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An international journal to expedite plant systematic, ptiytogeographical 
and ecological publication 

Vol. 80 January 1996 No. 1 


MACROBERTS, B.R. & M.H. MACROBERTS, Horistics of xenc sandhills in / 

east Texas 1 

Morfologfa de los granos de polen de la familia Bignoniaceae de la Estaci6n ^ 

de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco 8 

HOLMES, W.C. & D.E. WIVAGG, Identification and distnbution of 
Centaurium muhlenbergii (Griseb.) Piper and C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce / 

(Gentianaceae) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 23 

BOROWSKI, M., W.C. HOLMES, & J. SINGHURST, Phyllostachys aurea / 

Riv. (Gramineae; Bambuseae) in Texas 30 

WIPFF, J.K., Nomenclatural combinations in Schizachynum (Poaceae: 

Andropogoneae) 35 

GALAN de MERA, A. & J.A. VICENTE O., Las comunidades con 

Corryocactus brevistylus del sur del Peni 40 ^ 

VOLZ, P. A. & K.A. BABUTINA, The reorganization of the academies of 
sciences of the former Soviet Union with emphasis on the Ukrainian 

Academy 48 

HINTON, G.S., Mammillaria luethyi (Cactaceae), a new species from Coahuila, ^ 

Mexico 58 

HINTON, G.S., Turbinicarpus booleanus (Cactaceae), a new species from . 

Nuevo Leon, Mexico 62 

Books received 67 

Publication dates, volume 79 68 

Disposition of manuscripts, volumes 78 and 79 69 

Index to reviewers, volume 79 70 

Index to authors, volume 79 71 

Phytologia Memoirs 10 available 72 


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Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1); 1-7. 


B.R. MacRoberts & M.H. MacRoberts 
Bog Research, 740 Columbia, Shreveport, Louisiana 71 104 U.S.A. 


The flori sties and edaphic conditions of two east Texas xeric sandhills are 
described. This community occurs in central and northwestern Louisiana, east 
Texas, and southern Arkansas. The sandy soil is nutrient poor and porous. 
Water and air move rapidly through it causing rapid drying. In presettlement 
times, sandhills were probably fairly common in the West Gulf Coastal Plain, 
but because of fire suppression, grazing, agriculture, oil exploration, and 
agroforestry, this community has been badly damaged and greatly reduced m 

KEY WORDS; Sandhills, xeric, floristics, Sabine National Forest, Texas 

Like so many plant communities of the West Gulf Coastal Plain, there is little 
published information on xeric sandhills (synonyms: sandylands, oak-farkleberry 
sandylands, xeric sandy woodlands, bluejack oaJc-pine series) (see Diamond ei al. 
1987; Harcombe et al. 1993; MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994, 1995 for previous 
literature). This community is listed as endangered by both the U.S. DA. Forest 
Service and the Texas Organization for Endangered Species because it is potentially 
vulnerable to extirpaticm or severe degradation. Most sandhill communities have been 
destroyed in northwestern Louisiana (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1995) and the 
community is imperiled in the state (Teague & Wendt 1994; Louisiana Natural 
Heritage Program 1988). 

Xeric sandhills of the West Gulf Coastal Plain appear to be similar to turkey oak 
sandhill forests in the East Gulf Coastal Plain except for the absence of several key 
species such as turkey oak {Quercus laevis Wait) and wiregrass {Aristida stricta 
Michx.) and the presence of several western elements not found in the east (Stout & 
Marion 1993). 

PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Sandhills occur mainly in Tertiary marine deposits on ridge tops and upper slopes, 
and on Pleistocene deposits on terraces near streams. The deep sandy soils are of low 
fertility and, because of their porous nature, water and air move rapidly through them 
causing rapid drymg. Overstory, midstory, and herbaceous vegetation is often sparse, 
allowing sun to reach the ground, and in some areas, there are no trees. Reflected 
glare from the sand is often mtense. Trees, typically a combination of overstory pines 
and midstory oaks, are often stimted. Lichens and mosses are usually plentiful on the 
bare soils, and the soils, where undisturbed, are often cryptogamic. 

In order to learn more about this community, we made a study of the vascular flora 
of two xeric sandhills in San Augustine County on the Sabine National Forest. We 
had previously studied xeric sandhills in Caddo and Natchitoches parishes, Louisiana 
(MacRoberts & MacRpberts 1994, 1995) and in this paper we will have occasion to 
compare the two Texas sites to those. 


We visited the two sandhills — San Augustine and FM 1279 — every two to three 
weeks between the autumn of 1994 and the autumn of 1995. The two sites are located 
about 8 km north of San Augustine near the northern border of San Augustine 
County. Both are on the Sabine National Forest. They are only about 200 meters 
apart but are on separate drainages. 

Both study areas are partly open (10% - 50% cover); dominant trees are Quercus 
incana Bartr., Q. steUata Wang., Pinus palustris P. Mill., and P. echinata P. Mill. 
Trees are d"ten stunted and openings occur among wooded areas. San Augustine 
sandhill covers about 4 ha and FM 1279 is about 1 ha. Although the terrain is hilly 
and thus topographically variable, both sites are about 200 meters above sea level. 
They occur on a narrow strip of the Carrizo formation, which becomes more extensive 
to the northwest (Barnes 1967). 

The study sites were selected because they appeared to be of high natural quality. 
Previous work in the area consists of a brief survey designed to locate high quality 
examples of communities occurring on the Natic«al Forests and Grasslands in Texas 
(Orzell 1990). 

We collected and recorded all vascular plants found. We follow Kartesz ( 1994) in 
most instances of botanical nomenclature. Voucher specimens of many of the species 
collected are distributed among ASTC, BRCH, and VDB. 

Soil samples were taken from the upper 15 cm of each sandhill and were analyzed 
by A & L Laboratories, Memphis, Tennessee. 

While the specific fire history of these areas is not known, both sites have been 
regularly burned by the U.S. Forest Service. Half of San Augustine sandhill was 
prescription burned on June 14, 1995. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Roristics of East Texas sandhills 

Annual precipitation averages about 100 cm and is fairly evenly distributed 
throughout the year. Humidity is typically high. In summer, temperatures nse to 35° 
C, which, when combined with short droughts, translates into very hot and dry 
conditions. Especially under these conditions, the ex|X)sed sands become very dry, 
and retlected light is intense. 


The vascular plants found at San Augustine sandhill [S] and FM 1279 sandhill [F] 
are listed in Table 1. If the species occurs at both sites, no site location is given. 

We list the soil characteristics of the Texas sandhills in Table 2 

The soil on which this community occurs is acidic loamy fine sand of low fertility 
and rapid permeability and belongs to the same soil series described previously for 
Natchitoches and Caddo Parish sandhills (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994, 1995). 
The soils are often cryptogamous, with a brittle lichenous crust 


We recorded a total of 1 17 taxa, representing 96 genera and 46 families, for the 
two sites. San Augustine sandhill had 108 sjxcies, and FM 1279 had 102. 
Sorensen's Index of Similanty (IS) between the two sandhills was 88.6, meaning that 
they are the same community. Seven of the species (Cyperus grayioides. Eriogonum 
tongifolium. Paronychia drummondii, Polygonella polygama, Pediomelum 
hypogaeum, Selaginella arenicola subsp. riddellii, and Tetragonotheca ludoviciana) are 
on the Texas National Forests and Grasslands rare sf)ecies list. Asteraceae, Fabaceae, 
and Poaceae dut dominant families, accounting for about 36% of species. 

In 1993 and 1994, we studied a small xeric sandhill in Natchitoches Parish, 
Louisiana (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1994) for which we recorded 61 taxa Of 
these, 54 (89%) occur in the San Augustine and FM 1279 sandhills. We did not 
compute an IS between this site and those in Texas since species numbers and size are 
not comparable, but clearly the three sites belong to the same community. 

In 1994 and 1995, we studied three sandhills in Caddo Parish, Louisiana 
(MacRoberts & MacRoberts 1995). Since the North Louisiana sites are comparable in 
size and species numbers to the Texas sites, we calculated an IS between them: it is 
66, indicating that, although there are some major differences, the sandhills in Caddo 
Parish and East Texas can be considered the same community. 

PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Table 1. Vascular plants at two xeric sandhills m San Augustine County. 

ACANTHACEAE -- Ruellia humilis Nutt. [S]. 
AGAVACEAE-- Yucca louisianen5i5lxt\. [F]. 
AMARANTHACEAE -- Froelichia floridana (Nutt) Moq. 
kHkCk^I>\kCEAE--Rhusaromaticak\i.,R.copallina L., Toxicodendron radicam 

(L.) O. Ktze. 
ANNONACEAE -- Asimina parviflora (Michx.) Duval. 
APIACEAE -- Spermolepis echinata (DC.) Heller [S]. 
AQUIFOLIACEAE -- Ilex vomitoria AiL 
ARISTOLOCHIACEAE -- Aristolochia reticulata Jacq. 
ASCLEPIADACEAE - Asclepias tuberosa L., Matelea cynanchoides (Engelm.) 

ASTERACEAE -- Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. [F], Croptilon divaricatum (Nutt.) Raf., 

Gnaphalium obtusifolium L., G. purpureum L., Helianthus debilis Nutt. subsp. 

cucumerfolius (Torrey & A. Gray) Heiser [S], Heterotheca pilosa (Nutt.) 

Shinners, Hieracium gronovii L., Hymenopappus artemisiaefolius DC, Liatris 

elegans (Walt.) Michx., Krigia virginica (L.) Willd., Pityopsis graminifolia 

(Michx.) Nutt., Solidago rMda Torrey & A. Gray, S. odora Ait. [S], 

Tetragonotheca ludoviciana (Torrey & A. Gray) A. Gray [F], Thelesperma 

filifolium (Hook.) A. Gray [S], Vernonia sp. [F], V. texana (A. Gray) Small. 
BORAGINACEAE -- Uthospermum caroliniense (J.F. Gmel.) MacM. 
CACTACEAE -- Opuntia humifusa (Raf.) Raf. 
CAMPANULACEAE -- Triodanis perfoliata (L.) Nieuwl. [S]. 
CAPPARIDACEAE -- Polanisia erosa (Nutt.) litis [F]. 
CARYOPHYLLACEAE -- Paronychia drummondii Torrey & A. Gray. 
CISTACEAE -- Heliantherruun georgianum Chapm., Lechea mucronata Raf. 
CLUSIACEAE -- Hypericum gentianoides (L.) B.S.P., H. hypericoides (L.) Crantz. 
COMMELINACEAE - Commelina erecta L., Tradescantia reverchonii Bush. 
CONVOLVVLACEAE - Ipomoea pandurata (L.) Mey., Stylisma pickeringii (Torrey 

ea: Curtis) A. Gray. 
CUPRESSACEAE -- Juniperus virginiana L. [S]. 
CYPERACEAE -- Bulbostylis cUiatifolia (Ell.) Fern., Cyperus grayioides 

Mohlenbrock, C. retrofractus (L.) Torr., C. retroflexus Buckl., Rhynchospora 

grayi Kunth, Scleria triglomerata Michx. 
DENNSTAEDTIACEAE -- Pteridium aquilirmm (L.) Kuhn. 
ERICACEAE - Monotropa uniflora L. , Vaccinium arboreum Marsh. , V. slamineum 

EUPHORBIACEAE ~ Chamaesyce cordifolia (Ell.) Small, Cnidosculus lexanus 

(Muell.-Arg.) Small, Crotonopsis linearis Michx., Stillingia sylvatica L. [S], 

Tragia urens L., T. urticifolia Michx. 
FABACEAE - Baptisia nuttailiana Small, Centrosema virginianum (L.) Benth., Dalea 

villosa (Nutt.) Sprengel var. grisea (Torrey & A. Gray) Bameby [F], Desmodium 

sp., Lespedeza sp., Pediomelum hypogaeum (Nutt. ex Torrey & A. Gray) Rydb. 

var. subulatum (Bush) J. Gnmes, Rhynchosia latifolia Nutt. ex Torrey & A. 

Gray, Stylosanthes biflora (L.) B.S.P., Tephrosia virginiana (L.) Pers. 
FAGACEAE -- Quercus incana Bartr., Q. mariUmdica Muenchh., Q. slellata Wang., 

Castanea alnifolia Nutt. [F]. 
IRIDACEAE — Alophia drummondii (Graham) R.C. Foster. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Roristics of East Texas sandhills 

Table 1. (cont.). 

JUGLANDACEAE -- Carya sp. 

LAMIACEAE -- Monarda punctata L. [S], Scutellaria cardiophylla Engelm. & A. 
Gray, Trichostema dichotomum L. 

LAURACEAE -- Sassafras albidum (Nutt.) Nees. 

LILIACEAE -- Smilax sp. 

LOGANIACEAE -- Gelsemium sempervirens (L.) St. Hil. 

OLEACEAE -- Chionanthus virginicus L. [S]. 

ONAGRACEAE -- Oenothera biennis L. [S]. 

OXALIDACEAE -- Oxalis stricta L. 

PINACEAE -- Pinus echinata P. Mill., P. palustris P. Mill., P. taeda L. 

POACEAE-- Andropogon temarius Michx., Andropogon virginicus L. [S], Aristida 
desmantha Tnn. & Rupr., Aristida lanosa Ell., Aristida purpurascens Poir., 
Bouteloua hirsuta Lag. [S], Dichanthelium oligosanthes (Schult.) Gould, D. 
villosissimum (Nash) Freckman, D. sphaerocarpon (Ell.) Gould, Eragrostis 
spectabilis (Pursh) Steud., Gymnopogon ambiguus (Michx.) B.S.P., Paspalu/n 
spp., Schizachyriutn scoparium (Michx.) Nash, Sorghastrum elliottii (Mohr) Nash 
[F], Sporobolus asper (Michx.) Kunth var. macer (Tnn.) Shinners [S], 
Sporobolus junceus (Michx.) Kunth [S]. 

POLYGALACEAE - Polygala polygama WalL 

POLYGONACEAE -- Eriogonum longifolium Nutt., Polygonella americana (Fisch. & 
Mey.) Small, P. polygama (Vent.) Engelm. & A. Gray. 

RUBIACEAE -- Diodia teres Walt. 

SAPOTACEAE -- Bumelia lanuginosa (Michx.) Pers. 

SCROPHULARIACEAE -- Aureolaria pectinata (Nutt.) Penn., Unaria canadensis 
(L.) Dum.-Cours. 

SELAGINELLACEAE -- Selaginella arenicola Underw. subsp. riddellii (Van Eselt.) 

SOLANACEAE -- Physalis heterophylla Nees., P. mollis Nutt. 

VERBENACEAE -- Glandularia canadensis (L.) Nutt. [F]. 

VITACEAE -- Ampelopsis arborea (L.) Koehne, Vitis aestivalis Michx., V. 
rotundifolia Michx. 

Table 2. Soil characteristics of two xenc sandhills in San Augustine County. 

Exchangeable Ions (ppm) 








FM 1279 







San Augustine 







PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1): 1-7 

Orzell (1990), in his survey of the plant communities of the Texas National 
Forests and Grasslands, found the San Augustine sandhills to be of high quality. We 
concur with this assessment. The sandhills we studied in Caddo Parish, Louisiana 
were decidedly inferior to the Texas sites and contained many exotics, which accounts 
for the relatively low IS between them and the Texas sites. The San Augustine 
sandhills compare favorably to some xenc sandhills we have examined in 
Natchitoches f^arish on the Kisatchie National Forest (MacRoberts & MacRoberts 
1994). However, neither of the Texas sites is without damage. A tramway, power 
line right-of-way, an old dump, roads, and plowed firelines mar the San Augustine 
site; while FM 1279 is free of these disturbances, it is fire suppressed. 

The entire area was cut prior to National Forest acquisition in 1936. Part of San 
Augustine sandhill was planted with longleaf pine in the early 1940's, but this seems 
to have failed and the same area was replanted in the late 1940's, again with longleaf 
pine. The rest of the longleaf appears to have seeded in naturally. 

During of the course of this study, we briefly surveyed several other xeric 
sandhills in East Texas, notably in northwest Jasper, southeast Angelina, and southern 
Sabine counties on the Angelina and Sabine National Forests. These often grade 
imperceptibly into upland longleaf pine savannah, but many species fidel to xeric sites 
pinpoint the more xeric extremes. Notably rich in such fidels are the sandhills running 
across the southern part of the Angelina National Forest. Some of these rank in 
quality (and thus rarity) with San Augustine and FM 1279 and should be protected. 


Robert E. Evans, Ecologist, National Forests and Grasslands in Texas, and 
Suzanne Walker, Botanist, Sabine National Forest, were instrumental in making this 
study possible. The study was supported in part by a Challenge Cost-Share 
Agreement with the National Forests and Grasslands in Texas. Robert E. Evans and 
D.T. MacRoberts made helpful comments on an earlier version of this paper. 


Barnes, V.E. 1967. Surface geology map of Texas. Bureau of Economic Geology. 

University of Texas, Austin, Texas. 
Diamond, D.D., D.H. Riskind, & S.L. OiTell. 1987. A framework for plant 

community classification and conservation in Texas. Texas Journal of Science 

Harcombe, P.A., J.S. Glitzenstein, R.G. Knox, S.L. Orzell, & E.L. Bndges. 1993. 

Vegetation of the longleaf pine region of the west gulf coastal plain. Proceedings 

of the Tall Timbers Ecology Conference, No. 18:&3- 104. 

MacRoberts & MacRoberts: Roristics of East Texas sandhills 

Kartesz. J.T. 1994. A Synonymized Checklist of the Vascular Flora of the United 

States, Canada, and Greenland. Timber F^ess, Portland, Oregon. 
Louisiana Natural Hentage Program. 1988. The Natural Commuruues of Louisiana. 

Unpublished report. Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton 

Rouge, Louisiana. 
MacRoberts, M.H. & B.R. MacRoberts. 1994. Roristics of a xenc sandy land in 

western Louisiana. Phytologia 77:414-424. 
MacRoberts, B.R. & M.H. MacRoberts. 1995. Ronstics of xenc sandhills in 

northwestern Louisiana. Phytologia 79:123-131. 
Orzell, S.L. 1990. Texas Natural Heritage FYogram Inventory of National Forests 

and National Grasslands in Texas. Unpublished report, Texas Parks and Wildlife 

Department, Natural Hentage Program, Austin, Texas. 
Stout, I.J. & W.R. Manon. 1993. F*ine flatwoods and xeric pine forests of the 

southern (lower) coastal plain. Pp. 373-446. In W.H. Martin, S.G. Boyce, A.C. 

Echtemacht (Eds). Biodiversity of the Southeastern United States: Lowland 
Terrestrial Communities. John Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 
Teague, J. & T. WendL 1994. Caddo and Bossier Parishes, Louisiana; Natural 

Areas Survey. Unpublished report. The Nature Conservancy, Baton Rouge, 


Phylologia (January 1996) 80(1)8- 22 



Ma de la Luz Anreguin-Sdnchez, Rodolfo Palacios-Chavez, & David Leonor Quiroz- 


Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biol6gicas, Institute Politecnico Nacional, Departamento 
de Botinica, Prol. Plan de Ayala y Carpio, Col. Santo Tomas, Mexico D.F. 1 1340 

Becanos de COFAA del I.P.N. Trabajo parcialmente subsidiado per la Direccion de 

Estudios de Posgrado e Investigacion del Institute Politecnico Nacional (870225j y el 

Smithsonian Tropical Research Institute. 


Se estudia e ilustra al microscopio de luz la morfologia de los granos de 
p)olen de diez generos y diesiseis especies de la familia Bignoniaceae de la 
Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco perteneciente a la Universidad 
Aut6noma de Mexico. Comprende los siguientes taxa; Adenocalytmna 
inundatum Mart, ex DC, Arrabidaea coraUina (Jacq.) Sandw., Arrabidaea 
palellifera (Schlecht.) Sandw., Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry, 
Aslianthus viminalis (H.B.K.) BaiU., Clyloslotna binatum (Thunb.) Sandw., 
Crescentia alala H.B.K., Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Cydista 
diversifolia (H.B.K.) Miers, Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, 
Pitfiecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. Gentry, Tabebuia chrysanlha (Jacq.) 
Nichols., Tabebma donnell-smthii Rose, Tabebuia impeiigirwsa (Mart.) 
Standi., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC., y Xyiophragma seetnannianum (Ktze.) 
Sandw. Con los datos aqui' obtenidos fue posible elaborar una clave 
palinol6gica para diferenciar la mayori'a de los generos y las especies. 

Se discute la posici6n taxonomica de algunos taxa y se dan algunas 
interpretaciones tomando en consideracion la mort'ologia del polen. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: palinologi'a, Bignoniaceae, Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico 


Pollen grain morphology of ten genera and sixteen species ol Bignoniaceae 
from Estacion de Biologi'a Chamela, Jalisco belonging to the Universidad 
Nacional Autonoma de Mexico are described and illustrated using the light 

Arreguin-S^chez ei al:. Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 

microscope, the taxa described are: Adenocalymma inundatum Mart, ex DC, 
Arrabidaea coraUina (Jacq.) Sandw., Anabidaea patelli/era (Schlecht.) 
Sandw., Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry', Aslianthus viminalLs 
(H.B.K.) Baill., Clytostoma hinalum (Thunb.) Sandw., Crescenlia akaa 
H.B.K., Cydisla aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Cydista diversifotia (H.B.K.) 
Miers, Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, Pithecocienium crucigeriim (L.) 
A. Gentry, Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nichols, Tabebuia donnell-smithii 
Rose, Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standi., Tabebuia rosea (Bertol) DC., 
and Xylophragma seemannianum (Ktze.) Sandw. A key for separation of 
most genera and species by pollen grain charactenstics is included. 

Taxonomic position of some taxa is discussed taking into account some 
interpretations and discrepancies based on pollen grains studied. 

KEY WORDS: palinology, Bignoniaceae, Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico 


El presente trabajo forma parte de los estudios sobre la flora polinica de la Estacion 
de Biologfa Chamela, Jalisco, Mexico, que Palacios-Chdvez et al. (1986) vienen 

La familia Bignoniaceae comprende 1 10 g^neros y 750 esf)ecies (Lawrence 1951 ), 
distnbufdas en las zonas tropicales de casi todo el mundo, la mayorfa son arboles, 
arbustos o lianas, rara vez hierbas. En la Estaci6n de Biologi'a Chamela, Jalisco, 
Mexico prosperan diez g6neros y diesiseis especies (Lott 1985). 


Entre los estudios palinol6gicos de esta familia se tienen los de Erdtman (1966), 
quien descnbe brevemente 25 esjjecies correspondientes a veinte g^neros. Palacios- 
Chdvez (1966) descnbe e ilustra cuatro g^neros y cinco especies del estado de 
Morelos. Mitra(1968) estudia32 g^neros y disungue doce tipos poli'nicos basindose 
en las aberturas, concluye que la familia debe ser polifildtica por la gran diversidad 
palinol6gica y la presencia de tipos poli'nicos pnmiuvos y avanzados y Heusser ( 1971 ) 
estudia cuatro g^neros y cuatro especies para Chile, con breves descnpciones y 
fotomicrograffas. Huang (1972) descnbe brevemente e ilustra cuatro g^neros y cuatro 
especies de Taiwan. Survakanta ( 1973) estudia 47 g^neros y 84 especies y menciona 
que la evoluci6n de las aberturas del polen proviene de un colpo espiraperturado, 
ademds indica que las Bignoniaceae que crecen como lianas presentan mas \ anaciones 
en el polen que las arbustivas o Irboles y que los g^neros herbaceos se caracienzan por 
tener un gran niimero de aberturas. Buurman ( 1977) estudia las especies incolporadas 
en 83 generos de la familia Bignoniaceae. Markgraf & D'Anioni ( 1978) observan e 
ilusU"an el de tres generos y tres especies de la Argentina. Gentry & Tomb ( 1979) 
estudian el pc:)len de 63 taxa al microscopio electronico de bamdo y mencionan 26 

10 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1) :8-22 

tipos polfnicos para la familia, relacionan la morfologia del polen con la taxonomi'a de 
la familia y las Ifneas evolutivas que han propuesto otros autores. Femandes-Silvestre 
& Melhem (1989) descnben e ilustran al microscopio de luz y de bamdo diesmueve 
g^neros del parque estatal das Pontes do Opiranga en Sao Paulo, Brasil. Roubick & 
Moreno (1991) descnben e ilustran veinte g^neros y 31 especies de la Isla Barro 
Colorado, Panami Palacios-Chdvez et al. (1991) para la flora de la reserva de Sian 
Ka'an, Quintana Roo, Mexico descnben e ilustran seis g^neros y ocho especies. Bove 
(1993) estudia al microscopio de luz y de bamdo la morfologia de diesinueve generos 
y 33 esp>ecies de Bignoniaceae nativas del sur de Brasil. 


Las muestras de polen fueron tomadas principalmente de los ejemplares de 
herbano depositados en el museo de la Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco y del 
Herbario del Institute de Biologia de la Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mdxico 
(MEXU). Cuando no se pudo tomar polen de esa colecci6n, por carecer de flores, las 
muestras polfnicas se obtuvieron de ejemplares colectados en diversos lugares de la 
Republica Mexicana previa corroboraci6n de la identificaci6n de los mismos como fue 
el caso de Arrabidaea patellifera, cuyo polen se tomo del ejemplar depositado en el 
herbario de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biol6gicas (ENCB). 

El polen fue tratado con la t6cnica de acet61isis de Erdtman (1943), para 
observaci6n al microscopio de luz, y las preparaciones se encuentran depositadas en la 
palinoteca de la Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biol6gicas del Institute Polit&mco 

La secuencia que se sigue en las descnpciones palinol6gicas es la de Hyde, H.A. 
&K.F. Adams (1958). 

En las fotomicrograf fas se incluye una escala que representa 10 micras. 


Adenocalymma inundation Mart ex DC, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, 
S.H. Bullock 1202 (MEXU). Ldmina I. Figuras 1 a 3. 

Polen inaperturado, intectado, esferoidal de 48(55)65 x 48(59)56 ^i de diametro. 
Exina de 1.6 \i de grosor, con la nexina y sexina de igual espesor, superficialmente 
equinada. Espinas romas y puntiagudas de 2(3)4 \i de altura x 1(2)3 \i. de base. 

Arregui'n-Sdnchez et al:. Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 

■- / 



Ldmina I. Adenocahmma inundatum: 1.- E\ina a seco fuerte; 2- Vista superficial a 
seco fuerte; 3.- Detalle de la omamentacion, inmercion. Arrabidaea corailitm: 4- 
Vista ecuatorial mostrando colpos; 5.- Vista ecuatonal mastrando colpos y 
omameniaci6n; 6.- Vista po\dn, omamentacion. Arrabidaea patelUfera: 7.- Vista 
ecuatonal, cxina, y colpos; 8.- Vista ecuatonal, detalle de los colpos; 9.- Vista polar, 
omamentacion. Arrabidaea viscida: 10.- Vista ecuatonal, mostrando los colpos; 11.- 
Vista pt)lar, exina; 12.- Vista polar, omamentacion. 


PHYTOLOGIA Jan uar> 1996 volume 8()( l):8-22 











*%« ^^ ^" 




Ldmina II. Astianthus viminalis: 13.- Vistas polar y ecuatonal, mosirando los colpos, 
y exina; 14.- Vista polar, omamentacion. Clytostoma binalutn: 15- Grosor de la 
exina; 16.- Detalle de la omamentacion y e.xma; 17.- Detalle de la omamentacion. 
Crescentia akua 18.- Vista ecuatonal, exina y colpos; 19.- Vista ecuatonal, 
omamentacion: 20.- Vista polar, omamentaci6n. Cydista aequitwclialis: 21.- Grosor 
de la exina; 22 y 23.- Detalle de la omamentacion. 

Arrcguin-Sanchcz el ai: Bignoniaccac pollen morphology 


Lamina III. Cvdisia diversifolia. 24.- Grosor de la exina; 25.- DeiaJle de la 
t^mameniacion. Melloa quadrivalvLs: 26.- Vista ecualonal, col pos; 27.- Vista polar, 
exina; 28.- Vista polar, omamentacion. Pilhecocleniiun cruci^eriutr. 29- Exina a scco 
luerte; 30- Omamentacion a seco fuerte; 31.- Delaile de la exina \ omamentacion a 
inmercion. Tabebuia chrvsanlha: 32.- Vista ecuatonai mc^trando la exina y colpos; 
33- VislaecualonaJ mostrando omamentacion y colpos; 34.- Vista polar, exina; 35- 
Vista polar, omamentacion. 


PHYTOLOGIA Jan uarA 1996 volume 8()( l):S-22 





Lamina IV. Tabehuia donnell-smithii: 36.- Vista ecualonal, moslrando exina v 
colpos; 37.- Vista ecuatonal, omamentacion, y colpos; 38.- Vista polar, cxina; 39- 
Vista polar, omamentacion. Tabebuia impeligitwsa: 40.- Vista ecualonal, exina; 41. - 
Vista ecuatonal, colpos; 42.- Vista ecuatonal, omamentacion; 43.- Vista polar, cxina; 
44.- Vista polar, omamentacion. 

Arregui'n-Sdnchez et ai: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 






Lamina V. Tabebuia rosea: 45.- Vista ecualonal. colpos, y exina; 46.- Visia 
ecuatonal, detalle de la e.xina; 47.- Vista polar, omamentacion; 48.- Visia polar, exina. 
Xxlophra^ma seemannianum: 49.- Vista ecuatonal, exina, y colpos; 50.- Visia 
ecuatonal, omamentacion. y colpos; 51. Vista polar, exina. 

16 PHYTOLOGIA Januar> 1996 volume 80( l):8-22 

Arrabidaea coraUina (Jacq.) Sandw., 5 Km al W de Rizo de Oro, sobrela carretera 
190, Mpio. CintaJapa de Figueroa, Chiapas, D.E. Breedlove 24639 (MEXU). 
Ldmma I, Figuras 4 a 6. 

Polen tncolporado, semitectado, esferoidal de 34(38)42 x 32(35)38 \i. P/E= 

1.09. Vista polar circular de 33(39)41 \i de didmetro. Exma de 2.4 \i de grosor, con 
la sexina y la nexina de igual espesor, ligeramente reliculada. Colpos cubiertos con 
membranas lisas y con terminaciones agudas. Colpos transversales de 4(7)9 fi de 
largo X 1(3)5 n de ancho. Indice del drea polar 0. 16, pequena. 

Arrabidaea patellifera (SchlechL) Sandw., Al norte de Valle Nacional, Mpio. San Jose 
Chiltepec, Oaxaca, S.D. Koch & P.A. Fryxell 78194 (ENCB). Lamma I, Figuras 
7 a 9. 

Polen tncolporado, tectado, subprolato, de 39(41)45 x 28(32)36 y.. P/E= 1.28. 

Vista fXDlar circular de 39(42)47 n de di^etro. Exina de 2 ja de grosor, con la sexina 
mucho m^ gruesa que la nexina, superficie puntitegilada. Colpos cubiertos con 
membranas lisas. Colpos transversales de 9(12)16 n de largo x 2(3)4 \x de ancho. 
Indice del drea polar 0.25, media 

Arrabidaea viscida (Donn.-Sm.) A. Gentry, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, A. 
Soils 726 (MEXU). Ldmina 1, Figuras 10 a 12. 

Polen tncolpado, tectado, prolato de 29(37)40 x 24(27)32 n. P/E= 1.37. Vista 

polar circular de 28(33)39 \i de didmetro. Exina de 1.6 ji de grosor, con la sexina y la 
nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente escabrosa Margocolpados, colpos cubiertos 
con membranas lisas, margo de 1.6 \i de ancho. Indice del drea polar 0.25, pequeiia. 

Astianthus vimma/w (H.B.K.) Baill., Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, E. Lott 
1045 (MEXU). Ldmina II, Figuras 13 y 14. 

Polen tricolpado, tectado, psilado, subprolato de 25(30)35 x 22(24)27 ^. P/E= 

1.25. Vista polar circular de 25.0(28.0)30.4 n de didmetro. Exina de 1.6 ^i de 
grosor, sexina mucho mds gruesa que la nexina, superficialmente psilada. Colpos 
cubiertos con membranas lisas, bordeados por un margo de 1 jj, de ancho. Indice del 
area polar 0. 14, pequefia. 

Clyiosioma binatwn (Thunb.) Sandw., Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, £. Lx>it 
' y//4(MEXU). Ldmina II, Figuras 15 a 17. 

Arreguin-Sdncheze?/ai.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 17 

Polen inaperturado, semitectado, esferoidal de 45(46)49 x 41(43)44 |a. Exina de 
2.4 |x de grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, superficial mente perreticulada, con 
liimenes menores de 1 n de dilmetro. 

Crescentia akaaH.B.K., Estaci6n de Biologia Chameia, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 973 
(MEXU). Ldmina II. Figuras 18 a 20. 

Polen tncolpado, semitectado, esferoidal de 45(49)54 x 42(44)46 n- P/E= 1.11. 

Vista polar circular de 40(46)50 \i de dilmetro. Exina de 2.4 ^ de grosor, sexina 
ligeramente de mayor espesor que la nexina, superficialmente perreticulada con luenes 

de aproximadamente 1 n de diametro. Colpos cubiertos con membranas lisas. Indice 
del irea polar 0. 17, pequena. 

Cydista aequinoctialis (L.) Miers, Estaci6n de Biologia Chameia, Jalisco, E. Lott 456 
(MEXU). LdminaII,Figuras21 a23. 

Polen inaperturado, esferoidal, semitectado, de 40.0(43.5)48.0 x 40(46)50 \x. 
Exma de 3.3 \x de grosor, con la sexina y la nexina de iguaJ espesor, superficialmente 
perreticulada con liimenes de 2 a 3 n de diimetro. 

Cydista diversifolia (H.B.K.) Miers, Estaci6n de Biologia Chameia, Jalisco, A. Soli's 
7678 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 24 y 25. 

Polen inaperturado. semitectado, esferoidal de 35.5(39.6)42.3 x 32.9(37.6)42.3 
|.i. Exina de 2.5 \i de grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, superficialmente 
perreticulada con liimenes de 2 a 3 n de didmetro. 

Melloa quadrivalvis (Jacq.) A. Gentry, Estacion de Biologia Chameia, Jalisco L.A. 
Perez 1768 (MEXU). Umina III' Figuras 26 a 28. 

Polen tncolpado, tectado, esferoidal, de 38.0(40.1)43.0 x 33.0(38.6)41.5 n. 
P/E= 1.03. Vista polar circular de 38(41)43 [i de diametro. Exina de 1.5 n de 
espesor, sexina y nexina de igual grosor, escabrosa. Indice del area polar 0.16, 

Pithecoctenium crucigerum (L.) A. Gentrv, Estaci6n de Biologi'a Chameia, Jalisco, A. 
Soli's 3704 (MEXU). Ldmina III, Figuras 29 a 31. 

18 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(l):8-22 

Polen inaperturado, semitectado, esferoidal de 62.6(69.7)77.0 x 57.5(65.5)71.0 
\im. Exina de 6.7 \i de grosor, sexina mucho mis gniesa que la nexina, perreticulada, 
con liimenes de 3 a 5 (i. de didmetro. 

Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.) Nichols., Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. 
Bullock 1274 (MEXU). Lamina III, Figuras 32 a 35. 

Polen tncolporado, lectado, esferoidal de 33.0(35.6)38.0 x 29.6(30.8)33.8 n. 

P/E= 1.15. Vista polar circular de 28.5(31.7)34.6 \i de didmeu-o. Exina de 1.5 n de 
espesor, sexina y nexina de igual grosor, levemente reticulada, con liimenes menores 
de 1 n de dilmetro. Colpos cubiertos con membranas lisas. Colpos transversales de 
4<5)6 n de largo x 1.5(2.0)2.5 n de ancho. Indice del ^ea polar 0.38, media. 

Tabebuia dormell-smithii Rose, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 
7J09(MEXU). LdminalV, Figuras36a39. 

Polen tricolpado a veces tricolporoidado, tectado, subprolato de 26.0(31.8)32.4 x 
23.6(27.0)29.6 ^. P/E=1.17. Vista polar circular de 27.0(29.5)31.3 ^i de didmeu-o. 
Exina de 2.5 \i de grosor, sexina dos veces mds gruesa que la nexina, reticulada con 

liimenes de aproximadamente 1 \i. Colpos de las membranas lisas. En algunos 
granos se aprecia un poro difuso. Indice del drea polar 0.25, pequena. 

Tabebuia impetiginosa (Mart.) Standi., Estacion de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. 
Bullock 1277 (MEXU). Lamina IV, Figuras 40 a 44. 

Polen tncolpado, tectado, prolato de 44.8(47.3)50.0 x 32.0(34.3)36.3 [i. P/E= 

1.37. Vista polar circular de 37.0(40.5)42.3 ^ de didmetro. Exina de 2.5 |x de 

grosor, sexina y nexina de igual espesor, reticulada con lumenes de 1.5 a 2 ^, de 
didmetro. Colpos con las membranas lisas. Indice del Irea polar 0.30, media. 

Tabebuia rosea (Bertol.) DC, Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, S.H. Bullock 
83 (MEXU). Ldmina V. Figuras 45 a 48. 

Polen tricolpado a tncolporoidado, tectado, prolato de 55.0(57.2)59.2 x 
36.3(39.6)43.0 ^. P/E= 1.44. Vista polar circular de 49.0(53.0)55.8 ^i de didmetro. 
Exina de 2.5 \x de grosor, sexina dos veces mas gruesa que la nexina, reticulada, con 

liimenes de aproximadamente 1 \i de didmeU'o. Colpos cubiertos con membranas 
lisas, en algunos granos se aprecia un poro difuso y en otros granos se observa un 
poro de 1(2)3 jx de diametro. Indice del drea polar 0. 16, pequefia. 

AtTCguin-Sdnche/f / rt/.: Bignomaceac pxjilen morphology 19 

X\lophra^ma seernannianum (Klze.) Sandw., Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco, 
J.A. Soli's 679 (MEXU). Limina V. Figuras 49 a 51. 

Polen tncolpado a tncolporoidado, lectado, esferoidal de 50.0(51.3)52.4 x 

45.6(47.6)50.0 [i. P/E= 1.07. Vista polar circular de 50.0(52.6)54.0 yi de diametro. 

E.vina de 2.5 \i de grosor, nexina y sexina de igual espesor, reticulada con liimenes de 

1.0 a 1.5 |i de didmetro. Colpos con membranas lisas, en algunos granos se observa 
un pequeno poro difuso. Indice del area polar 0.35, media. 



1.- Polen inaperturado. 

2.- Polen equinado Adenocalymma inundalum Lamina I, Figuras 1 a 3 

2.- Polen pjerreiiculado. 

3.- Granos de polen mayores de 70 \k de diametro 

Pilhecoctenium crucigeriun Lamina III, Figuras 29 a 3 1 

3.- Granos de polen menores de 70 \i de diametro. 

4.- Liimenes menores de 1 n de diametro 

Clytosioma binatum I^amina H, Figuras 15 a 17 

4.- Liimenes mayores de 1 n de diametro. 

5.- E.xina mayor de 3 ^l de grosor 

Cydista aequinoctialis Lamina H, Figuras 2 1 a 23 

5.- E.xina menor de 3 |x de grosor 

Cydista diversifolia Lamina III, Figuras 24 y 25 

1.- Polen tncolporado, tncolpado, o tncolporoidado. 
6.- Polen tncolporado. 

7.- Granos de polen esferoidales, superficie de la exina le\ emente reuculada. . . 

Arrabidaea coralline Lamina I, Figuras 4 a 6 

Tabebuia chnsantha Lamina II, Figuras 32 a 35 

7.- Granos de polen subprolato, superficie de la exina punutegilada 

Arrabidaea patellifera Lamina I, Figuras 7 a 9 

6.- Polen tncolpado o tncolporoidado. 
8.- Granos de polen esferoidales. 

9.- Granos de polen escabrosos 

\telloa qiiodrivalvis Lamina III . Figuras 26 a 28 

9.- Granos de polen reticulados o perreticulados. 

10.- Indice del area polar pequeiia 

Crescenlia alaia Lamina 11. Figuras 18 a 20 

10.- Indice del area polar media. 

X\lophra^ma seerruinnianiun Lamina V, Figuras 49 a 5 1 

8.- Granos de polen prolatos a subprolatos. 

1 1.- Polen margocolpado. ..Arrabidaea viscida Lamina I, Figuras 10 a 12 

20 PHYTOLOGIA Januar> 1996 \(Mumc S()(l):8-22 

1 1.- Polen nunca margocolpado. 

12.- Polen psilado. . . Astianlhus viminalis Lamina II, Figuras 13 y 14 
12.- Polen reliculado. 

13.- Polen menor de 45 \i. de diamctro 

Tahebuia donnell-smiUiii Lamina 1 V , Figuras 36 a 39 

13.- Polen mayor de 45 \i de diameiro. 

14.- Lumenes de 1.5 a 2.0 |x de didmetro 

Tabebuia impeliginosa Ldmina I V, Figuras 40 a 44 

14.- Lumenes de mis o menos 1 \x de diametro 

Tabebuia rosea Lamina V, Figuras 45 a 48 


La familia Bignoniaceae es euripalinol6gica, y al comparar la morfologi'a del polen 
con las subdivisiones taxonomicas realizadas por Schumann (1895), y Gentry & 
Tomb (1979), encontramos que estos autores separan a la familia en las siguientes 

BIGNONIEAE: Arrabidaea, Melloa, Xylophragma, Clysiosioma, Cydista, 
Adenocalymma, Pithecoctenium 

TECOMEAE: Tabebuia 


El genero Astianlhus no fue considerado en los sistemas de clasificacion 

Al comparar las divisiones taxonomicas de la familia con la morfologi'a del polen 
en este trabajo encontramos lo siguiente: 

Arrabidaea corallina y A. viscida presentan polen tricolporado y perlenece a la 
tnbu Bignomeae. 

Melloa quadrivalvLS. Xylophragma seemannianum, Tabebuia chrysanlha, T. 
donnell-smithii, T. impetiginosa, T rosea, y Crescentia alata con pc:)len tncolpado, 
tncolporoidado a tncolporado, el pnmer genero con omameniacion escabrosa y los 
otros tres con omamentacion reticulada a perreticulada. Melloa y Xvlophragma 
pertenecen a la tnbu Bignomeae, Tabebuia a la Tecomeae y Crescentia a la tnbu 

Tabebuia se cita en la bibliograli'a con polen tncolpado a tetracc^lpado, sin 
embargo, en las especies estudiadas para la Estaci6n de Biologia Chamela, Jalisco 
encontramos que las aberturas vanan desde la tncolpada, tncolporoidada a tncolporada 
y tomando en consideracion las aberturas, el tamano del polen, y el lamano de los 
lumenes es factible la separaci6n de las especies. 

Airegufn-S^chez^/a/.: Bignoniaceae pollen morphology 21 

Clytostoma binatum. Cydista aequinoctialis, Pithecoctenium crucigerum, y 
Adenocalymma inundatum fsertenecen a la inbu Bignomeae, los tres pnmeros generos 
presentan polen inaperturado con liimenes de diferentes di^etros y el ultimo genero 
con polen equinado. 

Astianthus viminalis presenta polen tricolpado, psilado, diferente al polen de las 
otras Bignomaceae descntas para la Estaci6n de Biologi'a Chamela, Jalisco. 

Por todo lo antenor, se puede apreciar que no existe una relaci6n enu-e las 
divisiones taxon6micas y la morfologia del polen y posiblemente este taxa pueda 
pertenecer a otra subdivisi6n taxon6mica no considerada por autores como Schumann 
( 1895) y Gentry & Tomb ( 1979). 

En el caso de los taxa estudiados para la estaci6n de Biologi'a Chamela, Jalisco, es 
factible separar casi todos los taxa por medios palinol6gicos tomando en consideracion 
el tipo de aberturas que se presentan, la omamentaci6n, tamaiio, forma del polen y el 
indice del Irea polar. 

Cydista diversifolia fue descnto al microscopio electr6nico de bamdo por Gentry 
& Tomb (1979) como pencolpado, sin embargo, el polen de los ejemplares de 
Chamela, Jalisco se observan inaperturados al microscopio de luz. Asi' tambien, estos 
mismos autores indican que Cydista aequinoctialis presenta la mayon'a de los granos 
de polen como inaperturados con reticulo medio, aunque tambidn presentan granos 
pencolpados. El ejemplar de Chamela Jalisco, presenta polen inaperturado. 


1.- Bove, PC. 1993. Pollen morphology of the Bignoniaceae from a south Brazilian 

Atlantic forest. Grana 32:330-337. 
2.- Buurman, J. 1977. Contnbuiion to the pollen morphology of the Bignoniaceae 

with special reference to the tncolpate type. Pollen & Spores 19:447-519. 
3.- Erdtman, G. 1943. An Introduction to Pollen Analysis. Ronald Press, New 

York, New York. 239 pp. 
4.- Erdtman, G. 1966. Pollen Morphology and Plant Taxonomy Angiosperms. 

Hafner Publishing Co., New York, New York. 553 pp. 
5.- Femandes-Silveslre, M.T. & T.S. Melhem. 1989. Flora poli'nica da reserva do 

parque estadual das fontes do Ipirangua (Sao Paulo, Brasil). Hoehnea 16:211- 

6.- Gentry, A.H. & A.S. Tomb. 1979. Taxonomic implications of Bignoniaceae 

palynology. Ann. Missoun Bot. Gard. 66:756-777. 
7.- Heusser, C.J. 1971. Pollen and Spores of Chile. The Uruversity of Anzona 

Press, Tucson, Anzona. 167 pp. 
8.- Huang, T.C. 1972. Pollen Flora of Taiwan. Nauonal Taiwan University Botany 

Department Press, Taipei, Taiwan. 276 pp. 
9- Hyde, H.A. & K.F. Adams. 1958. An Atlas of Airborne Pollen Grains. 

Macmillan London and St. Martin's Press, New York, New York. 1 12 pp. 

22 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(l):8-22 

10.- Lawrence, G.H.M. 1951. Taxonomy of Vascular Plants. New York, New 

York. 823 pp. 
11.- Lott, E. 1985. Listados floristicos de Mdxico 111. La Estacion de Biologia 

Chamela, Jalisco. Instituto de Biologi'a. Umversidad Nacional Autonoma de 

Mexico. Mexico, D.F. 47 pp. 
12.- Markgraf & D. Antoni. 1978. Pollen Flora of Argentina. The University of 

An zona Press, Tucson, An zona. 208 pp. 
13.- Mitra, K. 1968. Pollen morphology in Bignoniaceae in relation to taxonomy. 

Bull. Bot. Surv. India 10:319-326. 
14.- Palacios-Chdvez, R. 1966. Morfologi'a de los granos de polen de drboles del 

estadode Morelos. An Esc. Nac. Cienc. Bi61. M^x. 16:41-169. 
15.- Palacios-Chdvez, R., D.L. Quiroz-Garci'a, D. Ramos-Zamora, & M.L. Aneguin- 

Sdnchez. 1986. Rora polinica del bosque tropical caducifolio de Chamela, 

Jalisco, Mexico. Presentaci6n. Phytologia 61(3): 147-149. 
16.- Palacios-Chdvez, R., B. Ludlow-Wiechers, & R. Villanueva 1991. Rora 

p£ilinol6gica de la reserva de la biosfera de Sian Ka'an, Quintana Roo, Mexico. 

Centro de Investigaciones de Quintana Roo. 321 pp. 
17.- Roubick, D.W. & J.E. Moreno. 1991. Pollen and Spores of Bono Colorado 

Island. Missouri Botanical Garden, St. Louis Missoun. 270 pp. 
18.- Suryakanta. 1973. Pollen morphological studies in the Bignoniaceae. Journal of 

19.- Schumann, K. 1895. Bignoniaceae. In: Engler & Prantl. Die NalUrlichen 

Pfianienfamilien IV (3b): 189-252. 

Phyiologia (January 1996) 80(1)23-29 




Walter C. Holmes & Daniel E. Wivagg 
Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798 -7388 U.S.A. 


Cenlaurium muhlenbergii is reported as new to Louisiana, Mississippi, and 
Texas. The species is compared with and distinguished from the apparently 
closely related C. pulchellum. A key to the two species, a list of specimens 
examined, and a distnbution map are also included. Three other Cenlaurium 
sfsecies mentioned as occumng in Louisiana are also discussed. 

KEY WORDS: Gentianaceae, Cenlaurium, Louisiana, Mississippi, Texas 

Cenlaurium is a taxonomically difficult genus of about 60 species of Old and New 
World distnbution. Two species that occur in the United States, Cenlaurium 
muhlenbergii (Gnseb.) Piper, a native, and C. pulchellum (Sw.) Druce, an e.xouc 
from Europe, bear close resemblance to each other. Both are annuals, lack rosettes or 
may have weakly developed ones, and possess small flowers with corolla lobes 2-5 
mm long. The similarity of the two sfjecies, coupled with their previous mutually 
exclusive distnbutions in the United States (which hinders direct field companson), 
have resulted in taxonomic uncertainty concerning the correct status of the plants. 
Prior to this study, C. muhlenbergii was known from central Washington south to 
central California, western Nevada, and Idaho (Cronquist et al. 1983). Cenlaurium 
pulchellum is widely distributed in eastern United States (Femald 1950; Small 1933). 
Both Cronquist el al. (1983) and Hickman (1993) consider C. floribundum (Benth.) 
Robinson to be synonymous with C. muhlenbergii and further suggest that the latter 
name may well be reduced to synonymy under C. pulchellum. The present paper is 
intended to clanfy the status of C. muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum, and document 
their distnbution in the states treated. Additionally, reports of C. calycosum (Buckl.) 
Fern., C. erythraea Raf.. and C. lexense (Gnseb.) Fern, in Louisiana will be 



PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( I); 23-29 

Figure 1. Documented distnbution of Centaurium mufdenbergii (closed circles) and 
C. pulchellum (open circles) m Texas, Louisiana, and Mississippi. 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 


Table 1. A summary of the major differences between Centaurium putchellum and C. 

C. pulchellum 

C. muhlenbergii 

Height (cm) 


( 19)27-45(55) 


midstem or below 

upper 1/3-1/4 of stem 


open, spreading compound 

dense, flat topped 
umbellate cvme 




Epical yx 

separated from calyx 

at very base of calyx 

Peak flowenng time 

15 Apnl-24 May 

8-24 June 

See text for further explanation. 

The study is based upon field observations and collections of both species and 
examination of herbarium specimens or photostatic copies of specimens from ASTC, 

While Centaurium muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum have overall similanty, 
especially flower and leaf characteristics, there are substantial differences (Table 1) 
that evidence the distinctness of each. One item in the table requires further 
explanation. Whether a flower is sessile or pedicelled is determined by the location of 
the epicalyx, the two bracts subtending the calyx. In pedicelled flowers, the epicalyx 
is slightly separated from the calyx, while in sessile flowers the calyx is immediately 
subtended by the epicalyx. This trait is more apparent on the lateral flowers of the 
ultimate cymes. 

Although the plants may be distinguished by use of the table, the following key, 
adapted in part from Hickman (1993), provides for accurate and easy distinction 
between the two plants. 

1. Flowers essentially sessile; inflorescence umbellate-cymose, dense, flat topped; 

plant normally branching in the upper one-third to one-fourth C. muhlenbergii 

1. Flowers pedicelled; inflorescence an open compound dichasium, not flat topped; 

plant normally branching in the lower one-half C. pulchellum 

This IS the first report of Centaurium muhlenbergii (which includes the 
synonymous C. floribundum) in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas. The size oi the 

26 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1 ):23-29 

plant (up to 55 cm), dense clusters of bright pink flowers, colonial nature, and mainly 
roadside occurrence make the species very easy to locate, thus suggesung it to be a 
rather recent arrival. This is supported by the earliest known Texas sf)ecimen 
[Amerson 510 (BRIT)] being collected in 1971 and the earliest located Louisiana 
specimen [Thieret 26682 (LAF)] being collected in 1968, but both being misidenufied 
as either C. pulchellum or C. lexense. The only Mississippi record was collected in 
1989. Figure I shows the documented distnbution of the species in the three states. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana Avoyelles Parish: Pinewoods along Big Creek 
at North Point, ca. 5 miles N of Effie on Hwy 1 15, 2 Jun 1979, Allen 8747 & Vincent 
2011 (NLU); Bienville Parish: Median of 1-20 at rest area W of Hwy 154 and E of 
Ada exit W of Arcadia, Sec. 8, T18N, R7W, 11 Jun 1987, Thomas 100093, Dorris, 
& Day (NLU); Bossier Pansh; East bank of the Red River, 1.2 miles SE of the 
Barksdale Highway bndge on Hwy 71, Sec. 10, T17N, R13W, 14 Jun 1976, Leggett 
& Leggett 1771 (NLU); Caddo Parish: Texas & Pacific Railroad in S Shreveport at 
intersection of Hollywood & Jewella, Sec. 22, T17N, R14W, 29 May 1982, Lewis 
3515 (NLU); K.C.S. Railroad and Hwy 173 at overpass S of Blanchard, NW pan of 
Sec. 29, T18N, R14W, 10 Jun 1975, Thomas 45375 c6 Thomas (BAYLU [photo], 
LSU,NLU); Northern edge of Kansas City Southern Railroad Yard W of Hwy 173 at 
North Lakeshore Dnve S of Blanchard, Sec. 19, T18N, R14W, 28 Jun 1979, 
Thomas 66460 (BAYLU [photo],LSU,NLU); Praine area along Wallace Lake Road S 
of Overton Road S of Shreveport and N of Wallace Lake, Sec. 30, T16N, R13W, 15 
Jun 1990, Thomas 119136 & Raymond (NLU); 1-220 E of Hwy 71 and Hwy 1 N 
exit in Shreveport, Sec. 15, T18N, R14W, 8 Jul 1994, Thomas 140263 (BAYLU); 
Rapides Pansh: Roadbank of Hwy 165 and Hwy 3026, just S of Kingsville, Sec. 36, 
T5N, RIW, 18 Jun 1978, Pias & Breard 3577 (NLU); "Ruins'' of Camp Beauregard, 
3 miles SE of Simms, ca. 9 miles NE of Pineville, Sec. 33, 12 Jun 1967, Thieret 
26682 (LAF); Red River Parish: High bluffs of Red River, across from Coushatta, 

1.8 miles S of U.S. Hwy 84, 17 Jun 1983, Gilmore 1833 (LTU). Mississippi. 
Smith Co.: Tallahala Wildlife MgmL Area ca. 1 mi. N of Clear Springs, NWl/4 of 
NEl/4 Sec. 26, T4N, R9E, 22 Jun 1989, Carraway 895 (IBE). Texas. Ellis Co.: 

5.9 miles N of Avalon on Farm Market Road 55 near Little Onion Creek, 22 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7268 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Falls Co.: 0.5 mile W of Big Creek on Tx. 
Hwy 7, ca. 6.5 miles E of Marlin, 17 Jun 1994, Holmes 7237 & Wivagg (BAYLU); 
Freestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 164, 3.3 miles E of the Limestone Co. line, 9 Jun 1994, 
Holmes 7165 & Wivagg (BAYLU); N side Tx. Hwy 164 at Fulton Hill, 4.2 miles E 
of Dome, 16 May 1995, Holmes 7683 (BAYLU); Hardin Co.: Between Batson and 
Saratoga near West Hardin Schoolhouse, 7 Jun 1971, Amerson 510 (BRIT); Hill Co.: 
0.3 mile W of Mt. Calm on Tx. Hwy 31, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7259 & Wivagg 
(BAYLU); Johnson Co.: Farm Road 916, 1.5 miles W of the Ellis Co. line, ca. 4.2 
miles east of Grandview, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7274 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Leon Co.: 
Roadside, Tx. Hwy 7, just E of the Robertson Co. line, ca. 2 miles W of Marquez, 17 
Jun 1994, Holmes 7243 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 164, 4.5 
miles W of Personville, ca. 100 m east of Turkey Creek, 3 Jun 1994, Holmes 7138 
(BAYLU); Jet. Limestone Co. Roads 905 & 894, just east of Lake Limestone, 17 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7257 & Wivagg (BAYLU); McLennan Co.: F.M. 3400, ca. 1/2 miles 
SE of Loop 340, ca. 3 miles SE of Waco, 20 Jun 1991, Holmes 5278 (BAYLU); 
Milam Co.: Tx. Hwy 36, just S of the Little River bndge, S of Cameron, 26 Jun 
1994, Holmes 7295 & Wivagg (BAYLU); Navarro Co.: ca. 3 miles NE of Hubbard 
on Tx. Hwy 31, just E of the Hill Co. line, 22 Jun 1994, Holmes 7263 & Wivagg 
(BAYLU); Robertson Co.: Tx. Hwy 7, ca. 9.5 miles E of Kosse on Tx. Hwy 7, ca. 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Lx)uisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 27 

80 m east of the Limestone Co. Ime, 17 Jun 1994, Holmes 7241 & Wivagg 

Centaurium pulchellum has long been known to occur in Louisiana and 
Mississippi (Small 1933). Unfortunately, we have not had access to any specimens 
from Mississippi, thus further comment is not possible. The species was first 
reported in Texas by Correll & Johnston ( 1972). Turner (1993), in a treatment of the 
genus for Texas, provided documentation of the species in Hardin and Brazona 
counties. Figure 1 depicts the distnbution of the species in Louisiana and Texas. The 
plant is often misidentified as C. texense. 

Specimens examined: Louisiana. Allen Parish: Paved road W of U.S. 165 at a 
pumping station three miles N of Kinder, Sec. 13, T6S, R5W, 3 Apr 1982, Thomas 
80607 & Allen (NLU); Sun Ql Co. Road, W of U.S. 165, 1.2 miles N of Kinder, 
Sec. 24, T6S, R5W, 25 May 1983, Thomas 83728 (NLU); Allen Pansh Road 122, 
ca. 1/2 mile W of U.S. 165, ca. 2 miles N of Kinder, 20 Apr 1981, Allen 10663 
(NLU); Praine strip S of Railroad and U.S. 90, ca. 1 mile E of Midland, 6 May 1989, 
Allen 16423 (NLU); U.S. 190 just W of the Calcasieu River W of Kinder, Sec. 30, 
T6S, R5W, 25 May 1983, Thomas 83735 (NLU); Beauregard Pansh: Roadside 
along U.S. Hwy 171, Beauregard-Calcasieu Parish line, 3 May 1975, Adams 1841 
(LTU); Calcasieu Parish: Cleared area W of DeQuincy Middle School beside La. 12 
in W part of DeQuincy, 5 Jun 1992, Thomas 129558 (NLU); Railroad tracks and La. 
12 at the Railroad Museum in DeQuincy, Sec. 18, T7S, RlOW, 5 Jun 1992, Thomas 
129551 (NLU); La. 27 S at I-lOE exit on south side of Sulphur, Sec. 3, TIOS, 
RlOW, 22 Jun 1982, Thomas 81554 & Kessler (NLU); Roadside along U.S. Hwy 
171, Calcasieu-Beauregard Parish line, 3 May 1975, Adams 1840 (LTU); Ca. 2.5 
miles S of Gillis, 4 May 1968, Thieret 28829 (LAP); Cameron Pansh: Roadbank at 
bndge on Sweet Lake camp road about 0.2 mile S of Cameron Parish, Road 445, 
Sees. 24 & 25, T12S, R8W, 12 Mav 1984, Thomas 88555 & Button 1788 (NLU); 
Jet. of La. 717 and Hwy 14 SE of Lake Arthur, Sees. 2 & 11, T12S, R3W, 19 Apr 
1984, Thomas 88020 et al. (NLU); Jet. of Cameron Pansh Road 445 and Precht 
Road, 1.0 mile W of La. 384 & NW of Sweet Lake, Sec. 24, T12S, R8W. 12 May 
1984, Thomas 88558 <& Button 1791 (NLU); Roadbank along a 0.3 miles section of 
Cameron Pansh Road 421, just E of La. 384 and S of the Calcasieu Pansh line, NW 
of Grand Lake, Sec. 4, T12S, R9W, 13 Apr 1984, Button 1223 & Taylor 6700 
(NLU); La. 14 at Vennilion Pansh line E of Lake Arthur, Sec. 2, T12S, R3W, 19 Apr 
1984, Thomas 87958 (NLU); Evangeline Pansh: La. 104, 0.3 mile E of Bayou 
Nezpique Bndge at Allen Parish, 23 May 1978, Cormier 726 (NLU); Jefferson Davis 
Pansh: La. 97 just S of 1-10, ca. 1 mile NE of Jennings, 5 Jun 1980, Vincent 3646 
(LSU); Lasalle Pansh: Median of U.S. 165 at U.S. 84 in Tullos, Sec. 25, TION, 
RIE, 17 May 1980, Thomas 71298 & Thomas (NLU); Tullos, just NW of La. Hwv 
125 and about 1.2 miles SW of U.S. Hwy 84, 22 Apr 1988, Bo\d 3000 (LTU); St. 
Tammany Pansh: l.H. 12 & La. 434 W of Hammond, 3 May 1989, Urbatsch 5451 
& Cox (LSU); Tangipahoa Pansh: La 22 at crossroads just W of Bedico Creek W of 
Bedico and E of Ponchatoula, Sec. 45, T7S, R9E, 17 May 1983, Thomas 83480 et al. 
(NLU); Vermilion Pansh: Orange Road off La. 82 S along Vermilion Rjver, 7 miles 
S of Abbeville, Sees. 6 & 7. T12S, R3E, 30 Mav 1987 Slaughter 509 (NLU); La. 14 
at Cameron Pansh line E of Lake Arthur, Sec. 35, TllS, R3W, 19 Apr 1984, 
Thomas 87972 et al. (NLU). Texas. Brazona Co.: Tx. Hwv 2004 at New Bavou S 
of Alvin, 5 Apr 1986, Brown 9888 (NLU); Galveston Co.:' Roadside, Texas' Hwy 
along beach five miles W of Galveston, 31 Mar 1972, Lowery 675 (LTU); Hardin 

28 PHYTOLOGIA Januarv 1996 volume 80( 1): 23-29 

Co.: Hwy 96, Lumberton, 6 May 1995, Singhurst 3067 (BAYLU); 2.2 miles E of 
Saratoga along and S of Hwy 770. 30 Jun 1984, McLeod s.n. (ASTC); Harris Co.: 
Intersection of Pasadena Blvd. & Undenvood Street, Deer Park, 18 May 1985, 
Brown 8770 (ASTC); Eisenhower Park S of the Dam at Lake Houston, 12 May 1984, 
Brown 7296 (NLU); Jasper Co.: 3. 1 miles S of Farm Market road 105 from its Jet. 
with Farm Market 1 131, 22 May 1988, Jones & Jones 1664 (TAES); 3.4 miles E of 
Buna along Farm Market Road 263, 14 May 1985, ig. leg. (ASTC); LiberT>' Co.: 
U.S. Hwy 90 between Dayton & bridge over Cedar Bayou, 23 May 1987, Brown 
11140 (NLU); Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 174, ca. 13 miles E of Groesbeck, near road 
to Lake Limestone, 16 May 1995, Holmes 7684 (BAYLU); Orange Co.: 1-10 nght- 
of-way at Adams Bayou east of Orange, 14 May 1974, Thomas 38978 el al. (NLU); 
Rusk Co.: Ca. 3.5 miles N of the junct. of Tx. Hwy 322 & Tx. Hwv 259 on Hwy 
259, 20 Apnl 1988, Nixon 16617 (ASTCBAYLU [photo]); Tyler Co.: U.S. Hwy 
190 at Steinhagen Lake, just W of the Jasper Co. line, 14 Apr 1995, Le Noir s.n. 

Further comment on Ceniaurium in Texas is not needed since Turner (1993) 
provided an accurate account of the species in the state and, as mentioned, is not 
possible for Mississippi because of the lack of specimens. Several other species of 
Centaurium, however, have been reported in Louisiana. With clarification of the 
status of C. pulchellum and C. muhlenbergii, it is now possible lo comment on these 

Centaurium calycosum (Buckl.) Fern, was reported by MacRoberts (1987) as 
occurring in DeSoto Pcirish, based upon Gilmore 1833 (LTU). Turner (1993) gives 
the distribution of C. calycosum as being primarily in the western portions of the 
Edwards Plateau of Texas, and several adjacent areas, such as Mexico. It is reported 
by Cronquist et al. (1983) as occumng in New Mexico, Arizona, Utah, etc. Upon 
examination, Gilmore 1833 proved to be C. muhlenbergii collected near Coushatta in 
Red River Parish. 

MacRoberts (1987) also reported Centaurium erythraea Raf. from Caddo Parish, 
citing MacRoberts 550, 923, 1201, & 2688 (all LSUS). This species is an European 
native that has become naturalized from northern coastal California to Washington 
(Hickman 1993). The plant is similar to C. muhlenbergii in appearance but is a 
biennial with a conspicuous basal rosette and has corolla lobes 5-7 mm long. 
Examination of clear photocopies of these specimens showed they lacked basal 
rosettes and appeared to be annuals. They are thus referable to C. muhlenbergii. 

Centaurium texense (Griseb.) Fern, was reported from Rapides and Calcasieu 
parishes by Thieret (1968). The distnbution of this species includes the eastern edge 
of the Balcones Escarpment of Texas, eastern Oklahoma, northwestern Arkansas, and 
southwestern Missouri. The plant is limited to dry, limestone denved soils and eroded 
limestone slopes, glades, and roadcuts, all non-existent in Louisiana. The specimens 
cited by Thieret (1968). Thieret 26682 and 28829 (both LAF) proved to be C. 
muhlenbergii and C. pulchellum respectively. 

Holmes & Wivagg: Centaurium in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Texas 29 


We wish to thank the curators of the herbana for the use of the specimens that 
made this study possible. Special appreciation is extended to R. Dale Thomas of NLU 
for his comments concenung the two species discussed and to Charles M. Allen, also 
of NLU, for providing photocopies of certain specimens and for review of the 
manuscnpt. Garry Landry (LAP), Sidney McDaniel (IBE), Jason Singhurst (ASTC), 
and Debra Waters (LSU) providal photocopies of various specimens essential for this 


Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. 

Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 
Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1972. Manual of the vascular plants of Texas: I. 

additions and corrections. Amer. Midi. Naturalist 88:490-496. 
Cronquist, A., A.H. Holmgren, N.H. Holmgren, J.L. Reveal, & P.K. Holmgren. 

1983. Intermountain Flora. Vascular Plants of the Intermountain West, U.S.A. 

•4. New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. 
Femald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany, Sth ed. American Book Company, 

New York, New York. 
Hickman, J.C. (ed.). 1993. The Jepson Manual, Higher Plants of California. 

University of California F*ress, Berkeley, California 
MacRoberts, D.T. 1987. A documented checklist and atlas of the vascular flora of 

Louisiana: F*t. 3: Dicotyledoneae, Fagaceae to Zygophyllaceae. Louisiana State 

University, Shreveport, Louisiana. 
Small, J.K. 1933. Manual of the Southeastern Flora. University of North Carolina 

Press, Chapel Hill, North Carolina. 
Thieret, J.W. 1968. Additions to the vascular flora of Louisiana. Proc. Louisiana 

Acad. Sci. 31:91-97. 
Turner, B.L. 1993. The Texas species of Centaurium (Gentianaceae). Phytologia 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1)30-34. 


Mike Borowski and Walter C. Holmes 

Department of Biology, Baylor University, Waco, Texas 76798-7388 U.S.A. 


Jason Singhurst 

Texas Parks and Wildlife Department, Route 1 , Box 87, Mexia, Texas 76667 



Phyllostachys aurea is shown to be widely distnbuted in the eastern part of 

KEY WORDS: Gramineae, Phyllostachys, Texas 

Phyllostachys aurea Riv., commonly called yellow bamboo, is a native of Chma 
that was mtroduced into the southern United States prior to 1870 (Rehder 1986) as an 
ornamental, barrier planting, or for soil stabilization and erosion control. The plant is 
a vigorous colonizer and readily escapes containment or is commonly abandoned. The 
size of some colonies, sometimes over 100 m in length, indicates that the species, once 
established, can persist for extended penods of time. The species may grow to 6 m 
tall and forms dense stands, often to the exclusion of other vegetation. The genus 
Phyllostachys is characterized by the culms being flattened on one side above each 
node, a trait useful in distinguishing it from the native Arundinaria gigantea (Walt.) 
Muhl. Additional traits of Phyllostachys aurea are its yellow stems, leaf sheathes 
generally without spots but with two tufts of bnstles at the apices, and presence of 2-3 
linear leaves 5-12 cm long and 1-2 cm wide at the tip of each branch. Additional 
information can be found in Allen ( 1992). 

The plant is included as part of the naturalized flora of Louisiana by Allen ( 1992) 
and by Thomas & Allen (1993). It is also present in Mississippi (pers. comm. with 
Sidney McDaniel of IBE). Gould (1975) did not include Phyllostachys in his 
treatment of the grasses of Texas nor was it included in the latest checklist of the 


Borowskj . el al. : Phyllostachys aurea in Texas 


Figure 1 . DistnbuUon of Phyllostachys aurea in Texas. 

32 PHYTOLOGIA Januar> 1996 volume 80( l):30-34 

vascular plants of the state (Hatch ei al. 1990). Its widespread occurrence in Texas 
(Figure 1), spread to areas where it seems not to have been intentionally planted, and 
persistence, warrants its inclusion as part of the namralized flora of Texas. 

Jenzan (1976) gives the intermast period of Phyllostachys aurea as 28-29 (2x 14- 
15) years, a figure based on observations of plants introduced to [mainland] Europe 
and England. He mentions that the time penod is more fixed in the center of the 
natural distnbution of a species and synchrony may be lost under cultivation or if the 
plants are feral, thus the Texas plants may not follow this schedule. He suggests the 
long interval between flowenng evolved to escape seed predation. At this time, no 
fertile matenals are known from Texas. 

Representative specimens: Anderson Co.: Ca. 0.9 mi Eof jct. of U.S. Hwy 84 
and Loop 256 on Hwy 84, Palestine, 20 Feb 1996, Singhurst 4776 (BAYLU). 
Bastrop Co.: N. side Tx. Hwy 21, ca. 3.6 mi NE of jct. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 535, 
3 Dec 1995. Singhurst 3621 (BAYLU). Bell Co.: Royal St., ca. 200 m E of 
Stagecoach Road, Salado, 9 Jul 1995, Holmes 7805 (BAYLU). Bosque Co.: Walnut 
Springs, Tx. Hwy 144, ca. 150 m N of FR 927, 27 Oct 1995, Holmes 7939 
(BAYLU). Bowie Co.: Jct. of Hwy 67 and Sulfur River, ca. 0.8 mi. N on Hwv 67, 
6 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4809 (BAYLU). Burnet Co.: FM 2147, 1/2 mi. W of U.S. 
Hwy 281, 28 Jan 1996, Wivagg s.n. (BAYLU). Callahan Co.: 1-20, 1.7 mi. Ejct. 
with FM 604, Clyde, 10 Feb 1996, Singhurst 4775 (BAYLU). Cass Co.: Ca. 1.15 
mi. S of jct. of FM 1 154 & FM 96 on FM 96, 6 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4810 
(BAYLU). Cherokee Co.: Ca. 2.3 mi. Eof Alto at jct. of U.S. Hwy 69 and Tx. 
Hwy 21 on Hwy 21, 29 Jan 1996, Singhurst 4764 (BAYLU). Collin Co.: Ca. 0.3 
mi. S of jct. of Park Place Dr. and Jupitor Rd., Allen, 30 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4817 
(BAYLU). Dallas Co.: [exact location not given] cultivated in calcareous clay, 
forming a dense thicket 6 m tall, evergreen, specimen consists of 2 branches from root 
sprouts 0.6 m tall, outside of fence, 20 Dec 1967, Shinners 32022 (BRIT). Erath 
Co.: Dublin, Patrick St. Church, U.S. Hwy 67 ca. 0.5 mi. N of Tx. Hwy 6, 29 Mar 
\996, Stevens 196 {BA.YUJ). Hams Co.: 1-45 South at jct. of Hardy Toll Road, 1/2 
mi. S of Rayford Road, 27 Dec 1995, Borowski s.n. (BAYLU). Harrison Co.: Ca. 
5.6 mi. ENE of jcL of Hwy 43 and Hwy 59 at Marshall, 14 May 1996, Singhurst 
4838 (BAYLU). Hays Co.: Ca. 0.5 mi. W of Jct. of 1-35 and FTvl 150, ca. 0. 1 mi. N 
of FM 150, Kyle, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 5627 (BAYLU); Jct. of 1-35 N seiAice road 
and County Road 105, Buda, 22 Oct 1995, Borowski 185 (BAYLU). Henderson 
Co.: S side Tx. Hwy 175, ca. 5 mi. WNW of jct. Tx. 175 and Loop 3 17, Athens. 26 
Nov 1995, Singhurst 3628 (BAYLU); Tx. Hwy 2329 near arm of Cedar Creek 
Reservoir, 3-4 mi. S of Tx. Hwy 316, 24 Sep 1995, Borowski 179 (BAYLU). 
Houston Co.: Ca. 0.3 miles E of jct. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 2967 on Tx. Hwv 21,3 
Dec 1995. Singhurst 3629 (BAYLU). Jasper Co.: Ca. 4.8 mi. ENE of jct. of Hwy 
96 and FM 1007 at Browndell. Rockv Reserve. The Nature Conservancy of Texas. 15 
Apr 1996, Singhurst 4833 (BAYLU). Kaufman Co.: Ca. 0.4 mi. E'of jct. of old 
Hwy 174 and FM 274 in Kemp, 15 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4816 (BAYLU). Lee Co.: 
Ca. 2.0 mi. NE of jcL of FM 619 and FM 695 on FM 695, 31 Jan 1995, Singhurst 
4765 (BAYLU). Leon Co.: 0.75 mile N of Centerville on W sei^ice road of 1-45, 26 
May 1995, Holmes 7697 (BAYLU). Limestone Co.: Tx. Hwy 14 between 
Groesbeck and Mexia, 0.2 mi. S of Park Road 28 (enuance to Ft. Parker Slate Park), 
16 Sep 1995, Holtnes 7886. Do. & Morgan (BAYLU). Madison Co.: Ca. 3.7 mi. W 
of jct. of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 1428 on S side of Tx. Hwy 21, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 

Borowski,g/a/.: Phyllostachys aurea in Texas 33 

3631 (BAYLU). Manon Co.: Ca. 1.8 mi S of jcL of Hwy 43 and Hwy 49 at 
Smilhland, 14 May 1996, Singhurst 4837 (BAYLU). McLennan Co.: Slo'pes and 
bluffs above the Brazos River, Cameron Park, Waco, 16 Feb 1995, Holmes 7593 
(BAYLU). Moms Co.: Dangerfield State Park, ca. 1.7 mi. SSE of Jet. of park road 
and Hwy 49, 7 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4813 (BAYLU). Nacogdoches Co.: 4 mi. E of 
JCL of Tx. Hwy 21 and FM 225 on Tx. Hwy 21, 3 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3632 
(BAYLU). Newton Co.: Ca. 1.9 mi. N of jcL of Hwy 87 and R255 at Mayflower 
Commumty, 15 Apr \996, Singhurst 4836 {B\YUJ). Palo Pinto Co.: Ca. 0.9 mi N 
of JCL of Hwy 180 and Hwy 281 on Hwy 281, 22 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3989 
(BAYLU). Parker Co.: Ca. 1 mi. W of jcL of Hwy 180 and South Bowie Sl on 
Hwy 180, Weatherford, 23 Dec 1995, Singhurst 3990 (BAYLU). Sabine Co.: Ca. 
0.7 mi. W of Jet. of Hwy 87 and FM 2426 on FM 2426, 15 Apr 1996, Singhurst 
4835 (BAYLU). Shelby Co.: Ca. 2.3 mi. N of jcL of Hwy 7 and county line across 
from White Rock Cemetery, 17 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4815 (BAYLU). Smith Co.: 
Management and Research Station, Tx. Parks & Wildlife Dept., Tyler; ca. 1.3 mi. S 
of jct. of Hwy 64 & FM 848, 15 Mar 1996, Singhurst 4814 (BAYLU). Tanant Co.: 
Jet. of University Dnve and Colonial, Fort Worth, 14 Oct 1995, Borowski 183 
(BAYLU); Embankment of Tx. Hwy 121 and Tx. Hwy 329 near Bedford, 14 Oct 
1995, Borowski 184 (BAYLU). Travis Co.: Road leading to Nature Center, Zilker 
Park, Austin, 7 Oct 1995, Borowski 182 (BAYLU); Tx. Hwy 71. 2 mi. N of jcL with 
Tx. Hwy 2244, 7 Oct 1995, Borowski 180 (BAYLU). Tyler Co.: Ca. 2.4 mi. S. of 
Jct. of FM 1943 and Hwy 69 at Warren, ca. 0.5 mi. ENE on road along N side of 
John H. Kirby Forest, 15 Apr 1996, Singhurst 4834 (BAYLU). Upshur Co.: Ca. 
2.3 mi. S of Jct of Hwy 259 & FM 2706, S of Lonestar on Hwy 59, 5 Mar 1996, 
Singhurst 4808 (BAYLU). Walker Co.: Huntsville, Od Madisonville Hwv at Smith 
Hill, 27 Jan 1996, Stevens 171 (BAYLU). Williamson Co.: County Road 481 across 
from Adina Church Road, 10 Feb 1996, Stevens 187, Gooch, & Holmes (BAYLU). 
Wilson Co.: FR 1107, 200 m N of Jct. with U.S. Hwy 87, Pandora, 9 Feb 1996, 
Stevens 173. Gooch. & Holmes (BAYLU). Wood Co.: County Road 1600, Alba, 
24 Sep 1995, Borowski 178 (BAYLU). 


We wish to thank Charles M. Allen of NLU for reviewing the manuscnpt, Sidney 
McDaniel of IBE for reviewing the manuscnpt and his comments on the distnbuuon of 
the species in Mississippi, the curator and staff of BRIT for access to specimens, and 
Dan Wivagg, Robin Gooch, and Jeff Stevens for assistance in searching for 
Phyllostachys colonies. Special recognition is extended to the Endangered Resources 
Branch and Resource Program of the Texas Parks and Wildlife Department for access 
to public lands under their jurisdiction. 


Allen, CM. 1992. Grasses of Louisiana. 2nd. ed. Cajun Praine Habitat 
Preservation Society, Eunice, Louisiana. 

34 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1) :30-34 

Gould, F.W. 1975. The Grasses of Texas. Texas A. & M. University Press, 

College Station, Texas. 
Hatch, S.L., K.N. Gandhi, & L.E. Brown. 1990. Checklist of the Vascular Plants 

of Texas. The Texas Agr. Exp. Sta., College Station, Texas. 
Jenzan, H.J. 1976. Why bamboos wait so long to flower. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 

1976. 7:347-391. 
Rehder, A. 1986. Manual of Cultivated Trees and Shrubs Hardy in North America, 

2nd ed. Dioscorides Press, Portland, Oregon. 
Thomas, R.D. & C. M. Allen. 1993. Atlas of the vascular flora of Louisiana, Vol. 1: 

ferns & fern allies, conifers, & monocotyledons. Natural Hentage Progrcun, 

Louisiana Department of Wildlife and Fisheries, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1)35-39 


Joseph K. Wipff 

Herbarium (BRCH), Botanical Research Center, P.O. Box 6717, Bryan, Texas 

77805-6717 U.S.A. 


The following nomenclatural combinations in the Poaceae are proposed: 
Schizachyrium spadiceum (J. Swallen) comb. nov.; and 
Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash var. stoloniferum (G. 
Nash) comb, et stat. nov. 

KEY WORDS: Schizachyrium, Schizachyrium scoparium, Schizachyrium 
scoparium var. stoloniferum, Schizachyrium spadiceum, Schizachyrium 
stoloniferum, nomenclature, Poaceae 

Schizachyrium spadiceum (J. Swallen) J. Wipff, comb. nov. BASIONYM: 
Andropogon spadiceus J. Swallen, Proceedings of the Biological Society of 
Washington 56:82 (1943). TYPE MEXICO. Coahuila; Canon de Madera, 
western side of Sierra de los Guajes, about 4 km east of Rancho Buena Vista, 7 
Sept 1941, Robert M. Stewart 1504 (HOLOTYPE: US, accession #154691). 

Schizachyrium spadiceum, restricted to Coahuila, Mexico and Brewster County, 
Texas, is the first reported species oi Schizachyrium with a panicle of paired branches. 
All of the other reported speaes of Schizachyrium have spicate racemes. This should 
not be surprising since there are species of Andropogon that have spicaie racemes 
(e.g., A. textilis A. Rendle, A. fastigiatus O. Swartz, and A. gracilis K. Sprengel), 
and there are also species that may have either spicate racemes or panicles of paired 
branches (e.g., A. urbanianus A. Hitchcock, A. reedii A. Hitchcock & E. Ekman, and 
A. kelleri E. Hackel). It appears that too much significance has been placed on the 
condition of spicate racemes vs. panicles of pnmary branches; more reliable characters 
can be found in the lower glume of the sessile spikelet, the intemodes of the central 
axis, and the pedicels (Clayton 1964). Clayton ( 1964) pointed out that the significance 
attached to spicate racemes probably arose from the value of this character in 
segregating Schizachyrium Nees von Esenbeck. Excluding the parucles of paired 
branches, S. spadiceum possesses all of the below mentioned genenc characters that 


36 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( l):35-39 

are used to delimit Schizachyrium from Andropogon and justify its placement into 

Schizachyrium is most closely related to Andropogon sect. Leptopogon (Clayton 
1964; Clayton & Renvoize 1986). Clayton (1964) and Clayton & Renvoize (1986) 
provided the following characters to delimit Schizachyrium and Andropogon sect. 
Leptopogon, with the inflorescence character being amended to accommodate 
Schizachyrium spadiceum. 

Schizachyrium: Inflorescence a spicate raceme or panicle of paired branches (i.e., 
5. spadiceum); first glume of sessile spikelet convex on the back with several 
intercannal veins; intemodes and pedicels clavale to linear (but then often widening at 
the tip); the apex of the intemode usually conspicuously cup-shaped with a fimbnate 
nm; upper lemma bilobed or deeply cleft almost to the base. 

Andropogon sect. Leptopogon: Inflorescence a panicle of 2-several digitate 
branches or a spicate raceme (e.g., A. gracilis K. Sprengel); first glume concave; 
intercannal area membranous, hyaline or translucent, and veinless between the keels, 
or rarely with 1-2 veins in the translucent or hyaline, concave, intercannal area [e.g., 
A. tenarius A. Michaux (vanable, veins present or absent)]; intemodes and pedicels 
linear to filiform; the apex of the intemode shallowly cup-shaped; upper lemma bifid 
up to 1/4 of its length, very rarely more, but never beyond the middle. 

The following description of Schizachyrium spadiceum has been expanded from 

Plants perennial, 60-95 cm tall, cespitose, without rhizomes or stolons, culm 
erect, terete, glabrous. Leaves glaucous. Sheaths compressed, keeled, scaberulous 
(glabrous), occasionally with a few scattered tnchomes; the lower sheaths longer than 
the intemodes emd the upper shorter than the intemodes. Ligule 1.0-1.5 mm long, a 
membrane, truncate, erose-ciliate. Blade 10-25 cm long, 2.0-2.5 mm wide, flat or 
folded, scaberulous, young blades ciliate in lower portion with tnchomes 4-7 mm 
long, these often being lost in age. Inflorescence a panicle of paired branches, 
branches 3.5-6.0 cm long, 7-10 nodes; inflorescence exserted or partially enclosed in 
sheath; sheath (subtending inflorescence) 5.3-8.6 cm long; blade 0.5-39.5 mm long; 
peduncle 4.6-9.0 cm long. Internode (of inflorescence branch) 4.0-6.3 mm long; 
linear becoming wider, slightly swollen, at the af)ex; apex conspicuously cup>-shaf)ed 
with a fimbnate nm; lower 1/3-1/2 of intemode and pedicel ciliate, but upper portion, 
abaxially, densely white villous with tnchomes 4-7 mm long; intemodes straight, 
without a membranous, hyaline or translucent, median groove. Sessile spikelet 7-8 
mm long, golden to chestnut brown and the apex usually green; callus of white 
tnchomes to 2 mm long. First glume 7-8 mm long; 7-11 veins, (4-)5-7 equidistant 
intercannal veins, green; coriaceous, dorsally compressed, two-keeled, back of glume 
convex, glabrous, smooth, scaberulous on keels and veins in the upp)er portion; 
margins variously ciliolate. Second glume 6.5-7.0 mm long, 3- veined (lateral veins 
obscure, sometimes only faintly visible in the upper 1/2); subconaceous, laterally 
compressed, enclosing fiorets; glabrous except for ciliolate margins and scabemlous 
mid-vein at afjex. First lemma 4.8-5.8 mm long, veinless, hyaline membrane; 
glabrous, margins ciliolate; awnless; neuter. Second lemma 4.1-5.0 mm long, 3- 
veined; veined portion of lemma, in the center, chartaceous and the rest of the lemma a 
hyaline membrane, margins vanously ciliolate; apex cleft 1/3- 1/2 of lemma, teeth 1.7- 

WiplT: New combinations m Schizachyrium 37 

2.3 mm long, awned between cleft, awn 14.2-17.2 mm long, once geniculate, tightly 
twisted below the bend, lower segment 5-6 mm long, terminai segment straight, 8.7- 
11.2 mm long. Second palea 1.7-2.0 mm long, veinless; hyaline membrane, 
margins ciliolate. Anther 1.9-2.3 mm long; 3 stamens. Caryopsis 2.6-3.2 mm 
long, 0.70-0.75 mm wide; dark reddish purple. Pediceiled spikelet 0.8-4.0 mm 
long, neuter, greatly reduced, with only a first glume developed, awnless; pedicel 5- 
6 mm long; basal callus of tnchomes to 2 mm long; lower 1/3-1/2 (2/3) ciliaie, upper 
portion, aba.\j£illy, densely white villous with tnchomes 4-7 mm long; without a 
membranous, hyaline or translucent, median groove. Chromosome number 

Johnston (1981) commented that in the field Schizachyrium spadiceum has a 
strong superficial resemblance to Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash. 

Schizachyrium scoparium (A. Michaux) G. Nash var. stoloniferum (G. Nash) 

y^x^H, comb, et Stat. nov. BASIONYM: Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash 

in J.K. Small, Flora of the Southeastern U.S. 59, 1326 (1903). Andropogon 

stolonifer (G. Nash) A. Hitchcock, American Journal of Botany 2:299 (1915). 

Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. stoloniferum [autonym created by 

Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. wolfei H. DeSelm, Sida 6(2): 114- 115 

(1975)]. TYPE: UNITED STATES. Flonda: Chapman {HOLOXy PE: NY). 

Schizachyrium stoloniferum G. Nash var. wolfei H. DeSelm, Sida 6(2): 114- 115 

(1975). TYPE UNITED STATES. Ronda: Osceola Co.; Four miles 

northwest of Loughman, 14 October 1960, Ray. Lakela, & Potman 10494 


Chase (1951) reported that Schizachyrium stoloniferum resembled S. scoparium 
and from examining her descriptions of the two ta:>;a the only significant difference 
between the two taxa was the presence of creeping scaly rhizomes in S. stoloniferum. 
In a systematic study of the S. scoparium complex, Bruner (1987) concluded that 5. 
stoloniferum was conspecific with S. scoparium and should be recognized at the 
varietal level. However, he also considered Andropogon scoparius A. Michaux var. 
polycladus F. Lamson-Scnbner & C. Ball as conspecific with S. stoloniferum and 
proposed a new combination: S. scoparium var. polycladus (F. Lamson-Scnbner & 
C. Ball) J. Bruner, ined. and treated 5. stoloniferum as a synonym. However, this 
new combination was validly published by Real (1987), but it was probably in the 
sense of Femald (1950) and not including S. stoloniferum, because the combin?tions 
in Reed ( 1987) were made in preparation for the Flora of Central Eastern United States 
(Maryland, Delaware, Virginia, and West Virginia) and S. stoloniferum is restricted to 
Flonda, and southern Georgia and Alabama. 

Bruner (1987) treated, without any specific explanation, Andropogon scoparius 
var. polycladus as conspecific with Schizachyrium stoloniferum, whereas Nash 
(1912), Hitchcock (1935), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989) treated var. polycladus 
as a synonym of Schizachyrium (Andropogon) scoparium {= Schizachyrium 
scoparium \m. scoparium). Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Femald (1950), Chase 
(1951), and Gandhi (1989) charactenzed var. polycladus as non-rhizomatous, 
whereas Bruner (1987) considered it rhizomatous. After examining photographs of 
the type specimens of var. polycladus and S. stoloniferum I agree with Gandhi ( 1989) 
that the type specimen of var. polycladus does not possess rhizomes, whereas the i\pe 

38 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(l):35-39 

of 5. stoloniferum does have rhizomes. Lamson-Scnbner & Ball (1901) m their 
original description of var. polycladus never mention this taxon as having rhizomes. 
The following is the original description by Lamson-Scnbner & Ball (1901) for var. 
polycladus: "Stout, 9 to 12 dm. high, glabrous, somewhat glaucous; panicles large, 
much branched". 

Another difference between Bruner (1987), and Lamson-Scribner & Ball (1901), 
Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Femald (1950), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989), 
is in the reported distributions of these taxa Bruner (1987) commented that 
Schizachyrium stoloniferum is ". . . ecologically restricted to specific habitats in the 
southeastern United States and spatially isolated from the rest of S. scoparium, . . .". 
Bruner reports the distribution of 5. stoloniferum (including var. polycladus) as 
occurring throughout Rorida, and southern Georgia and Alabama, on the sandy soils 
of woodlzmd opjenings and roadsides. However, he does not report S. scoparium var. 
scoparium as occurring in Honda. Therefore, if S. scoparium var. scoparium is not 
recognized as occurring in Florida, and since the type for var. polycladus was 
collected in Manatee County, Florida, it is understandable why Bruner treated this 
taxon as conspecific with S. stoloniferum. Nash (1912), Hitchcock (1935), Femald 
(1950), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989) all report S. scoparium {= var. scoparium) 
as occurring in Florida. Bruner (1987) not only reports different distributions for S . 
scoparium var. scoparium, but also greatly restricts the distnbuuon of var. polycladus 
from what has been reported. 

Femald (1950), recognizing var. polycladus as a distncl \ariety of Andropogon 
scoparius, reported its distribution as occurring in dry woods from Texas to Flonda 
and Mexico, north to New Jersey through eastem Missoun and Pennsylvania. 
Lamson-Scribner & Ball (1901) give the following additional distnbutions for var. 
polycladus, 'Tracy's No. 5330, from Biloxi, Mississippi, and a plant collected by 
John K. Small on the slopes and summit of Stone Mountain, Georgia, September 6- 
12, 1894, belong here." Stone Mountain is a granite dome located in northwestern 
Georgia, east of Atlanta. 

No data were found supporting the treatment of Andropogon scoparius var. 
polycladus and Schizachyrium stoloniferum as conspecific (Bruner 1987), therefore I 
am treating var. polycladus as a synonym of S. scoparium var. scoparium as did Nash 
(1912), Hitchcock (1935), Chase (1951), and Gandhi (1989). However, I do not 
agree with Gandhi (1989) in the placement of S. stoloniferum as a synonym of S . 
scoparium var. littorale (G. Nash) F. Gould. 

Schizachyrium scoparium var. stoloniferum and S. scoparium var. littorale occupy 
different habitats and have different growth habits. Schizachyrium scoparium var. 
stoloniferum is found in sandy woodlands and roadsides, whereas S. scoparium var. 
littorale grows on the shifting, coastal sands. Schizachyrium scoparium var. 
stoloniferum is strongly rhizomatous, whereas, S. scoparium var. littorale, as Bruner 
( 1987) also reported, is not rhizomatous. Schizachyrium scoparium var. littorale only 
appears rhizomatous due to the continual bunal of the culms and the subsequent decay 
of the sheath and blades from the culms. This results in the buned culms superficially 
resembling rhizomes. It is my opinion that S. scoparium var. littorale and S . 
scoparium var. stoloniferum represent two different and recognizable taxa. 

Wipff: New combinations in Schizachyrium 39 


I am grateful to W. E. Fox, III (TAES), Stephan L. Hatch (TAES), and 
Stanley D. Jones (BRCH) for reviewing this manuscript. 


Bruner, J.L. 1987. Systematics of the Schizachyrium scoparium (Poaceae) complex 

in North America. Ph.D. dissertation. Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. 
Chase, A. 1951. A revision of A. S. Hitchcock's, Manual of the Grasses of the 

United States, 2nd ed. U.S. DA. Miscellaneous Publication 200. U.S. 

Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. 
Clayton, W.D. 1964. Studies in the Gramineae V. New species of Andropogon. 

Clayton, W.D. &. S.A. Renvoize. 1986. Genera Graminum: Grasses of the World. 

Kew Bulletin, Additional Series 13. Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 

United Kingdom. 
Ferhald, M.L. 1950. Gray's Manual of Botany. American Book Company, New 

York, New York. 
Gandhi, K.N. 1989. A biosystematic study of the Schizachyrium scoparium 

complex. Ph.D. dissertation. Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas. 
Hitchcock, A.S. 1935. Manual of the Grasses of the United States, 1st ed. 

U.S.D.A. Miscellaneous Publication 200. U.S. Government Printing Office, 

Washington, D.C. 
Johnston, M.C. 1981. Andropogon spadiceus (Poaceae), A Coahuilian species now 

known from Texas. The Southwestern Naturalist 25(4):557. 
Lamson-Scribner, F. & C. R. Ball. 1901. Miscellaneous notes and descriptions of 

new species. U.S.D.A. Division of Agrostology Bulletin 24:40-41. 
Reed, C.L. 1987. New combinations required for the Flora of Central Eastern United 

States. Phytologia 63:410-412. 
Swallen, J.R. 1943. Nine new grasses from Mexico. Proceedings of the Biological 

Society of Washington 56:77-84. 

Phylologia (January 1996) 80(1): 40-47. 



A. Gal^ de Mera & J.A. Vicente Orellana 

Laboratorio de Botdnica, Universidad San Pablo-CEU, Apartado 67, E- 28660 
Boadilla del Monte, Madnd, ESPANA 


On a phytoscxnological study of the Southern Peruvian Andes, we descnbe 
the cactus communities from the western slop>es of the Andes. As a result, we 
propose the following novelties: Opuntietea sphaericae classis nova, 
Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo novo, 
Corryocaction brevistyli alUanza nova, Corryocacto aurei- 
Browningietum candelaris associatio nova, and Oreocereo 
tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, phytosociology, Peru 


En un estudio fitosociol6gico de los Andes del sur Peruanos, descnbimos 
las communidades de cactus de las laderas occidentales Andinas. Como 
resultado se proponen las siguenles novedades: Opuntietea sphaericae 
classis nova, Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis 
ordo novo, Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova, Corryocacto aurei- 
Browningietum candelaris associatio nova, and Oreocereo 
tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova. 

PALABRAS CLAVE- Cactaceae, fitosociolbgica, Peru 


El Peru es uno de los paises de Am^nca con mayor diversidad de cactaceas. Sus 
representantes se encuentran distnbuidos p)or todo el pais aunque la mayor 


Galdn de Mera & Vicenle-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocactus 41 

concentraci6n aparece en las vertienles dndas occidentales de los Andes, entre 1000 y 
3000 m de altilud [T= 15-20''C, P= 30-70 mm] (Rauh 1979). 

Al parecer, en la costa y Andes del norte del Peru, se encuentran en mayor 
proporci6n los elementos mds antiguos de la vegetacion peruana (Solbng 1976)- 
Acacia. Bulnesia, Loxoplerygium, Prosopis {. . .)- que ademds, muchos de ellos, son 
los que aparecen en la sabana chaquena (al S de la Cuenca Amaz6nica), como por 
ejempio, Cercidium praecox, Geojfroea decorticans, Parkinsonia aculeata, y Prosopis 
pallida (Cdrdenas 1945; Bemardi 1984). La presencia de algunas de estas plantas en 
los valles des^rticos e mterandinos del centro y sur del Perii (Fortaleza, lea, Juni'n, 
Nazca, y Tacna) demuestra la existencia de una vegetacion de tipo chaqueno en los 
pnmeros periodos de la formacion de los Andes. El levantamiento de la cordillera y la 
intensificaci6n de la comente de Humboldt durante el Pleistoceno, ongm6 una gran 
zona Inda con elevada canUdad de endemismos al W de los Andes (Miiller 1985; 
Galan de Mera^/ al. 1995). En la TaWa 1 mostramos el alto niimero de endemismos 
inventanados en las laderas dndas occidentales del Peru. Adem^, podemos observar 
c6mo los grupos de plantas B y C son caractensticos de las formaciones vegetales del 
norte (La Libertad, Lambayeque, F*iura, y Tumbes), mientras que otras sabaneras 
como Cercidium praecox (A) se encuentran como reliquias en temtonos del centro del 
Peni (lea). Tambi^n en la Tabia 1 nos encontramos con un gran paquete de cactaceas 
end^micas que delatan asociaciones fitosocioldgicas claramente definidas. 


Aunque de forma fision6mica, algunos autores han descrito ya las comunidades 
donde intervienen Corryocactus brevistylus v otros cactiis mas conocidos, como 
Browningia cande laris {V^cherbauev 1912, 1945; Rauh 1958, 1979; Ferreyra 1987). 
Sm embargo, nosotros seguiremos el metodo fitosocioldgico de Braun-Blanquet 
(1964) ya que permite profundizar en el andlisis y clasificacion de los ecosisiemas y 
ademds establecer una comparaci6n ecol6gica, dinlmica y geogrlfica con otras 
estructuras disyuntas (Moravec 1992). 


I. Clase Opuntietea sphaericae classis nova 

Typus: Oreocereo leucotrichi'Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo 

Clase que reune a las formaciones de cactaceas de Amenca del Sur. Elegimos 
como caraclerisucas de la clase a las dos especies que uenen una distnbucion mas 
amplia. OpurUia stricta, desde el S de Estados Unidos a Uruguay, y Oputuia 
sphaerica, desde Peni a Argenuna (Bntton & Rose 1963; Hunt 1992). 

42 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( l):40-47 

Tabla 1.- Inventanos constituidos por listas de especies pertenecientes a diferentes 
puntos de las laderas andinas cxxidentales del Peni. 

N. de inventano 










Cactdceas end^micas 






Cleistocactus acanthurus 

Haageocereus multangularis 






Haageocereus versicolor 






Armatocereus procerus 





Oreocereus piscoensis 




Corryocactus aureus 


Haageocereus platinospinus 


Oreocereus tacnaensis 


Trichocereus tacnaensis 


Browningia icaensis 


Corryocactus matucanensis 


Corryocactus melaleucus 


Espostoa melanostele 


Haageocereus albispinus 


Haageocereus limensis 


Mila caespitosa 




Weberbauerocereus churinensis 


Haageocereus icosagonoides 


Haageocereus pacalaensis 


Browningia riosaniensis 


Pilosocereus tuberculosus 


Cleistocactus serpens 


Espostoa blossfeldiorum 


Cactdceas de amplia distnbua6n 







Opuntia sphaerica 

Neoraimondia arequipensis 







Melocactus peruvianus 







Opuntia quilensis 






Echinopsis pachanoi 





Opuntia pubescens 





Espostoa lanata 




Browningia candelaris 


Corryocactus brevistylus 


Oreocereus hempeliarms 


Oreocereus leucotrichus 


Armatocereus matucanensis 


Armatocereus cartwrightianus 


Opuntia cylindrica 


Galdn de Mera & Vicente-Orellana; Comunidades con Corryocaclus 


Tabia 1 (cont.). 

N. de inventano 








Arbustos V drboles end^micos 

+ + 






Jatropha macrantha 

Cnidoscolus basiacanthus 

+ + 





Orthopterygium huaucui 

+ + 





Carica candicans 

+ + 





Furcraea occidentalis 





Caesalpinia spinosa 




Abutilon nigripunctulatum 



Heliotropium adenogynum 



Syncretocarpus sericeus 



Arboles v arbustos de amplia 



Cercidium praecox 



+ + 


Galvesia fruticosa 
Collelia spinosissima 

+ + 








Kageneclaa lanceolata 





Trixis cacalioides 





Cordia macrocephala 
Prosopis pallida 


-t- + 






Capparis scabrida 





Capparis avicennifolia 





Capparis crotonoides 





Acacia tnacracanlha 






Cordia lutea 





Grabowslda boerhaaviaefolia 





Bursera graveolens 


+ + 


Capparis mollis 
Ambrosia artemisioides 

+ + 


+ + 



Encelia canescens 
Pithecellobium excelsum 







Eriotheca discolor 





Maytenus octogona 




44 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1 ):40-47 

Tabla 1 (cont.). 

T^ones en 1 inventano . En II : Proustia cuneifolia; en III : Hesperomeles 
pernettyoides, Cantua buxifolia; en IV : Ophryosporus pinifolius, Jungia spectabilis, 

Mutisia acuminala; en V: Ephedra americana, Croton ruizianus, Tarasa 

homschuchiana, Abutilon reflexum, Lantana scabiosaeflora, Aloysia aloysioides, 
Lycium americanum\ en VI : Vallesia glabra; en VII : Parldnsonia aculeaia; en IX : 
Geoffroea striata, Caesalpinia paipai, Coccoloba ruiziana, Aeschynomene 
tumbezensis, Cordia peruviana, Cryptocarpus pyriformis, Bougainvillea peruviana, 
Piptadeniaflava, Ipomoea cornea. 

Localidades : I-Dep. Tacna, valle del no Capllna; II-Dep. lea, Nazca; IH-Dep. lea. 

valle del no Ingenio; IV-Dep. lea, valle de Pisco; V-Dep. Lima, valle del Rimac; VI 
Dep. Lambayeque, valle de Sana; vn-Dep. Piura, Piura; VIII-Dep. Piura, cerros de 
Amotape; IX-Dep. Tumbes, Tumbes. 

+ Orden Oreocereo leucotrichi-Neoraimondietalia arequipensis ordo novo 
Typus: Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova 

Es el orden de las comunidades de cardonales andinos neotropieales. 

Plantas caractensticas: Armatocereus matiicanensis, Carica candicans, 
Cnidoscolus basiacanthus, Jatropha macrantha, Melocactus peruvianus, Neoraimondia 
arequipensis, Oreocereus leucotrichus, y Orthopterygium huaucui. 

Las especies de eact^ceas que proponemos como caracten'stieas del orden son las 
que tienen una mayor distribuei6n en los Andes occidentales del Peru (Rauh, 1958; 
Ritter 1981; Zarueehi 1993). Oreocereus leucotrichus se encuentra en Bolivia, Chile, 
y Peru con una distnbuci6n bastante amplia, al menos alutudinalmenle (2000 a 4(X)0 
m) [Ritter 1981; Hunt 1992]. Tambi^n incluimos entre las earacterisucas a algunos 
drboles y arbustos end^micos (McBnde 1937, 1941, 1951; Brako 1993). 

* Alianza Corryocaction brevistyli allianza nova 

Typus: Oreocereo tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyli associatio nova 

Corryocactus brevistylus es una planta cuyo areal se extiende desde Arequipa 
(Peru) hasta Mamina (Chile), y esti presente tanto en el piso de Browningia candelaris 
(2000-3000 m) como en el nivel altitudinal siguiente, hasta 35(X) m. En este ultimo 
espacio convive con otras plantas propias de la puna seea peruano-chileno-boliviana, 
como Diplostephium meyenii o Parastrephia lepidophylla. La alianza Corryocaction 
brevistyli agrup>a, por tanto tambi^n, a plantas earacterisucas que uenen una 
distribuci6n latitudinal semejante a Corryocactus brevistylus en el S del Peni y N de 

GaJdn de Mera & Vicente-Orellana; Comunidades con Corryocactus 45 

Chile (Hoffmann 1989): Ambrosia artemisioides. Browningia candeUiris. Oreocereus 
hempelianus. Sin embargo, altitudinaJmente, la dividimos por el momento en dos 
asociaciones: 1- Corryocacto aurei-Browningietum candelaris y 2- Oreocereo 
tacnaensLs-Corryocactetum brevistyti. 

1- Corryocacto aurei-Browningietum candelaris associalio nova Typus: 
inventano 8, labia 2. 

Comunidades muy dispersas de cacticeas (5-10% de cobertura) cuya especie 
directriz es Browningia candelaris. Se Irata de una biocenosis que se asienta sobre las 
laderas de derrubios cuarcfticos de los Andes occidentales, entre 2000 y 3(XX) m de 
altitud, y se extiende entre los depariamentos de Arequipa y Tacna. 

Caracteristicas: Browningia candelaris, Corryocactus aureus, y Haageocereus 

2- Oreocereo tacnaensis-Corryocactetum brevistyti associalio nova Typus: 
inventano 9, tabia 2. 

. Al contrario que la asociaci6n antenor, se trata de una comunidad bastante mas 
densa (50-60% de cobertura) debido a la entrada de elementos de la puna seca, causada 
por un aumento de las precipitaciones, y a los sustratos mas compactos. 
Altitudinalmente tiene su optimo entre 3000 y 3500 m. Hasta el momento, 
restnngimos su areal a los Andes del departamento de Tacna en funcidn de la 
distribuci6n de su especie diferencial, Oreocereus tacnaensLs (Ritter 1981). 


Agradecemos a los profesores Dr. Oscar Tovar Serpa y Dr. Celso L. Mateus 
Pineda la revisi6n y comentanos del manuscnto. Muchas gracias a la Dra. Magda 
Chanco Estella que puso a nuesU"a disposici6n el matenal necesano del herbano USM. 


Bemardi, L. 1984. Contnbuci6n a la dendrologfa paraguaya, I. Boissiera 35: 1-341. 
Brako, L. 1993. Euphorbiaceae. pp. 428-444 in L. Brako & J. Zarucchi, Caidlogo 

de las Angiospermas y Gimnospertnas del Peru. Missoun Bot. Gard., St. Louis, 

Braun-Blanquet, J. 1964. Pflanzensoziologie Grundziige der Vegetationskunde. 

Springer- Verlag, Wien, Austna. 

TaWa 2.- TaWa ritosociol6gica con mventanos levantados en el \alle del no Caplina 
(Dep. Tacna). 

46 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1) :40-47 

N. de inveatario 123 4 5 67 8 9 10 

Aream^ 200 200 1000 1000 1 200 1000 1000 200 200 

Exposici6n SWWWW- SEESS 

Altitud(Dm) 290 290 270 270 260 250 260 240 306 306 

Corryocacto aurei- 

Browningietum candelaris-AS 

Conyocxtctus aureus +111 1 1 6 

Haageocereus platinospirms +222 4 

Oreooereo tacnaensis- 

Corrvocactetum brevistvli-AS 

Oreocereus tacnaensis 

Coirvocaction brevistvli-AL 

Corryocactus brevistylus 
Ambrosia artemisioides 
Oreocereus hempelianus 
Browningia candelaris 


3 3 









3 2 









+ 2 








4(ii«'-i ^ "t^i 








arequJpeoais-O. Opundetea 


Opuntia sphaerica 
Oreocereus leucotrichus 


Atriplex atacamensis 1 + + + 

Spergularia congestifolia 2 1 

Quinchamalium procumbens 1 + 

Cristaria multifida + + 

Fagonia chilensis + + + + 

Euphorbia tacnaensis 2 1 

Villadia reniformis 2 2 

Compafieras en 1 6 2 inventarios . En 1 : Lycium distichum +, Ligaria cuneifolia +, Oxalis bulbigera +, 




























en 3 : Pellaea lernifolia 1, Nolana confinis 1; en 7 : Nolana confinis +; en 8 : Pellaea ternifolia 1, 
Notholaena nivea 1 ; en 9 : Balbisia meyeniana 3, Parastrephia lepidophylla 1, Chersodoma arequipensis 1 , 
Spergularia collina 2, Diplostephium meyenii 2, Ephedra americana +, Proustia berberidifolia 1, 
Gochnatia arequipensis 1 ; en 10 : Balbisia meyeniana 2, Parastrephia lepidophylla 1 , Spergularia collina 
1. Diplostephium meyenii l.Gochnatia arequipensis 1. 

GaJdn de Mera & Vicente-Orellana: Comunidades con Corryocaclus 47 

Bntton, N.L. & J.N. Rose. 1963 (republication of the 2 ed., 1937). The Caciaceae. 

Dover Publications, New York, New York. 
Cdrdenas, M. 1945. A specto general de la vegetacion de Bolivia, pp. 312-313 in F. 

Verdoon, ed.. Plants and Plant Science in Latin America. Waltham, 

Ferreyra, R. 1987. Flora y vegetaci6n del Peril. Manfer-J. Mejia Baca, eds., 

Barcelona, Spain. 
Galdn de Mera, A., J. A. Vicente Orellana, J. A. Lucas Garcia, & A. Probanza Lobe. 

1995. Phytogeographical sectonzation of the Peruvian coast. Manuscn to invito. 
Hoffmann, A.E. 1989. Cacidceas en la Flora Silvestre de Chile. Fundaci6n Claudio 

Gay, Santiago de Chile. 
Hunt, DR. 1992. CITES Cactaceae Checklist. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. 
McBnde, J.F. 1937. Julianaceae. Rora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 

McBnde, J.F. 1941. Caricaceae. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 

13(4/1): 132-143. 
McBnde, J.F. 1951. Euphorbiaceae. Flora of Peru. Field Mus. Nat. Hist. Bot. Ser. 

Moravec, J. 1992. Is the Ziirich-Montpellier approach still unknown in vegetation 

science of the English speaking countnes? Journal of Vegetation Science 3:277- 
. 278. 
MiJller, G.K. 1985. Zur floristichen Analyse der peruanischen Loma- Vegetation. 

Rora 176:153-165. 
Rauh, W. 1958. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Peruanischen Kakteenvegetation. 

Spnnger-Verlag, Heidelberg, Germany. 
Rauh, W. 1979. Peni. Pais de los contrastes. Boletin de Lima 1-2: 1-24. 
Ritter, F. 1981. Kakteen in Siidamenka. Peru. Band 4. F. Ritter, Selbsverlag. 
Solbrig, O. 1976. The ongin and flonstic affinities of the South Amencan temperate 

desert and semiand regions, pp. 7-50 in D. Goodall, ed.. Evolution of Desert 

Biota. University of Texas Press, Austin, Texas. 
Weberbauer, A. 1912. Pflanzengeographische Studien im sUdlichen Peru. Bot. 

Jahrb., Beibl. 107:27-46. 
Weberbauer, A. 1945. El mundo vegetal de los Andes peruanos. Ministeno de 

Agncultura, Lima, Peni. 
Zarucchi, J.L. 1993. Cactaceae. pp. 265-309 in L. Brako & J. Zarucchi, Catdlogo de 

las Angiospermas y Gimnospermas del Peru. Missoun Bot. Gard., St. Louis, 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1): 48- 57. 


Paul A. Volz' & Kira A. Babutina^ 

Mycology Lab, Jefferson Building, Eastern Michigan University, Ypsilanti, Michigan 

48197 U.S.A.^ 


Naukova Dumka, Entuziastov Str., 253147 Kiev, THE UKRAINE^ 


The Academies of Sciences of the new republics organized from the former 
Soviet Union (USSR) are reviewed for their current status and discipline 
interests. Some of the largest and oldest academic institutes in the world are 
found within the former USSR framework. These institutes include research 
laboratories, herbaria, and agricultural centers representing disciplines of the 
plant sciences. New institutes organized since the dissolution of the USSR are 
also included. Names of noted scientists are incorporated into the titles of 
some of these academic centers. All areas of science and engineenng, 
including the botanical sciences, are briefly presented in this review of the 
Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) Academies as they now exist. 

KEY WORDS: USSR-CIS Academies of Sciences, laboratones, institutes, 
research centers, academic disciplines of the Academies, the Ukraine Academy 

Since the recent formation of the independent republics, created out of the former 
Soviet Union, the Academies of Sciences facilities within each republic have conunued 
to function independently. Laboratones, insututes, and research centers produce 
research projects with quality data from in-depth studies. Many thousands of 
professional and highly trained individuals are employed in these facilities. The 
majority of their findings are presented as journal articles, reports, lectures, and 
symposia within their institutes. Good working relations e.xist between the Soviet 
Aaidemies and European based science organizations, particularly in Finland, 
Germany, and England. Academies are now organized within separate republics, 
utilizing the previous Soviet Union adminisu-ative and scienufic personnel. Since the 
formation of the republics, the Academies have actually expanded their operations and 
academic disciplines. There is also a newly organized Russian Academy of Sciences 


Volz & Babutina: Reorganization ol Soviet Academies ol Science 49 

housed in new Moscow facilities intended tor use by the entire former USSR 
Academies of Sciences (Figure 1). IndividuaJ Academies are examined according to 
their research specialties in the new republics with emphasis given to the detailed 
structure of the Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine. 

Prior to the formation of the independent republics, the headquarters for all 
institutes, sections, and labt)ratones of the Academy of Sciences of the Soviet Union 
was Moscow. One Academy existed with many individual and corresponding 
members located throughout the previous Soviet Union. The central offices for the 
Soviet Union were housed in the former palace and support building used by 
Napoleon on his march through central Europe (Figure 2). A new Academy building 
was constructed in Moscow to house the central offices of the ever expanding 
institutes and research facilities of the Soviet Union (Figure 3). This building brings 
to the Moscow skyline an ultra modem multisection structure of an architectural design 
unique to Moscow (Figure 4). Completed just before the Soviet dissolution, the new 
building complex was constructed near the Yuri Alekseyevich Gagann Memorial and 
the Gagann Plaza. With the dissolution of the Soviet Union, the new building now is 
headquarters for the reorganized Russian Academy of Sciences. Also included in the 
building are conference rooms, reception halls, and auditonums in addition to 
administrative office suites for science, cultural, and engineenng disciplines. 

. Now the republics have independent Academies of Sciences and corresponding 
administrative offices. The independent Academies of Sciences and capital cities 
include the Academies of Azerbaijan (Baku), Annenia (Yerevan), Belarus (Minsk), 
Estonia (Tallinn), Georgia (Tbilisi), Kazakhstan (Alma-Ata), Krgyzstan (Bishkek), 
Latvia (Riga), Lithuania (Vilnius), Moldova (Kishinyov), Russia (Moscow), 
Tajikistan (Dushanbe), Turkmenistan (Ashkhabad), Uzbekistan (Tashkent), and the 
Far East and Ural Scientific Center Section in addition to the Ukraine (Kiev). 

The Academy of Sciences of Azerbaijan was founded in the capital city Baku in 
1945 on the basis of the Azerbaijan Branch of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR. 
The Academy has 47 full members and 46 corresponding members that compnse the 
voting personnel found in five sections and 30 scientific establishments and facilities. 
Noted areas of specialization include mathematics, hydrodynamics, physics of semi- 
conductors, electrophysics, the chemistry of oil, geology, physiology, biochemistry, 
and other closely related fields, with the biological sciences receiving less attention. 

The Academy of Sciences of Annenia was founded in 1943 in Yerevan. 
Individual membership includes 40 members with 50 corresponding members and 
three foreign members in six sections and 30 scientific establishments. Noted 
scientific disciplines include mathematics, cybernetics, astrophysics, mechanics of 
solid bodies, geology, seismology, the chemistry of natural and synthetic compounds, 
biochemistry, and archaeology. 

The Academy of Sciences of Belarus with headquarters in Minsk was organized in 
1928 on the basis of the Belarus culture. The organization was initiated with nine 
research insututes and three independent labs. After World War 11 (the Great Patriotic 
War), many scientific enterpnses were developed and incorporated into the Academy. 
There are approximately 53 members, 75 corresponding members in five branches and 
32 scientific establishments. Scienufic disciplines of particular note include solid 
physics, high temperature optics physics, nuclear engineenng, computer devices. 

50 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( l):48-57 

cybernetics, radiobiology and photosynthesis, economics, philosophy, and 

The Academy of Sciences of Estonia was founded in 1946, aiter the Great 
Patriotic War. The Academy has 21 members, 24 corresponding members, and ten 
research establishments. The complex use of slate fuel is a major research discipline 
of study. 

In the city of Tbilisi, the Academy of Sciences of Georgia was founded in 1941. 
There are 63 academy members, 69 corresponding members in nine sections and 41 
scientific establishments. Over 1000 scientific topics and 234 science problems are 
under study. 

The city of Alma-Ata was the founding location for the Academy of Sciences of 
Kazakhstan in 1946. There are 53 members of the Academy, 85 corresponding 
members with five br«mches, 42 research establishments, and sixteen institutes. With 
a staff of over 1800 members, 48 hold Ph.D. degrees, 238 M.S. degrees, 200 
assistants, and over 200 are graduates of the institutes. 

In Bishkek the Academy of Sciences of Kyrgyzstan was organized in 1954. A 
total of 26 members and 32 corresponding members form the entire membership. 
Five sections and seventeen scientific establishments are found in the Kyrgyzstan 
Academy. Trends of study in the Academy include developmental geology, physics, 
and geochemistry of mountain rocks. 

The Academy of Sciences of Latvia was organized in Riga in 1946. The Latvia 
Academy has 25 academy members and 31 corresponding members. There are three 
sections and fifteen scientific establishments. The guidelines of the Academy examine 
the national economy and the culture of the republic. 

The Academy of Sciences of Lithuania was founded in Vilnius in 1941, and 
restored in 1946. The Academy now has 23 members and 25 corresponding members 
in three branches and twelve scientific establishments. Research trends include 
theories of probabilities, statistics, problems of cybernetics, theoretical spectroscopy 
of atoms and molecules, physics of semi-conductors, high temperature heat physics, 
metal coatings, and galvanic covers with previously set properties. Biological 
pnnciples to increase plant growth along with economics are under study as are the 
disciplines of history, languages, and literature. 

The Academy of Sciences of Moldova was founded in 1961 in Kishinyov. The 
eighteen members and 26 corresponding members are found in three branches and 
seventeen scientific establishments. The pnmary research trends are directed to 
solving problems of agriculture to increase production. The history and culture of 
Moldova are also under study. 

The Academy of Sciences of Russia was reorganized in 1991. First founded in 
1917, then in 1925, the organization was expanded into the Academy of Sciences of 
the U.S.S.R. Before 1917, the group was known as the St. Petersburg Academy of 
Sciences which was initially founded in 1724. From 1934 to 1991 the Academy was 
housed in Moscow. There are approximately 269 members, 536 corresponding 
members, and 77 foreign members. 

Volz & Babutina; Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 51 

The U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences had several sections. These sections included 
mathematics, general physics and astronomy, nuclear physics, physico- mechanical 
problems of mechanical engineering, mechanics and process of management, general 
and technical chemistry, physicochemistry and technology of inorganic matenals, 
biochemistry, biophysics, and chemistry of biologically acDve compounds, 
physiology, general biology, geology, geophysics and geochemistry, oceanology, 
physics of the atmosphere, geography, history, philosophy and law, economics, 
literature, and language. 

The Soviet complex included 250 scientific establishments, with about 42,000 
science workers, 200 scientific councils, and a research fleet. It coordinated the 
activities of the Academy of Sciences of the Union Republics. The complex trained 
the research staff. Included were 16,500 postgraduates located throughout the Union 
Republics. Under the Union Republics, organized through Moscow, the Union 
Academies awarded medals and pnzes for science works. Also coordinated through 
Moscow were a number of Science Societies within the Academy of Sciences of the 
former U.S.S.R. The Soviet Academy also handled scientific relations with 250 
international organizations located in many countnes. 

The Academy of Sciences of Tajikistan was organized in 1951 in Dushanbe. The 
disciplines and sections of the Academy include mathematics, seismology, 
astrophysics, nuclear physics, chemical technology, biology as well as history and 
literature. The number of members in Tajikistan is not known. 

The Academy of Sciences of Turkmenistan was organized in 1951 in Ashkhabad. 
Research specialties include molecular acoustics, spectroscopy, applied geophysics, 
petroleum chemistry, desert fcurning, cotton productivity, biochemistry of viruses as 
well as history of the area, languages, and literature. The number of members in 
Turkmenistan is not known. 

The Academy of Sciences of Uzbekistan was founded in 1932 in Tashkent on the 
basis of a republic committee guided by the Soviet science establishments. Regular 
meetings and the Academy structure were developed by 1940. The number of 
members in Uzbekistan is not known. In addition, the Sibenan section and the Far 
East and Ural Scientific Center contain eleven branches, including five in Sibena. 

The Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine was founded in 1918 by a group in Kiev 
headed by Academician Vemadsky who served as the first president. Succeeding 
presidents included Acad. Vasilenko ( 1921-22), Acad. Levitsky { 1922), Acad. Lipskv 
(1922-28), Acad. Zabolotny (1928-29), and Acad. Bogomoletz (1930-46). Frorn 
1946 to 1991 the Academy directorate was through offices in Moscow. Currently the 
Ukraine Academy has 83 Academy buildings or complexes, 87 organizations and 
departments, with 89,000 people working within the structure of the Academy. A 
total of 2096 people have earned their Ph.D. degrees, 10,336 have M.S. degrees, 
10,(X)3 people are professor - candidates of science, and 194 are academicians and 
269 corresponding members of the Academy of Sciences. Of the 2096 Ph.D.'s 2050 
work within the science establishments. Currently 54 foreign member belong to the 
Ukraine Academv. 

52 PHYTOLOGIA Jan uar\ 1996 volume 80(1): 48-57 

The general management of the Ukraine Academy is structured for an office of the 
president, with a vice president, general science secretary, and assistant science 
secretary reporting to the president. The vice president's immediate staff includes a 
group manager, a special task group, a group for equipment computation and science 
instruments, and a group for plans, operations, and economics. In addition, special 
departments are designed lo report directly to the president and vice president. The 
special departments include the DepL of Science Organization, Dept. of Building, 
DepL of International Regulations, and the Dept. of Applied Programs. 

Major sections in the Ukraine Academy serve as the disciplinary areas of 
investigation and research. The areas of study evolved to fit the needs of the people 
and geographic location of the Ukraine. The research centers of the National Academy 
include the Innovation Center, Donetsk Research Center, West Research Center, 
South Research Center, North-Eastem Research Center, and the Research Center of 
the Dnieper Area. In comparing section topics between republics of the former Soviet 
Union, similarities are found when the Union was directed previously from Moscow. 
Additional disciplines identify the needs and requirements of a particular geographic 
location and more recently the requirements and ethnic background of a particular 
group of fjeople. Frequently these divisions are also separated by a particular 
language and cultural heritage. The Academy of Sciences of the Uloaine strongly 
reflects these regional and ethnic charactenstics and requirements. 

The central departments of the Ukraine Presidium include Metrology, 
Standardization, and Quality Production Control, with an Experimental Plant of the 
Institute of Superhard Materials. The Center of Research and Teaching Foreign 
Languages is becoming more widely used with the creation of the CIS. Departments 
include Material and Technical Supply, and Scientific Equipment. The extensive 
Natural Science Museum houses Archaeology, Geology, Paleontology, Zoology, and 
Botany Museums and herbana. The Science Exposition- Center, Science Exhibition 
Center, and Intertrade Firm help promote science information as does the Laboratory 
of Scientific Cinema - Photoinformation, House of Scientists, the Association of 
Young Scientists and Specialists, and individuals in their respective disaplines. 

Interdepartmental Research Councils in the Ukraine focus attention on 
Socioeconomic F*rognostication, Economics, Increase of Safety and Longevity of 
Machines and Structures, Corrosion and Anticorrosive Protection of Metals, and 
Problems of National Relations. Other Councils focus on Automation of Experimental 
Studies, Experimental Instrument Making, Problems of Biosphere, Philosophical and 
Social Problems of Science and Engineenng, Problems of Biotechnology, and the 
Automated Systems of Data and Computer Networks, Science F^iblications, Museum, 
Information - Library, and the Council on Mechanics and Technology of Explosion. 
Committees are organized for Slavonic Scholars, Studies and Expansion of Slavonic 
Cultures, the Program of UNESCO's Man and Biosphere, New and Regenerated 
Sources of Energy and Its Conservation, Chemical Problems, Scientific Terminology, 
Informatics, System Analysis, and the Committee of Science and Culture Relations 
with Ukrainians Abroad. Commissions include Space Research, TransjX)rt 
Development, Worid Oceans, Relations with the International Agency on Atomic 
Energy, Program on Goods and Services, Agricultural Sciences, Computer 
Engineering, Distribution and Use of Scientific Services and Installations, 

Vol/. & Babulina; Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 









2 |,V ^1^ 1 


il T. V ^^^HH 

biz-J- JF 

_•:- ••*<«»a«y2^ 


ig. 1 . Main cnirancc to the new Academy of Sciences of Russia in Moscow. 

fc -Tf" ^ 

r f t 

i'E'il ill 

: iu. i. Headquarters of the former Soviet \radem\ of Sciences, ^losou. 


PHYTOLOGIA Januar> 1996 


(inmpk'x of oKircs, lecture rooms and conference facilities at the Russian /\cadeni\ 
of Sciences, Moscow. 

M,;. 4 

\i"i ^' uipturc Imalcd on hi.i;ii nsc ntficc complex of ihe l\u.ssian A( adcni 
S( icni US. \Ios( I '\\ . 

Volz & Babutina; Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 55 

Acquirement of Archive Materials, Works of Art and Rare Publications, Youth 
Relations, Military Sponsorship, Science Histonans, Awards for the Use of 
Inventions, and the Commission on Development of Scientific Inhentance. 

In addition to the Presidium organization, two major sections compxase the 
National Academy of Sciences of the Ukraine. Centers, Institutes, Bureaus, and 
Associations are established in Section I, the Mathematics section of the Academy. 
Institute disciplines include Applied Problems of Mathematics and Mechanics, Low 
Temperatures, while Mathematical Societies exist in Kharkiv, Kiev, Lviv, and 
Donetsk. A total of eleven sections are found in Section I. Internationally recognized 
people honored with their names incorporated into the Institute names in Section I 
include Ya. S. Pidstrygach (Applied Math, and Mechanics), and B.I. Verkin (Lxdw 

Section II includes Science Information, Computer Engineering, and Automation. 
Twelve establishments in Section II include Cybernetics, Timer Computers, 
Aerospace Information of Ecological Monitoring, Automated Biotechnical Systems, 
Problems of Calculating Machines and Systems, Program Systems, Problems of 
Record Information, Science and Technology Potential, Applied Information, 
Technology of Programming, Problems of Artificial Intelligence, Automation, 
Experimental Production Amalgamation, Informatics and Control, and Pioblems of 
Cybernetics. Institutes so honored by names of scientists include V.M. Glushkov 
(Cybernetics) and G.M. Dobrov (History of Science). 

Mechanics Institutes are found in Section III of the Academy complex. The 
Institutes include Design Technology, Technical Mechanics, Problems of Strength, 
Geotechnical Mechanics, Physicotechnical Problems of Transport on Superconducting 
Magnets, Hydromechanics, and Deformed Solid Body Mechanics. 

Twenty three Institutes, Pilot Plants or Research Centers are within Section IV 
Physics and Astronomy. Major facilities include Nuclear Physics, Semiconductors, 
Metal Physics, Theoretical Physics, Low Temperature Physics, Radiophysics and 
Electronics, Radioastronomy, the Ionosphere, Condensed Systems, Applied Physics, 
Hectron Physics, ElecUDphysical Treatment, Solid Body Physics, Quantum 
Electronics, Astronomy, Plasma Electronics, and Acceleration of Charged Particles. 

Eight Institutes and Pilot Plants are housed in Section V Earth Sciences. They 
include Geological Sciences, Marine Geology, Geophysics, Geodynamics of 
Explosion, Geography, Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation, Fossil Fuels, 
Nature Conservancy, Marine Hydrophysics, and Natural Shelf Resources. Councils 
and Committees are on Geophysics, Meteorites, Lithology, Mineralogy, 
Paleontology, Hydrogeology, Natural Resources - Remote Sensing, Mineral 
Resources, Tectonics, Fossil Fuels, and Earthquakes. An Institute is named in honor 
of S.E. Subbotin (Geophysics). 

Physical and Technical Problems of Materials Sciences compose the Institutes of 
Section VI. The Institutes and Pilot Plants include Electrical Welding, Metal 
TreaUnent, Welding Materials, Electrometallurgy, Matenal Science Problems, Basalt 
Fibers, Materials Science Steels, Matenals Science Problems, Casting Problems, 
Corrosion Mechanics, Superhard Matenals, Pulse Processes and Technologies, Single 
Crystals, Thermoelectrics, and Ferrous Metallurgy. The Councils focus attention on 

56 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80(1 ):48-57 

Problems of Superficial Phenomena in Melts and Solid Phases, Physical and Chemical 
Mechanics of Materials, and Problems in High Pressures in Materials Science. 
Institutes to honor scientists in Section VI include E.O. Paton (Electrical Welding), 
I.M. Frantsevich (Materials Science), G.V. Karpenko (Physical and Mechanical 
Science), V.M. Bakul (Super Hard Materials), and Z.I. Nekrasov (Ferrous 

Section VII of the Academy contains Institutes and Pilot Plants in Physical and 
Technical Problems of Power Engineering. Disciplines of Institutes, Pilot Plants, 
Bureaus, and Councils include Thermal Physics, Mechanical Engineering, 
Electrodynamics, Simulation Problems in Power Engineering, Energy Conservation, 
High Temperature Transformation, Gas, Steam Engines, Low Grade Fuels, and 
Mining Thermal Hiysics. 

Section VIII Institutes, Pilot Plants, and Councils of the Academy involve 
disciplines of Chemistry. The designated areas of chemistry are Physical Chemistry, 
Technology of Fossil Fuels, Organic Chemistry, High Molecular Weight Compxjunds, 
Carbon Chemistry, Colloid Chemistry and Chemistry of Water, Surface Chemistry, 
Bio-organic Chemistry, and Petroleum Chemistry, Sorption and Problems of 
Endoecology, Drugs and the Ministry of Hezdth, and Biocolloid Chemistry. Scientific 
Councils are organized to examine the Problems in Chemical Kinetics and Structure, 
Electrochemical Kinetics and Electrode Processes, Synthesis and Ultrapurification of 
Inorganic Compounds, Modification of Polymers, Technology of Surface 
Modification, Biopolymers and Bioregulators, and Petroleum Chemistry and 
Refining. Institutes in Section VIII bearing names of noted chemists include L.V. 
Pisarzhevsky (Physical Chemistry), O.V. Bogatsky (Physical Chemistry), L.M. 
Litvinenko (Organic Chemistry), and A.V. Dumansky (Colloid Chemistry). 

Section IX Biochemistry, Physiology, and Molecular Biology contains institutes 
in these three disciplines in addition to Microbiology and Virology, and Cryobiology 
and Cryomedicine along with five Scientific Councils in Problems in these study 
areas. Institutes named for noted scientists include O.V. Paladin (Biochemistry), 
O.O. Bogomolets (Physiology), D.K. Zabolotny (Microbiology and Virology), and 
I. P. Pavlov (Physiology). 

Section X Problems in Medicine is organized into Institutes, Bureaus, Hospitals, 
and facilities for making instruments and equipment. Institutes include Experimental 
Pathology, Oncology and Radiobiology, Labor Medicine, Neurosurgery, Urology and 
Nephrology, Endocrinology and Metabolism, Radiation Medicine, Epidemiology and 
Radiation Damages Treatment, and Food Chemistry and Technology. Two Councils 
examine Problems in Malignant Tumors and Deterioration. A scientist professionally 
recognized in Section X with an Institute name is R.E. Kavetsky (Pathology, 
Oncology, and Radiobiology). 

The vast Section XI on General Biology houses Institutes, Botanical Gardens, 
Natural Reserves, Museums, and Societies that define the different regions and 
various habitats of the land. Institutes include Botany, Carpathian Ecology, Zoology, 
Hydrobiology, Plant Physiology and Genetics, and Biology of the Southern Seas. 
Natural Reserves, Museums, and Science Societies are found throughout the country, 
specializing in many disciplines. Science Councils focus on Problems in Ecological 
Prognostication under conditions of Intensive Conservancy, and Animal 

Volz & Babutina; Reorganization of Soviet Academies of Science 57 

Conservancy. Scientists elevated to Institute Recognition in Secuon XI include M.G. 
Kholodny (Botany), M.M. Gryshko (Botany), I.I. Schmalhausen (Zoology), and 
O.O. Kovalevsky (Tropical Biology). 

Secuon XII Economics includes institutes in Economics, Problems of Markets and 
Economicoecological Research, Industnal Economics, Economicolegislative 
Research, Economics and International Relations, and Economical Programs. 
Councils exist to Investigate Production, Population Employment of Job Markets, 
Problems of Economic Relations and Improvement of Economic Mechanism, and 
Improvement of Planning and Social Production Control. 

Section XIII includes History, Philosophy, and Law. Insututes of the Section 
include Ukraine History, Archaeology, Ukraine Science, Science of the East, National 
Relations and Political Science, Philosophy, Sociology, and the State and Law. 
Vanous Centers, Museums, Libraries, and Associations are found throughout the 
country. Councils focus attention on Problems in History of Science, Sociology, 
Coordination of Legislative Research, and Archaeology and Ancient History. 

Section XIV concerns Literature, Language, and Art. Institutes include Literature 
of the Ukraine, Linguistics, Ukrainian Language, Art Study, Folklore and 
Ethnography, and Peoples Science. Councils study Scientific Terminology, Classical 
Inhentance and Fiction of the Present, Regulanties in Development of Languages and 
Practice of Linguistic Activity, Artistic and Traditional Everyday Culture, the School 
of Ukrainistics, and the Ukrainian Onomastic Commission. Insututes with names of 
prominent individuals include T.H. Shevchenko (Literature), O.O. Potebnya 
(Linguistics), and M.T. Rylsky (Art). 

Internationally recognized scholars are honorea by having their names attached to 
the various Institutes. A time of u-ansition is now underway with all Institutes under 
the former direction of central Academy control in Moscow. Now the Academy in 
Moscow is the directive for Russia, and Commonwealth States have independent 
junsdicuon for each new commonwealth republic. New associations replace the 
Soviet system, but as one nation dissolved into many, the entire fabnc of the new 
republics must be built that incorporates the traditions, customs, and languages of the 
regions of the former U.S.S.R. International Ucide is suddenly cnppled, and new 
economies and associations must be fostered. Cenual government funding, salaries, 
equipment, and supplies now are shifted to the private sector, international 
foundations, and associations. Dunng this transition, the Insuuites with their stall 
members remain available to supervise and guide the uansition to individual 
Commonwealth States, a stabilizing factor for nationality expression. Every 
procedure, new invention, method, and association is now a new experience in an 
entirely new set of values and in an entirely new way of life which has no 
infrastructure to replace the old Soviet system. 

Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1)58-61. 


George S. Hinton 
Apartado Postal 603, Saltillo, Coahuila, MEXICO 25000 


A new species of Mammillaria, M. luethyi G.S. Hinton is descnbed 
from northern Coahuila, Mexico, where it occurs in shallow soil deposits on 
honzontal limestone slabs. It is outstanding for its unique spine characters. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, ManvnilUiria, Mexico, Coahuila, systematics 

With the following description we put an end to a 44 year old mystery. Originally 
the plant herein descnbed was found in 1952 by Boke as a cultivated specimen of 
unknown ongin. Photographs made by Cutak were published by Backeberg (1961) 
who wrongly identified it as an undescnbed species of Neogomesia. Glass & Foster 
(1978) showed the same plant, identifying it correctly as a species of MammiUaria. 
Bravo & Sanchez-Mejorada (1991, figure 242) published the same photo as 
Normanbokea vatdeziana. 

Northern Coahuila; On limestone slabs in Chihuahuan Desert vegetation. May 19 
1996, Hinton et al. 25771 (HOLOTYPE: HERBARIUM OF G.B. HINTON; 
Isotypes: to be distributed). 

Plantulae perpusillae, spinis albis dense vestitis, vix e terra emergentes, 
simplices vel modice prolificantes, apice 1.5 cm diametro, radicibus 
succulentis e base caulis, tuberculis peranguste cylindncis, erectis, ca. 5.5 mm 
longis, 1.3 mm diametro, areolis 80 spinis albis, dense insertis, 0.4-0.6 mm 
longis, extremo solo pubescentibus papillis radiantibus quasi stellula, apicem 
tuberculi tegentibus. Ros 2 cm longus et diametro, submagenteus. Fructus 
globosus, ca. 4.5 mm diametro, vix carnosus, immersus in caule, luteolus ad 
modice rubescens. Semen niger, globosus, 1 mm diametro, hilo basali, testa 



New Matrumlluria from Cciahuila 


Figure 1 . Photograph ol' habit and habitat of Matntnillaria lueilm. 

60 PHYTOLOGIA Jan uaiA 1996 M.lume 8()(1 ): 58-61 

Stems single to branching with up to 7 heads, apex rounded to llatlened, ca. 1.5 
cm in diameter, emerging only slightly above the substrate. Subterranean part of the 
stem naked, carrot-like, corneal with several strongly succulent, tapenng roots, ca. 6 
mm in diameter at base. Tubercles ascending, densely set, very slender, cylindrical, 
up to 5.5 mm long and 1.3 mm in diameter, dark green with a reddish or whitish base, 
becoming dry and deciduous in the subterranean part of the stem. Areoles containing 
some hyaline hairs and up to 80 white spines, densely set in vanous series, porrect to 
radiating, forming a dense flattened cluster 1.3-1.8 mm in diameter, slightly 
rhomboidal in outline, completely covenng the ape.x of the tubercle. Spines 0.4-0.6 
mm long, the uppermost in the areoles slightly longer, whiUsh-translucenl with hyaline 
hairs in the uppermost part, hairs radiating and forming a little umbrella at the spine 
apex. Flowers up to 2 cm long and wide, light magenta. Fruit nearly completely 
sunken in the stem, globular, 4.5 mm in diameter, yellowish green to reddish green 
with up to 15 seeds, drying and leaving a cavity filled with seeds in the stem base. 
Seeds black, globular, ca. 1 mm long and wide, with a basal hilum, slightly separated 
by a faint neck, irregularly oval, 0.8 mm long and 0.4 mm wide. Testa finely pitted. 

The plants grow on honzontal limestone slabs, deeply sunken in a very shallow 
substrate (Figure 1), only 1.5-2.0 cm deep, of sandy clay and fine gravel, growing 
with Selaginella wrighlii, Neolloydia conoidea, Bouleloua gracilis, and lichen. The 
microhabitats are surrounded by typical Chihuahuan Desert vegetation, dominated by 
Agave lechuguilla. Dasylirion sp.. Yucca elaia, Yucca sp., Fouquieria splendens, 
Escobar ia tuberculosa, and Glandulicactus uncinatus. 

Marnmilkuia luethyi is known only from the type locality, which has been 
purposefully withheld to protect the habitat from collecting. The exact locality data are 
deposited with the holotype. 

Mammillaria luethyi belongs to the senes Herrerae, together with M. hu/nboltii, M. 
herrerae, M. albiflora, and M. sanchez-tnejoradae, this last being its closest neighbor, 
growing to the southeast in Nuevo Le6n. The species of senes Herrerae share several 
characters, e.g., fruits sunken in the stem, a high number of white radial spines, lack 
of central spines and the distribution as narrow endemics on limestone rock in eastern 
M6xico from Querdtaro to Coahuila (Liithy 1995). Matmmllaria lueth\i differs from 
M. Sanchez mejoradae in the arrangement and \estiture of the spines (\s. pectinate, 
plumose) and the color of the flower (vs. white). Superficially it resembles M. 
saboae, of senes Longi/lorae, from which it differs in the habitat (vs. \olcanic rock), 
spine insertion, count, length, and vesuture (vs. a single senes, 17-25, ca. 2 mm long, 
glabrous) and flower size (vs. 4 cm long and wide). 

This remarkable Mammillaria is named for Jonas M. Luthy, one of its co- 
discoverers, a Swiss botanist and student of the genus Manvnillaria, w ho alter a Hash 
of intuition pointed to its exact location on his map and spoke, 'This is w here the plant 
grows." And there we found it. 

Hinlon: Neu ;V/rt/w/i/7/^;r/a from Qxihuila 61 


I wish to thank my wife Alejandra lor her support on all my collecting trips. 

I am grateful to B.L. Turner and Gayle Turner for reviewing the manuscript. Also 
Alejandra Hinton for the use of her vehicle. 


Backeberg, C. 1961. Die Cactaceae . Vol. 5: 2687. 

Bravo, Mollis H. & Sanchez Mejorada H. 1991. Las Cactdceas de Mexico. Vol. 3. 

Universidad Nacional Auionoma de Mexico: Fig. 242. 
Glass, C. & R. Foster. 1978. What is New. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.A.):60. 
Liithy, J. 1995. Ta.\onomische Untersuchung der Gattung Manvnillaria Haw. 

(Cactaceae). Verlag Arbeitskreis fur Mammillanenfreunde AfM) e.V. & Jonas M. 


Phylologia (January 1996) 80(1)62-66 


George S. Hinton 
Apartado Postal 603, Salullo, Coahuila, MEXICO 25000 


A new species of Turbinicarpus, T. booleanus G.S. Hinlon, is 
descnbed from Nuevo Leon, Mexico, where il occurs on gypsum outcrops. A 
map showing the distribution of the new species and the other tuberous-rooted 
taxa of Turbinicarpus, T. mandragora. and T. subterraneus var. subterraneus, 
IS also provided. 

KEY WORDS: Cactaceae, Turbinicarpus, Mexico, Nuevo Leon, gypsum, 

Some species of Turbinicarpus (Backeb.) Buxb. & Backeb. occur consistently 
throughout the gypsum outcrops in Nuevo Le6n, Mexico. The gypsophilic species are 
usually like those that were once included in the genus G\mnocactus Backeb., a 
remarkable exception being the recently descnbed T. hoferii. Liithy & A.B. Lau from 
the gypsum to the north of Arambem, Nuevo Leon. Like other genera with 
gypsophilic members in this area, notably Leucophyllum, Verbesina. Sedum, 
Aztekium, Geohinlonia, Jaimehintonia, and Sophora, Turbinicarpus conlams narrowly 
endemic ta.xa which are often restricted to a single gypsum outcrop. The present 
novelty occurs in the Mumcipio of Galeana, in two localities separated a few 
kilometers from each other. 

Nuevo Le6n: Mpio. Galeana, Y Gnega, 1860 m, gvpsum hillside, 1 Mar 1992, 
Hinton el al. 21805 (HOl^CfYYPE. TEX; Isotypes: CANTE,ENCB, G.B. Hinton 

Turbinicarpus mandragora (A. Berger) A.D. Zimmermann et T. 
subterraneus (Backeb.) A.D. Zimmermann \ar. subterraneus simile quoad 
radix tubcrascens per collum gracilem ad caulc connexa; caulibus singulis 
partim hypogaeis depressi-obovatis; collo hypogaco plerumquc 2-5 cm longo; 
in quoque areola spinis centralis duabus, supenore antrorsa inienore porrecta, 


Hinton: New Turbinicarpus from Nuevo Le<3n 63 

ad basim albis cetero atrobrunneis vel nigns; spinis radialis vulgo 18-20 
ubique albis vel apicem versus rubris vel brunneis; flonbus magenteis; 
fruclibus longitudinaliter dehiscenlibus pulverulentis, squamis duabus 
stramineis ca. 1 mm longis. 

Stems single, rarely branching, broadly obovate, 2.5-4.5 cm high, 2.5-5.5 cm in 
diameter, basally truncate in older specimens. Roots connected to the stem by a 
narrow, hypogeous neck; neck 1-5 cm long, 3-5 mm in diameter, usually straight but 
occasionally curved or angled. Roots tuberous, pynform to globose, 0.8-2.8 cm m 
diameter, 1.2-5.7 cm long. Stems tuberculate, the axils naked; tubercles rhomboidal 
in cross section, lacking a dorsal sulcus, green, white-dotted, ca. 4 mm high, ca. 5 
mm wide at the base, arranged in 13 and 21 spirals. Areoles elliptical 1.5-2.0 mm 
long. 1 mm wide, villous near apex, later glabrous, ca. 8 mm apart. Central spines 2, 
ca 0.3 mm in diameter at the base, terete, proximally white, turning brown, then black 
above, the apical antrorse, mostly 12-15 mm long, ranging from 10 to 24 mm, the 
basal porrect, mostly 12-18 mm long, ranging from 10 to 21 mm. Radial spines 
mostly 18 to 20, rarely as few as 14 or as many as 28, acicular, white, the extreme 
apex usually brown or reddish; the lowermost (retrorse) radial spines shortest, these 
ca 3-6 mm long and 0. 1 mm in diameter at the base, progressively longer above, the 
uppermost (antrorse) radial spines longest, usually ca. 17 mm, rarely to ca. 29 mm 
long, 0.2 mm in diameter at the base. Flowers ca. 2 cm in diameter, ca. 2.5 cm high. 
Outer penanth segments oblong, entire, mucronulate, the lowermost ca. 8 mm long 
and 3 mm wide, with a white, translucent margin, midvein green, becoming dark 
purple above. Inner perianth segments narrowly oblanceolate, apex emarginate and 
often mucronulate, ca 15 mm long and 4 mm wide, paJe to dark magenta with darker 
midvein. Anthers yellow; Tilaments yellow. Style ca. 1 1 mm long; stigma lobes 7 to 
9, pale yellow, protruding ca. 5 mm above the anthers. Fruit dark green to purple, 
pulverulent, longitudinally dehiscent, ca 6 mm in diameter and 7 mm high, attached at 
the base of an apical areole, with two stramineous scales ca. 1 mm long. 

In the treatments of both Anderson ( 1986) and Bravo et al. (1991), Turbinicarpus 
booieanus will key to T. rrumdragora (A. Berger) A.D. Zimmermann and T. 
subterraneus {Backcb.) A.D. Zimmermann var. subterraneus because of their tuberous 
roots connected to the stem by an elongate neck. These three taxa are widely separated 
geographically (Map 1). Turbinicarpus booieanus is unique among them in having 
only about a third of the main stem body above ground; this correlates with the porrect 
central spines which are directed verucally. In the length of its neck, T. booieanus is 
more similar to T. mandragora, but the latter has a more or less globose, epigeous 
bcxly; brown-tipped (vs. mostly black) central spines that spread perpendicularly away 
from the body; fewer radial spines per areole (8 to 14 vs. 14 to 28); and white (vs. 
magenta) flowers. This species is known only from its type locality, near Parras, in 
southern Coahuila Though closer geographically to T. subterraneus var. 
subterraneus, T. booieanus is easily distinguished from this taxon by its shorter, 
thicker, hypogeous neck with parually hypogeous body; and more and longer radial 
spines that are brown at the apex (vs. glassy-white throughout). Turbinicarpus 
subterraneus var. subterraneus grows about 75 km to the south of T. booieanus on 
low shrubby limestone hills with Agave. Dasylirion, Flourensia. Larrea, Mortonia. 
and Yucca, the plants incredibly suspended on their long necks. Turbinicarpus 
booieanus is found infrequently only on bare, exposed gypsum slopes with Dasylirion 
berlandieri, Muhlenbergia gypsophila, Pinus greggii. SelagineUa gypsophila, and 
Yucca decipiens. 



Januarv 1996 

volume 80(l):62-66 

Figure 1: Map of the distn buttons of Turbinicarpus booleanus, T. subterraneus var. 
subterraneus, and T. mandragora. 

Hi n ton: 

New Turbinicarpus Irom Nuevo Leon 



Figure 2; Photograph ot the holotype of Turbinicarpus booleanus. 

66 PHYTOLOGIA January 1996 volume 80( l):62-66 

It is a pleasure to name this novelty for my son George Boole, who, though only 
five years old, accompanies me regularly on my field trips throughout Nuevo Leon 
and Coahuila. 


I thank Dr. B.L. Turner, Mark Mayfield, and Carol Todzia for reviewing the 
manuscript, and Paul Fryxell for the Latin diagnosis. 


Anderson, E F. 1986. A Revision of the genus Neolloydia B. & R. (Cactaceae). 

Bravo, Hollis Helia & Hem^do Sanchez Mejorada. 1991. Las Cactaceas de Mexico. 

Vol. II. Universidad Nacional Aut6noma de Mexico, Ciudad Mexico, Mexico. 
Glass C. & R. Foster. 1978. Two new Vaneties of Gymnocactus from Northern 

Mexico. Cact. Succ. J. (U.S.A.) 50:281-285. 

Phylologia (January 1996) 80(1)67 


Inventory of Rare and Endangered Vascular Plants of California, Fifth Edition. Mark 
W. Skinner & Bruce M. Piavlik (eds.). Illustrations by Linda Ann Vorobik and 
Mark W. Skinner. California Native Plant Society, Special F*ublication No. 1 . 
California Native Plant Society, 1722 J Street, Suite 17, Sacramento, California 
95814. 1994. vi. 338 pp. $22.95 ISBN 0-943460-18-2 (paper); $150.00 
ISBN 0-943460-19-0 (electronic). 

More than simply a listing of rare plants, this book begins with an 
introduction to California flonstics, with background on endemism and other 
factors contnbuting to rarity in the California flora. Additional background 
information includes summary of efforts to preserve the flora, discussion of 
policy issues, and descnptions of agency responsibilities. The listing itself 
includes scientific and common names, rarity codes, locations, habitat, life 
form, flowenng penod, and notes. Notes include additional information about 
the plant and references for more information. In addition to the ofnciaJIy rare 
and endangered plants, many other species are included that had been 
considered for listing, but were not listed. In each of these cases, the reason 
for not listing them is mentioned. 


Phytotogia (January 1996) 80(1)68. 



Cover date 

Publication date 


July 1995 
August 1995 
September 1995 
October 1995 
November 1995 
December 1995 

31 January 1996 
29 Apnl 1996 
10 June 1996 
10 July 1996 
31 July 1996 
23 August 1996 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1)69. 


Manuscripts listed below include those received after examination by two or more 
reviewers. A note of appreciation to reviewers is found on page 511 of volume 78 
and page 70 of volume 80, with the lists of reviewers. Manuscnpts received without 
review are not considered for publication until review has been completed. 

Manuscripts received: 137 

Manuscripts accepted without revision: 58 

Manuscripts accepted after revision: 64 

Manuscripts returned to authors without publication: 7 

Manuscripts currently under revision: 8 

Manuscripts currently accepted but not yet published: 17 

Papers published: 105 

Days elapsed from receipt of manuscript to publication (includes only those 
manuscnpts selected for publication): mean = 58; range =15-131 

Days elapsed from acceptance for publication to publication of manuscnpu mean = 
49; range = 15-64 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1):70. 


The editor expresses his most sincere appreciation to the following individuals. 
These are persons who have reviewed papers that were submitted for publication in 
volume 79 of Phytologia. Without the willingness and diligence of these reviewers, 
the task of the editor would be much more difficult, and the quality of the papers 
published would be lessened. To each of you, I offer my most sincere thanks. 

Michael J. Wamock, Editor 

Allred, K. 
Bameby, R. 
Barringer, K.A. 
Carlquist, S. 
Croat, T.B. 
Delevoryas, T. 
Delprete, P. 
Dutton. B.E. 
Evans, J. 
Halward, T.M. 
Jensen, R. 
Jones, S. 
Laven, R.D. 
Lei linger, D. 
MacRoberts, D.T. 
McDonald, A. 
McPherson, G. 
Mayfield, M. 
Nesom, G.L. 
Nicolson, D. 
Panero, J. 

Powell, A.M. 
Reveal, J.L. 
Rundell, J.R. 
Schatz, G.E. 
Spellenberg, R. 
Turner, B.L. 
Turner, G. 
Weber, B. 
Wendt, T. 
Wilken, D. 
Williams, J. 


Phytologia (January 1996) 80(1): 71. 


Axelius, B. 10 

Chemnick, J. 51 

Close, B.F. 372 

Engel. J.J. 250 

Grant, J.R. 254 

Grayum. M.H. 108, 269 

Gregory, T.J. 51 

Hammel, B.E. 269 

Hempel, A.L. 298 

Herrera A., Y. 25, 325 

Hunt, D.M. 22 

Keller, C. 319 

Knobloch, I.W. 346 

Lowrey, T. 319 

Luhrs, H. 1 14, 389 

MacRoberts, B.R. 22, 123 

MacRoberts, M.H. 22, 123 

Morden, C.W. 28 

Nesom, G.L. 257, 281 

Reveal, J.L. 68 

Schnell, L. 372 

Shaw, R.B. 372 

Sivinski, R. 319 

Smith Merrill, G.L. 250 

Soejima, A. 35 

Sperling, C.R. 1 

Turner, B.L. 5, 8. 12, 31, 38, 43, 47, 
58, 77, 80, 83, 89, 93, 97, 102, 

133, 257, 286, 289, 293, 296, 
298, 301, 303, 306, 309, 313 
317, 340. 343, 356. 364, 369 

Wang, Wen Tsai 382 
Wamock, M.J. 136, 382 
Weber, W.A. 65 
Yahara,T. 35 
Zhu, Guanghua 382 





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