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PHYTOLOGIA 



An international journal to expedite plant systematic, phytogeographical 
and ecological publication 



Vol. 81 November 1996 No. 5 



CONTENTS 



TURNER, B.L., A new species of Salvia (sect. Caducae) from Guerrero, 

Mexico 329 

TURNER, B.L., Two new species of Russelia (Scrophulariaceae) from M6xico 

and Guatemala 333 

TURNER, B.L., A new red-flowered Salvia (Lamiaceae) from Baja Verapaz, 

Guatemala 340 

TURNER, B.L., Two remarkable novelties of Ageratina (Asteraceae, 

Eupatorieae) from Mexico 343 

TURNER, B.L. & K. TRIPLETT, Revisionary study of the genus Milleria 

(Asteraceae, Heliantheae) 348 ' 

MORALES, J.F., Three new taxa for the flora of Costa Rica 36 1 ' 

MCEVTOSH, L., Seven additions to the flora of New Mexico 365 

VIBRANS, H., Notes on neophytes 2. New records for Asteraceae from the 

center of Mexico 369 

D'ARCY, W.G. & C. BENITEZ de ROJAS, Cestrum jaramillmum: A 

clarification 382 

Back issues available 383 

Phytologia Memoirs 1 1 available 384 



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Phyiologia (November 1996) 8l(5):329-332. 



A NEW SPECIES OF SALVIA (SECT. CADUCAE) FROM GUERRERO, 

MEXICO 



B.L. Turner 
Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78713 U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

A new species. Salvia turneri Ramamoorthy, is described from 
Guerrero, Mexico. It belongs to the sect. Caducae where it relates to S. 
tehuacana. Four species are now included in the section and a key to these is 
provided. 

KEY WORDS: Lamiaceae, Salvia, Mexico, systematics 



Salvia is a very large genus with a bewildering array of species. Epiing (1939) 
treated the New World species of the subgenus Calosphace, apportioning these among 
90 sections. The present novelty belongs to the sect. Caducae, in which Epiing 
recognized two annual species, S. subincisa and S. tehuacana. He subsequently 
added an additional species, 5. pseudoincisa from Tamaulipas, Mexico. The present 
novelty adds a fourth species to the complex. These can be recognized by the 
following key. 



KEY TO SPECffiS OF SECT. CADUCAE 



I. Leaf blades 2.5-4.0 times as long as wide, lanceolate in outline, the margins 
lacerate dentate; northwestern Mexico and closely adjacent U.S. A S. subincisa 

1. Leaf blades 1.0-2.5 times as long as wide, oblong-elliptic or broadly ovate to 

subcordate in outline; eastern and southern Mexico (2) 

2. Floral bracts subpersistent; calyx eglandular; Tamaulipas S. pseudoincisa 

2. Floral bracts early deciduous; calyx glandular-pubescent; Puebla, Oaxaca, and 
Guerrero. (3) 

3. Midstems strigose with recurved short hairs to glabrate, without long multiseptate 
hairs; Guerrero S. turneri 

3. Midstems pubescent with at least a smattering of very long multiseptate spreading 
hairs; Puebla, Oaxaca 5. tehuacana 

329 



330 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):329-332 



SALVIA TURNERI T.P. Ramamoorthy, spec. nov. TYPE: MEXICO. Guerrero: 
Mpio. Zumpango del Rio, 1 km S of junction of road to Filo de Caballo, 33 km N 
of Chilpancingo, Aug. 24 \9%A,FredBarrie, T.P. Ramamoorthy, B. Esquivel, & 
Marguerite Elliott 963 {nOLOTYPE: TEX!; Isotype: MEXU). 

Similis 5. tehuacanae Fern, sed tubis coroUarum majoribus, ca. 7 mm 
longis, et interne papillatis (vice tuborum ca. 4.5 mm longorum et 
epapillatorum), labiis superioribus ca. 5 mm longis (vice 2 mm longis), et 
caulibus sine trichomatibus longis et multiseptatis. 

Annual herbs to 60-80 cm tall. Stem profusely branched, 4-angled, sulcate, 
pubescent with recurved white hairs, often interspersed with short glandular hairs, 
glabrate with age. Leaves deltoid-ovate, 3-6 cm long, to 2-4 cm wide, acute to 
acuminate at tip, nearly truncate to often oblique at base, inconspicuously distantly 
dentate along margin, otherwise entire, sparsely pilose above, glabrous below, with 4- 
5 pairs of nerves. Inflorescence terminal, racemes of interrupted verticils, the 
intemodes separating verticils to 4 cm long, its vestiture similar to that of stem. Bracts 
ovate-acuminate, glandular-hairy, early deciduous. Pedicels to 4 mm long, pilose, 
interspersed with glandular hairs. Calyx ca. 5 mm long, densely glandular, hairy, 
upper lip 3-nerved, lower 2-lobed, all lobes acuminate, fruiting calyces to 7 mm long. 
Corolla blue, 1-2 cm (tube 7 mm x 2 mm, with 2 pairs of papillae at base) long, upper 
lip galeate, 5 mm long, densely bearded, lower lip 7 mm long, 3-lobed, laterals 
shorter, rounded, the middle extended, entire, 5 mm across. Stamens 2, included, 
filaments ca. 2 mm long, rudder ca. 3 mm long with tooth (near intersection with face) 
facing laterally, connective ca. 2.5 mm long, anthers ca. 1.5 mm long. Style 1-2 cm 
long, barely exserted, glabrous. Ovules ca. 1 mm long, gynobase horn ca. 1 mm 
high. Seeds oblong, dark brown, ca. 2 mm long, smooth, with purple markings. 

ADDITIONAL SPECIMEN EXAMINED: MEXICO. Guerrero: "Along the 
Milpillas Atoyac road via Puerto del Gallo, 2.1 mi W of Mex. highway 95 and 5 mi E 
of Xochipala, ca. 3,250 ft, 15 Oct. 1975, Reveal, et al. 4167 (G\{). 

Salvia tumeri is similar to 5. tehuacana Fern, from which it differs in its larger 
calyx (6 mm vs. ca. 5.5 mm), larger corolla (papillate tube ca. 7 mm vs. epapillate 
tube 4.5 mm; upper lip ca. 5 mm long vs. 2 mm long), and stems without long 
multiseptate trichomes. 

Dr. Ramamoorthy proposed the present eponym with an effuse account of the 
person honored which, while appreciated, is not recounted here. 

The above description and comments are largely unaltered from a handwritten 
account prepared by Dr. T.P. Ramamoorthy, lately associated with MEXU and TEX 
whose specialty is the Lamiaceae. He apparently opted to leave the field of plant 
systematics and now resides with his wife and child in Austin, Texas, pursuing yet 
other goals. He has not read the present paper, but I assume he has not changed his 
mind with respect to the above; at least I believe the species is valid, and would have 
preferred to name this in his honor, except that there already exists a Salvia 
ramamoorthyana Espejo. In short, I have let his work stand! 



Turner: 



New Salvia from Guerrero 



331 




MOijpTrpEor 






-K ^ 



riAMTJ OF ktXlCO 



.^..^>^,' 



•V A 




Figure 1 . Salvia tumeri, from holotype. 



j,h. T-e «•- 

CUERRCRO: Highway «S (th. U.iico-Act- 
puloo highway), 1 krn south of th« junction 
o( t»x rn^ tn Fllo <>• C<tkillo. 33 km north 
of ChilpancJngo, in'p'o- Zumpangc d«l Rto. 



«flt al^ of roadway. 



Frod R. Barria 9«3 }4 Auguil 1964 

with T.P, Ramamoorthy, B. Etquival.t U. 
Ellwn 

UnlvanHy of Texas rt AuiUn 



332 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):329-332 



Distribution of the four species belonging to the sect. Caduceae are shown in 
Figure 1. All of these are tap-rooted annuals having small blue flowers with extended 
lower lips, and broadly flaring calyx lobes. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



I am grateful to Gayle Turner for the Latin diagnosis, and to her and Justin 
Williams for reviewing the manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Epling, C. 1939. A revision of Sa/v/a, subgenus Ca/o^p/iac^. Feddes Report. Spec. 

Nov. Beih. 110:1-388. 
. 1940. Supplementary notes on American Labiatae. Bull. Torrey Bot. 

Club 67:509-534. 



Phylologia (November 1996) 81(5):333-339. 



TWO NEW SPECIES OF RUSSELIA (SCROPHULARIACEAE) FROM MEXICO 

AND GUATEMALA 



B.L. Turner 
Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78713 U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

Two novelties of Russelia are described and illustrated: R. iltisneeana 
B.L. Turner, spec, nov., from westernmost Jalisco; and R. contrerasii B.L. 
Turner, spec, nov., from Mexico and Guatemala. The former, with stiffly 
erect, rounded, multicostate stems, essentially devoid of foliage, relates to R . 
elongata; the latter a sprawling shrub or shrublet having angled stems, and 
well-developed leaves with entire margins, relates to R. campechiana. A map 
showing the distribution of these taxa vis-a-vis closely related taxa is provided. 

KEY WORDS: Scrophulariaceae, Russelia, Mexico, Guatemala, systematics 



Russelia, a genus of about 50 attractive species of perennial herbs and shrubs 
possessing ruby red flowers, is largely centered in Mexico, a few of these extending 
into Central AJnerica and one {R. sarmentosa) into South America (Standley & 
Williams 1973). Carlson (1957) provided a relatively sound taxonomic treatment of 
the complex, but subsequently several additional species have been proposed, two of 
these by the present author (Turner 1983, 1997). 

The two novelties described below are represented by only a few collections, but 
these seem quite distinct from closely related elements, as noted in the protologue of 
each. 



RUSSELIA ILTISNEEANA B.L. Turner, spec. nov. Figure 1. TYPE: 
MEXICO. Jalisco: 1 km SW of Nacastillo (19° 35' N, 104° 55' W) on road to 
Chamela, "Very peculiar, highly local, xeromorphic thorn scrub (matorra! tropical 
espinoso), with dense stands of low Hechtia species, dry crumbling rock 
(granitic?) outcrops," ca. 280 m, 12 Jan 1979, H.H. litis & M. Nee 1552 
(HOLOTYPE: WISC!; Isotype: IBUG!). 



333 



334 



PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):333-339 




Figure 1 . Russelia iltisneeana, holotype. 



Turner New Russelia from Mexico and Guatemala 335 



Similis R. elongatae Carlson sed caulibus valde costatis, sulcis dense 
hispidulis, et corollis parioribus (5-8 mm longis vice 12-18 mm longis). 

Stiffly erect nearly leafless perennial herbs ca. 1.5 m high, the stems arising from 
very stout lateral rhizomes; midstems 5-7 mm across, markedly rounded, endowed 
with ca. 8 longitudinal glabrous stout ribs ca. 0.8 mm across, between these lie 8, 
somewhat smaller, grooved additional ribs, the sulci between the ribs densely and 
minutely hispidulous. Leaves not apparent, reduced to (4-)6-8 lanceolate leaves 10 
mm long or less, or else the blades disarticulating, the petiole bases persistent as 
appressed ovate cartilaginous nubbins 2-4 mm long, giving the stem an Equisetum-like 
appearance. Flowers numerous, relatively small, arranged in terminal spike-like 
inflorescences, any one node producing 10-20 flowers on very short branches, the 
pedicels mostly 1-3 mm long. Sepals ovate with acuminate apices, 2.5-3.5 mm long, 
glabrous. Corollas deep red, 5-10 mm long, the tubes glabrous without, pubescent 
within, ca. 1 mm across at the base but soon flaring into a broad throat 3-4 mm across 
at the apex, the lobes 1-2 mm long. Capsules ovoid, glabrous, 2.5-3.0 mm long. 
Seeds numerous, immature. 

ADDITIONAL SPECIMENS EXAMINED: Jalisco: Puente los Tortugas, 2 km 
carretera a Ameca, 1589 m, Oct 1981, A. Michel 47 (IBUG); margenes de Rio Salada, 
por la brecha de cafion de las flores, 1550 m, 22 Mar 1987, Reyna B. 320 (IBUG). 

Russelia iltisneeana is a remarkably distinct taxon what with its seemingly leafless 
markedly ribbed, stiffly erect stems and terminal, spike-like inflorescences. Collectors 
of the type describe its habitat as "very peculiar," as is the species, and in my 
diagnosis I have compared it with R. elongata Carlson more ou'. of convenience than 
conviction, the latter also having nearly leafless rounded stems. It differs from the 
latter in having a much stiffer, more Equisetum-Wke habit, and markedly grooved 
stems, similar to those of/?, equisetiformis Schlect. & Cham., but lacking the whorled 
branching characteristic of that taxon and having a very different inflorescence and 
flowers. 

It is a perverse pleasure to name this species for the two individuals who 
participated in its collection, both much admired warm friends of mine: Hugh Utis of 
the University of Wisconsin, renowned biophiliac and pleasantly peripatetic 
curmudgeon of sorts; and Pat Nee of the New York Botanical Garden, well-known 
unobtrusive, constant collector caught up in his passion that each man does his duty as 
he can. I hope they will forgive me for officiating in this eponymic union. 



RUSSELIA CONTRERASII B.L. TURNER, spec. nov. Figure 2. TYPE: 
GUATEMALA. Peten: "Guayaca La Pita, bordering Laguna Guayacan, in low 
forest, north," 15 Jan 1968, Elias Contreras 7464 (HOLOTYPE: LL!; Isotypes: 
LL!,WISC!). 

Similis R. campechianae Cham. & Schlect. sed inflorescentua est panicula 
terminalis et cymosa (vice inflorescentiae congestae, et axillaris et terminalis), 
et pedicelli sunt plerumque 5-10 mm longis (vice pedicellorum plerumque 1-3 
mm longorum). 



336 



PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):333-339 




Figure 2. Russelia contrerasii, holotype. 



Turner: 



New Russelia from Mexico and Guatemala 



337 




Ki 



Figure 3. Distribution of the Russelia campechiana complex: R. campechiana (closed 
circles), R. syringifolia (open circles), R. purpusii (closed triangles), R. contrerasii 
(open squares); distribution of the Russelia elongata complex: R. elongata (open 
triangle), R. iltisneeana (large closed circle), and R. worthingtonii (closed square) 
Based upon specimens at IBUG, LL, TEX, and WISC). 



338 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):333-339 



"Woody vine," the larger stems 4-5 mm across, tan, glabrate. Leaves mostly 8-10 
cm long, 3.5-8.0 cm wide; petioles 5-10 mm long; blades broadly ovate to cordate, 
pinnately nervate, glabrous or nearly so, the lower surfaces minutely punctate. 
Flowers arranged in terminal diffuse pyramidal panicles, 6-10 cm across and about as 
high, the pedicels glabrous, mostly 10-16 mm long. Calyces 3.0-3.4 mm long, 
broadly ovate to subcordate, the apices acute or apiculate, glabrous or the margins 
minutely ciliate. Corollas "red carmine," 12-16 mm long, 4-5 mm across (pressed), 
glabrous, the lobes 3-4 mm long, broadly rounded at the apices. Ovary glabrous. 
Capsules broadly ovoid, turgid or woody at maturity, dehiscent apically, ca. 8 mm 
high, 5 mm across; seeds numerous, ovoid, ca. 1 mm long, 0.6 mm wide, the 
surfaces both warty and pitted. 

ADDITIONAL COLLECTIONS EXAMINED: GUATEMALA. Peten: 
"Guayacan, in high forest, bordering Laguna Guayacan, on rock wall," 30 Dec 1967, 
Contreras 7380 (LL). 

MEXICO. Chiapas: Mpio. La Trinitaria, Montane Rain Forest, 10 km ENE of 
Dos Lagos above Santa Elena, growing on cliff face, 1 170 m, 14 Oct 1981, Breedlove 
53557 (LL). 

This novelty is closely related to Russelia campechiana and R. syringifolia, but 
differs from both in having flowers arranged in a diffuse terminal inflorescence, the 
pedicels 5-10 mm long (vs. both axillary and terminal in congested clusters, the 
pedicels mostly 0-2 mm long). 

These several species, along with Russelia purpusii, belong to a group of taxa (c/. 
Figure 3) which Carlson (1957) keyed as distinguished from all other russelioid taxa 
in having entire leaf blades. She also included among these, R. elongata, which has 
very reduced leaves with a few dentations. I would exclude the latter from this 
complex since it appears to have its closest relationships with R. worthingtonii B.L. 
Turner and R. iltisneeana, the latter described in the present paper. The latter two 
species possess rounded stems and very reduced leaves, in habit appearing Equisetum- 
like (but lacking a whorled branching system as occurs in R. equisetiformis). 

The following key will distinguish among the four taxa having large leaves with 
entire margins: 

1. Stems terete, without ridges, leaves (especially the major veins) pilose; Veracruz, 

Oaxaca R. purpusii 

1. Stems 4-sided, ridged at their angles; leaves glabrous or nearly so (the petioles and 

nodal regions often minutely pubescent) (2) 

2. Inflorescence congested, arranged both terminal and axillary along upper 

stems, the ultimate pedicels mostly 0-2 mm long (3) 

3. Corollas 11-13 mm long; petioles 7-9 mm long; Oaxaca to Guatemala 

R. campechiana 

3. Corollas 15-25 mm long; petioles 3-5 mm long; Tamaulipas and Veracruz. . 

R. syringifolia 

2. Inflorescence open and terminal, not at all congested, the ultimate pedicels 
mostly 5-10 mm long; Chiapas, Mexico, and Guatemala R. contrerasii 



Turner: New Russelia from Mexico and Guatemala 339 



In their treatment of Russelia for the Flora of Guatemala (Standley & Williams 
1973), R. contrerasii will key to R. campechiana, but these authors apparently did not 
possess material of R. contrerasii, to judge from their annotations and description of 
the former. They did, however, place R. likicina (Lundell) Lundell, an entire leafed 
taxon described after Carlson's monograph, in synonymy with R. campechiana, a 
disposition with which I concur. 

It should be noted that the Chiapan collection of Russelia contrerasii (Breedlove 
53557), while having an inflorescence typical of the species, possesses markedly 
different leaves, very much like those of/?, campechiana. With further investigations, 
this might prove distinct. 

The type locality for Russelia contrerasii, as given on the label and quoted with the 
descriptions, is obscure. Dr. Thomas Wendt, at my request, scouted out the locality in 
more detail, concluding that the type was probably collected at Finca Guayacan (16° 

41' N, 89° 54' W), south of the village of Floras, where the collector resided during 
the collecting period concerned. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



I am grateful to Gayle Turner for the Latin diagnosis, and to her and Ted 
Delevoryas for reviewing the paper. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Carlson, M.C. 1957. Monograph of the genus Russelia. Fieldiana, Bot. 29:231- 

292. 
Standley, P.C. & L.O. Williams. 1973. Russelia, in Flora Guatemala, Fieldiana, 

Bot. 24:388-395. 
Turner, B.L. 1983. A new species of Russelia (Scrophulariaceae). Phytologia 

54:24. 
. 1997. Russelia manantlana (Scrophulariaceae), a new species 

from Jalisco, Mexico. Phytologia 81(1 ):22-23. 



Phylologia (November 1996) 81(5):340-342. 



A NEW RED-FLOWERED SALVIA (LAMIACEAE) FROM BAJA VERAPAZ, 

GUATEMALA 



B.L. Turner 
Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 787 1 3 U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

A new red-flowered species of Salvia is described and illustrated from the 
Dept. of Baj a Verapaz, Guatemala: S. verapazana B.L. Turner, ^pec. nov. 
It relates to S. subrubens, but is distinguished by its nearly glabrous smaller 
leaves and included stamens. 

KEY WORDS: Lamiaceae, Salvia, Guatemala, systematics 



Standley& Williams (1973), largely following Epling (1939), recognized thirteen 
red-flowered Salvia species as occurring in Guatemala. These workers unaccountably 
excluded 5. erythrostephana Epling from their treatment, although I take this to be a 
"good" species; in addition to the type (UC!), recent collections have been made in 
Baj a Verapaz by Contreras 11229, (LL). 

Counting Salvia erythrostephana, the present description brings the number of red- 
flowered Guatemalan species to fifteen. 



SALVIA VERAPAZANA B.L. Turner, spec. nov. Figure 1. TYPE: 
GUATEMALA. Baja Verapaz: "Union Barrios, in high forest", 10 Mar 1972, 
Elias Contreras 11224 (HOLOTYPE: LL!; Isotype: LL!). 

Similis 5. subrubenti Epling sed habens folia parviora 3-5 cm longa (vice 
6-12 cm longa), caules superos dense glandulosos-pubescentes (vice 
hispiduiorum), et stamina inclusa (vice breviter exsertorum). 

Perennial (?) herb to 50 cm high or more. Midstems sparsely pubescent to 
glabrate, below the inflorescence the stems are densely glandular-pubescent with 
spreading trichomes ca. 1.5 mm long, devoid of branched hairs. Midstem leaves 5-6 
cm long, 2.5-3.5 cm wide, glabrous throughout or nearly so; petioles 1-2 cm long; 
blades ovate to subcordate, somewhat bicolored, the upper surfaces drying darker and 



340 



Turner: 



New Salvia from Guatemala 



341 



*USn«. TEXAl 




j*4Vi;:r ar w-'a vz^joxh -lj^m. au-rt.>«. 



Figure 1. Salvia verapazana, from holotype. 



342 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):340-342 



possessing a sparse display of simple, often broad-based hairs, especially along the 
serrulate to crenulate margins. Flowers arranged in rather loose terminal spikes 10-20 
cm long, having 10-12 flowers at a node, the axis glandular-pubescent with 
multiseptate hairs ca. 1.5 mm long. Pedicels 4-6 mm long. Calyces 9-15 mm long, 
glandular-pubescent like the stem, the lobes 4-8 mm long, markedly attenuate, the 
upper lobes 7-nervate. Anthers included in the upper lip. Style branches pubescent 
along one side, the upper branches 2-3 times as long as the lower. Corollas red, 20- 
26 mm long, scarcely ventricose, the lips 5-7 mm long, the lower lip somewhat 
longer, rarely not. Nutlets (immature) ca. 2 mm long, 1 mm wide, glabrous. 

This novelty will key with difficulty to Salvia subrubens Epling in Standley & 
Williams' (1973) treatment oi Salvia for Guatemala, a species endemic to the Dept. of 
Quiche. Salvia verapazana differs from the latter in having smaller leaves (3-5 cm long 
vs. 6-12 cm long), upper stems glandular-pubescent (vs. hispidulous), upper lips 5-7 
mm long (vs. 9-10 mm long) and the stamens not exserted (vs. shortly exserted). 

The sp)ecies is known only by type material and the name is derived from a 
shortening of the Guatemalan Department to which it is possibly confined. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



I am grateful to Gayle Turner for the Latin diagnosis, and to her and Ted 
Delevoryas for reviewing the manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Epling, C. 1939. A revision of 5a/vja, subgenus Ca/o^/^/uace. Feddes Repert. Spec. 

Nov. Beih. 110:1-388. 
Standley, P.C. & L.O. Williams. 1973. Salvia, in Flora of Guatemala, Fieldiana: 

Bot. 24:273-301. 



Phyiologia (November 1996) 8l(5):343-347. 



TWO REMARKABLE NOVELTIES OF AGERATINA (ASTERACEAE, 
EUPATORIEAE) FROM MEXICO 



B.L. Turner 
Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 787 1 3 U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

Two new Mexican species of Ageratina are described and illustrated: A . 
jalpana B.L. Turner, from southernmost Zacatecas, and A. josepaneroi 
B.L. Turner from Guerrero. Both belong to the subgenus Neogreenella, and 
both appear to have no close relatives in that group. Ageratina jalpana is 
remarkable because of its somewhat graduate, relatively broad involucral 
bracts; A. josepaneroi for its cylindrical drooping heads. 

KEY WORDS: Asteraceae, Eupatorieae, Ageratina, Mexico, systematics 



Ageratina is one of the largest genera of Mexican comps, containing ca. 140 
species (Turner 1997) with more coming to light almost monthly, some of these 
remarkably distinct, as attested to by the following novelties. 



AGERATINA JALPANA B.L. Turner, spec, nov.. Figure 1. TYPE: MEXICO. 
Zacatecas: Ridge with Quercus and Pinus, 32 km W of Mexican Hwy 41 just S of 
Jalapa along road to Tlaltenango, 2375 m, 8 Sep 1986, D.E. Breedlove 63992, 
with B. Anderson (HOLOTYPE: CAS!; Isotype: TEX). 

Similis A. venulosae (A. Gray) King & H. Rob. sed foliis majoribus, 
paene sessilibus et involucris multo majoribus cum bracteis 3-seriatis 
impricatisque, 1.0-1.5 mm latis (vice bractearum 2-seriatarum, subaequalium, 
minus quam 1 mm latarum). 

Stiffly erect suffruticose herbs to ca. 1 m high (est.). Stems puberulent with 
upwardly appressed hairs. Leaves opposite throughout, gradually reduced upwards, 
the larger leaves 6-8 cm long, 3.5-4.5 cm wide; petioles 1-2 mm long; blades broadly 
ovate, 3-5 nervate from the base, glabrous or nearly so, the margins serrate. Heads 
arranged in terminal rounded clusters, the entire aggregation 8-10 cm across, 3-6 cm 
high, the ultimate peduncles 2-5 mm long. Involucres 3-seriate, 4.5-5.5 mm high, the 
outer series of bracts 1/2-2/3 as long as the inner series, the latter purplish, ca. 1.5 mm 

343 



344 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):343-347 



wide, their apices obtuse or somewhat rounded. Receptacle glabrous. Florets ca. 8 
per head. Corollas white, ca. 5 mm long, glabrous throughout, the throat as long as 
the weakly ampliate limb or nearly so. Achenes blackish, 5-nervate, ca. 2.2 mm long, 
sparsely hispid along the angles; pappus of 20-25 persistent dirty-white bristles 5-6 
mm long. 

This taxon clearly belongs to the subgenus Neogreenella but has no unequivocal 
relatives among species of that taxon in that it possesses very peculiar 3-seriate, 
subimbricate, relatively broad involucral bracts. Vegetatively it is quite similar to 
Ageratina venulosa, to which it is compared in the diagnosis, in that the leaves are 
nearly similar in shape and texture, both having markedly reticulate-venose leaves 
above and below. 



AGERATINA JOSEPANEROI B.L. Turner, spec. nov. Figure 2. TYPE: 
MEXICO. Guerrero: Chilpancingo, km 8 de la carretera Chilpancingo- 

Chichihualco (17° 37' 09.2" N, 99° 34' 04.8" W), selva baja caducifolia, 800 m, 
Jose L. Pcmero y Curtis C. Clevinger 6183 (HOLOTYPE: MEXU!; Isotypes: 
TEX!, to be distributed). 

Herbae graciles, 50-100 cm altae, caulibus simplicibus et pubescentibus. 
Folia opposita ubique, redacta gradatim sursim, 10-18 cm longa et 6-9 cm lata 
ad medicaulem; petioli 6-8 cm longi, pubescentes; laminae subcordatae- 
cordatae, tri-nervatae e basi, glabrae aut paene glabrae. Capitula 2-8 in 
gregibus terminalibus, plus minusve pendulis, 8-12 mm longis. Involucra 
paene teretia, 8-9 mm alta; bracteae 3-seriatae, 1-3 mm longae, extimis 
linearibus. Flosculi 7-10 in omnibus capitulis. Achenia brunnea, ca. 3.5 mm 
longa, ciliata secus cristis; pappus setae (ca. 25) rigide erectae, 5 mm longae, 
dispositae in serie singulari. 

Slender simple-stemmed perennial herbs 50-100 cm high arising from fibrous 
roots. Midstems with elongate submaculate intemodes, minutely puberulent, the 
vestiture ca. 0.2 mm high. Leaves opposite throughout, gradually reduced upwards, 
those at midstem 10-18 cm long, 6-9 cm wide; petioles 6-8 cm long, pubescent like the 
stems; blades subcordate to cordate, 3-nervate from the base, glabrous or nearly so, 
surfaces without glandular punctations, the margins crenulate. Heads arranged in 
terminal, 2-8 headed aggregations, each of the latter more or less drooping or 
pendulous, the ultimate peduncles puberulent, 8-12 mm long. Involucfes nearly 
terete, 8-9 mm high; bracts 3-seriate, the outermost linear, 1-3 mm long, the inner 
series linear-lanceolate, (l-)2-nervate, glabrous. Receptacle plane, glabrous. Florets 
7-10 per head; corollas white, tubular, gradually narrowed upwards, the tube 
indistinct, mostly ca. 6 mm long, 1 mm wide, glabrous throughout, the inner lobes 
smooth, ca. 1 mm long. Anther appendages ca. 0.25 mm long and as wide, their 
apices rounded. Achenes brown, ca. 3.5 mm long, ciliate along its ridges; pappus of 
ca. 25 stiffly erect bristles 5 mm long arranged in a single series. 

This is a remarkably distinct and beautiful species instantly recognized by its 
diffuse drooping cylindrical heads, each possessing 7-10 florets. It belongs to 



Turner: 



Two new Ageratina from Mdxico 



345 



uiMinituion 
N'.' 755537 







ldg« vlth Ou«roua and Pinua J2 kB 
r K«Klc«n Hwy 41 ju.t ■ of J«lp« 
lonq ro«a to TlftltsnanTo. 

Clrvntton 3)75 k 



D.e. Sr*«dlov« «)992 

B. And»r»on 

« S*pc«»b«r 19t« 



Figure 1. Ageratina jalpana.hoXoiy^, 



346 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):343-347 



um vcKsiT Y or 
iexAS 



HE<t8 * RIUM 




Figure 2. Ageratina josepaneroi, isotype. 



Turner: Two new Ageratina from Mexico 347 



subgenus Neogreenella and will key to Ageratina grashoffii B.L. Turner in my 
recently published treatment of Ageratina for the Comps of Mexico (Turner 1997), 
which it does not remotely resemble. 

The apellation honors my colleague, Prof. Jose Panero, an equally remarkable 
individual well known for his scholarly work on comps generally, hence the full name 
for this particular eponym. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



I am grateful to Gayle Turner for the Latin diagnosis, and to her and Ted 
Delevoryas for reviewing the manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Turner, B.L. 1997. Ageratina, In: Comps of Mexico, Vol. 1. Phytologia Memoirs 
11:10-50. 



Phytologia (November 1996) 81(5);348-360. 



REVISIONARY STUDY OF THE GENUS MILLERIA (ASTERACEAE, 
HELIANTHEAE) 



B.L. Turner & Kirsten Triplett 
Department of Botany, University of Texas, Austin, Texas 78713 U.S.A. 

ABSTRACT 

The genus Milleria is treated as having two species, a widespread tropical 
or subtropical weedy annual, M. quinqueflora, (including the recently 
described M. peruviana H. Rob) and M. perfoliata B.L. Turner, spec, nov., 
which is proposed to accommodate a single collection from El Tuito, Jalisco, 
having features markedly different from those of M. quinqueflora, with which 
it grows. These include: glabrous stems, smaller, markedly perfoliate leaves, 
smaller heads with more numerous (6-8 vs. 4) yellow (vs. green), disk florets, 
and yellow anthers (vs. purplish-black). Detailed distributional maps are 
provided. 

KEY WORDS: Asteraceae, Milleria, Heliantheae, systematics 



Milleria, a very distinct genus containing only one or two annual herbs, was first 
proposed by Linnaeus in 1735 and formally established by him in the first edition of 
his Species PUmtarum. As originally proposed it was thought to comprise two 
species, M. quinqueflora L. and M. biflora L., but the latter was subsequently 
removed and given generic status as Delilia {cf., Delprete 1995). 

Most recent workers have treated Milleria as monotypic, but H. Robinson (1981) 
proposed an additional species, M. peruviana H. Rob., at the time thought to be 
confined to Peru. We have reduced the latter to synonymy with M. quinqueflora but 
the senior author has felt compelled to propose yet another taxon for the genus, M. 
perfoliata B.L. Turner, from a single bizarre collection made in Jalisco, Mexico, where 
it co-occurs with M. quinqueflora. 



348 



Turner: Revisionary study of Af//feria 349 

CHROMOSOMES 



Powell & Turner (1963) were the first workers to report chromosome numbers for 
Milleria, noting M. quinqueflora to possess fifteen bivalents at Meiosis 1, these 
appropriately illustrated. Subsequent workers (Turner & King 1964; Keil, et al. 1988) 
have confirmed this number, as indicated in the following list: 

MEXICO: Jalisco, Powell 845 (TEX), Powell & Turner (1963) 
MEXICO: Michoacan, Keil 15145A (OBI), Keil, et al. (1988) 
PANAMA: Cocle, King 5324 (TEX), Turner & King (1964) 
PANAMA: Panamd, King 5461 (TEX), Turner & King (1964) 

The above four counts, all diploid (2n=30), were obtained from meiotic 
configurations. This suggests a base number of j:=15, if not x=\0, for Milleria. 
Closely related genera on a base of x=15 include Trigonospermum, Guizotia, 
Polymnia, Smallantfius, and Sigesbeckia, although the latter also contains diploid 
species with 2n=20, suggesting that the ancestral base number for the complex might 
beA:=10. 



GENERIC RELATIONSHIPS 



Bentham & Hooker (Gen. Plant. 2:190. 1873.) were the first to propose the 
subtribe Milleriinae with any rigor, albeit artificially circumscribed, recognizing in this 
sixteen genera. Hoffmann in his treatment of the Compositae for the Natiirlichen 
Pflanzenfamilien largely followed the work of Bentham & Hooker. Before this time, 
however, Cassini recognized a milleroid generic grouping, which included many of 
the genera so treated by subsequent workers. 

Stuessy (1977) noted that it was difficult to assess relationships of the milleroid 
genera because of the high degree of reduction found in their floral parts. He largely 
accepted the subtribe as constituted by Bentham, but recognized in this three groups: 
GROUP 1 (Herbs with solitary or few heads having 1 ray floret). Koehneola, 

Milleria, Pinillosia, Sheareria, Tetranthus, and Tetraperone 
GROUP 2 (Herbs with heads tightly clustered each having 1 ray floret). Delilia, 

Lantanopsis, and Riencourtia 
GROUP 3 (shrubs with heads in few-to-many clusters; ray florets 3-many). 
Clibadium, Desmanthodium, Ichthyothere, and Stachycephalum 

Robinson (1981) drastically revised the subtribe Milleriinae, transferring out of 
this Sheareria (to the tribe Astereae); Delilia and Tetranthus (to the subtribe Ecliptinae, 
a large "grab bag" group with 64 or more genera); Ichthyothere (to the subtribe 
Melampodinae); Clibadium, Lantanopsis, and Riencourtia (to the subtribe Clibadiinae); 
Desmanthodium and Stachycephalum (to the subtribe Desmanthodiinae); and Piniltosa 
(to the subtribe Pinillosinae). 

Robinson retained Milleria in his newly conceived subtribe Milleriinae which 
contained, in addition (listing these alphabetically): Axiniphyllum, Guizotia, 
Rumfordia, Sigesbeckia, and Trigonospermum. He reckoned, however, that Milleria 



350 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):348-360 



showed "relationships to a group of genera including Rumfordia" all of these 
recognized by a syndrome of features, the most notable being the relatively large, 
terete to trigonous, distinctly striate, carbonized achenal walls. 

We largely agree with Robinson's assessment of the subtribe and believe this to be 
a much more natural grouping than proposed by previous workers. Indeed, we 
suggest that Milleria is perhaps most closely related to Trigonospermum, the latter 
often confused with Milleria by field collectors, and both possessing base numbers of 
.x=15 (Robinson, et al. 198 1), as do Guizotia and Sigesbeckia of this subtribe. 

Finally, it should be noted that Karis & Ryding (1994) positioned Milleria in their 
broadly circumscribed subtribe Melampodinae, which included an array of 23 genera. 
Their morphological cladistic analysis of the tribe Heliantheae nested Milleria between 
a clade housing Polymnia and one housing Melampodium, Smallanthus, and 
Rumfordia. 

We do not pretend to have any deep insight into the phyletic relationships of 
Milleria except that the suggestions of Robinson (1981) and Karis & Ryding (1994) 
are perhaps better than most earlier reckonings. The senior author favors a close 
relationship of Milleria with Trigonospermum, but the latter genus, while included in 
the Melampodinae by Karis & Ryding, was not treated in their cladistic analysis. 

Any certainty regarding the phyletic relationships of Milleria and closely related 
genera will certainly require DNA analysis, using both chloroplast and nuclear genes. 
Until then it's anybody's best guess, depending upon the characters emphasized and, 
in the case of cladistic analysis, selection of outgroups for character polarization. 



TAXONOMY 



MILLERIA L. 

Annual herbs. Leaves opposite, simple, petiolate or perfoliate; blades 3-nervate 
from the base. Heads numerous, arranged in terminal cymose panicles. Involucres 
small; bracts 2-seriate, subequal, thin and scarious at first, at maturity becoming 
ligneous and tightly investing the achenes. Ray florets pistillate, fertile, 1 or rarely 2; 
ligules small, yellow, 3-lobed. Disk florets perfect but functionally staminate, sterile; 
corollas green or bright yellow; anthers purplish-black or yellow. Base chromosome 
number, a- 15. 



KEY TO SPECIES 



Leaves markedly perfoliate, the blades lanceolate, 1.5-2.0 cm wide; ultimate 
peduncles 10-20 mm long; staminate florets 6-8, the corollas yellow; anthers 
yellow; near El Tuito, Jalisco, Mexico M. perfoliata 



Turner: Revisionary study of MtY/erta 351 



Leaves not clearly perfoliate, the blades broadly ovate and tapering into well- 
defined petioles, those at midstems mostly 3-10 cm wide; ultimate peduncles ca. 5 
mm long; staminate florets 4, rarely 5, the corollas greenish; anthers purplish- 
black; widespread weed in tropical and subtropical regions of the New World 

M. quinqueflora 



MILLERIA QUINQUEFLORA L., Sp. PL 919. 1753. TYPE: According to Stuessy 
(1977), type material of this species was obtained from material cultivated in the 
Uppsala Botanical Garden; the source of seed and collector unknown. He notes 
the "holotype" to be in the Linnean Herbarium 1031.1 (c/., IDC 177.621:1.1). 
Actually, at least two- sheets of M. quinqueflora are on file in the Linnean 
Herbarium (catalogue numbers 1031.1 and 1031.2, the former having the name 
"quinqueflora" written on the sheet itself, presumably by Linnaeus). It is likely 
that the seeds from which type material was grown came from Mr. Philip Miller 
(for which the genus was named), gardener at the Botanical Gardens at Chelsea, 
England, who apparently obtained the original seeds from a Mr. R. Millar, who 
collected these in "Campeachy," Mexico (from the present seaport of Campeche, 
Yucatan Peninsula, Mexico), which Millar visited in 1734 (c/., below). The 
senior author has examined a sheet of Milleria quinqueflora (BM!) which has 
written on the reverse side, presumably in Linnaeus' own hand "This tribe of 
plants takes their name from that ingeneus Botanist Mr. Philip Miller who is 
gardner to W. Apothecary, at the Botanical Garden at Chelsea 1 749." Below the 
plant is written "Milleria foliis cordatis, pedunculis dichotomis. Hort. cliff. 425," 
the same description given in its protologue by Linnaeus. 

Miller {Gard. Diet., ed. 8. 1768.) provided additional clues as to the possible 
source of the Uppsala seeds. In his description of a new taxon Milleria maculata 
Mill., noted that this ". . . second set was discovered by Mr. Robert Millar, at 
Campeachy [Mexico], in the year 1734; this approaches near to the first sort [A/. 
quinqueflora typicus], but the stalks rise six or seven feet high, branching out very 
wide". 

Miller then goes on to describe an additional "sort" (Milleria triflora Mill.) 
which was also discovered "by the late Mr. Robert Millar, at Campeachy; this is an 
annual plant, which rises with an upright stalk three or four feet high, garnished 
the whole length with oval spear-shaped leaves near four inches long . . . This 
flowers and seeds later in the year than either of the former, so that unless the 
plants are brought forward in the spring, they will not ripen their seeds in 
England." We surmise, considering the above, that Linnaeus received his original 
garden seed from Philip Miller, who had presumably grown the plant over a 
number of years from the "Campeachy" seeds first collected by R. Millar in 1734. 
This has been dwelt upon here at some length to point out, not only the origin of 
the name, and something of its history, but also to emphasize how extremely 
variable M. quinqueflora can be, even from seeds obtained from a single source. 
Milleria maculata Mill., Gard. Diet., ed. 8. 1768. TYPE: Grown from seeds 

obtained in MEXICO. Campeche: Campeche, 1734, R. Millar s.n. 

Milleria quinqueflora L. var. maculata (Mill.) DC, Prodr. 5:503. 1836. 

(HOLOTYPE: BM, not examined). 



352 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):348-360 



Milleria triflora Mill.. Card. Diet., ed. 8. 1768. TYPE: Grown from seeds 
obtained in MEXICO. Campeche: Campeche, 1734, R. Millar s.n. 
(HOLOTYPE: BM, not examined). 

From the rather detailed description, both of the above names surely 
apply to Milleria quinqueflora, the former said to be a markedly serrate 
form of the latter, even by DeCandolle, who gave it varietal ranking. 

Milleria glafidulosa DC, Prodr. 5:503. 1836. TYPE: MEXICO. Morelos: 
Cuemavaca, 20 Oct 1827, Berkmdier 955 (HOLOTYPE: G-DC; 
Photoholotypes: F!,MO!). 

Milleria peruviana H. Rob., Wrightia 6:47. 1979. TYPE: PERU. 
Lambayeque: El Molino, a 20 km del cruce entre Olmos y Abra de 
Porculla, 700-800 m, 20 Apr 1953, Ferreyra 9140 (HOLOTYPE: US!; 
Photoholotypes: F!,GH!,MO!,NY!,TEX!). 

Erect tap-rooted herbs 0.3-1.5(-2.5) m high, stems fistulose, terete, variously 
glandular pubescent. Midstem leaves broad and thin, the blades 3-nerved from the 
base, broadly ovate to ovate-elliptic, mostly 6-15(-25) cm long, 3-I4(-18) cm wide, 
grading into a well-defined petiole, sparsely scabrous above and below with broad- 
based hairs, the margins subentire to serrate dentate. Heads numerous, arranged in 
corymbose panicles, the ultimate peduncles glandular pubescent, 0.5-1.0 cm long. 
Involucres mostly 3-4 mm high, 4-6 mm across, the bracts mostly acute to obtuse, 
usually ciliate or pilosulous. Ray florets pistillate, fertile, yellow, 3-lobed, ligules 3-5 
mm long. Disk florets 4(-5), sterile, the ovaries glabrous; corollas green or greenish. 
Anthers purplish-black. Achenes (including the encasing involucre) mostly irregularly 
ovoid, 4-5 mm across. Chromosome number, 2n=30. 

This species has been described in considerable detail by Nash (1976), Stuessy 
(1975), and McVaugh (1974), and all of these authors have provided excellent detailed 
line drawings of the species, thus it seems superfluous to add yet another, as 
construed in the above, albeit based upon more numerous sheets. Indeed, were it not 
for Milleria perfoliata proposed by the senior author in the present paper, we would 
have been content to state that M. quinqueflora is a robust annual weed with opposite 
leaves and small heads, each of the latter having a single yellow pistillate fertile ray 
floret and 4-5 sterile staminate florets, at maturity, the single black striate achene 
becoming tightly encased in a pea-sized structure formed by the enclosing highly 
modified involucral bracts. 

Milleria triflora was inadvertently listed asM. trifolia Mill, in Index Kewensis (1st 
edition). From the original description, this plant is certainly a peculiar small- 
flowered, odd-leaved, form of M. quinqueflora, surely derived from a seed source of 
the latter, to judge from Miller's protologue, as noted in the above. It is possible that 
bizarre offspring from M. quinqueflora occur upon occasion, and such might account 
for the strikingly different M. perfoliata, described below. 

Milleria glandulosa "is ordinary M. quinqueflora L." as noted by Blake (1930) 
who examined type material of the taxon in the Prodromus Herbarium (G-DC). 

Milleria peruviana is a form of the species with the uppermost leaves ovate and 
essentially sessile. Such forms occur sporadically over the range of the species. 
Robinson thought his new species to be "the first record for the genus in Peru," but as 
indicated in our cited specimens, M. quinqueflora had been collected earlier in 



Turner: Re visionary study of A//7/erw 353 



northernmost Peru by Ferreyra, relatively close to the type locality of M. peruviana 
(Figure 4). Robinson, by annotation, would also attribute M. peruviana to both 
Ecuador {Bro. Elias 248 [US]) and Colombia {Harlinf^ & Andersson 24794 [US]), but 
we take these to be rather typical specimens of A/, quinqueflora. 

DISTRIBUTION (Figure 1 ) AND ECOLOGY: Tropical or subtropical regions of 
the New World, especially North America, where it occurs as a weed in ditches and 
cultivated fields from near sea level up to 1,000 meters, but occasionally higher 
(reportedly up to ca. 1800 m). 

REPRESENTATIVE SPECIMENS: MEXICO. Sonora: Gentry 1684 
(F,MO,NY,TEX). Chihuahua: Palnwr 176 (GH,NY). Sinaloa: Reveal 4036 
(MO,NY,TEX). Nayarit: Cronquist 9598 (NY). Jalisco: Fernandez N. 2594 (NY). 
Colima: Sanders 8508 (TEX). Michoacan: Hinton, et al. 12157 (GH,LL,NY). 
Mexico: Hinton, et al. 1707 (NY). Morelos: Seler 4199 (GH). Veracruz: 
Hernandez 648 (NY). Guerrero: Palmer 5 (F,GH,MO,NY). Oaxaca: Anderson 
13193 (NY). Chiapas: Breedlove 28330 (LL,MO). Campeche: Lundell 855 
(F,GH,MO,NY,TEX). Yucatan: Gaunter 949 (F,GH,MO,NY). Quintana Roo: 
Darwin 2385 (F,MO). 

BELIZE. G^Hr/e S44 (F,LL,MO,NY,TEX). 

GUATEMALA. AmaUUan: Ruana 1275 (F). Chimaltenango: Martin J. 1328 
(F). Chiquimula: Steyermark 30313 {¥). Izabal: Standley 24407 {GW MO). Jalapa: 
Standley 76500 (F). Jutiapa: Dunn 23281 (NY,TEX). Peten: Contreras 328 (F,LL). 
Santa Rosa: Heyde & Lux 4110 (NY). Baja Verapaz: Molina 27809 (F). Zacapa: 
Standley 74779 (F). 

EL SALVADOR. Ahuachapan: Standley 2765 (F). La Libertad: Roweder 3477 
(MO). San Salvador: Calderon (F,GH,MO,NY). San Vicente: Standley 3580 (F). 
Sonsonte: Standley 22199 (GH,NY). 

HONDURAS. Lempira: Nelson 283 (F,MO). Morazan: Standley 27485 
(GH,MO). Olancho: Standley 17717 (¥). Valle: Zelaya 231 (MO). 

NICARAGUA. Boaca: Seymour 6085 (GH). Carazo: Krai 69380 (MO). 
Chinandeza: Baker 2022 (GH,LL,NY). Chontales: Stevens 4070 (MO). Esteli: 
Stevens 15879 (MO). Granada: Moreno 9958 (F). Jinotega: Croat 42886 (MO). 
Leon: Guzman 10056 (MO). Madriz: Stevens 16150 (MO). Managua: Neill 7497 
(GH,NY). Masaya: Araguistan 417 (TEX). Matagalpa: Molina R. 22850 (NY). 
Rivas: Robleto 1090 (F). Zelaya: Bunting 665 (NY). 

COSTA RICA. Alajuela: Brenes 17240 (F,NY). Guanacaste: Opler 1835 
(F,MO). Puntarenas: Morrison 8778 (GH). San Jose: Weston 1797 (¥). 

PANAMA. Canal Zone: Woodson 1420 (GH,NY). Chiriqui: Woodson 843 
(GH). Code: Dvvyer / 777 (F,GH,MO). Colon: Dwyer 4524 (MO). Herrera: Croat 
4135 (MO). Panama: Woodson 1545 (LUNY). Veragua: Dwyer 4269 (MO). 

COLOMBIA. Atlantico: Elias 248 (F,NY). Bolivar: Killip 14249 (F,GH,NY). 
Magdalena: Haught 3725 (F,NY). 

ECUADOR. El Oro: Asplund 15767 (NY). Guayas: Hitchcock 20586 
(GH,NY). 

VENEZUELA. Aragua: Fernandez 573 (F). Carabobo: Pittier 8947 (GH). 
Caracas: Bailey 796 (MO,NY). Cojedes: Trujullo 13921 (F). Lara: Steyermark 
111058(F). Merida: Breteler 3985 (¥). Portugeza: Paez6(U0). Tachira: Bunting 
110 (NY). Valera: Alston 5289 (F). Yaracuy: Croat 54597 (F). 

PERU. Tumbes: Ferreyra 5982 (F). 



354 



PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):348-360 






f 



r^,-n 



evTi a^ 



Figure 1 . Documented distribution of Milleria quinqueflora as determined from the 
specimens examined. Collections from near Havana, Cuba and the island of Trinidad, 
indicated by closed circles, probably represent relatively recent introductions. 



Turner: 



Revisionary study of Milleria 



355 



^> — r^ 






-? 






'iiaftr 



Figure 2 Documenled distribucion of Milleria quinqueflora in Mexico. Belize, and 



Guatemala. 



356 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):348-360 



• • 



• /• 



•T • 



• • •" 



P 



Figure 3. Documented distribution of Milleria quinqueflora in Central America. 



Turner: 



Revisionary study of Milleria 



357 




"^^fC'^.^ BOUVIA 



Figure 4. Documented distribution oi Milleria quinqueflora in South America. 



358 



PHYTOLOGIA November 1 996 volume 8 1 (5):348-360 



,^^.,.,.,.„,,,^„„p„„,^ 






n» i j t^ ■■!» 01 T« 



iVSTIM. TCUI 




Figure 5. Milleria perfoliata, holotype. 



Turner: Revisionary study of A/Z/Zerta 359 



CUBA: Bro. Leon 7321 (NBY). 
TRINIDAD: Broadway 5846 {LL). 



MILLERIA PERFOLIATA B.L. Turner, spec. nov. TYPE: MEXICO. Jalisco: 
El Tuito, "a 8-3 km por el camino El Tuito— Lxtlahuahuey. Bosque de Pino-encino, 
en vegetacion secundaria cerca de un arroyo." 28 Oct 1985, Ma. Guadalupe Ayala 
i'^J (HOLOTYPE: TEX!). 

Similis M. quinqueflorae L. sed foliis perfoliatis, 6-8 flosculis staminatis 
(vice 4-5), corollis luteis (vice viridium), staminis luteis (vice atrorum), et 
pedunculis ultimis 10-20 mm longis (vice ca. 5 mm longis). 

Annual (?) herbs to 1 m high. Stems terete, yellowish or tan, glabrous. Leaves 
perfoliate, those at midstem ca. 7.5 cm long, 2.5 cm wide, widest at or near the 
middle, glabrous beneath or nearly so, sparsely hispid above with broad-based hairs, 
the undersurfaces moderately glandular-punctate. Heads arranged in a diffuse terminal 
corymbose panicle, the ultimate peduncles 1-2 cm long, glabrous or sparsely 
glandular. Involucres, at flowering, ca. 1 mm high, 2 mm wide, comprised of 3-5 
imbricate scarious bracts in 1 or 2 series, their apices broadly rounded. Ray florets 1 
or 2, pistillate, fertile, the ligules yellow, ca. 4.0 mm long, 3 mm wide, with apices 3- 
lobed. Disk florets 6-8, yellow, sterile, the corollas yellow, glabrous except for a few 
sessile globular glands; ovaries coarsely pubescent; anthers yellow. Fruits ellipsoid in 
outline, glabrous with knobby surfaces, ca. 3 mm long, 2 mm wide, at maturity 
forming a tough case within which is tightly nestled an ovoid black achene, the 
surfaces finely striate. 

I have described this taxon with some trepidation for it is known from only one 
collection; in addition, it co-occurs with typical Milleria quinqueflora, the latter 
collected by Ma. Ayala on the same day and site {Ayala 350 [LL]) as was the type for 
M. perfoliata. The latter is readily distinguished from M. quinqueflora in so many 
ways so as to defy the simplistic explanation that it might be some monstrosity as 
suggested in our discussion of the anomalous M. triflora {cf. above). Indeed, the 
small seeds appear to be quite plump and normal, and the yellow anthers very full of 
seemingly fertile pollen. When collected M. perfoliata was apparendy in full anthesis, 
while the M. quinqueflora growing with it was well past anthesis, with only a few late 
fruits attached to an otherwise naked capitulescence. 

During January of 1997 several graduate students from TEX visited the type 
locality at the senior author's request. They could not locate plants of Milleria 
quinqueflora or M. perfoliata at the site, although an hour or more of intense scouring 
was spent in and about the area. Future workers should be on the lookout for M. 
perfoliata in this region. If it is a bizarre genetic form then I am amply fooled, for 
were it to exist as a populational unit with or removed from M. quinqueflora I would 
have no hesitancy on recognizing this as truly distinct. 



360 PHYTOLOGIA November 1 996 volume 8 1 (5):348-360 

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



This study is based upon the examination and annotation of approximately 500 
specimens on file at the following institutions (numbers indicated in parentheses): 
F(121), GH(89), LL, TEX(77), MO(123). NY(83), US(3, MiUeria peruviana H. 
Rob.)- We are grateful to these institutions for the loan of this material. Gayle Turner 
provided the Latin diagnosis, and she and Justin Williams reviewed the manuscript. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Blake, S.F. 1930. Notes on certain type specimens of American Asteraceae in 

European herbaria. Contr. U.S. Natl. Herb. 25:227-263. 
Karis, P.O. & O. Ryding. 1994. Tribe Helenieae, in Bremer, K. Asteraceae, 

Cladistics and Classification. Timber Press, Portland, Oregon. 
Keil, D.J., M.A. Luckow, & D.J. Pinkava. 1988. Chromosome studies in 

Asteraceae from the United States, Mexico and the West Indies, and South 

America. Amer. J. Bot. 75:652-668. 
McVaugh, R. 1974. MiUeria, in Fl. Novo-Galiciana 12:614-616. University of 

Michigan Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Nash, D. 1976. MiUeria, in Fl. Guatemala. Fieldiana Bot. 24(12):265-266. 
Powell, A.M. & B.L. Turner. 1963. Chromosome numbers in the Compositae VII. 

Additional species from the United States and Mexico. Madrofio 127: 128-140. 
Robinson, H. 1981. A version of the tribal and subtribal limits of the Heliantheae. 

Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 51:1-102. 
, et al. 1981. Chromosome numbers in Compositae, XII: 

Heliantheae. Smithsonian Contr. Bot. 52:1-28. 
Stuessy, T. 1975. Milleriinae, in Flora of Guatemala. Ann. Missouri Bot. Gard. 

62:1057-1061. 
Stuessy, T. 1977. Heliantheae-Systematic Review. Biol. Chem. Compositae 2:621 - 

697. (Heywood, F., J. Harborne, & B. Turner, eds.). Academic Press, London, 

Great Britain. 
Turner, B.L. & R.M. King. 1964. Chromosome numbers in the Compositae. VIII. 

Mexican and Central American Species. Southwestern Naturalist 9:27-39. 



Phylologia (November 1996) 8I(5):36l-364. 



THREE NEW TAXA FOR THE FLORA OF COSTA RICA 



J. Francisco Morales 

Instituto Nacional de Biodiversidad (INBio), Apto. 22-3100, Santo Domingo de 
Heredia, COSTA RICA 



ABSTRACT 

New species of Eugenia (Myrtaceae), PauUinia (Sapindaceae), and 
Parathesis (Myrsinaceae) from Costa Rica are described. 

KEY WORDS: Costa Rica, Myrtaceae, Eugenia, PauUinia, Sapindaceae, 
Parathesis, Myrsinaceae, systematics 



In preparation of the treatments of Myrtaceae, Myrsinaceae, and Sapindaceae for 
the Manual de Las Plantas de Costa Rica, the following new species were found. 



MYRTACEAE 

EUGENIA TERESAE J.F. Morales, spec. nov. TYPE: COSTA RICA. San 
Jose: Zona Protectora La Cangreja, Santa Rosa de Puriscal, bosque primario en 

las mdrgenes del Rio Negro, falda S.E. de la Fila La Cangreja, 400 m, 9° 42' 50" 

N. 84° 23' 30" W, 8 May 1993 (fl,fr). Morales 1430 (HOLOTYPE: INB; 
Isotypes: B,CAS,COL,CR,F,K,MEXU,MO,NY,US,VEN). 

Species insignis foliis fructusaque amplissimis, a speciebus nobis notis 
bene distincta. 

Shrub 3-4 m tall; branchlets sparsely puberulent. Leaves opposite; petioles 
canaliculate above, puberulent, 0.8-2.0 cm long, rugose; blade 13.5-28.5 x 5.0-17.5 
cm, elliptic to lanceolate, glabrate; acuminate at apex, acute to cuneate at the base; 
venation impressed above, prominent, puberulent and conspicuous below, secondary 
veins 10-14, brochidodromus. Inflorescence cauliflorous, fasciculate, puberulent, 1- 
ll-flowered; pedicels 3-8 mm long; bracteoles deltate, 1.0-1.5 mm long, scarious, 
persistent; calyx lobes 4, membranaceous, elliptic, obtuse to rounded, in 2 series, 

361 



362 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):361-364 



external ones 2-4 x 5-7 mm, internal ones 5-7 x 9-1 1 mm; petals ovate, white, 1.5- 
1.6 X 1.0-1.4 cm, reflexed, deciduous after anthesis; stamens ca. 480; filaments 6-1 1 
mm long; anthers basifixed, ca. 1 mm long; style 1.7-1.9 cm long. Fruits globose to 
subglobose, 1.8-2.5 x 1.9-2.4 cm, yellow to cream, granular, glabrous; pericarp ca. 
2 mm thick; seed 1.6-2.1 cm diam., smooth. 

Restricted to the wet tropical forests of the southern Pacific lowlands of Costa 
Rica, between Carara Biological Reserve and the Osa Peninsula, 100-400 m. 

Eugenia teresae differs from all the Mesoamerican species by its large leaves and 
flowers. It is somewhat related to Eugenia sarapiquensis Sanchez, but differs from 
that species in its longer leaves and bigger flowers and fruits. 

Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Canton de Osa, 
Rincon, cabeceras Quebrada Salto, 100 m, 24 Jun 1990 (fr), Herrera 4256 
(CR,INB,MO); Golfito, Parque Nacional Corcovado, trail to Cedral, near El Cedral, 
150 m, 20 Mar 1995 (fl), Morales & Moraga 3666 (INB). San Jose: Zona Protectora 
La Cangreja, Santa Rosa de Puriscal, 300-400 m, 29 Jul 1992 (fr), Morales 277 
(CR,INB,MO), 10 Aug. 1992 (fr). Morales 338 (INB,CR), 3 Mar 1994 (fl). Morales, 
et al. 2408 (B,CR,INB,K,MO,NY,USJ). 



MYRSINACEAE 

PARATHESIS ACOSTENSIS J.F. Morales, spec. nov. TYPE: COSTA RICA. 
San Jose: Canton de Acosta, Fila Bustamante, cabeceras de Quebrada Colorado, 

1040 m, 9° 43' N, 84° 16' W, 29 May 1994 (fl). Morales, et al. 2856 
(HOLOTYPE: INB). 

Arvor parva, ramuli ferrugineo-tomentelli. Folia petiolata, petiolo 4-6 cm 
longo; lamina elliptica, 14-40 x 6-15 cm. Inflorescentia terminalis, 
paniculata, ferrugineo-tomentella; pedicelli 5-7 mm longi; petala 4-5 mm longa. 

Trees or small trees, (2-)5-22 m; branchlets thick, densely ferrugineous- 
tomentose. Leaves: petiole 4-6 cm, ferrugineous-tomentose; leaf blades 14-40 x 6- 
15 cm, broadly elliptic; abruptly short-acuminate at the apex, obtuse basally; minutely 
serrate; glabrate above; minutely ferrugineous-puberulent beneath, mostly along the 
veins; the primary lateral veins 25-33 pairs. Inflorescences terminal, openly 
pyramidal, tripinnately paniculate, conspicuously ferrugineous-tomentose. Flowers 
corymbose, pale pinkish; pedicels 5-7 mm; sepals 1.5-2.0 mm, ovate, acute, 
ferrugineous-tomentose; petals narrowly lanceolate, 4-5 mm long, villous within; 
filaments 1.5-2.0 mm long, the anthers erect at anthesis, slender, ca. 1.5 mm long, not 
punctate. Fruit black-purple, globose, 6-7 mm in diameter (dry). 

This species is known from the southern Pacific lowlands of Costa Rica, between 
Acosta and the Osa Peninsula, at 0-700(-1000) m. 



Morales: Three new taxa from Costa Rica 363 



Parathesis acostensis is closely related to P. amplifolia Lundell from Panama, but 
differs by its anthers erect at anthesis, not punctate. Most of the material were 
previously identified as P. aeruginosa Standley. 

Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Parquc Nacional 
Corcovado, Estacion San Pedrillo, 21 Sep 1993 (k), Aguilar 2364 (INB,MO); Canton 
de Golfito, Peninsula de Osa, Estacion Los Patos, 5 June 1994 (fr), Aguilar 3335 
(CR,INB,MO); Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce, Rio Rincon valley, 28 Apr 1988 (fl), 
Hammel & Robles 16768 (INB,MO); Reserva Forestal Golfo Dulce, Playa 
Campanario o San Josecito, 4 Aug 1993 (fr), Harmon 332 (INB); Parque Nacional 
Corcovado, Arco de Piedra to Rio Corcovado, June 1989 (fl), Keman 1155 
(CR,INB,MO); Canton dc Osa, Rancho Quemado, 25 Aug 1992 (fr), Marin & Marin 
500 (CR,INB,MO); Aguabuena, W of Rincon, 17 Apr 1993, Thomsen 876 
(C,INB,K,USJ). 



SAPINDACEAE 

PAULLINIA TALAMANCENSIS J.F. Morales, spec. nov. TYPE: COSTA 
RICA. Puntarenas: Foothills of the Cordillera de Talamanca, between Sitio Coton 

(Cotonsito) and Mellizas, 1300-1450 m, 8° 54' N, 82° 46' W, 1 1 Mar 1984 
(fl,fr), Davidse, et al. 25563 (HOLOTYPE: INB; Isotype: MO). 

Fruticosa volubilis; corpus lignosum simplex; rami teres, glabris. Folia 3- 
foliolato-pinnata; foliola elliptica, 4.5-15.0 cm longa, 3-5 cm lata. Thyrsi 
axillares, solitarii, 4.5-15.0 cm longi. Fructus manifeste stipitatus, globosus. 

Lianas; stems slightly sulcate when young, subterete when fully mature, glabrous 
to glabrate; wood simple. Leaves pinnately 3-foliolate; petiole without wings, 
somewhat sulcate above; leaflets 4.5-15.0 x 3-5 cm, elliptic; acute to abruptly short- 
acuminate at the apex, cuneate to obtuse basally; subentire to very obscurely crenate 
above the middle; glabrous; stipules not seen. Inflorescences axillary, .solitary, 4.5- 
13.5(-15.0) cm long, glabrous; bracteoles ovate, ca. I mm long, scarious; pedicels 2-4 
mm, glabrous, articulated about midway. Flowers white, in small helicoid thyrses; 
sepals ca. 2 mm, rounded, glabrous; mature flowers unknown. Capsules 0.8-1.1 cm 
long, conspicuously stipitate, globose, 3-locular, nonwinged, red, very sparsely 
puberulent to glabrate, short-acuminate at the apex; seeds unknown. 

PaulUnia talamancensis is restricted to the foothills of the Cordillera de Talamanca, 
near San Vito de Coto Brus, at 1200-1850 m, but probably will be found in Panama. 

This species is closely related to Paullbna austin-smitfiii, from northern and 
northwestern of Costa Rica, but differs by its not winged, conspicuously stipitate 
fruits. 

Additional specimens examined: COSTA RICA. Puntarenas: Foothills of the 
Cordillera de Talamanca, around Tres Colinas, 20 Mar 1984 (fr), Davidse, et al. 



364 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81(5):361-364 

25687 (INB,MO); Goto Brus, Finca Gafrosa, 12 Mar 1996 (fr), Navarro 268 
(GR,INB,MO). 

AGKNOWLEDGMENfTS 



The author is greatly indebted to the Directors and Gurators of GR, F, GH, MO, 
NY, and USJ for the loan of material. This publication has been assisted financially 
by National Science Foundation Grant DEB-9300814 - Manual of the Plants of Costa 
Rica (B. Hammel & M. Grayum, co-principal investigators). I thank Michael Grayum 
(MO) and Nelson Zamora (INB) for review of the manuscript. Jorge Gomez-Laurito 
helped in the Latin diagnoses. 



Phyiologia (November 1996) 8l(5):365-368. 



SEVEN ADDITIONS TO THE FLORA OF NEW MEXICO 



Laird Mcintosh 

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Land Management, 1800 Marquess, Las 
Cruces, New Mexico 88005 U.S.A. 



ABSTRACT 

New records for New Mexico are reported for seven angiosperms. 
KEY WORDS: New Mexico, angiosperms, range extensions, flora 



Recent collecting activities by the author, accompanied by related herbarium 
investigations, have resulted in the addition of seven angiosperm species to the flora of 
New Mexico. Five of these records represent collections made since early 1993, while 
the other two have been documented earlier and more extensively in the state, but do 
not appear in Martin & Hutchins (1980, 1981), or the other recent literature covering 
new elements in the New Mexico flora. 



ASTERACEAE 

Baccharis havardii A. Gray. New Mexico. Otero Co.: SENW sec 33, T25S R20E, 
in the Brokeoff Mountains, elev. 5700 feet, scattered one foot tall subshrubs on a 

20° northeast-facing limestone slope with Berberis haematocarpa, Aristida glauca, 
Rhus trilobata, Xanthocephalum sarothrae, Cercocarpus montanus, Garrya 
flavescens, Pinus edulis, Yucca baccata, Muhlenbergia setifolia, 28 Sep 1993, 
Mcintosh 2925 (NMC). 

Comment: First record for New Mexico, a range extension of a few km from 
adjacent Texas. Martin & Hutchins (1980, 1981) state that this species has been 
reported from the Davis and Guadalupe mountains of Texas and could occur in 
adjacent areas of New Mexico. 



Gnaphalium leucocephalum A. Gray. New Mexico. Upper Pecos River, 27 Jul 
1898, Mattby & Coghill 111 (NMC) [determined by Guy Nesom 1990]; "Pecos", 



365 



366 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):365-368 



Sep 1904, Bartlett41 (NMC) [determined by Guy Nesom 1990]; Hidalgo Co.: 
NWSW sec. 8, T32S R19W, west side of Animas Mountains, Gray Ranch, elev. 
6000 feet, several plants in rhyolitic gravelly arroyo bottom with Quercus 
arizonica, Juniperus monosperma, 21 Aug 1993, Mcintosh 2839 (NMC). 

Comment: First record for New Mexico. The two earlier records appear to have 
been overlooked in the preparation of the Fbra of New Mexico (Martin & Hutchins 
1980, 1981). Kearney & Peebles (1960) and Correll & Johnston (1970) describe the 
species range as southern Arizona, Trans-Pecos Texas, southern California, and 
Sonora. 



BRASSICACEAE 

Brassica toumefortii Gouan. New Mexico. Dona Ana Co.: along I- 10 (S of Las 
Cruces) 1.7 mi. N of the Mesquite Exit (no. 154), road-side, sandy soil, about 
3900 ft. elev., 4 Mar 1995, Worthington 24113 (NMC Ex. Herb. UTEP); Las 
Cruces, 1/2 block west of comer of Luna St. and Utah Ave., approx. 100 rosettes 
of varying size up to 1 foot in diameter along curb on south side of Utah Ave. at 
edge of sandy vacant lot, some smaller plants were developing flowering culms 
while most of the plants consisted of vegetative rosettes, corollas pale yellow to 
white, seed bearing portion of fruit terete and slightly torulose, most plants of the 
population were slightly to moderately frostbitten by temperatures in low teens 
(Fahrenheit) 2 and 3 nights ago, assoc. spp.: Cynodon dactylon, Sisymbrium 
irio, Tribulus terrestris, Amaranthus palmed, 20 Dec 1996, Mcintosh 3137 
(NMC). 

Comment: First record for New Mexico, a ca. 30 km northward range extension 
for this northern Africa native from recently documented occurrences in El Paso and 
Hudspeth counties in Texas (Lemke & Worthington 1991). According to Rollins 
(1993) the New World occurrences of this species are in southern Nevada, southern 
California, Arizona, western Texas, and northwestern Mexico; and it is spreading in 
Texas and eastward in Arizona. 



PLANTAGINACEAE 

Plantago bigelovii A. Gray subsp. califomica (Greene) Bassett. New Mexico. 
Hidalgo Co.: SW Sec. 5, T23S R20W, just northwest of the South Lordsburg 
Playa, elev. 4160 feet, small groups under Atriplex obovata and other shrubs, 
level site with heavy clay alkaline soil, 14 Apr 1993, Mcintosh 2626 (NMC) 
[determined by R. Sivinski 1997]. 

Comment: First record for New Mexico, a range extension from southeast 
Arizona. Bassett (1996) states that this subspecies occurs in California, southern and 
southeast Arizona, and western Mexico. 



Mcintosh: Additions to flora of New Mexico 367 



VALERIANACEAE 

Valeriana sorbifolia H.B.K. New Mexico. Hidalgo Co.: SE 1/4 SE 1/4 sec 8, T32S 
R19W, west slope of the Animas Mountains on Gray Ranch, elev. 6700 feet, 

plants in dense patch in rich moist loamy soil pocket in small level area on 10° 
north facing rhyolite slope with Pinus cembrioides, Cercocarpus montanus, Ptelea 
trifoliata, Muhlenbergia pauciflora, 23 Aug 1994, Mcintosh 3016 (NMC). 

Comment: First record for New Mexico, a 25 km northward range extension from 
the north end of the San Luis Mountains in the extreme NW corner of Chihuahua 
(Spellenberg & Soreng 6823 [NMC]). Other locations have been recorded in the 
Dragoon and Huachuca mountains in adjacent Cochise Co., Arizona. Kearney & 
Peebles (1960) give the range of the species as extending from southern Arizona to 
Central America. 



VERBENACEAE 

Bouchea prismatica O. Ktze. var. brevirostra Grenz. New Mexico. Hidalgo Co.: 
SENE Sec. 16, T30S R20W, approximately 3 miles east of Black Mountain, 
Peloncillo Mountains, elev. 5060 feet, corolla dark blue, plant upright, occasional 
in swale with Zaiischneria califomica, Diodia teres, and other annuals, vegetation 
ih general vicinity is grassland with widely scattered Juniperus, soil derived from 
rhyolite, 4 Sep 1996, Mcintosh 3121 (NMC). 

Comment: First record for New Mexico, a range extension from Cave Creek in 
the Chiricahua Mountains of adjacent Cochise Co., Arizona. Kearney & Peebles 
(1960) and Correll & Johnston (1970) give the range for this variety from Val Verde 
Co., Texas, and southern Arizona through Mexico to Colombia and the Lesser 
Antilles. 



Verbena gracilis Desf. New Mexico. Hidalgo Co.: Alamo Hueco Mtns., Big Thicket 
Spring, 1 mile south windmill in canyon bottom and hillside, 3 Apr 1977, Miller 

s.n. (SNM); San Simeon VaUey (31° 50' N, 109° 2' W; T8S, R21&22W) 
between Rodeo and Arizona - New Mexico line, 4100 feet elevation, fine textured 
soils of the valley bottom in desert grasslands (Hilaria mutica, Scleropogon 
brevifolius, Bouteloua eriopoda, Epliedra trifurca, Prosopis, Gutierrezia 
sarothrae), occasional in tobosa swales, 7 Aug 1977, Moir 1 12 (NMC); NWNE 
Sec 2, T33S R20W, west of Animas Mountains on the Gray Ranch, elev. 5180 
feet, single plant, upright habit, in a 2-track road in sandy soil with Bouteloua 
gracilis, Zinnia grandiflora, Desnianthus cooleyi, Evolvulus sericeous, 20 Sep 
1994, Mcintosh 3060 (NMC); Mora Co.: Wagon Mound, Canyon Colorado 
Equid Sanctuary, sec. 5, T2IN R24E, elev. 5990 feet, habitat: open grassland 
with slight eastern slope, location: The Sanctuary is located 24 miles northeast of 
Wagon Mound, entering Quagga Park from Canadian River Park, heading north 
along fence line 0.3 m, on west side of road, 9 Aug 1990, Smith 101 (NMC). 



368 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):365-368 



Comment: This species appears to have been overlooked in the preparation of the 
Fbra of New Mexico (Martin & Hutchins 1980, 1981), with the earlier collections 
being made about the time the book went to press. Kearney & Peebles (1960) state 
that this species ranges from southern Arizona to southern Mexico. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



The author thanks Richard Worthington of the University of Texas, El Paso, for 
permission to publish his Brassica toumefortii record and Robert Sivinski for 
information concerning Plantago bigelovii subsp. califomica. Gratitude is also 
extended to Richard Spellenberg and Kelly Allred for reviewing this manuscript. The 
efforts of Kristen Johnson (ARIZ), Donald Pinkava (ASU), Richard Worthington 
(UTEP), Jane Mygatt (UNM), and Terry Heiner (SNM) for checking their herbaria for 
the seven species is gratefully acknowledged. The logistical support provided by the 
Bureau of Land Management, Las Cruces District, is sincerely appreciated. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Bassett, I.J. 1966. Taxonomy of North American Plantago L., section 

Micropsy Ilium Decne. Can. J. Bot. 44:467-479. 
Correll, D.S. & M.C. Johnston. 1970. Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. 

Texas Research Foundation, Renner, Texas. 
Kearney, T.H. & R.H. Peebles, and collaborators. 1960. Arizona Flora. 

Supplement by J.T. Howell, E. McClintock, and collaborators. University of 

California Press, Berkeley, California. 
Lemke, D.E. & R.D. Worthington. 1991. Brassica and Rapistrum (Brassicaceae) in 

Texas. Southw. Naturalist 36(2): 194-197. 
Rollins, R.C. 1993. The Cruciferae of Continental North America. Systematics of 

the Mustard Family from the Arctic to Panama. Stanford University Press, 

Stanford, California. 
Martin, W.C. & C.R. Hutchins. 1980, 1981 (vols. 1 & 2 respectively). A Fbra of 

New Mexico. J. Cramer, Vaduz, Germany. 



Phytologia (November 1996) 8I(5):369-381. 



NOTES ON NEOPHYTES 2. NEW RECORDS FOR ASTERACEAE FROM 
THE CENTER OF MEXICO. 



Heike Vibrans 

Centro de Ecologia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Apartado Postal 70- 

275, 04510 Mexico, D.F., MEXICO 

Presently at: Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, 

Instituto Literario Ote. No. 100, 50000 Toluca, Estado de Mexico, MEXICO 

Postal address: A. P. 519, 50000 Toluca, MEXICO 



ABSTRACT 

Bellis perennis L., Guizotia abyssinica (L./.) Cass., and Hypochoeris 
radicata L. are registered as new records for Mexico. In addition, 
Calyptocarpus vialis Less., Melampodium divaricatiim (L. Rich ex Pers.) 
DC, and Parthenium hysterophorus (Ortega) Rollins are reported as new for 
the Valley of Mexico. Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. grows in Toluca and 
Mexico City, and Matricaria discoidea DC. was found in the Valley of Toluca; 
both represent additions to the flora of the Center of Mexico. 

KEY WORDS: Asteraceae, Mexico, weeds, introduction, Bellis, Guizotia, 
Hypochoeris radicata 



RESUMEN 



Bellis perennis L., Guizotia abyssinica (L./.) Cass., y Hypochoeris 
radicata L. son registrados como nuevos para Mexico, y Calyptocarpus vialis 
Less., Melampodium divaricatum (L. Rich ex Pers.) DC, y Parthenium 
hysterophorus (Ortega) Rollins como nuevos para el Valle de Mexico. 
Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. crece cerca de Toluca y en la Ciudad de Mexico y 
Matricaria discoidea DC. fue encontrado en el Valle de Toluca; ambos son 
nuevos para el centro de Mexico. 

PALABRAS CLAVE: Asteraceae, Mexico, malezas, introducion, Bellis, 
Guizotia, Hypochoeris radicata 



369 



370 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):369-38 1 



A number of weed species not recorded previously for a particular region or the 
country were encountered during studies of the urban vegetation of Mexico City and 
other observations in central Mexico. Here, eight new records of Asteraceae are 
discussed. 

For this work, the herbaria MEXU (Herbario Nacional, Institute de Biologia, 
Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico) and ENCB (Herbario de la Escuela 
Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas, Institute Politecnico Nacional) were revised in the 
appropriate sections. 

Most species treated here are well-known elsewhere on the continent, so only a 
brief description and diagnostic features are given. Guizotia abyssinica ih.f.) Cass, is 
described in more detail, as it is relatively new to the Americas. Voucher specimens 
are deposited at MEXU; the collection numbers of voucher specimens are the author's, 
unless otherwise specified. 



BELLIS PERENNIS L. 



ENGLISH NAME: English daisy or lawn daisy; SPANISH NAME: margarita de 
los prados (Chile, Ramirez de Vallejo 1980), margarita pequena {Gdndara s.n. 
[MEXU]). The filled, cultivated form is frequently called "bombon" in Mexico. 

TRIBE: Astereae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: Most variable in southern Europe; its extensive 
distribution in most parts of Northern and Central Europe is probably archaeophytic 
(Wagenitz 1979). 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: United States: "chiefly in the Pacific 
Northwest; local in the northeastern states and southward; naturalized to some extent in 
Newfoundland" (Muenscher 1955). Of temperate South America, it is not mentioned 
for Peru (Miiller & Muller 1977) or Argentina (Marzocca 1976), but is present in Chile 
(Ramirez de Vallejo 1980). It is also naturalized in New Zealand. 

NEW TO: Mexico. 

LOCALITIES: The author first collected the species in a park in Mexico City. 
Later it was found in a number of public green spaces in Mexico City, for example in 
the Alameda and in various sites of Ciudad Universitaria, and, abundantly, in several 
lawns of the city of Toluca (for example, around the University Rectory, in the 
Alameda, in the lawn surrounding the public library on Avenida Hidalgo). Hundreds 
of individuals of a long-peduncled form grow in a forest of Abies religiosa at 2900 m 
on the Toluca Valley side of the Sierra de las Cruces, along a small brook, probably 
escaped from the gardens of a nearby restaurant, but apparently quite naturalized. 
Similar plants were found on the Valley of Mexico side of the same mountain range (J. 
Flores p. 48, 16 Sep 1975, Desierto de los Leones, D.F., Humid forest, collected near 
a brook. [MEXU]). An unnumbered and undated, but old-looking herbarium 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from Mexico 37 1 



specimen from the valley of Mexico was also located (Gdndara, "San Jacinto, D.F., 
[MEXU]. Gandara collected in the 1920s, comm. pens. Teresa German, but his 
specimens were only recently incorporated into the herbarium). 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Distrito Federal: 4359, 1 Aug 1993, 
Mdxico City, Delegacion Cuauhtemoc, Colonia Doctores, Jardfn Artes GrSficas, south 
of the kiosk, 19° 24' N, 99° 08' W, 2230 m, shaded lawn dominated by Pennisetum 
clandestinum, with Trifolium repens, Apium (Ciclospermum) leptophyllum, Cotula 
australis. Estado de Mexico: 4770, 9 Feb 1994, around Rectory of the Universidad 
Autdnoma del Estado de Mexico, Toiuca, 19° 17' N, 99° 39' W, 2655 m, Pennisetum 
clandestinum-lawn; 5767, 19 May 1996, near La Escondida restaurant. La Marquesa, 
along Mexico-Toluca highway, 19° 17' N, 99° 24' W, 2900 m, forest dominated by 
Abies religiosa. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A small perennial herb with spatula leaves in a 
basal rosette, a single peduncle, a head of approximately 2 cm in diameter, white to 
rose-colored ligules and yellow tubular flowers. The small achenes lack a pappus. 

ECOLOGY: Originally a species of rich meadows, it adapted admirably to the 
conditions of constant shearing in lawns, and is one of the few highly constant species 
found in this anthropogenic vegetation type in the temperate and more humid parts of 
Europe (Wittig 1991). 

OBSERVATIONS: Bellis has probably been overlooked for a long time, despite 
some large and old populations, because it is very similar in appearance to a form of 
Erigeron longipes DC. in DC, a widespread Mexican-Mesoamerican weed. This very 
variable species of Erigeron may have leaves similar in shape to Bellis, disposed 
rosette-like, and a subscapose stem (even though grassland specimens generally have 
leafy stems). The inflorescence is strikingly similar at first sight (color, shape, 
involucrum, size). Close examination shows, however, a bristly pappus and a small 
leaf or bract on the stem in Erigeron, both absent in Bellis. In the field, populations of 
Erigeron generally have unequal peduncle lengths, whereas Bellis usually has heads at 
roughly the same height. Ecologically, Erigeron tends more to open and drier sites, 
whereas Bellis thrives on rich soils of shady places. 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: Municipal gardeners declared that the plant has 
been present in Mexico City and Toiuca for more than ten years, hence it can be 
considered naturalized. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: The species is not controlled, as the plant is considered 
attractive, nor is it necessary outside of golf courses. 



CALYPTOCARPUS VIALIS LESS. 



TRIBE: Heliantheae. 

DISTRIBUTION: Ranging around the Caribbean basin from Louisiana to Yucatan 
and Cuba. A closely related species, Calyptocarpus wendlandii, grows in Central 



372 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 8 1(5):369-381 



America and is sometimes listed under this name (McVaugh & Smith 1967). In Nueva 
Galicia it occurs "only as a common weed of city streets of Guadalajara . . . and in 
Jocotepec. It is possible that it has been recently introduced into other cities in western 
Mexico; it is primarily a weed of the Atlantic slope" (McVaugh 1984). 

NEW TO: The Valley of Mexico. 

LOCALITIES: One patch with about 20 small plants was found between a house 
wall and the cobbled surface of a residential street in Coyoacan. 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Distrito Federal: 4704, 29 Jan 1994, 
Mexico City, Delegacion Coyoacan, Colonia Campestre, Callejon Corregidora, 19° 
21'N, 99° ll'W, 2235 m. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: An inconspicuous perennial herb characterized 
by opposite leaves, few, relatively small yellow-flowered heads with short ligules, a 
cylindric involucre of about 5 phyllaries and dimorphic achenes with two awns. 

ECOLOGY: Widespread on disturbed ground and desert plains (McVaugh 1984). 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: It is not possible to say if it is naturalized, 
though the species is certainly a candidate for expansion in the frost-free center of 
Mexico City. It has been found repeatedly at similar altitudes (in the state of Hidalgo: 
Villasenor 581a at 20(X) m, R. Hernandez Magam 4999 and 5046 at 2(XX) m, in 
Veracruz: Nevling & Gomez-Pompa 2120 at 2300 m, all at MEXU), though generally 
it grows at lower altitudes. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: None. 



CIRSIUM VULGARE (SAVI) TEN. (=C. LANCEOLATUS L.) 



ENGLISH NAME: Bull thistle, common thisUe; SPANISH NAME: Thistles in 
general are usually called "cardo". 

TRIBE: Cardueae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: Mediterranean area, western Asia and northern 
Africa; the distribution in Central Europe is probably archaeophytic. 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: Canada, United States, Guatemala, Costa Rica, 
Brasil, Peru, Argentina, Chile, Australia, New Zealand, Kenya, and South Africa 
(Holm, etal. 1979; Ramirez de Vallejo 1980; Wagenitz 1987). 

NEW TO: Central Mexico. The species is mentioned by Rzedowski (1993) as an 
"occasional" weed in Mexico, probably based on a citation for Baja California 
(Wiggins 1980). 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from Mexico 373 



LOCALITIES: Four populations were found, but only the first one collected: 1) 
around a small artificial lake north of Toluca (Estado de Mexico) and some adjoining 
vacant lots (over one hundred individuals), 2) along the railway tracks northeast of 
Toluca (about 800 individuals), 3) near Lerma, Estado de Mexico, also near railway 
tracks (about 50 individuals and 4) Mexico City (Distrito Federal) on a vacant lot 
(about five vegetative individuals). 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Estado de Mexico: 5966, 1 Sep 1996. 
Highway from Toluca westwards to Morelia (No. 15,. edge of a small reservoir at the 
height of Zinacatepec, 19° 17' N, 99° 42' W, 2650 m. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A robust, spiny annual to biannual herb with 
lilac-colored tubular flowers, a feathery pappus, a winged stem and lobed leaves, the 
lobes terminating in spines; the leaves are covered with rough hairs and frequently also 
with spines, particularly the basal leaves. 

ECOLOGY: A widespread weed of ruderal sites, particularly building rubble, 
meadows, open forests, dunes and riparian woods in Europe, preferring medium- 
textured, neutral and N-rich soils. The plant does not withstand cultivation (Moore & 
Frankton 1974), waterlogging, or deep shade. KJinkhamer & de Jong (1993) provide 
a detailed account of the ecology of the species. 

OBSERVATIONS: The species is somewhat similar to Cirsium mexicanum, but 
can be distinguished easily by its fully winged stem. Remarkably, goats seem to eat it 
(Wagenitz 1987). 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: From the size of the populations and their 
distribution the species appears to be naturalized and spreading. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: The species can be invasive and noxious {e.g., Briese 
1988; Sindel 1991), and the populations are not yet large, so a systematic search for 
the plant and eradication is recommended. 



GUIZOTIA ABYSSINICA (L./.) CASS. 

ENGLISH NAMES: Niger seed, Niger oil; SPANISH NAME: Niger. 

TRIBE: Heliantheae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: The Ethiopian highlands. 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: Early migration to India and other parts of 
Africa (Baagoe 1974); a recent invader in Brazil and Cuba (J.-L. Villasenor, pers. 
comm.). 

NEW TO: Mexico. No literature references or herbarium specimens could be 
located. 



374 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):369-381 



LOCALITIES: Single specimens were found in two places in Mexico City. 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Distrito Federal: Both from Mexico City, 
Delegacion Cuauhtemoc, 4i69, 1 Aug 1993, Colonia Obrera, Calle Bolivar, between 
Torquemada and Campo, 19° 24' N, 99° 08' W, 2235 m, in a weedy flower bed, with 
Chenopodium murale, Sisymbrium irio, and Galinsoga quadriradiata, soil pH-value 
6.4; 4768, 11 Feb 1994, Colonia Tlatelolco, Eje Central Lazaro Cardenas, near the 
Plaza de las Tres Culturas, 19° 27' N, 99° 08' W, 2235 m, on rubble. 

DESCRIPTION: An annual, branched herb with sessile to subconnate lanceolate 
leaves. The peduncled yellow-flowered heads are up to 3.5 cm in diameter and are 
arranged in large corymbose cymes. The involucrum is double, with five ovate leafy 
outer bracts up to 1 cm long and the numerous inner bracts scarious, somewhat shorter 
and with a ciliate apex. The paleae are similar to the inner bracts. The 6-8 ray flowers 
have a ligule up to 1.8 cm long and 6-8 mm wide. The flattened, dark achenes are 3.5 
to 5.0 mm long. Chromosome number: In = 30 (for a full description, see Baagoe 
1974). 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: The combination of annual habit, the 
inflorescence type, the 5 broad outer involucral leaves, the plane paleae and the size of 
the achenes distinguish the species from its congeners and other Heliantheae. 

ECOLOGY: In Ethiopia the altitudinal range of the species is from 1500-2300 m, 
so it is a potential invader in the Valley of Mexico, which lies between 2050 and 2200 
m. Outside of Ethiopia it is always a weed or cultivated and it prefers semiarid 
climates. 

OBSERVATIONS: The species is cultivated for the edible, fast-drying oil 
contained in the achenes. 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: The plant is probably not yet naturalized. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: Guizotia abyssinica should be watched for in the 
Mexican tropics, and controlled if it appears. It can be a noxious, invasive weed. Its 
seeds are sold by the kilogram as bird feed under the name of "niger" in Central 
Mexican markets, which makes occasional dispersal of seeds inevitable. 



HYPOCHOERIS RADICATA L. 

ENGLISH NAME: Common catsear; SPANISH NAME: Hierba del chancho 
(Chile, Ramirez de Vallejo 1980). 

TRIBE: Lactuceae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: Europe and northern Africa. 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from Mexico 375 



SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: Canada, United States, Costa Rica, Panamd, 
Ecuador, Colombia, Chile, Argentina, Australia, New Zealand, Japan, Bangladesh, 
South Africa (Holm, et al. 1979; Ramirez 1980; and MEXU). 

NEW TO: Mexico. No literature references or herbarium specimens were 
encountered. L.H. Shinners annotated Correll & Correll 38775, 19 May 1970, 
(MEXU) from Newton County as "New to Texas". The related species Hypochoeris 
glabra L. has been found in Tiajuana and Guadalajara. 

LOCALnihS: Hypochoeris was found in two places 15 km apart: a lawn 
between highway and train tracks near Metepec (more than 100 individuals on a 
surface of approx. 150 x 3 m); and in disturbed vegetation of La Marquesa National 
Park, along the Mexico City-Toluca highway in the Sierra de las Cruces. Soil removal 
for landscaping apparently provided the initial open habitat in the second locality, but 
the species is advancing into neighboring alpine tussockgrass vegetation. The 
population is large in area (approx. 500 x 7(X) m) and in individuals (several 
thousand). 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Estado de Mexico: 5772A, 10 July 1996, 
Highway from Mexico City to Toluca, near the Metepec underpass. 19° 17' N, 99° 35' 
W, 2600 m; 5965, 7 Sep 1996, Highway from Mexico City to Toluca, at "La 
Marquesa", where the toll road and the free highway meet, 19° 18' N, 99° 22' W, 
3020 m. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A perennial herb somewhat similar in habit to 
Taraxacum. The leaves are mainly in a rosette, the stems may be ramified, the flowers 
of the head are yellow and ligulate, the marginal ones are longer than the involucrum, 
and of a greenish-gray tint on the outside. The leaves are stiff-haired; the stem is 
glabrous and solid. 

ECOLOGY: The species "flourishes on most soils" (Salisbury 1961). In Europe, 
the species is frequently dispersed in lawn seed of Dactylis glomerata L. (Wagenitz 
1987). 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: The populations are large and apparently 
spreading; the species is probably naturalized. 

RECOMMENDATIONS: Hypochoeris is not generally a noxious weed, but it 
should not be tolerated in a nature reserve, particularly as it seems to be spreading into 
native grassland. 



MATRICARIA DISCOIDEA DC. 

[= Matricaria matricarioides (Less.) Porter pp., Matricaria suaveolens (Pursh) Buch.; 

Chamomilla suaveolens (Pursh) Rydb.] 

ENGLISH NAME: Pineapple weed; SPANISH NAME: ManzaniUa (Chile, 
Ramirez 1980), manzanilla cimarrona (informants in Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico). 



376 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):369-381 

TRIBE: Anthemideae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: Alaska to Baja California. 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: Widely introduced in eastern North America 
and temperate regions of Eurasia. It also appears naturalized in Chiapas at high 
altitudes (McVaugh 1984; specimens at MEXU), in South America (Chile, Argentina), 
and Oceania (Australia, New Zealand) (Wagenitz 1987). 

NEW TO: Central Mexico. 

LOCALITIES: A population of roughly 25 individuals was found in the city of 
Toluca in 1996, at the entrance of a stadium used for sports and music events. It grew 
on a highly treaded lava gravel, the only species there. Later, several well-sized 
populations of several hundred individuals were encountered at El Pedregal, 
Ocoyoacac. Local people say it appeared in 1994 and has spread rapidly since along 
the edges of paths and maize fields. The appropriate name "manzanilla cimarrona" 
(roughly, odd chamomile) was promptly applied to it. 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Estado de Mexico: 5705, 3 Feb 1996, 
entrance to the baseball stadium in the "Ciudad Deportiva" west of Toluca (County of 
Zinacatepec), 19° 17' N, 99° 41' W, 2720 m; 6500, 10 May 1997, construction site 
near road from Ocoyoacac to Santiago Tianguistengo, El Pedregal, near the spring, 
19° 15' N, 99° 28' W, 2580 m. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A small, aromatic herb easy to recognize. It has 
bipinnatifid leaves with more or less linear segments and a conic, hollow receptacle, 
no ligulate flowers and yellow-greenish tubular flowers. The aspect of the head lead 
to the English common name. 

ECOLOGY: "A weed of cultivated ground and waste places" (McVaugh 1984) is 
a well-known component of communities of treaded ground and along highways and 
train tracks in Europe and Asia (Salisbury 1961; Wagenitz 1987). 

OBSERVATIONS: The appearance at the entrance of a stadium curiously in 
accordance with observations in Europe, where the first appearance was sometimes 
linked to traveling show-people (Wagenitz 1979). The small species has seeds that 
become sticky when wet and their dispersal via feet and wheels is notorious (Salisbury 
1961). 



NATURALIZATION STATUS: The population at the Toluca stadium was still 
there on two subsequent visits, the last one on Feb. 28, 1997. 



RECOMMENDATIONS: The populations are still localized, and the plant can be 
troublesome, so eradication is recommended. 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from Mexico 377 

MELAMPODIUM DIVARICATUM (RICH EX PERS.) DC 

SPANISH NAME: Mozote amarillo, flor amarilla. 

TRIBE: Heiiantheae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: Lowlands of Mexico and Central America; it extends 
to northern South America and eastern Brazil. 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: "... introduced into Cuba, Burma, Puerto Rico 
and the Virgin Islands" (Stuessy 1972). 

NEW TO: The Valley of Mexico. 

LOCALITIES: Tlie species is quite common, though it does not form large 
populations, in the southern and eastern parts of Mexico City, in neglected lawns, 
vacant lots or tree rings. 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Distrito Federal: Both Mexico City: 
4501, 29 Aug 1993, Delegacion Azcapotzalco, Colonia Euzkadi. Av. Ceylan, near the 
Post Office. 19° 28' N, 99° 09' W, 2235 m; 4610, 19 Sep 1993, Delegacion 
Iztapalapa, Colonia Leyes de Reforma, Calle 25 de Septiembre de 1873, 19° 22' N, 
99° 03' W, 2235 m. 

DL\GNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A medium-sized erect annual herb with 
opposite, variably shaped, but generally broadly ovate leaves. The peduncles are 2-14 
cm long, the heads 10-15 mm in diameter and yellow-flowered. The five outer 
phyllaries are green, much shorter than the rays, and united at the base (1/3 to 1/4), 
forming a cup; the phyllary margins are thick and scabrous-ciliate. 

ECOLOGY: The species is a major weed of cultivated ground and ruderal sites in 
the warmer parts of Mexico. Also it may grow, according to McVaugh ( 1984), in wet 
meadows, ravines, clearings, and disturbed places in tropical deciduous forest or pine 
forest. 

OBSERVATIONS: Though the species grows mainly in the tropical lowlands, it 
has been found repeatedly above 2000 m outside of the valley of Mexico, particularly 
in Michoacan. One specimen {J.M. Escobedo 360, 27 Sep 1985, Cuanajo, Mpio. 
Patzcuaro [MEXU]) was found at 2500 m. 

NATURALIZATION STATUS: It appears naturalized. 



RECOMMENDATIONS: None. Control seems neither possible nor necessary. 
It is a dominant weed in the lower-lying areas near Mexico City (for example, around 
Cuemavaca) and sure to be reintroduced if eradication were attempted. 



378 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):369-381 

PARTHENWM HYSTEROPHORUS (ORTEGA) ROLLINS 



ENGLISH NAME: Ragweed parthenium, parthenium weed; SPANISH NAMES: 
Cicutilla, confitillo, hierba amargosa and many more (Martinez 1979). 

TRIBE: Heliantheae. 

NATIVE DISTRIBUTION: The monographer of the genus, Rollins (1950), 
believes that the species originated in the Caribbean basin. 

SECONDARY DISTRIBUTION: Southeastern United States through Mexico to 
South America. An adventive in many subtropical regions, for example Vietnam, 
Australia and India, where it is a noxious weed, particularly in pastures (Rollins 1950; 
Chippendale & Panetta 1994). 

NEW TO: The Valley of Mexico. It is not mentioned in the Flora of the Valley of 
Mexico (Rzedowski & Rzedowski 1985) or other floristic lists. Numerous herbarium 
specimens exist, however (all at MEXU) (Orcutt 4102, 20 Sep 1910, Mexico, D.F., 
det. by J.M. Greenman 1910; Urbina s/n, 8 Sep 1883, Chapultepec (Valle de Mexico); 
Gdndara s/n, no date, Mixcoac, D.F.; Salazar s/n, 30 Aug 1911, Serrania de 
Guadalupe, D.F.; Bolanos 92, 22 Oct 1976, km 27 of the highway Mexico-Texcoco, 
det. Francisco Espinosa; Conzatti & Noriega s/n, 1 Nov 1917, Valle de Teotihuacan). 
Though the main distribution of the species is the low to middle-altitude tropics 
(McVaugh 1984) it has been found repeatedly at altitudes above 2000 m outside of the 
Valley of Mexico, for example in the states of Zacatecas, Guanajuato, Puebla, and 
Queretaro. 

LOCALITIES: It is widespread, especially in the eastern (and more arid) part of 
the Valley, often forming pure stands, particularly along train tracks, on vacant lots, 
under high-tension lines, and around the numerous informal soccer fields. 

VOUCHER SPECIMENS AT MEXU: Distrito Federal: All Mexico City: 4421, 
15 Aug 1993, Delegacion Cuauhtemoc, Colonia Tlatelolco, Unused train tracks, Eje 2 
Norte, between Lerdo and Eje 1, 19° 27' N, 99° 08' W, 2235 m;4441, 16 Aug 1993, 
Delegaci6n G.A. Madero, Colonia Nuevo Atzacoalco. Calle 329, 19° 29' N, 99° 04' 
W, 2235 m; 4661, 25 Oct 1993, Delegacion Coyoacan, Colonia Culhuacan, 19° 19' 
N, 99° 06' W, 2235 m; 4731, 6 Feb 1994, Delegacion Iztapalapa, Colonia Santa 
Rosa, Vacant lots east of the large wholesale market (Central de Abasto), 19° 22' N, 
99° 04' W, 2235 m. 

DIAGNOSTIC CHARACTERS: A large, erect, much-branched annual herb, with 
alternate, glandular, bipinnately lobed leaves. The small (4-5 mm wide), white- 
flowered heads are arranged in racemes. The double involucre has an outer series of 
five greenish, obovate phyllaries and an inner series of five scarious, suborbicular 
ones. There are five ligulate flowers with very short ligules, each one attached to two 
sterile disc flowers. - The species is sometimes difficult to distinguish from 
Parthenium bipinnatifidum (Ortega) Rollins, a species endemic to the Mexican 
highlands, particularly in young specimens; the two species may occur together. The 
upper leaves of P. hysterophorus are generally undivided, linear and bract-like, 
whereas in P. bipinnatifidum they are lobed; the heads of P. hysterophorus always 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from M6xico 379 



surpass the leaves considerably, whereas in P. bipinnatifidum they are about on upper 
leaf level (this is a good field character, but cannot always be seen in herbarium 
specimens); P. hysterophorus is quite erect, whereas P. bipinnatifidum tends to be 
down-lying to ascending. The principal leaf divisions point forwards in P. 
hysterophorus, whereas in P. bipinnatifidum they are almost at right angles. 

ECOLCXjY: The species is a common ruderal weed (less so in cultivated fields) of 
the Mexican tropics. It may also grow in tropical deciduous forests. 

OBSERVATIONS: Parthenium hysterophorus was introduced to India and 
Australia in the 1950s, has spread rapidly in the following decades and is now a major 
pasture, cropland and ruderal weed. In both countries it is not only considered a 
noxious agricultural weed but also a hazard to public health {e.g., Chippendale & 
Panetta 1994; Sciramarao, et al. 1991; Kumari & Kohli 1987; Pandey & Dubey 1988). 
Apparently 7-10% of those populations are susceptible to both contact dermatitis and 
allergic rhinitis, often severe, due to exposure to Parthenium pollen. I found no 
references to research on Mexican human populations, but even if the incidence of 
allergy is lower, it is certainly undesirable to have an additional stress factor in the 
already critical Valley of Mexico environment. 



NATURALIZATION STATUS; Parthenium hysterophorus is thoroughly 
naturalized. 



RECOMMENDATIONS: Eradication appears quite impossible at the present size 
of the populations. However, managers of public green spaces, particularly sports 
fields, should be warned that it is an allergenic plant, and it should be controlled in 
places with many visitors. 



ACKNOWLEDGMENTS 



Most of the species were found in connection with a research project on the urban 
vegetation of Mexico City (IN-207892, DGAPA, UNAM), headed by Alma Orozco, 
Centro de Ecologi'a, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico. I thank her, Daniel 
Pifiero and Robert Bye for obtaining financial support for the field work phase and for 
their help throughout. The National Herbarium and its staff was, as always, very 
helpful. Particularly 1 thank Jose-Luis Villasenor, who read and commented on the 
manuscript and helped with the identification of Guizotia; Jerzy Rzedowski 
(Patzcuaro, Michoacan) also read the manuscript and helped with some distribution 
details. Hugh Drummond's assistance with language and editing was much 
appreciated. The Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Mexico, 
gave me all facilities necessary to complete the work. 



380 PHYTOLOGIA November 1996 volume 81 (5):369-381 

LITERATURE CITED 



Baagoe, J. 1974. The genus Gw/zor/fl (Compositae). A taxonomic revision. Botanisk 

Tidsskrift 69:1-39. 
Briese, D.T. 1988. Weed status of twelve thistle species in New South Wales. Plant 

Protection Quarterly 3(4): 135- 141. 
Chippendale, J.F. & F.D. Panetta. 1994. The cost of parthenium weed to the 

Queensland cattle industry. Plant Protection Quarterly 9:73-76. 
Dunn, P.H. 1976. Distribution of Carduus nutans, C. acanthoides, C. 
pycnocephalus and C. crispus, in the United States. Weed Science 24(5):518- 
524 
Evans, R.A., J. A. Young, & R. Hawkes. 1979. Germination characteristics of 
Italian thistle (Carduus pycnocephalus) and Slenderflower thistle (Carduus 
tenuiflorus). Weed Science 27(3):327-332 
Holm, L., J.V. Pancho, J. P. Herberger, & D.L. Plucknett. 1979. A Geographical 

Atlas of the World's Worst Weeds. Wiley & Sons, New York, New York. 
Klinkhamer, P.G.L. & T.J. de Jong. 1993. Biological flora of the British Isles. 

Cirsium vulgare (Savi) Ten. J. Ecology 81:177-191. 
Kumari, A. & R.K. Kohli. 1987. Autotoxicity of Ragweed Parthenium (Parthenium 

hysterophorus). Weed Science 35:629-632. 
Marzocca, A. 1976. Manual de Malezas. 3rd ed. Edit. Hemisferio Sur, Buenos 

Aires, Argentina. 
Martinez, M. 1979. Catdlogo de Nomhres Vulgares y Cientificos de Plantas 

Mexicanas. Fondo de Cultura Economica, Mexico, D.F., Mexico. 
McVaugh, R. 1984. Flora Novo-Galiciana. A Descriptive Account of the Vascular 

Plants of Western Mexico. Vol. 12. Compositae. The University of Michigan 

Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
McVaugh, R. & N.J. Smith. 1967. Calyptocarpus vialis and C. wendlandii 

(Compositae). Brittonia 19:268-272. 
Moore, R.J. & C. Frankton. 1974. The Thistles of Canada. Monograph 10. Canada 

Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada. 
Muenscher, W.C. 1955. Weeds. 2nd ed. Macmillan Co., New York, New York. 
Muller, G.K. & C. Muller. 1974. Vegetationskundliche Studien in Peru (Teil I). 

Wiss. Z. Karl-Marx-Univ. Leipzig, Math.-Naturwiss. R. 23(5):569-580. 
Pandey, H.N. & S.K. Dubey. 1988. Achene germination of Parthenium 

hysterophorus L.: effects of light, temperature, provenance and achene size. 

Weed Research 28:185-190. 
Ramirez de Vallejo, A. 1980. Malezas de Chile. Inst. Invest. Agropec, Boletin 

Tecnico 15. Santiago de Chile. 
Rollins, R.C. 1950. The guayule rubber plant and its relatives. Contr. Gray Herb. 

172:1-73. 
Rzedowski J. & G.C. de Rzedowski (eds.). 1985. Flora Fanerogdtnica del Valle de 

Mexico. Vol. II. Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biologicas & Institute de 

Ecologi'a, Mexico, D.F. Mexico. 
Rzedowski, J. 1993. El papel de la familia Compositae en la flora sinantropica de 

Mexico. Fragm. Flor. Geobot. Suppl. 2(1): 123- 138. 
Salisbury, E. 1961. Weeds and Aliens. Collins, London, Great Britain. 
Sindel, B.M. 1991. A review of the ecology and control of thistles in Australia. 

Weed Research 31:1 89-20 1 . 



Vibrans: New records of Asteraceae from Mexico 38 1 



Sciramarao, P., S. Nagpal, B.S.S. Rao, O.M. Prakash, & P.V.S. Rao. 1991. 

Immediate hypersensitivity to Partlienium hysterophoriis: II. Clinical studies on 

the prevalence of Parthenium rhinitis. Clinical and Experimental Allergy 21:55- 

62. 
Stuessy, T.F. 1972. Revision of the genus Melampodium (Compositae: 

Heliantheae). Rhodora 74: 1 -70, 161-219. 
Wagenitz, G. 1979. Compositae I: Allgemeiner Teil, Eupatorium - Achillea. In: 

Gustav Hegi: Illiistrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Ed. by H.J. Conert, U. 

Hamann, W. Schultz-Motel, & G. Wagenitz. Vol. VI-3. 2nd ed. Parey, Berlin. 

Germany, pp. 29-35 (Bellis). 
Wagenitz, G. 1987. Compositae II: Matricaria - Hieracium. In: Gustav Hegi: 

Illustrierte Flora von Mitteleuropa. Ed. by H.J. Conert, U. Hamann, W. 

Schultz-Motel, & G. Wagenitz. Vol. VI-4. 2nd ed. Parey, Berlin, Germany, pp. 

584-587 (Marncar/fl), 873-880, 139S (Cirsium), 1013-1015, \416 (Hypochoeris) 
Whitson, T. D., L.C. Burrill, S.A. Dewey, D.W. Cudney, B.E. Nelson, R.D. Lee, 

& R. Parker. 1992. Weeds of the West. Western Society of Weed Science and 

Western United States Land Grant Universities. Revised ed. Newark, Calif. 
Wiggins, I. L. 1980. Flora of Baja California. Stanford University Press, Stanford, 

California. 
Wittig, R. 1991. Okologie der Grosstadtflora. Fischer, Stuttgart, Germany, p. 136 



Phytologia (November 1996) 81(5):382. 



OESTRUM JARAMILLANUM: A CLARIFICATION 



William G. D'Arcy' & Carmen Benftez de Rojas^ 

'Missouri Botanical Garden, P.O. Box 299, St. Louis, Missouri 63166 U.S.A. 

^Facultad Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela, Maracay, Apartado Correos 

4597, Aragua, VENEZUELA 



ABSTRACT 
Nomenclatural clarification is provided for Cestrum jaramillanum. 
KEY WORDS: Solanaceae, Cestrum, nomenclature 



The name Cestrum jaramillanum Benftez & D'Arcy, commemorating the name of 
Jaime Lucio Jaramillo Asanza, Quito, Ecuador, was deliberately published without the 
letter q for euphonic reasons. This conforms with Article 23.2 of the International 
Code of Botanical Nomenclature (1994). 

To date the name has been used this way in oral and visual presentations and in 
two publications now in press: Revision of the Venezuelan Cestreae (Solanaceae): 
Cestrum and Sessea, Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, and Studies of 
Cestreae of Venezuela. In Nee, M., D. Symon, J. Jessup, & J.G. Hawkes, eds., 
Solanaceae IV: Advances in Biology and Utilization. Published by The Royal Botanic 
Gardens, Surrey, U.K. for the Linnean Society of London. 



LITERATURE CITED 



Greuter, W., J. McNeill, et al. 1994. International Code of Botanical Nomenclature 
(Tokyo Code), adopted by the Fifteenth International Botanical Congress, 
Yokohama, August-September 1993. Regnum Vegetabile, vol. 131. 



382 



Phyiologia (November 1996) 81(5):383. 



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NOW AVAILABLE. PHYTOLOGL\ MEMOIRS. Volume 1 1 

THE COMPS OF MEXICO, Volume 1 

EUPATORIEAE 

B.L. TURNER 

1997, 8 1/4 X 10 3/4 in., 272 pp., illus., $44.95, ISBN 0-9642085-2-0. 

The second of an anticipated ten volume series on the Asteraceae of Mexico, this 
volume includes the tribe Eupatorieae. Other volumes will include the remainder of the 
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