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Weber Pianola Grand 



By Alfred Dolge 






300 Illustrations 




Copyright li»ll, bv 

All Rights lieserved 



' ' I hold every man a debtor to his profes- 
sion; from the which as men of course do 
seek to receive countenance and profit, so 
ought they of duty endeavor themselves by 
way of amends to be a help and ornament 


Fkancis Bacon. 


Sebastian Erard 

After Original Oil Painting by David 
Through Courtesy of Mons. A. Blondel 


IN describing tlie origin and development of the pianoforte, 
notice has been taken only of such efforts and inventions as 
lent themselves to evolution, or have stood the test of time. 
Therefore no mention is made of mere freak instruments, ancient 
or modern, nor of the manv fruitless efforts of inventors whose 
aim seemed to be merely to produce " something ditferent," either 
for commercial reasons or to satisfy the cravings of their own 
imagined genius. 

Great pains have been taken, however, to give full credit to those 
who successfully developed ideas which in their original crudeness 
seemed impracticable. It often happens, as in the case of the 
*' overstrung system," that an idea is born, tried, discarded, lies 
dormant for generations, before the genius appears who can 
render it adaptable for practical use. 

It is to be regretted that we are still without guiding laws for 
the construction of the pianoforte, but the thinking piano maker 
of the present has the great advantage of past experiments from 
which to learn ivliaf not to do in his efforts to improve the piano. 

The curiosity hunter, and student who desires more detailed 
information regarding past experiments in piano construction, 
will find entertaining and instructive reading in the various publi- 
cations on the pianoforte enumerated elsewhere. 

Great confusion exists among the various writers on the piano- 
forte regarding the names of the older keyed instruments. 
Clavicytherium, Clavichord, Spinet, Virginal, and Harpsichord 
are often confounded with one another, and some writers use 
" Clavier " for all these instruments. 



111 ()i-(lcr til >('curt' acciirarN , 1 followed tlic (k'veloi)iiR'iit clirouo- 
logicnll}, as tiic most t rustwortliy nutliorilii's record it, aiming 
ahva> > to ,ui\t' a clear description in as few words as possible, 
because this work is written for those wlio desire to know, and 
who do not care merely to be entertained. 

IJein.i;- limited in scope to past events, the antlior regrets espe- 
ciall\- that no particular mention could bo made of the valuable 
labors of lienr>' Ziegler, Frank d. ('oiioxcf, Kicliaid W. (Jertz, 
Taul (i. Meliliu and otliers, who ai-<' eai-nestly engaged in improv- 
ing the heritage left us by the masters of the i»ast. 

In submitting this volume to the reader, the author desires to 
express his thanks to Messrs. Tlieodore C. Steinway, William E. 
Wheeloek, :\Ielville Chirk, J. H. White, George B. Kelly, Ludwig 
J5osen(h)i-fer, Josef Herrburger, dr., Siegfried Hansing, Paul 
de Wit and ^^orris Steinert, for their kind and \alual)le assistance, 
without which the work would lack much important data. 

Covin A, California, 
April, 1911. 



Technical Development of the Pianoforte 


The Monochoed, Pytliagoras, Guiclo of Arezzo, the Chinese 

The Clavicytherium, Italy and Germany 

The Clavichord, Daniel Faber, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven 

The Spinet, Giovanni Spinnetti 

The Harpsichord and its development .... 


The Pianoforte, Christofori, Marius, Schroter, Silbermann 
Backers, Stein, German, Austrian and English Schools 

The Square Piano, Znmpe, Broadwood, Erard, Behrend, Al 
breclit, Crehore, Osborn, Babcock, Chickering, Steinway 

The Upright Piano, Schmidt, Hawkins, Loud, Southwell 
Wornum, Pleyel 

The Grand Piano, Geronimo, Still, Stodart, Broadwood 
Erard, Stein, Nannette Stein-Streicher, Loud, Jardine 
Chickering, Steinway, Bosendorfer, Kaps 











The Full Iron Frame, Hawkins, Allen and Tlioin, Babcock, 

Cbiekerini*-, Erard, Broadwood, Hoxa, Steinway . . 69 

The Keyi;(>ai;i>, (Inido of Arezzo, Zarlina, Kirkman, Krause, 
Cliromatic Keyboard, X'eubaus, Clndsam, Paul von 
Jaiiko, Perzina ....... .77 

The Action, Sobroter, Cbristofori, SiHx'nnaini, Stein, 
Streiclior, Znnipe, Backers, Erard, Friederici, Wornuin, 
Pleyel, Pape 83 

The Hammer, dii-istofori, Silberniann, Pajio, Wilko, Kreter, 

Matbnsbek, Collins, Dolge, Annnon, Steinway ... 97 

The Soundboard, Cbladni, Tyndall, Helmboltz, Hansing, Dr. 

Paul, Pape, ]\latbnsliek 106 


The Supply Industries, Lumber (old and new metbods of 

seasoning), Felt, Wire, Actions 115 

Felt ^NFaking, Pape, Wbitebead, Naisb, Billon, Fortin, 

\Yeickert, Dolge . 120 

Piano Wire, Fnelis, Webster & Ilorsfall, Aliller, Poeblmann, 

AVasbburn cK: Moen, II ougbton. Smith, World's Fair Tests 123 

Actions, Brooks, Isermann, Gebrling, Herrburger-Scbwan- 
der, Morgenstern & Kotrade, Lexow, Langer cK: Com- 
pany, Fritz & Meyer, Keller, Seaverns .... 126 


Development of the Player Piano, Morse, Vaueanson, 
Seytre, Bain, Pape, Fonrneanx, ]\[eTammany, Cally, 
Bisbop &: Downe, Knster, Paine, Parker, AVliite, Brown, 
Votey, rjoolmann, Ilobart, Clai'k, Kelly, Klngb, 
Welin, llui)i'eld, Welte, Young, Crooks, Dickinson, 
Dauquard 131 



Commercial Development of the Piano Industry 



Italy, Cliristofori, Fischer, Sievers, Roseler, Mola . . . 166 

Germany, Silbermann, Stein, Nannette Stein, Streiclier, 
Scliiedmayer, Ibacli, Ritmiiller, Rosenkrantz, Irniler, 
Bliitlmer 167 

France, Erard, Pleyel, Herz, Gaveau, Bord .... 171 

England, Tslmdi, Broadwood, Kirkman, Zumpe, Collard, 

Brinsmead, Hopkinson 172 

America, Cliickering, MacKay, Nunns & Clark, Gilbert, Stein- 
way 174 


The Commercial Piano, Joseph P. Hale 179 

The Stencil, Department Stores, Consolidations . . . 182 


The Art Piano, Trasunti, Hans Rnckers, Shudi, Broadwood, 
Alma Taclema, Steinway, Marquandt, Sir Edward Poyn- 
ter, Centennicd Grand at the White House, Denning, 
Bosendorfer, Empress Elizabeth, Ibach's Jubilee Grand, 
Baldwin, Barnhorn, Guest, Bliitlmer, Erard, Pleyel, Lyon 
& Co., Chickering Louis XIV, Everett Sheraton Grand, 
Samuel Hai/nrird, Knabe '' Nouveau Art " Grand, 
Weber Louis XIV Grand ....... 187 

The Pedal Piano, Schone, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Pleyel, 

Erard, Pfeiffer, Henry F. Miller 191 

The Player Piano • 194 


Export, Steinway, Aeolian ....... 199 

Methods of Marketing, The Agency System . . . 200 




The Trust Movemkxts of 1892, 1897 and 1899. 
Cause of Failure 

Plan, Scope, 





- Mcu ^WUn Have Made Piano History 


Itat.v, (Jnido of AV^zo, S])innotti, Geronimo, Cliristofori, 
Fischer, Sievers, R«iieler, ^lola ...... 

Germany, Silbermann, Steinp[5lannette) Stein, Streicher, 
Bosendorfer, Senffert, Elirbar,"^ Scliweighofer, Heitz- 
niann, T])n('li, liitniiiller, Rosenkrantz, Irmler, Scliied- 
niayer, Kaini c^' (liintlier, Dorner, Lipp, "Wagner, Pfeiffer, 
Rolilfing, Knake, Adam, Ilcyl, Vogel, Lindner, Meyer, 
Mand, (irebanlir, Tliiirnicr, Steinweg, Grotrian, Zeitter & 
Winkelinann, Bnsclnnann, Raclials, Sclieel, Bllithner, 
Roniscli, Feurich, Isermann, Weickert, Poelilmann . 

England, Shiidi, Broadwood, (*ollard, Cliallen, Ho])kinson, 
Brinsmead, Eavcstaff, S(]nire, Grover, Barnett, Poehl- 
mann, Strohnienger, AVitton, Brooks .... 





France, Erard, Pleyel, Kalkbrenner, Wolff, Lyon, Herz 
Pai)e, Kriegelstein, Gavean, Bord, Schwander, Herr- 

Spain, Estela, Gnarra, Cbassaign, Montana . 

Belgium, Berden, Van Hyfte, Vits, Boone Fils, Gevaert 
Giinther, Oor 

Netherlands, Allgiiner, Cuijpers, Rijken and de Lange . 

Scandinavia, Hornung- & Moller, Ekstrem, Malmsjoe, Hals 

Russia, Diederichs, Schroder, Becker .... 

Japan, Torakiisu Yamaha, Nishikawa & Son . 






America, Creliore, Osborn, Babcock, MacKay, Stewart, Chick- 
ering, Bacon & Raven, James A. Gray, William Bourne, 
McPhail, Lindeman, Scliomacker, Knabe, Steinway, 
Hazelton, Fischer, Stieff, Weber, Steck, Kimball, Cable, 
Wulsin, Starr, Healy, Wurlitzer, Estey, White, Packard, 
Votey, Clark . ' . . . . ' . . . .269 


Influence of Piano Virtuosos Upon the Industry 


Bach, Mozart, Chopin, Liszt, Rubinstein, Biilow, Joseffy, 
Hofmann, Rosenthal, Carreno, de Pachmann, Busoni, 
Paderewski . 385 

Testimonials and Their Value 397 



National Associations of Manufacturers and Dealers in 

Europe and America 405 

The Trade Press — Its Value to the Industry .... 415 

Literature on the Pianoforte 423 

Conclusions 433 


List of Firms Manufacturing Pianos and Supplies at the 

Present Time 443 



Weber Pianola Grand Frontispiece 

Sebastian Erard Insert 7 


Backers ' Hammer Action, 1776 . 

Brinsmead Upright Action 

Broadwood Upright Action 

Christofori's Hammer Action, 1707 . 

Christofori's Hammer Action, 1720 . 

English Sticker Upright Action, 1820 . 

Erard Grand Action, 1821 .... 

Erard-Herz Grand Action, 1850 

Erard 's Eepetition Grand Action, 1821 . 

Friederici's Upright Action, 1745 . 

Herrburger-Schwander Grand Action, Paris 

Herrburger-Schwander Upright Action . 

Keller's Grand Action, Stuttgart, 1909 . 

Langer Grand Action, Berlin, 1909 . 

Langer Upright Action .... 

Loud's Downward Striking Action for Square or Grand 

Pianos, 1827 

Marius' Downward Striking Hammer Action 
Marius' Upward Striking Hammer Action 
Modern American Upright Action . 
Schroter Downward Striking Hammer Action, 1717 
Schroter Upward Striking Action, 1717 . 
Seaverns Upright Action .... 
Siegfried Hansing's Grand Action, 1898 
Silbermann's Hammer Action, 1728 
Stein-Streicher's (Nannette) Grand Action, 1780 
Stein's (Johann Andreas) Action, 1780 . 
Stein's Hammer Action .... 
Steinway Grand Action, 1884 . 






AcTioxs, Continurd 

Steinway's 'rul)nlar Metallic Action Frame, 1866 
Streicher's (.loliann l^ai)tist) Action, 1824 . 
AVesseli, Nickel cVc (Jross' Grand Action, 1890 
AVessell, Nickel ^: (ilross' Upright Action 
AVornum's ri)riglit Action, 1826 
Znnii)e's llanuner Action, 17()0-()5 . 


. 87 
. 90 
. 96 
54, 93 
. 46 

Balchvin (Iraiul Case witii Acoustic Kim 

Capo Tasto 

Clavichord, 16tli Century 
Clavichord, 17th Century 
Clavicvtherium, 14tli Centurv 
De Wit Tuning the Clavichord, Paul . 


. 43 


Chickering Hall, New York 
Gewandliaus (Old), Leipsic 
Gewandhaus Saal (Old), Leipsic 
Gewandliaus (New), Leipsic 
Gewandhaus Saal (New), Leipsic 
Saal Hliithner, Berlin . 
Saal Bosendorfer, Vienna . 
Salle Erard, Paris 
Salle Plevel, Paris . 
Stein wav Hall, New York , 






















Anunon Hanuner 

Anunon-Dolge Hammer .... 

Christofori Hammer 

Hammers Covered with Leather 
Hammers Covered with Leather and Felt 
Machine-covered Felt Hammer, 1871 
Molding for Ammon-Dolge Hammer 
Single Coat Felt Hanuner for (^irand Pianos 
Single Coat Felt Hammer for Upright Pianos 
Steinwav Saturateil Hammer .... 













Hammers. Continued page 
I )olge-Gardener Compressed Air Hammer-Covering Ma- 

cliine, 1910 103 

Dolge Hammer-Covering Machine, 1887 . . . 100, 101 

Harp, Lyon & Healy Insert 352 

Harpsicliord, 1521 35 

Harpsichord, 1531, Alessandro Trasunti's Art . . Insert 190 

Harpsichord with Double Keyboard, End of 16th Century . 36 

Harpsichord, Middle of 17th Century 37 

Iron Frames 

Allen and Thorn's Grand Bracing System, 1820 . 

Babcock's Full Iron Frame, 1825 

Baldwin Upright Iron Frame, 1910 

Broadwood & Sons' Barless Grand Steel Frame, 1910 

Broadwood & Sons' Barless Upright Steel Frame, 1910 

Chickering's Full Iron Frame, 1837 

Chickering Grand Iron Frame, 1843 

Conover Bros.' Upright Iron Frame, 1885 

Erard's First Iron Bar Grand Piano, 1823 

Grotrian's Grand Iron Frame, 1910 

Mason & Hamlin Grand Iron Frame, 1910 

Steinway's Full Iron Frame, with Overstrung Scale, 1855 

Steinway's Grand Iron Frame, 1859 

Steinway &: Sons' Grand Iron Frame, 1875 — Front View 

Steinway & Sons' Grand Iron Frame, 1875 — Back View 


Ke, Chinese, 2650 B. C. 



Cludsam's Concave Keyboard, 1010 

Janko-Perzina Keyboard, 1910 

Perzina's Action for Practice Clavier for Janko Keyboard 
Perzina's Kev for Janko Kevboard, 1910 
Perzina's Practice Clavier for Janko Keyboard . 
Perzina's Reversible Key-bottom for two Keyboards 

Monochord, 582 B. C 

National Association of Piano Dealers of America, Presi- 
dents of, from 1902 to 1911 Insert 



18 ll.Ll sriJA'l'loXS 






• • 
















Xatioiml Associntioii of Piano Maiiiil'actiirers of America, 
Presidents of, iruni 1S97 to i'Jil .... Insert 410 


iJnIdwiii .\rt (iiaiid 

( hickeiiiiu A: Sons' [jonis XW. Art Grand . 
( 'lii-i^lofori '^ I'iaiio e I'orle, 1/11 

Ei'a rd All (iiaiid 

Everett I'iaiio ( 'oiiipaiix- Slieraton Art fli-aiid 
Joliii I'.i'oadwood cV Sons' Ail Grand 

.Inlins I)liitlnier Ail (Jrniid 

Liidwiii' IJoseiidoi ter Art (I rand .... 
rieyel, l.yon cV' ('oni))any Renaissance .\.it (Iraiid . 
I\ndoir Ibacli Sohn Jnbilee Art Grand . 
Steinway & Sons' Art Grand, made for Frederick Mar- 

qnaiidt Insert 190 

Steinway & Sons' Onedmndred-tlionsandtli Piano, at the 

A\'iii1e IPmse Insert 190 

Weber Lonis XIV. Art Grand Insert 190 

William Kiiabe & Co *' Xonvean Art " Grand . Insert 190 

Albrecht's S(|nare Piano, 1789 50 

Friederici's Scinare Piano, 1758 49 

Znm])e's Srinarc J*iaiio, 17(10-^5 47 

Hawkins' l^pright Piano, 1800 53 

Pleyel, Lyon & Company Gothic Uprii>lit . . Insert 190 

Sonthweli's U])right Piano, 1807 . ^ 54 

Piano, .Malliushek's Table 323 

Pfeiffer's (Carl d.) Action for Pedal Upright Pianos . . 192 
Pfeiffer's (Carl d.) Attachment for Pedal Grand Piano . 1!)2 
PfeitTer's (Carl d.) Mechanism for Organ Pedal Practice . 193 
PfeilTer's (Carl J.) Ppriglit Piano for Pedal Practice . 193 

PiAXo Pl.wers and Playi:u Pianos 

Bishop & Downe's Keyboard Attacliment, 1883 ... 139 
Brown's (Theodore P.) Interior Player, 1897 . . .150 
Clark's (^relvillo) Stroke Pntton in front of Fnlcrnm . 156 
Claik's (Melville) Transposing Device, 18'J9 . . .151 
Clark's (Melville) Transposing Device, 1902 .... 152 
Crook's (J. W.) Themodist, 1900 161 


Piano Players and Player Plvxos. Continued page 

Danqnard's (Thomas) Flexible Finger Mechanism, 1904 . 155 

FoLirueaux's Pianista 134, 135 

Gallv's (Merritt) Player Mechanism, 1881 . . . . 138 

Gooiman's (F. R.) Harmonist Player, 1898 .... 153 

Hobart's (A. J.) Fndless Tmie Sheet, 1908 .... 154 

Hupfeld's (Liidwig) Phonohi Player, 1902 . . . 158, 159 

Keeley-Danquard Temponomc, 1911 162 

Kelly's (George B.) Wind Motor with Slide Valves, 1886 . 139 

Khigh's (Paul B.) Auxiliary Key, 1906 .... 153 

Kiister's (Charles A.) Mechanical Instrument, 1886 . . 140 

McTammany's (John) Automatic Playing Organ . . 137 

Parker's (William D.) Automatic Piano,^1892 . . 141, 142 

Votey's (Edwin S.) Cabinet Player Pianola . . ... 149 

Welin's (Peter) Individual Valve System . . . . 157 
White & Parker's Automatic Piano Player in Cabinet 

Form, 1897 145, 146, 147, 148 

White and Parker's Combination Upright Piano and Reed 

Organ, 1895 143, 144 

Young's (F. L.) Metrostyle, 1901 161 


Andre, Carl . 408 

Bach, Johann Sebastian 385 

Bauer, Julius 362 

Bechstein, Carl 236 

Becker, Jacob 264 

Behning, Henry 319 

Beethoven, Ludwig von 387 

Bietepage, A 265 

Blonclel, Alphonse 254 

Bliithner, Julius 235 

Bond, S. B . .373 

Bosendorfer, Ludwig 220 

Briggs, Charles C 293 

Brinsmead, John 247 

Brinsmead, Thomas James 248 

Broadwood, John 243 

Billow, Hans von 391 

Burns, Francis Putnam ........ 287 

Bush, William H 356 



V',\hU\ II. I). . 
( 'anipbell, John C. 
Carreno, Teresa . 
Chase, Braton S. . 
Cliickering, C. Frank 
Cliickcriii^, (Jeorge II. 
(Miickering, Jonas 
( flickering, Thomas E 
(Mi()))iii, Freck'ric . 
('Iiiii'cli, John 
(lark, Melville 
Conover, J. Frank 
( Oiiway, Fdwin S. 

I )('('k('r, Myron A, 
De Pachmann 
Fhrbar, Fi-iedi'ich 
Engelhardt, Frederick 
Era 1(1, Sebastian . 
Estey, Jacob . 
Estev, Jnlins . 
Fisciier, (diaries 8. 
Friedcrici, C. E. . 
Fnller, Levi K. 
(Jabler, Ei-nest 
{Jennett, Henry 
Oross, Jacob . 

I I allies, Na]ioleon J. 

I la Ic, J()S('])li P. 

II a using, Siegfi'ied 
lla/elton, Henry . 
licaly, P. J. . 
Ileintzmann, Theodore 
Ilerrlnn-ger, Josef 
Ileiz, Henry . 
Hofinann, Josef . 
Ibach, Carl Kndolf 
ll)acli, Johannes Adolf 
Ibach, Kndolf 
Irnilei', J. G. . 
Iniilcr, ( )swald 
Isennann, J. ( '. L. 
Jacob, Charles 







Jacob, C. Albert 322 

Janko, Paul von 80 

Joseffy, Rafael 392 

Kelly, George B 332 

Kimball, William Wallace 340 

Knabe, Ernest 283 

Knabe, William 282 

Krakauer, Simon 327 

Krell, Sr., Albert 357 

Kriegelstein, Charles 259 

Kurtzmann, Christian 292 

Lee, Frank A 339 

Lindeman, Henry 280 

Lindeman, William 279 

Liszt, Franz 389 

Lufkin, W 342 

Lyon, Gustave 406 

Mason, J. R 372 

Mathushek, Frederick 324 

McTammany, John 136 

Miller, Henry F 337 

Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus 386 

Paderewski, L J 399 

Patzschke, C. W 240 

Perkins, Edward R. . 330 

Pfriemer, Charles 382 

Pleyel, Camille 256 

Pleyel, Ignace 255 

Poehlmann, Moritz 242 

Post, Charles N 352 

Powers, Patrick H 294 

Rachals, Edward Ferdinand 234 

Rachals, Mathias Ferdinand 233 

Ronisch, Carl 237 

Rosenthal, Moriz 393 

Rubinstein, Anton 390 

Schiedmayer, Sr., Adolf 229 

Schiedmayer, Adolf 407 

Schiedmayer, Hermann 230 

Schiedmayer, Johann David 227 

Schiedmayer, Johann Lorenz 228 

Schiedmayer, Julius 231 



Rc'liiodmayer, Paul 
Scliiuidt, .loliii Frcdci'ick 
Sclioniaeker, Juliii Jk'iiry 
St'lirodcr, ( 'ai'l Xicolai 
Schroder, Joliaiin J"'riedrici 
Scliriitor, (Miristopli 
Sclmlz, Matliias 
Sell III;/., < >tt() . 
Scliwander, .Jean . 
8ea\rnis, (Jeor.^e AV. . 
Slioiiiiiger, Bei'iiliard . 
Soliiner, TTiigo 
Siiiitli, Freeborn G. 
Starr, Benjamin . 
Steck, George 
Steger, John V. 
Stein way, Alliei't . 
Stciinvay, Charles 
Steiiiway, C. F. Theodore 
Stciiiwav, Ilenrv , 
St ('ill way, Henry, Sr. . 
Si ('in way, William 
Sterling, Charles A. 
Stieft", Frederick P. . 
Story, Edward H. 
Story, Hampton L, 
Tremaine, Harry B. 
Tremaine, AVilliam B. . 
Vose, James Whiting . 
Votey, Edwin S. . 
Watson, Henry C . 
Weber, All)ert 
Weickert, August Moritz 

Weiekert, Otto 
Wessell, Otto . 
Whoelock, William E. . 
Wliite, Edward H. 
White, Henry Kii'k 
White, J Toward 
White, James H. . 
Whitney, Calvin . 
Wolff, Auguste 





Wulsin, Lucien 345 

Wurlitzer, Kndolpli 354 

Yamaba, Torakusii 266 

Resonator, Ricliarcl W. Gertz's 110 

Resonator, Detail of Richard W. Gertz's Ill 

Spinet Jack 32 

Spinet, Rossi's, 1550 33 

Spinet, 1560, Hans Ruckers' Double .... Insert 190 

Spinet of Spinuetti, 1503 32 

Steinert at the Clavichord, Morris . . . Insert 427-428 

Virginal, 16th Century 34 


Technical Development of the Pianoforte 


The Moi^ochord, Pythagoras, Guido of Arezzo, the Chinese " Ke."^ 

The Clavicytherium, Italy and Germany. 

The Clavichord, Daniel Faber, Bach, Mozart, Beethoven. 

The Spinet, Giovanni Spiniietti. 

The Harpsichord and its development. 



Technical Development of the Pianoforte 


The Phototype of the Pianoforte 
The Monochord 

THIS instrument was used by Pythagoras (582 B. C.) for 
experiments regarding the mathematical relations of 
musical sounds. A single string, presumably catgut, was 
strung over a wooden box. Directly underneath the string a strip 
of paper was glued to the top of the box, on which the sections 
and subdivisions corresponding with the intervals of the scale 
were marked. Pressing the string down upon a given mark, and 
then plucking it, a tone was produced, high or low, according to 
the place of the scale where the string was held down with the 

Monochord, 582 B.C. 



piAxos Axi) tttp:;ti{ .makers 

The moiiocliord caiiie into universal use among the Greeks, and 

also ill tlie Ixoninn cliurches as an instrument to sound the keynote 

for chorus singing-. To assure a (|uicker and especially more eor- 

--jL. rect intonation, Guido of Arezzo (about 100 A. D.) invented the 

movable bridge under the string of the monoehord.* 

Chinese Ke, 2650 B.C. 

After the invention of the movable bridge for the monoehord 
further im])rovements came rapidly. The clavis (keys), which 
came in use on church organs shortly after the year 1000 A. !)., 
were a|)plied to the monoehord, which then was built with more 
than one string. Each clavis, or key, had a tangent, or pricker. 
As soon as the clavis was pressed down, this tangent would prick 
the string on the proper division of the scale and thus assure the 
sounding of the correct tone recjuired for the guidance of the 

The use of the clavis soon led to an increase in the number 
of strings and during the 12th and 13th centuries many experiments 

* The ( liinese as early as 2650 B.C. used an instrument called " kc." far superior to 
the monoehord. The ke had fifty strings strung over a wooden box approximately five 
feet long. Each string was spun of eighty-one fine silk threads, and of such length 
that an experienced player could, by proper manipulation, produce the upper and lower 
fifth of each tone on the string which he pricked or plucked. 

Later on the ke was improved hy the use of movable bridges, one for each string; 
the numlier of strings was reduced to twenty-five, and the bridges were arranged in 
groups of five, each group distinguished by a different color; — group 1, blue; 2, red; 3, 
yellow; 4, white; 5, black. This indicates that the Chinese understood the relation 
of colors to tone. It can readily be seen that an expert performer could produce a great 
variety and combination of tones by aid of the movable bridges. Indeed the Chinese 
considered the ke the acme of musical instnnnents, and the virtuosos and masters of 
the ke sj)<)ke of it and its use as enthusiastically and admiringly as Bach and Beethoven 
spoke of the clavichord nearly 4,000 years later. 



were made to construct an instrument which would give all the 
notes of the scale correctly. 

These experiments led finally to the invention of the " clavicy- 

The Clavicytherium 

This is an instrument in which the strings were arranged in 
the form of a triangle (harp form). The strings were of 
catgut, and sounded by the pricking of a quill plectra, fastened 
to the end of the clavis. Fetis believes that the clavicytherium 
was invented in Italy about 1300 and afterwards copied and im- 
proved by the Germans. The efforts to improve the instrument 
finallv developed the " clavichord." 

Clavicytherium, 14th Century 

The Clavichord 

The first clavichords, built during the 15th century, had only 
20 or 22 strings of brass, which were made to vibrate, not by pluck- 
ing or pricking, but by being agitated through the pressure of a 
tangent (a brass pin flattened on top) fastened to the clavis. The 
form of the clavichord was similar to the later square piano. 



Toward the end of the I'llli .iiid llic l)e,uiiiiiiiio- of tlic ITtli century, 
it wix.^ iiiii>i'o\L'd .--c) iiiueli llial il ht'caiiic llic t'avoi'ite kc-'yed iiistru- 
iiU'iit of tlic ]>(M'iod. Tt maiiitaliKMl its sii])ronia('y diiriiiii' tlic IStli 
eeiitiir\\ huig- after the apiicaraiicc of the pianoforte. The accom- 
panying ]ii('tin-e shows a claxiclnird with oU keys (tlicrc ai'e some 

ill cxistcnee with 77 keys) and a 

I 7) bridges, simi- 

soundhoai'd w 

lar to tlic ( 'liiiicse ke. The sound- 
board covers onl\- lialf of the in- 
strumenl, tlic paft where the keys 
are located being open of neces- 

The clavichord usually has 
more keys tlian strings, since 
the tangent, in striking, gives 
tone and ])itch at the same time. 
Most clavichords have two keys 
to each string, some three, while 
on the earlier clavichords we find 
two tangents fastened to one key, 
and the ])erformer had to manii)n- 
late tlie key so as to make eacli 
tangent strike at the i)roper 
i)lace. This was rather difficult 
and made the execution of any 
but the simplest compositions 
almost impossible. Still, it 
was not" until J"-5 that a claviclicvd was constructed by 
Daniel Faber of Germany, which had a separate string and 
key for each note. To prevent vibration and consequent irri- 
tating sounding of the shorter part of the string when agitated 
by the tangent, a narrow stri]) of cloth was interlaced with the 

Claviohoiil. lUth Century 



Thus the clavichord possessed four of the most vital points 
of the modern pianoforte: The independent soundbuard, metal 
strings^ the percussion method of af/itatinr/ the string, the tangent 
touching or striking the string, instead of plucking or pricking, 
and lastly tJie applieoiion of the doinper. The greatest improve- 
ment was the new method of tone production by which the clavi- 
chord became the first keyed instrument enabling the performer 
to express his individuality. 

While the tone of the clavichord was very weak, it was capable 
of reflecting the most delicate gradation of. touch of the player and 
})ermitted the execution of most exquisite crescendo and decre- 
scendo. The Mangfarbe (tone color) of the clavichord was of a 
very sympathetic, almost spiritual character. Virtuosos like 
Johann Sebastian Bach and Emanuel Bach produced charming and 
captivating effects by a trembling pressure of the finger upon the 
key, holding the notes, thus emphasizing the intention of the player 

Clavichord, 17th Century 



Spinet Jack 

ill interpreting a composition. In short, 
tlio clnvicliorrl was the first keyed instru- 
ment with a soul. Tt is not surprising that 
such masters as Bach, Mozart and even 
Beethoven preferred the clavichord to 
the more i)oweri'ul harpsicliord and the 
early pianoforte. Indeed, Mozart, while 
traveling al)()ut Europe as a piano vir- 
tuoso, carried a clavichord with him, 
for daily })ractice. Mozart composed 
his " Magic Flute " and other inaster- 
])ieces on tliat instrument. 

However, the small, weak, though 
sweet and musical tone of the clavi- 
chord did not satisfy many of the music 
lovers. They desired an instrument which 
would s]K>nk louder. 

The Spinet 

About 150.3 (xiovanni S|)innetti, of Venice, constructed an in- 
strument of oblong form, 
with a compass of four oc- 
taves. This oblong form en- 
abled Spinnetli to use very 
long strings and a larger 
soundboard, covering nearly 
the entire space, thus mate- 
rially increasing the tone 
volume. These long strings, 
however, could not be agi- 
tated effectually by a strik- 
Pinot of spinnetti, 1503 ^^^ tangent; it was neces- 



sary to set the strings in motion by pricking or twanging. We, 
therefore, find on the clavis of the spinet, a " jack " with cen- 
tered tongue on its upper end. Into this tongue a quill, fastened to 
a spring, is inserted, and when the key is pressed down, the point 
of the quill twangs the string through the upwai-d movement of 
the jack. A small piece of cloth, fastened to the jack, dampens the 
string as soon as the jack comes down again to its natural posi- 
tion. This instrument was called a " spinet," after the inventor. 

Although this twanging of the string produced a wiry, nasal 
tone, and the player could not play with any expression, as on the 
clavichord, the spinet became very popular, because of its greater, 
louder tone. Spinets were built in sizes from Sy^ to 5 feet 
wide. The smaller instruments could be easily carried about, and 
were usually played upon a table, which increased the resonance. 
Spinnetti had placed the keyboard outside of the case, but about 
1550 Rossi of Milan built spinets in which the keyboard was within 
the case. 

In England the spinet became generally known under the name 
of '' virginal," and many writers have fallen into the error of 
assuming that the virginal differs materially from the spinet. 

Rossi's Spinet, 1550 



Careful comparisons of spinets and 
so-palk'(l \ii-ginals, by competent 
judges, have established the fact 
that there is no vital difference 
to be found. 

Xatui-nlly, the vai-ious Iniilders of 
s})inets in Italy, Germany, Flanders, 
and especially England, ex})erimented 
ill iii.iiiy ways to improve the volume 
and (lunlity of tone as well as the 
form of tlie case. Rimbault repro- 
duces a i)en-and-ink-sketcli of a 
'< virginal, made harp fashion," ap- 
parently built at the end of the 
16th century, which might be 
considered tlie prototype of 
the upright piano of the pres- 
ent day. If this drawing is cor- 
rect, a rather complicated ac- 
tion nmst have been used to 
get the plectra in motion. 
From specimens of spinets or virginals now extant, the conclu- 
sion may be drawn that tlie Euro]iean continental makers gave 
the triangular form the preference, while English makers used 
the square, oblong and upright forms. The (juill or wing form (Ger- 
man fiigd) identical with the form of the present grand piano 
and later used entirely for the " harpsichord," seems to have 
been iirst used by Geronimo of Bologna (1521). 

Virginal. Kith Century 

The Harpsichord 

The adoption of this form was dictated by the desire for a 
greater volume of tone. Indeed, the early harpsichord was in 


all its features (except the wing form) only an enlarged spinet. 
The larger case, greater soundboard and greater number of 
much longer strings of the harpsichord opened a new field for 
inventive genius. While the tone produced on the longer string 
had a greater volume and was louder than that of the spinet, it 
was at the same time harsher, raw, more nasal and almost offen- 
sive to the ear. When used with the orchestra this serious fault 
was not so noticeable, but for solo performances the harpsichord 
was very unsatisfactory. To overcome, or at least mollify this 
harshness, many experiments were made, even to desperate 
attempts to attach a mechanical orchestra to it, adding devices 
which were to imitate the lute and flute, operated by stops; also, 
by means of pedals, a complete Janissary music, including snare 
and bass drum, cymbals, triangle, bells and other noisy instru- 
ments. In accordance with the variety of these appendages the 
number of pedals increased, and harpsichords with as many as 
25 pedals are still to be found. 

Of all those manifold experiments only four have proved of 
permanent value. The " forte stop," which lifted the dampers; 
the " soft stop," which pressed the dampers on to the strings to 
stop the vibration; the '' buff stop," interposing soft cloth or 
leather between the jacks and the strings, and lastly the '' shift- 

Harpsieliord, 1521 



ing stop," whicli sliifted the entire keyboard, a movement later 
applied to the transposing keyboard. 

In the effort to produce greater volume of tone the makers con- 
tinued to increase the size of the harpsichord until it had reached 
the extreme length of Ifi feet. Very thin wire had to be used for 
the strings, since the frail cases would not stand the increased 
tension of heavier wires, nor could the flimsy quill plectra make 
the heavy wires vibrate well. The longer the string of thin wire, 
the less musical was the tone produced by twanging, and the best 
makers returned to the length of 8 to 10 feet, seeking to improve 
tone quality and volume by increasing the number of strings from 
one to two, three and even four, for each note. 

Harpsichord willi Double Keyboard, End of 16th Century 



About the middle of the 17th century, harpsichords with two 
keyboards and three strings for each note were built. The third 
string, usually hitched to the soundboard bridge, was thinner and 
shorter than the two main strings and tuned an octave higher 
than the main strings. With the two keyboards the player could 
use the two or three strings of each note separately or together. 
Because of these improvements, especially the forte piano pedals, 
and the greater tone^ musicians preferred the harpsichord to the 
spinet, and many compositions were written for it from Scarlatti's 
time (1670) to Beethoven's '' Moonlight Sonata " (1802). 

Toward the end of the 18th century, when the pianoforte began 
to take the place of the harpsichords, attempts were made to im- 
prove the tone quality of the harpsichord by using buff leather 
at the points of the jack, instead of quills, but evidently without 

Harpsichord, Middle of ITtli Century 


success. Tlic i'act tliat the liari)sicliord, like the spiuet, gave the 
])hiyei- no ]iossil)lo ()p])()rinnity to exercise any artistry, as on 
the clavichord or the i)ianoforte, sealed the doom of the instru- 
ment, ,111(1 with the end of the 18th century the end of the harpsi- 
chord had come, leaving for the pianoforte maker, however, the 
valuable inventions of the n-'nig-foruicd case, the use of the two 
and flircc striiif/s for one note, and lastly the forte piano pedal 
and shifting keyboard, all of which are eml)odied in the present-day 



The Pianoforte, Christofori, Marius, Scliroter, Silbermann, Back- 
ers, Stein, German, Austrian and English Schools, Friederici. 

The Square Piano, Zumi^e, Broadwood, Erard, Behrend, Albrecht, 
Crehore, shorn, Bahcock, Chickering, Steinway, Mathushek. 

The Upright Piano, Schmidt, Hawkins, Loud, Southwell, Wornum, 
■ Pleyel. 

The Grand Piano, Geronimo, Still, Stodart, Broadwood, Erard, 
Stein, Nannette Stein-Streicher, Loud, Jardine, Chickering, 
Steinway, Bosendorfer, Kaps. 



The Pianoforte 

THE desire to combine tlie wonderful tone sustaining capacity 
of the clavichord with the power of the harpsichord, was 
shared by musicians as well as builders. No doubt many 
builders attempted to put a hammer action into the harpsichord. 
Marius of Paris submitted (1716) three models of harpsichord ham- 
mer actions to the Academy of Sciences, but apparently no instru- 
ments have been built containing his action, probably because a 
hammer action, to be effective, required a different construction of 
the entire instrument than that of the harpsichord. It seems much 
more reasonable to assume that the dulcimer (the German hack- 
brett), which was played upon with hammers held in the hands 
of the performer, similar to the xylophone, led to the invention 
of the pianoforte. 

It is not surprising, that, at a period when all makers of harpsi- 
chords were struggling for tone improvement, three inventors, 

Marius' Dow-nward Striking Hammer Action 



ir.(lo])en(kMit of one an- 
other, should strike the 
same idea at about the 
same time — Christofori in 
17U7, Marius in 171G and 
Sehroter in 1717. Chris- 
to2)h Sehroter, a German 
organist, submitted his 
models of hammer actions, 
one with upward and one 
with downward movement, 
to the King of Saxony in 
1721, claiming that these 
models had been finished 
in 1717. Sehroter de- 
clared that the idea of a 
hammer action came to 
him after hearing the vir- 
tuoso, Ilebenstreit, perform on his monster hackbrett (dulcimer) 
called " Pantaleon." Simple and crude as Sehroter 's action is, it 
must be considered the fundamental of what later on became known 
as the German, more particularly, " Vienna " action. The idea of 
having the hammer butt swing in a fork, as Sehroter 's model shows, 

Christoph Sehroter 

Marius' Upward Striking Hammer Action 




Schroter Upward Striking Hammer Action, 1717 

Scliruter Downward Striking Hammer Action, 1717 



Silbermann's Hammer Action, 17:^8 f^' 

-J ^/^^f.^^■*' 

Christofori's Hammer Action, 1707 

Christofori's Hammer Action, 1720 



has been utilized in all later improvements of the so-called German 
action. Schroter was disappointed in not getting aid from his 
King to build his instruments, and no pianofortes of his make are 
known. As early as 1724, however, pianofortes containing the 
Schroter action were made at Dresden. 

It is also of record that 
the great organ builder, 
Gottfried Silbermann, of 
Freiberg, Saxony, made 
pianofortes with Schroter 
actions as early as 1728. He 
simplified and improved the 
action somewhat, as illus- 
tration shows. However, 
the action was unreliable, the 
touch heavy and hard as 
compared to the clavichord, 
and the great Johann Se- 
bastian Bach condemned the 
first pianoforte which Silber- 
mann had built because it 
was too hard to play, al- 
though he praised the tone 
produced by the hammer. 

It seems that Silbermann came into possession of a Christofori 
pianoforte, because the pianofortes built by him for Frederick the 
Great, about 1747, have hammer action exactly like Christofori 's 
invention. In Silbermann 's workshop originated the two schools 
of piano construction known as the " German school " and the 
" English school." There is no doubt that Silbermann used both 
the Schroter and the Christofori action for his pianofortes. 

The invention of the pianoforte as an entire and complete in- 
strument must be credited to Bartolomo Christofori (sometimes 

Christofori's Piano e forte, 1711 



♦ Zumpe's Hammer Action, 1760-65 

called Christofali) of Padua. A publication dated 1711 contains 
a drawing of Cliristofori's hammer action, which he had completed 
in 1707, and used in his first experimental instrument which he 
called " piano e forte." This instrument was exhibited in 1711. 
About 1720, Christofori finished his real pianoforte. He con- 
structed a much stronger case than had been used for harpsichords, 
to withstand the increased strain of the heavier strings. The action 
in this pianoforte shows important improvement over his model 

Backers' Hammsr Action, 1776 



stein's Hammer Action 

of 1707. He added tlie escapement device, a back check, regulating 
the fall of the hammer, and connected an individual damper for 
each note direct with the hammer action, thus giving the performer 
a mechanism with which he could, through his touch, produce a 
delicate pianissimo and also a strong fortissimo, impossible on 
either clavichord or harpsichord. Christofori died in 1731. As 
far as we can learn he left no pupils, unless we so consider Silber- 

Silbermann's pupils, Johannes Zumpe and Americus Backers 
(Becker), went to London and introduced there a modified Chris- 
tofori action, which later on, further developed by various makers, 
became known as the " English " action. Silbermann's most 

Zumpe Square Piano, 1760-65 



C. E. Fricderici 

talented pupil, Joliann 
Andreas Stein of Augs- 
burg, however, took the 
Sehroter design as a basis 
for his im])rovement, 
which is known as the 

" Vienna " or 
man " action. 


The greatest activity 
ill tlie development of the 
})ianoforte took place in 
the periods from 17()0 to 
1830, and from 1855 to 
1880. Modulations as well 
as radical departures in 
form were almost number- 
less, mainly inspired by a 
desire to })roduce an in- 
strument which would 
take up less room than the long, wing-shaped grand piano. As 
early as 1745, C. E. Friederici of Gera, Germany, a pupil of Silber- 
mann, constructed a vertical -grand piano and about 1758 he built 
the first scjuare piano in Germany. About 1760-65, Johannes Zumpe 
built, at London, the first English s(|uare piano. 

The Square Piano 

This evolved from reconstructed clavichords, retaining the clavi- 
chord form and general construction, but linving a stronger frame, 
metal strings and the hannner action. Following Zumpe, we next 
learn of John Broadwood of London bringing out his square piano 
in 1771, and the records show that Sebastian Erard made such an 
inslrumcnl at Paris in 1776, copying the English model. Joliann 


Behrend of Philadelphia exhibited his square piano in 1775. Tims 
within 10 years after its tirst appearance, the square piano was 
made in Germany, England, America and France. But all the 
square pianos of those days were weak in tone and not to be com- 
pared to the grand (wing form) pianoforte. 

It seems that the use of the Christofori action in England (as 
modified by Backers), having the hammer rise at the end of the 
key (instead of toward the center of the key as in the Stein action), 
suggested the idea to Broadwood of placing the wrest plank 
along the back of the case, instead of along the right hand side, 
as it had always been in the clavichord. Broadwood completed 
his new piano with this improvement in 1781. This epoch-making 
invention revolutionized the construction of the square piano, and 
gave the opportunity of increasing the volume of tone to an unex- 
pected degree. As a matter of course, this invention was gradually 
adopted by all the leading makers. Even the German school, which 
had developed a square piano construction where the wrest plank 
was placed in the front part of the case, instead of sideways, finally 
accepted Broadwood 's construction, together with the English 

Not considering minor improvements, such as enlarging the 
scale, etc., no further development of the square piano is of record 
by European makers and we must look to America, where the 

Friederici's Square Piano, 1758 



Al])licus Pialx-ot'k's I"'iill 1 11)11 I'iMinc. 1S25 

square piano reigned supreme for nearly one hundred years. After 
Belirend we find Charles Albreeht making excellent square pianos 
in Phila(lel})hia about 1789 and Benjamin Crehore founding the 
Boston school about 1792 at Milton, near Boston, where John Os- 
born and Al])heus Babcock were his most talented pupils. Indeed, 
Alplieus Babcock 's invention of the full iron frame in 1825 was 
just as im]iortant an innovation and improvement as Broadwood's 

Charles AlbrecliL's Square Piano, 1789 



Jonas Cliickering's Full Iron Frame, 1837 

change of the location of the wrest plank. The never-ceasing 
demand for larger tone could only be answered by heavier string- 
ing, which, however, was limited by the power of resistance of 
the wooden frame. Babcock's full iron frame blasted the way for 
further development, and Jonas Chickering improved Babcock's 
frame so materially in 1837 that a patent was granted to him in 

Most of the Boston makers, all of whom inclined toward the 
English school, adopted the full iron frame, but New York makers, 
being more influenced by the German school, objected to the metal- 
lic tone found especially in the upper notes of pianos with iron 
frames, caused perhaps fully as much by the inferior composition 
of the castings then available as by too close connection of the 
strings with the iron plate or frame. All American makers of 
that period devoted themselves more or less to the development of 
the square piano, so that it soon became superior to the upright 
piano as that was then constructed. 

At the World's Fair, in the Crystal Palace, New York, in 1855, 
Steinway & Sons created a sensation by exhibiting a square piano 
having the overstrung scale, and a full iron frame, designed on 
novel lines to conform with the varied and much increased strain 



S(ciii\v;iv's Full Tioii Fianic niid Ovcrstrunsr Scale, 1855 

of the new scale. In this instrument the Stemways had not only 
succeeded in producing a much greater, sonorous tone, than known 
heretofore, l)nt liad entirely overcome the harsh, metallic quality 
of tone, so objectionable in other jiianos having the full iron frame. 
Although at first seriously objected to by many, the overstrung 
scale and full iron frame were soon adopted by all American 

With this innovation the piano industry of America had received 
a new imi)etus and it developed very rapidly from then on. Im- 
provements were continually added, among which the linear sound- 
board bridge, inxented b\- Frederick Mathushek in 18G5, may be 
considered as the most ingenious. 

After the Paris exposition of 1807, the leading American manu- 
facturers followed the exam})le which the European makers had 
set 30 years before, and began to ])ush the u])right piano to the 
front. I'or the very reason that the American s(|uare piano had 
b(^en developed to a real musical instrument with a remarkal)le 
volume, sonority and clearness of tone, equal in some instances 
to the ordinary grand piano of the European makers, the progress 
of the npiiglit piano in America was very slow, and it was not until 
1880 that the making of the square piano came to an end. 




Hawkins' Upright Piano, 1800 

The Upright Piano 

Not considering the vertical grands of Fabrici, Stein and others 
of this class, history records that apparently the first upright piano 
^as built about 1780 by Johann Schmidt of Salzburg, Austria. 
Twenty years later John Isaac Hawkins of Philadelphia patented 
an upright piano with vertical strings, full iron frame and check 
action. Notwithstanding its many ingenious devices, this piano 
was not accepted on account of its unsatisfactory tone. As A. J. 
Hipkins so properly says, " it was a remarkable bundle of inven- 
tions," but not a musical instrument. Hawkins was an engineer 
I)y profession. 

In 1802 Thomas Loud of London patented an upright piano 
described as having the strings running diagonally. It is ques- 
tionable whether Loud ever had any success in building such instru- 



iiicnts. Xoiio are now in existence. Loiul 
emi^Tatcd to Xcw N'ork where lie built so- 
called '• piccolo " uprights with '' over- 
strung' " scale as early as 1830. 

In 1S()7 \Villiain Soutliwell of l^ondon 
came out with his " Cabinet " (upright) 
piano, having a comi)ass of 6 octaves, F to 
F. In 1811 Hobert AVornuni of London 
made his iirst ui)right with diagonally run- 
ning strings. 

The iiopularity of the upright in Europe 
dates from 18!2(), when AVornum had devel- 
0])ed >M\ action foi- it which combined pre- 
cision with durability and i)ermitted of 
rejK'tition. responding easily to a light 
touch. Ignace Pleyel of Paris adopted this 
action for his upright pianos and it be- 
came known on the Continent as tlie 
" Pleyel " action. With the exception 


I plight I'iuiio, 1807 

Wonniiirs rpritilit Action, 

of changing the dampers 
from their position above 
the haiiimei's to a more 
pro])er ]ilace below the ham- 
mers, til is W'ornum action is 
practically used in all pres- 
ent-day upi'ight i)ianos. 

T'lcycl and otliei' Paris 
firms began now to make a 
specialty of upright pianos 
with sucli success that square 
pianos hardly ol)tained a 
foothold in France. 



Germany began the manufacture of iipriglit pianos in prefer- 
ence to the square about lHo5, and discarded the S(|uare for good 
about 1860. During this period the Germans, true to their national 
character, built much stronger, heavier uprights, than either the 
French or English, using three strings for each note and applying 
iron i)lates for hitch-pins, also iron braces between these plates 
and the wrest plank. The tone of the German uprights of those 
days had greater volume than the instruments of their 

The later important export of German jnanos had its start at 
that time because of the superior quality of tone and great dura- 
bility of the instruments. When the American makers began to 
pay attention again to the upright })iano about 1860 they adopted 

Conover Bros,' Ui)riglit Iron Frame, 1885 


the now pcrh'ctcd system of overstrung scale and lull iron iranie, 
and tlici-elty ])i-odu(*od an instrnment wliicli was aceo])ta])le, altliougli 
ill lone and toueli inferior 1o llic best square pianos. 

Germany was ([uick in a(loi)ting the overstrunn' seale and iron 
frame for its ui)i-iglit i)ianos and forced Kngland to do likewise 
later on by rapturing with their superior instruments much foreign 
ti'ade forinei-ly 7nono]U)li'/ed ))y Kngland, wliile France, Italy and 
Spain came in last. \\\ the lime that the American sijuare piano 
Ix'cnme extinct (ISSO) tiie '' American System " was universally 
ado]^ted for upi'ight ])ianos. However, even llie upright ])iano of 
to-day might still l)e called " a renuirkable l)undle of inventions." 
Tn its entirety it is an o])en defiance of all the laws of acoustics and 
of proi)er mechanical construction. 

Because of the necessarily heavy, clumsy frame construction 
the soundboard is almost boxed in ix'tween back and front, so that 
the sound cannot develop freely and fully. AVhatever tone the per- 
former gets from tlie upright ]>iano, comes straight toward him 
througli the closed-in front, whicli " short-stops " the sound. The 
touch in the upright is tough, non-elastic, because of the necessarily 
short and consequently rigid, stiff keys, but mainly on account of 
the comj)Iicated action, whicli has of necessity a strip and a spring 
to pull and push the hammer back to its natural position after strik- 
ing. In striking the string from above the hammer virtually throws 
the tone into the piano with no cliance to escape, while in the open 
square or grand ])ianoforte it travels unhampered. The upright 
has always been a makeshift, a child of necessity, and for many 
years a total failure. 

In spite of its present, so much improved form and character, 
the upright will never be the piano for the artist, because of its 
incapacity to give any satisfaction to artistic temperament, either 
as to tone or facility in execution. 

That the upright piano is to-day, and perhaps always will be, the 
most po})ular instrument, notwithstanding its many shortcomings, 


can be easily explained. The si'O'^'tli of the cities has made land 
so dear that the study for architects has been how to house as 
many people as possible on a small i)iece of ^Tound, Paris started 
the first so-called apartment houses in the beginning of the liitli 
century. Hence the Paris i)iano makers were compelled to develop 
upright pianos small enough to fit into the small rooms of the apart- 
ment house, where grand or s(|uare pianos could not possibly be 
placed. Germany followed French architecture next; England fol- 
lowed soon after; and since about 1880 we have had apartment 
houses in American cities, mainly with such small rooms that 
neither a grand nor square piano can be placed conveniently. 
Besides the more convenient form of the upright the lower cost, as 
compared to the cost of a grand piano, is a strong factor in its 
popularity. However, the demand for the " i)erfect " pianoforte 
is increasing so rapidly and strongly that the foremost makers all 
over the world have for many years, and with varied success, ex- 
perimented to produce a small grand piano which in size and price 
would be accepted by the lover of music. 

The Grand Piano or Forte Piano 

As previously stated this " wing " form seems to have been 
used first by Geronimo (1521) and has ever since been preferred 
by all artistic makers in their efforts to produce a piano for the 
concert hall, for the artist. The square piano was born of English 
commercialism, the upright piano started its career of success 
under pressure of the apartment house, but the grand piano has 
ever been the love of the artistic piano maker and the musical 
piano player. The large size, the natural, horizontal position of 
the strings, the opportunity of using a forceful action, answering 
at the same time to the most refined pianissimo touch — an action 
permitting a development upon scientifically and mechanically cor- 


rod linos — hn^ ovov liocn onticiiiu" in tlic iii\'('iiti\'(' licniiis and to 
tilt' tliinkini«' eonstructdr df pianol'ortes. We tlicrcroic lind all the 
eai'K' piaiiot'ortes of ( 'lii'i>1()l'<)ri. Sillici-iiiaiiiu Stein and other 
makers possessiiii;- this wiiii;' i'orni. 

The eraz<' of adding' all sorts of nnharmonir effects to keyed 
instruments, as on the hai-psichord, continued also for a while with 
the i^rand jjiano, and we hear ol" instruments having bell, drum, 
cymbal, triangle, etc., attachments. Those vagaries, however, were 
not accei)te(l by the true artist and soon die(l out. The extent to 
which this craze was tinally cari'iod is illustrated by the descrip- 
tion of a grand i)iano built in ITDG by Still Brotliers of Prague, 
Bohemia, for the inventor, a musician by the name of Kunz. This 
monstrosity had 230 strings, 360 ])ipes and 105 different tonal 
effects. Tt was three feet nine inches high, seven feet six inches 
long and three feet two inches wide, had two keyboards, one above 
the otlier, and 25 pedals. The pedals had the following functions: 
To lift the dampers, to produce lute et¥ect, flute, flute traverso dul- 
ciana, salicet, viola di gamba, sifHet, open tlute, hollow flute, fagott, 
French horn, clarin(^t and many others. The inventor evidently 
attempted to obtain, besides the oi'dinary ])iano tone, also all kinds 
of organ and orchestral effects, noisy additions which we find to 
a smaller extent with the nickel-in-the-slot i)laying machines of 

The perfecting of the grand piano, or forte ])iano (flligel, as 
it was called in Germany), depended entirely upon the develop- 
ment of an action capable of bi-inging out the greater tone of 
the longer strings and larger soundboard of the grand, and we 
find the masters of the English and German schools for many 
years seritaisly engaged in solving this i)roblem, to he finally out- 
classed 1)y S<bastian and Pierre Erard, of Paris. Backers' 
grand action, -x'om^leted a]^ut 1776, inspired Bobert Stod- 



art of London to build liis first concert piano wliicli he called 
'' Grand Pianoforte," about 1777, and the word grand first applied 
by Stodart was henceforth used by all English and American 
makers for this instrument. 

John Broadwood built his first grand in 1781. Allen and Thorn 
of London patented a grand piano having a complete metal framing 
system in 1820, followed by the Erards in 1823, who constructed 
a grand piano with six resistance iron bars, placed over the sound- 
board, while James Broadwood patented, in 1827, a combination 
of an iron string plate (hitch plate) with resistance iron bars, thus 
coming very near the full iron frame. » 

Meantime, Johann Andreas Stein, and his talented daughter, 
Nannette Stein-Streicher, who was not only an excellent musician, 
but also a thoroughly practical and scientific piano maker, had im- 
proved the Schroter action so materially that the grand pianos 
made by them from 1780 on, were preferred by Mozart, Beethoven 
and other masters, perhaps mainly for the reason that this action 
not only had a more elastic touch than the Christofori English 
action, but that it produced a more s^mipathetic tone, reminding 
of the clavichord tone, which all the great players of that period 
admired so much. This sympathetic tone could only be produced 
with the Vienna action, because the hammer, when striking, would 

Nannette Stein-Streicher Grand Action, 1780 



Erard's First Iron Bar Grand Piano, 1823 

Erard Repelition Urand Action, 1821 



to some extent graze or draw along the string, while the more force- 
ful attack of the English '' jack " action is a straight and direct 
percussion. These two elements, the pleasant light elastic touch, 
and the charming musical quality of tone, assured the Vienna grand 
IDianos {fiilgd) supremacy in Germany, Austria and Italy for many 

Since the " Vienna school " never aimed for powerful tone, 
during that period, the use of metal for resistance was not devel- 
oped until 18o7, when Hoxa of Vienna patented a full iron frame 
for grand pianos. 

In 1808, Sebastian Erard took out a patent for a "repetition " 
action for grand pianos, in which he attempted to combine the 
elastic touch of the Vienna action with the forcefulness of the 
English action, but evidently without satisfactory result, because 
in 1821 Pierre Erard, nephew of Sebastian Erard, obtained for 
the latter 's invention of a " repetition or double escapement 
action " a patent in England. It is this action which made the 
fame of the Erard grand pianos worldwide. 

Among further important inventions aiding the progress of the 
grand piano must be mentioned Erard 's agraffe, by aid of which 
a bearing down upon the strings was accomplished, preventing the 
very objectionable upward motion of the strings 
when struck by the hammer. These brass 
agraffes, besides assuring proper counter pres- 
sure against the stroke of the hammer, also 
improved the tone, especially in the treble part. 
The idea of downward pressure of the strings 
near the wrest plank was followed up by other 
inventors in various directions and manners 
and finally led to the pressure bar and capo 
tasto, the latter patented by Pierre Erard, in 
1838, and now used in varied forms in nearly all 
grand and upright pianos. 




Chickeriii": Crand Iron Frame, 1S43 

Tnrnin.c: to Amorica, we find that Loud Brothers of Philadelphia 
built a grand piano of 7/2 -octaves about 1825, while John Jardine 
of New Yoi'k exlii])ited a 7-octave grand ])iano in 1835. Jonas 
Chickering patented his full iron frame for flat scale grand pianos 
in 1843, a great im})rovement on Broadwood's combination of iron 
hitch plate and resisting bars, establishing the fame of the Chicker- 
ing concert grand. Sixteen years later, Steinway & Sons })atented 
tlieir full iron frame for grand ])ianos with overstrung scale and 
dis])ositioii of the strings in the form of a fan. 

After the London exhibition of 1862, the full iron frame came 
largely into use in Germany and Austria, while England and 
France retained tlie })lain scale and bracing system for many 



years. At the present 
time all prominent mak- 
ers have adopted the 
overstrung scale and fnll 
iron or steel frames for 
their grand pianos. 

Noteworthy i)rogress 
has aliso been made in the 
constrnction of the case 
for grand pianos. Fol- 
lowing the harpsichord 
model, the original grand 
case was '* built up " 
(frame and braces) by 
gluing boards of one to 
two inches in thickness 
together. To work out 
the hollow sides and 
rounded ends from the 

rough form thus con- 

stein way Grand Iron Frame, 1859 

structed with ordinary jack plane, was a very laborious task. Eng- 
land, at that time the land of machinery par excellence, soon 
employed power machines for case making, and constructed the 
curved sides and back, by gluing up hardwood veneers in forms 
identical to the curvature of the piano case. This new process 
was not only more economic, but it also strengthened the case 
materially and was supposed to increase the acoustic properties. 
It was, therefore, soon generally adopted. 

The concert grand piano of to-day is a model of mechanical con- 
struction with proper regard to the laws of acoustics, as we know 
them to-day in their relations to the pianoforte. Free from all 
empirical and experimental vagaries, the concert grand piano 
of to-day is a most noble instrument, embodying the final evolution 



Baldwin (ii'aiid Case witli .\c(iu>tic Rim 

'of the best thoug-lits of the greatest masters in the art of piauo 
constnictio7i. The length of tlie modern concert grand is usually 
nine feet, with a compass of 7ji octaves. Ludwig Bosendorfer of 
Vienna builds a concert grand of 10 feet in length, and a com]iass 
of eight octaves. Going to the other extreme, some makers have 
of late vears constructed a small grand as short as five feet. Ernst 
Kaps of Dresden was the first to build a very short grand (1865), 
using a double overstrung scale. Because of its novelty this instru- 
ment was for many years a commercial success. It has, however, 
been established as a fact that shortening the length to about five 
feet is the danger-line for the construction of a small grand, which 


is to satisfy tlie artist or musical amateur, as to volume and quality 
of tone, and especially of a well-balanced, even scale. 

The short grand, l)a})tize(l hy Albert AVeber the " baby grand," 
will be the instrument of the I'uture. The clamor foi- an increased 
fuh round tone, elastic and easy touch, and never-failing repetition 
in the action of the piano, is the same to-day as it was 200 years 
ago, and must be satisfied. The upright piano, having evidently 
reached the apex of its possible development, is unsatisfactory, 
and hence the small grand at moderate price will find many friends 
among music lovers who neither require nor desire the bulky con- 
cert grand for their personal enjoyment or professional studies. 



The Full Iron Frame, Hawkins, Allen and Thorn, Babcock, Cliick- 
ering, Erard, Broadwood, Hoxa, Steinway. 

The Keyboard, Guido of Arezzo, Zarlina, Kirkman, Krause, 
Chromatic Keyboard, Neuhaus, Cludsam, Paul von Janko, 

The Action, Schroter, Christofori, Silbermann, Stein, Streicher, 
Zumpe, Backers, Erard, Friederici, Wornum, Pleyel, Pape. 

The Hammer, Christofori, Silbermann, Pape, Wilke, Kreter, 
Mathushek, Collins, Dolge, Ammon, Steinway. 

The Soundboard, Chladni, Tyndall, Helmholtz, Hansing, Dr. Paul, 
Pape, Mathushek. 





The Iron Frame 

IN the year 1808 Waclitl & Bleyer, a Vienna firm of piano 
makers, stated in a publication tliat the total tension of the 
strings in their grand pianos equalled 9,000 pounds. The 
strings in a modern grand have a total tension of 35,000 to 40,000 

The necessity of a combination of metal witli wood in piano 
construction became apparent as soon as the perfected action per- 
mitted of the use of heavier strings. The framework had to 
undergo a change if further progress in tone volume was to be 
made. Numberless experiments were made with metal tubes and 
bars for braces, underneath the soundboard as well as above, witli- 
out lasting result. Even the Hawkins full iron frame of 1800 
was a failure, and history records many futile attempts to solve 
the problem. 

The first acceptable system of bracing by iron tubes was in- 
vented by Allen and Thom of London in 1820. They sold their 
patent rights to Robert Stodart, who immediately constructed 
a grand pianoforte with this system, which withstood a tension 
of 13,000 pounds successfully. Alpheus Babcock of Boston 
followed in 1825 with the first full iron frame for square pianos. 





AVitli this invf'Titioii tlio ora 
of tlie full iron frame was iu- 
aiii>urated. That great mechan- 
ical geuius, .lonas flickering, 
])atente(l in 1S4;5 a full iron 
frame for flat scale grand pianos. 
He demons! latcd tlie practica- 
))ility of this new system, and 
the so-called Boston school at 
once followed his example, using 
full iron frames for grand, 
square and ui)right })ianos. 

Jn Euro]ie, Erard experi- 
mented with iron bracing bars 
about 1824, ])utting as many as 
nine long bars over the sound- 
board of his grand ])ianos, 
Broadwood, more metliodical and 
scientific, studied to obtain the 
necessary resistance with as few 
bars as possible, and finally com- 
bined an iron hitch-i)in plate with his cross bars, which system 
was patented in 1827. Jolm Broadwood & Sons are now making- 
grand and upright jnanos with " barless " steel frame, a notable 
ar'eom])lishnu'nt, aiding materially in produeing nn even scale, 
and also pci iiiitting the soundboard and strings to vibrate 
unhami)ered and unaffected by iron cross bars. Another im- 
portant effect is that the weight of the ])iano is reduced in ])ro- 
portion. lloxa of X'ienna is on record with a i)atent for a full 
iron frame for grand ])ianos in 1837. No doubt the European 
makers of that i)eriod objected to the full iron frame because of 
the too metallic tone, for which reason the New York makers also 
were slow in following Chickering and the Boston school. The 


Allen and 'riidin's Grand JJraoing 
ttvstem, 1S20 


majority of the New Yorkers leaned toward the German school, 
seeking quality rather than volmne of tone. When, however, Stein- 
way & Sons demonstrated in 1855 that the overstrung system in 
combination with a solid iron frame, could yield the desired volume 
of tone of the desired musical quality, the battle for the iron frame 
was won. 

At the London exhibition of 1862 the American pianos with 
full iron frames were the sensation of the entire piano exhibit. 
After the Paris Exposition of 1867, where the much-improved 
American overstrung iron frame pianos carried off the honors, the 
German makers capitulated and accepted the American system. 
England and France are following slowly, but the universal adop- 
tion of this greatest progress in piano construction is inevitable. 
Constant study and elTorts to improve the composition of the 
metals for casting, together with the progress made in the methods 
and mechanical appliances for casting iron, have not only tended 
to overcome the objectionable influence of the iron frame upon 
the tone quality, but the modern iron frame or plate is also in 
form and finish pleasing even to the critical eyes of the artist. 

The casting of iron plates for pianos is one of the most impor- 
tant auxiliary industries of the piano trade of to-day, keeping 
pace with the continual improvement of the piano. The average 
weight of plates in American pianos is as follows : 

Concert Grand .... 400 pounds, Parlor Grand 300 poimds, 

Baby Grand 250 pounds, Large Upright. . . . 200 pounds, 

Small Upright 120 pounds. 

The tension these plates have to withstand averages as follows : 
Concert Grand. 60,000 pounds. Parlor Grand. . 55,000 pounds, 

Baby Grand 50,000 pounds, Large Upright . 38,000 pounds, 

Small Upright .... 38,000 pounds. 



Steinway & Sons' Grand Iron Frame. 1875 

l-'ruiil \ icw 



Steinway & Sons' Grand Iron Frame, 1875 

Back View 
Showing " Cupola " Construction 



Willu'liii (irotrian's Grand lion Frame, 1910 

Ualiluiu L plight Irun rraiiii', 191U 



John Broadwood & Sons' Earless Grand Steel Frame, 1910 

John Broadwood & Sons' Barless Upright Steel Frame, 1910 


TMAXOS AXD 'nil-:il> M.\Kl-:iJS 

Mason & Hamlin Grand Iruu Franii', 1910 


The Keyboard 

The origin of the keyboard for musical instruments cannot 
be traced with any accuracy. Old records mention a hydraulic 
organ invented by Ctesibius of Alexandria, in the 2d century 
B.C., but no reference is made to a keyboard in that organ. Vitru- 
vius, in his work on architecture (1st century a.d.), describes an 
organ with balanced keys. Next we learn that Emperor Constan- 
tine sent a musical instrument having keys to King Pepin of 
France in 757 a.d. Whether or not that great musical genius, 
Guido of Arezzo, invented the keyboard for a polychord instru- 
ment or was the first one to apply it, cannot be proven, but the 
fact remains that the keyboard was applied to stringed instru- 
ments in his days (first part of the lltli century). 

Guido 's diatonic scale, eight full tones with seven intervals 
of which two were semitones, was used in the first clavichords, 
which had 20 keys. There are no reliable records in existence, 
as to who applied the chromatic scale first. Giuseppe Zarlino 
added the semitones to his instruments about 1548, but instru- 
ments of earlier date have the chromatic scale, as for instance 
the clavicymbala, some of which had 77 keys to a compass of 
four octaves. The keys in some of the early organs were three 
to four inches wide, and the early clavichords also had very wide 
keys, but with the increase of the number of strings, narrowing 
of the keys became a necessity.* 

After the 15th century nearly all the makers of key-stringed 
instruments used the chromatic scale practically as we find it in 
the modern pianos. The semitones in most of those old instru- 
ments are elevated and of a different color than the full tones. 

*Kirkiiian of London went to tlie extreme of building a grand piano in 1851, 
having a keyboard of 6% octaves, 2 feet 2 14 inches wide, allowing only Vs inch for each 



Cliulsaiirs Concavf Kcvlxiard. 11)10 

Since the development of the ])ianoforte many experiments 
have been made witli so-called " chromatic " keyboards, in which 
the semitones were on a level with the full tones. A Dr. Krause 
of Eisenberg- constructed a keyboard in 1811, in which the semi- 
tones were not raised and all keys were of the same color. Krause 
maintained that with such a keyboard the performer could play 
in all the different keys with more ease than if the semitones 
were elevated. Although this innovation was generally rejected, 
various attemi)ts have been made of late to revive this idea, but 
without anv result. 

About 1780, Neuhaus, a piano maker of Vienna, constructed 
a concave-formed keyboard for his pianos. He aimed to follow 
the inclination of the human arm to move in a semicircle. Curious 
to relate, this same idea has lately been resuscitated by Cludsam 
of Germany, who obtained i)atents on such a keyboard and is seri- 
ously attempting its introduction. 

The most ingenious and really meritorious invention, revolu- 
tionary in its character, is the keyboard patented in 1882 by Paul 
von Janko of Austi-ia. Moved by tlic desire to enable the amateur 
to execute the brilliant, but technically exceedingly difficult, essays 
of our modern composers, Janko constructed a keyboard of six 
tiers, one above the other, similar to the organ keyboard. On 
this keyboard tenths, and twelfths, can easily be [iroduced by reach- 



■iyVr-V|Vfr., s ^' T fT'i M i ' f f t Vh ' T ' TV t'!i i'f? ' r ^ 'r i ' f 'f ' 

! mammmBBmm»ai*fm9umnB»mmm§mw\m9mi^ u « 

Janko-Perzina Keyboard, 1910 

ing a finger to the keyboard above or below that on which the 
hand is traveling. Arpeggios through the whole compass of the 
keyboard can be executed with a sweejD of the wrist, which on 
the ordinary keyboard would hardly cover two octaves. Indeed, 
with the Janko keyboard, the hand and arm of the player can 
always remain in their natural position, because to sound an 
octave requires only the stretch of the hand equal to the sounding 
of the sixth on the ordinary keyboard. 

It is difficult to realize the manifold possibilities which this 
keyboard opens up for the composer and performer. Entirely 
new music can be written by composers, containing chords, runs 
and arpeggios, utterly impossible to execute on the ordinary key- 
board, and thus does the Janko keyboard make the piano, what it 
has often been called, a veritable '' house orchestra." It is not 
nearly so difficult for the student to master the technic of the 
Janko, as to become efficient on the present keyboard. This key- 
board can be readily adjusted to any piano having the ordinary 

Like all epoch-marking innovations, this great invention is 
treated with inditference and open opposition. That poetic per- 
former on the piano, Chopin, refused to play on the Erard grand 
pianos containing the celebrated repetition action, because his 



fingers were u-cd to the stiff percussion of the English action. 
To-day, liowever, English makers of concert grand pianos use the 
Erard acrKni wliidi ('liopiii disdained! 

The piano \ii1uoxis and teachers ol' the present day are oppos- 
ing the .laiiko keyboard because its universal ado])tion would 
mean for them to forget the old and learn the new. The music 
})nl)lisliers ol)ject to it, because their stoek on hand wonld depre- 
ciate in \alne. as the Janko keyboai'd natni-ally re(|uires dilferent 
lingering than that now jirintefl witli the i)ul) ished (•om])ositions. 
For many years the professional piano i)layers could rightfully 
object to the somewhat unelastic touch of the Jaidvo keyl)oard. 
This objection has been comi)letely overcome by an ingenious im- 
provement accomplished by Paul Perzina of Schwerin, who 
changed the double leverage of the key successfully to a single 

movement as shown in il- 
lustration, assuring the 
desired elastic touch. In 
order to facilitate the at- 
tachment of the Janko 
keyboard, Perzina has in- 
vented a reversible double 
key-bottom, so that the 
Janko as well as the old 
style keyboard can be 
used on the same piano. 

Although the Janko 
keyboard, in its ])resent 
form, is thoi-oughly prac- 
tical, and destined to in- 
augurate a new era for 
the ])iano industry, its 
universal success and 
adoption seem to be im- 



Perzina's Key for Janko Keyboard, 1910 

paired by the appearance of the player piano, which enables the 
musical amateur to enjoy his own performance of the most diffi- 
cnlt compositions with hardly any exertion on his part. It remains 
for a coming Titan of the pianoforte to lift the Janko keyboard 
ont of its obscurity and give it its deserved place in the concert 
hall, there to show to the executing amateur its wonderful 

Perzina's Reversible Key-bottom for Two Keyboards 



Perzina's Actiun fur rnicticu Clavier fur Jaiiko Koyboard 

Perzina's Practice Clavier with Janko Keyboard 


Paul von Janko, noble of Enyed, was born June 2, 1856, at 
Totis, Huugarv. After finishing bis preparatory studies, be en- 
tered both the Polyt^chnicum and the Conservatory of Music, in 
Vienna. It is quite characteristic of the dual nature of the 
virtuoso-inventor that he left both institutions with the highest 
prizes they offer. 

He continued his musico-mathematical studies at the Berlin 
University under Helmholtz, The immediate result of these 
researches was the keyboard which bears his name. From 1882 
to 188-4 he experimented on an ordinary parlor organ; in 1885 
the first Janko grand piano was built; and on March 25, 1886, 
he gave his first concert thereon in Vienna. 

Paul Perzina of vSchwerin, who is a firm believer in the future 
of the Janko keyboard, has constructed a very ingenious practice 
clavier for students. As shown by illustrations, the clavier has 
the full keyboard and a tone-producing hammer action. The ham- 
mer strikes a brass reed, producing a ton§ similar to the harp and 
zither, sufficiently loud for the player, but not offensive to suff'er- 
ing neighbors. The action is so constructed as to require the 
touch of the regular piano action. This practice clavier will no 
doubt aid greatly in introducing the Janko l^eyboard. 

The Development of the Piano Action 

No part of the piano has given the inventor more food for 
thought and opportunity for display of genius than the action. 
The experiments made are almost numberless and it may be said 
that every thinking piano maker has at one time or another fallen 
victim to the lure of ' ' inventing a new action. ' ' Even the author, 
in his early days, sent his hard-earned dollars to Washington 
to pay the fees for a patent for an '' improved upright action," 
Fortunately no piano maker ever embodied this " important in- 
vention " in his instruments. 



The action bein.u' the motive power of the ])iano, so to speak, 
gave the restless ciiii li i-'ic lull ici^ii for tlie most fantastic experi- 
ments. Tliat ;i large nuiiiIxT of the ahk'st piano makers of tlieir 
(Uiy should, foi- inslunce, struggle witli the i)r<)bleni of a down- 
ward striking action for gi'and pianos seems remarkable, l)ut that 
a genius like Henri Pajie >houhl expend a fortune in money and 
many years of unceasing labor on the same ] problem, after such 
masters as Stein, i.oud. Sackmeistei', llildebrand, Streicher and 
nniny more had given up the struggle as hopeless, seems inexjjli- 

Loud's Dowinvnid Striking Action for Square or Grand Pianos, 1S27 

Although the very principle of the downward striking of the 
hammer is of itself contrarv to the law of gravitation, and as a 
mechanical })roi)ositiun ridiculous, Pape not only persisted in his 
own effort^ but transmitted his faith in this action even to his 

* Wliilc employed hy Fred ^fatliushek (1807-69) the writer was instructed to 
try and put 12 scpiare pianos, liaving a downward striking action, in salable con- 
dition. These instrnnients had heen built by Mathu.shek and for years rested peacefully 
in the attic of the faitory huildiii;:. After wrestling witli tlicni for al>()iit one week 
all hope of success was abandiUHil mikI the suggestion made to Mathusliek that the 
furnace of the st<'am boilers in tlic factory was the most economic place for those 
pianos. The suggestion was adopted. 



pupils, such as Matlmshek, Stocker of Berlin and others, who 
continued the hopeless efforts for the solution of an impossible 
proposition. No doubt the ambition to invent something- strik- 
ingly novel, and thus earn fame as one of the great inventors of 
the industry, prompted these men to waste their talents and time, 
as many others have done. In looking at the various models of 
these downward striking actions, we have only to regret that so 
much ingenuity was so hopelessly thrown away. 

Even to the present day the minds of constructive piano makers 
are mainly busy with action improvements. While it is true that 
since the simplification of the Erard action by Henry Herz no 
radical changes of merit can be recorded, many detail changes and 
improvements have been made in the mechanism, which are in 
the line of progress and permit of a more subtle manipulation 
•of the keyboard and pedals than would be possible without them. 

Steinway Tubular Metallic Action Frame, 1866 

Rather important improvements have been made to protect the 
action against atmospheric influences, and to assure greater dura- 
bility in general, such as the metal flanges in upright actions, the 
metal tubes for the protection of the wooden rails, and many 

The evolution of the piano action has passed so regTilarly and 
•correctly from stage to stage that a Darwin would enjoy the study 
ihereof. Schroter's hammer action of 1717 is a model of inno- 



poiit simplicity, l^vcii lie had 1 he notion of sli-ikiiii;- llic striiii*' from 
above as well as below, 'riu' diawiiii;' for his down striking action 
shows, however, no |»<)ssil)ility for liriinu' tlic haiiniici' away from 
the strini;- after strikini;-. It ai)])ears that Schrotei* depended en- 
tirclx' njion the conntei-wei.ulit of what niiniit he caMcd the liainnier 
l)iitt. XaturalK, such a clumsv device made the touch hard and 

- » • 

tough, and we need not wonder that Bach and other clavichord 
virtuosos of that time would have none of it. 

.Tdliaiin Andreas Stein's Aetioii. ITSO 

Christofori sliowed in liis iii-st model (1707) real mechanical 
genius. His jack pciniitted an escapement, although faulty, Fur- 
tlM'iniorc, the silken cord, interlocked crosswise to catch the ham- 
mer shank in its fall after sti'iking, was undoubtedly designed to 
facilitate i-epetition. In his model of 1720 he succeeded in devising 
a |)ositi\-e acting escapement and substituted for the unreliable 
silk cords a i-igid back check foi- catching the hammer. Indeed, 
Christofori laid down all the laws for the re(|uirements of a 
pianoforte action in his model, which all the later inventors had 
to observe in their improvements. 



Gottfried Silbermann improved the Schroter action by doing 
away with the special escapement lever. He extended the hammer 
butt beyond the axis, using this extension for escapement. About 
1780 Johann Andreas Stein of Augsburg added to this the " hop- 
per," by aid of which the annoying " blocking " of the hammer 
was overcome, at the same time improving the touch so much 
that most virtuosos preferred the Schroter-Stein action to the 


Johann Baptist Streicher's Action, 1824 

The almost final development of this action we find in the 
model of a grand action patented 1824 by Johann Baptist 
Streicher (a grandson of Stein). This action found much favor 
with German makers and in modified forms is still used by some 
Vienna makers. In spite of the fact that masters like Mozart and 
Beethoven preferred the Schroter-Stein action, it had to give 
way finally to the Christofori-Backers action. Zumpe's attempt 
(1776) to simplify the Christofori cannot be considere(J a success. 
It seems that he merely tried to produce an action of less cost 
than the complicated Christofori. Americus Backers, however, 


riAXoS AX I) TIlKli: MAKKlx^S 

iiivenU'tl in tiie same year an action un the Lliristoiuri })riueiple 
wliicli (•(•niVtiiicd sii)i]tlici1 y willi ;ill tlu^ .u'ood ]>oiiits of tlio Cliris- 
tot'oi'i action. Tlic I5aci<('i-s in\'('iition lias to tiiis (la>' remained 
the fundamental model for the Eiii>lish action in its various modi- 
fications, as iliusti'atec] in Bi'oadwood's ,<>rand action of 1884. 

That independent tiiinkei" ;ind mechanic;!! i;('nius, Sebastian 
Erard, departed fiom both Schroter and ( 'hristofoii, when he 

Erard's Grand Action, 1821 

constructed his double escapement and rejietition i>'rand action, 
patented in 1821. This action is a most ingenious combination of 
the light elastic touch, characteristic of the Vienna action, with 
liie powerful stroke of the English action. It is so reliable and 
precise in its movements that it is undisputedly the action par 
excellence for grand i)ianos. With more or less modifications, 
the Erard grand action is now used by all leading makers of grand 
pianos, except, perhaps, Bosendorfer of Vienna, who still prefers 
the Englisli action for his excellent grand pianos. 



To what extent thinking piano makers, and the modern special- 
ists, the action makers, have endeavored to improve the original 
Erard repetition action, is shown by the following illustrations, 
comprising the leading models at present in use. 

Erard-Herz Grand Action, Paris, 1850 

Steinway Grand Action, New York, 1884 



Wessell, Nickel & Gross' Grand Action, Isew York, 1890 

LaiigiT (Iraiul Action, Berlin, 1909 

Keller's Grand Action, Stuttgart, 1909 




Ijy.' . ■.. ■.-'^■, 

Herrburger-Schwander Grand Action, Paris 

Siegfried Hansing's Grand Action, New York, 1898 

Following the development of the action for the upright 
piano, we observe a similar evolution from the crudest device 
to the most complicated mechanism. The upright action of 
Friederici (1745) reminds one, as Hipkins so truly says, of an 
old German clock movement, and it is quite possible that Friederici 
copied it from a clock. After Friederici we find nothing of impor- 
tance until the English " sticker " action appeared, a device which 



lijid iiotliiiiii- else in its favor tlmii its ('li('n))TU'ss, Tliis inisatisfae- 
torv actidii was no doiiltt. to a lar^e extent, responsible i'or the 
nn})0})ularity of the early iii>i-i,i;lit i)iano. 

Robert W'oi mim of London a('eoin))lislie(l for the ii])ri,i>lit i)iano 
what Sebastian l'>iai'd live years earlier had done for the grand 
piano. It was in 182(5 when Wornum patented his " piccolo " 
npright action, whicli has remained the prototype of all iii)right 
actions used at the ])resent time. Tlie AVornnm action made the 
upright i)iano a practical instrument. Active minds among the 

Friederiei's Upright Actiuii, 1745 


English StickiT Ipriglit Action, 1820 



Wornum's Upright Action, 1826 

piano makers set to work at once to improve this epoch-making 
invention. Ignace Pleyel and Henri Pape of Paris met with such 
notable results in their efforts in this direction that the Wornum 
action is to this day misnamed by most piano makers the 
" French " action. Perhaps it was called thus also for the reason 
that Paris was first in having establishments that made a specialty 
of producing actions for the piano trade. Their product was of 
such excellent quality that it was soon exported to Germany, Italy, 
Spain, Scandinavia, etc., and the piano manufacturers advertised 
that they had " French," that is, Paris made, actions in their 

The extent to which the Wornum action has been developed and 
improved at the present day can be observed by the following 
illustrations : 



Brinsraead. Upright Action 



Langer Upright Action 

Herrburger-Schwander Upright Actioa 



St'iivL'nis L'priylil Action 
Showing Metal Flange 

Wessell, Nickel & Gross' Upright Action 



Development of the Piano Hammer 

The hammer used by Christofori, Silbermami and other early 
makers consisted of a small wooden b^oek covered with soft 
leather. With the increase of tone volume the hammer had to 
undergo changes and we soon find hammers having instead of 
the block form a longer wedge form, tapering toward the top. To 
assure firmness, this wedge-like molding was first covered with 
a piece of firm sole leather, over which a soft piece of sheepskin 
was glued. Next we find larger hammers in which the foundation 

Christofori Hammer 

Hammers Covered with Leather 

over the wooden molding was a piece of very hard sole leather 
a quarter of an inch thick, followed by a medium firm elkskin 
covering and topped off with a covering of very soft, specially 
prepared deer or buckskin. 

The art in hammer making has ever been to obtain a solid, firm 
foundation, graduating in softness and elasticity toward the top 
surface, which latter has to be silky and elastic in order to produce 
a mild, soft tone for pianissimo playing, but with sufficient resist- 
ance back of it to permit the hard blow of fortissimo playing. 
When the iron frame i)ermitted the use of heavier strings, the 
leather hammer proved insufficient, and we find Alpheus Babcock, 



of Boston, takiiiii' out ;i pntciit in 1833 on ;i li.niiiner covered with 
felt. Two years lalcr. 1*. V\ Fischer of London (a friend of 
ileni'i i'a})cj i)blaiiu'd an iMi^lish patent for piano liauiuicr fell. 
It is siii-niiscd tliat tliis patent is really for an invention of Henri 
Pape of Paris, wiio at tiiat time experimented witli hair I'ell for 
haininer eoNci-inu'. cuttiiiu- up xil't beavei" hats lor that purpose. 

(iettinu very ^ood icsults therewith, bnt not being able to slice 
thi> hairy hat felt thin enough for the treble hannners, I'ape in- 
duced a hatter to make a hair felt in sheets tai)ering from a (piar- 
ter of an inch to one-sixteenth of an inch thick. Pape in 1839 ex- 
hibited pianos having hammers covered with such felt, and it seems 
that the credit for the invention of ta^jered hannner felt belongs to 

Hammers Cove rod witli Leatlier :uiil lu'lt 

"We now find the following combination in the hand-made ham- 
mers of those davs: Directlv over the wooden head, a covering 
of hard sole leather, then elkskin, and over that a covering of 
hair or wool felt up to about the last two treble octaves, which 
were covered with bnckskin. The elkskin was soon re]:>laced by 
a linn felt called underrelt, which was not only more economical, 
but also lii-mer than elkskin, jiossessing the required elasticity. 



(Iradually the sole leather was replaced by another nnderfelt, so 
that we now have the entire hammer made of three thicknesses 
of felt, each layer of its required firmness. The use of deerskin 
as a covering for the last two or three octaves was continued, espe- 
cially in square pianos which had only two strings, more for pro- 
tection, however, than for tone results. Felt making had not 
advanced sufficiently to produce a material so closely interknitted 
as to withstand the cutting of the wires on the thinly covered 
treble hammers. 

The ever-increasing thickness of the strings, to produce greater 
volume of tone, necessitated a more forceful hammer than could 
be produced by the hand-made method, and many attempts were 
made to construct machines for gluing the felt to the wooden 
head. About 1835 Wilke, piano maker at Breslau, invented a 
machine in which a full set of hammers could be covered with 
felt at one time. It seems that hammers made on this machine 
were not considered as good as the hand-made, because nearly 
all European makers continued the hand method until about 1867, 
when the American pianos, shown at the Paris exposition, made 
a lasting impression. In America two in- 
ventors patented hammer-covering ma- 
chines in 1850. Eudolf Kreter of New 
York patented a most ingenious but very 
complicated machine. Its main fault was 
that, because of manifold attached springs 
and levers, it was impossible to use felt 
over half an inch thick, and the crv was 
for a larger, heavier hammer. This ma- 
chine, which had many elements of the 
present hammer-covering machines, came 
into possession of Alfred Dolge in 1871, 
who later on sold it as a curiosity to Brooks ,, ,. „ , ^ ,^ 

*^ Machine-Covered Felt 

of London. Hammer, 1871 




Frederick ^Fat liusliek's patent of I'^-IO was for a liammer-cover- 
mg mat'hiiir of imicli >iiiii»l('i- construction than Kreter's. It was 
IKitterned after the W'ilkc inachliu'. the frame built of wood, with 
lU inui >crews, live each for (k)wn and side pressure. Ahoul 18G3 
Benjamin ('oHiiis. a piano and hammer inak"i" of Boston, came 
out with an imi)rovenient on the Kreter machine. In Ivreter's 
as well as Matlmsliek's macliine, the covered liainnier had to stay 
in the nuu'hine until the i;lue had thorougldy hardeneiL Collins, 
takini*' Ki'eter's iron fi-ame macliine as a i)attei'n, clian.i^ed it so 
that the caul or form into which the hannner is i)ressed could 
be locked, after the felt was glued on, and the caul with the ham- 
mers removed from the machine in order to repeat the operation 
with another set. But even Collins' nuichine, like others, was too 
light in construction to nuike the heavy hammers demanded for 

Dolge Iliuniiu'r-Cuvrrin^' ^lacliiiie, 1887 



Dolge Hammer-Covering ^NLichine, 1887 

the large concert grand pianos. Most makers increased the 
strength of the Mathushek machine, which was generally adopted 
because of its simplicity, but it was very difficult to produce the 
desired pointed hammer with the thicker felt required. 

In 1887 Alfred Dolge patented an improved hammer-covering 
machine, built upon the principle of drawing the felt upward, by 
the aid of an inclined plane on which the side cauls travel. This 
principle and the ease with which great pressure can be brought 
to bear with less physical exertion, as compared to the old style 
machine, has made this Dolge machine very popular. Undergoing 
more or less changes this machine is now in use in most of the 
prominent shops and factories. With the use of the heavier cover- 
ing machine, the so-called " single coat " hammer made its ap- 
pearance. The illustrations show a single coat grand hammer 
made on the Dolge machine from felt one and one-half inches thick, 
and an upright hammer made of felt one and one-fourth inches 




Single Coat Felt ITiUiiraer for Graiul 

Single Coat Felt TT;iiiiiiier for Upright 

Opinions differ very niu(*]i as to the value of single coat liani- 
mers, considering their increased cost, in comparison with the 
double coat. The latter is universally used at present, single coat 
being the exception. As far back as 1873 the author made, in his 
factories at Dolgeville, N. Y., for Stein\va\" & Sons, iiammer felt 
one aixl lln-ee-fourth inches thick in bass and weighing 22 pounds 
to a sheet, which measured 'M\ inches wide and \'.\ inches long. This 
extraordinai-y thick felt was used for concert grand jnano ham- 
mers, and although splendid results were achieved, the heavy 
iiannner alTecled the Icmch too nuich. It is now generally agreed 
that felt weiuhin<i- 17 to IS i^ounds to a slieet is sufficientlv lieavy 
for gi;iM(l lianuners, and l.'l to 1-1 pounds is the usual weight of 
felt used foi- upright hammers. 

AVhile the modein liammer-covering machine does turn out a 
much more uniform hanmier all through the scale than coukl pos- 



sibly l)e produced by the best artisan by the handmade method, 
further progress and improvements are necessary in order to 
produce a perfect hannner which will require less needle work 
on the part of the voicer or tone regulator. With the ])resent 
machines, the operator has no control of the pressure exercised; 
he does not know but has to guess whether the felt is pressed 
down sufficiently or not. The rigidness of the covering machine 
does not permit of any variation in pressure to be used, so neces- 
sary on account of the uneven texture of the felt. The author has 
given this subject most serious thought for the past forty years, 
and has made many costly experiments, which finally culminated 
in the construction of a machine as shown in the illustration. 

Dolge-Gardner Compressed Air Hammer-Covering Machine, 1910 

Compressed air is used, and the required pressure can be gauged 
to a nicety and regulated as the texture of the felt or firmness 
required by the piano maker may dictate. Having three inde- 
pendent cylinders, more or less pressure can be applied, as may 
be desirable, at either section of the set of hammers. Martin 



Oardner, for years master meclianic in tlic AH'i'cd Dolii'e Felt 
I'uiiipaiiy rat-torii's, l)()l,ux'\'ilk', Cal., l)iiill this niac'liiiic luuk'r the 
aiitlioT-'s iiisti-nctioii and Mipcrvisioii. and desiiined and originated 
iiiaii_\- iiiiportaiil detail iiiiiti-ovements, Similai- to tlie ("ollins 
machine, the canls ai"e removabh' after the I'elt is ulned on to the 
mohling, and it is estimated that two expert i^luers can cover 
about two hundred and i'orty set oi' liannners in ten hours on one 
machine. AVhih^ speed and savin.^' of floor sj^ace are desiral)le 
in modern niaiinl'acturinii-, the main o]),ject souglit for in this 
machine is the production of a liammer liaving an even gradation 
in texture. It is entirely within the control of the o])erator to 
give the hannner any desired degree of firmness with this 

Exhaustive experiments which the author has made during the 
jiast thii'ty years in the construction of automatic hammer-cover- 
ing machines, to l)e operated by steam or hydraulic ])ower, have 
led to the conclusion that coni})ressed air is })referable in every 
res]^ect, because the cylindei-s are instantly and independently 
controlled l)y a tuiii of a valve. 

Mention must ))e made of a i)atent ob- 
tained in 1893 ])y John Ammon, a New York 
piano maker, for a })rocess of gluing a striji 
of tattered hannner felt together and theii 
inserting the same into a wooden liammer 
head, having two ])rongs on top. Ammon 's 
motive was to economize felt. Tt does require 
much less felt by Amnion's method than glu- 
ing the felt around the molding, but the ham- 
mer designed 1)> Ammon is utterly imprac- 
ticable foi- man_\' reasons, principally l)ecause 
it is impos>ihle to get the treble hammers of 
sufficient firmness to produce a satisfactory 

tone. Ammon Hammer 



Alfred Dolge saw in Amnion's invention the embryo of a ham- 
mer which might, to a considerable extent, solve the vexing prob- 
lem of preventing the flattening out of the hammer through usage. 
It is impossible to jn-oduee a well pointed hammer with the present 
method of hammer covering, even if the felt is forced into a sharply 
pointed mold of the covering machine. The hammer will invari- 
ably flatten out when it comes under the needle of the voicer or 
tone regulator and, of course, much more so through striking the 
strings, because it has no bracing or support of any kind and 
can give way freely. Consequently, after short usage, all felt ham- 
mers show a flat surface on top, so inimical to good tone produc- 
tion. To combat this flattening out of the hammers Steinway & 
Sons saturate the felt about half-way up with a chemical solu- 
tion, which finally hardens that part of the felt sufficiently to 
check the flattening out to some extent. This led the author 
to the idea of making a hammer molding in which the upper 
half is split open by a saw-kerf, thus obtaining two x^rongs which 
are shaped by the ordinary wood-steaming process into a 


ei • o i i. 1 TT Molding for Animoii-Doloe 

Steinway Saturated Hammer "^ ° 


Ammon-Dolge Hammer 


clasp. The ('ljis})-liko proiii^'s reacli 1k'\<iii(1 the center of the 
g-lued-iip rdt. As shown in the ilhist inlloii. the felt is forced 
into the clas}) and then M'rurcd by a iiictal agraffe, passing 
throno-h both ])i"ongs of the chis]). tightening the prongs so 
firmly on the felt that a (Inltcning onl of the felt is imi)0ssible, 
except throngli its wearing off. it is i-eadily perceivable that the 
fonndation of the haiiiiiicr so const I'lict'-Ml iinist be of a tinnness 
and st)lidity not atlainable by the old method of covering. Xot 
only that the center ]iai"t of the felt is glned togother very tightly, 
bnt the I'cit itscit' is pressed between the tirm shoulders of tlie 
clasp, thus becoming- one solid body with the wooden head. The 
author had a grand ])iano containing such hannners at his home, 
and although his five bovs used this i)iano almost dailv for their 
pratice for several years, the hannners showed very little usage 
and wear. It is, of course, important that only the very best, 
most densely interknitted felt, should j)e used for hammers of 
this type. Instead of reducing the cost, as Amnion intended, the 
improved hammer of this type costs fully twenty-five per cent, 
more to produce than the ordinary. The antlior is of the o]nnion 
that this improvement in hammer making will finally prevail, 
especially since much greater duiabilit> is re([uired for the ham- 
mers in the self-playing piano than the present form of construc- 
tion admits of. 

The Soundboard 

The science of acoustics as developed by Chladny, Tyndall, 
Helmholtz, and in its direct relation to the piano, especially by 
Siegfried Hansing, has given us nmch enlightenment as to the 
proper aiid correct laying out of a scale, also the laws controlling 
the production of sound )>y percussion and otherwise, but none 
of these scientists can advise as to the scientifically correct con- 
struction of tile soundboard. The much coddled theory of " tone 


waves " found its most obstinate opponent in the soundboard of 
tlie pianoforte, disproving forcibly almost every argument brought 
forward in favor of this theory. Not tinding any assistance from 
scientists, the piano maker had to rely entirely u})on empiric ex- 
periments, to construct a soundboard best adapted to his scale. 
All the exper hnents, and their names are legion, ended in coming 
back to the plain soundboard as constructed by the clavichord and 

harpsichord makers of the early days, namely, a board of as large 

"a size as the case of the piano would permit, made of the best 
quality of well-seasoned firj strengthened by bar s or ribs-.-giu.eci 
on ci-ossways. The various writers on piano construction differ 
materially regarding the importance of the soundboard in relation 
to tone development in the i)iano. The careful and learned Dr. 
Oscar Paul, laboring under the ban of the " wave theory," insists 
that the soundboard is the very soul of the piano and that 
tone quality as well as volume depend altogether upon its con- 
struction. Indeed, he holds that the tone is produced by the sound- 
board and not by the string. 

Siegfried Hansing in his book " The Pianoforte and Its 
Acoustic Properties," shows the fallacy of this contention beyond 
contradiction. He bases his argument on Pellisow's proven doc- 
trine that the ear does not perceive sound through so-called tone 
waves, but because of the shock or jolt by which the sound is 
created. Consequently, Hansing looks upon the soundboard as 
a drum, upon which the vibrations of the strings, caused by the 
striking of the hammer, are delivered as shocks or jolts. 

Hansing disclaims the existence of the ear harp, assumed by 
Helmholtz and others, as an impossibility and maintains that the 
ear is an apparatus to measure the intervals between shocks, dis- 
tinguishing the higher tones by their shorter, and the lower tones 
by their longer, intervals. He does not believe that a properly 
constructed soundboard ever has any transverse vibrations which 
affect the tone, as demonstrated by the successful experiments of 


^Matlmsliek and ]\Ioser, whose double soundboards were glued to- 
\ gotlier so that the g'raiii of tlio one crossed the grain of the other 
at right angles. This method ui' construction makes any transverse 
vi1)ration ini])ossible, and instruments containing such boards are 
not interior in volume and (luality of tone to any other. 

Hansing thus proves that the soundboard does not give forth 
■sounds, but that it only augments and transmits the sound origi- 
nating with the string, through a tremor, which is the effect of 
the motion ])rodu<'ing the sound; namely, the jjercussion of the 
string by the hammer. This important discovery will assist mate- 
rially in the further search for soundboard imi)rovements, but 
even Hansing admits that for the present the i)iano constructor 
has to rely on empiric experiments for final results. 

To mention a few of the most telling experiments made to im- 
prove the efficiency of the soundboard, we find Jacob GoU of 
Vienna using iron and copper with reasonable success in 1823; 
but, no doubt, the primitive conditions of the metal industries of 
those days made the use of metal too expensive, as com])ared to 
wood. Henri Pape of Paris, that king of piano empirics, experi- 
mented not only with all kinds of wood and metal, but tried even 
parchment. All these materials transmitted the sound of the 
strings, except the parchment, which proved totally unfit for use 
in the treble sections. 

During the writer's engagement witli the Matlmshek factory 
in 18(J7-(>9, exhaustive experiments were made to find the most 
responsive thickness for a s(mndl)oard. With boards from fully 
one inch in thickness, without ribs, graduated down to ])oards only 
thrcc-sixtecnths of an inch thick in treble, and with proportionately 
heavy ribs, numberless tests were made. Curious to relate, all of 
the pianos had a satisfactory tone, differing, of course, in ([uality. 
The thick boards res})onded with a thick, somewhat stiff, woody 
I- — quality, the ])ianos with the thinn(>r ])oards had a more sympa- 
thetic, soulful, but weaker tone. The most satisfactory tone quality 


/; was found iu the pianos which had the " regulation " soundboard, 
three-eighths of an inch thick in treble, tapering otf to one-fourth 
of an inch in bass, ribs placed at nearly equal distances apart, 
except in the last treble octave, where they lay somewhat closer 
.together. These trials and tests proved conclusively that the 
soundboard does not produce sound by aid of sound waves, but 
simply transmits and augments the sound produced by the vibra- 
tion of the string. They further proved that the soundboard is 
not nearly as much of a factor in tone production as the string, 
the proper length, thickness and position of which, together with 
the most advantageous striking point for the hammer, are the 
all-important factors to be considered in piano construction. 

Attempts to increase the volume of tone by using double sound- 
boards, connected by wooden posts or otherwise, the imitation of 
the violin or cello form, carefully worked out corrugated sound- 
boards, etc., have all been in vain and are discarded for good. 
Several ingenious devices to sustain the resistance of the sound- 
board against the downward pressure of the strings are recorded. 
Among them Mathushek's " equilibre " system, patented in 1879, 
is perhaps the most scientific, but the result achieved is not in 
proportion to the increased cost. Mathushek surmised, what Han- 
sing established as a scientific fact, that the soundboard is not 
atfected by so-called sound waves, and when he discarded his 
equilibre system because of its high cost, he returned to the thick 
soundboard without ribs. In 1891 he patented his duplex sound- 
board, which is a combination of two boards, cross-banded and 
glued together. The boards are made thickest at the center where 
the bridge rests, in order to withstand the pressure of the 

On October 2, 1900, Richard W. Gertz obtained a pat'ent for a 
Tension Resonator for Pianos, the purport of which is to regulate 
the pressure in the arch of the soundboard against the strings 
and to assist the vibratory efficiency of the entire soundboard, 



tlioroln' iiKTonsiiio- tlio inton- 
sity of tone produced by the 
striking of the liainnier 
against the string. 

Another function of this 
resoiiatoi' is to restore the 
original arclicd form of the 
soundboni'd wlien. tlirough 
age or atmospheric intiu- 
ences, the same has given 
away to the pressure of the 

The tension rods with the 
conical shaped head, inserted 
into tlie rim, draw together 
the entire rim u|)on which 
the soundboard is fastened, 
and force the Latter back to 
its original arched form, re- 
instating and enlivening the 
vibratory action of the entire 
Eadiating from the center of the ])iano to all parts of the rim 
the tension rods can be screwed up, either simultaneously to bring 
pressure upon ilic entire board, or individually if any part of 
the sonndboai-d should show a pronounced llatness. They are 
furthermore of great value in maintaining the correct form and 
shape of the rim. This invention has been applied to all the grand 
l)ianos made by ^fason & Hamlin since the granting of the patent. 
ExperieiU'e so far has shown that the best material for sound- 
boards is the wood of the fir tree, growing in the mountain regions 
of Southern Europe and North America. 

Whether or not the development of the steel industry will 
furnish the piano maker eventually with rolled sheets for sound- 

UottDiii nf (Irjiiiil I'iaiH) slinwiiig Kii-liard W 
Gertz's Tension Resonator 



boards, made of proper 
vibratory metal, and in ta- 
pered form, is speculative. 
It is not improbable, how- 
ever, that the piano of the 
future may have a metal 
soundboard. AVe do know 
that the sound in the piano 
originates with the steel 
string, and that it is only 
transmitted by the sound- 
board, materially assisted by 
proper construction of the 
wooden frame of the piano. 
We also know that the iron 
frame has no deleterious in- 
fluence upon the tone quality, 
and since all piano construct- 
ors are still seeking for a clear, bell-like, singing quality of tone^ 
may not the solution be found in a soundboard of steel, so con- 
structed as to successfully withstand the pressure of the strings^ 
and to assist the steel strings in tone production? 

Evidently the soundboard is the only part of the modern piano 
which calls upon the inventor for further investigation, on scien- 
tific lines, until the laws are found upon which to build a piano, 
not necessarily with a louder, but with a more soulful tone, suck 
as the old clavichord possessed in limited quantity. 

Richard W. Gertz's Resonator 
View of Soundboard Rim and Tension Rods 



The Supply Industries, Lumber (old and new methods of season- 
ing), Felt, Wire, Actions. 

Felt Making, Pape, Whitehead, Naish, Billon, Fortin, Weickert, 

Piano Wire, Fuchs, Webster & Horsfall, Miller, Poehlmann, 
Washbnrn & Moen, Houghton, Smith, World's Fair Tests. 

Actions, Brooks, Isermann, Gehrling, Herrburger-Schwander, 
Morgenstern & Kotrade, Lexow, Langer & Company, Fritz & 
Meyer, Keller, Friekinger, Seaverns. 




PERHAPS no other class of manufacturing depends more 
largely upon auxiliary industries, each of itself of con- 
siderable magnitude, than the piano industry. It is fur- 
thermore true that the piano industry could not have made its 
marvelous progress, had not the auxiliary industries kept pace 
with the inventive piano maker, oftentimes anticipating his wants 
and providing superior material which permitted the improve- 
ment of the piano. Wire for strings and felt for hammers are 
two of the materials which have been continually improved by the 
manufacturers in advance of the piano maker's demands. It is 
therefore proper that the development of the supply industries 
should be recorded in these pages. 

All inhabited parts of the globe contribute, more or less, the 
raw material for a piano. Asia and Africa supply the ivory and 
ebony for the keyboard. Sweden, England and America, iron ore 
for strings, pins and plates. North and South America, Australia 
and Africa, wool for felts, while Europe, North and South 
America, the Philippine and West India islands supply the various 
kinds of wood. 



Wood Used in Piano Construction 

It is not so iiiniiy years ago since the piano maker of Germany 
was obliged to go to tlie forest and buy at auction such logs as 
lie might select for his purjjose. If a sawmill was near by, he had 
his logs delivered there, giving the sawyci- special instruction as 
to how to saw each log. Oi'tcnlimes the logs had to be transported 
to his factory yar(h where they had to be sawed into ])l:inks and 
boards by two nu'u moving a big handsaw up and down, one man 
standing on top of the log, the other in a pit under the log. The 
writer saw, at a i)rominent factory in London, this process still 
in vogue in 1879. 

Willi the introduction of ])ower-driven woodworking machinery, 
the millmen and lumber dealers began to specialize, and supplied 
the piano maker wuth selected boards or planks, sawed to the thick- 
ness and length recpiired. Keceiving the lumber from the mill, 
it was carefully stacked u}) for air seasoning. As soon as the sap 
had hardened, the planks were brought into the shop and there 
again carefully stacked up about 7 feet from the floor, to get the 
benefit of the even temperature of the closed room. This awkward 
and slow process of seasoning lumber after being air-dried was 
done away with by the introduction of the steam-heated dry-kiln. 
Endless exi)eriments have been made to force the saj) out of the 
wood, by boiling, or using tremendous pressure upon the lumber 
as soon as it came from the saw, in order to do away w^ith the 
costly air drying })rocess, but none has turned out a success for 
lumber to be used in pianos. Wood dried so forcedly loses all its 
strength, 'life and pliability, and since every part of tiie ]nano is 
supposed to assist in tone production, it follows that wood 
deadened by forced drying is unfit for use. Hence, a well stocked 
lumber yard is to this date a })ositive necessity. 


Some of the large piano iiiaiiiifactnrers of America carry as 
much as three to five million s(inare feet of lumber constantly in 
their yards. A New York corporation invested $400,000 not long 
ago, in a stock of hardwood veneers 14 to 28 feet long, to be used 
for bent rims on grand ])ianos, merely for fear that such long 
veneers of the required straight grain, length and width could 
not often be found in the market. The investment is considered 
a good one from a financial point, since hardwood is rapidly 
advancing in value, far in excess of the interest account. 

For the manufacturing of veneers, inventors have been pro- 
lific in devising improved sawing appliances as well as rapidly- 
working automatic machines for cutting with knives. An entire 
log can be placed in front of the knives, which are up to 16 feet 
long, and veneers cut off, as thin as one thirty-second of an inch, 
continuously until the log is used up. 


The manufacture of lumber for soundboards has been fol- 
lowed up as a specialty for over 100 years. The first specialists 
in this line were owners of forests in the mountains of Bohemia 
and Tyrol. Instead of sawing the logs into boards, they were 
sp it, like the old-time American fence rail, into boards of about 
one inch thickness. The clavichord or piano maker of 100 years 
ago would not have thought of using sawed lumber for his sound- 
boards. He believed in the theory that sound waves traveled along 
the grain of the wood, and since the saw would not follow the 
grain, unless the tree had grown up perfectly straight (which no 
tree ever does), the piano maker imagined that the imperceptible 
crossing of the grain by the saw would interfere with the sound 
waves. To-day, with a production of approximately 650,000 pianos 
per year, all the lumber for soundboards is sawed, either with 
gang or circular saws, and the pianos are better than ever. 


The Bolii'iniaii and Swiss iiiaimracturers of soiiiulboard lumljer 
prepared their itr(i(hict most carerully. Aftci- ciitling out all knots, 
shakes and other imperfections, tlie roiigli hoards were smoothed 
off ])y liaiidphniin«;-, cut into lengths of from 4 to 8 feet and then 
carefully i)acked in Ijoxes 2 feet wide, containing (50 layers each. 
Length and widtli of board dictated the pjice of the lum1)er, 
]>oards S foct long, 4 l)oards to the layer, bi'inging nearly twice as 
much per square foot as boards 4 feet long and having 5 or G 
to the layer. In America, soundboard himber was sold as it came 
from the sawmill, and the i)iano maker could hardly ever utilize 
more than forty ])er cent, of what he bought. 

The author revolutionized this branch of the supply business 
by commencing in 1874 to manufacture finished soundboards for 
the trade at his mills in Dolgeville, N. Y. This innovation was 
welcomed by the piano makers, who could now carry a full stock 
of boards on hand, exposing the finished board to a thorough sea- 
soning in their factories, for as long a time as desired, with less 
investment than was necessary to carry a sufficient stock of sound- 
Ijoard lumber in their yards. I and my associates invented a num- 
ber of special devices and machines for gluing up and planing the 
entire boards, none of which was patented. Among these machines 
the great cylinder i)laner with bed and knives five feet wide must 
be nientioned. Every builder of woodworking machinery then in 
business refused to accept the order for such a machine, claiming 
that a width of three feet was the limit of safety for a i)laning 
machine cylinder. I constructed a machine ])laning five feet in 
width which was such a success that similar machines are now 
in use in many factories of Europe and America. Two men can 
plane 300 soundboards to perfection on such a machine, within 
10 hours, while it is an easy matter to finish off 400 boards per 
day on the modern cylinder sandpa])ering machine. The best work- 
man could not finish over 10 boards per day with a handi)laue. 


Fulh' ninety per cent, of the soundboards used are now sup- 
plied to the piano trade by concerns making a specialty of the 
business. The forests of Bohemia and Tyrol having been exhausted, 
the European makers have to get their supply of lumber from 
Galicia and Eoumania. In America the forests of the Adiron- 
dacks and White Mountains have from the beginning been the 
source of supply. Even these great forests are passing rapidly 
and new sources of supply must be sought. The author, after 
thorough personal investigation, found splendid material on the 
west coast of North America, more particularly in the mountain 
forests of Oregon and AVashington, and consequently started a 
soundboard factory at Los Angeles, Cal., in 1903, supplying not 
only the American trade, but exporting largely to Germany also. 

The best soundboard lumber comes from the mountain districts 
of the temperate zone, at an altitude of 3,000 to 5,000 feet above 
sea, where timber growth is thriftiest. Trees not over 100 years 
of age are the most desirable, the wood being strong and elastic. 
Trees under 70 j-ears of age are not matured and have too much 
undeveloped sapwood. 

Several of the American soundboard manufacturers are also 
making a specialty of ribs, bridges, wrest planks and complete 
backs for upright pianos. 

Piano Cases 

Case making for the trade has been a specialty in America 
for over 50 years, and nearly all manufacturers of commercial 
pianos buy their cases ready made. It is readily understood that 
a manufacturer making a specialty of cases, producing as many 
as 10,000 to 30,000 per year, can afford to make a much larger 
investment for labor-saving machinery and devices than a piano 
maker who turns out 500 to 2,000 pianos per year. The tendency 
of the age is for economic specialization in all branches of Indus- 


try, and tlie " eoinpilcr " ol" the various ready made ])arts of a 
piano (Iocs, Ix-yoiid d<nil>t. produce a better instrument, 
lli.iii if lie >li(tuld attempt to make eaeh part of tiic i)ian() in his 
own >lit)|i. 

'i'lii' U\-nii'ndou> i;ro\vtli ol" the piano imhistry has, on tlie otlier 
hand, develo])od individual eoneerns, ^vhi(•h turn out from 5,000 
to "JO, 000 piniios per year. Such firms, of course, avail themselves 
of the advantages of hd)or-savin<»" machinery in nil departments. 
Some of these large concerns own forest lands, have large saw- 
mills, and, of course, make their own cases, keys and actions, even 
casting tlioir own ii-(ui ]»h'ites. 

The London manufacturers were the first to introduce power- 
di'iven machinery in tlieir factories. As far back as 1850, some 
of their leading firms were producing from 2,000 to 3,000 ])ianos 
l)er annum, a (juantity which matle the use of steam-power 
machinery an economic ])roposition. ^Machinery is only economic 
when it can be continually em})loyed. The piano maker with a 
limite(l production cannot avail himself of that advantage. Con- 
se(|uently, as a matter of commercial and industrial evolution, the 
s})ecialists, such as case makers, key and action makers, have 
become indispensable to the industry. They made possil)le the 
l)roduction of a idiable, satisfactory instrument, at a })rice within 
the reach of the masses. 

Development of the Piano Felt Industry 

Felt is a fabric formed of wool or hair, or wool and hair, by 
taking advantage of the natural tendency of the fiber to interlace 
and mat together ])y aid of the moisture and heat during the con- 
tinuous process of rolling, beating and pressure. The invention 
or discovery of the felting process dates back to the age of our 
cave-dwelling ancestors, whose sole wardrobe was a sheepskin 
coat, which through use became denselv matted. Julius Ca'sar 


organized a light brigade, which had felt breastplates as a pro- 
tection against the enemies' weapons. In the ruins of Pompeii 
a complete plant for scouring and pressing felts has been found. 

The first attempt at using machinery for the production of 
felts was made in England. The patent granted to P. F. Fischer 
of London, 1835, describes a piano hammer felt, which is firm on 
one side and soft on the other, and made in sheets, tapering in 
thickness. As stated elsewhere, this description is identical with 
Henri Pape's invention, and can undoubtedly be traced to him. 

Whitehead Brothers of Manchester, England, are said to be 
the first who made the manufacturing of piano hammer felt a spe- 
cialty. They were followed by Billon and Fortin of Paris and 
Weickert (1847) of Leipsic, Germany. Naish of Wilton, England, 
started in 1859. These firms controlled the market until the author 
started his factories in 1871. 

There are two essential requisites for a good piano hammer 

First, it must be well felted to insure wearing quality, because 
the continual pounding of the hammer against the steel strings in 
the piano is liable to cut the fiber of the felt if the fiber is not 
closely connected. With this thorough felting, however, a pro- 
nounced elasticity is indispensable, in order to enable the hammer 
to rebound quickly from the string. From these two requisites 
arises the art of making felt for piano hammers. 

A short description of the process of felt making will interest 
many readers. Wool of the merino sheep, raised either in North 
America or Cape Colony in Africa, is best adapted for hammer 
felt. In the scouring process, the weight of the wool, as it comes 
from the sheep's back, shrinks about seventy-five per cent.; that 
is to say, 100 pounds of raw wool will yield only 25 pounds of 
workable wool after scouring. After the wool is thoroughly dried 
and opened up by passing through so-called picker machines, it 


is t ho roll nil Iv eaidod aiul tlieii formed into sheets. Since ahuost 
every piano maker has his own i)efii!iar notions as to the thickness 
and tai)ering of tlie felt, there were no standards in the beginning 
and the felt had to be formed by hand, putting one layer of wool 
over the other as the tapering would dictate. A slieet of felt 
weighing about 12 i>oiinds when finished, measuring one inch in 
tliickness in Ikiss, and tnjiering down to one-eighth of an inch in 
treble, being about 38 inches sciuare, would measure T> inches 
in thickness in ])ass, one inch in ticliU' and be about 54 
inches square before the felting began. This unwieldy mass 
of wool is hardened down and fulled, until the sheet has shrunk 
to tlie above-mentioned size and tln'ekness. Xo chemicals are used 
by any good felt maker in the fulling process, only soap and hot 
water being a])i)lied.* 

In 1874 the author invented a j^rocess by which the wool is 
fed through the cards in accordance with a correct mathematical 
calculation, so as to form on an ajiron or licit the correct thickness 
and taper required. This apron carries the carded wool sufficient 
for six full sheets of felt, making about 100 sets of hammers. 

The apron passes through a set of hardening rollers, which 
continuously unite each thin web as it comes from the carding ma- 
chine, thus assuring a most positive interknitting of each layer of 
wool with the other, and furthermore a uniformity of taper not 
attainable by the hand-laying process. 

The author received for hi^ liaumier felts the highest awards 
at the World's Fairs of Vienna, 1873; Philadeli)liia, 1876; Paris, 
1878; and Chicago, 1893. The felt made by the above described 
process was preferred by all the leading makers of America and 
extensively used by many of the foremost juano makers of Europe. 

* Many piano makers have the erroneous idea that the fine white dust, which 
they observe when sand])a|)ering the hammers, is composed of chalk. The admixture 
of chalk would almost kill the fulling process. The white dust referred to is pure 
Avool, finely ground by the action of the sandpaper file of the piano maker. 


The felt factories founded by Alfred Dolge have been amalga- 
mated with a nmnber of other felt factories, producing principally 
commercial felts, and the product has lost its identity. 

Piano Hammer Making 

Hammer making as a specialty and rising to the dignity of an 
industry began in America with the invention of Mathushek's 
hammer-covering machine, in 1850. In England the handmade 
hammers were for many years produced as a house industry. 
American machines (Dolge model) were introduced in the London 
shops about 1880. Germany started this special industry about 
181:5, when Merckel of Hamburg supplied the action maker Iser- 
mann, and many piano makers, with handmade hammers. He intro- 
duced machines of his own construction in 1860. Hammer-cover- 
ing machines of the American pattern were generally adopted in 
Germany about 1870. 

In America hammer covering, especially for the commercial 
IDianos, is largely controlled by the felt and action makers. Sev- 
eral firms make a specialty of hammer covering, but all the larger 
piano manufacturers make their own hammers. 

The Piano Wire Industry 

Records tell us that iron wire for musical instruments was 
drawn at Augsburg as early as 1351, but Fuchs of Nuremberg was 
perhaps the first who made the manufacturing of piano wire a 
specialty, supplying the clavichord and harpsichord makers of 
the 18th century. 

About 1820 a Berlin firm succeeded in producing a wire which 
was soon preferred to Fuchs 's make, to be again driven out of 
the market by Webster & Horsfall of Birmingham who brought 
out their piano wire, made of cast steel, in 1831. 


This cast stool wiro was so sn]iorior \o tlio iron wiro tliat tlie 
Kiiii'lisli liriii sooii had a iiKaiopolw 

]>ut ill 1>^4() Martin Miller of \'ioiiiia oame out with a wire 
superior to Webster's aud a stroiii;' eoiiipelitiou began, especially 
wlion Tvollason »S: Sou, Siuitli ^c Houghton and others also took up 
this industry in I'higland. 

]\Iiller's wii'e continued, however, to l)e in favor with most 
of the Ciernian piano makers, until Moritz Poehhnaun of Nurem- 
berg started to make his woi-ld rouowuod ])roduct about 1855. In 
the first competitive test, i*oehhnann's wire i)roved to be of greater 
density than ^liller's, but not of e({ual tensile strength. Miller's 
wire would, however, stretch much more than Poehhnaun 's, con- 
sequently Avould not stand in tune as well as Poehlmann's much, 
denser, better hardened wire. At the Paris Exposition of 1867 
the Jurv on Piano Wire tested the various makes exhibited, on a 
machine loaned by Pleyel, Wolff & Company. Poehlmann's wire 
proved so far superior to any other make that he received the 
highest prize. As a natural consequence all the leading piano 
manufacturers of Europe and America adopted the Poehlmann 
make for their pianos. Moritz Poehlmann deserves particular 
credit for his never-ceasing efforts to imi)rove his wire, not only 
as to tensile strength, but also even gradation of sizes and excel- 
lent polish, so necessary a protection against rust. Poehlmann's 
remai'kable success not only incited his competitors to greater 
effort, but caused the starting of a number of new wire factories 
in Germany. 

In America Wash])urn & Moen of Worcester have made very 
good piano wire since 18()(). The American wire always had an 
exceedingly high i)olish, hardly ever attained l)y the European 
makers, but it often lacked the requisite density and necessary 
uniformity of tensile strength. 




1. Official Test hy the Jury of the World's Exhibition, Paris, 


Pleyel, Wolff & Company's testing maeliine used. 
MoRiTz Poehlmann's wire Nos. 13 14 15 16 17 18 

broke at a strain of Lbs. 226 261 292 296 312 318 

English wires broke at a strain of . . ... 214 274 

2. Official Test hy the Jury of the World's Exhibition, Vienna, 


MoRiTz Poehlmann's wire Nos. 13 14 15 16 17 18 

broke at a strain of Lbs. 232 260 290 300 322 336 

Martin Miller & Sons' wire broke 

at a strain of 168 192 206 232 255 280 


3. Official Test by the Jury of the World's Exhibition, Phila- 
delphia, 1876. 

Steinway & Sons' testing machine used. 

MoRiTz Poehlmann's wire Nos. 13 14 15 16 17 18 

broke at a strain of Lbs. 265 287 320 331 342 386 

W. D. Houghton's wire broke at a 

strain of 231 242 253 287 331 374 

Smith & Son's wire broke at a 

strain of 221 242 242 287 320 331 

Washburn & Moen 's wire broke at 

strain of 176 ... 198 ... 242 .. . 


The records of the World's Fair at ( liieago, 1893, show the 
followiiii;- r('|Mnt of tlic test of Poehhiiann's wire made by Judges 
Max Srlii('(liiia>c'r of Sluttgarl and George Steck of New York: 

No. l.'I Measuring .(>.')( ) of an int-li broke at a strain of 325 lbs. 

.. -j^ *. jj..^ ii a a u a u u ii 335 u 

" 13 '' .034 " '' '' " *' " " " 350 '' 

u 26 " .035 " '' " '' '' '' " " 400 " 

flow successful i*ocliiniann has been in improving his i)roduct 
is best illustrated by the folh)wing table of tests, which shows the 
tensile strength at breaking point: 

Expositions — Wire No. 13 14 15 16 17 

Paris, 1867 226 264 292 312 348 

y\vum\, 1873 232 261 291 300 336 

Philadelphia, 1876 265 287 320 331 342 

Chicago, lSi)3 325 335 350 400 415 

Since 1893 no authoritative tests are on record, ])ut considering 
the severe tension to which the present-day })iano maker exposes 
the wire, and as all the diiferent brands of wire are used more or 
less, it will be admitted that Poehlmann's efforts lifted the entire 
piano wire industry to its present high level, to the benefit of the 
piano trade. 

Development of the Piano Action ln(h(stnj 

The very first auxiliary industry of the x>iano trade was un- 
doubtedly piano action making. Among the oldest firms in exist- 
ence at this date, we find first Brooks of London, who started his 
business in l^jo. L. Isermann of Hamburg, (now merged with 
Langer & Comi)any, of Berlin), began business in 1842. Tn the 
same year came Charles Gehrling of Paris, who was followed by 



Scliwander, in 1844. Morgenstern & Kotrade of Leipsic started in 
1846, Lexow of Berlin in 1854, and Fritz & Meyer, as well as Keller 
of Stuttgart, commenced business in 1857. 

In America F. W. Frickinger, a German who had learned the art 
at Paris, started an action factory at Albany, N. Y., in 1837, mov- 
ing later on to Nassau, N. Y. His son-in-law, Grubb, succeeded him 
and the business is now carried on under the firm name of Grubb & 
Kosegarten Brothers. 

George W. Seaverns established his action factory at Cam- 
bridgeport, Mass., in 1851. 

In no department of piano manufacturing has the use of auto- 
matic machinery been so largely applied, to improve the product 
and lessen the cost, as in 
the making of piano ac- 
tions. In all well equipped 
action factories automatic 
machines are employed to 
fraise, mold, bore, also 
bush with cloth, or trim 
with leather, the various 
parts of the piano action. 
All of these machines 
work with positive pre- 
cision. Some machines, as, 
for instance, the hammer 
butt milling machines, are 
marvels of human ingenu- 
ity. This machine takes 
the wooden block, molded 
to the proper form, and 
by entirely automatic mo- 
tions turns out a perfectly George W. Seavems 


lini.-litMl butt. This {'coiiDinic \v;i\ of ])ro(luciiig actions has been 
made ])()s>il)l(' hccaiix' (»!' the Tad that nearly all of the American 
])iaii() makers use tlu' same model, tlie only matei'iai dit'l'erence 
Ix'iiii;- in the len,i;tlis of the ])ilots oi' tanii'ents whieli connect the 
action with the kev. 

/row Plates, Pins, Etc. 

The casting, l.tronzing and pinning of the iion frames have kept 
]iace in every way with the advancement oi" tlie ])iano. America, 
in particulai'. has for yeai's produced the very best of castings, 
solid in grain, smooth in finish. The example set by Steinway & 
Sons, in their foundries at Steinway, Long Ishuid, had a beneficial 
influence on all })late makers, whose customers demanded plates 
^' as good as Steinway 's." 

The progress in the science of metallurgy has aided the plate 
makers in obtaining the best blending of various ores, and l)reaking 
or cracking of plates is a trouble of the past. 

Even in this industry, automatic machinery begins to lessen tlie 
cost of production. The other metal ])arts in the piano, brass and 
nickel tubes for action rails, brass butts and fhmge rails, are manu- 
factured by specialists. The making of wrest oi' tuning pins 
is an industry which for over (50 years has l)een mono])olized by 
a limited number of manufacturers in Westi)halia. They have so 
far managed to retaiii this niono])oly by making excellent ])ins at 
a price so low as not to invite comi)etition. 

Very good tuning |)ins are now made in a factory near New 
York. Time will tell whether this enterprise can hold out against 
the low wages of Westphalia, ])ecause years ago the AVestphalian 
mamifarturors adoj.ted the use of automatic machinery, which 
turns ])lain wire into a finished tuning jiin, similar to the process 
of making screws. 

Of other materials, such as glue, varnish, etc., nothing need 
be said. They are products used long before pianos were made. 



Development of the Player Piano^ Morse, Vaucanson, Seytre, 
Bain, Pape, Fourneaux, McTammany, Gaily, Bishop & Downe, 
Kuster, Pain, Parker, White, Brown, Votey, Goolman, Ho- 
bart, Clark, Kelly, Klugh, Welin, Hupfeld, Welte, Young, 
Crooks, Dickinson, Danquard. 



Development of the Player Piano 

A LL useful inventions are the product of evolution — the result 

/-% of searching thought and creative ability. An idea may 

be born in one man's mind; the realization and utilization 

of the idea require, however, the co-operation of several minds, 

one improving upon the labors of the other. 

The player piano is still in its development, and many bright 
minds are devoted to the improvement of the instrument as we 
know it at present. Destined eventually to displace the piano as 
the musical instrument of the home, adequate financial reward 
beckons to the inventive genius who can accomplish the extraor- 
dinary. Aside from the financial aspect, the player problem has 
some of that alluring attractiveness which tempts the ambitious 
inventor to make his bid for fame, or at least to try to satisfy 
his own desire for the accomplishment of the ideal. 

The history of the player piano is in the making. While the 
fundamental idea is perhaps two hundred years old, the real 
development and practical application dates back only to the early 
seventies of the past century, and the most important improve- 
ments, those which made the player piano a commercial possibility, 
have been developed during the past twenty-five years. Indeed, 
we can look for ultimate perfection only from now on. 

It would be presumptuous to pass judgment or dispense honors 
for what has been achieved so far. Many an ingenious device of 
practical value to-day may prove to be only a stepping-stone for 



greater achievements to-inonow, mid tlnis soon ])eeome obsolete. 
The author lias to conliiie liiiiiscir. 1 lici-et'ore, to a (lociiiiientary 
description ot" what a])i)ear to be the most iiiiporlaul iiixciitions 
of till' (U'Nclopiiu'iit of the jilayci' j)ian(). in thcii' chronological 
order, without attcinptiiii*' to discuss tiicii- merits or demerits, 
excei)tin«»- those upon which final judgment has been passed by that 
infallible tribunal, thi' purchasing public. 

iiuiuii'iii.u' into the origin of tiie pUiyur i)iano mechanism, we 
find that the idea of a]i]ilying automatic attachments to keyed 
instruments engaged many of the harpsichord and i)ianoforte 
buiklers of the ITtli and 18th centuries, as illustrated by their efforts 
to augment the scope of their instruments with orchestral effects, 
set in motion by pedals, swells, etc. A})])arently the first successful 
attempt to ])lay an instrument with a keyboard by a mechanical 
device was made in 1731 by Justinian Morse of England. He 
obtained a patent, in which he describes his invention as follows: 

'' A new organ with either diai)ason or the i)rincipal in front 
with one or more sets of keys, the bellows to go with either the 
feet or the hands, by which any person, though unskilled in musick, 
may be taught in an honi-'s time to i)lay with great exactness and 
with their proper graces, either single or doubk^ with preludes 
and interludes, all i»salm tunes, fuges, volunteries, and anthems 
tliat are usually sung in churches or chapiiells, or any other musick 
tho' never so difficult, or what length or compass soever, and that 
by this invention a fuller, thorough bass may be pla'd than can 
possibly be performed by the hands or fingers alone on the com- 
mon kevs; and this is performed entirelv without vowls or barrels, 
and in a third part of the room, the musick bcung ))rickt on both 
sides of leaves or half-inch wainscot, eight or ten psalm tunes being 
contained on a board about the size of a large sheet of paper and 
may be worked by clockwork, jack or winch, and is made after a 
new method to i)lay louder or softer by a division on the sound 
board; and that this organ may be made for a much lower price 


than all others heretofore, and therefore will be very proper to 
be made use of in churches or chappells in small parishes that are 
unable or unwilling to be at the expense of the constant attendance 
of an organist, or in gentlemen's houses or in private familys." 

It is to be regretted that no instrument answering the above 
description seems to be in existence, but, considering the severity 
of the patent laws of those days, it can hardly be doubted but that 
Morse constructed at least a working model according to his 

About 1740-50 Vaucanson, the celebrated automaton maker of 
Paris, reversed the construction of the cylinder used in automatic 
musical instruments of his time. Instead of projecting pegs, Vau- 
canson constructed a pierced cylinder for weaving flowered silks. 
This cylinder, according to the holes it presented when revolved, 
regulated the movement of needles, causing the warp to deviate 
in such a manner as to produce a given design indicated by the 
holes in the cylinder. It is said that Vaucanson used this pierced 
cylinder also in musical instruments. 

Jaccpiard, of silk-loom fame, seized upon Vaucanson 's idea, and 
in 1802 added an endless piece of cardboard to the cylinder, i3er- 
forated with holes in accordance with the pattern intended to be 
woven. The perforated cardboard pattern of the Jacquard loom 
is in principle identical with the perforated music rolls of the 
present day. 

Seytre of France patented, in 1842, a musical instrument to 
which he applied Jacquard 's perforated cardboard. Bain of Scot- 
land patented a similar device in 1847, and that great piano maker, 
Henri Pape of Paris, tried his hand on the same thing in 1851. 
No instruments of these inventors are in existence, and it seems 
that neither invention had any practical or commercial value. 
They are mentioned here only as the next step in advance from 
the stiff perforated board to the flexible cardboard. 

In 1863 Fourneaux df Paris patented his pianista, a device 



Fournoaux's riaiiista 

whicli through pnenmatios pressed " fingers " upon the piano keys 
as indicated by the perforated cardboards. This mechanism was 
exhibited at tlie PhiUidelphia Exposition in 1870, and quite a num- 
ber of these machines have been sold. The machine, set in motion 
by a crank movement, could be attached to any piano, the fingers 
being placed over the piano keyboard, as in the later cabinet i)layer. 
For unknown reasons this invention was not further developed, 
and became obsolete because of its limited possibilities and high 

About 18G8 John ]\rcTammany constructed a mechanism for 
automatic playing of organs, sulistituting for the crank and per- 
forated cardboard of Fourneaux a foot-])edal action and narrow 
sheets of perforated flexible paper with winding and rewinding 



' ((^//////////////^///^/ /////^/■'^^/■'^^///////'tttt; 




lY'^^ ^^^ ^^^m^m 





Fourneaux's Pianista 

rolls. For this invention McTammany filed on September 7, 1876, 
a caveat with the following description: " The invention relates 
to an improved attachment to organs, so that any piece of music 
may be played in an automatic manner, in any key, on. the same, 
and the invention consists of a mechanism worked by a fan from 
the bellows and by a strip of paper perforated to express musical 
notes, and it consists also of a transposing mechanism to play 
music in any desired key." The above language shows that the 
patent attorneys of those days were in the kindergarten class of 
player piano patent lingo as we read it to-day. 

In McTammany 's invention the action was inside the organ 
case, instead of being attached from the outside, as in Fourneaux's 
pianista. While broadly speaking the action was pnemnatic, yet 



il (lid not have iiidividnal 
jtiK 'lunatics for each tone. 
'i'lic next important 
step ill the (Icvclopnu'iit of 
llic p!a_\('i- iiicclianism was 
Alerritt daily's device, 
patented in ISSl. Tt cre- 
ated a sensation at the 
time, ])nt lias never been 
connnercially exploited. 

Bisho]) & Downe of 
England were granted a 
patent i'ur a keyboard at- 
tachment for nmsical in- 
struments in ISSo, Per- 
lia})s for the reason that 
the mechanism bad to l)e 
set iji motion Ijy turning 
a ci'ank, precluding any 
exercise of iiidi\-i(biality, tliis invention did not succeed com- 

in ISSG G. B. Kelly invented a wind motor with slide valves 
opening and closing ports to j)neumatic motors. This form of 
motor was at once ado])ted, and. u]>o7i the ex]uration of the ])atent, 
came into general use in all the factories in tlie world. 

On May 14, ISSfi, Charles A. Kuster filed his ai>plication for 
a i)atent on a mechanical instrument, which was granted on April 
19, 1887. Ivuster's construction dilTered entirely from Bishop 
& Downe 's, as well as from Gally's. It seems, however, that 
Kustei- did not know bow t(j make his invention i)0])ular and to 
secure for it proper recognition. 

R. W. Pain is ]»erliaps the first who constructed a pneumatic 
se]f-])layiiig piano. In conjunction with Henry Kuster he built 





^^' i-i i 'L^Ov^ 


John McTammany's Automatic Playing Organ, 1868 

STicli an instrument for Needham & Sons in 1880, having a compass 
of 39 notes. In 1882 he constructed for the Mechanical Orguinette 
Co. (which later on became the Aeolian Co.) an inside player with 
46 notes, and in 1888 he produced his 65-note electric player. 

On October 16, 1891, Wm. D. Parker of Meriden, Conn., in 
the employ of the Wilcox & White Company, made application 
for a patent on an automatic piano. The patent was granted 
March 8, 1892, for a combination piano adapted for either manual 



Merritt Gally's Player Mechanism, 1881 

or antomntio o])oratioii, liavin,i>- a system of pneumatic operating 
mechanism controlled by a perforated music sheet. 

Snitahk' wind-indncing apparatus or motor, and such mech- 
anism, ]iermanently introduced into the structure of the instru- 
ment, ojierating v\[Hjn tlie rear ends of the manual keys, not 
intci-ferinu' or ])reventing use of the piano for ordinary manual 
operation. Tliis interior ]ilayer mechanism was manufactured by 
the AVilcox & White Company of Meriden, and sold under the 
name of Angelus Piano Player to i)iano dealers in Boston, Phila- 






Bishop & Do\ATie's Keyboard Attachment, 1883 

George B. Kelly's Wind Motor with Slide Valves, 1886 



; ' ^ww.wm 





;=! — ^ 






fp ^v...... 


















»3iitrrr3i3jjjjyjfjjj})ff>rf>j>t'}jfiff>tiirf>>} r-T-r 

/, f//,xUJJJ ff/^i^^ i^i,>/y>A^ 






















White and Parker's Combination Upright Piano and Reed Organ, 1895. (Fig. 3) 

<lel])liia, etc., and the patent was assigned to and controlled by 
the AVilcox & White Company. 

On November 29, 1895, Edward H. White and Wm. D. Parker 
filed application for a ])atent, which was granted December 15, 
1890, for a combination of the automatic ui)right piano and reed 
organ. This ingenious invention did not prove a commercial suc- 
cess, mainly for the reason that the steel strings of the piano would 
not remain in tune witli the reeds (which would remain in tune for 
years), and naturally on that account would not always blend with 
the tone produced in combination with each other. 

On July 27, 1897, Wm. D. Parker obtained patents for similar 
attachments for grand and square pianos. 



White and Parker's Automatic Piano Player in Cabinet Form, 1897. (Fig. 1) 

Not meeting with the success anticipated in introducing this 
interior mechanism, White and Parker on April 5, 1897, filed an 
application for a patent for an automatic piano player in cabinet 
form, and which contained reeds and could be operated either as 
an automatic reed organ or as a keyboard instrument player. The 
patent was granted October 26, 1897. This cabinet could be moved 








:1 ■<. 



C' <: 



Fig. 2 

r; ,r;r„v- r;V,>-,-,/, , r,,i- /r^/r^^r'r'./^^f'/^/ 


. i:;. I r'T 

Fisr. 3 

White and Parker's Cabinet Piano Player 



up and on to any kind of a 
piano, whereby tlie fingers 
of the mechanism would 
stand upon the tops of the 
keys of the piano, similar 
to the fingers of the human 
hand. The general con- 
struction being practical 
and durable, the instru- 
ment found immediate 
favor with the public. 

After completing a 
number of pianos with P. 
J. Bailey's electric self- 
playing device, which did 
not prove a success, Theo- 
dore P. Brown of Worces- 
ter was granted patents 
for an interior player 
mechanism under dates of 
April 7, June 15, Decem- 
ber 7 and 14, 1897. The 
pianos containing this 
mechanism were marketed 
under the name of 
" Aeriol Pianos," and 
proved a commercial suc- 
cess. In 1898 Brown sold 
his patents to the Aeolian 
Company, and followed 
the example of the Wilcox 
& White Company in con- 
structing a cabinet player. 

Fiof. 4 

i 8 II 1 1, 








Fig. 5 

Fig. 6 

Whitt' and Parker's Cabinet Piano Player 







^ ^^M... ^v.,,,^rnv,^^2^^uv,.,.r.,^,^^^MV.uM>.>j^N^ 


" |Jl Qaa [^iDonaa"a"Dnnn£nnoQnn nnn n^nnn □ [ h 

.<'- ■ . \\ ^ \ ^ V V ■ v ^ v ^ ' v V \ — ^ ■ ■^^<\\\'■■A^ ^ ^v^^^^'^^^'.^^ 


\ rs'ssrrri 

Figs. 8-12 
Whito and Parker's Cabinet Piano Player 










Theodore P. Brown's Interior I'laver, 1S97 

Iviiown to the trade as the '' Simplex." These cabinet players, 
uuw almost obsolete, curiously enough seemed to be preferred by 
the public to the i)layer i)iano. The fear of the ])iano manufac- 
turers to add the player action to the complicated upright piano 
action, may, to a large extent, have been responsible for the tempo- 
rary popularity of the unsigiitly and unhandy cabinet player. This 
pupuhuity was hirgely increased wiicn Edwin S. \^otcy's pneu- 
matic ])ian() attachment was ]^u\ u]ion the market under the name 
of " Pianola," and piislicd by a most aggressive advertising cam- 
paign on the part of the manufacturers, the Aeolian Company of 
New York. Votey filed his ap])lication on January 25, 1897, and 
a patent was issued to him un May '2'2, I'JUU. 



n n, r}-n'r\j;::if\;fzjXD''r\~r\ n 1*^ ) 


Figs. 1 and 2 

Figs. 3-5 
Melville Clark's Transposing Device, 1899 







Figs. 1-4 
Melville Clark's Transposing Device, 1902 

Comparing tlie drawings of tlie Wliite-Parker and Votey 
patents, it is ol)vions at first glance that the three inventors 
worked, although at the same time, on entirely different lines to 
accom])lish their object. 

From 1898 to 1900 many patents, too numerous to mention, 
were granted for imi)rovements in phiyer mechanism. Among 
them arc ^rdvillc (Mark's transposing device, patented on May 
30, 1899, and September 30, 1902, which has been adopted by many 
manufacturers of ])layer pianos. 

Ill 1898 F. Engelhardt & Sons commenced to make their 
" Ilaiinouist " ])layer, having accpiired the patents granted to 
F. K. Ooolman, on February 1 and Ai)ril 26, 1898. Their '' Peer- 
less Piano Player," a coin-operated electric ^meuinatic instrument, 
was also placed on the market in the same year. This firm controls 



— et" 

-^ — ^ 

1 I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I M I I I I I I I I I I IT 

F. R. Goolman's Harmonist Player, 1898 

'»////y///y/„,//^A /m.-^,v, ',//, ,//^/-/, . 

Paul B. Klugh's Auxiliary Key, 1906 




A. J. Ilobart's Endless Tune Sheet, 1908 

the patent granted to A. J. Hobart, on July 7, 1908, for an endless 
perforated tune sheet, each sheet containing five or more selections. 

All i^layer actions i)rior to 1898 were so constructed that they 
played only Go notes of the 88 of the ]iiano scale. This necessi- 
tated tlic rearrangement (often nmtilation) of modern composi- 
tions written for 88 notes. 

Melville Claik inti'oduced in 1901 his " A])ollo " i)layer with an 
88-note tracker board, an innovation which has been adopted by 
most player manufacturers for the good of the instrument. 

Thomas l)an(iuard obtained a patent, on August 2, 1904, for 
a device called the flexible finger, by means of which the wippen 
of the piano action is attacked direct, eliminating thereby the 



harshness of contact and imparting 
elasticity without interfering with the 
function of the piano action. 

To overcome the objectionable 
stiffness of the interior player action, 
Melville Clark patented on August 1, 
1905, and in March, 1907, a construc- 
tion by which the stroke button is 
placed in front of the fulcrum of the 
piano key. Paul B. Klugli obtained on 
October 9, 1906, a patent for an aux- 
iliary key, with the same object in 

Peter Welin was granted a number 
of patents on applications beginning 
May 1, 1902, for interior player 
mechanism, in which every pneumatic 
can be independently removed or ad- 
justed. This mechanism is used by the Auto Grand Piano Com- 
pany, which acquired the Welin patents ; also by Broadwood & Sons 
of London, under protection of English patents granted to Welin. 

In Germany, about the year 1887, Paul Ehrlich patented his 
" Ariston " mechanism, which played 36 notes. This was soon 
improved by Ludwig Hupfeld by a device controlling 61 notes. 
The mechanism could be inserted into an upright piano and set 
in motion by a crank movement or electric motor. In 1889 Hup- 
feld created a new type of player with 76 notes. None of these 
mechanisms had pneumatics. The '' Phonola," placed on the 
market in 1902, containing pneumatics, had originally a compass 
of 72 notes, but it has now been changed to 88 notes. 

For the better control of piano or forte playing independently 
in bass or treble, the power-producing bellows of the Phonola is 
divided into two sections, as shown in illustration. 

Thomas Danquard's Flexible 
Finger Mechanism, 1904 





■ , I B.I ,; ;. ; , . ....... . . .:::: » t ' .-" T v ; 














Peter Weliii's Individual Naive System, 1902 

Through an ingenious connection of a special pneumatic with 
the hammer rail, the Phonola mechanism gives the performer an 
opportunity for most delicate shading in pianissimo playing, by 
simply exercising more or less pressure upon the pedals. 

The latest product of the Hupfeld factories is called the " Dea," 
a self-playing device which reproduces the playing of virtuosos 
through an arrangement of the music rolls. 

The Dea and the " AVelte Mignon " may justly be called the ne 
plus ultra of player development for purely mechanical expression, 
because they reproduce the individual interpretations of the most 
renowned pianists with all the accentuation and expression in its 
finest, most subtle nuances. These artistic players will ever be a 
most valuable assistant to the piano teacher, aiding him in instruct- 
ing his pupils as to how great artists interpret the compositions of 
the masters. They are furthermore of inestimable value in record- 



Fig. 1 
Ludwig Hupfeld's Phoiiola Tlayor, 1902 

ing- for posterity the wonderful playing of a Joseffy, Rosenthal, De 
Pacliiiiaii, Busoni and other virtuosos. 

However, the iinisic-loving amateur re(|uires tiie pleasure of his 
owji iiiterpretalioii, the only i-eal ])leasure anyone ran get out of a 
piano. AVe have at present the " ^Metrostyle," invented by P. L. 
Young in 1901, enabling the amateur to follow the intention of the 
eomposer as to tiie pro})er metronomic rendering of his com- 
position: the '' Themodist," invented by J. W. Crooks in 1900; 
the '' Phrasing Lever," patented in 190.", by Haywood; the " Tem- 
ponome," iiixcntcd by Danquard and Keeley in 1911; the *' Arti- 
style " markings for the music rolls, indicating both tempo and 



Hupfeld"s Phonola Player. 


Figs. 3 and 4 
Hupfeld's Phonola Player, Showing Divided Bellows for Bass and Treble Section 


volnmo of tono. iiivoiitod by i\ K. A'nn Yorx ; besides tbo many in- 
geirK)ii> iiiiinovemeiits of ICelly, Dickinson and other inventors, 
whose fertile l)iains are continually enga^'ed in making player- 
piano history by inijiroving and sinii)lifying the mechanism of to- 

As time i)asses on, the beauty and scope of the player piano 
will be ai)preciated in tlie same ratio as people learn to perform 
upon it i)roi)erly. Teachers must l)e trained to give instructions 
on the i)layer piano just as manual piano playing is taught at 
present. It not only requires ]U'actiee. but earnest and intelligent 
study to learn the use of the expression and accentuating devices, 
and more especially to master the pedaling, because, after all, the 
secret of proper shading and ])hrasing in rendering a composition 
depends mainly upon the artistic use of the })edals. The " touch," 
this all-controlling factor in producing the various shades of tone 
on the piano, is controlled by the pedals almost entirely. 

The player piano is the nuisical instrument foi- the home of 
the future, barring all others, and the growth of the })layer in- 
dustry depends entirely upon the activity and enteri)rise of the 
plaver manufacturers. The instrument is as vet in its infancv. 
Eventually a player piano will be evolved with an action which 
will ))e capable of ])roducing the long-sought-for effects of tone 
sustaining, losing its mechanical chaiacter entirely, and thus be- 
coming the superior of the present-day ])iano, as that instrument 
has superseded the clavichord. Why should not the player piano 
finally be so constructed as to produce the powerful piano tone 
blended with the soulful tone of the clavichord? 

The possibilities of improving the player action together with 
the piano action can hardly be estimated. Sufficient has been done 
to show that the player piano of the future will be a musical 
instrument par excellence. 





















Keeley-Danquard Temponoinr, I'Jll 


Commercial Development of the Piano Industry 


Italy, Cliristofori, Fischer, Sievers, Roseler, Mola. 

Germany, Silbermann, Stein, Nannette Stein, Streiclier, Scliied- 
mayer, Ibacli, Eitmiiller, Rosenkrantz, Irmler, Breitkopf & 
Hartel, Bliitlmer. 

France, Erard, Pleyel, Herz, Gaveaii, Bord. 

England, Tscliudi, Broadwood, Kirkman, Zumpe, Collard, Brins- 
mead, Hopkinson, 

America, Chickering, MacKay, Nunns & Clark, Gilbert, Steinway. 



History of the Commercyil Development of the Piano Industry 

IT is difficult to make a piano, but mneli more difficult to sell 
it. The craft of piano making did not evolve into an industry 
until the commercial genius joined hands with the craftsman. 
It requires the lofty genius of an artist and the methodical genius 
of the mechanician to design and build a piano, but mercantile 
genius of the highest order is necessary to market this art product 
in such a manner as to assure for it its proper position in the 
marts of the world. 

To achieve lasting success in the piano industry of to-day, 
a combination of artistic and commercial ability of the highest 
order has become a positive necessity. The piano, not a necessity, 
but a vehicle for expression of one of the high arts, appeals only 
to people of culture and refinement. Consequently the piano in- 
dustry can thrive only in countries where wealth is accumulating. 
It will prosper in proportion as a country's wealth increases, and 
decline when a country's resources are declining. 

In its early struggles for existence, the piano had to depend 
upon the protection of kings and princes. Schroter could not 
build his piano because he did not command sufficient influence to 
obtain financial aid from his king. 




It is not to ho v^o^^(^ovo(} tlint Ttnly and tlio Xotlierlands ])ro- 
diieod those beautirul, artistic spinets, clavichords and liarpsi- 
chords, enslirined in most artistic cases, embellished with rich 
carvings, or like the clavichords of Hans Knckers, with ]iaintings 
of the ,c;reat FlcMnish masters of those days. Both the Xetlicrlands 
and Italy were then at the zenith of their commercial supremacy, 
their ships l)rini;ing riches from all parts of the globe. This great 
accnnnilation of wealth brought al)out the age of Kenaissance in 
Italy. The enormously rich nobility and the wealthy burghers 
generously supported Michael Angelo, Ka})hael, Da Vinci and their 
contemi)oraries, encouraging the creation of their master works 
bv most liberal contributions and the bestowal of honors. 

Together with architecture, sculpture, painting and literature, 
the culture of music was revived, and we find at the end of the 
17th century Bartolomo Christofori comfortably placed as musical- 
instrument maker to the Duke of Tuscany. The ever-open purse 
of the Duke permitted Christofori to i)ursue his studies and 
experiments in developing the pianoforte, while engaged in making 
spinets, harpsichords, lutes, etc., for the courtiers of the Duke. 
It was a proud moment for Christofoi'i and the Duke when the 
latter could show to his court the great invention of Christofori. 
However, as the ])roud Italian noblemen of that ]ieriod eschewed 
the idea of connnercializing the creations of their artists, not 
maii> pianofortes were built by Christofori. Nor were the condi- 
tions fa\orable for an immediate exi)loitation of the invention. 
Italy's trade was chiefly with the Orient, where ])ianofortes could 
not be sold. The larger cities of Euroi)e nearly all had clavichord 
makers of their own, and the overland transportation of so large 
an instrument was very costly and slow. 


There is no doubt, however, that the King of Saxony came into 
the possession of a Christofori pianoforte at an early date, which 
Silbermann copied, thus making any further sales of Christofori 
or other Italian pianofortes impossible north of the Alps. We, 
therefore, hear very little of piano making in Italy at that time, 
except for home consumption. 

About the middle of the 19th century the piano industry of 
Italy took a new start. Fischer of Vienna had started a factory 
at Naples, followed by the renowned Sievers of St. Petersburg, and 
later on by Roseler of Berlin, who established himself at Turin. 
Roseler was so successful that he soon found many followers, so 
that Turin boasts to-day of having 15 well-equipped piano fac- 
tories, of which the establishment of Mola is the largest, producing 
about 4,000 pianos, harmoniums and church organs per annum. 
No doubt Italy produces more barrel and pneumatic street pianos 
than any other country, but these noisy instruments are only 
intended to amuse children on the public highways and cannot be 
classed with pianos. 


Accepting Gottfried Silbermann of Freiberg as the father of 
the piano industry of Germany, we have to admit that, besides 
being a good organ builder and piano maker, he also was a very 
shrewd business man. Not only had he the good sense to copy 
the Christofori piano in toto, after Johann Sebastian Bach had 
condemned Silbermann 's own creation in unmeasured terms, but 
he finally induced old Bach to indorse his Christofori copy and 
cleverly managed to sell to Frederick the Great seven of those 
instruments at the extravagant price of 700 thalers (about $500) 
for each instrument. Considering the purchasing power of money 

168 riAXos Axn 'riii:ii: makkks 

nl lliat time, it i> rca-oiiahk' to assuiiie thai Siibermaiin received 
at least live time- llu' aiiminit of the actual cost of t1ie iTisti-nments. 

SaxoiiN i-ciiiaiii('(l for a huiu' tiiiic the center ut' i)iaii() making in 
Geniiaii>, and fiom the slioi)s of vSilberniann came nearly all the 
pioneers who spread the industry over the continent of Euroi)e 
HTid Oreat i'l-itaiii. The so-called iL* apostles {\'2 (jiei-iuaii ]>iaiio 
makers), who landed in London about 17C)(), were nearly all Sil- 
bermann pni>lls. and became the pioneers of the English i)iano 
industry. Among them were Zum])e, Backers (Becker), Geil) and 
others, whose names later on appeared in the London city directory 
as ]>ianoforte makers, 

Johann Andreas Stein, undonbtedly the most talented of Sil- 
bermann's jjupils, went to Augsburg and made his first piano in 
1768. His daughter Nannette, with her husband, Johann Andreas 
Stfcichci', later on moved to A^ienna, founding the " Vienna 
school " of piano makers. Balthasar Schiedmayer made his first 
]iiano at i'hiangen in 1735. Johann David Schiedmayer continued 
the business at Nuremberg, and his son Lorenz moved to Stuttgart 
in LSOl), whei-e he became the founder of the *' Stuttgart school." 
Next we hcai- of Johannes Adolf ibach, who started near Barmen 
in 17!'4. Andreas Georg Eitmiiller commenced business at 
Gottingen in 1795, and Ernst Kosenkrantz at Dresden in 1797. 

From that period on piano making increased rapidly in Ger- 
many, makers locating chiefly in the residence cities of the many 
]n-incipa]ilies of those days, because the courts of the potentates 
were about the only customers a piano maker could then look for. 
Commercial methods were entirely unknown. A piano maker 
would build his piano and then (juietly await a customer. To 
advertise a i)iano for sale would have been considered an unpar- 
donable sin against the ethics of the craft. Tt required the revo- 
lutionary nerve of the ])athfinders after the middle of the 19tli 
century to brush away that prejudice. Just as soon as the 


industry began to develop in the commercial atmosphere of Leipsic, 
Berlin and Stuttgart, the piano makers of Germany commenced to 
make efforts to sell their products outside of their own bailiwicks. 
Vienna looked askance at this new movement, and consequently has 
hardly held its own in the onward march of the industry. 

Julius Bliitlmer of Leipsic made good use of the opportunity 
which that great school, the Conservatory of Music, offered. 
Young people from all parts of the globe came to that school to be 
instructed by Moscheles, Plaidy, Wenzel, Reinecke and others, 
to go out into the world as teachers or virtuosos. They studied 
on Bliithner pianos during their sojourn at Leipsic, and sang the 
praise of the Bliithner piano wherever they went. Nor did 
Bliitlmer ever spare printer's ink in order to tell the world what 
tine pianos he was building, to the great horror of the old-school 
piano makers. He sent his pianos to the world's expositions and 
carried otf prize medals for showing something new or better than 
the conventional. 

The old renowned firms of Irmler, Breitkopf & Hartel of 
Leipsic and the Dresden and Stuttgart makers looked on for quite 
a while, satisfied with the steady home trade and their profitable 
export trade (mainly to North America), but, when their export 
business was absorbed by the American makers and their active 
German competitors invaded their home territories, they quickly 
adopted the same aggressive policy, keeping pace with the most 
advanced ideas and business tactics. 

This persistent propaganda by all the leading firms made the 
piano very popular, and the demand increased in proportion. The 
use of labor-saving machinery was introduced by all leading firms. 
Establishments for the manufacture of supplies sprang up 
at all piano-manufacturing centers, and soon the piano '' com- 
piler " appeared, at first in Berlin, later on to be found every- 


Exjiurt iiiLTc-haiils >a\v tlir pussil)ililies of using' the Gennaii 
tjiniio for siiccossfiil coin) icl it ion nii-ninst tlio Eng'lisli ina1<o in 
Toreign count lio, aiul a lively exi)oi"t trade was soou estab- 
Jislied. IMano dealers became active in every city, town and hamlet. 
At the picx'ut linic ahuost every schoolteacher in the villages of 
(Jermany is the agent for one or more })iano nudvcrs. 

The ]>rn('tico of " ])(^ddling " pianos — that is, to load a piano 
on to a wagon, going out to the country with it, looking for a pos- 
sible customer — was first resorted to by IJerlin makers of low- 
]iriced ])ianos about 1866. It is now generally practiced in 

After 1873 Germany started \\]^on a wonderful career of in- 
dustiial revival. That far-seeing statesman, J^ismarck, not only 
inaugurated the beneficial policy of protection for the home market, 
by putting duties on foreign-made goods, but he also organized a 
splendid consular service, making each consul a servant of German 
commerce and industry. Enrthermore, lie subsidized the merchant 
marine and cheapened transi)ortation on land, all in order to 
enable the German mannfacturer to gain a foreign trade. IIow 
effectually the German piano trade has made use of these advan- 
tages is illustrated by the fact that over 20,UU0 i>ianos were shipped 
from Germany to England alone during 1909. Considering that 
up to 1860 England was leading the world in the i)roduction of 
])ianos, this fact speaks volumes for the enterprise of the German 
piano manufacturers and the (|uality of their i)roduct. 

German pianos to-day dominate all foreign markets, excepting, 
of course, Noith America, not on account of low prices, but mainly 
because of the advanced commercial methods followed by the 
German manufactuici- and merchant, who is ever willing to accom- 
modate himself to the demands of his customers, meeting the 
buyer's }>eculiar taste for style and tone of the piano and also 
his methods of transacting Inisiness. 


Germany lias to-day about 300 piano factories, some of tliem pro- 
ducing from 3,000 to 7,000 pianos per year. The total output of all 
factories is estimated at about 170,000 pianos annually. Spain has 
about 20 piano factories. The firm of Ortiz & Cusso of Barcelona 
turn out 1,000 pianos annually. The total production of Spain 
is estimated at 2,500 pianos per year, of which a considerable 
number are exported to South America. Scandinavia, Belgium, 
Holland and Switzerland are no factors in the world's piano mar- 
kets. Good pianos are made at Copenhagen, Stockholm and Chris- 
tiania, as well as at Brussels and The Hague, at Zurich and Bern, 
mostly for home consumption, however. Belgium has 1() piano 
factories; Switzerland, 12; Holland, 6; Scandinavia, 40; mostly 
small shops with a production of from 50 to 100 pianos per year. 
The total annual production of these countries probably does not 
exceed from 6,000 to 8,000 pianos. 


Although Paris (which means France) was, up to 1851, far in 
the lead of Germany, it appears to be retrogressing, because of 
its overproud conservatism. It seems difficult for the leading Paris 
makers to realize that Germany and America are producing pianos 
far better adapted to the modern school of piano playing and com- 
position than the sweet-toned instruments which dominated the 
concert halls in Chopin's days. The home of the Erard, Pleyel, 
Herz and Gaveau piano can show only 35 establishments where 
pianos are manufactured, all together scarcely reaching an output 
of 25,000 per annum. Antoine Bord in his best days turned out 
as many as 4,000 pianos (mostly small uprights) per year, but even 
this formerly enterprising concern seems now to be content to 
rest on its laurels. The firm of Pleyel, Lyon & Company turns out 
about 3,500 pianos per year, one-seventh of the total production of 

172 i'lAXUS AND TllKili MAKERS 


Wlicii .loliaiines Znin])r' wont from Silliormann's s1iop to Lon- 
(l(tii in 17<i<i, it st'ciiis that lie was at once infected with the com- 
mercial hacteria, laiiipaiit in that greatest commercial and financial 
center of the woi'ld. Xo one holds the title to the name " father of 
the commercial jiiaiio " so indisputahly as that industrious Ger- 
man. 11<' found the ai-istoci'at ic Tschudi. Broadwood, Kii-kman 
and otiieis makiui^' hij^h-})riced harpsichords, and later on equally 
costly grand jtianos, and (piickly decided to build a piano at a 
price within reach of the well-to-do middle class. To reduce cost, 
he sim|)lified tlie Christofori action, adopted tlie square form of 
the clavicJiord and thus was first in ])utting' upon the market a 
square i)iano at a moderate price. This piano, although without 
merit, either as to workmanshi}) or tone, filled a long-felt want, 
and Zum}>e amassed a fortune within a conq)aratively short 
time, u])on Avhich he retired at an early age. Kii-kman, 
landing in London in 1740 as Jacob Kirchmann, a German luirp- 
sichord maker, was even more successful tiian Zumpe. He 
left an estate valued at about .$1,000,000 when he died in 

The financial successes of Kirkman, Zum]^e, Broadwood and 
others attracted capital to the industry, and London became the 
liirthplace of the modern ])iano factory, where steam-driven ma- 
chines were em))loyed. London ])iano manufacturers utilized cir- 
(Milai- saws, ])laniiig machines, etc., as early as 1815. In the days 
before the steam railroads, London was an ideal i)lace for ])iano 
manufacturers. Not only did they control a fine home market, 
among the great landowners, rich merchants and manufacturers, 
hut they also had absolute control of the exi)ort business to foreign 
countries l)y reason of England's su])i'emacy of the seas. It is 


reported that in 1851 Loudon had 180 firms, which produced 25,000 
pianos a year, at a value of $4,000,000. 

In about 1860 London had reached its zenith as the leading piano 
manufacturing center. Edgar Brinsmead, in his book published 
in 1870, claims an output of about 35,000 pianos per annum for 
England. Since that time Germany has not only captured most 
of England's export trade, but is sending to England direct not 
less than 20,000 pianos every year, while the total production of 
Great Britain hardly exceeds 75,000 pianos a year. The main 
cause of this state of affairs is undoubtedly the conservatism with 
which the English manufacturers, like the French, have clung to 
their old models and methods. Up to 1860 the piano makers of 
Germany looked to London and Paris for new ideas and improve- 
ments in construction and making. With modifications of their 
own, they adopted the English and French models and used Eng- 
lish and French felt, wires and actions in their pianos. After the 
Paris exposition of 1867, Germany adopted the American system 
of piano construction, made its own wires, felts and actions, and, as 
a result, soon dominated over England and France in the world's 

London is now credited with 126 piano factories, still led by 
the revered names of Broadwood, Collard, Brinsmead, Hopkinson 
and others, who for so many years gave luster to the English 
piano's reputation. 

Broadwood & Sons have lately adopted a progressive policy 
as of old, using in their new factory all known modern improve- 
ments, and with characteristic foresight are again in the lead as 
the only London firm who manufacture every part of their player 
pianos in their own factories. It is possible that the English piano 
industry under Broadwood 's lead may retrieve its lost prestige 
by an energetic development of the player piano, which is destined 
to be the controlling factor in the piano industry of the future. 

174 i'lAXuS AND TliEiK AiAKlOKS 

Vot the prevailiiiii- economic iMilic\' of llic British Government is 
a ^real liaiidirap I'or llie En,i>iisli iiiaiiul'acturei-, making it impos- 
sible foi- liim to even control his own lionie market, as is done bv 
the mamifactnrers ut' all other countries. 


North America, tlie new woild. ])resented entirely ditferent 
conditions to the piano industry than the old worhl. Altliough 
without nobility or aristocracy, its natural resources i)roduced 
wealth at such a rai)id pace that even in its early days the piano 
industry of Amei'ica was very lucrative. In 1860 we find mam- 
moth piano factories in Boston, New York, Baltimore and Phila- 
delphia rivaling in every respect the old renowned establishments 
of London. 

That excellent })iano maker and inventor, Jonas Chickering, 
had the good sense to associate himself, in 1830, witli John Mac- 
Kay, an enterprising commercial genius, who spread the fame of 
the Chickering piano over the entire United States as it was then 
known. x\t the World's Fair, London, in 1851, Chickering ex- 
hibited the first American pianos shown in Euro})e, and carried 
off the highest honors. Meyer of Pliiladel])hia, Nunns tS: Clark of 
New York and Gilbert & Company of Boston were also represented 
at that exposition, all of them making creditable exhibits. After 
the death of his ])artner, MacKay, Chickering, being far in the 
lead of all other .\merican piano manufacturers, did not continue 
the aggressive business policy inaugurated by MacKay, and lack- 
ing an inspiring leader, the industry ])rogressed very slowly from 
]S40 to 1855, when Steinway & Sons a]:)))eared. Their methods of 
persistent ]>ul)licity were as revolutionary as those later on adopted 
by Biiitlmer in Gernumy. They never relaxed in letting the public 


know that they manufactured a fine piano. William Steinway, 
with far-seeing judgment, was not satisfied onl}- to use printer's 
ink with telling effect, but he also began to educate the public to 
appreciate good music. Steinway Hall was erected, the Theo- 
dore Thomas orchestra generously supported and the greatest 
piano virtuosos from Rubinstein to Joseffy engaged for con- 
certs, not only in New York but in all large cities of the United 
States and Canada. 

Chickering & Sons followed Steinway 's example and erected 
Chickering Hall in New York, also one in Boston. Knabe, Weber 
and Steck also engaged great soloists for concert work in all lead- 
ing cities, creating a popularity for the piano in proportion to the 
growth of wealth in the United States. 

Official statistics show that during 1869 the United States 
produced about 25,000 pianos at a value of $7,000,000,— $3,000,- 
000 more than London received for the same number of pianos in 
1851. The output for 1910 is estimated at 350,000 pianos, valued 
at about $100,000,000. 



The Commercial Piano, Joseph P. Hale. 

The Stencil, Department Stores, Consolidations. 



The Commercial Piano 

UP to tliis time nearly all the pianos were manufactured by 
men who were expert piano makers. Excepting" William 
Steinway and Albert Weber, all the piano makers of those 
days were more superior as craftsmen than as business man, valu- 
ing glory as piano constructors higher than financial success. 
About 1870 Joseph P. Hale, one of America's typical self-made 
men, came to New York from Worcester, Mass., where he had 
accumulated a fortune of $35,000 in the crockery trade. Looking 
about for an opportunity to invest his money in an active busi- 
ness, he bought an interest in the Grovesteen piano factory. After 
a short period he severed this connection and started a piano 
factory on his own account. 

With the eminently practical trading instinct of the Yankee, 
Hale looked upon the piano as a strictly commercial proposition. 
Without the remotest knowledge of music, tone or theory of piano 
construction, utterly without patience for scientific experiments, he 
dissected the piano, figuring the cost of case, plate, action, labor, 
varnish and other material, with one point in view — how he could 
reduce the cost of the piano. He inaugurated a system of manu- 
facturing and merchandising heretofore unknown to the American 
piano trade. Hale is, beyond question, the father of the '^ com- 
mercial " piano of America, and has done splendid pioneer work 
in his sphere, to the benefit of the entire trade. Unhampered by 



PTAxns; Axn ttifju ^r.\KKi7S 

tradition oi" ])rojn(liee of 
any kind, lie inainil'aclni'ed 
pianos as ho wonid lia\'e 
niannractnrcd bedsteads. 
A genius as an organizer, 
lie carried t1ie division of 
laboi- to the last point, so 
tliat lie could reduce his 
hd)or cost to less than half 
of what his coni[)etitors 
])aid. T'Jnying his cases, 
keys, actions, etc., from 
s))ecialists at bottom prices, 
for cash on delivery, he was 
not obliged to carry a big 
stock of luinl)er or other 
materia L Even when his 
output had reached the at 
that time imposing number of 100 pianos per week, he would not 
carry more than one week's su])ply of stock on hand. 

\\ will be readily understood that Ilale could sell his pianos 
far below the cost pi'ice of a high-grade piano and still make a good 
]irofil. These revolutionary methods caused bitter antagonism on 
the part of his com])etitors of the old school. Hale went on with 
his bu.^iness complacently, and ai'gued that the makers of high- 
class j)ian()s wei'e all wrong in antagonizing him, because, by his 
low i)rice. he was l)i-inging the ])iaii() within the reach of the work- 
ing classes. Once inti-oduced there, out of each 10 l)uyers of his 
<'lieai> pianos, at least one would develoj) within 10 years into a 
good |)iano playei-, who would then not be satisfied until he pos- 
sessed a high-class instrument. 

Joseph r. Hale 


Hale's prophecy lias come true. The number of firms making 
commercial pianos increased steadily, but so did the output of 
the makers of high-class pianos, and to their list names like Bald- 
win, Mason & Hamlin, Everett, Conover and many other makers 
of fine concert grands have since been added. Hale and his fol- 
lowers made it possible for the dealer, especially in the rapidly- 
growing western States, to market large numbers of pianos among 
the farmers, artisans, etc. — tenfold more than would have been 
possible if they had been restricted to the sale of high-class 
makes only. 

Hale was the first American piano manufacturer who discarded 
the agency system. His goods were for sale to anybody, anywhere, 
as long as the buyer was able to pay for the same. To avoid clash- 
ing among his own dealers, he started the stencil system. He would 
stencil his pianos with any name desired by the buyer, which the 
law permitted. Thus the dealer, especially the big jobber of the 
west, commenced to sell some pianos with his own name on the 
fallboard, or even cast into or screwed on to the iron plate. In 
time the western jobber began to see that he might save that great 
item of freight from Xew York or Boston to Chicago by manu- 
facturing his own goods at home, and about the year 1880 the first 
factories were started in Chicago. Cincinnati soon followed, and 
to-day the western factories produce nearly half of the pianos 
made in the United States. 

The tremendous increase of output, from 25,000 pianos in 1869 
to 350,000 in 1910, was only made possible through the educational, 
artistic and advertising propaganda by the makers of high-grade 
pianos on the one hand, and the aggressive selling methods of the 
makers of commercial pianos on the other. Many of the large 
western houses own and successfully run factories in which pianos 
of the highest grade are made, as well as factories turning out 
commercial pianos by the thousands. 



Tlio mncli-abiisod and scandalized stencil lias been lej»itinia- 
ti/cd, inasiuucli as many nianulacluring concerns trade-mark one 
or more names other llian tlicii' firm name, and use such trade- 
mark names for specifie pianos made in factories built especially 
for tills 1 impose. Again, dealers often obtain a trade-mark for 
a certain iiaiiie, which they use on ])ianos built especially for them, 
all of which is now considered tpiite proper and accepted by uni- 
versal usage. 


Department Stores 

AVliile the manufacturing of a large number of pianos has 
become a comparatively easy matter, being merely a matter of 
factoiy space, machinery, system and proi)er organization, the 
distribution of the manufactured goods is becoming a more and 
more vexing problem. The general demand has of late years 
im])elled some of the leading department stores in the large cities 
to add iiianos to their list of commodities. In these stores the 
one-price system has been introduced with more or less success. 
The so-called mail-order houses are also distributing pianos, and 
it a])i)ears as if the small dealer will eventually have to (j[uit the 
field, un](^ss he is strongly su})ported by the manufacturer. The 
keen competition has induced some of the larger manufacturing 
concerns to become their own distributors, having salesrooms in 
most of the leading cities. 


Several large manufacturers of high-grade pianos have found 
it to their interest to combine with large concerns having a supe- 
rior selling organization, like Weber and Steck, who joined the 
Aeolian Company, or with large manufacturers of commercial 


pianos, as in the case of the American Piano Company, a combi- 
nation of Chickering & Sons, Knabe & Company and Foster, 
Armstrong- & Company, whose combined output per year is over 
15,000 pianos of all grades. There are a number of concerns in the 
middle west whose annual individual output exceeds 10,000 pianos, 
while a production of from 3,000 to 5,000 pianos per year is at 
present rather the minimum for up-to-date firms. It is, perhaps, 
safe to say that each of the three largest western manufacturing 
firms turns out nearly 20,000 pianos per year, or together more 
than twice as much as the production of the entire United States 
in 1869. 

How profitable large production coupled with independent dis- 
tribution can be made is best illustrated by the fact that a Chicago 
house managed to sell 60,000 pianos of one style or pattern. What 
economy in manufacturing may be practiced in making such an 
immense number of pianos of one kind! 



The Art Piano, Geronimo, Trasunti, Hans Ruckers, Sliudi, Broad- 
ivood, Sir Alma Tadema, Steimcay, Marquandt, Norman, Sir 
Edward Poynter, Theodore Roosevelt, Denning, Boseudorfer, 
Empress Elizabeth, Ibacli's Jubilee Grand, Baldwin, Barnhorn, 
Guest, Bliiiliner, Erard, Pleyel, Lyon S Co., Chickering's 
Louis XIV Grand, Everett's Sheraton Grand, Samuel Hay- 
ward, Knahe's " Nouveau Art " Grand, Weber's Louis XIV 

The Pedal Piano, Schone, Schumann, Mendelssohn, Pleyel, Erard, 
Pfeiffer, Henry F. Miller. 



Art Pianos 

A RT is described as the " harmonious beautiful." An 

/-% artist must therefore not only have a highly developed 

"^ '^' sense of truth, the grand, noble and beautiful, but also 

the ability to give form to his ideals in an absolutely pleasing 


Piano making has not as yet been developed to a positive 
science with fundamental laws, but it has ever been an art, calling 
for a familiarity on the part of the piano constructor with all of 
the liberal arts, more particularly music, architecture, sculpture 
and painting. An inborn talent for music is the first requisite of 
an artistic piano maker. His sense of harmony must be acute, so 
that he may distinguish the finest shadings in tone color. He must 
he capable of mentally hearing the klangfarbe which he desires 
to impart to his piano, or create in it. He draws his scale irre- 
spective of form or size, because so far he only seeks to produce 
tone. After succeeding in getting the tone quality and quantity 
lie desires, he begins to construct the frame and casing of his 
piano, for which a knowledge of architecture and talent for de- 
signing are imperative. He next calls on the sculptor for plastic 
decoration, and on the painter for higher embellishment by 
appropriate pictures to finally achieve the harmonious beautiful. 



Art is a passionate expression of ideal conception and develops 
(>nl> artci' a nation lias accuniuiated sufficient wealth to enable 
some nf iN lii^iuM- intellects to devote themselves to art and science 
williuLil i'ei;ai\l to linancial reward. The true artist dreams, thinks 
and woi'ks for art's sake only. He is altoa,ether too sensitive for 
barter and trade, and needs the freedom of linancial independence, 
the enjoyment of luxuries and the inspiration of the beautiful as 
a necessary stimulant and recpiisite. 

The first art pianos were constructed by the early Italian 
makers. After Geronimo had invented his wini>'-formed har))si- 
choid. he embellished the outer case of the same with artistic carv- 
ings, as shown on the instrument of his make at the South Ken- 
sington Museum in London. Alessandro Trasunti and other 
Italian makers improved greatly on Geronimo 's efforts and built 
sjiecial cases detachable from the body of the instrument. These 
cases were decorated with exquisite carvings, embellished with 
inlaid ivory designs and often with i^ictures painted b}^ masters. 

That celebrated makei", Hans Euckers of Antwerp, called on 
his friends among the great Flemish painters to enhance tlie 
beauty and value of his har])sichords by ]^ainting ])ictures upon 
them. Indeed, his connection with the artists was so intimate that 
he, as well as his son and his nei)hew, were elected members of 
the " Painters Guild, of St. Luke," Many specimens of the old 
Italian and I'lemish school are to be found in the collection of 
old instruments of Paul De AVit of Leipsic, Wilhelm Heyer of Co- 
logne, Morris Steinert of New Haven, the Kensington Museum of 
London and the Germanic Museum at Nuremberg. The paintings 
ii|Min many of these instruments oftentimes represent a value 
much greater than that of the i)ian() alone. 

Cost is never considered in the building of an art piano. The 
designer and executing ai-tists are given full liberty to work out 
their ideas in accordance with the desired style. Burkat Shudi 


built for Frederick the Great a liigiily decorated harpsichord, for 
which he received one thousand dollars, an enormous amount, con- 
sidering the money value of those days; his successors, John 
Broadwood & Sons, not long ago built for Sir Alma Tadema an 
art grand costing many thousand dollars. In richness of design 
and brilliancy of execution this instrument is unique. The art 
grand of Erard is an exquisite specimen of that artistry so pecu- 
liar to French genius and handicraft when unlimited freedom is 
given to fantasy, regardless of cost. Mr. Marquandt of New Yojk 
is said to have paid forty thousand dollars for an art grand piano 
built by Steinway & Sons, after special design of Sir Alma Tadema. 
Johnston Norman of London executed the embellishments under 
Sir Alma's personal direction and Sir Edward Poyuter painted 
his picture, " The Wandering Minstrels," upon the lid. It took 
fully five years to finish this marvel of combined arts. 

At the White House in Washington, D. C, is the one-lmndred- 
thousandth piano built in the factories of Steinway & Sons. It 
was presented by that firm to President Roosevelt, for the Ameri- 
can people. The designs, models and decorations for this piano 
are the combined work of the most noted sculptors and architects 
of America. The painting is by Thomas W. Denning. The total 
cost of the piano was about $20,000. 

Ludwig Bosendorfer furnished the Empress Elizabeth of 
Austria with an art grand, in the decoration of which the sculp- 
tor's art predominates to an overwhelming degree, showing a 
most masterly treatment of wood in its highest capacity for the 
display of artistic genius. In contrast to the above we have Rudolf 
Ibach Sohn's Jubilee grand, being the fifty-thousandth production 
of his factories. Its graceful lines and chaste decorations are 
eminently pleasing and restful. 

The house of Ibach has been in the front rank in the propa- 
ganda for artistry in piano case designing, and their " Memorial," 


])nl)lislied in 181)4, the one-luuulrodth anniversary of the founding 
of their linn, ought to be in tlie hands of every studious i)iano 
maker. It contains a most excellent eoHection of designs, many 
of which wonUl have a place in this work, if space permitted. 

That there are no limitations to the artist's desires or inclina- 
tions in designing and embellishing piano cases is shown in the 
Jjaldwin art grand. The realistic tendency of the modern school 
is dei)icted in a masterly manner in the sculpturing of Mr. C. T. 
]5arnhorn, also in the general design of the case by ]\Ir. 1. II, Guest, 
both of Cincinnati, Ohio. The Bliithner art grand is impressive 
because of the severity of the design, an example of the dominat- 
ing boldness of the " new school." 

The Weber Piano Company has made the Imilding of art 
pianos a specialty for many years. The accompanying picture 
represents one of their Louis XIV style grand pianos, designed 
by W. P. Stymus, Jr. 

The art grand i)iano of Pleyel, Lyon & Company is a beautiful 
specimen of Renaissance design, while the upright shows a most 
effective ai)plication of the Gothic style. 

The Chickering grand in Louis XIV style is a typical produc- 
tion of Chickering & Sons' art department. The Sheraton grand 
of the Everett Company, designed by John Anderson, with ]iaint- 
ings by Samuel Hay ward, is a specimen of the Everett Company's 
art work. The '* Nouveau Art " grand of Knabe & Company 
is from their catalogue of art jjianos, in which all dominant styles 
are represented. 

Nearly all the leading firms of ]>iano makers during the past 
twenty years have added special departments to their establish- 
ments for the creation of art ]uanos, employing theii- own de- 
signers and executing artists. The architects of modern mansions 
insist that the design of the piano as well as of the furniture must 
be in harmonv with the architecture of the room in which it is 

Alessandro Trasunti's Art Harpsichord, 1531 

Hans Ruckers' Double Spinet, with Paintings, Antwerj), 1500 

John Broadwood & Sons' Art Grand, Built for Sir Alma Tadema 

Ludwig Busendorfer Art Grand. Built for Empress Elizabeth of Austria 

Rudolf Ibach Sohn Jubilee Art Grand 

Julius Bluthner Art Grand 

Erard Art Grand 

Designed by Coupri 

rieyel, Lyon & Company Renaissance Art Grand 

Pleyel, Lyon & Company Gothic Upright 

Steiuway ifc Sons Art Gnuid Piano made for Frederick Marquandt 
of Xew York City. Cost $40,000 

Steinway & Sons One-hundred-thousandth Piano, at the White House, Washington, D. C. 
Paintings by Thomas W. Denning. Cost $20,000 

Baldwin Art Grand 

\^'eber Louis XIV Art Graud 

Chickering & Sons Louis XIV Art Grand 

Everett Piano Company Sheraton Art Grand 

William Koabe «fc Coinpauy "jSouvluu Ait" Graud 


to be placed. This extended use of correct styles in art pianos 
has favorably influenced the genei-al design of the commercial 
piano of the present day, the form and exterior of which are 
of a much more agreeable and pleasing character than the cold 
conventional designs of former years. Thus we find the ennobling 
influence of art penetrating the industry, and quietly fulfilling its 
mission of elevating character and taste. 

The Pedal Piano 

Since the church organ had been developed to perfection long 
before the piano was invented, and the first piano makers were 
recruited almost entirely from the organ maker's guild, it is 
reasonable to suppose that " pedal pianos " were constructed in 
the early days of the piano industry, although we have no record 
of any up to the year 1843, when the author's uncle, Louis Schone, 
constructed pedal pianos for Robert Schumann and Felix Mendels- 
sohn at Leipsic. Schone constructed, for Mendelssohn, a pedal 
mechanism to be used with a grand piano, but Robert Schumann 
preferred his pedal action connected with the regular upright 
piano. The keyboard for pedaling was placed under the keyboard 
for manual playing, had 29 notes and was connected with an 
action plaoed at the back of the piano where a special soundboard, 
coverexi with 29 strings, was built into the case. As is well known, 
Schumann wrote some of his best music for this novel instrument. 

Erard and Pleyel also built pedal pianos in Paris, and it can 
hardly be doubted that Henri Pape also tried his hand at it, 
because there has ever been a demand for such instruments, by 
organists, for practice purposes. In America the Henry F. Miller 
& Sons Piano Company has for years made a specialty of building 
pedal pianos for organists. 

Carl J. Pfeiffer of Stuttgart has devoted himself of late years 
to the improvement of this instrument, with vei'y satisfactory re- 



Carl J. i'luiJlur's Action for IVdal l")>rigiit Pianos 

Carl J. Pfeiffer's Attachment for Pedal Grand Piano 



Carl J. Pfeiffer's Upright Piano for Pedal Practice 

Carl J. Pfeiffer's Mechanism for Organ Pedal Practice 


suits. Using the li'on I'l-aiiu' and overstrung system, liis pedal 
tones are sonorous and itowci-rul and llic pedal aclidii almost the 
same in Idiu-li as the organ petlal. ills in(k'i)eii(k'nt i)edal can 
be easily attaclicd to a gi'and piano, as sliown in flic illustration, 
while for upright piaiu)s the pedal is placed under (lie framework 
of the piano. A very ingenious and \aluahle in\ention is Pfeiffer's 
mechanism for organ ]^edal ])ractice, which can be built into any 
upright piano and used withoul aU'ecting the touch for hand i)lay- 
ing. As the illustration shows, the pedal mechanism is so con- 
structed as to relieve the piano action instantly when the foot is 
removed from the pedal. These two practical inventions of Pfeif- 
fer's have been thoroughly tried out by prominent organists and 
are highly reconunended, not only for practice pur])Oses, but also 
for the music lover who. enjoys the study of Bach's immortal pre- 
ludes and fugues or Schunu^nn's beautiful sketches for pedal 
l)ianos, not to speak of Liszt's Orpheus and transcriptions of Uott- 
schalk's repertoire, and others. 

Pfeitfer's inventions have two cardinal virtues. They are emi- 
nently practical and at the same time inexpensive, which ought 
to aid in a more general introduction of the pedal piano in the 

The Player Piano 

Originally condemned, laughed at as a useless plaything, or 
at best a brother to the barrel organ, the i)layer i)iano has forged 
rajjidly to the front during the ])ast four or five years. 

The unsightly cabinet player had to blast the way for the player 
piano. Its low cost made an aggressive advertising campaign 
possible. Thousands were sold and the ])ul)lic became acquainted 
with the possibilities of player mechanism. The cabinet player 
became obsolete as soon as ])roi)erly constructed player pianos at 
moderate prices appeared on the nuirket, and became such favorites 


that the most obstinate opponents of the player piano among the 
piano manufacturers, were forced to recognize its commercial im- 

With the introduction of the 88-note compass, the artistic 
possibilities are almost without limitations, and the time is 
not far distant when music will be specially written for the 
player piano, of such technical complexion as to preclude its per- 
formance by hand. 

The jDlayer piano is opening up an entirely new and much 
larger field than the piano proper ever had. Considering the in- 
crease from 50 factories producing 25,000 pianos in 1869, to 200 
factories turning out 350,000 pianos in 1910, it seems difficult to 
form any estimate of the magnitude which the industry may as- 
sume in the future, when the player piano has reached its ultimate 



Export, Steinway, Aeolian. 

Methods of Marketing, The Agency System. 




A MOVEMENT of a most peculiar character must be men- 
tioned in this connection, namely, the transplanting of 
American manufacturing methods, by American manu- 
facturers, to Europe. Wlien Sebastian Erard closed his shops 
in Paris and went to London to start a factory in the British 
metropolis, he was driven there by the terrors of the French 
revolution. He returned to Paris as soon as peace was restored, 
maintaining his London establishment, however, in charge of his 
nephew, Pierre. This is the only instance on record where a 
piano manufacturer removed his business from his own country 
to another. Now the American manufacturers are going over to 
Germany and England, establishing branch factories for their 
products, to better supply their European and export trade. 

Steinway & Sons started their Hamburg factories about 1880. 
The Aeolian Company a few years ago established a factory at 
Gotha, Germany, for making the Steck pianos and is now erecting 
a large factory near London for the Weber piano. 

Owing to high price of labor and to undeveloped shipping and 
banking facilities, the American piano manufacturer cannot look 
for any extended export business. As a matter of fact, there is 
nowhere on the globe such a good market as the United States 
at the present time. Because of the prevailing high standard of 



living, an Auieiieau city witli a population of 100,000 can and does 
hny more ])ianos tlian any Soutli American re])nl)lic with 2,000,000 
inliabitants, of wliicli only a small fraction are able to wear shoes. 
Australia, with its 5,000,000 ])eoi)le, does not take over 3,000 
])ianos per year. Japan is beginning to make its own pianos, while 
China, with a })upulatiun of over 400,000,000, buys hardly any 
pianos. The same can be said of almost all other Asiatic nations. 
It is, therefore, the home market to which the American manu- 
facturer will have to look for any expansion of his business, al- 
though a limited business otfers almost everywhere for American 
player pianos of competitive value or superior (piality. 

Methods of Marketing 

To increase sales, the product must be brought nearer and 
nearer to the masses, by lowering the cost of production and mar- 
keting. The system of marketing through agents, who control a 
restricted territory, practiced by the leading makers of America 
for so many years, has served its purpose and is not in harmony 
with progressive merchandising. Joseph P. Hale discovered that 
truth 40 years ago. By breaking away from it he made more 
money in his time than any other piano manufacturer. 

Makers of high grade as well as commercial pianos who still 
adhere to the agency system will eventually be compelled to sell 
their pianos as any other product is sold, namely, to whomsoever 
is able to pay for it. The much desired one-price system is utterly 
imi)ossible as long as regularly a])])ointed agents control the sale, 
and although leading houses publish their retail prices to the 
l)ublic, competition forces deviation in many instances. 

In 1881 the author found at Milan, Italy, a piano dealer who 
carried in stock grand and upright pianos of all the leading 
makers of the world. It w^as a most interesting study to play 
and compare the Erard with the Steinway, the Chickering with 


the Pleyel, the Broadwood or Col lard with Bosendorfer or Bluth- 
ner, and Schroter with Schiedmayer, so interesting that I gave 
lip a whole afternoon to that pleasure, until night overtook me. 
Questioning the dealer as to whether it was not at times embarrass- 
ing for him to extol the merits of the different makes, he replied 
that he, as a dealer, never attempted to influence his customers in 
their selection of a piano. The prices were all marked in plain 
figures. He knew that all of the pianos were of the highest grade, 
and since tastes as to tone, case, etc., differ, he preferred to have 
his customers select whatever appealed to them as best. When- 
ever a piano was sold he would order another one of the same 
make to keep his assortment complete. This man carried about 
400 pianos permanently in stock and did the largest retail business 
in Italy. I left his warerooms thoroughly convinced that this was 
the proper way to handle the piano selling business. He was a 
merchant, high-toned, enterprising, carrying on his business in 
a most honest, respectable manner. 

In the large cities of the continent of Europe, and more espe- 
cially in London, one can find pianos of celebrated makers in 
several warerooms, although the maker may have his own city 
showroom. The time will come when piano manufacturers will 
fix the wholesale and retail price for their product, and then sell 
to any or all dealers in any city or territory without any other 
restrictions than the maintenance of retail prices, as established 
by themselves. Unless this system is adopted the manufacturers 
will, because of the practices of the dealer (born of the agency 
system), be more and more driven into combinations, by the 
strength of which they will be able to control the dealer or do 
their own distributing. This again will, as a matter of logical 
evolution, lead to the formation of greater combinations, ending 
in the so-called trust, as illustrated in the steel, woolen and other 
dominant industries. 



The Trust Movements of 1892, 1897 and 1899 



The Trust Movements of 1892, 1897 and 1899 

IN the spring of 1892 I was invited to take an active part in 
the formation of a piano trust. My studies in economics had 
convinced me long ago that the trust was not only the logical 
development of our factory system, according to the law of evolu- 
tion, but in some instances the only salvation for an industry, 
which, because of too many rivaling establishments, suffered on the 
one hand from an unreasonable expense account, and on the 
other from over-competition, both of which reduced profits to a 

The piano industry was not in dire straits, still the expense of 
carrying on the business was out of all proportion to the intrinsic 
value of the product, and the selling methods were anything but 
ethical. The greatest evil, however, was that the industry as a 
whole was suffering from lack of sufficient working capital. 

I agreed to investigate the proposition and then give my opin- 
ion as to the feasibility of carrying it to a successful conclusion. 
My first step was to collect statistics as a basis for calculation. 
The status of the piano industry in the United States presented 
itself as follows: 

On January 1, 1892, 132 firms and corporations were engaged 
in the manufacturing of pianos and organs in the United States, 



Uiiiiiiii;' out about 111,500 pianos and 92,750 organs per year, of a 

total sclliiio- value of $22,235,000 

Cost of lalioi- and iiiatci-ial aiiinunlcd to l.*V)G2,500 

Leavint^- a margin I'oi- ]»i-olit and expenses of $ 8,872,500 

\l all or at least a majority of the niannt'actnriiig concerns 
conld !)(' niei-,i>e(l into one great coi-poi-alioii, it would be ])ossible 
to carry on a business of uiaiuiFaclui'ing pianos and oi'gans, niak- 
ini>' only foui' kinds ol" instruments: namelv. 

First, artists' pianos and organs, wliicli should l)e of the high- 
est grade and couiniand the highest prices i)aid now for such instru- 
in(Mits. Second, a fii"st-class instrnment. Third, a medium-grade 
instrument. Fourth, a low-grade instrument. 

It was proposed to capitalize tliis corporation at fifty million 
($50,()()(),000) dollars. Fair and just value was to be allowed to 
each concern for its |)roijerty. The affairs of the coi'poration were 
to be managed by a Board of Dii-ectors, elected by the share- 
holders and chosen from the ranks of the most experienced men 
engaged in the manufacture and sale of i)ianos and organs. 

The General Purchasing and Contract (^om])any was organized 
under the laws of West Virginia, with a capital of $1,000,000. 
This contract company was to conduct iho ])urchase of the various 
piano and organ concerns, and, as soon as a sufficient number of 
options were secured, the American Piano and Organ Company 
was to be started. 

On Alay 12, 1892, the contract com})any entered into an agree- 
ment with a syndicate, composed of a number of leading New York 
l)ankers who obligated themselves to provide capital to the amount 
of $5,(K)(),0()0, to facilitate the purchasing of such manufacturing 
concerns as eithei- needed money to cancel their liabilities or pre- 
ferred to sell for cash instead of taking the securities of the Ameri- 
can Piano and Organ Company for their ])lants and chattels. 


One of the main reasons wliy the leading bankers were invited 
to assist in the enterprise was to insure their active su})i)ort of 
the securities of the American Piano and Organ Company as soon 
as they were listed on the Stock Exchange. Being interested by 
prospective loans up to five million ($5,000,000) dollars, for which 
they would hold the securities of the American Piano and Organ 
Company, these bankers would, for their own interests, give the 
strength of their influence and manifold connections to the enter- 
prise and to the marketing of these securities. 

The financial basis of the undertaking being arranged in a 
proper and satisfactory manner, the emissary of the contract com- 
pany took the field, submitting to the piano and organ manufac- 
turers the proposition. 

It will be observed that the scheme was a bankers' proposition. 
Its aim was to procure the necessary outside capital to put the 
industry on a proper footing and upon a safe financial basis for 
legitimate expansion. Neither the scope nor aim of the proposi- 
tion were, however, properly understood and comprehended by 
the majority of the manufacturers, and the negotiations leveled 
down in most cases to a bargaining; the seller asking an unrea- 
sonable price and the buyer trying to obtain options at workable 
values. The amusing fact developed that almost every seller 
objected to " water " and found fault with what he considered an 
over-capitalization; at the same time he would ask such an enor- 
mous price for his own property that, if a corresponding amount 
was allowed to all sellers, it would have been necessary to increase 
the capital stock of the American Piano and Organ Company 
threefold, thereby making it, of course, of proportionately less 

In spite of the bitter opposition of the trade press, the supply 
trades and other interests that erroneously feared to suffer if the 
trust should become a fact, a sufficient number of strong firms 


and corporations saw the groat aflvantage to he obtained, to as- 
sure tlie success of the undertaking, when the great i)anic, starting 
in April, 1893, put a sudden stop to all further negotiations and 
the scheme was abandoned. 


During the trying years of free-trade experiment, from 1893 
to 1897, the piano industry stood u{) well as compared with other 
industries. Comparatively few failures were recorded, and at 
Ihe end of that long period of business depression the industry 
could even boast of an increase in jn'oduction. This remarkable 
showing had not been overlooked by the banking fraternity, but 
it was also known that the piano manufacturers were very heavy 
borrowers through all those years. However, the fact that the 
industry did enjoy this credit proved its inherent strength and 
soundness, and the trust idea was again taken up in earnest. 

Many of the manufacturers who in 1892 had stood aloof, or 
had directly opposed the trust idea, now looked rather favorably 
upon the i)roposition and it appeared as if the project might be 
carried through. Nearly all those who had supported the move- 
ment of 1892 again took an active part in the new effort. On 
September 24, 1897, the " Columbia Investment Company " was 
organized and incorporated under the laws of New Jersey with a 
capital of one million ($1,000,000) dollars. This company entered 
upon an agreement with a syndicate of bankers who obligated 
themselves to advance u]) to five million ($5,000,000) dollars for 
the purpose of acquiring the various piano factories. All the 
contracts and agreements were similar to those of the 1892 

Several of the largest manufacturers declared their willing- 
ness to join the consolidation, but the difficulty arose how to deal 


justly and fairly with all the desirable concerns. While appar- 
ently the manufacturer sold his business to a new company, he was 
still largely interested as a shareholder in this concern. To assure 
lasting success, all deals had to be made on a sound business basis 
and real value had to be shown for the shares issued to the 

Notwithstanding the fact that a number of the largest manu- 
facturers had either executed agreements or had reached the point 
of willingness to sell to the Columbia Investment Company, the 
enterprise had to be abandoned because of the state of the money 
market, which made the sale of new securities impossible for a 
long time to come. 


In the early part of 1899 the trust scheme was again revived, 
but upon an entirely different basis and plan than that applied in 
1892 and 1897. To eliminate the large expense connected with the 
obligations to an underwriters' syndicate, it was proposed to 
invite only such concerns into the combination as could take care 
of their own liabilities. The allotment of shares of stock was to 
be based on a proper ratio to the net profits shown for the previous 
five years, with due consideration of the value of all tangible 

Although this new plan appealed strongly to a number of the 
leading manufacturers, petty jealousy, the fear that one or the 
other might be treated more liberally and the reluctance of being 
among the tirst to sign, even after an agreement had been reached, 
made the negotiations so wearisome and tedious that the proposi- 
tion was dropped for good after one month's work in the field. 

The piano trade was not ready to make the proper start on its 
predestinated career of greater development. Only a few of the 
manufacturers had the broad vision for such a perspective as this 


combination sclionio offovod. Besides, an unexpected wave of pros- 
perity sneli as the piano iiidiisti-y liad never before experienced 
began to make itself felt and almost everybody was perfectly sat- 
isfied with existing conditions. 

In the light of the marvelous develo])inent of the piano trade 
since 1892, the above related efforts are of historical value. 

Like all other large industries, the piano industry, by force of 
conditions, will eventually be driven to the economic necessity of 
combination in order to stay in the i)rocession for industrial de- 
velopment and to perform its duty to the people, providing musical 
instruments of quality at lowest cost and, furthermore, to take 
proper care of its wage workers by providing adequate pensions 
for them when their economic efficiency comes to an end. The 
great railroad combinations, the Standard Oil Company, the 
United States Steel Corporation, the International Harvester Com- 
pany, the packers and many other large combinations are pursuing 
this policy as a part of the duties which they owe to the people 
at large. Despite all the opposition by sensational writers and 
unthinking people against the so-called trusts, the fact is patent 
that all of these combinations do serve the public better than it 
was ever served before. The most noticeable illustration is found 
in the great department stores, which have adopted the one-price 
system in their piano departments. Their example will eventu- 
ally force every piano dealer to do likewise. 


Men Who Have Made Piano History 


Italy, Giiiclo of Arezzo, Spinnetti, Geronimo, Cliristofori, Fischer, 
Sievers, Roseler, Mola. 

Germany, Silbermann, Stein, Namiette Stein, Streiclier, Bosen- 
dorfer, Seuffert, Ehrbar, Schweigiiofer, Heitzmann, Tlie 
Ibacbs, Ritmiiller, Rosenkrantz, Irmler, The Schiedmayers, 
Kaim & Giinther, Dorner, Lipp, Wagner, Pfeitfei', Rohlfing, 
Knake, Adam, Heyl, Vogel, Lindner, Meyer, Mand, Gebauhr, 
Thiirmer, Steinweg, Grotrian, Zeitter & Winkehnaun, Busch- 
mann, Rachals, Scheel, Bliithner, Ronisch, Feurich, Isermann, 
Weickert, Poelihnann. 

England, Shiidi, Broadwood, Collard, Challen, Hopkinson, Brins- 
mead, Chappell, Eavestaff, Squire, Grover, Barnett, Poehl- 
mann, Strohmenger, Witton, Allison, Monnington & Weston. 



Men Who Have Made Piano History 

ONE of the remarkable peculiarities of tlie piano industry 
is the great value of an established name. His name is 
the piano maker's trade-mark, and that concern is fortu- 
nate that controls a name which is impressive, euphonious, easy 
to spell, easy to pronounce, easy to remember — in short, of such 
a character that it cannot be easily confounded and always will 
make a lasting impression. 

Shakespeare's often quoted phrase, " What's in a name? That 
which we call a rose, by any other name would smell as sweet," does 
not hold true in the piano business. The maker's name on a 
piano carries everlasting responsibility with it. But this is not 
the only significance of the maker's name on a x)iano. Every 
piano maker who loves his art for the art's sake, is, as a matter 
of course, a man of pronounced individuality, and he impresses 
his individuality upon his creation. Thus it comes that we hear 
virtuosos and connoisseurs speak of the Erard, the Broadwood, 
the Bliithner, Steinway or Chickering " tone," signifying that 
each maker's pianos have an individuality of their own in tone 
and Idangfarhe. This individuality is so carefully guarded that 
we find older firms always reluctant to adopt new methods 



of construction or other innovations. They fear that any change 
mav rob tlieir iiistniiiu'iit> of tlieir most cherished individuality, 
their cliaracteristic tone and Idaugfarhe. 

Not only liie lone <jLialily and vohinie rellect tJie maker's indi- 
viduality, the workmaiislii]) of the entii'c i)iano is gnni-antood ])y 
the maker's name, and his name will live or die as his instru- 
ments are built to last or not. Tlie reputation of tlie instrument 
whicli a piano maker produces follows him beyond his grave, often 
for generations. 

Tn <lue appreciation of the oversliadowing importance of a 
proper name and its eonnnercial value, many of the leading mem- 
bers of the craft did not hesitate to give \\\\ their family name, 
no matter how honorable it was made by their ancestors. When- 
ever necessary or advisable, they changed the same, so as 
to give it the desired distinction. We find Burckhardt Tschudi 
changing his name to Burkat Shudi, Ehrhardt to Erard, Schu- 
macher to Schomacker, Steinweg to Steinway, etc., and (piite 
properly so! Would not an unin'onouncea])le name on the fall 
board kill the best i)iano as a eonnnercial ])roposition? Not to 
think of its impossibility on a concert ])rogram! 

Names once identified with a good piano are never changed, 
-even if in course of time no scion of the founder is connected with 
the firm or corporation making the })iano. Neither genius nor 
talent can be transferred from father to son, or grandson, by 
mere teaching or example. Artists are born, and very seldom 
do following generations show any trace of their })rogenitors' in- 
born ability. If that were not so, we would have more Rafaels, 
Rubens, Sliakes})eares, Goethes, Wagners or Darwins. On the 
contrai-y t1ie real gem'us usmilly exhnusfs his tah^nts during his 
lifetime, and new blood has to be injected to maintain the standing 
of firms founded 1)y nu>n who ranked far above their contempo- 
raries. Notable exceptions simply prove this rule. To maintain 


the exalted position of a leading firm, proper respect must alwaj'S 
be paid to the honor of its illustrious founder or founders, by 
unceasing efforts to better the product and, with due rever- 
ence to its artistic reputation, to improve vohnne and (juality of 
tone in harmony with its fundamental individuality. This refjuires 
genius, and wherever artistic, mechanical and commercial genius 
are combined, success is inevitable. Each by itself may make a 
mark, an impression, but only the combination of the three under 
guidance of a strong mind can achieve lasting success in the piano 
business. The history of the piano industry from its beginning 
to the present day proves that. 


In the town of Arezzo a boy was born toward the end of the 
10th century who was christened Guido. Intended to wear the 
cloth, Guido was sent to a monastery to study the Holy Book and 
lead a life of abstinence and devotion, but Guido had a soul, and 
that soul was full of music. Books did not interest him unless 
they spoke of music. He invented a new system of music, so revo- 
lutionary in its character that the staid old monks drove Guido out 
of the monastery. 

The name of Guido of Arezzo is indelibly marked in history, 
for establishing the principle and system of notation of music. 
By his new system a scholar could acquire within five months as 
much knowledge of music as would otherwise require ten years 
of study. After his fame spread through the civilized world 
Guido was called back into the fold and instructed even the 
Pope in his new method. He died as prior of Avellano, May 17, 

Correctly, or not, Guido is also credited with the invention of 
the movable bridge on the monochord, and of the keyboard. He 


was so great a genius, so strong a eliaraeter, that historians of 
later days did not hesitate in crediting to liiin all the progressive 
exciils and in\('nti(»n> in the I'eahn of nnisic happening in Gnido's 
time, some going so far as to ascribe to him even the invention of 
the claxichord. 

No records are avaihd)le, telling ns anvthing regarding the 
Venetian (liovanni Spinnetti, wlio invented the spinet about 1503; 
noi- of Geroninio of Bologna, who gave us the harpsichord 
in 1521, but the instruments of these two makers which are 
still in existence are speaking examples of their genius and 

Padua claims the honor of being the birthplace of Bartolomo 
Christofori, but in 1710, when 27 years of age, we find Christofori 
enjoying an easy life at the court of the Duke of Tuscany at 
i'lurence, engaged in building clavichords, spinets and other musi- 
cal instruments for the ]U'ince and his courtiers. Whether Chris- 
tofori aHowed his genius to drive him to over-exertion, or wliether 
the sybaritic life at the court of the wealth}' and luxurious 
prince shortened liis life is not known; he died in 1731 when 
only 48 years old, leaving to the world his great invention, the 
piano e forte. 

Italy has not produced another great piano maker since Chris- 
tofori. ]\rola of Turin has l)uilt up a very large business and is 
to-dav the mainstav of the industrv in his countrv, but he has 
not gone on record as an independent constructor. Roseler, who 
also founded a large establislnnent at Turin about 1850, and was 
appointed by the King of Italy a cavalliero, came from Berlin. 
The genial Sievers, who wrote a valuable treatise on i)iano con- 
struction and established a factory at Naples about 1865, came 
from St. i'etersburg, and Carl Fischer, preceding Sievers at Na- 
ples, came from Vienna.* 

Fischer's sons came to New York about 1S40, founding Uie firm of ,T. & C. Fischer. 



Gottfried Silbermann, born near Frauenstein, Saxony, January 
14, 1683, served his apprenticeship as cabinetmaker and then 
studied organ building, following the example of his talented elder 
brother Andreas. We find Gottfried, about 1712, at Freiberg, 
Saxony, erecting fine church organs. His Bohemian escapades 
compelled him to leave the staid old Saxon city rather hastily, 
to seek shelter and work at his brother Andreas' atelier at Stras- 
burg. His weakness for the gentler sex involved him, however, 
here also in serious affairs, culminating in the futile effort to 
escape with a nun from the convent, and he liad to tramp back 
to far-away Freiberg after a stay of several years at Strasburg. 
A fine mechanic, as illustrated by the many great church organs 
of his creation, his commercial talents were no doubt even stronger. 
Although a man of the world, a great entertainer and liberal 
spender, he accumulated a respectable fortune. In his art he was 
quick to adopt the inventions of others and thoroughly understood 
the value of clever advertising. Both Gottfried and his nephews 
at Strasburg, who succeeded their father in business, were the 
first in the piano industry who effectually resorted to reclame to 
let the world know what they were doing, and managed to get 
their name into print much oftener than any of their contempo- 
raries, which has led many a historian to the error of calling Gott- 
fried the inventor of the piano, or the hammer action. 

Gottfried Silbermann died in 1756, having erected 30 hirge 
church organs and made quite a number of pianos. His nephew, 
Johann Daniel Silbermann, continued the business, devoting him- 
self to the making of grand pianos exclusively. He died on May 
6, 1766, at Leipsic, having no successor. The Strasburg branch 
of the Silbermann family continued, however, to make pianos until 
the death of Johann Friedrich Silbermann on March 8, 1817. 


Joliaiiii Andreas SU'iii liatl a creative iiiiiid. An or,i;an builder 
by profession, lie learned ))iano inalvinu" in Gottfi'icMl Silherniann's 
shop. About 1754 Ik; established hiniseli' at Augsburg, making 
pianos, and while there he built the great organ in the Church of 
St, Francis. In 1758, seeking a lai'ger fielc], he went to Paris, tak- 
ing some oi* his }»ianos along, but the gay metropolis was appar- 
<'n1ly not ready for ])ianos. i)isa])])ointed and ahnost ])enniless 
Stein returned to Augsburg, wliei-e lie again began to build pianos. 
He invented the " hojjper action " and many other improvements. 

Mozart, in a letter to his mother, pronounced Stein's ])ianos 
superior to any others that he had played upon. Stein's pianos 
were coi)ied everywliere, esi)ecially by the Vienna makers, so that 
Stein may i-ightfnlly be called the father of the Vienna school. 
He built about 70() ])ianos and several church organs. He was born 
at Ilildesheim in 1728, and died at Augsburg, February 29, 1792, 
in his (i4th year. 

His talented daughter, Nannette, had learned the art of piano 
making under her father's tutelage, besides being an accomplished 
])ianist. She played in concerts and had also ])layed for Mozart 
and Beethoven. Soon after her father's death she moved to 
Vienna, where she continued the l)usiness with her brothers, 
Andreas and Friedrich. In 1794 siie nuirried Johann Andreas 
Streicher, and although her husband soon took an active part, the 
l)iano business was carried on under the name of Nannette 
Streicher, geb. Stein, until 1822, when her son doliaun Baptist 
Streicher was admitted to ^partnership and the firm name was 
changed to Nannette Streicher cK: Solm. 

Johann Andreas Streidiei-, born at Stuttgart, on December 
13, 17()1, attended the renowned Karl Schule at Mannheim, to- 
gether with Friedrich Schiller, whose fiiendship he retained 
ever after. Leaving tlie school Streicher devoted liimself 
entirely to the study of nmsic, especially the i)iano, and gained 


renown as a virtuoso, composer and teacher. It was but natural 
that Beethoven, while living at Vienna, should become a warm 
friend of such congenial people, who always kept open house, 
and assembled the celebrities of the day, such as Hummel, Cramer. 
Moscheles, Henselt and KuUak, around their table. This friend- 
ship never lessened to the last days of the great composer. In- 
deed Nannette exercised a motherly care over that " great child," 
Beethoven, superintending his much neglected household and look- 
ing after his daily wants. In 1816 Nannette built for Beethoven's 
special use and by his request, a grand piano with a compass of 
63/ octaves, which was considered (piite an accomplishment in tliose 
days. Nearly all of Beethoven's compositions were created on 
pianos built by Nannette Streicher. She closed her eventful career 
by passing away at Vienna, in January, 1833, her husband follow- 
ing her in May of the same year. Their son, Johann Baptist 
Streicher, born at Vienna in 1796, continued the business with 
great success, and added valuable improvements, so that the 
Streicher pianos achieved w^orld-wide reputation. He changed 
the firm name to J. B. Streicher & Sohn in 1857, when his son 
Emit was admitted to partnership. The latter retired from busi- 
ness soon after his father's death in 1871, without a successor. 

Among the many illustrious names which gave Vienna its pres- 
tige as the home of the grand piano, that of Ignatz Bcisendorfer 
stands foremost. Born at Vienna in 1795, a pupil of Brodmann, 
he established his business at Vieniia in 1828. After 30 years of 
active life, during which time he added many valual)le improve- 
ments to the development of the piano, he retired and his talented 
son Ludwig took the reins. 

Having had the benefit of a most thorough education and 
extended travels, young Bosendorfer soon became a factor in the 
piano world, and made his pianos known far beyond the boundaries 
of his home. He improved on the piano made by his father, ac- 



ceptin,^- modern ideas as far 
as liis iiibuni admiration for 
the " Viciiiin lone " would 
permit, and i)i-oduced pianos 
wliicli to tliis date hold their 
own SLiL*ce:s.sfnlly in competi- 
tion with other celebrated 

Appreciating the valu- 
able assistance of the virtu- 
osos, Bosendorfer erected a 
concert hall In 1872. Hans 
von Billow gave a recital at 
the opening. Bosendorfer 's 
grand })ianos are to this day 
the favorite instruments of 
many of the leading virtuo- 
osos, and his factory ranks 
foremost in the i)ro(luction of artistic jjianos. In recognition 
of his services to the industry, the Emperor of Austria ajD- 
pointed Bosendorfer purveyor to the court, conveyed the title 
of Tm])erial Commercial Counselor, and bestowed tlie decora- 
lion of the " Golden Cross of Merit with the Crown," uj)on him. 

Eriediich Ehrbar, born on April 20, 1827, in Hanover, was an- 
other of those remarkable men who carved their fortunes out of the 
rock of ]»iivation and adversity. When two years of age a 
cholera epidemic took from him, within one week, his father, 
mother and sister. His childhood was spent in a home for orphans. 
Showing a decided talent for music as well as mechanical ability, 
when still a schoon)oy, by making guitars for himself and com- 
rades, the organ builder, Erederici of Hanover, consented 

Ludwig Bosendorfer 



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to take liim as an ap- 
prentice. He had to serve 
fully seven years. Al- 
tliongli after that his mas- 
ter was anxious to retain 
Ms services at good wages, 
Ehrbar was intent on go- 
ing to Vienna, the high 
school of piano making. 
In 1848 he started on 
his journey. He went 
from Hanover along the 
Rhine to Frankfort, Nu- 
remberg and via Regens- 
burg to Vienna. At Han- 
over he met Henry Stein- 
weg, who had also start- 
ed out on his " Wander- 

schaft," and the two young piano makers formed a lasting intimate 
friendship. Reaching Vienna, Ehrbar was so captivated with the 
beautiful " Kaiserstadt," that he immediately resolved to make his 
home there. He was fortunate in finding employment with that 
celebrated master, Seuffert. Although the original understanding 
was that he should serve for three years as a student at a nominal 
wage, he proved himself such an adept that his master relieved him 
from this obligation after the first nine months. His further prog- 
ress was so rapid that Seuffert intrusted him in 1854- with the pro- 
duction of six pianos for the Munich exposition of 1855. Ehrbar 
had the satisfaction not only of receiving a prize medal, but further- 
more of seeing all six pianos sold at the exhibition. 

Seuffert died in 1855 and Ehrbar managed the business until 
1857, when he acquired ownership. At the AVorld's Fairs of Lon- 

Friedrich Ehrbar 



Johannes Adolf Ibach 

doll ill 18G2 and Paris iii 
1867, Ehrbar's pianos were 
awarded first ])rizes. The 
Emperor of Austria honored 
him witli decorations and the 
tith' of i)urvey()r to the court, 
and at the V^ienna Exposition 
of 1873 he served as juror 
for the musical instrument 

Progressive by nature, 
Ehrbar was among tlie first 
of the Vienna makers who 
adopted the full iron frame 
for all of his pianos. In 
1877 he erected the Saal 
Ehrbar, a notable addition 
to the concert halls of Vienna. He retired from active business on 
January 1, 1898, and died at his country home near Vienna on 
Eebruary 25, 1905, in his seventy-eighth year. The business 
is continued under the able direction of his son, Friedrich 

I. M. Schweighofer's Sohne is Vienna's oldest fiirm. 
J, Fritz & Sohn, established in 1801, Karl Dorr in 1817, Otto 
Heitzmann and Josef Schneider's Neft'e in 1839, are all builders of 
good pianos, sustaining the time-honored reputation of the Vienna 
piano industry. 

Following the good old German custom to go '' wandern," 
that is, to travel for a number of years on foot from country to 
country, stopi)ing for a while at a city wherever an acknowledged 
" master of the craft " had his domicile, to learn and to earn, 
young Johannes Adolf Ibach left the monastery of Beyenburg, 



just as soon as his education 
was completed. He studied 
organ and piano making 
with several of the best mas- 
ters of Germany, and re- 
turned to his home a master 
of the art. He was in- 
trusted with the remodeling 
of the great organ at Beyen- 
burg and did such excellent 
work that his standing as a 
master was at once estab- 
lished. Like most organ 
builders of those days, he 
longed, however, to build 
pianos, that instrument 
which had taken such a 

Carl Rudolf Ibach 

a strong hold and promised a much greater tield for invention 
and business expansion than the church organ. We find him, 
therefore, soon giving his entire attention to pianos. He knew 
how to build them, and in spite of the great depression in business, 
caused by the Napoleonic wars, Ibach 's business grew steadily, 
unfortunately, however, undermining the health of the indefati- 
gable worker, so that at the age of 59, he had to give his business 
into the hands of his eldest son, Carl Rudolf Ibach, who was then 
only 21 years of age. The young man filled his place well, and from 
1825 dates the rise of the house of Ibach. To find a greater 
market for his product and to enrich his knowledge of the world and 
business, young Ibach took to travel whenever he could. He visited 
France and Spain, and never lost an opportunity to attend the 
then just inaugurated expositions and fairs, oftentimes putting 



liis pianos in competition 
with otliers and always re- 
warded with the eustoiuary 

Ijike liis father, he sacri- 
ficed liis liealth for liis am- 
bition, and died at Barmen, 
April 25, 1868, leaving the 
care of his business upon 
the shoulders of his son, 
Rudolf Ibach, who changed 
the firm name to Rudolf 
Ibach Sohn. Although only 
20 years of age when his 
father died, young Rudolf 
inaugurated a most aggres- 
sive cami)aign, just as soon 
as he had found his bearings. He was an excejitionally strong- 
character, a genius in many ways, artistic in his inclinations 
and desires. He soon developed a commercial keenness and 
foresight, which, coupled with the daring born of faith in his 
own strength and al)ility, brought astounding results, and in 
a few years under Rudolf's leadershi}) the factory had to be en- 
larged to meet the growing demand for Ibach i)ianos. In his 
extended travels he came in contact with the leading musicians 
and comi)osers of his day. Himself a very magnetic and interest- 
ing man, he drew others to him. Richard AYagner honored him 
by d(Mlicating a lil'e-size i)hotogra})li with the inscription " Seinem 
freundlichen Tongehilfen Rudolf Ibach dankbarlichs Richard Wag- 
uei-, 1882." AVhat a strong indorsement of the piano maker, Rudolf 
Ibach ! 

Tvudolf llKu-h 



Liszt, Sauer, aud many 
other virtuosos have played 
the Ibach grands. Rudolf 
Ibach was not satisfied to 
serve art only as " Ton 
Gehilfe." With his resist- 
less energy he started a 
campaign to give his pianos 
an artistic exterior and 
called on the masters of 
decorative art for assist- 
ance. In 1883, and again in 
1891, he invited competitive f 
designs for artistic piano i 
cases, awarding adequate | 
cash prizes to the winners, ^ 
so that the leading archi- 
tects of Germany found it 

worth their while to participate. It was not only the benefit of 
obtaining exquisite designs for the Ibach pianos which resulted 
from this enterprising movement; it reached farther and impelled 
other piano makers to follow Ibach 's example. 

Foresightedness was one of Ibach 's characteristics. While he 
was occupied in expanding his business in all directions, he sent 
his younger brother, Walter Ibach, into the world to study the 
methods of other piano makers. W^alter went to Brussels, then 
spent considerable time at Gaveau's atelier in Paris and prepared 
himself at London for his American visit, where he was for several 
years active in George Steck's factory. He also studied felt and 
hammer making in the author's factories at Dolgeville, N. Y. 
After an absence of nearly 10 years, Walter Ibach returned to 
Barmen in 1883, a master of his art, to assist his brother Rudolf, 

J. G. Irmler 



whose duties and cares liad 
i;i-()\vii almost beyond one 
mail's endurance. Like his 
lather and grandfather, Ru- 
(h)ir Ibach had gone bej^ond 
his strengtli, and passed 
a way at the early age of -to 
years, on July 31, 1892. 
The great business which he 
built up is carried on by his 
sons, under the guidance of 
tlieir uncle, Walter Ibach. 

In 1795 Andreas Georg 
Eitmiiller began making- 
pianos at the old uniyersity 
town of Gottingen. It is not 
known where he learned his 
trade, but his i)ianos were 
well Itnilt and the business founded by him has continued with 
marked success to the present day. 

Ernst IMiilip Kosenkrantz, born July 10, 1773, served his ap- 
prenticeshij) with neinrich Ludolf Mack of Dresden, and started 
on his own account in 1797. His son Friedricli Wilhelm succeeded 
him after his death in 1828. He gained a worldwide reputation 
for his instruments, doing esjiecially a large export business to 
North America. The firm has maintained its rejnitation for high 
grade instruments and enjoys an enyiable position among the 
Dresden makers of to-day. 

IJorn at (Jbergrumbach near Dresden, Johann Christian Gott- 
lieb Frmler studied ])iano making with the masters at Vienna and 
came to Eeipsic in ISjS, wiiere he founded the house of J. G. 
Irmler. He built yery good grand, sciuare and ui)riglit pianos, 

Oswald Irmler 



and some of bis earliest pro- 
ductions can be found at tlie 
Germanic Museum in Nu^ 
remberg. Enterprising to 
an unusual degree, Irmler 
saw his small shop grow into 
a large industrial establish- 
ment, and his pianos sold in 
all parts of the globe. He 
died December 10, 1857. His 
sons, Otto and Oswald Irm- 
ler, had gone through the 
school of piano making in 
the leading shops of Vienna, 
Paris and London, and as- 
sumed the management after 


Johaiin David Schiedmayer 

their father's death. The 
young men introduced steam- 
driven machinery in their works in 1861, probably as the first in the 
piano industry of Germany. Otto Irmler died October 30, 1861, 
at the age of 41, and the management fell to the younger brother, 
Oswald, then only 26 years of age. 

For 44 years Oswald Irmler directed the destiny of the time- 
honored firm with marked ability and success, taking his sons, 
Emil and Otto, in partnership in 1903, He died October 30, 1905, 
leaving an establishment to his sons, which ranks among the best 
in Germany. 

The firm of J. G. Irmler has been honored by the appointment 
as purveyors to the courts of the Emperor of Austria, the Kings 
of Wurtemburg, Sweden, Eoumania, and other potentates, and re- 
ceived distinguished awards for its products wherever exhibited. 



Leading- virtuosos such as 
lUilow, Friedlieim, lienselt, 
Felix Mendelssohn, Sofie 
Menter, Carl Reinecke and 
others, have used the Irmler 
grand pianos in their con- 

It is not known of whom 
Balthasar Sehiedniayer, born 
in 1711, learned his art, but 
he built his first grand piano 
at Erlangen in 1735. He died 
in 1781 and was succeeded 
by his son, Johaun David 
Sehiedniayer, who was hon- 
ored by the appointment of 
piano maker to the Elector of 
Brandenburg. He removed 
to Nuremberg, continuing there with great success until his death 
in 1806. His son, Johann Lorenz Sehiedniayer, sought a larger 
field for his activities and we find him in 1809 located at Stutt- 
gart, laying the foundation for one of the most renowned firms 
of Germany. In 1845 he admitted his sons, Adolf and Hermann, 
to partnership, changing the firm name to Schiedmayer & Sohue. 
Always progressive, this firm jiroduced upright pianos as early 
as 1842. At tlie World's Fair in London in 1851, their product 
carried off the gold medal, and in 1881 Adolf Schiedmayer re- 
ceived the title of " Counselor of Commerce " from the King of 
Wurtemburg. Adolf Schiedmayer died in 1890, and his brother 
Hermann in 1891. Adolf, Jr., born in 1847, is the present head of 
the house, maintaining the honored traditions with great success. 

Johann Lorenz Sehiedniayer 



He wears the title of 
'' Privy Counselor of Com- 
merce " and is also presi- 
dent of the Piano Manufac- 
turers' Association of Ger- 
many. The firm is, by ap- 
pointment, purveyor to the 
courts of Wurtemburg and 

The younger sons of 
Johann Lorenz Schiedma3^er, 
Julius and Paul Scliied- 
mayer, devoted themselves 
exclusively to the building 
of harmoniums. They spent 
several years at London and 
more especially at Paris with 
Debain and Alexander, and 

established themselves in Stuttgart in 1853 under the firm name of 
J. & P. Schiedmayer. They produced most excellent instruments, 
improving upon the products of the French masters, but since the 
upright piano began to crowd the harmoniums from the markets, J. 
& P. Schiedmayer were forced to begin the manufacture of pianos in 
1860, and finally changed their name to the " Schiedmayer Piano- 
fabrik." They soon achieved great prominence, being among the 
first makers of Germany to adopt the overstrung system and full 
iron frame. In course of time the firm was appointed purveyor 
to the courts of the Emperors of Germany, Eussia and Austria, 
the Queen of England and the Kings of Wurtemburg, Bavaria, 
Italy, Spain, Roumania, etc. Distinguished by the award of 45 
diplomas of honor and prize medals, at the fairs where their 

Adolf Schiedmayer 



pianos were exhibited, the 
fii'in was awarded tlie i»"rand 
l)iize at the World's Fairs 
of Paris in 11)00 and St. 
Louis in 1904. 

Julius Schiedniayer was 
ajipointed Counselor of 
Commerce by the King of 
^\'lll•t('nll)urg, and chosen as 
juror of the piano exhibits 
at the World's Fairs of 
London, 1862; Stettin, 186-1; 
Paris, 1867; Vienna, 1873; 
and Philadelphia, 1876. lie 
also received decorations 
from the Emperor of Aus- 
tria and the Kings of Wur- 
tem])urg and Italy, in recog- 
nition of his valuable services. He died at Stuttgart, January, 
1878, his brother Paul following him in 189L 

Under the energetic guidance of Paul's son, Max Schied- 
mayer, the renowned fii-m is constantly adding to its pres- 
tige and honor. Like his illustrious uncle and father. Max 
Schiedmaver has served as iuror at exhibitions, notablv at 
the great World's Fair of Chicago in 1893, and at Brussels in 

In 1819 Kaim & Giinther began to make ])ianos at Kirchheim 
near Stuttgart, building up a large business. The firm was even- 
tually dissolved, the grandson of Kaim doing Imsiness under the 
firm name of '' Kaim &: Solm." (liinther's sons adojited the 
firm name of " Giinther & Sohne." The latter liave the appoint- 
ment as the purveyors to the court of Wurtemburg. 

llcrmunn Scliiodiuaver 



Among the noteworthy "v'^"-":. v ■■^-^?''--;^:-:^^'^^^ 
firms of Stuttgart must be 
mentioned F, Dorner & 
Sohn, established in 1830, 
Eichard Lii)p & Sohn, in 
1831 and Hermann Wag- 
ner in 1844. The firm of 
A. J, Pfeiffer was founded 
in 1862. The present head 
of the house, Carl J. Pfeif- 
fer, has devoted much atten- 
tion to the construction of 
IDedal pianos for pedal prac- 
tice of organ players. He 
has also been very indus- 
trious in collecting models --^^i^* 
of piano actions for tlie 
Royal Museum at Stutt- 
gart, and has assembled there the most complete collection of piano 
actions in existence. In recognition of his services Pfeiffer has 
been appointed purveyor to the court of Wurtemburg, and also 
Royal Counselor of Commerce. 

Germany can boast of a long list of old established houses in 
all parts of its domain. The house of Gebriider Rohlfing of Osna- 
briick dates back to 1790. H. Pfister started at Wiirzburg in 1800 ; 
Gebriider Knake of Miinster in 1808. In the year 1828 Gerhard 
Adam of Wesel, G. L. Nagel of Heilbronu, Ritter of Halle, G. 
Heyl of Borna, and I. G. Vogel & Sohn of Plauen, commenced 
business. I. P. Lindner of Stralsund made his first piano in 
1825, and Meyer & Company of Munich in 1826. In 1832 Carl 
Mand began his career at Coblenz, and in 1834 C. J. Gebauhr 
had the courage to establish himself at Konigsberg, on the far 

Julius Schiedmayer 



eastern burder oi' Ger- 
many. Til tlio same 
year Ferdinand Tliiirmer 
opened liis slio]) in Meis- 
sen, to he t'ollowcd a year 
later Ijv ileinricli Kiiii'el- 
liardt Steimvcij' at Seesen. 
His son Tlieodor Steinweg' 
I'cinoN'ed liis l)iisiiiess to 
iji'imswiek, ai'tcr the elder 
Steinwoti' left with his 
family for America in 

Joining' in ISfi,") tlie 
meantime established iirni 
of Stein way »S: Sons in 
New York, Theodor Stein- 
weg sokl his business to 
three of his workingmen, Grotrian, Helfferieh and Selinlz, who 
ado])t(Ml the firm name of Tlieodor Steinweg Naehfolger. This firm 
ranks to-day among the foremost of Germany under the able man- 
agement of W'ilhelm Grotrian and his sons. 

Traugott Rerndt started in Breslan in IS.'UI, and the higlily 
resi^eeted iirm, Zeilter & AVinkelmann of Brunswick in 1837. 

In Hamburg, Gustav Adolpli Buschmann commenced making pi- 
anos as early as 1805. :\lathias I'erdinand J\achals followed in 1832. 
Eachals, born at Mitau, June 3, 1801, had studied with Brix of 
St. Petersburg and Sachsossky of Cassel. His ])ianos were of the 
highest order, and he was especially successful in constructing a 
detachable piano for tropical countries. Eachals died Sei)tember 
6, ISGC. and was succeeded by his son, Eduard Ferdinand, who 
continued to spread the fame of the firm. Born at Hamburg, May 

I'aul Schicilmavor 



Mathias Ferdinand Rachals 

4, 1837, he learned piano 
making in his father's shop, 
and afterward studied in the 
leading factories of Paris, 
London and Ziirich. Rachals 
possessed a most artistic 
temperament, played the 
piano to perfection and en- 
joyed practicing on brass in- 
struments, playing classic 
quartets with friends for his 
own amusement. The busi- 
ness prospered under his 
able management until death 
ended his usefulness. He 
passed away April 24, 1902. 
His son Adolf Ferdinand 

went to the United States in 1892, where he worked in several 
of the prominent piano factories, including a long stay at 
Dolgeville, N. Y., for the study of hammer making. At the World's 
Fair of Chicago in 1893, M. F. Rachals & Company received a 
special diploma for their excellent instruments. Adolf Ferdinand 
Rachals succeeded his father in 1902. 

Carl Scheel of Cassel worked for Erard from 1837 to 1846, 
during the later years as superintendent. He had learned so 
much in Paris that his business, founded in 1846, was a success 
from the start. An acknowledged master of his art, he attracted 
many young men, desirous of studying under him, among whom 
Georg Steck later made a name for himself in New York. 

A most remarkable success, achieved in a comparatively short 
time, assures Julius Bliithner a prominent place in history. Born 
March 11, 1824, at Falkenhain, he learned his trade with Holling 



Kdward FcTclinand Rachals 

»S: S[)angc'iiberg' of Zeitz, and 
stiulied iiiulor Alexander 
BrotscliiR'ider, the renowned 
builder of grand jtianos, at 
Jjcipsie, until 1S5.'>, when lie 
started in ])usiness on liis 
own account. Handicapped 
1)\' lack of a l)i'oad('r educa- 
tion, Bliithner liad to dig his 
way to in'oniinence. He 
was fortunate in tlie i)OS- 
session of a highly de- 
veloped sense of hearing, 
and it is said that in later 
years no one in his exten- 
sive establishment could 
" voice " a piano so accu- 

rately as he. 
Ambitious to contribute something more to his art than mere 
industrial acli\ity, Bliithner made many experiments to improve 
the ]nano. Tn oi'der to enhance the volume and singing quality 
of tone in the upper octaves, he revived Hans Euckers' fourth 
string system, calling his device the " Alicpiot System." He also 
invented a grand action. Calling to his aid able young men of 
literary ability, Bliithner used })rinter's ink to great advantage 
and his fine instruments soon found a market in all (piarters of 
llic globe, so that his production in 1SS2 had risen to an annual 
outi)ut of 1200 grand and 1800 upright i)ianos. Bliithner pub- 
HsIkmI. ill conjunction with Gretschel, a treatise on piano making, 
of which several editions have been sold. The King of Saxony 
honored him witli tlie appointment of Privy Counselor of Com- 
merce, and he also received decorations from his King, the Duke 



of Saxe-Coburg aud the 
Grand Duke of Mecklen- 
burg-Scliwerin. He died 
at Leipsic in 1910 in his 
eighty-seventh year. 

None of the modern 
makers of Germany has 
done as much to procure 
for the German piano the 
prominence which it en- 
joys at the present time 
as Carl Bechstein. Born 
at Gotha on June 1, 1826, 
Bechstein was imbued 
with all the poetic and 
musical instinct so typical 
of the Tlmringians. It 
was natural that he should 

choose piano making for a profession, and so proficient had he 
become that at the age of 22 he was given the responsible position 
of managing the business of G. Perau, one of Berlin's best known 
makers of that time. After four years' faithful service wanderlust 
got the better of Bechstein, and we next find him at London, later 
at Paris, studying under that genial empiric, Pape, and getting an 
insight into modern business methods with Kriegelstein. 

Equipped with new experiences in piano making, a thorough 
knowledge of Parisian commercial tactics, enriched with broader 
views, world-wise, Bechstein returned to Berlin and built his first 
grand piano in 1856. A man of the world, amiable, even magnetic 
to a certain degree, he easily attracted artists and litterateurs to 
himself, gaining thereby a publicity which redounded largely to 
the ever-increasing prosperity of his business. Carl Bechstein 



received numerous decora- 
tions, both rrom liis King 
and Ein])oror, as vroW as 
other rulers, and was ap- 
pointed imrveyor to the 
courts of nearly all the reign- 
ing enii)erors and kings of 
Eni"o])e. He died at Berlin 
in 1908 at the age of 82. 

Among the many firms 
tliat, during the past 50 
years, have heen more or less 
active in expanding tlie piano 
industrv of Germanv, C 
Weidig of Jena, founded in 
1843; Carl Roniscli of ])res- 
den, founded in 1845; and 
Julius Feuricli of Leipsic, 
established in 1S51, deserves special mention, 

Carl Rbnisch, born at Goldberg, Silesia, in 1814, experienced 
all tlie ])rivations of ])Ovei-ty in his youth, but his inborn talent and 
determination finally got the better of adverse conditions. With- 
out ca])ital, but having unlimited faith in his aliility, he began to 
make ])ianos at Dresden and in time had the satisfaction of 
shi])ping the ])roduct of his factory to all parts of the globe. In- 
deed, Roniscli was one of the pioneers in exporting German pianos. 
His grands and u])rights became so popular in Russia, that he 
found himself compelled to erect a factory in St. Petersburg. Re- 
warded with highest awards at all expositions, wherever his pianos 
have been exhibited, Roniscli was also personally honored with 
decorations of <listinction, and appointed purveyor to the Court 
of Saxony. He died July 21, 1893, at the age of 80. The great 

Carl Bechstein 



business is successfully car- 
ried on by his sons, who 
have been his associates for 

many years. 

There are a large num- 

Carl Ronisch 

ber of aggressive young 
firms in Grermany, making 
history, inspired by the 
glorious records of the older 
houses, but it is not the 
jDrovince of this work to 
dwell upon j^resent and 

In the supply industries 
Germany has produced three 
self-made men who assumed 
the leadershij) in their re- 
spective branches from the day they entered the arena. The piano 
industry is indebted to L. Isermann, Moritz Poehlmann and August 
Moritz Weickert for furnishing actions, wires and felt of such 
quality as to make the perfect piano of the present day a 

I. C L. Isermann, born on July 1, 1813, near Hanover, served 
Ms apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker, and shortly thereafter 
traveled on foot through Germany, Italy, Switzerland and Bel- 
gium, working at his trade in most of the larger cities. About 
1835 he landed in Paris, the mecca of all young German artisans 
of that time. He found emplo^Tuent in one of the piano action 
factories. Just as soon as he had mastered that art he made fur- 
ther studies in other factories to become familiar with the various 
models of actions then in use and the different methods of manu- 
facturing. Thoroughly grounded, he returned to the Fatherland 



and ill 1S4"J slartcil the first 
))iano action factory in Ger- 
many al liambuig. It was an 
innovation and soeniod a hold 
niulertaking, because up to that 
time all i)iaii() makers in Ger- 
many made llicir actions, fol- 
hjwing' their own notions re- 
garding construction. Iser- 
iiiaiin demonstrated at once, 
that he could i)roduce a better 
action Tor less money than the 
]iiano maker, and his busi- 
ness prospered far beyond his 
expectations. His success was 
so remarkable that it invited 
competition. Very soon all 
piano makers (piit producing their own actions, and the piano 
action industry, founded by Isermann, spread to all the leading- 
manufacturing centers of Germanv. Because of the reliabilitv and 
excellent workmanship of his goods, the honesty and integrity 
of his dealings, Isermann always had more business offered to 
him than he could take care of, although his establishment had 
been constantly enlarged, eventually employing about 550 

In 187U his son, C. W. Isermann, assumed manage- 
ment, and in 1904 young Ludolf Isermann, the grandson, 
joined the firm. I. C. L. Isermann died on November 5, 
1898, in his eighty-fifth year, having made his strong mark 
as a captain of industry in a field created by himself. C. W- 
Isermann died on December 29, 1900, in his sixty-first 

J. C. L. iseriiinim 



Harassing labor condi- 
tions impelled Ludolf Iser- 
mann to leave Hamburg and 
join the firm of F. Langer & 
Company of Berlin, perpetu- 
ating the work of his il- 
lustrious grandfather and 
father, under most favor- 
able and promising auspices. 
Although established only 
since 1882 the firm of Langer 
& Company enjoys a most 
enviable reputation for the 
high quality of its products 
and controls one of the 
largest establishments of its 

I. D. Weickert, born Au- 
gust 23, 1751, the fourth son 

of a family of 11 children, learned the profession of an optician, 
and established himself at Leipsic in 1783. Thrift and indus- 
try soon brought prosperity, with greater promises for the future. 
AVhen the Napoleonic wars devastated Germany, paralyzing busi- 
ness for many years, Weickert 's hard-earned savings gradually 
disappeared and he and his family often had to sutfer indescrib- 
able hardships. These sufferings, worry and anxiety finally 
caused the untimely death of this energetic man in 1816. 
He left his family almost in poverty, but the era of peace was 
dawning in Europe, and although only 15 years of age, 
the son, August Moritz, together with his most remarkable 
mother, hung on to what little there was left of his father's 

y(iAG(^<^^(>c/()-^/J::i^_,. /p^uU'ifjtY^ 



After the optical busi- 
ness was re-estal)lishe(l, so to 
s})eak, tlic yoimg man addetl 
tlie sale of hardware and 
i;radually built uj) a repu- 
tation for liis firm. Wiien 
he beeame personally ae- 
([uaiiited with the renowned 
Engiisli tool maker, Stubbs, 
(hiring the hitter's visit to 
Leipsic, lie iiiiprovcd his op- 
portunity to open up direct 
business connection with this 
English firm and thus laid 
the foundation for the great 
• hardware business, which 
under his jiersonal manage- 
ment, extending over (iO 
years, grew to magnificent proportions. 

In 1847 F. W. Patzschke, a hatter by trade, had made some 
experiments in })roducing tapered felt for piano hammers. Lack- 
ing capital, he appealed to the merchant, Weickert, who agreed 
to make the necessarv advances. For several vears the results 
were so disappointing that Patzschke became discouraged and 
forced Weickert to assume control and management. Weickert se- 
cured the services of his old i)artner's son, C. W. Patzschke, as 
manager of the factory and pushed the business energetically. 
AVitli keen foresight he anticipated the great future in store for 
this new industry and re-invested all the profit for years in new 
machinery and improved buildings, aiming always to produce the 
best felts that could be made. For many years Weickert enjoyed 
a monopoly for his product. Other factories were started in Ger- 

C. W. Patzschke 


-'sra-v-/..- »'.-,- r-vr-,.i 

many, following in "Weick- 
ert's footsteps as mncli as 
possible, but Lis business 
continued to grow, in spite 
of competition, and enjoys 
to-day a position as undis- 
puted leader in the industry. 

Carl Moritz Weiekert 
died on May 22, 1878, highly 
respected by all who knew 
him as a man of indomi- 
table energy, business abil- 
ity, sagacity and one whose 
noblesse of character, hon- 
esty and integrity compelled 
admiration. His son, Otto 
Weickert, extended the felt 
manufacturing business to 

enormous proportions, establishing distributing depots in all the 
larger markets. After fifty years of active participation in the 
management, he turned the business over to the care of his son 
Max and his nephew Fritz Weickert, who maintained the con- 
servative policy of the house with due regard for progressive 

The technical management of the factories has remained in the 
hands of the Patzschke family. Rudolf Patzschke, a grandson of 
F. W. Patzschke, has succeeded his father as superintendent of the 
extensive works at Wurzen, near Leipsic. 

The fact that three generations of Weickerts have continu- 
ously worked with three generations of Patzschkes, for the benefit 
of their business, may be looked upon as the key to the remarkable 
success of the time-honored firm of I. D. Weickert. 

otto Weickert 

o io 



Moiilz J*()('lilniaiiii, boru 
at ( )})('!■ Tvcdwitz, Jnnnarv 27, 
182;], bci^aii the inauiifacture 
of cast steel wire for piano 
strino's about 1S55. Al- 
tli()Ui;h lie dciiioiistrated, 
fi-oiii tlio very beginning, 
that his \vii-(' was superior to 
any othci- on the market, lie 
met with great dillieulties in 
obtaining sufficient outlet to 
make liis business prolitable. 
It recjuired all of that inborn 
determination, wliicli says, 
" 1 will," to believe in final 
victory, dui'ing the A^ears of 
disappointments and severe 
Poehlmaim studied to improve the tensile strength, polish and 
iinifoi-m thickness of his wire, and has succeeded in outclassing 
all his competitors since the Paris exposition of 1867. Like Iser- 
mann and Weickert, he became the father of an industry, which 
multi])lied, es]iecially in Germany, mainly for the reason that 
through J*oehlmann's efforts German music wire achieved an 
international re])utation. Moritz Poehlmann died March 26, 1902, 
ill his eightieth year. The business is carried on by his son, Rich- 
ard Poehlmann. 


Moritz Poehlmann 

Turning to England with its rich history of glorious achieve- 
ments, we find the grand old house of John Broadwood & Sons, 
after a career of 178 years, in renewed glory at the head of the 



English piano industry. 
The founder, Burckhardt 
Tschudi, born at Schwanden, 
Switzerland, on March 13, 
1702, came to London in 
1718, to follow his trade of 
cabinet making. He soon 
found employment with Ta- 
bel, a Flemish harpsichord 
maker. In 1732, Tschudi es- 
tablished himself as harpsi- 
chord maker in that historic 
house, 33 Great Poulteney 
Street, which the later firm of 
Broadwood & Sons occupied 
for their showrooms and city 
offices until 1903. It was 

in this house where the " Wonder-child," Wolfgang Amadeus 
Mozart, practiced on the harpsichord which Tschudi had built for 
Frederick the Great, King of Prussia. 

Tschudi seems to have been the first to change his name for 
expedience' sake, for he traded under the name of Burkat Shudi. 
Besides being an excellent mechanic, Shudi was also a very shrewd 
business man, who knew the value of advertising. He courted 
the friendship of all leading musicians who came to London, and 
formed an intimate friendship with the great Handel, who intro- 
duced Shudi 's harpsichords to the English nobility, and no doubt 
assisted materially in securing Shudi 's appointment as maker 
to the court of the Prince of Wales. The composer Haydn was 
also one of Shudi 's intimate friends and was so much 
at home in Shudi 's house that he wrote many of his compositions 

John Broadwood 


AVitli oroditabit' slircwdiiess Sliudi pi-esented to Frederick the 
Great, as the dcfciidci- (tf llit- I'l-otestant faith, one oi' liis liarpsi- 
elioi'ds. aftei" Fi-cilcrick liad won tlic battle oi' i*rague, for wliicli 
lie icc('i\('(l 111 rcliini ;i liiin' licariiiL!,- a jxn'trait of I'^redi-rick. In 
J77(i lie was coiiiiii.-iiidcd Id build two liai'psicliords I'oi' the " New 
Palais " at Potsdam, and later on Frederick ordered a har])si- 
chord ("f Shudi at a cost of $1,U()0. Besides i)rofiting Ijy tlie pres- 
tige, vShndi cei-tainly made a good casli ]n'ofit on these instru- 

dolin Broadwood, born at ('ocl<l)nrns, Scotland, in 1732, came 
to London about 17o2. A joiner by tra(U'. he eventually t'onnd 
liis way to ShiidiV shop and ingi'atiated iiimsell' so strongly in 
his master's l'a\'oi- that he not only was accei)ted in ])artnership, 
aial the liriii name changed to Slindi cV: liroadwood, but he also 
married Shudi 's daughtei' in 17')1), whereupon Shudi retired from 
business entirely. Shudi died on August 1!), 1773. Broadwood 
now took Shudi 's son in partnership, but assumed sole control 
again in 1783. 

John Broadwood was a man of exceptional ability in many 
ways. He kei)t in close touch with all the leaders in his art, asso- 
ciating intimately with Americus Backers, Stodart and other in- 
ventoi-s of his day, always kee])ing o})en liouse for his friends 
among the musicians and other artists, so that IV,] Oreat Poulteney 
Street became a meeting place for all the bi'illiant i)eople of London 
of that time. His receptive mind enabled him to piolit by this 
intercourse with iiitellectnal pe<)))le, and he never hesitated to 
ask the aid and Judgment of his artistic or scientilic friends, when 
woi'king on his great innovations in piano construction. When 
P)roadwood i-econstructed the scjuare piano, he was not satisfied 
to experiment merely as an empiric. He called upon his friends, 
the great scientists, Di-. (Jray and Cav^dla, of the British Museum, 
to beneiit bv their knowledge of acoustics. He would ever search 


for scientific laws to leani cause and eiTect, hence his inventions 
were all of permanent value. In 171)5, he admitted his son James 
Shudi Broadwood to partnership, changing the firm name to John 
Broadwood & Son, and in 1808 his son Thomas joined the firm, the 
name being again changed to John Broadwood & Sons. 

After the death of John Broadwood, in 1812, James became 
the head of the house. Brought up in the intellectual and artistic 
atmosphere of that house in Great Poulteney Street, where his 
grandfather had built harpsiclioi-ds for kings and nobility, where 
Mozart, Handel and Haydn had practiced, and where his father 
had built his pianos under the advice and according to the demands 
of Muzio Clementi and other masters of the piano, James S. 
Broadwood was eminently qualified to add to the glory of the 
house, as a piano maker and a business man. Thoroughly in sym- 
pathy with the liberal views of life current in the world of artists, 
James inaugurated those celebrated Saturday dinners at 33 Great 
Poulteney Street, where he assembled around his sumptuous table 
all of the great musicians, or whoever, in London, could lay claim 
to superior achievement in art and literature. No wonder that 
the praise of the Broadwood piano was sung in all modern 
languages. Even Beethoven, with all his loyalty to Nannette 
Streicher, joined the chorus of Broadwood admirers, 

Henry Fowler Broadwood succeeded James in 1834 as head 
of the house, his valuable inventions adding largely to the luster 
of the great firm. It was during this time that Chopin gave his 
last recital in England at the concert hall of the Broadwood house 
in Great Poulteney Street. Henry Fowler Broadwood passed 
away in 1893 at the age of 82, having guided the affairs of the 
house for over 50 years. 

W-alter Stewart Broadwood and Thomas Broadwood became 
partners in 1843, George Thomas Eose and Frederick Eose in 
1857. George Daniel Eose joined in 1883, and James Henry Shudi 


Broadwood, tlic inventor of the hnrlcss steel frame, in 1894. W. ('. 
l)()l)))s, a .ii-i-andson oi' lienry l^'uwler Jiroadwood, was admitted 
to i>ai-1iH'isliiii ill the same year. Tims six i^-eiKM'atioiis, eonnting 
I'l-diii Sliiiiji ill ilirect (lescciil, lia\'e i^uided llie destiny of this great 
house. James H. S. Broadwood died Febrmiry 8, 1911. 

Conforminu to the chaiii^-e*! conditions in maniifaeturing and 
business methods, the IJroadwoods liave lately erected new worlds, 
e(|ni|>|MMl with n])-to-date macliineiy and a])])1iances of the most 
a|i|i!-o\('d charaeter. in 190;') the histoi-ic show-rooms on Great 
Poulteuey Street had to be taken down, and one of London's most 
celebrated landmarks ]iassed into ol)livion. 

Witii traditional progressiveness the house of Broadwood lias 
taken the lead in Enghind by producing entire player jiianos as 
a specialty in their factories and have established modern show- 
rooms near fasliionable Bond Street. It should be mentioned here 
that the Broadw^oods have uninterruptedly been purveyors to the 
Coui't of St. James since tlie reign of George I. 

The firm of Collard & Collard traces its origin to Longmann & 
Broderip, who established a publisliing house in 17(37, and also 
liuilt some pianos. Muzio Clementi, who had become wealthy, and 
whose compositions were ])ublished by Longmann & Broderip, 
invested jiart of his money in their jiiano factory, finally associat- 
ing liimseif with F. W. & ^\ . P. C^oUard, un(kn' the firm name of 
Clementi & Company, dementi's great rejmtation as a virtuoso 
and composer was a distinct advantage to the young firm, but 
its lasting reinitation was esta])lished through the mechanical and 
inventive genius of F. W. Collard, wdio obtained several patents for 
improvements as early as 1811. ITpon tlie i-etirement of Clementi, 
tlie firm was changed to Collard & Collard. Under the aggressive 
management of Charles Lukey Collard, who became sole owmer in 
1859, the firm forged rapidl\ to the front, and achieved worldwide 



In 1804 Thomas Butcher 
started a i)iano slio}) and 
took William C*hallen as a 
partner in 1810. Upon 
Butcher's retirement in 
1830, Challen became sole 
owner. He succeeded in 
turning- out excellent up- 
right pianos and amassed a 
fortune. Eetiring in 1862, 
he left the business to his 
son, C. Challen, who ad- 
mitted liis son, C. H, Chal- 
len, to partnership in 1873, 
from which time the firm 
has been known as Challen 
& Son. 

The firm of J. & J. Hop- 
kinson was founded in 1835 by John Ilopkinson at Leeds. In 
1846 he took his brother, James, as partner and moved the business 
to London. John Hopkinson was a thorough })iano builder and in- 
vented many improvements, which gave his firm great prominence. 
He retired from business in 1869 and died on April 4, 1886. 

John Brinsmead started in business in 1837. In 1862 he 
patented a repetition action, for the further improvement of which 
seven patents were granted, the latest in 1885. His sons, Edgar 
and Thomas James, took active part in the management of the 
ever-growing business, which soon was counted among the leaders 
of its kind in England. The firm was appointed piano makers to 
the Prince of Wales, and, in 1911, to King George V. Forty prize 
medals and diplomas were awarded to them at various expositions 
for meritorious exhibits. 

John Brinsmead 



111 ^'^~i) Joliii T^>iMiismead 
was elected lidiKtrai'}' iiieiii- 
l)ei- of L'Acadomio Xatioiiale 
<>r l"'i'aii('e. ami in 1S78 was 
decoratcMl with the cross of 
the Logioii (if IloiKtr. Many 
of the leadiiiu' artists iiave 

^B ^'iK^'***iaii k used the IW-iiisniead i)iaiios 

Bl ^HrMflF ^^ jj, tlieir foncerts and have 

indorsed theii' li;ie (lualities. 
Thomas James Brins- 
mead died November 9, lOOd. 
Edi^ar William I>riiismead 
died Xovemher IS, 11)0?. 
Joliii Brinsmead died March 
17, 1908, at the age of 92. 
The business is continued at 
the i^resent day by H. Bil- 
linglmrst, a gi'andsoii of Jolm Bi-insmead, 

During tlie palmy (hiys of l^ngiand's sui)remaey in the })iano 
iii(hi-tr\' of I'hirope. many liiiiis sprang up wlio have held their 
own successl'ully to the [)resent day. l'liai)pell & Co., who began 
business in 1811; Eavestaff tS: Son, establislied in 1823; B. S(iuire 
& Sou. in 1829; (Ji-over cV Clrovei-, in ISIJO; Samuel Barnett & Son, 
and Poehhnann & Son (Halifax), in bs;52; Strohmenger & Son, in 
1835; Witton, Witton & Company, in 1838; Arthur Allison & Com- 
pany, in 1840; and .Monnington & AVeston, vrho stai'ted in KS.jS, are 
counted among tlie progressive and successful houses of to- 
day, that readily ad()])ted modern methods of manufacturing, and 
whose product upholds the fame of the piano industry in England. 

Thomas Jaiufs JJriiisnu'ad 



France, Erard, Pleyel, Kalkbrenner, Wolff, Lyon, Herz, Pape, 
Kriegel stein, Gaveau, Bord, Scliwander, Herrbnrger. 

Spain, Estela, Gnarra, Cliassaign, Montana. 

Belgium, Berden, Van Hyfte, Vits, Boone fils, Gevaert, Giintlier, 

Netherlands, Allgauer, Cuijpers, Eijken and de Lange. 

Scandinavia, Hornung & Moller, Ekstrem, Malmsjo, Hals. 

Russia, Diedericlis, Schroder, Becker. 

Japan, Yamaha, Nishikawa & Son. 



BORN in the old historic city of Strasburg on April 5, 1752, 
Sebastian Erard manifested, as a child, exceptional me- 
chanical talent. When only eight years of age we find him 
taking a school course in architecture and practical geometry. His 
mind; even then fertile in inventions, would suggest new problems 
and he would find his own way of solving them. He had the desire 
to learn the use of tools, and at an early age entered his father's 
shop to learn cabinet making. 

When Sebastian was 16 years of age his father died, and from 
then on it fell to Sebastian's lot to care for his mother with her 
three small children. Not wavering long, he started on foot for 
the journey to Paris. Arriving there in 1768, he found employ- 
ment with a harpsichord maker, and earned such good wages that 
he could well take care of those he had left behind at Strasburg. 

The study of the harpsichord became a passion with him, and, 
he soon was the peer of his employer, who, evidently an empiric, 
could never answer Erard 's searching questions as to the scientific 
reasons or causes in harpsichord construction. Indeed, it was but 
a short time after his connection with the harpsichord maker that 
Erard could teach his master. He began to construct instruments 
according to his own ideas, and they found so much favor that 
Erard 's fame spread rapidly, so much so that the Duchess of 



\'ill('r(iy, a ^^vva\ imtvoness of art, sought liliii out and engaged 
liini to build au instrument for licr use, ])la('ing a well-equii)])ed 
workslio]) in licr own i»alac(' at liis disposal, with jieriVct liheily 
to l'oll(»w his own iiicliuat ions and (h'siro, just as ('hristol'ori liad 
(h)n(' at the pahiee of the Duke of Tuscany. 

It wa> here that I'^rai'd coii-t rueted lii> lirst piano in 1777. It 
is said that it was superior to any other })iano of that time. Al- 
thongli lie enjoyed tho res])e('t and most lihei-al ]n'otoetion of the 
ducliess, Mrai'd when iT) yrars of age had greatci' aspirations. He 
left the palace and started his own shop in the l\ue de T^oni"])on. 
Because of his coimection with the aristocracy, fostered bv his 
influential jjrotector, the Duchess of N'illeroy, Erard's success was 
immediate. AVith his brother, Jean Bai)tiste, he founded in 1785 
the firm which for many years thereafter reigned supreme in all 
the concei't halls of the civilized world. Xo other fiimi, before or 
after I'irard, occupied so exalted a [)osition in the nnisical world as 
the house of Erard, from 171H) to 1855. 

That Ei'ai'd had become a man of culture and refinement is 
illustrated by the fact that he managed to keei) in close touch with 
the French aristocracy, and that lie had sufficient influential friends 
at tlie king's court, so that at a time when the luthiers of Paris, 
who suffered in business because of Erard's competition, dcMuanded 
tlie closing of his slioj) l)ecause he was not a chartered member of 
the guild, the king issued a si)ecial charter for Erard as privileged 
l»iano and bar]) maker, inde]iendent of the guild. What splendid 
advertising! Erard had downed the guild that had set out to ruin 
him, and he stood now above it by special edict of the king! 

The French devolution drove Erard to London, where he im- 
mediately staite(| a i)iano and liai-p factory. As in Paris, so in 
London, Erard managed to obtain the entree to the inner circles 
of the English aristocracy, and, because of his interesting and 
magnetic personality, made warm friends among the peers of 



England. At the proper time 
he understood how to make 
good use of his infiuontial 
friends. When he made the 
most unusual request for a 
renewal of the English 
jiatent on his repetition ac- 
tion, he depended upon his 
personal friends in the 
House of Lords to carry his 
point. By their support suc- 
cess was his ! 

His forced stay in Eng- 
land was not only advan- 
tageous to him in a financial 
way — and Erard surelv was 
a good financier — he profited 
largely by getting more 

closely acquainted with English systems of piano construction and 
manufacturing methods, which knowledge he put to excellent use 
in his Paris factory upon his return there in 1706. In fact, Erard 's 
prominence as a manufacturer dates from that time, and for many 
years the pianos built by him in Paris followed the English models 
very closely. 

However, Erard was too great a genius to follow a beaten path 
long, and he soon developed many useful inventions, which assured 
him immortality in the piano world and made his pianos the fa- 
vorites of all the great artists (excepting Chopin) for almost two 
generations, an unparalleled record ! 

It is needless to say that Erard was a princely entertainer. 
For many years the Salon Erard was the center of the intellectual 
life of Paris, and the Salle Erard the place where Liszt and all 

Sebastian Erard 



the ^roat virtuosos of the 
(lay jjlayetl })ofore most dis- 
tiii.niiislic'd aiidicneos. 

Mi-ai-(l (li\i(l(Ml his time 
hctweon Paris and London. 
His brother Jean iJaidiste 
had cliarji'e of tlie Paris es- 
tablisinnenl and iiis nephew 
Piei'rc manao'ed the London 
works, Jean Baptiste Erard 
died in 1820, and Sebastian 
Erard on August 5, 1831. 
He made his ne])hew, Pierre 
Erard, sole heir of his busi- 
ness and of liis great estate. 
Pierre made Paris his 
domicile in 1834, going to 
London off and on to look 
after the business affairs 
there. He died at Paris in 1855. The Paris factory, under the 
management and ownership of ]\Ions. A. Blondel, is still i)roducing 
excellent instruments, which are preferred by leading virtuosos, 
maintaining the exalted i)osition created by the great genius and 
wonderful i)ersonality of Sel)astian Erard. 

At the village of Ruppersthal, near Vienna, lived a school- 
master by name of Pleyel. He was twice married and ])ecame the 
father of 38 children, living to be 99 years of age. His twenty- 
fourth chihl, boi'n in IT.")?, was ba])tized " Ignace." The boy 
seemed to be talented, and his father therefore soon began to teach 
him tlie Latin hniguage, and also obtained a good music teacher 
for him. Ignace was a i)rodigy, and made such astounding prog- 



ress in his music studies that 
the wealthy, music-loviug 
Count Erdoedy agreed to 
pay the great composer, 
Haydn, the harge sum of $500 
per year, for five years, for 
teaching and boarding young 
Ignace, who was then 15 
years of age. After finish- 
ing his studies with Haydn, 
Ignace went to Italy, where 
he spent some time at the 
court of Naples, and by re- 
quest of the king composed 
an opera, also a number of 
orchestral works. 

From 1783 to 1793 Pleyel 
occupied the chair as chapel-master of the cathedral of Strasburg. 
During that period he composed most of his works, which had 
an unusually large sale all over Europe. In 1793 he resigned as 
chapel-master and accepted a lucrative engagement at London, 
where he appeared in concerts in direct competition with his old 
master Haydn. It seems that London did not appeal to him, and 
he soon returned to Strasburg. 

During the French Revolution, Pleyel was suspected of royal 
tendencies and was repeatedly condemned to death. Stoutly main- 
taining his loyalty to the republic, he was, as a test, compelled to 
compose music to a revolutionary drama. Constantly watched by 
two gendarmes, Pleyel finished the work in seven days. It was 
received with so much approval by the populace that his loyalty 
to the republic was never again questioned. The harassing expe- 

Ignace Pleyel 



rience was, liowcver, too 
iinicli for sensitive Pleyel 
and lie soon .•il'tci' iH'inoved 
to Paris. Tn 1805 lie went 
into the music ])nl)lisirmg 
business and also started a 
piano faetory in ISOT. In 
IS'24- lie ti'ansrcrred liis busi- 
ness to liis oldest son ( 'aniille 
and retired to a count r>' scat 
near Paris, wlici-c lie died on 
Xovenil)cr 14, 1881. 

Camille Pleyel, born at 

Strasburg' in 17i>2, studied 

fBjk nnisic with his father, and 

^^"^ later on studied piano with 

Cumiiic Pleyel Dussek. He demonstrated 

that lie also had consider- 
able talent as a composer, and one of his biographers says that, if 
he had not been a music seller and piano maker, lie would prob- 
ably have become a great com[)oser. lie associated himself with 
Kalkbrenner. the renowned musician and ])iano virtuoso. To- 
gether tiiey si)ent several years at London, stiid\ im;- piano making 
Avitli Broadwood, Collard and dementi. Tliey adopted for their 
pianos the upiinlit action of AVornum, and the Broadwood for 
their grand pianos, and oi'ganized their factory according to the 
modern methods originated in London, all of which were great 
factoi's in the I'cmarkable success of the firm. 

Bolh iii-inci]Kils being accomplished pianists of high order, it 
was but natural that Ihey were in close touch with the brilliant 
men of the ])rofession. Camille Pleyel formed a very intimate 
friendship with Frederic Chopin, who became an enthusiastic ad- 



Augiiste Wolff 

vocate of the Pleyel piano, 
which he played in all his 
concerts, with a few excep- 
tions. Salle Pleyel, erected 
about 1829, was the place 
where Kalkbreuner, Hum- 
mel, Hiller, Moscheles, Mme. 
Pleyel and many others 
scored their triumphs, and 
where Frederic Chopin made 
his bow to Paris in 1832. 
Anton Rubinstein, at the 
age of 10, played there in 
1841, followed by Saint- 
Saens, who made his debut 
at the age of 10, in 

Camille Pleyel died at Paris, May 4, 1855, succeeded by his 
i:)artner, Auguste Wolff, the firm having been changed to Pleyel, 
Wolff &. Company. Under Wolff's intelligent management the 
business expanded so that the production rose in 1889 to 2,500 
l^iauos per year. Wolff died in February, 1887, since which time 
the concern has been guided by Gustave Lyon. The firm has been 
incorporated under the name of Pleyel, Lyon & Company. As 
far as I know, this company is the only establishment in the piano 
industry that has installed a practical pension system for aged 

Like Clementi, Cramer, Kalkbreuner and Pleyel, the great 
piano virtuoso, Henri Herz, entered upon piano making after his 
reputation as a musician was established. Born on January 6, 
1806, at Vienna, he played in concert at Coblenz when only eight 



yonr?; of ni>'o. W'licii 10 
years old lie was admitted as 
imiiil at tlic Paris Conserva- 
t()i\-, where he obtained the 
(ii'sl i)rize ill 1818. lie then 
made extended concert tours 
throuiih France, Germany 
and Filmland, ineetini>- with 
,^reat success. His composi- 
tions were also very ]io]inlar, 
and when he met the ])iano 
maker, Klepfar, a])oiit the 
Near 1825, he established a 
])iano factory at Paris. The 
enterprise was not a success 
ill the beginning, and, in 
order to replenish his ex- 
chcfjuer, llerz undertook a 
great concert jouiaiey throiiuh the riiited States, California, Mex- 
ico and the AVest Indies during;' 1849 and ISoO. ITpon liis return to 
Paris he devoted liimself largely to the improvement of his pianos, 
and established his lame among [jiano nuikers by the practical 
sim])lifying of the Firard grand action. His model has been almost 
universally adopted and is known as the Frard-Herz action. When 
lie erected his new factory he ])rovided a large concert hall, which, 
under the name of '' Salle Herz," became famous because of 
the concerts given there by many of the masters of the piano 

Herz's grand pianos were distinguished by their rich and re- 
fined tone, evenness of register and excellence of touch. Wher- 
ever exhibited these instruments were awarded high })rizes, and 
always ranked among the best, llerz was ai)pointed professor of 

lifiiri llorz 



music at the Paris Conserva- 
tory in 1842, and held that 
position until 1874. Deco- 
rated by the King of Bel- 
gium, he was also appointed 
inirveyor to the Empress of 
France. He died in Paris on 
January 5, 1888. 

One of the most interest- 
ing leaders of the French 
piano industry of that period 
Tvas Johann Heinrich Pape, 
born at Sarstedt, Germany, 
on July 1, 1789. He arrived 
at Paris in 1809 ; but shortly 
after went to London, study- 
ing there for over a year, 
returning to Paris in 1811. 

He took charge of the Pleyel factory and began to build pianos 
after English models. In 1815 he started in business on his own 
account, and commenced a carnival of experiments, the record 
of which is almost amazing. It seems as if Pape's mind just 
bubbled over with ideas, some so bizarre and queer as to border 
on the ridiculous. He took out over 120 patents for piano im- 
provements and published a booklet describing his inven- 

Had Pape, only to a small degree, possessed the orderly mind 
of a John Broadwood, or a Sebastian Erard, he would, beyond 
doubt, have become a great benefactor to the industry. As it was 
his experiments and vagaries are only interesting, but without 
value, excepting his experimenting with hat-felt for hammer- 
covering, which led the way to a permanent improvement. 

Charles Kriegelstein 



It is safe to say that 
Pai)L''s restless iniiid did not 
]>oi-init liim to tnrn ont a 
iminbei- oi" i)erl"e('t pianos in 
succession. He made many 
very ^-ood ])ianos in his big 
t'actoi'y, l)ut, before one of 
Iiis often brilliant ideas 
was thoron.n'hly worked out 
to practical usefulness, he 
would come out with an- 
other idea of imi)rovement, 
which necessitated yet an- 
other chani>,'e in the i)iano 
then under construction. 
His re])utation as an inven- 
tor si)read all over Europe, 
and while in his prime, from 
1835 to 1855, Pape liad in his factory youno- men from all ]iarts 
of the Continent studying under liini. ^lany of them became well 
known later on, among liis most talented ])U])ils being Frederick 
]\Iatliusliek and Carl IJechstein. 

Toward the end of liis career Pape was beset with a mania for 
building i)iaii()s in all kinds of impossible roniis — cycloid, liexagon, 
etc. — to which the 1)uying ])ublic did not take, and, although he at 
one lime owned one of the largest i)iano factories of Paris, 
employing over 300 men, he died a poor man on February 2, 

Jean Georges Kriegelstein, born at Pique wihr in 1801, founded 
the firm of Kriegelstein c^' rom]iany at Paris in 1831. He in- 
vented many improvements and was especially successful with a 
small ui)right piano, which he constructed in 1842. Although only 

Jean Scliwander 



42y2 inches in height, it had 
a rich tone and was espe- 
cially even in its registers. 
He retired from business in 
1858, and died at Paris on 
November 20, 1865. His son, 
Charles Kriegelstein, born 
at Paris, December 16, 1839, 
followed in the footsteps of 
his father, with marked suc- 
cess, obtaining high honors 
for his pianos, wherever ex- 
hibited. The business is now 
under the management of 
Georges Kriegelstein, son of 
Charles, who maintains the 
high reputation which his 
predecessors acquired. 

J. G. Gaveau started to make pianos at Paris about 1847, and 
in course of time built up a large business, turning out about 2,000 
high-class pianos per year. 

Jean Denis Antoine Bord, born at Paris in 1814, was the 
first in Paris to make a commercial upright piano of good quality. 
He started his business in 1840, and brought his production 
to over 4,000 pianos per year in 1878. He died on March 4, 

Action making, as a specialty, had its cradle in Paris, and for 
many years Paris supplied nearly all the piano makers on the 
continent of Europe. Jean Schwander, born at Lauterbach, 
Alsace, in 1812, came to Paris in 1830, and learned action making 
at Kriegel stein's factory. He started his own shop in 1844, and 
Kriegelstein became his first customer. Schwander turned out 

Josef Herrburger 




-iK'li I'xci'llciil woi-k tli.'it liis 
Imsiiioss expanded very rap- 
idly. After takiiii>' Josef 
I Icii'Wui'.ncr ill parliicrsiii]) ill 
isi;,") and acccpliim' liiiii as 
son-indaw, tlic coiiccrii as- 
siiiiicd (•oiiiniaiidiui;' pro})()r- 

•losef IIerrl)iirger, born 
at l^aiieiidorf, Alsace, in l.S.''^, 
went to Paris in hSo.") and 
bei>'an to work for Seliwan- 
dcr in lie demon- 
strated not only ^reat ability 
as an organizer, but also as a 
iiu'clianieian wiili inventive 
talent, lie desigiUMl many 
valuable macliines and a])p]i- 
anees for action making and invented several valna])le improve- 
ments for piano actions. The Scliwantler action factory became 
known as tlu^ best e(|ni])])ed establisliment of its kiiKb its ])rodncts 
were sjiippcd to all parts of the cix'ilized world and young i)iano 
makers from all oxer the CV)ntinent came to the Schwaiider factory 
to study modern methods of action making, dean Schwander 
died in 1882 and Josef ilerrburger retired from business in IDUO, 
succeeded b\ his son. Josef ll<M'rburger, Jr.. who established a 
braiicli factory in Xew ^'ol•k, maintaining the exalted standing of 
the old tirm in both hemisi)lieres. 


Barcelona is the center of ))iano manufacturing in Spain. We 
:find that Pindo de Pedro Estela established his shop in 1830, 

Joliaiiii l-'iictlricli Schroder 



Hermanos Giiarra and Louis Izabol in 1860, Chassaign Freres in 
1864. At Madrid, Montana comnieneed business in 1864. 

BELGIUM AND HOLLAND i-...........^.-. ,- -,■ ,^. ■ 

Belginni can boast of 
older firms. Francois Ber- 
den & Company commenced 
business at Brussels in 1815. 
In the city of Ghent four 
firms started within a few 
years, about the middle of 
the 19th century. B. Van ■:- 
Hyfte was established in 
1835, Emile Vits in 1839, 
Boone Fils in 1839 and V. 
Gevaert in 1846. J. Giin- 
ther of Kirchheim started in 
Brussels in 1845, and J. Oor 
in 1850. — 

The Netherlands has ^^^'^ xicoiai Schroder 

three firms of excellent standing — Allgauer & Zoon of Amsterdam, 
established in 1830; J. F. Cuijpers of Hague, started in 1832, and 
Eijken & de Lange of Rotterdam, in 1852. 


The respected firm of Hornung & MoUer oi Copenhagen, 
founded in 1827, has always been in the lead. G. Ekstrem & Com- 
pany started at Malmo in 1836. I. G. Malmsjo of Goteborg 
established in 1843 and Brodrene Hals, who started at Christiania 
in 1847, are all known beyond their own country as makers of high- 
class pianos, and from their shops the piano manufacturers of 
America have drawn manv of their best workmen. 

,-:..^^. J 




The firm of Gobr. Diede- 
riclis was established in St. 
Petersburg' in ISIO. No 
record of this old firm is 
availal^le; it is, however, safe 
to assume that they came to 
Russia from Germany. 

Jolianu Friedrieh Schro- 
(Ut. boni at Stralsund in 
1785, started to make pianos 
in St. Petersburg in 1818 
and l)uilt up a respectable 
business. After his deatli in 
1852, his son, Karl Michael 
Schroder, boi'ii in St. Peters- 
burg in 1828, having studied 
with Erard and Herz at 
Paris, made good use of what 
he had learned and began to build excellent grand pianos, which 
found great favor with the artists, bringing his firm into the front 
rank of European piano makers. His pianos were awarded the high- 
est honors wherever exhi])ited, and Schroder was honored with deco- 
rations by the Emperors of Russia and Austria, and the King of 
Belgium, and was elected a member of the Legion of Honor in recog- 
nition of his services. He died at Frankfort-on-Main, May 5, 

His son, Carl Xicolai Schroder, continued tlie progressive 
l)olicy of his father, following closely all modern movements in 
piano construction, as well as factory organization and oqui]iment. 
The firm has been api)ointed purveyor to the Emperors of Russia, 
Austria, Germany, and the Kings of Denmark and Bavaria. After 



Carl Nicolai Schrodor's 
death the management of the 
establishment passed into the 
hands of his sons, John and 
Oskar Schroder. 

Jacob Becker went from 
Neustadt-an-der-Hardt, Ger- 
many, to St. Petersburg and 
established his business in 
1841. Becker was an inde- 
pendent thinker and experi- 
mented with many innova- 
tions. His pianos, especially 
his concert grands, were ex- 
cellent instruments, often 
used by leading virtuosos. 
Becker retired from business 
in 1871, to be succeeded by Michael A. Bietepage, under whose 
energetic management the business took on commanding propor- 
tions. The firm received appointments as purveyor to the Em- 
l^erors of Russia and Austria, the King of Denmark and the Grand 
Dukes Constantin and Nicolai of Russia. M. A. Bietepage was 
honored by election as hereditary honorable citizen of St. Peters- 
burg and commander of the St. Stanislaus Order. In 1904 Biete- 
l^age retired and the firm is now controlled by Carl Schroder. 

A. Bietepage 


Although Japan was represented at the Paris Exposition of 
1878 with a square piano, the piano industry is developing only 
slowly there. Torakusu Yamaha established his business of mak- 
ing musical instruments in 1880. In 1885 he produced the first 



ori>;iii made in Japan and 
()i-.uaniz('(l Tlic Nippon Gak- 
l<i Si(v.o Kahnsliiki Ivwaislia 
(Japanese Musical Instni- 
iiicnt Maiiiit'acliirino' C^om- 
paiiy) in ISSi) witli a capi- 
tal of nO,()()() yen. Tn 1907 
II ic ca])iial was increased 
to (;00,()0() yen, of wiiicli 
ncai'ly r)00,0()() yen is paid 
up. Y'aniaba is president 
of the conii)any, wliicli owns 
extensive factories at Ham- 
mamatsu. This company 
produces now about GOO 
pianos, 8,000 organs and 
] 3,000 violins per year, 
mainly patterned after 
American and German models. 

Nisliikawa & Son of Yokohama, established in 1885, manufac- 
ture about 200 ])ianos and 1,300 organs per year. The senior 
member of this Hiiii was a maker of Ja])anese lutes and other 
musical instruments, and is still making violins. His son learned 
piano making at the Estey factory in New York. 

Tonikusu Yainaba 



America, Creliore, Osboru, Babcock, MacKay, Stewart, The Cliick- 
erings, Bacon & Raven, James A. Gray, William Bourne, Mc- 
Pliail, The Lindemans, Scliomacker, The Knabes, Steinways, 
Hazeltons, Fischers, Stieff, Weber, Steck, etc., Kimball, 
Cables, Wnlsin, Starr, Healy, Wurlitzer, etc., Estey, The 
Whites, Packard, Votey, Clark, etc. 



THE history of prominent piano men and firms of the United 
States portrays not only the restlessness of the American 
people, differing from the conservatism of the old world, 
but also demonstrates in a large degree that America is the land 
of unlimited opportunities and possibilities. Nowhere else have 
firms founded on meritorious production and sane business 
methods gone so quickly into oblivion, and nowhere else have such 
stunning successes been achieved as in the United States. 

The progress in technical as well as commercial development 
has been rapid because America could draw from the old world 
its best minds, or benefit by their products, assimilate and improve 
them. It had the whole civilized world to draw from, and was 
never slow in producing original ideas. The seemingly endless 
natural resources of a whole continent were at the command of 
the industry, and its only drawback in the early days was the lack 
of a sufficiently large clientele of cultured j^eople who would buy 
the instruments, as compared with Europe. Hence we find that, 
although square pianos were made in America at about the same 
time as in England and Germany, it took about fifty years longer 
to develop the industry to anything like the magnitude which it 
had apx^roached in Europe. 



Benjamin Creliorc, wlio liad established a rei)ntation as an 
expert iii;il<('i' ol' xioliiis, ci'llos and other iniisieal instniitieiits, 
exhibited a harpsichord in 17IM, and soon thereai'ter built pianos 
at Milton, near IJoston, In his sho}) he had John Osborn, Alphens 
and Lewis P)al)e()('k as pupils. In b^lo the I)al)eoek brothers 
began to make pianos in Uoston. The great panie ui' bsil) mined 
their bnsiness, })nt we hear of Alphena Babeoek again in b'^21, in 
]i;Mt ner>hii) with dohn Ma<d\ay, tliat eonnuereial genius who later 
assisted so strongly in l)nil(bng up the fame of the Chiekering 

.John Osborn, the most talented of C'rehore's pupils, started 
in l)usin(»ss in 1815. Tt was in Osborn 's slio]) tliat Jonas Chieker- 
ing learned the art of i)iano making. Born in New Ipswieh, X. PI., 
on A])ril 5, 1798, Chiekering came to Boston about 1817, after he 
liad served his apprenticeship as a cabinetmaker and joiner. Well 
educated and possessing decided mechanical talents of a high 
order, Chiekering was attracted to the art of ]nano making and 
was fortunate in tinding a master like Osborn as teacher. lie 
studied wllli Osborn until 1823, when James Stewart, who had 
come from r>altimore to go in i)artnersliip with Osborn, Imt soon 
f|narreled with him, })ro|)Ose(l ])artnershi}) to Chiekering, which the 
latter accepted, and the fiim of Stewai-t & Chiekering opened their 
shop on Tremont Street in that year. 

Stewart was one of those restless, unsettled inventors, who 
needed the metliudieal and })ainstaking young Chiekering to give 
to his inventions the practical form. It soon developed, however, 
that Chiekering was not only the better workman of the two, but 
also the far more scientific piano maker. The firm was dissolved 
in 1S2(). Stewart went to London to take a prominent ])osition 
with Collard cV Collard. donas Chiekering continued the business, 
making excellent ])ianos, but his talents were more in tlu^ line of 
inventing and constructing than merchandising, lie also sutfered 



from lack of capital, so that 
liis progress was rather slow 
until John MacKay, who had 
left Babcock, joined liiin as 
a partner. This closed the 
chain of Chickering's con- 
nection with Crehore, the 
founder of the Boston school, 
consisting of Osborn and 
Lewis Babcock, pupils of 
Crehore; and Alpheus Bab- 
cock, partner of MacKa}', 
the latter joining Chickering. 

MacKay had had con- 
siderable experience as a 
merchant, having traveled 
much to England and other 
foreign countries, and was 
unquestionably a commer- 
cial genius, With sufficient capital at his command, and faith in 
Chickering's excellent pianos, MacKay started an aggressive sell- 
ing campaign, making the Chickering piano known in all the cities 
of the United States. Chickering, freed from all financial and 
business cares, devoted his whole time and attention to the develop- 
ment and improvement of his piano, and many of his best inven- 
tions were perfected during the period of his partnership with 
MacKay, which came to an untimely end in 1841. MacKay, hav- 
ing gone in a ship of his own to South America to procure fancy 
woods for the Chickering factory, never returned from that voy- 
age, nor was his ship ever heard from. 

Once more Jonas Chickering had to assume entire charge of 
the business. He continued MacKay 's aggressive policy with great 


eucrgy, inniiitaluiiig the liigliost i)ossible prices for his pianos, 
ninl spciidiiiii money liliorally for tlio necessary publicity. He 
exhibited his i)ianos at every ini})ortaut exposition, going to the 
World's Fair of London in IS.")! witli a nunil)er of instruments; 
ciiga-cd prominent virtuosos to })hiy Jiis grand i)ianos in concert; 
and took active ])art in the nmsical life of liis liome city, acting as 
vice-president of the great Jlandel and JIaydn Society as early 
as 18.')4, and later on as its president for seven years. 

While ])aying proper attention to the commercial and artistic 
necessities of his great establishment, Jonas Chickering was ever 
t!"ue to his love for scientific research and ex])eri7nents, to improve 
his jjiauos. He was not an empiric, who would experiment hap- 
hazard with an idea. "Whenever he had discovered a i)0ssible 
improvement, he would work out the problem in its entirety on his 
drawing board, until he had proven to his own satisfaction its 
practicability, and not before would he turn it over to his 
mechanics for execution. It was this i)ainstaking care down to the 
smallest detail which assured the Chickering piano the place of 
honor in tlie first ranks. 

When at the height of his prosjx'rity Jonas Chickering met 
will I a great caUnnity. On December 1, 1852, his factory was 
totally desti'oyed ))y tire, inxolving a loss of $250,000. Undaunted, 
Chickering at once designed plans for a new and larger factor}^, 
which was soon erected, and stands to this day on Treniont Street, 
Boston, as a monument to the exce})tional ability, talent and cour- 
age of Jonas ( 'liickering. i^]ven now, nearly GO years after its 
erection, tiiis factory is considered one of the best for its purpose. 

Jonas Chickering died on December 8, 185;), in his fil'ty-sixth 
year. The extraordinai-y nervous strain oi' the short i)eriod from 
the destruction of his old factory to the completion of the lU'W 
works had, uo doubt, atfected his constitution. He had educated 
all of his three sons as practical piano makers and admitted them 



to partnership in 1852, when 
the firm was changed to 
Chickering & Sons. The 
three brothers made a rare 
and most fortunate combina- 

Thomas E. Chickering, 
the eldest son, soon ex- 
hibited pronounced commer- 
cial talents and, as a man of 
the world, represented the 
firm with excellent results in 
social circles, making friends 
among artists, literary and 
scientific men. His promis- 
ing career was prematurely 
cut short by his death on 
February 14, 1871. 

This sad event made C. Frank Chickering, born at Boston on 
January 20, 1827, the head of the firm. Having inherited his 
father's talents as a designer and inventor, he had been in charge 
of the construction department since his father's death in 1853. 
"While studying, as a young man, he had impaired his health and, 
upon the advice of his physician, in 1814 he went on a voyage to 
India in a sailing vessel. He took with him a number of 
pianos, which he sold in India at good prices, and thus the firm 
of Chickering became the first exporters of American made 

In 1851 Frank accompanied his father to London to take care 
of their exhibit at the World's Fair. The prolonged stay in what 
was then the home of the most advanced piano construction was 
of great and lasting advantage to young Frank. It gave him the 

Thomas E. Chickering 


rr.wos^ AX I) TiiFjn makeks 

C. Frank Chickerinj' 

opporluiiily to study and 
eoiiiiinrc tlic worlc of tlio best 
Ijiaiiis (>r the industry as it 
then existed in Mui-ope, and 
furtlieriiiorc lie became ac- 
(|uniiit(Ml willi the advanced 
maiiuracliiriiii;' iiictliods of 
the celchiated Loudon estab- 
lisliiiiciits. Eeturnin.i;- from 
abroad, Frank utilized liis ex- 
periences witli effect, o'reatly 
iiiil)i'()viu,i;- the ( 'bickering 

Appreciating the impor- 
tance of New York as an art 
center, ('bickering & Sons 
opened extensive warerooms 
tbeic under the direct management of ('. Fi-aidv C'bickering, and 
in 1875 erected ('iiickeriug I fall, on Fifth Avenue. In this ball, 
virtuosos like l>iilow, doseffy, de rachinauu. TTeury Ketten and 
maii> olliers gave their never-to-be-forgotten concerts on the 
('liickering grand pianos, designed and const lucted l)y C. Frank 
Ciiickeri ug. 

rbickeriiiu' Hall was chosen as a -iMU-maueid houu^ l)y leading 
glee clubs, such as the ]\Iendelssolni, the English Glee CIul), the 
Kew ^'()l•k \'()cal Societ}- and by those eminent apostles of classic 
chamber music, the Xew Yoi'k (^)uartette, composed of C. ^Follen- 
hauer, M. Sehwarz, (jieorge Alatzka and h\ Jjergner, and the IMiil- 
barmouic riub under the able leadership of Tkichard Arnold. 
Kemenxi and W'illielini apjx'ared as soloists with (rotthold Carl- 
berg's Orcbestia, and I-'rank \^-in dei- Stucken conducted symphony 
concerts for several seasons in Chickering Hall, to be followed by 



Anton Seidl and llie Bos- 
ton Syinpliony Orclicstrn 
with Franz Itummcl, Xavei- 
Hcliarwcnka and liicliard 
Hoffmann as soloists. Tlic 
great bnilding contained, 
besides the concert hall 
with a seating capacity of 
2,000, the showrooms for 
the Chickering pianos, offices, 
rei)air shops and also the 
drafting rooms, where C. 
Frank Chickering designed 
and worked out his in- 

It was bnt natural that 
in New York, as in Boston, 
Frank should be in close 

touch with artistic and literary circles. Among his personal 
friends was one J. H. Paine, a composer and critic of con- 
siderable ability. He was generally known as " Miser " Paine, 
and would gladly accept Chickering 's hospitality and aid at all 
times. He was considered a poor man by all who knew him. 
One day he brought to Frank Chickering a bundle wrapped up in 
a bandanna handkerchief, asking Chickering to kindly place the 
package in his safe. Chickering assumed that the bundle con- 
tained manuscripts of Paine 's compositions and accepted the 
charge. About 17 years thereafter Paine died, without leaving a 
will or any disposition of the aforesaid bundle. Chickering sent 
for Paine 's legal representative, the bundle was opened in his 
presence and found to contain over $100,000 worth of bonds and 
currency. Chickering delivered the valuable package to the 

George H. Chickering 


lawyer, wlio was obliged to liniii ii]) distant relatives of Paine to 
distril)iite tlie liciltage. 

(". l-'iaiik Cliiekei-iiig was in all resjieets one of nature's noble- 
men. Ill appearance he reminded one fureibly of the Grand 
Seignenrs of i.(>iil> .\l\''s time, tie died in X(»w York, ^Fareli 
L'."), is: II. 

George IT. Cliiekering, the youngest of the l)rotliei's, was born 
at Duslun on April IS, 18oU. After ae(iniring an excellent educa- 
ti(^n, lie tni'iied to the IxMicli and worked nndei" his fath(M''s tutelage. 
J'\)r many years George made every set of hannners nsed in tlieii- 
coneert grands. lie was an exceedingly neat and artistic me- 
chanic. After IS,");! lie took charge of the factory management and 
performed liis ardnons duties most faithfully until his death, on 
November 17, 1896. All three of the brothers, like their father, 
took an active part in the artistic life of their home city and each 
of them served in turn with honor as president of the Handel and 
Haydn Society. 

The Cliiekering })ianos were alwa3's awarded the highest hon- 
ors wherever exhibited, and. at the World's Fair at Paris, 18(57, C. 
Frank Chickering was decorated by the Emperor of the French 
with the Cross of the Legion of Honor. 

The liusiness of this renowned iirm is successfully carried on 
by a coi-])oration which has joijied the American Piano Company, 
maintaining the high character of its products. True to the tradi- 
tions of the lionoi-e(l name, Chickering & Sons have of late years 
been instrumental in I'eviving interest in the beauties of the old 
clavichord, and are building such instruments for those who enjoy 
the study of the com])ositions of .Tohann Sebastian Bach, Scar- 
latti and others who wrote foi- the clavichord. The factory on 
Tremont Street, Boston, has become a landmark of that historic 
city, but Chickering Hall, Xew York, had to give way to a modern 
building for business purposes. 



Next to Cliickeriiig & 
' Sons, the Bacon Piano Com- 
pany of New York is most 
closely connected to the 
founders of the industry in 
America. Robert Stodart of 
London started in New York 
in 1820. In 1821 Dubois 
joined him and the firm was 
Dubois &■ Stodart until 183C, 
when Stodart retired and 
George Bacon and Chambers 
joined. Five years later Du- 
bois and Chambers withdrew 
and Raven joined, the firm 
being changed to Bacon & 
Raven, which was again 

•changed to Raven & Bacon, when George Bacon died in 1856 and 
his son, Francis Bacon, entered as partner. In 1904 the firm was 
incorporated under the title of the Bacon Piano Company, with 
Chas. M. Tremaine as president and W. H. P. Bacon, son of Fran- 
cis, as vice-president. 

James A. Gray, born at New York in 1815, learned his trade 
with Firth & Pond of New York from 1831 to 1835, when he was 
called to Binghamton, N. Y., to superintend Pratt's piano factory. 
In 1836 William Boardman of Albany induced him to take charge 
of his establishment, and two years later the firm became Board- 
man & Gray. Possessing decided talents as an inventor. Gray 
made many very interesting experiments, among which his isolated 
iron rim and frame and the corrugated soundboard are the most 
noteworthy. For a time he had great faith in the value of those 

James A. Gray 


inventions. He even took a 
nuni))er of pianos containing 
tlic same to London for ex- 
hibition in 1850, but after a 
coni})aratively sliort time lie 
discarded all of them, prefer- 
ring to build a line piano 
nlong conventional lines. He 
('(hicated liis sons, James S. 
and William dames, as thor- 
ough i)ianu makers, and the 
time-honored firm maintains 
its reputation for high-class 
production to this date. Wil- 
liam Boardman, who re- 
tiiT'd at an early date from 
■fhe firm, died January 5,1881, 
at the age of 81 years. James A. Gray took a more or less active 
part in the business until his death on December 11, 1889. His sons, 
"William James Gi-ay, l)oi-n dune 13, 18.").'), and James Stuart Gray, 
born September 7, 1857, are continuing the business with 

Une of the pioneers who atteni})ted to force civilization in its 
liigher development u]^on the " Far AVest " was William Bourne. 
He started a piano factory at Dayton, Ohio, in 1837, at a time 
when the savage Indian was still a " near neighbor." Evidently 
Bourne did not find the expected encouragement at Dayton, and 
removed in 1840 to Cincinnati. Even hei-e his ai-t was not appre- 
ciated, and he therefore accepted in 1842 a ])osition in the Chick- 
ering factory, where he remained until 1846, when lie organized 
the firm of William Bouj-ne & rom]iany. A ])iano maker of the 

A. -M. MclMuiil 



old scliool. Bourne could turn 
out nothing but thoroughly 
first-class pianos. Since liis 
death, in 1885, the business 
has been continued by his 
son, Charles H. Bourne. 

A. Ai. McPhail started 
his business in Boston in 
1837. Born at St. Andrews, 
New Brunswick, he came to 
Boston as a bov, and was 
apprenticed to the renowned 
piano maker, Gilbert. He 
learned to make pianos so 
well that he soon established 
a high reputation for his - 
own product. He was a piano 
maker of the old school, who 

took pride in his work and considered the artistic success more 
than the commercial, although in his long career, from 1837 to 
1891, he met all of his obligations with never failing promptness. 
As a citizen he took a great interest in educational, artistic and 
musical affairs, and also served as representative in the Massa- 
chusetts Legislature. He retired in 1891, and died at Omaha, 
October 6, 1902. The business is carried on by the A. M. McPhail 
Company, a corporation. 

Among the many illustrious Germans who have done so much 
for the uplifting of the piano industry in New York, "William 
Lindeman deserves particular credit for being the first who had 
the courage to combat successfully the unworthy prejudice and 
attitude of the people of his day toward the German element. 

William Lindeman 



Born ;if l^resden, Germany, 
ill 17!)."), where he also 
learii('(| his ;ii-t of piano mak- 
ing, Lindcman canrj to New 
York in 18.14 and cslnhlished 
his business in 1836. Al- 
tliongh his i)ianos were of 
the highest order, success 
came slowly, hut wlion his 
son IJenry brought out his 
" Cycloid " piano, a rather 
happy compromise between a 
grand and sfjuare piano, in 
18()0, the firm secured a 
strong hold u})on the piano- 
buying public. The Civil 
War interfered seriously 
with a more rapid develop- 
ment, and it was left to Henry to push the firm into the front rank. 
Henry Lindeman, born in New York on August 3, 1838, was 
admitted to partnership in 1857, and after the death of William 
Lindeman on December 2-1-, 1875, assumed the management and 
continued the work of his father. Henry's son, Samuel G., was 
admitted in I'JOl, and the firm name of Henry and S. G. Lindeman 
was adopted. 

In 1838, shortly after Lindeman 's appearance in the arena^ 
Johann Heinrich Schumacher, who changed his name to John 
Henry Schomacker for expedience' sake, established himself in 
partnership with A\'iHiani Bossert in Pliiladeli)hia. Schomacker, 
born in Schleswig-IIolstein on January 1, 1800, learned piano mak- 
ing in the master schools of Vienna. About 1830 he established 

Uciiry Lindomau 



himself at Lalir, Bavaria, 
and came to America in 
1837. For one year lie 
worked with E. N. Scherr, 
one of Philadelphia's best- 
known makers of those days. 
Schomacker was not only an 
excellent and thorough piano 
maker, but also a very force- 
ful man with almost bound- 
less ambition. His partner 
was conservative and per- 
fectly satisfied with a mod- 
erate income. Schomacker 
finally decided to go his own 
way, and the partnership 
was dissolved in 1842. With 
restless energy Schomacker 

first improved his pianos, and in 1845 he was awarded the silver 
medal of the Franklin Institute of Philadelphia for the '' best '^ 
piano exhibited. At the American Institute Exhibition in New 
York in 1848, he received the first prize, a silver medal, in com- 
petition with a number of American pianos, and at the great 
World's Fair at the Crystal Palace in New York, in 1853, he carried 
off the gold medal. To meet the demands of his ever-growing busi- 
ness, he erected in 1855 the great factory which stands to-day at 
Catherine and Eleventh streets, Philadelphia. In 1856 he organ- 
ized his business into a close corporation under the title 
of Schomacker Piano Company. With his ambition satisfied, 
he quit the field of activity in 1872, and died on January 16, 

John Henrv Schomacker 



His son, Henry C. Sclio- 
mncker, born in riiiladelpliia 
in May, 1840, soixcd his aj)- 
pronticesliip under liis father 
and sjtent several years iu 
(Jennany, stndyinu' n!ider 
tlie h'adinu' masters. The 
eoni[)aiiy, nn(h'r ilie able 
management of I. I>. Wood- 
ford as i)resident, and Henry 
(\ Scliomacker as secretary, 
is maintainini;' the giorv of 
tlie old firm, producing most 
excellent pianos of the high- 
est order. 

While Liudeman in New 
York and Scliomacker in 
Pliiladel})hia earned laurels 
for the German school of 
piano making, William Knabe was busy preparing himself for his 
great career in JJaltimore. Born at Kreutzberg, Germany, in 1803, 
ho received a superior educntion. intending to follow a learned pro- 
fession. When the time for ultimate decision came, AVilliam pre- 
ferred, however, to learn the art of piano making. He served the 
custonuiry ap-prcnliceshii) and ac^piired further ex})erience while 
working foi- \aiious masters in Germany. Coming to Baltimore in 
1833, he foniid an engagement with Henry Hartje, who had won 
ipiite a rei»utation as an inxentor. Conservative and careful, Knabe 
waited until ho hnd mastoi"od the English language and had be- 
come thoroughly familiar with the business conditions of the new 
country. It was, therefore, not until 1839, that he ventured in 



business, associating liim- 
self witli another German 
l)iano maker, Henry Gaelile, 
under the iirm name of 
T\nabe & Gaelile. Tlie en- 
terprise was moderately 
successful and the associa- 
tion continued until 1854, 
when Gaelile withdrew. 
From tliat time on Knabe 
was able to demonstrate his 
exceptional ability as a 
piano maker and business 
man without hindrance. His 
jjianos were second to none 
in the market, and he han- 
dled the commercial end of 
his business so cleverly 
that by 1860 his firm almost controlled the entire market 
of the southern States. The Civil War temporarily destroyed 
that market, and the firm of AVilliam Knabe & Company went 
through a trying period for over five years. Wearied from over- 
anxiety, care and worry, Knabe passed away in 1864, leaving the 
care of the great business, which he had founded and built up to 
magnificent proportions, to his sons, William and Ernest. Both 
had enjoyed a most liberal education and had been thoroughly 
trained by their father in the art of piano making. William, being 
by nature of a quiet, retiring disposition, took ujion himself the 
management of the factories, while Ernest assumed without any 
wavering the grave responsibilities as head of the house. When 
Ernest Knabe took the reins the outlook was very gloomy. Not 
only was their main market, the rich southern States, entirely 

Ernest Knabe 


(Icstroyod hy tlio Civil \\';ir liicii r;lli■i^,^■, l)iit tlicir ciistoniors for 
the same reason could not meet their obligations. The work in 
the big faetory, witli its hundreds of employees, dragged along in 
an uncertain \va\ and llic day seomed to be near when the fac- 
tories would liave lo he leniporariiy closed. 

Ernest fouTid a solution. Tie concluded to make a prolonged 
trip through the northern and western States which were not so 
seriously affected by the wai', determiiuMl to establish agencies 
for the sale of his j)ian()s in this new territory. Money had to 
be lU'ovideil to meet the weekly payroll during his absence. He 
boldly went to his bank and asked for a credit of $20,000 for the 
term of six months. Considering the critical times, such a demand 
upon a bank in the city of Baltimore was almost preposterous, 
and when finally the banker asked Ernest what security he had to 
otTer and the reply came, "Nothing but the name of Knabe," the 
banker shook his head and told the young man that he would sub- 
mit the x)roposition to his board of directors. They decided that 
under existing conditions the loan could not be made. When 
delivering this ultimatum lo young Ernest, the banker questioned 
him as to what he could or would do. Knabe answered promptly, 
" I shall go down to my factory and tell my employees that I am 
compelled to discharge them all because your bank refused a loan 
to which I am entitled," then took his hat and left the banker to 
his own contemplations. lief ore he reached his factory office a 
messenger i'nnn the bank had ari'ived there with a letter from 
the president, stating that the account of Knabe & Company had 
been credited with $20,000, to be drawn against as wanted. 

Ernest did not go back to the bank, ))ut packed his trunk and 
went on his journey. "Within two months he had sold enough 
pianos and opened up sufficient connections to keep his factories 
busy to their limit, and when he returned home he called on his 
banker to thank him for the loan, of which his firm had not been 


obliged to use a single dollar. Ernest Knabe knew that just at 
that time tlie banks of Baltimore could not afford to have the 
doors of the city's greatest industrial establishment closed and 
hundreds of men thrown out of employment, for lack of funds, 
and he won out against the timid and shortsighted banker. 

An era of great activity now commenced for the firm of Knabe 
& Company. A branch house was opened in New York, and later 
one in AYashington, Ernest Knabe designed new scales for con- 
cert grands and upright pianos. Additional factories were built 
and equipped with the best of modern machinery, in order to pro- 
duce pianos in keeping with the reputation of the firm as leaders 
in the industry. Wherever the Knabe pianos have been exhibited 
they were invariably awarded high prizes for superior construc- 
tion and workmanship, notably so at the great Centennial Expo- 
sition in Philadelphia in 1876, where their large concert-grand 
piano was greatly admired. Leading virtuosos like D 'Albert, Saint- 
Saens and many others used the Knabe grand pianos in their con- 
certs and were enthusiastic in their praise of the Knabe tone 

A princely entertainer, Ernest Knabe was an enthusiastic lover 
of music. He would often take the noon train from Baltimore to 
New York, consult with his New York manager while eating din- 
ner, go to the opera to hear Sembrich, Lehmann or Niemann sing, 
or attend a Rosenthal or Joseffy concert, return by midnight train 
to Baltimore and appear the following morning bright and early 
at the factory or city warerooms to take up the every-day routine 
of work. He was an indefatigable worker and seemed never to 
tire. Of a most genial disposition, warm-hearted, helpful, he was 
adored by his workmen and beloved by all who knew him. 

In the midst of the greatest developments misfortune came 
upon the house. William Knabe died suddenly in January, 1889, 
at the early age of 48. This sad event doubled the burdens of 


Ernest and he suf( uniltcd lo the iiicvit;i1tlc icsnll of over-exertion 
(HI April !'"•. l"^!'-!-. l*]rii('st I\iial)e liad v\rv hccii one of llic strong 
iiiliai^ ul" llir |iiaii(» iii<lu>ti\. oii intimate terms willi liis competi- 
tors, eiiioviiiu- the close ri-icii(l>liip oT William Slciiiway, Albert 
^\'(■l»(•l■ and other leaders, lie left a ,i;ap whleli could not easily 
lie lilled. Tlie great l)usiness was turned into a corporation wliicli 
linall\- Joined the Aniei-ican Tiano Conipanx', nnder whose care 
the traditions ol' the hoU>e are re\erentl\- safeguarded. 

Among tlie historic Boston firms, the llallet (S: Davis Piano 
Comi»any can trace its origin to the year 18.'>."3, when iirown (S: 
llallet >larte(l in hu>iness. Brown was a graduate of the Chick- 
ering lactoix and obtained several ])atents for improvements. He 
retired from the lirni in 1M'.>, and his place was taken by George 
TI. Davis, the firm changing to Hallet, Davis & Comi)any, under 
which title it continued witli more or less success. After the death 
of George H. Davis on l)eceml)er 1, 187I», the business was incor- 
poiated. I'lKlei' the management of E. X. Kimball as president, 
C C Conway, treasurer, and E. E. Conway as secretary, the con- 
cern has recovered its old-time ])restige and is counted among the 
most progressive of the present day. 

During the decade from ^H'M) to 1840 a coterie of piano makers 
li\-e(j at Albany, whose inllnence uytou the ])iano industry of 
Aiuei-ica has been of a lasting charactei'. .lohn Usborn came from 
lioston in 1821) and made pianos for Meacham c^' Company, dealers 
ill iiiu-ical inst ruiiients. E. i*. Ijurns studied under Osborn in 
jMeachain's shop, which probably was the first piaiK^ factory west 
of New \'ork City, Henry llazellon came from Xew \ ovk to work 
for P>oai'(hnan iS: Gi-ay. James TT. Grovesteen, founder of Grove- 
steen, l'"ullei- eV ('onipany of Xew York, came to Albany in 1839 
and started to make jnanos in 1840. A. C. James, later of James 
c^' TTohnstroiii, Xew ^'ork, learned piano making in Grovesteen's 
shop ami, after working fur lioardman (ic Gray, became a memljer 



of the firm of Marshall, 
James & Ti'aver, hiter known 
as Marshall & AVendcll. 
]\ryron A. Decker was also 
one of the Albany pioneers 
with George Gomph, P, 
Peed and others. F. Friek- 
inger made pianos in 1837, 
but soon after started action 
making as a specialty. His 
business is continued by 
Grubb & Kosegarten Broth- | 
ers at Nassau, N, Y. 

Francis Putnam Burns, 
born at Galway, New York, 
on February 6, 1807, learned 
cabinetmaking and studied 
piano making under the 

genial John Osborn. In 1835 he commenced business on his 
own account. Of an artistic temperament and an excellent me- 
chanic, he would never permit piecework in his shop, impressing 
his workmen with the idea that a piano is a work of art, requiring 
the most painstaking efforts, without regard to time consumed in 
its construction. While ])ro(lucing most elegant and durable 
pianos. Burns did not accumulate wealth, and when the Civil War 
prostrated business he could not stand the strain. His son Edward 
M. Burns, who was serving as a commissioned officer in the army, 
coming home disabled for further activity in the field, had to as- 
sume the management of the business. Although the United States 
Government retained him in military service for 18 months 
after peace was declared and desired his further service 

Francis Putnam Burns 



in tlio avmy, yoimg Burns 
felt tliat lilial duly dc- 
inanded his devotion to his 
i'atlier's business. He picked 
ii|» tile rciiiiiniits oi' the once 
floiiiisliiiiu- business, injected 
new life and not only suc- 
ceeded in maintaining the 
higli i'ei)utation of the x)i- 
anos, but had the great satis- 
faction of s(iuaring all the 
okl obligations in a most 
honorable manner. It was a 
loss to the piano iiidusti-y of 
.\.n)any when Edward M. 
Burns retired in 1869 to seek 
more remunerative activity 
in anotlier field. 
A man who for over 60 years can enjoy the respect and friend- 
>lii]» of his com])etitors in business must be a strong character, with 
a lova})le disposition. Such was Henry llazelton, born in Xew 
York City in ^H^C). He served a seven years' apprenticeship with 
Dubois & Stodart, being released in 1831. Soon thereafter he 
joined the Albany colony, and in 1840 started the firm of Jiazellon, 
Talbot *S: T^yon. Not fuKilling his ex]iectations at Albany, Hazelton 
ntuiiKMl to New York and joined his brother Frederick, under the 
liini name of V. &: IT. llazelton, in bS.lO. Later on a younger 
brolhcr. .lolm, was admitted to partnershi]) and the firm name 
changed to lln/.dton Brothers. All three brothers were artisans 
of high ordei', who eschewed commercial tactics, de]iending for 
ultimate success entirely upon the high quality of their i)roduct, 

lltiirv Hazelton 



and to this date the firm has 
a strong hold upon New 
York's Knic'kerboeker aris- 
tocracy as a clienteh', in 
whose circles grandmother's 
piano bears the name of 
Hazelton. After the death 
of the founders, the business 
came under sole control of 
Samuel Hazelton, who had 
enjoyed a thorough training 
with his uncles and was made 
a member of the firm in 1881. 
He is ably assisted by his 
son Halsev in maintaining 
the traditions of the re- 
si)ected firm. 

Toward the close of the 
18th century a Vienna piano maker in his wandering arrived 
at Naples, Italy. Somehow attracted by the place, he made 
it his home and began to make pianos, which found favor with 
the court, and young Fischer was appointed " Piano maker to 
King Ferdinand I, of Naples." He taught his art to his son, 
who afterward studied for a number of years with Vienna mas- 
ters, and upon his return to Naples continued the father's 
business. His two sons, John V. and Charles S. Fischer, fol- 
lowed in the footsteps of father and grandfather, becoming- 
expert piano makers. The inborn '' wanderlust " of the Fischers 
landed these two young men in New York City in 1839. Taking at 
once employment with "William Nunns, they became his partners 
soon thereafter under the firm name of Nunns ct Fischer. Nunns 

Charles S. Fischer 



i-ctlrcd ill JS4(), and the lirm 
was changed to .1. cV ('. 
l-'ix'hcr. Uuildiiii;' a reliable 
]iiaii<t, t licy sDoii acciiiiiulatcil 

i-'icderick 1'. J^ticll" 

great wealth, and in 1873 
John U. Fiseliei' retired witli 
a competency, to spend llie 
rest of his days in his home- 
land, Italy. Charles S. then 
admitted liis four sons, wlio 
had been thoroughly trjiined 
in all branches of the busi- 
ness, to ])artnerslil]). Tlie 
vigorous activity of the 
young men, under the wise 
guidance of their father, 
brought them rajjidly to the 
front as great producers, in- 
creasing their yearly output to 5,000 pianos, at the same time 
studiously imiiroving the (puUity. In 11HI7 the firm was changed to 
a corporation. 

Ihigh llardman, who was born at Liveri)ool. England, in 
1815, came to the Tnited States and began to make pianos iu 
New ^'oik City in 1840. His son John was admitted to part- 
nership about 1874. This firm was among the first to manufacture 
good commei'cial upright i>ianos, and met with distinctive success. 
In issi) Leopold Peck bought an interest in the firm, the name 
being clianged to llardman, Peck & Com])any. Under Peck's 
able management the fii-m has risen to a recognized position among 
the makers of high-grade pianos, their instruments ranking among 
the best in the nuirket. 



To cliaiigc from tcacliing 
music and languages to deal- 
ing in ])ianos, and finally to 
become the founder of one of 
the largest and most re- 
spected piano manufacturing 
firms, was the career of 
Charles M. Stieff. Born in 
AVurtemburg- on July 19, 
1805, Stieff was educated at 
Stuttgart. In 1831 he emi- 
grated to America and set- 
tled at Baltimore, where he 
took the chair in Haspert's 
school as professor of lan- 
guages and also acted as 
leader of a church choir. In 
1812 he imported his first 

pianos from Germany, and opened regular piano ware rooms on 
Liberty Street in 1813. Observing the success of the various i)iano 
manufacturers in Baltimore, Stieff undertook an extensive trip to 
Europe in 1852, studying the methods of the best piano manufac- 
turers there. Upon his return he admitted his sons into partner- 
ship and started the manufacture of the " Stieff " piano, intrust- 
ing the management of the factory to Jacob Gross, an expert piano 
maker of the old school. 

Born in AVurtemburg on July 26, 1819, Gross learned his trade 
in Stuttgart and afterward worked in some of the leading fac- 
tories of Germany, Switzerland, Spain and Paris. Coming to 
America in 1848, he familiarized himself with the methods pre- 
vailing here and joined his brother-in-law, Stieff, in 185G. It was 
an excellent combination, the professional musician and business- 

Jacob Gross 



iiiaii, Stieff, sn])i)orted l)y the 
artistic piano maker and fac- 
tory expert, Gross. The 
product of the firm was at 
once accepted as of superior 
merit and received distin- 
guished awards wherever ex- 
hibited. The founder of the 
lii'm having passed to the un- 
known l)eyond, the business 
is carried on most success- 
fully l)y his sons, Charles 
and Frederick P. Stieff, the 
technical management of the 
factories being in the hands 
of Charles J. Gross, who was 
educated by his father, the 
late Jacob Gross. It was re- 
markable that the great fire which destroyed nearly the entire busi- 
ness portion of the city of Baltimore in lOO-t should stop short in its 
northward flight on the wall of the Stieff Imilding, on North Li))- 
erty Street, just as if it had had respect for this landmark where the 
Stieffs had sold pianos for Go years. The firm of Charles M. Stieff 
distributes its products almost entirely through its own stores, 
which are to l)e found in every prominent city of the southern 
States, as well as at Boston and elsewhere. 

Following the chronological order, we find that Christian 
Kurtzmann established a piano factory in Buffalo in 1848. After 
liis death in 1886, the business was taken over by a corpo- 

William P. Fmerson, who stai'ted in Boston in 1849, had perhaps 
more business acumen than mcclianical talent and artistic inclina- 

C'liristian Kiutzmaiin 



tions. He started to make a 
]ow-pi'ieed iiistruuieiit and 
built up a very large and 
profitable business within a 
few years. In 1854 lie en- 
gaged C. C. Briggs, an ex- 
pert ]iiano maker of stand- 
ing, to improve the piano, 
whicli was accomplished 
with sneli success that a 
reputation for superior qual- 
ity was soon establislied 
and the name of Emerson 
became a valuable trade- 
mark. Emerson died in 
1871, and the business came 
into possession of William 
Moore, who sold his interest 

in 1879 to P. H. Powers, 0. A. Kimball and J. Gramer. They 
organized the Emerson Piano Company, with Patrick H. Powers 
as president. Under his able management the business grew to 
commanding proportions. The product was continually im- 
proved to maintain its position as a high-class instrument, and 
the comi)any enjoyed an enviable reputation for integrity and 

P. H. Powers retired from active management in 1910, at the 
age of 84, after a most distinguished career as a business man, 
covering a period of 60 years. He is succeeded in the presidency 
by Edward S. Payson, who assisted Powers for many years as 
acting secretary of the company. 

In the old town of Milton, where Crehore built his first piano, 
James Whiting Vose was born, on October 21, 1818. Learning the 





/(j^Uk A- /W^^ 

cnbi net maker's irado, he 
soon became a i)iaiio maker, 
i>('ttiiig- liis experience in 
various Boston factories. 
In 1851 lie made liis first 
l)iano, and laid tlie i'ounda- 
tiou for a lousiness wliicli is 
coiuited amon.ii,' the leaders of 
the American ])iano indus- 
try. Educatiuij;- liis tliree 
sons in all branches of the 
business, he admitted tliem 
to i)artnersliip and clian^i;ed 
tlie name to Vose k Sons. 
In 1889 the concern was in- 
corporated, the stock being- 
owned l)y the Vose family. 
James W. Vose served as 

first president of the Vose & Sons' Piano C'ompany for a numlier of 
years. After liis retirement his eUk^st son, AViliard A. Vose, suc- 
ceeded him as president and manager, with marked ability, main- 
taining and improving the distinguished standing of the Vose 

( )n(' of llic most interesting characters in tlie history of Ameri- 
can piano makers is Napoleon J. Haines. Born in London in 1824, 
he came to New ^'ol•k wlieii eight years of age. He made the trip 
across the .Vtlantic alone with his vounger brother Francis. His 
fnthei', who had ])receded the boys to New Vork, had ])aid the 
sliii)'s steward lliiity (hollars to assure good meals for the young- 
sters. Na])oleon, awaic of that fact, o))jected to the i)Oor coffee 
and " hard tack " willi which the steward regaled the boys, throw- 
ing the stulf overboard an I demanding " sometliing fit to eat." 



He caused siicli a distui'b- 
ance that the captain was 
called, who i)roinptly sided 
with the rebellious boy and 
admonished the steward to 
do his duty henceforth. It 
is said that young Haines 
after his arrival in New 
York, not from necessity, but 
from his desire to make 
headway, earned money as a 
bootblack after school hours. 
Whether that is true or not, ' 
young Napoleon certainly 
always demonstrated a rest- 
less disposition and a desire 
to advance. At the age of "^'^"'"^ ^^'^"""^ ^'°'*' 

fifteen he apprenticed himself and brother to the New York 
Piano Manufacturing Company, learning all branches of the art. 
In 1851 he started in business with his brother under the firm 
name of Haines Brothers. Beginning with an output of two pianos 
per month, their business soon assumed large proportions, so that 
the erection of a factory, with a capacity of 20 pianos per week, 
became necessary in 1856. 

Napoleon J. Haines was a thorough piano maker, whose name 
is also on record as an inventor in the United States Pate:it Office, 
but, besides that, he was a born financier and shrewd business 
man. One of the founders of the Union Dime Savings Bank of 
New York, he served as vice-president and president of that great 
institution for 21 years. Napoleon J. Haines died April 19, 1900. 

The business has been merged with that of the American Piano 



rompany, under wlio>^o aus- 
pices tlio ilaiiios l)i-otliei's 
j)iaii() Is pi-odiiccd in larger 
quantilics tliaii i-vlt. 

Real genius always loaves 
an indelil)le mark in its 
sphere of activity, and its 
inllucnce is as lasting as it 
is ]>orinoating at ilic lime 
of its I)ii-t]i. To observe a 
man rising from the lowest 
rung of the ladder to the 
height of a most ])romi- 
nent manufacturer, educat- 
ing himself meanwhile to 
become a musician of ac- 
knowledged talent and ver- 
1 land ling complex financial ]iroblems with masterly 
daring and withal acquiring a position of social influ- 
ence, requires a combination of talents, an exercise of will- 
]iower and self-denial seldom found. Albert Weber, Ijorn in 
Bavaria .Inly 8, 1828, landed in Xew Yoi-k when 10 years of age. 
Endowed with a lil)eral education, he had a good knowledge of 
music, playing the organ eiliciently. Attracted to the art of piano 
making, he went tlirongh a regular a])])renticeshi]) with ^faster 
11m|(|cii (if Xew ^'()rk, and later worked in the celebrated shop of 
\'an Winkle. 'I'o pa\' liis bonid, y(mng Weber gave music lessons 
evenings, and placed the organ at eliurcli on Sundays. A\'lien 23 
years of age he staite(| in business with a very small capital. Fire 
destroyed his sho]) during the tliird year of his existence as a 
piano mannrarturer. Nothing <laniited, he rented much larger 

NaiKilcdii J. llaiiic's 

Satlllt V 



Albert Weber 

quarters and within a short 
time acquired a leading posi- 
tion among the i)iano firms 
of New York City. His en- 
ergy and ambition knew no 
bounds. In 1869 he opened 
extensive warerooms at 
Fifth Avenue and Sixteenth 
Street, a move which aston- 
ished his competitors by its 
very boldness. Weber had 
invaded the abode of New 
York swelldom, with charac- 
teristic foresight, judging 
the future importance of 
this thoroughfare as a cen- 
ter of fashionable establishments'. With this move his aggressive 
campaign for supremacy in the i)iano world commenced. 

Although not given to inventing or creating anything new in 
piano construction, Weber was such a thorough piano maker, and 
perfect performer on the piano, that he knew how to utilize the 
best-proven methods of construction. He would engage at any 
cost the best workmen, the best talent to be found among inano 
makers, neither would he spare any expense or reckon the cost 
of any real improvement in the tone or general quality of his 
pianos. He inspired his men to take pride in their work. The result 
was that he produced pianos which were acknowledged second to 
none, and preferred by many leading virtuosos, especially by 
opera singers^ for their sympathetic musical tone. 

Because of his acute and musically trained hearing he succeeded 
in producing in his pianos, through his expert workmen, what he 

298 n.WoS A\l) TllKlR MAKEKS 

prondly called the " AVebor tone." M'o listen to liis inlaying for a 
])ru.>})(.'eti\L' (.•ustuini'i- was a treat indeed, and seldom would an 
iiiteiidiim- l)iiy(>r leave liis wai"(M-oonis witliout liavin,t>' secured a 
piaiKi. The iiiairs cut ImsiaisiH, the real Ittxc Tor his piano was 
so intense, so genuine that lie impressed the same on evei-y ))erson 
who would listen to his jjlaying. Well read, a keen observer oi' men 
and things, W(^bei" was a most interesting entertainer. TTis ready 
wit became proverbial and ol'tentimes ser\'ed to clear uni)leasant 
situation-. I'oi- example, when during the strike of the journey- 
men for higher wages, shorter hours, etc., a conuuittee of the work- 
men met with tlie assembled mnmifacturers, submitting their most 
iinicasonable demands, the latter were dumbfouuded by the bold- 
ness of the men. Webei' liroi.e the silence, com})limented the men, 
arguing that it was their })ri\'ilege to ask for all that they might 
want, but in his o])inion they had not asked enongh — they had for- 
gotten to ask foi- free Saturday afternoons with full i)ay, so that 
they could j)lay tenpins, the bosses to i)ay for the beer and set up 
the pins for the men. With this remark he took his hat and left 
the conference. The strike was called off. With his timely sar- 
casm Weber had shown the men the ridiculousness of their de- 
mands and had turned the embarrassing conference into a merry 

Many p)ertinent anecdotes could l)e cited to illustrate the quick- 
working mind of this remarkable man. He had one serious short- 
(•(Muing, howevei', which tinally caused his untimely end. Cease- 
lessly planning to extend his business and enlarge his personal 
influence, Weber did not surround himself with sufficient competent 
assistants who could relieve him fi'om dreary detail work, and con- 
sequently the management of his great factory, of the wholesale 
and retail de|)ai-tments, all of the financial affairs — in short, every 
detail of his great business — rested upon his shoulders. Working 


from morning until evening at his business, he would attend opera, 
theaters and clubs at night. Being of a decidedly Bohemian tem- 
perament, he enjoyed the gay life of New York among brilliant 
men and women, but the everlasting strain was too much, even for 
this nervy man, and he succumbed, at the age of 50, on June 25, 
1879, to the overtaxing of his brain and body. 

The great business which he has founded, the great name which 
he made for his piano, are becomingly perpetuated by the Weber 
Piano Company, a corporation affiliated with the Aeolian Com])any 
of New York. The fame of the Weber piano has extended to all 
the art centers of the globe to such an extent that the erection of 
a mammoth factorv in London has become a necessitv, in order 
to supply the ever-growing foreign trade. The name of Albert 
Weber will live, as long as pianos are built in America, as 
one of the great leaders who believed in the artistic mission of 
the instrument and impressed this belief upon the mind of the 

History teaclies that hardships, adverse conditions and trying 
circumstances are the making of great men. Henry Engelhardt 
Steinweg's career is a confirmation of this doctrine. Born at 
Wolfshagen, Germany, as the twelfth child of a strong mother 
and a respectable father on February 5, 1797, he had to pass during 
his youth through all the miseries and privations brought upon a 
people by protracted warfare. Napoleon's hordes devastated Ger- 
many, burned up the Steinweg home and killed several of his 
' brothers in battle. To fill his cup of misery he finally lost his 
father and remaining brothers in an accident, from which he alone 
escaped as by a miracle, and found himself an orphan at the age 
of 15, without home or shelter. 

At 18 years of age he was drafted for the army and took part 
in the battle of Waterloo. Eeturning from the field of battle, 
he found the soldier's life in the barracks verv drearv, to coun- 



teraet which he managed to 
build a zitlier, upuii which he 
would play the patriotic 
songs of the time accom- 
panied by the voices of his 
soldier comrades. Having 
never handled tools nor re- 
ceived even elementary in- 
struction in music, his ac- 
com]ilishment in making and 
playing the zither clearly 
pointed to the road which he 
was to travel to achieve 
fame and wealth. 

Having served his time 
in the army, lie souglit em- 
ployment with a cabinet- 
maker, but being then 21 
years of age, and engaged to a lovely girl, he did not cherisli 
the idea of serving a five-year apprenticeship as the guild 
of (';ibiii('lin;ik<'rs demanded. Tie wanted to learn the use of 
tools to build nmsical instruments, and we find him, there- 
fore, soon in the sho}) of an organ builder at Seesen, where 
he also lilk'd the place of organist in the village church. In 1825 
he mari'ied the woman of his heart, and his wedding present was 
the Hist piano built by Steinweg's own hands. It was a fine 
instrument, wliicli soon found a i)urcliaser. Constructing pianos, 
earniiiu' his daily bread by repairing organs and all kinds of 
musical instruments, Steinweg prospered, and in 1839 exhibited at 
the fair of Brunswick one grand and two square pianos of his 
own make. Tlie gi'eat composer, Albert Methfessel, played on 
these instruments and, as chairman of the jury, recommended that 



the highest prize, a gold medal, should be awarded to Steinweg for 
his superior instruments. It is said that the Duke of Brunswick 
bought the grand piano, paying therefor the large price of 3,000 

Steinweg 's reputation as a master piano builder was now estab- 
lished and he had to employ workmen to fill the orders which he 
received. His sons, Theodore, Charles and Henry, joined him in 
business as they grew to maturity and the prospects for the future 
looked very bright, when suddenly adversity came again through 
the political upheaval and revolution of 1848 and 1819, which 
paralyzed business all over Germany. The second son, Charles, 
had been during this excitement rather active in the ranks of the 
progressives, or revolutionists, and found himself compelled to flee 
as soon as the people's cause was lost. He escaped to Switzerland 
and went by way of Paris and London to New York, where he 
landed in May, 1849. 

Charles sent such glowing reports regarding the possibilities 
for the family in the new world as compared with their homeland, 
and urged their coming to America so strongly and persistently 
that the entire Steinweg family, except Theodore, engaged passage 
on the steamer Helene Sloman from Hamburg, which landed them 
at New York on June 9, 1851. Instead of venturing into business 
at once, Henry E. Steinweg wisely chose first to gain practical 
knowledge of the language and business methods of the new world. 
He and his sons accepted employment in different piano factories. 
For two years the three men gathered experience, and on March 5, 
1853, the firm of Steinway & Sons started on its brilliant career. 
The very first step in that direction, the changing of the name from 
Steinweg to Steinway, showed not only the business sagacity of 
Henry E. Steinway, but also the strong faith which he had in his 
ability to build a better piano than known at that time. Hence 


lie waiilfd ;i (li-tiiict ti'adc mark, wliidi (Miiild not Ix' imitated, even 
i r liis pianos should l)e, 

l-'i-oni the begiimiiii;- the lii'iu of Steiiiway ^: ISoiis was a happy 
coml>iiiatioii (d' \arions tah'uts, iiiakiiiii: sneeess iiii])erative. TTenry 

E. Stciiiwa) was an experieiiei'd piano maker and carid'ul l)usi- 
ness man. I lis son ('harh's nianaiicd the factory, for wliich he was 
emiiieiitly litted, .V line mechanic, he [)ussesse(l a iiiyhly devel- 
o]ied sense foi' exactness and systematic orgaidzatioii, while the 
yoiuii^er son Henry was a genius as an inventor, a good musician 
and a splendid mixer with artists, ])rofessionals and literary men. 

At the Met lopolitan l"\-iii\ held at Washington, 1). i\, March, 
1854, Steinway cV Sons exhibited a square piano and received a 
])rize medal, hut their great triuni])li came at the great fair of 
the American Institute in New ^'ork in 1855, where their over- 
strung s(iuai-e piano with full iron frame created a sensation in 
the ))iano world. As a result their business ex])anded so rapidly 
that in 1851) the erection of that manmioth factorv on Fiftv-third 
Street and Fourth Avenue, New York, became a necessity. Henry 

F. Steinway planned the factory and su])erintended its building. 
It is said that he would not jiermit a beam or rafter in the entire 
st I net are which contained a single knot or showed the least im- 
perfection. The precision of the master builder dominated in what- 
ever he did ! 

Gradual iy he ]iermitted his sons to assume the responsibilities 
of managing the affairs of the great business. Successful beyond 
his fondest dicanis in his enter])rise, Henry F. Steinway had to 
hear tiie deej) sorrow of losing his faithful co-woi-kers and beloved 
sons, Charles and Henry, in the ])rime of their manhood. This 
great bereavement, together with the advancing years, began to 
beai- up(.n that strong character, who had fought the battle of life 
so valiantl\-, and, aftei- plajining and superintending the erection 
of Steinway Fall in ISfiC, he retired more and more from active 



participation, going to liis 
rest on February 7, 1871, at 
the age of 74. Beloved by 
all who knew him, respected 
by the community and fa- 
mous as an inventor and 
manufacturer in the entire 
civilized world, a self-made 
man who had to wring suc- 
cess from fate's unwilling 
hand under most trying con- 
ditions, Henry Engelhardt 
Steinway's name will ever 
be revered. 

His eldest son, G. F. Theo- 
dore Steinway, was one of 
those who show great bril- 
liancv in their voutli, but 
whose genius then lies dormant for a number of years, to break out 
with irresistible force after middle life, astonishing the world witli 
their accomplishments. At the age of 14 Theodore was an accom- 
Ijlished pianist, so much so that he was given the task of showing off 
his father's pianos at the Brunswick Fair in 1839. Enjoying the 
advantages offered by the Jacobsohn College at Seesen, a celebrated 
institute of learning, he studied acoustics under Dr. Ginsberg, who 
took great interest in the brilliant boy, in return for which Theodore 
built the models needed by Dr. Ginsberg for demonstration in his 
lectures on acoustics. This intimate relation to the scientist in his 
youth prevented Theodore from ever becoming a mere empiric. 
It was the cause of the restless search he later so forcibly demon- 
strated for the scientific laws underlying the construction of the 
pianoforte. After going through college, he went to work at the 


beiicli in Ills r;il]u'i''s sliop, and, wlicii tlio family sailed for Xew 
York in IS,")!, lie was cliarg'od with windini; np the affairs of busi- 
ness and fuUowini;' the.' family. I''ati' decreed othei'wisL'. lie met 
flic only maiil whom Ik^ wouhl maiwy, stayed at Seeseii and coii- 
linnc(l the i.n>iiie>s fonndcd liy his father. Success crowned his 
efforts, and seeking' a larger field lie removed his piano factory 
t(. r.innswick in IS.")!), whei-c he hnilt up a substantial business. 
llowcNci-, when hi> liiothers, Charles and Henry, died, lilial duty 
d('mand('(l that he should assist his fatliei- in Xew ^"oi'k. lie sold 
his l)ii-in('ss 1(1 thice of his most able woi'kmen and became a part- 
ner in the linn of Steinway ^: Sons. Xew ^'ork. Theodore took 
ciiariie of the construction department, and commenced those revo- 
lutionary im])rovements which have made the Steinway a synonym 
of i»(M'f('ction in piano huilding. 

Theodore's inventive and constructive genius had for all these 
years been tethered by the eveiy-day care of managing all de- 
partments of his Brunswick factory. Freed now, witli unlimited 
ca])ital, an excellent factory organization and tlie most expert 
workmen at his couunand, Theodore Steinway had opi)ortunity sel- 
<lom offei'e(l. He made the best use of it. Ste[) by step he invaded 
the fiehls of modern science, investigating and testing different 
kinds of w(K)d in order to ascertain why one kind or another was 
best ada])ted for ])iano construction, then taking up the study of 
iiictnllnrgy, to (ind a pro})er alloy for casting iron plates which 
would stand the tremendous strain of 75,000 pounds of the new 
concci-t-grand piano that was already born in his mind, calling 
chemistry to his aitl to estal)lish the scientitic basis for felts, glue, 
varnisli, oil-,— in short, nothing in the realm of science having any 
bearing on piano construction w^as overlooked. Having thus laid 
his foundation, he returned to Germany to be near Helmholtz and 
Itenetit by that great savant's epoch-nuiking discoveries. It was 
but natui'al that in time he liecame an intimate friend of 


Helmlioltz, and the world was benefited by that friendship. 
Theodore made Brunswick his home again, going- to New York 
at regular intervals to superintend the execution of his inventions. 
At his Tusculum in Brunswick he had one of the most complete 
collections of musical instruments of every character, ancient and 
modern, and he knew the characteristics of each so well that it was 
a treat to listen to him whenever he was in the mood to show and 
talk about his gems. To widen his horizon of knowledge, he t^'av- 
eled extensively, meeting the shining lights of science, art and 
literature wherever he went. Germany was just then in its great- 
est period of scientific, artistic and industrial Eenaissance. Theo- 
dore profited greatly, being a keen observer, and he set to work 
to bring to life in his piano the discoveries of Helmlioltz, Tyndall 
and others. The crowning result was his Centennial concert-grand 
piano, with the duplex scale, bent-rim case, cupola iron plate and 
improved action which would lift that heavy hammer made of 23- 
pound felt by the slightest touch of the key, setting the strings, 
which were of a length and thickness heretofore unknown, in 

Theodore was an intense and enthusiastic worker. Once en- 
gaged upon a problem, he knew no limit of time. The author has 
often discussed problems of jiiano building with him, the experi- 
mental i)iano before us, until the early morning hours. Physically 
and mentally very forceful, imbued with quiet Teutonic strength, 
he aimed to create a piano which would respond to the demands 
of the modern dynamic compositions of a Liszt, Wagner or Rulnn- 
stein, and would, orchestra-like, fill the large modern concert hall 
to its remotest corners. He accomplished this object without 
sacrificing that desired nobility of singing tone quality. 

While Theodore Steinway has not created anything positively 
new in piano construction, he revolutionized piano making and 
all auxiliary industries by forcing the acceptance of scientific 



Hietliods upon nil who desired 
to stny ill llic i)rogressive 
iiiart'li. lie dciiioustrated to 
wliat extent science can aid 
ill the d('velo])inent oi' the pi- 
ano by hi.s own productions, 
and tlms ])roke the ])ath for 
the enormous development of 
the industry during the past 
.']() years. This is more than 
all the empirics have ever 
done. Theodore Steinway 
died at Brunswick, March 
2f;, 1.8S9. 

Compensation is one of 
the inexorable laws of na- 
ture. (Jreat results can only 
be achieved by great efforts and corresponding sacrifice. 
Steinway cK: Sons had to i)ay their tribute to the hiw of compen- 
sation ! 

Charles Steinway, hoi-n (m Jainiary 1, 1820, was one of those 
silent workers who fill most important places in the world of 
a<'ti\ily. {)[' a modest and retiring disposition, wrapi)ed U[» in 
liis ai-dnous duties of organizing and managing the ever-growing 
factories, Charles knew no bounds for his labors. lie simply ex- 
hausted himself and died at tlie early age of 36 on March 31, 1865, 
h'axiiig behind him as his monument the piano i'actory jjar excel- 
lence, a fniiTidntiou foi- Theodore and AVilliam to buihl u])07i, with- 
out which licit liei- one of these two great men could have achieved 
their triumphs. 

Charles Steinwav 



Henry Steinway, Jr., 
born on March 27, 1831, also 
paid the penalty for too in- 
tense application to the fur- 
therance of ambitious plans. 
Naturally of a highly artis- 
tic, nervous temperament, 
Henry devoted himself to 
the nerve-racking activity of 
inventing improvements, and 
the patent records speak 
loudly for his great achieve- 
ments. Seeking food for Ids' 
restless brain — enlighten- 
ment as to the demands of 
the artist — Henry was at 
night-time a studious citizen • ii<-"iy stoinway 

of Bohemia, and during the day nervously at work on his drawing- 
board. Burning the candle of life thus brightly at both ends, it 
could not last long, and the talented young man died on March 11, 
1865, aged only 3-1: years. 

This great calamity of losing the two brothers within three 
weeks' time threw the entire burden of managing the great busi- 
ness upon young William, the aged father having gradually with- 
drawn from active assistance, William Steinway was born at 
Seesen on March 5, 1835, at a time when the Steinway family" was 
enjoying prosperity and father and mother were in their prime. 
He was a strong, healthy boy, physically and mentally. Like his 
brother Theodore he attended the Jacobsohn College, but unlike 
Theodore devoted himself to the study of languages and music 
proper, rather than listening to dreary lectures on acoustics. 



At the as'e of 14 lie liad a 
good command of Knglisli 
and Freiicli. jilaycd llic piano 
acceptably and had such 
a iiiiisical cai' lliat he could 
lime a tliree-sti'Itii;(Ml grand 
pi;iii() 1(» perfection. When 
the faiiiily ari'i\ed in New 
"^'ork. AVilliani was offered 
the choice of studying music, 
for which he had shown pro- 
nounced talent, or learning- 
piano inaking. lie chose the 
latter and was at once a})- 
prenticed to William Xnnns 
cV: Company, one of the best- 
known New York })iano firms 
of that time. As soon as his 
father started in business AVilliam joined him. and worked for sev- 
eral years at the bench, until the connnercial end of the business 
demanded closest attention. William was by unanimous agreement 
chosen as the head of the financial and commercial departments of 
the firm. It was his })i'opei' si)liere and furnished another illustra- 
tion of the keen judgment of Henry K. Steinway, Sr. He placed 
each of his sons where his ]iarticu'ar talents might produce tlie best 

r>eing only L'!) years of age when called upon to manage an 
establishment of enormous p)'o])ortions, \\'illiam did not waver. 
With the grit and determination inherited from his father, he 
begaii to ])lan greater extensions. Theodore was building j^ianos, 
William had to sell them. His pet scheme, a great concert hall, 


was soon carried out — Steinway Hall was opened in 1867 by Theo- 
dore Thomas' orchestra, with S. B. Mills as soloist at the piano. 
The opening of this hall was the inauguration of a new era in the 
musical life of America. Anton Rubinstein, Annette Essipoff, 
Teresa Carreno, Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler, Rafael Joseffy, Eu- 
gene D 'Albert, Leopold Damrosch and Anton Seidl made their 
bows to select audiences from the platform of Steinway Hall. 
William Steinway knew that the American people needed musical 
education. He provided it, and no one man has done as much for 
musical culture, or has inspired the love for art among the Ameri- 
can people, as AVilliam Steinway. 

Supporting Theodore Thomas' great orchestra, so that it 
might make its celebrated journeys through the entire country 
(and without the aid of Steinway this would have been impossible), 
William by most liberal otfers induced leading European virtuosos 
to come on concert tours to America. He was the ever-helping 
friend to young students and teachers. His inborn liberality would 
often let the heart be master of better judgment, but he never 
I'egretted his acts of benevolence, even if sometimes repaid with 
base ingratitude. 

To the astonishment and chagrin of the older and more con- 
servative houses in the piano trade, William started an aggressive 
and heretofore unheard-of advertising campaign. As a competent 
judge he knew that his factories turned out the best pianos that 
could possibly be made, and he was bent not only on letting the 
world know it, but on making the world believe it, as he did. This 
was revolutionary, even shocking, but William persisted until he 
carried his point. 

Having established the fame of his piano in America beyond 
dispute, William looked for other worlds to conquer, and opened 
a branch house in the city of London about the year 1875. Stein- 
way Hall in London was formally opened in 1876. In 1880 the 

310 riAxns AXD 'riii:ii: makkus 

ITainliiiru' ractorics wore started, to .siii)ii]s- the ever-growing Euro- 
pean trade. 

While thus cngagi'd In hnildiiiu' up this great maiivot for the 
])ioduets t)!' the i'aetorie.^, William i'ustered ambitions in other 
directions. Me wantecl to see the name of Steiiiway on tlie map 
<»r Xew ^'ork; and with that vwd in \ie\v he houglit 400 aci'es of 
laud oil the Long Island Sound in tsso, and there created the town 
of Steinwa>. Starting with the erection of a sawmill and iron 
fouinli>-. in course of time the ease and action factoi-ies were 
<'fecte(|, and since 1*)10 the entire ]uano works of Steinway 6c Sons 
hax'e lieeii located at Steinway, L. I., Xew York. 

William Steinway was a strong man in every sense of the word. 
As a young man he was counted among the invincible athletes of 
the (ItTinan Turn \'erein, and even in his later years it was one 
of his pleasantries to com])are nniscular strength wdtli friends. 
To say that mentally he was a giant is no exaggeration. Wlio- 
e\-er can contem])Iate the nuiltitude of details, aside from the 
larger schemes, to which William Stein\vay ])aid closest attention, 
the C()m])lex financial problems which confrojited him in times of 
business depression, the demands made U})on his time by artists, 
members of the press, etc., must wonder how he could pay any 
attention to society or ])ublic affairs. Yet we find that lie was 
often called upon to lead a movement in politics or municipal 
affairs, to which he would res])ond with unw^onted energy and 
ability, j-'oi- 14 years he acted as president of the Liederkranz, 
the leading (lerman singing society of New York. He was director 
in several banks and an active member of leading clubs. Broad- 
minded and liberal to a degree, William Steinway could always 
look far beyond Steinway Hall when danger threatened the 
])iano industry or a helping hand could be extended for uplifting. 
It is unl'oitunate that history never will record his manly and 
heroic actions in the interest of the entire piano inchistry of 



America during' the dark 
days of the great panics of 
1893 and 1896. He stood 
like the Rock of Gibraltar 
against the waves of de- 
struction rampant in those 
days, and l)y his great in- 
fluence in financial circles, 
his sound judgment and 
counsel, protected the credit 
and fair name of the indus- 
try-, often by timely action 
preventing impending disas- 
ter to worthy firms. He ap- 
l^lied himself with such in- 
tensity and abandon to his 
duties that even his won- Albert steiiiway 

derfully robust constitution had to give way under the protracted 
strain and exertion. He died prematurely on November 30, 1896, 
a martyr of conscientious devotion to duty as he saw it. Carl 
Schurz delivered the funeral oration and New York was in 

The youngest son of Henry Engelhardt, Albert Steinwa}^, born 
on June 10, 1840, like his brothers had chosen piano making as his 
life work, and after the death of Charles assumed the manage- 
ment of the factories. He made the application of machinery for 
manufacturing, modern heating and lighting systems his special 
study and thus kept the Steinway factories in the front rank of 
progressive industrial establishments. The development of the 
village of Steinway was mainly his work, and the planning and 
erection of the sawmills, iron foundry, metal shops and case fac- 
tory were entirely in his hands. With that restless zeal so char- 

312 n.WoS AM) TUVMl ^lAKERS 

acteristie of tlic Stcinway t';mii1y, iiruiiiu- liiin to nrpomplisli in a 
^iveii time iiKMf llinn his liddily streiig'tli would iici-iiiit, lie iincler- 
iiiinc(l his iiuiic loo sli-oui;- coiistiliil i(»ii ;iii(l (TkmI at the age of 37 
CM May 14, 1^77. 

Il is almost needless to say that in coui'se of time honors were 
showered upon the house of Steiiiwax', in recognition of its many 
xaluahle eontril)iitioii> to science, art and industry. Theodore and 
William wei-e elected ^Members of the Societies of Art of Berlin, 
i'aris and Stockholm, and William was decorated with the ( 'ross 
of the ]-?ed Eagle by KmjxM'of William of (rermany. The highest 
jtrizes for meritorious })ro(lucts lia\-e in\ai-ial)ly been awarded to 
the lirm wherever theii- pianos have been exhibited, and the leading- 
courts of lMiro]ie and Asia bestowed the honor of appointment as 
"■ special ])ur\"eyors " to Steinway lV: Sons. 

Charles 7T. Steinway, the ]iresident of the cor]~)oration, has 
been honoi-e(l by t li<' Sultan of Tui-key with the ( )rder of the Liakat; 
by the l\epul)lic of France with the Cross of the Legion of Honor; 
by the Shah of Persia with the Order of the Lion and Snn, and by 
the I'hniieror of Uermany with tlie Order of the lied Eagle. 

All of the founders of tlie great house having passed to the 
unknown l)eyond, their work is continued in most effectual man- 
nei- by their scions, who, true to tradition, divide the mani- 
fold duties among themselves, according to their talents and 

('harles TT. Steinway, son of the late Tharles, directs the com- 
mei<'i;il ;ind linancial policy of the corporation. His l)rother, 
Frederick T., is in charge of the factories, assisted by Theodore 
Cassebeer, grandsoll of Doretta Steinway-Ziegler. 

TTenry 55iegler, son of Doi-etta, and luijiil of the late Theodore 
Steinway, is in ehai'ge of the construction de])artment, assisted by 
the late William Steinway's son, Theodore F., whose elder brother, 
AVilliam ii., is in charge of the European business. 



Following their chosen 
leader cheerfully, just as 
Henry Engelhardt's sons ac- 
knowledged their father's 
authority under all condi- 
tions, the active members of 
the House of Steinway not 
only uphold the foremost 
position to which the found- 
ers had attained, but are 
adding new laurels to the 
illustrious name by con- 
stantly improving the qual- 
ity of their instruments and 
extending their influence, as 
leaders of the industry, to 
all parts of the civilized 

Theodore A. Heintzmann is perhaps entitled to the name of 
father of the piano industry in Canada. Born at Berlin, Germany, 
on May 19, 1817, he started as a cabinetmaker, learned keymaking 
with Buchholtz and perfected himself as a piano maker under 
Grunow. After traveling extensively on the Continent of Europe, 
he landed in New York in 1850, where he found work in Liglite & 
Newton's factory. Charles Steinway had his work-bench in the 
same room with Heintzmann. In 1853 he went to Buffalo and 
started the Western Piano Company, which enterprise had to be 
abandoned during the panic of 1857. Moving to Toronto in 1860 
he started a piano shop without any capital, but his instruments 
were of such a high order that he found purchasers for them quite 
easily. The business grew steadily under his energetic manage- 
ment and ranks to-day among the leading industrial establishments 

Theodore A. Heintzmann 



of tli<' Dniiiliiioii. TTciiitz- 
iiiaiiii (lied oil .Inly 25, 
ISD!). 'I'lic ))ii.sinoss lias 
been taken oxer by a eor- 
]inration, in t1ie nmnage- 
ment ol" wliicli roiii' sons 
of tlie late Ueintzmann 
take aetive pai't. 

Anionii,' llu' iiiaiiv Ger- 
mans wlio left tlicii' fa- 
tlierlaiid after tlie failure 
of tlie devolution of 18+8, 
was Ernest Gabler. JJurn 
in Glogan, Silesia, lie 
landed at Xew Yoik in 
1851, and started in busi- 
ness in 1854. Building a 
substantial ]»iano at a 
moderate price, lie met 
Tvith considerable finaneial success. He died February 27, 

A pecn'iar eliaraeter. witli many strong traits, we find in Free- 
born Gai-rettson Siiiilii. I.cai-ning his trade in l>a!tiniore, he worked 
for some time in ( 'bickering's factory. Tn 18(51 be became super- 
intendent foi- William !*>. Ui'adbui-y. IJradlniry was a musician by 
l)rofession, who had bought an interest in the firm of Liglite & 
Newton (established in 1848), and when he dissolved ])artnership 
with i/ightc, he found in Smith a good manager for his factory. 
After Bradbury's death in 18r;7 Smith bought the business, con- 
tinuing the name of Bradbniy. Immediately the commercial in- 
stincts of Smith came to the surface, and he developed greater 

iM'iii'st (Jal)lcr 



F. G. Smith 

talents as a distributor of 
pianos than as a maker. 
Original in his methods, he 
published for a long time a 
testimonial of the well- 
known preacher, T. DeWitt 
Talmage, in which the latter 
declared that if the angels 
are using musical instru- 
ments in heaven, the Brad- 
bury piano would surely be 
there, because of its sweet 

Smith was among the 
first who opened warerooms 
in leading cities, selling his 

product direct to the public rather than through dealers. He is 
counted among the wealthiest of those men in the piano trade who 
have accumulated their fortunes by thrift, energy and exceptional 
business abilitv. 

While working at the melodeon factory of George A. Prince 
& Company of Buifalo, Emmons Hamlin made the important dis- 
covery of " voicing " organ reeds, so that a given reed could be 
made to imitate a clarinet, violin or other instrument. He devel- 
oped this discovery to perfection and in 1854 formed a partner- 
ship with Henry Mason under the firm name of Mason & Hamlin, 
for the purpose of manufacturing a new musical instrument called 
*' organ harmonium." Hamlin was a painstaking, exact working 
mechanic, with considerable genius as an inventor. 

Henry Mason, reared under the best musical traditions of 
Boston, and graduated from a German university, was imbued with 



that artistic devotion to 
iiiusic, which we find to this 
(hite exjivessed in the ahnost 
Ihiwlos instnuiR'iits i)ro- 
diiced hy tlie Masou & Ham- 
lin Company. 

Starting" with a small 
capital, but determined to 
})roduc(' the very best instru- 
ments only, tlie firm met with 
almost instant success. Not 
content with the manufac- 
ture of their humble instru- 
ment, they soon developed 
what has become known as 
the American Cabinet Organ. 
This instrument won for the 
firm a world-wide re])uta- 
tion and the highest possible lionors and awards were be- 
stowed upon their products at all World's Expositions, wherever 

In 1881 the nuinufacture of i>ianos was added to their indus- 
tries. The ^lason & Hamlin ])ian() advanced rapidly in popular 
favor and is acce]ite(l li\ tin' most eminent virtuosos and musicians 
of the day. as an ai'tistic instrnmciit of the highest order. 

Among the pioneers of the melodeon and organ industry was 
Bernhai'd Shoninger, a native of Germany, who landed in America 
in ls47, and started his factory at New Haven, Conn., in 1S50. 
Branching out to the making of ])ianos, he secured for his instru- 
ments the same enviable reputati<in which had been accorded to 
his organs. Bernhard Shoninger died on June 3, 1910. The 

IJcnili.inl Slujiiiiiiier 



business is continued under } 

the able direction of his son, 
S. B. Shoninger. 

Myron A. Decker, born 
at Manchester, N. Y., on 
January 2, 1823, served 
a four-year apprenticeship 
with Viui AVinkle at the time 
when Albert Weber was tak- 
ing his post-graduate course 
in the same shop. He then 
went to work for Boardman 
& Gray at Albany, and 
started a factory in that city 
in 1856, At the State Fair 
held at Syracuse in 1858 
Decker received a diploma 
for the best piano exhibited. 

In 1859 he removed to New York, occupying for many years the his- 
toric building on Third Avenue and Fourteenth Street, in which 
Osborn, and later Worcester, had made pianos many years before. 
In 1877 his son, Frank C, Decker, was admitted to partnership and 
the firm changed to Decker & Son. 

Myron A, Decker died in 1901. He was one of the old .school 
of master mechanics, more concerned in designing and building a 
thoroughly artistic piano than in accumulating wealth. The firm 
was changed to a corporation in 1909, with Frank 0, Decker as 
president and manager. Frank C, Decker, Jr,, grandson of the 
founder, is preparing himself, under the tutelage of his father, to 
perpetuate the well-earned fame of the name of Decker in the piano 

Myron A. Decker 



AiiKiiiu' the I'cw who de- 
voted tliclr li\('s to the one 
object, the iiiipiovemoiit of 
the piano, especially its to- 
nal ([ualities, (u'orge Steek's 
name will cvoi- be iiiontionod 
as one of the first. Born 
near Cassel, Germany, on 
duly 19, 1829, Steck studied 
with tliat celebrated master, 
Carl Scheel of Cassel. 
Coming- to America in 1853, 
he started his factory in 
1857 and met with such ex- 
ceptional success that he 
was able to oi)en Steck Hall 
on Clinton Place, New York 
City, in 1805, where his con- 
cert grand ])ianos were ]ilayed by the leading artists of the day. 
Later on a larger hall was opened on Fourteenth Sti-eet to meet the 
(|('inaii(l> of a steadily growing business. 

Sleek was one of those restless natures who are never satisfied 
with the best of their work. As a scale drawer he had no superior. 
His scales for both grand and u])rigbt ]^ianos have been indus- 
triously copied by makers of commercial pianos, l)ecause of their 
exceptional merit foi- clear and large tone. His concert grands 
lia\-e Ix'cn highly endoiv-ed by Richard Wagner, Sopliie Menter, 
Annette Hssijxjlf, Sir .Julius Benedict and many others. 
I'eeause of tlie o\ee])tional solidity of the St(H'k ]iiano, it 
has been chosen for years by many schools and colleges 
all tlirongh the United States, and has become known as the 
'' school })iano." 

George Steck 



Personally, George Steck 
was a most lovable charac- 
ter, who had no enemies, 
finding pleasure in the pur- 
suit of his art, wltli no par- 
ticular regard for the com- 
mercial end of the business. 
To assure for his co-workers 
proper compensation for 
faithful service, Steck in- 
corporated his business in 
1884, allotting shares of 
stock to his employees. 
Gradually shifting the re- 
sponsibilities and cares upon 
younger shoulders, he retired 
from active participation in 
1887. The last 10 years of 

his life were devoted entirely to his pet scheme of constructing a 
piano which would stand permanently in tune. His experiments in 
that direction were very interesting, but he could not see the fulfill- 
ment of his dream. He died on March 31, 1897. In 1904 the busi- 
ness was consolidated with the Aeolian Company of New York, 
under whose direction the manufacture of the Steck pianos is con- 
tinued with great energy and ability. The business having out- 
grown the home facilities, large additional factories have been 
established at Gotha, Germany, to supply the foreign demand for 
these pianos. 

One of the prominent piano manufacturers of the early days 
was Henry Behning. Born at Hanover, Germany, on November 3, 
1832, he learned piano making with Julius Gercke and came to 

Heiirv Behning 


riAXos AXi) 'nii:ii: ^iakers 

1 1 iil;(i Siihiiicr 

AiiR'i'ica ill 185G. He i'ouiul 
ciiiitloyiiKMit ill tlie slio]) of 
Liglite t^ Xewloii. At the 
oiilbrenk of the Civil War lie 
enlisted with the Union 
Army. Inkiiii;' part in the hos- 
tilities, bnt was soon iioiior- 
al)ly (lisehar.^cd for disabil- 
ity. In iSdl he started in 
business, niakini>' a good 
coniniereial piano. In 1880 
lie admitted liis son Henry to 
partnersbi]i, under the firm 
name of Henry JJehning & 
Son. He retired from busi- 
ness in 1894 and died on 
June 10, 1905. The firm was 

changed in 1894 to the Behning Piano Company, a corporation 
under the management of Heni'v Behning, Jr., and Gustav 

Hugo S(. Inner, horn in the Black Forest, Germany, in 1840, 
liad the bciielit of a classical education, including a thorough study 
of limbic, lie came to New York at the age of sixteen and served 
his a])])renticeship with Sehiitze cV: Ludolff, Jieturning to Ger- 
many he s1ndie(l jhano making for two years in some of the leading 
l'acl<iric> there. In IS'O he founded the firm of Sohmer cV' Coni- 
]ian\-. by taking over the business of Marshall & Mittauer. Sohmer 
is a thoiough piano makei' who has [»atented many improvements, 
cnhancinu- the \'abie of his ])rodnet. With strongly de\'eh)i)ed 
artistic inclination. Sohniei' has ever been satisfied to ])roduce an 
artistic instrninent, i-athei' than to merely manufacture large quan- 



Among the firms that 
have succeeded iu iDroducing 
a high-grade piano and scor- 
ing at the same time a re- 
markable financial success, 
Jacob Brothers stand pre- 
eminent. Charles Jacob stud- 
ied piano making with Calen- 
berg & Vaupel, who stood 
high among the masters of 
their day, while his brother, 
John F. Jacob, worked for 
years with Hardman, Peck 
& Company, and Billings & 
Wlieelock. They started in 
business in 1878. After the 
death of John F. in 1885, • ciuuies Jawb 

the youngest brother, C. Albert, was admitted to the firm, and 
in 1902 the business was incorporated. Besides their own ex- 
tensive factory, this corporation owns the Wellington Piano Case 
Company, the Abbott Piano Action Company and has also taken 
over the Matlmshek & Son Piano Comi)any, and the old established 
business of James & Holmstrom, all of which are continued with 
marked success under the presidency of Charles Jacob, assisted 
by his brother Albert. 

One of the most interesting characters in the historv of the 
piano industry was Frederick Mathushek, born at Mannheim on 
June 9, 1814. He learned piano making at Worms. After serving 
his apprenticeship, he traveled through Germany and Austria, and 
finally landed in Henri Pape's shop at Paris, where he became thor- 
oughly infected with that inventor's bacteria. Eeturning to 


riAXos AXi) THi-:n? makebs 

Worms, lie began to build 
I reak pianos similar to those 
111' had .seen at i*ai)e's. One 
oL' his octagon " tal)le ])i- 
anos, " built at Worms, is 
among- the collection of an- 
ti(iue pianos at the Ibacli 
Museum at Jjarmcii. Al- 
though a splendid workman 
and ])articularly gifted tone 
specialist, which enal)led him 
to build su[)erior artistic pi- 
anos, liis business was not a 
success financially. 

In 1849 :\ratliushek landed 
in Xew York, and was imme- 
diately engaged by John B. 
Dunham to draw new scales 
and make other improvements. It is said that ]\raihushek drew a 
scale fur o\erslrung scjuai-e ])ianos in Dunham's shop in 1850. It 
has never been dis])uted that the rejmtation which the Dunham 
l)ianos enjoyed in their day was due to the work of Mathushek. It 
was here, also, that he constructed his inano hammer-covering 
machine, which has been used as a foundation for all later iniprove- 
meiils ill that line. 

In 1852 ^fathushek started again on his own account, continuing 
until ls57, when Spencer 15. Driggs tempted him with most lil)- 
eral oilers to woi-k out the vague, not to say wild, notions which 
Driggs had conceived of revolutionizing the construction of the 
piano. It was impossible for even so great and versatile a genius 
as Mathushek tu achieve any practical results by following JJriggs* 


ideas, and we find liim in 1866 as head of the Mathushek Piano 
Company, at New Haven, Conn. It was here that he did his best 
work. His invention of the linear bridge and equalizing scale 
enabled him to produce in his small " Colibri " piauo a tone richer 
and fuller than could be found in many a large square piano, while 

Mathusliek's " Table Piauo," from the Ibach CoUeotioa 



liis oi'fliostral s^qnnre piano 

lias iicxcr hccii excelled, if it 

e\'ei- had its peer. In xdliiiue 

and iiiusical (pialily ol" tone 

tliese orcliostral s(|Tiavo ]ii- 

aiios were far siipei-ioi' to 

iiiaii\- of the slioii ,urand 

pianos of the ]>resent time, 

jMi^^^^tF ^ |i()ssessing, especially in tlie 

W W^^^ J^ middle i-e,i>'ister, an almost 

^^^^ .^H^P hewiteliing- sweet mellowness 

^^^^^»- of tone, reminding vividly of 

the cello tones. TTnfortu- 
nately for ]\Iathnsliek, the 
owners of the company soon 
commercialized the product, 
and his dream of some day 
])uilding a concert grand pi- 
ano such as he liad in his mind was never realized. 

lie drew many grand piano scales for other manufacturers, 
hut, strange as it may sound, Alathushek's scales were only a suc- 
cess Avhen he could woi-k out the entire ])iano as he conceived it 
in his own mind. It is no exaggeration to state that Matlmshek 
could, as a voicer, produce a tone ([uality in his own ])ianos that 
no other man could imitate. The author had the })rivilege of 
woi-king alongside Matliushek for a munher of yeai-s at the New 
lla\(Mi fadory and ohserx'ed the radical 1 1'ansformalion of tone 
(piality after ]\Iathushek had gone over the hammers with his 
tools. A good 1 (layer of the ])iano, with a wonderfully sensitive 
ani1 traiiie(] r\\\\ he <|iricl<ly detected an almost imperceptible short- 
coming and usually knew how to correct it. llis fault, if it is to 

Frederick ^hithiisliek 


be called so, was liis irresistible restlessness in seeking for im- 
provements, whit'li often robbed him of his night's rest and 
prompted continual changes while a large number of pianos were 
in course of construction. Modern manufacturing methods do not 
permit of too much experimenting, and like his master, Pape, 
Matlmshek died a poor man. In 1871 he left New Haven, and with 
his grandson started the firm of Mathushek & Son in New York. 
It was finally changed to a corporation and consolidated with 
Jacob Brothers, under whose able management the business has 

It is impossible to discuss or even to enumerate the manifold 
inventions of Frederick Mathushek. He was even more prolific 
than Henri Pape, but differed from Pape in not being given to 
merely experiment with ideas for the sake of novelty. 

Mathushek 's whole existence was dominated by the desire to 
produce in a piano that ideal musical tone which he could hear 
mentally, just as the deaf Beethoven heard his symphonic poems 
when he wrote them. Mathushek never had an opportunity to 
develop what he had in mind and felt in his soul. He came near 
to it in his orchestral square piano, and almost accomplished his 
aim in his ecpiilibre system. The piano industry of America is 
largely indebted for its wonderful development to the genius of 
Frederick Mathushek. He died November 9, 1891. 

AVith hope and high ambition, William E. Wheelock entered the 
trade in 1873, at the age of twenty-one years, as a member of the 
firm of Billings & AVheelock. In 1877 the i)artnership was dis- 
solved, and he began the manufacture of the Wheelock piano. 
In 1880 the firm name became William E. Wheelock & Co. The 
demand for the Wheelock piano had increased so rapidly that 
better facilities became necessary, and a large factory with grounds 
comprising 21 city lots on 149tli Street, New York, was acciuired. In 
1886 the Stuyvesant Piano Company was started to meet the de- 



iiiaiid for a modium-priced 
jMaiio. ami in ISDi' control 
of the Inisiiiess of the 
hite Albert Wohor was 
obtained. Wheelock and 
liis partners, ("liai'les B. 
Lawsoii and Joliii W. ^la- 
son, ori;anJzed the Weber 
l^iano (*oni]iany and tlms 
l)ecame the tirst nianufac- 
tnrers who could offer to 
the trade a full line of the 
most merchantable i»rades: 
the Weber, a piano of 
llie liii>hest reputation and 
(inalities; the Wheelock, as 
a first-class instrument, and 
the medium priced Stuy- 
vesant — all made in sepa- 
lale factories, bul prac- 
tically under one contiol 
and managenu'iit. This idea, later on, was successfully followed 
by many of llic Icadino- concerns in the Ignited States. When the 
opiK)rtunity to consolidate his three comi)anies with the Aeolian 
interests presented itseil" in 1903, Wheelock saw the greater possi- 
bilil\' I'oi- ihc t'liliirc of his enterprise in such a combination and 
entered into the aiTaiii^cmciil whereljy he became treasurer of the 
now and largei- c(»i-p(ti alioii tlien foi'iiuMl, while remainin,i>' ])resi- 
de?il of the x'X'cral piano companies of which t'oi' manv vears he 

II *' *' 

]iad ])een the head. 

Educated as a musician, liecomini-- a \iolinist and orchestra 
conductor of note, Simon I\i-akaiicr, l)oi'n at Kissingen, Gei'uuiny, 

hjui<^u^<^ (^^d^Jl^^^^A. 



in 1816, came to America in 
1854 and started manufac- 
turing i)ianos in 18G9, witii 
liis son David, who had 
learned the trade in A. H. 
Gale's shop and later on 
worked for Haines Brothers 
and other New York makers. 

It was but natural that 
the thorough musician, Kra- 
kauer, should strive to build 
an artistic piano, making 
quality the dominant effort, 
seeking to obtain musical 
tone quality. In 1867 Julius 
and Daniel Krakauer joined, 
and the firm was changed 
to Krakauer Brothers. In 

1903 the concern was incorporated. David Krakauer died in 1900, 
and his father in 1905. 

William B. Tremaine, born in 1840, entered the piano business 
in 1868 as a member of the firm of Tremaine Brothers. A man of 
restless disposition, cultured and versatile, he seized upon oppor- 
tunities whenever presented. When Mason J. Mathews had his 
orguinette ready for the market, Tremaine organized in 1878 the 
" Mechanical Orguinette Company," and marketed these auto- 
matic instruments by the thousands. Later on the " Celestina " 
(an enlarged orguinette) was introduced with considerable suc- 
cess, and in 1883 the Aeolian organ was brought out. Acquiring 
in 1888 the patents and stock in trade of the Automatic Music 
Paper Company of Boston, Tremaine organized the Aeolian Organ 
& Music Company, manufacturing automatic organs and music 

Simon Krakauer 




Sncooss crown ino: 

his clVorts, he i)iircliased 
ill Isdl' ;ill the patents 
owned hy the Moni'oe 
Oi'nan liccd ( "onijiaiiy of 
\\'oreester, and in 1S1)5 
introduced the " Aeriol " 
seli'-phiying- ])ian(). 

W. B. Treniaine was 
the founder of the busi- 
ness of manufaeturing 
automatic phiying musical 
instruments. Before the 
advent of the " Pianohi " 
there was neither competi- 
tion nor encouragement 
from tlie i)iano trade, and 
it re(|uired a man of keen 
foresight and coui'age to meet these conditions and make a suc- 
cess of the business, as lie did. up 1o tlie time of his relin(iuishing 
it to liis son. 

Many writers i)()int to tlie fact that a large number of our 
ca]>tains of imbistry have l)een born on a farm, have lacked higher 
education and had 1o " make themselves," inferring, if not ])Osi- 
tively asserting, that greatness in man can only originate on the 
soil or ill the dwelling of the i»ooi-. In ISOf! a boy was born in 
the city of iirooklyn who was christened Harry 15. Treniaine. 
The father and mother, highly educated ]»eo]>le of culture and 
refinement, brought up their boy with all the advantages which a 
large city offers. Unlike the country lad, young Treniaine saw 
the sky-scra])ing office buildings of Xew York go up, saw the 
traffic on its thoroughfares, the shi[)s in the harbor, loading and 

\\ illiain B. Treniaine 



unloading merchandise to 
and from all quarters of the 
globe. He was not awe- 
struck. It looked natural to 
him. He saw it every day 
when he went to school, but 
he observed and absorbed. 
Contrary to the old prescrip- 
tion according to which the 
great men of the future had 
to leave the schoolroom at 
the age of 13 or 14 to learn 
a trade, young Tremaine 
wanted to go to the high 
school. Instinctively, he felt 
that there must be a big 
story back of all this commo- 
tion on Broadway and in 

Wall Street, there must be laws and system behind all of 
it, and he wanted to know them before he would attempt to take 
his place on the stage as one of the actors. That he would 
play a leading role was beyond question for him, but he 
wanted to be well prepared to know his lines and what they 

In Harry B. Tremaine we meet the new element in the business 
world. The thorough education which he had enjoyed had trained 
his mind in logical reasoning, supporting his large vision for utili- 
zation of modern inventions and discoveries on a large scale. 
Tremaine had the great advantage that he had nothing to forget. 
He also knew how to apply all that he had learned in relation to 
modern economics. When he, in 1898, took charge of the business 
of the Aeolian Company as president, he surveyed the situation as 

Harry B. Tremaine 



it presented itself. His 
fatlier had laid a good 
t'oiuidatioii. Votey had 
IK'rl'ected his ]*iaiiola. 
How to oxi)l()it what he 
round, to its riilicst ex- 
tent, was the problem 
for Tremaine to solve. 
Believing with the en- 
thusiasm of youth in 
the almost boundless 
eommercial possibilities 
of the new automatic 
a])])liances for musical 
instruments, he knew 
that success was only 
ol)tainable if adequate 
ca])itai couhl be coin- 
bined with the manu- 
facturing and selling 
organi/at ion liicii at his conunand. So strong was his faith, so plau- 
sibh' tliL" i.lans which he had worked out that he did succeed in inter- 
esting men of affairs, and ol^tained cajjital by the millions for the 
fiirtlici'ancc of his ambitions plans. Backed l)y this abundant capi- 
tal, he lost no time in setting his machinery in motion. The adver- 
tising cam]iaign for the Pianola, which he inaugurated immediately, 
stunned tlic old-timers in the piano trade. Dire disaster was 
])i'o])hesiod by many, but Tremaine knew his cards, liis carefully 
laid |ihins did not miscarry and no one to-day denies him the credit 
of liaving blasted and ]:>aved the way for the po])ularity of the 
])lay('i- ])iano. Like all gi'cat Us-kUm-s, Tremaine lias tlie talent to 
pick the right man for the right ]>lace. He found an able assistant 

Edward It. I'crUins 



in Edward R. Perkins, 
who joined the Aeolian 
forces in 1893 at the age 
of 24. Perkins exhibited 
such ability and strength 
that he was intrusted with 
the responsible position of 
vice-president and general 
manager when the greater 
organization was completed. 

William E. Wheelock 
came into the fold as i^resi- 
dent of the Weber Piano 
Company in 1903, and is 
now in charge of the finan- 
cial dei)artnient as treas- 
urer of the corporation. 

Tremaine understands 
the economy of high-priced labor. When he wanted to build 
the best player pianos he secured the services of Pain, 
Votey, Kelly and others of ability. Just as soon as he was 
ready to enter the piano field proper, he associated with the 
Weber and Steck piano, and finally made a combination with the 
house of Steinway for the exclusive use of the Pianola in their in- 
struments. Knowing that large capital can be economically apjolied 
only under conditions of increasing returns, which again are only 
possible with relatively large markets, he branched out and went into 
the markets of Europe, Asia, South America and Australia. For 
the stimulus of the home market bidding for the patronage of the 
wealthy, Tremaine built Aeolian Hall, in the very heart of New 
York's fashionable c[uarters, engaging the best artists to demon- 

Edwin 8. Votey 


strato tlie value of liis 
jii'odnets at the elegant 
auditoiiuin. In 1!H).') lie oi-- 
gaiiized the Aeolian, Weber 
Piano *.V: l^ianola Company, 
eapitalized at ^10,000,000 
and eontrolling the following 
subsidiary companies: The 
Aeolian ('om])any, tlie Or- 
chestrelle Company (Lon- 
don), The Chora lion Com- 
pany (Berlin), The Aeolian 
Com]^any, Ltd. (Paris), The 
Pianola Company Proprie- 
tary, Ltd. (Melbourne and 
Sydney), the Weber Piano 
Company, George Steek & 
Company, Wlieelock Piano 
Company, Stnyvesant Piano Company, Chilton Piano Com- 
pany, Teehnola Piano (^ompany, Votey Organ Company, Vocalian 
Organ Com])any and the Universal Mnsie Company. These eom- 
panies give emi)l()yment to abont 5,000 ])oople, scattered all over 
the world. Aside fiom the extensive piano factories in New York 
City, and the pla>('r factories at Garwood and Meriden, there is 
a Sleek piano factory at Gotha, Germany, ])rodncing 3,500 pianos 
annnall\, and a lai-ge factory for the Weber i^iano Company is 
in cdiirsc of const ruction at TTayes, near London. Operating as 
independent concerns, these com])anies are capitalized at about 
Jr4,000,000. 'I'lie total capital em])loyed under the direction of 
llany 15. Treniaine amounts to ^^15,500,000, which is more than 
tlie capital inxcsted in the entife piano and organ industry of the 
T^nited Staler in iSiK). 

George 15. Kdlv 


The remarkable results achieved by Tremaine within so short 
a time can be accounted for by the fact that he learned from history 
what others had to learn in the dreary school of experience. As 
an observant student, he saw the potentialities of mechanical a])- 
])liances for musical instruments and knew how to develop tliem. 
A genius as an organizer, he believes in combination of capital 
and brains, division of labor and responsibilities, and adequate 
compensation for all. He has proven that a higher education is 
not an hindrance for advancement, but a necessity for progress in 
industrial, commercial or financial pursuits. He has made his 
record in breaking the path for the new school of industrial revo- 
lutionists in the piano industry. A pioneer of the most forceful, 
aggressive type, he is withal of a gentlemanly and most retiring 
disposition, shunning publicity to an unwarranted degree. 

William B. Tremaine died in 1907, having seen his work bear 
fruit a thousand-fold under the magic wand of his gifted son. 

How rapidly the player piano is forging to the front, with almost 
irresistible force, is clearly demonstrated by the tremendous growth 
of such factories as seem to know how to serve the public best. 

Among those the Autopiano Company has made its mark by 
producing a player piano of distinctly original construction and 

The demand for their player has always been ahead of the 
capacity to supply, and artists of the highest standing are praising 
the dominant features which distinguish this instrument from 
many others. Although established only 8 years (1903) the Auto- 
piano Company, under the aggressive management of President 
R. W. Lawrence, has risen to a position of one of the largest pro- 
ducers of player pianos. Manufacturing thoroughly reliable in- 
struments and employing comprehensive, modern business methods 
the Autoj^iano Company is rendering valuable service for the 
introduction of the player piano. 


lU'('nii>;o of tlic iiii])otiis o-jvon to tlio ])]ny(M--])inTio indiiF^try by 
the exteiisi\<' advertisiim- of llie Aeolinii ( 'oiiip.-iiiy, Wilcox tV White 
Coinpaiiy ainl others, a deiiiaiul for a rdiahie phiyer action made 
itself forc'il)ly felt. Chai'h's Kolilcr seized ii])on the o])]iortunity 
and cstahlishc'd tite Auto-i'neiiiualie Action Company in IDUU, He 
secured llic a('ti\e assistance of AV. J. Keeley, Thomas l)an<|nard 
and other experts. Dampmrd obtained a i)ateiit in tiH)4 for a 
dc\ ice caUcd the " f1exil)h' Hiii>er," by means of whicii the wipi)en 
of the piano action is attached direct to tiie player mechanism, thus 
eliiiiiiiatiiiii- the harshness of contact and impartiiii>- elasticity with- 
out interfering with the function of the })iano action. 

Because of their excellent quality a large number of piano manu- 
facturers have ado])ted these actions for their player pianos. The 
Aulo-i'neuniatic Action Comi)any is perhaps the largest producer 
of ydayer mechanism at the present time. 

The Standard Pneumatic Action Com]iany, the Ampliion Com- 
pany. Aiiston Company, Gul])ransen-Dickinson Company, Chase 
& Baker Com])any and Simplex Piano-Player Company are also 
making history for the player piano. 

Among the ])heiiomenal successes of latter days, the firm of 
Kohlci- cV ('anipl)ell >1aiids pre-eminent, beginning with a small 
cai>ital in isiKi, this firm has i)laced over 120,000 pianos on the 
mai-ket within 14 years. 

John Calvin Canii»l)eli, horn at Newark, N. J., in lS(i4, Avas 
a mechanical genius. After serving his a|)prenticesliip as a 
machinist, he turned to constiMiction, and invented several useful 
wood and Iron working machines. In 18f)0 he took uj) ))iano mak- 
ing and made a scientilic study of piano construction, lie was 
so successfnl that his pianos were at once acce])ted 1)y the wliole- 
sale ti'ade as of splendid connnercial value, and he saw his fii-ni 
rise to unexi)ected magnitude. He died in 1!)08. 

To his snr\ i\ ing partner, Charles Kolilei-, the credit is due of 
organizing the great business in such a manner as to keep pace 



with the demand for their 
pianos. Born at Newark, 
N. J., in 18(J8, lie attended 
the public school and studied 
for one year at Princeton p 
College. At the age of 20 
he turned to piano making. 
Establishing the firm of 
Kohler & Campbell, he found 
opportunity to display his 
remarkable talent as a fac- 
tory organizer and business 
man. Supjilementing Camp- 
bell's ingenious construction 
with thorough workmanship 
in all details of the piano, he 
made advantageous use of 
modern methods in manufac- 
turing and produced a fine piano, which he could offer at tempting 
prices to large distributors. The remarkable fact is to be recorded 
that among his largest customers are piano manufacturers of note 
who carry the Kohler & Campbell pianos in their various retail 

Naturally modest and of a retiring disposition, Kohler has not 
been active in any of the general trade movements, but that he will 
be called upon to take his part in time to come is warranted by 
the record which he has made. 

The American Piano Company of New York, incorporated in 
June, 1908, is another of the modern combinations of large estab- 
lishments. Capitalized at $12,000,000, it controls the factories of 
Chickering & Sons, in Boston; William Knabe & Company, in 
Baltimore; Haines Brothers, Marshall & Wendell, Foster & Com- 

John C. Campbell 


)>aiiy. Aiiii>ti(»ni;-, Rrowstor and J. B. Cook companies, located at 
Kocliestci-. X. \'. ('. II. W. l-\)st('r of C'liickeriiig «S: 8ons is presi- 
dent (»r llii> coiiiiiaii} . with (ieorge C Foster, George L. Eaton, 
Charles 11. I'iddy and William \\. Ai'iiistroiig as vice-presidents. 
A\'liile maintaining retail warerooms at New Y'ork, Boston, Balti- 
more and Washington, this comi)any distributes its products else- 
^vhel•e tliruiigh dealei's exclusively. 

TIk" house of ^^'ing c^' Son, Xew Yoi'k, was founded in 1868 by 
Tamian W. Wing, as pai'tnci' in the lirni of Doane, Wing & Cushing. 
Lnnian B. AVing died in 1873, and was succeeded by his son, Frank 
J>. Wing, who admitted li. Delano Wing (his son) to partnership in 
1905. Tills firm is ])r()l)ably the pioneer of the mail-order busi- 
ness in jiianos. Building a reliable instrument, the concern has 
met with uninterrupted success during the 43 years of its 

Xew ^'o^k is ])r()ud of such names as Kranicli & Bach, Stricli & 
Zcidler, ^Iclilin cV Sons, Behr Brothers, Lauter (of Newark), 
W^issner, Stultz & Bauer, Ludwig & Company, Pease Piano C^om- 
paii\. Winter cV Com])any and otliers who are making history as 
nianut'act ui'ers of meritorious ])ianos. 

riiiladelpliia has, besides the time-honored Schomacker, the 
Bla>ius, the Lester and the Cunningham Piano companies — all of 
whom are as t I'ue to the traditions of honest values in pianos as 
any the old (j)naker City has ever ])roduced. 

Among tile fii-ms wlio liave <lone nmcli to keep Boston to the 
front is the Henry V. Miller & Sons Pijino Company. Henry F. 
Miller, born at Providence, R. I., on September 25, 1825, was edu- 
cated as a musician and ac(|uired a rejmtation es])ecially as an 
organist. His coimuercial inclimition pronijited him, however, to 
accept an offer of the Boston ])iano makers. Brown & Allen, to join 
their forces in 1850. After stud\ ing with this concern for seven 



years, lie accepted a more 
promising position with en- 
terprising Emerson, and in 
1863 started, in connection 
with J. H. Gibson, wlio was 
an expert scale draughts- 
man and constructor, to 
make the " Miller " piano. 
Success followed his efforts, 
and in course of time he 
admitted his five sons to 
X^artnership, incorporating 
finally under the name of 
Henry F. Miller & Sons 
Piano Company. He died on 
August 4, 1884, at Wakefield. 
His sons took up the work 
of their father under the leadership of Henry F. ]\[iller, Jr., con- 
tinually improving their product so that many of the greatest 
virtuosos are using the Miller grand pianos in their concert work. 
Besides paying proper attention to the development of the musical 
character of their instruments, Miller & Sons were among the 
first and most persistent advocates of architecturally correct 
designs for piano cases, and achieved marked success in that direc- 
tion as well. 

Aside from the many illustrious names founded many years 
ago, Boston can proudly point to younger firms, who by superior 
merit of their production are adding new luster to its fame as a 
piano-producing center of the highest order. It was in 1883 that 
Frank A. Lee joined the John Church Company of Cincinnati, 
and in November of that year the Everett Piano Company was 

Henrv F. Miller 



st;n'1('(l ill Boston through 
his efforts. The name Ever- 
ett was elioseii by Cliurch 
l)eeause of its en))lionions 
clearness, wliicli makes it as 
easy to I'emember as it is 
easy to sjx'll. .loliti Chuivh 
and the other associates of 
Lee, liaving been piano deal- 
ers for many years, started 
out to bnihl a commercial 
piano, but as soon as Lee be- 
came i^resident of the Ev- 
erett Piano C^ompany he 
changed that policy and be- 
gan to make pianos of the 
highest order. It took years 
of perseverance, and often 
discouraging trials, to obtain for the Everett piano that recog- 
nition as an artistic ]nano which it deserved. Lee never lost faith 
in its lilt i male success, and through liis determination, ably as- 
sisted liy tlie ai-tistry of his su])(>rint(>iident, John Anderson, he 
fiiiMlly had the satisfaction of seeing his concert grands used by 
Keisenauer, Dr. Xeitzel, ( 'haiiiinade, Cai'reno and other leading 
virtuosos, and the Everett ])ianos admitted among the selected 
leaders of the woi'ld's piaiKxhuii. 

Tlie Jolin ('liurcli (^oiiipaiiy also controls the Harvard Piano 
Coiii|i;iii\- of Dayton, Ky., and, with its large catalogue as music 
piililishei's, is a grcnt f;ictor in the music world. Frank A. Lee, as 
])resident, has guided the destiny of this great com])any since 1894. 
The Iveis & Pond, Briggs, Merrill, Hume, Jewett and Poole 
Companies, Tlieodore J. Kraft and others are ni-iintainhig the tradi- 



tions of famous Boston mak- 
ers and assisting creditably 
in making history for tlie 

Turning to the West, we 
encounter a gahixy of bril- 
liant men to whose excep- 
tional talents, business acu- 
men, shrewdness and cour- 
ageous farsightedness the 
unparalleled development of 
the industry in that part of 
the country must be ascribed. 
The most prominent figure 
was William Wallace Kim- 
ball. Descending from good 
old English stock, Kimball 
was born on a farm in Oxford 

County, Maine, in 1828. After passing through the high school 
he practiced teaching for a while, but soon became a commercial 
traveler. In his wanderings he came to Chicago, and was so 
impressed with the future possibilities of the little city that he 
made it his home and established himself as a piano dealer in 
1857. He sold the Chickering, Hal let & Davis and Emerson pianos 
largely in his early days. AVhen Joseph P. Hale introduced his 
commercial piano, Kimball took hold of it with such energy that 
he soon became the largest piano dealer in the West. The great 
Chicago tire of 1871 did not spare Kimball's warerooms, which 
were entirely destroyed. Kimball immediately ordered a new stock 
of pianos from his manufacturers, turning his home into an office 
and the barn into a piano wareroom until he could find new quar- 



tors ill the business center of 
the city. In what liii^'li es- 
teem Kimball was held by 
the people of u'lioiu he 
bought is shown by the faet 
that Hale, of New York, tele- 
g'ra])lie(l him on the day of 
the lire, " You can draw on 
me at oneo for $1()0,000." 
Hale appreciated the good 
customer and demonstrated 
unlimited faith in Kimball's 

A born organizer, Kim- 
l)all outgrew the limited 
sphere of the local ])iano 
dealer. lie branched out and 
became a jobber on n large 
scale. Among his first em])loyees was a lank and lean farm- 
er's boy from Wisconsin, who showed such aptness for the 
])usin('ss that ho soon became KimbalTs right-hand man. Edwin 
Stai>k'ton ("onway was just the man to carry out K'iinhairs far- 
reaching plans. The west being sparsely settled in those days, 
hul rapidl} lilling up with a s[)lundid class of wealth-producing 
farmers, ]»ianos were not in great demand. Kiml)all resolved to 
hiinu' the pianos lo the farnici-'s door, lie made Conway the 
general field organizer, whose duty it was to travel from place 
to place and select in each town the brightest vouiig fellow who 
eould be liMisled will) consignments of organs and pianos, which 
he was to sell to the farmers of his neigiil)orhood. Conway's 
personality, his energx', [)ower of persuasion and convincing man- 


ners fitted him excellently 
for that work, and many a 
prosperous dealer of the mid- 
dle west proudly calls him- 
self to-day a ' ' Conway Boy, ' ' 
meaning that he was induced 
by Conway to enter the field 
and profited by Conway's 
coaching. Pretty soon Kim- 
ball had a net of agencies 
covering the entire western 
country and the proceeds of 
his yearly sales of pianos 
and organs ran into the mil- 
lions of dollars. 

Bright and early, on a 
spring morning, Conway 
blew into the author's office, 
in New York, explaining in a 

few words that he had finally convinced the '^ Governor " of the ne- 
cessity of making his own organs at Chicago, and now wanted all 
the information he could get, in order to buy material. Kimball 
had resolved to climb a step higher and become a manufacturer. 
Success was a foregone conclusion, because he controlled the outlet 
of thousands of organs, and even his piano sales at that time 
exceeded the imposing number of 4,000 per year. When the 
organ manufacturing was well under way, he started in 1882 his 
piano factory. At stated before, Kimball was a born organizer. 
With unerring eye he always understood how to pick the right 
man for the right place and to keep him there. ' When his manu- 
facturing department assumed greater proportions he sent for 

Edwin S. Conway 


riAXOS Axn ttietr makers 

Ills nephew, AV. Lufkin, and 
cliar^-ed him with the nian- 
a.^ement tliereof, although 
i^iilkin Jiad, up to that time, 
iievei- l)een inside of a ])iano 
or organ factory. Kimball 
was original in all that he 
did. lie reasoned that, for 
the management of sneh big 
factories as he contemi)lated, 
a man brought np at the 
workdjench or at an office 
desk would have too narrow 
a vision. He wanted a man 
who would just as readily 
plan to make 30,000 instru- 
w. Luikiii ments a year as 5,000. Luf- 

kin was that man. He made the first 5,000 pianos, and is 
turning out oO,000 instruments per year now, including most 
imposing church organs. Without a doubt, the Kimball factories 
stand without a parallel. Not only are they ])roducing all i)arts 
of the i)iano, from the case U}), including iron plates, actions and 
keys, but since 1904 the entire mechanism of the ]>layer ]nano has 
been also made there, including the music rolls. To the small 
])arl(»i- oigan, the building of church organs was added in 1890. 
Kimball reversed the order of things. Two hundred years ago 
the ciiuich-organ builders made pianos as a side issue. Kim- 
ball, evolving from a small retail dealer to the largest piano 
manufacturer in the world, became a church-oi'gan builder as 

Kimball, not so bold as Conway, listened carefully to the lat- 
ter 's aggressi\e plans, worked them down to the line of safe pos- 



sibility and then cliarged 
Lufkin with making the 
goods which Conway had to 
sell. A splendid trio, with a 
most able leader, and hence 
the unparalleled success. 
Kimball saw his business 
grow to an institution with a 
turnover of over $4,000,000 
per annum. He died on De- 
cember 15, 1904. The corpo- 
ration is continued with C. 
N, Kimball as president, E. 
S. Conway, vice-president, 
and W. Lufkin, treasurer. 

H. D. Cable, born at AVal- 
ton, N. Y., in 1849, spent his 
early days on a farm. After 

attending the AValton Academy, he turned to teaching, with 
such success that at the age of 17 he was elected principal 
of the schools at Easton, Pa., and a year later appointed 
superintendent of schools at Williamsport, Pa. In 1869 the pub- 
lishing house of Barnes & Company sent him to Chicago as man- 
ager of their western department, and for 11 years Cable filled that 
responsible position with great success and fidelity. In 1880 he 
formed a partnership with the organ builder, F. E. AYolfinger, 
organizing the Wolfinger Organ Company, which was changed to 
the Western Cottage Organ Company, and later on to the Chicago 
Cottage Organ Company. 

Cable applied the methods used in selling books, as far as pos- 
sible, to the organ and piano business, with amazing success. Like 




Aic^^i U-YV^I^A^ 

Kiiiil)all, lie was a born or- 
ganizer and ail excellent 
Jiidii'e of incii and tlicii- abili- 
ties. 'Tile li-ainini;- wlilcli lie 
lia<l ('nj()y(Ml in llic book- 
sell in, i;- Imsiness impelled him 
to introduee system in his 
inannracturing- and sellini? 
organization, with all that 
lliis woi'd implies in modern 
business management, and 
))erha])s be was the first in 
the piano industry to profit 
hy the application of scien- 
tific accounting. At all 
events, his success w^as so 
ra})id, and his business as- 
sumed such immense propor- 
tions, that it became the wonder of his contemporaries. 

Of an exceedingly nervous tom]^erament, Cable was not only 
a rapid thinker, but also a worker of extraordinary capacity. Him- 
self the soul of honor and integrity, he treated everybody on that 
l)asis, ami liis keen judgment assisted his intuition in making bold 
iiioNcs (in the cliessboard of trade with advantageous results. 
Stalling out in his enterprises l)y catering to the demands of the 
masses, he aimed for the highest in his i)iaiio production, and in 
IS'JI) lie coTisolidated the business of (\)novei' Bi'others, of New 
York, with hi> own, secni-ing at the same time the valuable assist- 
ance of that eniiiienl piano constructor, rJ. Frank Oonover, for the 
manufacture of the Coiiovcr piano. As his business assumed 
larger pro]iortions, he called his brothers, Hobart M. and Fayette 

... 1 


S. Cable, to his aid, and, al- 
though he had surrounded 
himself with a number of 
able men, his close personal 
application to the complex- 
ities of his large business 
finally undermined his con- 
stitution and he died pre- 
maturely on March 2, 1899, 
at the age of 50. 

The business, having 
been incorporated, has been 
continued, but the name of 
the comjDany was changed to 
the Cable Company, in 
honor of the founder. F. S. 
Cable served as president 
until 1903, when he started 
in business on his own account. He was succeeded by F. S. 
Shaw, under whose able management the company largely ex- 
tended its activities, adding a department for plaj^er pianos, 
and paying careful attention to the development of the artistic 
Conover x^iano, preparing for the introduction of the same on the 
concert platform. In the short space of 20 years the Cable Com- 
pany has attained a position as one of the great leaders of the 
western continent, and the genius of H. D. Cable has shown to 
contemporaries the great possibilities of the piano business in its 
legitimate channels. 

Lucien AYulsin, born in Louisiana in 1845, came with his fa- 
ther's family to Cincinnati in his early childhood. He went 
through the Cincinnati public school and part of the high school. 
At the age of 19 he enlisted with the Union army, at first serving 


in a Koiitncky iiir;iiiti> hnltalion, and from January, 1864, until the 
c'lul of llu' war, in tiie IVmrlli Ohio Cavalry, In Marcli, 1866, lie 
ontcrod tlio employ of 0. IT. Baldwin, a nmsic toaelior, who was 
feelliiii;' til*' nc<'l<*'r I'milicrs' i)ianos in Cincinnati. AVnlsiu started 
ill as a rici k, hookkcciuT and g-eneral factotum, and made himself 
so useful that lie was a(hnitted to i)artnership in 1873, the firm 
iianic bet'Diuiiii;' 1 ). 11. Ijaldwin & Company. 

An era of expansion and larger activity was inaugurated. As 
tlie lii^l move, a branch store was opened at Tndiana])olis. In 
1878 the Louisville branch was started under the management of 
Ji. A. Johnston, who was made a partner in 1880. After John- 
ston's death in 1882, George AV. Armstrong, Jr., Clarence Wulsin 
and A. A. \'an Buren, who had been employed by the firm for a 
number of j^ears, became ])artners. With the growth of the busi- 
ness the necessity of manufacturing became more and more ap- 
parent, and in 1881) the Hamilton Organ Company was organized 
as a subsidiary concern for the making of organs — the Baldwin 
riaiio (\)mi)any, X'alley (Jem Piano Company and Ellington Piano 
('ompaiiN' soon follo\ving. Later on the Hamilton Piano Com- 
liaii\ was formed, and the firm of D. H. Baldwin & Company 
changed into a corporation under the title of The Baldwin 
Com])any, the latter controlling all the above subsidiary com- 

1). 11. lialdwin died in ]8i)9, leaving the l)ulk of his estate for 
niissionar\- purposes. Ordinarily this would have meant the wind- 
ing lip of the hiisiness, in order to pay out the large amount which 
represented Baldwin's interest, but AVulsin did not ])ropose to 
have the work of his life destroyed through an act of the man 
whom he had made wealthy by his 33 years of faithful devotion. 
Together with Armstrong he arranged to buy all the stock of the 
Jjaldwin estate and of the only remaining partner, A. A. Van 


Freed from all interference, the two partners set to work to 
develop the business to its fullest possibilities. They were an 
excellent team. Wulsin, the man of ideas and business foresight, 
enthusiastically believing in the progress of the American people 
and the perjietual growth of the nation, planned the ultimate ex- 
pansion. Armstrong, the mathematician and man of figures, 
worked out the details of the plans to never-failing exactness. As 
a matter of good business policy, stress was laid in the beginning 
u^jon the commercial— the money-making — part of the business, 
with proper regard for the building up of a reputation for reliable 
goods, but just as soon as an efficient number of artisans had been 
trained, under the guidance of Superintendent Macy, the develop- 
ment of the artistic Baldwin piano was taken in hand with avidity 
and with corresponding success. 

Lucien Wulsin 's inborn love for the noble and beautiful is 
stamped upon every part of the great institution. The factories, 
located opposite beautiful Eden Park, at Cincinnati, are models of 
decorative architecture. Instead of imprisoning his men between 
four plain brick walls, Wulsin engaged an architect to design his 
factories, with orders to combine the beautiful with the practical, 
paying attention to hygienic improvements. Always kept scrupu- 
lously clean, the workrooms in the Baldwin factory impress the 
visitor much more as artists' ateliers than as piano makers' work- 
shops. The walls of the spacious offices are decorated with pictures 
of Greek and Eoman structures of architectural beauty, to train 
the eyes of the workman for proper and correct forms ; flower-beds 
surround the factories and living flowers are to be found at the 
factory windows. An air of refinement permeates the entire estab- 
lishment and gentlemanly behavior is a characteristic of the Bald- 
win employees. 

The sound policy underlying the management of this great 
business is best described in Wulsin 's own words, which he used 



JJonjamin Starr 

ill ;i k'ttci- to till' author: " I 
realize that tlie welfare of 
oiir (•()ini)any and the success 
of its people will come from 
a fair treatment of all our 
men and the awakening in 
them of the ideals and en- 
thusiasm which, after all, do 
exist in the average human 

It is not to be won- 
dered at that the Baldwin 
pianos carried ott' the high- 
est i^rizes, wherever ex- 
hibited, gaining even that 
much-coveted distinction, the 

Grand Prix at the Paris Exposition of 11)00. Xor does it recpiire 
an ex]>hniation why Pugno exclaims, " The Baldwin tone is bound- 
less; you can't get to the bottom of it — can't i)ound it out," and 
when, on the other hand, jpsthetic de Pachmann whisjiers his en- 
chanting C'ho))in pianissimo i)assages on that same piano. The 
J>al(l\viii piano is an art pi'oduct, made by artists who are living 
and woiking in an artistic atmosphere, because the man who created 
the Baldwin institution is an idealist. Lucien AVuIsin was deco- 
rated with the Cross of the Legion of Honor at tlie Paris Exposi- 
tion of J'JOO. 

As fai- back as 1849 an Alsatian by the name of Trayser made 
pianos and melodeons in Indianapolis. Drifting about the country, 
he came to Ri])ley, ( )hio, in bSfiO, where he started a piano factory, 
which was removed to Richmond, Tnd., in 1S72, when James S. 
and Ik-njamin Stai'i- ac(|iiii-(M| ;iii intci-cst in the concern. In 1878 



Trayser retired, and Milo J. 
Chase entered the firm, the 
name of which was changed 
to the Chase Piano Com- 
pany. In 188-1: the Starr 
Brothers obtained control of 
the bnsiness and changed 
the name to tlie Starr Piano 
Company, with Benjamin 
Starr as manager. Upon 
the retirement of James 
Starr, Henry Gennett and 
associates obtained control 
of the company and began 
a campaign of expansion 
which has made the concern 

i. ,1 IT c ,1 Henry Gennett 

one 01 the leaders of the ' 

middle west. Gennett assumed the business management and 
opened distributing warerooms in many leading cities of the 
western and southern States, Benjamin Starr superintended the 
factories, ably assisted by Harry Gennett. The business assumed 
immense proportions under the guidance of Henry Gennett, while 
his son Harry developed into a good piano constructor, who has 
done excellent work in improving the Starr piano and promises 
more as a piano maker for the future. Benjamin Starr died in 
1903, having had the satisfaction of seeing the small factory with 
which he started grow to an establishment producing annually 
about 18,000 pianos of a quality above the ordinary market 
instrument. It is the laudable ambition of Harry Gennett 
to see in the near future the Starr concert grand, designed 
and constructed by him, used by artists of note in their public 



111 tlic romantic vales of 
l^)iinifort, Coiiiity of Cork, 
Iri'laiid, a boy was born on 
Marcli 17, 1840, to fanner 
llcaly, the tliirteeiitli child 
of a poor but hapi)y family. 
The boy was christened 
Patrick Joseph. AVhen the 
good " ould sod " would not 
yield enough to support the 
growing family, Plealy sen- 
ior packed up his worldly 
goods and took his family 
to the land of i)romise and 
})ossil)ilities. Patrick Joseph 
was 10 years of age when 
he landed in Boston. At- 
tending the public schools, 
be had an eye for earning money, and we find him working the bel- 
lows of a great chiiicli organ for the organist, Bancroft. This man 
became interested in the Irish lad, and when llealy had finished 
liis school course Baiici'oft secured for him a position as errand 
boy witli the music tlealer, (Jeorge P. Reed. The errand boy soon 
advanced to be a clerk, and we next find him in a responsible posi- 
tion in the great music publishing house of Oliver Ditson & 

Ditson had a keen ])erce])tion of the ]>ossibilities in the rn]iidly 
de\cl()]iing cities of the west and planned the establishment of 
l)ran('li houses at ('ineinnati, St. Louis, Chicago and San Fran- 
cisco. Pie gave Plealy the choice^ of eithei- of the three last named. 
After visiting St. Louis and Chicago, llealy wisely decided for 
the latter, and in ^^(')^■ tlic nnii of Lvon 6c Plealv was established 


under the protection of the parent house of Oliver Ditson & Com- 
pany. To encourage the young men, Ditson predicted that they 
would do a business of $100,000 per year within 10 years. Healy 
reported sales of over that amount before the first 12 months had 
passed ! The piano trade of America has produced a large number 
of '' great workers," but it is the opinion of all who knew him 
that Healy outworked them all. The great results achieved by 
him are, however, due not only to the amount of work which he 
performed, but largely to the systematic methods he applied. 

The author will ever remember Healy 's first visit to his New 
York office. After the usual greeting, and every-day question, 
" How is business with you? " Healy pulled out of his pocket a 
small black note-book and read off statistics as to how many letters 
had been received daily by his firm during the past month as com- 
pared to the same month of one, two and three years before. The 
methodical statistician, the mind which from the small detail could 
construct a prognostication of the future, was thus displayed. It 
was the key to Healy 's great achievements. Nervously working at 
the store during the daytime, he would take memoranda of 
the day's doings to his home and there work out statistics to 
guide him in his bold undertakings. Those who wondered at 
Healy 's positive, unfaltering aggressiveness did not know how well 
he had fortified himself with unfailing figures and facts, gathered 
from his comparative statistics, proving the correctness of his 
conclusions. Thus Healy was able to accomplish more in one 
lifetime than would ordinarily be possible for the combined efforts 
of several business men. 

However, searching for tlie main cause of the success of the 
man who built the greatest music house in the world, we find it 
in the character of P. J. Healy. Although exacting to a degree, 
his sympathetic character enabled him to draw from his employees 
the best that was within them in a manner which made all of his 



voiino' men enthusiastic 
workers Tor the success of 
the firm. Jnsl and lair un- 
der all conditions, he dis- 
})hiyed a sincere solicitude 
for all who worked with him. 
Like all leaders, he had the 
faculty of i)icking the right 
man and putting him into the 
right ])lace. - As Kimball 
found his Conway, so Healy 
discovered in another Wis- 
consin farmer's boy the qual- 
ities which only need oppor- 
tunity for develo})ing into 
the making of a strong man. 
Charles X. Post entered the 
emi)lov of I^von & Healy as a 
bookkeeix'r in ISfU, when 16 years of age. He grew up to be Healy 's 
right-liand man, and when the business had outgrown the 
sphere of merely dealing in nmsical merchandise, and the 
manufacturing of instruments became a necessity, young Post 
was charged with the i-esi)onsil)ility of managing that depart- 

After success was secured in the making of guitars, mandolins, 
etc., llealy's anihition was to 1)nil(l an instrument of the higher 
order. Alihongli the I'h'ard harj) was at that time considered to 
be perfection, Healy knew from experience that even that renowned 
make was not satisfactory, and he cliarged Post with the work of 
jiroducing a liai-p wliicji would ])e accepta))le to the artists as supe- 
rior to the Erard. i*ost engaged the services of George B. Durkee, 
an inventor of n(»te, and the two men set to work to construct a 

Lyon & Healy Harp 


harp wliicli made the name of Lyon & Healy famous wherever 
orchestra mnsie is played. Dnrkee went at liis pi-oblem with a 
well-trained scientific mind and succeeded in constructing a 
mechanism which did away with the irritating " Imzzing " so 
common to the ordinary harp. He further developed a scale so 
Ijerfect as to make the playing of the instrument much easier. By 
enlarging the soundboard he furthermore increased the volume of 
tone perceptibly. The first liar}) was turned out in 1886, and 
Healy had the satisfaction of seeing his instruments accepted by 
the Gewandhaus orchestra of Leipsic, and by nearly all the leading 
orchestras of Berlin, Vienna, Stuttgart, St. Petersburg, New York, 
Boston, Chicago, etc. 

The building of church organs was the next addition to the 
manufacturing department, which had grown to such magnitude 
that in the year 1890 over 100,000 instruments were turned out. 
The business, started in 1864 in a modest manner, had steadily 
grown until it was known all over the globe as the greatest estab- 
lishment of its kind. When Lyon retired from the firm in 1890, 
the corporate form was adopted, with P. J. Healy as president, 
Charles N. Post, vice-president, and Kobert B. Gregory, treasurer. 
The concern continued in its onward march under Healy 's inspir- 
ing leadership, extending its influence in all directions, but Healy 
had to pay the penalty for drawing to excess on nature's limita- 
tions. He died on April 5, 1905, at the age of 65, mourned by all 
who knew him, honored by the members of the trade with the 
sobriquet, " The grand old man of the music trade," leaving his 
footprints behind as an example to coming generations that hon- 
esty of purpose, application to duty and fairness in all dealings 
with fellow-men make life worth living to a much greater degree 
than the mere accumulation of wealth. 

Charles N. Post succeeded Healy in the presidency until 1908, 
when he retired to the pleasant life of a gentleman farmer, on his 



raiicli ill Suutlieru Califor- 
nia. Tloaly's foui'tli son, 
I'aul. lias since been the ae- 
ti\<' I lead of tlie li'reat corpo- 
ration, and ui)oii liis iiistiga- 
iioii llic inaiiiifactiire of 
pianos has been added. The 
factories are in charge of his 
brother, Mark ilealy, who is 
studiously prei)aring himself 
foi- the career of a master 
buikler of the Lyon & Healy 

( 'oming from a family of 
mnsical-instruinent makers 
who pursued that art for 
generations in tlie little town 
of Schoneck, Saxony, Rudolph Wurlitzer landed in New York about 
1S.')4. His career was such as usually falls to the lot of young Ger- 
man emigrants who land here without means, but endowed with a 
thorough education and expert knowledge of their ])rofession. 
Struggling for the tirst few years to earn a living, he finally found 
liis bearings in Cincinnati, where he established himself as an im- 
l)orter of musical instruments in 1856. With the enthusiasm and 
n])timism of youth, he overcame the many obstacles and difficulties 
facing a young business man who has to earn his capital, and 
gradually climbed up the ladder until he was recognized as a power 
by his contemporaries. In 1800 his eldest son Howard was 
admitted to ]iartnership. By studying the musical-instrument 
business in all its ])hases for several years in Kurope, young- 
Howard was well prepared for his work and soon made his pres- 

Rudolph \^'urlitze^ 


ence felt, and the rise of the house of Wurlitzer to its pre-eminent 
position dates from that time. Incorporating in 1890 witli a 
capital of $200,000, as the Kndolph Wurlitzer Comj)any, it has now 
increased its capital to $1,000,000, and owns the Kudolph AVurlitzer 
^Manufacturing Company, also with a capital of $1,000,000, In 
the course of time two other sons, Rudolph H. and Farney Wur- 
litzer, joined the concern, each taking charge of a department, so 
that at the fiftieth anniversary, in 1906, Rudolph Wurlitzer, Sr,, 
was able to retire from active participation and enjoy the well- 
merited rest of private life. The Wurlitzer Com])any at i)resent 
is perhaps the largest manufacturer of mechanical instruments, 
including player pianos, its business connections covering all parts 
of the globe. 

Among the many remarkable men who have made their mark 
in the development of the })iano industry of the west, William H. 
Bush stands out as one of those sturdy characters whom mis- 
fortune only spurs on to greater efforts. 

Coming from good old Holland stock, William Henry Bush was 
born in 1829 on a farm near Baltimore, Md. One of the first rail- 
roads built in the United States ran through the Bush farm to 
the City of Baltimore, and we find William as a lad of 14, with 
remarkable enterprise, contracting for the use of the steam engine 
and the one freight car of which the railroad could boast to carry 
his vegetables to Baltimore, so as to be the first in the marketplace. 
In 1854 he landed at Chicago and soon engaged in the lumber busi- 
ness, accumulating a fortune. The great fire of 1871 burned up 
his lumber yard and reduced him again to the point where he had 
started 17 years before. Success was his, and in 1886 he started 
in partnership with his son, William Lincoln Bush, and John 
Gerts, under the firm name of W. H. Bush & Company, for the 
manufacturing of pianos. 



William L. Bush, ])()ni in 
1S()1, had served his ap- 
prenticeshij) with Ooo. H. 
Woods lV' ("oinpaiiy as an or- 
i^aii and i)iaii<) maker, and 
from 1881 to 1883 as sales- 
man t'oi- the W. W. Kimball 
r*om]iany. dohn TJerts liad 
learned jtiano makin,i>' in Ger- 
many, tliorou.i^'hly mastering 
all Ijranehes of the art. 

With W\ IT. Bnsli at the 

head as financier, the concern 

prospered from the very 

start, and was changed to a 

cor]^oration in 1891 witli a 

paid-up cai)ital of $400,000. 

Phi lanthropically inclined, 

the elder Bush |)lanned to create for Chicago an institution which 

should serve music and th.e arts, but before his well-conceived plans 

matei'ialized he ])assed away in 1901 at the age of 74. 

Tlie I^)Usli Temi)le of Music was started in 1902 and com])leted in 
r.H);;, and stands as a monument to the enterprise, energy and liber- 
ality of the Maiyland farmer boy, as one of Chicago's landmarks. 
The Conservatory of Music connected with tlie Bush Temple 
was founded by William Lincoln l)Ush in 1!)01, with Kenneth M. 
P)radley as Directoi- and Mme, Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler at the 
head of the piano dei)artment, the position now being occupied by 
]\rme. Julie Rive King. Among the teachers of note who have given 
luster to this school, the great violinist, Ovide Musin, may be men- 

Willinin TT. P.ush 



William L. Bnsli, a tal- 
ented musician himself, is 
very solicitous for the last- 
ing success of this music 
school, Trhich has achieved a 
far-reaching reputation. He 
also established similar in- 
stitutions at Dallas, Tex., 
and Memphis, Tenn., thus as- 
sisting in the propaganda 
for musical development not 
only as a manufacturer of ex- 
cellent pianos, but also as a 
lover of the art for art's sake. 
The Bush & Gerts Piano 
Company is known for its 
zeal in upholding and defend- 
ing the ethics of the piano 

trade. AVilliam L. Bush is using his forceful pen with telling results 
in the warfare against the illegitimate stencil and dishonestmethods 
of selling, insisting that the maker's name should be on every piano 
and a fixed selling price established by the maker. 

Albert Krell, born at Gelbra, Germany, on September 10, 1833, 
came to America in 1848 and settled at Cincinnati in 1849. Coming 
from a family of musical-instrument makers, he was an expert 
violin builder, and started in business at the age of 16, renting a 
small shop in the rear of a drug store. He established a reputa- 
tion as a repairer of old violins, and built altogether about 300 
new instruments, which he sold at prices ranging from $150 to 
$300 apiece. In 1889 he, in conjunction with his sons, Albert and 
Alexander, who had studied piano making with George Steck, 

Albert Krell, Sr. 


rr.wos Axn theik makers 

started a i)iano factory nii- 
dci' tlio naino of tlic l\]'oll 
I'iano ('(»ini)aiiy. Aloxaiulor 
(liod ill 1895, and Albert 
Krell, Si'., in 11)00. 

After his brother's death, 
Albert, .Jr., retired from tlic 
('()]ii})aiiy and organized the 
Krell-Freneh Piano (Com- 
pany of Springtield, Ohio. 
This concern, after a disas- 
trous fire, moved to New 
Castle. Albert Krell re- 
signed from this company in 
1905 and started the Anto 
Grand Piano Compan}' of 
America in Connersville, 
iml.. making the niannfactnre of player pianos a specialty. 

Among the successful ])ioneer piano makers of the west Braton 
S. Chase has made his mark. Tracing his connection with the 
Iradc back to 1869 when his father started the Chase Piano Com- 
])aiiy at Richmond, Ind., I>raton accjuired a thorough and practical 
knowledge of the art under his father's tutelage. 

Tn 1889 he formed a connection with C. H. Ilackley, the philan- 
thropic liinibei- king of Muskegon, Mich., and started the Cliase- 
llackley Piano Com))any, for which enter])rise he soon secured 
7*ecognition as one of the leading ])iano jiroducers of the west, 
t'ully realizing Ilackley 's desire to bring fame to the City of 
Muskegon as the home of the Chase Brothers and Chase-Hackley 

Among the many stui'dy and thrifty German emigrants who 
have done so much in the development of the great middle west, 



Mathias Sclnilz was one of 
those typical characters 
whose will-power could not 
be downed by adversity or 
obstacles. Born at War- 
burg, Germany, in 18-12, his 
mother being left a widow 
at the time of his birth, the 
child had of necessity to be 
placed with relatives until 
he reached the age of 11, 
when he became entitled to 
the privileges of the military 
orphan asylum ai Potsdam 
because of his late father's 
services as a soldier. At the 
age of 14 he was apprenticed 

to a cabinetmaker. Just as soon as he had served his 
time he took to " wandern " and started to visit his dear 
mother. Arriving at his home town, he learned that his mother 
had been buried two weeks previous. Broken-hearted, he 
started on his journey again, leaving it to fate where he might 

Sentimentally inclined, young Schulz felt his lonesomeness in- 
tensely and resolved to enlist as a soldier, just to get comrades 
and companionship, to find someone who would take an interest 
in him and for whom he could care. But, fortunately for him, fate 
intervened. The day before his physical examination by the mili- 
tary authorities he broke his shoulder-blade and was not accepted. 
With no prospect for a military career, he longed to go to America, 
and started for London, where he expected to earn enough money 
to pay his passage to New York. He found work in a piano factory 

Mathias Schulz 



niid I(';ii-ium1 llic art as it had 

lIlCll llCCll (1('\'('1()1)('(1. Ai'tci' 

a two years' stay in London 
he sailed for Xe\Y \'oik in 
1868 and made Ins home in 
Chicano. Tlie piano indiis- 
ti-y l)eing then in its infaney 
in America, Sehnlz returned 
to cabinetmaking and, in 
])artnerslii]) witli two eo1- 
leagues, started a sho]) at 
diieago in ISGD. In ISK) 
Seiuilz luniglit ont his ])art- 
ners, AVitli remai-kahh' en- 
ergy lie overcame all tiie difli- 
eulties which beset a young 
manufacturer wlio lacks ex- 
y>eri('n('e as well as capital, and his sui)eri()r craftsmanship), ex- 
traordinai-y capacity for work, together with his inhorn honesty 
and integrity, soon hronght prosperity and his ])usiness grew 
steadily. Tn 1889 it had assumed such large ])roportions that it 
was incorporate<l under the name of M. Schulz Company, with his 
son. Otto Sehnlz, as vice-])resident. The mamifacturing of organs 
and pianos was now made a specialty. 

Like ni,ni\ pioneers, Schuiz had overtaxed himself in the al- 
ien 1 1 >! to satisfy ambition and i)assed away in 1899 at the age 
of 37. 

Plis son, Otto Schuiz, succeed('(l him as ]^resident. T"^nder his 
aggressive leadership the company has forced its way to the front 
rank of large producers in the piano industry. The business 
started by the (lerman orphan boy has grow^n to imposing [)ropor- 
tions, with s])lcndid ])ros])ects for future development. 

otto :>cliulz 




Born in Suavia about 
CO years ago, John V. Steger 
inherited all the characteris- 
tics peculiar to the scions of 
the Bajuvarian tribe. Ener- 
getic, shrewd and tenacious, 
they are known to make tlieir 
way, irrespective of sur- 
roundings or conditions. 

At the age of 17 Steger 
landed at Chicago and found 
employment in a brass foun- 
dry. Having accumulated a 
small capital, he formed a 
partnership with a piano 
tuner and opened a piano 
store. It was but a short 
time after, when Steger be- 
came sole owner of the business, in which he prospered beyond his 
fondest dreams. 

Observing how other piano dealers had drifted into piano manu- 
facturing with great success, Steger bought out a small concern 
which owned a factory near Chicago, and following the example 
set by J. P. Hale, commenced to manufacture a commercial piano 
for the wholesale trade. Satisfied with a comparatively small 
margin he soon created a large demand for his product. Around 
the permanently increasing factory buildings in the prairie, the 
town of Steger grew up. Ambitious to be counted among the lead- 
ers of the industry, he made use of every opportunity to enlarge 
his business. A shrewd financier and one of the boldest manip- 
ulators in the piano trade, Steger accumulated great wealth in a 
comparatively short period and is at present counted among the 




largest producers of ]^ianos 
ill tlie west. 

Among the pioneers of 
tlie western piano trade, 
.hiliiis l>aner (S: Coinpany 
have always iiiaiiitaincd a 
reputation for producing a 
lii.i;li-gi'a<l(' piano of merit. 
l'\)Uiided in 1857 by Julius 
r>auer, the business, since 
tlic death of the founder in 
1884, lias been under the able 
management of his son, AVil- 
liam ^l. Bauer. 

History is made for the 
west by such names as Chick- 
ering Brothers, Bush & Lane, 
George P. Bent, Xewinan 
Brothers, the ^Vrelyille Clark Piano (\)mpany, Schumann 
Piano (Vmipany, Gram-Richtsteig, Grinnell Brothers, the Far- 
rand Tompany— famous for tlie manufacture of high-grade 

The fact thai Chicago has, during the past decade, become 
the greatest ])iano market in the world is largely due to the energy 
and eiitcrpiisc of firms like Smith, liarnes & Stroliber Coini)any, 
Price k Teeple, llobart M. Cable Conii)any, Scliaeffer Piano Mfg. 
Comi)any, (*able-Nelson l*iano Company, Adam Scliaaf, Schiller 
Piano Company, the Iladdorff Piano Company, the Straube Piano 
Company, P. A. Starck Com]iany, Arthur P. King, H. P. Xelson 
Company, and othci's, who manufacture ])ianos in (piantities of 
from 3,000 to 15,000 per year in their modern establishments. It 

Juliu>^ Bauer 



is claimed that the large 
western factories are at 
present able to give the 
greatest value in the market, 
which accounts to some ex- 
tent for the unprecedented 
growth. Although scarcely 
25 years old, the western fac- 
tories supply to-day fully 
half the pianos sold in the 
United States. 

All the pioneers in the 
organ trade of the United 
States have eventually turned 
to piano making, in most in- 
stances discarding the organ 

Farming in New Hamp- 
shire has ever been a most precarious occupation, the rocky 
soil and long winters seldom enabling even a hard-working and 
intelligent farmer to support his family. Jacob Estey was born 
on such a farm near Hinsdale, N. H., on September 30, 1814. 
When only four years of age he had to leave his parents' 
home to be supported by a neighboring farmer. The boy had to 
work very hard for his meals and scant clothing, but, being made 
of the right stuff, he ran away when 13 years of age and escaped 
to Worcester, Mass., where he was apprenticed to a plumber. 
After serving his apprenticeship he took to traveling, following 
his profession, and landed in 1834 at Brattleboro, Vt., the town 
which was to become famous all over the world because of the 
organs which Estey, later on, made there and sent to all parts of 
the globe. 


in IS'o') 111' f>lal)lislied his own ])hnnbing shop. Thrift and 
econnniy hroni»lit him woalth, so that in 1848 he coukl erect a 
hirge huildini;- on Main Sti-eet. Tlie upper jiai't of tliis buihling 
hi' rented to a iiiehxh'on maker hy the name of Greene. Having 
surphis munev to invest, J'^stey Ijuuglit an interest in the mehxleon 
l)nsiness, eontliniing, liowever, liis ])i-otitahh' jtlnnihing esta])lish- 
nient. Kire destroyed tlie buihling in 1.8r)7, and Kstey found him- 
self almost a ])oor man once more, as all liis money liad finally 
been invested in the nielodeon factors'. AVitli the grit of tlie 
^ ankee, Estey did not give up. He liad observed the i)0ssi- 
bilities of the oi-gan busiiiess, and within a year he started again 
t(» hnild parloi" oi'gans. 

In 1S()0 he engaged Levi 1\. Fuller as engineer. Fuller was 
then only ID years of age, but had studied mechanics so thor- 
oughly' that he became most valuable to Fstey. The business grew 
l)y leaps and bounds. Superior (piality was the watchwoj-d all 
thidugh the factory. Fuller was admitted to partnership to- 
gether with f'.stey's son -Julius in 18()(), when the Estey Organ 
Company was oiganized with Jacob Estey as i)resident, Levi 
K. Fuller, vice-])i'esident, and .lulius Estey, secretary and treas- 
nici'. From its small beginning the production of the Estey 
factories rose to an output of 1,800 organs p)er month. The 
Estev factory l)ecame the alma nuiter of a number of voung 

• • • o 

students who later on made luimes for themselves in the organ 
worhh Jose])h AVarren, of Clough & AVarreu; the four AVhites, 
father and sons, of Wilcox & AVhite fame; Stevens, of tlie Stevens 
Oi-gan Company; Putnam, of the Putnam Organ Conii)any, 
W light, of Afason & Ilamlin, and last, but not least, Votey, of the 
Aeolian Oomi)any, are all graduates of the Fstey school of organ 
1iuildi]ig. fn 1885 the Estey Piano Oom))any was organized, estab- 
lishing a large factory in New York City. Branch stores had been 



established in New York, St. 
Louis, Philadelphia, Boston, 
Chicago, London (England), 
and elsewhere. Wherever 
exhibited, the Estey pianos 
and organs carried off high- 
est awards for superior con- 
struction and workman- 

Jacob Estey was a man 
of firm character, molded in 
the school of adversity from 
his earliest childhood, but, 
perhaps because of his own 
sufferings, he became a very 
sympathetic employer and 
enjoyed the respect and love 
of his employees. He died 
on April 15, 1890. 

Levi K. Fuller was a born scientist and did valuable service in 
the improvement of the Estey organ. A great reader and student, 
he was well versed in acoustics, and his collection of tuning-forks 
and acoustic apparatus exhibited at the AVorld's Fair, Chicago, in 
1893, was honored with a special award by the judges. Fuller 
served as Governor of the State of Vermont, and received numer- 
ous other public honors in recognition of his ability. Ambitious 
and conscientious to an exalted degree. Fuller would often over- 
work himself in a manner which finally caused his untimely demise 
on October 10, 1896, at the age of 55. 

Julius Estey, like his father, was an enterprising but careful 
business man. After the death of his two senior partners, the 


iiiaiiagoineiit of tlio ])usiness 
rested upon liiiii, and with 
tlio iiiboi'ii I^st('>' spii'it lie 
s()iiii,'lit for new fields in 
which to expand the l)usiness 
and spread the fame of the 
name of Poster. He com- 
menced the buildini>' of large 
^^^L. ^-^^ cluircli organs in 1901, erect- 

J^H^ iiig a special factory with the 

most modern e(inipment for 
that purpose. It was not for 
him to see the full develop- 
ment of this new enterprise, 
lie died on March 7, 1902, 
aged 57. His sons, Jacob 
Julius Estey ^^ay Estey and J. Harry Es- 

tev, succeeded him as man- 
iigers, enjoying the services of their trusted office manager, L. 
W. Hawley, who has been in the continued service of tlie Estey 
Com})any for over 50 years. 

Jolm Boulton Simpson acquired control of the Arion Piano in 
1S()!), and manufactured high grade pianos until 1885, when lie 
formed a comhination with the Estevs, bv which the name was 
<*lianged from Arion Piano Company to Estey Piano Company. 

A large factory witli modern ai)i)liances was erected in New 
York, and the Estey grand and upright pianos soon became a 
dominant factor In the piano trade. John Boulton Sim])Son 
is still j)resident of tlie company, assisted by Jacob Gray 
Estey and J. Harry Estey as active business managers, main- 
taining the i)restige of the Estey reputation for high-class 



Every now and then we 
hear of a genius, born on the 
rocky soil of New England, 
who has music in his soul. 
Being the exception, this 
trait, when existing, is usu- 
ally so forceful that such a 
man's life will be entirely 
wrapped up in it, in contra- 
distinction to his fellow- 
Yankee, who as a rule is 
shrewd and practical, but 
cannot whistle a simple tune 
correctly. Henry Kirk White 
was born and raised on a 
farm near Hartford, Conn. 
His family dates back to 
the good old English stock 
of the early settlers who landed at Nantasket, Mass., in 
1630. Supposed to spend his life on the " home place," Henry 
thought more of music than of farming. W^ith no opportunity 
for musical education, his natural ability made him a teacher 
of singing and leader of choruses at the age of twenty. He 
learned the art of tuning pianos and organs, and traveled from 
place to place following that profession, acquiring valuable knowl- 
edge as to the various constructions of these instruments. In 1845 
he began to make musical instruments and two years later manu- 
factured melodeons at New London. In 1853 he removed his fac- 
tory to Washington, N. J. The Civil War compelled him to 
abandon his enterprise and take up his abode at Philadelphia, where 
he found a rich field as a tuner and repairer of pianos and organs. 

Henry Kirk White 



Ho established a reimtation 
as ail cxiicrt tuner, and in 
1805 the great Estey Or^an 
Conipaiiy ealled liini to 
Brattleboro, Vt., as sui)er- 
inteiident of tlieir tun- 
ing (h'partnu'iit. lie worked 
with the Kstey Company 
twelve years, and du ring- 
that time taught his three 
sons the art of organ making. 
When in 1S77 that great 
captain of industry, IT. C. 
Wilcox of Meriden, made 
White and his sons a tempt- 
ing offer to start an organ 
factory, the family packed 
\\\) their l)elongings and 
moved to ^Nferiden, Conn. The Wilcox & White Organ Company, 
capitalized at $100,000, was organized, and the White family be- 
gan to make their im])rint on the history of organ and ])iano 
Imilding in the United States. 

The oldest son. .lames H. White, born on September 26, 1847, 
had scivcd for a iiuiuhcr of years in the AVanamaker house at Phila- 
del])liia, studying comnicrcial usages and merchandising, before he 
leai'Tied oi'gau building at Kstey's. Tt was but natural, therefore, 
that he should be intrusted with the business management of the 
new coiicerii. Like his t'athei-. burn with considerable talent and 
lo\(' for iiiiisic, we find him as a young man playing the organ in 
his church at liratt lehoio, Vt. 

I laving ac<|uire(l a thoi-ough knowledge of the works of the great 
composers, and being an expert Judge of tone and tone quality. 

James 11. White 



James H. Wliite would ever 
searcli for the bigiiest in 
tone production, and, to- 
gether witli his brothers, 
supplemented the inventions 
of his father. The records 
of the United States Patent 
Office sjieak volumes of the 
valuable contributions which 
the White family has made 
to the industry, but his 
greatest service to the com- 
pany was the courage and 
energy which he displayed 
in times of stress and dan- 
ger, steering the ship clear 
of breakers and advancing 
the prosperity of the con- 
cern in the face of apparent adversity. Strong as his father and 
brothers were as inventors and technicians, without the artistic 
and commercial genius of James Henry, the company would 
hardly have reached that dominant position which it occupies 

Edward H. White, born Ai)ril 5, 1855, inherited the inventive 
genius of his father and made his mark, especially by inventing the 
Angelus piano player, which at once brought that comi)any to the 
front in the industry of jnano-playing mechanism. He died Sep- 
tember 16, 1899, at the age of forty-four years. 

Howard White, the youngest of the three talented brothers, was 
born on Sei)teniber 9, 1856. After he had mastered all branches of 
the art he was intrusted with the management of the large fac- 
tories, which in the course of time had grown to a huge establish- 

Edward 11. Wliite 



meiit. He a[)plied himself 
so zealously to his manifold 
duties that he passed away 
on December 9, 1897, aged 
only forty-one years. The 
founder, TTenry Kirk "White, 
(licMl .lannary i:5, 1907. 
James H. White, the only 
surviving' member of the 
founders, still guides the 
destiny of the great corpo- 
ration, which now employs a 
capital of $+.30,000. 

After tile decease of Ed- 
ward and Howard W^hite, 
Prank C. WHiite, son of 
James Henry, was placed in 
charge of the mechanical de- 
partment of the factory. He was always of a very decidedly 
inventive turn of mind, and to him are due many valuable 
improvements and devices that have made the Angelus world 

As a connnercial enterprise the Sterling Company of Derby, 
Conn., is one of the earliest successes in history. Taking over the 
assets of what was known as the Birmingham Organ Com]iany in 
1871, Charles A. Sterling organized in 1873 the Sterling Organ 
Company with a ca])ital of $.")0,000. The manufacturing of pianos 
was conmienced in 1885. Shortly after, J. R. Mason joined the com- 
pany, acting as secretary and treasurer until 1901, when he was 
elected to the ^iresidency. A thorough piano-man, with many years 
of experience in the west, where he was born in 1847, Mason 

J Iowa 1(1 White 



developed the business of 
the company to its present 
magnitude, improving' the 
quality of tlie instruments in 
every respect, being particu- 
hirly successful in producing 
a satisfactory player piano. 
The company is now counted 
among the largest producers 
of pianos, and the capital 
stock has been increased 
from $30,000, in 1873, to 

A number of working- 
men skilled in the art of 
organ building, started the 
Detroit Organ Company on 
a co-operative plan in 1881. 

Like all such Utopian undertakings, the enterprise did not suc- 
ceed, and in 1883 C. J. Whitney, a prominent music dealer, and 
E. S, Votey, a practical organ maker, bought the business and in- 
corporated the Whitney Organ Company. In the same year W. R. 
Farrand joined the corporation, assuming the financial manage- 
ment, the manufacturing being in charge of Votey. In 1887 Whit- 
ney retired and the name was changed to the Farrand & Votey 
Company. Ambitious to extend its business, the company com- 
menced to manufacture church organs in 1888. Consummating 
an advantageous deal for all the patents of the renowned organ 
builder, Frank Roosevelt of New York, the company was in a 
position to build most excellent instruments, and scored a decided 
success at the Chicago Exposition of 1893, where Guilmant and 



C'lni'onoo Kddy ,i>'avo memo- 
i;il)le concerts upon the ini- 
iiK'iisc pipe organ erected by 
the b'anaiid c^' A^)t('y I'oni- 

K. S. Votey liis 
ingenuity as an inventor by 
dcN'ising many iin])rove- 
nients in churcli-organ niccli- 
anism, and more especially 
in iiis work on piano i)layers. 
IJc liad sucli implicit faith 
in the ruturc of tlic piano 
l)layer tliat he joined the 
Aeolian (V)mi)any in 18D7, 
buying- the pipe-organ and 
player-i)iano departments of 
the Farrand & Votey Company, and building his first thousand of 
i*ianolas in llie Detroit shoi)s. The company's name was now 
changed to " The Farrand Company," and special attention was 
given to its own creation, the Cecilian player i)iano, an instrument 
of mei'it and high ([uality. The company has also put upon the 
market a metallic piano-i)layer action. 

An expert iced-organ builder, Isaac T. Tackaid interested a 
innn])er of capitalists to start an organ factory at Fort Wayne, 
hid., in ls71. Packard was a fine meclianic and inveiitoi', produc- 
ing an instrnment of superior (piality. Fnder the conservative 
guidance of S. !*>. l)ond, as president of the company, steady 
])rogress was ma<le, the eoncei-n depending more upon the 
su))erior (piality of its product than upon the ordinary business 

J. R. Allison 



S. B. Bond, born at Lock- 
port, N. Y., October 17, 1833, 
came with his father's family 
as pioneers to Fort Wayne 
in 1842. At tlie age of 13 
young Bond went to work 
as porter and assistant clerk 
for the State Bank of In- 
diana, which at that time was 
under the management of 
Hugh McCulloch, who later 
on acquired fame as Lin- 
coln's Secretary of the 
Treasury. In 1874 Bond 
was elected president of the 
Fort Wayne National Bank. 
He remained in the presiden- 
tial chair until December, 

1904, when he resigned in order to devote his whole time to the 
growing business of the Packard Company. 

Although identified with banking from boyhood, Bond was in 
love with the inspiring atmosphere of the organ and |)iano fac- 
tory, which he always preferred to the cold walls of the bank- 
ing house, though he made his mark in both. He died July 20, 

His son, Albert S. Bond, entered the service of the Packard 
Company as an apprentice at the age of 16, in 1879. After tive 
years' experience on the bench, young Albert spent two years 
traveling as salesman for the Company and was elected general 
manager in 1886. Under the guidance of his father he soon ex- 
panded the business. Well educated, with distinct artistic inclina- 
tions and full of progressive enthusiasm, he added the manufacture 


oi' pianos ill 1893. ^[ain- 
tainiii.i;' the liigli standard of 
the Rackard name, tlic ])i- 
aiios were readily accepted 
by the trade as liigli-class in- 
strninents, and since tlie suc- 
cessful introduction of the 
Packard Player J*iano the 
business of the corporation 
has assumed commandin,i»: 
])ro]iortions. The Packard 
pi-oducts are valued for 
musical quality of tone and 
most exquisite workmanship 
in all details. 

Another concern which 
has strongly assisted in 
establishing the reputation 

for the highest quality of western-made pianos is the A. 
B. Chase Company of Norwalk, Ohio. Starting in 1875 to 
manufacture organs, it began the making of pianos in ISS,"). 
A. J). L'hasc died in 1877, when Calvin AVhitney assumed the man- 
agement. AVliitncy was a strong character, who impressed his 
l)ers()nality indelibly npon the ent('ri)rise. Born at Townsend, Ohio, 
on September 25, 1846, he started 1 in business at the age of 19 
with a cajtital of $400, which he had saved from his earnings as a 
store clerk. A man of lofty ideals, he aimed in whatever he under- 
took for tlic highest and purest. AVitli unfaltering faith he con- 
quered all the difficulties which the western pioneer manufacturers 
1iad to encounter and had the satisfaction of seeing his com]^any 
rank in the lead of high-class piano manufacturers. He was among 

Cal\in WliiliK'V 



the first to take up the player 
piano earnestly, and in 1905 
produced the Aristano grand 
])layer jiiano. Whitney died 
on June 6, 1909, having lived 
a strenuous but very useful 
life. L. L. Doud has served 
the company as secretary 
since its start in 1875, and 
still fills his position with 
zeal and ability. W. C. 
Whitney, son of Calvin, edu- 
cated in the factory and office 
of the Chase Company, is 
preparing himself for great- 
er work in the future, acting 
at present as vice-president 
of the company. 

Among the pioneers of the music trade in the west, Hampton 
L. Story's name stands foremost. Born at Cambridge, Vt., June 
17, 1835, he showed an inborn talent for music, and his first em- 
ployment was in a music store at Burlington, Vt., at the princely 
salary of $50 per month and board. Having saved a small capital 
from his wages as schoolteacher, he bought out his principal in 
1859. Not satisfied to be merely a dealer, he joined a piano maker 
by name of Powers, manufacturing the Story & Powers piano in 
1862. This was perhaps the first piano factory in the State of 

The business prospered, but the field was too limited for enter- 
prising Story, and when in 1867 Jacob Estey otTered him the 
agency for the Estey organs, in the western states. Story closed out 



!•:. 11. stuiv 

his business at J^urliiigton 
nnrl ostal)lisli('(l liimsclf at 
("liicaiAO. Ill 1S()S lie ad- 
mitted Isaac X. ('amp as 
partner. The lii'm of Story 
cV: (^aiii]) soon liecanie one of 
the leaders in the piano and 
oi'oaii 1 1 a<le of the west, hav- 
ing- stores at (Miieaj^^o and St. 
Lonis, controlling a large 
wholesale and retail trade 
tlirongh the entire west. 

With his oliaracteristic 
keenness and foresight, Story 
observed that the west wonhl 
eventually nianufaeture its 
own musical instruments, 

and he therefore retired from the firm of Story c^' Camp and 
ill 1SS4, with :\lelville Clark and his son, Edward H. Story, 
founded the linii of Story cV: Clark, for the manufactnre of reed 

.McKille ('lark was known as an expert reed-organ builder, who 
had jiateiiteil maii\ improvements. The business was successful 
from llic start, and in 1<SS8 the Story & Clark Organ Company was 
incorporated, with E. II. Story, son of the founder, as president, and 
Melville ('lark, vice-])resident. The foreign trade grew so rapidly 
that a factoiN- was erected at London, England, in 1892, under the 
management of ('harles 11. Wagener, and another in 1893 at Berlin, 
( leiiiianx'. 

The organs designed and made under the supervision of Mel- 
ville Clark were of the highest order in quality and tone, and, when 



ill 1895 the making- of pianos 
was commonced, the same 
high standard was main- 
tained. AlelviUc (Mark sev- 
ered his connection with the 
company in 1900, to start the 
Melville dark C'ompany, 
and the management has 
since been in the hands of ^ 
Edward H. Story. The de- 
mand for i)ianos increased 
at such a rate that the erec- 
tion of Larger factories be- 
came necessary, and in 1901 
the company erected its 
model plants at Grand 
Haven, Mich. Counted 
among the largest producers 

of high-grade pianos, the company is its own distributor, con- 
trolling a chain of warerooms in the principal cities of the United 

Melville Clark's name will forever be printed upon the pages 
of the organ and piano industry as one of the most prolific in- 
ventors. Born in Oneida County, New York, he inherited a love 
for music and became an enthusiastic student. Desirous to learn 
all about the construction of pianos and organs, he served an 
apprenticeship as a tuner and took to traveling. Landing finally 
in California, he started a factory for the production of high-grade 
organs. The enterprise was a success, but the market for the 
product was limited, and in 1877 he sold out his interest. After 
a short stay in Quincy, 111., we find him in 1880 at Chicago making- 
organs under the firm name of Clark & Rich. 

Melville Clark 


ill IS^i-t lie Jo'iikmI II. L. Sloiy luidcr the Hriii name of Story & 
(Mark, ncsiious df dcNotiiiii hiiiix'ir entirely to the developineiit 
of the ))iaii()-iila\ CI- iiiecjianism, Clark severed his eoniieetioii \Yitli 
the St(>i> i.V ('lark riaiio and ( )^,^all ( 'oiiipaii\- in IIHH), after 16 
years of zealous aelixity, ami staite(l the .Melville Clai-k Piano 
('om]>any with a capital of ^.lOIMlOO, erectin,<»- modern factory 
bnildini^s at I )e Kalh, III. The patent records tell the story of 
(laik's activity and success in bis efforts in that direction. Clark 
pidduced his first 88-note cabinet ])layer in . January, 1!)()1, and bis 
88-note interior ))layer ])iaiio in 1*.)()2, while his first grand player 
piano was completed in 1904. lie bad the satisfaction of seeing 
his self-playing grand })iano used in a ])nblic concert at New 
Orleans in December, 15)l)(), under the auspices of L. Grunewald & 
Comi)any. Among the many imi)rovements in i)layer mechanism 
for which Clark obtained patents may be mentioned the a})))li- 
cation of the downward touch of the key and his transposing 
device, the latter having been adopted by other player-piano 
makers under Clark's patent. 

The career of Frederick Engelhai-dt, senior ])artner of Engel- 
hardt ^: Sons, is interesting. Born in Germany, he came with his 
Ijarents to New A^ork at the age of 10. Having gone through the 
public school, he was apprenticed to a cabinetmaker. After serv- 
ing his apprenticeship, desirous of seeing something of the life 
of the " Wild West," he enlisted as a cavalryman in the United 
States Ai-my, and took pai't in many of the early battles with 
Indians on the far-western plains, narrowly escaping the massacre 
of Custer's force by Sitting Bull. After his discharge from the 
aini\- he entei-ed the em|)loy of the author, and was soon advanced 
to tlu' position of sui)erintendent of the soundboard dejiai'tment 
at the Dolgeville, N. Y., factories. He designed and executed the 
exhibit of that department for the Paris exhibition of 1879, for 
which the highest award was granted by the jury. 


QY^n^^.tA.d^ c£Ae^e>^ 

Ambitious to be more 
than a mere soundboard 
maker, En^a^elliardt souglit a 
l)osition in a })iano-action 
factory. He finally found 
employment with Steiuway 
& Sons, where for seven 
years he had charge of the 
action de])artment as fore- 
man. In January, 1889, he 
formed a partnership with 
A. P. Roth, who had acquired 
a thorough business training 
in the author's store and 
general offices in New York, 
and the firm of Roth & En- 
gelhardt began business as 
makers of piano actions. In 
1898 the firm placed their first player piano on the market. It was 
known as the '' Peerless " self-playing piano. This was soon 
followed by the " Harmonist " player piano, and later on 
by the coin-operated automatic player piano with endless tune 

A. P. Roth retired from the firm on January 1, 1908, and Engel- 
hardt admitted his sons, Alfred D. and Walter L., to partnership 
under the firm name of F. Engelhardt & Sons. Still in the prime 
of life, Engelhardt has seen his enterprise grow from the smallest 
beginning to one of the largest establishments of its kind, with 
the prospect that its future is guaranteed by the activity of his 

Another firm which graduated from the Steinway school is 
"Wessell, Nickel k Gross, action makers. Otto AVessell, born in 



IloUtciii. (I en nan y, in lS4r)^ 
came iu Aiiu'rica with his 
]>ai-P7its ill 1847. (ii'adnnt- 
iii_i>- I'loin the New York i)ub- 
lic sciiool, Ik' was appren- 
ticed to a cabinetmaker, and 
improved upon that by 
learning the piano trade 
afterward. Wiiile in the 
emi)Ioyment of Stein way & 
Sons lie atlvanced to a i)osi- 
tion of trust and res])onsi- 
bility. In 1875 lie started in 
business, forming a partner- 
sliij) with his colleagues, 
Nickel and Gross, wlio were 
also employed as action 
makers liy Steinway & Sons. 
Because of their i)ractical experience in producing the high- 
est class of work, the business was a success from the start and 
the linn has ever since maintained the leading position for 

Otto AVessell was a self-made man. AVith few o])])ortunities in 
his yonlh, he achieved his prominent position in the business world 
by force of character, unimpeachable integrity and that peculiar 
}ioblcssc and lilM'iali1\ which is iisnallv ac(iuired onlv bv those 

• * 1 ■ « 

■who ha\(' to commence at the bottom rung of the ladder. The 
writer often met Otto Wessell, in his early days, at ]nano fac- 
tories loaded with two upright actions, which he had carried from 
his shop, ])ailly to save the expense of hiring an expressman, but 
also to see whether his customer w^as satisfied, and a broad smile 

otto WfSSfll 



would run over his genial 
face when the actions 
were accepted without 

From those small begin- 
nings Wessell saw his firm 
rise to prominence second 
to none in America, employ- p 
ing over 500 hands and 
counting among his custom- 
ers the foremost makers of 
high-class pianos. An inde- 
fatigable worker, Wessell, 
like others of his kind, drew P^^ 
too rapidly on nature's 
bounty and passed away on 
May 25, 1899, at the age of 
54. The business is con- 
tinued by his partner, Adam Nickel, with Henry Nickel, Jr., and 
Arthur and Fernando Wessell, sons of the founder, as junior 

Among the old-time hammer coverers, John Frederick Schmidt 
stood in the front rank during the period of his activity. Born 
at Marburg, Germany, in 1823, he learned the trade of cabinet- 
making. He went in partnership with Peter De AVitt Lydecker in 
1864, succeeding Ole Syverson, who had founded the business in 
1856. In 1877 Lydecker retired, and Schmidt continued until 
1886, when ill health compelled him to seek the quietude of private 
life. His firm has ever enjoyed an enviable reputation for ex- 
cellent workmanship in hammer making. He died on September 
26, 1906. His son, David H. Schmidt, is carrying on the business 
as a corporation with marked ability and success. 

John Frederick Schinidt 



Charles Pfriemer is an- 
otlier Slc'mway i^radiiate 
wlio made Ills niai-k. 

Born in 184l'. under tlic 
shadow (if the romantic old 
castle ilohenzollern, where 
the forefatliers of the Em- 
peror of (lermany dwelt, 
Pfriemer performed his duty 
as a soldier during the Aus- 
tro-Prussian War and came 
to America in the latter part 
of 186C. - 

A cabinetmaker bv trade, 
I he learned hammer making 

' — — ' in Steinway's shop, and later 

Charles Pfriemer on assumed charge of the 

hammer department in Albert Weber's factory. In 1874 he started 
in business on his own account, and was among the first to use 
iron hammer-covering machines. Achieving an enviable reputation 
\'(>v making a peculiarly pear-shaped hammer, Pfriemer built up a 
large and lucrative business. He died in 1908. The business is 
carried on bv his two sons. 


Influence of Piano Virtuosos upon the Industry 


Bach, Mozart, Chopin, Liszt, Rubinstein, Biilow, Joseffy, Rosen- 
thal, Carreno, de Pachmann, Busoni, Paderewski, Hofmann. 





TTTE great virtuosos 
and teachers of the 
piano have ever been 
vahiable helpmates of the pi- 
ano maker. He receives his 
inspirations from their play- 
ing on the one hand, and is 
continually spurred to great- 
er efforts by their never- 
ceasing demands for a per- 
fect action, greater and 
purer tone. 

In contrast to the violin, 
which was almost perfect 
from its first appearance, 
the piano required more 

than 200 years for develop- Johann Sebastian Bach 

ment, and the last word has not yet been said. Handel, Haydn, 
and even Mozart, with their sweet, heavenly music, could 




be satislicd with the clavi- 
clioi'd ;iii<l harpsichord. In 
their (h'i\s iini^ic was tlie en- 
tertainiueiit ul' the privileged 
liigher classes, who assem- 
bled in salons to pla>' cham- 
ber music of a ph'asing and 
enciianting, but not soul- 
stirring, character. Johann 
Sebastian Bach, that titan of 
the organ, felt the need of 
something stronger, more 
positive and i)owerful than 
the clavichord, and it was he 
who aroused Silbermann to 
greater efforts in piano 
building, when he con- 
deiiiiie(l his first ])ianos in unmeasured terms. 

Bach I mist ha\e had a divine insj^iration as to the ultimate 
dev('h)piiient of the ])iano when he wi'ote his immortal composi- 
tions for that instrument, which was then in its infancy. It is 

7 V 

questionable wliether Silbermann, the organ builder, would have 
strix'eii to improve his ]»iano l)ut for J^ach's criticism, which luirt 
the feelings of the pi'oud and sensitive artisan and made him re- 
solve to const I'uct a piano which would compel Bach's favorable 
comment and ai)proval. And it was the great cantor of the Thomas 
School of Lei])sic who gave the first testimonial to a ]iiano maker, 
when he played ui)on and i)raised the impi'oved Sill)ermami ])ianos 
at the New Palace at Potsdam in the i)resence of Frederick the 

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart 







Bach's son, Joliann 
Christian Baeli, did not 
hesitate to serve as demon- 
strator of the piano, with 
the avowed purpose of mak- 
ing propaganda for tlie pi- 
ano as a mnsieal instrument. 
He went to London, tak- 
ing several German pianos 
along, and there gave a num- 
ber of i)iano recitals. His 
first concert in June, 1763, 
was a revelation to the music 
lovers of London. Never be- 
fore had they listened to 
such brilliant playing, nor 
had they heard such tones, 
so much more forceful than 

the clavichord and equally more musical than the harpsichord tone. 
Bach aroused the London harpsichord makers to the study of the 
new instrument. 

Then came young Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, who discarded 
the clavichord and was most happy to discover at Augsburg the 
Stein piano with an action which " did not block." He wrote to 
his mother an enthusiastic testimonial for the Stein piano, praising 
Stein as an artisan who did not build })ianos to make money, but 
for the love of his art. Stein always tried to meet Mozart's de- 
mands, and finally presented to Beethoven a grand piano of six 
octaves and for years it served the master for his composing. 
But Beethoven wanted still more. Six octaves were too small a 
compass for the symphonic tone pictures which raved in his soul, 

Ludwig von Beethoven 



and liis admiring friend 
Xannctto Stoin-Strciclier, 
liad to build \'(n- liliii a six 
and one-liair <»clave grand 

We of the present day, 
used to iron-frame eonstrue- 
tion, tlie aid of maeliinery, 
etc., can scarcely conceive 
what difficulties that ingen- 
ious woman ])iano builder en- 
countered when she atteni])t- 
ed to meet JU'ethoven's de- 
sire for extended compass 
and greater tone, but she suc- 
ceeded, and Beethoven wrote 
many letters to her, every 
one of them a grand testi- 
monial for the XTannette Stein-Streicher ])iano. 

T.ike Bacli, IJcethoven was ])owerful, titanic. He admired the 
strong, liie mighty, the forcel'iiK and when John Broadwood sent 
liim one of his improved grand i)ianos from far-away London, 
Beethoven, in spite of his sincere friendship for Nannette, wrote 
to Eondon regarding the ])iano, " I shall regard it as an altar 
upon wiricli 1 sliall place the most beautiful offerings of my spirit 
to the divine Apollo." 

('liopin, lliat most ])oetic of all composers, and, in his day, 
boldest of all iicit'oi incis, allowed his admiration for the Pleyel 
l)iano and his ])ersoiial liiendship for the maker to control him 
to such an extent that he wouhl not play on any other piano if 
he could ol)tain a IMevel. 

Frederic Chopin 











Franz Liszt in his early 
days was a " holy terror " 
for piano mannfactnrers. 
His colossal techniijiie and 
powerful stroke demanded 
an action of superlative con- 
struction and workman sliip. 
It is said that at his first con- 
cert at the Leipsic Gewand- 
haus in 1840, being in an ugly 
mood because he could not 
have his favorite French pi- 
ano to play upon, he smashed 
a number of hammers off the 
action with his very first 
chords, so that another piano 
had to be i)rovided. 

Perhaps no other virtu- 
oso has forced the piano makers so persistently to never- 
ceasing efforts to improve the strength and pliability of the 
action as Liszt, who almost invariably required two grand 
pianos for an evening concert. His forceful touch and 
rapid execution, after one hour's playing, would put most of the 
pianos made in that early period out of tune, hence we can under- 
stand later on, when the iron-frame construction and the mod- 
ern action came into universal use, why Liszt did not spare his 
approving testimonials for the creations of Steinway, Bosendorfer, 
Ibacli and others. All of the master builders aimed to con- 
struct grand pianos which would meet the taxing demands of 
Liszt so that they could obtain his testimonial, the highest possible 
indorsement of piano quality. 

Franz Liszt 



Next to Liszt, Anton \lu- 
binstt'iii will })c'i'lia[).s be 
recorded ns the u'rcatest ])i- 
aiio \irtiioso — Uuhinstein's 
ai't developed with the jiiaiio. 
hi 1S4(), as a hoy of K), lie 
playefl on the delicate pianos 
then made in Paris, hut 
later on Becker as well as 
Schi'()der, of St. IN'terslmi'g, 
huilt for liiiii inodei'ii i>rand 
l)ianos, i)layin,i;- which lie 
i could allow his renins fi'ee 
I'eiii, fearless of eouse- 
(]nences to the piano. 

AVhoever lias heai'd liu- 
binstein, while he was in his 
])i-inie, knows that he sur- 
passed even TJszt in forceful attacks on the i)iano, and, next to 
Liszt, Wnhinstein has made greater propaganda for the piano than 
an}- other \iituoso. Jlis testimonials were sought for, and he 
gave them freely and willingly to the many makers of meritorious 
grand pianos. 

That scliol;irly genius, TTans von Biilow, was liard to i)lease in 
his choice ol' pianos. Not of that storming temperament of a 
T.iszt or liuhinstein, Biilow rather discouraged great volume of 
tone, demanding a sensuous mellowness, which he could at will, if 
necessar>-, laise to thundering chords hy that wondei-ful control 
which he had over his techni(|ue. IIow adverse Biilow was to being 
conside]-ed a demonstrator of ])iano quality is illustrated by an 
incident which happened on his American journey in 1875 and 

Anton Rubinstein 


Steinway Hull, New York 






.1 '!.. ,.;.!' '"■■ ■■"'■.! 



1876. As is the custom in 
all American concerts, a 
large sign, bearing the name 
of the maker of the piano, 
was placed on the side of the 
piano toward the audience. 
When Billow came out on the 
platform he noticed the 
sign, and, in a rage, tore it 
from the jnano, threw it 
onto the floor and, tramp- 
ing upon it, cried loudly to 
the audience, '' I am not an 
advertising agent," after 
which he sat down and 
played as inspiringly as 
ever, and finally gave the 
piano maker a strong testimonial, praising the superior qualities 
of the piano. 

Who has not listened to Kafael Joseffy's wonderful pianissimo 
passages and wondered how the same piano upon which Liszt and 
Eubinstein had thundered could sing like music from heavenly 
spheres under Joseffy's wonderful touch. To satisfy Josetfy's 
demands for elasticity of touch and pure tone quality is a master's 
task, yet we find that a great many piano builders proudly point to 
Joseffy's indorsement. 

Josef Hofmann, who astonished the world as a " wonder child " 
and now, in his manhood, is considered the reincarnation of Liszt 
and Eubinstein combined, is not only a great pianist and musician 
but also a genius as a mechanician, capable of appreciating the dif- 
ficulties confronting the piano maker in his efforts to satisfy the 
virtuoso's demands, and therefore does not hesitate to express his 

Hans von Biilow 



satisfaction with the piano 
lie plays npon. 

Aloriz iiosciitlial is an- 
otlicr of tlie virtuosos who 
demands ninch of the ])iano 
maker. Sensitive to an ex- 
1 laordinary degree, Kosen- 
tlial insists upon an evenness 
of scale, singing ciuality, but 
also })owerful tone, in order 
to exhibit liis masterly con- 
trol of phrasing, which 
makes his rendering of 
Liszt's Don Juan para- 
phrase so captivating. 

And what of the dream- 
ing Paderewski, the lyric 
de Pachmann, the versatile 
Busoni, or ca])tivating Carreno ? Do they not call for ex- 
traordinary display of genius on the part of the piano makers, 
and are our present-day master builders not equal to their 
demands? The many testimonials, clothed in phraseology 
which does not ])ei-mit of doubt or misinterpretation, prove that 
they do satisfy all the demands made upon them, and thus 
the influence of these exacting virtuosos becomes of immeas- 
urable benefit to the industry of the day, as it has been from the 

Many virtuosos, like Clementi, Cramer, Kalkbrenner, Pleyel, 
Herz and others, took such intense interest in the development of 
the ])iano that they invested their money earned on the concert 
platform in piano factories and took an active part, trying to 
construct such instruments as they desired for their art. Many 

Rafael Joseffy 



an improvement can be 
traced to these virtuoso- 
piano makers, notably the 
Herz-Erard grand piano 

The erection of concert 
halls by piano manufactur- 
ers is entirely due to the in- 
fluence of the virtuosos. 
Very few cities had concert 
halls possessing the neces- 
sary acoustic qualifications 
for piano recitals, conse- 
quently Broadwood built his 
recital hall in London; at 
Paris the Salles Erard, 
Pleyel and Herz appeared; 
in New York, Steinway, 

Chickering and Steck halls w^ere erected; Vienna has its Saal 
Bosendorfer and the Saal Ehrbar, and in Berlin we find the Saal 
Bliithner — all of them built for the purpose of permitting the 
player's virtuosity and the piano's tonal qualities to be heard under 
most favorable conditions. 

Moriz Rosenthal 



Value of Testimonials 




THE impression pre- 
vails, more or less, 
that testimonials of 
artists are bought by the pi- 
ano manufacturers, a misap- 
l)reliension equally unjust to 
the artist and the piano 
maker. No virtuoso who is 
accepted by the music-loving 
public as an artist will give 
a testimonial praising the 
quality of any piano un- 
less he has thoroughly 
satisfied himself by a se- 
vere test that it meets 
his most exacting require- 

When Franz Liszt, who 
admired the Erard, wrote to Bosendorfer, '^ The perfection of 
your grand piano surpasses my most idealistic expectations," 


De Pachmaiin 



and UiL'U wrote to Steinway, 
" Yoiiv o-raiid piano is a 
ii'loi'ious masterpiece in 
power, sonority, singing 
(liialil\- and })erfect liar- 
nionic effects," lie used for- 
cible language to express his 

Rubinstein is on record 
for nnstinted praise of the 
Ehrbar, Plevel, Bliithner and 
many other ]nanos. After 
using- the Steinway in 215 
consecutive concerts " with 
eminent satisfaction and ef- 
fect," he so stated. Rafael 
Josetfy used the Bosendor- 
fer, iJiiilliner, Erard and flickering pianos and expressed his ad- 
miration for all of them because they merited such, and now i>lays 
the Steinway. De Pachmann dreams his Chopin interpretations 
upon all celebrated pianos and goes into ecstasies over the Bald- 
win. Exacting Biilow, averse to anything smacking of advertising, 
gave tone and cliaracter to the oiiening of the Saal Bosendorfer at 
Viemia and of ( 'bickering Hall in New York, but did not overlook 
the merits of the Irmler nor the Broadwood and many others. 
Teresa Carreno finds great x>leasui-e in playing the Bliithner, 
Schiedmayer, AVeber and Steinway, and in<lorses the Everett as 
*' a distinct achievement in j)iano construction." Ossip (jlabrilo- 
witseh admires Becker, lauds the power and brilliancy of the Ever- 
ett and praises " the x>henomenal cai-rying and singing quality " 
of the Mason & Hamlin. Moriz Rosenthal is '' enchanted " with 

Teresa Carreno 








Bosendorfer, uses the Stein- 
way with great satisfaction 
and considers the Weber 
'' sublime." Sofie Menter 
plays the Erard, describes 
the volume of tone in the 
Steinway as " tremendous," 
and tells Bosendorfer that 
'' nothing gives her greater 
pleasure than to play on his 
pianos." Paderewski made 
his reputation with the Stein- 
way, and has words of praise 
for the Erard and Weber. 
Josef Hofmann, who played 
the Weber on his first Amer- ' 
ican tour and the Schroder 
while studying with Eubinstein, says, " I use the Steinway because 
I know it is the best." 

And so forth ad infinitum! All of which goes to prove that the 
leaders in the piano industry keep abreast of the times and know 
how to build pianos to satisfy the great exponents of the art of 
piano playing. Why should a piano virtuoso confine himself to 
one make of piano? The violin virtuoso plays on a Stradivarius, 
Amati, Guarnerius, a Vuillaume, Bauscli or Gemiinder — all of them 
master builders. 

It is true that in some instances, and especially in America, the 
piano maker has to assume the role of financial backer of a piano 
virtuoso's concert journey, because the artist must have a guar- 
antee, but that does not involve dishonest public expression of 
opinion regarding the value of the piano used by the virtuoso. If 

I. J. Paderewski 



the piano is not of the high- 
est order, the artist eannot 
afford to use it, no matter 
wiiat financial consideration 
miglit be offered, because, if 
lie should use a poor ]Viano 
in his concerts, his own 
rei)utation as a performer 
might be ruined. 

Since the piano manufac- 
turer craves the indorse- 
ment of leading ]:)erformers, 
he naturally is exceedingly 
liberal in his treatment of 
artists. He willingly as- 
sumes all the risks of a con- 
cert journey, sends his pi- 
anos for the use of tlie artist wherever he may require them and 
is solicitous for the artist's personal comfort, just as Nannette 
Stein-Streicher cared for Beethoven 1 70 years ago. Modern 
piano makers go bevond that. Thev assume all the risk, 
willin.iily granting to the artist all possible benefits. It is of 
record that not many j^ears ago a piano house made a con- 
tract with a ])ianist, guaranteeing him $30,000 foi- a season's 
concert journey, no matter what the proceeds miglit be. It was 
a gamble, because the artist was entirely unknown in America. 
'I'Ik' .<i:naranteed sum was more than the artist had earned in his 
fiiliie career, and he was, of course, elated over his good fortune. 
TlicTi, how sur])rised was he when, at the end of his journey, the 
piano nuiker handed him his check for an additional $15,000, be- 
cause the concerts had drawn full houses, for which fact the in- 

Josef Ilofmami 






telligent and bold advertising of the piano house, to a large 
extent, deserved the credit. The artist's name, fame and fortune 
were made in his first American season. 

The virtuoso who plays the i)iano is the expert, capable of 
rendering judgment as to (piality and volume of tone, touch, etc. 
His favorable testimonial is desirable and becomes valuable 
through its influence upon the piano-buying public. The fact that 
every virtuoso willingly gives his indorsement to many pianos, 
all of which he has tested in his concert work, does not detract 
from the value of the testimonial. On the contrary, it enhances 
the same, to the interest of the industry. The value of artists' 
testimonials has ever been an incentive to progressive piano makers 
to improve their instruments so that the greatest virtuoso cannot 
well refuse to play upon them. 



National Associations of Manufacturers and Dealers in Europe 
and America. 





WHEN, through the advance of the factory system, the 
guilds of the various trades disappeared, no other or- 
ganization took their place for a long time, and, 
instead of the old-time harmony of the members of an industry, 
the rivalry became so intense that competitors in business looked 
upon each other as enemies. Once in a while a strike on the 
part of the workingmen would bring the bosses togetlier for a 
consultation, but even those meetings usually lacked harmony. 
However, the evident solidarity of interests finally forced a closer 
connection and we learn of the organization of the " Chambre 
Syndicale of Manufacturers of Pianos " and the '' Chambre Syn- 
dicate of Manufacturers of Musical Instruments," of Paris in 1853, 
Both chambers were merged into one organization in 1889 under 
the name of " Chambre Syndicale of Manufacturers of Musical 
Instruments." This organization was presided over by Mons, 
Thibouville-Lamy until 1896, since which time Mons. Gustave Lyon 
of Pleyel, Lyon & Company has been acting as president. 

The object and purpose of this association is defined in its 
constitution as follows: 




Gustave I.\tMi 

(1 ) To streno'then the re- 
Intioiis between all tlie mem- 
bers of tlie industry. 

{•2) To Ineilitate the de- 
vek)])meiit of their x^ros- 

{?)) To sii])])oi't all claims 
and reciiiests rei^arding- dii- 
lies, taxes, railroad and in- 
sniance rates, etc. 

(4) To furnish members 
infoi-mation regarding tlie fi- 
nancial standing of clients, 
and finally to maintain 
loyalty and dignity in their 
connnercial relations. The 
annual dues are 20 francs 
foi- each member. No for- 

eign manufacturer can belong to the chamber until he has 
been established in i-'iance 10 years and the majority of his 
inoducts are manufactured in France. The officers are: a 
l)resident, two vice-presidents, a secretary-general, a keeper of 
records, a treasurer and an assistant secretary. The election of 
(iflicers is held annually. The organization is divided into five 
gr<'Ups, as follows: 

(1) l^iano Industry (pianos and organs). 

(2) AVind Instruments (wood and brass). 

(3) Sti'ing Instruments (violins, etc.). 

(4) Supi)lies. 

(5) Automatic Tnsti-uments. 

Each grou)) has its own oi'ganization, with a president and 



In case of differences 
among' members, with each 
other or witli outsiders in 
connection with the industry, 
the ]iresident appoints a. 
committee of arbitration, 
whose members shall act as 
friendly advisers to the dis- 
imting- i)arties. All decisions 
of the chamber are subject 
to the vote of the majority. 
Every member must pay 
special dues of 12 francs an- 
nually to meet extraordinary 
expenses and strengthen the 

Austria has no national 
organization of the music 

trades, but a number of local associations, of which the 
" Association of Musical Instrument Makers of Grasslitz " is 
the oldest. It was founded in 1883, has over 300 members and 
supports a school in which young men are taught the technical 
and practical making of instruments. 

The Vienna piano and organ makers formed an association in 
1905. Its aims and purposes are similar to those of the " Paris 
Chambre Syndicale." Franz Schmidt is acting president and 
Friedrich Ehrbar, one of the directors. Ludwig Bosendorfer is 
the onlv honorarv member of the bodv. 

Germany has a large mnnber of associations for the various 
branches of the music industries. The '' Association of Piano 
Manufacturers " was organized at Leipsic in 1893 with Adolf 

Adolf Schiedmayer 



Se'liicdinayer as i)rosi(loiit. 
Tlic ' ' ( 'Imrcli ( )i",u;ni Guild- 
ers " followed in IS!*."), 
" Musical liistruDieiit ^Mak- 
ers "ill 1S1)7 and the '' l*i- 
ano I )('al('i's "in 1S99. The 
'' National A>soeialion ol' 
Piano .Manufacturers " |mr- 
sues the same objects as its 
T*ai'is coiiteni])oraTy, hut in 
addition thereto has entered 
upon an effective policy of 
])raetical aid to its mem- 
bers. It is, for instance, 
compulsory for each manu- 
facturer to educate a num- 
ber of ap})rentices propor- 
tionate to tlie nuinher of men emi)l()yed in his factory. The ener- 
getic pioident of llie association. Privy Commercial Counselor 
Adolf Schiedmayer of Stuttgart, is organizing a trade school for 
])iano makers in that city, to assure the education of young men in 
the scieiitilic theories and ]n-actice of ])iano huihling. This is the 
first institution of its kind, and wlien fully established will be of 
great service to the industry at large. The school is mainly sup- 
]>orted !»>• contributions i'lom members of the associations and 
enjoys the protection and aid of the royal government of 

'i'lie *' National Association of Piano Dealers," with head- 
<iuai-ters at Leipsic, has, from its inception, under the al)le leader- 
ship of President Carl Andre of Frankfort, a./M., inaugurated 
an<l carried on a most energetic campaign against fraudulent acl- 

Carl Andr6 


vertising, sham sales and all dislionest or disreputable methods 
prevalent in tlie i)iano trade, with excellent results. The associa- 
tion lias 344 active members and maintains a bureau of informa- 
tion, i)ul)lisliing i)eriodically contidential circulars containing rec- 
ords of objectionable people dealing in luanos and other trade 

In October, 1908, the various organizations formed the " Na- 
tional Association of Musical Instrument Industries," without, 
however, disturbing the existing organizations. This national 
association has its headquarters at Leipsic and is subdivided ter- 
ritorially into three sections, with bureaus at Leipsic, Berlin and 
Stuttgart. The management is in the hands of a president, Adolf 
Schiedmayer of Stuttgart; a vice-})resident and treas^urer, Her- 
mann Feuricli of Leipsic, and a vice-president and secretary, Max 
Bliithner of Leipsic. The main purpose of this association is to 
represent the entire industries as a body in matters of tariff laws, 
transportation, factory regulations, etc., seeking to harmonize the 
needs and wants of the various special organizations of the Ger- 
man Empire. 

The " Music Trade Association of Great Britain " was or- 
ganized in ]\rarch, 1886, with Sir Herbert Marshall as president. 
The principal object of this association is " to extend a watchful 
regard over all matters affecting the retail trade and to give 
timely information to the members," and, further, " to hold con- 
ferences for the interchange of views on questions of general trade 
interest, and generally to co-operate and take such combined action 
in defense of the just interests of the retail trade as may be found 

The " Pianoforte Manufacturers' Association " of London, 
founded in 1887 — George D. Rose, president — has as its object : 
*' To promote and protect the various interests of the music trade 
generally, to promote and support or oppose legislative or other 


measures nffeeting the aforesaid interests; to seciiic tlie more eco- 
noiiiical ami enVctiial wiiidiiii;- up of tlie estates of baiiki'ii])ts or 
insoKi'iit (l('l)t(>rs; to i'nilca\(»r to secure prosecution ol' rraudulent 
debtor.-, and to undertake, if retj[uested by l)()tli parties, settlement 
l)y ai"bit faliou." 

Ill tile Inited Slates Die ])ian() mauufactui-ers of New York 
oruanized the liisl association in the fall of ISDO. William E. 
AVheelock was elected first president and served until IS!),"). Later 
on a nunibiT o( K)cal associations of })iano juanufacturers and 
dealers \v(>ro organized who coml)iued in August, 1897, to form the 
*• National Tiano Manufacturers' Association of America." its 
(iliject is the rni'tlu'rance of: 

( 1 ) A ])etter aciiuaintance among the members of tlie trade, 
gooil fellowshii) and interchange of views on to^^ics of mutual 

(2) The ethics of the i)iano trade. 

(3) Tei-i'itorial lights of manufacturers and dealers in regard 
to x'Hiiig pianos. 

(4) A uniform warranty. 

(r-)) The i)roducts of su}>ply houses: i.e., the question of stamp- 
ing tlic niaiiufacturer's name upon i)iaiio ])arts furnished by the 
supi)ly houses to the trade. 

(()) The relation of the manufacturers to the music-trade 

(7 and H) To obtain reductions in insurance and transportation 

(9) Tlie estal)lishment of a bureau of credits. 

(10) Legislation by united action; that more uniform laws 
shall be enacted in several States regarding conditional sales, and 
sucli other matters of importance to the piano trade as may come 
u\) from time to time. 

Presidents of the National Association of Piano Manufacturers of America from 

1S97 to 1911 

Presidents of the National Association of Piano Dealers of America from 1!)()2 to 1011 


The association is governed by a i)resident, two vice-presidents, 
a treasurer, secretary and assistant secretary. Contrary to the 
European system, where officers, once elected, are reguUirly re- 
elected as long as they are able to attend to their duties with effi- 
ciency, this association changes its governing board (willi the 
exception of the assistant secretary) annually. 

The " National Association of Piano Dealers of America " was 
organized in May, 1902. Its object is tersely stated in its consti- 
tution, as follows : 

" The object of this association shall be the mutual elevation 
of trade interests." Its by-laws provide for the following board: 
a president, four vice-presidents, a commissioner for each State 
and Territory (to be known as state commissioners), a secretary, 
a treasurer, and an executive board consisting of the president, 
secretary, treasurer and four members of the association. The 
officers are elected at the annual meeting and usually a new set 
is chosen each year. The membership is divided into active and 
associate members. The latter class takes in any one engaged in 
any branch of the musical industry not otherwise eligible. The 
annual dues are $10 for active and $5 for associate members. The 
association has a membership of over 1,000, and has done very 
eiTective work in guarding the ethics of the piano trade, and is 
making strenuous efforts for the general introduction of the one- 
price system. 

National piano exhibitions have lately been held in connection 
with the annual dealers' conventions, apparently to the benefit of 
both dealers and manufacturers. 


The Trade Press — Its Value to the Indiistryo 



IX America the piano-trade press evolved slowly and, after 
many interrnptions from so-called musical journals, the first 
of wliicli, the " American Musical Journal," was founded 
in 1835. It carried some advertisements of piano manufacturers 
and would publish, off and on, items which at that time were con- 
sidered trade news. 

In 1843 Henry C. Watson established his " Musical Chronicle " 
in New York. Watson was a most remarkable man, equally gifted 
and learned as a musician as he was as a writer, and withal a man 
of business. He saw the necessity of enlisting the active support 
of the piano manufacturers for his journal and endeavored hon- 
estly to render value for such support. Thus Watson became the 
founder of piano-trade journalism. It is to be regretted that space 
does not permit a complete record of the brilliant career of this 
interesting character. 

Born in London on November -1, 1818, he appeared at Covent 
Garden in '' Oberon " at the age of nine, singing the part of a 
'' fairy." In 1811 he came to New York, welcomed by such men 
as William CuUen Bryant, Horace Greeley and others of like stand- 
ing. He was immediately engaged as a musical critic for the 
" New World," then edited by Greeley. Besides his duties as a 
critic and also writing lyrics and composing songs, Watson man- 




aged to |»iil)lisli the " Broad- 
"way .lounial." ciilisling Ed- 
gar Allan I*t»(' as editor. He 
found. li(»\v('\-('r. liis real field 
of usefulness in his '' ^Tu- 
sieal I'lirunicle," in which lie 
intcM-ested Jonas riiickering 
as well as the leaders among 
the New York piano manu- 
facturers. He had discovered 
that the interests of nuisical 
art and the interests of the 
piano industry were interde- 
l)endent and that the one 
nmst support the (jther for 
mutual benefit. He, there- 
fore, devoted considerable 
energy to the propaganda of the ])iano. In course of time he 
changed the title of his i)ublication to '' ^Musical Times," 
•• IMiilhai-inonie Journal " and finally to '' The American 
Alt .b.iiinal." He was one of the founders of the Philharmonic 
Society and also organized the Mendelssohn Union of New 

As nuisical critic of the " New York Tribune " and editor-in- 
chief of '^ Frank T.eslie's Tllu^trated Xewsiia])er," AVatson was for 
iii;in>- Ncars one of the pillais (»!' musical life in America. He died 
on Decembei- 4, 1875, at the age of 57. " The American Art Jour- 
nal " was continued by Watson's pupil, William M. Thoms, until 
his letirement in 11)06. 

The *' Afusic Trade TJeview," foundecl in November, 1875, by 
Jolin ( ". Erennd, appeared I'oi- about two years; it was followed 
in 1878 by the " Musical Times," which soon changed to " Musical 

Ilciirv C. Watson 


and Dramatic Times." In 1881 Freuud started a journal called 
" Music," which title was changed to " ^lusic and Drama." 
" Freund's Weekly " ai)i)eared in 1884. Soon changed to " Music 
and Drama." In 1887 Freund joined J. Travis Quigg in publish- 
ing the " American Musician," and in 1893 he started, with ^Nfilton 
Weil, '' ISlusic Trades." 

Charles Avery Wells established the '' Music Trade Journal " 
in 187(3, which he changed to the " Musical Critic and Trade Re- 
view " in 1879. In January, 1888, Edward Lyman Bill bought an 
interest in the journal and soon became sole owner. He changed 
it from a fortnightly to a weekly, under the title of " Music Trades 
Review," making it the first trade paper published in America 
devoted exclusively to the music industries. He has also published 
several valuable treatises on piano construction, in book form, 
which are enumerated elsewhere. 

In 1880 Harry E. Freund began to conduct a journal called 
" Music and Drama," which title he later changed to *' Musical 

William E. Nickerson started the ^' Musical and Dramatic 
News " in 1877. It went into the hands of the Lockwood 
Press, who sold the same to Marc A. Blumenberg in 1881, and 
the name was changed to " Musical Courier." In 1897 Blumen- 
berg separated the musical and industrial departments, 
publishing the " Musical Courier Extra " strictly as a trade 

" The Indicator," established by Orrin L. Fox at Chicago in 
1880, devoted to the liberal arts and art industries, was changed 
into an organ for musical industries exclusively, being the first 
in the field to make effective propaganda for the i)iano industry of 
the west. 

'' The Presto " was founded at Chicago by Frank A. Abbott in 

418 riAXoS AND TllKllJ .MAKERS 

1883. The '" riv>t(» Year IWjok " is a very valnablo, historical 
eomi^eiKlinin ol" \v;\f\o events. Al)l)i)U assoeiat(Ml hiiiiscli' in 18*J4 
with (". A. haiiicll, who holds tlie responsihh' position as editor-in- 
ehiel" of the \arioiis Presto pnljlieations. 

Tlie " Chicauo Musieal Times" was started by William 1^]. 
Xickci-sun in JS8j, and has b^en di'\ek)|)ed to its })i'esent com- 
maiidiii.i;- position by i\ 15. liari>'er, wlio aninired control in 1895. 

George l*>. Ai'instrong estal)lisli('(l his dignified monthly jour- 
nal, '• Tlie Piano Trade/' at Chicago in VMS. 

Ill p.ip) ('. A. Datiicll assnmed tlie management of the " Piano 
Magazine," an illustrated monthly i)nl)lished in Xew York City. 
'Iliis pnl)li('ation treats mainly of the historical, mnsical and tech- 
nical aspects (if tilt' piano and allictl musical industries in an enter- 
taining manner, thus differing from the trade jonrnals which deal 
niainly with the news of the day. 

The " Zeitschrit't fiir instrumentenbau " was established by 
Panl (](' ^Vit at Leii)sic in 1880 and has a wide circulation all over 

The " AVelt-Adressbnch " of musical industries, com})iled and 
l)ul)lished t)y Paul de Wit, is a most valuable reference book. It 
contaiTis the names of all the firms connected in any way with 
musical industries in all parts of the world. 

The " Musik Instrumenten-Zeitung," })nblislied in Berlin, was 
startc(l in 1S<)(). 

In England the " London and Pi'ovincial Ylusic Trades Re- 
view " was established in London in 1877; " Musical Opinion and 
Music Ti-ade Review," also a monthly jniblication, often contains 
valuable cont rilmtions of interest to the piano trade. '' The Piano 
♦Journal " is a monthly dcx'olcd cntii'cl}- to the interests of piano 
makers and dealers. The monthly journal, '' Music," also makes 
reference to trade tojncs. 

tup: trade press 419 

The Importance and Value of the Trade Press to the Piano ■ 


As the government of a nation is only the reflex of the indi- 
viduals composing the nation, so is the trade press the reflex of 
the individuals composing an industry. The character of a trade 
press is stamped upon it by its patrons. The earlier piano-trade 
papers, after Watson's time, allowed themselves to be used by a 
group of firms, from which they received liberal financial support. 
This tended to demoralization, and the cry of blackmail was heard. 
The papers depending on this one-sided support had a precarious 
existence, and had to go to the wall whenever the extra subsidy was 
withheld. Questionable methods were resorted to, off and on, to 
compel more liberal financial support from the piano makers. 

The conditions existing in the piano trade some 30 years ago 
were such as really to infect part of the trade press with the 
bacillus of coercion. But, after all, the papers which did pursue 
a policy of coercion became unconsciously " ein tlieil von jener 
kraft, die boses will und gutes schafft." Repeated failures of the 
most aggressive papers of that character proved the error of 
playing champion for one or more firms, and the various later 
publications started out with the pronounced policy of aiding the 
entire industry and injuring none. Success followed this policy, 
and the piano trade of to-day has in its trade press a great help- 
mate which is worthy of the support it enjoys. 

It is altogether wrong to consider the support of a clean trade 
paper as a tax. Every laborer is worthy of his hire, and the more 
liberally the trade press is supported the better service it can 
render, a service needed by the trade and obtainable only through 
a well-organized press. 

That music-trade journalism is an honorable profession has 


Ijoeii (l»'itionstrntc(l liy its i'onndcr, TToiiry C. AVatson, who enjoyed 
the respei't and waiin liieiidship of his supporters as well as that 
nl' the (•(»iiiiiniiiit\' at large. The value of an honest and able trade 
])ress is ahnost unineasural)l(' in the coin of the realm. From year 
to ycai- thi' piniio-t rade i)ress has grown in dignity and usefulness, 
and, just as soon as the indnsti-y itself gets entirely upon the 
I 'lane of K'gitimate business methods, whatever may be objection- 
able in the trade press of to-day will then of necessity die its nat- 
ural death. 



Literature on the Pianoforte 



THE first attempt to write a history of the pianoforte was 
made in 1830 by M. Fetis, '' Sketch of the History of the 
Pianoforte and the Pianists," a laborious effort bv a bril- 
liant writer, but of little value to the piano maker. 

Kusting's " Practisches Handbuch der Pianoforte Baukunst," 
Berne, 1844, is a more iDractical treatise than Fetis' attempt, but 
antiquated and only of interest to the historian. The same may be 
said of the interesting work of Professor Fischhof, " Versuchi 
einer Geschichte des Clavierbaues," Vienna, 1853. 

Welcker von Gontershausen published in 1860 " Der Clavierbau 
in seiner Theorie, Teclmik und Geschichte," a fourth edition of 
which was printed in 1870 by Christian Winter, Frankfurt a./M. 

As a practical piano maker, fairly well posted on the laws of 
acoustics and thoroughly acquainted with the characteristics of all 
known musical instruments, Welcker has given a work of interest- 
and value. It is to be regretted that his extreme patriotism and 
rather biased opinion do not permit him to do full justice to 
pianos made in other countries than Germany. Aside from this 
fault, his book is to be recommended to the studious piano maker 
as well as the student of musical-instrument lore. 

Dr. Ed. F. Rimbault published in 1860, in London, his ambitious 
work, " The Pianoforte." Written at the time when the English 



piano iiuln.-^try was at its lieigiit, it is pardonable that the author 
laid liis emphasis on English efforts and achievements rather at 
the expense of the French, German and Austrian schools. It must 
be assuuicnl llial the aciiievements of the hitter were not known 
to him ill tlioii" iMitirety and iiiiportance. Especial credit is, how- 
ever, due to IJiiiiliniilt Tor having produced documentary evidence 
of Christofori's priority as inventor of the pianoforte. 

G. 'F. Sievei's of Naples, an al)k' i)iano maker, ])uMished in 1868 
his '' 11 I'ianoforte Guida Practica," with a special atlas showing 
piano actions in natui-a! size and ilierefore of great value to the 
piano student. 

\)v. Oscar Paul, a professor at the Conservatory of Music in 
Leipsic, wrote in 18()8, '' Geschichte des Claviers." The learned 
professor of music failed to do justice to the title of his book. 
Entirely unac(iuainted with the ]iractical art of ])iano making, he 
assumes an authority which is anuising to tlie knowing reader. 
Like AVek'kers, Dr. Paul suffers too much from German egotism. 
All through the book the effort of ascribing all progress in piano 
construction to his countrymen is })ainfully })alpable, he even go- 
ing so far as to im])ly that Christofori had co]>ied Schroter's in- 
vention, an cfToi-t which demonstrates Paul's ignorance of action 
construction. However, the book contains sufficient good matter 
to icpay reading it. Publisiied by A. H. Payne, Leipsic. 

For the practical piano nuU^er who reads German, the '' Lehr- 
])nch des Pianofortebaues," by Julius Bliithner and TTeinrich 
Gretschel, pu])lished in 1872 and revised by Robert Hannemann in 
19fH), Leipsic, Pernh. Friedr. Voigt, ofl'ers much valuable infor- 
mation, treating with great care the construction of the piano and 
tlu' materials, tools and machinery used in the manufacturing of 
the instrument. It also has a short essay on acoustics written by 
Dr. AValter Niemann, who furthermore contributes a history of the 
piano up to the time of the general introduction of the iron frame. 


Edgar Brinsmead's " History of the Pianoforte," London, 1889, 
dwells too mueli upon the achievements of the firm of Brinsmead 
<fe Sons and loses all importance when compared to A. J. Hi])kins' 
" Descrii)tion and History of the Pianoforte," published by No- 
vello & Company, London, 1890. An earnest scholar and careful 
writer, Hii)kins successfully avoids the many pitfalls of the lexicog- 
raphers and gives a clear and succinct description of the develop- 
ment of the i)iano from its earliest stages to the modern concert 
grand. The book is well worth careful perusal by anyone inter- 
ested in the piano industry. 

Daniel Spillane's " History of the American Pianoforte," New 
York, 1890, is an interesting compendium showing the development 
of the piano industry in the new world, with sidelights upon the 
men who have been most prominent in that sphere. 

Edward Quincy Norton, a piano maker of long and manifold 
experience, wrote his " Construction and Care of the Pianoforte " 
in 1892. This book, published by Oliver Ditson & Company of 
Boston, contains valuable suggestions for tuners and repairers, 
and is still meeting with a ready sale. 

The more modern books, '' Piano Saving and How to Accom- 
plish It," by Edward Lyman Bill, and " The Piano, or Tuner's 
Guide," by Spillane, also William B. White's books, " Theorj^ and 
Practice of Pianoforte Building," ^' A Technical Treatise on Piano 
Player Mechanism," " Regulation and Repair of Piano and 
Player Mechanism, Together with Tuning as Science and Art " 
and " The Player Pianist," all published by Edward Lyman Bill, 
New York, have found wide circulation among practical piano 
makers because of their popular treatment of intricate subjects. 
All of these books are almost indispensable for a conscientious 
tuner and repairer. 

Among the strictly scientific works, John Tyndall's treatise on 
^^ Sound " and Helmholtz' '' Sensation of Tone " offer much food 



for tlioiiii'lit to tlio student 
of acoustics, altlioui>li Ilchn- 
lioltz's originally nnicli- 
lauded " Tone AVave The- 
ory," as well as his so- 
called discovery of the " Ear 
Harp,'" have been vigorously 
attacked by Henry A. Mott 
in his book, " The Fallacy 
of the Present Theory of 
Sound " (New York, John 
Wiley & Sons), and by 
vSiegfried Hansing in " Das 
Pianoforte in seinen akus- 
tischen Anlagen," New 
York, 1888, revised edition, 
Schwerin i./M., 1909. 

llansing's work is be- 
yond (luestion the most important, so far written, on the construc- 
tion of the ])ianoforte. His studies in the realm of acoustics 
disclose a most ])enetrating mind capable of exact logical rea- 
soning, ilc bases his conclusions on exhaustive studies, without 
regai-d to the accepted theories of earlier scientists. As a thor- 
oughly piactical piano maker and master of his art, Hansing 
stiidicil cause and effect in its ap])lication to the piano, and his 
book is a rich mine of information for the ])rospective piano 
designer and constructor. I'ree from any business affiliations, he 
treats his subject with an im])nrtial and unl)iased keenness of 
l)ercei)tion which is at once im])ressive and convincing. 

Dr. AValter Niemann's '' Das Klavierbuch," C. F. Kahnt 
Naclifolger, Leipsic, is an entertaining little book on the i)iano, its 


music, composers and virtuosos, containing many illustrations of 
rare and valuable pictures of noted artists playing tlie piano. 

Henry Edward Krelibiel's more pretentious and serious work^ 
" The Pianoforte and Its Music," Scribner, New York, 1911, is 
a valuable work of interest to the student of the piano, the musician 
and music lover. 

Of special interest to the studious piano maker are the cata- 
logues of old instruments collected by Morris Steinert of New 
Haven and Paul de Wit of Leipsic. '' M. Steinert 's Collection of 
Keyed and Stringed Instruments " is the title of a book published 
by Charles F. Tretbar, Steinway Hall, New York. It contains ex- 
cellent illustrations of the clavichords, spinets, harpsichords and 
claviers which Steinert has discovered in his searches covering a 
period of 40 years. The illustrations are supplemented by a mi- 
nute description of each instrument. A concise history of the 
development of the piano and illustrations with explanatory text 
of Steinert 's collection of violins, etc., complete the volume. 

In " Reminiscences of Morris Steinert," compiled by Jane 
Martin, G. P. Putnam's Sons, New York, 1900, Steinert gives in- 
teresting and amusing accounts of his experiences hunting old 
instruments in America and foreign countries. Steinert, a gifted 
and many-sided musician by profession, became a dealer in musical 
instruments, especially pianos, and founded the great house of M. 
Steinert & Sons, with headquarters at Boston and branch stores 
in leading cities of New England. The tirm also controls the 
Hume and the Jewett piano factories. 

The " Katalog des Musikhistorischen Museums von Paul de 
Wit, Leipsic," published by Paul de Wit, 1904, is the most com- 
plete compendium in existence, describing old instruments of all 
kinds, their origin and makers. Although this catalogue is profusely 
illustrated, De Wit published in addition a most artistic album, 
" Perl en aus der Instrumenten Sammlung," von Paul de Wit, 

Morris Stcinert at the Clavichord 




Leipsie, 1892. 'Tliis ;ill)iiin contain Hi illiisti'ations printed iu col- 
ors, eacli plate a master work of the ('()lor-])yinter's art. For the 
eonnoisseiir, tliis allmni is a desirable and valuable addition to the 

J*aiil lie W'il lias ilevoted his lii'e to advance the interests of the 
].inTi(i indusli-y. A sketch of his career is, therefore, only an 
ackiiiiwlcdnnient of liis valuable services. Born at Maastricht, 
Holland, on ,lannai> 4, 1852, de Wit studied the cello under 
.Ma>-ail at the conservatory of Luettich and showed decided 
talent. His parents objected to an artistic career and forced the 
youiiii' man to conduct a wholesale wine business at Aachen. Since 
the cello had a nmcli more magnetic attraction for him than wine, 
he (lid not make a success of the wine business, and sold his inter- 
est in 1S7S. He went to Leii)sic and became connected with the 
mu.^ic jiublislier, C. F. Kalmt, where he made the accpiaintance of 
Liszt, von Billow, Carl Riedel, etc., and also the versatile Oscar 
Laffert. in partnership with the latter, he started in 1880 '' Die 
Zeitschrift fiir Instrumentenbau," a dignified journal, devoted to 
the interests of the music trades of Germany. Laffert retired in 
188G, and de Wit became sole ])roprietor of the i)ublication, which 
to-day ranks amono- fho most influential of trade journals in Ger- 
many and circulates in all civilized countries. 

An artist, enthusiast and born collector, de Wit was not satis- 
lic<l with his success as an editor and publisher, but set to work 
collecting ancient instruments of all kinds. He started a work- 
shop with TTei'niann Seyffarth, tli<' welhknown rei)airer of violins 
and other musical instruments, in charge. Seyffai'th rejuvenated 
the battered relics which de Wit had discovered during his travels, 
in storehouses, barns, garrets and cellars. De Wit virtually 
seai'clied the Continent for old instruments, and many valuable 
discoveries stand to his credit. Whenever he heard that an old 
spinet, violin, bass drum or flute had been unearthed somewhere, 


de Wit would take the next train, no matter how great the dis- 
tance or expense, to satisfy himself whether the relic was worthy 
of a place in his collection. As a result he assembled three col- 
lections, which are unrivaled. His first, containing 4-50 instru- 
ments, was bought in 1889 by the Government of Prussia for the 
Academy at Berlin. It was supplemented in 1891 by an addition 
of the grand piano used by Johann Sebastian Bach. His second 
collection of nearly 1,200 instruments was bought by Wilhelm 
Heyer of Cologne, who erected a special building to house his 

The industry owes t^ de Wit and Steinert a debt of gratitude 
for their unselfish labors in bringing to light the works of the 
old masters. Their efforts to again create a taste for the enchant- 
ing tone quality of the clavichord will bear fruit, by inducing the 
piano constructor of the future to search for a more pronounced 
combination of the liquid with the powerful tone than we find in 
the piano of the present. 

Notable collections of ancient instruments are also to be found 
at the South Kensington Museum at London, in the Germanische 
Museum at Nuremberg, and in the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 
New York, which latter has a genuine Christofori piano e forte. 
The most complete of all, however, is the unexcelled collection of 
Wilhelm Heyer at Cologne. 






ORIGINATING in Italy during the inspiring period of the 
Renaissance as a strictly art product, a musical instru- 
ment whose outer form was designed by architects, deco- 
rated and embellished by painters and sculptors, the piano received 
its first development in strength and fullness of tone under the 
hands of the Teutonic master builders of Austria and German5^ 
The latter brought it to England, where the Anglo-Saxon imprint 
was impressed by the first efforts of manufacturing pianos, call- 
ing factory organization and machinery to its aid. This Angliciz- 
ing was furthermore marked by the invention of a more forceful 

After this the piano was taken in hand by Paris builders, who, 
in harmony with the French taste, took oif the rough edges of the 
English construction and went back to the more dainty Italian 
design of case, and invented actions which permitted of a more 
delicate execution. However, the French builders did not quite 
follow the djTiamical assault of the new school of music, which 
demanded more tone power to fill large concert halls, and America 
took the field with its full iron frame, enlarged scales and heavy 
hammers. Germany was first to adopt this innovation from Amer- 
ica and again took the lead in Europe. 



These various; scliools can l)o traced most distinctly from tlicir 
IjOginnini? to llic time when tlicy i-cacluMl tlic p(»int of liii;iiest de- 
velopment and wore snperscMlcd by aiiotlicr school. Italy I'eaclied 
its lu'ij^lil with ( 'hristot'oi'i in 17i'(), ;iii(l has never sineo ])een a 
factor. (Iennaii\- todk hold of Italy's heritage, and the (ierinan 
scliool iirospei-eil ri'(Mii 17l!ii lo ahout ISOO, when England ste])ped 
in, wrested the lanrels iVoiii (lei-iiiany and developed its manimotli 
factories from 1800 to almiit 18G0, f'laiice In the meantime (1803- 
1855) became the snccessfnl rival of England hecausc of more 
artistic designs and relined tone (pialities. After 1855, however, 
l)otli JMigland and Erance were ont-classed hy America, wliich has 
hern ahle to maintain its supremacy ever since. Germany, hav- 
ing ni(»re or less rested nj^on its laurels np to 1855, took the cue 
lioiii America and after 18(50 out-rivaled England and France in 
the pi'tnluction of pianos. 

A\'liile no accurate statistics are obtainable, a reasonable esti- 
mate id the nnmber of ])ianos produced in the various countries, 
based <in careful com])utations made by manufacturers of ]uano 
su])i)lies, indicates the following annual production at the present 
time : 

America .150,000 

Geiniany 170,000 

England 75,000 

i*'iance ; 25,000 

Austria and Switzerland 12,000 

ivussia 10,000 

Xetherlands and Scandinavia 4,000 

^pJiiii 2,500 

Italy 1^500 

Grand Total 650,000 


The piano born in Italy rcniiiirod Teutonic force for develop- 
ment, French taste for refinement, English matter-of-fact indus- 
trialism and commercialism for better introduction and finally 
American enter})rise and wealth for general adoption as an indis- 
pensable part of home furnisliing. The history of the ])iano shows 
that in its present-day finality it represents the activity of many 
minds in the constructive, artistic, industrial and connnercial 
fields. The industry has now reached a })oint wdiere the genius 
of the born organizer on modern lines will be next heard from 
in any further progress. (Combinations of large firms are in- 
evitable. Competition forces greater economies in production as 
well as distribution. America is leading in the new movement, 
and will adopt it more generally than any of the other nations, 
because nowhere is a general standardization so crying a necessity 
as in the United States. The product has to be standardized to 
bring the business of distribution out of its slough of disreputable 
tactics and practices. This standardization was the aim of the 
American trust movements of 1892-99, While these attempts 
were premature, the correctness of the underlying philosophy has 
been proven by the subsequent successful amalgamation of large 
concerns into harmonious entities. 

When we search for the cause or reason why the piano industry 
has been so slow in developing along commercial and industrial 
lines, in comparison w^ith other leading industries, we find it in 
the fact that nearly all the founders of successful firms were gradu- 
ates of the cabinetmaker's work-bench. They were primarily 
mechanics with a strong inclination to the artistic, both of which 
cpialities are the antithesis of industrialism and commercialism. 
Their very occupation of designing pianos, inventing improve- 
ments, dreaming of tone quality, etc., totally unfitted them for the 
cold, exact calculation of the economic factory organizer and the 
liberal distributor of the finished product, not to mention the rea- 

436 riAXOS AXI) TIlKlli* MAKEKS 

soninfi: of the fiiiaiicici-, wIki never lias an eye for anything else but 
cold figiii'es and alui'hi";"*" rchn-l i(»ns. 

We lliid, therefore, that I'lnghuid, where commercial tactics 
dominated when the piaiKt ai)))eare(l thei'c, was the fii'st of the 
nations to inannfarture tiieni in large numbers. The P^nglish 
knew how to sell and liow to disti'ibnte them after they were made. 
The astonisiiing growth in America came when the kings of mer- 
chandising in the piano business became manufacturers and sup- 
j)leniented tiie factory metliods, started in Kngland, with the 
science of wholesale distiibution. it must not be overlooked here 
that tlie ]>iano industry in all countries, with exce])tion of England, 
has always sutfei-ed as a wlioh' from hick of suflicient working 
capital In Germany, France and America cai)ital was never 
attracted to the ])iano industiy, sim])ly because it lacked a solid 
fonndation and ai)parently had no stabiHty. In many instances a 
business of magnitude would die with the death of its founder, 
because its main asset was the name and the individuality of its 

When we analyze the characters ol' all the leaders in this in- 
dustry, trom its beginning to the i)resent day, — barring a few 
notable exceptions of latter days, — we find that all were excep- 
tionally strong men who had to fight their way from poverty and 
misery by sheer will-power, supported by decided talent or genius. 
Nearly all of them were without early education. They had to 
])ick u|) whatever they acquired in knowledge in their s])are hours, 
and we must admire these men tor their great acconii)lishments, 
con>idering the conditions undei- which they worked. Even their 
lietty jealousies must be i)ardone(l. If we look back to the days 
in which they lived, we need not wonder that Pleyel and Broad- 
wood were intimate friends and made front against Erard, nor 
that ('bickering opposed the overstrung system for years because 
Steinway advocated it. All of these men thought more of their 


instruments, the children of their brain, than of making profits on 
broad lines of industrial and eommereial development. 

Modern organization, to be sncoessful in the ])iano industry, 
requires a division of labor and duties, which will enable the con- 
structor to follow his thoughts irrespective of factory, selling, or 
financial conditions and re(|uirements. Indeed, the managers of 
each of these departments must be adepts and experts in their 
particular calling, and nuist be so situated that they can work out 
their plans on the basis which their coadjutors furnish from their 
respective dei)artments. We have now establishments which turn 
out 30,000 instruments per year under one management. The time 
is not far off when we shall see organizations whose output will 
surpass 100,000 pianos per year, and those large organizations will 
set the pace, will create the standard, which every competitor must 

The piano factory of the future has not even been sketched out 
as yet, but it will come, just as the town of Gary has been built 
for the steel industry. The laws of evolution are at work in the 
piano industry as strongly as elsewhere, and the avoidable eco- 
nomic waste, the trifling away of fortunes in the present cumber- 
some, unscientific way of making pianos and much more so in the 
kindergarten methods of distributing the products, — methods 
which often make the cost of selling larger than the cost of pro- 
duction, — must come to an end for the good of everybody con- 
nected with the industry. Some of the money saved by such mod- 
ern methods should be expended for the support of high-grade 
trade schools, where the art of piano making would be taught, and 
part of the increased profits coming from the economic savings 
should go to a labor ]iension fund, in order to attract to the indus- 
try the best class of wage-workers obtainable. 

Even when, by proper factory organization, the piano shall 
come to the level of an every-day commodity, it will, after all, 


romain an ari ].r(.<1iict: aii<l, sinr-o wo ran form no ron('0])tio]i as 
to its riiilluT (lc\('l()iini('iit, lalt'iitiMl youii.n' men iiiusl he brought 
into lilt' ficl<l to contiiiuallN inject that xiuor and cnlcrprisc wliich 
is iiicli>i)(.'ii>al)k' lo inogii'ss. A(lt'(|iiat(' ('oini)ensatioii and assnr- 
aiioo of a ('onijx'tcncy foi- old age are the only means of attracting 
aliilit> and energy. 

The piano linhisti-}' sliould he as attractive as any to the yonng 
iiiaii ,,r lo (l;iy. All we lack is |)i-()|.ei' training schools, which may 
easilv he sni)plied li\ donations fi'oni the leading niannl'actnrers 
of each nation, riei'many is making an etTort in that dii-ection, 
and Mil- land, fiance and America ought not to delay the founda- 
tion (if >nch schools. The day of the ai)prentice has i)assed for- 
ever, we know how to impart to a ])ro])erly schooled young man 
more knowledge of a craft in one year than he could ac(piire, under 
t1ie ai)])rentice system, in five years. The university for the 
physician and lawyer, the college for the farmer, must l)e sup- 
plciiiciited 1)\ the college for the craftsman, so that he may ])er- 
fect hiiiisclf in his chosen profession after he leaves the manual 
li'aining school. 

While foi- tlie ]^ast 100 years all the efforts of inventors and 
l)iano constructors had lait one aim — to augment the tone of the 
jiiano — the labors of de Wit, Steinert and creating an 
interest in the cla\ichords, furthermore the tenacity of the Vienna 
and !•' reach schools in clinging to the more liinj)i(l though smaller 
tone, are arousing the interest of piano constructors to seek for 
inoi'e >oniriil. exi)ressive tone quality, without, however, curtailing 
tlie earr\Ing capacity — a problem, no doubt, very difficult to solve, 
hut, therefore, so much more inviting to the thinking piano 

The factory manager, the sales manager and the financial di- 
rector will have problems continually looming up before them, to 


solve wliicli a clear understanding of tlie past lii story, the present 
conditions and the trend of events in the near future becomes im- 
perative. If this book shall serve as a guide and inspiration to the 
younger element in the various branches of our art and craft, it 
will have fulfilled its intended mission. 


List of Firms Manufacturing Pianos and Supplies at the Present 



List of Firms Manufaeluring- Pianos and Supplies at the Present 




Griffini & Co., R Established 

C'oppi, Fedf lic'O 

lliek, GiuscpjK' 

Lachin, Niculu 

Berzioli, Fratelli 

Aginonino. Giacinto " 

Berra, Ing. C'esare " 

Colombo, Federico " 

Fea, Fratelli 

Fea, Giovanni " 

Fonioris, Frattdli " 

Lacchio & Co " 

]\Iigliauo & Borello " 

Mola, Cav. Giuseppe " 

Olivotto. B 

Pcrotti, Cav. Carlo " 

Quartero, Vittorio Felice " 

Roeseler Cav. Carlo " 

Savi & Co., Rod 




1830 Padua 

1836 Parma 

1850 Turin 

1850 " 


1900 " 

1880 " 




1862 '. " 

1870 " 


* ce 

1905 " 



Kilger, Eduard Established 

Haegele, Heinrich 

Gebauer, Jr., Gg. Dietr 

IMaass. W 

Moller, Ernst 

Dittnier. A 

Neupert. J. C 

Ibach Solm. Rud 

Lehmann. Arthur 

Steingriiber & Srdine 

Andrit & Co.. Robert 

Anghdfer's Pianofabrik 

Bartel & Co.. Ernst 

Barthol. R 

Bechstein. C 

Beei- & Co 

Becker, Aloys 

Biese, W 

Blasendorff. Carl 

Bdger & Sohn, Wilh 



1846 Aalen 

1810 Alsfeld 

1891 Altona 

1819 " 


1868 Bamberg 

1 "94 Barmen 


1852 Bayreuth 




1871 " 

1853 « 


, i( 

1851 ' . . " 

1898 " 

18G0 " 


BoT-i iS: Voifjt Establislvecl 1005 Berlin 

B.'.m-eki', lltMiiianii " 190« 

HoikL-i.l.ayon, -M "^ 1892 ^| 

BraiuU's. Kricli ~ 

(.'oinpaLniii' I'onconlia " 1869 

Dassfl. Any l'^-i9 ^^ 

Di.nadoiii & Pohl " !««<> 

Dn.ver & Co.. Max " l^'"! " 

Di.vsrn, I. 1 " l«'i*> " 

K.k... Carl :: 1H73 '; 

Eininor. Williclin 

l"ii;;flinaiiii ^: (iiintluMiiiann 


Kxc«'lsior Pianofabrik " 

Felin & Co.. A " 1903 

Felseliow. A " l"^^"' 

Kn'llilicli & Kfiiiinlcr 


Gawi'iiila. Franz " 1^88 

Geil & Co.. Fri(Hl<Ticli " HH)4 

Gicse. Rciiickc <.^- < '<> " 1888 

Giirs & Kalliuanii " 1877 

Gc-izi- & Co " .M ■ " 1880 

Grand Xachf., A " 1869 

Gii.l... M.M-it/. " 1886 

Ciintli.T. Otto " 

(Hiiitlicr. i;..l)('rt " 1880 

llaliiiianii. Ciistav " 1884 

llauckc. Carl " 1890 

llaiiii.-. I'aul " 1861 

llan.sfn. 11 " 1871 

liarmonie " 

Hartmaiin. W " 1839 

Ilaiix-liul/.. .lul " 

ll.'i<lri(li. Ilcrmaiin " 1881 

lleilbrunn Sr.lmc. K " 1875 

Iloinkc Carl " 

ll.'dk.-. Willi "' 1890 

liciiidcrir. A " 1892 

llcpperlf. Otto " 1872 

lli-vs... K. II " 1872 

liiil{.':irtncr. Ilcinricli " 1901 

llilsc. C " 

lliise Xaclif.. W " 1876 

Ilinkf. Alfred " 1!)()I 

liint/e. Carl H '• 

il..liiic cV; S(dl " 1885 

liotrniaiiii I'ianos '' 

liodd" & Co " 1873 

Horn, Alfred " 1905 

.(anou skv. .M " 

.Jaseliinsky, A " 1880 

Kcwitseli. Joliannos " 1878 

Klinies. Schwitalla & Co " 1905 

Klin;;iiiann & Co., G " 1869 

Kn.'ichel. Ad " 1876 

Koeh & Co.. Ernst " 1896 

Krauso. Conrad " 1868 Hermann " 1S60 

Krause & Dress " 

Krengcl & Co., H « 1906 



Kriebel, IT Establislicd 

Kiilila. Frit/ 

Kulil & Klatt 

I^jiiiiiiu'iliirt, Emil " 

Laiij^fritz. I " 

Lehiiianii cV Co., Adolf " 

Laiirinat & Co " 

Lonz. A 

Liodcke, \V 

Linke, Godenscliwogor & Co " 

List, Ernst 

Lubitz, II " 

Liidcckc, M 

Maclialct, T 

Maiitlipv, Ford 

Rlaniuardt & Co., Otto 

ilatz & Co., H 

Menzel, Willielin 

ileyer, Ricliard " 

Mobes & Co " 

Mors & Co.. L 

Miiller, :\Ia.\ 

Nesener & Segcrt " 

Neufeind, R 

Neunipver, Ernst " 

Neuftdd, L 

Neugebauer Naclif ., C " 

Neunieyer, ^lax " 

Neiiincver, Cebr " 

Niebcr' & Co., A " 

Noeske & Co 

Opperniann, Albert " 

Otto, Carol 

Paul & Co., Ernst 

Paul & Co 

Peclnnnnn & Co " 

Pfaffo. Julius 

Pfeiller, ,J 

Pianofabrik A. Liiddemann " 

Pianofortefabrik " Euterpe " " 

Ottomar Fiedler 

" Opera " 

W. Hoffmann 

Plosch & Co 

PHschel, A 

Quaiult, C. J 

Ivoesener, F " 

Sebiemann & Madsen " 

Scbiller, J 

Scbleip, Benedictus " 

Sclimeckel & Co " 

Schmidt, L 

Sclimidt. Rudolf 

Schmidt & -John 

Sch;;nlein, Ernst 

Sclxltz & Co., Heinrich 

Schiibbe & Co " 

Schulz, W 

Schiitze, Pleinrich " 

Schiitze & Schmidt " 

1S(;;5 Berlin 

IS72 •■ 


1880 " 

1 SS!» '• 

IS'.JO " 

1879 '•' 

187() '• 

187:3 " 


1888 " 

1875 " 


18G2 " 

18(58 " 

] 905 " 

1869 " 

1890 " 

1881 " 

1869 '• 

1869 '•• 

1905 " 

1903 " 

1888 '•' 


1872 " 

1878 " 

1906 " 

1905 " 

1885 " 

1888 " 


186G " 

1899 " 



1860 " 

1880 " 

1886 " 



1888 " 



1854 " 

1839 •• 

1870 •' 

1884 " 

1816 " 


1865 " 

1887 " 


1895 " 

1907 " 

1894 " 

1862 " 

1877 " 



Pchwccbton. O l- 

SeiiU'l Xiichf., Rob 

Si.'w.'rt. C 

Skilibi', Max 

Sonuner. Matliias 

Stfiifi-. \\ illiflm 

StciiilMT*; ^^ I'o 

Stocsscl. (iortb-r & Co 

Tpmpo. IJciiiboKI 

Tiolxc. i: 

rihri<-li. W 

Viciliiifj. IfiKbilpb 

\'it>ritz & W'li HIT 

Wabivii. Carl 

WcImt. !•• 

Wcni.T. K.l 

WosUTmay.r. Ed 

\\»'sti)lial, i;.)l)('rt 

\\ ittcnlniri: cV Ilcnuaiiii 

Wittier, Ernst 

Wnblcr Xadif.. Adolf 

Zalm. F. II 

Mann & Co.. Tb 

Orotrian. Stoinweg Xacbf 

Wccbsung, '! 

Zcittor & Winkolinaun 

I'alvcn. .Jr.. P 

Ucnult. Traugott 

Iliittner. Alfred 

WVIz.-i. P. F 

llam-U. .1. i; 

I,i]K-ziiiski. Max 

Arnold. Karl 

WVrn.'r. F. \V 

Boycr-Rabncfidd, Otto 

Ceroid, F. . 

Goetze, Franz 

Tlagspiel & Comp 

Iloll'niann <S: Kiibiie 

Kubsp. Jobann 

Kull). Jos 

Mannsfeldt & Notni 

Miiller. Clemens TT 

Pi'iniscb, Carl 

Rosenkranz, Ernst 

rilri.b. TT 

I'rbas. .Idbann 

I'rbas & Ileissbauer 

Vogel. F. E 

Woltrranini. 11 

Werner. Paid 

Ziinnierniann, f iebr 

Erbe. J 

I''ingcr. Alb 

Ceyer Xacbf., Adolpli 

l\hi<;o & Tri'ycb'i 

\'n<jel, Roliert 

Weber & Fiiebs 

Weissbrod. T\ 

Winkelniann & Co 

Tetscb & May 

^talJlislR•d 185:5 r.erlin 

• 4 •' 

ti " 

1!)05 " 

(.- " 

1894 " 

190S " 

1550 " 

lS(i,S " 


" ISSS " 

1879 " 

" 1902 " 

18()0 " 

1551 " 

I8(i:3 " 

1894 " 

1900 " 


1885 " 

■' 1885 liernburg 

" 1830 Bicdefeld 

'' 18.35 P>raunscb\veig 



" 1901 Bremen 

1837 Breslau 

" lM!)(i " 


" 18()5 Brucbsal 

1890 Danzig 

" 1830 Darmstadt 

1845 Dobeln 

1852 Dresden 

1875 " 

1874 '•' 

1851 " 

1899 " 


1873 " 

1807 " 



1797 " 

1870 " 



1845 " 

1872 " 


1904 Leipzig Mfilkau 

1881 l<:isenaeb 

1887 Eisenberg 


(( a 

a it 



1908 " 

" 18G7 Emmerich a. Rlieiu 



Hansen, Julius E.stablislied 

riiilipp, G 

Andr&, C. A 

Baklur IManofortcfahiik 

Philipps & Solnie. J. 1) " 

Welte & Solme, M 

Gliiek, Carl 

Spacthe, Willi 

JNlaetzko, Eduard 

Steek Piano t'o 

Ritiniillcr & Solm, W 

Rittor, ('. Rich 

Belmken. Gebr. N. & E. H 

Busehuiaiiu, Gustav Adolf " 

Kohl, II 

Xeuiuanu, F. L 

Rachals & Co., M. F 

Schnell. H 

Stoiinvav & Sons , 

Stapel, 'G 

Gertz, Willi 

Haakp, Karl 

Holniholz, Fr 

Rissniann, C. C 

Glass & Co., C. F 

Kagel, G. L 

Uebel & Lechleiter 

Sprunok, Fr 

Glaser, F 

Weidig. C 

Xeuliaiis Soline, W 

Beckniaiin, W 

Scheel, Carl 

Giintlier & Soline 

Kaim & Solni 

Arnold, Heinrich 

Rowold & Soline, p]rnst 

Mand. C 

Prein, Friedr 

Gebauhr, C. J. 

Scliusterius, C. A 

Stockfisch, H 

Adam. F 

Hain, Stephan 

Bliithner, Julius 

Feurich. Julius " 

Fiedler, Gustav 

Ffirstcr & Co 

Francke & Co., A. H 

Irmler, I. G 

Kreutzbacli. Julius " 

Schiinmel & Co., Willi " 

Schumann. Carl " 

Stichel, F 

Zierold, Gustav 

Freytag. Andreas " 

Geister & Sehwabe " 

Gerstenberger, J " 

Liehr, Franz " 

Neumann, Carl " 

PUtzold, Gottl 

1S;5S Flensburg 

1872 Forst 

1S2S Frankfurt a. M. 



1833 Freiburg i. P,r. 

184:5 Friedberg 

18o!) Gera 

1802 Gorlitz 

1857 Gotha 

1795 (ioettingen 

1828 Ilalle a. S. 

1573 Hamburg 



1854 : 





1873 Hanover 




1871) Heilbronn 



1839 Hettstedt 


1843 " 

1840 Kalkar 

180G Kassel 

1846 •' 

1819 Kirchheini, u. Teck 


1830 Klein-Umstadt 

1 793 Kleve a. Rhein 

1832 Koblenz 

1857 Koln 

1834 Koenigsberg 



1SG4 Krefeld 


1853 Leipzig 






1874 " 




1SS2 " • 

1889 Liefniitz 

1871 " 






Schneider. Albin Kstahli 

Scliii|)|i<' & Nfiimiiiin 

.SeiltT. Kdlianl 

Spoiiiiagi'l, Kdiiaicl 

Fr.rster. Au^iust " 

Crasselt & Kiihse 

Nieiidoif, (!el)r 

Pal)st & Sclmcidcr 

Si-liarf & llauU 

'I InirnuT. l-'t-rd 

15riiikmami. Kiiiilic 

Sv\U: (iel.r 

H.T.lux. V 

Mayer & Co., .) 

Knake, CJebriider " 

SaiiiMtn & Ucimcniann 

I'xd'kli. Ilcniiaini 

Uejicler & Killers 

Koliltiiig. (iebr 

\ofjel & Sohn 

< (lurtiiis. Hermann 

Weidij;. (Icurji; 

Bock & llinrichsen " 

Deesz. Julius 

Hermann. Alexander 1! 

Sopli & Sohn, F 

Perzina, (iebr 

Saiiter. C 

Hoof. Ludwig 

.Si,.jr,.I. R 

Wolkenhauer. f! 

Lindner Sohn. I. 1' 

I'restel. Anton 

hoehow & /immerniann '• 

Ackermaiin. F. .1 " 

iV.rner & Sohn. F 

Klias, G 

Gschwind, I. G 

liardt, Carl, E 

Kruinm, .Faeol) ' 

l.ip]) & Sohn, Rich '" 

Miidlcr. (; 

Malthaes, Thcodor " 

Orhler, C 

I'feiller, Carl A " 

Saner &. Sohn, I. P 

Schiedniayer I'ianofabrik " 

Sehie<linayer & Soehne '' 

Schilling," Fr " 

Wagner. Ilerni " 

Kigclbauin &. llofl'mann " 

Simon. L " 

Imln.f & Mnckle 

Ketnath. Friedrieh " 

Ri"'inhildt Pianofortefabrik " 

Adam. (Jerhard " 

i'.ieiil. Job. lleinr " 

Miiller-Schiedniaycr, Erwin " 

Pfister, X ' 

>lu(l Liegnitz 




] S.j'J Lijbau 

ISSl •' 

IS!)? Luikenwalde 


1S70 Mannheim 

1S;54 Meissen 

1S7!) Min(U'n. W'estfaleu 

1S28 MiiJiliiauscn. 'liiiiringen 

1871 Mfinclien 


1808 Miinster 


18()G Xiirdlingen 

ISOi) Ohh'iihurg 

1790 Osnal)riick 

1828 Plauen 


1890 Regensburg 

1,S()9 Rcndsburg 

1S20 Saarbriicken 

18:55 Sangerhausen 

18()7 Schh'swig 

1902 SclinKllln 

1871 Schwerin i. M. 

1840 Spaichingen 

1882 Sprottau 

184!) Stade 

IS.").-} Stettin 

182.1 Stralsund 

1820 Strassburg 

1900 Strausbcrg 

1882 Stuttgart 

1 S:!0 

IN| ■) 




1!)0() " 



1888 " 





1 SO!) " 



1907 Torgau 

1880 rim 

1848 Vohrenbach, Baden 

18:50 Weiden 

1845 Weimar 

1828 Wesel 

1808 Wittgendorf 

1874 Wiirzburg 




Fahr. Albert Establishod 1887 Zeitz 

Geissler, F •• 1878 

Gerbstiidt. Oscar •' 1S88 

Hoelling & Spangenberg, C " 

Hupfpr & Co " 1874 

Krit'tzseli. llornmnn " 1847 

JMoronz, Bruno " 1891 

Schemelli & Co., R " 1900 

Sdimidt & Solui Xacbf., P " 1876 

Doiiath, Max " 1882 Zittau 


Biihl. W. G Keys 1894 Barmen 

Burk & Bastian " 1905 " 

Kluge, Hermann " 1876 « 

Aichele & Bachmann Iron Frames Berlin 

Allisath & Miiller Hammers 

Bartsch. A " " 

Beetz, H Actions " 

Bellin, W , Hammers 1890 « 

Bohn & Co., C Keys 1S71 « 

Berliner Gussstahl Fabrik Iron Frames " 

Bever. A Hammers " 

Biicbholtz. Heinricb Keys 1866 « 

Eggersdorfer Filz Fabrik Felts • " 

^Yolff & Co., L Iron Frames " 

Fulte. Georg Hammers ■ " 

Gallowsky, H " 1863 " 

Jacob, Ernst Actions : " 

Johst, W Hammers " 

Kaselow. Hermann " 1900 « 

Klaviaturfabrik Union Keys " 

Kohler, Oscar Actions 1883 " 

Langer & Co " 1882 " 

Laiirisch. Ferdinand Hammers " 

Leonhardt, M " 1896 " 

Leonhardt. ]\Iax Keys " 

Leonliardt, Ricliard Hammers " 

Leuscliner. Carl " 1880 " 

Lexow, Ad Actions 1854 " 

Loepke, W Hammers " 

Walter, Adolf Keys " 

Webrmeier, Franz Hammers 1876 " 

Weisner, Gustav Actions 1880 " 

Dittersdorfer Fils Fabrik Felts 1881 Dittersdorf 

Kutter, Alfred \V Keys Dresden 

Kutter. E. G. Robert " " 

Patzak, Adalbert Hammers " 

Svbre, Edmund " 1879 " 

Dornbeim & Sobn, F. W Keys 1874 Eichfeldt 

Scblessiger, Herm Soundboards 1853 Gera 

Eicken & Co Wire Hagen 

Merckel, Wilb Hammers 1845 Hamburg 

Weidner, W Keys " 

Boecker, Heinr. Willi Wire Hobenlimburg 

Bongardt & Co., Gebr " 1832 

Weber i Giese " " 


i\issin«r & M.lllniann Sn\nulboards Tserlohn 

llysso & Co.. Keys l!Ml.') LangenlxTg b. Gera 

IJcicr, Ailolf Ihunmers 1894 Leipzig 

I )ctli!.'fls & Co Keys 1 874 

Driver & Toppfor Actions 1882 

Floiiiing. 11. F " 1874 

Matkowilz. ( ari Ihmiiiurs lOOG " 

:MorgeiisU'ni & Kotradi' Actions 1840 " 

Polrnz & l.angc Tlanimors 1899 

'riiirnic. Carl Sduiidhoards 1843 " 

'iriinkncr. Hugo Keys 1843 

Wcickcrt. 1. I) Folts 1847 " 

Custav Mcnrcr " 1878 Liebenzell 

.Iciit/.sch & Co Keys and Actions 1882 Liognitz 

Slainniitz. licnnann Keys 1894 " 

Tliplocke & Klugp " 1859 

Scbcrd.'I. Sicgniund Wire 1889 Markt Redwitz 

.1 111 ins ivlinke Pins 1847 Xenenrade 

Scliiirniann & HilleclvC " 1879 

l?eck. C.eorg Job Wire 1042 Xiirnberg 

Fucbs. Joli. Wolfg " 1787 

I'ocblinann. Moritz " 1850 " 

.Martbans, Anibrosius lelts 1834 Oscliatz 

Kaiser, J Pins 1864 Plettenberg 

Scbnlte. D. W " 1840 

Wagner, jun.. W " 

Ziniinerniann. Paul Keys 1898 Radis 

Stalil & Dralitwirk Roeslau Wire 1832 Roeslau 

Senipert. Carl Keys Rudolstadt 

Bi'iscb. I'ranz Hammers 1872 Stuttgart 

Diiscbler, Friedericb " ■ " 

Fritz & Mayer Actions 1857 " 

Kanbiinser, G. & E 1 Ininniers 1844 " 

Keller & Co., J Actions 1857 " 

Kocb & Co Keys 1879 « 

Pa|M'. Paul '' 1877 " 

Reiiner. Louis Hammers and Actions. . 1882 " 

Sebiiullcle Wwe. Gg Keys 1846 

Sebiiullele, W iibelm '' 1882 " 

WTirner, (J. F Hammers 1865 " 

Hunker. .1. W Pins 1847 WerdobI 

(iiese. I. IL Rud Wire 1883 Westig 

Crunert, Emil Keys Zeitz 

KuMuner. Adolf Actions and Hammers. . 1890 " 

Tisdiendorf, Franz Keys 1888 " 

'liscbendorf, Karl •• " 

ZugeJKir, Oscar Hammers " 



Ajello &■ Sons. G Establisbed 1863 London 

Albion Pianoforte Co " 1S71 " 

Allen & Gaunter " ],S94 '•' 

AUisfm & Co.. Artlnir " 1840 " 

Allison & Sons, Ralpb " « 

And)ridge & Son. Henry " 1890 " 

Arnall & Co., H. B " " \ 


Arnold & Co.. J Establislied 1880 London 

Bansall & Sons " 1883 

Barni'tt & Sons, Samuol " 1832 

Barber & Co " 1892 

Barratt & Knl)inson " 1877 

Beadle & Langln-in " 

Beekhardt & Sons " 

Berry. Nathaniel " 186G 

Bishop & Co., Joseph " 1877 

r.rastcd, IT. F. & R. A " 

Brinsniead & Sons, John " 1836 

Brinsmead. E. G. S " " 

British Piano ]\Iannfaeturing Co.. . . " " 

Broadwood & Son, John " 1723 

Brock, Bernard " 1890 

Brock & Vincent " 1897 

Browne. Justin "' " 

Burliny & :Mansfield " 

Byers, Walter Cliarles '■ 189G 

Carleton Piano Works " " 

Challen & Son " 1804 

Challenger & Co., George " 

Chappell & Co " 1812 

Child, E " 

Cohen & Co., Philip " 1893 

Collard & CoUard " 1760 

Cons & Cons " 1884 

Cramer & Co., J. B " 1824 

Danemann & Co.. W " 

Dodson, William " 1867 

Dnnno, Ellis & Hill " 

Duncklev, William " 1865 

Eavestair & Sons " 1823 

Edwards & Searle " 

Ellis, John " 1888 

Empire Piano Co " 1892 

Eungblnt. C. & J '* 

Feord. Garrett " 

Fitzsimmons, Robert " 1879 

Fleming & Barker " 

Forrester, J " " 

Fox, T. G " 

Gantier, Jules " 1866 

Gilbert, Thomas, John " 1880 

Grantone Piano Co " " 


Green & Savage 1876 

Grover & Grover ' 1830 

Grover & Deare " 1879 

Hardcastle, J 

Harland, Alfred. Joseph " 1879 

Harold & Denson " 1883 

Harper, Thomas W " 1880 

Harrison. Thomas " 1890 

Harvey & Son, G " 

Hawkins, R. 

Healv & Richards " 1889 

Hickev & Co., T. J " 1901 

Hicks" & Son. Henry " 1845 

Hillier Piano & Organ Co " 1855 

Hopkinson, J. & J " 1835 

Hulbert & Jones " 1883 

.laiiu's .5^ S..n. Hi'Uiy 

.hiriftt & Cioudge 

.l.-nii Hi»)s • • • ; 

Kfitli. Trowse & ^o 

Ki-lly & Co 

Kill-.' llios... 

Kii;l|>f<>» & *^"" 

l.:,lllli.Tt. F. B 

Lawn-mt' & <^"o. ■ • • • 

l.ittle, C'liiirlt's iMhvni 

Livinjl>*t<iiio & Cook 

I'.yc'iiri^ouis Ceorgc 

NicKill tV Sons 

MrVay riano Mfg. Co 

MiMiiiigton Bros 

Mniiiiigton & Weston 

.Monri' & Moore 

Munt Bros 

M\inloih. .Tolm O 

Monay & Co.^ 

I'avne. T. & <J.-^ 

Pimu'll & Co.. E. .T 

I'ligli & Son. Joseph 

PiiM i^ I'i'l'l 

I'yrk.-. ( . 11 

Rayncr. S 

Reed «S: Sons. .1. N\ 

Reeve & Co.. W 

Rcgester & Sons 

Rintoul & Sons, John 

Robertson & Co 

Rogers & Sons 

Ruild & Co., A 

Russell & Co., Ceo 

Samson Tiano Works 

Sandon ^ Steedmann 

Seager Bros 

Shenstone cV Son 

Shipniann & Shipniaim 

Smith, .\ndre\v 

Snell. Harry 

Soul ha 111. Cooper 

Speneer i; Co., John 

Spiller. Boult & Co 

S(|uire. .Ir.. William 

Sipiire \ Son. B. 

Strohmenger & St)n. J... 

Strong & Sons. .Inhn 

Tavlor & Co- A 

Taylor & Co.. C U 

Tncker & Co 

Wallis & Son, Joseph 

Watkins. T. & C 

West (ireen Biano Works. 
White. Broadwood & Co. 

Whit.-. T 

Whiteley. William 

WilUoeics & Co 

\Vi1li>M. Witton & Co 


.Estaldished ISS:" 

1 SCri 
















. London 



Wonder Pianoforte Co I'lsi^ililislicd 

Woods & Co.. K. J 

Wriylit, W. A 

Zender & Co 

Polilmaiiii & Sons, F 

Hartley & Sons, Stephen 

Sliori', F 



1S;52 Halifax 


PiAXO sii'i'LV MAM F.\( I ri;i-:u 

Webster & ITcn-sfall Wire 

Brooks. Limited Keys 

Cassini. W. H Haiimiers 

Clark, K. W Iv»'ys 

Clark, John H., & Co Iron Frames 

Ueighton, A Keys 

Finnimore Bros " 

Gibbs, B. A ". 

Goddard. J. & J Lefts and Hardware 1842 

Homan & Sons Strings 1853 

Kilvert. J. Smith Hammers 18(50 

Marshall. William. & Son Materials 1841 

and Actions LSH) 







Xott & Co Actions 18G2 

Paine & Sons. Thos Keys 1865 

Sebright. T "* 1852 

Shenstone & Co " 1870 

Vestev, R. F.. & Son " LSfiO 

Wallis & Son :\Iaterials 1848 

Whitehead, R. R., & Bros Felts 

Houghton, W. A \\ ire • 

Naisji Felts 1859 









Anrand & Bolil Establi.-,Jied J 8:50 

Baruth. Francois Claude " 

Boudon. B " 

Manufacture Marseillaise de Pianos. " 

Klein, Gaston " 

Klein, Henri .r^ " 

^Manufacture des Pianos Grillot. . . . " 

Staub. J 


Rodolphe Fils & Debain reunies.... " 

Benard, Clianip & Cie 

Blondel. Alphonse 

Bord. A 

Bueher (Gauss Fr&res & Cie. Sneers.) " 

Burgasser & Cie 

Carpentier. J " 

Cocquet Fils. Lecm 

Erard (Blondel & Cie. Succrs.) 

Focke Freres " 

. Lvon 


. ;\Iontrcuil sous Bois 

1848 Nancy 

1840 Xantes 

Xogent sur Seine 

1849 Paris 

1839 " 

1840 " 

1848 " 

184G " 



Fnuitz. J. B. (Mussanl & ("io. Sneers.) Established 1S52 Paris 

(hivi'iiu. I. (i " 1"^-*' 

(ioiittii-re. JmI " 1"^^" 

Cuillot. A " " 

Ik-rz. Ih-nri " 1S25 " 

Herz. Neveu & Cie " lS<i:5 || 

Kric^'flstcin & Cic " 1831 

l.vjiiifriiiais Fr'^rcs ' 185(3 

lx'\ i'i|iu' & '1 lirrsen 

Must4-1 & Cii' " 18o5 

Oiirv. Alpluinse ' 

IM.-vcl. Lyon .<: Cic " 1807 

Priivost. "Jli'iiri " 1850 

Pruvost Fils, E. Viilor " 

Kufh. J " 

Scliniitt. FraiK.ois " 

Scliott.. Froros " 1850 " 

Laplaiiclie-Deforge, C " 1790 Reims 


Sneietf' Anonymc Wire ^roiithiliard 

(;ill)crt Actions Montrcuil sous Bois 

Sonuncr Felt ilouzon 

Voos, J.J " 

Brees & Cic Actions Paris 

Brou. Edouard Ftdt " 

Ddornic. F Keys " 

Deloye. Maurice "" 1850 " 

De Rolulcn, C Actions " 

Fortin, F^uj^enc Felt " 

Gelirlin<>; & Cie Actions 1842 " 

Crillct, P&rc & Fils Kevs « 

llerrbur<jer. .1.. Maison Scliwandcr . . Actions and Keys 1844 " 

Kneip, Louis Hammers 1850 " 

Lanjie, .fulien Keys " 

Levet, A Hammers 1800 « 

Martin. I Actions and Ilannncrs. . 18i)5 " 

Mullcr. K Keys 1835 « 

Societc AiKinyiiii' dr {•'cutics fianc-ais. Felts " 

Truchot Hammers 1848 " 

Union Actions a ml Kevs 

Rolle, Xeveu & Succrs., E Felts St. Denis 



''""'^"- -T Estaldished Barcelona 

Cliarrier y Cia " 1875 " 

Chas-saigne Fr&ros " 1804 " 

Estela, Vinda de Pedro " 1830 " 

l^stela y ('om])u., B " " 

(Jnarro Hernianos " 1800 " 

Izabal, Louis " |s(;o " 

IzabaL Paul " « 

Prin, :Mallard y Cia " " 



Ribalta, Salvadoi* Established 

Sociodad Franco-Ilispano-Anu'rieana . " 1898 

A'idal, .1 " 187!) 

. Barcelona 

.MontaiKi. liijos dr. 
I'iazza, Maiuicio. . . 
Ten y Cia., Rodrigo 

1838 :\radrid 


" 1902 Valencia 

Raynard, L Actions and Keys .... 1897 Barcelona 



Hainan*^. Fr&res Established 1S40 Binclie 

Berden & Cie., Frangois . 

Bernard & Cie., A 

(Jiinther, J 

Tlanlet, A 

jNIahillon & Cie 

Oor, J 

Our, Lucien 

Pley & Dahout 

Boone Fils 

Gevaert. ^' 

Van Hyfto, B 

Van Hvfte Freres 

Vits, Emile 

Renson Freres 

Derdevn Freres 

1815 Briissell 








1846 Roulers 



Allgiiuer & Zoon, J. J Established 1830 

Cnijpers, J. F " 1832 

Rijken & Co., Ch. F " 

Mes. Antoine A. A. Az " 

Rijken & de Lange, Gebrs " 

Bocage, Ch " 

Leijser & Zoon, N. S 

. Gravenhage 

1874 :\riddelbnrg 

1852 Rotterdam 


1854 Zutfeu 



Schmidt. A Established 1830 


Burger & .Taoobi 

Pianofabrik Symphonia 

Bieger & Co., J. 

Ganter & Sohn, J. 

Hlini & Co 

Rordorf & Co 

Suter, H 

1872 Biel 

1842 Rorschach 


1860 " 

1847 " 

1875 " 






KliK-rt. .1. II Established lS(i7 . . . 

Feluinb. Einil 

Ciislcr. A. 11'iiianii. 11. r 

lliiulsiHTjr. II. T. r... . 
lloriuiiiy & -Moller. . . . 

Jenst'ii. Sorcn 

Kofod & Co 

Laiidsrliultz. (' 

Larson & Sun, J 

Lcndorf. O.scar 

Mfiit/liT. W 

IVUtsimi & 8()n. Ilcnn. 
Schoii. T. C 


Wedell & Aberg, C. 

A. G. Ralins Piano Fabrik. 

Pianofabrikon Standard 

Ostlind & AIuKpiist 

Ililllicrjis I'iaiin- l-'alnik 

Lillinark. J 

ilalmsji), J. G 

llajrdaiil. .r 

Xystri'mis. J. 1' 

llansson, D 

Ekstriini & Compis 

Lofiiiark & II airland 

(lustafson & l.jiiiKiuist 

J5er;,'(|uist & Xilsson 

Engstnini & Johanesson . . . . 

Km nek. 'I i^- Co.. F 

Ibillniaiiii. Aug 

LoflxM-g & Go 

X'orbcrgs Pianofabrik 

Pcttcrssmi. .Idbii 

itapp. E 

Svalmtpiist, jun., C 

Winkrantz, Fr 


Knudsen, Jacob. 
Hals, Brodrcne. 


. Kopenhagen 


IS 65 



1SS5 Amal 

1004 Arvika 


I8(is Goteborg 




1805 Karlstad 

1854 Lund 

183(5 Malmo 

1899 « 







1847 Christiania 



Hollas, Osakeytio Established 1901 Helsino-fors 

•,V'"'.'" " 1899 KaHsch 

Ixtting, Tlioodor " ],S87 " 

Fibigor, Arnold " 1878 " 

StrobI, August « 1 .......'....'..'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.... .Kiew 



Koretzkv. F. J I 

Islall & Co., A 

Ransch, M 

8choen, Ad 

Johannsolin. Th 

Trossolt. .1 

Weiiil)orji:. •) 

BocktT. .1 

Diederit'lis. debr 

llcriicns \ 'rrniiiofl" 

I>('li]>('iil)('fi^'. (J 

]Ma\r. 1 Ifiiitaiiii 

]\lu'lill)acli. F 


Rathke, 11 

Rt'inhard, A\' 

Ronisch, Carl 

SeliU'J^iiigcr, 8. L 

Schmidt. P 

Schroeder, C. ^I 

Smidt & Wegener 

8tein. d. d 

Eriksou, M 

Kelirer, Herinami 

Kopp. Anton 

Angerhofer. F 

Diitz, Anton 

Kerntopf & 8ohn 

^Malicki, Julian 

Xowieki, F. J 

,t;ihlislH'd 1887 Moskau 


18.')(; Odessa 

1843 " 

1855 Riga 

li ii 

it it 

1841 St. Petersburg 

1810 " 

a << << 

1888 " 

1870 " " 

(C ie i< 

1900 " 

1868 " 

1874 " 

1898 " 

ii n te 

1880 " 

1818 " 

1880 " 


1872 Tilli.-i 

1887 ■• 

" Warscliau 




Albert & Co., E. A Established 1868 Aussig 

Rosier, G 

Protze & Co., Josef. 

Petrof . Anton 

Warbinok. Rudolf A. 
Baroitius. Karl J.. . . 

Kopeck\' & Co 

Novak. ■ V 

Schnabel. Ludwig. . . 
Koch & Kor^^elt . . . . 

Proksch, A 

Spira's Wwe., Carl . 
Bremitz, Enrico. . . . 
^lagrini e Figlio, L. 

Audreys, Anton 

Bauniann, ilax 

Belehradek, Johann. 
Baumbacli. Josef. . . . 
Berger. Ignaz 

Bosendorfer. Ludwig. . 
Czapka'.s Solin, Jacob. 

Dfirr, Karl 

D()rsam, Wilhelm 

Elirbar. Friedrich 


B. Leipa 


( ipoi*or<\vn Ir]p 








. .. . *' 






























Fritz. S(.hn. J Estalilislu 

Fiiclis, jiin., Franz 

CJossl, Josef & Ailolf 

Hiil.lcr. .Juli 

llaiiilmrjifr, ( ail 

lli'itzmaiiu. Otto " 

llnatay. Josi-f 

ll(>fl)aiu'r, (;\istav 

Ilnfiiiaiiii. l''ri('ilric-li 

Ilotiuaiiii, Karl 

llr.lzo & lli'itzmaiin 

lIoiT. Mtnitz 

.lirasck. Fcrdinaiul 

K;irl):ii li. I'rii'dricli Cottlicl) " 

I\rau>. Ailnir 

Kul.iU, .losef 

l.aul)i'ij,'cr ^: filoss 

Littiiiami, .l(ili;uiii 


Maliwaiick, Ilcinricli 

MaviT. F,<liiai(l 

,MaVcr. Willii'lin 

.Mayr. I' laiiz 

Ni-iiictsclikf. Joliaim 

Ki'ulmrjitT, Adolf 

NpiunaviT, Carl 

Ocscr. Franz 

Ocscr & Soliii. N'inc-ont 

I'allik & Stiasny 

I'arltarfs l-lidani. Alois " 

Pawlcck. jini.. Josof 

I'okoiiiy. A 

llciidioid. Itolicrt F 

Kiciitcr. Franz 

SchaulM.. Willi 

Scliiiiid, llciMricli 

Schniid & Kunz, F 

Schneider &. NpOV. Josef " 

Seliweijfliofer's Siliinc 

Sko]), Josef 

■Stary, Joiiann 

Stelzhaninu'r, Anton 

Stcnzid & Sflileniiner 

Stinf^l, (lehriider 

Wusnifzek, Ijiiiaz " 

A\iii<!liof(r W we. Itudolf 

Wirtli. i'ranz " 

Wolek. Franz " 

Zel)rakou sky, .loliann " 

Clunel & Son " 

Delinial. Karoly 

I'-der, Anton .fulius " 

Ilaviiesek, Carl 

Ileekenast, CJustav " 


Tiaiser, Emil TIainmors 1S71 Wien 

Karl, Jos Keys 1894 " 


1854 '• 






1850 " 
















1809 " 

1885 " 






1890 "' 





































1 888 .... 










Kiiiln, l-]l)(Mli;ir(l TTanimers 1<S91 Wicn 

Littmuini. juii., Taul Keys 1887 " 

.Miller's Sohn, Martin Wire 1782 " 

Mraz, Franz Keys 1881 " 

Olb^rt. Franz " " 

Opletat, Alois " " 

Picliler. Johann " " 

Prohaska. Franz " " 

Schmidtmayr, Rayninnd " " 



Nippon Gakki Siezo Kabusliiki K\\ aisha Hammamatsu 

Nishikawa & Son Yokohama 




Pacific Piano Mfg. Co Established Pasadena 

Salyer-Baunieister Co " 1907 Los Angeles 

Behre, J., e^ Co '' -: San Francisco 

Deitemeier Piano Co " 1892 '• " 

Fav, Robert " 1880 

HoVnung, C. C " 1880 

Mauzy, Byron " 1884 


Sterling Co., The Established 18G6 Derby 

Huntington Piano Co " 1894 Shelton 

Wilcox & White Co., The " 1877 :\Ieriden 

]Mathushek Piano Co " 18G6 Xew Haven 

Shoninger, B., Co " 1850 '•• 


Johnson, Wm. A., Piano Co Established 1907 : Champaign 

Bauer, Julius, & Co " 1857 Chicago 

Bent, Geo. P., & Co " 1870 

Bush & Gerts Piano Co " 1886 

Cable Co., The " 1880 , 

Cable-Nelson Piano Co " 190.3 

Chickering Bros " 1892 

Clark, Melville, Piano Co " 1900 

Conover Piano Co " 1890 

Concord Co.. The " 1907 

Decker Bros. Co " 1907 

Detmer. Henrv " 1885 

Folev & Williams :\lfg. Co " 1870 " 

Fueiir & Stemmer Piano Co " 190.3 " 

Kaiser. Adolph " 1891 " 

Kimball, W. W., Co " 1854 " 



4G0 APPF.XniX 

Kin- Piano Co^l,..! 100:? Chicago 

Lvon & lioaly " '^"'^ ]] 

\ian|u.-tte Piano Co " l''<'> 

.Mavnanl. K. K., Piano Co " l!>»).j 

.Mi-viT. Fran/ 

Xeison. II. P., Co 

Xi'w niann Bros. Co " l'^'''^ 

Pile- & Tf.-|)l.' Piano Co " 1902 |^ 

ilcfil & Sums Piano Co " l'S42 

Ki'iciianlt Piano Co '' 

Uotiiscliil.l & Co " 

Srhaaf. A.l un " 1873 " 

Sc-hat'trcr I'iaiio Co " 1873 |j 

Sclicriif. ]'>.. & Co " 

Scliniz. M.. Co " lS(i» " 

Setbui}!, .1. P.. Piano Co " 1!)07 

SiiiL'.T Piano Co " 1804 

Sinilli. Haiiifs & Strohber Piano Co. " 1SS4 " 

Starck, P. A., Piano Co " 

Stp<rcr & Sons Piano ^U^. Co " 187!) 

Storv & (lark Piano Co " ISO!) 

Stiiuil)c I'iano Co " 1878 

WcIkt & Sons " " 

Werner Piano Co " 1002 

Ilaniiltnn Piano Co " 18S9 Chicago Heights 

Sevl)ol.l I'iano & Organ Co " Elgin 

Swan. S. X., Co '' 1 !H)7 Freeport 

Pizarro Piano Co " P.tOS Joliet 

Schiller Piano Co " 1S!)3 Oregon 

XatioiKil Player Piano Co " " 

Standard Piano I'laver Co " 

.Tolinson, E. P.. Piano Co " 1007 Ottawa 

\\rstern Cottage I'iano & Organ Co. " ISO.") 

Iladdorir Piano Co " IIHIJ Roekford 

Xy.sewander Piano Co " ■ 

Selunnann Piano Co " 


Knight-BrinkerhofT Piano Co Established 1007 Brazil 

Anto Crand Piano Co " 100.) Connersville 

i'aekard Co.. The " 1S71 Fort Wayne 

Seliair Bros. Piano Co " 1 still Iluntingt^)n 

Cable. Ilobart M.. Co " 1000 l.aporte 

Krell- French Piano Co " 1S9S New Castle 

Chute c^ lintler " I'tOl Peru 

Starr Piano Co " 1S72 Rielnnond 

Tryber Piano Co " 18S1 Smith I'.ciid 

low A 
Bcllevnc I'iano Mfg. Co Establislied 1000 Bellevue 

Ki;.\n ( KY 
Ihirvard Piano Co.. . .' Established ISS.) Dayton 

Hughes & Son Piano Mfg. Co Established ISOfi Foxcroft 


Wm. Knabe & Co Established 183!) Baltimore 

Chas. M. Stieir •• 1842 " 


Bonrne. Wni.. & Son Established 1 840 Boston 

('bickering & Sons " 1823 " 



Clioraleelo Mfp;. Co Estahlishod 

Emerson I'iano Co 

Everett Piano Co 

Hal let ct Davis Piano Co 

11 unit' Piano Co " 

Ivors & Pond Piano Co. 

.Tcwett Piano ( o 

Kraft. Theo. .).. \ Co.. . 
]\Iasoii A: Hamlin Co . . . . 

Mc'Phail. A. 31., Piano Co 

]\riller, TIenry F., & Sons I'iano Co. 

National Piano Co 

Poole Piano Co 

Vose & Sons Piano Co.. 
Aekotist Player Piano Co. 

Cote I'iano ^Ifj^. Co 

Gilbert Piano Co 

Morrisette. Honore. Co... 

Trowbridge Piano Co 

^^'ebster Piano Co 

1 ss:} 

1 sso 




is;? 7 

IS 03 
1 890 



Fall River 

. . . Franklin 
■ Leominster 

New Hampshire 
Prescott Piano Co. 


1908 Grand Rapids 


Crinnell Bros Established 1882 D.-troit 

Farrand Co.. The 

Broekmeier Piano Co " 

Manville & Sons 

Bush & Lane Piano Co " 

Chase-Hackley Piano Co 

Germain Piano Co 

Melin- Winkle Co 

1901 Holland 

1863 Muskegon 

1895 Saarinaw 

1909 South Haven 


Schimmel & Co Established 1892 Faribault 

Raudenl)ush, S. W., Co " 1883 St. Paul 

Segerstrom Piano Mfg. Co " 1900 Minneapolis 

Wick, P. S., Co " 188G North St. Paul 

. Established 18G9 Concord 

New Jer.sey 

Delabar. Edw Establi^ 

Laiiter Co.. The 

Winkler Piano Co 

Alleger, H. W 

Cornish Piano Co " 

Florey Bros " 

hed Newark 


1875 Trenton 

1869 Washington 



New York 
Boardman & Grav Established 1837 


Wegmann Piano Co 

Broekport Piano Co 

Smith. Freeborn G 

Wissner, O 

Chase & Baker Co 

Kurtzmann. ('.. & Co 

Ahlstrom Piano Co 

Aeolian Co., The 

Aeolian-Weber Piano & Pianola Co. 

American Piano Co 

Amphion Co 

Archer Piano Co 

Autopiano Co., The 

1882 Auburn 

1S93 Broekport 

1848 Brooklvn 


1900 Buffalo 

1848 " 

1 S75 Jamestown 

1887 New York 

1903 " 

1909 . " " 

1901 '•' 

1906 " " 

1903 " 


T!:i('..ii Piano Co Kst:il>li>li('.l ITsO Now York 

Hiiil.-v I'iiiiK. .Mfg. Co ■' ''"'1 

J{aiiim'i«*tfr. II " li^'J-^ 

Hiiv.T Piano Co " 1900 

n.-ik.T IJios " 1002 

H.-liiiin^' Piano Co " ISOl 

IJ.'iir Pius. & Co " 1881 

Bony- Wood Piano PlayiT Co " 

Hi.l.l'l.- Piano Co '. " 1801 

Pjur liios " 1887 

pKcilickcr's Sons, ,1. ]) " 

Ho^'irf. IMwiti P.. & Co " 1899 

Mnj.Mrt. W . I" " 

|{..ll.Tnian \ Son " 18S0 

Pranil.afli. Carl. & Son " 1910 

HranniulliT i'iano Co " 1887 

I'.rm r \ Co.. C. A " — 

iivrii.'. C. !•:.. riano Co " 1802 

Ciilili' & Sons " 1852 

Chilton Piano Co " 

Cliristnian Sons " 

Collins & Kindlor " 1910 

Connor, F " 1877 

Davenport & Treafv Piano Co " 1890 

Dfokcr & Sons " " 1850 

1).' nivas & Harris " 1905 

Dol.soM. K. S., & Co " 

Doll. .lacol). & Sons " 1871 

Diisinhcrrc & Co " 1884 

Kst.'V Piano Co " 1885 

Fisclicr. .(. iV C " 1845 

Frodcrifk riiimi ('(, " 

Fnrlonjr. A. P.. Piano C'o " 1910 

(Jal.lcr. Krnost, & Pro " 1854 

(Ircvf. a. P " 1896 

llardniaii. Pcfk & Co " 1842 

Haines. W . I'.. \ Co '' 1898 

Harrin<,'loii. K. (!., & Co " 1880 

Hasl.n.u.k Piano Co " 1880 

Ha/.<-llon IJros " 1840 

Iloin.T I'iano Co " 1907 

llouanl. K. S.. Co " 1902 

.lacol) Pros " 1878 

.lames * Holmstrom " 1874 

.lansscn. l:. II " 1901 

K.-ller. ll.-nrv, & Sons " 1892 

Kelso, S. P.." " 

Kelso & Co " 1891 

Kindl.M- & C(,llins " PilO 

Kirililioir. Laurence " 1!»()1 

Kolilrr & Cani|)l)ell " 1894 

Krakaner Pros " 1809 

Krani.h & Pacli " 1804 

Kroe^er Piano Co " 1852 

Pall'argue Co.. The " 1890 

Pnw.><on & Co " 1900 

Peckerlin;,' Piano Co " 1880 

I.eiiis. K.. Piano Co " 1SS9 

I.indenian. Henry & S. G " 18.30 

I.intU-nian & Sons Piano Co " 1887 

I.oekhvnlt Piano Co " 1892 



Lockwood Piano Co Establi 

Luclwig & Co 

]\rac'farlaiio, Jcilm " 

jManstic'ld riano Co " 

Marshall & Wendell Piano Co 

Matlinslick & Son Piano Co 

JMehlin. Paul (i.. & Sons 

IMetzke, O.. & Son 

Milton Piano Co 

Neodliani Piano Co " 

Xew by & Evans " 

Ouvrier Bros " 

Palmer Piano Co " 

Pease Piano C<3 " 

Peerless Piano Player Co " 

Peters, W. F., Co..' 

Radle, F 

Regal Piano & Player Co 

Relibein Bros 

Rieca & Son 

Rudolf Piano Co 

Schencke Piano Co 

Schleicher, Geo., & Sons " 

Schubert Piano Co 

Sohnier & Co 

Solingen Piano Co 

Stadie & Son 

Steek, Geo., & Co " 

Steinway & Sons 

Strich & Zeidler 

Stroud Piano Co 

Stultz Bros 

Stultz & Bauer 

Stultz & Co 

Sturz ]3ros " 

Stuyvesant Piano Co " 

Teehnola Piano Co " 

Telelectric Piano Player Co " 

Tonk, Wm., & Bro 

Universal Piano Co " 

Valois & Williams 

Virgil Practice Clavier Co " 

Walters Piano Co 

Warde Piano Co 

Waters, Horace, & Co " 

Weber Piano Co 

Weser Bros 

Wheelock Piano Co " 

Wing & Son 

Winter & Co " 

Wright Piano Co 

Wissner. Otto 

Wuertz. 0. W 

Wurlitzer ^Nlfg. Co.. Rudolph " 

Sporer, Carlson & Berry " 

Armstrong Piano Co " 

Brewster Piano Co " 

Cook Piano Co.. J. B 

Foster & Co 

Gibbons & Stone " 

Goetzmann & Co " 

hod New York 

1889 " 

1902 " 

1906 " 

(( it 

1871 " 

1889 " 

(( (< 

1892 " 

1846 " 

1882 " 

" i< 

1906 " 

1844 « 

1889 " 

1902 « 

1898 " 

^ U it 

( . « . 

1891 " 

1903 " 

1878 " 

1882 " 

1872 " 

1910 " 

1899 " 

1857 " 

1853 « 

1889 " 

1911 " 

1909 " 

1880 " 

1905 " 

1871 " 

1881 " 

it li 

1906 " « 

1881 " 

1908 " 

le <t 

1889 « " 

1899 " " 

1909 " 

1845 « 

1851 « 

1879 " 

1877 " 

1867 " « 

1900 " 

It It 

1886 '. " 

1893 " " 

1856 North Tonawanda 

1861 Owego 



1 1 


1821 ...........' 




ITainos "Bros Kstablishod Rochester 

Ilain.'s & (•» ;; Milwaukee 

Marsl.all & WVii.lcll Pinno Co ^^ — — 

" ISS!) St. Joliiisville 

" lS(il Waterloo 

K()|wlt & Suns I'iiiiio Co 
i:M;;i-llianlt, F., & Sons 
\nu;;li I'iano Co 

1 1 lu-biuT I'iano Co • • Yonkcrs 


Halilwin. Tlu-, Co Established 1862 Cincinnati 

Hutler iiios. Piano Co " 1!)10 

Clmnli Co., TliL" .lolin " lH5!t 

KIxTsnl.. I'iano Co " 1010 

Kllin;,'ton Piano I'o. 


llarvan! Piano Co " LSSo 

Kn-Ii Piano Co.. The " 18S0 

Valh-v (i.'m Piano Co " 1800 

Wnilitwr. Rudolph, Co., The " 1850 

Havniond Piano Co " 1850 Cleveland 

Ci.iiiinhns'l'iano Co " 1904 Columbus 

Chase, .\. P.., Co " 1875 .Xorwalk 


Lehr, H., & Co Established 1S!)0 Ea.^ton 

K.-lliner Piano Co " 188.3 Ilazleton 

(•nlby Piano Co " 1859 Erie 

RIasiiis & Sons " 1855 Philadelpliia 

Ciuiniiifihain Piano Co " 1801 

Lester Piano Co " 1888 

Ocser Co., Fred, The 

Painter & Ewinj? " 18!);] 

Selioniackor Piano Co '" 18;58 


l' Piano Co.. W". C " 1000 Warren 

Kleber, II., & Rro \\ l-'^f 1 Pittsburg 

Weaver Orf^an & Piano Co " 1870 York 

Van Dvke Piano Mfg. Co " 1880 Scranton 

Kril.r." DunlKini Piano Co " 1000 


Conrad I'iano .Mfg. Co Established 1010 ^lilwaukee 

(;ranil{i(litsteig I'iano Co " 1008 

Knil.r Piano ("o " " 

Walthani I'iano Co " 1885 

Netzow. < '. |-., M fg. Co " 1885 

Wilson Piano Co " 1009 

Miller, S. W., Piano Co " 1890 Slieboygan 

PT.\Xn SrPPT.Y ^r.\Xtn^\CTT'RERS 


Pratt, Read & Co Kej-s and \v\ ions 1806 Deep River 

Conistock. Cheney & Co., The " " " Essex 

Cnivcrsal .Music Co Music Rolls 1904 TMeriden 

l)aven|)ort. .lolin. Co Iron Frames 1868 Stamford 

RIake & .lolinson Hardware 1849 Waterbury 


(iulbransen-Diekinson Co Player Actions 1906 Chicago 

Piano & Organ Supply Co Actions and Keys 1871 " 

Schair. .Fohn A Strings ' 1889 " 

Oregon Foundry & ilacliine Co Iron Frames 1907 Oregon 

Kurtz Action Co Actions 1903 Rockford 



Schwamb, 'Mico.. Co Piiino Cases Arlington 

American 1-Vlt Co Fflts 1890 Boston 

Faxon. (Jcd. H.. Co Hardware IS.K) 

Felters Co.. 1 lu' Felts 1010 " 

Frazier. Dm K Mpinniers lS{i() Cambridge 

Seavcrns Piano Action Co \ctions ISol 

Standard Action Co " ISSO 

Tower. Sylvester. Co Keys and Actions 1854 

Lockev. I. H.. Piano Case Co Cases 1 S5() Leominster 

RicbaVdson Piano Case Co ' 1891 

Smitli. F. G " 

Wellington Piano Case Co " 1 S95 

Tuner's Supply Co.. Tbe Tools ] S8.) Somerville 

Simplex Player Action Co Player Actions ISS.'J Worcester 

New IIampsiiike 
Parker & Young Co Soundboards 1857 Lisbon 

New Jersey 

Abbott Piano Action Co Actions 1858 Fort Lee 

American .Musical Supply Co Supplies 1S97 Jer.sey City 

National Music String Co Strings ... . . .New Brunswick 

Celluloid Piano Key Co Keys 187G New York 

Looscben Piano Case Co Cases 1885 Paterson 

New Y'ork 

Phelps, M. S.. Mfg. Co " 1891 Brockport 

Brown & Patterson lion Frames 1801 Brooklyn 

Y'oung. F. W. & Co Actions 18G8 

Wood & Brooks Co Actions and Keys 1901 Buffalo 

Cheney, A. C, Piano Action Co Actions 1892 Castleton 

Davis," 1. E.. Mfg. Co Cases 190;? Cortland 

Breckwoldt. .Julius, & Co Soundboards 1890 Dolgeville 

Ramsey, (has.. Co Hardware 1897 Kingston 

New York Pianoforte Key Co Keys 1890 Middletown 

Grubb & Kosegarten Bros Actions 1837 Nassau 

American Union String Co Strings New Y'ork 

Auto-Pneumatic Action Co Player Actions " " 

Connorized Music Co ^lusic Rolls " " 

Courtade. Jos. N Cases 1872 " 

Erlandsen. J Tools 1801 " 

Ooepel. C. F., & Co Hardware 1892 " 

Haas, Henrv, & Son " 18(iO " 

House, C. W.. & Sons Felts VM)-> " " 

Kapp. Robt. L.. Co Hammers 1010 " " 

Koch. Rud. C Strings 1858 || ''^ 

Mapes, Stephen S " 

N. Y. Co-operative Piano String Co.. " l'^02 

New York Piano Hardware Co Hardware 190* 

Pfriemer. Charles Hanuners 1870 || 

Tingue. Brown & Co Felts 1-)01 ^^ 

Ramacciotti. F Strings 18()/_ ^^ 

Schirnier. Charles Hardware ' " " " i o-p » ., 

Schmidt. David H.. & Co Hammers 18ob 

Schwander Action Co Actions l^--»-> |] "^ 

Staib-Abendschein Co " ^^-'^ ^_ 

Standard Pneumatic Action Co Player Actions — — 

Strauch Bros Actions 1807 " " 

Wasle & Co ;; ]^ ]] ^ 

\Vessell, Nickel & Gross l»'a 


Enyilliarilt, F., &. Sons.. 


Fairhaiik^ Co., Ilio 

KellfV, O. «., Co 

Wiikiiaiu Piano Plate Co. 


...Actions 1889 St. Johiisvilie 

Tnm Frames 1890 Springfield 


" 1890 

killings Spring Brass Flange Co Hardware. 




N<)V.\ SCOTI.\ 
Willis Piano & Organ Co l•:^^lul)ll.sllc•(l ... 




siivih-r & Co.. ^^ 1" 

Dn'minion Piano & Organ Co 

DoliiTly & Co., W 

Hurclay, Glass & Co 

I5.-1I p'iaiK. & Organ Co 

Morris Piano Co 

WDrniwith & Co 

William Sons. R. S 

\\ illiams I'iano Co 

Martin Ormc Piano Co 

i;iun<lall PiaiKi C'o 

Consdlidatcd Crossin Piano Co... 

(lonrlay. Winti-r & Looming 

Ilcint/maiin tV Co 

licintzmanM Co., (loriiard 

Alason & Uisc-li Piano Co 

Mendelssohn Piano Co , 

Xewcomix- Piano Co 

Nonllicimci- I'iano & Music Co... 

Owen & Son. K. S 

Stanley, Krank 

Palmer I'iano Co 

I'xiiridgo Piano & Organ Co 

Karn Co.. 1). W 

Thomas Organ & Piano Co., The. 


Craig Piano Co Estal)li> 

l.atlargue Piano Co., The 

Pratt.', A 

Shaw & Co., .J. W 

Willis & Co 

Lesage & Fi!s 

Sonecal &, Quidoz " 

- Berlin 

1870 Bowmanville 

187.5 Clinton 


]S(;4 (hielph 

1S!»2 Listowel 


184!) London 







, Uxbridge 




St. Therese de Blainsville 


Barthelmes &. Co., A. A Actions — 

Best & Co., I). M Hammers — 

Bohne & Co " — 

Canada Piano Action & Key Co Actions and Keys. 

Contes. A. K Strings \ . 

Higel Co., Otto Actions and Keys. 

^*-r^- A Aetions 

I..OOS*', ,Jos. M Kevs 

Toronto Piano String Mfg. Co Strings ...... 




Action. Practice, Clavier. 82. 83 
Actions. Grand, 58. 59. 60, Gl, 84, 85, 88, 

89, 90, 91. 258 
Actions, Hammer, 31. 41. 42. 43, 44, 45, 

40, 47. 48, 83. 84-90. 120-128, 201, 202 
Action, " Hopper.'' 218 
Actions, Player-Piano. 102 
Action. Repetition, 247 
Actions. I pright, 53, 54, 91-90 
Agrafl'e, 01 

Bridge, Soundboard, 52. 109 

Bridge. Linear. 323 

Bush Temple of Music, Chicago, 356 

Capo Tasto. 01 

Cases, Grand, 38, 57, 58, 03. 64 

Cases. Piano. 110-117. 119, 120 

Clavichord. 29, 30. 31 

ClavicA'theriura, 29 

Clavier, 82, 83 

Collections of Musical Instruments, 429 

Collections of Old Instruments, 188, 428, 

Conclusions, 433-439 

Conservatory of !Music, Bush Temple, Chi- 
cago. 356 

Consolidation of Large Firms in Piano 
Trade, 182 

Damper. 31. 47. 54 

Department Stores, a Factor in the 

Industry, 182 
Dulcimer, 41, 42, 43 

Export, 199, 200 

Felt, Piano. 120-123, 240, 241, 259 
Fliigel. 57-65 

Frames, Iron, Grand. 59. 61-63. 69-7 
Frames, Iron, Piano. 128 
Frames, Iron. Square. 50-52. 69, 30 
Frames, Iron, Upright, 53, 55, 56., 
74, 75 

Hackbrett, 41, 42, 43 

Halls : 

Aeolian, 331 
Bliithner, 393, 400 
Biisendorfer, 220, 393, 401 
Chickering. 175. 274, 391, 393 
Ehrbar, 222, 393 

IIalt^! Continued 

Erard. 253, 393. 398 
Gewiuidliaus (New). Leipsie, 388 
Gewandhaus (Old), Leipsie, 386 
Herz, 258. 393 
Pleyel, 257, 393, 399 
Steck. 318, 393 
Steinway, London. 309 
St«inway, New York. 175. 302, 309, 390, 

Hammers, Piano, 97-100, 123 
Handel and Haydn Society. 270 
Harj). Erard. 352. 353 
Harjisieliord, 34-38. 188, 189 

Alessandro Trasunti's Art (Insert 191) 

Janko Keyboard, 78-83 

Ke, Chinese, 28 
Keyboard, 37, 38, 77-83 

Literature on the Pianoforte, 423-429 

^Marketing of Pianos, 200, 201 
]\Ionocliord, 27 

Name. Value of, in the Piano Industry, 
213, 214 

Organ, 77 

Piano Organ, American Oabin-et, 310 

; Insert p. 190) 

Pedal, 38 

Piano, The Art, 187-191 
Pianos, Art Grand 
Baldwin Company 
Chickering & Sons 
Everett Piano Company " " 

Jolin Broadwood & Sons 
2 Julius Bliithner 

69-71, Liidwig Bosendorfer " " 

Plevel. Lvon & Co. 
Rudolf Ibach Sohn 
Steinway & Sons 
" ■ Weber Piano Company " '* 

William Knabe & Company " " 

Piano. The Commercial, 105^ 175. 179-181, 

Pianoforte. 41-48 

Piano. Grand. 57-05. 09. 70-71, 77, 304 
Pianos, in Dejnirtment Stores, 182 




riaiio Industry. LoikUhj.' Finns in. Jl.l 
I'ianii .Manufaotuifis. Consoliilatiun of, 

182, 1.S3 

NuinlH-r |iiuiliiif(l |)or year, 175, 20(i. 4;)4 
\'alui' of yearly oulpiit. 17."> 
I'ianos. IVdiil. 1!»1-1!»4 
Pianos. Sqnar.-. 47. ")2, 57. 2ti9, .302 
Pianos. Stfiuiling. 1H2 
Piano, rprif^'lit. 5;}-57. <>•'>. 71). 71. Insert 

I'.tO. 2(;(t 
Pianos. X'aiue of .\':mie un. in tlie I'iano 

Industry. 21. {•2 15 
Piano. W'rtienI (irand. 48 
Pins, lliteli and Tuninj,'. 128 


" Aj'olian " Organ, .■{27 

" Aeriol •• Pianos. 147. 150. .328 

•• An;,'elus" Piano Player. 1.S8 

•• A|.oll(." Piano Player. 154 

" Aristano " (Jraiul Player Piano, ;575 

•• Artistyle." 158 

'■ Ariston " Piano Pi lyer. 155 

IJiNJiop iV Downe's Kevi)i)ard Attuch- 

nient. 188;{. VMi. 1.3!) " 
Brown's Interior Player, l!-'l)7, 150 
Hain's Aiitoruatie Piano. 1.33 
C'eeiiian Player Piano. .")72 
" t'elestina "■ Orjiuinetle, .327 
Clark's Stroke Button, 1005, 155, 15G 
Clark's Stroke Button. 1007. 155. 150 
Clark's Transjiosing Device. ISOO, 151, 

Clark's 'i'rans|)()sini;- Drvice. J!)()2, 152 
Crook's •• 'Iheniodist," 1000, 158, 101 
Danr|uard's Flexible Fiiii^rr Meeliunisni, 

1004, 154, 155 
'■ Dea " Piano Player, 157 
Fourneaux's " Pianista." 133. 1.34. 135 
(Jallv's Plaver Mecluini>iii. 1S81, 130, 

Goolnian's " Harmonist " Plaver. ISOS, 
152, 153. 370 

Ilobart's Endless Tiuie Sheet. 1008. 154 

Ilupftdtl's •■ PlioiKda " Plaver. 1002. 1.55, 
157. 15S, l.-)0 

.Iae(|inird's Perforated Endless Card- 
board, 133 

Kelly's Winil Motor with Sli.h- Valves. 
1880. 1.30. 130 

Ke<dey-l)aiu|uard '• Tenii>iiM<>nic," I'.ill. 
I5S. u;-2 

Klufjh's Au.xiliary Key, looti, \r,:i, l.j.") 

Kuster's Mechanical instruincnt. 1880, 
130, 140 

McTainniany's Automatic Playing Or- 
gan. 18ti8. 134. 135, 130. 137 
"Metrostyle" Player Piano, 158, 101 
Morse's Automatic Organ. 132 
Pain and Kuster's Self-playing Piano. 

130. 137 
Pape's Autiinuilic I'iniid. 133 
Parker's Automatic Piano. 1892, 137, 

141, 142 
"Peerless" i'i^iiio Player, 152. 370 
" Phonola " rianu Plaver. 15.'). l.")7. 158, 

"Phrasing l><'\cr." 1 -VS 
"Pianista" Piano IMaver, 133, 134, 135 
"Pianola" Piano PlaVer, 150, 372 
Player Pianos. 131-102, 104, 105 
Seytre's Automatic Piano, 13.3 
"Simplex' Piano Players, 150 
" 'i"em])ononip." 15S. 1(!2 
•■ 'riiemodist " Player Piano. 158. liil 
Vaucanson's Pierced Cylinder f<ir Auto- 
matic Musical Instruments, 133 
Votey's Cabinet Plaver, 149, 150 
Welin's Tiidividual Valve Svstem. 1002. 

155. 157 
" W'eite .Mignon " Piano Player. 157 
^\'hite and Parker's Combin.ition Up- 
right Piano and Reed Organ, 1895, 
14.3. 144 
\Miit(' and Parkers Automatic Piano 

Plaver. 1897, 145-148 
Young's " :\letrostyle." 1901. 158. 101 

Pvesoiiator. 110. 1 1 I 

Scale, Diatonic and (hroniatic. 77 

Scale. iMiuali/ing. 323 

Scale, Flat. 49. 02, 70 

Scale, Overstrung. 51. 52. 54. 5;!. 02. 03, 

()4, 71. 302 
Soundboard. 31, lot; 1 11. 117 1 10 
S|)inet. 32. 33 

Hans Puckers Doulde (Insert \>. 101) 
Stencil, l><>gitimate I'se of, 182 
Strings, 31, 38, 53. 54. 55. 09 

Trade Associations Among ^lauufacturcrs 

and Dealers, 405-411 
Trade Press, The, 415-420 
Trust :\rov<'ment of 1892. 18!)7. and 1809, 


N'irginal, 33, 34 

Wire. Piano. 123-120. 242 
Wrest Plank, 49 


Abbott. Frank A., 417. 41S 

Abbott Piano Action Co.. ;521 

Adam, (ifilianl. -i:}! 

Aeolian Company. 147. loO. \ry>. \H2, 1!)!). 

20!). ;}1!). 32(5, :)2!t, ;}3(). :5;52, 334, 372 
Aeolian Company. Ltd.. 332 
Aeolian Organ & Music Comjiany. 327 
Aeolian. Weber Piano & Pianola Company, 

Albreclit. ( liarles. 50 
Allen and Tlioni. 59. fiO. 70 
Allgiiier & Zoon, 263 
Alli.-^on. Arthur & Co., 248 
American Piano Company, 183, 276, 286, 

2!1(). 335 
Amnion. John. 104. 105 
Am|)hion Com])any. 334 
Andre. Curl. 408 " 
Angelo. Michael. 166 
Arion Piano Co., 366 
Ariston Company, 334 
Armstrong. George B., 418 
Armstrong, (leorge W., Jr.. 340, 347 
Armstrong Piano Co., 336 
Arnold, Richard. 274 
Auto Grand Piano Co., 155, 358 
Automatic ]\hisic Paper Company. 327 
Auto]Hano Com])any. 333 
Auto-Pneumatic Action Co., 334 

Babcock. Alpheus, 50. 69, 97. 270 

Babcock. Lewis. 270 

Bach, Emanuel. 31 

Bach, Johann Christian, 387 

Bach. Johann Sebastian, 31, 32, 45, 86, 
167, 194. 276, 385, 386 

Backers (Becker). Americus, 46, 47, 58, 
87, 88, 168 

Bacon, Francis, 277 

Bacon. George. 277 

Bacon Piano Co.. 277 

Bacon, W. H. P., 277 

Bailey, P. J., 147 

Bain," 133 

Bald\yin Company. The, 64, 74, 181. In- 
sert 191. 346-348 

Baldwin Piano Co.. 346 

Baldwin & Co., D. H., 346 

Barnett & Son, Samuel, 248 

Barnhorn. C. T., 190 

Bauer, .Julius, 362 

Bauer & Co., Julius, 362 

Bechstein. Carl, 235, 236 

Becker, Jacob. 264. 265 

Beethoven. Ludwig von, 37, 59, 87, 218, 

219. 3^7, 388, 400 
Beliniiig. (lUstav, 320 
Behning. Henry, 319. 320 
Beliiiing. Jr.. Ilciiry. 320 
Behning Piano Comi)any, 320 
Behning & Son, Henry,'319, 320 
Behr Brothers, 336 
Bell rend, Johann, 48 
Benedict. Sir Julius, 318 
Bent, George P., 362, Insert 410 
Berden & Co., Francois, 263 
Bergner, F., 274 
Berndt. Traugott, 232 
Bietepage, Michael A., 265 
Bill, Edward Lyman, 417, 425 
Billinghurst, H' F., 248 
Billon. 121 

Birmingham Orgin Co.. 370 
Bisliop & Downe, 136. 139 
Blackmore, D. J., Insert 410 
Blasius Piano Co., 336 
Blondcl. Al]>honse, 254 
Bloomlield-Zeisler, Fannie, 356 
Blumenbei'g, ]\Iarc A., 417 
Bliithner, Julius. 169, 190, Insert 191. 

233-235. 424 
Bliithner, [Max. 409 
Boardman. William, 277, 278 
Boardman & Gray, 277, 286 
Bond, Albert S.. 373, 374 
Bond, S. B.. 372, 373 
Boone Fils. 263 

Bord, Jean Denis Antoine, 171, 261 
Bosendorfer. Ludwig. 64, 88, 189, Insert 

191. 219. 220, 397, 407 
Bossert, \\'illiam, 278, 279 
Bourne, Charles H., 279 
Bourne, William, 278, 279 
Bourne & Company, William, 278 
Bradbury, William B., 314 
Bradley, Kenneth M., 356 
Breitkopf & Hiirtel, 169 
Brewster Piano Company, 336 
Briggs, C. C, 293 
Briggs Piano Co., 338 
Brinsniead, Edgar, 173, 247, 425 
Brinsmead, John, 94, 173, 247. 248 
Brinsmead, Thomas James, 247, 248 
Broadwood. Henry Fowler. 245 
Broadwood, James Henry Shudi, 245, 246 
Broadwood, James S., 59, 245 




Kroiulwood, John, 4S, 50, G2, 243, 244, 

{nmdwdod, Tlioinas, 24J> 
{riiadwdiMl. WalttT Stewart. 245 
Sroadwoiid & Sons. TCI. l'>. SS. 1)4. 157, 172, 

17;5. ISSI. Insert IDU. 242. 245 
IJr.H.ks, Lt<l.. 12(i 
trown & llallft. 28(1 
{(ll-.w. Hans von. 22S. 274. .300. :i01 
{nsi-hniann. (iustav Adolpli. 2.52 
Wisb. William I... 355. 35(i. 357 
iiish. Williani 11.. 355. 35»i 
?nsli & Co.. Wiili-iMi 1!.. .■!55 
{iisli & (Jolts I'iano Co.. 357 
?usli & l.anc. 3(12 
{nins. Kdwaiil M.. 2S7. 2S8 
{urns. I-'ranri-i I'utnaiii, 280, 287 
{nsoiii. 15S. .•{!t2 
liitclu-r. 'IMiiinii's. 247 
'..vriic. .F. P.. Insert 410 

aide. I'.iv.'tte S.. 344. 345 

'ahle. 11.' 1).. :!43. 34+, 345 

'ablf, Hohirt .M., 344 

ahli' Coniiiany. 155. 345 

aide Company, llohart M.. 362 

amplndi. .Inliii Calvin, 334, 335 

anij), Isaac X., 37(5 

arrono. Teresa. 300, 338, 302, 308 

hallen. ('.. 247 

hallen. W illiani. 247 

iiallen & Son. 247 

liamlteis, 277 

liamini(le. 338 

liappell & Co.. 24-! 

liflse. A. B., 374 

hasp, Braton S.. 358 

hasp Bros. Piano Co., 358 

hasp Co.. .\. H.. 374. 375 

lia.sp-llaeklev Piano Co., 358 

liase. .Milo ,1.. .140 

hase Piano Co . 340, .358 

luisp & Baker Comp'ny, 334 

hassaijin Fr^res. 2f>3 

hica/»o Cottage ()r<^in Co., 343 

liiekerinfj Brothers, 302 

hiikerin},'. C. Inank. 273-270 

hiekerinj,'. (leor^c II., 275, 27() 

hiekerinf,', donas, 51, 52. 70, 174. 270-272 

hiekering, Thomas E.. 273 

hiekerinfj & Sons, 18,3, 100. Insert 100. 

273. 274. 270. 3.35 
hilton I'iano Company, 332 
■ho|>in. Fredt-ri*', 70. 171. 253, 250, 388 
lioralion Co.. 332 
hristofori. l?artolomo, 42, 44-47, 58, 80- 

88. !I7, 100. 21 (J 
hnreh Company. John. 337, 338 
lark, iWvillp. 151. 152. 154-150. 370-378 
lark Piano Co., Melville. 302, 377, 378 
:|jirk & l{ieh. 377 
'hdand. .Junas M., Insert 410 

Clomont, Louis II., Insert 410 

Clenienti, Muzio, 245, 240, 302 

Cludsani, 78 

Colhird, Clmrlcs l.ukev. 24(i 

Collanl. K. W .. 240 

CollanI, W. I'.. 2lti 

Collanl i Coilaid. 2 10 

Collins. Beiijainin. |(i(). 104 

CoiioNci'. .1. l-'raiik. .■!44 

Conway, ('. ('., 2S0 

Conway, E. E., 286 

Conwav. Edwin Stapleton. 340.343. Insert 

Cook Piano Co., J. P>.. 33(i 
Cramer, 302 

Crehore, Benjamin. 50. 270 
Crew. I!. I!.. In.sert 410 
Crooks. .1. W.. 158, 101 
CuiJiKTs. ,1. F., 203 
Cunningham Piano Co., 330 

D" Albert, Kugene. 2.'-'5. 30!) 

Damroseh. Leopold. 300 

Daniel!. C. A., 418 

l):ni(|iiai-d. Thomas. l.")4. 155. 158. 102, 

333. 3:;4 
DaVinci, KiO 
Davis, Georjj;e II. , 280 
Decker, Frank C., 317. Insert 410 
Decker. Mvron A., 287. 317 
I)c P.ichmann, 158, 274. 34S, 392, 897, 398 
Detroit ()i'<^an Co.. 371 
De Wit. 188, 418. 427. 42s. Insert 428, 429, 

Dickinson. 100 
Diederichs. ticbr.. 204 
Ditson & Co., Oliver, 350. 351 
Doane. Wing & Cusliiiif"-. 330 
Dobbs. W. ('.. 240 
Dol-c. Alfred. 09. 100. 117 
Dolmetsch. 438 
Dorner & Son. F.. 231 
Dorr, Karl. 222 
Doud. L. L.. 375 
Drcher. Ibiny, Insert 410 
Droop, i:. II.. Insert 410 
Dubois. 277 
Dubois & Sto<lart. 288 
Dunham, .lohn B., 322 
Durkee, Ceorge B.. 352 
Dullou, William D:illiba. Insert 410 

Eaton, Ceorge L., 330 
Eavestaft" & Son. 248 
Eddy, Charles H.. 330 
Eildy. Clarence. 372 Kricdrich. 220. 221. 407 
Ehrlich. P.iul. 155. 157 
Ekstrem cV Co.. (i.. 2(i3 
Emerson Piano Co.. 203 
Emerson. William P.. 292. 293 
Engelhardt, Alfred D., 379 



Eiigelhardt, Fredoriek, 378, 370 
Engelhardt, Walter L., 379 
Engelhardt & Sons, F., 152, 
Erard, Jean Baptist^*, 



79, SS, 92, 

Erard. Pierre. 5S, (il. 199, 254 
Erard, (Sebastian, 4S, 58-01, 70. 

171, 189. Insert 190, 191, 199, 214, 

233, 251-254 
E.ssipoff. Annette, 309. 318 
Estela, Pindo de Pedro, 262 
Estey, Jacob, 303-305 
Estey, Jacob Gray, 306 
Estey, J. Harry. 30(> 
Estey, Julius, 304-3()G 
Estey Organ Co., 304 
Estev Piano Co., 304 
Everett Piano Co., 181, 


190, Insert 190, 

Faber, Daniel, 30 
Farrand Co., The, 302, 372 
Farrand, W. R., 371 
Farrand & Votev Co., 371, 372 
Fetis. M., 29, 423 
Feiiricli. Hermann, 409 
Feurich, Julius, 230 
Fischer, A. H., Insert 410 
Fischer, Carl, 167, 210, 289 
Fischer, Charles S.. 289, 290 
Fischer, John U., 289, 290 
Fischer. J. &. C. 210. 290 
Fischer, P. F., 98, 121 
Fortin, 121 

Foster, Armstrong & Co., 183 
Foster, C. H. W.. 330 
Foster & Company. 335 
Fourneaux. 133-135 
Fox, Orrin L.. 417 
Freimd, Harry E.. 417 
Frennd. John' C. 41(). 417 
Frickinger, F. W., 127, 287 
Friederici, C. E., 48, 49, 91, 92 
Fritz & Meyer, 127 
Fritz & Soim. J.. 222 
Fuchs, 123 
Fuller, Levi K., 364. 305 

Gabler. Ernest. 314 
C4abrilo\vitsch, Ossip, 398 
Gaehle, Henrv. 283 
Gallv, Merritt. 130. 138 
Gaveau. J. G., 171. 201 
Gebanhr. C. J., 231 
Gehrling. Charles, 127 
Geib. 108 

Gennett, flarrv, 349 
Gennett. Henry. 349 
Geronimo. 57, 188, 210 
Gerts, John, 355, 350 
Gertz, Richard W.. 110, 111 
Gevaert, V.. 203 
Gibson, J. H., 337 

Gilbert & Co., 174 
Goll, Jacob, 108 
Gomph, rieorge, 287 
Goolmaii. F. R., 152, 153 
Gottschalk. 194 
Gramer. J., 293 
Gram-Richtsteig Piano Co., 362 
Gray, James A., 277, 278 
Gray, James Stuart, 278 
Gray, William James, 278 
Gregory. Roliert B., 353 
Gretschel. Heinrich, 424 
Griinicll Brothers, 362 
Grinnell. C. A., Insert 410 
Gross, Charles J., 292 
Gross. Jacob, 291, 292 
Grotrian. Wilhelm. 74, 232 
Grover & G rover. 248 
Grovesteen, Fuller & Co., 286 
Grovesteen, James H., 280 
Grubb & Kosegirten Brothers, 127 
Grunewald & Co.. L., 378 
Guarra. Hermanos, 202 
Guido, 28, 77, 215, 210 
Guilmant, 371 

Gulbransen-Dickinson Co., 334 
Giinther, J., 203 
Giinther & Sohne, 230 

Hackley, C. H., 358 

Haddorff Companv. 302 

Hale, Joseph P., 179-181. 200 

Haines Brothers, 295, 290, 335 

Haines. Francis, 294. 295 

Haines. Xapoleon J., 294-290 '"" 

Hallet & Davis Piano Co., 280 

Hals. Brodrene, 203 

Hamilton Organ Co., 340 

Hamlin, Emmons. 315 

Handel, 243, 385 

Hannemann, Robert, 424 

Hansing. Siegfried. 91, 100-108. 420 

Hardman, Hiigh, 290 

Hardman, John. 290 

Hardman. Peck & Co., 290 

Harger, C. B., 418 

Harvard Piano Co., 338 

Hawkins. John Isaac, 53, 09 

Haydn, 243, 385 

Ha'vwood, Samuel, 158, 190 

Hazelton Brothers, 288 

Haztdton, F. & H.. 288 

Hazelton, Halsev, 289 

Hazelton, Henry. 280, 288 

Hazelton, John. 288 

Hazelton, Samuel. 289 

Hazelton. Talbot & Lyou, 288 

Healv. :\Iark. 354 

Healv. Patrick Joseph, 350-353 

Healy, Paul, 354 

Hebenstreit, 42 

Heintzmann, Theodore A., 313, 314 


IXDKX Otto. 222 2.12 

ll.-linlu.ltz. -.104. :50.j. 42:). 42*) 

li.-nlmrjrt'i-. ■'<J'<»'f. '•••• !'•"'• -^^- -♦'- 

ll.TZ. Il.'Miv. s... Si). 171. 2.-)7-2J!l, 392, 393 

ll.-v.r. Wiliu'hn, 188, 429 

H.'Vl. (;.. 231 

Ilii.l.-hran.I. 84 

Ilill.T, 2.-)7 

llipkiiis. A. J.. 53, 91. 425 

llohirt. A. .!.. 154 

lioiriiiann. Ki.lianl. 275 

linfmanii. .los.-f. :{91. 392. 399. 400 

H..ll.'iil).T«,', F. B. T.. Insert 410 

ildpkinson, James, 247 

Ilii|ikiiis(in. .lolin. 247 

ll.>|.kiiisoii. .1. & .r.. 173. 247 

llornunj,' & Miiljcr. 2ti3 

ll.)Uj,'lit«)n, \V. 1)., 125 

lioxa. (il. 70 

Ilmii.' & Co.. 33S 

I iiiiiiiiicl. 257 

ilu|»fi'lil. I.uclwi^. 155, 157-159 

Ihach. f'arl Rudolf. 223 

Il):icli. .rolianncs Adolf. l(i^. 222 

ll.K-li. Kiidnlf. 224. 225 

Ibai-h Sohn. Rudolf. 1S9, liixrt 190. 224 

IIkuIi. Walter. 225, 22(i 

Irnilcr. i''.Miil. 227 

Irnili-r. .Joliann Clnistian Gottlieb. ItiO. 

225. 22ti 
Irniler. Oswald. 22(5, 227 
Irnil.'r. Otto. 227 
I senna nn. C. W.. 23S 
Iserniann. J. C". L., 237. 23,S 
Iserniann. Ludolf, 123, 12(1. 237. 239 
Ivors & Pond Co.. 338 
Izabcl, Louis. 202 

Jacob Brothers, 321. 325 

Jae(.i). C. Albert. 321. 322 

Jacob. Cliarles. 321 

Ja<nl>. .Idjin F.. .321 

.!aci|iiard, 13.3 

James, A. ('.. 286 

.Fames & lldimstrom, 280, 321 

.bmko. Tanl von. 78-83 

.Iai.;nies<- Musjcil I ii-t runient Mfg. Co., 206 

.lardine. .lolm. 02 

Jowett Piano Co.. 338 

.If)liii-ti.n. R. .\.. 340 

Jo-elVv. Rafael. 158. 274. 285, 309, 39], 

Knim & Ciintlier. 230 
Kiiiin & Sohn, 230 
Kalkbrcnner. 250, 257. 392 
Kaps, Ijnst, 04 
Kc.-lcy. 158, 102. 334 
Keller. 90. 127 

Kelly. fJ.'orpe B.. 13(i. 139. 160, 331. 332 
Kettcn. Ileiirv. 274 

Kiiiihali. C. y.. 280. 343 
KimlMll. o. A.. 293 
Kiiiilull. Willi^iiu Wallace. 3.39-343 
Kin;,;. Arthur I'.. .■!(12 
Kin;^. Iiilie i;i\i''. ;!5ti 
Ivirkni in, 77. 172 
Klugh. Paul B., 153. 155 
Kniibe. Ernest. 283-2S0 
Knabi'. William. 282 
Knabe. William. .Jr.. 283. 285 
Knabe & Co.. William. 175, 183, 190, In- 
sert 190, 283-285. 335 
Knabe & Caehle. 283 
Knake. (iebriider. 231 
Kohler. Charles. 334 
Kohler .V Campbell. 334, 335 
Kraft, ■riienil,,!-,. .1., 33S 
Krakauer l!ri)tliers, 327 
Krakauer, Daniel. .■)27 
Krakauer, David, 320 
Krakauei'. .Tiilius. 327 
Kiak:nier. Simon. .32(5, 327 
Kianieli & Racli. 3;)0 
Krnn-^e. l)i'.. 78 
Krelibiel. Henry F(l\\ar(l. 427 
Krell. Albert. 357. 358 
Krell. Ab'xander. 357. 358 
Ki'ell Auto (Irand Piano Co.. 157 
Krell- I'reiieli Piano Co.. 358 
Krell. .Ir.. Albert. 357. 358 
Ki'ell Piano ('o.. 358 
Kreter, Rudolf. 99. 100 
Kriegelsteiii. ( liarles, 2.59, 201 
Kriegelslein. (ieorecs. 201 
Kriegelstein. .lean (ieorges, 200, 201 
Ki'iegelstein & Co.. 200 
Kunz. 58 

Kurtzmann, Christian, 292 
Kuster. Charles A.. 130. 140 
Kuster, Henry, 130 

Lafl'crt. Oscav. 428 

Langer & Co.. F.. 90. 95. 127, 239 

Lantei'. 33(5 

Lawrence. R. W'., 333 

Lawson, Charles B., 326 

Lee. Frank A.. 337-339. Insert 410 

Lester Piano Co., 330 

T>exo\v. 127 

IJghte & Xewton. 314 

I.iiideman. TTenrv. 280 

l.indeman. S.imuel (L. 280 

l.indeman. William. 279. 280 

Lindner. T. P.. 231 

Lipp & S(din. Richard. 231 

Liszt. Franz. 194. 225, 305. 389, 397 

Loud Brothers, 02 

Lt)U{l. Thonms, 53, 84 

Ludwig & Co.. 336 

Lufkins. W. \V., 342. .343 

Lydecker. Peter De Witt. 381 

Lyon, George W'.. 353 



Lyon, Custave. 257, 40(5 
Lyon & Hoaly, 350-354 

MacKav, .John. 174. 270, 271 

Malmsjo, I. G., 263 

Mand, Carl. 231 

]\Iariiis. 41, 42 

Marsliall. James & Travcr. 2S7 

Marsliall. Sir Herbert, 40!) 

Mar.sliall & Mittauer. 320 

Marshall &■ Wendell. 2S7, 335 

jMartin. Jane. 427 

Mason. Henry, 315 

Mason. Jolin' W., 326 

Mason. Lowell. 315 

Mason & Tlanilin. 7(5. 110. LSI, 315. 316 

Mason. J. R.. 370-372 

Mathews. Mason J., 327 

]\Iathushek. Frederiek, S4. 85. 100. 108. 

109. 123, 321-325 
?tlathushek Piano Co.. 323 
Mathushek & Son. 325 
Mathiishek & Sons Piano Co., 321 
]\latzka. George. 274 
MePhail. A. M.. 278. 279 
McPhail Co.. A. M., 270 
IMcTammanv. John. 134-137 
Mehlin. H. Paul, Insert 410 
Mehlin & Sons. 33(1 
Mendelssohn. Felix. 101, 228 
Menter, Sophie, 228, 318, 399 
]\Ierckel. 123 
Merrill Piano Co.. 338 
■Nlethfessel, Albert, 300 
Meyer & Co.. 174. 231 
Miiler, Henry F., 336 
]\Iiller. James C. Lisert 410 
Miller. Jr.. Henry F.. 337. Insert 410 
:Miller. Martin, 124. 125 
Miller & Sons Piano Co., Henry F., 194. 

336, 337 
Mills. S. B.. 309 
Mola. 167, 216 
INIollenhauer, C. 274 
jMonnington & Weston. 248 
]\Ionroe Organ Reed Company, 328 
^Montana. 262 
:\Ioore, William. 293 
Morgenstern & Kotrade. 127 
Morse. Justinian. 132, 133 
Moscheles. 169. 257 
Moser, 108 

]\Iott, Henry A., 426 
Mozart, Wolfgang Araadeus, 32. 59, 87, 

218. 243, 385-387 
INIusin. Qyid, 356 

Xagel, G. L., 231 

Naish, 121 

Xeitzel. Dr.. 338 

Nelson Co.. The H. P., 362 

Neuhaus, 78 

Newman I'.rotliers. 362 

Nickel. Adam. 380, 381 

Nickel. Jr., Ib'nry, 381 

Niekerson. William K., 417, 41S 

Niemann. Dr. Walter, 285, 424, 426 

Nishikawa & Son, 266 

Norton, Edward (^uincy, 425 

Nunns, William, 289 

Nunns & Clark, 174 

Nunns & Com])any, William, 308 

Nunns & Fischer, 289 

Oor, J., 263 
Orchestrelle Co.. 332 
Ortiz & Cusso, 171 
Osborn, John. 50. 270, 286 

Packard. Isaac T., 372 

Packard Co., 373, 374 

Paderewski, I. J., 392. 399 

Pain. R. W., 136, 137, 331 

Paine, J. H., 275, 276 

Pape, Henri, 84, 93, 98, 108, 121. 133. 191, 

259, 260 
Parker, William D., 137, 138, 141, 142 
Parsons, Charles H., Insert 410 
Patz.schke, C. W., 240 
Patzschke, F. W., 240, 241 
Patzsclike, Rudolf, 241 
Paul, Dr. Oscar, 424 
Payson, Ed^vard S., 293, Insert 410 
Pease Piano Co., 336 
Peck. Leopold, 290 
Perkins. Edward R., 330 
Perzina, Paul. 79-83 
Pfeiffer, A. J.. 231 
Pfeiffer, Carl J.. 191-194. 231 
Pfister. H.. 231 
Pfriemer. Charles, 382 
Pianola Company, 332 
Pianola Company Proprietary, Ltd., The, 

Plaidy, 169 

Pleyel, Camille, 256. 257 
Pleyel, Ignace, 54, 93. 254. 257, 392 
Pleyel, Lyon & Co., 124, 171, 190, Insert 

190. 191. 257 
Pleyel, ^lailame, 257 
Pleyel, Wolff & Co., 125 
Poehlmann. :\loritz. 124. 125, 237, 242 
Poehlmann. Richard. 242 
Poehlmann & Son, 248 
Pond. Handel, Insert 410 
Poole Piano Co., 338 
Post. Charles N.. 352-354 
Powers. Patrick H., 293, 294 
Price & Teeple, 362 
Pugno, 348 

Putnam, Charles R., Insert 410 
Pythagoras, 27 

Quigg, J. Travis, 417 



RachiiN. Ailnlf IVnlinaii.l. 23:? 

Ita.liitis IMwanl IVnliiiaiul. 232-234 

Hacliiils. Matliias Keidinaml. 232. 233 

liaM'ii. 277 

K.mmI. v., 287 

K.-iiirckc. 1G!> 

Ivi-isfiiatii-r. '42S 

Kciiiciiyi. Kd., 274 

IJijkfii & «lc Uiii;?o. 203, Dr. Kd. P.. 34, 423. 424 

ItitiniilltT. .Andifas Gt'orti. 1(58, 22t) 

Hitt.T, 231 

Hull I tin;,'. (Ji'lnudor. 231 

ItnllMHii) & Son, 124 

Kr.niscli, Carl. 23(), 237 

Uiitiscvi'lt. Frank. 371 

Hosi'lcr. Hi7. 210 

HtKsc, l'"rt'd»'ri(k, 245 

l{()Sf, (Jfitij:.' 1).. 24;'). 409 

Udsc. (ii'Dif,'!' '1 lionias. 24.5 

Ko.scnkrantz,, lOS 

l{(.scid<raiitz, Knist Piiilip. 220 

KuM'ukrantz. Kricdrioii \\illiclin. 220 

Rnsfiitlial. Moiiz. 158, 285, .302. 303, 398 

Rossi. 33 

Roth. A. P.. 379 

R..tli & Kiij,n.ili:inlt. 379 

RiO.iiistciii. Anton. 175. 305, .309, 390, 398 

Knckcrs. Hans. KiO. 188, Insert 190 

Ruinnifi. Franz, 275 

Sacknii'istor. 84 

Saint-SaiMis. 257, '285 

Saner, 225 

Scarlatti, 37, 27G 

Schaaf, Adam. 302 

SehactlVr I'iano Mfg. Co., 302 

Seharwenka, Xaver, 275 

Scheel, Carl. 233 

S.liiedniaver. Adolf. 228, 229 

Scliic.lniaver. A<lolf. Jr., 228, 407-409 

Scliiedniaycr, Raltliasar. 108, 228 

Seiiiedmayer, llernuinn. 228, 230 

Sdiiedniayer. .Toliann David. 168, 227, 228 

S(liieduia\er. .Toliann Lf)r<'nz. 228, 229 

Scl.icdniaver. J. cV l\. 229 

Seiiiedmayer. .hiiins, 229-231 

.Seiiiedmayer. Lorenz. 168 

Seiiiedmayer. Max. 230 

Selii.dmay<'r. J'aul. 22!), 232 

Seiiiedmayer & Siilme, 228 

Sell i Her I'iano Co., 362 

Selimidt, David H.. .381 

Selimidt. Franz, 407 

Sriiniidt, .loliann, 53 

Selimidt, .Jolm Frederick, 381 

Sclineider'.s NcfTe, Josef. 222 

Schomaeker, Henry ('., 282, 330 

Seliomaeker. Jolm Jh-iiry, 214, 280, 281 

Seliomaeker Piano Co., 281 

Sciiiine, I^onis P.. 191 

Scliriider, Carl, 205 

SehWider, Carl Nicoiai. 203-205 

Seliriider, .Toliann l-'riedrieli, 202, 204 

Sclii-ildcr. .loiiii, 2ti.") 

Seiii-.ider, Karl .Mieliael, 204 

Sell Wider, Oskar, 205 

Selir.lter, Cliristopli. 42, 43, 45, 80, 88, 165 

Seliuiz Co.. .M., 300 

Scliuiz, -Mathias, ,359, 300 

Schuiz, Otto, 300 

Schumacher. Johann lieinricli. 214. 280 

Sehiiniann Piano Co., :',&J. 

Seliuniami, Itoliert. ]91. 19; 

Seliwander. Jean. 91. 95. 127, 200-202 

Sehwai'z, ^L, 274 

Sehweighofer S(iline. I. M.. 222 

Scavenis, George \V.. !t(i. 127 

Seidl. Anton, 275, 309 

Sembrieh, 285 

Seuil'ert, 221 

Sevliarth, Hermann, 428 

SoVtre, 133 

Shaw, F. S., 345 

Shoninger, Bernhard. .SKi 

Shoiiinger. S. B.. 317 

Shiidi. Biirkat, 188, 214. 243, 244 

Sievers, G. F., 107, 210. 424 

Silheniiann. Andreas, 217 

Silhcrmann. (Jottfried. 44, 45. 58, 86, 167, 

217. 380 
Silherniaiin. .lolianii Daniel. 217 
Silbeiinaiin. .Tohann Friedricl:. 217 
Sini])lex Piano Player Co.. .3.34 
Sim])soii. .lojui Boulton. 300 
Smitli. Birnes & Strohher Co.. 362 
Smith. Chandler W.. Insert 410 
Smitli. Freehorn C. 314. 315 
Smith & lioiightnn. 124 
Smitli & Sons, 125 
Sohmer, Hugo, 320 
Sohnier & Co.. 320 
Southwell. \\'illiam, 54 
S])illaiie, Dnii(d. 425 
Spinnelti, Giovanni, 32, 83. 216 
Squire & Son, B., 248 
Standard Pneumatic Action Co.. 334 
Starek Co.. P. A.. 302 
Starr, Benjamin, 348, 349 
Starr, .lanies S.. 348, 349 
Starr Piano Co.. 349 
Steek. (ieorge. 175. 182. 233. 318. 319 
Steek & Co., (Jeorge, 332 
Steger, John V., 361, 362 
Stein, Friedrieh. 218 
Stein, Johann Andreas, 47, 48, 58, 59. 84, 

87, l<i8, 218. 387 
Stoin-Streieher, Xannette, 59, 168, 218, 219, 

388, 400 
Steinert. :\lorris. 188, Insert 420. 427. 429, 

Steinert & Sons, M., 427 
Steinway, Albert, 311. 312 
Steinwa'v, Charles, 301-304, 300, 313 



Stoinway, Charles TI.. '.U'l 

.Steinway. C. F. Theodore, 301, 303-30(3, 

308, 312, 313 
Steinway, Frederick T.. 312 
Steinway, Henry, 300 
Steinway, Henry Engelliardt, 214, 301, 302, 

308!^ 313» 3'J8 
Steinway, Henry, Jr., 301, 304, .307, 313 
Steinway. Theodore Cassebeer, ;3'12 
Sleinwa\'. Tlieodore F., 312 
Steinway, \\illiani. 174, Hi), 286, 306-313 
Steinwav & Sons, 51, 62, 63, 71-73, S5, S!). 

102-105, 174, 189, Insert 1!)0, 199, 301- 

SteinSveg, Henrv Engelhardt, 214, 221, 232, 

299, 300 
Sterling, Charles A., 370, 371 
Sterling Co., Ihe, 370 
Stewart, James, 270 
Stewart & Chickering, 270 
Stieif, Charles M., 291. 292 
Stieff. Frederick P., 290, 291 
Still Brothers, 58 
St()cker, S5 

Stodart, Robert, 58, 59, 69, 277 
Story, Edward H., 376, 377 
Story, Hampton L., 375, 376, 378 
Story & Camp, 376 
Story & Clark, 376, 378 
Story & Clark Organ Co., 376, 378 
Story & Powers, 375 
Stranbe Piano Co., 362 
Streicher, Emil, 219 
Streicher, Johann Baptist, 80, 87, 168, 218, 

Streicher, Johanu Andreas, 64, 218 
Streicher & Sohn, J. B., 219 
Streicher & Sohn, Nannette, 218 
Strich & Zeidler. 336 
Strohmenger & Son. 248 
Stultz & Bauer, 336 
StujTBsant Piano Co., 332 
Syverson, Ole, 381 

Technola Piano Co., 332 
Thibouville-Lamy, 405 
Thomas, Theodore. 175, 309 
Thoms, William M., 
Thiirmer, Ferdinand. 
Trasvinti, Alessandro, 
Trayser, 348, 349 
Tremaine. Charles il 
Tremaine. Ilarrv B.. 328-333 
Tremaine. William B., 327, 328. 333 
Tschudi, Burckhardt, 173, 214, 243 
Tyndall. John, 305, 425 

Universal Music Co., 332 

Valley Gem Piano Co.. 340 
Vanderstucken. Frank. 274 
Van Hvfte, B., 263 

188, In-sert 190 


^'an "\'orx', 160 

\'aucanson, 133 

Vits, Emile, 263 

Vocalian Organ Company, 332 

^'ogel & Sohn. 1. C... 231 " 

Vose, James Whiting, 293-295 

Vose, Willard A., 294 

Vose & Sons, 294 

Vose & Sons Piano Co., 294 

Votev. Edwin S., 149, 150, 152, 3^0, 331, 

371, 372 
Votey Orgui Company, 332 

\\achtl & Bleyer, 69 

\\'agener, Clukrles H., 376 

Wagner, Richard, 224, 305, 318 

Washburn & Moen, 124, 125 

Watson, Henrv C.. 415, 410. 420 

Weber, Albert', 65, 175, 179, 182, 286, 296- 

Weber Piano Co., 190, Insert 190, 299, 320- 

331, 332 
Webster & Horsfall, 123, 124 
Weickert, August Moritz, 237, 239, 240 
Weickert, Carl Moritz, 121, 241 
Weickert, Fritz, 241 
Weickert, I. D., 239, 241 
Weickert, :\Ia.\, 241 
Weickert. Otto. 241 
Weidig. C, 236 
Weil, Milton, 417 
\\'elcker von Gontershausen, 423 
^^'elin, Peter. 155, 157 
Wellington Piano Case Co., 321 
\\'ells, Charles Avery, 417 
Wenzel, 169 

Werlein, Philip, Insert 410 
Wessell, Arthur. 381 
Wessell, Fernando, 381 
Wessell, Xickel & Gross, 90, 96, 379 
Wessell, Otto, 379-381 
Western Cottage Organ Co., 343 
Wheelock Piano Co., 332 
Wheelock, W illiam E.. 325, 326, 331, 410 
Wheelock & Co., William E., 325 
White and Parker, 143-148, 152 
White, Edward H., 368, 369 
White. Frank C, 368. 370 
White, Henry Kirk. 367. 368, 370 
White, Howard, 368-370 
White, James H., 368-370 
White, William B., 425 
Whitehead Brothers. 121 
\Miitnev, Calvin, 374, 375 
Whitney, C. J., 371 
Whitnev Organ Co., 371 
Whitnev. W. C, 375 
Wilcox," II. C, 368 
Wilcox & \\hite Organ Co., 138, 144, 147, 

150, 334, 368 
Wilhelmi. 274 






\Vin<j, Frank L., XiG 
Wiiifr, 1. 11 ma II J{., '.i'M 
Winy. K. IX-lano, 330 
Winjjr & Son, 330 
Wiiit.T & Co., 330 
W issntT, 330 
Wit ton. Witlon & fo. 


WollV, August*', 2')' 
WolliriytT, K. H., 343 
\\'<>l(in;,'«'r Oij^aM Co.. 343 
Woiulfonl. I. J{.. 2H2 
\\(irnuni. KdlnTt, 54, !t2. 03 
Wul^iii, I'larciui', 340 
Wul-in. laicii'M. 34.1-34S 
\\ urlitzi-r Co., Kudolpli, 355 

Wurlitzor, Faniey. 355 
WurlitztT, Howard, 354 
Wiirlitzcr ^Ifg. Co.. Rudolph, 355 
\\'urli(z<>r. l^udolpli, 354 
\\'iirli(z<T, i!ii.l<ilpli II.. 355 

Yamaba, Torakusu. 2t;5. 2G6 
Young, F. L., 158, 101 

Zarlinu. ( ;iii>('|)i)(', 77 

Zeitter & Winkelmann, 232 

Ziegler. Dorotta Steinway-, 312 

Zicgler, Henry, 312 

Zumpe, doliai'ines, 40-48, 87, 108, 172 


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