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:Copyright 1903 by; 

The Picayune, New Orleans, La. 

Picayune t^^S'igP Job Print. 

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FEB 17 1903 

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The Picayune Buildings. 


'Oil! here's to Cm- land that we live in. 

The land of the crange and lime. 
And a song for the sweet stars of heaven. 

That brighteD this beautiful clime!" 

New Orleans! dreamy, beautiful, romantic New Orleans! 

Yon have reached the old French and Spanish city, and the world seems 
to have suddenly grown wondrous fair, the atmosphere is steeped in perfume, 
the trees are rolled as for a holiday. Rosy-tinted shadows play among opaline 
clouds, and butterflies and humming birds seem to have gathered all of Nature's 
Iov< '!iest hues, and imprisoned them in their fairy wings, as they flutter against 
the soft blue skies: the clover blossoms send up sweet psalms from their beds 
beneath the live oak and sycamores, and the roses glow in the sunshine, as like 
an oriental Princess comes the beautiful city, burying her shapely feet among 
the nalmettoes and grasses, and trailing her stately garments from the wooded 
aisles that skirt her lakes and bayous, to the light and glow and warmth of 
her jasmine-twined bosom. 

Like a far-off memory now seems your distant home, hung with crystal 
fringes or spangled with snowflakes, spreading their fleecy counterpane of ermine 
ore:; mountains and valleys and rock-bound coasts. Life has taken on a new 
color, and the secret seems to come from the heart of buttercups wrapped in a 
glory of gold, or the gladness of mocking birds flitting among the magnolia and 
orange trees of the fair Southern Metropolis. In all the splendor of tropical 
the old City spreads itself out before you. She is unlike any oilier Amer- 
ican city, is this fair daughter of ancient France and Spain. She is the child 
of romance and chivalry, of poetry and love, of springtime and sons, of kisses 
and sunshine; she is the lady of kindly deeds and gentle courtesies, a charming 
complexify of mirth and music, dance and revelry, religion and charity, 
infinite variety and infinite charm, playing ever in light and shadows over 
her responsive heart strings. She is the gracious Creole dame who smiles 
a courtly welcome, and points with pardonable pride to the glory of 
her royal ancestry, her beautiful past, her stately cathedral and colonial 
homes, magnificent even in decay, as she bids you wander through her 
quaint streets, and pass her paved courtyards, and catch the fra- 
grance of the beautiful home life within. She is the fair American 
beauty who gayly leads you from the contemplation of the "moldering past and its 
s< litnry grandeur, to the consideration of her progressive present and her future 

of magnificent promise. She offers you the witchery of her matchless charms 
her 1 sunny skies and rose-twined gardens, and bids you come and sit with her 
beneath her golden-fruited trees and ruby-gemmed vines. She tells you that 
hers is the clime of the heart and the shrine of the sun; that winter passes 
lightly as a zephyr over her tit Ids and gardens: that the sweet olive and myrtle 
and queen-like catalpa make her breath fragrant with their balmy odors; that 
ongs of the mocking bird and canary make bright the hours, and the stars 
here as they do beneath Italian skies. She tells you, in fine, that she is 
New Orleans, unique, beautiful, tender-hearted, whole-souled; that she is the 
offspring of two continents: the child of two centuries; that in one corner of her 
heart you will find love and memory dwelling with lingering charm upon the 

. in the other, hope and promise pointing- brightly to the future. 

And now into this old city of France and Spain, this fair American Metrop- 
olis of to-day. the Picayune Guide invites you to come and wander, reminding 
you all the time that you must not rush through New Orleans and expecl ti 
see it in a day. You must linger, here beneath the sunny skies and tropical 
palms; you must catch the whiff of the orange blossoms and the scent of the 
crepe myrtle: you must get a glimpse into those wonderful old Creole homes 
that strangers only see from the streets: you must hear the songs and stories of 
old New Orleans just as the Creole mammies tell them to the little babies; you 
must take a cup of "Cafe Noir." not only at the famous stalls in the French 
Market, but rare.set of all. you must sip the delicious beverage of an evening, 
after dinner, on the terrace or in the courtyard of one of these ancient homes, 
while Madame tells you in her soft. half-English, half-French, of her ancestors 
and the glories of the days gone by; you must go with Monsieur to the old 


plantation home and get an idea of the hospitality of these Southern manors; 
and when you have done all this — when you have been to the Jockey Club and 
had a fish dinner at West End, and a breakfast a la Creole: when you have 
seen the wonderful Carnival pageant and the magnificent balls, do not think 
that you "know New Orleans." For you must know the people — the great, 
warm-hearted, sunny tempered people of this old city 7 — so fascinating, so sin- 
cere, so brave in adversity, so modest in prosperity, so true in both. You must 
loiter here as the old saying goes, "till you have drank the waters of the Mis- 
sissippi," and then, when you go away to your distant home and ponder upon 
your pleasant experiences "way down South." perhaps some day you will want 
to come back and make your home in this charming sub-tropic American cap- 
ital — this dear old city of infinite variety, infinite charm and infinite promise, 
lying right here in the crescent bend of the Mississippi. 


A Short History of New Orleans. 

In order to properly sec and appreciate New Orleans the stranger must 
know something of its history. 

Louisiana was discovered by the Chevalier Robert de La Salle, who ex- 
plored the Mississippi River from its source to the sea in 1082, taking possession 
of the entire country in the name of Louis XIV, King of France. He called 
the country Louisiana in honor of his King. Louisiana comprised all that coun- 
try extending from British America on the north to the Gulf of Mexico on the 
south, and west of the Mississippi to the Pacific slope above California. 

The first French colony was founded in Biloxi in 1G99, by Iberville. -a Can- 
adian of French extraction, who with his brother, Bienville, was the n'ext to 
enter the Mississippi River. They ascended the river as far as the mouth of 
Red River, arid then separated. Iberville passed through Bayou Manchac, and 
discovered several lakes, one of which he called Lake Pontchartrain, in honor 
of Count Pontchartrain, a Minister of France, the other Lake Maurepas, after 
another Minister, and the third, Lake Borgne, which he called for a French 
word meaning "one-eyed." as he found that it was not a complete lake. He 
passed from Lake Pontchartrain into a beautiful bay which he called "Bay St. 
Louis." after Louis IX. who was such an excellent King that he was can- 
rionized as "Saint Louis." Continuing his route Iberville passed into Biloxi Bay, 
and finding the Indian village of Biloxi at this spot, he made a settlement 

Meanwhile, Bienville continued down the Mississippi River to the mouth 
where the French rleet was moored. Before reaching the mouth he met an 
English vessel, under command of Captain Bar. The Captain told him that he 
was examining the hanks of the river in order to select a good site for an 
English colony. Bienville told him that the French had already taken posses- 
sion of the country and made it a dependency of Canada. Captain Bar then 
turned back and sailed into the ocean. The point was called by Bienville "Le 
Detour Anglais," or the English Turn. All these original names still remain. 
Bienville then joined Iberville at Biloxi, and found him on the point of leaving 
for France. He had appointed his brother Sauvolle Governor of the colony of 

Among the arrivals in the French colony at this time were twenty young 
girls who were sent by the King of France to be married to the colonists. The 
Bishop of Quebec was charged with selecting good and pious young women for 
this purpose, and as a proof of her respectability each young woman w r as pro- 
vided by the Bishop with a curiously wrought casket. Fond of giving nick- 
names, these twenty were calied by the Creoles "The Casket Girls." In 170G 
these girls, becoming indignant at being fed on corn bread, held the first public 
meeting of women on the American Continent. They threatened that if things 
were not better they would return home at the first opportunity. In a few days 
they quieted down and remained loyal and faithful wives. The uprising is 
laughingly called "The Petticoat Insurrection." 

Sauvolle was killed by the Indians shortly after Iberville's departure, and 
Bienville became Governor of the Colony. He is known as the "Father of 
Louisiana History." 

Noting the inaccessibility from the sea of the Biloxi settlement, and dreaming 
of a great port near the mouth of the Mississippi River, in 171S Bienville de- 
termined to select a more suitable site for the capital of the colony. Taking 
with him fifty picked men he came upon the site of the old deserted Indian 
village "Tchoutchouma," which was located 110 miles from the mouth of the 
river. Here lie decided to build his city. He called it New Orleans, after 
the Due d' Orleans, who afterwards became Louis XVI of France. Owing to 
opposition from the Company of the West, to whom Louis XIV had granted 
a charter. Bienville did net remove the colony to the new capital till 1723. It 
was then that the real history of the city began. That same year New Orleans 

was visited by a terrible hurricane thai lasted three days. It destroyed many 
houses, the church and hospital and the shipping in the harbor. The crops were 
utterly ruined. Many of the settlers were so discouraged thej determined to 
leave New Orleans, but Bienville persuaded them to remain and rebuild the 
city. In 1727 the first boys' school in Louisiana was established. That same 
year the Jesuit Fathers and the Ursuline. nuns, on invitati Bienville, 

came to labor in the colony. 

In 1743 the romantic history of New Orleans began, under the administra- 
tion of the Marquis de Vaudreuil, a nobleman and high-toned gentleman, who 
established a miniature court called "Le Petit Versailles," or the "Little Ver- 
sailles." lie introduced court balls and state dinners, costume de rigueur and 
polite speeches. Many titled noblemen and French officers also came over with 
their families and settled in the colony. Marquis de Vaudreuil is called in 
Louisiana history "Le Grand Martinis.'' His administration was the begin- 
ning of that aristocratic coterie which a century later made New Orleans fa- 
mous in the cities of the Union. In 1757 Louisiana was ceded by France to 
Spain. The colonists bitterly resented the cession, and sent the Spanish Gov- 
ernor back to his country. Then the most influential citizens rose in revolution 
against Spain and declared the independence of the colony. This was the first 
declaration of independence on American soil. The leader of the revolution was 
a planter named Lafreniere. 

Spain sent a fleet and three thousand picked men to punish the conspir- 
ators. Lafreniere and his compatriots were sentenced to be hanged. The public 
hangmnn cut off his arm rather than fulfill his duty, and not a man in the 
colony could be found willing to act as hangmen. Finally. Lafreniere and his 
associates were shot in the Place d' Amies, now Jackson Square. The other 
conspirators were sent to confinement in Moro Castle, Havana, and New Or- 
leans was made a dependency of the Island of Cuba. 

Don Luis Lmzaga, the next Spanish Governor, completely won the colonists. 
He married a Creole lady and the officers of his court and army also married 
Creoles. Finally the reconciliation and amalgamation of the races became 
complete, and both worked in harmony for the upbuilding of the city. In 1788 
the city was visited by another disastrous fire, which destroyed the Cathedral, 
Charity Hospital, and almost the entire residence section. New Orleans was laid 
bare. From the ashes of the old, irregularly-built French city arose the stately 
Spanish city — old New Orleans practically unchanged as we see it to-day. 

In 1791 the insurrection of slaves against their masters in San Domingo 
brought to New Orleans many titled and wealthy refugees. They introduced a 
wealth and luxury unknown before in the colony. In 1794 the most important 
agricultural event in the history of Louisiana occurred when Etienne de Bore 
succeeded in making the first sugar crop in Louisiana. > The cultivation of the 
cane was introduced by the Jesuits in 1751, but up to 1792 no planter had ever 
succeeded in making the syrup granulate. The cultivation of cane has con- 
tributed more to the prosperity of Louisiana than any -of her other products. 
Many titled visitors came to New Orleans about this time: among others Due 
d' Orleans, who afterward became Louis Philippe of France, and his brother, 
the Due d' Montpensier and the Count de Beaujolais came in 1798. They 
were magnificently received and royal entertainments were given in their honor. 
When he became King of France Louis Philippe remembered by beautiful pres- 
ents many of the families who had treated him so kindly when he was in exile. 

In 1793 the Episcopal See of New Orleans was founded. 

In 1803, by the treaty of Ildefonse, New Orleans was ceded back to France. 
Only for a few weeks did the French flag wave. Following quickly came the 
news that France had sold Louisiana to the United States. The American Gov- 
ernment took possession Dec. 23. 1803. The people brtterly resented being 
"sold like a lot of cattle." and appealed to France. But Napoleon was too 
busy changing the map of Europe. As our historian says, "Louisiana was a 
gift never intended for Kings to keep." April 30. 1812, Louisiana was ad- 
mitted into the Union as a State. January 8. 1815, General Andrew Jackson 
and his band of Creole and American soldiery won the famous victory over the 
British on the Plains of Chalmette. This great conflict is called the "Battle of 
New Orleans." With the American domination a marvelous period of pros- 
perity began. Ancient walls were demolished, forts torn down and the city 
spread away up and out beyond her aucient limits. Differences growing out of 

trade arose between the Creoles and Americans, and the latter built the Ameri- 
can city above Canal street. The greatest rivalry prevailed. At one time there 
were three distinct municipalities, all united under one mayor. But as time 
passed on Creoles and Americans, seeing the necessity of union, laid aside their 
differences and were reunited under one government. 

In 1861, ailing with her sister States, Louisiana seceded from the Union. 

In lsc,-_' the Federal licet, under Admiral Farragut. succeeded in forcing 
the passage of Forts Jackson and St. Philip. Appearing before New Orleans 
the eitj surrendered on April 25. General Butler came with his troops 
April 30, and martial law was declared. This condition of affairs remained to 

the close of the memorable struggle. New Orleans suffered severely during the 
war and still more So from the misgovernment of carpet-baggers during the so- 
cslled days of reconstruction. Her commerce was virtually destroyed and for 
many years after the war business seemed at a standstill. The revival in trade 
began less than twenty years ago, and has been astonishingly rapid. Every 
year finds Now Orleans further advanced in its career of prosperity. To-day 
Louisiana exists among her sister States as tree as the freest of them all. She 
is ui tin- Union, of the Union, for the Union. 


How to see New Orleans— Street Numbers and 
Names— Distances. 

New Orleans, in its social customs and aspects differs radically from all 
other cities of the Union. Indeed, we have here two cities, the one lying below 
Canal Street, called the "French Quarter," or "down-town section," the other 
lying above Canal Street, called the "American Quarter," or "up-town section." 

The American section is best seen from the street cars; to properly see the 
French Quarter the tourist must make up his mind to walk. It is practically 
impossible while "doing the French Quarter," to lose one's way in New Or- 
leans despite the winding streets and queer little alleys that appear so unex- 
pectedly at a fresh turn of the main thoroughfare. Every cross street leads to 
the river, every other street eventually leads to Canal Street, which is the cen- 
tral thoroughfare of New Orleans. 

In Canal Street cars may be taken to any part of the city, and 
one has only to remain long enough in any car to find himself again in the 
heart of New Orleans within walking distance of any of the hotels. New Or- 
leans has 173.2 miles of Street Railway; this includes the Spanish Fort Line, 
which is a steam road, but is classed as a street railway. All these lines con- 
verge to Canal Street, running across or from and back to that thorough- 
fare. The cars are marked conspicuously, so that there need be no mistake. 
A full list of the car lines and the streets they traverse will be found in the 
chapter devoted to "Car Routes and Ferries and Railroads," in the rear of this 

Street Numbers. 

Throughout New Orleans the streets are numbered on the decimal system. 
The numbers begin at Canal Street and run up or down as the case may be on 
the streets running parallel with the river. The cross streets are numbered from 
the river. There are supposed to be 100 numbers in each block, so that at 
every intersection a fresh hundred is begun. In this way the visitor will know 
that if a house is situated at No. 1100 — Street, that it is eleven squares from 
Canal Street, or from the river. By consulting the Picayune's Street Guide, 
also to be found in the rear of this book, it can easily be found if a street runs 
up and down, parallel with the river, or from the river, across the town and 
parallel with Canal Street. 

In the streets running parallel with the river, the even numbers are on the 
river side of the street, and the odd numbers on the lake side. In the streets 
running across the town parallel with Canal Street the even numbers are on 
the left hand side going from the river and the odd numbers are on the right 
hand side. Street names are posted conspicuously on every corner. 

It often puzzles the visitor to hear the names of "Jefferson City," "La- 
fayette," "Carrollton," "Algiers, etc. In former days the city was surrounded 
by a number of small towns and villages, each with a distinct municipal govern- 
ment. Jefferson City and Lafayette were then quite populous little corporations, 


the limits of which correspond roughly to those of the present Fourth and Sixth 
Districts. All the city above Upperline Street w;is then the municipality of 
Carrollton. while intervening between Lafayette were the little tonus of '-Green- 
ville," "Bouligny," and "Napoleonville." The uninhabited spaces which sep- 
arated these towns from one another, were gradually built up, and then the 
towns were absorbed by New Orleans, of which they now form an integral 
part. Algiers lies across the river and is now the Fifth District. There are stid 
a number of suburbs not yet annexed, although immediately adjacent to the 
city. Of these McDenoghville, Mechanicsville, and Gretna, lie on the south- 
eastern bank of the river, above Algiers. "Bucktown" is a negro settlement at 
West End. 

The curious circumstances that attended the growth of the city and her 
historic, religious, artistic and material development are suggested at every 
turn by 

The Names of the Streets. 

New Orleans has in fact the most picturesquely named streets of any city 
in the Union, and there are character and thought in all. For instance, all 
through the old French Quarter the streets suggest the city's royal descent and 
ancient faith and customs. We have Bourbon and Orleans, Dauphine and Bur- 
gundy, St. Louis, St. Peter, St. Ann. Bayou Road, now a well paved street, 
bespeaks the once fashionable drive of old New Orleans, and Rampart Street, 
in which there are no fortifications to-day, the city's ancient fortified line. 
We have memories of Dukes and Princes galore, such as Chartres. Conde. Du- 
Maine — Marquises and Generals, as Casa Calvo. Marigny, Moreau, Lafayette. 
We now cross Canal Streel on dry land, and find that Americans pitched tents 
in Union Street, within sight of the old Spanish Government "Magazine," that 
gave to this street ils name. Camp Street was once the "Campo de Negros," 
or Negro Camp, the space allotted to the free negroes who came to New Or- 
leans after the San Domingo revolution; and this land opened upon the 
"Terre Commune," or "Common" ground. Indian herb doctors once lived in 
Tchoupitoulas Streel and sold the "millet seed," for which the street is named, 
and which grew in abundance there. Further on we find the Nine Muses all in 
a row, leading gracefully into Felicity Street. All the Generals of the Mexican 
War are drawn up in soldierly array, and Napoleon is commemorated not only 
by the avenue which bears his name, but by a half dozen streets, christened 
after his most famous battles, such as Jena, Austerlitz, etc. Calhoun, Henry 
Clay and Webster march along side by side; Cato and Brutus confer in close 
proximity to Socrates, who looks with calm philosophy over at the passionate 
Byron in the curious vicinity of Vienna and Dublin. Passing through the 
"Vieux Carre," into the "Faubourg Marigny," Love leads you gently on into 
Elysian Fields, while just beyond Science and Art clasp hands, Agriculture and 
Industry yield Abundance and Independence, and Congress stands near ready 
to enact any Law necessary for the good of the Union, and to back it up by 
Liberal Force. And what is there lacking in poetry and romance when you are 
told that a beautiful prima donna once lived in Music Street, that a French 
King in exile occupied a mansion in Victory Street, that "Greatrnen" passed in 
review while bad boys played "Craps" and gave the name of the game to the 
adjoining street; that the bund of children trooping gaily on are going to play 
on the campus in "Good Children Street," and that the sweet-faced, black- 
veiled nun leading the little orphan by the hand dwells in an old convent in 
Piety Street. 

All through the city you wiil find that history, romance, religion, the times 
have been exhausted for characteristic street names. Every now and then a 
petition is introduced into the City Council to change the names of the streets 
to North. South. East. West and add Hie numerical distance of squares from 
the river or from Canal Street, the dividing line of the city: it is represented 
that such change in nomenclature would greatly facilitate the efforts of the 
business community, as well as afford :i better guide to strangers who are here 
for commercial purposes. But these resolutions are invariably voted down in 
accordance with public sentiment. What would Wes1 Forty-fifth or Fast Twen- 


ty-seventh Street mean to us in comparison with these old names thai express 
the life, the growth, the though! of the city from its foundation to the pn 
And so there has been comparativelj little change in the names of any streets 
since they first received their titles. This fact has been mad* tin mbject of 
many pleasant magazine articles. 

The terms "Vieux Carre," "Faubourg Ste. Marie," "Faubourg Marigny," 
are often used throughout this Guide. It may be said 

The "Vieux Carre," 

or "old square," is that interesting section of the French Quarter that was laid 
out by Bienville when he came from Biloxi to build his city in 1718. The 
cleared space had a frontage of twelve squares, and comprised all the land that 


lay between Esplanade Street on the north. Canal Street on the south, the 
Leyee on the east and Rampart Street on the west. The names of the streets 
running parallel with the river were Levee, Chartres above the Cathedral, 
Conde below it; Royal, Bourbon, Dauphine, Burgundy, Rampart, so-called be- 
cause being the city limit on the west, ramparts were erected all along the line. 
Crossing these streets from the river, were Bienville. Conti, St. Louis, Toulouse, 
St. Peter. Orleans, St. Anne. Dumaine and St. Philip. Later, when the Ursuline 
Nuns came over, the old street on which was their property received the v name 
of Ursuline. from their convent in Chartres Street. The "Barracks." or sol- 
diers' quarters, were located two squares from the convent, hence the name, 
"Barracks Street," or "Quartier." Intervening was the Military Hospital, 
which gave to the street directly below Ursuline the name "Hospital." "The 


Esplanade" was located in the beautiful street runs below Barracks, from 
the river to tlie woods. The names of these original streets have remained un- 
changed through all these years. They are dear to the people, because they are 
the living reminders of a beautiful historic past. 

The "Faubourg Ste. riarie" 

lies on the upper side of Canal Street. It was the first distinct "American" 
section of New Orleans, and extended from the "Terre Commune" or Govern- 
ment Reservation (now Common Street) outside the walls of the ancient city 
to the line marked by Delord Street. It was owned by a wealthy planter 
named Jean Gravier. and was first called the "Ville Gravier." After the ces- 
sion of Louisiana to the United States and the Americans came pouring into 
the city from the West, there was a contest for mastery between the Creoles 
with their elegant manners and luxurious homes, and the hardy, thrifty band of 
invaders. Finally, there grew so much jealousy and distrust that the Governor 
and State officials began to feel the difficulties of their position, and trouble 
seemed imminent. At this juncture the coolness of the American Governor and 
the foremost American citizens prevailed. The Americans decided to have a 
city of their own, beyond the ancient French limits. Gravier was willing to 
divide his land into lots and streets, and found a ready sale among the dis- 
contented Americans. Gravier changed the name of the section to the "Fau- 
bourg Ste. Marie," in honor of his mother, whose name was Mary. This was 
the beginning of the beautiful American city that lies above Canal Street, and 
which now stretches to the verge of Southport. 

The "Faubourg Marigny" 

was the ancient plantation of Philippe Mandeville de Marigny, a provincial 
magnate, who entertained Louis Philippe and his brothers when they were 
exiles in New Orleans. The Faubourg extended from Esplanade Street to St. 
Ferdinand and from the river to St. Claude Street. When Marigny decided to 
builu his own city, that should outrival either the "Vieux Carre" or the "Fau- 
bourg Ste. Marie." he cut up the plantation into lots and streets. A portion be- 
came one of the most fashionable residence centres of old New Orleans. But 
the tide of progress flowed upward, and the dreams of Marigny were never real- 


Algiers was known in early Creole days as Hip "Plantation? "f Hip King." 
This was the name given by Bienville. In time swarms of negro slaves 
alone inhabited it. They were constantly at work and all day their quaint negro 
ballads could be heard. The Creoles showing their propensity for giving nick- 
names, rechristened the "King's Plantation" "Algiers," and the name clings to 
this day. It is now the Fifth District of New Orleans, and ha-- a large popu- 
lation of thrifty white people. 

flunicipal Boundaries. 

The city exercises jurisdiction over the whole Parish of Orleans, an area of 
1ST square miles. The populated section embraces about 50 square miles. The 
city slopes gradually from the river to Lake Pontchartrain. which is in the 
rear. The levee system has been perfected to a degree that excites the wonder 
and admiration of strangers. New Orleans is surrounded on all sides by huge 
walls of earth called Levees, the height of which along the river front averages 
from twenty to twenty-five feet. With these preliminary details so necessary 
to the stranger who would see and' understand New Orleans, the Picayune leads 
the tourist into the old French Quarter. 




The "French Quarter," or the Down=town Section 
of New Orleans. 

The most picturesque and interesting part of the city is that termed collo- 
quially the ■•French Quarter." Here every square lias its story of 
realistic or legendary lore. The tall, brick buildings looking dreamily over the 
narrow streets teem with facts of historic or romantic interest. Down the dim 
ages ••nine the stories of the high-bred dames and gallant knights, who laughed 
ami sang and danced and loved while the "fleur-de-lis" of France floated from 
the flagstaff in the old Place d*Armes. Then comes the stately echo of the 
Spanish domination, the days of the grand senors and high-born ladies of Spain; 
the days of the influx of French and Spanish noblesse, and the gradual amalga- 
mation of the two races into that peculiar type of American civilization, the 
Creoles of Louisiana. 


<t OftMl E.P 


Amid the echoes of the music and the dance and the first notes of tin 
drama that marked the complete reconciliation, we hear the sound of the axe 
and the saw, the anvil and the hammer, and the rumble of bricks and mortar 
;ill over the Faubourg, and there stands ou1 the "Vieux Carre,*' or the old 
"French Quarter." practically unchanged, as we see it to-day. 

This is the city of Gayarre ami Lafcadio Hearn, the city around which Cable 
wove his wonderful romances. Their genius has made the Quarter famous 
wherever the name of New Orleans is known. 

Poetry and romance, beautiful traditions and legends have com- 
bined 1" east an air of unreality over the history of this old section, but truth 

ranger than fiction and the legends associated with points of interest in the 
eld "Carre." as indicated in this Guide, have been verified by careful historians. 
In order to see the French Quarter at its best, and breathing in these latter 
days all the quaint poetry and foreign atmosphere of early days in New Or- 
leans, the .tourLsl must make up his mind to rise early and loiter lazily through 
the quaint Faubourg, I'm- he will want in stop at every parrot call, at every 


"clang of wooden shoon," ;ii every note of a gay bacarole floating down from 
the dormer windows se1 in the queer tile roof; he will wanl to peep into the 
quaint old Spanish courtyards, fresh and fair and coolj with sunny marble- 
Bagged pavements and palms and olives and magnolias growing within; to stop 
a moment to listen to the sofl musical French of the passers-by, to catch a 
glimpse of the fair Creole girls as they stand in the fragranl old-fashioned gar- 
dens, wafting a kiss on a rose to "mamma," sitting on the jalousied veranda 
or at the jasmine-twined window above; or see them as they pass demurely 
mi! of the grim buildings, prayer-book and rosary in hand, on the way to early 
mass in the old ( iathedral. 

It is in the morning that the dreamy beauty of this old city dawns upon 
you. and you see in the dull gray belfries and tall steeples and gilded crosses of 
her sanctuaries, the roses climbing over the beautiful wrought iron work of the 
old verandas, and the lovely women you meet, with their sweet foreign ways, 
the things that have given thought and inspiration to poets and romancers of 
old New Orleans. 


All through this old Latin Quarter the houses retain many of the char- 
acteristics of the French and Spanish dominations, and all along the narrow, 
ill-paved streets will be heard a Babel of tongues and there will be seen convents 
and chapels and cemet< ries, mostly of the Catholic faith. These appeal to the 
imagination with extraordinary charm; each has its history, its tradition, its lin- 
gering memory of other days. 

"In earlj Creole days. Royal Street was the main street of the city. The 
fashionable section was in the vicinity of Jackson Square. Bearing in mind this 
fact, the tourists will do well to begin his explorations in 

Royal Street, 

diverging every now and then, as this Guide will indicate, a square or so to 
right or left, to view some interesting landmarks just within the radius then 
receiving attention. 


As you walk along do not fail to note the hand-wrought balconies of iron 
work, the beautiful courtyards, the tunnel-like entrances to houses enriched 
with arched mullioned windows, and the spiked galleries that project over the 

At the corner of Royal and Customhouse Streets is a large building, orna- 
mented with handsome granite columns. It was erected for bank purposes, 
and was occupied for many years by the Citizens' Bank. 

In the vicinity of Royal and Customhouse, in the same square as the old 
bank building, stood formerly the Merchants' Exchange, where the United 
States Court held its sessions previous to the building of the Custom-House. 


The old postoffice was in the renin- of the square bounded by Exchange Alley, 
Customhouse, Royal and Canal Streets. 

Just around the corner from Customhouse, in a building the precise loca- 
tion of which is not known. Lopez organized an expedition against Cuba, the 
disastrous result of which aroused a great deal of public attention in 1851. 

The square on the river side, between Customhouse and Bienville, was 
once the site of Bienville's country house. 

In the vicinity of Bienville Street will be found a number of quaint auction 
marts, where the wares chiefly sold are old furniture, antiquated bric-a-brac, and 
dingy family relics of various kinds. It is amusing, indeed, to look through these 
places, where many curious things will be found. New Orleans has been for 


years a favorite stamping ground for the relic hunter, and scores of val 

finds have awarded his search. The prizes are all gone now. 

At the corner of Bienville Street diverge one square toward the lake and 
see the old Absinthe House. It dates from the year L798, and has been i 
business since 1826. 

Returning to Royal Street, at 403, was housed the first Bank ever organ- 
ized in the Mississippi Valley. The three corners of Royal and Conti Streets! 
were formerly occupied by banks — the Bank of Louisiana, the Louisiana State 
Bank and the United States Bank. They have long since removed, although 
one of the buildings is new a branch depositary of the State National Bank. 

The large building on the upper, river corner of Conti is the Mortgage 
Office. Admission is unrestricted. It is a curious sight to see the interior filled 
wiiJi desks, upon which repose hundreds of huge folios containing the real 
estate records. 


<n'l I 

lilt !< 



In the middle of the block, between Conti and St. Louis, at 417 Royal. 
Paul Morphy, the celebrated chess player, once made his residence. He died 
in his bathroom, on the second floor. The building may be recognized by the 
beautifully worked iron balcony, and by the circular lunettes piercing the walk 
just under the eaves. The ground floor is now T occupied by a plumbing estab- 
lishment. One of the most picturesque courtyards in New Orleans is in the 

At 406 .Royal Street General Andrew Jackson made his headquarters in 
1815, and from this point directed the preparations for meeting the English 
Army under Packenham. It is now the home of Mrs. Mollie E. Moore Davis. 
the distinguished Southern writer. 

At the corner of Toulouse diverge one square toward the lake, and at the 
corner of Bourbon and Toulouse see the 


French Opera House. 

This immense structure was built in 1SG0 from a design by the noted local 
architect, Gallier. It .seats about 2,800 persons. There are four tiers, each of 
which retains its peculiar name. For instance, the dress circle is called '*les 
loges;" the balcony, "les secondes;" while the gallery is popularly known as "le 
paradis." The boxes on the parquet floor are termed "baignoires grillee-v' 
There is a handsome "foyer," capable of holding 1,000 persons, on the second 

The central part is the theatre proper, or "la salle," as it is technically 
termed. There are small courtyards on either side, and on the outside, wings 
i ied by dressing-rooms and administration offices. The office of the "comp- 
trolleur" is at the foot of the double staircase. 

The origin of the opera in New Orleans is exceedingly curious and inter- 
esting. Between 1808 and 1811 there were two French theatres in successful 
operation, one in St. Peter Street and one in Royal Street. At the latter period 
John Davis, a French emigrant from San Domingo, built the Orleans Theatre, 
on the square behind the St. Louis Cathedral. In 1813 Davis engaged in Paris, 
the first French Opera Company ever brought to this country, and many of the 
great classics of the operatic stage were produced for the first time in America 
in New Orleans. On the death of Davis his son assumed management of the 
opera, and most ably conducted it for twenty-two years. Under his manage- 
ment Fanny Elssler and Damoreau were brought to New Orleans. 

In 1859 Charles Boudousquie formed a stock company, by whom the pres- 
ent splendid building was erected. During the Civil War the opera was sus- 
pended. It was revived in 1868. From 1871 to 1872 Placide Canonge, a dis- 
tinguished Creole journalist and playright, obtained a lease of the opera house 
and re-established the ancient brilliant traditions of this temple of the lyric art. 
The opera has continued almost uninterruptedly ever since. The enterprise 
is under the auspices of the French Opera House Association, composed of 
leading capitalists. 

It is impossible to review in this space, even briefly, the history of the French 
Opera House. Here Adelina Patti made her debut in "Le Pardon de Ploermel." 
Here, too, were heard the dying notes of another great Italian artist, Mme. Frez- 
zolina. Etelka Gerster sang here; so did Fursch-Madi, Devoyod, Dumestre, Dela- 
branche, Ambre, Picot, Michot and Orlins. The house contains many curiosities, 
including magnificent collections of music in MSS., and scenery, among others 
the original sets for "Aida," as produced in Egypt before the Empress Eugenie. 

New Orleans is the only city in America which has maintained uniformly 
an operatic troupe. The great carnival balls take place in this building. 

Returning to Royal Street, the next point of interest is the 

Old St. Louis Hotel. 

It stands in the heart of the French Quarter. The original building, erected 
•in 1S35, at a cost of $1,500,000, was completely destroyed by fire in 1841, but 
another palace was immediately erected on the same .site, and soon reached a 
lian of splendor almost unparalleled in the history of the United States. 
The building still stands a monument to the elegance, wealth and prosperity of 
those days. The hotel was the resort of the wealthiest planters and largest 
slave-holders in the South. The lower rotunda was frequently used by the negro 
slave traders as an auction mart. The names of the auctioneers may still be 
seen carved in the walls. The place is in rather a dilapidated condition just now 
(January, 1903), but it has recently been purchased by a strong corporation, at 
the head of which is Mr. J. A. Mercier, and it will be thoroughly renovated. 
Tourists should not fail to see the beautiful domed banqueting hall nor the 
famous old ballroom, in which were inaugurated the grand subscription balls of 
'Hum days. The frescoing in the hall was done by a nephew and pupil of 
the great Canova. In this hall Henry Clay delivered the only speech he made in 
Louisiana, famous "bal travesti," the most magnificent entertainment, it is 
said, that ever occurred in New Orleans, was given in honor of Henry Clay's 
visit, and the supper served cost $20,000. General Boulanger and the Prince of 
Brazil, grandson of Dom Pedro, were entertained maggnificently here, and a few 
years ago the late President McKinley sat down to a supper there after an even- 


ing's arduous campaigning. The hotel lias seen many singular vicissitudes. It has 
been a statehouse and a besieged fortress. In reconstruction days it was the 
headquarters of the Radical Government. In 187-1. when the people of New 
Orleans rose against Packard and his oppressive administration, the Radicals 
were confined to the hotel for several months, fighting taking place outside the 
building. When the garrison capitulated the building was found in a terrible 
state of ruin and desolation. Before the war entrance was had through the 
stately portico in St. Louis Street, but now the entrance is in Royal Street. 

Between St. Louis and Toulouse, at 517 Royal Street, is an archway ilanked 
by cannon embedded in the ground. This was the Oommanderia, or headquar- 
ters of the army during the Spanish domination. 

In the vicinity will be found a number of curio and second-hand shops, 
where the antiquarian and bibliophile have often picked up treasures. These 
stalls are extremely inviting, reminding one, in the nature and value of their 
possessions, of the book stores along the Seine in Paris. It is said that more 
rare French and Spanish volumes are to be found at these places than any- 
where else in the country. 

At the corner of Royal and St. Peter Streets will be found a four-storied 
structure of stuccoed brick. It was built in 1819, and was the first four-storied 



building ever erected in New Orleans. It figures in one of Cable's romances as 
" 'Sieur George's House." By this name it is almost universally known. It 
is a handsome specimen of the old city residences of the great Louisiana 

The next point of interest in Royal Street, is in the square between 
Orleans Place, on the south side, and St. Anthony's Place on the north. Imme- 
diately behind the pretty garden, so gracefully laid out in palms and ferns, and 
magnolia trees, stands the historic 

St. Louis Cathedral. 

Turn into the dim Cathedral Alley, past the quaint brick buildings looking 
down so silently over the entourage of vines and flowers, and enter through the 
side door the famous old shrine, whose history may indeed be said to be the 
history of New Orleans. The Cathedral occupies the site of the first church 
ever erected in the great expanse known afterward as the "Louisiana Purchase." 
This church was erected by Bienville when Ik Laid out the city in 1718, and 
named St. Louis, after the patron saint of the then reigning monarch of France. 


This primitive Church was destroyed by fire and a new church was erected in 
1721. This, too, was burnt to the ground in the memorable conflagration of, 
Good Friday, L788. As the entire city almosl was consumed the disaster seemed 
iO preclude the possibility of erecting a new church, when 1 >on Andres Alinon- 
aster y Rosas, n wealthy Spanish nobleman, erected at his own expense this 
Cathedral Church at a cost of $50,000, on condition that a mass would be said 
in perpetuity every Sunday for the repose of his soul. The design was the 
usual Spanish style, with three round towers in front. In 1851 the building 
was remodelled, and steeples were raised on the towers. The present portico, 
with its columns and pilasters, dates from that period. The beautiful frescoing 
was done by the famous painter, Humbrecht. The large mural painting above 
the high altar represents "King Louis of France proclaming the Ninth Cru- 
sade/' The statues which surmount the high altar are Faith, Hope and Charity. 
To the left of the sanctuary is the archiepiscopal throne, surmounted by the 
symbols of episcopal authority, the miter and the crossed keys and crozier. On 
the walls of the sanctuary appear many tablets inscribed to the memory of the 
dead Bishops and Archbishops of New Orleans, most of whom are buried in 
the crypt beneath the grand altar. A reproduction of the famous grotto of 
Lourdes forms one of the side altars; the water which trickles perpetually over 
the rocks is supplied from the miraculous shrine at Lourdes. The side chapel 
on the north side is dedicated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. Don Andres Al- 
monaster sleeps beneath a large slab on which is inscribed in Spanish his many 
deeds. Many quaint institutions maintain at the Cathedral, not the least 
curious of which is the sexton or "Suisse," who attends with cocked hat, sword 
and halbert all the services. Notable events in the history of New Orleans have 
been linked with the Cathedral, most important perhaps of which was the 
solemn high mass offered by Bishop Dubourg at the request of General Jack- 
son after his famous victory on the plains of Chalmette. It was attended by 
General Jackson and his army and a solemn "Te Deum" of Thanksgiving was 
sung. In 1893 the centennial of the Cathedral was celebrated with great pomp 
and ceremony. 

Leaving the sacred edifice, with its lights and flowers and continuous throng 
of kneeling worshipers, you pass through the open side door into the Cathedral 
Alley. In the St. Louis Presbytery facing it may be seen curious old portraits, 
among them the only one in existence of Don Almonaster, Mgr. Fenalver, the 
first Bishop of New Orleans, and Fere Antoine, whose memory is so linked with 
early days in the French Quarter. His name was given to the pretty garden 
fronting on Royal Street, with the Cathedral as a background. Fere Antoine 
was a Spanish priest who came to New rleans toward the close of the 
eighteenth century and who worked many years at the Cathedral. He died be- 
loved by all. His name is given to the beautiful little square in the rear of the 
Cathedral. For many years, too, his name was associated with a palm tree 
that stood until recently in a woodyard at the corner of Bourbon and Orleans 
Street. This yard formed part of the land on which Fere Antoine lived. In- 
numerable rales were rold of how this strange palm came to be there, not the 
least romantic of which was that it sprang from tlie heart of a young girl who 
was buried in this spot, and who died dreaming of her native palm-befringed 
shore. At 025 St. Anthony Place are kept the ancient archives of the Cathedral. 

Crossing into Orleans Street, is a large brick building, with handsome walls 
covered with brown stucco. A cross surmounts the roof. This is the Convent 
of the Holy Family. In other days it was the famous 

Quadroon Ballroom 

of NeAV Orleans. Adjoining is a three-story brick building, an orphanage con- 
nected with the convent. It stands upon the identical spot on which stood the 
old Orleans Theatre. No section of New Orleans is invested with more romance 
than the square in which these buildings stand. As mentioned above, in the 
building now the Convent of the Holy Family took place those "Quadroon balls," 
at one time celebrated throughout the world. No women were more beautiful 
than the quadroon women of New Orleans. The slight negro taint was be- 
trayed only in the soft olive skin and the deeply increased brilliancy of the eye. 
while no one, not versed in the signs by which the Louisianian recognizes at once 

the person of mixed blood, could distinguish in feature, hair or form any resem- 
blance to the African type. 

It was while the quadroon women were in the zenith of their unsavory 
glory that there rose, clam and serene, like a star of promise for the colored 
race, the Sisterhood of the Holy Family. It was founded by the Abbe Rous- 
selon in 1835, with the hope of regulating a condition of affairs that saddened 
the hearts of the Archbishops of New Orleans. Among those who went to con- 
fession to the old Abbe were three colored women who 'were slaves; one was a 
quadroon, another a griffe, a third a mulatto, representing the various grades 
of evolution from the African proper. They were good, virtuous, pious, Chris- 
tian women, reared in Christian households by noble masters and mistresses. 
They felt keenly the degradation of their race. The Abbe Rousselon knew this. 


and in his far-seeing wisdom knew, too, thai religion alone could give these 

women the righ,1 c leption of the duties imposed by God. He conceived a 

great plan, and obtaining the freedom of the three slaves, he sent them to a 
convent in Europe to be trained and educated. After seven years they returned 
to New Orleans and he founded the Sisterhood of the Holy Family. It was a 
struggling little community; it bad the sympathy of the white ladies of New 
Orleans and the unfailing support of the Bishops and priests. The war came 
and then the work of the Sisterhood began in earnest. They gathered in the 
orphans and the aged and afflicted of theii' race, now freed and thrown upon the 
world. The Sou-th had been beggared; it was a race for subsistence every- 
where. But all shared with the humble Sisterhood, for the men and women of 

Louisiana appreciated their work. The old Orleans Theatre had long been 
burned down: the ancient quadroon ballroom still remained. In 1S81 this place 
was offered for sale. Before the day was out the Sisterhood had gathered in 
the means to purchase it. And here, in the very house where folly once reigned 
and music sounded and graceful figures floated dreamily to and fro, the Sisters 
have erected their chapel, and above the doors are inscribed the words: "Silence, 
my soul, God is here." The old ballroom, so long used as a chapel, but now as 
a community room for the sisters, is said to have the finest dancing floor in the 
world. It is made of cypress three feet in thickness. Above the stairway the 
Sisters have placed the significant inscription: "I have chosen rather to be an 
abject in the house of the Lord than to dwell in the temple with sinners." 
Silence and prayer and work now reign in these halls, and no community is 
more esteemed than the Sisterhood of the Holy Family, which has done more 
than any other body for the elevation and education of the colored race in 

Turning again into the dreamy Rue Royale, just along the Cathedral line, 
are the Catholic book stores for the sale of religious articles. The 

Workers in Wax and Flowers 

also have their abode along this section. On the approach of All Saints' Day, 
Nov. 1, the day set apart in New Orleans as sacred to the dead, the windows 
in Royal Street are aglow with wonderful beaded wreaths and flowers, wax ami 
paper flowers, enriched with various mottoes: "A Mon Pere," "A Ma Mere," 
"A Une Epouse Cherie," as the sacred thread of memory runs. Very quietly 
all the year round the flowermakers sit at work in the rear of these ancient 
stores so that at All Saints' time they may rival one another in the beauty, the 
variety and the skill of their productions." 

The Cafe des Exiles," made famous by Cable, stood at the corner of Royal 
and St. Ann Streets. On Dumaine, between Royal and Bourbon Streets, is a 
low-browed frame house, with dormer windows and a long veranda supported 
by a brick pavement. This is the house bequeathed by M. John, of the "Good 
Children's Social Club," to "Zalli and 'Tite Roulette," as veraciously set forth 
in Cable's story of " 'Tite Roulette." 

At 1122 Royal Street are quaint courtyards surrounded by old Spanish 
portals. They are all that remains of the c'd Spanish Barracks. The place is 
now used as a seltzer water factory. 

Just around the corner from Royal Street, at 817 St. Philip Street, is the 
Convent of the Missionary Sisters of the Sacred Heart. They are devoted to 
the work of elevating to the dignity of true citizenship the swarm of Italian and 
Sicilian emigrants which pours into New Orleans. The Sisterhood came to New 
Orleans shortly after the lynching of eleven Italian prisoners in the old Parish 
Prison of New Orleans, twelve years ago. The deadly work of the Mafia had 
been gaining ground day by day; scarcely a month passed without chronicling 
some terrible secret murder, directly traceable to this society. At length the 
members became so bold as to defy justice and secretly shot down the Chief of 
Police of the city while engaged in the discharge of his duties. The murderers, 
strange to say, were six of them acquitted and a mistrial entered as to the 
other three, but the citizens rose in arms and slew the prisoners in the 
Parish Prison. The Sisterhood is doing a noble work in instructing these 
emigrants and their children in their duties to God, their neighbor 
and country. They have the cordial support of the citizens, and many 
ladies of the finest families have joined their order. The courtyard and jrarden 
of the convent are very quaint, and the institution itself well repays a visit. 

A half square further on, at the corner of St. Philip and Bourbon Streets, 
once stood the famous smithy of the Lafitte brothers, the 

44 Daring Pirates of Barataria," 

whose romantic history and bravery form one of the most interesting chapters 

of the life of old New Orleans. Here these polished gentle-men, under the - 

of blacksmiths, smuggled goods into New Orleans ami established 

an enormous trade that the United States Government stepped in ami - 

to apprehend them. But it was all of no avail. The old Creoles, smarting 


under the unjust mercantile laws of Spanish colonial days, had learned to love 
the Lafitte brothers, who brought such beautiful and expensive wares to New 
Orleans and sold them ,so cheap. They sought to shield them from arrest. As 
soon as the United Slates revenue cutter was spied in the distance coming up 
the river, the brothers were notified. At once the great pilps of smuggled goods 
•Acre hidden away, usually in the fastnesses of the woods of Barataria Bay; 
the smithy \va,s in full blast, and Jean and Pierre Lafitte the busiest and most 
industrious of workers. At last they were forced to take up their residence in 
Barataria Bay altogether, for the United States made it very hot for them in 
New Orleans. At this time the war with Great Britain broke out. Lafitte was 
offered a large sum by the British if he would "allow them to land at the 
pirate's trysting place in the Barataria woods and steal quietly into JSew Or- 
leans. The two brothers were also offered commissions as officers in the British 
Army. But Lafitte was a brave patriot and a true Louisianian, despite his 
piratical inclinations. He scornfully rejected the British offer, told General 
Jackson of the approach of the enemy, placed all the documents in his hands, 
and then, advancing to the defense of New Orleans, he himself organized his 
pirates into a regiment for the defense of the city. No braver service was ren- 
dered on the day of the great battle of New Orleans than that of Latitte's 
Regiment. In consideration of his services the United States, upon the recom- 
mendation of General Jackson, granted the brothers and their men full and 
free pardon for past offenses on condition that they would give up smuggling 
and lead the lives of respectable American citizens. The offer was accepted and 
Lafitte was welcomed into the best society in New Orleans. The stories told 
of the Barataria pirates would fill a volume. 

The headquarters of the Italian organ grinders are a half square further on 
in St. Philip Street. These people live in an old and dilapidated tenement build- 
ing opening upon a great yard. They spend the day eating macaroni and sing- 
ing songs, and at evening emerge in numbers, with their hand organs on their 
backs, and go from corner to corner of the old Faubourg, playing their tunes, 

e delight of the little children, who dance to the music and to the dismay 
of the older folks, who like not the twanging instruments. 

At 1140 Royal Street, corner of Hospital, stands a fine old house which 
has a story as strange and terrible as any German castle. This is the famous 

"Haunted House," 

which >'very visitor to New Orleans wishes to see, and whose singular history 
• 'able to embody it in his "Strang.' True Stories of Louisiana." Here, 
in 1831, lived Mine. Lalaurie, who moved in the most wealthy and aristocratic 
le circles of her time. She was beautiful, educated, accomplished; she 
a member of one of the most ancient and honored families of Louisiana. 
.She inherited numerous slaves. Avhom she treated with the most abominable 
•cruelty, starving ami torturing them to death, until, her barbarities becoming 
known to the public, she was compelled to flee lor her life. The indignant 
populace rose in iis wrath, wrecked the house, threw the most costly mirrors 
and cabinets from the windows and smashed them into atoms on the banquette 
below. The imprisoned ami half-starved slaves, many of whom were found 
held in chains fastened to tne dungeon below, were released. Three old slaves, 
tortured almost to death, were taken in a dying condition to the "Cabildo." 
Human bones were found in the well and a curious old trap door, still to be 
seen in the wall, is said to have been the avenue by which Mine. Lalaurie let 
down these slaves into gloom and darkness and death. Ever since the 
is said to have been haunted. It is said that no tenant can occupy it for 
any length of time. The Creoles tell the most wonderful stories of "how at 
times the ghosts of the murdered slaves hold high carnival in the old mansion. 
The principal ghost haunting the house is said to be that of a little negro girl, 
who, being pursued by her mistress with a lash, tied up and up the winding 
stairs to the belvidere and committed suicide by leaping from the roof into the 
courtyard below. On dark and stormy nights it is said the little girl appears 

Walking Round and Round the Belvidere, 

her moans and sobs being heard above the storm, and on moonlight nights, when 
the atmosphere i^ very rare, her wraith, fleeing from her infuriated mistress, is 

seen leaping with a wild shriek from the cnpola to the flag stoned courtyard be- 
Manj are the stories told of liow Mme. Lalaurie effected lier escape on 
that awful' nighl :i\\ ;i.\ back in the thirties. Some say thai after the mol 
wreck.'. 1 the house she caused herself to be nailed in a coffin, save oul that she 
had died of fright and was taken out in a hearse to the Metairie Road, whence 
she made her escape to France. But the true manner, learned by the writer 
from an eye-witness to the scenes, was that Mine. Lalaurie saw that a crisis 
had come and nothing bu1 a bold efforl would save her life. She dressed her- 
self beautifully for her evening drive, ordered her coachman to drive her car- 
riage to the main entrance of the house, and. smiling radiantly, she bowed like 
a queen to the infuriated mob. Taken unaware, the c-owd fell back, wondering 


what would happen next. This was the opportunity that Mme. Lalaurie had 
calculated upon. She bowed again with her sweetest smile, stepped through 
the crowd into her carriage, and ordered her coachman to drive at breakneck 
speed out the ancient fashionable route of Bayou Road. It had all happened in 
the twinkling of an eye. The crowd recovered itself, realized that it was to be 
■cheated out of its victim and followed in close pursuit. It was a race for life, 
and Mme. Lalaurie won. She reached the Half-way House a few moments 
ahead of the crowd. A schooner stood in the bayou. She thrust a purse of gold 
into the Captain's hand and he steered out toward the lake. Mine. Lalaurie 
made her way to Covington, thence to Mobile, where she embarked for France. 
She became noted in Paris for her many charities. She was killed in a hoar hunt 
in the forests of Versailles. For many years alter her departure the house re- 


mained closed. The people said the house was haunted and would show the 
well in the courtyard where Mine. Lalaurie buried her victims, the murder of 
whom had been perpetrated in the loft immediately beneath the roof. 

Turning- from this eerie spot, just two squares beyond, is the Rue Esplanade, 
and in the section bounded by Decatur, the Levee and Barracks Street, is the 

United States Mint. 

It occupies the site of the old Fort St. Charles. The building cost $182,000. 
The Mint is capable of turning out $5,000,000 per month. Admission to the 
Mint is easily effected, and a polite official is always ready to show the visitor 
through the various departments. In December, 1814, General Jackson stood 
on the rampart of Fort St. Charles to review his army as it marched past on 
its way to meet the British at Chalmette. In 1862 Willliam Mumford was hung 
in front of the Mint, by order of General Benjamin F. Butler, for tearing down 


the United States flag from the roof of the building after the Union Army had 
taken possession of tin- city. For years after, a sad. gray-haired woman wan- 
dered aimlessly about the Faubourg. "Hush, 1 " the little children would say as 
she approached; "thai is Mumford's mother." "No, she is not." others would 
answer: "she only thinks she is." Ami the old Creole -rand dames y 
take up the thread and say. in hashed voices: "Yes. children; she is Muni- 
ford's mother."' 

The Old Slave Quarters, 

where slaves were broughl from all sections of the Southern States, but prin- 
cipally from Virginia and Maryland, to lie sold at auction in New Orleans, 
located at the corners of Chartres and Esplanade Streets, The large brick 

building, now m f the finesl residences on the avenue, was erected on the 

site of the long row of brick buildings which stood on the river side of Chartres 
Street, from Esplanade to Peace Street. <>n the side toward the woods, in the 

same boundary, stood a long row of frame buildings (two-story), with iron bal« 
conies reaching to the banquette, and a three-story kitchen with little pigeon-hole 
windows guarded in by iron bars. Both of these sides of Chartres Street were 
known as the slave quarters, and millions of dollars changed hands in this slave 

Adjoining almost all the ancient homes in this section are two and three- 
storied kitchens separated from the main house. These were the quarters used 
by the family servants, or the slaves who were attached directly to the house- 
hold departments. 

On the corner of Elysian Fields and the levee, and visible from Chartres 
Street where it crosses Esplanade, is the massive brick building, with a lofty 
smokestack, used as a power-house by the Claiborne Street Rail- 
road. The power-house occupies the site of the old Mande« 
ville de Marigny residence. This was the residence of Philippe Marigny, 
who is buried before the altar in the St. Louis; Cathedral. Marigny, 
as mentioned in the historical chapter of this Guide, was a grand seigneur in 
every sense, and when Louis Philippe was in America, before his accession to 
the French throne, he entertained the exiled Prince for some time in magnificent 
fashion. Lafayette, Moreau and other celebrated personages were his guest* 
at other times. All this portion of the city was, in those times, known as the 
"Faubourg Marigny." 

Many are the stories told of his magnificence and lavish use of money, 
among others the common story that he used to light his cigar with $10 bills 
and carelessly throw away the burning fragments. 


Chartres Street — The French Market and 

Having explored the old Rue Royal and caught a glimpse of the ancient 
Faubourg Marigny. turn from the United States Mint into picturesque Chartres 
Street, and return to Canal Street along this route. 

Chartres Street was the great business thoroughfare of old New Orleans, 
the street in which millions of dollars changed hands; it was in early days as 
great a promenade as the grand boulevard Canal is in our own. 

Everything is old, very old. in Chartres Street, and the street itself seems 
like a bit of old time frescoing, left to ruin and decay amid the busy progress of 
another ace. 

The grim houses and odd balconies appear to be in endless confab with 
one another, but there is a hush as you approach, and they look stern and stolid 
as though defying your curious gaze. The inhabitants, however, are very kind; 
they see at a glance that you are a stranger by your eyes, and they smile 
graciously, while with a pretty air of mingled reserve, they motion you to look 
your fill. 

Thus encouraged you may peer shyly into the tunnel-like entrances of old 
paved courtyards, with arched porticos such as one may see in Venice under 
the shadow of St. Mark's or the old Palace of the Doges. In most "1' these court- 
yards you will see plants in huge pots, geraniums, pomegranate trees and flow- 
ering shrubs; sometimes you will catch a glimpse of a battered statue of bronze 
or marble, or immense yellow earthenware jars that remind one of the "Forty 
Thieves," or which arc as big as that in which Ali Baba hid in the wonderful 
romance of the Arabian Nights. 

Chartres Street opens from Canal Street four blocks from the river, but for 
the purpose of this Guide follow the old street from Ursuline Avenue alter you 

hive gotten a glimpse of the quaint life of tl yster and fruit dealers in the 

vicinity of Esplanade and Barracks, and see the ancient Archbishopric, which is 


The Oldest Building- in Louisiana. 

This historic edifice stands in the center of the square between Hospital 

and Ursulines Streets. Entrance may be had through a quaintly constructed 

il, defended by double gates, piercing the wall iu the middle of (the 

tres Street front. The porter's lodge is within this portal. The buildings 

face a spacious lawn. They were erected between 1727 and 1734 for the 

i the Urstiline nuns. The nuns resided here from 1734 to 1824. when 

they removed to their present domicile, in the extreme lower part of the city. 

The old building has seen various uses, not the least interesting of which is that 

in 1V>j it was the State Capitol, and the Legislature held its sessions within 

its walls. The building was at that time leased by the State of Louisiana 

from the Ursuline nuns. Shortly afterward, the lease having expired, the 

TiMilines presented it to the then reigning Archbishop of New Orleans as 


a place of residence for the archbishops of the diocese. It was so used 
1890, when a new residence for the archbishops was purchased in 
Esplanade Avenue. The historic old site in Chartres Street, however, is 
still retained as the "Archbishopric," and is used for the transaction of all 
the official business of the archdiocese. The Archbishop and the Chancellor 
nave their offices here, and it is the official place designated for all im- 
portant ecclesiastical meetings. No one sin mid leave New Orleans without 
visiting this ancient building. It remains exactly as when first erected. 
The visitor should remark the ancient staircase, the steps of which are single, 
massive pieces of timber, deeply worn by the feet of many generations. The 
<-bapel contains a little oratory and shrine. The reception room, on the 
lower floor, is beautifuly paneled in cypress, and contains a curious old clock. 
The shutters of cypress over the main entrance are over 1(K) years old 
and are still perfectly sound. In the dining-room hang portraits of all the 
Bishops and Archbishops who have presided over the See of New Orleans. 
On the third floor of the building may still be seen the quaint little cells 
vised by the Ursuline nuns in 1734, the old-fashioned desk in the community 
room, at which the superioress sal and presided when the nuns were assem- 
bled for meditation ;nnl prayer. In another room are the quaint, heavy 


benches on which the slaves sal as they were gathered together morning 
evening for instruction and prayer. In the building are preserved all the 
ancient archives which are a part of the history of Louisiana from the bo- 
ginning. A beautiful old garden is in the rear of the convent. 

Adjoining the Archbishopric is St. Mary's Church. It was tiie ancient 
Ursuline Chapel, and is the oldesl church in Louisiana. 

At the corner of Hospital and Chartres Street, where a small grocery 
now stands, was the ancient buryuag ground of the Ursuline nuns. From 
17-7 to 1824 all the departed members of the community were buried in this 
spot. When the convent was removed to the new quarters near the Bar- 
racks, the remains of the nuns were disinterred and reburied in the present 
graveyard attached to the ancient convent. The remains of the slaves they 
owned, and who were buried in the spot on the corner of Chartres and Hos- 
pital Streets, however, were not disturbed. It is interesting to note here that 
the slaves owned by the Ursulines chose to remain with them rather than ac- 
cept freedom after the emancipation of the black race, and that, some eight 


or nine years ago, the devoted nuns buried the last of their slaves, a negress 
a century old. 

Bishop Dubourg, who occupied the episcopal chair of New Orleans in 
1812, lived in a house belonging to the Ursulines, on a part of their Char- 
tres Street property nearest the river. Its site is now occupied by Sain- 
bola's macaroni factory. Bishop Dubourg used to spend his winters in 
New Orleans and his summers in the northern portion of his vast diocese, 
which extended from the Gulf of Mexico to the great lakes, from the Mis- 
sissippi River to the Pacific coast above California. 

In the vicinity bounded by Ursuline, Chartres Street and the Levee are the 
shops of the macaroni-makers and basket-weavers. At the corner of Ursuline 
and Chartres pause a moment to look at the queer old tiled roof building, one 
of the few that remain as specimens of Spanish colonial architecture previous 
to the great fire of 1788. 

On Chartres Street, between Dumaine and St. Philip stood the famous old 
"Cafe des Emigres" or Emigrants' Cafe. It was the favorite headquarters of 
th* San Domingo refugees and their famous liquer "Le Petit Gouave," was con- 
cocted here to perfection. 

vValking slowly toward Canal Street, you pass the front of the old Cathe- 
dral and the famous 


where the aneienl Municipal Chapter of Spanish times met. The picturesque 
are stands a1 the corner of Chartres, between St. Peter and Orleans Alley. 
Within its walls all but one of the transfers of the country from one govern- 
ment to another won' effected. Here, representing the King of France, 
Governor Aubrey absolved the colonists from their oath of allegiance 
to France and handed them over to the swarthy delegate of His Cath- 
olic Majesty of Spain. Here was effected the transfer back to 
France, and here again the transfer of the country to the United States was 
made, and from the balcony Claiborne announced the event and displayed the 
American flag. In 182G General Lafayette was received here, and in later days 
President McKinley was formally welcomed to Louisiana just prior to his 


death. At presenl the lower floor of the building is used as the Second Re- 
corder's Court and police jail; on the second floor the Supreme Court of Lou- 
isiana holds its sittings. The ancient "Spanish Calaboose," or jail, is in the 
building. In one of the cells can be seen a pair of old-fashioned stocks, a relic 
of the Spanish domination. 

Adjoining the building, at No. 613 Orleans Place, is the ancient Spanish 
Arsenal, still used, despite the dilapidated appearance of the building, as the 
State Arsenal. 

The massive building, a fac simile of the old "Cabildo." standing on the 
lower side of the Cathedral, between St. Anthony's Alley and St. Ann Street, 
is the lower courl building. The Civil Court sits on the upper floor and the Civil 
Sheriff has his office on the lower floor. It is a very ancient building, but not 
as old as the Cabildo. It occupies the site <<[ a former Capuchin monastery, 
the monks of which were charged in early days with the care of the St. Louis 
Cathedral. The gardens of their convenl extended back several squares. Pere 
Antoine resided here for many years, as did also the famous PC-re Dagobert, 
who is canonized among the sweet memories of old New Orleans. He was 


called "the singing Pere," and it is said in old traditions that even now at 
passing through St. Louis Cemetery, one can hear his sweel voice chant- 
ing the grand "Te Deum" or caroling the sweel lullabies that Creole mothers 
I to their children. The people are not afraid of his ghost. They stop to 
listen, and still again the old tradition runs. "Blessed is he who hears Fere 
Dai oberl singing the 'Te Deum' at the midnight hour." 

The venerable Cathedral, Cabildo and Courthouse overlook 

Jackson Square, or the old "Place d'Armes." 

It is a noted spot in Louisiana history and was the place that Bienville marked 
out for the review of the French troops, hence the name, "Place d'Armes." 
Here were held from the beginning all the most important public meetings in 
Louisiana. Here Don Antonio Ulloa received the keys of the city and took 
> ssession of it in the name of the King of Spain; here met the resolute band 
of patriots under Lafreniere, and right here may be said to have been made the 
first declaration of independence on American soil, for Lafreniere declared the 
independence of the colony in 17G8 and sent the Spanish Governor back to hia 


own country. Here a few days later the brave French patriots were shot as 
traitors, and here Don Bernardo Galvez. one of the most heroic figures in 
Louisiana history, appeared before a popular meeting of the citizens in 1779 and 
completely won their hearts. In the old square General Jackson, the hero of 
New Orleans, was received in 1815, and passing through a bevy of beautiful 
Creole girls, representing the different States of the Union, one of them, per- 
sonating Louisiana, crowned him as her victor and hero. 

When the monument was erected in the center of the square, taking the 
place of the flagstaff from which had been unfurled successively the flags of 
France, Spain and the United States, the name of the hero of Chalmette was 

wed on the square by the grateful citizens. The Jackson monument, in 
the middle of the square, was made by Clark Mills, at a cost of $30,000. The 
artist has been highly praised for the manner in which he succeeded in bal- 
ancing such a mass of metal — 20,000 pounds — without any support or prop 
beneath. In this position the statue has withstood the storms and hurricanes of 
half a century. The incription on '.\:e granite base of the monument was cut 
by General Butler's orders during the Civil War. It runs: "The Union must 
and shall be preserved." 

Jackson Square is one of the few remaining public places which are in- 
closed. It is shut td the public at 9 o'clock at night. It has long been under 
the management of ;i special Board of Commissioners, who have greatly beauti- 
fied the parterres by planting them with tropical fruits and flowers. The foun- 
tain near the Chartres Street entrance is equipped with a mechanism by which 
the jet may be illuminated at night. 

The two long rows of quaint buildings, drawn up like twin regiments <• 
coated soldiers, on either side of the square, are the Pontalba Buildings, erected 
ir: the early part of the century by the Baroness de Pontalba. daughter of Don 
Andres Almonaster. They are still owned by her descendants. It was a great 
mark of gentility in early days to reside in the Pontalba Buildings. The tide 
of fashion has. however, long since flown away. The long, narrow courtyards, 
the grand old stairways, the curious transoms and brass knockers, whose click 
reverberates through the ancient halls, are worthy of notice. 

And now you are in sight of the famous 


French Market. 

You know 7 it by the busy rush, the noisy rumbling of carts and wheels, the 
ceaseless clatter of foreign and native tongues combined, the outlandish garbs. 
the curious faces, the strange cosmopolitan scene to be nowhere else witnessed 
on American soil. The market is open, daily from 5 a. m. to 12 m. The "meat 
market" was erected in 1813 at a cost of $30,000, and stands on the exact spot 
where the first market was built in New Orleans, according to the plan of Le 
Blend de La Tour, in 1723, and which was destroyed by a hurricane in that 
same year. The best time to visit it is in the early morning, and Sunday morn- 
ing of all others. It is the most remarkable and characteristic spot in New 
Orleans. Under its roof every language is spoken, and this will be noted 
through its four divisions, the fish, the meat, the vegetable and the fruit mar- 
ket. The buyers and sellers are men and women of all races. Here are the 
famous coffee stands, where one gets such delicious "cafe noir" ov "cafe au lait," 
with a "brioche" or "cala," as the taste may suggest. There are the Gascon 
butchers, and the Italian and Spanish fruit vendors, and the German and Ital- 
liar. vegetable women: there are Mums, with their strings of beads and crosses. 
fresh from the Holy Land: peddlers and tinners and small notion dealers; the 

"rabais men," with their little stores on wheels; Chinese and Hindu, Jew and 
Teuton, French and Creole, Spanish and Malay, Irish and English, all uniting 
in a ceaseless babel of tongues that is simply bewildering. The old Creole 
aegresses arc there, with quaint bandana and tignon, offering for sale "pra- 
lines" and "pain patates" and "calas," the latter a species of soft doughnut 
made of rice and flour. Squalled about the ground between the markets are 
strange, half-civilized beings, with queer little papooses strapped to their backs 
or rolled up in shawls and blankets. You catch the odor of wild herbs and 
woodland leaves, and get a glimpse of the dried sassafras leaves from which the 
famous "gumbo file" is made. These patient, dark-skinned women, with their 
straight, flowing hair, are the last remnants of the once powerful tribe of Choc- 
taw Indians, who were once the very owners of the soil on which New Orleans 
stands. They have come all the way from the old Indian settlement of Bayou 
Lacombe, across Lake Pontchartrain, to the French Market, where they always 
fiud a ready sale for their "gumbo file" and fragrant "tisanes." And in the 
French market, above all, there is the charm of local life and color, especially 
of a Sunday morning, when the Creole belles and beaux saunter leisurely 
through, buying roses and jasmines, after hearing mass in the old Cathedral. 


These Indians 

deserve nmrc than a passing notice. The history of this tribe is one 
of peculiar interest. They were the only Indians who never once rose in 
aims against the United States. They were bound by ties of deepest friend- 
ship to the early settlers of Louisiana, and called the good Bienville, their 
"father." In all the early troubles of the infant colony they were always at 
the side of the colonists, and when Jackson led the Americans against the 
British, on that memorable Eighth of January, 1815, they followed the fortunes 
of the Americans and merited a compliment from the tamous "Old Hickory" 
in his report to the Government. 

In token of their fidelity, they were never sent to the Indian reservation; 
but years siuce they were crowded out of New Orleans by the superior and 
cultured race, and they have lived quietly on the ground allotted to them by 
the United States at the Indian settlement of Bayou Lacombe, over in St. Tam- 
many Parish. Twice a week, on Sunday and Thursday, they come to the 
city, crossing, free of fare, on the steamer that plies between Old Landing and 
New Orleans, and then walking from Lake Pontchartrain to the French 
Market, where they always find a ready sale for their good "gumbo file"' and 



bunches of herbs from which the Creoles concoct such fragrant "tisanes" tor 
the sick. 

The amenability and docility of the Choetaws have been attributed by his- 
torians to the wonderful influence exercised over them by llio Catholic priests 

who labored among them ill the beginning, from generation to generation in 


Louisiana. Very sweet among them, especially, is the memory of Father Ron- 
quette, a famous poet and scholar of Louisiana, who devoted nearly sixty years 
of his life to unremitting labor among these simple untutored childieu of the 


forest. When he died the tribe came all the way from Bayou Lacombe bearing 

their bunclies of sassafras and "laurier" to lay upon his grave. 

You turn from the market, with its singular complexity that interests while 
it challenges admiration, and 

Emerge upon the Levee. 

The scene along the Levee is at all times extremely animated, especially 
in the vicinity of the French Market. 


The Levee in front of the fish market is called the "Picayune Tier" or 
Lugger Landing. 


The "Dago" fishermen from the lower coast land their cargoes of oranges 
and oysters here, and here gathers a swarm of luggers, with their sails tied 
down on their long booms or flapping idly in the breeze to dry, while their motley 


crew of traders through the bayous and lakes of the lower Louisiana coast — ■ 
Greeks, Italian, Dagoes, Gascons, negroes and nondescripts — bustle about un- 


loading cargoes of oranges, oysters, fish, vegetables and all the various produce 
of the land and water of their section; or else, while waiting for some sort of 
a cargo to set sail again, loiter idly about, smoking their cigarettes and cooking 


their meals over queer little furnaces tired with charcoal. The "Picayune Tier' 
is always a picturesque sight. 


Walking up the levee one or two squares, you reach the site of the old 
'Government House;" this stood at the corner of Levee and Toulouse Streets in 


the old colonial days. It was burned in 1826, after the sale of Louisiana to the 
United States. 

One square further up, between St. Louis and Customhouse Streets, are 
the Sugar Sheds. At this point one gets a fine view of the shipping. The 
Sugar Exchange, where the merchants conduct many of those operations which 
regulate the price of sugar throughout the country is on the corner of Front 
and Bienville Streets. 

One cannot pass this section of tire Levee without realizing the greatness 
and importance of the sugar industry of Louisiana. Block after block along 
about midwinter is packed and crowded with barrels and hogsheads of sugar 
and molasses. Large as the area is, it scarce affords room for the product that 
seeks this greatest sugar market in the United States. The barrels of sweets 
overflow the sheds, crowd all the warehouses in the vicinity, block the side- 
walks and overrun the Levee. There is sugar everywhere. 

A word right here about the cultivation of sugar cane in Louisiana will 
be of interest. In 1794 Etienne de Bore, a planter living about six miles above 
New Orleans, in the spot where Audubon Park now stands, succeeded in making 
the first crop of sugar ever made in Louisiana. He disposed of his crop for 


$12,000. The cultivation of cane was first introduced by the Jesuit Fathers in 
1751, but up to 1792 no planter had ever succeeded in making the syrup gran- 
iil.ii i', and so convert it into sugar in sufficient quantities to make the culture 
profitable. To Etienne de Bore belongs this honor. His portrait hangs in the 
Sugar Exchange in this city. The cultivation of sugar cane has contributed 
more to the prosperity of Louisiana than any of her other products. 

Close by the Sugar Exchange are several great refineries where the crude 
products of the sugar-houses on the plantations is changed into the beautiful 
white sugar seen upon our tallies. 

Continuing up Chartres Street, to Canal, one passes many quaint old court- 
yards and dilapidated mansions telling of the glory of departed days. 

In Chartres Street, near Canal, are some famous antique shops and won- 
derful bird stores, where the chatter of magpies and parrots, mingling with the 
songs of mocking birds and canaries, and the crowing of roosters and cackle of 
line breeds of chickens, and the squealing of monkies, seem to transport one 
into a Soulh American forest. The gay plumaged birds from the tropics always 
to be found in these quaint stores give them a tropical color and beauty that 
fascinate strangers. 


Rampart Street and Its Vicinity — St. Louis Ceme= 

teries — Congo Square — The Voudoos — 

The Barefooted Nuns. 

North Rampart Street is the handsome Avenue, with a neutral ground 
shaded by trees, beginning four squares beyond the Rue Royal at Canal Street. 
It was the ancient limits of the city laid out by Bienville, and was called "Ram- 
part" because a strong redoubt ran along it in old Creole days. 

As the city spread beyond its primitive limits, Rampart Street became a 
fashionable residence avenue. The moat which ran along the center of the 
neutral ground, or present car track, was filled in, and beautiful shade trees 
were planted along the way on either side, as far as the intersection of Esplan- 
ade Avenue. 

Rampart is an interesting street, not only in itself, but on account of the 
many curious old side streets which cross it, and whose songs and stories read 
like wild romance in these realistic days. From the quaint old mortuary 
chapel where Pere Antoine used to chant the litany of the dead, to the cloistered 
monastery, where barefooted nuns, by night and day keep vigils of prayer for the 
sins of the "Vieux Carre," Rampart Street is full of historic interest and 
legendary lore. 

Though it was such an ancient Creole boundary, as time went on Rampart 
Street became a fashionable residence quarter, and "Americans," too, sought 
to have their homes in the old street. On the lake side, just adjoining the large 
pharmacy on the Canal Street corner, there dwelt for many years, while she 
made New Orleans her home, Mrs. Sallie Ward Hunt, the famous Kentucky 
belle of old Southern days. The house may be known by the curious old porch 
jutting out on the banquette with a spiral iron stairway leading up. 

Adjoining it is the home in which the celebrated Madame Octavia Walton 
Levert, the feminine literary genius, of ante-bellum days, lived when visiting 
New Orleans. 

At 203 North Rampart Street, the Eye, Ear, Nose and Throat Hospital will 
be observed. At No. 224 is the handsome home of the Young Men's Gymnastic 
("lull. Admission is by card. The club possesses very elaborate marble baths 
and swimming tanks and a magnificent gymnasium. 

The quaint little Church of St. Anthony of Padua stands on the corner of 
Conti and Rampart Streets. This is the ancient 

Mortuary Chapel of Old New Orleans. 

There is an old Spanish law still observed in the American colonies that 
once belonged to Spain, that forbade the burial of the dead from the Cathedral 
churches. When the Episcopal See of New Orleans was founded in 17U3, and 
the beautiful old edifice erected by Don Almonaster facing the Place d'Armes 
was advanced to the dignity of a cathedral, it became necessary to have a 
church for the celebration of services over the dead. This chapel, which is a 
pure type of the old mortuary chapel of Spain, was built, and dedicated to this 
purpose. After the close of the Civil War the chapel was diverted from its 
primitive uses and made a parish church, with Father Turgis, the famous Con- 
federate chaplain of the Pointe Coupee Regiment, as its first pastor. In the 
curious old house around the corner, with the quaint balcony reaching far out 
on the sidewalk, Father Turgis lived, and here the survivors of the old regiment 
used to gather 1 evening after evening to share his humble hospitality and talk 
over the dead days. After Father Turgis' death, the Archbishop of New Or- 
leans finding it necessary to have a special church for the use of the large num- 
ber of Italain emigrants who were pouring into New Orleans, placed the chapel 
in charge of an Italian-speaking priest, and it ha,s ever since been used as a 
place of worship by the emigrants of this race. Many of the foreign customs of 


the churches in Italy prevail here. The shrine of St. Anthony and St. Bartholo- 
mew surrounded by lighted tapers and "ex yoto" offerings in thanksgiving for 
favors received, are peculiarly foreign in appearance. 

Just over the way from St. Anthony'.s Church is an old building erected in 
1822 as a synagogue for early Jewish emigrants. Upon the consolidation of the 
congregation in 1878, with that of the "Dispersed of Judah," who worshiped in 
the building on Caroudelet street, near Julia, above Canal Street, the edifice in 
Rampart Street was put on the market for sale. It is now used as a laundry. 


The next corner is St. Louis Street, and right here while doing Rampart 
Sheet and its vicinity, the tourist will do well to turn into this ancient thorough- 
fare, which still hears the name given it by the loyal-hearted I'.ienville, and 
view the 

Old French Cemeteries. 

the first of which, lying at the corner of North Basin, is the oldest cemetery in 
New Orleans. St. Louis No.s. 2 and 3 are in the immediate vicinity. These are 
the ancient burying grounds of the old "carre\" They are very foreign-looking, 


very quaint and picturesque. A brief history of each is given in the chapter 
<m "Cemeteries," to which the follower of tins Guide is directed to turn at this 
particular poinl . 

Passing from these ancient cemeteries, where have been sleeping these 
hundred years the old French and Spanish noblesse v ho save to New Orleans 
iis history and name, the tourisl again enters St. Louis Street, and at the cor- 
ner the 

"Old Basin," 

with its curious freight of oyster luggers and charcoal scln >r,s, discharging 

their cargoes, bursts upon the view. The Basin is the terminus of the Caron 
delel Canal, which was the monumental work of the administration of the 

Spanish Governor of colonial days, Baron de Car lelet. The "Carondelet 

Canal" extends from the old Basin southwest to the Bayou St. John, in the 
Second District. The banks are called the "Carondelet Walk." The canal was 
dug by orders of Carondelet for the purpose of draining the vast swamps in the 
rear of the city. He also thought that by bringing the waters of the Bayou St. 


John into a •"basin" close to the city "ramparts" he would greatly facilitate 
the commerce of New Orleans. In recognition of his work the "Cabildo" be- 
stowed his name upon the canal and its banks. The Old Basin is large and 
square, and occupies the area between St. Claude and North Franklin Streets, 
Carondelet Walk and Toulouse. The canal empties at Hagan Avenue into the 
Bayou St. John, by which access may be had to Lake Pontchartrain at Spanish 
Fort. The scene along the canal and basin is at all times picturesque, and 
exceedingly curious and foreign-looking. It furnishes a frequent theme of study 
for local and visiting artists. 

The scene along the banks from St. Louis Street to Toulouse, where the 
Dagoes have their "lugger landing," is particularly unique. From Toulouse it 
is just one square to Rampart Street, and the tourist finds himself again at his 
point of departure. » 

At the southwest corner of Rampart and Toulouse stands a high three- 
storied brick building, with iron verandas. This was known dining the period 
of the early American domination as the "Cafe des Ameliorations," and 
was to the old New Orleans of that day what the famous "Cafe des Exiles" 
and the "Cafe des Enfants Fideles" were to French and Spanish New Orleans 
of a more remote period. At the "Cafe des Ameliorations" the old Creole gentle- 


men discontented and alarmed at the growing power of the "Americans," used 
to meet and discuss questions for the amelioration of their "dear city," and its 
rescue from the hands of the invaders. Here they used to weekly concoct plans 
for the overthrow of the government, the arrest of the State officials, and the 
assertion of the supremacy of the Creoles. All this reads like a romance now, 
but it was very real to the Creoles of those days, this question of absolute 
American domination. 

And now you are in that section of New Orleans around which cling wild 
superstitions and legends of fetich worship, echoes of weird music and visions of 
ghostly figures dancing the wild "Congo" of their native plains; of negroes 
gathering in the dead hours of the night while the old Faubourg slumbered on, 
to work their charms and spells and offer tribute to their idol "The Grand 
Zombi." For the large open area on the west side of Rampart Street, between 
St. Peter and St. Ann, is the ancient 


Congo Square, 

the "Place des Negres," or Negro Square, the great holiday place of the slaves 
in early Creole and later ante-bellum limes; the spot, too, in which by night 
the awful worship of "the serpent" look place. Sunday evening was the great 
holiday for the negroes in slavery times; for this one evening they enjoyed. 
almosl absolute freedom to go and come as they pleased. On Sunday evenings, 
therefore, decked in their most gorgeous colors and many of them wearing the 
cast-off finery of their masters and mistresses, the negroes of both sexes 
used to assemble by the thousands under the shade of the sycamore trees of 
the "Congo Plains" as they termed the square and the woods beyond, to dance 
the wild "Bamboula," or the gay "Calinda, Badoum! Badoum!" Every Sunday 
afternoon the "Bamboula dancers" were summoned to a woodyard on Dumaine 
Street, by a son of drum roll effected by rait ling the ends of two huge bones 
on the head of a cask. The male dancers fastened little bits of tin or metal to 
ribbons tied aboul their ankles. These rattles were very much like the strings 


of copper "gris-gris," worn by the native Soudans. After the Congo Plains were 
built up the dances were restricted to the square. Of a Sunday evening it 
presented a most picturesque and animated scene with its hundreds of dusky 
dancers, singing their quaint half-Congo, half- Creole songs. Hundreds of the 
best whites, lured by the fascinating, curious rhythm, sung to the beating of 
the "tan-tam," used to promenade in the vicinity of the square to see the 
negroes dance "Congo." In the center of the square stood a cannon which was 
liied promptly at 9 o'clock. This was the signal for dispersal and the revelers 
would troop merrily homeward, singing as they went, "Bon soir, danse! Soleil 
Couche," or "Good night dance; the sun is set; But this did not trouble them 
much, for they knew the sun would rise next Sunday, after their week's labor 
was over, and they would have another holiday. Such was the happy, joyous 
life of the slaves in the old days. 

But as might have been already inferred, Congo Square did not always 
present such an innocent scene of merry, careless pastime. Rather does its 
name suggest to the natives of the present day the memory of ghostly stories of 
wild revelry of witches and bacchanals, and of a mysterious fetich worship, so 
strange, so awful, that for upwards of a hundred years it exerted over the 
minds of the ignorant of both races, a sway as powerful and tragic as that of 
witchcraft in the medieaval ages. For in Congo Square were held the weird 

Voudoo Rites, 

or worship of the serpent. This awful fetich worship was brought to New 
Orleans by the negro slaves who faithfully followed the fortunes of their mas 
ters after the San Domingo revolution. The worship was introduced into Hayti 
and San Domingo by the Congo negroes who dwelt on the western plains of 
Africa. The term "Voudoo" is a corruption of the Haytien "vaudaux," softened 
by the Creole lingo and further corrupted by the negroes into "hoodoo." To be 
a "Voudoo" was an awful term of reproach among the negroes, for a "Voudoo ' 
was supposed to lie in direct communication and league with the spirit of dark- 
ness for the propagation of evil. The "Grand Zombi," or serpent, was the 
peculiar object of worship and was guarded as sacred by their queen and higii- 
priestess, Marie Laveau, "in an exquisitely carved box of alabaster in her own 
bedchamber." The Voudoos first held their orgies in the Congo Plains, which 
used to embrace Congo Square. They met at the midnight hour to work their 
spelis, while the French Quarter slept: yet many a master and mistress awoke 
in the morning happily unconscious of the fact that their favorite slave had 
perhaps danced with the Voudoos that night. The Voudoos believed Congo 
Square to be a charmed spot, which the Grand Zombi had chosen for his 
favorite haunt; and though it has been many, many a year since they have 
dared to hold a dance there, occasionally some fowl or bird finely roasted with 
needles and pins stuck all over it, and dimes and nickles arranged around the 
dish is placed in the middle' of the square at the midnight hour, as an offering 
to the voudoo spirit, and miniature coffins and lighted candles are found on the 
doorsteps of houses, showing that though the once powerful cult has been rigidly 
suppressed by law, remnants of its followers still exist in New Orleans. St. 
John's Eve, June 24, was the great Voudoo festival. After the Congo Plains 
were laid out into streets, and the square itself placed under such strict police 
surveillance, the Voudoos used to assemble on the banks of the Bayou St. John, 
just where the waters meet the dreary swamp land. In this wild and dismal 
sfiot they used to erect their altars and sing their weird unearthly chants while 
they danced the wild "Dance of the Serpent" .around the boiling pot. This pot. 
contained bits of the skins of alligators, frogs and snakes from the bayou be- 
yond, pieces of human hair, fingernails and toe nails; the higher the flames 
leaped in the air the wilder the dance, and when the flickering fire began to die 
out these skins were laid on the altar of the serpent and then distributed among 
the Voudoos. They became the famous "gris-gris" charms with which they were 
supposed to work out their evil designs. 

Just around the corner there stood until recently, on St. Ann Street, be- 
tween Rampart and Burgundy Streets, the ancient homestead of 


Marie Laveau, the Voudoo Queen. 

For upwards of eighty years this woman was the high priestess of the 
Voudoos and held them at her beck and call. Though the cult was a secret one, 
she numbered her followers by the thousands, and only a voudoo knew postively 
who her associates were. Not that the negroes as a body, were members of this 
particular sect; on the contrary so great was the terror inspired by the name 
that to be known as a "Voudoo" was to be ostracized from all intercourse with 
the respectable colored element, whether free or slaves. Marie Laveau was not 
a quadroon nor yet a mulatto, she was nol as fair as the one nor as dark as the 
•■ ftther. — But in her youth sh e wnr j said to have been very tall, maj c atic an d 
other. But in her youth she was said to have been very tall, majestic and beau- 
tiful, and easily swayed her subjects by her magnetic eye. One year ago the old' 
homestead, built 200 years ago and held together by nails that were veritable 
spikes, was demolished. Seven generations of Laveaus were born and reared 
within its walls, for .Marie Laveau's mother before her had been the -Voudoo 
Queen, and so had her grandmother. In this home was shown for many years by 
the Voudoo Queen's only surviving daughter, the famous shawl sent to Marie la- 
veau by the Emperor of China seventy-five years back. It was of softest silk, 
and it was in this shawl that tradition says she used to dance the wild "Dance of 
the Serpent." Marie Laveau died within the last two decades. She repented 
before her death and died a Christian. 

Before leaving this romantic section the tourist should cross to Orleans 
Street, where just behind the square used to stand the old Parish Prison. For 
sixty-one years it squatted in gray grandeur, gloomy and forbidding in the 
square bounded by Orleans, Marais, St. Ann and Treme Streets. In 181)5 the 
city built a new prison and jail house, iu Tulane Avenue, and the old structure' 
was torn down. Many associations were linked with the antiquated prison and 
there was perhaps no building in the United States to which so varied a crim- 
inal history was attached. It was utilized iu the sixties as a military prison, 
and was subsequently the scene of many memorable executions, chief among 
which was the celebrated 

Mafia Lynching 

On March II. 3891, when two Italians were hung outside of the prison 
and nine others wen shot to death in various parts of the building. These men 
and eight others were charged with the assassination of David C. Hennessy, 
Superintended of Police, on October 15, 1890. Of the Italians indicted for the 
<iiine nine'had been placed upon trial on February 10, and of these the jury, 
which had been corruptly influenced, acquitted six. a mistrial resulting as to the 
other three. Of the men lynched rive were awaiting trial. The lynch- 
ing led to international complications, and resulted in the payment by the 
United States of heavy damages to the relatives of the slaughtered men. The 
Alalia, it should be said, is a secret society of Italians, Corsicans and Sicilians. 

Just beyond the site of the ancient prison the towers of the Treme Market 
rise in view. The market was built on a portion of the Congo Plains, and named 
lor .\lon. Treme, a wealthy Creole citizen, who purchased much land in that 
section when the ( ,|(| wilderness was cleared and cut into streets. The market 
was intended to supplement the French Market in that section. 

The ornate, two-storied brick structure between Dumaine and St. Philip is 
the Hal] of the Union The celebrated French Literary Society, 
"L'Atheiiee Louisi a na is," holds its meetings here. 

And now yon are away from echoes of old superstitions, in the gay, laugh- 
ing heart of the social life of the French Quarter of to-day. Over the streets 
float the echoes of piano and guitar, and the rich voice of some beautiful girl 
singing that favorite chanson of the old "carre," "Zozo Moquer." 

The large two-storied structure standing out upon the banquette in the 
center of the square on the east side of Rampart Street, between Ursulines and 
St. Philip, is the ancient home of the Lafitte family. The gallery, with its im- 
mense fluted columns, is a typical Southern mansion of later Creole days, as 
may be noticed all along the Rue Esplanade. 

At tho corner of Ramparl and Hospital streets, diverge one square toward 
the lake side, and at the corner of Hospital and St. Claude Streets, see the old 
St. Augustine's Church. This site was formerly an open stretch of land, upon 
which stood the historic Orleans College. One of the first acts of the American 
reconstruction, in 1804. was to incorporate by act of Legislature an "English 
College" for (lie education of the Creole youth, and to obviate the necessity of 
sending young men to Paris for higher study as heretofore. Latin, Greek and 
French were fundamental studies in the institution. 

A tradition of the Old Quarter is the memory of Monsieur D'Avezac, who 
was the first President of the College. He was a greal classical scholar and 
was noted for his translation of Sir Walter Scott's "Marmion" into French. 
Scott wrote back a beautiful autograph letter telling how pleased he was with 
th." "perfect translation." This letter is religiously preserved by the descend- 
ants of Monsieur D'Avezac in New Orleans. Monsieur D'Avezac was so pol- 
ished in Latin and Greek, and so famous for his ponderous quotations from 
these languages that his young collegians used to call him "Titus." Monsieur 
Rochefort. another professor, was noted for his graceful translation of Horace 
into French. It was the boast of the "Faubourg" that his "boys" used to walk 
the Quarter quoting the odes so faithfully that even the little "niggers" were 
imbued with Horace, from hearing their young masters descant so much upon 
him. Racine and Corneille and the Greek tragedies (translated into beautiful 
French) were served with breakfast in the French Quarter in the first decade 
and a half of the nineteenth century. The college had a "day school" for children 
who were unable to pay board, and a "free or charity department," the pupils 
of which were chosen by the trustees. The Creole mothers of New Orleans 
broke up the college. In 1818 Joseph Lakanal, a member of the French In- 
stitute, whom Napoleon had appointed President of the Bonaparte Lyceum, 
came as a refugee to New Orleans and was called to fill a vacancy in the col- 
lege directorate. Lakanal was an atheist and an ex-priest; tins fact became 
known, and the first public 

Meeting of Women in New Orleans 

resulted. The pious Creole mothers of New Orleans declared that "They would 
have no anti-Christ teach their boys; that the trustees of an institution who 
could appoint such a man were unfit to be intrusted with the education of 
youth." A mass meeting of citizens was held, as a sequel to the meeting of 
women: and the demand was made that the trustees rescind their action. These 
gentlemen persisted and the next day the great majority of the best-paying pu- 
pils were withdrawn; in fact, as the old Creoles were proud afterwards of de- 
claring, "there were not sufficient pupils left to pay the salary of even one 
director." The "day school" also was obliged to close its doors, and as for the 
"charity contingent," the mothers of these boys also met and sent word to the 
directors "that they might be poor, but that they were too honest to allow their 
sons to meet on the same ground as Monsieur Lakanal." So perished the old 
Orleans College, at which the historian Gayarre, and all the most cultured gen- 
tlemen of the early American domination were educated. All that remains to- 
day is a remnant of the long old-fashioned "dormitory," now used as a tene- 
ment row. "Joseph Lakanal, !e Canaille Directeur" is a fragment of an old 
Creole chanson composed in derision of the College d'Orleans at the time it 
fell into disfavor. Lakanal was given a famous "charaVari," and finding his 
presence so odious to New Orleans, he left the city. Then a new verse com- 
memorating his departure was added to the old song. Upon the site of the 
college there rose a few years later St. Augustine's Church, the second oldest 
in the French Quarter. It is very quaint and beautiful and remaining just as 
when erected, is worth a visit. 

Just back of the Church was erected in 1836, Mount Carmel Convent for 

The Higher Education of Young Ladies. 

The Sisterhood is a local foundation and the school has always enjoyed the 
patronage of the best Creole families. Almost all the Sisterhood are native 
Creoles. An interesting bit of history is that the Sisters seeing the demorali- 
zation prevailing among the quadroons and octoroons at the time of their form- 


dation, sought to stem tho current by establishing a "Pension de.s Demoiselles 
clc Couleur" as a separate and distinct department. In this colored department 
tlie children of the free colored people were taught reading, writing, sewing, 
embroidery, fancy work and music, along with thorough moral and re- 
ligious training. They returned to their homes educated, accomplished 
and filled with the purity and truth of life inculcated in the old con- 
vent, and many of these women are most active workers in charity and 
philanthropic efforl among their race in New Orleans to-day. When the war 
was over the old "Pension des Demoiselles de Couleur" was closed forever. 

Returning to Rampart Street, around the corner, near Daupliine Street, is 
"I^i Maison Hospitali£re," a home founded by Creole Indies after the war. for 
reduced gentlewomen. 

The large brick building passed on the way back to Rampart Street, is 
McDonogh No. 15 School, formerly the ancient Barracks School. 

It is very beautiful with its greal galleries, spacious rooms and lofty ceil- 
ings. The courtyard is very quaint and pretty. For many years the building 
stood as a type of the early public school buildings of the city. Some years 
ago it was renovated and enlarged (through the McDonogh Public School Fund, 
and the new name bestowed upon it. The ancient characteristics of the school 
were, however, retained in the repairing and enlarging. The school is interest- 
ing to the visitor as being patronized solely by the French-speaking children and 
those of the oilier Latin races that have poured into New Orleans. In this 
respect McDonogh No. 1~> is unique among the public schools of the city. 

And now you are at the end of the old Creole street. It seems a strange co- 
incidence that the old "Ramparts," whose first building was a church over 
a hundred years ago, should in these later days, harbor at its further end another 
church or chapel on the grounds of the dim 

Cloistered Monastery of Discalced Carmelites. 

The Monastery stands at the corner of Barracks and Rampart Streets. 
There are only four convents of this order in America. The one in New 
Orleans was founded by two cultured Creole ladies. The nuns lead the most 
rigorous life, wearing sackcloth next their skin, going barefooted the year round 
ami eating HOthing but vegetables and fruit. The order is a strictly cloistered 
one. Prom the moment ;i Carmelite pronounces her vows she never again 
looks upon the faces of friends. Visitors are only admitted to the 
chapel, or to the little reception room in the old courtyard. They may speak to 
the lay or outer sisters, and also to the cloistered ones if they desire prayers 
for themselves or others: but the cloistered nuns sit behind a grating over 
which a heavy black veil is nailed, ami you only hear their voices, sweet and 
low. exhorting you to patience in trials and afflictions and greater confidence in 
tin' mercy of God. 

At the .Matin ami Vesper Services, which are sung daily, the invisible nuns, 
within the grating, use the solemn Gregorian chant of ancient Catholic Rome, 
which is only in one key. 

Across Esplanade Avenue, where the great, white building stands, called 
"St. Aloysius Commercial Institue," begins the new "Rampart" Street, laid out 
many years after the foundation of New Orleans, by Mandeville de Marigny, 
when he cut up his old plantation into streets and lots. It was called by him 
the Rue Amour or Love Street. In recent years by an act of the City 
Council seeking to reduce order out of the multiplicity of the names of the 
streets running parallel through the various old "Faubourgs," or "municipali- 
ties," and to simplify the arrangement of the city map, Love was made a con- 
tinuation of Rampart Street. The old name still holds, however, with ancient 
residents of the "Faubourg Marigny." 


The "New Rampart Street"— The Ursuline Con= 

vent — The Barracks, Chalmette Monu= 

ment and Battlefield. 

Thougli il is called the "Now Rampart Street," il is lull <>l' historic interest. 
The Rampnrl car, which may be taken as the visitor completes the tour of 
nncieut Rampart Street, jusl ;il the intersection of the Rue Esplanade, or in 
Canal Street, if a clay is reserved for such important points of interest as the 
Ursuline Convent, the United Slates Barracks or the Chalmette Monumenl and 
Battle Field, carries the tourist through the heart of the old City'of Mandeville 
ilc Marigny. The car ruu,s down Dauphine Street and returns by way of Ram- 
part to Canal. At the corner of Esplanade and Dauphine Street is a fine old 


colonial house which is new occupied by Mr. Charles Claiborne, a grandson of 
the first American Governor of Louisiana. 

Near the corner of Union and Dauphine stands the "Ecole des Orphelins 
Indigens." This was the first tree school ever opened for negro children in the 
United States. In 1340 an old free colored woman died and left to the Catholic 
archdiocese a fund in trust, for the establishment of a free school for colored 
orphan children, and directed that her old home, which stood on the spot, should 
be used as a schoolhouse. Some years ago the old landmark of ante-bellum 
days was torn down, but the school, which had a continuous existence since its 
foundation in 1840, ha.s endured. 

Between Frenchman and Elysian Fields Streets lies Washington Square, 
the first public recognition given in New Orleans to the illustrious Father of 
His Country. The park is inclosed. Formerly all the parks were similarly 
inclosed, and at night, promptly at 9 o'clock, the watchmen cleared the park 
and locked the gates. The custom still maintains at Washington Square. 

Just across from the square is a large, brown, two-storied brick building; 
this was the ancient residence of Governor Claiborne. His descendants still live 
in this beautiful old home. 

At Washington Square the car crosses 


Elysian Fiefds Street. 

or the "Champs Elysees," as it was called by the old Creoles. What visions 
of Parisian splendor rise to mind at the mere mention of "Les Champs Ely- 
sees." in early days the famous old Marigny Canal ran along the street 
from the Mississippi River to Lake Pontchartrain. When Marigny 
({■•rilled to build his own city and cut up all his plantation domain into 
streets, he laid out this wide avenue and called it the "Champs Elysees." Trees 
were planted all along the canal; beautiful sailing boats were always to be 
found in the waters. He intended that the New Orleans Champs Elysees should 
rival its famous Parisian namesake. Seeing the advantages offered by the 
street, the American Company which contemplated the erection of the old St. 
Charles Hotel offered to erect the famous hostelry in this street if they could 
secure the section lying between Dauphine and Burgundy Streets. But Marigny 
said that the Champs Elysees was for the children of France and asked such 
a fabulous price for the lot that the Company finding it above all consideration 
in sheer disgust purchased the square above Canal Street, where after many 
years was erected the old St. Charles Hotel. Alas! for the dreams of the col- 
onial magnate. The "Champs Elysees" is now a railroad street, frequcntly 
used for parking ears, and none of the grandeur that its founder intended for 
it ever materialized. From the car window may be seen toward the Levee the 
depot of the Pontchartrain Railroad. 

It may interest visitors to know that this is 

The Second Oldest Railroad in the United States. 

and that along its line, after the canal, which had been drained, was gradually 
tilled in, were erected the first freight platforms ever used. It is a curious fact 
that in the old days when the engine could not generate sufficient steam, sails 
were attached to the cars to assist in propelling the train. This may read like 
a fairy tale, but its veracity was vouched for by such authoritative eye-wit- 
nesses as the late historian Gayarre, the old Notary Guyol, and others. The 
Pontchartrain Railroad still bearing its ancient name, though owned by the 
Louisville and Nashville Company, runs along Elysian Fields to the old town 
id' Milneburg, which stands on the banks of the "Old Lake," which was the only 
lake resort of early Creole days. 

Next the corner of Dauphine and Elysian Fields is an ancient "Calaboose," 

or prison, which was erected when the Faubourg .Marigny was a distinct muni- 

At St. Ferdinand Street the car reaches the terminus of the old French 
Faubourg, and there begins that thrifty and interesting "German Settlement," 
which did so much for the building up along industrial lines of this section of 
New Orleans. The settlement extends far out to the verge of St. Roch Ceme- 
tery, and towards the Barracks far into Clouet and Montegut Streets, where 
another distinct French settlement begins, consisting of later settlers who es- 
tablished here their little farms and truck gardens and supplied the French 
Quarter w ith vegetables. 

The Holy Trinity Church of which Father Thovis founder of St. Rocli's 
Chapel was for many years pastor is near the corner of St. Ferdinand and 
Dauphine; The customs of eld German Catholic countries still maintain in 
this church. 

At 3029 Dauphine Street is the Benedictine Convent of the Holy Family. 
The sisterhood was driven out of Germany after the Franco-Prussian war when 
Bismarck enacted the May laws. New Orleans , vet friendly to the exile offered 
it an asylum and its work has been marked by continuous progress and pros- 

At Press Street the car crosses the tracks of the Queen and Crescent Rail- 
road. All this section, extending along the road from the river front to Bam- 
part and down Dauphine and Royal for several squares, was once the 


Great Cotton Press Section 

of New Orleans. Here, the year round, in season and ou1 of season, could be 
seen thousands of bales of tin' fleecy staple piled so high one above another 

along the sidewalks and through tl xtensive cotton yards that it seemed as 

though all the world of cotton had come to Now Orleans to find a market. 
These were the busy days when "Cotton was King." It was stored and press< I 
here in immense quantities until the Queen and Crescent Railroad came and ran 
its line right through the heart of the old presses and pickeries and in time 
acquired all this ground: the great brick-walled presses were torn down, and 
all that remains of the old yards are the long line of sheds under which cotton 
was formerly stored in the famous Natchez Press. These now serve for car 

The handsome edifice on Dauphine Street, between Clouet and Montegut 
Streets, is St. Vincent de Paul's Church, which was erected some thirty-five 
years ago on the site of the little frame chapel that did duty for a church in this 
section fifty years ago. 

On Piety Street, near Dauphine. is the Mount Carmel Female Orphan 
Asylum, established sixty-three years ago. On the corner of North Peters and 
Keynes Streets, clearly seen from the car, is St. Isidore's College, a large educa- 
tional institution under the direction of the Congregation of the Holy Cross 
It was opened in 1870 as an industrial school and model farm, and is closely 
modeled upon the famous school of the Fathers of the Holy Cro«s, at Notre 
Dame, Ind. 

The ancient 

Ursuline Convent 

is situated on North Peters, between Manuel and Sister Streets, but the planta- 
tion extends from the banks of the .Mississippi to the woods. At Manuel Street 
the Rampart cars cut through the grounds, the sisters having granted the right 
of way. A neat little waiting place and porter's lodge marks this rear and most 
convenient entrance to the grounds. A paved walk leads up to St. Ursula's 
Hall, a modern building, in which the reception rooms of the Convent are 
located. A few steps further from the river banks, the full beauty of the old 
historic edifice bursts upon you. The Convent occupies an immense area upon 
which are several buildings, all communicating with one another, and with a 
beautiful chapel at the lower end. The main building faces the river. It is 
very imposing with gables and towers and broad galleries: it is always robed 
in white and forms a prominent landmark for mariners. The Ursulines nuns 
were the pioneers of the religious orders of women in the New World and the 
pioneer educators of women. The sisters were invited to come to New Orleans 
by Bienville and arrived in 1727. Their school established that same year in 
Chartres Street, was the oldest institution for the education of young ladies in 
America. It is with pride that the people of New Orleans point to the old Con- 
vent and tell of the work of the Ursulines in Louisiana. For upwards of a 
hundred years they were the only teachers of girls, the only nurses in hospital 
and on battlefield, the moulders of the virtues that formed the groundwork of 
the sacred sanctuary of the home. Our historians are proud to acknowledge 
that "they were the spiritual mothers of the mothers of Louisiana." Such early 
Presidents as Thomas Jefferson and Andrew Jackson publicly and in autograph 
letters preserved in the old Convent told of the debt that the people owed these 
pioneers. The nuns removed to their present domicile in 1824. Their library 
contains over 10,000 volumes and the most ancient archives in Louisiana, are the 
records of their order. They were the first historians of the State, and the daily 
diary kept by one of their nuns. "Madeleine Hauchard," from the time the sisters 
set sail from France down through a period of over thirty-eight years, is the 
only record extant in Louisiana of' this early period. It is written in a most viva- 
cious and entertaining style. The grand old halls of the convent are most inter- 
esting, and no sight is more picturesque than the old Spanish courtyard, the most 
beautiful in New Orleans, surrounded by stately arcades and arches and quaint 
colonnades. The chapel of "Our Lady of Prompt Succor." which is reached 
from the river entrance to the curious old peaked-roofed building where the 
chaplain resides, was erected in 1S24. The chapel contains handsome altars, 


and a statue of "Our Lady of Prompt Succor." which was carved way back in 
1700, and brought to New Orleans by the sisters when they came to found 
their beautiful work. The statue is of wood richly gilded aud carved and 
represents the Virgin and Child. The solemn coronation of this statue took 
place in 1895. The crowns, which were the gift of the people, are of solid gold, 
magnificently studded with precious stones and are valued at $20,000. The 
work of the Ursulines runs as a golden thread throughout the history of Lou- 
isiana. For nearly one hundred and fifty years, every incident of note was in 
some measure connected with their earnest efforts, and their influence has 
always been exercised for good; so much so, that every report of Governors of 
early days insists upon the fact that one might "as well try to establish a gov- 
ernment without funds as to do without sisters.*' 

Recently the old Convent celebrated its oue hundredth and seventy-fifth 
commencement. Year in and year out, in sunshine and shadow, as the history of 
the city ran, the Convent has sent out its laurel-wreathed graduates to reflect 
credit upon its ancient name. Still do the invitations to these exclusive occasions 


announce "Le Couronnement do la Sagasse," or the "Crowning of Wisdom," 
This simple term, so beautiful and expressive, as compared to the somewhat 
dubious word "Commencement," so commonly in vogue, illustrates perhaps, in 
a forcible manner, the reason why, throughout New Orleans, there is so much 
significance in the names of places, streets, objects, as applied by the early 
colonists and retained to this day. The Ursulines were the teachers of the 
women of Louisiana, and the women made the homes; here the sure foundations 
laid by the nuns, bore fruit and later found expression in the life and thought of 
the people. 

A few squares further on is the old Church of St. Maurice, lying over to- 
wards the woods. It is the parish church of upper St. Bernard Parish. 

The next point of interest below the city is the Slaughter House. It is 
just across the lower boundary Hue of Orleans Parish, in St. Bernard. 
The slaughtering pens, or abattoirs, are in full operation about 3 o'clock p. m., 
and are usually interesting to visitors. Adjacent to the abattoirs are the pens 
where the cattle are confined pending execution. Most of the cattle received 


and butchered here come from Texas. The butchers are, for the most part, 
Gascons, who speak the language of the Lower Pyrenees. 

The United States Barracks, 

officially known as the Jackson Barracks, are at the terminus of 
the Rampart cars. The entrance, which is in a sort of network 
in the river front, is between two heavy brick towers over fifty 
years old. The Barracks buildings are disposed around the parade ground, 
and the whole is inclosed in thick brick walls. The corners of the walls are de- 
fended by towers pierced for musketry. Every evening the twilight gun is 
tired, the soldiers salute the flag in the center of the grass plot, and the nation's 
symbol is then hauled down for the night. 

The Battle Field of Chalmette, 

where General Jackson on January S, 1S15, won his famous victory over the 
British, is about a mile and a half from the Barracks. It may be reached by a 
carriage drive along the river front; but on a pleasant day the walk is enjoy- 
able. Intelligence that the British Government had fitted out an expedition 
which was intended for the capture of New Orleans and Mobile reached the 
authorities at Washington, December 9, 1814, and the President directed the 
Governors of Kentucky, Tennessee and Georgia to dispatch their militia to 
New Orleans. General Andrew Jackson went to the city to take charge of the 
defense. He promptly organized his forces. The Creoles gallantly enlisted. 
Jackson also enrolled convicts and free men of color. With the volunteers 
from other neighboring States, his force was speedily swelled to 5,000 men, of 
whom less than 1,000 were regulars. The British Army was in command of 
General Pakenham. It was composed of 7,000 picked soldiers, including vet- 
erans who had served under Wellington, and a portion of the British Chesapeake 
force under Admiral Cochrane. They were transported in fifty large vessels, 
and anchored off the entrance to Lake Borgne in the latter part of December. 
A meager flotilla of American gunboats opposed their landing, but it was speed- 
ily and effectually dispersed. The enemy took full possession of Lake Borgne, 
and effecting a landing an Ship Island crossed to the Northwestern end of 
Lake Borgne, and on Dec. 25 struck the Mississippi about nine miles below New 
Orleans. The British believed that their near approach was unsuspected, but 
Major Villere, who resided at Corinne Plantation warned General Jackson. 
The latter, supported by two armed vessels, took a small portion of his force 
and boldly attacked the enemy on the evening of Dec. 24. He succeeded in doing 
little else than showing the British that he was prepared to make a gallant 
defense. On December 28 Pakenham returned General Jackson's attack, but 
being unable to break the American lines recoiled before the effective artillery 
fire of the Americans. Nothing was then done for nearly two weeks. In that 
interval General Jackson was reinforced by 2,000 Kentuckians under General 
Adair. Of this number 700 were marched to the front. The British also were 
reinforced by a detachment under General Lambert, one of Wellington's officers. 
This brought up their number to 10,000. On the morning of January 8, 1815, 
the battle of New Orleans was fought. General Pakenham made a desperate 
effort to carry the American position. The Americans were drawn up within 
five miles of the city, along the banks of Rodriguez Canal and the Chalmette 
Plantation. The defense extended from the river back to the swamps. The 
British occupied a position between the Chalmette and Villere Plantations, and 
their field works extended to the old Bienville Plantation. The attack began at 
dawn and lasted till 8 o'clock. It began with artillery fire under cover of which 
Pakenham advanced with the main body of his troops. The Americans with- 
held their fire till the enemy was within 200 yards. Then volley after volley 
was fired with marvellous precision. The slaughter was tremendous. The at- 
tack was renewed repeatedly, but with no better results. General Pakenham 
was mortally wounded and was borne off the field to the plantation of Major 
Villere, where he died. General Gibbs, the second in command, was also mor- 
tally wounded, and General Keane upon whom the command then devolved was 
disabled by a shot in the neck. General Lambert then assumed command. He 


A — J acksoivs Headquarters. B, C, D— I avalrv. E— American Redoubt 

Pirate! , on. H— British Batteries. J— Part of British Attack 

M— Pakenham killed. 

F— Laffite's 

K— Monument. 


abandoned the attack, withdrew to the ships, and on the following day re- 
in ated to Lake Borgne. The British loss lias been conservatively estimated at 
2.000, of whom less than 500 were taken prisoners. The American loss was 
8 killed and 13 wounded. 

The Chalmette Monument 

marks the place where the battle was fought. It stands on the grounds of 
the ancient Chalmette Plantation, which was laid out by M. Chalmette de 
Ligny, the ancestor of one of the oldest families in Louisiana. The erection 
of the monument was begun between 1830 and 1840. under an appropriation 
fr im the State When the shaft reached the height of 60 feet the money was 
nsted and the work abandoned. The monument has been placed by a 
State enactment under the care of the Daughters of 1770-18113. The Association 


intends to petition Congress for funds to complete the monument as the victory 
of the Battle of New Orleans was a national one. 

Adjoining the monument site, is a tine old colonial building. In the year 
1815 it was the residence of Mr. Montgomery, a wealthy merchant. It was here 
that General Jackson made his headquarters during the battle. This historic 
house is now owned and occupied by Judge Rene Beauregard, son of the famous 
Confederate General. 

It was here that the Marquis de Lafayette was first received when he 
visited New Orleans early in the century. He landed in a small boat imine- 
ditely in front of the house, and was received in a room on the second floor by 
the then Governor, Mayor and principal officials. 

Further on is the old Villere plantation, where General Pakenham breathed 
his last. 

The property now called the Corinne Plantation is owned by Mr. E. P, 
Fleitas. General Pakenham was buried beneath an immense pecan tree near 


the old mansion house. At his side was laid Colonel Dale of the Ninety-third 
Highlanders. The pecan tree still bears fruit, and curiously enough, while the 
meat of all the pecans on the plantation is the usual white and brown, the 
fruit of this particular tree is a deep red. The negroes have an old tradition 
that the blood of Pakenham saturated the soil of the tree under which he 
was buried, and this percolating through the roots of the tree, caused the fruit 
to be dyed with his blood. You could not persuade one of the negro slaves for 
miles around to eat one of the pecans from that tree. A short distance further 
down will be found the beautiful 

Chalmette Cemetery. 

The United States purchased, in 1865, a portion of the old battle field and 
converted it into this lovely burial place. The grounds, covered with hundreds 
of little white marble headstones, each marking the grave of some unknown 

jackson's headquarters during the battle, now residence of 
judge beauregard. 

soldier killed in the Civil War. are laid out in a tasteful manner, with shelled 
walks and avenues of trees. The earthworks outside the walls of the cemetery 
were erected by the Confederates, during the Civil War as part of the defenses 
of the city. 

A mile below the cemetery is the terminal of the New Orleans and Western 
Railway, known as Port Chalmette. It is owned by an English syndicate and 
represents an investment of $2,000,000. Port Chalmette may be reached by 
the Shellbeach train, whose depot is at the corner of St. Claude and Elysian 
Fields Streets. 

Returning from the battle grounds "f Chalmette by the Rampart and Dau- 
phine car, just after the curve in Poland Street, where the car station stands, 
are the old grounds of tin- "Macarty Square." The grounds are named for an 
ancient Franco-Irish family that followed the fortunes of the Bourbons, and 
came as exiles to New Orleans. 

Overlooking the square is the handsome McDonogh No. 12 public school. 

At the curnor of Independence and Rampart Streets is the Convent of the 
Marianites of the Holy Cross, a sisterhood which, having its mother hon 
Franco, was called to New Orleans some .sixty eighl years ago to assist in the 
cdueation of youth. 

Two squares from Rampart Street, and easily seen from the ears, there 
stands at the corner of Marais and Mandeville Streets the little old French 
Church of the Annunciation, erected over fifty years ago for the French-speak- 
ing people of the Faubourg Marigny. It is in the old French style of architec- 
ture, as also the portion of the quaint presbytery, now the residence of Rt. Rev, 
Gustave A. Rouxel, auxiliary bishop of New Orleans. The beautiful, old-fash- 
ioned garden, with its little shrine of Our Lady of Lourdes, is well worth rj 

Adjoining are the handsome convent building, school and chapel of th© 
Sisters of Perpetual Adoration, an exiled order of nuns from Alsace and Lor- 
raine, who came to New Orleans after the German occupation. The chapel 
is very beautiful. Night and day, at all hours, there are always two sisters 
kneeling and keeping watch before the "Blessed Sacrament;" hence the name, 
"Perpetual Adoration,'' which distinguishes the community. 

At the corner of Rampart and Kerlerec Streets is the hall of the "Etoile 
Polaire,"' or Polar Star, the home of a Masonic Lodge, which existed in New- 
Orleans in Pere Antoine's clay, and which celebrated the one hundredth an- 
niversary of its organization several years ago. Riding thence to Canal Street,, 
the circuit of the French Quartei is completed, 


Front, Lower Chartres and Esplanade. 

The Levee and Barracks car, which may be taken just before the Custom- 
house, on Canal Street, will afford a tine view of the entire Lower Levee front, 
the shipping in port as far as the rue d'Enghien. when the car curves around 
into the ancient Moreau (now Chartres) Street of the old Faubourg Marigny. 
Between Port and St. Ferdinand, the car passes a long row of fine old brick 
buildings, now, for the most part, alas! degenerated in the social scale to the 
rank of cheap lodging-houses and Italian fruit vendors' establishments. But 
this square Avas, in its day, the most aristocratic of the old Faubourg Marigny; 
each house was a mansion in itself, and the tall, brick buildings annexed in the 
long rows in. the rear were quarters of the household slaves that served in the 
exclusive families of the Notts, Kennedys, Dolhondes and others, who were the 
owners of the soil. Receptions seeking to rival the palmiest days of the "Yieux 
Carre" were given in these homes. At the corner of St. Ferdinand and Char- 
tres stand the old Kennedy and Nott mansions. Adjoining was a famous and; 
exclusive "Creole- Pension." It was here that General Joseph Wheeler, the 
"Fighting Joe of the Confederacy," and his beautiful wife stopped when they 
visited New Orleans in 18G6, immediately after the war. 

Just around the corner, in the ancient rue Casa Calvo, now a continua- 
tion of Royal Street, is another fine row of old houses, three stories in height; 
in one of these, 2712, Mme. Beauregard, mother of the famous Louisiana hero, 
lived when she was a young girl. One of the most beautiful old courtyards in 
New Orleans lies hidden from the street, in the rear of this ancient home. 

At the corner of Chartres and Mazant streets, St. Mary's Orphan Boys' 
Asylum, an immense brick pile erected nearly sixty years ago for the accommo- 
dation of the orphan boys of the city, stands. This institution is in charge of 
the Sisters Marianites of the Holy < '" Since the first days of its erection 
it has seldom harbored less than 400 boys at a time, ranging in all ages from 
babyhood to fifteen and over. Some of the best citizens of Now Orleans have 
been reared in this asylum. 


At Poland Street the ear diverges to the station. 

The Esplanade and French Market Line may be taken in front of the Cus- 
tom-house, at the corner of Canal Street; at Villere Street a transfer is given to 
the Esplanade Avenue car. 

At the intersection of Esplanade and the Levee the car turns into the fine 
old avenue, the historic residence portion of the city in later Creole days. It is 
if the most beautiful streets in New Orleans, and is to the Creoles what 
St. Charles Avenue is to the Americans — the aristocratic residence street. The 
avenue, through its entire length, from the river to the Bayou St. John, is 
lined on either side of the car tracks with a continuous row of shade trees, 
which makes the street very pretty and attractive. The homes in the avenue 
are the center of Creole culture and refinement; fine old furnishings of the 
Louis Quatorze style adorn the interiors. Many romantic stories cluster about 
these hemes, and it is here, if you are so fortunate as to have a friend who 




can gain you admittance to the exclusive society of the old French Quarter, 
thai yon will see Creole beauty and society at its best. 

At 704 Esplanade Avenue, corner of Royal Street, is a fine old brick man- 
sion; this is the home of Mr. R. M. O'Brien, brother of the late Colonel Patrick 
O'Brien, who recently Left a legacy of $150,000 to the Catholic T 'Diversity of 
America, and erected, at a cost of $45,000, the beautiful new Church of the 
Sacred Heart, in Canal Street. New Orleans, and. besides, left numerous bene- 
Eaetions to charity, irrespecl Lve of creed. 

The large, three-storied brick building at the corner .,1' Esplanade Avenue 
and North Ramparl Street, is St. Aloysius Commercial College. The building 
was erected by the Frsulhie Nuns some twenty-five years ago at a cost of 
^75.000, and subsequently s,,i,| t,, the Brothers of the Sacred Heart for school 


At the corner of St. (Maude and Esplanade, just one square further on, is 
another beautiful and imposing brick structure, with an old Roman portico. 
This is the residence recently purchased by the Catholics of New Orleans for 
Hi- Archbishops of the diocese. The hall, laid in marble mosaic, is an exact 

oduction of the famous Pompeiian Hall in Rome. The house was built By 
a wealthy merchanl some fifty years ago, at a cosl of $175,000, and was the 
home of Captain Cuthbert Slocomb, of the famous Washington Artillery, who 
I nobly in the Civil War. 

The handsome brick church on the lower side of Esplanade Avenue, be- 
tween Mara is and Villere, is 

St. Anna's Episcopal Church. 

It occupies the siie el' a frame church which was erected in L869 at a 
c s1 of $10,000, by Dr. Mercer, in memory of liis onlychild, Anna. This build- 
in.; was destroyed by tire in INK',. Through the insurance and subscriptions 

h 1 btained from friends, Dr. Girault, who was then rector, began the 

ction of the present edifice, (lie cornerstone of which was- laid in Marc! 1 , 
t>77. The church freed from debt, was consecrated in 1886. The total cost 
was $15,000. Dr. Girault died in 1889, and was succeeded by the present rec- 
tor. Dr. E. W. Hunter. Dr. Hunter is a ritualist, and Si. Anna's is the only 
opal Church in the city in which very High Church services are held. 

At 1633 Esplanade Avenue is the residence in which General P. G. T. 
Beauregard died. 

Within sight of the Esplanade Avenue car. as it reaches the corner of 
Johnson Street, is the "Home for the Aged and Infirm," conducted by the Little 
Sisters of the Poor. The building, a large, three-storied brick structure, stands 
within beautiful grounds at the corner of Laharpe and Johnson streets, within 
two squares of Esplanade. Nearly three hundred old men and women, all 
sixty, and many reaching far into the nineties, are cared for here by this 




gentle sisterhood. Everyone in New Orleans knows the "Little Sisters" as they 
go about, from clay to day. in their great black capes and hoods, begging food 
and clothing for their helpless old charges. A visit to the institution is both 
interesting and instructive. The home is the old down-town counterpart of the 
great building on Prytania Street, in the up-town section of the city. At 
this latter institution 200 old men and women are the wards of these faithful 
nuns. Both of these magnificent "Homes for the Aged" were erected through 
the tireless efforts of the "Little Sisters." 


The small triangle, containing a beautiful fountain in terra cotta. on the 
avenue, between Miro and Tonti Streets, is the Gayarre Place, so named for 
Louisiana's illustrious historian. 

At 2410 Esplanade Avenue, in a square of ground exquisitely laid out in 
flowers and tropical palms is the home of Hon. Paul Capdevielle, the 

Present Mayor of New Orleans. 

This fine old mansion with its stately porticoes, broad galleries and spacious 
surroundings, is a fine type of the later Creole style of architecture. It was 
built in 1857 by Pierre Smile, United States Senator and American Ambassador 
to Spain. Mr. Soule occupied it from January to June of that year. Mr. 
Capdevielle, who sbsequetftly purchased the place, lias greatly beautified it. 
His heme is the center of the culture and hospitality that made old New 
Orleans distinctive among the cities of the South and of the Union. The home 
is easily recognized by the beautiful fountain playing in the avenue that leads 
up to the main entrance, and by the stately magnolia trees, twined with ivy, 
which surround the garden on all' sides. A little further on, between Crete and 
Bell Streets, is a beautiful little garden plot called Capdevielle Park, in honor 
of the Mayer. 

The Greek Church of the Holy Trinity is on a street known both as Dol- 
honde and Dorgenois, within view of Esplanade Avenue. Services are not 


held regularly. The ornaments on the altar wore presented by the late Em- 
press of Russia. 

The Jockey Club is on Esplanade Avenue, near Bayou Bridge. It was a 
private residence and occupies a whole square of ground on the lower side of 
the street. It is one of the most attractive spots in New Orleans. The house 
is of the French si vie of architecture and opens upon a beautiful terrace, in 
one of the wings is a bowling alley. The mansion stands in the midst: of a 
garden. On gala occasions these gardens used to be illuminated with Chinese 
lanterns and electric lights, presenting a scene of enchanting beauty. Admis- 
sion is by card from members. 

In the rear, and a little to one side of the Jockey Club, are the Fair 
Grounds. These contain a race course, and grandstand capable of seating 
8,000 people. Horse racing takes place here annually, there being a winter 
meeting of over 100 days, conducted by the Crescent City Jockey Club, followed 
by a spring meeting of six days under the auspices of the New Louisiana Jockey 
Club, in which the best horses and most famous jockeys participate. The 

\ \\:\\ IN CITY PAKK. 

course was formerly called the Gentilly Race Course. During the season the 
cars run directly to the course, depositing passengers at the entrance. The race 
track is esieemed one of the best and fastest in the United States. As the 
name implies, the Fair Grounds were laid out and devoted for many years to 
the annual exposition of Louisiana industries in the form of a State Fair. For 
some years, however, the State Fairs have been discontinued. The reunion of 
United Confederate Veterans will be held at the Fair Grounds May 10. 1902. 
The acceptance of the invitation to come to New Orleans necessitated the imme- 
diate erection of an immense Auditorium, which will be located near the center 
of the grounds, just beyond the grand stand. It will cost from $12,000 to 
$15,000. and will have a seating capacity of about 15,000. while the .spacious 
grounds and other buildings will afford ample room for entertainment. 

Adjoining the Jockey Club Grounds is the new St. Louis Cemetery. Some 
of the tombs are very handsome. 

On Bayou St. John. 300 yards from Esplanade, will be found the Soldiers' 
Home, or Camp Nicholls, as it is sometimes called. It derives the latter ap- 


pellation from Ex-Governor F. T. Nicholls, under whose administration it was 
founded as a retreat for maimed and disabled Confederates. The place is 
noted for tin' beauty of its gardens. 

Crossing Bayou Bridge, it may interest the tourist to know that he is in 
the immediate vicinity of the spot where Bienville effected his first landing on 
Louisiana soil, when he came across Lake Poutchartrain and down the Bayou 
in 1718. It is not possible to identify the exact spot now. Some curious old 
shipyards lie along the Bayou, one of which, at least, dates from Spanish days. 

The Louisiana Boat Club and the Crescent Boat Club have quarters on the 
hank, and hold an annual regatta here. 

The handsome oaks of Southern Park, a picnic resort, will be noticed 
along the route. 

Bayou St. John, 

named for Bienville's patron saint, is one of the most picturesque and historic 
spots in the city. It was on the banks of this bayou that Le Page du Pratz, 


the first Louisiana historian, built his pretty villa, lie came to New Orleans in 
171S to cist his fori une with the infant colony. It was mi this Bayou that his 
life was miraculously saved bj a beautiful Indian girl, who became devotedly 
attached tu his service and win. grave him the thread id" the wonderful traditions 
,ind songs of Louisiana that he has so beautifully woven into fact and fiction. 
As the colony grew, the most aristocratic families of the ancient colony had 
their summer villas on the Bayou St. John, and here and there nestling amid 
bhe tropica] palms and foliage, one still catches a glimpse of these olden villas, 
alas! falling into decay. The hanks of the l'.ayou are fringed with palmettos 
and plantain trees, and the tall "Spanish Dagger," whose beautiful white blos- 
soms, rising in pyramidal clusters, are the wonder and delight of the tourist 
in the early summer and late spring. The Bayou is very mysterious and is 
Crowded with a dense growth as it merges into the lake. It was in these sylvan 
solitudes thai the "Voudoos"' used to hold their bacchaua lian festivals on the 
night of St. John's Eve. 


City Park. 

The park was once a wooded plantation, and contains 216.60 acres, only a 
portion of which, however, has been improved. The grove of live oaks are the 
wonder and admiration of botanists and scientists. These live oaks are said 
to be the finest in the world. The trees are draped in the ghostly gray Spanish 
to which allusion is so frequently made by Louisiana poets. The lake 
was formed artificially by enlarging Bayou Sauvage, which formerly ran 
through the park. Under one of the oak trees stands a tomb in saddest decay. 
It is the last resting place of Louis Allard, a" man of letters and a poet, who 
owned all that tract of laud extending from the Bayou St. John to the Orleans 
Canal, and from the Metairie Road to the old toll-gate. The portion which is 
called the "Lower City Park," was sold by Allard, previous to his death, to 
John McDonogh, the millionaire miser-philanthropist, of old New Orleans. At 
his death, McDonogh left it by will to the cities of New Orleans and Baltimore; 
the City of New Orleans acquired it in full ownership at the partition sale, 
and decided to devote it to park purposes. Allard, who was then very poor, was 


permitted, by special agreement, after the mortgage sale to continue to live at 
the place. He spent his declining days under his beloved oaks, dreaming of the 
past and reading his favorite authors. In compliance with his dying wish he 
was buried in this quiet spot under his favorite oak. The tomb is in full view 
coming from the Metairie Road. Glance obliquely to the left and the legendary 
oaks on the 

Famous Dueling Ground 

of old New Orleans rise in solemn grandeur. 

Their green boughs throw back the sunlight with all the brightness and 
elasticity of everlasting youth, and the whispering leaves tell of a time, scarcely 
fifty years remote, when tragedy and gayety walked side by side in New Or- 
leans, and it was an every day occurrence to see under those very branches a 
meeting of adversaries in mortal combat, with pistol, saber or shotgun, or 

A thousand stories are told of the bloody encounters which took place in 
the early morning under the "Oaks." There was no compromise with honor in 
those days; society did not permit it. With the advent of Napoleon's disbanded 

c ns and noble "emigres" from France, there was a greal renaissance in 
duels, and fencing masters were kepi busy teaching the "jeunesse dore" in the 
ancient "Salle de St. Philippe." Among the most famous masters were Marcel 
Da phin, who was killed in a duel by another master, Bonneval, who was 
wounded by the professional swordsman, Reynard; L'Alouette, who killed Shu- 
bra, another professor; Thimecourt, who killed the famous Italian fencing mas- 
ter, Poulaga, ami Gilberl Rosiere, called by Ins pupils "'Tit Rosiere," the most 
popular of all the fencing masters who ever came to New Orleans. But the 
most famous of all was Pepe Llula; of him the most wonderful stories were 
told, but the following will suffice: 

It happened that New Orleans was all a (lame with sympathy for the filibus- 
ters «ho had made an unsuccessful attempt to free Cuba from the control of 
Spain. Pepe was an ardent Spanish partisan, and issued a manifesto, ehal- 
Qg all the Cuban sympathizers. Many of them took up the glove. Pepe 
met them, and, making use of a thrust for which he was famous — driving his 
colichemard into the lung and giving it a vicious twist there — killed each of his 
antagonists. The result was that after a while the Cubans refused to meet 


What a troop of ghostly stories come up under the "Oaks!" Every imagin- 
able cause of quarrel was settled under these ancient trees. Some slight in- 
fringement of ballroom etiquette, a quarrel with a rival lover, a difference of 
opinion in politics, the last opera, the ability of the famous "falcon" to reach a 
certain note, legal points, scientific t]uestions — all came to a direct issue under 

these "Oaks." It was at a famous ball at Mine. 's. in the Rue Royale, 

that a gallant cavalier approached a beautiful belle as she was promenading. 
The dance was given for charity's sake. The girl held a little book of "raffles" 
in her hand. "Allow me, mademoiselle, to take -some chances," asked the 
cavalier. Before she could reply, her companion replied grimly: "The chances 
are all taken, sir." "I will meet you later," said the cavalier, under breath. 
They met in the morning with broadswords under the oaks. An hour later the 
gallant cavalier breathed his last, just on the spot where Louis Allard is buried. 
A celebrated European scientist, who was visiting New Orleans, laughed at the 
Mississippi River in the presence of a Creole, saying that it was nothing but 
a tiny rill compared to the great rivers of Europe. "Sir." answered the Creole, 
"1 will never permit anyone to disparage the Mississippi River in my presence." 


The result was a duel under the oaks at sunrise, and the scientist received a 
severe wound in his cheek. Oh! there are legends enough and true stories, 
too. of those who fought and died in this spot, and of beautiful maidens 
rushing between the combatants just as the fatal lunge wa,s given. There were 
the famous series of duels with broadswords in the year 1840, when the fencing 
masters themselves fought and killed one another, just to "show their art.'' 
And there was the famous duel on horseback between a French cavalry officer 
and a young Creole, when the Creole, by a peculiar half-circle stroke which he 
he had learned from his master. Pepe Llula, plunged his sword through the 
French officer's body. 

All these, and a thousand others, are the stories inseparably connected with 
the "Oaks." The code was very strict. A gentleman could not fight anyone 
whom he could not ask to his house. Dueling is a thing of the long, dead past 
in New Orleans to-day. It does not matter much whether a man fights or not; 
men have other ways of showing themselves gentlemen. But "Killed on the 
Field of Honor" is a common enough legend in the old St. Louis cemeteries. 

Leaving the ancient "Oaks" the tourist may see another very interesting 
section of "Old New Orleans" after it had spread beyond the Rampart Street 
limits, by taking the "Bayou Road" cars, near the Grande Route St. John. 



This line passes through the old street that was the fashionable drive of New 
Orleans in early days. The beautiful trees and gardens all along the Rues 
Ursulines and Bayou Road show the interest which the ancient Creoles took 
in this "grand promenade." 

On Bayou Road, between North Dorgenois and North Broad, is the beau- 
tiful little church of St. Rose de Lima. The congregation ds exclusively French. 

At the corner of North Tonti and Hospital Streets stands the Thorny Lafon 
Home for the Aged and Infirm of the colored race. The site is that of the old 
"St. Bernard's Home for Aged Colored Women," founded by the Sisterhood 
of the Holy Family, in 1842. 

At the corner of St. Philip and Galrez Street, is St. Joseph's Convent, for 
the education of young ladies. The beautiful old grounds and quaint building 
are deserving of a visit. Within the grounds is a handsome fac simile of the 
famous Grotto of Lourdes. Thence the car passes through Ursulines and Bur- 
gundy Street, curious even in its decay, to Canal Street. 

A good view of this rear portion of New Orleans may also be had by taking 

the Broad Street car. some tine morninu. in Canal Street, and riding through 

old Dauphine Street, now, alas.' also in decay, to Dumaine, Broad, Laharpe and 

Gentilly Road. Quaint old Creole houses line the route, and occasionally one 

oss ;in entire square in the rue Dumaine of almost primitive Spanish 


Architecture. The people in this rear section of il Iden city are all French- 
speaking, and. al times one conies across a family speaking nothing bul the 
Spanish of colonial New Orleans. 

At the corner of Dumaine and Dauphihe Streets is the old French Convent 
<»f "Les Dames du Sacre Coeur," or 1 1 » < - Ladies of the Sacred Heart. It is a 
French order, founded a little over a century ago in France by Mine. Barat, for 
the education and religious training id' the daughters of the French nobility. At 
the request of the ••exclusive" old French Quarter, a branch of the order came 
and located in New Orleans. To have attended the school of "Les Dames du 
Sacre Coeur" is considered "lout ce qu'il y a de parfait" among the ancient 
families. There is a magnificent old courtyard within the convent, and one is 
immediately impressed with the dignity, refinement and culture of the nuns. 
The handsome brick edifice in the rear of the Convent was erected some years 
ago by the Sisterhood at a cost of $20,000 as a free school for poor children. 

The old French Churcti of St. Anne is in St. Philip Street, near N. Prieur. 
As in St. Rose de Lima, the congregation is exclusively French; indeed, one 
may go for squares and squares in this rear portion of New Orleans and hear 
nothing but French in all its original purity. 

The "French Benevolent Association" has its asylum on St. Ann Street, be- 
tween Derbigny and North Roman. Returning by Bayou Road to Broad Street. 


the car passes into the old French Street of "St. Pierre," or St. Peter famous as 
the street in which the opera, drama and comedy, had birth in New Orleans. 

At the corner of this street and Dorgenois will be seen a beautiful old- 
fashioned building bearing the inscription. "Asile Thorny Lafon Pour Gargons 
Orplielins." or the Thorny Lafon Asylum for Orphan Boys. Mr. Lafon pur- 
chased and donated this building to the Sisters of the Holy Family as an or- 
phanage for colored boys. The house is built with great brick 
columns and broad galleries, after the manner of the ancient plantation homes. 
It was formerly two-storied; but, after the purchase, Mr. Lafon added a third 
story, which consists of one immense dormitory, containing fifteen or eighteen 
windows and commanding a pleasant view of the entire grounds. One spacious 
apartment has been fitted up as a chapel, and within is a marble tablet to the 
memory of Mr. Lafon, the noted colored philanthropist of New Orleans. The 
Sisterhood found in him the type of a noble Catholic gentleman and true bene- 
factor. Mr. Lafon continued his great benefactions, donating to the Sisterhood 
the money to erecte and establish a "Home for Aged Colored Men," adjoining 
the ancient "St. Bernard's Home for Aged Colored Women" in Tonti and Hos- 
pital Streets. He put the latter home in perfect repair, renovating and enlarging 
it on the same plan as the home for old men. 


The colored people of New Orleans owe much to Thorny Lafon. No man 
ever did as much for the elevation of the nice. At his death he left thousands 
of dollars to charity, irrespective of tare or creed. Conspicuous among his 
charities was a beg.ues1 of sonic $30,000 for the establishment of a home, under 
the auspices of the Sisters of the House of the Good Shepherd, for the reclaim- 
ing of fallen colored women. 


The Old French Parish of St. Bernard — Algiers. 

Before leaving the lower section of the city and while its songs and stories 
still linger in the mind the tourist will do well to visit the old French Parish 
of St. Bernard, with which the "Vieux Carre," in its families and histories is 
inseparably connected, as also to cross over the river to Algiers, where Bien- 
ville located the "Plantations of the King." 

St. Bernard's Parish extends southeast of New Orleans, from the Barracks 
to the English Turn, for a distance of twelve miles along the left bank of the 
Mississippi River, and thence obliquely to the south, following Bayou Terre- 
aux-Boeufs and Lake Lery till it touches the sea. 

It was way back in 1778 that a colony was founded in this section by 
Governor Bernardo Galvez. He called the spot New Galvez; but the colony 
insisted that the entire parish be called St. Bernard, after its founder's patron 
saint. Afterward, the Creoles nick-named it "Terre-aux Boeufs," or "Oxen 
Land," because The colonist? used oxen in working the soil. Even to this day 
the village next to St. Bernard, as also the Bayou that skirts it, carry the 
name of Terre-aux-Boenfs. 

Properly speaking, St. Bernard cannot be classed among the rural par- 
ishes of Louisiana ; by its contiguity to New Orleans, many hold it as a sort 
of prolongation or suburb of the great metropolis, and even before the advent 
of electricity cue could mount a horse or take a carriage, or even the bobtail 
car, and before breakfast have a pleasant stroll under the oaks of St. Bernard, 
where many of the wealthy residents of the city had their country homes. 
Driving through tho parish, along the river bank, one sees on all sides magnifi- 
cent sites for parks and homes, and fine old colonial houses nestling among the 

"Saxenholm," is the ancient home of Colonel B. S. Story, who married 
Miss Jennie Washington, great-great-grand-daughter of Colonel Lawivne . 
Washington, the older half-brother of the illustrious "Father of the Country. " 
No home in the entire South is more interesting than this old mansion, which 
is a type of Louisiana's earliest colonial homes. The house is upward of one 
hundred and twenty-live years old, and is one of the most magnificently fur- 
nished in the South; grand old pieces of black carved oak, rarely seen in these 
days: ancient tapestries and paintings; and, above all, relics innumerable of our 
own Washington, Martha Washington and Nellie Custis, make it a place of 
historic interest. Many of the most valuable souvenirs and relics at Mount 
Vernon have been furnished by Mrs. Story. 

A mile northwest of Saxenholm is an old ruined brick pile, around which 
clings the wildest and most romantic story in Louisiana. It was the home of 
no less a person than Alexandra Petrovitz, the morganatic wife of the Czaro- 
witz, Alexis Petrowitz, who married her without the consent of his royal father 
in 1722. The stern, uncompromising Russia of that day banished her from its 
borders, and forced her to take passage on a German emigrant vessel, bound 
for John Law's concession in the Arkansas District. The fact that the dis- 
tinguished and unfortunate lady was really on this vessel is vouched for by 
Voltaire in his ■'History of the French Revolution." The vessel, tossed by 
winds and storms, finally made its way to Louisiana and the emigrants landed 


in St. Charies Parish just above New Orleans, on a strip of laud thai is called 
''The German Coast." Turn to the heart by the brutal treatment that she 
bad received, the Russian Princess sought a borne Ear from the settlement at 
New Orleans, and had this old brick pile erected in the fastnesses of primitive 
St. Bernard's Parish. It was bere thai the Chevalier d'Aubant, who had never 
forgotten the beautiful Princess who bad won his heart at the royal festivities 
in St. Petersburg years before, found her at last. He had sailed the world over 
trying to locate her, after hearing of the brutal treatment thai she had received 
from the monarch whom she loved. Determined to be near her to watch over 
and protect her, if he could not marry her. the Chevalier d'Aubant took up 
his residence in the New Orleans colony, and it was hero that many years after 
the death of Alexis Pet row it/., be at length persuaded her to forget the past 
and marry him. She returned with him to Paris, and afterward accompanied 
him to the He de Bourbon, when he was sent into banishment. After his 
death she returned to this old spot, where she died in great poverty and misery. 
She was buried near the ruins. 


It is the pride and glory of the ancient Parish of St. Bernard that it 
was the 

Cradle of the Sugar Industry. 

It was on the old plantation home of Don Antonio Mendes, now known as the 
Reaud Place, that the historic word "Qa Granule" (it granulates) were heard 
for the first time as in 17!)1 a small group of planters interested in Don An- 
tonio's experiments gathered around an old wooden mill, while Morin, a sugar- 
maker from Cuba, whose services .Mendes had secured, sought to teach them 
the fabrication of sugar from the cane. This was the first sugar ever made 
in Louisiana. Mendes also succeeded in refining sugar; at a dinner given to 
the Spanish authorities he presented them with "several loafs of the sugar he 
had refined. At dessert Don Rendon, the Spanish Intendant, toasted the sugar 


and held it up to the assembled guests as a "Louisiana Product." Mendes con- 
tinued the culture of cane, but on a very small scale. In 1794 he sold his plant 
to another planter named Etienne de Bore, who succeeded in producing a crop 
that was the death blow to the ancient indigo industry of Louisiana, and placed 
sugar forever at the head of its great staples. But the Mendes family clung to 
the fact that Don Antonio had produced the first sugar, and it is pathetically 
told how on her dying bed his daughter repeated again and again till her breath 
tailed, "Dire que (•"est mon pere qui a fait le premier sucre dans la Louisiane." 
(Saj thai it was my father who made the first sugar in Louisiana.) Near by 
this historic site is the ancient estate of Mr. Joseph Coiron, now known as the 
Millaudon and Lesseps Plantations. In 1818 Mr. Coiron put up on this site 
the first steam engine ever used to grind sugar cane. Two years later he in- 
troduced the first red ribbon cane from Georgiga and used it instead of the ten- 
der Creole variety. These improvements operated most advantageously to the 
success of the industry and Coiron's name lives in the history of sugar in this 
section. The fine plantations of Marcel Ducros. Story, Claverie and Reggio 
follow. It was on the Reggio place that a Spaniard named Soli.s, who then 
owned all this tract, essayed in 1785 to manufacture sugar from the cane and 
continued his operations until 1790, using a little wooden mill that he had 


brought from Cuba. He succeeded only in making syrup and an indifferent 
quality of rum called "tafia." 

Large tracts of land along this route are owned now by an English syndi- 
cate, which lias erected an immense plant on the "Kenilworth" estate. 

The most romantic memories of St. Bernard are connected with stories of 

Lafitte and His Barataria Pirates. 

The word "Barataria" is an adaptation of a curious old Creole word, 
"Barateur," or "Barato," signifying "cheap." for the smuggled goods, rare and 
beautiful that were sold by the pirates were "very cheap." It has already 

I " told how Lafitte had his famous smithy in Bourbon and St. Philip Street. 

But he had his trysting place on the Island of Grande Terre, in Barataria Bay. 
His smugglers were composed of desperate men of all nations, contrabands, 
pirates and what not. They were the "wild men of the Spanish Main," and it 
was said that they carried the black flag and attacked vessels of all nations 
and did not hestitate to make their prisoners "walk the plank," that terror of 


old pirate stories of lli<' deep. "Nez Coup§," so called because his nose was cut 
off, and who lived at Grande Terre many years after the pirates ceased their 
depredations, used to declare that the beautiful daughter of Aaron Burr, who 
was supposed to have been lost at sea, was made "to walk the plank" 
by command of Lafitte. Lafitte used to deny that he was a pirate and dignified 
his calling by the name >f : "privateer." Whenever he was apprehended he said 
thai he and his men were cruising with the permission of France. He carried 
the flag of the Republic of Carthagena, a province of New Grenada, that 
had rebelled againsl Spain, and said that he attacked only the ves- 
sels of Spain. which was then at war with Carthagena and 
u ranee. "Nez Coupe" used to tell how one of the boldest of Lafitte's men 
laughed in the face of his commander one day at the mere idea of being a 
"privateer." and said that he was "a pirate and was proud of it." Lafitte drew 
his pistol and shot him through the heart in the presence of his companions. 
A tradition of the parish is that when Claiborne, the first American Governor, 
indicted the Baratarians and arrested the two brothers, Jean and Pierre Lafitte, 
at their smithy and lodged them in the "calaboose," without the privilege of 
bail, the brothers engaged at a fee of twenty thousand dollars each the services 
of the celebrated lawyers, Edward R. Livingston and John R. Grymes, 


the most distinguished members of the bar of Louisiana. Of course, 
with such advocates, the Lafittes were acquitted; the fee was instantly paid, 
and John Lafitte, after giving warning to his men, invited Messrs. Livingston 
and Grymes to .spend a week with him at Barataria and see for themselves if 
the verdict were not just. Mr. Livingston politely declined, but Mr. Grymes 
accepted. It was impossible to discover a trace of smuggled goods or illicit 
trade. Lafitte entertained him royally, but it is also told that before Mr. 
Grymes had finished accepting his hospitality or that of Lafitte's "planter 
friends" along the coast, that he lost every "picayune" of his immense fee 
playing cards. 

A pleasant day may be spent by taking the 

Shell Beach Railroad. 

at the head of Elysian Fields Street, and enjoying the run of an hour and a 
half down to the Gulf. The trip takes the tourist through beautiful plantations, 
a touch of southern jungle, and finally brings one out on the shelving, shelly 
beach, with the gray waters of the Gulf of Mexico lashing and lapping at one's 

At. the terminus of the Shell Beach Road is the old town of Proctorville, 
which was destroyed by a storm in I860. It was then the terminus of the 
ancient Mexican Gulf Road, which lias been replaced by the Shell Beach. 


The little village of Ste. Croix, situated on both sides of Bayou Terre-aux- 
Boeufs, is very picturesque. The village is still tlie property of Mmo. La Com- 
tesse de Livaudais du Sivan de la Croix, who belongs to one of the most dis- 
tinguished families of France and who now resides in Paris. 

The village came down to her as an inheritance from her ancestors, who 
caine as exiles to Louisiana, and her interest in the sample "fisher folk" who in- 
habit it, and whom she calls "her children," is very pretty. She also owns a 
large plantation extending miles along the bayou, and has lately given, at a 
central point on her plantation, a beautiful site for the erection of a church, and 
school, no th(> exact spot where died, in 1N14, M. le Compte de Livaudais de la 

The quaint old church on Lake Lery, which runs through the settlement, is 
also worth a visit. This church was erected in 1778 by Calvez. It contains 
in its ancient register the baptismal certificates of General P. Cr. T. Beauregard, 
and his father and mother; of Mendes, Coiron, Livaudais and other found- 
ers of St. Bernard's Parish. 


is located on the right banks of the river and is best seen by taking the ferry 
at the foot of ("anal Street or Esplanade Avenue. Algiers has a population of 
ahout 13,000. The principal points along the river front are the dry docks, of 
which there are three. There are several coal yards along the river, at one of 
which is a modern iron and steel coal elevator, with a bucket capable of lifting 
over a ton of coal at a time. In the lower part of the town is located the 
great plant of the Southern Pacific Railroad and Steamship Company. Its ex- 
tensive system of wharves, over 2,500 feet long, all covered with substan- 
tial roof, furnish a landing for the Company's fleet of magnificent steamers 
running to New York and Havana. Just back of these is a series of buildings — 
workshops, foundries, storehouses, etc. The machinery plant is so complete 
thai a perfect locomotive can be turned out. The Company builds freight cars 
here, and makes all necessary repairs to passenger and freight cars. When 
all departments are at work it is estimated that as many as 1,500 men are 
employed there at one time. 

Algiers has its own ice and electric plant. 

Just below the Southern Pacific landing is situated the New Naval Station. 
with its immense floating dry dock, which is among the largest of its kind in the 


Peculiar Street Scenes — Vendors — Customs — The 


Having completed the circuit of the old French section of New Orleans 
before leading the visitor through the ever changing panorama of Canal Street, 
and across into the •■American Quarter," attention is called to peculiar street 
pictures that are nowhere else to be seen except in this unique old city. 

A vivid and charisteristic streel lite lends animation to the curious thor- 
oughfa re. 

Of a- morning the French Quarter is alive with the cries of the vendors, 
"Belle Calas! Tout chauds! tout chauds! "Belle Fromage," "Belle Ohaurice," 
indicating, first, a species of coffee cake called calas, which are "hot! hot!'* and 

again "('ream el se," and still again, a species of sausage very much liked by 

the children and called by the old Creole negresses. "( 'ha urice." Of an even- 
ing the old women pass with their baskets of "( 'oinlit ures Coco," and "Pra- 
lines," "Pistaches," "Paqt S," etc. Jackson and Washington Squares, where 


the children gather for an airing, are great resorts for these old vendors. A 
imhsi welcome cry in the heal of summer is to hear "Belle des Figues! Belle des 
Figues!" (Beautiful t i u s ! Beautiful figs!") 

Everything sold by these "Id aegresses is either 

"Belle" or "Bon, 

("Beautiful" or "Good.") and to their credit,- be il said, one can always rely 
iiliiiii their veracity. 

The fruit and vegetable vendors are for the most part Italian emigrant men 
and women. Negresses, bearing vegetables in large, shallow baskets poised upon 
their heads, also go by, calling their wares •'fresh and tine;" many housekeepers 
purchase their supplies from these itinerant vendors, the prices being exceedingly 
small, and usually scaled with the "Picayune" as a unit. 

A "Picayune" is equivalent to live cents, and is a corruption of the Spanish 
term "Picayon," applied to a coin in use in colonial days. 

"belle calas! tout chauds!" 


The milk carts are strictly indigenous. They are formed of a tall, green 
box. set between high wheels, and are driven almost invariably by <Jascons. 
The two large, bright, brass-bound metal cans that ornament the front of the 
»vagon compel the driver to stand up much of the time when driving, in order 
to see clearly the road before him. The milkman carries a bell, which he rings 
before the sates of patrons. 

Every retail grocer or street vendor or bakerman or cake-woman who sells 
in the old French Quarter is expected to give 


"Lagniappe" is a Spanish word, and in this connection means a certain 
bonus in kind, that is given with every purchase. But the children always ex- 
pect "lagniappe candy" or "cake" or "fruit." Some years ago an effort was 
made by certain progressive shopkeepers to abolish "lagniappe." There was a 
hue and cry and the old custom remained. It is a sweet and gracious one that 
the people like, and dealers who seek to ignore it soon lind to their cost thai 


their sales are less. "Quartie" is another helpful custom for the poor, by meaus 
of which a nickel or five cents is divided, and a purchase made half of one kind 
and half of another: for instance, half sugar and half coffee, etc. Negroes, 
especially, like "quartie." Some of them buy half bread (and they get a half 
loaf) and half coffee, and then ask fur "lagniappe" sugar. So what is there 
lacking for the morning meal? "Quartie" and "lagniar/pe" help many an humble 
home, for the grocer is expected to give as "lagniappe," whatever is asked for, 
whether flour, salt, black pepper, spice, etc. In the neighborhood of the French 
Market, and down in the'Faubourg Marigny, shopkeepers still adhere to the 
customs of the French merchants of a hundred years ago, and arrange their 
wares along the banquette to attrad the attention of the pa.ssers-by. 

"Bon Marche, Madame, Bon MareheT' they cry. just as in the olden days. 
and thrust their goods into your face, especially in the French Market vicinity, 
while the dark Italian emigrants, apt imitators, spread out their little hoard 
of bananas, potatoes ami cabbages upon rough sacks on the banquette, all along 
the rues Hospital and Ursulines, and sing out in broken English, "Freshee 
banana. Madame! Cheapee! Madame, five centee, Madame!" You meet a 
curion. peddler with a little wagon on wheels. He is one of the last of the 
famous old "Marchand Rabais," for which the quarter was noted in the days 



gone by. Each "marchand" had his own list of regular customers, and what 
you could not get in the way of small fancy trimmings in the big stores up- 
town, you were sure to find in his "little store on wheels." But the "Marchand 
Rabais," as a distinct business, is passing out of the life of the Faubourg, and 
the faces of the few you meet are very sad and pathetic. 

"Tin-a-feexy, Madame, tih-a-feexy!" and you turn to see a curious old man 
carrying a lighted furnace and a soldering iron. He is the "tin-a-feexy" man, 
and you catch an idea of his occupation, as some housekeeper rushes breath- 
lessly to the door with a broken pot or tin vessel to be mended. The old man 
sets down his furnace, arranges his little workshop and begins to ply his trade. 
And here is the "shaving cake man," with a huge tin box strapped over his 
bent shoulders. He carries in his hand a small steel triangle, which he con- 
stantly strikes with a steel bar. All the "Carre" then knows that the shaving 
cake man is near, and the children beg for a "Picayune" to purchase the queer 
little rolls of cakes that he sells and which are very much like shavings. 

The "bottle man" passes, buying up all the old wine bottles, or exchanging 
hits of trimming for them. etc. A peculiar little whistle breaks on the stillness: 
and a man stops his little "push cart" at the corner. He is the "ring man," 
the delight of every child in the quarter: in another instant from almost every 



house in the square, little tots are rushing breathlessly toward the quaint little 
"push store," bottle in hand, to exchange for some gaudy brass trinket, toy or 
flag, and then the "ring man" goes on his way to the next corner and childhood 





rO ~ 


|i ■»«• 

13 1 





in that square is made happy. Anoihei unique character is the "clothes pole 
man." Of an evening, especially in summer, the organ-grinder goes his rounds. 
The organ-grinder is generally an Italian or negro. He is the last relic of min- 


strelsy, and the old "Carre" has a tender place in its heart for him. He stops 
at every corner and plays a tune or two. while the children gaily dance on the 
sidewalks. He makes many a nickel as he continues his rounds till far into the 

The Flower Girls and Praline Women, 

are generally to be found in the vicinity of Canal Street. The old "praliniere" 
links very quaint with guinea blue dress and bandana "tignon," as she shows 
the dainty stock of pink and white pecan "pralines." She has others in a bas- 
ket tucked away in a cozy corner formed by two show windows. Neither the 
flower women nor the pralinieres cry their wares, but sit patiently waiting for 


customers, meantime brushing the liies away with palmetto fans or mops of 
"soirees," so beautiful, so exclusively Creole, and where the olden "eau sucre," 
and "orangeade," and "orgeat," are the only refreshments served, as in the par- 
ties of the ancient regime. And here you see "la bonne vielle gardienne," the 
good old Creole mammy, taking the children for an airing of an evening and 
sieiir must have his good "French wine" for dinner, and his morning cup of 
"cafe nnir," and dining well is as much a- duty as going to church. Here arc 
i he old Creole restaurants, where Creole viands are a specialty. In the "Vieux 
Carre 1 " you see "Ma belle Creole" every morning going to early mass at the 
Cathedral, and of an evening dancing her pretty feci off a1 the gracious old 
most impregnable shutters and bars. Here the brazier and the candlestick are 
still household appointments; old brass knockers are still found on the doors, and 


the keys and locks on them arc big enough for a jail or a cathedral. Hero mon- 
brown paper. These are some of the daily, familiar sights and scenes of the 
"Yienx Carre." There the shopman, as id' old, encases his windows with al- 
crooning to them as they fall asleep in her arms on the granite steps of Jackson 
Square, the familiar old songs which every Creole child knows. 

It is ,-i custom in New Orleans to announce deaths by printing a notice on a 
double sheet of paper, bordered witli black, and to nail these on telegraph poles 
in the more frequented parts of the town. This practice is confined to the 
city. It is also a custom to drape the door or gatel of the stricken household 
with crepe, white for the young dead, black for the elderly, and to fasten here 
also one of the printed notices. 

Gentlemen always lilt their hats and remain uncovered while a funeral 
goes by. as a mark id' respect for the dead. And this gracious custom is ob- 
served in the most crowded marts in the heart id' the business day. Catholics 
invariably lift their hats when passing a church of their faith, and the stranger 
will observe this done even in the street cars. 



Everything "thai is good" in New Orleans is '•Creole." The highest praise 
that can be bestowed upon any article for sale along the streets and in the 
country is to declare that it is "Creole." Hence in trade one hears continually 
the application. "Creole chickens." "Creole eggs," "Creole ponies," "Creole veg- 
etables." etc. The term is used to distinguish the commercial produce of 
New Orleans and of Louisiana Parishes as infinitely superior to those brought 
in from the North and West. 

One hears, too. the term. "Creole negroes," but it must be remembered 
always that this is a tine distinction, meaning the blacks and colored people 
that are Louisiana bred and born and French-speaking as distinguished from 
the negroes of other States. "Creole" means white, though, as already seen, 


it has been given many shades of signification — shades which hare been taken 
up by ignorant scribblers and gradually accepted by many Northerners as mean- 
ing Louisianians of mixed blood. Nothing is more erroneous. The term "Creole," 
according to such standards as Webster and Worcester, signifies "a native of 
Spanish America or the West Indies, descended from European ancestors." 
There never was a nobler or more pure-blooded race than the Creoles of Lou- 
isiana, who are proud of their descent from the best families of France and 
Spain, and who applied to themselves the term "Creole" to distinguish the "old 
families" of the State from the families of emigrants of other nationalities. 

It is very difficult for the stranger to gain access to the ancient Creole 
homes: he must come with letters of "introduction," or be introduced by a native 
"to the manor born." And then, as Marion Crawford said when he visited New 
Orleans: "You will find in little old French houses old-fashioned and tumbling 
in ruins — houses that must have been built in the last century, with their long 
hallways opening upon queer, little courtyards, and all suggesting another age 
and civilization — a people the most charming and cultured that I have ever met, 
with all the grace and dignity of manners and the equal in birth and bearing of 
the most distinguished in European centers.*' 

With this beautiful and true tribute from one who knew whereof he spoke, 
the Guide will lead the tourist from the French Quarter into the brilliant light 
of Canal Street and the "Uptown Section." 


Canal Street. 

Canal Street is the main, central throughfare of New Orleans, the line of 
demarkation between the French* and American sections. It is the most ancient 
landmark in the city, for it was the point marked out by Bienville as the ex- 
treme southern limits of the metropolis which he founded. 

In old times a deep "fosse" ran through the street, but when the town 
spread beyond the limits of the "Vieux Carre." this canal or ditch was tilled 
up, and the "esplanade" or "neutral ground" along which so many car lines now 
center, was raised. The street bisects the city from the river northwest to 
the New Basin Canal. It is 170 feet wide, and is beautifully paved with asphalt 
throughout a great portion of its length. 

Canal Street is. indeed, one of the most characteristic streets in the world. 
It divides New Orleans into two separate and distinct phases of life, two epochs 
of history, two styles of architecture, two modes of thought and two distinct 
forms of civilization. 

It is the principal business thoroughfare of the city for a distance of about 
twelve squares, and thence becomes one of the handsomest residence streets 
and a delightful drive for both sections. 

It is the common ground on which "Creoles" and "Americans" meet to 
shop, to promenade, to see the grand civic and carnival parades, and often as 
not, when questions affecting the vital interests of the community at large 
agitate the city, to gather "en masse" and express their opinions as citizens of 
one commonwealth. 

A majority of the fine retail stores are on the lower side of the street. This 
side is a favorite promenade, and. on a sunshiny day, is usually crowded with 
well-dressed people. In Carnival time the street is almost impassable. 

One cannnot walk along Canal Street without being impressed with the 
peculiar cosmopolitan character of the New Orleans of to-day. It is a fascinat- 
ing study with its thousands of faces, for even the faces of a great city, and 
the composite faces of its floating population grow familiar in time to the 
stranger who tarries awhile; the jostle of the people, the beautiful street man- 


hers of our public, the courtesy, the good humor especially in Carnival timeS, 
when the crush is so great, the brilliant dressing of the women, the everlasting 
blare of music, the constant processions and celebrations, the peddlers, the 
foafers, the vendors of roasted chestnuts and peanuts, the flower women, the 
pralinieres, the ginger-bread sellers, the wheezing hand-organs, all make up a 
scone to be nowhere found in this American Continent except in this delightful 
old French city. 

From Canal Street you become acquainted with the city; you learn the 
names of the old streets, the haunts of the earnest working folks who give life 
and strength 1o the town: you find out where the best ".Macaroni a l'ltalienne" 
is made, where you can eat the finest "Creole courtbouillon" or the best "ome- 
lette souffle;" you learn the road to rose gardens and orange groves, and return 
to find yourself in the heart of an old town with a street more beautiful, more 
picturesque than any other of this American Union — a street whose great stores 
resemble the famous "Bon Marche" <>r "Louvre" of Paris, whose counters 
and shelves teem with the finest imported goods, laces and silks and Parisian 
novelties, directly imported, and which may be purchased cheaper here than in 
New York or any other Northern city. 

Such is our great boulevard. From "Liberty Place" to Baronne Street, the 
crowd is continuous, and the varied and cosmopolitan street life lends a charm 
that makes this street one of the most remarkable places in the Continent. 

The celebrated Levees, with their vast stores of cotton, sugaT and other 
products, lie at the head of Canal Street, and there is the landing for the great 
coast steamboats laden with rice from the golden fields of Louisiana. Near 
this spot was situated in Spanish days St. Louis Fort, the guns of which com- 
manded the approach to the river. All traces have long since disappeared. 

The Algiers Ferry House is the small ornate wooden building that stands 
on the river bank. At this point the river is about 2,000 feet wide. The ferries 
cross and recross at short intervals. The fare is five cents each way. The fer- 
ry-house contains also the Harbor Police Station. The visitor will notice near- 
by the huge sugar refineries, that run day and night during the sugar season. 

A bright bit of green grass in the small triangular square at the intersection 
of Canal, North Peters and Tchoupitoula.s Streets, upon which rises a granite 
shaft, attracts attention. This is 

Liberty Place, 

which has been aptly called the "Bunker Hill of New Orleans," for it was here 
that, on September 14, 1874. a battle was fought between the armed citizens of 
this glorious, commonwealth and the Metropolitan Police, uuder command of 
the Radical Government, which eventually led to the downfall of "carpet- 
bagism" and "scalawagism" in Louisiana, and the freedom of the State from 
their corrupt administration. The causes which led up to the battle are traced 
to the hordes of penniless adventurers who swooped down upon Louisiana like 
flocks of hungry wolves immediately after the close of the Civil War. They 
were called "carpet-baggers," and the term "scalawag" was applied to those 
of the native population who went over to them. These two disreputable ele- 
ments were perpetuated in ofiice by a "Returning Board," which scrutinized the 
election returns and threw out sufficient votes to accomplish their nefarious 
purpose. In 1873 the State elections actually resulted in the election of John 
McEnery, but the Returning Board secured the inauguration of W. P. Kellogg, 
a representative carpet-bagger. McEnery went to Washington to appeal to 
Congress to recognize his rights and the Government de jure was represented 
in New Orleans by Lieutenant Governor D. B. Penn, lately deceased. Matters 
remained in this state till August 31, when the registration began for the Presi- 
dential election of the following November. Every impediment was thrown in 
the way of the white voters to deter them from taking advantage of their privi- 
leges. Appeal was made to Governor Kellogg for equal share in the election 
supervision and a curt refusal followed. It was clear that, the citizens would 
have little or no voice in the election. In addition to these grievances, the 
conduct of the Metropolitan Police, numbering 800 men, and the uniformed and 
well-armed colored militia numbering .">.()()(), had become unbearable. The 
Metropolitans were armed with modern rifles and supplied with artillery. They 
were under command of General Badger, and the military under command of 


(ho Ex-Confederate Genera] James Longstreet. The conduct of the police in 
making unwarranted arrests, heaping abuse upon reputable citizens and break- 
ing into houses and searching for arms, was resented by the citizens, who or- 
ganized under the name of the "White League" for the protection of life and 
property :in<l the reorganization of the State Govern at. The gallanl Gen- 
eral Fred N. Ogden was a1 the head of the White League. The League had 
decided upon no definite plan of resistance, when the issue was precipitated by 
an act of outrageous tyranny on the part of the Kellogg Government. As a 
result, on September 14. the citizens determined to make a brave stroke for 
the assertion of their constitutional rights. Governor l'enn issued a proclama- 
tion declaring the existence of the McEnery Government, and appointing Gen- 
eral Ogden to the command of the troops. A deputation was sent to Kel- 


logg at the State House (now the Hotel Royal) demanding his immediate ab- 
dication. The committee was met by a member of the staff, who informed it 
that no communication whatsoever would be received from the citizens. It had 
become known that a cargo of arms consigned to private Parties in New Or- 
leans would arrive on the morning of the 14th of September; Kellogg sent a 
detachment of Metropolitans, who forbade the removal of the cargo. That 
morning the Picayune published an address to the citizens, signed by leading 
men, calling upon friends of Louisiana and of good, pure government to meet at 
Clay Statue (then in Canal Street) at 11 o'clock. The result of this meeting 
was the sending of the Committee to Kellogg to demand his abdication. On 
its return the meeting dissolved like magic, and in a few minutes a large organ- 
ized force, the "White League," assembled, and, throwing up barricades in 
Poydras Street, the line of men formed extending from the river to Carondelet 


Street. Meanwhile the enemy was not idle. General Badger had formed a force 
of 200 Metropolitan Police on the north side of the Customhouse with one piece 
of artillery. On the south side was General Badger himself, the left wing of the 
forces, and four cannon. Badger opened tire on the citizen forces, the Metropol- 
itans marched on1 to the Levee and confronted the citizens, and were immedi- 
ately charged by the White League. General Badger fell severely wounded, 
and Longstreet vainly endeavored to rally the retreating Metropolitans. Bui 
they tied in disorder, taking refuge in the Customhouse and the Supreme Court. 
The League remained in position till the next day and then marched and took 
possession id" the State House in Loyal Street, whence Kellogg had tied, taking 
refuge in the Customhouse, with his negro troops during the night. On the 
morning id' the 15th an immense concourse of citizens met Governor McEnery, 
who had opportunely returned, and marching from Lee Place to the State 
House, the rightful administration was inaugurated. A week later Governor 
McEnery was compelled to yield to the Federal forces, which had hastened to 
New Orleans in response to the telegram of Kellogg asking for troops. He 
was re-established in power at the point of the bayonet, but the Republican 
power in the State was permanently broken. At the following election Gov- 
ernor F. T. Nicholls was chosen Governor of Louisiana and the 
Democrats for the first time since the war obtained a majority 
in the Lower House of Congress. The Returning Board was abol- 
ished and Louisiana was again free. The monument at the foot of Canal 
Street was erected in 1891, and the spot called Liberty Place. The names of 


the citizen heroes who loll .-ire inscribed on the monument. Each anniversary 
the place is decorated with (lowers by a grateful people. 

The Fruit Exchange is at the corner of Canal and Tchoupitoulas Streets. 
The long, low building just beyond the square is the passenger station of the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad. 

The huge granite building which fronts on Canal Street and occupies a 
whole square between North Peters and Decatur Streets, is the 


It occupies a portion of the site of Bienville's '"country house." In old Creole 
days a small wooden customhouse occupied the corner toward the Levee. It 
then stood on the river bank just inside of the country road. Constant addi- 


Sons to the soil have extended the batture and pushed the mighty stream fur- 
ther to the southeast. After the great fire of 1788 a larger building was 
erected by Governor Mini, which covered a great portion of the present site. 
This ancient "Aduana," as the Spanish called it. did duty for many, many 
years, till the growing needs of New Orleans demanded a new one. The pres- 
ent building was begun in 1848. The material is granite and the architecture 
is modified Egyptian. Over $4,000,000 have been expended on it, and it is not 
yet entirely completed. In 1874 it was the headquarters of the Metropolitan 
Police, wlm were here besieged by the citizen "White League." The magnifi- 
cent entrance staircase of white marble is an imitation of that of the famous 
Castle of Kenilworth. On the second floor is the "Marble Hall," each iof the 
fourteen marble Corinthian pillars of which cost $23, 000. It is said to be the 
finest business hall in the world. The United States courtrooms are on the 
second floor. Those of the United States District Court were used during the 
Civil War as a prison for captured Confederate soldiers. The visitor should 
not fail to see the memorial to Bienville over one of the entrances to the 
"•Marble Hal!." This is the only memorial in the Tinted States to the founder 
of New Orleans. The cornerstone of the Customhouse was laid in 1847 by 
Henry Clay. In erecting the building great difficulty was experienced in making 
the foundations secure. They were made of layers of cypress timber and con- 

Exchange Alley, full of queer, old-fashioned houses, is in this section of 
Canal Street, just between Royal and Chartres on the north side. It extends 
from Canal Street back to St. Louis, where it terminates immediately in front 
of the now disused main entrance to the Hotel Royal. At the corner of Ex- 
change Alley and Customhouse Street is an ancient mansion with a belvidere 
of wrought iron on the roof. It is often called 

The Napoleon House, 

and is so designated, because it was erected by Mr. Nicholas Girc.d, as a 
residence for the Emperor Napoleon. Mr. Girod was the Mayor of New Orleans 
in 1814. He was an ardent admirer id' Napoleon Bonaparte, and engaged 
in a plot with a number of enthusiastic Frenchmen to liberate the Emperor 
from his confinement in St. Helena. The conspirators built a wonderfully fast 
.clipper yacht, and called it the "Seraphine." Their plan Avas to bring the yaoht 
near the island some dark night and spirit the Emperor aboard. They were 
going to surprise the garrison, overpower it. and letting the emperor clown by 
means of a chair into the yacht, sail away and bring the hero of Austerlitz to 
New Orleans. They depended upon the marvelous sailing qualities of the little 
ship to enable them to distance all pursuit. There is every reason to believe 
that their plan was directed and approved by the captive of Longwood, and 
might have succeeded had not the Emperor's death prevented its consumma- 
tion. Mr. Girod intended to present this house to the Emperor on his arrival 
in New Orleans. He subsequently occupied it himself. 

All along Canal Street in this business section are a number of hand- 
some buildings, the majority being great dry goods emporiums, where 
the most beautiful effects are offered lor sale, rivalling Paris and London, as 
far as native hand-work is concerned. The show windows are unfailingly at- 
tractive. Lady visitors will find every article that they may need in these 
Stores, from a package of hairpins, needle and thread, to the most beautiful 
silk lace and millinery importations. 

Clay Statue, which was for so many years a landmark to visitors, stood 
11 the intersection of Canal. St. Charles and Royal Streets. It was 
'■'1 to tl cuter of Lafayette Square in Tamp Street, owing to the neces- 
sity that arose lor protecting life by a better arrangement of the network of 
railway tracks that traverse Canal Street. 

The Morris Building, at the comer of Camp and Canal, was one of the 
first of the modern office buildings to he erected in New Orleans. It contains 
the offices of the New Orleans Clearing House. 

The handsome new building corner of Canal and Chartres street is known 
as the "< rodchaux Building." 


Between Royal and Bourbon, <>n the downtown side of the street, are the 
Tcnro Buildings. They were built in the second quarter of the last century and 
formed part of the estate of the celebrated philanthropist, Judah P. Touro. 

The Boston Club, 

the oldest institution of its kind in New Orleans, occupies the building at No. 
824 Canal, formerly owned by Dr. W. Newton Mercer. The club was organized 
in 1834 and named in honor of an old-fashioned game of cards erstwhile very 
popular among the solid business men of the community. During the Civil 
War some of the members incurred the animosity of General B. F. Butler, and 
his provost marshal seized its quarters and disbanded the organization. It was 
reorganized in 1867. It has entertained many distinguished guests, among them 
General Ulysses S. Grant, Jefferson Davis, and among its presidents was 
General Dick Taylor, a distinguished Confederate general and son of President 
Zachary Taylor. 

The Chess, Checkers and Whist Club occupies a handsome four-story 
building at the corner of Canal and Baronne Streets. The entrance is on 
Baroune Street. It was organized in 1880, and among the celebrities who have 
played the king of games within its hospitable walls may be mentioned Captain 
Mackenzie, Steinitz, Zukertort, Lasker and Pill.sbury. 

Between Dauphine and Burgundy streets is the Grand Opera House, for- 
merly known as the Varieties Theatre. It was opened about 1871 by the late 
Lawrence Barrett. Barrett remained in charge of the theatre for a number of 
years, appearing for the first time in that classical repertoire which he after- 
ward made famous. It is a famous old playhouse, and many a name immortal 
in dramatic literature has appeared on the bill boards in front of it. The stair- 
case, which occupies a space of about 100 feet, is one of the most 
beautiful in any American theatre. The house belongs to La Variete 
Association. It is now a popular-priced theatre. The Pickwick 
Club is located in a handsome three-storied structure of light-colored 
brick and stone on the upper side of Canal Street, between Dryades and Ram- 
part. To this home the club removed in 1896. This club dates from 1857. Its 
first president was General A. H. Gladden, of South Carolina, a veteran of the 
Mexican War, who fell at Shiloh while in command of the First Confederate 

At Basin and Canal Streets is the Spanish Fort Railroad Depot. 

The New Orleans branch of the famous organization known throughout 
the United States as "The Elks" has its "home" at 121 South Basin Street, 
within sight of Canal Street, and the Square in front has been called "Flks 
Place," in honor of the order. 

On Canal, between Villere and Robertson, stands the 

Richardson Hemorial 

Medical School, built in 1894, and presented to the Tulanc University by Mrs. 
Ida Slocomb Richardson, widow of the late Dr. Tobias G. Richardson. It is 
a handsome building of white stone, equipped with every modern appliance for 
the prosecution of medical investigation. It cost upwards of $100,000. A 
bronze tablet bearing a profile of Dr. Richardson ornaments the wall of the 
entrance hall. The museum is remarkably rich in medical curiosities. The 
Medical School is famous throughout the Union. It constitutes a part of the 
Tulane University. It was organized in 1834. The students have access to 
the Charity Hospital. 

On the corner of Robertson, diagonally opposite the Richardson Memorial, 
is the colored medical school conducted under the auspices of the New Orleans 
University, colored. 

The Phyllis Wheatley Training School for Colored Nurses is located in 
this building. 

_ After crossing Claiborne Avenue, Canal Street thence on to the Cemeteries 
5s lined with beautiful residences, many of them embowered among trees and 
vines. At No. 2036 Canal is the residence of Mr. John T. Gibbons, brother 
of the great American Cardinal. 


The Canal Street Presbyterian Church is at the corner of Canal and Dcr- 
bigny Street. 

Straight University (colored) occupies a whole square on Canal Street, be- 
tween Tonti and Rocheblaye. It is fully equipped for the higher education of 
its matriculants. 

The beautiful Church of the Sacred Heart of Jesus stands at the corner of 
South Lopez and ('anal Streets. It was erected entirely at the expense of 
one of New Orleans' philanthropic citizens, the late Colonel 1'. A. O'Brien. The 
cost was $50,000. Mr. O'Brien, at his death, left a handsome sum for the 
erection of the School of the Sacred Heart, which adjoins the Church. 

Just back of these edifices, plainly seen from the car, is the Frank T. How- 
ard School No. 1, erected at a cost of over $40,000 by the public-spirited citizen 
whose name it bears. 

As the car nears the corner of Broad and Canal an imposing and beautiful 
edifice known as the House of 

The Good Shepherd 

rises in view. It stands at the corner of Bienville and Broad Streets., just two 
squares from Canal, and is one of the noblest and most interesting of the many 
charitable and religious institutions for which the old city is famous. 

The House of the Good Shepherd is a reformatory institution for the re- 
claiming of fallen women. The extensive buildings were erected from the for- 
tune of a philanthropic New Orleans lady, who nearly forty years ago deter- 
mined to devote her pure life to the calling of a Sister of the Good Shepherd. 
But long before that time the Sisters of the Good Shepherd were in New Or- 
leans devoting themselves to their God-given mission of bringing back to the 
path of virtue those of their sex who had fallen away. In this reformatory the 
girls are trained to habits of industry and order and assist in their self-main- 
tenance by performing various household duties. They also sew for 
private individuals and stores. The sisters also conduct a large laundry, in 
which washing is done for public institutions, hotels, private homes, etc. Visitors 
are admitted on application to the Superioress or to the janitress at the Bienville 
Street entrance. Attached to the institution is a home for the "Order of Mag- 
dalens" or fallen women who desire to enter the religious life. After a period 
of probation, if they show themselves properly disposed and qualified, they re- 
ceive the brown habit of the order, in distinction from the spotless white-robed 
women — Sisters of the Goed Shepherd — who have entered the order to devote 
themselves to the reformation of the outcast. In the "work room" where the 
probationists sit doing that beautiful hand embroidery which is the wonder of 
the artist, is a handsome altar of the Blessed Virgin, to which a most pathetic 
story is attached. Over thirty years ago, during a terrible snow storm, that 
surprised New Orleans, the convent bell rang after midnight and a magnificently 
dressed and jewel-decked woman alighted from a carriage, and entering 
threw herself at the feet of the Superioress and asked to be admitted. The 
next day she donned the humble garb of the "penitents." For nine years she 
labored faithfully and one spring day asked to be received among the Mag- 
dalens. She wished to remain in that sweet haven forever and help to bring 
other sinners like herself to God. Two years later, on the morning that she 
received the veil, she came to the Superioress with all the jewels that she had 
worn that night when she came in tears and sorrow so many years before, and 
laying them at her feet, she begged that they might be sold and with the pro- 
ceeds an altar be erected to the Blessed Mother of God in the room where the 
"penitents" sit daily at work. "For," said she, "it was the picture of that 
sweet face of pure womanhood looking down upon me daily from that humble 
altar that so touched my heart with the divinity and priceless truth of the 
heritage that I had lost, and I wish that out of my sins and tears a more 
beautiful altar may arise to the Mother of Him who did not disdain the Mag- 
dalen, but said to her, 'Go, and sin no more.' " And so this beautiful shrine 
was erected, and from its shadow Hundreds of girls who have entered the re- 
formatory since then, have passed from the humble workroom where industry 
is the watchword, to the eternally safe harbor of the "Magdalen's Home," or 
back into the world to lead others to the practice of the God-like purity that 
they have here learned to love and reverence. 


In the rear portion of the grounds is a fine two-story brick building, erected 
some years ago at a cost of $30,000 through the philanthropy of Mr. Thorny 
Lafon^ for the reclaiming of colored girls. It is also under the charge of the 
Sisters of the Good Shepherd. ,„,_,.„.. 

As the car nears its terminus it passes the Beauregard Public School, 
which was once a fine old Southern mansion. 

Canal Street terminates at the 

Half=way House, 

on the New Basin Canal. Half-Way House is so called because it is very 
nearly half-way between the river and the Lake. This is Metairie Ridge, one 
of the highest parts of the city. Just around from the turn along the Bayou St. 
John was the ancient "Terre des Lepreux," or Leper Land of early Creole days. 
The Hospital of St. Lazarre stood here. It Avas erected in the early French 
domination, but all traces of it have long since disappeared. 

The terminus of Canal Street marks also the cities of the dead. All 
around the visitor will notice beautiful and picturesque surroundings. The 
handsome cemeteries of the American section are in the vicinity of the Canal 
Street terminus, and while .exploring this neighborhood the visitor will do well 
to visit them. In the chapter devoted to "Cemeteries" will be found short 
sketches of these beautiful resting places of the dead. 

The Sportsman's Park, where baseball games take place in summer time 
and football in winter, adjoins the Firemen's Cemetery. 

The scene on the Bayou here is very picturesque. The New Canal was 
constructed to facilitate the commerce of the city through more direct communi- 
cation with Lake Pontchartrain, and is navigable for .schooners, launches and 
other small craft. The celebrated Simon Cameron, later United States Senator 
for Pennsylvania and a member of Lincoln's Cabinet, was the first contractor 
for the digging of the canal. 

The old Oakland Driving Park is on the shellroad adjoining the Metairie 
Cemetery. The shellroad is a toll road, and leads to West End. 

Athletic Park is located on Tulane Avenue, between South Carrolltoa 
Avenue and Pierce Street. It ha,s recently become a very popular re- 
sort. It is handsomely laid out, and during the summer months music and other 
forms of entertainment make the spot one of continual delight. It may be 
reached by means of the Tulane and St. Charles Belt ears. 

The tourist may return to the business section of Canal Street by the same 
route, the "Canal Belt" or "Esplanade Belt." 


The Up-town Section, or American Quarter — His= 

torical Baronne Street, St. Charles, Jack- 

son and Napoleon Avenues. 

The growth of the New Orleans above Canal Street took place within th« 
last century. This is the American city founded by the sturdy band of West- 
erners who. as early as 1772, saw the commercial advantages to be se- 
cured by a union of Southern and Western forces. Following the daring ad- 
venturers, notwithstanding the coldness with which they were received, there 
came into the French Quarter, rich traders from Baltimore, Philadelphia and 
Boston, who established branch houses in New Orleans, and their success led 
other-Americans, young and energetic, to come and locate in the city, and seek 
the Aladdin's lamp that was said to be everywhere hidden in the rub- 
bish of the old French town. The Creoles, with their easy, elegant manners 


and luxurious homes had little use for these pioneer American invaders. But 
the sturdy flow of emigration was not to !>e deterred, to the utter dismay of 
the Creoles. National feeling ran high and especially did the bitter sentiment 
grow after the cession of Louisiana to the United States in L803. finally, as 
lias already been stated, the Americans moved in large numbers across Canal 
Street and built their own city. 

Such was the enterprise of the people thai in 1830 New Orleans ranked 
after New York, Philadelphia and Boston, in the order of the great cities of 


the Union, and travelers came from all parts to see the "Queen City of the 
South,'' so wealthy, so gracious, so cultured, and the greatest cotton and sugar 
market in the world. 

Nevertheless, with all its enterprise the faubourg Ste. Marie was con- 
stantly out-voted liy the French city below Canal Street. 

The Mayor and a majority of the Councilmeu were elected by the French 
Quarter. As a consequence almost all the city revenues were expended on im- 
provements below ('anal Street. The Pontchartrain Railroad, built in 1825, 



the Carondelet Canal were voted to the down-town section. The citizens of the 
American Quarter, incensed at this, built their own Canal, which brought the 
traffic of the lakes to the foot of Julia Street, and in the excitetmeiit of rivalry 
and antagonism, with the aid of the country members of the Legislature, they 
forced through that body in 1S31 a bill which was an amendment to the city 
charter, and which divided New Orleans into three distinct municipalities, each 
with its own City Council. The Faubourg Ste. Marie thus became the con- 
troller of its own finances; it built its own Levees, paved its own streets, erected 
new stores and warehouses and blocks and blocks of residences. 

An old quagmire on St. Charles Street was filled in. and upon its site rose 
the old St. Charles Hotel, with its beautiful porticoes and stately columns. The 
miserable waste along Camp and Lafayette Streets was converted into Lafay- 
ette Square, and around it were grouped picturesquely the present City Hall, 
Odd Fellows' Hall and the First Presbyterian Church. Newspaper companies, 
and railroad companies, hanks and exchanges, and cotton presses sprang up, and 
property enhanced fourfold in value. It soon became evident, even to the 
proud-spirited Creoles, that the "little upstart city above Canal Street," as 
they contemptuously called the new establishment, had left its French mother iu 
the rear. 

In 1852, the three municipalities came together again as one city. The 
Americans had gained their point; the Creoles gracefully yielded, and the old 
Cabildo surrendered its ancient rights to the new City Hall. Since then, side 
by side with the old city, the new one has continued to grow, radically distinct 
in language and sentiment, customs and manners, yet strangely bound to the 
olden city by a thousand dear and tender ties, and gracefully accepting many 
of its most ancient and charming customs as its own. 

As remarked in the beginning of this Guide, the best way to see the 
American section of the city is from the street cars, alighting as the Guide or 
individual interest may indicate ::t such points as seem to merit a closer inspec- 
tion. Among these may he suggested the great' Charity Hospital, lying along 
the route of the Tulane Avenue Belt. 


Tub phqtq c° n.o. 



This car may be taken in Canal Street. It turns thence into South Rani- 
part and thence into Tulane Avenue at the intersection of Rampart and Com- 
mon Streets. At the corner of Basin and Tulane Avenue .stands the new court- 
house and jail, erected between 1893 and 1895, at a cost of about $350,000. The 
criminal courts are on the second floor, overlooking Tulane Avenue. On the 
lower floor will be found the office of the Chief of Police, the First Recorder's 
Court and various other administrative offices. The rest of the square is occu- 
pied by the Parish Jail. A high brick wall surrounds this portion. A criminal 
accused of a capital crime enters the institution at the time of arrest, 
and, if convicted, never leaves it until after sentence or execution. The en- 
trance to the jail is on Gravier Street. Permission must be obtained from the 
Criminal Sheriff (whose office is in the building) to enter the jail. The execu- 
tions take place in the large paved courtyard in the angle formed by Basin and 
Gravier Streets. 

The white building on the corner of Tulane and Liberty is the New Orleans 

At Howard Street begins the long facade of the 

Charity Hospital. 

It is one oi the oldest charitable institutions in America. The first hos- 
pital was founded by Bienville. In 1727 the Ursuline Nuns assumed charge of 
the nursing and household management of the establishment, which was located 


in Hospital Street. In 17.">7 Jean Louis, a sailor, in gratitude to the Ursulines 
for their tender nursing, left 10,000 livres for the founding of a charity hospital. 
This foundation was the precursor of the immense establishment in Tulane 
Avenue. The present hospital was founded in list; by Don Almonaster y 
Rosas and the main building, as it stands to-day, in the center of the square, 
was erected in L832. Other buildings" have been added from time to time. 
Prominent among these are the Richard Milliken .Memorial Hospital for Chil- 
dren, founded by Airs. I >. A. Milliken, at a cost approximating $130,000, in 
memory of her husband, and the Home of the Training School for Nurses, cost- 
ing $50,000, which was the gift of the late A. C. Hutchinson. On the large 
tract of ground recently acquired near the hospital the management proposes 
to erect a hospital for consumptives, and an important bequest of $80,000 from 
the late William Richards will be utilized, possibly, in the erection of a build- 
ing for the exclusive treatment of infectious diseases. The Charity Hospital 
is admirably managed by a Board of Administrators appointed by the Gover- 
nor; the household management and nursing have for over sixty-eight years 
been in charge of the Sisters of Charity. The hospital has a capacity of S5<> 
beds, and handles about 7,000 cases annually. It has a line system of free 










*>•« ' 


clinics; its ambulance service for emergency cases is unsurpassed, and its amphi- 
theatre is said to be the most perfectly equipped of any in the United States. 
Competent judges from all parts of the country and Europe have pronounced 
the New Orleans Charity Hospital one of the most complete of its kind in the 
world, and one of which any State may, be proud. It well repays a visit. 

Across the street, on the corner of Freret, is the building occupied by the 
Ambulance Corps, or the resident students of the Medical Corps. 

The Claiborne Market stands at the corner of Tulane Avenue and Claiborne 

St. Joseph's Church 

is the immense structure of brick on the corner of the avenue and South Der- 
bigny Street. It is noted as being the second largest church in the Unite<$ 
States. During the construction of the walls in 1871 the foundations settled, 
and the building was greatly injured, but the defects being overcome, 
the structure was completed in 1802, with the exception of the spires, whicJ* 
were to have been 200 feet high. The church is Gothic-Romanesque in style. 


The rose window in the organ loft was made in Munich, is 21 feet in diameter, 
and cost $1,800. It represents Christ and the twelve apsotles. The church has 
seating capacity of 1,900. The iron cross that surmounts it is 25 feet high. 

The Hotel Dieu, an admirable private hospital under the direction of the 
Sisters of Charity, occupies the square between Bertrand and Johnson Streets. 
The institution is the outgrowth of the old "Hotel Dieu," established by the 
Ursulines in Barracks Street in 1727. 

The visitor can return by Tulane Avenue to Rampart Street. Leaving the 
car here, he may walk over the continuation of the avenue known as Common 
Street, into the heart of town. By doing so he will be enabled to see the Chinese 
Quarter, located in the vicinity of Rampart and Common. The Chinese Mission, 
a unique religious establishment, is at No. 215 Liberty. 

In the square bounded by Canal, Baronne, Common and Dryades Streets 
there stood, until recently, the buildings occupied by the old Uuiversity of Lou- 
siana; they were stately edifices, supported by Greek columns and porticoes. 
One of these, fronting on Common Street, was the home of the Medical College 
from 1S47 to 1893. When the University of Louisiana was reorganized under 
the name of Tulane University, in 1882, "University Place" was the name be- 
stowed upon the first square in Dryades Street, from Canal to Common. Upon 
the removal of Tulane University to its present quarters, in St. Charles Avenue, 
all of these old historic buildings were demolished, with the exception of one, 
and theaters and stores erected upon their sites. The building that still re- 
mains is known as 

Tulane Hall. 

It is a handsome structure and stands in University Place, between Canal 
and Common Streets, and is still the official place of business of the Tulane 
University. It was formerly Mechanics Institute and was built early in the 
fifties for technical and literary purposes. It is exceedingly interesting from 
an historic point of view. During the Civil War, when a State Government 
was formed under the protection of the Federal troops, this building was made 
the capitol. It was used for this purpose until 1860, when the July riots, as 
they were called, dissolved the soi-disant government. These riots were 
caused by the unauthorized assembling of the old Radical State Convention of 
18G4. The members, supported by some colored adherents, barricaded them- 
selves inside the building. They refused to open the doors when the Sheriff 
demanded admission. The building was taken by assault and several were 
killed and wounded on both sides. The Legislature met in this building in 
1872, in special session, to count the election returns. The aspiring Republican 
Governor, W. P. Kellogg, tried to enjoin the State Officers and Legislature from 
carrying out this purpose, knowing that fraud had been perpetrated. E. H. 
Durell, Judge of the United States District Court, claiming that his injunction 
would most probably be disregarded, signed at midnight an order directing the 
United States Marshal to seize the capitol. The marshal took a company of 
United States soldiers, seized the hall and refused to admit any but Kellogg's 
partisans. From this action resulted complications through which Kellogg be- 
came de facto Governor of the State, and was maintained in that position for 
several years, mainly through the help of the Federal troops. 

The Catholic Institute of America holds its sessions in this building. Upon 
its platform have appeared such distinguished speakers as Cardinals Gibbons, 
Satolli and Martinelli. Archbishop Keane. Henry Austin Adams, Marion Craw- 
ford, Dr. Zahm, and other eminent Catholic talent. 

The State Library is in the left wing of the building. The Library contains 
about 40,000 volumes, of which 5,000 are in foreign languages. A magnificent 
edition of Audubon's works, illustrated by himself, may be seen in this Library. 
Audubon studied the form, color, plumage and habits of every bird in the Louis- 
iana forests, and all are faithfully given in this wonderful work. The Library 
is open daily from 9 a. m. to 5 p. m., except on Sunday. Tulane Avenue is 
finely paved and is rapidly growing into favor as a residence section. 

One of the most delightful rides that can be taken through any Southern 
city, is had over the St. Charles Belt, which traverses Canal Street, and turns 


from the direction of the river into Baronne Street. This line carries the visitor 
through the most beautiful and picturesque section of the American Quarter. 
But before boarding the car visit the famous 

Jesuits' Church, 

in Baronne Street, near Canal. Baronne Street at this point marks the limits 
ef the old Jesuits' Plantation of 1727. and just where the beautiful church now 
rises, with its magnificent dome, was the spot where the fa i hers of this order 
first attempted the cultivation of sugar cane in 1751. As the car turns the 
corner of Baronne the stately dome of the church rises to view. The hand- 
some structure occupies the site of an unpretentious little chapel built in 1848. 
The church is known officially as that of the Immaculate Conception. It is in 
the Moresque style of architecture, and was designed by a Jesuit priest. The 

I ■ 


building is 133 feet long and GO feet wide. The twin steeples have never been 
built. The interior is graceful, with galleries resting on a series of horseshoe- 
shaped arches, supported by slender iron columns of Moorish design. The sub- 
jects represented in the small, round, stained-glass windows are the stations 
of the cross. The stained-glass in the lower windows represents scenes from 
the history of the Jesuits. The main altar is of gold, and was executed in Paris 
at a cost of $14,000. A dome 180 feet high rises above the altar; and in the 
wall is a niche in which stands a white marble statue of the Virgin Mary. This 
statue was ordered by Marie Amelie, Queen of France, for the royal chapel in 
the Tuilleries; but the Revolution of 1S48 drove the Queen from Prance, and 
caused the statue to be offered for sale. It was purchased by a Creole gen- 
tleman and brought to New Orleans. At his death it was purchased for this 
church at a cost of $5,000. Its original value was estimated at $30,000. In the 
chapel on the right is the altar of St. Joseph, and on the left is the altar dedi- 
cated to the Sacred Heart of Jesus. The bronze statue of St. Peter, near the 


main entrance, is modeled from the famous figure in the Church of St. Peter, in 
Rome. In the galleries are many beautiful memorial windows, among others 
one erected by the soldier-Jesuit, Father Hubert, to the Confederate dead. The 
church is celebrated for the excellence of its music, and at high mass on Sun- 
days, at 11 a. m., the grandest compositions of the greatest composers are ren- 
dered in faultless style. 

Adjoining the church is the College of the Immaculate Conception, con- 
ducted by the Jesuit Fathers since its establishment by them in 1848. The 
school contains a library, in which is one of the largest and best collections of 
books on canon law in the United States, also the largest and best collection 
of French authors in the United States. 

Just across from the Jesuits' Church is the Hotel Grunewald., Adjoining 
the hotel, toward the rear of the square, near the corner of Baroilne and Com- 
mon, stand the 

:• --. ■' 1 


Crescent and Tulane Theatres. 

These handsome new edifices were erected in 1808, at a cost of over $200,- 
O00, on the site of the old University buildings. The Crescent Theater has a 
large seating capacity. About twenty-two feet from the Crescent stands the 
Tulane. It is of almost equal size and a match in beauty for its twin sister. 
Over 1,000 electric lights illuminate tlmse theatres, and the effect on gala nights 
is surpassingly brilliant. The splendid new playhouses offer every advantage 
for the finest scenic display. The stages have a depth of G5 feet, and enable 
the managers to put up the most elaborate productions. The interiors are fin- 
ished with the finest staff plaster, the same that made the White City of Chicago 

Taking the car at this corner, the Newsboys' Home is seen at No. 340 
Baronne Street. 

The Poydras Market is on the righl hand side of the car as it goes uptown. 
It occupies the central part ofP oydras Street. Its name is derived from Julien 


roydras, a famous planter of early days in New Orleans, alter whom, also, the 
Street is named. The market is very picturesque. On week days there may be 
seen standing in the middle of the market rows of colored women waiting to be 
employed to wash or scrub. The market was a famous slave mart of ante- 
bellum days. 

The next point of interest is 

Lee Circle, 

in which stands the imposing monument to the ureal Confederate General Robert 
E. Lee. This monument cost $40,000. The shaft is over 106 feet high, aud 

■*- m. 


mposed of white marble blocks, resting on cypress piles driven deep into 
The earth and bolted together. The column contains a staircase, and just under 

V a rn-°', W ^ c ' h is of bronze > is ■•'" observatory. Lee Circle was formerly 
ed iivoh Circle, and Howard Avenue was once called Triton Walk but 
was renamed in honor of a public-spirited citizen. 


At the Lee Monument the ears turn into St. Charles Avenue, which is a 
continuation of St. Charles Street. Here the street broadens out; there are 
double drives and a neutral ground, and the avenue is said to lie one ot the 
finest in America. The cars traverse the thoroughfare from the Circle to Car- 
rollton Avenue, continuing out Carrollton Avenue to its intersection with Tulane 
Awnue. through which they return to Canal Street, thus forming "the St. 
Charles licit." The "Tulane Belt" cars traverse the same route in the oppo- 
site direction. This line, which was recently absorbed by the New Orleans 

At the corner of Jackson and St. Charles is the 

Harmony Club. 

The clubhouse is of white marble, and was erected in 1890. The club vir- 
tually dates from 18G2, having been formed by merging together the "Deutseher 
Company" and "The Young Bachelors' Club," organized about 1850. Its mem- 
bership is mainly among the wealthy and refined Hebrews of the city. 


Along the line of this demarcation are many of the handsomest private' 
residences in New Orleans, the beautiful open gardens and palms giving this 
section the title of "Garden District." 

The First German Church is on St. Charles, corner of St. Andrew. 

The beautiful Whitney residence is at No. 223:: St. Charles. 

The mansion at No. 2508 St. Charles is not only a handsome specimen of 
a Southern home, but was the residence of E. Richardson, the most celebrated 
cotton merchant of his time. He was known as "the Cotton King." It is now 
the home of Frank P. Hayne. 

At No. 261S is the residence of the late A. C. Hutchinson, who left a for- 
tune of upwards of a million dollars. He made several large bequests to- 
charitable institutions, and left about $700,000 for the extension of the 
work of the Tulane Medical College. He bequeathed his beautiful home, with 
its many art treasures, to his friend, Mr. J. P. Blair. 

At the corner of Third and St. Charles Avenue i.s the house where resided 
John A. Morris, famous a,s the head of the Louisiana State Lottery Company.. 

Christ Church Cathedral 

is the fine brick and stucco edifice' at the corner of St. Charles Avenue aim' 
Sixth Street. This church represents the pioneer Protestant organization of the 


Southwest. It was organized in January, 1805. At this date the Protestant 
population of New Orleans was so small and belonged to so many denomina- 
tions that it was found impossible to build churches to accommodate each unt© 


itself. A meeting was, therefore, called of all the Protestants, and it was de- 
cided that a church be erected. The decision as to what denomination the 
church should belong was settled by lot. The Episcopalians won, the church 
was built, and all Protestants united in their house of worship. The 
church was originally attached to the Diocese of New York. It stood at the 
corner of Canal and Bourbon Streets. In 1847, as the old church was found to 
be too small, a new one was erected, at the corner of Dauphine and Canal 
Streets, at a cost of $50,000. In 1886 this church was sold and the congrega- 
tion moved -to the present beautiful edifice. The interior is very handsomely 
frescoed. The stained-glass windows include memorials to the Slocomb family 
and the late Bishop Galleher. The entrance to the lower floor of the tower 
contains old tablets of the former wardens. Christ Church is the pro-cathedral 
of the Diocese, and the dean acts as rector. The residence of the bishop, Rt. 
Rev. D. Sessums, adjoins the Cathedral, with which it communicates through 
vine-grown cloisters. The dean's residence is in the rear of the church in Sixth 

Adjoining the church is the J. L. Harris Memorial Chapel, erected by Mrs. 
J. L. Harris in memory of her husband. 

At 3607 is the gray stone Newman residence. 


At the corner of General Taylor and St. Charles is the Rayne Memorial 
Methodist Church, erected by Mr. Rayne, a wealthy citizen, at a cost of $50.- 
000, in memory of his son, who was killed at the battle of Shiloh. 

The beautiful Southern colonial-looking structure on St. Charles, between 
Jena and .Cadiz, is the Academy of the Ladies of the Sacred Heart, a boarding 
school for young ladies. 

St. George's Episcopal Church is at the corner of St. Charles and Cadiz 

The Asylum for Destitute Boys is the large brick building between Du- 
fossat and Valmont streets. 

Between Leontine and Peters is the New Orleans University, a well 
equipped institution for the education of colored youth. 

At the corner of Peters Avenue and St. Charles is the commodious 

Jewish Orphans' Home, 

which was erected and is maintained through the generosity of the 
Jews of the city. The home was founded in 1855. The present 
building was erected in 1S80. ami is one of the best regulated 


orphanages in the city. The nursery and kindergarten departments are par- 
ticularly interesting. In the yard is a magnjficenl fountain built by the wealthy 
Jewish children of the city as an offering to their less fortunate sisters and 
brothers. The children of this asylum are admirably equipped, educationally 
and otherwise for their future duties in life. 

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A block or two from St. Charles, and visible from the car in the perspec- 
tive of Nashville Avenue, is seen the Shakspeare Almshouse, where the penniless 
and decrepit poor may find a refuge. It was built by Mayor Shakspeare ten 

a*4t~ ml*i 

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or twelve years ago. The large brick building in the almshouse inclosure was 
erected for the use of the Boys' House of Refuge. 

Two squares this side of Audubon Park, is Palmer avenue, so named in 
•honor of Dr. Palmer, the noted Presbyterian divine who resided in this street. 
His family still reside in the old home. The avenue which was formerlv a 



section of Henry Olay avenue, is one of the most beautiful and picturesque 
residence streets in New Orleaus. 

Audubon Park, 

which is to the residents of the American section of New Orleans, what the 
City Park is to the French quarter, is the most important point along this 


route. The entrance to the park in St. Charles avenue leads the visitor over 
an immense tract upon which magnificent live oaks were sacrificed in 18S4, to 
admit of the erection of the buildings of the World's Cotton Centennial Ex- 
position. The park is a beautiful spot and covers 280 acres. It was originally 
the plantation of the French patriot, Mason, who iu 1768 was condemned to 
ten years' imprisonment in Moro. Castle for resisting the cession of the colony 
to Spain. The plantation was subsequently owned by Etienne de Bore, the 
first great sugar planter of Louisiana, and grandfather of the historian, Charles 


Gayarre. It was on this land that Mr. De Bore succeeded in introducing the 
permanent manufacture of sugar into New Orleans, and raised the first com- 
mercially profitable crop of sugar ever grown in the South. Just above this 
historic plantation was that of Pierre Foucher, a son-in-law of M. De Bore. 
The entire property finally fell into the hands of the Marquis de Circe Foucher, 
by whose heirs the present site of Audubon i'ark was sold to the city. The 
land was allowed to lie unimproved till the Cotton Centennial Exposition, when 
the managers of that enterprise greatly beautified the spot. All the Exposition 
buildings were removed except the Horticultural Hall, which still stands. In 
18bd the park was placed under the control of a Commission, which is devoting 
itself to beautifying the grounds, planting trees to replace those that were cut 
down, etc. The Horticultural Hall is over 300 feet long and contains a remark- 
able collection of rare plants, tropical palms and exotics. It is perhaps the 
largest greenhouse in existence. The section of the park lying between Maga- 

ptjoTo BY f^ i voi he 


zine Street and the river is kept in perfect order. The task of improving the 
rest of the park is progressing slowly. The live oaks are very fine, especially 
the long avenue in front of and behind the Hall. The single magnificent speci- 
men standing in solitary majesty Inside the lake is called the "George Wash- 
ington" oak. The park is reached by several lines of cars, the most convenient 
of which are the Coliseum and tire Magazine. In summer time a band plays on 
alternate evenings in a stand under the oaks near the Horticultural Hall. Tke 
park is a favorite resort at all times of the year, especially for children. The 
visitor yets a view id' the must barren portion of the park from the St. Charles 
ca r. 

In the vicinity on St. Charles Avenue are Audubon Place and Rosa Park, 
which are beautiful private residence sections. 

The handsome colonial-looking residence with the stately white portico at 
5809 St. Charles Avenue is the home of .Mr. Nicholas Burke. It is a beautiful 



type of pure Southern architecture. Nearly opposite the entrance to Audubon 
Park is the beautiful little Church of the Holy Name of Jesus, which is under 
the direction of the Jesuit Fathers. Around the corner at No. 1930 Calhoun 
Street, is the convent and school of the Sisters of Notre Dame, who also con- 
duct the parochial school of St. John Berchmans, attached to the church. 
Adjoining the church grounds are the extensive buildings of 

The Tulane University 

of Louisiana. The University was founded through the generosity of Paul 
Tulane, a wealthy merchant, who, at his death, left a bequest of over §1,000,- 


O00 for this purpose. The University has since received other bequests; among 

at donations are those of Mrs. F. W. Tilton. who gave $50,000 to erect the 
Library Building, and the munificent bequests of the late A. C. Hutchinson. 
The buildings contain University and Collegiate Departments, both for men 
and women, and Law, Medical and Technical Schools. The Medical Building 
is in Canal Street, and is called the Richardson Memorial. In the Arts and 
Science Building is a copy of "Tripitka," presented to the University by the 
King of Siam. 

Leland University, for colored males, occupies the square on the avenua 
between Audubon and Walnut. 

Sr. Mary's Dominican Convent is on the avenue, between Broadway and 

Beyond the University, where St. Charles Avenue has. properly speaking, 
ats head, there formerly ran a beautiful road called Naiads Street. The 
grounds were handsomely laid out and were called the Carrollton Gardens; 
there was a restaurant where General Boulanger and Thackeray were both en- 
tertained on their visits to New Orleans. Some years ago it was found ad- 
visable to build a Levee through the gardens, and the old restaurant was 
dismantled and sold. 

The car here turns out Carrollton Avenue to Jeannette Street, the way 
feeing through a very choice residence portion. 

All this section of New Orleans was formerly the municipality of 


nnd still bears the ancient name. It was separated by long uninhabited spaces 
from the nearest city of Jefferson. Carrollton was in early days a plantation 
and was the property of the brave patriot, Lafreniere, who with his six associate 
Deaders of the Revolution of 1768, was shot in Jackson Square by order of the 
'.Spanish Governor O'Reilly. The plantation subsequently became the property 
of Mile. De Macarty, who was the famous "bas bleu" of colonial days in New 
Orleans. She belonged to the school of "Les Dames Precieuses," so amusingly 
caricatured by Moliere in his "Precieuses Ridicules." She was very brilliant, 
and declared a thousand times that she had never yet met a man who could 
please her and was determined to die in single blessedness. She managed her 
vast estates with masculine ability and her name has come down as the histor- 
ical "Vielle Fille." or old maid of the Faubourg. All traces of the old plantation 
iiave long .since passed away. 

The Jackson Avenue car. which may he taken in Canal Street, runs from 
Canal Street up St. "Charles to Jackson Avenue, and thence to the terminus in 
Jackson Avenue near the river. It passes through a handsome residence dis- 

On the corner of Coliseum and Jackson is 

Trinity Church. 

Trinity is an Episcopal Church, and so many of its rectors have passed 
ffrom this parish to the bishopric that it is often called '"The Church of the 
JBishops." It is of Gothic architecture. The congregation was organized in 
1847. The present structure dates from 1851, and was built at a cost of $22.- 
500. Bishop Polk was called in take charge of the parish in 1855. He left it 
during the Civil War to become a Major General in the Confederate service. 

after serving gallantly was shot and killed while out with a reconnoitering 
party on Pine Mountain, near Marietta, Georgia, June 14, 1S64. 
A beautiful stained-glass window lias been erected to his mem- 
and contains scenes from the lit*- of the Savior — the Last 
Supper, the Crucifixion and the Ascension. In 1865 Dr. J. W. 
Beckwith, afterwards Bishop of Georgia, became rector. During his incum- 
church was extended and improved at a cosl of $25,000. In 1868 Rev. 
J. N. Galleher, afterward Bishop of Louisiana, became rector. He was sue- 


ceeded by the Kev. S. S. Harris, afterwards Bishop of Michigan. In 1873 the 
front of the church was remodelled a1 a cosl of $16,000 . Dr. Hugh Miller 
Inompson, the late Bishop of Mississippi, was the nexl rector. The present 
rector is Dr. Beverly Warner. Trinity is reputed to have the best choir among 
the Protestant Churches in the city. 

The late Ambassador Eustis, when in town, resided in the handsome red 
brick house, with the wide verandas, on the corner opposite Trinity Church. 

The little French Church of Notre Dame de Bons Secours is on Jackson 
Street- near Constance. 

Near the corner of Jackson and Chippewa stands the 

Children's Home (Protestant Episcopal), 

an admirable asylum conducted under the auspices of the Episcopal diocese 
of Louisiana. It is a home for orphan girls, but also receives small boys. The 
institution is in charge of the Sisters of Bethany, a local diocesan organization 
of the Episcopal faith. It is well worth a visit. The chapel is very pretty, and 
the children's festivals, especially at Easter and Christmastide, are very beau- 

Directly across the street is McDonogh High School No. 2. a brick 
building originally erected for the Jewish Orphans' Home, but purchased 
by the city seven or eight years ago for use as a public high school for the 
girls of the upper districts. 

At the junction of Napoleon Avenue and St. Charles Street the Napoleon 
Avenue car, a branch from the St. Charjes, may be taken. The car runs thence 
to the river for the accommodation of residents along the avenue. 

St. Elizabeth's Industrial Home for Girls in charge of the Sisters of Charity 
is ar the corner of Prytania and Napoleon Avenue. The home is the climax in 
a trinity of institutions, under the charge of this sisterhood in New Orleans. 

From the Infant Asylum, at Race and Magazine Streets, the children pass 
to St. Theresa's Asylum in Camp Street, where they are given a good common 
school education. Thence they graduate into this industrial home, where they 
are trained for active work by which they may become self-supporting in the 
world without. St. Elizabeth's is noted for its schools of needlework, the pro- 
ducts of which are in great demand throughout the country. Among its grad- 
uates have been many wonderfully expert needlewomen. 

At the corner of Camp and Napoleon Avenue, is St. Stephen's Church, a 
handsome edifice in brick. It has been in course of construction for some years 
and still lacks the steeple. The interior is not yet completed, but for the past 
ten years services have been held in the edifice. The pictures over the altar 
represent the martyrdom of St. Stephen. 

The power-house of the street car company at the end of the line is in- 
teresting, and may be visited upon application to the foreman. 


Camp, Prytania and Magazine Streets. 

Camp Street is an important business thoroughfare of New Orleans, many 
si ores, banks and insurance companies having their offices in the section be- 
tween Poydras and ('anal. The newspaper offices are also in Camp Street, 
hence this distinct section is often called "Newspaper Row." 

The Prytania Street cars run from Canal into Camp Street, and continue 
up the latter to Calliope, where Prytania Street begins. 

The large, brick hardware store on the river side of Camp and Common 
Streets occupies the site where at one time stood the City Hotel, in its time a 


famous resort. It played a conspicuous part in the stirring drama of recon- 
struction days, but was demolished to make way for the present structure. 
Opposite is the handsome marble front building known as the "Tulane-New- 


comb," which lias been lately erected by the administrators of the Tulane 
University Fund. 

On Camp Street, in the middle of block, between Gravier Street and Nat- 
chez Alley, stands the four-story granite building occupied by 


The Picayune. 

The Picayune in, with the exception of the French daily, L'Abeille, the oldest 
paper in Louisiana. It shares with L'Abeille and the Deutsche Zeitung the 
honor of being the only publications which survived the Civil War. The Pica- 
yune was founded in January. 1S37. by George Wilkins Kendall and Francis 
Lumsden, two practical printers. The paper was at first a four-page folio, with 
four columns to the page. It was so successful thai it was found necessary 
within a few months to enlarge the sheet, and it continued to grow till it lias 
reached its prerent dimensions. The present site has been occupied since 1847. 
After the death of Mr. Lumsden, who was drowned in Lake Erie, in 1860, Mr. 
Kendall continued the publication of the Picayune with Messrs. Holbrook and 
Bullitt. Upon the death of Mr. Kendall, in 1807, Mr. Holbrook acquired the 


sole control. Mr. Holbrook died in 1S76, and his widow, whose maiden name 
was Eliza Jane Poitevent, known to the world of letters as the sweet Southern 
poet, "Pearl Rivers," took charge of the paper and managed it successfully, 
with the assistance of Mr. George Nicholson, a man of exceptionally fine busi- 
ness talent, who had been business manager of the Picayune for many years. 
In 1878 Mrs. Holbrook and Mr. Nicholson were married and the firm name 
became Nicholson & Co. Mr. Nicholson died in February, 1890, and within 
ten days his wife followed him to the grave. Side by side they sleep in Metairie 
Cemetery. The Picayune is now managed under the title of "Estate of Mrs. 
E. J. Nicholson," in the interest of her two sons, Leonard K. and Yorke P. 

The Picayune has had a most eventful history during its long existence of 
sixty-five years. Mr. Kendall brought the paper into great celebrity during the 


Mexican War. representing it in the field with the army of invasion, and thus 
beinc entitled to the honor of being the first of the now numerous tribe of war 
correspondents. He succeeded, by means of a pony express, in getting news to 
the Picayune and through it to the world, in advance of even the Government 
dispatches. .Mrs. Nicholson's management of the paper was exceptionally bril- 
liant, and she is entitled to the honor of having been the first woman in the 
world who successfully managed a great daily. The recent enterprise of 
the Picayune, equipped as it is with the most modem and improved machinery 
that science has devised for newspaper production, has been worthy of its 
■early fame. During the great and disastrous storm at Cheniere Caminada, in 
1893, it was not only the first to give the full news of the catastrophe, but char- 
tered a steamboat to send food and clothing supplies to the sufferers. It took 
the initiative in New Orleans in providing and securing subscriptions for the 
sufferers of the late great disater at Galveston, helped to organize the ladies of 
the city into a relief association and sent money, clothes and medicine valued at 
$50,000 to the relief of the storm-stricken people. 

During the recent war with Spain it was represented in the field by two 
staff correspondents, and by alliance with the New York Herald secured un- 
rivaled special cable service. In the midst of all the changing events of more 
than sixty years the Picayune has appeared regularly every morning except 
during the year 1864. when, for a brief period, the offices were in the hands of 
the military authorities and the publication was suspended. In addition to the 
daily, the Picayune issues a twice-a-week edition, and annually at Mardi Gras 
publishes several beautifully illustrated editions, known far and wide as the 
"Carnival Editions." Within the past ten years the Picayune has devoted 
itself sedulously to educating the South in the importance of building cotton 
mills in the regions where the staple is produced. In this crusade it has. at 
large expense, sent members of its staff to various parts of the Union, and 
■especially to North Carolina and New England, to study the milling enterprises, 
which have been so successful there. Entirely at its own cost the Picayune sent 
Mr. Hargrove, one of these correspondents, to deliver addresses in Mississippi 
and Louisiana, setting forth the result of his investigations. The Picayune 
reprinted the articles and letters of these correspondents in two pamphlets, of 
which more than 45,000 copies were distributed, free, throughout the South. 
Nothiug can be more gratifying to the Picayune than the appreciation of its 
efforts in its home city. It may interest the tourist to know that the Picayune 
derives its name from an old Spanish coin called "picayon," which was in cir- 
culation in New Orleans in the early part of the century. Its valuation was 
about 6 1-4 cents. The price of the paper when originally published was a 
picayune. The five cent coin that superceded the Spanish under American 
coinage was designated by the Creoles as a picayune. The term, so picturesque 
and quaint, is still heard frequently in New Orleans among buyers and sellers 
in the old French Quarter. 

Parties not exceeding eight or ten in number, who desire to view the 
Picayune's complete composing .room, with its rows of linotype machines, the 
wonderful press and the stereotyping department, which are among the most 
instructive sights in the city, are welcome. 

Poydras Street is worth a visit. It is particularly interesting near the 
river. Lively traffic is maintained on the sidewalks in country produce be- 
tween the retailers and the commission merchants. 

The Produce Exchange is at the corner of Poydras and Front. 

Odd Fellows' Hall, on Camp Street, between Poydras and Lafayette 
Streets, houses many of the lodges of that order. The second floor is occupied 
by a large hall, often used for concerts, theatricals and balls. One 
of the most remarkable scenes in the history of the State was enacted here in 
1877. It was the last act in the tragic drama of the so-called "Reconstruction 
Era." On Jan. 1, of thai year the Legislature assembled and the Democratic 
members who constituted the lawfully elected majority, marched in a body to 
the Hotel Royal, which was then the State House. They were refused admis- 
sion by the Radical Administration, and found the entrance guarded by armed 
men. They retired to St. Patrick's Hall and organized, and on Jauuary 8, 
swore in the legally elected Governor of Louisiana. Francis T. Nieholls. 

At the same time the Radical usurper, Packard, was inaugurated in the 
same office in the Hotel Royal. The day after inauguration. Governor Nieholls 


directed the citizen soldiery ns they took possession of the pubbe buildings of 
the city. The Packard Government \v;is besieged for two months, and Federal 
support being withdrawn, finally yielded to the popular voice. Tbe inauguration 
of Governor Nidholls was the turning point in the later bistory of the State. 

In the square between Poydras and Lafayette Square there stood, until 
destroyed by fire sonic years ago, the famous "Moresque Building," considered 
one of the most beautiful specimens of Moorish architecture in the South. The 
exterior was of iron, cast at Holly Springs, Miss., and wrounght into beautiful 
Oriental designs in keeping with the style of architecture. 

Immediately in front of Odd Fellows' Hall is 

Lafayette Square. 

It was named after General Lafayette,. In the centre of the square stands 
the monument erected in 1856 to the "Mill Boy of the Sloshes," Henry Clay. 
The statue is 12 feet high and is of bronze. It was sculptured by the famous- 
Kentucky artist, Joel T. Hart. Until recently Clay Statue stood on the neutral 
ground at the intersection of Canal. St. Charles and Royal Streets. This spot 
is commonly regarded as the center of the city. Clay Monument figured in the 


annals of New Orleans as tbe great gathering place of the people when bent 
on business of serious public import. The great revolution of 1874 was pre- 
cipitated by a speech delivered at Clay Statue, and the lynching of the Mafia 
members in 1891 resulted from two addresses pronounced on the same spot. 

The increasing car traffic of the city, and the network of railroad lines 
that circled about the monument made the vicinity dangerous to human life, and 
finally, sentiment yielded to reason and the monument was removed by act of 
the City Council in 1901 to this abiding place in Lafayette Square. It replaced 
the statue of Benjamin Franklin, which wa,s moved from the center of the 
square to the east side. This work is from the chisel of Hiram Powers, and was 
presented to the city and erected in 1872. In the square stands the geodetic 
stone erected by the Coast and Geodetic Survey. By it is located exactly 
latitude 29:50:58 N. and longitude 90:04:09 W. 

On the west side of the square, facing the City Hall, is the monument 
erected by the public school children of the city to the great benefactor of the- 
public school system of New Orleans, John McDonogh. 

Once a year, on the anniversary of McDonogb's death, the public school 
children gather here and strew the mound with flowers. 

This thought is symbolized in the design of the monument. 

At this point the visitor should cross the street and visit the 


City Hall, 

which stands at the corner of Lafayette and St. Charles Street, overlooking 
the square. The hall was erected in 1850 and is an imitation of the Temple of 
Minerva, on the Acropolis, at Athens. It is built of marble. The noble Ionic 
portico with its beautiful columus is very imposing. The pediment is orna- 
mented by a bas-relief of Justice, surmounted by figures emblematic of Com- 
merce and Manufacture. A spacious marble hall extends the entire length of 
the building. To the left of the entrance are the Mayor's offices. Magnificent 
portraits of George Washington, Andrew Jackson and former Mayors of New 


Orleans adorn the walls. The handsome apartment on the right was formerly 
used «» c library. Just beyond the stairs on the right is the Council Chamber. 
Here the body of Jefferson Davis was laid in state previous to temporary inter- 
ment in Metairie Cemetery. The City Archives are on the fourth floor. In the 
basement are the offices of the City Treasurer, Comptroller, etc. An interesting 
room in this section is the headquarters of the fire-alarm telegraph. Many stir- 
ring events have transpired in and around the hall. In 1861 the many Con- 
federate regiments departing for the war received their colors in front of this 
building. From the steps they heard soul-stirring addresses, notably those of 
Dr. Palmer and Father Hubert, distinguished members of the New Orleans 
clergy, who followed as chaplains. In 1862 Captain Bailey came hither at the 
command of Admiral Farragut to demand the .surrender of the city to the Fed- 


era! forces. An angry crowd assembled about the building while Bailey was 
within and it was only by barricading the doors with furniture that it was kept 
out and the gallant sailor saved from its fury. He made his escape unobserved 
by a rear door. 

During Mardi Gras time a spacious platform is built over the steps of the 
hall, on which hundreds, sit to witness the parades. The Mayor receives the 
King of the Carnival in the hall on Mardi Gras Eve, and delivers to him the 
keys of the city on a velvet cushion, and in return receives from the merry mon- 
arch a decoration and the title of Duke of the Realm. 

At the corner of Camp and Lafayette stand.s the 

City Library. 

The building it occupies was formerly known as St. Patrick's Hall. The 
new library was opened in January, 1897, and was created by the merging into 
one of the library established under the Fisk bequest and the old city library, 
which formerly had its quarters in the City Hall. The library has an annual cir- 
culation of about 100,000 books. Seven hundred of its volumes are in foreign 
languages. It is said to have the most perfectly lighted reading-room in the 
world. Here may be seen carefully preserved in a glass case two volumes of 
the "'Vie de Caesar," by the Emperor Napoleon III, which were presented by 
the author to the city. 

The Christian Woman's Exchange is diagonally across from the library on 
the corner of South and Camp Streets. The handsome brown edifice on the 
upper side of the square is the First Presbyterian Church. It was over this 
congregation that the noted divine, the late 

Dr. B. M. Palmer, 

presided from 1S56 to May, 1902. The First Presbyyterian Church, in its 
eventful history as a congregation, represents the growth of Presbyterianism in 
New Orleans. Though, properly speaking, this is not the first Presbyterian 
Church erected in the city, it stands for that small nucleus that over eighty 
years ago gathered in a little room in Canal Street, where the hardware es- 
tablishment of Stauffer, Eshleman & Co. is now located, and determined to 
organize a Presbyterian congregation. The first effort to plant Presbyterianism 
in New Orleans originated strangely enough with the Congregationalists of 
New England. In 1817 the city had a population of 34,000, with only one 
Protestant minister, Dr. Hull, who was in charge of Christ Church (Episcopal) 
corner of Canal and Bourbon Streets. The Connecticut Missionary Society en- 
gaged a missionary to tour the Southwestern States and especially to visit 
New Orleans and inquire into religious conditions. He was charged to invite 
the friends of the Congregationalist or Presbyterian Church to establish a 
church and secure a pastor. As a result of his investigations, the Rev. Sylves- 
ter Larned was sent to New Orleans in January, 1818, and by April 5, had 
collected the sum of $16,000, with which to erect a church. A loan of $40,000, 
which w r as the estimated cost of the building, wa.s negotiated; the City Coun- 
cil gave the plot on St. Charles Street, between Gravier and Union, and by a 
singular coincidence the cornerstone was laid the very day that the Rev. B. F. 
Palmer, who w T as destined to wield such an influence upon the congregation 
of this church for over half a century, first saw the light. In 1$20 Mr. Larned' 
placed the number of communicants in his church at 40, some of whom, how- 
ever, were Methodists. Dr. Larned died in 1820, and the Episco- 
pal minister read the burial service over his remains. Eighteen months 
later Dr. Theodore Clapp, a famous graduate of Yale and of the Theological 
Seminary at Andover, came to preside over the Church. Dr. Clapp liquidated 
the debt of the church by means of a lottery which he established, and by a 
personal donation of $20,000, which he received from Judah P. Touro, a prince- 
ly merchant of Jewish faith, who became his warm friend through life. Dr. 
Clapp's ministry was a very troubled one, from the suspicions entertained of 
bis doctrinal unsoundness. In 1824 he declared his faith was shaken in the 
doctrine of future punishment, and doubts thickening upon him through years, 
he was at length forced to plant himself in open hostility to the whole Calvan- 
istic theology. Twice he was called before the "Sessions" of the Presbytery. 
Finally, he was declared deposed from the ministery of the Presbyterian 


Church. But Dr. Clapp was a very brilliant man. and he carried the bulk of 
the congregation and his church property with him. and founded the Unitarian 
Church in New Orleans. Presbyterianism had received a great blow. It had 
to make a new start, and from beginnings quite as small as the first, for only 
nine of the old congregation seceded from Dr. Clapp, and sought to reorganize 
the First Church. These nine worshiped in a warehouse on Lafayette 
Street, that was owned by Mr. Cornelius Paulding, and which was located on 
the site now occupied by Dr. ralmer's Church. In 1835 Dr. Parker came to 
minister to the congregation, and through his efforts a church costing nearly! 


$70,000 was built. In 1854 the roll of communicants had reached GOO. That 
same year the church was destroyed by fire,- and the present handsome structure 
was begun. In the meantime Rev. B. M. Palmer was called to the pastorate. 
He arrived in December, 1856, and in 1857 the beautiful edifice, which still 
stands the pride and monument of Presbyterianism in New Orleans, was com- 
pleted and dedicated. It cost in all its appointments, the sum of $87,000. No 
man ever wielded a greater or more beneficent influence among his people than 
Dr. Palmer, and his name and memory are inseparably associated with tfef> 

On Camp Street, between Girod and Julia, is 


St. Patrick's Church. 

The structure, which is Gothic in style, is worthy of the attention of the 
aitist or student, whether considered merely fur its size or for the splendor of its 
architecture. The plan of the church is an imitation of the fumed York 
Minster, and is regarded as being the happiest e'fforl in this held in the United 
Stales. The material is brick, rough cast, to simulate uncut stone. The 
church was erected early in the fifties by the Irish colony in New Orleans. The 
tower is 250 feet high and for many years "the four points of St. Patrick's 
steeple" were the guiding compass for New Orleans. The interior of the 
church is pure Gothic, with comparatively little ornamentation, except the 
reredos, which is very beautifully wrought. Back of the main altar is a very 
effective copy of Raphael's "Transfiguration." This is flanked on the right by 
a picture of St. Peter walking on the waves, and on the left by one of St. 
Patrick baptizing the Kings and Queens of Ireland in Tara's Hall. The ar- 
chitectural decoration of the main altar is in wood in the Gothic style, and on 
festival days, when illuminated with many lights, the effect is very imposing. 
Among the beautiful pieces of statuary is the "Mater Dolorosa." which created 
such interest in the religious art exhibit at the World's Fair in Chicago. 

The Confederate Memorial Hall 


occupies the grassy mound near the corner of Howard Avenue and Camp 
Street. It was presented to the city by Mr. Frank T. Howard, a philanthropic 
citizen. The hall is a neat structure of pressed brick, now overgrown in many 
places by creeping A-ines. The interior is finished in hard woods, and contains a 
magnificent collection of relics of the Civil War. Among the more interesting 
may be mentioned the uniform and sword of General J. B. Hood, the saddle of 
General Bragg, the cradle and library of Jefferson Davis, portraits of Confed- 
erate Generals, etc. Washington's telescope is in one of the cases in the center 
of the hall. 

Shortly after the death of Miss Winnie Davis her mother placed in Memo- 
rial Hall the most precious souvenirs that she possessed of her lamented daugh- 
ter. Among these are all the childhood toys and school books, and paintings of 
the "Daughter of the Confederacy," her robe and crown and sceptre when she 
was Queen of Comus in New Orleans in 1892, and the badges presented to her 
by the various camps. Mrs. Davis also sent many personal souvenirs of Mr. 
Davis, among others all the important documents of the Confederacy in her 
possession, and the last suit of clothes and hat worn by Mr. Davis. 

The cannon in front of the hall is the "Lady Slocomb," and was used at 
Mobile in the Civil War. The building is used by the camps of the United 
Confederate Veterans as a meeting place. 

The Howard Memorial Library 

i-j a beautiful structure, erected in 1SS7 by Mrs. Annie Howard Parrot, as a 
memorial to her father, the late Charles T. Howard. The interior is finished 
in polished woods. The reading-room is circular in shape, exquisitely paneled, 
with carved rafters and ornamented in an extremely beautiful manner. The 
library contains about 35,000 books, including many extremely rare volumes. 
There is a collection of works bearing on the history of Louisiana, the like of 
which can nowhere else be found. Among the treasures of the library are 



copies of almost all the original works of Audubon, many of which are now 
very difficult to find. The collection of early maps of America is unique and 
very valuable. Mr. William Beer, the librarian, is always pleased to exhibit 
his treasures. 

Two squares further on the car turns into Prytania Street. This is one of 
the most beautiful residence sections in New Orleans. In the triangular-shaped 
square which marks the entrance to the street stands a monument from which 
looks down a woman with a little child at her side. This is 

flargaret Place, 

nnd the statue is that of Margaret Haughery, the humble baker woman who 
toiled all the long years of her life for the support and maintenance of the little 
orphans of this city. She erected the asylum that tares the square, St. Vin- 
cent's Infant Asylum, at the corner of Race and Magazine Streets, helped to 
build St. Elizabeth's Industrial Home for Girls and gave everywhere and to 
every needy child. Her small bakery grew through her exertions into an im- 
mense steam bakery, right in the center of the business life of the city, 
and she became a great factor in that life. Everyone, from the banker to the 


newsboy, would salute her as she sat at the door of her office of a morning, for 
everyone honored and respected her. They knew the great golden heart that lay 
beneath her plain and simple garb. She had never learned to read and write, 
and yet she died as no woman in New Orleans ever before had died, giving 
away thousands of dollars to the poor little orphans of the city. A simple 
"Margaret Haughery (her mark)" was the signature to her will. No orphan 
asylum was forgotten, Jew and Protestant and Catholic w r ere all remembered, 
for "they are all orphans alike," said Margaret, "and I was once an orphan 
myself." She had a funeral such as no woman in New Orleans had ever had, 
and almost before anyone could ever exactly tell how it began, the idea of a 
monument seemed to be in every mind. The ladies of New Orleans met and 




undertook to raise the money, and one morning, almost before the people of 
New Orleans, whom her presence had ennobled, and the little orphans whom 
she loved so well could realize it, they woke up to see their good friend Mar- 
garet sitting just as she used to do in life, in the same old chair apparently, in 
her old familiar dress, in the grassy plot in the square where she used to 
watch the orphans playing, in front of the home which she had built for them; 
and around her shoulders the ladies had thrown, not the old shawl that she 
used to wear every day. but "the state occasion shawl," as Margaret used to 
call it. and which had been crocheted for her by the little 6-year-old tots of 
Si. Vincent's Infants' Home. The City Council, by a special act, called the 
spot "Margaret Place." The monument is the first ever erected to a woman 
in the United States. 

The asylum overlooking the place is called the "New Orleans Female Or- 
phan Asylum." It was first founded in 1850 as a home to which the children 
from Si. Vincent's Infant Asylum may be transferred and educated, and these 
in turn, as they grow older, are sent for special training. in womanly work and 
art to St. Elizabeth's Asylum. 

St. Anna's Asylum, 

is a handsome stuccoed structure at the corner of St. Mary and l'rytania 
Streets. It was founded by Dr. Mercer, in memory of his only daughter. Anna. 
as a retreal for poor gentlewomen, ami was well endowed by him. 

It is impossible to point out all the handsome houses on l'rytania Street, 
which thence on is principally a resilience street, but several may be particularly 

mentio 1. At the corner of First and Prytania stands the mansion formerly 

occupied by Bradish Johnson, and now owned by Mr. W. D. Oenegre. It is a 
rare specimen of Southern architecture. At the corner of Prytania and Second 
is the home of Mrs. Ida Richardson, surrounded by grounds exquisitely kept and 
tilled with the rarest order of tropical vegetation, including many palms from 
far Eastern climes. The hothouses arc considered the most beautiful in the 


Al Washington Streel the car runs between the Washington Street 
Cemetery on the one hand and the 

Southern Athletic Club 

on the other. Tin's ('lull wap one of the firsl founded in the South for the pro- 
motion of athletics and amateur sports. It has a large membership among 
the besl classes. It belongs to the National Amateur Athletic Union. The 
clubhouse is of wood, the interior being finished in hard native woods. The 
gymnasium is 120x77 feet, and is fully equipped with every appliance for ath- 
letic training. There are hot and cold baths, a swimming- pool, boxing and 
fencing rooms, Turkish and Russian baths, etc. In 1889 Kilrain trained at 
this Club for his fight with Sullivan at Richburg, Miss., and in 1892 Corbetl 
trained here for his celebrated battle with Sullivan. It was to this clubhouse 
that Corbett returned after the fight, to receive the congratulations of his 
admirers. The visitors' book contains the autographs of many celebrities of 
the sporting world. 

Touro Infirmary, 

an admirable instituticn sustained by the Jews of the city, and managed by 
the Touro Infirmary and Hebrew Benevolent Association, occupies a square 
on Prytania Street, between Delachaise and Aline. The Association under- 
took the management and enlargement of Judah Touro's bequest for the 
relief of the suffering and needy of New Orleans. The original hospital was 
in the cotton pi. ss district, at tl»e corner of Gaiennie and South Peters Streets, 
but when the city grew away from this section the Association decided to build 
a model hospital uptown, about twenty-seven years ago. Subse- 
quently the management made many improvements, and a debt of $20,000 
was incurred. To relieve this burden a great fair was given, in February, 


— — ^ 


|^BH[|fiL. j. $88 

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1895. The entire South contributed liberally, and the magnificent sum 
of $00,000, net profits, was realized. This enabled the management to carry 
out many cherished plans for the further improvement of the infirmary. The 
hospital is built on the pavilion plan, amid lawns and gardens beautifully 
kept. It has free clinics, and all nationalities and creeds are admitted to 
their benefits. The hospital has accommodations for about 400 patients. Re- 
cently the Infirmary management decided to still further extend its facilities, 
and a new and more modern hospital building is contemplated. 

Within the grounds stands a magnificent fountain, erected at a cost 
of $500, by the little. Jewish children of New Orleans. On the same 


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grounds as the infirmary was built, in 1899, at a cost of $35,000, the 
handsome three-storied brick structure known as the Julius Weis Home for the 

it was tlic generous gift of the philanthropic Hebrew whose name it 
bears. The Touro Infirmary Training School for Nurses is located in this 

In the block above the Infirmary is the Home for the Aged and 
Infirm, conducted by the Little Sisters of the Poor. This is the uptown 
branch of the noble institution, corner of North Johnson and Laharpe 
Streets, in the French quarter. Between the two institutions nearly 600 
old men and women, every one of whom is over 60 years of age, are cared for. 
Both houses are well worth a visit. 

The car now passes through a section full of small and pretty houses set 
in gardens and shaded by trees. The line terminates at Audubon Park. 

Upper Camp, for the purpose of this Guide comprehends that section of the 
thoroughfare lying above Calliope Street. The Magazine car will take the 
tourist up Camp as far as Calliope, and thence through Upper to Old Camp, to 
Louisiana Avenue, to Laurel Street, and thence to Audubon Park. 

Beginning at Calliope Street, the visitor's attention is drawn to the hand 
some stone church occupied by the Episcopalian congregation of St. Paul's. 
It stands at the corner cf Camp and Gaiennie Streets. 

St. Paul's Church 

was erected in 1893, 0D the site of an older structure, which was destroyed by 
tire a year or so before. The interior of the church is very beautiful. Its most 
remarkable feature is its tower, which is a reproduction of a famous structure 
at Oxford. England. The church is expensively finished with pavements and 
wainscot of colored marbles, and has a pleasing interior. This building was 

erected under tl fficient management of the late Rev. H. H. Waters, who 

was for twenty-seven years in charge of the congregation. This church has a 
line siirpliced choir of boys and makes strangers welcome at its services, 



The asphalted walk in ike center of the street, bordered with grass plots 
and shaded with small trees, is called Margaret Walk, in memory of Margaret 

At the corner of Camp and Erato is St. Theresa's Church, a quaint 
specimen of Dutch architecture. 

The car then skirts 

Coliseum Place, 

a large, irregular park, almost a half a mile lung, and beautifully laid out aud 
shaded ^\ ith trees. It is a great playground for children and a fashionable 
promenade in summer. 

At the corner of Camp and Terpsichore is the Coliseum Place Baptist 
Church, niie of the oldest worshiping places of that denomination in the city. 

Miss Sophie B. Wright's Free Night School for Boys is at the corner of 
Camp and Race. 

The Felicity Street Methodist Church, plainly visible from the cars, is 
at the corner of Felicity and Chestnut Streets. It is a handsome brick struc-t- 


are and stands upon the silo formerly occupied by a stately edifice of brick, 
which was built about 1850, in the Grecian style, and which was burned 
about eleven years ago. 

At Felicity Street Camp divides; one branch retains the name of Camp, 
running uptown, and the other continues for two blocks, and intersects at St. 
Andrew St root with Magazine. The latter Branch is called Old Camp. The 
Magazine car runs through Old Camp and turns into Magazine just beyond the 
lower Magazine Market. This market is smaller than the French market, 
and not so interesting. 

The visitor will do well to leave the ear at Si. Andrew Street and visit the 

"Ecclesiastical Square." 

This comprises the group of schools, convents, churches and provincialate 
of the Redemptorist Order on or near the corner of Josephine and Constance 
Streets. There are the churches of St. Alphonsus and St. Mary's Assumption; 
the residence of the Bed- mptorist Fathers, who have built these churches, 


the Convent of Mercy, St. Alphonsus' Free Library, the school for colored ehil- 
dren and other parochial schools and clubs. 

St. Alphonsus' Church is on Constance Street, between St, Andrew and 
Josephine. It is of pure Renaissance architecture, with two towers, the stee 
pies of which have never been completed. Over the main door, in a niche, is a 
statue of St. Alphonsus,, to whom the church is dedicated. The edifice has a 
seating capacity of 1,200. II was begun in 1855 and dedicated in 1858. The 
visitor is struck immediately upon entering, by the profusion of ornamentation 
and the beautiful frescoes on which the painter and the gilder have exhausted 
the resources of their art. The main altar cosl $8,000. Over this altar is a 
very beautiful painting of St. Alphonsus, the work of a Roman artist. The large 
building used for the parish school, library, etc., stands in the open area on the 
downtown side of the church. The building cosl $100,000, exclusive of its artis- 
tic embellishments. 

Si. Mary's Assumption Church is mi Josephine, between Constance and 
Laurel Streets. The belfry is 190 feet high, and is considered very 
beautiful. It stands in the courtyard, near the side door of the 


church. The church is Renaissance in style, with an exterior the 
plainness of which contrasts well with the highly ornamental in- 
terior. The ceiling is covered with stucco traceries. The main altar, designed 
and executed in Munich, cost $10,000 and is considered one of the handsomest 
in America. The stained glass windows are very expensive and beautiful. 
The pulpit is hung in a remarkable way. 

The Convent of the Sisters of Mercy, on St. Andrew, between Magazine 
and Constance, was erected in 1858. Attached to the convent is a Boarding 
Home for Working Women, an orphanage and a Home of Mercy, where any 
poor woman may find shelter and food till she can obtain employment. 

Upper Magazine Street. 

On Magazine, between Jackson Avenue ami Philip, stands the second oldest 
Presbyterian Church in the city — the Lafayette Church, built in 1843. For 
over half a century Rev. Dr. Thos. R. Markham, who was a great Confederate 


chaplain, was the rector. He was buried from tins church. His monument 
is in Metairie Cemetery. 

On Magazine, between Washington Avenue and Sixth Street, is a build- 
ing known formerly as the Garden District Theatre, now owned and occu- 
pied by the First Baptist Church. 

At the corner of Seventh and Magazine Streets is the upper Pythian Hall, 
built about 1893 for the use of the Knights of Pythias. 

On Magazine, between Seventh and Eighth Streets, is a handsome brick 
structure, about which the vines clamber, suggesting peace and content. This 
is the Seventh Street Protestant Orphans' Home; it is under the management 
of a board of lady directors, and is ably conducted. 

The Ninth Street Market stands at the corner of Ninth and Magazine. 

At Louisiana Avenue the car leaves Magazine and runs out to Laurel. 
It proceeds up Laurel to the Audubon Park, stopping near the entrance to 
the Horticultural Hall. This is the best line to take to reach the park. 

The German Protestant Home for the Aged and Infirm is at No. 5919 
Magazine. At No. 6126 will be found the Monastery of the Poor Clares. 
This is a cloistered community of nuns, similar to the Discalced Carmelite 
Nuns, whose home is in the old French quarter. 

Adjoining the monastery on Henry Clay Avenue is the Home for In- 

In returning by the Magazine line, St. Vincent's Infant Asylum, "Mar- 
garet's Baby House.'' is passed. This interesting institution is at the corner 
of Magazine and Race Streets. It is in charge of the Sisters of Charity. 
It is the foundling asylum of the city, and contains at almost all times at least 
200 children, infants in arms or babies just beginning to walk. No little moth- 
erless or abandoned babe is ever refused admittance here. The neatness, order 
and general perfection of the management are often commented upon admir- 
ingly. One of the most interesting features of the Asylum is the perfectly 
equipped kindergarten and the nursery, where several hundred little tots 
play about the floor or sleep in the pretty white-curtained beds, all unconscious 
of what life has in sloie for them. In the pretty parlor on the first floor is a 
picture of Margaret holding a babe in her arms. The memory of this gentle 
mother of the orphans is very fragrant in the Asylum. 

The lower portion of Magazine Street is occupied largely by factories or 
wholesale grocery and produce stores. 

The Maginnis Cotton Mills, which were incorporated in 1881, are on the 
corner of Annunciation and Calliope Streets, and their warehouse is at the 
corner of Magazine and Lafayette Streets. Originally the mills had 15.360 
spindles and 360 looms, making sheeting, shirtings, drills and osnaburgs. The 
ready market for its product resulted in an enlargement of the plant in 1888, 
when the most modern English machinery was purchased, increasing the 
capacity of the mills three-fold. Even greater improvements have been made 
since then, and there are now over 40,000 spindles and nearly 1,500 looms in 
operation. These are kept going the year round, giving employment to over 
1,000 people, many of whom are girls. The mill's output finds a ready market 
from Boston to San Francisco, from Chicago to Texas, and certain grades 
are shipped to China. 

The Board of Trade has an entrance through the archway of Magazine 
Street, between Natchez Alley and Gravier Street. The archway passes 
through a three-story brick building, formerly known as the St. James Hotel. 
The rotunda of this hotel was, before the War, the principal slave mart in 
the city. The building is now occupied by offices. 

The main office of the Southern Pacific Railroad is in the large gray build- 
ing, with massive GreeU portico, at the corner of Natchez Alley and Magazine 


Along the Coliseum Line, St. Charles, Carondelet, 
Upper Magazine and Other Streets. 

An interesting portion of New Orleans is that through which the Coliseum 
car passes. The car starts at the Louisville and Nashville depot, near the 
foot of Canal Street, and traverses the great boulevard as far as the corner 
of Carondelet Street, into which it turns, proceeding thence to Clio, to Felicity, 
to Coliseum, to Chestnut, to Louisiana Avenue, to Magazine and Broadway, 
to Maple and Carrollton Avenue. It returns by way of Maple Street to 
Broadway, to Magazine, to Calliope, and thence proceeds down St. Charles to 
its starting point in Canal Street. From the many turns and zig-zags along 
the winding route, it has often been called the "Snake Line." 

Before beginning this long ride, which leads really through a very beauti- 
ful and important section of New Orleans, the tourist will find it interesting 
to walk from Canal Street to Poydras, stopping en route to inspect leading 
points in the great commercial thoroughfares of St. Charles and Carondelet 

Carondelet is the Wall Street 

of New Orleans. The cotton and stock brokers for the most part are established 
along this street. Almost all the railroads have their offices in the neighborhood 
of St. Charles and Common streets, as also the express and telegraph companies. 
On St. Charles, one square from Canal, between Common and Gravier, 
is the 

St. Charles Hotel. 

The present hotel is tie phoenix of three structures bearing the same 
name that have successively risen upon this historic spot. The first St. Charles 
Hotel was erected in 1835, at a cost of $700,000. It took three years to 
build it. It was characterized by a magnificent portico of Corinthian columns, 
from which a flight of marble steps led to the hotel. Its rotunda was world- 
famed. A dome forty-six feet in diameter surmounted the edifice, which 
was considered at that period one of the most beautiful in the world. Its 
erection marked the beginning of the great hotels of America, and it was only 
after some years that it was rivalled by the Astor House, of New York City. 
A. Oakey Hall, afterwards Mayor of New York, wrote of it shortly after its 
erection: "Set the St. Charles Hotel down in St. Petersburg, and you will think 
it is a palace; in Boston, and, ten to one, you would christen it a college; in 
London, and it would . marvelously remind you of an exchange. In New 
Orleans it is all three." 

The hotel was the resort of the wealthiest planters of the South. Its 
weekly balls were famous. In 1S51 the building was destroyed by fire. Many 
other buildings which were historic landmarks also passed away, among others 
the First Presbyterian Church. The total loss was $1,000,000. Within two 
days the directors of the hotel met and decided to rebuild. In twelve months 
the new hotel was finished. This building was the scene of many stirring 
events of the decade between 1851 and 1861. In its parlors Jefferson Davis and 
a number of Southern leaders met on their way to the Charleston Convention 
of 1860, and decided on the course they would pursue. The building had 
been leased to Messrs. Hildreth and Hall. In 1862 the course of Mr. Hildreth 
in refusing to give General Butler accommodations in the hotel came near 
resulting in a serious street disturbance, Hildreth was a Northern man and 


a relative of General Butler's wife. But lie was intensely Southern in his 
sympathies, and was an active member of the Confederate Guards. When 
Butler reached the city, on May 2, he sent messengers to the hotel to ask for 
rooms for himself and his staff. He soon followed, accompanied by a large 
military guard. Mr. Hildreth declined to admit him, declaring that the hotel 
was closed. Butler demanded the keys, which were refused him. In the mean- 
while the angry crowd had gathered in the neighboring thoroughfares, hooting 
the General and threatening him with personal violence. The crowd inter- 
fered with the officers who were trying to force their way into the hotel, but 
was finally dispersed. Butler took refuge in the barroom, and there held 
a conference with Mayor Monroe and the City Council. These gentlemen 
agreed to do all in their power to maintain the peace. Butler finally succeeded 
in obtaining possession of the hotel and opened it to his officers. A few days 
later he moved to the Twiggs House, and the lessees again obtained posses- 
sion of their property. During the remainder of the war it was kept open. In 
1S65 many of the impoverished Confederates were entertained here free of 
charge. The books showd that bills contracted by them to the amount of 
$30,000 had never been sent out for collection. This historic building was 
destroyed by fire April 28, 1894. A great deal of sentiment was attached 
to the old hotel, and its destruction moved many to tears. From the ruins 
of the famous old hostlery like magic sprang up the new St. Charles Hotel, 
superb and modern in all its appointments. From the first glimpse of its cha,ste 
red exterior, with palms and banana trees waving amid its colonaded walks, 
to the beautiful palm gardens glowing with tropical verdure, the stately parlors 
and marble-floored dining-halls, the hotel is a perpetual delight to the artistic 
observer. It is the palatial fin-de-siecle hostlery of the South. The most im- 
portant event in its history was the entertaining of i resident and Mrs. 
McKinley and the Cabinet suite during their visit to New Orleans prior to the 
President's assassination at Buffalo. Just back of the hotel is the annex, and 
on the Gravier Street side is still another annex, recently constructed to accom- 
modate the growing need in this direction. 

Directly opposite the Cotton Exchange, at the corner of Carondelet and 
Gravier, will be seen in course of construction the handsome new building of 
the Hibernia Bank and Trust Company. The new building, which is to be 
twelve stories high, will have a frontage of 140 feet on Carondelet Street, and a 
depth of 100 feet on Gravier Street. It will be not only the largest building 
as to the amount of floor space offered in New Orleans, but one of the most 
handsomely appointed edifices in the city. The first two floors will be of 
granite, ami the remainder of the building will be of light brick or terra cotta. 
The total estimated cost will be about ifSr.0,000. Work began on October 1, 
1002, and it is expected that the building will be ready for occupancy by Octo- 
ber 1, 1903. The Hibernia Bank and Trust Company will occupy the first 
floor, and the remainder will be utilized as business offices. On the twelfth 
floor a Merchants' Noonday Club will be put in, the membership of which is 
expected to reach seven or eight hundred, 

At the corner of Common and Carondelet Streets, on the river side, stands 
the handsome building owned and occupied by the 

Liverpool and London and Globe 

Insurance Company. As will be seen by the accompanying illustration, it is 
one of the most notable of the city's business buildings. It was erected at 
greal expense and is viewed with greal interest by strangers on account of tin; 
architectural beauty and finish of both exterior and interior. The company's 
general Offices are on the first floor, and here is handled the large business com- 
ing to it from the six States under (lie jurisdiction of the local office. In erect- 
ing this building the company has shown its desire to be regarded as a local in- 
stitution and its great faith in the future of New Orleans. A second building 
lias recently been elected as an annex, similar in point of architecture and 
finish to the main building. In 1900 the company celebrated the fiftieth anni- 
versary of its entrance into the United States, during which time it has paid out 
over $87,000,000 in losses. Such a record, added to a wide-spread reputation for 


liberal dealing and undoubted solvency have gained for the company the full 
confidence of the insuring public. 

The State Board of Health lias its office on the second floor. This Board 
controls the elaborate quarantine system by which contagious diseases from the 
Latin-American ports are prevented from entering the United States. 

On the lake side i ! Carondelet and Common Streets are the Hennen Build- 
ing and its annex, the Cora Building, which were erected at a cost of $300,000 


in 1895 by Alfred Hennen Morris, son of the late John A. Morris. The building 
are us,,] fo r offices. The City Board of Health has its office in the Cora bui d- 
mg, which is just hack of the Hennen. 

221 CatndS Strti^ " ^^ * *« »""*" Build ^ WMch " at No " 
At the comer of Gravier and Carondelet stands the 


Cotton Exchange* 

whi'cu is a tine specimen of the Renaissance style of architecture, and is con- 
sidered very beautiful. It is built of cream-colored stone. The cost of erection 
was $380,000. The Cotton Exchange was organized in 1871, with a member- 
ship of 100. It has now about 500 names on its roll. The Exchange proper occu- 
pies a beautiful apartment superbly frescoed with scenes from the history of 
Louisiana. Futures are sold around the small fountain at one end of the room. 
The Exchange enforces obedience to its rules for sampling, buying, selling and 
delivering cotton, and settles all disputes by arbitration. Reports of the 
receipts of cotton at all ports, exports and imports, meteorological and crop 
reports, and other indispensable information are daily posted on the blackboards. 
The upper iioors of the building are occupied by business offices. A small gal- 
lery, accessible from the stairway or elevator, is open to visitors. A fine view 
is obtainable from the roof of the building. There is a time-ball on the roof, 


regulated by telegraphic communication with Washington. It is dropped daily 
at noon. The Bureau of State Engineers, where the engineering work of the 
Louis iana Levee system is done, is located in this building. 

Immense commercial interests combine to make all this section of Gravier, 
Common, Carondelet and St. Charles one of the busiest business sections of 
New Orleans. 

The United Fruit Company occupies the large building at the corner of 
St. Charles and Union Streets. This site is famous as the one occupieu lor 
so many years by the Louisiana State Lottery Company. 

Adjoining is the building of the People's Homestead Association, the oldest 
of the homestead associations in New Orleans, the success of which gave inspi- 
ration to the many other homestead companies that are now established in this 

The Masonic Temple, a stately edifice in brick, is at the corner of Perdido 
and St. Charles Streets. The statue on the upper corner pinnacle is of bronze 


and represents Jacques tie Molay. Tlie upper floors are reserved for lodge 
rooms. The Grand Lodge of Louisiana has its offices here. 

The St. Charles Orpheum, 

one of the finest of the new modern theatres of New Orleans, occupies the site 
of tin' famous St. Charles Theatre, so often called the "Old Drury." The 
history of this old theatre, which was destroyed by lire in 1S!»!>, extended back 
over a period of sixty years. It was erected in 1835 by James Caldwell, the 
scholar and actor, who built the first American theatre in this city in Camp 
Street in 1S23. The cost of the old building was $350,000. Its history was in 
a great measure the history of the English drama in New Orleans. Such 
famous stars as the elder Booth, Keane, Macready, Ellen Tree, Patti, Tom 
Placide, Joseph Jefferson and Mr. and Mrs. Vance acted here. From the ruins 
of the old theatre there rose this splendid modern playhouse, superb in all its 
equipments, and erected at a cost of $150,000 by Dr. Geo. K. Pratt. It fully 
sustains the reputation enjoyed by its ancient ancestor. 

Audubon Theatre, 

known in other days as the Academy of Music, is in the same square. 
It is a small, but very cozy playhouse. Many high-clas.s performances 
have been given here. The building was erected in 1853, and that same 
year the renowned circus man, Dan Rice, opened the theatre. It had a 
portable stage, and its character as an amphitheatre was retained until 
1854, when the Old Varieties, where Mr. and Mrs. Dion Boucicault were 
to act, burned down. The late David Bidwell, who had assumed their man- 
agement, and who subsequently became the owner of this, as well as the 
St. Charles Theatre, immediately leased and renovated the building and 
named it the Pelican Theatre. Shortly after he gave it the name of "Academy 
of Music," which it bore until the recent appellation, "Audubon," was given it 
by a popular vote. In former times its attractions included a museum of natural 
curiosities, but this feature was long ago abolished, and the space formerly 
occupied by it is now a beautiful little foyer. 

The Hotel Denechaud, noted for its excellent Creole cuisine, is at the 
corner of Carondelet and Perdido Streets. 

In Perdido Street, between Carondelet and Baronne, is the Pythian Hall, 
where most of the Pythian Lodges are located, -and where the Grand Officials 
of the Order have their offices. 

Taking the car at this point in Carondelet Street, one passes en route, 
between Poydras and Lafayette, the "Jewish Kight Way" Synagogue. This is 
the worshiping place of the orthodox Jews. 

Between Lafayette and Girod is the Carondelet Street Methodist Church, 
the oldest Methodist Church in the city. It was built shortly before the 
Civil War, through the liberality and the exertions of Messrs. McGehee and 
Hill, two prominent Methodists. The church is of brick, and has an Ionic 
portico, and is covered by a graceful cupola, modeled after the monument of 
Lysicrates, in Greece. Bishop J. C. Keener, the Senior Bishop of the South- 
ern Methodists, often preached here. 

At 731 Carondelet is the New Orleans Sanitarium and Training School 
for Nurses. 

The Touro Synagogue 

is situated on Carondelet Street, between Julia and St. Joseph, it is or 
Grecian design, and is named after the philanthropist, Judah Touro, who 
settled in New Orleans in 1S01, and died in 1854, leaving an immense fortune, 
over $400,000 of which was, by the terms of his will, distributed among the 
religious and charitable institutions of the city. Mr. Touro was a sincerely 


religious man, and associated himself with a body of Jews who were accustomed 
to meet for religious services at the home of a gentleman named Andrews, 
which occupied the site adjoining the Howard Library, on Gamp Street, 
where now stands a neat, one-storied frame residence. In 1845 Mr. Touro 


purchased the building on the corner of Canal and Bourbon Streets, which had 
up to that year been occupied by the Episcopal congregation of Christ Church. 
This was converted into a synagogue and presented to his coreligionists. 
They used it_ for several years, but disposed of it to remove to the "present 
structure, which is interesting as reproducing with considerable exactness the 
original home of the venerable and wealthy congregation. In 1882 Touro Syna- 
gogue and the old congregation of the Gates of Mercy, organized in 1828, and 
the oldest in the city, consolidated. 

The congregation has subsequently been known as the "Gates of Mercy 
of the Dispersed of Judah." In memory of its greal benefactor, the name 
of Mr. Touro was bestowed upon the place of worship. A special prayer for 
Mr. Touro has been inserted in the memorial services on the Day of Atonement, 
and at each annual recurrence of the ceremony the entire congregation rises 
and remains standing while the rabbi pronounces the solemn sentences. 

Rev. 1. L. Leucht is the presiding rabbi. The synagogue is noted for its 
beautiful music and excellent choir. 

The Temple Sinai 

stands on Carondelet Street, near 1 Inward Avenue. This congregation was 
founded in 1871. The first rabbi of the congregation was Dr. J. K. Gutheim. 
one of the mosl eloquent and learned men of his time. This congregation, like 
that of Touro Synagogue, is composed of reformed .lews. The building is deco- 
rated in the Byzantine style, and is very beautiful. The music and -chanting 
here are always very fine. Rev. Max Heller is the presiding rabbi. 


The third Hebrew congregation was founded in L850, and erected a 
synagogue, which it still retains, corner of Jackson and Chippewa Streets. 


The German Evangelical Lutheran Church is on Clio, near St. Charles 

Further up along this line are many handsome residences. It is the most 
beautiful part of the Garden District, and the visitor should notice the luxu- 
riance of the flowering shrubs, which blossom even in the depths of winter. 

At Washington Street the car passes 

The H. Sophie Newcomb 

Memorial College for Young Women. This is the female department of the 
Tulane University. The college occupies a whole square. The handsome 
central building facing on Washington Street was formerly known as the Burn- 
side residence, having been the home of an eccentric millionaire of that name. 
It was built originally by James Robb, a great banker of ante-bellum days, 
in imitation of the country seat of an English nobleman. The house at one 
time contained a celebrated collection of pictures, including many paintings from 
the gallery of Prince Jerome Bonaparte, at Bordentown, N. J. These pictures 
were sold to local dealers some eight years ago. The upper story of this 
building was added after the purchase by the University. The lower floor con- 
tains several rooms with the original frescoes. 


The H. Sophie Newcomb Memorial Room is worth a visit, if only to see 
the magnificent reflecting mirrors of old Moorish design, said to be the finest 
in the United States. This room also contains all the childhood souvenirs of 
Haryott Sophie Newcomb, who died at the age of 15, in 1866. She was an only 
child, and her mother, Mrs. Josephine Louise Newcomb, has commemorated her 
in this magnificent gift. Mrs. Newcomb first donated upward of $450,000 to 
the college, which she placed under the auspices of Tulane University; at her 
death, in 1900, she left her vast estate to the college. The .grounds contain 
magnificent live oaks, a tennis court, and grouped around are the 
Newcomb High School, which is preparatory to the college, the 
art building, gymnasium, pottery buliding and chapel. The pottery build- 
ing, which is directly opposite the Camp Street entrance to the college, 
has its own kiln, and the manufactures are all of Louisiana clay. In the art 
building is a rare collection of old paintings, and some quaint curios, among 
others illuminated missals from the fourteenth century. A marble statue of St. 
George, costing $5,000, adorns the art building. The beautiful little chapel, 


in which services are yearly held in memory of H. Sophie Newcomb, contains 
several handsome stained glass windows by Tiffany, among others a representa- 
tion of the "Resurrection Morn," said to be the finest piece of work ever sent 
out by Tiffany, and which adorned the chapel exhibited by this company at 
the World's Exposition in Chicago, in 1893. The Newcomb library is constantly 
growing, and now numbers about 10,000 volumes. Opposite the college is the 
Newcomb dormitory, recently built and donated to the college by Mrs. Newcomb 
as a home for the students, and just around the corner stands the private resi- 
dence of the generous donor, which, since her death, has been made an annex 
to the college dormitory. 

At the corner of Chestnut and Louisiana Avenue is the Catholic Church of 
Our Lady of Good Counsel, built in 1892. 

At the corner of Louisiana Avenue and Magazine is the Louisiana Avenue 
Methodist Church, erected in 1895. 

The Valence Street Baptist Church is on the corner of Valence and Maga- 


At No. 5116 Magazine, between Soniat and Dufossal Streets, is the South- 
ern University, for the education of colored persons. Coeducation is in force 
here. The school is exceilenl and the instruction of an advanced character. 

The handsome brown brick building embowered in foliage, on Magazine 
Street, between Leontine and Peters, is the 

Poydras Asylum, 

founded in 1817. through the liberality of Julian Poydras. The Asylum was 
the outgrowth of a peculiar and pathetic incident dating back to the year 1817, 
when an immigrant vessel came to New Orleans with cholera on board and 
twenty little children who had been rendered fatherless and motherless by the 
ravages of the terrible scourge while the vessel was at sea. A kind-hearted 
gentleman stated the circumstance to Mrs. M. A. Hunter, mother of the cele- 
brated Commodore Hunter, and she at once sought to enlist the sympathies of 
other women in their behalf. She gathered the little waifs into a rented, 
when Julian Poydras heard of their condition and donated a home for them on 
the corner of Julia and St. Charles Streets, where the house known as the 
Spofford property stands. The property was subsequently leased out for a 
period of fifty years, and in 1905 it will revert to the Asylum. 


Julian Poydras was a young Frenchman who came to New Orleans from 
San Domingo in the days of Governor Galvez. He was a poet and a scholar, 
but he was very poor. He was not ashamed, as the old traditions run, to 
carry a pack on his back, and furnished himself with a peddler's stock and 
traveled up the coast on foot all the way to St. Louis, thus beginning the com- 
mercial connections of the great Mississippi Valley. Out of his industry came 
wealth, honors, slaves, plantations and a colonial home. He is recalled in 
Creole traditions as a courtly gentleman, who always dressed in the Louis XV 
style. At his ancient *villa, near where the Poydras market now stands, he 
entertained the most distinguished persons, among others the sons of Philip 
Egalite, when they came to New Orleans. But it is also related of him that 
his villa was ever open to peddlers, and an old Creole chanson says that "no 
man with a pack on his back was ever turned from the door of Julian Poydras." 
In 1817 he founded the Poydras Asylum, erecting it out of his own means. 
He munificently endowed the Asylum at his death. In 1836 the present build- 
ing was erected, at a cost of $90,000. It was first placed in the charge of the 
Sisters of Charity, but at his death the institution passed entirely under the 
control of the Presbyterian Directory, and the government was transferred to 
a Board of Lady Managers. The institution is beautifully kept. In the rear 


are extensive vegetable gardens, which supply the Asylum. Upon the walla 
of the reception room hang the pictures of Julian Poydras and Mrs. Hunter. 

Parker Chapel is the small wooden church at the corner of Magazine and 
Peters Avenue. 

The German Protestant Home is at the corner of Magazine and Eleonore. 

The German Orphan Asylum is on State and Magazine. 

Audubon Park is the site of the Cotton Centennial Exposition of 1884, 
ami the Horticultural Hall, where many beautiful tropical palms and exotics 
bloom, is passed. The terminus of the line is at Carrollton Avenue. 

Returning, at No. 3043 Camp Street, the , , , 

Fink Home, 

or Asylum for Widows is passed. This, asylum was founded through the 
boa nest of Mr. John Pink, a wealthy but eccentric gentleman, who 
died some years ago. Mr. Fink was an old bachelor, and the story runs that 
in his youth he fell in love with a beautiful New Orleans girl, who rejected his 
suit, declaring that she did not believe in girls marrying. She told him 
that she thought that they should become old maids, and thus remain free 
to work out their own individual destinies. It is related that Mr. Fink pleaded 
and pleaded, but in vain. The lady remained firm. He therefore shut himself 
off entirely from the society of ladies, and at his death left a large sum of 
money to found the "Fink Home for Widows." Down at the end of his testa- 
ment he added a special restrictive clause, forbidding the entrance into this 
Homo of "any old maid, no matter how aged or dependent she was or neces- 
sitous her circumstances." He closed this singular testament with the words, 
"Let every old maid work out her own individual destiny." It was thus, the 
Faubourg Ste. Marie declared, Mr. Fink revenged himself upon the fair but 
cruel sweetheart of his youth. 

At the corner of Camp and First Streets is a largo old-fashioned brown 
mansion, surrounded by magnificent trees. This is the home of Judge Charles 
F. Fenner. It was in this house that Jefferson Davis, President of the 
Confederate States, died in November, 1889. 

At No. 815 St. Charles, near Julia, is the 

Young Hen's Christian Association 

Building. This commodious structure was erected in 1895, partly through the 
liberality of Mr. J. H. Keller, a wealthy manufacturer. The reading-room, on 
the lirst floor, is free to the public. The members of the Association have 
access to an excellent gymnasium, swimming tank and baths, the use of the 
parlors, dining-hall, etc. On the second floor is a large hall called the Holme 
Memorial Hall. An observatory on the roof affords a splendid view of the 

Near the corner of St. Charles and Julia Streets, in the beautiful cultivated 
garden spol on the river side of the street, there stood until 1902 the famous 
Church of the Messiah, which was erected by the Hebrew philanthropist, 
Judah P. Touro, in 1854, for the use of his friend, the celebrated Unitarian 
minister, Dr. Theodore Clapp, when the hitter's church was destroyed by fire 
iiflcr his secession from l'rcsbyterianisni. The church cost $60,000, and was a 
very curious piece of architecture. It was octagonal in form, and the aisles 
and clerestory gave it a pleasing effect. This church was sold in 1902. and 
from the proceeds of the sale the new edifice, corner of Dryades and Peters 
Avenue, was erected. The old church was demolished. 

Between Julia and Girod Streets stands the 

Washington Artillery Hall, 

where the famous Washington Artillery lias its headquarters. It was away 
back in 1838 thai the "Native American Artillery" was organized in Now 
Orleans. In 1843 i1 attached itself to the Washington Battalion, and in 1844 
this battalion was augmented by the transfer from the Louisiana Legion of 
three companies, the Orleans Cadets, the Louisiana Grays and the Orleans 


Grenadiers. Francis A. Lumsden, one of the founders and proprietors of the 
Picayune, was the Captain of the latter company. The battalion became known 
as the Washington Regiment, with General Persifer L<\ Smith as the command- 
ing officer. In 1845, when the "Army of Occupation," under General Zachary 
'xaylor, was dispatched t<> Texas, General G-ames, of the United States Army, 
Department of the South, issued a call for troops. The Washington Battalion 
responded and went to Mexico, near the Rio Grande. Shortly after the Mex- 
ican War the battalion adopted the name of the Washington Artillery. When 
the Civil War broke out the battalion was among the tirst to respond. It was 
mustered into the service in Lafayette Square, and, marching to the old Christ 
Church, in Canal Street, received a Hag, presented by the ladies of New Orleans, 
costing $1,000. Mr. Judah 1'. Benjamin made the presentation. The com- 
mand tired the tirst gun at Bull Run and brought up the rear at Appomattox. 
After the collapse of the Southern cause, the survivors returned to their homes, 
but the tie of comradeship and the pride of the old corps were too strong to be 
kept down. As it was the reconstruction era and the Confederate soldiers wen 
not allowed to continue their military organization, the company took the 
name of a benevolent association, whose object was to care for the needy ami 
to erect a monument to its dead. The handsome monument in Metairie Ceme- 
tery tells its own story. Before the war the company's arsenal was located on 
Girod Street, but this building was confiscated while the battalion was in the 
Confederate service. In 1875 the Battalion of the Washington Artillery was 
reorganized, and in 1880 Colonel John B. Richardson, who had been promoted 
to the command, succeeded in purchasing the present spacious arsenal. This 
hall was erected in 1872 as an exposition building, to afford a permanent place 
Lor the exhibition ol alt the manutactured articles used in the South. The build- 
ing has a frontage of 85 feet and a depth of 341. The ballroom, on the second 
floor, in which the Rex balls are given, is 2U0 feet long. The arsenal contains 
some valuable relics of the Mexican and Civil Wars. Among the latter are 
the magnificent flag, on which are the names of the sixty battles in which the 
command participated, and a famous painting by Julio, valued at $5,000. It 
represents the last meeting of Robert Lee and Stonewall Jackson at. Chancel- 
lorsville. The catafalque upon which the remains of Jefferson Davis were 
borne to the grave occupies a conspicuous place in the arsenal. 

Soule's Commercial College is at the corner of St. Charles and Lafayette 
Streets. The college was founded in 185b, and occupies a leading place among 
the educational institutions of the city. The handsome new building, erected 
in 1902, occupies the site ot an ancient structure which was one of the land- 
marks of the American quarter. 

Thence to Canal Street the car passes directly in front of the City Hall, 
the magnificent mansion of the well-known public benefactor, Mr. Frank T. 
Howard, which adjoins it, business houses ami theatres, the St. Charles Hotel, 
and railroad offices, and, turning from St. Charles into Canal Street, parses the 
Crescent Billiard Hall, a rtfcort celebrated for the past forty years. 

Tchoupitoulas Street. 

Tclioupitoulas is mainly a business street, and the best way to see it is to 
take the car which runs up the street from Canal to Audubon Park. The lower 
part of the street nearest Canal is lined with immense groceries anil ware- 
houses. Further up are a number of foundries ami metal working establish- 
ments. Throughout the route glimpses may be caught from time to time of 
shipping lying alongside the wharves. 

The shot tower is at the corner of St. Joseph Street. 

The heart of the cotton press district is next passed. 

Near Louisiana Avenue are several grain elevators. 

The Stuyvesant Docks are on the river front, between Delachaise ami 
Foucher Streets, and are of great interest. The elevator is of 
gigantic size. A very elaborate system of grain carriers and rail- 
way terminals exist. The elevator has a capacity of 1,000,000 
bushels, or about 1,200 cars. If coupled together these cars would make a 


ain eight miles long. The elevator can unload 250 cars a day, and at the 
same time deliver, through an unequaled system of conveyors, to four steamships 


at once. It is the largest, the best-equipped and busiest elevator in the United 
States. In addition to the other facilities, there are wharves 1,500 feet in 

Annunciation Street. 

The Annunciation Street car follows the line of the Coliseum car, from 
Canal as far as Erato Street. It diverges there to Annunciation. It will take 
the visitor through a picturesque part of town. In the vicinity of Annunciation 
Square it passes through the cotton press district, where, in the season, 
thousands of bales of the fleecy staple are pressed and stored. Long rows of 
bales may be seen banked along the sidewalk. The dull rumble of the presses 
is constantly heard. If the visitor has never seen the presses in operation, 
it will be well for him to visit one of the yards, where he will willingly be 
admitted to see its wonders. 

St. Simeons ocnooi is tne fine old colonial building occupying the entire 
square on Annunciation, near Erato Street. It is in charge of the Sisters of 

A detour is made around Annunciation Square. This square was pre- 
sented to the city by a private citizen. On the woods side is the beautiful resi- 
dence of the late E. J. Hart. 

Just opposite the square, on the river side, are St. Michael's Church, pres- 
bytery and parochial schools. 

At the corner of Orange and Annunciation the visitor will notice an old- 
fashioned wooden residence, with pillared veranda and dormer windows. This 
was formerly the Stanley residence. 

Mr. Stanley was a cotton merchant of a charitable disposition. He adopted 
Henry M. Stanley, the famous explorer, who at that time wa,s a destitute 



orphan. Stanley's name was assumed by the boy in lieu of his own, which 
was originally John Rowlands. 

Clay Square is on Annunciation, between Second and Third Streets. 

Peters Avenue and Dryades. 

These cars, which start on Canal, near the river, traverse the least at- 
tractive part of the city. Going up town, the route is through South Rampart 
and South Liberty Streets. Above Louisiana Avenue, where the car enters 
Dryades Street, and in Peters Avenue, there will be noticed indications of the 
rapid growth of the city. A few years ago these two streets boasted very few 
residences of any sort; now they are being rapidly built up, and within a brief 
period will be numbered among the most attractive in the city. 

At the corner of Peters Avenue and Dryades Street is the new 

Unitarian Church. 

This building was erected in 1902, and represents the congregation founded 
oy Dr. Theodore Clapp when he seceded from the Presbyterian Church in 1833, 
and carried the bulk of his congregation and the cburch property with him. 
The history of this congregation has already been referred to, as also the old 
church edifice which stood for so many years near the corner of St. Charles and 
Julia Streets; from the proceeds of the sale was erected the present build- 
ing. Though much smaller than the old church, it is better adapted to the 
needs of the Unitarian congregation. 

The cars stop at the upper station, corner of Arabella and Magazine, within 
sight of the huge rectangular brick building, the Louisiana Retreat, an insane 
asylum conducted by the Sisters of Charity. This building stands at the corner 
of Henry Clay Avenue and Coliseum, and is visible from all the street car lines 
which run to the Audubon Park. 

Returning, St. Mary's Dominican Convent, at No. 1107 Dryades Street, 
and the Turnverein Hall, at No. 116 Clio, are passed. 

At the corner of Calliope is the handsome Church of St. John the Baptist. 
This is a Catholic Church; it stands between the Dominican Convent and St. 
John Parochial School and Presbytery. 


At Howard Avenue the car passes within sight of the Illinois Central 
Passenger Station and the head of the New Basin Canal. This canal, by the 
way. is exceedingly picturesque, filled almost all the time with schooners, and 
lined with sawmills and wood yards. 

At the corner of Lafayette and Dryades is a building of large proportions 
and obviously once of aristocratic appearance. It was formerly the Turners' 
Hall, but long ago was abandoned by that organization, being subsequently 
used as a manual training school by Tulane University, and more recently by 
a manufacturer of tinware. 

Other points of interest are the I'oydras Market and the office of the State 
Medical Society, and the New Orleans Medical and Surgical Journal, over the 
w ay. 


The Port of New Orleans — Scenes along the Levee. 

The visitor to New Orleans will have missed the most interesting as well 
as important feature of this city should he fail to make a personal inspection 
of the magnificent harbor known as the Tort of New Orleans. For a distance 
id' fifteen miles along the city front there extends an almost unbroken line 
of wharves and docks, sufficient to accommodate a vast tleet. Owing to 
the great depth of the Mississippi River, ships are able to lie close alongside the 
bank and load cargoes through all hatches at once. There is an equal stretch 
of fifteen miles along the west bank of the river within the port limits, although 
as .vet only a moderate portion of this space available for shipping is used. 

Along the harbor front there are five greal grain elevators, extensive rail- 
road terminals, including the famed Stuyvesant Hocks, belonging to the Illinois 
Central Railroad. There are several fruit docks, with covered sheds, for the 
handling of tropical fruit. Another conspicuous feature is the line new coffee 
dock, with its immense iron shed to protect freight from the weather. Along 
the city's wharves will be seen some of the largest freight ships afloat. 

The best way to see the river front is to walk along the levee. It is called 
the levee because it consists of a great bank of earth thrown up to protect the 
city from the invasion of the Mississippi, which at Hood rises far above the 
level of the streets. For many years, however, the river along most of the 
front has withdrawn itself a good way from the original channel, so that many 
solid blocks of buildings now stand where the Mississippi flowed when Bienville 
first looked upon it. The constant additions made to the levee in consequence 
cause a gradual slope up to the river front. The slope begins at a considerable 
distance back, and the ascent up hill is so gradual as to be imperceptible. 

Many interesting sights attract along the river front. 

Near the foot of Canal Street is the 

Steamboat Landing, 

where boats of all sorts and sizes, from the stately river packets which trade up 
the liver to Vicksburg, Memphis, Cairo and St. Louis, to the little stern- 
wheelers which run up Red River and into Bayou Atchafalaya and along the 
lower Mississippi coast, are to be seen the year round. 

Here the packets lie, busily receiving and discharging freight. The immense 
loads of cotton and sugar which they take on, make them especially interesting 
to the stranger. It is very picturesque to see the throngs of darkies handling 
these cargoes, and singing old plantation mulodies or camp-meeting hymns as 
they work away. When the vessels are loaded to the guards and are ready 


to leave a great shout goes up from the throng of laborers and roustabouts. 
Then they turn their attention to the next big cargo. 

The Sugar Exchange, 

where the members conduct many of those operations which regulate the 
price of sugar throughout the country is on the corner of Front and Bienville 
Streets. The Exchange is a building of magnificent proportions. 
Facing the levee are the salesrooms, vestibule and telegraph offices; 
on the second floor are the library, reading-room and museum and committee 
rooms. The building throughout exhibits exquisite taste in ornamen- 
tation. Upon the walls hang the portraits of Etienne de Bore, the first great 
sugar planter of Louisiana, Don Antonio Mendes, who first granulated sugar 
from cane in the old Parish of St. Bernard, and Jean Joseph Coiron, who in 
ISIS put up on his plantation in Terre-aux-Boeufs the first steam engine ever 
used to grind sugar, and in 1820 introduced from Georgia the red-ribbon cane 
in place of the tender Creole variety. The New Orleans Sugar Exchange has 


about 211 members, and wields a powerful influence in the commerce of the 
State. In the vicinity of the Exchange are several great refineries, where the 
crude products of the sugarhouses on the plantations are changed into the beau- 
tiful white sugar that is seen on the table. They are worth a visit. Trees and 
shrubbery adorn the triangular islet near the Bienville side of the Exchange. 

The Fruit Landing 

is just above Canal, near the head of Thalia Street, where almost any day may 
be found vessels discharging great cargoes of tropical fruits, bananas, oranges, 
lemons, mangos, pineappies, cocoanuts, etc. These are brought from ports on 
the Gulf of Mexico and the Caribbean Sea. A. large quantity of this fruit, 
especially the ripest of it, stops in New Orleans, where it finds a ready sale in 
the markets at ridiculously low prices; but the great bulk of it is loaded into 
cars right at the fruit wharves, and in a few hours after the arrival of the ship 
is flying northward towards Louisville, Cincinnati, Chicago, St. Louis and other 
cities, to be sold there. 


At the comer of Levee and Toulouse stood until 1826, when it was destroyed 
by fire, the old French Colonial "Government House." 


At the head of St. Louis Street are the wharves of the Southern Pacific 
Railroad Company, which runs a regular line of steamships from this point to 
New York. The steamships come here loaded with miscellaneous cargoes, and 
carry off immense cargoes of cotton, sugar, molasses, rice, cotton seed oil and 
other characteristic Southern products. 

At a short distance below are the wharves of the Harrison Line, which 
trades between New Orleans and Liverpool, running two and three steamers 
a week, and sometimes one a day, when the trade is very brisk. 

Just in front of the French Market, along the Levee line, is the 

Lugger Landing, or "Picayune Tier." 

Here the Dago fishermen from the lower coast land their cargoes of oranges 
and oysters, and here gathers a swarm of luggers, with motley crews of traders, 
hustling about unloading cargoes of oysters, fish, oranges, vegetables and all the 
various offerings of the land and water along the bayous and lakes of the lower 
Louisiana coast. When waiting for a cargo of some sort to set sail again they 
loiter idly about, smoking cigarettes or cooking their meals over queer little 
charcoal furnaces. The "Tier" is a picturesque sight. 

At the foot of Hospital Street is the landing of the New Orleans and 
Porto Rico Steamship Company, a line that has been established since the 
American occupation of Porto Rico, and which is already bringing large con- 
signments of coffee from this tropical island, carrying back principally cargoes 
of Louisiana rice, which is fast finding a market in the island. 

The Morgan Ferry Landing, where the Southern Pacific Company's freight 
cars are transferred by ferries to the Algiers side of the river, is at the foot of 
Elysian Fields Street. Transfers of passengers are made now at Avondale, 
about nine miles up the river. 


The ferries which ply between New Orleans proper and Algiers all have 
their houses along the river front, at such convenient points as the foot of 
Canal Street, the French Market, the foot of Esplanade, Jackson, Louisiana 
Avenues and the foot of Richard Street. 

Towards the lower limits of the port, on the Algiers side, is situated the 

New Naval Station, 

with its mammoth floating dry dock, the next largest dock of the kind in the 
world. This immense structure is capable of raising high and dry a vessel of 
18,000 tons displacement. It is over 500 feet long, and its inside measurement 
between the side walls is 100 feet. 

While the great dock was designed primarily to care for the ships of the 
Navy, it is available for docking merchant ships of a greater size than the 
local private docks can accommodate. By permission of the Navy Department, 
a number of merchant vessels have already been docked, and other vessels can 


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have the use of the dock whenever they desire, provided no naval vessels are 
at the time waiting to go in the structure. 

The British Government has recently built a dock for the Naval Station at 
Bermuda, which is slightly larger than the dock here, but it has not as great 
lifting capacity. A visit to the dock and Naval Station will prove instructive 
and interesting. 

Quaintest of all in this ever-changing panorama along the levee are the 

Batture Folks, 

a queer people who live outside the revetment on the river side. The batture 
is an alluvial elevation of the bed id' the river caused by the constant washing 
of tin' great stream towards the Algiers side. The batture is continually being 
enlarged by the sandy deposits from the river, especially along tin.' front from 
Louisiana Avenue up the stream. As far back as 1S07 this batture land was 
the subjecl of controversies between the owners of the soil along the river front 



of the Faubourg Ste. Marie and the folks who eame and made their homes 
there. Iu September, 1807 there occurred the "Batture Riots," and the eminent 
jurist, Edward Livingston, represented private claimants, but was opposed by 
the public in two distinct outbreaks. 


The batture is peopled by quaint shifting people who come down the river 
jn skiffs looking for homes. They build their houses along this deposit, under 


the shadow of the levee, the most interesting settlements being from Louisiana 
Avenue towards Carrollton. The houses are built like flatboats, on stilts, in 
such a way that they are enabled to rise and float; for the batture is dry or 
submerged, according to the season. Numerous floating galleries connect the 
houses with the shore. When the batture is dry the people lay out little vege- 
table gardens and pretty flower plots, that make their homes very picturesque 
and attractive. They keep chickens and goats, and gain their living by going 
out in skiffs, picking up driftwood and selling it in town. The batture is con- 
sidered outside the city's limits, and is no man's land. The people living there 
take advantage of this, paying no taxes or rentals. No sight in New Orleans 
is more picturesque than these floating houses under the big wharves, rising 
and falling with the stream. The batture people are very good-natured and 
kind, and have a hospitality that is all their own. 


The Cemeteries. 

Unique among the cemeteries of the United States are those of New Or- 
leans. Owing to the dampness of the soil, which long ago caused the authorities 

~PHSTo 3r TaroiR.^; 


to agree that burial beneath the earth was unsanitary and impracticable, the 
custom here of burying above the ground has brought to the assistance of 


nature all the graces which money and art can combine in producing to make 
fair and beautiful the resting-places of the dead. In many of the cemeteries 
small fortunes have been expended upon a single tomb, and throughout the 
homes of the dead, wherever the purse permits, no expense is considered too 
great, in this city where sentiment so largely sways that Love, mounting on the 
wings of Faith, may follow in beautiful outward expressions of human thought 
the course of the dead in their trackless flight. And so everywhere our ceme- 
teries breathe the lesson that the dead still live, and their spiritual influence, 
hidden, but felt, still abides. 

A day should be devoted to visiting the cemeteries, which are, curiously 
enough, scattered over the city, marking historically the progress of its growth. 
One comes unexpectedly across a city of the dead in the heart of the metropolis, 
and learns that this once marked a line of demarcation outside the city's limits, 
but which, as New Orleans in time spread far beyond this prescribed line, was 
eventually swallowed up in the city's growth. The most historical cemeteries 
are those of the old French quarter, the most beautiful those which are on both 
sides of the New Basin Canal, near and around the terminus of Canal Street. 


The tombs are built of brick or marble or granite, and consist generally of 
two vaults, with a crypt below for the reception of bones. The vaults or crypts 
are carefully cemented to prevent the exhalation of decaying animal matter, 
and there is a law forbidding- any one to open a tomb before a certain time shall 
have elapsed after burial. Sometimes, as in the old St. Louis Cemeteries, the 
tombs are built in tiers, along walls of extraordinary thickness. These walls 
surround the cemeteries, and the vaults are called "ovens," the name being 
derived from the primitive form of tombs in the St. Louis Cemetery, which were 
made of brick and shaped like an oven. Over many of these ancient oven-shaped 
tombs a second story has been erected. As years pass on and deaths multiply in 
a family, the vaults are needed for the reception of other bodies. The slabs are 
then removed from the tombs, the old coffins broken up and burned and the 
remains of the dead are deposited in the crypt. If the coffin is of metal, it is 
simply transferred to the crypt. In this manner a long series of 
burials may take place in a single tomb. In the St. Louis Cemeteries generation 
after generation mingle their dust in the same crypt. 

Very beautiful are the new cemeteries, with their spacious grounds, lovely 
walks and magnificent monuments. Yet, with all their beauty, the new homes 


of the dead lack the mysterious charm of tradition and romance, association and 
age, which arc the heritage of the old cemeteries. 

The four oldest of these are the St. Louis, which lie in close proximity 
to one aiKither, along the line of the Claiborne cars and the Dauphine as they 
traverse the old Creole line of fortifications, Rampart Street. It is like turn- 
ing a page of Louisiana history to walk through these cemeteries. The most 
ancient is 

St. Louis No. i, 

which lies in the square hounded by Conti, St. Louis, Basin and North Liberty 
Streets. The cemetery is just one square's walk from Rampart Street. This 
is the old burying-ground of the French quarter, the cemetery laid 
out by Bienville in 1718, when he came to found his city of New Orleans. 
He placed the cemetery outside of the city's ramparts, and loyally named it 
"St. Louis," after the patron saint of his royal master, Louis XIV, of France. 
The place is so old and crumbling in decay that it never opens its vaults 
now except to an heir of the soil. Further building of tombs has long been 
prohibited here. But the old, old families still cling to their dead — the dead 
who gave New Orleans a history and a name — and the Government respects 
these time-honored ancestors. The dead lie so close to one another along the 
narrow aisles that there is not an inch of available earth that has not offered 
a lniine in death to some one of the old New Orleans families. Even to the 
"Yieux Carre" of to-day, the very names on some of these old and crumbling 
tombs seem strange and foreign, for years ago many of the families became 
extinct, and their very names passed from the records of the city. But the old 
St. .Louis must ever hold the title of mother of all the Louisiana cemeteries, 
and by reason of its very antiquity must ever be a place of peculiar interest 
to strangers. The tombs are scattered irregularly over the inclosure, and form 
tortuous alleys, through which it is very difficult for the uninitiated to find 
their way. Strange histories lie buried here. A Russian prince finds a last 
nsting-place in a corner of one of the old ovens against the walls, and, as the 
French legend runs on the marble slab, "This tablet was placed here by a 
broken-hearted mother, who supplicates in tears, all ye who pass this way to 
kneel and say a prayer for the repose of her son's soul." Almost in juxta- 
position will lie found the tomb of Benedict , Van Preebles, "an officer of the 
Revolution under Lafayette, who died in ISO.",." and of Paul Morphy, the great 
chess player. In the rear of the cemetery will be found a curious old-fashioned 
oven tomb, hardly two feet above the ground. It is the last resting-place of, 
Etienne de Bore, the first great sugar planter of Louisiana, and of his grand- 
son, Charles Gayerre, the illustrious Louisiana historian. In an alley 1" the 
right is the tomb of Stephen Zacharie, founder of the first bank established in 
the Mississippi Valley, and a little further on that of Daniel Clark, the Amer- 
ican Consul in Spanish times in New Orleans, who was claimed by Myra Clark 
Gaines as her father: out of this claim srrew the famous litigation which 
extended over nearly half a century, and which involved immense tracts of 
property claimed by the City of New Orleans. The magnificent tomb of "La 
Societe Italienne,*' with the commanding white marble statue of "Faith," 
attracts attention, as also that of "La Societe Francaise," erected in 1S4S. Just 
leyond the Canal Street side of the Cemetery is a plot containing a quaint 
chapel where the Jesuit priests arc buried. Passing from aisle to aisle in the old 
cemetery, on many tombs will be found the legend, "Mort sur le Champ d'llon 
iieur" (Died on the Field of Honor), or "Victime de l'honiieur," indicating that 
here sleeps some one who has fallen in a duel. At the back of the cemetery, 
beyond a board fence, which separates the consecrated from the unconsecrated 
ground, will be found the original monument erected to the memory of General 
Claiborne, the first American Governor of Louisiana. It possesses merely 
an historic interest, as the remains of the Governor were long since removed to 
a costly tomb in the Metairie Cemetery. 

As the French quarter grew» another cemetery was added to the city's re- 
pository for its dead, and (his was placed beyond the limits allotted to the 
mother cemetery. It is very ancient, and is called the 


St. Louis No. 2. 

It is within sight of the old cemetery, on St. Louis, between North Robert- 
son and North Claiborne Streets, and is best readied on the Claiborne Avenue 
ear. It is built very much on the same style as the first ceme- 
tery. Interesting monuments are those to General J. B. Plauche, 
a friend of Andrew Jackson's, who commanded the Orleans Battalion in the 
War of 1812. at the Battle of New Orleans; Alexander Milne, a philanthropic 
Scottish resident of N -\v Orleans, who died in 1838, leaving a large fortune to 


endow the Milne Asylum for Boys; Francois Xavier Martin, Chief Justice of 
Louisiana in 1815, and one of the earliest historians of the State; Pierre Soule, 
statesman and orator, and once Ambassador to Spain; the fine Association tomb 
of the "Spanish Cazadores," erected in 1830, and that of the Iberian Society, 
erected in 1848. At the end of the aisle, towards Claiborne Street, is the tomb 
of a young man named Barelli, who was killed in the burning of the steamer 
Louisiana many years ago. The accident forms the subject of a bas-relief on the 
tomb, which always attracts much attention. The large mortuary chapel at the 
end of the cemetery is that of the Carriere family. It is very beautiful. But 
most unique of all the tombs is that of Dominique You, one of Lafitte's pirates, 


who commanded a company of cannoneers <m the Chalmette battle-field. The 
tablet bears do date, but beneath the name inscribed thereon is a stanza from 
Voltaire's famous "L'Heriade," which speaks of "the intrepid warrior," "the 
new Bayard," "sans peur et sans reproche." 

An interesting relic of the days of reconstruction is the tomb of Oscar ,T. 
Dunn, colored, who was Lieutenant Governor under Warmoth in 1871. 

Just across the street lies the annex of St. Louis No. 2, and immediately 
beyond lies 

St. Louis No. 3. 

This cemetery is devoted to the uses of the colored people. From the ad- 
vent of slavery into the colony, which was, indeed, iu the first days of the 


Biloxi establishment, the lines between the two races were very closely drawn. 
When Bienville laid out the old St. Louis Cemetery for the use of the white 
population, the open space which stretched beyond as. far as Bienville Street 
was reserved for the colored population. As time passed on, many of the 
early Creole slave owners purchased burying plots for their slaves in the 
ancient reservations, and erected special tombs for them. When the San Do- 
mingo Revolution drove even the free men of color to seek refuge from the fury 
of their own slaves on Louisiana shores, the necessity arose of providing a 
special cemetery for these colored folks, for the proud, blue-blooded Creoles 


refused, even in death, to bo placed on equality witli the inferior race, though 
represented by freemen. Still they recognized a line of distinction between the 
"gens de couleur," as the free blacks were called, and the slave proper, and so 
the authorities walled up this ancient reservation of the slave dead and marked 
off the allotted spaces fcr the burial of slaves and of free men of color by the 
erection of a great iron cross in the center of the grounds. The ceme- 
teries were systematically numbered, and this colored burying ground was dig- 
nified by the title of St. Louis No. 3. When the war emancipated the negroes, 
the question arose as to what rights the erstwhile slaves, whose relatives were 
buried in these grounds, possessed to the tombs: but the matter was settled 
by the ma.sters and mistresses themselves still holding the titles to the ground 
anu tombs, and giving the right of burial as the occasion arose to the members 
of their households and their descendants. More than this, one hears every now 
and then, even in these latter days, of some old serving-men ot women who had 
scornfully rejected freedom when it was proffered, and who had clung through 
long years of trial and rehabilitation to the fortunes of their ancient masters, 
being honored in death with interment in the "family tomb" in St. Louis Nos. 
1 or 2, while the gentlemen of the family act as pallbearers and the ladies follow 
with tears the faithful old servant to the last resting-place. 

Out in Esplanade Avenue, near the Bayou St. John, lies the 

New St. Louis Cemetery, 

a young sister of the older ones, and laid out some forty years ago to accommo- 
date the growing French Quarter. As the population of New Orleans continued 
to increase and the tide of immigration to flow in, it will be noticed from the 
location of the cemeteries that the "outskirts" of the city in one decade be- 
came a densely populated section in the next, both above and below Canal 
Street; here as early as 1813 the Americans had built their own cemetery. 
Soon it became apparent that the city would have to locate its cemeteries at a 
great distance from the populated centers, and so the Americans began to lay out 
beautiful burying grounds at the furthest end of Canal Street; but the "Vieux 
Carre," still jealous of its ancient rights and loath to lay its dead so far from 
the olden cemeteries where their ancestors lay sleeping these hundred years 
and more, resolved to keep them within its own bosom. A square of ground 
at the furthest end of Esplanade Avenue was reserved as a cemetery, and, 
still clinging to the old name, sacred in the early annals of New Orleans, they 
called the place the new St. Louis Cemetery. It is reached by means of the 
Esplanade Avenue cars, which may be taken iu Canal Street or in Rampart 
just after leaving the old cemeteries. Beautiful in its ancient aspect, though 
comparatively new, the cemetery holds its own as a repository for the remains 
of ancient families. The central avenue is shaded by handsome trees, and many 
of the tombs are very fine. Father Tnrgis, the soldier-priest and veteran 
Confederate chaplain, is buried here under a beautiful monument erected to 
his memory by the Army of Northern Virginia. A notable tomb is that of 
James Gallier, a famous architect of Creole days, who, with his wife, Marie, 
was drowned in the wreck of the Evening Star in 1866. It was G-allier who 
built the French Opera House and the City Hall. 

Leaving the old French and Spanish cemeteries, one turns instinctively to 

St. Roch's Cemetery and Shrine. 

The old Gothic chapel of St. Roch is one of the most quaint and picturesque 
edifices iu New Orleans, or in the world, for that matter, as the opinions of such 
distinguished travelers as Marion Crawford, Charles Dudley Warner, Joaquin 
Miller and other noted writers attest. The shrine is best reached by taking the 
Villere or Claiborne Avenue car in Canal Street, or after leaving 
the old St. Louis Cemeteries. Alight at St. Roch's Avenue and walk 
a short distance out the avenue, and the beautiful chapel, over- 
grown with ivy, bursts upon the view. The chapel was erected 
by a pious priest, with his own hands, in fulfillment of a vow r , that, if 
none of his parishioners would die during a prevailing epidemic in early days, 
he would, stone by stone, build a chapel in thanksgiving to God. He and his 


parish united in a novena or nine days' prayer to St. Roch, the patron of 
health. His prayer was heard. The city to a great extent was decimated, 
hut not one of this congregation died. Then the old priest built this chapel 
and called the spot "Campo Santo." or "Place of Health." Soon from all parts 
of New Orleans pilgrims sought out the chapel, and it became a favorite shriue 
for the suffering and afflicted. In time it acquired the prestige of the miracle- 
working shrines of Europe. No one comes to New Orleans without visiting it, 
not once, but many times. Hundreds of tapers, the offerings of devout pilgrims, 
are always burning before the altar, and on all sides of the dim chapel are 
seen "ex votoes" or thank-offerings, placed there in gratitude for favors granted. 
The shrine is surmounted by a military statue of St. Roch, and at his side is 


the representation of the good dog, which fed him miraculously when he lay 
afflicted and abandoned with the plague in the forests of Munich. 

The chapel is designed after the old mortuary chapels still extant in Ger- 
man and Hungarian countries, and which, in ages gone by, were used for the 
burial of the elect. Each morning the bell hanging in the quaint belfry is 
tolled in accordance with a curious Hungarian custom, and every Monday 
morning mass is offered in the chapel for the repose of the souls of all those 
interred within and about the consecrated grounds. 

The history of the spot as a cemetery dales back to 1871, when, owing to 
the passage of the May Laws, many of the religious orders were expelled from 
Germany. Some sought refuge in New Orleans, and were followed by many 

earnest German Catholics, who settled for the most purl in the rear of the 
old Faubourg Marigny. The section was called the "German Quarter." The 
pastor was Father Thevis, the builder of St. Roch, who, like the newcomers, 
had been a refugee in the days gone by. Seeing that they had no cemetery of 
their own, Father Thevis determined to convert the Campo Santo into a burial 
spot where the exiled children of the Fatherland might rest side by side. And 


so a few lowly graves, marked by wooden crosses, here and there among 
the grasses. By degrees more pretentious monuments were erected, and it is 
now one of the most picturesque burying grounds of the city. Beneath the sanc- 
tuary of the chapel, in a crypt built with his own hands, lies the saintly founder 
of St. Roch's, who had indeed builded better than he knew. For the place, 
with its open-air stations of the cross, its crowd of kneeling worshipers, its 
well-authenticated legends of miracles and answered prayers, seems rather the 
remnant of a mediaeval abbey, which philosophy and reason have never in- 
vaded, and where Faith, clad in the pure and simple garb of her early years, 
still lives in all her freshness and beauty, and offers to all the sorrows and afflic- 
tions of humanity a positive and effectual remedy in prayer. 

Just back of the old lies the new Cemetery of St. Roch. It is carefully 
and beautifully laid out, and therefore lacks the romantic picturesqueness of the 
older shrine. A mortuary chapel, frescoed by two Carmelite monks from 
Munich, adorns the center. 

Leaving the cemetery, walk down St. Roch's Avenue to St. Claude 
Street, and, tasing the Claiborne car, ride as far as Louisa Street, where the 

St. Vincent de Paul Cemeteries 

may be seen. These cemeteries were laid out by Pepe Llula, the famous fenc- 
ing master of old Creole days, who has already been mentioned in connection 
with the story of the "Dueling Oaks" in the City Park. After having taught 
the "jeunesse dore" of New Orleans how to meet in mortal combat as "swords- 
men and gentlemen," and led the most famous fencing masters to do the same 
thing, and kill one another "just for the sake of showing the art," Pepe Llula 
settled down in this old truck farm section of ancient New Orleans, and, after 
the erection of the parish church of St. Vincent de Paul, over forty years ago, 
he cut up his ground into cemeteries, and named them after the patron saint 
of the parish. The tombs are built on the same order as those of the ancient 
French cemeteries. The old fencing master, with his wife and only daughter, is 


buried here. Just over the way, overlooking the cemeteries, in a handsome 
house, bounded by Clouet, Louisa and Urquhart Streets, is the ancient home of 
the famous swordsman, where his grandchildren still reside. One room is kept 
sacred.. It is filled with the trophies of Pepe Llula's great battles. 

Across Canal Street lie the American cemeteries, and the oldest of these 
is the 

Girod Street Cemetery, 

which is the first Protestant burying ground ever laid out in New Orleans. It 
lies on Girod Street, between Cypress and Perriliat, and was named for Nicholas 
Girod, who formerly had his plantation along this line. Away back in 1844 the 
cemetery was one of the handsomest and swellest in the city, but after the great 
epidemics of '53 and '66 it was mainly abandoned, and is now given over prin- 
cipally to the very poor, to negroes and emigrants. The only families of note 
who still have their tombs there are those who acquired the ground in the early 
days of the cemetery's history. Historic monuments are those erected to Colonel 
S. W. Bliss, who was a son-in-law of President Taylor, and of Dr. Thomas 
Leacock, who for thirty years was rector of the old Christ Church. Glendy 
Burke and his wife are buried ir the central aisle, in a tomb which was erected 
in 1832. Some of the old graves date as far back as 1821, and are in utter 
decay. One ancient tomb rears the legend, "Mammy, aged 84, a faithful ser- 
vant, who lived and died a good Christian, 1829." 

Lafayette No. i, 

also called the Washington Street Cemetery, is on Washington Avenue, between 
Prytania and Coliseum Streets. This cemetery succeeded the Girod as the 
aristocratic burial-place of the American Quarter. Henry W. Allen, War Gov- 
ernor of Louisiana, was buried here; the body was subsequently removed, but 
the monument remains. General John B. Hood and General Harry T. Hays, 
distinguished Confederate commanders, rest within these ancient aisles. A 
magnificent monument is that erected to Captain Charles W. McLellan, a 
Louisiana boy, who in 1861, at the early age of 19, enlisted in the Crescent 
Rifles. Captain McLellan took part in twenty-three engagements, the most 
noted of the war, but it was at the Battle of Sharpsburg that he signally 
distinguished himself. General Jackson found it necessary to protect his left 
flank, and ordered a detail from the Second Louisiana Brigade to go forward. 
McLellan was put in command. He was only twenty years of age. To reach 
the point indicated it was necessary to pass through a narrow valley called 
by the soldiers "The Valley of Death," and over which the Federals were pour- 
ing shrapnel and shell to such an extent that it seemed impossible for any one 
to go through alive. Yet McLellan with his men gained the point amid the 
cheers of their comrades and to the delight of General Jackson, who then and 
there recommended him for promotion. 

It was the first instance where an officer of the line in the volunteer ser- 
vice received a commission direct from the President. Captain McClellan was 
killed in the vicinity of Meadow Bridge, before Richmond, June 1, 1864. His 
remains were removed from Hollywood Cemetery, Richmond, to this beautiful 
plot in Lafayette Cemetery in 1S67. The monument, which is very costly, was 
erected by* his parents. Near by is one of the most picturesque cemetery cor- 
ners in New Orleans. Several leading families have a private burial section 
here. A recent interment of note in the cemetery was that of Dr. Palmer, the 
celebrated Presbyterian divine, who sleeps in one of the narrow old-fashioned 
aisles towards Prytania Street. 

From the cemeteries of the French and American Quarters that seem like 
bits of old world painting set down in the heart of New Orleans, take the car 
in Canal Street labeled "Canal Belt," and ride out to the new and beautiful 
cities of the dead, lying at the extremity of the ancient street. Six or seven of 
these cemeteries will be found grouped together on Metairie Ridge, near the 
Half-Way House. The first one, on approaching the Ridge, is a Jewish ceme- 
tery, called "Tememe Direeh," or "Hebrew Rest." Near by is another Jewish 
cemetery that belongs to the congregation "Dispersed of Judah." The Hebrews 


still adhere in New Orleans to the ancient custom of burying their dead "in the 
ground. The Charity Hospital burying ground and "rotter's Field" are on the 
left, and to the right is Cypress Grove Cemetery, the beautiful trees indicating 
the name. 

St, Patrick Cemeteries, 

so fresh and clean in their snow-white garb and pebbly walks, always attract 
attention. Here lie the sturdy Irish pioneers who came to New Orleans in the 
early part of the last century and helped to make her history the proud tale it 
is. Many of the best old families in the city have their tombs in these ceme- 
teries. They breathe throughout the spirit of Catholic faith. Special attention 
is directed to the beautiful Calvary shrine at the further end of St. Patrick's 
No. l and the Mater Dolorosa that marks the entrance to St. Patrick's No. 2. 

The Firemen's Cemetery 

will be recognized from the gateway, modeled upon the Egyptian pilon or temple 
gates. This cemetery stands a monument to the efforts of the old Volunteer 
Fire Department of Now Orleans, which did such effectual service from the 
foundation of the city tili a few years ago, when the old volunteer system was 
replaced by a paid Fire Department. All through the cemetery will be seen 
the tombs belonging to these old Volunteer Fire Companies, and some chronicle 
the deaths of heroes who gave up their lives for the protection of the city. 
Notable among these is the lofty shattered column that commemorates the 
sacrifice of Irad Ferry, the first martyr of the Department, who was killed 
at a fire on Camp Street in 1837; of Maunsell White, a leading citizen and 
planter, now remembered as the inventor of the pepper sauce that bears 
his name; in the central aisle is a column commemorating John T. Monroe, the 
War Mayor of the city. It might be mentioned here that the Volunteer Fire 
Department included the best men in New Orleans, socially and commercially. 
Indeed, nil through the old cemetery the inscriptions on the tombs show the char- 
acter of the firemen as citizens. 

The Masonic Cemeteries are in this section. They are shaded by beautiful 
avenues of trees, and the effect is very picturesque. 

Greenwood Cemetery, 

whose very name suggests fresh pictures of woodlands and verdure, lies just 
over the way from the firemen's burying-ground. Almost at the very entrance, 
towards the New P>asin Canal, stands the monument erected by the women 
of New Orleans to the memory of the Confederate dead. The monument is 
surmounted by the figure of a private soldier, and around the four corners of the 
shaft are grouped the busts of Robert E. Lee, Albert Sidney Johnston, Stone- 
wall Jackson and Leonidas Polk. 'Beneath the mound repose the bones of 
over GOO Confederate soldiers, gathered several years after the War from many 
a battlefield, where they lay moldering and neglected. This was the first mon- 
ument ever erected to the Confederate dead. At the unveiling Father Ryan's 
beautiful poem, "The March of the Deathless Dead," was read. The monument 
is in the custody of the Ladies' Confederate Memorial Association of Louisiana, 
which erected it. A. D. Grossman, Mayor of the city 184G to 1854, is buried in 
Greenwood. A gallant soldier and journalist, Dan C. Byerly, who fell during 
one of the healed political conflicts which grew out of the Reconstruction period, 
sleeps peacefully in Greenwood's aisles. At the lower end of the cemetery is an 
artistic monument to the firemen in the form of a lofty pavilion, in which stands 
the marble figure of a volunteer carrying a line of hose. Two martyr volun- 
teer-, 1 ». S. Woodruff, Ex-Foreman, and William McLeod, Foreman of Mis- 
sissippi Fire Company No. 2, who were both killed at the same tire in 1854, 

1 53 

are nobly commemorated here. A notable tomb is that of the Typographical 
Union, inaugurated in 1855. The tomb of W. T. Richards, who lefl a bequest 
of .$80,000 to the Charity Hospital, is in Greenwood. 


For a number of years Greenwood stood unrivalled as a fair and verdant 
resting-place for the dead, but just across the buyou there arose in time, on the 
site once occupied by the famous Metairie Race Course, the beautiful 

fletairie Cemetery, 

a fair and lovely spot, that seems to rob death of half its terrors to leave the 
loved one sleeping there. The old Metairie Jockey Club went out of existence 
in 1870, and the race track, which for thirty years was the most noted in the 
United States, was purchased by a wealthy citizen and turned into a cemetery. 
The Metairie Cemetery Association, organized in 1872, now owns the place. 
It has greatly beautified the cemetery. The system of lakes and lawns was 
executed in 1805 at a cost of $30,000. The first lake, near the main entrance, 
is called the "Horseshoe." A carriage drive thirty-two feet wide extends around 
the lake, and there is a shady promenade for pedestrians. The second lake is 
1.200 feet wide, or one-half as long as the Horseshoe, and the third lake is 
2,700 feet long. The grounds are beautifully laid out, and many handsome and 
costly mausoleums and monuments mark the resting-places of the dead. Near 
the entrance stands the magnificent monument-tomb of the Army of Tennessee, 
surmounted by Doyle's famous equestrian statue of Albert Sidney Johnston. 


The trophy of arms over the entrance was modeled from the badge of the Asso- 
ciation. At the entrance to the vault stands a marble statue of an orderly 
"Calling the Roll." It is also from the chisel of Doyle. The burial vault, in the 
heart of the mound, contains a tablet to the memory of General Johnston, on 
which is inscribed Dimitry's famous epitaph, said to be one of the finest mor- 
tuary inscriptions in the English language. Within the mound, along with 
many of the soldiers he led, sleeps General P. G. T. Beauregard, the great Con- 
federate chieftain. 

Oyer the way from the entrance is a massive monument, surmounted by a 
granite shaft, along which are grouped several life-sized figures. This monument 
was erected recently by Mr. Moriarity in memory of his wife. The cost was 
$50,000. A special railroad leading to the cemetery had to be built to transport 
the heavy granite blocks of which the monument is constructed. 

Near the main aisle of Metairie, as one passes down the shady avenue, is 
the granite monument beneath which repose Mr. and Mrs. George Nicholson, 


the late proprietors of the Picayune. Dying within ten days of each other, 
side by side under the grassy mound they sleep the last eternal sleep. Mrs. 
Nicholson's maiden name war Eliza J. Poitevent. She was known to the world 
of letters as "Pearl Rivers." She was one of the sweetest poets who ever 
touched a lyre and woke it into song. 

Among other interesting tombs are those of Thomas Jenkins Semmes, who 
was the last of the Confederate Senators to answer the great roll call; Dr. 
Thomas R. Markham, a noted Confederate chaplain; A. C. Hutchinson, who 
left a bequest of nearly a million dollars to the Tulane University; Patrick 
O'Brien, who so magnificently endowed the Catholic University at Washington; 
General Pred N. Ogden, a conspicuous figure of Reconstruction days, and com- 
mander of the famous White League. The latter sleeps beneath the most ex- 
pressive monument in the cemetery, a great granite bowlder, lying under a gigan- 
tic live oak, towards the western end. Mr. John T. Gibbons, brother of Cardi- 
nal Gibbons, has his family tomb in Greenwood, as also the Stouffer. Slocomb, 


Aldige, McCan, Morris, Hernandez and other prominent families. Theso 
monuments cost thousands of dollars. Especially beautiful are those located 
on the Ridge, just around the curve of the old race course, and overlooking the 
lake. The tomb of the Army of Northern Virginia is surmounted by a shaft 
crowned by a statue of General Stonewall Jackson. Aside from its own historic 
interest, the tomb has acquired a sacred character in the minds of the people 
of the South, for within its mound reposed for two years the remains of Jeffer- 
son Davis, prior to final interment in Richmond, Virginia. During this period 
special detachments of Confederate veterans acted as a guard of honor about 
the tomb by night and day, and when the remains of Mr. Davis were at length 
carried to the capital of the Confederacy, there to await the last reveille; the 
vault in which they had lain was hermetically sealed and a bronze tablet placed 
without, telling to future generations that it marked one of the last chapters 


in the great tragedy of the South. Near by is the monument of the Washing- 
ton Artillery, surmounted by the figure of a Confederate artilleryman in uni- 
form, guarding the rest of his comrades, who sieep below. Upon the four sides 
of the tomb is the roll of the dead of this ancient command who "fell on the 
field of honor." 

And last, but not least, in this cemetery of beautiful monuments, is the 
first tomb ever erected within its limits, that of the owner of the soil, Mr. 
Charles T. Howard. It is a large structure of granite, with iron gates, through 
which the visitor may see the interior and the statue of "Time." seated, with a 
finger pressed to the lips. The face of this statue is said to have beeii modeled 
from that of Mr. Howard himself. 


Metairie Cemetery is a great promenade of a Sunday evening. Flowers 
are always blooming upon the graves, and the freshness and verdure lead the 
mind from the contemplation of death to the thought of God. 

Other cemeteries in New Orleans are St. Joseph's, on Sixth Street, near 
Liberty, in which may be seen the old wooden structure that first served as a 


church to the Retleuipfcrist Fathers, in Constance Street, and which was trans- 
ferred to this plot and turned into a mortuary chapel when the splendid new 
churches were erected; the three St. Vincent de Paul Cemeteries, in Soniat 
and Dufossat Streets, and the ancient Carrollton Cemetery, which marks the 
resting-place of the first settlers of this now beautiful suburb of New Orleans. 

All Saints' Day. 

All Saints' Day. which always falls on November 1, is observed in New 
Orleans as the general day for the decoration of the graves of the dead. It 
has been said that New Orleans has two great festivals — the Carnival, when she' 
invites strangers from all parts of the world to come and make merry with 
her, and "All Saints," the great home festival, when, heart to heart, the entire 
city meets on common ground to pay its tribute to the loved and lost. To- 
gether the rich and poor, the high and low, recognize that barriers of caste and 
class have no place in the all embracing dominion of death; for each home has 
its heart history written somewhere out in the white cities of the dead. It may 
be on the marble tablet of some stately mausoleum, or only mi the rude wooden 
headboard of some grass-grown mound. But the dead are there, and the heart 
is there, and so the city unites in its work of love and remembrance. 


All Saints' is a legal holiday, and all the banks, stores and places of busi- 
ness are closed. For weeks before its advent the florists are busily engaged 
preparing for the immense sale of flowers which the day always brings, and the 
patient workers in beads and wax, down in Royal Street, place on exhibition 
their wonderful creations of months of labor to remind the passersby that All 
Saints' is approaching, and that these designs are not so perishable as those 
made of natural flowers. The cemeteries, too, are filled with faithful workers, 
cleaning the tombs and planting fresh flowers. The day dawns and enfolds the 
city in its hallowed influence. From every home the people go forth, bearing 


their fragrant offerings. From morning till night the cemeteries are thronged, 
and it does one good just to look at the vast, soulful, heart-throbbing multitude, 
so different from the gay, rollicking crowds of Carnival time, and all linked to- 
gether by one thought, "the dead, the dead," who are everywhere. The florists, 
the cake vendors, the praline women, the perambulating refreshment stands, 
all do a thriving business, for the people spend the day in the cemeteries, going 
quietly and decorously from one to another, after having paid their tributes at 
their own individual shrines, for death sanctifies the day. 

The observance of All Saints' dates away back to the year 998, when the 
Abbott of Cluney instituted it for the monasteries of his congregation, holding 


services for the dead, and going from grave to grave and lighting blessed can- 
dies before them, decking them with flowers, and blessing them \\ il li holy water. 
All these customs are still observed in the old French cemeteries of New Or- 
leans. Some of the tombs resemble miniature altars on All Saints', with their 
numbers of lighted candles and sacred images. In all the Catholic Cemeteries 
services are held, and at a certain hour the priests with a train of acolytes pass 
up and dowu the aisles, sprinkling the graves with holy water and singing lita- 
nies, just as the old French Jesuits and Capuchins used to do in the first days 
of the old St. Louis Cemetery. 

Though distinctly Catholic in its origin, the thought underlying the cele- 
bration of All Saiuts' is so beautiful that the custom of setting aside this one 
day for communing with the dead has been instinctively adopted by all the 
nationalities of New Orleans, and poor indeed must be the home that 
fails to respond to the call of this consecrated day, when Love and Memory 
walk hand in hand along the borderland of time and eternity, strewing the way 
with flowers. 


New Orleans Suburban Resorts. 

In addition to. Audubon, the City, the Athletic Park and the numerous 
pretty squares that stud the residence section of the city, and which are favor- 
ite haunts of the people at all seasons of the year, NeAV Orleans is especially 
well supplied with open air resorts. In front is the river, the levee running 
along which is always a great promenade of an evening, particularly during the 
summer season, while the ferries that ply between the city proper and Algiers 
are thronged till far into the evening with fathers and mothers taking the chil- 
dren for an airing, or young folks enjoying the freshening breezes, the music 
that floats over the water and the glorious sunsets on the Mississippi. Back 
of the city are the lakeside resorts, West End, Spanish Fort and Milneburg, 
where the salt breezes blow, giving strength and vigor with every passing 
breath. And so it will be seen that this is another most charming feature of 
this delightful old city, the fresh water in front, the salt water in the rear; all 
combine, together with proximity to the gulf, to make New Orleans an ideal 
place during the summer season. While the thermometer is registering over 
100 in the shade in Northern cities, here in New Orleans a pleasant temperature 
is maintained. We have always a delightful breeze on the warmest day, and 
we do not have to go very far to get to the lakeside, to enjoy a salt water bath 
or a pleasant boat sail. 

The most popular of the lake resorts is 

West End, 

so called from its position on Lake Pontchartrain. The lake itself is a body of 
brackish water, about twenty miles in diameter, being nearly round in shape, 
and at no place very deep. It affords yachtsmen a .splendid opportunity for 
small yachts. The series of regattas which are held in the summer are among 
the pleasant features of life in New Orleans. Lake Pontchartrain communi- 
cates with Lakes Maurepas and Borgne, and, through the latter, with the Mis- 
sissippi Sound. 

West End is beautifully laid out. The large music plaza on the other side 
of the bridge is built on piliugs over the water, and forms what is perhaps the 
largest work of the kind in existence. There is a splendid music stand, and 
during the summer months thousands congregate here to enjoy the music that 
is always furnished by the finest orchestra that can be obtained. The gar- 


dens are beautiful. The pretty winding paths and intricate puzzles are the 
delight of the younger folks. The most beautiful tropical flowers are always 
seen blooming luxuriantly in the open air. The crest of the levee beyond the 
plaza has been utilized for this garden, which terminates at the Parish line. 
The beautiful sward beyond extends into the Parish of Jefferson. Tne various 
restaurants at West End are famous for their excellent cuisine. 

West End is reached by means of the electric cars, which start from 
Canal and Carondelet Streets. The train runs out Canal Street to the Half- 
Way House, makes en abrupt turn and follows the course of the New Basin 


Canal to the resort. Another way is by carriage drive out Canal Street to the 
Half-Way House, and thence out along the beautiful Shell Road. 

The New Basin Canal was built to enable schooners and other small craft 
to reach the heart of the city. The canal, which is State property, terminates 
at the New Basin, alongside the Illinois Central Railroad Depot, on South Ram- 
part and Howard Avenue. On the railroad side of the canal are the clubhouses 
of the St. John's Rowing Club and the West End Rowing Club, while, leading 
out from the plaza is a long wharf, at the end of which is the home of the 
Soutiiern Yacht Club, under whose auspices many celebrated races have taken 

Spanish Fort 

is a small village with pleasure gardens, situated at the mouth of the Bayou St. 
John. The fort was erected by the Spaniards during the days of the Spanish 
domination in Louisiana, and was called by them "Fort St. John." It was 
armed and garrisoned as long as the Spaniards ruled in Louisiana, but after the 
cession of the colony to the United States the Americans found that the fort 
was too far inland to be of any great service, and it was abandoned. The 
ancient fortifications, built of small bricks, are fairly well preserved. The 
embrasures were filled up and the ramparts leveled to give space for seats when 
the place became a pleasure resort. Behind the fort are four cypress trees, 
standing near the gate leading into the gardens. Tradition says that these trees 


mark the grave of a young Spanish officer who was killed in a duel on this spot. 
It was at this fort that General Jackson first lauded, when he hastened from 
the Indian War in Tennessee, in 1814. to take command in New Orleans. Gen- 
eral Jackson came across Lake Pontchartrain in a schooner, and, riding from 
the Fort to Bayou Bridge, rested there before making his entry into the city 
the following day. During the Civil War the fort was again garrisoned; 
and the old guns still to be seen there, some of which date from colonial times, 
were mounted and used in two or three encounters which took place under 
these walls. The foundations of some of the old houses which formerly stood 
within the walls may still be seen. The old torpedo boat, which may be seen 
near the bayou, was fished up out of that stream a few years ago. The torpedo 
boat was an abortive experiment made during the Civil War in the line of sub- 
marine navigation. A fine restaurant which was built on one side of the fort 
was burned some years ago and has not been replaced. The resort 
is closed at 9 o'clock at night. It is reached by a train from a depot at the 
corner of Canal and North Basin Streets. On the right are the St. Louis 
Cemetery and the Basin, into which the Bayou St. John discharges. The bayou 
is navigable for schooners, and connects with Carondelet Canal, one of the 
waterways leading into .the heart of the city. At Hagan Avenue the train 
passes one of the city's draining machines, by means of which rain waters are 
moved through canals and expedited in their course to Lake Pontchartrain. 
At Metairie Ridge the upper end of City Park is passed, affording an excellent 
view of the old duelling ground. Thence the road follows the course of the Or- 
leans Drainage Canal to the Fort. 

The last of the lakeside resorts is the 

Old Lake, or Milneburg. 

It is reached by the Pontchartrain Railroad, which starts at the depot, corner 
of Elysian Fields and Chartres Streets. The Old Lake was once the most 
fashionable of the lake resorts, and stood alone in its glory for over half a 
century. The resort was exceedingly primitive at first, but was gradually built 
up. At the time that the Pontchartrain Railroad, which, as has already been 
noted, was the second railroad ever built in the United States, began its opera- 
tions, all the freight cars on the railroads were unloaded just as wagons are; 
but the Superintendent of the Pontchartrain invented the simple platform, 
which may now be seen everywhere. The road runs in a straight line for four 
miles along what is the shortest distance between the river and the lake. Milne- 
burg is a very old town. It is named in honor of Alexander Milne, a philan- 
thropic Scotch citizen of New Orleans in the old days. It became a famous 
resort, and was noted for its splendid caterers, the most famous of whom, named 
Boudro, managed the celebrated restaurant in which a banquet was given to 
Thackeray while he was in New Orleans. The dining made a great impression 
upon Thackeray; he made allusion to it in one of his books, paying at the same 
time a famous tribute to New Orleans cookery. The restaurant remains, but the 
old caterer is dead, and the glory of Milneburg has departed, it having been 
superseded in popularity by West End, or the New Lake, as it is often called, 
in distinction from the old resort. 


Education in New Orleans — The Story of John 

HcDonogh — Social Literary and Philan= 

thropic Effort— The Military. 

The educational system of New Orleans is unsurpassed. 

It is estimated that there are upwards of 75,000 educable children in the 
City of New Orleans. Of these, some 32,000 attend the public schools; about 
16,000 attend the Catholic parochial schools, convents, academies and colleges. 


A large proportion of the remainder attend the many excellent private schools 
scattered over the city, which are, for the most part, under the direction of tal- 
ented Southern women. 

Tulane University has an attendance in all its departments aggregating 
about TOO. Its sister institute, the II. Sophie New'conib Memorial College, has 
i 350. The Jesuits' College has an attendance of about COO students. 
These institutions have already been noticed in this Guide, but throughout ths 
city the visitor will come unexpectedly upon some beautiful building surmounted 
by a cross of statue, and surrounded by extensive grounds. Through the grat- 
Lug in the gate one may catch sight of demure maidens moving about with book 
in hand, or engaged in recreation beneath the trees, and at their side is evei 
a black-veiled nun, for the most part a woman thoroughly educated in the best 
s< liools of Europe, and who has taken the vow to devote herself forever to the 
i ation and guidance of youth. These are the convent schools and academies 
..! New Orleans, for many years the only higher institutions of learning in the 
far South, until the public high schools were established in the forties. The con- 
vents still hold their own in the progressive march of the age. and young ladies 
.oine from all parts of the South to enjoy the benefits of higher education and 
acquire the accomplishments in music, art and the languages for which the New 
Orleans convents have over been famous. 

The Public School System 

of New Orleans is also unexcelled. There are about seventy public school- 
houses, which have cost on an average of .$40,000 each. The public school en- 
rollment, according to the reports, averaged 32,000 children, including the 


attendance of the three high schools and the Normal School for teachers in 
training. Ten of the public school buildings are reserved for the education of 
colored youth. Thirty of the public school buildings were either bought or built 
and are kept in repair through the noble endowment of John McDonogh. For 
this reason the visitor will see inscribed on many of the finest public school 
buildings the name "McDonogh," followed by the number of the school. 


Romance of John McDonogh. 

The history of John McDonogh reads like a romance in these later days. 
He was of Scotch-Irish parentage, and was born in Baltimore in L779. He was 
liberally educated, and early in life embarked in commercial pursuits. In 1800 
hi -.lino to New Orleans, where he opened business on his own account, and 
was soon regarded as one of the must successful and wealthy men. 

In 1806, young, gay and dashing, and a general favorite, not only in busi- 
ness circles, but in the must exclusive homes of the old Creole noblesse, he re- 
tired from commercial life and devoted himself to the management of his large 
estates. He opened a magnificent house at the corner of Chartres and Toulouse 
Streets, kept a numerous retinue of slaves, fine horses and equipages, and was 
considered one of the most desirable matches in the French Quarter. But young 
McDonogh aspired high, and none pleased him so well as the beautiful daughter 


of Don Almonaster, the Spanish Colonial philanthropist and magnate of ol«I 
New Orleans. The proud old nobleman indignantly rejected the suit, declaring 
that a daughter of his noble race should never ally herself to a poor plebeian. 
Stung to the heart, McDonogh withdrew. The lady subsequently became the 
wife of the Baron de Pontalba, aud McDonogh's grief and mortification weighed 
so heavily upon him that he swore he would have more money than all the 
Almonaster.s and Pontalbas put together, and that his name would live when 
their proud titles would have sunk into oblivion. From that hour his habits 
and nature changed. In his bitter anger he sold the contents of his magnificent 
house in Chartres Street, and moved to a small house on his plantation in Mc- 
Donoghville, on the other side of the river, where, for nearly half a century, 
he led a lonely, penurious life, with seemingly one ambition — the amassing of 
money. He seemed, to all appearances, cold, hard, selfish, and the prejudice 
of New Orleans against the close, miserly life he led was great. 

Wherever he passed he was pointed out as a miser. At his death, in 1S50, 
lie left his immense fortune to be divided, share and share alike, between the 
Cities of New Orleans and Baltimore, for public educational purposes. 

No condition was attached to the gift to the City of New Orleans, except 
the simple request at the bottom of the will that the little children of the public 
schools should come once a year and strew his grave with flowers 


McDonogh was at first buried in a marble sarcophagus on his estate on the 
other side of the Mississippi, above Algiers. His body was subsequently re- 
moved to Baltimore, in accordance with his last request, and laid beside his 
father and mother. But the old tomb over the river is still to be seen. The in- 
scriptions, which were the rules of Mr. McDonogh's life, were composed by him- 


self, and are exceedingly characteristic of the man. The public school children 
of New Orleans built the monument to his memory in Lafayette Square. May 
1, "McDonogh Day," is annually kept in the schools, the children devoting the 
afternoon to memorial exercises in his honor, and sending delegations from each 
school to strew the monument with flowers. 

The Social Life of New Orleans 

is very beautiful, but, as remarked in the beginning of this Guide, the stranger 
mast come with letters of introduction, else he will gain his impressions of the 
city fiorn the streets alone, seeing nothing of the inner life of the people, which 
is the most charming and distinctive feature of this old Southern metropolis. 

New Orleans is rich in social clubs, educational, literary, benevolent and 
charitable organizations. , 

The social clubs are, of course, exclusive organizations, and admission is 
by invitation or by presentation of a card from one of the members. The most 
prominent of these are the Boston Club, which has its home at No. 824 Canal 
Street, the Pickwick Club, 1028 Canal Street, the Varieties Club, with rooms at 
the Grand Opera House, in Canal Street, the Chess, Checkers and Whist Club, 
with quarters at 108 Baroune Street, Louisiana Club, 122 Carondelet Street, 
French Opera Club, which meets in the French Opera House, the Harmony 
Club, an exclusively Hebrew organization, occupying the beautiful home, corner 
of Jackson Avenue and St. Charles, the Cotillion Club and the Carnival German 
Club, which give very swell and exclusive social evenings during the Carnival 


Organizations of Women 

are the Woman's Club, which meets the first Monday of each month at 1446 
Camp Street, the Arena Club, which meets at the residence of the President, 
610 Julia Street; the Era Club, devoted to the extension of suffrage among 
women, which meets at Gibson Hall, Tulane University, every second and 
fourth Saturday of the month. At the meetings of these several clubs visiting 
club women are cordially welcomed upon presentation of credentials, as also at 

the meetings of the Daughters of the Confederacy, in Memorial Hall, on the 
first Monday of the month, and the quarterly meetings of the Ladies' Confed- 
erate Memorial Association, held in the same place. The Daughters of 1776- 
1812, meets every first Tuesday at Washington Artillery Hall Armory, 
St. Charles Street, the Daughters of the American Revolution hold reunions 
every first Wednesday morning in the reading room of the Howard 
Memorial Library, the Colonial Dames meet at the residences of mem- 
bers. Among distinctively literary organizations are the Round Table, the 
Book Club, Quarante, Geographies, Tea and Topics Clubs, which are very ex- 
clusive and which hold their meetings at the residences of the Presidents or 
members. Along 

Educational Lines 

is the Catholic Institute, which has succeeded the Catholic Winter School, the 
Church Club (Episcopal), the New Orleans Educational Association and the 
Kindergarten Club; the latter meets the first Monday and second Sat- 
urday of the month, respectively, at the Boys' High School, in Calliope Street, 
near St. Charles. The New Orleans Free Kindergarten has five kindergartens 
under its direction, located respectively at 1203 Annunciation, 1534 Poydras, 
610 Camp, 2218 St. Thomas, and 3327 Laurel Street. 

The Athletic Clubs 

are located as follows: Young Men's Gymnastic Club, 224 North Rampart 
Street: the Southern Athletic Club, corner of Washington Avenue and Prytania 
Streets; the Audubon Golf Club has its links and clubhouse at the upper end of 
Audubon Park; the New Orleans Golf Club at the lower end of the City Park; 
the New Orleans Tennis Club has its clubhouse and court on Saratoga Street, 
between General Taylor and Constantinople; the Walnut Street Tennis Club has 
its court at the upper end of Audubon Park. The golf and tennis clubs are 
composed of ladies and gentlemen. 

Very prominent .socially and otherwise are the 

Yachting and Boat Clubs. 

The Southern Yacht Club, which was organized in 1849, and is the second 
oldest in the United States, the St. John's Boat Club and the West End Rowing 
Club have their clubhouses at West End. Regattas take place annually under 
the auspices of these clubs, the admission to the clubhouse on such occa- 
sions being by card trom the members. 

The Young Men's Gymnastic Rowing Club has its house on the Bayou St, 
John, at the terminus of Esplanade Avenue. 

The Victoria Cricket Club plays in Audubon Park, and the New Orleans 
Polo Club has its field in the City Park. 

New Orleans has numerous rifle clubs. Thirty-five organized private hunt- 
ing and fishing clubs, with handsome camps and many game preserves, are 
located within thirty miles of the city, along the lines of the railroads and 
waterways. Public institutions of this character are also plentiful. Philan- 
thropic and benevolent associations and mutual aid societies, missionary and 
church societies, abound in New Orleans. Every asylum and orphanage has 
its organized body of auxiliary women workers, who devote themselves to sew- 
ing anc. assisting in providing for the wants of the inmates. It is said that for 
its :size and population New Orleans does more charity work in comparison 
than any other city of the United States. 

New Orleans is the 

First Hilitary District, 

and most of the military organizations are comprehended in the First District. 
It comprises the Division Staff, the Battalion of Washington Artillery, the 
Louisiana Field Artillery, the Naval Brigade, the Jefferson Guards, the First 
Troop of Cavalry and the Signal Corps. The district is commanded by Major 
General John Glynn, Jr., with Colonel E. C. Fenner as Chief of Staff. 


The oldest of these military organizations is the Washington Artillery, 
whose armory is located in the Washington Artillery Hall, on St. Charles 
Street, near Julia. It comprises live batteries, all under excellent management. 
The battalion is under the command of Lieutenant Colonel John B. Richardson. 
The Louisiana Field Artillery, commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John P. 
Sullivan, consists of five batteries. Its armory, on St. Charles, near Felicity 
Street, was destroyed by fire recently. The erection of a new armory, which 
will probably be located on the old site, is contemplated. The First 
Troop of Cavalry is commanded by Lieutenant Churchill. Its armory 
is on Eighth and Carondelet Streets. The Jefferson Guards, com- 


manded by Captain Kantz, has its armory in Gretna. The Signal Corps is 
commanded by Captain Warner, and is located at St. Charles, near Gravier 
Street. The Naval Brigade, which is attached to the First Military District, 
was organized in 1895. This organization, familiarly called the "Naval Re- 
serves." did splendid service in the war with Spain. It furnished 240 officers 
and men to the United States Navy. The brigade has eight divisions, two of 
which are engineer divisions. The organization has its armory in Washington 
Artillery Hall, and its training ship, the Lnited States steamship Stranger, is 
ordinarily anchored in the river, at the foot of Henry Clay Avenue. Captain 
J. W. Bostick is in command of the brigade. 

The only other military organization in the city is the Continental Guards, 
organized in 1854, and which did excellent service during the Civil War. The 
organization is an independent command, permitted to bear arms. The armory 
is in Odd Fellows' Hall, on Camp Street. 

Not ranking among the military organizations, but dear to the people of 
New Orleans because of the heroic part they bore in the memorable struggle 
of '01 and '65, are the New Orleans Camps of 

The United Confederate Veterans, 

whose headquarters are at Memorial Hall, in Camp Street. 

New Orleans is justly proud of the fact that the organization of the United 
Confederate Veterans had its birth' here, and was the outgrowth of the effort 
of the late gallant Confederate, General George Moorman, to unite in one 
body the survivors of the Confederate Cavalrymen. As a result of this first 
reunion of Confederate Veteran Cavalrymen, held in this city February 13, 
1888, a call was issued by joint committees of the survivors of the Army of 
Tennessee, the Army of Northern Virginia and the Confederate Veteran Cav- 
alry, of this city, for a general convention of delegates from other associations, 
to be held in New Orleans June 10, 1889. The of the convention was 


to form a confederation for the assistance of the widows and orphans of fallen 
comrades, and to hand down to future generations the true history of the South- 
ern cause, etc. Ten camps of veterans were represented at that first convention, 
the Army of Northern Virginia of New Orleans being designated as Camp 1, 
the Army of Tennessee as Camp 2. and the New Orleans Confederate Veteran 
Cavalry as Camp 9. The first reunion of the organization was held at Chatta- 
nooga. Tenn., July 3, 1S0O. permanent organization having been effected at 
New Orleans, and the title "United Confederate Veteran Association" adopted 
with General John B. Gordon as the unanimous choice for Commander-in-Chief. 
Eighteen camps were represented at the first reunion — a gain of eight camps 
from the date of organization. The second reunion was held at Jackson, Miss., 
June 2, 1891. Twenty-s;x veteran camp delegates responded — a gain of eight 
over the previous year. The third reunion was held in New Orleans April 8, 
1892, and there were delegations from 172 camps — a gain of 146. General 
George Moorman became Adjutant General .and Chief of Staff in 1891, and 
during the ten years of his administration, the camps increased so rapidly 
that there were at the time of his death 1,492 camps. The reunion to be held 
in New Orleans in April, 1903, will bring together delegates from this immense 
body of men. the United Veterans, survivors of the cause, numbering some 
65,000. Working in sympathy with the veterans are the United Daughters 
of the Confederacy and the Confederate Southern Memorial Association. Here 
again New Orleans patriotically points to the fact that her women were the 
first to organize in 1861, and the first to build a monument to the Confederate 
dead. The United Sons of Veterans is an organization pledged to the noble 
principles laid down in the constitution of the parent organization. 

The Department of Louisiana and Mississippi of the Grand Army of the 
Republic has its headquarters in New Orleans, at 164 South Rampart Street. 
Colonel C. W. Keeting is Department Commander and Rudolph E. Baquie is 
Adjutant General. The members are mostly soldiers who came to Louisiana 
and Mississippi after the close of hostilities between the States, or came with 
the Federal Army during the latter years of the war. 


The Carnival and Mardi Qras. 

The Carnival is New Orleans' most distinctive social feature, and no guide- 
book to the city would be complete without reference to this world-famed fete, 
so magnificent in its conception, so gorgeous in its pageantry, so thorough in 
the perfection of even the most minute detail of its marvelous scope, that com- 
petent historians and critics have declared that the famous spectacular tri- 
umphs of ancient Rome, with all their barbaric wealth and splendor, never sur- 
passed in beauty the wonderful parades of New Orleans. 

Year after year thousands of spectators travel hundreds of miles to par- 
ticipate in the festivities, and the magnificent success of this unique fete has 
often inspired other cities to attempt to rival it. But New Orleans remains 
supreme as the "Carnival City."' She established the festival on American 
soil, and made and won the laurels which she wears so proudly. No rival can 
••ver wrest them from her brow. For it is not only money and pageantry that 
make a carnival. The people themselves must he ;i part of it. In New Orleans 
all combines towards the end: the lavish expenditure on the part of a few public- 
spirited citizens to make all the people happy for ju,st a few days, the hearty re- 
sponse from the depths of the great popular heart, the gracious hospitality 
with which the stranger is welcomed and bidden to he one of New Orleans' 
great family of merrymakers, all unite in giving to our Mardi Gras a distinctive 
character, whose impression remains and yearly adds to the immense throngs 
that crowd our Carnival streets. 


In the average mind the words 

''Carnival" and "Mardi Gras" 

are supposed to be synonyms. But there is a fine distinction. The "Carnival" 
piopcrly speaking, begins with the grand ball of the "Twelfth Night Revellers," 
on January G, and culminates with the magnificent festivities of "Mardi Gras," 
or "Fat Tuesday," which is the eve of Ash Wednesday, and marks the close 
of festivities and the beginning of the Lenten Season. The word "Carnival" is 
derived from the Latin words "carne," "flesh," and "vale," "farewell," or 
"farewell, flesh." The great popular features of the New Orleans Carnival are 
the gorgeous street pageants that take place in the week ending on Ash Wednes- 

Our Carnival parades date back to the year 1827, when a number of young 
Creole gentlemen, who had just returned from Paris, whither they had been 
sent to complete their education, conceived the idea of organizing a street pro- 
cession of maskers. It was a success. The celebration continued year after 
year on a grander scale, the whole populace taking up the idea. Mardi Gras 
was, however, in those days essentially different from what it is now. There 
was more promiscuous masking. The streets were thronged with quaint, pic- 
turesque, grotesque bands of maskers of every age. rank, sex and condition, 
and their costumes ran the whole gamut from the polichinelle or clown, with his 
jingling bells, monkeys and polar bears, devils, with red horns, and domiribes 
of all colors, to kings and queens and knights and ladies of the olden time. An 
exclusive ball in the old St. Louis Hotel or the Salle d'Orleans followed, while 
the city generally had its festive gatherings, and fun and merriment reigned. 
Mardi Gras was also a great day with the boys, who, clothed in dominoes, old 
calico dresses or bagging, masked themselves, and, armed with a stout hickory 
stick and a bag of flour, promenaded the streets, seeking for victims upon whom 
to exercise their mischievous spirit. Their depredations, however, were limited 
to such as wore the Carnival uniform, and consisted principally in throwing flour 
and confetti. The flour, confetti and hickory sticks have disappeared, and the 
number of promiscuous street maskers is growing gradually less each year, but 
many of the ancient distinctive features of the day still remain, the ball at the 
old St. Louis Hotel having been the inauguration of the grand Carnival balls 
which are special features of the celebrations to-day. 

The various customs that still maintain indicate the 

Roman Origin of the Festivities. 

Paris derived her Carnival from the Eternal City, and New Orleans de- 
rived hers from Paris, so that the historian may trace the genealogy of the 
celebration far back into pagan times, when the sacrifice of the Lupercalia 
formed the great festival of ancient Rome. It seems fitting, also, that, since 
New Orleans derived its old-time Carnival from Paris, the system of street 
pageants of moving tableaux should also have been introduced into New Orleans 
from an old French city of the new world. 

The idea of reproducing scenes from history, poetry, folk-lore or fairyland 
on floats drawn about the streets was first inaugurated in Mobile by an organ- 
ization known as the Cowbellions. in 1831. New Orleans continued her street 
processions, begun in 1827, on Mardi Gras, having quite an extensive one in 
1837, and another still more brilliant in 1839. Attention was now being paid 
aiso to the purely spectacular part of the pageant, a feature of the procession 
of 1839 being an immense cock over six feet high, riding in a carriage and de- 
lighting the crowds with stentorian crows. In 1857 a .society called the "Mys- 
tick Krewe," now known as the 

flystic Krewe of Comus, 

was organized. The Picayune especially exploited the extraordinary secrecy 
which shrouded its movements, and stimulated the curiosity of the public to 
the highest degree in regard to its appearance. Mardi Gras, Feb. 24, at 9 
o'clock, the Krewe appeared for the first time on the streets, coming whence no 
one could say, and presenting a gorgeous series of moving tableaux representing 


scenes of the infernal r<gions, taken from Milton's "Paradise Lost." After the 
parade the Krewe repaired to the Varieties Theatre, where a series of appropri- 
ate tableaux were presented, the subjects. "The Diabolic Powers," "The Expul- 
sion from Paradise," the "Conference of Satan and Beelzebub" and "Pandemo- 
nium," being in keeping with the character of the pageant. A grand ball fol- 
lowed the tableaux, far surpassing the first effort in this direction in 1839 in the 
old St. Louis ballroom, or the exclusive displays which from 1840 to 1845 so de- 
lighted pleasure-loving New Orleans. It took rank with the memorable ball of 
1852, given in the old Orleans Theatre, and which for gorgeousness of decora- 
tions, richness of toilettes and brilliancy of effect has never been surpassed in 
New Orleans. 

The Mystick Krewe of Comus continued to give annual displays till 1861, 
when the tragedy of the Civil War for a time put an end to the pretty gayeties 
of the Carnival. In 1S66, after the restoration of peace, Comus resumed his 
entertainments, giving a grand street parade and an exclusive ball annually 
tin+il 1884, with the exceptions of the years 1875, 1879 and 1883. From 1884 
to 1890 Comus did not appear. In the latter year, however, the merry God of 
Revelry delighted the popular heart by reappearing upon the streets in a mag- 
nificent series of tableaux, representing the "Paligenesis of the Mystick Krewe's 
Life and Work," or a review of its own history. Since that period Comus has 
never failed to delight the Carnival City with an annual display. It is the oldest 
of the Carnival organizations, 

The Twelfth Night Revelers, 

the .second of the mystic organizations, came into existence in 1870. It derives 
its name from the night it celebrates, January 6, or the twelfth night after 
Christmas. For several years the organization gave annual street pageants, 
very much on the same style as Comus, but varying in the treatment. The first 
parade was in 1871, and the subject presented was "Mother Goose's Tea Party." 
The revellers went out of existence in-187G. but reorganized in 1S94, when they 
gave a grand masquerade ball. Since then the society has annually entertained 
its friends at the French Opera House on Twelfth Night. The ball is very in- 
teresting, reproducing all the old Creole customs and observances of Twelfth 
Nig lit, such as the cutting of the Twelfth Night or King's Cake, in which are 
hidden the gold and silver mystic beans. The one who gets the slice contain- 
ing the gold bean becomes "King" or "Queen." as the case may be, and the find- 
ers of the silver beans become the royal attendants. 


made his first appearance in 1872. This organization was started for the pur- 
pose of bringing all the maskers of the city together for the entertainment of 
the Grand Duke Alexis, who was in that year the guest of the City. The Grand 
Duke reviewed the procession from the portico of the City Hall. Rex has ap- 
pealed ever since, and i.s called the "King of the Carnival." His court is com- 
posed of Dukes and Peers of the Realm, appointed from the best circles of the 
City. Like all the other organizations. Rex chooses a Queen, and this lady, 
invested with royal symbols, is known as the "Queen of the Carnival." The 
entry of the King into his Carnival City takes place the Monday preceding 
Mardi Gras, and is a magnificent display, in which are seen all the Dukes and 
Peers of the Realm, forming the royal escort, the household of His Majesty, 
the royal baggage, etc. He is supposed to come from a distant country, and a 
gayly bedecked fleet of vessels of all sorts proceeds down the river to meet 
him and escort his yacht to the landing-place at the foot of Canal Street. Hav- 
ing arrived, amid the booming of cannon and the clash of martial musie, a 
parade is formed, and the King and his court are escorted through the principal 
streets by all the local and visiting military to the Carnival Palace. At the 
City Hall the Mayor of New Orleans presents the King with 
the keys of the city on a silken cushion, on which are embroidered 
the royal arms. Rex accepts them, and no ruler enjoys greater privileges or 
has more loyal subjects than this merry monarch of a day. The annual parades, 
which have continued sine.' 1X72, take place about noon on Mardi Gras, and are 
gorg< mi- spectacles. At night Rex gives ;) magnificent ball at the Royal Palace, 


Washington Artillery Hall. The ballroom and throneroom are splendidly dec- 
orated, and for three days after the Carnival are open to visitors. Mardi Gras 
is a legal holiday in New Orleans. 

The first appearance of the 

Knights of Momus 

also made memorable the Carnival of 1ST2. Momus first gave his parades on 
tlie last day of the year, but in 1876 the organization changed the time of the 
processions to Carnival week. The first parade represented scenes from Scott's 
romance, "The Talisman." "The Coming Race," a humorous and satirical fore- 
cast of the progress of evolution, was the .subject in 1873. Momus did not ap- 
pear in 1874, 1875 or 1879, but the intervening years down to 18SG were marked 
by displays of great richness aud beauty. In 1886, after a magnificent parade 
and ball, the Knights of Momus ceased to participate in the Carnival. In 1889 
the organization entertained its friends at the French Opera House with beau- 
tiful tableaux from "The Culprit Fay," by Drake. In 1892 the gorgeous pano- 
rama of "Aladdin and the Wonderful Lamp" was given. Annually since then 
the Knights of Momus have given at the French Opera House a grand ball 
and tableaux, which attract the elite of the social world. In the Carnivals of 
1900, 1901 and 1902, the society was again represented by a street pageant of 
great beauty on the Thursday night preceding Mardi Gras. 

The Krewe of Proteus 

was organized in 1882, appearing first on Mardi Gras Eve of that year in a 
series of brilliant tableaux. "The Dream of Egypt." Since that time Proteus 
has not allowed a single year to pass without adding a brilliant contribution to 
the Carnival festivities in its magnificent parade and ball. The fancy of the 
artist, the thought of the historian, the dream of the poet, are allowed free 
scope in the magnificent portrayal of subjects for pageant and tableaux, 
whether in "A Trip to Fairyland," as in 1893, or in "E Pluribus 
Unum," Proteus' idea of the States of the American Union, as expressed in 
twenty moving tableaux in 1899. Year by year the beauty and grace of the 
pageantry elicit the admiration of all observers. 

The Krewe of Nereus, 

organized in 1895. is the most youthful but one of the Carnival societies. For 
several years the Krewe limited its efforts to giving a ball at the French Opera 
House. But in 1900 it supplemented this entertainment with a beautiful street 
pageant, mounting its tableaux on trolley cars, which afforded opportunity for 
a beautiful display of electric illuminations. 

Several other Carnival organizations, the Krewe of Consus, the Atlanteans, 
the Elves of Oberon, the High Priests of Mithras, confine themselves to giving 
•one ball annually during the Carnival period. The Carnival of 1898 witnessed 
the revival of the Phunny Phorty Phellows, a society nearly a quarter of a cen- 
tury old, which formerly delighted the populace with a daylight procession on 
Mardi Gras, the themes selected being always of a humorous character. 

Tie' halls given by the various organizations having street parades begin 
immediately after the parade lias concluded, and generally occur at the French 
Opera House, the maskers being put down from the floats as these draw up 
before the venerable lyric temple. It is a wonderful sight to see the maskers 
•descending; the flaring torches, Ihe ever-changing colors, the glittering tab- 
leaux, the marvelous richness and beauty of the costumes, the managers shout- 
ing orders, the staring crowds, all combine to make the scene a memorable one. 

Admission to these balls is by invitation only, and the cards are not 
transferable. Admission curds are distributed only through nomination by 
members of the secret organizations. Strangers who have no friends through 
whom their names may bo presented and communicated to the societies, may 
write a note asking for invitations. Tf ratified by the committee, invitations 
will be sent to the writer's nddress. Kex"^ ball is ihe popular one, and the at- 
tendance often numbers 30.000. Invitations to this ball may also be procured 
by applying to the Mayor. Nevertheless, the admission is hedged about with 


many restrictions, and to be honored with an invitation is supposed to confer n 
certain social rank not otherwise obtainable. 

It is the custom of each organization to appoint a lady to preside as its 


and 10 select one of their number to exercise the brief sovereignty of King, repre- 
senting "Rex," "Coinus," •'Proteus," "Momus," "Nereus." etc., as the case may 
be. The King often exercises the privilege of choosing his consort, and always 
presents her with magnificent jewels. For a week preceding the ball these hand- 
some ornaments, crown and scepter, necklace and girdle, may be seen in the 
show window of some Canal Street jeweler, or store on some other principal 
thor<ghfare. The jewels are usually made in Paris, and are very costly. The 
"Queen" chooses her maids of honor, who occupy with her one of the prosce- 
nium boxes at the Opera House during the presentation of tableaux. The box 
directly opposite is always reserved for the Queen and maids of the preceding 
year. After the tableaux, the pretty ceremony of the coronation of the Queen 
takes place, then the dancing of the Royal Quadrille. This is followed by sev- 
eral beautiful dances, in which the maskers lead out the young ladies who hare 
been specially honored with a previous invitation. These ladies occupy special 
seats in a body in the parquette, and to be "called out" by a masker is consid- 
ered a preat mark of distinction, while to be "Queen" of one of the balls is an 
honor that clings to the recipient, through smiles and tears in this quaint old 
city. Each young lady who is called out receives from the masker 
who has so honored her some beautiful gift, generally of jewelry, 
and the air of mystery surrounding the giver makes it all the more 
appreciated. Before the ball is over each masker has divested himself of 
dainty accessories in the way of badges, scepters, rings and other ornamenta- 
tion, and presented them to the lady of his choice. Of course, she is not sup- 
posed to know who the donor is, and many a time she does not. These are only 
some of the very pleasant courtesies that make these Carnival festivities unique 
and happy memories. Many a love match is made on Mardi Gras night, and 
"once Queen, forever Queen," has grown to be a pretty Carnival motto, just 
as the King's royal anthem always remains "If Ever I Cease to Love." 

At the Cornus ball the principal event is the visit of the King and Queen 
of the Carnival to the King and Queen of Cornus. All the forms of royalty are 
studiously observed. 

How the Parades are flanaged. 

The Carnival parades are managed by bodies of private citizens of the 
highest social standing, who form the famous Carnival organizations. These 
gentlemen spare no expense out of their own private means to make these street 
pageant? as beautiful, as magnificent and as instructive as possible. The ex- 
pense of a single display ranges from $20,000 to $30,000, and sometimes higher. 
The people are not taxed anything. They have "only to come from their homes 
and enjoy; and so with the thousands of strangers who find such a warm 
welcome in New Orleans. 

The work of the Carnival organizations in the preparation of these mag- 
nificent street pageants is shrouded in impenetrable mystery. Besides exciting 
the curiosity of the public to the highest degree, the strict secrecy maintained 
enables the organizations to begin their preparations for the next parade almost 
as soon as one is off the street. 

In each organization the .system of work is as complete, in a way, as an 
established government, and the discipline maintained is like that of a small 

Each association has its own floats, ladders, housing for the draft-horses 
and disguises for the torch-bearers. None of the organizations have any known 
permanent meeting-place. 

The association consists generally of about 250 members, mostly leading 
clubmen, and it may be remarked that many of them have grown old in the 
service, and are grandfathers. In getting up the parades about 100 gentlemen 
are selected to appear in the display; the remainder are utilized for duties, 
much more onerous than is generally supposed. 


Mardi Gras is scarcely over before a meeting of the organization is sum- 
moned, and plans arc taken into consideration for the nexl parade. A design 
committee is selected, the head of which is called the '-Captain," and he id 
invested with absolute power. The artist is then summoned for consultation. 
Each committeeman proposes a subject for treatment, drawn from history, 
. mythology, fairy lere or modern topics. Often the subject requires ex- 
traordinary research to portray it properly and accurately. A half dozen of the 
f these suggestions are given to the artist, who makes a series of rough 
crayon sketches, which arc presented about a month after the first meeting. 
The final selection of a subject is always a difficut problem. Once the deci- 
sion is made, the work begins in earnest. The artist is directed to make a 
drawing of each float as it will appear in full parade, and also to prepare 
sketches of each of the hundred or more costumes to be worn by the maskers. 
Each study is elaborately finished and inscribed with the name of every ma- 
terial which is to enter into the composition. These undergo the criticism of 
the design committee. Such modifications or additions as are suggested are 
made, and the characters are so distributed among the members of the associa- 
tion as to harmonize with individutl peculiarities. Each card is then labeled on 
the back with a memorandum giving the height, size, girth, etc., of the gentle- 
man who is to wear the costume. The 

Designing of the Floats 

is the hardest part of the artist's task. Each float is done in water colors on 
a. scale about twenty times as large as the co.stnme card. Several sets are made, 
one with each figure duly numbered and posted as it is to appear in the street 
parade, is hung upon the wall of the clubroom in which the meetings are held, 
there to be scrutinized and criticized diligently by the members. Another set 
with the individual costume cards as marked, is sent to the manufacturer. 

These preliminaries are usually over by July 1. In the meantime, the 
papier mache workers are busy molding the different accessories required to dec- 
orate each float. The costumes are usually received by December 1. As soon 
as they arrive they are carried with utmost secrecy to the "Den," as the mys- 
terious clubroom of the organization is generally called. Each suit is found 
packed in a separate case and carefully labeled; they are taken out and ar- 
ranged on a long table, each surmounted by its own corresponding picture. The 
members come and try on their individual suits, and for weeks thereafter the 
Court tailors, armorers and milliners are kept busy making such alterations 
as are necessary in the fit, makeup, etc. When this immense task is satisfac- 
torily accomplished, each costume is replaced in its proper, and is duly 
numbered. It is then locked up and laid aside for the eventful night. 

In the meantime, the Float Committee, which has been furnished with a 
third set of designs, has been busy at the 

Float "Den," located in some out=of=the=way place, 

usually the yard of an abandoned cotton-press, where the building up of the 
floats has been going on quietly, noiselessly, and with the most profound 
secrecy; though numbers of carpenters, painters, gilders, papier mache workers, 
etc.. an. employed for months and months, strange to say, the secret of the place 
is so welt guarded that'the public has no clue to its location or ever learns aught 
of the preparations in progress. The "Ball Committee, which arranges for 
the grand function at the Opera House which invariably follows the parade, is 
also busy; the balls are opened with a series of tableaux, embracing all the 
characters that have appeared in the procession. The work of drilling the par- 
ticipants in these tableaux is not the least part of the general preparations. 
On the date fixed for the parade 

All is Bustle and Excitement at the "Den." 

If the parade is to take place at night the preparations begin about 2 
o'clock in the afternoon: if during the day, they begin almost at sunrise. All 
the drivers, torch-bearers, attendants, etc., are on the scene being drilled anew 
iu the various duties that each is to perform with military precision. The boxes 


containing the costumes were removed during the dead of night to some build- 
ing in the vicinity of the yard where the floats are waiting. Every precaution 
has been taken to prevent the public from even guessing to what purpose this 
building is being applied. Exits from other houses are cut into it, the windows 
are kept darkened, and the main doorways are never opened. 

At the appointed hour the members begin to arrive. They bring their for- 
mal evening dress with them. This they place in the boxes in lieu of the cos- 
tumes, in which they proceed to deck themselves. If it is to be a night parade, 
by 7 o'clock all are dressed. The roll is called, and the characters, securely 
masked, take their places in line and undergo a last formal inspection. In the 


meantime, a committee has traversed the route over which the pageant is to 
pass, to see that the street is free from all obstructions. The committee reports 
all in readiness, and shortly after a squad of police makes its appearance. It 
clears the streets and establishes a cordon around the yard for about four or five 
squares. The torch-bearers are marshaled on the left side of the open space, 
under the command of officers, who are stationed at regular intervals. The 
floats are driven out of the press yard. The "Captain" calls the numbers, and 
each gentleman, hearing his special numeral, takes his place upon the float to 
which he has been assigned. This is driven off expeditiously, to make way for 
its successor. The bands of music are then marched in position, the torchmen 
surround the cars, and the 

Procession is Ready to Move, 

in remarkably short order. The "Captain" once more rides along the line to 
ascertain that everything is as it should be, the signal is given, and the proces- 
sion moves quietly and in darkness to the nearest large thoroughfare. A rocket, 
piercing the evening sky with a lurid line of light, announces to the waiting 
multitudes that throng all the line of march that the mysterious Krewe is once 
again on the streets to delight their pleasure-loving hearts. Suddenly there is a 
blaze of light, for the torches are lit and encircle each float in a brilliant paral- 
lelogram of fire, and the streets are transformed into pictures of 
Fairyland. The Krewe has come, whence no one knows; it will 
return, where, no one can tell; but it is here; it tells its own story of 


the time, the labor, the thought, the money (hat have been expended so lavishly, 
so uusellishly for this pleasure of a few fleeting hours. And it is because of this 
sweet sentiment underlying all, the utter unselfishness and thought of others, 
that the Carnival is so dear to our people. 

No matter what route has been selected, the parade winds up at the French 
Opera House at about 10 o'clock. Here the maskers dismount and the floats 
disappear in the darkness from which they emerged. The boxes containing the 
dress suits of the members have, in the meantime, been conveyed from the 
"Den" to the dressing-rooms of the Opera House. 

Within the great temple 

All is Light and Beauty. 

Tiers upon tiers are occupied by the most beautiful and brilliant women 
of the city and lady guests from other States. The Queen of the evening is there 
with her court, and the Queen and court of tlie previous year. Dozens of the 

■ ; • ' * 

' ' ' 1 


m i " JL 






most beautiful girls, who expect to be "called out." occupy honored seats within 
the ribbon enclosure of the parquette. The curtain rises upon a brilliant series 
of tableaux, a iter which the royal quadrille is danced, and after three or four 
dancesjeserved for the maskers and the young ladies who have received special 
invitations in advance, the floor is free to all, and the maskers mingle with the 
brilliant throng. As 12 o'clock strikes the maskers disappear quietly, one by 
one. A few moments afterwards they return dressed in the conventional even- 
ing society garb. They are obliged to present their invitations at the doors 
like everyone else, so that it is absolutely impossible to obtain a clue to their 
identity with the character personated during the parade. A great deal of 
mirth and laughter follow, the rippling echo of some pretty girl who is sure 
that she has found a clue, the gay badinage, the merry dance, and then the 
deepening skies without and the shrill crow of some neighboring cock, announce 
that it is "Ash Wednesday morn." 


The bnll is over, the masquers have fled; the Carnival of that year is a thing 
of the past, and New Orleans, with a sigh for the bright hour of sunshine that 
was hers, puts on once more a serious garb and says: "Come, children, let 
us shut up the box and the puppets; turn we to better things." 

The Carnival of 1903 

will b»e in many respects the most brilliant ever known in New Orleans. Since 
1890 there has been a disposition to prolong and elaborate the ceremonies, in 
order to still better compensate the enormous crowds that throng our city in 
Carnival Week. The festivities will begin on February 19, when the Knights 
of Momus will parade. On Monday, February 23, the arrival of Rex will be 
made the occasion of a daylight parade, and at night the Krewe of Proteus 
will parade. The following morning, February 24, is Mardi Gras, and Rex 
will marshal his court and people in a street pageant. At night Comus will 
close the Carnival in a blaze of glory. And so with the Carnivals to come; 
each will outrival the preceding effort. 

Special Carnival' Editions of the Picayune, 

beautifully illustrating the parades of Proteus and Comus can be obtained on 
application at the Picayune office. 

During the next three years Mardi Gras will fall on the following dates: 
February 16, 1904, March 7, 1905, February 27. 1906. 


Out=of=Town Journeys. 

The country about New Orleans is beautiful and characteristically South- 
ern. The land of Evangeline, immortalized by Longfellow, lies just beyond 
our doorways, and Arcady. sweet Arcady, the old hiding-place of Lafitte, the 
first campgrounds of Iberville, are near enough to be familiar haunts. 

The rude huts of the famous Choctaw Indians are but over the waterway, 
i estling under the pines and bay trees of St. Tammany Parish. The mouth of 
the Mississippi, the Gulf and the great jetties are a few hours' ride distant, 
and all about and around the great sprawling city lie orange groves, white with 
blossoms, or golden with fruit, cane fields and plantations. 

Among the out-of-town journeys which the visitor should not fail to enjoy 
is the trip down the river by steamer to Port Chalmette, over Lake Pontchar- 
train f <> Mandeville, Chinehuba, Covington and Abita Springs, the trip along the 
Mississippi coast to Bay St. Louis, Pass Christian and Biloxi, the trip to Lake 
Borgne over the Shell Beach Railroad, to the pine hills of Magnolia and Cha- 
tawa, Mississippi, on the Illinois Central, over the Mississippi Valley Railroad, 
a run to the State Capitol at Baton Rouge, a boat trip to Bayou Sara, to Vicks- 
burg or to Natchez. The picturesque Teche country, in which dwell the peace- 
ful and quaint Acadians, is less than half a day's journey by rail. 


the nearesl id' the lake coasl resorts, is one of the mosl picturesque of Southern 
watering places. It was one of the most fashionable resorts of old New Or- 
leans. It lies in the heart of the piney woods district, and nearby is the beau- 
tiful village nf Chinehuba, noted for its crystal springs. The Mandeville coast 
may be almost distinctly traced against the horizon from the shores of Milne- 


burg, and is reached by excursion steamers from this point during the greater 
part of the year. It may be readied daily by the East Louisiana Railroad. 

Within a few miles of Mandeville, easily accessible by stage or carriage 
drive from this resort, are the old towns id' 

Covington and Abita Springs. 

Both lie in the great piney woods belt, on the banks of the Bogue Falia 
River, one of the most picturesque and beautiful streams in the United States. 
Abiia Springs derives its name from an old Indian legend', ami signifies the 
"Startled Fawn." The waters are medicinal. Covington is a noted health re- 
sort. It may be reached by the East Louisiana Road or by the steamer Camelia, 
which runs from Milneburg to Mandeville, thence turns into the Tchefuncta 
River as far as Old Landing. A more beautiful or picturesque (rip could not 
be imagined than along this winding river, with the pine trees singing their ever- 
lasting threnody along the banks, and the cypresses almost lapping their 
branches overhead. A pleasant trip can be made on the Shell Beach Road. 
which makes a run of an hour and a half to the Gulf, or up the Illinois Central 
Road to 

Hagnolia and Chatawa, 

the latter one of the prettiest hill towns of Mississippi, lying on the banks of 
the dark, fern-fringed Tangipahoa. 

There are small boats going tri-weekly to the jetties, but the luxury of a 
river trip is only tested by a journey up the Mississippi River. 

The up-river excursion to 

Bayou Sara 

affords an opportunity of seeing the very best part of the Mississippi River scen- 
ery, its orange groves and cane fields, and plantations witli negro cabins 
sprawling in the sunshine, and all occupied the year round. The old town of 
Plaquemines, the beautiful college and convent in St. James Parish, the impos- 
ing State Capitol at Baton Rouge, set on terraced hills, and altogether charming, 
are worthy of the two days, or perhaps less, time that it takes to make the 
trip. All along the way the big boats stop continuously, and the tourist has 
ample time to see plantation life and Southern villages, and know what it 
means to go boating along the Mississippi. 

Another delightful river trip is up the Bayou Teche to 

New Iberia and the Old Town of St. Hartinville. 

Some of the finest sugar plantations in the State are to be seeu along 
this route. The towns are also directly reached by the Southern Pacific Rail- 
road. New Iberia lies on the dreamy and beautiful bayou, in the heart of the 
Land of Evangeline. This section of Louisiana is called the Valley of the 
Teche, and is famous for the exquisite beauty of its scenery and the great 
fertility of its land. It is called the "Garden of Louisiana." 

From New Iberia to the 

Great Salt Mine, on Avery Island, 

is 01 Iy a short distance. A little railroad carries the tourist to the mines. It 
is situated on Petit Ause Island, and the salt is found between eleven and 
thirty feet below the surface of the earth. The miners have worked over sixty- 
five feet into the solid salt, which shows itself on a level with tidewater. The 
lalt is supposed to extend "hundreds of miles below the surface of the gulf, and 
has been found to be superior to any other salt sold in the Southern markets. 
New Iberia is in the heart of a great duck, snipe and fishing country. The 
great comedian, Joseph Jefferson, has a summer home not far from New Iberia. 
If the visitor is interested in sugar-making, a visit to one of the plantations 
within easy reach of the city will be found satisfactory. Some of the largest 
of these estates are on the western side of the river, but if he wants to see the 
sugar country in its perfection, he should make the trip by steamboat 


Down the Bayou Lafourche. 

The trip can be mnde at a small cost in about twenty-four hours by taking 
a boat to Thibodaux, ar.d thence back to New Orleans by rail. Bayou La- 
fourche, is scarcely less lovely than Bayou Teche. The magnificent stretch of 
sugar lands, the beautiful plantation homes, the dreamy bayou, the generous 
hospitality of the people, all combine to make the trip a pictured memory. Dur- 
ing the grinding season, which lasts from November to February, a visit to a 
sugar plantation is delightful. 

By going to Morgan City, over the Southern Pacific Road, excursions can 
be made on boat and steam tugs through the waterways by which the Atchafa- 
laya readies the gulf. Another very pleasant expedition is by steamer through 
the gwamps and bayous to 

Grand Island. 

This is a famous Creole summer resort, and is noted for its fine surf bath- 
ing. The Caminada Cheniere, the scene of a terrible disaster caused by a 
storm and tidal wave of 1893, through which over 2,000 lives were lost, is not 
far from Grand Islaus. Further on, outlined like a silhouette against the sky, 
is a dark strip of land, the last the eye rests upon ere the waters of the Mex- 
ican Gulf reach the sea. This is Isle Derniere, or Last Island, which was at 
that time the must fashionable of all the gulf resorts. Thousands of lives were 
lost, and half of the islam! itself buried in the sea. Since that time it has been 
abandoned. It is a marked spot, and the great tragedy of Last Island has 
furnished many a theme fo;: pcet and romancer. 


From New Orleans to Mobile — "Across the Lake" — 

Short Sketches of the Gulf Coast 

Summer Resorts. 

Studding the beautiful stretch of Gulf coast that spans the distance from 
New Orleans to Mobile lie pretty villages, whose many attractions in the way 
of fishing, boating and bathing have made them favorite resorts among New 
Orleans people fcr ov r a century. Not only do the elite of the city have their 
summer residences along this pleasant line, but even the poorest seek to spend 
a day or two, at least, during the summer season, at some one of the gulf 
resorts. From May to September, especially, these towns are overflowing with 
the best people of New Orleans* they are the scene of constant gayety. There 
are yacht races and regattas, and fishing and hunting and boating parties, the 
yacht races held at Bay S:. Louis, Pass Christian and Biloxi enlisting general 
interest. The salt bathing is delightful, the drives along the beach of surpass- 
ing beauty. In front one sees the ever-changing glory of the white-crested sea; 
in the rear, magnificent belts of pine lands, that give life and health with every 
resinous breath. 

The salubrious climate and balmy winters of these resorts have of late years 
attracted many Northern viskcrs and invalids, who Spend the winter there. 
They are finding out that Nov. Orleans itself nut only offers peculiar advan- 
tages and inducements, both as a winter and summer resort, but at our very 
doors are the health-giving land of the pine, and white beaches of the Mexican 
Gulf, Jamous hunting-gi bunds and bits of virgin forests, whose beauty and pic- 
turcsf|iieiH ss are unlike those of any other section of the Continent. 

An.' so the old city has become the point of departure for many wonder- 
lands, not the least pleasant of which are the pretty resorts 

"Across the Lake," 

as tlm coast lino (hat intervenes between New Orleans and its old French sister, 
Mobile, was charmingly designated by the old Creole .settlers. The Louisville 
and Nashville Railroad is the only one which reaches these resorts. The pas- 
senger station is located at the foot of Canal Street, less than 500 feet from 
the river. There are usually two morning and two evening trains. During the 
summer months cheap excursions are a feature, and are patronized by enormous 

The run to Mobile is made in about four hours. By taking a morning train 
the visitor will have ample opportunity to study the scenery around New Or- 
leans. Following ilie line of the Fontchartrain for a little distance, the train 
carries 1 he tourist through the 

"Prairie Tremblante," or Trembling Prairie. 

This is a swampy expanse lying within the municipal boundaries of the city. 

It is inhabited by squatters, who eke out an existence by hunting, trapping 
and fishing. They are mostly of the Austrian, Chinese and Malay races, and 
live a life peculiar to their class. 

Near this prairie, in a spot remote from the railroad, is a large colony of 
Manilamen. probably the cnly one in the United States. Quaint negro cabins 
dot the entire line of the railroad, and every now and then is seen a pretty bit 
of garden greenery, showing the home of some white resident. At Micheaud 
and Lee Station small settlements have grown up, but they are still unim- 

Chef Menteur 

i.? the first noteworthy stopping-place after leaving New Orleans. Chef Men- 
teur signifies "Lying Chief." The French were deceived by the Chief of a 
tribe of Indians living here. They perpetuated his infamy by bestowing the 
name "Chef Menteur" upon the place and bayou. The bayou connects Lake 
Borgne and Lake Pontchartrain, and is a famous place for fishing. Most of the 
buildings at Chef Menteur are fishing clubs, the members of which reside in 
New Orleans, but make constant excursions thither to pursue the gentle sport 
of Sir Izaak Walton. Chef Menteur is 19.4 miles from New Orleans. 

Lake Catherine, six miles further, is another settlement of fishing clubs 
and fishermen. The train pauses here a moment, and then speeds on to the 


a thriving little town, with miniature dockyards and several residences of pro- 
portion. The Rigolets is a deep channel which connects Lake Borgne and Lake 
Pontchartrain. Through the car window is seen an apparently illimitable 
stretch of marshy meadow, and in the distance white sails flash in the sun- 
shine, as though some boat were sailing over dry land. But in reality the boat 
is pursuing its course siiently through one of the many tortuous, narrow, yet 
deep, waterways which intersect the marshy ground in all directions, and the 
very existence of which can scarcely be noticed except when almost directly 
upon the banks. This .series of natural canals crossing and recrossing in all 
directions afford many excellent channels for schooners, luggers and other small 
craft. The Rigolets mark the boundary line along the coast between Louisiana 
and Mississippi. The distance from New Orleans to the Rigolets is 30.3 
miles. Between the Rigolets and the next point of interest. 

English Lookout, 

is a spreading live oak, which is famous as the last tree in Louisiana. English 
Lookout is so called because in 1814 a post was established here by the Ameri- 
cans to watch the movements of the English fleet moving up the Mississippi 
Sound on the way to attack New Orleans. Here the train crosses the Missis- 
sippi line. Lookout is thirty-six miles from New Orleans. It is also famous 
as the place where Pear! River, which forms the eastern boundary of Louisiana, 






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empties into the lake. The trip up Pearl River is very picturesque. A small 
steamer plies between Lookout, Gainesville, Columbia, Logtown and Pearling- 
t( ii. the latter being the site of extensive saw mills. Pearl River runs through 
a section famous for its splendid timber lauds. A trip along Pearl River will 
repay the fisherman. 

Gulf View, 

which is the first important stop along the Mississippi Sound, has only recently 
sprung into existence. Some very handsome hunting and fishing clubs and 
lodges, owned by private citizens in New Orleans, dot the route. The name 
"Gulf Mew" was given to the settlement because it is near this point that the 
tourist catches the first glimpse of the blue waters of the Mississippi Sound 
stretching away to the right, as the train speeds on through the dense growth of 
pine forests. 

From Gulf View to the beautiful town of 


is comparatively a short distance. Waveland is forty-eight miles from New Or- 
leans. It lies on the banks of the lovely bay thai Bienville named for the 
patron saint of his ioyal master, St. Louis. It is just two miles from Bay St. 
Louis proper, and, indeed, may be said to be the new Bay St. Louis, or a con- 
tinuation of the old Creole watering place. But Waveland is a distinct town. 
It is incorporated under the laws of Mississippi, and has its own Mayor. It 
is populated almost entirely by wealthy people, many of whom have their homes 


in New Orleans and maintain beautiful summer residences here. Among the 
handsome residences, which are distinctly Southern in architecture, and, there- 
fore, quite different from summer residences in Northern resorts, is the summer 
home of the late proprietors of the Picayune, Mr. and Mrs. George Nicholson, 
and now the residence of their sons. The train makes a short stop one mile 
further, at Nicholson Avenue, and in a few moments 

Bay St. Louis 

is reached. A settlement was founded by the French at Bay St. Louis shortly 
after the establishment of the French colony at Biloxi. A similar settlement 
was also made at Pascagoula. In 1727 Governor Perier made a tour of these 
settlements, reporting upon their condition to the French Government. The real 


history of the "Bay," as it is commonly called, began in 1S20, when General 
Shields, the United States Lighthouse Inspector, built two houses at the lower 
end.. One if these original houses still stands, near the Crescent 
Hotel. The Government considered the site so healthful that for several years 
it quartered troops there in a barracks, which stood on the beach, between the 
sites now occupied by the Crescent Hotel and St. Stanislaus College. For a 
while the place was called Shieldsboro, but the designation was altered years 
ago. Bay St. Louis is 51.9 miles from New Orleans. It is situated on a 
high peninsula, comprising some 20,000 acres. The population is about 3,000. 
Towards the lower end are the homes of many of the ancient Creole families 
of ante-bellum days. Along the drive towards Waveland, skirting the beauti- 
ful beach, are many new and charming homes of a more modern character. 
In the old town, which was the most aristocratic of the gulf coast watering 
places before the war, and which still holds its own, stands the Church of Our 
Lady of the Gulf, erected in 1872 at a cost of $30,000. St. Joseph's Convent. 
datiag back to 1854, and St. Stanislaus College are interesting educational in- 
stitutions. The quaint old graveyard is well worth a visit. All along the 
beach are magnificent live oaks that have defied the ravages of time and tide. 

Bay St. Louis has several very good hotels and a number of charming pri- 
vate boarding-houses. 

Leaving the town, the train crosses immediately the broad and beautiful 
expanse of Bay St. Louis. The track is carried on a trestle-work, much of which 
is encased or sheathed in huge earthenware pipes to protect it from the teredo 
worm. The scene in crossing the waters is very picturesque. The beautiful 
homes nestling amid the trees along the pebbly beach, the fishing smacks and 
sailing boats, with their white sails flying in the breeze, often as not the glimpse 
of some Italian fisherman singing a gay bacarole or dreamy opera as he throws 
his net, are pictures that come floating over the waters with every dancing ray 
of sunlight reflected in the white-crested waves. Just over the way is the 
beautiful Pass, and nestling on its banks, like a white-robed Queen, is the fair 
town of 

Pass Christian. 

It is also situated on a peninsula, and extends along the coast for nearly six 
miles. On the north are Bayou Portage and Bayou D'Or. The latter has been 
so named on account of the golden brilliancy of the foliage along the banks 
in autumn. Bayou Portage follows a devious course, at one point approaching 
within a mile of the sea. The Indians knew this fact, and in the old days used 
to save a journey of nearly twenty miles by hauling their canoes across the 
narrow neck of land. The town is named in honor of a Swedish sailor named 
Christian, who discovered the pass, which leads from the Gulf of Mexico into 
the Mississippi Sound, near Cat Island. Pass Christian is fifty-seven miles from 
New Orleans. It has a population of about 2,000. The magnificent trees are 
the admiration of tourists. The Pass has several fine hotels, and is a very 
popular resort with Northern visitors. 

From the train window a good view is had of 

Cat Island, 

which, with Ship Island and Chandeleur Island, was the first land that Iber- 
ville and Bienville discovered before entering the Mississippi River. The name 
"Cat Island," then bestowed, has been retained to this day. Its origin is pecu- 
liar. When the French first landed there they found large numbers of a strange 
looking animal that somewhat resembled a fox, but was more like a cat. Not 
knowing what it Was, one of the exploring party exclaimed: "Why, this must 
be the kingdom of cats." At once the name "Cat Island" was given to the 
place. The animal is now known as the raccoon. Cat Island is about eight miles 
long, and practically arid. It lies about ten miles out from Pass Christian. 
Just beyond Cat Island, and visible from the Biloxi beach, is 

Ship Island, 

one of the most imposing landmarks in the history of Louisiana, whether as 
Colony, Territory or State. It is one of the four low islands (Cat, Chandeleur 


and Round) that, stretching ten or twelve miles along the gulf coast, form the 
Mississippi Sound. Ship Island is only seven miles long and three-quarters of a 
mile wide. It belongs to the State of Mississippi, but is, in fact, ten miles dis- 
tant from the nearest point of that State. Ship Island was discovered in 1691) 
by Bienville. In 1814 it served as a rendezvous for the British fleet that was 
advancing against New Orleans. It was to its white sands and quiet harbor 
that they retreated for refuge after the disastrous results of .the battle on the 
plains of Chalmette. In the Civil War it was for a while a safe and convenient 
place of organization. The history of the island as a place of banishment for 
those who had incurred the displeasure of General Butler during his occupancy 
of New Orleans has made its name inseparably connected with the later history 
of the city. The white beach of the island glistening in the sun forms a conve- 
nient landmark for mariners. 

The train makes a short stop at Long Beach, about six miles from the 
Pass. It is a recent thriving settlement and rapidly becoming known as <i 
resort. Long Beach boasts of a good hotel. A few minutes' run brings the 
tonrist to 

Mississippi City, 

which is a very prosperous town and the County seat of Harrison County. As 
far back as 1830 a great city was projected here, and elaborate plans 
were made for its establishment. A great harbor was planned, and the older 
of the two present good hotels was erected soon after. But the extensive scheme 
required the aid of the United States Government to materialize. This aid was 
not forthcoming, and the project languished. Mississippi City has a population 
of about 1,200. Its hotels are considered very excellent. It is 70.4 miles from 
New Orleans. 


the old home of Jefferson Davis, President of the Confederacy, is a little over 
four miles' drive from Mississippi City, Carriages may be taken to this historic 
place of interest at Mississippi City. Mr. Davis and family lived at Beauvoir 
during the last years of his life. He died in New Orleans. The old mansion 
has recently been purchased by the Sons of Confederate Veterans of Mississippi 
as a home for impoverished Confederate veterans. 

The Seashore Campgrounds, 

which is quite a large settlement, lies between Mississippi City and Biloxi. The 
grounds are the property of the New Orleans, the Mobile and the Seashore 
District Conferences of the Methodist Episcopal Church. South. Every summer 
two weeks of religious revivals are held here. The revivals attract visitors 
from all parts of the far South. The grounds are occupied by wooden buildings 
called "tents," where many people go to spend the summer. Many prominent 
Methodists have their special "tents." or summer houses, here. The bathing at 
this point is unsurpassed. 

Very near the Campgrounds lies the town of 


The town was founded by Bienville in 1718. Though the first settlemeut 
by the French was made over the bay in the old town of Biloxi, now known 
as Ocean Springs, this point stands for the first permanent settlement in Louis- 
iana, all Mississippi and the surrounding country having formed a part of the 
Louisiana Province. In the year mentioned the capital of the entire Province 
was transferred to this point. Prior to this date a warehouse and a few other 
buildings had been erected on the site, which was known to the French as Deer 
Island. Bienville took up his quarters in the old warehouse. In 1723 the 
capital was transferred to New Orleans. Nothing of interest marked the history 
of the Biloxi settlement until 17G0, when for a brief sp: ce of time it was in- 
cluded in the British possessions, the transfer having been effected by treaty 
between the European Powers. It became a Spanish town by conquest in 1780. 
After the cession of Louisiana to the United States, Spain contended that the 


Districts of Feliciana, East Baton Rouge, St. Helena, St. Tammany, Biloxi 

mihI Paseagoula were ;i pari of West Florida, and had not been sold with Louis- 
iana. President Madison held that the District of West Florida belonged, by 
the treaty oi' 1803, to the United States, and was a pari of the Territory of 

In 1810 the inhabitants of Bayou Sara, which was a part oi' the West 
Florida contention, revolted and declared themselves independent of Spain. 
The Bayou Sarans attacked the Spanish fort at Baton Rouge and captured it, 
and asked to he annexed to the United States. President .Madison told them 
quietly thai the Distrid of Florida already belonged to the United States, ami 
directed Governor Claiborne to take possession of the district. Claiborne 
inarched at the head of his militiamen to St. Francisville and took possession of 
the entire district in the name of the United States. The people cheerfully sub- 
mitted to his authority. Subsequently Biloxi and Paseagoula became part of 
the State of Mississippi. Biloxi is a great resort for New Orleans people. It 
is seventy-nine miles from New Orleans. It has a population of 4,500. The 
town is lighted by electricity, possesses large canniug and lumber interests and 
is supplied with abundant artesian well water. The bathing is delightful, the 
boating and fishing unexcelled. Its hotels, chilis, residences and churches are 
numerous and handsome. 

A long trestle readies from Biloxi to 

Ocean Springs, 

the oldest town in all the area of what was known to the French of old Louis- 
iana. This is the settlement founded by Iberville in 1G09. He found on this 
spot an old Indian village called Biloxi, and he located his settlement here, re- 
taining the name, which sprang from the tribe of Biloxians who inhabited the 
section. For twenty years this place was the capital of the province. Sauvolle 
the brother of Iberville, and the first Governor of Louisiana, was killed here 
by the Indians. The late historian. Gayarre. identified his tomb on the site of 
the edd French fort. When Bienville founded the new town of Biloxi on the 
other side of the bay, this point became known as Old Biloxi. It retained this 
name for over a hundred and fifty years. The modern town spraug up about 
1854, when several prominent New Orleans gentlemen purchased large properties 
there, and sought to bring its merits as a watering place into notice. The name 
"Ocean Springs" was given to the old town, the name being taken from sev- 
eral springs thought to have curative properties which are located on the estate 
of the late William B. Schmidt, who was one of the leading citizens of New 
Orleans. The town is very pretty and picturesque. There are some very beau- 
tiful homes anil several tine hotels. The oldest hotel was established in 1835. 
The population of Ocean Springs is about 1,400. The town is eighty-three miles 
from New Orleans. 


is the only other stopping-place that the train makes before crossing into the 
State of Alabama. The place is really a part of the old town of Paseagoula, 
which comprised Paseagoula proper, as the old French settlement along the 
seacoast is called, Scranton, the county seat, and Moss Point, a pretty little 
town on Dog River, about four miles from Scranton 

Scranton was named in honor of a former official of the railroad wdiich 
brought the town into existence about thirty years ago. The population is about 
2.000. The town possesses many saw mills and ship yards; an admirable' har- 
bor afforded by the Paseagoula River has brought the place considerable for- 
eign commerce. Scranton is ninety-nine miles from New Orleans. A mile drive 
from Scranton to the seashore brings the visitor to the ancient town of 


The drive leads through wild and pisturesqne scenery that is very ro- 
mantic. Paseagoula is an old Indian village, deriving its name from the famous 
tribe that inhabited this section. Indian mounds of Considerable extent, it is 
said, are still to be seen in the vicinity. Soon after Iberville settled at Old 
Biloxi or Ocean Springs, the colonists established a branch station here. This 


was the beginning of the present town. When Louisiana was ceded to Spain 
all Paseagoula was granted by the King of Spain to Colonel Krebs, a distin- 
guished officer in the Spanish army, in recognition of important services. Here 
he settled, and along the banks of the bay and river his descendents have lived 
from generation to generation. When the depredations of the Indians necessi- 
tated the settlers banding together for their protection, Colonel Krebs built a 
strong fort, the walls of which were twelve feet thick, just at the junction of 
the Paseagoula River and Bay. Years afterwards his descendants built a 
beautiful home on the spot, retaining the old historic fort as a part of the resi- 
dence. A magnificent avenue of live oaks leads up to this old home, which is a 
point of interest to all visitors. 

Hard by the ancient fortress home is heard the famous "mysterious 
music," which comes up from the mouth of the river. No explanation of 
this wierd melody has ever been adduced, but it is a positive fact that at cer- 
tain hours strange singing notes emanate from the water. Many strange legends 
are, of course, connected with it, one of which is that the sounds are the wails 
of an Indian girl moaning for her lover, who was drowned at this point; she 
sprang in after him, and, failing to save his life, has never ceased to bemoan 
his fate. Another is that in a feud that arose between the Biloxi and Pasea- 
goula Indians the former surprised the latter one dark and stormy night. Rather 
than fall into the hands of the hated enemy the entire tribe, men, women and 
children, sprang into the waters with the warwhoop still lingering on their 
lips, and this is the weird echo which from that day to this haunts the spot. 

Crossing the Alabama line, the train stops at Grand Bay and St. Elmo, 
both thriving little towns, located, respectively, 115 and 120.8 miles from New 


is reached in an hour. This important Southern city, the older French sister of 
New Orleans, is 140.5 miles distant from the great metropolis. Mobile was 
founded by Bienville in 1702, when he built a fort and established a colony near 
the site of the present city. It derives its name from the tribe of Mobile Indians 
that inhabited the section. In 1785 Galvez took the first census, and found that 
it had a population of 740. The number steadily increased, and in 1788 there 
were 1330 inhabitants. After this period the importance of the place dimin- 
ished, and in 1803 there were only 803 inhabitants. In 1813 it was surrendered 
to the Americans by Gayetaud Perez; the population had still further de- 
clined to 500. In 1814 Mobile was incorporated as a town, and in 1819 as a 
city. The rise of the city was remarkable after that. It grew in strength and 
importance, and became a leading Southern port. Its commerce was very great. 
The population at present is about 50,000. In 1S64 the Federal fleet, under 
Admiral Farragut, fought a celebrated battle in the bay against the Confeder- 
ate fleet, under Admiral Buchanan. In March and April, 1865, the city was 
besieged by the Federals, under General E. S. Canby, and, after a desperate 
defense by the Confederates, led by General D. H. Maury, was compelled to sur- 
render. Mobile contains many interesting buildings and fine churches and 
hotels. Nearby is Sprjnghill, with its famous old college. The city has a fine 
harbor and a constantly increasing commerce, especially with Cuba and Central 


Hunting and Fishing Near New Orleans. 

Sportsmen from the frozen North who conic down to delightful New Or- 
leans, to learn the arl of enjoyment, often go away without taking advantage 
of an opportunity to hunt over the most wonderfully varied shooting grounds 
in the country. There is no section of the United Stales where a greater variety 
of game can be had with less trouble and expense. Within half a dozen miles 
of the heart of the city deer roam their native woods; quail can be found only 


a little further away; while, within a radius of twenty-fire miles, every variety 
of laud and water game, known to the semi-tropics is found and killed, and 
brought back as evidence, too, of the huntsman's prowess. 

Northern huntsmen who are accustomed to travel miles and pay 
largo sums for the privilege of shooting, have no idea of the sport 
which Louisianians secure with little effort. To say that a band of 
deer hunters will leave the city on a morning train and return that 
night, with two. three or four deer, which have cost an outlay of about 
$2 each, seems incredible; but, nevertheless, it is true. Unlike the sportsmen 
away up in the cold section, the Louisiana hunters have fine shooting for 
months at a time. The season is not limited to two weeks, but includes four 
months of good shooting. 

The distinctly unusual formation of the land around New Orleans furnishes 
almost every variety of territory. Within a few miles of the river, Lake 
Pontchart-rain laps the edge of a dense swamp, which narrows down to the east- 
ward into twenty-five miles of unbroken marsh land, often designated as the 
"trembling prairie." 

In this prairie wild duck and geese find their feeding grounds. They come 
south with the first sign of cold in October, and remain faithful to the semi- 
tropics until the niidde of March. The blue-winged teal and the wood ducks 
arrive earlier, and leave for the Mexican coast during the coldest of the winter 
months, returning toward the end of February, and then remain here until as 
late as May. During the winter months, ducks furnish the great sport for the 
local marksmen and their Northern frineds. Across Lake Pontchartrain are 
high lands, clothed with thick bay and gum woods, in which excellent quail, 
turkey and squirrel shooting is found. On both sides of the Mississippi, about 
five miles back from the levee, there are miles of cypress swamps which are 
populated by the cotton-tail deer. 

The farthest east of the shooting grounds of Louisiana is called 

English Lookout. 

Pearl River, the eastward boundary of the State, flows through Lookout 
on its way to the sea. In this river, during the summer months, the fishermen 
have great sport, landing bull redfish, speckled trout, sheepshead and the jack- 
fish, the latter being a small edition of the California tuna and just as game. 
The tuna is, of course, five times as large as the jackfish, which is rarely ex- 
ceeds 40 pounds in weight. But these 40-pounds are sufficient to furnish 
two hours' hard work to the most skilled angler, so valiant and determined is 
the struggle this fish puts up to avoid capture. 

In the bayous and lagoons up Pearl River the anglers find half a dozen 
varieties of perch, and the black bass, which is the best of all Southern fresh 
water fish. 

In order to have a day's sport at Lookout, it would be necessary for a 
stranger to secure a card to one of its many small private clubs, for there 
are no public fishing camps at this point. The shooting at Lookout in recent 
years has not been exceptionally good, although in the spring of the year and 
late winter plenty of snipe are found in the eastward prairies, on a neck of land 
which reaches out into the sea and ends at St. Joe Lighthouse. 

At the 


just five miles to the westward, the natural conditions are magnificent for 
fishermen, and hunters, too, have plenty of assistance from nature. Just to 
the west of the Rigolets is a vast stretch of territory known to hunters as 
the "Seven Ponds." It extends nearly to the railroad tracks and back to the 
edge of the open sea. The "Seven Ponds" country is famous. A few years 
ago the entire area was purchased by a good hunter, and is now a preserve. 
No hunter not connected with the camp is allowed to shoot in it without having 
first secured permission; but strangers, properly introduced, have no trouble in 
securing permission to shoot in the grounds. 

If the hunter cares only for snipe shooting, this permit would not be 
necessary, for there are miles of open country where the snipe feed. It is only 
the choicest of ponds which come under the protection of the preesrves. 


Lake Catherine, 

the best duck-hunting ground in this section, is only three miles away from the 
Kigolets. an<l here hunters can be accommodated with excellent quarters, 
boats, decoys and guides. As the season advances, though there are thousands 
of birds, they become very wise and it requires the services of a good guide to 
locate them. 

Of all sporting points along the Gulf coast. Lake Catherine seems the best 
situated and best equipped. There arc hundreds of lagoons which are filled with 
wild fowl, scores of bayous teeming with bass and perch, and the open sea 
water near at hand affords, during the warms months, all kinds of sea fishing. 
To the stranger. Lake Catherine and Chef Menteur, just twenty miles from 
New Orleans, Would be the most desirable visiting points. 

There are two public camps at Lake Catherine. Jacquet, a veteran sports- 
man, operates a sportsman's hotel, and he has become famous all along the 
line of clubhouses for his conking. At this camp a hunter can hire everything 
needed, excepting the gun. 

Chef Menteur. 

Chef Menteur is a fishing ground which has long since won a reputation 
in the South. In the summer months this locality is frequented by scores of 
anglers and every variety of fish known in Louisiana is landed. Until the winds 
change to the southward and bring in the salt water from the sea, the fishermen 
find none of the sea fish for which the State is noted. They find bass in the 
bayous, however, and this fish, to a Louisiana angler, furnishes all the sport and 
choice food desired. There are bayous near the Chef where an angler can be 
reasonably certain of good sport. In addition to the sport, there are accom- 
modations for as many fishermen as care to run out of the city for a day in the 
open. Several public camps are operated by competent professional fishermen, 
who know every foot of the country and are the very best guides. The Chef !s, 
in addition, the home of half a dozen of the largest fishing clubs in the State. 

At this point the marsh lands end and the swamp begins, to terminate 
finally in the high lands of what is called "Metarie Ridge." Along the slopes of 
this ride the cotton-tail deer are found in large numbers, while rabbits make 
their warrens everywhere. 

St. Bernard and Plaquemine Parishes. 

To the south of the city, along the line of the Fort Jackson and Grand Isle 
Road, which runs down as far as Buras, and along the line of the New Orleans 
and Southern Road, which ends at Shell Beach, on Lake Borgne, the game is 
equally as plentiful. 

I Miring the months of February and March, especially, the marsh lands, 
some fifty miles down the Grand Isle Road, present the most inviting coun- 
try to the stranger. In these marshes can be found a world of snipe and 
rail, known to the local hunters as marsh hens. They are not difficult to get 
at and still furnish plenty of fine shooting. Near Shell Beach is located the 
famous Bayou San Malo, where some of the largest green trout in this section 
have been landed. Closer to the city, near Shell Beach, the sportsman could 
make a trip in a couple of days and find accommodations and guides. Closer 
to the city, too, back of the cane fields, there are miles of country where the 
cotton-tail deer are very plentiful. In Louisiana the deer seems the most com- 
mon of all classes of game. 

To a partj of hunters, or to the solitary hunter who wishes to make a 
journey into an ideal duck and goose country, the Head of the Passes, at the 
very mouth of the river offers the best shooting in the South. On the Westward 
bank of the river, sonic twenty miles below the forts, is a pass known as the 
Jump, which leads from the river to the marshes bordering on the sea. On the 
east bank is Cubitt's Cap, which also leads from the river to the sea. 

The Jump. 

In the Jump there are plenty of professionals who will look after visitors 
for a consideration, and at Empire Postoffice, in Plaquemines, lives Captain 
Tony Rodrigues, a guide, who is noted throughout that entire section of the 
country. Bay Adam, with tine sea fishing all the year round, is located on the 
Grand Isle Road. Bay Adam is known to the people of New Orleans not only 
as ;i hunting and fishing quarter, hut as the pass which leads to the mouth of 
Bayou Cook and the famous oyster beds. Both in the bay and at the mouth 
of the bayou are oyster beds which extend over miles of territory and which 
furnish a majority of the oysters for the local market. 

In February the tarpon fishing begins. Tarpon in this part of Lou- 
isiana arc as plentiful as in any section of Florida and are much easier to 
reach. By leaving the city in the morning the fisherman can reach the tarpon 
grounds in time to make his first cast the same afternoon. With good luck, he 
.an be back the next day with a silver fish, king of the Southern waters. In 
recent years many successful catches have been made, by both local and visit- 
ing fishermen: but, of course, to find the proper grounds one will need a guide. 

On the eastward bank of the river, at a point called St. Sophie, teal duck 
shooting is magnificent. 

St. Tammany Parish. 

To the north of the city, across the big Lake Pontchartrain and on the 
line of three railroads, on entirely different kind of hunting can be found. At 
present, the easiest of these localities to reach is St. Tammany Parish, on the 
line of the East Louisiana Road. St. Tammany, although close to the city, is 
high, and, in places, a rolling country. Here are found quail in big covies; 
turkeys frequent the bottom lands along Pearl River, and the Bogue Falia, 
Bogue Chitto and Amite Rivers. East and West Pearl Rivers inclose what 
is called Honey Island. This densely overgrown stretch of land is filled with 
big and small game. 

The stranger who goes hunting in St. Tammany should travel on the 
East Louisiana to Abita Springs, there secure the services of a guide, and 
strike out into the country. Both quail and woodcocks are fairly plentiful, and 
a good ,shot ought to bag twenty to thirty quail and a dozen woodcock in a day. 

All along the line of the railroad, as far down as Pearl River, where the 
junction with the Queen and Crescent line is made, quail are thick. A few 
years of good protection have allowed the covies to multiply until the country 
is fairly filled with birds. In the gum swamps the gray squirrels frolic on 
every tree, and, to the eastward of Covington, and throughout the entire parish, 
in fact, the foxes are "driven" by the enterprising marksman. All these points 
can be reached in an hour or two from New Orleans. 

Tangipahoa Parish. 

The Illinois Central Road, from a point ten miles outside the city, furnishes 
excellent shooting grounds. At Bayou La Branche, Owl Bayou, Pass Manchac, 
and further on in the high lands of Tangipahoa Parish, at Hammond, Amite 
City, Ponchatoula, as far as the Mississippi line, the quail have long made the 
country famous. 

Formerly turkeys were very plentiful in Tangipahoa, but in recent 
years the parish authorities have checked the hunters, as the birds were being 
rapidly exterminated. 

The beautiful Tangipahoa River furnishes fine bass fishing, in addition to 
quail shooting. By traveling up the Illinois Central to Pontchatoula, and 
driving out to Davis' Ferry, visiting anglers will find the black bass and rock 
bass plentiful enough to furnish amusement for a couple of days. 

If the hunter desires to penetrate the dense undergrowth of Honey Island 
for deer, turkey and bears, the services of a guide will be absolutely necessary. 
Often men have been "lost" in this famous island. Guides, however, may be 
secured at Pearl River Station, and the trip will pay the stranger. 

192 ' 

He will see a virgin forest which rivals the jungles of the tropics in thick- 
ness. The very denseness of the island has made it famous in past years a.s the 
In mic of fugitive criminals. It was to this island that Bunch, the train robber, 
who terrorized the South for years, went for safety after each hold-up. He 
was, in fact, killed amid the umbrageous coverts of this little-explored locality. 

Along Lake Pontchartraiti. 

Both the Queen and Crescent and East Louisiana Roads cross Lake Pont- 
chartrain on one of the longest railroad bridges in America. It is thirteen miles 
from shore to shore, and on both of these shores there are good hunting grounds, 
while the lake itself furnishes plenty of game fish. At the south end of the 
bridge, called South Point, Phil Geiger operates a comfortable public camp, 
which is fully equipped. The bayous which come out of the marshes have plen- 
ty of black bass and perch, and toward the close of winter these fish are ex- 
ceptionally good eating. 

Just as soon as the first signs of warm weather make themselves felt the 
fish come through the passes from the sea and are found at South Point. 
Strange undercurrents seem to affect this point more readily than any other 
locality, and as a result the fishing begins there earlier and the sport is good 
for months longer than in any other quarter of the lake. 

At the north end,famaliarly termed 

North Shore, 

of the big bridge, are situated two handsome private clubs. Visiting anglers can 
find no accommodations there unless by special invitation. Once admitted as 
a guest of either of the clubs, they will find a way open to one of the best duck 
and snipe shooting grounds near New Orleans. The clubs, some time ago, 
combined to purchase the marsh lands and turn them into preserves. Only 
members of these two clubs are allowed to shoot upon these private grounds. 
Salt Bayou, which runs through the marshes, upholds a record as one of the 
best black bass waters within miles of the city. In addition to its natural ad- 
vantages, the North Shore has- the further feature of being close to the city. 
Anglers or hunters can leave New Orleans on one evening train and return on 
the next. 

Game Laws. 

The laws of the State and city are- liberal. No restrictions are placed upon 
the number of deer, ducks, quail or turkeys killed, as in other States. 

The deer season is open five months in the year and one man may kill as 
many as his good fortune and skill will allow. There is an unwritten law 
which prohibits his killing game at night, however. He may shoot and bring 
back to the city from any of the surrounding parishes all the ducks, quail and 
turkeys that he can find. In St. Tamany Parish, however, he will not be al- 
lowed to sell any game killed. The State law furnishing protection to game 
has been passed with a view to promoting the sport, not restricting it. 

It must be a sportsman, however, . for no vagrant, professional or pot 
hunter can operate in this State under the law. 

The laws granting protection to the fishing interests are purely local. Each 
parish passes its own regulations, which are intended to meet the conditions 
existing in that particular locality. All these laws, however, have fixed Feb. 
15, of each years, as the date for the closing of the open green trout or black 
bass season. 

There is so little really cold weather in Louisiana that the bass spawn 
much earlier than they do in the North, and it is necessary to close the season 
before the warm days of spring arrive in order to secure the proper protection. 
Anglers arc fortunate; however, for they have perch fishing in the fresh water 
streams all the time and very early sea fishing in the spring, which leaves only 
a tew weeks during which fishermen are debarred from their favorite pursuit. 

In catching the black bass there is but one thing of which the stranger 
must be careful; he must not keep bass that are smaller than 10 inches in 
length. A special ordinance prohibits the catching of such small fish. They are 
not fit for food and only serve to spoil a good fish for next season. 


New Orleans 

offers opportunities to visiting sportsmen which arc nowhere excelled. Where? 
else can a locality be found in which deer are killed daily within ten miles of tho 
heart of such a city, or where duck grounds, which will furnish forty and fifty 
birds to a single gun in a morning, lie within twenty miles of thickly-populated 
centers? The hunters of New Orleans are numbered by the hundreds, simply 
for the reason that they can leave on Saturday afternoon and return on Sunday 
with plenty of game. Time is, of course, the great factor, but the question of 
economy plays an important part. Almost any hunting ground mentioned here 
can be visited at a cost of not more than $5 per man, including railway fare. 

Liberality, generosity and good fellowship seem the three main charae- 
tertistics of Louisiana fishing and hunting. If the laws of the State are liberal,- 
the sportsmen, too, will be found generous in the extreme, and the very bestf 
of fellowship prevails, even among the most bitter rivals in the championship* 
ranks. To lovers of the rod and gun from the far off North, the field in 
Louisiana will, prove a revelation, and no true sportsman should leave New Or- 
leans without testing the great advantages offered by every acre of land, ancl 
almost every waterway, within fifty miles of the city. 


The Commerce of New Orleans. 

The commercial year of New Orleans begins on September 1, and, of course, 
terminates August 31. The reason for this is obvious, as all the staple crops 
of this section begin to move freely after the opening of September. It is not 
possible in a brief article to accurately describe the volume and scope of the 
commerce of so important a business community as New Orleans, but the pre- 
sentation of some of the leading statistics will furnish the average businessman, 
with an accurate idea of the general character of the city's trade. 


The following total of clearings of the associated banKs for the past year, 
as compared with the previous four seasons, will show more clearly than any 
other means the volume of the local trade: 

Season 1001-1902 $650,573,54» 

Season 1900-1901 608,759,307 

Season 1899-1900 500,071,071 

Season 1S9S-1S99 434,950,301 

Season 1897-1898 447,673,94t> 

The following data, taken from a recently prepared summary of the con- 
dition of the local banks, will furnish an accurate idea of the local banking 

Loans and discounts, etc $26,550,293 

Capital, surplus, etc '. 10,545,800" 

Deposits 31,250,083 


According to the official statistics, as compiled by the local customs offi- 
cials, the foreign trade of New Orleans makes the following showing: 

Statement of the number and tonnage of vessels entered at the port of New 
Orleans during- the year ending July 31, 1902: 

Vessels. Tons. 

Total 1901-1902 1,438 2,572,501 

Total 1900-1901 1,622 2 70" 485 

Total 1899-1900 1,564 2,367!354 

Statement of the number and tonnage of vessels cleared from the port of New 
Orleans during the year ending July 31, 1902: 

Vessels. Tons. 

Total 1901-1902 1,439 2,604 041 

Total 1900-1901 , 1,575 2,673 98^ 

Total 1899-1900 1,530 2 345 754 



Free. Dutiable. Total. 

1901-1902 $14,011,988 $10,054,361 $24,006,349 

1900-1901 9,771.447 11,322,45S 21.093,905 

1899-1900 5,691,625 12,786,771 18,478,396 


American Foreign 

Vessels. Vessels. Total. 

1901-1902 $3,046,524 $127,244,327 $130,290,851 

1900-1901 2,953,378 148,706,390 151,659,678 

1899-1900 2,240,134 112,242,897 114,483,031 


Conntry— Bales. Pounds. Values. 

England 803,499 410,097,603 $33,250,665 

France 299,181 150,753,376 12,188,335 

Germany 276,952 138,404,650 11,540,874 

Italy 231,943 115,960,743 9,642,178 

Spain 153,399 76,888,071 6.59S.5J3 

Ireland 58,025 29,709,658 2,330.413 

Austria 33,850 17,094,169 1,410,914 

Russia 30,022 15,435,330 1,373,751 

Denmanrk 29.192 14,610,664 1,277.257 

Belgium 18.094 8,960,626 730,109 

Netherlands 12,939 6,370,836 530,109 

Mexico 7,730 3,937,539 358,806 

Portugal 5,260 2,647,153 228,430 

Sweden 2,163 1,084,493 93,760 

japan 1.700 842,974 79,000 

Greece ; 200 102,000 9,180 

B. E. Indies 10 5,100 408 

Total 1901-1902. 1.964,150 992,905,885 $81,643,121 

1900-01 2,015,597 1,021,767,618 94,850,944 

1899-00 1,667,126 839,330, 69S 65,648,390 


The following figures, furnished by the Board of Grain Inspectors of the 
Board of Trade, show the exports of grain during the past year: 

Wheat. Corn. Oats. 

Season 1901-02 15,110,597 980,000 204,500 


Last year witnessed the heaviest imports of coffee at this port ever recorded. 
According to the official figures, the showing is as follows: 


Imports- 1901-02. 1900-01. 

Brazilians 806,034 500,881 

Mexicans 52,611 29,146 

Miscellaneous 8,251 18,671 

Total 806,896 548,698 


While New Orleans enjoys a large general trade, her main commercial activ- 
ity centers in the marketing of the staple crops of this section, such as cotton, 
sugar and rice. The cotton receipts at this port for a series of years have been: 



Season • at N. O. 

1870-71 1,584,136 

1872-73 1,407,821 

1874-75 v 1,157,597 

1875-76 1,604,441 

1876-77 1,385,774 

1877-78 1,689,483 

1878-79 1,426,081 

1879-80 1,712,999 

1880-81 1,800,087 

1881-82 1,462,S14 

Av. price 

per bale. 

Total value. 






















1882-83 1,999, 

1S83-84 L.694, 

1884-85 • 1,689, 

1885*86 1,946. 

1S86-87 1,919 

1887-SS 1,912, 

1S88-89 1,838, 

3SNI-90 2,148, 

1890-91 2,270, 

1S91-92 2,713, 

1892-93 1,734, 

1S93-94 2,060, 

1894-95 2.702, 

1S95-96 1,911, 

1896-97 2,249, 

1897-9S 2,815, 

1898-99 2,278, 

1899-00 1,913, 

1900-01 2,498 

1901-02 2,326, 































































1901-02 3,346 

1900-01 5,628 

1S99-00 3,235 

1898-99 10,513 

1897-98 23,523 

1896-97 38,420 

1895-96 55,572 



















Rough, Clean, 

sacks. barrels. 

1877-78 233,707 15,682 

1878-79 279,611 21,152 

1879-80 182,999 11,152 

1880-81 445,397 29,812 

1881-82 435,692 39,390 

1882-83 392,750 37,736 

1883-84 459,559 41,055 

1884-85 333,693 32,333 

1885-86 889,212 57,983 

1886-87 838,476 48,566 

1887-88 626,811 23,263 

1888-89 737,075 29,227 

1889-90 777,742 7,441 

1890-91 892,374 4,115 

1891-92 1,052,331 5,640 

1892-93 1,972,946 6,490 

1893-94 921,515 6,295 

1894-95 789,889 1,650 

1895-96 1,305,139 7,482 

1896-97 422,498 9,816 

1897-98 527,326 8,081 

1S98-99 767,006 12,493 

1899-00 973,851 18,015 

1900-01 932,664 86,235 

190102 1,189,192 '577,569 



The following table shows the volume of freight forwarded and received 
over the various trunk lines of railroads centering here: 


Southern Pacific 1,823,806,000 

Texas and Pacific *. 441,696,125 

Louisville and Nashville 517,427,100 

Illinois Central 1,045,648,000 

Mississippi Valley 310,746,000 

X. O. and N. E 498,806,480 

Total 197J1-02 4,638,129,705 

Total 1901-02 4,057,129,377 










While New Orleans possesses a peculiar charm for the visitor because of its 
past history and its many quaint landmarks and reminders of olden days, 
and also because it is so unlike other American cities, there are many things to 
be seen here which cannot fail to impress observant strangers who are casting 
about for good investments or with an eye to the future. It has always been 
recognized that New Orleans possessed an ideal location for a great commercial 
emporium, and enjoyed natural advantages of the utmost promise, but the 
necessary capital to develop to their utmost these natural advantages did not 
flow freely in this direction because the section tributary to this city did not hold 
out the promise of industrial development which some other sections of the coun- 
try afforded. Since the discovery of oil in our immediate neighborhood, and the 
further fact that almost the entire area of southeastern Texas and southwestern 
Louisiana constituted one great oil field, capital has commenced to flow in this 
direction freely. The inexhaustible supply of cheap fuel has opened up the pros- 
pect that New Orleans will become at no distant date a great manufacturing, 
center, as there can be found here all the requisites to success in manufacturing 
such as a liberal supply of labor, unrivaled transportation facilities by rail and 
water, as well as cheap fuel, Which means cheap power. 

Within the past year the banking capital of this city has been greatly in- 
creased, and there have been large investments of outside capital in local enter- 
prises. An appearance of greater activity and bustle is in evidence in all lines 
of business, and the number of fine, modern buildings which are in course of 
erection tell eloquently of faith in the future. There is a constant belief among 
our people, and especially among our businessmen, that the development of the 
oil fields will attract in this direction within the next few years a large influx 
of people from other sections and the investment of great amounts of outside 
capital in new manufacturing enterprises and new industries. 

The development of this entire section, which seems not only to be immi- 
nent, but has actually commenced, must of necessity greatly enlarge the com- 
merce of New Orleans, as well as increase its population and the value of its 
realty. The certainty that a canal will soon be constructed across the Isthmus 
of Panama holds out an exceedingly bright future for this city. The opening of 
the canal will not only bring New Orleans into closer touch with the markets 
if the west coast of South America than any other American port, but it will 
bring us nearer to the great marts of the Orient, where cotton goods, petroleum 
and other American products emanating from this section always find a ready 

The prospect that the connecting link between the two great oceans so 
long desired will soon be an accomplished fact is drawing the attention of the 
great railroad syndicates of the country in this direction. These vast transpor- 
tation systems understand fully the advantage the opening of the interoceanic 
canal will be to New Orleans, and they are anxious to secure as much of the 
new trade as possible that is likely to come this way as a result of the comple- 
tion nf the canal. 

One of the latest evidences of this recognition of the coming greatness of 
New Orleans is the recently announced determination of the Frisco railway sys- 
tem to enter New Orleans and make this its main tidewater terminus. This 
powerful railway corporation controls fully 6,000 miles of railroad running 
through the finest grain and cotton producing regions of the South and central 
West. In order to reach New Orleans this road will have to construct more than 
200 miles of track, and be compelled to invest great sums in terminal depots 
and other facilities in this city. The road has not announced its coming here 
conditional on securing the facilities it demands, but has determined to build 
into this city and make the best fight possible for facilities and terminals. 

Other great railway systems are seeking an entrance into New Orleans, 
among others the Southern Railroad, and the Missouri Pacific, and rumors are 
plentiful that still other roads would like to come here. While the people of New 
Orleans are not prepared to surrender their city completely into the hands of 
tin- r.iilroads. they are prepared to accord them most liberal treatment, recogniz- 
ing how important a role they play in building up the sections through which 
they run and the commercial centers in which they locate terminals. 



Not only has New Orleans taken on a new life in the matter of commercial 
affairs, but a spirit of improvement and enterprise has permeated the communi- 
ty in the interest of modern public conveniences and improvements. Not only 
have miles of streets been paved, but the people have also imposed upon them- 
selves a special tax to secure adequate drainage and public water and sewerago 
.systems. Fully $1G,000,000 are to be invested in these improvements, for which 
all the plans have been prepared. The drainage work has been already com- 
pleted, to a large extent, and although litigation has somewhat delayed the sew- 
erage work, there is every reason to believe that a few years hence New Orleans 
will not only be one of the best drained, but one of the best sewered cities in 
the country. The drainage and sewering of a city situated as is New Orleans, 
in a flat, alluvial country, actually below the flood level of the Mississippi River, 
presented serious problems not encountered in other cities. These problems have 
been fully worked out. however, and a system prepared which will overcome 
all the topographical difficulties that faced the engineers. 

During the past three years New Orleans has been one of the most healthy 
cities in the country. There is no doubt that as soon as the drainage and sewer- 
age systems are complete its healthfulness will be further improved, and the 
advantages of 


will become generally recognized. The following article, which appeared in the 
Picayune of October 27, 1901, under the above caption, is pertinent: 

"There is every reason why New Orleans should be the winter resort of 
the country between the north polar ocean and the Gulf of Mexico. Its mild 
and genial climate; its ample and thorough accommodations for visitors, 
either in hotels or in private families; its cuisine, famous in every country 
where the art of dining is cultivated and appreciated; its varied and all-embrac- 
ing means of amusement and diversion, and its charming social circles, which are 
open to all visitors who are worthy and are properly introduced, combine to 
make New Orleans a most delightful place to visit, while its sanitary condition, 
as shown by its small mortality returns, completes its claims as the winter 
health resort for the people of North America. 

The Picayune prints a testimonial on the .subject from one of the most emi- 
nent medical authorities on the American Hemisphere, Dr. Charles Alfred Lee 
Reed, of Cincinnati, physician, surgeon, medical author, litterateur of world- 
wide celebrity, and President of the recent Pan-American Medical Congress at 
the City of Mexico. The verdict of this eminent authority is so important 
that it is repeated here. He .says: 

"'It has been my custom for a number of years to send certain of my pa- 
tients to New Orleans to spend a part of the winter season, and I myself have 
occasionally taken the same prescription. The Crescent City offers peculiar 
attractions to the winter tourist, and particularly to such of them as are forced, 
by ill health, to escape the rigors of a Northern Winter. This is a consideration 
of no little importance to persons who may require the .services of a physician 
or surgeon. In the next place, that city offers peculiar physical comforts to the 
sojourner; for the hotels are numerous and excellent. It is located far enough 
away from the seaboard to be free from the unpleasant features of a maritime 
climate. These features of the .seashore, notably, sudden vacillations of tem- 
perature, with a maximum of humidity, are frequently inimical to the welfare 
of physically sensitive people. Those whom I have sent to New Orleans never 
complain of the ennui so frequently experienced at isolated resorts, but find 
wholesome occupation for mind and body in the varied attractions of one of 
the most individual and charming cities of the Continent. I look upon this 
feature as one of great importance, and insist upon it. whenever possible, in 
sending patients from home. 

"Interested capitalists have made Florida famous. as a destination for win- 
ter tourists who are rather more pleasure-seekers than invalids. For all such 
New Orleans offers all that can be found in Florida for health, and a vast deal 
more for pleasure, in which latter regard this city may well be classed as the 
Paris of America." 

'Although New Orleans covers an immense area for a city of 300.000 in- 
habitants, there is still ample room for expansion. The city limits include many 


times the area actually built up, so that there is space for growth in all direc- 
tions, without having to extend the already recognized circumscription. There 
is sufficient area here, conveniently situated with respect to the older portions of 
the city, to accommodate several millions of inhabitants. While it would be 
overambitious to expect any such immediate gain as to warrant the hope that 
the next census will show anything like a million people, nevertheless there is a 
rapid growth of the population in progress, and it need surprise no one to find 
the population of New Orleans doubled by 1910. 



Supplementary Street Guide— Car Routes. 

The following street guide is based upon the excellent one compiled by Mr. 
L. Soards, and published in his Directory. It is given herewith in order to assist 
the visitor in locating any desired point of interest. Four streets have been 
selected— St. Charles and Rampart, Canal and Esplanade. All streets running 
up and down town are parallel, respectively, to St. Charles and 
Rampart; all streets running across town are parallel, respectively 
to Canal and Esplanade. Therefore the house numbering on any of 
these four streets will correspond to the numbering on any other 
street which may run in a corresponding direction. To find a number on any 
street other than these four, it suffices to find the nearest number of these streets, 
which will give the inquirer the nearest street corner to the place he wishes to 
locate. In order to find out which way a street runs, it suffices to consult any 
one of the following four tables; if it appears among the names of the "inter- 
secting streets" on St. Charles, it indicates that the thoroughfare in question lies 
across town, and, therefore, parallel with Canal, and so on. By locating places 
in this way, and a reference to the map which accompanies this Gudie, the vis- 
itor ought to be able to make his way with considerable accuracy about the 
city. Especially will the street guide herewith presented be found useful in 
riding on the street cars, as, by reference to these tables, one can give the con- 
ductor exactly the place at which it may be desired to have the car stop: 

ST. CHARLES, ninth street west of 
river, from Canal Street to Carroll- 
ton Avenue. (Between Canal Street 
and Howard Avenue the thoroughfare 
is commonly called St. Charles Street, 
and from Howard Avenue to Carroll- 
ton Avenue it is known as St. Charles 
Avenue, but for convenience this dis- 
tinction is here ignored.) 

Names of intersecting streets: 

House Numbers. 

Left. Right. 

Canal 100 101 

Common 200 201 

Gravier 300 301 

Commercial Place 400 

Perdido 401 

Poydras 300 501 

iJrfayette ".'.'.'.'.'.'.'.. '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. '600 '601 

Sonth •••• 

Girod 700 701 

Julia S00 801 

St. Joseph 900 901 

Howard Avenue 1000 1001 

Calliope 1100 1101 

Clio 1200 1201 

Erato 1300 1301 

Thalia M00 1401 

Melpomene loyO 1501 

Terpsichore 1000 lbOl 

Euterpe 1700 1-01 


Felicity 1800 1801 

St. Marv 1900 1901 

St. Andrew 2000 2<>01 

Josephine 2100 2101 

Jackson Avenue 2200 2201 

PhiMp 2300 2301 

First 2400 2401 

Second 2500 2501 

Third 2600 2601 

Fourth 2700 2701 

Washington Avenue 2800 2801 

Couery i 

Sixth 2900 2901 

Seventh 3000 3001 

Eighth 3100 3101 

Harmony 3200 3201 

Pleasant ■ • • • 

Toledano 3300 3301 

Louisiana Avenue 3400 3401 

Deiachrtise 3501 

Aline 3500 

Foucher 3600 3601 

Antoniue • • • • 

Amelia 3700 3701 

Periston 3SO0 3801 

General Taylor 3900 o901 

Constantinople 4000 4001 

Marengo 4100 4101 

Milan 4200 4201 

BeHln 4300 4301 

Napolecn Avenue 4400 -J401 

Jena 4500 4501 













est of 
to Co- 














. . . 4SO0 









, . , . 4600 

... 4700 

, 4800 

. . , 4900 









. ... 59(10 





State - 




. 7200 





Henry Clay Avenue.. 
Exposition Boulevard. 







, 5700 


, 5900 






. 7400 



. . . 7500 

street north of and below 
Street, from the river to Ba 

Names of intersecting streets: 

House N 
North Peters 400 


, , 7600 





vou St. 

. . . 7900 


Rampart), thirteen 

, , . . SOOO 

(now called 
.h street w 
om Canal 
to the City 

; streets: 
House Nu 




the Mississippi, fi 



lumbus, thence east 






Names of intersecting 


















, , 1400 




St. Peter 






St. Ann 












, , 1300 


. , , , 1700 

















, 2900 









. . . . 2300 






St. Rocb. Avenue 





CANAL STREET, dividing line 
First and Second Districts; f 
river west to the city limits. 

Names of intersecting streets: 

House N 


St. Ferdinand 


. 2800 
. . . 3000 

roui the 


. . . . 3100 



, 3300 





.... 3700 


Fron t 





Peters 300 

Tchoupitoulas 400 

Magazine 500 


Dorsiere ! 

Chartres . 

Camp 600 

Exchange Place 

St. Charles 700 



Carondelet SOO 


Baroune 900 

jDryades 1000 


Rampart iioo 

Basin 1200 

Franklin "' 1300 

liberty 1400 


g<?ward ..;.'.' 1566 

Vi Here 

Robertson ....'. 1G0O 

Claiborne 1700 

Derbigny 1800 

Roman 1900 

Prieur 2000 

Johnson 2100 

Oalvez " 2°00 

3ffiro. .'..'.'.'.' 2300 

Tonti 2400 

JRoebebla ve 2500 

Dorgenois 2600 

Bi^>ad 2700 

White 2800 

Oupre 2900 

Oayoso 3000 

Salcedo 3100 

£°Pez 3200 

Renrlou 3300 

Hagau Avenue 3400 

Clark 3500 

Genois 3R00 

Telema onus 370O 

Cortcz 3soo 

Scott 3900 

Pierce ; 400(i 

Carrollton Avenue 4100 


Solomon 4200 

Hennessy 4300 

Alexander 4400 

Murat 450O 

Olympia 4000 

St. Patrick 4700 




1 101 


420 i 

Bernadotte 480O 

Anthony 4900 

Helena 5000 



Along the city front, from the 
Barracks to the city limits 
above Carrollton 

Head of Canal Street to the Bar- 

Head of Canal Street to Carroll- 

Head of Canal Street to Metairie 

Head of Canal Street to West 
End, along the line of the rail- 

From Canal Street up St. Charles 
to Lee Place 

From Canal Street, up St. Charles 
to Jackson Avenue 

From Canal Street up St. Charles 
to Napoleon Avenue 

From Canal Street up St. Charles 
to Audubon Park 

From Canal Street up St. Charles 
to Carrollton 

From Canal and Royal, via Ram- 
part, to Esplanade 

Frotn Canal and Royal, via Ram- 
part and Esplanade, to the Lou- 
isiana Jockey Club 






Width of the Mississippi from 
bank at Jackson Square to 
bank at Algiers Point .36 

Total area within the city limits, 
square miles 196.25 

Total area of city within the 
levees, square miles 39.00 

Total area of drained portion of 
city, square miles 21.00 

Total rmiles of streets opened.... 700.00 

Total miles of streets paved 200.00 

Street railways, including those 
to West End and Spanish Fort. 173.20 

The Mississippi River discharge 
at high water, in cubic feet, 
per second 1,500,000 

Average velocity of the river at 
New Orleans, in miles, per 
hour 4.00 


__The following is a regular tariff of charges fixed by city ordinance (No. 
1357, A. 8.) for hacks and cabs, and the stranger should see that he is not im- 
posed on by unscrupulous drivers, and would confer a benefit on the public by 
reporting to the police all cases of overcharging: 

" For carriages drawn by two horses, any distance not exceeding one mile, or 

ve squares, for one or two persons, .$1 each. 

For every such carnage hired by the hour, $3 for the first hour, and $2 for 
each succeeding hour or fraction thereof, for the use of the entire carriage. 

For cabs or carriages drawn by one horse, any distance not exceeding one 
mile, or twelve squares, for one or two persons, 75 cents each, and for each 

eeding mile or less, 50 cents. 

^ For every such cab or carriage hired by the hour, $2 for the first hour, and 
$1.50 for each succeeding hour or fraction thereof, for the entire cab or carriage. 


Those rates apply from sunrise to midnight. From midnight to sunrise 
the rates shall be fixed by agreement, but in no case shall double the rates be 

All public vehicles are compelled to carry numbers on their lamps." 
There are, however, few parts of the city that are worth seeing which may 
■ reached by street cars. 

Car Routes. 


St. Charles Belt.' — Starts on Canal, near Levee; runs out Canal to Baronne. 
to Howard Avenue, to St. Charles Avenue, to Carrollton Avenue, to the ter- 
minus at Jeannette and Dublin, on through Carrollton, to Tulane Avenue, to 
Canal, to starting point. 

Esplanade Belt. — Starts at foot of Canal Street, runs by Canal to Ram- 
part, to Esplanade Avenue, to Bayou St. John and Metairie Avenue, to Canal 
Street, to the river. 

Canal Belt. — Starts on Canal Street, near the Levee; runs out Canal, 
direct to the Cemeteries and the Half-way House, through Metairie Avenue, 
to Bayou St. John, to Esplanade Avenue (passing the race track and Fair 
Grounds), to Rampart, to Canal, to starting point: transfers at Villere crossing, 

Tulane Belt. — Starts on Canal, near the Levee: runs by Canal to South 
Rampart, to Tulane Avenue, to Carrollton Avenue, to St. Charles Avenue, to 
Howard Avenue, to Baronne. to Canal, to starting point. 

Uptown Lines. 

Jackson Avenue Line. — Starts on Canal, near Levee: runs by Canal to 
Baronne. to Howard Avenue, to St. Charles Avenue, to Jackson Avenue, to 
Gretna Ferry Landing. 

Napoleon Avenue Line. — Starts at corner of St. Charles and Napoleon 
Avenue, and run out the avenue to the river. Returns by same route. Trans- 
fers to and from St. Charles Belt. 

Prytania Line. — Starts on Canal, near Carondelet: runs by Camp to Pry- 
tania. to Joseph, to Hurst, to Audubon Park. Returns to Canal Street by 
same route. 

Magazine Line. — Starts on Canal and Basin Streets: runs by Canal to 
Camp, to Old Camp, to Magazine, to Louisiana Avenue, to Laurel, to Audubon 
Park. Returns by Laurel, to Valmont, to Constance, to Louisiana Avenue, to 
Canal, to starting point. 

Coliseum Line. — Starts on Canal, at Louisville and Nashville Depot: runs 
by Canal to Carondelet, to Clio, to Coliseum, to Felicity, to Chestnut, to Lou- 
isiana Avenue, to Magazine, to Broadway, to Maple, to Carrollton Avenue. 
Returns by Carrollton Avenue, to Maple, to Broadway, to Magazine, to Cal- 
liope, to St. Charles, to Canal, to starting point. 

Henry Clay Avenue. — Starts on Canal, near Levee: runs out Canal to 
Carondelet. to St. Andrew, to Brainard, to Baronne. to Louisiana Avenue, to 
Camp, to Henry Clay Avenue; transfers to Audubon Park and Carrollton. 
Returns by Henry Clay Avenue, to Coliseum, to Louisiana Avenue, to Dryades, 
to Julia, to St. Charles, to Canal, to starting point. 

Dryades and Ferry Line. — Starts at Canal Street Ferry Landing; runs out 
Canal Street to St. Charles, to Lee Circle, to Howard Avenue, to Dryades. to 
St. Andrew, to Baronne, to Eighth. Returns by Rampart, to Philip, to Dry- 
ades. to Felicity, to Rampart, to Canal, to ferry at foot of Canal Street. 

Peters Avenue Line. — Starts on Canal, near Levee, runs out Canal to 
South Rampart, to Calliope, to Franklin, to Jackson Avenue, to Freret, to 
Louisiana Avenue, to Dryades, to Peters Avenue, out Peters Avenue to Maga- 
zine, to Arabella Barn. Returns by Constance, to Peters Avenue, to Dryades, 
to Dufossat, to Baronne, to Louisiana Avenue, to Howard, to Jackson Avenue, 
to Franklin, to Calliope, to Dryades, to Canal, to starting point. 

Annunciation and Erato Line. — Starts on Canal, near the Levee; runs out 
Canal to Carondelet, to Clio, to Coliseum, to Erato, to Annunciation, to Tole- 
dano, to Tchoupitoulas; transfers to Audubon Park. Returns by Toledano to 
Tchoupitoulas, to Race, to Annunciation, to Erato, to Camp, to Calliope, to St. 
Charles, to Canal, to starting point. 


South Peters Line. — Starts on Canal at Camp; runs by Canal to Tchoupi- 
toulas, to Annunciation, to Toledano, to Tchoupitoulas; transfers to Auduoon 
Park cars. Returns by Toledano, to Chippewa, to Race, to Annunciation, to 
Howard Avenue, to South Peters, to Canal, to starting point at Camp Street. 

Tchoupitoulas Line. — Starts on Canal at Camp; runs by Canal to Tchoupi- 
toulas, to Audubon Park. Returns by Tchoupitoulas to South Peters, to Canal, 
to Camp. 

New Orleans and Jefferson Line. — This is a new line recently constructed, 
and traverses the upper section of the city. It is operated as a crosstown line. 
starting at the river, on Napoleon Avenue, and out via Washington and Car- 
rollton Avenue to Half-way House and Cemeteries, where close connections 
are made for West End and City Park. 

Southport Line. — Connects the St. Charles and Tulane Belt Lines with 
Upper Carrollton and Southport, giving a fine view of the great levee system, 
along the Mississippi above the city proper, where these immense embank- 
ments tower above all the surrounding country. This route has been nicknamed 
the "Klondyke Route." 

Downtown Lines. 

Levee and Barracks Line. — Starts on Canal Street, opposite the United 
States Custom-house; runs by Canal to North Peters, to Lafayette Avenue, to 
Chartres Street, to Poland, to Rampart; transfers to Dauphine Line for United 
States Barracks. Returns by Poland to Royal, to Lafayette Avenue, to North 
Peters, to Canal, to starting point. 

Dauphine Line. — Starts at foot of Canal Street; runs by Canal to Rampart, 
to Esplanade Avenue, to Dauphine, to Flood, to North Peters, to the Slaughter 
House. Returns by North Peters to Delery, to Dauphine, to Poland, to Ram- 
part, to Canal, to starting point. 

Esplanade Avenue and French Market Line. — Starts on Canal Street, op- 
posite the United States Custom-house; runs to North Peters, to French Mar- 
ket, to Esplanade Avenue, to Villere Street; transfers here to Esplanade Ave- 
nue car for Bayou St. John and City Park. Returns from Villere by same 
route to starting point. 

Claiborne Line. — Starts on Canal, near, the Levee; runs by Canal to 
Claiborne Avenue, to Elysian Fields, to St. Claude, to Lafayette Avenue. Re- 
turns by Urquhart to Elysian Fields, to Claiborne, to Canal, to starting point. 

Villere Line.— Starts on Canal, near Levee; runs by Canal to Villere. to 
Lafayette Avenue, to St. Claude. Returns by same route. This route is the 
most convenient to St. Roch's Cemetery and Chapel. 

Broad Street Line. — Starts on Canal, near Camp; runs by Canal to Dau- 
phine, to Broad, to Laharpe, to Gentilly Road; transfers for Fair Grounds. 
Returns by Bayou Road, to Broad, to St. Peter, to Burgundy, to Canal, to 
starting point. 

Bayou St. John Line. — Starts on Canal Street, near Camp; runs by Canal 
to Dauphine, to Dumaine, to Bayou St. John, to Grand Route St. John, to 
Sauvage, to Fair Grounds. Returns by Sauvage to Grand Route St. John, to 
Bayou Road, to Broad, to Ursulines, to Burgundy, to Canal, to starting point. 

Up and Downtown Lines. 

Clio Line. — Starts on Elysian Fields, at Decatur; runs out Elysian Fields 
to Royal, to Canal, to Lee Circle and Howard Avenue, to Rampart, to Clio, 
to Magnolia. Returns by Erato to Carondelet, to Canal, to Bourbon (passing 
French Opera House en route), to Esplanade Avenue, to Decatur, to Elysian 
Fields. This car passes directly in front of the Union Depot. 

Carondelet Line. — Starts on Louisa Street, near Chartres; runs out Louisa 
to Royal, to Canal, to Lee Circle, to Howard Avenue, to Baronne, to Philip, 
to Carondelet, to Napoleon Avenue. Returns by Carondelet to Canal, 
to Bourbon (passing French Opera House), to Esplanade, to Decatur, to Elysian 
Fields, to Chartres, to Louisa (passing Queen and Crescent Depot). 


West End Railroad. 

West End Line. — Starts on Canal, near Baronne; runs by Canal to the 
Cemeteries and Half-way House, along the New Basin Canal to West End, 
along Lake Pontchartrain. This line is equipped with modern electric express 
trains. The route is one of the most beautiful suburban trips that New Orleans 
offers. The cars return over the same route. 

The Last Hule Car Line. 

Algiers and Gretna Line. — Starts in Algiers, from First and Second Dis- 
trict Ferry Landings; runs by Bouny to Pelican Avenue, to Powder, to Ope- 
lousas Avenue, to Brooklyn Avenue, to Periander, to the river, along the river 
to upper line of Gretna, along upper line to First Street, to Copernicus Avenue, 
near Jefferson Avenue Ferry. Returns by same route. 

Steam Lines. 

Spanish Fort Line. — Starts on North Basin, at Canal Street; runs by 
North Basin and Bienville Streets to St. Patrick Street, to Metairie Road and 
the City Park, and by Orleans Avenue and the Lake shore to Spanish Fort. 
Returns by the same route. 

Pontchartrain Railroad Line. — Starts on Elysian Fields Avenue, near De- 
catur; runs out Elysian Fields Avenue direct to Milneburg and Old Lake. 

Ferries Crossing the Mississippi. 

New Orleans has an excellent system of ferries, that ply between the city 
proper and the suburb of Algiers, or rather the Fifth Municipal District. It 
will be seen from the subjoined list that communication with Algiers may be 
had from every section of New Orleans. 

The First District Ferry runs from ferry house, at foot of Canal Street, 
to Algiers. 

The Third District Ferry runs from ferry house, at foot of Esplanade Ave- 
nue, to Algiers. 

The Fourth District Ferry runs from ferry house, at foot of Jackson Ave- 
nue, to Gretna. 

The Sixth District Ferry runs from ferry house, at foot of Louisiana Ave- 
nue, to Harvey's Canal. 

The Richard Street Ferry runs from Richard Street to Freetown. 

Besides these ferries there are three licensed skiffs that run respectively 
from Upperline, from Carrollton and from the Barracks to Algiers. 

Steam Railroad Depots — Trunk Lines. 

The Illinois Central, the Yazoo and Mississippi Valley and the Southern 
Pacific Railroads have their passenger depot at the Union Depot, on South Ram- 
part Street, corner of Howard Avenue. The Clio and Peters Avenue cars pass 
directly in front of the depot. The Dryades car passes within one square. 

The Louisville and Nashville Depot is at the head of Canal Street. Most 
of the cars in the city pass near by. 

The Queen and Crescent or Northeastern Railroad Depot is located at the 
head of Peters Street, on the river. The Levee and Barracks car and the 
Carondelet furnish the most convenient routes. 

The Texas and Pacific Railroad Depot is on the river bank, at the head 
of Terpsichore Street. The Tchoupitoulas car will bring the visitor within three 
squares of the depot. 

The Pontchartrain Depot is on Elysian Fields Street, not far from the 
river,' and is reached by the Rampart and Dauphine cars, the Clio and the 

The Shell Beach Depot is on Elysian Fields Avenue, corner of St. Claude 
Street. The New Orleans and Western Railroad uses the same depot. '±he 
Spanish Fort Depot is at the corner of Canal and Basin Streets. 



Creole Cookery. 

New Orleans is noted for its excellent cooking. The fame of the Creole 
Cuisine has so often been the theme of song and story, and has received such 
flattering tributes from some of the world's greatest minds, that a brief allu- 
sion to the noble art seems a fitting conclusion to a Guide Book, whose object 
has been to give the stranger true glimpses of life in New Orleans. 

Creole cookery is not the least part of this life. It has come down as a 
precious inheritance through long generations of model housewives, and realiz- 
ing this, THE PICAYUNE proposes in this chapter to lead the tourist right into 
the heart of the Creole kitchen, by giving selected extracts from the intro- 
ductions to the recent editions of THE PICAYUNE'S Creole Cook Book, care- 
fully compiled from recipes that have given to the Creole cuisine the unique and 
interesting and helpful place it occupies in the world's cookery. 



In presenting to the public this Creole Cook Book, THE PICAYUNE is ac- 
tuated by the desire to till a want that has been long felt, not only in New 
Orleans, where the art of good cooking was long ago reduced to a positive 


science, but in many sections of the country where the fame of our Creole 
cuisine has spread, and where with slight modifications incident to local sup- 
plies of food articles, many of our most delightful recipes may be adapted by 
the intelligent housekeeper with profit and pleasure. * * * * 

The Creole negro cooks of nearly two hundred years ago, carefully in- 
structed and directed by their white Creole mistresses, who received their 
inheritance of gastronomic lore from Prance, where the art of good cooking 
first had birth, faithfully transmitted their knowledge to their progeny, and 
these, quick to appreciate and understand, and with a keen intelligence and 
zeal born of the desire to please, improvised and improved upon the products 
of the cuisine of Louisiana's mother country; then came the Spanish domina- 
tion, with its influx of rich and stately dishes, brought over by the grand 
dames of Spain of a century and a half ago; after that came the gradual amal- 
gamation of the two races on Louisiana soil, and with this was evolved a new 
school of cookery, partaking of the best elements of the French and Spanish 
cusines, and yet peculiarly distinct from either; a system of cookery that has 
held its own through succeeding generations and which drew from even such 
a learned authority as Thackeray, that noted tribute to New Orleans, "the 
old French-Spanish city on the banks of the Mississippi, where, of all the 
cities in the world, you can eat the most and suffer the least, where claret is 
as good as at Bordeaux, and where a 'ragout' and a 'bouillabaisse' can be 
had, the like of which was never eaten in Marseilles or Paris." 

But the Civil War, with its vast upheavals of social conditions, wrought 
great changes in the household economy of New Orleans, as it did throughout 
the South; here, as elsewhere, ,she who had ruled as the mistress of yesterday 
became her own cook of today; in nine cases out of ten the younger darkies 
accepted their freedom with alacrity, but in many ancient families the older 
Creole "negresses," as they were called, were slow to leave the haunts of the 
old cuisine and the families of which they felt themselves an integral part. 
Many lingered on, and the young girls who grew up after 'that period had op- 
portunities that wil never again come to the Creole girls of New Orleans. * * 

But soon will the last of the olden negro cooks of ante-bellum days have 
passed away and their places will not be supplied. The only remedy is for the 
ladies of the present day to do as their grandmothers did, acquaint themselves 
thoroughly with the art of cooking in all its important and minutest details, 
and learn how to properly apply them. To assist them in this, to preserve to 
future generations the many excellent and matchless recipes of our New Or- 
leans cuisine, to gather these up from the lips of the old Creole negro cooks and 
the grand old housekeepers who survive, ere they, too, pass away, and Creole 
cookery, with all its delightful combinations and possibilities, will have become 
a lost art, is, in a measure, the object of this book. 

But far and above this, THE PICAYUNE, in compiling this book, has been 
animated by the laudable desire to teach the great mass of the public how 
to live cheaply and well. The moral influences of good cooking cannot be too 
forcibly insisted upon. There is an old saying that "the way to a man's heart 
is through his stomach." Every housewife knows the importance of setting 
a well-cooked meal before her husband if she wishes him to preserve his 
equanimity of temper. Every mother should know the importance of prepar- 
ing good, nutritious dishes for her children in the most palatable and appetizing 
manner, if she would give them that most precious of all gifts "a healthy mind 
in a healthy body." People are the better, the happier and the longer lived for 
the good, wholesome, well cooked daily meal. * * * * 

It is proposed in this book to assist housekeepers generally to set a dainty 
and appetizing table at a moderate outlay; to give recipes clearly and accurately 
with simplicity and exactness, so that the problem of "how to live" may become 
easier of solution and even the most ignorant and inexperienced cook may be 
able to prepare a toothsome and nutritious meal with success. The house- 
keeper is not told "to take some of this, a little of that," and "a pinch" of 
some other ingredient; she is not left to the chance of guessing accidentally at 
the proper proportions of component parts of any dish, but the relative pro- 
portions of all ingredients are given with accuracy, the proper length of time 
required in cooking is specified to a nicety, and the relative heat of the fire 
required for cooking different dishes. In all the recipes the quantities are given 
for dishes for a family of six. The intelligent housekeeper will thus be able 


to form a happy medium and increase or reduce proportionately according to 
the size of her family, the number of invited guests, etc. 

THE PICAYUNE CREOLE COOK BOOK is not designed for chefs of 
cusines; it has been prepared with special appreciation of the wants of the 
household and of that immense class of housekeepers who, thrown upon their own 
resources and anxious to learn, are yet ignorant of the simplest details of good 
cooking, and who, as a rule, have yet to learn that in a well regulated kitchen 
nothing is ever wasted, but with careful preparation even the "rough ends" 
of a beef steak may be made into a wholesome, tender and appetizing dish; 
that "stale bread" may be used in the most delicious "desserts" and "farcies," 
and "left-over" food from the day before need not be thrown in the trash-box, 


but may be made into an endless variety of wholesome and nutritious dishes. 

Hence, especial care has been taken to rescue from oblivion many fine 
old-fashioned dishes, and bring them back into general use — dishes whose 
places can never be equaled by elegant novelties or fancifully extravagant 
recipes; special attention has been given to the simple, every-day home dishes 
of the Creole household, while those that tempted the gourmet and epicureans 
in the palmiest days of old Creole cookery have not been admitted. THE PIC- 
AYUNE points with pride to the famous "soupes," "gumbos," "ragouts," "entre- 
mets," "hors-d'oeuvres," "jambalayas" and "deserts," that in turn receive par- 
ticular attention. A special chapter has been devoted to the science of making 


good coffee "a. la Creole." and one to the modes of cooking Louisiana rice. Our 
("alas." our "Pralines." and "Pacane Arnandes," our "Marrons Glac6s" and 
ices, our "Meringues," and our delicious ways of serving Louisiana oranges 
peculiar to ourselves alone, are given in respective order. The history of many 
dishes is also given, thus affording a glimpse into old Creole hospitality, cus- 
toms and traditions. Commendable features are the series of menus for 
holidays and daily suggestions for 'the table, as also the thoroughly classified 
list of seasonable foods. 

Throughout this work THE PICAYUNE has had but one desire at heart, 
and that is to reach the wants of every household in our cosmopolitan commun- 
ity: to show the earnest housekeeper how the best food may be prepared at the 
least cost, and how it is possible for every family from the palace to the cottage, 
to keep a good table and at the same time an economical one. 

••Whatever is worth doing at all is worth doing well." If this is true of other 
things, how much more of cooking, upon which the life and health of the 
family depend. The kitchen should not be looked upon as a place of drudgery; 
a poet once sung of 

"Making drudgery divine; 
Who sweeps a room as to God's laws, 
Makes that and the action fine." 
The benefits that will ultimately accrue to every family, morally and 
physically, from paying greater attention to the proper preparation of food 
can not be over-estimated; the fact that good cooking operates to the greatest 
extent in the preservation of the domestic peace and happiness of a family 
cannot be gainsaid. * * * 


The universal favor with which the First Edition of THE PICAYUNE'S 
Creole Cook Book was received throughout the United States, the remarkably 
short time in which the edition was exhausted, and the numerous demands for 
copies that are continually coming in from all sections, have impelled the pub- 
lishers to issue a Second Edition of this work. 

In yielding thus to the popular demand, THE PICAYUNE feels that it can 
justly claim that this enlarged and amended edition of its Cook Book more 
fully represents the progress and perfection of culinary art than any existing 

The Revised Edition has been prepared . with great care. Each recipe 
that has been added has been tried and tested and is given as the result of 
personal practical experience and success in the Creole Kitchen. The topics 
have been more conveniently and systematically classified and arranged, the 
methods of preparation and manipulation, in many instances simplified, and 
the edition, in its entirety, will therefore be found far more complete, compre- 
hensive and valuable than its predecessor. The book has been bound in cloth 
to render it more serviceable and durable. 

With these explanations THE PICAYUNE sends forth the Second Edition 
of the Creole Cook Book. Its name tells its story and bespeaks its value. It 
is the only book of the kiud. 

By Registered Mail to any part of the United States $1.25 

Retail price in Picayune Counting Room 1.00 


"Lagniappe" is a local institution of long standing like "picayune." Indeed 
as far as traditional customs go, the two are intimately united, the coin itself 
cslling always for a bonus in kind with every purchase, while the readers of 
the staunch old journal "The Picayune," receive a generous lagniappe of in- 
tin: • variety and interest with every number. And so following the long es- 


tablished usage, here is a chapter of Lagniappe for the readers of the Picayune 




Carondelet St. Church (Meth.) 900 

Christ Church Cathedral (Epis.).. 800 
Christ Church Chapel (J. L-. Har- 
ris Memorial) 300 

Felicity St. (Meth.) 500 

First Presbyterian Church (Dr. 

Palmer's) 1,500 

Free Church of the Anuunciatiou 

< Episcopal) 800 

Lafayette Presbyterian (Dr. Mark- 
ham's) 700 

Jesuits' Church (Cath.) 1.400 

Prytania Street (Pres.) 1.500 

St. Alphonsus (Cath.) 1.200 

St. Anna's (Epis.) 700 

St. Anna's (Epis.) Chapel 300 

St. George's (Epis.) 900 

St. John the Baptist (Cath.) 1,116 

St. Joseph (Cath. j 1,900 

St. Louis Cathedral (Cath.) 1,864 

St. Mary's Assumption (Cath.) 1,000 

St. Patrick (Cath.) 1.200 

St. Paul's (Epis.) 800 

St. Stephen's (Cath.) 1,200 

Temple Sinai (Hebrew) . .. 1,150 

Touro Synagogue (Hebrew) 950 

Trinity Church (Epis.) 1,200 


Audubon (burned Feb. 11. 1003) 1.800 

Crescent 1,800 

Grand Opera House in&t including 

stockholders' seats) 1,800 

French Opera House 2,309 

St. Charles Orphemu 2,664 

Tulaue 1,700 


Athenaeum (Young' Men's Hebrew 

Association) 900 

Boys' High School Alumni Hall 

(Boys' High School) 600 

Tulane Hall (upper and lower 

floors) 2.100 

Temperance Union Hall (Kampart 

and Spain) 500 

United Confederate Veterans Hall, 
Fair Grounds 15,000 

Union Francaise Hall (Kampart 

Street) 1.200 

Washington Aitillery Hall (includ- 
ing upper and lower floors and 
supper hall) 6,500 

Young Men's Christian Association 

(Y. M. C. A. Building) 600 


H. SoDhie Newcomb Memorial 
Hall (upper floor College Build- 
ing) 750 

Gibson Hall (Tulane University) . . 350 

Jesuit Alumni Hall 486 

The above halls, though belonging to 

private institut'ons, are often loaned for 

public meetings. 


Year. Population. 

1722 ::0O 

1727 1,600 

1745 2,900 

1790 7.000 

1810 17.242 

1820 27.176 

1830 29,737 

1840 102.103 

1850 116,375 

I860 168.675 

1870 191.418 

1880 , 216.090 

1890 '242.079 

1900 287,104 


The ilustrations in this book are without exception the work of New Orleans 
artists. The two views, entitied respectively, "Courtyard in Jackson's Head- 
quarters Home of Mrs. T. E. Davis," and "Old Courtyard in Char- 
tres Street," are reproductions of original paintings from the brush of 
Mrs. Walter Saxon, a talented artist who kindly loaned the Picayune these 
beautiful glimpses of old New Orleans. In like manner the cut representing 
"View of Old Court, Faubourg Marigny, Royal, Near Port Street," is a repro- 
duction of a painting by the charming artist, Mrs. A. Moore, who lives within 
the old Court. 

Glimpses of peculiar characters and street criers, group of Indians, and 
other typical sketches are from the pencil of the Picayune's able artist, Mr. 
Louis A. Winterhalder. The other illustrations, with the exception of those 
marked Rivoire, and several unmarked, are the work of Mr. Louis E. Cormier, 
an artistic member of the Picayune staff, who gave of the results of his ex- 
perience with the camera toward the beautifying of these pages. 



The picture on Page 6, entitled "Landing of the Ursuline Nuns," deserves 
more than a passing notice. It is the most historic picture in Louisiana, being 
the only glimpse taken of New Orleans in that early period. It is a reproduc- 
tion of a sketch made by Madeleine Hauehard, a young Ursuline novice, at the 
moment of the landing of the community on Louisiana soil. From the day of 
the departure of the Sisterhood from France, Madeleine Hauehard, who was far 
ahead of her day and generation, began to keep a diary of the order. As the 
nuns landed in New Orleans, and were met by Bienville and the other Govern- 
ment officials, and clergy, Madeleine Hauehard paused and rapidly sketched the- 
group, for as she afterward told her superioress, "The landing was historical."' 
This original sketch, faithfully preserved by the Ursulines, and still to be seer* 
in the old Convent, was subsequently enlarged by Madeleine Hauehard, and 
hangs in the Convent parlors within the strict enclosure. On completing the 
picture, she placed herself among the Sisterhood; she may be easily recognized 
by the tall, white novice's cap that she wears, and the cat that she bears iu her 
arms. She brought this pet cat all the way from her old home. The picture has 
never been seen outside of the Convent walls, and it is now given to the public 
for the first time by The Picayune, through the courtesy of the Ursuline Nuns. 
Madeleine Hauehard. it may be added, took the black veil of the Ursulines and 
for nearly forty years, up to the time of her death, devoted herself to the work 
of religion, education and charity in Louisiana. For upwards of thirty-eight 
years she kept the daily record of all the events that happened in the colony, 
and this diary, still faithfully preserved in the old Convent, is the only record 
extant of those early days. Madeleine Hauehard was of a bright, vivacious, 
generous nature: it is recorded in the order that she was the life and heart of 
the community from the time that it set sail on the unknown seas in 1727 to her 
death. Her cheery, sunny temperament is revealed in every page of her diary, 
and one may imagine what a tower of strength such a .sweet, sturdy, optimistic 
character must have been to that brave band of pioneer women-workers in 


When the "Frog'' first made its advent in New Orleans as the "Weather 
Prophet" of the Picayune, and appeared daily at the head of our "Guide to 
the Weather" column, arrayed in various garbs, indicating the kind of 
weather one might expect for the next twenty-four hours, enthusiasm for 
the "Picayune Frog," as our prophet was immediately dubbed, was very great. 
Not only did the great popular heart go out to Froggie, but the most exclusive 
circles caught the idea, and "Picayune Frog Teas," "Picayune Frog Pins," 
"Picayune Frog Calendars," menu cards, etc., with the pictures of Froggie in 
his amusing garbs became the fashion of the hour. No entertainment, no reunion, 
no fair, or children's party was considered complete without the presence of the 
Picayune Frog. The Frog soon became the "mascot" of every charitable and 
philanthropic entertainment, the booths at which he was invited to take up his 
headquarters generally carrying the fair. Cakes and drinks and fashionable 
dishes were named in his honor, and so great was his popularity that a famous 
old chef in the French Quarter, unable to control his enthusiasm for the little 
frog, who had left the bayous and swamps of this old Creole State to take up 
his abode in a great newspaper office, complimented him with an original dish 
named in his honor, "Picayune Frogs k la Creole." Froggie, always ready to 
adapt himself to circumstances, at once responded the next day by appearing as 
a waiter serving the dish. Subsequently, on occasions of great festivals in New 
Orleans, such as Thanksgiving, Christmas, New Years, etc., Froggie always ap- 
peared in this conventional garb, ready, as he said, for duty. And so. when 
the Picayune published its Creole Cook Book, Froggie, "who," as distinguished 
critics aver, "is able to do all things and do them well," delighted the public by 
offering to serve the dishes which the old Creole Cook so faithfully portrayed 
in the cut presented for their delectation. Froggie appears in the chapter on 
"Creole Cookery," of this Guide, "A Votre Service, Mesdames et Messieurs!" 


Reference has been made in this Guide to John McDonogh, who spent all 
the years of his life in solitude, and who died leaving his vast estates for the 
benefit of public education in New Orleans and Baltimore. At the close of 
his remarkable will, written in McDonogh's own hand, and which covered over 
eighty pages of foolscap paper, a testament which seemed in reality a defense 
of his own life — there occiu- the following passages, which gave the public the 
first glimpse into the inner heart of the man: 

"I have preferred as a revenue of the earth as a part of the solid globe. 
One thing is certain, it will not take wings and fly away as silver and gold and 
Government bonds and stocks often do. It is the only thing in this world that 
approaches to anything like permanency." 

"The love of singing given me by my mother in my youth, has been the de- 
light and charm of my life throughout all its subsequent periods and trials. 
Still has its love and charm pervaded my existence and gilded my path to com- 
parative happiness below, and I firmly believe led me to what little virtues I 
have practiced." 

"And all I ask in return is that the little children should sometimes come 
and plant a few flowers above my grave." 

Upon the old granite tomb, on the Algiers side of New Orleans, in the old 
plantation of McDonoghville. where the remains of the philanthropist reposed 
previous to final interment in Baltimore, may be seen the following inscrip- 
tions, written by himself and placed there, at his reqvest, by his friend and 
executor, Christian Roselius. the eminent lawyer. 


•Rules Written for My Guidance in Life — 1804." 

'Remember always that labor is one of the conditions of our existence. 

'Time is gold — throw not one minute away, but place each one to account. 

'Do unto all men as you would be done by. 

'Never put off till to-morrow what you can do to-day. ? 

'Never bid another do what you can do yourself.' 

'Never covet what is not your own. 

'Never think any matter so trivial as not to deserve notice. 

'Never give out that which does not first come in. 

'Never spend but to produce. 

'Study in your course of life to do the greatest possible amount of good." 


"Deprive yourself of nothing necessary to your comfort, but live in an hon- 
orable simplicity and frugality. Labor then to the last moment of your ex- 
istence. Pursue strictly the above rules, and the Divine blessing and riches of 
every kind will flow upon you, to your heart's content; but first of all. remem- 
ber, that the chief and greatest study of your life should be to tend by all the 
means in your power to the honor and glory of the Divine Creator. 
New Orleans. March 2. 1804. "JOHN McDONOGH."" 

"The conclusion at which I have arrived is. that without temperance there 
is no health— without virtue no order — without religion no happiness — and the 
sum of our being is to live wisely, soberly and rigteously." 



At the Lee Monument the cars turn into St. Charles Avenue, which is a 
continuation of St. Charles Street. Here the street broadens out; there are 
double drives and a neutral ground, and the avenue is said to be one of Uie 
finest in America. The ears traverse the thoroughfare from the Circle to Car- 
rollton Avenue, continuing out Carrollton Avenue to its intersection with Tulane 
Avenue, through which they return to Canal Street, thus forming "the St. 
Charles Belt." The "Tulane Belt" ears traverse the same route in the opposite 
direction. This line, which was recently absorbed by the New Orleans Rail- 
ways Company, was built in 1833, and was the first line of horse railroads in 
the United States. The cars were then two-storied, the upper decks being 
covered with a canvas in the summer time. There was a great deal of life and 
excitement about this second story, and many old residents declare that the 
two-storied cars were much pleasanter than the cars of the present day, as the 
breezes were cooler and fresher aloft. The mule car gave way in time to the 
steam dummy, aud this in turn to the present electric system. 

At the corner of Calliope Street and St. Charles Avenue is the Northern 
Methodist Church, founded just after the Civil War by Bishop J. P. Newman. 
It was here that General Grant worshipped while he was in New Orleans. 

The Young Men's Hebrew Association occupies the stately structure at 
the corner of the avenue and Clio Street. The building was erected in 1896. It 
contains a public hall, called the Athenaeum, where concerts and theatricals are 


The Picayune closes this Guide with the following beautiful tribute to New 
Orleans from the pen of the gifted poetess, "Pearl Rivers," the late Mrs. E. J. 


She floats within her sunlit seas, 

A languorous lily dreaming. 
Her green hair trailed about her knees, 

And sweet beyond all seeming; 
I can not say how fair she is- — 

I may not say it nearly; 
She's like a radiant girl to me. 

And I, — I love her dearly. 

One of the landmarks of Camp Street is the building occupied by the firm 
of T. Fitzwilliam & Co., Ltd., Manufacturing Stationers, Lithographers and 
Printers. The reader may turn to the illustration elsewhere in this book, 
which shows The Picayune office and the adjoining buildings. On the left of 
the picture he will see a portion of the establishment of T. Fitzwilliam & Co. 
The building may easily be identified by the name of the firm reproduced in 
the engraving. This location, at No. 324 Camp Street, is exceedingly advantag- 
eous, as it is in the very heart of the business quarter, and within convenient 
access to all the large business houses and office buildings of the city. The 
building is four stories high and extends through the block to Bank Alley, on 
which there is a rear entrance, at 321. 

The building contains a large and valuable plant fttrfthe manufacture of 
blank books for merchants and corporations; also for job printing, which in 
completeness can hardly be equaled even beyond New Orleans. In addition 
to which the firm possess an elaborate lithographic' plant, " where the most 
modern methods are employed in the execution of the highest grades of the 

For more than eighteen years past: 1 The Picayune has intrusted to the 
firm of T. Fitzwilliam & Co., Ltd., the task of preparing the lithographic work 
of the Carnival editions of that paper. The widespread popularity of these 
brilliantly illustrated papers evinces the merit of the firm's work, and etch 
year finds them acquitting themselves of this congenial task with greater skill 
and higher artistic perfection. The firm also carries an extensive stock of 
general office stationery and supplies of all kinds. In fact, the lower floor of 
their building contains a perfect assortment of articles used in offices, and an 
inspection of the stock is interesting and instructive, as it reveals how much 
ingenuity is devoted in these days to ministering to the comfort of clerks, book- 
keepers and others who are occupied in business offices. In this connection, 
the firm manufactures and sells patent flat-opening blank books, which are very 
popular and give entire satisfaction. It also prints all kinds of bankruptcy 
and other legal blanks, the forms of which have been scanned by competent 
authorities and found to be entirely in consonance with the soundest practices 
of the local bar. A competent staff of binders, printers and engravers enables 
the firm to turn out at short notice the most attractive examples of work. 

As an adjunct to the large business carried on by this house in its various 
branches, the firm has acquired the sole agency for the celebrated Edison 
Oscillatory Memeograph. 

The firm of T. Fitzwilliam & Co. was organized forty years ago, and is 
to-day conducted by the same management as directed its affairs in the early 
period of its development. It stands very high in the estimation of the com- 
munity, having shown itself eminently worthy of the confidence which its nu- 
merous customers continue to repose in it. 

Quaint Historic # ^ 

<£<*<£ New Orleans 

Now one of the healthiest large cities in the country 
and the most popular Winter resort in America. 
"Land of Flowers and Sunshine/' Music and Song, 
French Opera; Continuous Horse Racing, Golf, 
Hunting and Fishing. j* J* <£• <£ 







Because it is new and one of the 

latest, largest and best Hotels in the 
country, accommodating seven Luu- 
dred guests, with one huudred and 
fifty private bathrooms, four hundred 
and fifty parlors and bedrooms, al- 
coved, single and en suite. it is absolutely fireproof and 
the only fireproof hotel in the city. 

Beeause it is steam heated and lighted 
throughout with electricity, insuring 
warmth and comfort at all times. 

Beeause the drinking water is filtered, 
distilled and aerated, and the ice 
made from it on the premises, both 
absolutely pure, and while contain- 
ing no"" medicinal quality, it is as 
healthful as any imported or native 
water in the country. 

and Ru! 
finest in 


with export - 

Beeause the Colonnade and Covered 
Roof Garden on parlor floor afford a 
delightful promenade in sunshine or 
shade, among tropical plants and 

Beeause the Turkish 
baths are among the 
country, built of 
luxuriously fitted up, 
enced Massage Operators. Chiropodist 
and Manicure in attendance. 

Beeause the Hotel is kept on both the 
American and European plans, with 
first-class Dining R:om and Res- 
taurant service and cuisine. You can 
take your choice. 

Beeanse we want your patronage, and 
promise in return, the best of care 
and attention at moderate prices. 


D^ns^f Rooms. Andrew R. Blakely & Co., Limited, Props. 




3V. *B\\As\eiW, "^axia^x. 




Introductory Chapter 3 

Absinthe House, the Old 17 

Al >it a Springs 179 

Academy of the Sacred Heart.. 65-98 

Across the Lake 180 

Alsiers 12-70 

Algiers Perry House 78 

All Saints" Day 156 

Ambulance Corps, Residence 

of 91 

American Domination 7 

American Quarter, Historical 

Sketch of 86 

Antique Shop 16 38 

Annunciation Church (Cath.i .. 55 

Annunciation. Free Church of •• 208 

Annunciation Square 134 

Antoine, Pere 21 

Archbishop's Residence 57 

Archbishopric. Old 28 

Asylums — 

Children's Home (Epis.) 105 

Destitute Boys, Asylum for . . 98 

Fink Home 132 

French Benevolent Ass'n .... 65 

German's Orphan Home l.">2 

German Protestant 132 

German Protestant Home for 

the Aged 122 

Home for the Aged, Little 
Sisters of the Poor (Down 

Town ) 57 

Home for the Audi. Little 
Sisters of the Poor, (Up 

Town) lis 

House of the Good Shepherd.. 85 

Jewish Orphan's Home 98 

Julius Weiss Home for the 

Aged 118 

La Maison Hospitaliere 40 

Louisiana Retreat 135 

ML Cartne! Female Orphan.. 19 

New Orleans Female Orphan.. 116 

Poydras Lit 

Seventh Street Protestant Or- 
phan's Home 122 

Shakspeare Almshouse 99 

St. Anna's 116 

St. Elizabeth's Industrial 

Home 105 

St. Mary's Orphan Bovs' .... 55 

St. Theresa's, IK! 

St. Vincent's Infant 122 

Thorny La fon Asylum for 

Boys 65 

Thorny Lafon Home for Aged 

and Infirm 64 

Athenee Louisianse 44 

Atheneaum, The 211 

Athletic Park 86 

Auditorium, United Confederate 

Veterans 59 

Audubon Park 100 

Audubon Place 102 

Avery Island 170 


Bank, First in Mississippi Val- 
ley 17 

Banks, < >ld sites of 17 

Barracks, Jackson (U. S.) 51 

Barracks, old Spanish 23 

Barracks School, Old (McDon- 

Ogh 15) 46 

Baronne St reel 93 

Basket Wearers 29 

Basin, the New and Canal 86-160 

Basin, the Old 41 

Battle of New Orleans (1815) . . 51 

Battle Field of Chalmette 51 

Battle, Sept. 14. 1ST4 79 

Batture Folks 140 

Bayou Bridge 60 

Bayou Lafourche 180 

Bayou Road 64 

Bayou Sara 179 

Bayou St. John 60 

Bayou T'eche 179 

Bay St. Louis 183 

Beauregard, General, Birthplace 

of . 70 

Beauregard, General, House 

Where He Died 57 

Bea'uregard. .Indue Residence 

of 54 

Beauregard, Mine., obi Home 

of 55 

Beauregard Public School 8(3 

Beauvoir 186 

Bienville. Founder of New Or- 
leans . . .' 

Bienville's Country House 16 

Bienville, First Landing Place 

of 60 

Bienville, Monument to 82 

Bird Stores, Cbartres St 38 

Biloxi 186 

Board of Trade 122 

Rook Stores. Old French and 

Spanish 19 

Bottle Man. The 72 

Boys' House of Refuge 99 

Bureau of Stat" Epgineei's .... 126 

Cabildo 30 

Cafe des Ameliorations 41 

Cafe des Emigres 2!) 

Cafe des Exiles 23 

Calaboose, old Spanish 

Gala Woman 71 

Camp Grounds, Seashore 186 

Camp Nicholls 

Soldiers' Home 59 

Camp Street 105 

Camp Street, Upper 118 

Canal, New 86 

Canal, Carondelet 41 

Canal Street 76 

Carnival Balls 170-177 

Carnival and Mardi Gras 167 

Carnival, Queen of 173 

Capdevielle, Home of Mayor .. 58 

Car Routes 201 

Cai-rollton 9-104 

Carondelet St 123 

Carondelet Walk 41 

Casket Girls (Petticoat Insur- 

re -tiinii 5 

Gat Island 1S4 

Cathedral Christ Church 97 

Cathedral, St. Louis (French) .. 19 

Cathedral Alley 19 

Catherine, Lake 190 

Catholic Institute of Amer- 
ica 92-165 

Cemeteries, The 142 

( larrollton 156 

Chalmette 54 

Charity Hospital 152 

Cypress Grove 152 

Dispersed of Juilah 150 

Firemen's 152 

Girod St 150 

Greenwood 152 

Hebrew Rest 150 

Lafayette 150 

Masonic 1-vj 

Metairie 153 

Potter's Field 152 

St. Roch's 147 

St. Joseph 150 

St. Louis, New 147 

St. Louis, Old (No. li 144 

St. Louis No. 2 145 

St. Louis No. 3 14ti 

St. Patrick's 152 

St. Vincent de Paul 149-156 

Washington 150 

Chalmette Monument, The 53 

Charity Hospital 89 

Chartres St 27 

< 'iiaiawa 179 

Chef Menteur 181-190 

Chinese .Mission :>2 

Chinese Quarters 92 

Christian Woman's Exchange . . Ill 

Annunciation (Cath.) 55 

Canal Street Presbyterian ... 85 
Carondelet St. Methodist .... 127 
Chapel (J. L. Harris Me- 
morial) 98 

Chapel. Our Lady of Prompt 

Succor 49 

Chapel, St. Roch 14S 

Chapel, Old Mortuary 39 

Christ Church Cathedral 

(Epis.) 97 

Coliseum Place Baptist 

Church 120 

Felicity St. Methodist 12(1 

First Baptist Church 122 

First German (Presbyte- 
rian) 97 

First Presbyterian (Dr. Palm- 
er's) Ill 

Gates of Prayer (Jewish) 12!) 

German Evangelical (Luth- 
eran) 129 

Greek Church of the Holv 

Trinity 58 

Holy Name of Jesus (Cath.) .. 103 

Holy Trinity Church (Cath.) .. 48 
Jesuits' Church (Immaculate 

( 'onception) 93 

Lnfavette Presbyterian (Dr. 

Markham'si ...' 121 

Louisiana Ave. Melhodisl .... 130 

Northern Methodist Church .. 211 
Notre Dame de Bon Secours 

(Cath.) 105 

Our Lady of Good Counsel 

(Cath.) 130 

Parker Memorial Chanel 132 

Rayne Memorial (Meth.) 98 

Right Way Synagogue 127 

s.e red Heart of Jesus 

(Cath.) 85 

St. Alphonsus (Cath.) 121 

St. Anna's (Epis.) 57 

St. Anne's (Cath.) 65 

St. Anthony of Padua (Cath.).. 39 

St. Augustine's (Cath.) 45 

St. George's (Epis.) 98 

St. John the Baptist (Cath.).. 135 

St. Joseph (Cath.) 91 

St. Louis Cathedral (Cath.).. 19 

St. Mary's (Cath.) 29 

St. Mary Assumption (Cath.).. 121 

St. Maurice's (Cath.) 50 

St. Michael's (Cath.) 134 

St. Patrick's 113 

St. Paul's (Epis.) 118 

St. Roch's Chapel (Cath.) .... 147 

St. Rose de Lima's (Cath.) .. 64 

St. Stephen's (Cath.) 105 

St. Theresa's (Cath.) 120 

St. Vincent de Paul (Cath.) . . 49 

Temple Sinai (Jewish) 12S 

Touro Synait'ouue (Jewish) ... 127 

Trinity ( Epis. I 104 

Unitarian Church of the 

Messiah 135 

Valence Street Church (Bap.). 130 

churches, Seating Capacity of . 208 

Citizen's Bank. 01.1 16 

City Board of Health, office 

of '. 125 

City Hall 110 

City Hotel. Site of Old 105 

City Library Ill 

City Park 62 

Claiborne Ave 91 

Claiborne, Home of Governor . . 17 

Clay Monument 82-109 

* 'lay Square 135 

Clearing House (Morris Bl'dg.).. 82 
Cloistered Monastery of Dis- 

calced Carmelites 40 

Arena 164 

Book 165 

Athletic 165 

Boston 83 

Chess. Checkers and Whist .. 83 

Church 1 65 

Chescent Boat 60 

Chescent City Jockey 59 

Fducat lonal 165 

Elks. The S3 

Era 164 

French Opera 164 

Geographies 164 

Golf 165 

Harmony 96 

Jockey 59 

Jockey Club Race Course .... 59 

La Varietes < 64 

Louisiana Boat ' 60 

New Louisiana Jockey 59 

Polo, New Orleans 165 

Pickwick 83 

Rifle 165 

Round Table 165 

Southern Atbeltic 117 

Southern Yacht 160-165 

St. John Boat 165 

St. John Rowing 160-165 

Tea and Topics 165 

Tennis 165 

Victoria Crlchet 165 

West End Rowing 165 

Woman's 164 

Women, Organizations of .... 164 

Yachting and Boat 165 

Young Men's Christian As- 

sociation 132 

Young Men's Gymnastic 39 

Young Men's Gymnastic Row- 
ing Club 165 

~i i i™ Mon's Hebrew Asso- 
ciation 211 

Coliseum Place 120 

Coliseum P 1 a c e Baptist 

Church 120 

Jesuits' (Immaculate Concep- 
tion) m 

Newcomb Memorial. H. So- 
phie ,129 

New Orleans Msdleal (Col.)... 83 

Orleans, Old Site of 4 T . 

Polyclinic, New Orleans 89 

Richardson Memorial, Medi- 
cal -83 

Soule's Commercial 133 

St. Aloysius Commercial .... 5ti 

St. Isidore's (Holv Cross) 49 

Tulane 103 

Colonial Homes 4-66 

Commanderia, Old Spanish .... 19 

Commerce of New Orleans ^_. . . 193 

Comus, Mlstiek Krewe of 169 

Congo Square 42 

Benedictine Convent of the 

Holy Family 48 

Discalced Carmelite Mon- 
astery 46 

Good Shepherd. House of ... . 85 

Holv Family. Convent of . . . . 21 

Ladies of the Sacred Heart . . 65-165 

Marianites of Holv Cross ... 55 

Mercy. Convent of 121 

Missionary Sisters of Sacred 

Heart 23 

Mount Carmei 45 

Perpetual Adoration. Convent 

of 55 

St. Joseph's 64 

St. Mary's Dominican 104-135 

Ursuline 49 

Cotton Exchange 126 

Cotton Press Section 49 

Court Buildings. Lower 30 

Courthouse and Jail. the 

New 89 

Courtyards, Old Spanish 16-27 

Courtyard, Jackson's Headquar- 
ters 17 

Courtyard. Faubourg Marigny.. 55 

Covington 179 

Creole Cook Book, The Tica- 

yune's 204 

Creole Cookery 204 

Creole Homes 74 

Creole, Meaning of 75 

Crescent Billiard Hall 133 

Crescent Theatre 94 

Cuban Expedition (1851) 16 

Curio. Second-Hand Dealers ... 16-19 

Custom House. United States . . 80 

Customs, French Quarter 70 

Daughters of Confederacy 165 

Davis. Jefferson. House Where 

He Died 132 

Davis. Jefferson. Temporary 

Burial Place of 155 

Davis. Jefferson. Home at Beau- 

voir 186 

Death Notices 75 

Depots of Railroads (See Steam 

Railroad Depots) 203 

Duelling Ground. Old 62 

Discalced Carmelites. Monas- 
tery of 46 

Distances. Table of 200 

Dryades Street 135 

Ecole des Orphelins Indigens . . 47 

Ecclesiastical Square 120 

Educational 161 

Elks' Place S3 

Elysian Fields St 48 

English Lookout 181-1S9 

English Turn 5 

Episcopal See, New Orleans, 

Erection of 7 

Esplanade Ave 50 

Etienne de Bore 38 

Exchange Alley 82 

Eye. Ear, Nose and Throat Hos- 
pital 39 

Faubourg Marignv 12-46-55 

Faubourg Ste. Marie 12-88 

Ferries 203 

Firemen's Cemetery 152 

First French Colony 

Fitzwilliam, T. & Co 212 

Franklin, Benjamin, Statue of. . 109 

French Cathedral 19 

French Domination 7 

French Market 32 

French Opera House 18 

French Quarter. The 14 

Frog, The Picayune's .' 206 209 

Front, Lower Chartres and Es- 
planade Ave 55 

Fruit Company.. United 126 

Fruit Exchange 80 

Fruit Landing 138 

Future of New Orleans 196 

Galvez, Governor 66 

Game Laws 192 

Garden District 97 

Gayarre Place 58 

German Settlement 48 

Government House. Old Site 

of 37 

Grain Elevators 133-136 

Grand Army of the Repub- 
lic 167 

Grand Island 180 

Grand Opera House 88 

Grand Route St. John 64 

Gretna 10 

Guide Book, Illustrators of Pic- 
ayune 2Q8 

Gulf Coast Resorts, Short 

Sketches of ISO 

Gulf View 183 

Hacks and Cabs, Ordinance 

Relating to 200 

Half-Wav House 86 

Harmony Club 96 

Harrison Line of Steamships. 

Wharf of 139 

Haunted House 24 

Hennen Building 125 

Hibernia Bank and Trust Com- 
pany 124 

High Schools. McDonogh 105-162 

Historical Sketch of New Or- 
leans (American Quarter) .... 80 
Historical Sketch of New Or- 
leans (French Quarter) 

Horticultural Hall 102 

Holy Trinity Church 48 

Hospitals — 

Charity 89 

Eye. Ear, Nose and Throat . . 

Home for Incurables 122 

Hotel Dieu 92 

Miliken, Richard. Memorial 

Hospital for Children 91 

Sanitarium, New Orleans .... 127 

Touro Infirmary 117 


Deneehaud 127 

Grunewald 94 

St. Charles New 123-213 

St. Louis 18 

St. James, Old Site of 122 

Howard Memorial Library .... 114 

Howard, Frank '!'.. School .... 85 
Hunting and Fishing Near New 

Orleans 188 

Hunt, Sallie Ward, old Home 

of 39 

Iberville 5 

Indians 33 

Italian Lynching, Scene of .... 44 

Jackson Ave 105 

Jackson, General Andrew 51 

Jackson's Headquarters During 

Battle 1815 53 

Jackson's City Headquarters .. 1. 

Jackson Monument 31 

Jackson Square 31 

Jefferson City 9 

Jesuits in Colony, Arrival of . . 7 

Jesuits' Church and College .. 93 

Jewish Orphan's Home 98 

Julius Weiss Home for Aged . . 118 

Jockey Club 59 

Jump, The 191 

Kindergartens. Free 165 

Lafayette, Marquis de 27 

Lafayette Square 109 

Ladies' Confederate Memorial 

Association 165 

Latitte. Pirates of Barataria . . 23-69 

La f reniere 7-B 14 

Lafon. Thorny 66 

Lafourche, Bayou 180 

Lagniappe 71-2< 17 

Lakanal, Ex-Director College 

d'Orleans 45 

La Maison Hospitaliere 46 

Lalaurie. Mine.. Story of 24 

Landing of Ursulines 7-2<m 

Last Island 180 

Laveau. Marie, the Voudoo 

Queen 44 

Lee Circle 95 

Lee Monument 95 

Lee. Robert E.. School 103 

Levee, The 35-136 

Levee Sights and Scenes 136 

Leland University l<i4 

Levert. Octavia Walton, Old 

Home of 39 

Liberty Place 78 

City. Fisk. Free, and Public. Ill 

Howard Memorial 114 

Newcomb Memorial 130 

Tilton Memorial 104 

State 92 

. Literary, Educational clubs .. 165 

Little Sisters of the Poor .... 57 
Liverpool and London and Ololie 

Insurance Company 124 

Long Beach 186 

Louis Philippe. Visit, of 7 

Louisiana Retreat 135 

Lugger Landing. Old Basin .... 41 
Lugger Landing. Picayune 

TieT 36 

Macaroni Makers 29 

Macartv Square 54 

Mafia Society 44 

Magazine St 121 

Maginnis Cotton Mill 122 



Manufaci urers 

Map of New Orleans, 1798 

Margaret Monument 

Margaret Place 

Margaret. Story of 

Marigny Canal 

Marigny. Faubourg 

Marigny. Mandeville de 

Markham, Church of Or 





Ninth Street 



Masonic Temple 

Mechanics Institute. Site of 

and Battle at 


Medical School (Col.) 

Memorial Hall, Confederate ... 
Merchants' Exchange, old site 


Military Organizations 

Miliken Memorial Hospital .... 


Milneburg " 

Mint. United States 

Mississippi City 

Mme. John's Legacy 


Momus. Knights of 

Moresque Building 

.Morgan Ferry Landing 

Morphy, Paul. Home of 

Mortgage < >.ffice 

Mortuary Chapel of <»ld New 


Municipal Boundaries 

Municipal Improvements 

EvlcDonogh, John. Grave of .... 
McDonosh, John. Monument 


McDonogh, John, Romance of .. 
McDonogh's Savings and Rules 

of Life 

McDonogh's Schools 

Mel lonoghville _ 

Napoleon Ave 

Napoleon House 

Naval Station, New Orleans, . . 

Nereus, Krewe of 

New Basin and Canal 

New Iberia 

New Orleans, Bank Clearings 

New Orleans, Commerce of .... 

New oilcans. Education in .... 

New (Orleans, Future Prospects 

New Orleans as a Health Re- 

New Orleans. How to See 

New Orleans. Hunting and 
Fishing Near 

New Orleans, Literary, Phil- 

New Orleans to Mobile, From.. 

•New Orleans," Poem by Pearl 


New Orleans, Port of 

New Orleans and Porto Rico 

Rico Steamship Co.. Wharf 


New Orleans Sanitarium 

New Orleans, Short History 


New Orleans Sportsmen 






















































1 39 



New Orleans, Social Life of . . . 164 
New Orleans, Training School 

for Nurses 127 

New Orleans University 98 

Newsboys' Home 94 

North Shore 192 

Oakland Driving Park 86 

n,|,i Fellows' Hall ,108 

Old Basin 41 

Oldest Buildings in Louisiana.. 2S 

old French Cemeteries ...:.... 40-143 

I >i,l Lake 161 

Old Spanish Tiled Building ... 20 
Organ Grinders and Quar- 
ters of 24 

Orleans College, Story and 

and Site of 45 

< >rleans Place 21 

origans Theatre Old -'1 

< Mit of Town Journeys T<8 

Palmer Ave 99 

Palmer's Church, I)r Ill 

Parish Prison, old 44 

Athletic 86 

Audubon 10(1 

City 02 

- (akland Driving 86 

Rosa ' 102 

Sportsmen 86 

Southern 60 

Paseagoula 187 

i'ass Christian 184 

People's Homestead Associa- 
tion 126 

I 'ere Antoine 21 

Pere Dagobert 30 

Perpetual Adoration Convent .. 55 

Peters Avenue 135 

PetroVitz Alexandra 66 

Photo Engraving Company .... 214 

Picayune 71 

Picayune, The 107 

Picayune Creole Cook Book.... 204 

Picayune Prog, The 206-209 

Picayune Guide Book, Illustra- 
tors of 208 

Picayune's Map of Gulf Coast.. 182 
Picayune The, Special Carnival 

editions of 178 

Picayune Tier (Lugger Land- 
ins) 36 

Pickwick Club 83 

Pirates of Paralalia 2.". 

Place d'Armes (Jackson 

Square) ".l 

Plans of Battle of New Or 

leans 52 

Plaquemine Parish V.Mt 

Polar Star Lodge 55 

Polyclinic, New Orleans 89 

Pontchartrain. Lake 102 

Pontchartrain Railroad 4s 

Poor Clares. Monastery of .... 122 
Population of New Orleans, 

Statistics of 2D8 

Postoffioe, Old Site of 10 

Postoffice (United States Cus- 
tom House) 82 

Port Chalmette T.4 

Poydras, Julian 181 

Poydras Market 94 

Prairie Treinblante 1S1 

Praline Women 74 

Proctorville 69 

Produce Exchange 108 

Proteus, Knights of 172 

Public Buildings, Seating Ca- 
pacity of 208 

Public School System, The 102 

Pythian Hall 12. 

Pythian Hall, Upper 122 

Quadroon Ballroom 21 

Quadroon Women 22 

Quartie ±\ 

Rabais Man. The '2 

Paces The. Spring and Winter 

Railroad, Second Oldest ill the 
United States 

Railroad Depots- 
Si cam Trunk Lines 

East Louisiana 

Illinois Central 

Louisville and Nashville 80; 

New Orleans and Western.... 

Pontchartrain 4S 

Queen and Crescent or North- 

Shell Beach 69 

Southern Pacific 

Spanish Fort S3 

Texas and Pacific 


West Pud 

Yazoo and Mississippi Valley . 

Railroad in U. S., First Horse 

Rampart St. and Vicinity .... 

Ramparl Street, The New .... 

Rayne Memorial Church 

Reconstruction Era 

Residences, Canal Street 

Residences, Esplanade Ave .... 

Residences, Prytania St 

Residences, St. Charles Ave .. 97-98 

Resorts, Summer, Gulf Coast .. 

Rex, King Of the Carnival .... 

Richardson Memorial Medical 

Rigolets ■ ls1 

River Front :;, > 

Romantic History of New Or- 

Royal Street 

Salt Mine. Avery Island 

San Domingo Insurrection and 


Sauvolle, First Governor of 


Saxenholm Plantation 

School, F. T. Howard No. 1 

School, McDonogh High No. 2 . 

Schools. Public 


Seating Capacity, Churches, 

Theatres. Public Buildings • ■ 

Sea Shore Camp Grounds 

Sew erage, Water and Drainage . 

Shakspeare Almshouse 

Shell Beach Railroad 

Ship Island 

Short History of New Orleans.. 

Shot Tower 

'Sieur George's House 

Sisters of Noire Dame S 'bool 

(Infant Jesus I 

Slaughter House 

Slave Quarters, Old 

state Arsenal 

State Library 

Social Life of New Orleans .... 

Southern Athletic Club 

Southern Park 

Southern Universitj 

Stores. Canal Street 

Spanish Domination 

Spanish Fort 

Spanish Port Railroad 

Spanish Governors, Louisiana.. 






















P. (7 










Sportsmen Park 86 

.Stanley Residence 134 

Stale Board of Health 125 

State Medical Society 130 

stat istics, Commercial 193 

Statistics, Population of New 

Orleans, 1722-1900 208 

South Point 192 

Steamboat Landing 130 

Stock Exchange 125 

Straight University 85 

Ste Croix, Church and Vil- 
lage of TO 

Street Car Routes 201 

Street Guide, Supplementary .. 198 

street Names 10 

Street Numbers 9 

Street Scenes, Peculiar 70 

Street Vendors f.0 

Suburban Resorts 159 

Sugar Exchange 38 

Sugar. When and Where First 

Made in Louisiana 67 

Sugar Industry, Cradle of 67 

Sugar Planters, the First 38-67 

Sugar Refineries 38 

Sugar Section 38-138 

Sugar Sheds 38 

Supplementary Street Guide- 
Car Routes 201 

Stuyvesant Docks 133 

Synagogue, First in New Or- 
leans 40 

Station. Illinois Central Passen- 
ger (Union Depot) 136 

St. Aloysius Commercial Insti- 
tute 56 

St. Anna's Asylum 1.16 

St. Anna's Church (Episcopal).. 57 

St. Anne's Church (Catholic)... 65 

St. Anthony of Padua's Church. 39 

St. Anthony's Place 21 

St. Augustin's Church 45 

St. Bernard, Old French Parish 

of 66-190 

St. Charles Avenue 90 

St . Charles Hotel 123-213 

St. Charles Street 123 

St. < 'harles Orpheum 127 

St. Flizabeth's Industrial Home 105 

St. George's Church (Episcopal) 98 

St. John Bayou 60 

Rt. John the Baptist Church 

(Catholic) 135 

St. Joseph's Church 91 

St. Joseph's Convent 64 

St. Louis Cathedral 19 

St. Louis Cathedral Presbytery. 21 

St. Louis Cemeteries 144 

St. Louis Hotel . : 18 

St. Mary's Orphan Boys' Asy- 
lum 55 

St. Martinsville. Old Town of. . 179 

St. Maurice Church (Catholic).. 50 

St. Michael's Church (Catholic). 134 

St. Patrick's Church 113 

St. Paul's Church 118 

St. Peter Street 63 

St. Roch's Cemetery and Shrine 147 

St. Rose de Lima Church 64 

St. Simeon's School 134 

St. Stephen's Church 105 

St. Tammany Parish 191 

St. Theresa's Church 120 

St. Vincent de Paul's Church.. 49 

Tangipahoa Parish 191 

Tchoupitoulas Street 133 

Teche Bayou 179 

Terre-aux-Boeufs 66 

Trembling Prairie, The 181 


Audubon 127 

Crescent 94 

First in New Orleans 65 

French Opera House 17 

Grand Opera House 83 

St. Charles Orpheum 127 

Tulane Theatre 94 

Temple Sinai 128 

"Tin-a-Feexy-Man" 72 

Touro Buildings 83 

Touro Infirmary 117 

Touro, Judah P 83 

Touro Synagogue 127 

Training Schools for Nurses- 
Charity Hospital (A. C. Hutch- 
inson Memorial) 91 

New Orleans Sanitarium 127 

Touro Infirmary 118 

Wheatly, Phyllis (colored) ... 83 

Tulane Avenue 89 

Tulane Hall 92 

Tulane University 103 

Turner's Hall (old) 136 

Turnverein Hall 135 

Union Francaise. Hall of 44 

Unitarian Church 135 

United Confederate Veterans.. 166 
United Confederate Veterans' 

Reunion Hall 59 


Leland ( colored ) 104 

New Orleans (colored) 98 

Straight (colored) 85 

Southern (colored) 131 

Tulane 103 

Unzaga, Don Luis 7 

Upper Magazine Street 121 

Ursuline Convent 49 

Ursuline Nuns 28 

Ursuline Nuns, Ancient Bury- 
ing Ground of 29 

"Vieux Carre." The 11 

Vaudreuil, Marquis de 

Voudoos 43 

Voudoo Rites 43 

Voudoo Queen, Old Home of.. 44 

Villere Plantation 53 

Washington Artillery Hall 132 

Washington Square 47 

Waveland 183 

West End ; 159 

White League. Sketch of Work. 79 
Women, First Meeting of New 

Orlea us 45 

Women, Organizations of 164 

Workers In Wax and Flowers... 23 

Young Men's Christian Asso- 
ciation 132 

Young Men's Gymnastic Club... 

Young Men's Hebrew Associa- 
tion 211 


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FEB 1719( 








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