunpheng 
refers to it as "common along the edges of evergreen forests" in 
Thailand. The only vernacular names recorded for it are "co nam 
an", "kha pia", amd "wang sum". 

Dop (1935) cites 5 unnumbered collections of Harmand, Poilane, 
and Spire from Laos, 3 of Harmand, Poilane, and Thorel from Cam- 
bodia, and one of Kerr from Thailand. Fletcher (1938) cites Col- 
lins 620, 1826, & 1855, Kerr 2087, and Marcan 1557 from Thailand. 

Material of this species has been misidentif ied and distributed 
in some herbaria as H. brachiata Wall., H. cana Craib, and 
"Homscbioldia" sp. On the other hand, the Maxwell 73-459, dis- 
tributed as H. siamensis, actually is H. pubescens Mold. 

Citations: THAILAND: Bunpheng 849 [Herb. Roy. Forest Dept. 
14789] (Gg); Charoenphol , Larsen, & Warncke 4923 (Ac); Collins 
1826 (W~1701483), 1855 (W~1701512); Kostermans 1163 (W~2039863); 
K. Larsen 10701 (Lw) ; Maxwell 72-224 (Ac), 74-259 (Ac); Shimizu, 
Koyama, & Nalampoon T. 10706 (Ac, Ac); Sfirensen, Larsen, Q Hansen 
6114 (Bm). CAMBODIA: Thorel 2262 (B, Ca~54792, F— photo, 1I~ 
photo, S, Sg — photo, Z — photo). LAOS: Harmand s.n. (Ca — 547931); 
Poilane 15719 (B) ; Vidal 1450 (Z) , 6011 (W~2800871), 6031 (W~ 
2800870). 

HYMENOPYRAMIS VESICULOSA Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 
206—207. 1938. 

Bibliography: Fletcher, Kew Bull. Misc. Inf. 1938: 206—207 & 
438. 1938; Mold., Known Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 1, 60 & 93. 
1942; Hill & Salisb., Ind. Kew. Suppl. 10: 116. 1947; Mold., Known 
Geogr. Distrib. Verbenac, ed. 2, 138 & 186. 1949; Hold., Resum^ 
178 & 457. 1959; Mold., Resum^ Suppl. 15: 10. 1967; Mold., Fifth 
Summ. 1: 296 (1971) and 2: 881. 1971; Mold., Phytol. Mem. 286 & 
550. 1980. 

A scandent shrub; branchlets tetragonal, slightly pubescent or 
glabrous, covered with numerous prominently eleyated lenticels; 
leaves decussate-opposite; petioles 1 — 1.2 cm. long, canaliculate 
above, at first conspicuously pubescent and somewhat glandulose, 
finally glabrous; leaf -blades rigidly chartaceous, ovate or ellip- 



4A6 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

tic, 8 — 15 cm. long, 4 — 8 cm. wide, apically acutely acuminate, . 
marginally entire, basally rounded or subcordate, tinted grayish- 
brown on both surfaces in drying, glabrous above, glandulose and 
tomentose beneath with a thick short appressed tomentum snd the 
numerous, sessile, amber-colored glands almost completely hidden 
by the tomentum; midrib conspicuous above, prominent beneath; 
secondaries 5 or 6 pairs, parallel, conspicuous above, prominulent 
beneath; tertiaries transverse, strong, numerous, parallel; in- 
florescence typical for the genus; corolla white, externally light- 
ly pubescent, internally glabrous, the tube about 1.2 mm. long, 
the limb 4-lobed, the lobes about 1.5 mm. long and 1 mm. wide; 
stamens 4; filaments about 2.2 mm. long; anthers 0.5 mm. long; 
style about 2.5 mm. long, apically shortly bifid; ovary about 0.3 
mm. long, externally glabrous; utricle ovoid, 2 — 3 cm. long, 1.5 — 
2.5 cm. wide, acutely 4-alate, externally slightly pubescent or 
more usually glabrous or subglabrous; capsule obovoid, 4 — 5 mm. 
long, 3 — 4 mm. \;ide, externally fulvous-hirsute and glandulose, 
included within the utricle. 

This species is based on Kerr 3011 from near Paknambo, Ban Dan, 
in Na Ka^m Sawan province, Thailand, deposited in the Kew herbar- 
ium. Fletcher (1938) cites also iCerr 3626, 8411, & 20657 from 
Thailand. Kerr found it growing in deciduous forests and among 
limestone rocks, at 40 — 420 m. altitude. Thus far, this species 
is known only from these original collections. Fletcher (1938) 
also notes that it is "if. siamensi Craib af finis, sed toraento 
breviter vestita glandulis in foliorum pagina inferiore fere om- 
nino abditis, utrinque fere glabro differt." 



ANNOUNCEMENT TO AUTHORS 



Regretfully, due to several unfavorable decisions by the U. S. 
Internal Revenue Service, we shall have to abandon our 50-year- 
old policy of operating this journal on a cooperative basis with 
the authors. Beginning with Volume 51 it will be operated 
strictly on a policy of per-page charges to each author, payable 
at the time the typescript is submitted. Each author, however, 
will still receive gratis a proportionate share of the copies 
left over after paid subscription are filled. Separates or 
offprints, if desired in addition, will be charged for at the 
printer's current rate, plus postage/ handling, and must also be 
paid for in advance with submission of the typescript. 

It is not expected that this change in policy will alter in any 
way our present record of very prompt publication of accepted, 
properly typed papers. 

H. N. & A. L. Moldenke 



BOOK REVimS 
Alma L. Moldenke 



"SYNOPSIS AND CLASSIFICATION OF LIVING ORGAI>lISMS" Volumes I i. II, 
by Sybil P. Parker, editor-in-chief, xviii & 2,398 pp., 168 
b/w draw, u 141 photo, pi. & 2 color frontispieces. McGraw 
Hill Book Company, New York, N. Y. 10020. 1982. $149.50 
per set. 

These volumes present very effectively a whole higher level 
taxonomy down to family level with 8,200 synoptic, descriptive 
and limiting articles. Unlike the next book reviewed, only four 
kingdoms are recognized and they are combined into two Super- 
kingdoms. Is it not awkward or not so logical to start out with 
a "super" group? The first Superkingdom Prokaryota comprises the 
two Kingdoms Virus and Monera with Divisions (botanical equiva- 
lents for zoological phyla) for Bacteria, Cyanophycota and Pro- 
chlorophycota and without organized nuclei. The second Super- 
kingdom Eukaryotae comprises Kingdom Plantae with Subkingdoms 
Thallobionta for eukaryotic algae and fungi in six divisions and 
Embryobionta for hepatics, mosses, ferns and their allies, seed 
and fruit plants in seven divisions from Bryophyta through 
Magnoliophyta and Kingdom Animalia with four Subkingdoms Protozoa , 
Phagocytellozoa , Parazoa and Eumetazoa with 29 phyla ending with 
Chorda ta . 

In contrast to the follovzing book on the same subject, this 
system includes the viruses, uses two superkingdoms and four 
kingdoms, treats fungi differently in part, and uses some dif- 
ferent terms and criteria for invertebrate phyla. Actually the 
differences appear to be greater than they really are. The il- 
lustrations, text and detailed index are well prepared. 

"FIVE KINGDOMS An Illustrated Guide to the Phyla of Life on 

Earth" by Lynn Margulis & Karlene V. Schwartz, xiv & 338 pp., 
295 b/w photo. & draw. W. H. Freeman & Company, San Fran- 
cisco, California 94104. 1981. ^24.95. 

Because this book is designed so effectively and graphically 
and distinctively modern it gives the impression that much of the 
content is going to be "brand new". Not so: it is based on Whit- 
taker's classification presented to the readers of Quarterly Re- 
view of Biology in 1959 and previously to his students at Cornell 
University. In 1978 he and the first author wrote in Bio Systems 
about protist classification and the kingdoms of organisms. Now 

this fine "book is a catalog of the world's living diversity 

for science students, their teachers, and anyone else who is 
curious about the extraordinary variety of living things that in- 
habit this planet". The five kingdoms are Monera with 16 phyla 

447 



448 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

for prokaryote mycoplasma, cyano- and other bacteria, Protoctists 
with 27 phyla for nucleated algae and protozoa. Fungi with 5 phy- 
la, Animalia with 32 phyla and Plantae with the following 9 phyla 
or familiar groups - Bryophyta, Lycopodophyta , Sphenophyta, Fili- 
cinophyta , Cycadophyta , Ginkgophyta , Coniferophyta , Gnetophyta 
and Angiospermophyta. Since all the above organisms are composed 
of cells, the much, much smaller viruses are bypassed in this 
classification. They only feed, grow and reproduce in host cells 
to which they may be more closely related than to each other. 
"They may have originated as nucleic acids that escaped from 
cells and began replicating on their own." 

"SPIDER COMMUNICATION: Mechanisms and Ecological Significance" 

edited by Peter N. Witt & Jerome S. Rovner, x & A41 pp., 107 
b/w fig., 29 tab. & 42 photo. Princeton University Press, 
Princeton, New Jersey 08540. 1982. $30.00. 

This is the first comprehensive yet detailed survey in this 
field and it is an excellent one. It grew out of an International 
Meeting of the American Arachnological Society. Over the years, 
especially recent ones, papers have appeared on special phases of 
arachnid communication, special methods or in special groups. 
Krafft's Significance and Complexity of Communication in Spiders 
shows how "spiders use up to five channels of communication: vis- 
ual, acoustic, vibratory (transmitted by the silk or the substra- 
tum), tactile and chemical (airborne or contact pheromones). De- 
pending on the species and its way of life, one or another of 

these channels may be favored Compared with insects, spiders 

have developed an original means of communication: the transmis- 
sion of vibratory information through silk. Sexual and perhaps 
social pheromones are frequently incorporated into the silk. In 
addition, the silky structures can transmit equally well the sig- 
nals involved in agonistic or sexual, predatory or social, be- 
haviors." Other papers deal with measured observational and ex- 
perimental research as in visual communication in jumping spiders, 
social spacing strategies, foraging and behavioral responses to 
prey. The bibliography provides access to further information 
very helpfully. 



"PLANT SCIENCE: An Introduction to World Crops" Third Edition by 
Jules Janick, Robert W. Schery, Frank W. Woods & Vernon W. 
Ruttan, X & 868 pp. & 520 b/w fig. & photo. & p maps & 41 
tab. W. H. Freeman & Company, San Francisco, California . 
94104. 1981. $23.95. 

Like its well recognized and widely used predecessors, this en- 
larged and updated "text was written to give students the scien- 
tific, technological, and economic foundations of world crop< pro- 
duction". The authors' "purpose is to blend these twin themes of 
plant science and crop agriculture into a single narrative. The 



1982 lloldenke. Book reviews /J49 

formal disciplines in agriculture (agronomy, horticulture, for- 
estry), botany (systematics, physiology, genetics, ecology), and 
the social sciences (economics, sociology, political science, his- 
tory) must be interrelated to provide a full understanding of the 
contemporary relationship between human beings and plants." And 
they are through the well chosen language, ideas and illustrations 
in this text which will maintain a value as a source book for the 
student long after the university or college course is finished. 



"TROPISCHE NUTZPFLANZEN: Ursprung, Evolution und Domestlkation" by 
Heinz Brllcher, xiii & 529 pp., 2A5 b/w photo., 5 maps & 7 
tab. Springer-Verlag, New York, N. Y., Heidelberg & D-1000 
Berlin 33, West Germany. 1977. DM.248 or $109.20 slip- 
covered. 

This is a treasure storehouse of valuable information about the 
origin, development and cultivation of all comestible, fiber, oil, 
beverage, drug and medicinal crops grovm by natives for themselves 
and on a larger scale for commerce in subtropical as well as the 
tropical areas of our world. There is a special emphasis on the 
developing nations whose human mouths require increasingly more 
than their warm earth's maw provides at present. Emphasis is given 
to newly produced food strains and the improvement of marginal food 
plants by further experimentation. Tlie very good plant photographs 
and drawings and the recording of scientific as well as native 
common names will help make up to those agricultural leaders of the 
tropics and subtropics who may be unable to read German. A few 
scientific names are misspelled such as Pawlonia , Tectona and 
Dioscorea, but the last only in the index. 



"PROCESSES OF ORGANIC EVOLUTION" Third Edition by G. Ledyard Steb- 
bins, xiii & 269 pp., 109 b/w fig., 13 tab., 10 photo., 10 
maps. Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey 
07632. 1972. $12.50 paperbound. 

This newer edition still tells the same story, but is now able 
to support it with more recent evidences from population genetics, 
the ecology of biotic communities, biosystematic taxonomy, chromo- 
some cytology, paleontology, biochemistry and statistical mathe- 
matics. As in the previous editions, the text runs very smoothly 
and logically with carefully orienting introductions to the chapters 
and helpful summaries and review questions at their ends. 



"THE PHYSIOLOGY OF FLOWERING Volume I The Initiation of Flowers" by 
Georges Bernier, Jean-Marie Kinet & Roy M. Sachs, vlll & 149 
pp., 54 b/w fig., 16 tab. & 2 photo. CRC Press Inc., Boca Raton, 
Florida 33431. 1981. $49.95 in U.S.A., $57.95 foreign. 



450 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 6 

"A reconsideration of accepted notions of the physiology of 
flowering is absolutely and urgently required. The aim here is 
to pinpoint the firmly established facts and controversial issues 
as well as to stress the shortcomings of classical work and in- 
terpretation." Seven chapters survey the classical experimental 
systems and data gleaned from experimental set-ups involving 
nutrition (mineral and HO) and water stress, daylength and time 
measurement in photoperiodism, low temperature, floral inhibitors 
and promoters (often in. the same plant), and age. There are no 
final answers yet, but this reporting is important to have in 
published form. Clerodendrum thomsonae has its specific epithet 
misspelled in the index. 



"EVOLUTION" by Theodosius Dobzhansky, Francisco J. Ayala, C. Led- 
yard Stebbins & James W. Valentine, xiv & 572 pp., 141 b/w 
fig., 17 photo., 13 maps & 26 tab. W. H. Freeman & Company, 
San Francisco, California 94104. 1977. $26.95. 

This carefully prepared text for advanced students, profes- 
sional and teaching biologists and thoughtful trained readers has 
four chapters, each prepared by the authors, all outstanding 
faculty members at the University of California at Davis. 
Dobzhansky prepared: (4) Natural Selection, (5) Populations, 
Races and Subspecies, (6) Species and their Origins, and (14) 
Evolution of Mankind. Shortly before this book was ready for dis- 
tribution Dr. Dobzhansky died and this book is dedicated to him 
by the other authors. Ayala provided: (2) Genetic Structure of 
Populations, (3) Origin of Hereditary Variation, (9) Phylogenies 
and Macromolecules and (16) Philosophical Issues. Stebbins was 
responsible for: (1) Nature of Evolution, (7) Patterns of Speci- 
ation, (12) Evolution of Prokaryotes and Unicellular Eukaryotes 
and (15) Future of Evolution. Valentine wrote: (8) Transspecif ic 
Evolution, (10) Geological Record, (11) Cosmic Evolution and the 
Origin of Life and (13) Evolutionary History of Metazoa. This is 
an excellently presented treatment. 



"INSECT CLOCKS" by D. S. Saunders, viii & 279 pp., 177 b/w fig., 
18 tab., 2 photo. & 1 map. Pergamon Press, Inc., Fairmont 
Park, Elmsford, tJew York 10523. 1976. $37.00 clothbound. 
1979 $15.00 student edition flexicover bound. 

This wotthwhile study is published as Volume 54 of the Inter- 
national Series in the Pure and Applied Biology;' Division: Zool- 
ogy. Most of the author's experiments, reported herein, have 
been conducted in or from the University of Edinburgh on in- 
sects. "Insects, like other organisms, have evolved in an en- 
vironment dominated by daily, monthly, annual and, in some cases, 

tidal periodicities frequently matched by an appropriate 

endogenous rhythmicity Biological clocks control a wide 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviews 451 

variety of behavioural and physiological activities in insects. 
These include daily rhythms of locomotion, feeding, mating, ovi- 
position, pupation and eclosion. These rhythms may be operation- 
al either in individual insects or in populations which behave, in 
this respect, like ' superorganisms ' . Clocks also control cuticle 
deposition, metabolism and the seasonal control of the alternate 
developmental pathways (photoperiodism) . " All these and more 
regulations are reported interestingly and precisely. Appendix B 
has a long, well organized, annotated "list of insects exhibit- 
ing rhythmic activity or photoperiodic control." 



"THE BIOLOGY OF THE BROMELIADS" by David H. Benzing, xvi & 305 
pp., 129 b/w fig., 25 photo., 15 tab. & 26 color pi. llad 
River Press, Inc., Eureka, California 95501. 1980. $14.40 
paperbound. 

This is a pleasant book for bromeliad fans that surveys their 
history, botanical/horticultural classification, cell structures 
and functions, water and mineral transport, photosynthesis, 
ecology, reproduction, epiphytism and advice for growers. JLany 
of the b/w photographs are too small and dark to illuminate the 
text. By contrast, the color plates are quite good. 

"BIOLOGICALLY ACTIVE SUBSTANCES - EXPLORATION AITO EXPLOITATION" 
edited by D. A. Hems, xxviii & 309 pp., 47 b/w fig., 9 
photo. L 28 tab. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
10158. 1977. $54.25. 

The papers in this book were presented at a Symposium hosted 
by the Royal Society and the Biochemistry Department at the Im- 
perial College to honor the 70th birthday of Sir Ernst Chain, who, 
with Florey, changed penicillin from a petri-dish curiosity to 
multiformed combatter of many diseases, among his many other ac- 
complishments. The 14 papers include such topics as: B- Lactam 
antibiotics, Claviceps fermentation and ergoline drugs, fusico- 
coccin phytotoxins, mycoviruses, pathways of glucose metabolism, 
insulin action and liver metabolism in diabetics. This book re- 
ports important information. 



"PROBLEMS OF GENETICS" by William Bateson, xxiii & 258 pp., 1 

color plate, 2 b/w pi., 6 draw. Yale University Press, New 
Haven, Connecticut 06520. 1979. $25.00 clothbound & $6.95 
paperbound . 

These discourses on 11 such topics as the problem of species 
and variety, meristic phenomena, mutation theory and sterility 
of hybrids were presented at Yale in 1907 when Bateson was the 
Siliiman lecturer. They were first printed in 1913 with an his- 



452 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 6 

torlcal Introduction by G. Evelyn Hutchinson. They are both 
biologically and historically interesting. 



"WEED CONTROL HANDBOOK Volume II Recommendations Including 
Plant Growth Regulators" Seventh Edition edited by J. U. 
Fryer & R. J. Ilakepeace, :cviii & A2A pp., 25 b/w tab., 6 
fig. & 1 photo. Blackwell Scientific Publications, London 
WC IN 2ES and F. A. Davis Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 
19103 as U.S.A. distributor. 1972. $36.50. 

This volume is planned as a companion to Volume I which "pro- 
vides basic information and principles about weeds and weed con- 
trol techniques, with special emphasis upon chemical methods". 
This Volume II is arranged according to cereals and other annual 
crops, biennials and perennials, fruits and flowers, grassland 
and herbage legumes, turfs, verges, forestry, total and aquatic 
or individual weed control, and plant growth regulators. The 
recommendations of sprays covers a wider range, use of the most 
effective on specific weeds, safe dosages, most efficient timing, 
etc., as set by the Recommendations Committee (Weeds) of the 
British Crop Protection Council. Probably a good deal of chemi- 
cal poisoning to people, pets and the wrong plants results because 
the ultimate users with less scientific restraint than profession- 
al agriculturists, use more chemical than needed, spray it wider, 
sooner and/or later "for good measure" or just carelessly and of- 
ten with the encouragement of a greedy agricultural salesman. The 
addition in this volume of the use of hormones is a new, care- 
fully explained asset to this well prepared guide. 



"MAJOR MEDICINAL PLANTS: Botany, Culture and Uses" by Julia F. 

Morton, xx & A31 pp., 92 b/w pi. of photo. & draw., 16 color 
pi., & 2 tab. Charles C. Thomas Publisher, Springfield, Il- 
linois 82717. 1977. $62.75. 

For some time to come or for as long as the book is available, 
this fine text will still be in demand because of its well treat- 
ed contents and its author's reputation in this field. It belongs 
in botanical, pharmacy, pharmacognosy, school, research labora- 
tories and university libraries. It provides "a concise account 
of the physical aspects of each of the major medicinal plants 
currently in use in the United States, along with a brief outline 
of their chemical constituents and their past and present thera- 
peutic uses. I'/here applicable, toxicity is explained and also 
other economic uses and by-products." Appendix tables and de- 
tailed bibliography are Important inclusions. 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviews A53 

"GEOLOGY OF CALIFORNIA" by Robert M. Norris & Robert W. V.'ebb, xi 

& 365 & 13 pp., 62 b/w fig., 41 photo., 11 tab. 6. 12 maps. 

John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. 10158. 1976. 
$24.95. 

"The geology of California is exceedingly complex and becomes 
more so as the consequences of plate tectonics are evaluated. . .We 
shall begin with the Sierra Nevada because it provides a basis of 
understanding the bedrock geology of the entire state.... The Sierra 
is the topographic backbone of the state and has shed debris since 
the middle Mesozoic. forming many of the state's younger rock 
units." Text chapters are very well illustrated and explained for 
the northern provinces, basin ranges, Ilojave and Colorado deserts, 
peninsular and transverse and coastal ranges, great valley off- 
shore, and the San Andreas fault which is poignantly introduced 
with Will Durant's statement that "Civilization exists by geologi- 
cal consent - subject to change without notice". This is a well 
developed important text. 

"UNUSUAL VEGETABLES - Something New for This Year's Garden" by the 
editors of "Organic Gardening and Farming" edited by Anne 
Moyer Halpin, xvi & 443 pp., 72 b/w pi. & 7 tab. Rodale 
Press, Emmaus, Pennsylvania 18049. 1978. $14.95. 

"In our coverage of these [79] extraordinary vegetables, we've 
tried to be as complete as possible in order to make this book a 
useful reference. There's a bit of the history and folklore sur- 
rounding the vegetables, and a description of each plant's growing 
habits and climatic preferences. Instructions for growing the 
vegetable follow" along with pest and disease control, harvesting, 
storage, food value, recipes, and sources. The illustrations are 
helpful and attractive. I was surprized not to see the winged bean 
for warmer areas. Fortunately these plants are really easy to 
grow. The book is both delightful and useful. 



"SEEDS and Their Uses" by C. 11. Duff us & J. C. Slaughter, Ix f. 154 
pp., 52 b/w fig., 4 photo. & 39 tab. John Wiley & Sons, New 
York, N. Y. 10158. 1980. $36.25. 

This is a very good, precisely presented, small text at a very 
fat price since it is planned as a text "for students taking under- 
graduate courses in botany, biology, agriculture, nutrition, food 
science and crop or animal science". It is based on lectures in 
applied biology in second-year courses at the University of Edin- 
burgh. "The [effectively achieved] aim of this book is to provide 
a discussion of the properties and subsequent utilization of econom- 
ically important seeds within a single volume. It outlines the 
growth habit and geographical distribution of the main cultivated 
seed-bearing plants. The biochemical and morphological changes ac- 



454 P II Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 6 

companying seed formation are then described in detail, with em- 
phasis on the deposition of the storage materials important in 
the nutrition of man and animals." 



"PLANTS AND THEIR ATMOSPHERIC EWIRONMENT" edited by J. Grace, E. 
D. Ford & P. G. Jarvis, viii & 411 pp., 135 b/w fig. & 22 
tab. Blaclajell Scientific Publications, London WCIN 2ES and 
Halsted Press of John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New York, N. Y. 
10158 as U.S.A. & Canada distributor. 1981. $89.95. 

Ihese are the well prepared 23 papers of the 21st Symposium of 
the British Ecological Society and the 5th devoted to the rela- 
tionship between vegetation and atmosphere. Some of the topics 
considered are: effects of wind on plants, exchange of C0„ and air 
pollutants between vegetation and the atmosphere, transport and 
capture of particles by vegetation, water stress, and controlled 
environmental agriculture for hot desert regions. All the studies 
are well presented, documented, and representative of many differ- 
ent areas and laboratories in our world, and therefore will be 
useful to many different kinds of scientists, technicians and ad- 
vanced students. 



"NATURAL LANDSCAPING: Designing with Native Plant Communities" by 
John Diekelmann & Robert Schuster, ix & 277 pp., ca. 350 b/w 
photo. Si draw., 6 tab. & 54 color photo. IIcGraw Hill Book 
Company, liew York, N. Y. 10020. 1982. $24.95. 

As a viable, interesting, varied, energy-saving alternative to 
the mowed la^^n and garden with clumps of horticultural species, 
these authors advocate the planting of "native, nonweedy species 
to simulate the wild landscapes growing here thousands of years 

before the continent was settled These wild landscapes are 

essentially self-sufficient." They require no extra watering, no 
extra fertilizing, no pest control once they are established." A 
nearby nature preserve can provide large and mini-models of what 
to grow where. Landscape architects like these authors would be 
a fine source to consult professionally or through their writings 
as in this good book. 



"PLACE-NAME CHANGES SINCE 1900: A World Gazetteer" compiled by Adri- 
an Room, xxii & 202 pp. The Scarecrow Press, Inc., London & 
Metuchen, New Jersey 08840. 1979. $11.00. 

For villages to countries - more often than not for political 
reasons - name changes have been made and 4,300 that are officially 
recorded are listed here in double entry with their older equiva- 
lents and vice versa. There are so many more people than geograph- 
ers and librarians who should be appraised of this little book as a 



1982 Moldenke, Book reviev7s 455 

tremendous time saver. Since the compiler is himself a recognized 
geographer, users can appreciate the accuracy of the work. Botan- 
ists and other scientists who are concerned about geographic rec- 
ords and distributions will find it useful. 



"RARE AND ENDANGERED VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES IN NEW JERSEY" com- 
piled by David B. Snyder & V. Eugene Vivian for the Conserva- 
tion and Environmental Studies Center, Inc., viii & 98 pp., 
1 b/w illus. & 1 map. U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Kewton 
Corner, Massachusetts 02158. 1981. Paperbound. 

"The primary purpose of this study was to provide as much de- 
tailed information as possible concerning the historical and 
present day status of those plant- taxa formerly and currently under 
federal review as being threatened or endangered throughout their 
ranges or in a significant portion of those ranges. A second ob- 
jective was to document the status of all plant taxa formerly or 
presently considered to be in jeopardy in New Jersey." 

It may be pointed out that the bibliographic reference for 
the first recognized appearance of Schizaea pusilla in New York 
is Moldenke, H. N. , llhodora 62: 294. 1960. It refers to a spot on 
eastern Long Island ecologically akin to the New Jersey pine 
barrens. The plant has since been found by several other botanists 
in several similar nearby locations. It may also be mentioned 
that for Eriocaulon parkeri the Moldenkes have collection records 
also for Mercer County. Finally, the folks who have done this 
careful compilation, their assistants and their main mentors, David 
Fairbrothers and Vincent Abraitys, are surely to be thanked for 
producing this printed work in the important service of conservation. 



"NATURE AND THE AMERICAN: Three Centuries of Changing Attitudes", 
xvii & 250 pp., 29 b/w old prints & 64 photo. University of 
Nebraska Press, Lincoln, Nebraska 68588. 1972. $7.50 paper- 
bound & $15.95 clothbound. 

This welcome view of many of the outdoors beauty spots of our 
country from some time ago is a reprint of the 1957 edition from 
the University of California Press. This Bison Book issue also 
has the text that describes the beauties of places like Niagara 
Falls, the Catskills, Yosemite, and repeats some of the earlier 
calls for conservation still not properly heeded. 



"MAN AND THE ENVIRONMENT" by Wes Jackson, xxiii & 322 pp., 12 b/w 
tab. & 4 fig. Foreword by Paul Erlich. William C. Brown 
Company Publishers, Dubuque, Iowa 52001. 1971. $3.95 paper- 
bound . 

A third edition of this book is now listed in "Books in Print" 
for 1979, unpriced. The message must be the same. Hopefully con- 



456 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 6 

vincing data included would be more recent. The author original- 
ly developed this text for the non-biology majors course as more 
useful to them, the abused environment and the rest of mankind 
than the standard text. 



"THE INVISIBLE WORLD - Sights Too Fast, Too Slow, Too Far, Too 
Small for the Naked Eye to See" by Alex Pomasanoff, 160 pp. 
& over 200 photographs with legends . Houghton Mifflin Com- 
pany, Boston, Massachusetts 02107. 1981. $25.00. 

This fascinating book has its source in a National Geographic 
Society well received television special of the same title. "In 
conjunction with microscopes, telescopes, strobe lights, radia- 
tion detectors, and even computers, cameras can now reveal once- 
hidden sights" and it is done very effectively in this publica- 
tion. Look at a virus attack, vitamin C, fleas and lice that 
live on us, a banana bullet-split , foxglove flowers. King Tut's 
mask, fluorescent cells, spacescapes, quasars and much more to 
marvel at! 



"THE BIOLOGIC AGES OF MAN - From Conception Through Old Age" 

Second Edition by David W. Smith, Edwin L. Bierman & Nancy 
M. Robinson, xix & 279 pp., 81 b/w fig., 50 tab. & 43 photo. 
U. B. Saunders Company, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania 19105. 
1978. $9.95 paperbound. 

This primary text for the health professional and general 
reader was "developed at the University of Washington School of 

Medicine to offer a basic framework of knowledge about the 

whole human being at all ages [so as] to interweave into 

this framework the in-depth knowledge on particular organ systems, 

diseases, and disorders [viewing] any health disorder in the 

total context of the life stage of the patient". The language is 
direct and interesting; the illustrations are many and helpful. 



"COMPLETE GUIDE TO LAKE FISHING" by David Rickey, xii & 322 pp., 
123 b/w photo. & 12 draw. Crown Publishers, Inc., New York, 
N. Y. 10016. 1981. $15.95. 

What does a non-fisher report on a bodk about recreational 
fishing in a botanical journal? Well, in this Outdoor Life Book 
there is a good deal of nature study or simple environmental 
ecology or descriptive limnology used to explain where in the 
water the fish are hiding. And surely there must be many botanists 
who are also fishermen and who would find a book like this useful. 



M7 

PHYTOLOGIA 

A cooperative nonprofit journal designed to expedite botanical publication 

Vol. 50 May 1982 No. 7 



CONTENTS 

GOMEZ P., L. D., & GOMEZ-L., J., Plantae mesoamericanae 

novae. Ill 457 

REED, C. P., New combinations required for the flora of central 

eastern United States 461 

SCHWEGMAN, J. E., A new species of Oxalis 463 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Notes on new and noteworthy plants. CLVI 468 

MOLDENKE, H. N., Additional materials toward a monograph of the 

genus Callicarpa. XXIX 470 

MOLDENKE, A. L., Book reviews 501 

Index to authors in Volume Fifty 503 

Index to supraspecific scientific names in Volume Fifty 503 

Publication dates 512 



Published by Harold N. Moldenke and Alma L. Moldenke 

303 Parkside Road 

Plainfield, New Jersey 07060 

U.S.A. 

Price of this number $3.00; for this volume $12.00 in advance or $13,00 after 

close of the volume; $4.00 extra to all foreign addresses and domestic 

dealers; 512 pages constitute a complete volume; claims for numbers lost 

in the mails must be made immediately after receipt of the next following 

number for free replacement; back volume prices apply if payment is received 

after a volume is closed. 



PL/WTAE rtSOAI^ICANAE NOVAE. III.* 

by Luis D. Gomez P. 5 Jorge Gomez- L. 
f-fuseo Nacional, San Jose, Costa Rica. 



Cnemidaria stolzeana L. D. Gciniez, sp. nov. caudex brevissimus , peti- 
olus inermis', petioli paleae bicolores instructus', pinnae sessiles 
vel subsessiles , apicalis subconformis , basalibus reductis', apices 
pinnarum integri deinde serrati', costae et costulae subtus paleis 
pilisque ferrugineis axillares instructae', venae infimae anastomo- 
santes areolae costales efformantes, venae fertiles siinplices', so- 
ri uniseriati , mediani', indusia omnino circularia bicolora integra 
applanata, persistentes . 

Caudex short, 10-15 cm long. Fronds 0.95-1.10 m long, 0.60-0.70 m 
wide at the middle, pinnate, 6-8 pairs of opposite pinnae, abruptly 
terminating in a subconfonn apical pinnai petiole 40-50 cm long, can- 
aliculate above, smooth, vn'th scales restricted to its base. Scales 
deltoid-lanceolate, 10-12 mm long, appx. 2 mm wide at the truncate 
base, bicolorous, brown with narrow white margins which are somewhat 
fimbriate towards the apex, rachis non-alate, lacking scales but with 
abundant, stiff hairs underneath. Lowermost basal pinnae short-stalked 
and smaller than the middle pinnae, the base subcuneate, broadly ser- 
rate in proximal 2-ihirds, entire near apex and acute. Middle pinnae 
15-20 cm long, 3-5 cm wide, sessile, truncate at base, broadly serra- 
te in proximal 2-thirds, apical third entire, acute. Costae and basal 
costules with scattered, rusty brown, stiff hairs and small scales. 
Veins simple, basal ones forming costal areoles from costules. Sori 
in single lines, medial. Indusia bicolorous, circular, completely 
surrounding the receptacle, entire, flat, persistent. 

Hoi otypus: Beyond sawmill in lumber road above El Cope, Prov. Code, 
900 m, B. Hammel 1036, CR. Isotypus: MO. 

The new species is a close ally of Cnemidaria nervosa (Max.) Tryon 
whicla has similar indusia but presents smooth and muricate petioles, 
glabrous rachis, petiolulate pinnae, and glabrous costae and costules. 
In Panama, the only other species with persistent, circular indusia 
is c. cocleana Stolze which differs in the spiny petioles, scaly rac- 
his and pinnae witli serrate apex. 

* Partially financed by grants from CONICIT and the Tinker Foundation 
to the senior author. 

457 



458 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, Ho. 7 

Tlie new species is dedicated to Mr. Robert G. Stolze, Field ."fuseim, 
as a tribute to his excellent monograph of the genus and Notorious 
work on the ferns of Guateinala. 

Thelypteris [Goniopteris] hondurensis L. D. Gomez, sp. nov. 

Rbizoma repens , crassum, glabruw; petioli remoti , glabri ,strami- 
nei , nitentes , teretes , 30-65 cm long. Lamina 30-40 cm longa ,40- 
45 cm lata, pinnata. Pinnae 2-3-jugatae, ample lanceo-ellipticae , 
laxe crenatae, infimae venis basiscopicis liberis, mediales ve- 
nis basiscopicis segmentibus basalibus areolatis . Costae costula- 
que venisgue infra piliis minutis obtectis . Sori exindusiati .Spo- 
rangia omnino glabra. 

Terrestrial. Rhizome short-creeping, thick. Fronds distant, fev; 
(3-5), petioles 30-65 cm long, stramineous, opaque, smooth, glabrous. 
Pinnae 2-3 pairs, 22-25 cm long, 7-3 cm wide at the middle, broadly 
lance-elliptic. Basal pinnae with upper base obtuse and lower base 
strongly excavate, [liddle pinnae with equilateral, obtuse bases. All 
shallowly crenate, apically acuminate. Costae, costules and veins 
with many, minute, translucent hairs. Sori borne at base of included 
veinlet produced by the merging veins of adjacent segments. Tliddle 
pinnae with the basiscopic veins of the basal segments anastomosing 
to produce several, irregular areoles. Lowermost pinnae with those 
veins simple or 1 -forked uniting at the margin, never anastomosing. 
Costae, costules and veins more evident near proximal third, almost 
immersed near the apex of the pinnae. Sori exindusiate. Sporangia 
glabrous. 

Holotypus: NW slope of El Tiburon, Lancetilla Experimental Station, 
Atlantida, Honduras, 50-300 m, CR, Gomez 7012. Isotypi at F and CA. 

Akin to Thelypteris poiteana which has setose sporangia and to T. 
gbiesbrghtii with glabrous sporangia but diffems from both in the 
peculiar areolation of the basiscopic veins of the basal segments 
of the middle pinnae and, in general, the larger proportions of 
the new species, 

Thelypteris [Goniopteris] alan-smithana L. D. Gomez, sp. nov. 

Rhizoma breve repens, frondes proximas emittens . Stipes brunneus , 
crassis, subnitidus , supra piliis furcatis vestitus , laminam sub- 
aequans. Lamina deltoideo-lanceolata , pinnata. Rachis costaque 
subtus pilosis. Pinnae 11-12- jugatae , quasi sessiles , oblongo- 
lanceolatae , crenatae. Vfenae simplicis in sinu concurrentes , pra- 
eter basales. Sori mediali, indusiati. Indusia peltata, pallide 
brunnea , setosa . Sporangia setosa. 

Rhizome short-creeping. Fronds fascicled, 80-95 cm long. Petioles 
45-50 cm long, dull brown or semi lustrous, with minute, forked hairs 
above. Rachis pilose, laxly flexuose. Lamina herbaceous, pinnate. 
Pinnae M- i2 pairs, the basal opposite, the rest alternate, shortly 
stalked (0.5-1 mm), long-lanceolate, crenulate-crenate, 24-26 cm 



1982 Gomez P. & Gomez-L., Plantae mesoamericanae 459 

long, 3.5-4 cm wide, the sinuses reaching no more than one third 
to the costa, segments rounded, entire or undulate. Costa, costules 
and costulules pilose, hairs simple, curved, minute with a few stiff, 
scattered longer hairs. Veins simple throughout, the basal veins of 
adjacent segments arising the basiscopic from the costa and the a- 
croscopic from the costule, merging to produce a veinlet that does 
not reach the commisural vein formed by the rest of the veins. Sori 
medial. Indusium setose. Sporangia witfi a few setae. 

Holotypus: NW slopes of the Tiburon hills, Lancetilla, Atlantida, 
Honduras, 50-300 m, Gomez 6959, CR. Isotypus: F, CA. 

Related to the species of the Thelypteris nicaraguensis~tristis-mi- 
nor group, the nev\r species differs from them in the flexuose rachis, 
and the characteristic included veinlet produced by the merging basal 
veins of the segments. It is named in honor of Dr. Alan R. Smith, 
ardent student of the genus. 

Tectaria acutiloba (Ilieron.) Maxon Vv'as described from the Cauca, Co- 
lombia. Tliis species which is often confused with T. mexicana with 
which it bears a superficial resemblance, is now known from Panama 
in the Province of Colon (S. Knapp 987, W, CR) and the vicinity of 
Puerto Limon in Costa Rica (R. Ocanpo s.n., CR) . 

Trichipteris faicata (Kulm) Earrington was supposed to be confined 
to soutliern Colombia, A Panamanian collection from the Province of 
Code (K. Sytsma et al. 4415, MO, CR) corresponds to this rare fern, 
a dwarfed Cyatheaceae, toiown from few specimens. 



Rhynchospora oreoboloidea Gomez-L., sp. nov. species distinctissima 
omnibus speciebus generis Rhynchospora facile cognoscenda , ob ge- 
nus Oreobolus R. Br. habitus vegetativus similis. 

Planta glabra, nana, 5-12-15 cm alta', rhizomate breve, ramoso ,plu- 
riceps caespites denses emittens', radicibus fibrosis; culmus intra 
folia pluria radicales , 2-3 caulinas , culmus superantia, subdisticha , 
lamina anguste linearia , tricostata , sulcata, rigida , marginibus an- 
trorsis spinuloso-scabra , apice obtusa , incurvva excurvae, etiam tor- 
ta, pallido-viridia , fulvescens , albidae basim; vaginae fibrascens , 
multinervosae, dilatatae , externae apertae internae non-apaertae ,cas- 
taneae fulvescens', bractea usque 3 cm longa, disticha , folia simile, 
bracteolae setaceae , 3-nervosae , margines scabrae', inflorescentia 
1-2-spiculata , inaequaliter pudunculati (pedunculum fere quadriala- 
ti , 3-30 mm longum) , folia abscondita; spiculae 1-2-nucigerae ,3 .5- 
4.5 mm longae , ca. 1.5 mm crassae, apice acutae, porphyro-rufescens', 
glumae vacuae late triangulares , 1 . 3 mm longae, 1-nerviae, nerviis 
incurvatis scabris, mucronatae; glumae nucigerae 2 .7 mm longae, 1- 
nerviae , porphyreae , margine scariosae et plicatae , apice mucrona- 
tae; stamina 3, filamenta plana 2 mm longa, antherae 0.8 mm longae; 
stylus filiformis quasi in medio bifidus', stylopodium anguste conicum, 



460 P H Y T L G I A Vol. 50, No. 7 

0.5 mm longum, 1 mm crassum, hiconvexum, tumidum, maturitate ix>rphij- 
reum, nitens, facie minute reticulatum; setae hypogynae 6, graciles , 
inaequales , 1-2.5 mm longae , antrorsim spinuloso-scabrae . 

Holotypus: Cerro Buvis , 3aenavista massif, altitude ca . 3400 m,Car- 
tago, A. S. Weston 5967a, CR. Isotypi: IT, F, "4 0, NY. Paratypi: Ce- 
rro Nai, Talamanca, altitude ca. 3100 m, Weston 6172, CR, ISJ , IT. 

The new species resembles one of the genus Oreobolus in the general 
habit but is easily distinguished from its species by tlie whitish 
leaves. No other species of Rliyiicliospora posses the combination of 
characters given in the description. I feel amply justified in erec- 
ting for it a new section: 

Rhynchospora \&hl , sectio Oreoboloides , sect. nov. 

Rbizoma breve, pluriceps caespites denses agens; culmus intra fo- 
lia abscond itus , teretibus , sulcatus; folia culmus superantia , sub 
disticha, tricostata , rigida, albidae basim; vaginae fibrascens , di 
latatae, multinervosae , externae apertae internae inapaertae; bracte. 
foliae similes; inflorescentia pauciflorae, inaequaliter pedunculati , 
folia abscondita; stamina 3; stylus quasi in medio bifidus; stylopo- 
dium anguste conicum; achaenium oblongum, biconvexum, tumidum, reti- 
culatum; setae hypogynae 6; antrorsim spinuloso-scabrae. 
Species typica sectionis Rhynchospora oreoboloidea Nobis est. 



I 



New Combinations required for the Flora of Central 
Eastern United States 



Clyde F. Reed 

While preparing the Flora of Central Eastern United States 
(Maryland, Delaware, Virginia and West Virginia, including the 
District of Columbia), it has become necessary to provide the 
following new nomenclatural ch^biges and new combinations. 

Aristolochiaceae 
1. Endodec a serpentaria var. hastata (Nutt.) Reed, comb. nov. 

Based on Aristolochia hastata Nutt., Gen. Amer. 2: 200. 1818. 



Polygonaceae 

2. Bilderdyckia cilinodis var. laevigata (Fern.) Reed, comb. nov. 

Based on Polygonum cilinode var. laevigatum Fern. , Rho- 
dora 16: 166. 1914. 

3. Bilderdyckia scandens var. cristata (Engelm. & Gray) Reed, 

comb. nov. Based on Polygonum cristatum Engelm. & Gray, 
Boston Journ. Nat. Hist. 5: 259. 1847. 

4. Persicaria pensylvanica var. dura (Stanford) Reed, comb. nov. 

Based on Polygonum pensylvanicum var. durum Stanford, 
Rhodora 27: 178, 180. 1925. 

5. Persicaria hydropiperoides var. euronotorum (Fern.) Reed, 

comb. nov. Based on Polygonum hydropiperoides var. euro- 
notorum Fern., Rhodora 47: 137. 1945. 

6. Persicaria hydropiperoides var. breviciliata (Fern.) Reed, 

comb. nov. Based on Polygonum hydropiperoides var. brevi - 
ciliatum Fern., Rhodora 42: 448. 1940. 

7. Persicaria setacea var. inter jecta (Fern.) Reed, 5omb . nov. 

Based on Polygonum setaceum var. inter jectum Fern. , Rho- 
dora 40: 414. 1938. 

8. Persicaria setacea var. tonsa (Fern.) Reed, cpmb . nov. Based 

on Polygonum setaceum var. tonsum Fern. , Rhodora 40: 414. 
1938. 

9. Persicaria ruderalis (Salisb.) Reed, comb. nov. Based on 

Polygonum ruderale Salisb., Prodr. 259. 1796. Syn. : Poly - 
gonum persicaria L. , 1753; Persicaria vulgaris Webb & Moq. 
ex Webb & Berth. , 1841. 

10. Persicaria ruderalis forma angus tif olia (Beckh.) Reed, comb. 

nov. Based on Polygonum persicaria forma angus tif olium 
Beckh., Fl. Westf., 173. 1893. 

11. Tracaulon sagittatum var. gracilentum (Fern.) Reed, comb, nov. 

Based on Polygonum sagitattum var. gracilentum Fern., Rho- 
dora 44: 393. 1942. 

461 



462 PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 7 

Salicaceae 

12. Salix exigua forma wheeleri (Rowlee) Reed, comb nov. Based 

on Salix interior var. wheeleri Rowlee, Bull. Torr. Bot. 
Club 27: 253. 1900. 

13. Salix exigua var. exterior (Fern.) Reed, comb. nov. Based on 
Salix interior var. exterior Fern., Rhodora 48: 38. 1946. 



Oxalidaceae 

14. Oxalis stricta forma cymes a (Small) Reed, comb. nov. Based 

on Oxalis cymosa Small, Bull. Torr. Bot. Club, 23: 267. 
1897. 

15. Oxalis stricta forma villicaulis (Wieg.) Reed, comb. nov. 

Based on Oxalis europaea forma villicaulis Wieg. , Rhodora 
27: 135. 1925. 



Addendum: 



Polygonaceae 
16. Persicaria ruderalis var. vulgaris (Meisn.) Reed, comb, nov. 
Based on Polygonum pers icaria (a) vulgare Meisn. , Monogr. 
Gen. Polygon. Prodr., 68. 1826. Syn. : Polygonum persicaria 
L. , 1753; Persicaria persicaria (L.) Small, 1903; Persi - 
caria vulgaris Webb & Moq. in Webb & Berth. , 1841. 



Reed Herbarium 
10105 Harford Rd. 
Baltimore, Maryland 
21234 



« 



A NEW SPECIES OF OXALIS 

John E. Schwegman 

Illinois ' Department of Conservation, Springfield, 6110b 

ABSTRACT 

Oxalis iZlinoensis sp. nov. is described. It ranges through- 
out the western Interior Low Plateaus physiographic province of 
North America and has previously been identified as Oxalis grandis 
Small. 



The yellow flowered Oxalis species of North America (Section 
Corniculatae) have received much attention over the years. Small 
(1907) provided a detailed treatment, followed by Wiegand (1925), 
Eiten (1963) and Lourteig (1979). 

In spite of the great amount of attention this group has 
received, I noticed what appeared to be significant differences 
between plants I collected from Illinois and western Kentucky and 
plants I collected in North Carolina, all of which keyed to 
Oxalis grandis Small. None of the monographers mention any geo- 
graphic variation in this species and I could find no reference in 
the literature to some of the characters I was seeing. 

The most notable character of the Illinois and western 
Kentucky plants is the fleshy white fusiform tuber which it grows 
from. Oxalis grandis is strongly rhizomatous with no mention of 
tubers in the literature. In addition, these Illinois and 
Kentucky plants always lack the brown or purple leaflet margins 
so typical of 0. grandis. These differences led me to a closer 
look at specimens currently identified as 0. grandis. 

Examination of a large series of specimens at the Missouri 
Botanical Garden confirmed my suspicion that two taxa are included 
within the material commonly attributed to 0. grandis. Examination 
of an additional 33 sheets of 0. grandis from Vanderbilt University 
Herbarium confirmed this finding and clarified the distribution of 
the new taxon which ranges from middle Tennessee northward through 
western Kentucky to southern Illinois and Indiana. I am naming this 
new species Oxalis illinoensis in honor of the state where its 
distinctiveness was first noticed. 

It is remarkable that this taxon has escaped recognition in 
a genus that has received so much attention. There are probably 
several reasons for this. First, there were few, if any, specimens 
of the new entity available to some of the workers. Secondly, the 
underground parts, which are a key character, are frequently 
missing from the collections that are available. The fact that 
Small (189A) describes the leaflets as "mostly with a brown margin" 
probably led later workers to disregard the lack of this character 
when they encountered specimens without them. Finally, variability 
is characteristic of some species in the section and may have led 

463 



^^^ PHYTOLOGIA Vol. 50, No. 7 

to discounting the significance of variation when encountered 
in 0. grandis. 

On the basis of specimens cited by Small (1894) and Wiegand 
(1925) it is probable that they saw no material of 0. illinoensis. 
The only possibility is the specimen attributed to Mt. Carmel, 
Illinois (actually from Gibson County, Indiana) collected by 
Schneck and housed in the Gray Herbarium which I have not seen. 
Since both 0. grandis and 0. illinoensis occur in southern 
Indiana, this specimen could be of either. Eiten and Lourteig 
apparently both saw at least some material of 0. illinoensis. 

The primary characters distinguishing 0. illinoensis from 
0. grandis are the presence of tubers versus rhizomes and the 
absence of a brown or purple margin on the leaflets. These 
characters hold up well on the specimens I have examined. One 
specimen of 0. grandis, Krai 58442 (VDB) from a shale barren in 
Bath County, Virginia, has what appear to be tuberous thickenings 
on some of its elongate rhizomes. However, these are quite 
different from the single terminal tuber of 0. illinoensis. In 
any event these thickenings are not typical of 0. grandis, this 
being the only specimen I have observed them on. This specimen 
also has a strongly cymose inflorescence which is unusual for 
0. grandis. 

I do not know the basis of Small's (1894) conclusion that 
brown leaflet margins were sometimes absent in 0. grandis. I have 
not seen 0. grandis without brown or purple leaflet margins 
although they are faint and require magnification to confirm in 
a few specimens. Some specimens from along the edge of the 
Cumberland Plateau in eastern Tennessee (Blum 3642 Grundy County 
and Krai 42702 Overton County, both VDB) have very faint coloring 
suggesting an intermediate form, but they clearly lack tubers. 

In addition to the key characters there are several morpho- 
logical trends which generally, but not always, separate these 
two species. Relative to 0. grandis, 0. illinoensis has larger 
leaflets which are a paler yellow-green in color and more rounded 
in shape. Most 0. illinoensis leaflets have convex margins above 
the base while concave margins predominate in Oxalis grandis. 
The terminal notches of leaflets of 0. illinoensis are also 
shallower and generally less actuely angled. Peduncles in 0. 
grandis tend to be longer and to arise from more nearly terminal 
leaf axils thus holding the flowers above the leaves. In 0. 
illinoensis the flowers are generally down in the leaves. Using 
these tendencies it is usually possible to identify rootless 
specimens without close examination of leaf margins. 

The possibility that the presence of tubers, difference in 
leaf pigmentation and the other morphological trends could be a 
response to environmental variables exists. Many populations of 
0. illinoensis grow on limestone, shale or calcareous loess 
substrates. However, plants with 0. illinoensis traits are limited 



1982 Schwegman, A new species of Oxalis 465 

to a well circumscribed geographical range and apparently do not 
crop up throughout the range of 0. gvandis even though calcareous 
habitats exist there. In Illinois, where I am most familiar with 
0. illinoensis in the field, it is restricted to a series of 
relatively small mesic forest habitats with limestone substrates 
in a region of more acid forest soils. It clearly cannot invade 
these acid soils, a condition I feel is genetically fixed. It 
apparently does not just happen to grow on limestone, and as a 
result produce tubers, but rather it must grow in a calcareous 
habitat. 

Oxalis illinoensis appears to be most closely related to 
0. grandis following Eiten's postulated evolution of Oxatis 
Section Corniculatae (Eiten 1963) . While 0. illinoensis would 
have some difficulty fitting into Subsection Strictae with 0. 
grandis in Eiten's key because of its lack of rhizomes, thickened 
root and absence of a cyme; it clearly belongs close to 0, grandis 
on the basis of its septate pubescence, leaflet size, flower size, 
lack of stipules, presence of stolons and habit. 

Oxalis illinoensis probably evolved from 0. grandis as the 
latter species adapted to the calcareous mesic forest habitats of 
the western Interior Low Plateaus physiographic province. 
Alternatively, it could have diverged directly from 0. striata L. 
(of Eiten 1955) as 0. grandis is presumed to have arisen. In any 
event, 0. illinoensis adapted to a mesic calcareous habitat as 
opposed to the more acid soils of the Applachian region occupied 
by 0. grandis. 

A number of endemic species of very limited range are known 
from the Interior Low Plateaus province. These include Oxalis 
priceae Small from limestone glades and Apios priceana Robins 
and Cimiaifuga mbifolia Kearny from mesic forest habitats. 
Oxalis illinoensis frequently grows with the latter species in 
southern Illinois and western Kentucky. Oxalis illinoensis has 
spread to the Coastal Plain province where it occurs in the 
calcareous loess-mantled bluffs on the east edge of the 
Mississippi Alluvial Plain in Carlisle County, Kentucky. 

Oxalis illinoensis can be separated from 0. grandis 
by the following key: 

Plant arising from a white, horizontal, fusiform 
tuber; colonial by slender stolons; leaflets up 
to 51mm broad, never with a brown margin, terminal 
notch acute to almost obsolete; Oxalis illinoensis. 

Plant colonial from stout rhizomes, tubers lacking; 
leaflets up to 45mni broad, with a brown margin, 
terminal notch acute; Oxalis grandis. 



466 



PHYTOLOGIA 



Vol. 50, No. 7 




Figure 1. Documented range of Oxalis ill 



tnoenszs. 



1982 Schwegraan, A nev species of Oxalis 467 

Oxalis illinoensis Schwegman sp. nov. Herha perennis tubere 
alho fusiformi, colonial-is stolonibus tenuibus; caules 20-40 cm 
alti, pubesoentes, pilis septatis patentibus; petioli 4.0-7.5 cm 
longi; foliola 20-51 mm lata, uniforme viridia sine brunneo 
margine, ciliata ad hasim, inoisura tevminali non profunda et 
acuta vel pvope absenti; flores ptevumque 2-3 (-6), in umbellis, 
petala 9-19 mm longa, sepala 3.5-5.5 mm longa, acuta vel obtusa; 
capsulae oblongo-ovoideae, 7-10 mm longae, pedunculis non 
reflexris; semina 1.5-1.8 mm longa. 

Specimens examined: Illinois: Pope County (Schwegman 2990, 
ISM); Pope County (Schwegman 1661, SIU) type; Indiana: Orange 
County (Mackenzie, MO); Martin County (Palmer 39509, MO); 
Kentucky: Crittenden County (Athey 513); Lyon County (Athey 487); 
Carlisle County (Athey 156A) ; Caldwell County (Palmer, MO); 
Tennessee: Montgomery County (Palmer 17589, MO); Cheatham County 
(Palmer 35516, MO); Davidson County (Krai 34675, MO); Williamson 
County (Waits 47, VDB) ; Macon County (Krai 55218, VDB) ; Hickman 
County (Krai 45648, VDB); Robertson County (Lenham 52, VDB); 
Sumner County (Blum 3292, VDB); Trousdale County (Krai 49814B, 
VDB); and Lewis County (Krai 46367, VDB). 

I wish to thank Dr. Robert H. Mohlenbrock of Southern 
Illinois University for preparing the latin description. 
Dr. Robert Krai of Vanderbilt University, Mr. Raymond Athey of 
701 Woodland Drive, Paducah, Kentucky, Dr. John Dwyer of the 
Missouri Botanical Garden and Dr. Donald Ugent of Southern 
Illinois University kindly made specimens available for study. 

LITERATURE CITED 

Eiten, G. 1955. The typification of the names "Oxalis comiculata 
L." and "Oxalis stricta L." Taxon, 4:99-105. 

Eiten, G. 1963. Taxonomy and regional variation of Oxalis section 
Covniculatae. I. introduction, keys and synopsis of the species. 
Am. Midi. Nat. 69:257-309. 

Lourteig, A. 1979. Oxalidaoeae extra-austro-americanae. Phytologia 
42:57-187. 

Small, J.K. 1894. Two species of Oxalis. Bull. Torr. Bot. Club 
21:471-75. 

Small, J.K. 1907. North American Flora 25:55. 

Wiegand, K.M. 1925. Oxalis comiculata and its relatives. Rhodora 
27:113-124; 133-139. 



NOTES ON NEW AND NOTEWORTHY PLANTS. CLVI 
Harold N. lloldenke 



LANTRNA PASTAZENSIS Hold . , sp. nov. 

Frutex, ramulls obtuse tetragonis sulcatls antrorse adpresso- 
strigulosis; follls decussato-oppositis breviter petiolatis; 
petiolls dense adpresso-strigulosis; laminis foliorxim tenuiter 
membranaceis late ovatis usque ad 18 cm. longis 10 cm. latis 
apicaliter abrupte subacurainatis marginaliter antrorse-serratis 
basaliter truncatis vel in petiolura coarctatis utrinque minu- 
tissime puberulis; inflorescentiis axillaribus solltarlis; pedun- 
culo elongate petiolum longe excedente ca. 8 cm. longo denslus- 
cule adpresso-striguloso; capitulo parvo ca. 1 cm. longo latoque; 
bracteis magnis late ovatis vel elliptico-ovatis ca. 8 mm. latis 
10 mm. longis apicaliter abrupte acuminatis vel subcaudatis utrin- 
que adpresso-puberulis. 

A shrub, 0.4 — 0.7 m. tall; branchlets apparently slender, 
light or the younger parts darkening in drying, very medullose, 
obtusely tetragonal with rounded angles, deeply canaliculate, 
densely and antrorsely appressed-strigulose throughout, more 
densely so at the nodes; principal internodes apparently much 
elongate on floriferous branchlets, to 10 cm. long; leaves decus- 
sate-opposite; petioles relatively short, about 1 cm. long, dense- 
ly and antrorsely appressed-strigulose, apically merging into the 
leaf-base; leaf-blades thinly membranous, bright-green on both 
surfaces, not blackening in drying, broadly ovate, 12 — 18 cm. 
long, 7 — 10 cm. wide, apically rather abruptly short-acuminate, 
marginally serrate with rather uniform, antrorse, broad-based, a- 
cute or subacute teeth to below the widest part from the very a- 
pex, the teeth somewhat more appressed as the leaf-apex is ap- 
proached, basally truncate and usually extending into the petiole, 
very minutely puberulent on both surfaces under a handlens; in- 
florescence axillary, solitary, surpassing the subtending petiole 
but not surpassing the leaf-blade; peduncles slender, much elon- 
gate, about 8 cm. long, rather densely and antrorsely appressed- 
strigulose throughout; heads relatively small and relatively few- 
flowered, about 1 cm. long and wide; bracts rather foliose, large, 
broadly ovate or elliptic-ovate, about 10 mm. long and 8 mm. v^ide, 
often undate or somewhat conduplicate, apically abruptly acumin- 
ate to subcaudate, minutely appressed-puberulent on both surfaces; 
corolla hypocraterlform, pale reddish-violet, with a yellow center. 

The type of this species was collected by B. L«5jtnant and U. 
Molau (no. 13421) in "field